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January No. 1 

Al'thors 2 

Letters to the Editor 4 

Vanes of the Wind Leah Gordon 6 

A Naturalist at Large— A Letter from a Farmer 

J. 0. Harvey 20 
Pigeon and Man: A Spotty Old Friendship 

Norman Woldow 26 

The Rumbles on Seismos Russell Robinson 38 

Sky Reporter John P. Wiley, Jr., Thomas D. Nicholson 46 

Celestwl Events Thomas D. Nicholson 

The Mysterious Wolf of the South Ronald M. Nowak 

The Glory of the Long-Distance Runner 

Michael Jenkinson Photographs by Karl Kernberger 

Antarctic Fossils and the Reconstruction of 

Gondwanaland Edwin H. Colbert 

B.F. Skinner's Brave New World. .Review by Spencer Klaw 



Suggested Additional Reading 92 





February No. 2 


The Fashionable Tooth Charles I. Stoloff 

A Naturalist at Large— How the Midwest Was Won 

K.C. Tessendorf 

The Poppies Are Beautiful This Year Alain Y. Dessaint 

Predators of the Serengeti: Part I 

The Social Carnivore George B. Schaller 

Sky Reporter John P. Wiley, Jr. 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 

A New World for the Cattle Egret William J. Weber 

Out of the Silence William Reid 

Photographs by Adelaide de Menil 
Man's Efficient Rush Toward Deadly Dullness 

Kenneth E. F. Watt 

The Social Insects Review by Mary Jane West Eberhard 

Suggested Additional Readlng 

March No. 3 


Letters to the Editor 

Down on the Farm E. Raymond Hall 

A Naturalist at L'^rge- Attitudes on Acupuncture 

.Arthur W. Galston 
The Human Strategy— Warfare Old and New 

Marvin Harris 

The Elephant Man Sir Frederick Treves 

Postscript bv Ashlev Montagu 

Of Lemurs and Men Ian Tattersall 

The Red Badge of Rivalry Douglas G. Smith 

Devils, Witches, .wd Sudden Death June Nash 

Predators of the Serengeti: Part 2 

Are You Running with Me, Hominid?.. George B. Schaller 

Nights in Pliny's Garden Phillip Drcnnon Thomas 

Sky Reporter— Mars Lives John P. Wiley. Jr. 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 

The Eskimo Way Review by Jean L. Briggs 

Suggested Additional Reading 100 

April No. 4 

Authors 2 

Letters to the Editor 4 

The Human Strategy— A Trip Through Ma Bell's Zoo 

Marvin Harris 6 

Bios— The Immortal Carrot Arthur W. Galston 14 

A Naturalist at Large— The Penitentiary Seals 

Victor B. Scheffer 18 
If You Were a Baboon, How Would You Tell Your 

Mother You Were Hungry? Peter B. Dow 22 

The Fierce and Erotic Gods of Buddhis.m Carin Buitows 26 

Predators of the SEREiNGETi: Conclusion 

The Endless R\ce of Life George B. Schaller 38 

Sky Reporter— At the Creation John P. Wiley, Jr. 44 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 46 

New Beaches from Old Bottles Michael D. Pibum 48 

KoMODO Dragons Walter Auffenberg 52 

Terrttories of the Lobstermen James M. Acheson 

Photographs bv Douglas Faulkner 60 

Person to Person Review bv Stanlev A. Freed 82 

Suggested Addftional Reading 91 

May No. 5 

Authors 2 

Letters to the Editor 4 

A Naturalist at Large— Seeing Is Believing. ...Alan Dundes 8 

A Resurgence of Rabies Norman Frank 14 

The Human Strategy— Women's Fib Marvin Harris 20 

Bios— The Organic Gardener and Anti-Intellectualism 

Arthur 'R'. Galston 24 
Prophylactic Services of the Cle.aning Shrimp 

Carl Roessler and Jankees Post .30 

Sky Reporter— Look Out, Hercules John P. Wiley. Jr. .38 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 40 

The Greening of Doctor Hogue Charles L. Hogue 42 

The Fiery Sun Jav M. PasachofF 48 

Trouble in Andalusla Jerome R. Mintz 54 

The Pink Tide M. Phihp Kahl 64 

Mating of the Fathead \ickv McMillan 72 

The Ent) of Eden Review bv Kempton E. \^ebb 88 

Suggested Additional Reading 97 

June-July No. 6 


Letters to the Edftor 

A Crat with Charles D,\rwin Michael Hoskin 

A Naturalist at L\rge— The Three-Day .\merican 

Pleasure Trip ...Robin W. Doughtv and Michael Morrison 

Bios— The Naked Cell Arthur W. Galston 

The Hu>lan Str.\tegy— How Green the Revolution 

Marvin Harris 

Bird N.amgation Charles Walcott 

Turning Out the Light 44 

The Where, When, and How of the July 10 Eclipse 

Thomas D. Nicholson 
Eclipses: A Liter.ature of Misadventures 

Sam Silverman and Gar\ Mullen 

Celestlal Events Thomas D. Nicholson 

The Na\t from Constantinople 

Frederick H. van Doorninck. Jr. 

Return of the Beaver John W. Miller 

What's Biting You? 

Peter B. Armstrong. David W. Deamer. and John J. Mais 
The Strange C^se of Paul K.\mmerer 

Review by Robert S. Morison 
Suggested Additional Reading 








August-September No. 7 



In Praise of Bikers, Hikers, and Crowded C'iRs...Eric Hirst 

Bios— The Chinese University .Arthur W. Galston 

The Human Strategy— You Are What They Ate 

Marvin Harris 
-A Naturalist at L^rge- What Do We Learn at the Zoo? 

Robert Sommer 

The New .\rcheology of China Judith M. Trebtman 

Bison Would Rather Breed Than Fight Dale F. Lott 

Conception and Contraception Gerald Oster 

X-Raying the Pharaohs James F Harris and Kent R. Weeks 


Beyond the Y'ukon Bob Skovbo 

Photographs bv Paul von Baich 64 
Sky Reporter— Waiting for the Phone to Ring 

John P. '«ile\ , Jr. 72 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 74 

The Scratched and Chiseled ^URKS of Man 

Review bv Jerome Y. Lettvin 86 
Suggested ADorrioNAL Reading 97 

October No. 8 


Letters U 

Stone Age Revisited Madimir Kozak 14 

A Naturalist at Large— One Small Step for Science. 

One Good Meal for the Ship's Cat Susan Schlee 

The Human Strategy— Riddle of the Pig Marvin Harris 

The Secret Life of Beatrdc Potter Naomi Gilpatrick 

The Elusive Bobcat Theodore N. Bailev 

Bios— Down on the Commune .\rthur ^ . Galston 

Above the Treeline Ann Zwinger and Beatrice WUlard 

Survival on a Bleak Scottish Estuary John Goss-Custard 

The Minoan Connection Cvrus H. Gordon 


Review bv Ravmond F. Dasmann 

Suggested Additional Reading 

Sky Reporter— Is the Galaxy Cr.acklng Up? 

John P. \^"ilev. Jr. 110 
Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 112 

November No. 9 

Authors 2 

Letters 11 

The Human Strategy— One Man's Food Is Another Mans 

\^'hitehash Marvin Harris 12 

Organic Farming on Trial Lisa -\lther 16 

Bios— Peking Man (and ^oman) Today... .Arthur \^ . Galston 26 

Eduardo the Healer Douglas G. Sharon 32 

Craftsmen of Necessity Christopher \^ ilhams 48 

The Supersensitivity of Fishes James W. .Atz 60 

Protocol at the Annual Brown Bear Fish Feast 

Derek Stonorov 66 
The Candy-Colored. Snow-Flaked Alpine Biome 

John T. Hardv and Herbert Curl. Jr. 74 
A N.aturalist at Large— The Uncertain Future of the 

Tropics Daniel H. Janzen 80 

The Cheyenne Experience Review bv Vine Deloria. Jr. 96 

Suggested .ADDmo.NAL Reading 102 

Sky Reporter— Death Throes of Hot Binaries 

John P. Wilev. Jr. 104 

Celestial Events Thomas D. Nicholson 106 

December No. 10 

Authors 2 

Letters 6 

The Mysterious Fall of Nacirema NeU B. Thompson 11 

The Human Str.ategy— Bah. Humbug! Marvin Harris 21 

Bios— Plants Have a Few Tricks. Too Arthur ^". Galston 26 

George Catlin: Pictorlal Historian of Aboriginvl 

America Phillip Drennon Thomas 30 

A Most Sociable Bird 

Barbara R. MacRoberts and Michael H. MacRoberts 44 

A Trilobite Odyssey Niles and Michelle Eldredge 52 

NovLADS of the Niger Pascal James Imperato 60 

The Search for the Tasma.ntan Tiger Jeremy Griffith 70 

Sky Reporter— But with a Cloud of Steam 

John P. "Wiley, Jr. 88 

Celestlal Events Thomas D. Nicholson 90 

A Four-eyed View of Africa Rev iew by Elioi Elisolon 92 

Suggested -Additional Reading 103 



eson. J. M., Tekritories of the Lobster- 

[E,\'. Apr., p.60 

ler. L., Organic Farming On Trial, Nov., 


istrong, P. B., What's Biting Yoii? June, 


J. W.. The Supersensitivity of Fishes, 
lov.. p.60 

g, W.. KoMODO Dragons. Apr.. 

ey. T. N., The Elusive Bobcat, Oct., 


;gs. .1. L., Review, Mar., p.96 

s. C. The Fierce ami Erotic Gods of 
liiDiiHisM, Apr., p.26 

, R. L., Stone Age Revisited, Oct., 

C. Review, June, p.97 
mberlain, B. B., Review, May, p.95 
en. E- H., Antarctic Fossils and the 
Ieconstruction of Gondwanaland, Jan., 

nn. R. F., Review, Oct., p.98 
r. D. W., What's Biting You? June, 
oria, v., Jr., Review, Nov., p.96 

A. Y., The Poppies Are Beautiful 
rm.s Year, Feb., p.30 

k, F. H. van, Jr., The Navy from 
Constantinople, June, p.54 
(ighly, R. W., The Three-Day American 
pLEASURE Trip, June, p.22 
\v. P. B., If You Were a Baboon, How 
Would You Tell Your Mother You 
^EBE Hungry? Apr., p.22 
ndes. A., Seeing Is Believing, May, p.8 

^rhard, M. J. W., Review, Feb., p.86 

redge, M., A Trilobite Odyssey, Dec., 


Iredge, N.. A Trilobite Odyssey, Dec, 


»fon, E,, Re' 

, Dec. p.92 

Galston, A. W., Attitudes on Acupuncture, 
Mar., p. 14; The Immortal Carrot, Apr., 
p.l4; The Organic Gardener and AntlIn- 
TELLECTUALisM. May, p.24; The Naked 
Cell, June, p.24; The Chinese University, 
Aug., p.l8; Down on the Commune, Oct., 
p. 50; Peking Man (and Woman) Today, 
Nov., p.26; Plants Have a Few Tricks, 
Too, Dec. p.26 

Gilpatrick, N., The Secret Life of Beatrix 
Potter, Oct., p.38 

Goldman, B., Review, Apr., p.88 

Gordon, C. H., The Minoan Connection, 
Oct., p.74 

Gordon, L., Vanes of the Wind, Jan., p.6 

Goss-Custard, J., Survival on a Bleak Scot- 
tish Estuary, Oct., p.68 

Griffith, J.. The Search for ihe Tasmanian 
Tiger. Dec, p.70 


Hall, E. R., Down on the Farm, Mar., p.8 

Hardy, J. T., The Candy-Colored, Snow- 
Flaked Alpine Biome, Nov., p.74 

Harris, J. E.. X-Raying the Pharaohs, Aug., 

Harris, M., Warfare Old and New, Mar., 
p.l8; A Trip Through Ma Bell's Zoo, 
Apr., p.6; Women's Fib, May, p.20; How 
Green the Revolution. June, p.28; You 
Are What They Ate, Aug., p.24; Riddle 
of the Pig, Oct., p.32; One Man's Food Is 
Another Man's Whitewash, Nov., p. 12; 
Bah, Humbug! Dec. p.21 

Harvey, J. 0., A Letter from a Farmer, 
Jan!, p.20 

HUI, G., Review, Feb., p.89 

Hirst, E.. In Praise of Bikers, Hikers, and 
Crowded Cars, Aug., p. 14 

Hogue, C. L., The Greening of Doctor 
Hogue, May, p.42 

Hoskin, M., A Chat with Charles Darwin. 
June, p.l2 

Imperato, P. J., Nomads of the Niger, Dec 

Janzen, D. H., The Uncertain Future of the 

Tropics, Nov.. p.80 
Jenkinson, M., The Glory of the Long-Dis- 

Lott, D. F., Bison Wouli 
Than Fight. Aug., p. 40 


TANCE Runner, Jan., p.54 


'bridge, R., Revievv, Aug., p.90 

"k, N.. A Resurgence of Rabies, May, 


ed, S. A., Review, Apr., p.82 

Kahl, M. P., The Pink Tide. May, p.64 
Kaukeinen, D., Review, D.-c, p.97 
Klaw, S., Review, Jan., p.81 
Klein, R. M., Review, Oct., p.l08 
Kozak, v.. Stone Age Revisited, Oct., p. 14 

Lcttvin, J. Y., Review, Aug., p.a6 

MacRoberts, B. R., A Most Sociable Bird, 

Dec, p.44 
MacRoberts, M. H., A Most Sociable Bird, 

Dec, p.44 
McMillan, v., MatIjng of the Fathead, May, 

Mais, J. J., What's Biting You? June, p.74 
Mead, M., Review, Mar., p.99 
Meggit, M. J., Review, Jan., p.89 
Miller, J. W.. Return of the Beaver, June, 

Mintz, J. R., Trouble in Andalusia, May, 

Montagu, A., Postscript: The Elephant 

Man, Mar., p.91; Review, Aug., p.92 
Morison, R. S., Review, June, p.90 
Morrison, M., The Three-Day American 

Pleasure Trip, June, p.22 
Mullen, G., Eclipse: A Literature of Mis- 

AD\'ENTURES, June, p.48 


Nash. J., Devils, Witches, and Sudden 
Death, Mar., p.52 

Nicholson, T. D., Sky Reporter, Jan., p.46; 
Celestial Events, Jan., p.48; Feb., p.54; 
Mar., p.BO; Apr., p.46; May, p.40; June, 
p.52; Aug., p.74; Oct., p.ll2; Nov., 
p. 106; Dec, p.90; Turning Out the 
Light: The Where, When, and How of 
THE July 10 Eclipse, June, p.46 

Nowak, R. M.. The Mysterious Wolf of the 
South, Jan., p.50 

Oster, G., Conception and Contraception. 
Aug., p.46 

Pasachofr, J. M., The Fiery Sun, May, p.48 
Piburn, M. D., New Beaches from Old Bot- 
tles, Apr., p.48 
Post. J., Prophylactic Services of the 
Cleaning Shrimp, May, p.30 

Reid, W., Out of the Silence, Feb., p.64 
Roberts, E. F., Review, June, p.94 
RobiDson, R., The Rumbles on Seismos, Jan., 

Roessler, C, Prophylactic Services of the 

Cleaning Shrimp, May, p.30 

Scballer, G. B., Predators of the Serengeti: 
Part I, The Social Carnivore, Feb., p.38; 
Part 2, Are You Running with Me, 
Hominid? Mar., p.60; Conclusion, The 
Endless Race of Life, Apr., p.38 

Scheffer, V. B., The Penitentiary Seals, 
Apr., p. 18 

Schlee, S., One Small Step for Science, One 

Good Meal for the Ship's C\t, Oct., p.28 
Sharon, D. G., EouABDO THE Healer. Nov.. 

Silverman, S., Eclipse: A Literature of Mis. 

adventures, June, p.48 
Skovbo, B., Beyond the Yukon, Aug., p.64 
Smith. D. G., The Red Badge of Rivalry. 

Mar., p.44 
Sommer, R., What Do We Learn at the 

Zoo? Aug., p.26 
Stegner, W., Review, Jan., p.86 
Stoloff, C. L, The Fashionable Tooth, Feb.. 

p. 12 
Stonorov, D., Protocol at the Annum. 

Brown Bear Fish Feast, Nov., p.66 

TattersaU, I., Of Lemurs and Men. Mar. 

TessendorL K. C, How the Midwest Was 
Won, Feb., p.22 

Thomas, P. D.. Nights in Pliny's Garden, 
Mar., p. 70; George Catlin: Pictorial His- 
torian of Aboriginal America, Dec, p.30 

Thompson, N. B., The Mysterious Fall of 
Nacirema, Dec, p. 11 

Treistman. J. M., The New Archeology of 
China, Aug., p.30 

Treves, Sir F., The Elephant Man, Mar., 

Walcott, C, Bird Navigation, June, p.32 
Watt. K. E. F., Man's Efficient Rush 

Toward Deadly Dullness, Feb.. p.74 
Webb, K. E.. Review. Mav, p.88 
Weber, W. J., A New World for the Cattle 

Egret, Feb., p. 56 
Weeks, K. R., X-Raying the Pharaohs, 

Aug., p.54 
Wiley, J. P., Jr., Sky Reporter, Jan., p.46; 

Feb., p.50; Mar., p. 78; Apr., p.44; May, 

p.38; Aug., p.72; Oct., p.UO; Nov., 

p. 104; Dec, p.88 
Wiilard, B., Above the Treeline, Oct., p.60 
Williams, C, Craftsmen of Necessity, iVov., 

Woldow, N., Pigeon and Man: A Spotty Old 

Friendship, Jan., p.26 

Zwinger, A., Above the Trei 

, Oct.. p.60 


Acupuncture, Mar., p. 14 


Kenya, flamingos. May, p.64 
Peul nomads, Dec, p.60 
Tanzania, Apr., p.38 


Carrots, Apr., p. 14 
Farming, Jan., p.20; Mar., p.8 

Organic farming, Nov., p.l6 
Opium farming, Feb., p.30 
Philippine rice, June, p.28 
Tropical, Nov., p.BO 
Algae and snow, Nov., p.74 

American Indians 

Heta Indians, Oct., p.l4 

Northwest Coast, Feb., p.64 

Paintings, Dec, p.30 

Peru, Nov., p. 32 

Tarahumara, Mexico, Jan., p.54 
American settlers. Midwest, Feb., p.22 
Andalusia, Spain, May, p.54 

Animal Behavior 

Acorn woodpecker. Dec, p.44 

Baboon, Apr., p.22 

Bears, Nov., p.66 

Beavers, June, p.64 

Bison. Aug., p.40 

Blackbird, red-winged, Mar., p.44 

Bobcat, Oct., p.42 

Egrets, Feb., p.56 

Fishes, May, p.72; Nov., p.60, p.66 

Flamingos, pink. May, p.64 

Lemurs, Mar., p.32 

Lions, Feb., p.38 

Lizards, Apr., p.52 

Minnows, fathead. May, p.72 

Pigeons, Jan., p.26; June, p.32 

Redshanks, shorebirds, Oct.. p.68 

Seals, Apr., p.l8 

Serengeti mammals, Feb., p.38; Mar 

p.60; Apr., p.38 
Wolves, Jan., p.50 


Bolivian tin miners. Mar., p.52 

China, archeology, Aug., p.30 

Food and primordial ancestors, Aug., p.2- 

Heta Indians, Oct., p.l4 

Minoan culture, Oct., p.74 

Mexico Indians, Jan., p.54 

Northwest Coast Indians, Feb., p.64 

Peking city life, Nov., p.26 

Peru's healer, Nov., p.32 

Peul nomads, Dec, p.60 

Pharaohs, Aug., p.54 

Tarahumara Indians, Jan., p.54 

Woodworkers, Nov., p.48 

' Art 

Carved trees, Feb., p.64 
Indian paintings, Dec, p.30 
Woodworkers, Nov., p.48 


Big Bang tlieor)\ Apr., p.44 

Black holes, Oct, p.lU 

Celestial Events, Jan., p.48; Feb., p.54 
Mar., p.BO; Apr., p.46; May, p.40 
June, p.52: Aug., p.74; Oct., p.ll2, 
Nov., p.l06; Dec, p.90 

Cloud of steam, Dec, p.88 

Eclipse of moon, Jan., p.46 

Eclipse of sun, June, p.44 

Galaxy, Oct., p.llO 

Hercules, May, p.38 

Intelligence and universe, Feb., p.50 

Jupiter, Feb., p.53; mission of, Apr., p.44 
Mars, Mar., p.78 

moons of. May, p. 39 
Mercury, Nov., p.l05 

and Eclipses, Jan.. p.46 
and Shadow, Jan., p.46 
and Tremors, Jan., p.46 
and Water, Jan., p.46 
Phobos, May, p.39; Nov., p. 105 
Planet X, Dec, p.88 

Sky Reporter, Jan., p.46; Feb., p.50: 
Mar., p.78; Apr., p.44; May, p.38: 
Aug., p.72; Oct., p.UO; Nov., p.l04; 
Dec, p.88 
Stars, Feb., p.50 

Supernova, Nov., p.l04; Dec, p.89 

Dust of, Oct., p.UO 
Eclipse of, June, p.44 
and Sunspots, May, p.48 
Venus, soU of, Nov.. p.l05 
Automobiles, Aug., p.l4 
Baboon, Apr., p.22 
Beaches and bottles, Apr., p.48 
Bear, brown, Nov.. p.66 
Beavers and highways, June, p.64 
Big Bang, Apr., p.44 


Biting insect, June, p. 74 
Rain forest, May, p.42 


Carrot, Apr., p.l4 

Chinese people's commune. Oct., p.50 

Chinese university, Aug., p.l8 

Onion cell. June.'p.24 

Organic gardener, May, p.24 

Peking city life, Nov., p.26 

Plants, Dec, p.26 


Acorn woodpecker, Dec, p.44 

Blackbirds, red-winged. Mar., p.44 

Cattle egret, Feb., p.56 

Flamingos, May, p.64 

Herring gull, Apr., p.24 

Pigeons, Jan., p.26; June, p.32 

Redshanks, Oct., p.86 
Birth control, Aug., p.46 
Bison, Aug., p.40 
Blackbirds, red-winged. Mar., p.44 
Black holes, Oct., p.lU 
Bobcats and rabbits, Oct., p.42 
Bolivia, tin mines. Mar., p..52 


Alpine tundra, Oct., p.60 

Carrots, Apr., p. 14 

Onions, cells of, June, p.24 

Organic gardener. May, p.24 

Pacific Northwest forest, Feb., p.64 

Plants' defense weapons, Dec, p.26 

Poppies, Feb., p.30 

Rain forest. May, p.42 
Brazil, Heta Indians. Oct., p.l4 
Buddhism. Apr., p.26 
B^-zantine empue, June, p. 54 
Catiin. George, Dec, p.30 

Cats, Oct., p.28 

Cedars, Feb., p.64 

Celestial Events see Astronomy 


Acupuncture, Mar., p.l4 

Archeology, Aug.. p.3Q 

People, communes, Oct., p.50 

University, Aug., p.l8 
Cloud of steam, Dec, p.88 
Conception and contraception, Aug., p.46 


Beaclies and bottles, Apr., p.48 

Farming, Jan., p.20; Mar., p.8 

Organic gardener, May, p.24 
Costa Rican rain forest. May, p.42 


Minoan, Oct., p.74 

Nacirema, Dec, p.U 

and Psychology, May, p.8 
Darwin, Charles, June, p.l2 
Devil and tin miners. Mar., p.52 
Dietary laws, pigs, Oct., p.32 
Disease-carrying insects, June, p.74 
Diversity vs. dullness, Feb., p.74 
Drug trade. Hong Kong, Feb., p.30 
Earthquakes, Jan., p.38 


of Moon, Jan., p.46 

of Sun, total, June, p.44 


Balance system, Apr., p.38 

Beaches and bottles, Apr., p.48 

Farming, Jan., p.20; Mar., p.8 

Plants, Dec, p.26 

Rain forest. May, p.42 

Serengeti Park, Feb.. p.38; Mar., p. 60; 
Apr., p.38 

Tropics, Nov., p.80 
Ecosystem, Nov., p.74; Dec, p.60 
Egret, Feb., p.56 
Elephant man. Mar., p.22 


Beaches and bottles, Apr., p.48 

Fishes, Nov., p.60 

Land, Jan., p.20 

Nacirema, Dec, p.U 

Rain forest. May, p.42 

Serengeti Park, Feb., p.38; Mar., p.60; 
Apr., p.38 

Tropics, Nov., p.80 
Farming, Jan., p.20; Mar., p.8; organic, 

Nov., p.l6; opium, Feb., p.30 
Fatheads, minnows, May, p.72 
Faults and quakes, Jan., p.38 

and Bears, Nov., p.66 
Minnows, May, p.72 
Supersensitivity of, Nov., 
Flamingos, pink. May, p.64 



Milk,- Nov., p.l2 

Pigs, Oct., p.32 

Rice, June, p.28 

and Early man, Aug., p.24 
Fossils, Jan., p.66; Dec, p.52 
Garbage exploitation, Apr., p.48 
Galaxy, Oct., p.UO 


Continental drifts, Jan., p.66 
Faults and quakes, Jan., p.38 
Gift giving, Dec, p.21 
Gondwanaland, Jan., p.66 
GuU, Apr., p.24 
Healer in Peru, Nov., p.32 
Hercules, May, p.38 
Herring guU, Apr., p.24 
Heta Indians, Brazil, Oct., p.l4 


ulture, Oct., p.74 

UMAN Strategy 
Food, Aug., p.24; Nov., p.l2 
Gift giving, Dec, p.21 
Pigs and religion, Oct., p.32 
Rice, June, p.28 
Warfare, Mar., p.l8 
Women, May, p.20 
Zoonymy, Apr., p. 6 

Tying, Ju 


Lobsters, Apr., p.60 
Shrimps, May, p.30 

Jupiter, Feb., p.53 

Jupiter mission 

Leisure time, Ji 

Lemurs, Mar., 

Apr., p.4 
me, p.22 

Organic, Psdv., p,16 

Letters to the Editor, Jan., p.4; Mar., 
p.4; Apr., p.4; May, p.4; June, p.lO; Aug., 
p.6; Oct., p.U; Nov., p.U; Dec, p.6 

Lions, Feb., p.38; Mar., p.60; Apr., p.38 

Lizards, Komodo monitor, Apr., p.52 

Lobster industry, Apr., p.60 

lemurs. Mar., p.32 


Baboon, Apr., p.22 

Bears, Nov., p.66 

Beavers, June, p.64 

Bison, Aug., p.40 

Bobcats and rabbits, Oct., p.42 

Cats, Oct., p.28 

Lemurs, Mar., p.32 

Lions, Feb., p.38; Mar., p.60; Apr., p.38 

Pigs, Oct., p.32 

Seals, Apr., p. 18 

Serengeti Park, Feb., p.38; Mar., p.60; 
Apr., p.38 

Thylacine, Dec, p.70 

Wolf, red, Jan., p.50 
Mariners, ancient, June, p. 54 
Mars, Mar., p.78; moons of. May, p.39 
Mercury, Nov., p.l05 
Metaphors, May, p.8 
Mexico, Sierra Madre Indians. Jan., p.55 
Midwest settlements, Feb., p.22 
Milk, Nov., p.l2 
Minnows, fatheads. May, p.72 


and EcUpses, Jan., p.46 

and Shadow, Jan., p.46 

and Tremors, Jan., p.46 

and Water, Jan., p.46 
Moons of Mars, May, p.39 

Naturalist at Large 

Acupuncture, Mar., p.l4 

American settlers, Feb., p.22 

Antarctic fish, Oct., p.28 

Farming, Jan., p.20 

Harbor seals, Apr., p.l8 

Leisure and environment, June, p.22 

Sight, sense of, May, p.8 

Tropical ecology, Nov., p.80 

Zoos, Aug., p.26 
Natural history, Phny, Mar., p.70 
Navigation of birds, June, p.32 
Nomads, Dec, p.60 
Northwest Coast Indians, Feb., p.64 
Onion cell, June, p.24 
Opium, poppies, Feb., p.30 
Organic farming, Nov., p. 16; food. May, p.24 
Pacific Northwest forest, cedars, Feb., p.64 
Paintings by CatUn, Dec, p.30 


Fossils, Jan., p.66; Mar., p.34; Dec, p.52 
Peking, Nov., p.26 
Peru, South America, Nov., p.32 
Pesticides, Jan., p.20; Mar., p.8; Nov., p. 16 
Peul nomads, Dec, p.60 
Pharaohs, Aug., p.54 
Philippines, rice, June, p.28 
Phobos, Nov., p.l05 
Phobos and Deimos, May, p.39 
Pigeons, Jan., p.26; June, p.32 
Pigs, in religion, Oct., p.32 
Pioneer 10 spacecraft message, Aug., p.72 
Planet X, Dec, p.88 
Plants, defense weapons, Dec, p.26 
PUny, natural history. Mar., p.70 
Poppies, opium, Feb., p.30 
Potter, Beatrix, Oct., p.38 
Predators, Apr., p.38; p.53 
Puget Sound, Gertrude Island, Apr., p. 18 
Pulsar, Nov., p.l04 


Earth, Jan., p.38 

Moon, Jan., p.48 
Rabies, epidemic of. May, p. 14 
Rain forest, biological relationships, May, 


Buddhism, Apr., p.26 

Peru healer, Nov., p.32 

and Pigs, Oct., p.32 
Reptiles, lizards, Apr., p.52 
Rice, June, p.28 

Scottish estuary, redshanks, Oct., p.68 
Seals, Apr., p.l8 
Serengeti National Park, Feb., p.38; Mar., 

p.60; Apr., p.38 
Shadow on moon, Jan., p.46 
Shrimps, May, p.30 

Sight, sense of, May, p.8 
Sky Reporter see Astronomy 
Snow algae, Nov., p.74 
Stars, Feb., p.50 


Dust of, Oct., p.UO 

Eclipse of, June, p.44 

and Sunspots, May, p.48 
Supernova, Nov., p.l04; Dec, p.89 
Symbiosis, shrimps. May, p.30 
Tanzania National Park, Apr., p.38 
Tarahumara Indians, Jan., p.54 
Tasmania, Australia, thylacine, Dec, n 
Teeth, Feb., p.l2 
Thailand and opium, Feb., p.30 


of Creation, Apr., p.44 

on Evolution, June, p.l2 
Thylacine, Dec, p.70 
Tin mines and witchcraft. Mar., p.52 
Trees, carved by Indians, Feb., p.64 
Tremors on moon, Jan., p.46 
Trilobites, Dec, p.52 
Tropics and agriculture, Nov., p.80 
Tundra, Oct., p.60 
Universe and intelligence, Feb., p.50 
Venus, soil of, Nov., p. 105 
Virus, rabies. May, p. 14 
Warfare, Mar., p.l8 
Water and moon, Jan., p.46 
Weathervanes, Jan., p.6 
Wolves, red, Jan., p.50 
Women, liberation of, May, p.20 
Woodpecker, Dec, p.44 
Woodworkers, Nov., p.48 
Yukon, Aug., p.64 
Zoo, Aug., p.26 
Zoonymy, Apr., p.6 

Books in Review 

American Indian Portraits from i 

maker Expedition of 1913, Aug.. p. 
Beyond Freedom and Dignity, Jan. 
Case of the Midwife Toad, The, Ju 
Doing Fieldwork, Apr., p. 82 
Gem Kingdom, The, May, p.95 
Hawaiian Land Mammals, Dec, p.97 
Human Aviary, The. Mai"., p.99 
Human Imperative, The, Aug., p.92 
Insect Societies, The, Feb., p.86 
Mato Grosso, May, p.88 
My Land Is Dying, June, p.94 
New York Walk Book, Aug., p.96 
Only One Earth, Oct., p.98 
Organic Gardener, The, Oct., p.l04- 
Place and People, Jan., p.89 
Restless Earth, The, Aug., p.90 
Roots of Civilization, The, Aug., p.B6 
Seasons of the Eskimo, Mar., p.96 
Seven Arrows, Nov., p.96 
Slaughter the Animals, Poison th 

June, p.97 
Slickrock, Jan., p.86 
Tree Where Man Was Bom, The, Dec, 
Touch the Earth, Aug., p.95 
Who Owns America? Feb., p.89 
Zakros: The Discovery of a Lost . 
Ancient Crete, Apr., p.88 

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Thf Journal of The American Museum of Natural History 
Gardner D. Stout, President Thomas D. Nicholson, Director 

Alfred Meyer. Editor 

Robert E. Williamson, Managing Editor 
Alan P. femes. Executive Editor 
Thomas Page. Art Editor 

.Associate Editors 

John P. Wiley. Jr. 

Frederick R. Hartmann 

Roy Allen 

Rosamond W. Dana, Book Editor 
Carol Breslin, Reviews 

■ Florence G. Edelstein, Copy Chief 

■ Toni Gerber, Copy Editor 

Ernestine Weindorf Administrative .4sst. 
Nancy Smith. Production 

Staff Assistants 
Jane Champe 
Lillian Berger 

Editorial Advisers 

Dean Amadou 

Franklyn M. Branlfy 

Niles Eldredge 

Vincent Manson 

Margaret Mead 

Thomas D. Nicholson 

Gerard Piel 

.Advertising Sales 

Harney Oshinsky, Director 

Gordon Finley 

Harry R. Jeter 

Vic .isselin 

Eileen O'Keefe, Traffic 

Roberta Zelem, Asst. 

Dinah Lowell. Promotion 

Vol. LXXXI, No. 1 January 1972 



6 VANES OF THE WIND Leah Gordon 

Functional, esthetic, and these days, little thought of, the weather vane has 
been courted by the capricious winds of centuries. 


A Letter from a Farmer /. 0. Harvey 

Years of close relationship to the land makes for a skeptical appraisal of 
"dedicated" conservationists. 


"Stick close to me," said the man to the bird, "and I'll shoiv you how to 
overrun the world. " 

.38 THE RUMBLES ON SEISMOS Russell Robinson 

Even in an age haunted by uncertainty and familiar with instability, the 
thought of the earth creeping beneath our feel is unnerving. 

46 SKY REPORTER John P. Wiley. Jr., Thomas D. Nicholson 

48 CELESTIAL EVENTS Thomas D. Nicholson 


It's very difficult to study an animal in the ivild when it's practically impos- 
sible to find one. 

Photographs by Karl Kernberger 

To a Tarahumara Indian, running through the canyons is never a lonely 


How could the same animal evolve on tivo different continents tivo thousand 
miles apart? Clue: It didn't. 

81 B. F. SKINNER'S BRAVE NEW WORLD A review by Spencer Klaw 

In the new Utopia, there will be no place for stubborn and unhappy iconoclasts. 


COVER: General Galtamelala, immortalized by Donato Donatella in 1450. 
gloomily scans the flocks of pigeons in Padua's Pia::a del Santo. 

FMicalion OJ/ice: 7V,e .Imer^an ,Vu.,<-un, of Naluml Hiilm. Cenlml farh II M <» 7VII, .Smrl. A,-i< lort. .\ 1. 
10024. Pubtislied moitMy. Octvber llirougti May. UmimM\ June lo Scptcmlier. Subscriplloiis: $8.00 a year. In Can- 
ada and aU allier countries: S9.U0 a vear. Single m,;iei SI.OO. Second-ctasi postage paid al ^ew York. A.K. and al 
addMoaal otjwa. Copyright' I'm by Tlte American Museum of Natural Hi.-torf. No pan of this periodical may be re- 
produced uilJiout the written consent of NATURAL lllbTORV MAGAZINE, Manuscripts and iUustralioiis submitted to It,,- 
edilarial oUxe will be handled with aU possible care, but wc cannol assume respunsibiUly for their safely. The opinions 
apressed by authors ore llieir own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of The American .Museum. NAT! RAl, lllS- 
TOKV MACAZINt utcrporalmg Nalurc Mapa/iiie i. indexed in K.-ii.l.r-> Cuid.- In l',T,u<li. al LiliT.iCur.'. 


developed a new procedure fo 
mapping small lakes and is devisin 
limnological tei hniques foi sanitar 

Hunting weather vanes is one of 
the passions Leah Gordon acquired 
with marriage. With her husband, 
John, an authority and dealer in 
Early American antiques and folk 
art, she has scoured the East Coast 
in search of the few remaining an- 
tique vanes still in use. Upon gradu- 
ating from Bryn Mawr College with 
a B.A. in philosophy, Gordon, un- 
able to get a journalistic position, 
took her first job selling shoes in 
California. Now a correspondent in 
the New York bureau of Time 
magazine, she is listed in Foremost 
Women in Communications. 

J. O. Harvey worked an 86-acre 
farm in Bucks County, Pennsylva- 
nia, from the early days of the de- 

pression until very recently. The ex- 
perience gave this month's "Natural- 
ist at Large" a perspective on the en- 
vironmental crisis not common in 
today's ecology movement. Her field 
experience involved hauling ma- 
nure, preparing ten-acre seedbeds, 
and harvesting crops; her main suste- 
nance came from growing, cutting, 
freezing, and eating hybrid cattle. 
She now lives on a farm in Glade 
Spring, Virginia, where she raises 
sheep and studies tobacco culture. 
Harvey holds a B.A. from the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. 

Wben he began work on his doc- 
toral thesis on avian reproduction 
biology at Rice University, Nor- 
man Woldow was faced with the 
necessity of finding a research bird 
that was easy to observe and that 
had a long breeding season. With 
only a small budget, it wasn't long 
before he settled on the pigeon. His 
interest in the history of the com- 
mon pigeon stemmed from his ob- 
servation that it moved from build- 
ing to building in the manner first 
described by Pliny the Elder. 
Woldow is a senior biologist and di- 
rector of field operations for the En- 
vironmental Control Services Divi- 
sion of Southwestern Laboratories 
in Houston, Texas, where he has 

engineers. Part of this work entail; 
checking water turbidity (above) 
Woldow plans to continue studying' 
the relationship between humar! 
population concentrations and sur 
vival of wildlife. 

A native Californian with 
Ph.D. in geophysics from Stanford 
University, Russell Robinson has 
had a natural laboratory in the San 
Andreas Fault. His investigations of 
the seismic phenomena associated 
with the periodic tremors and 

quakes emanating from the fault led 
him to further field work in Utah 
and Washington. Laboratory re- 
search on the effects of high tem- 
perature and pressure in rock-frac- 
turing mechanisms was the next 
step. Robinson is now safely in 
New Zealand, where he is trving to 
learn more about the possibilities of 
predicting earthquakes by studying 

he character of foreshocks. His in- 
erest in predicting earthquakes was 
timulated bv the usual questions 
isked of him bv laymen. He reports 
hey go something like this: 

"What do you do?" 

"I'm a geophysicist." 

"What's that?" 

"I study earthquakes." 

"When's the next one?" 

The lack of information and the 
controversy surrounding the exis- 
tence of the red wolf led Ronald 
M. Nowak to conduct field in- 
vestigations into the status of the 

animal in Louisiana and neighbor- 
ing states. The work covered a pe- 
riod of five years, leading to his 
present research into the taxonomic 
relationships among all the living 
and extinct species of North Ameri- 
can canids. A Ph.D. candidate in 
zoologv at the University of Kansas. 
Nowak plans to study the past and 
present relationships of man and 
wildlife, and the ecology and con- 
servation of endangered species. 

Wearing native headgear. 
Michael Jenkinson discusses tribal 
life-style and shares a humorous mo- 
ment with a Tarahumara youth. Jen- 
kinson has long been fascinated with 
the natural historv of his adopted 
Southwest and of northern Mexico. 
Born in Pontefract. England, he be- 
came a free-lance writer and poet af- 
ter obtaining a B.A. in English and 
anthropology at the University of 
New Mexico. It was on one of his 
many trips into the barrancas country 
of the Sierra Madre that he first en- 
countered, and began studying, the 
Tarahumara Indians. 

Karl Kernberger. photographer 
of "The Glory of the Long-Distance 
Runner," accompanied Jenkinson 
on trips into the barrancas, and to- 
gether they have collaborated on 
numerous articles about the region. 
Their book. Wild Rivers of North 
America, will be published in the 
spring by E. P. Dutton. 

In 1968. when the first Triassic 
fossil vertebrate recovered in 
Antarctica was brought to Edwin 
H. Colbert at The American Mu- 
seum, he identified it as the frag- 
ment of an amphibian jaw. This 
find had so manv implications that 
an expedition to Antarctica to spe- 

cificallv search for fossil vertebrates 
was undertaken. In short order, 
comprehensive deposits of Triassic 
amphibians and reptiles were un- 
covered by a team led by "a very 
excited old man." Interprelations of 
this material leave little doubt that 
Antarctica and Africa were joined 
in the early Triassic. Now curator 
emeritus of vertebrate paleontology 
al The American Museum. Colbert 
is in busv "retirement" as curator 
al the Museum of Northern Ari- 
zona, where h<' is continuing his 
study of antarctic fossils. 


Tl:ic Use and Misuse 
of Techiiology 

I take issue with the philosophy that 
rampant technology is raping the world 
and will inevitably destroy us all, and 
that those relatively few people gifted 
with the wisdom to recognize the com- 
ing catastrophe are too few and their 
voices lost in the roar of the crowd. 

The review by Edward Abbey ("Liv- 
ing on the Last Whole Earth," Novem- 
ber, 1971) says, with regard to the 
people who "attempt living on the 
earth": "It may be the only hope we 
have left in a world that seems headed 
for ecological disaster or, what may be 
worse, a total triumph of technologv." 
Thus we get the picture: Victorious 
Technology, sword in hand, standing 
astride defeated man like Perseus with 
the head of Medusa. Presumably just 
offstage are the scientists, engineers, 
and technicians who created these ma- 
chines, grinning evilly as they con- 
template the thoroughness of their work . 
We should take a look at those happy 
backward countries of limited technical 
development where the people "live on 
the earth." I am sure that these people, 
ridden with disease and deformed bv 
malnutrition, die happy knowing that at 
least they didn't die from polluted wa- 
ter. Or if they did, it was cattle ex- 
crement and not some chemical plant 
up the river. 

Abbey says that "new communes are 
started every week; few survive." This 
may be true, but is it because tech- 
nology has doomed them from the start, 
or because the workers on these com- 
munes simply don't have the skill to 
perform the always difficult task of 
wresting a hving from the earth? Or is it 
that they have become so accUmated to 
having a wide variety of foods to pick 
from that they have forgotten that, in 
the days of the earth-dwellers, people 
lived on simple, almost Spartan diets of 
almost no variety? 

Technology is a necessity; it came 
about because man recognized his need 
for it. Technology is a tool; it may be 
seriously misused. If I design a pick to 
dislodge stones from the ground, sooner 
or later someone will use this pick to 
murder his wife. Am I therefore cul- 
pable? I think not. 

Abbey also asks the questions: Do 
you Teally want to live in a Plexiglas 
city? And do you never want a private 
thought for the rest of your life? My an- 
swer to both of these questions is an im- 
mediate "No." But apparently the ma- 
jority of the U.S. population would 
answer the first question "Yes." Ap- 
parently they want cities and neon 
lights and go-go joints and noise. And, 
apparently, most of them never have a 
thought, private or otherwise. The rela- 
tive few who "swim against the tide" 
(and I include myself) must find a way 
to keep productivity high and yet not 
have technology destroy nature; we 
must master technology and put it to 
our own uses. How ... I don't know. 
But I know that the problem won't be 
solved by brandishing fists at tech- 
nology or retreating into the wilderness. 
I think that there remains much that 
is good and beautiful and satisfying in 
the world. I don't think that insects and 
disease and hunger are among them, 
and technology is our most potent 
weapon against these perennial plagues 
of man. And though I don't want to live 
in a Plexiglas city, neither do I want to 
starve, and watch others starve, in a 

Jerry F. O'Donnell 

Del Mar College 

Corpus Christi, Texas 

Up the SUde. Safely 
I am writing to complain about some- 
thing that has often bothered me— Les- 
lie Course's tale ("Up the Shde," Natu- 
ral History Magazine. November, 
1971) serves as a perfect description of 
what I find upsetting. 

It seems never to fail that those who 
call themselves competent in a field are 
often careless and negligent of novices 
they introduce to their pursuit. "Sly 
Sy," expert mountaineer, should either 
hike only with other experts or he 
should be more open with his know-how 
when taking along first-timers. 

Two things that can be presumed to 
be familiar to the veteran hiker are (1) 
the importance of appropriate footgear 
(and other clothing: a fact Sy is familiar 
with, as evidenced by his ever-present 
bedroll) and (2) the necessity of recog- 

nizing and staying within the strength 
of the entire chmbing party. The ol 
saw about a chain being only as stron 
as its weakest fink holds true in thi 
case as elsewhere. 

Both of these factors Sy seems t* 
have ignored: unforgivably. The girl 
were "slightly cussed out" for thei 
footwear, but this was at the base of th i 
chmb. Why not offer some informatioi 
when inviting people along? As fo 
pushing onward to the glorious summi 
. . . ! One would think that with a) 
the peaks already to Sy's credit. h( 
would not need one more 4,000-fo()te 
at the expense of others' pleasure am 
possible safety. 

Not only does an iU-prepared ant 
overtired party put itself in jeopardv- 
there are also rescuers to be considered 
Mountaineering journals are full of ac 
counts of accidents and rescues; the ac 
counts appear in order to forewarn oth 
ers. Is this why Leslie Course 
laughingly wrote "Up the Slide"? Is she 
warning readers about Sly Sy and his 
Qk, reminding readers that "you can 
get killed?" 

Everyone needn't want to go for a 
second hike, but each person ought to 
have a reasonable and prepared first ex- 

Alice S. Perry 
Penacook, New Hampshire 

Eai'ly Wanim^ Ser\dee 
Helen Hays and Robert Risebrough 
are doing us a great service by in- 
vestigating the terns on Creat Cull Is- 
land. Natural History Magazine ex- 
pands the service by bringing its 
readers the information. So often we-, 
hear discussions, read articles, letters- 
to-the-editor, etc., claiming that the loss 
of a few birds is not significant— man 
and his works are what count. The fact 
that events such as the deformed terns, 
thin-shelled hawk eggs, etc., serve as 
early warnings (much as the miner's 
long-ago use of canaries) has been lost 
on too many people. This important 
point is brought home clearly by the au- 
thors of "The Early Warning of the 

Diane T. Craves 
Princeton, New Jersey 

Vacation in tlie 
18tli Century. 

The change will do you good. 

It will take you back to a time 
as chaotic, yet far more courtly 
than our own. A time when so 
many new social, political, and 
scientific ideas burst forth on our 
world that calling those years'The 
Enlightenment" is clearly an un- 

That's why we invite you to 
pick any three books about the 
18th Century (or indeed any three 
listed on this page) as your intro- 
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You get all three for only 990 
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entire list. 

Mail the coupon. Choose a 
vacation that gives you distance, 
without the cost that normally 

857. The Rise and Fall of the 
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By Victor L.Tapii. $15.00/$8.95 

872. America at 1750: A Social Portrait 

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His last book. $6.95/ $5.80 

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of Central Asia 
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American Life 

By Richard Hofstadter. 

Pulitzer Prize winner. $7.95/ $5.95 

677. Witchcraft at Salem 

By Chadwick Hansen. $6,95/ $5.75 

671. Medieval History: The Life 

and Death of a Civilization (2nd Edition) 

By Norman F. Cantor. $10.95/ $8.50 

AtnefiiH at 1750 ASocialP^rtrait 

Any 3 books 99< 

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Republic, 1776-1787 

By Gordon S. Wood. 
Bancroft Award winner 

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476. The Life of Lenin 

By Louis Fischer. 

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Tilsit, 1799-1807 

8y Georges /.e/ebvre. $10.00/$7.50 

369. The Spanish Civil War 

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767. Conquest of the Incas 

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The History Book Club 
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Detail from Botticelli's Birth of Venus. 


f tlie Wind 

by Leah Gordon 

The Greeks used tlieni. The 

n:iedleval church made then:i popular. 

But it was An:ierican 

pioneer craftsn:ien who created the 

finest weather vanes of all 

The wind is the most ephemeral 
and ubiquitous of nature's forces. It 
cannot be bottled like rainwater, or 
shoveled like snow, and its moods 
are wild and fickle. At its best, it is 
a caressive, soothing zephyr; at its 
worst, a swath of cyclonic destruc- 
tion. Man has been able to measure, 
predict, and harness it to propel his 
ships and power his windmills, but 
the wind remains an elusive phe- 


Early man was understandably 
puzzled and curious about the 
ghostly winds that surrounded him, 
and he grappled with them in his 

own primitive way. In an effort to 
detect the shifting winds, which he 
knew signaled both daily and sea- 
sonal weather changes, he observed 
the bend of the trees, the curling 
smoke above his fire, and the drift 
of the clouds. As with modern man, 
weather was an essential factor in 
the daily life of primitive man, and 
it is not surprising that the wind 
vane was one of the first, mete- 
orological instruments devised. 
With it, man could determine the 
wind's direction and could thus, 
with some degree of accuracy, fore- 
cast the weather that would follow. 

Copper vane, mid-nineteenth century. New York State 

Just who set up the first wind 
vane, and where, is lost in history. 
But in the first century B.C., the 
Greek astronomer Andronicus buih 
a horologium, which he called 
"tower of the winds." Tlie original 
structure, still standing on the site 
of the Roman agora in Athens, 
shows that the octagonal tower 
faced the eight points of the com- 
pass, with each side topped bv a 
frieze of figures representing the 
winds. To give character to his 
tower, Andronicus crowned it with 
a huge bronze figure of Triton, and 
in the hand of this half-fish, half- 
man demigod of the sea, he fi.x:ed a 
rod. The figure turned in the wind, 

Carefully crafted farmer at 
work was once a painted tin 
vane turning in the wind 
on a Pennsylvania barn roof. 

like a modern mobile, pointing its 
wand in the direction from which 
the wind blew. It was the first 
known attempt to make the wind 
vane something more than a prac- 
tical scientific instrument, and it set 
the custom, which has prevailed for 
centuries, of decorating architec- 
ture with an esthetic object, the 
weather vane. 

Once Andronicus pointed the 
wav, wind vanes, or weather vanes 
as the more decorative forms are 
called, became familiar figures atop 
Roman villas and other pre-Chris- 
tian structures. To the Greeks and 
Romans, the winds had divine pow- 
ers and personalities. Boreas was 
the winged and wild demigod who 
embodied the north wind. Aeolus 
was king of the winds and kept his 
subjects in a cave, letting them out 
one bv one. Mercurv. Hermes, and 
Pan were wind deities: the v^anes 
that signaled their passing became 
harbingers of fortune or adversity. 

The weather vane gained further 

popularity under the Christians 
when a ninth-centurv Pope decreed 
that everv church be capped by a 
cock, an emblem of Saint Peter and 
an allusion to Peter's guilt for de- 
nying Christ on the eve of the Cru- 
cifixion. Up on the steeple, the cock 
was combined with the simple wind 
vane, beckoning the faithful to 
prayer and the sinner to repen-, 
tance. As an ecclesiastical svmbol, 
the weathercock became an impor- 
tant fixture. Even the eleventh-cen- 
tury artist of the Bayeux tapestry 
honored it, depicting in one scene a 
medieval craftsman fastening ai 
rooster vane on the tower of the 
recently built Westminster Abbey. 
While Christendom embraced 
the cock. Viking warriors bedecked 
their ships with quadrant-shaped 
vanes akin to the bannerets and 
crests that grew out of medieval, 
heraldry. Richly gilded and en- 
graved with pagan motifs, these 
copper and bronze vanes are 
thought by some historians to have 




to readers 

with an abiding joy in the arts 



The story of a"monument ^^ 
to mans visual imagination' ' 




F YOUR PLEASURE in art is deep and wide-ranging, we invite 

you to send for this handsome booklet. 

It is illustrated with beautiful color plates representing man's 
creative triumphs from many periods and cultures. 

It is in fact a prospectus describing in detail the most ex- 
traordinary publishing project of our time — the monumental 
Encyclopedia of World Art in 1 5 volumes. 

The prospectus is free. We hope the sampling will arouse 
the same excitement in you that the Encyclopedia has aroused 
in the entire art world. But you incur no obligation in request- 
ing a copy. No salesman will call. 

The Encyclopedia of WorJd Art embraces man's greatest 
achievements in the visual arts through the centuries. To turn 
the pages of these prodigious volumes ... to read, to learn, to 
explore their visual delights ... is a remarkable experience. 

There are hundreds of absorbing factual articles, prepared 
by the most eminent art authorities. In more than 7,000 su- 

perb full-page plates — measuring a full 9 inches by 12 inches 
in size— you will view rare treasures of renowned museums and 
private collections all over the world. Not only paintings, 
sculpture and architecture— but every art from armor to tex- 
tiles, ceramics to tapestry, fashions, furniture and landscape 
gardening, ivory, jade and stained glass, jewelry and silver. 
More than 16,000 works of art are shown, almost 2,000 of 
them in magnificent color. 

A convenient Reader's Guide shows you how related ar- 
ticles can enrich your understanding of any art subject you 
wish to pursue. 

With your free color prospectus, you will learn how you 
may examine Volume I at leisure in your home and, if you 
wish, become a subscriber to the Encyclopedia on a conven- 
ient budget plan. Mail the attached card or write: 

McGraw-Hill Book Company, Dept. AY-122, 
330 West 42nd St., New York, N. Y. 10036 

Encyclopedia ofVVorMyirtr 

Whatever man has created that is beautiful to look upon . . Ana 15-volume art library and "gallery" for the home 

"An essential possession for anyone with a serious personal or professional 
Interest in art ... a work to be explored, studied and enjoyed." 

Harry Einbinder, The Saturday Review 

"A great landmark in art publications — a monumental undertaking." 

Dorothy Adiow, Christian Science Monitor 

"Packed with wonders." John Canaday, New York Times 

"One of the most spectacular— and praiseworthy— achievements in the 
field of literature and fine arts." Rex Barley, Los Angeles Mirror News 


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denoted the owner's rank. Others 
believe thev were just another 
costly, albeit brilliant, embellish- 
ment on warships dressed for battle. 
Unlike land vanes, these vanes did 
not give the wind's true direction 
but onlv indicated a combination of 
the vessel's and the \\inds motion. 
It was this combination that aided 
\ iking na\agators in deducing true 
wind direction. 

During the Middle Ages and the 
Renaissance, the weather vane ap- 
peared on churches, chateaus. and 

The quality of some European 
weather vanes is seen in this 
beaten-copper rephca 
of Columbus's Santa Maria. 
Damaged in ^ orld War II and 
restored in 1950. it now sails 
in the breezes atop the William 
Waldorf Astor house in London. 

castle turrets, and as cities grew 
across Europe, on public buildings. 
The cock, the banner, and the 
simple arrow were the prevalent 
forms. In their rebuilding of Lon- 
don after the Great Fire of 1666. 
Sir Christopher \^ ren and his archi- 
tects made extensive use of the he- 
raldic stvle vane as an architectural 

Later, after the French Revolu- 
tion, the weather \ane became 
widespread throughout Europe, ap- 
pearing not onlv on governmental I 
and ecclesiastical structures but on 
the homes and shops of the com- [ 
mon man as well. Also, bv this time | 
the cock lost much of his religious 
significance and became a mixed 
secular svmbol. As the crowing 
chanticleer, he represented France. 
As the strutting barnvard rooster, 
he stood, like the wind he answered 
to. for fickleness, energy, and vari- 
ability—a tinv-brained bird whose 
broad tail could catch even the gen- 
tlest breeze. And with its jauntv 
profile outlined against the skv. the 



Venture into 
the tunnels of an 
ancient pyramid. 

Feel the wind 
fill the sails 
of the Beagle. 


a buried city. 

Run with 

the wild dogs 

of Africa. 


Hunt at the 
top of the world 
with the Eskimos. 

All the worlds of rTian and nature await you in the 

Extra FREE gift if you act now! 
1972 International Reference 
Day Book 

Packed with useful information 
— from world population to 
foreign exchange — in a luxuri- 
ous desk calendar you'll use 
every day of the year! 
Re(a// price, $13.00 

It's tiigh, wide, wild adventure all the way as a member of ttie Natural Science 
Book Club. Wonderful reading. Amazing savings. A stamp is all it takes to see 
your first ttiree books. Wtiy not send it and come adventuring wltti us! 

Take any 3 books mS)" for only 99^ each 

f you will agree to accept only 3 more selections or alternates in ttie next twelve monttis 

87340. THE WHOOPING CRANE. Failh IVlcNulty. 
Winner of the Dutton Animal Book Award, here is 
the exciting story of efforts to save the majestic 
whooping crane-a survivor of the Pleistocene 
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phine to the wild birds at the Texas refuge. $5.95 

FISH AND GAME. Jack Sleiglit and Raymond Hull. 
For preserving food or enhancing flavor, the old- 
time arts of smoke-curing and cooking are enjoy- 
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need to know to do it yourself, S7.95 

IBLE PYRAMID, /.ore/7 Eiseley. The author weaves 
his unique and magical spell as he relates his 
haunting experiences with animals and in nature, 
speculates on our links to early man, Tiie 2 count 
as one book. $12.70 

69750. THE PRAIRIE WORLD. David F. Coslello. 
The haunting combination of written word and 
photographs brings the special world of the prai- 
ries beautifully alive, Coslello captures the unique 
qualities of these vanishing places, $7.95 

34070. ANTISUYO. Gene Savoy. How this daring 
and determined explorer sought the lost cities of 
the Incas and uncovered the ruins of a city 
believed to be the fabulous Vilcabamba, Many 
photographs. $8.95 

57150. KING SOLOMON'S RING. Konrad Lorenz. 
In this beloved classic, the "father of ethology" 
introduces his readers to animal conversation, and 
to a highly entertaining and individual cast of 
animal friends, »6.95 

75300. SAVAGE LUXURY. Brian Davies. The stir- 
ring story of the fight to stop the slaughter ol baby 
seals in the Gulf of St, Lawrence-recounted by 
the man who spearheaded the crusade. Includes 
rare photographs of these beautiful animals, $6.50 
41590. DARWIN AND THE BEAGLE. Alan Moore- 
/lead. A famous author recreates in word and pic- 
ture Charles Darwin's momentous voyage, $15.00 
Tompkins. Was the great pyramid ol Cheops only 
a magnificent tomb? Or was it buill to mcorporate 
and hand down a mystical number system? Do its 
dimensions and, structure hold the key to secrets 
about astronomy and the occult? $12.50 

(retail prices shown) 

' 49020. THE FRIENDLY BEAST. Vitus B. Drosctter. 
Recently discovered facts about the amazing abili- 
ties of animals-Ihe great intelligence of chimps, 
the democratic organization of bands of ravens 
and prairie dogs, S8.95 

than 700 pages and 600 illustrations, a compre- 
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your questions about dogs— care, "breeds, showing 
and training, proper housing, pertinent laws, 
n canine diseases— everything! Counts as 2 ol your 
) 3 selections. $24.95 

54250. THE HUNTING PEOPLES. Carleton S. Coon. 
The customs, tools, rites, and lives of the hunting 
peoples of the world-from Eskimo to Ainu. $10.00 

84910. THE 26 LETTERS. Oscar Ogg. The fasci- 
nating history of the alphabet from its misty begin- 
nings in Stone Age caves right up to the most 
modern forms of computer typesetting, $6.95 

55610. IN THE CIRCLE OF THE SUN. Ann Woodin. 
A pilgrimage across the deserts of the Old World, 
Traveling from India through Pakistan, Afghanis- 
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* Morocco, you learn to know the people, plants 
and animals of these exotic desert areas, $7.95 

ford, Umbrellas have figured in military battles, 
royal court intrigues, ancient rites of celebration 
and oractically every other side of civilization. 
An unexpected, delightful history, $8.50 

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., complete and intriguing account of the 130 
I species, showing clearly why this unique bird has 
I so long captured the imagination of man, $6.95 

Homer. The compelling story of animal evolution, 
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55440. INNOCENT KILLERS. Hugo and Jane van 
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the little-known worlds of the African jackal, the 
wild dog and the spotted hyena, $10.00 

Durrell. The enchanting story of the author's 
childhood in which animals were the focus of his 
life. $5.95 

32760. AMERICAN DAWN. Louis A. Brennan Shat- 
tering old notions, here is a new, exciting view of 
America before the white man, $8.95 

Hediger. In a zoological park, unique among all 
environments, the psychology of men and the be- 
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intertwined, $11.95 


Natural Science Book Club <''''■• 

Riverside, New Jersey 08075 
Upon acceptani'y ul' tin, ,:'!-■, !■■''■ '"rinl nir 
as a member ami .^nni ' ' , i ' I 1::im' m 

clicated. Bill iiu' "iilx : '■ ' '■ '■, I'l"- 

postage and haiHlliii,^ l .:. ■ ,, I '',111 '■''■ 

turn all books uuhiii I'-n '^.i.,- ,iii'l Im, nn'iithrr- 
sblp «-ill bo cancelled, 

;\s a member, I need accept only three mote 
seloctlonii diirinB tlio next 12 months at reduced 
member prices, plus postaKe and handliiir:. Sav- 
ings ranee up to SO^c and occasionally even more, 

1 understand that I uiU receive tree adv;in.v 
Keviens uhich fully describe 

id Altemii 

■d ilo 

11 I 

del-stand that I may elioosu a bonus hook lo 
every 4 selections purchased. (Introductory olTci 
counts as first selection toward bonus hook. 

Send me my free Day Book. 
My 3 books for 99c each are: 

Cocks and horses were favorite 
themes on early American 
vanes. The high degree of 
workmanship that went into 
their production has made 
them prized collectors' items. 

bird was indeed an impressive sight. 
Not until it crossed the Atlantic 
Ocean in the eighteenth century did 
the weather vane reach full bloom. 
This flowering was due to a number 
of factors. Because weather fore- 
casting was vital to the colo- 
nists' rural and seafaring life, vanes 
came to play an important role. The 
weather vane also became a symbol 
of the newfound social and political 
equality, since any man could now 
raise a fancy metal banner as a kind 
of phony coat-of-arms over his 
home or barn. And most important. 
America attracted a class of con- 
summate craftsmen in whose hands 
the weather vane was elevated to 
sculpture, and its maker, to artist. 
For these reasons, the weather vane 

flourished in America, reaching an 
artistic level that moved Picasso to 
remark, after seeing a rooster vane 
in an e.xhibition of American folk 
art in Paris, "Cocks have always 
been seen, but never as well as in, 
the American weather vanes." 

Shortly after the colonists 
erected their first major buildings, 
weather vanes appeared. At first 
they were European imports or di- 
rect copies, but Americans were 
soon producing their own with the 
vigor, directness, and ingenuity that 
typified all American craft. In fact, 
some of the most impressive and 
significant American weather vanes 
were fashioned during the eigh-l 
teenth century. Among them was 
Paul Revere's wooden codfish ' 
studded with large copper-head 
nails, which stood on the roof of his 
coppersmith shop at Canton, Mas- 
sachusetts. Another was the four- 
foot-high sheet iron rooster that re- 
volved atop a church in Saddle 
River, New Jersey. j 

Perhaps the most famous Ameri- 1 
can vane is the copper grasshopper 
with a green glass eye and antennae 
pointing into the wind that since 
1742 has turned atop Faneuil Hall 

A Lars-Eric Lindblad Cruising Expedition 
is not an ordinary cruise. 

Our ship, the 2500 ton M.S. 
travel where other ships cannot. 
Therefore, our Baltic Cruise, unlike 
those of our illustrious big brothers, 
calls at more than three places. 


We stop for days, not hours, at the 
islands of Gotland and Oeland; at 
Kalmar, Stockholm and its archi- 
pelago; Gavie, Haparanda and Lulea 
in Sweden; at Oulu, Vaasa and 
Helsinki in Finland; and at Leningrad 
in Russia. Overnight excursions are 
made to Dalecarlia and Abisko in 
Lapland, and to the seldom-visited 
Ayrapaajarvi lake in Russia. 

We dine at castles and at farms and 
dance with the young at yacht clubs 
and fishing villages, and we don't 
charge you a penny extra. The cruise 
price is truly all inclusive. 

We guarantee that never before has 

the Baltic been presented like this. 

We even offer you the midnight sun 

during three days above the Arctic 


Departure on June 5, 1972. 



The M/S Lindblad Explorer 

For those who love the British Isles, 
we have scheduled a cruising expe- 
dition never before undertaken. We 
also visit Ireland and the Faeroe Islands. 




You will see Lundy Island and sail 
up the Severn to visit the Wildfowl 
Trust sanctuary at Slimbridge. 
Gowan Peninsula and the Pem- 
brokeshire islands are stops before 
proceeding to Bull Rock, Little 
Skellig and the three Aran islands in 
Ireland, In the Scottish Hebrides we 
enjoy North Rona and Sula Sgeir; 
and you will never forget the island 
of Hirta in the St. Kilda group. 
Mykinesholm and Torshavn are in- 
cluded in the Faeroes; and in the 
Shetlands we land at Unst, Muckle 
Flugga and Lerwick. Close to the 
Orkneys is fascinating Fair Isle. On 
the Isle of May we visit the first 
Scottish bird observatory, going back 
to the twelfth century. The gannets 
at Bass Rock are fantastic; and at 
Fame Islands, back in England, we 
land at a bird reserve established in 
686 A.D.bySt. Cuthbert. 

Enough of name dropping— but few 
have ever seen the British Isles this way. 

Accompanying naturalists are 

Mr. Peter Scott, Dr. Bruce Campbell 

and Dr. Mike Harris. 

Two departures— May 1 and May 18, 1972. 

Other 1972 Cruising Expeditions 
aboard the M.S. Lindblad Explorer are: 

West Coast of South America March 3 

Darwin's Galapagos 

Norway and the Fjords 


France, Portugal and Spain 

Amazon River Cruises 

March 30 
June 29 
July 17 
August 28 
October 7 and 
October 27 

Finnish Ice Class 1 A— virtually an ice 
breaker. For three years she has 
braved the packice of the Antarctic. 
In 1972 she visits the Arctic for the 
first time. 


^ \ 




^__,^^ TROMSO 


^ janmayen 





'ancmacssalik \ 


Spitsbergen, or as the Norwegians 
call the islands— Svalbard— has been 
visited by cruise ships, but no tourist 
has ever circumnavigated the islands 
and explored them on many 
landings. Our ice class vessel makes 
this possible for the first time. 
The ice-covered eastern coast of 
Greenland with its eskimo life, fabu- 
lous bird cliffs, musk ox and polar 
bears are also firsts; and a week is 
spent on Iceland visiting Myvatn and 
many other exciting places. 
We will also take you to Jan Mayen 
and Bear islands in order to com- 
plete your visit to the Arctic. 

This history-making expedition will 
definitely be one of the biggest 
events in travel during 1972; and 
lecturers aboard are Dr. Roger Tory 
Peterson, Mr. Keith Shackleton and 
Mr. Peter Scott. 

Departure on July 27, 1972. 

BOAC jets will fly you in luxurious 
comfort to and from Europe. 

Dept. NH-:72 

133 East 55th Street, New York, N. Y. 10022 

Please send brochures. I am seriously 

interested in: 

D British Isles and Faeroe Islands 

D The Baltic 

D The Arctic 

Other Lindblad Explorer Cruises: 


Telephone (Area Code)- 

^ound The 'World 


4 months for as low as 
$2,250 First Class 

• Beautifully appointed, all-air-conditioned 210- to 
350-passenger cargo liners to Acapuico, Panama 
Canal, Port Everglades, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, 
Buenos Aires, Capetown, Durban, Lourenco 
Marques, Singapore, Hong Kong, Kaohsiung, Kee- 
lung, Kobe, Yokohama, Vancouver, B.C., San 
Francisco, Los Angeles. Monthly sailings. 

• Up to 40 days in port gives you time for lengthy 
shore excursions. 

• All accommodations are first class with private 
bath or shower. 

• Swimming pool, spacious lounges. Continental and 
Chinese cuisine, full range of shipboard activities. 

• No Age Limit. Doctor and nurse on board. 

• The M.V. Oriental Esmeralda and M.V. Oriental 
Carnaval are registered in Liberia. The M.V. Orien- 
tal Rio IS registered in Taiwan. 

See your travel agent or contact 



General Passenger Agents: 

Oneni Overseas Se'vrces, Inc. 

311 CaNlornia St., San Francisco, CalKornia 9410< 

Please send me more information on your 

Round-The-World cruises. 






for scientists, gun collectors, naturalists 

Built by American Optical Co. In excellent working con- 
dition. Used by our troops for observing enemy in total 
darkness without feeing detected. Suggested uses: medi- 
cal research, study of nocturnal animal life, mineralogy, 
industrial and medical research, crime detection. Rare 
item for gun collectors. Telescope is 16^^" long; clear 
aperture of lens is 50.4mm. A 5"-diameter filter is at- 
tached. Knob adjusts focus electrostatically: second knob 
adjusts reticle intensity. Reticle also, has vertical and 
horizontal adjustments. Canvas carrying case and shoul- 
der strap included. Complete unit includes Il"xl4"xl6" 
chest, telescope with RCA 6032 image tube, 20,000V 
power pack with canvas carrying case and shoulder straps, 
IR light source, steel carbine bracket, pistol-grip handle 
«vith switch control. Formerly highly classified. Limited 
supply. Orig. Govt, cost, $800. Shipping wt., approx. 
30 lbs. Price $249.50 


Rechargeable 6V power source for 
sniperscope. Excellent for many 
other 6V applications. 
Approx. shipping wt., 15 lbs. 

$9.95. Two for $18.00 
Prices F.O.B. Tucson, Ariz. No C.O.D.'s please. 


P.O. Box 1572. Tucson, Ariz. 

in Boston. The work of Shem 
Drowne, America s first profes- 
sional weather vane maker, the 
Faneuil Hall grasshopper was for 
years the standard test for derelict 
American seamen abroad seeking a 
handout or free passage home from 
American consuls. Simply identi- 
fying the grasshopper as the vane 
on Faneuil Hall was adequate proof 
of citizenship. Drowne might have 
chosen this lowly, ceaselessly chirp- 
ing insect for his most memorable 
work because it symbolized agricul- 
ture or, more likely, because the 
grasshopper was the heraldic crest 
of Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of 
London's Royal Exchange, the 
building after which the Boston 
inerchant's market was modeled. 

Shortly after the Revolution, lo- 
cal tin and copper smiths were de- 
vising weather vanes whose shapes 
and patterns went far beyond the 
imagination of anything their Eu- 
ropean counterparts had so far pro- 

Indians were a popular 
motif on many early 
Pennsylvania weather vanes. 

duced. Unburdened by European! 
tradition, the nineteenth-centur)i 
craftsman, as well as his customer, 
let whim, humor, and superstition 
dictate design. i 

Animals and fowl of every de- 
scription—horses, dogs, cows, rams, 
peacocks, pheasants, stags, and, of 
course, the perennial rooster— soon 
appeared over farmers' barns in 
New York. New Jersey, Pennsylva- 
nia, and New England. Subjects 
were often related to the immediate 
environment and locale. Along the 
seafaring eastern coast, whales, cod- 
fish, mackerel, swordfish, dolphins, 
mermaids, and square-rigger ships; 
were popular. In the South, where' 
ties with English tradition ran deep, 
banners and standards, barkening 
to heraldry, were preferred. One ex- 
ception was George Washington 
who, upon his return from the war 
in 1783, ordered a dove for the cu-^ 
pola on Mount Vernon. 

As a, new nation, patriotic fervor 
was boundless, reflecting itself even 
in the weather vane. The new na- 
tional symbol, the eagle, appeared 
on countless courthouses and town 
halls, along with Columbia, the 
Goddess of Liberty, and the snake 
( 'Don't tread on me"). Even 
George Washington on horseback 


Not since the frontier days have 
the American Indians faced greater 
threats to their existence than they do 

Malnutrition, disease and despair 
are rampant. The school drop-out rate is 
50% greater than the national average. 
Unemployment is 10 times the rate of 
other Americans. The American Indian 
today has the shortest life expectancy 
of any group in the country. 

Their desperate poverty is a leg- 
acy passed on from one generation to 
the next. The statistics show that few es- 
cape. Eight-year-old Lisa Redfox is one 
of the somber statistics. Or she will be 
soon, unless someone with $15 a month 
cares enough to do something about her. 

Through Save the Children Fed- 
eration you can do a remarkable num- 
ber of things for a child like Lisa. Your 
contribution will provide funds for the 
clothes and supplies she needs to con- 
tinue school. A grant or loan may enable 
her parents to make their home more liv- 
able or to start<a self-help project. And a 
portion of the money will be put into a 
fund from which a community can bor- 
row to build a village center, install sani- 
tary facilities, provide vocational train- 
ing or other community projects. But 
most of all, this money, and the self-help 
projects it is used for, will provide a cli- 
mate of hope and a vision of a better 

That's what Save the Children is 
all about. Our aim is not merely a new 
coat, warm gloves or a few hot meals. 
We're interested in giving children, their 
parents and their communities the little 
boost they need to start helping them- 
selves. Once people start helping them- 
selves, there is almost no end to what 
they can do. 

Sponsors are desperately needed 
for American Indian children, as well as 
children in Appalachia, South Korea, 
South Vietnam, Latin America, Africa, 
the Middle East and Europe. 

As a sponsor you will select the 
child's nationality. You will receive a 
photo of the child, a case history and reg- 
ular progress reports. Also, you will have 
the opportunity to correspond with the 
child and his family. This personal con- 
tact can be as close and frequent and 
rewarding as you wish it to be. You may 
even some day wish to visit with your 
child to see first hand what a remarkable 
difference you have been able to make. 

There's a child waiting for you to 
fill out this coupon. You are his or her 
best hope. We're not asking you to save 
the world. Just a little piece of it. Per- 
haps, if there are enough people like you, 
that is the way to save the world. 

National Sponsors (partial list): Faitti Baldwin, Joan 
Crawford, Gene Kelly, Mrs. Eli Lilly, Paul Newman, 
Mrs. J. C. Penney, Frank Sinatra. Save the Children 
Federation, founded in 1932, is registered with the 
US. State Department Advisory Committee on Vol- 
untary Foreign Aid. 

To you this is a 
To Lisa Redfox I 

s lyer|ic|(e%ut of lieli. j 

avid, , 

GOSSEN/7^ ^ 









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UlUo Three optional lock- 

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Automatic "memory" needle lock ■ Computer 
range: ASA 6 to 25,000; f/1 to f/90; l/4000th sec. 
to 8 hours; Cine from 8 to 128 fps ■ EV-3 to EV 
+24; .016 to 32,000 foot candles ■ Weighs only 
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P.O. BOX 1060, VKOODSIOE. N.Y. 11377 

j Berkey 

became a suitable theme. The vari- 
ety of subjects was legion and some- 
times extreme, such as the witch on 
a broomstick that was discovered a 
few years ago in Salem. Massachu- 
setts, or the wall-eved pike that was 
taken down from an old inn on 
pike-filled Lake Cossavuna. north of 
Albanv. New York. 

But it was the horse, the animal 
so intimately involved with the 
growth of the nation, that became 
the most popular theme. The sym- 
bol of work, transportation, sport, 
and recreation, the horse was fash- 
ioned in every conceivable way by 
nineteenth-century weather vane 
makers: running, jumping, plowing, 
■ trotting, carrying Indians and jock- 
eys on its back, and pulling sulkies 
at its tail. The horse, exemplifying 
strength, grace, freedom, and mo- 
tion in its shape, no matter what its 
stance, became sculpture in the skv. 
American churches also em- 
bodied an independent spirit. 

Today's highway cuhure is 
typified by this roadside vane. 

breaking awav from the traditional 
European weathercock. Although 
many a rooster continued to point 
the way of the spirit, it was joined 
by an elaborately cutout arrow, a 
lyre, fish (a metaphor for Christ), 
and the angel Gabriel. Gabriel was 
a particular favorite during the 
great religious revival of the mid- 
nineteenth century when, it was 
predicted, the millennium would be 
heralded by the trumpet-tooting fly- 
ing angel. 

In the inland areas of Pennsylva- 
nia and New York, the Indian was a 
frecfuent, albeit curious, subject 
since his relations with the white 
man were, at best, ambivalent. Nev- 
ertheless, he was a favorite form, 
possibly because he was a friend of 
the colonists during their earliest 
trials. Or, as folk art historian Jean 
Lipman suggests, "The Indian vane 
may have been a practical means of 
keeping marauding Indians awav by 
indicating amity between the white 
man and the Indian." 

Among the numerous Indian 
vanes that have been found, none 
reaches the style and power of Chief 
Tammany, now in the collection of 


the Museum of American Folk Art 
in New York. Made in about 1840. 
this nine-foot, gilt copper figure 
holds a bow in one hand, an. arrow 
in the other. The figure is elabo- 
rately detailed with clothes, feath- 
ers, hair texture, and fingers. For 
many years Chief Tammany stood 
atop the political clubhouse in East 
Branch, New York, at the western 
edge of the Catskill Mountains. The 
owner of the ramshackle building 
was well aware of his prize and re- 
fused all offers. Finally, a few years 
ago he drove a bargain with a 
nearby antique dealer: buy the 
building and you buy the vane. The 
dealer did. 

By the mid-nineteenth century, 
the industrial revolution had taken 
firm hold in the United States and 
the weather vane, like so manv 
other objects, fell to commercial, 
large-scale production. No longer 
the work of free-wheeling artisans, 
vanes were now made in factories, 
although still by hand. The com- 
mercially made vanes became more 
realistic and formal, with pedestrian 
designs replacing the more in- 
Continued on page 78 

to announce 
that the dock 
he invented 
is now ready 

More than 200 years ago Benjamin Franklin 
caused something of a stir in London. Not 
because of his radical ideas on the conduct of 
government in the American colonies. But 
because of his clock. The clock, a sort of private 
Big Ben, was a revolution all of its own. With 
only three wheels, two pinions, two weights, and a 
pendulum, it kept remarkably accurate time. Its 
practical application, however, was less easily 
observed. Mr. Franklin had devised a four-hour 
dial rather than the conventional twelve. Five 
o'clock and nine o'clock were ostensibly the same. 
Nevertheless, as clocks go, Mr. Franklin's certainly 
went. Today it is still one of the great curiosities 
of the 18th century, still a great time-keeper. 

Now, Thwaites and Reed, the world's oldest clock- 
makers and contemporary neighbors of Franklin, 
have reproduced his clock in a numbered limited 
edition of 1,000. Each is handbuilt to his original 
designs, with a commemorative plate; and hand- 
carved wooden wall bracket. Each rich, leisured 
tick is a sound straight from the 18th century. 
Mr. Franklin would have been proud of them. $390 
plus applicable sales tax. Limited edition: 1,000. 

P.S. Thicaites and Reed have two other important 
responi^'bilities (1) To keep Biy Ben on time in 
London (2) To keep watch on the Smithsonian 
Institution Clock which they aho biiiU. 


This order form should be sent lo: 

British American Bicentennial Group 

Independence Square, Philadelphia, Pa. 19105 

Phone: 215-923-9200 

Please reserve for me a numbered edition of 

Benjamin Franklin's clock. 

I enclose my deposit of $100 and will pay the 

balance when I receive my invoice. 



Price delivered New York. 

A Naturalist at Large 

A Letter 
frora a Farraer 

"I surely do wish that some of this sudden 

affection and solicitude for the environment 

would engender respect for the land that 

is used to support us all" 

I have been pondering NATURAL 
History Magazine's ecology ques- 
tionnaire (June-July, 1970), and the 
responses to it, for more than 
a year. I did not answer the 
questionnaire because my "personal 
experiences and opinions" could 
not be amputated to fit. 

I happen to be one of the 
anonymous two million who put 
food on your tables. Industry can- 
not feed you, but we can feed you 
because we know that you cannot 
eat money. I learned this important 
fact back in the depression of the 
1930s. That I am still an active 
farmer proves that I have taken 
care of my environment, as a 
farmer must if he is not to go broke. 

For most of my sixty-five years I 
lived and learned and made a living 
on a small farm in Bucks County, 
Pennsylvania. I doubt if many NaT- 

by J. O. Harvey 

URAL History subscribers have 
known one locality so intimately, so 
long. For me, ecology and pollution 
were not born yesterday. 

When my father bought the place 
back in l905 there was a well in 
the corner of the barnyard for wa- 
tering the livestock. When our pet 
pig fell into it, father set about seal- 
ing the well with concrete, and our 
occasional hired man complained 
because the well had the best drink- 
ing water on the farm. Both pig and 
hired man survived— the latter to 
the age of ninety. 

A pet pig, in fact, all farm ani- 
mals, invariably give us humans 
some rough emotional moments. No 
scientist studying rats in a cage or 
lions in a park has any conception 
of the personalities animals display 
when we work with them all day 
and every day. Most of us hunt rab- 

bit, deer, and game birds for food. 
Some few may enjoy the sport, but 
if you want to see a farmer turn 
green, just ask him if he has ever 
mowed the legs off a baby rabbit 
and had to kill the thing with his 
bare hands. 

We dispose of our domesticated 
animals when it is a question of sur- 
vival—them or us. At such times, I 
remind myself that 1 am only short- 
ening an already brief life-span. We 
suffer, too, when our useful farm 
dog dies in our arms, or the horse 
that has carried us proudly for 
twenty years tries to cut a caper to 
prove he is still a horse, although he 
is swaybacked and nearly blind. 

A suburbanite or city resident 
can have convictions about the 
rights and privileges of animals. I 
do not have convictions; I only have 


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Speaking from experience, rather 
than conviction, I know I am not, 
to quote the questionnaire, "respon- 
sible for our present state of pollu- 
tion," and I have no hope that our 
environmental problems will be 
solved by government authorities, 
industrial corporations, revivalists, 
beatniks, bureaucrats, technocrats, 
or politicians, none of whom really 
gives a good goddamn about any- 
thing beyond immediate profits, 
self-preservation, or private peace 
of mind. 

The farmer is different; he is on 
the ground. He knows what pollutes 
his land and he copes with it, or he 
cashes in his chips and relocates to 
a state more hospitable to agricul- 
ture, as I did when I moved to Vir- 
ginia. When I left it, the Bucks 
County farm represented 90 per- 
cent of my lived life. I was there, 
watching my country being frag- 
mented and despoiled. The deterio- 
ration of the environment was spe- 
cific and factual. 

Erosion besets the farmer before 
it attacks his farm. The best farmer 
in the world will still get only a 
slight margin of profit beyond his 
cost of production for milk, eggs, 
broilers, and beef; although for 
beef, local freeze plants are slowly 
undermining packer prices. 

Also, the best farmer in the 
world will not be able to improve 
his land, repair his buildings, hire 
labor, or buy a $3,000 potato 
picker if Campbell's Soup Company 
pays him $38 a ton for tomatoes 
that cost $23 a ton to grow, on land 
that is highly taxed. For the first 
thirty years of this century the 
cheapest way to acquire a Bucks 
County farm was to invest in a farm 

So the land deteriorates. Tilled 
land is left without cover crops, 
creek banks cave in, and productive 
land grows up in swamp elm and 
cedar trees. In 1931, when I went 
back to growing three meals a day, 
I found the neighboring farms were 
mostly occupied by grandma and 
grandpa, with a horse — or model-T 
Ford— a couple of cows, a few 
chickens, and an employed but ab- 
sent daughter who sent home 
money for taxes and interest on the 
mortgage. Our farm was unmort- 
gaged, but I had to pull trees out of 
every acre before I could plow. By 
1939 we still had so many six-inch 
dogwoods and red maples deco- 


rating our pastures that we sold 
$300 worth to a gentleman who 
dug them for replanting on New 
York's World of Tomorrow fair- 
ground. That year we paid our own 

When the Agricultural Con- 
servation and Stabilization Ad- 
ministration went into action, it 
paid 40 percent of the cost of re- 
building fertility with nonnitrog- 
enous fertilizer and of stabilizing 
the soil through forestry practices, 
ponds, diversion ditches, and im- 
proved ground cover. My neighbors 
and I all needed these items, but 
none of us had the required 60 per- 
cent cash. I worked at a nearby inn 
to earn my first tractor, purchased 
from a junkyard for $35, delivered. 

Impoverishment set the stage for 
pollution. Our Pennsylvania farm 
has close to half a mile of frontage 
on what is now a state highway. 
The original dirt road was perhaps 
20 feet wide, and where it climbed 
our steep hill, hillocks every 60 feet 
drained the floodwater into the ad- 
joining fields, but in moderate in- 
stallments. Rebuilt to state specifi- 
cations, the right-of-way was 
widened to 40 feet, the roadbed 
raised and paved, and now the 
whole hill drains its floodwater into 
our pasture, where it has produced 
a bottomless swamp. My father 
complained and was paid $16 dam- 
ages. In 1942, after the grass had 
been frosted, a horse I was boarding 
got into that swamp and died. 

At the north end of our road 
frontage, there is a very old hand- 
dug well. It is 300 feet from the 
house and about 10 feet higher, 
being uphill. A lead pipe leads from 
the well to our cellar. In times of 
electrical failure we could use this 
well for the barn and downstairs 
bathroom. When hurricane Hazel 
went through, every other barn was 
without water for three days. Natu- 
rally we value this old well, but ev- 
ery few years the state highway en- 
gineer moves his roadbed farther 
from the solid old forest on the 
other side of the road, and digs ten 
feet more out of my road bank. 

In 1967 the bulldozer laid bare 
the actual dry stone retaining wall, 
which lines the old well. Six months 
later, a horrible accident at the top 
of the hill scattered brains and 
blood all over the highway, and 
enough drained into our well to set 
up a pseudomonas infection that af- 

An opportunity 

to take part in 

the greatest 



in history 

Jacques-Yves Cousteau 

describes his new book, the fascinating chronicle 
done of man's nnost dreamed-about adventures 


"Throughout the centuries, men have 
explored the depths of the ocean in 
search of treasure. Some have been 
successful. Others fared not so well. 
Many met the same fate as the incred- 
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were lost in the field of murderous 
reefs known as 'The Graveyard of 
Ships', the awesome Silver Bank off 
the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. 
"In Diving for Sunken Treas- 
ure, we share with you not only the 
fantastic excitement of our own 
for Spanish gold, but all the magnifi- 
cent beauty and vast peril of this Car- 
ibbean coral reef. It is said that at 
least 50 ships found a watery grave 


here. Our ship. Calypso, was not im- 
mune to these dangers. 

"And so we painstakingly 
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And found ourselves in a true garden 
of marvels, a fairyland of coral in 
every conceivable color and shape. 
Around us were animal colonies of 
every form. Sponges, like candles or 
chalices, stinging coral, sea-anemones 
with venomous tentacles ; and a forest 
of mauve and yellow sea whips, their 
long branches bent over like ostrich 
plumes and waving gently as we swam 
through them. Groupers, snappers and 
mackerels eyed us calmly, unblink- 
ingly. I was stricken with a thought. 
What would our excavation do to the 
lovely coral that is the home of these 
marvelous creatures ? We would see to 

it that there was no indiscriminate 
destruction in our search ! 

"As we pressed on in our search 
for the Spanish galleon, Nuestra 
Senora de la Concepcion, the stories of 
these huge treasure ships returned to 
us. Their history became part of our 
daily lives, and we felt that no journal 
of our adventure would be complete 
without these stories as well. And so 
we have included them along with our 
own, in hopes that those who set out 
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science and drama than any television 
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Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Philippe 
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To your bookseller or to 
Doubleday & Company, Inc. 

Dept. 2-NH-l, Garden City, N. Y. 11530 

Please accept my order for books as indicated 
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book(s) within two weeks and owe nothing. 
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cnpipg of Diving for Sunken Treasure. 

copies of The Shark ("Extraordinary 

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Ralph and Doris Davis, Sorosolo, Florida 


This photograph, taken some years ago during a peak of solar activity, not only 
shows great detail in the enormous sunspot, but reveals the "orange peel" or "rice grain" 
texture of the surface, so familiar to experienced sun observers. Our photographic 
print fails to show all the beautiful tracery so plainly visible on the negative. 

One would not expect to get such pictures with a 3 '/z -inch telescope, for these 
granulations measure only 1 to 2 seconds of arc. This is a job for the great mountaintop 
observatories, where a giant telescope can avoid sighting through the worst of the 
earth's heat-agitated air. However, this picture was taken with the 7-pound portable 
Questar at midday, right through the entire earth's atmosphere — at sea level! 
The exposure was 1 / 1 000 second on 35 mm. Microflle film, using an effective focal 
length of over 50 feet. The Davises, who took the picture, worked out the technique 
which avoided overheating and damaging the telescope. 

For totally safe observation of the sun, Questar developed its patented filters which 
keep more than 99% of the damaging heat and light from entering the telescope. 
This was the first thought anyone had given to keeping these rays out of the instrument 
Itself since Galileo sighted through his first telescope in 1 6091 

© QUESTAR CORPORATION 1971, All Rights Reserved 

Quesfar, the world's finest, most ver- 
satile telescope, is now available in two 
sizes, the 3 'A and 7, and in numerous 
models. Prices begin at $865. Send for 
our booldet containing more than 100 
photographs by Questar owners. For 
mailing anywhere in N.A., $1.00. By air 
to rest of Western Hemisphere, $2.50; 
Europe and North Africa, $3.00; else- 
where $3.50. 


0x60 New Hope, Pa. 18938 

fected our cattle with disastrous 
diarrhea and presented us with a 
sizable veterinary bill. 

I had already been writing regu- 
larly, but fruitlessly, to the local 
state highway maintenance man 
and to the district state engineer, 
asking for a protective wall around 
the well and for the gutter to be 
paved for some thirty feet to pre- 
vent seepage into the well. I wanted 
to get this work done before winter 
because the- chemical used to melt 
snow was plainly killing our road- 
side shrubs and probably would not 
do our animals any good. 

My letters accomplished nothing, 
but it finally occurred to me that I 
was writing to hired technicians] 
and not to elected officials vulner- 
able to public dissatisfaction. So I 
wrote one more careful letter to thai 
district engineer and sent a carbon 
copy to the governor. Five days 
later the district engineer appeared 
in person; the following week the 
well was waterproofed. 

I do not have environmental con- 
victions, but I do have a suspicion 
that laws to protect the environ- 
ment should be aimed, not at the 
private citizen, but at the govern- 
ment's myopic hired hands who 
build roads and dams and parks and 
sewage lagoons as if the country 
were good for nothing else. And in 
a very few years, the hired hands 
may be right. Already so much of 
eastern Pennsylvania is macadam- 
ized that the seasonal rains over- 
flow the highway gutters, cut gullies 
to the nearest creek, and are gone 
forever. The land is so thirsty that 
two weeks without a shower will 
stunt the corn, and market garden- 
ers must irrigate their land if they 
hope to survive. 

You can believe me, a highway 
engineer's vital concern is to com- 
ply with state or federal specifica- 
tions so the road will be eligible for 
state or federal funding. The bigger 
the road— or pond— the larger the 

For years the Pennsylvania De- 
partment of Forests and Waters has 
been working on "Project '70," 
created to keep the state green with 
federal grants for parks and ponds. 
In Bucks County a local educator 
suddenly became a dedicated con- 
servationist and sold the county 
commissioners the idea of estab- 
lishing a water resources authority, 
of which he is now director. This 


authority is in the process of build- 
ing four dams. 

The "flood-control dam" to oc- 
cupy 31 acres of my farm floated 
me right off the property. The 
debris and pollution restrictions on 
my remaining 50-some acres made 
general farming impossible. I was 
delighted to be liberated, however, 
as I had somehow formed the con- 
viction that the county had been 
taken over by megalomaniacs. To 
draw $3 million from federal funds, 
the new high school had to cost $8 
million and have a swimming pool, 
stadium, and science and biology 
laboratories. The "cross county" 
projected highway, 30 miles long, 
had to be a limited access, double- 
barreled affair, with maybe a 500- 
foot average right-of-way. 

The only place for a truly gran- 
diose flood-control dam was on my 
section of the unfortunate creek, 
where the ground rises steeply— 50 
feet in maybe 200 yards. My neigh- 
bor across the creek has a corre- 
sponding hill standing back from 
the creek and separated from it by 
about a hundred yards of lush green 

pasture. The earth dam is to be 43 
feet high and there is not enough 
clay in the vicinity to bridge be- 
tween the hills. The whole creek is 
approximately five miles long but 
there are no proper hills beyond my 
property, so the dam has to be 
within the first mile of the in- 
offensive streamlet that I was able 
to cross dry-shod when I was five 
years old. 

Furthermore, four-fifths of the 
watershed, and all the storm drains 
from a couple of squjire miles of 
Newtown and vicinity, are down- 
stream from the flood-control dam. 
As a consequence, the 10-acre, per- 
manent pond will mostly depend on 
the spring freshets for a supply of 
water and, I might add, mud. 

Far from improving the environ- 
ment, on my neighbor's side of the 
creek this installation will drown 30 
acres of ancient sod too valuable as 
pasture to have ever been plowed. 
On my wooded hill, clean young tu- 
lip poplars just coming into money 
at an average diameter of fifteen 
inches, will probably be ground 
into matchwood and burned. And 

then my denuded hill will scour 
into raw clay as the pond level fluc- 
tuates because of the erratic water 
supply from an insufficient water- 
shed. I have known this creek all 
my life and I am sure there will be 
no sufficient, continuous overflow- 
to clear the pond of algae and mos- 
quitoes in summer. 

I am a farmer; I do not need 
much land to make a living, but I 
do need reasonable neighbors. And 
you, conservationists, with your 
convictions and your dedicated in- 
tentions to save the environment, 
must watch your step or be led 
down the garden path to outsized 
projects that do not even fit the en- 
vironment, let alone improve it. I 
surely do wish that some of this 
sudden affection and solicitude for 
the environment would engender 
respect for the land that is used to 
support us all. 

Unless you can live on wild nuts 
and berries, the natural environ- 
ment cannot support you. Only 
farmland, properly used and main- 
tained, can support your life— and 

You are standing in South Africa 
and hearing soundsyou have never 
heard. Lion's roar like far-off thunder 
rolls across the veld. Leopard's 
growl vibrates the leaves of trees. 

South Africa is different, 
its people, places, pleasures have 
a flavour, no other land can matc^ 
South Africa calls you now. 


Pigeon and Man: 

A Spotty Old 


This persistent bird, whetlier 
we worship or curse it, follo\vs 
liuiiian civilization to^varcl its 
uncertain destiny 

bv Norman W^oldow 

In a world increasingly domi- 
nated by megalopolises, super- 
highways, intensive agriculture, and 
other works of man, onlv a handful 
of animals can thrive. The common, 
or domestic, pigeon {Columba 
livia) is a member of this uncom- 
mon group. 

Before civilization, this pigeon 
was rare and specialized. Then man 
became its inadvertent companion 
and benefactor. Now, when most 
bird populations are declining be- 
cause of man's reduction of their 
habitat, the common pigeon is 
about to expand further in both 
numbers and range. 

Although their numbers are de- 
creasing, a substantial wild popu- 
lation of the common pigeon still 
remains, confined largely to remote 
coastal mountain ranges in northern 
Europe and the Balkans. Tlie pi- 
geon has also declined as a domes- 
ticated animal, owing to its unsuita- 
bilitv for modern automated animal 
husbandry. In most places, domes- 
ticated varieties are kept only for 
sport, ornamentation, and local 
poultry use. 

Only the feral population of the 
common pigeon continues to exist 
in vast and increasing numbers, 
despite man's efforts to reduce its 
population. These pigeons, while in- 
dependent of human control, in- 
habit the immediate human commu- 
nity. Ornithologists have called 
them feral, indicating that the pi- 
geons found in cities and countrv- 

side are escapees from domestic 
flocks. But early historic sources 
disprove this view, showing instead 
that man and pigeon came together 
as natural companions long ago. 

The natural histories of pigeons 
and men have been intertwined 
since the Neolithic period in human 
history, when man progressed from 
hunting and pastoral civilizations to 
agriculturallv based, settled com- 
munities. At this early point in his- 
tory, a series of unique habitat over- 
laps brought man and pigeon 
together. For millennia, pigeons 
have been a source of artistic and 
literary inspiration for man, but 
their swarming flocks have plagued 
him as well. Today they are dam- 
aging outdoor art and architecture 
in cities throughout the world. 

In Venice, perhaps the world's j 
urban complex closest to collapse, ' 

A British sailor, pleased by 

his most recent conquests, 

feeds the pigeons in 

London's Trafalgar Square. 

A flock descends, next page, 

to a feeding area near Central 

Park in New York City. 








pigeons are a major source of dam- 
age to sculptures and monuments. 
In conjunction with air pollution 
from industrial installations, pigeon 
dung in vast quantities is corroding 
the stone of which the city is built. 
Over the years, many of the city's 
art treasures have eroded beyond 
recognition. In a way, the pigeon 
has become so enmeshed with civ- 
ilization that it mirrors man's own 
duplicity of creative and destructive 

Because of its closeness to our 
daily life and its availability for sci- 
entific study, the pigeon is better 
known anatomically and physi- 
ologically than any other bird. Its 
social behavior is also well known 
from observations in laboratories 
and the field. Its homing ability, 
unique among domestic animals, 
has been well studied if not all that 
well understood. 

The relationship between man 
and pigeon started toward the end 
of the last Ice Age, when the bird's 
distribution was restricted to a rela- 
tively narrow band of moderate cli- 
mate in the Northern Hemisphere. 
The pigeon is far more selective and 
specialized in its habitat require- 
ments than man. It requires steep, 
sheltered cliffs and inaccessible 
ledges on which to roost and breed, 
yet, at the same time, there must be 
extensive vegetation and water 
nearby. One such early habitat was 
in the hill country of present-day 
Iraq and Iran in the Near East. Al- 
though man and nature have 
changed the ecology of the region, 


there are still large numbers of pi- 
geons there. In fact, some of the re- 
maining, representative colonies of 
wild pigeons live in this region and 
in the Balkans, to the northwest. 

The Near East was also a major 
center for man's shift from a hunt- 
ing and herding civilization to ag- 
riculture. In this revolution, man 
began to cultivate a number of 
grain plants, which still provide us 
with the bulk of our staple food and 
sustain our ability to live in settled 
communities. With man and pigeon 
together in place and time, the 
stage was set for a merging of habi- 
tats. For as man settled, farmed, 
and built houses, he changed the 
face of the land, making a new 
world not only for himself but for 
pigeons as well. 

Agriculture began on gentle 
slopes, where soil and drainage 
were right for the various cereal 
grasses. These regions were fine po- 
tential feeding grounds for pigeons, 
but they did not necessarily provide 
the crucial nesting sites and roosts. 
Neolithic settlements close to cliff 
roosts were probably already feed- 
ing grounds, but others were too far 
awav from high cliffs. 

From my studies of the modern 
pigeon, I know that safe shelter is 
the primary limitation on the bird's 
distribution and individual survival. 
Our ancestors' efforts to provide 
themselves with permanent shelter 
proved attractive to their pigeon 
neighbors, and the birds moved into 
this emerging habitat, perhaps as it 
was being built. The houses and vil- 

lages of the Neolithic farmers were 
architecturally simple, but they ad- 
mirably provided the basic features 
of shelter and comfort for the pi- 
geon—it was as if new cliffs had 
sprouted for pigeons just where 
food and water were most available. 

Excavations of several proto- 
historic civilizations have revealed 
that man and pigeon cohabited 
these early settlements. Not only 
was the pigeon prominent, it was 
also regarded as a sacred animal as- 
sociated with Ishtar, one of the 
most important goddesses of the pe- 
riod. Ishtar was long worshiped as a 
fertility symbol for both crops and 
man. The pigeon's habits and be- 
havior fit in nicely with a fertility 
religion. Pigeons are conspicuous in 
their mating, have a long and pro- 
ductive breeding season, and their 
squabs grow rapidly. Indeed, they 
are outright models of fertility. 

Another important factor that 
placed pigeons in the religious 
scene was their great attraction to 
temples— not as temples, of course, 
but as the largest, best, and safest 
structures that man built. A house 
or barn might be small, but the 
temple would often be a splendid 
building. Even today, in many 
small villages of the world the 
temple may be the only building 
large enough to provide adequate 
shelter for nesting a large flock. 

In time, the small villages of the 
Near East bloomed into the great 
Mesopotamian civilizations, moving 
down from the hills into the fertile 
lowlands adjacent to the Tigris and 
Euphrates rivers. These civilizations 
were urban, agriculturally based, 
and architecturally advanced. 
Where none had previously existed. 

A pigeon, an agricultural pest 

at the time, stands among the 

birds pondering the words of 

Saint Francis, painted about 

1452 by Benozzo Gozzoli. 

they used brick to raise, from the 
pigeons' viewpoint, high chffs on 
plains. The implications for the fu- 
ture pigeon populations of the 
world were clear. Much of the 
world was soon to approach an 
ideal, a golden pigeon age, where 
on every continent man would con- 
struct huge complexes of cliffs and 
ledges on which pigeons might nest. 

It is almost certain that the 
Mesopotamians did not have the pi- 
geon under direct domestication, 
yet the bird was present in large 
numbers and held an important 
place in their art and religion. 

Agricultural-based civilization, 
diffiising from Mesopotamia and 
probablv from several other centers, 
revolutionized the world. Within a 
few hundred years, agriculture had 
reached the Middle East, India, and 
Egvpt, and was working its way 
into eastern Europe. Cereal grain, 
mainly wheat and barley, spread 
like cultural wildfire. Communi- 
cation between regions was active 

A pigeon, above, flies from 

its roost on a Detroit church. 

On a ledge between a pillar and 

an air conditioner, a pigeon 

built this nest outside the 

offices of Natural History 

Magazine in New \ork City. 

in this early period of civilization, 
approximately 5,500 years ago. 
Considerable trade took place in all 
crafts, particularlv of metal objects, 
while between the more remote 
parts of the ancient world, sheep 
and goats were exchanged. 

While domestic plants and ani- 
mals spread rapidly throughout the 
ancient world, independent pigeon 




populations, working on their own, 
diffiised only slowly from the Near 
East. In Old and Middle Kingdom 
Egypt, only ringed and turtle doves 
appear in wall paintings, and these 
are clearly wild, along with many 
other wild animals and birds. Be- 
cause the nearby marshes of the 
Nile provided an ample supply of 
desirable waterfowl, the first fully 
domestic birds in Egypt were the 
graylag goose and the mallard. In 
India, to the east, the Aryans were 
busy depicting and recording the 
husbandry of their domestic bird, the 
chicken. Upon domestication, the 
goose, the duck, and the chicken 
were widely traded and reached 
worldwide distribution long before 
the partly domestic pigeon appeared 
outside its ancestral homeland. 

It is hard to say exactly when do- 
mestication of the pigeon took 
place. By Biblical times, the bird 
appears to have been domesticated, 
although the evidence for this is not 
conclusive. The bird seems to have 
been significant in early Judaic ob- 
servance, probably because of the 
close ties between Judaism and the 
Mesopotamian civilizations. 

By the fifth century B.C., the 
Greeks began to show domesticated 
pigeons on their statues and vase 
drawings. A large number of ren- 
derings show people holding pi- 
geons that are clearly not resisting. 
In many, the birds are billing, or 
kissing, the person and in one, a 
little boy is letting his bird fly, as is 
done with sporting breeds of pi- 
geons such as homers or tumblers. 
A number of the statues show chil- 
dren with pigeons, suggesting the 
bird's role as a pet. Domestication 
is confirmed by Phny the Elder's 
descriptions of several distinct 
breeds, the life of the still plentiful 
wild pigeon, and pigeon culture. 

More important than the exact 
time of domestication is the unique 
form that pigeon husbandry took. 
For most animals domestication 
eventually meant that man con- 
fined, provided for, and regulated 
their lives. Man often brought the 
animal food and water, for instance. 
For the pigeon, man's commitment 
was much less. According to Pliny 
the Elder, the Romans followed this 
practice: On the roof of a building 
they constructed a tower in which 




N / 


nests could be built. At intervals, 
they would enter the tower and col- 
lect some squabs. All the other bur- 
dens of animal husbandry were ig- 
nored. The pigeons foraged for 
themselves and were free to come 
and go as they pleased. 

In this form of domestication, the 
distinction between a domestic pop- 
ulation and a free-living one is very 
loose. Despite the pigeon's ten- 
dency to remain attached to its nest 
site, considerable interbreeding and 
movement takes place between the 
nesting sites. As Pliny puts it, 
"They will be seen to conspire 
among themselves, offering bribes 
and corruptions to induce them to 
desert their own buildings and join 
their colonies." 

This form of pigeon husbandry, 
which is called dovecote culture, 
does not create rigid partitions be- 
tween populations of domestic, fe- 
ral, and wild pigeons. Tlie long sur- 
vival of this system of culture has 
allowed continuous genetic inter- 
change between populations of pi- 
geons. In America and Europe 
dovecote culture lasted until the lat- 
ter part of the nineteenth century. 
In many parts of the world it still 
exists. Moreover, in even the most 
industrialized cultures, some breeds 
of domestic pigeons, such as 
homers, are still allowed to fly free. 

In the Middle Ages the dovecote 
system of pigeon husbandry became 
a bizarre form of taxation, allowing 
the nobility to exact an additional 
measure of wealth from the 
peasants. Although the lord of the 
manor was the only person allowed 
to own a dovecote, the pigeons for- 
aged on all the land, including that 
of the peasants. Since the lord took 

A seagull, one of the 
pigeon's competitors, waits 
for a chance to grab some 
of the food being handed 
out in a London square. 

a fixed rent in produce from the 
peasants, rather than a percentage 
of the harvest, he had little reason 
to limit his flock, which might num- 
ber in the thousands of birds. In 
many manors, the pigeon was the 
primary form of domestic poultry, 
as was the case in Lord Barcklay's 
manor in the year 1326. In that 
year the good lord's household con- 
sumed 1,008 squabs, 91 capons. 
192 hens, 388 chickens, 288 
ducks, 194 pigs, plus wild game. 
While the other poultry was a regu- 
lated portion of the manor's pro- 
duce, with some remaining for the 
peasants, the squabs were a clear 
surcharge added to the peasants' 
other burdens. Not surprisingly, in 
many of their prayers the peasants 
sought deliverance from the lord's 

The system of open dovecote was 
so close to a natural habitat that pi- 
geons survived the depopulation of 
the countryside during the period of 
enclosure and the rise of indus- 
trialization at the opening of the 
modern era in Europe. Abandoned, 
the pigeons in dovecotes survived as 
nuisance populations, gathering 
food from the countryside, in- 
cluding the remaining farms. At 
this time the pigeon was the most 
serious avian pest and in some 
places rivaled rats in crop damage. 

Pigeons were able to revert from 
domestic to feral conditions with 
little difficulty, and remained an un- 
controlled rural pest until the in- 
troduction of sporting shotguns in 
the early 1800s. Throughout this pe- 
riod there were people who bucked 
public opinion and kept pigeons, al- 
ways utilizing the dovecote system 
for the bulk of their birds, although 
they increasingly used total con- 
finement. The predation of hunters 
probably spurred the rise of avicul- 
ture for pigeons. As late as the 
1840s the open dovecote was 
still the rule in England, while on 
the Continent open dovecotes were 
seen until the First World War. 

As human trade spread the 
goose, duck, and chicken during 
the early years of civilization, so ex- 
ploration and colonization spread 
the pigeon during the Renaissance. 
Colonies of Portugal, Spain, 
France, England, and the Nether- 
lands spread the dovecote with its 

semidomestic, semiferal pigeons all 
oyer the world. 

Today the common pigeon is one 
of the most widely distributed 
birds. In some cities of the world it 
is the most abundant bird in abso- 
lute numbers, although it usually 
has smaller numerical strength than 
the house sparrow and starling. 
Modern cities provide abundant 
food for pigeons, as well as an ever 
expanding architectural super- 
structure, which enables the birds 
to roost at greater heights, farther 
from disruption. The dense construc- 
tion of skyscrapers in downtown 
areas proyides abundant shelter. 

Massed skyscrapers are also ef- 
fective windscreens. A vivid ex- 
ample of this windscreening effect 
can be seen on the Loop in Chi- 
cago, where the winter wind is pre- 
dominantly from the northwest, off 
Lake Michigan. There are few pi- 
geon roosts facing the lake on 
Michigan Avenue, and none on the 
cross streets, through which the 
wind blows. Behind Michigan 
Avenue, howeyer, there are multi- 
tudes of roosts sheltered in the 
streets running parallel to the lake. 

Another modern architectural in- 
novation that has proved highly ad- 
vantageous to the birds is the air 
shaft. This well-protected space is 
completely surrounded by walls and 
has the usual windowsills. In some 
of the older air shafts of Houston, 
pigeon dung is almost two feet 
deep, indicating occupation for long 

In the last ten years, the United 
States has built major segments of 
an extensive interstate highway sys- 
tem. This network of limited access 
highways has many overpasses, 
loops, and other elevated structures 
that present another yast habitat for 
exploitation by pigeons. Over- 
passes, entry ramps, turnarounds, 
and bridges are constructed largely 
of steel and steel-reinforced con- 
crete, with the post and lintel and 
the I beam as prominent architcclu- 
ral features. All these constructions 
are roofed oyer by the road surface, 
proyiding protection even from 
rain. Optimum shelter is provided 
when the road runs parallel to the 
preyailing wind, while on roads per- 
pendicular to the wind, pigeons can 
find protection only in the centers 


of the road, up under the I beams. 

The interstate system extends a 
large quantity of nest and roosting 
habitat into the countryside, where 
such habitat has been scarce in the 
past. Based on its past performance, 
the pigeon will follow this habitat 
extension to its saturation. 

Interstate 10, for example, ex- 
tends from Houston in two direc- 
tions. Several small agricultural 
communities west of the citv have few 
large buildings, yet thev have thriv- 
ing flocks of pigeons, which live un- 
der I-IO. Other little towns north and 
south of I-IO have hardlv anv pi- 
geons, usually flocks of three to five 
birds occupying small niches. 

The road was built about fifteen 
years ago and now pigeon flocks 
can be seen as far as sixty miles 
from Houston. The economic im- 
pact of this expansion is unclear. 
Competition from pigeons in the 
countryside may diminish feeding 
habitat for such native species as 
doves and for other herbivores as 
well. Pigeons may also pose a sig- 
nificant threat as agricultural pests. 
A closely related species, the wood 
pigeon [Columba palumbus) is a 
serious pest inflicting damage to 
crops in its native Europe. Alter- 
natively, rural pigeons could be 
worked into a program of game har- 
vesting as sport, perhaps in offsea- 
son hunting. 

We have come a long way since 
the Neolithic period, and a few 
commensal companions, including 
the pigeon, have come with us. It 
seems certain that these few species 
will accompany us toward whatever 
our future fate mav be. It also 
seems strangely significant that we 
consider all of them pests. 

Despite the damage pigeons do 

to buildings and sculpture, 

public guards feed the birds 

in Piazza San Marco. Venice. 

The ornate architecture provides 

many nooks for nesting. 

»-, M 

The Rnrables on 


As this 

mytliical land 

slow ly tears 

Itself in t\\ o, 

the tiny bumps 

and jerks 

that precede 

m^ajor tremors 

hold hints of 

quakes to come 




In the mythical nation of Seismos, 
the notorious Mad Dog Fault slices 
through 500 miles of terrain before 
passing out to sea at each end. Dur- 
ing the past 200 vears or so, several 
large earthqpakes have occurred 
along this fault, and numerous 
smaller tremors have been 
recorded. Moreover, detailed sur- 
veys of the fault zone have shown 
that the lands on both sides are 
slowlv "creeping" past one another 
horizontally, the landscape on the 
western side moving northward a 
few inches a year; the eastern side, 

Despite this clear indication of 
landscape instability and severe 
damage in the past from large earth- 
quakes, the people of Seismos have 
built large cities near, and even 
across, the Mad Dog Fault, and some 
buildings that are slowly being torn in 
two by the fault creep have become 
great tourist attractions. 

As far as the geophvsicists of 
Seismos can tell, the fault extends 
vertically downward about six or 
seven miles into the eai-th's brittle 
crust. The rocks underlying the 
western side of Seismos appear to 
be more or less rigidly attached to 
the crustal rocks beneath the bor- 
dering ocean to the west, while 
those beneath the eastern side are 
connected to continental rocks ex- 
tending far to the east. Both of 
these huge crustal "plates" are 
fairly rigid in themselves, but tend 
to slide atop a zone of soft, perhaps 
partially molten rock beneath. The 
scientists do not clearly understand 
the enormous forces that, for the 
past few million vears, have caused 
these two plates to creep past each 
other along their boundary (the 
Mad Dog Fault). Presumably, they 
are the result of the large-scale, but 
very slow, movement of rocks deep 

in the earth's interior. The com- 
bination of intense heat and pres- 
sure allows rock to "flow" like a 
viscous plastic, although the av- 
erage citizen of Seismos might not 
think so if he has only observed 
rocks at the surface. The scientists 
of Seismos say the bulk of these 
continent-sized plates continue to 
slide past each other even when 
their edges are slowed or stopped 
by the friction along their bound- 
ary. When this happens, the in- 
exorable force of the moving plates 
pulls the rocks near the Mad Dog 
Fault farther and farther out of 
shape. Finally the strain is too 
much; the rocks snap and spring 
back to their original shape. This 
sudden release sets up sharp vibra- 
tions in the earth— an earthquake. 
In the hope of being able to pre- 
dict when an earthquake will occur, 
the seismologists have set up an 
elaborate array of seismographs to 
record all tremors along the Mad 
Dog Fault. Most of these are so 
small that thev are not felt bv the 
busy citizens of Seismos. Although 
the data thev have gathered have 
greatly increased their knowledge 
of the fault, the seismologists find 

About 35 miles southwest of 

Bakersfield. California, 

the scar of the very real 

San Andreas Fault here 

crosses the Carrizo Plain. 

that thev are able to make only 
broad statistical predictions, such 
as: 'Sometime in the next 50 years 
a severe earthquake will occur 
somewhere in Seismos." They do 
say, however, that great earth- 
quakes appear to be ine\atable. 

It has been many years since an 
earthquake large enough to do any 
damage has occurred along the cen- 
tral section of the Mad Dog Fault, 
and only a slight amount of creep 
has been observed across the nar- 
row fault zone. Broad-scale surveys, 
however, seem to indicate that far 
from the fault displacements con- 
tinue to occur on either side. For 
geologic reasons the fault in this 
area bends slightly, and the rocks 
nearest the fault cannot slide easily 
past each other as they do farther 
north and south. As strains in the 
rocks near the fault build up almost 
to the breaking point, here and 
there small microseisms (very small 
earthquakes) occur, the over- 
burdened rock undergoing slight 
readjustment under the tremendous 
load. These events have been dul\ 
recorded bv the scientists' surface 
instruments but there is no notice- 
able pattern in their occurrence and 
life in Siesmos goes on as usual. 

Scientists observing the creep be- 
havior of the fault somewhat to the 
south do note a strange fact, how- 
ever. Creep in that region occurs, 
not at a steady rate, but in jumps, 
or "creep events." Moreover, there 
is some evidence that these events 
may propagate northward along the 
fault at a slow rate. Even stranger 
still, sensitive magnetometers near 
the fault reveal minute but dis- 
tinctive changes in the earth's mag- 
netic field somewhat before a creep 

These homes in Daly City, 

California, sit atop the 

spot where the San Andreas 

Fault emerges from the land 

to plunge into the sea. 


The foundation of a winery 
building in HoUister. 
California, located directly 
on the fault, has been 
cracked bv periodic tremors. 

An unfinished overpass 
collapsed onto this highway 
in the San Fernando \ alley 
when an earthquake hit 
Los Angeles last February. 

event is observed, and the scientists 
feel that thev mav be able to predict 
when a creep event will occur al- 
though thev do not know exactly 
why this should be. 

But this interesting observation 
about creep events is unimpressive 
to a farmer living near the site of an 
impending earthquake. Lnaware 
that a creep event is moving north- 
ward and impinging on the locked 
section of the fault beneath his 
land, he does, however, notice 
strange behavior in the water level 
in his wells and in the flow of a 
small creek. At the same time an 
observant boater in a nearbv reser- 
voii- notices odd changes in the wa- 
ter level there, as though the lake is 
tilting slightlv toward the north. 

h is at this moment that the in- 
creased stresses due to the ap- 
proaching creep event— combined 
with those due to the tidal forces of 
the sun and moon and the changing 
atmospheric pressure— increase the 
strain in the overloaded rock to a 
critical level. The mile-deep stone, 
alreadv weakened bv a previous 
series of microseisms. is weakened 


still more by increased water pres- 
sure in the pore spaces, and the 
strains, relentlessly building up. be- 
come great enough to cause a small 
rupture in the rock. This crack 
propagates outward at great speed 
(nearly two miles per second) be- 
cause its mere presence tends to 
further intensify the existing 
stresses at its edges; thus, the earth- 
quake begins. 

As the rupture propagates up and 
along the fault, the bordering rocks 
spring back to relieve the strains in 
them. At the surface, about 15 feet 
of lateral displacement occurs, 
which gradually tapers off to zero at 
a distance of 25 miles either way 
along the fault, as the strain energy 
stored in the rock becomes in- 
sufficient to extend the crack far- 
ther. Some of the waves generated 
in the rocks near the rupture travel 
at great speed through the body of 
the earth to distant seismograph sta- 
tions. Other, bigger waves travel 
along the surface and, with the per- 
manent surface displacement itself, 
cause severe damage in Seismos 
City, ten miles to the north of the 
initial break. 

Swarms of seismologists flock to 
the area of the earthquake and set 
up elaborate networks of in- 
struments that, over a period of sev- 
eral months, record a series of after- 
shocks (smaller tremors occurring 
later in time but physically near the 
main shock). The magnitude of the 
earthquake is estimated to be 8.2 
on the Richter scale, a great earth- 
quake indeed. Seismos City is de- 
clared a disaster area and everyone 
wonders why he didn't have earth- 
quake insurance. 

Long before this earthquake oc- 
curred, geophysicists had been 
monitoring all the physical effects 
they could, in the hope that after an 
earthquake, they could identify any 
phenomena that had foreshadowed 
the event. Now, several months af- 
ter the earthquake, they feel they 
are in a position to make a series of 
statements about the prospects for 
earthquake prediction. 

First, seismologists studying mi- 
croseismic activity feel that by 
elaborate analyses of the waves gen- 
erated, they may be able to dis- 
tinguish true foreshocks, which oc- 
cur in highly strained rocks, from 

normal low-level seismicity. Also, 
foreshocks may have a distinctive 
pattern, in both time and space, 
which has escaped previous detec- 
tion. Scientists studying small 
changes in the earth's magnetic 
field feel that they may be able to 
predict abrupt creep events, but it 
is still unclear how these events 
might be related to an actual earth- 
quake, if at all. Work also contin- 
ues on the creep events themselves 
to see if thev may actually propa- 
gate along the fault and serve to 
trigger earthquakes. Other workers, 
looking closely at the tilts and de- 
formation of the ground surface, 
most of which result from tidal 
forces, find anomalous results that 
may have pointed exactly to the 
time and place of the earthquake. 
Closely related to the tilts are the 
observed changes in water levels 
and flows. Indeed, many workers 
feel that a close watch on the tilts 
and changes in the water level in 
large reservoirs may turn out to be 
the best prediction scheme. 


Returning now to the real 
world, we see that although we are 
far from being able to forecast an 
earthquake at this time, the pros- 
pects for the future are good. Ac- 
tually, an earthquake such as the 
one described has not occurred 
recently (although it could at anv 
moment), but several smaller trem- 
ors have enabled seismologists to 
reach the stage of understanding 
implied in the last paragraph. Work 
in all the areas mentioned contin- 
ues, and some of the "mays" will 
become firmer with time. More tests 
of the implied prediction schemes 
are, of course, required. These tests 
will require a large earthquake, 
thus putting seismologists in the un- 
happy position of having to live 
near an active fault while hoping 
for a major earthquake to take 
place. (It should be pointed out that 
the earthquake described above is 

only one of several possible types, 
and agreement on the processes and 
events leading up to it would be far 
from complete.) 

Although it may appear pre- 
sumptuous to think of preventing 
earthquakes when we cannot as vet 
even predict one, in certain cases, 
there is some hope along these 
lines. The prevention problem has 
two facets. First, we want to pre- 
vent triggering earthquakes in areas 
where they would not normally oc- 
cur and, secondly, we might want 
to try to prevent or modify the in- 
cidence of earthquakes in areas 
where they are almost sure to occur 
if nothing is done. In the second 
case, however, we should note that 
the enormous forces underlying 
most earthquakes cannot be turned 
off or resisted forever, so the word 
modification is perhaps better than 

That man's activities can be the 
direct cause of earthquakes is now- 
clear. Frequently the impounding 
of rivers to create large artificial 
lakes is the cause of an increase in 
local seismicity. The filling of reser- 
voirs in Greece and southern .\frica 
has produced earthquakes of signifi- 
cant size. During the ten years fol- 
lowing the filling of Lake Mead on 
the Colorado River, more than 600 
small, local tremors were recorded. 
That such effects can be disastrous 
is well illustrated bv the events in 
southern India, where a large dam 
was constructed on the Koyna 
River in the extremely low-seismic 
area of the Deccan Traps. For sev- 
eral years following the impounding 
of the river, a definite increase in 
low-level seismicity was noted that 
could be correlated with the amount 
of water in the reservoir. Finally, in 
December of 1967, following an ex- 
tended period of high water levels, 
a large earthquake occurred, killing 
200 people and causing widespread 
destruction. Earthquakes such as 
this may result from an increase in 
the pressure of the fluids in the 
pores of nearby rocks. \^ hatever 
the cause, it is clear that the choice 
of a site for a large dam is not 
simph^ in terms of the seismic risk 
involved. At present there seems to 
be no reliable wav to accurately 
predict just what effect a large dam 
will have on local seismicity. 


Although it is possible that an in- 
crease in pore-fluid pressure near 
large reservoirs is responsible for 
producing some earthquakes, it is 
just this effect that holds some hope 
for modifying other quakes. The 
critical importance of the pore-fluid 
pressure in rocks near an existing 
or incipient fault is clearly demon- 
strated by experiences in Colorado. 
In 1962 the U.S. Armv Corps of 
Engineers began the high-pressure 
pumping of waste fluids down a 
deep well at the Rocky Mountain 
Arsenal near Denver. Between 
1962 and 1967 (when the fluid in- 
jection was stopped) there was a 
definite correlation between the 
number of local earthquakes and 
the volume of fluids pumped down 
the well and into the surrounding 
rocks. The earthquakes have con- 
tinued ever since. 

The effect of the fluids can be 
pictured as follows. For slippage to 
occur along a fault surface, a cer- 
tain ratio— depending on the rocks 
involved— between the shearing 
forces parallel to the fault and the 
forces perpendicular to the fault 
must be exceeded. The greater the 
perpendicular forces, the greater 
the shearing forces must be to cause 
active faulting. To see how this 
works, simplv place a tin can on a 
flat board and note how much 
harder you have to pull (shearing 
force) to make it slide if there is a 
weight on top. (You can measure 
the force needed by using a rubber 
band to do the pulling— the greater 
the stretch, the greater the force 
you are applving.) Now if the rocks 
on either side of the fault contain a 
pore fluid (usuallv water), there is 
lubrication at the joint, and the ef- 
fective force perpendicular to the 
fault surface is reduced. But the 
shearing forces are not. Thus, less 
shearing force is needed to cause 
slippage. To see how this works 
with your tin can, repeat the same 
experiment twice'— first with the can 
full of water and then with a small 
hole in the bottom so that a bit of 
water is trapped between the board 
and the rim of the can's bottom. 

Presumably the high-pressure 
pumping of fluids down the disposal 
well at Denver lowered the per- 
pendicular forces enough so that 
the pre-existing shearing forces 

were sufficient to cause slippage 
along the numerous old fault sur- 
faces in the rocks around the well. 
Thus the earthquakes occurred. The 
U.S. Geological Survey has recently 
confirmed this hypothesis by a de- 
tailed series of experiments in an 
operating Colorado oil field. The ex- 
perimenters made use of the normal 
procedure of pumping water down 
wells to increase the amount of oil 


iting the results of high- 
pressure pumping in Colorado, 
some scientists have proposed that 
the pore-fluid pressure in rocks near 
active faults could be modified, 
causing the release of the stored 
strain energy in a relatively safe 
and controlled way, rather than 
waiting for a natural and perhaps 
large earthquake to do the same 
task. One proposal goes as follows. 
A series of wells, say five, would be 
drilled in a line paralleling an ac- 
tive fault in an area where there are 
indications of a strain buildup. 
Fluids would be pumped out of all 
but the center well, thus strength- 
ening the fault's resistance to slip- 
page in those ai^eas. Fluids would then 
be pumped down the center well, 
causing slippage (earthquakes) to oc- 
cur. The faulting would, however, be 
contained in a small area by the neigh- 
boring zones of high strength, thus 
serving to release the stored strain 
energy near the center well in a con- 
trolled wav. If the process proved suc- 
cessful, it could then be extended to 
other areas along the fault until 
enough energy was released to min- 
imize the chance of a large natural 
earthquake. It probably won't be too 
long before such an experiment is 
tried (and it is an experiment). I. for 
one. am glad not to have the responsi- 
bilitv for carrying it out. 

Other proposals for the release of 
stored strain energy are based on 
observations of underground nu- 
clear bomb tests. Detailed analyses 

of the waves generated by these 
tests, togedier with the occurrence 
of aftershocks, indicate that more 
energy has been released than the 
bomb itself can account for. Thus it 
has been suggested that such blasts 
could be used to relieve strains built 
up near active faults. In addition to 
being completely uncontrolled with 
respect to the amount of extra 
energy released, this proposal has 
other obvious difficulties. It is not 
hard to imagine an underground 
blast triggering a great earthquake 
with an energy perhaps 100 times 
as great as the bomb itself. This is 
particularly true in such areas as 
the Aleutian Islands, site of a nu- 
clear test program, where the natu- 
ral seismicitv is much greater than 
normal. Although any large earth- 
quake generated in that region 
would have onlv limited direct ef- 
fects on humans (not considering 
fish and wildlife), there is the dis- 
tinct possibility that a large tsu- 
nami, or tidal wave, would be pro- 
duced. The great Alaskan 
earthquake of 1964 generated just 
such a tsunami, which caused ex- 
tensive daiuage to areas along the 
northern California coast. 

Another problem — one which we 
should perhaps touch on briefly- is 
what would actually happen if an 
earthquake prediction were issued. 
It is only too easy to imagine the re- 
sults in a large city following the 
announcement that a large earth- 
quake was about to occur (and it is 
likely that no more than a few 
hours warning will be possible). 
Clearly, if this stage is ever reached, 
much more work, along lines other 
than purely seismologic, will be 

Near Saugus. California. 

another unfinished overpass, 

about five miles from the 

epicenter, collapsed during 

the February earthquake. 


Sky Reporter 

by John P. Wiley, Jr. 

The moon is nothing 
But a circun:ianibulatory aphrodisiac 
Divinely subsidized to provoke the world 
Into a rising birth rate 

Christoplier Fl-y, "Tlie Ladj's Not for Burning" 

Water on the Moon In the future, lovers may have an 
ahernative that will make life very difficult for song- 
writers: spooning in June by the light of the silvery 
Earth. The barren wastelands of the moon may be sit- 
ting on underground pools of water, a development 
that could radically change the outlook for eventual 
colonization, tourism, and, inevitably, honeymooning. 

This evidence for water, the first that we have, is 
still on the iffy side. Instruments left on the moon by 
the Apollo 12 and 14 crews have recorded the out- 
burst of geysers, spouting what apparently was water. 
The 14'hour eruptions occurred last March 7, but the 
scientists checked and rechecked their data for six 
months before saying anything. 

The eruptions coincided with a series of small 
moonquakes. The water vapor spread out to cover an 
area of 100 square miles. Other, smaller geysers have 
been recorded since, but it is not clear that water was 
a constituent of these. 

The instruments that identified the water are ion de- 
tectors, which react to the presence of ions, or charged 
particles, and which, in addition to identifying them, 
can measure their quantity and direction. The detec- 
tors were left on the moon to study ions arriving at the 
moon, any traces of lunar atmosphere, and any sign of 
volcanic processes on the moon. For those 14 hours 
last March, the detectors radioed back data that fit lab- 
oratory measurements of water vapor better than they 
fit anything else. Ammonia, neon, and other rare gases 
may also have been present. 

The scientists who reported the findings, John W. 
Freeman, Jr., and H. Kent Hills of Rice University, 
said they were sure the water vapor was not related to 
the lift-off of the Apollo 14 vehicle from the moon. 
The outburst was detected 29 days after the spacecraft 
departed. They also discount a volcanic eruption as the 
explanation; if that had happened, they say, they 


should have detected such typical volcanic gases as 
sulfur dioxide. 

Other scientists have been slow to accept the ion de- 
tectors' data as solid evidence for water on the moon, 
but they admit that it is not impossible. Geologists, 
who have yet to find any mineral evidence for water 
on the moon, quickly add that they have samples from 
only four, rather small areas. 

For several decades, earthbound observers have 
been noting apparent eruptions on the moon, known 
as "transient lunar phenomena." These were believed 
to be ventings of gases from the lunar interior. If these 
gases do include water vapor, the moon may be far 
more hospitable than anyone has thought for years. 

Tremors on the Moon Three seismometers are now 
measuring quakes on the moon, and so far there has 
been a lot of activity. 

Some of the quakes appear to be the result of mete- 
oroids slamming into the lunar surface, unslowed by 
any atmosphere. But many more can be called true 
moonquakes, vibrations set up by sudden movements 
in the moon's interior. Most are small by earth stan- 
dards: they measure 1 to 2 on the Richter scale, which 
means you would be hard-pressed to feel them even if 
you were standing on the epicenter. But they are true 
quakes; the moon is not so dead as some would have 
had it. 

Reporting at length in Science, Gary Latham of the 
Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory and eight 
coauthors say they have located ten different zones on 
the moon where quakes appear to originate. Most of 
the activity occurs in one of these zones, a line run- 
ning approximately north-south that crosses the crater 
Copernicus and passes between the Apollo 12 and 14 
landing sites. 

Because many of the quakes occur when the moon 

is nearest the earth in its orbit, they are apparently 
triggered by tidal stresses. Knowing how strain is re- 
leased, however, does not tell us how the strain comes 
to exist in the first place. Latham and his colleagues 
suggest several possibilities: slight expansion or con- 
traction resulting from heating or cooling; gradual 
changing of the moon's shape from an ellipsoid to a 
more spherical form as the moon recedes from the 
earth and its gravitational muscle; localized strains 
from unsupported masses (the mass concentrations, or 
"mascons," that may be asteroid-sized chunks of 
heavy material buried beneath lunar seas); localized 
strains established as the moon readjusts following 
heavy impacts; or local heat sources. 

The authors conclude that the moon is seismically 
active, but at a very low level compared with the 
earth. It is most unlikely, they feel, that any con- 
vection currents of the type that drag continents 
around on the earth exist beneath the lunar surface. 
They believe that, compared with the earth, the outer 
surface of the moon is cold, rigid, and stable, except 
for the minor disruptions associated with tidal forces. 
But they would like very much to know what causes 
the internal strains that make moonquakes possible. 

Addeiicliiiii l3y 
Tlioiiias D. Nicliolsoii 

Shadow on the Moon Of the four eclipses that will 
occur during 1972, three will be at least partially vis- 
ible in North America. The first of these will be the to- 
tal lunar eclipse of January 30. While the beginning of 
the eclipse and the period of totality will be observable 
throughout the United States, the moon will set in the 
eastern United States while still emerging from the 
earth's shadow, before the end of the eclipse. The 
eclipse begins shortly after midnight on the West 
Coast, but just a few hours before dawn on the East 
Coast. The times for important stages of the eclipse are 
given below: 

4:11 A.M., EST: Eclipse begins, left edge 

of moon first enters earth's 

5:35 A.M., EST: Total eclipse begins, moon 
is completely immersed in 

5:53 A.M., EST: Mid-eclipse. 

6:11 A.M., EST: Total eclipse ends, moon 

begins to move out of earth's 

7:35 A.M., EST: Eclipse ends, moon leaves 
earth's shadow completely. 

The above times will be one hour earlier in each time 
zone to the west. 

In observing the eclipse, remember that the moon 
will appear to be moving westward (to the right) and 
closer to the horizon as the event progresses. This mo- 
tion is caused by the earth's rotation. But the moon it- 
self is moving to the east (left) around the earth. 
Therefore, the left edge of the moon enters the shadow 
first, and the shadow seems to move across the moon 
from left to right, while at the same time, the moon 
moves downward and to the right toward the horizon. 

Note particularly the curved shape of the shadow's 
edge (one of the early "proofs" that the earth was 
round), the variation in the density of the earth's 
shadow as it progresses across the moon, and the color 
and shading of the shadow during total eclipse. 


Celestial Events 

b^- Tl:ioiiias D. Xlc-holson 

After new moon on January 16. the moon enters the evening sky, 
reaches first-quarter on the 23rd, and becomes full on the 30th. In the 
morning sky during the first half of Februan,-, the moon is at last-quar- 
ter on the 7th, and it becomes new again on the 14th. 

\ enus, Mars, and Saturn are evening stars during late January and 
early February; Jupiter is becoming more prominent as a morning star. 
In the evening sky, \"enus is brightest, low in the southwest at dusk and 
setting shortly after dark. Mars is higher in the southwest after dark and 
sets before midnight. Saturn, well up in the southeast in the early eve- 
ning, sets in the west before dawn. In the morning sky, Jupiter rises be- 
fore dawn and disappears into the early twilight. 

January 16: The first of this year's two solar eclipses occurs today; 
the second, more interesting locally, will occur on Julv 10. 

The eclipse of January 16 will be annular over parts of Antarctica 
and the southern Indian Ocean, while the associated partial eclipse will 
occur over southern Africa and extreme southwestern Australia. During 
an annular eclipse, the moon's distance from earth exceeds the length of 
its shadow, so that the shadow tip does not actually touch the earth's 
surface. In the sky, the moon moves centrally across the sun, but it is 
not large enough to cover the sun completely. A ring, or annulus, of the 
sun remains visible around the moon at mid-eclipse. 

The second solar eclipse of 1972, on July 10, will be visible as a par- 
tial eclipse throughout North America, and will be total in a narrow 
band crossing northern Alaska and northern and eastern Canada. The 
path of totality in eastern Canada will be readily accessible to residents 
of the northeastern United States. 

January 18-19: The planet near the crescent moon on these evenings 
is Venus: to the left of the moon on the evening of the 18th; to the 
right, below, and more distant from the moon on the evening of the 

January 21-22: The moon passes above Mars during the morning of 
the 22nd. The planet will be to the left and below the moon in the eve- 
ning sky of the 21st, to the right and below the moon on the 22nd. 

January 25: The bright object below the gibbous moon this evening 
is Saturn. During the night, the moon approaches more closely to Sa- 
turn as it passes north of the planet. 

January 30: A total lunar eclipse will be visible throughout North 
America during the early morning hours today (see page 47). 

January 31: Saturn is stationary and resumes its direct (eastward) 
motion among the stars of Taurus. 

February- 9: The reddish star near the crescent moon this morning is 
Antares, in Scorpius. 

Februars- 10-11: Jupiter is found near the crescent moon on these 
two mornings. On the 10th, the planet is to the left and below the moon 
in the southeast. On the morning of the 11th, Jupiter is to the right and 
above the moon. 

■*■ Hold the Star Map so the compass direction vou face is at the bottom; then match 
the stars in the lower half of the map mxh those in the sky near the horizon. The map is 
for 10:20 P.M. on January 15: 9:15 P.M. on January 31; and 8:15 P.M. on Februar\- 15; 
but it can be used for about an hour before and after those times. 

oovaa ' \ 

;- *V:- ' . 

• • • T 

\ V * "^ ^i 

BeteigeusaP f^ 



.-.^ / 


Tlie Mysterious Wblf 
of tlie Soutli 

Little is kno^\ n about the life history 

of the red ^s olf. No\v it looks as if 

we raay never have the chance to find ont 

When white settlers first entered 
southeastern North America, thev 
encountered large, wolflike animals 
in the region from central Texas to 
Florida and north to the Ohio River 
\ alley. These animals, mentioned 
in writings dating back more than 
300 years, were still common in 
certain areas until the earlv 
twentieth century, but thev re- 
mained little known to science. 
Now, after centuries of human per- 
secution and environmental dis- 
ruption, the native wolf population 
of the southeast has become nearlv 
extinct. Possibly these animals will 
disappear entirelv before their tax- 
onomv and life historv are known. 

The term red wolf w'as originally 
used in reference to animals that 
lived in central and southern Texas. 
But taxonomic studies later showed 
a consistency of key cranial and 
dental features between these ani- 
mals and the w-olves that lived 
across the southeastern states to 
Florida. Thus the designation red 
wolf and the latinized name Canis 
Tufus came to be applied to all wolf- 
like animals in this region. 

Unfortunatelv, the red wolf was 
exterminated from most of its origi- 
nal range, particularlv in the east, 
at an early date. Few specimens 
were preserved, and there were no 
really complete descriptions of the 
animal's appearance and life his- 
torv. Therefore we do not know ex- 
actly what sort of animal the red 
wolf was under natural conditions, 
and whether it was more closely re- 
lated in habits and physical features 
to the larger gray, or timber, wolf 
(Canis lupus), which existed to the 
north and west, or to the smaller 
covote (Canis latrans) of western 
North America. 

Even the common name red wolf 
is misleading although we continue 
to use it for convenience" sake. The 
reddish color referred to was not 
particularlv common except in parts 
of south-central Texas. Available 
specimens, plus literary accounts, 
show that from eastern Texas to the 
Atlantic there once lived black, 
brown, grayish, yellowish, and red 
wolves. Thus, size and body struc- 
ture are better guides than color- 
ation for distinguishing the differ- 
ent species of wolves. 

Some 213 adult rpd wolf skulls 
collected in the south-central part 
of the species' range show that al- 
iriost every red wolf was consid- 
erably larger than the largest coy- 
ote, but that the majority were 
smaller than most gray wolves. In 
the region represented by these 
specimens various accounts indicate 
that female red wolves usually 
weighed from 40 to 60 pounds, 
males from 55 to 7.5 pounds. Some 
larger animals were reported, and 
one 92-pounder from W inn Parish, 
Louisiana, seems to be the recoi^d. 

The accounts of earlv settlers and 
naturalists invariably refer to the 
wolflike animals from extreme east- 
ern Texas to Florida as 'wolves," 
showing that they considered these 
animals to most closely resemble 
the gra\" wolves of Europe and 
northeastern North America. Nev- 
ertheless, some reports from the 
coastal area of Texas use red wolf 
synonymously with big coyote. 

Early and recent accounts from 
Texas agree that the red wolf was 
more slender and had relatively 
longer legs than the gray wolf. Such 
proportions are believed to have 
been an adaptation for long-dis- 
tance running. It has also been sug- 

gested that the species' long, slen- 
der legs enabled it to get along 
better in the coastal prairies and 
river bottom swamps where it was 
especially abundant. 

The mystery of the red wolfs 
identity is emphasized by the fact 
that while some workers believe it 
to be very closely related to the coy- 
ote, one recent taxonomic study at 
Harvard University indicated that it 
w-as actually a subspecies of the 
gray wolf. This latter investigation 
attempted to draw up a mathemati- 
cal definition of the red wolf based 
on skull measurements. Other stud- 
ies, using brain anatomv and blood 
serum analysis, have tried to define 
the red wolf as a distinct species. 
An idea that now seems to be 
emerging is that the red wolf repre- 
sents the surviving stock of a primi- 
tive line of wolves that occupied 
much of North America a million 
years ago, but was then forced back 
by more advanced animals and 
changing environments into a range 
centered in the great swamps and 
marshes of the southeast. 

Specific details of the ecology, 
reproduction, and behavior of the 
red wolf are very poorly known. No 
significant studies were made when 
the species was still prevalent, and 
recent efforts have been limited bv 
the problem of locating definite red 
wolf populations. Possibly we will 
never know how this animal lived 
under natural conditions in an un- 
disturbed habitat. What is known 
has been derived bv combining in- 
formation from old accounts and 
from new studies in southeastern 

Red wolves establish dens in hol- 
low tree trunks, stream banks, old 
holes of other animals, and, in 



coastal areas, on sand knolls. Al- 
though usually obscured by brush 
or vines, the dens' locations give 
the occupants a good view of sur- 
rounding terrain. 

The young are born from late 
March to May, following a gesta- 
tion period of 60 to 63 days. Both 

by Ronald M. Now ak 

parents actively guard and feed the 
pups. The young reportedly number 
from 3 to 12, with 6 or 7 being av- 
erage, but most die before the age 
of six months. Hookworms are said 
to be a major factor in keeping the 
successful reproductive rate low in 
southeastern Texas. Full size and 

mating capability are attained in 
the third year of life, but surviving 
young usually remain with the par- 
ents for a longer period. 

Many observations attest to the 
highly social character of the red 
wolf, with at least two animals re- 
ported in most accounts of sight- 


ings. The original parents and sur- 
viving pups for several successive 
years form most of the so-called 
packs, although occasionally, differ- 
ent family groups join together. A 
pack usually includes from 5 to 12 
individuals, but as manv as 23 ha\c 
been seen together. 

The red wolf is noted for its long- 
distance movements. An adult pair 
or pack is said to establish a 
roughly circular territory through 
which the animals move about once 
every seven days, often on definite 
runways. Many years ago, some 
packs reportedly had territories 40 
miles in diameter, but most were 
certainly smaller. A number of ac- 
counts expressed the belief that red 
wolves in the Gulf Coast area con- 
centrated on the coastal prairies in 
fall and winter, and moved to the 
inland forests in spring and sum- 

Clearly the red wolf was not so 
much a predator of big game as was 
the larger gray wolf. There are sto- 
ries of packs of red wolves pursuing 
deer, but the species was not always 
dependent on such activity, and 
usually smaller animals are referred 
to in accounts of the red wolfs 
prey. The only systematic analysis 
of stomachs of animals presumed to 
be red wolves showed that rabbits 
and hares made up the highest per- 
centage of food taken, with small 
rodents ranking second. Other re- 
ported natural food of the red wolf 
includes squirrels, muskrats, nutria, 
prairie chickens, waterfowl, fish, 
crabs, crayfish, insects, and vege- 
table matter. 

Records of predation on domes- 
tic animals are, of course, very com- 
mon. Again, it appears that the red 
wolf did not share the destructive 
ability of the large western gray 
wolves, which were said to be ca- 
pable of individually bringing down 
full-grown steers. There are a few 
tales of groups of red wolves attack- 
ing adult cattle, but such cases do 
not seem to have been usual. Re- 
ports of predation generally refer to 
calves, small hogs, sheep, and 

In the early 1900s, wolves were 
said to have made sheep raising dif- 
ficult in the Big Thicket of Hardin 
County, Texas, and in parts of 
northeastern Louisiana. There, and 

in other lowland areas of the South, 
the practice of allowing hogs to 
wander freely in the forest led to 
many claims against the wolf. Sur- 
prisingly, the wolves of Texas and 
Louisiana also reportedly took a 
heavy toll of domestic dogs. When 
dogs were used to hunt the wolves, 
the latter often turned the tables as 
soon as the opportunity arose. 

The red wolf was never a threat 
to human life; even the earliest ac- 
counts attest to this fact. Audubon 
did write of a slave killed by a pack 
of wolves in Kentucky in the early 
nineteenth century, but this is the 
only instance recorded in which red 
wolves may have been directly 
responsible for a human death. 
Following battles of the American 
Revolution and the 1835 Texas 
Rebellion, wolves were said to have 
fed upon the dead, but the animals 
reportedly fled at the approach of a 

living man. From throughout the 
southeast come many tales of 
wolves following or pursuing hu- 
mans, although an actual attack sel- 
dom occurred, and such cases were 
often attributable to freshly killed 
game being carried by the person 

The exact limits of the red wolfs 
original distribution, particularly in 
the north, will probably always re- 
main a mystery. Wolves were ex- 
terminated at an early date in a 
broad swath from Pennsylvania 
through the Ohio Valley to northern 
Missouri, with very few specimens 
saved. Since none of the early ac- 
counts from this region attempts to 
distinguish between the red and 
gray wolf, we cannot be sure where 
the range of each species stopped. 

The decline of the red wolf be- 
gan with the arrival of white settlers 
along the Atlantic coast. The course 


of events in South Carolina is typi- 
cal. Here, in 1695, the colonial as- 
sembly ratified "An Act for De- 
stroying Beasts of Prey." By this 
measure every Indian bowman was 
required to yearly bring in one 
wolf, panther, or bear skin, or two 
bobcat skins. If the Indian pro- 
duced more than one skin, a reward 
was provided, but if he failed to get 
his quota, he was to be "severely 
whipped." Regular monetary 
bounty payments began in 1700 
and continued for most of the pe- 
riod through the end of the 
eighteenth century when wolves 
were noticeably on the decline. 

The animals were often trapped 
by means of baited pits, dug about 
ten feet deep. Above the pit, fresh 
meat was suspended over a bal- 
anced board that dumped the wolf 
into the pit when it reached for the 
bait. Variations of such traps were 

later used over much of the south- 

By 1850 the wolf was said 'to be 
nearly extinct in South Carolina, 
and the last reliable records are 
from the lower Santee River bot- 
toms between 1856 and 1860. A 
few twentieth-century reports of 
wolves in South Carolina are at- 
tributable to introduced animals. 

The early extermination of 
wolves on the Atlantic seaboard was 
the result of an ancient attitude. 
Striking out of the river swamps, 
their howls piercing the night, these 
animals probably seemed like devils 
incarnate to the early settler with 
his European background. Cer- 
tainly the actual depredations on 
livestock were inconsequential 
when compared to losses suffered 
through flooding and disease, but 
perhaps nothing infuriated the 
farmer more than the sight of a 

_,- -i ar ' - ^ 

sheep or hog torn apart by wild 
beasts. While the settler was help- 
less against the other forces of na- 
ture, the predator offered him a 
chance to strike back. 

As "civilization" moved west- 
ward, the steel spring trap suc- 
ceeded the pit as a primary method 
of catching wolves. Poison was also 
widely used beginning in the mid- 
nineteenth century. Another com- 
mon means of destruction was lo- 
cating and killing young wolves in 
the den. 

In some parts of the southeast, 
the Civil War served as a respite for 
the wolf, but following the end of 
hostilities, the species was ex- 
tirpated over wide areas. Wolves re- 
portedly held out in the mountains 
of North Carolina and Virginia until 
the first decade of the twentieth 
century, but we cannot be sure that 
these animals were red wolves. The 
forests of southern Indiana and Il- 
linois apparently sheltered a few 
surviving red wolves until the early 

The remote lowlands of Florida 
and southern Georgia were among 
the last refuges for the red wolf in 
the east. Severe depredations on 
calves and sheep were reported dur- 
ing the closing years of the nine- 
teenth century, but strychnine poi- 
soning made the species rare even 
here after 1900. A few wolves re- 
portedly survived until about 1920 
in the Everglades, along the Kis- 
simmee River of Florida, and in the 
Okefenokee Swamp of Georgia. Ex- 
cept for an occasional wandering in- 
dividual, by the 1920s the red wolf 
had been exterminated in the entire 
region east of the Mississippi River. 
The species had also vanished from 
southeastern Kansas and central 
Oklahoma, and from most of its for- 
mer range in Texas. 

There remained two large con- 
centrations of red wolves: one cen- 
tered in the Ozark-Ouachita up- 
lands of Arkansas, eastern 
Oklahoma, and southern Missouri; 
the other in -the river bottom forests 
and coastal prairies of Louisiana 
and southeastern Texas. 

But there were too many pres- 
sures on these last wolves. Various 
state and county governments in 
the region offered bounties. Trap- 
Continued on page 74 


>^ '"^•'•'. *■♦. 



In the rugg:ecl 
of Mexico's 
Sierra Madre 
Indians compete 
in tliree-day 
maratlions that 
n:iay cover 
as much as 
200 miles 

Mile after mile in the blazing 
heat, runners in the rarijipari 
propel a wooden ball 
through the barranca country. 
Referees run with the teams 
to make sure strict rules of 
the race are observed. 

Tlie Glory 
of the 


by Michael Jenkinson 
photographs by Karl Kernberger 

In the Sierra Madre Occidental 
of northwestern Mexico there is an 
Alice in Wonderland sort of region 
where mountains often rise so 
gently they seem almost flat and 
bottomlands appear perpendicular; 
where canyons carved by creeks 
seem deeper than the Grand Can- 
yon of the Colorado; where fruit 
trees have houses; where owls may 
be no bigger than sparrows; and 
where running Indians leave tire- 
tread imprints on dusty trails. 

Much of it is wild country, 
known only to the Indians who in- 
habit it. Years after the warriors of 
Cochise and Geronimo had laid 
down their rifles and been 
herded on to reservations, bands of 
nomadic Apaches roamed the Sierra 
Madre, skirmishing with Mexican 
soldiers who ventured into their 
wilderness stronghold. The last of 
these Apaches were annihilated by 
federates less than three decades 
ago. Today, most of this country, 
some 35^000 square miles of 
violently dissected terrain con- 
nected by rough trails, is the home- 
land of Tarahumara Indians. Speak- 
ing a form of Uto-Aztecan, these 
people are related linguistically to 
the Papagos of Arizona and the 
Huichol of Jalisco, as well as to 
manv other tribes from Montana to 

The final tie for the Chihuahua al 
Pacifico railroad, which crosses the 
Sierra Madre, was spiked in 1961. 
The terrain yielded grudgingly to 
roadbed: in the short drop from 
continental divide to coastal plain. 

engineers were forced to blast 89 
tunnels and construct 48 bridges. 
Now, old Pullman cars, swaying 
through the heart of the Sierra 
Madre, bear tourists who wear lapel 
name tags provided by tour direc- 
tors and look up from canasta and 
conversation to see the wild country 
rolling by the windows. 

Where the train stops, Indian 
children hawk drums, twilled bas- 
kets, or other items, while travelers 
snap photographs. Yet most of the 
inhabitants of the Tarahumara 
backcountrv seem as remote from 
this train— this capsule of civ- 
ilization—as tribesmen in the .Ama- 
zon rain forest. 

For some seventy miles west of 
Chihuahua the landscape is one of 
dry hills, where cattle browse be- 
tween cactus clusters, and low stone 
walls, still used in lieu of barbed 
wire, recede into the distance. In 
scattered mud villages, men in 
straw hats squat in the shade before 
small stores: smoking, talking 
softlv. gazing into the distance. 

So gradual is the slope of Mex- 
ico's great central plateau that 
mountains are announced by forests 
rather than bv pronounced foothills 
or distant peaks. Scrub oaks give 
wav to tall ponderosa pines, encinas 
("hve oaks'"), and gnarled ma- 
drofios with bark the color of bur- 
gundv wine. Granite boulders push 
up between the trees. Where there 
are cleared farms, young fruit trees 
are protected from scavenging goats 
bv logs piled around them like so 
many small, roofless huts. 


In the highlands there are several 
logging towns, most of them astride 
the railroad. Thev are evocative of 
the frontier towns of the American 
U est —dusty streets, log or frame 
buildings, horsemen and wagons, 
the smell of freshly cut lumber. 
Law enforcers, carrying guns at 
their hips, wear boots, western hats 
and shirts, and Levi's. Most other 
males who can afford pistols usually 
carry them tucked in their belts, 
covered bv shirts or jackets. Fortv- 
fives are favored and their use is not 

It is the canvons, the barrancas, 
that dominate the landscape of the 
Sierra Madre. The canvons of the 
rios Urique, Chinipas. Batopilas, 
and Verde (or San Miguel, as it is 
sometimes called) all appear to be 
deeper than the Grand Canvon. 
Precise depths are still unknown, 
for the region has never been thor- 
oughlv explored or mapped. Manv 
deeplv cut tributarv canvons. which 
would warrant a national monu- 
ment in the United States, are not 
even named. 

On the canyon rims, ravens 
croak through pine forests. It has 
been known to snow in the late 
springtime, but by May, the sun 
beats off the cliffs and immense 
boulders in the bottoms of the bar- 
rancas, and when the wind dies 
they are like open forges. Flocks of 
parrots sweep over the bamboo 
thickets and the orange trees. But- 
terflies jiggle between kapok, lau- 
rel, and tamarind trees. On the 
sidehills, centurv plants, sotol. tree 
and ball cactus stand in the heat. 

In the dn- season, wooden plows 
are pulled by hand or oxen across 
dusty fields in the high countrv, and 
smoke from unchecked forest fires 
hazes the canyons. In the barrancas, 
the rivers are shallow, trivial, out of 
proportion to the deep trenches 
thev have cut. In most places they 
can be waded. 

From late June through Septem- 
ber, however, thunderheads build 
in the heat of late morning, to ex- 
plode in storm during the after- 
noon. Dry arroyos become sizable 
creeks, creeks swell quicklv into 
rivers, and evervwhere waterfalls 
plummet over ash-grav cliffs. In the 
bottoms of the largest barrancas, 
roiling masses of water pound 


through barricades of gigantic, pol- 
ished boulders. Rocks the size of 
two-storv buildings grind and shift 
with rumbles that cut through the 
incessant roaring of white water. 

There are two old Spanish min- 
ing towns deep in the barrancas: 
Batopilas and Urique. They are seff- 
contained, isolated places. Supplies 
are mostly brought in by burro 
trains from towns near the rims, 
thousands of feet above. Both vil- 
lages have landing strips, and when 
the infrequent visitor arrives bv air- 
craft—a government official, per- 
haps, or a mining engineer— the re- 
ception, especially among the 
excited children, is rather like that 
given a ship docking at a seldom- 
visited South Sea island port. The 
lack of air travel to these places, ex- 
cept for pressing business, is under- 
standable. The airstrip at Urique, 
for example, is a narrow, rocky 
track that pitches downhill at a 
slope only slightly less inclined than 
that of a barn roof. An ancient 

walled cemetery at the end of the 
strip seems conveniently located. 

When villagers of Urique or Bato- 
pilas do make a journey, they follow 
switchbacking trails up to the canyon 
rim, and then possibly take a train to 
Chihuahua. For these Mexicans, the 
rest of the barranca country is 
mostly unknown, a wilderness. 

Occasionally, backpackers head 
down into the canyons, following 
Indian trails, but this can be tricky, 
as the paths are faint and fork 
frequently. One tequila-belting 
group of Chihuahua students lost 
their path in the dusk, and ended 
up dozing fretfully all night astride 
weird tropical trees that grow out 
almost horizontally from precipitous 

Some of the many trails in the 
barrancas country are rough but 
passable for burros or mules; others 
are scarcely more than goat paths 
that traverse harrowing ledges and 
thorny slopes. Over these the Ta- 
rahumara Indians stride easily in 
sandals with soles made from dis- 
carded truck tires. Frequently the 
journey is to a friend or relative's 
dwelling, which might be a log and 
stone structure, a lean-to, or a cave. 
Caves also serve as goat pens and 

burial places. For the most part, Ta- 
rahumaras tend to live in isolated 
family units rather than villages. 

Eventually, if the right turns are 
made, the path will lead to a high- 
country trading post or a Mexican 
village. Sometimes the Tarahumaras 
will bring things out of the can- 
von — drums, violins, calcite crys- 
tals, coati skins, bearded ceremo- 
nial masks, bamboo flutes— hoping 
to sell them to tourists when the 
train stops. The violins are carved 
with great care and ritual from na- 
tive woods, principally ash, and put 
together with glue that is derived 
from a lily bulb. There is a Tarahu- 
mara word for each part of the in- 

On occasion, an Indian will ap- 
proach a trader he trusts with some 
gold dust tied in a bandana or a bit 
of rag. The traders know better 
than to ask from where it comes; 
the Indian would merely mumble, 
"From the barrancas," and his face 
would become expressionless. In 
the past, Tarahumaras who showed 
Spaniards and Mexicans the sources 
of gold ended up dead or slaving 
out their lives in dim tunnels. 

Sometimes whole families go to 
Mexican villages just to look. 

Women and girls in bright red 
dresses; men in cotton pullovers, 
headbands, and a sort of loincloth 
peer through the open doorways of 
tiendas ("shops"), where canned 
goods are stacked in rows of bright 
cylinders. Food is hard to come by 
in the barrancas. Pinol. a cornmeal 
mush, is the main staple, supple- 
mented by some wild game and oc- 
casionally the meat of domesticated 
animals. In addition to corn, the In- 
dians grow beans and squash in 
small plots, sometimes on slopes so 
steep that it appears difficult to 
stand upright on them, much less 
engage in cultivation. 

Runners take turns flipping 
the hard ball with their feet. 
Team members use sticks 
to maneuver the ball toward 
the kicker. Touching it 
with the hands is forbidden. 



Although domestic plants make 
up the bulk of his diet, the Tarahu- 
mara is a constant, sharp-eyed for- 
ager. Numerous wild plants and 
roots are gathered for food, season- 
ing, medicine, and ceremonial pur- 
poses. Wild onions and mustard 
greens, for example, are welcome 
additions to a family's meal. The 
soft center of ball cactus is squeezed 
into the ear of a person afflicted 
with earache or deafness. 

With a frail bow and wood- 
tipped arrows, the Indians occasion- 
ally hunt deer or peccary. More 
frequently, rabbits, pack rats, squir- 
rels, skunks, chipmunks, ducks, 
quail, and other small game are 
brought down with a well-thrown 
stone. A strong throwing arm is also 
good for knocking honeycombs out 
of cracks in the cliffs. Snares are set 
for gophers; rock deadfalls for 
mountain lions. Lizards, considered 
delicacies, are caught by hand and 
rattlesnakes are also eaten. 

Snakebite cures include blowing 
smoke into the victim's face, giving 
him peyote buttons to eat, and hold- 
ing the snake while he bites it back. 

There are trout in the high-coun- 
try ponds, and the rivers of the bar- 
rancas contain bullhead catfish, 
mountain suckers, squawfish. and 
other species, some of which are 
found nowhere else. Tarahumaras 
stun the fish, using several of the 
many narcotic plants that grow in 
the region. A substance is stirred 
into a quiet pool with a stick; soon, 
groggy fish float up to the surface 
where they can be grabbed with the 
hands. Certain plants, such as a 
type of agave and poison hemlock, 
are used in running water because 
their potency carries as far as 300 
yards downstream. 

The Tarahumaras "fish with 
thunder" when they can obtain 
dynamite sticks from Mexican min- 
ers. The sticks are lobbed into larg- 
er pools, and if the timing is right, 
the explosion sends a column of wa- 
ter into the air, sometimes tearing 
slabs of rock loose from the cliffs 
above. Dead and dying fish are 
scooped up, split down the back- 
bone for cleaning, and either 
roasted over coals on the spot or 
dried on rocks for later con- 
sumption. The "thunder sticks," of 
course, kill fingerlings as well as 

larger fish, and their continued use 
will, no doubt, eventually eradicate 
any sort of river life in the bar- 
rancas. Ecology, however, is not a 
prime concern to a man who may 
not have eaten for the past twenty- 
four hours. 


irtually the only animal life 
not considered potential food by the 
Tarahumaras are bears and bats. 
Except for those few Indians who 
own old Mauser rifles or have been 
fortunate enough to get hold of 
newer ones, the hunters' weapons 
are inadequate to kill a bear. More 
importantly, a bear is considered to 
have ancestral ties and power, and 
elderly Indians often refer to it as 

Also, among Tarahumaras it is 
believed the dead awaken at night 
and may swoop about in the form of 
bats. In daylight, the dead may take 
the form of butterflies, and from the 
wing markings, a shaman can some- 
times interpret the identity of the 
human or animal spirit thus liber- 

Tarahumara wealth is measured 
in cattle, sheep, and goats, but most 
Indians are poor and only possess 
small flocks of goats. These animals 
are rarely sold and are generally 
eaten only at special feasts occa- 
sioned by a house raising, a major 
footrace, a church fiesta, or a curing 
ceremony. Curing ceremonies are 
conducted by shamans who may be 
called upon to exorcise the spirits 
that cause illness or drought or to 
drive away evil influences at the 
time of crop planting, death, or 

Spaniards penetrating the bar- 
rancas country early in the sev- 
enteenth century sought both silver 
lodes and Catholic converts. Jose 
Pascual, a Jesuit priest, established 
the first Tarahumara mission in 
1639. Today there are Catholic 
churches scattered throughout Ta- 
rahumara country, some of them 

dating back more than two cen- 
turies.' In remote areas that have 
not been visited by outside priests 
for decades, church services are 
conducted entirely by Indians, with 
an amalgam of Christian dogma and 
native beliefs. Undoubtedly, there 
are theologians who must muse un- 
happily at the irony of Tarahumara 
shamans periodicaUv conducting 
ceremonies to purify the churches 

There are approximately 35,000 
Tarahumaras, occupying about an 
equal number of square miles. Be- 
cause game and edible plants are 
sparse, crop failure often means 
starvation. Only one out of five Ta- 
rahumara babies lives to age five; 
the rest succumb to malnutrition 
and disease. 

The Indians who do survive in 
this harsh yet bewilderingly beau- 
tiful landscape are short, wiry, and 
possessed of incredible endurance. 
Women from small settlements 
deep in the barrancas, such as San 
Luis and Divisadero, frequently 
walk to Chihuahua and occasionally 
even to Ciudad Juarez, infants in 
shawls on their backs. Tlij Juarez 
trek is roughly equivalent to a hike 
from Phoenix to Los Angeles, or 
about 400 miles, and in places the 
Chihuahua desert presents almost as 
sere a landscape as the Mohave in 
Arizona and California. 

Tarahumara hunters literally run 
deer into the ground. Once on the 
track ol a deer, a man or several 
men will continue to jog after it for 

Women watch as men of the 
tiny Indian settlement of San 
Luis line up for a three-day- 
long procession held in 
honor of local saints during 
Holy Week. By the last day. 
the pace of the procession 
increases to fever pitch 
as the men race madly 
around the church 

hours, rarelv in sight of the prev, 
skillfully reading the most minute 
signs. Bv the second day of steady 
chase, the fleet animal usually 
drops, exhausted, and the hunters 
kill it with knives or rocks. 

Recently, a Tarahumara courier 
was dispatched from the Jesuit mis- 
sion center at Sisoguichic to assess 
food supplies in several Indian ham- 
lets. He was said to have covered 
fiftv miles of rough mountain trails 


"X , # 

in six hours— including the stops at 
each hamlet. Forty years ago, a Ta- 
rahumara chief was invited to send 
runners to a marathon in Kansas. 
Learning, to his great surprise, that 
the course was to be a mere 26 
miles, the chief sent three girls. 

Tarahumara running ability ap- 
pears to stem from a combination of 
biological and cultural factors. 
Tests indicate that many of these 
people have low blood pressure and 

pulse rates. From childhood, 
women spend much of their time 
scrambling up hillsides after goats; 
men hunt and engage in running 
games. Houses are often distant 
from fields, water supplies, and 
neighbors. The rugged terrain pro- 
vides constant conditioning. Prob- 
ably most important, however, is 
that running is encouraged in Ta- 
rahumara society. One way for a 
man to attain great prestige is by 

^/^4t- .^^^^ > 





excelling in this particular activity. 
The Tarahumaras may be the fi- 
nest natural distance runners in the 
world. Yet when taken out of their 
natural environment, performance 
pales, just as does that of the gifted 
high jumpers of central Africa 
when they do not leap from 
rounded, cement-hard anthills. Al- 
though there were some Tarahu- 
mara runners on the 1928 Mexican 
Olympic team, and others have 

more recently been persuaded to try 
out for international competitions, 
the results have not been dramatic. 

For one thing, there is the matter 
of diet. The Tarahumara lives 
mostly on corn gruel in the moun- 
tains. When he comes to an Olym- 
pic training camp, he is given beef- 
steaks to eat and his gaunt gut is 
filled with eggs and milk and other 
strange food. His metabolism be- 
gins to run crazy. He doesn't sleep 

Goats flee as runners race 
across the rim of La Barranca 
del Cobre. At the bottom 
of this canyon, the Rio Urique 
winds its way through 
remote Tarahumara country. 


much and when he does, he has 
weird dreams. 

Then there is the matter of where 
he runs. In the mountains he is al- 
ways loping up rockv hillsides and 
then plunging down again; there 
are logs to be hopped and flocks of 
goats to be skirted. Here, at the 
training camp, one just runs around 
in a circle. Nice grass inside, but 
still a circle. Round and round. It 
soon gets boring. 

And there are always people 
watching: at the important races, 
concrete mountainsides of specta- 
tors, shrieking and veiling at the 
top of their lungs. For a Tarahu- 
mara. who has a doelike shvness 
with anv but his own people, it is a 
terrifying situation. 

Finally, then, there is the matter 
of footwear. A Tarahumara's feet 
are splaved out from constant, un- 
confined use, broad, with deep per- 
manent cracks in brown soles. All 
his life he has worn sandals, tire 
tread lashed to bare feet with 
thongs. At Olympic track meets he 
is expected to push his feet into 
confining leather shoes, some even 
have cleats like hard shinv cactus 
spines on the soles. 

No. running in shoes is about as 
appealing to a Tarahumai"a as com- 
peting in a gunny sack would be to 
an American athlete. But back in 
the mountains, without medals and 
onlv a few of the weird dreams still 
lingering, the Tarahumara runners 
again compete in tribal games, run- 
ning for miles through wild country 
where birds dart up against the sun 
and canyons drop awav into haze 
and grandeur. 

The most popular and elaborate 

Tarahumara sport is called rariji- 
pari. a sort of marathon kickball 
race. The top runners of a district, 
locally known as an ejido, compete 
as a team against the best com- 
petition another ejido can put up. 
The ejido chiefs determine the 
course, marking it with crosses cut 
into the bark of trees along the way. 
Individual laps mav vary from three 
miles to twelve, while the entire 
contest may last for three davs and 
cover up to 200 miles. At night, the 
runners cai^rv pine torches to light 
their wav. 


'n occasion, short races of fifty 
miles or so have been staged for 
anthropologists or other visitors. At 
one such abbreviated affair, it was 
discovered that two quarts of te- 
quila promised bv the sponsor had 
been overlooked in a flurry of bar- 
becue preparations. One of the run- 
ners made a loping beeline over the 
hills for eight miles to the nearest 
source, returned with the bottles 
and. after throwing back a couple 
of stiff ones, was ready for the race. 
Major rarijiparis are not taken 
lightly. As the event draws neai% 
spirited wagers are made, some- 
times with money, but more often 
with cattle, sheep, goats, drums, 
flutes, clothing, or other personal 
effects. Since most Tai-ahumaras are 

With equal exuberance, wome 
right, compete in a shorter 
version of the men's race, 
substituting a hoop flung 
with a stick for the wooden 
ball. Left, two runners take 
a well-earned break between la 

poor and the betting may be heavy, 
the outcome of a race can dras- 
tically deplete or increase a bettors 

For a period of two to five days 
before a contest, runners avoid con- 
tact with women, and are careful 
not to eat fat. eggs, potatoes, or 
sweets. Tesguino, a drink made 
from fermented corn sprouts, is for- 
bidden, although gallons of it are 
brewed for the upcoming festivities, i 
The runners' legs are rubbed with 
smooth stones and oil and brushed 
with herbs and boiled cedar 

Magic is used too. Once the kick- 
balls, which are about the size of a 
grapefruit, have been carved from 
madroino wood, a shaman takes 
them to a burial cave. The shinbone 
of a man"s right leg is exhumed. 
The bone, the wooden balls, bowls 
of food, and a jar of tesguino are set 
before a cross, and the spirit of the 
dead man is asked to cast a spell 
that will weaken the opponents. 
Other bones mav be taken and se- 
cretly buried at certain places along 
the rarijipari course. Runners of 
the shaman "s ejido are advised of 
those places, so they will not pass 
near them: hopefully runners of the 
other team, unaware, will become 
fatigued. The relics, the Tarahu- 
mara believe, can exert a powerful 
influence for a short distance. 

The night before the race, can- 
dles are lighted on either side of a 
small wooden cross. The runners ai"- 
rive, many with the fetishes they 
will wear to make them strong in 
the race: eagle feathers, hawk and 
vulture heads, glowworms, and rat- 
tles made of deer hooves. Tlie sha- 





' #4! 


man chants and sings the "song of 
the grav fox." The runners make 
ceremonial turns around the cross 
and candles, the exact number of 
laps thev will run during the rariji- 
pari. Then the runners wrap them- 
selves in their blankets and are 
soon in deep, untroubled slumber, 
next to the food and water thev will 
take at intervals throughout the 
race. Here, their opponents' magic 
cannot touch them, for the shaman 
will remain with them to protect 
them until dawn. 

On the day of the race, ex- 
citement is at fever pitch as more 
and more Indians surge in from the 
backcountrv. There are a number of 
small fires for cooking and for 
warmth. A certain amount of sly 
flirtation goes on (most Tarahumara 
girls, informallv but permanently, 
acquire mates bv the time they are 
fourteen or fifteen, when they nor- 
mallv develop a strong physical 
urge for a man), but generally the 
men tend to group together around 
different fires from the women. 
Gourds are dipped into cut-off oil 
drums filled with tesguino. Old 
friendships are renewed. Bets are 
made. There are flocks of goats ev- 
erywhere, herded bv tiny, bare- 
footed girls who keep stravs in line 

bv lobbing stones at them with 
amazing accuracy. 

Before the rarijipari gets under 
wav, the governor of the home ejido 
mav give final instructions, remind- 
ing the runners that anvone who 
throws his kickball bv hand will not 
only be disqualified but will wind 
up in hell. The Tarahumara do be- 
lieve in a nasty place where wTong- 
doers emerge after death. (Ulien 
pressed for physical details about 
this place, they profess ignorance, 
saying no Tarahumaras have ever 
gone there. AH thev claim to know 

When darkness creeps over 

the barrancas, runners light 

pine torches coated with pitch. 

The race goes on all night. 

passing the photographer 

in a flaming streak. 

is that there is a devil with a bitchy 
wife, and that their numerous off- 
spring are Mexicans.) 

The teams start off Only one 
runner at a given time kicks the 
carved globe; others carry bladed 
sticks with which they feed the ball 
toward him. Rather than actually 
kicking the wooden ball, which 
even for a Tarahumara's leathery 
foot would soon become toe shatter- 
ing, the runner slips his toes under 
the ball and flips it with his foot. 
Each team is accompanied by six 
referees who make certain that no 


shortcuts are used, no tripping or 
other foul play occurs, and that no 
runners are chewing the dried 
leaves and seeds of the riwerame 
plant. It is believed that the breath 
of a riwerame chewer, blown into 
an opponent's face, wiU cause the 
opponent to have the blind staggers 
within half a mile. Drunks, natu- 
rally, must be kept off the race 
course, and pregnant women, con- 
sidered bad luck when it comes to 
matters like this, are kept from 
watching the runners. The life of a 
rarijipari referee is no easier than 

that of his counterpart in baseball. 

The runners, jogging through 
darkness or through the heat of 
high noon, often chew peyote as a 
stimulant. At certain specified spots 
they stop for warm water and pinol, 
rest briefly, then continue on. 

Along the course, people sleep, 
talk, and play violins and flutes. 
Fires glow in the night, and one 
must reach deep into the oil barrels 
to scoop out tesguino. Life's hard- 
ships, the struggle for survival, are 
briefly forgotten in laughter, music, 
and the mingling of people who 

share the same thoughts and places. 

At the end of the race sometimes 
only one man is left, the others hav- 
ing fallen away in exhaustion. He 
receives no prize — only a small per- 
centage of the bets. 

Yet he will know, even when he 
is very old and half dozing in lost 
dreams, that he once did something 
better than anyone. For the Tarahu- 
mara, running is more than just 
self-satisfying; although it does not 
automatically lead to power or 
wealth, to excel in running is a ma- 
jor way to gain prestige. 




Antarctic Fossils 

and the Reconstrnction 

of Gondwanaland 

Fossil rciiiaiiis slio\\ that the same animals 
roamed soutliern .Airica ai^d .Aiitaixtiea 
200 million yeai^s agx), moix? e\"idence tliat tlie 
soutliern continents \\ ere onc<^ a single land mass 

b> Ed^^^n H. CollDert 

At the present time geology is 
experiencing a revolution as 
profound as the one that shook 
biology a centurv ago. when Charles 
Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace 
propounded the theorv of evolution. 
This geologic revolution has to do 
with the theorv of continental drift, 
which postulates that the continents 
have been mobile throughout the 
immensity of geologic time, rather 
than the stable elements they were 
so long thought to be. This is a rev- 
olutionary idea indeed, as the the- 
orv of organic evolution was a revo- 
lutionary idea. And as the theor\' of 
the evolution of life through natural 
selection gave man a new view of 
nature and of his place therein, so 
the theory of drifting continents has 
given man a new view of the earth 
on which he lives. 

The idea of the evolution of life 
had been "in the air" for some 
decades before Darwin's Origin of 


Two members of the 1969-70 
expedition work their 
way across the lower bone 
beds on Coalsack Bluff. 
The rock has been carved 
by wind-driven snow. 

Species was published in 1859. 
Likewise, the idea of drifting conti- 
nents has been in the air for several 
decades — since the early years of 
this century and, in some respects, 
even before that. Darwin and Wal- 
lace independently gave initial form 
to the theory of evolution, but it 
was largely through the detailed 
and massive work of Darwin that 
the theory became established. 
Frank Taylor, an American, and 
Alfred Wegener, a German, inde- 
pendently gave initial form to the 
theorv of continental drift, in 1910 
and 1912. but it was largely 
through the efforts of Wegener and 
his brilliant follower Alex Du Toit 
of South Africa that the theory was 
developed in considerable detail. 

For years, however, many, per- 
haps the majority of geologists 
throughout the world strongly op- 
posed the theorv of continental 
drift. Wegener and Du Toit were 
ahead of their time; they had the 
concept, but thev lacked the hard 
facts to give it a convincing basis. 
Now, within the past decade or so. 
facts have come to light in varied 
disciplines that have made conti- 
nental drift not only a viable, con- 
vincing theorv. but an exciting one 
as well. Continental drift is gaining 
ever wider acceptance among geolo- 
gists the world around, and the 
modern geologic revolution is suc- 
ceeding in a dramatic way. 

To be valid, a theory must ex- 
plain more or less satisfactorily all 
aspects of the phenomena with 
which it is concerned. For many 
years, numerous paleontologists— 
the students of ancient life on the 

earth— were not impressed bv the 
theorv of continental drift because 
thev did not need it to explain the 
distributions of fossils on the conti- 
nents. This was particularly true for 
the fossils of land-living vertebrates, 
backboned animals that moved 
from one place to another bv dry- 
land routes. Paleontologists could 
explain the distributions of such 
animals through geologic time bv 
postulating intercontinental move- 
ments across existing land bridges 
or across those that existed in the 
relatively recent geologic past: 
namely, the Panamanian Isthmus 
between the two Americas: the Ber- 
ing bridge (presently interrupted bv 
the relatively narrow and shallow 
Bering Strait) between the Eastern 
and Western Hemispheres: and of 
course the connections between Af- 
rica and the lands to the north. 
Australia, an island continent, was 
supposed to have had former con- 
nections with Asia. New Zealand 
and Madagascar, large islands near 
continents, were supposedly colo- 
nized bv land-living vertebrates that 
adventitiously drifted to these iso- 
lated regions on masses of floating 
vegetation or logs. Such routes and 
means explained the distributions 
of ancient and present-day amphi- 
bians, reptiles, and mammals on the 
land masses of the earth. 

Students of land-living verte- 
brates, however, largely ignored 
one continent— the island continent 
of Antarctica. It is true that today 
the edges of .Antarctica are popu- 
lated by such vertebrate animals as 
seals and penguins, as well as a few 
other birds, but the presence of 


these denizens of ocean and shore is 
readilv explained. Aside from such 
mai-ginal inhabitants, the absence of 
anv true land-living vertebrates, re- 
cent or extinct, on the antarctic 
continent placed this great land 
mass, half again as lai'ge as the con- 
tinental United States, generallv 
outside the calculations of most stu- 
dents concerned with the dis- 
tributions of ancient and recent tet- 
rapods— the four-footed amphibians, 
reptiles, and mammals. 

Some of the places in 
Antarctica where fossils 
have been found are 
located on this map. 

Then, in December. 1967. Peter 
J. Barrett, a New Zealand geologist 
working in the Transantarctic 
Mountains about 400 miles from 
the South Pole, discovered a small 
fragment of a fossil lo\s'er jaw on 
the slopes of Graphite Peak in 
rocks of earlv Triassic age. 

The specimen was too in- 
complete for close identification, 
but there could be no doubt as to its 
general natm'e: it was a portion of 
the lower jaw of a labvrinthodont 
amphibian, one of the tetrapods 
that lived dm-ing late Paleozoic and 
earlv Mesozoic times, from about 
350 million to 200 million veai-s 
ago. Here was a fossil of great sig- 
nificance, and it immediatelv drew 
attention from paleontologists, geol- 
ogists, and biologists, as well as 
from the general public. Here was 
some slight indication that in the 
distant past Antarctica had been in- 
habited bv land-living vertebrates. 

Immediatelv, questions were 
raised. Was it not possible that the 


Graphite Peak 

Beardmore Glacier 1 

floss Island Coalsack Bluff 

McMurdo Station 





owner of this piece of fossil jaw had 
reached Antarctica bv swimming 
across the surrounding ocean? Mod- 
ern amphibians cannot tolerate salt 
water: if we applv the same phvsi- 
ological standai'ds to the extinct am- 
phibians, thev could not have s^\"um 
to Antarctica. But perhaps the 
oceans were less saltv 200 million 
veai's ago. Moreover, some earlv 
Triassic amphibians have been I 
found in marine sediments in Spitz- 1 
bergen. although whether these fos- 
sils represent animals that habit- 
uallv lived in the sea is open to 
question. x\t anv rate, the evidence 
of one small jaw fragment, although- 
most significant, was somewhat 
equivocal. More evidence was 

So it was that in October. 1969, 
a group of us (\^ illiam J. Breed of 
the Museum of Northern Arizona. 
James A. Jensen of Brigham \oung 
Lniversitv. Jon S. Powell of the 
Lniversitv of Arizona, and mvself) 
found ourselves at McMui'do Sta- 
tion in AntaiTtica, preparing to 
seai-ch for fossil vertebrates. We 
were pait of a larger group of about 
twentv geologists and paleontolo- 
gists, working under David H. El- 
liot, a geologist of note and a vet- 
eran antaiTtic explorer. 

Om- expedition was a gamble, 
and a costlv one at that. We had no 
assurance that we would find fos- 
sils, and our chances for success 
seemed to diminish even' dav at 
McMurdo, as w-e waited through the 
weeks for storms to abate. It was 
the stormiest antaixtic spring in 
years. Each dav, as the winds 
howled past our huts, driving 
clouds of snow across the gi^eat ice 
shelf and Ross Island, on which the 
base is located, our long-laid plans 
for a concerted fossil hunt became 
increasinglv tenuous and dislocated. 

At last, how'ever, on November 
22, we flew into our camp near 
Coalsack Bluff, a nunatak (the ex- 
posed top of an isolated mountain 
largelv buried in ice) on the edge of 
an ice field some 30 miles west of 
the mightv Beardmore Glacier, and 
some 400 miles from the South 
Pole. Elliot had chosen this locality 
primarilv because it was a good spot 
for supplv planes to land. We were 
to have helicopter support, and we 
proposed, first of all, to fly across 


Triassic-Jurassic Dolerites 

Triassic distribution 
of Lystrosaurus fauna 


(Shows fit along lOOOfm. isobath) 

nunataks, and Coalsack Bluff is one 
of these. The north side of Coalsack 
Bluff is a long slope, largelv free of 
snow and ice. Its lower portion is 
composed of dark shales with lavers 
of coal belonging to the Permian 
Bucklev Formation, containing, in 
places, abundant fossil leaves of the 
characteristic Gondwana plant 
Glossopteris. Above these shales 
and coals is the Fremouw Forma- 
tion of early Triassic age, an alter- 
nation of sandstones and shales. 
The sandstones, generally brown or 
gray in color, stand up as low cliffs, 
and the shales form the slopes be- 
tween them. There are three such 
sandstone cliffs, one above the 
other, on the slopes of Coalsack 
Bluff. Finally, capping the nunatak 
and appearing on its slopes as intru- 
sions, are thick volcanic rocks. 

The Gondwanaland of 200 
million years ago included 
the now separate continents of 
Antarctica, Africa, and South 
America, along with India, 
Australia, and major islands. 
Whole groups of land animals 
could have easily moved 
from one region to another. 

the Beardmore Glacier (itself some 
30 miles in width) to Graphite 
Peak, to begin our search where 
Barrett had made his discovery. We 
wanted to begin at a place where 
we knew a fossil had been found. 

At this point serendipity took 
over. Coalsack Bluff was about five 
miles away across the ice, and the 
helicopters had not as yet arrived. 

so on the first day in camp some of 
our group went over to Coalsack 
Bluff because it was there. Almost 
immediately we found fossil bones 
in some low cliffs, exposed on the 
far side of the nunatak. Before the 
day was out, nearly thirty fossils 
had been located along a half mile 
or more of cliff exposures. From 
that day until the end of our stay, 
we spent most of our time ex- 
cavating fossils from the sandstone 
cliffs of Coalsack Bluff. 

Something should be said about 
the locale at which we were ex- 
cavating the fossil bones. A 
frequent question asked of us on 
our return was: "How did you find 
the fossils? Did you dig down 
through the ice for them?" 

Antarctica is commonly pictured 
as a great, ice-covered continent, 
and so it is over much of its extent. 
But in the Transantarctic Moun- 
tains there are extensive cliff ex- 
posures where the high mountains 
rise above the level of the glaciers 
and ice fields. The mountains in 
large aspect form a continuous 
range across the continent, but at 
many places ther(> are outlving 

The present locations of 
the southern continents 
are shown in this 
view from above the 
Southern Hemisphere. The 
reptile symbols indicate 
where LYStrosaurus 
fossils have been found. 









This is the niamniallike 
reptile Lystrosaurus as it 
might have looked in 
Antarctica 200 million years 
ago. When thev were fully 
growTi. most species 
reached about the size of 
a large present-day dog. 

These dense rocks, broken and 
weathered into highlv polished 
slabs, cover much of the slope of 
Coalsack Bluff. 

The weathering processes in Ant- 
arctica are unlike those in other 
parts of the world. Central Antarc- 
tica is a desert, with an amazingly 
scanty annual increment of mois- 
ture. Temperatures are low. so 
there is little thawing. Much of the 
erosion in the Transantarctic Moun- 
tains is effected bv wind, wind that 
sweeps off the polar plateau in 
fierce gales, driving the dry snow in 
horizontal clouds. These are the 
ground blizzards of Antarctica. At 
extremely low temperatures the 
snow is so hard and drv that it acts 
very much like wind-driven sand. 
The force of these blizzards polishes 
the hard volcanic rocks and cuts 
them into weird shapes. On cliffs 
and exposed slopes, such as the 
long slope of Coalsack Bluff the 
winds clear the snow awav. leaving 
the rocks exposed — a fortunate cir- 
cumstance for the fossil hunter. (In 

another sense the antarctic winds 
were anything but fortunate for us; 
they were our worst enemv in the 
field, frequently making our work 
difficult, and at times, impossible.) 

The sandstone cliffs from which 
we collected the bones were the so- 
lidified remains of ancient stream 
channels. We were dealing with 
sediments laid down in streams, 
sediments containing the bones of 
amphibians and reptiles that had 
lived in and along the edges of the 

It soon became evident that we 
were finding the bones of labv- 
rinthodont amphibians and mam- 
mallike reptiles. On December 4. a 
portion of a skull was discovered 
that proved to belong to the reptil- 
ian genus Lystrosaurus. The dis- 
covery of Lystrosaurus with other 
mammallike reptiles and with labv- 
rinthodont amphibians indicated 
that we had found in the Trans- 
antarctic Mountains an association 
of amphibians and reptiles similar 
to that occurring in the Lower 
Triassic beds of South Africa, desig- 
nated the Lystrosaurus fauna. The 
Lystrosaurus fauna has also been 
found in the Lower Triassic sedi- 
ments of peninsular India, and in 
Sinkiang and Shansi. China. 

W e never did go to Graphite 
Peak, in pai^t because we were com- 
pletely busv at Coalsack Bluff and 
in pait because of helicopter trou- 
bles. Nor did we go. as originally 
planned, to McGregor Glacier, 
some 150 miles southwest of Beard- 
more Glacier, partly because of 
problems of logistical support, and 
pai-tlv because of the delavs result- 
ing from the bad weather that had 
plagued us. McGregor Glacier was 

reserved for the foOowing season. 

The next season came, the aus- 
tral summer of 1970-7L and with 
it the campaign at McGregor Gla- 
cier. This time the fossil hunters 
were led bv James ^ . Kitching of 
the Bernard Price Institute of Pa- 
leontology. Witwatersrand Univer- 
sity, Johannesburg, assisted bv John 
Ruben of the Lniversitv of Califor- 
nia and. for a short time, bv 
Thomas Rich of Columbia Lniver- 
sitv. Again David Elliot led the en- 
tire party working at McGregor 
Glacier. Kitching was the best pos-i 
sible man to continue the search for 
fossils in the Transantarctic Moun- 
tains. He has spent a lifetime work- 
ing in the Permian and Triassic 
sediments of South Africa, and it is 
fair to sav that no other paleontol- 
ogist alive can equal his experience 
in the search for the Permo-Triassic 
amphibians and reptiles that occur 
so abundantly in the African Kar- 
roo sequence. \l e knew bv then 
that the fossil tetrapods of Antarc- 
tica are of close African relation- 
ships: Kitching was the logical man 
to look for additional and perhaps 
more complete Lystrosaurus fauna 
fossils in the Fremouw Formation. 

History repeated itself. On the 
first day in camp at McGregor Gla- 
cier. James Collinson. a geologist, 
discovered in the rock a skeletal im- 
print of Thrinaxodon, a mammal- 
like reptile associated with Lystro- 
saurus in the African sediments. 
From then on fossils were contin- 
ually found in the McGregor Gla- 
cier region, many of them articu- 
lated skeletons or partial skeletons. 
The fossils found at McGregor Gla- 
cier show that in addition to Tfiri- 
naxodon. there were in Antarctica 


other mammallike reptiles similar 
to those found in the Lvstrosaurus 
fauna of South Africa, and also 
such Lvstrosaurus fauna tetrapods 
as the little reptile Procolophon; 
small eosuchian reptiles more or 
less ancestral to lizards; various 
thecodont reptiles especially charac- 
teristic of Triassic sediments; and 
labvrinthodont amphibians that 
may be compared not onlv with the 
.African Lvstrosaurus fauna amphi- 
bians but also with Lower Triassic 
amphibians found in Australia. 
Consequently, it is now apparent 
that there was a fullv developed 
Lvstrosaurus fauna living in Ant- 
arctica in earlv Triassic time, a fact 
('of particular significance. 

In the first place, the presence of 
a diversified Lvstrosaurus fauna in 
Antarctica indicates beyond any 
reasonable doubt that there was a 
drv-land connection between the 
present south polar continent and 
southern Africa. Lvstrosaurus, 
Thrinaxodon, and the other mam- 
mallike reptiles that have been 
found in Antarctica, as well as Pro- 
colophon, the thecodont and eosu- 
chian reptiles, and the amphibians 
could have moved back and forth 
between what are now the Trans- 
antarctic Mountains and the Karroo 
Basin onlv across a land route. In 
the second place, the broad spec- 
trum of the Lystrosaurus fauna in 

Antarctica is almost certainly an in- 
dication of a wide drv-land avenue, 
allowing the entire fauna to spread 
from Africa to .Antarctica (or vice 
versa). Such a complete representa- 
tion of the fauna in both areas is 
strong evidence against a narrow 
isthmian bridge connecting ancient 
Antarctica with ancient Mrica, for 
we know from modern examples 
(from the Panamanian Isthmus, for 
example) that an elongated, narrow 
bridge acts as a zoological filter, 
permitting some animals to migrate 
along its length but excluding other 
animals from using it. No such filter 
effect is apparent in comparing the 
Lvstrosaurus fauna fossils from the 
Transantarctic Mountains with 
those from South Africa. Indeed, 
the close resemblances between fos- 
sils in the two regions, extending 
down to a similarity of species 
among various genera, is evidence 
that in earlv Triassic time Antarc- 
tica and southern Africa were prob- 
ablv integral parts of a single conti- 
nental land mass. The presence of 
the Lvstrosaurus fauna in these two 
regions is probablv a manifestation 
of a single fauna within the limits of 
its natural range. Again, the Lystro- 
saurus fauna, composed of various 
reptiles, some of them of consid- 
erable size, and of large amphibians 
as well, is obviously an assemblage 
of tropical or subtropical animals. 

This means that Triassic southern 
Africa and Antarctica probablv 
were in latitudes lower than those 
thev now occupv. 

This brings us to the subject of 
Gondwanaland. The name was 
coined in the latter part of the nine- 
teenth centurv bv the Austrian ge- 
ologist Eduard Suess to designate a 
hypothetical gigantic continent, em- 
bracing the modern continents of 
the Southern Hemisphere, and ex- 
tending across the Equator to in- 
clude the peninsular portion of In- 
dia as well. This great ancient 
continent was considered bv many 
geologists as useful, and perhaps 
necessary, to explain manv sim- 
ilarities among the rocks and fossils 

The imprint of a skeleton of 
Thrinaxodon, an ancient 
mammallike reptile, lies 
imbedded in a rock found at 
the confluence of McGregor 
and Shackleton Glaciers in 
the rransantarctic Mountain^ 



:i. i-^ 


i ( 


For centuries man feared it, made 
sacrifices to it, wailed over it. Now we 
run to greet it. You are extended a 
unique invitation to witness one of na- 
ture's most awe-inspiring spectacles, 
a total eclipse of the sun. On Monday, 
July 10, 1972, 900 miles east of New 
York, the Greek Line luxury liner, 
Olympia* will rendezvous with eclipse 

Among the many features of the July 
8-15cruise, priced from $395-$495, will 
be mini-courses in meteorology, navi- 
gation, astronomy and astrophotog- 
raphy. Courses will be taught by 
leading scientists such as Dr. Joseph 
Chamberlain, Director of the Adier 
Planetarium of Chicago. 

Following the eclipse the floating 
scientific hotel will sail to Gaspe, 
Quebec, for a look at its famous rock 
formations and bird sanctuary and 
then on to Sydney in Nova Scotia to 
visit the scenic Cabot Trail. 

Don't forget the social life which 
features international cuisine, three 
luxurious swimming pools, floor shows 
and dancing. 

For further information write: 

Box 1972 

Englewood,N.J.07631 " 
Phone: 201 -567 -7199 

Won't you join us on our 



BOX 1972 

ENGLEWOOD, N.J. 07631 

Please send me more information 

on Eclipse 72, 



of the Southern Hemisphere conti- 
nents and of peninsular India. Some 
of the early believers in Gondwana- 
land pictured it as an immense east 
to west land mass, including India 
and the Southern Hemisphere con- 
tinents as they are now placed. 
Gondwanaland, they thought, sub- 
sequently disappeared as an entity 
by the foundering of large portions 
of land into the oceans, leaving the 
present continents as isolated rem- 
nants. Other students, who found it 
difficult to visualize the sinking of 
such great expanses of land beneath 
the ocean, thought of Gondwana- 
land as being composed of the pres- 
ent southern continents and India 
as we know them, all connected by 
long and relatively narrow land 
bridges. Then Wegener, and after 
him Du Toit. introduced a new con- 
cept, namely that the several conti- 
nents making up ancient Gond- 
wanaland were at one time 
contiguous, and that subsequently 
the ancestral land mass fragmented, 
its component parts drifting to their 
present positions. (A similar parent 
continent, Laurasia, has been pro- 
posed for the Northern Hemi- 
sphere, its subsequent fragmenta- 
tion and the drift of the fragments 
having produced North America, 
Greenland, and most of Eurasia.) 

Early opposition to the theory of 
continental drift included, of 
course, opposition to a Gondwana- 
land formed by the modern South- 
ern Hemisphere continents and 
peninsular India. But modern 
geologic findings strongly support 
such an ancient continent, its even- 
tual fragmentation, and the drift of 
its fragments to their present posi- 
tions. The many facts that point to 
this sequence of geologic events are 
too complex and involved for eluci- 
dation here. Suffice it to say that 
the complementary theories of plate 
tectonics and of sea-floor spreading, 
which stipulate that the crust of the 
earth is composed of a number of 
gigantic plates that are constantly 
in motion, provide the mechanism, 
previously lacking, to explain conti- 
nental drift. 

Our present concern is how the 
fossil evidence accords with the 
concept of Gondwanaland and the 
theory of continental drift. Do the 
distributions of early land-living 
vertebrates, especially those that 
have been found in Antarctica, sup- 
port Gondwanaland and drift? 

As we have seen, the fully devej 
oped presence of the Lystrosauru 
fauna in Antarctica indicates th; 
Antarctica and southern Afric; 
were joined along a broad fron 
The same is true to a somewhc 
lesser degree for peninsular Indi^ 
where the Ljstrosaurus fauna i 
found partially represented. If pre: 
ent-day Africa, Antarctica, an^, 
peninsular India are joined accord 
ing to the similarities of their out 
lines at a depth of 1,000 fathoms, 
the "fits" between them are re 
markable. This is particularly tru 
for the edge of the African conti 
nent between Durban and Mozam 
bique and for Antarctica along thi 
Weddell Sea and the Princess Mar 
tha coast. Such a fit affords a broa( 
connection between the two lan(i 
masses, making of them essential! 
a single land. 

And such a fit, together with thi 
fit of peninsular India betweei 
Antarctica and eastern Africa 
brings the localities of the Lystro 
saurus fauna in these now wide! 
separated continents all withii 
about 2,000 miles, or less, of eacl 
other. This distribution suggests i| 
very reasonable range for a terres 
trial vertebrate fauna, as judged bi 
modern standards. A single "specie! 
of Lystrosaurus is present in 
Antarctica, Africa, and India; i 
seems quite probable that this spe 
cies on the modern continents rep 
resents the disruption of what was 
once a relatively compact range oil 
distribution. (The presence of ele 
ments of the Lystrosaurus fauna ir 
China has as yet to be explained, 
but at the moment it would appeaj 
that facts are accumulating that will 
account very satisfactorily for the 
Chinese occurrences of these earl) 
Triassic tetrapods.) 

So it is that the discovery of the; 
Lower Triassic Lystrosaurus fauna 
in the Transantarctic Mountains is a 
paleontological development oi 
prime importance. It helps prove 
the close connection of Antarctica 
and southern Africa in Triassic 
times. From this demonstration oi 
faunal and continental relationships 
one proceeds to the conclusions that 
there was such an entity as Gond 
wanaland, that Gondwanaland was 
broken asunder, that its fragments 
drifted apart, and that Antarctica, 
once the habitat of tropical or sub 
tropical amphibians and reptiles 
(and abundant plants as well), camti 


fo occupy a position in a climate 
quite inimical to the life that had 
once flourished in benign tempera- 
itures. Other geologic and paleonto- 
' logical facts support the conclusions 
Idrawn from continental outlines 
■and the occurrences of the Lystro- 
saurus fauna, such as the general 
expression of Permian and Triassic 
'geology in southern Africa and 
Antarctica, the presence of exten- 
sive volcanic rocks in the two conti- 
nents, and the development of fossil 
plants in these areas. But the occur- 
rences of the Lystrosaurus fauna 
are also important; they give solid 
evidence for land connections. The 
e-vidence of geophysics involves cer- 
tain assumptions, as does that of 
geology. The evidence of the fossil 
plants is strong, but there is always 
the possibility (although according 
to the paleobotanists, a very slim 
one) that these plants may have 
been distributed in part by wind- 
borne transportation of seeds. The 
evidence of the land-living tetra- 
pods, present in the two regions as 
fully developed faunas, cannot be 
denied. These animal assemblages 
most surely had to move from the 
one region to the other on dry land. 
The recognition of a Lystro- 
saurus fauna in the Transantarctic 
Mountains is of significance not 
only because it adds a large dimen- 
sion to our knowledge of ancient 
hfe on what is now the South Polar 
continent but also, as we have seen, 
because of the strong confirmation 
it lends to continental drift and to 
the former existence of Gondwana- 
land. Important as the discoveries 
of the past two years are, however, 
they have rnerely scratched the sur- 
face of antarctic paleontological 
riches. For riches there are, in the 
form of numerous untouched ex- 
posures of the Fremouw Formation 
containing abundant fossils. 

Much progress has been made in 
the elucidation of ancient life on 
Antarctica since those tragic days 
sixty years ago, when Scott and his 
companions unsuccessfully 
struggled back from the South Pole, 
dragging their sledge loaded with 
survival gear and with some 25 
pounds of precious fossil plants. 
Even more progress lies ahead. In 
Antarctica surely are paleontologi- 
cal answers to many questions re- 
garding the evolution and dis- 
tribution of life on the ancient 
continent of Gondwanaland. Q] 


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operate group trips in the U.S. and most 
countries of the world, as we have been 
doing for the past 12 years. Groups are 
small, usually 10 to 20 persons, and are 
not publicized widely. However, we will 
gladly furnish information concerning 
lours or areas of interest, and a limited 
number of new participants will be wel- 

North America Arizona. May 27; Alaska, 
three successive 2-wk. trips reaching 
from Vancouver to the Aleutians, 
Pribilofs and Barrow, June 17. 

Middle America Yucatan I, Jan. 15; 
Yucatan H, Jan. 29; Central America, 
Feb. 12; Mexico East Coast, March 25; 
Mexico West Coast, April 8. 

South America Colombia, July 22; Ec- 
uador-Peru, Aug. 12. 

Europe Scandinavia I (mostly Sweden), 
May 3; Ireland-Northumberland, May 
25; Scandinavia II (mostly Norway), 
June 8; "Highlands & Islands" (Heb- 
rides, Orkneys, Shetlands, Faroes), 
June 8; Balkans, May 25; Europe East 
(Rumania, Czechoslovakia. Poland). 
June 15; Iceland. July 6. 

Africa North Africa, May 4; East Africa. 
Aug. 5; Central Africa, Aug. 26; South 
Africa. Sept. 9. 

A.sia Himalayas, June 24. with 2-week ex- 
tension to Sikkim and Bhutan. 

Pacific Melanesia, July 8; New Guinea. 
July 28; Indonesia (plus Malaya & 
Borneo). Aug. 25; Western Australia, 
Sept. 15; Eastern Australia, Oct. 6; 
New Zealand. Oct. 27. 


Box 222-a 

The Mysterious 
Wolf of the South 

Continued from page 53 

ping, poisoning, and even woods 
burning were widely practiced by 
farmers and private hunters. Fur- 
thermore, the 1920s saw the final 
destruction of the great forests that 
once covered the south-central 
United States. Loss of habitat, plus 
uncontrolled hunting, brought the 
numbers of many game species to 
an all-time low. Deprived of their 
natural prey, it is possible that 
wolves turned more to domestic 
stock and thus hastened their own 
destruction. As a final blow, the 
U.S. Bureau of Biological Survey 
began predator-control operations 
throughout the south-central states 
between 1915 and 1938. These ele- 
ments combined to wipe out the 

The estimated original range 
of the red wolf is indicated 
by the light shading. Dates 
are the last years in which 
a red wolf was positively 
identified in each state. 
Darker shading indicates the 
probable current range; 
the evidence is not as 
strong in Louisiana 
as it is on the Texas coast. 

northern red wolf concentration i 
the 1930s. But remnant popi 
lations continued to survive alon 
the Gulf Coast and in the large bo 
tomland forests, particularly if 
northeastern Louisiana. 

Although the red wolf was dis. 
appearing, wolflike animals contir 
ued to live and even increase in th 
south-central states. Many peopl 
thus believed that wolves were sli 
present, but careful examination c 
specimens showed that only a fe\ 
were as large as the true red wolii 
Most were hardly bigger than th 
western coyote, while many other! 
seemed to be intermediate in chai 
acters between the coyote and rer 
wolf. After some years of observa 
tion it became apparent to biolo 
gists that these new wolflike ani 
mals in the south-central regioi 
represented an invasion by the coy 
ote, plus the occurrence of somi 
hybridization between individual 
of that species and surviving rec 

It seems that the clearing of th< 
forests and the elimination of thi 
red wolf enabled the coyote to ex 
pand its range eastward. Habitaj 
changes also resulted in a break 
down of behavioral patterns anc 
ecological isolation, which led t( 
the occurrence of interbreeding. Al 
though the extent of hybridizatior 
is not certain, specimens from Mis , 
souri, Oklahoma, and most of Ar 
kansas indicate that few hybric 
animals occurred there. Apparenth 
a relatively pure red wolf popu 
lation maintained itself in these i 


ireas until the 1930s when it was 
rapidly exterminated by man and 
replaced by inyading coyotes. 

To the south, hybridization was a 
more widespread and long-lasting 
3henomenon. Even before 1900. 
ranchers in the Edwards Plateau 
irea of central Texas had noticed 
the existence of animals that 
seemed to be crosses between 
wolyes and coyotes. A large series 
jf skulls collected in this area from 
1899 to 1918 confirms the presence 
of a population with characters in- 
termediate between the red wolf 
and the coyote. Additional speci- 
mens show that by the 1930s and 
1940s this hybrid swarm had 
spread over much of eastern Texas 
and southern Arkansas. 

At that time, most of Louisiana 
still retained a pure red wolf popu- 
lation. Intensive government trap- 
ping, plus increased hunting pres- 
sure, decimated this population by 
the early 1950s and simultaneously 
came reports that the smaller coy- 
otelike animals were moving into 
the state from the northwest. 

Examination of hundreds of 
skulls collected since 1960 in east- 
ern Texas, southern Arkansas, and 
Louisiana reveals that these areas 
are now occupied by hybrid ani- 
mals. Most of these resemble the 
coyote in form, but are somewhat 
larger. As a pure species the red 
wolf has vanished from almost its 
entire natural range. 

Although some biologists and 
trappers long ago realized that the 
true red wolf had all but dis- 
appeared, not until the early 1960s 
did government authorities become 
aware of the situation. As late as 
1963 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service reported killing 2,771 "red 
wolves' in predator-control oper- 
ations. But just the year before, Dr. 
Howard McCarley of Austin Col- 
lege had reported examining a large 
series of specimens and finding that 
nearly all of the supposed red 
wolves in Texas, Arkansas, and Ok- 
lahoma were being misidentified. 

In 1964 and 196.5, following rec- 
ognition of the critical status of the 
species. Dr. Douglas H. Pimlott and 
Paul W. Joslin of the University of 
Toronto undertook a red wolf 
search. In addition to other meth- 
ods, thev played recordings of \\'o\( 
howls, hoping to elicit responses 
that would reveal the presence of 
ired wolves. Their investigation in- 

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The most 
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story of all 


With color photographs 
by Douglas Faulkner 
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dicated the sur\ival of wolves in the 
Ozark National Forest of Arkansas, 
northeastern Louisiana and adja- 
cent pai-ts of Mississippi, southern 
Louisiana, and Chambers Countv in 
southeastern Te.xas. 

In Louisiana, specimens have 
been collected and studied bv the 
state Wildlife and Fisheries Com- 
mission and Louisiana Polvtechnic 
Institute, but no animals definitelv 
known to be red wolves have been 
killed in at least six vears. It is pos- 
sible that a few wolves survive in 
the bottomland forests along the 
Mississippi and Atchafalava rivers, 
but even more likelv that a small 
population now exists on the coastal 
marshes of southwestern Louisiana. 
Continued sur\-ival of the red 
^volf seems most promising in the 
upper Gulf Coast area of Texas. 
Trappers and ranchers here have 
long reported the presence of larse 
wolves that seem verv distinct from 
coyotes. More than sixtv skulls col- 
lected in Jefferson. Chambers. Lib- 
ert)', and eastern Brazoria counties 
since 1963 (as part of predator-con- 
- trol operations) have been exam- 
ined by zoologists and found to 
have the same size and features as 
skulls from the original red wolf 
population of the south-central 
Lnited States. No skulls from this 
area show covotelike or hvbrid 
characters, but hvbrid animals do 
exist immediatelv to the north and 
west. Although a more rigid 
analysis of aU these specimens is 
planned for the near future, it is 
presently believed that a population 
of true red wolves survives in a nar- 
row strip of coastal prairie from the 
Brazos River to Sabine Lake and 
probablv on into Louisiana. 

Recognition of the critical status 
of the red wolf led to its being 
placed on the rare and endangered 
species list of the U.S. Fish and 
\^ ildlife Senice in Januarv. 1965. 
Federal predator-control operations 
within the suspected range of the 
species, particularlv southeastern 
Texas, were curtailed in 1966, and 
active investigation and protective 
efforts were begun in March. 1968. 
This project is currentlv being han- 
dled by Glvnn Rilev of the Bureau 
of Sport Fisheries and \^"ildlife's Di- 
vision of Wildlife Services. Tlie to- 
tal area under investigation now in- 
cludes Brazoria. Galveston. Harris. 
Libertv. Chambers. Jefferson, and 
Orange counties, Te.xas. 

Whose Trac 
Is It? 

An Introductory Field Book to 
Animal Tracks Found in the 
U. S. East of the Mississippi 

This is the ideal handy guide for 
identifying the tracks that mam- 
mals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, 
and even some insects leave in 
snow, mud, or sand. 

The author illustrates and de- 
scribes the tracks of 115 kinds of 
creatures often with several 
drawings that show how tracks 
vary at different gaits. He also 
gives habitats, ranges, and habits. 

At bookstores. Illustrated $5.95 

You. too. will be satisfied when ycu 
piece of our property in the beautiful Inland 
Empire of the Pacific Northwest. We have 
5.10-20-40 acre tracts in Northeastern Wash- 
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: have growing timber and 
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easy terms at less than banic 
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offenng. We have a wide variety of ; 
ages, including view sites, wateriront property 
and secluded nooks Prepare now for good 

and happy retirement years i 
excellent recreational area for as hnle 
S1550 total price. For free lists of property, 
maps and complete informallo 

Dept. Q, P.O. Box 14006 
Opportunity Station, Spokane, Wash. 99214 

Riley, a little more optimistic 
than some earlier workers regarding 
the present status of the red wolf, 
thinks that dense populations occur 
in some parts of the study area. Sev- 
eral hundred canids are believed to 
be present in the seven counties, 
but thev are not all pure red wolves. 
Series of specimens from Brazoria 
Countv, west of the Brazos River, 
and from Liberty Countv indicate 
that the hvbrid swarm is pressing in 
from the west and north. Rilev does 
believe that a pure population of 
large red wolves still exists in south- 
ern Jefferson and Chambers 
counties, but he has not vet exten- 
-sivelv investigated the current situ- 
ation in eastern Brazoria Countv. 
The total pure red wolf population 
probably does not exceed 100 indi- 
viduals, making this the rarest 
mammal species in North America. 

The future survival of pure red 
wolves seems dependent on main- 
taining the numbers and habitat of 
existing populations. If this is not 
done, there will certainly be a con- 
tinued expansion of the hybrid 
swarm and eventual elimination of 
the red wolf gene pool. Rilev sees a 
serious threat to habitat from the in- 
creasing development of the chem- 
ical industry in the area. Other 
problems include drainage and 
burning of coastal marshes, chance 
killing by deer and waterfowl hunt- 
ers, and, especially, persecution by 
the cattle ranchers who own most of 
the land involved. 

Riley's research efforts have been 
limited bv the need to devote much 
of his time to gaining the coopera- 
tion of ranchers. There is a pre- 
vailing belief that the red wolf con- 
stitutes a major threat to livestock, 
particularly young calves. In 1968 
about 100 wolves were killed bv lo- 
cal ranchers. While it is likely that 
many of the cattle believed killed 
by wolves actually died as a result 
. of disease, poisonous plants, malnu- 
trition, drowning, or other factors, 
and were perhaps then fed on as 
carrion, the attitude of the ranchers 
must be considered. 

Riley has made arrangements 
with a number of ranchers who 
agreed to permit him to handle pre- 
dator control on their land. He has 
received encouraging cooperation 
from stockmen in Chambers and 
Jefferson counties, and the killing 
of wolves there has declined since 
1969. Riley attempts to capture any 

individual animals that may be 
preying on livestock. Everv effort is 
made to trap red wolves alive and 
unhurt, and they are then made 
available to zoos and research pro- 
grams. In 1970. fifteen animals 
were taken alive and a smaller num- 
ber were inadvertently killed. Re- 
mains of dead animals are saved for 
taxonomic studies. 

Of the more than thirty animals 
captured in the red wolf study area 
since 1967, most are now in zoos. 
Their handling is being coordinated 
by the Wild Animal Propagation 
Trust for the purpose of main- 
taining a captive breeding pool that 
might one dav be used to restore 
wild populations. Some of the cap- 
tive specimens are being used in 
biochemical taxonomic research, 
and some are being sent to the 
Point Defiance Zoo in Tacoma for a 
genetics study. 

The first fuU-time field in- 
vestigation of the ecology and be- 
havior of the red wolf was begun in 
July. 1971, bv James Shaw, a stu- 
dent at Yale University. Radio 
transmitters enable researchers to 
determine the home range, food 
habits, and population structure of 
the species. At least thirty persons 
are presently conducting or plan- 
ning research related to the red 

Despite this widespread atten- 
tion, actual protective measures 
have been rather slow in coming. 
But in 1969 the Arkansas Game 
and Fish Commission established a 
regulation to protect any red wolves 
left in that state. And at its 1970 
session the Louisiana state legisla- 
ture passed an act protecting the 
wolf (as well as the cougar and all 
birds of prev). 

Probably the best way to pre- 
ser\'e the red wolf would be through 
the establishment of guarded ref- 
uges within the species' range, each 
large enough to accommodate a vi- 
able population in its natural 
habitat. Some persons have sug- 
gested moving groups of red wolves 
to island sanctuaries off the Gulf 
Coast, particularly the Padre Island 
National Seashore. Such measures, 
and the final designation of any ref- 
uge, would best come after tax- 
onomic studies have pinpointed 
pure red wolf populations, and field 
work has determined the ecological 
requirements of the species. Hope- 
fully there is still enough time. ■ 

" • ■ ■ 2 . ! ■ ■ ■ * V 







A friend lo help. A friend to write to. 
A friend to share his — or her — joy as 
a young life is transformed from ap- 
palling hardship to bright new hope 
and pride — because of your com- 

Sponsoring an American Indian child 
through Futures For Children can 
work many wonders: 

• Keep "your child" in school 
by directly financing shoes, 
clothing, and other necessities. 
(Right now many Indian chil- 
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threadbare clothes on their 

• Open a new world "beyond 
the reservation" for your child 
through your concerned friend- 

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first time in a child's life. 

Decide now to sponsor a young Indian 
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ft Field trips to 


with people who care deeply 
and are committed to its 

Three-week tours into UGANDA, 
You "see" things, but what do they mean? 
From headwaters of the Nile to the 
Indian Ocean, interpretive leaders will 
show you what to look at, how to 
"see" it, and what it means. A leisurely 
pace in uncrowded cars; animal and 
bird watching in the great national 
parks and game reserves: meetings 
with representatives in various fields. 
Finest accommodations and services. Gen- 
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round trip air from New York. $1585 

Year round departures 
For brochure, see your travel agent or write to 

I National Parks and Conservation Assoc, i 

Travel Desk, 18 East 41 St., N.Y., N.Y. 10017 

(212) 532-7075 

Please send your East Africa brochure to 

\"aneS of the \\"inCl Continued from page 19 








postp^dn.-^ .atalop 

Wuctik ^r t-ESCR.PTIONS AND 

from Ilrst order) photographs of 



tfi£ fabled Chambered Nautilus *5. 

Collection of 25 selected saishills 
(calaaop valuji $27.5q) $20. 

collectors cabinet 

1066 MADISON AVE • NYC 10028 ■ DEPT. NH 
NEAR 80th St. tel.(212) 861-^133 

MONDAY - SATURDAY Haiti - 6pm 

Mnd. jor ouA, |r«. xIWIaqIjA JjTiCt -Uit 


novative, one of a kind creations of 
pioneer craftsmen. The favorite 
cock lost much of its stvhzed 
boldness and took on the character- 
istics of the prevalent barnvard 
breeds: the Wvandotte, Rhode Is- 
land Red. and Leghorn, as well as 
the fighting cock. Horses, too. %vere 
patterned after actual nineteenth- 
centurv racers, such as Dexter. 
Ethan Allen, and Black Hawk. Car- 
rving this trend to the extreme, a 
wealthv Maine farmer once ordered 
a life-sized cow and horse for his 
two mammoth stock barns. 

For a people as practical as the 
Americans, the weather vane took 
on a function bevond weather fore- 
casting and decoration. It also 
served as a lightning rod and a 
trade sign. A rooster on top of a 
barn indicated that the farmer sold 
eggs. A mortal- and pestle identified 
an apothecai'v; a ram, a woolen 
mill; a fire engine, the firehouse: a 
locomotive, a railroad station; and a 
pig on a knife, a slaughterhouse. 

As the number and subjects 
grew, so too did the methods for 
making vanes. Although some of 
the most outstanding earlv vanes 
were full-bodied and three-di- 
mensional, the vast majoritv of pre- 
commercial shapes were flat shapes 
cut from wood, wrought in iron, or 
hammered in sheet metal. But bv 
the mid-nineteenth centurv. vanes 
became increasinglv dimensional, 
and sheet copper, because of its 
flexibility and durabilitv. became 
the preferred material. 

A common method for making a 
\"ane called first for the craftsman to 
carve a wooden model from which 
he cast an iron template. The iron 
mold was then cut into component 
parts. The horse, for example, had 
separate molds for each side of its 
bodv, each leg, its head, and tail. 
Next the craftsman filled each com- 
ponent part with molten lead. 
When the lead cooled, he took 
sheet copper and sandwiched it be- 
tween the hardened lead and the 
iron mold. This done, he hammered 
on the lead, forcing the copper to 
conform to the shape of the iron 
mold. Finallv. he removed the cop- 
per and soldered the sections to- 
gether, giving a full sculptural qual- 
ity to the vane. Some manufacturers 
combined other metals with the 
copper, perhaps using solid zinc for 

a horse's head or flat sheet iron for 
a rooster's tail. In manv cases gold 
leaf was applied or, failing that, 
paint was used as a protective cov- 
ering. In time the vanes became 
elaborate, as craftsmen hand-chis- 
eled, hammered, stamped, and 
pressed the shapes to simulate wool, 
feathers, fur. and scales. The full- 
bodied, three-dimensional designs '' 
also caught the light better than flat 
or low-relief designs, enhancing 
even the simplest vanes. 

But no matter what the material 
or form, there was alwavs room for 
individual interpretation, whether^ 
the vane was made by a profes- 1 
sional or an amateur. And the 
American weather vane maker usu- 
allv left some personal mark on his 
product. Even those vanes made on 
identical forms in factories showed 
personal variations in the wav the 
parts were hammered and as- 
sembled. The makers, however, 
thought of themselves, not as ar- 
tists, but as craftsmen and rarelv 
signed their work. A notable ex- 
ception was the sculptor Augustus 
Saint-Gaudens. whose exquisite 13- 
foot Diana. Goddess of the Hunt, 
pi%"oted atop the original Madison 
Square Garden in New York Citv. 

While weather vanes are still 
made and used todav, these 
tw'entieth-centurv versions are but 
weak replicas of a once great folk 
art tradition. Thev can be seen on 
church steeples, country homes, 
and barns. Worst of all, thev appear 
as trademarks on commercial struc- 
tures, such as Howai'd Johnson's, 
the newer, colonial-stvled A & P's, 
and gasoline stations. 

As a forecasting device, the 
weather vane has been replaced by 
the U.S. Weather Service and by 
commercial radio and television. As 
a trade sign, it has given wav to 
neon. As an architectural ornament, 
it no longer commands attention. ^ 
On the gigantic skvscrapers and im- 
personal apai-tment houses of our 
urban landscape, the weather vane 
has no home, no matter how mighty 
its form. It is not in the twentieth- 
centurv winds that the inheritors of i 
Andi-onicus"s Triton turn best, but 
in the museums and private art col- 
lections of the countrv. where the 
weather vane has come to be valued 
as sculpture created bv unknown 
generations of American artists. ■ 

TRUE cares about people and their 

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the air we breathe, the food we eat 

and the threatened extinction of our 

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the Year 2000", Tom Buckley's critical analysis 
of the SST, and Bob Beauchamp's award-winning 
story on the impact of men's fashion on the En- 
dangered Species. 

In the months past we've devoted over a score of 
articles to man, his world, his life and the chal- 
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Books in Review 

B. F. Skinner's 

New World 

Beyond Freedom and Dignity, by 
B. F. Skinner. Alfred A. Knopf, $6.95; 
225 pp. 

In 1962, nine years before the publi- 
cation of Beyond Freedom and 
Dignity. I was assigned by Harper's to 
write an article about B. F. Skinner. I 
went to Har\'ard to see him. and in the 
course of several interviews, extending 
over tliree days, he talked at length 
about himself and his work. For me. if 
not for Skinner, it was, as Skinner 
would sav, a thoroughly reinforcing ex- 
perience. To be sure, I was prepared to 
find him arrogant, and I was not dis- 

' appointed. He seemed to have no use. 
for instance, for anyone who disagreed 
with him. He was hoping, at that time, 
to found a Utopian community modeled 

^ on the one portraved in his celebrated 
novel. Walden Two. and the suspicion 
crossed mv mind that his chief motive 
was not to help humanitv. but to prove, 

, once and for aU. that he was right about 
human nature, and his critics WTong. 

But in the end I concluded that Skin- 
ner was no more arrogant than many 

, admirable people who had a lot less 
than he to be arrogant about. Skinner 
is, or was, a faithful diarist, who had by 
then filled nearly a thousand com- 
position books with notes and reflec- 
tions, and, with his permission, I sat up 
most of one night looking through some 
of these. They revealed a man who was, 
God knows, impatient with fools— a cate- 
gory that seemed to include many of 
his Harvard colleagues— and who 
shared with Hamlet a conviction that 

by Spencer Kla\v 

the time was out of joint and that he 
was born to set it right. Thev also re- 
vealed the extraordinary range and fer- 
tility of his mind. All in all, he struck 
me as a prickly, stubborn, original, and 
engaging human being. 

But although I admired Skinner verv 
much. I did not much like his ideas 
about human behavior and its control, 
which he had set forth in Walden Two 
and. later, in a number of articles pub- 
lished in the 1950s. These ideas have 
now been restated in Beyond Freedom 
and Dignity, and they do not seem to 
me to have grown anv more persuasive 
over the years. But thev are worth com- 
ing to grips with if onlv because of their 
large and growing influence on educa- 
tion and on the treatment of the men- 
tally ill. Thev also have the merit of 
forcing the reader to think hard and. 
perhaps, usefuUv about the nature of 
man and the meaning of freedom. 

In Skinner's view, individual au- 
tonomy and freedom do not exist. In a 
universe governed by inexorable laws, 
people may like to think that they con- 
trol their own behavior, but they are 
only fooling themselves. What a man 
does is completely controlled bv his 
genetic endowment and by his environ- 
ment— including, most importantly, his 
social environment. Specifically, human 
behavior is shaped by its consequences: 
"A child who cries until caressed be- 
gins to cry intentionally." 

Much of this is neither new nor star- 
tling. The Gallup Poll has shown that 
some kinds of human behavior are at 
least as predictable as the weather, and 


But frankly, we still need your help. So 
without any further ado, we would now 
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IS a Cheetah?" But that could be the c 
uith cats and other species if the numer 
ctivities of the East African Wild Life Society 
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lion, leopard and other animals of the region 
if not protected, may take their place in the 
history books, alongside the Dodo, just as 
dead, just as extinct. 

The East African Wild Life Society founded 
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no one would quarrel with the idea that 
a baby's behavior is shaped by its 
mother's kisses. If our behef in our indi- 
vidual autonomy has been destroyed, 
the credit or blame belongs to Freud, 
not Skinner. But where Skinner differs 
radically from Freud is in scrapping the 
whole apparatus of ego, id, and super- 
ego. In his view, these concepts, hke 
the concept of the will, only get in the 
way of rational efforts to understand- 
that is, to predict and control— human 
behavior. It is enough to know a man's 
history, the myriad ways in which his 
behavior has been shaped by past re- 
wards and penalties. One can then ac- 
curately predict, at least in principle, 
how such a man will behave, without 
considering his feelings or motives or, 
indeed, anything he may say about what 
seems to be going on inside his head. 
Like Freud and Marx, Skinner is 
bent not just on understanding man but 
on making him happier. If we forget 
about autonomy, he argues, and face 
the fact that man is totally controllable, 
we can then build a cultm-al environ- 
ment in which the "contingencies of 
reinforcement"— roughly, the system of 
rewards— are such that men will no 
longer be impelled to kill, torture, or 
exploit one another. In the past. Skin- 
ner says, people who tried to create 
such environments were doomed to fail- 
ure because they did not really know 
how to shape human behavior. Now a 
reliable technique is within our grasp: 
we need only apply to humans the 
methods that have worked so well in 
shaping the beha-vior of. among other 
creatures, those celebrated pigeons that 
Skinner taught to play Ping-Pong by 
reinforcing their random movements 
with grains of corn. 

Even granting that what works with 
pigeons wdU work just as well with 
people (which many psychologists 
deny), there remains the problem of 
just what kind of behavior— and what 
kind of people— we want to produce. In 
the case of an experimental community 
like Walden Two one gets together a 
group of like-minded persons and 
agrees in advance on the rules of the 
game. In the community that Skinner 
was hoping to estabhsh back in 1962, 
to give some trivial but perhaps reveal- 
ing examples, there was to be no drink- 
ing, no extramarital sex, and no nib- 
bling between meals. As Skinner noted 
in his diary at the time, "Let anyone 
who wants to try something else try it 

If the whole world were Skinnerized 
there would, of course, be no escape. 

But then. Skinner argues, no one woulel 
want to escape, and our personal feell 
ings about such a world are irrelevant 
"The problem," he writes, "is to desigi 
a world which will be liked not b' 
people as they now are but by thost 
who hve in it." Fair enough, perhaps, i 
one grants Skinner's assumptions. Anc 
yet the claim that Skinner's Nev 
Society would, more or less by defini 
tion, please Skinner's New Man is no 
altogether reassuring. It was Odysseus 
not his companions, who objected tc 
Circe's having turned them into swine. 

Skinner's impatience with essentialh 
political questions, such as who is to la\ 
down the rules of the good societ\ 
gives Beyond Freedom and Dignity a 
ciu-ious air of unreality. There is noth 
ing wrong in imagining a nonpohtical 
culture. But it makes no sense in tht 
culture to which Skinner belongs— an tJ 
from which the new culture musi 
evolve— to pretend, as Skinner does, 
that politics do not exist. He writes, for 
example, that "it is no doubt a serious 
problem . . . that students no longer 
respond in traditional ways to educa- 
tional environments: they drop out of 
school, possibly for long periods of time, 
they take only courses which they enjoy i 
or which seem to have relevance to 
their problems, they destroy school 
property and attack teachers and offi- 
cials." Skinner's solution is "to design; 
contingencies under which students ac- 
quire behavior useful to them and their 
culture." It doesn't appear to strike him 
that what constitutes "useful" behavior 
is a political, not a pedagogical 
question, and that something else i.-; 
wanted here besides a simple behavioral 

Perhaps the most serious criticism <it 
Skinner is not that he ignores politics 
but that he gives no real account of con- 
sciousness and feeUng. Man is onh 
what he does: "The picture which 
emerges from a scientific analysis is not 
of a body with a person inside, but of a 
body which is a person in the sense that 
it displays a complex repertoire of be- 
havior." But let us consider for a mo- 
ment a particular piece of Skinner's 
own behavior— an entry that he made in 
his diary some ten years ago. It was 
headed "A New Year," and read, in 

It is nearly nine o'clock on the first 
day of the new year. From a deep 
blue sky sun streams into our liv- 
ingroom. . . . My hi-fi is midway 
through the first act of Tristan and 
Isolde. A very pleasant environment. 
A man would be a fool not to enjoy 


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himself in it. In a moment I will go 
to my study . . . where I will write 
for two or three hours on a manu- 
script which I think important and 
which may "help mankind." So my 
life is not only pleasant, it is earned 
or deserved. Yet, yet, I am unhappy. 
Skinner goes on to suggest that perhaps 
he is unhappy because there is so much 
misery in the world, and "I mav feel 
guilty about it as my puritan heritage." 
He concludes: 

It is the fact that so little is being 
done about it! We are trapped in love 
of a life such as this, in false social 
science, in statesmanship based on 
historical induction . . . . Is it up to 
me? (A Wagnerian theme, if I ever 
saw one.) 

On rereading this passage, it struck 
me that it is not enough to say, as I 
WTote years ago, that the main thing 
wrong with Skinner's Utopia is that it 
would never produce — or tolerate— stub- 
born and unhappy iconoclasts like 
Skinner. I would now add something 
else. One may grant the difficulty of an- 
swering the old questions of what 
"mind" is, and where it is located, and 
how anvthing so immaterial as a mental 
state can influence events in the mate- 
rial world. But given the existence, 
never mind where, of the realm of 
thought and feeling that Skinner's own 
diaries reveal, anv science of human be- 
havior that cannot— or does not choose 
to— penetrate this realm seems so in- 
complete as to be, at best, of limited 
value in ordering our affairs. 

Spencer Klaw is the author ofThe New 
Brahmins: Scientific Life in America. A 
former editor of Fortune, Mr. Klaw's 
articles have appeared in Harper's, Es- 
quire, and other magazines. 


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thors made different choices. Thus, The 
Last Redwoods is an embattled docu- 
ment, both text and pictures cued to a 

Cathedral Valley. Capitol Reef 
Southeast Utah 

specific conservation struggle, while Ev 
erest: The West Ridge is the account o 
an ultimate testing of man in nature 
with no overt conservation message 
The Place No One Knew is a requien 
for a lovely, living canvon lost to thf 
dam buUders, while In Wildness Is tht 
Preservation of the World, with wordi 
bv Thoreau, and Not Man Apart, witl 
words bv Robinson Jeffers, are poetit 
statements of man's place in nature 
Galapagos divides by volumes: the firsl 
celebrators', the second full of warnings. 

Slickrock solves the problem by mak 
ing no attempt to "marry" text and pic 
tures. Abbey's text, often poetic, some 
times rapt and mvstical, is mainly anc 
finally polemic, full of anger at what has 
already happened, geared to some hu 
man mobilization that may prevent 
worse things. PhiUp Hyde's photo- 
graphs are as nonpolemic as the firsl 
sun on a canvon rim. 

It is all but impossible for pho- 
tography to represent, much less exag-' 


-ilt\,»*..^^jj , J 

erate, the nobility and spaciousness of 
he slickrock country of southeastern 
Jtah. It can do beautifully by its indi- 
idual forms. Photography (or reproduc- 
ion) can easily vulgarize color, as Ari- 
ona Highways has been doing for 
ears. Hyde's recording has the integ- 
ity of the rocks themselves— and the 
ubtlety. In spite of their grand spaces 
nd colossal forms, subtlety is the ulti- 
nate word for these canyons and 
nesas, and it is subtlety that Hyde 
atches superbly. (Anvone who thinks a 
liff of Wingate sandstone isn't subtle 
hould sit for just one hour and watch 
he light change on its face.) 

Hyde is not of the school of his peer 
nd colleague Eliot Porter, who so dis- 
ikes showing any postcard-blue skv 
hat he seldom gives us a sweeping 
iew. Hyde does, but he also shows 
ovingly the secret, subtle details of 
hading and texture— lichens on a boul- 
ler, the stained seep of a cave spring, a 
ucca or cactus blooming in the sand. 

the intricate, varnished fretwork of a 
conchoidallv fractured chfF. I am doubly 
conscious of the integrity of his pic- 
tures, since I came through that countrs' 
with his book in my luggage while pon- 
dering this review. 

Abbey's text deals poetically with the 
beauty that was, and angrilv with the 
road buUders and power-plant builders 
who have already partially destroyed it. 
It is somewhat astonishing to find fury 
and name calling in such beautiful let- 
terpress on such elegant coated paper, 
with four-color illustrations, but one has 
to concur in the anger and join the cru- 
sade. As Abbey says, there are already 
enough roads in that country. Every 
new one opens another gate to roadside 
blight, high-compression tourism, and 
pollution. As for the coal-fired power 
plants, a single one has already reduced 
the light in that brilliant country by 25 
percent, and no filter will now filter out 
the particulate matter in the air. The fi- 
nest pictures of the sUckrock have al- 
ready been taken. The superintendent 
of Canyonlands National Park predicts 
that by the time the road to Grandview 
Point is paved, the tourists who will 
then be drawn there will be unable to 
see the canyon. So begins to pass one ot 
the glorious places of the earth. Unless. 
. . . That is the burden of Abbey's text. 
Wallace Stegner 
Stanford University 

Place .\.nd People: An Ecology of a 
New Gliinean Community, by WiUiam 
C. Clarke. University of California 
Press, $9.00; 265 pp., illus. 

The study of cultural anthropology, 
since its inception as an academic 
discipline, has generally been based on 
empirical field research. Consequently, 
in anthropological monographs there 
has always been some recognition of the 
fact that particular human societies or 
communities occupy specific material 
environments and that some kind of in- 
teraction takes place between cultural 
and natural phenomena. Indeed, a few 
anthropologists have argued that the en- 
vironmental setting largely determines 
the form of the cultural events; but in 
general the emphasis has been on ex- 
plaining culture in cultural terms, with 
the physical environment being seen as 
a framework that merely defines the 
widest limits within which the cultural 
phenomena vary through time. 

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ears, however, a more sophisticated 
[nthropological approach has emerged, 
ne that attempts to analyze intensively 
le systemic interactions between cul- 
oral and other variables. Anthropolo- 
ists still deal with traditional spheres of 
iquiry, such as kinship and social orga- 
ization, religion, political and eco- 
omic organizations, but they are now 
loncerned not only with the functional 
nd structural interconnections of the 
vents within and between these fields 
lut also with the feedback (positive and 
,egative) that takes place between 
nan's thought and behavior and the 
Yider biophysical world of which he 
nd his community are components. 
Imong a number of cultural anthro- 
iologists today, especially in America, 
his holistic view of man, culture, and 
nvironment has led to an increasing 
utilization of the strategies of ecosys- 
lemic analysis. An identifiable and rap- 
idly expanding school of cultural ecol- 
igy is developing. 

One important consequence of this 
rend has been the growing rapproche- 
nent between cultural anthropologists 
and archeologists) and other in- 
'estigators— human geographers, bot- 
inists, biologists, and nutritionists— in 
he prosecution of field studies and the 
.ubsecfuent interpretation of the data. 
These multidisciplinary inquiries have 
)ecome common, for instance, in 
Oceania, particularly in New Guinea, 
vhich in many ways provides an ideal 
aboratory situation for the systematic 
itudv of the adaptive features of human 
culture and society. 

Clarke's book stems from one such 
oint investigation organized by A. P. 
v'ayda of Columbia University to study 
he human ecology of the New Guinea 
•ain forest. Between 1962 and 1965 
hree cultural anthropologists, a lin- 
guist, a nutritionist, and two ge- 
)graphers worked with several commu- 
lities of Maring people hving on the 
lorthern slopes of the Bismarck Range 
n the Territory of New Guinea. The 
jublications that have so far appeared, 
lotably Pigs for the Ancestors, by 
R. A. Rappaport (Yale University 
Press, 1967), demonstrate the sophis- 
ication and productiveness of this ven- 
ure, and as a result we now know a 
p-eat deal more about Maring culture 
ind society and their interrelations with 
he environment in which the Maring 

Place and People is a human geogra- 
3her's account of the ecology of one 
small, more or less localized community 
jf Maring people. Clarke's main con- 

cern is to examine the system of land 
use in Maring subsistence agriculture in 
relation not onlv to such physical vari- 
ables as climate, topography, soil, flora 
and fauna but also to Maring demo- 
graphic and residential patterns. 

Clarke concludes that "the people 
and their environment are close to 
being in a state of internal equilibrium, 
in the sense that the people maintain 
themselves in their ecosystem with vir- 
tually no imports of matter or potential 
energy and no e.xports or 'production" 
in the form of harvests of materials to 
be removed by man. " However, he also 
notes that, following the expanding con- 
tacts of the Maring with the outside 
Western world, changes are occurring 
that may soon upset this equilibrium. 
The population is gi-owing because of 
the introduction of medical treatment 
and the cessation of intergroup warfare, 
new and more efficient steel tools are 
being used, and the possibility of cash 
cropping is coming closer. All of this 
will increase the demands made by the 
Maring on their material resources and 
may well initiate a downward spiral of 
land degradation and impoverished 

Clarke writes pleasantly and con- 
cisely and makes his points clearly. I 
only wish he had presented more quan- 
tified statements to cover the totality of 
the horticultural activities of the local 
group he describes. Nevertheless, al- 
though Place and People deals with 
one small community in a remote part of 
New Guinea, it should interest any- 
one concerned with understanding the 
functioning of ecological systems. 

M. J. Meggitt 
The Cilr University of New York 

The American Museum is open to the 
public every dav during the year, ex- 
cept Thanksgiving and Christmas. 
Your support through membership 
and contributions helps make this pos- 
sible. The Museum is equally in need 
of support for its work in the fields of 
research, erluration and exhibition. 

This list details the 
other source of illus 


6— Scala 

7— George Roos 

8— Museum of American 

Folk Art 
12BBC-Radio Times 

Hulton Picture Library 
14— George Roos 
16— Museum ot Amen 

can Folk Art 
18-19-George Roos 
20— Tom Page 
27-Jules Zaion 
28-29- Alan Ternes 
31 -Sea la 

32— Ctiarles Ternes 
33-Alan Ternes 
34-Jules ZaIon 

photographer or 
stration by page. 

39-45-Woodfin Camp 
4 7-R. Cobb; Reprinted 
witti permission, Saw- 
yer Press 
48 49-Helmut Wimmer 
51-53-Edward F. 

d'Arms. Jr. 
54-65— Karl Kernberger; 

except map— AMNtH 
66— Jack Rictiards 
68-69-David Lindroth 
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garet Colbert 
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uslon, Texos 77052 


New 1972 Illustrated Catalog. (215 photographs!) 

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From ancient Palestine, these terracotta lamps were 
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Wilderness Holidays a birdwatcher's paradise-the upper 
reaches of the Amazon in Colombia. Hun- 
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Additional Reading 


American Folk Art. J. Lipman. Pan- 
theon Books, Inc., New York, 

Americas Folk Art. R. PoUey, ed. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 

American Heritage History of Colo- 
nial Antiques. M. B. Davidson and 
American Heritage Editors. Ameri- 
can Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 
New York, 1967. 



Ancient Iraq. G. Roux. Fernhill 
House, Ltd., New York, 1964. 

The Origins of Agriculture. C. D. 
Darlington. Natural HistorY 
Magazine, May, 1970. 

Pigeons and Doves of the World. D. 
Goodwin. Trustees of The British 
Museum (Natural History), Lon- 
don, 1967. 


Earthquake Country. Sunset Staff 
and R. lacopi, eds. Lane Magazine 
& Book Co., Menlo Park, 1969. 

Introduction to the Theory of 
Seismology. K. E. Bullen. Cam- 
bridge University Press, New York, 

Elementary Seismology. C. F. Rich- 
ter. W. H. Freeman and Co., Pub- 
lishers, San Francisco, 1958. 


The Wolves of North America. S. P. 
Young and E. A. Goldman. The 
American WildUfe Institute, Wash- 
ington, D.C, 1944. 

Recent Records of Red Wolves from 
the Gulf Coast of Texas. J. L. 
Paradiso. The Southwestern Natu- 
ralist, November, 1965. 

The Wolf in Southeastern United 
States. B. Fodor. U.S. Department 
of Interior Library Bibliography, 
No. 19, 1971. 



The Tarahumara. W. C. Bennett and 
R. M. Zingg. University of Chicago 
Press, Chicago, 1935. 

Tarahumar of Mexico. C. W. Pen- 
nington. University of Utah Press, 
Salt Lake City, 1963. 




The Confirmation of Continental 
Drift. P. Hurley. Scientific Ameri- 
can, April, 1968. 

Continental Drift and A Strange 
Fossil Reptile. A. W. Crompton. 
Discovery, Spring, 1970. 

Continental Drift and Evollition. B. 
Kurten. Scientific American, 
March, 1969. 



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A fascinating history of the costumes of Eastern civiUzations — 
from Turkey to Japan, from Palestine to Siberia. Walter A. Fair- 
servis, Jr., anthropologist with The American Museum of Natural 
History, describes in 160 pages (67 in full color) the costumes, 
their functions, and their relation to culture and climate. Soft- 
cover $5.95 and hard-cover $15.00. For museum members $5.00 
and $12.75, respectively. Please send check or money order to: 
The American Museum of Natural History, 11 West 77th Street, 
New York, N.Y. 10024 

The real 

During one summer week 
the air in Tokyo, Sydney, 
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unsatisfactory to breathe. 

The ideal 

Man will forever, for everyone, strip 
away the smothering blanket that 
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The cities suffer first. But air pollutants 
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quality of air everywhere is degraded. Air 
pollution is everyone's problem. All of us 
must work at the solution. Governments, 
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institutions, research centers and 
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make blue sky thinking an urgent new 
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our complacency. 
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surely enjoy the photographs and text as 
h as their youngsters. The entire family will 
;his wonderful set— one that you'll be proud 
'splay in your home library. 


US send you Vertebrates, Volume 1 of The 
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For those who have not yet decided to send for their 
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for the publishers of 
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of the American Museum of 
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methods or face extinction from his 
own folly. There are many examples 
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tempt to adapt the environment to 
him. Instead of 'man against nature' 
he must choose to be 'man with na- 
ture,' and to come into harmony and 
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around him." 

I Danbury Press, Dept. TJ 

A Division of Gro//er Enterprises, Inc. 

Sherman Turnpike, Danbury, Connecticut 06810 

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Also available in Canada. 
Shipment and services from Canada. 




The American Museum of Natural History 

Gardner D. Stout, President Thomas D. Nicholson, Director 

Vol. LXXXL No. 2 

February' 1972 

Alfred Mever. Editor 

Robert E. Williamson. Managing Editor 
Alan P. Temes. Executive Editor 
Thomas Page, Art Editor 

Associate Editors 
John P. Wile\; Jr. 
Frederick R. Hartmann 
Roy .illen 

Rosamond W. Dana. Book Editor 
Carol Breslin. Reiieics 

Florence G. Edelstein. Copy Chief 
Toni Gerber, Copy Editor 

Ernestine Weindorf. Administrative Asst. 
Xancy Smith, Production 

Staff Assistants 
Jane Champe 
Lillian Berger 

Editorial .Advisers 
Dean .Amadon 
Franklyn M. Branley 
^iles Eldredge 
Vincent Manson 
Margaret Mead 
Thomas D. Xicholson 
Gerard Piel 

-Advertising Sales 

Haney- Oshinsky. Director 

Gordon Finle\- 

Harry R. Jeter 

Vic Asselin 

Eileen O'Keefe, Traffic 

Roberta Zelem, .4sst. 

Dinah Louetl. Promotion 

12 THE FASHIONABLE TOOTH Charles I. Stoloff 

Dazzling white, flashing gold, or filed to points, a mouthful of beautiful teeth 
has kept mankind smiling for centuries. 


How THE MIDW EST \^ AS "^'ON K. C. Tessendorf 

From a mighty sea of trees to a stripped country laced with concrete— a leg- 
acy of the pioneer spirit that "conquered" the land. 


Like the addicts and dealers from Hong Kong to New York, Thailand's 
opium farmers are risking an assortment of woes for the immediate rewards of 
the drug trade. 

The Social Carnivore George B. Schaller 

The king of the pride seemed to exploit the lionesses— until his death proved 

50 SKY REPORTER John P. Wile^; /r. 

54 CELESTIAL EVENTS Thomas D. Nicholson 

The biological success story of a good neighbor species. 

64 OUT OF THE SILENCE William Reid Photographs by Adelaide de Menil 

Great carved columns in dank, forgotten recesses of Pacific Northwest forest 
stir fading memories of a once vibrant culture. 

Kenneth E. F'. Watt 

In the pursuit of productivity, man has been relentlessly eradicating an essen- 
tial component of all life. 

86 THE SOCIAL INSECTS A review by Mary Jane West Eberhard 

From the field to the lab: the evolution of insect sociology and grass-stained, 
old-fashioned naturalists. 


C0\ ER: On a granite kopje above the windswept plains of the Serengeti, in 
Tanzania, a lion surveys his domain. 

Publication Ofce: The .-irmrican .Museum of Sajural HUlon: Cenlral Park JTeif al 79lh Street. .Veur York. .V. Y. 
10024. Published monthlv. October through May: biruoiuhly June to September Subscriptions: SS.00 a rear. In Can- 
ada and all other countries: S9.00 a year. Single copies $1-00. Second-class postage paid al .Yeir York. \.Y.. and at 
additional o^es. Copyright ^ 1972 by The .imerican -Museum of Satural Histor,: So part of this periodical may 
be reproduced tcithout the tcritlen consent of NATLRAL HISTORY .NL\C.\ZI>E. Manuscripts and illustrations submitted 
la the editorial o§ice \cill be handled icilh all possible care, but ice cannot assume responsibility for their safety. The 
opinions expressed by authors are their own and do not necessarily reflect the policy of The .4m 
NATIR.U, History NL\G.\ZINE incorporating Nature Magazine is indexed in Reader's Guide I 

// — until today — 
your experience with 
art masterpieces has been 
limited, for the most part, 
to scaled-down "prints" and 
reproductions in books ... 


imagine the 
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AVE you ever 
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The inventor of a number of den- 
tal tools and techniques, Charles I. 
Stoloff has been teaching and prac- 
ticing dentistry since 1916. The au- 
thor of a popular book on teeth 
written 43 vear'^ ago. he is now at 

woik on his second, a surve\ of 
tooth mutilation practices around 
the world 

K. C. Tcssendorf has been w i it- 
ing on historical topics since he 
gave up the travel business to de- 
vote full time to his avocation. He 
takes special pride in discovering 

rare old books suitable for reprint- 
ing in limited editions; a recent find 
was Hunting for Gold, a memoir of 
a 49er recently brought out by 
American West Publishing Com- 
panv A graduate of the University 
ol W isconsin, Tessendorf lives in 
\^ a'^bington, D.C. 

Alain Yvon Dessaint will return 
to northern Thailand this year to 
( ollet t costumes and to study what 
happ( ns when two villages switch 
liom growing opium to growing 
iL(e. His article on the opium trade 
gieu out of his stay there in 
1968-70, when he studied migra- 
tion and settlement patterns in the 
Thai highlands. His earlier field 
work was in Mexico, Guatemala, 
dud the Ryukyu Islands. Now a lec- 
tuier at the Universitv of Hawaii, 

Dessaint was born in France and 
took degrees at the University of 
Chicago and Stanford University. 

At a time when biological studies 
depend increasingly on in- 
strumentation and statistical proce- 
dures, George B. Schaller still be- 
lieves that field glasses and 
unstructured field observations pro- 
vide him with the best information 
for his wildlife studies. This excerpt 
from his book on the lion and other 
predators of the Serengeti region of 
Tanzania is based on three years of 
field work. This included several 
periods of continuous day and night 

observations of a lion pride, which 
gave Schaller insights about night- 
hunting behavior "except when I 
fell asleep." He is an associate of 
the Institute for Research in Ani- 
mal Behavior of the New York Zoo- 
logical Society and Rockefeller 

William J. Weber has been 
studying a colony of cattle egrets on 
Lake Griffin in central Florida for 
two years under the guidance of 
Lovett Williams, chief biologist of 
the Florida Fish and Game Com- 
mission. A graduate of Ohio State 
Universitv, Weber has practiced 
veterinary medicine in Leesburg, 
Florida, since 19S4. His book on 

raising orphaned wild animals will 
be published this spring. 

Part Haida himself, William 
Reid has long been involved in the 
culture of the West Coast Indians. 
As an artist he works on very large 
and very small scales: he has re- 
created a Haida house with its to- 
tems and mortuaries for the Univer- 
sity of British Columbia, and is now 
creating jewelry. For seventeen 

years he supported himself as an an- 
nouncer for Canadian radio sta- 
tions; presently he is working at his 
art full time in an apartment across 
the street from McGill University in 

Adelaide de Menil, who photo- 
graphed the totem poles, was born 
in Paris, graduated from Sarah 
Lawrence College, and has since 
worked around the world— from 
Greece to New Guinea. A member 

COFFEE than up by the round-bellied stove in the 
Jack Daniel's sawmill. 

Visitors in the Hollow say it beats anything from 
home. The reason, so say our sawyers who make the 
coffee, is water from Jack Daniel's limestone cave spring. 
And they're probably right. For 
100 years, our limestone spring 

water has kept Jack Daniel's rr^ CHARCOAL 

whiskey free of any iron taste. JfSL MELLOWED 
It likely does the same for ^Sl^fk 6 

coffee. If you're down our way 
and drop in for a visit, you 
might just ask if there's a pot 
on the sawmill stove. 




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of the American Society of Maga- 
zine Photographers, she has been 
published in Europe and South 
America as well as the United 
States. Her photographs of North- 
west Coast Indian art were made 
during 1966-68: some of the carv- 
ings no longer exist. 

Canadian-born Kenneth E. F. 
Watt is trying to bridge the gap be- 
tween advanced ecological theory 
and its applications. A zoologist by 
training, a systems analyst bv ne- 
cessity, he has studied ecosystems 
in the field, in the laboratory, and 
in computer models. In his essay on 
diversity, triggered in part by his 
observations of man and coral reefs, 
he takes a viewpoint similar to the 

one he took in "The Long Arm of 
Biological Law," NATURAL History 
Magazine, April, 1971. Watt's lat- 
est project involves global and re- 
gional computer system models of 
land use and energy flow in the hu- 
man ecosystem. Watt is based at the 
University of California at Davis, 
where he is professor of zoology and 
research systems analyst at the In- 
stitute of Ecology. 


But frankly, we still need your help. So 
without any further ado, we would now ask 
you to continue in the battle to keep alive and 
free, the heritage of East African wildlife that 
belongs to everyone-especially you. What a 
pity it would be should your child's next ques- 
tion be "What WAS ..." rather than "What 
IS a Cheetah?" But that could be the case 
with cats and other species if the numerous 
activities of the East African Wild Life Society 
have to be curtailed for lack of funds. Cheetah, 
lion, leopard and other animals of the region 
if not protected, may take their place in the 
history books, alongside the Dodo, just as 
dead, just as extinct. 

The East African Wildlife Society founded 
in 1961 is a non-profit, non governmental 
agency assisting the three East African repub- 
lics of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in the 
development of game conservation. The facts 
and figures of its performance may be seen 
in its numerous activities, such as pollution 
study, anti poaching work, research, educa- 
tion and animal rescue. During the 1970 to '72 
period, accomplished and projected plans 
amount to $185,000.00. Membership and Inte- 
rest in the Society is up, there's none other 
like it in the animal kingdom! But costs and 
commitment are recurrent-and there's always 
room for one more in the ark. Your readership 
proves your interest. 

Become a member now, and receive FREE 
the quarterly magazine AFRICANA. And avail- 
able for saleto all, are ties, cars badges, wild- 
life jewellery, and prints decals, shoulder 
patches, scientific journals, Christmas Cards, 
and calendars. 


P. 0. Box 20110, Nairobi Kenya, 

Please enroll me as a member. 

I enclose $10.00 for a year's subscription. 


Address . 



Bill Tattersa 
studied law our expense 

After his graduation from college with a B.A. 
degree. Bill Tattersall was selected as a member 
of our Loop Course management training pro- 
gram. His first assignment placed him in one 
of our fabricating works as a technical assistant. 
Two years later he was named assistant man- 
agement's representative at our Chicago Works. 

While employed there, he decided to take ad- 
vantage of Bethlehem's educational assistance 
program which encourages our full-time, sal- 
aried employees to continue their education. 
The program provides full reimbursement for 
tuition costs of approved courses of study. 

Through our program. Bill studied at DePaul 
University's Law School and earned a Doctor of 
Jurisprudence degree. He was later transferred 
to our corporate headquarters as a labor at- 
torney in the Industrial Relations Department. 
Subsequently, he was transferred to the Mining 
Department and promoted to his present posi- 
tion as Assistant to Manager of our Coal Min- 
ing Division with responsibilities in industrial 

There are many other Bethlehem people now 
working on bachelors, masters, and doctoral 
degrees. We have secretaries who are studying 
business administration, accountants pursuing 
management science courses, metallurgists tak- 
ing M.B.A.'s. 

In the past nine years, some 3,100 employees 
have taken advantage of our educational assist- 
ance program. It's one of our best investments 
for the future. - 





The Fasliionable 

Before sparkling \\ hlte became 
an oral fetish, gold ^\ as glamorous, 
black ^s'as beautiful, and a je%\ el or t^s o 
supplied dental dazzle 

by Charles I. Stoloft 

A huge gold molar suspended 
from the front of an office building 
in Union Square. New York, told 
Terence McGrover that he had 
reached his destination. He was a 
large, burlv man. and the cut of his 
clothes and the angle at which he 
wore his pearl grav derbv gave 
some indication of his business and 
position in life. McGrover was the 
proud and prosperous owner of one 
of the largest cafes on the Bowerv. 
The year was 1901. 

Ascending a staircase. McGrover 
found himself in a room t\'pical of 

the elaborate dental parlors of the 
time, a room heavv with carved fur- 
niture and velvet portieres. But if 
Terence McGrover took anv notice 
of the room or of the dozen waiting 
occupants, he gave no sign of it. He 
quickly made his way to the adjoin- 
ing chamber and buttonholed the 

Doc. vou don't know me, but 
Im a person of some importance in 
my part of town," he said. "I want 
some teeth, the classiest set of teeth 
you can make. The price doesn't 
matter; just make 'em rich looking, 
and make 'em all gold!" 

It is a pity that no picture or pat- 
tern exists of the set of teeth that 

Gus Johnson, left, and Dave 
Stallworth. star players 
with the Baltimore BuUets 
basketball team, have both 
had diamond stars embedded 
in their front teeth. 

that Cellini of Union Square in- 
stalled in the mouth of Terence 
McGrover. We have onlv the word 
of his contemporaries that it was 
the most spectacular job to be seen 
in the city in those davs. When the 


Suddenly it happens. Five 
geese stop to read a 
shop sign. 

At any moment they could 
scatter, along with your 

Your eye goes straight to 
the viewfinder. 

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When identified by a factory-sealed "M" tag, 

Minolta 35mm reflex cameras are warranted by 
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great Terr)' smiled at his customers 
from behind his bar, it was a sight 
to be pointed out to the slumming 
visitors from "uptown," for the 
dentist had taken McGrover at his 
word— and his pocketbook. The 
new teeth were 22-karat gold; and 
from the central incisors, two finely 
cut diamonds glittered, adding to 
the brilliance of McGrover's smile. 

The esthetic appeal of gold teeth 
reached a zenith in this country at 
about the turn of the century. The 
lady of fashion would stand before 
her mirror and primp her pompa- 
doured coifilire, smooth her tight- 
waisted, full-skirted gown, and note 
with approval the faintly golden 
richness that her dentist had added 
to her already charming smile. Her 
husband, no less vain, was as proud 
of his two or more gold teeth as he 
was of his custom-made, high-but- 
toned shoes. 

Even the youth of the nation 
took their pennies to the candy 
shop to purchase brass caps, which 
they jammed over their teeth in 
imitation of their elders' dental ele- 
gance. What was a little gum sore- 
ness when one could make a swag- 
gering entrance into the schoolyard 
with a sensational grin? 

In the nineties and the early 
1900s, gold teeth were as much a 
part of the fashion scene as peg-top 
trousers, choker collars, and chate- 
laine watches. There were, of 
course, certain practical reasons for 
this popularity. From the viewpoint 
of the average dentist, gold-shell 
crowns provided a simple method of 
securely anchoring artificial teeth; 
at the same time they covered uglv, 
broken-down, and discolored natu- 
ral teeth, as well as much inferior 
dental work. And to the patient, 
gold seemed to represent the most 
in value received. 

Gold has always been a popular, 
valuable, and sought-after metal, 
desired for its color, workability, 
and rarity. It was used in fine jew- 
elry and coinage and. for almost as 
long, in dentistry. For some people, 
gold in their mouths not only 
created a magic and mysterious 
spell, it also had the added dash of 

Ancient records indicate that 
gold was used in dental appliances 
more than 4.500 years ago. A 
simple Eg\'ptian device made about 
2500 B.C.. and consisting of gold 
wires designed to hold a loose 


tooth, was found at Gizeh, Egypt, 
some years ago. The Egyptian arti- 
sans of this period were very knowl- 
edgeable and clever about manipu- 
lating the metal, and were 
constantly called upon to create ex- 
quisite jewelry for the embellish- 
ment of their patrons. 

It would seem logical that the 
Egyptians of antiquity, who pos- 
sessed a love of color and glitter, 
and who went to great lengths to 
beautify themselves with the expert 
use of balms, lotions, colorful cos- 
metics, and sparkling jewels, would 
give some attention to ornamenting 
their teeth. The mummies of per- 
sons of high rank were decorated 
with gilt liberally applied to the 
eyebrows, nose, lips, and teeth, be- 
tween which a gold coin was 
placed. A thin gold plate placed on 
the tongue completed the toilette 
and permitted the deceased to enter 

Preparing for his role as a 
traditional geisha, a 
Kabuki actor stains his 
teeth black— a popular 
practice before contact with 
the West changed Japanese 
concepts of oral beauty. 

the new kingdom with a suitably' 
gleaming fagade, which might im- 
prove his chances of a cordial wel- 

Beauty aids and dental tech- 
niques were later developed by the 
Etruscans, Greeks, Romans, and 
other Mediterranean civilizations. 
The Etruscans further refined the 
art of dentistry, banding natural 
teeth to hold artificial ones, and 
sometimes covering portions of the 

supporting teeth with broad strips 
of pure gold. Basically utilitarian, 
the practice also became a status 
symbol— a luxury accessible onlv to 
persons of rank. 

Archeologists have uncovered 
other ancient dental appliances, 
some dating back to the seventh 
century B.C., that were made to hold 
loose or artificial teeth for utility 
and improved appearance. A few 
were similar to Egyptian and Etrus- 
can appliances; others, of Greek 
and Roman origin, were of a more 
advanced design. The devices con- 
sisted of gold and silver wires, and 
flat bands of pure gold, which were 
attached to the remaining natural 
teeth. One unusual Roman dental 
bridge of the first century B.C. uti- 
lized the first known gold-shell 
crown. It completely covered the 
top of the anchorage tooth, assuring 
a firm hold. In union with a series 
of additional gold ribbon loops, it 
held several artificial teeth, prob- 
ably carved from ivory or ox bone. 
As far as is known, it is the pro- 
totype of all gold-shell crowns. 

After such a promising begin- 
ning, a hiatus in Western dental 
technology set in. which lingered 
throughout most of the medieval pe- 
riod. During this time very little in 
the way of new or improved restora- 
tive and esthetic devices was 

Charlatanry, such as the bizarre 
treatment recommended bv an En- 
glish doctor at Oxford in 1400. be- 
came prevalent. For those who were 
unhappy about the appearance of 
their teeth he offered two formulas: 
the llr.-;! one to make teelh lall out. 
llie sct'ond to make them grow 

The first: "Dried cow's dung or 
the fat of a green frog would posi- 
tively cause teeth to fall out when 
applied to them .... If an ox. 
peradventure, chewed a little frog 
with the grass, its teeth would fall 
out on the spot." The second: "The 
brains of a hare rubbed on the gums 
. . . will make teeth grow again 
where they have been lost." 

In other areas of the world, how- 
ever, developments in dental tech- 
niques and concepts of oral beauty 
(•ontinued to grow from earlier tra- 
ditions. From Marco Polo"s Travels. 
written about AD. 1280. we learn 
that in China dental adornment was 
being pursued on a somewhat 
higher level. He tells of the "inter- 


Professional dental care was 

still unavailable to many 

of the poor in the 1890s. 

When her offspring was 

in pain, a mother first tried 

to remove the decayed 

tooth and later worried 

about his appearance. 

esting Chinese custom of both men 
and women covering their teeth 
with thin plates of gold, which are 
fitted with great nicety to the shape 
of the teeth and remain on them 

The invasion of Mexico in 1518by 
the Spanish conquistadores revealed 
a Maya culture in which tooth mutila- 
tion was performed on sound, decay- 
free teeth. This custom— notching, 
grooving, and filing the biting edges 
of the front teeth— may have been 
rooted in reUgion, but it was also 
practiced for ornamental purposes. 
At an earlier point in their history, 
the Maya and their subjects had de- 
veloped the art of inlaying frontal 
teeth with gold and precious and 
semiprecious stones to a high level, 

but by the time the Spaniards ar- 
rived, this custom had faded out. 

To enhance their appearance, the 
Yucatan Mava filed their teeth until 
thev were sawlike in appearance. 
The dental operations involved are 
believed to have been performed bv 
old women who used stones and wa- 
ter to file the teeth. As to the ability 
of the patients to bear the dis- 
comfort and pain of such dental 
work, it is possible that they were 
addicted to chewing coca leaves 
mixed with lime, and had dis- 
covered its anesthetic properties. 

Other, more primitive peoples 
also notched, cut down, reshaped, 
or pointed their teeth. Knocking 
out, or ablating, sound teeth to de- 
liberately create gaps in the denti- 
tion was another widespread custom 
in these cultures. Throughout the 
ages, such practices have been tra- 
ditional in many civilizations for 
health, religious, ceremonial, and 
esthetic reasons. To those to whom 
such dental distortion was the 
norm, people with natural dentition 
were looked upon with suspicion or 
were often the subjects of disdain 
and ridicule. 

The custom of knocking out 
sound, healthy teeth is probably 
Neolithic in origin. Ample evidence 

in fossil craniological collections in- 
dicates that it occurred during that 
period in Spain, England, Africa, 
Asia Minor, and Japan. Ablation 
was also practiced by people of the 
California coast, the Pueblo region, 
Florida, Alaska, and the Aleutian 
Islands, but much later than in 
other areas of the world. Studies 
have been made of ancient skulls to 
distinguish purposeful ablation 
from accidental or disease-induced 
removal. As a rule, the upper two 
incisors were the teeth most 
frequently knocked out, but other 
incisors, canines, and, rarely, mo- 
lars were also removed in this man- 

Why ablation was practiced dur- 
ing the Neolithic age is obscure, but 
anthropological studies of more re- 
cent cultures have shed some light 
upon its origins and purposes. In 
many cultures the noncurative 
removal of a specific tooth was car- 
ried out as a trial of endurance and 
bore religious significance as a pro- 
tection from death: evil spirits re- 
siding in the body could exit 
through the gap. 

The willful removal of one or 
more front teeth was also motivated 
partly by esthetic reasons. To some 
people it was the highest concept of 
beauty to disclose a gaping hole 
when the lips were parted. 

As recently as the nineteenth 
century, tooth removal was an im- 
portant custom among the Kilao 
people living in the vicinity of 
Kweichow, southwest China. Girls 
were taken out of the house on their 
wedding day and two of their in- 
cisors were literally broken out. At 
first this act, called "damaging the 
husband's house," was done to 
identify them as married women. 
The custom eventually took on a 
connotation of beauty. 

The Masai of East Africa also 
knocked out their teeth, but the 
practice has diminished greatly with 
the present generation. Until 
recently, most adult men and 
women had their two lower front in- 
cisors removed, considering their 
absence a distinctive identifying 
and beautifying feature. It is be- 
lieved, however, that this custom 
had other origins. The story persists 
that sometime in the past a clever 
Masai medicine man conceived the 
idea of creating a gap in the lower 
jaw as a lifesaving device for those 
stricken with lockjaw, a disease to 


First price is publisher's list. Boldface shows member's price- 

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The History Book Club 
Stamford, Connecticut 06904 

Please enroll me as a trial 
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In oneviolentthrust, revolution brings 
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which the Masai were highly sus- 
ceptible. The gap permitted the vic- 
tims to be fed. 

Froin earliest times, filing teeth 
to a point was widely practiced in 
xA-frica, Southeast Asia, and Central, 
North, and South America. As 
recently as 1934 it was reported 
that Negrito pygmies in the Philip- 
pines sharpened and pointed their 
Front teeth to resemble those of a car- 
nivorous animal. The Niam-Niam 
tribe of the Co'ngo region of Africa 
also filed their teeth, claiming it im- 
proved their efficiency in piercing an 
enemy's flesh during fights. They 
have continued the practice, now 
deeming it ornamental. 

Perhaps the most widespread 
dental decoration was the deliberate 
coloring of teeth. Symbolic cere- 
mony, vanity, and status were the 
most important factors in the use of 
color as dental ornamentation. 
Black and red were the favorite ex- 
tranatural colorations. Blue, yellow, 
and green, were also used occasion- 

Prior to the middle of the nine- 
teenth century, men of high rank in 
Sumatra flaunted their station by 
dyeing their upper teeth black and 
covering their lower ones with fine 
gold plate, which, in full light, af- 
forded a fine contrast. This practice 
was no doubt influenced bv the Chi- 
nese custom of covering their front 
teeth with gold plate. On other is- 
lands in that area, coloration and al- 
teration were reversed; gold plate 
was used on the upper teeth and the 
lowers were blackened. 

The skillful Lampong craftswo- 
tnen of Sumatra filed the enamel 
from their teeth, thus roughening 
them to obtain better adhesion be- 
fore rubbing in color. 

As a beauty aid, the Bontok 
women of Luzon in the Philippines 

Filing teeth or inlaying 

them with precious stones 

and minerals was a 

highly developed art among 

Central American Indians. 

This reconstruction 

features filed incisors and 

hematite inlays. 

burned a resinous wood, then 
mixed the ashes with sugar cane 
juice to make a paste with which 
they blackened their teeth. Asiatic 
Papuans of the Nicobar Islands in 
the Bay of Bengal, who blackened 
their teeth at the age of puberty, de- 
risively compared white teeth to 
those of a dog or a pig. 

Among the tribes on the African 
continent who dyed their teeth for 
ornamental reasons, red was the ; 
preferred color. Regardless of how j 
this practice originated, these 
people were so accustomed to the 
coloration that its use as a cosmetic 
became de rigueur. 

In Japan the staining of teeth 
black, known as ohaguro, had es- 
thetic importance in all social 
strata. Ancient Chinese records 
about "the black teeth people" in- 
dicate ohaguro was practiced some 
4,000 years ago, originally onlv by 
women. In 1233 the custom was 
adopted by a royal family, and its 
use spread thereafter. Since geishas, 
professional entertainers who were 
expected to be perfect beauties, also 
practiced this custom, we can as- 
sume that it was regarded as beau- 
tifying. Among women it served as 
an indication of marriage. Many 
princes, nobles, and aristocrats em- 
bellished their smiles with black- 
stained natural teeth and Stygian 
Eutificial teeth carved of wood and 
ivory. The custom waned after 
America established commercial re- 
lations with Japan in the nineteenth 
century, no doubt a consequence of 
the Japanese desire to conform to a 
Western life-style. 

It was in early eighteenth-cen- 
tury France that dentistry became a 
learned profession, with its own lit- 
erature and qualifying restrictions 
for its practice. Methods for replac- 
ing missing teeth improved gradu- 
ally. The gold-shell crown {calotte 
d'or), initially used by the Romans 
in the first century B.C., was re- 
vived, but used in a new way. 
Where exposed to view, a fairly nat- 
ural appearance could be achieved 
by enameling the bright gold with a 
pale tint. A similar enameling pro- 
cess was employed to cover shiny 
gold areas on bridges and full sets 
of teeth. Unfortunately, the enamel- 
ing had no permanence. The artistic 
objective was worthwhile, the arti- 
sans skillful, but the process was 
doomed because of a lack of proper 
materials and technology. 

The early eighteenth-century den- 
tal restorative efforts then revert- 
ed to the materials previously fa- 
vored — animal ivories, hippo- 
potamus teeth, ox bone, and occa- 
sionally gilded or painted wood 
carved into artificial teeth— despite 
the tendency of these materials to 
deteriorate because of mouth fluids. 

The problems George Washing- 
ton had with his teeth illustrate the 
situation well. His ivory teeth were 
a source of anxiety because they 
were uncomfortable, generated foul 
odors by rotting in the mouth, and 
had a depressing effi^ct on his ap- 
pearance due to lack of support for 
his sagging mouth and surrounding 
tissues. The result was that at times 
his lips had a pouting and swelled 
appearance; at other times thev 




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were abnormallv fallen, depending 
upon how successfully his latest 
dentures had been made. 

The false teeth he began wearing 
after 1789— a full upper and lower 
set carved from hippopotamus 
tusks— were also not satisfactory. 
They were inadequate because den- 
tists lacked the proper materials 
and because it was difficult to keep 
the teeth securely in place. 

In the correspondence between 
Washington and his dentist, Dr. 
Greenwood, there were serious dis- 
cussions about the discoloration 
caused bv port wine, which turned 
his iyory teeth black. On December 
28, 1798, in reply to a query by the 
President, Dr. Greenwood wrote: 
"If vou want your teeth more yel- 
low soak them in broth or pot liq- 
uor, but not in tea or acids. Porter 
is a good thing to color them." 

The search continued for better- 
looking artificial teeth that would 
not rot in the mouth. A Parisian 
apothecary, Duchateau, hit upon a 
major improvement in 1774. He 
was continually nauseated by the 
accumulated malodors absorbed by 
his carved hippopotamus teeth. 

which also sponged up the unplea- 
sant tastes from the manv pre- 
scriptions he sampled. He con- 
ceived a brilliant idea to rid himself 
of his misery and, at the same time, 
to make teeth that looked more 
beautiful and stayed that way. 
Looking at the mortars in which he 
customarily ground his medications, 
he thought, "Why not use the same 
nonabsorbent porcelain?" This sig- 
nificant advance was carried to 
practical fruition in the 1790s by 
Nicholas de Chemant, a Paris- 
trained dentist, who made "in- 
corruptible teeth of mineral paste" 
and by Fonzi, an Italian-Parisian 
dentist, who provided platinum 
hooks in the porcelain teeth for 
connection to the base that held 
them in position. 

Samples of these early porcelain 
teeth did not reach the United 
States until 1817, too late to relieve 
Washington's discomfort. The early 
1800s marked a turning point, how- 
ever, as American ingenuity devel- 
oped fair-looking teeth that could 
be made widelv available. By 1844 
enough improvements had been 
made in porcelain artificial teeth to 

permit their manufacture on a com- 
mercial scale. 

The average citizens of most so- 
cieties had, until then, only the bru- 
tal instruments of the marketplace, 
barnyard, and kitchen for the remo- 
val of their aching teeth, while es- 
thetic restoration was but a dream. 
All previous dental treatment and 
replacement procedures had been 
the province of a select few— those 
of rank and well-filled purse. It was, 
perhaps ironically, only in the so- 
called primitive cultures that dental 
practices were widespread. 

The Goodyear process of rubber 
vulcanization, developed in the 
mid-nineteenth century, further 
aided the availability of more at- 
tractive artificial teeth. Dental 
plates of moderate cost could now 
be manufactured, but the great 
mass of rubber used to cover the 
palate was cumbersome. The time 
was right for the reintroduction of 
an ancient dental device: the gold- 
shell crown. Since it could be used 
to hold false teeth to the remaining 
ones, thereby eliminating the neces- 
sity for using large amounts of rub- 
ber, the popularity of gold crowns 

spurted, ushering in the American 
gold tooth era of which Terence 
McGrover and his contemporaries 
were such shining examples. 

This popularity was short-lived 
however, and began to decline in 
the years after 1910. A new fashion 
in teeth began evolving in the 
United States: an image based on 
natural, wholesome, well-shaped 
teeth was becoming the norm. 

The expansion of oral and visual 
communication through radio, mov- 
ies, and television kept pace with 
technical dental improvements. 

The increasingly large audiences 
of millions of listeners and viewers 
were made aware of the mouth, 
lips, and teeth as a basis of beauty. 
Words such as tempting, ravishing, 
alluring, and, of course, sexy im- 
pregnated the airwaves and ao- 
peared in bold type in magazines 
and newspapers. Their objective 
was to sell beauty aids— facial con- 
ditioners, lipsticks, eye makeup, 
tooth whiteners— by building an 
idealized picture of what was beau- 
tiful. Where teeth were the subject, 
the health aspect was only secon- 
darily alluded to. 

One could not, and cannot, es- 
cape this new image, which was ap- 
propriately called "Hollywood 
teeth.'" It sprang up on billboards 
along the highways, in the multi- 
colored beauty, personality, and sex 
periodicals, and on movie and tele- 
vision screens. Closeup techniques 
in movies and television created 
new visual hazards for the stars, 
who were setting universal concepts 
of beauty. The magnification of the 
screen's close-ups disclosed even 
minute tooth defects, initiating a 
vast amount of dental restorative 
activity to eliminate them. 

Plastic cosmetic caps, dubbed 
"Hollywood veneers," were first ex- 
perimented with, but the slippage 
of veneers at the wrong moment, 
perhaps during an amorous scene or 
speaking passage, made more prac- 
tical and permanent replacements 
imperative. Crowns made of porce- 
lain and plastic came into wide cos- 
metic use. Carefully fitted and 
matched to the shades of surround- 
ing teeth, these caps cover the en- 
tire tooth and all manner of dental 
defects, as well. Even close ex- 
posure does not reveal their pres- 

ence. Now widely available, thev 
have added a new dimension to the 
pursuit of oral charm. 

With the increasing impact of 
global communications, even 
people living in the remotest areas 
of the world are no longer immune 
to the blandishments of Western 
culture. The allure of sparkling 
white teeth, carefully created by the 
advertising wizards of modern busi- 
ness, is penetrating into settlements 
formerly isolated from extracultural 
contacts. Some peoples still resist 
and cling to the old ways, staining 
and reshaping their teeth to suit 
their ancient concepts of what is 
tantalizing and captivating. But it is 
a losing battle; the inexorable trend 
is toward diminution, and eventual 
abandonment, of native folkways 
and customs. Because Western 
standards— based on advanced tech- 
nology and material wealth and 
proselyted by the pervasive media- 
are effecting a worldwide con- 
formity in dress, food, and shelter, 
pearly whites will soon become the 
universal concept of oral beautv. 
Compared to the colorful past, it 
will be a duller world. ■ 


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_$2,567 Across Africa Skyfari 

A Naturalist at LarRC 

How the Midwest 
Was Won 

W^itli hard labor, fire, fun, and frolic, 
early Aiiicricaii settlors trausfornied tlic landscape 

From the Gulf to the Great 
Lakes a vast, somber, and silent 
forest once stood, piney in the south 
and far north but predominantly 
deciduous elseivhere. Cruising 
along the interstate highways to- 
day, penetrating through hundreds 
of miles of open farmland, one may 
idly speculate upon who trans- 
formed that primeval forest into an 
agricultural plain. By the sweat of 
whose brow ivere those giant trees 

Two stereotypes emerge: the lone 
woodsman, dwarfed by the forest, 
chipping away persistently over dec- 
ades; or the lumberman's jugger- 

by Iv. C. Tessendorf 

naut, slashing and raging with ra- 
pacious efficiency, feeding timber 
into the hungry maw of an ex- 
panding nation. Each is true in 
particular areas, but as a general 
overview one is tempted to believe 
that this American forest largely 
went up in unharnessed smoke. 

A source for finding out how the 
forested Midwest was won are the 
journals of contemporary observers, 
among whom was William Brown, 
an Englishman who resided for a 
time among the frontiersmen. Re- 
turning to Britain, he published 
America: A Four Years Residence 
in 1849. Brown wrote the book on 

America and American practices 
for prospective emigrants. His de- 
scription of the felling of the great 
forest can hardly be improved 

March and April is the time for 
the farmer who intends to clear any 
new land in order to secure a crop 
of wheat for the succeeding year. If 
therefore he or his family are not 
strong enough for the undertaking 
themselves, they hire out the job to 
persons who are accustomed to it, 
and are always ready at hand and 
easy to find. The common price of 
clearing land, fencing, burning up, 
and making ready for the seed, is 


You can save Sung Soon for ^IS.OO a month* 
Or you can turn the page« 

Sung Soon Choi. 

A ten year old Korean boy. 

Living with his parents and two brothers in a mud and 

straw thatched house. No electricity. No water. No medical 

care. Trying not to let on to his family how hungry he is 

when their meager food is passed around. 

If you ever thought of helping a child like Sung Soon, 
now is the time to do it. For only $15.00 a month, you 
can sponsor a child like Sung Soon. So that he can 
continue his schooling. So that his parents, through an 
interest-free loan, can start raising chickens. To help 
themselves earn more than the twenty-five dollars a 
month they now earn. 

That's what Save the Children Federation is ail about. 
Helping people— indeed, helping entire communities— 
to help themselves. So that the villagers in Sung Soon's 
town can even start to raise cows to benefit everyone. 

And for you, there are many rewards. The chance to 
correspond with a child. To receive a photograph. And 
progress reports. And, above all, knowing you are 
reaching out to another human being. 
That's how Save the Children works. But without you, it 
can't work. So please: clip this coupon and mail it today. 
Now you can turn the page. 

Save the Children Federation, founded in 1932, is 

registered with the U.S. State Department Advisory Committee on 

Voluntary Foreign Aid. Contributions are income tax deductible. 

D boy D girl: 

D Middle East 

D Korea 

n Southern U.S. 

I wish to contribute $15.00 a month to sponsor a 
D Where the need is most urgent n Europe 
D American Indian D Latin America 

D Appalachia D Vietnam 

n Africa D India 

Enclosed is my first payment 

n $15.00 monthly 

a $45.00 quarterly D Instead, enclosed is my contribution of $ 

n $90.00 semi-annually □ Please send me more information. 

D $180.00 annually 





NH 2/2 










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44 Burlews Court Hackensack. N.J. 07601 

ten dollars per acre, one half cash 
and one half store pav or produce. 

-After the ten acres are marked 
out. the men begin the process of 
felling the timber, two men at one 
tree. Thev have the knack of throw- 
ing the falling tree to anv point thev 
wish, and accordinglv thev make it 
dodge against another tree in the di- 
rection thev are clearing, the weight 
of which leaning against the next 
makes it easier to fell. The trees if 
large will average about two hun- 
dred per acre: but. if smaller, per- 
haps three hundred per acre: but all 
the trees are of one height, unless 
some pine trees are growing among 
them; these trees tower over everv 
other tree of the forest, and never 
put out a single branch till thev are 
high above the loftiest oak. beech, 
or maple; and some of the stems of 
these pines measure, before vou 
come to a single branch, upwards of 
200 feet. 

Onward go the men. not heeding 
what sort of wood thev are cutting 
down: thev strike right and left, and 
at the end of a single week thev will 
have felled the whole ten acres. Let 
it be understood that the felling of 
trees in America is not like felling 
them in England, where the timber 
is worth two shillings per square 
foot, and where the woodsman cuts 
as near the root as possible. In 
America thev leave a stump of each 
tree standing about three feet high, 
or just the most convenient height a 
man can more easilv use his axe 
with the most effect. 

\^ hen the whole of the ten acres 
are felled, the next operation of the 
men is to cut off the limbs of the 
trees and pick out what logs will be 
suitable for splitting up for fencing 
rails and for building purposes; and 
if a saw mill is within a come-at- 
able distance, thev will save some 
of the soft wood for that operation; 
or if near a citv. thev will save the 
beech, maple, and hickorv which 
make the best firewood (and some- 
times oak) for that purpose. But we 
will suppose that none of these ad- 
vantages are within reach of this 
clearing: then the men onlv draw as 
much out with oxen as will serve to 
fence the clearing and build a 
shantv for either man or beast: after 
which thev go round among the 
neighbours for five or six miles, and 
invite them to a Logging Bee. 

Thev provide a substantial repast 
of beef. pork, and whiskev against 

the day. The females are also in- 
vited to come in the after part of 
the dav, to take a cup of tea and 
join in the dance at night, and great 
numbers are sure to be collected to- 
gether. Each man appears on the 
appointed dav early in the morning 
with his voke of oxen readv to com- 
mence business; and verv soon a 
large heap of logs are piled up and 
fired; they then commence raising 
another pile and firing that, and so 
they go on till the whole five hun- 
dred vears" growth of the ten acres 
is blazing away like— in short, like 

The owner during this time is 
handing round refreshments to the 
workmen: but there is no stopping 
tOl the whole is on fire. Thev then 
turn their oxen among the grass in a 
neighbouring field or wood still 
coupled together, and betake them- 
selves to the house where their din- 
ner awaits them to which we mav 
suppose thev do ample justice. Af- 
ter thev have sat awhile after din- 
ner, and the whiskev begins to cir- 
culate freelv. some will volunteer a 
song. At last Old Snowball, a duskv 
son of Africa, is called forth, and 
his fiddle being in readiness, each 
man chooses his partner and "off 
she goes" is the order of the day; 
sometimes within doors and some- 
times without and sometimes both, 
the Negro fiddling awav on the door 

This amusement is carried on till 
davlight next morning without in- 
termission. As soon as one partv is 
tired thev retire to chat or liquor 
and make room for another partv. 
The Negro never tires; he is in his 
proper element and rasps awav at 
his cracked straduarius [sic] as if he 
would saw it in two. making at the 
same time such contortions in face 
and limb as would set a whole au- 
dience in a roar of laughter. \^ hen 
davlight appears, then everv man 
catches his oxen and v/ends his 
wearv wav towards his own clear- 
ing, and is ready and willing the 
next dav to join another Logging 
Bee, or to call his neighbours to his 
own assistance. 

The building of a farmer's first 
house is accomplished in the same 
manner: all is done in one dav. and 
thev never leave the house till the 
new farmer and his wife are put to 
bed in their new dwelling. This is 
called a Raising Bee and is univer- 
sallv followed in all the backwoods. 



Lars-Eric Lindblad thinks privacy is 
absolutely essential on an African Safari. 

The thought of large groups of tourists 

in crowded motorcoaches viewing wild animals appalls us. 

Privacy is tlie most precious thing in tiie world and it is hard or impossible to provide in the crowded 
capitals of Europe and Asia. We can offer you thousands of square miles of African game country 
practically all to yourself. A Lars-Eric Lindblad Safari gives you excitement and rare adventure- 
impossible to attain on a trip to London, Paris and Rome, for example. On safari we give you a lion 
all to yourself and you have to share a herd of elephant only with the four companions in your safari vehicfe. 

Wing Safari.* Perhaps the best way to see 
East Africa. It is limited to only ten persons 
and instead of spending days on dusty 
roads you hop from one exciting game 
reserve to another in your "own" private 
aeroplane. We are not dependent on roads— 
therefore we can take you to game areas 
where nobody else goes and you spend all 
your time in Africa seeing and photo- 
graphing animals. 

The Wing Safari has been operated for eight 
years and is without any doubt the one to 
choose if you value privacy and comfort 
with individual attention to your interests. 

Botswana Safari. This is a wing safari limited 
to only nine participants and you are 
unlikely to meet many other tourists. Here 
you see vast herds of animals in the 
Okavango Swamps, at Savuti and on the 
River Khwai. Thousands of birds on 
Lake Ngami. You fish for tiger fish at 

Shakawe and view bushman paintings in the 
remote Tsodilo Hills where there are no 
roads and privacy is guaranteed. 
Value Safari. We realize that some may 
worry about our little aeroplanes and for 
those we have a very special safari— limited 
to 19 and allowing only five to each eight- 
seat safari vehicle. You visit the Murchison 
Falls and Queen Elizabeth Park in Uganda; 
sleep at the foot of snowcapped Mt. 
Kilimanjaro, watch elephants, rhino and 
buffalo coming to drink at a small waterhole 
in the Aberdare Forest in Kenya; and in 
Tanzania you have the fascinating 
Ngorongoro Crater with vast herds of game. 
On the Serengeti Plains you are likely to 
encounter leopards in the trees and you 
spend hours with the blackmaned lions for 
which this part of East Africa is famous. 
There is no vacation like a safari. Avoid the 
crowds and enjoy the beauty of peace and 
quiet in the African plains and forests. 

By the way, all our safaris are accom- 
panied by a Lindblad host. BOAC jets 
fly you in luxurious comfort to these 
expeditions and home. 

Dept NH272 

133 Easl 551h Street 

New York, N. Y. 10022 

Please send brochures. I am seriously inter- 

esteil in: 

□ Wing Safari* □ Botswana Safari 

D Value Safari 






Telephone (Area Co()e)_ 
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Camp on your own piece of ground. 
Build that dream cabin in the woods. 
Get away from it all on a mountain, 
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P.O. Box 14006, Opportunity Station 
Spokane, Washington 99214 

It answers also for making the 
stranger acquainted with his neigh- 
bours, and oftentimes ac- 
quaintances are formed and love 
matches made which continue to 
the end of life. 

When the timber lately growing 
on the land is thoroughly burnt up. 
which generally takes a week to ac- 
complish, if the weather be ever so 
favourable, the ashes are either col- 
lected and sent to the ash factory, 
or if that is so far distant that they 
will cost more carrying there than 
the price will amount to, which is at 
the rate of five cents per bushel, it 
is spread abroad among the stumps, 
levelled as well as the rake can do 
it, and the land is then ready for 
sowing. There is no ploughing or 
harrowing necessary; there are no 
weeds or grass whatever in the 
earth; it is quite bare of vegetation. 
The seed is then thrown on, there is 
no fear of birds stealing any of the 
seeds; there are none worth speak- 
ing of at all, except woodpeckers, 
and they live on the insects bred in 
decayed trees, and will not taste 
grain of any sort. 

The men are now occupied in 
splitting up the logs, saved for that 
purpose, into rails for the fence; 
they use no posts, but a fence of 
light rails piled one upon another in 
zigzag line crossing over one an- 
other's ends at the obtuse angles; 
and a rider on the top of all. This is 
called a legal fence; it is about six 
feet high when completed, and 
though it looks strange and ugly to 
an Englishman accustomed to see a 
nice trimmed hedgerow, wall, or 
picket fence, yet it answers well for 
all intents and purposes of the 
farmer, and is surely both soon put 
up, and repaired afterward with 
very little trouble. 

The stumps still stand in the 
ground, which cannot in general 
again be sown with wheat or grain 
till the expiration of twelve or four- 
teen years, when the roots become 
so decomposed that a yoke of oxen 
will draw the plough, going round 
the stumps and stopping in- 
stantaneously when the plough 
meets with any obstruction. At that 
time the land is found very fa- 
vourable for the growth of Indian 
corn, among which they sow mel- 
ons, squashes, pumpkins, or cucum- 
bers. Grass seeds are sown, after the 
first cropping. Timothy grass and 
clover yield good crops without ma- 

nure, except that a peck of gvpsum 
(plaster of Paris) finely ground into 
powder is sprinkled upon each acre. 
This substance has a surprising ef- 
fect upon these grasses, and you 
may see to a foot where it has been 
laid; it is a very cheap article and 
sells for about 1 dollar to 1V4 dol- 
lars per barrel. 

I have many times, in looking 
over a farm, said to the owner, 
"Why don't you grub up the 
stumps, at all events from this field 
in front of your house?" The answer 
invariably was, "There are from 
200 to 300 stumps per acre, and to 
stub them up would cost at least on 
the average sixty dollars per acre; j 
and if I wanted to sell my land, the 
price which I could obtain for it, 
building included, would be at the 
utmost fifteen dollars per acre; so 
there is no encouragement for 
grubbing up stumps. There is also 
another consideration: if the stumps 
were grubbed up, a hole would be 
made in the earth where the stump 
and roots came out; this hole would ! 
want filling up and levelling, which 
would cost a great deal in labor; but 
if the stump is allowed to rot upon 
the place where it grew it will fill 
up its own hole, so the trouble and 
expense is saved by allowing them 
to decay where they are." 

I should then ask, "How many 
years will it take before your land 
which is already in cultivation will 
be clear of stumps, allowing them 
to decay gradually?" His answer 
would be, "The oak, ash, and hick- 
ory will be sufficiently decayed in 
twenty years; the birch, elm, and 
whitewood in about sixteen years; 
but the pine and chestnut will re- 
main sound in the earth for fifty ' 
years, and then," he would archly 
observe, "they turn to stone." This 
is as much to say that no man alive 
will ever see the stumps of these 
trees eradicated from the land (by I 
operation of time alone) which had ' 
been cleared in his days, even if 
done when he was ever so young. 

The locale described bv Brown is 
almost certainly within the envi- 
rons of present - day Cleveland. 
Ohio. Within a century and a half 
this ground has passed from forest, 
to stump-filled clearing, to farm- 
land, to concrete and crabgrass. 
Such are the cumulative works of 
man, that the mind boggles at deci- 
phering what changes in land use 
another century will bring. ■ 


"Begin, and then the work wiU be completed." Go^r/ze 

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^ ^ 

III- ' 

Tlie Popples 
Are Beautiful 
This Year 

Raising" and 
raw opium has 
iDOCome iDig 
business to many 
hill tribes in 
Thailand, but the 
erop bears seeds 
of misery for the 
farmers as w^ell as 
the consun^ers 

Alain Y. Dessaint 

To harvest opium, an Akha 
woman skillfully makes small 
incisions in the poppy 
capsule. By the time it 
reaches New York in the form 
of illegal heroin, $45 worth 
of opium from these fields 
will cost a dealer $2,000. 

From the remote hill country of 
Southeast Asia and the poppy fields 
of Turkey, to refining laboratories 
in Laos, Singapore, Lebanon, and 
France, to Italy where, courtesy of 
the Mafia, it is smuggled aboard 
ships and planes, heroin comes to 
New York's streets. Once there, it 
moves swiftly through the city in 
readily available supply to meet the 
demand of addicts. As much as 
25,000 pounds of heroin may reach 
the United States in a single year. 

A considerable portion of the 
world's illegal opium comes from 
the small, carefully tended hillside 
fields of the Lisu and other tribes- 
men of northern Thailand. The 
Lisu, like their neighbors the Akha 
and Lahu, are typical of thousands 
of villagers who grow opium pop- 
pies as a major source of livelihood. 
They represent the first link in an 
intricate chain of traders, armed 
caravaneers, middlemen, chemists, 
smugglers, and pushers who operate 
in collusion with customs in- 
spectors, government officials, po- 
lice, and military personnel from 
the mountain fastnesses of inland 
Southeast Asia to the docks and air- 
ports of New York City. Like the 
middlemen and the actual con- 
sumers of opium products, the 
poppy growers themselves have be- 
come deeply dependent on the 
plant. To understand this, it is nec- 
essary to know something about the 
opium trade as it exists today. 

Although opium is harvested in 
many countries, including Turkey, 
Mexico, India, and the Soviet 
Union, a significant portion of the 
world's supply is produced in the 
Golden Triangle of Burma, Laos, 
northern Thailand, and Yunnan 
Province, China. In 1969, the 
United Nations conservatively esti- 
mated that this area produced 
1,000 tons of raw opium annually. 

About 80 percent of this was grown 
in Burma, the only country where it 
is still legal. 

Since then, an astronomic in- 
crease in the demand for opium and 
its derivatives, heroin and mor- 
phine, in the United States, Europe, 
and Vietnam, coupled with recent 
limitations on opium production in 
Turkey, has caused a corresponding 
increase in its production in South- 
east Asia. In response to pressure 
from the United States government, 
Turkey has begun to place restric- 
tions on its flourishing opium indus- 
try, and is expected to outlaw it 
next year. The United States has 
agreed to give Turkey $35 million 
to compensate Turkish peasants 
who refrain from growing opium 
poppies, and to compensate the 
Turkish government for the loss of 
revenue from legal opium exports. 

Between late 1968 and early 
1970, when I lived with Lisu tribes- 
men, the price of raw opium at the 
producing village almost doubled 
from .$24 to $45 a kilogram. Ten 
kilograms of opium can be refined 
to yield a kilogram of morphine 
base, which in turn is transformed 
into heroin with little weight loss. 
Between mid- 1970 and early 1971, 
a kilogram of 96 percent pure 
heroin in the Golden Triangle in- 
creased in price from $1,240 to 
$1,780. The same kilo sells to 
Americans in Vietnam for about 
$6,000; in the United States it sells 
for $20,000 (up from $8,000 just 
four years ago). The retail price 
paid by a user on the street is five to 
ten times higher than this. 

Trade routes between opium-pro- 
ducing villages, such as those of the 
Lisu, and the transshipment camps 
and towns of the Golden Triangle 
are diverse and ever changing. 
Caravans numbering dozens or hun- 
dreds of porters and horses, with an 


equal number of guards, are used 
along mountain paths. River craft, 
fishing junks, and merchant vessels 
ply the Mekong. A truck driver 
may make more money transporting 
opium on one trip than he would in 
two years with other cargo. In Laos, 
most of the opium is now moved 
from villages by a few well-financed 
traders and military pilots, who use 
helicopters or small aircraft. Some 
of this raw opium is parachuted 
directly to drop zones in South 
Vietnam and the Gulf of Thailand. 

Tlie magnitude of the profits to 
be made in the opium trade has al- 
ways attracted profit-oriented con- 
glomerates. Britain went to war 
with China in the nineteenth cen- 
tury to force the acceptance of In- 
dian opium. The colonial govern- 
ments of Britain in Burma and of 
France in Indochina monopolized 
the opium trade. Today in Burma, 
the government and rival insurgent 
groups often squabble over who 
should benefit most from this trade. 

High-ranking Vietnamese offi- 
cials and American officers have 
smuggled opium or participated in 
reaping the profits. The Communist 
Vietnamese have used opium to fi- 
nance their operations against both 


the French and the Americans. The 
Royal Lao Air Force has devoted 
much of its energy to organizing the 
opium industry in Laos, although 
production is reported down be- 
cause much of the growing area is 
presently controlled by the Pathet 
Lao. Conflict between Lao villagers, 
for example, between the Commu- 
nist-backed Meo of Faydang and 
the American-backed Meo of Vang 
Pao, has centered mainly ai^ound ef- 
forts to secure the best opium-pro- 
ducing lands. 

Much of the insurgency among 
some highland minorities in 
northern Thailand has arisen from 
their fears concerning their opium 
lands and the future of their opium 
trade as thev feel the pinch of tight- 
ening government controls. Troop 
movements throughout the Golden 
Triangle can often be correlated 
with opium harvests. For an out- 
sider, much of the politics of the 
area can best be understood from 
the viewpoint of the opium trade. 

Major entrepreneurs in the 
opium trade are remnants of 
Kuomintang forces that fled south 
after the armies of Mao Tse Tung 
gained control of Yunnan Province 
in 1949-50. Today these men are 
organized into autonomous armies, 
which effectively control strategic 
areas of eastern Burma and 
northern Thailand and maintain 
representatives in many opium-pro- 
ducing mountain villages. For ex- 
ample, the main camp of the Kuo- 
mintang 93rd Division has all the 
appearance of a prosperous town. 
Several hundred houses are scat- 
tered over the rolling hills, inter- 
rupted only by an airstrip and a 
well-built schoolhouse flanked by 
basketball courts. But in this town, 
today called Mae Salong, guards 
armed with U.S. carbines register 
all visitors before allowing them to 
enter. These guards also accompany 
the caravans of small, hardy moun- 
tain ponies and mules that supply 
remote villages with the necessities 
of life in return for their opium har- 
vests. Once the opium is obtained, 
it is then transported to the head of 
the motor road where the Kuo- 
mintang maintain warehouses and 

Because of its effective control 
over this territory, the Kuomintang 

are usually able to levy heavy tolls 
on rival traders. It has been re- 
ported that when, in July, 1967, a 
large Shan caravan from Burma at- 
tempted to bypass the toll collectors 
by using a circuitous route through 
Laos, a thousand Kuomintang 
troops were dispatched to intercept 
it. Unfortunately for the Kuomin- 
tang, however, the battle reportedly 
attracted the attention of the local 
Lao military commander, who or- 
dered T-28 planes to strafe both 
sides. More than 300 Chinese and 
Shan were killed, and the Lao gen- 
eral collected his own toll of some 

The initial refining of raw opium 
is a simple boiling process, which 
can be done either in the producing 
village or at the transshipment 
point. Further processing into mor- 
phine and heroin takes place only 
in a few dozen refineries because it 
requires exact instruments, supplies 
of acetic anhydride, and specialists 
with some knowledge of chemistry. 
In the past, these refineries were lo- 
cated in such places as Hong Kong, 
Singapore, Saigon, and various 
cities in Europe, but in the last few 
years some have been built nearer 
to the areas of production, espe- 
cially near Mae Sai on the Thai- 
Burma border and along the Me- 
kong River near Ban Houei Sai, 
Luang Prabang, and Vientiane in 
Laos. From such towns and refin- 
eries in the Golden Triangle, 
opium, morphine, and heroin are 
smuggled by every conceivable 
means to Bangkok, Phnompenh, 
Saigon, Singapore, Hong Kong, and 
on to distant markets in the United 
States, Canada, and Latin America. 

These refineries have become so 

This innocent-looking flower 

is the source of the drug 

that, in one way or another, 

so drastically affects the 

lives of many people. 

For a bountiful harvest 

that will make him rich, a 

Lisu man. above, prays to 

the local spirits who have 

allowed him to use the land. 

Lisu women, above right. 

make many passes through 

a field to gather opium 

from the capsules. Poppy 

seeds carefully collected 

and stored, insure an Akha 

farmer's next crop, far right. 

expert that they now produce 
heroin rated 96 to 97 percent pure. 
This remarkable technical achieve- 
ment was motivated by the Ameri- 
can market in Vietnam, smaller but 
more lucrative than the poorer mar- 
ket of Chinese opium smokers. In 
past years, much of the opium was 
consumed by Chinese (there are 
still more than 100,000 addicts in 
Hong Kong alone), but with in- 
creasing government controls, 
many have switched to heroin, 
which is easier to transport and 

conceal since it is more con- 
centrated and less aromatic. 

Everywhere, opium seriously— 
and too often destructively— affects 
the lives of those involved with its 
use as a drug. For the person who 
requires it for the escape it offers 
from a life of misery, death 
frequently becomes the only real es- 
cape. Middlemen are lured bv the 
attractive profits to be made dealing 
in opium or heroin, and are thus 
drawn into a business that is risky 
both because the drug is illegal 
nearly everywhere and because of 
the threat of rival entrepreneurs. 

For the villagers who grow and 
market raw opium, such as the Lisu 
of northern Thailand, dependence 
on opium production creates fore- 
boding and uncertain prospects for 
their future. In recent years, some 
Lisu have managed to attain a sur- 
prisingly high standard of living by 
cultivating poppies. Modern mate- 
rial goods, medicines, and other 

conveniences are within the eco- 
nomic grasp of more and more 
mountain folk, even in the remotest 
villages. But opium production has 
enmeshed them in an external 
money economy dominated by 
forces they do not understand, and 
serious demands placed on tradi- 
tional agricultural practices 
threaten to undermine the eco- 
nomic well-being of the Lisu. 

Lisu tribesmen were not always 
prosperous opium farmers. When 
they moved south from the Shan 
states of Burma in the early years of 
this century, they were denied ac- 
cess to the rich, rice-producing val- 
leys of northern Thailand bv the 
more numerous and politically pow- 
erful Yuan. Shan. Lue. and Chinese 
already in the area. The thin soils 
and steep slopes of the marginal 
highlands, where the Lisu were 
forced to settle, made it impossible 
to raise sufficient rice and other 
food crops. Acutely awai-e of being 




a people without a country, the 
11,000 or so Lisu who Uved inter- 
spersed among other highlanders 
turned instead to the lucrative busi- 
ness of raising opium. 

At Evil Peaks, the Lisu village in 
which I lived for a year and a half, 
an analysis of labor input and crop 
yields revealed that labor expended 
in opium production was almost 
twice as rewarding as that expended 
in cultivating rice, a fact the Lisu 
recognized long ago. Only a small 
percentage of the households at Evil 
Peaks were self-sufficient in rice, 
while nearly all households de- 
pended on opium for the bulk of 
their income. After the opium was 
sold, rice, clothing, and other 
necessities were bought from the 
valley-dwelling Yuan or Shan. 

To know the Lisu, one must un- 
derstand their shifting agriculture. 
The basic Lisu economic unit is the 
household, consisting of a husband 
and wife, unmarried children, and 

perhaps a relative or two. Normally, 
the youngest married son and his 
family also remain in the house- 
hold, continuing it into the next 
generation. Each household works 
its own fields, usually one rice field 
and two or more opium fields, in 
which maize and vegetables may 
also be planted. Fields are selected 
each year early in the dry season 
(December or January), and any 
person may choose any plot of 
unused land he wishes. There is no 
block of village fields. 

Lisu fields and those of neighbor- 

ing Lahu, Akha, and Kciren are of- 
ten side by side, and sometimes 
fields are given or sold across ethnic 
boundaries, although such transac- 
tions are not registered and have no 
sanction under Thai law. Once a 
Lisu has chosen and cleared a field, 
he has traditional, exclusive rights 
of ownership for as long as he lives 
in the same village, even if the field 
is fallow. Any dispute arising over 
land or boundaries is settled by mu- 
tual agreement or by the village 
headman. The disputes are dis- 
cussed over many cups of rice and 


maize liquor, which lubricates the 
conversation and stupefies the 
quarrelsome. The headman must at- 
tempt to reach a settlement ac- 
ceptable to all involved, otherwise 
the offended mav resort to violence 
or emigrate from the village. 

The Lisu farmer is highly ra- 
tional in choosing a field. He con- 
siders such factors as soil color and 
texture, the presence of specific 
plants and bamboos associated with 
potentiallv good fields, the absence 
of pests— rats, monkeys, and Hi- 
malayan bears— as well as human 
thieves and spirits who cause acci- 
dents or poor harvests. The Lisu 
utilize land only temporarily, with 
the permission of local spirits to 
whom thev address prayers during 
each phase of cultivation. 

Opium fields are generally clus- 
tered near the highest mountain 
ridges: at this latitude, opium pop- 
pies grow best at altitudes above 
3,000 feet. Rice fields are cleared 
at lower elevations, often along 
mountain streams. After the land is 
cleared, the cut vegetation is al- 
lowed to drv, and at the beginning 
of the wet season (April or Mav), 
the fields are fired. Shortly after, 
rice is planted on low fields, maize 
on high fields. During the rainv sea- 
son, the fields are weeded, and the 
maize fields hoed in preparation for 
the planting of opium, which takes 
place just before the rains stop 
(September and October). Poppv 
seeds are scattered and the soil 
hoed over; the still-standing maize 
protects the young plants. Shortly 
afterward, rice is reaped and 
threshed. This is a busy time, and it 
is not unusual for Lisu to set out for 
their fields at three or four o'clock 
in the morning. 

Opium fields must be thoroughly 
and constantly weeded and thinned, 
either by hand or with short-han- 
dled hoes. Many households stagger 
the times of opium planting to 
spread out the labor requirements 
and to insure that the whole crop 
will not be ruined by short-term 
variations in rain and sunlight. The 
long days in the opium fields are 
also spent cultivating vegetables: 
mustard greens, cucumbers, and 
squashes (whose leaves are eaten), 
cabbages, beans, dwarf tomatoes, 
potatoes, taro, yams, garlics, on- 


ions, and chUi peppers. Young 
poppy leaves are also eaten. 

Opium is readv to tap in Decem- 
ber, and tapping continues through 
Januarv and February. Entire 
mountainsides are covered with 
white and purple poppies swaying 
with the wind, and the Lisu com- 
ment enthusiastically on the beauty 
of the fields, the promise of a good 
harvest. A few davs after the petals 
of a poppy fall, the capsule (a 
greenish, squashed sphere) is ex- 
posed. These capsules are examined 
daily to determine the best time to 
begin tapping. Scored too early, the 
milky resin is too thin and runs to 
the ground; scored too late, the 
opium loses strength. Scoring the 
opium poppv is the most exacting of 
any Lisu agricultural task, and the 
Lisu claim that only they and the 
Meo and Yao are adept at it. 

Using small, curved blades, an 
incision is carefully made in the 
capsule. If the incision is too deep, 
the resin will run out on the 
ground, but if it is too shallow, it 
will harden in the capsule. Both 
mishaps ruin the capsule. Scoring 
must take place under a bright sun 
so that the resin exudes and con- 
geals. On the following day, the 
juice, which has hardened and 
turned a yellowish brown, is col- 
lected with a curved scraper made 
of bamboo or old kerosine tins. 
Spitting on his fingers, the collector 
moves the sticky opium to the back 
of the blade. When the broad blade 
is piled high, the opium is WTapped 
Continued on page 92 

Addiction is not a serious 

problem for most highland 

people, and those who smoke 

opium are often, like this 

Akha, older men. Such a scene 

is more common in Hong 

Kong or Singapore where, to 

Chinese addicts, opium is the 

most important thing in life. 

Predators of tlie Serenaeti: Part 1 

The Social Carnivore 

Lions have evolved complex group behavior 

to survive on the shifting nun^bers 

of large and sn:iall prey in their habitat 

by George B. Schaller 

Predation greatly influences the 
dynamics of animal populations, yet 
there have been surprisingly few 
documented studies on the impact 
of large carnivores on populations 
of hoofed animals. The large 
predators have either been exalted 
for their beauty or damned for the 
harm they supposedly do to those 
wild animals in which man has a 
vested interest. 

To observe a lion rush from con- 
cealment and, in a flurry of vio- 

lence, bring down a zebra, or to 
watch a pack of wild dogs pursue 
and catch a gazelle, is loathsome to 
some observers but beautiful to oth- 
ers, who admire the precision of 
these actions, the unrestrained yet 
dispassionate vitality of the mo- 
ment. Predation, however, must be 
judged, not by emotional reactions 
toward individuals, but on the basis 
of its effect on populations. 

In 1966 John Owen, director of 
the Tanzania National Parks, in- 

'S^ 1972 by The University of Chicago. 
All rights reserved. Adapted from The 
Serengeti Lion, to be published later this 
year by the University of Chicago Press. 

After a tension-filled 
stalk, a lioness charges 
a herd of zebra on the 
Serengeti Plains. If the 
fleet zebras have more 
than a few seconds to 
escape, she has almost no 
chance of catching one. 


'-^.-SJO- */**•■*,' 

With a lunge at a zebras neck, 
a lioness pulls it down. 
Death by strangulation often 
follows. The zebra is one of 
the most important food 
sources for Serengeti lions. 

The lioness' flattened ears and 
lowered head are a strong 
warning against intruders. 
Single lions, especially, 
must guard their kill 
vigorously against hyenas. 

vited me to join the Serengeti Re- 
search Institute to make a three- 
year study of lions in the Serengeti 
National Park, especially to answer 
the question, "What effect does lion 
predation have on prey popu- 
lations?" The park administration 
was interested in maintaining the 
lion, the major predator in the 
park, while preserving the region's 
million or so hoofed animals, prob- 
ably the largest such concentration 
in the world. 

To determine the effects of lion 
predation was a complex endeavor 
for, among other problems, five spe- 
cies of large predators preyed on 
some twenty species of hoofed ani- 
mals in the Serengeti region. This is 
in contrast to North American pre- 
dation studies, which deal with only 
one carnivore subsisting mainly on 
one or two kinds of prey. 

The Serengeti, with its flat- 
topped acacias and huge herds of 
animals, is the quintessence of Af- 
rica, a region of light and space that 
makes research there an esthetically 
rewarding experience. The preda- 
tors add tension to this scene, en- 
hancing its vitality with their aura 
of impending violence. There is the 
lion: indolent, "radiating a kind of 
lazy, lordly power born of the care- 
lessness of authority," as Maitland 
Edey phrased it. In contrast, the 
leopard seems a furtive creature of 
the moon, and the cheetah an ele- 
gant aristocrat. In recent years the 
spotted hyena has metamorphosed 
in the public eye from a mobile gar- 
bage bin into a powerful and skilled 
hunter, gaining a measure of re- 
spect in spite of its "botched and 
skulking form." There, too, is the 
wild dog, whose mere existence 
arouses abhorrence and intemper- 
ance even in such a conservationist 
as Carl Akeley, who said after 
shooting down a whole pack, 
"That's the first shooting on this 
whole trip that I've enjoyed." 

These predators, each so differ- 
ent in the superficial impression 
they convey, differ also in their 
habits, thereby raising the innumer- 
able biological questions without 
which even the most interesting re- 
search would become routine. As I 
began to recognize many of the ani- 
mals individually, the study moved 
from an abstract plane— with an em- 

phasis on collecting quantitative 
data— to a more emotional and, 
hence, more satisfying one. Know- 
ing the historv of many animals, I 
empathized with their problems. I 
anticipated their future. Male No. 
134. for example, is to me not 
merely a nomadic lion, which 
gained and lost a territorv, but a liv- 
ing entity, a part of the vastness of 
the plains and the kopjes, the small 
hills, that jut from them. He repre- 
sents memories of the immense si- 
lence of night when even his foot- 
steps were noisy interruptions; of 
the heat waves at noon trans- 
forming distant granite boulders 
into visions of castles, and zebra 
into lean Giacometti sculptures. 

The Serengeti region is a vast, 
austere area of plains and hills in 
northern Tanzania. Stretching west- 
ward for some 100 miles from the 
Crater Highlands and the Rift Val- 
ley are the Serengeti Plains, cov- 
ering some 3,200 square miles. 
When verdant and covered from 
horizon to horizon with herds of 
wildebeest, zebra, and gazelle, 
the plains surely present one of the 
loveliest sights on earth. 

At their western boundary, hills 
rise abruptly to a height of 1,000 
feet above the level of the Duma 
and Mbalageti rivers. To the north 
are other hill ranges, which run east 
and west down the Corridor, as this 
area of the park is called. These 
hills are dry and barren after the 
grass has burned each year. The 
northern part of the park, called the 
Northern Extension, is gently roll- 
ing and cut by numerous streams. 
Confined to a narrow strip along 
both banks of most streams is riv- 
erine forest. The canopy ranges 
from 30 to 80 feet in height and is 
often dense with numerous trees, 
saplings, shrubs, creepers, and 
forbs growing in profusion to 
ground level. Fires burn through 
most of the woodlands during the 
dry season, leaving the terrain open 
with little cover behind which 
predators can stalk their prey. The 
dense vegetation along the rivers 
persists, however, and this the cats 
use when approaching animals that 
have descended to the stream bed 
to drink. 

The average year is divided into 
a dry season, from June to October, 

followed bv a period of rain in No- 
vember and December. Januarv and 
February tend to be dry with onlv 
occasional showers. About one- 
third to nearly one-half of the total 
annual precipitation falls from 
March to May. Tlie seasons vary 
considerably each year from this av- 
erage pattern, primarily as a result 
of the erratic and unreliable appear- 
ance of the rains. 

During the height of the dry sea- 
son, the plains present a bleak ap- 
pearance. The long grasslands have 
been, burned, leaving the ground 
black and bare except for occa- 
sional scorched tufts. The dry 
stubble crackles underfoot. Wind 
whips over the rises, and sandy-col- 
ored dust devils spin along. Now 
and then an ostrich appears, vibrat- 
ing in the heat haze on the gray 
horizon. The woodlands dry up pro- 
gressively. Fires, set bv man, both 
inside and outside the park, burn 
over three-fourths of the woodlands 
between June and October, elimi- 
nating the dry grass, killing sap- 
lings, and leaving dead trees as ashy 
skeletons on the ground. The mi- 
grating prey move ceaselessly, first 
west, then north, feeding on the dry 
grasses that remain or concen- 
trating in an area where a local 
shower has stimulated a flush of 

Towering thunderclouds bal- 
anced on black columns of rain her- 
ald the onset of the wet season in 
late October or November. With 
heavy rains in late November and 
December, the woodlands and 
plains are suddenly transformed 
from the predominating colors of 
black and gray to an intense green 
as the grasses and the leaves of 
trees sprout anew. The migratory 
species flood back onto the plains. 
With the variable weather from Jan- 
uary to May, the plains may be ei- 
ther wet or dry. The herds eddy 
back and forth, retreating westward 
and southward into the woodland 
during a dry spell, only to surge out 
into the open once more with re- 
newed rain. This pattern continues 
until the onset of the dry season. 
Th(^s(> movements of prey 
profoundlv influence the behavior 
of the lion and other predators of 
the Serengeti. 

Exceeded in length and weight 


onlv bv the tiger, the Hon is the sec- 
ond largest fehne predator in the 
world. Within historic times it was 
distributed from Greece throughout 
the Neai' East to India and over 
much of Africa except in the driest 
deserts and in the rain forests. 

The lions of central Europe— 
whose profile man scratched into 
the cave walls in France more than 
15.000 vears ago— died out before 
historic times. Thev survived in Pal- 
estine until the Crusades and well 
into this centurv in Svria, Iraq, and 
Iran. The onlv known population of 
the Asiatic lion occurs now in the 
Gir Sanctuarv of Gu jurat State in 
India, where about 175 animals 
represent the remnants of a popu- 
lation that 150 vears ago was 
widelv spread over the northern 
half of the countrv. 

In Africa, however, lions contin- 
ued to suryive in the vast wood- 
lands and plains. Of the ten recog- 
nized subspecies of African lion, 
onlv two. the Berbef li'on of North 
Africa and the Cape lion of South 
Africa have become extinct. In re- 
cent vears ^giiculturists have elimi- 
nated much lipn habitat, and pasto- 
ralists with their livestock are 
coming into increasing conflict with 
the cats, but huge tracts of land 
both inside and outside of reserves 
still harbor them. Particularlv in 
Kenva and Tanzania, the lion leads 
a natural life, roaming at will 
and preving largelv on the local 

Konrad Lorenz has written. 
■'Tliere are certain things in Nature 
in which beautv and utilitv. artistic 
and technical perfection, coiubine 
in some incomprehensible wav, the 
web of a spider, the wing of a 
dragon-flv, the superblv streamlined 
bodv of the porpoise, and the move- 
ments of a cat." And at no time is 
such movement more vitally beau- 
tiful than when a lion tautlv snakes 
toward prev. I found the fleeting 
hesitation between the end of a 
stalk and the final explosive rush a 
moment of almost unbearable ten- 
sion, a drama in which it was im- 
possible not to participate emo- 
tionally, knowing that the death of 
a being hung in the balance. 

The success or failure of a hunt 
depends as much on the response of 
the prev to the lion as on the behav- 

ior of the cat itself. While a lion is 
well endowed with claws and teeth 
to grasp and kill prev, it lacks 
speed. This fact is clearlv recog- 
nized bv the various hoofed ani- 
mals. In most instances lions can 
capture an animal onlv if they can 
approach it so closely that it has no 
time to attain full running speed be- 
fore being grabbed. 

As long as lions are visible to 
them, prev behave in a remarkablv 
casual manner. Resting lions are 
usuallv ignored, and a tvpical sight 
on the plains is some lions encircled 
bv grazing wildebeest and zebra 
slightlv more than 100 vards awav. 

Because of the prev's fleetness 
and keen senses, lions must seek 
everv possible advantage to catch 
an animal. Lions hunt mainlv at 
night, unquestionablv because they 
are able to stalk with greater chance 
of success under the cover of dark- 
ness. Lions appear to be aware of 
the advantage that darkness gives 
them. Thev frequently watch prey 
in late afternoon onlv to wait until 
dusk before hunting. 

The height and densitv of vegeta- 
tion influence the ease with which 
lions can stalk without being de- 
tected. About three-quarters of the 
animals taken on the open plains 
were near some low cover when 
caught. About one-third of the kills 
in the woodlands were made near a 
river where the dense vegetation 
and broken terrain enable lions to 
stalk undetected. 

Buffalo, particularlv solitarv bull 
buffalo, concentrate their activity 
along river courses and therefore 
are often killed there. Other species 
also favor riverine habitat or con- 
centrate there during the dry sea- 
son. Thus, these narrow strips of 
shrubs and trees provide lions with 
prev out of all proportion to the 
land area thev cover. 

Lions are catholic in their tastes, 
and the prev thev kill ranges from 
crocodiles, guinea fowl, hares, and 
baboons to various antelopes, buf- 
falo, and on occasion, other lions. 
Between 1966 and 1969. the Ser- 
engeti lions were known to have 
eaten eighteen kinds of mammals 
and four kinds of birds. Prior to mv 
study, thev once killed and ate a 
yearhng rhinoceros, a porcupine, 
and a leopard cub. but they prey 

mainly on wildebeest, zebra, buf- 
falo, and topi. 

Tire size of prev conspicuouslv 
influences the food habits of lions. 
An adult elephant weighs 7,500 
pounds and more, a hippopotamus 
at least 4.000 pounds, and giraffe 
and rhinoceros usuallv more than 
2,000 pounds. These species are so 
large— and adults mav defend their 
voung so vigorously- that lions 
rarelv prey on them, except for 
small numbers of giraffe. Prev that 
weighs more than 2,000 pounds is 
relatively safe from lions and. in 
fact, has almost escaped the in- 
fluence of predation in general. 

At the other extreme, small 
mammals and birds are not hunted 
much, undoubtedly because the 
energy output in trying to subsist 
on, for example, hares or dik-dik is 
not commensurate with the input. 
Lions do capture gazelle fawns 
weighing a few pounds, but onlv in- 
cidentallv. In the absence of other 
prev, lion prides around Seronera, 
the Serengeti Park headquarters, 
mav subsist for long periods on 
Thomson's gazelles weighing 30 to 
50 pounds. The usual prev size thus 
ranges from about 30 to 2,000 

It was once thought that lions 
follow the moving prey, but ac- 
tually only a small nomadic seg- 
ment of the lion population follows 
the migratory herds. Most wilde- 
beest, zebra, and Thomson's ga- 
zelle—about 62 percent of the prey 
biomass— are migratory and un- 
available to most lions for part of 
the yeai". Since movements of prey 
are largely influenced by erratic 
weather, availabihtv of the migra- 
tory herds is usually a matter of 

In addition to killing their own 
prev, lions readily scavenge from 
other predators and eat animals that 
have died from disease and other 
causes. This accounts for about one- 
fifth of their food items. The effect 
of VTiltures on the food habits of 
lions needs special comment. With 
many birds gorging on a zebra or 
wildebeest, little meat mav be left 
for a predator after an hour. Much 
of a vulture's food consists of ani- 
mals that have died of disease or 
malnutrition. If there were no vul- 
tures, such carcasses could provide 


Food items 

(killed and scavenged) eaten 

by lions in various parts o 

f the Serengeli 

Park (percentages are in parentheses). 



ai and 

Edge of 













(37. .3) 

22 (.32.8) 

10 (47.6) 








21 (31.3) 

3 (143) 

Thomson's g 







3 (45) 






5 (7.5) 

7 (.33.3) 








4 (6.0) 

1 (48) 






4 (6.0) 






1 (1.4) 

Grant's g. 



















5 (7.5) 






2 (3.0) 

















■ (-2) 














Guinea fowl 



Sand grouse 



Saddle-bill stork 









lions with an appreciable amount of 

In the daytime, any kill in the 
open is kept under constant surveil- 
lance by vultures. A few birds may 
wait nearby, but often none are in 
sight until lions leave the vicinitv of 
a carcass. When the lions have left, 
white-backed and Ruppell's vul- 
tures plummet from the sky, the 
movement and possibly the noise 
alerting vultures for many miles in 
all directions, with the result that a 
few minutes later the remains are 
covered with a writhing, hissing 
mass of birds. Lions may be de- 
prived of a second meal from a kill 
if for some reason they fail to guard 
it closely. 

Lions, like hyenas and wild dogs, 
are vulture-watchers. If several 
birds fly past and land nearby or if 
they descend suddenly from the 
sky, a lion may trot over and in- 
vestigate the site. One male, for ex- 
ample, hurried toward several vul- 
tures a half-mile away only to find, 
after much sniffing and searching, 
the solitary rib of a gazelle. At other 
times, vultures have finished the 
meat or a hyena has snatched, and 

departed with, the remains. Often, 
however, a meal is to be had. In this 
respect vultures benefit lions, but I 
would estimate that, on the whole, 
lions lose inore food from vultures 
than they gain. 

Zebra inake up about 25 percent 
of the total migratory wildebeest 
and zebra population, yet 38 per- 
cent of the kills of these two species 
on the plains consisted of zebra, 
and at Seronera and in the wood- 
lands the figures were 42 percent. 
Tlie zebra's importance to the lion 
becomes even more apparent when 
multiple killings are considered, 
those in which lions capture more 
than one animal during a coopera- 
tive rush. Thirty-four percent of the 
wildebeest kills were multiple ones. 
Of the zebra killings, only 10 per- 
cent were multiples. If food items 
are tallied on the basis of the num- 
ber of successful hunts rather than 
the number of animals killed, wil- 
debeest and zebra would contribute 
almost equally. The greater propor- 
tion of zebra over wildebeest in the 
kill sample is largely due to the 
greater availability of the zebra 
throughout the Serengeti at all 

times of the year, which makes it 
the most important prey animal for 
the lion, although it onlv ranks 
third in number available. 

If the various species are rated 
on an annual basis in terms of 
pounds of food thev provide to lions 
tiiroughout the Serengeti, my guess 
would be as follows: zebra, 30 per- 
cent; wildebeest, 20-25; buffalo, 
15; Thomson's gazelle, 2.5; and 
other species, 27.5-32.5. The fig- 
ure for gazelle may seem low, but 
lions prefer large prey, killing ga- 
zelle either incidentally or, around 
Seronera. out of necessity for a 
brief period each year. 

Lionesses hunt proportionatelv 
more often than do males. In 71 
hunts by single lions that were in 
groups of mixed sex, males took the 
initiative only twice. Out of a total 
of 1,210 lions observed stalking 
and running, only 3 percent were 
males and none participated in driv- 
ing or ambushing. Males, however, 
respond quicklv to an unexpected 
opportunitv. Nomadic males must 
of necessity kill more for them- 
selves. Here are some examples of 
various hunting methods I have ob- 

Unexpected hunting: A lioness 
was walking along a river when two 
Thomson's gazelle rushed up the 
embankment in front of her. She 
lunged, and sliding sideways 
hooked a gazelle in midair with two 
claws. It crashed on its side and she 
grabbed it with both paws while si- 
multaneouslv biting it in the nape. 
A zebra foal slept so deeply that it 
failed to hear its family move away 
and awakened onlv brieflv after a 
inale lion pounced on it. 

Ambushing: At 8:3.5 .'K.M., a lion- 
ess sits in a small patch of by 
a river watching several gazelle at a 
distance of fifty yards. At 5:50 P.M. 
she is still there, crouching as five 
gazelle approach cautiouslv. alter- 
nately walking and slopping. A 
male gazelle descends the embank- 
ment, closely followed by a female. 
The lioness raises herself slowh. 
onlv her head above the grass, and 
when the female gazelle passes at 
five yards, the lioness rushes. The 
g;izelle leaps forward and the lion- 
ess misses, but using her momen- 
tum swerves and bowls over the 
male. She hauls him up tli<' i-tn- 


bankment where he ceases to kick. 

Driving: About 20 gazelle moved 
into a cul-de-sac between the junc- 
tion of two creeks. Two lionesses 
seventy yards away walked toward 
them slowly without attempting to 
conceal themselves. The gazelle 
first retreated, but then instead of 
crossing one of the creeks, most of 
the gazelle raced back toward the 
lions. One lioness rushed, missed, 
pursued another gazelle, and failed 
again. But two male gazelle tarried 
and a lioness chased one of them 
sixty vards while he seemed unde- 
cided about an escape route. Finally 
he entered a reedbed where he was 

Digging: One night at 12:35 
A.M., the Masai pride was moving 
across the plains when a lioness 
stopped and began to dig at the en- 
trance of a burrow. Two lionesses 
joined her. One lioness dug vigor- 
ously until at 1:35 A.M., some three 
yards of tunnel were exposed. She 
looked in the hole, jerked back, 
ducked in again, and grabbed some- 
thing. Her body grew taut with the 
strain of pulling. She retained her 
hold for eight minutes until she was 
finally able to pull out a screaming 
adult female warthog by the nape. 

Grabbing prey in water: On two 
occasions a lioness plucked a swim- 
ming gazelle from a river. 

Running by single lions: Four li- 
onesses and five cubs were walking 
in single file along a road. One saw 
some fifty gazelles, about 150 vards 
away on a sloping riverbank leading 
to a waterhole. She ran toward 
them. Most of the gazelles fled, but 
a few remained by the water, un- 
able to see the lioness until she 
rushed over the crest of the em- 
bankment and captured a male. 

Stalking by single lions: Per- 
haps the most striking aspect of a 
stalking lioness' behavior is the care 
with which she watches prey. She 
advances when it lowers its head to 
graze or stands facing away from 
her. If an animal suddenly becomes 
alert, she halts, sometimes standing 
motionless with paw raised in 
midstride. She is fully aware of the 
advantage that cover confers, and 
when prey moves behind some 
shrubs or out of sight into a ravine, 
she may run closer. For example: A 
lioness sees eight kongoni some 500 

yards away, and she lies and 
watches them. When they move to a 
waterhole partly hidden bv tufts of 
grass and acacia saplings, the lion- 
ess immediately trots closer in a 
semicrouch and from a distance of 
forty yards rushes at full speed. The 
kongoni scatter. She follows one 
and swipes with a forepaw but 
misses. All escape, only to halt sixty 
vards away and watch her sitting bv 
the river. 

Communal hunting: When sev- 
eral lions spot potential quarry they 
characteristically fan out and ap- 
proach on a broad front, sometimes 
spread over 200 vards of terrain. 
By spreading out widely, lions in- 
crease their chances of coming into 
contact with prey, as shown in this 
example: At 6:45 P.M., five lion- 
esses and a male see a herd of some 
sixty wildebeest more than a mile 
away, just black dots moving 
against the yellow-gray plains. The 
lions walk slowly toward them. At 
dusk the wildebeest bunch up. The 
last light has faded at 7:30 when 
the lions stop 300 vards from the 
herd. The lionesses fan out and ad- 
vance at a walk in a front 170 vards 
wide, the male 65 yards behind 
them. WTien they are 200 yards 
from the herd, they crouch, and I 
can see only an occasional head as 
thev stalk closer: the male remains 
standing. Five minutes later, a fe- 
male on the left flank rushes and 
catches a wildebeest. The herd bolts 
to the right and two lionesses and 
the male run at an angle pursuing 
the wildebeest about 100 yards 
without success. 

Cooperation, while clearly evi- 
dent, is relatively simple in nature. 
On 29 occasions during my study, 
one or more lionesses encircled the 
prey, sometimes by detouring far to 
one side. The other lions waited 
during the flanking movement as if 
in anticipation of prey fleeing in 
their direction. 

The success rate is determined 
by the hunting method. Unexpected 
hunts are highly productive (61 per- 
cent success), as are such minor 
ways of obtaining food as digging 
for warthog. Stalking by single 
lions, driving, and ambushing are 
equally successful (17-19 percent), 
but running bv single lions shows a 
low return (8 percent). When two 

or more lions hunt together, their 
success is 30 percent, an important 
figure not only because it is sizable 
but also because this method of 
hunting is responsible for nearly 
half of all attempts. Large lion 
groups do not catch prev more suc- 
cessfully than small ones, but there 
is an increase in the actual number 
of animals captured. 

Although solitary lions may on 
occasion successfully attack adult 
giraffe and buffalo, these species are 
usually hunted cooperatively. I saw 
lions stalk or chase giraffe on ten 
occasions, none of them successful. 

Buffalo may defend themselves 
against lions and may even attack 
in return. On two occasions, the 
Masai pride surrounded a solitary 
bull while he stood facing the lions, 
his rump against a tree. Some 
twenty minutes later, he walked off 
unmolested. When a male lion 
rushed at a solitary cow buffalo he 
had surprised in a thicket, she ran 
into a nearby stream and stood in 
the water facing him. He left. She 
had a large raw wound on her back, 
undoubtedly the result of an earlier 
lion attack. Wounds on the shoul- 
ders and back of buffalo are not in- 
frequent and these attest to the dif- 
ficulty that lions have in subduing 
the animals. 

I observed seven attacks on buf- 
falo, of which one was successful. 
At eight o'clock one morning, I 
found fourteen lions of the Magadi 
pride at the edge of a marshy area 
about twenty yards from a bull buf- 
falo standing belly-deep in mud and 
water. Deep lacerations covered his 
muzzle and rump, his hocks were 
shredded, and his shoulders full of 
bites, all the result of an earlier at- 

A cub plays with the remains 

of a freshly killed zebra on 

the Serengeti. Lion social 

organization is crucial for 

the siu-vival of many cubs. 


'^ it 


/ k ./ '' 

-Al« \ 

tack that morning. He faced the 
lions and grunted each time one 
moved. One lioness approached to 
within five yards of him but re- 
treated when her paws got wet. At 
9:25 A.M., five nomadic males 
chased the pride away; then re- 
turned to the buffalo at 10:10 and 
lay six to ten yards from him. Fif- 
teen minutes later, he walked 
slowly toward the lions, a suicidal 
gesture. One male grabbed his 
rump; another placed a paw over 
his back and bit his shoulder. The 
buffalo sank to his knees. A lion 
then clambered up on the lower 
back of the animal, bit him there 
and leaned to one side as if attempt- 
ing to turn him over. Meanwhile 
the other lion first licked blood off 
the old wounds on the buffalo's 
shoulder, then bit there again. The 
buffalo bellowed, yet made no at- 
tempt to defend himself. The two 
males then pulled him on his side, 
slowly, methodically, without vio- 
lent movements. One grabbed a 
foreleg and turned him fully on his 
back. The third and fourth males 
joined; one bit the buffalo in the 
throat, the other held the buffalo's 
nose and mouth shut with his teeth. 
The fifth male did nothing. After 
ten minutes, at 10:40 A.M., the buf- 
falo died. 

In general, social attributes assist 
lions in obtaining food, the single 
most important requirement in 
their day-to-day existence. Several 
individuals are more successful as 
hunters than is a lone lion, and they 
are also able to kill larger prey. Be- 
cause hyenas are less likely to drive 


■ '4 

'■■; ■''-'"■"'''' 


Dense vegetation along river 
banks provides cover for stalking 
lions, which kill many buffalo 
near streams, far left. Small 
cubs usually stay with the pride, 
sometimes playing, left; at other 
times they join the group on 
a hunt, below. They usually 
stay a short distance behind 
when the lionesses stalk prey. 

them off a carcass, groups of lions 
use their food more fullv than indi- 
viduals. Furthermore, in a group, 
one lion can guard a kill from vul- 
tures while the rest seek water. 

The evidence indicates that a 
close relation exists between the ex- 
ploitation of a food resource and the 
tvpe of social organization. Lion 
prides are adapted for hunting large 
prev cooperatively in open terrain, 
but their social organization has re- 
tained a flexibilitv that enables indi- 
viduals to change from social to 
solitary hunting depending on the 
available prev. 

The core of a lion pride consists 
of a closed society of lionesses all 
directly related to each other. 
Among females, small cubs often 
serve as a cohesive force to keep the 
animals together, especially when 
several litters are born at the same 
time and their care becomes a com- 
munal affair. Although young seem to 
have no special relationship with the 
mother after she has a new litter, for 
those that remain in the pride, con- 
tact with her endures for life. 

In addition, each pride contains 
one to four males; these are often 
individuals that have grown up and 
acquired a pride together. But the 
males are not permanent pride 
members. Of the twelve prides I 
studied, only three had the same 
males at the end of three years. The 
other males either left the pride or 
were forced out bv nomadic males, 
which then generally took over the 
lionesses" territory. 

Fride lionesses confine their 
wanderings to a limited area of 
some 8 to 150 square miles, all or 
part of which constitutes a territory 
in the sense that other lions tend to 

A pride rests on one 
of the granite outcroppings. 
called kopjes, that stud the 
Serengeti. Vultures closely 
follow the lions' activities. 

avoid it or are driven awav bv the 
owners. Nomads, who do not belong 
to a pride, roam widely, some over 
1,500 square miles and more of ter- 
rain. Their contacts with other no- 
mads tend to be amicable. A few 
males establish temporary terri- 
tories on the plains, and with the 
acquisition of property they become 
intolerant of others. 

What survival value does reten- 
tion of a territory have for a lion? 
Given the tendency of pride mem- 
bers to scatter widelv, the pride 
would not be able to maintain itself 
in its present form if it assumed a 
nomadic existence: the animals 
would either have to remain to- 
gether like wild dogs or wolves or 
limit themselves to shifting and 
casual contacts in the manner of 
nomadic lions. Several advantages 
accrue to a resident. Territorial be- 
havior is a potent spacing mecha- 
nism that allows for a more uniform 
and socially less disruptive use of 
food resources. 

The flexibilitv of the lion pride 
within its territory enables it to har- 
vest both small and large prev more 
efficientlv. When the large herds 
migrate out of the Seronera area, 
for example, the pride disperses and 
the lionesses feed primarily on 
small game. When the herds return 
or when the lions hunt buffalo, the 
members of the pride rejoin for the 
advantages of group hunting. 

Detailed knowledge of water- 
holes, river crossings, ambush 
places, and other localities probably 
increases a lion's hunting success. 

Although nomadic lionesses 
seem to give birth as often as do 
resident ones, they manage to raise 
few cubs, indicating that (communal 
care of young in a pride increases 
reproductive success. This fact 
alone would favor selection of a 
stable land tenure system. 

Males are inefficient hunters, and 
they let the lionesses kill whenever 
possible. The pride, in effect, be- 
comes a meal ticket for the male. In 
a communal hunt, males trail be- 
hind the lionesses, watching and 
waiting, and when prey is caughl 
they run up and try to claim a large 
share. While males have been deni- 
grated in the popular press for such 
behavior, it serves two useful func- 
tions: (1) Their large manes make 

them so conspicuous that their par- 
ticipation would increase the 
chance of the group being detected 
by the prev: and (2) with the males 
in the rear any cubs that aie there 
are protected from marauding 
hvenas and other dangers. 

After a kill has been largely con- 
sumed, a male often takes the re- 
mains and prevents lionesses from 
eating. But he does allow cubs to 
feed, and if thev arrive late at a kill, 
this may be their only meat. Lion- 
esses are less generous than males 
in sharing and even starving cubs 
are cuffed awav. 

The main role of a male is to 
maintain the integrity of the pride 
area, either bv escorting intruders 
out or, by his mere presence, in- 
ducing them to move on. Although 
lionesses take part in territorial dis- 
plays, males are the most active in 
patrolling, scent marking, and roar- 
ing. The Seronera pride illustrated 
the importance of males to the 
pride. One evening I met the males 
of the Seronera and Masai prides 
near each other in an overlapping 
part of their range, which raised the 
possibility of conflict. The following 
morning at 6:35 1 found one of the 
two Seronera pride males encrusted 
with blood. Tatters of his yellow 
mane were strewn around his body, 
his left thigh was ripped to the 
bone, and punctures covered his 
body. He breathed heavily. At 6:55 
a male from the Masai pride walked 
slowly to within five feet of the van- 
quished male, and receiving only a 
baleful glare and a low growl, am- 
bled off". Bv 8:30 the breathing of 
the wounded male grew erratic and 
spasms racked his chest. At 8:35 a 
muscle in his right thigh quivered, 
and his pupils became very large, 
his last movement. 

Males from three other prides 
then penetrated deep into the Sero- 
nera pride area, killed several cubs, 
and drove out the remaining male. 
The lionesses remained, but their 
success in keeping cubs alive was 
much lower (19 percent) than that 
of a neighboring pride (46 percent) 
that was under the jurisdiction of 
vigorous males. It was two years af- 
ter the death of the male before the 
pride settled down to a normal so- 
cial life. 

(Continued nr.xt month) 


Sky Reporter 

bv Joliii P. \\ ilov, Jr. 

Iiitc>]li^CMil Uie ill tlio L'liiNcn-sc Out here in 
the <i;aLulii' hoondocks. we leiul lo think of ourselves 
as being alone. The trading ships never stop, scientific 
teams and tourists keep a discreet distance: we are not 
even hooked info the regional radio network. At feder- 
ation headquarters. Earths file is stamped: "Emerging 
technologicak civilization: Survival doubtful." 

Nevertheless, in the midst of wars, genocide, social 
revolution, and general bedlam, some people on Earth 
are quietlv turning their thoughts out to the galaxv. 
Patientlv thev swing radio telescopes from one likelv 
looking stair to the next, straining their equipment to 
pick up signals from other worlds. Sooner or later they 
will succeed. The signals will come in, clear and 
strong, unquestionablv the product of intelligent life 
from another part of the universe. 

Fearing invasion bv green monsters, our first reac- 
tion mav be to turn to the militarv. But if we stop to 
think, we will realize that our having heard "them" 
w ill not. in itself, reveal our presence to them. We will 
have all the time in the world to decide whether to an- 
swer, and how to answer if we do. We probablv have 
more to gain than lose bv answering. It is highlv un- 
likelv that another race of intelligent beings would 
come to Earth for conquest, plunder, or enslavement, 
the motives that spring immediately to an earth mind. 
The odds are that the other civilization would be far in 
advance of our own, socially as well as technically, and 
overnight, we could learn from them what might oth- 
erwise take us centuries. 

Despite the protestations of flying saucer en- 
thusiasts, we have no unequivocal evidence that the 
earth has ever been visited bv beings from another 
world. Radio pioneers Marconi and Tesla claimed to 
have heard signals from another world, but no one has 
since made a similar claim. It seems little short of cer- 
tain, how'ever, that someday, somewhere in the world, 
a news story not unlike that predicted in 1900 bv 
Tesla will burst upon the world: "We have a message 
from another world, unknown and remote. It reads: 
One . . . two . . . three.' " 

Consider the numbers. Our galaxy is only one of bil- 
lions: \et in our ralaxv alone, several hundred billion 

stars are shining. To suppose the sun is the only star 
accompanied by planets, and that our planet is the 
only one on which life emerged, smacks a bit of the 
medieval church, which put men to death for daring to 
suggest that the earth was not the center of the uni- 

W'hal do 100 billion stars look like? This 

neighboring galaxy. M31 in Andromeda, is 

believed to give a good idea of what our own 

galaxy looks like. At a higher resolution, 

the white clouds become swarms of stars; the 

bright core at the center is really millions 

of stars packed together. The two small spheres 

of light are satellite galaxies. All the 

other stars in the picture are in our own galcLxy; 

we are looking out through them toward M31. 


verse. It has only been in the hfetime of men still liv- 
ing and working that we have figured out where we 
stand in the galaxy, and where the galaxy stands in 
this part of the universe. 

The numbers argument was put in cogent form by 
Harlow Shapley, one of the first to accurately measure 
the galaxy. He calculated that if only one star in a 
thousand had any planets at all, and if only one in a 
thousand of these had planets at a suitable distance, 
and if an atmosphere developed on only one in a thou- 
sand of these, and if the right chemicals were present 
in the oceans and atmospheres of only one in a thou- 
sand of these, we would still be left with a hundred 
million planets suitable for life. And that's just in our 

Other arguments for the existence of planets around 
most stars are based on observation. The evidence is 
necessarily indirect; even the nearest stars are so far 
away that any planets circling them would be lost in 
the stars' glare and we could not see them. 

In our immediate neighborhood, most of the stars 
are members of multiple systems of one sort or an- 
other. Either they are double or triple systems or they 
are stars with "unseen companions" pulling on them 
as they move through space. 

These are the stars we can see best. Of the .59 stars 
within 17 light-years of the earth, for example, 22 are 
doubles and 6 are triples. At least 7 of the 59 stars are 
accompanied by dark companions. 

The best-known case is Barnard's Star, which ap- 
parently has one or two planets about the size of .lupi- 
ter revolving around it. We cannot see the planets, but 
we can measure their effect on their star. From 
Kepler's laws of motion, we know how far from llir 
planet tliey must be: knowing that, we can judgi' how 
massive Ihey are by measuring their effect on the star. 

Even nearby dark companions can be detected only 
when they have great effects on a visible star. Planets 
the size of the earth cannot be detected in this way. 
Thus, because we can detect only the most obvious 
cases, it is doubly significant that seven of the closest 
stars have unseen companions. Presumably there are 

Another line of evidence is even more striking. All 
the stars we can see, including the sun, rotate. We 
know this about distant stars because their spectral 
lines are slightly spread out. As we look at a star, the 
light from the edge coming toward us is shifted 
slightly toward the blue end of the spectrum; light 
from the receding edge is shifted slightly toward the 
red. By measuring the spread, we can discover how 
fast a star is rotating. 

The interesting thing is that while some kinds of 
stars rotate very rapidly, others, including the sun, ro- 
tate slowly. Astronomers customarily range stars on a 
scale from very hot to very cool, designating them, in 
order, 0,B,A,F,G,K, and M. The hot, massive stars, 
from to A, all rotate rapidly: a point on their equa- 
tor moves several hundred miles per second. But in 
the F stars there is a sudden, sharp break in the pat- 
tern. All the cooler stars— fiom that point down to the 
coolest visible stars— rotate at a much slower rate, on 
the order of a mile or two per second. The sun, a G 
star, has a rotation rate of some 1.5 miles a second. 

As far as we know, all stars formed in the same 
way, condensing out of clouds of gas and dust. As they 
condensed, the clouds began to rotate; and the smaller 
they became, the faster they rotated. This faster rota- 
tion results because the total rotating energy is con- 
served. Figure skaters know they can spin faster with 
their arms tucked in close to their bodies; high divers 
know they can do more somersaults if lliey curl into a 
ball. In exactly the same way, a shrinking rotating 
cloud spins faster and faster. 

But rotational energy can be conserved by allowing 
some of the weight to revolve at a distance from the 
center. When the cloud that was to become the solar 
system condensed, some of the rotational energy was 
left in the planets, especially .lupiter. Thus the sun ro- 
tates at a much slower velocity tiian would otherwise 
be the case. 

More than 90 percent of llie stars wc can see, even 
with our larg(;st telescopes, are F or cooler on the 
stellar scale-0,B.A.F,G,K,M-and rotate with very 
small velocities. Of the 59 stars nearest the sun. no 
fewer than 39 are cool, red M stars. Many astronomers 


are drawing the conclusion that the vast majority of 
stars rotate slowlv because thev have invested much of 
their rotational energv in planetary systems. 

If most, or all. stars are accompanied bv planets, 
then the number of stars in the observable universe is 
roughlv the number of solar svstems containing one or 
more planets. If we take as a conservative number lor 
the stai's in our galaxv. 100 billion, and multiply it by 
a conservative number for the galaxies in the universe, 
a billion, we get 1 with 20 zeroes after it as the con- 
servative number of solai- svstems in the universe. 

A number like is 
prett\' meaningless. A quick calculation might bring it 
into better focus. If solar svstems have formed at a 
steadv rate since the beginning of the universe, and it 
the universe is 10 billion vears old, as is generally ac- 
cepted, then a million solar systems are being formed 
everv hour. 

Not all planets, of course, would be habitable bv life 
as we know it. Some would be too close to their star, 
and thus too hot: others would be too far away, and 
thus too cold. Some would be too small to retain any 
tvpe of atmosphere. Some would move in orbits so ec- 
centric, or would be so tipped to the plane of their or- 
bit, that seasonal extremes of temperature would pre- 
clude life. A planet might not be old enough for life to 
have ai-isen. Or it might circle a star that will not last 
long enough for life to arise. 

Even with all these constraints taken into account, 
we are still left with a lot of planets that could support 
life. In a studv for the Rand Corporation, Stephen 
Dole offers one of the best educated guesses to date 
about our galaxv: six hundred million planets. Aver- 
aged out over the galaxv. this number means that there 
is at least one habitable planet within 27 light-years of 
the earth, 5 within 47 light-vears. 10 within 59 light- 
vears. and 50 within 100 light-vears. all close enough 
for us to be able to signal back to them with our 
present technologv. 

All this number juggling is interesting, but is any- 
bodv reallv out there? \^ hat are the odds that life has 
arisen on anv of these mvriad hypothesized planets? 
We have no sure wav of knowing. Proof that there 
is, or was, even bacterial life on Mai-s would be pow- 
erful evidence that where life can ai-ise, it will. But 
Mai-s is verv cold, with little water or atmosphere; fail- 
ure to find evidence of life there would not be a con- 
verselv poweiful argument against life being a com- 
mon phenomenon in the universe. As a habitable 
planet. Mars is marginal at best. 

The main argument for life elsewhere in the uni- 
verse is that the phvsical laws we are familiar with on 
eai-th operate as far- as we can see. or some ten bilhon 
light-veai-s. The same phvsical processes, involving the 
same elements, are going on all ai'ound us. \^ e have no 
reason to disbelieve that the chemical evolution of life 
is also going on all around us. 

We think we know how life arose on the earth. In 
fact, we have been able to duplicate crucial steps in 
the laboratorv. Electrical dischai-ges (simulated light- 
ning) set off in atmospheres believed similai- to the 
primitive eai'th's (methane, ammonia, water, and hy- 

drogen) produce large numbers of amino acids. Run- 
ning the experiment long enough produces further 
combinations, sugars, nucleic acid bases, and long 
chains of amino acids that resemble proteins. 

\^ hen molecular svstems reach the level of com- 
plexitv at which thev can reproduce themselves and af- 
fect their environment, then life— and evolution— has 

It now appeal's that the prerequisite chemical evolu- 
tion can start at a fairlv complex level. Biological pre- 
cursors mav have existed at the time a planet was 
formed. Recent work with radio telescopes has re- 
vealed the presence of water, ammonia, and a whole 
catalog of hvdrocarbons in interstellar clouds. Amino 
acids have been found in meteorites. 

Even if life has in fact blossomed all over the uni- 
verse, it is still not cleai- how man\- planets would 
boast populations both intelligent and technological. 
\^ hether anv given life form is intelhgent, of course, 
depends on vour definition. All that is meant here is 
the abilitv to think and to communicate. By tech- 
nological is meant the abilitv to communicate across 
astronomical distances. It seems not only possible but 
probable that manv life forms elsewhere are intelligent 
without being technological; in those cases, however, 
we could not communicate with them unless we physi- 
callv went to them. 

The technological civilizations pose their own prob- 
lems. Based on our experience on earth, it seems rea- 
sonable to assume that technological civilizations may 
not last verv long. Or, more optimistically, that if 
thev can survive the first few decades after having 
unleashed nuclear fission and fusion, they may then 
survive for eons. We have no wav of knowing— yet— 
which is more likelv to be the case. (We could find out 
anv dav now that the lifetime of at least one tech- 
nological civilization in the universe was in fact mea- 
sured in decades.) 

The best guess is that some civilizations make it and 
others do not. In their book on life in the universe, the 
Soviet astrophvsicist I.S. Shklovskii and the American 
planetologist Carl Sagan estimated that technical civ- 
ilizations either last less than 100 yeai-s or a good deal 
more than 100 million vears. Sti-iking an average of a 
miUion veai's for their computations, they then de- 
duced that the number of technical civilizations in om- 
galaxv is one million. The most probable distance be- 
tween such communities would then be several hun- 
dred light-vears. 

So here we are, floating around the outer reaches of 
the galaxv. blissfullv unawai-e of all the other civ- 
ihzations that also call the galaxv home. X^ e did listen 
for signals for a few months in i960, and now we are 
listening again. So far. we have heard nothing. 

The odds are verv high, though, that someday we 
will receive a signal from another world. That signal 
could have been sent a centurv ago, and may just now 
be approaching the solar system. We might hear it to- 
morrow or a vear from now or not for another century. 
It will not make much difference whether we answer 
or not: in effect, we answered 40 or so veai's ago when 
we first stai-ted using high-frequencv radio trans- 

mitters. Those radio waves have been traveHng across 
interstellar space ever since, and sooner or later they 
will be picked up. We will have announced to the 
galaxy that we have achieved a technological civ- 
ilization. If the nearest civilization turns out to be less 
than 40 hght-years away, their reply may already be 
headed toward earth. If they are farther away, they 
have not yet heard from us. But they will. And we will 
hear from them. 

On to Jupitci* To date, man's exploration of space 
can be likened to that of a group of people living on a 
small island in a warm lagoon who have so far been 
able to row across to one nearby, smaller island and to 
sail small model boats to other islands in the lagoon. 

Now, for the first time they are preparing to sail a 
model past the rocky reef that surrounds their lagoon 
to one of the larger islands outside. They do not expect 
to go there themselves for years to come, but they 
hope that by watching the model they will learn some- 
thing about the reef, the intervening tides and cur- 
rents, and the great island outside. 

In other words, for the first time man is headed out 
across the rubble-strewn asteroid belt to Jupiter, the 
first— and grandest— of the giant planets. A 550-pound 
electronic spider called Pioneer F will be lifted off 
Cape Kennedy in late February or early March and 
flung away from the sun at better than 32,000 miles 
per hour. Six hundred to nine hundred days later, if it 
has not been demolished by an errant planetoid, the 
Pioneer will take about a week to scoot by Jupiter- 
snapping pictures like mad— and then corkscrew all 
the way past Pluto and out of the solar system into the 
deep space dividing one stellar island complex from 
the next. 

The Pioneer faces a 10 percent chance of being se- 
verely damaged or destroyed while going through the 
asteroid belt. There are some 50,000 asteroids, rang- 
ing in size from 480-mile Ceres down to unnamed 
rocks a mile across, and an unknown number of 
smaller fragments: all told, enough to make a small 
planet. Whether this year's Pioneer makes it or not, 
another will be launched in April, 1973, doubling the 
chances of success. 

Once in the vicinity of Jupiter, the spacecraft will 
face real danger from powerful radiation, trapped in 
belts around the planet, that could destroy sensitive in- 
struments. No one will be upset if the instruments are 
destroyed after the data are radioed back from Jupiter 
to the earth: Pioneer's radio is too weak to be heard 
from much farther away. 

For planet bufis, going to Jupiter is worth the 
gamble. Jupiter differs in kind from the inner terres- 
trial planets and can even be considered a small, feeble 
star, rather than a planet at all. It is 11 times larger 
than the earth and "weighs" 318 times as much. For 
all its size, Jupiter spins much faster than the earth: a 
point on its equator moves at 30,000 miles per hour, 
while a similar point on earth moves at a mere 1,000 
miles per hour. More importantly, Jupiter is a few de- 
grees hotter than it should be at its distance from the 
sun, leading to speculation that it is a borderline star, 

In this photograph of Jupiter, taken in blue 
light with the 200-inch telescope on Mount 
Palomar, the Great Red Spot appears as the dark 
elongated oval at upper left. Just clear of 
Jupiter's disk at upper right is Ganymede, 
one of the Galilean moons; its shadow is the 
dark circle near the top of Jupiter. 

generating its own heat in pale imitation of the sun. 

We do not even know whether the surface of Jupi- 
ter is solid, hquid, or gas. We have no idea what will 
explain the Great Red Spot, thousands of miles across, 
which wanders among the slate-blue and salmon-pink 
bands of Jupiter's upper atmosphere. 

We would like to know more about the bursts of ra- 
dio noise Jupiter emits, some of them apparently trig- 
gered by lo, one of the four Galilean moons. We 
would like to know more about the moons themselves, 
three of which are larger than the earth's moon and 
one of which is believed to have an atmosphere. 

The lack of facts has encouraged speculation about 
the giant planet. Some have proposed that there could 
be life in Jupiter's upper atmosphere, perhaps in the 
form of balloonfish, floating around and sucking in nu- 
trients like so many jellyfish filtering the water of a 
terrestrial ocean. 

The Jupiter missions are billed by NASA as warm- 
ups for the Grand Tours later this decade. The tours 
are missions in which spacecraft would take advantage 
of the fortuitous temporary lineup of the outer planets, 
so that they would be pulled in by one, only to be 
flung on to the next in a kind of gravitational "crack- 
the-whip. " But even if the Grand Tour missions are 
scrapped (and there is a real debate over whether they 
are the best way to spend the money), Jupiter is more 
than worth two trips in its own right. ■ 


Celestial Events 

l3v ^riionias D. Xicholsoii 

With new moon at midmonth in Febraary, expect to see the waxing 
crescent in the western skv during evenings from the 17th on, with 
first-quarter moon on the 2ist. The moon, full on the evening of Febru- 
arv 28. reaches last-quarter on March 8 and becomes new on March 15. 

The three evening stars— Venus. Mars, and Saturn— continue to move 
closer to one another during late February and early March; Venus 
brightens but both Mars and Saturn become dimmer. Venus, by far the 
brightest, niav be seen in the southwest from midtwilight to shortly after 
dark. Mars is well to the left and higher than Venus and can be dis- 
tinguished bv its reddish light. It sets before midnight. Saturn, still far- 
ther to the left among the stars of Taurus, is well up toward the south in 
the earlv evening and sets about midnight. In the morning sky, Jupiter 
rises in the east several hours before the sun and fades into the morning 
twilight. Toward mid-March, Mercury can be seen as an evening star, 
low in the west after sundown. 

Febniarv 17: Mercurv is at superior conjunction, beyond the sun as 
viewed from earth, moving from right to left past the sun. The planet 
now enters the evening sky. 

The ^vaxing crescent moon will pass north of Venus after both have 
set for most mainland United States viewers. The bright planet becomes 
visible during eailv evening twilight well below and to the left of the 
moon, low in the southwest. 

Febmary 19: At twilight this evening, the moon is passing from right 
to left above Mars, well up in the southwestern sky. Look for the planet 
almost directlv below the moon as it grows dark. It is easy to pick out 
among the relativelv dim stars of Pisces, the constellation of the Fishes. 
The moon will ha\e moved farther to the left of Mars by the time both 
set before midnight. 

Februarv 20-21: The moon passes through Taurus, and in so doing 
moves past the planet Saturn. On the evening of the 20th the moon is 
well to the right and above Saturn. By the evening of the 21st, when it 
has just about reached first-quarter, the moon is to the left and closer to 
Saturn as both become visible in late twilight. The moon moves away to 
the left during the night. 

March 7: The moon, near- last-quarter, passes close to Antares. the 
brightest star in Scorpius. Again, as it does each month this year 
through September, the moon occults Antares, this time as seen from 
the eastern Pacific and Central and South America. The star will be 
found just to the left of the moon in the skv this morning. 

Vlarch 9-10: Look for Jupiter to the left of the crescent moon in the 
morning skv. On the morning of the 10th Jupiter will be to the right of 
the moon and higher. 

March 14: Mercurv is at greatest elongation in the evening sky. 18 
degrees to the left of the sun. This is a relatively favorable elongation, 
and the planet mav be found low in the east during earlv twilight for 
several davs before and after the 14th. 

* Hold the Star Map so the compass direction you lace is at the bottom; then match 
the stars in the lower half of the map with those in the sky near the horizon. The map is 
for 10:15 P.M. on Februarv 15; 9;20 P.M. on February 29; and 8:25 p.m. on March 15: 
but it can be used for about an hour before and after those times. 


/ \ 

/ / 

/ ; J-^ 

-\ a3dd\a3^^'^ 

\ ^^""^ 

A New World for the 

Cattle Egret 

A small, sociable egret from Afriea lias rapidly filled a 
nielie in pastures from Soutli Ameriea to Canada 

Glancing anxiouslv at the skv, a 
ship's crewman saiUng a stormv 
South Atlantic in 1877 might have 
noticed a flock of white birds, cattle 
egrets from Africa, whizzing by on 
their wav to the New World. 

Unfortunately no such sighting 
was ever recorded, so we do not 
know exactly how the cattle egret 
reached South American shores; it 
is even possible that thev flew the 
distance without the helping winds 
of a storm. What is known is that 
thev were first recorded in Surinam 
between 1877 and 1882, and their 
presence there is generally accepted 
as an example of natural extension 
of range, that is, expansion unaided 
by man's activities. 

The ecological implications of 
such colonization are many. There 
is the immediate question of the 
bird's survival in a new area and, if 
successful, its impact upon local 
species. Other, long-range ques- 
tions center on the birds ability to 
expand farther into other suitable 
areas and on the effects the invader 
has in those ecosystems. These 
same questions apply to the rela- 
tively frequent expansion of certain 
animal populations through the pur- 
poseful or inadvertent actions of 
man. Introductions of this type 
have generated much attention be- 
cause thev have sometimes had 
negative ecological effects. 

Answers to some of the questions 
concerning the presence of the 
cattle egret, Babulcus ibis, in the 
New World have long been known. 
The bird did breed successfully, 
and after years of consolidation be- 


gan to spread rapidly over much of 
northern South America and south- 
ward into Brazil. But its greatest 
territorial gains were made to the 
north. Colonizing its way through 
the Caribbean, it appeared in south 
Florida by the 1940s, and the first 
nesting of cattle egrets in that state 
was reported near Lake Okee- 
chobee in 1953. Today, thev are 
found throughout most of the east- 
ern states, all along the Gulf Coast 
into Texas, as far west as California 
and Washington, and up into New- 
Brunswick and Newfoundland. 
Nesting has occurred as far north as 
Ontario. Cattle egrets have also 
spread into many other areas 
throughout the world where they 
were formerly unknown— over most 
of southern Africa and Europe, 
Southeast Asia, and Australia. Such 
an extensive geographical ex- 
pansion in a relatively short period 
of time is exceptional. 

Studies of animals that have in- 
creased their natural ranges — an in- 
dication of biological success— can 
help man attain better insights into 
the processes of evolution. This was 
emphasized bv Andrew J. 
Meyerrieck in his article on the 
cattle egret, "Success Story of a 
Pioneering Bird," NATURAL HIS- 
TORY Magazine, August-September, 

Few studies had been made on 
the bird, however, and Meyerrieck 
called for further biological re- 
search to provide the data necessary 
to interpret the success of this spe- 
cies. To demonstrate the lack of ba- 
sic information available at the 

by ^\'illiam J. ^\^eber 

time, his book Comparative Breed- 
ing Behavior of North American 
Herons, published in 1960, lists 
forty of the fifty behavioral patterns 
of the cattle egret as unknown. To 
learn more about them, I began 
studying an island rookery in cen- 
tral Florida, where I was able to ob- 
serve the courtship, breeding, in- 
cubation, hatching, and brooding 
activities of the nesting birds. 

My daily movements to the blind 
soon revealed one factor that may 
help to account for the successful 
reproduction of the cattle egret. 
Each time anyone approached the 
island or the blind, there was con- 
siderable alarm-call vocalizing, fly- 
ing, and complete disruption of 
courtship, breeding, and nesting 
patterns. A great deal of confusion 
ensued as they fluttered awav from 
their nest sites, but almost as soon 
as the potential threat disappeared, 
thev returned to their nests and re- 
sumed normal colony activities. Af- 

Vociferous greetings are 

exchanged at the nest 

when a cattle egret takes 

over incubation so that 

its hungry mate can feed. 





-^ "^ ■^. 

Because plumage is not a 

reliable guide and nest 

duties are shared, mating 

must be observed to identify 

the sexes in the field. 

ter the fourth or fifth visit all the 
birds would be back at their nests 
within four to ten minutes, in con- 
trast to other species of herons nest- 
ing in the area, which never ac- 
cepted my presence. This degree of 
nesting stability is important to the 
eventual survival and successful 
spread of a species. 

Courtship in this colony begins 
in the middle of April. A few birds 
staying around the island during 
daytime hours, rather than leaving 
to feed, is the first sign that a 
change is occurring in their daily 
routine. At this time the birds have 
the normal appearance of cattle 
egrets: yellow beaks, yellowish or- 
bital skin around the eyes, and yel- 
low lores, or spaces between the eye 
and beak; their feathers are snowy 
white with a brownish wash on the 
top of the head, the chest, and the 
back. The color of their legs ranges 

The firstborn chick has 

the best prospect for 

survival since it learns to 

feed and attains maturity 

before its nest mates. 

from yellow-green to almost black. 

As hormones are set in motion 
with the approach of the breeding 
season, there is a dramatic change 
in the bird's appearance. The basal 
cirea of the beak begins to show a 
reddish tinge, and in the space of 
one to two days the beak becomes 
bright scarlet, with a burnished 
golden tip. The lores and the orbital 
skin become a scarlet-fuschia color 
and the irises change from yellow to 
bright red with an inner ring of yel- 
low at the pupillary opening. Legs 
become bright scarlet, and the 
brownish-tan wash of the feathers 
seems more intense. The snow 
white of the body feathers accen- 
tuates all these colors. 

As the birds paired up and se- 
lected nest sites in the sprawling 
clumps of Florida elder, I was un- 
able to differentiate males from fe- 
males. Intensity of the color 

changes was not a reliable indicator 
as some females were more com- 
pletely and intensely colored than 
the males. Assuming, as with most 
herons and egrets, that it is the 
male bird that establishes the nest 
site, I could guess which should be 
the male, but it was only when the 
birds were actually mating that I 
knew positively which one was. By 
the following day, however, color 
pattern and intensity often varied 
enough so that copulation would 
have to be repeated before I could 
again establish which was the 

Mating takes place at the site se- 
lected for, and during actual con- 
struction of, the nest, a rather 
shabby affair of reeds, stems, and 
elder twigs. It is the male who 
initiates copulation by grasping a 
heavy twig with his beak and shak- 
ing it vigorously. If the twig is in 

the nest itself, the shaking is not 
violent enough to dislodge it, but is 
sufficient to attract the female's at- 
tention. At this signal the female, 
with much vocalizing, descends to 
the nest and is mounted by the male 
for five to six seconds. After copula- 
tion, the male usually repairs to a 
nearby limb, preens awhile, then 
leaves to gather twigs for the grow- 
ing platform that will be the pair's 

Breeding and nest building usu- 
ally cover a period of three days. 
The colors of the breeding plumage 
are at their peak during this time, 
with bright hues contrasting against 
tan and white. Equally striking is 
the rapid color change back to nor- 
mal plumage once the first egg is 
laid. Within 24 to 48 hours, almost 
all the red color is gone and the 
only lingering sign of the breeding 
period is an orange tint to the legs. 

When a cattle egret chick 
clasps its parent's bill, the 
adult regurgitates food 
to satisfy the young bird's 
ravenous appetite. 

which also disappears in another 
day or so. Paralleling the fading 
color is a diminution of breeding 

A light blue egg is laid every 
other day until there are two to four 
in the nest. Incubation is shared bv 
the pair, with a series of vocal 
greetings accompanying the ex- 
change of nest duty. Since one of 
the parents is constantly attending 
the eggs, there is little opportunity 
for predation bv other birds, an- 
other factor that helps insure suc- 
cessful reproduction. 

The eggs hatch in 24 davs, and 
the young, averaging 20 grams, or 
two-thirds of an ounce, in weight 
are also fed and brooded by both 
the male and female. While the 
chicks are still quite small one par- 
ent always guards the nest while the 
mate is off foraging, \ocal greet- 
ings, identical to those used during 
the incubation period, are again ex- 
changed upon the forager's return. 
The newlv arrived adult, which has 
been feeding upon insects disturbed 
by livestock grazing in the nearbv 
fields, stands on the edge of the nest 
while its mate flies off to feed. 

Since the eggs are laid at two-dav 
intervals, the chicks hatch at two- 
day intervals, giving the firstborn 
chick a decided advantage over 
those that follow. It learns to eat 
first, begins growing at once, and 
maintains a decided maturity ad- 
vantage over its siblings throughout 
the brooding period. To demon- 
strate this advantage and its signifi- 
cance, weights of three chicks, 
which hatched on May 11, 1.3, and 
15, respectively, were recorded. At 
birth thev weighed 21 grams, 22 
grams, and 22.4 grams. By May 16, 

the last hatched was still about the 
same size, 23 grams; the second 
born had more than doubled its 
weight to 49 grams, and the first- 
born had tripled its weight to 64.5 
grams. The smallest seemed to stay 
the same size; four davs later it was 
missing from the nest. I weighed 
the two remaining birds again on 
May 25 and the firstborn had bal- 
looned up to 168 grams, with the 
Mav 13 chick also registering a sub- 
stantial gain to 143.5 grams. The 
missing chick was found at this 
time— dead, squashed into the twigs 
making up the floor of the nest. 
This pattern was repeated in nest 
after nest. In onlv two of the twentv 
nests under observation were three 
chicks raised. Most parents raised 
only two chicks, the voungest 
chicks had either been forced out or 
killed by their nest mates. In nests 
where there were only two eggs, 
usuallv only one bird was raised to 

For cattle egrets, as well as for 
some of the other herons and 
egrets, the advantage of the first- 
born is a significant factor in survi- 
val. Under normal food conditions 
an average of two vigorous chicks 
are usuallv raised, and in periods of 
food abundance, three or more 
birds may be successfully fledged. 
But in times of severe food short- 

age, a pair of cattle egrets will have 
a better chance of raising at least 
one strong chick. Certainly from a 
survival standpoint it is better to 
raise one healthy replacement than 
two or three weak, malnourished 
birds. A natural process of selec- 
tion, based primarily on food avail- 
ability, insures that replacements 
will be strong and vigorous. 

Feeding the young chicks is ac- 
complished by the adults touching 
the chicks" beaks with a re- 
gurgitated food bolus, or wad, stim- 
ulating them to peck away at the of- 
fering. ^ hatever is not eaten or left 
on the nest is reswallowed bv the 
parent. As the chicks get older, 
they become more aggressive eat- 
ers. Adults bringing food to the 
nest are grasped by the beak and 
their heads pulled down to hasten 
regurgitation. Competing for the 
food, the strongest chicks 
frequently drive the smaller ones 
away from the feeding parent, and 
the weakest ones die. 

Soon the surviving chicks are 
able to intercept the regurgitated 
material before it can fall into the 
nest. They crv demandinglv all dur- 
ing the feeding process, flapping 
their stubby, featherless wings in 
typical begging postures, and re- 
peatedly grasp the parent's beak, 
pulling its head down to the nest in 

Range Extension by Cattle Egrets 

In the United States and Canada 





hopes of stimulating more output. 
They swallow boluses the size of 
their own heads, and never seem 
satisfied, regardless of the amount 
they consume. 

At six weeks of age the chicks 
appeal- to be as large as their par- 
ents. They attack the adults so ag- 
gressively that the feeding process 
resembles a fight. So violent does 
the feeding become that often the 
parent and chick fall to the ground 
in a white swirl of feathers as the 
chick attempts to wrest food from 
the battered parent. 

At this stage both adults forage 
constantly during the daylight 
hours for food for the ever hungry 
chicks. Alone at the nest site most 
of the day, the chicks stay in the 
immediate nest area even though 
they are now capable of flight. They 
move about on the tops of the elder 
trees, the better to intercept the 
adults as they come bringing food 
for the ravenous brood. The chicks 
can recognize their parents among 
the many flying, milling, similar-ap- 
pearing adults while they are still 
some distance away from the nest. 
Vigorous and aggressive, they fight 
off voung birds their own size and 
even adults that invade the territory 
of the nest site. 

Another crucial factor helping to 
insure the survival of the species is 
the extended nesting period of the 
colony. Even in July, some late- 
blooming cattle egrets were breed- 
ing and establishing nests. Such a 
long breeding season helps prevent 
any catastrophic loss of the breed- 
ing colony or nestlings from natural 
phenomena such as heavy wind- 
storms or torrential rains. A portion 
of the nests and nestlings might be 

In a Florida pasture, the 

movement of livestock 

disturbs enough insects to 

provide cattle egrets 

with a steady food supply. 

lost, but the colony would still be 

All of these factors taken to- 
gether help explain why the cattle 
egret is a biological success and is 
spreading rapidly over the Northern 

Also, observations of this colony 
indicate that this success has not 
been at the expense of native her- 
ons and egrets. Sharing the island 
with the cattle egrets were nesting 
Louisiana herons, snowy egrets, and 
anhingas. Nests of the snowies and 
Louisiana herons were built as close 
as six inches to cattle egret nests. 
They got along as neighbors unless 
the immediate nest territory was in- 
vaded, an action that would precipi- 
tate some threat posturing and 
forceful pecking until territorial 
limits were re-established. Because 

cattle egrets nest in compact 
colonies, they seldom use a large 
proportion of the suitable heron- 
egret nesting sites available in any 
one geographical area. 

Competition for food is another 
extremely crucial factor when at- 
tempting to ascertain whether con- 
flicts exist between species in a 
given area. In this case the feeding 
behavior of both the cattle egret 
and native herons is well known. 
The cattle egret, much more terres- 
trial in its habit of following wild 
and domestic cattle, sheep, goats, 
and whatever other animals graze in 
pasture and field, snaps up insects 
disturbed by its larger companions. 
Some native species of herons feed 
in a similar manner, but to a much 
more limited extent; the bulk of 
their diet consists of fish and frogs 


speared in streams, marshes, and 
along lakeshores. 

To further confirm these food 
habits, Mike Fogarty, a biologist 
with the Florida Game and Fresh 
Water Fish Commission, has 
analyzed the stomach contents of 
one thousand cattle egrets. None of 
the fish that make up the basic 
diet of native herons and egrets was 
found. The study showed that up to 
80 percent of the cattle egret's diet 
was made up of grasshoppers and 
crickets, together with other insects 
such as spiders, flies, and beetles. 
Earthworms, frogs, and crayfish 
made up an additional small portion 
of the diet. In total, invertebrates 
accounted for 99.8 percent of the 
food that could be identified and 92 
percent of the total food volume. 
The conclusion has to be that rather 

than posing a threat to other herons 
and egrets through competition for 
available food, the cattle egret oc- 
cupies a food niche that is not being 
exploited by other birds. 

Normally the cattle egret feeds 
by moving alongside, and at times 
under, the feet of grazing livestock, 
skillfully preying on the insects 
they stir up. No other bird has de- 
veloped this specialized feeding 
technique to the same degree as the 
cattle egret, so competition from 
other species of birds has not been 
significant. And yet, these birds are 
adaptable enough to follow a plow- 
ing tractor or even to use other 
birds to stir up insects for them. 
This adaptability may be one of the 
strongest factors insuring the cattle 
egrets future survival and ex- 

That this niche was vacant and 
available is probably the most im- 
portant ecological consideration for 
the rapid spread of this species, but 
also significant is the bird's breed- 
ing success. The nesting stability, 
the incubating, brooding, and feed- 
ing of the young by both parents, 
the dominant survival order of the 
chicks based on available food, and 
the long breeding season add up to 
an evolutionary balance favoring 

A bird that functions in the bio- 
logical control of pasture insects, 
adds diversity and the contrast of 
white to the greens and browns of 
our pasture-studded landscape, and 
apparently does not compete with 
our native birds should be classified 
as a graceful and beneficial addition 
to the American avifauna. 

Out of the Silence 

In a burst of c roati\ ity, Indians once filled 
tlie Nortli\\ est Coast of America w itli totem art. 
No^^' tliese carved cedars are disappearing 
slo%\ ly into tlie eartli that si3a%\'ned tliem 

bv William Reid 

When we look at a particular work of 
Northwest Coast art and see the shape of it, we are 
only looking at its afterlife. Its real life is the 
movement by which it got to be that shape. 

It is easy to be entranced by the soft curtain of 
age, seeing this instead of what it obscures. An 
ugly building can make a beautiful ruin; a 
beautiful wood carving in the dark of many years, 
softened by wear, becomes a symbol that tells us 
that the cycle of life, death, decav, and rebirth is a 
natural and beautiful one. 

This is not what their creators intended. These 
were objects of bright pride, to be admired in the 
newness of their crisp curved lines, the powerful 
flow of sure elegant curves and recesses— yes, and 
in the brightness of fresh paint. They told the 
people of the completeness of their culture, the 
continuing lineages of the great families, their 
closeness to the magic world of myth and legend. 

Perhaps they told more, a story of little people, 
few in scattered numbers, in a huge dark world of 
enormous forests with absurdly large trees, of 
stormy coasts and wild waters beyond, where brief 
cool summers gave way to long black winters. 

Families round their fires, no matter how long 
their lineages, needed much assurance of their 
greatness. The wonder of it all is that there were 
so few— a handful of sea-hunters clinging to tiny 
footholds on the jungle-backed beaches. 

But it was a rich land; above all, a rich sea. 
Millions of salmon returned each year to the rivers 
to spawn and die, a sacrifice that assured the 
survival of their kind and at the same time gave 
easv life to the bear, the otter, the eagle, and a 
host of others, including a few humans. In a few 
weeks men could gather enough salmon to last a 
year. Shellfish clustered on the rocks and sandy 
bottoms; halibut carpeted the ocean; berries grew 
plentiful on the bare hillsides. If there weren't 
enough bare hillsides, a fire on a hot day would 
provide one for the next year. Sea lion and sea 
otter, seal and whale and porpoise were 
everywhere, and all flesh was meat. 

In the early spring the rivers swarmed with 
oolichan, the magic fish of the north coast, 90 
percent oil, and to those who knew it well, 
fragrant, delicious oil to enhance the flavor of 
dried salmon and halibut, to mix with dried 

photographs ]3y x\delaide de Menil 

From Out of the Silence, published for the Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, 

by Outerbridge & Dienstfrey. Copyright ©1971 by Amon Carter Museum of Western Art. 

Old Kasaan, Alaska 





^ebfirrr^- ^"^^ 











V ■ f ' 




'4' 1 

berries, to flavor stews, and to provide most of the 
nutrients necessary for life in the long, sunless 
seasons. There were nettle roots and water lilv 
roots and seaweeds, gull eggs, black bear, grizzly 
bear, deer, and much more, right there for the 

If the sea hunt was unsuccessful or smoked fish 
ran out before the new season arrived, mussels 
were a dark blue mantle on almost any rock, 
cockles lay exposed at low tide, abalone and rock 
oysters could be found with little effort, tide pools 
yielded delicate sea urchins, the octopus could be 
flushed from his cave, and clams lav under most 
beaches. Even today only a stupid man could 
starve on this coast, and today is not as it was. 

Then there was the forest. Nowhere else was 
there anything like the Douglas fir, the strongest, 
toughest, in many ways most remarkable wood in 
the world. Trees six, eight, twelve feet through the 
butt, forty or fifty feet to the first limbs, two or 
thi-ee hundred feet tall. 

They are nearly all gone now, but for a while 
they provided the beams and uprights and siding 
for half the houses of America; the supports for 
many big buildings. But to be used, they had to 
wait for the white man and his steel axes and saws. 
They were too tough and hard and heavy for the 
stone ax and wooden wedge. 

The spruce and hemlock were splintery and 
hard to work and weathered badly. So a richness 

Village Island, Alaska 

Tongass, Alaska 

'.dans, British Columbia 

in timber lay untouched and useless till the white 
man came. If these had been the only trees, 
the people might have remained simple food 

But there was the cedar, the West Coast 
cypress, growing huge and plentiful in swampy 
areas around creeks and risers. Oh, the cedar tree! 
If mankind in his infancy had prayed for the 
perfect substance for all material and esthetic 
needs, an indulgent God could have provided 
nothing better. Beautiful in itself, with a 
magnificent flared base tapering suddenly to a tall, 
straight trunk wrapped in reddish-brown bark, 
like a great coat of gentle fur, gracefully sweeping 
boughs, soft feathery fronds of gray-green needles. 

Huge, some of these cedars, five hundred years 
of slow growth, towering from their massive bases. 
The wood is soft, but of a wonderful firmness and, 
in a good tree, so straight-grained it will split true 
and clean into forty-foot planks, four inches thick 
and three feet wide, with scarcely a knot. Across 
the grain it cuts clean and precise. It is light in 
weight and beautiful in color, reddish brown when 
new, silvery gray when old. It is permeated with 
natural oils that make it one of the longest-lasting 
of all woods, even in the damp of the Northwest 
Coast climate. 

When steamed, it will bend without breaking. 
It will make houses and boats and boxes and 
cooking pots. Its bark will make mats, even 


clothing. With a few bits of sharpened stone and 
antler, with some beaver teeth, and a lot of time- 
later on with a bit of iron— you can build from the 
cedar tree the exterior trappings of a great artistic 

Above all, you can build totem poles, and the 
people of the Northwest Coast built them in 
profusion: forests of sculptured columns between 
their houses and the sea, proudly announcing to 
all the heraldic past of those who dwelt there. 

At most, there were probably no more than a 

hundred thousand people, scattered along a 
thousand miles of coastline— ten thousand miles 
more likely if bays and inlets and promontories 
and islands are measured. Isolated in clusters of a 
few hundred each, miles from their nearest 
neighbors, they were cut off by dense jungles, by 
stormy seas for most of the year, by five separate 
language groups and hundreds of distinct dialects, 
and by suspicions and animosities that often 
separated them more than the elements. 

And yet, one of these clusters was Tanu. It 

Old Kasaan, Alaska 

Ninstints. Anthony Island. British Columbia 


wasn't even a single political entity, but two 
villages separated by only a few yards. It knew no 
law beyond custom, no history beyond legend, no 
political unit larger than the family, no 
government beyond an informal meeting of family 
heads, plus the tacit acceptance of the superiority 
of the ranking chief. At the height of its influence, 
it had less than a thousand people living in about 
twenty-five houses. 

But if the wooden structures of Tanu had 
survived the hundred years of north coast weather 

since the last of its survivors left, its ruins would 
rival man's greatest achievements. Tanu may have 
been the crowning gem of West Coast material 
culture. Some old memories still recall its artists 
and builders as the best, and old photographs show 
something of its glorv. But it was only one of 
dozens of proud citadels— Kaisun, Kiusta, 
Squonquai, Skidegate, Massett, Kitwancool, 
Kispiox, Gitsixukla, Kitwanga, Kincolith, Kasaan, 
Klukwan, Bella Bella, Bella Coola, Koskimo, 
Quatsino, Nootka, and many more. 

4, < * 






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In each village were great houses some seventy 
feet by fifty feet of clear roof span, with gracefully 
fluted posts and beams. In the houses there were 
treasures that only great traditions and talent, and 
sometimes genius, with unlimited time and 
devotion, can create: thousands of masks, painted 
and carved chests, rattles, dishes, utensils of all 
kinds, ceremonial regalia. These were all carefully 
stored or proudly displayed during the great feasts 
and winter ceremonies. The people of the 
Northwest Coast centered their society around 
what was to them the essence of life; what we now 
call "art." 

Old people can still tell "how it was" when, by 
boat, they rounded a point of land and entered a 
sheltered bay to find a village of large houses and 
totem poles facing the sea. Like heraldic crests, 
these poles told of the mythological beginnings of 
the great families at a time before time, when 
animals and mythic beasts and men lived as 
equals, and when the play of raven and eagle, bear 
and wolf, frog and beaver, thunderbird and whale 
established all that was to be. 

The poles were many things. The house pole 
told of the lineage of the chief who presided 
within. The memorial pole commemorated some 
great event. The grave pole contained the body 
and displayed the crest of a leading noble. In 
many of the great houses, massive figures- 
illuminated by firelight— supported the roof 
beams. Each pole contained the essential spirit of 
the individual or family it commemorated, as well 
as the spirit of the artists who made it, and by 
extension, the living essence of the whole people. 
While the people lived, the poles lived, and long 
after their culture died, the poles continued to 
radiate a terrible vitality that only decay and 
destruction could end. 

Even trapped in the stairwells of museums, 
truncated and dismembered in storage sheds, or 
lying in shattered fragments in now-vanished 
villages they once glorified, the contained power- 
born of magic origins and the genius of their 
creators— still survives. 

These monuments were the work of master 





.« JUNEAU ; 


i \ 
'\ ; 

<OLD KASAAf/l ^... 
• * f 


--. i^-y" 



SKBbANS _ ...• 

fJl J 







carvers and apprentices who brought to final 
perfection an art style whose origins lay deep in 
the past and partly in Asia. It was an austere, 
sophisticated art. Its prevailing mood was classical 
control, yet it characterized even the simplest 
objects of daily life. These seagoing hunters took 
the entire environment as art form. 

That effort is now past. Even memory of it 
fades. Already the forest has reclaimed the tiny 
clearings men once maintained along the twisting 
walls of this stormy coast. Onlv a handful of poles 
now stand, others lie in the damp, lush forests. 
Like the fallen trees around them, they have 
become the lifeblood of younger trees growing 
from their trunks. In a scene subdued by a 
magnificent moss covering and by silenro. thev 
return to the forest that orave them Kiith. 

itsalas Canyon, British Columbia 


Man's Efficient Rnsli 
Toward Deadly Dullness 

Diversity is m^ore 
than the spice 
of life ... it is an 
essential elen:ient 
of survival 

by Kenneth 
E. F. Watt 

Is diversity of concern to people 
interested in natural history, con- 
servation, and the environment? To 
answer the question fullv. one must 

understand the exact meaning of di- 
versity, the ubiquitous loss of diver- 
sity in the world today, and the rea- 
sons for the value of diversity. 

An argument for preserving any- 
thing, particularly something rare, 
often turns out to be an argument 
in disguise for diversity. Thus, it 
seems worthwhile to provide natu- 
ral historians with a handy kit of 
powerful arguments for variety be- 
cause all too often they feel 
defenseless when confronted with 
the arguments of developers, which 
are clearly supported bv short-term 
economic benefits, at least for a few- 

The rapid loss of diversity in the 
world is a serious and pervasive 
phenomenon. Everywhere we look. 

we see examples of a large number 
of diverse entities being replaced by 
a small number of similar entities. 
We all know about endangered spe- 
cies such as birds of prey and large 
mammals, including all species of 
whales. Most of the world's com- 
mercial fish stocks are in danger, 
shell collectors are depleting trop- 
ical beaches and coral reefs, and 
pollution will annihilate com- 
mercial shellfish populations, result- 
ing in simplification of our diets. 
But progressive environmental sim- 
plification is far more widespread 
than this. Half the butterfly species 
have disappeared in Holland in the 
last few decades. Conversion of the 
Russian steppe from wild plants to 
wheat fields has cut the number of 

Tlie Concept of Diversity 

To understand the intrinsic value of di- 
versitv, we must be explicit as to what we 
mean by the concept. Diversity measures 
two characteristics of any set of items: even- 
ness in numbers of different items in the 
set; and richness in numbers of different 
items within the set. 

To illustrate evenness, suppose we have 
two different sets comprising 25 items of 
five types: 



Even Sel 



Cherries 6 




Apples 5 
Pears .5 



Bananas 5 



Lemons 4 





Richness depends on the number of 
items as well as the variety of items in a set. 
In the following table, the relative abun- 
dance of the first four hems is the same in 
each set. but the second set is richer be- 
cause it has both more items and rare 


First Set 

Second Set 





















Total 10 



insect species there by 58 percent. 

In the economic sphere, there 
has been a tremendous reduction in 
the number of manufacturers (think 
of the number of automobile manu- 
facturers in the United States in 
1910). Our numerous corner gro- 
cery stores have been replaced by a 
small number of huge super- 
markets. In many fields, large num- 
bers of small businesses have been 
replaced by small numbers of large 
businesses, to the point where we 
now have close to a monopoly in 
the manufacture of automobiles, 
aircraft, and computing equipment. 
Similarly, in agriculture large num- 
bers of small farms have been re- 
placed by small numbers of gigantic 
farm coi-porations. 

Textural and cultural diversity 
has declined in our cities, whether 
you compare different parts of the 
same city or different cities in dif- 
ferent countries. Driving from an 
airport to the downtown section of 
a city, the signs tend to be in the 
same language (English) and to ad- 
vertise the same products, whether 

one is in Rome, Beirut, or Singa- 
pore. Stores and banks seem to be 
stamped from a common mold. 

Remarkably, the same process 
has occurred in the human popu- 
lation. An extraordinarilv high pro- 
portion of the world's population is 
now very young. The variety once 
found when many human age 
classes coexisted in approximately 
equal numbers has gone. 

There are too many examples of 
the decline of diversity for this situ- 
ation to have come about by 
chance. Tliere is indeed an under- 
lying explanation: we live in an age. 
and a culture, that puts tremendous 
emphasis on efficiency and produc- 
tivity as desiderata for mankind. 
Since variety is inimical to these 
goals, variety has suffered and will 
continue to suffer. Unless powerful 
and compelling arguments can be 
offered to stop this loss of diversity, 
we will soon be living in a homo- 
geneous—and boring— world. 

The large number of specific ar- 
guments for maintaining the diver- 
sity of particular sets of plants, ani- 

mals, or other items, all fall into 
four categories: (1) diversity pro- 
motes stability; (2) it insures 
against risks; (3) it utilizes more 
completelv the sun's energy; and 
(4) it promotes the mental well- 
being of humans. 


There are only two basic ele- 
ments in all theoretical arguments 
as to why diversity promotes stabil- 
ity. The first is the idea of spreading 
the risk (the same idea applies 
when you buy insurance from the 
largest insurance company). If an 
organism feeds on many different 
species, the chances of all its food 
sources being wiped out in some ca- 
tastrophe are less than if the organ- 
ism feeds on a few, or only one, 
species. The second idea is that a 
system functions more harmo- 
niously if it has more elements be- 
cause it then has more homeostatic 
feedback loops. 

This abstract language can be 
translated into concrete examples. 
The greater the variety of foods the 

In nature, an environment that is more 
tolerant of rarity has a larger number of 
species, or more richness. 

Given that diversity measures both even- 
ness and richness, can a single, simple mea- 
sure combine both characteristics? In alge: 
braic terms, we can arrive at such a 
measure, which will also give us a deeper 
understanding of diversity. Suppose we 
have N items in a set, divided into A'l items 
of the first type, A'^2 items of the second 
type, and so on, to Na items of the nth and 
last type. Suppose A' is 5, and we want to 
know the number of different ways we can 
arrange the five items in a row. The ar- 
rangement is 5 X 4 X .3 X 2 X J. which 
is typically written as 5! In gener- 
al, the number of ways we can arrange A^ 
items in a row is N! A measure of the ways 
in which we can arrange the items is given 


Ni! N2! N3! N„! 

This can also be thought of as a measure 
of the variety, or diversity, within the set. 
By dividing the whole expression by N, we 
get a measure of the diversity per individ- 
ual in the set. Using the first example of 
uneven and even sets, we get 

^ r '-^ — 1 

25 \_14.' 5! 3! 2! 1! ] 
and _ _ 

25 \_6! 5! 5! 5! 4! } 
The even set has 841 times more di- 

versity per individual than the uneven set. 
In the richness comparison, the diversity 
per individual is 15.6 X 10^® times greater 
in the richer set than in the less rich set. 
For (hose with an intuitive feeling for 

mathematics, this comparison will have 
great impact on their feelings about what 
mankind is doing to the planet by dimin- 
ishing evenness and richness in the array of 
plants, animals, and everything else. 


Because they're birds and 
they're free! So you have 
to change your photo habits. 
One ingenious solution is a 
zoom lens. It gives you a fast 
change of focal lengths 
without moving the camera 
from your eye. 

The Vivitar Automatic Zoom 
lens goes from 85 to 205mm, 
opens up to an impressive 
f3.8 and isn't any larger than 
most standard 200mm lenses. 
The highly sophisticated 
optical design has 13 elements 
in 9 groups. The Vivitar 
Automatic Zoom will fit the 
automatic mounts of the 
Nikon F, Pentax, Nikkormat, 
Mamiya/Sekor, Minolta and 
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See a demo at your photo 
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by leading photo magazines. 

Vivitar Zaom lenses 

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In Canada: Precision 
Cameras of Canada, Ltd. 

Why dont birds 

stay where they are while 

you chaoigc lenses? 


Join the 1972 

Lewis & Clark expedition 

You are invited to join a 23 day expedition personally ^b, 
escorted bj distinguislied Lewis and Clark scliolars— a 
heritage tour designed as an autlientic reproduction 
of America's greatest journey of exploration. 

From St. Louis to the shores of Oregon, 
you'll travel nearly 4000 miles- some of the 
way by jeep and pontoon- platform riverboat 
exploring America as Lewis and Clark did. 
'Venture to the source of the Missouri 
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'Visit Indian reservations and historic 
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See America the way Lewis and Clark did. Clip 
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human population has available for 
harvesting, hunting, or fishing, the 
less the likelihood of human catas- 
trophe due to a disaster befalling a 
particular food species. A most 
chilling example was the potato 
famine in Ireland, where an entire 
human population was excessivelv 
dependent on one food species. The 
situation is fundamentallv the same 
when an Indian tribe depends 
greatly on salmon at a certain time 
of year, and then something hap- 
pens to the salmon population (pol- 
lution or modification of the envi- 
ronment in the spawning stream 
due to a hydroelectric installation, 
for example). What few people real- 
ize is that the entire human popu- 
lation is now setting itself up for the 
same situation. For example, as we 
rapidly deplete the stocks of more 
and more oceanic species through 
overfishing and pollution, we cut 
off optional food sources that we 
might need desperately in the fu- 
ture. The larger the human popu- 
lation becomes and the more the 
sources of food decline, the more 
precarious is our situation. 

Our great preoccupation \\i\h 
productivity and efficiency and our 
lack of concern about diversity in- 
crease the precariousness of our 
economic lives, as well as of our 
food. Consider what happens when 
^ve try to maximize the manufac- 
turing efficiency of aircraft. We are 
led, inexorably, to a situation in 
which a small group of corporations 
manufacture all aircraft in the 
Lnited States. Each corporation is 
so large that it dominates the econo- 
mies of the communities in which 
its plants are located. Thus, if a cor- 
poration meets with disaster, the 
community is in deep trouble. This 
is the case in Seattle, where Boeing 
sales slackened with saturation of 
the international aircraft market. 
Architectural writer Jane Jacobs 
discovered this principle of relating 
the economic stability of cities to 
their corporate diversity when she 
applied current ecological theories 
about the relation between diversity 
and stability to her lu-ban studies. 

In a most cm-ious wav, diversity 
appears to affect our economic, so- 
cial, culttu-al, and political pro- 
cesses. For example, a slowly grow- 
ing or nongrowing human 
population has a greater evenness of 
numbers in different age classes 
than a rapidly growing population. , 


In a rapid-growth situation, voung 
people are being added to the popu- 
lation so quicklv that their numbers 
become unusually high relative to 
the numbers of older people. This 
strains society's abilitv to generate 
adequate educational taxes from the 
older group for the large younger 
group. It also is difihcult for a rap- 
idly growing society to create new 
jobs at the rate at which young 
people want to enter the labor 
force. This will be obvious as unem- 
ployment in the United States 
climbs above 6.0 percent of the 
prospective labor force when the 
next age class graduates high school 
and college in June, 1972. 

The more even the numbers of 
people in different age classes, the 
easier it is to maintain good com- 
munication between generations. 
Thus, all the present discussion 
about a "generation gap" has its ul- 
timate origin in the lack of diversity 
in human age classes. 

Many similar arguments relating 
diversity and different forms of sta- 
bility could be put forth. But the 
fundamental structure of all such 
arguments would be the same, 
whether the subject is a human 
society or a rare plant. The reason 
for preserving it is that it may, in 
some unknown fashion, be impor- 
tant to the maintenance of stability 
in a part of the planetary ecosystem. 

Insurance Against Risk 

The second class of arguments 
for maintaining diversity is similar 
to the argument for buying life in- 
surance. You don't really want or 
expect to use it, but you buy it just 
in case. Similarly, a civilization 
does not expect its acts to harm the 
world, but just in case they are de- 
structive it would be nice to have at 
hand other things to fall back on. 
For example, when we develop new 
strains of plants and animals, we do 
not plan on producing lines that 
will deteriorate in the future. We do 
not plan on producing strains of col- 
lie dogs in which the females will 
have progressively more difficulty 
bearing viable offspring, or strains of 
wheat that will succumb to rust, or 
berries that after many generations 
will no longer have much flavor. 
When these unintended events oc- 
cur, we fall back on our "insurance 
policy," either by backcrossing our 
domestic strains to wild strains or by 
shifting our attention to new strains 

The Classic Mechanical Toy 


own an entire fleet of 6 for only ^5^^ 

Remember the good old days when they really 
knew how to make mechanical toys? They made 
them out of heavy, stamped metal, not plastic. The 
toys had powerful wind-up motors and lots of whir- 
ring, clicking reduction gears that seemed to keep 
running forever. We used to take the toys apart 
because the motors were really the most fascinat- 
ing part. 

Well, after lots of looking, we managed to find 
a group of highly skilled, dedicated craftsmen 
overseas who were able to duplicate exactly the top 
quality, spring-driven classic toy car motors that 
were precision-made almost a quarter-century ago 
by gifted German toy masters. These toy motors 
have virtually unbreakable blue carbon steel springs 
that we personally clocked at 3V2-minutes running 
time (that's a long time); they have 8 separate 
metal cogwheel gears (cheap toys have only 2); 
there's a unique cut-off device that automatically 
stops the motor when the car overturns or bumps 
into something (it starts automatically again when 
the car is righted); the chassis and wheels are heavy 
stamped metal; and there's superb workmanship 

TheyVe fascinating. They scoot all over the 
place with gears whirring and clicking. You can 
race them. Build things. They provide hours of 
educational fun for the kids. Hobbyists love them. 
They're marvelous for relieving executive tensions. 
They just don't make 'em like this anymore. And 
vou can now buy an entire fleet of 6 for less than 
you'd expect to pay for a single plastic toy nowa- 

Order No. 40700: Set of 6 CLASSIC MECHANICAL 

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FREE gift catalog on request. 


The GALLERY guarantees EVERYTHING: The 
quality, accuracy of description, availability, 
prompt delivery. If not delighted, return the 
cars within 3 weeks after you receive them 
(not the usual 10 days) for an instant refund of 
purchase price or cancellation of charges. 

finer things by mail from 


Dept. 3463, Amsterdam, N.Y. 12010 

IbuVe seen it on the road. 
Come see it on the inside. 

Ever see a Sightseer'"' go by and ask yourself, "What's it like 

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There's a full kitchen, and complete bathroom with separate 
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to go. 

See a Sightseer. 
Inside and out. Visit 
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Or send the coupon 
for a sneak preview. 

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Mid-Ohio Industrial Pari; 
Newark, Ohio 430 5 5 

I'd like a closer look at Sightseer 
Please send literature. nh 2-72 











Truly, wouldn't you like to run away here to this garden of 
ours? Doesn't your bruised spirit need the soft touch of loving 
people, your tense body the pure spray of clean, clean air fil- 
tered by sunshine? Don't you long for a place where every day is 
gentle summer, where tree-wrapped mountains stretch 12,500 
feet to the sky, where tumbling streams and waterfalls and wave- 
lapped beaches beg to heal you? 

In all truth, isn't it a sort of self-destruction to accept with- 
out demur (as maybe you do) the dank cheerless clutch of winter 
cold— the wintry faces of cheerless people? 

So we ask you again: wouldn't you like to run away here to a 
place of your own in this nature-blessed country, inhabited by a 
people who deserve every bit of the beauty they've been given? 

For the astonishing fact is that the Costa Rican people- 
perhaps like none other on earth— live in peace. All of them, each 
with the other, live and work in PEACE! 

Consider them, the 1% million of them: handsome, gentle, 
literate, industrious and (phenomenon of our times!) kindly— a 
European-sprung people who are constantly embracing, shaking 
hands, even with strangers, a people to whom law and order is 
symbolized by a smiling policeman armed with nothing more 
menacing than a whistle, directing traffic with a murmured "por 
favor." The phrase "law and order" doesn't have an ominous 
meaning here. It's incredible for a foreigner to learn that there 
is no army in Costa Rica (without an army, Costa Ricans say, 
there is no danger of a military take-over). The only military 
uniforms worn are by police and there are more schools in Costa 
Rica than there are uniforms. Not alone more schoolchildren or 
more schoo/teachers but actually more schoo/s than military 
uniforms! Amazing? No wonder that Gov. Nelson Rockefeller, 
having undergone a rather stormy Latin American tour in 1968, 
exclaimed happily when he finally got to simpat/co Costa Rica: 
"This perfect jewel of a country!" The NEW YORK TIMES in an 
editorial on February 5th, 1970 headed "Costa Rica's Example" 
praises the solid democracy of this tiny country and says in part: 
"Doing what comes naturally, a half-million voters have brought 
off (Costa Rica's fifth successive) peaceful presidential election 
in twenty years." 

Yet, It Isn't only each other whom Costa Ricans like. There is 
no xenophobia here al all: foreigners are warmly welcomed and 
North Americans, especially, are cherished. Nearly 15,000 of us 
from the U.S. live and prosper in Costa Rica. English is widely 
spoken, and the word has been gradually slipping out that In 
this "jewel of a country" lies the fulfillment of the wistful dream 
of so many harassed Americans: the mind picture of that perfect 
retreat where climate and man are in gentle harmony with each 

It's rather astonishing that this spectacularly beautiful coun- 
try, really not that distant from the States, is much less familiar 
to Americans than the islands of the Caribbean. Almost every- 
one knows, and many have visited, the grouping of tropical Edens 
called the West Indies— their fabled greenness, the sparkling 
waters in which they are set. Yet Costa Rica's climate has all the 
balm of its island neighbors and is more exhilaratingly varied. 
The sea that stretches along the east coast of this slender strip 
of Central America is the Caribbean. Go west less than 150 miles 
and there is the Pacific: nowhere does this greatest of oceans 
wash more beautiful shores than Costa Rica's. Incongruously, 
some travel writers have called this country "The Switzerland of 
Central America"; still it is true that Costa Rica's mountains are 
as glorious in their tropical setting as the Alps in their ambience. 
And it is further a fact that these mountains aid in making the 
climate the delight it is. San Jose, the capital, is in the central 
plateau, 3500 feet above sea level, and about midway between 
the Caribbean and the Pacific. The city's climate is simply noth- 
ing less than perpetual Spring with the mean temperature steady 
at 70° every month of the year. But even at Pacific coast sea 
level — at our BEACHES OF NOSARA, for example — even here, 
the mean annual temperature is only 78 degrees accompanied 
by humidity so low that it can't be matched by the Caribbean 
islands. And not to put down the exotic West Indies, there's a 
good deal more of Costa Rica that the islands can't match. Nature 
thrives on an immense scale here. Naturalists have identified 
762 species of birds (in all of the United States, 130 times 
Costa Rica's size, there are 725 varieties). And such birds! 
Partridge, parrots, cuckoos, toucans along with the wrens, 



thrushes, orioles, finches. We have deer, raccoon, monkies. Costa 
Rica's soil is so fertile that Texas cattle ranchers are incredulous 
that what would be prized crop acreage in their state is used 
casually as cattle-raising land here. (It has been reported by the 
WALL STREET JOURNAL that Lyndon Johnson bought a ranch 
on the Pacific side of Costa Rica.) And what lush growth springs 
from the soil! Great forests of majestic trees; lignum vitae can 
be so huge that a single tree's branches may shelter an entire 
herd of cattle. There are groves whose boughs bend under the 
weight of fruit— citrus, mangoes, bananas, coconuts. Costa Rican 
coffee is unparalleled. Hundreds of varieties of oichids grow wild. 
We produce vegetables of a size and flavor such as few North 
American housewives have seen (our portfolio, if you'll send 
for it, has photos taken in a market and you'll find hard to believe 
those giant radishes and scallions). 

Costa Rica has a record of steady economic progress and 
every foreigner who has come here is instantly aware that this 
progress is mounting toward affluence. Clearly, a country of 
such natural richness and with so extraordinary a people, puts 
fresh meaning into the overworked word opportunity. Oh, oppor- 
tunity is here, all right. And for none better than for North Amer- 
icans. There are no restrictions against private investment and 
the list of American businesses, small and large. Is long. For you 
who simply want to retire, there are special privileges if you are 
not a Costa Rican, all you have to prove is a guaranteed income 
of $325 monthly for you and your wife and you are exempt from 
paying taxes. San Jose has everything— for the soul as well as 
the stomach. Opera, symphony, splendid movie houses, theater 
(its National Theater, marbled and mirrored, is a graceful replica 
of L'Opera in Paris). Many doctors and surgeons are from U.S. 
medical schools; the hospitals are excellent. You can buy any- 
thing in the handsome shops and the cost of living is joyfully 
low. T-bone steak, eggs, vegetables, fruits are far below U.S. 
prices. An elegant Spanish architectural 3 bedroom house can 
presently be constructed for less than $10,000, and a livein- 
maid and a gardener will service it at a combined monthly wage 
of $80 for both. 

Education is a positive obsession in Costa Rica. There are 
2,379 elementary schools with 350,000 children attending, and 
112 high schools, art academies, business schools, etc. The 
beautiful complex of the University of Costa Rica has an enroll- 
ment of 12,000 students. And the academic standing of the 
English language private schools is very high. The most prestig- 
ious of these accommodates North American children at a tuition 
of $38 a month. And that includes busing to and from school! 

San Jose has a fine airport, one of the largest, most con- 
venient and modern in Central America, and the jet flight from 
Miami via LACSA or TACA takes about 2'/i hours and presently 
costs $182 round trip. For the autoist the drive from the States 
along the Pan American Highway is a memorable one; south of 
Cartage in Costa Rica, the famous road climbs to its highest 
elevation— 10,931 feet. 

So It had to happen: Here we were, a group of Americans- 
land developers. We'd heard of Costa Rica and we came here. 
Instantly to be entranced by its beauty and won by its people. We 
knew quite soon— almost like the original Spanish discoverers 
who gave it the name "rich coast"— that this was the country 
we'd been looking for. All that remained now was to find the 
quintessential tract of land that had everything— natural loveli- 
ness, serenity, climate, beaches. We found it. We found it in the 
peninsula of Nicoya directly on the Pacific. And we named this 
tranquil place . . . BEACHES OF NOSARA 

We've employed many superlatives in this ad— maybe, you'll 
suspect, even extravagances. Yet at the risk of once more stretch- 
ing your bounds of credibility, we say this: that nowhere in the 
world will you find more glorious beaches than the two miles 
of beautiful white sand and unimaginably clean, clear sea that 
front our property. There is one section that is modestly com- 
pared to the best surfing Hawaii has to offer; and, wonderfully 
for the less adventurous, there is a long piece where the sea is 
quiet and where even infants can play in the water as it rolls 
gently onto the sand. If you're a shell collector you'll find, day 
after day, specimens you've never before seen. And out from 
shore are the boating and the skin diving, the fishing. A world 
of fish, a treasure-house for you, if that's your passion: tuna, 
dolphin, wahoo, grouper, snapper— the whole catalog, believe it. 

How rare to discover that today— a pure sea teeming with healthy 
fish. Yes, as much as anything it was the ocean and the beaches 
that caused us to choose NOSARA. 

But then one turns his back on the Pacific and looks out at the 
land and isn't that something to see— this rich-soiled, lushly- 
covered sculpture of hills and valleys! It is big— 3300 acres— but 
we intend to convert only a part of it to homesites. We've brought 
in ecologists and other scientists to help us preserve the natural 
beauty of this place. We have laid about 35 miles of horseriding 
trails, all within the boundaries of our property. If a precious tree 
stands in the way of a bulldozer the tree stays; we bend the road 
around it. If it's to be a match-up between "progress" and nature 
we'll ride with the trees and the birds. 

But of course we've brought in the machines and used them. 
Every site in BEACHES OF NOSARA fronts a road. Every home is 
guaranteed electricity and pure delicious water. We hope to build 
a superb golf course with 9 holes to be completed next year in 
1973. and we expect to build the first of our tennis courts shortly. 
We've built a charming hotel with club facilities and an airfield 
to bring you here quickly from San Jose. 

We're not new to this profession. We've been developers in 
the West Indies and we do appreciate those magical islands. 
But this Is the simple truth: no island in the Caribbean can claim 
what we have in this ad. And when one realizes that some im- 
proved sites in the West Indies have now soared to fantastic 
prices— that one dollar a square foot, $10,000 for a quarter-acre 
is now becoming the rule, then BEACHES OF NOSARA becomes 
almost too good to be true. For the price of our homesites is only 
40* a square foot, $4000 for a quarter-acre, 4% down and 2% a 
month, with no Interest charges! And that includes roads, elec- 
tricity, water, one year free golf membership and the unlimited 
use of the natural paradise that we've inherited and are pre- 
serving for you. 

We're running out of space and there's so much more to tell 
you. Some of you may visit us after reading this message. Most 
cannot. For those we have prepared a thick portfolio. It includes 
a large color brochure, maps, house plans, and a 96 page con- 
densation of Prof. Donald Lundberg's authoritative book "COSTA 
R;CA."AI1 this is FREE. 

Our portfolio also tells you how to go about reserving a home- 
site in BEACHES OF NOSARA and spells out our money-back 
guarantees: an unconditional 60 day deposit refund warranty; 
and a full year after signing contract to visit the property and 
see for yourself whether it delights you. If not, every penny 
you'd have paid in is refunded without a word. 

We're quite certain that we have something very special in 
BEACHES OF NOSARA and we already know that the response to 
our advertising is going to be quite lively. We sincerely urge you 
—if you wish to be in time for the choice lots— to fill out and 
mail the coupon right away. Our portfolio is free and you are 
under no obligation at all. Indeed, no one will ever phone you 
or call on you. .It's only the mailman you'll see* 


Dept. M-8, 1199 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10001 

Please send me without obligation your complete port- 
folio Including color brochure, maps, and Prof. Lundberg's 
book "COSTA R;CA." 



"A vcrififd slalfm 
or lease or offer lo< 
ing. A copy of Ihe o 

enl hut been filed with ihe Depl. of Stale of the Stale of N.Y. The. filing doef not eonslitule approval of I 
Depl. of Stale or any officer thereof or that Ihe Depl. of Stale haj in any way panel) upon Ihe merili of iuc 
vailable, upon requejt, from the subdivider." ,N V A #1012.1 


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Why Nikon binoculars 

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or species. But what if there are no 
new strains or species to replace the 
unsatisfactory ones? 

The insurance value of diversity 
applies to more than just individual 
species or strains of plants and ani- 
mals. Suppose a civilization irri- 
gated farmland in such a fashion 
that long-term, irreversible destruc- 
tion of the soil only showed up after 
a century. Suppose, further, that 
the entire landscape of this civ- 
ilization had been managed in an 
identical fashion. Then when the 
entire landscape lost its fertility, the 
civilization would be without land 
to produce food. Further, it 
wouldn't even have any unmanaged 
land to compare with the managed 
lands for scientific investigations. A 
simple example of the importance 
of such comparisons is the few for- 
est areas in Greece from which 
goats have been excluded. The con- 
trast between the grazed and un- 
grazed lands is so startling that no 
argument from goat-lovers could 
withstand visual comparison of for- 
ested areas with and without goats. 

It is tremendously important for 
anv civilization to set aside areas 
where common cultivation practices 
are not adopted. If the same tech- 
niques are used everywhere, we can 
never know the long-term results of 
the practice. Thus, we can never 
know if intensive annual pesticide 
sprayings have long-term dele- 
terious effects on orchards, forests, 
or woodlots unless we have un- 
spraved ai'eas for comparison. 

In short, a prudent civilization 
maintains the landscape under 
many different management strate- 
gies, including parcels of each soil 
and climate zone that are not man- 
aged at all. This landscape diversity 
has two values. First, we have a 
yardstick for determining if some- 
thing unexpected or odd is gradu- 
ally showing up in a managed area. ] 
Without the unmanaged areas, the 
odd or unexpected effect could be | 
ascribed to something else, to a 
change in climate, for example. The 
unsettled arguments as to whether 
the changes in the landscape of the 
Mediterranean basin, the Middle 
East. North Africa, and northern 
India were due to climatic change 
or man's activities show clearly the 
importance of having unmanaged 
areas for checking. The second 
value of landscape diversity is that 
if a civilization unwittingly destroys 


He doesn't just sing. 

He broadcasts the weather. 

When you hear the sound of the striped crested 
cuckoo on a South African nature trail, listen closely. 
He's a weather broadcaster. 

If his song consists of descending notes, then the 
weather will be fine. But if it mounts, look out for rain. 

For a different kind of forecasting, keep an eye 
out for the African hoopoe. When he appears, the 
Bantu know it's time for ploughing. 

Another helpful bird is the honey guide. With 
his excitable chirp and directed fhght, he leads hu- 
mans and animals to hives of wild honey. 

All this should tell you South Africa is particu- 
larly rich in bird life. If you can imagine the sound 
of a million birds awakening, then you will know 
what daybreak is like out in the bush. 

There are over 100 game and nature reserves in 
South Africa, including bird sanctuaries, flower re- 
serves, and immense tracts of land devoted to ani- 
mal life. 

At one reserve, there are no fewer than 300 
species of birds to be seen. This includes an abun- 
dance of aquatic bird life, such as the fish eagle, 
dwarf goose, water dikkop, fishing owl, African ja- 
cana, and South Africa's national bird, the blue crane. 

Come see it all. 

The fastest, easiest way there is by South 
African Airways. A Boeing Stratojet whisks you 
there by the most direct route from New York in a 
relaxed, friendly atmosphere. If you want to go by 
way of Europe, we have daily departures from 10 
European Gateways. 

For more information, see your travel agent or 
South .African Airways, 605 Fifth Avenue, New 
York, New York 10017. 


Come with us. 

A little off the beaten track. 

its managed lands, it has other 
places on which to raise food while 
the destroyed areas are gradually 
rebuilt to productivity. 

A generalization of this argument 
holds that an extremely prudent 
civilization would try to maintain 
other civilizations with different 
ideas about land use. Over the short 
term, the ideas of civilization A 
might appear vastly superior to 
those of civilization B. But over the 
long term it could turn out that the 
apparently "primitive" practices of 
civilization B were based on mil- 
lennia of trial and error and in- 
corporated deep wisdom that was 
unintelligible to civilization A. 

Fuller Use of Energy 

The third argument for diversitv 
originates in the theory of modern 
ecologists that any habitat contains 
a set of "niches," or functions, that 
may be filled. If only part of the 
niches are filled, then the sun's 
energy that is captured bv, and 
flows through, a system will be less 
than if all the niches were filled. 

Perhaps the best known and 
most convincing illustration of this 
argument comes from Africa. Re- 
search shows that a mix of native 
animal species uses the landscape 
more economically than imported 
livestock. Each of the different 
types of antelope and other game 
consume slightly different mixes of 
food plants or parts of plants, so 
that a whole assemblage of different 
species uses the landscape more ef- 
ficiently than, say, beef cattle would 
bv themselves. 

The same point has been demon- 
strated repeatedly in analyses of the 
fish production per year per acre 
from different mixes of fish species. 
The more fish species there are in a 
body of water, the greater the gross 
production. Human understanding 
of this principle reaches its pinnacle 
in Oriental fish farming, where up 
to nine different species of carp are 
grown together in the set of propor- 
tions that makes best use of the re- 
sources in a pond. 

Mental Well-being 

Humanity has given far too little 
thought to the fourth argument for 
preserving diversity. How much di- 
versity in the world around us is op- 
timal for the human mind? Might 
the extent of environmental diver- 
sity have any relationship to the av- 

erage level of mental health in a 
population? Could a certain level of 
diversity be most satisfying— emo- 
tionally and estheticallv— to the hu- 
man mind because of the conditions 
during human evolution? Diversity 
in an environment may have a 
much deeper significance for man 
than is generally recognized. We 
know that human beings tend to 
hallucinate when kept in confined 
quarters and deprived of sensory 
stimuli. This could be interpreted as 
a protective device by the mind to 
provide an otherwise unavailable 
need. Reports have been published 
indicating that extremely refractory 
mental patients, who had not spo- 
ken to anyone in years, showed an 
almost miraculous response when 
taken to wilderness areas. 

The recent popularity of skin 
diving as recreation may convey a 
deep message. It may be that the 
rate of incoming sensory stimuli 
while skin diving is optimal for the 
human mind. I know that after sev- 
eral hours of constant interruption 
by the phone and visitors, I almost 
jump with each new phone call. But 
I also know that I can become 
bored amid all this stimuli. The ex- 
tremely deep satisfaction I derive 
from exploring the ocean edge of a 
tropical island may be telling me 
something important about my 
mind and all our minds. We have 
evolved over a very long period so 
that our minds can cope handily 
with a certain rate of incoming sen- 
sory stimuli. We find the stimuli 
rate we can cope with in nature be- 
cause we evolved there. Either 
sharply higher or sharply lower 
rates of incoming sensory stimuli 
are bad for our nervous systems. 

This is only anecdotal evidence, 
but more carefully designed and 
measured research leads to the same 
conclusion. For some years. Prof. J. 
Lee Kavanau of UCLA has been 
conducting experiments on small 
mammal behavior in heavily in- 
strumented cages. These cages are 
wired, enabling the animaJ to 
change its environment and record- 
ing every move the animal makes 
and every detail of the conditions in 
the cage. The animals learn to con- 
trol their environment by pressing 
levers. Kavanau has discovered that 
animals will press levers to select 
other than optimal conditions. In 
other words, confronted with a 
choice of living constantly in an op- 

timal world but being bored, or of 
living in a world that is only opti- 
mal part of the time and ex- 
periencing variety, even a small ro- 
dent will opt for variety. It is 
reasonable to assume that humans 
would opt even more strongly for 
variety rather than constant opti- 
mality. Perhaps diversity is not 
merely a luxury for us. It may be 
something we need. 

If, upon reflection, you agree 
with my general line of argument as 
to the intrinsic value of diversity, 
then important implications follow 
for many aspects of our lives. Par- 
ticularly, the argument has impor- 
tant political implications. 

For example, if diversity breeds 
stabihty. then it is worthwhile for a 
government to regulate the rate at 
which different interest groups ac- 
quire wealth and power. Undue 
concentration of power and wealth 
allows a small group of people to 
change the landscape to suit them- 
selves, even though the change may 
not suit others. For example, wil- 
derness mountaintops and tropical 
islands have been overdeveloped for 
second homes because the prospec- 
tive profits for developers were very 
large relative to the total costs for 
society. Costs were small for the de- 
velopers because they were not 
equitably divided within the 
society. If something went sour 
with the development— the lots 
didn't sell after trees were bull- 
dozed—or if subsequent sewage and 
pollution control costs spiraled, 
then someone else, not the devel- 
oper, absorbed the costs. Thus, the 
developer reaped a great gain from 
subdividing, and someone else paid 
the price. Given this situation it is 
scarcely surprising that so much of 
the world is being destroyed or that 
diversitv is diminishing so rapidly. 
A comparable situation exists 
with respect to the oceans, which 
our culture treats as an inter- 
national "common property re- 
source." Since no one or no one na- 
tion owns the oceans or their 
contents, no one has a motive for 
perpetuating the living diversity of 
the oceans. Consequently, the pre- 
cious living treasures of two-thirds 
of the earth may be less diverse or 
even depleted in a short time. And 
there are too many links between 
oceanic and terrestrial life for such 
a loss to occur without profoundly 
affecting humanity. ■ [ 


Well send you $5 Cash 
if you own a cart or 
wheelbarrow which 
will pass all of this 
basic 15 point test 

and it isn't one of our designs. 

Practically every home has at least one cart 
or wheelbarrow, but it is absolutely amazing 
how few of them will be able to answer yes 
on all of these 15 points. 

Unless you do have a cart or wheelbarrow 
which will pass on all 15 points, please mail 
the coupon below now so we can send you 
complete details and prices of the GARDEN 
WAY CARTS we make up here in Vermont. 


Several Models Include 
Build-lt-Yourself Kits! 

These Vermonf-made GARDEN WAY CARTS wiU pass the test 
with ease. They are so perfectly balanced on two big 
wheels, so easy to roll, you guide them with just one hand, 
even with 300 lb. loads! No backstraini No struggle! No 
load fall-out! Handsome, rugged, handcrafted appearance. 
Perfect (gift) for any him, her, family or business. For FREE 
CATALOG by first class mail please mail coupon below now. 


.u load It heavily, 
it. without it sud- 
flopping on Its 


,^^ will It hold two full size 

', trash cans or two stan- 

r'^'i./ivL ^ dard bushel baskets? 

9^^\^ YES n NO D 


Will it pull easily up 
steps or over obstacles 
without catching its legs 
and without dumping its 
load out forward? 

YES n NO n 

Is It narrow enough to 
go readily through stan- 
dard doors, so you can 
enioy using it indoors as 





I you handle it with 
t one hand, without 
istant struggle to 
ep It from tipping 

YES n NO n 


Is it shaped to take a 
great , big cardboard box 
for leaves and other such 
bulky loads? 

YES n NO n 


I J Can you load it crosswise 

.^ without having the load 

slide off forward? 


^rt^-— )) 


Is it light and com 
enough so it can be 
ily lifted, by non-gi. 
into a station wagon 


YES □ 


Is It designed to take 
full size garden tools, 
like hoes and rakes? 

YES □ NO n 

-, Is It low enough to be 

/V Vj-\ just the right height for 

W^ ^\'-.\ gardening? 

^ YES D NO n 


Is It rugged enough to 
take rough loads, such as 
t^vo hundred pounds of 
dirt. sand, gravel or the 

^ YES G NO n 

will It "stand on Its 
head" to accept heavy 
loads, so you don't have 
to lift them? 

YES n NO □ 

Are Its legs out of the 
way so they don't con- 
stantly bang your heels 
or shins? 




Is It designed 
balance a heav 
just one finge 
the axle carrle 
not you? 


If you do have a cart or wheelbarrow which is not 
and which you think passes on all 15 points, just se 
of It and we'll send you the $5.00 cash if we agr< 
we're pretty sure you don't have such a cart unles 
yourself, because there isn't any other cart on the 
can match ours on all 15 points. If you did build yo 

will pa 

ss on a 

1 15 points, we 
matter how ma 

'II be de 

Seriously, no 

ny carts 

own, M 


you bought or 

built th 


e you'll 

want at least o 

ie of our 


for gifts. 


like on 

r prices, too - 

- they'r 



ed to the price 

s of othe 

the cou 

pon no 

«. Thanks very n 

luch for ) 

our design 

us a photo 

Of course 

you built it 

irket which 

own and it 


s you now 

*re almost 

nd perhaps 


I Dept. C-3512 

I Charlotte, Vermont 05445 



Please send by return mail, FREE CATALOG of your GARDEN WAY 
CARTS, including your attractive prices. 




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Books in Re\de%v 

The Social Insects 

bv Mam Jane W est Ebcrliaixl 

The Insect Societies, bv Edward 

0. Wilson. Belknap Press of Har- 
vard University Press, $20.00: 548 
pp., illus. 

I j^ videntlv we are to witness the 
J — ^publication of a reallv major 
English-language treatise on the so- 
cial insects only once everv fiftv 
vears. In the present century the 
first was William Morton Wheeler's 
1923 book Social Life among the 
Insects (complemented in 1928 bv 
The Social Insects): the second is 
Edward 0. Wilson's The Insect So- 
cieties. If only because of the rarity 
of the event and the stature of the 
author (one of the most prominent 
zoologists in the United States). The 
Insect Societies must be considered 
a work of major importance. It is 
sure to influence the focus of re- 
search as well as the content of pub- 
lic information on the social insects 
for years to come. 

The new book by Wilson invites 
comparison with W heeler's now clas- 
sic volumes. Wilson, like Wheel- 
er, began his career in entomology 
as a collector and classifier of ants, 
then went on to become interested 
in behavior, ecology, and sociality 
in general. Both works are written 
with impeccable clarity, agreeable 
style, and a sprinkling of Greek-fla- 
vored words such as phthisogynes 
(Wheeler's) and ergonomics (Wil- 
son's). Wilson's book, like Wheel- 
er's in its day, attempts to summa- 

Bald-faced hornet 

rize and synthesize contemporary 
knowledge of the social insects. In 
1923 this was an admirable accom- 
plishment; today it is a truly gar- 
gantuan feat. Bv Wilson's reckon- 
ing, there are more than 12,000 
articles in the scientific literature 
on ants alone, embracing such di- 
verse sciences as svstematics. ecol- 
ogy, behavior, and biochemistry. 
Wilson, who has made original con- 
tributions in all these fields, is one 
of the few people in the world both 
learned enough to write a modern, 
comprehensive book on the social 
insects and daring enough to under- 
take it singlehandedlv. 

The Insect Societies would be a 
good present for a curious and in- 
telligent older child, an imaginative 
biology teacher, a serious armchair 
naturalist who likes insects, or a 
specialist in one kind of social in- 
sect who wants to read up on the 
others. Its 22 chapters cover vir- 
tually everv important topic in the 
study of social insects, including 
communication, senses and in- 
tellectual capacities, population dy- 
namics, and theoretical consid- 
erations. The first four chapters 
outline the natural history of each 
of the four major groups of social 
insects: the social wasps, the ants, 
the social bees, and the termites. 
Rather than summarizing all of the 
information available on all species, 
which would result in a dizzying 
hodgepodge of facts, Wilson has de- 
scribed in some detail the life-stvles 
of selected, relatively well-known 
examples: yellow jackets, honey- 
bees, tropical stingless bees, army 
ants, and fungus-growing termites, 
to mention just a few. A rather 
sketchy treatment of the social 
wasps, due partly to the sparse na- 
ture of the information available on 
them, is compensated for by a mag- 
nificent chapter on the ants— not 
only Wilson's specialitv but as a 
group probably the best known of 
all social insects. Caste determina- 
tion, the still mysterious process by 

which some individuals become 
sterile workers and others become 
reproducing kings or queens, is dis- 
cussed in separate chapters; and 
there are bonus chapters on the pre- 
social insects and the svmbionts, or 
companions (helpful, harmful, and 
neutral), of social species, where 
one can glimpse such exotic scenes 
as a mother tingid bug giving an an- 
tennal rebuke to her straggling off- 
spring, and a staphvlinid beetle 
duping a worker ant into giving it a 
free meal. 

The much discussed "genetic 
theory of social behavior" devel- 
oped by the English biologist Wil- 
liam D. Hamilton is given the 
ample consideration it deserves. 
This is a theory that at last provides 
scientific justification for the age- 
old tendency to compare insect and 
human societies, suggesting com- 
mon elements in social evolution 
throughout the animal kingdom. As 
such, it should influence the views 
of sociality held bv anthropologists 
and psychologists as well as zoolo- 
gists; yet it has so far been discussed 
almost exclusively by insect sociolo- 
gists and theoretical biologists. This 
is the first detailed presentation of 
it in a widely accessible book. The_ 
implications of the theory are pre- 
sented as a series of "predictions" 
and "evidence" that may make 
them difficult for the uninitiated 
reader to grasp. While eminently 
thorough, this method forces one to 
evaluate the theory piece by piece 
before having a clear picture of it as 
a whole, and the emphasis on prob- 
lems of the theory leaves the im- 
pression that the whole thing is 
somehow very much in doubt. Ac- 
tually the central point— the impor- 
tance of degree of relatedness of in- 
teracting individuals in the 
evolution of social behavior — is ir- 
refutable if one accepts the basic 
tenets of evolutionary theory. 

While much of the book was 
clearly written with professional bi- 
ologists in mind, it will undoubt- 


edly become the standard reference 
volume for anyone with a question 
to ask about social insects. People 
for whom "dichthadiiform erga- 
togyne" is not a household word 
will be aided by a multitude of illus- 
trations, an extensive index, and a 
glossary. The glossary includes both 
technical terms and ordinary words 
(like "commune" and "elite") used 
in special ways, but it has some 
curious omissions. Some readers 
may be left thinking that a 
"monotonic function" is a songfest 
for the untalented. Also helpful are 
the unfailing clarity of the writing 
and the felicitous choice of colorful 
quotes and examples, such as the 
story of a European-style garden in 
Central America being carried 
away, bit by tender bit, by the 

Colony of honeybees 

"wiwi-laca," the formidable leaf- 
cutting ants of the American trop- 
ics. Some of the more technical sec- 
tions, such as the detailed dis- 
cussion of allometry (the 
developmental basis of certain caste 
differences) can be skipped over by 
the average reader with little loss in 
understanding. For readers inter- 
ested in fine points, such sections 
will prove invaluable syntheses. 
The discussion of caste determina- 
tion in honeybees, technically one 
of the more complicated in the 
book, is also one of the most read- 
able. It is both intrinsically inter- 
esting and particularlv well written, 
although lovers of the old. roman- 
tic, anthropomorphic style will be 
both shocked and disappointed to 
find that for Wilson the honeybee 

is "just one more eusocial apoid." 
The illustrations deserve special 
mention. Wilson has used ex- 
ceptional taste and care in choosing 
from among the best published 
drawings and photographs of social 
insect behavior and natural history, 
adding some unpublished ones sup- 
plied by colleagues and two ex- 
cellent commissioned artists. The 
frontispiece is a beautiful full-page 
color reproduction of Frank M. Car- 
penter's spectacular photograph of 
a fossil ant. and manv of the text il- 
lustrations occupy all or half of the 
8- by 10-inch pages. 

A major intent of the book is 
"the expression of insect sociology 
as population biologv." In keeping 
with this theme there is a valuable 
chapter on the population dvnamics 
of colonies, the first real synthetic 
treatment of this subject. The au- 
thor makes an ambitious and affec- 
tionate attempt to move the studv 
of social insects out of the plodding, 
grass-stained realm of the old-fash- 
ioned naturalists (who have pro- 
vided most of the information in the 
book's 548 pages) into the IBM- 
fast, lab-coat-clean world of the 
"modern" biologists. "The evolu- 
tion of social insects," says chapter 
18, "offers an interesting array 
of the kinds of questions that can 
only [italics mine] be solved by the 
modern methods of population biol- 
ogy." Given as an example of mod- 
ern methods is "optimization the- 
ory," which inspired Wilson's own 
mathematical model of the "ergo- 
nomics" of caste. Yet questions 
such as. Why do some species ex- 
change regurgitated materials and 
others not?— cited as particularly 
subject to solution bv these meth- 
ods—are certainly just the kinds of 
questions that can "only" be an- 
swered with a great deal of field ob- 
servation and comparative natural 
history of the traditional kind. The 
indispiMisahilitv of mathematical 
models is still a moot point. But the 
Wilsonian ap|)rc)aili mav serve to 



The HERPETOLOGISTS' YEARBOOK for 1971 is in prepara- 
tion and will be issued early in 1972. The Yearbook is a new idea 
in the field. Besides reviewing the status of special subjects on 
amphibians and reptiles, it will provide basic data on the biology 
and classification of these animals. This information, culled from 
the materia] retrieved and consolidated bj' the Genera of Reptiles 
Project (HISS) at the American Museum of Natural History, 
will be consulted on almost a daily basis by anyone who is inter- 
ested in amphibians and reptiles. This first issue will contain hun- 
dreds of important items of information on these animals. We 
expect future issues to grow into a regular almanac of herpetology. 


'ASTRONAUTS . . . The date of the 

first orbiting turtle. 
*CYTOLOGISTS... A summary 
and bibliography of amphibian and 
reptile chromosomes. 
*HOBB YISTS ... Basic information 
on amphibians and reptiles: 
longevity, classification. 
*HUNTERS ... A section on venom- 
ous snakes: snakebite, antivenins, 

'LIBRARIANS... American 
Standard abbreviations for more 
than 2,000 journals that publish 
articles on amphibians and rep- 

''PHOTOGRAPHERS . . . some out- 
standing portraits of amphibians 
and reptiles. 

''STUDENTS ... A list of schools 
offering herpetology courses, 
sketches of herpetological societies 
and collections, a Directory of 
Living Herpetologists. 
'TRAVELER ... A list of zoos with 
amphibian and reptile exhibits. 
"ZOOLOGISTS ... An up-to-date 
Checklist of the species of am- 
phibians and reptiles in the United 
States and Canada. 


TO: Department of Herpetology: HISS 

The American Museum of Natural History 

77th street at Central Park West 
New York, New York 10024 







HERPETOLOGISTS' YEARBOOK for 1971 at the following rates: 

□ Individual subscriptions @ $12.00 $ 

n Institutional subscriptions @ $15.00 $ 

I enclose a check for a total of $ 

[Please make check to "AMNH Genera of Reptiles."] 

stimulate new generalizations and 
to attract to this important and in- 
teresting field people for whom sim- 
pler pleasures— such as the sight of 
a food-laden worker wasp feverislily 
dancing" before her queen— are 
not attraction enough. 

In writing this book \^ilson has 
had to confront manv controversies 
and resolve many points left fuzzv 
bv previous writers. In a scholarlv 
synthesis of this kind, specialists 
will find issues to debate and nits to 
pick. For example: Do the sim- 
ilarities between the separately 
evolved societies of termites and 
Hymenoptera (wasps, ants, and 
bees) really mean, as Wilson sug- 
gests, that ''there are constraints on 
the machinerv of the insect brain" 
that limit the kinds and degrees of 
their social organization, and that 
the ultimate social limits were 
reached 50 and 100 million vears 
ago? Tlie questionable implication 
is that these insects are no longer 
capable of major neurobehavioral 
evolution. Similar, heartilv debated 
statements are sometimes made 
about the evolutionarv progress of 
man. In three chapters on caste de- 
termination there is no mention of a 
haunting uncertaintv as to how the 
many experiments on structural 
castes relate to the determination of 
functional (behavioral) differ- 
ences—the most interesting aspect 
as far as social organization is con- 
cerned. And some will find it ironic 
that this "modern svnthesis of in- 
sect sociologv" has adopted a now 
artificial classification of degrees of 
sociality, using overlap of gener- 
ations to distinguish between "pre- 
social" and "eusocial" (trulv social) 
behavior instead of emphasizing the 
reproductive division of labor now 
considered a far more important 
evolutionarv event. 

The final chapter. "The Prospect 
for a Unified Sociobiologv." con- 
tains some of the most important 
thoughts in the book, ideas— such as 
an appreciation of the functional 
similarities between insect and ver- 
tebrate societies— that merit more 
than the three pages devoted to 
them. But it would be a bit sillv to 
insist that the book go on to do 
even more than it docs. For anyone, 
lavman or specialist, interested in a 
single, concise, lucid, and author- 
itative account of the most signifi- 
cant facts and theories about insect 
societies. The Insect Societies is the 

best available and will be for manv 

Man' Jane West Eberhard is a re- 
search associate in the Departa- 
mento de Biologia, Universidad del 
Valle. Cali. Colombia. She is coau- 
thor (with Howard E. Evans) of the 
book The Wasps. 

Who Owns America? bv Walter J. 
Hickel. Prentice-Hall. Inc.. §6.95: 
328 pp. 

If for nothing else, dvnamic. gustv 
Wally Hickel will go down in 
history as having been the first Inte- 
rior Secretary in the "era of envi- 
ronmental awareness." which 
dawned with the Santa Barbara oil 
blowout in January. 1969. just as 
he was beginning his brusquely ter- 
minated. 22-month tenure. Origi- 
nally suspected of being an ex- 
ploitationist at heart, Hickel 
pleasantly surprised nearly every- 
body by his enlightened handling of 

a strenuous succession of environ- 
mental crises and issues, stretching 
from Alaska to the Everglades. 

His initial, somewhat jumbled 
stab at memoirs— put together with 
the help of a half-dozen assistants, 
but refreshingly Hickelian in lan- 
guage—is more a political document 
than an environmental one. He 
makes a ringing pitch for genuinely 
populistic management of our natu- 
ral resource heritage. But he's more 
concerned with detailing his falling- 
out with the Nixon administration 
and intimating his ready, willing, 
and ableness for future public of- 

It develops that his celebrated 
letter to the president about listen- 
ing to youth was only the last straw 
in a succession of hassles that got 
him crosswise with the Haldeman- 
Erlichman-Whi taker-Kissinger- 
Klein axis— and with Mr. Nixon 

He publicly touted low interest 
rates when that wasn't the cabinet 
line. He opposed clustering pollu- 
tion controls under the Environ- 
mental Protection Agency um- 

brella. His sewage plant financing 
plan was mysteriously scuttled. 
Worst of all. events put him in the 
uncomfortable position of having 
been right on some key issues on 
which other administration people 
were wrong. He favored halting the 
Florida canal boondoggle long be- 
fore the courts and the White 
House acted. His adverse memo- 
randum on the SST was censored 
by the White House for public con- 
sumption. He assessed the 1970 
Earth Day movement as a historic 
popular cause— and he alone in the 
administration committed his de- 
partment to its support— when the 
White House was scared even to 
take cognizance of it. 

But Mr. Hickel's accounting 
poses many questions about the 
depth in which he is willing to deal 
with environmental realities. He 
deplores the Santa Barbara oil mess 
without discerning, or at least ac- 
knowledging, that it was rooted in 
the piratical, nineteenth-century 
"grab it where you can" resource 
policy the oil industry has foisted 
on the public. He mentions the na- 

You are standing in South Africa 
and hearing soundsyou have never 
heard. Lion's roar hke far-off thunder 
rolls across the veld. Leopard's 
growl vibrates the leaves of trees 

South Africa is different. 
Its people, places, pleasures have 
a flavour, no other land can matc||.' 
South Africa calls you novt. 



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Friends are reminded that we continue to 
operate group trips in the U.S. and most 
countries of the world, as we have been 
doing for the past 12 years. Groups are 
small, usually 10 to 20 persons, and are 
not publicized widely. However, we will 
gladly furnish information concerning 
tours or areas of interest, and a limited 
number of new participants will be wel- 

Norih America Arizona. May 27; Alasica. 
three successive 2-wic. trips reaching 
from Vancouver to the Aleutians, 
Pribilofs and Barrow. June 17. 

Middle America Yucatan I, Jan. 15; 
Yucatan II. Jan. 29; Central America, 
Feb. 12; Mexico East Coast, March 25; 
Mexico West Coast, April S. 

Europe Scandinavia I (mostly Sweden), 
May 3; Ireland-Northumberland, May 
25; Scandinavia II (mostly Norway), 
June 8; "Highlands & Islands" (Heb- 
rides, Orkneys, Shellands, Faroes), 
June 8; Balkans, May 25; Europe East 
(Rumania, Czechoslovakia, Poland), 
June 15; Iceland. July 6. 

Ajrica North Africa. May 4; East Africa. 
Aug. 5; Central Africa, Aug. 26; South 
Africa, Sept. 9. 

4. \\ith 2-wcck ex- 
nd Bhutan. 

Pacific Melanesia, July 8; New Guinea, 
July 28; Indonesia (plus Malaya & 
Borneo), Aug. 25; Western Australia. 
Sept. 15; Eastern Australia, Oct. 6; 
New Zealand, Oct. 27. 

Box 222-a 

tional land-use problem without go- 
ing anv further than to say we 
should take an inventory. (No use 
alienating the real estate industry 
and states' rights fanatics so early 
in the game.) He talks about the 
federal land-acquisition problem 
without mentioning the Land and 
Water Conservation Fund. He de- 
votes more space to the question of 
how to save whales than how to 
save his adopted state of Alaska. He 
devotes eight paragraphs to his 
vouthful pugilistic prowess, but 
onlv four paragraphs each to water 
pollution, timber problems, and 
strip mining, and only one para- 
graph to the multibillion dollar is- 
sue of federal shale-oil lands. 

In many ways.. Mr. Hickel per- 
formed superbly during a turbulent 
interlude in the evolution of a more 
enlightened national approach to 
resources. He owes the public, and 
his own reputation, a more thor- 
ough accounting of his travail and 
his views than this obviously hastily 
pasted together (and, incrediblv, in- 
de.xless) compilation— even as per- 
haps the electorate owes him. and 
itself, a less abbreviated demonstra- 
tion of his indisputable talent for 
decisive action in public affairs. 
Hopefully both items may be forth- 
coming in some early go-around. 
Gladwin Hill 

The New York Times 

Tlie American Museum is open to the 
public every dav during the year, ex- 
cept Thanlcsgiving and Christmas. 
Your support through membership 
and contributions helps make this pos- 
sible. The Museum is equally in need 
of support for its work in the fields of 
research, education, and exliibition. 

COVER-George B. 

Inc.: except 40-bot- 


tom, Norman Myers, 

12-Jerrv W/achter 

Bruce Coleman, Inc. 

15-Sekai Bunka Photo 

43-AMNH after Schaller 

16-The Bettmann Ar- 

45-47 -George B, Schal- 

chive, Inc. 

ler: except 46-top left. 

18-19-Dental Radi- 

Copyrighf 1972 Koio 

ography and Pho- 

Tanaka, Animals 




48-Bob Campbell, 

22-The Bettmann Ar- 

Bruce Coleman, Inc 

chive. Inc. 

50-Lick Observatory 

30-Harvev Price. Nancy 

53-Hale Observatories 

Palmer Agency 

54-55-Helmut Wimmer 


57-63-William J. Weber: 

33— Harvey Price. Nancy 

except 51-AMNH 

Palmer Agency 

65-72-Adelaide de 

34-left, Alain Y. Des- 


saint: right: William H. 

73-AMNH after de 



35-37-Harvev Price, 

74-75- David Lindroth 

Nancy Palmer Agency 

86-87-Courtesy of Bel- 

38-40-John Dominis, 

knap Press/Harvard 

LIFE Magazine * Time, 




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Arnold Toynbee looks at man's development 
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— brooding on his fate, perhaps, as he 
surveys his dwindling domain? 

The photographs were taken by Ralph 
L. Shook on a bitter cold day in February, 
with the wind at 15 miles per hour. He 
spent many hours waiting for his eagle to 
visit this favorite perch. The picture at the 
right shows the whole scene with his Kodak 
Instamatic — his Field Model Questar set 
up in a blind, 150 feet from the bird's tree 
His modified Nikon with through-the-lens 
meter is close-coupled to the telescope and 
the arrow points to the empty branch — 
Above, the Questar photograph is cropped , 
from an 8 X 10 enlargement of 35 mm 
Tri-X, token at f/16, 1/250 second. ^ 

$2.50; EUROPE AND N. AFRICA, $3.00; ELSEWHERE $3.50. 

Tlic Poppies Are 
Beautiful Tliis Year 

Continued from page 36 

in a banana leaf or rice paper and 
either taken home or hidden in the 

Manv passes are made through 
each field because different plants 
will be readv at different times and 
each plant may be tapped several 
times. A large capsule, say 4V^ 
inches in diameter, may receive as 
many as thirty-two incisions, repre- 
senting six or seven passes, before it 
is considered worthless. After the 
harvest, the dried pods are collected 
and seeds kept for the next season. 
These seeds are also eaten as a 
snack, and the capsules are made 
into babv rattles. 

Rice fields cultivated in this 
slash-and-burn manner can be used 
only two or three years in succes- 
sion before vields decline sharply, 
but an opium-maize field can be 
used ten or more vears. Yet, inevi- 
tablv after such extended use, sec- 
ondarv jungle rarely grows back, 
and often onlv Imperata grasses 
grow. Thus, for manv vears to 
come, these fields are rendered in- 
sufficiently fertile for successful 

The primarv resource that a Lisu 
can manipulate to increase his ag- 
ricultural vield is labor. One way to 
increase the household labor pool is 
to have many children. Also, Lisu 
marriage involves both a substantial 
bride payment and a period of bride 
senice during which a father-in-law 
mav call upon his son-in-law for la- 
bor. The bride payment and the 
length of service are subject to ne- 
gotiation before and after the mar- 
riage. Ambitious Lisu trv to arrange 
for both their sons and sons-in-law 
to live close bv in the same village 
so thev will be available to work in 
the fields. Less closely related or 
even unrelated households may join 
these informal groups for economic 
cooperation and mutual support in 

To further increase the labor 
pool, the Lisu hire Karen and Yuan 
opium addicts, ^liile they are usu- 
ally trusted only with routine or 
menial tasks, such as gathering fire- 
wood, clearing a field, or husking 
rice, their labor contribution is sig- 
nificant, and it is doubtful they 
would work for wages other than 
opium. Incidentally, compared to 
some of their neighbors, not many 


Lisu have become addicted. Those 
Aho have are mostly elders, who 
naki- little economic contribution 
11 aiiv case. 

Opium is a great democratizer. 
Since there is a readv market for it. 
iny household with a sufficient la- 
bor pool may attain economic inde- 
pendence. Economic individualism 
is carried over into social and politi- 
cal life, and there are no distinct so- 
cial classes. Each Lisu village, fur- 
thermore, is an independent 
political unit with only superficial 
ties to the Thai administration. 

Opium is also important in Lisu 
religious life. There are more rituals 
associated with opium than with 
any other crop. It is used for offer- 
ings to some spirits. It is also prac- 
tically their only effective medicine. 
Since the Lisu have lived in north- 
ern Thailand for a short period, 
they do not have an extensive 
pharmacopoeia. They remember the 
names of plants used in the past, 
but many of these are not found lo- 
cally. The opium is smoked or eaten 
to counteract malarial fevers, and 
applied externally to the forehead 
for headaches. 

Wbile opium has thus made im- 
portant contributions to Lisu 
societv and provided a convenient 
and profitable product for the Lisu 
to base a livelihood on, it has also 
forced them to be dependent on the 
vagaries of an economic system 
they are not well equipped to deal 
with. They depend upon the low- 
lands for the necessities of life. 
They are at the mercy of middle- 
men who buy their opium, valley 
peasants who supply them with 
rice, and a lowland-based political 
administration with the power to 
cut off their primary source of cash. 

With a clandestine and uncertain 
market for opium, the Lisu are un- 
able to seek better prices in lowland 
towns because they are subject to 
search by the police. They must 
bargain in a foreign language with 
foreign middlemen who make huge 
profits, a situation that leads more 
often than not to antagonistic com- 
mercial dealings, rather than stable 
patron-client relations. Although 
they are economically dependent 
upon the lowlands, the Lisu are at- 
tempting to retain their political in- 
dependence and keep the low- 
landers from interfering in their 
daily affairs. 

The potential for interethnic con- 

flict is constant. In 1968 at Evil 
Peaks, many Lisu fields had been in 
use for more than ten years and 
their yields were declining sharply. 
There was, however, no suitable 
land on which to clear new fields. 
Over the years. Evil Peaks had 
been hemmed in on three sides bv 
Karen villages and Yuan tea tracts 
(the tea is sold as miang, pickled 
tea leaves that are chewed as a 
snack). On the fourth side, the land 
had been declared a national forest 
reserve, and the Lisu had been 
warned by Thai officials not to clear 
fields there. While the Lisu felt that 
encroaching neighbors and reserves 
for which they could see no purpose 
(timber is not extracted at these al- 
titudes) were depriving them of 
land on which to make a living, the 
neighboring Karen and Yuan 
looked upon the Lisu as irrespon- 
sible and aggressive newcomers, 
who devastated the land with their 
methods of shifting cultivation. 

This situation was aggravated be- 
cause the Lisu were generally eco- 
nomically better off than their rural 
neighbors. There were constant 
thefts of Lisu crops, pigs, and 
chickens. The Lisu had been forced 
to abandon cattle raising because of 
numerous rustlings. Lisu fields were 
set on fire prematurely, making 
them unusable. Yuan or Chinese 
bandits further inflamed this situ- 
ation, and there were frequent in- 
cidents of violence, including sev- 
eral killings. When a Lisu youth 
was murdered in 1969, it was the 
unanimous opinion in Evil Peaks 
that the act had been committed by 
Yuan or Shan despite the police 
claim that it had been done by high- 
land Lahu. 

WTien the Lisu did occasionally 
look to lowland officials to redress 
their grievances, they seldom found 
satisfaction. Even when a Yuan was 
jailed for stealing a Lisu pig, the 
Lisu were not satisfied since they 
received no remuneration. The Lisu 
have an imperfect knowledge of 
lowland laws, language, and cus- 
toms, and are seldom willing to pay 
either fees or bribes. They are 
aware of not being full citizens, for 
although they vote and pay taxes, 
they are not legal landowners. They 
are not drafted into the army, and 
because of their isolation and cul- 
tural differences, they do not bene- 
fit from most government services. 

Rather than contest the rights 

Wildlife adventure 
British Columbia 

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maps and numerous drawings. 

Blackwater River 


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Solve problems, play games, 
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Official fly-them-yoursel( 
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time-aloft records, photos, 
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Stock No. 9301 E $2.95 Ppd. 





New catalog. Exciting new categories. lOO's of 
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300 Edscorp Building, Barrington, N.J. 08007 
Write for Catalog "E" 


NEW 3 " 


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Amazingly priced Apollo Space Explorer brings the 
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terrific for amateur meteo- 
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yard fun. Exciting beach 'P .sal^^n ]6fL^ 
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cloud heights, wind speed, 
and temp. (Made of heavy 
duty neoprene. Inflate with 
vacuum cleaner, auto air hose; or helium for high rise. 

Stock No. 60.568E 8' $2.00 Ppd. 

Stock No. 60,632E 16' $7.00 Ppd. 


Easy-to-use Bottle Cutter 
Kit lets you be ecological 
and artistic. Make saleable, 
attractive glasses, lamps, 
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from ordinary no- return 
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Amazing lie detector type 
device that really works. Re- 
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changes in emotional state. ^^*t». 

Needle movement indicates 
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Discover the fun and profit 
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detector finds hidden coins, 
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school, beach, campground 
or backyard. Requires 9V 
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Stock No. 7I.395E $14.95 Ppd. 


Explore the fascinating pre- 
historic world of dinosaurs 
200.000,000 years ago. New 
kit contains 24 authentic 
scale models (12 dinosaurs 
— 12 mammals) accurately 
detailed in sturdy plastic. 
Incl.: Giant Brontosaurus. JS^;^ 
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Stock No. 70.8I7E $6.00 Ppd. 


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ALL tliree . . . AIR. WA- 
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fascinating hours of sci- 
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detect and, in many cases, 
measure degree of 5 major 
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page illustrated labtruction booklet. 
Stock No. 7I.548E $9.95 ppd. 

> your 


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tares you've been afraid to r 
w/flash tube atchd. replace 
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Go treasure hunting on the 

bottom! Fascinating fun & 
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drop it overboard in bay, 
river, lake or ocean. Troll it 
along bottom — your "treas- 
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motors, anchors, etc 5-lb 
Magnet is war surplus — 
AInico-V Type— Gov't cost 
$50. LifU over ISO lbs. on land— much 
Stock No. 70,571 E 5 IbS 

Stock No. 70,570E S'/a lbs 

Stock No. 85,I52E 15% lbs. 



Mum, which makes a bal- 
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Now here's 25 times the fun 
— 25 balloons of 4, 5, or 
6" diam. With them, a 
pressurized (300 Ibs/sq m ) 
can containing 25 liters of 

Stock No. 7I,289E 

$3 00 Ppd. 


Frighten prowlers, muggers, 
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Freon powered pocket-sized 
metal horn can be heard a 
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hunting, seashore, rootii 

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over traffic and constr. noises 

to sound fire drill, lunch 

break or emergency. Weighs only 3 oz but contains up to 

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Stock No. 4I.423E $3 25 Ppd. 

2 Refill Cartrs. (P-4I,424E) $2.75 Ppd 


Perfect for figures, forms, ^ 

shapes, product & tool de- " 

signs, negative molds, model 
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Build your own see-through ,,--. , 

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Over 60 Million Years Old 
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over the lan(i around Evil Peaks or 
put up with constant thievery and 
harassment, in 1969 and 1970 
three-quarters of the inhabitants 
emigrated to other Lisu villages. In 
fact, migration is the usual Lisu re- 
action to threats of large-scale con- 
flict. A change in ethnic identity 
may be another reaction. Never- 
theless, the Lisu realize that they 
cannot continue to find new lands. 
The population in the highlands of 
Thailand is growing, the result oi 
natural causes as well as of immi- 
gration from neighboring countries 
and the lowlands. And recently, 
savannas, on which shifting agricul- 
ture is not possible, have become 
more widespread. Many Lisu asked 
me where they could go in thirty or 
forty years, after the present land is 
used up. 

Both lowlanders and national 
governments are increasingly aware 
of highland people such as the Lisu. 
Highlanders are blamed for defor- 
estation and the resultant erosion 
and'flooding of the lowlands. Fears 
of insurrections, such as that of the 
"Red Meo" near the Thai-Lao bor- 
der or the "Red Karen" near the 
Thai-Burma border, are growing. 
The Thai government, having de- 
clared the trade and use of opium il- 
legal, can confiscate it whenever 
they find it. 

New interest in the highlands has 
resulted in a multiplicity of pro- 
grams designed to promote change. 
The government, army, police, 
Buddhist and Christian mis- 
sionaries, and even volunteer low- 
landers have introduced educational 
and medical services to the Lisu 
and other highland villagers in the 
past decade. New cash crops, such 
as coffee and peaches, have been 
promoted to replace opium. Re- 
settlement in the lowlands or in 
designated highland areas has been 
encouraged to stabilize residence 
and facilitate administration. 

Unfortunately, the speed with 
which these programs have been 
initiated has resulted in a lack of 
coordination and little under- 
standing of the significance of some 
of the proposed changes. At one 
Lisu village with eleven homes, two 
different medical programs were 
being carried on, while another vil- 
lage with 150 or so houses hail 
never seen a doctor. 

The effectiveness of these pro- 
grams depends heavily on ihe indi- 


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\ iduals and officials actually in con- 
tact with the peope, and while 
many of them are well meaning and 
capable, the general lack of knowl- 
edge about each other's cultures 
will continue to be a major hin- 
drance. The king of Thailand, who 
has taken an interest in the prob- 
lems of the country's highland mi- 
norities, has suggested the need for 
a changed attitude on the pai^t of 
some officials. (On Noyember 17. 
1971, a group of military and other 
leaders in Thailand seized power, 
purportedly to "protect the king 
and the people" from Communist 
insurrection in the north and other 
internal strife, as well as from "a 
threatening world situation."' What 
effect, if any, this will have on the 
opium trade is speculatiye. ) 

The effort to replace opium in 
the economy of many highland yil- 
lages will be particularly difficult. 
The prospects of ever finding a sub- 
stitute crop as well adapted to the 
local enyironment and market con- 
ditions are dim. One of Thailand's 
most influential journalists. Kukrit 
Pramoj, has proposed that high- 
landers be allowed to continue 
growing opium poppies and that the 
government buv up the crop. But 
whenever it has been suggested that 
opium growing be prohibited bv 
force or when other threats to the 
opium trade have arisen, serious in- 
cidents have occurred. For in- 
stance, in 1970 the building of a 
highland road in Tak Province was 
halted when the construction work- 
ers were attacked bv Meo who, it is 
said, feared the road \vould mean an 
end to their opium growing. 

And vet, change is nothing new 
to the Lisu. They have lived in 
many states and have had many 
neighbors ^vith whom they have ex- 
changed many goods and ideas. In 
Yunnan, the changes undergone bv 
the Lisu under Communism seem 
even more drastic than those faced 
bv the Tliailand Lisu. In China, 
they have been organized into coop- 
eratives and communes to practice 
irrigated rice farming, and they 
have developed some small-scale in- 
dustry. Several have acquired uni- 
versity educations. But for the Lisu 
and the other villagers of Thailand's 
mountains, the future seems to 
loom ominouslv and the need for 
change seems irreversible. With an 
economy based on opium, their 
problems are rife. ■ 

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17 reasons 

why you should read 

psychology today 

1 Why words are the least important of the ways we communicate with each other. 

2 The sexual reason behind the popularity of natural childbirth. 

3 Why political leaders are constantly in danger of insanity. 

4 Why Asians make better politicians than Westerners. 

5 Do men need more recreation than women? 

6 What kind of parents do hippies make? 

7 Why it may be time to end the taboo against incest. 

8 The inferiority feelings of men who seek corporate power. 

9 What the schizophrenic is trying to tell us. 

10 Are campus activists rebelling against the system-or their parents? 

1 1 What your daydreams reveal about your ethnic background. 

12 Why do swingers tend to become impotent? 

13 Is it time to grant the right to commit suicide? 

14 Does a child think before he can talk? 

15 Why are today's students attracted to violence? 

16 Are "hawks" sexually repressed? 

17 Are some men born criminals? 

Want to learn what modern psychology has learned 
about people? Including you? 

Until recently, that was quite an order. Your choice would have been to plow 
through professional journals. Read weighty new books as quickly as they 
came out. Or trust the mass media— where psychology is often sensational- 
ized, distorted, oversimplified. 

PSYCHOLOGY TODAY has changed all that. It allows the educated layman 
to catch up with the social sciences. And keep up. With full coverage of all 
the different approaches to understanding the human condition. The view- 
points range from hard-core Freudianism to the newer behaviorists who, 
frankly, think Freud was all wet. 

It's psychology the way you'd want it to be presented. Excitingly. Without 
tired jargon. No cliche-ridden definitions. And with contributions by many of 
the most famous names in the behavioral sciences— like Bruno Bettelheim, 
Kenneth B. Clark, Rollo May, Ashley Montagu, Carl Rogers and B. F. Skinner. 

I Send for a complimentary issue 

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Additional Reading 


.\ History of Dentistry from the Most 
ANCIE.NT Times to the Eighteenth 
Centiry. \". Guerini. Milford House. 

Yra ar.A: For.agers of the Alstr-\li.\n 
Desert. R. Gould. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. New York. 1969. 

RiTLAL Ablation of Front Teeth in Si- 
beria AND America. A. Hrdlicka. 
Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- 
tions. \^ol. 99. No. 3. 1940. 

H0\^ THE .MIDWEST \^ .\S \^ ON 

\^ ILDERNESS FOR SaLE. W. Havighurst. 

Hastings House, Inc., New York. 
The Cuyahoga. \^'. D. Ellis. Holt. Rine- 
hart & \^ inston. Inc.. New \ ork. 


Character. J. J. Audubon. Arno 
Press. Inc.. New York, 1970. 


Political Systems of Highl.and Bi r\la. 
E. R. Leach. Beacon Press. Boston. 

Ethnic Groups of Mainland South- 
east Asia. F. M. LeBar et al. Human 
Relations Area Files Press. New 
Haven. 1963. 

Logistics of Junk. D. Lvle. Esquire, 
March. 1966. 

SiMBA. C. A. W. Guggisberg. Bailev 
Brothers & Swinfen. London. 1962. 

Animau Dispersion in Relation to So- 
cial Behavior. V. C. Wynne-Ed- 
wards. Hafner Publishing Companv. 
Inc.. Darien. 1962. 

The Cats of Africa. M. Edev, ed. Time- 
Life Books, New York. 1968. 



Breeding Behavior of the Cattle 
Egret in Colo.MBIA. D. A. Lancaster. 
The Living Bird, 9th Annual Edi- 
tion, 1970, pp. 167-194. 

Or-Ntihology in L.aboratory and Field 
0. S. Pettingill. Jr. Burgess Publish- 
ing Co., Minneapolis. 1970. 

The C.attle Egret. M. Fogartv. Florida 
Wildlife, April, 1971. 


Northwest Coast Indian Art. B. 
Holm. University of Washington 
Press. Seattle, 1970. 

Art of the Northwest Coast Indians. 
R. B. Inverarity. University of Cali- 
fornia Press. Berkeley. 1967. 

Indi.A-\s of the Northwest Co.ast. P. 
Drucker. The Natural Histors' Press, 
Garden City. 1963. 

The Technological Society. J. EUul. 
.\Ifred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, 
The Economy of Cities. J. Jacobs. Ran- 
dom House. New York, 1970. 
Perspectives in Ecological Theory. R. 
Margalef. L niversitv of Chicago 
Press. Chicago, 1968.' 


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Natural History 

March 1972 $1.00 


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im:iihi'(]HatiN(; \aii rem vg\/im ih kjihrnal of the americw muselm of natlkai. history 

The American Museum uf Natural Histon' 

Gardner D. Stout. President Thomas D. Nicholson. Director 

Alfred Meyer. Editor 

Robert E. Wdliamson, Managing Editor 
Alan P. Ternes. Executive Editor 
Thomas Page. .Art Editor 

Associate Editors 

John P miev. ]r 

Frederick R. Hartmann 

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Nancy Smith, Production 

Staff Assistants 
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ustrative .Asst. 

Vol. LXXXI, No. 3 March 1972 



8 DOWN ON THE FARM E. Raymond Hall 

"The statement that pesticides are required to grow food crops is repeated so 
often . . . that many citizens believe it is true. " 


Attitudes on Acupuncture Arthur W. Galston 

Their curiosity unpricked, some American doctors dogmatically called the 

4,000-Year-old Chinese art of acupuncture "just rubbish." 


WaRF.^RE Old and New Marvin Harris 

Why do men kill each other? There's a reason that makes sense, or at least 
there used to be. 
22 THE ELEPHANT MAN Sir Frederick Treves Postscript by .Ashley Montagu 
.411 his life he wanted to be like other people. 

32 OF LEMURS AND MEN Ian Tattersall 

Our distant cousins. Madagascar's prosimians have been feared and revered. 

but little studied in their homeland. 

.4 male red-winged blackbird without his red badges may lose his mate, but 

not because she's especially partial to red wings. 

.4 day in the life of a Bolivian tin miner 


Are You Running with Me, Hominid? George B. Schaller 

"You are what you eat" is a dictum that might well have applied to early men 
with a taste for meat. 
70 NIGHTS IN PLINY'S GARDEN Phillip Drenmm Thomas 

The scholar did not waste his nights sleeping since, as he reflected, "to be 
alive means to be awake. ' 


Mars Lives John P. Wiley. Jr. 
80 CELESTIAL EVENTS Thomas D. Nicholson 

96 THE ESKIMO WAY A review by Jean L. Briggs 

The best photographers may not make the best ethnographers, but their cam- 
eras can still record the reality and the spirit of a people. 

COVER: This sifaka, a graceful animal, appeared in one of Alfred Grand- 
idler's volumes on the lemurs of Madaga.scar lis tail, curled like a 
watch spring, is actually a balancing organ. 

PuUicalion Ogicc: The American .Museum of NatamI Hhlon: Cenlrul Park (T.-jl ul Tlth Sireel. Heie York. WK 
10024. Published manlhlv. October ihroufh Mav: bimonlhly June m September Sukicriptious: $8.1X1 <i year In Can- 
ada and all other couutria: $9.00 a rear Single copies SI.OO. poslane paid at New York. N. Y.. and at 
additional ogices. Oipyripht O 1972 bv The .^meriean Museum of IHataral History. No part of this periodiral may 
he reproduced without the written consent of NATURAL HISTORY MAGA7JNE. .Manuscript, and illustramns submitted 
to the editorial office will be handled with ell possible care, but we cannot assume respansihility for thetr safety. The 
opinions expressed by author, are their own and do not necessarily refect the policy of The American Muse,- 
NATORAL history MAGAZINE incarporalinf Nnluiv M.ipmn.- 

indexed in Rriirltfi 


riodiral IJl 


E. Raymond Hall, author of 
"Down on the Farm." manages a 
107-acre farm in Marysville Town- 
ship. Kansas, where he raises sov- 
heans. milo. corn, and wheat. Be- 
fore retiring to the farm. Hall led a 
busv life indeed. After receiving a 
Ph.D. in zoolog\- from the Univer- 
sity of California at Berkeley, he 
was the chairman of the Depart- 

ment of Zoology of the University 
of Kansas, director of the Univer- 
sity of Kansas Museum of Natural 
History, a vice-president of the 
American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, and a con- 
sultant on communications to 
American Telephone & Telegraph — 
to mention only a few of his accom- 

Two new columnists make their 
debut in this issue. Tlie first is Ar- 
thur W. Galston, professor of bot- 

any at 'Vale Llniversity. Galston 
gained considerable attention last 
spring when he and a colleague be- 
came the first American scientists 
in more than twenty veai-s to visit 
the People's Republic of China. 
Some of the aspects of this trip will 
be the subject of forthcoming col- 
umns, and more material will come 
from a three-month visit to China 
planned for this summer. With his 
wife and daughter, he will live on 
an agricultural commune, spending 
half his time at a research in- 
stitution. While commenting on 
Chinese practices, such as the dis- 
cussion of acupuncture in this issue, 
the column will also address itself 
to topics closer to home. Galston 
will discuss his involvement in the 
growing movement to increase the 
social concern of scientists. And 
from time to time he will also delve 
into recent developments in plant 
biology, his specialty. 

The second new column. "The 
Human Strategy." bv Marvin Har- 
ris, will bring to our readers some 
of the fruits of current anthropolog- 
ical research. Harris, professor of 
anthropology at Columbia Univer- 
sity, has been a leader in the rap- 
idly expanding school of cultural 
ecology, which places a new empha- 
sis on the relationship between hu- 
man culture and the wider biophysi- 
cal world. In this inaugural column, 
it is with this holistic approach that 
he examines man's persistence in 
making war on his own kind. Out- 
spoken and often controversial, 
Harris's interests range from sacred 
cows (the real, Indian kind) to the 
rate of deposition of chewing gum 
on city sidewalks. He is currently 
studying patterns of domestic life in 
New York City. Harris has recently 
published The Rise of Anthropolog- 
ical Theory and a textbook. Cul- 
ture, Man, and Nature. 

Sir Frederick Treves was a lec- 
turer in anatomy and surgery at 
London Hospital Medical College 
during the late 1800s. His skills 
made him surgeon to the ruling 
families of England and friend of 

kings, but his greatest satisfaction 
may have come as a writer. His 
moving report of the life of John 
Merrick, a grossly deformed and 
ridiculed man, was published in 
1923, and it was shortly after that 
author and scientist Ashley Mon- 
tagu first read the story. The value 
of love as an adaptive force became 
a central theme of Montagu's phi- 
losophy and Treves's original ac- 
count of one man's triumph over in- 
credible adversity, published in this 
issue, is the basis of Montagu's re- 
cent book. The Elephant Man. 

Through his field work in Mada- 
gascar, where he examined the fos- 
sils of extinct lemurs and studied 
the behavior and ecolosv of surviv- 

ing species, Ian Tattersall has been 
trying to trace the evolutionary di- 
vergence of man and apes. Assisted 
bv the writings of the nineteenth- 
century French naturahst Gran- 
didier, he has gathered a number of 
clues about the emergence of earlv 
man. Tattersall. an assistant curator 
of anthropology at The American 
Museum of Natural History, is a na- 
tive of England and holds a Ph.D. 
in geology from Yale University. 

To study the role of a particular 
color pattern in the life history of a 
bird. Douglas G. Smith needed a 
subject that was territorial, abun- 
dant, and polygamous. He chose the 
red-winged blackbird, and through 
his field work in Washington and 
Massachusetts, he discovered the 
purpose of the males' distinctive 
red epaulets. Smith received a 

Ph.D. from the State University of 
New York at Stonv Brook, where 
he is now an associate professor of 
biology. His next research project 
will be to study the importance of 
vocalizations in avian social sys- 

The study of devil worship at- 
tracted June Nash to a locale 
where few gringas have been: 1.10.5 
feet down in a Bolivian tin mine. 
There she witnessed the rituals with 
which the miners dispel their fears 
of an imminent and violent death. 
Nash, who is presently an associate 

professor of antllropolog^' at New 
York University, has collaborated 
on a soon to be released film on the 
life of a tin miner. She plans to re- 
turn to Bolivia to continue her stud- 
ies of superstitition, religion, and 
ideology. Nash obtained a Ph.D. in 
anthropology from the University of 
Chicago, and has conducted field 
work in Mexico. Guatemala, and 

As an undergraduate studving 
Latin, Phillip Drennon Thomas 
enjoyed reading Plinv as a 'break 
from some of the tedium of Hor- 
ace." This literary diversion devel- 
oped into a scholai'ly affair. 
Thomas's fascination with all facets 
of natural history has led him to 
England and Scotland to study the 

history of marine biology. He also 
likes to poke about in Indian dwell- 
ings in New Mexico, beloiv, in his 
spare time. An associate professor 
of history at Wichita State Univer- 
sity, he is working on a monograph 
of Richard Burton, the explorer. 
His Ph.D. in medieval history was 
earned at the Universitv of New 

The second of George B. Schal- 
ler's three-part study of predation 
in the Serengeti region of Tanzania 
is based on observations he made of 
other large predators while studying 
the lion. Schaller is an associate of 
the Institute for Research in Ani- 
mal Behavior of the New York Zoo- 
logical Society and Rockefeller 


of Meti'ocrj'onics 

The fortuitous coincidence of your 
article on the freezing of human bodies 
and a recent trip to New York brought 
to mv mind the suggestion of an analo- 
gous (and similarh optimistic) treat- 
ment of urban blight. \^'hv not freeze 
our major cities until the time when ur- 
ban experts and social scientists find 
solutions to the problems of over- 
crowding, high crime rates, pollution, 
social disenchantment, and other termi- 
nal "diseases" that plague urban cen- 
ters? Special fluids might be perfused 
along the sub^vav system to prevent fur- 
ther deterioration; sewage svstems. wa- 
ter mains, etc.. could be similarly 
treated. and drv ice packed around tail 
buildings. Large fans would then blow 
awav residual pollution to pre\ent an\ 
"greenhouse effect. 

A science of metrocr\'onics might 
also bring with it some unforeseen 
sociocultural advantages. Individuals 
who expect to awaken in the future 
with a mind 30 to 40 years out of date 
might justifiablv expect to have a good 
deal of company, but if past histor\^ is 
any indication, the solution of urban 
problems will have to ^vait considerably 
longer than this. How much more sen- 
sible, then, to freeze whole populations, 
so that citizens can pro\dde mutual sup- 
port and reinforcement in the remote 
eons of the megathawl 

Rov Wagner 

Department of Anthropology- 
North western L niversitx 

Sophisticated Superstition: 
Dial Phones 

While 1 rather enjoved Spencer 
Klaw's personal look at B. F. Skinner 
("B. F. Skinner's Brave New World," 
January . 1972). I feel that his review of 
Bevond Freedom and Dignitv missed 
the essential scientific objection to be- 

haviorism. He savs in his review. 
"These concepts [ego. id, and super- 
ego), like the concept of the will, only 
get in the way of rational efforts to un- 
deretand— that is. to predict and con- 
trol—human behavior." The assumption 
that prediction and control constitute 
understanding is the fundamental point 
of dispute for manv of Skinner's critics. 

While understanding mav confer 
predictability and control, the converse 
is certainly questionable. An automo- 
bile driver, for example, mav be able to 
predict and control the direction of his 
vehicle with absolutely no understand- 
ing of suspension geometry, the physics 
of internal-combustion engines, or the 
mechanics of a drive train. Indeed, 
much of our modern life involves pre- 
diction and control ^vith little or no un- 
derstanding. We dial a telephone and 
hear a voice; we turn a knob and see an 
imase on a tele\ision screen. That is, 
we perform certain rituals because thev 
are followed bv certain consequences. 
In this sense, our modern technological 
prediction differs only in rehabihty 
from burning a goat to assure a good 

Hence, manv behanoral scientists 
feel that the prediction and control 
sought bv the beha\iorist operate at the 
level of ver\" sophisticated superstition. 
While thev may achieve some verv' sat- 
isfactorv' practical results, they do little 
to further our understanding of human 
functioning and should therefore be dis- 
tinguished from science. 

Harry Frank 

Department of Psvchology 
University of Michigan-Flint 

Tl:ie Pigeon Problemi 

I found Norman Woldow's article. 
"Pigeon and Man" (Januar\% 1972) of 
interest, considering the large urban- 
ized population of Colomba livia re- 
siding in my neighborhood. 

Although the "spottv" aspect of the 
relationship between pigeon and man is 
of some concern, it should be men- 
tioned that the common domestic pi- 
geon is a canner of psittacosis (orni- 
thosis). This avian disease can be fatal. 
but infected birds mav show only min- 
imal e\idence of the illness, such as ruf- 
fled feathers, lethargy, and a failure to 
eat. Birds ^vith the active disease, as 
well as the asymptomatic carriers, are 
most Ukely to transmit the microbial 
agent to humans. Even birds that re- 
cover can h-ansmit the agent for manv 

The most common route of infection 
from bird to man is through inhalation 
of infected dried excreta. The symp- 
toms in humans are a transient in- 
fluenza-Uke illness, but a serious 
pneumonic disease mav be seen as well. 
Since the treatment and responses re- 
semble other upper respiratory in- 
fections, a diagnosis of psittacosis is not 
often made. According to the New 
York City Health Department, psitta- 
cosis was reported six times in 1970. 
and only three times in 1971. It would 
be interesting to speculate how^ manv 
cases go unreported, considering the 
numbers of pigeons that live here witli 
us. and the abundance of dried excreta. 

Adrienne Smith 

Beth Israel Medical Center 
New York, New York 

I found Dr. Woldow's article infor- 
mative, but would like to make some 
obsei-vations. First, I have noticed that 
the common pigeon has quickly taken 
advantage of its original native cliff 
habitat where it has found it in .Amer- 
ica. I have noticed numbers of them 
nesting in the Palisade cliffe in New 
Jersev, exactly as their ancestors must 
have nested in Eurasia. Therefore. the\ 
might be considered as a new wild bird, 
not a commensal, as thev are now. 


A fascinating history of the costumes of Eastern civilizations — 
from Turkey to Japan, from Palestine to Siberia. Walter A. Fair- 
servis, Jr., anthropologist with The American Museum of Natural 
History, describes in 160 pages [67 in full color] the costumes, 
their functions, and their relation to culture and climate. Soft- 
cover $5.95 and hard-cover $15.00. For museum members $5.00 
and $12.75, respectively. Please send check or money order to: 
The American Museum of Natural History, 17 West 77th Street, 
New York, N.Y. 10024 

Cape to 

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Letters continued 



My travel agent is_ 



Secondly. I disagree that modern ar- 
chitecture and skyscrapers have helped 
increase the pigeons' numbers. On the 
contran'. clean, modern, functional ar- 
chitecture offers them fewer niches and 
crannies in which to nest. Indeed, 
much modern architecture is deUber- 
ately planned to be "pigeon-proof." An- 
other inhospitable factor in modern 
cities is the increasing use of "birth 
control grains" to limit their numbers. I 
foresee a gradual decline of their urban 
populations, perhaps until the time 
^\•hen large cities mav hold onlv a min- 
uscule flock or two, carefuUv warded as 
a memor\^ of the past. 

George Rowell 

New York, New York 

I've long suspected that pigeons are 
about as intelligent as they look; now 
Norman Woldow's article in the Janu- 
ary issue seems to bear me out. 

If they roost in Chicago's Loop where 
Woldow savs thev do. because, in his 
words, "the winter wind is pre- 
dominantlv from the northwest, off 
Lake Michigan," thev are indeed sillv 
birds. Not that the wind is not from tiie 
northwest. It is— sweeping down from 
Canada's prairie pro\inces, through 
Minnesota and Wisconsin, and into the 
aptlv named Windv Citv. But Lake 
Michigan is to the east. 

If the wind were off the lake. Chi- 
cago's temperature ^vould be much 
more moderate: cooler in summer, 
warmer in winter. However, the precip- 
itation would be greater. Most birds 
would know this, but what can vou ex- 
pect of pigeons? 

But perhaps I misjudge them. Mavbe 
thev roost awav from the lake to be 
nearer Citv Hall where, as the legions 
of citv employees know, sits the source 
of all wannth and light, friend to pigeon 
and pavroUer alike— hizzoner the Boss. 
Mayor Richard J. Dale\ . 

James Prytowski 

Evanston. Illinois 

Pop Tart TecliiiologTv' 

In answer to Jern O'Donnelfs letter 
to the editor on technology (January, 
1972). I would like to ask why. in spite 
of miracle drugs and improved surgical 
techniques, has the average life-span in 
America increased onlv four years since 
1900? Because technology' is creating 
diseases as fast as it is getting rid of 
them. In 1900 most people died of 

pneumonia, tuberculosis, or influenza. 
Today: cancer, stroke, heart disease. 
And these are on the increase, as are di- 
abetes, hemophilia, and mental illness. 
Not to mention nem'oses, pathological 
social behavior, crimes of violence. We 
no longer live in fear? Have you ever 
been to New York, Mr. O'Donnell? 

Adelle Davis has called this nation: 
the best fed and worst nourished. Tech- 
nology and its brainchild, the advertis- 
ing industry, fool people into beheving 
that the food thev shove down their 
throats is nutritious. The consumption 
of processed food now surpasses the 
consumption of unprocessed food in 
this country'. Ask the people of Hunza, 
who often live more than 100 years, 
ho\\- many Pop Tarts thev had for 

Insect '"control" has created strains 
of poison-resistant mosquitoes and flies 
and contaminated many a lake full of 
edible fish. Insects pollinate crops and 
are an essential link in the food chain 
that leads right into our own mouths. 
I m afraid the brave new world does 
need insects and plenty of them. 

Technolog\' is onlv a tool. So are 
guns. Guns don't pull their own trig- 
gers. Men do. I wonder if wresting the 
gun from the man's hand once and for 
all wouldn't be more effective than try- 
ing to set hmits on when he can and 
cannot use it; particularly if the man is 
yen" powerful, sits in a high place, and 
has a vested interest in using it. 

Patty Jo Nelson 

Richmond. Maine 

Fl^oiii Sonie 
Grateful Coyotes 

Correspondent Jackie Cobo ("Let- 
ters," June-July. 1971). speculated 
about what might happen if vour wolf 
record were played on a remote speaker 

Acting on the suggestion, we played 
ours one evening for some half-tame 
coyotes who frequent our grounds. 

The result was a magnificent an- 
tiphonal concert, coyote treble ans^ver- 
ing wolf baritone in a truly virtuoso per- 
formance. We were irresistibly 
reminded of one of Havdn's "echo" di- 
vertimentos for two small orchestras. 

The record has given us tremendous 
pleasure. We— and possibly the coy- 
otes—are gi'ateful. 

Malibu. California 

Varig presents two tours 
that begin with the 

most breathtaking sight 
you'll ever see. 

Until you see the next one. 

Untypical tours to untypical places. 
instance will take you and only 23 
others to Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, 
Argentina, Chile and Peru. 

Your 29 day travel adventure will 
begin in Rio with its fantastic views 
from Corcovado and Sugarloaf and 
continue on from one awe-inspiring 
sight to another. Like Peru's Cuzco- 
Machu Picchu, the scene of the rise 
and fall of the ancient Inca empire. 
And Iguassu Falls, 275 cascades in a 
mile and a half crescent more spec- 
tacular than Niagara. Be sure to 
bring your wide angle lens to capture 
the sweeping architecture of Brasilia 
— a super modern world of tomorrow 
wrought from a wilderness. 

The highlight of THE CLASSIC is a five 
day visit to the GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 
— one of the most fascinating and 
least-visited places in the world. 
When Charles Darwin first set foot 
here 135 years ago, it inspired him to 
write the "Origin of the Species". 
Standing in his footsteps you will see 
pretty much what he saw because 
these islands are still one of the 
most untouched centers of natural 
beauty in the world. You will be able 
to see and photograph rare vari- 
eties of unusual birds and animals. 

A cruise ship will be your floating 
hotel as you go from island to island. 
Of course there's much more and 
you'll want to read about it in our bro- 
chure; but it all starts when you board 
your Varig jet for Rio de Janeiro. 

And Rio is your first stop on our 
adventurous safari to Africa and 
Botswana. On our BOTSWANA SAFARI 
only nine persons per departure — 
accompanied by an experienced host 
— will explore this unspoiled land. 

Botswana (formerly the Bechuana- 
land Protectorate) resembles Hem- 
ingway's Africa of decades ago and 
the very cadence of the names of the 
places you'll see foretell what may be 
the most unforgettable 20 days of 
your life. Maun and Lake Ngami. 
Tsodilo Hills and Shakawe, Oka- 
vango, Khwai River, Moremi Game 
Reserve. The Savuti Marshes, Chobe 
National Park and Victoria Falls. 
You'll see few humans other than 
possibly bushmen whose ancestors 
have lived there for half a million 

But you will see and photograph 
wildlife. Perhaps a lone lion en route 
to a watering place. Great herds of 
buffalo, wildebeeste, zebra 
and impala. 

will of course travel in comfort. Some 
of the camps and lodges are new — 
having been especially created for 
these safaris. 

Whichever of our untypical tours you 
choose, you'll enjoy Varig's justifi- 
ably famous on-board service. 
Service that has earned South Amer- 
ica's largest airline the reputation as 
the world's most elegant way to fly. 
Ask your travel agent about these 
tours or write to us, Varig Brazilian 


I Department NH3 

I Box 360, Radio City Station 

I NewYork.N.y. 10019 

Please send brochures. I am interested 

(please pr 











Varig serves South America, Africa and Japan 
from New York, Miami and Los Angeles. 

Down on tlie Farm 

A letter from anotlier farmier 

In the January. 1972. issue of 
Natiral History Magazine the 
letter from farmer J. 0. Harvev 
uro;es "respect for the land . . . 
used to support us all" and suc- 
rinctlv catalogs half a dozen impor- 
tant sources of pollution. But she 
doesn't mention pesticides, possibly 
the single most important source of 
pollution facing us in the 1970s. 

On the same evening. January 
17, that I read the letter. I also read 
an Associated Press dispatch (Kan- 
sas City Star) crediting our new 
Secretai-v of Agriculture with stat- 
ing that if pesticides were banned 
from farming, we could not feed all 
Americans. That dispatch followed 
the departmental line, as expressed 
by the administrator of the Re- 
search Service of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture: "As we cope 
with ... a more populous world 
. . . one of the greatest needs is 
production of food for billions of 
people. At present such production 
requires the use of pesticides" 
(Science, June 19. 1970). 

The statement that pesticides are 
required to grow food crops is re- 
peated so often by employees of the 
Department of Agriculture that 
many citizens believe it is true. Ac- 
tually, it isn't. Individuals and local 
organizations of agriculturists in 
many parts of the United, States 
have been, and are. demonstrating 
that the use of pesticides (her- 
bicides and insecticides) is not nec- 
essary in food production. 

One example is a 107-acre farm 
that I manage in Marvsville Town- 

by E. Raymond Hall 

ship. Miami County, Kansas. Five 
acres are pasture. 22 are woodland 
along a creek, and 80 are culti- 
vated. No pesticides have ever been 
used on growing crops on this farm. 
Corn. milo. soybeans, and wheat are 
the crops raised now. For any given 
year in the period from 1886 
through 1964 there was little or no 
difference in the yields from farms 
with comparable ground throughout 
the township. However, in the 
seven years since then, herbicides 
were introduced on neighboring 
farms and the yield per acre on mv 
80 acres has been greater than on 
comparable land, especially when 
soybeans were planted where corn 
had been gi'own the vear before. On 
the comparable land, residues of 
herbicides applied to inhibit the 
growth of broad-leaved weeds in 
corn fields accumulate in the soil, 
causing the soybeans, themselves 
broad-leaved plants, to be puny. 
Other kinds of herbicides applied in 
order to inhibit the growth of 
grasses in soybean fields accumulate 
in the soil and cause the corn 
plants, themselves grasses, to be 
puny, especially when corn is 
planted where soybeans had been 
grown the vear before. 

The following paragraphs explain 
how application of herbicides re- 
sults in smaller vields per acre. 

The farmer who plants and har- 
vests row crops on 500 acres (260 
corn and 240 soybeans), bv means 
of four-row" machinery and without 
using pesticides, likely passes over 
the land eight times to prepare the 

seed bed. plant, cultivate, and har- 
vest the crop. In doing this, he av- 
erages about 30 acres in a nine- 
hour day— more acres when disking 
and fewer when planting. For 100 
bushels of corn per acre and 40 
bushels of soybeans per acre he mav 
gross $50,000 ($1 per bushel for 
corn and $2.50 per bushel for soy- 

If the farmer attempts to elimi- 
nate weeds bv spraying an her- 
bicide once instead of bv cultivating 
three times, he passes over the land 
a total of only six instead of eight 
times. This reduces his time spent 
in the field bv 25 percent. The use 
of herbicides mav reduce the vield 
per acre bv 10 percent. Under these 
conditions, the farmer, who ordi- 
narily wishes to produce in one year 
as many bushels as possible, at- 
tempts to rent SSVs percent more 
land (167 acres) and farm it (using 
herbicides) in the extra time he has. 
Even with a 10 percent reduction 
in yield per acre, from 667 acres 
(347 acres of corn and 320 of soy- 
beans) he could gross $60,030— or 
$10,030 more than from 500 acres. 
But is there a better way to farm? 
(In 1971. the difference was 30 per- 
cent— 79 vs. 113 bushels— on corn, 
but less than 30 percent on milo 
and sovbeans. Corn blight lowered 
the yield in fields adjoining the land 
managed bv me, which was blight- 
free. Presence or absence of blight 
is not known to be related to pesti- 
cides or their residues in the soils, 

Considering the common interest. 


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I But for somebody else p||^|^ K|||Q|J^ SHORES 

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or any officer thereof or that the Department of State has in any way passed upon the merits of such offering. 
A copy of the offering statement is available, upon request, from the subdivider and in addition thereto the as- 
signed advertising number. NYA 1 1080-1 

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ail fcorr 


Dept. 3467, Amsterdam, N.Y. 12010 

it would seem that, in Miami 
County, for each 2,500 acres of cul- 
tivated land there should be at least 
five instead of four farmers and that 
thev should control weeds by culti- 
vation and should not use pesti- 
cides. This svstem produces more 
bushels per acre and more total 

Furthermore, under this svstem 
the fish in the creek grow big and 
do not die prematurely because of 
pesticide residues, which have al- 
ready stilled the spring voices of 
five bird species in the woodland on 
and around the land that I manage. , 
Tlie example outlined above is 
only one strand of the web that 
regulates the lives of man, other ani- 
mals, and plants in the current 
green (agricultural) revolution, but 
illustrates why I am verv' tired of 
being informed that pesticides are 
required to grow enough food 

I yield to the temptation to com- 
ment upon two other points made 
bv the administrator of the Agricul- 
tural Research Service in his article 
in Science. First, with respect to 
certain newly developed dangerous 
pesticides, the administrator of the 
USDA's Research Service wrote 
that "scientists argue their data and 
conclusions . . . until shreds of 
truth can be aggregated to establish 
the fact" that use of those pesticides 
should or should not be banned. To 
mv way of thinking, the reverse 
procedure is in order: that is. those 
pesticides should be banned until 
exhaustive testing proves their use 
to be in the public interest. 

Second, his statement that "no 
data on humans are available" con- 
cerning the effects of the herbicide 
2,4,5-T is surprising because some 
acquaintances of mine who used 
considerable amounts of it became 
ill and died shortly after. They re- 
ported having been told at the cHn- 
ics where thev went for treatment 
that their illness and accompanying 
blood dvscrasia probablv resulted 
from 2,4,5-T. In mv immediate 
neighborhood such information cir- 
culates by word of mouth, and as a 
consequence less 2,4,5-T is used 
than agents of the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture recommend. Many 
persons feel that, as one farmer put 
it, "If you'll notice, a felJow who 
uses a lot of that brush killer is apt 
to die in about six months of leuke- 

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*Bank Marketing Management, 
Feb., 1970. 

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m 1967 and Dean of the School of Com- 
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© }ay Norris Corp., 1972 - 

A Naturalist at Large 

on Acupianctiire 

Reports about a Chinese medical 

teclinlque didn't exactly set some Am^erlcan 

scientists on pins and needles 

A funnv thing happened to me 
on the way back from Peking, 
where, together with Ethan Signer 
of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, I had been one of the 
first two American scientists to visit 
since 1949. Impressed by the ob- 
vious improvements in the physical 
conditions of life of the Chinese 
people; by the virtual abolition of 
hunger, disease, floods, and 
drought; bv the dynamism of the 
workers in factories and, especially, 
on the communes; and by the in- 
credible alterations in education 
and research wrought by the Cul- 
tural Revolution, we were eager to 
talk often and at length about these 
and other things we had seen dur- 
ing our eventful visit to the 
People's Republic of China. By 
chance, during the initial interview 
with representatives of the press, ra- 
dio, and television upon our arrival 
at Kennedy Airport on Mav 25, 
1971, we happened to mention that 
we had witnessed in Peking four 
major operations performed with 
acupuncture needles as the sole 
anesthetic agents. We had intended 
this piece of news as one illustration 
of the fact, that the Chinese know 
some things that we didn't know, 
and that any scientific exchanges 
with them would therefore be of 
benefit to both parties. But the re- 
mark was not accepted in that con- 
text, and since that first interview, 

by Artliur W. Galston 

acupuncture has become, perforce, 
one of the major topics discussed 
whenever we have appeared to talk 
about our journey to China. Fur- 
thermore, the discussions have be- 
come complicated by an acrimony 
we had not anticipated. It is no ex- 
aggeration to say that professional 
friends of long standing began to 
doubt our judgment and took to 
"needling" us because we appar- 
ently believed what we had seen 
and been told about acupuncture. 

We were aware, of course, that 
acupuncture is not a new devel- 
opment and that it has been used in 
various wavs for more than 4,000 
years, mainly in China. Allegedly 
originated by the chance discovery 
that arrows shot into one part of a 
soldier's body could produce loss of 
sensation in other parts of the body, 
acupuncture developed into a 
therapeutic technique in which very 
slender and flexible needles are in- 
serted into discrete parts of the 
body; they are then rotated or 
twisted gentlv so as to produce 
stimulation at some desired depth 
below the surface and a subsequent 
loss of sensation elsewhere. Over 
the years, acupuncture has devel- 
oped into a reasonably well-orga- 
nized body of empirical knowledge. 
Some 365 effective points in the 
body are generally recognized, al- 
though we were told that the num- 
ber has been expanded to about 

1,000 during the last few years of 
the Cultural Revolution. This has 
occurred mainly through the volun- 
teer efforts of members of the 
People's Liberation Army who 
probed their own bodies with fine 
needles. Insertion of the delicate 
needles into the effective points is 
reported to produce loss of sensa- 
tion in very specific and localized 
areas, frequently at great distances 
from the point of insertion of the 
needle. The needles are not espe- 
cially painful to insert, nor is there 
any unpleasant aftereffect. The 
technique is said to be useful for re- 
lieving distress caused by such ail- 
ments as arthritis, tension, con- 
vulsions, and migraine headaches, 
and is much used for these purposes 
in China, in other Asian countries, 
and to a certain extent in France, 
Germany, and elsewhere on the Eu- 
ropean continent. It has never 
found much favor in Britain, the 
United States, or other countries in 
the Western Hemisphere, although 
a College of Acupuncture has 
recently been established in Van- 
couver, British Columbia, staffed 
mainly by Oriental practitioners. 

The reluctance of the Western 
world to accept acupuncture has re- 
sulted partly from the fact that it is 
not always successful and partly be- 
cause analgesic drugs and other 
convenient pain-killing devices cire 
available to us. Especially difficult 

From The Yale Review Copyright ©1972 by Yale University 


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44 Burlews Court Hackensack. N.J. 07601 

to accept has been the bodv of the- 
ory that accompanies the practice: 
the Chinese explanations are based 
on acupuncture"s effect on internal 
adjustment of the relative contribu- 
tions of \ in and Yang essences and 
upon restoration of the balance of 
poorlv characterized bodilv forces 
and "humors." To Western medi- 
cine, this seems mvstical. inconsist- 
ent with known facts of anatomy and 
physiology, and internally con- 
tradictory. The "meridional points" 
on the body into which acupuncture 
needles can be inserted with effect do 
not coincide with any known ana- 
tomical structure. Somewhat more 
than half of them do lie along obvious 
and well-described neural pathways, 
but others have no relation to the po- 
sition of nerves. This lack of an ade- 
quate body of theors' to account satis- 
factorily for the efficacy of the 
described points has led. inevitably, 
to a rejection bv Western doctors of 
the alleged efficacy itself. Thus, we 
were not surprised that acupuncture 
has not enjoved much esteem in the 
\^ estern world, and that manv \^"est- 
ern physicians were ready to write it 
off as being completely without 
therapeutic value. 

Our entry into this situation was 
certainly fortuitous and accom- 
plished under suboptimal condi- 
tions. There we were, unexpectedly 
in Peking, a molecular biologist and 
a plant physiologist, being shown a 
startling new advance in anesthetic 
technolog\' that had not been wit- 
nessed bv any \^ estern physicians. 
\^ e were both innocent of the Chi- 
nese language, of medical knowl- 
edge and of anesthetic techniques, 
and had had no opportunity to pre- 
pare ourselves for what we were 
^^•itnessing. Yet what we saw was so 
startling, so direct, and apparently 
so easy to understand that we did 
not think we should shrink from de- 
scribing it when we returned. 

The situation was this: We had 
requested a visit to a Chinese hospi- 
tal so that we could come back with 
some impression of the status of 
Chinese medicine. Our hosts had ar- 
ranged a visit for us to Hospital No. 
3 affiliated with Peking Medical 
College. During the briefing ses- 
sion, when the hospital was being 
described to us. we were asked 
whether we would care to witness 
several operations performed with a 
new anesthetic technique. When we 
gave our assent, we were taken to 

an upstairs room where, after the 
usual scrubbing up and donning of 
sterilized white robes, we were ad- 
mitted to an operating theater. Af- 
ter a few minutes, a young man re- 
quiring a hernia operation was 
wheeled into the room. He was 
lively and alert, apparently not wor- 
ried about the operation, grateful to 
be in such a fine hospital, and quite 
happy to talk to us through an in- 
terpreter. In a little while, the sur- 
geon and some technicians exam- 
ined him. conferred briefly, and 
then marked on the calves of the 
legs and on his abdomen locations 
at which the acupuncture needles 
were to be inserted. The needles 
were then deftly put in at the 
marked places and gentlv manipula- 
ted until the patient indicated some 
numbing of his bodv. Then, to our 
surprise, the needles were attached 
to delicate wires leading to an elec- 
trical junction box, which we sur- 
mised was battery operated. Then, 
for twenty minutes, a 0.5 milliam- 
pere current was permitted to flow 
from the 5-volt source. At the end 
of this time, the appropriate abdom- 
inal area was probed bv the sur- 
geon. Since it was completely 
anesthetized, he made the incision 
and began the operation. To lav- 
men, he seemed very skilled and 
the team of nurses and technicians 
verv crisp and efficient. The patient 
remained awake and alert through- 
out, and both the doctors and we 
were able to converse with him 
from time to time. We left as he 
was being sewed up. 

We then proceeded in turn to 
three other operating theaters, 
where we witnessed operations for 
removal of a gastric ulcer, a thyroid 
tumor, and an ovarian tumor. This 
last operation was perhaps the most 
spectacular. The young woman in- 
volved was unusually cheerful and 
confident. When she heard the sur- 
geon remark that the tumor had 
been successfully removed, she 
asked to see it. We have a fine pho- 
tograph of her looking with interest 
at the baseball-sized tumor held in a 
porcelain trav near her head as the 
surgeons are stitching up the lower 
part of her body. 

We were not able, in our brief 
stay in China, to follow the further 
fate of these patients, but we were 
told that most patients make a 
speedy and uneventful recovery. 
Continued on page 92 


An Apache Indian child. Afamilyof six in a tiny two-room house. 

No water. No heat. No electricity. In the center of this 

desolation Erilnda Cosay. A child of five. 

A child who hasn't seen her father since she was three. 

A child who must travel four miles a day to school. 

A child whose last dress was a castoff. 

Eriinda needs your help so she can help herself. 

And through Save the Children Federation 

you can give her that help. 

For $15.00 a month you can sponsor an American 

Indian child like Eriinda. 

So that there can be electricity in the house 

instead of kerosene and wood. 

So Eriinda can have a new dress. And books. 

So Eriinda's neighbors can improve their 

village. With a community well. A new 

road. Perhaps a laundromat. To make 

money to buy necessities to make 

dependent people independent. 

And for you there's even more. The 

chance to correspond with a child. To 

receive a photograph. 

And progress reports. 

Eriinda's mother instructs her in tribal 

* customs, so Eriinda can learn about her past. 

Won't you help her learn about her future? 

If the 

children are 

going to save 

the world, 

won't you 

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' children? 


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Advisory Committee on 

Voluntary Foreign Aid. 

Contributions are income 

tax deductible. 

I wish to contribute $15.00 a month to sponsor a D boy 
D Where the need is most urgent D Europe 

D girl: 

D American Indian 

D Appalachia 

D Africa 

Enclosed is my first payment 

n $15.00 monthly 

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D $90.00 semiannually 

D $180.00 annually 

D Latin America 
D Vietnam 
D India 

D Middle East 

D Korea 

n Southern U.S. 

D Instead, enclosed is my contribution of $. 
D Please send me more information. 

Name . 





NH 3/2 

The Hum an Strategy 

Old and New 

since tlie original reasons for war are 
no longer valid, w hy does it persist? 
by Marvin Harris 

Warfare, as many of us will 
grimlv acknowledge, is unique to 
mankind. No other animal engages 
in the organized slaughter of adja- 
cent populations of its own species. 
It would almost seem that evolu- 
tionary theory predicts that warfare 
is impossible, for how can natural 
selection favor a trait that involves 
predation within the species? 

The fact that warfcu-e is uniquely 
human should immediately dispel 
the currently popular belief— gener- 
ated by Konrad Lorenz and Robert 
Ardrey, among others— that we go 
to war because of our aggressive an- 
imal instincts. The fiercest sociaOy 
organized predators such as hons, 
hyenas, and wolves are aggressive, 
but they don't make war. There- 
fore, the explanation for warfare 
cannot be found in the traits that 
we share with other animals, such 
as the capacity to become violent, 
but rather in the traits that we don't 
share with them. The causes of war 
must be associated with some pecu- 
liarity of culture, man's primary 
evolutionary mode of adapting to 
natural conditions. 

I am becoming more and more 
convinced that to understand the 
causes of warfare we must first dis- 
tinguish between the functions of 
wjirfare in primitive and in modern 
contexts. What does it accomplish? 
Among most primitive peoples war- 
fare was an adaptive cultural re- 
sponse to ecological conditions. 
There was no alternative that did 
not also involve premature death. 
Primitive warfare arose as part of a 
complex system that prevented hu- 
man populations from exceeding 
the carrying capacity of their habi- 
tats. For a human group with a 
given level of technology, carrying 

capacity means the maximum popu- 
lation that can be sustained in an 
area without inducing irreversible 
degradation of the ecosystem. Typi- 
cally, the approach toward the limit 
of carrying capacity among primi- 
tives first manifests itself in a reduc- 
tion in the efficiency of food pro- 
duction: a unit of labor produces a 
smaller yield. Sooner or later the 
population must be limited if the 
group is to remain viable. 

With primitive technology, all 
methods of population control are ei- 
ther unreliable or lethal. For con- 
traception, primitives are limited to 
coitus interruptus, a highly unre- 
liable technique at best. As for abor- 
tions, they are both unreliable and 
dangerous. The principal techniques 
consist of administering an herbal 
poison to the pregnant woman, tying 
her with tight bands, or jumping on 
her lower abdomen. These practices 
reduce the infant population, but 
they also kill off a substantial por- 
tion of the adult women. 

In the absence of an effective 
contraceptive technology, the 
easiest way to limit population is to 
expose a group's infants to the ef- 
fects of the approaching ecological 
pinch. Simple neglect of babies is 
perhaps the most common form of 
population control. This wUl begin 
to take effect at a point well below 
maximum carrying capacity as 
mothers, burdened by extra work, 
become less responsive to the de- 
mands of their children. The babies 
cry unattended for longer periods 
and the mothers nurse them less ef- 
fectively or less often. In ecological 
perspective, the line separating in- 
fant neglect from infanticide is ex- 
tremely thin. In few primitive cul- 
tures will the members admit that 

the murder of children is common. 
But unconscious deprivations can 
exert as much influence on infant 
mortality as dehberate infanticide. 

Now we come to the heart of the 
problem. To be an effective means 
of population control, infant mortal- 
ity must affect girls rather than 
boys. AU the male children can sur- 
vive to reproductive age without in- 
creasing population as long as the 
number of females and their aver- 
age fertility remain constant. In a 
recent survey of the censuses of 
112 primitive populations, an- 
thropologist William T. Divale 
showed that in juvenile age cate- 
gories there was an average of 146 
males to 100 females. Among 
groups still practicing warfare, the 
ratio of adult males to females fell 
to less than 110:100, indicating a 
high rate of mortality for adult 
males. Against the background of 
detailed case studies, such as Napo- 
leon Chagnon's work with the 
Yanomamo in Venezuela, these fig- 
ures strongly suggest a systemic 
relationship between culturally in- 
duced female infant mortality and 
primitive warfare. 

I believe this relationship can be 
explained as follows: The severe im- 
balance between the sexes is so- 
cially unstable. Sooner or later, as 
among the Yanomamo, groups raid 
their neighbors to steal each other's 
women. Once this raiding, or war- 
fare, begins it encourages more fe- 
male infant mortality, since warfare 
places a premium on expanding the 
male infant population. Human 
warfare itself may not be adaptive, 
but female infant mortality is. Thus 
the primary function of primitive 
warfare is not to kill off "surplus" 
males but to insure the continuation 

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of high levek of female infant mor- 
tality. Much of what we nowadays 
regard as male chauvinism has its 
roots in this situation. One con- 
clusion that I draw from this is that 
the w'hole complex of masculine ag- 
gressiveness is a bv-product. not a 
cause of war. 

Unpleasant as it mav be. it is dif- 
ficult to avoid the conclusion that 
■svarfare began as part of an ecolos;- 
icallv adaptive system of population 
control. Death through combat 
strikes us as wasteful: vet for primi- 
tive peoples the alternative to war 
for balancing the adult sex ratios 
was the expansion of male infant 

I hasten to add that mv analysis 
of warfare in the present century 
leads to an entirely different con- 
clusion. Todav we are confronted 
with equal rates of male and female 
infant mortality, and a steady de- 
cline in both. This has created the 
modern population explosion, itself 
a response to the higher carrying 
capacities possible with modern 
technology-. For a long time now in 
modern societies, warfare and se- 
lective female infant mortality have 
been unhinged. As a result, modern 
^varfare. contrary to popular Mal- 
thusian doctrines, has ceased to be 
an effective means of population 
control. Each of the major wars of 
this century— World War I, IL Ko- 
rea, and Vietnam— has failed to re- 
duce the rate of growth of the com- 
batant populations. Despite the 
scale of slaughter, the fertility of 
the female sur\'ivors has easily 
made up for the losses in combat. 
For example, the population of 
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during the past decade. 

\^ e are all aware that the means 
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population control has been broken. 
At the same time, advances in con- 
traception technologrv provide us 
W'ith an alternative to infant mortal- 
ity that need not involve a single 
premature human death. \^Tiv then 
does warfaiT persist? I shall have to 
postpone mv answer, concluding 
for the moment only that neither in- 
stincts nor population can serve as 
reasons. ■ 



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Dept. NH372 


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New York, N.Y. 10022 

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ested in your expeditions to Antarctica. 

Telephone (Area Code). 

The Elephant Man 

by Sir Krederick Treves 

For iTiost of his life, Jolin Merrick was 

ridiculed and tormented. Yet the soul of a butterfly 

continued to flutter in his nionstrous forrn^ 

Postscript by Asliley Montagu 

In the Mile End Road, opposite 
to the London Hospital, there was 
(and possibly still is) a line of small 
shops. Among them was a vacant 
greengrocer's which was to let. The 
whole of the front of the shop, with 
the exception of the door, was hid- 
den by a hanging sheet of canvas on 
which was the announcement that 
the Elephant Man was to be seen 
within and that the price of admis- 
sion was twopence. Painted on the 
canvas in primitive colors was a 
life-size portrait of the Elephant 
Man. This very crude production 
depicted a frightful creature that 
could only have been possible in a 
nightmare. It was the figure of a 
man with the characteristics of an 
elephant. The transfiguration was 
not far advanced. There was still 
more of the man than of the beast. 
This fact — that it was still human — 
was the most repellent attribute of 
the creature. Tliere was nothing 
about it of the pitiableness of the 
misshapened or the deformed, noth- 
ing of the grotesqueness of the 
freak, but merely the loathing insin- 
uation of a man being changed into 
an animal. Some palm trees in the 
background of the picture sug- 
gested a jungle and might have led 
the imaginative to assume that it 
was in this wild that the perverted 
object had roamed. 

When I first became aware of 
this phenomenon the exhibition was 
closed, but a well-informed boy 
sought the proprietor in a public 

From The Elephant 


house and I was granted a private 
view on payment of a shilling. The 
shop was empty and grev with dust. 
Some old tins and a few shrivelled 
potatoes occupied a shelf and some 
vague vegetable refuse the window. 
The light in the place was dim, 
being obscured by the painted 
placard outside. The far end of the 
shop— where I expect the late 
proprietor sat at a desk— was cut off 
by a curtain or rather by a red ta- 
blecloth suspended from a cord by a 
few rings. The room was cold and 
dank, for it was the month of No- 
vember. The year, 1 might sav, was 

The showman pulled back the 
curtain and revealed a bent figure 
crouching on a stool and covered bv 
a brown blanket. In front of it, on a 
tripod, was a large brick heated by 
a Bunsen burner. Over this the 
creature was huddled to warm it- 
self. It never moved when the cur- 
tain was drawn back. Locked up in 
an empty shop and lit by the faint 
blue light of the gas jet, this 
hunched-up figure was the embodi- 
Man by Ashley Montagu, published by Outer 
C&pyright: Sir Frederick Treves 

ment of loneliness. It might have 
been a captive in a cavern or a wiz- 
ard watching for unholy manifesta- 
tions in the ghostly flame. Outside 
the sun was shining and one could 
hear the footsteps of the passers-by, 
a tune whistled by a boy and the 
companionable hum of traffic in the 

The showman— speaking as if to 
a dog— called out harshly: "Stand 
up!" The thing arose slowly and let 
the blanket that covered its head 
and back fall to the ground. There 
stood revealed the most disgusting 
specimen of humanity that I have 
ever seen. In the course of mv pro- 
fession I had come upon lamentable 
deformities of the face due to injury 
or disease, as well as mutilations 
and contortions of the body depend- 
ing upon like causes; but at no time 
had I met with such a degraded or 
perverted version of a human being 
as this lone figure displayed. He 
was naked to the waist, his feet 
were bare, he wore a pair of thread- 
bare trousers that had once be- 
longed to some fat gentleman's 
dress suit. 

From the intensified painting in 
the street I had iinagined the Ele- 
phant Man to be of gigantic size. 
This, however, was a little man be- 
low the average height and made to 
look shorter by the bowing of his 
back. The most striking feature 
about him was his enormous and 
misshapened head. From the brow 
there projected a huge bony mass 
bridge & Dienstl'rev. 


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like a loaf, while from the back of 
the head hung a bag of spongv. 
fungous-looking skin, the surface of 
%\"hich \\-as comparable to brown 
cauliflower. On the top of the skull 
were a few long lank hairs. The os- 
seous growth on the forehead al- 
most occluded one eve. The circum- 
ference of the head was no less than 
that of the man's waist. From the 
upper jaw there projected another 
mass of bone. It protruded from the 
mouth Uke a pink stump, turning 
the upper lip inside out and making 
of the mouth a mere slobbering 
aperture. This gro\\'th from the jaw 
had been so exaggerated in the 
painting as to appear to be a rudi- 
mentary trunk or tusk. The nose 
was merely a lump of flesh, only 
recognizable as a nose from its posi- 
tion. The face was no more capable 
of expression than a block of 
gnarled wood. The back was hor- 
rible, because from it hung, as far 
down as the middle of the thish. 
huge, sack-like masses of flesh cov- 
ered bv the same loathsome cau- 
liflower skin. 

The right arm was of enormous 
size and shapeless. It suggested the 
limb of the subject of elephantiasis. 
It was o\ergrown also with pendent 
masses of the same cauliflower-like 
skin. The hand was large and 
clumsv— a fin or paddle rather than 
a hand. There was no distinction 
between the palm and the back. 
The thumb had the appearance of a 
radish, while the fingers might ha\"e 
been thick, tuberous roots. As a 
limb it was almost useless. The 
other arm was remarkable bv con- 
trast. It was not only normal but 
wEis, moreover, a delicately shaped 
Hmb covered with fine skin and 
provided with a beautifiil hand 
which any woman might have en- 
vied. From the chest hung a bag of 
the same repulsive flesh. It was like 
a dewlap suspended from the neck 
of a lizard. The lower hmbs had the 
characters of the deformed arm. 
Thev were unwieldy, dropsical 
looking and grossly misshapen. 

To add a further burden to his 
trouble the wTetched man. when a 
boy, developed hip disease, which 
had left him permanently lame, so 
that he could only walk with a 
stick. He was thus denied all means 
of escape from his tormentors. As 
he told me later, he could never run 
awav. One other feature must be 
mentioned to emphasize his isola- 

tion from his kind. Although he was 
already repeUent enough, there 
arose from the fungous skin-growth 
with which he was almost covered a 
very sickening stench which was 
hard to tolerate. From the showman 
1 learnt nothing about the Elephant 
Man. except that he was English, 
that his name was John Merrick 
and that he was twentv-one years of 

As at the time of mv discoven" of 
the Elephant Man I was the Lec- 
turer on Anatomy at the Medical 
College opposite, I was anxious to 
examine him in detail and to pre- 
pare an account of his abnor- 
malities. I therefore arranged with 
the showman that I should inter- 
view his strange exhibit in mv room 
at the college. I became at once 
conscious of a difficults. The Ele- 
phant Man could not show himself 
in the streets. He would have been 
mobbed bv the crowd and seized bv 
the police. He was. in fact, as se- 
cluded from the world as the Man 
with the Iron Mask. He had. how- 
ever, a disguise, although it -svas al- 
most as startling as he was himself. 
It consisted of a long black cloak 
which reached to the ground. 
\^lience the cloak had been ob- 
tained I cannot imagine. I had onlv 
seen such a garment on the stage 
wrapped about the figure of a \ ene- 
tian bravo. The recluse was pro- 
vided with a pair of bag-like slip- 
pers in which to hide his deformed 
feet. On his head was a cap of a 
kind that never before was seen. It 
was black like the cloak, had a wide 
peak, and the general outUne of a 
yachting cap. As the circumference 
of Merrick's head was that of a 
man's ■(vaist, the size of this head- 
gear may be imagined. From the at- 
tachment of the peak a grev flannel 
curtain hung in front of the face. In 
this mask was cut a wide horizontal 
slit through which the wearer could 
look out. This costume, worn bv a 
bent man hobbling along with a 
stick, is probably the most remark- 
able and the most uncanny that has 
as vet been designed. I arranged 
that Merrick should cross the road 
in a cab. and to insure his immedi- 
ate admission to the college I gave 
him mv card. This card was des- 
tined to plav a critical part in Mer- 
rick's life. 

I made a careful examination of 
mv visitor the result of which I em- 
bodied in a paper. I made little of 


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the man himself. He was shy, con- 
fused, not a httle frightened and 
evidently much cowed. Moreover, 
his speech was almost unin- 
telligible. The great bonv mass that 
projected from his mouth blurred 
his utterance and made the articu- 
lation of certain words impossible. 
He returned in a cab to the place of 
exhibition, and I assumed that I had 
seen the last of him, especially as I 
found next day that the show had 
been forbidden bv the police and 
that the shop was emptv. 

I supposed that Merrick was im- 
becile and had been imbecile from 
birth. The fact that his face was in- 
capable of expression, that his 
speech was a mere spluttering and 
his attitude that of one whose mind 
was void of all emotions and con- 
cerns gave grounds for this belief 
The conviction was no doubt en- 
couraged by the hope that his in- 
tellect was the blank I imagined it 
to be. That he could appreciate his 
position was unthinkable. Here was 
a man in the hevdav of youth who 
was so vilely deformed that every- 
one he met confronted him with a 
look of horror and disgust. He was 
taken about the country to be ex- 
hibited as a monstrosity and an ob- 
ject of loathing. He was shunned 
like a leper, housed like a wild 
beast, and got his only view of the 
world from a peephole in a show- 
man's cart. He was, moreover, 
lame, had but one available arm, 
and could hardly make his utter- 
ances understood. It was not until I 
came to know that Merrick was 
highly intelligent, that he possessed 
an acute sensibility and— worse 
than all— a romantic imagination 
that I realized the overwhelming 
tragedy of his life. 

The episode of the Elephant Man 
was. 1 imagined, closed; but I was 
fated to meet him again— two years 
later— under more dramatic condi- 
tions. In England the showman and 
Merrick had been moved on from 
place to place by the police, who 
considered the exhibition degrading 
and among the things that could not 
be allowed. It was hoped that in the 
uncritical retreats of Mile End a 
more abiding peace would be 
found. But it was not to be. The of- 
ficial mind there, as elsewhere, very 
properly decreed that the pubhc ex- 
posure of Merrick and his defor- 
mities transgressed the limits of de- 
cency. The show must close. 

The showman, in despair, fled 
with his charge to the Continent. 
Whither he roamed at first I do not 
know, but he came finally to Brus- 
sels. His reception was dis- 
couraging. Brussels was firm; the 
exhibition was banned; it was bru- 
tal, indecent and immoral, and 
could not be permitted within the 
confines of Belgium. Merrick was 
thus no longer of value. He was no 
longer a source of profitable enter- 
tainment. He was a burden. He 
must be got rid of The ehmination 
of Merrick was a simple matter. He 
could offer no resistance. He was as 
docile as a sick sheep. The impre- 
sario, having robbed Merrick of his 
paltry savings, gave him a ticket to 
London, saw him into the train and 
no doubt in parting condemned him 
to perdition. 

His destination was Liverpool 
Street. The journey may be imag- 
ined. Merrick was in his alarming 
outdoor garb. He would be harried 
by an eager mob as he hobbled 
along the quay. They would run 
ahead to get a look at him. They 
would lift the hem of his cloak to 
peep at his body. He would try to 
hide in the train or in some dark 
corner of the boat, but never could 
he be free from that ring of curious 
eyes or from those whispers of 
fright and aversion. He had but a 
few shillings in his pocket and noth- 
ing either to eat or drink on the 
way. A panic-dazed dog with a label 
on his collar would have received 
some sympathy and possibly some 
kindness. Merrick received none. 

What was he to do when he 
reached London? He had not a 
friend in the world. He knew no 
more of London than he knew of 
Peking. How could he find a lodg- 
ing, or what lodging-house keeper 
would dream of taking him in? All 
he wanted was to hide. What most 
he dreaded were the open street and 
the gaze of his fellow-men. If even 
he crept into a cellar the horrid 
eyes and the still more dreaded 
whispers would follow him to its 
depths. Was there ever such a 

At Liverpool Street he was res- 
cued from the crowd by the police 
and taken into the third-class wait- 
ing-room. Here he sank on the floor 
in the darkest corner. The police 
were at a loss what to do with him. 
They had dealt with strange and 
mouldy tramps, but never with such 


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an object as this. He could not ex- 
plain himself. His speech was so 
maimed that he might as well have 
spoken in Arabic. He had. however, 
something with him which he pro- 
duced with a rav of hope. It was mv 

The card simplified matters. It 
made it evident that this curious 
creatm-e had an acquaintance and 
that the individual must be sent for. 
A messenger was dispatched to the 
London Hospital which is com- 
paratively near- at hand. FoiTunatelv 
I was in the building and returned at 
once with the messenger to the sta- 
tion. In the waiting-room I had some 
difficulty in making a wav through 
the crow-d. but there, on the floor in 
the corner, was Merrick. He looked a 
mere heap. It seemed as if he had _ 
been thrown there like a bundle. He 
was so huddled up and so helpless 
looking that he might have had both 
his arms and his legs broken. He 
seemed pleased to see me. but he w as 
neai-lv done. Tlie journev and want 
of food had reduced him to the last 
stage of exhaustion. The police 
kindlv helped him into a cab. and I 
drove him at once to the hospital. He 
appeared to be content, for he fell 
asleep almost as soon as he was 
seated and slept to the journey's end. 
He never said a word, but seemed 
to be satisfied that all was 

In the attics of the hospital was 
an isolation ward with a single bed. 
It was used for emergency pur- 
poses—for a case of dehrium tre- 
mens, for a man who had become 
suddenly insane or for a patient 
with an undetermined fever. Here 
the Elephant Man was deposited on 
a bed. \s-as made comfortable and 
was supplied with food. I had been 
guiltv of an irregularity in admit- 
ting such a case, for the hospital 
was neither a refuge nor a home for 
incurables. Chronic cases were not 
accepted, but onlv those requiring 
active treatment, and Merrick was 
not in need of such treatment. I ap- 
plied to the sympathetic chairman 
of the committee. Mr. Carr Gomm. 
who not onI\- was good enough to 
approve mv action but ^\'ho agreed 
with me that Merrick must not 
again be turned out into the world. 

Mr. Carr Gomm w rote a letter to 
The Times detailing the circum- 
stances of the refugee and asking 
for money for his support. So gener- 
ous is the English public that in a 

few days— I think in a week— 
enough monev was forthcoming to 
maintain Merrick for life without 
any charge upon the hospital funds. 
There chanced to be two emptv 
rooms at the back of the hospital 
which were little used. They were 
on the ground floor, were out of the 
way, and opened upon a large 
courtyard called Bedstead Square, 
because here the iron beds were 
marshalled for cleaning and paint- 
ing. The front room was converted 
into a bed-sitting room and the 
smaller chamber into a bathroom. 
The condition of Merrick's skin 
rendered a bath at least once a dav 
a necessity, and I might here men- 
tion that with the use of the bath 
the unpleasant odor to which I have 
referred ceased to be noticeable. 
Merrick took up his abode in the 
hospital in December 1886. 

Merrick had now something he 
had never dreamed of, never sup- 
posed to be possible— a home of his 
own for life. I at once began to 
make myself acquainted with him 
and to endeavor to understand his 
mentality. It was a study of much 
interest. I very soon learned his 
speech so that I could talk freelv 
with him. This afforded him great 
satisfaction, for, curiously enough, 
he had a passion for conversation, 
yet all his life had had no one to 
talk to. I— having then much lei- 
sure-saw him almost everv day. 
and made a point of spending some 
two hours with him every Sundav 
morning when he would chatter al- 
most without ceasing. It was unrea- 
sonable to expect one nurse to at- 
tend to him continuously, but there 
was no lack of temporary volun- 
teers. As they did not all acquire his 
speech it came about that I had oc- 
casionally to act as an interpreter. 

I found Merrick, as I have said, 
remarkably intelligent. He had 
learned to read and had become a 
most voracious reader. I think he 
had been taught when he was in 
hospital with his diseased hip. His 
range of books was limited. The 
Bible and Prayer Book he knew in- 
timately, but he had subsisted for 
the most part upon newspapers, or 
rather upon such fragments of old 
journals as he had chanced to pick 
up. He had read a few stories and 
some elementary lesson books, but 
the delight of his life was a ro- 
mance, especially a love romance. 
Continued on page 84 

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Of Lemurs and Men 

by Ian Tatter sail 

A century has passed since Alfred Grandidier visited 
Madagascar to study these prosimians. Far scarcer now. 

in another hundred years these living cousins ofman^s 

earliest forerunners will likely have vanished altogether. 

Ah, the pity of it all 

On a hot. dank dav in 1866. a voung Frenchman 
poked his wav through an ahnost impenetrable tangle of 
vegetation in a rain forest on the island of Madagascar. 
Occasionally he caught a glimpse of the skv through the 
leafv umbrella of trees, but he concentrated mainlv on 
the branches about him. tning to spot the furrv figures 
overhead. Alfred Grandidier was looking for lemurs. 
Grandidier. the son of wealthy parents, had traveled 
widely in both hemispheres before visiting Reunion, a 
small French island near Madagascai". in 1865. Tliere 
he learned more of the lai'ge island to the west and of its 
interesting human and animal inhabitants. 

At that time. Madagascar- was ruled from the island's 
capital. Tananarive, bv the xenophobic Queen 
Rasoherina. and each time Grandidier tried to penetrate 
the interior, he was stopped. Reluctantly, he returned to 
Reunion, after having surveyed the flora, fauna, and 
geography of only the coastal regions of Madagascar. 
The following year. 1866. he visited the southern part 
of the island, an area that had never fallen completely 
under the influence of the Tananarive government. 
After a year spent in travel and study, he returned to 
France, taking back with him collections of preserved 
plant and animal specimens, together with living lemurs 
and other animals he had captured. 

After a brief period at home, however, he was soon 
drawn back to Madagascar. The death of Rasoherina in 
1868 allowed him to explore much more of the island. 
Continuing his studies of the natural history of the 
region, he collected numerous ethnogi-aphical. 
botanical, and zoological specimens, including the 
preserved bones and skins of lemurs. L nfortunatelv. his 
travels were abruptly curtailed bv the outbreak of the 
Franco-Prussian War in 1870. 

But the island continued to dominate his Ufe. In 
1871 he conceived the plan for his monumental 
Histoire physique, politique et naturelle de 
Madagascar. Written in collaboration with specialists 
in many fields, it covers the history, anthropology, 
geography, botany, and zoology of Madagascar. Its 
twentv-seven illustrated volumes were published 
between 1875 and 1930. but Grandidier, who died in 
1921, never saw the final volume. 

Except for a few slight inaccuracies, the illustrations 


of lemurs (some of which are reproduced here) are quite 
reliable representations of the living animals. In fact, in 
the case of several rare species, these pictures may be 
the best we will ever have. Even for the more common 
kinds, good photographs of lemurs in the wild are 
extremely difficult to obtain, as I discovered when, one 
hundred veai^s after Grandidier had explored the forests 
of Madagascai-. I, too, went there to study lemurs. 

My initial impressions of the island are still vivid. 
From thirty thousand feet, the center of the island, the 
world's fourth largest, looks brown and dead. Tlie land 
is pocked and scarred bv canvons and eroded gullies, 
like a lifeless hulk torn and battered bv the elements. In 
places, jagged outcrops of resistant igneous rock rise 
above the wasted plateau. Every year the rains fill the 
canvons and gullies with rushing water, carrying vet 
more precious soil to the sea. The few trees left in this 
area cling to the sides of stream channels. 

It hardly seemed possible that this was the land that 
for millions of years had provided a refuge for lemurs- 
distant, forest-dwelling relatives of man. Nevertheless, 
even though the high central plateau has been largely 
denuded of trees bv human activities, forested regions 
still exist on the island, particularly in the east and on 
the surrounding coastal lowlands. It was in these small 
patches of rain forest that I began my search for living 
lemurs in 1969. 

Two thousand years ago, in the forests that then 
covered nearly the entire island, a traveler in 
Madagascar would have seen an enormous diversity of 
lemurs. Some of these prosimians, or lower primates, 
were lai-ge and browsed on the ground like baboons; 
others, vet larger, hung from the branches and fed like 
orangutans. Smaller forms scurried along the branches 
on all fours, while still others, the long-legged species, 
leaped phenomenal distances between vertical tree 
trunks. And the traveler who saw these would have 
observed but a fraction of the lemurs then living. 

Ax the beginning of the Jurassic period, some 180 
million vears ago, Madagascar" undoubtedly was a part 
of Africa. Toward the end of the Jurassic a large land 
mass gradually began to rift apart from .Africa's east 
coast, although it probably wasn't until about 70 million 
vears ago that the new island actually began to move 


Bocourt et Faguet pinx. 

Imp. Bccquct a Paris. 

PropUheciis vcrrcanxi dcckcni 

awav from the continent. For some 30 million years this 
drift persisted, until Madagascar reached its present 
position 250 miles off the coast of Mozambique. 

It seems unlikelv that the order Primates had begun 
to differentiate from archaic mammal stocks before the 
time that Madagascar became an island, so the question 
naturally arises, Where did the lemurs come from? 
Todav there are large East African rivers, such as the 
Zambezi and Limpopo, that drain into the Mozambique 
Channel, washing large rafts of vegetation far out to sea. 
Sometimes animals are found riding the waves on this 
debris. Almost the onlv conceivable way the ancestors 
of lemurs could have arrived in Madagascar would have 
been bv clinging to such rafts, an easv thing for animals 
with grasping hands and feet to do. This accidental 

mode of transportation also seems feasible since 
Madagascar drifted in a generally southward direction, 
almost parallel to the African coast, and for most of its 
journev was probablv much closer to the continent than 
it is today. 

No one has vet found fossils of appropriate age either 
in Africa or in Madagascar, so not much is known about 
these lemur ancestors. Based on comparative studies of 
their descendants, however, it is likelv that at least two, 
and possibly three, different lines of ancestral 
prosimians gave rise to living lemurs. A few prosimian 
genera still exist on the African mainland and in Asia. 
but onlv on Madagascar, in the virtual absence of 
predation and competition, have the prosimians evolved 
into so diverse an array of forms. Today, the largest 

Keulernans pinx. ' 

Imp. Becquet jr. Paris. 

Lemur catta 


Bocourt et Faguet pinx. 

Imp. Becquet a Paris. 

Avahi laniger 


Bocourt et Faguet pinx. 

Propithecui veneauxi coronatiis 

Imp. Becquet a Paris. 

lemur has the bulk of a medium-sized dog, while the 
smallest is no larger than a mouse. Approximately 
nineteen species still live in the Madagascar forests, but 
a thousand years ago, the number was closer to thirty- 
two. Subfossil, or partially fossilized, remains of more 
than a dozen now-extinct species have been found in 
deposits radioactivelv dated to between 2,850 and 980 
years ago. 

The lemurs' peaceful world ended when man arrived 
on Madagascar. No one is certain who these first men 
were or exactly when they came, although legends tell 
of a mysterious people called Vazimba whose origins are 
obscure. Modern Malagasy are mostly descendants of 
immigrants from the Indonesian region, refugees from 
the east who probably began to arrive on Madagascar 

less than two thousand years ago. Since then, other 
groups of people have migrated from the Arabian 
peninsula and Africa. 

After about 50 million years of isolation, the lemurs 
were hopelessly ill-prepared to cope with this influx of 
humans. Within a relatively short time, the large lemurs 
and the purely terrestrial ones had disappeared, along 
with some of the smaller species. 

Surprisingly, there is little direct evidence that 
associates man with the subfossil lemurs, although some 
pottery fragments have been found suspiciously near the 
bones of extinct lemurs at a site in south-central 
Madagascar. At another site on the southern tip of the 
island, the skull ofoneprosimian,^rc/iaeo/emur, turned 
up. It had apparently been killed with an ax. 

Keulemans pinx. 

Lemur variegatiis 

Imp. Becquet fr. Paris. 

Bocourt et Faguet pinx. 

Propitheqiies de P'erreaiix 

Imp. Becquet a Paris. 

Folktales, some still current among various Malagasy, 
tell of creatures that might bear relationship to now- 
extinct lemurs. Among the Bara people of southwest 
Madagascar, for example, there is the legend of the 
Kalanoro, little men with long hair, said to be agile 
runners and climbers inhabiting the forests and 
emerging from them at night to raid local villages for 
food. It is possible that the once wide-ranging, small- 
baboon-sized lemur Hadropithecus gave birth to the 
Kalanoro legend. Certainly Madagascar's first human 
inhabitants saw Hadropithecus, and no doubt were 
largely responsible for its demise. 

In 1658, four large animals difficult to identify with 
any living lemurs appeared in brief but intriguing 
descriptions by Sieur Etienne de Flacourt in his 
Histoire de la Grande Isle Madagascar. For many years 

during the seventeenth century Flacourt, a 
representative of the king of France, maintained a base 
at Fort-Dauphin in the south of the island. Not all his 
data were culled from personal experience; some of it 
came from information supplied by local Malagasy. But 
in the light of later investigation, his descriptions seem 
to be fairly accurate. One of these reads: 

Tretretretre, or tratratratra, an animal as big as a 
two-year-old calf, with a round head and the face of a 
man. It has wooly hair, a short tail and eves like 
those of a man. ... It can be seen near the 
Lipomani Lake, in the region of which is its lair. It is 
a solitary animal; the local people fear it greatly, and 
flee from it as it does from them. 

Flacourt could have been describing Megaladapis, the 

Imp. Becquet n Paris. 


Keulemans pinx. 

Lemur mongoz coronatus 

Imp. Becguei fr. Paris. 

largest of the extinct lemurs, which was about the size of 
a full-grown St. Bernard. Megaladapis remains are 
common in areas near Fort-Dauphin. 

Legends also abound about the living lemurs. In 
some cases these have even contributed to the animals' 
survival. Indri. for instance, tiie largest of todays 
lemurs and now found only in a restricted area of the 
eastern rain forest, is protected by a taboo that prohibits 
killing it. This taboo stems from a folk belief that Indri. 
known locally as babakoto, and humans are descended 
from the same ancestors. In one version of the legend, a 
man and woman lived in the forest, where they spent 
their days searching for food. To this couple were born 
many children, who all lived on the wild produce of the 
forest. Presently some of the children began to clear the 
land and grow rice, while others, less industrious, 
continued to live on the bounty of nature. The rice- 
growers became the ancestors of man, while the others 
became babakotos. Since the latter were the brothers of 
men, killing them was forbidden. 

Another folktale suggests that the attempt to kill a 
babakoto is in itself hazardous. The Malagasy say that if 
a spear is thrown at one of these animals, it will catch 
the weapon and throw it back with great force and 
deadly accuracy. Incidentally, this lemur derived its 
scientific name, Indri indri. from an incident involving 
the eighteenth-century French explorer Sonnerat, whose 
excited Malagasy guides pointed at the animal, shouting 
"indri, indri!" Sonnerat later wrote, "In the Malagasy 
language, indri means 'man of the woods.' " In fact, 
babakoto means ''man of the woods'; indri means 
"look at that!" 

Propithecus. a close relative of Indri. and commonly 
known as the sifaka, is another lemur that once was, 
and in some areas still is, protected by local beliefs and 
laws. Grandidier himself records an incident involving 
the sifaka that took place during his journey through 
the south of Madagascar in 1866. Grandidier had just 
shot a sifaka of a species then new to science and had 
set about preparing the animal to preserve its skin and 
skeleton. For reasons not clearly understood by him, 
this event started a great commotion among the local 
populace, and before long a deputation of indignant 
Malagasy villagers arrived on the scene to protest. 
Eventually they allowed him to take the material he 
wanted, but insisted that, in compliance with an edict of 
their king, he must return the animal's flesh to them. 
This Grandidier did. The remains were then buried with 
much ceremony, and the grave covered with spiny 
cactus to prevent its desecration. 

Taboos do not always work in the lemur's favor. 
Daubentonia. the aye-aye, strangest of all the lemurs, 
has been reduced to near-extinction with considerable 
help from local beliefs. Although some Malagasy 
reportedly believed that anyone who harmed an aye-aye 
would die within a year, nowadays it is more likely that 
an aye-aye will be killed on sight, since the animal 
is thought to be evil. A French engineer based at 
Maroantsetra, in a region where a few aye-ayes still 
survive, told me that twice in six months he had seen 
dead aye-ayes by the road, killed by local people. 

In many areas, however, beliefs, which might have 

once protected lemurs, are no longer effective. 
They aie hunted indiscriminately and the destruction 
of their habitat continues unabated, despite 
present-day conservation efforts. If these practices 
continue unchecked, in a century's time the entire 
prosimian fauna along with the remaining forests of 
Madagascar will be no more than memories. 

Ten years ago, the naturalist David Attenborough 
studied the activities of sifakas in Didierea forests near 
the village of Ifotaka in the south of Madagascar. 
Didierea, a tree unique to this part of the island, is 
similar to the familiar saguaro cactus of the 
southwestern United States. Its slender pillars, covered 
with spirals of sharp spines and small, bright-green 
leaves, rise to heights of more than thirty feet. Sifakas, 
perhaps the most beautiful of all the lemurs, cling to, 
and leap great spans between, the Didierea. That any 
animal should leap between these spiny trunks seems 
incredible, but the sifakas do, and apparently with no ill 
effects. Unfortunately, the Didierea forests are as 
vulnerable to fire as the other forests of Madagascar. 
Today the land around Ifotaka is barren: the forest has 
vanished, and the lemurs with it. 

The Malagasy prosimians hold a special interest not 
only for zoologists but for anthropologists as well. These 
animals represent an evolutionary stage approximating 
one through which the ancestors of the higher primates 
passed at a remote point in their evolution. And, while 
lemurs have diversified enormously, they are basically 
similar to the prosimians that were widespread 
throughout the world when lemur ancestors first began 
to populate Madagascar. 

Studies of lemur social organization and behavior have 
provided valuable clues to the evolution of the social life of 
higher primates. Recently, a researcher working with two 
distantly related living species, the sifaka and the maki. 
Lemur catta. found essential similarities in social 
organization between the two. What's more, this study 
demonstrated the continuity in basic primate social 
patterns between the "unintelligent" prosimians and 
the "intelligent" higher primates. 

Social organization among the higher primates is 
extremely variable, but there are certain recurrent 
patterns. They tend to live in relatively stable groups, 
comprised of individuals of all ages and both sexes, that 
inhabit well-defined home ranges. Cohesiveness in these 
groups is maintained largely by the interaction between 
infants and adults, and by the grooming, bodilv contact, 
and play among the group's members. All these 
elements are present in the social groupings of both 
sifakas and makis, even though the life experience of 
these two animals is quite different. 

A young maki. for instance, is born into a troop of 
perhaps 15 to 25 individuals. Within this group there is 
a fairly strict dominance order in which the young 
animal must find its place. This pattern of dominance is 
revealed in the troop's composition as it moves from one 
part of the forest to another: the females, juveniles, and 
dominant adult males move in the fore, while the 
subordinate males bring up the rear. Dominance in this 
context is often established bv one animal's triumph 
over another in an aggressive dispute, and the life ol a 


male maki is apt to be one long round of these 

Bv comparison, the life of a sifaka is far more 
peaceful. Within the sifaka troop, usually no more than 
half a dozen animals, few aggressive disputes take place, 
although fighting does occur during the short breeding 
season. There is no apparent dominance hierarchy, and 
almost any individual can initiate group movement or 
lead the troop as it moves through the trees. 

These two lemurs, then, share with the higher 
primates a stable and heterogeneous troop structure. 
They also live in distinct home ranges. The sifaka's 
energetic defense of its territory and the maki's more 
relaxed attitude shado^v almost exactly the range of 
tolerances shown to. neighboring troops bv various kinds 
of monkeys and apes. Mutual grooming, too. reinforces 
bonds within the lemur social unit, just as in monkey 
groups. But while monkeys and apes groom each others' 
fur bv using their fingers, lemurs use their teeth. In fact, 
the front teeth of almost all modern lemur species are 
modified specifically for this purpose, and the existence 
of so specialized a grooming instrument emphasizes the 
importance of this behavior pattern to the maintenance 
of group cohesiveness. 

As in monkevs and apes, the voung of these lemurs, 
particularly the newborn, form a focus of group 
attention, while plav. among adults as much as among 
juveniles, constitutes a substantial part of their social 




Dark areas represent the remaining natural 
vegetation of Madagascar, ranging from shrub 
and a few isolated stands of deciduous trees 
on the dr\- western side to rain forest on the 
humid eastern side. Secondary growth (striped 
areas) attracts few lemurs. 

behavior and acts as another cement for social bonds. 

Yet lemurs are. bv almost any standard, less 
"intelligent" than higher primates. Their brains are 
neither as large nor as well developed as those of 
monkevs. Nor do thev perform as well as monkeys in 
laboratory tests. Not only do thev tend to show less 
interest in the kinds of problems presented to them but 
also, and more importantly, they demonstrate a lesser 
ability for learning about objects. Their capacity for 
transferring the experience gained in the solution of one 
problem to the solution of another is extremely limited. 

But in many ways it is unfair to subject nonhuman 
primates to anthropomorphic tests administered in the 
laboratory. An animal that fails to solve an apparently 
simple laboratory problem will have no difficulty in 
adapting to highly complex social situations in the 
society of his peers. Perhaps a better way of comparing 
the intelligence of lemurs and monkeys would be to 
contrast the complexity of the societies and social 
interactions within the two groups, although this kind of 
evaluation entails considerable subjective judgment and 
also lacks quantitative supporting data. Even so, it is 
difficult to avoid the conclusion that the range of subtle 
actions and innovative behavior within the social 
context is substantially greater among higher primates 
than prosimians. 

On the other hand, it is obvious that the basic 
patterns of higher primate society exist among diurnal 
lemurs like the sifaka and maki. and equally obvious 
that these patterns evolved in the absence of the 
manipulative and object-learning skills characteristic of 
monkevs. Since the dependence on the social group 
among lemurs and monkevs both necessitates and 
makes possible social learning, it seems likelv that a 
characteristically primate form of society preceded, 
facilitated, and directed the evolution of primate-type 
intelligence. If so, it seems reasonable to suggest that 
the precursors of all the higher primates, including man, 
possessed patterns of social organization of essentially 
primate type as far back as the early part of the Eocene 
epoch, some 55 million years ago. If the nocturnal and 
relatively nongregarious prosimians that now survive in 
places other than Madagascar were the onlv specimens 
available for study, we would be far less sure about this. 
We might not even suspect it. 

It is really not surprising that a good deal can be 
learned about the earliest stages of our own evolution bv 
studying living lemurs. More remarkable is that support 
for a recent h\'pothesis about the origins of our own 
zoological family, Hominidae, comes from the studv of 
the extinct lemur Hadropithecus. To understand this, 
however, first requires some knowledge of the criteria 
that are considered in attempts to explain how human 
ancestors evolved. 

Man differs in numerous ways from his closest living 
relatives, the apes. Many of the most striking 
differences, however, are more or less recent 
developments in our evolution. Our large brain, once 
considered the diagnostic hominid criterion, is one of 
these. Our upright posture and striding gait are 
probably others, although in the absence of fossil 
evidence, no one can be sure. 


But the characteristics of our masticatorv apparatus, 
including the teeth, are ancient heritages that can be 
traced back to the earhest hominids of which we have 
any knowledge. In fact, these are the very 
characteristics by which we recognize these early 
ancestors, since jaws and teeth are the most frequently 
preserved remains and actually constitute the entire 
hominid fossil record prior to about four million years 

The chief differences between the hominid and 
pongid (ape) chewing apparatuses are the following: the 
hominid face is generallv deeper from top to bottom and 
is much shorter from front to back; the masticatorv 
muscles are, in correlation with this, shifted forward. 
The front teeth are greatly reduced in man and his 
forerunners, while the molars and premolars are broad 
and flat and shortened from front to back. 

These dental differences are even more pronounced 
in certain early hominids than in modern man. Some of 
these characteristics are accentuated during an 
individual's life because of the ways in which the teeth 
are used. Flat, horizontal wear on the teeth of hominids, 
for instance, has resulted from the typical grinding 
mode of chewing. 

The earliest known fossil that has these features, and 
can reasonably be called a hominid, is Ramapithecus. 
This animal has been found primarily in Kenya and 
northern India, in deposits ranging from 14 million to 
about 10 million years old. Australopithecus, which 
lived in Africa from about 5 million to about 1 million 
years ago, presumably descended from Ramapithecus 
or a close relative. Even though there are several species 
o{ Australopithecus, and a great deal of morphological 
variation between them, thev all show the typical 
hominid dental-facial complex. Later archaic hominids 
had teeth virtually identical to our own, and these early 
men are classified in our own genus. Homo. 

At some point in the past, a crucial change occurred 
in the way hominid ancestors lived, a change that was to 
set them on an evolutionary course divergent from that 
of the apes. The nature of this change has long been a 
much debated question. The most convincing 
explanation is based on an analogy with a living baboon 
of Ethiopia, Theropithecus, the gelada, and can be 
further strengthened bv comparison with the extinct 
lemur Hadropithecus. 

For a baboon, the gelada's chewing equipment is 
relatively hominidlike, although its canines are larger 
than hominid canines. In the case of the gelada's extinct 
relatives, however, the canines were considerably 
smaller than the formidable fangs that make the yawns 
of most living baboons so startling. Both living and 
fossil geladas all have tiny incisors and expanded, 
flattened molars. Compared to the almost doglike snouts 
of other baboons, the gelada's face is shorter from front 
to back, and is deepened, with the chewing muscles 
shifted forward on its skull. 

It is essential to the "hominid crucial change ' 
hypothesis that all these gelada features must be related 
to the animal's feeding habits. Other baboons tend to be 
generalized browsers, but the gelada exists on a diet of 
small, tough, gritty morsels found on the ground. When 

foraging, it squats on the ground, explores the grass 
with its fingers, and brings food to its mouth with its 
hands. (Geladas, incidentally, live in the treeless High 
Semyen of their Ethiopian homeland, and may be the 
most terrestrial of all nonhuman primates.) The gelada's 
small incisor teeth are scarcely used in feeding, but its 
high-crowned and expanded molars have apparently 
evolved in response to its tough and abrasive diet. 

In view of these dental-facial similarities between the 
gelada and the early hominids, so the hypothesis goes, it 
seems quite possible that the initial evolutionary shift of 
the hominids away from the apes was due to a similar 
dietary specialization. It is at this point that the lemur 
Hadropithecus helps to fill the gap between the gelada 
and the earliest representatives of man's family tree. 
The gelada, for all its usefulness in engendering the 
hypothesis, is still a baboon; its face is still too snouty 
and its canines too large for it to provide a good 
example of an early hominid portrait. Hadropithecus 
comes closer because it had the shortest face of any 
nonhominid primate, and due to its greatly reduced 
canine teeth, its yawn was probably not startling at all. 
It had every other hallmark of the small, tough object 
feeding pattern as well. 

Tlie reduction of this lemur's canines is particularly 
interesting, since many anthropologists have believed 
that the reduction of the canines in man came about 
when the forelimbs were freed from a locomotor 
function and used to wield weapons and implements. 
But Hadropithecus, clearly a typical lemur in all but its 
chewing adaptations, cannot conceivably have ever used 
tools. Yet its canines were very small. This would seem 
to indicate that the human canine more likely assumed 
its present size and form in order to complement the 
incisors and make the biting complex at the front of the 
jaw more efficient. 

Hadropithecus goes further in reinforcing the dietary 
basis of the hominid crucial change hypothesis by 
suggesting that small, tough object feeding is feasible in 
a variety of ecological conditions. The gelada's diet is 
derived from the open, unforested country in which it 
lives and to which it is well adapted, while the hominid 
Ramapithecus apparently roamed in forests, judging 
from the deposits in which its fossils have been found. 
But Hadropithecus remains have been recovered from 
widely scattered deposits representing a range of 
ecological conditions in Madagascar several thousand 
years ago. 

It is unfortunate that Hadropithecus had perished by 
the time Alfred Grandidier visited Madagascar in the 
1860s. Perhaps only a few centuries before, this lemur 
was still there. How helpful it would be to have 
illustrations and written descriptions of this animal, like 
those of the now-extinct dodo recorded by the first 
Europeans to land on the shores of Reunion and 
Mauritius. Fossils of Hadropithecus are scanty, little 
more than two skulls and some jaws, teeth, and a few 
limb bones, so there isn't much to tell us what the rest 
of the animal looked like. Of its relative size and the 
fact that it lived on the ground, we can be sure. But the 
living animal is gone, and the firsthand observations 
that might have told us so much were never made. 


Tlie Red Badge 
of Rivalry 

Without its epaulets, a male redwing 
can be pushed right out of its territory 

It is early spring and a male red- 
winged blackbird perched atop a 
cattail is delivering his familial" 
"konc-kee-ree" song during his 
threat display. His threat is directed 
to a neighboring male perched high 
on another cattail. Only a few feet 
separate them; an imaginary line 
marks the boundary between their 

The moment these males had ar- 
rived in the area, during the late 
winter months when snow and ice 
still covered much of the marsh, 
they began delivering their familiar 
"song-spread" displays. As the ice 
and snow melted they moved into 
the marsh, spending increasing 
amounts of time displaying from the 
dead stalks of old cattails and 
the exposed branches of button - 
bushes. By displaying from differ- 
ent perches, they had already started 
to establish t)iose areas of the marsh 
that, in many cases, would become 
their breeding territories. These 
areas, ranging from 1,000 to 
10,000 square feet, had to be de- 
fended from other males also intent 
on establishing territories. Even- 
tually, through displays typical of 
then- species, such as the song 
spread and the "bill-up boundary," 
the males spaced themselves out 
over the entire marsh and the defi- 
nitions of the territorial boundaries 
started to come into focus. 

Because threats replace fights as 
a means of settling a territorial dis- 
pute and determining the victor, 
physical harm is not involved. As a 
general rule, a male is dominant 
within the boundaries of his own 
territory, but the moment he enters 

by Douglas G. Smith 

another male s territory he quickly 
loses that status. 

Since the redwing male must 
have a territory if he is to secure 
one or more mates, males with terri- 
tories are constantly challenged by 
males without territories. Chal- 
lengers sometimes, although in- 
frequently, succeed in their at- 
tempts to displace an already estab- 
lished male. In response to this 
constant pressure from intruders, 
males with territories advertise 
their presence throughout the 
breeding season. These displays re- 
pel would-be intruders at a dis- 
tance, thus reducing the number of 
close-range individual encounters. 
As the breeding season progresses, 
the territorial boundaries become 
well defined and rigid. The fre- 
quency of trespasses by neighboring 
males diminishes, but the threat 
from nonterritorial males attempt- 
ing to establish territories is still 
quite real. 

Many species of birds establish 
and maintain territories in a similar 
fashion, although the forms of the 
actual displays vary widely. Other 
species of birds use different means 
to establish territories. Variations in 
the ways that species establish terri- 
tories aie adapted to the type of 
habitat in which they live, among 
other factors. Some songbirds, for 
instance, communicate their where- 
abouts, personal identity, and 
threats by vocalizations, rather than 
by elaborate displays. The wood 
warblers are good examples. They 
generally inhabit areas of dense 
shrubbery or forest where they are 
more easily heai'd than seen by con- 

specifics. In this case, vocdizations 
are a more efficient way of commu- 
nicating. Also, predators probably 
find it more difficult to locate the 
warblers from their vocalizations. 
Although many of the warblers ap- 
pear to be brightly colored when 
seen in museum cases, in their nat- 
ural habitat their coloration can be 

Some birds utilize visual modes 
of communication. The bowerbirds 
and the birds of paradise are good 
examples of such species. When 
courting, some bowerbirds build 
elaborate bowers and line the en- 
trance with brightly colored ob- 
jects, such as bones, shells, and in 
areas near human habitation, even 
pieces of aluminum foil. In the 
birds of paradise, brilliant colors 
and long plumes have coevolved 
with extremely elaborate move- 
ments, and the result is something 
that rivals the display of a peacock. 

Species of birds with polygamous 
or promiscuous mating systems 
tend to have more conspicuous plu- 
mage and displays than monoga- 
mous species. (In polygamous spe- 
cies, males pair and mate with more 
than one female; in promiscuous 
species, males mate with more than 

Flaunting his epaulets and 

giving full cry, a male 

redwing proclaims 

his territory to the world. 


one female but do not form pairs.) 
In both polygamous and promis- 
cuous mating systems the male 
mates with more than one female; 
therefore some males do not have a 
chance to breed. The nonbreeders 
are known as "peripheral males." 
Since most of the breeding is done 
by only a few males, there is in- 
tense competition for females and, 
therefore, more selective pressure 
for the evolution of bright and bi- 
zarre plumage to aid the males in 
their battle for "the right to breed." 
In many monogamous species, 
some of which mate for life, there is 
much less of a selective premium on 

bright colors. In fact, there will be 
selective pressure— in the form of 
predation— against bright coloration 
on the male, especially if he assists 
in caring for the young. For ex- 
ample, migratory geese are mo- 
nogamous and mate for life; in this 
species, both sexes are similar in 

The promiscuous cock-of-the 
rock, on the other hand, is brightly 
colored. The females of most spe- 
cies tend to be cryptically colored. 
But in species such as the phala- 
ropes, where the sex roles are re- 
versed, where the female establishes 
and maintains a territory while the 

male incubates the eggs, the female 
is brightly colored. 

To explain this difference in sec- 
ondary sexual characteristics be- 
tween males and females, Darwin, 
in 1871, suggested, in Descent of 
Man and Selection in Relation to 
Sex, that sexual selection was the 
selective force responsible. He 
stated that there were essentially 
two groups of sexual characteristics 
that aid one sex in acquiring mates 
and, therefore, in reproducing. 

The antlers, large canines, and 
other weaponry found on the males 
of many species of niammals are of- 
ten disproportionately large when 



compared to those of the females. 
According to Darwin's theory, 
these characters evolved under the 
intrasexual selective pressure that 
resulted from male-to-male combat 
for a dominant mating position. In 
other words, those males with more 
effective weaponry are more fre- 
quently able to breed. This sexual 
selection pressure, therefore, acts to 
enlarge the secondary sexual char- 
acters that permit a male to estab- 
lish himself as the dominant male, 
and thereby gives him a higher 
probability of mating. 

Darwin further theorized that the 
bright and sometimes bizarre plu- 

mage of male birds was the result of 
female choice, or intersexual, selec- 
tion pressure. In essence, the bright 
colors and patterns of males provide 
sexual stimulation for the females, 
which then choose the male they 
will mate with on the basis of his 
colors. Thus, female choice per se 
provides a selection pressure favor- 
ing the evolution of bizarre plumage 
and brighter markings. Other se- 
lective pressures, such as predation, 
may tend to limit the extent of such 
conspicuous coloration. An equilib- 
rium results from the interplay of 
two such forces. If plumage were to 
become too conspicuous (or un- 

wieldy), the male would be more 
vulnerable to predators; yet the 
male, in order to mate, has to pro- 
vide sufficient sexual stimulation 
for the female to choose him or to 
enable threats to be effective in 
those species where males use 
bright colors to intimidate other 

Most naturalists and ornitholo- 
gists have assumed that the color- 
ation, postures, and vocalizations 
used by male birds in their displays 
stimulate females, and thus are a re- 
sponse to the selective pressure ex- 
erted by female choice. But vir- 
tually no experimentation on the 

A male redwing is about 
to be caught in a trap 
as he flies at a decoy 
male intruding in his 
territory. Once his 
epaulets are dyed black, 
the odds are even that he 
will lose the territory. 

The epaulets of captured 
redwings were blackened 
^sith a dye that did 
not mat the feathers. 
In a control group, 
alcohol was used 
in place of the dye. 


roles of color patterns in birds was 
undertaken until 1935, when G. K. 
Noble of The American Museum of 
Natural History started experiment- 
ing on plumage patterns, which he 
thought might be important in sex- 
ual recognition. He found that the 
moustachelike feather pattern on 
male yellow-shafted flickers is the 
pattern used by both the male and 
the female to discriminate between 
the sexes. He glued a "moustache" 
on a mated female, and her mate 
treated her as though she were an 
intruding male. Only after Noble 
recaptured her and removed the 
moustache did the male recognize 
her as his mate. I decided to extend 
this type of experimentation on 
color patterns to other species. 

Despite the prevalence of color 
patterns in birds, few people have 
tried to determine what role a par- 
ticular color pattern might have in 
the life history of a species. Color 
patterns could be important in com- 
municating threat, sex, sexual in- 
tent, sexual condition, and individ- 
ual identity, as well as other 
information. Because of the many 
possible roles for color patterns, I 
wanted to find a species that was 
territorial, locally abundant and 
easy to observe, at least potentially 
polygamous, and one in which the 
male was conspicuously colored. 

It was important that the species 
be polygamous. If a male could 
mate with more than one female, I 
reasoned that a change in the size, 
presence, or absence of a color pat- 
tern might influence the number of 
females that he would be able to at- 
tract. I also wanted the male to be 
territorial; any alteration of a color- 
ation might influence the size of a 
territory or even ultimately deter- 
mine whether or not the male main- 
tained or lost his territory. 

The red-winged blackbird met 
these criteria. The male has a 
clearly defined color pattern, the 
red epaulet. Redwings are easy to 
observe in marshy areas, where they 
breed in abundance. They are 
polygamous and, depending on 
where they nest, males will mate 
with from one to six females. Males 
defend a well-defined territory. 

If the males' red epaulets evolved 
in response to the female choice 
type of selection pressure, then we 

could expect an alteration of color 
pattern to affect sexual encounters. 
If the epaulet was smaller than its 
normal size or even eliminated alto- 
gether, it is conceivable that the 
males, although they might still be 
able to maintain a territory, would 
be unable to attract females. On the 
other hand, if the epaulets evolved 
in response to intrasexual selection 
pressure, then a male without red 
epaulets might be unable to main- 
tain his territory but would, theo- 
retically, still attract females. 

Male redwings start to establish 
territories in early spring by singing 
and displaying from perches within 
their territories. Their bill-up 
boundary display is restricted to the 
boundaries of the territories, and 
thus, by noting where the males 
give this display, it is easy, but time- 
consuming, to map the territories. 
A peripheral male may intrude on a 
resident's territory, but he is gener- 
ally intimidated by the resident 
male's displays. Fights, although in- 
frequent, do occur, and the intruder 
sometimes succeeds in establishing 
himself as the new resident. 

Females arrive shortly after the 
males have set up territories and be- 
gin pairing with males by flying 
into a male's territory of their 
choosing and staying for longer and 
longer periods of time. Eventually 
the females set up subterritories 
within the males' territories, lay 
three or four eggs, and then in- 
cubate them. The male seldom as- 
sists his females in the feeding of 
the nestlings, but he does help feed 
the fledglings after they leave the 
nest. Only after the young fledge do 
territorv boundaries break down. 

Throughout the breeding season 
the male uses his epaulets in a vari- 
ety of displays. Some of the more 
common ones are song spread and 
the bill-up boundary displays. Each 
display varies in intensity, and with 
the exception of a very few, most 
are directed to both males and fe- 

It seemed plausible then, that if I 
were to alter the epaulets of territo- 
rial males, a behavioral difference 
between normal males and epaulet- 
altered males might show up. I be- 
gan by completely eliminating the 
red epaulets. They had to be black- 
ened without fouling the feathers. 

Dye had been used successfully in 
marking ground squirrels, so at a 
colleague's suggestion I tried dye 
on the feathers. When applied, it 
turned the red feathers black, but 
they were otherwise unchanged. 

Many territorial males had to be 
captured and their feathers dyed so 
that anv statement about the role of 
the epaulets would hold up statis- 
tically. Because I needed to know 
the identity of each male and the lo- 
cation of his territory, I had to 
catch him on his territory and color 
band him so that he could be recog- 
nized in the future. I developed a 
trap, a rectangular cage in which I 
placed a male redwing. The catch- 
ing mechanism was mounted on top 
of the cage and consisted of a 
spring-loaded rope net, which 
would be released when a treadle 
was moved. The whole trap, with 
the decoy male in the cage, was 
then placed within the boundaries 
of a resident male's territory. In ef- 
fect, the trap constituted an intrud- 
ing male. The resident redwing 
would fly over to the trap and dis- 
play, thereby tripping the treadle. 

Once caught, the male was 
treated with black dve. A control 
group was treated in essentially the 
same way except that alcohol was 
substituted for the dye. Eighty- 
seven males were treated: approxi- 
mately half were experimental and 
half were controls. After the treat- 
ment, all the males were released, 
and they flew back to their terri- 
tories where thev resumed normal 

Of the black-epauleted males 
more than half lost their territories 
to intruding males. In contrast, less 
than 10 percent of the controls lost 
their territories. This indicates that 
the epaulets contribute significantly 
to the communication of threat be- 
tween rival males. Without the 
threatening effect of the epaulets, 
the black-epauleted males were at a 
disadvantage in maintaining their 

An interesting case arose early in 
this study before I had learned 
about black dye. I was using fast- 
drying black enamel to eliminate 
the red epaulets. To reduce the in- 
evitable sticking together of the 
feathers, I clipped the red tips of 
the epaulet feathers, exposing the 


lower white parts. Male number 
215 held a territory along the edge 
of a cattail-bordered pond, border- 
ing the teiTitories of two neighbor- 
ing males. After clipping back his 
epaulets. I treated 215 with black 
enamel and released him on his ter- 
ritory. \^ ithin two days he had lost 
his territory to the two neighboring 
males. Both had extended their 
boundaries and divided 215"s terri- 
toi'y about equally between them. 

These neighboring males held 
this additional area for about one 
\veek. After that, 215 was back 
near his territory displaying— with 
white epaulets! He had preened 
all the black enamel off his feath- 
ers. W ithin only two days of his re- 
tarn, he had retaken his territory by 
displaying, forcing the two males 
back to their original territories and 
re-establishing his old boundaries. 
The white epaulets had apparently 
enabled him to retake and maintain 
his tenitory. 

Most of the males had ah-ead\' 
paired with females when they were 
dyed. After treatment the females 
did not show any difference in be- 
hayior toward either normal or 
black-epauleted males. The epaulets 
of a tew males had been blackened 
before the females aiTiyed and. in 
spite of the lack of red epaulets, 
some of these black-epauleted males 
maintained territories throughout 
the breeding season. Those that did. 
all mated successfully. This result 
indicates that the females choose a 
male on the basis of his territory 
and not on the basis of his bright 

Some redwing territories are 
more coveted than others. "Desir- 
able" territories have good nesting 
sites (vegetation strong enough to 
support nests and offer protection) 
and produce large amounts of food 
per unit area. Mai-sh-breeding red- 
wings generally feed hatching in- 
sects (mostlv aquatic) to their 
voung, and so territories with large 
amounts of vegetation not only have 
more surface on which the insects 
can emerge but also provide more 
foraging area for the redwings. 

Of the all-black males that did 
maintain territories throughout the 
breeding season, most held less de- 
sirable territories composed of but- 
tonbushes with few" cattails. Per 

unit area these buttonbush terri- 
tories provide less food than do the 
denser cattail territories. Males 
maintaining these poorer territories 
suffered fewer intrusions from rival 
males than did the males main- 
taining cattail territories. Intruding 
males appear to discriminate be- 
tween territories of different desir- 
ableness and to spend more time 
and energy trying to displace males 
in possession of better territories. 
There is an obvious selective value 
in the male's ability to make these 
discriminations because with a bet- 
ter territory, a male is more likely 
to be chosen by a female and, there- 
fore, to reproduce. The territory he 
selects becomes the secondary sex- 
ual characteristic on which the fe- 
males base their choice of mates. 

The male redwing combines 
vocalizations, movements, and the 
epaulets to varying degrees in his 
displays. Because the epaulet is 
onlv one component of his display 
complex, it is not surprising that 
only half the black-epauleted males 
lost territories. If males were de- 
prived of their vocalizations as well 
as their epaulets, thev might be 
more likely to lose an already estab- 
lished territory. 

It appears, then, that the epaulets 
of the male redwing have evolved in 
response to intrasexual selection 
pressure, that is, selection for males 
capable of effectively intimidating 
other males. They do not seem to 
have an important function in en- 
counters with females. Because fe- 
males probably choose a male s ter- 
ritory instead of the male himself, 
the female choice type of sexual se- 
lection pressure has been less im- 
portant than intrasexual selection 
pressure in the evolution of red 

A female redwing listens 

to the call of a male. 

Females already paired 

with males continued to 

accept them even after 

their epavdets had been 

covered with black dye. 






Sudden Death 

In the hellisli mines of Bolivia, 
w orl^ers call upon strange 
companions to ease their terror 

by June Nash 

Tin miners in the high Andean 
plateau of Bolivia earn less than a 
dollar a dav when, to use their 
phrase, thev "bury themselves alive 
in the bowels of the eailh." The 
mine shafts— as much as two miles 
long and half a mile deep— pene- 
trate hills that have been exploited 
for more than 450 vears. The min- 
ers descend to the work areas in 
open hauls; some stand on the roof 
and cling to the swaving cable as 
the winch lowers them deep into 
the mine. 

Once thev reach their working 
level, there is alwavs the fear of 
rockslides as thev drill the face of 
the mine, of landslides when thev 
set off the dvnamite, of gas when 
they enter unfrequented areas. And 
added to their fear of the accidents 
that have killed or maimed so manv 
of their workmates is their eco- 
nomic insecuritv. Like Wall Street 
brokers they watch international 
price quotations on tin, because a 
difference of a few cents can mean 
layoffe, loss of bonuses, a cut in 
contract prices — even a change of 

Working in the narrow chimneys 
and corridors of the mine, breath- 
ing the dust- and silicate-filled air, 
their bodies numbed bv the vibra- 
tion of the drilling machines and 
the din of dynamite blasts, the tin 

miners have found an allv in the 
devil, or Tio (uncle), as he is affec- 
tionately known. Myths relate the 
devil to his pre-Christian counter- 
part Huari, the powerful ogre who 
owns the treasures of the hills. In 
Oruro, a 13,800-foot-high mining 
center in the western Andes of Bo- 
livia, all the miners know the leg- 
end of Huari. who persuaded the 
simple farmers of the Uru Uru tribe 
to leave their work in the fields and 
enter the caves to find the riches he 
had in store. The farmers, sup- 
ported by their ill-gained wealth 
from the mines, turned from a vir- 
tuous life of tilling the soil and 
praying to the sun god Inti to a life 
of drinking and midnight revels. 
The communitv would have died, 
the legend relates, if an Inca 
maiden, Nusta, had not descended 
from the sky and taught the people 
to live in harmony and industry. 
Despite four centuries of prose- 

At a graveside service, 

the family, friends, 

and fellow workers 

of a Bolivian miner 

mourn his death. 





In a mine, a worker offers 

liquor, coca, and cigarettes 

to the Tio. "We do not 

worship him. We do not kneel 

before him," said one miner. 

lyting. Catholic priests have failed 
to wipe out belief in the legend, but 
the principal characters have 
merged with Catholic deities. Nusta 
is identified with the Virgin of the 
Mineshaft, and is represented as the 
vision that appeared miraculously 
to an unemployed miner. 

The miners believe that Huari 
lives on in the hills where the mines 
are located, and thev venerate him 
in the form of the devil, or Tio. 
They believe he controls the rich 
veins of ore, revealing them only to 
those who give him offerings. If 
they offend the Tio or slight him by 
failing to give him offerings, he will 
withhold the rich veins or cause an 

Miners make images of the Tio 
and set them up in the main corri- 
dors of each mine level, in niches 
cut into the walls for the workers to 
rest. The image of the Tio varies in 
appearance according to the fancy 
of the miner who makes him. but 
his body is always shaped from ore. 
The hands, face, horns, and legs are 
sculptured with clay from the mine. 
Bright pieces of metal or burned- 
out bulbs from the miners' electric 
torches are stuck in the eye sockets. 
Teeth are made of glass or crystal 
sharpened "like nails," and the 
mouth is open, gluttonous and 
ready to receive offerings. Some- 
times the plaster of Paris masks 
worn by the devil dancers at Carni- 
val are used for the head. Some 
Ties wear embroidered vests, flam- 
boyant capes, and miners' boots. 
The figure of a bull, which helps 
miners in contract with the devil by 
digging out the ore with its horns, 
occasionally accompanies the im- 
age, or there may be chinas, female 
temptresses who are the devil's con- 

The Tio is a figure of power: he 
has what everyone wants, in excess. 
Coca remains lie in his greedy 

mouth. His hands are stretched out, 
grasping the bottles of alcohol he is 
offered. His nose is burned black by 
the cigarettes he smokes down to 
the nub. If a Tio is knocked out of 
his niche by an extra charge of dy- 
namite and survives, the miners 
consider him to be more powerful 
than others. 

Another spirit present in the 
mines but rarely represented in im- 
ages is the Awiche, or old woman. 
Although some miners deny she is 
the Pachamama, the earth goddess 
worshiped by farmers, they relate to 
her in the same way. Many of the 
miners greet her when they enter 
the mine, saying, "Good-day, old 
woman. Don't let anything happen 
to me today!" They ask her to inter- 
cede with the Tio when they feel in 
danger; when they leave the mine 
safely, they thank her for their life. 

Quite the opposite kind of femi- 
nine image, the Viuda, or widow, 
appears to miners who have been 
drinking chicha, a fermented corn 
liquor. Miners who have seen the 
Viuda describe her as a young and 
beautiful chola, or urbanized In- 
dian, who makes men lose their 
minds— and sometimes their pay- 
checks. She, too, is a consort of the 
devil and recruits men to make con- 
tracts with him, deluding them with 
promises of wealth. 

When I started working in Oruro 
during the summer of 1969, the 
men told me about the ch'alla, a 
ceremonial offering of cigarettes, 
coca, and alcohol to the Tio. One 
man described it as follows: 

"We make the ch'alla in the 
working areas within the mine. My 
partner and I do it together every 
Friday, but on the first Friday of 


the month we do it with the other 
workers on our level. We bring in 
banners, confetti, and paper stream- 
ers. First we put a cigarette in the 
mouth of the Tio and light it. After 
this we scatter alcohol on the 
ground for the Pachamama, then 
give some to the Tio. Next we take 
out our coca and begin to chew, 
and we also smoke. We serve liquor 
from the bottles each of us brings 
in. We light the Tio's cigai-ette. say- 
ing 'Tio, help us in our work. Don't 
let any accidents happen.' We do 
not kneel before him as we would 
before a saint, because that would 
be sacrilegious. 

"Then everyone begins to get 
drunk. We begin to talk about our 
work, about the sacrifices that we 
make. When this is finished, we 
wind the streamers around the neck 

of the Tio. We prepare our mesas 
[tables of offerings that include 
sugar cakes, llama embryos, colored 
wool, rice, and candv balls]. 

"After some time we say, 'Let's 
go.' Some have to carrv out those 
who are drunk. We go to where we 
change our clothes, and when we 
come out we again make the offer- 
ing of liquor, banners, and we wrap 
the streamers around each others' 
necks. From there on, each one 
does what he pleases." 

I thought I would never be able 
to participate in a ch'alla because 
the mine managers told me the men 
didn't like to have women inside 
the mine, let alone join them in 
their most sacred rites. Finallv a 
friend high in the governmental bu- 
reaucracy gave me permission to go 
into the mine. Once down on the 

lowest level of San Jose mine. 340 
meters below the ground, I asked 
my guide if I could stay with one of 
the work crews rather than tour the 
galleries as most visitors did. He 
was relieved to leave me and get 
back to work. The men let me trv 
their machines so that I could get a 
sense of what it was like to hold a 
160-pound machine vibrating in a 
yard-wide tunnel, or to use a me- 
chanical shovel in a gallerv where 
the temperature was 100° F. 

They told me of some of their 
frustrations— not getting enough air 
pumped in to make the machines 
work at more than 20 percent effi- 
ciency and constant breakdowns of 
machinerv, which slowed them up 
on their contract. 

At noon I refused the superinten- 
dent's invitation to eat lunch at 
level 0. Each of the men gave me a 
bit of his soup or some "seconds," 
solid food consisting of noodles, po- 
tatoes, rice, and spicv meat, which 
their wives prepare and send down 
in the elevators. 

At the end of the shift all the 
men in the work group gathered at 
the Tio's niche in the large corri- 
dor. It was the first Fridav of the 
month and the gang leader. Lino 
Pino, pulled out a bottle of fruit 
juice and liquor, which his wife had 
])repared. and each of the men 
brought out his plastic bag with 
coca. Lino led the men in offering a 
cigarette to the Tio, lighting it. and 
then shaking the li([uor im the 
ground and calling for lilc. "Hal- 
lalla! Hallalla!" 

We sat on lumps of ore along tlie 
rail lines and Lino's helper served 
us, in order of seating, from a little 
tin cup. I was not given an\ prior- 
ilv. nor was I forgotten in lln' 
rounds. One of the men gave me 
coca from his supplv and I received 
it willi two hands, as I had been 
laughl in llic riluais aboveu;n)und. 1 

When thev toast the Tio. 
Indian workers often ask him 
to "produce" minerals and 
let them "ripen," as if 
the ore were a farm crop. 


chewed enough to make mv cheek 
feel numb, as though I had had an 
injection of novocaine for dental 
work. The men told me that 
coca was their gift from the Pach- 
amama, who took pitv on them in 
their work. 

As Lino offered liquor to the Tio. 
he asked him to "produce" more 
mineral and make it "ripen," as 
though it were a crop. These rituals 
are a continuation of agricultural 
ceremonies still practiced bv the 
farmers in the area. The miners 
themselves are the sons or grand- 
sons of the landless farmers who 
were recruited when the gold and 
silver mines were reopened for tin 
production after the turn of the cen- 
tury" . 

A month after I visited level 
340. three miners died in an ex- 
plosion there when a charge of dv- 
namite fell down a shoot to their 
work site and exploded. Two of the 
men died in the mine: the third 
died a few davs later in the hospital. 
^Tien the accident occurred, all the 
men rushed to the elevators to help 
or to stare in fascinated horror as 
the dead and injured were brought 
up to level 0. Thev carried the bod- 
ies of their dead comrades to the so- 
cial center where thev washed the 
charred faces, trs'ing to lessen the 
horror for the women who were 
coming. ^Tien the women came 
into the social center where the 
bodies were laid out, thev screamed 
and stamped their feet, the hor- 
ror of seeing their husbands or 
neighbors sweeping through their 

The entire communitv came to 
sit in at the wake, eating and drink- 
ing in the feasting that took place 
before the coffins of their dead com- 
rades. The meal seemed to confirm 
the need to go on Hving as well as 
the right to live. 

Although the accident had not 
occurred in the same corridor I had 
been in, it was at the same level. 
Shortlv after that, when a student 
who worked with me requested per- 
mission to \'isit the mine, the man- 
ager told her that the men were 
hinting that the accident had hap- 
pened because the gringa (anv for- 
eign-born, fair-haired person, in 
this case mvself) had been inside. 
She was refused permission. I was 


disturbed bv what might happen to 
mv relations with the people of the 
communitv, but even more con- 
cerned that I had added to their 
sense of living in a hostile world 
where anvthing new was a threat. 

The miners were in a state of 
uneasiness and tension the rest of 
that month. Julv. Thev said the Tio 
was "eating them" because he 
hadn't had an offering of food. The 
dead men were all voung. and the 
Tio prefers the juicv flesh and blood 
of the voung, not the tired blood of 
the sick older workers. He wanted a 
k'araku. a ceremonial bancfuet of 
sacrificed animals. 

There had not been anv sched- 
uled k'arakus since the armv put 
the mines under militan,' control in 
1965. During the first half of the 
century, when the "tin barons"— 
Patino. Hochschild. and .^ra- 
vamao — owned the mines, the ad- 
ministrators and even some of the 
owners, especiallv Patino. who had 
risen from the ranks, would join 
with the men in sacrificing animals 
to the Tio and in the drinking and 
dancing that followed. After nation- 
alization of the mines in 1952, the 
rituals continued. In fact, some of 
the miners complained that thev 
were done in excess of the Tio's 
needs. One said that going into the 
mine after the revolution was like 
walking into a saloon. 

Following military- control, how- 
ever, the miners had held the ritual 
onlv once in San Jose, after two 
men had died while working their 
shift. Now the Tio had again shown 
he was hungrs' bv eating the three 
miners who had died in the acci- 
dent. The miners were determined 
to offer him food in a k'araku. 

At 10:30 P.M. on the eve of the 
devil's month, I went to the mine 
with Doris ^ iderkehr, a student, 
and Eduardo Ibanez, a Bolivian art- 
ist. I was somewhat concerned 
about how we would be received af- 
ter what the manager of the mine 
had said, but all the men seemed 
glad we had come. As we sat at the 
entry to the main shaft waiting for 
the yatiris. shamans who had been 
contracted for the ceremonv, the 
miners offered us chicha and cock- 
tails of fruit juice and alcohol. 

^^'Tien I asked one of the men 
whv they had prepared the ritual 

and what it meant, his answer was: 

"We are having the k'araku be- 
cause a man can't die just like that. 
We in\ated the administrators, but 
none of them have come. This is be- 
cause onlv the workers feel the 
death of their comrades. 

"We invite the Pachamama, the 
Tio. and God to eat the llamas that 
we will sacrifice. With faith we give 
coca and alcohol to the Tio. We are 
more believers in God here than in 
Germany or the United States be- 
cause there the workers have lost 
their soul. We do not have earth- 
quakes because of our faith before 
God. We hold the crucifix to our 
breast. We have more confidence 
before God." 

Most miners reject the claim that 
belief in the Tio is pagan sacrilege. 
Thev feel that no contradiction ex- 
ists, since time and place for offer- 
ings to the devil are clearlv defined 
and separated from Christian ritual. 

-\t 11:00 P.M. two white llamas 
contributed bv the administration 
were brought into level in a com- 
panv truck. The miners had already 
adorned the pair, a male and a fe- 
male, with colored paper streamers 
and the bright wool earrings with 
which farmers decorate their flocks. 

The four yatiris contracted for 
did not appear, but two others who 
happened to be staving at the house 
of a miner were brought in to per- 
form the ceremonv. As soon as they 
arrived, the miners took the llamas 
into the elevator. The male was on 
the right and the female to his left, 
"just the same as a marriage cere- 
monv." one miner commented. 
Lxjoking at the couple adorned with 
bright streamers and confetti, there 
was the feeling of a wedding. 

Two men entered the elevator 
with the llamas and eight more 
climbed on top to go down to level 
340. Thev were commissioned to 
take charge of the ritual. All the 

A model of the Tio, shaped 

bv the workers, sits in a 

mine alcove. If the image 

survives an explosion, it is 

considered very powerful. 


Pushing a cart, workers with 
puffed cheeks chew coca, a 
narcotic. Falling rocks 
are a constant danger in the 
narrow corridors, lower left. 

workers of 340 entered to partici- 
pate in the ceremonv below and 
about 50 men gathered at level to 

At level 340 the workers guided 
the yatiris to the spot where the ac- 
cident had occurred. There they 
cast liquor from a bottle and called 
upon the Tio, the Awiche, and God 
to protect the men from further ac- 
cidents—naming all the levels in the 
mine, the various work sites, the 
different veins of ore, the elevator 
shaft, and the winch, repeating each 
name three times and asking the 
Tio not to eat anv more workers 
and to give them more veins to 
work. The miners removed their 
helmets during this ritual. It ended 
with the plea for life, "Hallalla, hal- 
lalla, hallalla." Two bottles of li- 
quor were sprinkled on the face of 
the rock and in the various work 

Tlie yatiris then instructed the 
men to approach the llamas with 
their arms behind their backs so 
that the animals would not know 
who held the knife that would kill 
them. They were also told to beg 
pardon for the sacrifice and to kiss 
the llamas farewell. One miner, not- 
ing what appeared to be a tear fall- 
ing from the female's eye, cried and 
tried to comfort her. As the men 
moved around the llamas in a 
circle, the yatiris called on the Mal- 
kus (eagle gods), the Awiche, the 
Pachamama, and finallv the Tiyulas 
Continued on page 82 

After two men died in an 

explosion, the miners held 

a k'araku, an ancient 

ceremony that included 

the sacrifice of two llamas. 


^W¥ ^ 




wi ^ 

Predators of tlie Serengeti: Part 2 

Are You Runnin 
with Me, Horainid? 

With different liunting patterns, 

each large carnivore fills a special niche. 

Early man was once there, too 

by George B. Schaller 

At times during my three-year 
study in the Serengeti, especially as 
I walked alone across the plains 
with the dry grass rustling beneath 
my feet and columns of wildebeest 
streaming under the hazy sky, a 
consciousness of the past would fill 
me. I would climb on a kopje— 
those wind-worn granite islands 
that jut from the plains— and imag- 
ine that I was an early hominid, 
squinting into the glare, watching 
for descending vultures as a sign of 
meat to scavenge. What sort of life, 
I wondered, did these ancient rela- 
tives of man have, existing both as 
hunter and hunted? 

The leopard often carries 
its kill into a tree 
because other predators, 
particularly the lion, may 
steal it on the ground. 

During the many times 1 watched 
predators hunt and kill, I had svm- 
pathy for the prey, yet I felt a 
strange tie, an emotional kinship 
with the predator. Man is by inheri- 
tance a primate; by avocation a car- 
nivore. For perhaps two million 
years he has at least supplemenlcd 
his diet with meat. As anthropolo- 
gist Sherwood Washburn noted, 
"In a very real sense our intellect, 
interests, emotions, and basic social 
life— all are evolutionary products 
of the success of the hunting adap- 

When trying to deduce the social 
system used by Australopithecus 
and other early hominids, many 
anthropologists have looked for 
clues among nonhuman primates. 
This is logical on phylogenetic 
grounds but not on ecological ones. 
Social systems are so strongly in- 
fluenced by the ecological condi- 
tions under which an animal lives 
that even the same species may be- 
have differentlv from area to area. 
Monkeys and apes are essentially 
vegetarians, living in groups con- 
fined to small ranges. Early man 
and his precursors, on the other 
hand, were widely roaming scav- 

^1972 by The University of Chiai0:o. All riglits re: 

engers and hunters, a wav of life 
that has diverged so drastically 
from the nonhuman primates that 
any similarities in the social systems 
of the two may well be accidental. 

We can probably learn more 
about the genesis of man's social 
system by studying phylogenetically 
unrelated but ecologicallv similar 
forms than by examining nonhu- 
man primates. The social carnivores 
provide an obvious choice. Some of 
the selective forces that influenced 
the social existence of the lion, 
hyena, and wild dog may also have 
had an effect on hominid societies. 

Less obvious, but also important 
for an ecological perspective on the 
evolution of hominids, are the dif- 
ferent hunting systems of all the 
large cai'nivores, including the leop- 
ard, the cheetah, and even the ex- 
tinct saber-toothed tiger. During 
their evolutionarv histories, each of 
these animals has competed with 
hominids for food. 

The Leopard: The opposite of the 
sociable lion, the leopard is the es- 
sence of a solitary cat. "Secretive, 
silent, smooth and supple as a piece 
of silk," as described by Maitland 
Edey, "he is an animal of darkness 

veJ. Adapted from Tin 

Serengeli Lion, lo be publLihed later this year by the University of Chicago Press. 


and even in the dark he travels 

The Serengeti leopards favor riv- 
erine forests, kopjes densely over- 
grown w^ith scrubs, and the exten- 
sive thickets in the northern part of 
the park. They are sparse on the 

In my study, I found that the 
ranges of resident leopards over- 
lapped considerably, although each 
animal tended to focus its activity 
in an area little used bv others at 
the time. Two adults were occasion- 
ally within a quarter-mile of each 
other, and during one period three 
females and a subadult male hunted 
along the same three-mile stretch of 
river, vet only once did I see two 
adults together when they were not 
courting. This indicates a strong 
mutual avoidance, probably based 
both on direct visual contact and on 
such indirect methods as marking 
with scent. 

We know little about the causes 
of death among leopards, but sev- 
eral cases of fatal confrontations 
with lions have been reported. On 
April 3, 1967, visitors came upon 
eleven lions of the Masai pride as 
they milled about and pawed a 
freshlv killed female leopard: she 
had been bitten through the lower 
back and throat. Park warden 
Myles Turner gave me the following 
excerpt from his field notes: "On 
17th September, 1960, at 8:00 
A.M., the local pride of lions was 
noted lying under a tree near the 
Seronera River with a female leop- 
ard high in the tree above them, ob- 
viously very nervous. . . . The 
leopard attempted to descend but 
was promptly chased up again. Sud- 
denly the lions converged on a grass 
clump and pulled out two small 
leopard cubs about six weeks old. 
They were immediately torn to 
pieces and consumed." The leopard 
may stay in overgrown habitats not 
only because of its hunting methods 
but also because these areas provide 
a refuge from lions. 

The leopard is primarily a night 
hunter, although I did see nine 
leopard stalks in the daytime. One 
of these attempts, at a waterhole, 
culminated in a successful rush. 
Other observers told me of six day- 
time rushes, three of them success- 
ful. On one occasion a female 




Q 20-- 







Both lions and hyenas prey extensively on wildebeest in 
the Serengeti, but they tend to kdl different age groups. 

stalked a herd of gazelle in the 
plains and was within 100 feet of it 
when the gazelle sensed her; but in- 
stead of fleeing, they merely 
snorted and stamped their forelegs. 
A visitor observed a leopard leap on 
a warthog but fall off when it 
lunged ahead and fled. Photogra- 
pher Simon Trevor watched three 
adult baboons, in a reversal of roles, 
chase a leopard from the vicinity of 
a group along the Seronera River. 

The leopard's diet is more varied 
than that of the lion and cheetah, 
and food items in the Serengeti in- 
clude python, several kinds of 
birds, hare, hyrax, various small 
and medium-sized antelopes, and a 
surprising number of other carni- 
vores, a total of 24 species. Any cas- 
ual list of kills shows a strong bias 
in favor of large animals, which 
leopards tend to store in trees. I col- 
lected most data on kills around the 
park headquarters at Seronera and 
at the edge of the woodlands during 
dry times. Among the large prey 
items were Thomson's gazelle, 
which weigh, at most, 50 pounds; 
reedbuck. 145 pounds; impala, 140 
pounds; and Grant's gazelle, 155 
pounds. Other prey consisted of 
small species or the young of large 
ones. Leopards seem to prefer prey 
in the 40- to 155-pound category, 
with an upper limit at about 325 
pounds, two to three times the 
weight of the cat itself. 

A leopard drags large prev by 
grasping the animal's neck and 

straddling the body between fore- 
legs, a position also used to 
scramble up a tree trunk with a car- 
cass. To wedge a kill into the 
branches may require several min- 
utes of effort, as the limp body often 
slips and has to be lifted to another, 
more secure spot. Such storing of 
carcasses helps keep them out of . 
reach of jackals and hyenas and 
usually of lions too. Vultures sel- 
dom bother kills in trees. 

On one occasion, a leopard im- 
mediately hauled its kill 40 feet 
into a tree when a hyena ap- 
proached. On three occasions, lions 
climbed trees and took a kill, but 
they failed to find it on several oth- 
ers. Once, three lions circled a tree 
for 15 minutes, sniffing the trunk 
and seeming to stare directly at the 
carcass, which was clearly visible in 
a fork 15 feet above them, but they 
finally walked off. Another time, an 
injured and obviously hungry lion- 
ess behaved similarly when a reed- 
buck was hanging a mere 12 feet 
from her. The lions seemed aware 
that there was a kill near the tree, 
but in most instances were appar- 
ently unable to recognize the mo- 
tionless, distorted carcass by sight. 

The Cheetah: With its small, 
round head, deep chest, trim waist, 
and long slender legs, the cheetah is 
the least typical of the cats, an ani- 
mal built for speed rather than 
power. While cheetah occur 
throughout the Serengeti ecological 
unit, they prefer the plciins and the 

woodlands-plains border. Their dis- 
tribution in the Serengeti seems to 
be less influenced by vegetation 
than by the movements of Thom- 
son's gazelle, their principal prey. 
Their appearance and dis- 
appearance correlate with the ga- 
zelle migration. 

Several cheetah occupied the 
same general area around Seronera 
during the dry season, some as tem- 
porary residents, others only as 
transients. Cheetah merely avoided 
contact when they saw each other, 
with no evidence of any form of ter- 
ritorial defense. The animals spaced 
themselves out by centering their 
activity in a locality not much used 
by others at the time and by avoid- 
ing meetings by both visual and ol- 
factory means. 

In a previous article ("This 
Gentle & Elegant Cat," NATURAL 

History Magazine, June-July, 

1970), I described cheetah pre- 
dation. I found that out of a total of 
261 cheetah kills found, 91 percent 
were Thomson's gazelle, and most 
of the others were Grant's gazelle, 
wildebeest, impala, and hare. The 
prey's size is a major factor in its se- 
lection. Thomson's gazelle seldom 
weigh more than 45 pounds. 
Among the other kills, all the wil- 
debeest and hartebeest, one Grant's 
gazelle, and one topi were less than 
two months old. 

Cheetah feed rapidly, stopping 
occasionally to look around as if 
nervous, probably because other 
predators frequently appropriate 
the kill. In contrast to other preda- 
tors, cheetah apparently do not 
scavenge. Being low in the inter- 
specific predator hierarchy, in most 
instances cheetah are probably too 
timid to investigate possible sources 
of meat. 

The Hyena: Serengeti hyenas 
reach their greatest abundance on 
the plains. Their basic social unit is 
the clan, which may consist of 10 to 
60 or more hyenas of both sexes 
and all ages. Most hyenas are un- 
able to maintain permanent clan 
territories in the Serengeti because 
their preferred prey, wildebeest and 
zebra, may be many miles from the 
plains. As the migratory herds re- 
treat to the woodlands, clans on the 
plains tend to break up. Some ani- 
mals become nomadic, following 

the prey. Hyenas from several clans 
may associate without animosity 
around a prey concentration and 
may even establish a temporary 
clan, which dissolves as food again 
becomes scarce. With the advent of 
the dry season, other hyenas, partic- 
ularly females with cubs, move only 
to the edge of the woodlands; from 
there they may commute 20 miles 
to some prey concentration, feed, 
and then return to their den. 

Hyenas kill 68 percent of their 
prey and scavenge the rest. Because 
wildebeest are both vulnerable and 
rewarding in the amount of meat 
they provide— one adult feeds an 
average of 12.6 hyenas— this spe- 
cies is the preferred prey. Hyenas 
usually hunt at night, merely chas- 
ing their quarry. They do not stalk 
or lie in ambush. A wildebeest herd 
may permit a hyena to approach to 
within 20 yards or less before 
wheeling around and fleeing, tightly 
bunched. The hyena, in turn, 
dashes at the herd as if to scatter it; 
finally one animal may be selected, 
often a calf if available, and pur- 
sued at speeds up to 30 miles per 
hour. After a chase of one to three 
miles, the hyena either gives up the 
attempt or is able to stop the animal 
by biting its legs or belly. 

The decision to hunt zebra is ap- 
parently made by a clan before the 
hunt begins. Animals gather and 
synchronize their activity by, for ex- 
ample, visiting latrine areas. After 
that a pack may pass through wil- 
debeest herds until it finds zebra. A 
zebra herd occasionally permits 
hyenas to approach to within five 
yards before it flees or a stallion at- 
tacks. The chase is at speeds of 10 
to 20 miles per hour, much slower 
than zebra can run. As with other 
prey, hyenas tend to select the 
weakest animals from a herd. 

Once they pull an animal down, 
hyenas rip open the abdomen and 
bolt first the viscera, then the rest 
of the meat. Fights seldom erupt in 
competition over food, although an 
animal with a bone may be vigor- 
ously chased by others. Cubs have 
no priority at kills except when 
their mother protects them. Hans 
Kruuk, the source of most of my in- 
formation on hyenas, once observed 
.35 hyenas kill a female zebra and 
clear all the remains in 36 minutes. 

The hyena is below the lion in the 
predator hierarch\ . but at times I was 
surprised at their temerity in attack- 
ing lions. One evening 1 watched two 
lionesses at a wildebeest kill. Almost 
imperceptibly, hyenas began to 
gather nearby in the darkness. Thev 
waited silently. By 11:00 P.M. there 
were 17 of them. The lions started to 
bolt down meat, possibly anticipat- 
ing the loss of their kill. As if on sig- 
nal, the hyenas began to whoop. 
They circled the lions, drawing ever 
closer, in an eerie game of psycholog- 
ical warfare. Then they rushed to the 
kill, and the lions fled into the dark- 

The Wild Dog: Small in size, 
with a splotchy white, black, and 
yellow coat, the African wild dog, 
or hunting dog, does not seem to be 
the kind of animal that could arouse 
man's passion to the extent that it 
has— being relentlessly and irra- 
tionally persecuted throughout its 
range. Wild dogs are scarce in the 
Serengeti, with months sometimes 
elapsing between sightings of a 
pack, which averages ten adult 
dogs. The animals usually disregard 
the presence of a vehicle, per- 
mitting it to approach to within ten 
yards or less; sometimes they will 
even bite the tires or otherwise in- 
vestigate it. On one occasion, when 
my car fell into a warthog burrow, a 
pack stood 1.5 yards away and 
watched me dig it out. 

Packs with small young remain 
in the vicinity of a den. The animals 
leave the den to hunt, but return to 
it afterward, a pattern that restricts 
their range of activity. Once the 
young are mobile, packs travel 
widely. Ranges overlap extensively, 
and in a few instances probably 
completely. While it is possible that 
packs defend the area immediately 
around their dens, there is no evi- 
dence to suggest that they are terri- 
torial at other times. The scarcity of 
packs alone tends to space animals 
out, and olfactory cues, such as the 
animal's powerful body odor, may 
also help in this respect. 

The most striking aspect of dog 
society is the amity that exists be- 
tween members. Even when the 
whole pack is crowded around a kill 
there is little overt strife; growling 
and snapping, characteristic among 
lions, usually do not occur. I never 


saw two dogs fight. In competition 
for a bone or in other potentially 
eruptive situations, both animals 
tend to assume the appeasement 
posture, thereby terminating the in- 

Packs seem to lack a rigid hier- 
archy. Males and females share 
most tasks equally, including hunt- 
ing and feeding the young, although 
certain individuals assume special 
functions. For example, some adults 
lead in the hunt, while others, espe- 
cially yearhngs, trail behind. The 
spoils, however, are divided among 
all members. When pups are at the 
den, one or more members remain 
to guard them. The returning hunt- 
ers then regurgitate meat for the 
pups, as well as for the guards. On 
one occasion a lame dog dropped so 
far behind the pack that there was 
no meat left when he reached the 
carcass. He begged from several 
members and received some. 

Once pups accompany the adults 
on the hunt, they are seldom fed on 
regurgitated meat. Instead, they 
take almost complete precedence at 
a kill. Adults may grab a bite at the 
time the prev has been caught, but 
as soon as the pups arrive, adults 
step back and permit them to mo- 
nopolize the carcass. Any adult that 
tries to eat is chased away by the 
twittering, aggressive young— be- 
havior already evident at the den 
when large pups bite at the adults' 
lips and legs while begging for food. 
The adults stand around the feeding 
young, forming a protective circle 
that prevents hyenas and jackals 
from grabbing the meat. Pups re- 
tain their priority for food until 
they are about eight months old. 
Considering the high death rate of 
adults, any factor that contributes 
to a high survival rate of pups, such 
as having priority at the kill, has se- 
lective advantage. 

In some respects the wild dog is 
an easy subject for the study of pre- 
dation, for it hunts predictably each 
day and permits a vehicle to follow 
it without altering its behavior. I 
observed the hunting and killing of 
Thomson's gazelle 37 times, of wil- 
debeest 29 times, and of other prey 
21 times. Dogs hunt mainly in the 
morning and evening. After lying 
huddled in small groups in the vi- 
cinity of the den all night, they gen- 


erally set off with first light at about 
6:00 A.M. The evening hunt, if any, 
is rarely started before 5:00 P.M. 
Occasionally, packs hunt on moon- 
lit nights. Setting out on a hunt, the 
dogs often move in single file but 
soon spread loosely over the terrain, 
a useful formation for finding 
crouched gazelle. 

The time a pack spends hunting 
depends, of course, on the availabil- 
ity of prey. On the whole, the ani- 
mals are rarely active more than 
four to five hours a day— traveling, 
killing, and feeding. Of 48 hunts 
observed, an average of 30 minutes 
elapsed from the time a pack left its 
den or rest area to the first kill. 
Some hunts were successful within 
10 minutes, and all except five were 
successful within one hour. The 
dogs consume the edible portions of 
a Thomson's gazelle within 5 to 10 
minutes, although bones are often 
gnawed clean-for several more. The 
dogs gorge themselves at a large 
carcass within 15 to 30 minutes. 

Hunting dogs may be trailed bv 
one or more hyenas, which later at- 
tempt to snatch the kill or at least a 
morsel of it. The dogs, in furn, may 
rush at the hyenas, and in the event 
that these have managed to appro- 
priate some meat, may nip them in 
the rump until they drop the food, 
which the dogs then retrieve. When 
attacked, subadult hyenas often 
crouch instead of fleeing, and such 
individuals are at times permitted 
to feed on the kill. Several hyenas 
may drive dogs from a carcass, yet 
the reverse also happens. The inter- 
actions between these two predators 
are highly variable, and probablv 
depend more on the number of ani- 
mals involved and the extent of 
their hunger than on any rigid hier- 
archical relationship. In fact, when 
not competing for food, dogs and 
hyenas tolerate each other more 
than any other two predators, even 
resting side by side in the shade of 
the same tree. 

The dogs' hunting methods vary 
with the species of prev. Usually 
only one or two dogs chase a Thom- 
son's gazelle while others trail. The 
speed of the chase is about 35 miles 
per hour. Often sprinting at the be- 
ginning of the chase, a gazelle pro- 
ceeds in a flat gallop as a dog draws 
closer, and finally, with capture im- 

minent, it zigzags and reverses di- 
rection. This tactic causes it to lose 
speed, and finally the dog grabs it, 
pulling it down. A bite into the 
lower abdomen disembowels the 
quarry, and other dogs usually ar- 
rive within seconds and tear it to 

A pursued gazelle may run in a 
wide semicircle, and at such times 
the dogs hunt cooperatively. While 
one or two dogs follow the gazelle, 
the others cut across the arc and 
surround the gazelle. Brief relay 
hunts, with one dog taking the 
place of another that was chasing, 
were seen on three occasions. Most 
pursuits end after a short chase. 

When they hunt wildebeest, 
packs seem to search specifically for 
small calves. On one occasion sev- 
eral hundred adult wildebeest, year- 
lings, and large calves galloped in 
single file while the dogs merely 
stood and watched them pass. But 
when a small calf, born late in the 
season, ran past, it was immediately 
pursued and killed. Dogs often 
bunch up and walk toward a herd 
in a stalk before suddenly dashing 
when less than 100 yards from it. 
Wildebeest draw together when 
pursued, behavior that makes it dif- 
ficult for dogs to single out calves. 
To scatter a herd, the dogs run be- 
side it, mingle with it, and if it cir- 
cles, charge toward the advancing 
animals. If no calf is present, an- 
other herd may be attacked. To pull 
a large calf or yearling off its feet 
sometimes requires several minutes 
of effort, with one or more dogs 
hanging on to the nose and neck of 
the quarry, several tearing at the 
legs, and the rest at the abdomen. 

Once a dog flushed a mouse and 

As Thomson's gazelle graze, 

a leopard watches from a 

nearby tree. Unless 

the gazelle come closer, 

the cat wiU not rush them. 



. < .*!{ .-■.■...*». 



Left to right: Wild dogs 

cut off and kill a young 

wildebeest. The descent of 

a vulture probably alerts 

a nomadic lion, which 

drives off the dogs and 

takes over the remains. 

When wild dogs return 

to the den site after 

a hunt, pups beg food 

by nuzzling an adult. In 

a reflexive action, the 

adult dog regurgitates part 

of the food it consumed 

earlier at the kill. 

then pawed it. snapped at it. and 
bounded in a tight circle around it. 
Three other dogs joined. The mouse 
squatted, paws raised, mouth agape: 
when a dog nudged it with a foot, it 
bit. Finally, after five minutes, 
longer than it normally takes to kill 
a wildebeest, one dog grabbed it. 

When several predatory species 
hunt in the same area, competition 
for a limited prey resource is likely 
to occur. One way in which such 
competition can be reduced is for 
predators to occupy different habi- 
tats or to use the same one at differ- 
ent times. Although all habitats are 
used by the five large predators in 
the Serengeti. some animals are 
more abundant in one than another. 
Lions mainly occupy the wood- 
lands, hyenas and cheetah the 
plains and woodlands-plains border, 
leopards the thickets and riverine 
forest, and wild dogs both wood- 

lands and plains equally, depending 
on availabihtv of prev. The cheetah 
and wild dog are diurnal, hunting 
predominantly in the morning and 
afternoon, whereas the others are 
nocturnal except in special circum- 
stances, such as when lions stalk 
prey at waterholes. 

The various predators are ob- 
viously not separated completely in 
space and time. Cheetah and wild 
dogs hunt during the same hours, 
but both are so scarce that they sel- 
dom meet. Attracted bv each 
other's kills, lions and hvenas often 
come into conflict, particularly in 
the plains where thev appropriate 
kills from each other. In general, 
predators tend to be intolerant of 
each other, even killing without 

A clear distinction must be 
made, however, between hunting 
behavior and aeeression, between 

Hyenas, right, kill 

a sickly adult wildebeest, 

which had lagged behind 

when they chased its herd. 

In many areas the hyena 

is a major predator, 

kill ing most of its food. 


predators killing each other for food 
and for other reasons. Leopards 
frequently catch small carnivores, 
such as jackals and sorvals, and eat 
them as anv food item. Lions, how- 
ever, may pursue hyenas, leopards, 
and cheetah, showing, not the in- 
expressive facial features of a hunt, 
but the bared teeth and vocaliza- 
tions typical of intraspecific strife; 
thev treat other predators as they 
would other lions. In this context it 
is interesting to note that lions usu- 
ally attack man as another predator, 
rather than as a prey item. 

It has been customary to divide 
the large African carnivores into 
predators, such as lions and wild 
dogs, which kill their own food, and 
scavengers, such as hyenas and 
jackals, which subsist mainly on the 
remains left bv predators or on any 
other meat they can find. This dis- 
tinction is not justified, for hyenas 
in the Serengeti kill two-thirds of 
their own food and jackals, more 
than four-fifths of theirs. And lions 
scavenge much of their food in 
some areas. For example, of 63 car- 
casses on which lions were feeding 
in Ngorongoro Crater, 81 percent 
had been killed by hyenas. Thus 
lions can be considered pure preda- 
tors in one park and not in another, 
an awkward semantic distinction. 

The predators, however, can be 
divided into stalkers and coursers 
based on their predominant hunting 
methods. Stalking is characteristic of 
most felids, coursing of canids. The 
cats are specialized to capture prev 
through stealth: in contrast, the ca- 
nids, with their fairly long, slender 
legs and deep chests are designed 
for running fast and far. Lacking 
the curved claws and powerful arms 
of cats, they have to hold and pull 
down their prey with the teeth 

A large predator has a greater va- 
riety of hoofed animals available as 
prey than a small one. All five of 
the large predators capture prey 
weighing less than 200 pounds, 
whereas only lions kill animals scal- 
ing more than 300 pounds, except 
on rare occasions when hyenas at- 
tack them. Communal hunting also 
affects the size of prey that can be 
killed by predators. For example, 
judging by its size, a solitary wild 
dog would subsist on animals 

weighing less than 50 pounds, but 
packs readily kill prey of 250 
pounds. With the spectrum of pred- 
ators ranging from jackals to lions, 
competition for the same food re- 
source is reduced and predation 
pressure is distributed more evenly 
over the prey population. 

A predator's speed and endur- 
ance have an obvious effect on the 
frequency with which it can obtain 
a meal and the kind of prev it can 
catch. Hyenas have stamina but 
only moderate speed and agility. 
Lions and leopards are fairly slow 
and easily exhausted. This limits 
their pursuit to a short rush, a 
method whose success depends as 
much on the vulnerability of the 
prey a-s-on the skill of the hunter. 
Stalkers may, however, increase 
their chances of success by hunting 
at night and near cover. 

Lions, leopards, and hyenas may 
go two or more days without obtain- 
ing prey. When some is finally 
available they gorge themselves, 
with hyenas able to ingest one-third 
of their body weight in one meal 
and lions one-fourth— more than 75 
pounds of meat in the case of a 
male lion. Food passes rapidly 
through the stomach, which means 
that they can soon eat more. 

Excess meat may be stored, leop- 
ards placing theirs in trees, hyenas 
in water. Since wild dogs can main- 
tain a high speed for considerable 
distances, their success in capturing 
gazelle is higher than that of 
hyenas. Similarly, the cheetah's 
sprint is so fast that its success rate 
of 70 percent for gazelle exceeds 
that of other species. Both these 
predators tend to capture prey daily 
and neither makes an effort to save 
excess meat. 

It is interesting to speculate how 
a carnivorous hominid might have 
subsisted in the Serengeti, espe- 
cially since man has been a member 
of this predator community since 
his evolutionary beginnings. A 
hominid could have obtained meat 
in one of four ways: by scavenging 
animals dead from disease, malnu- 
trition, or other causes; by driving 
predators off their kill; by capturing 
newborn young, sick individuals, 
and other vulnerable prey; and by 
capturing healthy large mammals. 
All large predators in the Serengeti 

obtain meat by all four methods, 
with the exception of cheetah, 
which do not appropriate kills. 

Some anthropologists visualize 
an evolutionary progression for man 
from vegetarian to scavenger to 
hunter. The fact that no large mam- 
malian predator in the Serengeti 
subsists solely by scavenging sug- 
gests that hominids would also have 
found it difficult to do so unless 
thev supplemented their diet with 
vegetal matter. 

There is no ecological room for a 
total scavenger. For several days, I 
searched on foot for kills and dead 
animals in an area of great prey 
abundance. Where prey was abun- 
dant a carnivorous hominid might 
have survived by scavenging and 
killing sick animals, but where prey 
was sparse he would have had to 
hunt in order to survive. Like all 
predators, hominids probably ob- 
tained their meat in the easiest pos- 
sible way, by scavenging and by 
killing the young and sick when 
possible; by pursuing healthy ani- 
mals when nothing else was avail- 

The scavenging and hunting 
hominids' primate heritage suggests 
that thev were diurnal. Selection 
pressures also undoubtedly favored 
a social existence. The wild dog, 
which hunts at dawn and dusk and 
favors prey weighing 125 pounds or 
less, was the only other diurnal so- 
cial carnivore. Therefore, an eco- 
logical opening existed for a social 
predator that hunted large animals 
and scavenged during the day, an 
opening that an early hominid may 
well have filled. 

{Continued next month) 

While immature males may 

remain together, cheetah 

are normally solitary. 

They prey primarily on the 
small Thomson's gazelle. 

Nights in Pliny's Garden 

TlT^e insatiable scliolar w l:io wTotc tlio first 
"Natural History" seems to have been too 
busy to sleep-except on the night 
before his death 

by Phillip Drennon Tlionias 

From the first century to the 
nineteenth century, the most popu- 
lar work on natural history was the 
Historia naturalis of Gaius Plinius 
Secundus, more commonly known 
as Pliny the Elder. This ponderous, 
37-volume work became the basic 
reference source for medieval schol- 
ars who were interested in nature. 
It is probably the most popular 
work on natural history ever writ- 
ten. Certainly, it is one of the most 

Although praised by Buffon, 
Humboldt, Cuvier, and a host of 
lesser critics, it is nevertheless a 
work that must be read with cau- 
tion, lor Plinv loved fable as well as 
fad. I'hc historian Edward Gibbon 
referred lo the Natural History as 
"an immense register where Pliny 
has deposited the discoveries, the 
arts, and the errors of mankind." 

In his preface, Pliny informs his 
readers that his work contains 
20,000 interesting facts, gleaned 
from 2,000 volumes by 100 au- 
thors, "of which only a few are in 
the hands of the studious on ac- 
count of the obscurity of the sub- 
ject." A careful examination of his 
work reveals that Pliny actually re- 
fers to 146 Latin authors and 327 
' foreign authors, including Homer— 
"a prince of learning and father of 
antiquities"— Aristotle, Herodotus, 

Xenophon, Thucydides, Euclid, 
Democritus, Archimedes, Theo- 
phrastus, Varro, Livy, Cato, Po- 
lybius, Eudoxus, Eratosthenes, Pin- 
dar, Hippocrates, Asclepiades, and 
King Juba of Numidia. We know of 
many early scientists and naturalists 
only because Pliny mentioned 

Pliny inaugurated a tradition in 
scientific scholarship of carefully 
citing one's sources, for as he com- 
ments in his involved Latin prose, 
"I have prefaced these volumes 
with the names of my authorities. I 
have done so because it is, in my 
opinion, a pleasant thing and one 
that shows an honorable modesty, 
to own up to those who were the 
means of one's achievements, not to 
do as most of the authors to whom I 
have referred did. For you must 
know that when collating author- 
ities, I have found that the most 
professedly reliable and modern 
writers have copied the old authors 
word for word, without acknowl- 

Citing his authorities with care. 
Pliny sought to embrace nature in 
her broadest dimensions. Yet he re- 
alized that some subjects escaped 
his attention. "Nor do we doubt 
that there are many things that have 
escaped us also; for we are but hu- 
man, and beset with duties, and we 

The walls of Pompeii, when uncovered by 
archeologists, revealed a wealth of Roman 
mythology and natural hi.story. The painting, left, 
is from the house of Vetti. Ostia, right, was 
Rome's main port when Pliny commanded its fleet. 

pursue this sort of interest in our 
spare moments, that is at night— 
lest any of your house [the emperor 
Vespasian] should think that the 
night hours have been given lo idle- 
ness. The days we devote to you, 
and we keep our account with sleep 
in terms of health, content even 
with this reward alone, that, while 
we are dallying, in Varro's phrase, 
with these trifles, we are adding hours 
to our life— since of a certainty to be 
alive means to be awake. 

Few matters escaped Pliny's at- 
tention, for the numerous books of 
his Natural History contain delib- 
erations on agriculture, gems, 
dfugs, birds, bees, babies, plants, 
medicine, monstrosities, omens and 
portents, magic and astrology, mar- 
vels of the sea, inventions and no- 
table first events, and the shape, 
size, and motion of the world. They 
were a storehouse of the Medi- 
[ terranean world's accumulated 
I /acts, folklore, and fables. Pliny 
; provided a table of contents that in- 
cluded a survey of the subjects in 
each book, the authorities for the 
material, and in some cases, the 
number of facts, investigations, and 
observations presented in the book. 
Pliny was interested in ascertain- 
ing when events first occurred and 
who invented mundane objects. 
Consequentlv, he provided illumi- 
nation on Rome's first pavements, 
the first clock, when the Roman na- 
tion first began to squander money, 
who first invented fishponds, who 
first introduced goose liver, who 
were the first bakers in Rome, who 
were the richest people, the in- 
ventor of perfume, and when lions, 
tigers, and elephants were first seen 
in Rome. 

The details of Pliny's life and ca- 
reer are meager. Born in A.D. 23, at 
Como in northern Italy, he was the 
son of an established, middle-class 
Roman family. Studying at Rome, 
he was influenced by the Stoicism 
of Seneca; and as a moderate Stoic 
himself, he believed that nature was 
didactic— it could instruct human 
society on the questions of virtue. 
After studying law, he followed 
the traditional course of a Roman 
youth and placed his energy and 
talents at the service of the Roman 

In his Natural History Pliny 
also wrote about mythical 
creatures, such as the satyr 
represented here in a 
statue uncovered in Pompeii. 

state. As a member of Rome's le- 
gions and imperial bureaucracy, he 
served in Germany, Gaul, and 
Spain. During this time, he had the 
opportunity to visit Africa, the site 
of many of the wondrous peoples, 
places, and things that he recorded 
in his Natural History. 

During his busy career, Pliny au- 
thored a treatise on the cavalry's 
use of the javelin, a biography of a 
friend, a history of Rome's wars 
with Germany, a study of rhetorical 
training, a work on grammar, and a 
history of his times. Unfortunately, 
only his 37-volume Natural History 
is extant. Shortly after the dedica- 
tion of this work in A.D. 77, he re- 
ceived his fateful appointment as 
prefect of the Roman fleet at Mi- 
senum on the Bay ol Naples. 

Pliny was remarkably, almost in- 
explicably, energetic in compiling 
and organizing his Natural History. 
His nephew PUny the Younger, 
whose letters provide such a per- 
ceptive view of Roman life in the 
first century of the Empire, de- 
scribes his uncle's method of study 
in a letter to a friend: 

"You will wonder how a man as 
busy as he was could find time to 
compose so many books and some 
of them too involving such cai-e and 
labor. But you will be still more 
surprised when you hear that he 
pleaded at the bar for some time, 
that he died in his fifty-sixth year, 
that the intervening time was em- 
ployed partly in the execution of 
the highest official duties, partly in 
attendance upon those emperors 
who honored him with their friend- 

"But he had a quick apprehen- 
sion, marvelous powers of appli- 
cation, and was of exceedingly 
wakeful temperament. He always 
began to study at midnight at the 
time of the feast of Vulcan, not for 
the sake of good luck, but for learn- 
ing's sake; in winter generally at 
one in the morning, but never later 
than two, and often at twelve. H<' 
was a most ready sleeper, insomuch 
that he would sometimes, whilst in 
the midst of his studies, fall off and 
then wake up again. Before day- 
break he used to wait upon Vespa- 
sian, who also used his nights lor 
transacting business, and then pro- 
ceed to execute the orders he re- 

ceived. As soon as he returned 
home, he gave what time was left to 

"After a short and light refresh- 
ment at noon, agreeably to the good 
old custom of our ancestors, he 
would frequently in the summer, if 
he was disengaged from business, 
lie down and bask in the sun; dur- 
ing which time some author was 
read to him, while he took notes 
and made extracts, for every book 
he read he made extracts out of, in- 
deed it was a maxim of his, that 'no 
book was so bad but some good 
might be got out of it.' When this 
was over, he generally took a cold 
bath, then some slight refreshment 
and a little nap. 

"After this, as if it had been a 
new day, he studied till suppertime, 
when a book was again read to him, 
which he would take down running 
notes upon. I remember once his 
reader having mispronounced a 
word, one of my uncle's friends at 
the table made him go back to 
where the word was and repeat it 
again; upon which my uncle said to 
his friend, 'Surely you understood 
it?' Upon his acknowledging that he 
did, 'Why then,' he said, 'did you 
make him go back again? We have 
lost more than ten lines by this in- 
terruption.' Such an economist he 
was of time! 

"In the summer he used to rise 
from supper at daylight, and in win- 
ter as soon as it was dark: a rule he 
observed as strictly as if it had been 
a law of state. Such was his manner 
of life amid the bustle and turmoil 
of town: but in the country his 
whole time was devoted to study, 
excepting only when he bathed. In 
this exception I include no more 
than the time during which he was 
actually in the bath; for all liie 
while he was being rubbed and 
wiped, he was employed either in 
hearing some book read to him or 
in dictating himself. 

"In going about ans where, as 
ihough he were di-sengaged from all 
oilier business, he applied his mind 
wholly to that single pursuit. A 
shorthand writer constantly at- 
tended liini willi boiik and lablels. 
who, in (111- winlcr. wore a particu- 
lar sort of warm gloves, thai the 
sharpness of the weather might nol 
occasion an\ inlerruption lo ni\ 

uncle's studies: and for the same 
reason, when in Rome, he was al- 
wavs carried in a chair. I recollect 
his once taking me to task for walk- 
ing. 'You need not,' he said, lose 
these hours.' For he thought every 
hour gone that was not given to 

This passage cleaiiy reveals that 
Plinv was a voracious reader rather 
than a trained naturalist interested 
in observing the phenomena of the 
world. Plinv was one of history's 
greatest note-takers and compilers. 
He was more a historian, in love 
with the wonders of nature as re- 
corded bv other writers, than a sci- 
entist devoted to examining the 
minute workings of nature. 

Many of the flaws in his work are 
those that ai-e symptomatic of the 
science of the period. In the tradi- 
tion of the Greeks, his universe was 
geocentric, and his basic matter was 
the four elements of earth, air, fire, 
and water. 

Plinv was neither more nor less 
credulous than other educated Ro- 
mans of his era. He claimed his in- 
creduhtv was based upon a detailed 
examination of nature: For W'hen I 
have observed Nature she has al- 
ways induced me to deem no state- 
ment about her incredible.' 

Rome stood in awe before the in- 
tellectual accomplishments of the 
Greeks and the wondrous manifes- 
tations of nature's powers. Thus, it 
is not surprising that Plinv derives 
much of his information on cos- 
mographv. zoologv, and botany 
from Greek sources. Thev were the 
recognized authorities in these 
areas, and Rome respected author- 
ities. Nevertheless. Pliny had the 
traditional Roman ambivalency to- 
wai-d the Greeks. In one passage, he 
states, "Onlv do not let us be too 
proud to follow the Greeks, because 
of their far greater industry or devo- 
tion to studv": but later he notes. 
"It is astounding to what lengths 
Greek credulitv will go; there is no 
lie so shameless as to lack a sup- 
porter."' He was cautious in the use 
of some of his Greek sources, and 
he rejoiced to find certain of them 
in error. "It afforded me great 
amusement to read an exposure of 
Greek lies and fraud." 

Tlu-oughout his work. Pliny was 
defensive about his self -ordained 

mission of chronicling natures 
nuances. To justify his endeavors, 
he offers comments upon Rome's 
neglect of science. He noted that 
"nowadays it is necessai-y to in- 
vestigate not only subsequent dis- 
coveries but also those that had al- 
ready been made by the men of old. 
because general slackness has de- 
creed an utter destruction of 
records. And for this fault w"ho can 
discover other causes than the gen- 
eral mo\"ements of affairs in the 
world';' The fact is that other cus- 
toms have come into vogue, and the 
minds of men ai^e occupied about 
other matters: the only arts culti- 

vated are the arts of avarice." Or 
of the constant themes in Pliny's 
work is his persistent indictment of 
Roman societv's indifference to 

Plinv s world was adorned with 
mar\elous peoples: the Ethiopians, 
whom vou had to see to believe: the 
forest people of the Himalayas, who 
had their feet turned backward be- 
hind their legs and ran with wild 
animals: the Albanians, who were 
born with keen gi^av eves and re:, 
mained bald from childhood; the 
natives of India, who were "more 
than seven feet six inches high, 
never spit, do not suffer from head- 


ache or toothache or pain in the 
eyes"; the umbrella foot tribe, who 
in hot weather lav on "their backs 
on the ground and protected them- 
selves with the shadow of their 
feet'"; and those notably strange 
mountain people who had dogs' 
heads and whose speech was a bark. 
Plinv's explanation for these 
people was quite simple. "These 
and similar varieties of the human 
race have been made by the inge- 
nuity of Nature as toys for herself 
and marvels for us. And indeed 
who could possibly recount the vari- 
ous things she does every day and 
almost every hour? Let it suffice for 

the disclosure of her power to have 
included the whole races of man- 
kind among her marvels." 

The elephant was for Plinv one 
of the most spectacular inhabitants 
of the animal world. It was the first 
subject he considered in his books 
on zoology. While acknowledging it 
as the largest land animal, he was 
more enthralled by its human quali- 
ties. Plinys elephant "is nearest to 
man in intelligence: it understands 
the language of its country and 
obeys orders, remembers duties that 
it has been taught, is pleased by af- 
fection and by marks of honor, nay 
more it possesses virtues rare even 
in man, honesty, wisdom, justice, 
also respect for the stars and rever- 
ence for the sun and moon." Pliny 
chronicled their first appearance in 
Rome, examples of their in- 
telligence and moral sensibilities, 
prowess in war, and methods of 
training and breeding, and he re- 
viewed their principal enemies- 
men and snakes. Pliny maintained 
that the biggest elephants were 
born in India, but he recorded that 
"Ethiopia produces elephants that 
rival those of India, being 30 feet 
high." After reading Plinv, it is 
easy to understand whv the gullible 
scholars of the early Middle Ages so 
esteemed the elephant. 

Pliny presented a lengthy com- 
mentary upon the lion, which, like 
the elephant, is an animal with no- 
bility. The lion alone of wild ani- 
mals shows mercy to suppliants; it 
spares persons prostrated in front of 
it, and when raging it turns its furv 
on men rather than women, and 
only attacks children when ex- 
tremely hungrv." 

In his descriptions of aquatic ani- 
mals, he again began with the iarg- 

Pliny walked through the 
streets and arches of 
Pompeii, which were buried 
when Vesuvius, in the 
background, erupted. 

est example of that class, the whale. 
He recognized that marine animals 
can be larger than those on land. 
The exotic East is the source once 
more for the premier example of a 
particular species. "The largest 
number of animals and those of the 
largest size are in the Indian Sea, 
among them whales covering three 
acres each, and sharks 100 ells 
[150 feet] long: in fact in those re- 
gions lobsters grow up to 6 feet 
long, and also eels in the river 
Ganges to 300 feet."" Plinv reserves 
some of the most beautiful prose in 
his Natural History for the dolphin. 
Pearl-producing oysters are chas- 
tised by Plinv because ""moral cor- 
ruption and luxurv spring from no 
other source in greater abundance 
than from the genus shellfish."" 

Concerned with Romes abuse of 
her environment, Pliny delivers an 
impassioned plea against man's ex- 
ploitation of his world. "In fact, in 
regard to one of nature"s elements 
we have no gratitude. For what lux- 
uries and for what outrageous uses 
does she not subserve mankind? 
She is flung into the sea, or dug 
away to allow us to let in the chan- 
nels. Water, iron. wood. fire, stone, 
growing crops are employed to tor- 
ture her at all hours, and much 
more to make her minister to our 
luxuries than our sustenance. Yet in 
order to make the sufferings in- 
flicted on her surface and mere 
outer skin endurable, we probe her 
entrails, digging into her veins of 
gold and silver and mines of copper 
and lead: we actuallv drive shafts 
down into the depth to search for 
gems and certain tiny stones; we 
drag out her entrails, we seek a 
jewel merelv to be worn upon a fin- 
ger! How many hands are wnni 
away with toil that a single knui kle 
mav shine resplendcnll If an\ 
beings of the nether world cxistrd. 
assuredly even thc\ wniilil lia\e 
been dug up ere now li\ llic hur- 
rowing of avarice and lu\ur\! And 
can we wonder if earth lias also 
generated some creatures for our 
harm? Since the wild animals. 1 
well believe, are her guardians, and 
protect her from sacrilegious hands: 
(In not serpents infest our mines, do 
we not handle veins of gold mingled 
with the roots of poison? Yet that 
sliows till' goddess all ihe kinder Id- 


wards us, because all these avenues 
from which wealth issues lead but 
to crime and slaughter and warfare, 
and her whom we besprinkle with 
our blood we cover with un- 
buried bones, over which never- 
theless, when at length our madness 
has been finallv discharged, she 
draws herself as a veil, and hides 
even the crimes of mortals. I would 
reckon this too among the crimes of 
our ingratitude, that we are igno- 
rant of her nature."' 

Pliny's energetic efforts to dispel 
Rome s ignorance about nature 
ended suddenlv at the foot of 
Mount Vesuvius, which erupted in 
volcanic furv on August 24, A.D. 
79. By sunset on the 25th, Phnv 
the Elder was dead, and the cities 
of Pompeii. Herculaneum, and 
Stabiae were co\'ered with ash. 
Plinv the Younger, who was 
eighteen at the time, i:ecorded in a 
graphic letter to the historian Tac- 
itus the incidents leading to his 
uncle's death. 

"He was at that time with the 
fleet under his command at Mi- 
senum. On the 24th of August, 
about one in the afternoon, mv 
mother desired him to observe a 
cloud which appeared of a verv un- 
usual size and shape. He had just 
taken a turn in the sun and. after 
bathing himself in cold water, and 
making a light luncheon, gone back 
to his books: he immediatelv arose 
and went out upon a rising ground 
from whence he might get a better 
sight of this verv uncommon ap- 

"A cloud, from which mountain 
was uncertain, at this distance (but 
it was found afterwards to come 
from Mount Vesuvius), was ascend- 
ing, the appearance of which I can- 
not give you a more exact descrip- 
tion of than by likening it to that of 
a pine tree, for it shot up to a great 
height in the form of a very tall 
trunk, which spread itself out at the 
top into a sort of branches; occa- 
sioned, I imagine, either bv a sud- 
den gust of air that impelled it, the 
force of which decreased as it ad- 
vanced upwards, or the cloud itself 
being pressed back again bv its own 
weight, expanded m the manner I 
have mentioned; it appeared some- 
times bright and sometimes dark 
and spotted, according as it was ei- 


ther more or less impregnated with 
earth and cinders. 

This phenomenon seemed to a 
man of such learning and research 
as m\ uncle extraordinarv and 
worth further looking into. He or- 
dered a light vessel to be got readv, 
and gave me leave, if I liked, to ac- 
company him. I said I had rather go 
on with mv work; and it so hap- 
pened he had himself given me 
something to write out. 

As he was coming out of the 
house, he received a note from Rec- 
tina, the wife of Bassus, who was in 
the utmost alarm at the imminent 
danger which threatened her; for 
her \ ilia lying at the foot of Mount 
Vesuvius, there was no way of es- 
cape but bv sea; she earnestiv en- 
treated him therefore to come to 
her assistance. 

He accordinglv changed his 
first intention, and what he had be- 
gun from a philosophical, he now 
carries out in a noble and generous 
spirit. He ordered the gallevs to put 
to sea, and went himself on board 
with an intention of assisting not 
onlv Rectina, but the several other 
towns which lay thicklv strewn 
along that beautiful coast. 

Hastening then to the place 
from whence others fled with the 
utmost terror, he steered his course 
direct to the point of danger, and 
with so much calmness and pres- 
ence of mind as to be able to make 
and dictate his observations upon 
the motion and all the phenomena 
of that dreadful scene. He was now 
so close to the mountain that the 
cinders, which grew thicker and 
hotter the nearer he approached, 
fell into the ships together with 
pumice stones, and black pieces of 
burning rock: thev were in danger 
too not only of being aground bv 
the sudden retreat of the sea, but 
also from the vast fragments which 
rolled down from the mountain, 
and obstructed all the shore. 

Here he stopped to consider 
whether he should turn back again; 
to which the pilot advising him. 
Fortune,' said he. 'favors the 
brave: steer to where Pomponianus 
is." Pomponianus was then at 
Stabiae, separated bv a bav. which 
the sea, after several insensible 
windings, forms with the shore. He 
had alreadv sent his baggage on 

board: lor though he was not at that 
time in actual danger, vet being 
within sight of it, and indeed ex- 
tremely near, if it should in the 
least increase, he was determined to 
put to sea as soon as the wind, 
which was blowing dead in-shore, 
should go down. 

"It was favorable, however, for 
carrving mv uncle to Pomponianus, 
whom he found in the greatest con- 
sternation: he embraced him ten- 
derlv. encouraging and urging him 
to keep up his spirits, and. the more 
effectuallv to soothe his fears bv 
seeming unconcerned himself, or- 
dered a bath to be got readv, and 
then, after having bathed, sat down 
to supper with great cheerfulness, 
or at least (what is just as heroic) 
with everv appearance of it. Mean- 
while broad flames shone out in sev- 
eral places from Mount V esuvius, 
which the darkness of the night 
contributed to render still brighter 
and clearer. But mv uncle, in order 
to soothe the apprehensions of his 
friend, assured him it was onlv the 
burning of the villages, which the 
country people had abandoned to 
the flames: after this he retired to 
rest, and it is most certain he was so 
little disquieted as to fall into a 
sound sleep: for his breathing 
which, on account of his corpu- 
lence, was rather hea^'^' and sonorous, 
was heard bv the attendants. 

"The court which led to his 
apartment being now almost filled 
with stones and ashes, if he had 
continued there any time longer, it 
would have been impossible for him 
to have made his way out. So he 
was awoke and got up, and went to 
Pomponianus and the rest of his 
companv. who were feeling too anx- 
ious to think of going to bed. Thev 
consulted together whether it would 
be most prudent to tnist to the 
houses, which now rocked from 
side to side with frequent and vio- 
lent concussions as though shaken 
from their verv foundations; or fl\ 
to the open fields, where the cal- 
cined stones and cinders, though 
light indeed vet fell in lai-ge show- 
ers, and threatened destruction. In 
this choice of dangers thev resolved 
for the fields: a resolution which, 
while the rest of the companv were 
hurried into bv their fears, mv 
uncle embraced upon cool and de- 

liberate consideration. They went 
out then, having pillows tied upon 
their heads with napkins; and this 
was their whole defence against the 
storm of stones that fell around 

"It was now day everywhere 
else, but there a deeper darkness 
prevailed than in the thickest night; 
which however was in some degree 
alleviated by torches and other 
lights of various kinds. They 
thought proper to go farther down 
upon the shore to see if they might 
safely put out to sea, but found the 
waves still running extremely high 
and boisterous. 

"There my uncle, laying himself 
down upon a sail-cloth, which was 
spread for him, called twice for 
some cold water, which he drank, 
when immediately the flames, pre- 
ceded by a strong whiff of sulphur, 
dispersed the rest of the party, and 
obliged him to rise. He raised him- 
self up with the assistance of two of 
his servants, and instantly fell down 
dead; suffocated, as I conjecture, by 
some gross and noxious vapor, hav- 
ing always had a weak throat, 
which was often inflamed. As soon 
as it was light again, which was not 
till the third day after this melan- 
choly accident, his body was found 
entire, and without any marks of 
violence upon it, in the dress in 
which he fell, and looking more like 
a man asleep than dead." 

So died Pliny the Elder, natural 
historian of Rome. The concluding 
words to his epic study of nature 
serve as a fitting epitaph: 

"Hail, Nature, Mother of all 
creation, and mindful that 1 
alone of the men of Rome have 
praised thee in all thy manifesta- 
tions, be gracious unto me. ' 

Roman religious customs 

and art, combined in this 

statue of a vestal virgin 

at Ostia, were also topics of 

Pliny's voluminous works. 

Sky Rep>orter 

Mars Lives 

by John P. W^lley, Jr. 

Back before the turn of the centim', some out- 
standing physicists were conv-inced that their dis- 
cipline had been pretty well mined out; there was little 
left to do, they thought, but add a sixth decimal place 
to values that were alreadv known. Thev did not even 
dream of protons and electrons; thev had no glimpse 
of the power of understanding that quantum mechan- 
ics and relativity would bring. Thev did not know they 
were puttering in the dark just before a radiant dawn. 

As late as 1955. planetarv astronomers were in 
much the same position. Their work never actuallv 
stopped: ingenious manipulation of instruments and 
inspired guesses slowlv added to our store of kno%vl- 
edge about our neighbors in space. Most of the work 
was done by a small band of extraordinarilv patient 
observers, who spent hours peering through the eye- 
pieces of telescopes, waiting for those rare occasions 
when our swirling atmosphere stood still for a few sec- 
onds, revealing the planets in a claritv of detail never 
seen in photographs. Then the observer rapidlv 
sketched what he saw. slowlv building up a record of 
what the planet looked like and what changes, if anv, 
were taking place. Astronomers were prisoners under 
an ocean of turbulent air, and there seemed to be no 
way to climb to new plateaus of knowledge. 

Pickings were slim. Venus was nearbv and bright, 
but banks of clouds made the planet a blank disk. 
Mercurv was never far from the sun. and showed such 
faint markings that astronomers even assigned it an er- 
roneous rotation rate. Jupiter offered a nice, large disk, 
but the conspicuous belts had to be features of the at- 
mosphere rather than the surface: all astronomers 
could do was follow the development of disturbances 
and the fortunes of the tantalizing Great Red Spot. 
The rings made Saturn beautiful, but the planet itself 
looked much the same as Jupiter, onlv smaller. Uranus 
and Neptune were tinv. featureless disks at impossible 
distances, and mvsterious Pluto, not a proper outer 
planet at all, looked like a rather faint star. 

Mars was the onlv planet whose surface could be 
seen clearly. Dark markings were mapped. Seasonal 
changes took place: a wave of darkening spread from 
the shrinking polar cap toward the equator in which- 
ever hemisphere spring was occurring. Haze some- 
times obscured all or part of the visible disk; storms 
could be tracked across the face of the planet. 

Even Mars, howe\ er, did not reveal vers' much. It is 
onlv half the size of the earth, and most of the time is 
more than a hundred million miles away. At best, its 
disk is only 25 seconds of arc across: looking at it then 
is like looking at a dime a mile awav. At worst, when 
Mars is on the other side of the sun from us, its disk 
shrinks to just five seconds of arc. 

The astronomers did what thev could with what 

Dark splotches like these, not seen bv the 19( 
Mariner although large enough to be seen fro 
the earth, cover much of the Martian south 
temperate zone. The crater at center, with tht 
dark ring inside, is about 77 miles across. 

they had, and a standard picture of Mars emerged. 
They destroyed the vision of Percival Lowell, who 
dreamed of intelligent creatures living on the banks of 
an intricate canal system, and the fun of H. G. Wells, 
who had his Martian monsters invade the earth. The 
lonely planetologists reported a cold, waterless world 
with a tenuous atmosphere and few if anv of the re- 
quirements for terrestrial life. Thev called Mars a geo- 
logicallv dead world, just as thev had pronounced the 
moon to be dead. Thev ruled that nothing ever hap- 
pened there, no volcanoes, no earthquakes, nothing. 

In a wav. it might have been nice. We might have 
seen what a planet looks Hke when it first forms. If no 
geological processes had disturbed the surface of Mars, 
then it might have been a time machine, taking us 
back almost to the creation of the solar svstem. True, ^ 
the volatile gases, water, and a few other primordial 
constituents might be gone, but the surface of the 
planet would be the original surface, the "before" pic- 
ture of a planet. 

But phvsicists were destined to penetrate the atom, 
to calculate the curve of space, to create antimatter. A I 
whole new picture of the phvsical universe emerged. 
Now the planetarv astronomers are making the same 
quantum jump. Thev suddenlv have access to in- 
struments that not onlv have been lifted above the 
earth's atmosphere, but that have been carried to the 
celestial bodies thev want to studv. The small band has 
grown to an armv. And now our conceptions of the 

planets, especially of Mars, are changing almost daily. 

It now appears we will have to look elsewhere for a 
primordial planet surface. The question of whether 
any biological life has succeeded against Martian odds 
remains open, but Mars as a planet is very much alive. 
We found out in 1965, when our first probe returned 
17 pictures, that Mars is cratered like the moon. These 
could have been impact craters, however, which 
seemed especially likely on a planet so close to the as- 
teroid belt. We discovered in 1969, when our second 
probes provided 200 pictures, that parts of the surface 
are jumbled up. We still do not know what causes 
that. Now another Mariner is circling the planet, send- 
ing back thousands of pictures, and among students of 
Mars all hell is breaking loose. 

The rocketeers had their problems. One of the two 
Mariners launched last year got no farther than the At- 
lantic Ocean. When the successful one arrived after 
248 million miles and five and a half months, all of 
Mars was blanked out by the worst dust storm in 17 
years. The Soviets successfully dropped a television 
camera and scientific instruments to the planet's sur- 
face, only to hear the signals stop after 20 seconds, 
one of the all-time, great scientific disappointments. 

By January the storm subsided, and there was joy at 
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The pictures were clear 
(although the color system failed), and they revealed 
completely unexpected surface features, so unexpected 
that the reaction of some scientists was described as 
"outraged disbelief." 


. '^*^f.;/a^^•■ 
Pits and hollows pock the surface of Mars 
about 500 miles from its south pole. 
They could result from the thawing of 
ground ice or from wind action. The basins 
at left are about ten miles across; the 
smaller pits are one to two miles in diameter. 

Chasms range for miles across the Martian surface, 
some for hundreds of miles. They are complete with 
smaller tributary canyons, and look exactly like fea- 
tures carved by running water here on earth. The sci- 
entists' first reaction, however, is that they are the re- 
sult of cracking and sliding of the crust of the sort 
usually produced by earthquakes. Wind erosion has 
further modified them. Other features, clearly cracks 
in the surface, run for more than 1,000 miles. 

The surface is pocked in places with mysterious 
pits, not at all craterlike, ranging from a hundred 
miles across down to the smallest dimensions Mariner 
can photograph, about the size of Yankee Stadium. 
Other areas are dappled with equally mysterious 
"leopard spots," which change color from week to 
week and may be related to the waves of darkening 
that move across the planet in spring. Both of these 
phenomena could be nothing more than effects of the 
very high winds that apparently sweep the planet. 

Some of the craters are collapsing, creating con- 
centric rings of fractures in the surface, and appear to 
be the calderas of extinct volcanoes rather than the im- 
pact craters they had been assumed to be. 

Instruments aboard Mariner have detected "hot 
spots." places as much as 10 degrees warmer than the 
surrounding area, which may be the sites of geother- 
mal activity, possibly even active volcanoes. 

The Martian winds themselves must be phenome- 
nal. In November, when Mariner arrived, they were 
blowing hard enough to keep dust and sand suspended 
as much as 30 miles above the planet's surface. 
Known elevation differences of 40,000 feet and more 
could produce winds of up to 300 miles an hour, ac- 
cording to some estimates. 

As January drew to a close. Mariner gave every in- 
dication that it would continue its probe of Mars for at 
least the three months aimed at by the designers. The 
only safe prediction had to be that still more surprises 
were in store. Two Soviet spacecraft were also taking 
pictures from orbits around Mars, and while they were 
providing copies to U.S. space scientists, none had 
been released to the public. But it was already clear 
that Mars is a far more exciting place than anyone has 
thought since Lowell and Wells dreamed their dreams 
of the red planet. 

Physicists these days are happily boring into the ul- 
timate nature of matter from a hundred different new 
directions. Planetary astronomers, and whole hosts of 
new colleagues who call themselves things like as- 
trogeochemists, are now sitting under a doudburst ot 
information that will keep them busy for years: at lea,st 
the years until their instruments take the next quan- 
tum step and start reporting direitly from the sandy 
deserts of Mars. 


Celestial Events 

by Tlioiiias D. Nicholson 

After new moon on March 15, the moon enters the evening sky. It is 
at perigee (nearest earth) on the 16th, and from the 18th through the 
20th appears as a crescent in the western sky after sundown, passing 
near the planets Venus, Mars, and Saturn. First-quarter moon occurs on 
the 21st; full moon on the 29th. Last-quarter moon occurs on April 6; 
new moon in April is on the 13th. followed by perigee about 10 hours 
later on the 14th. 

Three planets dominate the evening sky through late March and early 
April. In mid-March. Venus, very brilliant, is well up in the southwest 
at sundown and remains visible for more than three hours. To the left 
and above, appearing later and much dimmer than Venus, you will find 
Mars and Saturn, both in Taurus, with Saturn the brighter of the two. 
Both Venus and Mars are moving rapidly east (left) each night, and by 
the end of March and through earlv April, thev will be quite close to 
one another, and will overtake and pass Saturn {see map below). Mer- 
cury, also an evening star in March, is in favorable position until about 
the 20th — low in the west after sundown. 

In the morning, vou will find Jupiter among the stars of Sagittarius in 
the southern sky. The planet rises a few hours past midnight and re- 
mains visible until dawn, when it will be low in the south. 

March 18: Venus and the moon are in conjunction. 

March 19: The moon is in conjunction with Mars and, eleven hours 
later, with Saturn. At sundown, the crescent moon will be nearest Sa- 
turn, with Mars and Venus to the right and lower. 

March 20: The sun arrives at the vernal equinox at 7:11 A.M., EST, 
and spring begins in the Northern Hemisphere. 

March 31: Mercurv. at inferior conjunction, enters the morning sky. 

April 1: Mars and Saturn are in conjunction. 

April 3: The waning gibbous moon is in conjunction with the star 
Antares, in Scorpius. The moon will be close to the star this morning 
and on the 4th. 

April 7: Venus is at greatest elongation in the evening sky, 46 de- 
grees to the left of the sun. 

April 8: Venus and Saturn are in conjunction early this morning. 

April 13-14: Greater than normal high tides can be expected from 
the perigee spring tide. 

* Hold the Star Map so the compass direction you face is at the bottom; then match 
the stars in the lower half of the map with those in the skv near the horizon. The map is 
for 10:25 P.M. on March 15; 9:20 P.M. on March 31; and 8:20 P.M. on April 15; but it 
can be used for about an hour before and after those times. 

Positions are shown for Venus, Mars, Saturn, and the crescent moon. 

\ Sn3Hd30 

.0^^^ •,•' 

«■"»"" -w. 

m, mpii*'" 


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tion be "What WAS ..." rather than "What 
IS a Cheetah?" But that could be the case 
vith cats and other species if the numerous 
activities of the East African Wild Life Society 
e to be curtailed for lack of funds. Cheetah, 
lion, leopard and other animals of the region 
if not protected, may take their place in the 
history books, alongside the Dodo, Just as 
dead, just as extinct. 

The East African Wildlife Society founded 
1 1961 is a non-profit, non governmental 
agency assisting the three East African repub- 
lics of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in the 
development of game conservation. The facts 
and figures of its performance may be seen 
in its numerous activities, such as pollution 
study, anti poaching work, research, educa- 
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period, accomplished and projected plans 
Qunt to $185,000.00. Membership and inte- 
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Address . 


Devils, Witches, and Sudden Death 

Continued from page 58 

(Tios of the mines), asking for their 


The female llama was the first to 
be sacrificed. She struggled and had 
to be held down by two men as they 
cut her jugular vein. When they 
disemboweled her, the men discov- 
ered that she was pregnant, to 
which they attributed the strength 
of her resistance. Her blood was 
caught in a white basin. 

When the heart of the dying 
llama had pumped out its blood, the 
yatiri made an incision and re- 
moved it, using both his hands, a 
sign of respect when receiving an 
offering. He put the still palpitating 
heart in the basin with the blood 
and covered it with a white cloth on 
which the miners placed k^oa — an 
offering made up of herbs, coca, 
wool, and sweets— and small bottles 
of alcohol and wine. 

The man in charge of the cere- 
mony went with five aides to the 
site of the principal Tio in the main 
corridor. There they removed a 
piece of ore from the image's left 
side, creating a hole into which they 
put the heart, the blood, and the 
other offerings. They stood in a 
circle, their heads bent, and asked 
for safety and that there be no more 
accidents. In low voices, they 
prayed in Quechua. 

When this commission returned, 
the yatiris proceeded to sacrifice 
the male llama, \gain they asked 
the Tio for life and good ore in all 
the levels of the mine, and that 
there be no accidents. They took 
the heart, blood, k'oa, and bottles 
of alcohol and wine to another iso- 
lated gallery and buried it for the 
Tio in a place that would not be dis- 
turbed. There they prayed, "filled 
with faith," as one commented; 
then returned to the place of the 
sacrifice. The yatiris sprinkled the 
remaining blood on the veins of 

By their absorption and fervid 
murmuring of prayers, both young 
and old miners revealed the same 
faith and devotion. Many of them 
wept, thinking of the accident and 
their dead companions. During the 
ritual drinking was forbidden. 

On the following day those men 
charged with responsibility for the 
ritual came to prepare the meat. 
They brought the two carcasses to 
the baker, who seasoned them and 

cooked them in large ovens. The 
men returned at about 1:15 P.M. to 
distribute the meat. With the meat, 
they served chicha. Some sprinkled 
chicha on the ground for the Pach- 
amama, saying "Hallalla," before 

The bones were burned to ashes, 
which were then offered to the Tio. 
The mine entrance was locked shut-^i 
and left undisturbed for 24 hours. 
Some remarked that it should be 
closed for three days, but the com- 
pany did not want to lose that much - 

During the k'araku the miners 
recognize the Tio as the true owner 
of the mine. "All the mineral that 
comes out from the interior of the * 
mine is the 'crop' of the devil and 
whether one likes it or not, we have 
to invite the Tio to drink and eat so 
that the flow of metal will con- 
tinue," said a young miner who 
studied evenings at the University 
of Oruro. 

All the workers felt that the fail- 
ure of the administrators to come to 
the k 'araku indicated not only their 
lack of concern with the lives of the 
men but also their disregard of the 
need to raise productivity in the 

When the Tio appears uninvited, 
the miners fear that they have only 
a short time to live. Miners who 
have seen apparitions say the Tio 
looks Like a gringo— tall, red-faced, 
with fair hair and beard, and wear- 
ing a cowboy hat. This description, 
hardly resembles the images sculp- 
tured by the miners, but it does fit 
the foreign technicians and admin- 
istrators who administered the 
mines in the time of the tin barons. 
To the Indian workers, drawn from 
the highland and Cochabamba 
farming areas, the Tio is a strange 
and exotic figure, ruthless, glutton- 
ous, powerful, and arbitrary in his 
use of that power, but nonetheless 
attractive, someone to get close to 
in order to share that power. I was 
beginning to wonder if the reason I 
was accepted with such good humor 
by the miners, despite their rule 
against women in the mines, was • 
because they thought I shared some \ 
of these characteristics and was a 
match for the devil. 

Sickness or death in the family can 
force a man in desperation to make a 
contract with the devil. If his com- 


panions become aware of it, the con- 
tract is destroyed and with it his life. 

The miners feel that they need 
the protection of a group when they 
confront the Tic. In the ch'alla and 
the k 'araku thev convert the power 
of the Tio into socially useful pro- 
duction. In effect, the rituals are 
ways of getting the genie back into 
the bottle after he has done his mir- 
acles. Security of the group then de- 
pends upon respect toward the sac- 
rificial offering, as shown by the 
following incident told me by the 
head of a work gang after the 
k 'araku: 

"I know of a man who had a vein 
of ore near where the bones of the 
sacrificial llama were buried. With- 
out advising me, he made a hole with 
his drill and put the dynamite in. He 
knew very well that the bones were 
there. On the following day, it cost 
him his life. While he was drilling, a 
stone fell and cut his head off. 

"We had to change the bones with 
a ceremony. We brought in a good 
shaman who charged us B$500 
[about $40], we hired the best or- 
chestra, and we sang and danced in 
the new location where we laid the 
bones. We did not work in that corri- 
dor for three days, and we spent all 
the time in the ch'alla." 

Often the miners are frightened 
nearly to death in the mine. A rock 
falls on the spot they have just left, 
a man falls in a shaft and is saved 
by hitting soft clay at the bottom, a 
tunnel caves in the moment after a 
man leaves it— these are incidents 
in a day's work that I have heard 
men sav can start a haperk'a, or 
fear, that can take their lives. 

A shaman may have to be called 
in to bring back the spirit that the 
Tio has seized. In one curing, a 
frightened miner was told to wear 
the clothing he had on when the Tio 
seized his spirit and to enter and 
' give a service to the Tio at the same 
spot where he was frightened. The 
shaman himself asked the Tio to 
cure his patient, flattering him, 
"Now you have shown your power, 
give back his spirit." 

The fear may result in sexual im- 
potency. At one of the mines, Siglo 
XX, when there is full production, 
a dynamite blast goes off every five 
minutes in a section called Block 
Haven. The air is filled with smoke 
and the miners describe it as an in- 
ferno. Working under such tension, 
a shattering blast may unnerve 

them. Some react with an erection, 
followed by sexual debilitation. 
Mad with rage and feai\ some min- 
ers have been known to seize a 
knife, the same knife they use to 
cut the dvnamite leads, and castrate 
themselves. Wlien I visited Block 
Haven, I noticed that the Tio on 
this level had a huge erection, about 
a foot long on a man-sized figure. 
The workers said that when they 
find themselves in a state of impo- 
tency they go to the Tio for help. 
By exemplifying what thev want in 
the Tio, they seek to repair the psy- 
chic damage caused by fear. 

After feasting on the meat of the 
llamas and listening to stories of the 
Tio, I left the mine. The men thanked 
me for coming. I could not express 
the gratitude I felt for restoring my 
confidence in continuing the study. 

Shortly thereafter I met Lino 
Pino returning from a fiesta for a 
miraculous saint in a nearby village. 
He asked me if I would be madrina 
at his daughter's forthcoming con- 
firmation, and when I agreed, his 
wife offered me a tin cup with the 
delicious cocktail she always pre- 
pares for her husband on the days 
of the ch'alla. and we all had a 
round of drinks. 

Later, when I knelt at the altar 
rail with Lino and his daughter as 
we received the wafer and the wine, 
flesh and blood of another sacrifice 
victim, I sensed the unity in the 
miners' beliefs. The miraculous Vir- 
gin looked down on us from her 
marbelized, neon-lit niche, her jew- 
elled finger held out in benediction. 
She was adequate for that scene, 
but in the mine they needed some- 
one who could respond to their 
needs on the job. 

In the rituals of the c/s'a//a and the 
k 'araku the power of the Tio to de- 
stroy is transformed into the socially 
useful functions of increasing min- 
eral yield and giving peace of mind to 
the workers. Confronted alone, the 
Tio, like Banquo's ghost, makes a 
man unable to produce or even to go 
on living. Properly controlled by the 
group, the Tio promises fertility, po- 
tency, and productivity to the min- 
ers. Robbed of this faith, thev often 
lose the faith to continue drilUng af- 
ter repeated failure to find a vein, or 
to continue living when the rewards 
of work are so meager. Knowing that 
the devil is on your side makes it |ios- 
sime to continue working in the hell 
that is the mines. ■ 

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The Elephant Man 

Continued from page 31 

These tales were verv real to him, 
as real as any narrative in the Bible. 
so that he woulti tell them to me as 
incidents in the lives of people who 
had hved. In his outlook upon the 
world he was a child, yet a child 
with some of the tempestuous feel- 
ings of a man. He was an elemental 
being, so primitive that he might 
have spent the twenty-three years of 
his hfe immured in a cave. 

Of his early days I could learn 
but little. He was very loath to talk 
about the past. It was a nightmare, 
the shudder of which was still upon 
him. He was born, he believed, in 
or about Leicester. Of his father he 
knew absolutely nothing. Of his 
mother he had some memorv. It 
was very faint and had, I think, 
been elaborated in his mind into 
something definite. Mothers figured 
in the tales he had read, and he 
wanted his mother to be one of 
those comfortable lullaby-singing 
persons who are so lovable. In his 
subconscious mind there was appar- 
ently a germ of recollection in 
which someone figured who had 
been kind to him. He clung to this 
conception and made it more real 
by invention, for since the day 
when he could toddle no one had 
been kind to him. As an infant he 
must have been repellent, although 
his deformities did not become 
gross until he had attained his full 

It was a favorite belief of his that 
his mother was beautiful. The fic- 
tion was, I am aware, one of his 
own making, but it was a great joy 
to him. His mother, lovelv as she 
may have been, baselv deserted him 
when he was very small, so small 
that his earliest clear memories 
were of the workhouse to which he 
had been taken. Worthless and in- 
human as this mother was, he spoke 
of her with pride and even with 
reverence. Once, when referring to 
his own appearance, he said: "It is 
very strange, for, you see, mother 
was so beautiful." 

The rest of Merrick's life up to 
the time that I met him at Liverpool 
Street Station was one dull record 
of degradation and squalor. He was 
dragged from town to town and 
from fair to fair as if he were a 
strange beast in a cage. A dozen 
times a day he would have to ex- 

pose his nakedness and his piteous 
deformities before a gaping crowd 
who greeted him with such mutter- 
ings as "Oh! what a horror! What a 
beast!" He had had no childhood. 
He had had no boyhood. He had 
never experienced pleasure. He 
knew nothing of the joy of living 
nor of the fun of things. His sole 
idea of happiness was to creep into 
the dark and hide. Shut up alone in 
a booth, awaiting the next exhibi- ^ 
tion, how mocking must have 
sounded the laughter and merri- 
ment of the boys and girls outside 
who were enjoying the "fun of the 
fair!" He haiJ no past to look back 
upon and no future to look forward 
to. At the age of twenty he was a 
creature without hope. There was 
nothing in front of him but a vista 
of caravans creeping along a road, 
of rows of glaring show tents and of 
circles of staring eyes with, at the 
end, the spectacle of a broken man 
in a poor law infirmary. 

Those who are interested in the 
evolution of character might specu- 
late as to the effect of this brutish 
life upon a sensitive and intelligent 
man. It would be reasonable to sur- 
mise that he would become a spite- 
ful and malignant misanthrope, 
swollen with venom and filled with 
hatred of his fellow-men, or, on the 
other hand, that he would degen- 
erate into a despairing melancholic 
on the verge of idiocy. Merrick, 
however, was no such being. He 
had passed through the fire and had 
come out unscathed. His troubles 
had ennobled him. He showed him- 
self to be a gentle, affectionate and 
lovable creature, as amiable as a 
happy woman, free from any trace 
of cynicism or resentment, without 
a grievance and without an unkind 
word for anyone. I have never 
heard him complain. I have never 
heard him deplore his ruined hfe or 
resent the treatment he had re- ' 
ceived at the hands of callous 
keepers. His journey through life 
had been indeed along a via dolo- 
rosa, the road had been uphill all 
the way, and now, when the night 
was at its blackest and the way most 
steep, he had suddenly found him- 
self, as it were, in a friendly inn, 
bright with light and warm with 
welcome. His gratitude to those 
about him was pathetic in its sincer- 
ity and eloquent in the childlike 
simplicity with which it was ex- 

As I learned more of this primi- 
tive creature I found that there 
were two anxieties which were 
prominent in his mind and which 
he revealed to me with diffidence. 
He was in the occupation of the 
rooms assigned to him and had 
been assured that he would be 
cared for to the end of his days. 
This, however, he found hard to re- 
alize, for he often asked me timidly 
to what place he would next be 
moved. To understand his attitude 
it is necessary to remember that he 
had been moving on and moving on 
all his life. He knew no other state 
of existence. To him it was normal. 
He had passed from the workhouse 
to the hospital, from the hospital 
back to the workhouse, then from 
this town to that town or from one 
showman's caravan to another. He 
had never known a home nor any 
semblance of one. He had no pos- 
sessions. His sole belongings, be- 
sides his clothes and some books, 
were the monstrous cap and the 
cloak. He was a wanderer, a pariah 
and an outcast. That his cpiarters at 
the hospital were his for life he 
could not understand. He could not 
rid his mind of the anxiety which 
had pursued him for so many 
years— where am I to be taken next? 
Another trouble was his dread of 
his fellow-men, his fear of people's 
eyes, the dread of being always 
steired at, the lash of the cruel mut- 
terings of the crowd. In his home in 
Bedstead Square he was secluded; 
but now and then a thoughtless por- 
ter or a wardmaid would open his 
door to let curious friends have a 
peep at the Elephant Man. It there- 
fore seemed to him as if the gaze of 
the world followed him still. 

Influenced by these two obses- 
sions he became, during his first 
few weeks at the hospital, curiously 
uneasy. At last, with much hesita- 
tion, he said to me one day: "When 
I am next moved can I go to a blind 
asylum or to a lighthouse?" He had 
read about blind asylums in the 
newspapers and was attracted by 
the thought of being among people 
who could not see. The lighthouse 
had another charm. It meant seclu- 
sion from the curious. There at least 
no one could open a door and peep 
in at him. There he would forget 
that he had once been the Elephant 
Man. There he would escape the 
vampire showman. He had never 
seen a lighthouse, but he had come 

upon a picture of the Eddystone, 
and it appeared to him that this 
lonely column of stone in the waste 
of the sea was such a home as he 
had longed for. 

I had no great difficulty in rid- 
ding Merrick's mind of these ideas. 
I wanted him to get accustomed to 
his fellow-men, to become a human 
being himself and to be admitted to 
the communion of his kind. He ap- 
peared day by day less frightened, 
less haunted looking, less anxious 
to hide, less alarmed when he saw 
his door being opened. He got to 
know most of the people about the 
place, to be accustomed to their 
comings and goings, and to realize 
that they took no more than a 
friendly notice of him. He could 
only go out after dark, and on fine 
nights ventured to take a walk in 
Bedstead Square clad in his black 
cloak and his cap. His greatest ad- 
venture was on one moonless eve- 
ning when he walked alone as far as 
the hospital garden and back again. 
To secure Merrick's recovery 
and to bring him, as it were, to life 
once more, it was necessary that he 
should make the acquaintance of 
men and women who would treat 
him as a normal and intelligent 
young man and not as a monster of 
deformity. Women I felt to be more 
important than men in bringing 
about his transformation. Women 
were the more frightened of him, 
the more disgusted at his appear- 
ance and the more apt to give way 
to irrepressible expressions of aver- 
sion when they came into his pres- 
ence. Moreover, Merrick had an ad- 
miration of women of such a kind 
that it attained almost to adoration. 
This was not the outcome of his 
personal experience. They were not 
real women but the products of his 
imagination. Among them was the 
beautiful mother surrounded, at a 
respectful distance, by heroines 
from the many romances he had 

His first entry to the hospital was 
attended by a regrettable incident. 
He had been placed on the bed in 
the little attic, and a nurse had been 
instructed to bring him some food. 
Unfortunately she had not been 
fully informed of Merrick's unusual 
appearance. As she entered the 
room she saw on the bed, propped 
up by white pillows, a monstrous 
figure as hideous as an Indian idol. 
She at once dropped the tray she 

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was carrying and fled, with a 
shriek, through the door. Merrick 
was too weak to notice much, but 
the experience, I am afraid, was not 
new to him. 

He was looked after by volunteer 
nurses whose ministrations were 
somewhat formal and constrained. 
Merrick, no doubt, was conscious 
that their service was purely offi- 
cial, that they were merely doing 
what they were told to do and that 
they were acting rather as automata 
than as women. They did not help 
him to feel that he was of their 
kind. On the contrary, they, with- 
out knowing it, made him aware 
that the gulf of separation was im- 

Feeling this, I asked a friend of 
mine, a young and pretty widow, if 
she thought she could enter Mer- 
rick's room with a smile, wish him 
good morning and shake him by the 
hand. She said she could and she 
did. The effect upon poor Merrick 
was not quite what I had expected. 
As he let go her hand he bent his 
head on his knees and sobbed until 
I thought he would never cease. 
The interview was over. He told me 
afterwards that this was the first 
woman who had ever smiled at him, 
and the first woman, in the whole of 
his life, who had shaken hands with 
him. From this day the transforma- 
tion of Merrick commenced and he 
began to change, little by little, 
from a hunted thing into a man. It 
was a wonderful change to witness 
and one that never ceased to fasci- 
nate me. 

Merrick's case attracted much at- 
tention in the papers, with the re- 
sult that he had a constant succes- 
sion of visitors. Everybody wanted 
to see him. He must have been vis- 
ited by almost every lady of note in 
the social world. They were all good 
enough to welcome him with a 
smile and to shake hands with him. 
The Merrick whom I had found 
shivering behind a rag of a curtain 
in an empty shop was now conver- 
sant with duchesses and countesses 
and other ladies of high degree. 
They brought him presents, made 
his room bright with ornaments and 
pictures, and, what pleased him 
more than all, supplied him with 
books. He soon had a large library 
and most of his day was spent in 
reading. He was not the least 
spoiled; not the least puffed up; he 
never asked for anything; never 

presumed upon the kindness meted 
out to him and was always humbly 
and profoundly grateful. Above all 
he lost his shyness. He liked to see 
his door pushed open and people to 
look in. He became acquainted with 
most of the frequenters of Bedstead 
Square, would chat with them at his 
window and show them some of his 
choicest presents. He improved in 
his speech, although to the end his 
utterances were not easy for stran- 
gers to understand. He was begin- 
ning, moreover, to be less conscious 
of his unsightliness, a httle disposed 
to think it was after all, not so very 
extreme. Possibly this was aided by' 
the circumstance that I would not 
allow a mirror of any kind in his 

The height of his social devel- , 
oprnent was reached on an eventful 
day when Queen Alexandra— then 
Princess of Wales— came to the hos- 
pital to pay him a special visit. 
With that kindness which marked 
every act of her life, the Queen en- 
tered Merrick's room smiling and 
shook him warmly by the hand. 
Merrick was transported with 
dehght. This was beyond even his 
most extravagant dream. The 
Queen made many people happy, 
but I think no gracious act of hers 
ever caused such happiness as she 
brought into Merrick's room when 
she sat by his chair and talked to 
him as to a person she was glad to 

Merrick, I may say, was now one 
of the most contented creatures I 
have chanced to meet. More than 
once he said to me: "I am happy ev- 
ery hour of the day." This was good 
to think upon when I recalled the 
half-dead heap of miserable human- 
ity I had seen in the corner of the 
waiting-room at Liverpool Street. 
Most men of Merrick's age would 
have expressed their joy and sense 
of contentment by singing or whis- ^ 
tling when they were alone. Unfor- . 
tunately poor Merrick's mouth was 
so deformed that he could neither 
whistle nor sing. He was satisfied to 
express himself by beating time 
upon the pillow to some tune that 
was ringing in his head. I have 
many times found him so occupied 
when I have entered his room unex- 
pectedly. One thing that always 
struck me as sad about Merrick was 
the fact that he could not smile. 
Whatever his delight might be, his 
face remained expressionless. He 

could weep but he could not smile. 

The Queen paid Merrick many 
visits and sent him every year a 
Christmas card with a message in 
her own handwriting. On one occa- 
sion she sent him a signed photo- 
graph of herself. Merrick, quite 
overcome, regarded it as a sacred 
object and would hardly allow me 
to touch it. He cried over it, and af- 
ter it was framed had it put up in 
his room as a kind of ikon. I told 
him that he must write to Her 
Royal Highness to thank her for her 
goodness. This he was pleased to 
do, as he was very fond of writing 
letters, never before in his life hav- 
ing had anyone to write to. I al- 
lowed the letter to be dispatched 
unedited. It began "My dear Prin- 
cess" and ended "Yours very sin- 
cerely." Unorthodox as it was it 
was expressed in terms any courtier 
would have envied. 

Other ladies followed the 
Queen's gracious example and sent 
their photographs to this delighted 
creature who had been all his life 
despised and rejected of men. His 
mantelpiece and table became so 
covered with photographs of hand- 
some ladies, with dainty knick- 
knacks and pretty trifles that they 
may almost have befitted the apart- 
ment of an Adonis-like actor or of a 
famous tenor. 

Through all these bewildering in- 
cidents and through the glamour of 
this great change Merrick still re- 
mained in many ways a mere child. 
He had all the invention of an imagi- 
native boy or girl, the same love of 
"make-beheve," the same instinct 
of "dressing up" and of personating 
heroic and impressive characters. 
This attitude of mind was illustrated 
by the following incident. Benevo- 
lent visitors had given me, from 
time to time, sums of money to be 
expended for the comfort of the ci- 
devant Elephant Man. When one 
Christmas was approaching I asked 
Merrick what he would hke me to 
purchase as a Christmas present. He 
rather startled me by saying shyly 
that he would like a dressing-bag 
with silver fittings. He had seen a 
picture of such an article in an ad- 
vertisement which he had furtively 

The association of a silver-fitted 
dressing-bag with the poor wretch 
wrapped up in a dirty blanket in an 
empty shop was hard to com- 
prehend. I fathomed the mystery in 

time, for Merrick made little secret 
of the fancies that haunted his boy- 
ish brain. Just as a small girl with a 
tinsel coronet and a window curtain 
for a train will realize the con- 
ception of a countess on her way to 
court, so Merrick loved to imagine 
himself a dandy and a young man 
about town. Mentally, no doubt, he 
had frequently "dressed up" for the 
part. He could "make-believe" with 
great effect, but he wanted some- 
thing to render his fancied charac- 
ter more realistic. Hence the jaunty 
bag which was to assume the func- 
tion of the toy coronet and the win- 
dow curtain that could transform a 
mite with a pigtail into a countess. 

As a theatrical "property" the 
dressing-bag was ingenious, since 
there was little else to give sub- 
stance to the transformation. Mer- 
rick could, not wear the silk hat of 
the dandy nor, indeed, any kind of 
hat. He could not adapt his body to 
the trimly cut coat. His deformity 
was such that he could wear neither 
collar nor tie, while in association 
with his bulbous feet the voung 
blood's patent leather shoe was un- 
thinkable. What was there left to 
make up the character? A lady had 
given him a ring to wear on his un- 
deformed hand, and a noble lord 
had presented him with a very styl- 
ish walking-stick. But these things, 
helpful as they were, were hardly 

The dressing-bag, however, was 
distinctive, was explanatory and en- 
tirely characteristic. So the bag was 
obtained and Merrick the Elephant 
Man became, in the seclusion of his 
chamber, the Piccadilly exquisite, 
the young spark, the gallant, the 
"nut." When I purchased the ar- 
ticle I realized that as Merrick 
could never travel he could hardly 
want a dressing-bag. He could not 
use the silver-backed brushes and 
the comb because he had no hair to 
brush. The ivory-handled razors 
were useless because he could not 
shave. The deformity of his mouth 
rendered an ordinary toothbrush of 
no avail, and as his monstrous lips 
could not hold a cigarette the ciga- 
rette-case was a mockery. The silver 
shoe-horn would be of no service in 
the putting on of his ungainly slip- 
pers, while the hat-brush was quite 
unsuited to the peaked cap with its 

Still the bag was an emblem of 
the real swell and of the knock- 



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about Don Juan of whom he had 
read. So every day Merrick laid out 
upon his table, with proud pre- 
cision, the silver brushes, the ra- 
zors, the shoe-horn and the silver 
cigarette-case, which I had taken 
care to fill with cigarettes. The con- 
templation of these gave him great 
pleasure, and such is the power of 
self-deception that they convinced 
him he was the "real thing." 

I think there was just one 
shadow in Merrick's life. As I have 
already said, he had a lively imagi- 
nation; he was romantic; he 
cherished an emotional regard for 
women and his favorite pursuit was 
the reading of love stories. He fell 
in love— in a humble and devotional 
way— with. I think, every attractive 
lady he saw. He, no doubt pictured 
himself the hero of many a passion- 
ate incident. His bodily deformity 
had left unmarred the instincts and 
feelings of his years. He was 
amorous. He would like to have 
been a lover, to have walked with 
the beloved object in the langorous 
shades of some beautiful garden and 
to have poured into her ear all the 
glowing utterances that he had re- 
hearsed in his heart. And yet— the 
pity of it!— imagine the feelings of 
such a youth when he saw nothing 
but a look of horror creep over the 
face of every girl whose eyes met 
his. I fancy when he talked of life 
among the blind there was a half- 
formed idea in his mind that he 
might be able to win the affection of 
a woman if only she were without 
eyes to see. 

As Merrick developed he began 
to display certain modest ambitions 
in the direction of improving his 
mind and enlarging his knowledge 
of the world. He was as curious as a 
child and as eager to learn. There 
were so many things he wanted to 
know and to see. In the first place 
he was anxious to view the interior 
of what he called "a real house," 
such a house as figured in many of 
the tales he knew, a house with a 
hall, a drawing-room where guests 
were received and a dining-room 
with plates on the sideboard and 
with easy chairs into which the hero 
could "fling himself." The work- 
house, the common lodging-house 
and a variety of mean garrets were 
all the residences he knew. To sat- 
isfy this wish I drove him up to my 
small house in Wimpole Street. He 
was absurdly interested, and exam- 



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ined everything in detail and with 
untiring curiosity. I could not show 
him the pampered menials and the 
powdered footmen of whom he had 
read, nor could I produce the white 
marble staircase of the mansion of 
romance nor the gilded mirrors and 
the brocaded divans which belong 
to that style of residence. I ex- 
plained that the house was a modest 
dwelling of the Jane Austen type, 
and as he had read Emma he was 

A more burning ambition of his 
was to go to the theatre. It was a 
project very difficult to satisfy. A 
popular pantomime was then in 
progress at Drury Lane Theatre, but 
the problem was how so con- 
spicuous a being as the Elephant 
Man could be got there, and how he 
was to see the performance without 
attracting the notice of the audience 
and causing a panic or, at least, an 
unpleasant diversion. The whole 
matter was most ingeniously carried 
through by that kindest of women 
and most able of actresses— Mrs. 
Kendal. She made the necessary ar- 
rangements with the lessee of the 

theatre. A box was obtained. Mer- 
rick was brought up in a carriage 
with drawn blinds and was allowed 
to make use of the royal entrance so 
as to reach the box by a private 
stair. I had begged three of the hos- 
pital sisters to don evening dress 
and to sit in the front row in order 
to "dress" the box, on the one 
hand, and to form a screen for Mer- 
rick on the other. Merrick and I oc- 
cupied the back of the box which 
was kept in shadow. All went well, 
and no one saw a figure, more mon- 
strous than any on the stage, mount 
the staircase or cross the corridor. 
One has often witnessed the un- 
constrained delight of a child at its 
first pantomime, but Merrick's rap- 
ture was much more intense as well 
as much more solemn. Here was a 
being with the brain of a man, the 
fancies of a youth and the imagina- 
tion of a child. His attitude was not 
so much that of delight as of won- 
der and amazement. He was awed. 
He was enthralled. The spectacle 
left him speechless, so that if he 
were spoken to he took no heed. He 
often seemed to be panting for 

breath. I could not help comparing 
him with a man of his own age in 
the stalls. This satiated individual 
was bored to distraction, would 
look wearily at the stage from time 
to time and then yawn as if he had 
not slept for nights; while at the 
same time Merrick was thrilled by a 
vision that was almost beyond his 
comprehension. Merrick talked of 
this pantomime for weeks and 
weeks. To him, as to a child with 
the faculty of make-believe, every- 
thing was real; the palace was the 
home of kings, the princess was of 
royal blood, the fairies were as un- 
doubted as the children in the 
street, while the dishes at the ban- 
quet were of unquestionable gold. 
He did not like to discuss it as a 
play but rather as a vision of some 
actual world. Wlien this mood pos- 
sessed him he would say: "I wonder 
what the prince did after we left?" 
or "Do you think that poor man is 
still in the dungeon?" and so on 
and so on. 

The splendor and display im- 
pressed him, but, I think, the ladies 
of the ballet took a still greater hold 

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upon his fancy. He did not like the 
Ogres and the giants, while the 
funny men impressed him as irrev- 
erent. Having no experience as a 
boy of romping and ragging, of 
practical jokes or of "larks," he had 
little sympathy %vith the doings of 
the clown, but, I think (moved bv 
some mischievous instinct in his 
subconscious mind), he was pleased 
when the policeman was smacked 
in the face, knocked down and gen- 
erally rendered undignified. 

Later on another longing stirred 
the depths of Merrick's mind. It 
was a desire to see the country, a 
desire to live in some green se- 
cluded spot and there learn some- 
thing about flowers and the ways of 
animals and birds. The country as 
viewed from a wagon on a dusty 
high road was all the country he 
knew. He had never wandered 
among the fields nor followed the 
windings of a wood. He had never 
climbed to the brow of a breezy 
down. He had never gathered flow- 
ers in a meadow. Since so much of 
his reading dealt with country life 
he was possessed by the wish to see 
the wonders of that hfe himself. 

This involved a difliculty greater 
than that presented by a visit to the 
theatre. The project was, however, 
made possible on this occasion also 
by the kindness and generosity of a 
lady— Lady Knightlev— who offered 
Merrick a holiday home in a cottage 
on her estate. Merrick was con- 
veyed to the railway station in the 
usual way, but as he could hardly 
venture to appear on the platform 
the railway authorities were good 
enough to run a second-class car- 
riage into a distant siding. To this 
point Merrick was driven and was 
placed in the carriage unobserved. 
The carriage, with the curtains 
drawn, was then attached to the 
mainline train. 

He duly arrived at the cottage, 
but the housewife (like the nurse at 
the hospital) had not been made 
clearly aware of the unfortunate 
man's appearance. Thus it hap- 
pened that when Merrick presented 
himself, his hostess, throwing her 
apron over her head, fled, gasping, 
to the fields. She affirmed that such 
a guest was beyond her powers of 
endurance for, when she saw him. 
she was "that took" as to be in dan- 
ger of being permanently "all of a 

Merrick was then conveyed to a 

gamekeeper's cottage which was 
hidden from view and was close to 
the margin of a wood. The man and 
his wife were able to tolerate his 
presence. They treated him with the 
greatest kindness, and with them he 
spent the one supreme holiday of 
his life. He could roam where he 
pleased. He met no one on his wan- 
derings, for the wood was preserved 
and denied to all but the game- 
keeper and the forester. 

There is no doubt that Merrick 
passed in this retreat the happiest 
time he had as yet experienced. He 
was alone in a land of wonders. The 
breath of the countr)' passed over 
him like a healing wind. Into the si- 
lence of the wood the fearsome 
voice of the showman could never 
penetrate. No cruel eyes could peep 
at him through the friendly under- 
growth. It seemed as if in this place 
of peace all stain had been wiped 
away from his sullied past. The 
Merrick who had once crouched 
terrified in the filthy shadows of a 
Mile End shop was now sitting in 
the sun, in a clearing among the 
trees, arranging a bunch of violets 
he had gathered. 

His letters to me were the letters 
of a delighted and enthusiastic 
child. He gave an account of his triv- 
ial adventures, of the amazing 
things he had seen, and of the 
beautiful sounds he had heard. He 
had met with strange birds, had 
startled a hare from her form, had 
made friends with a fierce dog, and 
had watched the trout darting in a 
stream. He sent me some of the 
wild flowers he had picked. They 
were of the commonest and most fa- 
miliar kind, but they were evidently 
regarded by him as rare and pre- 
cious specimens. 

He came back to London, to his 
quarters in Bedstead Square, much 
improved in health, pleased to be 
"home" again and to be once more ' 
among his books, his treasures and 
his many friends. 

Some six months after Merrick's 
return from the country he was 
found dead in bed. This was in 
April 1890. He was lying on his 
back as if asleep, and had evidently 
died suddenly and without a 
struggle, since not even the coverlet 
of the bed was disturbed. The 
method of his death was peculiar. 
So large and so heavy was his head 
that he could not sleep lying down. 
When he assumed the recumbent 


position the massive skull was in- 
clined to drop backwards, with the 
result that he experienced no little 
distress. The attitude he was com- 
pelled to assume when he slept was 
very strange. He sat up in bed with 
his back supported bv pillows; his 
knees were drawn up, and his arms 
clasped round his legs, while his 
head rested on the points of his 
bent knees. 

He often said to me that he 
wished he could lie down to sleep 
"like other people." I think on this 
last night he must, with some deter- 
j mination. have made the experi- 
' ment. The pillow was soft, and the 
head, when placed on it, must have 
fallen backwards and caused a dis- 
location of the neck. Thus it came 
about that his death was due to the 
desire that had dominated his life— 
' the pathetic but hopeless desire to 
be "like other people." 

As a specimen of humanity, Mer- 
rick was ignoble and repulsive: but 
the spirit of Merrick, if it could be 
seen in the form of the living, 
would assume the figure of an up- 
standing and heroic man, smooth 
browed and clean of limb, and with 
eyes that flashed undaunted cour- 

His tortured journev had come to 
an end. All the wav he. like an- 
other, had borne on his back a bur- 
den almost too grievous to bear. He 
had been plunged into the Slough 
of Despond, but with manly steps 
had gained the farther shore. He 
had been made "a spectacle to all 
men" in the heartless streets of 
Vanity Fair. He had been ill-treated 
and reviled and bespattered with 
the mud of Disdain. He had es- 
caped the clutches of the Giant De- 
spair, and at last had reached the 
"Place of Deliverance," where "his 
burden loosed from off his shoul- 
ders and fell from off his back, so 
that he saw it no more." 


The disorder from which John 
Merrick suffered is neurofibroma- 
tosis, or von Recklinghausen's dis- 
ease. A spontaneous mutation in 
about 1 out of 3,000 births, it is 
due to a proliferation of cells in the 
delicate connective tissue surround- 
ing nerves. In most cases the dis- 
order is limited to nerves in the 
skin, but in Merrick's case the 

nerves in his bones were also af- 
fected, with the most monstrouslv 
deforming consequences. As far as I 
have been able to determine, Mer- 
rick's affliction was the worst case 
ever recorded. The disorder is usu- 
ally not fatal, but there is no known 
cure for it. 

It is not Merrick's phvsical dis- 
order that is so much of interest to 
us as his personalitv. According to 
some psychologists, the unspeak- 
able torment Merrick suffered for 
the greater part of his short life 
should have turned him into a mis- 
anthrope, full of hostilities and frus- 
trations, with nothing but loathing 
and hatred for his exploiters. In- 
stead. Merrick turned out to be a 
gentle, kindly, sensitive creature. 
He never uttered an unkind word 
about anv of his former "impre- 
sarios." And he became a well-read, 
intelligent romantic who, in his 
newfound paradise, was happy ev- 
ery hour of the day. 

His story is one of the most poign- 
ant in the annals of human experi- 
ence. How could a creature so af- 
flicted and so maltreated have de- 
veloped into the kind of human 
being he became? Anv answer can 
only be conjectural. My own view is 
that during his first three or four 
years he probablv received a great 
deal of love from his mother, and 
that this love gave him the strength 
and the resolution to survive and 
overcome all the misery and 
wretchedness of his life. What his 
rescuer, Frederick Treves, some- 
how failed to mention is that Mer- 
rick alwavs carried a small portrait 
painting of his mother with him. He 
must have remembered his mother 
and her love for him. Merrick's life 
is both a triumph of the human 
spirit and a testimony to the power 
of human love. 

Frederick Treves, who became 
Merrick's guai'dian angel, went on 
to become England's leading sur- 
geon and a distinguished teacher. 
He removed Edward VII's appen- 
dix the day before the prince was 
crowned king of England in .Janu- 
ary, 1902. 

John Merrick died in 1890 at the 
age of 27. In February, 1923, ten 
months before he died at the age of 
70, Frederick Treves's book. The 
Elephant Man and Other Reminis- 
cences, appeared. At that time I 
first read the title story, here re- 
printed. * 

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AttitLides on Acupuncture 

Continued from page 16 


They of course experience pain af- 
ter the electroacupuncture anesthe- 
tic effect wears off a matter of some 
nine hours. But even this post- 
operative pain can sometimes be al- 
leviated bv ordinarv acupuncture, 
as James Reston of The New York 
Times discovered in the aftermath 
of his appendectomy at Peking's 
Anti-Imperialist Hospital. 

What we had seen so impressed 
us that we asked manv questions 
about the technique. We were told 
that the use of electricitv in con- 
junction with acupuncture needles 
was very new. It had been in- 
troduced systematically onlv since 
the Cidtural Revolution, which be- 
gan in 1966. although some work 
had been carried out for about a dec- 
ade before that. Nothing had been 
written about it for foreign con- 
sumption: there were onlv internal 
information bulletins circulating 
among Chinese medical facilities. It 
was thus obviously important that 
we act as couriers on our return. 

Shortly after the first inter\'iew, 
we received many invitations to 
speak on our China experiences and 
were inevitably asked to repeat 
what we had seen about acu- 
puncture. We were surprised, after 
several weeks, that no interest was 
being manifested bv the medical 
profession and called attention to 
that fact in public. About a month 
later some friends showed us an ar- 
ticle in Medical World Nejus in 
which various experts were asked to 
express their opinions about our re- 
ports. One prominent neurophysi- 
ologist described what we had said 
as "just rubbish," and several phy- 
sicians expressed their doubts that 
the facts were as we represented 
them. Similar articles followed in 
other journals. We were reminded 
that we were not competent medical 
observers, that remarkable anesthe- 
tic effects can be obtained by hyp- 
nosis and suggestion, that placebo 
treatments frequently produce sig- 
nificant effects, and that our Chi- 
nese hosts may, in fact, have used 
drugs in conjunction with the acu- 
puncture. In reply, we could only 
assert that we had specifically asked 
about drugs and hypnosis, and had 
been told that these played no part 
in the operations we witnessed. Of 
course, the quotations of Chairman 
Mao are frequently recited before 

important events, and one of the 
four patients in fact clutched a copy 
of the "Little Red Book" to his 
breast throughout the operation, so 
that some sort of emotional fortifi- 
cation might have been involved. 
But if this is the case, it still must 
be recorded as an amazingly suc- 
cessful tactic, certainly deserving of 
respectful interest by doctors in the ^ 
Western world. It is well known by 
anesthesiologists, but infrequently 
discussed in public, that general 
anesthesia is not without its dan- - 
gers. It is very easy to put a patient 
to sleep, but not always so easy to 
wake him up, and the mortality fig- 
ures are not insignificant. Thus, if a 
convenient and safe technique for i 
local anesthesia were available, it 
might become very useful here. 

Within the last several weeks, 
the picture in this country has be- 
gun to change a bit. Several weU- 
known American physicians have 
now seen the operations in China 
and are describing them to their 
colleagues. As a result, several 
prominent anesthesiologists have 
now taken the point of view that 
the procedure obviously works and 
must be further investigated. We 
seem to be approaching the point 
where the data will be examined in 
a scientific manner, and a dis- 
passionate decision made. This is 
certainlv the way science ought to 
operate, and is much to be pre- 
ferred to the arrogant dismissal of 
the reports as "just rubbish" with- 
out further investigation. 

At this point, I am sure of the au- 
thenticity of what I witnessed, al- 
though I must agree that inter- 
pretation is difficult in the light of 
existing knowledge. But this could 
be very exciting, and it is precisely 
here that the Western medical 
world has much to do. For if the re- 
sults cannot be explained solely on 
the basis of the nervous system, 
then we may have to invoke other 
systems or modalities that can con- 
trol the sensation of pain. This 
could result in new insights into the 
operation of the human body or it 
might end up with a relatively triv- 
ial explanation. But since the Chi- 
nese seem very happy to blend 
Western medicine with traditional 
Chinese practices, should we be less 
willing to learn from the wisdom of 
the East? ■ 


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Books in Review 


Eskirao Way 

by Jean L. Brlggs 

Seasons of the Eskimo, photogra- 
phy and text by Fred Bruemmer. 
Neiv York Graphic Society. 
$15.00; 160 pp., illus. 

It is a commonplace that the 
spread of Western civilization 
has changed, often profoundly, the 
lifewavs of the other cultures it has 
touched. We tend to see these 
changes primarily as an improve- 
ment in the standard of living of 
"deprived" or "underdeveloped" 
peoples. But while people often do 
adopt readily and gratefully the ma- 
terial benefits of Western civ- 
ilization, they pay a price, often 
without realizing until too late that 
they will have to do so. The price 
consists in the loss of valued ways 
of thinking, ways of relating to 
people and to the natural environ- 
ment, that are contradictory to the 
requirements of the new way of life. 

An instance of this kind of prob- 
lem is the sedentation of the Cana- 
dian Eskimo. Nomadism is a mate- 
rially difficult life on the northern 
rim of the continent; it means living 
in a drafty tent or chilly igloo, 
struggling with heavy sleds over 
jagged ice ridges or through slushy 
snow in all kinds of weather; it 
means an uncertain food supplv and 
even more uncertain medical help 
in case of need. But nomadism is 
much more than this. It is a total 
way of life, involving special atti- 
tudes toward the environment, so- 
cial relations, and possessions. Sea- 
sons of the Eskimo gives us a 
glimpse of this way of life. 

Fred Bruemmer is a photogra- 
pher who has spent five vears, off 
and on, living and hunting with Es- 
kimo in the Canadian Arctic. This 
pictorial study of traditional Es- 
kimo camp life is an outgrowth of 
those experiences. It is difficult to 
generalize about Eskimo life with- 
out either diminishing the variety of 
ways in which Eskimo hunters ac- 
tually live or confusing the reader 
with a wealth of regionally specific 
detail. But here it is successfully 
(lone; Bruemmer has distilled the 
issence of camp life. 

The firsi thing that strikes one 

about the book is its visual beauty. 
The photographs, which are ar- 
ranged according to season, are su- 
perb, and the vividlv written text 
introducing each season enhances 
the pictures rather than distracting 
attention from them. Unfortunately, 
the proofreading leaves something 
to be desired, for at least two of the 
captions describe events that are 
not taking place in the pictures: on 
page 87 a woman is mending a tear 
in a caribou hide, not cutting up 
meat, and on page 148 she is 
spreading sinew to dry for use as 
thread. Further, caribou tents (page 
153) have nearly died out, not 
dried out. I also wish that some of 
the pictures were not quite so dark, 
especially a few close-ups of faces, 
which are beautifully natural and 

But these are small annoyances. 
More important than the book's vis- 
ual qualities is the story it tells, a 
story of Eskimo families living in 
small, isolated, self-sufficient hunt- 
ing camps, dependent for life on 
their own skill and on the vagaries 
of weather and migratory game. It 
is a vanishing life, as the subtitle 
points out, but Bruemmer neither 
idealizes it nostalgically nor deni- 
grates it as brutish and primitive, 
both mistakes that outsiders are too 
prone to make. It is evident that he 
has lived with Eskimo in a real 
sense, sharing not onlv their tents, 
food, and activities, but also to 
some extent their point of view. 
Bruemmer has experienced their 
jovs, their hardships, and the values 
that give their life meaning: the ex- 
citement and challenge of the hunt; 
the enjoyment of food and of hu- 
man warmth; and autonomy, that 
is. the freedom to live and hunt 
where and how one chooses, and to 
be governed by one's own mood 
and need. 

However. Bruemmer's descrip- 
tion of Eskimo life, while on the 
whole admirably empathic, is in one 
respect one-sided. Perhaps one 
might sav that it is too Eskimo— too 
much as the Eskimo themselves 
would like to be perceived by out- 


Summertime means relaxation 
—and less clothinff. 

siders. Bruemmer gives an idealized 
picture of Eskimo personality, so- 
cial life, and child rearing, under- 
stating the seamv side of their social 
relationships. He describes their 
values and defenses more accu- 
ratelv than their emotions. Eskimo 
are. as he savs, "intense