Prof. C.A, Kofoid
Cbe new Salem
Report of the Jiddresses
and ProceedJiids of tne
Celebration of the isotb
Jinniversary of the Tn-
corporation of the town
of new Salem, at new
Salem on Cbur$day,Jlug.
20tb, 190? « « « •
• • • • • •
" • • • • •
• • • • • •
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^ranwript §ook anlr |ob ^rint, dfc^ange %ixttX
TABI.E OF CONTENTS.
Preliminary Arrangements, 3
Exercises of the Anniversary Celebration, 4-10
Address of Welcome, . 6-8
President Vaughan's Address, 11-12
Historical Address, 13-49
Preceptors of the Academy, 33-4
Trustees of the Academy, 37-41
George W. Horr's Address, 50-53
Letters of Regret, 54-60
Various Addresses, 61-62
Bear's Den, 63
Geography of New Salem, 64-5
Antiquarian Exhibit, 66-69
The Old Gun— Where is it? 70-72
New Salem Town Officers, 73-77
ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE MEETING.
w T THE annual town meeting holden March 3, 1903, it
^t\ was voted to observe the one hundred and fiftieth anniver-
JL > _^'"nry of the organization of the town of New'Salfem
as a district; in connection with the annual reunion of the alumni
of New Salem Academy, on the third Thursday of August fol-
lowing. The sum of one hundred and fifty dollars was appro-
priated for the expenses of the occasion, and a committee of
seven was .appointed to act in connection with the regular Aca-
demy reunion committee. The following were appointed viz:
Daniel Ballard, Eugene Bullard, Albert Ballard, Edwin F.
Stowell, Layman E. Moore, Willard Putnam, Mrs. B. F. Fay.
The reunion committee consisted of the following viz: Mrs.
Charles Aborn, Geo. Fisher, Miss Eliza Merriam, Frank Cogs-
well, Miss Luna Pierce, Fred Whipple, William Bullard, Mrs.
R. K. Seig.
At a meeting of the joint committees Eugene Bullard was
chosen chairman and Edwin F. Stowell secretary and treasurer.
The meeting was held as arranged on the 20th of August.
Although the day opened with a heavy rain storm there were
present during the day eight hundred people, many coming from
distant places to see once more the scenes of their early life.
new salem sesqui-centennial.
fro:ces©5:ngs of the meeting
:'c THe|e;ife;^^6^ ^eite ?ts follows:
' ' • ' ; ■ I=tR'EjSII?ENT OF THE DAY,
E. H. Vaughn of Worcester.
By Rev. Perry Marshall.
ADDRESS OF WELCOME,
By Fayette W. Wheeler of Boston.
By Eugene Bullard of North New Salem.
Dinner was served at vestry of Congregational Church.
Addresses by Hon. Richard Irwin of Northampton.
George W. Horr of Athol.
Rev. a. V. House of Worcester.
General Merriam, U. S. A., of Worcester.
Willis Sibley of Worcester.
W. A. Davenport of Greenfield.
Music was furnished during the day by the Farmers' Band
of New Salem.
At the academy was exhibited an interesting collection of
ancient relics contributed by the people of the town.
It is of course impossible to give a full list of all visitors, but
below will be found some of those noticed enjoying the day's
C. J. Moulton of Erving, Misses Lucy and Emma Grover of
Dana, George H. Shores of Springfield, Miss Ella Vorce of
JVEIV SALEM SESQU [-CENTENNIAL. 5
Orange, Otis L. Hager of North Dana, Mrs. F. W. Cook of
Athol, Rev. and Mrs. A. V. House of Worcester, Miss Louisa
Childs of Orange, Charles H. Cogswell of Wendell, Mr. and
Mrs. D. T. Ellis of Bridgeport, Ct., Daniel Hunt of Enfield, C.
B. Estey, H. L. Holden of Petersham, Dr. Willis Sibley of
Worcester, Dr. Clarence Whitaker of Worcester, E. C. HavSkins
of Dana, Eucien Stone of Orange, Proctor Whitaker of Orange,
Miss Clara Berry cf Dana, Daniel Beecher, H. P. Billings of
Hardwick, J. B. McGibeny of Philadelphia, Eliot F. Soule of
New York city, Mr and Mrs. W. H. Alden of New York city,
George A. Brown of Amherst college, Mr. and Mrs. O. A. Fay
of Athol, Henry C. Ellis of Millington, Mr. and Mrs. Chas. F.
Triley of Providence, R. I., Capt. George R. Hanson of Green-
wich Village and Miss C. C. Douglass of Greenwich, Clayton
Grover of Dana, D. E. Hunt, Enfield, Miss A. Tenny, Millers
Falls, Angle V. Davis, Athol, C. C. Brooks, Orange, Mr. and
Mrs. D. F. Carpenter, Reeds Ferry, N. H., Olive C. Edwards,
Holyoke, John B. Farnsworth, Leominster, W. H. Sawtelle.
Orange, Dr. C. E. Smith, Guy Drury, Andrew Bigelow, Cor-
nelius Leonard of Athol, Abbie A. Lincoln, Dana, Mrs. Clara
Rice, Seymour, Conn., Miss Ethel Rice, Seymour, Mrs. Charles
Grout, Millington, Mrs. Fred L. Morrison, Shutesbury, R. S.
Chaffee, Enfield, W. D. Stowell, Levcrett, Mrs. W. Wood,
Orange, Mrs. W. C. Willard, Orange, H. O. Knight, Uxbridge,
R. N. and Mrs. Edna Doubleday, No. Dana, M.N. Doubleday,
North Dana, Harriet E. Gibbs, Atlanta, Georgia, Lizzie A.
Wilbur, Boston, Mrs. R. E. Carpenter, Orange, Mrs. D. A.
Chickering, Enfield, G. O. Chickering, Whitinsville, Mr. and
Mrs. Miner Brown, Athol, W. H. Sawyer, Littleton, Mr. and
Mrs. Charles Thurber, Leverett, M. L. Hoyt, Wendell, Mr.
and Mrs. C. W. Felton, Enfield, Miss Lillian Cogswell, Enfield,
A. Towne, Springfield, Mattie Childs, Orange.
ADDRESS OF WELCOME
By Fayette W. Wheeler.
It is with many pleasant emotions that I look back upon the
years of my boyhood spent here among you. I remember so
well walking to church on Sundays, of the friendly greetings,
of sitting in the family pew, and listening to the grand old an-
thems sung by the clear, strong voices of our choir, and how
much I enjoyed that music. Mrs. Charles Chandler presided at
the organ, while Mr. Gill, and later Porter Eaton, were the
leaders of the choir. Some of the singers' voices are now
hushed forever, but the songs tliey sung still live in my memory.
I love to think of our old pastor, Rev. David Eastman, and
family. He was a minister of the old school, refined and court-
eous, preaching wath devoted fervor the gospel of our Lord and
Saviour, Jesus Christ. Then after the morning service came
the Sunday school, of which Deacon Poole, was superintendent
for many j-ears. We had few of the modern Sunda}^ school
melhods in that school, but the lessons taught there have, I am
sure, exerted a most salutary influence over many boys and
girls in their after lives.
I recall most vividly my first day at yonder academy, my
meeting with Prof. Stratton, the principal, and my first impress-
ion of academic life. I love to think of the lyceum, and of those
who took part in the debates on those momentous questions,
many of which originated in the fertile brains of our committee.
The social gatherings, the musicals and literary entertainments,
the May holiday in the woods, when we gathered the sweet-
NE W SALEM SESQ Uf- CENTENNIAL. ^ 7
scented arbutus, the autumnal field-day. All these form many
pleasant pictures for memory to dwell upon. The recollections
of these pleasant scenes and associations are very dear to me,
and, in the years since spent in the busy life of the city, they
ofttimes seem to me as the shaded side of the hot and dusty way
of life, or as the grasp of a warm, friendly hand in a far away
We have assembled on this occasion to celebrate in an appro-
priate manner the 150th anniversary of the founding of the town
of New Salem. It was an important event 150 years ago, and
we do well to thus honor the sturdy line of patriotic citizens
who founded and maintained its institutions.
In order to comprehend the full significance of this hour, and
understand the impelling force of circumstances which rendered
this celebration possible, we must consider the pious and liberty-
loving ancestry from which we sprang, and turn back to that
never-to-be-forgotten December day when a band of God-fearing
men and women moored their frail bark on the wild New Eng-
Welcome back to New Salem, to its academy, and all the old
associations which cluster about this beautiful spot. New Salem
has ever been noted from the earliest days for her generous hos-
pitality. She has never yet been weighed in the balance and
found wanting, and I feel certain that on this occasion her citi
zens will maintain her well-merited reputation. .
Once more all roads lead to New Salem, the latch-string is
out, and again I extended to you all a most cordial welcome.
At the morning session the church was comfortably filled,
while in the afternoon there was not a vacant seat to be found,
and it was necessary to bring in chairs to accommodate the crowd.
Both the outside of the church and academy bore tasteful dec-
8 NEW SALEM SESQ (//- CENTENNIAL.
orations of red, white and blue streamers, and interwoven at the
top with neat effect. The interior of the church was attired in
anniversary gown. It has recentl}- been repainted in a fresh
and pleasing tint. A new stage has been erected, which adds
much to the convenience of the edifice. The front of the stage
was banked with goldenrod, and these simple decorations were
in fine harmony with the recently renovated building.
Another interesting feature, which was much appreciated by
the man}^ visitors, was several stone slabs, properly marked,
showing old landmarks. They are a permanent thing and as
years go by will be more and more interesting. The site of the
first church, near the present one, was one of the places marked,
as well as the site of the old fort almost opposite the academy,
"erected by the early settlers in defence against Indian hostil
ities in 1740."
The large collection of antiques and relics in the Academy
was visited by a large number throughout the day. This ex-
hibition was in charge of Chas. P. Johnson, and was one of the
most creditable ever seen in this section. There were multitudes
of interesting things, averaging in age from 50 to over 200 years.
It is wonderful what an assortment could be gathered together,
and the interest manifested in it was clearly shown by the
crowded condition of the room throughout the entire day. Else-
where we give a partial list of the collection.
A most enjoyed portion of the day was the really fine music
by the New Salem band which gave two concerts, from 9 to 10,
and from 4 to 5, as w^ell as selections in the hall both morning
and afternoon. The w^ork was very creditable indeed and the
musicians received hearty applause for their music. The two
concerts rendered were as foUow^s:
NEW SALEM SESQUl-CENTENNIAL.
R. B. Hall
Medley of War
. by Dalbey
"The Jolly Coasters,"
"A Buffalo Review"
Mr. Arthur Martfn.
March, Characteristic, "Alagazam"
"Something Doing' '
Anniversary badges were in great demand. They were of
neat design and will serve as pleasant reminders of the day
It is interesting to note that the first reunion of the Academy
was held 29 years ago last Thursday to a day, and there were a
number present who were at this reunion.
Mrs. R. K. Sieg was in her accustomed place near the south
entrance with the bundle of Reunion Banners and the registra-
tion book. The Banner this year was of unusual interest and
its pages were eagerly scanned. Mrs. Sieg was heartily com-
plimented on the splendid success of this number. It has
scarcely ever been equalled.
Ernest H. Vaughan of Worcester made an ideal presiding
officer. He was full of life and vigor and his introduction of
speakers and his pleasant way of making announcements met
10 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
with much favor. Mr. Vaughan as president has been a hard
worker, despite his busy law duties in Worcester and his re-
election was a deserved tribute to good and effective work. Mr.
Vaughan stated at the anniversary that he could not under any
circumstances accept a re-election, as he should probably be out
of the country next August, but the election stood and probably
if Mr. Vaughan cannot be present the vice-president, Henry P.
Billings of Hardwick will take charge.
PRESIDENT VAUGHAN'S WELCOME
In opening the afternoon exercises, President Vaughan said
that there were always many disappointments in life and the
day's program was not without them. He spoke feelingly of
the absence of Congressman Gillett and of his recent accident.
Mr. Vaughan then introduced Councillor Richard W. Irwin of
Northampton, who delivered the oration of the day. Mr. Irwin
proved to be a delightful speaker, intermingling humor and lofty
references to New England character, and showing his versatil-
ity in many ways throughout the address. He said he brought
congratulations direct from Gov. Bates who, had not another
engagement interfered, would have been present at the anniver-
sary. Mr. Irwin humorously spoke of his college classmate, E.
H. Vaughan, and said he had always understood that New Salem
was a very healthy place, that none but visitors ever died, and
he sincerely hoped he would not be numbered among the miss-
ing at the close of the day's exercises. The American, said the
speaker, is a composite of all nations; he came from no one in-
dividually. The freedom and blessings we are now enjoying
came to us through hardships and privations suffered by our
forefathers. Right here in New Salem the early settlers endured
much, the fruits of which the present day residents are enjoying.
The public mind is influenced by argument slowly, by event
quickly. It was the event of the Boston massacre that influenced
the public mind, already aflame, to a higher and more decisive
degree. Mr. Irwin spoke of the events which liberated the En-
glish speaking people, and of the Puritan fathers and their hard*
ships and sufferings. The free schools and free church were
12 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
both preceded^ by the free ballot. The Puritan contained the
germs of our national greatness. New Salem is not like a hill
of potatoes, "the best part under the ground," for there are
many active, energetic people here and it is well shown by this
celebration. There were small beginnings and big results.
There is nothing in the history of the world equal to the re-
sults of what the Puritans did many years ago. Mr. Irwin told
of the many acts of loyalty which occurred in Massachusetts in
early days, and of her record along patriotic lines. Education
has been the anchor to the windward through its long history.
The speaker told of the benefits of academic life and the good
it had done to multitudes of j^oung men and women. He inter-
spersed his remarks throughout with spicy anecdotes and pleas-
ant stories, and was heartily applauded at the close.
By Eugene BulIvArd.
Concerning the history of the territory occupied by the town
of New Salem, previous to its occupation by the white man, w^e
know but little, and to that little nothing more will ever be
added. We know that these hills and valleys have existed
from the earliest periods of time. We know" that the waters of
these rivers and brooks, have ever been flowing toward the
ocean. We know that this whole region for a hundred years
after the landing of the pilgrims at Plymouth Rock, was an
unbroken forest, an unexplored wilderness. Its hills and valleys
were covered with a heavy growth of tall pines, mammoth hem-
locks, chestnut, oak, birch and ash. And in these primeval
forests was the home of the bear, the panther and the wolf.
And on these grassy meadows, along the streams, was the feed-
ing places of the deer and the moose. The wild turkey and
the partridge was to be found everywhere. The pickerel and
the trout were plenty in the ponds and brooks, and in the spring
time the shad and the salmon came up from their home in the
ocean and were abundant in all these streams.
The Indian had been in possession of this land for unnumbered
generations. They were branches or clans of the Nipnets or
Nipmuck, whose domain extended from Northfield on the north
to Springfield on the south. They usually had no fixed place
of habitation, there was no land in this vicinity upon which
they raised corn; they remained only at one place while the
game and fish were plenty. But there were two places upon
our territory that were more prominentl}^ occupied; one was up-
14 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
on the bow between the Spectacle ponds near the village of
South Athol and the other at a place called the Bears Den, near
the village of North New Salem; the latter was the general
camping-place of all the surrounding clans. Here on the north-
ern cliff a hundred feet above the roaring waters of Swift river,
in times of war, they met to celebrate their victories over their
enemies, and when defeated it was here they hid away in the
crevices of the rocks.
Tradition tells us, and it is confirmed by history, that King
Philip in the summer of 1675. a few days previous to his attack
upon old Deerfield was at the "Bears Den" for a day or two,
and that he gathered around him upon the council ground the
chiefs of all the neighboring clans, and warned them of the dan-
ger that was before them, and asked for their help in driving
the white man back into the sea from whence he came. In the
wars with the Indians previous to the settlement of our town,
the white man had been victorious in all directions and the
Indian had learned that he was his superior, and that he was
here to stay; so when our first settler came, they made no re-
sistance to his coming, but were ever ready to strike a blow
upon the new comer, when it could be done without danger to
himself. And while no battle took place with the Indians in
our town and no lives were lost, the early settler was for several
years obliged to be ready at all times to defend himself, his wife
and his children. Tradition tells us that at the time of the set-
tlement of our town, the number of Indians in this vicinity was
much less than in previous times.
The township of New Salem was first granted to Joseph An-
drews and others of Salem in 1729, but they did not meet the
conditions required, and on December 31, 1734 the general
court granted to Daniel Kpes, Benjamin Brown and others living
in Salem a grant for a township equal to six miles square, and
NE IV SALEM SESQ Ul- CENTENNIAL. 75
later issued to them another grant of four thousand acres. On
the 2oth of August 1735 the proprietors effected an organization
and located the township upon the territory now occupied by
the town of New Salem. The tract as laid out was about ten
miles long and 31-2 miles wide, and contained 30,060 acres.
The additional tract was annexed to the northern end of the
new township, making it thirteen miles in length. Later it was
widened on the west by the annexation of a part of Shutesbury.
It was shortened at the south end by the setting off of a tract to
Prescott. In 1830 and 1836 large tracts were taken from the
north and east parts and annexed to Athol and Orange
The conditions imposed upon the settlers of the new township
were as follows, viz: Sixty home lots were to be laid out in a
defensable manner. One lot was for the home of the minister;
one lot was for the support of the minister; one lot was for the
benefit of schools. Each settler was to pay live lbs. for his lot,
and give bond for twenty-five lbs., that he would within three
years build a house seven foot stud and 18 feet square and have
seven acres in grass or grain; and that within five years, they
should settle a learned minister. Whoever failed to comply
with these conditions forfeited his right. The land was sur-
veyed and a plan of the township was made upon parchment.
This parchment with many other papers relating to the early
history of the town, were destroyed by fire in 1856. Thus most
that we know concerning the first settlement our town comes
down to us through the uncertain traditions of the past.
It was nearly three years before anyone could be induced to
settle. They eventually obtained the promise of Jeremiah
Meacham of Salem to make the first settlement; the proprietors
agreeing to make him a present of 10 lbs. He came with his
family in the spring of 1737 and located one mile north of the
centre of the town upon the farm now occupied by Frank A.
i6 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
Hatstat. He first built a log cabin and then commenced to pre-
pare his land for cultivation. His cabin was located upon the
spot now occupied by Mr. Hatstat's house. He was a brave
man, and his wife was like unto him, brave. This family even-
tually consisted of six sons and three daughters. Five of these
sons took an honorable part in the great struggle for independ-
ance. In Pequoig, ten miles to the northeast of him, were a
few white settlers, but in all other directions he was twenty
miles from neighbors. He was soon followed by other brave
settlers. Amos loster settled in the west part of the township,
upon the land now occupied by Charles A. Merriam. Mr. Fos-
ter was three weeks in making the journey from Salem with an
ox team, mostly through an unbroken wilderness. His great-
grand- daughter, Mrs. Abby Giles Herrick, who is living near
us, at an advanced age, is patiently awaiting the call of the
Jeremiah Ballard settled one-fourth mile to the north of the
centre; Benjamin Stacy located 2 1-2 miles to the south; Daniel
Shaw settled near by him; Samuel King in the south-west; Sam-
uel Pierce, Amos Putnam and James Cook came a year later.
In the extreme north part of the township one of the first settlers
was Jonathan Chase; he walked from Salem alone and brought
upon his shoulder a bushel of rye and in his hand a heavy iron
kettle, which contained the provisions for his journey. There
after settlers came rapidly, nearly all of them coming from Salem
and towns in that vicinity, and the wilderness here and there
began to show garden spots, where our forefathers had cleared
away the giants of the forest and caused the earth to bring forth
The first grist mill was built by James Cook in 1740 near the
farm now owned by J. Wells Wheeler, two miles south of the
centre; the original millstone is now lying in the stream near
NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CENTENNIAL. 17
the spot where the mill was built. Before the building of this
mill, all grain had to be carried on horse back to Hadley on the
Connecticut river, a distance of sixteen miles; the course being
known by marked trees at convenient distances.
In the year 1750 Jeremiah Ballard and Jeremiah Meacham
were granted a license to erect a sawmill upon land belonging
to the proprietors- This mill was built in the east part of the
township, upon the middle branch of Swift river, near the lo-
cality called Buffalo.
The fear of the Indians, and the stories of trouble with them
at Pequoig and other places near by, caused much uneasiness
among the settlers, and two forts wer^ built, one upon the pres-
ent town farm and the other near the Academy building, and
the meeting house was so built that it could be used as a refuge
in time of danger. The farmer carried to the field his trust}^
rifle, and ever kept it near him. And when they attended
divine worship they went armed, for no one could tell when the
Indian would come, and so amid many privations, hardships
and discouragements they watched and worked, and like the
children of Israel in their bondage they increased and thrived.
In August 1736 the proprietors voted to build a meetinghouse
45 ft. long, 35 ft. wide and 20 ft. stud, and each of the proprie-
tors were assessed 3 lbs. to defray the cost of building. The
house was built in 1739 but was not entirely finished for many
years. There was a day of great rejoicing and festivity when
the frame was raised. Among the items of the day's expenses,
were sugar, rum, molasses, pork, beef, butter and cheese, men
and horses from Hadley, 29 lbs. 13s. 5d. making about $150.00
of our money.
Many of the settlers from time to time went into the service
of the province against the Indians. The settlement furnished
.t8 NEW SALEM SESQUI-CENTENNIAL.
12 men for the expedition against Louisburg in 1745, and they
all took part in the capture of the city.
On the third of March 1 753 a petition was presented to the
great and general court by Jeremiah Ballard and other residents,
asking for an incorporation. While all other papers relating to
this subject are on file in the Archives at the State house, this
petition is missings A remonstrance signed by seven of the
proprietors was presented on the 22nd of March in which, while
they do not object to the organization, they desire to correct
certain statements made by the petitioners. The petitioners say
that the proprietors have not finished the meeting house accord-
ing to agreement; they reply, that the proprietors have paid to
John Gannon, one of the petitioners', the money for the comple-
tion of the meeting house. The petitioners claim that the meet-
ings of the proprietors have not been held in New Salem accord-
ing to agreement; they answer, that they have always been will-
ing to have. them held in New Salem; the petitioners claim that
suitable roads have not been built; they answer, that the pro-
prietors have appropriated a suitable amount of money for the
building of the roads, but the act of incorporation was passed
on the 15th of June, and made public on the 25th day of June.
Section ist. "That the township of New Salem with the
additional grant made to the township, be and hereby made in-
to a district by the name of New Salem, and the said district is
invested with all the privileges, powders and immunities that
towns in this province do and may enjoy, except that of sending
a representative to the general assembly. And "the inhabitants
of said district shall have full power and right, from time to time,
until further order of this court, to join with the town of Sunder-
land in the choice of a representative, and that said district shall
pay their just part of the expense oi a representative according
to their proportionate part of the province tax and that the town
NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CENTENNIAL. ig
of Sunderland as often as they shall call a meeting for the choice
of a representative shall give notice to the clerk of said district,
for the time and place of holding said meeting, to the end, that
said district my join with them, and the clerk of said district
shall set up in some public place a notification thereof accord-
Skction 2nd. Ail of the lands shall be taxed one penny per
acre, for the space of three years, and all the moneys thereby
raised, shall be employed in finishing the meeting house, re-
pairing the roads, and defraying other public charges.
Section 3rd. That Elieyar Porter, Esq., is hereby empow-
ered to issue his warrant, directed to some principal inhabitant
in said district, to meet at such time and place as he shall ap-
point, to choose all officers as they are allowed to choose, for
the transaction of the affairs of said district."
The warrant of Esq. Porter, the original of which is in the
Archives at the State House, reads as follows:
"To Capt. Jeremiah Ballard, you are therefore to will and re-
quire, in his majesties name, to give reasonable notice to all in-
habitants of this district, that are qualified to vote in town and
district meetings, that they assemble and meet together at the
meeting grove, on the day of the 5th of July next at one of the
clock in the afternoon, then and there to make choice of a mod-
erator, and all such officers as towns and districts are allowed to
choose, for the conducting of their affairs.
Given under my hand and seal, this 28th day of June 1753, in
the twenty-seventh day of his majesty's reign,
EiviEYAR Porter, Justice of the Peace."
The record of that meeting as well as all subsequent meetings
for one hundred and three years were lost by fire.
George II was at that time King of England and the Eieut.
Gov. of the province, who was appointed by the King, was
20 NEW SALEM SESQUI-CENTENNIAL.
Spencer Phipps, The central figure in the affairs of the town-
ship at this time appears to be Capt. Jeremiah Ballard, and I can
count in this audience today, twenty of his descendants.
The population of the township at this time was about two
hundred and fifty.
While there has been some reduction in the population of our
town, from causes which have made a reduction in all of the
hill towns in our vicinity, our great decrease is owing to the
annexation of our territory to other towns, had our territory re-
mained the same, our population today would have been 3100
By a general act of the Legislature the district became a town
August 23, 1775.
When the war of the Revolution came it found the men of
New Salem ready. The news of the battle of Lexington flew
throughout New England like wild-fire, the swift horseman with
his red flag proclaimed it in every town and village. When the
news of the battle reached New Salem the people were hastily
assembled on the village green by the notes of alarm, every man
came with his gun and other preparations for a short march.
The militia of the town were then divided into two companies,
one of which was commanded by Capt. Goodell; this company
was paraded before much consultation had been had upon the
proper steps to be taken, and while determination was expressed
upon almost every countenance, the men stood silently leaning
on their muskets, awaiting the movement of the spirit in their
officers. The Capt. was supposed to be tinctured with toryism
NE W SALEM SESQ Ul- CENTENNIAL. 21
and his present indecision and backwardness were ample proof
if not of his attachment to royalty, at least of his unfitness to
lead a patriot band; some murmurs began to be heard, when the
I St lyieut. William Stacy, took off his hat and began to address
them, he was a man of stout heart but of few words. Pulling his
commission from his pocket he said "Fellow soldiers I don't
know exactly how it is with the rest of 3^ou but for one, I will
no longer sen^e a king who murders my own countrymen," and
tearing the paper in a hundred pieces, he trod it under his foot.
Sober as were the people by nature, they could not restrain a
wild hurrah as he stepped forward and took his place in the
ranks. Capt. Goodell made a feeble endeav^or to restore order,
but they heeded him as little as the winds. The company was
summarily disbanded and a reorganization took place on the
spot. The gallant Stacy was chosen captain, the company voted
at once to march to the seat of war, which was done before the
next night. Capt. Stacy served through the war and rose to
the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. He received from General
Washington a present of a gold snuff box. Soon after the war
he removed to the far west, and was killed by the Indians near
There is in the archives, in the State House at Boston, the
names of about 142 men from New Salem who served in the
war of the Revolution. Benjamin Haskell was at the battle of
Bunker Hill. He was near Gen. Warren when he* fell and
assisted in carrying him from the field. Two of his grandsons
are with us today.
Two boys from the north-east part of the town, James Win-
ship and Henry Foster, stood behind Ethan Allen when with
that big oath he demanded the surrender of old Ticonderoga.
They followed him past the islands of I^ake Champlain into the
Richelieu River and up into the city of Montreal, where they
22 NE IV SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
met their terrible defeat. James Winship went into imprison-
ment with his brave leader. Henry Foster was fatally wounded,
but managed to escape across the St. Lawrence river, with a few
survivors of the expedition; he died in the night, and as the
first rays of daylight were coming from the east they buried his
body in the sand, without a word of prayer or benediction they
left him alone in his glory.
Aaron Hager was at the battle of Bennington. Jesse Trask
was at Stillwater and Saratoga. Jacob Tyrrell was at White
Plains and Monmouth and Valley Forge. Lieut. Samuel Mann-
ing stood behind Washington at Yorktown. Capt. Jeremiah
Ballard, son of the early settler of the same name, commanded a
company composed of men from this and the surrounding towns.
This company was for a time in the ser\dce in the northern
country, the particulars of which we are unable to give.
Capt. Jacob Sampson commanded a company in the northern
campaigns, and later represented the town in the General Court.
His great grand-daughter, Mrs. R. K. Seig, has a prominent
part in our exercises today. William Knight was at Benning-
ton. Aaron Forbush was at Whiteplains and Valley forge.
In October, 1777, one division of the Hessian prisoners, num-
bering 1000 men who were captured with Gen. Burgoyn, passed
through the north part of the town on their journey from
Greenfield to Petersham. Thomas Andrews gave to all these
men a supply of apples from his orchard. These apples were of
the very poorest quality, but they were very acceptable to the
prisoners. Several of these men remained in this town and
in Petersham, all of whom took unto themselves American
wives, and today several of their descendants are numbered
among the residents of this towm. Some suitable point in their
journey will be marked, so that this incident will be remembered
by our descendants.
NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CEN2ENNIAL. 23
We who are living in our homes today, enjoying all the com-
forts of modern improvements, do not realize all the hardships
and privations of our forefathers. For them it was a hard life,
a life of unending toil. They had but few books; the news-
paper was almost unknown.
Previous to the Declaration of Independence t-here were but
t'wo holidays in the year. Thanksgiving and Fast, which were
observed in a most solemn and devout manner. For Christmas
they had no use; they fully believed that the old province law
was right, which imposed a fine, also imprisonment, for anyone
who should make any observance of Christmas. Notwithstand-
ing all the disadvantages surrounding them, they were the
ancestors of a noble band of men and women, who made this
town the leading town in the county, of men and women who
went away to the north, to the east, to the south and to the west.
And they and their descendants have done much toward mould-
ing the institutions of our country. There are in the United
States eleven post-ofhces named New Salem, all named for our
For a period of more than thirty years after the close of the
Revolutionary War, this town gained rapidly in population and
in business. The merchants were wide-awake, progressive
men, and trade came from all surrounding towns. The farmers
were intelligent, and cultivated their lands to good profit. All
surplus products, such as pork, beef, poultry, butter and cheese,
found a market in Boston, and when the farmer returned from
market he brought with him his winter's supply of groceries.
Some of the best lawyers and physicians of the state were lo-
cated here. There were two tanneries in town, one near the
centre, which was burned in 1853, and one at North New vSalem,
which continued in business till i860. In days previous to
railroads, a large amount of lumber and shingles w^ere sent to
24 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
Cobb's Landing on the Connecticut River, from whence a large
part was sent to the West Indies.
Previous to 1812, New Salem was a part of Hampshire County,
and the people of this town took an active part in the establish-
ment of the new county. At that time the population was
larger than any other town in the county.
Massachusetts was not in favor of the war of 181 2, and Gov.
Strong refused to call out any of the military companies of the
state, except for the defence of the coast. A few men from this
town enlisted into the regular army. Among them was Moses
Pierce, who was at Plattsburg, and Leonard Curtis, who fol-
lowed Gen. Scott in the campaign in Canada. He took part in
the battles of Lundy's Lane and Chippeway. At Chippeway
he lost a leg, and for many j-ears received a suitable pension.
To him I am indebted for much unwritten history of the war of
1812. On the afternoon of August 5th, 1813, a horseman came
galloping into town with an order from Gov. Strong that a com-
pany of militia should be immediately sent to Boston, as the
British had landed nearby, and were threatening the city.
There were at that time in this town three military companies.
It was immediately decided that the company of which Eben-
ezer Torr>^ was captain should be sent. These men were mostly
from the north and east parts of the town. James Day was fifer
and Thomas Shaw was drummer of this company. During the
night, the men composing the company were notified to appear
at the store of William Whitaker, at 10 a. m., on the following
day, armed and equipped as the law required, with three days'
rations. The men were all there with the exception of four,
whose places were immediately filled with volunteers. The
company numbered 78 men. Captain Torry, owing to the dan-
gerous illness of his wife, was unable to go, and the command
went to Lieutenant William Whittaker. A large number of
NE W SALEM SESQ UT- CENTENNIAL. ^5
Sriends and neighbors witnessed their departure. Many of the
.men went with the expectation that they should never return.
They expected they should soon meet on the battlefield the
veteran soldiers of England, At 12 o'clock, noon, the line was
formed, and six gallons of the favorite drink of the day was
passed to the men^ and amid the loud hurrahs of the men,
women and -children, th^y coinmenx:ed their march. They
camped the first night at Petersham, and on the evening of the
third day they passed in review before Gov. Strong on "Boston
Common," Lieutenant Whittaker was personally complimented
by Gov, Strong for the fine appearanx:e of his men and for their
promptness in responding to the call. But the British, learning
of the preparations for their reception, retreated to their ships
and sailed away. The company remained in the vi-cinity of
Boston two months, and were then discharged and sent to their
homes. Two of them, Samuel Haskell and Jason Phinney,
made the journey on foot in 23 hours. In 1855, ^^ the survivors
of these men, and their surviving widows, were granted by
Congress a warrant of 160 acres of Government land>
In 1814, Gov. Strong ordered a draft for a regiment of soldiers,
for the defence of the coast of Massachusetts, from the towns of
this vicinity, with orders to report at New Salem for organiza-
tion. The draft was made on Sunday, September 12th. The
men drafted from New^ Salem were: William Smith, John
Shaw, Samuel Shaw, Joseph Shaw, Asa Powers, John Powers^
John Fay and Andrew Newell. Among the officers of the reg-
iment were Samuel Putnam of New Salem, paymaster, and Rev»
Alpheus Harding, of New Salem, chaplain. A few of the
drafted men obtained substitutes and one or two paid their
commutation money, $50.00, with which substitutes were
readily obtained. Two or three days were spent in New Salem
in organizing the regiment, during which time it rained almost
26 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
incessantly, and on Friday morning the regiment left New
Salem amid the shouts and huzzars of about five hundred
people, who had assembled to witness their departure. On
Tuesday, the 20th, the}- arrived in Boston^ and reported to the
Adjutant General- This regiment was kept in Boston about a
In 1830-31, when it was proposed to build a railroad from
Boston to Worcester, there was great excitement in this and the
jieighboring towns. They said "the cost of building the road
would ruin the country; there would be no use for horses, and
everything would go to ruin." The representative to the Gen-
eral Court was Ebenezer Torry, a man of great intelligence and
discernment, and who for many years had held many of the
offices in the town. When he came home at the close of the
term, he told them how he had worked and voted for the rail-
road, and of the benefit it would be to the country, but the men
of New Salem would have nothing to do with him; it ended his
political life. He could never again be elected to any office.
More than 60 years ago, we heard the old man tell the story of
his defeat and predict that railroads would become common all
over this country.
For many years pre\dous to the building of the Vermont &
Massachusetts railroad through the towns of Athol and Orange
there was a line of six-horse stage coaches from Brattleboro to
Worcester, which passed through this town. One of the stage
drivers and proprietors of the route was Ginery Twitchell,
whose birthplace and early home was here. Later he became
president of the Boston & Albany railroad, and was for four
years a member of Congress from one of the Boston districts.
In 1843 and 1844, several families in this town were converted
to the Mormon faith and, in the spring of 1846, about 35 per-
sons, with six two-horse teams, commenced their journey for
NE W SALEM SESQ Ul- CENTENNIAL. 27
Nauvoo, 111., and expecting later to go with the Mormon people
to California, then a province of Mexico. I saw the departure
of these people and, with a boy's curiosity, I wondered where
they were going and w^iat they were going for. Some of these
people are yet living in Utah. Joseph Woodbury, with his
family, returned after an absence of two years. He returned
with the same horses, harnesses and wagon that carried him to
Nauvoo; but he did not come back a Mormon. I^ater he be-
came a minister of the Methodist church. Among the number
who went with the Mormons was the family of Greene Haskell-
Although not a believer in Mormonism, Mr. Haskell could not
bear the separation from his wife and children, so he decided to
go to California and await the coming of the Mormon people,
who were expected to arrive a year or two later. He went to
Boston and sailed with Captain Sutter. They were nine months
in making the passage, forty days of which time was occupied
in getting around Cape Horn. He assisted Captain Sutter in
building a mill on one of the branches of the Sacramento. As
he was standing by the flowing water, which was making a
channel from the mill-wheel to the main stream, he discovered
the beautiful gold shining brightly in the water, and the news
spread rapidly all over the world.
In the great Rebellion, the story of which is familiar to many
who are here today. New Salem did her full share. The town
furnished one hundred and thirteen men, twelve of whom never
returned, and today their bones lie mingled with the soil of
nearly every southern state. The men of New Salem were in
nearly all of the important engagements of the war. They
w^ere at Roanoke Island and Newburn, at Fair Oaks and Seven
Pines, at Fredericksburg and Antietam, Port Hudson and Vicks-
burg, with Grant in all the battles of the Wilderness, and they
stood by and saw the closing scenes at the surrender of Lee.
£S NE W SALEM SESQ l/I-CENTENNIAL.
Adolphus Porter was wounded at the battle of Newburn, sent
home and granted a pension. He soon threw away his pension^
enlisted again, and served to the end of the war, William N,
Dexter was for nearl}^ a year a prisoner at Andersonville. Foster
Smith was killed at one of the battles of the Wilderness. At
the attack on Port Hudson, June i^th, 1863, Walter T, Putnam
was killed. John Tyler Bliss was killed in one of the battles
before Richmond, Albert B-liss, whose regiment was in one of
the mottntaihs of Tennessee, was granted a furlough to come
home and visit his wife and children. He died on the journey,
but his companions tenderly brought with them his body and
buried it among his kindred. David Bliss died at one of the
hospitals at Washington. Elliott Towne died in Fredericksburg,
in 1863. Upon a tablet in the cemetery in North New Salem
is the following pathetic inscription: To the memory of William
Leighton, who died at Yorktown, Va,, May, 1863, aged 15
The soldiers in the war of the Rebellion were Austin A. Has-
kell 42d regiment, Henry Holley, Jason Hanson, Frank M.
Connor, Charles Vaughn 21st, James Fleet 2d, James Golden 2d,
Charles Scott 2d, Albert Fleshman 2d, Lewis Chombard i8th,
Victor Dupon 2d, Francis Marshead 2d, Francis W. Neevill 26th,
David Hutchinson 2d, Charles Axworthy 2d, Wilbur H. Hale 2d,
George H. Smith 2d, F. A. Blodgett 31st, Elbridge Smith 31st,
Charles B, Bliss ist H. A., James Bailey 24th H. A., Henry
Winslow 2d, Wilson Upton 2d, Charles E. Tupper 31st, A. A.
Bliss 2ist, H. D, Bliss 21st, W. H. Sawin 21st, Joseph W. Hay-
den 2 1 St, F. S. Day 27th, D. W. Joyslen 27th, Adolphus Porter
27th, A. P. Peirce 27th, Jesse Stranger ist, William Harvey
2 1 St, Erastus Weeks 21st, Charles Davis 27th, Charles Griffin
27th, Oscelow Goodnow 27th, Alvin Clark 26th, A. R. Clark
26th, Da\4d Bliss 15th, Charles M. Stevens 31st, A. M. Russell
NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CEN7ENNIAL. 2g
31st, Lyman H olden 31st, S. P. Williams 31st, C. Upton 31st,
H. C. Joyslen 31st, F. W. Newland 31st, Asa F. Richards 31st,
Aibrona Baldwin 36th, H. S. Smith 53d, Reuben Gibson 53d,
W. T. Putnam 53d, A. E. Town 53d, James L. Powers 53d,
D. Hamilton Jr. 53d, F. E. Stratton 53d, George C. Warner 53d,
Charles Fisher 53d, V. V. Vaughn 53d, F. C. Thompson 53d,
Emory Haskins 24th, Lyman C. Gibbs 21st, D. E. Morrison
31st, J. F. Freeman 53d, A. A. Washburn 52d, J. G. Hayden3ist,
William N. Dexter 27th, Dwight Freeman 27th, Abel Rawson
36th, William Leighton 2d Cav., F. H. Bliss 53d, John T. Bliss
27th, William Bliss 27th. Lafayette Smith 31st, Henry Weeks
27th, A. W. King 36th, Daniel Bosworth 27th, E. E. Giles 27th,
Lourin Ramsdell 27th, James W. Hayden 21st, L. D. Phillips
32d, H. L. Freeman 27th, George Harding 24th, Jessie Haskins
53d, H. W. Amsden 53d, Charles P. Bliss 53d, L. P. Sampson
ist, Arad Johnson 34th, George R. Hanson 20th, James V.
Smith ist, H. D. Haskell ist, Samuel Hoitt 31st, William H.
Pierce 27th, Charles Reynolds 27th, George W. Harding 21st,
Jesse Hayden 21st, Merriam King 21st, Reuben Weeks 21st,
M. L. Chamberlain 3d, A. P. Wheeler 31st, William Hemming-
way 31st, Foster Hanson 31st.
The following were either killed or died in the service: Wil-
liam Leighton, Lafayette Smith, Arad Johnson, Charles Rey-
nolds, L. D. Phillips, W. T. Putnam, A. E. Town, Charles E.
Tupper, A. A. Bliss, J. W. Hayden, David Bliss, C. A. Stevens.
In the late war with Spain our representative Ola N. Cole
followed close behind the "rough rider" at El Caney and San
Although our town made an early appropriation for schools,
from the stand point of today, we should say that these schools
were not of a high order. About eight weeks in winter and pos-
sibly as much in summer was considered a liberal amount of
JO NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
schooling; it was almost impossible to obtain suitable teachers
previous to the time of New Salem Academy. In 1780 the town
was divided into 16 school districts, which remained about the
same for nearly a hundred years. The districts held an annual
meeting at which time a clerk and prudential committee were
chosen. The prudential committee hired the teachers and taxes
were assessed upon the district for the building and repair of
school housesb^' a vote of the district. One hundred years ago
the salary of the female teachers was from $1.25 to $1.50 per
week and often, when money was scarce, the teacher boarded
around, that is, the families would board the teacher for a week
or more without pay, and I have heard some of these teachers
sa}^ it was a very pleasant experience to them. The families
usually doing their best to make the teacher's stay pleasant and
agreeable. The mcney raised for support of schools was usually
divided among the districts by the following plan; one third to
each district, one third in proportion to number of scholars in
each district and one third in proportion to valuation of each
I have several times spoken of the military companies of the
town. From 1760 to 1835 all able bodied men from eighteen to
forty-five years of age, were obliged to belong to a military
compan}' and to meet on the last Wednesdays of May and Oct-
ober and at such other times as should be specially appointed
for military drill, or as it was said in those days for "training."
For man}^ years there w^ere three companies, and in the years of
vcvw earliest remembrance, there was in our town more than a
score of Colonels, Majors, Captains and I^ieutenants. I should
say from what I have learned from a former generation that this
duty was considered a pleasant one. The officers of the com-
pany were expected to furnish such refreshments as the customs
of the time demanded; and in choosing their officers, the ques-
IVEW SALEM SESQUI-CENIENNIAL. 31
tion was often discussed, "will this man be liberal in treating."
The companies were formed into a regiment with companies
from the surrounding towns, and once a year they met at a con-
venient place for "muster" as it was called. The law concern-
ing the dress, equipments, and general appearance of the men
was very strict, it was as follows, viz: for non-appearance on ist
Tuesday of May a fine of $3.00; non-appearance at any company
training $2.00; deficiency of gun, bayonet or ramrod $1.00; de-
ficiency of cartridge-box, cartridges or knapsack 30c; deficiency
of two spare flints or priming wire 20c; disorderly firing, not
more than $20 nor less than $5; neglecting to meet to choose
officers $1; disorderly behaviour $20; neglect of regimental duty
$4; giving false information or refusing to give names of persons
liable to do military duty $20; unmilitary conduct of musicians
not more than $20, nor less than $10; neglect of towns in pro-
viding ammunition not more than $500, nor less than $20;
neglect in wearing uniform $2; for release, when ordered to
march if paid within twenty-four hours, $50.00.
One hundred years ago insurance of buildings was a thing
unknown to our people. When a house was destroyed by fire,
the neighbors and townsmen of the unfortunate man immediate-
ly assisted in rebuilding his home. The destruction of houses
by fire was very seldom in comparison with that of the present
On a Monday night in the summer of 1801 the house of Pale-
tiah Day was destroyed by fire; on Wednesday fifty of his neigh-
bors w^ent to his wood lot, timber for a new house was hewn,
and the shingles made; on Thursday the frame was raised; on
Friday the shingles were put on, the walls were enclosed and
the floor of the kitchen was laid; on Saturday he moved into his
new house with such furniture as his neighbors were able to
give him; on Saturday evening one hundred and twenty-one of
32 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
his neighbors and friends came to congratulate him, and all of
the matrons and maidens and the men and boys took part in the
As the population of the town largely increased, the want of a
higher and more liberal education than afforded by the district
schools, became apparent. The subject in all its phases was for
several years discussed and at the same time the building of a
new church to take the place of the one built sixty years before.
Among those who took a prominent part in this discussion were
Rev. Joel Foster, Dea. Thomas Kendall, Varney Pierce Esq.
and Ezekiel Kellogg Jr. Esq. At a town meeting held on the
14th day of January 1793, a committee was appointed who at a
subsequent meeting reported, that the town should move the old
meeting house to the north-east corner of the common, so as to
be suitable for an Academy and town house. The Academy
was to be on the first floor and the town house on the second
floor. The Academy was incorporated by an act of the Legis-
lature February 25, 1795. Samuel Adams was at that time Gov.
of Massachusetts. This building was destroyed by fire Oct. 4,
1837 and in 1838 another building was erected to be used only
as an Academy. The trustees mentioned in the act of incorpor-
ation were Rev. Joel Foster, Rev. Soloman Read, Rev. Joseph
Blodget, Rev. Joseph Kilburn, David Smead Esq., John Golds-
bury Esq., Jonathan Warner Esq., David Sexton Esq., Eben-
ezer Mattoon Jr. Esq., David Blodget Esq., Martin Kingsley
Esq., Ezekiel Kellogg Jr. Esq., Samuel Kendell, Varney Pierce
and Asa Merriam.
The first meeting of trustees was at the hotel of Dea. Samuel
Kendell, July 7, 1795 at 12 o'clock noon. Among the rules
passed at the meeting was the following, viz: "That the tuition
shall not exceed one shilling per week."
NEW SALEM SESQUl-CENTENNTAL.
At a later meeting it was voted to advertise the school in the
two newspapers published in Worcester, also in Thomas Alma-
nac. The first principal of the Academy was Fowler Dickinson.
He has been followed by forty-six successors; most ol them have
been good scholars and successful teachers.
PRECEPTORS OF NEW SAI^EM ACADEMY.
1 80 1
. Milford, N. H.
J. Mason Macomber
Horace T. Blake
e'n. Conn. 1849
NEW SALEM SESQUICENTENNIAL.
Virgil M. Howard
J. H. R. Marsh
Joseph A. Shaw-
Andrew J. Lathrop
Henry M. Harrington
Joseph A. Shaw
D. G. Thompson
E. A, Perry
F. F. Foster
Weare, N. H
Middle' n, Conn.
F. E. Stratton
William H. Smiky
Dana P. Dame
Dover, N. H,
Virgil M. Howard
F. F. Whittier
Paul F. Ela
Middle 'n, Conn.
L. D. Gilbert
Wesley 'n U., O.
Herman N. Dunham
Enierson L. Adanls
Charles H. Cambridge
The school from its commencement had many students from
our town and from the surrounding country, but the tuition and
the help our townsmen w^ere able to give, was not sufficient to
defray the expenses of the institution, so a petition was presented
to the General Court asking for help. The Legislature granted
to the Academy a township of land which they could locate upon
any of the unappropriated lands, belonging to. the state of Mass-
chusetts in the district of Maine. A committee was sent to
Maine and after looking for several weeks among the public
lands, they found nothing that they thought worthy for settle-
NEW SALEM SESQUI-CENTENNIAL. ' 35
merit, and they began their homeward journey, discouraged and
disappointed. They w,ere obliged to wait a day or two at Ban-
gor, for a schooner to take them to Boston, While sitting be-
side the blazing fire at a hotel, they told the story of their wan-
derings and disappointments; an old Indian, also sitting beside
the fire apparently asleep, said, "give me much strong w^ater
and me show you good land;" his conditions were immediately
complied with, and the next morning after giving him more
strong water, they commenced their journey.
They followed him in a north-easterly direction about one
hundred and fifty miles to a place near the boundary line of
New Brunswick and not far from the St. John river, and there
he showed them good land; which they immediately selected.
But they waited in vain for purchasers of their lands, and finally
the need of the Academy was so great that James Houlton and
several other residents of this town, sold their farms and went as
settlers to this township, which they named "Houlton" and
which became the county seat of Aroostook County. From the
sale of this land the Academy received about five thousand
It has often been said and has been recorded in history, that
the Academy lost much of this grant of land by the readjust-
ment of the boundary line between the state of Maine and New
Brunswick. This statement was not correct. All of the land
belonging to the Academy was sold long anterior to the ratifica-
tion of the treaty between the United States and Great Britain,
which was made in Washington, Aug. 5, 1842, by Daniel Web-
ster and lyord Ashburton.
1856 the Academy received a gift of $1,000 from Ira Stratton
of Cambridge; in 1870 $10,000 from the state of Massachusetts
and $5,000 was raised by subscription. In 1896 by the will of
Mrs. Parmelia Butterfield of Orange ^1,000 was received.
j6 NEW SAL£M SESQUICENTENNIAL,
Of the long line of eminent men and women who received
their education from New Salem Academy I have time only \o
speak of a few. One of the earliest graduates was Abel Rawson
who went to northern Ohio; he was a successful lawyer and be-
came an eminent judge; his three brothers Bass, Secretary and
Laquino, were noted physicians and leading men in the northern
reserve. Ex. Gov. A. H. Bullock, Judge P, Emory Aldrich,.
Hon. Alpheus Harding, Hon, Wm. Richardson of Galveston,
Texas, Rev. Francis E. Tower, Hon. Collins Whittaker, for
20 years U. S. Consul for the port of St. John, N. B., Hon,
Elisha Allen, U. S. minister to the Sandwich Islands and who
became later Chief Justice of the islands and who was sent by
them as special Embassador to the U, S.
It was my good fortune to be a student at New Salem Aca-
demy from 1852 to 1856. The Academy at this time was in a
very flourishing condition; in 1853 the students numbered more
than 100. Their homes were in New York, Boston, Cambridge,
Chelsea. Ashland, Worcester, Fitchburg, Barre, Petersham,
Athol, and many other towns. Among the assistant teachers in
these 3'ears, were Ozi W. Whittaker, now one of the bishops of
the Episcoi>al church. Miss Sarah B. Packard and Miss Hattie
E. Giles, who by the establishment in Atlanta, Ga., of an insti-
tution for the education of colored girls, have erected to them-
selves a monument w^hich will perpetuate their memory in all
coming time. By the establishment of high schools in all the
larger towns around us the Academy has lost much of its pat-
ronage; but to us and the small towns near us, the old Academy
will ever be of the greatest benefit, and as days, months, years
and ages shall circle away, may it be tenderly cared for, and its
light ever be burning brightly.
A list of the Trustees of New Salem Academy with the date
of their election and resignation or removal by death:
NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CENTENNIAL. 37
Elected Resigned Died
Rev. Joel Foster 1795 1810
Rev. Solomon Reed " i799
Rev. Joseph Blodget " 1828
Rev. Joshua Kilburn " 1816
David Smead Esq. " 1802
John Goldsbury Esq. '* 1802
Jonathan Warner Esq.
David Sexton Esq.
Ebenezar Matoon Jr. Esq.
Daniel Bigelow Esq.
Martin Kingsley Esq.
Ezekiel Kellogg Jr. Esq.
Joseph Metcalf of Orange
James Humphreys of Athol
Samuel F. Dickinson
Solomon Smead Esq.
Rev. Ezekiel Bascom
Samuel C. Allen
Rev. Warren Peirce
Benjamin Pickham of Salem
Samuel Eastman of Hard wick
Rev. Alpheus Harding
Capt. Charles C. Rabstion
Rev. Festus Foster
Rev. Charles Wellington
Col. Jacob Putnam
38 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
Nathaniel Jones Esq.
Capt. John Putnam
David A. Gregg
Joseph Estabrook Esq. Royal'n
Rev. Luther Wilson
Dr. William H. Cutler
Laban Marcy Esq. of Greenwich
Hon. Richard E. Newcomb
John W. Humphreys
Rufus Bullock Esq. of Royal'n
Rev. Preser\^ed Smith
F. H. Allen Esq.
Rev. Josiah Moore of Athol
Jonathan Hartwell Esq.
Rev. John Goldsbury, Hardwick 1832
Gardner Ruggles Esq. of Barre
Dr. Amasa Barrett
George Blodget of Orange
Dr. George Hoyt of Athol
Capt. Samuel Giles
Rev. G. R. Noyes
Rev. Linus H. Shaw
Dr. George H. Lee
Dea. Maham F. Bryant Esq.
i^TE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL. jg
Rev. Salmon Bennett
Dr. Joseph Stone of Hardwick 1839 " 1849
Rev. Nathaniel Gage
Italy Foster Esq. of Dana
Norwood Daman of Templeton
Theodore Jones of Athol
Dr. lyinus Cook of Wendell
Rev. Luther Wilson
Rev. John Keep of Dana
Rev. Ephraim Nute, Petersham
Rev. C. Everett of Northfield
Joseph Stevens of Warwick 1847 1850
Hon. Henry W. Cushman
Hon. Davis Goddard of Orange
Rev. Claudius Bradford
Rev. William H. Hey wood
Cheney Abbott of Prescott
Hon. John Raymond, Hardwick 1852 1854
William Mixter of Hardwick
Alpheus Harding Jr. 1854 1903
Jabez Sawyer Esq. of Wendell
Rev. Thomas Weston
Thomas Root of Greenwich
Constant Southworth, Hardwick 1857 1878
Rev. John Goldsbury, Warwick 1857 1878
Horace Hunt Esq. 1857 1870
Rev. Edward P.. Blodgett
of Greenwich 1859 i860
40 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
Samuel B. Estey of Greenwich
Rev. Levi Ballou of Orange
Rev. D. Bancroft of Prescott
Thomas D. Brooks of Wendell
William T. Freeman
Dr. Jonathan W. Goodell
John G. Mudge of Petersham
David Allen of Greenwich
Rev. Wm. Hooper of Orange
N. L. Johnson of Dana
J. B. Root
Rodney Hunt of Orange
Rev. David Eastman
Col. S. F. Dudley, Shutesbury
Lyman E. Moore
Geo. A. Berr>^ of Shutesbury
Rev. N. Trask
F. A. Haskell
A. J. Clark of Orange
L. Dwight Trout of Hard wick
Edward F. Mayo of Warwick
Rev. Baxter Newton of Leveretl
Rev. Samuel H. Amsden
R. D. Chase of Orange
Richard Dudley of N. Leverett
Edwin 'F. Stowell
Nathaniel E. Holland
NE IV SALEM SESQ Uf- CENTENNIAL. 41
William S. Douglas, Greenwich 1885
Dr. W. M. Wright
Edwin C. Haskins of No. Dana
James B. McGibney
William H. Hemingway
Henry C. Ellis of P.etersham
Eli F. Buzzell of Wendell 1895 1903
Walter H. Pierce of Prescott
Rev. A. V. House
E. L. Adams
Frank J. Crawford of Dana
F. A. Wendermuth of Prescott
In 1895 by vote of the town a high school was established,
which has been conducted in connection with the Academy, to
the mutual benefit of both.
In 1892 the Legislature required all the towns of the state to
be formed into districts, which should choose a superintendent
of schools. Dana, Greenwich and Prescott were associated with
this town and E. L. Adams, who had for several years been
preceptor of the Academy, was chosen Supt. He was reelected
the present year, but has resigned to accept a better position in
his native state of Maine. His successor is W. G. Davis of
In politics the people of the town have always taken a promi-
nent part. In the time previous to the war of 1812 the town
was decidedly anti-Federalist. In the division between the
Whig and Democratic parties the town became Whig by a small
majority. Upon the dissolution of the Whig party and the for-
mation of the Republican party the town became decidedly Re-
publican and has ever remained so.
In 1838 the present town house was built. In that year the
United States government distributed among the States the sur-
42 NE IV SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
plus revenue which had accumulated in the treasury. New
Salem's share of this surplus revenue was sufficient to pay the
expense of building the town house.
In 1846 a brass band was organized in the north part of the
town. The band maintained its organization until 1857, when
by death and removal of many of its members, it was dissolved.
In 1849 the band was appointed by the Governor to furnish
music for the encampment of the militia in the western part of
the state and it was said that the band was one of the very best
in the state. The following is a list of its members: Arad W.
Lynde, John D. Smith, James F. Smith, Horatio Smith, Rufus
Day, Franklin Haskins, Arad Terry, Darwin Whitaker, Aldison
Phillips, Francis B. Crowl, Hiram H. Robbins, Ransom Pierce,
W. W. Pierce, E. C. Thompson. The leaders of the band were
Francis B. Crowl and E. C. Thompson. One of them, Darwin
Whitaker, is with us today.
The Farmers' band which furnishes us with music today was
organized in 1891 and is composed of members from all parts of
the town. The following is a list of its past and present mem-
bers: Walter E. Crowl, William Bullard, Fred Ballard, Fred
Curtis, Fred Whipple, D. A. Stowell, Frank Hemmingway,
Everett Newland, C.J. Moulton, Alfred Moulton, Sewall King,
E. C. Chamberlain, Ralph Freeman, John Marshall, Harry
Cogswell, George W. Fisher. Its first instructor and leader was
Frank McGibeny, later Walter T. Crowl was leader, at present
Fred Ballard is leader. The band has furnished music for many
public meetings in this and the neighboring towns.
The first minister was the Rev. Samuel Kendell of Woburn,
a graduate of Harv^ard college. He was ordained Dec. 4, 1742.
The earliest records of the church were dated on that year, so it
is supposed that the church was organized at that time. Mr.
Kendell brought with him two slaves, John and Chloe, who re-
NE W SALEM SESQ Ul-CENTENNIAL. 43
mained with him many j^ears. He was a man of culture and re-
finement and was universally beloved. He was the pastor till
March 1776, a period of 34 years, when he resigned, but con-
tinued to live in New Salem until his death in 1792. He w^as
succeeded by Rev, Joel Foster in 1778, who resigned in 1802.
In 1778 by an act of the general court a parish society was
organized distinct from the town organization; previous to this
time nearly all church affairs were arranged in town meetings.
The minister was called by vote of the town and a tax was as-
sessed for the payment of his salary. In 1794 a new church was
built and it has been said that it was one of the best, if not the
very best, in the county, and it is in that church that we are as-
sembled today. In the years succeeding the building of this
church, the congregations were very large, often filling this
house to its utmost capacity. One Sunday the pastor of this
church made an exchange with the Rev. Joseph Estabrook of
the church in Athol. As he looked over the large congregation
before commencing his sermon, he said "I am glad to be per-
mitted today to come up out of the wilderness and to speak to
this audience of civilization, culture and refinement."
Rev. Warren Pierce became pastor 1804 and resigned in 1807.
Next came Rev. Alpheus Harding, who was pastor thirty-seven
years; he was succeeded by Rev. James L,ocke. Rev. Claudrus
Bradford was ordained in 1951 and remained two years. Rev.
Thomas Weston was ordained in 1856 remaining two years. In
1866-67 Rev. Thomas Pond was the preacher. The last pastor,
Rev. J. Nelson Trask, resigned in 1874, since which time, while
the society has kept its organization perfect, the preaching has
been by occasional supplies.
In 1800 a Universalist society was organized in the north part
of the town, a town was laid out on the farm of John Haskell,
near north pond, a common was arranged, a frame for a meeting
44 NEW SALEM SESQUI-CENTENNIAL.
house was put up and there the work stopped; no houses were
built and the frame after standing a few years was taken down
and was used for building a hotel at New Salem centre. The
common yet remains, the land has never been occupied, has
never been cultivated and no trees have ever grown upon it.
In 1807 a meeting house was built in the north part of the
town, its location was near the house of B. W. Fay; in 1836 this
house was moved to North New Salem. From 1807 to 1823
Rev. Alpheus Harding supplied the pulpit on the last Sunday
of every month. In 1823 there came a separation in the Cong-
regational churches of Massachusetts, the first church with their
pastor took the side of Unitarian Congregationalists and the
people of the north part of the town became Unitarian Cong-
regationalists, and organized a church. They bought the meet-
ing house from the first parish and installed the Rev. Levi
French as their pastor. In the call asking him to become their
settled minister, they offered him the following salary: "One
hundred and fifty dollars from the present members of the
society, fifty dollars in produce at its market value, also to fur-
nish his fire wood and that he shall receive all the subscriptions
from those* who may hereafter join the society, and all the money
that may be obtained from charitable societies, until it shall
amount to one hundred dollars, making in all three hundred
dollars a year; also two cows, and to move his family, and allow
him three Sabbaths a year to visit his friends should he desire
to do so." Mr. French resigned in 1830. In 1832 Rev. Erastus
Curtis was installed and remained pastor till 1843; from 1843 till
1867 the pulpit was supplied by preachers from various denomi-
nations. In 1867 a Methodist society w^as organized, receiving
cooperation and assistance from the remaining members of the
The M. E. preachers were as follows 1867-68; Henry H. Olds
NE W SALEM SESQ UL CENTENNIAL. 45
1869, William Wignall; 1870-71-72 Randell Mitchell; 1873-74
Charles K. Seaver; 1875-76 Iveonard P. PVost; 1877 Moseley
D wight; 1878 W. Wendell; 1879 by order of the presiding elder,
without consultation with the church members, the church was
disorganized and members transferred to the Orange M. E.
In 1883 was begun the present arrangement of the pastor of
the Congregational church of New Salem supplying the North
New^ Salem church on Sunday afternoons. The church edifice
was thoroughly remodeled and repaired in 1901 and 1902. Jan.
2, 1903 a Congregational church was organized and recognized
March 4, 1903, by council.
The third Congregational church was organized on Aug. 13,
1845 at New Salem Centre. A church edifice was built in 1854.
The pastors have been Revs. William H. Hay ward, Krastus
Curtis, Wm. Kemp, David Eastman, Samuel H. Amsden, W.
S. Clark, David Plummer, J. T. Closson, Albert V. House.
In 1 901 -2 a parsonage was built, mainly through the efforts of
the pastor, Rev. A. V. House.
1792 a Baptist church was built in the south part of the town;
in 1800 the building was moved three miles to the north of its
original location. 1835 the building was taken down and a new
structure was erected directly upon the line between New Salem
and Prescott. This church became extinct in 1875; in 4878 the
building was removed into Prescott and converted into a store.
There is a Methodist church building and parsonage in New
Salem close to the Prescott line and belonging to M. E. church
of North Prescott. This society is partially composed of families
living in the south part of New Salem.
In all of the churches of the olden time there were no fire-
places or stoves, and in the coldest of winter, all were obliged to
remain and listen to the long sermon, which often went up to
46 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
the i6thly and 24thly, and sometimes to the 32ndly. About a
hundred years ago a little stove was invented which the ladies
filled with live coals, and placed under their feet. We have
here today a specimen of one of these stoves. Later when the
custom of putting stoves into churches for the purpose of mak-
ing them warm and comfortable, there was great opposition.
And in a neighboring town it was said, that two maiden ladies
were so overcome by the heat from the new stove in their church
that they fainted away, and were obliged to be carried out into
the cool air before they recovered, and the strange part of the
story is that no fire had ever been made in the stove. Probably
they did not need fire as much in their stoves then as now be-
cause they had so much more in their sermons.
In 1889 by vote of town a public library was established, a be-
quest of $1000 was given to the town by the will of Mrs. Eliza
Ellis, the income from it to be forever used for the purchase of
books: in 1895 was received by the will of Mrs. Pamelia Butter-
field of Orange $500 for the benefit of the library. The library
now contains 2000 volumes and by the establishment of branches
in the remote parts of the town is easily accessable to all. It is
well patronized by the readers of the town and also by our sum-
Several eminent lawyers have practiced their profession here,
prominent among them was the Hon. Samuel C. Allen, who
liv^ed here from 1802 to 1820; he was a member of Congress from
1816 to 1828, also his son, the Hon. Frederic H. Allen, who
represented the town several times in the Legislature, also the
Hon. N. F. Bryant, and there is one whose birthplace was here
and whose early life was passed here, and in the years of his
absence has ever been looking back to the old scenes. He is
with us today and I know that no one w411 be more gladly wel-
comed than Geo. W. Horr Esq. of Athol.
NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CENTENNIAL. 47
There are in the city of Worcester three lawyers who received
their education from New Salem Academy, two of them natives
of this town, but as their life work is but just begun I leave
their record to the future historian.
The first representative to the general court was John Houl-
ton, elected in 1754. The town has represented by forty differ-
ent men of whom eight are now living. Among the oldest of
them is Samuel Putnam, who represented the town in 1847 and
who was born in 1806. Hon. Alpheus Harding 1851 and 1853,
and later was a Representative, also a Senator from Athol.
Beriah W. Fay was Representative in 1865. From 1806 to 1836
the town was entitled to two members in the general court. Var-
ney Pierce was elected in 1796 and with the exception of two
years, was re-elected every year till the time of his death in 1823.
William Whittaker who had served three years in the House of
Representatives was elected Senator in 1844 and died at Boston
while on duty. Samuel Giles was elected his successor.
The following is the exact list of Representatives from this
town to date viz: 1754 John Houlton, 1756 John Gunn, 1758 to
1760 Fellows Billings, 1785, 1787, 1791, 1792, 1794, 1795, 1805
Ezekiel Kellogg Jr., 1783, 1784 Jacob Sampson, 1786 William
Paige, 1796 7, 1799 to 1823 Varney Pierce, 1806-9 Samuel C.
Allen, 1813-16 Benjamin Stacy, 1801 James Fellon, 1802 Edward
Upton, 1816-37 John Putnam, 1828-32 Ebenezar Torry, 1829,
1830-34 William Whittaker, 1829, 1830-34 Frederick H. Allen,
1836-37 Rev. Alpheus Harding, 1838 Euther Hunt, 1841 James
Knight, 1842-52 Dr. Robert Andrews, 1843 Abner Smith, 1844
Josiah B. Harding, 1845 Frederick Pierce, 1846 Seth C. Smith,
1847 Samuel Putnam, 1848 Josiah B. Thompson, 1849 William
T. Giles, 1850 Warren Horr, 1851-53 Alpheus Harding Jr., 1855
Alfred G. Williams, 1854 Charles A. Perry, 1862 Royal Whit-
taker, 1865 Beriah W. Fay, 1869 Eyman E. Moore, 1872 David
48 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
Eastman, 1875 Willard Putnam, 1882 Daniel Ballard, 1889
Henry D. Hamilton, 1901 Edwin F. Stowell.
Senators: 1844 Hon. William Wliittaker, died in office; 1844
Hon. Samuel Giles.
Members of Congress: 1816-22 Hon. Samuel C. Allen, Hon.
Shepherd Cary, who was a member of Congress from Maine in
1844-46 was a native of this town and a grandson of Benjamin
Haskell. Hon. Elisha Allen, son of the Hon. Samuel C. Allen,
who was born here, was also a member of Congress from Maine.
Delegate to the constitutional convention in 1789 was Jeremiah
Ballard 2d. Delegate to the constitutional convention in 1853
was Dr. Robert Andrews.
Beriah W. Fay was elected special County Commissioner in
1872 and still continues to hold that office.
Among the industries of New Salem is the "New Salem
Creamery Company," whose factory is located at Millington. It
was established in 1894. It receives the milk frcfm 350 cows and
makes daily 300 lbs. of butter.
At Millington is the grist mill of Lyman E. Moore. The first
mill was built in the early days of the town; the second on the
same place in 1800; a larger and more commodious mill in 1858.
There is annually ground and sold from this mill 50 car loads of
grain. Previous to 1848 all corn and oats consumed in this
town was raised here.
The greatest industry of the town during the past 25 years,
has been the manufacture of lumber. This has been done by
five water-mills and several portable steam-mills; it is estimated
that during this time 5,000,000 ft. has been cut annually. This
lumber is sold mostly for the manufacture of boxes and matches.
Although the best of our territory has been taken from us,
and our population somewhat reduced, and our sons and daugh-
ters have gone out all over our country, there is no cause for
NE W SALEM SESQ Ul- CENTENNIAL. 4g
discouragement. This town is, and will be, just what we make
it. We have the same pure air and beautiful scenery which our
ancestors so much enjoyed. The same blue sky is over our
heads, and the same Heavenly Father that watched over them,
and guided them, is watching over and guiding us. We shall
adapt ourselves to the new conditions and the new surroundings,
and when a hundred and fifty years from today the historian
shall dip his pen in the ink, he will find much to record. He
will speak of an increase of business and population; he will
speak of the cottages of the summer visitors, which will be
scattered all over our beautiful hills; he will speak of a long line
of eminent men and women, whose birth place w^as among the
hills and valleys of this town; he will speak of another student
from x\ndover who will built us more houses. And in those
days of darkness and disaster, which, as they come to all nations,
will surely again come to us, he will tell us of another Jeremiah
Meacham, of more Jeremiah Ballards, of another Benjamin Has-
kell, of another William Stacy, of another Leonard Curtis, of
another Foster Smith and of another Walter Putnam.
New Salem was my birthplace, and it is a great satisfaction to
me to know, that when my life work is ended, it is to be my
last resting place.
"My native town thee,
Land of the noble free,
Thy name I love.
I love thy rocks and rills.
Thy woods and templed hills,
My heart with rapture thrills, like that above."
By George W. Horr.
Since I moved from New Salem, my birthplace, about 40
years ago, to Athol, to which town in February, 1830, part of
New Salem was annexed, also in March, 1837, part of New
Salem called Little Grant, was annexed to Orange and to Athol,
I have had knowledge each year of one fact that has never
failed to attract my special notice, to wit: the amount of a tax
assessed to me upon real estate in my good old native town;
and so far I have been able to meet it, without an}- part thereof
having been sold by the collector for non-payment. Thus far I
claim to have been a good non-resident of my native town, while
living in Athol, to which town New Salem had contributed on
two occasions part of her territory. The towns have always
been good neighbors, and each takes an interest in the prosper-
ity of the other.
The corporation of the Millers River bank of Athol, established
in 1854, afterwards Millers River National bank, came to New
Salem in 1856 for a cashier, and Alpheus Harding held that
office and the office of its president until his resignation of the
last-named office was reluctantly^ received, only a few^ years ago.
As school teachers, in manufactural occupations, mercantile
pursuits, agriculture, and in almost all branches- of business
carried on in the thriving and prosperous town of Athol, New
Salem has continuously had successful representatives.
NE W SALEM SESQ Uf- CENTENNIAL. 51
Pardon me for reference to an ev^ent which may be deemed
personal. In July, 1864, we had an old-fashioned Fourth of
July celebration on the hill near Cooleyville, once owned by my
great-grandfather, Robert Hoar, and God willing, I hope, while
yet the same pine trees are standing, under which we had the
picnic, heard the Declaration of Independence read, an oration,
toasts, short speeches and music, with Father Grover as toast-
master, then in demand on Independence day; in fact a good
old-fashioned celebration, brimful of patriotic enjoyment and
New Salem, as the historical facts establish, has a history and
standing among the towns of the old Bay State most honorable
To-day we meet to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the
town's incorporation, and hold the 30th successive reunion of
the alumni and friends of the academy. Let us refer to the year
1846, a year to be classified with halcyon and prosperous days
of the academy: female department, 67; male department, 94;
total, 161 students.
One object of the academy was to enable the young man to
win the inestimable prize of a good name and a reputation un-
tarnished, and a standing and an influence which would enable
him to elevate his own fortunes, and to become a benefactor to
his fellow men in all the relations in life, — to be an honest man,
which is the noblest work of God. It assisted all the students
of both sexes to train their minds to habits of thought and at-
tention; to exercise and apply the powers of the mind, to enlarge
its bounds by a knowledge of the principles and elementary facts
of the sciences, intellectual, moral and physical; and by all these
combined to form the character, invigorate the understanding,
and incite the heart and will to generous aspirations. This old
time-honored institution has accomplished splendid results. You
S2 NE W SALEM SESQ UICENTENNIAL.
have only to examine the long lists of its students to find the
records of many successful in business pursuits, faithful instruct-
ors, distinguished in professional life, some of them elevated to
highest places in church and state. And how numerous are
they who have passed their days in the humble w^alks of life, in
pleasant, happy family ties, in which their mutual lives have
been "ideally true and poetically beautiful," lives of usefulness,
discharging their duties faithfully and honestly, uplifting and
benefitting their neighbors and the individiials of different com-
munities in all sections of this broad land.
New Salem has always been true to the general principles
which have governed the organization of the townships.
The early settlers of Plymouth colony discovered that the
grant of corporate powers to the small separate settlements, and
the passage of general laws giving them such powers and privi-
leges as would enable them to provide for their local needs, and
subjecting them to the performance of such duties a.s might be
required by the government ot the whole colonj^ was the best
and fittest way for the transaction of the affairs of the different
localities, and they so provided.
This system, inaugurated at Plymouth, commended itself to
the Massachusetts colony, so that it was adopted there at the
outset. The early settlers wanted religious teachers and insti-
tutions, and at that period it was for the benefit of the civil state
that the institutions of religion should be maintained through
some organization having legal powers to provide for the sup-
port of religious teachers. They wanted schools, and of course
they needed schoolhouses, and for the erection of these, school
districts. All of the wants' were supplied by appropriate legis-
lation. These poor little schoolhouses, w^hether "red' ' or painted
some other color, or unpainted, w^ould not make a great show
by the side of some modern institutions, but they served the
NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CENTENNIAL. 53
purpose they were intended for, quite as useful, perhaps, as if
the seats had had cushions, and the desks had been of mahogany.
The town was the efficient means which secured the prosper-
ity of the household. The several families, farmers, and mech-
anics, laborers, and professional men, need for the development
of their resources, and the greatest enjoyment of their privileges,
something beyond even the mutual support of each other in their
various neighborhoods, and they found it in the town. It en-
larged, while it concentrated, their sympathies, formed and
moulded their opinions, and gave expansion to their united will.
While we hold in most reverent regard the heroic deeds of
the fathers of the republic who achieved independence, and in
which tremendous struggle for the principles of civil liberty the
sons of New Salem so promptly responded, yet, to these princi-
ples and maxims of civil liberty, new lustre and glory, if possi-
ble, have been added by the imperishable deeds of valor per-
formed by the loyal soldiers in the great Civil war.
The sons of New Salem, who gave their best services and
duties, or their lives for their country, to save the sacred legacy
which had come down to us from the Revolutionary epoch, are
especiall}^ dear in our remembrance upon this anniversary. The
privates and non-commissioned officers are as fully entitled to
praise and gratitude as the officers. It was the steadfast valor
of the common soldier which saved the Union.
LETTERS OF REGRET
From F. N. Thompson.
I suppose that the honor which j^our committee conferred
upon me, by extending to me an invitation to attend your sesqui-
centennial and participate in the exercises of the day, may be
set down to my official connection with the people of New Salem.
It hardly seems possible that a generation has passed from time
to eternity, since I first received your suffrages for the position
which I held for almost 30 years.
Perhaps the case of the late Ransom Adams, whose will was
filed Oct. 4, 1870, was the first in which I was officially con-
nected with a New Salem estate, and the case remained open in
the court longer, I think, than any other, from that town, the
last entry upon the docket being made in 1898.
My relations with the people of the town who have had oc-
casion to transact business with the probate court have ever
been most cordial and satisfactory to me, and I feel deeply thank-
ful to the citizens of New Salem for their many favors.
Several things have occurred closely connecting the towns of
New Salem and Greenfield. Of the towns which now constitute
Franklin county, only Deerfield, Northfield, Sunderland and
Greenfield are older than New Salem, and Greenfield is only six
days the elder, her birthday being June 9 and New Salem the
NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CENTENNIAL. SS
When these new municipalities came into existence, William
Pitt, the "Great Commoner" was just coming into public notice.
He lived to use his immense influence in opposition to the meas-
ures instituted by the ministers of an unwise ruler, which op-
pressed and incensed the people of these and other similiar com-
munities. For this George II. deprived him of office, but the
time came when his successor, George III, was compelled to
listen to his words of wisdom.
One man made common fame for Greenfield and New Salem,
Samuel C. Allen, who graduated at Dartmouth in 1794 became
the minister of Northfield the ensuing year. He soon quitted
the ministry and studied law with John Barrett of that town.
He was admitted to the bar in 1800 and settled in New Salem.
He achieved success, and in 18 16 was elected to Congress as the
successor of Rev. Samuel Taggart of Colrain, who had served
for 14 years, and declined a re-election. Mr. Allen served his
district in Congress for 12 years. In 1822 he removed to Green-
field and finally to Northfield, where upon a beautiful farm, he
ended his days. The home place is yet held by a descendant.
Three of his sons became eminent lawyers. Two of these be-
came members of Congress from Main. EHsha H. Allen after
serving in Congress emigrated to the Sandwich Islands, and be-
came chief justice of the kingdom. Samuel C: Allen was for
many years a representative from Northfield to the legislature;
was celebrated as an agriculturalist and temperance reformer,
and for several years was postmaster of East Boston.
Proctor Pierce was born in New Salem, March 20, 1768, son
of Abraham and Ruth (Page) Pierce. He was also descended
from that John Proctor of old Salem, who was hung during the
witch-croft delusion in Massachusetts. Proctor Pierce graduated
at Dartmouth in 1796, and was soon elected to teach the New
Salem Academy. Here he remained until his removal to Green-
56 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
field in i8co, where he taught the village school. His celebrity
as a teacher brought many pupils from different parts of the state
to take advantage of his methods; as he prepared young men
for admittance to college. Many men who afterwards became
prominent in life were his pupils. The late Hon. George Gren-
nell, Chief Justice Daniel Wells, Judge Franklin Ripley, Rev.
Preserved Smith and many others were members of his classes.
In 1800 while teaching in Greenfield, he delivered an oration
upon the life and character of Gen. George Washington.
In 1802 he married Susanna, daughter of Rev. Roger Newton,
the minister of Greenfield, and became a deacon in the first
church. For a few years he was engaged in trade in Greenfield,
but teaching was his chosen profession, and he followed this
employment in Lynn, Cambridge and Boston. He died in Bos-
ton April 27, 1 82 1, aged 53 years.
A grandson, Isaac Newton Pierce, resides in Boston, his time
being largely occupied in antiquarian and geneological study.
When in 18 14 a draft was ordered to raise an army for the de-
fence of the Massachusetts and Maine coast towns and cities,
New Salem was made the rendezvous for the men from Frank-
lin county. According to a letter written by Alpha Ryther, a
member of the Greenfield compan}' under command of Capt.
David Strickland, (which lies before me,) they remained at
New^ Salem several days on account of wet weather. He says,
"Our officers went to a man's house by the name of Knight,
(and applied) for admittance to lodge in the house but he resis-
ted; we went however and made ourselves at home, helped
ourselves to the garden sauce and some of the soldiers killed a
goose, stuffed the skin and carried it through the street. He
was a Federalist, (whether referring to the man or the goose, I
know not) and a friend to Britain. After w^e started from New
Salem for Boston, our company wanted some water and hauled
NE W SALEM SESQ Uf- CENTENNIAL. S7
up to a place to procure it, but the man happened to be of the
same stamp as old Knights; he refused it, and some one of the
our company ketched hold of the old bucket and hauled it all
over, well sweep and all." These early incidents, while not
very creditable to the militia of the day; show the intense politi-
cal enmity which existed at that period of the national history.
In 1790 New Salem having 1543 inhabitants was only exceed-
ed in population by Conway with 2092 people, among the towns
now composing Franklin county. In 1820 she had grown to be
the largest town in the county, having 2146 inhabitants. Won-
derful changes are taking place day by day. It seems as though
the da^'S had come of which the prophet Nahum spoke, when he
said: "The chariots shall rage in the streets; they shall jostle
one against another in the broadway; they shall seem like tor-
ches; they shall run like the lightnings."
F. N. Thompson, Greenfield.
From George S. Mann.
WiLLARD Putnam, Esq.
Dear Sir: — Some days since I received from my brother in
Orange a program of the forth-coming 150th anniversary of the
settlement of New Salem to be held there the 20th of this month.
The Manns are a Petersham family, having descended from En-
sign Mann, who married Alice, daughter of Rev. Aaron Whit-
ney, the first minister of Petersham, about the year 1773. My
father, William Mann, of Petersham, married in 1833, Abigail
Cook, daughter of Bery'amin Cook, who was then a resident of
New Salem, or perhaps somewhat earlier and had been since
about the year 181 7, having removed to your town from Guild-
About the time of my father's marriage he purchased a small
farm of his father-in-law, Mr. Cook, situated in the north-easter-
ly part of New Salem and on a short road, or highway leading
from the Joseph Parker place by Ezekiel Newell farm to the
Petersham and New Salem main road, and during a year or two
after this purchased and lived on this place, and here I was born
Nov. 25, 1834, and for a year or so, four or five years later on I
well remember living there and attending school in the adjoin-
ing Athol district. Some of the neighbors I well remember —
William Rice, James Meacham, Mr. Newell, a Moulton family,
next south of us, and then came the Totmans. Very soon after
NE W SALEM SESQ Ul- CENTENNIAL. 59
this event my father sold this place to James J. Sanderson and
moved back to Petersham, his native town.
Since that early period I have known but little of my birth-
place. Years since, say a dozen or so, I passed by the spot
where the house stood on the west side of the highway, the barn
and other buildings on the opposite side of the street, all of
which were gone, and nothing remained to remind one of where
the buildings stood, except a lilac bush near where the old house
was formerly. It was a very fair one-story pitched roof dwelling
with a long kitchen and two square rooms in the northerly part.
There was a small ell projecting on the road southerly, which I
remember was our best room. The north westerly room was
occupied by my great-grandmother, then in her 94th year. She
died at our home in Petersham in 1840, aged 95. She enjoyed
a pension, her husband, George Fillmon, having been a soldier
in the Revolution. I am sorry that I know so little regarding
the early history of your town.
If my memory serves me up here in the Green mountains I
believe one of your early ministers, Rev. Mr. Kendall, married
another daughter of Rev. Aaron Whitney, the Tory preacher of
Petersham. I was not one of the fortunate ones who were
schooled at your Academy — Thomas Marshall Mann, my far-
ther's cousin, I think, was once there, and I believe another
cousin, Samuel Mann. Sanford B. Cook of Petersham, a consin
of mine, no doubt was in school there many years since, and I
really forget whether or not my brother Horace attended there.
Well I am writing too much. For many years I have been in-
terested in family and biographical history and wish we could
obtain a more full and complete account of the early doings and
facts of the various towns in Massachusetts. I have written
this much in reply to your circular, and in considerable of a
hurry, in order to meet a party on a walk.
6o NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CENTENNIAL.
If I possessed the reputation of a Washington or a Lincohi
even, I should have considered it an honor to have been born in
your town, but as I am only a humble, plain citizen, the place
of my nativity will never be advertised or become famous for my
having first beheld the light of day within its borders.
Very truly yours,
George Sumner Mann.
Rev. a. V. House.
Rev. A. V. House of Worcester, formerly of New Salem, was
next introduced. He said he could add but little to the already
interesting array of pleasant things said about New Salem. He
spoke of the great good which will come from the inspiration of
the day's exercises. Mr. House spoke feelingly of his work in
the town, and of the many benefits which could be gained by
living and working in small towns.
W. E. Sibley.
W. E. Sibley of Worcester, a class-mate at New vSalem aca-
demy of President Vaughan, spoke interestingly. He gave
good advice to the young men and women of the town, and said
that it is not so much what you do, or how you do it in the way of
individual achievement, as it is to do your work with a will, and
with the end in view of succeeding in that undertaking. Take
up a business congenial to you and then stick to it. Mr. Sibley
told of his early recollections of New Salem and the affection he
had for the old Academy and the town.
Maj. General H. C. Merritt.
One of the interesting short speeches was by Major General
H. C. Merritt of Houlton, Maine. General Merritt is in the
regular army, and his father was a native of New Salem and
attended the Academ}-. The town of Houlton was a child of
New Salem, being settled by a number of good people from
New Salem, and so the speaker considered himself a kind of
grandchild of the place. He congratulated the many sons and
daughters of New Salem, who had so gloriously gone forth and
succeeded in life's battle. Much credit can be given the early
influence of those men and women.
Ex-Representative W. A. Davenport.
The last speaker of the- day was ex-representativ^e W. A.
Davenport of Greenfield. He said that for many years Academ-
ies were stepping stones to the colleges. To day the high school
is fast taking its place, but the speaker believed that in many
ways the thoroughness of the present day high school course
was not equal to the old academy education. Mr. Davenport
glowingly referred to Geo. W. Horr of Athol, and spoke of him
as a type of the New Salem graduate, one who could be pointed
to with pride. Mr. Davenport continued his address in an in-
teresting strain, and it was very pleasing throughout.
N£IV SALEM SESQUI-CENTENNIAL.
THE BEARS DEN.
The waters of Swift river in their descent from the high lands
of the west part of the town to the lower regions of the east, pass
through several interesting and romantic places. The most
prominent of these is the locality called the "Bears Den." Here
the water coming down through an opening in the hills, passes
over the rocks and makes a most beautiful waterfall, which is
surrounded on each side by cliffs of rock nearly one hundred
feet in height; on the right hand side there are several caves
which extend many feet back into the rock. It was here that
the bold hunter, one of the first settlers of the town, killed a
large black bear. It was this incident which gave the locality
its name. Many a story has been written and many a song has
been sung about the Bears Den. The fall was utilized for a
grist mill and wagon shop many years ago. The business was
discontinued in 1854.
GEOGRAPHY OF NEW SALEM.
New Salem is the south-east town in the county of Franklin,
and is about twenty miles distant from Greenfield, the county
seat. The present territory of the town comprises 15,217 acres.
The surface of the town is hilly, rugged and mountainous; the
highest elevation is in the south-west, where there is an altitude
of 1280 feet abo^-e the sea level. Nowhere in America is there
more beautiful scenery to be found than there is to be seen from
New Salem hill — on the north is to be seen Mount Grace; to the
north-east is Mount Monadnock in her solitary grandeur; to the
east is Wachusett and around and between these giants are a
large number of smaller mountains and hills.
The climate of the town is very salubrious and healthy. The
Jakes and ponds in the town are the reservoir, or Thompson's
pond, in the east covering 265 acres; north and south Spectacle
ponds covering 80 acres; Hacker's pond west from Spectacle
ponds of 20 acres and Hop brook pond. The streams are, the
middle branch of Swift river, which has its source in the east
part of Wendell and which flows to the east past the village of
North New Salem where it is joined by the water from North
pond, it then turns to the south and passes through the entire
length of the town. It is joined on both sides by numerous
small streams, among them on the east is Red brook, on the
west is Moose Horn brook and Hop brook.
NE W SALEM SESQ Ul- CENTENNIAL. 65
These ponds and brooks are well filled with pickerel, trout,
pouts and other kinds of fish. The State Fish Commissioners
have recently placed in Swift river a large number of small trout.
The large amount of wood land in the town furnishes a home for
the raccoon, the partridge and the fox.
The deer which were here when the town was settled, and
which had entirely disappeared, are now quite numerous. They
are protected by law.
HISTORIC PLACES MARKED,
The committee have marked five historic places by placing
large stones with suitable inscription. One was placed on the
site of the old fort and stockade on the south side of the Town
Farm; one at the site of the fort near the Academy building;
one where the first church was built in 1739; one where the first
settlement was made by Jeremiah Meacham in 1737, and one
where the Hessian prisoners, captured at Saratoga, passed
through this town.
THE ANTIQUARIAN EXHIBIT.
It is well nigh impossible to enumerate the number and write
the history of all the articles exhibited, and although but a part
of the many things in New Salem preserved for their antiquity
were brought out, there were about 500 articles on exhibition.
Charles A. Merriam. — Catalogue of the trustees, instructors
and students of New Salem Academy, October, 1830; bed spread
made by Mrs. Cyrus Merriam 67 years ago; chair over 125 years
old; warming pan; candle mould and candles; pair andirons;
shovel and tongs; candle snuffers and tray; old candle stick;
pewter porringer; sampler; old tin apple dish; old lace handker-
chief; old bracket candle holder; pair brass candle sticks 70
years old; old bread trough; 28 pieces fine old crockery; 7 pieces
fine old glass ware.
Prentice N. Pierce. — Old ilint lock, musket and knapsack,
used by Emerson Goodnow in New Salem militia in 1820; rebel
rifle captured at Roanoke Island; old bottle, formerly belonging
to C apt. Joel Osgood; collection samplers, framed; old oven
shovel; old meat roaster; old skate; i ball from chain shot of
Revolutionary times; old shoe hammer; old tin lantern; skillet;
wide cradle in which the Goodnow triplets were rocked; hatchel
for cleaning flax; old tea pot; sugar bowl; teacup and saucer;
pewter porringer, from which the Goodnow triplets were fed;
old bible, (Mrs. H. C. Crowl); old stays or corsets 200 years old.
NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CENTENNIAL. 67
Charles P. Johnson. — Slave clog and old shoe picked up from
the battlefield of Shiloh or Pittsburg landing just after the bat-
tle; stone Indian chisel; copy book, 1800; piece of Charter Oak;
arrow heads; old pistol; pepper box; revolver; little pitcher,
once his great-grand-mother's, 125 years old; collection cart-
ridges, old and new; old pocket ink stand; gun flints; old pewter
lamp; silver teaspoon, made from silver taken from the hilt of
his great-grandfather's sword, Capt. Nymphus Stacy; old tin
baking oven; history of the world, 1793; dictionary over 100 years.
Mrs. B. W. Fay. — Old dinner pot; old cartridge box; old
chair.; gridiron, 1833; toaster, 1833; revolving gridiron; old
spider; bellows, 2 pewter; platters.
D. E. Andrews. — Very old foot stove; 2 skillets; 2 pictures of
Dr. Robert Andrews; hand reel.
George W. Fisher. — Old pistol; greenback; arrow heads; old
Richard C. Woolworth. — Warming pan over 100 years old.
Marshall Fisher. — Old tin lantern; old crank reel; hand reel;
foot stove; gridiron.
D. B. Cogswell. — Old post-hole ax; old pitchfork.
Lucien Stoughton. — Old pepper box; revolver, which figured
in California, made 1800; bed blanket, homespun; old tea kettle;
piggin or wooden pitchor, 1 800.
Rawson King. — Two candle molds; iron candle stick; pair
brass candle sticks; small old tin lantern; very old tin molasses
cup; two pewter porringers; 2 old iron teaspoons; old mug; pep-
per shaker; skillet; snuffer and tray; 2 dresses, a bonnet and
little shirt worn by Rawson King, when he was a real little kid.
Mrs. Julia Whipple. — Old pewter platter; an old newspaper,
1798, with poem upon Washington's assent to take command of
the U. S. armies the second time, written by "Ruricus," New
68 NE W SALEM SESQ UICENTENNIAL.
lycster Ballard. — Old bass viol; bedspread, woven and worked
by Lucy Fay, the grandmother of Mrs. Ballard, in 1823.
A. F. Haskell. — Pewter platter, 150 years old; foot stove; old
candle stick; snuffers and tray, 200 years old; arrow heads.
Levi Newton. — Old bottle, 125 or 140 years old, pewter plat-
ter over 100 years old, coat and vest, spun and woven by his
grandmother about 118 years ago.
Albert Ballard. — Old chair which has been in the BuUard
family for over 100 years, old hair trunk, old baking kettle, two
skillets, olden wooden bit brace, list of the voters of Wendell in
Daniel Ballard. — Old Ballard tavern sign, spinning wheel,
reel, letter box, Indian relics, swift, canteen and army belt car-
ried by Mr. Ballard in the civil war, cartridge box, foot stove,
two ancient bread toasters, old quilt, tin apple dish, Major War-
ren Horr's ancient pump, one of the first, if not the very first
pump which came to town following upon the heels of the old
oaken bucket, old Queen's arm and musket, one of which was
carried by Mr. Ballard's grandfather of Wendell in the Revolu-
tionary war; he served on the quota of New Salem.
Eugene BuUard. — Old handbox, book, collection of sermons
250 years old, pair andirons, spinning wheel.
A. D. Paige. — The Paige cradle.
Alfred Eaton. — Old wooden bit stock, tinderbox of horn with
tinder, made by his father, John Eaton.
Stowell Bros. — Epaulets, belt, sash and sword of Captain
Samuel H. Stowell, Captain of militia, 1840 to 1861, old secre-
tary, collection old books from the late Samuel H. Stowell' s li-
brary, warming pan, tin lantern, pair old andirons, old dung
fork, "frow," for splitting shingles, quilt made by Mary Clark
Chandler over 80 years ago.
NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL. 6g
Mrs. H. A. Cogswell. — Two decanters, two tea canisters, snuf-
fers and tray, sand box for clothing, baby dress, worn by Mrs.
Cogswell, 64 years old, pocket book 100 years old, made by
Mrs. Ida M. Rawson. — Band box, old '*plug" hat, shaker
bonnet, pair old fashioned home spun pants, old plate, old fiat
iron and rest, silk hood, pair shears, tongs, old pocket book,
pair brass candle sticks, tin lantern, blanket, home spun and
woven 90 years ago, part of blanket, home spun and woven 100
years ago, old small tin lamp.
Mrs. B. W. Fay. — Carpet bag, 1850, old leather bag, piece of
dimity, part of the wedding dress of great-great grandmother
Fletcher, pair satin slippers faom Scotland, 125 years ago, an-
cient tortoise shell comb, candle extinguisher, old gill, and 1-2
gill measures. Confederate bill, old lace tidy, sausage filler, old
watch 100 years old, given to B. W. Fay when a small child by
Mrs. J. M. Smith. — Nine pieces fine old crockery.
Geo. W. Horr. — A pamphlet specimen of old time bookkeep-
ing, antedating 1800, some of the entries were very suggestive,
and indicated that frequent and liberal doses of fire water was
considered essential to good living.
WHERE IS THE OLD GUN?
At the battle of Bennington, the Americans captured from the
British six pieces of light artillery.
Several of them were given to the colony of Massachusetts,
and one of these was presented to the town of New Salem, by
the General Court. Previous to its capture by General Stark
the old gun had had a most eventful, varied and interseting ex-
perience. It was manufactured in Dresden, Germany, and was
for many years used in the wars against Poland and Austria;
it came over to Liverpool with King George's Hessian soldiers;
and formed a part of that splendid equipment which General
Burgoyne collected for his campaign against the northern colon-
ies. It was brought over in the ship with General Burgoyne
and his staff; and we have read in an old history that as the
vessels composing the fleet were appraching the gulf of St.
Lawrence there suddenly burst upon them from the north a fear-
ful storm, and the transports were scattered in all directions.
The Captain of the flag ship ordered all cannons, arms and
other munitions of war, brought up and thrown overboard.
George Burgoyne interposed and prevented the destruction,
saying, "I had rather go the bottom of the ocean than land in
America, without my supplies and equipments." The storm
soon passed, and the entire fleet arrived in safety at Quebec and
Montreal. And in that march through southern Canada among
NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL. 71
a people loyal to King George III, the old gun went along in
the front ranks, which were largely increased by a motley crowd
of Tories and Indians. They crossed the Richelieu river, then
around to the west shore of Lake Champlain, thence down past
Plattsburg — which later was to become historic ground — then
along under the shadows of the Adirondacks; but soon shadows
of a different nature began to gather around them. The rebels
were springing up all around them; their allies, the Tories and
Indians, were deserting them. The army was suffering for
food. General Baum sent to Bennington with his artillery to
capture supplies stored there by the rebels; he returned with
neither food or cannon.
The cannon given to New Salem was kept at New Salem, hill
for many years, and was used on all festive occasions; but
sometimes they would find it missing when they went to bring
it out to celebrate the glorious Fourth, but soon they would
hear its sharp repoft in some distant part of the town. This
state of affairs continued for many years, then came a time w^hen
the old gun was silent, and for twenty years nothing was heard
of it, it had been buried under a heap of stones upon the farm
now owned by Lester Ballard. It had been placed there by two
men residents of New Salem hill; one of them went west, and,
returning after an absence of twenty years, was surprised to
learn that it was yet remaining where there had placed it.
It soon made its appearance, and was again used in various
parts of the town.
On the Fourth of July, 1856, it assisted at the celebration at
Millington; it was soon after carried again to New Salem hjll,
and on the afternoon of the 14th day of September it was lying
upon the ground near the village school house.
The writer, then a school boy at New Salem Academy, had^
been for some time looking at it, and thinking that in the future
72 NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CENTENNIAL.
he might have use for it, he arranged with some friends to carry
it to a safe hiding place.
At midnight they went out; it was a balmy September even-
ing, the moon in its decadence was just coming up over the
Petersham hills, and the shadows of the Academy building, ex-
tended far out upon the common: in the south and west was a
tissue of fine fleecy clouds. To the great astonishment of the
writer and his friends the cannon was gone. They looked over
the common, around the boarding house, among the graves in
the ancient cemetery, around the churches and in many other
places, but the did not find it. Since that September evening,
nearly fifty years ago, naught has been heard of the old cannon.
While great and momentous changes have been going on all over
the world, the old gun has remained silent.
Is there any one living today who knows where it is ?
We have always supposed it did not go far on that evening,
and that today it is somewhere near New Salem hill.
TOWN CLERK'S OF NEW SALEM FROM 1855,
1855-57 A, Harding Jr,
1858-59 Chas, M. Pierce,
1859-74 Royal Whittaker.
1874 R. T. Shumway.
1875 F. A. Haskell.
1876-87 Chas. Chandler.
1888-03 Edwin F. Stowell.
SELECTMEN OF NEW SALEM.
1764 Amos Foster
Benjamin Southwick Jr.
1765 Amos Foster
Benjamin Southwick Jr.
The above were obtained from old records in the possession
of Daniel Ballard.
1855-56 Emerson Fay,
1857 Emerson Fay,
74 NE W SALEM SESQ UI- CENTENNIAL.
1858 Alpheus Thomas,
William T. Freeman,
1859-60 Elijah F. Porter,
F. R, Haskell,
1 86 1 Elijah F. Porter,
V. V. Vaughn.
1862 Elijah F. Porter,
V. V. Vaughn.
1863 Elijah F. Porter,
1864 Elijah F. Porter,
Daniel V. Putnam.
1865 Elijah F. Porter,
Daniel V. Putnam,
William T. Freeman.
1866 Elijah F. Porter,
Daniel V. Putnam,
1867 Elijah F. Porter,
Daniel V. Putnam,
J. H. Carey.
1868-70 Royal Whittaker,
Daniel V. Putnam,
Beriah W. Fay,
1 87 1 Royal Whittaker,
I^aniel V. Putnam,
NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAE 75
E. D. Andrews.
1872 Daniel V. Putnam,
Elijah F. Porter,
Samuel H. Stowell.
1873 Elijah F. Porter,
Samuel H. Stowell,
Lucien T. Briggs.
1 8 74- 76 Nelson Haskins,
F. W. Newland,
William I^. Powers,
1877 F. W. Newland,
William ly. Powers,
H. A. Cogswell.
1878-79 F. W. Newland,
1880-83 Daniel Ballard,
George E. Woods.
1884-87 Daniel Ballard,
Howard S. Herrick.
1888 F. W. Newland,
S. H. Stowell,
William L. Powers.
1889-90 S. H. Stowell,
W. ly. Powers,
1891-92 Otis E. Hager.
Dwight A. Stowell.
1893 Willard Putnam,
76 NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CENTENNIAL.
D wight A. Stowell.
1894 Eugene Bullard,
D wight A. Stowell,
Edwin C. Chamberlin.
1895 Willard Putnam,
D wight A. Stowell,
Edwin C. Chamberlin.
1896 D wight A. Stowell,
Edwin C. Chamberlin,
Howard S. Herrick.
1897 D wight A. Stowell,
Howard S. Herrick,
1898-99 F. W. Newland,
Wm. A. Orcutt,
Chas. J. Moulton.
1900-03 Henry L. Horr,
Alba D. Paige,
Chas. E. Holden.
1855 Wm. T. Giles.
James W. Adams,
A. W. Paige.
1856-57 Rev. Thomas Weston,
Beriah W. Fay,
1858 Beriah W. Fay,
Rev. Erastus Curtis,
Rev. Thomas Weston.
1859 Rev. Erastus Curtis,
NE W SALEM SESQ UI-CEN2ENNIAL 77
Beriah W. Fay,
Geo. W. Horr.
i860 Dr. A. E. Kemp,
Dr. Levi Chamberlain,
Daniel W. Houghton.
1 86 1 -9 1 Beriah W. Fay.
1862 G. A. Kemp.
1 863 A. K. Kemp.
1864-65 Rev.' David Eastman.
1865-67 Joseph A. Shaw.
1868-70 Willard Putnam.
1871-72 Dr. W. H. Hills.
1873-03 Willard Putnam.
1875-77 F. E. Stratton.
1878 80 Clarence Goodnow.
1881-90 Geo. R. Paige.
1890-03 Daniel Ballard.
1891-98 Howard S. Herrick.
1898-00 Rev. A. V. House.
1900-03 William Bullard.
THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY