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THE NEW 

BOTANIC GARDEN, 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2015 



https://archive.org/details/newbotanicgarden02edwa 



THE NEW 

BOTANIC GARDEN, 

ILLUSTRATED WITH 

ENGRAVED BY SANSOM, 

FROM THE 

ORIGINAL PICTURES, 

AND 

COLOURED WITH THE GREATEST EXACTNESS 

FROM 

DRAWINGS BY SYDENHAM EDWARDS 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 

VOL. n. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED rCR JOHN STOCKDALE, PICCADILLY, 

BY T. BEmLEY, BOLT-COURT, FLEET-STREET. 

1812. 



CONTENTS. 



Plate. Page. 

J f Acanthus Mollis Smooth Bear's Breech 1 

X Asclepias Tuberosa Orange Apocynum 4 

fAgrostemma Coronaria Rose Campion 11 

2 J Anchusa Officinalis Officinal Bugloss , 13 

J Aquilegia Canadensis Canadian Columbine 15 

\Actcca Racemosa American Herb Christopher 18 

„ ^ Agapanthus Umbellatus African Agapanthus 21 

\ Asphodehis Luteus Yellow Asphodel 23 

^ ( Anemone Hortensis Star Anemone 26 

1 Albuca Minor Lesser Albuca 37 

^ C Arbutus Unedo Strawberry Tree 41 

i Alyssum Saxatila Yellow Alyssum <>.... 45 

Anthericttm Liliastriim Savoy Anthericum 50 

I Amaryllis Formossima Jacobean Amaryllis 54 

_ r Aster Amelias Italian Aster 66 

\ Amaranthus Hypochondriacus Prince's Feather 72 

Apocynum Androsamifolium Fly-Catching Dog's-Bane 79 

^ Antirrhinum Purpareum Purple Toad-Flax 82 

f Argemone Mexicana Mexican Argemone 89 

I Azalia Nudiflora Coccinea Scarlet Azalia 90 

IQ f Bignonia Radicans Ash-Leaved Trumpet Flower 93 

i Butoinus Umbellatus . . , Flowering Rush 97 

r Bupleurum Fruticosum Shrubby Hare's-Ear , 99 

1 1 ) Bulbocodium Vernum Spring Biilbocodium lOl 

l^Blitum Capitatum Berry-Headed Straw berry-Blite 102 

c Calla JEthiopica iEthiopian Calla 105 

~'\Coro)nlla Emeris Scorpion Senna 106 

r Calycanthus Floridus Carolina Allspice 1 10 

13 < Coiutea Arborescens Common Bladder Senna ill 

(_ Ceanothus Americanus New Jei sey Tea-Tree 113 

Campanida Rapunculoides Nettle- Leaved Campanula 117 

14^ Crepis Barbatu Yellow Hawkweed J23 

Convolvulus Tricolor Small Blue Convovulus 124 



CONTENTS. 

Plate. Pagt, 

r Chelone Obliqua , Red-flowered Chelone 12H 

15 < Colchicum Aatumnale Autumnal Crocus 130 

(. Catananche C&nika Blue Catananche . . , 132 

f Convallaria Majalis Lily of the Valley 134 

\ Cerinthe Major Great Honey- Wort 136 

f Chelidonium Glaucum Yellow-Horned Poppy 138 

I Cistus Ladaniferus Gum Cistus 139 

jg f Crassula Coccinea Scarlet-flowered Crassula 144 



\ Cytisus Laburnum Laburnum 146 

f Cyclamen Persic urn Persian Cyclamen 149 

\ Crocus Vermis Spring Crocus 132 

^ . J f Dahlia Pinnata Purple Dahlia 156 

^iDahtia Crocata Yellow Dahlia ib. 

Daphne Cneorum Trailing Daphne iGo 

I Di acocephalum Virgiuiaiium Virginian Dragon's Head l63 

2j f Delphinium Elatum Larkspur 167 

1 Dianthus Barbatuc Sweet William , 169 

Dodccatkeon Meadia Mead's Oodecatheon 185 

DictaiHHus Albus White Fraxinella , I86 

g„ ( Echinops Spharocephalus Great Globe Thistle • . 189 

^ X Eryngium Alpinum Alpine Eryngo 190 



22 I 



-{I 



Erica Grandifiora Great-flowered Heath 194 

[.pilobium AngustifoUum Rose-Bay Willow-Herb 202 



c Fritillaria Imperialis Crown Imperial 204 



26 { 



, Fumaria Cava Hollow-Rooted Fumitory 207 

Gentiana AcauUs Large-flowered Gentian , 209 

Glycine lluhicunda Dingy-flowed Glycine £12 

^ Helleborm Viridis Green Hellebore 215 

\ Hypericum Hircinum Fetid St. John's Wort 218 

Hemerocallis Fulva Town Lily 221 

Hibiscus Syriacus Althea Frutex 223 

^„ f Ilia Chiiicnsis Chinese Ixia 227 

" I Iberis Gibrulturicu Gibraltar Candy Tuft 232 

ciris Gcrmanica German Lis 235 

30^ Iris Versicolor Various-coloured Lis ib. 

t Iris Variegata Variegated Lis ib. 

J y Kalmia Glauca Glaucous Kalmia 245 

Linum Arboreum Tree Flax 247 

■30/ Hclianlhifi MuUiflorus Perennial Sun-flower 252 

" X Hedysaruin Obscurum Creeping-Rooted Iledysarnm 255 



on f La 
•'^\La 



Lavatera Trimestris Annual Lavatera 258 

thyrus Sativus Blue-flowered Lathyrus 263 

f Lychnis Chalcedonica Scarlet Lychnis 266 

34 / Leucojuni Vernum Spring Snow-Flake 27 1 

C Lysirnachia Nummularia Creeping Moneywort 274 



CONTENTS. 

piatq. Pase, 

_ r Lohelia Cardinalis Scarlet Lobelia^ or Cardinal's flower. . .276 

I Lilinm Candidinn Wiiite Lily G7U 

rMiiabilis Jalapa Marvel of Peru 038 

36 J Mimosa Sensitiva Sensitive Plant 292 

\3Ioi/(irda Didyina Scarlet Monarcia 30J 

S Nigel/a Damascena Love in a Mist. Devil in a Bush 306 

' I Narcissus Jonquil/a Jonquil 309 

f Neliiwbium Speciosum Chinese Water- Lily 317 

I No/ana Prostrata Trailing Nolana ib. 

Oenothera Fruticosa Shrubbery Oenothera ; 319 

anuin Dictamniis Dittany of Crete 323 

( Primula Veris Oxlip 327 

I Paonia Temdfolia Fine-leaved Pajony 342 

r Pancratium Maritimum Sea Pancratium 347 

^ 1 Soldanelta Alpina Alpine Soldanella 350 

f Papaver Orientale Eastern Poppy 352 

XPulmonaria Firginica Virginian Lung- Wort 355 

I Philadelphus Coronarius Common Philadelphus 353 

'^^ 1 Passijiora Cca-ulca Common Passion flower 360 

C Philadelphm Coronarius Syringa, or Mock Orange 370 

XPolemonium Carukwn Blue Greek Valerian 372 

f Phhx Paniculata Panicled Lychnidea 374 

45 \ Polygala Cham&buxus . . . , Box-leaved Milkwort 373 

L Physalis Alkekengi Winter Cherry 330 

. P C Rudbeckia Purpurea Purple Rudbeckia 335 

\ Rosa Lutea Single yellow Rose 388 

^„ C Rhododendron Ponticum Pontic Rhododendron 402 

I Robinia Hispida Rose Acacia 405 

f Symphytum Orientale Eastern Comfrey 410 

\ Salvia Indica '. Indian Sage 412 

. „ C Sanguinaria Canadensis Canada Piiccoon 420 

I Saxifraga Crassifolia Oval-leaved Saxifrage 421 

50 [ Syringa Fulgaris Lilac 427 

\ Sarracena Flava Yellow Sarracena 429 

^ f Scabiosa Atropiirpurea Sweet Scabious 432 

I Scilla Campaniilata Bell-flowered Squill 437 

C Sedum Anacampseros Evergreen Orpine 440 

I Sophora Tetraptera Wing-Podded Sophora 44(5 

f Sempervivum Arachnoideum Cobweb Houseleek 450 

"^■^ \ Strelitzia Regina. Canna-leaved Strelitzia 453 

C Solidago Stricta Willow-leaved Golden Rod 455 

54 s Senecio Elegans Double Purple Groundsel 460 

L Spartium Junceum , . Spanish Broom 462 



CONTENTS. 

Plate, 

f Spiraa Lobata Lobe-leaved Meadow Sweet 



55 



i Sisi/rinchium Iridioides Iris-leaved Sisyrinchium 



r Tradescantia virginica Virginian Spiderwort, 

56) Trim um Sessile Sessile Trillium 



Thalictrum Aquilegifolium Feathered Columbine 

57 Tropaolum Majus Greater Nasturtium . . 

Valerian Rubra Red Valerian 



^ Valerian Rubra Red Valerian 

X Veronica Sibirica Siberian Speedwell . . . . , 

C Vinca Rosea Madagascar Periwinkle 

Viburnum Tintis Laurustinus 



^ f Wachendorfia Paniculala Panicled Wachendorfia 

I Vitex Negundo Five-leaved Chaste Tree 



TO THE BINDER. 



Plate I to face the Title-page to Vol. I. 
Plate LIII to face the Title-page to Vol. II. 



PLATE XXX. 



1. IRIS GERMANIC A. 

GERMAN IRIS. 

2. IRIS VERSICOLOR. 

VARIOUS-COLOURED IRIS. 

3. IRIS VARIEGATA. 

VARIEGATED IRIS. 

This genus contains plants of the fibrous, tuberous, and bulbous- 
rooted flowery herbaceous perennial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Triandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Ensatce. 

The characters are: that the calyx has bivalve spathes, separating 
the flowers, permanent: the corolla six-parted: petals oblong, ob- 
tuse; the three exterior ones reflex, the three interior upright and 
sharper; all connected at the claws into a tube, of different lengths 
in the different species: the stamina have three awl-shaped filaments, 
incumbent on the reflex petals : anthers oblong, straight, depressed : 
the pistillum is an inferior oblong germ: style simple, very short: 
stigmas three, petal-form, oblong, carinated within, furrowed with- 
out, incumbent on the stamens, two-lipped : outer lip smaller, emar- 
ginate: inner larger, bifid, subinflected: the pericarpium is an ob- 
long, cornered capsule, three-celled, three-valved : the seeds several 
and large. 

The species cultivated are: 1. I. pumila, Dwarf Iris; 2. I. su' 
siawa, Chalcedonian Iris; 3. I. i^/o?'ew^ia, Florentine Iris; 4. 1, bijiora. 
Twice-flowering Iris; 5. /. aphylla. Leafless Iris; 6. I, variegata, 



•236 



Variegaled Iris; 7- Germanica, German Iris; 8. I. samhiicina, El- 
(Icr-sceiited Iris; 9- J- squalens^ Brown -flowered Iris; 10. /. cristata, 
Cresledlris; 11. /. tricuspis, Trifid-petalled Iris; I. Xiphium^ 
Bulbous-rooted Iris; 13. J. Pseudacorits, Common Yellow or Water 
Iris; 14. I.foztidissima, Stinking Iris; 15. /. Virginica^Wrgmmn Iris; 
l6. /. versicolor. Various-coloured Iris; 17- /. ochroleucay Pale-yellow 
Iris; 18. /. verna, Spiing Iris; 19- I- Perm-a, Persian Iris; 20. I. gra- 
Grass-leaved Iris; 21. /. spuria^ Spurious Iris; 22. /. Sibirica^ 
Siberian Iris ; 23. L Martinicensis, Martinico Iris; 24i. I. Pavoniay 
Peacock Jris; 25. /. tiiberosa, Snake's-head Iris. 

The first has the root brownish on the outside, while within, 
knobbed, with pale fibrils: the leaves acute, sometimes shorter, some- 
times longer than the flower: the stem or scape very short, often 
scarcely an inch in length: germ oblong, bluntly and obscurely three- 
coruered, an inch long, enclosed within two spalhes, ending in the 
tube of the corolla, which is slender, and from two to three inches 
in length: all the petals are ahnost entire, blue or purple, varying 
much in colour, insomuch that the same flower changes, and from 
blue becomes more and more red: outer beards blue, inner white, 
with yellow tips. It is a native of Austria, flowering in April. 

There are varieties with white flowers, with straw-coloured flow- 
ers, with pale blue flowers, with blush-coloured flowers, with yellow 
variable flowers, with blue variable flowers. 

The second species has the scape simple, round, grooved, a span 
high: the leaves alternate, sheathing, upright, very finely striated, 
obscurely waved: the corolla the largest of all the species, ver^' thin: 
the claws of the larger petals purple on the outside, doited and 
streaked with purple within; border suborbiculale, waved, bent in at 
top, upright: border of the smaller petals ovate, bent down, with 
the edge frequently bent back, blunt, of the same colour with the 
larger ones, but shorter and narrower; the claws bearded within 
from the flexure to the base with brownish-yellow cilias. It flowers 
at the end of May or beginning of June, and is a native of the 
Levant. 

The third has the scape round, striated, simple, upright, a foot 



237 



high and more, bearing two or three flowers: tlie leaves nerved, sub- 
falcated, obscurely curved on the outer edge: the lower petals con- 
nate at the base: the claws of the larger ones thickish, wilh a thin 
Avinged edge, an inch long, green on the outside, bearded wilhin, 
with white cilias, yellow at the top: border blunl, emarginate, an 
inch wide, a little more in length, hanging down, white, striated near 
the flexure: smaller petals oblong, from upright bent in with a reflex 
margin, blunt, emarginate, white: claws thickish, attenuated, green- 
ish. It is a native of the South of Europe, flowering in May and 
June. 

The fourth species has the scape simple, striated, longer than the 
leaves, a span in height, sustaining two or three flowers, sometimes 
four: the leaves subfalcatcd, acute, striated, from erect patulous • 
the petals violet-coloured, entire : capsule cylindric, with three 
streaks. It is a native of Portugal, flowering in April and May, and 
again in autumn, whence the name. 

The fifth has three or four large bright purple flowers, which 
stand above each other, and have purplish sheaths : the three bend- 
ing petals or falls are striped with white from the base to the end of 
the beard: the capsules are large, blunt, and triangular. It flowers 
at the end of May. Its native place is unknown. 

The sixth species has the scape striated, scarcely longer than the 
leaves, a foot and more in height: leaves acute, striated, upright; the 
lower ones the length of the scape, but the upper ones gradually 
shorter: the flowers at the top of the scape divided, alternate, com- 
ing out successively, handsome, yellow, netted with black: the up- 
per part of the stem is naked, and divides into three branches, each 
of which has two or three flowers one above another: the three up- 
right petals or standards are yellow, and the bending petals or falls 
are variegated with purple stripes. It flowers in June, and is a na- 
tive of Hungary. 

The seventh has the scape divided at top, larger than the leaves: 
the leaves reflex-falcated, nerved, an inch wide : the flowers blue, 
with the smaller petals quite entire, having an agreeable scent: the 
stalks rise near four feet high, and divide into several branches, each 



238 



supporting tlirte or ibur flowers, which are covered with a thin 
sheath ; the three bending petals or falls are of a faint purple in- 
clining to blue, with purple veins running lengthwise: the beard is 
yellow, and three erect petals or standards are of a bright blue, with 
some faint purple stripes. It is a native of Germany, flowering in 
May and June. 

The eighth species has the scape divided at top, longer than the 
leaves, two (or three) feet high: the leaves inflex-falcated at top, 
striated, the upper ones gradually shorter. It resembles the seventh, 
from which it diflers in having the larger petals of a deeper violet 
colour, and sub-emarginate; the smaller petals emarginate, and of a 
deeper blue colour: the stigmas acute and serrate, with a blueish 
keel. It derives the trivial name from the smell of the flowers, which 
is very like that of Elder in bloom. It flowers at the end of May, 
and in June, and is a native of the South of Europe. 

In the ninth, the roots are very thick, fleshy, and divided into 
joints, spreading just under the surface of the ground: they are of a 
brownish colour on their outside, but white within: the leaves rise in 
clusters, embracing each other at their base, but spread asunder up 
wards in form of wings: they are a foot and a half long, and two 
inches broad, having sharp edges, ending in points like swords: the 
stalks between these, which are a little longer than the leaves, having 
at each joint one leaf without a foot-stalk; these diminish in their 
size upwards: the stalks divide into three branches, each of which 
produces two or three flowers one above another at distances, each 
enclosed in a sheath: they have three large violet-coloured petals 
which turn backward, and are called falls: these have beards near 
an inch long on their midrib towards their base, and have a . short 
arched petal which covers the beard, with three broad erect pelals of 
the same colour, called standards: the stamina lie upon the reflexed 
petals. It flowers in June. It is a native of the South of Europe. 

There are varieties with blue standards and purple falls, with 
pale purple standards, with white standards, and with a smaller 
flower. 

The tenth species has a tuberous, creeping root: the stems seve- 



239 



ral, short, inclining upwards, compressed, leafy: the leaves scarcely 
six inches long, sharpish, a lillle curved like a sickle at the tips, en- 
tire, with a pale membranaceous margin: the flower generally soli- 
tary, a little shorter than the leaves, erect, of a pale purplish blue: 
outer petals drooping, obtuse, blue, Avith deeper blue spots, crested 
in the place of the beard with three longitudinal, elevated, waved 
ribs, variegated with orange and yellow ; inner petals narrower, 
pointed, uniform in colour. It is a native of North America; flow- 
ering in May. 

In the eleventh species, the bulij is the size of a hazel nut: the 
scape simple, round, jointed, upright, bearing one or two flowers, a 
foot and half in height : the leaf single, nerved, upright, with th( 
tip hanging down, two feet long: the border of the larger petals 
white, suborbiculate, with a point ; claws green on the outside, yel- 
low within, dotted with black : the smaller petals several times 
shorter and less: claws convex on the outside, green, concave within, 
dotted Avith brown, the length of the larger ones, but narrower; seg- 
ments lanceolate, divaricating, a line in length, the middle one of the 
three a little longer, white dotted with brown. It is a native of the 
Cape. 

It varies in the shape of the larger petals, and much in the co- 
lours, as blue, purple, yellow, white, and spotted. 

The twelfth has the leaves channelled and convoluted, not only 
at the base, as in the other species, but the whole length of them 
they are awl-shaped at the tip, and shorter than the scape: the flow- 
ers are blue, with emarginate petals. It is a native of the South of 
Europe. 

There are varieties with blue flowers, Avith violet-coloured floAvers, 
Avith Avhite flowers, with purple flowers, with yellow flowers, Avith blue 
standard petals and white falls, with blue standards and yelloAv tails, 
Avith striped flowers, the broad-leaved Avith blue flowers, the broad- 
leaved purple-flowered, the sweet-scented blue-flowered, the sweet- 
scented purple flowered, with A bnegated sweet-scented floAvers, and 
the double-flowered. 

The thirteenth has a fleshy root, the thickness of the thumb, 



240 



spreading horizontally near the surface, blackish on the outside, red- 
dish, and spongy within, the upper part covered with numerous 
ridged fibres, the lower part sending down many long, whitish, wrink- 
led, stringy roots: the leaves from the root two or three feet long, 
upright, an inch or more in breadth, striated, having a prominent 
longitudinal midrib, equal to the scape, deep green, smooth: stem- 
leaves shorter, forming a sheath at the bottom : scapes from one to 
three feet in height, upright, alternately inclined from joint to joint, 
round or flatted a little, smooth and spongy: the peduncles axillary, 
flat on one side, and smooth; each sustaining two or three flowers, 
the two outer (when there are three) having one sheath, and middle 
flower two. It is common in most parts of Europe; flowering at the 
end of June, or the beginning of July. 

The fourteenth species has a thick, tufted, fibrous root: the leaves 
grass-green, when broken emitting a strong odour, not much unlike 
that of hot roast beef at the first scent. They are acute and nerved, 
rather shorter than the scape; which is single, cylindrical, but angu- 
lar on one side, jointed, sheathed with alternate spathaceous leaves, 
two feet high, bearing several flowers. It is a native of France, &c. 

The fifteenth has the root white within, black without, the thick- 
ness of the thumb, having white fibres, and bristly at top, with the 
remains of leaves: the scape compressed, upright, jointed, sheathed 
with alternate leaves, many-flowered, the length of the leaves, or a 
little higher, a foot in length: the leaves narrow, sharp, curved-in at 
the tip, nerved and smooth, as is the whole plant: the spathcs mem- 
branaceous, acute, brownish, shorter than the peduncles, very thin 
at the edge and tip: the peduncles two or three inches long, round, 
slender, upright, one-flowered : the flowers elegant, but without 
scent: claws of the outer petals channelled, green on the outside, 
yellow on the inside, streaked with dark purple: border flat, rounded- 
ovate, blunt, quite entire, pale at the base, then blue with deep-blue 
streaks: inner petals spatulate, blunt, upright, shorter, bluer and 
streaked. It is a native of Virginia, flowering here in June and 
July. 

The sixteenth species has the scape jointed, bifid at the top, or 



241 



simple, many-flowered, higher lhaii the leaves, two feet in length: 
the leaves alternate, sheathing; the upper ones gradually shorter: 
the flowers blue, large. Mr. Curtis remarks, that it has, for the most 
part, a stalk unusually crooked or elbowed. It is a native of North 
America, flowering in May and June. 

The seventeenth has the scape round or roundish, covered with 
the sheaths of leaves, many-flowered, longer than the leaves, a foot 
high: the leaves falcated, acute, striated, nerved: spathes membra- 
naceous at the edge: the larger petals dilated at the base with dusky 
veins; lesser snowy-white, with yellowish veins at the base: stigmas 
snowy-white. From its being the highest of the species of Iris culti- 
vated in gardens, Mr, Curtis has named it Tall Iris. It is a native 
of the Levant, flov/ering in July. 

The eighteenth species has tufted fibrous roots, from which arise 
many grass-like leaves about nine inches long ; from between them 
come out the stalks, which are shorter than the leaves, and support 
one purple flower with blue standards. It flowers in May, and is a 
native of North America. 

The nineteenth has an oval bulbous root, from which come out 
five or six pale-green leaves, hollowed like the keel of a boat, about 
six inches long, and one inch broad at the base, ending in points : 
between these the flower-stalk arises, which is seldom above three 
inches high, supporting one or two flowers, enclosed in spathes: these 
have erect petals or standards, of a pale sky-blue colour, and three 
reflexed {:>etals or falls, which on their outside are of the same colour, 
but the lip has a yellow streak running through the middle, and on 
each side are many dark spots, witli one large deep-purple spot at 
the bottom: the leaves are striated and nerved, unequal, and a span 
in length. It is a native of Persia. 

This is greatly esteemed for the beauty and extreme sweetness of 
its flowers, as also for its early appearance in the spring, being gene- 
rally in perfection in February or the beginning of March, according 
to the season. 

Martyn observes, that " like the Hyacinth and Narcissus, it will 
blow within doors in a water-glass, but stronger in a small pot of 



242 

sand or sandy loam, and a few flowers will scent a whole aparl- 
nient/' 

The twentieth species has narrow, Hat, glass-like leaves, about a 
foot long, of a light-green colour; between these arise the stalks 
about six inches high, having two narrow leaves much longer than 
the stalks: the flowers two or three, small: the petals have a broad 
yellow line with purple stripes; the three falls are of a light purple 
colour striped with blue, and have a convex ridge running along 
them: the others are of a reddish purple variegated with violet; they 
have a scent like fresh plums. It is a native of Austria, flowering 
in June. 

The twenty-first has a knobbed root, blackish on the outside, 
whitish within, with long pale fibres: the stem round, very slightly 
compressed, straight or a little flexnose, from two to three feet in 
height, taller than the leaves: the flowers commonly two, on short 
peduncles, each involved in its spathe; sometimes there are three; 
ihey have no scent: the colour blue- purple; but under the stigmas 
the reflex petals are more inclined to red: upright petals flat, and 
usually quite entire. According to Miller, the flowers have light 
blue standards, and purple variegated falls, having a broad white 
line in the middle instead of the beard. It is a native of Germany, 
&c. flowering in July. 

The twenty-second species has a higher stem, the scape a foot 
high or more, dividing at top, three-flowered or many-flowered, 
lonoer than the leaves; which are nerved and flat: the flowers blue, 
in brown scariose spathes: the inner petals are upright: the germ 
trigonal, not grooved at the angles. It is a native of Siberia, &c. 
flowering in May and June. 

The twenty-third has a solid sub-bulbose root, surrounded by 
whitish fibres, and throwing out other tubers : the stem upright, 
roundish, two feet high, simple : the root-leaves acuminate, quite 
entire, somewhat rigid, distich, flat, keeled at the base, above simple, 
from upright spreading, few: the flowers few, coming out succes- 
sively from the same spathe, yellow, without scent, peduncled: the 
petals have a black shining glandular hole or pit, like that which is 



243 



common to several species of llaiuinculus. ll is a native of Maiii- 
nico: floweriim- in November and December. 

The twenty-fourth species has the scape round, jointed, viilosc, 
simple, a foot high, sustaining one or two flowers: the leaf some- 
what channelled, striated, villose, the length of the scape: the spathes 
acute, striated, smooth, two inches long: the peduncles subancipi- 
tal, one-flowered, smooth: all the petals united at the base: the 
three outer several times bigger than the others, ovate, obtuse en- 
tire; the three inner much narrower and shorter by half, lanceolate, 
acute. This beautiful flower is orange-coloured, with black spots 
and dots at the base, and a heart-shaped blue spot above the base, 
which at bottom is tomentose and black. It is a native of the 
Cape. 

The twent^'^-fifth has a tuberous root; there arise from it five or 
six long narrow four-cornered leaves, and from between these the 
stalk, supporting one small flower, of a dark purple colour. It flow- 
ers in April, but does not produce seeds in this climate. It is a na- 
tive of the Levant. 

Culture. — Most of the sorts may be readily increased, by parting 
the roots or separating the off'-scts from the bulbs, and planting them 
out in the situations where they are to flower: the first sort in the 
autumn, or very early in the spring, and the latter in the close of 
summer, when the leaves decay, managing them in the same manner 
as other bulbs. As they increase and spread rapidly in their roots, 
they should be divided and taken off every two or three years. 

New varieties of the different sorts may be raised from seed, by 
sowing it in the autumn in a bed of light sandy mould. The plants 
come up in the following spring, and in the autumn may be trans- 
planted where they are to grov/. They flower a year or two after- 
wards. 

The bulbous-rooted sorts succeed best in such soils as are of the 
light, sandy, loamy kind. 

The last sort answers most perfectly in such aspects as are towards 
the east, the roots being prevented from going too deep. 

As the second sort is liable to be injured by severe winters, a 



244 

few should be planted in pots to have protection. This sort is well 
suited for forcing-. 

When planted in the open ground, it requires a rather dry soil 
and situation. 

The Cape sorts should be retained in the dry stove, and be pro- 
pagated and managed in the same manner as other bulbous-rooted 
plants of the same kind. 

All the sorts are proper for affording variety in the borders, clumps, 
and other parts of pleasure-grounds; and some of the more tender 
sorts among potted plants of similar growths. 



PLATE XXXI. 



1. K ALMI A GLA UCA. 

GLAUCOUS KALMIA. 



This genus contains plants of the hardy evergreen shrubby 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Decanclria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Bicornes. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a five-parted perianthiuni, 
small, permanent: segments subovate, acute, rather columnar: the 
corolla one-petal!ed, salver-funnel-form : tube cylindric, longer than 
the calyx: border with a flat disk; the margin upright, half-five-cleft: 
ten nectariferous hornlets projecting outwardly from the corolla, and 
surrounding it where the border of it is upright: the stamina have 
ten awl-shaped filaments, upright-spreading, rather shorter than the 
corolla, inserted into the base of the corolla: anthers simple: the 
pistillum is a roundish germ : stjde-thrcad-form, longer than the co- 
rolla: bent down: stigma obtuse: the pericarpium a capsule, sub- 
globose, depressed, five-celled, five-valved, five-partite: the seed 
numerous. 

The species cultivated are: 1. K.latifolia, Broad-leaved Kalmia; 
2. K. angmtifolia. Narrow-leaved Kalmia; 3. K. glauca, Glaucous 
Kalmia; 4. K. hirsuta. Hairy Kalmia. 

The first rises with a branching stalk to the height of ten or twelve 
feet, with very stiff leaves, which are two inches long and one broad, 
of a lucid green on their upper side, but of a pale green on their 
under: they have short foot-stalks, and stand without order round 
the branches: between these the buds are formed for the next year's 
flowers, at the extremity of the branches; these buds swell during 



246 



the autumn and spring months, till the beginning of June, when the 
flowers burst out from their empalements, forming a round bunch, or 
corymbus, sitting very close to the branch: they are of a pale blush 
colour, the outside of the petal a peach colour. In its native soil it 
continues flowering a great part of the summer, and is highly orna- 
mental. It is a native of Carolina. 

The noxious qualities of this elegant shrub lessen its value. 

The second species rises from three to six feet high, dividing into 
small woody branches, which are very close, and covered with a dark- 
gray bark: the leaves are stiff, about two inches long, and half an 
inch broad, of a lucid green, placed without order upon the branches, 
on slender foot-stalks: the flowers are in loose bunches on the side 
of the branches, upon slender peduncles: they are bright red when 
they first open, but afterwards fade to a blush or peach-bloom 
colour. 

There are varieties, with pale and deep-red flowers, differing in 
their habit: the latter, the most humble of the two, not only produces 
the most brilliant flowers, but in greater abundance. It is reputed 
poisonous to sheep and cattle in North America, where it is a native. 

The third is much inferior in size to the first, rarely exceeding 
two feet in height. It is a native of Newfoundland, flowering in 
April and May. 

The fourth species is usually in height from two to three feet, 
growing upright: the flowers are about the same size with those of 
the preceding, are of a purple colour, and grow in racemes: the 
stalk, leaves, and calyx are covered with strong hairs. It is a native 
of Carolina. 

Culture. — These plants are increased by seeds, layers, and 
suckers. 

The first sort is mostly raised from seeds procured from America, 
which should be sown in pots or boxes of light sandy mould, in the 
spring, plunging them in an easterly border, or in beds of light 
mould in t!ie same aspect. When placed on a gentle hot-bed they 
succeed better. They must, however, be inured to the full air in 
summer, being sheltered during the Avinler from frost. When the 



247 



plants have had two years' growth, thej may be removed into sepa- 
rate pots, to be continued two or more years, when they may be 
planted out in the open ground in warm situations. 

The second sort is mostly increased by layers, which should be 
made from the young shoots, and laid down in the early autumn. 
When they are well rooted, in a year or two, they may be taken oft', 
and planted in pots separately filled with bog earth, or in a warm 
border of the same sort of earth. This is more hardy than the 
former. 

The third sort is increased in the same way as the first, and re- 
quires similar management. 

The fourth is preserved with difficulty in this climate, but may 
be raised by layers. 

The most of the plants may likewise be increased by suckers, 
which should be taken oflT and planted in the spring, in nursery rows, 
for two or three years, when they may be removed to the places 
where they are to grow. 

These plants, in the more hardy sorts, afford ornament and variety 
in the fronts of shrubbery borders and clumps; and in the more 
tender sorts, among other potted green-house plants. 



2. LINUM ARBOREUM. 

TREE FLAX. 

This genus contains plants of the herbaceous, annual, and peren- 
nial shrubby kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Pentandria Fentagynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Gruinales. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a five-leaved lanceolate 
perianthium, upright, small, permanent: the corolla funnel-form: 
petals five, oblong, gradually wider above, obtuse, more spreading, 



248 



large: the stamina have five awl-shaped filaments, upright, length of 
the calyx (also five rudiments, alternating): anthers simple, arroAved: 
the pistillum is an ovate germ : styles five, filiform, upright, length 
of the stamens: stigmas simple, reflex: the pericarpium a globose 
capsule, rudely pentagonal, ten-valved, gaping at the tip: partitions 
membranaceous, very thin, connecting the valves: the seeds solitary 
ovate-flattish, acuminated, smooth. 

The species are: \. L.iisitatissimum, Common Flax; 2. L. pe- 
remie, Perennial Flax; 3. L. sifffruticosum. Shrubby Flax; 4. L. arho' 
reiim. Tree Flax; 5. L. Africamim, African Flax. 

The first has an annual, simple, fibrous, pale brown root : the stem 
upright, eighteen inches, two feet, and even more in height, round, 
smooth, leafy, branched only at top: the leaves are sessile, growing 
close together, almost upright, perfectly entire: the flowers large, 
growing in a panicle, on round smooth peduncles: the calycine leaf- 
lets ovate-keeled, with a membranous edge, when magnified appear- 
ing to be fringed with hairs: the petals wedge-shaped, deciduous, 
sky-blue, streaked with deeper-coloured lines; white at the claws, 
and somewhat gnawed at the tip. It is a native of Egypt, flowering 
in June and July. 

It may be said to be one of the most valuable plants in the whole 
vegetable kingdom; as from the bark of its stalks is manufactured 
flax or lint, for making all sorts of linen cloth; from the cloth, when 
worn to rags, is made paper: and from the seeds of the plant linseed 
oil is expressed, which is much used by painters, and in other arts ; 
and the refuse, after expression, forms the oil-cakes so valuable in the 
fattening of cattle and sheep. 

In the second species, from its perennial root rise three or four 
inclining stalks, having short narrow leaves towards their base, but 
scarcely any about the top: the flowers are produced at the ends of 
the stalks, sitting very close ; they are blue, and about the size of the 
cultivated sort, being succeeded by pretty large round seed vessels, 
ending in acute points. Its flowers appear from June to August, 
and are of a delicate texture and very elegant blue colour, and the 
roots continue four or five years. 



249 



There is a variety which is procumbent, with smaller flowers. 

The third has a shrubby stalk a foot high, sending out several 
branches: the leaves very narrow, coming out in clusters, but on the 
llowerino; branches broader and lonoer: the flowers at the ends of 
the branches, erect, on long slender peduncles: the calyxes acute- 
pointed: the petals large, entire, white, but before the flowers open 
pale yellow: they appear in July, but the seeds seldom ripen in this 
climate: the flowering stalks decay in the autumn, but the lower 
shrubby part continues with the other branches all the year. It is a 
native of Spain, &c. 

The fourth species forms, if not a tree, as its name implies, 
a shrub of the height of several feet: it begins to flower in March, 
and continues flowering to the close of summer; but has not yet 
produced seeds in this climate. It is a native of the island of 
Candia. 

The fifth has a sufl*ruticose stiff" stem, a foot high, round, with 
simple branches: the leaves are sessile, upright, even, generally 
shorter than the internodes: the flowers in a terminating umbel, 
which is four or five cleft, with dichotomous rays: the petals are yel- 
low with villose claws, and turning tawny: the calyx acuminate and 
rugged at the edge. It is a native of Africa, flowering in June 
and July. 

Culture. — These plants may be increased by seeds and layers, or 
cultings. 

The two first sorts are raised by sowing the seeds in the early 
epring months, as March or the following month, the former in fields 
or plantation-grounds, where the soil is fresh, good, and well reduced 
into order by frequent digging over, or ploughing and harrowing, in 
narrow drills, or broadcast, and raked or harrowed in with a light 
harrow ; the plants being afterwards kept perfectly clean from weeds 
by repeated hoeings. 

Towards the end of August, when the plants have attained their 
full growth, and begin to turn yellow at bottom, and brown at top, 
and their seeds to ripen, it is proper time to pull them ; thougli, if it 

2 K 



250 



were not for the sake of the seed, they might be pulled a little before 
the seeds ripen, by which the flax is generally better coloured and 
finer; but if suffered to sland till the seeds are fully ripe, it is 
commonly stronger, somewhat coarser, and more in quantity'. It 
should be pulled up by handfuls, roots and all, shaking off all 
the mould; then cither spreading them on the ground by hand- 
fuls, or binding them in small bunches, and setting them upright 
against one another, for ten days or a fortnight, till they are per- 
fectly dry, and the seed fully hardened, then housed, and the seed 
thrashed out, cleaned, and placed in a dry airy situation, being 
afterwards put up for use. The flax, after being rippled and 
sorlcd, should be carried to a pond of nearly stagnant water, being 
placed in it with the bundles crossing each other in different di- 
rections, so as to keep the whole in a close compact state, being 
kept just below the surface of the water, by proper weights ap- 
plied upon it. It should remain in this steep till the stems become 
brittle and the bark readily separates, when it must be taken out 
and spread thinly on a short pasture, being occasionally turned 
until it becomes perfectly bleached and dry, when it is in a proper 
state for the jiurpose of being converted into flax. 

The latter, or perennial sort, should be sown in a bed or border 
of good earth, in shallow drills at the distance of six inches; and 
when the plants are two or three inches in height they should be 
lhinn(^d to the same distances, and in autumn be planted out in the 
places where they are to grow. But it is probably a better practice 
to sow them at once in the places where they are to grow, thinning 
them out propeily afterwards. 

The three other sorts may be best increased by planting cut- 
lings of the branches in pots of light fresh earth, plunging them in 
the tan hot- bed, or by la3'ers laid down in the later summer months. 
When the plants in either mode have stricken good root, they 
may be removed into separate pots, and be managed as other 
tender exotic plants that require the protection of the green- 
house. 



251 



They may likewise be raised from seeds when they can be pro- 
cured, which should be sown in pots and placed in a hot-bed in the 
spring season. 

A few plants of the two first sorts may be introduced in the 
clumps and borders of the pleasure-ground; and the three other 
sorts afford variety in green-house collections among other potted 
plants. 



PLATE XXXIL 



1. HELIANTHUS MULTIFLORUS. 

PERENNIAL SUN-FLOWER. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy herbaceous flowery 
kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Syngenesia Pohjgamia Frustranea, 
and ranks in the natural order of Compositoi Oppositifolia. 

The characters are: that the calyx is common imbricate, some- 
what squarrose, expanded; scales oblong, broadish at the base, 
gaping every where at the lips: the corolla compound radiate: co- 
rollels hermaphrodite, very numerous in the disk: females fewer, 
much longer in the ray: proper of the hermaphrodites cylindric, 
shorter than the common calyx, bellying at the base, orbicular, de- 
pressed: border five-toolhed, sharp, spreading: of the females ligular, 
lanceolate, quite entire, ver}' long: the stamina in the hermaphro- 
dites consist of five fdamenls, curved, inserted below the belly of 
the corollet, the length of the tube: anther cyhndric, tubular: the 
pistillum in the hermaphrodites is an oblong germ: style filiform, 
length of the , corollet: stigma two-parted, reflex: in the females, 
germ very small: style and stigma none: there is no pericarpium: 
unchanged calyx: seeds in the hermaphrodites solitary, oblong, 
blunt, four-cornered, compressed at the opposite angles; the inner 
ones narrower, crowned with two lanceolate, acute deciduous chaffs; 
in the females none: the receptacle chaffy, large, flat: chaff's lanceo- 
late, acute, two separating each seed, deciduous. 

The species cultivated are: 1. TI. animus. Annual Sun-flower; 
2. H. iridicus. Dwarf Annual Sun-flower ; 3. H. multijionis. Perennial 
Sun-flower; 4.11. tuberosits, Tuberous-rooted Sun-flower, or Jeru- 
salem Artichoke. 



253 



There are several other species of the perennial sort that may be 
cultivated. 

The first has an annual root: the stem single or branched, from 
five or six to ten or fourteen feet in height, and in hot climates 
twenty or more; when vigorous, the size of a man's arm : the leaves 
are alternate, a span or a span and a half in length, and almost as 
much in breadth, rough, serrate, acuminate, hanging down at the 
end, on long petioles: the flower single (sometimes several), nodding, 
a foot or more in diameter. It is a native of Mexico, flowering from 
June to October. Martjn observes, that as to its turning with the 
sun, it is a vulgar error; Gerarde could never observe it; and he has 
seen four flowers on the same stem pointing to the four cardinal 
points. 

There are varieties with double flowers, deep yellow, and sulphur- 
coloured. 

The second species is perhaps only a variety of the first, though 
constant; but the leaves are convex above in the disk, and of a 
darker green. The peduncles are less thickened at top, or rather of 
an equal thickness every where, whence the flowers nod less. The 
scales of the calyx, except the inmost row, grow out into petioled 
pendulous leaflets. It grows only from eighteen inches to three feet 
in height. It probably comes from Mexico or Peru. 

The third has the stem and peduncles scabrous: the leaves cor- 
date-ovate: the calyxes loosely imbricate, neither squarrose nor 
drooping, consisting of forty to fifty scales: the stems many, upright, 
from five or six feet to eight or nine in height, branching, the stem 
and each branch terminated by a flower, the principal one sometimes 
nine or ten inches in diameter, the lateral ones gradually smaller: 
the leaves some opposite, others alternate. There is a constant 
succession of flowers from July to November. It is a native of 
Virginia. 

In the fourth species the stems are several, rough, hairy, streaked, 
from eight, ten, or twelve to sixteen feet in height, the size of a 
child's arm: the leaves alternate, light green, rough, pointed, eight 



254 



inches broad, and ten or eleven inches long, deeply serrate, smaller 
towards the top: the branches many, long, from bottom to top: the 
tiowers terminating, small; florets in the ray twelve or thirteen. 
These seldom blow before October, and in some seasons they do not 
expand at all. The seeds never ripen here: the roots creeping, with 
many tubers clustered together, thirty, forty, or fifty from one plant, 
measuring a peck, or in good soils half a bushel; they are, like the 
common potatoe, red on the outside, and very irregular in their 
shape, the size of a man's fist in the largest. It is a native of Brazil. 

Culture. — All these flowery plants are easily increased, the two 
first sorts by seeds, and the others by dividing their roots. 

The seeds should be sown in the early spring months, in the 
places where the plants are to grow and flower, in patches of three 
or four seeds together. When the plants are up they may be thinned 
out to one or two of the best. 

They may be had more forward by sowing them on a moderate 
hot-bed, under glasses, and afterwards transplanting them to the 
situations where they are to grow. 

The divided roots may be planted out in the places where they 
are to remain, either in the autumn or the early spring months. 

These plants produce a fine ornamental cftcct in the back parts 
of the borders, clumps, and other parts of pleasure-grounds, and by 
sowing at different times may be kept in flower for a considerable 
length of time. 

In the perennial sorts the decayed stems should be cleared away 
when they begin to decline. They continue long. 

The last, or tuberous-rooted sort, is increased by planting the 
smaller roots, or the larger ones cut in pieces, a bud being preserved 
to each, either in the spring or autumn, allowing a good distance, as 
the roots multiply greatly. In the autumn following, when the stems 
decay, the roots may be taken up for use. 

When cultivated for a crop, the sets should be planted in an 
open part of the kitchen-garden, in rows three feet or more asunder, 
and at least eighteen inches distant from each other, to the depth of 



255 



four or five inches. The best lime is the later end of March, in a light 
soil. The roots may be taken up for use in September, and ihe 
whole crop housed in October. When kept in sand in a dry place, 
they continue the whole winter very good. 



2. HEDYSARUM OBSCUllUM, 

CREEPING-ROOTED HEDYSARUM. 

Tins genus contains plants of the herbaceous flowering kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Diaclelphia Decaiidria, and ranks 
in the natural order of Papilionacea-. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianthium, 
half-five-cleft: clefts subulate, upright, permanent: the corolla is 
papilionaceous, streaked : banner reflex-compressed, ovale-oblong, 
emarginate, long : wings oblong, narrower than the other petals, 
straight: keel straight, compressed, broader outwardly, transversely 
blunt, from the base to the swelling part bifid : the stamina have dia- 
delphous filaments, (simple and nine-cleft,) bent in at a right angle: 
anthers roundish, compressed: the pistillum is a slender germ, com- 
pressed, linear: style subulate, bent in with the stamens: stigma very 
simple: the pericarpium is a legume with roundish, compressed 
joints, two-valved, and containing one seed : the seed kidney-shaped 
and solitary. 

The species chiefly cultivated are: 1. H. Alhagi, Prickly Hedy- 
sarum; 2. H. Canadense, Canadian Hedysarum; 3. H. gi/raiis. Sen- 
sitive Hedysarum ; 4. H. coiwiarium, Common Hedysarum, or 
French Honeysuckle; 5. H. f eiiiosum, Waxed-podded Hedysarum; 
6. H. humile, Dwarf Hedysarum ; 7. H. sjmiosissimimi, Prickly Hedy- 
sarum. 

The first has the stems shrubby, about three feet high, branching 
out on every side: the leaves are shaped like those of broad-leaved 



256 



Knot-grass, very smooth, of a pale green colour, on short foot-stalks. 
Under these come out thorns, near an inch long, of a reddish brown 
colour. The flowers come out from the side of the branches in small 
clusters, are of a purple colour in the middle, and reddish about the 
rims. It is a native of the Levant. 

The second species is an upright plant, and mostly smooth: the 
stem streaked and angular: the leaflets are lanceolate: the stipules 
awl-shaped. It is perennial, and a native of Virginia, &c. flowering 
in July and August. 

The third has a branching perennial root (biennial, annual): the 
stem shrubby, three feet high, wand-likc, upright, very smooth, 
round, without knots: the leaves are alternate, petioled, hanging 
down or spreading, often vertical, sometimes simple, but usually 
ternate, especially in adult plants: the middle leaflet lanceolate, long, 
flat, quite entire, very smooth, veined; the side ones very small, and 
seeming rather to be appendicles than leaflets; they are on short 
petioles, which are remarkable for a motion peculiar to them. The 
flowers many and nodding. It is a native of Bengal. 

The fourth species has a biennial root: the stems from two to 
three feet high, hollow, smooth, and branching: the leaves are com- 
posed of five or six pairs of oval leaflets, terminated by an odd one: 
they are alternate, and from the angles which they form with the 
stem and branches, peduncles come out five or six inches in length, 
sustaining spikes of beautiful red flowers, which open in June and 
July, and perfect seeds in September. It is a native of Spain, &c. 

There is a variety with w^hitc flowers. 

The fifth species is annual, and has some resemblance to the 
foregoing, but is much smaller: the stalks rise near a foot high, and 
the leaves are composed of two or three pairs of ovate leaflets, ter- 
minated by an odd one: the flowers come out in spikes at the top 
of the stalks, and are of a pale red, intermixed with a little blue. 
They appear in July, and arc succeeded by jointed pods. It is a 
native of the Levant. 

The sixth has a perennial root: the stems half a foot in length, 
usually with one branch and leaf only: the leaflets obovate-oblong. 



257 



villose underneath: the spike ovate. It is a native of the South of 
France, Sec. flowering in July and August. 

The seventh is an annual plant: the leaflets four or five pairs, 
with an odd one, narrow and oblong: the stem terminated by small 
spikes of purple flowers, which are succeeded by small rough le- 
gumes. It is a native of Spain, &c. 

Culture. — All these plants are capable of being raised by sowing 
the seeds in the early spring. 

In the first sort they should be sown in pots of light earth, and 
plunged in a moderate hot-bed. When the plants are of some 
growth they should be removed into separate pots, and be replunged 
into a very moderate hot-bed, being properly shaded till they are 
well rooted. They should afterwards be gradually inured to the 
open air, being protected in winter as there may be occasion. 

The seeds are often long in coming up. 

In the second sort the seed may be sown in the early spring, as 
April, on a bed of light fresh earth, or where they are to remain. In 
the first case they should be removed where they are to grow in the 
autumn. These plants should not be often removed afterwards. 

The third sort is raised in the same manner as the first, and 
should have free air in the summer, and be protected occasionally 
in the winter. 

The other sorts are all increased in the same manner as the 
second, being pricked out while young, and in the autumn removed 
to the places where they are to grow and flower. 

As the biennial sorts either decay or dwindle after flowering, they 
should be raised in fresh supplies every year from seed. 

These plants are very ornamental in the beds, borders, clumps, 
and other parts of pleasure-grounds, and some of them among other 
potted plants. 



PLATE XXXIII. 



1. LAVATERA TRIMESTRIS. 

ANNUAL LAVATERA. 



This genus contains plants of the herbaceous shrubby perennial 
kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Monadelphia Polyandria, and 
ranks in the natural order of Columnifera. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a double perianthium: exte- 
rior one-leafed, trifid, obtuse, short, permanent: interior one-leafed, 
half five-cleft, more acute, more erect, permanent: the corolla has 
five obcordate fiat petals, spreading, atiixed below to the tube of the 
stamens: the stamina have numerous filaments, coalescing be ow into 
a tube; loose above (gaping at the tip and surface of the tube): an- 
thers reniform: the pislillum is an orbicular germ: style cylindric, 
short: stigmas several (seven to fourteen), bristly, length of the style: 
the pericarpium is an orbicular capsule, composed of as many cells 
as there are stigmas, bivalve, and articulated in a whorl round 
the columnar receptacle, at length falling ofi": the seeds solitary and 
reniform. 

The species cultivated are: 1. L. Oretica, Cretan Lavatera; 
2. L. trimestris. Common Annual Lavatera; 3. L. Tliuringiaca, Great- 
flowered Lavatera; 4. L. arborea. Tree Lavatera, or Mallow; 5. L. 
Olbia, Downy-leaved Lavatera; 6. L. triloba, Three-lobed Lavatera; 
7. L. Lusitanicay Portuguese Lavatera. 

The first has an annual fibrous root of thick fibres, a foot in 
length, with innumerable other capillary fibres: the stem round, 
rugged, five feet high, branched: the leaves on long petioles, very 
soft, tomentose, toothed, seven-angled, the angles of the upper ones 



\ 

I 

^1 



259 



sharper: the stipules lanceolate, ciliate, bowing at bottom and then 
erect: the flowers axillary, about four together, on upright peduncles: 
the outer calyx cup-shaped, with ovate segments : inner a little 
longer, five-cornered above, with lanceolate segments: the corolla 
twice the length of the calyx, pale blue, with oblong, emarginate 
petals: the germ orbicular-tiatted, ten-grooved: the stigmas ten: the 
fruit smooth, within the calyx: the capsules ten, round a column 
terminated by a hemisphere with a very small point at top, disappear- 
ing when the fruit is ripe, and leaving a hole in the middle of the 
capsules, which then turn black. It is a native of the island of Candia 
or Crete, flowering in July. 

It varies with red flowers, with white flowers, and with purple 
flowers. 

The second has also an annual root, white, with spreading beards: 
the stem round, two feet high, branched, the lower branches almost 
horizontal: the leaves crenale-toothed, smooth, on long petioles, 
gradually narrowed towards the tip: stipules ovate-lanceolate, ciliate, 
bowed at bottom and then straight: the flowers solitary, axillary, on 
peduncles shorter than the petiole: outer calyx semi-trifid, M'ith 
keeled segments; inner larger, with lanceolate segi^ ents, curled at 
the edge: the corolla large, spreading, bell-shaped, pale-flesh- colour, 
with whitish lines: petals broader above, crenate, frequently rolled 
up, the edges of the claws deep purple: the germ very smooth: 
the style multifid: the stigmas pale-flesh-coloured, longer than the 
tube, thirteen to eighteen : the fruit hemispherical, convex beneath, 
covered at top with a circular concave, smooth lid or peltate um- 
brella: there are about twenty capsules in a whorl; they are brown, 
closed all round and not opening, with a longitudinal raised line 
along the back, elegantly marked on the sides with flexuose streaks 
drawn from the circumference to the centre: the seeds are ferrugi- 
nous. It is a native of the south of Europe, &c. flowering from July 
to September. 

There are several varieties. 

The third has the stem five or six feet high, woolly, branched: the 
lower leaves heart-shaped, crenate, roundish-lobed: upper hastate, 



260 



on short petioles: the stipules lanceolate: the flowers axilhny, soli- 
tary, peduncled; peduncles longer than the leaf: the calyxes sub- 
tomentose: the segments of ihe outer heart-shaped, with a very 
sharp point; of the inner oblong acute: the corolla large, spreading, 
pale violet or purplish, shaj)ed like those of the Marsh-inallow, but 
larger: petals eniarginatc: the capsules about twenty (fourteen) in a 
wing of a papery substance, somewhat sugged, about a columnar 
receptacle, which has many wings from the permanent sides of the 
capsules, like the cogs of a mill-wheel, ending in a conical awlr 
shaped point : the seeds flatted a little, smooth, subcinereous or 
brown. It is a native of Sweden, flowering from July to September. 

The foui th species rises with a strong thick stalk the height of 
eight OF ten feet (in gardens), dividing into many branches at the 
top: in its wild state, when largest, from four to six feet high, and as 
much as four inches in diameter: the leaves are alternate, numerous, 
cordate, roundish-seven-angled (some five, and others three-angled), 
the angles blunt, soft as velvet, shorter than the petioles: the stipules 
short, smooth, acuminate at the tip, broad at the base: the flowers 
mostly in pairs, sometimes three together, on upright peduncles an 
inch and a half in length: the outer calyx ovate at the base, divided 
halfway into three broad blunt segments; inner only half the size, 
divided half way into five sharp segments: the corolla purplish red, 

fith dark blotches at the base, spreading bell-shaped (like that of 
the common Mallow), an inch or more in diameter: the petals 
broader at top, narrow at the base, so that the calyx appears between 
the claws: the cylinder of filaments purple, woolly at the base: the 
germ very smooth: the style usually eight cleft at top : the stigmas 
revolute, reddish: the ring or whorl of fruits is seven or eight cap- 
suled: the common receptacle awl-shaped, with a conoid globule at 
top, and small crescent shaped lamellae at the base and the inter- 
stices of the capsules: the capsules are reniformed-rounded, sharply 
three-cornered, membranaceous, wrinkled, closed on all sides, pale 
bay-coloured, not opening: the seeds kidney-shaped, and ash- 
coloured. It is a native of Italy, &c. flowering from June or July to 
September or October. 



261 



The fifth has a round branched stem, five feet high, villose at top, 
reddish: the leaves soft, whitish, tomentose, unequally serrate; the 
lower subcordate-hastate, five-angled ; the upper ovate, threc-cusped, 
the middle lobe narrowed, acute, oblong: the stipules ovate-lanceo- 
late, villose: the flowers on short peduncles, axillary, solitary, very 
seldom two together; terminating ones in a spike: the outer calyx 
ovate, with roundish-acute segments; inner larger, with lanceolate- 
acute segments: the corolla large, spreading very much, reddish- 
purple: the petals with narrowed claws, covered with Avhite hairs, 
inserted into a flesh-coloured tube: the stamens purple: the germ 
roundish-compressed, with twenty grooves : the style divided into 
about twenty parts: the stigmas long, recurved: the capsules about 
twenty, black, smooth, fixed in a ring about a thick striated cone: 
when the seeds are ripe, that part which is next to the axis appears 
naked, on account of the pellicle which forms the internal part of 
the capsule adhering to the axis. According to Linnaeus, ihe leaves 
of the first year are very large, and those of the following much 
smaller, which is a circumstance common to this with other plants of 
the same natural order. It is a native of the south of France, 
flowering from June to October. 

The sixth species has a round branched stem, from three to four 
feet in height: the leaves are alternate, pelioled, shorter than the 
petioles, roundish, but with the border so rolled back as to appear 
triangular : the stipules cordate, broad, acuminate, serrate : the 
flowers axillary : three peduncles, mostly onc-flowcred, in each axil, 
upright, shorter than the petiole: the segments of the outer calyx 
broad-cordate, acuminate : the inner calyx twice as large, five- 
cornered, acuminate, with the corners prominent: corolla large, 
spreading, pale purple, with the claws white, hairy: the capsules 
about fifteen, in a ring about a column ending in a point. According 
to Linnaeus, the whole plant is tomentose, being covered wiih very 
small glutinous hairs, with other larger ones stellate at top mixed 
among them. It is a nativ^e of France and Spain, flowering from 
June to September. 



262 



The seventh is a native of Portugal, flowering in August and 
September. 

Cult uj-e. —The first two, or annual sorts, are readily increased, by 
sowing the seeds in a light soil in the places where the plants are to 
remain, or in pots, in the spring season, as about the latter end of 
March, in patches of four or five in each, giving them water occa- 
sionally when the weather is dry. When the plants have attained a 
little growth, they should be thinned out to one or two of the 
strongest plants. When any are to be removed to other places, it 
should be done at this period, and with a little earth about the roots, 
due water and shade being given; but they seldom succeed well by 
transplanting. 

All the other shrubby perennial sorts may likewise be increased 
by sowing the seeds, and managing the plants in the same manner. 

Most of these sorts will not last more than two years in this 
climate, unless the soil be dry, when they continue three or four. 

They in general require a warm dry situation, or to have their 
roots covered by old tan, or the protection of the green-house during 
the severity of the winter season. 

They are all highly ornamental in different parts of pleasure- 
grounds. The annual sorts have great beauty, in their flowers being 
large, numerous, and conspicuous, and are proper where large 
showy-flowering plants are required. The perennial kinds arc also 
suitable for large borders and shrubbery compartments, having large, 
straight, upright, durable stems, terminated by branchy bushy heads, 
and very large soft foliage, that form a fine variety in assemblage 
with other plants, though their flowers are often hidden by their 
large leaves. 



263 



2. LATH YR US SAT IV US. 

BLUE-FLOWERED LATHYRUS. 

This genus contains plants of tlie herbaceous climbing flowery 
kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Diadelphia Decandria, and ranks 
in the natural order of Papilionacea or Leguminoscc. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianthium, 
half five- cleft, bell-shaped : divisions lanceolate, sharp : the two 
upper ones shorter ; the lowest longer : the corolla papilionaceous: 
standard obcordate, very large, reflex on the sides and tip: wings 
oblong, hinulate, short, obtuse: keel half-orbiculate, size of the 
wings, and wider than the wings, gaping inwards in the middle : the 
stamina have diadelphous filaments, (single and nine-cleft) rising 
upwards: anthers, roundish: the pistillum is a compressed germ, 
oblong, linear : style erected upwards, flat, wider above, with sharp 
tip: stigma, from the middle of the style to the tip villose in front: 
the pericarpium is a legume, very long, cylindric or compressed, 
acuminate, one-celled, bivalve: the seeds several, cylindric, globose, 
or but little cornered. 

The species cultivated are: 1. L. odor at u a, Sweet Latliyrus, or 
Pea; 2. L. Tingitanus, Tangier Lathy rus, or Pea; '6. L. /atifolius, 
Broad-leaved Lathyrus, or Everlasting Pea. 

Several other species may be cultivated where variety is wanted. 

The first is an annual plant, which rises from three to four feet 
high by means of its long claspers or tendrils: the flower-stalks come 
out at the joints, are about six inches long, and sustain two large 
flowers, which have a strong odour, and are succeeded by oblong 
hairy pods, having four five or roundish seeds in each. It is a native 
of Sicily. 



264 



There aie several varieties; as the purple-flowered, the white- 
flowered, the variegated or painted lady, sweet-scented, and the 
scarlet. 

The second species has the stem four or five feet high: the leaf- 
lets veined: the peduncles short, sustaining two large flowers with 
purple standards, the wings and keel bright red: the legumes long, 
jointed, containing several seeds. 

Martyn observes, that the whole plant is very smooth: the stem 
branched, running out on each side into a slender sharp wing: the 
petioles angular, ending in bifid, trifid, or simple tendrils : the stipules 
lanceolate, acuminate, produced downwards into an earlet, similar 
but much smaller: the peduncles sometimes one-flowered. It is a 
native of Barbary, flowering in June and July; and although it has 
not the agreeable scent, or variety of colours, or continuance in blow 
of the Sweet Pea, it is usually sown in gardens with other annual 
seeds. 

The third has a perennial root: the stalks several, thick, climbing 
by means of tendrils to the height of six or eight feet, or even higher 
in woods: these die to the ground in autumn, and new ones rise in 
the spring from the same root: the leaves stiff", marked with three or 
five strong ribs, rolled in at the edge, blunt at the end, but termina- 
ting in a little point or bristle; they are always in pairs, and on a 
winged petiole; at the base of this are large stipules, shaped some- 
what like the head of a halbert: the tendrils multifid or branched: 
the peduncles eight or nine inches long. Each flower has an awl- 
shaped bracte at the base of the pedicel: the corolla pale purplish 
rose-colour: the legumes an inch and half long, and half an inch in 
breadth. It is a native of many parts of Europe, flowering at the 
end of June and beginning of July. 

It is a showy plant for shrubberies, wilderness quarters, arbours, 
and trellis-work; but too large and rampant for borders of the com- 
mon flower-garden. 

There are many varieties ; as the red-flowered, the purple- 
flowered, the scarlet-flowered, and the large-flowered. 

Culture. — These plants may be readily raised, by sowing the seeds 



265 



of the different sorts in the autumn or spring seasons at different 
times, in patches of six or eight together, in the places where they 
are to grow. Where the soil is light and dry, the autumn is the best 
season, as the plants appear more early, but in other cases the spring 
should be preferred. Tlie plants afterwards only require to be kepi 
clean from weeds, and be properly supported by branchy sticks. 

The last sort may likewise be increased by transplanting the 
roots in the autumn; but the plants in this way are seldom so good 
as by seeds. 

The two first sorts must be sown annually, but the last will 
remain many years. 

It is the practice with the gardeners who raise the first sorts for 
the London markets, to sow them in the autumn, in pots, and secure 
them from severe weather, by placing them in hot- bed frames; by 
which means they can bring them much more early to market. 
They may be continued in flower the whole summer by repeated 
sowings in the spring. When sown in pots they should be watered 
frequently. 

They are all highly ornamental in the borders, clumps, and other 
parts of pleasure-grounds, when properly intermixed in their species 
and different varieties. 



2 M 



PLATE XXXIV. 



LYCHNIS CHALCEDONICA, 

SCARLET LYCHNIS. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy, herbaceous, flowery, 
perennial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Decandria Pentagynia^ and ranks 
in the natural order of Caryophyllei. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianthium, 
oblong, membranaceous, five-toothed, permanent: the corolla has 
five petals: claws the length of the calyx, flat, margined: border 
often cloven, flat: the stamina have ten filaments, longer than the 
calyx, alternately shorter, each of these fixed to a claw of each 
petal: anthers incumbent: the pistillum is a subovate germ: styles 
five, awl-shaped, longer than the stamens: stigmas reflex against the 
sun, pubescent: the pericarpium is a capsule approaching to an 
ovate form, covered, one, three, or five celled, five-valved: the 
seeds very many, and roundish. 

The species cultivated are: 1. L. chalcedonica, Scarlet Lychnis; 
'2. L. Flos cHcu/i, Red- flowered Lychnis, Meadow Pink, or Ragged 
Robin ; 3. L. coronata, Chinese Lychnis ; 4. L. viscaria, Viscous 
Lichnis, or Catchfly ; 5. L. diurna, Rose-flowered Lychnis, Wild 
Red Campion, or Red Bachelor's Buttons; 6. L. vespertina, White- 
flowered Lychnis, Wild White Campion, or White Bachelor's 
Buttons. 

The first has a perennial root: the stems three feet high, upright, 
stiff, round, jointed, hairy : at every joint are two large leaves of a 
brownish green colour: the flowers terminating in a large flal-lopped 
tuft, consisting of several bundles: the corolla is of a scarlet or bright 



267 



red orange colour, varying to white, blush, and variable, that is, pale 
red, growing paler till it becomes almost white. It is a native of 
Russia, &c. 

Besides its varying as above, there is a variety with very double 
flowers of a beautiful scarlet colour: it has a perennial root, from 
which arise two, three, or four stalks, according to the strenglii of 
the roots, which in lich moist land grow upwards of four feet iiigh; 
the stalks are strong, erect, and hairy, being garnished the whole 
length with spear-shaped leaves sitting close to the stalks, placed 
opposite; and just above each pair of leaves there are four smaller 
leaves standing round the stalk: the flowers are produced in close 
clusters sitting upon the top of the stalk: when the roots are strong, 
the clusters of flowers are very large, and make a fine appearance, 
coming out the latter end of June, and in moderate seasons continue 
near a month in beauty. The stalks decay in autumn, and new ones 
arise in the following spring. 

The second has also a perennial root, bronwish white, subacrid : 
the stems from one to three feet high, upright, somewhat angular 
and grooved, swelled at the joints, purplish: they are procumbent, 
iind become upright at the time of flowering: the stem-leaves oppo- 
site, connate, lanceolate, keeled, upright, smooth: the peduncles 
opposite, with one generally between them: the calyx ten-angled, 
of a deep purple colour: the corolla pink or purplish red, varying 
sometimes to white: the border of the petals dividing into four seg- 
ments, of which the two outer are shorter and narrowei'i the claws 
have two small spear-shaped teeth at the top: the capsule one- 
celled, the mouth having five teeth which turn back: the seeds 
flattish, rugged, of a brown ash-colour. It is a native of most parts 
of Europe, flowering in May and June. 

In the third the whole plant is smooth: the stem simple, round, 
upright, a foot high: the leaves opposite, embracing, oblong-ovate, 
acute, entire, an inch or a little more in length : the flowers aggre- 
gate, about three, sessile: the calyx is ten-angled: the petals are 
gashed, crenate multifid: the filaments the length of the tube of the 
corolla, filiform: the germ superior: styles five, much shorter than the 



2t>8 

lube of the corolla. It is a native of China and Japan, flowering in 
June and July. 

The fourth species has long, narrow, grass-like leaves, which 
come out from the root without ordei", sitting close to the ground ; 
between these come up straight single slalks, which in good ground 
rise a foot and half high; at each joint of the stalk come out two 
leav^es opposite, of the same form as the lower, but decreasing in 
their size upwards; under each pair of leaves, for an inch in length, 
there sweats out of the stalk a glutinous liquor, which is almost as 
clammy as birdlime, so that ants and other insects which happen to 
light upon these places, or attempt to creep up to the flowers, are 
fastened to the stalk; Avhence the title of Catchfly: the root is 
perennial, yellowish on the outside, white within: the stem round, 
not grooved, smooth, being terminated by a cluster of purple flowers, 
and from the two upper joints come out on each side of the stalk a 
cluster of the same flowers, so that the whole forms a sort of loose 
spike: these appear in the beginning of May, and the single flowers 
are succeeded by roundish seed-vessels, which are full of sniall 
angular seeds, ripening in July. It is a native of most parts of 
Europe. 

The fifth has likewise a perennial root, the thickness of the little 
finger, white, of a slightly acrid and bitter taste, furnished with 
numerous fibres: the stalks are several, upright, from one to three 
feet high, round, hirsute, jointed, purple, the joints swelled: the 
uppermost branches forked : the leaves opposite, connate, ovate- 
acuminate, hirsute, slightly nerved: the calyx is hairy, striated, pur- 
ple, five-toothed; in the female more turgid: the petals jjurple^ 
obcordate: at the bottom of the lamina or broad spreading part are 
two or four small upright white blunt appendicles: the germ is ovate, 
surrounded by a nectary at the base: the capsule one-celled, with 
ten teeth at the mouth: seeds gray, somewhat rugged. It is a native 
of many parts of Europe. 

There is a variety with double flowers, cultivated in gardens by 
the name of Red Bachelor's Buttons, which is an ornamental plant, 
and continues long in flower. 



26'9 



Tlie sixth species has the stalks branched out much more than in 
the fifth sort, being Aveaker and more flaccid: the leaves are longer 
and more veined: the flowers stand singly upon pretty long pedun- 
cles, and are not produced in clusters as in that; it is very hairy, the 
calyx is more swollen, and it flowers a month after it. And Dr. 
Withering remarks, that the petals on the male plant have the laminte 
divided down to the claws, but in the female they are only cloven 
half way down. Dr. John Siblhorp also states, that ihe capsules 
in the fiflh are roundish, and that its scenlless flowers stand open 
through the day; while this has conical capsules, and its odoriferous 
flowers open only towards evening. Tliis also prefers a dry soil, 
while that spreads in a moist one. It is common in Siberia. 

There are varieties with purple or blush-coloured flowers; with 
quadrifid petals; with hermaphrodite flowers; with double flowers, 
cultivated in gardens by the name of Double White Bachelor's 
Buttons. 

Culture. — ^I'hey may be increased with facility iu the single sorts 
by seed, and parting the roots; and in the doubles by dividing or 
slipping the roots, and sometimes by cuttings of their stalks. 

I'he seed should be sown in the early spring, as in March, in a 
bed or border of light earth, in an eastern aspect, each sort separate, 
raking them in lightly, or they may be sown in small drills. The 
plants come up in two or three weeks, when they should have occa- 
sional waterings and hand weedings: and when the plants are two 
or three inches high, be planted out in beds or borders, in rows six 
inches asunder, watering them till fresh rooted, letting them remain 
till the autumn or following spring, when they should be transplanted 
where they are to remain. 

, Both the single and double may be increased by slipping the roots ; 
but it is more particularly applicable to the double sort, as they can- 
not with certainty be obtained from seed: the season for performing 
this work is the autumn, after the stalks decay, when the whole root 
may either be taken up, and divided into as many slips as are fur- 
nished with proper root-fibres, or the main root stand, and as many 
of the outer offsets as seem convenient be slipped off": these slips, 



2?0 



when strong, should be planted at once where they are to remain ; 
but when rather small and weak, it is better to plant them in nursery- 
rows, half a foot asunder, to remain a year, and then transplant them 
for good where they are to stand. 

The planting of cuttings of the stalks is mostly practised for the 
double scarlet sort, when it increases but sparingly by offsets of the 
I'oot. It is performed in summer, when the stalks are well advanced 
in growth, but before they flower, or have become hard and woody. 
Some of them should be cut off close to the bottom, and divided into 
lengths of from three to five joints, planting them in an easterly 
border of rich moist loamy earth, two-thirds of their length into the 
ground, leaving only one joint or eye out, watering them directly, 
and repeating it occasionally with necessary shade in hot weather. 
They will be well rooted, and form proper plants for transplanting 
in the autumn. If the cuttings, as soon as planted, are covered 
down close with hand-glasses, it will greatly promote their rooting, 
so as to form stronger plants before the winter season comes on. 

The only culture they require afterwards is clearing them from 
weeds in summer, and supporting with stakes them which need it, 
cutting down and clearing away the decayed stalks in the autumn. 

Of the third sort, as being rather more tender, some plants should 
be planted in pots, for moving under the protection of a frame or 
green-house in the winter season. 

They are all very ornamental for the pleasure-grounds, particu- 
larly the doubles, and prosper in any common soil, remaining in all 
weathers unhurt, being of many years duration in root; and, when 
of some standing, send up many stalks every spring, terminated by 
numerous flowers, making a fine appearance in summer. The Scarlet 
Double Lychnis claims the preference, though the single scarlet sort 
is also very showy. And all the other species in their respective 
double-flowered states are ornamental. They are all kept in the 
nurseries for sale. In planting out, the tallest growers should be 
placed the most backward, and the others more towards the front. 



271 



2. LEUCOJUM VERNUM. 

SPRING SNOW-FLAKE. 

This genus contains plants of tlie bulbous-rooted flowery peren- 
nial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Hexandria Monogynia, and 
ranks in the natural order of Spathacea 

The characters are : that the calyx is an oblong, obtuse, com- 
pressed spathe, gaping on the flat side, withering: the corolla is bell=- 
shapedrexpanded : petals six, ovate, flat, conjoined at the base, with 
the tips thickish and stiflish: the stamina have six setaceous fila- 
ments, very short: anthers oblong, obtuse, quadrangular, upright, 
distant: the pistillum is a roundish inferior germ: style clavate, 
obtuse: stigma setaceous, upright, sharp, longer than the stamens: 
the pericarpium is a top-shaped capsule, three-celled, ihrce-v^alved : 
the seeds several, roundish. 

The species cultivated are: 1. L. vemuni. Great Spring Snow- 
drop; 2. L. astiviwi. Summer Snow-drop; 3. L. aiitumnale, Autumnal 
Snow-drop; 4. L. strumosum, Many-flowered Cape Leucojum- 

The first has an oblong bulb, shaped like that of the DaffVjdil, 
but smaller: the leaves are flat, deep green, four or five in number, 
broader and longer than those of the Common Snow-drop: the 
scape angular, near a foot high, hollow and channelled: towards the 
top comes out a whitish sheath, opening on the side, out of which 
come out two or three floAvers, hanging on slender peduncles: the 
corolla is much larger than that of the Common Snow-drop; and the 
ends of the petals are green. They appear in March, and have an 
agreeable scent, not much unlike those of the Hawthorn. 

The flowers, which at first sight resemble those of the Common 
Snow-drop, are easily distinguished by the absence of the Three- 



272 



leaved Nectary: they do not come out so soon by a month. It is 
called by iMi". Curtis, Spring Snon^-jiake. It is a native of Italy, kc. 

The second species has a bulb the size of a Chesnut, somewhat 
ovate, outwardly pale-brown, inwardly white; coats numerous, thin, 
and ciosel}'^ compacted. But Miller asserts, that it is nearly as large 
as that of the Common Daffodil, and very like it in shape: that the 
leaves also are not unlike those of the Daffodil, more in number than 
in the first, and keeled at the bottom, where they fold over each 
other, and em!)race the stalk: the leaves are about a foot and half 
in lenglh, upright, nearly linear, almost an inch in breadth, obtuse; 
the lower ones shortest: the scape a little higher than the leaves, 
hollow, slightly flailed, Iwo-edged, a little twisted, one side some- 
times obtuse, the other acute: the peduncles for the most part five 
from the same shealh, each supporting a single tiower, angular, and 
of unequal lengths: the flowers are pendulous, growing all one way^ 
having litlle scent: the petals are while, finely grooved within, not at 
all uniting at bottom ; the tips thickish, a liltle puckered, and marked 
with a green spot. The flowers appear at the end of April or the 
beginning of Maj', and there is a succession of them during three 
weeks, or longer in cool weather. It is a native of Hungary, &c. 

To distinguish it from Galanthus, Mr. Curtis names it Summer 
Snow-Jiake; and in gardens it is known by the wdvnQ Great Summer 
SnoziD-drop; Late ov Tall Snow-drop. 

The third has a thick bulb for the size of the plant, composed of 
many glutinous coats, bitter, covered with a whitish membrane: the 
scape slender, brownish, a hand in height, supporting two or three 
small white flowers (sometimes onl}^ one), hanging down, having no 
smell. It is distinguished by its four or five capillary leaves, which 
begin to spring up after the flower is past, when the seeds are ripen- 
ing, and sometimes after the heads are ripe. They abide all the 
winter and spring following, and wither away in the beginning of 
summer; leaving the scape to appear naked: the flowers are a little 
reddish at the botlom next the stalk. It is a native of Portugal, 
flowering in September. 

The fourth has a roundish white bulb, less than a hazel nut: the 



273 



leaves two or lliree, inclosed at the base in a white sheath, filiform, 
doited with white, keeled at hotloin, flat, or a little convex on the 
back, weak, and more or less lying on the ground : scape flexuose- 
erect, slender, about half a foot high, roundish, terminated by a 
spreading umbel of from three to seven flowers: the valves of the 
spathe lanceolate, acule, membranaceous, opposite, sometimes equal, 
sometimes not, pale: the peduncles filiform, one-flowered, unequal, 
from one to two inches in length: flowers without scent, coming out 
successively: petals while within, purplish Avithout, oblong, lanceo- 
late, three lines in length; the three inner bluntish; the three outer 
acute, with a blunt greenish keel: anthers purple: germ three-cor- 
nered, green: style white, swelled out at bottom into a body larger 
than the germ, plaited at bottom; thence awl-shaped, bluntly three- 
cornered, the length of the stamens: stigma obscurely trifid : capsule 
subglobular, three-cornered: the whole plant is smooth. It is a 
native of the Cape, flowering in November. 

Culture. — These plants are readily increased by off-sets from the 
roots, which should be separated from the old roots about every third 
year, in the summer season, as soon as their leaves begin to decay, 
in the same manner as other bulbous roots. 

They may also be increased by seeds, which should be sown in 
the latter end of August, in a border of light bog earth. The plants 
should remain in this situation till the second summer, and be then 
taken up at the proper period and planted in beds, till they begin to 
flower, when they should be removed into the bo-rders. In this way 
they are three or four years before they flower. 

The best method is, to procure the roots from the nurserymen, 
and plant them in the beginning of the autumn, in an eastern or 
northern border, where the soil is of a boggy quality, in patches of 
three or four together, in the fronts, putting them in to the depth of 
about three or four inches. 

The ofl'-sets should be planted out in beds a year or two after 
being taken off", till fit to be set out for flowering. 

A soft loamy soil, or a mixture of loam and bog earth, are the 

2 N 



274 



most suited to their healtby growth. The last sort requires protection 
in the house with other Cape bulbs. 

By planting them in the different aspects mentioned, a longer 
succcesion of flowers may be produced. 

They are very ornamental in the fronts of the borders, or the 
sides of the lawns, and other parts near the house. 



3. LYSIMACHIA NUMMULARIA. 

CREEPING MONEYWORT. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy herbaceous biennial 
and perennial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Penfaiidria Monogyniay and ranks 
in the natural order of Rotacete. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a five-parted perianthium, 
acute, erect, permanent: the corolla one-petalled, wheel-shaped: 
tube none: border five-parted, flat: divisions ovate-oblong: the 
stamina have five awl-shaped filaments, opposite to the divisions of 
the corolla: anthers acuminate: the pistillum is a roundish germ: 
style fililbrm, the length of the stamens: stigma obtuse: the pericar- 
pium is a globular capsule, mucronate, one-celled, ten-valvcd (five- 
valved): the seeds very many, and angular: the receptacle globular, 
very large, dotted, (free.) 

The species cultivated are: 1. L. Ephemerum, Willow-leaved 
Loose-slrife; 2. L. dubia, Purple-flowered Loose-strife; 3. L. stricfa) 
Upright Loose-strife. 

The first has a perennial root: the stems several, upright, more 
than three feet high: the leaves narrrow, smooth, and at the base of 
these come out short side branches, with smaller leaves of the same 
shape: the flowers are produced in a long close upright spike, at the 



273 

top of the stalk: the corolla is white: the stamens longer than the 
corolla. It is very distinct from the second sort by its size, five- 
valved capsules, white flowers, and leaves without dots. It is a 
native of Spain, flowering from July to September. 

The second species is an annual (biennial) plant, too tender for 
the open air of this climate: it agrees with the first sort in habit, 
structure, and glaucous colour: it has no dots under the leaves: the 
petals are acuminate, a little longer than the calyx, converging, and 
deep red: the stamens are longer than the coroTla, with brown an- 
thers: and the flowers sessile in a spike. It is nearly alhed to the 
first sort, and is a native of the Levant, flowering in July and August. 

The third has the stem erect, four-cornered, smooth: the leaves 
quite entire, acute, smooth, dotted: the racemes simple: the pedi- 
cels in a sort of whorl, filiform, an inch long: the bractes lanceolate, 
very short: the divisions of the calyx lanceolate, smooth, dotted with 
red: the petals three times as long as the calyx, yellow, with red 
stripes and dots, and two dark-red spots: the stamens shorter than 
the corolla. It is a native of North America, flowering in July and 
August. 

Culture. — These may all be easily increased either by sowing the 
seeds in the autumn, as soon as they are fully ripened, on a moist 
border, with an eastern aspect; or by parting the roots, and planting 
them out at the same season, in the same situations. 

The plants should afterwards be kept clean, and in the first 
method removed into the situations where they are to remain in the 
autumn. 

In the second sort the seeds should be sown on a hot-bed. 

The third sort is increased by planting the bulbs thrown out from 
the axils of the leaves. 

They all aff()rd ornament and variety in the borders and other 
.parts of pleasure-grounds. 



PLATE XXXV. 



1. LOBELIA CARDINALIS. 

SCARLET LOBELIA, OR CARDINAL's FLOWER. 

This genus contains plants of the herbaceous and under shrubby 
perenial kind. 

It belongs to the class and oi'der Syngcnesia Monogamia., and ranks 
in the natural order of Campanacece. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianlhiuni, 
five-cleft, very small: growing round the gcrni, withering: tootlilets 
nearly equal: the two superior ones looking more upward: the co- 
rolla one-petalled, irregular: tube cylindric, longer than the calyx, 
divided longitudinally above: border five-parted, divisions lanceo- 
late; of M'hich the two superior ones arc smaller, less reflex, more 
deeply divided, constituting an upper lip: the three inferior ones 
more spreading, frequently larger: the stamina have five awl-shaped 
filaments, the length of the lube of the petal, connate above: anthers 
connate into an oblong cylinder, gaping five ways at the base: the 
pistillum is a sharp-pointed, inferior germ: style cylindric, length of 
the stamens: stigma obtuse, hispid: the pericarpium an ovale cap- 
sule, two or three-celled, two or three-valved, gaping at the top, girt 
by the calyx: dissepiments contrary to the valves: the seeds a great 
many, very small: receptacle conic. 

'i'he species cultivated are : 1. L. cardinalis, Scarlet Lobelia, or 
Cardinal's Flower; 2. L. siphUitica, Blue Lobelia, or Cardinal Flower; 
3. L. longiflora, Long-liowered I^obelia ; 4. L. pinijolia. Pine-leaved 
Lobelia; 5. L. injiata. Bladder-podded Lobelia. 

In the first, the root is composed of many white fleshy fibres : the 
lower leaves nre oblong, and of a dark purplish colour on their upper 



Tl2>5 




277 



side: the stalks are erect, about a foot and a half liigli, with leaves 
about three inches long, and an inch and half broad in the middle, 
on very short pelioles and placed alternately: the stalk is terminated 
bj a spike (raceme) of flowers, of an exceeding beautifid scarlet 
colour; they have a pretty long tube, M'hich is a little incur\ed, and 
at the top they are cut longitudinally into five segments ; tht; two 
upper, which are the smallest, are greatly reflexed; the three under, 
which form the lower lip, are longer, and spread open. They appear 
at the end of July and in August, when they make a fine appearance 
for a month or more, and when the autumn proves favourable produce 
good seeds. It grows nalurally in North America. 

The second species has a perennial root: the stem simple, 
from a foot to two feet in height, and upwards, strong, simple, smooth, 
with angles formed by the decurrent edges of the leaves having stifF- 
ish hairs on them: the leaves are alternate, sessile, somewhat rugged: 
the flowers axillary, solitary, numerous, large, on short peduncles, 
forming altogether a long spike of a pale blue colour. It is a native 
of Virginia, flowering from August to October. 

The third is an annual herbaceous elegant plant, seldom above 
fourteen or sixteen inches in height; the whole of it rough-haired : 
the stem almost upright, very much branched from all the axils: the 
leaves are alternate, sessile, subpinnatifid-toothed, sharpish, smooth, 
half a foot long : the peduncles one-flowered, axillary, solitary, vil- 
lose. The whole plant is poisonous. It is a native of Jamaica, 
flowering from June to August. 

The fourth species is a shrubby, upright, branched plant, the 
branches surrounded with abundance of narrow sharp leaves an inch 
in length : the flowers many, small, blue, at the tops of the twigs, 
ahiong the leaves. It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope. 

The fifth is a biennial plant in this climate: the stems channelled, 
hairy, two feet high : the leaves about two inches long, and one broad in 
the middle, sessile, light green: flowers small, on long, slender, axil- 
lary peduncles, forming a loose spike: the corolla light blue. It 
flowers in July, and is a native of Virginia, &c. 



278 



Culture. — ^The two first kinds may be increased by seed, cuttings 
of their stalks, and parting the roots. 

The seeds should be sown in autumn, or early in spring, in a 
warm border, or in pots or boxxs, so as to be moved to different situa- 
tions in different seasons, to have shelter from frost, and shade from 
the mid-day sun in summer. Those sown in autumn generally come 
up more freely the following spring than those which are sown in 
that season. They should have shelter in hard frosts, either under a 
frame, or awning of mats, but be fully exposed in mild weather, giv- 
ing occasional waterings in the spring and summer. When the 
plants have attained two or three inches growth, they should be 
pricked out in separate small pols of rich earth, giving water, and 
placing them in the shade till fresh rooted, repeating the waterings 
occasionally in hot dry weather, and shifting them into larger pots cis 
they may require; in winter moving them into a frame to have occa- 
sional shelter from inclement weather; and in the spring following 
some of them may be turned out into the full ground about March, 
when they will flower the ensuing summer. Some should also be 
retained in pots to be moved under shelter in winter, as a reserve in 
case those in the open air should be killed by frost. 

As these plants generally flower in the greatest perfection the first 
and second year of their blowing, it is proper to raise a supply of 
new plants every year or two, in order to have them flower in the 
utmost perfection every year. 

The cuttings of the young stalks should be divided into lengths of 
five or six inches, and be planted in an easterly border, two parts 
deep, being covered down with hand-glasses, and watered occa- 
sionally. They mostly emit roots, and form young plants in a month 
or six weeks ; when the glasses should be taken away, and the plants 
managed as the others. 

These hardy sorts sometimes 'afford off-sets from their sides at 
bottom, which may be s( parated in autumn, and potted for young 
plants, being managed as the seedlings. 

The last three sorts may also be raised by seeds procured from 
abroad, wic'i s hould be sown in pots of light sandy earth in the 



279 



autumn, and plunged in the bark-bed; and when the plants are three 
inches high, planted in separate pots, being re-plunged in the bark- 
bed, giving water and occasional shade till they are fresh rooted- 
They must remain constantly in the hot-house, and have frequen 
moderate waterings given them. 

The first two sorts have a fine appearance in the borders and clumps 
of pleasure-grounds, where they will succeed when protected in 
winter from frosts. 

And the lender sorts afford a fine variety in hot-house collections. 



2. LILIUM CANDIDUM. 

WHITE LILY. 

This genus contains plants of the bulbous-rooted flowery peren- 
nial kind. 

It belongs to the class arid order Hexandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Coronaria. 

The characters are: that there is no calyx: the corolla is six- 
petalled, be!l-shaped, narrowed beneath: petals upright, incumbent, 
obtusely carinated on the back, gradually more expanding, wider; 
with thick, reflex, obtuse tips: nectary, a longitudinal, tubular line, 
engraven on each petal from the base to the middle: the stamina 
have six awl-shaped filaments, upright, shorter than the corolla: 
anthers oblong, incumbent: the pistillum is an oblong germ, cylin- 
dric, striated with six furrows: style cylindric, length of the corolla: 
stigma thickish, triangular: the pericarpium is an oblong six-fur- 
rowed capsule, with a three cornered, hollow, obtuse tip, three- 
celled, three-valved ; the valves connected by hairs disposed in a 
cancellated manner; the seeds are numerous, incumbent in a twin 
order; flat, outwardly semi-orbicular. 

The species cultivated are : \. L. caudidum, Common White 



280 



Lily; 2. L. Catesbcei^ Catesby's Lil}'^; 3. L, bulbifcrum^ Bulb-bearing 
or Orange Lily; 4. L. MartagoUy Purple Martagon Lily, or 'J'uik's 
Cap; 5. L. Fomponium^ Poniponian Lily; 6. L. chalcedoniciwi^ Scarlet 
Martagon Lily; 7. L. superbum. Great Yellow Martagon Lily; 8. L, 
Canade?ise, Canada Martagon Lily; 9- L. Camschatcense, Kamts- 
chatka Lily; 10. L. Fhiladclphicitm^ Pliiladelphian Martagon Lily. 

The first has a large bulb, from wliich proceed several succulent 
fibres: the stem stout, round, upright, usually about three feet in 
height: the leaves numerous, long, narrow-pointed, smooth, sessile^ 
the flowers large and white, terminating the stem in a cluster on short 
peduncles: the petals within of a beautiful shining white; on the 
outside ridged and less luminous. It is a native of the Levant, 
flowering in June and July. 

The principal varieties are; with striped flowers, or with blotched 
purple flowers, or with variegated striped leaves, or with yellow- 
edged leaves, with double flowers, and with pendulous flowers. 

The first of these varieties is now become common ; but the pur- 
ple stain giving the flower a dull colour, the common while is gene- 
rally preferred: the second is chiefly valued for its appeai'ance in 
winter and spring; for the leaves coming out early in the autumn, 
spreading themselves flat on the ground, and being finely edged with 
a broad jellow band, make a pretty appearance during the winter 
and spring months, as it flowers earlier than the plain sort: the third 
is of little value, as the flowers never open well unless they are co- 
vered with glasses, nor have they any of the rich odour of the com- 
mon sort: the fourth came originally from Constantinople; the stalk 
is much more slender; the leaves narrower and fewer in number; 
the flowers not quite so large, and the petals more contracted at the 
base; they always hang downwards; the stalks are sometimes very 
broad and flat, appearing as if two or three were joined together: 
when this happens, they sustain from sixty to one hundred flowers," 
and sometimes more; this however is merely accidental, as the same 
root scarcely ever produces the same two years together. 

The second species is one of the least of the cultivated sorts, the 
whole plant Avhen in bloom being frecjuenlly little more tluin a foot 



281 



high ; in its native soil it is described as growing to the height of 
two feet: the stalk is terminated by one upright flower: it is purple, 
slender, upright, round, smooth with a slight glaucous bloom on it» 
solid, stiffish : the root-leaves few, often only on the barren plant, on 
long petioles: the stem-leaves are numerous, alternately scattered, 
sessile, curved back, narrow-lanceolate, the upper ones gradually 
more ovate-lanceolate, quite entire, blunt with a purple tip, even on 
both sides, slenderly nerved, flat, a little fleshy, shrivelling : the 
flower has no scent, but is said by Calesby, to be variously shaded 
with red, orange, and lemon colours: it is remarked by Mr. Curtis, 
that it varies considerably in the breadth of its petals, in their colour 
and spots; and that it flowers usually in July or August. 

The third has a subovate bulb in its native state, consisting of 
thick white loosely imbricate scales, putting out a few thick fibres 
from the bottom: the stem upright, a foot and half high, striated- 
angular, smooth or slightly hairy, with numerous scattered leaves, 
the upper ones spreading out horizontally, acute, quite entire, obso- 
letely hirsute, a little rough to the touch, dark green, sliglitly nerved, 
sessile, lanceolate-linear, three or four inches long ; each, excepting 
the lower, frequently producing a roundish and shining pale-green 
bulb or two in the axil: the peduncle terminating, round, thick, 
somewhat villose ; either solitary, or two, three or four together, 
forming a sort of umbel; some naked, others having a bracte or two: 
the flower without scent, red-orange within, pale-orange on the out- 
side. It is a native of Austria, &c. 

There are varieties with double flowers, with variegated leaves, 
with smaller stems, and the bulb-bearing fiery Lily, which seldom 
rises more than half the height of the others : the leaves are nar- 
rower: the flowcrr smaller, and of a brighter flame-colour, few in 
number, and more erect; they come out a month before those of 
the common sort, and the stalks put out bulbs at most of the axils, 
which, if taken off vv^hen the stalks decay, and planted, produce 
plants. 

The sub-varieties are: the great broad leafed, the many-flowered, 
the small, and the hoary bulb-bearmg Lily. 

1 o 



282 



Tlie fourth species rises with a strong stalk from three to 
four feet high : the leaves are broad ; the flowers dark purple, with 
some- spots of black; they are produced in loose spikes, appear in 
June, and have a disagreeable odour when near, but not so offensive 
as the seventh sort: the bulb is, according to Martjn, composed of 
lanceolate, yellow, loose scales, with thick, long, whitish fibres at 
bottom: the stem straight, round, shining, from a foot and a half to 
four feet in height, at the top of the bulb furnished with rooting fibres 
in whorls, pale green at bottom, the rest having black spots scat- 
tered over it; above and below the leaves are scattered, but in the 
middle they are in whorls; lanceolate, acute, somewhat nerved, quite 
entire, subpetioled; the stem terminates in a loose raceme, many- 
flowered, few-flowered, or sometimes one-flowered only: the pedun- 
cles purple, dotted with black, with lanceolate sharp bractes, two to 
the lower, and one to the upper flowers: the petals purple or pale, 
more or less spotted with black on both sides, the three outer hirsute, 
with a raised line along the middle. It is a native of the south of 
Europe, &c. 

It varies with white flowers, with double flowers, with red flowers 
and hairy stalks, and with imperial divided stalks. 

The fifth species has a pretty large yellow scaly root, from which 
arises an upright stalk nearly three feet high, with long narroAv leaves, 
almost triangular, having a longitudinal ridge on their under side ; 
they are deep green, and terminate in acule points; the upper part 
of the stalk divides into four or five peduncles, each sustaining a 
single flower of a fine carmine colour, with a few dark spots scattered 
over it; they appear in July, and, when the season is not hot, con- 
tinue a considerable time in beauty. It is a native of the Pyre- 
nees, &c. 

It varies with double red flowers, with white flowers, with double 
white flowers, with red spotted flowers, with white spotted flowers, 
with 3'^ellow flowers, with yellow spotted flowers, with early scarlet 
flowers, and the Major Scarlet Pompony. 

The sixth species is from three to four feet in height; the leaves 
are much broader than those of the fifth sort, and appear as if they 



2SS 



were edged with while; they are placed very closely upon the stalks: 
the flowers are of a bright scarlet, and seldom more than five or six 
in number: it flowers late in July, and in cool seasons continues in 
beauty great part of August. It is remarked by Linnaeus, that the 
raceme, before the flowers open, is scarcely curved in, as in the fifth 
sort, and that the stem is clothed with clustered leaves to the very 
top. It is a native of the Levant. 

According to Mr. Curtis, it varies in the number of flowers, from 
one to six, and the colour in some is of a blood red: also with deep 
scarlet flowers, with purple flowers, and with large bunches of 
flowers. 

The seventh has a round stem, very smooth and even, panicled at 
top, two feet high and more; the branches alternate, divaricating, 
upright, like the stem, reflex at top, flower-bearing: the stem-leaves 
alternate, subpetioled, folded together at the base, ovate-oblong, 
acute, quite entire, smooth, five-nerved beneath, spreading; one 
flower at the end of each branch: the corollas are large and hand- 
some: the petals oblong, acute, white with large purple spols and 
smaller black ones liom the middle to the base : nectarcous keel 
bearded: according to Catesby the flowers grow alternately on long 
footstalks, and are of an orange and lemon colour, thick spotted 
with dark brown ; but Miller says they arc produced in form of a 
jjyramid, and when the roots are strong there are forty or fifty on a 
stalk, large, yellow with dark spots, and make a fine appearance, 
but smell so disagreeably, that few persons can endure to be near 
them: they appear at the end of June. It is a native of North 
America. 

The eighth species has oblong and large bulbs: the stems from 
four to five feet high : the leaves oblong and pointed : the flowers 
large, yellow spotted with black, shaped like those of the orange lily, 
and the petals not turned back so much as in the other Martas^ons: 
they come out in the beginning of August, and, when the roots are 
large, in great numbers, making a fine appearance. According to 
Catesby, on the top of the stem are about twelve pendulous flowers 
on long arched peduncles, and the petals are reflected very 



284 



little. It flowers in July and August, and is found in TSTortl' 
America. 

There is a variety with larger deeper-coloured flowers. 

The ninth has a roundish small bulb: the stem quite sinipk 
round, even, a foot high: the leaves lanceolate or lanceolate-linear, 
sessile, four or six, striated, rather blunt, even, upright; two or three 
of the upper ones usually alternate, narrower: the flowers terminat- 
ing, few, an inch and a half in diameter, on very short, naked, al- 
most upright peduncles: the petals ovate, blunt, even, striated, pur- 
ple, not rolled back, attenuated at the base: the filaments shorter by 
half than the corolla: the anthers upright: the germ triangular and 
oblong: style none: stigmas three, oblong, curved back, almost the 
length of the germ. It is a native of Kamtschatka. 

The tenth species has a smaller root than in the other sorts, scaly 
and white: the stem single, upright, near a foot and half high: the 
leaves in four or five whorls, short, pretty broad, obtuse: the stem 
terminated by two flowers which stand erect, upon short separate 
peduncles; they are shaped like those of the bulb-bearing fiery Lily, 
but the petals are narrower at their base, so that there is a consider- 
able space between them, but upwards they enlarge and approxi- 
mate, forming a sort of open bell-shapcd corolla, but they terminate 
in acute points: are of a bright purple colour, marked with several 
dark purple spots towards the base. It flowers in July, and the seeds 
ripen at the end of September. It is a native of North America. 

Culture. — All the sorts are capable of being increased by plant- 
ing the ofl"-sets of the root, and by sowing seeds to obtain new va- 
rieties. 

All the sorts of these roots aff'ord plenty of ofl-sels every year, 
which when greatly wanted may be taken ofl' annually in autumn; 
but once in two or three years is better, according as they are wanted ; 
the proper time for which is in summer and autumn, when the flower 
is past and the stalks decayed, either separating the oft'-sets from the 
mother bulbs in the ground, or taking the whole up, and separating 
all the oft'-sets, small and great, from the main bulbs; the small off"- 
sets being then planted in beds a foot asunder and three inches deep, 



285 

to remain a year or two; and the large bulbs again in the borders, 
&c. singly. The off-sets in the nursery beds may also, after having 
obtained size and strength for flowering in perfection, be planted out 
where they are wanted. 

The sowing of the seed is chiefiy practised for the Marlagons to 
obtain new varieties, which should be done in autumn, soon after the 
seed is ripe, in pots or boxes of rich light sandy earth, with holes in 
the bottoms half an inch deep; placing the pots in a sunny sheltered 
situation all winter, refreshing them at first often with water, and the 
plants will appear in the spring; when, about April, remove them 
to have only the morning sun all the summer, giving moderate water- 
ings: in August the bulbs should be transplanted into nursery-beds 
in flat drills, an inch deep, and three or four asunder; when, as the 
bulbs will be very small, scatter the earth and bulbs together into the 
drills, covering them with earth to the above depth; and after having 
grown in this situation till the August or September following, they 
should be transplanted into another bed, placing them eight or nine 
inches each way asunder, to remain to show their first flowers; after 
which they may be finally planted out into the pleasure-ground. 

New varieties of the other sorts may be raised in the same way. 

The bulb-bearing varieties may also be increased by the little 
bulbs put forth from the axils of the leaves without taking up the old 
bulbs. 

The same method of planting and general culture answers for aU 
the different sorts. 

The most proper time, as has been seen, for planting and trans- 
planting them is in autumn, when their flowers and stalks decay, 
which is generally about September, the roots being then at rest for 
a short space of time, as well as for procuring roots to plant. The 
bulbs taken up at the above season may be kept out of ground, if 
necessary, till October or November: the White Lilies, however, do 
not succeed if kept long out of the earth, and all the others succeed 
best when planted again as soon as possible. The bulbs of all the 
sorts are sold at the nurseries. 

They should be planted singly, as they soon increase by ofJ-sets 



286 



into large bunches, disposing liieni in assemblage in different parts 
of the borders, and towards the fronts of the principal shrubbery 
clumps; placing them three or four inches deep, and at good dis- 
tances from one another, intermixing the different sorts, placing some 
forward, and others more backward, to effect the greater show and 
variety. 

Some may likewise be planted in separate beds by themselves, 
twelve or fifteen inches asunder; either of different sorts together, or 
each in distinct beds, or in separate rows, &;c. 

After being thus planted out, few of the sorts require any parti- 
cular culture, as they are capable of enduring all weather at every 
season. It is however necessary to destroy all weeds; and, as some 
of them run up with pretty tall slender stalks, to support them with 
sticks to preserve effectually their upright position, by which their 
flowers will appear to the best advantage. 

Some of the more tender sorts, as the second, fourth, eighth, and 
tenth species, should, however, be protected in severe winters, by 
applying tanner's bark or some other similar substance over their 
roots. 

They should all, as has been said, remain undisturbed two or 
three years, or longer, as by remaining they flower stronger after the 
first year; and having increased by oti-sets into large bunches, many 
stalks will rise from each bunch of roots, so as to exhibit a large 
cluster of flowers: it is, however, proper to take up the bulbs en- 
tirely every three or four years at least, at the decay of the stalk, to 
separate the increased off-sets, both for propagation and to disbur- 
then the main roots, and give them room to take their proper 
growth in. 

After being taken up in the autumn, all the sorts should, as just 
observed, be replanted as soon as possible, especially the White Lily 
sorts, as they soon begin to emit roots. 

They are all valuable as plants of ornament for the beauty of their 
flowers, which have a noble appearance: they are of course proper 
ornaments for the pleasure-ground ; and when the different sorts are 
properly intermixed, they effect a most elegant variety, succeeding 



287 



each other in blow upwards of three months. When wanted parti- 
cularly for shady or close places the common White Lily, Orange 
Lily, and common Martagons, are the most proper, as they thrive 
under trees. The Orange Lily also answers well in small gardens* 
in the midst of buildings in towns and cities. Besides planting the 
different sorts for the beauty of their flowers, many of the striped- 
leaved White Lily sorts should be placed towards the fronts of the 
most conspicuous parts for the beauty of their leaves in autumn, win- 
ter, and spring, which, if disposed alternately with the Common 
White Lily, whose leaves are entirely green, a most striking variety 
will be produced. 

The tall-growing sorts are only proper for large borders and clumps, 
in mixture with other large herbaceous plants. 



PLATE XXXVI. 

1. MIRABILIS JALAPA. 



MARVEL OF PERU. 



This genus furnishes plants of the flowery perennial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Pentandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Nyctagines. 

The characters are: that the calyx has the outer perianthium 
one-leafed, erect-ventricose, inferior, five-parted: segments ovate- 
lanceolate, sharp, unequal, permanent: inner globular placed under 
the petal, with a contracted entire mouth, and permanent: the corolla 
is one-petalled, funnel-form: the tube slender, long, thicker at top^ 
placed on the inner calyx: border from upright spreading, entire, 
bluntly five-cleft, plaited: nectary spherical, fleshy, surrounding the 
germ, with a five-toothed mouth: teeth very small, triangular, con- 
verging: the stamina have five filaments inserted into the orifice of 
the nectary, and alternate with its teeth, within the inner calyx free, 
more slender, fastened at bottom to the tube of the corolla, filiform, 
the length of the corolla, inclining, unequal: anthers twin, roundish, 
rising: the pistillum is a turbinate germ, within the nectary: style 
filiform, the length and situation of the stamens: stigma globular, 
dotted, rising: there is no pericarpium: the inner calyx incrusts the 
seed and falls with it: the seed single, ovate-five-cornered. 

The species cultivated are: 1. M. jalapa, Common Marvel of 
Peru ; 2. M. dichotoma. Forked Marvel of Peru ; 3. M. longiflora^ 
Sweet-scented Marvel of Peru. 

The first has a thick fleshy root: the stem thick, upright, much 
branched, and divided three feet or more in height: the leaves are 
broad, oblong, and opposite: flowers terminating, about six, in clus- 



IL36. 




'289 



ters close together without any leaflets between them, and not longer 
than the leaf. It is perennial, and a native of both the Indies, 
liouering fVoni July to October. 

There are several varieties in the colour of the flowers, as purple 
or red, white, yellow, variegated purple and white, and variegated 
purple and yellow, but which resolve themselves into two principal 
varieties; as with purple and white flowers, which are variable; some 
being plain purple, others plain white, but most of them variegated 
with the two colours, and all found occasionally on the same plant; 
and with red and yellow flowers, generally mixed, but sometimes 
distinct on the same plant; some plants having only plain flowers, 
others only variegated, and others again both plain and variegated: 
but the plants which are raised from seeds of the purple and white 
never produce red and yellow flowers, or the contrary. 

All these varieties are highly ornamental during the months of 
July, xiUgust, and September, and when the season continues mild, 
often last till near the end of October. The flowers opening only 
towards the evening, while the weather continues Avarm, but in 
moderate cool weather, when the sun is obscured, they continue open 
almost the whole day, and are produced so plentifully at the ends of 
the branches, that when expanded the plant seems entirely covered 
with them, and from some being plain, others variegated, on the 
same plant, have a fine appearance. 

7'he second species resembles the first sort very much : the stalks 
have thick swollen joints: the leaves are smaller: the flowers not 
much more than half tlie size, and do not vary in their colour from 
their natural purplish-red : the fruit is very rough. It is a native of 
Mexico; and conmion in the West Indies, where it is termed the 
Four o'clock Flower, from the circumstance of the flowers opening at 
that time of the day. 

In the third, the stalks fall on the ground, if not supported; they 
grow about three feet in length, and divide into several branches; are 
hairy and clammy: the flowers come out at the ends of the branches, 
are white, have very long slender tubes, and a faint musky odour, as 
in the other sorts; are shut during the day, and expand as the sun 



290 



declines: the seeds are larger than those of the other species, and as 
rough as those of the second sort. It is a native of Mexico, flowering 
from June till September. 

Culture. — In all the sorts the propagation is eftected by sowing 
the seed in the spring season, either on a warm border or in a hot- 
bed; but the latter method produces the plants considerably more 
early, and in the greatest perfection. 

When cultivated on warm soutli borders, in the places where the 
plants are to remain, the seed should be sown about the middle of 
April, cither in patches or in shallow drills, half an inch deep, and 
six inches asunder: and when the places can be covered with hand- 
glasses, or a frame and lights, or the seed be sown in pots under those 
protections, or any other occasional shelter during the night-time 
and in cold weather, it will greatly forward the germination of the 
seed, as well as the growth of the young plants afterwards. In the 
latter method, about June, the plants will be fit to plant out into the 
borders or into pots. Moist weather should be chosen for this pur- 
pose, and water and occasional shade be given till well rooted: they 
then readily grow, and acquire a tolerable size; but they do not 
attain to a large size, or flower so early by a month or six weeks as 
those forwarded in the hot-bed. 

In the latter method, a hot-bed should be prepared in March, or 
early in April, under frame and lights, and earthed over about six 
inches deep; then sowing the seed in the earth of the bed in shallow 
drills half an inch deep, as directed above, or in pots of rich earth 
the same depth, plunging them in the earth of the bed. The latter 
is the better method. The plants soon rise; when they should have 
fresh air daily, in common with the other plants of the bed, and fre- 
quent refi'eshings of water; and when nearly two inches high, be 
planted out into another fresh hot-bed to forward them, placing them 
either in the earth of the bed, four or five inches asunder, or singly 
in small pots (thirty-twos), plunging them in the bed; water and 
shade should be immediately given till fresh-rooted, continuing the 
care of admitting fresh air every mild day; and about the middle or 
latter end of May, when they have acquired a good size and strength. 



291 



they should lie inured by degrees lo ihe full air, so as that ihey may 
be removed into it fully about the beginning of June, choosing mild 
cloudy moist weather, if possible, for the business; taking up such as 
grow in the beds, with balls of earth about their roots, and planting 
them in the borders; but those in pots may be turned out with the 
whole ball entire, and planted in that way. Some should also be 
removed into large pots for moving into particular situations. 
Water should be directly given, and occasional shade to such as 
require it, repeating the waterings to the whole, till they have struck 
fresh root and begun to grow, when they will not require any further 
culture, except the occasional support of sticks, which is most neces- 
sary in the last sort. 

As the seed ripens well, it will frequently prevent the trouble of 
preserving the roots. 

But when these are taken out of the ground in autumn, and laid 
in dry sand during the winter, secure from frost, and planted again 
in the spring, they grow much larger and flower earlier than the 
seedling plants: or when the roots are covered in v\ inter with tanner's 
bark to keep out the frost, the}^ often remain secure in the borders, 
where the soil is dry. When the roots thus taken out of the ground 
are planted the following spring in large pots, and plunged into a 
hot-bed, under a deep frame, they may be brought forward, and 
raised to the height of four or five feet, and flower much earlier 
in the season. 

In collecting the seeds, care should be taken not to save any from 
the plants which have plain flowers ; and in order to have variegated 
flowers, the plain flowers should be pulled off from those plants 
which are intended to stand for seed. 

As the second sort is less hardy than the first and third, unless 
the plants are brought forward in the spring they seldom flower till 
very late, and their seeds do not ripen perfectly. 

All the sorts are proper for the principal borders of pleasure- 
grounds, being very ornamental in their large branchy growth, as 
well as in their extensive flowering. 

The root of all the sorts is a strong purgative. 



2. MIMOSA SENSITIVA. 

SENSITIVE PLANT. 

This genus contains plants of the shrubb}^ and under shrubby 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order PolyguKiia Monacia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Lomentacea. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianthiuni, 
five-toothed, ver}' small : the corolla has one petal, funnel-form, half- 
five-clcft, small: the stamina have capillary, very long filaments: 
anthers iucunjbcnt: the pisliiium is an oblong germ: style filiform, 
shorter than the stamens: stigma truncated: the pericarpium is a 
long legume, with several transverse partitions: the seeds many, 
roundis!), of various forms. 

The species cultivated are: 1. M. plena, Double-flowered Annual 
Sensitive Mimosa; 2. M. viva, Lively Mimosa; 3. M. quadrivalvis, 
Quadrivalve-podded Humble Mimosa; 4. M. sensitiva. Sensitive 
Phint; 5. M. pudica. Humble Plant; 6. M. virgata, Long-twigged 
Mimosa; 7- M. punctata. Spotted-stalked Mimosa; 8. AT. pernamhu- 
caua. Slothful Mimosa; 9- ^^i- asperata, Ilairy-poddcd Mimosa; 10. 
M. pigra, Slow American Sensitive Plant; 11. M. glauca. Glaucous 
]\Iimosa; \'2. M. cornigera. Horned Mimosa, or Cuckold Tiee; 13. 
M.horrida, Horrid IMimosa; li. M. Farncmma, Fariiesian Mimosa, 
or Sponge Tree; 15. M. Niiotica, Egyptian Mimosa; 16. M.verticil- 
lata, Whoil-leaved Mimosa; \7- arbo?-ca, Rough Tree IMimosa; 
18. M. Leb/jeck, Lebbcck, or Egypiian Mimosa; 19. M. latisiUqua, 
Broad-podded Mimosa ; 20. M . t amar in di folia. Tamarind-leaved 
American Mimosa; 21. M. circinalis, Spiral Mimosa ; 22. 31. penuata. 
Small-leaved Mimosa; 23. .!/. latifoUa, Broad-leaved Mimosa; 24. 
M. purpurea, Puiple Miiiio.^a, or Soldier Wood; 25. M. reticulata. 



293 



Netted Mimosa; 26. M. scandeus, Climbing Mimosa; 27. M. nn/rti- 
folia, Myrtle-leaved Mimosa ; 28. M. siiaveolcns, Sweet-scented 
Mimosa. 

The first, when cultivated in ihe garden, has great resemblance to 
the seventh sort; but the stalks never grow so erect, the wings of the 
leaves are longer, and stand more horizontal: the heads of flowers arc 
much larger, the stamens are longer, and the flowers on the under side 
of the spike which have no stamens are double ; the pods also arc 
shorter, and much broader than those of that sort. 

It is annual; the stems round, herbaceous, smooth, procumbeni, 
rooting at all the joints: the leaves three-paired or four-paired, con- 
tracting with the least touch: from the axils of these spring erect 
peduncles, four or live inches high, with scales the whole length, 
sustaining handsome, yellow, almost globular heads, the same size 
with those of red clover: the flowers different in shape, nature and 
use; those in the middle truly five-petalied, in small five-cIeft calyxes, 
with many long stamens; but those in the circuit, instead of stamens, 
have oblong, beautiful, golden leaflets, much wider and handsomer 
than the true petals, which are small and of a greenish colour. 
These double flowers are barren ; but the single ones are succeeded by 
flat, smooth, two-valved legumes, containing several black, shining, 
compressed seeds. It is a native of La Vera Cruz. 

The second species has trailing herbaceous stalks, putting out 
roots at every joint, and spreading to a considerable distance. A 
single plant, in the stove, in one summer, has spread near three feet 
square, and the branches so closely joined, as to cover the surface of 
the bed ; but when permitted to grow thus, the plants seldom produce 
flowers: the leaflets are narrow, and the petioles are short and 
smooth: the flowers axillary, on naked peduncles about an inch in 
length; they are of a pale yellowish colour, and are collected into 
small globular heads: the legumes short, flat, jointed, containing 
three or four compressed, roundish seeds. It is a native of Jamaica. 

The third has a creeping root: the stalks slender, having four 
acute angles, armed pretty closely with short recurved spines: the 
leaves on long prickly foot-stalks, and thinly placed on the branches: 



the wings iwo pairs, about an iiicii asiiiuler, short: llic ieaflels naj- 
row, not vciy close: the peduncles axillary, sustaining a small globu- 
lar head of purple tiowers: the legumes four-cornered, two inches 
long, lour-cclleci, four-valved; containing several angular seeds in 
each cell. It was found at La Vera Cruz. 

The fourth species rises with a slender woody stalk, seven or eight 
feet high, armed with short recurved thorns: the leaves grow upon 
long foot stalks which are prickly, each sustaining two pairs of wings; 
llie outer pair has two lobes wiiich join at their base, and are rounded 
on the outside, but straight on the inner edges, shaped like a pair of 
sheep-shears; the}^ are much larger than the inner, are almost two 
inches long, and one inch broad in the middle: from the place 
where these are inserted into the stalk, come out small branches, 
which have three or four globular heads of pale purplish tlowers 
coming out from the side, on short peduncles: and the principal 
stalk has many of those heads of flowers on the upper part for more 
than a foot in length; and this, as also the branches, is terminated 
by similar heads of flowers: the pods are broad, flat, jointed, opening 
by two valves, containing one, two, or three compressed orbiciilar 
seeds: the leaves move but slowly when touched, but the foot-stalks 
fall when they are pressed very hard. It is a native of Brazil. 

The fifth has the roots composed of many hairy fibres, which sit 
close together, from which come out several woody stalks, which 
decline towards the ground, unless they are supported; they are 
armed with short recurved spines, and have winged or pinnate 
leaves, composed of four, and sometimes five pinnas, whose bases 
join at a point, where they are inserted into the foot-stalk, spreading 
upwards like the fingers of a hand: the flowers from the axils, on 
short peduncles, collected in small globular heads, of a yellow co- 
lour: the pods short, flat, jointed, in close clusters; almost covered 
with stinging hairy covers. It is a native of Brazil. 

The sixth species has the spike roundish, nodding: the flowers 
ten-stamened, and yellow; the lower ones of the spike without sta- 
mens or petals. It is a native of the West Indies, flowering in July 
and August. 



29o 



The seventh rises with iipiiglit branching ^tall<s six or seven feet 
high, becoming woody towards the root, wilh callous dots dispersed 
upon it, but not perennial (at least they are not so here in any situa- 
tion, the plants ahvays decaying in winter); they are snioolh, and 
the leaves are composed of four or five pairs of long winged lobes, 
which have about twenty paii s of small leaves ranged along the mid- 
rib; are smooth and rounded at their points, of a full green on their 
upper side, but pale on their under: these small leaves contract 
themselves together on their being touched, but the foot-stalks do 
not decline at the same time, as those do which are titled Humble 
Plants; it is therefore called the Sensitive Plant by way of distinc- 
tion: the flowers are produced upon long foot-stalks, which come 
out from the wings of the leaves, and are disposed in globular heads 
which nod downward, are yellow; and all those which have petals 
have ten stamina in each, but those situated round the border have 
neither petals nor stamina; those on the upper part of the spike are 
succeeded by pods an inch and a half long, and a quarter of an inch 
broad, which change to a dark brown when ripe, inclosing tliree or 
four compressed, shining, black seeds. It is probably a native of 
America. 

The eighth species has the stems seldom more than two feet and a 
half high, and smooth: the leaves are composed of three or four pin- 
nas, which are shorter, and the leaflets much narrower than in the first 
and seventh sorts; the heads of the flowers are smaller, being made 
up of many long white filaments, forming altogether a round head, 
and the pods longer and narrower, an inch long, and a quarter of an 
inch broad, with a round protuberance at each seed. It grows na- 
turally in all the ishmds of the West Indies, where it has its name 
from the leaves not contracting on being touched. 

The ninth species has a shrubl)y erect stalk about five feet high, 
hairy and armed with short, l)road, strong thorns, which are white, 
standing on each side, almost opposite, or alternate: the leaves five 
or six-paired, with a strong midrib, and between each pair two short 
strong spines, pointing out each way: the leaflets extremely' narrow 
and very close: towards the upper part of the stalk the flowers are 



296 

produced from llie sides on sliort peduncles; they are collected into 
globular heads, and are of a bright purple colour: the stalks are also 
terminated by smaller heads of the like flowers: the pods flat, jointed, 
about two inches long, and a quarter of an inch broad, spreading 
like rays, there being commonly five or six joined together at the 
base: they separate at each articulation, leaving the two side mem- 
branes or borders standing: the seeds, which are compressed and 
square, drop out from the joints of the pods, which are hairy at first, 
but as they ripen become smooth: the petioles do not fall on being 
touched, but the leaflets close up. It is a native of La Vera Cruz. 

The tenth has the stem recurved, prickles scattered over it in 
pairs: the leaves commonly six-paired, Avith many paired pinnas: 
on the universal petioles there are recurved prickles between each of 
the partial ones; and there is a straight upright prickle which is 
longer, between each pair of the partial ones, in place of a gland: 
the heads are globular: the legumes membranaceous-compressed, 
jointed, rugged. It is a native of South America. 

The eleventh species has the spikes globular, large, ped uncled: 
the flowers white, apetalous, ten-stamened : the legumes long, flat. 
It flowers in April, and the seeds ripen in autumn; found at La 
Vera Cruz. 

The twelfth is a tree which seldom exceeds twelve feet in height: 
it has numerous branches forming a pyramidal figure: the leaves are 
small ; the flowers are small, yellow, and void of scent, in a close 
cylindrical spike, an inch and a half long: the legumes coriaceous, 
containing a buttery pulp, in which the seeds are rolled up: the 
spines are very singular, subaxillary and connate at the base, re- 
sembling the horns of oxen ; brown, shining, hollow, and the longest 
more than five inches in length; they are all over the tree; and when 
the pods are ripe and the leaves fallen, they have a singular appear- 
ance. It is a native of Carthagena, flowering in June and July, and 
ripening seeds in September. 

The thirteenth species has the branches angular, smooth, with a 
brown bark: the leaves sometimes two from the axil of the spines: 
partial four or five-paired, inner shorter, with leaflets from five to 



297 



seven-paired, outer eight to eleven-paired: leaflets linear, acute, 
smooth: the spines in pairs white, purple at the tip: the flowers in 
a globular head, axillary and solitary, first sessile, then peduncled, 
shorter than the leaves: the legumes compressed, and attenuated at 
the base. It is a native of the East and West Indies, &c. 

The fourteenth has the flowers many- stamened, very fragrant, 
yellow, in sessile heads: the petioles have a gland below the leaflets: 
the legumes are fusiform. On account of the sweetness of its 
flowers, it has been dispersed through most parts of" Europe. It is 
brought by the Italian gardeners, who bring over Orange-trees, &c. 
in young plants, under the name of Gazia. It is a native of Saint 
Domingo, flowering from June to August. 

The fifteenth species is a tree which arrives at a large size in 
countries wliere it grows naturally, but in this climate is rarely seen 
more than eight or ten feet high: it has the habit of the fourteenth 
sort; differing in having no callous dots upon the branches: the bark 
is purple: the spines in pairs, and longer than those of the four- 
teenth: the branches purple, even : the partial leaves about five pairs; 
between two pairs of the outer ones a gland is inserted into the 
common petiole: the legumes necklace-shaped, compressed: the 
joints roundish-rhomb-shapcd: flowers many-stamened, in peduncled 
heads. It is a native of Egypt and Arabia. It is the tree which 
yields the Gum Arabic. 

The sixteenth has leaves simple, linear, and pungent or hard and 
prickly at the end, and growing in whorls six or seven together; but 
it has dissimilar leaves, and the primordial ones, or two or three first 
leaves which appear on the seedling plants, are bipinnate. It is a 
native of New South Wales, flowering from March to May. 

According to Mr. Curtis, it is some years in arriving at its 
■flowering state. 

The seventeenth is a lofty tree, with an upright smooth trunk, 
covered with an ash-coloured bark: the branches diverofing;, bent 
down, smooth : the partial leaves twelve-paired : the universal petiole 
round, striated, ferruginous-pubescent: partial petioles also ferrugi- 
nous: the glands roundish, concave, between the petioles: the scale- 

2 Q 



298 



lets bifid, miniile, at llic base of the partial petioles: pinnas sixteen 
or eigliteen-paired, halved, subsessilc, acute, entire, smooth: the 
spikes peduncled, subglobular, composed of aggregate, sessile, white 
flowers: the peduncles axillary, and slender: the seeds sj)herical, 
shining black. It is a native of Jamaica, where it is called Mountain 
or Wild Tamarind Tree. 

The eighteenth has the leaves destitute of glands: the pinnas 
from twelve to twenty, an inch in length: the bundles of tlowers 
peduncled: the legume a span long. It is cultivated in the gardens 
at Cairo, where it flowers in June, and becomes a large tree. It is 
probably a native of Egypt. 

The nineteenth has the biacteas half-cordate: the peduncles in 
threes: the flowers in heads: an obsolete gland on the common pe- 
tiole below the partial pinnas: the germs are globular, two-valved; 
with two roundish, concave or hemispherical leaflets: the leaves very 
smooth. It is a native of the West Indies, flowering most part of 
the summer. 

The twentieth species has the branches with few recurved prickles: 
the leaves four or five-paired: a gland between the lowest partial 
ones, which are twelve-paired, but the lowest pinnule wants the op- 
posite on the inside: on the common petiole are two remote prickles, 
underneath between each partial one: the stipules wide, acuminate, 
purple: the legumes very wide. It is a native of America. 

In the twenty-first, the leaves divide into many ramifications: 
the leaflets are roundish, and placed in very regular order: the seeds, 
which are flat, and one half of a beautiful red colour, the other half 
of a deep black, grow in long twisted pods, and hanging by a small 
thread for some time out of the pod, when they are ripe, make a 
very agreeable appearance. It was brought from the Bahama 
Islands. 

The twenty-second sjiecies is frutescent, being a large procum- 
bent branching shrub: the panicle very much branched, naked, 
terminating the stem and branches: the prickles small, scattered 
over the stem and panicle: the leaves having from twelve to twenty 
pairs of partial leaves, with an oblong melliferous pore at tlie base 



of" the general peliole: ihe leaflets linear and almost capillary: there 
are no prickles on the petioles or peduncles, but a gland above the 
base of" ihe petioles: the flowers white, polygamous, in a vast difTused 
terminating panicle, of very many small globular heads. It is a 
native of the East Indies. 

The bark is there converted into a sort of tow, which is used for 
stopping cracks both in houses and boats. 

The twenty-third sort has the flowers many-stamened, sessile: 
the leaves are like those of the Walnut; and the flowers are purple. 
It is a native of South America. 

The twenty-fourth has also purple flowers, and is a native of 
South America. 

The twenty-fifth is a tree with rigid branches, that are flexiiose 
from bud to bud: under each bud is a pair of horizontal, whitish, 
stipular thorns, the length of the leaves: the leaves are petioled» 
conjugate, or one-paired, with pinnate, six-paired leaflets: the com- 
mon petiole terminated above by a gland, beneath by a prickle: the 
leaflets oblong-linear, blunt, at equal distances, the lowest smaller: 
the legume oval, a hand in length and half as much in breadth, com- 
pressed, with large scattered seeds. It is a native of the Cape. 

The twenty-sixth climbs to the tops of the tallest trees, to the 
height of one hundred and fifty feet, frequently overspreading manj^ 
of the neighbouring branches, and forming large arbours: the wilhs 
are slender, but tough and flexile, striated, stiff, and smooth: com- 
mon petioles long, opposite, thickened at the base, round, very 
smooth, terminating in a tendril, by which the branches are sup- 
ported: the pinnas four-paired, petioled, oblong, blunt at top, emar- 
ginate, nerved, smooth on both sides, shining: the glands none: the 
tendril long, upright, bifid at the end: the spikes axillary, erect, 
very long, many-flowered: the flowers approximating, subsessile, 
small: most of them are abortive; and according to Browne, the 
female plants throw out their flowers separate, and are succeeded by 
so many pods. It is a native of both Indies, and in the West 
Indies is called Cocoon. 

The twenty-seventh species is in height three or four feet: the 



300 



branches alternate, upright, angular, with a very tough smooth bark : 
the leaves of the young seedlings in pairs and pinnated, with oval 
leaflets: but when the stem rises, the common footstalks of its leaves 
become dilated, the leaflets cease to appear, and the Avhole shrub is 
furnished only with such dilated naked footstalks, which are to all 
intents and purposes leaves: they are alternate, vertical, smooth, firm 
and glaucous: the stipules none: on their upper edge near the base 
a small concave gland: the racemes are axillar}', solitary, erect, of 
about six alternate heads, each having three or four small white 
flowers: the pod linear, pointed, zigzag, brown, with a very thick 
margin: the seeds about six, oblong: the flowers on the young 
branches are very numerous, and fragrant, like those of Spiraea 
Ulmaria. It is a native of New South Wales. 

It produces ripe pods, and perfect seeds in the stove, but in the 
green-house the flowers go off" without any tendency to produce fruit. 
It is a shrub of quick growth, and which blows very readily. 

According to Mr. Curtis, the foliage is usually edged with red. 

In the twenty-eighth the branches are most acutely triangular, 
and much compressed: their edges bright red: the leaves alternate, 
four or five inches long, with a rib and margin like the last: the 
flowers in axillary racemes, yellowish white, fragrant: the petals 
four: stamens numerous: the young capsules smooth and glaucous. 
It is a native of New South Wales. 

Culture. — They are all capable of being increased by seed, and 
some of the sensitive kinds by layers and cuttings, but the first is by 
much the best method. 

The seed, procured from the nurseries or seed-shops, should be 
sown in pots of light rich mould early in the spring, covering it in 
with fine earth a quarter of an inch deep, and plunging the pots in 
the hot-bed; if in a common hot-bed under frames and glasses, 
managing them nearly in the manner of tender annuals, and when in 
a bark-bed in the stove, little trouble is required. But moderate 
sprinklings of water should be given; and when the plants are two 
or three inches high, they should be planted out singly into small 
pots, preserving the earth to their roots, replunging them in the hot- 



301 



bed, &c. giving water and occasional shade till they are well rooted, 
repeating the waterings frequently. The plants should afterwards 
be continued either in the hot-bed under glasses, or plunged in the 
bark-bed of the stove, to facilitate their growth, preserve tlieni in 
vigour, and increase the sensibility of the Sensitive kinds ; admitting 
fresh air pretty freely. 

The perennial sorts, both shrubby and hei'baceous, must be kept 
in the stove all winter, and principally the year round. 

And they must be frequently removed into larger pots to prevent 
the roots from getting through the pots, which they are apt to do, 
and by that means are often destroyed. 

The Acacia kinds are the most tender, requiring the stove almost 
constantly, except a little in the heat of summer, when they must be 
placed in a warm situation. 

They should always have a bark hot-bed, and be put in very 
small pots filled with sandy mould, the heat of the stove being kept 
up to above temperate: as the leaves of some of them are shed, they 
have often the appearance of being dried when that is not the case. 

Where there is not the convenience of a stove, those who are 
curious to have the plants, may have them in summer, by the aid of 
a common dung or tan-bark hot-bed under frames and glasses, 
though not in winter; by raising some of the annual, or any of the 
other kinds, by seed in spring, in a hot-bed under a frame, &c. 
keeping up the heat of the bed until the middle of June, and con- 
tinuing the plants always under the frame, raising one end of the 
lights a little, occasionally, in warm days to admit fresh air; and as 
they rise in height, raise the frame at bottom, to allow them full 
room to grow. About Midsummer, or soon after, some of the low 
spreading kinds may likewise be turned out with balls, or plunged in 
their pots into a warm sunny border, and covered with large hand- 
glasses, which may be lifted off occasionally just to view the plants. 
By these methods the plant>3 may be preserved through the summer 
in their sensitive quality, though not equal in perfection to those in 
stoves; nor can they be preserved alive in winter out of the stove. 

The shrubby kinds that afford spreading branches may be laved 



any time in ^.unimer, m pols plunged in the bark-bed, where they 
then take root, and are ready to pot cjti' singly in the autumn season. 

The Sensitive and Humble sorts often branch out profusely, so as 
to furnish plenty of young shoots for cuttings, which should be 
planted in pots in the summer season, plunging them in the bark- 
bed, where they often readily take root, and form good plants. 

These modes should, however, only be practised when seed can- 
not be procured. 

The general culture of all the species is afterwards to keep them 
always in pots placed in the stove, being plunged occasionally in the 
bark-bed, especially the Spreading Sensitive kinds, frequent waterings 
being given in summer and winter, but considerably the most in the 
summer season : shifting them into larger pots as they increase in 
growth. And although most of the sorts will live in the open air 
in the heat of summer, it is the best practice to expose them but 
sparingly. 

The fourth and fifth sorts are held in high estimation on account 
of the singular sensibilitj" lodged in their leaves; which, in conse- 
quence of being touched or shaken, either by the hand, a slick, or 
the least wind blowing upon them, the wings of the leaves suddenly 
close, and the foot-stalks fall down. 

The periods of time which the leaves, Sec. require to recover 
themselves, after falling from any irritation, are according to the 
vigour of the plant, the hour of the day, the sereneness of the atmos- 
phere, and the temperature of the heat of the stove, &c. being often 
{'wm ten or fifteen minutes to an hour or more. 

The plants also every evening naturally contract themselves, and 
expand again in the morning. They are all ornamental and curious. 



303 



3. MONARDA DIDYMA. 

SCARLET MONARDA. 

This genus contains plants of the fibrous-rooted herbaoeoi 
flowery biennial and perennial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Diandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order ot" Verticillata. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed tubular peri- 
anthium, cylindric, striated, with a five-toothed equal mouth, per- 
manent: the corolla unequal: tube cylindric, longer than the calyx : 
border ringcnt: upper lip straight, narrow, linear, entire; lower lip 
reflex, broader, trifid; middle segment longer, narrower, emarginate; 
lateral blunt: the stamina have two bristle-shaped filaments, the 
length of the upper lip, in which they are involved: anthers com- 
pressed, truncate at top, convex below, erect: the pistillum is a 
four-cleft germ: style filiform, involved with the stamens: stigma 
bifid, acute: there is no pericarpium: calyx containing the seeds at 
the bottom: the seeds four, roundish. 

The species cultivated are: 1. M. Jistiilosa^ Purple Monarda ; 
2. M. oblongata, Long-leafed Monarda; 3. M. didijma, Scarlet Mo- 
narda, or Oswego Tea; 4. M. ?7/gosrt. White Monarda; 5. WI. punctata. 
Spotted Monarda. 

The first has a perennial root, composed of many strong fibres, 
and spreading far on every side: the stems, near three feet high, are 
hairy and obtuse-angled; they send out two or four small side 
branches towards the top: the leaves oblong, broad at the base, but 
lerminating in acute points, hairy, a little indented on their edges, 
on short hairy foot-stalks: the stem and branches terminating by 
heads of purple flowers, which have a long involucre, composed of 



304 



five acute-pointed leaves. It is a native of Canada, flowering from 
June to August. 

The second species differs from the first, in having the leaves 
ovate at the base, and a httle attenuated, and more villose under- 
neath. It is a native of North America, flowering from July to 
September. 

The third has a perennial root the stems about two feet high, 
smooth, acute-angled: the leaves indented on the edges, on very 
short foot-stalks; when bruised they emit a very grateful refreshing 
odour: towards the top of the plant come out two or four small 
side branches, with smaller leaves of the same shape: the flowers 
are produced in large heads or whorls at the top of the stalk, and 
there is often a smaller whorl at a joint below the head: and out of 
the head arises a naked peduncle, sustaining a small head or whorl : 
the flowers are of a bright red colour. They come out in July; and 
in a moist season, or when the plants grow in a moist soil, they con- 
tinue till the middle or end of September. It is a native of North 
America. 

The fourth species resembles the following, but the leaves are 
longer, smooth, wrinkled a little like those of Sage, and the flowers 
white. It is a native of North America, flowering from July to 
September. 

The fifth has stems about two feet high, branching out from the 
bottom to the top: the leaves lanceolate, coming out in clusters at 
each joint, where there are two larger leaves, and several smaller 
ones on each side ; the larger leaves are two inches and a half long, 
three quarters of an inch broad, and slightly indented on their edges: 
towards the upper part of the stem the flowers come out in large 
whorls, with an involucre to each whorl composed of ten or twelve 
small lanceolate leaves, of a purplish red colour on their upper side 
(four larger, and four smaller, besides the leaves of the whorls): the 
flowers are pretty large, of a dirty yellow colour spotted with purple. 
It is a biennial plant; and a native of Marj'land and Virginia, 
flowering; here from June to October. 



305 



Culture. — All these plants may be increased by parting the roots, 
and some of them by slips and cuttings as well as seeds. 

As the first sort does not increase fast by the roots, the seeds may 
be sown in the autumn on a bed of good earth, and in the following 
summer the plants be removed into nursery rows half a foot apart, 
in a rather shady situation, and in the beginning of the following 
autumn set out where they are to remain and flower. They succeed 
best in a soft loamy soil not too much exposed. 

The roots should be divided either in the autumn or very early 
in the spring; but the former is the better, being afterwards either 
planted out in rows to remain till they are strong, or, when strong, 
at once to where they are to remain. 

Strong slips or cuttings of the branches may be taken off in the 
beginning of summer, and planted out in a shady border, due shade 
and water being given till well rooted, when in the autumn they may 
be removed to where they are to remain. 

The third sort succeeds best in a light soil, in an eastern situation. 

They all afford ornament in the borders and clumps of pleasure- 
grounds. 



2 B 



PLATE XXXVIL 



1. NIGELLA DAMASCENA. 

LOVE IN A MIST. DEVIL IN A BUSH. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy herbaceous flowering 
annual kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Folyandria Pentagi/tiia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Multisiliqtice. 

The characters are: that there is no calyx: the corolla has five 
petals, ovate, flat, blunt, spreading, more contracted at the base: 
the nectaries eight, placed in a ring, very short; each two-lipped; 
outer lip larger, lower, bifid, flat, convex, marked with two dots; 
inner lip shorter, narrower, from ovate ending in a line: the stamina 
have numerous awl-shaped filaments, shorter than the petals. An- 
thers compressed, blunt, erect: the pistillum has several germs (five 
to ten), oblong, convex, compressed; erect, ending in styles which 
are awl-shaped, angular, very long, butrevolute, permanent: stigmas 
longitudinal, adnate: the pericarpium capsules as many, oblong, 
compressed, acuminate, connected on the inside by the suture, gap- 
ing on the inside at top : the seeds very many, angular, and 
rugged. 

The species cultivated are: 1. N. damascena^ Common Fennel- 
flower; 2. N. sativa, Small Fennel-flower; 3. N. arvensis. Field Fen- 
nel-flower; 4. N. Hispanica, Spanish Fennel-flower; 5. JV. orientnUs, 
Yellow Fennel-flower. 

The first rises with an upright branching stalk a foot and a half 
high: the leaves much longer and finer than tliose of the third: the 
flowers are large, pale blue, with a five-leaved involucre under each^ 
longer than the flower; they are succeded by larger swelling seed- 



ri.37. 




307 



vessels, with five horns at the top. It is a native of the South of Eu- 
rope, flowering from June to September. 

From the fine cut leaves about the flower, it has the names of 
Femiel-Jiower, Devil-in-a-hush, and Love-in-a-mist; but the first is be- 
come obsolete. 

There is a variety Avith single white flowers, and another with 
double flowers, which is frequently cultivated in gardens with other 
annuals for ornament. 

The second species rises to the same height as the preceding: the 
leaves are not so finely cut, and are a little hairy: at the top of each 
stalk is one flower, composed of five white petals, which are slightly 
cut at their end into three points; these are succeeded by oblong 
swelling seed-vessels with five horns at the top, filled with small pale- 
coloured seeds. It is a native of Candia and Egypt, flowering from 
June to September. 

The third rises with slender stalks near a foot high, either single 
or branching out at the bottom, and having a few very fine-cut 
leaves, somewhat like those of Dill. Each branch is terminated by 
one star-pointed flower, of a blue colour, without any leafy involu-' 
ere: they are succeeded by capsules, having five short horns, inclin- 
ing different ways at the top, and are filled with rough black 
seeds. It is a native of Germany, &c. flowering from June to Sep- 
tember. 

There is a variety with white flowers, and another with double 
flowers. , 

The fourth species rises near a foot and half high; the lower 
leaves are finely cut; but those on the stalks are cut into broader 
segments: the flowers are larger than those of the other species, and 
of a fine blue colour, with green veins at the back: the nectaries of a 
sea-green colour: the pistils are of equal length with the petals; 
they with the stamens are of a deep purple or puce colour: the cap- 
sule has five horns, and is of a firmer texture than any of the other. 
It grows naturally in Spain and the South of France, flowering from 
June to September. 

There is a variety with double flowers. 



308 



The fifth rises with a branching stalk a foot and half high; with 
pretty long leaves, finely divided: the flowers are produced at the 
end of the branches: the petals are yellowish; at the base of these 
are placed eight nectaries, between which arise a great number of 
stamens, with an unequal number of germs, from five to eight or 
nine, oblong and compressed: the capsules are joined together on 
their inner side, terminate in horns, open longitudinally, and contain 
many thin compressed seeds, having borders round them. It is a 
native of Syria, flowering from July to September. 

Culture. — They are all increased by sowing the seeds on light earth 
where the plants are to remain, as they seldom succeed well when 
transplanted in patches at proper distances; and when the plants are 
come up, they should be thinned, leaving only three or four in each 
patch, keeping them afterwards clear from weeds. 

The best season for sowing is March; but if some be sown in 
August, soon after they become ripe, on a dry soil and in a warm 
situation, they will abide the winter, and flower strong the succeeding 
year. By sowing the seeds at different times, they may be continued 
in beauty most part of the summer season. 

As they are all annual plants, they require to be raised every 
year. 

The varieties with double flowers are chiefly introduced into 
flower gardens. 

They afford ornament and variety among other annuals in the 
clumps and borders. 



30f) 



2. NARCISSUS JONQUILLA. 

JONQUIL. 

This genus contains plants of the bulbous-rooted perennial 
flowering kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Hexandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Spathacem. 

The characters are: that the calyx is an oblong spathe, obtuse, 
compressed, opening on the flat side, shrivelling: the corolla has six 
ovate, acuminate petals, flat, equal, inserted into the tube of the 
nectary externally above the base : nectary one-leafed, cylindric- 
funnel-form, coloured on the border: the stamina have six awl- 
shaped filaments, fixed to the tube of the nectary, shorter than the 
nectary: anthers oblongish: the pistillum is a roundish germ, ob- 
tusely three-sided, inferior: style filiform, longer than the stamens: 
stigma bifid, concave, obtuse : the pericarpium is a roundish cap- 
sule, obtusely three-cornered, three-celled, three-valved: the seeds 
are many, globular, and appendicled. 

The species cultivated are: 1. N. pseudo-narcissus. Common Daf- 
fodil; 2. N. poeticus, Poetic, or White Narcissus; 3. N. biflorus, Two- 
lowered Narcissus, or Pale Daffodil ; 4. iV^. bicolor. Two-coloured 
Narcissus ; 5. N. minor. Least Daflbdil : 6. N. triandrus. Rush- 
leaved Narcissus, or Reflexed Daffodil; 7- orientalis. Oriental 
Narcissus: S. N. Bulbodocium, Hoop-Petticoat Narcissus: Q. N. ta- 
zetta. Polyanthus Narcissus ; 10. N. serotinus. Late-flowering Nar- 
cissus; 11. N. odorus. Sweet-scented Narcissus, or Great Jonquil; 
12. N. calathinus, Calathine Yellow Narcissus; 13. N.Jonquilla, Com- 
mon Jonquil. 

The first has a large bulbous root, from which come out five or 
six flat leaves, about a foot long, and an inch broad, of a grayish 



310 



colour, and a little hollow in the middle like the keel of a boat: the 
stalk rises a foot and half high, having two sharp longitudinal angles ; 
at the top comes out one nodding flower, inclosed in a thin spathe : 
the corolla is of one petal, being connected at the base, but cut almost 
to the bottom into six spreading parts; in the middle is a bell-shaped 
nectary, called by gardeners the cup, which is equal in length to the 
petal, and stands erect: the petal is of a pale brimstone or straw 
colour, and the nectary is of a full yellow: the seeds are roundish, 
black. It is a native of many parts of Europe, flowering in 
March. 

There are varieties with white petals and a pale yellow cup, with 
yellow petals and a golden cup, with a double flower; with three or 
four cups within each other; Tradescant's large double; long-tubed 
flowered; short-tubed; dwarf-stalked; and the peerless Daffodil. 

Many other varieties have likewise been noticed by writers. 

The second species has a smaller and rounder bulb than the first: 
the leaves are longer, narrower, and flatter: the stalk or scape does 
not rise higher than the leaves, which are of a gray colour: at the top 
of the stalk comes out one flower from the spathe, nodding on one 
side: the corolla snow white, spreading open flat, the petals rounded 
at the points: the nectary or cup in the centre is very short, and 
fringed on the border with a bright purple circle: the flowers have 
an agreeable odour, appear in May, and seldom produce seeds. It 
is a native of Italy, &c. flowering in April. 

There are varieties with double white flowers, with purple-cupped 
flowers, and with yellow-cupped flowers. 

The third usuall}'^ produces two flowers : it frequently occurs, 
however, with one, more rarely with three; in a high state of culture 
it probably may be found with more. When it has only one flower, 
it may easily be mistaken for one of the varieties of the second sort, 
but may be distinguished from it by the petals being of a yellowish 
hue, or rather a pale cream colour; the nectary wholly yellow, not 
having the orange or crimson rim, and by its flowering at least three 
weeks earlier ; the top also of the flowering stem very soon after it 
emerges from the ground bends down and becomes elbowed; where- 



311 



as in that it continues upright till within a short time of the flower's 
expanding. It is a native of several parts of Europe, flowering in 
May. 

There are two or three varieties, as with sulphur-coloured flow- 
ers, and Avith white reflexed petals, with gold-coloured borders. 

The fourth species resembles the first; but the petals are white 
the nectary is dark yellow and larger, with a spreading, waved, 
notched border. Gouan thinks it is easily distinguished by its leaves? 
which are scarcely a palm in length and half an inch in breadth ; by 
its large flower, with cordate-ovate petals, imbricate at the base, and 
sulphur-coloured, and by the nectary having a reflex mouth, twelve- 
cleft or thereabouts, the lobes also being toothed and curled: the 
scape is the length of the leaves, or a little shorter, and thick. 
It is a native of the South of Europe, flowering in April and May. 

There is a large variety, which approaches in its general appear- 
ance very near to the first sort; but it is a much taller plant, and has 
its leaves more twisted, as well as more glaucous : the flower, but 
especially the nectary, is much larger, and the petals are more spread- 
ing. It is of a fine deep yellow colour, having sub-varieties with 
double flowers, and is a native of Spain, flowering in April. It is 
sometimes known by the title of Great Yellow Spanish-Bastard Daf- 
J'odil. 

The fifth is nearly related to the first sort, but is three times 
smaller in all its parts : the scape is scarcely striated: the spathe is 
greenish: the flowers more nodding: the petals distinct at the base, 
lanceolate, straight, not oblique or ovate : the margin of the nectary 
six-cleft, waved, curled. But though tlie flowers are not so large as 
those of the other species, when the roots are planted in a cluster, 
they make a very pretty show, and have this advantage, that they 
flower somewhat earlier than any of the others. It is a native of 
Spain. 

The sixth ' of the same size with the second, but the leaves are 
narrower by half and channelled : the spathe one-flowered : the whole 
corolla snow-white: the petals ovate-oblong: the nectary bcIl-shaped, 
shorter by half than the corolla, with the margin slraigiil, and un- 



312 



equally crenulale: the stamens three, seldom six: the anthers dark 
yellow, shorter than the nectary. In nurseries the flowers are of a 
pale yellow, having two and sometimes three flowers from a spathe. 
It is a native of Portugal. 

There are varieties with cup and petals wholly of a gold colour; 
with 3'ellow, with a white cup; and with white, with a yellow cup. 

The seventh species is broad-leaved, having the appearance of 
the ninth sort: the corolla is white: the nectary erect, half or one- 
third of the length of the petals, trifid, yellow, with the lobes emar- 
ginate. It is a native of the Levant, flowering in May. 

There are several varieties. 

The eighth has small bulbs: the leaves very narrow, having some 
resemblance to those of the Rush, but a little compressed, with a 
longitudinal furrow on one side; they are seldom more than eight or 
nine inches long: the flower-stalk slender, taper, about six inches 
long: petal scarce half an inch long, cut into six acute segments: 
the nectary or cup is more than two inches long, very broad at the 
brim, lessening gradually to the base, formed somewhat like the old 
farthingale or bell-hoop petticoat worn by the ladies. It is a native 
of Portugal, flowering in April or May. 

The ninth species has a large, roundish bulb: the leaves three or 
four, long, narrow, plane: the scape or flower-stalk upright, broad- 
ish, angular, concave, from ten or twelve to eighteen inches in height: 
the flowers six or seven to ten from one spathe, very fragrant, clus- 
tered, white or yellow. It is a native of Spain and Portugal, &c., 
flowering in February and March. 

There are a great many varieties: the principal of which are ; with 
yellow petals, with orange, yellow, or sulphur-coloured cupjs or nec- 
taries; with white petals, with orange, yellow, or sulphur-coloured 
cups or nectaries; with white petals, with white cups or nectaries; 
and with double flowers of the different varieties. 

The flower catalogues contain about a hundred sub- varieties 
under these heads. It may be observed, that " the varieties with 
white petals and white cups are not so much esteemed as the others; 
there are, however, two or three with large bunches of small white 



313 



flowers, which are vahiable for their agreeable odour, and for flower- 
ing later than most of the others. There is also one with very dou- 
ble flowers, the outer petals white, those in the middle some white, 
others orange-coloured," which has a very agreeable scent, flowers 
early, and is generally called the Cyprus Narcissus" and is the most 
beautiful of all the varieties when blown in glasses in rooms or other 
places. 

The tenth has a small bulb: the leaves few, narrow: the stalk 
jointed, nine inches high: the corolla white, cut into six narrow seg- 
ments: the cup yellow. It flowers late in the autumn, and is a na- 
tive of Spain, Italy, and Barbary. 

The eleventh species has the flower deep yellow, three times as 
large as that of the ninth, sometimes one only from a spathe, but 
frequently more: the nectary not fringed, but divided at the mouth 
into six blunt lobes. It possesses more fragrance than many of the 
others. It is a native of the South of Europe, flowering in April and 
May. 

It varies with double flowers. 

The twelfth resembles the ninth very much, but the petals are a 
little larger and sharper; the nectary is the same length with the 
petal; the leaves two or three, a foot or more in length: the stem is 
slender, strong, a foot in length: the flowers two or three from a 
spathe, very eleganl, large and loose: the petals yellow: the cup half 
an inch long, sinuated at the edge, of a deeper yellow colour. It 
flowers in April, and is a native of the southern parts of Europe and 
of the Levant. 

The thirteenth is named from the narrowness of its leaves, like 
those of Rushes; there are two or three of them usually on a plant, 
and they are angular, fleshy, and almost round: the scape is round, 
hollow, producing at top from three to five flowers from a spathe, 
sometimes no more than two, very fragrant petals orbiculate or mu- 
cronate, both they and the cup yellow: the bulb small, white, covered 
with dark membranes. It is a native of Spain, flowering in April 
and May. 

It varies with double flowers. 

2 S 



314 



Culture. — All ihese different species and varieties may be in- 
creased with facility, by planting the off-set bulbs from the roots; 
and by sowing the seed in order to procure new varieties, which is 
chiefly practised for the fine sorts of Polyanthus Narcissus. 

For this last purpose the seed should be carefully saved from the 
best and most curious plants after being perfectly ripened. 

The seed should be sown soon after it becomes ripe, as about the 
beginning of August, in shallow boxes or flat pans perforated with 
holes in the bottoms, and filled with fresh light sandy earth, being 
covered about a quarter of an inch deep with fine sifted mould, and 
placed in such situations as are only exposed to the morning sun, 
till the beginning of winter, when they should be removed to have 
the full sun, and be sheltered from severe weather. In the spring, 
when the plants appear, they should be occasionally watered in dry 
weather, and be screened from the mid-day heat, removing them 
into cooler situations as the warm season advances, keeping them 
free from all sorts of weeds. Towards the latter end of the summer, 
when their stems decay, the surface mould of the boxes or pans 
should be stirred or wholly removed, and some fresh mould sifted 
over the plants, being careful not to disturb the roots, and keeping 
them rather dry in a shaded place. 

They should have the same man-igemcnt annually, till the period 
of their leaves decaying in the third summer, when the bulbs 
should be taken up, and the largest separated and planted out on 
raised beds of light fine mould, in rows six inches apart, and three or 
four distant in them, having the depth of two or three inches. 'J'he 
smaller bulbs may be covered in on another bed with fine mould, to 
remain till of sufficient size to be planted out as above. 

They should afterwards be kept clean; and when they show 
flowers so as to ascertain their properties, they may be removed, and 
managed in the manner directed below. 

The off-set bulbs of the old plants, especially the double sorts, 
should be separated from the roots annually, or at furthest every two 
or three years, in the latter part of the summer, when their leaves and 
stems decay, planting their larger bulbs out at different limes, from 



315 

the end of August to the beginning of November, in order to afford 
variety; but the earher they are planted the stronger they blow. 
When left out of the ground till February, or later, they mostly 
appear weak. 

They succeed best where the soil is of a light, dry, fresh, hazel, 
loamy quality, and the aspect south-easterly; as where inclined to 
moisture they are very apt to be destroyed. 

They afterwards only require to be kept free from Aveeds, and to 
have the ground stirred above them in the autumn. 

The small bulbs may be planted out in rows in nursery-beds to 
increase for being planted out in the same manner. 

When these roots are planted in the open borders or other places, 
in assemblage with other bulbous flowers, they should be deposited 
in little patches, about three or four roots in each, putting them in 
with a blunt dibble, or holing ihem in with a garden-trowel, three or 
four inches deep; in which mode they display their flowers more 
conspicuously than when planted singly. 

Where a large quantity are planted out alone in beds in order to 
exhibit a full bloom, as often practised Avith the fine Fohjanthus- 
Narcissus, Jonquils, &c. the beds should be four feet wide, with foot- 
and-half or two- feet wide alleys between them; in these beds the 
roots should be planted in rows length-ways, nine inches asunder, 
either with a blunt dibble or with a hoe, three or four inches deep, 
and six distant in each row, covering them evenly with the earth, 
and raking the surface smooth. 

In order to blow the Poli/anthus-Narcissus and Jonquil in the 
highest perfection, curious florists often bestow particular care in their 
culture: some, preparing beds of compost, as for the fine Hyacinths, 
&c. managing them in the same manner. But they succeed well in 
beds of light dry mould. 

Where the bulbs of this sort are intended for sale, they should be 
lifted at furthest every two years, to prevent their becoming flattened 
by pressure, and of course less valuable. 

The buh;s may i;e retained out of the ground two or three months 
where it is necessary; but it is better to replant them as above. 



316 



Culture in Glasses. — It is sometimes the practice to cultivate the 
Polyanthus Narcissus and some of the large Jonquil kind in glasses 
in rooms, in order to blow in the winter or early spring season. For 
this purpose dry firm bulbs should be chosen, and one placed in each 
single glass or bottle provided for the purpose, any time from Octo- 
ber till the spring, being then filled up to the roots of the bulbs with 
soft water, and deposited in a light warm place: in this method the 
plants soon begin to grow, and send forth flower-stems, affording 
good flowers, which have a very ornamental appearance. 

The principal circumstances to be regarded in this management 
are, those of keeping the glasses well supplied with fresh portions of 
water, so as constantly to be up to the lower part of the roots, and 
changing the whole, so as to keep it always in a pure state- 

They may likewise be raised in pots filled with light sandy mould, 
and placed in the same situations. 

Also in hot-houses, they may be made to blow early, when kept 
either in pots or glasses. 

When planted out in the manner mentioned above, in the borders, 
clumps, and other parts of pleasure-grounds, they are most of them 
highly ornamental, producing much variety in the early spring 
months. 

All the different principal sorts may be procured from the seeds- 
men in London, who import them for sale from Holland, where they 
are raised in large quantities. 



PLATE XXXVIII. 

1. NELUMBIUM SPECIOSUM. 

CHINESE WATER-LILY. 

See NYMPHCEA. 

2. NOLANA PROSTRATA. 

TRAILING NOLANA. 

This genus contains a plant of the herbaceous trailing annual 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Penta?idria Monogynia^ and 
ranks in the natural order of Asperifolia, or Lwidce. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianthium, 
turbinate at the base, five-parted, five-cornered: segments cordate, 
acute, permanent: the corolla is one-petalled, bell-shaped, plaited, 
spreading, somewhat five-lobed, twice as large as the calyx : the 
stamina have five awl-shaped filaments, erect, equal, shorter than 
the corolla: anthers sagittate: the pistillum is as five roundish 
germs: style among the germs, cylindric, straight, the length of the 
stamens: stigma capitate: the pericarpium properly none: (drupes 
five, decumbent, three or five-celled:) the seeds five, with a succu- 
lent rind, roundish, with the inner base naked, immersed in the 
receptacle, two-celled and four-celled (solitary). 

The species is N. prostrata, Trailing Nolana. 

It has an annual root, simple, filiform, often three feet long, 
blackish: the stem a foot long, herbaceous, prostrate, roundish, very 
smooth, with white dots scattered over it the branches alternate, 
the lower ones the length of the stalk: the leaves alternate, two to- 



318 



getlier, reflex, rhomb-ovate, quite entire, blunt, somewhat fleshy, 
an inch long, somewhat papulose, even, flat, veined, unequal, al- 
ternately larger and smaller. According to Miller they come out 
single at some joints, by pairs at others, and frequently three or 
four at the upper joints: the petioles ancipital, scarcely shorter than 
the leaves, smooth, those belonging to the upper leaves vaguely 
ciliate : the peduncles lateral, solitary, spreading a little, an inch 
long, one-flowered, round, thicker at top, hairy: the flowers infe- 
rior. It is a native of Java. 

Culture. — These plants may be raised by sowing the seeds on a 
hot-bed in March. When the plants are fit to remove, they should 
be planted out singly into small pots filled with light earth, plunging 
them into a fresh hot-bed to brino; them forward. When their flowers 
open in the summer, as July, they should have a large share of air 
admitted when the weather is warm, to prevent their falling away 
without producing seeds. Under this management the plants often 
continue flowering till the early frosts destroy them, and ripe seeds 
are produced in the beginning of the autumn. 

They afford variety among other tender annuals. 



PLATE XXXIX. 



1. OENOTHERA FRUTICOSA. 

SHRUBBY OENOTHERA. 

This genus contains plants of the herbaceous, biennial, peren- 
nial and under shrubby perennial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Octandria Monogyniay and ranks 
in the natural order of Calycanthemcn. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed, superior, deci- 
duous perianthium: tube cylindrical, erect, long, deciduous: bor- 
der four-cleft: the segments oblong, acute, bent down: the corolla 
has four petals, obcordate, flat, inserted into the interstices of the 
calyx, and the same length with the divisions of the calyx: the sta- 
mina have eight awl-shaped filaments, curved inwards, inserted into 
the throat of the calyx, shorter than the corolla: anthers oblong, 
incumbent: the pistilhim is a cylindrical germ, inferior: style fili- 
form, the length of the stamens: stigma four-cleft, thick, blunt, 
reflex: the pericarpium is a cylindrical capsule, four-cornered, four- 
celled, four-valved, Avith contrary partitions: the seeds very many, 
angular, naked : the receptacle columnar, free, four-cornered, with 
the angles contiguous to the margin of the partitions. 

The species cultivated are: 1. O. biennis. Broad-leaved Tree- 
Primrose; 2. 0. longijiora, Long-floAvered Tree-Primrose; 3. O. mol- 
lissima. Soft Tree-Primrose; 4. O. fniticosa, Shrubby Tree-Primrose; 
5. 0. pumila, Dwarf Tree-Primrose. 

The first has a biennial fusiform fibrous root, yellowish on the 
outside, while within: from this, the first year, arise many obtuse 
leaves, which spread flat on the ground ; and from among which, 
the second year, the stems come out, three or four feet high, upiight, 



520 

of a pale green colour, the thickness of a finger, not hollow but 
pilh}^ angular, slightly pubescent and rugged, tinged with purple, 
especially towards the bottom, branched alternately almost from the 
ground: the root-leaves run down into a three-sided petiole an inch 
it) Icnglh: the stem-leaves sessile, bright lightish green, pubescent on 
both sides, waved a little about the edge, and having a few small 
teelh near the base: they are from five to seven inches in length and 
two inches in breadth, having a considerable midrib running the 
whole length, very wide and tinged with purple towards the base, at 
ihe back very prominent, with white nerves springing from it, and 
curved towards the point: the flowers are produced all along the 
stalks on axillary branches, and in a terminating spike: the leaves 
on the former are similar to the stem-leaves, but much smaller, 
being not more than two inches long, and little more than half an 
inch in breadth: the flowers are solitary, each being separated by a 
leaflet or bracle, wider in proportion at the base than the proper 
leaves, and drawn more to a point, diminishing gradually towards 
the top of the spike, till they become linear, scarcely half an inch in 
length, and a line in breadth. 

It is observed that the flowers usually open between six and 
seven o'clock in the evening, whence the plant is called Evening or 
Night-Primrose: the uppcrtnost flowers comt; out first in June, the 
stalk keeping continually advancing in height, and there is a constant 
succession of flowers till late in autumn. It is a native of North 
America. The roots are said to be eaten in some countries in the 
spring season. 

The second species has also a biennial root: the root-leaves are 
numerous, broad-lanceolate, toothletted, pubescent, with a white 
rib, obliquely nerved: the stems usually five, springing out below 
the root leaves, quite simple, ascending, rough- haired, green, with 
long spreading white hairs: the central stem grows up later: the 
stem-leaves are ovate-oblong, sessile, like the root-leaves: the flowers 
axillary from the upper leaves, with the germ and calyx hairy. It is 
remarked by Curtis, that luxuriant specimens exceed five feet in 
height, that the flowers are uncommonly large and showy, and 



321 



continue blowing from July to October. It is a native of Buenos 
Ay res. 

The third has a shrubby stalk more tlian two feet high, hairy, 
with narrow-lanceohite sessile leaves, a little waved on their edges, 
and ending in acute points: the flowers are axillary like the other 
sorts, at first pale yellow, but as they decay changing to an orange 
colour, smaller than those of the first sort: the seed-vessels slender, 
taper, hairy. It is also a biennial plant, and a native of Buenos 
Ayres, flowering from June to October. 

The fourth species is a perennial, but altogether herbaceous, at 
least here, and therefore improperly named fruticosa: the flowers, 
which are large and showy, though they open in the evening, remain 
expanded during most of the ensuing day: the flower-buds, germ, 
and stalk, are enlivened by a richness of colour which contributes to 
render this species one of the most ornamental and desirable. It is 
a native of Virginia. 

The fifth has also a perennial fibrous root: the lower leaves ovate, 
small, close lo the ground : the slalk slender, near a foot high : the 
leaves smaller, light green, sessile, ending in blunt points: the flowers 
small, bright yellow: it sends out many flowering-stems, producing 
blossoms from April to July, opening in the morning as well as 
evening. It is a native of North America. 

Culture. — These plants are all capable of being raised from seeds, 
and some of them by parting the roots and cuttings. 

The seed should be sown either in the autumn or early spring, 
in the first and third sorts, upon a bed or border in the open ground, 
thinning and watering the plants properly, and keeping them free 
from weeds till the following autumn, when they may be removed 
with balls of earth about their roots to the places where they are to 
remain. Or some may beset out at the lime of thinning in iiurserj'- 
rows, six inches apart. 

They also rise without trouble from the scattering of the seeds. 

In the second sort, the seed should be put into the ground in the 
open borders or other parts, about the latter end of March, where 
the plants are to remain. One plant is suflicient in a place, which 

2 T 



322 



should have a slick set to support its branches when they have ad- 
vanced a little. 

The fourth sort may be readily increased by sowing the seeds as 
above, and by parting the roots and cuttings of the young branches, 
planting them out in the open borders or other places where they 
are to grow in the autumn, for the first method, and the spring for 
tlie latter, giving water as there may be occasion. 

]n the fifth sort, the seeds should be sown in pots of light earth 
in the autumn, plunging them in a hot-bed frame during the winter. 
When the plants have attained proper growth in the spring, they 
should be removed into separate pots, which should be protected in 
the following winter under a garden frame. And some may be 
planted out in the open ground, where they often succeed in mild 
winters. 

The parted roots should be planted out in the spring, either in 
pots or the open ground. 

The plants raised from seed are in general the best, as flowering 
more strongl3\ 

By cutting down the stems of the plants in the first year of their 
flowering before they perfect their seeds, the plants may sometimes 
be rendered more durable. 

The first two sorts, as has been seen, are biennial, and the others 
perennial; the former should of course be raised annually. 

'J'hey are all proper for aflbrding ornament and variety, either in 
the open ground or among other polled ])lanls. 'Ihc second and 
third sorts are often considered as green -house plants, but they 
succeed well in the open ground. 



323 



2. ORIGANUM DICTAMNUS. 

DITTANY OF CRETE. 

This genus affords plants of the herbaceous annual and under- 
shrubby perennial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Didynamia Gymnospermiai and 
ranks in the natural order of Verticillata. 

The characters are : that the calyx is a spiked involucre, com- 
posed of imbricate, ovate, coloured bractes: perianlhium unequal, 
various: the corolla one-petalled, ringent: tube cylindrical, com- 
pressed: upper lip erect, Hat, blunt, emarginale: lower trifid, the 
segments almost equal: the stamina have four fihform filaments, the 
length of the corolla, of which two arc longer: anthers simple: the 
pistillum is a four-cleft germ: style filiform, inclined to the upper 
lip of the corolla: stigma very slightly bifid: there is no pericar- 
pium: calyx converging, fostering the seeds at bottom: the seeds 
four, ovate. 

The species cultivated are: 1. 0. vulgare, Common Maijoram ; 
2. O. onites, Pot Marjoram; 3. 0. majorana. Sweet or Knotted Mar- 
joram; 4. 0. heracleoticum, Winter Sweet Marjoram; 5. 0. JEgijptia- 
cum, Egyptian Marjoram; 6. 0. dicfamnus. Dittany of Crete or 
Candia. 

The first has a perennial, creeping, horizontal, brown root, tufted 
with numerous fibres: the stem a foot, eighteen inches, or near two 
feet in height, upright, somewhat wocdy, a little downy, and often 
tinged with purple: the branches opposite, upright, more tender than 
the stalk, in other respects similar: the leaves are ovate, pointetl, 
finely and thinly toothed, above nearly smooth, beneath downy, 
dotted on both sides, the edges finely ciliate, spreading: the petioles 
downy: axils of the leaves, in the cultivated plant, bear numerous 



'3^4 



smaller leaves. It is an aromatic and ornamental plant, growing 
wild in thickets and hedges, chiefly in a calcareous soil; and flowering 
from the end of June through the following month. It is found in 
most parts of Europe. 

There are varieties with white flowers and light-green stalks; 
with purple flowers and with variegated leaves ; which is sometimes 
cultivated in gardens under the title of Pot Marjoram, used in soups. 

The second species has the habit of Sweet Maijoram, but it is 
woody: the stems woody, perennial, a foot and half high, branched, 
spreading, with long hairs ; the leaves small, subsessile, acute, 
thinly serrate, tomentose on both sides; with rudiments of branches 
from the axils: the spikes heaped, as in the third sort, but oblong, 
by threes on each peduncle, the middle ones sessile, villose: the 
flowers arc white, appearing in July. It is a native of Sicily. 

The third has a biennial brown root, with many long tough fibres: 
the stems numerous, woody, branched, a foot and half high: the 
leaves are downy, entire, pale green, pelioled: the flowers small, 
white, appearing successively between the bracteal leaves, which are 
numerous, and form roundish compact terminating spikes. It be- 
gins to flower in July, when it is cut for use, and called Knotted 
Marjoram, from the flowers being collected into roundish knotted 
close heads. It is probably a native of China. 

The fourth species has a perennial root, from which arise many 
branching stalks a foot and half high, hairv, and inclining to a pur- 
])lish colour: the leaves ovate, obtuse, hairy, greatly resembling those 
of Sweet Marjoram, on short fool-stalks: the flowers in spikes about 
two inches long, several arising together from the divisions of the 
stalk: the flowers are small, white, peeping out of their scaly covers, 
it grows naturally in Greece, &c. 

It is at present commonly known hy the name of Winter Szcett 
Marjoram, but was formerly called Pot Marjoram, being chiefly used 
ior nosegays, as coming sooner to flower than Sweet Marjoram. 

There is a varietv with variegated leaves. 

The fifth is a perennial plant with a low shrubby stalk, seldom 
rising more than a foot and half high, dividing into branches: the 



325 



leax^es roundish, thick, woolly, hollowed like a ladle; they are like 
those of common Marjoram, but of a thicker substance, and have 
much the same scent: the flowers are produced in roundish spikes, 
closely joined together at the top of the stalks, and at the end of the 
small side branches; they are of a pale flesh colour, peeping out of 
their scaly coverings. It is a native of Egypt, flowering from June 
to August. 

The sixth species is also a perennial plant: the stalks hairy, about 
nine inches high, of a purplish colour, sending out small branches 
from the sides by pairs: the leaves round, thick, woolly, very white; 
the whole plant has a piercing aromatic S€ent, and biting taste: the 
flowers are collected in loose leafy heads of a purple colour, nodding, 
and small. It is a native of the island of Candia, flowering from 
June to August, 

Culture. — The four first sorts may be readily increased by slips, 
cuttings, and parting the roots, and in the first and third sorts also 
by seeds. 

The seed should be procured fresh from the seed-shops, and be 
sown in the early spring months, as March or the following month, 
on a bed or border of good light mould, raking it in lightly. When 
the plants are up and have attained a few inches in growth, they 
should be planted out during moist weather, in a warm dry situation, 
in rows ten or twelve inches distant, to remain, water being given 
occasionally till they become perfectly rooted. When the plants 
are designed for the borders or clumps, the seeds may be sown in 
patches where the plants are to remain. 

The roots of the strongest plants may be parted so as to have 
some root-fibres to each in the early autumn or spring season, and 
be planted out in rows in liie same manner as those raised from seed ; 
having the same management afterwards till fresh rooted. The slips 
or cuttings of the branches should be taken off in the summer, and 
immediately planted out where the plants arc to remain. 

All the sorts should be afterwards kept perfectly clean from 
weeds during the summer season, and in the autumn liave the de- 
cayed stalks cleared away, loosening the mould about the plants; 



326 



and when in beds, digging the alleys and throwing a little of the 
earth over the beds. 

When necessary the plants may be removed into the pleasure 
ground, with small balls of earth about their roots, either in the au- 
tumn or early spring. 

The other tender kinds may be increased by planting slips or 
cuttings of the young shoots, in the spring and summer months; in 
the former season in pots of light earth, plunging them in a mild 
hot-bed, but in the latter either in pots or warm shady borders; 
water being immediately given and occasionally repealed in small 
proportions, being covered down by hand-glasses in the latter case, 
to expedite their rooting; being removed when the plants begin to 
shoot at the top. In the autumn the plants may be removed into 
separate small pots, and afterwards treated as the more hardy plants 
of the green-house kind. 

The three first sorts are useful as culinary plants, as well as 
ornamental in the borders of the pleasure ground: and the other 
kinds afford variety in the green-house collections. 



TldO 




PLATE XL. 



1. PRIMULA VERIS. 

OXLIP. 

This genus contains plants of the low fibrous-rooted herbaceous 
flowery perennial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Pentajidria Monogynia and ranks 
in the natural order of Precia. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a many-leaved involucre, 
many flowered, very small: perianthium one-leafed, tubular, five- 
cornered, five-toothed, acute, erect, permanent: the corolla mono- 
petalous: tube cylindrical, the length of the calyx, terminated by a 
small hemispherical neck : border spreading, half-five-cleft : segments 
obcordate, emarginate, obtuse: throat pervious: the stamina have 
five very short filaments, within the neck of the corolla: anthers 
acuminate, erect, converging, included: the pistillum is a globular 
germ: style filiform, the length of the calyx: stigma globular: the 
pericarpium is a capsule cylindrical, almost the length of the peri- 
anth, covered, one-celled, opening with a ten-toolhed top: the seeds 
numerous, roundish: receptacle ovate-oblong, free. 

The species cultivated are: 1. P. vulgaris, Common Primrose; 
2. P. e/«^/or. Great Cowslip or Oxlip; 3. P. ofJicinaUs^ Common Cow- 
slip or Paiglc; 4. P. fariuosa, Bird's-eye Primrose; 5. P. long/folia, 
LoDg-leaved Bird's-eye Primrose; 6. P. cortusoides, Cortusa-leaved 
Primrose; 7. P. marginata, Silver-edged Primrose; 8. P. Auricula, 
Auricula or Bear's-ear. 

The first has a perennial root, growing obliquely, appi'aring as if 
bit.oft' at the end, beset with thick reddisii scales whicli arc the re- 
mains of past leaves, sending down numerous very ]..i5g round 



328 



whitish fibres; it has a singular smell, somewhat like that of anise: 
the leaves are obo\ ale-oblong, about a hand's-breadlh in length, 
nearly upright, tapering to the base, blunt, vein}', wrinkled, smooth 
above, hirsute beneath, rolled back at the edge when 3^oung, slightly 
waved, unequally notched, the midrib whitish, terminating in afoot- 
stalk of a reddish colour, channelled on one side and keeled on the 
other: the scapes or peduncles numerous, the length of the leaves, 
upright, round, hirsute, pale green, having awl-shaped bractes at the 
base, after the flowering is over bending back: the flowers upright, 
large, sweet-scented: the corolla is of a pale sulphur colour; each of 
the five clefts obcordate, and marked at the base with a spot of a 
much deeper yellow: the mouth has a faint rim round it. The 
flower of the wild Primrose is a pale brimstone colour; but in some 
places it is found of a purple hue. 

The varieties are numerous, being partly wild and partly pro- 
duced by cultivation. The principal of which are: the Common 
Yellow-flow^ercd: the White: the Paper-white: the Red: the Double 
Yellow: the Double While: the Double Red: the Double Pink: 
the Double Crimson Primrose. It is a native of most parts of 
Europe, flowering in INIarch and April with the Wood Anemone. 

It is observed, that a fine flower of this sort should possess a 
graceful elegance of form, a richness of colouring, and a perfect 
symmetry of parts. The properties are mostly similar to those 
which distinguish the Auricula, in what relates to the stem or scape, 
the peduncles or flower-stalks, and the formation of the umbel, bunch 
or th^nse, vulgarly termed the truss: the tube of the corolla above 
the calyx should be short, well filled at the mouth with the anthers, 
and fluted termination rather above the eye: the eye should be 
round, of a bright clear yellow, and distinct from the ground colour: 
the ground colour is most admired when shaded with a light and 
dark rich crimson, resembling velvet, with one mark or stripe in the 
centre of each division of the border, bold and distinct from the 
edging down to the eye, where it should terminate in a fine point: 
the petals, technically termed the pips, should be large, quite flat, 
and perfectly circular, excepting the small indentures between each 



329 



division, which separate it into five (sometimes six) heart-Hke seg- 
ments: and the edging should resemble a bright gold lace, bold, 
clear and distinct, and so nearly of the same colour as the eye and 
stripes, as scarcely to be distinguished from it. 

The second species has the leaves contracted towards the middle, 
almost as in the Cowslip: the scapes few, erect, longer than the 
leaves, many-flowered : the flowers iimbelled, pedicelled, the outer 
ones generally nodding; like those of the Primrose in form and 
colour, but smaller. From which it is evidently distinguished by its 
many-flowered scape; as it is from the cowslip by the flat border of 
the corolla. It is found in the woods and other places in this 
country, flowering in April and May. 

Martyn remarks that if it be a variety, it is rather of the former 
than the latter. And Dr. Smith rather inclines to think that it is 
a hybrid production, or mule from a Primrose impregnated by a 
Cowslip. 

It varies much in the colour of the flowers, but the chief are 
purple-flowered, red-flowered, gold-coloured, orange-coloured, with 
various shades of each. 

The third has a root like that of the Prinnose, but smelling more 
powerfully of anise: the leaves obovate-oblong, contracted suddenly 
towards the middle, or rather ovate with the petiole winged, shorter 
than those of the Primrose by nearly one-half, fuller at the edge, 
which is somewhat folded as well as notched, stronger, of a deeper 
green, not running so taper at the base, covered on the under side 
with softer and shorter hair: the petioles smoother, whitish with 
scarcely any red in them: the scapes few, three or four times longer 
than the leaves, round, upright, pale, villose: the involucre at the 
base of the umbel, surrounding the peduncles, consisting of many, 
very small, concave, pale, acuminate leaflets: the flowers in an 
umbel, unequally pedicelled, hanging down, generally to one side, 
full yellow with an orange-coloured blotch at the base of each seg- 
ment, contracted about the middle of the tube, where the stamens 
are inserted, paler underneath, very fragrant. It is a native of 
Eiurope, flowering in April and May. 

2 U 



330 



The varieties are the Common Single Yellow Cowslip: Double 
Yellow Cowslip: Scarlet Cowslip: and Hose, and Hose Cowslip. 

Tlie iVagrant flowers of these plants make a pleasant wine, ap- 
proaching in flavour to the muscadel wines of the south of France. 
It is commonly supposed to possess a somniferous quality. 

The fourth species has a perennial root, soinewhat pra^morse, 
with numerous, long, perpendicular fibres, and sweet-scented: the 
leaves obovate-lanceolate, bright green, smoolh and even, thickish, 
here and there turned back on the edges, underneath veined and 
powdered wilh while meal: the scape a hand's-bieadth or span in 
height, far exceeding the leaves, round, upright, sliff and straight, 
of a pale green colour and mealy: the flowers sweet-scented, of a 
purple 3^elIow colour, in an upright umbel, having at its base a 
many-leaved involucre, each leaflet of which is awl-shaped, and 
placed at the base of each peduncle. It is an elegant plant; is a 
native of many parts of Europe, flowering in July and August. 

It varies in the size of the plant, having been found wild a foot 
and half in height, and in the cultivated plant a tendency to be- 
come viviparous, has been observed by Curlis, or to produce one or 
more tufts of leaves among the flowers of the umbel. In its wild 
state it seeds readil>% and frequently when cultivated: the flowers 
also vary wilh different shades of purple, and have been (bund 
entirely while. 

The fiflh bears a great affinity to the fourth, but the leaves differ 
in form, colour, and mode of growth; when fully grown being twice 
the length of those of the other: the}' are not mealy, the under side 
being as green as the upper, and they have a greater tendency to 
growuprighl: the scape is shorler and thicker: the flowers form a 
similar umbe l, but each is smaller, and in point of colour much less 
brillianl. Upon the whole, though superior in size, it is inferior to 
that in beauty. It flowers early in May. 

The six lb species, in the wrinkled appearance of ils foliage, 
approaches ihe first sort; whilst in its inflorescence, the colour of 
its flowers, and solitary scape, which rises to an unusual height, it 
bears an aftinity to the fourth. In the winter it loses the leaves 



331 



entireiy, and forms a sort of bulbous hybernacle under ground: tbis 
circumstance is necessary to bo known, as it subjects the plant to be 
thrown away as dead. It flowers in June and July; and is a native 
of Siberia. 

The seventh, in its farinaceous tendency, accords with the eighth 
sort, but is very unlike it in its wild state, the leaves being much 
narrower: the flowers larger, and of a different colour: the colour of 
the flowers approaches to that of lilac: it becomes mealy, particularly 
on the edges of the leaves, between the serratures, where it is so 
strong as to make the leaf appear with a white or silvery edge. It 
is a delicate pretty plant, with a pleasing musky smell, and flowers 
in March and April. It is probably a native of the Alps. 

The eighth species has the leaves fleshy, succulent, with the 
edges mealy, serrated; or entire, according to some — deeply and 
equally toothed all round, as others affirm ; while some say that the 
young leaves are entire: the adult ones serrate above the middle: 
the petioles leafy or winged: the leaflets of the involucre une([ual, 
wide, lanceolate or blunt: the flowers very sweet, four or five in an 
upright umbel; the calyx one-third of the length of the tube of the 
corolla, bell-shaped, touthed, mealy, as is also the scape: the tube 
of the corolla gradually widening upwards, not contracted at the 
neck: the border concave: the segments emarginate but not deeply? 
and not cut to the neck: the most common colours are yellow or 
red, but it is found also purple and variegated, with a while eye 
powdered with meal: capsule spherical or nearly so, flatted a little 
at top, of a coriaceous-cartilaginous substance, sprinkled with meal. 
It is a native of the mountains of Switzerland, Austria, &c. flowering 
in April and May. 

It varies much in the leaves and flowers; as the oblong-leaved; 
roundish-leaved; broad-leaved; narrow-leaved; green-leaved; white 
or meal leaved ; the purple-flowered, of various shades and variega- 
tions ; red-flowered, with different shades and variegations; yellow- 
flowered, of different shades; double purple-flowered; double yellow- 
flowered; variegated purples, &c. 

With regard to the properties of a fine auricula, ihey are these 



332 



according to Marlyn: " The stein should be strong, upright, and oT 
such a height as that the umbel of flowers may be above the foliage, 
of the plant: the peduncles or fool-stalks of the flowers should also 
be strong, and of a length proportional to tlie size and quantity of 
the flowers; which shoukl not be less than seven in number, tliat 
the umbel may be regular and close: the tube, eye, and border 
should be well proportioned; which they will be, if the diameter of 
the first be one part, of the eye three, and the whole border six j)arts 
or thereabouts : the circumference of the border should be round or 
nearly so, or at least not what is called slarry: the anthers ought to 
be large, bold, and fill the tube well; and the tube should terminate 
rather above the eye, which should be very white, smooth and round, 
without cracks, and distinct from the ground-colour: the ground- 
colour should be bold and rich, and regular, whether it be in one 
uniform circle or in bright patches: it should be distinct at the 
eye, and only broken at the outer part into the edging: a fine black, 
purple, or bright coffee-colour, contrast best with the while eye: a 
rich blue, or bright pink is pleasing, but a glowing scarlet or deep 
crimson would be most desirable, if well edged Avith a bright green; 
this, however, can seldom be expected: the green edge is the j)rinci- 
pal cause of the variegated appearance in ihis flower, and it should 
be in j)roj)orlion to the ground-colour, that is, about one-half of 
each: the darker grounds are generally covered with a white pow- 
der, which seem necessary, as well as the Avhite eye, to guard the 
flower from ihe scorching heat of the sun's rays/' 

It is observed, that all flowers that want any of the above pro- 
perties are turned out into the borders of the garden or rt^ected 
wholly by every good florist; for as there are varieties every year 
from seeds, the bad ones must make room for their betters: but in 
some the passion for new flowers so much prevails, that supposing 
the old flower to be greatly preferable to a new one, the latter nuist 
take place, because it is of their own raising. 

Culture. — These beautiful plants are raised without much difii- 
culty, by proper care and attention in their management with re- 



333 



spect to the parting ot" the roots, and the planting tlieni out in their 
due season; they succeed best in a strong soil, and some of them, as 
the Piimrose kind, in a shady situation. 

Culture in the Polyanthus kinds. — These arc ail ca{)abie of being 
increased by seed and the parting of the roots, the former being the 
only method for obtaining new varieties or a large supply of plants. 
The seed should be collected from such flowers as have large upi ight 
stems, and which produce many flowers upon the stalk, being large, 
beautifully striped, open, flat, and not pin-e^^ed, as from such seed a 
great variety ot good sorts may be expected; care should be how- 
ever taken that no bad or common flowers stand near them, as they 
v/ill be apt to debase them, by the admixture of their farina. 

The seeds should be soM'n in boxes or large pots filled M'ith light 
rich mould. The proper season for this business is in the autumn, 
or the early spring; but the former is ihe better, as by sowing then 
the plants come up well the same year, and are strong and fit to 
plant out the following spring, and are fine plants for flowering the 
second spring. In the first season the sowing should be per- 
formed as soon as possible after the seeds become well ripened, 
though some advise December as a good time; but when in the 
latter, or the spring season, it ma}'^ be done in February, March, or 
the following month. The seed should be sown over the surface 
tolerably thick, being covered in very lightly, and the boxes or pots 
placed where they may have a little of the morning sun, but not b}' 
any means the in id-day heats. The plants may be much forwarded 
by the pots or boxes being plunged in a mild hot-bed; in the spring, 
when dry, they should be frequently refreshed with water, in very 
moderate proportions at a time, removing the plants more into the 
shade as the heat advances, as it soon destroys them. The autumn- 
sown plants should have a warm situation during the winter, or be 
protected IVom frosts or severe weather by glasses or other means. 

In the spring or early summer the plants of the different sow- 
ings will be suflSciently strong to plant out, for which a bed or shady 
border should be prepared, and made rich by neat's dung, on which 
the plants should be set out about four or five inches distant in every 



334 



direction, care being taken to water them occasionally till well 
rooted, after which they only require to be kept free liom weeds; 
and when they flower in the following spring the best flowers should 
be marked, and the rest be removed into the borders or other.places 
for affording variety; and the valuable plants may be removed, 
when they have finished flowering, into the borders or beds where 
they are designed to flower and remain, in the same manner as 
above, watering them slightly till well rooted again. The roots 
afterwards require to be parted and removed annually, and the earth 
of the borders renewed, to prevent their degenerating. 

It is necessary, in order to keep up a proper stock of plants, to 
raise new seedling plants every two or three years, as the old plants 
mostly decline in beauty after the third year. 

In the latter method, the roots should be parted in the beginning 
of the autumn, as soon as the flowering is over, and it may likewise 
be done early in the spring; but the former is the best time, as the 
plants get stronger and flower better in the spring. 

In performing the work the plants should be taken up out of the 
ground, and each bunch divided into several slips, not too small, 
unless where a great increase is wanted, being careful to preserve 
some root to each slip; they arc then to be planted in a fresh dug 
border, enriched with dung as above, selling them five or six inches 
asunder, giving ihem water directly, and repeating it occasionally 
till they have taken good root. The approved sorts may in this way 
be easily preserved. 

These plants are observed by the editor of Miller's Dictionary to 
be very liable to the depredations of snails and slugs, in the spring 
of the year; ihe plants and pots therefore should be carefully ex- 
amined on all sides early in the morning. But their worst enemy is 
a small red spider or Acarus, which in summer forms its web on the 
under side of the leaves. These little insects, scarcely visible without 
a magnifying glass, cause the leaves lo become yellow and spotted, 
and eventually destroy the plant: ihey multiply with such rapidity 
as to take possession of a whole collection in a very short time. 
Such plants as appear infected should therefore be immediately 



335 



selected from the rest, taken up, and soaked for two or three hours in 
a strong infusion of tobacco water, and then replanted in a fresh soil 
or compost, and removed to a situation at a distance from the for- 
mer. !kit if the whole bed or border be overrun with this insect, it 
is best to take up all the plants, and, having soaked them, to plant 
them elsewhere. The bed or border should then be trenched up, 
and remain fallow to the next season, or be planted with another 
crop not liable to this calamity. 

In their after-management, they are said to " blow at the same 
time, and require nearly the same treatment as Auriculas, both with 
respect to soil and situation; they are however more impatient of 
heat and drought, and more partial to shade and moisture. They 
rnay be set in the same sized pots, and in the same compost as the 
Auricula, only with the addition of more loam ; or they may be 
planted on cool shady beds or borders, being very hardy, and seldom 
perishing in the coldest and wettest seasons, because their parent is 
a native of this country; but during the heats of summer they are 
frequently destroyed, unless proper precautions be taken. This dis- 
like of heat seems to indicate," it is added, " that the Polyaiuhus is 
lather the offspring of the Primrose, which requires shade, than of 
the Cowslip, which grows in open pastures; though Mr. Miller seems 
to regard it as a variety of the latter." 

'J'he roots of the wild plants, when they can be procured, may 
be taken up, divided, and planted out in the autumn, when they 
will flower in the following spring. 

The fourth sort readily seeds in its wild state, and also frequently 
v/hen cultivated: but it is scarcel}'^ worth the pains to raise it from 
seed, since a strong root may be divided so as to form many plants; 
the best time for doing this is in the spring, soon after the leaves are 
expanded. Each off-set should be placed in a separate pot, filled 
with two parts of stifhsh loam, and one part of light sandy bog earth, 
watering and setting them in the shade, under a north wall or 
paling, but not under trees, keeping them there during summer in 
pans of water, but in the autumn, as the wet season comes on, taking 
them out of the pans, and either laying the pots on their sides, or 



3S6 



placing ihem during winter under a common cucumber frame, to 
keep them from immoderate wet, which this plant cannot bear, 
although it be a native of boggy meadows. In the following, if not 
the same year, these plants will blow strong; and they should be 
thus treated ev^ery year, as they require to have their roots frequently 
parted. 

The fifth sort is increased by parting the roots, either in Sep- 
tember or at the beginning of March. It is hardy, of ready growth, 
and will succeed either in the pot or border, by guarding it from the 
sun in summer, and from severe frost and too much wet in winter. 

The sixth species, which is yet a rare plant, must be treated with 
care, as the fifth sort, and may be raised from seeds, or increased by 
parting the roots; but it is apt to be lost if not well attended to. 

The seventh sort is delicate, and should be placed in a pot of 
stiffish loam, mixed with one-lhird rotten leaves, bog-earth, or dung, 
and plunged in a north border, taking care that it does not suffer for 
want of water in dry seasons; as when thus treated it increases by 
its roots nearly as readily as the Auricula. 

Culture in the Auricula kinds. — These plants may all be increased 
by seeds in order to procure new varieties, and by slipping the roots 
to increase the improved kinds. 

In order to obtain good flowers from seeds, choice should be 
made of the best flowers, which should be exposed to the open air, 
that they may have the benefit of showers, without which they sel- 
dom produce good seeds: the time of their ripening is in June; 
which is easily known, by their seed-vessels turning to a brown 
colour, and opening, being then careful lest the seeds be scattered 
out of the vessel, as they will not be all fit to gather at the same 
time. 

The proper soil for ihis sort of seed is good, fresh, light, sandy 
mould, mixed with very rotten neat's dung, or very rotten dung from 
the bottom of an old hot-bed; with which the pots, boxes, or bas- 
kets in which the seeds are to be sown should be filled; and havjng 
levelled the surface very smooth, the seeds should be sown, sifting 
over them a little rotten willow mould; then covering them with 



337 



a net or wire, to prevent cats or birds from scratcliing out, or burying 
the seeds so as to destroy tliem. Some persons never cover the 
seeds, but leave them on the surface, for the rain to wash them into 
the ground, which is often the best method. The boxes, &c. should 
then be placed so as to receive half the day's sun, during the winter 
season; but in the beginning of March l)e removed, Avhcre they may 
have only the morning sun till ten o'clock; for the young plants now 
soon begin to appear, which, if exposed to one whole day's sun only, 
are all destroyed. The proper season for sowing the seed is in the 
latter end of summer, or beginning of autumn, as abouc September, 
but they may be sown in the spring. 

During the summer season, the plants in dry weather should be 
often refreshed with water, never giving them too great a quantity at 
once. In the July following, the plants will be large enough to 
remove, at which time a bed must be prepared, or boxes, filled with 
the above-mentioned soil, in which they may be planted about three 
inches apart, and shaded when in beds, every day, till they are 
thoroughly rooted, as also in very hot dry weather; but if they are 
in baskets or boxes, they may be removed to a shady situation. 

When planted in beds, there should be some rotten neats' dung- 
laid about ten inches under the surface, and beaten down close and 
smooth : this will prevent the worms from drawing the young plants 
out of the earth, which they generally do where this is not practised. 
This dung should be laid about half a foot thick, which will entirely 
prevent the worms getting through it until the plants are well esta- 
blished in the beds; and the roots strike down into the dung by the 
spring, which makes their flowers stronger than usual: these beds 
should be exposed to the east, and screened from the south sun as 
much as is necessary. 

In the spring following many of these flowers will show; when 
such of them as have good properties should be selected, which 
should be removed each of them into a pot of the same prepared 
earth, and preserved until the next season, at which time a judgment 
of the goodness of the flower may be formed; but those that pro- 
duce plain-coloured or small flowers should be taken out, and 

2 X 



338 



planted in borders in the out-parts of the garden, to make a show, 
or gather for nosegays, &c.; the others, which do not produce their 
flowers the same year, may be taken up, and set out into a fresli bed, 
to remain till their properties are known. 

In the second method, the offsets or slips may be taken from the 
old roots, in the spring or autumn, and be planted into small pots 
filled with the same sort of earth as was directed for the seedlings, 
and during the summer season be set in a shady place, and must 
be often gently refreshed with water, and in the autumn and winter 
be sheltered from violent rains. In the spring following these plants 
produce flowers, though but weak; therefore, soon after they are 
past flowering, they should be put into larger pots, and the second 
year they will blow in perfection. 

In order to obtain a fine bloom of these flowers, the plants should 
be preserved from too much wet in winter, which often rots and 
spoils them, letting them have as much free open air as possible; 
but not be too much exposed to the sun, which is apt to forward 
their budding for flower too soon; and the frosty mornings, which 
often happen in March, thereby destroying their buds, if they 
are not protected; to prevent which, those who are curious in 
these flowers place their pots in autumn under a common hot-bed 
frame, where, in good weather, the })]ants may enjoy the full air, by 
drawing oft' the glasses; and in great rains, snow or frost, be screened 
by covering them. 

About the beginning of February, when the weather is mild, the 
up[)er i^art of the earth in the Auricula [)ots should be taken off" as 
low as can be, without disturbing their roots, filling up the pots with 
fresh rich earth, which greatly strengthens them for bloom. As those 
plants which have strong single heads always produce the largest 
clusters of flowers, the curious florist should pull off the offsets as 
soon as it can be done with safety to their growing, to encourage 
the mother plants to flower tlie stronger; they should also pinch oft' 
the flowers in autumn, where they are produced, and not suffer 
them to open, that the plants may not be weakened by it. The pots 
should be covered with mats in frosty weather, during the time of 



339 

their budding for flower, lest the sharp mornings bhght them, and 
prevent tlieir blowing. When the liower-stems begin to advance 
and the blossom buds grow turgid, they must be protected from 
hasty rains, which would wash off their Avhite meall}^ farina, and 
greatly deface the beauty of their flowers, keeping them as much 
uncovered as possible, otherwise their stems will be drawn up too 
weak to support their flowers, (which is often the case when tlieir 
pots are placed near walls) giving them gentle waterings to strengthen 
them, but none of the water should be let fall into the centre of the 
plant, or among the leaves. 

When the flowers begin to open, their pots should be removed 
upon a stage (built with rows of shelves, one above another, and 
covered on the top, to preserve them from wet: this should be open 
to the morning sun, but sheltered from the heat of the sun in the 
middle of the day): in this position they will appear to much 
greater advantage than when they stand upon the ground; for, their 
flowers being low, their beauty is hid; whereas, when they are 
advanced upon shelves, they are fully seen. In this situation they 
may remain until the beauty of their flowers is past, when they must 
be set abroad to receive the rains, and have open free air, in order to 
obtain seeds, which will fail if they are kept too long under shelter. 
When the seed is ripe it should be gathered w hen it is perfectly dry, 
and exposed to the sun in a window upon papers, to prevent its 
growing mouldy, letting it remain in the pods till the season for 
sowing. 

It is observed by the editor of Miller's Dictionary, that " those 
who are very nice in raising Auriculas, direct the compost to be 
made of one half rotten cow-dung two years old; one sixth fresh 
sound earth of an open texture; one eighth earth of rotten leaves: 
one twelfth coarse sea or river sand; one twenty- fourth soft decayed 
willow wood; one twenty-fourth peaty or moory earth; one twenty- 
fourth ashes of burnt vegetables, to be spread upon the surface of 
the other ingredients. This compost is to be exposed to the sun 
and air, turned over once or twice, and passed as often through a 
comse screen or sieve; then be laid in a regular heap from fifteeen 



340 

to eighteen inches thick, and in this state remain a year, turning it 
over two or three limes, and keeping it free from weeds/' 

It is added, that " the pots for Auriculas should be hard baked: 
the inner diameter of the top be six inches and a half, of the bottom 
four inches, and they should be about seven inches deep, for com- 
mon-sized blooming plants: but smaller plants and offsets should 
have smaller shallower pots, and very large plants should have larger 
pots in proportion: the bottom should have a small degree of con- 
cavity, and the hole should be half an inch in diameter: the rims 
should project about half an inch, in order to take up and remove 
them with greater ease and safety. The pots should be buried in 
wet earth, or immersed in water three or four days or a week, before 
they are wanted, to take off their absorbent property." 

In the after-management of the plants, they should be potted 
annually soon after bloom; curtailing their fibres, if grown very 
long, and cutting off the lower part of the main root if too long or 
decayed. The offsets at this season strike freely, and become well 
established before winter. The plants should be carefully examined, 
and where any unsoundness appears, be cut out entirely with a 
sharp penknife, exposing the wounded part to the sun, and when it 
is quite dry, applying a cement of bees-wax and pitch in equal 
quantities, softened in the sun or before a fire. If the lower leaves 
be yellow or dried up, they should be stripped off in a direction 
downwards. Having put the hollow shell of an oyster over the hole 
of the pot, three parts of it should be filled with compost, highest 
in the middle, placing the plant there, with its fibres regularly dis- 
tributed all round ; then filling the pot up with the compost, adding 
a little clean coarse sand close round the stem on the surface, and 
striking the bottom of the pot against the ground or table to settle 
the earth. The true depth of planting is within half an inch of the 
lowest leaves, as the most valuable fibres proceed from that part ; 
and the offsets will be thereby encouraged to strike root sooner. 
When these have formed one or more fibres of an inch or two in 
length, they may, by means of a piece of hard wood, or by the 
fingers, be separated with safety, and planted round the sides of a 



341 



small pol, filled with the same compost, till they are sufficiently 
grown to occupy each a separate pot; if a small hand glass be 
placed over each pot it will cause the fibres to grow more rapidly; 
but if it be long continued, it will draw up and weaken the plants. 
And in the beginning of May, as soon as the operation of potting is 
finished, the plants should be placed in an airy, shaded situation, 
but not under the drip of trees. Here they may remain till Sep- 
tember or October, when they should be removed into shelter. 

The plants should, in the first favourable weather in February, be 
divested of their decayed leaves; and by the middle of that month 
earthing them up; that is, taking away the superficial mould of the 
pots about an inch deep, and putting in fresh compost, with the 
addition of a little loam, to give it more tenacity. This contributes 
greatly to the strength of the plants, and the vigour of their bloom; 
at the same time it affords a favourable opportunity to separate 
such offsets as appear to have sufficient fibre to be taken off at this 
early season. The pots with these offsets should be placed in a 
frame, in a sheltered situation, till their roots are established. Though 
frost, unless it be very rigorous, will not destroy the plants, it will 
injure them, and perhaps spoil the bloom, especially early in the 
spring; they should therefore be covered with mats in a severe sea- 
son. When any plant has more than one or two principal stems, it 
is advisable to pinch off the smallest and weakest, in order to render 
the blossoms of that which remains larger and more vigorous. And 
when the flowers (pips) become turgid and begin to expand, the 
plants should be selected from the rest, removing them to a calm 
shady corner, suspending small hand-glasses over them. 

In this culture the stages for the pots to stand on whilst in bloom 
should have a northern aspect, and should consist of four or five 
rows of shelves, rising one above another, the roof being covered 
with frames of glass; the tallest blowing plants being placed behind, 
and the shortest in front. The plants must be regularly watered two 
or three times every week during the blooming season. 

All these plants are highly ornamental; the former in beds and 
borders, and the latter sorts among curious potted flowering plants. 



342 



2. PiEONIA TENUIFOLIA. 

FINE-LEAVED PiEONY. 

This genus comprises plants of the large herbaceous flowery 
perennial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Polyandria Digipna, and ranks 
in the natural order of MultisiUijiia. 

The characters are : tliat the calyx is a five-leaved perianthiuni, 
small, permanent: leaflets roundish, concave, reflex, unequal jn size 
and situation : the corolla has five roundish petals, concave, nar- 
rower at the base, spreading, very large: the stamina have numerous 
filaments, (about three hundred) caj)illary, short: anthers oblong, 
quadrangular, erect, four-celled, large: the pistillum consists of two 
ovate germs, erect, lomentose : styles none: stigmas compressed, 
oblong, blunt, coloured : the pericarpium has as many capsules, 
ovate-oblong, spreading and reflex, tomentose, one-celled, one-valved, 
opening longitudinally inwards: the seeds several, oval, shining, co- 
loured, fastened to the opening suture. 

The species arc: 1. P. officinalis^ Common Peony; 2. P. tenuifo- 
lia. Slender-leaved Peony. 

'J'he first has a thick large root, constituted of several thick fleshy 
tubers, hanging by strings to the main head, with upright round 
smooth stems, branching half a yard or two feet in height: the 
leaves are large, many-lobed, with oblong-oval spreading folioles: 
the flowers large, deep red or purple, on the terminations of the 
stalks. 

There are two principal varieties: the Common Female and Male 
Peony. 

The former of these has the roots composed of several roundish 
thick knobs or tubers, which hang below each other, fastened with 



343 



strings: tlie stalks are green, about two feet and a half high: the 
leaves composed of several unequal lobes, which are variously cut 
into many segments : they are of a paler green than those of the 
latter sort, and hairy on their under side: the flowers are smaller, 
and of a deeper purple colour. 

The latter has the roots composed of several oblong knobs hang- 
ing by strings fastened to the main head: the stems the same height 
with the preceding: the leaves are composed of several ovate lobes, 
some of which are cut into two or three segments; they are of a lu- 
cid green on their upper side, but are hoary on their under: the 
stems are terminated by large single flowers, composed of five or six 
lat'ge roundish red petals. 

The flowers in both sorts appear in May, and are natives of seve- 
ral parts of Europe, as Switzerland, Dauphine, Carniola, Piedmont, 
Silesia, &c. 

Miller says, that " it is scarcely necessary to observe that the old 
names of Male and Female have nothing to do here with the sexes,' 
the flowers of both being hermaphrodite." 

There are several subvarieties of the Female Peony with double 
flowers, differing in size and colour, cultivated in gardens. The Male 
Peony also varies with pale, and white flowers, and with larger lobes 
to the leaves: they also vary much in different countries. 

" There is the Foreign Peony ^ with a deep-red flower: the roots 
are composed of roundish knobs, like those of the Female Peony: the 
kaves are also the same, but of a thicker substance: the stalks do 
not rise so high: the flowers have a greater number of petals, and 
appear a little later. It is a native of the Levant. The large double 
purple Peony is probably a sub-variety of this." 

The Hairy Peony, with a larger double red flower: the roots like 
the common Female Peony; but the stalks taller, and of a purplish 
colour: the leaves much longer, with spear-shaped entire lobes: the 
flowers large, and of a deep red colour. 

The Tartarian, wiih roots composed of oblong fleshy tubers of a 
pale colour: the stalks about two feet high, pale green: the leaves 
composed of several lobes, irregular in shape and size, some having 



344 



six, others eight or ten spear-shaped lobes, some cut into two or three 
segments, and others entire; of a pale green, and downy on their 
under side: the stalks arc terminated by one flower of a bright-red 
colour, a little less than that of the common Female Peony, having 
fewer petals. 

The Portugal Peony, with a single sweet flower, has not roots 
composed of roundish tubers, but has two or three long, taper forked 
fangs like fmgers: the stalk rises little more than a foot high: the 
leaves are composed of three or four oval lobes, of a pale colour on 
their upper side, and hoary underneath: the stalk is terminated by a 
single flower, which is of a bright red colour, smaller than the above, 
and of an agreeable sweet scent. 

The second species has a creeping root, putting forlli tuberous 
fibres, with tubercles the size of a hazel nut, white, fleshy, of a bit- 
terish taste: the stem scarcely a foot high, and commonly single, but 
in the garden eighteen inches high, and several from the same root: 
the root-leaves none: the stem round, very obscurely grooved, 
smooth, as is the whole plant, naked at bottom, having there only 
a few sheathing scales: the leaves frequent, alternate, the upper ones 
gradually less, on a round petiole, channelled above, quinate: the 
leaflets cut into very many narrow segments: the upper leaves simply 
multifid: the flower sessile at the uppermost leaf, subglobular, ac- 
companied by two leaflets, one mullifid, the other simple, both 
dilated at the base. It is a native of the Ukraine. 

Culture. — The single sorts are easily raised by seed, and the dou- 
ble by parting the roots. 

The seed should be sown in autumn, soon after it is perfectly 
ripened, or very early in the spring, (but the former is the better 
season,) on a bed or border in the open ground where the soil is 
rather light, raking it in lightly. It may also be sown in small 
drills. 

The plants should afterwards be properly thinned, kept perfectly 
free from weeds, and be occasionally watered when the weather is 
hot and dry. 

As they should remain two seasons in the beds, it is necessary in 



345 



the second autumn to spread some light mould over them, to the 
depth of an inch: and in the autumn following they maybe removed 
where they are to remain. Plants of the double-flowered kinds are 
often produced from these. 

The roots of the old double-flowered plants may be taken up in 
the beginning of the autumn, and divided so as to have one bud or 
eye or more to each part, or crown, as without care in this respect 
they never form good plants. And where regard is had to the flow- 
ering, they should not be too much divided, or the off-sets made 
too small, as when that is the case they do not flower strong. But 
where a great increase is wanted, they may be divided more, being 
left longer in the nursery-beds. 

They should be planted out as soon as possible after they are 
separated, though when necessary they may be kept some time out 
of the earth. The large ofF-sets may be set out at once where they 
are to remain; but the small ones are best set in nursery-beds for a 
year, or till of proper strength for planting out. 

The plants may afterwards be suffered to remain several years 
unremoved, till the roots are increased to very large bunches, 
and then be taken up, when the stalks decay, in autumn, divided, 
and replanted in their allotted places in the manner directed 
above. 

All the sorts are hardy plants, that are capable of flourishing in 
any common soil in almost any situation, either in open exposures 
or under the shade of trees. 

The Portugal variety, however, should have a warmer situation 
and lighter soil than the others. 

They are proper ornamental flowery plants for large borders, 
and may be had at all the public nurseries. Jn planting, one should 
be put here and there in ditferent parts, placing them with the 
crou ns of the roots a little within the surface of the earth, and at a 
yard at least distant from other plants, as they extend themselves 
widely every way, assuming a large bushy growth; and, together 
with their conspicuous large flowers, e xhibit a fine appearance, 

2 Y 



34^ 



and are often planted at the terminating corners of large borders 
adjoining principal walls, displaying a bushy growth in their fo- 
liage and flowers. When the flowers are gone, tlie capsules open- 
ing lengthways discover their coloured seeds very ornamentally, 
especially in that called the Male Peony and varieties. And to for- 
ward this, the capsules may be slit open on the inside at the proper 
valve; whereby they will expand much sooner, and display their 
beautiful red seed more conspicuously. 



n.4i 




PLxiTE XLI. 

1. PANCRATIUM MARITIMUM. 

SEx\ PANCRATIUM. 

This genus contains plants of the bulbous-rooted flowery peren- 
nial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Hexandria Monogi/nia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Spathacea. 

The characters are: that the calyx is an oblong spathe, obtuse, 
compressed, opening on the flat side, shrivelling: the corolla has six 
petals, lanceolate, flat, inserted into the tube of the nectary on the 
outside above the base; nectary one-leafed, cylindric-funnel-form, 
coloured at top, with the mouth spreading and twelve-cleft: the sta- 
mina have six filaments, awl-shaped, inserted into the tips of the nec- 
tary, and longer than they are: anthers oblong, incumbent: the 
pistillum is a bluntly three-cornered germ, inferior: style filiform, 
longer than the stamens : stigma blunt : the pericarpium is a roundish 
capsule, three-sided, three-celled, three-valved : the seeds several, 
globular. 

The species cultivated are: i. P. maritimum^ Sea Pancratium; 
2. P. Ilhjricmn, Illyrian Pancratium ; 3. P. Zeijlaniciim, Ceylonese 
Pancratium ; 4. P. Mexicannm, Mexican Pancratium ; 5. P. Cari- 
hmim, Caribean Pancratium ; 6. P. Carolinianum, Carolina Pancra- 
tium ; 7- P- Amhoinense, Broad-leaved Pancratium ; 8. P. Verecun- 
duni, Narcissus-leaved Pancratium. 

The first has a large, coated, bulbous root, of an oblong form, 
covered with a dark skin : the leaves are shaped like a tongue ; are 
more than a foot long, and one inch broad, of a deep green, six or 
seven of them rising together from the same root, encompassed at 
bottom with a sheath: between these arises the stalk, which is a foot 



348 



and a lialf long, naked, sustaining at the lop six or eight while flow- 
ers, enclosed in a sheath, which withers and opens on the side, to 
make way for the flowers to come out. 

According to Mr. Miller, the root resembles that of the Squill, 
])ut is less, covered with a brown skin, and white within, the coats 
pellucid and gently striped, viscid or full of a clammy juice, bitter 
to the taste without acrimony. It is a native of the South of 
Euiope. 

The second species has a large bulb, covered with a dark skin, 
sending out' man}' thick strong fibres, striking deep in the ground: 
the leaves are a foot and half long and two inches broad, of a grayish 
colour: the scapes thick, succulent, near two feet high: the flowers 
six or seven, Avhite, shaped like those of the first sort, but with a 
shorter tube, and much longer stamens. It flowers in June, and 
frequently produces seeds. It is a native of the South of Europe. 

The third has a pretty large bulbous root : the leaves long and 
narrow, of a grayish colour, and pretty thick, standing upright: the 
stalk rises among them, a foot and a half high, naked, sustaining one 
flower at the top: the nectary is large, cut at the brim into many 
acute segments: the stamens long, and turning towards each other 
at their points; in which it differs from the other species: the flower 
has a very agreeable scent, but is of short duration. It is a native of 
Ceylon. 

The fourth species has the stem or scape a long span in height, 
round, forked towards the top, or dividing into two peduncles, Avith 
two oblong tender membranaceous greenish leaflets, and terminated 
each M'ilh a while flower, divided to the very base into six narrow 
segments; in the middle of these is a white bell-shaped tube, which 
Linnaeus names the nectary, more tender than the petals; the mouth 
angular, and from each angle putting forth a filament, long, slender 
and white, terminated by an oblong incurved saff'ron-coloured an- 
tlier : the flowers have no smell, and shrivel up over the fruit: leaves 
four, reclining, smooth, pale green and somewhat glaucous, ridged, 
^slightly grooved in the middle, and with a single streak on each side, 
otherwise veinless, a long span or a little more in length, an inch or 



349 



an inch and half in width, produced to a point at the end. It flow- 
ers in May. 

The fifth has the leaves about a foot long and two inches broad, 
having three longitudinal furrows: the stalk rises about a foot high, 
then divides like a fork into two small foot-stalks, or rather tubes^ 
which are narrow, green, and at first encompassed by a thin spathe, 
which withers, and opens to give way to the flowers: these are white, 
and have no scent. It is a native of the West Indies. 

The sixth species has a roundish bulbous root, covered with a 
light brown skin, from which arise several narrow dark green leaves, 
about a foot long: among these comes out a lliick stalk (scape) 
about nine inches high, sustaining six or seven white flowers, with 
very narrow petals, having large bell- shaped nectariums or cups, 
deeply indented on their brims: the stamens do not rise far above 
the nectarium. It is a native of Jamaica and Carolina. 

The seventh has the l)ulb oblong, while, sending out several thick 
fleshy fibres, which strike downward: the leaves are on very long 
foot-stalks, some ovate, others heart-shaped, about seven inches long 
and five broad, ending in points, having many deep longitudinal 
furrows; they are of a light green, and their l)orders turn inwards: 
the stalk thick, round and succulent, rising near two feet high, sus- 
taining at the top several white flowers, shaped like those of the other 
sorts; but the petals are broader, the tube is shorter, and the stamens 
are not so long ;is the petals: there is a thin shealh, which splits 
open longitudinally. It is a native of Amboyna. 

'inhere are several varieties: as tiie American, which grows natu- 
rally in the islands of the West Indies, where it is called White Lil/j; 
and tlie latifoUum and ovatum also grow naturally in the same place. 

The eighth species has the leaves a foot and a half long, half an 
inch wide: the scape erect, compressed, a foot high: the spalhes 
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, whitish, shrivelling; the outer larger, 
an- inch and half in length: the flowers fragrant, on three-cornered 
pedicels, scarcely half an inch long. It is a native of the East In- 
dies; flowering from June to August. 

'Culture. — ^All these plants are capable of being increased by. 



550 



planting off-sets from the roots in the latter end of summer, when 
their stems and leaves decay. The roots may be divided every se- 
cond or third year. 

In the two first sorts, the off-sets may be planted out in nursery- 
beds for a year or two, to become sufficiently strong, when they may 
be removed into warm sheltered dry borders; the first being shel- 
tered from frost in severe winters, and the latter in very severe wea- 
ther, by being covered with tanner's bark, straw, or peas-haulm. The 
second sort may also be increased by seeds sown in pots, and plunged 
in a hot-bed. 

The other sorts must be planted out in small pots filled with 
light earth, separately plunging them in the bark-bed of the stove. 
They should be kept constantly in the tan-bed, and have the ma- 
nagement of other tender bulbs. In this way they generally succeed 
well. 

The two first sorts afibrd variety in the dry warm borders of the 
pleasure-ground, and the other kinds produce variety as well as 
fragrance in the stove collections. 



2. SOLDANELLA ALPINA. 

ALPINE SOLDANELLA. 

This genus contains a plant of the low herbaceous perennial 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Pentandria Monogijuia, and ranks 
in the natuial order of Frecia'. 

The characters are : that the calyx is a five-parted perianth, 
straight, permanent; segments lanceolate: the corolla one-petalled, 
bell-shaped, widening gradually, straight: mouth torn into many 
clefts, acute: the stamina have five awl-shaped filaments, anthers 
simple, sagitatte: the pistillum is a roundish germ; style fihform, 



I 



351 

length of the corolla, permanent: stigma simple: the pericarpium is 
an oblong capsule, round, obliquely striated, one-celled, opening by 
a many-toothed top: the seeds numerous, acuminate, very small: 
the receptacle columnar, free. 

The species is S. alpina, Alpine Soldanella. 

It has a perennial fibrous root: the leaves almost kidney- shaped, 
about three quarters of an inch over each way, of a dark green co- 
lour, on long footstalks: among these arises a naked flower-stalk or 
scape, about four inches long, sustaining at the top two small open 
bell-shaped flowers, with the brim cut into many fine segments like 
a fringe : the most frequent colour is blue, but it is sometimes snow- 
white. It flowers in April, and the seeds ripen in July. It is a 
native of the Alps. 

There is a variety which has all the parts smaller; the petiole is 
shorter and more slender, and the leaves are not so much rounded, 
but gradually widen from the petiole. 

Culture. — This is increased by parting the roots in the autumn 
about September, planting them in pots or in a cool shady situation? 
where the soil is of a moist loamy kind, being frequently watered 
when the season is dry, and kept from the sun. 

The seeds soon after they become ripe may also be sown in pots 
or boxes filled with the above sort of mould, being placed in the 
shade, and frequently watered. The plants rise in the spring, and 
in the autumn following should be removed into separate pols, to 
have the protection of a frame in winter. They succeed best in a 
iiorthern aspect. 

These plants afford variety among other potted plants. 



PLATE XLII. 

1. PAPAVER ORIENTALE. 

EASTERN POPPY. 

This genus conlains plants of the hardy herbaceous fibrous- 
rooted annual and perennial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Folyandria Monogyniay and ranks 
in the natural order of Rhoeadece. 

The characters are : that the calyx is a two-leaved perianthiuni, 
ovate, emarginate: leaflets subovate, concave, obtuse, caducous: 
the corolla has four roundish petals, flat, spreading, large, narrower 
at the base ; alternately less : the stamina have numerous fila- 
ments, capillary, much shorter than the corolla: anthers oblong, 
compressed, erect, obtuse: the pistillum has a roundish, large germ: 
style none: stigma peltate, flat, radiate: the pericarpium is a crowned 
capsule, with the large stigma, one-celled, half-many-celled, open- 
ing by many holes at the top under the crown: the seeds numerous, 
very small: receptacles, longitudinal plaits, the same number with 
the rays of the stigma, fastened to the wall of the pericarpium. 

The species cultivated are: 1. P. SomniferKm, yVhne Poppy; 
2. P. Rhoeas, Corn or Red Poppy; 3. P. Cambricum, Welsh Poppy; 
4. P. Orkntak^ Oriental Poppy. 

The first has the stalks large, smooth, five or six feet high, branch- 
ing: the leaves large, grayish, embracing at the base, irregularly 
jagged on their sides: the flowers terminating, whilst enclosed in the 
calyx hanging down, but before the corolla expands becoming erect: 
the calyx is composed of two large oval grayish leaves, that separate 
and soon drop off: the corolla is composed of four large, roundish, 
white petals, of short duration; and succeeded by large roundish 



TUz. 





353 



heads as big as oranges, flatted at top and bottom, and having an 
indented crown or stigma: the seeds are white. It is a native of the 
southern parts of Europe, but probably originally from Asia. 

There are several varieties, differing in the colour and mullipli- 
city of their petals, which are preserved in gardens for ornament: the 
Single-flowered sort is chiefly cultivated for use. 

The Common Black variety of Poppy has stalks about three feet 
high, smooth, and dividing into several branches : the leaves are 
large, smooth, deeply cut or jagged on their edges, and embracing: 
the petals purple with dark bottoms ; succeeded by oval smooth 
capsules filled with black seeds, which are sold under the name of 
Maw-seed. 

Of this there are many sub-varieties: as with large double flowers, 
variegated of several colours; with red and white, purple and while, 
and some finely spotted like Carnations. 

There are few plants whose flowers are so handsome ; but as 
they have an offensive scent, and are of short duration, they are not 
in general much regarded: they are annual, flowering in June. 

The second species has the stem from one to two feet high, up- 
right, round, branched, purplish at bottom, with spreading hairs, 
bulbose at the base: the leaves are sessile, forming a kind of sheath 
at bottom, hairy on both sides ; the segments or leaflets unequally 
toothed or serrate, each tooth rolled back at the edge, callous at 
top, and terminated by a small spine : the peduncles long, round, 
upright, one-flowered, red, the hairs on it spreading horizontally. 
It is a native of every part of Europe, &c. flowering from June to 
August. 

There is a variety with an oval black shining spot at the base of 
each petal, from which many beautiful garden sub-varieties are pro- 
duced which have double flowers, white, red bordered with while, 
and variegated. 

In the third the stalks are a foot high, and smooth: the pinnas 
of the leaves are deeply cut on their edges; and there are a few 
small leaves on the stalk shaped like the lower ones: the upper part 
of the stalk is naked, and sustains one large yellow flower, appear- 



354 



ing in June; being filled with small purplish seeds. It is a native 
of Wales, &c. 

The fourlh species has a perennial root, composed of two or three 
strong fibres as thick as a man's liltle finger, a foot and a half long, 
dark brown on the outside, full of a milky juice, which is very bitter 
and acrid: the leaves a foot long, closely covered with bristly white 
hairs : the stems two feet and a half high, very rough and hairy, hav- 
ing leaves towards the lower part like the root-leaves, but smaller: 
the upper part is naked, and sustains at the top one very large flower^ 
of the same colour with the common red sort. It was found in Ar- 
menia, and flowers here in May. 

There are a few varieties, differing in the colour of the flowers ; 
and it is said that the flower is sometimes double, but with us it is 
always single. 

Culture. — All the different sorts may be increased by seeds, and 
the two last sorts also by parting and planting out the roots. 

The seeds should be sown in the autumn, or very early in the 
spring, (but the former is the better season), cither in the places 
where the plants are to grow, or in beds, to be afterwards planted 
out. The first is probably the best method, as these plants do not 
bear removing well. 

When lliey are cultivated for ornament, seed of the finest double 
sorts should be carefully provided and made use of, and be sown in 
patches. 

In the practice of Mr. Ball, in cultivating the first sort for the 
purpose of preparing opium from it, " the seed was sown at the end 
of February, and again the second week in March, in beds three feet 
and a half wide, well prepared with good rotten dung, and often 
turned or ploughed, in order to mix it well, and have it fine, either 
in small drills, three in each bed, or broadcast; in both cases, thin- 
ning out the plants to the distance of a foot from each other, when 
about two inches high, keeping them free from weeds." They pro- 
duced from four to ten heads each, and showed large flowers of dif- 
ferent colours. " With an instrument something like a rake, but 
with three teeth, the drills may, he says, be made at once." He 



355 



found that the plants did not bear transplanting; as, out of 4000 
which he transplanted, not one plant came to perfection. 

The roots of the two last sorts may be divided in the autumn, or 
spring, (but the first period is the better,) leaving some root fibres to 
each parting, planting them out where they are to remain, as soon 
afterwards as possible. 

In all the sorts the plants only require afterwards to be kept free 
from weeds, and those raised from seed properly thinned out. 

They all afford ornament and variety in the clumps, borders, and 
other parts of pleasure grounds and gardens; and the first sort may 
sometimes be grown to advantage for the purpose of having the juice 
which it affords made into opium. 



2. PULMONARIA VIRGINICA. 

VIRGINIAN LUNG-WORT. 

This genus furnishes plants of the hardj' perennial fibrous-rooted 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Fentandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Asperifolice. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianthium, 
five-toothed, prismatic-pentagonal, permanent : the corolla one- 
petaled, funnel-form: tube cylindrical, the length of the calyx: border 
half-five-cleft, blunt, from upright-spreading: throat pervious: the 
stamina have five filaments, in the throat, very short: anthers erect, 
converging: the pistillum has four germs: style filiform, shorter than 
the calyx: stigma blunt, emarginate: there is no pericarpium: calyx 
imchanged, fostering the seeds at bottom: the seeds four, roundish, 
blunt. 

The species cultivated are: 1. P. officinalis, Common Lunguort; 



356 



2. P. atignstifolia. Narrow-leaved Lungwort; 3. P. VirginicQy Virginian 
Lungwort. 

The first has a perennial fibrous root: the lower leaves rough, 
about six inches long, and two inches and a half broad, of a dark 
green on their upper side, marked with many broad whitish spots, 
but pale and unspotted on their under side: the stalks almost a foot 
high, having several smaller leaves on them standing alternately: 
the flowers are produced in small bunches at the top of the stalks, of 
different colours. It is a native of Europe, flowering from March to 
May. 

The second species has leaves much narrower than those of the 
first sort, and covered with soft hairs, not spotted: the stalks rise a 
foot high, and have narrow leaves on them, of the same shape 
with those below, but smaller, and almost embiacing: the flowers 
are produced in bunches on the top of the stalks, of a beautiful blue 
colour. It is a native of Sweden. 

It varies wiih white flowers. 

The third has a i>erennial, thick, fleshy root, sending out many 
small fibres: the stalks a foot and half high, dividing at the top into 
several short branches: the leaves near the root four or five inches 
long, two inches and a half broad, smooth, of a light green, on 
short footstalks ; those upon the stem diminish in their size upwards, 
are of the same shape, and sessile. Every small branch at the top 
of the stalk is terminated by a cluster of flowers, each standing upon 
a separate short peduncle. The most common colour of these 
flowers is blue; but there are some purple, others red, and some 
white. They appear in April, and if they have a shady situation 
continue in beauty great part of May. It grows upon mountains in 
most parts of North America. 

Culture. — These plants are increased by seeds, and parting the 
roots. 

The seeds should be sown in the spring, in a bed or border of 
common earth, raking them in. They soon come up, and in the 
latter end of the summer they should be put out, cither where they 



357 



are to remain, or in nursery- beds, till October, when they shoiihl be 
planted out finally. 

The roots should be parted in the autumn, as about August or 
September, but the sooner after they have done flowering the betler. 
They should not be divided too small, and be planted directly; when 
they flower strong in the following spring. They afford ornament in 
shady situations. 



PLATE XLIII. 



1. PHILADELPHUS CORONARIUS. 

COMMON PHILADELPHUS. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy deciduous flowering 
shrubby kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Icosandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in ihe natural order of Hesperidea. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianthium, 
four or five-parted, acuminate, permanent: the corolla has four or 
five roundish petals, flat, large, spreading: the stamina have twenty 
or twenty-five awl-shaped filaments, the length of the calyx: anthers 
erect, four grooved : the pistillum is an inferior germ : style filiform, 
four or five parted: stigmas simple: the pericarpium is an ovate cap- 
sule, acuminate at both ends, naked at the top by the calyx being 
barked, four or five-celled: partitions contrary: the seeds numerous, 
oblong, small, decumbent, arilled, fastened to the thickened edge 
of the partitions : arils club-shaped, acuminate, toothleted at the 
base. 

The species is P. coronarius, Common Syringa, or Mock Orange. 

It is a shrub that sends up a great number of slender stalks from 
the root, seven or eight feet in height, having a gray bark, and put- 
ting forth several short branches from their sides: the leaves ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate; those upon the young shoots three inches and a 
half long, and two broad in the middle, terminating in acute points, 
and having several indentures on their edges; they are rough and of 
a deep green on their upper side, and pale on their under; stand op 
posite upon very short footstalks, and have the taste of fresh cucum- 
bers: the flowers come out from the side, and at the end of the 



fU3 




359 



branches, in loose bunches, each on a short pedicel; they are white, 
and have a strong scent, which at some distance resembles that of 
orange-flowers; but near, it is too powerful for most persons: the 
flowers appear at the end of May, and continue a great part of June. 
It is a native, probably, of the South of Europe. 

There are two varieties: the dwarf syringa, Avhich seldom rises 
above three feet high: the leaves are shorter, more ovate, and Utile 
indented on their edges: the flowers come out singly from the side 
of the branches, and have a double or treble row of petals of the 
same size and form as the other, and the flowers have the same scent; 
but flowering very rarely, it is not so much in estimation. 

The Carolina syringa, which rises with a shrubby stalk about 
sixteeen feet high, sending out slender branches from the sides, op- 
posite to each other: the leaves smooth, shaped like those of the 
pear-tree, entire, opposite, on pretty long footstalks: the flowers are 
produced at the ends of the branches; they are large, but without 
scent; each has four white oval petals spreading open, and a large 
calyx composed of four acute-pointed leaflets. 

Culture. — These plants may be increased by suckers, layers, and 
cuttings. 

The suckers are sent from the roots in great plenty ; these should 
be taken from the old plants in autumn, and be planted in a nur- 
sery, to grow one or two years till they have obtained sufficient 
strength, when they may be removed to the places where they are to 
remain. 

The layers may be laid down in the autumn, being made from 
the young twigs. These may be taken off" in the following autumn, 
when well rooted, being planted out where they are to remain. 

The cuttings of the young shoots may be planted in the autumn, 
in a shady situation, where they soon form plants. 

The plants are extremely hardy, and thrive in almost any soil or 
situation, but grow taller in light good ground than in that which is 
stiff. 

They are commonly disposed in plantations of flowering shrubs, 
among others of the same growth ; mixing very well with lilacs. 



360 



guelder roses, and laburnums; and particularly valuable from their 
thriving under the shade of trees, and forming a blockade against 
low buildings, where persons have no objection to their strong 
smell. 



2. PASSIFLORA C^RULEA. 

COMMON PASSION FLOWER. 

This genus contains plants of the herbaceous and shrubby flow- 
ering kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Gynandria Pcntaiidria, fPentan- 
clria Trigyiiia,) (Monaddphia PentandriayJ and ranks in the natural 
order of Cucurhitacea. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a five-parted perianthium, 
flat, coloured : the corolla has five petals, semilanceolale, flat, blunt, 
of the same size and form with the calyx: nectary a triple crown; the 
outer longer, encircling the style within the petals, more contracted 
above: the stamina have five awl-shaped filaments, fastened to a co- 
lumn at the l)ase of the germ, and united at bottom, spreading: 
anthers incumbent, oblong, blunt: the pistillum is a roundish germ, 
placed on the apex of a straight, cylindrical column: styles three, 
thicker above, spreading: stigmas capitate: the pericarpium is a 
fleshy berry, subovatc, one-celled, pedicelled: the seeds very many, 
ovacc, arilled : receptacle of the seeds triple, growing longitudinally 
to the rind of the pericarp. 

The species cultivated are: 1. P. ccerulea. Common or Blue Pas- 
sion-flower; 2. P. incarnata. Rose-coloured Passion-flower; 3. P. luteOy 
Yellow Passion-flower ; 4. P. serratifoliat Notch-leaved Passion- 
flower ; 5. P. malifonnis, Apple-fruited Passion-flower; 6. P. qua- 
drangidaiis^ Square-stalked Passion-flower; l.P. rt/afa, Wing-stalked 
Passion-flower; 8, P. laurifolia, Laurel-leaved Passion-flower, or 



361 



Water Lemon ; 9- J*« multijlora^ Many-flowered Passion-flower ; 
10. P. rubra f Iled-fruiled Passion-flower; 11. P. Muruciija, Moon- 
shaped-leaved Passion-flower; 12. P. I^esperti/io, Bal-winged Pas- 
sion-flower; 13. P. rotuntlijolia, Round-leaved Passion-flower; 14. P- 
ciliata, Ciliated Passion-flower; 15. P. suberosa, Cork-baiked Pas- 
sion-flower ; l6. P. holosericca. Silky-leaved Passion-flower; 17. P. 
glauca. Glaucous-leaved Passion-flower; 18. P. minima, Dwarf Pas- 
sion-flower. 

The first rises in a few years to a great height, with proper sup- 
port: it may be trained up more than forty feet high: the stalks will 
grow almost as large as a man's arm, and are covered with a purplish 
bark, but do not become very woody: the shoots often grow to the 
length of twelve or fifteen feet in one summer, and being very slen- 
der, must be supported, otherwise they will hang to the ground* 
intermix with each other, and appear very unsightly: at each joint 
is one leaf composed of five smooth entire lobes; the middle one, 
which is longest, almost four inches long, and one inch broad in the 
middle; the others are gradually shorter, and the two outer lobes are 
frequently divided on their outer side into two smaller ones: their 
foot stalks are near two inches long, and have two embracing stipules 
at their base; and from the same point issues a long clasper or ten- 
dril; the flowers come out at the same joint with the leaves, on pe- 
duncles almost three inches long; they are blue, have a faint scent, 
and continue only one day: the fruit is egg-shaped, the size and 
shape of the Mogul-plum, and when ripe of the same yellow colour. 
It grows naturally in Brazil. 

There is a variety with much narrower lobes, divided almost to 
the bottom: the flowers come later in the summer: the petals are 
narrower, and of a purer white colour. 

The second species has a perennial root: the stalks are annual, 
slender, rising four or five feet high: at each joint one leaf, on a short 
foot stalk, having mostly three oblong lobes, but the two side ones 
are sometimes divided part of their length into two narrow seg- 
ments, and thus becoming five-lobed; they are thin, of a light green, 
and slightly serrate: the flowers are produced from the joints of the 

3 A 



362 



stalk, at the footstalks of the leaves, on long slender peduncles, in suc- 
cession as the stalks advance in height during the summer months: 
they have an agreeable scent, but are of short duration, opening in 
the morning, and fading away in the evening: the fruit is as large as 
a middling apple, changing to a pale orange colour when ripe. It 
grows naturally in Virginia. 

The third has a creeping root, sending up many weak stalks, 
three or four feet high: the leaves are shaped like those of ivy, and 
almost as large, but of a pale green and very thin consistence: the 
peduncle is slender, an inch and half long: the flowers dirty yellow, 
not larger than a sixpence when expanded. It is a native of Virgi- 
nia and Jamaica, flowering in May and June. 

The fourth species is perennial and shrubby: the stems are round; 
the younger ones very slightly villose, and climbing very high: the 
stipules are linear and acuminate: the footstalks of the leaves fur- 
nished with two pairs of glandules: the leaves ovate, smooth, and 
slightly serrated round their whole outline: the peduncles are one- 
flowered and solitary : the flowers have an extremely agreeable 
odour. It is a native of the West Indies, flowering from May to 
October. 

The fifth has a thick stem, triangular, by slender tendrils thrown 
out at every joint rising to the height of fifteen or twenty feet: at 
each joint is one leaf, six inches long, and four broad in the middle, 
of a lively green and lliin texture, having a strong midrib, whence 
arise several small nerves, diverging to the sides, and curving up 
towards the top: petioles pretty long, having two small glands in the 
middle: two large stipules encom])ass the petioles, peduncles and 
tendrils at the base: the peduncles arc pretty long, having also two 
small Hands in the middle: the cover of the flower is composed of 
three soft velvety leaves, of a pale red, with some stripes of a lively 
red colour; the petals are white, and the rays blue : the flowers be- 
ing large make a fine appearance, but are of short duration; there is 
however a succession for some time: the fruit is roundish, the size of 
a large apple, yellow when ripe, having a thicker rind than any of 
the other sorts. It grows naturally in the West Indies. 



363 



In the sixth the stem is almost simple, thick, membranaceous at 
the four corners, somewhat hispid: the leaves are petioled, five or 
six inches long, entire, somewhat rugged, but without any pubes- 
cence: the tendrils very long, axillary: stipules in pairs, ovale at 
the base of the petioles, on which are six glands: ihe peduncles op- 
posite to the petioles, thicker : the flowers very large, encompassed 
by a three-leaved involucre, the leaves of which are roundish, con- 
cave, entire, smooth, pale: the fruit is very large, oblong, and fleshy: 
the flower is much larger, though very like the above sort in colour. 
It is a native of Jamaica. 

The seventh species is very like the preceding at first sight: the 
open flower has also a general resemblance; but the peduncle is 
cylindrical; the three divisions of the involucre small, lanceolate, 
with glandular serratures; the pedicel thickest at the insertion into 
the convex base of the flower: the five or six outer petals are oblong 
with an awn, the inner longer; the outer principal rays thinnest and 
shortest; imperfect rays in a double row, below and distinct from 
them a single row: no imperfect operculum; operculum partly hori- 
zontal and partly turning up to the column, then folding back down 
again and embracing the column, with which it is so connected that 
it appears inseparable, but is not joined to the colunm : nectary 
round the column, confined by the base : the column comes to the 
bottom of it. It is a native of the West Indies. 

If this does not equal the first sort in elegance, it exceeds it in 
magnificence, in brilliancy of colour, and in fragrance, the flowers 
being highly odoriferous. 

The eighth has a sutTrutescent stem, with very divaricating, fili- 
form branches: the leaves a little emarginate at the base, nerved, 
and very smooth, on short petioles compressed a little, having two 
glands under the base of the leaf: the tendrils are very long : the 
peduncles the length of the petioles : the three leaflets of the involu- 
cre are roundish, concave, with blunt glandular toothlets about the 
edge, and pale: the five leaflets of the calyx are broad-lanceolate, 
slightly membranaceous at the edge, horned with a point or awn, 
smooth, variegated on the inside with blood-red dots: petals five, the 



36"4 



Jengtli of the calyx, narrower, acuminate, with blood-red dots scat- 
tered over them : the flowers are very handsome and odoriferous, but 
the fruit ovate and watery. It flowers in June and July, and is a 
native of Jamaica. 

The ninth species has slender stalks, sending out many small 
branches, and climbing to the height of twenty-five or thirty-feet- 
by age they become woody towards the bottom, and their joints are 
not far asunder: the leaves are on short slender petioles, three inches 
and a half long, and two broad in the middle, rounded at the base, but 
terniinating in a point at top, smooth, entire, and of a lively green 
colour: the flowers are axillary, on long peduncles, having an agree- 
able odour, but seldom continuing twenty hours open. There is a 
succession of them from June to September, and the fruit will some- 
times ripen in this climate. It grows naturally at La Vera Cruz. 

The tenth has an herbaceous stem, twining round, grooved, hir- 
sute, red: the lobes of the leaves entire, nerved, somewhat hispid, 
soft: the petioles round, red, villose, without glands: the tendrils 
subaxiliary: the flowers alternate, nodding, on solitary one-flowered 
peduncles: tiie fruit spherical, marked with six lines, scarlet when 
ripe, hirsute. It is a native of the West Indies, flowering in April 
and May. 

The eleventh species has an herbaceous, grooved, smooth stem : 
the leaves ovale or oblong, two-horned, with an intermediate bristle, 
three-nerved, veined, smooth, entire: dots on the back hollowed, pel- 
lucid: the petioles grooved, smooth, destitute of glands: the tendrils 
subaxiliary, filiform, long: the flowers in pairs, axillary, scarlet, large: 
the berry ovate, the size of a pigeon's egg, and pedicelled. It is a 
native of the West Indies. 

The twelfth has slender, striated, roundish stalks, less than a straw, 
of the same thickness from top to bottom, and of a brownish red 
colour, dividing into many slender branches: the leaves shaped like 
the wings of a bat when extended, about seven inches in length, or 
rather breadth, from the base to the top not more than two inches 
and a half, the upper ones smaller, the middle wider, and the lower 
narrower, smooth and somewhat shining; the colour in the upper 



365 



ones pale, in the middle deeper, in the lower darker green, with two 
purple tubercles or glands towards the base, where they are con- 
nected with the petiole; which is set half an inch from the base of 
the leaf, three nerves springing from it, two extending each way to 
the narrow points of the leaf, the other rising upright to the top, 
where is the greatest length of the leaf : the flowers are on short 
round peduncles from the axils of the middle and upper leaves, white 
and of a middle size, about three inches in diameter when expanded: 
they are without scent, open in the evening or during the night, in 
the month of July, and finally close about eight or nine o'clock in 
the morning. It is a native of the West Indies. 

The thirteenth species has the stem suffrutcscent at bottom, sub- 
divided, angular, grooved: the leaves semiovjite, three-nerved, veined, 
smooth on both sides, marked behind longitudinally with pellucid 
dots: lobes terminated by very small bristles; the middle one a little 
larger than the others: the petioles short, Avithout glands: the ten- 
drils filiform, very long: the stipules two, opposite, awl-shaped: the 
peduncles axillary, filiform, an inch long: the flowers nodding, pale 
green, rather large: the berry egg-shaped. It is distinguished from 
the other sorts by its rounded leaves sliglitly three-lobed at top on]y. 
It is a native of Jamaica. 

The fourteenth runs to a great height, and has dark-green glossy 
leaves: the involucrum is composed of three leaves divided into ca- 
pillary segments, each terminating in a viscid globule: the pillar 
supporting the germen is bright purple Avilh darker spots: the petals 
are greenish on the outside, and red within: the crown consists of 
four rows of radii, which are varied with white and purple. It is a 
native of Jamaica. 

The fifteenth species rises with a weak stalk to the height of 
twenty feet: as the stalks grow old, they have a thick fungous bark 
like that of the Cork-tree, which cracks and splits : the smaller 
branches are covered with a smooth bark: the leaves are smooth, 
on very short petioles: the middle lobe is much longer than the la- 
teral ones, so that the whole leaf is halbert-shaped : the flowers are 



366 



smal], of a greenish yellow colour: the fruit egg-shaped, dark purple 
wlien ripe. It is perennial, and a native of the West Indies, flower- 
ing from June to September. 

In the sixteenth species the stalks rise twenty feet high, dividing 
into many slender branches, covered with a soft hairy down: the 
leaves are shaped Hke the point of a halbert, three inches long, and 
an inch and half wide at the base, light green, soft and silky to the 
touch, standing obHquely to the foot-stalks : the flowers are not half 
so large as those of the common or blue Passion-flower; the fruit 
small, roundish, 3'eHow when ripe, leaves ovate, tomentose on both 
sides: lateral lobes short; with an obsolete gland underneath behind 
the sinus of the lobe. It grows naturally at La Vera Cruz, flowering 
most part of the summer. 

In the seventeenth, the whole plant is very smooth and even: the 
leaves glaucous underneath, undotted : the petioles furnished with 
two or four glands below the middle: the stipules acute, quite en- 
tire, more than half an inch in length: the flowers are sweet. It is 
a native of Cayenne. 

The eighteenth species has the stem twining, simple, becoming 
corky at the base with age, round, smooth: the leaves subpeltate, 
subcordale : lateral lobes almost horizontal ; all acute, nerved, 
smooth on both sides : the petioles short, round, reflex, smooth : 
the glands two, opposite, small, sessile, concave, brown, in the mid- 
dle of the petioles : the stipules two, opposite, awl-shaped, by 
the side of ihe petioles: the tendrils long, between the petioles: 
peduncles axillary, solitary, longer than the petioles, loose, one- 
flowcred : the flowers small, whitish : the berry small, blue, egg- 
shaped. 

Culture. — In all the sorts it is either b}' seeds, layers, or cuttings, 
according to the kinds. 

The first or hardy sort is capable of being raised either by seeds, 
layers, or cuttings: the seed should be sown in the early spring, as 
March, in large pots, half an inch deep, either plunging them in a 
warm border, and as the weather becomes warm moving them to the 



$67 

shade; or in a hot-bed, which will forward the germinalion of the 
seed more fidly, and the plants will rise sooner; which should af- 
terwards be hardened gradually to the open air till the autumn, 
and then placed under a garden-frame for the winter, to have shel- 
ter from frosts, and in the spring planted out in pots, or some in 
the nursery; and in a year or two they may be transplanted where 
they are to remain, against some warm south wall. 

The layers should be laid down from some of the branches in 
the common way in the spring, Avhen they will readily emit roots, 
and make proper plants by autumn; when, or rather in spring fol- 
lowing, they should be taken off and transplanted either into pots 
in nursery rows, or where they are to remain. 

The cuttings should be made in February or March from the 
strong young shoots, in length from about eight to ten or twelve 
inches, planting them in any bed or border of common earth, giv- 
ing frequent watering in dry weather, and when sunny and hot, if 
in a situation exposed to them, a moderate shade of mats will be of 
much advantage. The}'^ will emit roots at bottom, and shoots at 
top, and become good plants by autumn, alloAving them the occa- 
sional shelter of mats, Sec. during the winter's frost; and in the 
spring let them be planted out. If a quantity of these cuttings be 
planted close, and covered down with hand-glasses, it will forward 
their rooting; observing, however, when they begin to shoot at top, 
to remove the glasses, in order to admit fresh air. 

The second and third, or green-house kinds, may be increased 
by seed, layers, and parting the roots : the seed, obtained from 
America, should be sown in pots in March or April, plunging 
them in a hot-bed to raise the plants, which afterwards inure to the 
open air in summer, giving them the shelter of a green-house or 
frame in Avinter: and in the spring following plant some out in 
pots, placing them among the green-house plants ; and others 
may be planted in the full ground, under a Avarm fence, to take 
their chance. 

The layers should be made in the summer from young shoots, 



368 



which will readily grow, and become good plants for polling oft' in 
autumn. The parting the roots should be done in spring, before 
they begin to shoot. The second sort multiplies exceedingly by its 
creeping roots ; which should be divided into slips, and planted in a 
bed of rich earth till autumn, when some should be transplanted into 
pols for occasional shelter in winter. 

All the other more tender stove kinds are capable of being in- 
creased by seeds, lasers, and cuttings: The seeds are procured chiefly 
from abroad; and should be sown in spring in pols, plunging ihem 
in a hot-bed, or in a stove bark-bed: the plants soon appear, which, 
when three inches high, should be pricked out in separate small 
pols, giving water, and re-plunging them in the hot-bed, occasion- 
ally shading them till rooted : as they advance in growth, they 
should be shifted into larger pols, and be retained constantly in the 
stove. 

The layers should be made from the young branches in the spring 
or beginning of summer, which will readily grow, and be fit to pot 
off' separately in autumn. 

'J'he cuttings should be made in the spring or summer, from the 
young slioots, planting them in pots, plunging them in the bark, and 
giving water frequently ; when most of them Avill take root, and be 
fit to pot off* singly in autumn. 

In respect to their general culture; as in severe winters, in the 
first sort, the branches, if not duly j)rolected, are sometimes killed, 
it is advisable at such limes, whilst ihe plants are 3'oung in parti- 
cular, to give them the shelter of mats during the inclement season, 
and protect their roots with dry litter laid over the ground; care- 
fully uncovering their branches as soon as the frost breaks: this co- 
vering, however, is only necessary in very severe frosts. 

The green-house sorts should generally be potted, to move to 
shelter in winter, either of a green-house, or deep garden-frame : 
some plants of each sort may also be planted in the full ground, in a 
warm border, to take their chance; covering the ground over their 
roots in severe weather; and in the different orders of planting, plac- 



369 



ing stakes for the support of their cHmbing growth in the summer. 
And all the stove kinds must constantly be kept in pots, placed in 
the stove, and for the most part plunged in the bark-bed; placing 
strong stakes for the purpose of training the branches to, and ma- 
naging them as other stove-plants of a similar growth. 

The first sort is highly ornamental in the open ground when 
trained against southern walls, &c. ; and those of the green-house, 
and stove kinds, among other plants in these collections. 



3 B 



PLATE XLIV. 



1. PHILADELPHUS CORONARIUS. 

SYRINGA, OR MOCK ORANGE. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy deciduous flowering 
shrubby kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Icosandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Hesperidea. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianthium, 
four or five-parted, acuminate, permanent: the corolla has four or 
five roundish petals, flat, large, spreading: the stamina have twenty 
or twenly-five awl-shaped filaments, the length of the calyx: anthers 
erect, four-grooved: the pistillum is an inferior germ: style filiform, 
four or five-parted: stigmas simple: the pericarpium is an ovate 
capsule, acuminate at both ends, naked at the top by the calyx 
being barked, four or five-celled: partitions contrary: ihe seeds 
numerous, oblong, small, decumbent, arilled, fastened to the thick- 
ened edge of the partitions: arils club-shaped, acuminate, tooth- 
leted at the base. 

The species is P. coronarius. Common Syringa or Mock Orange. 

It is a shrub that sends up a great number of slender stalks from 
the root, seven or eight feet in height, having a gray bark, and put- 
ting forth several short branches from their sides: the leaves ovate 
or ovate-lanceolate; those upon the young shoots three inches and a 
half long, and two broad in the middle, terminating in acute points, 
and having several indentures on their edges; they are rough and of 
a deep green on their upper side, and pale on their under; stand 
opposite upon very short footstalks, and have the taste of fresh 
cucumbers : the flowers come out from the side, and at the end of 
the branches, in loose bunches, each on a short pedicel; they are 



371 



white, and have a strong scent, which at some distance resembles 
that of orange-flowers; but near, it is too powerful for most persons : 
the flowers appear at the end of May, and continue a great part of 
June. It is a native, probably, of the South of Europe. 

There are two varieties: the Dwarf Syringa, which seldom rises 
above three feet high: the leaves are shorter, more ovate, and little 
indented on their edges: the flowers come out singly from the side 
of the branches, and have a double or treble row of petals of the 
same size and form as the other, and the flowers have the same 
scent; but flowering very rarely, it is not so much in estimation. 

The Carolina Syringa, which rises with a shrubby stalk about 
sixteen feet high, sending out slender branches from the sides, oppo- 
site to each other: the leaves smooth, shaped like those of the pear- 
tree, entire, opposite, on pretty long footstalks : the flowers are pro- 
duced at the ends of the branches; they are large, but without scent; 
each has four white oval petals spreading open, and a large calyx 
composed of four acute-pointed leaflets. 

Culture. — These plants may be increased by suckers, layers, and 
cuttings. 

The suckers are sent from the roots in great plenty; these should 
be taken from the old plants in autumn, and be planted in a nursery, 
to grow one or two years till they have obtained suflScient strength, 
when they may be removed to the places where they are to remain. 

The layers may be laid down in the autumn, being made from 
the young twigs. These may be taken off" in the following autumn, 
when well rooted, being planted out where they are to remain. 

The cuttings of the young shoots may be planted in the autumn, 
in a shady situation, where they soon form plants. 

The plants are extremely hardy, and thrive in almost any soil or 
situation, but grow taller in light good ground than in that which 
is stiff". 

They are commonly disposed in plantations of flowering shrubs, 
among others of the same growth; mixing very well with lilacs, 
guelder roses, and laburnums ; and particularly valuable from their 
thriving under the shade of trees, and forming a blockade against 
low buildings, where persons have no objection to their strong smell. 



372 



2. POLEMONIUM C^RULEUM. 

BLUE GREEK VALERIAN. 

This genus contains plants of the fibrous-rooted, herbaceous 
flowering perennial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Pentandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Campanacece. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianth, half- 
five-cleft, inferior, goblet-shaped, acule, permanent: the corolla one- 
petalled, wheel-shaped: tube shorter than the calyx, closed by five 
valves placed at the top: border five-parted, wide, flat; segments 
roundish, blunt: the slamina have five filaments, inserted into the 
valves of the tube, filiform, shorter than the corolla, inclining: 
anthers roundish, incumbent: the pistillum is an ovate, acute, supe- 
rior germ: style filiform, the length of the corolla: stigma trifid, 
revolute: the pericarpium is a three-cornered capsule, ovate, three- 
celled, three-valved, opening three ways at top, covered: partitions 
contrary to the valves: the seeds very many, irregular, sharpish. 

The species are: 1. P. coeruleum. Common Polemonium; 2. P. 
reptans. Creeping Polemonium, or Greek Valerian. 

The first has a perennial, fibrous root: the herb smooth; the 
stems upright, rising to the height of eighteen or twenty inches, 
seldom more, leafy, panicled: the leaves alternate, unequally pin- 
nate, many-paired; leaflets elliptic-lanceolate, quite entire: the 
corolla between bell-shaped and wheel-shaped, blue: the calyx 
bell-shaped, half-five-cleft: the filaments dilated at the base and 
membranaceous: capsule clothed with the calyx, ovate-globular, 
obsoletely three-grooved, thin, subpcllucid: seeds six in each cell, in 
a double row, fastened to the inner angle of the cell, variously an- 
gular, eroded on the surface, of a dark rust colour. It is a native of 
Asia, flowering in May. 



373 



There are varieties with while flowers, with variegated flowers, 
and with variegated leaves. 

The second species has creeping roots, by which it mullipHes 
very fast. The leaves have seldom more than three or four pairs of 
leaflets, which stand at a much greater distance from each other 
than those of the common sort, and aie of a darker green. The 
stalks rise nine or ten inches high, sending out branches their whole 
length. The flowers are produced in loose bunches, on pretty long 
peduncles; they are smaller than those of the common sort, and of a 
lighter blue colour. It is a native of America. 

Cidture. — These plants may be increased by seeds and parting 
the roots. 

The seeds should be sown in the spring, upon a bed of light 
earth, and when the plants are pretty strong they should be pricked 
out into another bed of tlie same earlh, four or five inches asunder, 
shading and watering them until they have taken new root; keeping 
thein clear from weeds until the beginning of autumn, and then 
transplanting them into the borders of the pleasure-ground. The 
plants are not of long duration; but by taking them up in autumn 
and parting their roots they may be continued some years: but the 
seedhng plants flower stronger than tlioso from offsets. 

The varieties can only be continued by parting the roots at the 
above season. They should have a fresh Hght soil, which is not too 
rich, as the roots will be apt to rot in winter, and the stripes on the 
leaves to go off. 

The second sort may be increased by seeds or offsets in the same 
manner, and is equally hardy, but much less beautilul. 

They afford ornament among flowery plants in the borders and 
other parts. 



PLATE XLV. 



1. PHLOX PANICULATA. 

PANICLED LYCHNIDEA. 

This genus comprises plants of the herbaceous, fibrous-rooted, 
liovver3% perennial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Pentandria Mo7iogpiia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Rotacea. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianthium, 
cylindrical, ten-cornered, five-toothed, acute, permanent: the co- 
rolla one-petalled, salver-shaped : tube cylindrical, longer than the 
calyx, narrower below, curved in: border flat, five-parted: seg- 
ments equal, blunt, shorter than the tube: the stamina have five 
filaments, within the tube of the corolla, two longer, one shorter: 
anthers in the throat of the corolla: the pistillum is a conical germ: 
style filiform, the length of the stamens: stigma trifid, acute: the 
pericarpium is an ovate capsule, three-cornered, three-celled, three- 
valved : the seeds solitary, ovate. 

The species are: 1. P. paniculata, Panicled Lychnidea; 2. P. 
suaveolens, White-flowered Lychnidea ; 3. P. maculatay Spotted- 
stalked Lychnidea; 4. P. piloscu, Hairy-leaved Lychnidea; 5. P. 
Carolina^ Carolina Lychnidea; 6. P. glaberrima. Smooth Lychnidea; 
7. P. divaiicata, Early-flowering Lychnidea. 

The first has the stalk smooth, of a light green, about two feet 
high, sending out a few side branches: the leaves are near three 
inches long, and one broad in the middle, of a dark green, and 
sessile: the flowers in a terminating corymb, composed of many 
smaller bunches, which have each a distinct footstalk, and support 
a great number of flowers, which stand on short slender pedicels: 



375 



the calyx short, cut almost to the bottom into five narrow acute seg- 
ments: the corolla is pale purple, appearing late in July, and often 
followed by seeds which ripen in autumn. It is a native of North 
America, flowering in August and September. 

The second species has white flowers, moderately sweet-scented. 
It is a native of North America, flowering in July and August. 

The third has upright stalks, of a purplish colour, closely covered 
with white spots, and about three feet high: the leaves about three 
inches long, and one broad at their base, ending in acute points. 
Towards the u[)per part of the stalks are small branches opposite, 
each terminated by a small bunch of flowers; but on the top of the 
principal stalk is a long loose spike of flowers, composed of small 
bunches from the axils at each joint; each cluster having one com- 
mon peduncle near an inch long, but the pedicels are short. The 
flowers are of a bright purple colour, and appear late in July: if ' 
the season be temperate, or the soil moist, they continue in beauty 
a great part of August, but rarely perfect seeds in this climate. It 
is a native of North America, flowering in August. 

The fourth species has the stalks about a foot high: the leaves 
narrow-lanceolate, ending in acute points, sessile, a little hairy: the 
calyx cut into acute segments almost to the bottom: the tube of the 
corolla slender and pretty long, cut at top into five ovate spreading 
segments: the flowers light purple, appearing at the end of June, 
but seldom producing seeds in this climate. It is a native of North 
America. 

The fifth resembles the sixth, but the stem is three times as high, 
and somewhat rugged: the leaves wider, and ovate-lanceolate: the 
corymb consisting of numerous flowers, with several peduncles from 
the uppermost axils of the leaves, erect, and fastigiate into a sort of 
corymb of a dark purple colour. It grows naturally in Carolina, 
flowering from July to September. 

The sixth species has the stalks near a foot and half high, dividing 
into three or four small branches towards the top, each terminated 
by a corymb of flowers: the lower leaves opposite, three inches long, 
and near half an inch broad at the base, ending in long acute points. 



376 

sinoolli and sessile; the upper ones are alternate: the tube of the 
corolla l\v ice the length of the calyx ; segments of the border 
roundish, spreading, of a light purple colour: the flowers appeaiL,in 
June, but seldom produce seeds in this climate. It is a native ot 
North America, flowering from June to August. 

The seventh species has the stems almost upright, simple, and 
then divided into two branches: the leaves opposite on a simple 
stem, in five oppositions, softish, rugged; the upper ones alternate: 
the flowers iroin the partings of the stem and the axils of the alter- 
nate leaves, two together on separate pedicels: the calyx five-parted: 
the corollas pale blue, with a crooked tube: the flowers appear at 
the end of May, or beginning of June, but are rarely succeeded by; 
seeds in this climate. It grows naturally in North America. 

Culture. — These are generally increased by parting their roots,- 
as they do not often produce seeds in this climate. The best time 
for performing this is in autumn, when the stalks begin to decay. 
The roots should not, however, be divided into too small heads, 
when they are expected to flower well the following sun)mer; nov 
should they be parted oftener than every other year, as, when they 
are too often removed and parted, it greatly weakens the roots, so 
that they send out but few stalks, and those so weak as not to rise 
their usual height, and the bunches of flowers are much smaller. 

The large root offsets may be planted out at once where ihey are 
to remain; but the small ones in nursery-rows, for further increase 
in size. . 

When the roots are parted and removed, it is a good way to lay 
some old tan, or mulch, upon the surface of the ground about their 
roots, to prevent the frost from penetrating; for, as they will have 
put out new roots before winter, the frost, when it is severe, often 
kills the fibres, whereby the plants suffer greatly, and are sometimes 
wholly destroyed. 

The first and sixth sorts may be increased pretty expeditiously 
by their spreading roots, but the otheis but slowly this way; of 
course it is a better method to have recourse to cuttings. The best 
season for planting the cuttings is about the end of April, or the 



377 



beginning of the following month, when the young shoots from the 
roots, which are about two inches high, should be cut off close to 
the ground, and their tops shortened, being then planted on a bor- 
der of light loamy earth, and shaded from the sun until they have 
taken root; or if they are planted pretty close together, and covered 
with bell or hand-glasses, or in pots, shading them every day from 
the sun, they will put out roots in five or six weeks; but on their 
beginning to shoot, the glasses should be gradually raised to admit 
the free air to them, otherwise they are apt to draw up weak, and 
soon spoil: as soon as they are well rooted, the glasses should be 
taken off, and the plants inured to the open air; being soon after- 
wards removed into a bed of good soil, planting thciii about six 
inches distance every way, shading them from the sun, and watering 
till they have taken new root; after which, when kept clean from 
weeds, they require no other care till autumn, when they should be 
removed into the borders or other parts, where they are designed to 
remain. 

When some of the plants are put into pots, and sheltered under a 
hot-bed frame in winter, they flower stronger the following summer. 

These plants succeed best in a moist rich mellow soil, growing 
taller, and flowering more strongly and in larger bunches. In poor 
dry soils they often die during the summer, when not constantly 
watered with care. 

Some of the plants afford ornament in the borders, clumps, and 
other parts of pleasure-grounds; and those planted in pots to be 
placed in court-yards, or other places near the habitation, when 
they are in beauty, and being mixed with other flowers, are highly 
ornamental. 



378 



2. POLYGALA CHAMiEBUXUS. 

BOX-LEAVED MILKWORT. 

This genus conlains plants of the woody, under shrubby, and 
herbaceous perennial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Diadelphia Octandria, and ranks 
in the natural order of Lomentacece. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a five-leaved, small perianth: 
leaflets ovale, acute: two below the corolla, one above that, and 
two in the middle, subovate, flat, very large, coloured, (the Avings) 
permanent: the corolhi subpapilionaceous: standard almost cylify- 
drical, tubular, short, with a small reflex mouth, bifid: wings; keel 
concave, compressed, venlricose towards ihe tip: appendix of the 
keel, in most of the species two three-parted pcncil-bhapcd bodies, 
fastened to the keel towards the tip: the stamina have diadelphous 
filaments (eight connected) enclosed within ihe keel : anthers eight, 
simple: the pislillum is an oblong germ: style simple, erect: stigma 
terminating, thickisli, bifid : the pericarpium is an obcordate capsule, 
compressed with an acute margin, two-celled, two-valved: partition 
contrary to the valves; opening at each margin: the seeds solitary, 
ovate (with a glandidar umbilicus). 

The species cultivated are: 1. P. un/rdfolia, Myrtle-leavrd Milk- 
wort; 2. P. Chamabuxm, Box-leaved Milk-wort. 

The first has a shrubby stem, covered with a smooth ])rown bark, 
rising four or five feet high, and seiuling out several spreading 
brantlies towards the top: the leaves about an inch long and a 
quarti r of an inch broad, lucid green, and sessile. I'he flowers are 
produced at the ends of the branches; they are large, white on the 
outside, but of a bright purple within: wings expanded wide, and 
-standard incurved. It continues flowering most part of the suniraei : 



379 



each cell of the seed-vessel contains one hard smooth shining seed. 
It grows naturally at the Cape of Good Hope. 

The second species rises with a slender, branching, woody stalk, 
about a foot high, when it grows upon good ground, but on a rocky 
soil it is seldom more than half that height. The branches are 
closely garnished with stift" smooth leaves, of a lucid green: from 
between the leaves, towards the top of the branches, the flowers 
come out upon very short peduncles; they are white on the outside, 
but within are of a purplish colour mixed with yelloAV, and have a 
grateful odour. According to Martyn, it is an elegant little ever- 
green shrub, of low growth, with leaves like those of Box, producing 
flowers from May to October, but most plentifully in May and 
June: each flower stands oh a peduncle, proceeding from a kind of 
triphyllous cup, formed of floral leaves. It is a native of Austria, Sec. 

Culture. — The first sort may be increased by seeds, which should 
be sown in small pots, filled with light loamy earth; soon after they 
are ripe, placing them where they may have the morning sun only 
till October, when they should be placed under a hot-bed frame, 
and be plunged into old tanners' bark which has lost its heat, where 
they may be defended from frost during the winter, and in the 
spring the pols should be plunged into a moderate hot-bed, which 
will bring up the plants. When these appear, they should not be 
too tenderly treated, but have a large share of free air admitted to 
them; when they are fit to transplant, they should be carefully 
shaken out of the pots, and separated, planting each into a small 
pot filled with soft loamy earth, and plunged into a very moderate 
hot-bed, to forward their taking new root, shading them from the 
sun, and gently refreshing them with water as they may require. 
When they are rooted, they must be gradually inured to the open 
air, and in June they m:iy be placed abroad in a sheltered situation, 
where they may remain till the middle or latter end of October, 
according as the season proves favourable; then they must be re- 
moved into the green-house; and treated in the same Avay as the 
Orange-tree, being careful not to give them too much wet during 
the winter season. 



380 



The second sort was formerly thought difficult to raise by seeds; 
but at present it is readily increased by parting its creeping roots, 
and planting them in bog earth, on a shady border, where it thrives 
very well, and spawns much. 

The first affords variety when set out among other potted plants 
of the green-house kind; and the latter, in the borders, &c. 



3. PHYSALIS ALKEKENGI. 

WINTER CHERRY. 

Tins genus comprises plants of the herbaceous and shrubby 
ornamental kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Penfandi^ia Monogynia^dind. ranks 
in the natural order of Lurida. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianthium, 
venlriuoac, half-five-cleft, small, five-cornered, with acuminate seg- 
ments, permanent: the corolla one-petalled, wheel-shaped: tube 
very short: border half-five-cleft, large, plaited: segments wide, 
acute: the stamina have five filaments, awl-shaped, very small, con- 
verging: anthers erect, converging: the pistillum is a roundish germ: 
style filiform, generally longer than the stamens: stigma blunt: the 
pericarpium is a subglobular berry, two-celled, small, within a 
very large, inflated, closed, five-cornered, coloured calyx: the re- 
ceptacle kidney-form, doubled: the seeds very many, kidney-form, 
compressed. 

The species are: 1. P. angidata. Tooth-leaved Winter Cherry; 
2. P. pubescens. Woolly Winter Cherry; 3. P. Alkekengi, Common 
Winter Cherry; 4. P. Fensylvanica, Pennsylvaiiian Winter Cherry; 
5. P. viscosa. Clammy Winter Cherry; 6. P. somnifera. Clustered 
Winter Cherry; 7- P- fleiuosa, Fexuous Italian Winter Cherry; 8. P. 



381 



arborcscens, Tree-like Pliysalis, or Winter Cherry; 9- -P. Curassavicoy 
Curassavian Winter Cherry, 

The first has a straight stem, the thickness of the Jitlle finger, 
about a foot high, three-cornered below, four-cornered above, as are 
also the branches, which come out obliquely from top to bottom, in 
alternate order, and are thicker at the base: the lower leaves wider 
and rounder than those about the middle of the stem, and these 
larger than those of the branches, deeply toothed or jagged: the 
flowers five-cornered, of an extremely pale yellow colour, with spots 
of a darker yellow at the base. It is a native of both the Indies, «Scc. 

There is a variety which is taller, with entire leaves, smaller 
flowers of a paler yellow colour. 

The second species branches out very wide close to the ground, 
and the branches frequently lie upon it; they are angular and full 
of joints, dividing again into smaller branches: the leaves are on 
pretty long footstalks, about three inches long and almost two broad, 
having several acute indentures on their edges: the flowers produced 
on the side of the branches upon short, slender, nodding peduncles; 
they are of an herbaceous yellow colour with dark bottoms, and are 
succeeded by large, swelling bladders, of a light green, inclosing 
berries as large as common cherries, which are yellowish when ripe. 
It flowers in July, and is a native of Virginia. 
These are both annual plants. 

The third has perennial roots, creeping to a great distance: they 
shoot up many stalks in the spring a foot high or more: the leaves 
of various shapes, some angular and obtuse, others oblong and 
acute-pointed, of a dark green, on long footstnlks: the flowers axil- 
lary, on slender peduncles, white, appearing in July; the berry 
round, the size of a small cherry, enclosed in the inflated calyx, 
which turns of a deep red in the autumn. It is a native of the 
South of Europe, &c. 

The fourth species has many procumbent or erect stems, scarcely 
a foot in height, somewhat flexuose, roundish, or obscurely angular 
on the top, at the flowers branched, having an obscure down scat- 
tered over them: the leaves are alternate, ovate, blunt, serrate- 



382 

n panel, almost naked above, obscurely tomentose underneath, next 
the flowers in ])airs: the flowers axillary on very short peduncles, 
larger than those of the common sort, and of a pale yellow colour. 
They are succeeded by very small yellowish berries, which ripen in 
the autumn when the season proves warm. It is a native of North 
America, and flowers from July to September. 

The fifth has a creeping root, sending up a great number of 
.smooth stalks, about a foot high, dividing towards the top into 
small spreading branches: the leaves heart-shaped or ovate, about 
three inches long, and two broad near their base, entire, rough to 
the touch, of a pale yellowish green, alternate, on pretty long foot- 
stalks: the flowers are towards the top, axillary, on long slender 
peduncles, of a dirty yellow colour with purple bottoms. They 
appear in June and July, and are succeeded by viscous berries 
about the size of the common sort, of an herbaceous yellow colour, 
enclosed in a liajht green swelling bladder. It is a native of America. 

The sixth species rises with a shrubby stalk, near three feet high, 
dividing into several branches which grow erect, and are covered 
with a woolly down: the leaves ovate-lanceolate, almost three inches 
long', and an inch and a half broad in the middle, downy, and on 
short petioles: the flowers small, of an herbaceous white colour, 
silting very close to the branches, and succeeded by small berries 
nearly of llie same size as the common winter cherry, and red when 
ripe. Jt is a native of Spain, Sicily, &c. flowering in July and 
August. 

The seventh rises to the height of five or six feet, sending out 
long flexuose branches covered with a gray bark: the leaves oblong- 
ovate, often placed opposite, sometimes by threes round the branches, 
to which they sit close: the flowers in clusters at the base of the 
petioles, small, of an herbaceous yellow colour: they are succeeded 
by round purplish berries having ten cells, each including one seed. 
Jt flowers in July and August, but not unless the season is warm. 
It is a native of the East Indies. 

The eighth species has a shrubby stalk, ten or twelve feet high, 
dividing towards the top into several small branches, covered with 



383 



a gray hairy bark: leaves on the lower part allernate, but towards 
the end of the branches opposite; the lower leaves from three to 
four inches long, and two broad in the middle, drawing to a point 
at both ends; they are of a pale green, and downy: the flowers from 
the axils towards the end of the branches, one or two at the same 
joint opposite, on short nodding peduncles; are small, of a pale 
dirty yellow colour, with purple bottoms: berries small, spherical, 
red, enclosed in an oval dark purple bladder. It flowers in June 
and July. 

The ninth has a perennial creeping root: the stalks several, 
slender, about a foot high, becoming somewhat woody, but seldom 
lasting above two years; the leaves allernate, on short footstalks; 
they are about two inches long, and an inch and half broad: the 
flowers axillary towards the top, on short slender peduncles: petals 
small, sulphur-coloured, with dark purple bottoms: they appear in 
July and August, but are rarely succeeded by berries in this climate. 
It is a native of Curassao in the West Indies. 

Culture.— These plants are all capable of being increased by 
seeds; the second, third, fourth, and fifth sorts, also by parting the 
roots; the sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth, likewise by cuttings. 

In the first sort, the seed should be sov/n in the early spring, as 
April, in pots of light earth, plunging them in a moderate hot-bed. 
When the plants have acquired a few inches in growth they should 
be removed into separate pots, gradually inuring them to the open 
air, in order that they may be removed wilh balls into the clumps or 
borders. But it is probably a better method to sow them in the 
la Iter end of May in the places where they arc to remain, as they do 
not bear transplanting well. 

They must be raised annually. 

In the herbaceous kinds the seeds should be sown in the autumn 
as soon as ihey are ripe, or early in the spring, in the beds, borders? 
or clumps where they are to remain; or they may be transplanted 
into oiher beds, to remain till the following autumn, when they may 
be removed to the situations where they are to remain. 

The roots may be parted either in the early autumn or spi ing 



384 



season, when the weather is mild. The divided parts should have 
root-fibres left at the bottoms and a bud in each at the tops, in order 
to their succeeding properly. 

In the sixth and seventh sorts, the seeds should be sown in pots 
of light mould in the early spring and plunged in a mild hot-bed. 
When the plants have had a little growth they should be pricked out 
into separate small pots, proper shade and water being given; being 
afterwards managed as the shrubby exotics of less tender plants. 

They may likewise be raised from cuttings made in the later 
spring or summer months, which should be placed in pots of light 
mould and plunged in the hot-bed, due shade and water being given 
till they have stricken root. 

And the two last sorts may be raised from seeds or cuttings in 
the same way, by the aid of the bark hot-bed of the stove. 

The first and the other herbaceous sorts are curious ornamental 
plants in the borders, clumps, and other parts of pleasure-grounds, 
and the four best shrubby sorts in the green-house and stove 
collections. 



PLATE XLVL 



1. RUDBECKIA PURPUREA. 

PURPLE RUDBECKIA. 

This genus contains plants of the herbaceous biennial and peren- 
nial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Syngenesia Polygamia Frustranea^ 
and ranks in the natural order of Composita Oppositifolicp. 

The characters are: that the calyx is common with a double row 
©f scales; scales flat, widish, curtailed, six in each row: the corolla 
compound radiate: corollels hermaphrodite, numerous, in a conical 
disk; females about twelve, very long in the ray: proper of the her- 
maphrodite, lubular-funnel-form, with a five- toothed border: female 
ligulale, lanceolate, with two or three teeth, flat, pendulous: the 
stamina in the hermaphrodites: filaments five, capillary, very short- 
anther cylindrical, tubular : the pistillum in the hermaphrodites : 
germ four-corned: style filiform, the length of the corollet: stigma 
two-parted, revolule: in the females: germ very small: style none: 
stigma none: there is no pericarpium: calyx unchanged: the seeds 
in the hermaphrodites solitary, oblong, crowned with a membrana- 
ceous four-toothed rim: in the females none: the receptacle chaffy, 
conical, longer than the common calyx: chaffs the length of the 
seeds, erect, channelled-concave, deciduous. 

The species cultivated are: 1. R. lacmlata^ Broad Jagged-leaved 
Rudbeckia; 2. R. digitata, Narrow Jagged-leaved Rudbeckia; 3. R. 
hirta, Hairy Rudbeckia; 4. R. purpurea, Purple Rudbeckia; 5. R. 
angustifolia. Narrow Simple-leaved Rudbeckia; 6. R. triloba, Three- 
lobed Rudbeckia. 

3 D 



386 



The first is by some divided into two species, which are thus 
described: the root of the former is perennial, but the stalk is an- 
nual: the lower leaves are composed of five broad lobes, deeply cut 
into acute points, and some of them jagged almost to the midrib ; 
the outer lobe is frequently cut into three deep segments : the stalks 
rise seven or eight feet high, and divide at top into several branches; 
are smooth, green, and have single, oval heart-shaped leaves, some 
indented on their edges, others entire: the peduncles naked, termi- 
nated by a single flower with yellow rays, like the sun-flower, but 
smaller: the latter is also perennial, and has smooth green stalks ; 
but they rise higher : the leaves have all five lobes, which are much 
narrower, end with sharper points, and are very acutely indented 
on their sides: the flowers are smaller, and the petals narrower. 
The}^ are both natives of North America, flowering here in July. 

The second species has a perennial root like the former : the 
leaves at bottom are composed of seven or nine lobes, some entire, 
others jagged to the midrib; they are of a dark green and smooth: 
the stalks rise six feet high, and divide into many branches; they are 
of a purple or iron colour, and very smooth : the stem-leaves to- 
wards the bottom are hand-shaped, and composed of five lobes; 
higher up they have but three lobes, and at top the leaves are single: 
the flowers are smaller than those of the preceding, but of the same 
shape and colour. It is a native of North America, flowering in 
August and September. 

In the third, the root continues four or five years: the leaves are 
oblong, ovate, and hairy: the stalks rise a foot and half high, and 
have one or two leaves near the bottom : the peduncle is naked near 
a foot in lengdi, and is terminated by one pretty large yellow flower, 
shaped like the sun-flower: the florets of the ray are very stiff, and 
slightly indented at their points: the disk is very prominent, and of 
a dark purple colour. The flowers will continue six weeks, and there 
is a succession of them from the middle of July, till the frost puts a 
stop to them. It is a native of Virginia. 

The fourth species is a perennial plant like the third. The leaves 
are longer and broader, are smooth, and have three veins: the pe- 



387 



duncles are taller, and have two or three narrow leaves on each, 
placed alternate!}-: on the top is one flower, Avith long narrow, re- 
flexed, peach-coloured florets in the ray: the disk is very prominent, 
and of a dark purple colour: it flowers at the same time with the 
third, but the flowers are of not so long duration. It is a native of 
Carolina and Virginia. 

The fifth has the root perennial: the stalks four or five feet high: 
the leaves narrow, smooth, opposite: the florets in the ray of the 
flower yellow, long, twelve in number: disk dark red : the scales of 
the calyx spreading and almost awl-shaped. It is a native of Virgi- 
nia, flowering in August and September. 

The sixth species is biennial: the lower leaves are divided into 
three lobes, but those upon the stalks are undivided; they are hairy, 
and shaped like those of the first sort: the stalks branch out on their 
sides, and are better furnished with leaves than the others: the flowers 
are very like those of the first sort, but smaller. It grows naturally 
in several parts of North America. 

Culture. — Ail the sorts of these plants may be increased by off- 
sets, parting the roots and seeds. 

The offsets in the perennial sorts should be taken off" and planted 
out in the early autumn : when the stems decay the roots may also 
be divided and planted out at the same time, or in the early spring- 
months. 

As these plants are often liable to go off' soon, some should be 
frequently raised to keep up the slock; and as others have a ten- 
dency to become biennial, and decay without increasing the root, 
they should have the flower-stems cut down in the early summer, to 
encourage the growth of the root offsets, for slipping in the following 
autumn. 

All the sorts may be raised from seed, and the biennial sorts must 
always be raised annually in that way ; likewise such of the peren»- 
nial kind as are biennially inclined, sowing the seeds in April, in a 
border of light earth, raking them in; and when the plants are two or 
three inches high, pricking them out in nursery-rows till aulumn? 



388 



then planting them out where they are to remain. They should 
have a light dry soil and rather warm situation. 

They afford much ornament and variety in the borders and 
clumps, among other flowering plants. 



2. ROSA L U T E A. 

SINGLE YELLOW ROSE. ^ 

This genus contains plants of the deciduous flowering shrub 
and evergreen kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Icosandria Polygynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Senticoscc. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianth: tube 
ventricose, contracted at the neck; Avith the border spreading five- 
parted, globular : segments long, lanceolate-narrow (m some of 
them two alternate ones appendicled on both sides ; two others, 
also alternate, naked on both sides ; the fifth appendicled on 
one side only): the corolla has five petals, obcordate, the length 
of the calyx, inserted into the neck of the calyx: the stamina have 
very many filaments, capillary, very short, inserted into the neck of 
the calyx: anthers ihree-cornered: the pistillum has numerous germs, 
in the bottom of the calyx: styles as many, villosc, ver}^ short, com- 
pressed close by the neck of the calyx, inserted into the side of the 
germ: stigmas blunt: there is no pericarpium: is a fleshy berry, 
turbinate, coloured, soft, one-celled, crowned with the rude seg- 
ments, contracted at the neck, formed from the tube of the calyx : 
the seeds numerous, oblong, hispid, fastened to the inner side of the 
calyx. 

The species cultivated are: 1. R. lutea. Single Yellow Rose; 
2. R. sulp/mrea, Double Yellow Rose; 3. R. hlancla, Hiidson's-Bay 
Rose; 4. R. cinnamomea, Cinnamon Rose; 5. R. ai-vensis, White Dog 
Rose; 6. R. pimpimiellifolia. Small Burnet-leaved Rose; 7. R. spi?io- 



389 



sissi/na, Scotch Rose ; 8. II. parvijiora, Small-flowcicd Anicricaii 
Rose; 9- lucida. Shining-leaved American Rose; 10. 11. Carolinay 
Carolina Rose; 11. R.villosa, Apple Rose; 12. It. provmcialis, Pro- 
vence Rose; 13. R. centifoUa, Hundred-leaved Rose; 14. R. gallica. 
Red Rose; 15. R. damascenay Damask Rose; l6. R. senipervirevs 
Evergreen Rose; 17. R.pumilay Dwarf" Auslrian Rose; 18. R.turhi- 
nata, Frankfort Rose; 19- R- rubiginosa, Sweet Briar Rose; 20. J\. 
muscosa. Moss Provence Rose; 21. R. moschata. Musk Rose; 22. R. 
alpina, Alpine Rose ; 23. R. semperjlorens. Deep-red China Rose; 
24. R. alba, Wiiile Rose. 

The first has weak stalks, wdiich send out many slender branches 
closely armed with short crooked brown prickles: the leaflets two or 
three pairs, ovate and thin, smooth, of a light green, sharply serrate: 
the flowers on short peduncles, single, bright yellow, without scent. 
It is a native of Germany, &c. 

There is a variety termed the Austrian Rose, which has the slalks, 
branches and leaves like those of the Single Yellow Rose, but the 
leaves are rounder. The flowers are also larger : the petals have 
deep indentures at their points; are of a pale yellow on the outside, 
and of a reddish copper colour, orange-scarlet, or Barre colour 
within; are single, have no scent, or a disagreeable one, and soon 
fall away. It has sometimes flowers entirely yellow on one branch, 
and copper-coloured on another. 

The second species differs from the preceding, not only in the 
doubleness of the flowers, but in having the leaflets simply serrate, 
not glandular, pubescent and glaucous underneath; whereas in that 
they are doubly serrate, glandular and glutinous, and of a shining 
green colour, the stipules lacerated ; the fruits hemispherical and 
glandular, which in the other are subglobular and smooth : the 
prickles on the stem are of two sorts in this; a few being larger, and 
many smaller. It is a native of the Levant, flowering later than 
that, as in July. 

The third has the stems, when full grown, unarmed; the younger 
ones, or those of the first year, are armed v/ilh slender straight pric- 
kles bent a little back at the top: branches round, unarmed, shin- 



390 



ing, reddish: the leaflets commonly seven, oblong, sharply and al* 
most equally serrate, smooth: the petioles smooth, generally armed 
with one or two spinules. It is a native of Newfoundland and 
Hudson's Bay, flowering from May to August. 

The fourth species rises about four feet high: the branches are 
covered with a purplish smooth bark, and have no spines, except at 
the joints immediately under the leaves, where they are commonly 
placed by pairs ; they are short and crooked: the leaflets seven, 
ovate, serrate, hairy on their under side : the leaves of the calyx nar- 
row and entire: the flower small, Avith a scent like cinnamon, whence 
its name. But, according to Parkinson, the shoots are somewhat 
red, yet not so red as the double kind, armed with great thorns, 
almost like the Eglantine bush; thereby showing, as well by the 
multiplicity of its shoots as the quickness and height of its shooting, 
its wild nature: the roses are single, somewhat large, and of a pale 
red colour. It is a native of the South of Europe. 

There is a double variety, in which the shoots are redder; the 
flowers small, short, thick, and double, of a pale red colour at the end 
of the leaves (petals), somewhat redder and brighter towards the 
middle. It is the smallest and earliest of the double garden roses, 
flowering in May. 

The fifth has round, glaucous, often mahogany-coloured stems; 
with very long, thong-like branches, bowing, with scattered, hooked 
prickles, smaller than in the common Dog-Rose: the leaflets five or 
seven, but mostly five, ovate, pointed, smooth, simply serrate, glau- 
cescent underneath: the petioles prickly: peduncles three or five in 
a terminating cyme, (rarely solitary) mahogany-coloured, covered 
with a glandular roughness, not all exactly from one point, accom- 
panied by a few lanceolate bractes, and each bearing a single white 
flower, like the common Dog-Rose, but never red or blush-coloured, 
and less fragrant: fruit oblong; but in ripening it becomes globose, 
and deep red: the styles, as soon as they have passed through the 
neck of the calyx, are compacted into a cylinder, resembling a single 
style, terminated by a knob composed of the stigmas, which distin* 
guishes it from the other species. It is a native of England, Sec. 



1 



391 



The sixth species has been confounded \\\lh what is commonly 
called the Scotch Rose; and some think it is not distinct from that. 
In the garden plant, according to Pallas, there are larger and seta- 
ceous prickles intermixed, and nine leaflets, the lower ones smaller. 
The flowers are white, and the segments of the calyx entire. 

And the Siberian shrub is very elegant, a foot and half or at 
most two feet in height; the trunk thorny all over, the thickness of 
the little finger, ver}-^ much branched, the branches collected into an 
ovate form: the spines on the trunk and branches very frequent, 
bristle-shaped, transverse or reclining, gray: the leaves very small, 
on red petioles, sometimes smooth, sometimes with small prickles on 
^ them: the stipules very narrow with wider earlets, external and ser- 
rate: the leaflets commonly seven, but sometimes nine or five, the 
size of the little finger nail, oval, cut round, sharply double-serrate, 
stiflish, rugged, more or less retuse, on some shrubs rather acute: 
the peduncles sometimes rough, sometimes smooth, with a ternate 
and simple leaf, almost to the flower: the fruit globose, smooth, and 
when ripe black, dry and insipid, being crowned with the segments 
of the calyx. It is a native of the South of Europe, as well as Asia, 
-flowering here in May and June. 

The seventh has its stems about two feet high, upright, much 
branched, with numerous straight, unequal, very slender needle-like 
prickles, on the young branches, which often disappear from the old 
ones : the leaflets seven or nine, small, roundish, blunt, serrate, 
smooth, sessile: their common petiole is sometimes prickly: the pe- 
duncles solitary, one-flowered, smooth, or very seldom prickly: the 
stipules small, halbert-shaped, toothed: the tube of the calyx almost 
hemispherical, smooth: the segments are entire: the petals white or 
cream-coloured, yellow at the base, delicately fragrant, sometimes 
striped with red: the fruit globose, deep reed, black when quite ripe, 
smooth, but sometimes somewhat prickly. It is a native of most 
parts of Europe. 

There are several varieties, as the Striped-flowered, or with va- 
riegated flowers, red striped with white. 

The Red Scotch Rose, which seldom rises more than a foot high : 



592 



the stalks are covered with a brown bark, and are closely aniicd 
with small spines; the leaves are very small; the flowers are also 
small, sessile, and of a livid red colour; the fruit is round, of a deep 
purple colour inclining to black when ripe. 

And, according to Withering, there is also a variety with prickly 
peduncles, and cream-coloured flowers, changing to white. 

Lawrence likewise mentions a double Scotch Rose. 

The eighth species very much resembles the two following sorts ; 
but differs in having the stem two feet high, the petioles hairy at the 
top, and the flowers in pairs. It rises with several slender stems to 
the height of two or three feet, covered with a brownish green bark, 
and armed with a few sharp spines: the leaflets are seven or nine, 
oblong-ovate and sharply serrate: the leaves of the flower-cup have 
often linear leafy elongations : the corolla is single and of a pale 
reddish colour. 

There is a variety with a double flower. 

The ninth rises with several smooth stalks to the height of five or 
six feet : the young branches are covered with a smooth purple 
bark: the leaves are composed of four or five pairs of spear-shaped 
leaflets, smooth on both sides, of a lucid green on the upper surface, 
but pale on the under, and deeply serrate: the segments of the ca- 
lyx long, narrow and entire : the flowers of a livid red colour, single? 
with little scent, appearing in July. 

The tenth species has the stem five or six feet high, smooth: the 
stipular prickles two : the leaflets seven, oblong-ovate or nearly lan- 
ceolate, smooth, not shining, but opaque, serrate, paler underneath, 
the petioles prickly: the peduncles several, branched, forming a co- 
rymb, unarmed, with glandular hairs scattered over them: the leaflets 
of the calyx undivided, hispid on the outside: the petals obcordate, 
red. It is a sort that flowers late; and, like the two preceding, a 
native of North America. 

The eleventh grows upright to the height of four feet or more : 
the branches are upright and short: the prickles on the stem and 
branches scattered, small, awl-shapcd, nearly straight: the leaflets 
seven, elliptical, bluntish, clothed on both bides with short velvet- 



393 



Kke down, fragrant when rubbed, their serratures fringed with glands: 
the petioles downy, prickly, glandular: the peduncles terminating, 
mostly solitary, one-flowered, rough with rigid glandular bristles: 
the germ globular, bristly : the segments of the calyx long, downy, 
prickl}' on the outside: the corolla of a full rose-colour, not very 
odoriferous: the fruit globular, larger than in any other sort, and for 
the most part bristly and blood-red. It is found in Europe and Asia, 
and known as the cultivated sort in plantations, &;c., both in a single 
and double state. 

The fruit has a pleasant acid pulp surrounding the seeds, and is 
sometimes made into a conserve or sweetmeat, and served up at table 
in deserts, SiC. 

The twelfth species is well known in gardens, and one of the 
most beautiful sorts: the flowers are sometimes very large, and the 
petals closely folded over each other, like cabbages, whence it is 
called the Cabbage Rose: the flowers have the most fragrant odour 
of all the sorts. 

According to Parkinson, the Great Double-Damask Provence, 
or Holland Rose, has its bark of a reddish or brown colour: the 
leaves likewise more reddish than in others, and somewhat larger. 
It usually grows very like the Damask Rose, and much to the same 
height: the flowers are of the same deep blush colour, or rather some- 
what deeper, but much thicker, broader, and more double by three 
parts almost, the outer leaves turning back, when the flower hath 
stood long blown, the middle part itself being folded hard with smalj 
leaves: the scent comes nearest the Damask Rose, but is much short 
of it. 

There are several varieties, as the Red Provence Rose: the stem 
and branches are not so great as those of the other, but greener, the 
bark not being so red: the flowers are not so large, thick and double 
but of a little deeper damask or blush colour, turning to red, but not 
coming near the full colour of the best Red Rose: nor is the scent 
so sweet as that of the Damask Provence, but coming near that of 
the ordinary Red Rose. It is not so plentiful in bearing as the Dar- 
mask Provence. 

3 B 



394 



The Blush Provence Rose, in Avhich the stalks rise from three to 
four feet high, and are unarmed: the leaves are hairy on their under 
side: the peduncles have some small spines: the segments of the 
calyx are semi-pinnate : the corolla has five or six rows of petals, 
Avhich are large, and spread open; they are of a pale blush colour, 
and have a musky scent. 

The White Provence Rose, which differs only in the colour of the 
flowers. 

The Great and Small Dwarf Provence Roses, called Rose dc 
Meaux, differ from each other in little except size: the smaller of the 
two is generally known by nursery-men and gardeners by the name 
of Pompone Rose. It throws out numerous stems, which rarely ex- 
ceed a foot or a foot and half in height; usually straight, rigid, and 
very prickly: the flowers very small, and distinguished by the bril- 
liant colour of the central petals, appearing in June. 

All the sorts liower from July to August. 

The thirteenth rises with prickly stalks about three feet high: the 
leaves have three or five leaflets, which are large, oval, smooth, and 
of a dark green with purple edges: the peduncles are set with brown 
bristly hairs: the segme^nts of the calyx are smooth and semipinnate: 
the flowers are very double, and of a deep red colour, but have little 
scent. It is a native of China. 

The varieties are very numerous; as the Dutch Hundred-leaved 
Rose; the Blush Hundred-leaved Rose; the Singleton's Hundred- 
leaved Rose. 

The Single and Double Velvet Rose, which, according to Park- 
inson, has the old stem covered with a dark-coloured bark, but the 
young shoots of a sad green, with few or no thorns: the leaves are 
of a sadder green than in most roses, and very often seven on a stalk: 
the flower is single; or double Avith two rows of petals, the outer 
larger, of a deep red hke crimson velvet; or more double, with six- 
teen petals or more in a flower, most of them equal: they have all 
less scent than the ordinary Red Rose. 

The Burgundy Rose, which is an elegant little plant, not more 
than a foot or eighteen inches in height. 



S95 ^ 

The Sultan Rose; the Stepney Rose; the Gurnet Rose; the 
Bishop Rose; and the Lisbon Rose. 

The fourteenth species has the stalks growing erect, and scarce 
any spinas; they rise from three to four feet high: the leaves are 
composed of three or five large oval leaflets, which are hairy on their 
underside: the leaves of the calyx are undivided: the flowers are 
large, but not very double, spread open wide, and decay soon ; they 
are of a deep red colour, and have an agreeable scent. " Parkinson 
gives the Red Rose the epithet of English, as this and the White are 
the most antient and known Roses to the country, and assumed by 
our precedent kings of all others, to be cognizances of their dignity, 
and because the Red is more frequent and used in England than in 
other places. The flowers, he says, vary in colour; some are of an 
orient red or deep crimson colour, and very double, although never 
so double as the White; some again are paler, tending somewhat to 
a damask ; and some are of so pale a red, as that they are rather the 
colour of the Canker Rose; yet all for the most part with larger 
leaves than the damask, and with many more yellow threads (sta- 
mens) in the middle: the scent is much better than in the White, but 
not comparable to the excellency of the Damask Rose; yet this, 
being well dried and kept, will hold both colour and scent longer 
than the Damask." 

There are several varieties: as the Red Ofiicinal Rose; the Mundi 
Rose, which has the flowers very elegantly striped or variegated 
with red and white; in other circumstances it so perfectly resembles 
the Red Rose, that there can be no doubt of its being a variety of 
that; indeed it frequently happens that a Red Rose or two appears 
on the same plant with the variegated flowers. 

The Chiiding Rose, the Marbled Rose, and the Double Virgin 
Rose, which have great affinity with each other, according to 
Miller. 

The fifteenth rises with prickly stalks eight or ten feet high, co- 
vered with a greenish bark, and armed with short prickles: the leaves 
are composed of five or seven oval leaflets, dark green above, but 
pale underneath ; the borders frequently turn brown and are slightly 



396 



serrate; the peduncles are set with prickly hairs; the calyxes ure 
semipinnate and hairy; the corolla is of a soft pale red, and not very 
double, but has an agreeable odour; the heps are long and smooth. 
It is a native of the South of France, &c. 

There are several varieties: as the Red Damask Rose, the Blush 
Damask Rose, which differ only in the shade of colour. 

The York and Lancaster Rose, which agrees w^ith the Damask in 
stalk, leaf, &c., difiering only in the flower being variegated with 
white stripes. Mr. Hart's Rose has the white stripes more distinct: 
the flowers in these being less double than in several others, are fre- 
quentiy succeeded by fruit, and have ripe seeds, from which other 
varieties may be obtained. According to Parkinson, " sometimes 
one half of the petal is of a pale whitish colour, and the other half 
of a paler damask than common; or one petal is white or striped with 
white, and the other half blush or striped with blush; sometimes also 
striped or spotted over, and at other times little or no stripes or marks, 
and the longer it remains blown open in the sun, the paler and the 
fewer stripes, marks or spots will be seen in it. The smell is of a 
sweet Damask Rose scent." 

The Red INIonthly Rose, the White Monthly Rose, Avhich are so 
called from their continuing to blow in succession during the greater 
part of the summer; not that they blow in every month, as the name 
implies. They are in every respect like the Damask Rose; unless 
it be that they are more full of prickles than that. 

The Blush Belgic Rose, which rises about three feet high, with 
prickly stalks : the leaves are composed of five or seven leaflets, 
which are oval, hairy on tlieir under side, and slightl}^ serrate : the 
peduncles and calyxes are hairy, and without prickles; the calyxes 
are large and semipinnate; the flowers very double, of a pale flesh 
colour, with little scent, gerierally in great quantities. 

The Red 13elgic Rose, which dift'ers only in having the colour of 
ihe flower a deep red. 

The Great Royal Rose, and the Imperial Blush Damask Rose. 

The sixteenth species has slender stalks which trail upon the 
ground unless they are supported, and if trained up to a pole or the 



397 



stem of a tree will rise twelve or fourteen feet liigli; they are armed 
with crooked reddish spines, and have small leaves, with seven oval 
acute leaflets, of a lucid green, and serrate: the leaves continue on 
all the year: the flowers are small, single, white, and have a musky 
odour. In their natural place of growth they continue in succession 
great part of the 3'^ear, but their time of flowering in this climate is 
June. It is a native of Germany. 

The seventeenth has the branches with a great abundance of 
prickles, which fall off on the stems: the fruits are large and pear- 
shaped. It is a native of Austria and Italy. 

The eighteenth species has the young shoots covered with a pale 
purplish bark, set with a number of small prickles like hairs: the 
older branches have but few thorns: the fruit is very large: the 
flower is thick and double as a red-rose, but so strong swelling in the 
bud, that many of them break before they can be full blown; and 
then they are of a pale red-rose colour, between a red and a damask» 
with a very thick broad hard umbone of short yellow threads in the 
middle: the segments of the calyx are quite entire: the smell is 
nearest a red rose. 

The nineteenth has yellow hooked prickles on the stem, Avhich is 
five or six feet high: the leaflets seven, very fragrant, elliptic or 
subovate, above smooth and wrinkled, underneath rust-coloured with 
resinous atoms or little dots: serratures glandular: the petioles also 
glandular and prickly: the peduncles muricate and in corymbs: 
the calyx glandular: the petals rose-colour, white at the base: the 
fruit scarlet, muricat€, but sometimes smooth, farinaceous, in- 
sipid. 

The cultivated plant grows larger and more erect: the leaves are 
bigger and much sweeter than in the wild one, the rusty colour of 
them disappears, and the whole puts on a more 'sagorous appearance: 
the sweet scent is supposed to proceed from the gland. It is a na- 
tive of most parts of Europe. 

There are varieties with double flowers: as the Common Double 
Sweet Briar, the Mossy Double Sweet Briar, the Evergreen Double 



398 



Sweet Briar, the Marbled Doubled Sweet Briar, the Red Double 
Sweet Briar, the Royal Sweet Briar, and the Yellow Sweet Briar. 

The twentieth species, Avliich is mostly denominated the Moss 
Rose, from the moss-like pubescence on the calyx, has the stalks and 
branches closely armed with brown spines: the peduncles and calyx 
are covered with long hair-like moss: the flowers are of an elegant 
crimson colour, and have a most agreeable odour. It is known to 
us only in its double state, and the country to which we are indebted 
for it is not ascertained. 

The twenty-first, or Musk Rose, rises with weak stalks to the 
height of ten or twelve feet, covered with a smooth greenish bark, 
and armed with short strong spines : the leaflets seven, light-green 
and serrate: the flowers in large bunches, in form of umbels, at the 
end of the branches, are white, and have a fine musky odour, ap- 
pearing in July and xlugust, and continuing in succession till the 
frost stops them. The stalks are too weak to support themselves. 
There is a variety with double flowers. 

The editor of Miller's Dictionary considers the Evergreen Musk 
Rose of Miller to be the same with this. 

The twenty- second species is a low shrub, with reddish-brown 
stems, the lower half or thereabouts of which is covered with 
straight awl-shaped slender white not pungent prickles ; the upper 
part is quite naked: the stipules ciliate-glandular at the edge: the 
petioles hispid, and glandular: the leaflets commonly seven, smooth 
on both sides, ovate, biserrate, ciliate, glandular : the peduncles 
naked, unarmed: flowers solitary, red, middle-sized. It is a native 
of the Alps, &c. flowering in June and July. 

The twenty-third has a height seldom exceeding three feet: the 
flowers large in proportion to the plant, semidouble, with great 
richness of colour (dark red) uniting a most delightful fragrance, 
coming out in succession during the greater part of the year, only 
more sparingly in the winter months: the segments of the calyx 
leafy at the end, one larger than the rest: the germs and peduncles 
sometimes, but rarely, smooth. It is a native of China. 



399 



The twenty-fourth species in its wild stale has ovate leaves, 
smooth and deep green above, paler and slightly hairy underneath, 
unequally serrate and blunt: the stem and petioles villose, prickly: 
the peduncles solitary, long, hispid: fruits ovate, smooth, but more 
frequently having a few slender prickles on them: calyxes smooth, 
green, half-pinnate. It is a native of Europe, China, &c. 

According to Parkinson, there are two varieties of the White 
Garden Rose; one attaining sometimes the height of eight or ten 
feet, with a stock of a great bigness, the other seldom higher than 
. Damask Rose. Both have somewhat smaller and whiter-green 
leaves than in many other roses, five most usually on a, stalk, and 
paler underneath ; as also a whiter-green bark, armed with short 
prickles. The flowers in the one are whitish, with an eye of 
blush, especially towards the bottom, very double, and for the 
most part not opening so fully as the Red or Damask Rose. In 
the other more white, less double, and opening more. Some have 
only two or three rows of petals ; and all have little or no 
smell. 

Culture. — In all the sorts the increase may be effected by suckers, 
layers, or by budding upon stocks of other sorts of roses; but this 
last method is only practised for some peculiar sorts, which do not 
grow well upon their own stocks, and send forth suckers sparingly. 
Where more sorts than one are to be had upon the same plant, such 
sorts only should be budded upon the same stock as are nearly equal 
in their manner of growth, otherwise the strong one will draw all the 
nourishment from the weaker. 

The suckers should be taken off in October, and planted out 
either in nursery-rows, or the places where they are to remain ; as 
where they are permitted to stand upon the roots of the old plants 
more than one year, they grow woody, and do not form so good 
roots as if planted out the first year. 

The best method to obtain good -rooted plants is to lay down the 
young branches in autumn, which will take good root by the autumn 
^following; especially when watered in dry weather; when they may 



400 



be taken off from the old plants, aad be planted out where they are 
to remain. The seeds are sometimes' sown in the autumn, to pro- 
duce new varieties, in beds of light mdlow earth, or in drills, espe-- 
cially for the Common Sweet Briar kinds, and for raising hedges of 
them. 

Almost all the sorts delight in a rich moist soil and an open situa- 
tion, in which they produce a greater quantity of flowers, and those 
much fairer, than when they are upon a dry soil, or in a shady 
situation. The pruning which they afterwards require is only to 
cut out their dead wood, and take off all the suckers, which should 
be done every autumn; and if there are any very luxuriant branchesi, 
Avhich draw the nourishment from the other parts of the plant, tliey 
should be taken out, or siiortened, to cause them to produce more 
branches, if there be occasion for ihcm to supply a vacancy; but it 
is best to avoid crowding them with branches, which is as injurious 
to those plants as to fruit-trees; for, if the branches have not equal 
benefit from the sun and air, they will not produce their flowers so 
strong, or in so great plenty, as when they are more open, and 
better exposed to the sun, so as to have a more free circulation of 
air. As the Moss Provence Rose seldom sends out suckers, and does 
not strike very fieely by layers, it is often increased by l)udding it 
upon stocks of the other sorts; but the plants are best when raised 
from layers. 

The best sort for flowering early and late is the Monthly, next to 
which in flowering in the open air is the Cinnamon, which is imme- 
diately followed by the Damask Rose, then the Blush, York, and 
Lancaster; after which, the Provence, Dutch II und red-leaved, White, 
and most other sorts: and the latest sorts are the Virginia and Musk 
Roses, which, if planted in a shady situation, seldom flower until 
September; and, if the autumn proves mild,, continue often till the 
middle of October. And the plants of the two sorts of Musk Roses 
should be placed against a wall, pale, or otlier building, that their 
branches may be supported, otherwise they arc so slender and weak 
as to trail upon the ground. These plants should not be pruned 
until spring, because their branches are somewhat tender; so that 



401 

when they are cut in winter, they often die after the knife ; these 
produce their flowers at the extremity of the same year's shoots in 
large bunches, so that their branches must not be shortened in the 
summer, lest the flowers should be cut off. The shrubs will grow to 
be ten or twelve feet high, and must not be checked in their growth, 
if intended to flower well. They are all highly ornamental plants, 
mostly for the shrubbery borders and clumps, being planted accord- 
ing to their habits of growth. 



3 P 



PLATE XLVIL 



1. RHODODENDRON PONTICUM. 

PONTIC RHODODENDRON. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy, deciduous, and ever- 
green, flowering, slirubby kinds. Dwarf Rose-bay. 

It belongs to the class and order Decandria Moiiogynia^ and ranks 
in the natural order of liicornes. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a five-parted permanent pe- 
rianth: the corolla one-petalled, wheel-funnel-form: border spread- 
ing, with rounded segments: the stamina have ten filiform filaments, 
almost the length of the corolla, declined. Anthers oval: the pis- 
tillum is a five-cornered retuse germ. Style filiform, the length of 
the corolla. Sligma obtuse: the pericarpium is an ovate capsule, 
subangular, five-celled, divisible into five parts: the seeds numerous, 
very small. 

The species are: \. R. ferruginewn, Rusty-leaved Rhododendron; 
2. R. hirsiitum. Hairy Rhododendron; 3. R. chamcecisfus, Dwarf Rho- 
dodendron, or Rose-bay; 4. R. ponticum. Purple Rhododendron; 
5. R. maiimum. Broad-leaved Rhododendron. 

The first rises with a shrubby stalk near three feet high, sending 
out many 'negular branches, covered with a purplisli bark. The 
leaves aie lanceolate, an inch and half long, and half an inch broad 
in the middle, entire, with rcflexed borders, lucid green on their 
upper surface, and rusty-coloured underneath, placed all round the 
branches without order. The flowers are produced in round bunches 
at the ends of the branches: the corolla is funnel-shaped with a short 
tube, and is cut into five obtuse segments at the brim, spreading a 
little open, and of a pale rose colour. It is a native of Switzerland, 
flowering from May to July. 



403 



The second species seldom rises two feet high, and sends out 
many short woody branches, covered with a hght Ijrown bark. The 
leaves are ovate-lanceolate, about half an inch long, and a quarter 
of an inch broad, sitting pretty close to the branches; tliey arc en- 
tire, and have a great number of fine ferruginous hairs on their 
edges and under side. The flowers are produced in bunches at the 
ends of the branches. The tube of the corolla is about half an inch 
long: the five segments of the brim are obtuse, spread half open* 
and are of a pale red colour. It is a native of the mountains of 
Switzerland. 

The third is u small shrub, very much branched, the extreme 
branches leafy. The leaves are oblong, hard, on short reddish pe- 
tioles. The peduncles one, or more, an inch long, villose, reddish 
brown, terminating. Calyx deeply five-cleft, of the same colour 
with the peduncle; the segments acute. The corolla purple, the 
segments ovate. The stamens longer than these. The style longer 
than the stamens. It is a native of Austria, &c. 

The fourth species has an upright trunk, shrubby, commonly 
the height of a man, but sometimes only half so high, frequently 
thicker than the human arm, very much branched from the bottom 
irregularly; the wood white, the bark ash-coloured. The branches 
round, scattered, with a smoolhish testaceous bark. The leaves 
allernately scattered, coriaceous, large, quite entire, very smooth, 
becoming ferruginous underneath, scarcely nerved except the mid- 
rib, having a longitudinal streak on the upper suface, of a wic'e- 
lanceolate form, more attenuated towards the thick petiole. T he 
flowering buds formed in autumn for the year following, and con- 
sisting of ferruginous, ovate-acute, concave, very smooth, imbricate 
scales. The flowers in a short raceme at the end of the branchkls, 
about ten, and very handsome. It is a native of the Levant, flower- 
ing in May and June. 

The fifth species rises in its native soil, fifteen or sixteen feet 
high, with a shrubby stalk, sending out a few branches toward ; the 
top. The leaves stiff, smooth, six inches long and two broad, of a 
lucid green on their upper side, and pale on their under, whilst 



404 



young; but afterwards changing to the colour of rusty iron: they 
have short thick footstalks, and are placed without order round the 
branches: between these the buds are formed for the next year's 
flowers; these swell to a large size during the autumn and spring 
months till the beginning of June, when the flowers burst out from 
their covers, forming a roundish sessile bunch or corymb. It is a 
native of North America, flowering here from June to August. 

Culture. — These plants may be increased by sowing the seeds, 
which are very small, as soon as possible after they are procured, 
either in a shady border, or in pots filled with fresh loam, having 
them very lightly covered Avith a little fine mould, and plunging the 
pots up to their rims in a shady border, and in hard frost covering 
them with bell or hand-glasses; taking them off* in mild weather. 
When they are sown early in autumn, the plants come up the fol- 
lowing spring, when they nmst be kept shaded from the sun, espe- 
cially the first summer, and duly refreshed with water; in the autumn 
following removing them to a shady situation, on a loamy soil, 
covering the ground about the roots with moss, to guard them from 
frost in winter and keep the ground moist in the summer season. 

They may also be increased from suckers or offsets, which they 
produce plentifully where they grow naturally, but seldom in this 
climale. 

They are very ornamental in the border, clumps, and other parts 
of shrubberies. 



405 



2. ROBINIA HISPIDA. 

ROSE ACACIA. 

This genus comprises plants of the hardy deciduous tree and 
shrub sorts, with tender kinds for the stove. 

It belongs to the class and order Diadelphia Decandria, and ranks 
in the natural order of Papiliojmcea or Legumiiiosce. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianth, small, 
bell-shaped, four-cleft; the three lower toothlets more slender; the 
upper fourth toothlet wider, scarcely emarginate to the naked eye, 
all equal in length: the corolla papilionaceous: standard roundish, 
larger, spreading, blunt: wings oblong, ovate, free, with a very short 
blunt appendix ; keel almost semiorbicular, compressed, blunt, the 
length of the wings: the stamina have diadelphous filaments, (simple 
and nine-cleft) ascending at top : anthers roundish : the pistillum is 
a cylindrical, oblong ^erm: style filiform, bent upwards: stigma 
villose in front at the top of the style: the pericarpium is a legume 
large, compressed, gibbous, long: the seeds few, kidney-form. 

The species cultivated are : \. R. Pseud-Acacia, False or Common 
Acacia; 2. R. hispida. Rose Acacia, or Robinia; 3. R. Caraganot 
Siberian Abrupt-leaved Robinia; 4. R, frutcscem. Shrubby Robinia; 
5. R. pygmaa. Dwarf Robinia; 6. R. spinosa. Thorny Robinia; 7- R. 
violacea. Ash-leaved Robinia; 8. R. mitis, Smooth Indian Robinia. 

It grows very fast whilst young, so that in a few years from seed, 
the plants rise to eight or ten feet high, and it is not uncommon to 
see shoots of this tree six or eight feet long in one summer: the 
branches are armed^with strong crooked thorns : the leaflets eight 
or ten pairs, ovate, bright green, entire, sessile: the flowers come 
out from the side df tbte branches in pretty long bunches, hanging 
down like those : of. Laburnum: each flower on a slender pedicel. 



406 



while, and smelling very sweet: they appear in June, and when the 
trees are lull of flower, make a fine appearance and perfume the air 
round them; but they seldom continue more than a week. It is a 
native of North America, where it grows to a very large size, and 
llie wood is much valued for its duration. 

There is a variety which has no thorns on the branches, but 
which is easily known at first sight by its peculiar appearance. 

And the Echinated, or Prickly-podded American False Acacia, 
in which the pods are much shorter, and closely beset with short 
prickles, but in other respects agrees with the common sort. 

The second species rises in its native situation sometimes to the 
height of twenty feet, but in this climate seems to be of low growth; 
the branches spread out near the ground, and produce their flowers 
very young; the young branches, and also the peduncles and 
calyxes, arc closely armed with small brown prickles, or rather stiff 
bristly hairs, like raspberries and some sorts of roses: the leaves are 
like those of the first sort, but the leaflets are larger and rounder: 
the flowers are larger and of a deep rose colour, but they have no 
scent: they come out early in June, and make a fine appearance ; 
each flower is on a short separate pedicel: the legumes flat oblong. 
It is a native of Carolina. 

The third has arboreous trunks, commonly branched from the 
bottom, slender, with a smooth, shining, coriaceous bark, covered 
by a greenish ash-coloured skin: branches alternate, very much 
divided; twigs rod-like, weak, very leafy, ash-coloured or greenish, 
with longitudinal nerves running from bud to bud: buds alternate, 
frequent, bearing both leaves and flowers, unarmed, witli the stipules 
of the bud-leaves soft, but in the new branches spinescent, divarica- 
ting, rigid. It is a native of Siberia, flowering in April and May. 

The fourlh species has a branched trunk from the bottom, with a 
dusky or grcenish-ash-coloured bark; there arc commonly many 
lateral shoots or suckers from the root: the branches rod-like, pliant, 
loaded with leaves and flowers, of a shining yellowish colour, with 
longitudinal gray nerves, with triple spines: the leaves on the shoots 
of the year allernate, with spinescent stipules; from ihe buds in 



407 



Trundles, with unarmed stipules: the leaflets clustered, obovale, alle-' 
nuated at the base, with a spinule at the end: petiole spincscent,' 
after the leaves are fallen, hardening with the sli])ules into a triple 
spine: the peduncles on the branches of the preceding year from 
each bud, one, two, or three, bent a little at the joint, one-flowered. 
It is a native of Siberia, by the Volga, &c. 

The fifth has trunks covered with a shining yellowish bark: wood 
of a very deep bay, almost as hard as horn: the older twigs round, 
with a beautifully golden shining cuticle; branchlels gray, with very 
frequent two-spined buds: the spinules slender like needles, spread- 
ing, arising from the stipules, in the older branches deciduous: the 
leaflets four or six in the spontaneous shrub clustered in bundles, 
quite sessile, linear acuminate, a little hispid: the peduncles spring- 
ing singly from most of the buds on the branchlets among the leaves, 
the length of the leaflets, bent at the joint. In this climate it is a 
low shrub, seldom rising more than three feet. The flowers are ych 
low, and appear in April. It is a native of Siberia. 

The sixth species resembles the third sort, but is distinguished 
by its stiff" or thorny stipules: it is a shrub above the height of a 
man: the leaflets six or eight, ovale, even: common petiole woody, 
the whole of it perennial, thorny at the end: the stipules awl-shaped, 
thorny, perennial: the trunk is scarcely an inch and half in diameter, 
with branches often a fathom in length, subdivided, twisted and 
diff*used, so as to form a hemispherical head, full of branches and 
thorns. Being covered with flowers during the whole summer, it 
appears very beautiful: the wood ba3'-coloured within, on the outside 
yellow, and very hard: the cuticle on the younger branches greenish 
yellow, less shining, and more strigose than in the fifth sort, with 
ash-coloured longitudinal nerves, running from branch to branch: 
the branches are round, divaricating, alternate: the thorns s])reading 
out every way almost at right angles, alternate, very large, arising 
from the permanent petioles enlarged, marked also with the scars of 
the leaflets, and having at the base on each side a small, bristle- 
shaped spinule, standing up, and arising from the stipules: there are 
several leaves and two or three flowers from the axils of all the 



408 



spines on tlie branches: the petioles are spinescent: the leaflets com- 
monly two pairs, but sometimes three and even four, linear-lanceo- 
late, mucronate at the end with a spinule, opposite and remote: the 
peduncles are so short that the flowers seem to be sessile. It is a 
native of Siberia. 

On account of the length and toughness of the branches, and its 
large stout thorns, it is admirably adapted to form impenetrable 
hedges, and is sufficiently hardy to bear our climate. 

'J'lic seventh is an upright tree without thorns, growing to the 
height of twelve feet: the leaves alternate, numerous, shining; having 
three leaflets on each side, sometimes two, very seldom five; these 
are ovate, blunt, emarginate, entire, petioled, opposite, two inches 
long: the racemes axillary, half a foot in length; pedicels short, 
two-flowered, numerous: the flowers have the smell and colour of 
violets. It is a native of Carlhagena. 

The eighth species has a shrubby stem, three feet high, upright, 
branched : the leaflets ovate-lanceolate, smooth, bright green, two or 
three-paired: the racemes terminating, short: the corolla yellow: 
the legume oblong, narrowing to each end, smooth: the branches 
round, unarmed: the leaflets five, ovate, smooth, quite entire: the 
racemes have three flowers fixed at each tooth, each on its proper 
pedicel : the calyx subtruncate. It is a native of the East Indies, &c. 

Culture. — The first six hardy sorts are all capable of being raised 
from seeds, cuttings, layers, and suckers; but the seed method is 
said to afford the best plants. 

The seeds should be sown about the end of March or beginning 
of the following month, on a bed of light mould, being covered to 
the depth of half an inch. In the first sort and varieties the plants 
mostly appear in the course of six or eight weeks; but in the other 
kinds often not till the next spring. They should be well weeded and 
watered, and when sufficiently strong be set out in the spring or 
autumn in nursery-rows, for two or three years, in order to remain 
to have proper growth for final planting out. 

The cuttings should be made from the young shoots, and planted 
out in the beginning of autumn, in a shady border where the soil is 



409 



mellow. Thej are mostly well rooted in the course of a twelve- 
month, when they may be removed into nursery-rows as above. 

The layers should be made from the young wood, being laid 
down in the autumn, when in the course of the year they mostly be- 
come well rooted, and may be taken off and planted out in nurser}'- 
rows as the seedling plants. 

The suckers, which are produced in plenty from the two first 
sorts, which may be removed in the early autumn or spring, and 
planted out in nursery-rows or in beds, to be afterwards removed 
into them. 

The two last, or tender sorts, may likewise be raised from seeds 
and cuttings, but they must be sown and planted in pots, filled with 
good mould, to have the assistance of a hot-bed in the stove, by 
being plunged in it. When the plants have attained a little 
growth, they should be shaken out of the pots^ and planted separately 
in small pots filled with the same sort of earth, plunging them in the 
tan-bed, affording due shade till well rooted, managing them after- 
wards as other tender stove plants. 

The plants are most tender while young; they should therefore 
be kept in the stove tan-bed till they have acquired strength, when 
they may be preserved in the dry stove, Avith a temperate heat in 
winter, and be exposed in the open air in summer, in a warm shel- 
tered situation when the weather is fine. 

The hardy sorts have a fine effect in the border, clumps, and 
ather parts of pleasure-grounds, and the tender kinds afford variety 
in the stove collections. 



3 G 



PLATE XLVIII. 



1. SYMPHYTUM ORIENTALE. 

EASTERN COMFREY. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy herbaceous perennial 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Fetandria Monogt/nia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Asperifolice. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a five-parted perianth, 
erect, five-cornered, acute, permanent: the corolla one-petalled, 
bell-shaped: tube very short: border tubular-bellying, a little thicker 
than the tube: mouth five-toothed, obtuse, reflexed: throat fenced 
by five lanceolate rays, spinulosr at the edge, shorter than the bor- 
der, converging into a cone: the stamina have five awl-shaped fila- 
ments, alternate with the rays of the throat; anthers acute, erect, 
covered: the pistillum is as four germs: style flHform, length of the 
corolla: stigma simple: there is no pericarpium: calyx larger, 
widened: seeds four, gibbous, acuminate, converging at the tips. 

The species cultivated are: 1. S. officinale. Common Comfrey: 
2. S. tuberosum. Tuberous-rooted Comfrey; 3. S. orientale. Oriental 
Comfrey. 

The first has a perennial root, fleshy, externally black; the stem 
two or three feet high, upright, leafy, winged, branched at the top, 
clothed with short bristly hairs that point rather downward: the 
leaves waved, pointed, veiny, rough; the radical ones on footstalks, 
and broader than the rest; the clusters of flowers in pairs on a 
common stalk, with an odd flower between them, recurved, dense, 
hairy: the corolla yellowish-white, sometimes purple: the rays 
downy at each edge. It is a native of Europe and Siberia, 



.1 




411 



There are varieties with white flowers, purple flowers, with blue 
flowers, and with red flowers. 

The second species has the roots composed of many thick fleshy 
knots or tubers, which are joined by fleshy fibres: the stalks rise a 
foot and half high, and incline on one side: the leaves on the lower 
part are six inches long, and two inches and a half broad in the 
middle, ending in acute points, and not so rough and hairy as the 
first; they are alternate and sessile: the two upper leaves on every 
branch stand opposite, and just above them are loose bunches of 
pale yellow flowers, the corolla of which is stretched out further 
beyond the calyx than in the common sort. It is a native pf Ger- 
many, &c. and flowers from May to October. 

The third has a perennial root: the stalks two feet high: the 
leaves rounder, and aimed with rough prickly hairs: the flowers in 
bunches like the first sort, but blue: they appear in March, but 
seldom produce seeds in this climate. Found near Constantinople. 

Culture. — These plants may be increased "by seeds or parting the 
roots, but the latter is more practised. The seed should be sown in 
the spring, in a border of common earth; in the autumn the plants 
will be proper to set out where they are to remain, or to remove into 
other pots. The roots should be parted in the autumn, and planted 
out either in beds about a foot from plant to plant, or where they 
are to remain; almost every part will grow, and the planis are 
hardj"^, and succeed in any soil or situation : they only require to be 
kept clean afterwards. They produce variety in mixture in the 
borders. 



412 



2. SALVIA INDICA. 

INDIAN SAGE. 

This genus contains plants of under-shrubby, herbaceous, and 
shrubby kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Diandria Mojwgt/Jiia, and ranks 
in the natural order ot" Verticillatce. 

The character are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianth, 
tubular, striated, gradually widening and compressed at the top : 
mouth erect, two-lipped; lower lip two-toothed: the corolla one- 
petalled, unequal: tube widening at ihe top, compressed: border 
ringent, upper lip concave, compressed, curved inwards, emarginate; 
lower lip wide, trifid, tniddle segment larger, roundish, emarginate: 
the stamina have two filaments, very short; two threads are fastened 
transversely to these almost in the middle, on the lower extremity of 
which is a gland, on the upper an anther: the pistillum is a four- 
cleft germ: style filiform, very long, in the same situation with the 
stamens: stigma bifid: there is no pericarpium. Calyx very slightly 
converging, having the seeds in the bottom of it: the seeds four^ 
roundish. 

The species cultivated arc: 1. S. officinalis^ Garden Sage; 2. S. 
grandiflora. Broad-leaved Garden Sage; 3. S. triloba, Three-lobed 
Sage, or Sage of Virtue; 4. S. sclarea. Common Clary; 5. S. argenteay 
Silvery-leaved Sage or Clary; 6. S. verbenaca, Vervain Sage or Clary; 
7. S. Indica, Indian Sage or Clary; 8. S. Hormimnn, Red-topped 
Sage or ClaKy : 9. S. ghitinosd. Yellow Sage or Clary ; 10. aS". Me.ricana, 
Mexican Sage; 11. 5. Canariensis, Canary Sage; 12. S. Africana^ 
Blue-flowered African Sage; 13. S. aurea. Gold-flowered African 
Sage; 14. S. immifera, Apple-bearing Sage; 15. S. formosa, Shining- 
leaved Sage. 



413 



The first is a branchino; shrub, about Iwo feet in height: lii", 
younger branches are tonientose and whitish: the leaves are wrinkled, 
cinereous white or tinged with dusky purple, on very short petioles, 
sometimes eared at the base: the flowers terminating, in long spikes 
composed of six-flowered whorls, approximating, yet distinct. It is 
a native of the south of Europe and Barbar3^ 

The varieties are: the Common Green Sage, the Wormwood 
Sage, the Green Sage with a variegated leaf, the Red Sage, the Red 
Sage with a variegated leaf, the Painted or Parti-coloured Sage with 
red leaves striped with white, or white, red, and green mixed, found, 
says Johnson, " in a country garden by Mr. John Tradescant, and 
by him imparted to other lovers of plants/' There is also Spanish 
or Lavender-leaved Sage, in which the leaves are linear-lanceolate, 
very narrow and quite entire, in clusters on the side of the stalks.; 
they are very hoary, and the branches are covered with a hoary 
down: the leaves on the upper part of the stalk are narrower than 
those of Rosemary ; the flowers grow in closer spikes, and are of a 
light blue colour. 

But the variety with red or blackish leaves is the most common 
in cultivation: and the Wormwood Sage is in greater plenty than 
the Common Green-leaved Sage. 

In the second species the stalks do not grow so upright as those 
of the Common Sage; they are very hairy, and divide into several 
branches: the leaves are broad, woolly, on long petioles, serrate, and 
rough on the upper surface: the leaves on the flower-stalks are 
obloncT-ovate, on shorter petioles, and very slightly serrate: the 
whorls are pretty far distant, and few flowers in each; they arc of a 
pale blue, and about the same size with those of the common sort. 
It flowers in June, and in good seasons the seeds ripen in autumn. 
This sage is preferred to all the others for tea. It is often called 
Balsamic Sage. 

The third has the leaves narrower than those of the common sort; 
they are hoary, and some of them are indented on their edges to- 
wards the base, which indentures have the appearance of ears. The 
spikes of flowers are longer thaa those of the two preceding sorts, 



414 



and the whorls are generally naked: the flowers are smaller, and of 
a deeper blue than those of the Common Sage. It is a native of 
the south of Europe. 

The fourth species has the lower leaves large, in good ground 
seven or eight inches long, and four broad at the base, ending in 
blunt points: the stems large and clammy, about two feet high, 
with leaves of the same shape, but smaller, and sending out small 
opposite side branches: the flowers in loose terminating spikes, 
composed of whorls, of a pale blue colour. It is biennial, and a 
native of Syria, &c. flowering from July to September. 

It is observed, that " a wine is made from the herb in flower, 
boiled with sugar, which has a flavour not unlike Frontiniac/' 

The fifth has the leaves of a thick consistence, having several 
irregular indentures on their borders: the stem near a foot and half 
high, sending out two or four branches near the bottom, which grow 
erect, the whorls of flowers large, towards the top barren. It is a 
native of the island of Candia, and biennial, flowering in June. 

The sixth has a perennial brown root, the thickness of the middle 
finger, striking deep into the earth, and furnished with numerous 
fibres: the stems nearly upright, two feet high, set with horizontal 
somewhat viscid hairs, purplish, especially at the joints: the root- 
leaves on long petioles, varying in form, oblong, rounded at the end, 
sometimes a little pointed, not unfrequently heart-shaped at the 
base, but more commonly the leaf runs down on each side the 
foot-stalk, and to a greater length on one side than on the other, 
very slightly hirsute, on the margin irregularly waved and serrate or 
toothed, paler beneath, veiny and marked with small glandular con- 
cave dots: stem-leaves somewhat remote, the lowermost on short 
footstalks, then ppermost sessile: the flowers in whorls, almost naked, 
containing about six flowers. It is a native of all the four conti- 
nents, flowering during the whole summer from June, and even iu 
October. 

The seventh has the lower leaves heart-shaped, acutely crenate, 
of a thick consistence, seven or eight inches long, and four broad at 
the base, where they are eared: the stem four feet high, having two 



415 



or three pairs of smaller leaves on the lower part of the joints: the 
upper part, for the length of two feet, has whorls of flowers, at two 
or three inches distance from each other, without any leaves under 
them: the calyx is hairy and blunt: the helmet of the corolla arched, 
erect and blue, terminating in a blue point; the two side segments 
of the under lip are of a violet colour; the middle segment, which is 
indented at the point, is white, and curiousl}^ spotted with violet on 
the inside; the two side lobes turn yellow before the flower drops. 
It is a native of India, flowering from May to July. 

The eighth has the stems erect, about a foot and half high: the 
leaves shaped hke those of the common Red Sage, gradually dimi- 
nishing in size to the top: the stems have whorls of small flowers, and 
are terminated by clusters of small leaves, and forming two varieties; 
one with purple and another with red tops. For the sake of this 
coma they are preserved in gardens for ornament. They flower in 
June and July, and their seeds ripen in the autumn. It is a native 
of the south of Europe. 

The ninth has an abiding root, composed of strong woody fibres: 
the leaves four inches long, and three broad at the base, of a pale 
yellowish green colour, upon footstalks three or four inches long: 
the stems strong, near four feet high, having smaller leaves below, 
and the upper part closely set with whorls of large yellow flowers. 
The whole plant is very clammy, and has a strong scent, somewhat 
like common Garden Clary. The flowers are used in Holland 
to give a flavour to the Rhenish wines. It is a native of Germany. 
&c. flowering from June to November. 

The tenth has the stem shrubby, eight or ten feet high, sending 
out slender four-cornered branches of a purplish colour: the leaves 
thin, pale green, and hairy on their under side, on long slender 
footstalks: the flowers in close thick spikes at the end of the 
branches, having a fine blue colour. It is a native of Mexico, 
flowering from May to July. 

The eleventh has the stem shrubby, five or six feet high, dividing 
into many branches covered with a flocky down: the leaves three 
inches and a half long, and an inch and half broad at the base, 



416 



where are two acute angular ears: petioles long and woolly: the top 
of the stalk branches out into many footstalks, forming a sort of 
panicle: the flowers are of a light blue colour, and are ranged in 
whorled spikes, having two small leaves under each whorl. It is a 
native of the Canary Islands, flowering from June to September. 

The twelfth rises with a shrubby stalk four or five feet high, 
dividing into branches: the leaves are ovate, of a gra}^ colour: the 
flowers come out in whorls towards the end of the branches; they 
are of a fine blue colour, larger than those of the common Sage, 
appear in succession most of the summer months, and those which 
come early are often followed by seeds ripening in autumn. It is a 
native of the Cape. 

The thirteenth also rises with a shrubby stalk seven or eight feet 
high, covered with a light-coloured bark, sending out branches the 
whole length, which grow almost horizontally: the leaves are of a 
gray colour: the flowers, in thick sliort spikes at the end of the 
branches, are very large, and of a dark gold colour. It is a native 
of the Cape, flowering from May to November. 

The fourteenth ha^ the stem shrubby, four or five feet high, 
dividing into several branches: the flowers of a pale blue colour: 
the branches have often punctures made in them by insects, pro- 
ducing protuberances as big as apples, in the same manner as galls 
upon the Oak, and the rough balls upon the Briar. It is remarked 
by Martyn, that the common Sage has the same excrescences in the 
island of Candia or Crete, and that they carry them to market there 
under the name of Sage Apples. It was found at Candia. 

The fifteenth has the stem suffruticose, the height of a man, 
upright, brachiate, somewhat knotty, loosely chapjied, ash-coloured : 
the branches and branchlets opposite, spreading, four-cornered, 
naked at the base, rufous: shoots four-grooved, green at the top, 
clammy: the leaves spreading, acute (in the garden bluntish), cre- 
nate-serrale, somewhat wrinkled, veined, with the midrib and veins 
prominent onl}' beneath, subcoriaceous, greenish, but paler on the 
back: petiole scarcely half as long as the leaf, round on one side, 
grooved on the other: flowers very many, from the axils of the 



417 



shoots, in a sort of whorl, in the garden commonly five together, the 
two lower of which are later: they are on short, spreading, one- 
flowered peduncles, jointed at the top. It is a native of Peru, 
flowering most part of the summer. 

Culture. — These plants are in most of the sorts raised without 
much difficulty. 

Cultitre in the Sage Kind. — ^This in all the varieties may be effected 
■ by slips or cuttings of the young shoots from the sides of the 
branches, sometimes also by bottom rooted offsets, and likewise by 
seed. Slips both of the former and same year's growth may be used. 

Those of the first sort may be employed in April, but the latter 
not till May, or later; these, however, most readily strike root, and 
assume a free growth. 

In either case moist weather should be chosen ; and having re- 
course to some good bushy plants, a proper quantity of the outward 
robust side shoots, about five, six, or seven inches long, should be 
slipped off, trimming off all the lower leaves, then planted out in 
some shady border, with a dibble, in rows half a foot asunder, 
putting them down almost to their tops, giving water directly, to 
settle the earth close, as well as to promote an early emission of 
root-fibres, and repeating the waterings occasionally in dry weather: 
the slips in general soon emit fibres, and shoot freely at top; when 
they have a tendency to spindle up wilh slender sliools, or run up to 
flower, it is proper to top them short, in order to force out laterals 
below, to asume a bushy growth: they mostly form tolerably bushy 
plants by the autumn, when, or in the spring following, they may 
be removed, with balls of earth about their roots, and planted where 
they are to remain, either in four feet beds, or in continued rows, a 
foot and half asunder, if designed as a close plantation for use: 
those designed for the pleasure-ground should be disposed in the 
borders, &c. so as to afford variety. 

Where there are rooted offsets, they may be slipped off separately 
with the fibres to them, either as the plants stand in the ground, or 
the bunches of plants taken up and divided into as many separate 

3 H 



418 



slips as are furnished with roots, being planted out at once where 
they are to remain. 

The plants raised from young slips generally form the strongest 
and most bushy plants. 

In raising these plants from seed, which is but seldom practised, 
it should be sown in April, in a bed of light rich earth, raking it in: 
the plants soon come up; and when about two or three inches high, 
should be pricked out, the strongest in nursery rows, half a foot 
asunder, to gain strength till the autumn or spring following, and 
then planted out with balls where they are to stand. 

In the after-culture of this species and varieties, all that is re- 
quisite is the keeping them clean from weeds in summer, cutting- 
down the decayed flower- stalks in autumn, and slightly digging 
between the rows in the same season, to keep them clean and decent 
during the winter, &c. But where this digging is not done in the 
autunm it should not be omitted in the spring. 

The leaves of the Sage should be gathered with care and atten- 
tion, not to cut the tops too close, to render the plants naked and 
stubby, especially when late in autumn and winter; in which they 
would be more liable to suffer from severe frost than when the head 
is preserved somewhat full and regular: besides, in this state the 
plants continue longer in a prosperous free growth. 

When, in any old plantation, naked, stubby, or decayed parts 
occur, they should be cut out, and any straggling irregular growths 
reduced to order by occasional pruning in spring or summer, by 
which the plants will more readily emit fresh shoots and form full 
heads. 

Fresh plantations of Sage should be formed as the old ones 
decline. 

In continuing them where the ground is much impoverished, a 
little dry rotten dung should be pointed in lightly, to give more 
vigour to the plants. 

Culture in the Clary Kind. — These in the herbaceous kinds are 
easily raised from seed, and in the perennial sorts by parting the roots. 



419 



The seed should be sown in March, in any bed or border of 
common earth, raking it in; and when the plants have got leaves of 
two or three inches growth, they should be [)lanted out in showery 
weather, in rows eighteen inches distant, and at the same distance 
in the lines: they soon strike root, and grow large, furnishing large 
leaves, fit for use in autumn, winter, and the following spring. 

The perennial sorts are raised from seed in the same manner, 
setting the young plants out in the summer in nursery- rows till 
autumn, when they should be planted out into the borders, &c. 

The annual sorts may be sown in spring in the borders, in 
patches, to remain. 

The roots in the perennial kinds may be parted in autumn, or 
early in the spring, and planted out where they are to remain. 

Culture in the tender Shrubby Kinds. — These are easily increased 
by cuttings of the young shoots; they should be planted in pots in 
the spring, and plunged in a hot-bed, where they soon emit roots at 
bottom and shoots at top, and should be gradually hardened to the 
full air: but cuttings planted in summer will often strike without 
the aid of a hot-bed when planted either in pots or in a bed of 
natural earth, under frames and lights, or covered close with hand- 
glasses, and shaded from the mid-day sun, being occasionally 
watered. 

The young plants should afterwards be potted off separately, and 
managed as other shrubby exotics of the green-house. 

The last sort requires a warm dry green-house in winter, and to 
be very sparingly watered. 

Some of the sorts are useful as culinary plants, others for the 
purpose of ornament in the borders, &c. and the tender sorts in 
green-house collections. 



PLATE XLIX. 



1. SANGUINARIA CANADENSIS. 

CANADA PUCCOON. 

This genus contains a plant of the low herbaceous flowering 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Polyandria Mo?iogy?iia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Rhoeadccc. 

The characters are : that the calyx is a two-leaved perianth, 
ovate, concave, shorter than the corolla, caducous : the corolla hag 
eight petals, oblong, blunt, spreading very much, alternately interior 
and narrower: the stamina have very many filaments, simple, shorter 
than the corolla: anthers simple: the pistillum is an oblong com- 
pressed germ: style none: stigma thickish, two-grooved with a streak, 
height of the stamens, permanent: the pericarpium is an oblong cap- 
sule, ventricose, sharp at both ends, two-valved : the seeds very many, 
round, acuminate 

The species is Canadensis, Canadian Sanguinaria, Blood wort, 
or Puccoon. 

It has a tuberous, thick, fleshy root, placed transversely, with 
several slender fibres descending from it, of a reddish saffion colour, 
and yielding a juice of the same hue, which is bitter and acrid, and 
flows also from the leaves and footstalks when cut. In the spring 
the root puts forth slender round smooth stems, palish green or 
brownish tinged with purple, each terminated by a little conical 
head, which expands into a white flower of eight petals, at first con- 
cave, then flat, and finally rolled back so as to be convex, marked 
with slender streaks : filaments white, with saflron-coloured anthers. 
When the flowers are about expanding, a single leaf comes out upon 



421 



each flower-stalk, at first small, compressed, and protecting the f!ower 
with its foot-stalk; but afterwards becoming larger, and unfolding 
into lobes, like those of the fig, which are thickish, smooth, internally 
of a deep glaucous green, externally of a whitish glaucous colour 
with frequent veins, most conspicuous on the outside; on petioles 
which are flat and slightly grooved on the inside, and convex on the 
outside. Three or four flower-stems arise from each root, and are 
surrounded at the base by oblong, membranaceous, tender, striated 
scales: the root, leaves, and flowers have no smell. It is a native of 
America, and flowers here in the beginning April. 

There are varieties with single flowers, with semi-double flowers, 
and full flowers. 

Culture. — This plant is readily increased by parting the roots, 
and planting them out in the borders or other places where they 
are to remain, in the autumnal season, when the leaves and stems 
decay. 

They should have a loose soil, with a mixture of bog earth and 
rotten leaves, and sheltered situation, not too much exposed to the 
sun : the roots should not be parted oftener than every two years. 

They afford variety in the borders, clumps, and other parts among 
other low-growing bulbous-rooted plants. 



2. SA.XIFRAGA CRASSIFOLIA. 

OVAL-LEAVED SAXIFRAGE. 

This genus contains plants of the low hardy herbaceous peren- 
nial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Decandria Digynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Succulenta. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianth, five- 
parted, short, acute, permanent : the corolla has five petals, spread- 



42-2 



ing. narrow at the base: the stamina have ten awl-shaped filaments: 
anthers roundish: the pistilluni is a roundish acuminate germ, end- 
ing in two short styles: sligmas blunt: the pericarpium is a subovate 
two-beaked capsule, two-celled, opening between the points : the 
seeds numerous, minute. 

Tlie species mostly cultivated are: 1. S. Cotyledon, Pyramidal 
Saxifrage; 2. S. granulata. White Saxifrage; 3. S. crassifolia, Thick- 
leaved Saxifrage ; 4. -S'. umbwsa, London Pride ; 5. S. hypnoides. 
Mossy Saxifrage, or Ladies' Cushion ; 6. S. sarmentosa, China Saxi- 
frage; 7. S. rotundifoUa, Round-leaved Saxifrage. 

There are other s_pecies that may be cultivated. 

The first has the panicle very much branched, many-flowered, or 
branched a little with few flowers: the petals unspotted or spotted j 
and according to Miller, who has made three species of it, the roots 
are perennial and fibrous, and the leaves are gathered into circular 
heads, embracing each other at the base like the common House- 
leek, in some of the sorts tongue-shaped, about two inches long, 
and a quarter of an inch broad : the stem about a foot high, pur^ 
plish, a little hairy, and sending out several horizontal branches the 
whole length : the flowers are in small clusters at the end of the 
branches; white with several red spots on the inside. But in others 
the leaves are smaller. It is a native of the Al[)s. 

It is observed, that when these plants are strong they produce 
very large pyramids of flowers, which make a fine appearance; and 
being kept in the shade, and screened from wind and rain, continue 
in beauty a considerable time: they flower in June. There are seve- 
ral varieties. 

The second species has the root composed of several little grains 
or knobs, attached to one main fibre, and throwing out small fibres 
from their base: the stem is erect, round, pubescent, leafy, some- 
what viscid, branched and panicled at top, of a brown or reddish 
hue, with which colour the leaves, &c. are also tinged, giving the 
whole herb a rich glowing appearance; these parts are also clothed 
with the same kind of hairs, especially the calyx, which is very 
clammy to the touch : the leaves are somewhat fleshy, lobed, and 



423 



cut; those next the root on long footstalks; those on the stem alter- 
nate, subsessile. It is a native of Europe, flowering in May. 

It varies with double flowers, in which state it is cultivated as an 
ornamental plant. 

The third has the root superficial, black, scaly, with the iclics of 
dead leaves, the thickness of a finger or thumb, round, sending down 
filiform fibres from the lower surface: the stems from the axils of ihe 
leaves of the year preceding at the tops of the roots alternate, very 
short, almost upright, covered with the sheaths of the leaves, quite 
simple, but branched in autumn: the leaves three or four, alternate, 
spreading very much, obovate-oblong, crenulate, subretuse, very 
smooth, veined, a span long, flat, coriaceous: the petioles shorter 
by half than the leaves, roundish, channelled, smooth, with a wide 
membrane at the base, of an ovate form, embracing, and in the win- 
ter season serving for a gem: the scape or peduncle terminating, 
solitary, erect, a span high, the thickness of the liltle finger, roundish, 
very smooth, purplish, almost naked, many-flowered : the panicle con- 
tracted, naked, blood-red, composed of pedate racemes : the flow- 
ers inferior, drooping, pedicelled : the pedicels short, round, rugged. 

It is observed, that " the stem changes every year into root; that 
which flowers one year losing its leaves during the winter, turning 
to the ground, becoming black, and putting forth fibres: ' and after 
the plant has flowered, the stem puts forlh branches from the axils 
of the leaves, Avhich have the panicle of flowers for ihe nex-t year 
included in their gems. 

According to Curtis, the leaves are large, red on the under, and 
of a fine shining green on their upper surface, and may be ranked 
among the more handsome kinds of foliage: the flowering stems, 
according to the richness and moisture of the soil in which they are 
planted, rise from one to two or even three feet high; at top sup- 
porting a large bunch of purple pendulous flowers, expanding in 
April and May, and, if the season prove favourable, making a fine 
appearance. It is a native of Siberia. 

It is remarked, that " there is another Saxifrage in gardens, ex- 
ceedingly like this in appearance, but differing, in producmg larger 



424 



bunches of flowers, and in having larger, rounder, and more heart- 
shaped leaves/' 

The fourth species has the leaves all radical, aggregate in tufts, 
spreading, running down into the petiole, even and quite smooth, 
often purple beneath : the scape a span high, erect, red, hairy, 
many-flowered, with a few small alternate bractes: the flowers up- 
right: the calyx finally reflexed: the petals obovate-lanceolate, white 
or flesh-coloured, most beautifully dotted with yellow and dark red: 
the germ altogether superior, rose-coloured: the capsule ventricose, 
tipped with purple. It is a native of Ireland and England, flower- 
ing in June and July. It has the names of None-so-pretty, and 
London Pride. 

The fifth has long slender fibrous roots, throwing many procum- 
bent leafy shoots, which grow matted together, forming thick tufts: 
from the common origin of these arises a solitary erect round stem, 
bearing two or three straggling linear undivided leaves, and termi- 
nating in an upright panicle of a few large white flowers: the leaves 
are alternate, linear, acute, pale green, smooth, their edges only 
often hairy with soft white woolly threads: the leaves on the shoots 
simple and undivided; those at the bottom of the stem all deeply 
three-cleft, with the segments divaricate. According to Withering, 
the stem, fruitstalks, and calyx are thickly set with short hairs ter- 
minated by red globules, and the rest of the plant thinly set with fine 
white hairs. It is a native of Britain, flowering in May, and often 
again sparingly in July and August. 

The sixth species has the root-leaves petioled, cordate-suborbi- 
cular, hairy, crenate, with blunt lobules, oleraceous, having white 
veins on the upper surface, beneath liver-coloured : the petioles 
roundish, longer than the leaf : the stem herbaceous, round, a foot 
and half high, almost leafless, pubescent, as the whole herb is, with 
hairs standing out; the whole raceme compound, the partial racemes 
drooping at the end before they flower. Branched runners proceed 
in abundance from the axils of the root-leaves, terminating in root- 
ing off'-sets: three of the petals are smaller, whitish stained Avith red; 
two larger, white. It is observed, that " its round variegated leaves, 



425 



and strawberry-like runners, with the uncommon magnitude of the 
two lower pendent petals, joined to the very conspicuous glandular 
nectary, in the center of the flower, half surrounding the germ, render 
it strikingly distinct." It is a native of China and Japan, flowering 
in June and July. 

The seventh has the lower leaves almost round, pn long footstalks, 
deeply divided, hairy and green above, pale beneath: the stems 
erect, about a foot high, channelled and hairy, with kidney-shaped 
leaves: the stem puts out a few slender footstalks from the upper 
part, which, together with the stem itself, are terminated by small 
clusters of flowers, white spotted Avith red. It is a beautiful plant, and 
a native of Switzerland, Sec. 

Culture. — The first sort may be readily increased by planting off- 
sets taken from the sides of the old plants in small pots filled with 
fresh light earth, placing them in the shade during the summer, but 
letting them be exposed to the influence of the sun in winter: all the 
off"-sets should be taken ofi', as by that means they will flower much 
stronger: the young plants aflbrd flowers the second year. 

The (Second sort may likewise be increased in the same way* 
which should be planted out where they are to remain in July, when 
the stems decay, in fresh undunged earth, giving them a shady situa- 
tion till winter: they should be set out in large tufts, and when in 
the open ground have a shady place assigned them. 

The third sort may be increased with little trouble by parting the 
roots, and planting them out in the spring or autumn in the open 
ground, or in pots in the former situation, being protected in severe 
weather, and in the latter removed to the green-house or a garden 
frame. 

The fouith may also be raised by ofi-sets in the same way, a 
shady situation being chosen. 

The fifth sort is easily increased by planting its trailing rooted 
branches in the autumn where they are io remain: it should have a 
moist soil and shaded situation. 

The sixtii may be readily raised b}' the runners, which may be 



426 



planted in pots to be placed in the green-house, though it will bear 
the open air in mild winters in a warm sheltered situation. 

The last maj be increased by parting the roots and planting them 
out in the early autumn: it should have a moist shady situation, with 
a rather stiff loamy soil. 

They all afford ornament and variety in the clumps, borders, and 
other parts of pleasure-grounds; except the sixth, which must have 
a place in the green-house collection. 



PLATE L. 



1. SYRINGA VULGARIS. 

LILAC, 

This genus contains plants of the deciduous flowering shrubby 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Diandria Monogynia^ and ranks in 
the natural order of Sepiaria. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianth, tubu- 
lar, small: mouth four-toothed, erect, permanent: the corolla one- 
petalled, funnel-form : tube cylindric, very long: border four-parted, 
spreading and rolled back : segments linear, obtuse : the stamina 
have two filaments, very short: anthers small, within the tube of the 
corolla: the pistillum is an oblong germ: style filiform, length of the 
stamens: stigma bifid, thickish: the pericarpium is an oblong cap- 
sule, compressed, acuminate, two-celled, two-valved : valves con- 
trary to the partition: the seeds solitary, oblong, compressed, acu- 
minate at both ends, with a membranaceous edge. 

The species cultivated are: 1. 5". vulgaris. Common Lilac: 2. S. 
Persica, Persian Lilac. 

The first is a shrub, which grows to the height of eighteen or 
twenty feet in good ground, and divides into many branches; tiiose 
of the White sort grow more erect than the Blue; and the Purple or 
Scotch Lilac has its branches yet more diffused. The branches of 
the White are covered with a smooth bark of a gray colour; in the 
other two it is darker; the leaves of the White are of a brighter 
sreen; they are heart-shaped in all, almost five inches long, and three 
inches and a half broad near the base, placed opposite, on foot- 



428 



slalks an inch and half in length. The buds of the future shoots, 
which are very turgid before the leaves fall, are of a very bright green 
in the White sort, but those of the other two are dark green. The 
flowers are always produced at the ends of the shoots of the former 
year; and below the flowers other shoots come out to succeed them; 
as that part upon which ihe flowers stand decays down to the 
shools below every winter. There are generally two bunches or 
panicles of flowers joined at the end of each shoot; those of the Blue 
are the smallest, the flowers also are smaller, and placed thinner than 
either of the others; the bunches on the White are larger, but those 
of the Scotch are larger still, and the flowers fairer; it of course makes 
the best appearance: the panicles of flowers grow erect, and, being 
intermixed with the bright green leaves, have a fine effect, which 
with the fragrancy of the flowers, renders it one of the most beauti- 
ful shrubs of the garden: the flowers appear early in May, or to- 
wards the end of April, and when the season is cool continue three 
weeks; but in hot seasons soon fade. It is supposed a native of 
Persia. 

There are several varieties: as with white flowers, with blue flow- 
ers, with purple flowers, or Scotch Lilac. 

The second species is a shrub of much lower growth than the com- 
mon sort, seldom rising more than five or six feet high: the stems are 
covered with a smooth brown bark: ihe branches are slender, plia- 
ble, extend wide on every side, and frequently bend down where 
they are not supported : the leaves two inches and a half long, and 
three fourths of an inch broad, of a deep green colour : the flowers 
in large panicles at the end of the former year's shoots, as in the for- 
mer; of a pale blue colour, and having a very agreeable odour. 
They appear at the end of May, soon after those of the common 
sort, and continue longer in beauty, but do not perfect their seeds 
in this climate. 

There are several varieties: as the common purple-flowered, white- 
flowered, blue-flowered, and the laciniated or cut-leaved. 

Culture, — These plants are mostly raised by suckers or layers, and 



sometimes by seeds. The suckers should be taken off in the autumn 
or spring, with root-fibres to them, and be planted out either in 
nursery-rows, to remain a year or two, or where they are to remain. 
The layers may be made from the young pliant shoots, and be laid 
down in the autumn, in the usual way, Avhen in the autumn following 
they may be taken off and planted out, as in the suckers. The first 
sort may likewise be raised from seeds sown in a bed of common 
earth, in the autumn or spring, keeping the plants clean when they 
come up. They aiford variety in the large borders and other parts 
of shrubberies. 



2. SARRACENA FLAVA. 

YELLOW SARRACENA. 

This genus contains plants of the herbaceous perennial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Polyandi'ia Monogi/?iia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Succulents. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a double perianth; lower 
three-leaved : leaflets ovate, very small, deciduous ; upper five- 
leaved; leaflets subovate, very large, coloured, deciduous: the corolla 
has five ovate petals, bent in, covering the stamens: claws ovate- 
oblong, straight: the stamina have numerous small filaments: anthers 
simple: the pistillum is a roundish germ : style cylindrical, very 
short: stigma clypeate, peltate, five-cornered, covering the stamens, 
permanent: the pericarpium is a roundish five-celled capsule: the 
seeds numerous, roundish, acuminate, small. 

The species are: 1. S. Jiava, Yellow Side-saddle Flower; 2. S. 
purpurea, Purple Side-saddle Flower. 

The first has the leaves near three feet high, small at the bottom, 
but widening gradually to the top; they are hollow, and arched over 



430 



at the mouth like a friar's cowl : the flowers grow on naked pedicels, 
rising from the root to the height of three feet, and are of a green 
colour. It is a native of Carolina, Virginia, &c. flowering in June 
and July. 

The second species has a strong fibrous root, which strikes deep 
into the soft earth, from which arise five, six, or seven leaves, in pro- 
portion to the strength of the plant; these are about five or six- 
inches long, hollow like a pitcher, narrow at their base, but swell 
out large at the top; iheir outer sides are rounded, but on their inner 
side they are a little compressed, and have a broad leafy border 
running longitudinally the whole length of the tube; and to the 
rounded part of the leaf there is on the top a large appendage or ear 
standing erect, of a brownish colour; this surrounds the outside ol 
the leaves about two thirds of the top, it is eared at both ends, 
and waved round the border : from the centre of the root, between 
the leaves, arises a strong, round, naked footstalk, about a foot 
high, sustaining one nodding flower at the top : the leaflets of the 
upper calyx are obtuse, and bent over the corolla, so as to cover 
the inside of it; they are of a purple colour on the outside, but green 
within, onl}^ having purple edges: the petals are of a purple colour, 
and hollowed like a spoon. It is a native of most parts of North 
America, in I^oggy situations. 

Culture. — As these plants grow naturally in soft boggy situations, 
they are raised with diflSculty here. The best mode is to procure 
them from the places of their natural growth, and to have them 
taken up with large balls of earth to their roots, and planted in tubs 
of earth; they should be constantly watered during their passage, 
olheiwisc they decay before they arrive: as there is little probabi- 
lity of raising these plants from seeds, so as to produce flowers in 
many years, if the seeds should even grow, young plants should be 
taken up for this purpose, as they are more likely to stand than 
those which have flowered two or three times. When the plants 
are brought over, they should be plantt^d into pretty large pots, 
which should be filled with soft spongy earth, mixed with rotten 



431 



wood, moss, and turf, which is very Hke the natural soil in which 
they grow. These pots should be put into tubs or large pans 
which will hold water, with which they must be constantly sup- 
plied, and placed in a shady situation in summer ; but in winter 
be covered with moss, or sheltered under a frame, otherwise they 
will not live in this climate ; having free air admitted in mild 
open weather. 



PLATE LI. 

1. SCABIOSA ATROPURPUREA. 

SWEET SCABIOUS. 

This genus contains plants of the herbaceous, annual, biennial, 
perennial, and shrubby kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Tetrandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Aggregata. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a common perianth, many- 
flowered, spreading, many-leaved: leaflets in various rows surround- 
ing the receptacle, and placed upon it, the inner ones gradually 
less: pro})er perianth double, both superior; outer shorter, mem- 
branaceous, plaited, permanent; inner five-parted, with the segments 
subulate-capillaceous: the corolla universal equal, often from un- 
equal ones: proper one-petalled, tubular, four or five-cleft, equal or 
unequal : the stamina have four filaments, subulate-capillary, weak: 
anthers oblong, incumbent: the pistillum is an inferior germ, in- 
volved in its proper sheath as in a calycle: style filiform, length of 
the corolla: stigma obtuse, obliquely emarginale: there is no peri- 
carpium : the seeds solitary, ovate-oblong, involute, crowned vari- 
ously with proper calyxes: the receptacles common convex, chaft'y, 
or naked. 

The species mostly cultivated are: 1. S. alpina, Alpine Scabious; 
2. S. leucantha. Snowy Scabious; 3. S. succisa, Devil's-bit Scabious; 
4. S. integrifoUa, Red-flowered Annual Scabious; o. S. tatarica^ Giant 
Scabious; 6. S. gramuntia. Cut-leaved Scabious; 7- S. stellata. Starry 
Scabious; 8. S.atropurpurea, Sweet Scabious; 9- S. ai-gentea, Silvery 
Scabious; 10. S. gramimfolla, Grass-leaved Scabious; 11. S.Africana, 
African Scabious; 12. S. Cretica, Cretan Scabious. 



n 51 




433 



The first has a perennial root, composed of many strong fibres 
which run deep in the ground: the stems several, strong, chan- 
nelled, upwards of four feet high: the leaflets four or five pairs, 
unequal in size and irregularly placed, ending in acute points: the 
flowers are on naked peduncles, at the ends of the branches, of a 
whitish yellow colour, appearing at the end of June. It is a native 
of the Alps of Switzerland, &c. 

The second species has a perennial root: the lower leaves almost 
entire, serrate: stem stiff, two feet high, bifid at top, spreading; in 
the division arises a naked peduncle-, which, as also the divisions, 
are each terminated by a single flower, composed of many white 
florets. It is a native of the south of France, &c. 

The third has also a perennial, oblong, blackish root, near the 
thickness of the little finger, often growing obliquely, stumped at the 
lower end so as to appear as if bitten off, whence its trivial name, 
and furnished with long whitish fibres: the stem from a foot to 
eighteen inches in height, upright, branched at top, round, rough 
with hair, and often of a reddish colour: the branches are lengthened 
out, and each bears one flower: the root-leaves are ovate, quite en- 
tire, blunter than the others; the stem-leaves lanceolate, the lower 
ones remotely toothed, but the upper ones entire; all dark-green, 
rather coriaceous, harsh and hairy: the flowers in nearly globular 
heads. It is a native of Europe, flowering from August to the end 
of October. 

The fourth species has an annual root: the stem is not hispid: 
the branches patulous : the root-leaves like those of the Daisy, ovate, 
bluntish, rugged, more acutely serrate; stem-leaves few; branch- 
leaves lanceolate, embracing, ciliate at the base, seldom toothed or 
pinnatifid, very long. It is a native of Germany, flowering from 
June to August. 

The fifth rises with a strong branching stalk four or five feet high, 
closely armed with stiff prickly hairs; lower hairs spear-sliaped, 
about seven inches long, and near four broad in the middle, deeply 
cut on the sides; the stem-leaves more entire, some of them sharply 



434 



serrate; those at the top linear and entire: the flowers from the sides 
and at the top of the stalks, white, and each sitting in a bristly 
calyx: the root is biennial. It is a native of I'artary, &c. 

The sixth species has the root-leaves viHose, ash-coloured, deeply 
pinnalifid; with the pinnules blunt, distmct, the lower ones linear 
and entire, the upper graduall}' wider, bhint, gash-toothed: the 
stem-leaves bipinnate, with the leaflets linear, narrow, unequal, 
scarcely pubescent: the stem afoot and half in height: it flowers 
very late, even ia November, and is perennial. It is a native of the 
south of France, &c. 

The seventh is annual, the stems three feet high, hairy: the 
leaves oblong, deeply notched; the upper ones cut almost to the 
midrib into fine segments: the flowers on long peduncles: the re- 
ceptacles are globular: the florets large, spreading open like a star, 
of a pale purple colour. It is a native of Spain and Barbary, 
flowering in July and August. 

It varies with different jagged leaves, and with red and white 
flowers. 

The eighth species has a fibrous annual biennial root, crowned 
with a large tuft of oblong leaves, variously jagged and cut on the 
edges: the stems upright, numerously branched on every side, three 
feet high or more: the calyx is twelve-leaved, recurved, linear, the 
length of the corolla: the flower very dark purple, with white an- 
thers: the fruit ovate: the receptacle subulate, with bristle- shaped 
chaffs. It flowers from June to October: the flowers are very 
sweet, and there is a great variety in their colour, some being of a 
purple approaching to black, others of a pale purple, some red and 
others variegated. It also varies in the leaves, some being finer cut 
than others: and sometimes from the side of the calyx come out 
many slender peduncles sustaining small flowers, like the (proliferous 
or) Hen-and-chicken Daisy. 

The ninth is a low perennial plant, with a branching stalk 
spreading wide on every side; the leaves are of a silvery colour; 
the flowers are small, pale, and have no scent: the stem has white 



435 



hairs thinly scattered over it: the root-leaves are somewhat toothed: 
stem-leaves undivided, and ciliate towards the base. It is a native 
of the Levant, flowering from June to October. 

The tenth species has a perennial root, from which arise three or 
four stalks, the lower parts of which have linear leaves about four 
inches long, and the eighth of an inch broad, of a silvery colour, 
^nding in acute points: the upper part of the stalk is naked for sijc 
or seven inchfe in length, and sustains at the top one pale-bhie 
flower. It is a native of the mountains of Dauphine flowering in 
July. 

The eleventh has a weak shrubby stalk, which divides into several 
branches, and rises about five feet high: the leaves are ovate-lanceo- 
late, three inches long, and an inch and half broad, deeplj' crcnate, 
of a light green, and a little hairy: the peduncle terminating, sus- 
taining one pale flesh-coloured flower. It is a native of Airica, 
flowering from July to October: it varies in the leaves. The variety 
with the leaves finely cut, has, according to Miller, the stalks hairj', 
and dividing into several branches: the bottom leaves are lanceo- 
late crenate and entire; but those on the upper part of the stalk are 
bipinnate: the flowers are produced on long naked footstalks from 
the end of the branches; are of a pale flesh-colour and large, but 
no scent. 

The twelfth rises with a shrubby stalk three feet high, and divides 
into several woody knotty branches: the leaves are narrow, silvery, 
entire, four inches long, and a quarter of an inch broad: the flowers 
stand upon very long naked peduncles at the end of the branches, 
and are of a fine blue colour. It is a native of Candia and Sicily. 
According to xMiller, the plant from Candia has shorter and much 
broader leaves, and not so white as those of the Sicilian ; the flowers 
are not so large, and are of a pale purple colour. 

Culture. — All the annual and biennial sorts may be increased by 
seed, which should be sown in a bed or border of common mould, 
or in pots to be forwarded in the hot-bed in the early spring 
months; but the biennial sort is better sown in the latter end of the 
summer, as about August, as they flower stronger and more fully 



436 



the following summer. Some may however be sown at both 

seasons. 

When the plants have attained some growth, in the spring-sown 
sort, they should be pricked out in the places where they are to 
grow, on beds, to be afterwards removed: and in the autumn-sown 
sorts into nursery-rows, six or eight inches apart, to be removed into 
the places where they are to remain, with balls about their roots, in 
the following spring, being duly watered and kept free from weeds. 

The starry sort is best sown in patches in the borders or clumps 
where the plants are to flower. 

The herbaceous perennial kinds may be readily increased by 
sowing the seeds in a bed or border of good light enrth, in the spring 
season, the plants being planted out when they have attained a little 
growth where they are to grow: they are also capable of being 
raised by parting the roots and planting them out where they are to 
grow in the autumn. 

The shrubby kinds may be readily raised by planting slips or 
cuttings of the young branches in the spring or summer season, in 
the former season in pots, and plunged in a moderate hot-bed, or 
under a glass frame; but in the latter, in the open ground, being 
■well shaded and watered. They soon become tolerably well rooted, 
and in the autumn may be potted off into separate pots filled with 
light loamy earth, and managed in the same manner as other exotic 
green-house plants during the winter. 

The annual and perennial sorts afford ornament and variety 
among other plants of the flower kind in the borders, &c. and the 
shrubby kinds produce variety in green-liouse collections. 



437 



2. SCILLA CAMPANULATA. 

BELL-FLOWERED SQUILL. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy, bulbous-rooted, peren- 
nial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Hemndria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Coronaria. 

The characters are : that there is no calyx: the corolla has six 
ovate petals, spreading very much, deciduous: the stamina have six 
awl-shaped filaments, shorter by half than the corolla: anthers 
oblong, incumbent: the pistillum is a roundish germ : st^'le simple, 
length of the stamens, deciduous : stigma simple : the pericarpium 
is a subovate capsule, smooth, three-grooved, three-celled, three- 
valved: the seeds many, roundish. 

The species are: 1. S. mariti?na, Officinal Squill; 2. S. Lilio- 
Hyacinthus, Lily-rooted Squill; 3. S. Italica, Italian Squill; 4. S. 
Peruviana, Peruvian Squill : 5. S. amoena. Nodding Squill ; 6. S. cam- 
pajiulata, Spanish Squill; 7- iS. autunmalis. Autumnal Squill. 

The first has a very large root, somewhat pear-shaped, composed 
of many coats as in the Onion, and having several fibres coming 
out at the bottom, and striking deep in the ground. From the 
middle of the root arise several shining leaves, a foot long, and two 
inches broad at their base, lessening all the way to the top, where 
they end in points; they continue green all the winter, and decay in 
the spring: then the flower-stalk comes out, rising two feet high, 
naked about half way, and terminated by a pyramidal thyrse of 
flowers, which are white. It is a native of Spain, Portugal, &c. 
flowering here in April and May. 

There are varieties witii a red, and with a white root. 

The second species has a scaly root like the Lily ; it is oblong 



43B 

and yellow, very like that of Martagon : the leaves are shaped like 
those of the White Lily, but are snialier: the stalk is slendt;r, and 
rises a .foot high ; it is terminated by blue flowers, which appear in 
June. It is a native of Spain, Portugal, &c. 

The third has a roundish solid bulb, like that of the hyacinth: 
the leaves conie out sparsedly, and are very like those of the English 
hare-bells: the stem seven or eight inches high, tenninated by 
clustered flowers of a pale blue colour; at first disposed in a sort of 
umbel or depressed spike, but afterwards drawing up to a point and 
forming a conical corymb. 

The fourth species has a large solid root, raised a little pyramidal 
in the midille, covered with a brown coat, from tins come out before 
winter five or seven leaves, six or eiglit inches long, of a lucid green, 
keeled, and spreading almost flat on the ground: f oni t e ctntie of 
these come out one, two, or three scape-i, thick, surcule t, six or 
eight inches high, terminated by a conical corymb of flowers, upon 
pretty long pedicels. 

There are varieties with a deep blue, and with a white flower; it 
is often known by the name of Hyacinth of Peru. It is a native of 
Spain, Portugal, and Barbary. 

The fifth has a large solid purplish root, from which come out 
five or six leaves, lying on the ground, above a foot long, and an 
inch broad, keeled, channelled, and of a lucid green; from among 
these arise two, three, or four purplish stalks, eight or nine inches 
high, sustaining towards the top five or six flowers, which come out 
singly from the side; they are of a violet-blue colour, and appear in 
April. It is a native of the Levant. 

In the sixth species the bulb is oblong, white, whence come out 
five or six leaves a foot long, and half an inch broad, of a lucid 
green, and a little keeled : scape nine or ten inches high, firm, and 
sustaining many flowers at the top, disposed in a loose panicle, each 
on a pretty long pedicel which is erect, but the flower itself nods: 
the corolla is of a deep blue-violet colour. It is a native of Spain 
and Portugal, flowering in May. 

The seventh has the bulb ovate-roundish, coated, whitish: the 



439 



leaves numerous, much shorter than the scape, two or three inches 
long, linear, obtuse, channelled, spreading, scape from three or four 
to six inches in height, round, upright, striated, below whitish green, 
above purplish, appearing villose when magnified. Sometimes there 
is a second scape: the flowers six, ten, or even twenty in a corymb, 
which is soon lengthened out into a raceme. It is a native of 
France, Spain, &c. 

It is observed, that " most old writers distinguish a larger and a 
smaller sort; but these differ merely in size: and some have noticed 
a variety with white flowers." 

Culture. — These plants may be increased by offsets from the 
roots, and by seeds, but the first is the better mode. 

The offsets may be taken off every other year, and be planted 
out at the time the leaves and stems decay. 

The seed should be sown in the autumn, on light mould, in 
shallow boxes or pans, in the same manner as the Hyacinth, the 
same circumstances being attended to in the culture. The plants 
«re long in flowering in this way, except in the last species, which 
should have a dry loamy soil. 

The first sort, as being a native of the sea-shores, cannot be well 
propagated in other situations, as the plants are apt to be destroyed 
by the frosts in winter, and to grow indifl'erently in the summer 
season from the want of sail water. 

They afford variety in the beds and borders of pleasure-grounds. 



PLATE LIL 



1. SEDUM ANACAMPSEROS. 

EVERGREEN ORPINE. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy herbaceous succulent 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Decandria Pentagynia, and 
ranks in the natural order of Succulejitce. 

The characters are : that the caljx is a five-cleft perianth, acute, 
erect, permanent: the corolla has five petals, lanceolate, acuminate, 
flat, spreading: nectaries five; each a very small emarginale 
scale, inserted into each germ at the base on the outside: the 
stamina have ten awl-shaped filaments, length of the corolla: an- 
thers roundish: the pistillum has five oblong germs, ending in 
more slender styles: stigmas obtuse: the pericarpium five capsules, 
spreading, acuminate, compressed, emarginate towards the base, 
opening on the inside longitudinally by a suture : the seeds nume- 
rous, very small. 

The species cultivated are 1. S. Telephium, Orpine Stonecrop; 
2. S. Anacampseros, Evergreen Orpine; 3. S. Aizoon, Yellow Stone- 
crop; 4. S. populifolium. Poplar-leaved Stonecrop; 5. 6^. stellatum, 
Starry Stonecrop ; 6. S. Cepcea, Purslane-leaved Stonecrop ; 7. 5*. 
dasyphyllum. Thick-leaved Stonecrop; 8. S. reflexum. Yellow Stone- 
crop; 9- S. rupestre, Rock Stonecrop; 10. S. Hispanicum^ Spanish 
Stonecrop; 11. S. album. White Stonecrop; 12. S. acre. Biting 
Stonecrop, or Wall Pepper; 13. S. sexangulare. Insipid Stonecrop; 
14. S. AngUcum, English or Mild White Stonecrop; 15. .S". anniium. 
Annual Stonecrop. 

The first has a perennial tuberous root: the stems from one to 



£152 




441 



/ 



Iwo feet high and upwards, upright, simple or unbranched, ]eiii'y, 
round, smooth, solid, reddish and often dotted with red: the leaves 
almost covering the stem, sessile, ovale, fleshy, tooth-senate, smooth 
and even, of a blueish-green colour: the corymbs terminating, 
niany-tlowered, close or heaped together: the flowers deep purple, 
very rarely white in this climate, though that seems to he the most 
common colour in some foreign countries. It is a native of 
Portugal. 

There are several varieties, as with purple flowers, with while 
flowers, with broad leaves, and the Greater Orpine. 

The second species has fibrous perennial roots: the stems trailing: 
the leaves standing alternate round the stems, almost an inch long, 
and half an incli broad: the flowers in a compact corym, sitting 
close on the top of the stem: they are star-shaped, of a purple 
colour, and appear in July. It is an evergreen ; and a native of 
Germany. 

The third has a perennial root, composed of many thick fleshy 
fibres, from which come out several stalks rising near a foot high : 
the leaves are alternate on every side, thick, two inches and a half 
long, and three quarters of an inch broad, and slightly serrate: the 
flowers bright yellow. It is a native of Siberia, flowering from July 
to September. 

The fourth s|:)ecies has the leaves cordate, thick and fleshy : the 
stem heibaceous, branched, erect, patulous, even, a fool high : the 
leaves alternate, remote, only at the ramifications, blunt, fleshv, 
smooth. When it grows in an open situation, exposed to the sun, 
the leaves and stalks become of a bright red colour. It is a native 
of Siberia, and the only hardy Sedum cultivated with us that has a, 
shrubby stalk: the leaves are deciduous. It flowers in July and 
August, and is proper for a rock plant. ' 

The fifth is a low annual plant: the stalks rise three inches high, 
dividing at top into two or three parts: the flowers come out singly 
from the side of the stalk; are white, star-pointed, and succeeded by 
sLar-pointed rough capsules. It is a native of Germany, &c. 

The sixth species has also an annual root: the stalks six or seven 

3 L 



442 



inches high, dividing into smaller branches, which sustain small 
while liov/ers, growing in large panicles. It is a native of" Germany, 
France, &c. 

Tiiere is a variety which has the stern- more erect, and the lower 
leaves in threes or fours, the next opposite, and the uppermost 
alternate. 

The seventh has a perennial (biennial) root, composed of small 
white fibres: the stems numerous, weak, prostrate and creeping, 
about three inches long or somewhat more, branched, in tults, 
round, Aveak, clannny, leafy: the Howering branches erect: tlie 
leaves mostly opposite, closely imbricate, sessile, very thick and 
fleshy, broader than long, convex on the lower, nearly plane on the 
upper surface, glaucous often with a tinge of purple; dotted and 
sometimes ha\ing a net of red veins: on the flowering branches 
they are alternate. It is a native of many parts of Europe, as 
France, &c. 

When introduced into a garden, it propagates itself freely upon 
walls, in waste places, and about garden pots; and no plant is 
better adapted to the purpose of decorating rock-work, as it grows 
without any trouble, in any aspect, multiplying very nmch by young 
shoots, and always looks beautiful. 

The eighth species has also a perennial root: the stems round, 
leafy, branched at the base, often hanging down, erect at the top: 
the leaves scattered, alternate, adnate-sessile, loose at the base, and 
produced, erect above, compressed, acuminate, extremely succulent, 
smooth, rather glaucous, frequently tinged Avith red; the lower ones 
turned back; when old they easily fall off: the flowers are in a ter- 
minating subcymed panicle, with many-flowered branches, for the 
most part recurved: the flowers erect, bright yellow. It is a native 
of Europe, and is common here on walls and thatched roofs, and 
rocks in the northern counties, flowering in July. 

The ninth is a little smaller than the eighth: the leaves closely 
imbricate (before flowering) in five or six rows, glaucous, flatted a 
little, acuminate; on the floweiing stem somewhat remote, as in that 
sort, all erect, not bent back at the point. According to Withering, 



443 

the disposition of the leaves in five or six rows may be best observed 
by viewing the plant Avilh the ends of the branches opposed to the 
eye: the panicle subcymed, many-flowered, w'lih the branchiets 
scarcely rcflexed: the flowers of a bright yellow or gold colour, often 
six-cleft. It is a native of England and Wales, &c. perennial, 
flowering in July. 

This, as well as the above, is cultivated in Holland and Germany 
to mix with lettuces in salads. 

The tenth has a slender, fi!)rous, perennial root: the stems seve- 
ral, a hand high, rec ining at the base, and then erect, round, tinged 
with red: llie leaves, on the flowering stems, pale green dotted with 
purple, oblong, thickish, round on one side and flat on the other; 
towards the top, under the flowers, more swelling and shorter: 
leaves on young plants or barren shools, in bundles, glaucous, with- 
out any purple dots, thinner, from a narrow base widening gradually, 
and ending in a blunt point: the stems divide at top into a few" 
branchiets, forming a sort of umbel, (or rather cyme) bearing sessile, 
star-like white flowers, stained with pale purple from a purple 
groove running along the petals: these are six, sometimes seven in 
number, keeled and cusped. It is a native of Spain and Carintliia, 
flowering in July. 

The eleventh species has a perennial, fibrous root: the stems 
decumbent at bottom, and there throwing out fibres; flowering stems 
upright, from three inches to a span in height, round, leafy, branched, 
smooth: the leaves scattered thinly, spreading out horizontally, ses- 
sile, cylindrical, very blunt, smooth, fleshy, somewhat glaucous and 
generally reddish: panicle terminating, alternately brariched, sui?- 
cymose, many-flowered, smooth. It is a native of Europe, on rocks, 
walls and roofs, flowering in July. 

It is eaten by some as a pickle. 

The twelfth has also a jierennial, fibrous root: the stems nume- 
rous, growing in tufts, much b anched, decumbent, and creeping at 
the base, then upright, three inches high, smooth, round, very leafy; 
the leaves closely imbricate, blunt, flatted a little, from upright 
spreading, loose at the base: the cymes terminating, solitary, few- 



4 



444 

flowered: the flowers erect, sessile. It is a native of Europe^ 
flowering in July. 

Tiie lliirteenth species has the habit of the preceding sort, but 
is somewhat larger: the leaves are subcjlindrical ; not ovate, and 
come out mostly by threes in a double row, and hence appear to be 
imbricate in six rows; this is most obvious in the young shoots: 
they are very spreading, loose at the base, and scarcely gibbous: 
the cyme is leafy: the flowers of a golden-yellow colour. It is not 
acrid. It is a native of many parts of Europe, flowering at the end 
of June. 

The fourteenth has an annual, fibrous root: the stems in tufts, 
decumbent at the base, smooth, red, leafy: the leaves mostly alter- 
nate or nearly opposite, blunlish, somewhat glaucous, produced and 
loose at the base: the cymes terminating, solitary, almost leafless, 
racemed: the flowers erect, five-cleft. It is a native of Britain and 
Norway. 

The fifteenth species is also an annual plant, with an erect stalk, 
seldom rising above two or three inches high ; the leaves are of a 
grayish colour: the flowers are small and white, and grow at the top 
of the stalk, in a rcflexed spike. It is a native of the North of 
Europe. 

Culture. — These plants are all raised without much difliiculty, by 
proper care and attention to have the soil dry and of the poor sandy 
kind. 

Culture in the Orpine sorts. — These may all be readily increased 
by planting cuttings, during the summer months, in hght mould in a 
shady situation, or in pots placed in similar situations. The plants 
in the open ground, as well as those in pots, should be kept clean 
from weeds, and be watered frequently when the weather is dry. 

They may likewise be raised by parting the roots, and planting 
them in a similar manner in the spring or autumn. When the 
plants are once well established, they spread rapidly, and require 
little or no care. 

Culture in the Stonec7'op kind. — These are raised without much 
trouble, by planting out their trailing stalks in the spring or summer 



445 



season, which readily take root. Tliey thrive most perfectly on old 
walls, buildings, or rock-works. Where cuttings or roots of the 
perennial kinds are planted in some soft mud, placed upon such 
situations, they quickly take root and spread into the different joints 
and crevices, covering the whole in a very short time. 

The seeds of the annual sorts also, when sown soon after they 
become ripe in such situations, soon come up and support them- 
selves without further trouble. 

Most of the perennial sorts are kept in the nurseries in full 
plants, fit for setting out in the borders, pots, &:c. either in the spring 
for flowering the same year, or in the autumn to flower in the follow- 
ing year. ' 

These plants may be planted out in any dryish light soil, in 
borders, beds, and other places, and in the sides of dry banks, or in 
any elevated rubbishy soil, as well as in pots to move to different 
parts occasionally ; or also some of the evergreen kinds, to introduce 
in their pots among winter plants under shelter, to increase the 
variety. In most sorts, they may also be introduced as rock plants, 
to embellish artificial rock-works, ruins, and other similar places in 
pleasure-grounds. The Stonecrops and other low trailing kinds may 
also be made to occupy the tops of any low walls, pent-houses, 
sheds, or other low buildings. 

The twelfth and thirteenth sorts may likewise be disposed in 
patches towards the front of borders, &c. as they spread thick and 
tufiy close to the ground, and flower abundantly; and being planted 
in pots, are proper to place in the outside of window s, copings of low 
walls, and in balconies, and court yards, in assemblage with other 
low fancy plants; they will closely overspread the surface, and 
flower profusely as far as they extend. 



446 



2. SOPHORA TETRAPTERA. ^ 

WINGED-PODDED SOPHORA 

This genus contains plants of the herbaceous, flowery, perennial, 
and shrubby exotic kinds. 

Jt belongs to the class and order Decandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natu al order of Papiiionacece or Lcgiiniinosa. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianth, 
short, bell-shaped, gibbous at the base above : mouth five- 
toothed, oblique, obtuse: the corolla papilionaceous, five-petallcd: 
standard oblong, gradually wider, straight, retlexed at the sides: 
wings two, oblong, appendicled at the base, length of the standard: 
keel two-petalled, with the petals conformable to the wings, the 
lower margins approximating and boat-shaped: the stamina have 
ten filaments, distinct, parallel, awl-shaped, length of the corolla 
within the keel: anthers very small, rising: the pislillum is an 
oblong germ, cylindrical: style size and situation of the stamens: 
stigma obtuse: the pericarpium is a legume very long, slender, one- 
celled, knobbed at the seeds: the seeds very many, roundish. 

The species cultivated are: \. S. tetraptera. Wing-podded So- 
phora; 2. S. microphylla. Small-leaved Shrubby Sophora; 3. S. alope- 
curoides, Fox-tail Sophora; 4. S. australisy Blue Sophora; 5. S. tinc- 
toria. Dyer's Sophora; 6. -5". alba. White Sophora; 7- S. tomcntosa. 
Downy Sophora; 8. .S". occidentalism Occidental Sophora; y. S. japo- 
nica, Shining-leaved Sophora; 10. S. capensis. Vetch-leaved Sophora; 
II. S. aureOf Golden-flowered Sophora; 12. S. myrtilHJolia, Round- 
leaved Sophora. 

The first is a magnificent tree, displaying its pendulous branches 
of large golden flowers in May and June. It is a native of New 
Zealand. 



447 



The second species is a smooth tree, with small leaves almost 
wedge-shaped; the flowers large and yellow; the legume compressed, 
torulose, flat at the back and belly, keeled at the sides with longitu- 
dinal membranes. It is a native of New Zealand, flowering in May 
and June. 

The third has a perennial creeping root, from which arise several 
erect stalks from three to four feet high: the leaves unequally pin- 
nate: the flowers pale blue and small, in long axillary spikes stand- 
ing erect close to the stalk: they smell sweet. It is a native of the 
Levant, flowering in July and August. 

The fourth species has a herbaceous stem, most commonly de- 
cumbent: ihe leaves cuneate-oblong, smooth, yellowish green; the 
stipules ensiform, longer than the shortest petiole; the flowers are 
blue. It is a native of Carolina, flowering in June and July. 

The fifth has a perennial root, from Avhich arise several stalks 
about a foot and half high, sending out from the bottom a great 
number of small branches: the flowers come out towards the end of 
the branches in short spikes; are yellow, and appear in July. It is 
a native of Barbadoes and Virginia. 

The sixth species has the stem even, high, dark purple: the leaves 
like those of Laburnum, even, elliptic, smooth on both sides, an inch 
and half long: the stipules scarcely any: the raceme a foot long, 
pendulous: the flowers white, the size of those of Laburnum. It 
flowers in June, and is a native of Virginia and Carolina. 

The seventh species has a downy stem, six or seven feet high: 
the leaves unequally pinnate, composed of five or six pairs of leaf- 
lets: the flowers in short loose axillary spikes, large and yellow, not 
unlike those of Spanish Broom, void of scent: the pods larger, 
woolly, five or six inches long, having four or five large swellings, in 
each of which is a roundish brown seed as big as a pea. It is a 
native of Ceylon. 

The eighth is a shrub, with a round hoary-pubescent stem, and 
round spreatling sublomcntose branches, six or seven feet in height: 
the leaves on alternale, long, sprcadirg, round, Loary petioles, thick- 
ened at the base: leafleti opposite, mosily six-paired with an odd 



448 



one, entire, flat, hoary, white tomentose beneath, on short round 
petioles: the flowers in a sort of spike: the peduncle terminating, 
erect, a foot long, smiple, round, many-flowered: flowers close, 
biggish, peduncled, yellow. It is a native of the West Indies; 
flowers therein May and June. ; 

The ninth species has the branches round, even, purplish: the 
leaves alternate, unequally pinnate; leaflets subopposile, on very 
short petioles, oblong, blunt with a point, quite entire, glaucous 
beneath, smooth, spreading an inch long: the flowers on panicled 
racemcd branchlcts, of a white colour. It is a native of Japan. 

The tenth is a lender pubescent shrub, when more advanced in 
its wild state naked : the leaves alternate, unequally pinnate: leaf- 
lets twenty-three, narrow-lanceolate, equal, quite entire, shining 
above, subtomentose beneath: the raceme terminating, composed 
of white recurved flowers. It is a native of the Cape. 

The eleventh species is a shrub the height of a man: the root 
has the smell and taste of liquorice: the stem upright, round tuber- 
cledjgray: branches alternate, spreading, like the stem: the leaves 
alternate, unequally pinnate, spreading, eight inches long: pctiok^s 
round on one side, channelled on the other, pubescent: the leaflets 
from twelve to fifteen pairs, opposite, on short petioles, those ot the 
outmost longer, tjuite entire, one-nerved, briglit green, {)aler beneath, 
spreading very much, flat: the stipules linear, acute, pubescent, 
brownish, erect, permanent: the racemes axillary, solilar}^ pedun- 
cled, spreading, bracted, pubescent, four or five inches long: the 
flowers alternate, nodding, yellow, eight or nin(^ lines in length, on 
round pedicels jointed at the top. It is a native of Africa, and 
flowers theic in July. 

The twelfth has a shrubby, round, leafy, even stem: the branches 
almost upright, tomentose, somewhat angular towards their tops: the 
leaves scattered, on short petioles, ten lines long, and four broad, 
quite entire, rounded at the end with a reflexed point, grooved above 
and keeled beneath, coriaceous. On each side of the petiole an 
awl-shaped tomentose stipule, twice as long as the petiole: the 
flowers towards the end of the branches from the axils of the leaves, 



449 



solitary, on peduncles the length of the adjacent leaf, white-tomen- 
tose: seldom two-flowered. It is a native of the Cape, flowering 
from November to January. 

Culture. — ^The first five sorts are hardy, and may be increased by 
seeds or parting the roots. 

The seeds should be sown in the spring in pots of fine mould, 
and when the plants are come up they should be removed into 
separate pots, till they have obtained sufficient strength, when they 
may be planted out where they are to grow. 

The roots may likewise, in many of the sorts, be parted at the 
same season and planted in pots, or where they are to remain. 

The first and second sorts may also be raised from cuttings and 
layers, planted or laid down at the same season. These, when 
planted against a wall, so as to be protected from frost in winter, 
succeed very well. 

All the other sorts are tender, and require the hot-house or stove. 
They are increased by sowing the seed in the early spring, in pots 
filled with fine mellow light mould, and plunged in the hot-bed 
under glasses, or in the bark-bed. When the plants have advanced 
a little in growth, they should be removed into separate pots, filled 
with soft loamy mould, being well watered and replunged in the 
bark-bed till fresh rooted ; being afterwards managed as other exotic 
stove plants, but with little water. They likewise sometimes suc- 
ceed by layers and cuttings, treated in the same manner. 

The first sorts afford variety in the borders and among potted 
plants, and the latter in stove collections. 



3 M 



PLATE LI II. 



1. SEMPERVIVUM ARACHNOIDEUM. 

COBWEB HOUSELEEK. 

This genus contains plants oC the succulent, hardy, herbaceous, 
evergreen, and shrubby perenial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Dodecandria Poli/ginia, (Dode- 
cagynia,) and ranks in the natural order ot Sticculentce. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a six to twelve-parted pe- 
rianth, concave, acute, permanent : the corolla has six to twelve 
petals, oblong, lanceolate, acute, concave, a little bigger than the 
calyx ; the stamina have from six to twelve filaments (or more), su- 
bulate-slender : anthers roundish : the pistillum from six to twelve 
germs, in a ring, erect; ending in as many spreading styles: stigmas 
acute. 

The species cultivated are: 1. S. tectorum. Common Houseleek ; 
2. S. globiferutn. Globular Houseleek ; 3. S. arachnoideum. Cobweb 
Houseleek; 4. S. montaiiinn. Mountain Houseleek; 5. S. arboreumt 
Tree Houseleek; 6. Canaricnse, Canary Houseleek. 

The first has a perennial fibrous root: the root-leaves in form of 
a full-blown double-rose, sessile, wedge-shaped or obovate, somewhat 
more than an inch long, very fleshy, thick, flat above, a little con- 
vex beneath, keeled and whitish, smooth on both sides, the edges 
fringed with hairs and generally tinged with red, pointed, upright 
gradually smaller inwards: offsets on long footstalks, globular, the 
size of a pigeon's egg or larger, composed of erect leaves lying over 
each other: the flowering-stem upright, from nine inches to a foot 
in height, round, fleshy, pubescent, having alternate, lanceolate, 
thinner leaves on it, of a reddish colour, at top branched and form- 



451 



inga sort of corymb; the branches spreading and bending back: the 
flowers numerous, clustered, upright, pubescent, flesh-coloured, all 
growing one way. It is a native of Europe, flowering in July. 

The second species has the leaves much narroAver, and the heads 
furnished with a greater number of them than those of the first sort, 
which grow more compact, and are closely set on their edges with 
hairs: the offsets are globular, their leaves turning inward at the top, 
and lying close over each other; these are thrown off from between 
the larger heads, and, falling on the ground, take root, whereby it 
propagates very fast: the flower-stalks are smaller, and do not rise 
so high as those of the former; and the flowers are of a paler colour. 
It is a native of Russia, Austria, &c. flowering in June and July. 

The third has much shorter and narrower leaves than the first : 
the heads are small and very compact: the leaves are gray, sharp- 
pointed, and have slender white threads crossing from one to the 
other, intersecting each other in various manners, so as in some mea- 
sure to resemble a spider's web: the flower-stalks about six inches 
high, succulent and round, having awl-shaped succulent leaves 
placed on them alternately: the upper part divides into two or three 
branches, upon each of which is a single row of flowers ranged on 
one side; each composed of eight lanceolate petals, of a bright red 
colour, with a deep-red line running along the middle; they spread 
open in form of a star. It is a native of Switzerland and Italy, 
flowering in June and July. 

The fourth species greatly resembles the first, but the leaves are 
smaller, and have no indentures on their edges: the offsets spread out 
from the side of the older heads, and their leaves are more open and 
expanded: the flower-stalk is nine or ten inches high, having some 
narrow leaves below; the upper part is divided into three or four 
branches, closely set with deep red flowers composed of twelve pe- 
tals, and twentj'^-four stamens with purple anthers. It is a native of 
Germany, &c. flowering in June and July. 

The fifth rises with a fleshy smooth stalk eight or ten feet high, 
dividing into many branches, which are terminated by round heads 
or clusters of leaves lying over each other like the petals of a double 



452 



rose, succulent, of a bright green, and having ver}'^ small indentures 
on their edges: the stalks are marked with the vestiges of the fallen 
leaves, and have a light brown bark: the flower-stalks rise from the 
centre of these heads; and the numerous bright-yellow flowers form a 
large pyramidal spike, or thyrse. It is a native of Portugal, &c. 
flowers through the winter, commonly from December to March. 

The sixth species seldom rises above a foot and a half high, un- 
less the plants are drawn up by tender management: the stalk is 
thick and rugged, chiefly occasioned by the vestiges of decayed 
leaves: at the top is a very large crown of leaves, disposed circularly 
like a full-blown rose, large, succulent, soft to the touch, and pliable, 
ending in obtuse points which are a little incurved : the flower-stalk 
comes out from the centre, and rises near two feet high, branching 
out from the bottom, so as to form a regular pyramid of flowers, 
which are of an herbaceous colour. It is a native of the Canary 
Islands, flowering in June and July. 

A variety of this with variegated leaves was obtained from a 
branch accidentally broken from a plant of the plain sort, at Bad- 
raington, the seat of the Duke of Beaufort. 
A Culture. — The different herbaceous sorts are all capable of being 

increased without difliculty by planting their off'-set heads, which 
should be slipped with a few root hbres to them, and planted in the 
spring season on rubbish rock-works, or other places, or in pots for 
variety: and the tender green-house sorts may be raised from cut- 
tings of the branches and from seeds ; but the first is the better 
method. 

The cuttings should be made from the smaller branches in the 
early summer months, and be planted out in pots, or a bed of fine 
earth, in warm shaded situations: where the cuttings are succulent, 
they should be laid in a dry place for a few days to heal over the 
cut part; they should be shaded from the sun; and those in pots 
lightly watered in dry weather: when they are become well rooted, 
they should be carefully removed into separate pots of a middle 
size, being placed in the green-house. Some forward these plants by 
means of bark hot-beds. 



453 



The seeds of the Canary kind should be sown in the autumn or 
early spring in pots of light mould, placing them in a garden-frame to 
protect them from frost, having the air freely admitted in mild wea- 
ther: when the plants are come up, and have a little strength, they 
should be removed into small pots and placed in the green-house. 

The first sorts are ornamental on walls, buildings, and rock-works 
as well as in pots; and the last two kinds among other potted green- 
house plants. 



2. STRELITZIA REGINiE. 

CANNA-LEAVED STRELITZIA. 

This genus aftbrds a plant of the herbaceous exotic perennial 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Pentajidria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Scitayninea. 

The characters are: that the calyx is an universal spathe, termi- 
nating, one-leafed, channelled, acuminate, from spreading declining, 
many-flowered, involving the base of the flowers ; partial spathes 
lanceolate, shorter than the flowers : perianth none: the corolla is 
irregular : petals three, lanceolate, acute ; the lowest boat-shaped ; 
the two upper bluntly keeled: nectary three-leaved : the two lower 
leaflets a little shorter than the petals, from a broad base awl-shaped, 
waved at the edge, folded together, including the genitals, towards 
the tip behind augmented with a thick appendix, in form of half an 
arrow head; the lowest leaflet short, ovate, compressed, keeled: 
the stamina have five filaments, filiform, placed on the recep- 
tacle : three in one leaflet of the nectary; two with the style enclosed 
in the other leaflet : anthers Imear, erect, commonly longer than the 
filaments, included : the pislillum is an inferior germ, oblong, ob- 
tusely three-cornered : style filiform, length of the stamens : stigmas 



454 



three, awl-shaped, higher than the petals, erect, at the beginning of 
flowering time glued together: the pericarpiuni is a subcoriaceous 
capsule, oblong, obtuse, indistinctly three-cornered, three-celled, three- 
valved : the seeds numerous, adhering in a double row to the central 
receptacle. 

The species is S. Hegina, Canna-leaved Strelitzia. 

It has all the leaves radical, petioled, oblong, quite entire, with 
the margin at bottom waved and curled, very smooth, glaucous be- 
neath, coriaceous, a foot long, permanent: the petioles somewhat 
compressed, three feet long and more, the thickness of the thumb, 
sheathing, erect, smooth : the scape the length and thickness of the 
petioles, erect, round, covered with alternate, remote, acuminate 
sheaths, green with a purple margin : the general spathe a span long, 
green on the outside, purple at the edge; partial spathes whitish : 
the petals yellow, four inches long : the nectary blue : according to 
Curtis, the spathe contains about six or eight flowers, which becom- 
ing vertical as they spring forth, form a kind of crest, which the 
glowing orange of the corolla, and fine azure of the nectary, render 
truly superb. A native of the Cape. 

Culture. — These plants are raised from seeds, brought from their 
native situation, and sown in pots of good fine mould, plunged in a 
hot-bed to get them up; the plants when of some growth should be 
removed into separate pots, and be replunged in the tan-pit of the 
stove; afterwards, when the plants are large, they should have plenty 
of mould, that the roots may be extended into the rotten tan, and in 
that way render them more strong for blowing their flowers : it may 
likewise sometimes be raised from the roots, when they are suffered 
to strike in the above manner; it is said to succeed best in the dry 
stove and conservatory. 

It is highly ornamental among stove plan<s. 



PLATE LIV. 



1. SO LI DA GO STRICT A. 

WILLOW-LEAVED GOLDEN ROD. 

This genus contains plants of the tall, herbaceous, flowering, 
perennial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Syngenesia Polygamia Superjiua, 
and ranks in the natural order of Compositce Discoidea. 

The characters are: that the calyx is oblong, imbricate, common : 
scales oblong, narrow, acuminate, straight, converging: the corolla 
is compound radiate : corollets hermaphrodite tubular, very many, 
in the disk: — female ligulate, fewer than ten, (commonly five) in the 
ray: proper of the hermaphrodite funnel-form, with a five-cleft, patu- 
lous border: — female ligulate, lanceolate, three-toothed: the stamina 
in the hermaphrodites: filaments five, capillary, very short: anthers 
cylindrical, tubular: the pistillum in the hermaphrodites: germ ob- 
long: style filiform, length of the stamens: stigma bifid, spreading: — 
in the females: germ oblong: style filiform, length of the hermaphio- 
dite: stigmas two, revolute: there is no pericarpium: calyx scarcely 
changed: the seeds in the hermaphrodites solitary, obovate-oblong : 
seed-down capillary: — in the females very like the others: the re- 
ceptacle flattish, naked. 

The species cultivated are: 1. S. Firgaurea, Common Golden-rod ; 
2. S. Canadensis, Canadian Golden-rod ; 3. S. altissima. Tall Golden- 
rod ; 4. S. Mexicana, Mexican Golden-rod ; 5. 5. viminea. Twiggy 
Golden-rod; 6. S. bicolor. Two-coloured Golden-rod; 7- S. rigida, 
Hard leaved Golden-rod ; 8. S. ccesia, Maryland Golden-rod ; 9- 'S. 
flexicaulis, Crooked-stalked Golden-rod ; 10. S. sempervirens, Narrow- 
leaved Evergreen Golden-rod. 



456 



The first has a perennial root, of long simple fibres : the stem 
very various in height, from ten inches to three feet, commonly 
branching into a panicle, more or less flexuose, never entirely stiff 
and straight, leafy, angular, striated, a little downy; at the base 
round and often purple : the leaves elliptic-lanceolate, somewhat 
rugged, and stiffish; those next the root wider, on longer petioles, 
and more widely serrate; stem-leaves for the most part indistinctly 
crenate-serrate, sometimes almost quite entire, varying in size, often 
recurved ; the upper ones gradually diminishing into lanceolate 
downy bractes: all somewhat hairy, or covered with short stiff down, 
paler underneath; footstalks winged: the flowers in terminating and 
axillary erect clusters or corymbs, forming a dense leafy pubescent 
panicle, which varies extremely as to luxuriance and number of 
flowers; in a barren soil and on mountains being shorter, more dense 
and less compound. They are of a golden colour. It is a native of 
Europe, Siberia, and Japan, flowering from July to September. It 
has sometimes the names of Wound- wort and Aaron's rod. 

There are several varieties ; as the purple-stalked broad-leaved, 
which has the stalks stiff, purplish brown, two feet high: the panicles 
axillary and terminating ; each flower on a long slender footstalk, 
pale yellow, appearing at the beginning of August: the leaves lan- 
ceolate, almost four inches long, and a quarter of an inch broad, 
deeply serrate, pale green beneath. 

The Common Golden- rod, which has the lower leaves ovate-lan- 
ceolate, two inches long and an inch broad, slightly serrate, on pretty 
long footstalks: the stems slender, a foot and half high; with small, 
narrow, entire, sessile leaves: the flowers in panicled bunches, clus- 
tered together, forming a thick erect spike, appearing in xlugust and 
September. The narrow-leaved, which has the stalk round, smooth, 
a foot and half high : the leaves narrow-lanceolate, an inch and 
quarter long, and an eighth of an inch broad, almost entire, sessile : 
the flowers in small clustered branches from the axils, to which they 
sit- very close ; and the stalk is terminated by a roundish bunch. 
The Dwarf Golden-rod, which has the lower leaves indented : the 
stalk seldom more than a foot high, branching out almost from the 



boLLom : tlie branches terminated by short, clustered, erect spikes i 
the leaves on the stem and branches very narrow, acute-pointed and 
entire. The Welch Golden-rod, which has the lower leaves narrow- 
lanceolate, an inch and half long, and a quarter of an inch broad, 
smooth, slightly serrate, a little hoary on the under side : the stalk 
about six inches high, with the same sort of leaves on it, only smaller: 
the flowers in roundish clustered terminating spikes, much larger 
than those of the common sort, and appearing five or six weeks ear- 
lier in the season. 

The second species has the stalks round, smooth, and two feet 
high ; the leaves narrow and rough, with three longitudinal veins, 
two inches and a half long, and a quarter of an inch broad in the 
middle, sessile, ending in acute points, and having sometimes a few 
slight serratures : the flowers in a roundish terminating panicle, 
the lower spikes of which are reflexed, but those at the top erect 
and joined vcy close. These appear in July. It is a native of 
Canada. 

The third has the stems numerous, straight, rigid, from three to 
four feet and a half higli, the thickness of a straw or more at the 
base, round, slightly streaked, hirsute, clothed from top to bottom 
at short distances v/ith leaves, which are widish, oblong, pointed, 
rough, at their upper and lower parts thinly crcnate, in the middle 
serrate, the serratures minutely crenate; those on the upper branches 
not serrate, but only minutely crenate ; tliey arc green on both 
sides, with a few oblique veins, and are hairy along the nerve and 
veins at the back, but without hairs every where else: the flowers 
very many, on the upper branches, in long rod-like spikes, some- 
what reflexed, having four, five, or six florets in the ray: they appear 
in August and September. It is a native of New England, Virginia, 
and Carolina. 

There are several varieties; as the Tallest Golden-rod— the 
Hairy Golden-rod — the Recurved Golden-rod — the Virginia Golden- 
Tod. 

The fourth species has oblique stalks, a foot and half high, smooth, 

3 N 



458 



Avilli a !)ro\vn bark: ihe leaves sinoolli, spear-sliaped, entire, three 
inches long, and three quarters ot" an inch broad: the flowers come 
out on branching footstalks on the side of the stalks, are ranged on 
oiie side, and have a few small leaves under the flowers, which appear 
at. I he end of August. It is a native of North America. 

The (ifi.h has smooth erect stalks, a foot and half high: the leaves 
narrow, smooth, entire, dark green: the flowers in close compact pa- 
nicles at the top of the stalk ; spike short, clustered : the flowers 
large, bright yellow, appearing in September. It is a native of North 
America. 

The sixth species has the lower leaves oval, six inches long, and 
three broad, ending in acute points, serrate, having several strong 
longitudinal veins on long footstalks which have leafy borders or 
w ings : the stalks a foot and half high, branching out almost from 
the bottom, garnished with vSniall, s])car-shaped, entire leaves: the 
branches grow erect, arc closely furnished with small leaves, and are 
terminated by short close spikes of white flowers ; or rather, having 
a yellow disk and a white ra}^ iii close racemes. It is a native of 
Noi th America, flowering in September. 

The seventh has the stalks two feet high: the lower leaves ovate, 
stiff", smooth and entire, four inches long, and two inches and a half 
broad, on footstalks four inches in length ; those on the upper part 
of the stalk are spear-shaped, entire, and embrace the stalk half 
round : the flowers in loose, spreading, terminating panicles; spikes 
short, clustered, bright yellow, appearing in August. It is a native 
of New England. 

The eighth species has the stalk slender, smooth, a foot and half 
high : the leaves narrow-spearshaped, two inches long, and half an 
inch broad, indented on their edges, and ending in acute points: the 
flowers in a loose terminating panicle, with the spikes closer and 
thicker towards the top. It is a native of Maryland, flowering in 
September. 

The ninth has the lower le;ives four inches long, and almost two 
])road ; their footstalks two inches long, having a membrane or wing 



459 



on each side: the stalk rises two feet high; ihey are slender, smoolli, 
and of a light purple colour: the leaves ovate-lanceolale, indented, 
near two inches long, and three (Quarters of an inch broad, of a {)ale 
green on their under side: the flowers are produced in short bunches 
from the axils almost the whole length ; the lower spikes are an 
inch long, but the upper ones are almost round : the flowers are of 
a brimstone colour, and appear late in August. It is a native of 
Canada. 

The tenth species is remarkable for its red slalk, higher than a 
man, with very smooth and somewhat fleshy leaves, a little rugged at 
the edge, continuing the whole winter ; it flowers very late, so that 
in the Northern countries the frost commonly prevents them from 
opening. It is a native of North America. 

Culture. — These plants are all readily increased by slipping or 
parting the roots, and planting them out in the autumn or winter 
soon after their stems decay, or very early in the springl)efore they 
begin to shoot ; l)ut the former is the better season, in the places 
where they are to grow: they succeed in almost any soil or situation, 
and afterwards require only to be kept clean from weeds, and to have 
the decayed stems cut down when they begin to decay in the autumn. 
Wlien they have increased considerably in the roots, they should 
always be slipped as above. 

In planting out tiie}'^ require much room, as they spread consi- 
derably. 

They afford considerable variety and ornament in larger borders 
and clumps. 



46G 



2. SENECIO ELEGANS. 

DOUBLE PURPLE GROUNDSEL. 

This genus contains plants of the herbaceous, annual, and pe- 
rennial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Syngencsia Folygamia Supetfiua, 
and ranks in the natural order of Composite Discoidea. 

The characters are: that the calyx is common calycled, conical, 
truncate: scales awl-sha{>ed, very many, parallel in a cylinder con- 
tracted above, contiguous, equal, fewer covering the base inibricate- 
wise, the tops mortised: the corolla compound, higher than the ca- 
lyx: corollets hermaphrodite, tubular, numerous in the disk: females 
ligulate in the ray, if any present: proper in the hermaphrodites 
funnel-form : border reflex, five>-cleft : in the females, if any, oblong, 
obscurely three-toothed : the stamina in the hermaphrodites, fila- 
ments five, capillary, very small: anther cylindric, tubular: the pis- 
tillum in both: germ ovate: style filiform, length of the stamens: 
stigmas two, oblong, revolute: there is no pericarpium: calyx coni- 
cal, converging: the seeds in the hermaphrodites solitary, ovale: 
pappus capillary, long; in the females very like the hermaphrodites: 
the receptacles naked, flat. 

The species cultivated are: I. S. hieracifoUus, Hieracium-leaved 
Groundsel; 2. S. Pseudo-China, Chinese Grounsel ; 3. S. hasfatus^ 
Spleenwort-leaved Groundsel; 4. S. elegans. Elegant Groundsel, or 
Purple Jacobaea. 

The first is an annual plant, with a round, channelled, hairy 
slalk, rising three feet high: the flowers in a state of terminating um- 
bel, composed of dirty-white florets. It is a native of North Ame- 
rica, flowering in August. 

'J'Jie second species has a perennial root, composed of some thick 



461 



fleshy tubers, sending out many fibres on every side ; from which 
come out some large cut leaves shaped like those of the turnep, but 
smooth : the flower-stalk slender, a foot and half high, sustaining at 
the top a few yellow flowers. It is a native of the East Indies. 

The third has a herbaceous perennial stalk, branching out at the 
bottom, and rising about two feet and a half high ; having narrow 
leaves at bottom, seven or eight inches long: the upper leaves are 
smaller, and embracing; they are very clammy: the upper part of the 
stalk divides into several very long peduncles, each sustaining one 
yellow flower. It is a native of the Cape, flowering most part of th^; 
summer. 

The fourth species is an annual plant, having many herbaceous 
branching stalks, near three feet high : the flowers are produced in 
bunches on the top of the stalks; are large, the ray of a beautiful 
purple colour, and the disk yellow. It is a native of the Cape, flow- 
ering from June or July till the beginning of autumnal frosts. 

There are varieties with very double purple, and with equally 
double white flowers. The former is now chiefly cultivated. 

There are many other species that may be cultivated for 
variety. 

Cult lire.— The first and two last sorts are readily increased by 
planting cuttings of the branches in pols filled with fine mould in the 
summer season, shading them till they have taken root; and, as the 
winter approaches, removing them under the protection of the green- 
house, where they should remain till May, when they may be planted 
out in the borders or clumps. 

They may likewise be raised from seed, which should be sown in 
-the spring inputs, andp laced in a gentle hot-bed. 

The second sort should be more carefully attended, being raised 
from ofl'-sets, which should be planted in pots in the spring season, 
and plunged in the hot-bed of the stove, where the plants should be 
constantly kept. 

The first and two last sorts afford variety in borders, and among 
potted plants; and the second in stove collections. 



462 



3. SPARTIUM JUNCFXM, 

SPANISH BROOM. 

This genus contains plants of the- deciduous and evergreen 
kinds. 

It briongs to the class and order DiadclpJiia Decanchia and ranks 
in [he natural order of Papilionacecc or Leguminosa. 

The characters are: that the caljx is a one-leafed perianth, cor- 
date-lubular: al t!ie upper edge very short, below towards the tip 
marked with iivv loolhk ts, coloured, small : the corolla papiliona- 
c(>ous, five-celled : slanciard obcordate, the whole reflexed, ver}^ 
large : wings ovale, oblong, shorter than the standard, annexed to 
the filaments: keel two-pelalled, lanceolate, oblong, longer than the 
wings, (the carinal margin connected by hairs,) inserted into the fila- 
ments : the stamina have ten connate filaments, adherino; to the 
germ, unequal, gradually longer; the uppermost very short; the 
lower nine-cleft : anthers oblongish : the pistillum is an oblong germ, 
hirsute: style awl-shaped, rising: stigma growing to the upper side 
of the top, oblong, villose: the pericarpium is a cylindric legume, 
long, obtuse, one-celled, two-valved: the seeds many, globe-kidncy 
form. 

The species cultivated are: i. S. scoparium, Common Broom; 
2. S. jnnceinn, Spanish Broom ; 3. S. radiafum, Starry Broom ; 4. S. 
monospermiDii, W hite-flowered Single-seeded Broom; 5. S. spharocar- 
pum^ Yellow-flowered Single-seeded Broom; 6'. -S". Scorpius^ Scorpion 
Broom; 7- -S*. a/jgfi/ff/«;??, Angular- branched Broom; 8. S. spinosum^ 
Prickly Broom. 

The first grows from three to six feet high or more, \evy much 
branched; the branches upright, rushy, evergreen, angular, flexible, 
leafy, smo )th except the very young on(^s which are downy ; the 



46*3 

leaves ternate, small, ovale, acute, downy and edged with soft hairs 
bending inwards ; the leaf-stalks are also slightly hairy, and flat- 
tened : the flowers axillary, solitary or two together, larely three, 
nodding, on round smooth peduncles, furnislied on each side with a 
ver}^ minute stipule, of a fine yellow colour. It is a native of Eu- 
rope, flowering in May and June. 

There are several varieties, s(tme of which merit a place among 
flowering shrubs; as that with a purple calyx, and tiie flowers strongly 
tinged with orange, as well as that which is very hoary. 

The second species has the branches smooth, flexible, eight or 
ten feet high ; the lower ones have small tooth leaves, al the end of 
the shoots of the same year; the flowers are disposed in a loose 
spike, are large, yellow, have a strong agreeable odour, appear in 
July, and in cool seasons continue in succession till September. It 
is a native of all ihe Southern countries of Europe. 

There is a variety with double flowers. 

The third has low stems, with opposite four-cornered branches: 
the leaves opposite, sub-sessile: leaflets sessile, thin, subpubescent : 
the petioles extremely short, but permanent, three-cornered, gibbous, 
very blunt, thicker than the branchlet to be supported : the flowers 
terminating, in threes, sessile. In its nalurai state it is a low shrub; 
when cultivated it becomes much larger, though rarely exceeding- 
two feet and a half in height, but the branches spread very nmch 
and form a large bush; they are angular and pliable, and always 
come out by pairs opposite: the leaves narrow and awl-shaped 
placed round the stalk, spreading out like the points of a star: the 
flowers in small spikes at the end of the branches, bright 3'ellow, but 
not more than half the si^^e of the second sort, and without scent. It 
flowers in June, and is a native of Italy. 

The fourth species has a thick stalk, covered u iih a rugged bark-- 
when old ; it rises eight or nine ihct high, sending out many slender 
rush-like branches of a silvery colour, ahnost taper, which terminate 
in very slender bending ends; lliese have a few narrow spear-shaped 
leaves on the lower blanches: the flowers are produced in vt ry 
short spikes or clusters on the side of the branches ; are snjall aiul 



464 



vv'hiLe. It is a native of Spain and Portugal, flowering in June and 
July. 

T[ie fifth has an upright stem : the branches numerous, slender, 
round, smooth, slightly striated, having a few tubercles scattered 
over them, below leaflets : the leaves on the younger branchlets 
small, lanceolate, deciduous, silky, with very short hairs pressed 
close: the flowers small, racemed, each on a very short pedicel. It 
is a native of the South of Europe and Barbary, flowering in June 
and July. 

The sixth species is a shrub wholly covered with alternate spines, 
on which the flowers are placed; this renders it quite inaccessible: 
the branches and leaves are striated and ash-coloured, and the latter 
are a lilllc villosc: the flowers are yellow and rather larse. It is a 
native of the South of Europe and Barbary, flowering in March and 
April. 

The seventh has the stalks and branches slender, having a few 
trifoliate and single leaves towards the bottom : the branches have 
six angles or furrows : the flowers small, of a pale yellow colour, 
produced in loose spikes at the ends of the branches, rarely produc- 
ing seeds in this climate. It is a native of the Levant. 

The eighth species has stalks five or six feet high, sending out 
many flexible branches, armed with long spines: flowers terminat- 
ing in clusters, each upon a long pedicel : corolla bright ye llow, ap- 
pearing in June. It is a native of Ital}' and Spain. 

Culture. — The three first sorts are hardy, but the others more 
tender, especially in their young growth. 

They arc all capable of being raised from seeds, and the double- 
blossomed sorts by layers and cuttings. The seeds should be sown 
in the early spring, as about April; the hardy sorts in beds of com- 
mon earth, either in drills or by bedding in to the depth of an inch : 
but in the tender sorts in pots or beds hooped over to protect them 
in frosty weather. In the following spring they should be removed 
into nursery-rows or larger pots, according to the kinds, shortening 
their tap-roots, and setting them out in rows two feet apart, at the 
distance of one in the rows, to remain tw o or three years, when they 



465 



may be planted out in the shrubbery, or other places: the tender 
sorts in pots being removed to the green-house or garden for pro- 
tection in winter, being managed as the hardy sorts of plants of this 
kind. 

The layers should be laid down in the autumn or spring, and 
the cuttings may be planted out in the spring or summer, some in 
the open ground, and others in pots plunged in tlie hot-bed to pro- 
mote their striking root. They may be managed afterwards as the 
other sorts. 

This is the only certain mode of preserving the varieties. 

The hardy sorts are very ornamental in the borders, clumps, and 
other parts, and the tender kinds in greenhouse collections, and among 
other more hardy potted plants. 



3 0 



PLATE LV. 

1. SPIRiEA LOB ATA. 

LOBE-LEAVED MEADOW SWEET. 

This genus contains plants of the shrubb}? and herbaceous kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Icosandria Pentagynia^ and 
ranks in the natural order of Fofnacea. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed five-cleft 
perianth, flat at the base, with acute segments; permanent: the 
corolla has five petals, inserted into the calyx, oblong- rounded: the 
stamina have more than twenty filaments, filiform, shorter than the 
corolla, inserted into the calyx: anthers roundish: the pistillum has 
five or more germs: styles as many, filiform, length of the stamens: 
stigmas headed : the pericarpium is an oblong capsule, acuminate, 
compressed, two-valved: the seeds few, acuminate, small, fastened 
to llie internal suture. 

The species cultivated are : 1. -S". sa/icifolia, Willow-leaved 
Spirjea: '2. S. tomeiitosa, Scarlet Spiraea; ^. S. hyper k'lfolia, Hype- 
ricum-leaved Spiraea; 4. S. argeiitea. Silvery-leaved Spiraea; 5. S. 
chamcedrifolia. Germander-leaved Spiraea; 6. S. crenata, Hawthorn- 
leaved Spiraea; 7- S. triloba, Three-iobe-leaved Spiraea; 8. S. opiili- 
folia. Currant-leaved Spiraea; 9- -J*'- sorbij'olia. Service-leaved Spiraea; 
10. S. Aruncus, GoatVbeard Spiraea; IL S. Jilipendula, Common 
Dropwort; 12. 5. tdmaria. Common Meadow Sweet; 13. S. trifo- 
liata. Three-leaved Spirasa. 

The first has the stalks very taper, and rough towards the lop, 
and covered with a reddish bark: the leaves about three inches long, 
and an inch broad in the middle, bluntly serrate, and of a bright 
green colour. In rich moist ground the stalks rise five or six feet 



467 



high, but in moderate land from three to four; as their whole height 
is one year's growth from the root: they are terminated by spikes of 
pale red or flesh-coloured flowers. It flowers in June and July; and 
in moist seasons there are frequently young shoots from the root 
which flower in autumn. It is a native of Siberia. 

There are several varieties: as the Flesh-coloured Willow-leaved, 
the Alpine Willow-leaved, the Panicled Willow-leaved, and the 
Broad Willow-leaved Spiraea. 

The second species has the stalks slender, and branching out 
near the ground, with a purple bark covered with a gray mealy 
down: the leaves smaller than those of the first, downy and veined 
on their under side, but of a bright green above: the branches ter- 
minated by a thick raceme of flowers, branched towards the bottom 
into small spikes: the flowers very small, of a beauliful red colour, 
appearing in July, August and September. It is a native of 
Pensylvania. 

The third rises with several slender slirubby stalks five or six 
feet high, covered with a dark brown bark, sending out small side 
branches the whole length: the leaves small, wedge-shaped, having 
many punctures on their surface: the flowers in small sessile umbels, 
each on a long slender pedicel, and white: they appear in May and 
June; and as the flowers are produced almost the whole length of 
he branches, it makes a good appearance duruig the time of flower- 
ing. It is a native of Italy and America. 

The fourth species has striated erect branches, with short branch- 
iets: the leaves alternale, petioled, silky- tomentose on bodi sides: 
the racemes longer than the branchlels: the flowers very small, with 
villose germs. It is a native of New Granada. 

The fifth has abundant shoots, seldom two ells high, the thick- 
ness of the finger, wand-like, branched: the wood biittle; the bark 
of the shoots yellowish-brown, witu prominent dots scattered over it; 
the branches alternate, commonly angular, with a testaceous bark 
somewhat striated, and in the younger branches covered with a 
tender ash-coloured epidermis, which falls oft ; the annual shoots are 
grooved and pubescent: the leaves alternate, softish, pubescent with 



468 



prostrate hairs, quite entire at the base, but commonly gash-serrate 
from the middle to the end, where they are sharp: corymbs at the 
top of the stems frequent, many-liowered, terminating the annual 
alternate shoots: in gardens and in moist shady places these corymbs 
are more elongated; but in a ruder soil most of the peduncles are 
clustered at the top like an umbel: the flowers biggish, while, having 
a weak virose smell, and fugacious. It is a native of Siberia, &c. 

It varies very much, with larger or smaller leaves, more or less 
cut, but more commonly quite entire and ovate-acute. 

The sixth species has several stems, scarcely two ells high, very 
much branched from the bottom: the branches rod-like, round, with 
a testaceous bark cloven longitudinally: the leaves on the younger 
branches and annual shoots alternate, attended with sn)aller ones in 
little bundles, hoary or glaucous, three-nerved, hardish, varying in 
form and size; on the luxuriant shoots or branches sometimes ovate- 
acute, widish, serrulate from the tip beyond the middle; but com- 
monly oblong, bluntish, crenulate, or serrulate towards the tip, or 
more commonly quite entire: the corymbs at the ends of the annual 
twigs, very abundant, disposed along the branches on one side in 
hemispherical clusters: the flowers smallish, white, odorous. It is a 
native of Spain, &c. flowering here in April and May. 

The seventh has numerous stems, scarcely thicker than a swan's 
quill, very much branched, upright, with a gray bark more or less 
pale, and somewhat angular, with sharp streaks running down from 
the branches: the branches and branchlels alternate, those of the 
last year very smooth and yellow, leafy, and terminated by an 
umbel: the leaves alternate, on very short petioles, smooth, glaucous, 
wide-ovate, retuse, gash-trilobate: they vary even in the garden, 
with fewer or more frequent gashes, with the teeth or lobes obtuse 
or acute, in breadth. Sec: the umbels very frequent at the ends of 
the annual branches: peduncles often more than thirty, besides a 
few axillary ones scattered below the umbel: the flowers middle- 
sized, white. It is an elegant shrub, and a native of Siberia. 

The eighth species rises with many shrubby branching stalks, 
eight or ten feet high in good ground, but generally five or six; 



469 



they are covered with a loose brown bark which falls off: the leaves 
about the size and shape of those of the common currant bush, 
ending in acute points, and serrate on their edges: the flowers are 
produced in roundish bunches at the end of the branches; are white 
with some spots of a pale red. It is a native of Canada and Virginia. 
Jt is commonly known in the nurseries by the name of Virginian 
Gelder Rose. 

The ninth rises with shrubby slalks like the first, but sends out 
horizontal branches, which are slender, and covered with a brown 
bark: the leaves are of a thin texture, and a bright green colour on 
both sides, slightly and acutely serrate: the flowers in terminating 
panicles, small and white. It is a native of Siberia, flowering in 
i\ngust. 

The tenth species has a perennial root: the stem annual, from 
three to four feet high: the leaves doubly pinnate; each having three 
or four pairs of oblong leaflets terminated by an odd one: they are 
two inches long, and almost an inch broad, serrate, and ending in 
acute points: the flowers disposed in long slender spikes, formed 
into loose terminating panicles; they are small, white, and of two 
sexes in the same spike. It is a native of Germany, flowering in 
June and July. 

The eleventh has a perennial root, consisting of oval tubers or 
solid lumps, hanging from the main body by threads, which has 
given occasion to its common names, Filipcndula and Dropwort. 
These tubers enable the herb to resist drought, and render it very 
diflScult to be eradicated: the stem is erect, from a foot to a foot 
and half in height, angular, smooth, leafy, a little branched at top: 
the leaves alternate, interruptedly pinnate, serrate, and jagged, 
smooth, composed of several pairs of leaflets, all of each set uniform 
or nearly corresponding in size; the terminating leaflet three-lobed: 
a pair of roundish united indented stipules at the base of each leaf, 
embracing the stem: the flowers many in a cymose loose erect 
panicle, cream-coloured often tipped with red, or red on the outside. 
It is an elegant plant, which in gardens grows very luxuriant, and 
has often double flowers. It flowers early in July. 



/ 



470 



The twelfth has a perennial fibrous root: the stems erect, three 
or four feet high, angular and furrowed, tinged with red, leafy, 
branched in the upper part: tlie leaves interruptedly pinnate: leaf- 
lets very unequal in size, sharply serrate, clothed beneath with white 
down, the end one remarkably large and three-lobed: a pair of 
rounded serrate slipules are joined to the common leaf- stalk, and 
clasp the stem: the flowers white, in a large compound cyme, 
the side-branches of which rise much above the central one: it per- 
fumes the air with the sweet hawthorn-like scent of its plentiful 
blossoms from June to August. 

There are varieties with double flowers, and with variegated 
leaves. 

The thirteenth has a perennial root: the stalks annual, about a 
foot high, sending out branches from the side the whole length: the 
leaves for the most part trifoliate, but sometimes single or in pairs; 
they are about an inch and half long, and half an inch broad, 
ending in acute points, sharply serrate, of a bright green above, 
and pale beneath: the flowers in loose terminating panicles, on 
slender peduncles. It is a native of North America, flowering in 
June and July. 

Cnlture. — In all the shrubby sorts, this may be performed by 
suckers, layers, and cuttings. 

The suckers should be taken ofi' in the autumn and planted out 
where they are to remain, or in nursery-rows, to attain a fuller 
growth. 

The first sort requires to be cleared of these suckers every two 
years at furthest. 

The layers should be put down in the autumn or in the spring, 
and may be taken off" and planted as above, in the autumn or spring 
following: all the sorts may be raised in this way; but it is most 
proper for such sorts as dr not send off suckers. 

The cuttings may be made from the shoots of the preceding 
summer, and be planted out in a shady border in the early autumn: 
when they have become well rooted they may be removed and 



471 



managed as the others: they succeed in this way with more difficulty 
than in either of the others. 

All the herbaceous sorts may be increased by seeds, or parting 
the roots. 

The seed may be sown in the autumn or early in the spring; but 
the first is the better mode, on- a bed of fine mould : when the plants 
appear they should be kept clear from weeds till the autumn, when 
they may be planted out where they are to remain, or in the nursery 
for a year or two. 

The roots should be parted in the autumn or spring, when the 
stems decay, before they shoot out new ones, being planted imme- 
diately where they are to grow. 

The double-flowered and striped varieties can only be preserved 
in this way. 

They all alEford variety and ornament in the shrubbery and other 
parts. 



2. SISYRINCHIUM IRIDIOIDES. 

IRIS-LEAVED SISYRINCHIUM. 

This genus contains plants of the flowery perennial kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Monadelphia Triandria^ and 
ranks in the natural order of Emata'. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a common ancipital spathe, 
two-valved: valves compressed, acuminate: proper several, lanceo- 
late, concave, obtuse, one-flowered: the corolla one-petalled, supe- 
rior, six-parted: segments obovale with a point, from erect spreading: 
three outer alternate, a little wider: the stamina have three filaments, 
united into a subtriquetrous tube shorter than the corolla, distinct at 
the top: anthers bifid below, fastened by the back: the pistillum is 



472 



an obovate inferior germ: style three-sided, length of the tube: 
stigmas three, thickish, awl-shaped at the top, erect: the pericarpium 
is an obovate capsule, rounded, three-sided, three-celled, three- 
valved; with the partitions contrary: the seeds several, globular. 

The species are: 1. S. Bermudiana, Iris-leaved Sisyrinchium; 
2. S. anceps. Narrow-leaved Sisyrinchium. 

The first has a fibrous root, from which arise some stiff sword- 
shaped leaves, four or five inches long, and half an inch broad, of a 
dark green colour: from among these comes out the stalk (scape) six 
inches high; it is compressed, and has two borders or wings running 
the whole length, and three or four spear-shaped leaves embracing 
it; these grow erect, and are hollowed like the keel of a boat: the 
stalk is terminated by a cluster of six or seven flowers, on short 
peduncles, and enclosed in a two-leaved, keel-shaped shealh, before 
they open; they are of a deep blue colour with yellow bottoms, 
which, when fully expanded, are an inch over. It is a native of 
Bermuda. 

The second species has a perennial fibrous root, from which arise 
many very narrow spear-shaped leaves, about three inches long, and 
scarcely an eighth of an inch broad, of a light-green colour: the 
sialks about three inches high, very slender, compressed and bor- 
dered, having short, narrow, sword-shaped, embracing leaves: they 
are terminated by two small pale-bue flowers, enclosed in a two- 
leaved shealh, upon longer peduncles than those of the_ first sort, 
flowering about the same time. It is a native of Virginia. 

It is observed, that the leaves, stalks, and flowers of the first sort 
are three times as large as in the second, and the sheath encloses six 
or seven flowers; whereas the second has rarely more than two, and 
these expand only for a short time in the morning, while in the 
former they continue open the whole day. 

Culture. — These plants may be increased by seeds and parting 
the roots: in the former method the seeds of the first sort should be 
sown in the autumn as soon as they become ripe, on a border which 
has an eastern aspect, in drills at three or four inches distance, 



473 



covering thern about half an inch with fine mould: they should 
afterwards be kept clean from weeds with care. They succeed best 
in a loamy soil in a shady situation, and where the ground has not 
been manured. 

In the latter sort the seed should be sown in pots, in order that 
they may be protected in the green-house. 

The fn-st affords ornament in the large open borders and clumps, 
and the latter among other green-house plants. 



3 P 



PLATE LVI. 



1. TRADESCANTIA VIRGINICA. 

VIRGINIAN SPIDERWORT. 

This genus furnishes a plant of the hardy herbaceous perennial 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Hcxandria Monogynia, and 
ranks in the natural order of Ensatce. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a three-leaved perianth, 
leaflets ovate, concave, spreading, permanent: the corolla has three 
orbicular petals, flat, spreading very much, large, equal: the stamina 
have six filiform filaments, length of the calyx, erect, villose, with 
jointed hairs: anthers kidnej-form : the pistillum is an ovate germ, 
obtusely three-cornered: style filiform, length of the stamens: stigma 
three-cornered, tubulous : the pericarpium is an ovate capsule, 
covered by the calyx, three-celled, three-valved: the seeds few, 
angular. 

The species is T. Virginica, Common Virginian Spiderwort, or 
Flower of a Day. 

There are other species that may be cultivated. 

It has roots composed of many fleshy fibres: the stalks smooth, 
rising a foot and half high: the leaves long, smooth, keeled, em- 
braching: the flowers in clusters, composed of three large spreading 
purple petals: they appear early in June; and though each flower 
continues but one day, yet such is the profusion, that there is a suc- 
cession of them through the greater part of the summer. It is a 
native of Virginia and Maryland, flowering in June. 

There are varieties with deep blue flowers, with white flowers, 
with red flowers, and with purple flowers. 



475 

Culture. — They arc readily increased by parting the roots, and 
planting them out in the autumn, or early in the spring, in a bed or 
border of common earth. 

And also by seeds sown at the same seasons in similar situations^ 
the plants being pricked out into other beds in the summer, and 
removed in the autumn to the places where they are to grow. 

They aO'ord ornament in the common borders among other 
flower plants. 



2. TRILLIUM SESSILE 

SESSILE TRILLIUM. 

This genus furnishes plants of the low, tuberous-rooted, flowery, 
perennial kind. 

It belongs to the class ;md order Hexandria Trigynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Sarmenfacea. 

The characters arc: that the calyx is a three-leaved perianth, 
spreading: leaflets ovate, permanent: the corolla hus three petals^ 
subovale, a little bigger than the calyx: the stamina have six awl- 
shaped fdaments, shorter than the calyx, erect: anthers terminating, 
oblong, length of the filaments: the pislillum is a roundish germ: 
styles filiform, recurved: stignias simple: the pericarpium is a 
roundish berry, three celled the seeds many, roundish. 

The species are: I. T. cernuum. Drooping Trillium; 2. T. erectuni. 
Upright Trillium ; 3. T. sessile. Sessile-flowered Trillium. 

The first has a perennial tuberous root: the stem is erect, a foot 
high, simple, round, slightly striated, smooth: the leaves three 
together, terminating, on short footstalks, spreading, rhomboidal, 
pointed, entire, veiny, smooth, paler beneath: the flowers solitary, 
among the leaves, without bracles: the flower-stalk round, a little 
waved, smooth. It is a native of North America. 



476 



The second species has a taller slalk: the three leaves are placed 
at a distance from the flower, which stands upon a long footstalk, 
and is erect: the petals are purple, larger, and end with sharper 
points. It is a native of Virginia, Canada, &c. 

The third has a purple stalk: the three leaves grow at the top 
like the first: but they are much longer, and end in acute points: 
the petals are long, narrow, and stand erect ; are of a dark brownish 
red: the calyx leaves are streaked with red: the leaves mottled. It 
grows in Carolina and Virginia, 

Culture. — These plants may be increased by seeds, which should 
be sown on a shady border as soon as they become ripe in the 
autumn: when they appear in the spring, the plants should be kept 
clean from weeds, and in the autumn following be planted out 
where they are to remain and flower. 

They succeed best in a light soil, where the situation is rather 
shaded. They aflbrd variety in such places. 

i 

3. THALICTRUM AQUILEGIIOLIUM. 

FEATHERED COLUMBINE. 

This genus contains j)lanls of the hardy, herbaceous, fibrous- 
rooted, perennial kinds. 

It belongs to the class and oi'der Poli/andria Poli/gi/nia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Multisiliqua. 

The characters are: that there is no calyx, unless the corolla be 
taken for it: the corolla has four petals, roundish, obtuse, concave, 
caducous: the stamina have very njany filaments, wider at top, 
compressed, longer than the corolla: anthers oblong, erect: the 
pistillum, styles very many, very short: germs niany, commonly 
pediccUed, roundish: styles none: stigmas thickish: there is no 
pericarpium: the seeds many, grooved, ovate, tailless. 



477 

• The species cullivaled arc: 1. T. tuberosum^ Tuberous-iooted 
Meadow Rue ; 2. T. Coruufi, Canadian Meadow Hue ; 3. T. fktidtuny 
Fetid Meadow Rue; 4. T. angusfifh/ii/m, Narrow-leaved Meadow 
Rue; 5. T. lucidimi. Shining-leaved Meadow Rue; 6". T. aqui/cgi- 
foliuiii, Columbine-leaved Meadow Rue, or Fealhered Columbine. 

The first has knobbed roots: the leaves small, obtuse, iiulonted 
in three parts at their points, of a grayish colour and smooth: the 
stalks rise a foot and half high, and are naked almost to the top, where 
they divide into two or three small ones, under each of which is 
placed one leaf; every division is terminated by a small bunch of 
pretty large flowers, disposed almost in foini of an umbel, each 
composed of five white petals. It is a native of Spain, flowering in 
June. 

The second species attains the height of three feet: the stems 
suffruticose, dark purple, branched: leaves resembling those of 
Columbine, but glaucous: the flowers in many pale-purple heads, 
five-petalled and white. It is a native of North America, flowering 
from May to July. 

There is a variety, which is smaller, with pale purple filaments. 

The third has the stem about six or seven inclics liiiih: the leaves 
downy, composed of a great number of small leaflets, which are 
bluntly indented, and have a fetid scent: the flowers in loose 
panicles, small, and of an herbaceous white colour: the leaves are 
somewhat hairy on both sides, pulpy and soft: the petals themselves 
are somewhat hairy, in the young plant reddish, but in the adult 
whitish, almost a foot high, and not very leafy. It is a native of the 
south of France, Switzerland, &c. flowering from May to July. 

The fourth sj)ecies has the stems from two to three feet high: 
the flowers small, collected in terminating panicles, and of an herba- 
ceous Avhite colour. It is a native of Germanx'^ and Switzerland, 
flowering in June and July. 

The fifth has the stems upright, channelled, five or six feet high, 
having at each joint pinnate leaves, composed of many linear fleshy 
leaflets, which are for the most part entire, and end in acute points: 
the flowers are of a yellowish- white colour; they appear in July, and 



are succeeded by small angular capsules, with one small oblong seed 
in eacii, which ripens in August. It is a native of France, about 
Paris, and of" Spain. 

The sixth species has a thick fibrous root; the stems taper, rising 
three feet high: the leaves like those of Columbine: the flowers in 
large terminating panicles. It is a native of Scania, Switzerland, &c. 

There are varieties with a green stalk and white stamens, and 
with a purple stalk and stamens. 'J'herc are other sorts that may be 
cultivated for variety. 

Culture, — All the sorts are readily increased by parting the roots, 
and planting them out in the autumn when the stems decay, or in 
the spring before the new ones are sent forth ; the strongest where 
they are to remain, and the weaker ones in nursery-rows for further 
growth: they may also be raised from seeds, which should be sown 
in a bed or border in the spring; when the plants rise, they should 
be kept clean, and be planted out where they are to remain, in the 
following autumn. They afford variety in the borders, and other 
parts of ornamented grounds. 



PLATE LVir. 



TROP^OLUM MAJUS. 

GREATER NASTURTIUM. 

This genus furnishes plants of the herbaceous, annual, and 
perennial, trailing and climbing kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Octandria Monogy?ua, and ranks 
in the natural order of Trihilatce. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianth, five- 
cleft, from upright spreading, acute, coloured, deciduous; the two 
lower segments narrower; horned at the back with an awl-shaped, 
straight, longer nectary : the corolla has five petals, roundish, in- 
serted into the divisions of the calyx; two upper sessile; the others 
lower, with oblong ciliate claws: the stamina have eight awl-shaped 
filaments, short, declining, unequal: anthers erect, oblong, rising: 
the pisliilum is a roundish germ, three-lobed, striated: style simple, 
erect, length of the stamens: stigma trifid, acute: the pericarpium 
berries (or nuts) somewhat solid, three, on one side convex, grooved 
and striated; on the other angular: the seeds three, gibbous on one 
side, angular on the other, roundish, grooved and striated. 

The species cultivated are: 1. T. ?mnus. Small Indian Cress, or 
Nasturtium; 2. T. ?uajus. Great Indian Cress, or Nasturtium. 

The first has an herbaceous, trailing stem: the leaves almost 
circular, smooth, grayish: the Howers axillary, on very long j)edun- 
cles; composed of five acute-pointed petals, the two upper large and 
rounded, the three under narrow, joipted together at bottom, and 
lengthened out into a tail two inches long. 

There are varieties with deep orange-coloured flowers inclining 
to red, with pale yellow flowers, and with double flowers. 



480 

Tiie second species is larger in all its parts: the borders ot" the 
leaves are indented almost into lobes; and the petals are rounded at 
ihe top. The fruit consists of three berries, becoming juiceless 
when ripe, lungous, deeply grooved and wrinkled, gibbous on one 
side, angular on the other, narrowing upwards. It begins to tlower 
in July, and continues till the approach of winter. 

There are varieties with pale yellow flowers, orange-coloured 
flowers, and the double-flowered. 

They are both natives of Peru, and commonly esteemed to be 
annual plants, though they may be continued through the winter, if 
ihey are kept in pots, and sheltered in a green-house or glass case, 
in like manner as the variety with double flowers. 

The stalks will climb six or eight feet high, when thc}^ are trained 
up, and thus the flowers make a good appearance; but when they 
trail upon the ground, they will spread over the neighbouring plants 
and become unsightly: the flowers are frequently eaten in salads; 
they have a warm taste like the garden cress, and hence the plant 
has its common name of Nasturtium; they are likewise used for 
garnishing dishes: the seeds are pickled, and by some are preferred 
to most pickles for sauce, under the false name of capers. 

Culture. — These plants in all the single varieties may be increased 
by seeds, which shoukl be sown in the spring in patches where they 
are to flower in the borders, or in drills in the garden. 

'J'hey afterwards oidy require to be kept free from weeds, and to 
be well sup])orted by sticks. 

'J'ho double variety must be increased by planting cuttings of the 
branches in pots of light mould in the early part of summer, 
placing them in the shade, and giving frequent light waterings: 
those planted early may be rendered more forward by being plunged 
in a moderate hot-bed. 

It recjunes to be protected in the green-house in the winter, 
being well supported with sticks. 

They all afford variety in the borders, clumps, &c. in the sum- 
mer, and the double sorts among potted plants. 



PLATE LVIII. 

1. VALERIANA RUBRA 

RED VALERIAN. 



This genus contains plants of the hardy herbaceous perennial 
kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Triandria Monogynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Aggregatcz. 

The characters are: that there is scarcely any calyx; a superior 
margin: the corolla a nectariferous tube on the lower side, gibbous: 
border five>cleft: segments obtuse: the stamina three, or fewer (in 
one species four): filaments awl-shaped, erect, length of the corolla: 
anthers roundish: the pistillum is an inferior germ: style filiform, 
length of the stamens: stigma thickish: the pericarpium a crust not 
opening, deciduous, crowned: the seeds solitary, oblong. 

The species cultivated are: 1. V. rubra, Common or Broad- 
leaved Red Valerian ; 2. V. angustifolia. Narrow-leaved Red Valerian ; 
3. V. Cakitrapa, Cut-leaved Valerian; 4. V, Phu, Garden Valerian; 
S. V. iripteris, Three-leaved Valerian ; 6". V. montana, Mountain Vale- 
rian; 7- V- CelticUy Celtic Valerian; 8. V. tuberosa, Tuberous-rooted 
Valerian; 9- V. Pyrenaica, Pyrenean Valerian; 10. V. oUtoria, Com- 
mon Corn-Salad, or Lamb's Lettuce. 

The first has woody perennial roots, as thick as a man's finger, 
spreading very wide: the stems about three feet high, round, smooth, 
grayish, hollow: at each joint are two (sometimes three) smooth, 
spear-shaped leaves, near three inches long, and an inch broad ; the 
upper part sends out branches by pairs, which, with the principal 
stem, are terminated by red flowers growing in corymbs. It is a 

3 Q 



482 



native of France, Switzerland, Italy, &c. flowering all the summer 
and autumn. 

'J'he second species has the root not so large as in the first sort: 
the stems two feet high or more, branching on each side from the 
root to within six inches of the top: the leaves three or four inches 
long, but as narrow as those of flax: the upper part of the stem 
naked, and terminated by a compact corymb of bright red flowers, 
smaller than those of the former. It is a native of the mountains of 
France, Switzerland, See. 

The third is an annual plant: the lower leaves, which spread on 
the ground, are cut inlo many obtuse segments: the stalks, when the 
plants are in good ground, rise near a foot and hah' liigli, but upon 
dry stony soils not half so high, and when they grow out of the joints 
of old walls, not more than three inches in height; are hollow, 
smooth, and round, sending out branches by pairs from the upper 
joints: the segments of the pinnatifid leaves are very narrow: stem 
and branches terminated by tufts (coryud)s) of flowers shaped like 
those of the fourth sort, but smaller and tinged with flesh-colour at 
the top. It is a native of the South of France, (Sec. flowering early 
in the spring. 

It varies with the lower leaves pinnalifid. 

The fourth species has thick roots, fleshy, jointed, spreading near 
the surface in a very irregular manner, crossing each other, and 
matting together by their small fibres: many of the root-leaves 
entire, others divided into three, five, or seven, obtuse lobes of a 
pale green, atid quite smooth: the stems three or four feet high, 
hollow, sending out lateral branches by pairs: the stem-leaves oppo- 
site at each joint, composed of four or five pairs of long narrow 
leaflets, terminated by an odd one: the stem and branches termi- 
nated by coryEJibs of small white flowers. It is a native of Silesia, 
Barbary, Sec. flowering from May to July, with the odour of the 
flowers very pJeasant. 

The fifth has a perennial root, long, unequal, brownish, strong- 
smelling: the root-leaves oblong-cordale, blunlish, smooth, obtusely 
serrate-toothed, on long petioles; the two first of these that come out 



483 



lire more inclined to roundish, and are only slightly crenate: the 
stem upright, undivided, about a foot high: the stem-leaves two or 
three pairs, smooth, ternate, on short petioles: leaflets confluent at 
the base, lanceolate, acute, unequally subserrate, the middle one 
larger than the others: they vary much, being gash-serrate, crenate, 
or even quite entire; the uppermost are sometimes lanceolate-linear 
and quite entire, sometimes pinnate with five leaflets : the flowers 
numerous, white, in loose corymbs. It is a native of the Alps of 
Switzerland, flowering here from March to May. 

The sixth species agrees in stature and habit with the preceding; 
but this is more tufted, and has the root commonly creeping hori- 
zontally, more divided, and not smelling so strongly: all the leaves 
are acute, unequally serrate or toothed and smooth; the root-leaves 
are on long petioles, and more or less attenuated at the base towards 
the petiole: the stem-leaves vary in number, are on short petioles, 
and rather oblong: the stem is upright, simple, a foot or eighteen 
inches high: the flowers in a corymb, whitish or purplish. It is a 
native of Switzerland, Austria, Sec. flowering here in June and July. 

The seventh species has a perennial root, black, oblique, with 
long fibres, smelhng very strong, aromatic, caulescent at top and 
scaly with the remains of the deciduous leaves; it is often in tufts 
with an upright stem, four or five inches high: all the leaves are 
quite entire and obtuse; the root-leaves subovate, and attenuated 
into the petiole at the base; stem-leaves two, opposite, linear and 
sessile, about the middle of the stem, but there are sometimes none: 
the stem slender, simple, terminated by a few small whitish flowers 
in a corymb. It is found in Switzerland, flowering in June. 

The eighth species has roots perennial, and tuberous, by which 
it is easily distinguished. It is a native of the south of Europe, 
flowering in May and June. 

There is a variety Avilh the roots in the form of an olive. 

The ninth species has a perennial fibrous root, from which come 
out many heart-shaped leaves, on petioles more than a foot in 
length; they are four inches over each way, bluntly serrate, smooth, 
and of a bright green on their upper surface, but pale and a little 



484 



hairy underneath: the stalks rise three feet high, are hollow, chan- 
nelled, and send out opposite branches towards the top: the stem- 
leaves opposite, shaped like the lower ones, but a little pointed; 
and frequently at the top there are ternate leaves standing upon 
short foot-stalks: the stem and branches are terminated by umbels 
of pale flesh-coloured flowers, having very short spurs. It flowers in 
June, and is a native of the Pyrenees. 

The tenth has a small annual, fibrous, pale brown root: the 
stem dichotomous, somewhat spreading, from four inches to a span, 
and even a foot or more in height (in gardens); round, grooved, or 
angular, tender, often tinged with purple on one side: the leaves 
glaucous, pale, obovate-lanceolate or rather linear tongue-shaped: 
the bottom leaves many, usually entire, but sometimes very slightly 
toothed near the base, somewhat spreading, rather succulent, smooth, 
veiny, and a little wrinkled, from three-c^uarters of an inch to two 
inches in length: the stem-leaves opposite at each subdivision, sessile, 
remote, usually more toothed than the bottom leaves: both these 
and the stem are ciliate or fringed at the edge Avith fine white hairs: 
the tlowers are very small, of a pale blucish colour, and collected 
into a close little corymb, protected by an involucre. Jt is a native 
of Europe and Barbary, flowering in April and May. It is u^cd in 
salads in the early spring and winter, under the name of Corn Salad, 
or Lamb's Lettuce. 

There is a variety, which is smaller, with jagged leaves. 

Culture. — The two first sorts may be increased by parting the 
roots, and planting them out in the autumn or spring season where 
they are to grow. 

They may also be raised from seed sown at the same time, in 
the situations where the plants are to grow. 

The third may likewise be raised from seeds, by sowing them as 
above, without any trouble. 

The fourth may be increased by parting the roots, and planting 
them out in the autumn on fresh ground where they are to grow. 

The fifth may be raised in the same way, being allowed good 
room as it spreads. 



485 



I 



The tliree following sorts are more difficult to preserve, requiring 
a stony soil and cold exposure. 

The ninth sort may be raised from seeds sown in a moist shady 
border soon after they are ripe, managing the plants as in the first 
sort. 

The last sort, when cultivated for the purpose of salads, should 
be sown in the latter end of summer, or beginning of autumn, in an 
open place where it is to grow; the plants being afterwards thinned 
out by hoeing, and kept clean from weeds; when they will be fit 
for use very early in the spring while quite young. 

All tlie sorts except the last may be introduced in the borders, 
for the purpose of variety, and most of them continue man}- years. 

The last is used as an early spring salad herb. 



2. VERONICA SIBIRICA. 

SIBERIAN SPEEDWELL. 

Tins genus comprises plants of the herbaceous perennial and 
shrubby kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Diandria Monogynia^ and ranks 
in the natural order of Personata. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a four-parted perianth, 
permanent: segments lanceolate, acute: the corolla one-petalled, 
wheel-shaped: tube length almost of the calyx: border four-parted, 
flat, with ovate segments; the lowest narrower, the segment opposite 
to this wider: the stamina have two filaments, narrower at bottom, 
ascending: anthers oblong: the pistillum is a compressed germ: 
«tyle filiform, length of the stamens, declined : stigma simple : 
the pericarpium is an obcordate capsule, compressed at the top, 
two-celled, four-valved : the seeds numerous, roundish. 



486 



The species cultivated are: 1. V. Sibirica, Siberian Speedwell; 
2. V. Virgmica, Virginian Speedwell; 3. V. spuria. Bastard Speed- 
well; 4. V. maritima. Sea Speedwell; 5. V. longifolia. Long-leaved 
Speedwell; 6. V, hybrida, Welsh Speedwell; 7. V. incisa. Cut-leaved 
Speedwell; 8. V. decussata. Cross-leaved Speedwell. 

The first has a perennial root: the stem four feet high, rough- 
haired: the leaves six or seven in whorls, twice as wide as those of 
the second sort: peduncles terminating solitary; the lateral ones 
with two opposite oval leaflets: the calyxes five-cleft: the corolkls 
blue, with an oblong tube, and small acute border: the stamens and 
pistil twice as long as the corolla. It is a native of Siberia, flowering 
in July and August. 

The second species has the stems erect, four or five feet high, 
having four or five lanceolate leaves in whorls at each joint, serrate, 
and ending in acute points: the stems are terminated by long slender 
spikes of white flowers, which appear late in July. It is a native of 
Virginia and Japan. 

It varies with blush-coloured flowers. 

The third has a perennial root, sending out many offsets: the 
lower leaves two inches long, and half an inch broad, pale green and 
hairy: the stems a foot high, with very narrow lanceolate leaves, 
placed opposite, and having a few slight serratures on their edtres: 
the stems terminated by long spikes of blue flowers, which appear 
in June and July. It is a native of Siberia and Germany. 

There is a variety of this also with a flesh-coloured flower. 

The fourth species has the stalks not so long as those of the 
preceding: the leaves by fours and threes round the stalk, on longer 
footstalks; they are broader at the base, run out into long acute 
points, are unequally serrate, and of a bright green colour: the 
flowers are of a bright blue, and appear in July. It is a native of 
the sea-coasts of Europe. 

There are varieties with leaves opposite, in threes or in fours, 
with blue, blueish, flesh-coloured, and with white flowers. 

The fifth has the lower leaves two inches long, and an inch broad 
in the middle, drawing to a point at each end, serrate, and of a lucid 



487 



green colour: the sttms a foot and a half high, uilh leaves of llic 
same shape but smaller, and })hiced opposite; tliry are terminated 
hy long s[)ikes of blue flowers, which appear in June. It is a native 
of Germany, Austria, and J^ussia. 

Tiie sixth species has the slems very white and woolly, about a 
foot Iwgh: the leaves oblong, hoary, two inches and a half loncj, 
three quarters of an inch broad, sessile: the flowers deep blue in 
terminating spikes, and from the upper axils: ihey appear in June 
and July. It is a native of Russia, Ukrain Tarlary, &c. 

There is a variety with white flowers. 

The seventh has the spikes aggregalc, the flowers large, the leaves 
an inch long, lanceolate wedge-shaped at the base, with lanceolate 
segments. It is a native of Siberia, flowering in July and August. 

The eighth species is a bushy shrub about two feet high: stem 
upright, round, very much branched: the branchlets alternate, 
spreading, round or indistinctly quadrangular, closely leafed on every 
side, having a pubescent line on each side running down from the 
oppositions of the leaves, which spread very much, are scarce an 
inch long, acute, coriaceous, smooth and even, one-nerved, paler 
underneath, evergreen, border cartilaginous, on very short concave 
smooth petioles, gibbous at the base on the outside: the racemes 
single, short, few-flowered, towards the end of the branches, not ter- 
minating, but just below the top: the pedicels alternate, short, 
•quadrangular, one-flowered. The regular growth of the leaves de- 
cussated or crosswise, distinguishes this species immediately. 

Culture, — These plants may be raised by seed and parting the 
roots. 

Jn the annual sorts the seeds should be sown in the autumn or 
very early spring, in the borders or places where the plants are to 
grow, being lightly covered in: if the seeds be permitted to scatter, 
good plants may be raised: sometimes they are sown on beds to be 
afterwards removed. 

In the perennial sorts the roots may be parted in the autumn or 
early spring, and planted out where they are to grow, or in nursery- 
rows to be afterwards removed. 



488 



They should not be parted too small, or oftener than every two 
years: the large-growing sorts are proper for the borders, clumps, 
&c. and the trailing kinds , for banks and shady slopes, or other 
similar places: they are hardy, and require only to be kept clean 
afterwards. 

The eighth sort is readily increased by cuttings in the spring and 
summer, being managed as a hardy green-house plant in the same 
way as the Myrtle. 

In very mild winters it sometimes stands secure in the open air. 

The annual and perennial sorts afford variety in the borders, 
clumps, and other parts of pleasure-grounds, and the last among 
plants of the hardy potted green-house kinds. 



PLATE LIX. 



1. VINCA ROSEA. 

MADAGASCAR PERIWINKLE. 

This genus comprehends plants of the shrubby, evergreen, up- 
right, and traihng kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Pentandria Monogynia, and 
ranks in the natural order of Contorta. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a five-parted perianth, 
erect, acute, permanent: the corolla one-petalled, salver-shaped: 
tube longer than the calyx, cylindric below, wider above, marked 
with five lines, the mouth a pentagon: border horizontal, five-parted: 
segments fastened to the apex of the tube, wider outwards and 
obliquely truncate: the stamina have five filaments, very short, 
inflexed and retroflexed: anthers membranaceous, obtuse, erect, 
curved in, fariniferous on both sides at the edge: the pistillum has 
two roundish germs, with two roundish little bodies lying by their 
sides: style one common to both, cylindric, length of the stamens: 
stigma capitate, concave, placed on a flat ring: the pericarpium has 
two follicles, round, long, acuminate, erect, one-valved, opening 
longitudinally : the seeds numerous, oblong, cylindric, grooved, 
naked. 

The species cultivated are: 1. V. minor, Small Periwinkle; 2. V, 
major. Great Periwinkle; 3. V. rosea. Madagascar Periwinkle. 

The first has a perennial creeping root, with branched fibres: 
the Whole plant smooth and shining: the stems round, slender, 
leafy, erect when in flower, from nine inches to a foot in height, and 
much higher when supported by bushes, marked on each side with 
a groove faintly impressed; after flowering, prostrate, elongated, 

3 R 



490 



taking root at their joints. According to Woodward, the fiowering- 
stem is upright in the spring, but in autumn the flowers are borne 
on the shoots of the year, which are traiHng: the leaves opposite, on 
footstalks about one-fourth the length of the leaves, which are quite 
entire, evergreen, shining, somewhat like those of Privet, not having 
the fringed edge observable in the second sort: the flowers axillary,, 
alternate, solitary, void of scent, on nearly upright peduncles, almost 
twice the length of the leaves, round, smooth, and shining, pale blue.. 
It is a native of Germany. 

It varies in the colour of the flowers; with pale blue, with purple 
and white, and with double flowers; and the foliage is sometimes 
variegated either with white or yellow stripes. 

The second species is larger in all its parts than the preceding: 
the stems erect, finally rooting at the end: the leaves broad-ovate, 
three inches long, and two broad, of a thick consistence, finely 
fringed with short rigid hairs at the edge, on thick footstalks: the 
flowers solitary, alternate, on peduncles half the length of the leaves, 
of a purple-blueish colour. It is a native of France, Spain, &c 
flowering in May. 

The third has an upright branching stem, three or four feet 
high, when young, succulent, jointed, purple; but as the plant ad- 
vances the lower parts become woody: the branches have the joints 
very close, are covered with a smooth purple bark, and have oblong, 
ovate, entire leaves, two inches and a half long, and an inch and 
half broad, smooth and succulent, setting pretty close to the 
branches: the flowers axillary, solitary, on very short peduncles: 
tube long and slender: brim spreading open, flat, divided into five 
broad obtuse segments, which are reflcxcd at their points: the uppey 
surface of the petal is of a bright crimson or peach colour, and their 
under side pale flesh-colour: there is a succession of flowers, from 
February to the end of October. It is a native of Madagascar, 
China, &c. 

Culture. — These plants are ail capable of being increased by 
layers, cuttings, and suckers. 

In the first method, when the layers of the trailing branches are 



491 



put down into the ground, they readily take root at almost any 
season. This is very much the case with the first sort, as almost 
every joint furnishes plants in the course of the summer ready to be 
put out in the autumn. 

The cuttings may be made from the stalks and branches, and be 
planted in shady borders in the autumn or early spring, where they 
will become well rooted by the following autumn. 

All the sorts succeed in this way. 

In the third sort the cuttings should be made from the young 
shoots and planted in pots, plunging them in a hot-bed or the bark- 
bed, where they will become perfectly well rooted in the same year, 
and may be potted off separately, being placed in the stove, and 
shifted as may be necessary into large pots. 

This sort may likewise be raised from seed, which should be 
sown in pots in the early spring filled with light rich earth, covering 
them well in, and plunging the pots in the hot-bed, or the bark-bed 
of the stove; and when the plants have a few inches growth, they 
should be pricked out into separate pots, replunging them in a hot- 
bed, giving proper shade and water, managing them afterwards as 
the cuttings. 

The suckers may be taken off with root-fibres in the autumn or 
spring, and planted where they are to grow. 

The two first sorts alford variety in the borders, clumps, &;c. 
while the last has a fine effect in stove collections. 



2. VIBURNUM TINSU. 

LAURUSTINUS. 

This genus contains plants of the deciduous and evergreen 
flowering kind. 

It belongs to the class and order Pentandria Trigynia, and ranks 
in the natural order of Dumosce. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a five-parted perianth, 
superior, very smiill, permanent: the corolla one-petalled, bell- 
sliaped, five-cleft: segments blunt, retlexed: the stamina have five 
awl-shaped filaments, length of the corolla: anthers roundish: the 
pistillura i& an inferior germ, roundish: style none, but in its stead a 
turbinate gland: stigmas three: the pericarpium is a roundish berry,, 
one-Gelled; the seeds bony, roundish. 

The species cultivated are: 1. V. Lantana, Wayfaring Tree;. 
2,. V Opulus, VI dter Elder; 3. V. Lent ago. Pear-leaved Viburnum; 
4. V. Cassinoides, Thick-leaved Viburnum; 5. V. nitidum^ Shining- 
leaved Viburnum; 6". V. lavigatum, Cassioberry Bush; 7- V. nudum, 
Oval-leaved Viburnum: S. V, pru?iifoliuut. Plum-leaved Viburnum; 
9- V.dentatum, Toolh- leaved Viburnum; 10. V. Tinus, Laurustinus 
or Laurustine. 

The first is a thickly-branched shrub or small tree, having round, 
pliant, mealy twigs, with the same kind of tufted stellated pube- 
scence as is found on the flower-stalks, backs, and even upper sur- 
faces of the leaves: the leaves opposite, somewhat elliptical, cordate, 
obtuse, serrate, strongly veined, turning dark red before they fall in 
autumn: stipules none: the flowers whitish, in large terminating, 
solitary, many-flowered cymes. It is a native of most parts of 
Europe, flow^ering here in May. It is sometimes known by the 



493 



name of Pliant Mealy Tree; and according to Withering, tlie bark 
of the root is used to make birdlime. 

There is a variety in North America with larger leaves, of a bright 
green; and with variegated leaves in nurseries. 

The second species is a small bushy tree, smooth in all its parts, 
and very much branched: branches opposite, round: the leaves 
subcordate, with three great unequally serrate lobes, veined, paler 
beneath; their petioles bearing several cup-like glands towards the 
top, and a pair or two of erect linear appendages, scarcely to be 
called stipules, near the base: the cymes terminating, solitary, com- 
posed of many white flowers, radiant; the inner perfect, small, re- 
sembling those of Elder, those in the margin abortive, consisting 
merely of a large irregular flat petal without any organs of fructifica- 
tion: the stigmas nearly sessile, close together: the berries drooping, 
globular, crowned with five very small scales of the calyx, red, very 
succulent. It is a native of Europe, flowering early in June; the 
bright red berries ripen about September, and towards the middle of 
October the leaves assume a beautiful pink colour. 

There is an American variety, which is a shrub, that has the 
twigs of a shining red colour, and which rises eight or ten feet high,, 
with many side branches, covered with a smooth purple bark: the 
leaves cordate-ovate,, ending in acute points, deeply serrate, having 
many strong veins, and standing upon very long slender footstalks. 

There is another beautiful variety common in plantations under 
the name of Guelder Rose, bearing large round bunches of abortive 
flbwers only, which rises to the height of eighteen or twenty feet if 
permitted to stand: the stem becomes large; the branches grow 
irregular, and are covered with a gray bark: the leaves are divided 
into three or four lobes, somewhat like those of the Maple; they are 
about three inches long, and two and a half broad, jagged on their 
edges, and of a light green colour: the flowers come out in a large 
corymb, are very white, and, being all neuters, are barren; from 
their extreme whiteness, and swelling out into a globular form, some 
country people have given this shrub the name of Snozo-hall Tree, 
Itf is also sometimes called Blder Rase and Rose Elder, 



494 



The third has the branches bent or hanging down : the petioles 
waving on the edge: the leaves thick, like those of the tenth sort, 
smooth, serrulate with very small teeth: the germ terminating, awl- 
shaped, ventricose at the base. It is a native of North America, 
flowering here in July. 

The fourth species has the lowest leaves obovate; the next 
ovate; the upper ones lanceolate. It is a native of North America. 
It flowers in June. 

The fifth is a native of North America. It flowers in May and 
June. 

The sixth species has the leaves petioled, broad-lanceolate, 
sharpish, without any raised veins: the petioles decurrent along the 
back, whence the twigs are ancipital: the corymb short: the stem 
twelve or fourteen feet high, sending out branches from the bottom 
to the top: the leaves about an inch long, and more than half an 
inch broad, of a light green colour, opposite, on short footstalks: the 
peduncles axillary, very short, sui)porting small umbels of white 
flowers, which appear in July. It is a native of South Carolina. 

The seventh has a strong stem, covered with a brown smooth 
bark, and rising to the height of ten or twelve feet, sending out 
woody branches on £very side the whole length, which have a 
smooth purplish bark: the leaves opposite, five inches long and two 
and a half broad, smooth and of a lucid green above, veined and of 
a light green beneath, entire at the edges, (indistinctly notched,) and 
rounded at both ends; of the same thickness with those of the 
Broad-leaved Laurustinus: the flowers are produced in large umbels 
(cymes) at the end of the branches, are in shape and colour like 
those of the conmion Laurustinus, but smaller; and the stamens are 
much larger than the corolla: they appear in July, and are suc- 
ceeded by roundish berries, which, when ripe, are black. It is a 
native of America, flowering in May and June. 

There arc varieties with deciduous and evergreen leaves. 

The eighth species rises with a woody stalk ten or twelve feet 
high, covered with a brown bark, and branching its whole length: 
the branches, when young, are covered wiih a smooth purple bark: 



495 



the leaves two inches long, and an inch and quarter broad, sHghtlj 
serrate, and on short slender footstalks, opposite or without order: 
the flowers in small umbels (cymes) lateral and terminating; these 
are white, and smaller than in the first sort, appearing in June, and 
are sometimes succeeded by berries. It grows naturally in most 
parts of North America, where it is commonly called Black Haw. 

The ninth has the stalks soft and pithy, branching out greatly 
from the bottom upward, and covered with a gray bark: the leaves 
three inches long, and nearly as broad, strongly veined, of a light 
green colour, placed opposite upon pretty long footstalks: the 
flowers in terminating corymbs, Avhite, and almost as long as those 
of the first sort, appearing in June. It is a native of North America. 

There are varieties with the leaves smooth on both sides, and 
with the leaves downy underneath and drawn out to a point. 

In the tenth species the leaves, are seldom more than two inches 
and a half long, and an inch and quarter broad; they are rounded 
at their base, but end in acute points, are veined and hairy on their 
under side, and not of so lucid a green colour as the following sort 
on their upper. 

There are several varieties; as the smaller hairy leaved, in which 
the umbels (cymes) of flowers are smaller, and appear in autumn,^ 
continuing all the winter. The plants are much hardier. 

The shining-leaved, in vv^hich the stalks rise higher, and the 
branche s are much sslronger: the bark is smoother, and turns of a 
purplish colour: the leaves are larger,, of a thicker consistence, and 
of a lucid green colour: the umbels (cymes) are much larger, and so 
are the flowers ; these seldom appear till the spring, and when the 
winters are sharp, the flowers are killed, and never open unless they 
are sheltered. 

There is a sub-variety of this with variegated leaves; with gold 
and silver-striped; in which the branches are warted, the younger 
ones four-cornered: the leaves opposite, ovate, on short petioles, 
rigid, shining, perennial; the younger ones hirsute, with short ferru- 
ginous villose hairs: flowers in crowded cymes, with little bracles 
between them: the corolla white; and the berries, when ripe,^ blue. 



496 



The common, with narrower leaves, hairy only on the edge and 
veins underneath: the fruit smaller. 
And the upright Laurustinus. 

Culture. — These plants may some of them be increased by seeds, 
most of them by layers, many by cuttings, and a few by suckers. 

The seeds in the deciduous kinds should be sown in the autumn 
or spring in beds of light fine mould, being well covered in. The 
plants appear in the first or second year, and when they are of a 
twelvemonth's growth they should be planted out in nursery-rows, 
to be continued till of proper growth to plant out in the shrubberies 
or other parts of pleasure-grounds, as from two to five feet. 

In the Laurustinus kinds, the seeds after being mixed with mould 
in the autumn soon after they become ripe, and exposed to the ai^ 
and rain in the winter, should in the spring be sown on a gentle hot- 
bed, or in pots plunged into it; the plants being continued in the 
bed till the autumn, when they should be removed and managed as 
in the layer method. 'J'he plants raised in this way are said to be 
hardier than those raised from layers. 

The first sort is tedious in being raised from seeds. 

In the layer, which is the most expeditious mode of raising most 
of these plants, the young lower branches should be laid down in 
the autumn or spring, being pegged down in the usual manner in 
the earth, when they mostly become well rooted in a twelvemonth, 
and may then be taken oft' and planted out where they are to remain, 
or in the nurserj^; and sometimes, in some of the kinds, a few are 
put in pots. 

The best season for removing the tenth sort is in the early autumn, 
that they may be well rooted before the winter. 

The first sort succeeds best by layers put down in the autumn. 
And the striped vaiiety may be increased by budding it upon the 
plain sort. 

The cuttings may be made in the autumn from the strong young 
shoots, being planted in a moist border in rows, when in the following 
summer many of them will be well rooted, and form little plants. 
Most of the deciduous sorts may be raised in this way. 



497 



The suckers should be taken up in tlie autumn or spring ^yith 
root-fibres, and be planted out in nursery-rows to have a proper 
growth. The Guelder Rose may be readily increased in this way, 
and sometimes the Laurustinus. 

The fourth sort is rather tender in winter while in its young 
growth, as well as the sixth, and should have protection in that sea- 
son. A plant or two should be constantly laid in pots under shelter. 
This last is easily increased by layers. 

These plants afford much variety and effect in shrubbery and 
other parts of pleasure-ground, when planted out in a mixed order. 
The evergreen sort are often used to cover disagreeable objects. 
The flowering evergreens are likewise often set out in pots. 



3 s 



PLATE LX. 



1. WACHENDORFIA PANICULATA. 

PANICLED WACHENDORFIA. 

This genus furnishes plants of the exotic flowering perennial 
kind, for the green-house. 

It belongs to the class and order Triandria Monogynia^ and ranks 
in the natural order of En.sat(t. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a two-valved spathe: the 
corolla six-pelalled, unequal: petals oblong, the three upper ones 
more erect, three lower spreading: nectary of two bristles at the 
inner sides of the upper petal: the stamina has three filiform fila- 
ments, declined, shorter than the corolla: anthers incumbent: the 
pistillum is a superior germ, roundish, three-cornered: style filiform, 
declined: sligma simple: the pericarpium is a subovate capsule, 
three-sided, obtuse, three-celled, three-valved: seeds solitary, rough- 
haired. 

The species cultivated are: 1. IV. thyisijiora^ Simple-stalked 
Wachendorfia; 2. W. panicu/ata, Panicled Wachendorfia; 3. IV. hir- 
suta, Hairy Wachendorfia. 

The first has a thick tuberous root, reed-like, of a deep-red 
colour, sending out many perpendicular fibres of the same colour, 
and spreading into several ofisels: the leaves, which rise immediately 
from the root, are large, with five plaited folds; the biggest are two 
feet long, and three inches broad, of a deep green colour: the 
flower-stalk rises from the centre of the heads between the leaves to 
the height of three or four feet, with leaves of the same form with 
those below, but narrower, and ranged alternately, embracing the 
stalk half round with their base; the flowers when young are enclosed 



499 



in sheaths, which, after some time, open and make way for the 
flowers to come out; then they wither and, dry, but remain upon the 
stalk hke those of the yeUoAV Asphodel : they form a loose spike, 
and there are several upon one common peduncle, which open one 
after the other: the upper flowers stand almost upright, but the 
lower nod ; they are hairy and of a saffion colour on the outside, 
but smooth and yellow within. It is a native of the Cape. 

The second species, when in flower, is a foot high: the root 
perennial, a little creeping, furnished Avith oblong cylindrical and 
nearly perpendicular tubercles : the leaves radical, two-ranked, 
sessile, ecpiitant, vertical, spreading, dilated on the inner side at the 
base, channelled, linear-lanceolate, pointed, entire, nerved, bright 
green, very like those of the first, but only one-third of the size, 
dying soon after the plant has done flowering, and not appearing 
again for some months: the stalk erect, cylindrical, bearing one or 
two small leaves, branched, many-flowered: general flower-stalks 
alternate, spreading, racemose, bearing from three to five flowers, 
cylindrical, downy: partial ones short, downy, all directed upwards, 
single-flowered. It is a native of the Cape. 

The third seems chiefly to differ from the second in having hairy 
leaves, a more slender and taller stem, reddish-brown, and not green 
as in it; its branches more divaricate, the two upper lateral petals 
more contiguous, and its flowers when closed form a slenderer and 
more compact column: the incumbent anthers seem also to be 
shorter and rounder: the root-leaves oblong, lanceolate, three or 
four, about three or four inches high: the stem about three times 
their length: the segments traversed longitudinally on the outside by 
a brown hairy fillet; outer upper one wholly brown and pubescent 
outwards: the flowers scentless, opening in succession, closing to- 
wards evening: they expand in the month of July. It is a native of 
the Cape. 

Culture. — These plants may be increased by offsets, taken from 
the heads of the roots, in the beginning of autumn, planting them in 
pots filled with soft loamy card], mixed with a little sea sand, and 
Avhen the season proves dry, placing them so as to have only the 



500 



morning sun, until the offsets have taken new roots, when they must 
be placed in a sheltered situation, so as to have the full sun. On 
the approach of frosts, they should be placed in frames, and ma- 
naged as plants of the tender kind. 

The second sort is very impatient of cold, and seldom flowers in 
this climate. 

They produce variet}^ among other potted plants of tlie green- 
house kind. 



2. V I T E X N E G U N D O. 

FIVE-LEAVED CHASTE TREE. 

This genus contains plants of the hardy and under-shrubby 
kinds. 

It belongs to the class and order Didynatnia Angiospermia, and 
ranks in the natural order of Pe7\so?iatcc. 

The characters are: that the calyx is a one-leafed perianth, 
tubular, cylindric, very short, five-toothed; the corolla one-petalled, 
ringent: tube cvlindric, slender: border flat, two-lipped: upper lip 
trifid, with the middle segment wider: lower lip trifid, with the 
middle segment bigger: the stamina have four filaments, capillary, 
a little longer than the tube, two of which are shorter than the 
others: anthers versatile: the pistillum is a roundish germ: style 
filiform, length of the tube: stigmas two, awl-shaped, spreading: 
the pericarpium is a globular berry or drupe, four-celled: the seeds 
solitary, ovate. 

The species cultivated are: 1. V. Agnus castus, OflScinal Chaste 
Tree; 2. V. incisa. Cut-leaved Chaste Tree; 3. V. tnfolia, Three- 
leaved Chaste Tree; 4. V. Negundo, Five-leaved Chaste Tree. 

The first has a shrubby stalk eight or ten feet high, sending out 
their whole-length opposite branches, which are angular, pliable, 



501 



and have a grayish bark: the leaves for the most part opposite upon 
pretty long footstalks; they are composed of five, six, or seven leaf- 
lets, spreading out like the fingers of a hand ; the lower ones small, 
and the middle largest; they are smooth and entire; the largest are 
about three inches long, and half an inch broad in the middle, 
ending in blunt points, of a dark green on their upper side, but hoary 
on their under: the flowers are produced in spikes at the extremity 
of the branches, from seven to fifteen inches in length, composed of 
distant whorls; in some plants they are white, in others blue. They 
are generally late before they appear. They have an agreeable 
odour when they open fair, and make a good appearance in autumn, 
when the flowers of most other shrubs are gone. It is a native of 
Sicily. 

There are varieties with narrow leaves, with broad leaves, with 
blue flowers, and with white flowers. 

The second species has the stature of the preceding, but smaller 
in all its parts, with quinate acuminate pinnatifid leaves, pubescent 
underneath. It is a shrub seldom rising more than three feet high, 
sending out on every side spreading branches, which are slender and 
angular: the leaves opposite upon pretty long footstalks; some com- 
posed of three, others of five leaflets, which are deeply and rcgularl}^ 
cut on their sides, like pinnatifid leaves, and end in acute points: 
the largest of these leaflets is about an inch and half long, and three 
quarters of an inch broad in the middle; they are of a dull green 
colour on their upper side, and gray on their under: ihe branches 
are terminated by spikes of flowers three or four inches long, dis- 
posed in whorls; in some plants they are white, in others blue, and 
some have bright red flowers: they are in beauty from the middle of 
July to the beginning of September. It is a native of China. 

The third has the leaflets ovate, acute, quite entire, tomentose 
underneath, the two nearest to the petiole smaller: the stem is 
shrubby, branched, round, eight feet high, the thickness of a finger, 
procumbent, sometimes creeping: the leaves ternate, seldom qui- 
nate: leaflets waved, dusky, green above, cinereous-hoary beneath, 
soft: common petioles long, opposite: the flowers violet in dichoto- 



502 



mous, terminating racemes: the fruit small, globular, hard, smooth, 
black, like pepper, four-seeded. It is a native of the East Indies. 

The fourth species has the stem arboreous, twisted, the thickness 
of the human arm, with spreading branches: the leaflets lanceolate, 
for the most part quite entire, but sometimes serrate, flat-veined, of 
a dusky ash colour, on opposite petioles: the flowers purplish, in. 
loose, terminating, erect racemes. It is a native of the East Indies. 

Culture. — The fust sort may be increased by cuttings and layers: 
the cuttings should be planted out in the early spring, in a fresh 
light soil, being often refreshed with water till they have taken root; 
afterwards the plants must be kept clear from weeds, and be pro- 
tected during the following winter with mulch or mats; and about 
the middle of the following March, when the season is fine, be re- 
moved into the places where they are to grow, or into the nursery 
for two or three years to become strong; being pruned up to form 
regular stems. 

The layers of the branches may be laid down in the spring, being 
careful not to split them, watering them in dry Mcather; when in 
about a year they may be taken off and planted out in the same 
manner as the cuttinos. 

The second sort may likewise be increased by cuttings, which 
should be planted in pots, plunged in a moderate hot-bed, covering 
them with glasses; when well rooted they may be taken up, and be 
planted in separate small pots filled with light earth, placing them 
in the shade till fresh rooted, afterwards placing them in a sheltered 
situation, with other green-house plants, until the autumn, when 
they must have protection liom frost, and have very little water. 
They are late in putting out leaves in the spring, so as almost to 
appear dead. 

Tiic third sort is raised from cuttings, which should be planted 
in pots in the early spring, as April, plunging them in a moderate 
hot-bed, covering them with hand-glasses, being slightly watered; 
when they have taken root, they should have free air admitted in a 
gradual manner; then they may be taken up and planted out in 
separate pots filled with light earth, replunging them in the bed, and 



503 



giving due shade. They should afterwards have plenty of free air 
when the weather is suitable, being treated as tender plants. It 
must be constantly kept in the stove, having free air in the summer 
season. It retains its leaves all the year. This may also be raised 
from layers. 

The fourth sort may also be raised from cuttings, in the same 
manner as the second. 

The first sorts may be introduced in the shrubberies, clumps, 
&c. and the latter kinds afford variety in stove and green-house 
collections. 



THE END. 



T. Bcnsley, Piiruer, 
Bolt Court, Fleet Street, London,