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Full text of "Nineteenth century miracles; or spirits and their work in every country of the earth. A complete historical compendium of the great movement known as "modern spiritualism.""

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M* s Emma Hardinge Britten 











Author of 

" History of Modern American Spiritualism ; " " Wildfire Club ;" " Faiths, Facts, and Frauds of Religious 
History;" " On the Road : or, a Manual for Spiritual Investigators ; " "The Electric Physician ;" 
"The Western Star Magazine ; " and numerous Lectures on Religion, 
Theology, Social Science and Reform. 

The Limes, Humphrey Street, Cheetham Hill, Manchester : 
E. W. Allen, Ave Maria Lane, London, E.C. 

[Entered at Stationers' Hall.] 

• X ^^&f 


®0 W. £. *M & §. 

Whose Names, unknown on Earth, shine in Immortal Types 

in the Archives of Eternity, 

This Humble Record of the Mightiest Work ever 

Performed on Earth, 

Is Gratefully Inscribed by 

The Author. 

the Limes, 

Humphrey St., Cheetham Hill, 

Manchester, England. 

December, 1883. 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

The Institute of Museum and Library Services through an Indiana State Library LSTA Grant' 


Introduction 1-5 

Chapters i to 6 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 7-41 

Chapters 7 to 11 41-90 

Chapters 12 to 28 90-226 

Chapters 29 to 31 ... 227-261 

Chapters 32 and 33 262-276 

Chapter 34 277-284 

Chapter 35 284-291 

Chapters 36 to 38 291-326 

Chapters 39 to 41 326-34! 


Chapter 42 341-348 

Chapters 43 and 44 348-365 

Chapters 45 and 46 ' 365-379 


Chapter 47 379-389 ' 

Chapter 48 389-400 

Chapter 49 .. ... ... ... ... ... 400-412 



Chapter 50 413-425 

Chapters 51 to 61 425-556 



The following Table of References, although by no means designed to fill the 
place of a complete index, will be found serviceable to those who desire to refer to 
prominent cases on special subjects : — 

18, 41 to 44, 48, 124 to 126. 

HEALINGS AND HEALERS.— Pages 26 and seq., 34, 6o , 6 4 and se q-> 68 and se 1-> 
69, 72, 77, 83, 99, 125, 175, 217, 250 to 254, 277, 404, 415. 

SPIRIT MUSIC— Pages 75-76, 143-4, 147, 322, 337, 339. 34°. 423, 480. 

DRAWINGS BY SPIRIT POWER.— Pages 87, 100, 163, 170, 233, 339, 419, 423, 

433, 4 8 C 532 to 534, 536. 
DIRECT WRITINGS BY SPIRITS,— Pages 40, 59, 166-7-8, 214, 238, 291 to 296, 

337, 339- 

PASSAGE OF MATTER THROUGH MATTER.— Pages 40, 44, 80, 82, 84, 92 to 
96, 147, 148, 160 to 162, 166. 

FLOATING OF THE 'HUMAN BODY IN THE AIR.— Pages 33, 144 to 146, 
160 to 162, 77, 258, 337, 422, 423. 

73-4-5, 78-9, 105 to 128, 144-5, 150-ff, 153, 176 to 180, 183 to 187, 189, 201, 202-3, 
205-6, 218 to 222, 230, 347, 349 to 352, 444-5, 448, 393, 413 and seq., 456 to 469. 

. ECSTATICS.— Pages 29, 30, 67, 85, 168, 99 to 102; Irish Revivals, no to 123, 323, 
366, 415-16-17, 498 to 502. 

TALKING SPIRITS.— Pages 100-1, 103, 144, 385, 509 to 515. 

HAUNTINGS AND OBSESSIONS.— Pages 19 to 25, 31. Berg gheister, Kobolds.— 
Pages 32, 65, 80 to 85, 92 to 99, 343 to 346, 362, 366 to 377, 379 to 385, 389, 392, 
399, 503 to 506. 

TIONS.— Pages 13, 51, 81, 82, 88, 127, 157, 182, 188 and seq., 193,194, 196 to 198, 
248, 270, 355, 358, 435, 469 to 477. 

TIONS.— Pages 18 to 20, 28 to 33, 38 to 40, 80 to 90, 94 to 99, 100 to 105, 142 to 149, 
152 to 159, 159 to 171, 214 to 216, 235, 241 to 246, 255 to 266, 277 to 284, 311 to 313, 
314, 338 to 341, 354, 359, 360,434, 435, 405, 507 to 508, 515 to 518, 519 to 527, 539. 

from pages 37 to 40 ; Irvingites, 100 to 109 ; Irish Revivals (chaps. 14 and 15), 
227 to 236, 238 to 247, 434. > 

WRITING MEDIUMSHIP.— 36 to 40, 42 to 45, 58 to 60, 165 to 170, 227 to 249, 
318, 397, 4°!, 406, 4M- 


The Author having found it impossible to procure many of the portraits of the 
various illustrious Spiritualists of different countries mentioned in this work, and a 
large number having been furnished from Great Britain, America, and one or two 
other special localities, it has been deemed necessary to preserve the symmetry of 
the book by distributing the illustrations uniformly towards the close of every 
other chapter. The reader, no less than the honoured originals of the various 
portraits, therefore, must kindly allow for this necessity, and be prepared to find 
the portraits often widely removed from the pages wherein the persons so represented 
are mentioned. 


Eternity and Infinity are the only words that seem, in our imperfect 
forms of speech, to embody the conditions of spiritual existence. Time 
and Space are equally apposite to the state of being we call " material." 
Whilst therefore, we essay to write of a dispensation which manifests the 
characteristics of the endless and illimitable, it must not be forgotten that 
we are yet denizens of a material sphere, bounded in on every side by the 
limitations of time and space. 

The author of these pages would press the above propositions upon the 
reader's attention, because they may serve to excuse the necessity of 
secularizing a subject, the high religious import of which should command 
the most sublime forms of expression that language can supply. But as 
the inspiring intelligences who prompt the production of this volume, mark 
out the beaten path of verbal simplicity as the best that can be adopted 
for the reader's benefit, and charge the author to leave to posterity only a 
brief compendious record of the footprints made by an invisible world of 
being in this, the nineteenth century, so must our chief aim be to reduce 
to the plainest possible mode of expression the tale we have to tell. The 
reader will find then in the following pages, nothing more than a concise 
historical summary of the spiritual movement as it has transpired in various 
countries of the earth, from the commencement of the nineteenth century. 

There have been certain features of specialty in this "cause" in America, 
which have given it a prominence there unparalleled in any other country. 
This remarkable distinctiveness the author has already testified to by 
publishing a voluminous work embodying the history of the first twenty 
years of American Spiritualism.* Any student endowed with ordinary 
powers of observation will soon discover that " the modern outpouring of 
the spirit" has been just as full in other lands as in America, but no where 
else has the same freedom of speech been allowed to testify to the facts of 
spirit communion. No other people have so fully organised the propa- 
ganda of the movement by the aid of professional media as the Americans, 
neither have the inhabitants of any other country so universally systema- 
tized the use and culture of " spiritual gifts." It must also be remembered, 
that the immense mass of spiritual literature put forth through the American 
press has contributed largely to the popular understanding of the subject. 
Considering however, the world-wide character of the spiritual outpouring 
in the nineteenth century, the author has been urgently entreated —by such 

*" Modern American Spiritualism: a twenty years' record of the open communion 
between spirits and mortals." By Emma Hardinge Britten. Published by Colby 
and Rich, office of the Banner of Light, Boston, Mass., U.S.A. 


dwellers of the life beyond as can make their wishes understood — to sup- 
plement the History of American Spiritualism, by one which shall include 
compendious sketches of the movement all over the earth, as well as con- 
tinue the record in America from its first twenty years of action to the 
present date. In carrying out this plan of the work, the author has been 
strongly counselled by the same intelligences as prompt the undertaking, 
to write of what pertains to the history of Spiritualism without fear 
or favour, but to omit, as far as possible, all notice of those excres- 
cences which invariably fasten on the armies of reform, in the shape 
of fraud, imbecility, or such evidences of human selfishness as repre- 
sent what Spiritualism is not — not what it really is. Whilst then, we 
would "nothing extenuate, or set down aught in malice," we shall 
unhesitatingly point to any breaches made in the spiritual garrison by 
human intervention, but carefully avoid giving to the worthless interloper, 
that notoriety which so many seek to obtain, even at the price of tamper- 
ing with " the life lightnings," through which the angels telegraph to man ; 
in a word, the cheat, swindler, and parasite, whose genius it is to prey upon 
any cause strong enough to bear them along on the broad current of 
progress, may look in vain for opportunities to make capital out of this 
volume. Whether we send, it down the stream of time to the one or the 
many, we do not propose to disgrace its pages with names which simply 
represent the darker features of humanity, not the light destined to be 
shed abroad by the great nineteenth-century spiritual outpouring. 

With these impelling motives to our undertaking, we essay its commence- 
ment, committing the result to God and the angels, whose work it is, and 
under whose guidance the author reverently attempts the record. 


How far disembodied spirits are the authors of the startling phenomena 
which have obtained the name of " Modern Spiritualism," how much of 
the reported marvels are due to the spirit within man himself, or owe their 
colouring to exaggeration on the part of the narrator, and easy credulity 
on that of the observer, are questions which are agitating thoughtful minds 
everywhere, both within and without the ranks of Spiritualism. 

That fraudulent manifestations have been given, and in many instances 
publicly represented as proceeding from spirits, none can deny ; but the 
question of how to discern the true from the false, is of the most vital 
importance, especially to a writer, whose sole aim is to present a worthy 
record of a sublime truth, yet to free it from all the misrepresentation 
which would render such a record valueless. 

The chief obstacles which intervene between this purpose and its 
accomplishment, are the manifestations of partisan spirit, which find their 
readiest sphere of representation in the columns of the spiritual journals. 
One set of writers determinately upholds every asserted claim to medium- 
ship, however flimsy, and hurls denunciation against every individual who 
either presumes to question the validity of that claim, or draws attention to 
the most palpable evidence of imposture. This injurious spirit of credulity, 
so often mistaken by the world for complicity with the impostor, is met on 
the other hand by equally violent denunciation of all which the denouncer 
cannot himself fully apprehend. 

The editors of the spiritual journals are besieged with demands to make 
their columns the arena of this unseemly warfare. If they comply, they 


disgust and offend the impartial, whilst their refusals to do so, are regarded 
as tantamount to partisanship, to be construed at the pleasure of the 
belligerents. But a still worse result of this quarrelsome and self-assertive 
spirit, is the difficulty which it interposes of arriving at any reliable 
representation of a communion, which depends wholly for its acceptance 
on the validity of the facts claimed for it. 

The philosophy of Spiritualism, however beautiful in theory, or true in 
principle, grows out of its facts, for, if spirits are not the authors of the 
communications received in their names, the whole theory of a hereafter — 
as demonstrated by Spiritualism — crumbles into the dust and ashes which 
underlie the unsustained assertions of theology. 

To place religion upon the assured foundation of knowledge, and redeem 
mankind from the tempest-tossed ocean of speculative opinion, we have 
nothing, unless we have facts and basic fundamental principles. To 
demonstrate these, and guide our drifting souls into the ports of eternity by 
the infallible compass of truth, spirits have come to earth. 

What then can we say of the remorseless swindlers, who would simulate 
the personality of these angelic pilots, or the imbecile credulity of those who 
allow themselves to be duped by their shallow pretences ? 

Testimony on so weighty and solemn a question as Spiritual existence, 
can only be admissible when it is proven beyond the peradventure of one 
or two interested witnesses ; in short, the entire intercommunion between 
the two worlds, must be based on the impregnable rock of truth, or it can 
never shake the earth with the birth throes of a religion, which claims to 
demonstrate immortality, as the corner-stone upon which man's faith may 
rest unmoved. 

On the other hand, psychological conditions are subtle, and as yet often 
incomprehensible, in their working. 

Those who attempt to deal with them, whilst they should observe their 
modes with the closest scrutiny, should yet approach the subject in a con- 
siderate and even reverential spirit; always remembering, that they may 
break or destroy, whilst they endeavour to bend and shape, the invisible 
force, to suit man's ignorance and presumption. It is certain, however, that 
discourteous treatment and rude denunciation are not the methods best 
calculated to evolve psychic phenomena, or ensure results which obviously 
require calm and harmonious mental conditions. Dean Swift was not far 
wrong when he said, that " it required a man with brains to write a book, 
but any brainless ass could criticise it." And this is true of all intellectual 
processes, Spiritualism not excepted. Whilst the wise and philosophical 
investigator may take much pains to study out the best means of evolving 
phenomena, the presence of the boorish ignoramus may be quite sufficient 
to mar its production. At present, we are profoundly ignorant of all the laws 
and forces concerned in the evolution of spiritual phenomena ; hence, we 
should be prepared to extend an equal amount of charity both to the medium 
and the investigator, confident that the spirit of partizanship will never favour 
the discovery of truth, or promote the integrity of righteous judgment. 
Many attempts have been made to draw unfavourable comparisons between 
the value of testimony received from paid or professional mediums, and 
that obtained through persons whose rank and wealth might be supposed to 
exclude the hypothesis of motives for practising deception. 

Unfortunately for the theory that non-professional mediums alone are 
reliable, the assumption is not based upon admissible facts, for it can be 
shown, that a large percentage of the alleged spirit communications 


received through non-professional mediumship, is often tinctured by 
hallucination, self-deception, and prepossession of opinion, especially upon 
religious subjects, whilst some of the most notorious exposes that have 
occurred in connexion with physical mediumship, have involved ladies and 
gentlemen^ whose positions in society, were assumed to be sufficient warranty, 
to exclude all idea of fraud or deception. 

If the difficulty also of testing mediums, when the investigators are 
simply guests, and the slightest appearance of suspicion would be resented 
as a mortal affront, be taken into account, the balance, as a whole, may be 
struck in favour of maintaining professional mediumship, especially for the 
purposes of investigation and the more general advancement of Spiritualism 
amongst the masses. In the meantime, there are two forms of spiritual 
manifestation which are not open to any of the objections above 
suggested ; manifestations, which can be criticised and examined at pleasure, 
and which always present testimony of an indisputable character. These are, 
first ; spontaneous or unevoked phenomena, occurring without preparation ; 
and next, all such forms of intelligence as cannot be traced, either to the 
knowledge of the communicants or the mentality of the recipients. Multi- 
tudes of both these forms of spiritual agency will be found detailed in this 
volume ; in fact, the author has given the preference, wherever possible, to 
the records of spontaneous phenomena, because its production is freed 
from all those equivocal conditions which surround invocatory processes. 
These, together with the vast mass of supra-mundane intelligence which 
has been given during the modern spiritual dispensation, are quite sufficient 
to demonstrate the facts of spiritual agency, and place the cause on a basis 
of proof, that rises triumphantly over the most injudicious partisanship, or 
the most bigoted antagonism. 

We now trust our readers will understand in what spirit this volume is 
written, and why its author has withheld a large mass of offered testimony, 
extravagantly lauded by one party, and equally extravagantly denounced 
by another. Also, why those names are omitted from the roll-call of the 
grand spiritual army that have been made the Shibboleth of contending 
parties, to prove or disprove imposture. 

We may often err in the conclusions we attempt to draw, and utterly fail 
to do justice to the stupendous theme we treat of, but we will never wilfully 
aid in deluding a generation, seeking to find in Spiritualism, the path to 
Heaven that no merely speculative faith can point out. 

In endeavouring to trace out with all fidelity, the origin of the great 
modern spiritual movement, it will soon become apparent that though very 
momentous results were obtained in the Hydesville investigations of 1848 — 
especially in the discovery of a systematic mode of communing with spirits 
through a set of concerted signals — yet even in America, the land in which 
Spiritualism has attained to a pre-eminent degree of popularity, spirit com- 
munion was demonstrated, long prior to the " Hydesville disturbances " ; 
in fact, it is obvious that this century in the New, as well as the Old World, 
has been remarkable for the persistence with which spirits have endea- 
voured to effect a direct method of intercourse with mortals. 

The causes before alluded to, which have favoured the marked publicity 
to which Spiritualism has attained in America, should be carefully 
considered, and will be found explanatory of the custom of dating the 
commencement of the modern movement, from the "Rochester knockings" 
in 1848. One great difficulty in attempting to chronicle the details of this 
movement, is the very fact that it did not originate in any special locality, 


or at any given time, inasmuch as it manifested its influence in a sponta- 
neous and universal outpouring all over the world, coming and going like 
the wind — few, if any, could say whence, or whitherward. Again ; it is 
because we cannot trace up the history of modern Spiritualism consecutively 
from point to point, either in time or place, that we find it expedient to 
take the commencement of this century for our data, and propose to treat 
of the manifestations as they occurred, independently, in the various countries 
of earth from which authentic records are obtainable. In pursuance of 
this plan, we shall commence our researches in Germany, where we shall 
find abundant testimony to the supra-mundane character of the intelligence 
derivable from spirit sources, as well as proof positive, that spirits have 
manifested their presence on earth through spontaneous action and wholly 
unprepared conditions. 








William Howitt, that most indefatigable student of every subject on which 
he chose to exercise his facile pen, in his " History of the Supernatural," 
writes in strong terms against the custom of identifying the modern 
Spiritual movement with America as its birth place, or the "Rochester 
knockings," as the opening of intelligent communication between mortals 
and spirits. 

We have already pointed to the reasons which have tended to popularize 
Spiritualism in America, but we must add, that the very methods so favour- 
able to the diffusion of knowledge on Spiritual subjects, are not in 
accordance with the conservatism of older countries, especially in Germany, 
where the prevailing policy has been to discountenance and even forbid 
associations, having for their aim the investigation of subjects not im- 
mediately fostered by the government. 

In America, the investigator finds his best opportunities for gathering up 
knowledge concerning the status of Spiritualism, in public meetings, Sunday 
services, conferences, children's lyceums, and the columns of journals 
specially devoted to the interests of the Spiritual cause. 

In Germany, Spiritualism has no publicly defined status. It is not known 
as a movement, and until the last few years, has had no periodicals devoted 
to its exposition ; yet the higher class of German literature, redolent of 
Spiritual facts and philosophy, is most voluminous, and a long and brilliant 
array of eminent German writers could be mentioned, whose works are 
almost entirely devoted to Spiritualistic subjects. 

Take for example the history of Jung Stilling, the famous pneumatologist, 
whose life-long experiences in seership, inspiration, prophecy, and the gift 
of healing, no bigot, however prejudiced, can deny. Cotemporary with 
this celebrated phenomenal character, was the noble Swiss philosopher 
Lavater, whilst the literature of the period was enriched by the writings of 


Eschenmayer, Mayer, Gorres, Schubert, Werner, Kant, Dr. Ennemoser, 
the author of the most exhaustive treatise on magic, extant ; Dr. Justinius 
Kerner, the renowned magnetist and biographer of the life and experiences 
of "the Seeress of Prevorst"; Zschocke, the famous seer and mystic; and many 
others, whose works connect the close of the last century with the opening 
of the present, and by the profusion of spiritual evidences they bring, 
unite in one unbroken chain, the modern outpouring, with the Sweden- 
borgian and Paracelsian period; with mediaeval spiritualism, or those 
forms of influx stigmatised by the ignorance of the times as " Witchcraft 
and Sorcery " ; whilst again ; the ghastly records of those dark days reach 
back in continuous links of connection with the more sublime, because 
more distant revelations of the Christian, Hebraic, and those other ancient 
dispensation's, during which the foundations of world-wide religious systems 
were laid. 

To return to the immediate subject of this chapter. Germany has made 
no sensational mark in the form of popular spiritualism, but she has con- 
tributed to the age a wealth of recorded facts, philosophy, and high-toned 
spiritual literature, unmatched by any other nation of our own times. It is 
to Germany too, that the world owes one of the mightiest discoveries that 
has ever been made in spiritual science, for Germany was the birth-place 
of Anton Mesmer, a pioneer in the realms of the imponderable, through 
whose stupendous revelations, miracle became converted into law, the 
supernatural into the spiritual, and ancient alchemy into modern 
magnetism ; in a word, it is only in contemplating the great and 
revolutionary work effected by Mesmer, that we can begin to appreciate the 
influence of the German mind upon the movement we now assume to be of 
purely spiritual authorship. 


A close observer of all phenomena of a spiritualistic character, will 
recognise, that they require for their production the presence of certain 
exceptional persons, such as in ancient time were termed seers and 
prophets; in the middle ages, witches and wizards; and in our own time, 
magnetic subjects, or spirit mediums. 

In the mystic writings of the Orientalists, it is intimated that the wonder- 
working element displayed in special individuals is latent in the whole 
human race, and can be brought into action by certain elaborate methods 
of culture. Now, although the Mediaeval Mystics, especially Cornelius 
Agrippa, Van Helmont, and Jacob Bohmen, have professed to give 
instructions for the unfoldment of magical power, the readers of their 
treatises have seldom profited by them ; in fact, so vast have been the 
claims for what might be done, and so futile the attempts to realize these 
claims, that magical processes have long been relegated to the realms of 
shadowy superstition. Not so however, the study of those mysterious 
forces with which the visible universe is teeming. Whether the affinities 
of chemistry, and the potencies of light, heat, and magnetism, &c, had 
anything to do with the " vital principle " in animated bodies, has been a 
question which often obtruded itself upon the philosopher, though never in 
such a shape as admitted of practical analysis. Paracelsus, Van Helmont, 
and Bohmen, have hinted at the existence of such a connection, and the 
first named, professed to have made cures by discovering the assimilation 
of the magnet to the human system. Still the great problems of the vital 


forces or the Elixir Vitce, have remained unsolved, and would have 
continued to do so but for the timely appearance of Anton Mesmer, who, 
about the middle of the last century, brought the wand of science to bear 
upon the enchantments of ignorance, and in a single lifetime, broke that 
spell of mystery which had enshrouded the hidden secrets of life, and the 
correllation of all forces in the universe. These may seem large claims 
to make for one who, in his own day, was denounced as an impostor by 
the scientific world, misunderstood and deserted even by those he had 
most benefited, and suffered to die in obscurity by the very followers who 
should have placed him on the highest pinnacle of fame. But Anton 
Mesmer is no exception to human procedures in every case, where the 
mind leaps before its age. Slowly but surely, the world recognises its 
benefactors, though it may be too late to return their benefits. To those 
who believe that the immortal spirit is the real man, acknowledgment of 
blessings received, will never seem too late, even if they are only sped by 
grateful memory and the pen of posterity, across the pathless realms 
which separate men from the land of ascended spirits. 

In considering the life, work, and influence of Dr. Mesmer, it would 
seem as if he had been providentially born and prepared for the part he 
was destined to fill in the history of human progress. 

Even in his eighth year, he would absent himself from home and school, 
to trace up. the source of streams, and wander far to collect stones, shells, 
and minerals, which he would pore over with strange and unchildlike 

Educated as a physician, he took his degree as a doctor of medicine, at 
the Vienna University, where he attracted universal attention by the curious 
nature of his inaugural thesis, the subject of which was, "The influence of 
the planets on the human body." 

During his residence at Vienna, he became acquainted with the professor 
of astronomy at the University, Father Hehl, a learned Jesuit, who claimed 
to be the inventor of certain steel plates, in which he could conserve the 
virtues of the magnet, so as to apply them successfully to the cure of disease. 

Whatever might have been the original merit of Father Hehl's discovery, 
his friend Mesmer soon improved upon it, and by his own superadded 
methods, produced such astonishing results in the cure of diseases, that he 
excited the spirit of rivalry, not only in the mind of his former friend, but 
also in the entire medical faculty of Vienna. 

The strife thus commenced was fanned into fury by Mesmer's continued 
successes, and though the machinations of his enemies ultimately obliged 
him to quit the city, opposition only had the effect of stimulating him to 
fresh energy in pursuing his path of discovery ; in fact, from the time when, 
in 1772, his attention was first called to the curative effects of the magnet, 
up to the date of his death, in 18 15, he never ceased to study, improve in, 
and practise the art of healing, which has been justly called, after its great 
discoverer, " Mesmerism." 

In his new mode of practice, Dr. Mesmer's earliest efforts were directed 
towards the utilization of the magnet, and his first cures were effected by 
the aid of magnetic machines, together with a baquet or bath, in which 
various mineral substances, immersed in water, were brought into connection 
with his patients. In a very short time, Mesmer discovered that which he 
had previously assumed, namely, that the chief virtue in his experiments 
resided in his own organism. It was from the point when he commenced 
the application of magnetic passes with his own hands, and found that he 


could transfer the life principle from himself to his patients, under the 
direction of his will, that his system obtained the now familiar name of 
"animal magnetism." Our purpose is not to write the biography of Anton 
Mesmer ; we simply aim to point out the gradations of unfoldment, by 
which the true knowledge of occult life forces was obtained. This stupen- 
dous result does not appear to have been known to, or anticipated by 
Mesmer, although it undoubtedly became familiar to many of his followers. 
The extent of this great man's discoveries, and the theorems upon which he 
based his whole system, are succinctly described by one of his most 
eminent biographers, Dr. Justinius Kerner, from whose admirable work, 
" The Life of Mesmer," we shall epitomize the summary of his views in 
the following chapter. 




Dr. Anton Mesmer. 

In the London Spiritual Magazine, Mr. Wm. Howitt, one of its ablest 
and most constant contributors, gives a series of papers translated from Dr. 
Kerner's life of Mesmer, from which the following extracts are taken : — 

" During his fifteen years medical practice in Vienna, Mesmer came upon his new 
art of healing through observing the origin and career of diseases in connection with 
the great changes in our solar system and the universe ; in short, with what he termed 
' Universal Magnetism.' He sought for this magnetism originally in electricity and 

subsequently in mineral magnetism It was after this manner Mesmer 

reasoned. There must exist a power which permeates the universe and binds toge- 
ther all bodies upon earth ; and it must be possible for man to bring this influence 
under his command. 

" This power he first sought for in the magnet. He then pondered upon it in 
regard to man and applied it successfully to the cure of the sick. This remarkable 
result would, in any other investigator, have brought him to the end of his experi- 
ments. Not so with Mesmer. Ever accompanied by the idea of a primal power, 
which must pervade the universe, the thought occurred to him that the influence 
must exist yet more powerfully in man than in the magnet. . . He thus perceived 
that he could not ascribe alone to the magnet which he held in his hands the effects 
produced, since he must also, in his turn, influence the magnet. 

"Upon this, he cast aside his magnet, and with his hands alone, brought forth 
similar and unadulterated effects." 

Seifert, another of Mesmer's biographers, affirms that he wore beneath 
his vest a shirt of leather, lined with silk, to prevent the escape of the 
magnetic fluid. 

He also believed that Mesmer wore magnets about his person, with a 
view of strengthening his own magnetism. 


The following description is given by Seifert of the Baquet which 
Mesmer used in the early days of his magnetic practice — 

"This receptacle was a large pan, tub, or pool of water, filled with various 
magnetic substances, such as water, sand, stone, glass bottles (filled with magnetic 
water), &c. It was a focus within which the magnetism was concentrated, and out of 
which proceeded a number of conductors. These being bent pointed iron wands, 
one end was retained in the baquet, whilst the other was connected with the 
patient and applied to the seat of the disease. This arrangement might be made use 
of by any number of persons seated round the baquet, and thus a fountain, or any 
receptacle in a garden, as in a room, would answer for the purpose desired." 

mesmer's THEOREMS. 

The following summary of the twenty-seven theorems which Mesmer 
published when the French Academy refused to indorse his discovery, are 
taken from Memoire sur la Decouverte du Magnetisme Animal, par 
M. Mesmer. Paris, 1779: — 

" Animal magnetism is a fluid universally diffused. 

" It is the medium of a mutual influence between the heavenly bodies, the earth, 
and animated bodies. 

" It is continuous, so as to leave no void. Its subtility admits of no comparison. 

" It is capable of receiving, propagating, and communicating all the impressions of 
motion. It is susceptible of flux and reflux. 

" The animal body experiences the effect of this agent by insinuating itself into the 
substance of the nerves — it affects them immediately. 

' ' There are observed, particularly in the human body, properties analogous to 
those of the magnet, and in it are observed poles equally different and opposite. 

" The action and the virtues of animal magnetism, may be communicated from one 
body to other bodies, animate and inanimate. 

" This action may take place at a remote distance, without the aid of any inter- 
mediate body. 

" It is increased, reflected by mirrors ; communicated, propagated, augmented by 
sound. Its virtues may be accumulated, concentrated, transported. 

" Although this fluid is universal, all animal bodies are not equally susceptible of 
it. There are even some — though a very small number — which have properties so 
opposite, that their very presence destroys all the effects of this fluid on other bodies. 

'' Animal magnetism is capable of healing diseases of the nerves immediately, and 
others mediately. 

" It perfects the action of medicines, excites and directs salutary crises in such a 
manner, that the physician may render himself master of them. By its means, he may 
know the state of each individual's health, judge the most complicated diseases, 
prevent their increase, and heal them without dangerous effects or troublesome con- 
sequences, whatever be the age, sex, or temperament of the patient. 

" In animal magnetism, nature presents an universal method of healing and pre- 
serving mankind." . . . 

Nothing in the history of the race is more admirably illustrative of 
providential methods, than the succession of steps through which great ideas 
are perfected, from their inception to their fruitage. 

Thus it is that we find the grand discovery of Mesmer, interpreting the 
dreams of the mystics concerning the " Philosopher's Stone " and " Elixir 
Vita? " ; illustrating the theories of Galileo and Newton, and converting the 
universal realm of gravitation which they perceived, into the soul-force of 
the universe, which could be made the instrument of annihilating disease 
and indefinitely extending the life of man. But though Mesmer capped 
the climax of philosophic research in the direction of blind, non-intelligent 
forces, his powers of observation extended no farther. He himself per- 
ceived that there were unknown realms of knowledge yet to be traversed ; 


and that as the element with which he was attempting to deal, was itself 
illimitable, so the paths of new discovery must also be boundless. It has 
often been urged that Mesmer dared not advance to the verification of the 
hypotheses which he perceived — let us grant this — still it must be remem- 
bered that it was his bold hand which opened the temple door of life 
forces ; also, that the great discoverer laboured at first alone and 
unaided ; and when at last he succeeded in drawing round him a cordon 
of sympathetic minds, he had to bear the brunt of all the persecution, 
scorn, and even martyrdom, which ignorance and bigotry ever launch 
against the pioneers of new ideas and progress. 

In process of time, the very bitterness of the denunciations that were 
visited upon the discoverer of animal magnetism, wrought their usual effect 
of provoking general investigation, and winning over numerous converts to 
the new system of cure. 

Amongst the most enthusiastic of Mesmer's early followers, was the 
Marquis de Puysegur, a wealthy and influential nobleman of Strasbourg, 
who, in carrying out the instructions of the great mesmerist, chanced to 
hit upon the still more remarkable and interesting sequence of clair- 
voyance, evolved through the mesmeric sleep. 

At first, the discovery of a highly-exalted intelligential state in connection 
with somnambulism, was so amazing to M. de Puysegur, that he was 
inclined to suppose the principle of cure itself, must result from the effect 
of magnetism upon the spirit. Like Mesmer, he immediately began to put 
forth theories in this direction, and, like Mesmer, he lived to realise that 
he had as yet attained only to the first glimmering of truth on these 
wonderful and occult subjects. 

Puysegur's views upon the new discovery, as being connected with 
phenomena of the most curious and interesting nature, soon began to 
supersede those of Mesmer, and amongst his most devoted adherents, he 
had the good fortune to include the celebrated Lavater, through whose 
talents and influence, many other persons of eminence were attracted to the 
marquis's experiments. 

Thus it happened, that after the noble-minded Mesmer had laid his 
theory before the French Academy of Sciences, only to find it scornfully 
rejected, he returned to Germany, to experience neglect and ingratitude, 
and find the laurels he had so justly earned, already encircling the brow of 
another. The truth is, Puysegur's experiments challenged from all 
observers, the deepest and most absorbing attention. 

Mesmer seems to have been aware that sleep-waking intelligence was 
not unfrequently a result of animal magnetism, but he affirmed this state 
was full of danger, and he not only steadily discountenanced the practice of 
deepening the magnetic sleep into waking trance, but he bitterly opposed 
the new sect formed by Puysegur, and disclaimed all alliance with his 

It might have been partly as the result of this feud, and partly in con- 
temptible subservience to the opinions of the French savants, that the name 
of Mesmer, was for a time almost tabooed from the literature of the subject, 
and it became fashionable to speak of, and investigate the wonders of 
"Somnambulism," but carefully to avoid all allusion to the unpopular 
theme of animal magnetism. 

Time, the immutable touchstone of truth, has at length rendered justice 
to all sides of this vexed question. Puysegur, Barberini, Kerner, Cahagnet, 
Dupotet, Deleuze, and all who have written on, or experimented with these 



Ink-photo, sppacue * c?-london 


wondrous occult life forces, have each had their day, commanded the fickle 
mind of the populace for the time being, and aided in compelling the world 
to acknowledge the facts which were being daily enacted. 

Even the verdict of the French Academy has done a work for truth, by 
proving the incapacity of stereotyped associations to deal with matters out- 
side the grooves laid down for their own action. In the mean time, the 
rival claims of Mesmer's various followers, have all been merged in the 
value of the great fundamental discovery of a demonstrable vital force, and 
the possibility of its utilization and transfer, as originally proved by Mesmer. 
Every other name takes rank — where it justly belongs — as secondary to 
his. Animal magnetism, and all the marvels which follow in its train, are 
now synonymous with the equally popular term, " Mesmerism," and the 
founder of the system, silently but inevitably, takes his place in the annals 
of fame, as the true alchemist, who discovered and applied to the use of 
humanity, the " Philosopher's Stone," and the " Elixir Vitas." 



The Philosopher's Stone in Action. 

During Mesmer's visit to Paris, and pending his efforts to obtain recog- 
nition for his new curative process from the French Academy of Sciences, 
he drew around him many interested followers, amongst whom was 
M. d'Eslon, a physician of great eminence. This gentleman, who was 
highly enthusiastic in his adherence to the new science, during Mesmer's 
absence from Paris conducted experiments himself, with more eclat than 
skill, and more display than judgment. 

It was under the advice of d'Eslon that Mesmer was induced to 
challenge the French Academicians, and urge them to investigate the 
working of " animal magnetism." It was also by aid of his indomitable 
energy, that the new methods of cure retained their hold upon the popular 
mind after the unfavourable verdict of the savants had condemned it. 

M. Bailly, the French astronomer, justly celebrated in his particular sphere 
of knowledge, but wholly incapable of pronouncing upon psychological 
phenomena, was one of those, whose opinions were most adverse to the 
claims of Mesmer. He gives the following account of the methods pursued 
by d'Eslon ; we quote them here, to show how purely physical they were, 
and how thoroughly they disregarded all those conditions, which we now 
believe to be essential to the production of psychological phenomena. 
Bailly says : — 

■'The sick persons, arranged in great numbers, and in several rows around the 
baquet (bath), received the magnetism by means of the iron reds, which conveyed it 
to them from the baquet by the cords wound round their bodies, by the thumb which 
connected them with their neighbours, and by the sounds of a pianoforte, or an 
agreeable voice, diffusing magnetism in the air. 


" The patients were also directly magnetised by means of the finger and wand of 
the magnetiser, moved slowly before their faces, above or behind their heads, or on 
the diseased parts. 

" The magnetiser acts also by fixing his eyes on the subjects ; by the application of 
his hands on the region of the solar plexus ; an application which sometimes continues 
for hours. 

'' Meanwhile the patients present a very varied picture. 

'■ Some are calm, tranquil, and experience no effect. Others cough and spit, fee 
pains, heat, or perspiration. Others, again, are convulsed. 

" As soon as one begins to be convulsed, it is remarkable that others are imme- 
diately affected. 

" The Commissioners have observed some of these convulsions last more than three 
hours. They are often accompanied with expectorations of a violent character, often 
streaked with blood. The convulsions are marked with involuntary motions of the 
throat, limbs, and sometimes the whole body ; by dimness of the eyes, shrieks, sobs, 
laughter, and the wildest hysteria. These states are often followed by langour and 
depression. The smallest noise appears to aggravate the symptoms, and often to 
occasion shudderings and terrible cries. It was noticeable that a sudden change in 
the air or time of the music had a great influence on the patients, and soothed or 
accelerated the convulsions, stimulating them to ecstacy, or moving them to floods of 

" Nothing is more astonishing than the spectacle of these convulsions. 

'■ One who has not seen them can form no idea of them. The spectator is as 
much astonished at the profound repose of one portion of the patients as at the agita- 
tion of the rest. 

■' Some of the patients may be seen rushing towards each other with open arms, 
and manifesting every symptom of attachment and affection. 

" All are under the power of the magnetizer ; it matters not what state of drowsi- 
ness they may be in, the sourjd of his voice, a look, a motion of his hands, spasmodi- 
cally affects them.* 

Let it be remembered that besides the official investigations of the 
Commissioners, numerous private experiments were instituted separately 
amongst them, the result of which brought conviction to their minds at 
least, that "hysteria and imagination," not animal magnetism, as an actual 
force, were the sources of the effects they observed. 

Dr. Mackay, LL.D., in his work on "Popular Delusions," says : — 

"The report of the Commissioners was drawn up by the unfortunate and 
illustrious Bailly. After detailing the experiments made, and their results, they 
came to the conclusion that the only proof advanced in support of 'animal magnetism' 
was its effects on the human body ; that those effects could be produced without 
magnetic passes or manipulations, and that such effects never transpired without the 
patient's knowledge, hence, that imagination did, and animal magnetism did not, account 
for all that transpired." 

In justice to the cause of truth it should be observed, that none of that 
intelligence which often accompanies somnambulic states, such as clair- 
voyance, &c, seems to have been manifested before the French savants. 
Possibly the heterogeneous character of the assemblage organised by 
d'Eslon, forbade the unfoldment of psychological phenomena, or any of those 
curative results which had been claimed for Mesmer's practice. When these 
disadvantageous concomitants are borne in mind — and we remember the 
effect produced upon modern witnesses by the spasmodic jerks, gasps, shud- 
derings, &c, not unfrequently exhibited in nineteenth century spirit circles, 
our astonishment at the imbecility of the verdict pronounced against 
animal magnetism by the French Academicians may be considerably 
modified, indeed we may wish we had a few of those illustrious observers 
present to criticise the reports so freely and unconditionally published 
to-day, as "notes of spiritualistic, phenomena." 

* Rapporte des Commissionaires. Redig6 par M. Bailly, Paris, 1734. 


The chief difficulty in sifting and describing occult phenomena was then, 
and is now, the distinction between mere nervous irritability and the genuine 
effect produced in the physical system by magnetism, or upon the mind by 
the psychological impress of a second mind, no matter whether that be by a 
disembodied or embodied operator. 

The force which can change a diseased tissue into a healthy one must be 
a genuine, substantial element, and the transmission of thought from one 
mind to another, so as to enable an entranced subject to render such 
intelligence as is wholly foreign to that subject's previous knowledge, is an 
objective proof of an outside power from which no candid observer can 

Tt does not appear, from a careful study of M. Bailly's report, that any 
such testimony was afforded. Tears, laughter, hysteria, and convulsions 
were prominent amongst the effects produced, and these were naturally 
enough deemed by superficial observers, to be the result of foreknowledge 
amongst the patients, who, in a state of expectancy, might quite as well 
have been under the influence of excited imagination as animal magnetism. 
It is scarcely to be wondered at therefore, that mesmeric experiments 
conducted on the crude and wholesale methods described by Bailly, 
produced no results that might not have been readily ascribed to the 
influence of diseased imaginations. 

Had no other methods been practised by Mesmer himself in the treat- 
ment of private patients, his reputation would never have survived the 
shock produced by d'Eslon's injudicious exhibitions. 

But more fortunate results did attend Mesmer's practice, and the many 
remarkable cures he was known to have effected, served in some degree to 
counteract the injurious report of the French Academy. 

Still more productive of sensational public interest were the phenomena 
evolved by the magnetic experiments of M. de Puysegur. 

According to Dr. Mackay's statement in his sketch of the French 
Magnetizers, M. de Puysegur's discovery of the sleep-waking state in 
connection with animal magnetism, appears to have resulted more from 
accident than design. 

Mackay says : — 

"The Marquis de Puysegur had one day magnetized his gardener, and'observing 
that he had fallen into a very profound sleep, it occurred to him to address questions 
to him as he would have done to a natural somnambulist. To his great delight, the 
man answered him with such surprising lucidity, that he was encouraged to renew his 
experiments, when he found that the soul of the speaker was enlarged, and brought into 
more intimate connexion with the hidden things of life and nature, and with himself, 
M. de Puysegur. Very soon too, he discovered that all farther manipulations were 

" Without speaking or making a sign, he could mentally impart his will to the 
patient ; in fact, he could converse with him soul to soul, without the employment of 
any physical methods whatever." 

M. de Puysegur, who was evidently feeling his way blindly along the new 
path of occult force, also discovered, that he could impart his own magnetic 
power to inanimate objects, which, thus charged, would re-act upon those 
brought into contact with them. Thus, in order to reserve as much as 
possible the mysterious power with which he felt himself possessed, he 
proceeded to magnetize a tree, in contact with which he claimed, that any 
number of patients could receive all the benefit which could be imparted 
by personal manipulations. 


Now, although the unthinking "great public" were of course sufficiently 
prompt to cast all manner of derision upon M. de Puysegur's "magical 
tree," and "the man with the enlarged soul," even the most ill-natured 
criticisms could not disguise the fact that veritable results of healing and 
clairvoyance were evolved. M. Dupotet's Histoire de Magtletisme bears 
witness to the multitude of remarkable cures effected by Puysegur, whilst 
his one clairvoyant soon multiplied into vast numbers, from whose entranced 
lips the most marvellous results of lucidity were constantly obtained. 
Writing of his first and most celebrated " lucid," the Marquis says, in letters 
to his friend, M. Cloquet, the Receiver of Finance, and one of his great 
sympathisers : — 

" It is from this simple man that I receive the wisest counsel and the most prudent 
directions in all great emergencies. Himself one of the most ignorant rustics of the 
country, in the magnetic sleep he is a peasant no longer. A being who awake, can 
scarcely utter a sentence, commonplace, illiterate and timid, when magnetized he is a 
poet, philosopher, and physician. I need not speak either. I have only to think 
before him and he instantly understands and answers me." 

Much more of the same nature M. de Puysegur pours forth concerning 
his clairvoyants, but as the powers then deemed so extraordinary, are now 
familiar enough to the reader, it would be unnecessary to pursue these 
quotations farther. Whilst the Marquis de Puysegur was making converts 
in every direction, by his wonderful somnambulists,- a magnetizer of a still 
higher tone appeared on the scene in the person of the Chevalier de Bar- 
berini, a gentleman of Lyons, whose magnetic processes, associated with 
' prayer 5 produced results even more extraordinary than the clairvoyants of 
Puyse'gur. The Chevalier de Barberini magnetized his subjects both by 
manipulations and will, but in most instances, the effects he produced, threw 
the patients into that state now known as trance and ecstasy. Visions of 
the most exalted character followed. The " lucids " described scenes and 
persons in the other world ; traversed the regions of disembodied souls, 
and only returned to earth reluctantly, to relate their aerial flights to won- 
dering listeners, and describe to bereaved mourners, the apparitions of 
friends who had long since passed beyond the grave. The Cotitinental 
Miscellany and Foreign Review, describes "The New Sect of Bar- 
berinists," and affirms that in Sweden and Germany, where they were very 
numerous, "these fanatics were called Spiritualists, to distinguish them 
from the followers of M. de Puysegur, who were termed Experimentalists." 
In this miscellany an account of the magnetic state by one of the subjects, 
is given in these words : — 

"In such an one, animal instinct ascends to the highest degree admissible in this 
world. The clairvoyant is then similar to God : his eye penetrates all the secrets of 
nature ; in spirit, he sees through all space ; friends, enemies, spirits. He sees all 
actions, penetrates into all causes; he becomes a physician, a prophet, a divine." 

We shall now proceed to consider the final results achieved by Mesmer 
and his followers in Germany. In such a review we may regard Mesmer, 
Puysegur, Barberini, and their various adherents, as so many index fingers 
pointing on the well-defined path which leads the investigator through the 
newly discovered fields of occult force ; from mineral to animal magnetism ; 
from their effects upon the body to those of the nerves, soul, and spirit ; 
from the clairvoyant flights of the spirit upon earth to the life beyond, and 
into realms of being, peopled by spirits with spiritual entities. 


From the time of Mesmer up to the present date, the practices of the 
Mesmerists have been continuous, and the results, though variable with the 
characteristics both of operators and subjects, may be classified after the 
following manner : — 

1. We have unmistakable effects produced in the physical organism, 
sometimes modifying, and at others curing diseases of various types. 

2. .Magnetized subjects, when questioned during their sleep, sometimes 
describe their own states ; prescribe remedies of a more effective nature 
than their physicians could do for them, and occasionally delineate the 
nature of disease, and prescribe remedies for others. 

3. Some magnetic subjects can describe distant scenes, objects, and 
persons ; traverse space spiritually, find lost property, and occasionally, 
describe past and future events ; speak in languages they have not studied, 
play on instruments of which they have had no previous knowledge, and 
exhibit other supra-mundane powers. 

4. The magnetized subject not unfrequently quits the realms of earth 
and descends into dark spheres, and ascends into bright ones inhabited 
by spiritual beings, the descriptions of whom, correspond perfectly with the 
identity of those who have orrce been known as dwellers on earth. 

5. Besides the effects proceeding as above described from magnetic 
manipulations, thousands of instances are recorded of persons manifesting 
one or more, and sometimes all the phenomena described in these speci- 
fications, without the agency of any human magnetizer at all. As these 
persons have claimed that they were under the control of a Spiritual 
magnetizer, or a soul who had once inhabited the human form, and as the 
phenomena they exhibited, paralleled in all respects those evolved by the 
agency of a human magnetizer, the conclusion is inevitable, that the Spirit 
of the magnetizer, when disembodied, can produce the same effects as 
when on earth, and that those who are susceptible to animal magnetism, may 
become equally receptive of the same influence, projected by a Spiritual 
magnetizer. Finally, it is proved, that a certain class of individuals are not 
receptive to the influence of magnetism at all, whilst others are by 
predisposition, operators rather than subjects; and others again, erect 
psychological barriers of dislike or antagonism to the whole subject, thereby 
actively repelling the influence. It has also been demonstrated that, whilst 
some magnetized subjects cannot attain to more than one, two, or three of 
the states above specified, others may attain to them all ; thus the several 
states may be recognized as degrees to which differently constituted subjects 
attain, by laws at present but little known or understood by man. 

Experience has shown, that the presence of disease, which at one stage 
of the enquiry was deemed a necessary element for the receptivity of 
magnetic influence, is now only one of its contingents ; hundreds of robust 
and healthful persons having exhibited all the phases of somnambulic 
power above described, both with human and spiritual magnetizers. 

It will appear evident, that in these successive states, we first trace out 
what effects animal magnetism can produce when both operator and 
subject are mortals, and next, show that precisely the same results are 
obtained when the operator is a spirit and the subject only is a mortal. 
Whilst spirits, from their superior conditions of knowledge, can effect more 
wonderful results by magnetism and psychology than mortals, we may 
assure ourselves that the modus operandi is in each case one and the same 
thing. Magnetic subjects are the mediums for spirits still in the body, and 
mediums are the subjects of spirits out of the body. The one is the 


stepping-stone to the other. Animal magnetism is the body of the science ; 
spiritual magnetism the soul; but as animal magnetism most generally 
prepares the organism of the subject for the reception of the higher and 
more subtle force of spiritual magnetism, so it is evident, that the univer- 
sality with which animal magnetism has been practised all over the civilised 
world, during the last century, has prepared the organisms of multitudes 
of susceptible persons for the influx of spiritual magnetism, besides 
stimulating and preparing the minds of men for the unfoldment of occult 
phenomena. In this view of the question, the great alchemist, Anton 
Mesmer, may well be regarded as the human founder of the New Spiritual 
Dispensation ; whilst the work he has effected has already advanced from 
matter to force, from thence to mind, and from mind again onward to 
spirit, and realms of purely spiritual existence. 

Body — Matter. Soul — Force. Spirit — Intelligence. 

Man — a Trinity of Body, Soul, and Spirit. 

A Spirit from the earth spheres — a duality of Soul and Spirit. 

An Angel from the celestial heavens — Pure Spirit. 

(Teachings of some Oriental occultists.) 



Wonderful Narratives by Dr. Justinius Kerner. 

Amongst the most important contributions to modern German spiritual 
literature are the writings of Dr. Justinius Kerner, especially a volume 
published in 1834, entitled " Geschichten .Besessener neurerer Zeit." 

This work contains numerous narratives of what is commonly called 
"obsession," but what the learned writer uncompromisingly designates as 
" Demoniacal Possession. 1 '' 

Taking the ground that all haunting spirits have once inhabited the 
human form, Dr. Kerner throws an immense flood of light upon the dark 
regions of " supernaturalism," proving conclusively the modes in which 
unhappy earth-bound spirits afflict mediumistic sensitives, and by their 
strange and repulsive acts of possession, give rise to the frightful superstitions 
that have heretofore been called "Witchcraft and Diabolism." 


Many of the cases narrated by Dr. Kerner came immediately under his 
own supervision. 

It was to his residence, that the afflicted peasant Grombach brought his 
unfortunate daughter Magdalene, a young girl who, from the weird notoriety 
obtained by her state of obsession, was named in the records of the time, 
"The Maid of Orlach." Of this case we must now give some details, as 
they afford a striking evidence of the difficulties which attend the investi- 
gation of psychological phenomena, unless it be understood that spirits can 
control susceptible human beings magnetically as well as mortals. 

Kerner's narrative, considerably condensed, is as follows : — 

" In the small village of Orlach, in Wurtemburg, lived a peasant named Grombach. 
He was a good Lutheran Protestant, and an honest, respectable man. He had four 
children, of whom his daughter, Magdalene — a lively, healthy, industrious girl — was 
one. In February, 1831, strange disturbances began to occur in the cow-house. 
The cows were found tied up in unusual ways and places. Sometimes their tails 
would be found plaited all together, and that with as much skill as if the finest lace 
weaver had executed the work. For some weeks these occurrences were repeated, 
but the most incessant watchfulness could never detect any human agency at work. 
About this time, Magdalene, whilst sitting milking, received a smart box on the ear, 
and her cap was struck off with so much violence, by invisible hands, that it flew 
against her father, who was attracted towards her by her cry. On several occasions, 
strange cats and birds came and went in the cow-house, no one knew from whence 
or whither. 

"On the 8th of February, 1832, whilst Magdalene and her brother were cleaning 
out the cow-house, a clear fire was suddenly found to be burning in it. No com- 
bustible matter whatever was known to have been near the building ; and though 
the flames were soon extinguished by the help of the neighbours, the origin of the 
fire was entirely unknown. 

"The sudden bursting out of flames was repeated on the gth, 10th and nth of 
February, until — at the urgent request of Grombach — watchers were stationed in and 
around the premises day and night, notwithstanding which, flames broke out in 
different parts of the dwelling, obliging the poor family to empty it of all furniture ; 
still the burning continued from time to time in the dismantled cottage. 

" A few days after the last burning, Magdalene saw in the cow-shed, about eight 
in the evening, the grey shadowy form of a woman, whose head and body appeared 
closely swathed. Before she had time to cry for help, the figure said to her— in a 
strange, distant, though clear voice — ' Remove the house ; remove the house ! If it 
be not removed before the 5th of March of next year, great misfortune will befal you. 
The house has been set on fire by an evil spirit ; but unless it be pulled down before 
the 5th of March next year, I cannot protect you from great misfortune. Promise 
that the house shall be destroyed.' 

" The girl, who seems to have rallied under the sense of a benign and protecting 
influence in this apparition, gave a promise to that effect. Grombach and his son 
were present at this interview. They heard Magdalene's words, and the sound of 
some distant voice as if in conversation with her, but they could neither distinguish 
what was said nor did they see the apparition. From this time, the female spirit 
frequently appeared to Magdalene, and always brought with her a sense of strange 
strength and protection. Magdalene loved her, and conversed with her without the 
slightest sentiment of fear. The spirit said she had been born at Orlach, in 1412 ; 
that she had been made a nun against her will, and had been guilty of many crimes, 
of which she could not then speak. She seemed very religious, but very sorrowful. 
She could read the girl's thoughts, but refused to tell why the house should be pulled 
down, or what was the cause of her grief. She often referred to a ' black spirit,' 
by whom she was bound in some mysterious way, and alleged that he was endeavour- 
ing to work great evil to the family, which she desired to prevent. This ' white spirit,' 
as Magdalene called her, often foretold events truly, and manifested a tender interest 
in all that concerned Magdalene. 

" On St. John's day, when all the family were at church except Magdalene, who 
remained at home to prepare the dinner, she was startled by a loud explosion in the 
cow-house. She was about to rush out to see what had occurred, when she beheld 
close to her, on the hearth, a heap of yellow frogs. 

" She was on the point of gathering them up in her apron, as a curiosity to show her 


parents on their return, when she heard a voice seeming to call up to her from the 
ground, ' Magdalene, let the frogs go,' when instantly they vanished. 

" After this, a terrible time of persecution ensued. Magdalene was pursued every- 
where by voices, scornful laughter, and frightful apparitions of animals of different 

" At length, in mid-day, whilst she was haymaking, she encountered the apparition 
of a black man, who said to her, ' What does she want who comes to thee ? Do not 
thou speak to her ; but speak to me, and I will give thee the key to the cellar beneath 
thy house. There are eight firkins of wine there, and many rich things.' Then he 
laughed contemptuously and vanished. For several days during the season of hay- 
making, this black spirit appeared to the girl, trying to tempt her to answer him, and 
threatening her with all sorts of woes if she conversed any more with the white spirit, 
whom he spoke of as that * bag of bones.' He tried to induce her to have mass said 
to keep the weather fine, though Magdalene and her family were all Protestants. He 
seemed to be dressed as a monk, and often alleged that he was one. He could 
imitate the voices of her neighbours, and often did so to induce her to answer him when 
he called her, but she was always conscious of his presence and mockery, and by the 
advice of her ' white angel ' never answered him. He often jeered about her old 
father carrying a bible with him, and told her ' the mass was much finer and grander.' 

"No language can do justice to the persecutions which the poor girl suffered from 
this terrible spirit, His voice was frequently heard by others as well as herself, 
mimicking the tones of her family or friends, and always calling upon her for answers : 
but her peculiar sensitiveness enabled her so to distinguish his voice, that she never 
answered him. He often predicted the future truly, and on one occasion promised to 
give her some money in proof of his friendship. The next evening, Magdalene and 
her sister being in the cow-house, a small bag fell suddenly from a beam, and on 
opening it they discovered several thalers and eleven gulden. No one could give any 
account of how the money came there, or who owned it. In the evening of the next 
day, the white spirit told Magdalene that her persecutor had placed the money there 
in fulfilment of one of his promises, but that she must not keep it, but give it to 
various charities. 

" The spirit then added, that she should be rewarded for her obedience by having 
money really given her, with which she advised her to buy a hymn book. The day 
after this interview, Magdalene, with her father, hastened to the town of Hall to dis- 
pose of the money to the orphanage, and as she returned she was accosted by a shop- 
keeper, who enquired if she were not the wonderful peasant girl of whom he had 
heard so much. 

" Magdalene modestly informed him of her name, when he begged her acceptance 
of a gulden to buy a new hymn book with." 

Many incidents of this kind are given in Kerner's narrative, showing the 
singular and antagonistic intelligences by which the young girl was besieged. 

" At length her persecutor appeared to her in such frightful and monstrous shapes, 
that she frequently swooned from excessive fear, and it was in one of these cataleptic 
attacks that a new and most distressing phase of her enemy's power was made mani- 
fest. The girl affirmed, that a black and frightful monster would come and lay a cold 
icy hand on the back of her neck previous to the attacks, which now became frequent. 
Sometimes she would remain unconscious, cold, and rigid for hours. At others, she 
would strike violently at everyone who approached her, with the left hand and 
foot, which were icy cold, whilst the entire right side of her body was warm and 

" Her parents sent for doctors and clergymen, but all without effect. When ques- 
tioned she would cry out, ' The black spirit ! it is he that plagues me.' ' Where is 
he then ? ' the doctor would enquire ; for answer, she would invariably strike at her 
left side with her right hand. That some most inexplicable but powerful effect was 
produced in the girl's system, all the reports of the medical men who were called in 
to attend her testify. Generally, the left side was cold, stiff, and unmanageable ; the 
right warm, and perfectly natural.' These states increased in strangeness and violence 
as the year progressed, until at last, according to her own account, the black spirit 
would enter her lifeless body, and cause her to rise up and speak in a hoarse bass 
voice, language that was only worthy of a demon. 

" The doctors who were first called to attend her, treated her according to their 
custom with bleeding and leeches. In her somnambulic states she would frequently 
say to them, ' This will do no good. I am not ill. No physician can help me.' It 


was asked, ' Who then can help thee ? ' Then she would awake suddenly, and 
joyfully cry, ' I am helped ; the white lady has helped me.' '' 

Dr. Kerner's report on this extraordinary case seems free from the 
exaggerated horrors of other narrators ; yet his descriptions are sufficiently 
appalling. We quote his own words literally in the following statements. 

"From this time" — about the 25th of August — "the white spirit told her in 
connection with many comforting texts of Scripture, that the black spirit must for 
a time gain full possession of her body, but that she would always be with her and 
conduct her soul to a place of safety, whilst the black spirit remained. 

" Magdalene's own account of her frightful persecution was this : — She would see, 
even in the midst of her work, the outline of a monk's form, clothed in black ; the 
face she could never clearly discern. Then she would hear him say, ' Wilt thou still 
give me no answer ? Take care, I shall plague thee.' Then she would feel him press 
against her left side, and seize the back of her neck with five cold fingers. 

"This was always her last conscious memory. From this time, she only spoke with 
the hoarse man's voice, and demoniacal speech of her tormentor. Generally, she 
lay with a face as livid as death — her eyes closed, the pupils when examined turned 
inwards, and the left foot and hand constantly moving up and down or extended to 
strike or menace. These attacks lasted from four to five hours, and on awakening a 
struggle of an extraordinary character would appear to ensue between her right and 
left sides. It must be noticed that the left side was always icy cold, though in 
constant motion, whilst the right was warm and quiescent. 

" She never seemed to have any knowledge of the language used on these occasions, 
but would declare that she had been to church, and prayed and sung with the 

"After this condition had lasted five months without alleviation, at my request, 
the poor girl was brought to my house, 

"Whatever I might myself have thought, I never encouraged the idea to her 
parents, or the various physicians who examined her case, of 'demoniacal possession.' 

'' Still I felt compelled to pronounce her sufferings beyond the ordinary means of 
relief from medical treatment. 

"I only prescribed for her myself, prayer, and spare diet. The magnetic passes 
which on a few occasions I tried to make, were immediately neutralized by the 
demoniacal power which impelled her to make counter-passes with her own hand. 

" Thus mesmeric, and indeed every other mode of treatment, were unemployed by 
me, who recognized in her a demoniacal magnetic condition, and confided in the divina- 
tion 'of the white spirit, who foretold her recovery on the 5th of March. 

'' Thus believing, I allowed her without anxiety, to return to her parents, convinced 
by long and careful observation, that there was not the slightest shadow of dissimu- 
lation about the young girl, nor was it possible to exaggerate the extraordinary, and 
obvious character of her attacks. I earnestly advised the parents to make no exhibi- 
tion of their daughter's preternatural condition ; to keep her attacks as secret as 
possible, and call no one in to witness them. I believe it was not owing to any 
negligence on the part of the parents, to whom their daughter's condition was a 
great loss, as well as a serious affliction, but to the curiosity of the outer world, that 
crowds of inquisitive people streamed to the hitherto unknown village of Orlach, to 
see and hear the miraculous girl. In this, there was at least one good result, which 
was, the observation and testimony of so many astonished witnesses. 

" One of these was an intelligent and scientific man, Pastor Gerber, who saw 
Magdalene in several of her attacks, and printed his observations on her case in the 

"On the 4th of March, whilst workmen were in course of pulling down the house, 
as the white spirit had incessantly commanded, that apparition suddenly stood 
before Magdalene. This time she was so radiant, and attired in such dazzling white 
robes, that the poor girl could scarcely dare to look upon her. She made a confession 
of her earthly sins through Magdalene's lips, alleging that she had been seduced by 
a monk, the 'black spirit,' and become the partner of his fearful crimes. She spoke 
through the entranced lips of Magdalene, of her centuries of suffering, penitence, 
firm reliance on the atonement of her Saviour, and the final termination of her long 
and weary penance. After a most affecting and ecstatic prayer, the White Spirit left 
her, and for the last time as it seemed she was possessed bodily by her foul tor- 
mentor. . . . From Sunday night until Tuesday at noon, the girl took no food, and 
remained unchanged, with the same signs of demoniacal possession before described. 


During the Tuesday, an immense multitude assembled in Orlach, to witness the final 
demolition of the house, and question the demon. His language though still uttered 
in a man's bass voice, was religious and full of hope of redemption. He prayed in 
affecting terms, acknowledged that he had committed fearful crimes, but his term of 
earthly imprisonment was nearly ended. 

'■ He described castles, and scenes in the country, of which the girl could have had 
no knowledge, and the accurate description he gave of the ancient monastery of 
Krailsheim, on the site of which Grombach's cottage and farm had stood, was pro- 
nounced by an antiquary present, to be perfectly correct. It was half-past eleven in 
the morning when the workmen engaged in the demolition of the house, came to an 
extremely ancient piece of masonry, which, on being removed, disclosed a large dry 
well, filled with rubbish, mixed with human bones, amongst which were the remains 
of several infants. These tokens, coupled with the confessions of the spirits speaking 
through Magdalene excited the most profound interest in the community at large. 

" Magdalene herself had been removed to the house of a neighbour at some distance 
from the scene of her former home, but the crisis of her attack kept constant and 
faithful pace with the progress of the work, and just as the above-named ancient piece 
of masonry was discovered, the livid appearance of her face entirely changed to a 
bright and healthful glow. Her eyes opened, and never shall I forget the astonishing 
transformation she exhibited. Confused and amazed at seeing herself surrounded by 
so many strangers, the poor girl covered her face with her hands, and began to weep ; 
she soon recovered however, and became at once and entirely free from the monstrous 
obsession to which she had been subject for more than eighteen months. 

"No return either of this obsession, nor the faculty of ghost-seeing was ever 
experienced. Mind and body alike were instantaneously restored to their normal 
condition of health and strength, and but for the theory of demoniacal possession, the 
case has been. and must ever remain a paradox which the ordinary experiences of the 
physician can never explain." 

Besides the curious facts connected with this case, Dr. Kerner relates 
many others of an equally striking character. 

Of course it will be understood by every well-informed reader of Spiritual 
literature, that the most extraordinary illustration on record of German 
Spiritualism, or indeed of any country, is to be found in the history of 
Kerner's renowned "Seeress," Madame Frederica Hauffe of Prevorst, 
whose mediumship was not only spontaneous and wholly undesired, 
but whose philosophic teachings and doctrine of the spheres, deserve far 
more attention than has been generally accorded to them; in fact, they 
antedate in some respects, and far excel in others, all that has since been 
demonstrated in the modern Spiritual movement. 

The continual recurrence to the experiences of this famed Prevorst 
Seeress, in the writings of nearly all Spiritualistic authors, would render their 
repetition here tedious and unnecessary. We cannot close Dr. Kerner's 
invaluable record however, without adding one more narrative in which he 
was interested, although for special and private reasons it was not published 
among his other collected cases :■ — 


" Some ten years ago there resided in New York, U.S.A., an aged lady of German birth 
the widow of an eminent American merchant, by name Madame Walter. This lady 
having become deeply interested in Spiritualism, communicated to Mrs. Hardinge Britten 
the particulars of her own early experience, at a period of her life when she had been a 
patient of the renowned German physician, philosopher, and writer, Dr. Justinius Kerner. 
The circumstances of her case were so remarkable that Dr. Kerner had noted them down 
with a view of incorporating them with other narratives of a kindred character, in a forth- 
coming volume. At Madame Walter's earnest request, her experiences, which seemed to 
her at that time too sacred to be entrusted to a cold materialistic world, were simply 
recorded in MSS. but not published. At the time when the strange tale was communi- 
cated to Mrs. Britten, the narrator deemed it her solemn duty to offer her record as a 
contribution to an age, better prepared than formerly to receive it. It need only be added, 


that in addition to the high and unimpeachable character of the venerable lady from 
whom Mrs. Britten received the history orally, she is also in possession of Dr. Kerner's 
MSS., from which she has already drawn some details for her published sketches, and 
which she now deems worthy of being presented in more complete form. 

" Dr. Kerner stated that it was in the year 1827 that a medical friend of his, residing in 
the neighbourhood of Weinsberg, expressed a wish that he, Dr. Kerner, would take charge 
of a singular and interesting patient, a young lady who had been placed under his care 
for medical treatment. 

" To this proposition Dr. Kerner assented, and thus he became acquainted with Mdlle. 

Olga Schwartzenberg, the daughter of the Baroness M , of Vienna. 

" At the age of twenty, Mdlle. Olga had become the victim of a severe nervous and epi- 
gastric disorder, which had determined her mother to send her to Weinsberg, to the care 
of her trusty family physician. 

" The mother herself was a gay, heartless, fashionable widow, who had just contracted a 

second marriage with an immensely wealthy, but very aged man, the Baron M , who 

had become captivated with the fair widow's remarkable personal attractions. 

" Under the treatment of Drs. Kerner and Moran, Mdlle. Olga not only began to recover 
her health, but she displayed to a wonderful degree, the faculty of clairvoyance, and by 
the magnetic passes administered to her, became a somnambulist of extraordinary 

. " In the magnetic sleep she could speak in several foreign tongues she had not studied ; 
play on any instrument presented to her, though entirely unacquainted with music, and 
discourse most eloquently on various scientific subjects. Besides these interesting results 
of the sleep-waking condition, Mdlle. Olga, in her normal state, could see, and actually 
describe, the spirits of many deceased persons known to those around her, yet wholly 
strange to herself. Notwithstanding the peculiar excellence and accuracy of these 
descriptions, Mdlle. Olga treated the whole subject of spiritual existence with the utmost 
scorn and derision, and insisted on attributing the apparitions she perceived, to the reflex 
action of the minds of those with whom she came in contact. 

" As this young lady had been brought up by a worldly-minded, atheistical mother, Dr. 
Kerner was at no loss to account for her total disbelief in immortality, and her contempt 
of all religious ideas ; still it pained him to perceive that her rare gifts of seership made no 
other impression on her mind than to furnish food for ridicule, and denial of spiritual 

"It was on a certain night in October, 1827, that Mdlle. Olga was left by her physician 
in a peaceful magnetic sleep, her maid, Anna Matterlich, occupying a couch in an adjoining 
apartment, to restrain — as her mistress gaily alleged — any undue flights t of her somnam- 
bulistic wanderings ' beyond the confined earth.' 

" At a very early hour the next morning, Dr. Kerner was summoned in haste to attend 
his patient, and he then received from her pale lips the following astounding statement : — 
" ' Dr. Kerner,' she said, ' the sleep in which yoa left me must have been of very short 
duration, for the moment after your departure I became so wide awake that I heard, and 
could have counted the number of your retreating footsteps. At the instant that you 
closed 'the door behind you, I felt irresistibly impelled to rise from my bed, throw on a 
dressing gown, and seat myself by my writing-table. Whilst I sat, abstractedly gazing 
at the still blazing fire, to my unspeakable astonishment, my door was opened noiselessly 
and my mother entered the room, and without attempting to salute me, took a chair, and 
sat down by the fire on the opposite side to myself.' 

"'If I was astonished at her unexpected appearance, I was still more so at the 
extraordinary change manifested in her person.' 

" ' Her dress — the splendid lace in which she was married to the Baron M gave me 

the idea of a cold so intense that it froze my very marrow to look at her ; indeed, I felt — 
though she did not complain, or shiver — that she was perishing with cold. I had always 
been accustomed to hear my mother spoken of as a very beautiful woman, and I had 
often gazed at her myself with admiring wonder ; but oh ! what a contrast did she now 
•present to the loveliness which had so fascinated all beholders ! Her hair was loose and 
hanging around her shoulders in disorder ; but to my amazement I perceived that it was 
nearly all false, and from its lack of arrangement failed to conceal the grey locks which 
it was designed to hide. One cheek was coarsely patched with rouge, whilst the other 
was deadly pale. A set of false teeth was in her hand, and her neck and arms were only 
half smeared with enamel.' 

" ' I had never seen my mother at her toilette, and these disclosures fairly overwhelmed 
me, yet all this was forgotten, totally overlooked, whilst gazing on the unutterable 
expression of woe which marked every lineament of that wretched face. I had never 
seen despair, rage, and remorse so awfully depicted on a human countenance, nor did I 
deem it possible that those passions could find such a fearfully vivid expression.' 


" ' I seemed to see, moreover, — and wonderful it was for me to perceive it, — my . 
mother's entire past history, all written, — I could not tell how or where, — yet impressed 
clearly upon her, and obvious to every eye. And, oh Heaven ! may I never again witness 
the naked deformity of an ill-spent life, thus indelibly imprinted on the form !' 

' : ' Aghast and speechless, I listened in silence, whilst my mother spoke to me ! but her 
very tones were changed, and instead of the soft silvery accents of other days, her voice 
was hollow and faint, and seemed to come from an illimitable distance off, and in no way 
to proceed from the forlorn figure that sat before me. It said : " Olga ! I have come to 
tell you of a very, very terrible dream I have had, a dream you ought to know, and one 
which, if I had realised before, I should have been happier — happier now ! " She sighed ; 
. — and oh, what a sigh of anguish was that ! — then motioning me to the writing table by 
my side, she bade me take down the words she was going to speak.' 

" ' Mechanically I obeyed her, when she continued as follows, speaking so slowly and 
with so many pauses, that, though I never seemed to possess the courage to address her, 
I was enabled to transcribe her words faster than she uttered them : — 

" ' I was dressing, as you see, to go to court, when a sudden faintness seized me, 
memory fled, and consciousness only returned in the form of this horrible dream.' 

" Here a shudder of agony seemed to shake her frame, and a long pause ensued. 

" ' I found myself on the brink of a dreary, high cliff, overhanging a wild and stormy 
sea. The air was thicker and heavier than night ; yet it was not night. All was lonely, 
wild, black, and dreary. It seemed as if I had stood in that awful solitude for ages, yet 
why or how I came there, I knew not. 

" ' Suddenly, the ground rocked and parted beneath my feet. Shrieking in mortal 
terror. I caught at the earth, blades of grass, the very motes in the air, to stay my fall, 
but all in vain. Down — down — I was hurled ! oh, how long I was in falling ! Surely I 
must have spent years in that awful descent, for the whole of my past life, even to its 
minutest details, passed in solemn march before me as I fell. Not the vivid flashes of 
sudden remembrance, but the stately panorama of every year, hour, and minute unrolled 
itself before me as clearly as in the time when each event was enacted. I saw my own 
pale mother sinking into an early grave, but the bitter causes of that untimely death came 
with her ; my disobedience, ingratitude, and desertion. Every unkind word or act of folly 
I had committed against her, was engraved on the funeral pall from which her faded form 
seemed to emerge. 

" ' I saw dim effigies of young, timid hearts that my idle coquetries had broken. I saw 
the charms of beauty and intellect with which God had endowed me, first adorning, then 
disfiguring my own phantom likeness, with the semblance of reptiles and loathsome 
animals. I saw faces of many a weary drudge whom I had sacrificed to my service ; and 
those who had bowed to me and cringed before me, now reviled me and pointed with foul 
grimaces to my unfinished toilette. 

" ' All this and more, more than tongue can speak, I saw, and knew, and felt, during 
that tremendous fall. 

" 'I tell you, girl, a thousand years must have passed in that downward flight. At 
length I landed — landed on a distant shore, where thick haze clouded at first my straining 
vision, and the cold winds swept around me with such a piercing, icy chill as I never 
dreamed to exist before. 

" ' As I shrank and shivered in their tempestuous cruelty, myriads of ragged forms 
flitted before me, and I knew they were wretched creatures whom I had passed by 
unnoticed in my town drives, and then I wept to think I had never done anything to 
alleviate their misery. They mocked at me now, and then they passed away. I would 
have helped them, but the bitter blast sighed out, " Too late I Too late ! " 

" ( Lies I had spoken, and trivial follies long since forgotten, seemed now to assume 
tangible shapes, and rose up to meet me so palpably that I felt with shame and horror 
they were fastening themselves upon my form — my very dress, and would be seen and 
known by all beholders. 

" ' I strove to hide myself for very shame, but millions of eyes were upon me, and all 
seemed to read me through and through. 

" ' Then arose the wild and agonising wish, since I could not conceal my true self, that 
I were changed. 

1 ' I screamed aloud a frantic prayer to return to earth and lead a new life — do some- 
thing, everything, over again, and be a better, truer, and purer woman. But again the 
bitter winds sighed out the doleful cry, ' Too late 1 Too late ! ' In my despair I cried 
to those who surrounded me that I was not fit to be seen. I must and would be some- 
thing better. And then I remembered what the priests had taught — how they had 
preached that the blood of Christ would cleanse the worst of sinners, and redeem all who 
believed in Him from the penalty so justly due to ill-spent lives. I had never believed 
this. I had never been taught to believe, but I would do so now ; and then with frantic 


haste, I sped on to find a priest. With the wish came the realisation. A celebrated 
minister of the Christian Church, long dead and gone, started up suddenly in my path, 
alive again, and offered me a crucifix. But, oh, horror ! As I gazed upon this man I saw 
he was worse than I was. He was a hypocrite, a base deceiver, and his changing form 
was marred by the wild, despairing images of thousands of shipwrecked souls whom his 
false teachings had misled. Still, a shadowy hope was left. I would cling to the crucifix. 
Pictures of faithful believers thus redeemed flitted before my eyes; but even as with out- 
stretched arms I strove to clasp the image, it spoke, and in sweet, though relentless, tones 
it said,' " Not everyone who saith unto me, Lord, Lord ! but he who doeth the will of my 
Father, who is in heaven, he shall be saved." Then I shrieked out, " Is there then no salva- 
tion ? " The answer came, "Work out thine own salvation." "But how?" "Inaction." 
" But," I cried again, "I am dead. There is no hope, no repentance after death." " There 
is no death," answered the voice, so still, so soft, yet so full of power that it seemed to fill 
the spaces of infinity. Confused and overwhelmed, yet still aroused and stirred by the 
strange new thought that there might be progress even beyond the grave, I asked, " Where, 
then, is hell ?" No answer came, but yet I felt that answer, and it impelled me to look 
around through the murky air on the bleak and barren prospect, and the dreary stunted 
forms of beings on whose faces I read images of mis-spent lives like my own. Then I 
cried, " Lo, I am in hell, and I myself have made it ! " 

" ' Then I thought, but did not dare to ask, of Heaven. 

" ' Thought in spirit life is action, reality, and with the thought came a view ! Oh, 
that I could speak of the radiant visions that one brief glance presented ! 

" ' The brightest and highest flights of ideality on earth fall short, far short, of that 
blooming, sunlit land, and the happy, lovely people that inhabit it. And yet I saw what 
they had been, as clearly as I saw the evil lives of my associates. Some had been crippled) 
blind, starved, worked to death, or worn out with cares and toils, but all had been true 
and faithful unto death, and good to one another. All those that dwell in those heavenly 
spheres, those lands of light and beauty, that even to look at for a single instant is worth 
a thousand years of suffering, had been kind, patient, brave, or helpful. 

" ' Oh, what a glory it was to look upon the good ! Oh, that I had been good, ever so 
little ! Oh, that I had left some record behind, to bless mankind ! that single blessing 
would have saved me ! But whilst I sighed in heaviness, with Milton's fallen angel, "Me 
miserable !" the sweet soft voice breathed in my ear : " Up and be doing ! prepare, and 
commence thy life anew. Work out thine own salvation. Arise, and go to thy Father." 
I thought, for it was but a dream, Olga — I thought, and said, / will arise : and I did go, 
and I came here, as the first fruit of my new life and new resolution, for I found, that is, 
I thought I found, that the only way to help myself was by helping others, and so I came 
hither to warn my child ; to tell her that not in church, in pulpit, or in the good deeds of 
another, does the path to heaven lie, but in her own strivings after good ; in her deeds to 
her fellow mortals ; in pure thoughts, good acts, kind words, and the motives for good 
which move us through every second of our mortal pilgrimage. Heaven and hell are 
states, my child. No foot can tread the path by which we reach them but our own ; no 
mouthing hypocrite can teach us how to find the way, or save, or guide us, only the im- 
pulses 'to good and truth which God has given to every human soul, if we would but heed 
them. These are our saviours, Olga. Arise ! and save thyself ! " 

" ' She ceased, and gaining self-possession from the cessation of the agonising tones that 
had so long rung in my ear, I cried out — • 

" ' Oh, mother ! tell me one thing more. In the name of heaven, tell me how and 
when you came here ! ' 

" ' Raising my eyes as I spoke, I sought to meet her glance, but I gazed on vacancy. 
The .empty chair alone remained ; the pen, ink, and wet writing inscribed with the fearful 
tale were the only mementos that remained of that awful interview ! ' 

" The lady concluded her narrative by adding, that after the disappearance of the appari- 
tion, she remembered no more until she found Dr. Kerner and her maid bending 
anxiously over her. As a sequel to this terrible vision, Dr. Kerner stated that the 

Baroness M died at Vienna, on the very night in question ; she had been found at 

her toilet half dressed, but covered with blood. The sudden rupture of a blood vessel 
had robbed her of life, in the very act ef preparing to ensnare all hearts in the meshes of 
her unreal charms. 

" The appearance of the corpse in all respects corresponded to the apparition witnessed 
by the daughter, even to the set of false teeth still clutched in the hand of the mute but 
eloquent dead. It need only be added that to the last day of her earthly life Madame 
Walter's terrible vision bore fruits in her chastened spirit, by inciting her to ceaseless acts 
of benevolence, holy thoughts, and words of tender sympathy, which made all who knew 
her in life, and remembered her after death, ' rise up and call her blessed.' " 




Wonderful Phenomenal Personages. 

During the progress of the Spiritual movement, the desire to satisfy the 
many marvel seekers who crowd its ranks has no doubt induced those 
journalists whose business it is to administer to popular taste, to ransack 
the literature of the past for proofs of Spirit intercourse. 

Thus there are very few well-attested cases but what have already found 
their way into print, and helped to feed man's craving appetite for addi- 
tional wonders from the Spirit world. 

At the risk of reiterating some experiences that have been already 
worn threadbare, the scope of this compendium obliges us to reprint such 
cases as will illustrate various phases of our subject occurring in different 

It is with this view that we now proceed to give a brief notice of the 
remarkable cures effected through the instrumentality of the celebrated 
Prince Hohenlohe, Archbishop of Gross wardein, in Hungary, and Abbot 
of St. Michael's Monastery at Gaborjan. 

It must be understood that this eminent ecclesiastic attributed his great 
powers of healing to the special interposition of his " Lord and Saviour 
Jesus Christ." The excellent and amiable Arabian gentleman, Nathaniel 
Aymar, of whom Bayard Taylor and other Eastern travellers make men- 
tion, attributed cures just as remarkable as those of which we are about to 
write, to the influence of Mahomet. A very successful Chinese doctor of 
California, " Ah Sing," claimed to heal diseases only under the influence of 
Fo, and Dr. Valmour, a negro, of New Orleans, performed the most 
astonishing feats of healing solely through what he assured the author, was 
the influence of his father's spirit, who was a physician before him. The 
most renowned healers of America cite the names of divers spirits as the 
sources of their astonishing powers, and any number of Buddhists of 
whom the author has cognizance make cures by the influence of their God- 
man Buddha. To the one-idead sectarian of any shade of opinion it is 
necessary to preface our account of Prince Hohenlohe's cures with these 
remarks, lest we should be instrumental in deluding our readers concerning 
the real sources of that remarkable man's beneficent powers. The true 
scientist will be at no loss to find a common origin for all spiritual and 
magnetic potencies, and that independent of sect, creed, or clime. 

The following particulars are taken from the autobiography of Prince 
Hohenlohe, of which a fine translation has been rendered by William 
Howitt. From this we learn that the Prince was born in 1794, and being 
destined for the church, filled many clerical positions of distinction in 
Olmiitz, Munich, and Bamberg. 

In 1820 he became acquainted with a peasant named Martin Michel, 
whom he met at a watering-place in the Duchy of Baden, and from whom 
he learned that the power of healing, " through the name of Christ" was 


constantly practised by him, and could be exercised equally well by any 
other true Christian. The Prince relates the first cure he effected under 
the influence of his new friend Martin in the following terms : — 

"At the commencement of the year 1826, I proceeded to Hapfort, to pay a visit to 
Prince Louis, heir to the crown of Bavaria. There finding Martin, I invited him to 
journey with me in my carriage to Wiirtzburg. On the morrow I paid a visit to Baron von 
Reinach, and when we were about to dine, the domestics carried in the young Princess 
Matilda of Schwartzenburg, who for eight years had not the power of walking, through 
paralysis. Touched with compassion for the poor cripple, who was placed at my side, I 
bethought me of Martin, who had cured me of a violent sore throat, and I said within 
myself that probably, if the Princess had firm confidence in the help of the Saviour, 
Martin could cure her likewise. 

" On the 21st of June, after performing mass, I felt myself irresistibly impelled to 
hasten to the Princess, and tell her that if she had a firm reliance on the promise of Jesus 
Christ she could be healed. I went to the Princess, accompanied by Martin Michel, 
and leaving him in the ante-chamber, was shown into the apartment of the Princess, 
whom I found reclining on a bed, enveloped as it were in a mass of machinery. After 
the usual salutations I said to her, ' My dear cousin, God is able to help you through 
Jesus Christ His Son, and I have brought with me a pious peasant, at whose prayer God 
has already succoured the afflicted. If you are willing I will call him in, that he may pray 
for you.' 

" ' With all my heart,' replied the Princess, whereupon I called Michel. 

"After some words addressed to the invalid, Martin commenced praying, but it is 
necessary to have seen him to have a just idea of the depth of fervour with which he 
prayed. I avow on my own part that I threw myself on the ground in supplication also. 
The prayers ended, I felt a secret power which I could not explain nor resist, which 
impelled me to say in a loud voice to the Princess, ' In the name of Jesus Christ arise and 
walk ! ' 

"As I pronounced these words, ever memorable to me, the Princess was not only able 
to rise, which she had not done for eight years, but to walk with perfect ease and strength. 

" The rumour of this event was quickly spread, and I was surrounded by invalids. I 
say nothing of the number of such facts as then took place, for it is not for me to speak 
of them. 

The Princess it seems walked to church on the following Sunday, to the 
astonishment of the whole community, and in sight of multitudes who for 
years had been accustomed only to see her reclining in a carriage, or borne 
in the arms of attendants. 

The next notable cure was performed by the Prince alone, and it took 
place on the person of Louis, Crown Prince of Bavaria, the well-known 
monarch of that country, and the liberal patron of arts and sciences in 

The following letter, although it has often appeared in print before, is 
selected for quotation in this place, because it bears a testimony which 
none can question to the powers of the celebrated Therapeutist. It was 
written by Prince Louis of Bavaria, and is as follows : — 

"to the count von sinsheim. 

" My Dear Count, — There are still miracles. The last ten days of the month the 
people of Wiirtzburg might believe themselves in the days of the Apostles. 

" The deaf hear, the blind see, the lame freely walk, not by the aid of art, but by 
means of a few short prayers, and the invocation of the name of Jesus Christ. The 
Prince of Hohenlohe demanded only faith in Jesus Christ to heal the sick ; but this faith 
was an indispensable condition. 

" On the evening of the 28th the number of persons cured amounted to more than 
seventy. These were of all classes, from the humblest to a prince of the blood, who, 
without any exterior means, recovered the hearing which he had lost from his infancy.* 
This cure was effected by a prayer made during some minutes by Prince Hohenlohe, a 
priest of only twenty-seven years of age. 

*Prince Louis here speaks of himself and his own cure. 


"... In my ante-chanber, the Prince twice unsuccessfully pronounced his prayer 
for a woman who had been blind for twenty -five years, but at the pressing solicitation of 
the woman, he prayed a third time, and she recovered her sight. . . . 

"The inhabitants of Wurtzburg have testified by the most lively acclamations the 
pleasure which my cure has given them. You are at liberty to communicate this letter, 
and to allow any one who wishes it to take a copy of it." 

"Louis, Pbince Royal. 

"Bruckenau, July 3rd, 1822. " 

Whilst no honest reader can fail to admire the manly candour with 
which Prince Louis testified to those marvels, which many a cowardly 
ingrate would have kept secret, and many an interested bigot would have 
tried to smother up, the scientist might suggest the pertinent enquiry, why 
the Prince's prayers could not cure the blind woman mentioned in the 
above letter until the third repetition. 

It could not have been for lack ot faith on the part of the patient, 
because it was at her pressing entreaty that the third prayer was offered. 

Was the good healer's "Saviour" harder to be entreated in this poor 
woman's case than in that of the Crown Prince, who was cured instantane- 
ously, and upon the strength of the first prayer offered ? 

If we were called upon to solve such a problem through magnetic and 
psychologic laws our difficulties would be explained at once. We 
should perceive in this, as in many other instances, that special and 
continuous applications of the good healer's force were required, whilst in 
the Prince's case a mere shock, or primary exertion of will, was all that was 

Meantime, those who insist upon calling in " the Lord Jesus " as the sole 
agent of cure, could not deny that he was somewhat partial, and not always 
just, for the memoirs of Prince Hohenlohe prove that there were occa- 
sional failures, although all that came appeared to have been "full of 
faith and the holy spirit." 

Professor Onymus, of the University of Wurzburg, himself an eye-witness 
of Prince Hohenlohe's wonderful operations, has given the following account 
of them : — 

" Prince Hohenlohe cures the sick by his prayers. From all sides they bring the sick, 
the blind, the lame, deaf, and dumb to his door. The victims of every evil that afflict 
humanity besiege the house where he stays, and it is not without great trouble, and by 
the assistance of the police, that you are able to get to him. Notwithstanding, he never 
seems fatigued. 

" He never refuses his aid to any one, even to the poor, or mendicants with the most 
disgusting complaints. 

" When he quits the house, it is not to carry alleviation to the palaces of the great ; he 
goes in preference to the cabins of the poor. When he prays we see that the prayer 
comes from the bottom of his heart, and that with so much fervour, that he oftentimes 
seems ready to sink with exhaustion." 

As we cannot do justice to one tenth of the laudatory notices that were 
written of the Prince's marvellous cures, we must conclude by selecting a 
few of the notable cases recorded by Legation Councillor Scharold, who, 
like many other distinguished personages of the time, wrote of what he 
himself was an eye-witness to. 

"Elizabeth Laner, cured of a rheumatic affection of the nerves, which made her a 
helpless cripple of twenty-five years' standing. 

" Captain Ruthlein, of Thundorf, seventy years of age, and Fraulein Fegelim, upwards 
of seventy, both cured of total paralysis, and able to use every limb and organ freely. 

"Michal Dinsenbacher, aged twenty-four, for three years suffered dreadful agonies 


with an abscess of the chest, and caries of bones. Patient of hospital, cured on the spot, 
aDd at work in the fields the next day. 

' • Two lame men, carried in arms into the house of Aulic Councillor Martin, total 
paralysis, — cured on the spot. 

•' The widow Balzano, and another woman of Narstadt, blind ; one for twenty -five, 
another, nineteen years ; cured at the Legation office of Counsellor Scharold." 

It would be needless to pursue this list farther. 

Prince Charles of Bartenstein, in a letter to his father, dated August 18, 
1 82 1, expresses his amazement at the cures which he himself had witnessed 
in the chapel at Bruckenau, where he declares, " four hundred blind, deaf, 
dumb, and paralytic people &c, &c, were instantaneously and completely 
cured." A vast number of thoroughly attested cases were collected and 
published in 1825 in the German papers. 

At the solicitation of the medical faculty of Germany however, the 
Government at length forbade these operations ; and Prince Hohenlohe 
retired to Austria, where he continued his divine work until his death, 
which took place in his fifty-fifth year, at Boslon, near Vienna. 

Among the great variety of manifestations recorded by the American 
Spiritual journals, none have excited more interest than the appearance of 
letters, names, and figures on the flesh of the mediums, thus affording 
incontrovertible evidence both of the intelligence which arranges the 
characters, and of a new and wonderful phase of chemistry, involved in 
their production. 

Not to depreciate the value of such a curious form of supra-mundane 
agency, but to show its accordance with some unknown law at work in 
various directions, we point to one or two remarkable cases of " stigmata," 
many of which have been indisputably attested on the Continent of Europe. 
Our German illustration of this singular phase is the celebrated Katherine 
Emerick, the nun of Diilmen, of whom we give the account published by 
Herr Clemens Von Brentano, who visited the Ecstatic, and observed her 
case for many years. He says — 

'" The most remarkable features of this case were — a bloody crown encircling the head ; 
marks of wounds in the hands, feet and side, and two or three crosses on the breast. 
These, and the mark round her forehead, often bled, the latter usually on Wednesday, 
and the former on Friday, and with such obstinacy, that very often heavy drops ran 
down. This statement has been subscribed to by numerous physicians, and others also 
who have visited her. 

"In 1820 the Ecclesiastical Board visited DtLlmen several times, and found the facts 
more or less to agree with the published reports. 

" On the breast was found a double cross, in red connected lines. The bleedings 
had developed for years, and all accounts agree that they could not have been produced 
by any known applications from without. They have been continually watched for days, 
and washed by physicians, but never varied in appearance, nor could they be accounted 
for on any known physiological cause. Katherine appeared to have been a highly sensitive 
devout person from childhood. 

" In one of her numerous visions she informed her confessor that she had a vision of 
the Saviour, who appeared to her as a radiant youth, offering her a garland with the 
left hand and a crown of thorns with the right. She seized the latter, and pressed it to 
her brow, but on regaining outward consciousness she felt a severe pain encircling her 
head, accompanied by drops of blood. Soon after this, in 1802, she entered the convent 
at Diilmen. 

"About 1814 her case became generally known, through a pamphlet published by her 
attending physician. Still later she submitted —- though reluctantly — to an official 
investigation, and though she always desired most earnestly to be left in strict 
retirement, she yielded patiently to any form of investigation that could throw light on 
her wonderful case." 

The celebrated naturalist, Count Stolberg, visited Katherine in 1821, 


and from his account we learn that for many months at a time, her whole 
nourishment consisted of water and small portions of an apple, plum, or 
cherry, daily. She was subject to trances, and fasts prolonged for incredible 
periods of time. She often spoke in trance, in strange and beautiful 
language. Her prevision, knowledge of character, distant events and 
places, was astonishing, and her cheerfulness, piety, and resignation excited 
the admiration of all around her. Early on the Friday morning, the thorn 
wounds on her head began to bleed ; later in the day the eight wounds on 
her hands and feet commenced bleeding. No artist could have more 
accurately painted the crown and crosses, and no matter what pains were 
taken to wipe off the drops of blood, they continued to flow throughout 
the entire day. She had many remarkable spiritual gifts, and besides the 
phenomena already described, her clairvoyant perceptions were constant 
and most penetrating. Ennemoser, in his " History of Magic," relates 
many other equally remarkable and well attested cases of Stigmata, none 
of which are more striking in the persons of religious ecstatics than that 
which has recently attracted the attention of the Continental world, in the 
person of a poor servant girl of Belgium, of whom the following account is 
rendered by Father Johann Weber, a Dominican physician, who was sent 
by the Bishop of the Diocese to the village of Bois d'Haisne, in Belgium, 
to investigate the case : — ■ 

The Dominican's visit is described in the Roman Catholic Tablet oi 1869 
in the following words : — 

" He arrived at the village of Bois d'Haisne, at the house of the Lafans, about one 
o'clock in the day. Louisa was at that very moment in one of her mysterious trances ; 
but the venerable Provincial was only disposed to doubt, since her appearance was per- 
fectly natural. However, the parish priest who accompanied him soon convinced him of 
the reality, by shaking her violently, and then sticking pins into her arms and legs with- 
out producing the smallest effect upon her ; nor did blood flow from the punctures, 
though they were deep. Finding that she was entirely insensible, they proceeded to 
examine her hands and feet, in which they found the distinct marks of the stigmata. 
There were also marks of the crown of thorns round her head, but there was no trace of 
blood in any of the wounds. After about a quarter of an hour's observation, the priest 
recalled her to consciousness by the simple words, " Well, Louisa." She opened her eyes 
quite naturally, and then saw the Provincial. The priest explained to her that he had 
been sent by the bishop to investigate the matter. In answer to his enquiry as to what 
she had seen in her ecstacy, she replied that she had been assisting in the bearing of the 
cross. He was very much struck both with her simplicity and ignorance. She was 
merely a peasant girl, and nothing more. The priest having left the house, the Provincial 
resolved to remain and watch the case ; but that he might not appear to be doing so, he 
took out his breviary and began to say his office. He remarked only that she turned to 
the east, and that her expression was one of singular modesty and reflection. At a 
little before two o'clock she gave a deep sigh and lifted up her hands. Soon her watcher 
perceived a stream of blood to issue from the wound in her left hand, which could not 
have been caused by any instrument or other agency, as she had not moved from her arm- 
chair, and her hands did not touch each other. Tears flowed from her eyes and fell im- 
heeded on her cheek. Her expression changed to one expressing great anguish, a kind of 
foam escaped from her lips and filled her mouth. At a quarter to three she fell, her arms 
being extended in the shape of a cross. Her sister ran to put cloths under her head and 
feet, the former being lifted with great difficulty. Her face was warm, but her hands and 
feet were icy cold as if dead, while the pulse apparently ceased to beat. At three o'clock 
she moved, crossing her feet a little, and assuming exactly the attitude of Christ on the 
cross. Thus she remained until four o'clock, when she suddenly rose, knelt with clasped 
hands, and seemed to pray with the utmost fervour. Her body during this time appeared 
as if it scarcely touched the ground. After about ten minutes she seated herself again in 
the arm chair, resuming her attitude of modest recollection, and the Provincial thought 
she would soon be herself again ; but the most curious phenomena were yet to come. 
After a few seconds her expression became painf ully distressed ; she lifted her arms again 
in the shape of a cross, skfhing heavily, and greenish foam again escaping from her mouth, 


while the mark of the crown of thorns on her head became more and more distinct. 
Suddenly she burst forth in a loud cry, and bowed her head. At that moment her body 
had all the appearance of death ; her face was deadly pale, and even cadaverous ; her lips 
were black and livid ; her eyes glassy, open, and apparently without life. A few moments 
after, the colour returned to her cheeks, and her face assumed an expression of intense 
beatitude. The parish priest came back at this moment, and taking a lamp of petroleum, 
put it close to her eyes without her perceiving it. The Provincial pricked her feet, both 
on the soles and on the upper parts, without her feeling it in the smallest degree. At a 
quarter past six she suddenly became perfectly natural, the pulse began to beat as usual, 
and she was " herself " again. She had no recollection of anything she had herself done 
during her ecstacy. She seemed to think little or nothing of these extraordinary visions, 
and did not attribute to herself any merit or holiness in consequence. She is a tertiary 
of St. Francis, but knows very little of his history. In answer to some questions which 
were put to her, she replied that she had never been spoken to by Our Lord, and that she 
had seen the evil one under various forms ; when she mentioned him she was filled with 
great fear. 

" The following morning she was at the parish church, and received the communion at 
the hands of the Provincial with great reverence. The priest's housekeeper being absent, 
she came to the presbytery to prepare breakfast. The Provincial was struck with her 
brisk, healthy appearance, and could scarcely imagine that he beheld in the bright, simple 
servant girl the Extatica who, in a few hours, probably, would be again undergoing the 
mysterious conformity to the Passion above described." 

Of stone-throwing, hauntings, or the disturbances which in Germany are 
commonly attributed to the " Polter Gheist," we have so many accounts, 
and the manifestations so nearly resemble each other, that it would be 
tedious to repeat them. 

Almost every reader of Spiritual literature is familiar with the accounts 
published by Brevior, Howitt, Owen, Mrs. Crowe, &c, concerning the 
hauntings in the Castle of Slawensik, in Upper Silesia, especially those 
which occurred to Councillor Hahn and his friend Cornet Kern. 

Dr. Dorfel, a physician resident at Hamburgh, quite recently sent the 
author a numerously-signed document, containing accounts, known to and 
witnessed personally by the signers, of manifestations which tally almost 
exactly with those in the Castle of Slawensik. These hauntings followed 
the family of Dr. Dorfel for a period of more than three years, during which 
he removed from Darmstadt, Berlin, and Bonn, in the hope of avoiding 
them. They came in the shape of frightful apparitions, groanings, shrieks, 
poundings, throwing of missiles, movements of heavy furniture, &c, and 
had been witnessed by Madame Dorfel and her two daughters, besides 
about one hundred different persons, neighbours of the suffering and 
afflicted family, who had been called in at various times and places in the 
vain hope of exorcising the persecutors who tormented them. 

In answer to Dorfel's statement sent to the author, the latter advised 
him to form circles, and endeavour to communicate with the invisible 
persecutors, on the generally pursued system of American Spiritualists. 
This advice being followed, proved successful. 

During the year 1870, the harassed family succeeded in communicating 
by raps and planchette writing, with the Polter Gheist, and a number of 
his weird associates. In this way they learned a terrible history of crime 
and wrong, involving persons of high position, of whom it would now be 
injudicious to write. The spirits represented that they only attached 
themselves to the doctor's family because they found in its members the 
requisite medium power. The communications soon grew orderly ; the 
criminal spirits manifested penitence and desire for progress, after which 
the hauntings entirely ceased. In all probability, hundreds of similar cases 
would be thus explained and terminated, if those who are cognisant of 


them, would only enter upon a systematic method of communing with the 
invisibles, on the plan of the modern spirit circle. 

From the reports of M. Kalodzy, the author of several valuable works 
on mineralogy, mining, engineering, &c, we have received a curious 
collection of narratives concerning the knockings which are so common 
in Hungarian and Bohemian mines. M. Kalodzy says, these knockings 
have been repeatedly heard by him and the pupils that he — as a teacher 
in the Hungarian School of Mines — has introduced there, and that many 
of the miners are so accustomed to the signals of their " Kobolds " that 
they would not like to work in any direction against which the knockers 
warn them. In Northern Germany, these knockings are quite common in 
mines, and are attributed to the Berg-geister, or spirits of mountains 
and mines. 

From Mdme. Kalodzy, the writer of "Rambles in the Hartz Mountains," 
and " The Clock Makers of the Forest," &c, the author of this work has 
received the following account of these " Kobolds " or spirits, as witnessed 
by Madame Kalodzy and three companions, who spent a week in the hut 
of a peasant, one Michael Engelbrecht, in whose family the Kobolds seem 
to have been perfectly familiar :■ — 

" On the three first days after our arrival," said Madame K , " we only heard a 

few dull knocks, sounding in and about the mouth of the mine, as if produced by some 
vibrations of very distant blows, but when on the third evening Michael came home from 
work, he brought us the welcome intelligence that his friends, the Kobolds, had promised 
by knockings to make us a visit. This we were right glad of, as Dorothea, our Michael's 
wife, had expressed her fears that they might be shy of so many strangers, and would 
not appear, unless we spent some hours in the mine. 

" We were about to sit down to tea when Mdlle. Gronin called our attention to a steady 
light, round, and about the size of a cheese plate, which appeared suddenly on the wall of 
the little garden directly opposite the door of the hut in which we sat. 

" Before any of us could rise to examine it, four more lights appeared almost simul- 
taneously, about the same shape, and varying only in size. Surrounding each one was 
the dim outline of a small human figure, black and grotesque, more like a little image 
carved out of black shining wood, than anything else I can liken them to. Dorothea 
kissed her hands to these dreadful little shapes, and Michael bowed with great reverence. 
As for me and my companions, we were so awe-struck yet amused at these comical shapes, 
that we could not move or speak until they themselves seemed to flit about in a sort of 
wavering dance, and then vanish, one by one." 

The narrator went on to say, that she and her husband have since both 
heard and seen these little men, who always come and go very suddenly ; 
appear as above described in the shadowy image of diminutive black dwarfs 
about two or three feet in height, and at that part which in the human 
being is occupied by the heart, they carry the round luminous circle first 
described, an appearance which is much more frequently seen than the 
little black men themselves. 

Mr. Weske, a wealthy and intelligent German gentleman of San Francisco, 
has related to the author a graphic account of his discovering a fine gold 
lode by aid of these knocking mining spirits. Mr. William Howitt, in an 
article on the Berg-Geister, written some years ago for the. London Spiritual 
Magazine, says : — 

" We know that the miners of Germany and the North have always asserted, and do 
still assert, the existence of Kobolds and other Berg-geister or spirits of the mountains 
and mines, and that they assist or thwart their exertions in quest of ore, as they are 
irritated or placated." 

The miners describe them as short, black, and declare that when they are 


attached to certain miners they go before them in the solid subterranean 
rock, knocking with their hammers, and thus indicating the presence of 
metal and the devious course of the vein. If it is lost by a break in the 
strata, or " fault " as they call it, the sound of the Berg-geister's hammer 
directs where again to seek it, and when there is a busy and energetic 
thumping of many hammers, it is the certain announcement of abundant ore. 
Not caring in this plain matter of fact compendium to enter more fully 
into the vexed question of sub-human spiritual intelligences, we shall treat 
no more on what is termed by the Occulists " elementary existences." As 
abundance of testimony on this question can be found in other writings, we 
must return to our narrative of phenomena which may be attributed to the 
agency of human spirits, or originate in the realms of magnetism and 

It may not be uninteresting to the student of Spiritualistic phenomena to 
learn, that besides the instances of levitation recorded of Mr. D. D. Home, 
and other physical media of the New Dispensation, several spontaneous 
cases of this kind are on record. 

The following brief article is selected from many other illustrations of 
this phase of sptrit power, because it comes from respectable and authentic 

A correspondent in the Journal de Frankfort, of September, 1861, writes 
as follows : — 

To the Editor of the "Spiritual Magazine." 

" We read in the Gegenwart of Vienna that a Catholic Priest was preaching before his 
congregation last Sunday in the Church of St. Mary, at Vienna, on the subject of the 
constant protection of angels over the faithful committed to their charge, and this in 
words of great exaltation, and with an unction and eloquence which touched profoundly 
the hearts of numbers of the congregation. Soon after the commencement of the sermon, 
a girl of about twenty years of age showed all the signs of ecstacy, and soon, her arms 
crossed upon her bosom, and with her eyes fixed on the preacher, she was seen by the 
whole congregation to be raised gradually from the floor into the air, and there to rest at 
an elevation, of more than a foot, to the end of the sermon. We are assured that the 
same phenomenon had happened several days previously at the moment of her receiving 
the communion." — Journal de Frankfort, Sept. 6, 1861. 

This remarkable occurrence was also testified of by the late Baron de 
Palm, who was present on the occasion, and himself related it to the 
author. In connection with this event, Baron Kirkup, of Florence, a well 
known and esteemed correspondent of the London Spiritual Magazine, 
writes to the Editor in the following terms : — 

" This is a confirmation of my friend Mr. Home's repeated elevation, of which there 
are a thousand witnesses. I possess eight engravings from different copperplates of a 
similar elevation of Pope Pius VII. There is this inscription : 

" ' Pius Sept. Pont. Max. 

Savonos in Ecstasim iterum raptus die Assumptionis B. V. M. 

\5th Augusti, 1811.' 

" I have two ancient prints of different risings in the air of St. Catherine of Sienna ; 
one inscriptisn is : 

" ' Sublime per echstasim rapta divina arcana contemplatur,' &c. 

" I believe many of your friends know 

" Your obedient servant, 
" Florence, 15 October, 1861. Seymour Kirkup." 

From the letters of an esteemed Spiritualist of Baden Baden, Col. Kyd, 
a gentleman who, in connection with his amiable lady's Planchette writing, 


has done much to stimulate investigation into Spiritual matters throughout 
many of the most fashionable circles of Germany, the author learned 
accounts concerning a certain Pastor Blumhard, which have since been 
verified by several persons who have visited that gentleman, and published 
details of his wonderful achievements. Pastor Blumhard resides at Boll, 
near Gappingen in Wiirtemberg, and is a noble-minded enthusiast, whose 
life, in a more limited sphere than that of the excellent Pastor Oberlin, still 
greatly resembles it. M. Blumhard performs many marvellous cures by the 
laying on of hands, having in one instance cured completely an unfortunate 
woman, a parishioner of his, of an immense wen. The report of this 
extraordinary case attracted so much attention to the good Pastor, that he 
was visited from far and near, by great numbers both of the curious and 
afflicted of earth. M. Blumhard not only cures the sick, but he administers 
to the miserably poor, of whom his parish is full, by presents of fruit, 
vegetables, wine, and provisions of all kinds. These his narrow means 
could never enable him to purchase, but all his great benefactions, though 
procured through human means, are generally brought to him by entire 
strangers, and always in answer to prayer. Hundreds of persons report 
that they have been compelled by a power they could not resist, to send 
presents of clothes, or food, to Pastor Blumhard. On these occasions it is 
invariably found that some poor needy parishioner has besought the prayers 
of the good Pastor for precisely the articles sent in. Like Muller, of 
Bristol, England, the philosophy of this life of prayer and faith is easily 
understood by the student of magnetism and psychology, but as in Miiller's 
case, Pastor Blumhard' s religion alone is held responsible for the Divine 
response. Be it as it may, a good work is accomplished, and an humble 
German priest is the instrument through whom it is wrought. A few such 
evidences of Christian faith in action, would do more to prove the truth 
and value of Christianity, than the Pope of Rome and all his Cardinals, 
or the barren fruitless sermons of the whole Bench of English Bishops. 



To the writings of Kerner, Ennemoser, Eschenmayer, and their cotem- 
poraries, we must refer our readers for further details concerning the 
subjects treated of in the last chapter, meantime it needs no reiteration to 
show that all the spiritual phenomena now so generally known throughout 
the world, were quite familiar amongst the Germans during the entire of 
this century, 

Even the inspiration exhibited on the public rostrum, for which American 
Spiritualism has been so specially and justly celebrated, has not been 
wanting in the nineteenth-century marvels of German Spiritualism. In 
proof of this we cite the case of the celebrated Baroness Von Kriidener, a 
Prussian lady of high birth, who for more than twenty years, during the 


stormiest days of revolutionary strife on the Continent of Europe, that is, 
from 1793 to the period of her death in 1824, deemed herself called upon 
to quit the brilliant life of the salon, and the attractions which her rank 
and station offered, in order that she might preach a gospel of peace and 
purity, in the presence of warlike and violent men, many of them the 
contending generals, princes, and potentates who ruled the destinies of 

A prophetess and orator of the most remarkable power, this beautiful 
and accomplished lady pursued her mission in despite of threats, dangers, 
and captivity. 

The following anecdote will suffice to show the great power she wielded 
over the most influential personages of her time. 

In William Howitt's charming biography of the Baroness Von Kriidener, 
when describing the chaotic state of Europe during the Napoleonic wars, 
he says : — 

" One evening the Emperor Alexander of Russia who had been making his way 
across Bavaria wearily for days, through crowds of exulting people who looked upon 
him as a saviour, entered an hotel at Heilbronn borne down by fatigue." " He shut 
himself up in his room, filled with deep and painful reflections. 

" Alexander is supposed to have been aware of the intended murder of his father, 
the Emperor Paul, and despite his wish to become his people's benefactor, he could 
not rise above the dark memories that haunted him. 

" He himself relates that he had just exclaimed aloud, " Oh, that some holy soul 
might be sent to me, who could solve the great enigma of my life and destiny !" when 
the door opened, and Prince Wollonsky, entreating pardon for the intrusion, 
announced, that Madame Kriidener waited without, and would insist upon seeing His 
Imperial Highness. 

'' ' Madame Kriidener!' replied the Emperor, 'then surely she comes in answer to 
my prayer ; let her enter.' Madam Kriidener had met the Emperor before, and won 
his confidence by her marvellous spirit of prophecy, fearless love of truth, and simple 

" For three long hours the noble lady counselled with the tempest-tossed soul of 
the monarch. 

"He himself declared, 'she spoke music to his spirit, and brought him a peace 
which no other on earth could give.' Before she quitted him, she declared, she had 
come to plead the cause of the starving peasantry of Russia, famine-stricken and 
perishing, from the ravages of the armies that had passed through the land, and con- 
sumed all their means of subsistence. 

"The, representations of this admirable woman were effectual, as Alexander 
exhausted his resources in sending provisions to the sufferers, and relieving to the 
utmost extent of his power those, for whom the good Baroness had so ably pleaded." 

Referring to Madame Krildener's subsequent residence in Paris, in the 
eventful year 1815, her biographer says : — 

'' Here then we reach a point in our heroine's life, which fixed upon her the eyes 
and wonder of all Europe. 

'' Three times a week, she held religious meetings, which were attended by all the 
princes, nobles, and great generals of Europe. There, in a simple black, or dark blue 
dress, with her hair cut close, and although past fifty, retaining traces of her former 
singular beauty, she addressed the assembled potentates in the most exalted strains 
of eloquence. 

" She exhorted them to put an end to the horrors of war, and inaugurate true 
Christianity, by peace on earth, and good will to men. 

" It was a strange spectacle, to see those who commanded the destinies of Europe 
sitting humbly at the feet of this inspired woman. 

" Madame Von Kriidener, by the wonderful fulfilment of her predictions, and the 
inspiration of her preaching, had herself become one of the powers of Europe, and for 
a time, there is no doubt, that she actually directed the movements of the allied 


Few who read this description will fail to recognize in it, the characteris- 
tics which — with all due allowance for difference in surrounding circum- 
stances — distinguish the "trance-speaking mediums" of America, who, like 
Madame Kriidener, have become an irresistible power in the circle of their 
special ministrations. 

Up to the last quarter of a century, despite the universality with which 
spiritual gifts were manifested in individual cases, the tendency to 
materialism on the one hand, and intolerance on the other, succeeded 
in repressing the public advance of Spiritualism in Germany. No better 
illustration of this Teutonic conservatism can be given, than the antagonistic 
reception that was accorded to Baron Von Reichenbach's brilliant 
discoveries, in what he termed " Odylic or Od Force." 

Although Reichenbach's treatises on " Od Force," have been made 
familiar to English readers by Dr. Ashburner's fine translation, it may not 
be amiss to explain in brief the nature of Reichenbach's discoveries. This 
indefatigable scientist procured the aid of a large number of " Sensitives," 
or what would now be termed, clairvoyants or spirit mediums. 

These persons he placed in dark rooms, and then submitted to their 
spiritual sight, magnets, shells, crystals, minerals, animals, human hands, 
and a great variety of animate and inanimate objects, known only to him- 
self, but detected by the Sensitives, through the flames or luminous 
appearances, that each substance gave forth. 

These flames differed in colour, size, and intensity, according to the 
nature of the object examined, but as large numbers of persons fully 
corroborated each other's observations, and the Baron's experiments were 
conducted for years, with the most persevering attention, he conceived 
himself justified in arriving at the conclusion, that from every object in the 
human, animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, there emanated a force 
which could be detected under favourable conditions, as flames, or 
luminous appearances, and whilst some observers were disposed to regard 
these as the universal life of things, he (Reichenbach) for special reasons 
defined them in his writings as " Odyle," or " Od Force." 

Whatever name or style A^on Reichenbach, Mesmer, Galvani, Volta, 
Newton, Paracelsus the Rosicrucian, or Geber the Alchemist, may have 
thought proper to give to the "force," or "element," of which they dis- 
coursed, the intelligent reader will be at no loss to correlate all such forces, 
and resolve them into the one all-pervading life principle of the Universe. 

It would be needless to enter upon further details of Von Reichenbach's 
discovery, to which no mere summary could do justice ; it is enough to say 
that when he first gave the result of his researches to the world, instead 
of winning the applause and gratitude of his countrymen, he simply drew 
down upon himself an amount of insult and contempt, of which the most 
unenlightened age might have been ashamed. 

In 1865, the first regular journal devoted to Spiritualism was published in 
Germany, under the title of Psyche. A contemporary French paper makes 
the following notice of this periodical in connection with the Baron Von 
Reichenbach's discoveries. 

,: Psyche is the only German paper treating of Spiritualism, odic force, and other 
kindred subjects, It is published monthly, and its chief editor is H. A, Berthe- 
lea, D.M,, Zittan, Saxony. Since this excellent little periodical was commenced, 
many fine works have been contributed to the treasury of spiritual literature, 
prominent amongst which stands a noble spiritual journal conducted by the eminent 
Russian Councillor Hon. Alexander Aksakof, entitled, Psyckische Studien. It was first 


published at Leipzig, in 1874, since when it numbers amongst its contributors the 
honoured names of the Baron and Baroness von Vay, Prince Emil Wittgenstein ; 
Professors Maximilian Perty, Wagner, Fichte, and a long list of potentates and 
scientists of high standing and distinguishad ability." 

For a more detailed account of its editor Alexander Aksakof, and the 
great services he has rendered to the cause of human progress, we must 
refer our readers to our section on Russian Spiritualism. 

Amongst the most distinguished supporters of the movement in Ger- 
many, we would again mention the Baroness von Vay, a highly-gifted 
, seeress; also Colonel and Mrs. Kyd, of Baden Baden; His Imperial 
Highness Nicholas, Duke of Leuchtenberg ; the late amiable and lamented 
Princess Alice of Darmstadt, the Barons Holmfeld, Guldenstubbe, and de 
Palm, and many other celebrated Spiritualists of distinction. 

Still, Spiritualism as a cause, made but little public progress until the 
advent of the Davenports, Henry Slade, and other mediums from America, 
who, by their professional announcements, compelled the press to notice 
the subject, and draw forth investigators from the privacy of the salon, to 
the arena of public discussion. 

There are many reasons for believing that the demonstrations that had 
already been published abroad, in the shape of hauntings, obsessions, &c, 
had tended to repel rather than attract investigators. 

Thus, about 1865, when Spiritualism had completely captivated the 
American, and British mind, and in France, no less than six spiritual 
journals were liberally supported, Germany could only boast of the peri- 
odical before mentioned, called Psyche. 

About 1867, several works in exposition of Spiritualism were put forth 
at Vienna, and found a rapid sale in the establishments of Lechner and 

Reports of American spirit photographs being taken, and stirring 
accounts of the phenomena produced through the mediumship of the cele- 
brated Mr. D. D. Home, and Rollin Squire of America, were published 
in tract form, and widely circulated. 

The seances of the above named gentlemen being given non-professionally, 
were of course limited only to the favoured few with whom they were 
guests. Still the accounts of the marvels enacted in their presence, 
stimulated public curiosity to the highest pitch. About this time, several 
other works on the subject of Spiritualism were put forth, amongst them, a 
fine treatise on the Science of Soul, by Dr. Epps. This brochure became 
so popular, that the publishers could hardly keep pace with the demand. 

Private circles too began to multiply rapidly, but the chief impetus given 
to a wide-spread interest in the cause of Spiritualism, was unquestionably 
due to the agency so much, and so unwisely denounced by many leaders 
of the Spiritual ranks, namely, professional mediumship. 

The distinguished services rendered to the cause by Mr. D. D. Home, 
were, as above remarked, confined to such influential personages as sought 
this gentleman's society, in the character of a friend and equal. 

The deliberate investigation of the subject, requisite for scientific experi- 
ments, could not be conducted in the presence of monarchs and princes, 
neither could the guest of such exalted personages be examined, with the 
severe scrutiny to which the Davenports, Messrs. Foster, Slade, and other 
professional mediums, have felt called upon to submit. 

Strictly speaking then, it is in a great measure due to the services of 
professional media, that Spiritualism has at last conquered the stolidity of 


German conservatism, and made itself known and acknowledged through- 
out the length and breadth of the land. 

With a view of rendering equal justice to both sides of the question, 
and to show how both public and private medium ship appeals each, to 
its appropriate class of minds, we shall present notices of each phase, 
commencing with a sketch taken from the book reviewer's notice in a 
recent number of the Banner of Light, concerning the mediumship of the 
gifted Baroness von Vay. The extract is as follows : — 


" We have received from Baroness Adelma von Vay, of Gonobitz, Austria, a copy 
of a work of some hundred pages, printed in the German tongue, in which a marked 
and novel phase of her mediumship is practically set forth to the reading world. In 
her preface, this talented writer and worthy lady presents the object of the brochure as 
follows : — 

" ' In my book, " Studies of the Spirit- World," I have mentioned my visions wit- 
nessed in a glass of water. For the benefit of the reader who has not perused that 
work, I here present the following explanation of those visions from the "Studies," 
page 85 :— 

" ' Our spirit guides advised me to make the attempt to see visions in a glass of water. 
They disclosed to me one day that I possessed the gift of being able to see spirits 
without becoming somnambulic. They said I was to fill a glass with water, and look 
therein, and they would then produce spiritual representations in the same. Upon 
making the trial, I immediately saw all kinds of objects in the water. At first the 
water seemed to be agitated ; by degrees the pictures appeared at the brim of the 
glass. I perceive these visions only in the evening, never by day, and I must feel dis- 
posed thereto through an earnest desire for the same. I am in a normal condition — 
i. e., in full consciousness of what I observe and say. The desire of others to see this 
or that picture has absolutely no influence upon me. These pictures often remain a 
long time in the same place, others again disappear instantaneously. They often 
appear to be much larger than the surface of the glass would seem to permit ; some- 
times appear like photographs, then again in colors, or like brilliant light cloud- 
pictures. As I perceive the visions in the water I dictate the view to my husband, 
Baron Eugene von Vay, who transcribes it, and it is then explained by my guides. 

' Adelma Vay.' " 

For some time previous to the breaking out of the Russian war with 
Turkey, Professor Boutlerof, and M. Aksakof, both eminent Russian scien- 
tists, had agreed with their immediate friends, to engage Dr. Slade, of 
America, to assist them in a series of experiments on the subject of physical 
force mediumship, in which direction, Dr. Slade bore a high reputation. 

The disturbed state of Russia in consequence of the late war, measu- 
rably interfered with this project, and though some satisfactory stances were 
conducted, the investigation did not assume the character originally 

During Dr. Slade's tour through Europe however, he was induced to give 
a special course of stances, to some of the Professors of the Leipzig 
University, the result of which was, that six of that distinguished body, 
gave in their testimony to the truthfulness of Dr. Slade, and signed a docu- 
ment, absolving him from the slightest implication of fraud or personal 
agency in the manifestations. 

Now if report speaks truly, at least five of the savants have yielded assent 
to the claim of a spiritual origin for the marvellous effects they witnessed, 
whilst the sixth, now to the grief of his many friends the late Professor 
Zoellner, issued a work, entitled " Transcendental Physics," in which, 
though attempting to show that the wondrous phenomena he described, 
were due to the interference of " a force," which he vaguely defined, as, 


' a fourth dimension in space," he yet fully endorsed the truthfulness of 
Slade, acquitted him of any attempt at imposition ; described the super- 
mundane character of the results produced, and challenged the world of 
science to account for the same, on any hypothesis, save the spiritual one 
alleged by the Medium, or his own (Zoellner's) theory of " a fourth dimen- 
sion in space." 

The amazing statements put forth by authorities so eminent as Zoellner, 
and the other Leipzig professors, have not only awakened universal interest 
throughout Germany, but they have also attracted world-wide attention, 
and amongst other unlooked for effects, provoked a curious discussion in 
America, to which it will now be in order to make some allusion. 

A certain blatant preacher and lecturer, one, Rev. Joseph Cook, of Bos- 
ton, America, during a course of what he announced as " Scientific Reli- 
gious Lectures," made the Leipzig professor's investigations, the subject of 
several addresses. In these, he read aloud, numerous extracts from Pro- 
fessor Zoellner's book, and commented freely on the astonishing 
phenomena there recorded. 

Whilst the Rev. Joseph Cook was thus making converts to the Spiritual 
cause, of all those listeners who were prone to believe on the authority of 
others, he seemed to have forgotten, how far he was committing himself, in 
the opinion of those clerical brethren, to whom Spiritualism has been the 
grand bite noir of the age. Beginning to realize possibly that he had gone 
too far, yet unable to unsay what he had already said, or explain away the 
marvels on which he had so freely descanted, he undertook to beat a 
retreat in the following creditable (?) fashion. 

In a lecture to be given by him at Saratoga, New York, for the bene- 
fit of some Christian Church, Mr. Cook announced, that he would take 
that opportunity of setting himself right, on the question of Spiritualism. 
Feeling possibly, that the " ism " itself, as underlying the entire structure of 
the religion he, and all other Christians profess, was too much for him 
to grapple with, Mr. Cook proceeded to set himself right, before an 
immense audience, including a large number of highly respectable 
Spiritualists, by pouring forth upon the latter, as a class, such a string of 
vituperation, and abuse, as to call the blush of shame to the cheeks of 
every listener present. 

At the request of the indignant Spiritualists of the place, the author, 
who was one of the Rev. Joseph Cook's audience, gave a review of, and 
answer to this address, in a lecture delivered the following evening. Thus 
the whole subject was re-opened, and from the reports taken down on that 
occasion, graphic accounts of what actually occurred in the presence of the 
Leipzig professors, as detailed by Mr. Cook himself, were placed side by 
side, with the vituperations which he had just poured out against those 
who believed in the facts he had been at such pains to relate. Without 
any farther preface we shall quote as much of the author's lecture, as will 
re-state Cook's account of the Leipzig investigations. Mrs. Hardinge 
Britten said : — 

'' In the Journal of February 21st, of this year, I find a report of a lecture delivered 
by Mr. Joseph Cook in Boston, on the 3rd of that month, in which he gives a full 
account of some noteworthy experiments of six distinguished German scientists, 
whose spiritual investigations with Henry Slade, the American medium, were pub- 
lished in a work written quite recently by Prof. Zoellner, Professor of Physical 
Astronomy at Leipzig University. Without attempting to reiterate experiments which 
seemed as amazing to Mr. Cook and the Leipzig scientists, as they are familiar, and 


their recital stale and uninteresting to experienced Spiritualists, I must still commend 
to your attention the following extracts from Mr. Cook's lecture. He says : — 

" ' Six renowned German names to their own credit or discredit can now be quoted 
in the list of believers'in the reality of the alleged facts of the modern psychical or 
spiritual manifestations. They are Profs. Zoellner, Fechner, and Scheibner, of 
Leipzig University ; Prof. Weber, of Gottingen University ; Prof. Fichte, of Stuttgart, 
and Prof. Ulrici, of Halle University.' 

"After detailing minutely what is the standing and reputation of these eminent 
scholars, and describing with equal care the phenomena they witnessed, he, Mr. Cook, 
goes on to descant on the high moral character and intellectual ability of a certain 
Signor Bellachini, Court Conjurer of Germany. This gentleman, he shows, having 
called on Henry Slade, and witnessed many of his manifestations, given both at 
Slade's lodgings and the conjurer's own apartments, tendered to Slade a sworn 
affidavit to the effect that no conjuration known to him could account for the extraor- 
dinary demonstrations of occult power and intelligence he had thus witnessed. 
Bellachini, like a true man, as well as a true artist, commends Mr. Slade's manifesta- 
tions to the respectful consideration of science, and deprecates any unfavourable 
judgments that may be passed upon it hastily, or without thorough investigation, 
This manly testimonial, legally witnessed and duly filed, Mr. Cook read out in full. 

'' His next noteworthy remarks are as follows, and are given verbatim from a work 
on ' Psychography ' recently published in London by M. A. Oxon. 

" ' Henry Slade having proceeded to St. Petersburg to fulfill his engagement with 
Mr. Aksakof and Prof. Boutlerof, and to present the phenomena of psychography to 
the scrutiny of a committee of scientific experts, has had a series of successful sittings 
in the course of which writing has been obtained In the Prussian language. At one 
recent sitting, writing in six different languages was obtained on a single slate. 

" ' On Wednesday, February 20th, accompanied by Mr. Aksakof and Prof. 
Boutlerof, Slade had a most successful sitting with the Grand Duke Constantine, who 
received them cordially, and himself obtained writing on a new slate held by himself 

" Mr. Cook next goes on to describe a fresh set of experiments, remarkable enough 
to early investigators, but sufficiently familiar to us as the phenomenon of writing 
obtained in closed slates, &c. Mr. Cook also read out in detail the account of a very 
curious phenomenon, being no other than the sudden disappearance of a small table 
in a light room, which for several minutes was thoroughly searched in vain to find it. 
Whilst the amazed Prof. Zoellner, was continuing his fruitless attempts to account 
for the disappearance of this ponderable body, it appeared as suddenly as it had^disap- 
peared, floating in the air just below the ceiling — the legs upwards. From thence, it 
floated down and was laid by invisible hands gently on another piece of furniture. In 
commenting upon this extraordinary manifestation Mr. Cook says : — 

"'The mechanical theory of matter is exploded if Zoellner's alleged facts can be 
proved to be real, but here are grave experts who unite in assuring the world that 
these events occurred under their own eyesight. [Then how dare Mr. Cook insert his 
presumption if in this category?] Here is the Court Conjurer who says he can do 
nothing of the kind. I hold in my hand a volume by Fichte, and he says, quoting 
these experiments, and naming the professors who witnessed them, that he could him- 
self, if he were authorised, give in addition to these names many others in Germany 
who by the experiments at Leipzig, have been convinced of the reality of the facts and 
of their worthiness to be made the subject of scientific research.' 

■' But Mr. Cook does not stop here. He gives yet more facts, details yet more of the 
Leipzig experiments and after the recital of one remarkable bomb-shell thrown into 
the camp of materialism, breaks forth into the following bombastic burst of oratory : — 

" ' If this single circumstance attested by the Leipzig professors is a fact, it blows 
to the four moons of Jupiter the whole materialistic mechanical theory of matter. 
The materialism of ages is answered by a simple fact like this. But here we have 
these six men agreeing these Leipzig assertions are worthy of credence.' Save and 
except the insolent imbecile if, with which Mr. Cook commences this paragraph, and 
the possibility which that if implies, that the six Leipzig professors who have investi- 
gated, don't know as much by aid of their senses, as he, Cook, does, who had not then 
investigated, without the aid of his senses ; this paragraph alone shows that when he 
was dealing with grand dukes, eminent professors and men of higher rank than he 
could have ever before dealt with, the manifestations were worthy of all credence, and 
blew opposing theories to the four moons of Jupiter. But when he, Cook, feels the 
hand of clerical pressure hard upon him, and he is in his own country, and amongst 
his own circle of grundy-worshipping priests and deacons, he is accused of believing 
that which his spiritual pastors and masters desire him not to believe, grand dukes, 

■•W .,...-.:■■ 

Prince Emil de Sayn. Wittgenstein 



emperors, statesmen, kings, queens, princes and princesses ; nobles, potentates, pro- 
fessors without end ; magistrates, lawyers, doctors, ladies, gentlemen, mechanics, 
operatives, clergymen, peasants, for all these grades and every other unnamed, make 
up the tens of millions of European, Asiatic, Australian, Indian, and American 
Spiritualism — all these become at once vermin, reptiles, toads, frogs, snakes, monsters, 
wretches, &c, together with every other hard and vulgar name, which this truly 
Christian man's vocabulary can supply." 

We must apologize to our readers for the insertion of the above choice 
collection of epithets. All we can say is, that the language — although strangely 
out of place in this book — was used by one who called himself a "gentle- 
man," and a Christian minister • the author only repeats it, for the sake of 
giving the paragraph, in which the present status of Spiritualism is summed 
up, in its entirety, 

We have now brought to a close, all that our space will allow us to give, 
concerning the progress of Spiritualism in Germany, during the nineteenth 
century, up to the present date. 

Germany ! The land of Anton Mesmer, the modern discoverer of the 
true Elixir Vitce, and the master mind from whom Puysegur, and 
Barberini, derived that inspiration, which proclaimed to the world the 
power of the soul to transcend the barriers of time and space ! Land of 
Zschocke, whose sensitive spirit detected the invisible soul of things ; of 
Kerner, that brave and good physician, who dared the sneers of materialism, 
and the threats of dogmatism, in proclaiming abroad the stupendous facts 
of the soul's return, beyond the grave. Land of Schubert, Werner, Kant, 
and Fichte ! Land where the soul enfranchised by the wand of magnetism, 
was first made free to soar away into the realms of the illimitable, and 
bring back tidings from the shores of the eternal beyond ! 

Germany ! The country from which the noble Aksakof could freely 
send abroad the message of spiritual light and life through the columns of 
a high-toned press ! where sages and schoolmen, princes and potentates, 
listen in reverend silence, to the oracles of inspired utterances. Ger- 
many ! The land bound up in the external fetters of cold materialism, 
but inwardly illuminated by spiritual gifts of such wondrous potency, that 
it only needs to remove the barriers of social and conventional restraint, 
liberate the mind, and permit the soul and its possibilities free expression, 
to make it the church of humanity, from which all the rays of spiritual 
sunlight shall stream forth, to illuminate, bless, and elevate, the entire family 
of mankind. 



Although the sameness which prevails in reports of all phenomena arising 
from a common source, must to a great extent mar the interest of the 
present record, there are two features of compensation even in this respect 
which must not be overlooked. The first is, the circumstantial evidence 
which this very sameness affords, to the unity of the source from whence 
" Spiritual manifestations " are derived. And next \ we cannot fail to 


observe, that certain characteristic features of variety are impressed upon 
those manifestations by the peculiarities of the people to whom they are 

Turning our lens of observation from Germany to France, we find the 
same historical proofs that the phenomena derived from the practices 
of animal magnetism, which antedated the unfoldment of Spiritualism in 
the one country, are just as strikingly demonstrated in the other. The 
impressions produced upon the people of these two lands, however, 
were totally different. 

In Germany, the physical and scientific aspects of Spiritualism have found 
more favour than its religious tendencies. In France it is otherwise. 
There, the national characteristics are impulsive, and emotional, hence 
Spiritualistic teachings have promoted the formation of new sects, and 
inspired its votaries with a deep religious sentiment. Mesmer, with 
characteristic caution, never sanctioned any advance beyond the physical 
results of his discoveries, whilst his followers Puysegur, and Barberini, 
soared away into the spiritual realms to which the enfranchised souls of 
their somnambulists pointed the way. 

Very soon after public attention had been drawn to the subject of 
magnetism in France, by Drs. Mesmer and d'Eslon, several gentlemen 
distinguished for learning and scientific attainments, followed up their 
experiments with great success. 

Amongst these was the Baron Dupotet whose deep interest in the subject 
of magnetism induced him to publish a fine periodical which, under the 
title of Journal du Magnetisme — still forms a complete treasury of well 
collated facts, and curious experiments in occult force. 

From this work we learn, that the Baron's investigations commenced in 
the year 1836, since which period up to 1848, he chronicled the produc- 
tion of the following remarkable phases of phenomena, the occurrence of 
which is testified to by numerous scientific and eminent witnesses. 

Through the Baron's magnetized subjects was evolved, clairvoyance, 
trance-speaking, and healing ; the stigmata or raised letters and figures on 
the subject's body; elevation of somnambulists into the air; insensibility 
to fire, injury, or touch. In the presence of the magnetized subjects also, 
heavy bodies were moved without human contact, and objects were brought 
from distant places through walls and closed doors. Sometimes the 
" Lucides " described scenes in the spirit world, found lost property, 
prophesied and spoke in foreign languages. 

In these seances, styled by the Baron in later years, magical, apparitions 
presented themselves in crystals, water, mirrois, and often in forms, 
tangible alike to the sight and touch of all ptesent. 

Amongst the witnesses to these seances were Messrs. Bertrand, d'Hunin, 
Seguin, and Morin ; men whose position in the world of science rendered 
their testimony absolutely unquestionable. 

In 1840, Baron Dupotet writes that he had "rediscovered in magnetism 
the magic of antiquity." " Let the savants," he says, "reject the doctrine 
of spiritual appearances.; the enquirer of to-day is compelled to believe it, 
from an examination of undeniable facts." . . . "If the knowledge of 
ancient magic is lost, all the facts remain on which to reconstruct it." 

The Baron after summing up the phenomena named above, challenges 
the world of science either to account for, or disprove them. 

But of all the revelators to whom French Spiritualists are indebted for 
indubitable proof of super-mundane intercourse, none stands more prominent 


in truthfulness and worth, than M. Cahagnet, the well-known author of 
"The Celestial Telegraph," a work translated into English in 1848. 

M. Cahagnet was an unlearned mechanic, a man of the people, and 
though a sensible and interesting writer, was neither well read, nor highly 
educated. He affirms that he was a "Materialist" when first his attention 
was attracted to the subject of animal magnetism, but being of a thoughtful 
nature, he determined to devote all the leisure he could spare to a thorough 
examination of its possibilities. When he found that he possessed the 
power to induce the magnetic sleep in others, he proceeded on the plan 
then generally adopted by mesmerists, namely, to try how far he could 
succeed in biologizing his subjects, that is to say, to substitute his own 
senses, mind, and will, for those of the sleeper. 

In the course of these experiments M. Cahagnet discovered, that he could 
effect remarkable cures of disease, and being naturally of a benevolent dis- 
position, he determined to bend all his energies in this desirable direction. 

He soon found however, that he was destined to realize the aphorism, 
" he builded wiser than he knew." A new and most perplexing obstacle 
arose to confound his philosophy and scatter his theories to the winds ; this 
was the fact, that some of his subjects, instead of representing what simply 
he willed, or manifesting — in accordance with his views of biology — merely 
the influence of his mind, began to transcend both will and mind, and 
wander off in space, to regions they persisted in calling the " land of 
spirits," and to describe people, whom they emphatically affirmed to be 
the souls of those, the world called dead. 

For a long time M. Cahagnet strove vehemently to combat what he 
termed these " wild hallucinations," but when he found them constantly 
recurring, and vast numbers of those who had come to witness the experi- 
ments in magnetism, recognizing in the descriptions given by the somnam- 
bulists, the spirits of those whom they had known on earth, and mourned 
as dead, conviction became inevitable, and the magnetizer, like his visitors, 
was compelled to admit a new and wonderful phase of lucidity, and one 
which carried the vision of the clairvoyant from earth to heaven, and 
pierced the veil which separated the mortal from the realms of immortality. 

It was after a long series of carefully conducted experiments of the above 
description, that M. Cahagnet was finally persuaded to give the results of 
his wonderful seances to the world, under the name and style of "The 
Celestial Telegraph," or, " Secrets of the Life to Come." 

The following extract from the introduction to the second volume of 
these " Secrets," will give the reader some idea of the cautious spirit in 
which this excellent investigator established the authenticity of his revela- 
tions. He says : 

" When in January 1848, I presented the public with the first volume of the 
' Secrets,' I was unable to verify the facts therein contained by any testimony but 
my own. 

" My position as a simple workman — my very confined social relations, absolutely 
null in the scientific world, — could give no weight to the statements I had propounded. 
I felt that despite their truth, I ought to support these revelations by honourable 
testimonials. To attain this end, I have given apparition sittings to persons who 
solicited them, and now I can surround my own name with multitudes of others 
whom the public venerate as authorities. In this second volume, I present to the 
world a vast number of testimonials to apparitions obtained, recognized, and 
testified of in writing, as true, by princes, nobles, generals, pastors of many creeds, 
merchants, men of letters, artisans, personages of all classes, and many nations, all of 
whom are ready to confirm by verbal testimony the acknowledgments signed at my 


About the year 1848, M. Cahagnet, having become very familiar with 
somnambulic revelations from the world of spirits, through several of the 
most remarkable and lucid subjects of the age, received a number of com- 
munications affirming the fact of the soul's existence anterior to its 
appearance upon earth. Whilst denying emphatically any belief in the 
doctrine of Re-incarnation and declaring against it in the most positive 
terms, the communicating spirits uniformly alleged that, when freed from 
the trammels of matter, they all remembered having lived in an anterior 
state of purity and innocence as spirits ; that they perceived how truly and 
wisely their earthly lives were designed for probationary purposes, and 
meant to impart vigour and knowledge to the soul ; but that once 
undergone, it was never again repeated, and the return of the soul to its 
former spiritual state was never interrupted by re-incarnations on earth. 
These spirits, too, alleged that the sphere of eternity afforded the souls of 
evil or unprocessed men all the opportunities necessary to purify them 
from sin and its effects, through innumerable stages of progress. 

As being peculiarly apposite to the subject discussed in this chapter, 
especially in commenting on the great French magnetists, who may be 
justly ranked as the John Baptists, who ushered in the Messianic Spiritual 
movement of the nineteenth century, we call attention to the following 
quotations from the recondite work entitled " Art Magic." On page 433 
the author says : 

" The narrow conservatism of the age, and the pitiful jealousy of the Medical 
Faculty, rendered it difficult and harassing to conduct magnetic experiments openly 
in Europe within several years of Mesmer's decease. Still such experiments were not 
wanting, and to show their results, we give a few excerpts from the correspondence 
between the famous French Magnetists, MM. Deleuze and Billot, from the years 
1829 to 1840. By these letters, published in 1836, it appears that M. Billot com- 
menced his experiments in magnetizing as early as 1789, and that during forty years, 
he had an opportunity of witnessing facts in clairvoyance, ecstasy, and somnambulism, 
which at the time of their publication transcended the belief of the general mass of 
readers. On many occasions in the presence of entranced subjects, spirits recognized 
as having once lived on earth in mortal form — would come in bodily presence before the 
eyes of an assembled company and at request, bring flowers, fruits, and objects, 
removed by distance from the scene of the experiments. 

" M. Deleuze frankly admits that his experience was more limited to those phases 
of somnambulism in which his subjects submitted to amputations and severe surgical 
operations without experiencing the slightest pain. ... In a letter dated 1831 M. 
Billot writing to Deleuze says : — ■ 

" ' I repeat, I have seen and known all that is permitted to man. I have seen the 
stigmata arise on magnetized subjects ; I have dispelled obsessions of evil spirits with 
a single word. I have seen spirits bring those material objects I told you of, and 
when requested, make them so light that they would float, and, again a small bottom 
de bonbons was rendered so heavy, that I failed to move it an inch until the power was 

" ' To those who enjoyed the unspeakable privilege of listening to the " somnam- 
bules " of Billot, Deleuze, and Cahagnet, another and yet more striking feature of 
unanimous revelation was poured forth. Spirits of those who had passed away from 
earth strong in the faith of Roman Catholicism — often priests and dignitaries of that 
conservative Church, addressing prejudiced believers in their former doctrine, asserted 
that there was no creed in Heaven — no sectarian worship, or ecclesiastical dogmatism 
there prevailing. 

"'They taught that God was a grand Spiritual Sun— life on earth a probation ; — 
the spheres, different degrees of compensative happiness or states of retributive suffer- 
ing ;— each appropriate to the good or evil deeds done on earth. They described the 
ascending changes open to every soul in proportion to its own efforts to improve. 

" ' They all insisted that man was his own judge, incurred a penalty or reward for 
which there was no substitution. They taught nothing of Christ, absolutely denied 
the idea of vicarious atonement— and represented man as his own Saviour or 
destroyer. * 


" 'They spoke of arts, sciences, and continued activities, as if the life beyond was 
but an extension of the present on a greatly improved scale. Descriptions of the 
radiant beauty, supernal happiness, and ecstatic sublimity manifested by the blest 
spirits who had risen to the spheres of paradise, Heaven, and the glory of Angelic 
companionship, melts the heart, and fills the soul with irresistible yearnings to lay 
down life's weary burdens and be at rest with them.' " 

It seems unfortunate for the good people who insist upon making a 
heaven or hell to suit themselves, and whose strong sectarian bias, induces 
them to banish every spirit from their presence who presumes to deny their 
views, that Cahagnet's revelating angels would neither endorse Catholicism, 
Protestantism, or Re-incarnation. 

Having shown that Spiritualism arose in France as in Germany from the 
awakening of soul powers evolved by magnetism and traced the footprints 
of the great temple builders who have laid the foundation stones of the 
mighty Spiritual edifice in the human system, and steadily worked upwards 
from matter to force, and from thence to spirit in every gradation of 
sphere, life and progress, we recall the pithy words of the Baron Dupotet, 
who, addressing the would-be leaders of public opinion in his splendid 
essay on the " Philosophical Teaching of Magnetism," says : 

" You savants of our country ; you have not shown yourselves better informed than 
the Siamese. 

''For these sixty years it has been shouted in your ears, The magnetizers march to 
the discovery of a moral world ; all the phenomena they produce indisputably prove its 

" You have declared that they were impostors, imbeciles, and the most illustrious 
amongst you, have only pronounced a verdict which will attest to future ages your 
ignorance or your insincerity. 

" Before the soul is disengaged from matter, it can, and does, converse with pure 
spirits. Already it can gaze prophetically on its own future destiny, by regarding the 
condition of those who have gone before ; — but a step ; — yet one, which the eye of 
spirit alone can measure, and if men are spirits already, who can stay the eagle glance 
of the soul into the land of its own inheritance ? " 

In following up the history of Spiritualism in France, although we find it 
has gained an immense foothold, and exerted a wide-spread influence upon 
the popular mind, it is nevertheless evident, that one of the chief 
obstacles to its general acceptance has been its lack of internal unity, and 
the antagonistic sentiments which have prevailed amongst its acknowledged 

Two of those who have figured most prominently in the grand drama of 
French Spiritualism, and in all probability exerted more influence upon 
public opinion than any other members of its dramatis personce, were 
MM. Allan Kardec and Pierart the respective editors of the two leading 
Spiritual journals entitled La Revue Sfiirite and La Revue Spiritualiste. 
These gentlemen may be also regarded as the representatives of the two 
opposing factions known as 


the former teaching, that the soul of man undergoes but one mortal birth, 
and continues its progress through eternity in spiritual states, the latter 
affirming the doctrine of Re-incarnation, and alleging that the one spirit in 
man can and does undergo many incarnations in different mortal forms. 

It will be understood that M. Kardec and his followers represent the 
" Spiritists " or re-incarnationists— M. Pierart leading the ranks of the 
opposing faction most commonly called Spiritualists. 


To M. Kardec has been generally attributed the merit or demerit — as 
the case may be — of originating the doctrine of Re-incarnation, — at least as 
that doctrine is taught in this century. This is quite a mistake, as will be 
shown by the following extracts, taken from a paper published in the 
London Spiritualist of 1875, ano ^ written by the accomplished scholar and 
statesman, the Hon. Alexander Aksakof. As the duty of a faithful 
historian is rather to record facts, than enunciate opinions, we shall make 
no apology for introducing M. Aksakofs paper to the attention of the 
reader, however much it may seem to savour of partisanship. It is entitled 


" In view of the approaching publication of translations in the English language of 
the works of Allan Kardec, of which the principal volume, ''The Spirits' Book," is 
already out, I feel it my duty to lay before the English public the result of my 
researches in the direction of the origin of the dogma of Reincarnation. When 
" Spiritism," newly baptised with this name, and embodied in the form of a doc- 
trine by Kardec, began to spread in France, nothing astonished me more than the 
divergence of this doctrine from that of "Spiritualism,'' touching the point of 
Reincarnation. This divergence was the more strange because the sources of the 
contradictory affirmations claim to be the same, namely the spirit-world and commu- 
nications given by spirits. As Spiritism was born in 1856 with the publication of the 
" Book of Spirits," it is clear that to solve this enigma it was necessary to begin with 
the historical origin of this book. It is remarkable that nowhere, either in this volume 
or in any of his others, does Kardec give upon this head the slightest detail. And 
why was this ? the essential point in all serious criticisms being to know before all 
things how such a book came into existence ? As I did not live in Paris, it was 
difficult for me to procure the necessary information ; all that I could learn was that 
a certain somnambulist, known by the name of Celina Japhet, had contributed largely 
to the work, but that she had been dead for a long time. During my stay in Paris in 
1873, I explained to a Spiritualistic friend my regret that I had never met this 
somnambulist in life, to which he replied that he had also heard that she was dead, 
but he doubted whether the rumour was true ; also that he had reason to suppose 
that this was nothing but a rumour spread abroad by the Spiritists, and that it would 
be well if I made further personal inquiry. 

" He gave me the former address of Madame Japhet, and what was my astonish- 
ment and joy to find her in perfect health. When I told her of my surprise she 
replied, that it was nothing new to her, for the Spiritists were actually making her pass 
for a dead person. 

" Here is the substance of what she was obliging enough to give me. 

" Mdlle. Celina Bequet was a natural somnambulist from childhood. About sixteen 
years of age she was mesmerised for the first time by Ricard. In 1841 she was 
attacked with a serious illness which confined her to her bed for twenty-seven months. 

" Finding no relief from medicine, she was put into the mesmeric sleep by her 
brother. She then prescribed the necessary remedies, and after six weeks, could leave 
her bed, and walk by aid of crutches. At last, after about eleven months, she entirely 
recovered her health. 

" In 1845, she went to Paris to search for M. Ricard, and made the acquaintance 
of M. Roustan at the house of M. Millet a mesmerist. 

" She then, for family reasons, took the name of Japhet, and became a professional 
somnambulist under the control of M. Roustan. In this position she remained till 
about 1848. Under her assumed name, she gave medical advice by the direction of 
the spirits of her grandfather, Hahnemann, and Mesmer, from each of whom she 
received a great many commuDications. 

" In this manner also the doctrine of re-incarnation was given her, hy the spirits of 
her grandfather, St. Teresa and others. As the somnambulic powers of Madame Japhet 
were developed under the mesmeric influence of M. Roustan, it may be well to remark 
in this place, that M. Roustan himself believed in the plurality of terrestrial existences. 
(See Cahagnet's Sanctuaire au Spiritualisms. Paris, 1850. p. 164. Since dated — 1848. 

" In 1849, Madame d'Abnour on her return from America, desired to form a circle 
for spiritual phenomena, of which she had lately been a witness. For this purpose 


she called upon M. de Guldenstubbe, by whom M. Roustan and Celina Japhet were 
asked to become- members of his spirit circle. 

" This circle was joined by the Abbe Chatel, and the three Demoiselles Bauvrais ; 
it consisted of nine persons, and met once a week at the house of Madame Japhet, 46, 
Rue des Martyrs, afterwards, almost up to the time of the war of 1870, it met twice 
a week. 

"In 1855, the circle was composed of M. Taillandier, M.Tillman, M. Sagia (since 
dead) Messrs. Sardou father and son, Madame Japhet, and M. Roustan, who con- 
tinued a member of it until about 1864. They began by making a chain, American 
fashion, in form of a horse-shoe, round Madame Celina, and they obtained spiritual 
phenomena more or less remarkable ; but soon Madame Celina developed as a writing 
medium, and it was through that channel that the greater part of the communications 
were obtained. 

" In 1856 she met M. Denizard Rivail, introduced by M. Victorien Sardou. He 
correlated the materials by a number of questions ; himself arranged the whole in 
systematic order, and published 'The Spirits' Book' without ever mentioning the 
name of Madame C. Japhet, although three-quarters of this book had been given 
through her mediumship. The rest was obtained from communications through 
Madame Bodin, who belonged to another spirit-circle. She is not mentioned except 
on the last page of the first number of the Revue Spirite, where, in consequence of 
the number of reproaches that were addressed to him, he makes a short mention of 
her. As he was also attached to an important journal, L'Univers, he published 
his book under the names which he had borne in his two previous existences. One of 
these names was Allan — a fact revealed to him by Madame Japhet, and the other 
name of Kardec was revealed to him by the medium Roze. After the publication of 
the ' Book of Spirits,' of which Kardec did not even present one copy to Madame 
Japhet, he quitted the circle and arranged another in his own house, M. Roze being 
the medium. When he thus left, he possessed a mass of manuscript which he had 
carried off from the house of Madame Japhet, and he availed himself of the right of 
an editor by never giving it back again. To the numerous requests for its return which 
were made to him, he contented himself by replying, ' Let her go to law with me.' 
These manuscripts were to some extent useful in the compilation of the ' Book of 
Mediums,' of which all the contents, so says Madame Japhet, had been obtained 
through medial communications. 

" It would be essential in order to complete this article \o review the ideas on pre- 
existence and on reincarnation which were strongly in vogue in France just before 
1850. An abstract of these will be found in the work of M. Pezzani on 'The Plurality 
of Existences.'' The works of Cahagnet should also be consulted. As I am now away 
from my library, it is impossible for me to give the relative points exactly. 

'' In addition to the foregoing supplementary details, bearing upon the origin, of 
" The Book of Spirits " and the different points connected therewith, testimony ought to 
be obtained from living witnesses to throw light upon the conception and birth of this 
book, such as Madame Japhet, Mdlle. de Guldenstubbe, M. Sardou, and M. 
Tallandier. The last continues up to the present time to work with Madame Japhet 
as a medium ; she is stril in possession of her somnambulic powers, and continues to 
give consultations. She sends herself off to sleep by means of objects which have been 
mesmerised by M. Roustan. I think it a duty on this occasion to testify to the excellence 
of her lucidity. I consulted her about myself, and she gave me exact information as 
to a local malady, and as to the state of my health in general. Now is it not astonish- 
ing that this remarkable person, who has done so much for French Spiritism, should 
be living entirely unknown for twenty years, and no notice or remark made about her ? 
Instead of being the centre of public attention she is totally ignored ; in fact, they 
have buried her alive ! Let us hope that reparation which is due to her will be made 
one day. " Spiritualism " might, in this matter, offer a noble example to " Spiritism." 

" Now to return to the question of Reincarnation. I leave it to English critics to 
draw their deductions from the facts which I unravelled by my researches, incomplete 
though they be ; I will do no more than throw out the following ideas : That the pro- 
pagation of this doctrine by Kardec was a matter of strong predilection is clear ; from 
the beginning, Reincarnation has not been presented as an object of study, but as a 
dogma. To sustain it he has always had resource to writing mediums, who it is well 
known pass so easily under the psychological influence of preconceived ideas ; and 
Spiritism has engendered such in profusion ; whereas through physical mediums the 
communications are not only more objective, but always contrary to the doctrine of 
Reincarnation. Kardec adopted the plan of always disparaging this kind of medium- 
ship, alleging as a pretext its moral inferiority, Thus the experimental method is 
altogether unknown in Spiritism ; for twenty years it has not made the slightest 


intrinsic progress, and it has remained in total ignorance of Anglo-American Spiri- 
tualism ! The few French physical mediums who developed their power in spite of 
Kardec, were never mentioned by him in the Revue ; they remained almost unknown 
to Spiritists, and only because their spirits did not support the doctrine of Reincarna- 
tion ! Thus Camile Bredif, a very good physical medium, acquired celebrity only in 
consequence of his visit to St. Petersburg. I do not remember ever to have seen in 
the Revue Spirite the slightest notice of him, still less any descriptions of manifesta- 
tions produced in his presence, Knowing the reputation of Mr. Home, Kardec made 
several overtures to get him upon his side ; he had two interviews with him for this 
purpose, but as Mr. Home told him that spirits who had communicated through him 
never endorsed the idea of Reincarnation, he thenceforth ignored him, thereby disre- 
garding the value of the manifestations which were produced in his presence. I have 
upon this head a letter from Mr. Home, although at the present moment it is not 
within reach. 

'' In conclusion ; it is scarcely necessary to point out that all that I have herein 
stated does not affect the question of Reincarnation, considered upon its own merits, 
but only concerns the causes of its origin and of its propagation as Spiritism." 

" Chateau de Krotofka, Russia, July 24, 1875." 

Without attempting to offer any comments on M. Aksakof s narrative — 
the plain facts of which speak for themselves — it may be remarked, that 
in most magnetic operations, it is generally found that the first effects pro- 
duced, are deep somnolency, or a sleep-waking state. The next is most 
commonly the biological condition, in which the subject represents the 
mind, will, sense, &c, of the magnetizer; and the next succeeding that, is a 
condition beyond and independent of the operator, in which an invisible 
spirit often takes control, and substitudes his mind, will, and sense, for that 
of the earthly magnetizer. This last named degree is now recognised, as 
" Spirit Mediumship." It is one which may or may not be induced by 
human magnetism, but whenever it does ensue, the power of the human 
mind ceases to operate, and that of the spirit controlling takes its place. 
Now whilst we have abundant historical testimony to show that this condi- 
tion of spiritual control was attained by the " lucides " of Messrs. Billot, 
Dupotet, and Cahagnet, we have no such evidence of independent spiritual 
influence operating upon Madame Japhet, whilst she was the magnetic 
subject of M. Roustan. How powerful this gentleman's magnetism must 
have been, and how completely Madame Japhet was dependent, upon his 
control, we learn from her own acknowledgment to M. Aksakof, namely, 
that she still gives consultations, and sends herself off to sleep, by means of 
objects which have been mesmerized by M. Roustan. 

What stronger proof can we have that the controlling spirit of Madame 
Japhet was M. Roustan? and that "The Book of Spirits," emanated far 
more reasonably from his biological impression, than from the saints, 
apostles, martyrs, and other historical celebrities, to whom it has been 
attributed ? 

Still it may be asked by the devotees of the re-incarnation theory, of 
what consequence is it whether this doctrine was first taught by Roustan, 
or Kardec, so long as it is true ? Aye even so ! So long as it is true ! 
That indeed is the main question ; but ere it can be answered, another 
arises, and that is, How can the truth of this doctrine be tested? and again ; 
Can we arrive at any veritable knowledge of spiritual existence except from 
spirits themselves, and that in communications given under conditions 
which preclude the possibility of human interference or bias ? 

To this it may be objected, that no such independent conditions exist, 
the general opinion being, that spirit communications are always more or 
less tinctured by the characteristics of the medium through whom the 
intelligence is given. 


Whilst we admit the force of this objection to a certain extent, we still 
insist that there are some conditions far more favourable for the trans- 
mission of spiritual revelations than others; such for example, were the 
circumstances under which spirits influenced the visions of Messrs. 
Puysegur and Barberini's clairvoyants, and subsequently gave direct com- 
munications through the "lucides" of Messrs. Dupotet, Billot, and Cahagnet. 
In all these cases, the magnetizers themselves were wholly unprepared for 
the nature of the intelligence rendered, in fact they were at first disposed 
to reject it, because it conflicted so strongly with their own preconceived 
opinions. The same independent character pervaded the spirit communi- 
cations first received in America, they being in general, not only new and 
strange, but totally opposed to the views of many of those who received 
them, and it is a fact worthy of the gravest consideration, that in all these 
early and unbiassed revelations, no word of the doctrine of re-incar- 
nation was ever given, except to individuals who had already cherished the 

If we add, that in the most independent form of spiritual revelation, 
namely through physical mediumship, few if any instances are known 
wherein spirits have taught the doctrine of re-incarnation, we deem we 
have proved that the theory in question has not originated from authentic 
and reliable spiritual sources, but is in reality one of those Oriental ideas 
which other philosophers besides M. Roustan cherish. The author is 
even now well acquainted with a gentleman who appeals to every person 
inhuman enough to ill-treat dumb animals, imploring them to desist, on 
the plea, that they may, in all probability be abusing one of their own 
ancestors. Thousands of such erratic opinions have been in vogue and 
that without any reason for attributing them to spiritual sources. 

As a result of M. Aksakofs researches into the origin of the modern 
French re -incarnation doctrine, those readers who have had any experience 
in psychological experiments, will neither be surprised to find Madame 
Japhet reflecting the powerful idiosyncrasies of M. Roustan, or M. Kardec 
impressing his equally strong opinions upon the susceptible individuals 
with whom he came in contact. 

It must be remembered also, to account for the great prevalence of this 
remarkable man's doctrines on the Continent — that he was the only 
notable writer who distributed works in the French language on this subject, 
and maintained its propagandism with untiring zeal. 

In respect to the question of testimony, it must be remembered that M. 
Kardec derived his communications chiefly from those writing and trance 
mediums who might have proved the most susceptible to his influence, 
and is said to have persistently banished from his circles, not only Mr. 
Home, M. Bredif, and other physical mediums, but all those who did not 
endorse his favourite dogma through their communications. Having now 
presented the historical view of one side of the question, it becomes 
necessary to call attention to some of the representative writings of the 
opposite faction, distinguished from the followers of M. Kardec by the 
soubriquet of " Spiritualists." 

To do justice to this portion of our subject, we must now introduce M. 
Pierart, the editor of the opposition paper published in Paris, of which 
mention has already been made, under the title of La Revue Spiritualiste. 

Although it seems something of an anomaly to commence our record 
of a noble life by treating of its close, we find we cannot present to our 
readers a more compendious view of M. Pierart's good service in the cause 


of Spiritualism, than by republishing his obituary notice, written by M. F. 
Clavairoz, Consul General of France at Trieste, and copied into most of 
the English and American Spiritual journals. This gentleman says : 

" The valiant champion whose last work, ' The Primitive World,' I noticed a 
short time ago, has been struck down by death. It was, alas ! so to speak, the last 
flame bursting forth from the soul of this apostle. He corrected the proofs upon his 
bed of suffering, where my hand pressed his. M. Pierart succumbed to the malady 
with which he had been afflicted for several months, but of which he had hoped to be 
cured. The cause of Spiritualism has suffered a great loss ; but progress is not 
arrested because a combatant falls in the strife. Without being in any way dis- 
couraged in our aspirations, our regrets follow beyond the grave those whom we 
have known and loved, and whose courage has sustained us in our efforts in the 
struggle. He whom we have just lost is stamped with the seal of brave soldiers of the 
truth. Born in an humble condition, he valiantly made himself what he afterwards 
became. M. Pierart received his first education at the College of Avanes ; entered 
the grammar school of Douai, which he quitted with the diploma of teacher, and 
subsequently became professor at the College of Maubenge. While there he was 
chosen by Baron Dupotet to be his secretary, and they worked together several years. 
In 1858 he founded La Revue Spiritualiste , at which time it required courage to propa- 
gate the new facts which had opened up an unknown field for speculation concerning 
the soul. His magazine reported the psychological phenomena which began in 
America, and it was continued by M. Pierart until he substituted for it the Concile de 
la Libre Pense'e, which was stopped in 1873, in consequence of clerical influence. 
Afterwards he resumed his spiritual labours by publishing the Benedictin de St. Maur, 
which he continued until the last. It is not only in the treatment of spiritual 
phenomena that M. Pierart has shown the power of his ardent soul, which was so 
captivated by all that is great and generous, for he published a number of historical 
works. No labour was too great for him when what seemed doubtful required investi- 
gation, and no consideration ever caused him to hesitate to divulge what he considered 
to be true. An indefatigable worker and careful investigator, history and archaeology 
attracted him as much as mesmerism and the occult sciences. He penetrated the 

arcana of Druidism, and studied the origin of the most ancient religions. His style 

always precise, clear, and enlightened by clairvoyance— gave to his words a real 
authority. No one had more knowledge than he of the mysteries of the past, and death 
came upon him just as he was preparing to publish the result of his investigations. 
M. Pierart has for twenty years fought for the cause of Spiritualism, loved by all who 
knew him, and appreciated by all who read him. His death will leave a great gap, 
and the work he has left undone will be difficult for another to accomplish. His faith 
supported him in his earthly struggle against poverty, and the secret persecutions by 
which he was beset. As for Spiritualists, who know that death is only a transformation, 
we believe that Pierart's soul will be with us and continue to interest itself in a cause 
which so occupied him during his earthly sojourn." 

In order to make our readers still better acquainted with this admirable 
champion of Spiritualism, and show some of the curious intrigues by which 
a great cause may be sacrificed to human ambition, and selfishness, we shall 
present a few extracts from an article published by M. Pierart in 1878, a 
translation of which was sent to the English Medium of London, by F. 
Tennyson, Esq., of St. Ewolds, Jersey. 

The article is headed — 


To the old readers of the Revue Spiritualiste, and the Concile de Libre Pens'ee, and all those 
who love the truth, in connexion with Morality and Philosophy. 

"Friends and Brothers,— It is now many years since our voice which won your 
s>mpathies, has made itself heard, but the day has come when we entertain the hope 
that its tones will once again rally you round the banner of truth which for fifteen 
years we upheld with unflinching resolution and zeal. 


•'In the year 1S58, when we started our journal, we also established a focus of 
re-union where you could all meet for the discussion of those consoling verities which 
were our delight, and the common subject of our most earnest meditations. This 
association continued until 1864. 

" It was then that we quitted Paris, and withdrew into the country keeping up how- 
ever at intervals our intercourse with those who remained faithful to us, and our 

" Many among you have asked why we quitted the capital, to bury ourselves in the 
woods, and we have given reasons which we must now reproduce, for doing so. 

" Paris is a sink of corruption, and the man who does not lend himself to it, leads 
a life anything but agreeable. There is no room in this Babylon for upright, 
courageous, and liberal ministers of Truth. To obtain intellectual distinction, one 
must cringe ' to the powers that be,' a degradation we would not sink to. 

" Besides, we encountered not a few such men as are descrided in the gospel of St. 
Matthew — chap. 10, ver. 17 to 27. 

" We were desirous of resting the question of Spiritualism on the ground of facts, 
and critical analysis, trusting that the phenomena would eventually prove themselves. 
But in this we were unsupported, left alone, and misunderstood. Clever pychagogues 
launched out into wild guesses ; published catechisms, and foolish articles of belief, 
the results of ill-digested compilations, yet of a nature to impress the simple- 
minded. . . . What is more, the enemy wormed himself into the heart of our unpre- 
tending society in order to paralyze its action. 

" Mediums deceived us. Others introducing themselves through our journal, availed 
themselves of this opportunity to alienate our readers and set up opposition 

" It was then, that profoundly discouraged, we proceeded to take up our perma- 
nent abode in the country ; to live the life of a hermit, alone in the society of our 
beloved books, in presence of the works of God, and the surroundings of Nature, 
which, at any rate, do not sadden or deceive the spirit open to their influences. 

'•At length the Jesuits interfered to obstruct our work. In 1873, about the time 
the ' Gouvernement de Combat " was installed ; in direct violation of all law, our 
journal, which had never busied itself with politics, was suppressed. It seems that, 
in spite of its obscurity and slight importance, it troubled the slumbers of the 
ecclesiastics. It was regarded by the prelates and politicians of this same " Gou- 
vernement de Combat " as extremely dangerous. Our just appeals for its reinstate- 
ment were disregarded. Even to this day the suppressed numbers are in the office 
of the Minister of the Interior, and we have never been able to recover them. Our 
letters have received no answers, Thereby hangs a tale which may be better under- 
stood by the following letter, sent to the republican journals in the month of 
February, 1876 : — 

"'Saint Maur des Fosses, Jan. 6th, 1876. 

" ' Mr. Editor, — The abuse of the state of siege in regard to the political press, has 
been recently animadverted upon from the tribune and in the journals : but nothing 
has been said of the outrages which the periodical and non-political press has had 
to endure. I am myself a victim of this new-fangled torture; and my case is so 
perfectly unprecedented, that I can no longer keep silence. 

"'In 1858 I started a journal, which I called the Revue Spiritualiste, devoted to 
the examination of philosophical questions and religious exegesis. This paper was 
succeeded in 1870 by the Concile de Libre Pens6e, which continued to discuss the 
same subjects. It cannot be alleged that this publication was atheistical, or that it 
propagated evil principles, or stimulated bad passions. 

" ' Unceasingly it pleaded the being of a God, the immortality of the soul, and 
carefully avoided entering upon political and social questions. The Empire, though 
by no means favourably disposed towards the Press, had left it alone. Not so the 
men of the ' Gouvernement de Combat,' whose rise, three years since, France beheld 
with astonishment. It was then that my journal was suppressed. 

" ' When I requested an explanation they did not deign to answer me. After 
waiting two years, I wrote to the Director of the Press to know whether, if I bound 
myself by entering into recognisances and agreed to publish my paper in a depart- 
ment not subject to the state of siege, I might be permitted to continue it. The 
answer was that under no conditions whatsoever, and in no part of France, would it 
be suffered to appear. Why ?■ Not the shadow of a reason was assigned on this any 
more than on the previous occasion. 

" ' I began to publish, about this time, a work entitled " Revelations and Com- 
mentaries on the History of the Early World." I found that after several pages had 


been printed, the proofs were seized at the post-office, and I never heard any more of 
them, so that I was constrained to discontinue the work. 

" ' Now, what elements of sedition were there to be found in my work on " The 
Early World " ? They could not assert that it was the spark to fire the powder 
magazine of social and political passions. But it opposed the cosmogony and 
chronology of the Bible. Besides, it demonstrated the wide difference between 
actual Catholicism and primitive Christianity, and had perpetrated the unforgivable 
sin of exhibiting in new points of view the abuses of the confessional and the celibacy 
of the priesthood. 

" ' Such are the noted facts, as unquestionable as they are incredible.' " 

It would be unnecessary to republish M. Pierart's eloquent comments on 
what he considers these "incredible" facts in farther detail, there being 
few Spiritualists of any experience who could not parallel, and in some 
respects exceed them ; but we shall yet claim the reader's attention for a 
few more extracts from this gentleman's voluminous writings. The fol- 
lowing sketches of his power as a prophetic Seer being both original in 
style and characteristic of French Spiritualism : — 

Extracts from the " Concile de Libre Pensee " 
{Books 8th and gth). 

'' The year in which visions of great co temporary events followed close upon one 
another was i860. 

" I anticipated the war which terminated in the bloody battle of Sadowa. The night 
before the battle, I had a vision of a Lancer whom I recognised by his uniform to be 
an Austrian Uhlan. He held a lance with a black pennant, and was singing a mourn- 
ful air which I remember to have heard in my youth sung by the veterans who 
witnessed the disaster of 181 2 and 181 3, It commenced thus — 

' They lie and sleep on the ground, 

And the drum shall wake them no more ! ' 

This vision made a painful impression upon me in my waking hours, but its signifi- 
cance was soon explained by the arrival of the telegram which announced the defeat 
and slaughter of Sadowa. 

'' Towards the end of 1867, I saw in vision vast multitudes of armed men approach- 
ing Paris from Germany, and the French Empire tottering beneath their heavy tread. 

" This prophecy was soon sadly realized in the fall of the Second Empire, already 
often predicted by a host of mediums. 

'• Before the advance of the Black Prussians and the carnage of Champigny and 
Villiers-sur-Marne, I saw their approach in a cloud of black ravens which swooped 
down before the place where I was sitting. 

" Shortly after this, I had a distinct vision of myself returning from the north of 
France to Paris. On the way I encountered cavalry officers in foreign uniforms, one 
of whom thrust me aside with the point of his sabre, ordering me in an imperious 
voice to stand off. Very soon after, this scene was enacted in all its minutias, for on 
quitting my native place to return to Paris, I encountered suddenly a party of 
Prussian soldiers who represented exactly the persons and scenes of my vision. 

"Just before the war, when all was apparently peacefnl and calm, for more than 
fifteen days, every morning quite early, as I was dressing, I heard a dull sound as of 
a cannonade, which seemed to come from Paris, and its environs. At first I imagined 
there was some emeute in the great city, to the tune of artillery practice on the 
esplanade at Vincennes, but I soon learnt that there was nothing of the kind. Whence 
came this noise of cannon firing, which only I myself could hear, but at regular 
intervals, and unmistakably ? I could not account for it. It was not hallucination ; 
I was in perfect possession of my senses, and laying my ear to the ground I heard the 
sound intensified. Even now I ask myself how ever this audible phenomenon could 
be. Was I to understand it as a prophecy of the dreadful cannonade which was 
soon to thunder in Paris and its environs ? At this present date I should so explain 
it. About this time I had a letter from my friend M. Clavairoz. He asked me what 
my spirits said about the war. As for his spirit, in whom he had perfect confidence, 
he announced nothing but disaster, 


" A few days after this an English friend of mine paid me a visit. It was Mr. S. 
Chinnery, a very sensitive man, and good seer, whose presentiments rarely deceived 
him. He, no more than myself, had faith in the coming triumphs of France. He 
related to me a scene he had just witnessed in the gardens of the Tuilenes, by the 
fountain nearest the Palace. A man — his dress in disorder, wild-looking, and hollow- 
eyed — had come there to weave a sort of incantation and denounce prophetically the 
potentate who resided close by. Laying coals on the edge of the basin and turning 
toward the Tuileries in an attitude of malediction, he thundered out these words : 
' Napoleon, thy days are numbered, thy kingdom is coming to an end. Witness these 
coals, which have been sent me by one in the last stage of phthisis, whose death is 
close at hand.' 

" After giving the particulars of this scene, which had made a strong impression on 
him, Mr. Chinnery recounted various prophecies and presentiments, of which he had 
made a collection, and which convinced him that France was about to pass through 
a very lamentable crisis. 

" I was in Belgium at the time of the disaster at Sedan. Before leaving, I had 
offered to the Flamant family, who dwelt at Joinville-le-Pont, on the other side of the 
Marne, the use of my apartment, in case the tide of war should reach Paris and its 
environs. I knew the enemy would not cross this stream in the teeth of the forts 
which protected it, but the left bank was in great danger of being ravaged. The 
members of this family, though they had no faith in my predictions, were very soon 
only too glad to accept my offer. 

" But I have now to relate the most wondrous of all the phenomena of that grievous 
period of terror. I was far away, but my good genius guarded my home. As I had 
quitted home in a hurry, everything had been left in confusion ; but when they took 
possession, everything was found in the most perfect order. Certainly no mortal 
hand could have acomplished this in an apartment under lock and key. Who then, 
could have put everything to rights ? If it was a spirit, the new occupiers saw 
nothing of him ; but their dog no doubt saw him, for no sooner had the animal 
entered than he began to tremble all over, and to howl, so that they were obliged to 
open the door for him, and find him quarters in the garden. A luminous spirit was 
seen to go out from the house and to soar over it in the open air, with outstretched 
arms in sign of protection, at the moment when the enemy's cannon announced the 
investment of the Marne. 

" From that time I pursued in the journals every detail of the siege with the greatest 
anxiety. As the enemy's projectiles were aimed at the heights which crowned the 
approaches to the river, I dreaded lest they should force the passage, or a cannonade 
come down upon the lofty building that contained my apartment, which was close by 
the church, on the highest point of the locality, and therefore could not fail to be a 
target for them. One morning I had a vision — it seemed to me that a bombardment 
had commenced, and they were stowing away my books in safe hiding places. I 
afterwards ascertained that this vision was true. 

" I had had a "thousand proofs of the action of the spiritual world on the natural. 
My good genius over and over again had saved me from great misfortunes. To turn 
aside the balls once fired off seemed to me impossible even for him, but I believed it 
might be in his power to act on the organs of a human being, so I besought him, in 
case the house should be in danger of bombardment, to exercise his influence on the 
visual organs of the artillery officers who pointed the cannon. I had no hope except 
in this. 

" I was not deceived. For six weeks an iron hail of shells hurled over the centre 
of the village of St. Maur. The houses all round mine were burnt, but mine remained 
intact. This so astonished the Wurtemburg artillery officer who directed the firing, 
that at the time of the armistice he came to see it, and declared, in presence of the 
assembled villagers who had returned, and the brave Flamant family, that 'the house 
must either be the devil's house or the dwelling of a sorcerer, as he had tried to set 
fire to it for six weeks, and had not succeeded.' At the same time it cannot be denied 
that the good dames of the neighbourhood attributed this fact to the agency of ' Our 
Lady of Miracles ' of St. Maur ; but, at all events, Our Lady might as well have 
preserved the other burnt houses while she was about it. 

" Whether people believe in these things or not, and howsoever they explain them 
it is not the less certain that they are facts ; and we have our own way of looking at 
them, undreamt of in their philosophy." " Z. T. Pjerart." 




Spiritism and Spiritualism (continued). 

It must not be supposed that the schism which divided the two leaders 
of French Spiritualism was confined to the immediate sphere of action in 
which they moved. Scattered sympathisers with the writings of Allan 
Kardec may be found all over the Continent of Europe and in small 
numbers in America also. Few people who read works put forth with 
authoritative pretentions, have the faculty of thoroughly digesting what they 
read, hence, when M. Kardec's books were translated into the English 
language, and it became the publisher's interest to aid in their circulation, 
they found more readers than thinkers, and their plausible style attracted 
more admiration than sincere convicton. In France, no doubt M. 
Kardec's personal influence and strong psychological power, admirably 
fitted him for a propagandist, and when we remember how readily any 
doctrines eloquently advocated will command adherents, especially amongst 
restless and excitable natures, we need be at no loss to discover why M. 
Kardec's writings have become so popular and his opinions so generally 
accepted by his readers. Little or no Spiritual literature was disseminated 
in the French language when Allan Kardec's works were first published. 
He possessed that indomitable energy and psychological influence in which 
his much harassed rival Pierart was wanting. Thus in a measure, the 
field of Continental Spiritual propagandism was his own, nor did he fail 
to make use of his great opportunities. 

The successes achieved by Kardec's journal La Revue Spirite, communi- 
cated a wave of influence also, which propagated journals of a similar 
character all over the country. Thus in 1864, there were no less than ten 
Spiritualistic periodicals published in France, under the following titles : 
La Revue Spirite, La Revue Spiritualiste, and L'Avenir, Paris ; four 
Spiritist journals published in Bordeaux, which, in 1865, became merged 
into L Union Spirite Bordelaise ; La Medium Evangelique, Toulouse; 
UEcho d outre Tombe, Marseilles ; and La Verite, Lyons. 

The editors of these journals are said to have been all followers of 
Allan Kardec, with the exception of M. Pierart, editor of La Revue 

How far the Re-incarnationists were in sympathy with Spiritualism proper, 
may be gathered from the fact, that they never noticed an opera published 
in 1865 in M. Pierart's paper, said to be the production of spirits, 
through the mediumship of Dr. C. Maldigny, entitled "Swedenborg." 

Several persons of literary talent pronounced this opera a very meri- 
torious work, but as its publisher M. Pierart was a Spiritualist, amongst a 
host of Spiritist journalists, not one contributed to popularize it, by a 
single word of comment. 

This is but one out of many kindred facts which tend to prove the total 
lack of sympathy existing between the opposing parties. 


It must be remarked that the doctrines of the .Re-incarnationists, 
although defended with great ability by their propagandists, who in- 
cluded many of the most capable minds of France, were not suffered 
to pass without severe castigation on the part of their English neigh- 
bours; and as we are pledged to represent the history of the movement, 
rather than our own personal predilections, it becomes necessary to note 
how the French spiritual schism was received on the other side of the 

In the London Spiritual Magazine of 1865, the editor, in commenting 
on the ominous silence of the Spirite journals concerning Dr. Maldigny's 
opera of Swedenborg says : — 

" It is worthy of note that the journals of the Kardec school, so far as we have 
seen them, do not take the least notice of this opera. The Avenir of Paris 
which appears weekly, but greatly wants facts, has not a word to say about 
it. . . . It is greatly to be regretted that the main object of the Kardecian 
journals, seems to be, not the demonstration of the constantly recurring facts of 
Spiritualism, but the deification of Kardec's absurd doctrine of Re-incarnation. 

"To this doctrine— which has nothing to do with Spiritualism, even if it had a leg 
of reason or fact to stand on— all the strength, and almost all the space of these 
journals is devoted. 

''These are the things which give the enemies of Spiritualism a real handle 
against it, and bring it into contempt with sober minds. Re-incarnation is a doctrine 
which cuts up by the roots all individual identity in the future existence. It deso- 
lates utterly that dearest yearning of the human heart for reunion with its loved 
ones m a permanent world. If some are to go back into fresh physical bodies, 
and bear new names, and new natures, if they are to become respectively Tom 
Styles, Ned Snooks, and a score of other people, who shall ever hope to meet 
again with his friends, wife, children, brothers and sisters ? When he enters the 
spirit-world and enquires for them, he will have to learn that they are already 
gone back to earth, and are somebody else, the sons and daughters of other people, 
and will have to become over and over the kindred of a dozen other families in suc- 
cession ! Surely no such most cheerless crotchet could bewitch the intellects of any 
people, except under the most especial bedevilment of the most sarcastic and 
mischievous of devils." 

In the January number for 1866, a still stronger article on this subject 
appears from the pen of Wm. Howitt, who writes the following fearless 
words of protest against the doctrine of Re-incarnation :— 

" In the Avenir of November 2nd, M. Pezzani thinks he has silenced M 
Pierart, by asserting that without Re-incarnation all is chaos and injustice in 
God s creation—' In this world there are rich and poor, oppressed and oppressors, 
and without Re-mcarnation God's justice could not be vindicated.' That is to say 
m M. Pezzani's conception, God has not room in the infinite future to punish 
and redress every wrong, without sending back souls again and again into the 
flesh. M. Pezzani's idea, and that of his brother Re-incarnationists is, that the 
best way to get from Paris to London is to travel any number of times from 
Paris to Calais and back again. We English that the only way is to go on to 
London at once ... As to M. Pezzani's notions of God's injustice without 
Ke-incarnation, if souls were re-incarnated a score of times, injustice between man 
and man, riches and poverty, oppression and wrong, all the enigmas of social 
inequality would remain just then as now. 

" In noticing these movements in the Spiritist camp in France, we should be doing 

a ^ a c- nJUStl ? e 1 i yve dld not refer to the zealous > eloquent, and unremitting exertions 
° u- I ' Flerart m the Revue Spiritualiste, to expose and resist the errors of the Spirites to 
which we have alluded. The doctrine of Re-incarnation M. Pierart has persistently 
resisted and denounced as at once false, unfounded on any evidence, and most per- 
nicious to the character of Spiritualism." 

Again he adds : — 


" What are the fruits which this serpent doctrine of Re-incarnation have already 
begun to produce in the South of France ? There the medium Hillaire, having run 
away with his neighbour's wife, it is stated that the unhappy husband appealed to 
their leader Kardec to use his influence to bring back the fugitive wife with the 
money which she and her paramour had carried off. 

" But the answer is stated to have been from Kardec, that he could do no such 
thing, as the husband was no doubt punished for a similar crime in some former state 
of existence." 

M. Pierart in commenting on this notorious case says in the Revue 
Spiritualiste, 8 th vol. : — 

" In the south of France a people has only awakened from the death of materialistic 
belief, to the death of all virtue, sense, morality, and reason. 

" There a tribunal has lately heard enunciated the doctrine, that it is necessary to 
tolerate theft and adultery, because these crimes can only happen as the punishment 
of like sins in a former existence." 

M. Pierart concludes a scathing article on this case in the following 
words : — • 

" Away then, with these doctrines destructive of progress, negative of the spirit 
which ought to reign in humanity ! Away ! and it is high time ; for seduction and 
blind error are arising and spreading themselves on all sides like a leprosy, which it 
will soon be too late to attempt to cure. They go on originating fanatical impulses, 
made obstinate by the force of ignorance and the absence of a critical spirit. And no 
one calls attention to the danger ! and we ourselves stand nearly alone and unable to 
vanquish the hydra. But we shall at least have done our part. Our warnings have 
been heard from time to time, and if they remain without response, we shall at least 
enjoy the consciousness of having performed a great duty." 

Again William Howitt writes : — 

'' We may regret the necessity, — one which amounts to a duty, — of devoting so 
much space to a doctrine which assails, and would uproot if permitted to nourish, the 
most vital principles of Spiritualism, amongst which are — 

" i. The immortality of the soul — utterly annihilated if an individual known as 
such on earth, is not himself at all but somebody else in past life and will be somebody 
else in the future. 

" 2. It negatives eternal progress, if the soul is to return to this weary earth for 
endless births as somebody else, instead of marching on through the decades of 
eternity in unchanged, and ever strengthening individuality. 

" 3. It crushes out for ever the sweet ties of family affection — if, for example ; — 
the blessed mother whom we have known and adored, is not our mother, but we are 
perchance her great grandfather, and she may be presently born again as the child of 
our worst enemy ! 

" 4. It wholly discredits the facts of spirit communion upon which alone, the 
foundations of Spiritualism rest ; because Spiritualism came to us a stranger, and 
before we had begun to pervert its revealments or interpolate them with our own wild 
theories, it declared that the soul moved on for ever, but never retrogressed back into 
its rudimental shell of mortal mould. It showed us the worst of spirits, progressing 
through the spheres of Spiritual existence, growing brighter and fairer beneath our 
very eyes, but never returning to be re-born in strange households, to the distraction 
of all kindred ties, and the annihilation of that divine sentiment of love for one 
another, which is the redeeming element in the lowest depths of humanity." 

" Can you give me any indisputable proof that the doctrine of the 
soul's Re-incarnation in matter is true ? " asked the author of a Spirit, 
communicating under test conditions so well defined, as to render doubt 
touching that spirit's personality impossible. " Can you give me any indis- 
putable proof," replied the spirit, " that an acorn having once grown to be 


an oak, ever becomes an acorn again, or the eagle having once given birth 
to its young, ever becomes again a germ egg ? " 

Who cannot follow out these living pictures of Nature's harmonious and 
unbroken laws, from plant and animal life to man, nor dwarf the intellect 
down to the measure of M. Roustan's dreams, filtered through the lips of 
his somnambulic subject, even though they be stamped with the mighty 
genius of M. Allan Kardec ? 

And now that same Allan Kardec is a spirit ! He passed from the scene 
of his earthly pilgrimage on the 31st of March, 1869. 

Whatever might have been the impulse that led him to promulgate a 
doctrine fraught with so much that many Spiritualists deem false and 
injurious, it is_ impossible that he could have exerted over his own imme- 
diate sympathizers so unbounded an influence as he wielded, without 
being a man of powerful intellect, and indomitable energy. It is also 
impossible that he could so long have remained the centre of a large 
circle, without becoming known for what he truly was, and as all his most 
intimate associates pronounce upon him the verdict of superior excellence, 
who shall venture to visit a stupendous intellectual misconception, upon 
the heart and intention of the man ? 

That he had the elements of greatness, let us cordially acknowledge. 
Meantime, whatever he may now be in sentiment and knowledge, we 
are assured he is in the land of light, where he will no more " see as in a 
glass darkly, but face to face," with divine truth. 

Were it not for the vice of the age, which rejoices to represent greatness 
through the shams of mediocrity, we might hope to learn from the lips 
of the enfranchised spirit himself, how it fares with him, and how far his 
spiritual eyes have been opened, to the realities of his new sphere of 
existence. Still again, we are consoled by the assurance, that all progress 
for all living souls, is but a question of time, and that sooner or later, he 
will join the mighty armies of progression, whose watchword through 
eternity is, Excelsior ! 

It should be stated in this brief notice of a memorable man, that the 
followers of Allan Kardec are accustomed to assemble annually at his tomb 
in Pere La Chaise and celebrate with all the love and interest which his 
memory excites, their continued affiliation, in spirit at least, with their great 
leader. Until within the last twelvemonth, these touching anniversary 
services have been participated in by the venerable Madame Kardec. 
Quite recently however, the noble widow has gone to join — as we faith- 
fully believe — the husband to whom she seemed to be bound by ties of 
tenderness and personal affection which strangely contradict her cherished 
philosophy of Re-incarnation. 

Madame Kardec leaves a munificent bequest behind, in aid of the fund 
•designed to publish and disseminate her husband's writings, and it seems 
to have been in view of her noble character and earnest endeavour to act 
out her highest sense of right, that her obsequies were attended by crowds 
of persons distinguished alike for their literary and social eminence. The 
reader cannot fail to be interested in the following excerpts which give brief 
.accounts of one of the anniversary gatherings held at the tomb of the 
celebrated French Spiritist. 

The Daily Neivs of London says : — 

*' The other day a solemn conclave met in Paris to do honour to a name which, 
although a borrowed one, has in the space of less than twenty years made the 


circuit of the globe, and founded a school of religious philosophy in which its 
adepts seem to rind the meeting point of Mysticism and Methodism. Allan Kardec, 
whose imposing tomb at Pere La Chaise cannot fail to have attracted the atten- 
tion of the most careless visitor to that city of the dead, was the son of a French 
lawyer, and was born at Lyons in the early years of the century. His real name 
was Hippolyte Leon Denizard Rivail, and with it for more than fifty years he was 
content to live a life of obscurity. Some few years however, after the establish- 
ment of the Second Empire, Spiritualistic manifestations were imported into France 
from across the Atlantic. It fascinated Rivail's mind, long given up to the study of 
the mediaeval Mystics. In 1858 he had gathered around him so many fellow-believers 
that a ' Societe des Etudes Spirites ' was constituted, and a few months later their 
organ, the Revue Spirite, appeared. Both the Association and the organ still survive, 
and claim to be making important progress, not only in France, but in every 
Continental country." 

Writing of the same occasion, one of the American papers remarks : — 

" There was a large gathering of Continental Spiritualists around the tomb of Allan 
Kardec in the cemetery of Pere La Chaise, Paris, on the occasion of the recent anniver- 
sary of his death. Speeches in honour of him and his work were delivered by 
prominent disciples. One of the floral crowns to decorate his tomb was brought from 
America. Madame Kardec was present, and received the sympathetic salutations of 
the assemblage. 

'' In the evening many were present at a banquet and concert. About three 
hundred brothers and sisters in belief met at the rooms of the Society for continuing. 
Allan Kardec's work, in the Rue des Petits-Champs. The rooms are now too small 
for the growing Society. The evening was devoted to oratorical, poetical, and musical 
tributes to the memory of the venerated founder." 

Those who are familiar with the writings of R. D. Owen, Shorter,. 
Howitt, and other celebrated , European Spiritualists, will have read with 
absorbing interest, accounts of the marvellous phenomena which frequently 
occurred in the presence of the late Baron de Guldenstubbe, and his gifted 
sister. The speciality of the Baron's mediumship was, the production of 
writings executed by the hands of spirits themselves. These writings the 
Baron, Mdlle. Guldenstubbe, and their friends, obtained in the following 
way. According to certain theories of his own, the Baron de Guldenstubbe 
believed, that tombs, altars, statues, and other objects consecrated to the 
memory of the illustrious deceased, were imbued with special magnetic 
properties, which aided in attracting the spirits to whose memory they were 
dedicated. With this impression he was in the habit of placing blank 
papers in concealed niches of remarkable monuments, and under the 
most crucial test conditions, obtained spirit writings, drawings, and 
hieroglyphics of the rarest interest. A volume could be filled with 
descriptions of these wonderful productions, the genuine character of 
which it is impossible to question. As some facsimiles and elaborate 
accounts have been published by several well-known authors, of these 
writings, we shall ask our readers to satisfy themselves on the pre- 
sent occasion, with two short narratives, both of which are selected, 
as much for their unquestionable authenticity, as for their rarity. The 
first is written by Dr. G. L. Ditson for the Banner of Light of 1881, and 
reads thus : — 

" Following the above is an account, from the pen of Mons. Leymarie, of a visit 
made, by order of the spirits, by Baron Guldenstubbe to Versailles. He was required 
to go with certain ladies named, whom he was to invite, and evidently for a special 
purpose. While in the gallery at V. the Bishop of Orleans, M. Dupanloup, passed on 
his way to celebrate mass in the chapel. Knowing the ladies referred to above, he 


stopped and addressed them, and also the Baron, to whom he expressed his regrets 
that he was a follower of Luther, who would suffer in purgatory for the division he 
had caused in the true Church. The Baron replied that he did not think that 
Luther was in purgatory or in hell, and as a proof of it, if the Bishop would place a 
blank piece of paper on Luther's portrait, there would come some evidence of his 
(the Baron's) belief. The Bishop tore a piece of paper from his register, and placed 
it as suggested. After a few moments he took it down and found written upon it : 

'In vita pestis eram Papce, 
In morte mors era. Luther.' 

(Living, I was a flail to the Pope; dead, I will be his death.) They were all greatly 
astonished. The Bishop extended his hand to the Baron and his sisters (both 
mediums), asking permission to visit them in Paris. The permission was obtained, 
and he frequently availed himself of it subsequently. 

" Among the signatures of royalty which the Baron obtained by direct writing in 
the crypt of St. Denis was that of Marie Antoinette, which resembled hers while she 
was in the flesh, as the Director of the Gobelin tapestry manufactory declared — for he 
had some of her letters. Baron Guldenstubbe, as is well-known, held a high position 
among men of science, and his sister is perhaps hardly less distinguished. The 
Baron healed the sick, also, by animal magnetism. M. Leymarie refers to the 
Baroness Guldenstubbe as a lady devoted to the cause of Spiritualism as well as to 
the sciences in general." 

The second and last notice which we can give of Baron de Guldenstubbe 
was first printed in the Daily News, of London, in 1859, and has been 
since copied into some of the Spiritual papers. It reads as follows : — 

" Among the most famous ' mediums ' nowhere [Paris] is a German, the Baron 
Guldenstubbe, and his sister. The Baron is a nobleman of well-known status and good 
fortune ; his wife is a firm believe*, but is not a * medium,' while his sister — said to 
be very clever and amiable, but the most weird, unearthly, elfin-looking little creature 
imaginable— shares her brother's gifts, and even surpasses him in this line. The 
Baron and his sister, with a number of friends, have been in the habit for two years 
past, of going to the churches here, placing bits of paper and pencil on the tombs, 
and finding messages written on the papers by the spirits of those whose mortal 
remains lie beneath the marble. Those who have been to the scene of operations say 
that the Baron lays a bit of paper and pencil on each tomb from whose occupant they 
desire to hear, and retires a few paces from them ; that in the course of ten minutes 
the friends approach the tombs and take up their papers, when messages are found 
written on the latter. The papers are examined carefully before they are laid on the 
tomb, and are known to be innocent of all trace of writing ; the visitors remain 
within a few paces of them, so that no one could approach without being seen ; and 
yet when the papers are taken up, they are found to contain writing, always distinctly 

visible. A week or so ago Madame S caught a violent cold ; the white of her eye 

changed, as it were, to a piece of red cornelian. It was frightful to look at, and 
she fully expected that she would find herself " in for a long and painful attack." 

Before the attack had come on Madame S ■ had been desired (by the " spirit " of 

some old Norman knight, with a very romantic name, who came to her one evening 
at the Baron's house) to go on the following Friday to Sevres, to place a paper and 
pencil in the middle of the public road, at thirty paces from the entrance to the 
famous china manufactory, and to wait there for a message from him. Though her 

eye was so inflamed as to compel her to relinquish all invitations, Madame S did 

not hesitate, protected by a thick veil, to go to Sevres at the time appointed. She 
and a friend, having counted off the thirty paces, held a bit of blank paper over the 
spot indicated for a few minutes, " to magnetise it," and then laid it on the ground 
with a pencil, covering them with some stones, so as to prevent the wind (which was 

high and cold) from blowing the paper away. Madame S ■ says that she hardly 

ventured to hope the writing would take place, as Baron Guldenstubbe, who had been 
told to accompany her, took no part in the thing, but walked about with his sister in 
various directions, looking at the building and fine prospect. Presently the two came 

up to Madame S and offered to place the paper for her. 

" 'Thank you,' she said, 'I have placed it myself; it is under those stones yonder.' 
'■ ' But you will probably have no message,' returned the Baron ; ' you are not yet 
a medium, and it would have been better to allow me to help you.' 


" ' Perhaps so,' replied Madame S , 'but I felt an impulse prompting me to 

try my own power. I have magnetised the paper before putting it under the stones, 
and by-and-bye we shall see what is the result.' At that moment Mdlle. Guldenstubbe 
suddenly went off into a sort of cataleptic vision, throwing up her arms, which grew 
rigid, and declaring, with a face of horror that she saw a man in armour where the 
stones were; a javelin had struck him under the arm, between the joints of his mail, 
and the blood was flowing in torrents. 

" ' He will not die of his wound,' she cried, ' but he suffers dreadfully ; he begs 

Madame S to take the paper from under the stones ; he has written upon it, and 

says she must place the paper, as though it were a plaster, on her eye to-night when 
she goes to bed, and it will cure her.' 

" On going to the spot, and lifting off the stones that covered the paper, the latter 
was found to be marked with a single letter — an L or an S— very indistinct, but so 
firmly traced, that the paper was raised by the pressure of the pencil, and under it 
was a queer mark, much better traced, which appeared to be not a letter, but a 
cabalistic sign. Intensely delighted with the success of the experiment, the party 

returned to Paris ; and on retiring for the night, Madame S laid the paper on 

her inflamed eye, tying it carefully in place with a handkerchief. Next morning, to 

her great satisfaction, the eye was cured ! Now, it is certain that Madame S , 

however much she may unconsciously deceive herself, is quite incapable of attempt- 
ing to deceive others ; and as to the fact of the sudden and inexplicable cure of her 
eye, numbers of her friends, are witnesses to its reality ; but what is one to think of 
such an occurrence ? In this case good seems to have been done." 

We shall close this chapter by a brief account of a wonderful healer who 
is even now effecting cures by spirit power, as remarkable as any one 
recorded during the present century. 

Our subject is an excellent mechanic; — a watchmaker by trade, by the 
name of Hyppolite; — and the following sketch of his noble work is transla- 
ted for the columns of Light (London) of -this current year, 1883, from 
an account written by M. Ch. Fauvety, President of the " Scientific Psycho- 
logical Society " of Paris. 

M. Fauvety says in the Society's Bulletin, for the new year : 

" In one of the poorer quarters of Paris, cures have been, and are still being, per- 
formed, by imposition of hands, &c. The subjects, many of them have been treated 
unsuccessfully at hospitals. The healer asks for no payment. What good he does is, 
he says, for the love of God and humanity. Orthodox practitioners could gain nothing 
by prosecuting a heterodox therapeutist like this, so he goes on in his work unmolested. 

"The healer's name is Hippolyte. He is between forty and fifty, and is in the 
business of a watchmaker with his father, a hale and upright man of eighty. 

" In the room at the back of the shop early every morning Hippolyte's daughter is 
ready to receive sick visitors, giving to each a number in the order of which each will 
be attended to. At nine o'clock Hippolyte begins and keeps at his work of healing 
until past noon, and then he goes to the watchmaking and mending by which the 
household is supported. 

" With respect to his method of treatment, Hippolyte says that as soon as rapport 
is established between the patient and himself — which seems to be pre-requisite — he 
has impressions as to what is out of order and what he has to do ; sometimes his 
hands are used to make passes ; sometimes somnambulic sleep comes on, in which 
communications are made through the patient about his case, to help in the cure. In 
chronic cases the method generally pursued is evidently calculated to rouse into 
activity the will and organic forces of the patient, in aid of which Hippolyte uses 
manipulations. In these he declares he is moved by his ' spirit guides.' 

" Various persons have watched Hippolyte's treatment, and all concur in recog- 
nising positive cures or palpable amelioration. 

" The maladies we saw cured included paralyses, neuralgia, gouty and rheumatic 
affections, diseases of joints, — some condemned to amputation at hospitals, — spinal 
disorders, &c. As many as thirty patients came some days, of both sexes and all ages. 
The following few cases will illustrate some of Hippolyte's modes of proceeding ; 
they are from a note containing more written for me by him : — 

'' ' A youth suffering from epilepsy was brought to me after much orthodox treat- 
ment. As I spoke to him he went into a fit of fearful severity. I felt myself moved 


to lay my hands upon him, my right to his heart, my left to his head, and to direct my 
gaze to his throat. He presently came out of the fit, passing into the somnambulic 
sleep. Then, in answer to questions, he said, that the exciting cause of his fits was 
fright occasioned by some mischievous companions ; he then predicted the day and 
hour of the next fit, and said he would be well and would not need treatment until 
then. When he returned to ordinary consciousness he had no memory of what had 
been said through him. I got his promise to come on the day named. He came in 
accordance with the promise and went into a similar fit, but less strong, exactly at the 
predicted hour. My hands were applied as before ; the fit lasted but a few minutes, 
he passing again into the somnambulic sleep ; in it came another prediction that the 
next fit would not be until after twenty-one weeks, and date and hour were named ; 
that the fit following that would be at a still longer interval and would be the last. 
The fulfilment of these predictions is looked forward to with complete confidence. 

'' ' A. Delavigne came, after long and fruitless treatment by the faculty, with chronic 
articular rheumatism and cold swelling of wrist, and hand, and fingers, quite 
disabling her from her work of lace-making. While treating her I felt the impulse to 
put a wooden roller under her hand, and upon this roller, without her own volition, 
and without any aid from me, her hand was exercised for three hours with intervals 
of rest. This was repeated at every treatment. Sometimes the bare hand would be 
made to beat the table forcibly with blow after blow, without any effort of her own, 
as if to rouse the internal parts of the limb into action. She completely recovered 
and returned to work. 

" 'A neighbouring tradesman asked my attention to the case of a lady-customer of 
his. Three weeks previously she came to his shop to make purchases, and while doing 
so her little boy, who accompanied her, fell down some cellar-steps. Thinking he 
must be killed — but he was not hurt— she fainted and fell. She was carried home, 
for it was found that all power had left her lower limbs. She had been under medical 
treatment ever since, but with no good result ; she was getting very weak, had lost 
desire for food, and was almost sleepless. She came in an invalid's chair and was 
carried in. 

*' ' After the first treatment of twenty minutes she was able to walk to her little 
carriage. The next day, while under treatment, she passed into somnambulic sleep. 
In it she spoke of her internal condition and predicted coming pains, from reaction, 
and their duration. At every subsequent treatment she passed into the sleep, assisted 
with directions, and predicted her full restoration. At the end of a few weeks, her 
visits having become less and less frequent, she felt quite well. Her last visit was to 
tell me, with radiant and grateful countenance, that she had been invited to a soiree 
dansantc, and had found that her limbs had entirely regained their full strength and 

'' M. Fauvety says that although people not poor find their way to Hippolyte, the 
greater number are very poor, as may be judged from the circumstance that on the 
table were always tickets for bread placed at Hippolyte's disposal by the Conseil de 
Bienfaisance of his district ; there was also a wooden bowl to receive the small contri- 
butions of the less poor for him to distribute among those who needed better nourish- 
ment than their own means afforded, or to pay omnibus fares for those unable to 

A large number of additional testimonials both printed and in MSS., have 
been sent to the author concerning the beneficent gifts of this noble healer, 
and the excellent uses to which he devotes his powers. Our space forbids 
any more extended notice than a hearty " God speed," words which will 
find an echo in the hearts of hundreds, whom this man's Christ-like work 
has already blessed and benefited. 






The Cure D'Ars, Jacob the Zouave, and Our Lady of Lourdes. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the experimental method of receiving 
communications through physical mediumship was not in favour with M. 
Allan Kardec and his followers, (the ruling party in the modern movement 
in France), there is an abundant amount of phenomena of all kinds 
recorded in M. Pierart's excellent journal La Revue Sj>iritualiste, also in 
many other European journals devoted to the subject. From this treasury 
we are about to select such facts of a representative character as will give 
a general view of French Spiritualism in the 'nineteenth century. 

Pursuant to the plan of this work, we shall first record a case of 
spontaneous spirit power or one which gives unmistakable proof of spiritual 
influence without the aid of invocatory processes, and the illustration we 
are about to introduce, is the celebrated " Cure D'Ars," the founder of the 
D'Ars " Providence," and many other noble works of charity. 

Jean Baptiste Vianney, was born in the vicinity of Lyons in 1786, in 
an humble sphere of life. 

His natural capacity was by no means remarkable, and at school he was - 
only remembered as a somewhat dull scholar. 

Circumstances having opened up the way for his becoming a priest, 
although he had only Latin enough to say mass, and no learning beyond 
the routine of his profession, yet his amiable nature and unaffected piety 
won him friends wherever he went. After some changes of fortune and the 
rejection of two good offers of rich positions, which in his extreme humility 
he did not deem himself fit for, he accepted the pastoral charge of the little 
agricultural village of D'Ars, now in the arrondisement of Trevoux. 

This place, the scene of his life-long labours was almost as stagnant and 
full of ignorance as good Pastor Oberlin's famous valley of Ban de la 

When M. Vianney became its Cure, his deep devotion, fervent preaching, 
and the genuine interest he displayed in the happiness and welfare of his 
flock, soon won their confidence, and placed him in the very centre of 
their hearts and affections. 

Although he was wholly dependent for subsistence upon the small 
pittance he received for his pastoral services, he managed to live upon 
such meagre fare that he was enabled to disburse nearly all his salary in 

Very soon his reputation for beneficence drew around him a much 
larger circle of poor dependents than he could provide for, and then it 
was that he commenced his extraordinary life of faith, supplicating in 
fervent prayer for whatever means were necessary to carry out his divine 


mission of blessing to his unfortunate fellow creatures. In this way the 
sphere of his benevolence and the wonderful results of the means he 
employed to maintain it, reached proportions that could scarcely be 

Amongst other great undertakings he built three chapels, and estab- 
lished a " Providence " or home for destitute children, to which he added 
another for friendless women. When the number of his poor pensioners 
exceeded his means of accommodation, he devoted one room after 
another of his own humble dwelling to their use, reserving only the garret 
for himself. All these undertakings involved not only incessant labour 
but vast expense. The Cure had not a franc of his own to devote to 
these purposes, for he gave away in casual and daily charities nearly all his 
means, sometimes even depriving himself of his small allowance of bread 
and milk to feed the hungry. 

He gave away the bed on which he lay and cheerfully substituted for it a 
couch of straw, which he declared was quite good enough for him. He 
often robbed himself of the decent clothes provided for him by admiring 
friends and administered to the wants of others in fluttering rags. 

Always cheerful, contented, indomitably active ; planning his own build- 
ings and helping to raise them himself; preaching incessantly and never 
weary of speaking words of good cheer and consolation, this wonderful 
being became the life and soul as well as the founder of the most gigantic 

When the orphans of poor dependents wanted bread he prayed for it, 
and it was sure to come. When the treasury was empty and food and 
fuel must be purchased he prayed and the money came pouring in from all 
quarters. When the work on his buildings came to a standstill and the 
workmen would not tease the good father for help, he knew exactly what 
they wanted — and prayed accordingly — food, money, building materials, 
and clothes, were sent just as certainly as they were needed, but not until 
the good pastor had put up his fervent petition for the same. 

Kind helpful women tendered their services as teachers and seamstresses, 
whereupon he opened schools for the children and established clothing 
depots for the destitute. 

The idea of his " Providence " too became contagious, and numbers of 
other institutions of a similar kind began to spring up in different provinces 
of France. 

M. l'Abbe Monnin, whose biography of this wonderful man occupies 
two bulky volumes avers, that his " Providence " was established fifteen 
years before that of Miiller in Bristol, England, both being supported in 
the same miraculous way by faith and prayer. 

M. Monnin relates endless miracles of the good Cure, the recital of 
which could add but little to the reader's interest in the astonishing facts 
already narrated. Here were three chapels erected, four or five houses 
built and endowed, countless numbers relieved, and upwards of one 
hundred poor women and children regularly maintained, and all by a man 
without a penny in the world, and a stipend barely sufficient to provide for 
the daily wants of one person. 

But now a still more wonderful thing was to happen in the enchanted 
region of DArs. 

Persons afflicted with disease began to experience sudden cures, whilst 
praying before the altar, or making confessions to the Cure. 

The fame of this new miracle soon spread abroad, until the Abbe Monnin 


declares, that upwards of 20,000 persons annually came from Germany, 
Italy, Belgium, all parts of France, and even from England, and that in less 
than six years, this number increased to an average of 80,000. 

Diseases of every kind that had been pronounced incurable were dissi- 
pated at once. 

The indefatigable Cure gave himself up to the work heart and soul. 

His church stood open day and night, and the immense crowds that 
surrounded it, were obliged to wait for hours and sometimes days to reach 
the good healer. 

No one was allowed to take precedence of the rest, except in cases of 
extreme poverty or extreme suffering. Princes, nobles, and great ladies, 
often drove up as near as they could to the church in grand carriages, and 
manifested the utmost astonishment when informed, that notwithstanding 
their rank, they could not be admitted except in turn. 

The Cure only permitted himself to take four hours sleep, namely from 
eleven to three, and when he came to the confessional again, the church 
and all the approaches to it were crowded with those who had waited all 
night to secure their places. 

Omnibuses were established to convey patients from Lyons to D'Ars, and 
the Saone was covered with boats full of anxious pilgrims. 

Amongst thousands of reported cases of wonderful cures, there was one 
which Mr. Wm. Howitt, another of the Cure D'Ars' biographers, relates in 
the following touching terms. He says : 

" A poor woman came from a great distance, carrying on her back a boy of eight 
years old who had no use in his legs whatever. For four-and-twenty hours the poor 
mother perseveringly endeavoured to get near the Curd At length he put his hands 
on the child and blessed him, saying some words of comfort to the mother. On 
entering their lodgings for the night the boy said, 'Mother, buy my sabots, for M. the 
Cure has promised that I shall walk to-morrow.' The words of the Cure had not 
been quite so positive, but the child had such faith in him that he felt confident of 
his cure. The mother went and bought the sabots, and sure enough, on the morrow 
the child was cured and ran through the church crying joyfully, " I am cured ! I am 
cured !' The mother was overwhelmed with tears and emotion." 

We cannot conclude this brief notice which does but poor justice to the 
subject as detailed by the Abbe - Monnin, without making the following 
additional extracts from Mr. Howitt's interesting accouut of the Cure. He 
says : 

" Numerous letters are found in these volumes [Abbe Monnins' biography] from 
people, detailing the circumstances of their ailments and their cures, and many others 
from well-known persons soliciting the prayers of the Cure for themselves and friends. 
All this time the Cure" was not only expending superhuman exertions in church services, 
from year to year, giving himself but a short pause for a very meagre breakfast and 
dinner, but he was receiving large sums from all sides and bestowing them as 
promptly in relieving distress, assisting poor pilgrims, and sending relief to distant 
places. When somebody asked him the secret of obtaining such great supplies of 
money, he replied that it was by simply giving it away again as fast as he could, to 
those who needed it. Nobody at the same time could be more unassuming, unosten- 
tatious, or unselfish. He expended everything he had, money, prayers, strength, as 
long as he had any : and this life he continued till within four days of his death, in 
August, 1859, at the age of 73. 

One of the most remarkable features of the Cure d'Ars was the condition of spiri- 
tual clairvoyance to which he had attained. By his extreme abstemiousness, his intense 
exertions, and his ardent piety, he seemed to have purged away almost all fleshly 
impediments betwixt the invisible world and himself. Notwithstanding the constant 
throng of people that surrounded him so that he had difficulty to pass amongst them in 
his church, or to and from his house ; though they were coming and going continually, 


he seemed to know them, their names, their connections, and circumstances as soon 
as he cast his eyes on them. He would pick out particular individuals in the crowd, 
tell them the case6 he knew were pressing, take them into his confessional and speak 
to them of their wants in a manner that filled them with astonishment. 

" Seeing a young Savoyard lady in the congregation, he told her in passing, that 
he would see her on the morrow. As she had but just arrived and was a perfect 
stranger she thought he had mistaken her for some one else, but on the morrow when 
she was admitted to his confessional, he told her her most secret thoughts ; amongst 
other things of which she had never spoken, of her desire to enter a religious house, 
of the sisters she had left at home, and their special characters, all of which was 
perfectly correct. 

" Another lady from a distance, he advised to look after her property and dispose 
of it at once to her relatives as she had no time to lose. Although in middle life and 
perfect health apparently, she died suddenly, almost immediately after following his 
advice. This the lady's relations, grateful for his judicious council, informed him of. 

" Le Pere Nigre who was planning in his own mind a soldier's home at Tourbieres, 
when preaching there, stated in the pulpit, that he had just been to D'Ars, when the 
Cure, to whom he was a stranger, accosted him by saying, ' Well, father, how go on 
your plans for the soldiers' home ? Come ; when will you have done thinking of it, 
and begin building it.' 'Now,' said the preacher, 'though this thing was in my 
mind, I had never spoken of it to a living creature, yet he knew all about it.' 

" During the excitement of the Revolution of 1S48, many persons consulted him 
about the safety of their families. He bade them rest in peace for there would be no 
blood spilled except in and just round Paris. 

" During the Crimean war he was asked to pray for the safety of a soldier there, 
and a sister ill at home. He replied, ' The soldier will return quite safe ; the sister 
is ripe for heaven.' He was quite right in both cases. A young lady, during the 
Italian war, was in great terror for her husband. ' Tell her,' said the Cure, ' that she 
has nothing to fear. Peace will be made directly.' This was on the 25th June. The 
news of the interview of Villafranca came directly afterwards. 

" A man who had a little land, offered it for sale to the Cure ; he advised him 
whatever he did not to part with it. Very soon after, a mine was discovered in it, 
which secured the proprietor two thousand francs annually. On the other hand, a 
director of mines consulted him on investing in a new mine lately opened, and which 
promised to pay richly. He counselled him by no means to do it. Twelve days after, 
the mine was flooded with water and became unworkable, besides causing the death 
of various persons. 

"The Cure, like many of the old saints, believed himself terribly assailed by the 
devil, and no doubt he was, but perhaps not to the extent that he supposed. But let 
us see what phenomena surrounded him, for actual spirits were busy about him ; and 
let us take their proceedings from his own point of view. From the moment that 
the Cure opened the orphan house at D'Ars, six years after his going there, and thence 
to the end of his life, he was beset by the continual evidences of what he deemed 
satanic influence. At nine o'clock one evening, as he retired to rest, he was startled 
by three loud knocks at his outer gate, as if they would drive it in with a huge club. 
He arose, threw open' the window, and asked who was there. No answer was 
given. He returned to bed, but was scarcely asleep when he was roused again by 
other blows, this time not on the outer gate, but on that of the staircase leading to 
his chamber. He arose and called out, but again there was no answer. Imagining 
that they were thieves who came to steal some valuables belonging to the Viscomte 
d'Ars, he had two stout men to come and sleep at the parsonage ; these men heard 
the same noises, but were unable to discover any one, and soon came to the con- 
clusion that they were produced by no human power. They continued their watch 
for several nights, still hearing the noises, but discovering no one. A snow fell in the 
night, and the blows coming on the front door, the Cure descended quickly, thinking 
this time he should be able to trace them by their footmarks in the snow. To his 
astonishment there were no marks at all. He was now quite satisfied that the men 
were right, that they were no mortal disturbers. Some young men of the village, 
however, formed themselves into a guard over the house during the night, and a 
party of his neighbours came and slept in the room adjoining his own. The cart- 
wright of the village came, carrying his loaded gun with him. At midnight there 
came a terrific noise, and the furniture of the room in which this poor man was 
stationed, resounded as if with a storm of blows. The cries for help caused the Cure 
and other watchers to rush in, but nothing was either to be seen or heard. 

"" These disturbances continued with more or less violence for a period of over 
thirty-five years. Sometimes there were heard sounds as if a wild horse were rearing 



in the hall below the Cure's room throwing his hoofs to the ceiling and then plunging 
with all four feet on the tiled floor. 

" At other times a gendarme seemed to be ascending the stairs in his boots, and 
stamping loudly as he ascended. Again it seemed like a great flock of sheep passing 
above his head, and making sleep impossible by that monotonous patter of hoofs. 
Catherine Lassagne in her notes of her life at the Providence at Ars, relates many such 
things, and says that every one who knew the Cure, knew that he would sooner suffer 
death than state an untruth. He said to her one day that when the flock of sheep 
seemed running over his head, he has taken a stick and struck smart blows on the 
ceiling to cause them to be silent, but to no purpose. Just as he would be dropping 
asleep, ' Grappin, ' as he called the devil, or the grappling iron, would begin, as it 
were anew, hooping a cask with iron hoops, and with a tremendous din. 

" All this things, remarks the Abbe Monnin, are precisely what happened to the 
ancient saints, and which are to be found in abundance in the Diabolische Mystik, of 
Gores, B.V., chapters xxi. and xxii. On the occasion of the Cure going to Saint 
Trivier-sur-Moignans to preach, at a great jubilee held by the missionaries, he was 
much teased by his brother clergymen about these hauntings. They were very witty 
about them, telling him they all came of not living well enough ; that they were rats, 
and a dozen other things. The Cure took it all in good part, bade them good night, 
and went to bed. At midnight these gentlemen came rushing to his room in terrible 
affright. The house seemed turned topsy-turvy ; the doors banged, the windows rattled, 
the walls shook, and ominous cracks appeared to announce their fall. ' Rise ! rise ! ' 
they cried to the Cure, who was lying quietly, ' the house falls.' ' Oh ! ' said he, ' I 
know very well what it is ; go to your beds : you have nothing to fear.' An hour 
after a bell rung : there was a man at the gate who had come several leagues to con- 
fess to the Cure. He always expected when these disturbances took place that some 
one was on his way to seek consolation from him ; and it never failed to prove so. He 
believed the demons made the uproar out of envy of the good he was about to do. 
The clergy, however, were cured of laughing at him, and one of them made a vow 
never again to jest on apparitions and nocturnal noises. Another night the devil, the 
Cure said, had amused himself by pushing him about his chamber all night on a bed 
on castors ; and the next day when he entered his confessional, he felt himself lifted 
up and tossed about as though he had been in a boat on a rough sea. 

'' But was the devil really engaged in all these transactions ? The truth probably 
is, that M. Vianney had so reduced his body by fasting, penance and enormous exer- 
tion, that he had opened himself to all kinds of spiritual impressions, in which the 
devil was sure to have his share. But most likely many of these ghostly visitors were 
merely spirits of a low order who liked to amuse themselves, as they found the Cure 
accessible to them. Many, no doubt, like those who visited the Seeress of Prevorst, 
would have been glad of his prayers, had he not been so completely shut up on that 
head, by his catholic demonophobia. 

" Nothing, however, is more certain than that the worthy Cure d'Ars was actively 
beset by spirits of one kind or another for upwards of thirty years. He exorcised 
several persons who were possessed, and records dialogues with these demons in 
which they assured him that they often said mass. 

"Altogether the biography of the Cure d'Ars is one of the most remarkable of 
modern times. Miracles of the highest and lowest kinds were in active operation 
round him for a long course of years. They were exhibited before thousands and tens 
of thousands of people of all classes and ranks and of many countries. 

" What had been reported from all past ages by men of the highest character for 
veracity learning and talent, was repeated at Ars for thirty-five years in all its 
powers. . . . Yet we are told that all this time the press of France preserved a 
profound silence on the matter as though no such things were taking place." 

To the well-informed Spiritualist, all comment on this strange history is 
unnecessary. The greatest miracle of the good man's life is the fact that 
the stolid scepticism of a cold materialistic age can still exist, after events 
of such astonishing and world-wide celebrity have testified to divine and 
spiritual interposition in human affairs. 

Another phenomenal personage of whom the world has heard much, was 
a soldier commonly known as Jacob the Zouave, a healer of remarkable 
power, and one who during his brief mission performed many wonderful 


In 1866 or 1867, he first became publicly known whilst yet attached to 
his regiment, for his curative as well as clairvoyant powers. From childhood 
he seemed to have been endowed with spiritual gifts of which those around 
him had little understanding. 

Without any instruction, he often executed beautiful drawings of strange 
fruit and flowers which he said grew on the planet Venus. He could 
readily detect the nature of obscure diseases and read the character and 
lives of strangers — in a word, he exhibited constant proofs of clairvoyant 
powers up to the time when he became famous amongst his military 
associates for " curing sick people by magnetism, sympathy, and in other 
strange ways." 

As soon as it was known outside his regiment that he possessed these 
gifts, he was followed everywhere by solicitations to exercise them. Amongst 
those who heard of and appealed to the famous Zouave, was a talented 
young gentleman studying at one of the universities, but who was obliged 
to relinquish all his hopes of name and fame on account of a confirmed 
sciatica which settled in the right hip and obliged him to walk painfully on 
crutches for four years. This gentleman, M. Marney, informed the author 
he paid but one visit to Jacob who held his hands, stroked his body a few 
times and then bid him walk- — he did so, and never after experienced the 
slightest sense of pain or lameness. This marvellous cure wrought on the 
son of a wealthy landowner, attracted so much attention that the barracks 
at Versailles where M. Jacob was quartered became thronged with visitors.' 

The officers and men were plied with entreaties for permission to see the 
healer, and the place — to use the words of one of his superior officers, 
when describing the scene to a company in which the author was present — 
" resembled a bear garden." Order and discipline was interrupted, the 
annoyance was unendurable, and the wonderful Zouave was informed he 
must either give up his profession of killing or curing, for the two were 
incompatible. After much effort on the part of his friends and admirers, 
the Zouave's release from the army was procured, and he commenced his 
career in earnest as a healing medium. Many of his most astonishing cures 
were effected whilst he yet remained in the army, but when he was emanci- 
pated from that restraint, the enthusiasm which followed him knew no 

Doubtless, many of the reports concerning him were exaggerated, and 
many understated, according to the predilections of the narrators. Certain 
it is, that his cures were often remarkable enough to be called miraculous, 
although he himself told the author in an evening visit paid to her in 
London, that he never professed to cure every one, and indeed many he 
felt from the first moment of their approach so strongly repelled from, that 
he knew instantly they were no subjects for him. On this same occasion 
he explained to those present, that he saw the diseases of those who came 
to him, and very often realised that they had sick friends or relatives whose 
condition, if time had permitted, he could have described accurately. To 
prove this, he undertook to describe a young lady well known to the 
author, and then a resident of America. 

He gave an excellent account of this lady's personal appearance, but 
insisted that she was the victim of a disease which would terminate fatally 
in a given period of time, a prediction which was actually fulfilled, although 
the disease itself was unknown at the time. He (M. Jacob) added, that 
he almost always saw spirits busy in ministering to the patients who called 
upon him, and helping him in .his modes of treatment. 


Many persons complained that this soldier-doctor was brusque and abrupt 
in manners, hence that he was not generally popular with those even whom 
he had most benefited. Whether M. Jacob deemed it prudent to imitate 
the rough, repulsive, manners adopted by so many of our most popular 
English doctors, under the impression, doubtless, that it is Abernethy-like 
and imposing, or whether the complainants asked too much of an humble 
private soldier, when they required polished manners, in addition to a 
gratuitous cure, we need not take the trouble to enquire. That which 
we do know is, that the lame walked, the blind received their sight, and the 
deaf heard, and all this and much more than any ordinary chronicle can 
record, was done without money and without price, for the Zouave would 
neither accept of money or presents for his great services, and beyond a 
paltry franc, paid by those who chose to buy his photograph of his father, 
who stood at the door with them for sale, this generous and magnanimous 
creature never received aught for his services, beyond the consciousness of 
the priceless good he was performing. 

Although the readers of the Spiritual journals on both sides of the 
Atlantic have become familiar with the name of Jacob the Zouave, and the 
methods of his cures have been too frequently described to need reitera- 
tion, it is but j ustice to this noble and self-sacrificing worker to insert at 
least one testimonial from a grateful patient, and that in relation to a cure, 
which may be taken as an illustration of the Zouave's usual mode of pro- 

The letter in question was addressed to the Patrie newspaper. It was 
written by the Count Chateau Villard, residing at 60, Rue St. Lazare, Paris, 
and was introduced by the editor in the following words : — 

" We have several times alluded to the Zouave Jacob, garrisoned at Versailles ; 
but who comes to Paris to effect his marvellous cures. 

" What is the secret of all this, and has he any ? Is he gifted with a degree of 
magnetic influence unrecognized until now ? How are the various cures of suffering 
people to be explained ? We can give no opinion ; all we know is, that the house in 
which he operates is continually attended by invalids ; one after the other takes his 
ticket in order to arrive in turn. 

" We must add that the Zouave will receive no money, gifts, or thanks ; he will 
accept literally nothing ! All these facts are attested by an honourable witness in the 
person of the Count Chateau Villard, residing at 60, Rue St. Lazare, who writes as 
follows : — 

" ' Sir, — Reading in the newspapers that I had offered a part of my private residence 
to the Zouave Jacob, I beg of you to be so good as to insert; that I have made the 
offer only in the event of his being forced to quit his quarters in the Rue Roquette. 

" ' God knows that I have no wish to take him away from the poor afflicted who 
will know well where to find him ; I have made the offer in gratitude, and for the 
benefit of humanity. 

" ' I had heard such extraordinary things of the Zouave, that, paralyzed as I was, 
I had a desire to attend one of his seances ; I took my lady with me, who has been a 
continual sufferer also, and I here state what actually occurred. 

" ' On arriving in the Rue Roquette, where there was a stoppage, I alighted from 
my carriage with the aid of my valet, and a kind working man who hastened to take 
my other arm. These two assisted me to the workshop of Monsieur Dufayet. In this 
condition I arrived at the door, where a person who could not be bribed, refused me 
admission without a numbered ticket ; my secretary, who by a fortunate accident 
happened to know the principal clerk of M. Dufayet, beckoned to him, and he seeing 
my state of impotence allowed me to enter into the court, crowded with sick people. 
The arrangements of the Zouave are that those who are at the worst, should be 
treated first. 

" ' My lady began to weep at seeing so much misery. There was a lady who had 
brought her daughter ; she stated that the child was being treated within ; that she 
herself was not allowed to assist, inasmuch as the doors are only open to actual 


invalids. I observed after, the young girl come out, and walk to the vehicle which 
had brought her, followed by her mother. This same girl had been taken to the place 
carried by a man. 

" ' I also noticed a man with a distorted back, unable to walk, make his exit 
jumping with joy ; whilst the plaudits of the crowd, and persons from that quarter 
of the town who recognized him, joined in. 

" ' We were introduced at last to the chamber, which may really be designated the 
miracle chamber. I saw there a human being frightfully afflicted, paralyzed and 
incredibly ill, brought in by M. Dufayet and his assistants, and placed in chairs 
closely packed one against the other. 

" ' As soon as the apartment was full, the Zouave entered and said, " No one must 
speak unless I interrogate him, otherwise I leave you." Here the greatest stillness 
reigned. He then went round telling each one what was the matter with him, and 
without touching them he said " Rise up ! " and those that had been paralyzed arose ; 
I am one of the number and raised myself without the slightest effort. 

'' ' At the end of about twenty minutes, he told us all to retire and amidst profound 
silence each one left. My wife, more polite than I, wanted to thank him ; he imme- 
diately imposed silence and said, " Other sufferers await me ; you are cured, let that 
suffice, begone ! " On going out I was much crowded upon by persons asking me 
affectionately of what had occurred, and I regained my carriage without help, walking 
upon a very badly paved street where the best man might find it awkward. 

.*' ' From that time forth, my wife also has been marvellously well. 

"' There is an extraordinary fact connected with this strange circumstance which 
it gives me pleasure to relate ; the street is crowded with sick people ; not only 
one is desirous to give a helping hand, but all seem to forget their ailments in their 
interest to help others. 

'"Can it be, that this immense charitable influence spreads itself from one source 
into the hearts of all ? 

■' ' I am, &c, 

" ' (Signed), Chateau Villard.' " 
" ' Paris, August, 1867.' " 

More than one half of the columns of the Petit Journal, a paper of the 
largest circulation in Paris, was occupied for several days the following 
September with Jacob's past and present history. One of the editors of 
that journal made the Zouave's acquaintance at the camp at Chalons in 
August 1866, where his fame created as much excitement as it subse- 
quently did in Paris, and the editor vouched for a wonderful cure of a 
long standing complaint effected for a woman who was ' a servant in his 

The crowds that assembled daily round Jacob's tent at Chalons, obliged 
the officer in command to put an end to Jacob's practice of his great and 
undoubted gift of healing. 

The phenomenon of healing by magnetic or spiritual methods has been 
by no means an uncommon one in France. 

Many mediums less distinguished than Jacob the Zouave, but not less 
successful in a more limited sphere, have practised their art throughout 
the land with excellent results. Amongst the records of remarkable cures, 
it has often been questioned, how far the reports of "healing miracles," 
attributed to the celebrated shrine, grotto, or fountain of " Our Lady at 
Lourdes," may be relied on as genuine. As many of our readers may not 
be familiar with the current accounts rendered of this famous spot, we 
deem it in order to conclude this chapter with a brief narrative furnished 
from a distinguished writer, who himself visited the scene of the reputed 
miracles, brought away with him a small phial of the healing water, and 
left behind a severe ulcer which for many months had fastened on his arm, 
without his being able to obtain any relief from the ordinary course of 
medical treatment. This gentleman who was obliged to conceal the little 


specimen of the water he carried away, from the watchful eyes of the atten- 
dant brothers, who have the sacred place in charge, could only learn from 
them an account of its miraculous discovery with a mass of attendant 
circumstances so completely in harmony with ten thousand other legends 
of Catholic wonders, that he was at much pains to obtain information from 
somewhat more disinterested sources. These he at length arrived at, and 
from a young peasant who had been one of the most intimate associates 
of the favoured Seeress Bernadette, the discoverer of the spring, he received 
the following particulars. Bernadette was the invalid child of a very poor 
couple, Soubiroux by name, who lived on the outskirts of the town of 
Lourdes, a small place but little known till recently, in the Upper Pyrenees. 
Marguerite, the peasant friend of this family, seemed to imply, that little 
Bernadette was subject to fits, and on the whole, was what the Scotch 
country folks would call a little " daft," or at the most, not quite as bright 
as ordinary children. 

With a view of promoting a more rugged condition of health, this little 
one was permitted to wander round the neighbouring heights, and follow 
the simple occupation of sheep tending. One day as the child was 
wandering with some of her other companions on the banks of the river 
Gave, having lingered behind them to bathe her feet in the clear stream, 
she was amazed to find herself breathed upon by a sweet wind, although 
at that time there seemed to be no air stirring. Presently a sense of deep 
awe fell upon her, and as her companion to whom she confided her 
experience, informed the narrator, a white angel all radiant and glorious with 
a halo around her head, and shining white ^garments, appeared before her, 
bidding her not to be afraid. When the angel disappeared, the little 
Seeress hastened to rejoin her companions, and at their suggestion returned 
to the spot, hoping they too might see the glorious vision. The girl 
Marguerite, seemed to imply that no one in that neighbourhood believed 
much that this child said, hence they were neither surprised nor dis- 
appointed that no shining white lady appeared to them. It was added, that 
no one would ever have had faith in these visions although little Bernadette 
repeatedly averred that she continued to see them, until she one day came 
home and reported, that the white angel had conducted her to a grotto in 
the rocks, and there made her bathe her feet in a cold spring, and 
that then she went on her way lighter and stronger than she had ever been 
in her life. 

This tale induced her protectors, some poor peasants who had the charge 
of her, to repair' with her to the grotto, when one of their number who had 
a paralyzed hand dipped it into the spring, to try if he too could feel how 
cold it was. On withdrawing it, great was his astonishment to find that he 
could use his hand and that in all respects it was entirely restored. Others 
following the peasant's example, flocked to the newly-discovered spring and 
each experienced immediate relief of whatever ailment possessed them. 
Why follow up the narrative farther ? 

The peasants of Lourdes when separately and cautiously questioned, all 
unite in confirming the above story in all its general features ; all moreover 
have marvels to relate of the hundreds, and some insist, thousands, of 
miraculous cures that have been effected by these wonder-working waters. 

But who may describe the elaborations and embellishments that the 
Brothers of Lourdes report of the sacred spring ? For there are Brothers 
there now, and they not only have charge of the sacred waters, but of little 
Bernadette likewise, and very good care they take of her — so much so, 

The Cure D'Ars 

Ink-photo, sprague i c? london 


that she is never seen nor can she be enquired of by the profane, only by 
select members of Holy Mother Church, and faithful votaries of — not the 
white angel any longer, but "Our Lady of Lourdes" even " the Blessed 
Virgin herself," through whose miraculous inspiration — " her adopted 
child," the Saint in embryo, Bernadette, was also miraculously guided to the 
sacred grotto, &c. 

From this plain narrative of plain facts, the reader is at liberty to draw 
his own conclusions as we venture to draw ours. If he happen to be a 
good Catholic, little Bernadette's angelic visitor will of course be the 
impersonation of " the Blessed Virgin," and the chances are ten to one but 
he or she will give a donation towards the erection of a magnificent church 
and a full staff of priests and attendant church dignitaries, whose duty it 
will ultimately become to absorb the healing spring for the sole use and 
benefit of the said church, of " Our Lady of Lourdes." 

If these pages be scanned by medical eyes of the " Lankaster " and 
" Forbes Winslow " type, the child's visions will be bosh ! the water's 
magnetic properties " trash," and the cures — all the effects of that most 
wonderful of all healers — "imagination." To any Spiritualist readers 
comment is unnecessary. White angels leading poor mortals to benefi- 
cent discoveries are not so rare amongst us as to create wonder or disbe- 
lief. All we may have to regret is, that little Bernadette and her angel 
visitants have not an opportunity to manipulate the healing waters of 
Lourdes without the aid of a band of highly interested " Brothers." 


Phenomenal and Experimental Manifestations. 

We presume our readers are sufficiently informed of the modus operandi 
of Spiritual manifestations, to be aware that their production is due either 
to the spontaneous action of spirits, or to their evocation through the 
modern circle. 

Some instances of the former mode we have already cited, and hundreds 
more could be described did space permit. 

M. Alphonse Cahagnet has recorded numerous cases of apparitions, stone- 
throwing, hauntings, visions, prophetic and warning dreams, &c.,all occurring 
spontaneously, in this century, in his appendix to the first volume of 
" Secrets of the Life to Come." The Baron de Guldenstubbe has made a 
still more voluminous collection of modern facts in his invaluable work 
entitled Pneumatologie Positive. Some of these have been detailed by Mr. 
R. D. Owen, in his " Footfalls," and others again are mentioned in Wm. 
Howitt's magnificent work "The History of the Supernatural." From a 
large collection of kindred narratives we select the following as an illustra- 
tion of the beneficent character of spirit influence in respect to spontaneous 
healing. As the case was fully reported in the Revue Spirite of 1877, we 


take advantage of a translation made by Dr. Carter Blake for one of the 
London Spiritual journals, which reads as follows : — 

" M. Dauzac had both his legs broken by a heavily laden cart passing over them. 
The doctors in consultation declared amputation necessary, so shattered were the 
limbs. M. Dauzac's son, who is a medium, retired from the sick room, and prayed 
fervently that advice might be given him from the spirit world, and in particular that 
a good spirit, known to him as Dr. Demeure, might be sent to help his father. The 
following words were then written through his hand : — ' Do not consent to the ampu- 
tation, your father will recover ; he will be able to walk and attend to his affairs 
again. I will mesmerise him spiritually, and give him strength to bear the operation, 
which I will perform myself; after much suffering he will be delivered from this 

' ' The doctors came, but pronounced against amputation as useless to save the 
patient's life. He was in a high state of fever, and already doomed. They replaced 
the bandages and left the house. Immediately Demeure, aided by a band of spirits, 
began his operations. M. Dauzac says — 

" ' I was placed in a position in which I could not have held myself without iron 
supports ; I then felt a hand rubbing me so hard that I cried out ; everything seemed 
to be unwound and displaced ; I believed that I was suffering from cramp, for my son 
had invoked the beneficent spirit unknown to me. In about ten minutes, when I was 
quite exhausted with pain and fatigue, I was allowed to rest a little ; and what ease 
I felt ! Ten minutes later I exclaimed, " There it is again ! It is in the other leg ! 
Everything is being undone." The watchers declared nothing had happened ; the 
operation was repeated five times on each leg, at intervals of ten minutes ; after that 
I slept the whole night. 

"The following morning the son consulted his spirit- friends, and Dr. Demeure 
declared that bones, tendons, veins, and fibres had all been duly laid in proper order, 
and that the cure would be effected. The legs would be slightly shorter than before, 
but the patient would not be lame, though he would sometimes suffer pain. A dan- 
gerous crisis followed, consequent on the extraction by the doctors of a portion of 
detached bone ; nevertheless, young M. Dauzac, encouraged by the assurance of his 
spirit guides, would not give up hopes of his father's recovery. One evening he was 
told, ' To-morrow he will begin to mend, and will steadily improve until restored to 
health.' The next morning the doctor inquired of a neighbour, before entering the 
house, whether M. Dauzac were dead. ' No, he is better,' was the reply. ' I am 
astonished,' said the doctor, 'this change must be the precursor of death.' A fort- 
night later he told his patient, ' You may now get up ; but be careful, for only one in a 
thousand could have lived through this : whether this cure be of God or the devil I 
do not know, but there is something in it which I cannot understand.' M. Dauzac 
replied, ' You only see in disease a disorganisation of matter ; when you have learned 
the part played by the soul and the perispnt in the physiology of man, and the 
relations between spirit and matter, this fact will be no longer a mystery to you, and 
you will make many more remarkable cures.' The doctor had nothing to reply, 
except that M. Dauzac would certainly never walk again. He went on crutches for a 
fortnight, and was then able to dispense with them altogether. 

" The record from which the above is somewhat condensed is signed by M. Dauzac, 
his son, and thirteen other persons, and is dated Naujean par Brame, Gironde, 
January 18th, 1877, and is published in the June number of the Revue Spirite." 

As professional mediumship is little practised in France except when 
patronage is bestowed upon visitors of that class from other countries, we 
do not feel at liberty to name the various media through whom the members 
of private circles have the opportunity of witnessing phenomena, stil] we 
have personal evidence of the fact, that hundreds of circles are held in 
Paris and various parts of France, at which phenomena both of physical 
and mental types are produced in great abundance. 

There can be no doubt that the first well marked impulse which 
experimental Spiritualism received through the invocatory processes of the 
circle, in France, as in many other countries of Europe, was due to the 
visit of Mr. D. D. Home, the celebrated, non-professional, physical medium 


and subsequently to the large influx of professional mediums who found in 
France an excellent field for the demonstration of their peculiar gifts. 

Of Mr. Home's seances it would be superfluous to write, he himself 
having related them in two volumes published at different periods of his 
career, and his many admiring friends having sufficiently described the 
marvels of which they were witnesses in numerous magazine and news- 
paper articles. 

Mr. Home's manifestations were given in France almost exclusively to 
personages of rank or those distinguished by literary fame. He was a 
guest of royalty, the nobility, and persons of the highest position. During 
his residence in Paris, under the Imperial regime, he was a frequent and 
ever welcome visitor at the Court of the late Emperor, Louis Napoleon. 
A record of the manifestations produced through his mediumship was kept 
by command of the Empress, and frequently read to her favoured 
friends. Amongst these memoranda is one which went the round of the 
papers at the time of its occurrence, hence there can be no impropriety in 
alluding to it now. It stated that on one occasion a s'eanee was held at the 
Tuileries, when none were present save the Emperor, the Empress, the 
Duchess de Montebello, and Mr. D. D. Home. 

On the table were placed pen, ink, and paper, and presently a spirit 
hand was seen, which dipped the pen in the ink and deliberately wrote the 
name of the first Napoleon, in a perfectly facsimile of that illustrious 
monarch's handwriting. The Emperor asked if he might be permitted 
to kiss this wonderful hand, when it instantly rose to his lips, subsequently 
passing to those of the Empress, and Mr. Home. The Emperor carefully 
preserved this precious autograph, and inscribed with it a memorandum to 
the effect, that the hand was warm, soft, and resembled exactly that of his 
great predecessor and uncle. 

From personal knowledge of Mr. Home, the author is able to testify 
that his powers were most unique, and his mode of exhibiting them clear, 
candid, and unaffected. 

None but the most wilfully blind or prejudiced observer could attach the 
idea of fraud or deception to Mr. Home. 

The author has been present in brilliantly lighted salons, when the spirits 
have impelled Mr. Home to take burning coals in his hand, and lay his 
head upon a blazing fire without the slightest injury to the tissues of the 
skin or hair ; when his body was elongated several times, from five to eight 
inches beyond his usual height without the least perceptible motion on Mr. 
Home's part ; when he was floated in the air above the heads of all present ; 
also, when delightful strains of music were played on an accordion 
untouched by human hands. 

These, together with loud rappings, spirit music, motions of heavy 
bodies, entrancement, speaking in various languages, the apparition of 
many hands, in a word every form of spiritual manifestation exhibited 
through other media, have all been produced through Mr. Home, without 
the equivocal conditions of darkness, cabinets, or the smallest show of 
deception, or desire to evade any proposed test. It is no wonder that the 
phenomena abundantly produced, and freely given under such circum- 
stances, should have created an immense sensation in the circles of 
privileged witnesses and excited a corresponding amount of bitterness and 
antagonism amongst the enemies of Spiritualism, especially those who were 
not favoured with an entree to the scene of the marvels. 

Thus it was, that certain disreputable members of the press, scribblers 


whose speciality it was to pander to the lowest appetites of the vulgar, and 
slander those whose positions were beyond their reach, began to pelt Mr. 
Home and his friends with the scurrility peculiar to their calling. 

Disgraceful lampoons were directed against him, and libellous charges 
freely circulated. The total absence of justice which marks all judicial 
proceedings in which Spiritualists are concerned, deterred Mr. Home from 
attempting to seek redress for these harassing attacks, meantime their 
effect was confined to those who wished them to be true, Mr. Home's 
personal friends being too well satisfied of his work to be affected by 
scurrility or slander. 

Another efficient labourer in the spiritual vineyards of France, was Mr. 
Rollin Squire, a young American gentleman, now an eminent lawyer in 
Boston, who visited Europe about i860, and passed some months on the 
Continent. Mr. Squire was a physical medium endowed with an extra- 
ordinary amount of the power which enables spirits to lift immense weights, 
and perform feats of strength impossible to a giant, much less to a fragile 
youth like the medium. 

The young American soon became highly popular, and as he never 
received any payment beyond the pleasure he felt in obliging those who 
feted him, his motives were of course, placed beyond suspicion of self- 

In 1865 the work of experimental Spiritualism was greatly aided by the 
introduction of the celebrated American mediums, the Davenport Brothers, 
who were induced to visit Paris at the instance of Mr. Samuel Guppy, a 
wealthy English gentleman, devoted to the study of Spiritualism and its 

During their stay in Paris, the Davenports were called upon to give a 
specimen of their peculiar power in presence of the Emperor of the French. 
Mr. Benjamin Coleman, a steady adherent of the Spiritual cause in England, 
furnished the following account of this seance for the London Spiritual 
Magazine : — 


'' The French special correspondent of the Star announced that the Davenports 
had ' performed at St. Cloud in the presence of the Emperor, Empress, Prince 
Imperial, and all the Court ! ' The facts of their visit I have from one who was pre- 
sent, and they are as follows : — 

" On the arrival of the Davenports at St. Cloud, accompanied by their confrere, Mr. 
Wm. Fay, they found to their surprise that all the preliminary arrangements had been 
made for the dark circle. Two strong common chairs were placed in the salon, and 
the fires had been put out to secure the necessary condition of complete darkness. 
The cabinet being erected in the presence of the Imperial party, under the closest 
scrutiny, the exhibition commenced ; as it proceeded, the Emperor showed that he 
was not only intensely interested, by repeated ejaculations of ' How extraordinary ! ' 
' How wonderful ! ' but he readily complied with every condition, and insisted upon 
perfect order being kept. Two persons who were laughing and making sceptical 
remarks, were reproved, and reminded by him that if they felt no interest in the 
exhibition they might find more amusement in the billiard room. The Marquis la 
Grange having entered the cabinet with the Davenports, he extended his arms, and 
was fast bound to each of the brothers in the usual way. The instant the doors were 
closed the noise and confusion which was heard within the cabinet surprised the 
Imperial party extremely ; when the doors were thrown open and the Marquis was 
seen with his cravat removed, a bell stuck in his waistcoat, the violin and guitar fan- 
tastically arranged about his person, and the tambourine upon his head, the Emperor 
threw himself back in his chair and laughed heartily at the grotesque appearance of 
the helpless and somewhat frightened Marquis, who on his part seriously and 
emphatically assured the company that the brothers had not moved a muscle. 


"During the dark circle the Emperor and Empress frequently exclaimed, ' A hand 
is touching me.' A watch being held by the Emperor in the palm of his hand, it was 
at his request given to the Empress, and upon her asking that it might be taken to the 
Prince Imperial it was instantly conveyed a distance of 60 feet to the young Prince, 
who threw it from him exclaiming, ' It was so hot, he could not hold it.' 

" When Mr. Fay's hands were tightly bound behind his back, the Emperor gave 
his seal to impress the wax with which the knots on Mr. Fay's wrists were secured. 
In an instant Mr. Fay's coat was whisked from his back, and was seen flying through 
the air.. The Emperor satisfying himself that the cords and seal were still intact 
upon Mr. Fay's wrists, he exclaimed again and again, ' Most wonderful ! most 
extraordinary ! ' 

'* At the close of the seance the Imperial party asked many questions, the Emperor 
saying he was not surprised at the excitement which such an extraordinary exhibition 
created in a large assembly. It was, he thought, imprudent to attempt to show such 
phenomena to many persons at one time, who could not test for themselves their 
reality. After many expressions of their entire satisfaction the Imperial party with- 
drew at half-past one in the morning, and the Davenport party sat down to a 
sumptuous supper which had been provided for them at the palace. 

'' On the following day the Emperor marked his further appreciation of the exhibi- 
tion by sending to the Davenport party an unusually munificent gift for their services. 

"At the Davenports' suggestion the Emperor sent for M. Houdin, who exhibited his 
imitations, and without any comment being made by the Emperor, he was dismissed 
and paid the usual fee of 500 francs, and his expenses." 

Since the advent of the Davenports in Paris, many celebrated American 
and English mediums, such as Messrs. Chas. Foster, Henry Slade, Heme, 
Williams, Eglinton, Miss Fowler, Miss Nichol, Miss Cook, and others, both 
in a professional and private capacity have visited Paris and the principal 
cities of France, and stimulated investigation by their remarkable medial 

As there is very little variety in the demonstrations of clairvoyant or 
physical force mediumship and the public for years past has been fairly 
surfeited with magazine and journalistic accounts of seances, half a dozen of 
which will exemplify thousands, we forbear to offer the reader any detailed 
description of the phenomena produced through the various parties above 
named. Suffice it to say, they have collectively demonstrated beyond a 
peradventure to many thousands of believers, the solemn affirmative of the 
question, " if a man die shall he live again ? " 

There are a few incidents which break the monotony of ordinary circle 
representations, of which the following examples may not prove unacceptable. 

In the Gazette de France of 1855, we find a curious anecdote related by 
the Count de La Resie, Author of Traiti des Sciences Occultes concerning 
the mode in which the celebrated violinist Urham, received his charming 
mor^eau entitled Audition — (hearing). The Count says : — 

" Urham was a very pious man, and addicted to devotion ; he divided his life 
betwixt music and prayer. He had composed a melody to the charming words of the 
poet Reboul — ' Angel at the Cradle of the Sick Infant,' which is, as we know, his 
chef-d'-asuvre. Urham after composing this was walking in the Bois de Boulogne. 
He was alone in a narrow glade, plunged into profound thought. All at once, he 
heard in the air a sound which greatly agitated him, and lifting up his head, he beheld 
a light without form and precision. To the sound which had so startled him succeeded 
another which was continuous, It was an air commenced — there was no doubt of it, 
and a voice sang the words of ' The Angel and the Infant,' but to an air totally 
different to the one he had composed. It was more simple and touching than his 
own. The melody acquired body in developing itself. Giving an attentive ear, he 
not only distinguished the air, but also an accompaniment with the accords of an 
jEolian harp. Astonished, and at the same time seized with a deep sadness at this 
celestial inspiration, he fell into a kind of ecstasy, and distinctly heard a voice which 
said to him : — ' Dear Urham, write down what I have sung.' He hurried home in a 


state of mind not to be described, and noted down the air which he had heard with 
the greatest facility : for the notes, he said, scored themselves on the paper. He pub- 
lished his inspirations, which he named A udition, as we have said, and it is a chef 
d'ceuvre of grace, simplicity, and delicious harmony. It is a similar case to that of the 
Devil's Sonata, of Tartini, except that it was in a dream that Tartini received it, and 
that the spirit, the more to strike his attention, had assumed a legendary form of a 
demon, for assuredly the sonata has nothing diabolic about it, but, on the contrary, 
is a very good composition for the time." 

The author, being deeply interested in the progress of musical art, and 
learning that the following remarkable incident had occurred in the experi- 
ence of one of her most intimate musical acquaintances, took much pains 
during a visit to Paris to ascertain the exact circumstances connected with 

It was stated by M. C. S. Bach that he had sent the account of his rela- 
tive's experiences to Le Grand Journal, which gave the narrative in terms 
of which the following is a translation, furnished by Mr. B. Coleman, of 
England : — 

" On the 4th of May, 1866, M. Leon Bach, of No. 3, Rue Castellane, great grandson 
of the celebrated Sebastian Bach, purchased a spinette of antique fashion admirably 
carved. After carefully examining it, he discovered on an interior board an inscription 
stating that it was made in Rome in 1564, He passed part of the day contemplating 
his precious spinette — he thought of it as he went to sleep, and it is no wonder that 
he had the following dream : — He saw a man stand at his bedside, who had a long 
beard ; shoes rounded at the toe, and large bows at the instep ; large full breeches, a 
doublet with slashed sleeves, stiff collar, and a hat with pointed crown and broad 
brim. This person bowed to M. Bach, and spoke as follows: — 'The spinette that 
you possess belonged to me. It frequently served me to entertain my master, King 
Henry III. When he was very young he composed an air with words, which he was 
fond of singing, and which I frequently played to him. This air and these words he 
composed in memory of a young lady that he once met with in a hunt, and of whom he 
became deeply enamoured. They took her away, and it is said that she was poisoned, 
and that the King was deeply distressed at the circumstance. Whenever he was sad 
he hummed this song ; and then, to divert his mind, I played on my spinette a sara- 
band of my composition, which he much loved. Thus I came to confound together 
these two pieces, for I was continually playing them one after the other." 

" Then the man of the dream approached the spinette, and played a few notes, 
and sung the air with such expression, that M. Bach awoke in tears. He lit a candle, 
noticed the hour — two o'clock — and again fell asleep. Now it was, that the extra- 
ordinary scene took place. In the morning, on awaking, M. Bach was no little 
surprised to find on his bed a page of music covered with very fine writing and notes 
quite microscopic. It was with difficulty that he could decipher them by the aid of 
his eyeglass, for he is very near-sighted. 

" He then tried the air on the spinette. The song, the words, and the saraband 
were exactly as the person of the dream had represented them. Now M. Bach is no 
somnambulist ; has never written a verse in his life, and is a complete stranger to the 
rules of prosody. 

" Here are the three couplets as we have copied them from the MS. : — 

" Une jour pendant une chasse lointaine, 
Je apercus pour la premiere fois. 
Je croyois voir un ange dans la plaine 
Lors je devins le plus heureux des roys ! 

" Je donnerois certes tout mon royaume 
Pour la revoir encor un seul instant ; 
Pres d'elle assis dessous un humble chaume 
Pour sentir mon cceur battre en l'admirant. 

" Triste et cloistree, oh ! ma pauvre belle, 
Fut loin de moy pendant ses derniers jours. 
Elle ne sent plus sa peine cruelle ; 
Icy bas, helas ! je souffre toujours. 


" In this plaintive song, as well as in the joyous saraband which follows, the 
musical orthography is not less archaic than the literary orthography. The notes are 
of a form different from those of the present day. The basse is written in one key and 
the song in another. M. Bach has obliged me by playing to me these two pieces, 
which have a melody simple, naive, and penetrating. 

"The J 'oumal de I'Eto He says that Henry III. had a great passion for Marie de 
Cleves, the Marchioness d' Isles, who died in the flower of her age in a convent, the 
15th of October, 1574. Was she 'la pauvre belle triste et cloistree,' who is mentioned 
in these verses ? The same journal says that an Italian musician, named Baltazarini, 
went to France at that epoch, and became one of the favourites of the King. Did 
not the spinette belong to Baltazarini ? Was it not the spirit of Baltazarini who 
wrote the song and the saraband." 

The necessity of passing on to other scenes compels us to limit the 
closing notices of this chapter to two or three extracts, for which we are 
indebted to the columns of the journal once so admirably conducted by 
the late M. Pierart, La Revue Spiritualiste : — 

" Paragraph i. M. Debray writes us from Noce (Orne) that Spiritualism in the 
experimental mode is making rapid progress. There are, he says, several circles held, 

at one of which — Mdlle. Hermione P being the medium — direct writing is 

obtained from spirits who address each of the company by name, and write in small 
but almost perfectly finished characters, resembling copper-plate. 

" Paragraph 2. At the trial of Jean Lamenire, for forgery, the Judge gave sentence 
against the prisoner, but our friends at the Bordelaise circle, on the previous night had 
spelled out the exact words in which the sentence was given, and the number of years 

of the conviction. Our medium Catalina N was present with us ; could the 

Judge have read our minds ? 

" (Signed) Dr. J. Vernay. 

" Paragraph 3. Our old friend Jobard writes from Metz — ' I cautiously sounded 
my host as to whether there was any table talking there.' ' Certainly,' was the answer. 
' Metz is a second Paris for novelties ; we have here several Nobles, Professors, and 
other celebrities, who are so unfortunate as to be believers and practisers too of the 
table talking art.' Even old pupils of the Ecole Polytechnic, finished mathematicians, 
and others, who have never before shown signs of mental derangement, turn religious, 
and put up prayers to God to send them — what would you think 1—good spirits to be 
their guardian angels ! What are we coming to next ? Some of us may be heard by- 
and-bye talking of the Spirit land instead of Heaven or Hell, and inviting our deceased 
ancestors, to a dejeuner a la fourchette." 

Continuing to write of the Metz Spiritualists M. Jobard says : — 

"A collection of communications received by these Metz Spiritualists is just pub- 
lished. The tract I speak of will give you an elevated idea of the mediums here. 

" Spiritualism has made an opening at Havre, the medium being a young American 
lady. In Belgium we have two excellent mediums now — one French, the other 

" Among other interesting particulars in the correspondence of the Revue is the 
following: — 

" ' Phenomena of an eminently spiritual order have been long observed in the 
religious community of La Souterraine (Creuse). Madame Dubourg, the venerable 
superior, while at prayer, is often raised above a foot from her Prie Dieu, remaining 
suspended in an ecstatic state and unconscious for several minutes. She was raised 
in this way one day while receiving the communion, to the dismay of the priest, who 
could not, for his agitation, finish the celebration of the office. Other facts of a similar 
character take place in this establishment, but they are kept concealed as much as 
possible, so as not to attract a crowd of curious people to the place. 

" At la Chatre (Indre), in the Ursuline community, one of the sisters was disabled 
with hip disease, in which there was dislocation from disorganization of the joint. 
She has long been laid up, under the care of Dr. Vergne and others. Given up by 
them, the lady superior had recourse to prayer. A neuvaine was commenced ; on the 
last nine days, the patient, worn out with her long suffering and prolonged recumbent 
position, was carried on her couch into the chapel. There, in the presence of the 


statue of St. Joseph, and after prayer, the superior cried out in an inspired tone—' In 
the name of St. Joseph, arise and walk ! ' The sister arose and walked perfectly 

' " Dr. Vergne first denied the possibility ; but upon seeing that the girl is well, he 
attributes the necessary healing and reduction to — emotion /'" 

As an evidence of the wide popularity to which the subject of 
Spiritualism had attained in 1869, M. Pierart quotes in one of his 
numbers of that year, an article from the Steele, a leading paper, but one 
which had hitherto contained many notices inimical to Spiritualism. The 
writer, M. Eugene Bonnemere, says : — 

" Although Somnambulism has been a hundred times annihilated by the Academy 
of Medicine, it is more alive than ever in Paris : in the midst of all the lights of the 
age it continues, right or wrong, to excite the multitude. Protean in its forms, infinite 
in its manifestations, if you put it out of the door, it knocks at the window ; if that 
be not opened it knocks on the ceiling, on the walls ; it raps on the table at which 
you innocently seat yourselves to dine or for a game of whist. If you close your ears 
to its sounds, it grows excited, strikes the table, whirls it about in a giddy maze, lifts 
up its feet and proceeds to talk through mediumship, as the dumb talk with their 

'' You have all known the rage for table-turning. At one time, we ceased to ask 
after each other's health, but asked how your table was. ' Thank you, mine turns 
beautifully ; and how goes yours on ? ' Everything turned ; hats and the heads in 
them. One was led almost to believe that a circle of passengers being formed round 
the mainmast of a ship of great tonnage, and a magnetic chain thus established, they 
might make the vessel spin round till it disappeared in the depth of the ocean, as a 
gimlet disappears in a deal board. The Church interfered ; it caused its thunders to 
roar, declaring that it was Satan himself who thus raised the devil in the tables, and 
having formerly forbade the world to turn, it now forbade the faithful to turn tables, 
hats, brains, or ships of huge size. But Satan held his own. The sovereign of the 
nether world passed into the new one, and that is the reason that America sends us 
mediums: beginning so gloriously with the famous Home, and ending with the 
brothers Davenport. One remembers with what a frenzy every one precipitated him- 
self in pursuit of mediums. Every one wished to have one of his own ; and when 
you introduced a young man into society, you did not say, ' He is a good waltzer ; ' 
but ' He is a medium.' Official science has killed and buried this Somnambulism a 
score of times ; but it must have done it very badly, for there it is as alive as ever, 
only christened afresh with a new name." 

Amongst the many distinguished adherents of Spiritualism in the depart- 
ment of French literature, none have more bravely asserted and defended 
their belief than Camille Flammarion, the celebrated astronomer, Messrs. 
Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and Victorien Sardou, the renowned 
writer of French comedy. M. Sardou has been himself a medium of sin- 
gularly happy endowments. Some years ago he executed a number of 
curious drawings, purporting to represent scenes in the spirit world, amongst 
which was an exquisite and complex work of art, entitled " The House of 

As the author is the fortunate possessor of a fine etching taken from this 
drawing, we may venture to say it is at once a design of singular imagina- 
tion and extraordinary execution. The tout ensemble of the sketch suggests 
the face of a highly-ornamented organ, every marking, to the finest hair- I 
lines, being made up of musical notes, bars, and staves. The effect of 
the whole is striking, original, and highly suggestive. 

As a writer of comedy, the following tribute, copied from the Cornhill 
Magazine, will give an idea of Sardou's ability, and the mode in which 
his successes have been aided by invisible dramatists : — 

" M. Victorien Sardou is known to many as the drawing medium, through whom 
were produced, many years back, the Maison de Mozart, and several other curious 


drawings. Since that time he has become, perhaps, the most successful and celebrated 
of modern dramatists in Paris. The court of France is at this moment entertaining 
a distinguished company at Compiegne, where a series of theatrical representations 
are given, and the first play selected, entitled La Famille Benoiton, has been written 
by the hand 'of Sardou. He has publicly announced that not a line of his comedy is 
the genuine production of his own brain, but, on the contrary, he asserts that it is 
entirely the inspiration of the spirits of departed dramatic celebrities, with whom he 
is in constant communication. If this were not true, why should he deprive himself 
of the honour of being the author of the most successful of modern dramas, as La 
Famille, Benoiton has proved to be? '' 

We cannot draw this chapter to a better close than by quoting the noble 
words of M. Jaubert, Vice-President of the Civil Tribunal of Carcassonne, 
in a letter written by him to the editor of La Verite, in reference to some 
scandalous slurs cast upon Spiritualism by the Bishop of Barcelona. The 
letter is dated September, 1864, and reads as follows : — 

" I have lately read the charge of the new Bishop of Barcelona on Spiritualism 
which contains amongst others the following passage : — ' It is thus that we come to create 
a religion which, renewing the wild errors and aberrations of paganism, threatens to conduct 
Society — greedy of marvels — to madness, extravagance, and a filthy obscenity.' 

" If I had the honour of speaking with the Bishop of Barcelona I would say to 
him, ' Monseigneur, permit me to cast a glance backward, perhaps it may carry us a 
step forward. Spiritualism has launched itself into space ; it has passed the sea on a 
ray of light. France has received its cradle. I have had the honour. to assist at some 
of its first rockings. I have seen it lisp by aid of that instrument known under the 
name of the table parlante. It has spelt through the planchette ; to-day it writes with 
a pen which is at your service and mine. It writes sufficiently well, though it has not 
been spared chastisement ; the child has been mocked, buffeted, covered with mud, 
crowned with thorns. The hatred shown it, has produced a monstrous alliance, such 
an one as history has not recorded the like. The Materialists and the "servants of 
God " are leagued together, the first to disdain or deny it, the second to affirm it, but 
only to spit in its face, and endeavour to strangle it. 

" ' And the child has nevertheless suffered no injury. It plants one foot on each 
world. It embraces in its little arms, France and her colonies ; Belgium, England, 
Russia, Germany, Italy, and even Spain. It has its organs multiplied in Paris', 
Bordeaux, Lyons ; Antwerp, Turin. The domestic hearth serves as a sure and impene- 
trable asylum to myriads of its friends. 

" ' In your turn, Monseigneur, enter the lists against it ; teach all the world that 
Spiritualism is only a resume of filthy obscenity. Ah ! without doubt, the evil is 
immense. Descend with us, Monseigneur, into the reformatories and the prisons. 
The picture of our miseries is vast ; 4,990 accused before' our courts of assize ; 
176,456 prisoners judged by our correctional tribunals; 3,767 suicides, and every year 
the same gulf is opened to receive its fresh prey. Spain undoubtedly, in this point of 
view, has no reason to envy us. Behold the filthy obscenity ! but believe me, 
Monseigneur, the Spiritualists are not there ! 

"Do you wish to learn the cause of all these evils ? I will tell you. I do not draw 
my proofs from anger nor from vain declamation, I find them in the general account 
of the administration of our criminal justice. Misery, reverse of fortune, loss of 
employ, losses at play, sorrow caused by the ingratitude and misconduct of children, 
adulteries, jealousy, debauch, drunkenness, idleness, disgust of life, immoderate desire 
of riches, political exaltations, love of power, ambition, religious terrors. Do you 
comprehend, Monseigneur ? This leprosy which dooms us, Spiritualism destroys ; it 
does what you have not been able to do. You know very well that Spiritualism is not 
a religion, — it leaves all religions just where they were. The great mission of the 
dead is to prove that they are not dead ; that they live and influence our actions. 
The spirit is certain of its future life ; it expects from the Eternal that justice due to 
all his works ; it combats his enemies not by crushing them but by raising and loving 
them. It does not sacrifice to the kingdom of this world. Anxious to discharge all 
its duties, it gives to Caesar the things which are Caesar's, and to God the things 
which are God's. It conspires not in the dark, but in full daylight, and for the 
happiness of mankind. 

" ' Reassure yourself, Monseigneur of Barcelona ; reassure your friends in France ! 
In your turn become a Spiritualist ! Affirm to your people that man never dies, that 


his immortality is proved, not by books, but by material and tangible facts, of which 
every one can convince himself ; that anon, and our houses of correction and our 
prisons will disappear ; suicide will be erased from our mortuary tables, and nobly 
borne, the calamities of earth shall no longer produce madness. But if you prefer it, 
Monseigneur, persist in your insults, strive not to teach as to forget then, the treasures 
of love and charity." ' 



The two extraordinary narratives we are now about to present to our 
readers are furnished by A. J. Riko, Esq., of the Hague, and although 
their substance is to be found in several printed records, Mr. Riko's plain 
unvarnished descriptions correspond so closely with the accounts given orally 
to the Author by an eye-witness, that we prefer to transcribe — as far as 
possible — our kind correspondent's own words. The first case is headed : — 

" The Phenomena at the Abbey of Prunois-sons-Ablis — Arrondisement of 

Rambouillet — France. 

" One of the most interesting records extant on the subject of Spirit power is an 
account of the disturbances which took place at the above-named Roman Catholic Abbey 
in the year 1835. On October 1st at eight o'clock in the evening, a great many stones 
were thrown at the window of the Presbytery. Several witnesses were present, and 
numbers of others were called by the priest to watch the proceedings. The stones 
were thrown by no visible agency, and struck the window panes in showers, without 
breaking any. 

" October 2nd. A box filled with dirt and refuse, was found in the place usually kept 
for the bread, which was thrown on the ground close by. Stones were thrown all that day 
at intervals, but though the windows were struck in showers, no glass was broken. 

" October 3rd. At three in the afternoon, all the doors of the Abbey being shut, a 
quantity of ashes — salad plants, spoons, coals, and rotten fruit— fell about the floor and 
furniture of the Presbytery, also in several of the other rooms, every door and window 
being shut. The showers continued falling till ten o'clock, when one of the witnesses, — 
the Cure of Alix, said jokingly, that money would have been more welcome than stones. 
As he spoke, every one in the room was pelted with ' Hards.' 

" October 4th. The fire irons — brought without noise from the Priest's private room — 
were found in a locked chest. Pieces of butter and knives used in the larder, were found 
in another locked chest. As the Abbe was passing out to go to service, a pot full of sand 
was tossed into a pail of water before his eyes. No disturbance took place in the church, 
but when he returned, chalk from the walls and ceiling, coals, ashes, fruit, bread, and all 
sorts of objects were thrown hither and thither through the house, and the stones were 
flung from outside against the windows all day. 

" October 6th. — The bedclothes in the Priest's room, and those of several of the inmates, 
were pierced with round holes, and the pieces taken out were found in distant closed 

" October 7th. — At nine o'clock the servant maid retired to her room, but found 
everything displaced, and the furniture in such disorder that she swooned from fear. ; 
That night one of the Priest's relatives whom he requested to pass the night in the same ; 
room with him, called out in great terror, that his legs were being tied together. Wher 
the Priest succeeded in getting a light, he found the young man thrown into a corner 
with his legs tightly bound together above the knees with a cord nine feet in length. 

"October 14th. — The cook found pieces of coal, sweepings, dust and filth in every 
article she was using to prepare the meals, in fact she could not put a dish or saucer on 

William Howitt 

lNh-t-'M.: | ■ PR, ... E S C? LONDON 


of her hand, but what it was instantly but noiselessly filled with rubbish. The same was 
found in all the pots and kettles. Watchers stationed in all directions failed to find any 
visible agent. 

"October 17th. — Stones were thrown in larger numbers and more inces antly than 
ever. Fires were lighted on hearths in empty rooms. The young man before mentioned — 
the priest's relation — had his cap taken from his head and it was afterwards found in a 
chimney in a distant part of the house. 

"October 18. — A violent noise being heard in the Presbytery, the party who rushed 
to the spot found a ball of paper containing a large quantity of gunpowder. The ball 
was tied with a string, and a hole was cut in the wrapping ; close by was a match. Soon 
after this the disturbances increased, and the garden walks were found indented with 
marks of huge claws, not belonging to any known animal. Heavy blows and sounds as of 
tramping feet were now heard during the night in the corridors. As a large number of 
watchers were stationed day and night within and without the Abbey, it soon transpired 
that similar disturbances had occurred several times within the last thirty years, though 
never with such violence as now. 

" October 22nd. — The cook was pelted with stones, coal, &c, wherever she went — 
nothing struck her, though objects fell in showers around her. The Priest, on going to 
bed, found the wood which had been laid in the grate ready for lighting, taken out and all 
arranged on his bed in the form of a cross. In the morning, his clothes were found stuffed 
tightly in a large pitcher full of water — aud this, though the door was locked inside, and 
the window made fast." 

Mr. Riko follows up this narrative with a long list of witnesses' names, 
many of whom were persons of high respectability, holding official situa- 
tions. It may be added, that in the course of three months, the 
disturbances died out, though no cause could ever be discovered for their 
occurrence. M. Riko's next narrative is the well-known case of the dis- 
turbances at Cideville — Seine Inferieure, France. The author is in 
possession of two French newspapers containing reports of the trial in this 
celebrated case. To save the necessity of a fresh translation, we will 
again resort to M. Riko's concise narrative. He says : — 

"In the spring of the year 1849, the Curate of Cideville having called to see one of 
his parishioners who was sick and confined to his bed, found at the bedside a man who 
had the reputation in the neighbourhood of being a "Sorcerer," and was, besides, a 
fellow of very bad character. As a friend of the Curate's had been attended by him and 
died under his hands — as the neighbours alleged, by evil practices — the Curate drove him 
from the house and warned him not to return again. Soon after this "the Sorcerer" 
was arrested for some mal-practice, and thrown into prison. There he uttered fierce 
menaces against the Curate, and swore he would be revenged, ascribing bis misfortunes 
wholly to the priest's enmity. Shortly after this, two boys, who were placed with the 
Curate for education, happening to be at an auction, met there Thorel, a shepherd, who 
was a friend, and said to be "a disciple" and follower of the Sorcerer. Thorel had been 
heard to swear he would have revenge for his master's imprisonment. When he met 
the children at the auction, he approached them, and it was affirmed at the trial, laid his 
hands on one of their heads, and muttered words they did not understand. 

" Immediately after their return to the Abbey, violent poundings were heard on the 
walls, floors, ceilings, passages, and in every part of the building. Sometimes these 
blows were so heavy as to make the inhabitants fear the walls would be demolished. 
Numbers of persons passing near the Abbey stopped to inquire what was the matter. 
After these blows had been given for several days, and crowds surrounded the building 
day and night, it was found that the thumpings would keep time to music, and beat 
correctly the measure of any tune asked for. Windows that could not be reached from 
without were smashed, crockery broken, and furniture hurled hither and thither with 
frightful force. 

" Officers of justice were sent for, and police stationed everywhere. The furniture 
flew around them and piled up into curious forms before their very eyes. Some of the 
heavy furniture seemed to be lifted about as lightly as feathers. Other things were 
broken into the smallest fragments, and no one was hurt except the Mayor of Cideville, 
who on one occasion was struck so heavily on the leg, that he feared the bone was broken. 
As he sat down, he felt a soft hand stroking and patting the affected part, and the pain 
ceased instantly. 


"Several of the visitors had their dresses pulled, and their arms and faces gently 
patted. M. de Mirville, who often attended these wild weird scenes, co\ild hold quite 
intelligent conversations with the invisible knockers, and get them to answer, or to move 
any object he wished. All this was done in the light, and in the presence of crowds of 
witnesses. Meantime the child who had been touched by the shepherd, was always 
complaining of the shadow of a man following him, and several others described a hand 
of a grey colour,- which seemed to be busy amongst the moving objects. Very often 
visitors would ask the knockers to spell out their names, ages, and anything they wished 
to say ; and they afterwards testified in court, the intelligence thus rendered was always 
correct. In course of time, wreaths of smoke were seen winding through the rooms, and 
disappearing as suddenly as they came. Footsteps, and the rustling of silk were the next 
sounds heard. One day, the child touched by Thorel screamed out that there was a black 
hand coming down the chimney, — no one saw it but the boy, but all in the room heard a 
smart smack, and the child's face remained red for a long time afterwards. Some one 
suggested that pointed irons should be driven into the walls at every place where the 
blows were heard. A large party proceeded to follow this advice. With every blow a 
stab was made. Immediately upon this, flames burst out from every hole, together with t 
such thick smoke, that the witnesses were obliged to open doors and windows to get rid 
of it, and desist from all farther attempts of the kind. All the party there assembled 
testified that they distinctly heard the word ' pardon ' cried out in a piteous voice. 

" That night all was quiet. The next day, Thorel came to the door of the Presbytery, 
and asked to see the priest. 

" His behaviour was humble, his words embarrassed ; he tried to hide with his hat 
bleeding wounds in his face. The child saw him and cried, " That is the man who perse- 
cutes me." The priest asked him from whence came the wounds he had in his face. 
Thorel refused to answer, but the priest forced him to fall on his knees and ask pardon, 
which he at length did ; at the same moment he tried to get hold of the child's frock, in 
which he succeeded. The priest made him promise to go to the Mayor, and there Thorel 
in presence of many witnesses fell again on his knees and asked for pardon, trying at the 
same time to touch the priest, who, in order to defend himself, struck the shepherd with 
his stick. Thorel on a subsequent occasion confessed that his master the sorcerer was 
the cause of the disturbances at the Abbey, and that he hated the priest because he had 
chased him away from a patient ; but he offered to deliver the Abbey of all further dis- 
turbances if the priest would offer him something. This was refused, and then Thorel 
prosecuted the priest for the strokes he had given him in legitimate self-defence. It was 
on that trial that all the mysterious phenomena at the Abbey of Cideville became generally 
known, and was commented on in the newspapers of the day. The priest was acquitted 
and Thorel condemned in all the costs. This verdict was given after the learned discourses 
of the well-known advocates Vaquier du Traversain for the priest, and Fontaine for 
Thorel. The latter did not appeal. Several other strange feats performed by Thorel 
were brought to light during the trial. He predicted several things which happened as 
he had announced ; he walked through the field with another witness, and said to him, 
" Every time I shall strike my basket with my fist you will fall," and every time Thorel 
did so, the witness was seized at the throat by an invisible grip, and thrown to the 
ground. Others declared that when passing Thorel on the road, they were persecuted by 
stone throwing, the stones flying towards them from different directions by invisible 
power, but falling directly before their feet without injuring them. The phenomena 
began on November 26th, 1850, and ended on February 15th, 1851, at which date the 
Bishop ordered the two children to be taken away from the Abbey. In the judicial verdict 
passed against Thorel, the judge in summing up says that ' the cause of the extraordinary 
facts which occurred at the Abbey of Cideville, as very clearly stated by the testimony of all 
the ivitnesses heard, has remained unknown.' 

" It was very remarkable to note the uniformity with which the witnesses related the 
different strange phenomena observed by them. Some testified with all the simplicity of 
peasants, others with all the exactness of highly educated people ; but the facts were 
given by all as identical. Though some of the sceptical newspapers declared all the twenty- 
five witnesses to be hallucinated, etc., not one had the courage to indicate them as liars ; 
their good faith was acknowledged by all. 

"The phenomena at the Abbey of Cideville stand as one of the best established 
incidents of the work of an invisible world in our days." 

Narrative translated from the Journal Indre-et- Loire, dated July 29th, 
1882 :— 

" A shower of stones has fallen at intervals during the past sixty days, upon the farm- 
house of Lioniere, near Montbazon (Indre-et-Loire). This farm-house, situated in an open 
field, is prominent to view, and is approached by two broad thoroughfares, over which 
persons cannot travel without being seen. 


" The stones begin to fall at dusk, and the shower continues until morning. They seem 
to come from all directions, and their collision leaves deep indentations upon the walls 
and doors of the farm-house. No one has ever been wounded by them, however, and the 
intention seems to frighten rather than to seriously injure. 

" The rural guards and the armed police of Montbazon have for many nights watched 
in ambush around the Lioniere without discovering any marauders. The stones fell around 
them in the darkness in their hiding-places. One of the police, who was crouched upon 
the roof of the house, was hit upon the shoulder, though very lightly. Companies have 
been organised, with the assistance of the farm hands and neighbours, to thoroughly beat 
about and search the place. Nearly a hundred persons gathered at the farm and scoured 
it in every direction. Nothing suspicious has been seen. During the going and coming, 
the projectiles have not ceased to whistle by the ears of the investigators. 

" The dwellers at the farmhouse of Fontaines, commune of Rouziers, have been awakened 
almost every night by singular and varied noises. Sometimes it is like the noise of a 
heavily-laden wagon. The jolting of the wheels in the ruts of the road, the clash of the 
iron tires against the stony obstructions are heard, as also the prolonged cracking of the 
whip. The walls of the house tremble as by the passing of some heavy vehicle. 

" Sometimes dancing music is heard — sound of a. violin accompanied with stamping, like 
the noise made by iron-nailed boots striking against the floor in beating-time. Again ■ a 
noise is heard in the well, like the fall of some heavy body, that on striking the surface of 
the water chops and spatters it about with a splashing sound, but no one has ever been 
able to discover the cause of these noises. In vain have the farm people, reinforced by 
their neighbours, placed themselves upon the watch at night — in vain have they used 
every strategy they can invent ; they are still ignorant of the cause of their annoyance, 
The manager, M. Ronnin, who has been but a short time in this part of the country 
assures us that he used to hear the same noises and sounds in Vendee." 

" An extraordinary medium has been found at Agen. She is quite young — is a Mdlle. 
Honorine — and when the spiritualistic phenomena occur through her, her hands are tied, 
together with a handkerchief and she is placed upon a bed. Cards are placed under her 
pillow, or are pinned to the bed-curtains, and mental questions are asked, with the desire 
that the answer shall appear on said cards ; and there indeed the correct answer is found. 
The ' Marseillaise ' is then drummed out, the ' Dame Angot,' the ' Chant du Depart,' the 
'Retreat' — in fact, anything called for. The sound of the horses' feet as the cavalry 
retreat, is perfectly represented. Musical instruments are played upon and carried about 
the room. An officer of the army placed a ribbon under the pillow, and invisible fingers 
tied a knot in it. Money laid outside of a closed tobacco-box was found within it. The 
bed was drawn across the room, or, as the child-medium said, ' was j>ushed.' The direct 
writing obtained, manifested familiarity with the pen, whereas Honorine can scarcely write 
or read." — Revue Spirite, December, 1881. 

" The Revue Spirite has from time to time made mention of a young girl residing 
at Saint Marie-de-Campan, in the province of Bagneres-de-Bigorre, among the Pyrenees 
mountains, under whose mediumship wonderful phenomena have taken place, and which 
have attracted the attention of the French secular press generally." 

M. Aviragnet, writing to the Editor of the Revue Spirite, says : — 

"On the 21st of January, 1882, the young girl from Ste Marie-de-Campan, Marie 
Alexandrine Tome, of whom we have spoken, and who has created a sensation in all this 
Department, came to me and is with me still. She reads a book without looking at it ; 
she plays dominoes with her eyes closed. I had hardly formed an idea of tying her hands 
behind her back than they were tied and untied by invisible hands. I desired to have 
something brought to me, and yesterday evening I was presented with a flower that does 
not grow in our gardens. They (the spirits) have manufactured for me a flower of a 
beautiful red colour, and to-day after dinner, the young girl came to my bedside with a 
flower in her hand, which immediately disappeared." 

It must be stated that M. Aviragnet was a chronic invalid and had been 
confined to a bed of sickness for a long time. The general impression of 
this excellent gentleman's friends was, that the medium — quite a young 
child — who came of her own accord to the house, was sent to redeem a 
promise of M. Aviragnet's spirit guides that they would cure him. M. 
Aviragnet continues his narrative as follows : — 

" Marie Alexandrine returned to her home shortly after the phenomena that I have 
detailed to you. At the end of some six days, having received the order to come to me 


again for an urgent necessity, she set out before day, quite uneasy, fearing to be too late 
for the operation, which consisted in removing other parasites from my ear. On Sunday 
morning she came to my bed, and a hand was formed in her presence. She made passes 
over my heart, and infused a mild fluid into my ear and over my eyes. . . . On Monday 
the medium was forbidden to eat anything. She was ordered to fast for three days and 
two nights, and she gave herself up to prayer. I was told not to be uneasy, that the child 
would be in no danger ; that the angels would sustain her. I would fain have shared 
tha sufferings of the child, but loud knocks upon the table made by the friends said ' No.' " 
" On Tuesday evening at seven o'clock the child was permitted to take refreshment. 
Vaporous forms became manifest all around her. These forms approached me, took me 
by the hand, patted my face and my breast." 

Without following out M. Aviragnet's diary any farther, it is enough to 
say he was raised from the sick bed he had so long and hopelessly occupied, 
and testified before a number of officials in his district that without the aid 
of medicines, or any other means than the presence of this extraordinary 
medium and her attendant spirits, he was entirely restored to health. In 
the issue of La Revue Spirite, of December, 1880, is the following : — 

"A new writing medium has appeared in France, in the Gironde, who attracts no 
little attention from the fact that, of himself, he knows nothing about the art of penman- 
ship. Our friend and brother in the faith does not know how to write, and in opposition 
to his parents in 1867 he was incited to write mediumistically through the spirits 
two letters which contain forty-eight lines, have many antique words, and combination 
of words that must awaken interest, while their sentiments are lofty and impressive. It 
seems also that he now speaks as if learned, and has the gift of healing." 

" A new rapping medium has also been discovered in the village of Chauvirey, Cote 
d'Or — a little girl about thirteen years of age. The noise begins when she retires to bed ; 
sometimes it is like a scratching with the finger nails ; then it increases in volume till it 
resembles the sound of revolving mill-wheels. The clergy and gendarmes have, as usual, 
been called in, but cannot account for the phenomenon — which continues when the feet 
and hands of the girl are held fast, and which has now for about two months and a half 
defied the scrutiny of all her visitors." 

In the same journal, of date 1877, we find a large number of cases 
describing various kinds of phenomenal mediumship. Amongst them the 
following : — 

" The spirits of the people of the ' barricades ' seem not to forget in the spirit world 
those exciting scenes by which, some of them at least, passed beyond the confines of our 
sphere ; indeed it is in France, above all other countries with which we are acquainted, 
stone-throwing by the invisibles is most common. Some years ago in Paris, near the 
Pantheon, as reported by the police, a house was pelted with stones, some of which were 
so large that the doors and windows, secured by heavy timbers, were demolished. The 
missiles descended with mathematical precision, but whence could not be discovered by 
the police, though stationed on housetops in the immediate neighbourhood. Quite a 
number of like cases I have since recorded. Now, M. Parjade writes that at Omet 
(Haute Garonne), at the house of M. Vimeney, the same phenomena have been taking 
place ; the furniture, crockery, cooking utensils were tumbled into confusion, while 
stones flew in every direction. 'These facts,' says the writer, 'have excited all the 
inhabitants of the canton, but no one but the Spiritualists could discover the cause ; they 
are identical with those of Tabanac in the year 1872.' 

" ' The Spiritualists of this region,' he continues, ' evoked the spirits and reasoned with 
them ; the daughter of M. Vimeney was restored to health, and the phenomena dis- 
appeared. ' 

" In confirmation of the above, Mons. Vimeney wrote himself to the editor of the Revue, 
and says : ' By our appeal and by prayer, these spirits came to us and promised to listen 
to our counsel ; my daughter has become perfectly well, and the disturbances have ceased 
completely.' The letter is signed by sixteen witnesses." 

The Revue of October, 1880, gives an interesting account of still another 
physical medium, quite celebrated in the Spiritualist circles of Paris, but 
known only under the sobriquet of Amelie. 


The phenomena obtained in the presence of this young girl are very 
varied. The following is a brief narrative of one seance detailed by Dr. G. 
L. Ditson, the foreign correspondent of the American Banner of Light. 
This gentleman says : — 

" In June, 1875, at a stance, the spirits caused the musical box to play, stopping and 
starting it at will. When visiting a Muie. X., a letter which should have been sent to 
him some time previous, but had been lying in a receptacle with many others, was brought 
by the invisibles and placed in his hands 

"One evening," he says, "Anie'lie's hands were drawn behind her and fastened very 
firmly with a cord, whose ends were carried down and ' fixed solidly ' to the leg of her 
chair. The spirits also essayed a duo on the harmonica and tambour, and themselves gave 
the signal for applause produced seemingly by the hands of little children. The fol- 
lowing was given by direct writing : ' We love these stances, and will do our best to 
materialize.' In the next month flowers were brought by the spirits — une masse des p elites 
plantes— blue flowers, moist, with fresh earth. Their name however had been forgotten. 
Ame"lie took a pencil and wrote : ' Forget me not.' " 

Dr. Ditson adds the two following narratives, translated from the Revue 
Spirite of the same date as above : — 

" Of Mme. Sardou in lethargic sleep and her voyage in space I must quote a little. 
Mme. S., sixty-two years of age, made the following statement to the narrator : — 

" ' About twelve years since I was in the hospital at Lyons, and died, to all appearances, 
and so remained for twenty-four hours. I had no consciousness of what was passing 
around me. During this time I went up, up, till the earth appeared blue, like the 
heavens, and then was out of sight. On I went. Finally I arrived in front of a magnificent 
chapel, gleaming with indescribable beauty, and in which there was a light of surpassing 
brilliancy. Attempting to enter, I was warned that I was not yet pure enough ; that I 
had to return to the earth and suffer much, and then I should be admitted to this 
paradise. I then went on without knowing what impelled me, till I looked upon a vast, 
arid, boundless field. There I saw a prodigious quantity of persons all bent towards the 
ground, which they were scratching vigorously with their two hands, as a dog scratches 
with his paws. I saw here priests of all ranks ; people well and ill-dressed. I was 
astonished. Looking on one side I saw une dame blonde ; it was a very beautiful woman. 
There is none upon earth like her. She did not speak to me, so I said : ' Madame, what is 
this, all this multitude?' 'My child,' she replied, 'this is Purgatory.' 'Where then is 
hell ? ' I asked. ' There is none,' was the reply ; ' it is here that penitence is made. See, 
my child, these had upon the earth all they needed, but were never satisfied, wanting always 
more, and never doing any good to their fellows. Look yonder,' she said, extending her 
arm, ' see those down there, down there afar off ; it is two thousand years they are there, 
two thousand years ! ' When some dissent was expressed to Mme. Sardou respecting her 
vision, she replied with much vivacity, ' Oh! but I saw it!' (She had once before made 
a like asservation when some doubt had been expressed.) 

" These earnest replies," continues the writer, " prove abundantly ths sincerity of her 
recital. When the spirit of Mme. Sardou returned to her body and awoke it, she found 
her friends were about enwrapping it for its final disposition. She screamed and drew 
many persons about her bed. To these she related her voyage and experience, and she was 
assured that she had seen the Virgin Mary. She suffers, as was predicted by the angel ; 
and, not unmindful of her vision, she says sadly, when she sees a person in affluence with- 
holding a farthing from the needy, 'See still another who is going to scratch the 
earth.' .... 

" Suffice it to say, the woman was persecuted for her faith, and even threatened by the 
clergy ; and her house, No. 54, Rue de la Reine, was named the ' Folle Bretonne.' " 

Within the last two or three years a young person who will quite compare 
with any of the most powerful physical mediums of America or London, 
has come prominently before the Spiritual investigators of Paris, by name 
" Madame Babelin." From a large number of reports of seances with this 
medium, we select the account given by Dr. G. L. Ditson, who writes as 
follows to the Banner of Light, of October, 1882 : — 

" Last week, at a Mme. Babelin's, where I was introduced by the courtesy of Mme. 
Leymarie, I was very satisfactorily entertained. About fifteen of us, joining hands, 


encircled Mine. B., the medium, who, at her own request, was tied to her chair, ' Universal 
scepticism,' she said, ' requiring it.' The medium's hands were intricately bound, and as 
intricately secured to the chair, the ends of the cord being taken by one of the circle, 
which formed itself around the table, the medium sitting near it. On the table were two 
musical boxes, three fans, a hand-bell, a child's whistle, a toy barking-dog, and a box of 
lozenges. On taking seats the candle was extinguished, the circle interlinked little fingers 
and sang. After a little, there were various manifestations, more than one always occurring 
at the same time ; detonations in, on, or under the table ; overhead were heard, moving 
hither and thither, the musical boxes, the bell, whistle, and barking toy, all in rhythm ; 
the air was kept in motion by the fans, which were also rubbed against our heads ; our 
faces, shoulders, and hands were patted with soft warm hands. 

" Each one was also favoured with a large bunch of wild flowers. A bunch of them 
was forcibly arranged beneath my vest, and later some were put between my neck and 
collar. Phosphoric lights were then seen floating about, coming sometimes, as it were, 
from under the table and going into the laps of different parties. There was also 
seemingly an attempt to illumine a figure that stood close to me — at least, some drab 
drapery was near me, enveloping apparently a human form. This effort was unsuccessful. 
A small part of a human figure was however, quite well developed, and there was a per- 
sistence in showing me this. At first I thought that only a simple ball of phosphoric 
light was before me, but as its action was peculiar, I regarded it attentively, and saw 
unmistakable fingers of two hands that were manipulating the phosphoric ball, taking 
light from it to show themselves. When I expressed aloud to my neighbour the fact, the 
two hands separated, one going to the right of the circle, the other to the left — an 
unmistakable proof that they pertained to no human being. In response to a mental 
request, some fingers pressed my forehead, and on asking the question mentally, if a 
loved deceased cousin were present, my cheek was several times smoothed as if by the 
gentle hand of affection. 

" At a sitting last evening, at Mme. Huet's, where I had been presented by M. Lacroix, 
we had the levitation of a heavy table, and those unmistakable raps which are so very 
characteristic of the Fox sisters' circles. 

" At a seance at Mme. Chavee's we were also, through raps, favoured with several 
interesting messages from the ' promised land.' Though a stranger to almost every one 
present, I received, in English, the first communication. My brother, who died in Natchez 
in 1833, not only spelled out his entire name, but expressed his relationship to and super- 
vision of my son, in such terms as to make it a moral certainty that no other than my 
brother William was actually giving the welcome sentences that at this moment so unex- 
pectedly were being recorded by one (a French lady) who knew nothing of the meaning 
of the words she penned. 

" Paris, France, Oct. 6th, 1882. G. L. Ditson." 

Dr. Ditson subsequently adds the following translation from the Revue 

Spirite : — 

" Dr. Chazarain resolved, in order to add to the weight of his testimony, to hold his 
future seances at his own home, with his family and friends, Madame Babelin still being 
the medium. 

" At his first home seance, fourteen in the circle, on the light being extinguished the 
medium described, in minute detail, the appearance of a spirit, whose wife and daughter 
were present ; he had also been well known to Dr. Chazarain. 

" ' The medium,' says he, ' passed then into the trance ; after some rapping sounds, 
hands touched and pressed us all, the objects placed upon the table floated over our 
heads, the musical instruments sounding ; fresh flowers were laid upon our hands. There 
were no flowers in the house before the seance. Then phosphorescent hands gradually 
developed themselves as I previously described. The form of a child was then seen upon 
the table, visible by its own light. It moved about, kissed its hands to us all ; we heard 
the kisses ; and as the fingers left contact with the lips they emitted a soft light and 
whitish vapour. The child disappeared and reappeared three times, but was visible 
altogether for about ten minutes. When I afterwards showed the photograph of my little 
Marie all recognised it as that of the child-spirit. 

" ' Then by my side, appeared the well-defined face of my mother, deceased at seventy- 

' ' I felt then a large hand laid upon my head ; in reply to the question, mentally put, 
Are you he of whom I am thinking ? the hand gave three taps. My thoughts were of 
my deceased brother. Then came sounds of the pencil ; these ceasing, we lighted up and 


found a little writing on two pieces of paper ; on one, " My beloved sisters, I am with you 
and shall be your guardian. — Marie." On the other, " Seek not thy brother on earth ; he 
is in God's immensity. I am happy to be able to be with you. — Paul." This was the 
name of my brother. He was in the Army of Reserve in 1870. After the battle of 
Chateauneuf no news ever came from him ; his name was neither in the returns of killed 
nor of prisoners. A spontaneous communication had been received by me through another 
medium, to the effect that he had been killed for plunder by some dissolute men of his 
company. I had thereupon written to the authorities to know how I might direct 
inquiries among the men of his company at that period. As if in reference to my letter 
came another scrap of paper, "No vengeance, expiation." I received this as a lesson on 
which I pondered.' " 

In an article written for a scientific paper of Paris, by M. Chas. Hue, 
editor of the journal — Prosperity Agricole et Commerciale — there is a long 
account of a mediumistic couple who have lately excited much interest in 
Parisian circles. M. and Mdme. d'Alesi are the parties alluded to, and 
M. Hue says, writing of the husband : — 

" The medium is a young Hungarian of brilliant education, but who, through many 
misfortunes, has been reduced to poverty. His young and estimable wife shares with 
him heroically his ill-starred existence, and when under magnetic influence, proves to be 
also a clairvoyant, able to see and describe spirits and give good medical advice. M. Hugo 
d'Alesi sits at a table in a room so dark that it is almost impossible to see the figure he 
is sketching. He seems to pay but little attention to what he is doing, executing rapidly, 
and in the space of a few minutes accomplishes a remarkable work — the head of awoman, 
for instance — wonderful in respect to finesse d execution. He has thus in pastel produced 
a striking likeness of Pius IX., and in aquarelle a magnificent landscape. The latter 
bore the signature of Diaz, a fine artist, who passed away about a year since. Most of 
M. d'Alesi's productions bear the initials T. D., which, on account of the general style, are 
attributable to Donato, who contributed in his day largely to the resurrection of 
sculpture in Italy." 

It was in the summer of 1882, that the author, then a guest of Madame 
La Duchesse de Pomar (Countess of Caithness), at Paris, had the 
pleasure of witnessing M. d'Alesi's remarkable mediumship as an instru- 
ment for artistic spirits. The seance was given in a brilliantly lighted 
library, in presence of about half a dozen persons, including the Due 
and Duchesse de Pomar, the author, Dr. Britten, Madame and Mdlle. 
Leymarie. M. d'Alesi occupied about ten minutes in sketching a large 
crayon drawing. During the performance ■ he was engaged in lively 
conversation with the company who stood around him, and the author 
and her friends can all testify that he scarcely ever glanced at his drawing, 
his hands appearing to move with lightning speed and occasionally with 
some violent, though unknown impulse, without any apparent volition of 
his own. When the drawing was finished, M. d'Alesi gracefully presented 
it to the noble mistress of the mansion, the Duchesse de Pomar. On first 
regarding this sketch, nothing was discoverable but a mass of uncouth 
crayon scratches without apparently a vestige of design. On placing the 
paper against a distant wall, the rude scratches resolved themselves into a 
fine and spirited likeness of the beautiful Marie Stuart, whom the Duchesse 
de Pomar not only resembles strikingly in person, but who has been 
reported through numerous sources to be the " guardian angel " of the 
Duchesse. This lady had, during the day, expressed to the author her 
earnest wish that the gracious Scottish Queen would favour her with her 
likeness through the artistic medium who was that evening expected ; but 
this wish was entirely unknown to M. d'Alesi, neither could he have had 
the slightest idea of the spiritual relations existing between the Duchesse 
and her much-loved spirit guide. 


During a recent visit to Paris, the author had the privilege of inspecting 
the fine collection of spirit drawings, and the splendid library, possessed 
by the " Psychological Society of Paris," and arranged at their rooms by 
M. and Madame Leymarie, with the taste and elegance peculiar to the 
French character. Many of the drawings are as wonderful for their 
artistic excellence as for their occult mode of production. Amongst these 
are the drawings of M. d'Alesi, and those of M. Fabre, formerly a black- 
smith, who, with a marvellous gift for spiritual art, and a romantic history 
too long to cite in this place, has produced, amongst other marvels of 
spirit influence, a splendid copy of Raphael's famous Bataille de Constantin, 
the original of which is now in the Vatican. When it is remembered that 
the Medium, " Fabre," was an uneducated blacksmith, who, by no possi- 
bility could ever have seen Raphael's magnificent picture, and that the 
work executed by this man is an almost faultless copy of the grand original, 
something of its real merit maybe conceived. The author has only to 
add, that, through the courtesy of M. Leymarie, one of M. d'Alesi's 
wonderful crayon sketches, and a fine photograph of Fabre's Bataille de 
Constantin, now grace the walls of the study where these lines are being 

The mention of M. Leymarie's name, calls for some notice of the 
invaluable services rendered to the cause of Spiritual progress in France by 
that gentleman and his noble wife. Although the author by no means 
sympathises with the teachings of Allan Kardec on the subject of Re- 
incarnation, no candid mind can deny the vast ability displayed by that 
eminent man, nor the wide-spread influence which his writings have 
diffused over the Continent of Europe. 

The Society founded by M. Kardec, and the paper which he so ably 
conducted, entitled La Revue Spirite, are now in charge of M. Leymarie, 
and it must be owned, that the followers of Allan Kardec have been fortu- 
nate in securing such a successor to their great leader in his immense 
work. M. Leymarie is a man of the most undoubted probity and sincerity. 
Pure minded, unselfish, wholly devoted to his work of propagandism and 
the best interests of what he believes to be right, a nobler or more self- 
sacrificing evangelist, does not live than M. Leymarie, and even the most 
determined opponents of his belief, among whom the author is one, find 
their hands stayed, when they would raise them to strike a blow at what 
they deem to be a stupendous fallacy for fear of wounding the admirable 
spirit of the Re-incarnationist leader M. Leymarie. It is worthy of note 
that this noble gentleman has himself been called upon to suffer martyrdom 
in the trial for fraud, in producing spirit photographs, by a certain pair of 
conspirators, one of whom claimed to be a medium for spirit photography. 
Writing on the subject of his trial before its conclusion, the Hon. J. L. L. 
O'Sullivan, formerly U. S. Consul at Madrid, who was in Paris at the time, 
and warmly interested in Mons. Leymarie, gives the following version of 
the case to the London Spiritualist : — 

" My previous letters will have prepared your readers for a very mockery of justice in 
the trial of our friend Leymarie before the Seventh Chamber of Correctional Police, but 
not for the length to which it has been carried. Leymarie, that devoted and conscientious 
Spiritualist, successor of Allan Kardec as editor of La Revue Spirite, and managing 
director of the SocUte des Spirites, has been sentenced to a year's imprisonment. Leymarie's 
crime is the prominence of his position in Spiritualism, his zeal, activity, and the useful- 
ness of his labours, to the cause to which his soul is devoted. Happily, imprisonment for 
opinion and its propagation is too common in France, and has been the penalty paid by 
too many honourable men for the social crime of having a conscience and a fearless spirit, 
to involve any real disgrace, 


" Lachaud's speech in his defence was one of the most brilliant and convincing efforts 
of forensic pleading I have ever listened to. His thesis was simple. Leymarie was a 
sincere zealot, deceived by Buguet, and honestly parading in his Review, as proofs of his 
doctrine and cause, the spirit photographs produced in hundreds of which the resemblance 
was recognised and attested by the sitters. He had no complicity with Buguet, and it is 
impossible to condemn him on the authority of such a manifest liar saying that he had. 
This, I repeat, was a simple thing, and it was developed in a most masterly manner by 
Lachaud, He exhibited the man living an honest and honourable life, labouring from 
rise of sun till the hours of sleep, on a mere pittance of income ; blameless in all 
domestic relations as husband and father, working off a balance of debt resting on him 
from an old failure in business which had grown solely out of a too confiding character, 
and having, with aid from his family, nearly accomplished it, and allowing himself no 
personal indulgence till he should have fully done so. He then showed how he had not 
accepted Buguet's spirit photographs until he had put them and him through a series of 
test investigations with the aid of persons the most competent to detect fraud or error. 
He referred to the hundreds of letters of attestation of resemblances from sovereign 
princes down to the humbler strata of society, all of which continued to confirm Leymarie 
in his sincere conviction of the genuineness of Buguet's pictures. And finally he pro- 
duced a series of letters from Buguet himself the very day before his arrest, on the 
face of which stood manifest, as though in large print, Leymarie's perfect good faith 
and total absence of any sort of complicity in deception. And yet with all this, Leymarie 
is sentenced for swindling, to the penalty of a year's imprisonment ! It is enough to 
take one's breath away in the telling of it. I have never known anything more monstrous 
in the worst courts of injustice." 

[The prosecution was initiated by the police, and none of Buguet's customers or dupes 
appeared in support of it. M. Leymarie had recently written some severe criticisms on the 
Archbishop of Toulouse, and many think this had something to do with his persecution. 
The general opinion amongst Spii-itualists is, that some of the earlier photographs pro- 
duced by Buguet were genuine, but a desire to make money prompted him to commence 
the manufacture 'of fictitious ones. — Ed. Spiritualist.'] 

Our review of French Spiritualism must end here. Mediums still 
continue to arise, and in accordance with the spirit of European conserva- 
tism thousands of eminent persons become indoctrinated with the truths 
of Spiritualism, who still shrink from giving their testimony to the world. 

La Revue Spirite, like the American Banner of Light and Religio 
Philosophical Journal, holds its own against all comers, and many another 
journal appears and disappears on the hemisphere of public opinion, when 
its work is demanded and its mission is fulfilled. There are at this present 
time of writing, about ten Spiritual journals published in the French 
language, but there are many more that have been the useful and influen- 
tial ephemera of the hour. It seems certain that M. Leymarie's paper, 
La Revue Spirite, will never go out in darkness, however much it may be 
eclipsed by circumstances and the force of public opinion, so long as its 
noble and self-sacrificing editor remains on earth to print and distribute it. 

The waves of human thought on the subject of Spiritualism continue to 
rise and fall, as it is the nature of elastic fluids to do ; but no ebb has yet 
set in from the shores of earth, and when it does, all things seem to 
predicate that it will only return with additional force, to ebb and flow 
between the coast lines of mortality and immortality, till time shall be no 

It may be asked why in this review of French Spiritualism we have 
omitted to notice the illustrious name of Eliphas Levi (the Abbe Constant) 
and his magnificent contributions to the realm of occult literature such as 
the great work on Haul Magique, &c, &c. The attempts which have 
lately been made by many writers of eminence to draw sharp and even 
impassable lines of demarcation between the facts and teachings growing 
out of spirit communion, and the theories put forth in the name of " occul- 
tism " render it impossible for the author to combine the two subjects in 
this work. 


Through teachings received also from individuals, who of all others, 
merited the name of occult adepts, the author has been led to consider 
that Occultism is in theory the revealment of that which was hidden, or the 
occult powers and potencies in the animate and inanimate realms of being ; 
whilst Spiritualism is the demonstration of the same occult forces mani- 
fested from a super-mundane state of existence. The modern writers who 
have assumed for themselves the name of " Occultists," are not contented 
with this position. 

Their interpretation of what and who "Spirits" are, and what is the 
work which this volume has been written to record, will be briefly 
described in our section on India ; it must suffice for the present to say, 
that the author's definitions would appear in connection with the theories 
of " the Occultists," as worthless and shadowy as the spirits of whom we 
write appear, in comparison with the inconceivably high presences, or 
" 144th embodiments" of exalted "egos," of whom the "Occultists" write. 
Eliphas Levi, without soaring into the extraordinary flights of revelation 
assumed to be authoritative by these same modern " Occultists " still 
occupies ground that takes no direct part with the spontaneous develop- 
ments of spirit power manifested in the modern outpouring, nor yet with 
the simple formulae of the spirit circle. 

The day will come when true Occultism and " common place Spiritual- 
ism," will be recognized as being built upon earth and founded in man 
himself; leading to heaven, and culminating in the personality of angels. 

In that day when theories shall be scientifically formulated from facts, 
and facts will not be scornfully derided to suit theories, Eliphas Levi and 
many another profound writer, whose words are now "Kabbala" to the 
multitude, will be recognized as the prophets of the grand Spiritual science 
of the future. Till then, it would be unphilosophical to give " that which 
is holy to the dogs." 



One of the chief difficulties which besets a writer who would attempt to 
give a faithful account of the Spiritual movement in Great Britain, is the 
very "embarrassment of riches" with which the subject is loaded, 
Spiritualistic experiences having become so universal that the author's 
requisition for evidence is met by an influx of responses which make the 
task of selection too herculean for the purposes of this volume. Still 
another subject of perplexity arises from the characteristic reserve of those 
with whom the phenomena of Spiritualism are very generally associated in 
this country. 

In America, where the sources of popular power are derived from the 
people, Spiritualism may be found more generally represented by the rank 
and file of Society, than among the wealthier classes. 

The Countess of Caithness 


Ink-photo. spr*sue»c? lonoon 


In Europe on the contrary, where the governing power centres in an 
hereditary and influential aristocracy, the people derive their opinions as 
they do their laws and fashions, from the ruling classes, and it is chiefly 
amongst these that Spiritualism flourishes. 

It is not claimed that this wonderful movement is confined to any class 
in either hemisphere. It will be found in the hut, and the palace ; in the 
mining camp, and the halls of legislation. Nevertheless its greatest 
prevalence is ever with the ruling power. Since then Spiritualism in 
Europe takes the deepest hold of those whose rank and station induces 
them to shrink from subjecting their personal experiences to public 
criticism, the author too frequently becomes the recipient of valuable 
testimony which cannot be made available, because the communicants 
insist on withholding their true names and addresses. " Miss E." and 
" Mrs. D. ; " " Captain A." and " My Lord X. Y. Z." are impersonals, 
whom no one puts any confidence in. There is no satisfaction in offering 
such shadowy testimony to those who are asked to believe in occurrences 
of an unprecedented and often startling character. Resolving as we have 
done, not to demand credence for phenomenal incidents upon any 
testimony open to the charge of unreliability, we feel obliged to relegate an 
immense mass of interesting matter of .this kind to the obscurity which 
unauthorised statements justly incur. 

It would seem as if the Spiritual founders of the great outpouring had 
been experimenting with the forces at their command, and seeking to open 
up communion with the two worlds in many places, before they succeeded 
in systematizing the direct telegraphy which has marked the American 
phase of the movement. 

Those who have perused the author's work entitled, " Moden* American 
Spiritualism," will remember that a statement to this effect was made 
through the lips of an entranced subject magnetized by Dr. Hallock, of 
New York. If this hypothesis is admitted, it would account for the great 
prevalence of Spiritual phenomena which has marked this century in many 
parts of the world, prior to the disturbances in America known as " The 
Rochester Knockings." Thus it seems that Scientific Spirits, desirous of 
founding a Spiritual telegraph between the mortal and immortal realms of 
being, were instrumental in promoting the phenomena which occurred 
at Epworth Parsonage, in the family of John Wesley, and influencing 
Mesmer and his followers in the discovery of the life principle of 

The wonderful " preaching epidemic in Sweden ; " the obsessions in 
Morzine ; the uprising of Mormonism, Shakerism, the gift of tongues 
amongst the Irvingites, and the great revivals in Ireland, are all unmistakable 
fruits of the same mighty contagion of Spiritual forces, surging through an 
age specially prepared for their reception. 

Let any candid student of Pneumatology peruse with attention the array 
of facts collected by Kerner in Germany, Cahagnet in France, and Mrs. 
Catherine Crowe in her English work, "The Night Side of Nature." Let 
him remember that these eminent writers contributed their vast mass of 
Spiritualistic testimony in advance of the " Rochester Knockings," and it 
will be impossible to evade the conclusion, that the widely separated lines 
of evidence all diverge from one powerful spiritual centre. Commending to 
our readers 1 attention Howitt's exhaustive " History of the Supernatural," 
the writings of R. D. Owen, Thomas Brevior, Kerner, Ennemoser, and Mrs. 
Catherine Crowe, for a wealth of detail not attainable in this work, we shall 


now lay before our readers some of those striking spiritual way marks 
which antedate the introduction of the modern spiritual telegraph in 

The first representative case of spontaneous spiritual manifestations we 
select, occurred in the village of Sandford near Tiverton in Devonshire, 
about the year 1812. Quoting from an account published by the author 
some years ago, the particulars of which were derived partly from the 
newspaper reports of the time, but chiefly from the testimony of Mrs. 
Floyd — the author's venerable mother who was mi eye witness of the scenes 
described, we call attention to the following details which we give in the 
language before published. 

" It was about the year 1812 when my mother, then a young single lady, went with 
her parents to visit friends at the town of Tiverton, Devonshire. 

" It was summer time, and during her first evening's residence she remarked, with 
surprise, the throng of private carriages which all seemed to be passing one way, and 
coming forth at one special time. Upon inquiry she learned that the object of this 
remarkable exodus was to proceed to a village some four or five miles distant, where a 
number of clergymen — of whom there were many residing in the town — together with the 
mayor and the principal physician of the place (both personal friends of my mother's 
family) were going to ' lay the ghost ' which had, for a long time, haunted a certain old- 
fashioned residence in the village of Sandford . The ' trouble ' which attached itself to 
this house, consisted in unaccountable noises, the ringing of bells, pattering of footsteps, 
lights proceeding from no human source, and other forms of preternatural disturbance. 

" The house had been occupied for many years past by different tenants, none of whom 
had been able long to endure the terrors of their weird surroundings. Every effort made 
by the owner of the property to detect a mundane source for these annoyances had proved 
unavailing. At the period when my mother visited the neighbourhood, the house was 
tenanted by a family who had been induced to occupy it rent free, and who devoted the 
lower part to the business of a general shop. 

" The presence of this family, however, seemed to have no effect, for the disturbances 
were as constant as ever. Even in open day passers-by could hear the knocking resound- 
ing ' like the tap of a shoemaker's hammer.' After nightfall the timid inhabitants of the 
village carefully avoided even the precincts of the place, whilst doctors, divines, politi- 
cians, and officers from the neighbouring garrison, assembled nightly to hold colloquies 
with the invisible tormentors. 

" It seems that the order of these midnight conclaves was as follows. A large wooden 
table was placed in the centre of the room which the ghosts most commonly affected. 
Round this the assembled company would seat themselves, and question the rapper in 
much the same manner as we adopt in our modern investigations. 

" For example : Several coins would be placed upon the table, and their number be 
indicated, upon demand, and always correctly, by knocks. At times the number of persons 
present, even their ages and professions, would be correctly told by signal raps. Had the 
sitters of seventy years ago been instructed how to anticipate the formula of the modern 
spirit circle, they could not have depicted its modus operandi more faithfully. Through 
the medium of certain signal raps, the sitters were always informed that the knocker was 
a spirit, a female, and one who had terminated an evil career by a violent death. 

" Now although the united wisdom of a neighbourhood famous for its learning and 
piety pronounced through the press the solemn verdict, that £ a tremendous imposture 
existed somewhere,' yet for ten years, during which the house perpetually changed 
inhabitants, and was the subject of unceasing examination, the said ' imposture ' was never 
brought to light, nor could any mundane origin for the mysterious disturbance be 

" The mixture of ignorance and conservatism which prevailed amongst those who 
investigated this subject may be judged of from the following circumstances. 

" Mr. Colton, a clergyman well known in the literary world as the author of ' Lacon ' 
and other metaphysical works, had been a constant attendant upon the ghostly seances, 
and finally gave it as his opinion ' that the affair could never be cleared up on mundane 
grounds.' No sooner was this statement circulated, than the journals of the day inferred, 
that Mr. Colton must knoiv something more of the causes than he chose to tell ; in fact, who 
knew but what the whole thing might have proceeded from him, as a clever ventriloquist ? Not 
until Mr. Colton's departure for a foreign land, and the continuance of the hauntings, 
was the theory abandoned, that he, who dared to hint at a super-mundane origin of the 


mystery must himself be its source. Again, the magnates of Tiverton pitched upon a 
poor soldier of somewhat questionable character, who had returned from the war and was 
glad to share with his parents, the shelter of a place obtainable rent free, as the cause of 
the trouble. These wiseacres forgot that the disturbances had preceded the soldier's 
presence for two years ; however, in order to test the validity of their theory, they spirited 
him out of the village, and shipped him to a foreign land. But all was in vain. Neither 
the absence of the learned scholar nor the ignorant soldier affected the Sandford invisibles 
except — as if in mockery — to increase the force of their harassing demonstrations. 

"The tenants who had been found bold enough to occupy the haunted mansion at the 
period when my mother's family came to visit Tiverton, were a poor shopkeeper with his 
wife and several children. 

" Amongst the latter, a little girl of about ten years of age seemed to be the special 
theme of the ghost's malevolence. 

" The child often complained of an ugly old woman whom she could see crouching in a 
corner of the room, making faces at her, and who would wake her up at night, and almost 
scare her into fits. One day this child was found lying dead upon the hearthstone. A 
coroner's inquest was held, and the verdict of the jury left it doubtful whether the poor 
little creature had been struck by lightning, died in a fit, or by the visitation of God. One 
thing was certain, namely, that the child had perished in the haunted room, and that she, 
above all the rest of the household, had been the victim of the ghost's malignity. A 
calamity of such a nature was too much even for the hardihood of the present tenant. 
He resolved upon an immediate removal, and would have put his determination into 
effect, had he not been delayed by the premature confinement of his wife, whose period of 
trial was hastened by the tragic circumstances of her little girl's decease. 

" Pending the recovery of the sick woman, the physician, at whose house my mother, 
and her family were temporary visitors, was called in to attend the woman. He was also 
requested to send a nurse competent to assist in such a case. Dr. Guffet, although well 
acquainted in his professional capacity with all the poor women of the neighbourhood, was 
unable to induce any one however necessitous to take service in the ' haunted house.' 

" Having at length obtained a suitable attendant from a long distance off, the doctor 
flattered himself that his patient's case was progressing favourably. He soon found how- 
ever that he was reckoning — in this instance at least, without his ghost — for it became 
evident that the stranger nurse was as much an object of the invisible's malignity as the 
deceased child had been. 

"Having been put to sleep for convenience in the room where the child had so 
mysteriously died, she became the target for an incessant system of persecution. She was 
unable to obtain rest by day or night, and one morning when Doctor Guffet was sum- 
moned to attend her, he found her confined to her bed, from the effects of the severe 
beating she had received during the night from invisible hands. Her body was com- 
pletely black with bruises, and these she testified before a magistrate, she had sustained 
from some invisible source which came and went without any known means of access to 
the chamber. The woman affirmed, that she felt a hand belabouring her, as if with a 
stone. The room was uncurtained, and the brightly shining moon made it as light as 
day. She testified upon oath in her examination, that no human being was in the room, 
nor could she discern a single creature near her. When at length her cries for help 
aroused the other inmates, and brought them to her room, the whole party heard a heavy 
bumping sound, as if something was falling off the bed, and moving of its own volition across 
the room, out at the door and down the stairs. The chief witness to the truth of this 
strange story was the doctor himself, who not only testified to the pitiable condition in 
which he found the poor nurse's body, but he added, ' the woman whom I sent to that 
house, hale, hearty, and stout, only a fortnight ago, is now an emaciated object, worn to 
a very shadow, and so distraught by fear that it would be murder to keep her there one 
hour longer.' 

The next incident which I have to record of this terrible abode, occurred at the sale 
of furniture which ensued, the very first hour that the mother of the family became 

"The auctioneer, who was related to Dr. Guffet, with whom my mother and her 
parents were visiting, informed them that as he was making an inventory of the goods, 
previous to the sale, he passed into the ' haunted chamber ' about noon, and there 
found an old lady rummaging a wardrobe which stood partly open near the door. 
Deeming it one of the members of the family, although her dress pointed her out to be a 
person of some distinction, he proceeded with his work for some minutes, until he heard 
the voice of the landlord calling to him to come to dinner. Bowing to the old lady as he 
passed her, he stood at the door to see if she would go first ; but as she continued her 
occupation without noticing him, he descended the stairs, and having taken the seat 
placed for him, proceeded with a courtesy peculiar to himself, to put another chair for 


the lady ivhom he had noticed above. On being questioned why he did so, explanations 
followed, and the family in haste ascended the stairs to see if any human being could 
really be found. All was in vain. Every nook and corner was searched without result, 
and when the auctioneer, at request, described the appearance of the strange visitor, it 
was universally admitted that the description corresponded exactly to the detestable 
vision which had tormented the poor deceased child. 

■" After these persons quitted the house it remained tenantless for many months. 
The noises could be heard for a considerable distance, and lights were seen flashing at 
the windows at all hours of the night. 

" Workmen were employed to rip up the floors and pull down the walls, in the hope 
of discovering concealed springs and trap doors. All was to no purpose, however. 
During these researches, two windows at opposite ends of the long chamber — the 
principal scenes of the haun tings — were pierced by a bullet or missile of some kind, 
projected with such skill, that two perfectly round holes were found in corresponding 
panes of glass. The wind was felt of the passing missile, and the shiver of the glass 
heard by the workmen, yet nothing was seen, and as the room was on the second storey, 
without a ledge or the slightest foothold for "any human being without, it might be 
inferred that the haunters desired to prove that no human agency could be at work in 
these manifestations. At length the sounds became so frightful that neither free tenants 
nor workmen would enter the place by day or night. It was ultimately abandoned, fell 
into decay, and what remained of it was pulled down. The papers of the time were full 
of reports, doubtless much exaggerated. Sages and scientists were alike baffled. 
Magistrates blustered and threatened, and several officers of the army, who had 
volunteered to sit up during the night, abandoned their watch, end refused again to 
enter such a 'veritable Inferno.'" 

Remembering how many respectable witnesses testified to these facts, — 
how many years their continuance was a source of horror to a whole 
neighbourhood, and loss to the proprietor of a once splendid mansion, 
recollecting moreover, that one of the eye-witnesses is now living, and is 
a venerable lady incapable of falsehood, we have as good a right to admit 
this narrative into the category of historical records, as any well attested 
event of ancient or modern times. 

We now turn to another form of haunting, selected from numerous other 
cases, because some of the witnesses are still living, and holding positions 
of the highest respectability. We refer to the unaccountable and persistent 
ringing of bells, which occurred in the house of Major Moor, a gentleman 
till lately residing at Great Bealing, near Woodbridge. These disturbances 
commenced on February 2nd, 1834, and continued at intervals with more 
or less violence till March 27th. The phenomena consisted of incessant 
ringing, sometimes of two or three, and not unfrequently of a whole row of 
nine bells at the same time — they rang day and night ; at times when Major 
Moor, his servants, and friends, were facing them, when the doors were 
locked within, and the house was guarded without; when the wires of 
communication were cut, and nothing but the bells remained. The ceiling 
and walls were dented by the violence with which the bells were dashed 
against them, and despite the stringent measures taken to discover 
imposture or trick, this strange disturbance continued without evidence of 
human interference, for a period of fifty-three days. At the end of that 
time, it stopped as suddenly as it had originated, leaving its cause involved 
in impenetrable mystery. From a pamphlet published by Major Moor 
on this subject, entitled "Bealing Bells," also from some accounts printed 
in the Ipswich and other journals, we learn, that during the continuance of 
this persecution, Major Moor's investigations were assisted by several of his 
brother officers, some scientific gentlemen, and not a few clergymen who 
were attracted by the accounts which appeared in the papers of the day. 

Amongst the persons who addressed letters to Major Moor, alleging that 
similar phenomena had occurred in their own houses, were families in 


Cambridge, Ramsgate, London, Oxford, Windsor, Ipswich, and numerous 
other places. Mr. Wm. Felkin, Mayor of Nottingham, and Mr. Ashwell, a 
gentlemen of high standing in Chesterfield, gave accounts of the mysterious 
bell ringings occurring at their residences. But one of the most marked 
cases reported by Major Moor, in addition to his own experience, was that of 
Lieutenant Rivers, one of the officials of Greenwich Hospital. This witness 
stated that he had detailed thirty-seven watchers by day and night in the 
attempt to detect fraud in vain. He employed a bellhanger and his assistant 
to cut the wires of every bell in and about his premises, and then, in the 
face of the men and the presence of many neighbours who had come in to 
witness the wonder, the entire set of bells all over the house began ringing 
at once, and kept up incessant peals for several hours. The bells in some 
of the other officers' apartments in the Hospital were rung in the same way, 
and when Major Moor himself visited the place, he not only received the 
personal testimony of a large number of witnesses, but examined carefully 
the locality, and was made aware of the impossibility of the ringing being 
effected by any human agency. 

The publicity which Major Moor gave to these circumstances, called forth 
a flood of testimony to events of a preternatural character, from various 
sections of the country. Then it appeared that bell-ringing was not the 
only form of disturbance prevailing. Hauntings not unlike in character 
those of the " Sandford Ghost," were reported from many quarters. 

The Rev. Mr. Stewart, Incumbent of Sydensterne near Fakenham, 
Norfolk, wrote in a letter to Major Moor : — 

" Our noises are of a graver character. Successions of rappings, groans, cries, sobs, 
heavy trampings, and thundering knocks in all the rooms and passages, have distressed us 
here for a period of nearly nine years, during the occupancy of my cure. They still 
continue, to the annoyance of my family, and the alarm of my servants. I am enabled to 
trace the existence of these disturbances during a period of sixty years past." 

Mr. Stewart said that in 1833 and 1834, his predecessors in that house 
opened the doors to all respectable persons who desired to satisfy their 
curiosity or wished to investigate the hauntings, but he adds: "Their 
kindness was abused, their motives misinterpreted, and even their characters 
maligned. We therefore," he says, " shut our doors, and they remain 
hermetically sealed." " 

In closing these curious narratives it may not be amiss to give a few 
extracts from the records of a spirit circle which was held not long since, 
in which some parties present were"commenting severely on the " unmean- 
ing character of such manifestations as bell-ringing and knocking." At this 
juncture one of the communicating spirits interrupted the conversation with 
. the following pertinent questions : — 

" Spirit — Pray, sir, what do you do when you want to enter a house and find the door 
closed ? 

'' Mortal — Well ! If we really want to get in we knock or ring. 

" Spirit — Then, don't you suppose it probable that those who have been knocking and 
ringing in your houses for the past half century are trying to get in too ? 

" Mortal — Why, what can spirits want to get into our houses for ? Having left the 
earth, it seems strange that they should want to get back to it again. 

" Spirit — Most of those who knock and ring in your houses have never left the earth, 
and would far rather get away from it than remain in it. But higher and wiser spirits 
wish to call the world's attention to the actual facts of spiritual existence, and the real 
conditions under which life beyond the grave is continued. Spirits of a very ethereal 
nature cannot affect material substances, and yet, in order to call the world's attention, 


and waken humanity up to what they have to say, they use the methods so famihar to 
yourselves— they knock and ring ; and those who cannot do this for themselves influence 
the earthbound spirits, who are magnetically chained to the scenes of their earthly mis- 
deeds, to do this for them. 

" Mortal — May we regard these haun tings, then, as transpiring under the direction of 
superintending spiritual wisdom ? 

" Spirit — Everything in the universe outworks the conditions of the being that belong 
to its state, and providential wisdom avails itself of different states to convert evil into 
good, and evolve uses out of the worst of abuses. Ten thousand preachers on the human 
plane of existence could not demonstrate the fact of spiritual existence so conclusively as 
a spirit who rings a bell in response to a human voice, or answers a question by knocks, when 
no mortal is near to produce the sounds heard." Verbum sap. 

As a final example of hauntings, especially of that kind which subse- 
quently connected itself with the intelligence manifested at Spirit circles, 
we shall cite a history furnished to the author some years ago by a party 
of her personal friends, amongst whom was a gentleman of probity and 
scientific acumen, well remembered amongst dramatics writers and musi- 
cians, as Mr. Lenox Home. This gentleman being in somewhat 
embarrassed circumstances about the year 1829, took up his abode 
temporarily in apartments offered to him at a very moderate rent in an old 
house near Hatton Garden, long since pulled down. At the period of 
which we write the house was large, the rooms spacious, especially one, 
supposed to have been a banqueting chamber, which Mr. Home used as 
a music room. As all the lower chambers were either appropriated to the 
storing of goods, or rented to legal gentlemen as offices, there were no 
persons sleeping in the house except Mr. Home and a porter, who occupied 
a small room on the ground floor. The building had long borne the 
reputation of being haunted ; it was fast falling to decay, and the former 
occupants of Mr. Home's chambers were seldom known to remain long 
within the gloomy precincts. Report alleged that the place had once been 
the residence of Sir Christopher Hatton, and the weird reputation that 
attached to the antique domicile, connected itself with the magical practices 
attributed to his unfortunate lady. 

Mr. Home had tenanted these apartments some months before he was 
aware of the phenomena occurring within his own premises. At length he 
was apprised by Mr. March, a police officer with whom he was acquainted, 
that for several consecutive nights he and a number of persons invited to 
share his watch, had remarked that long after the hour when Mr. Home 
was accustomed to retire to rest, the great banqueting room, which he had 
no means of lighting up, and therefore never entered except in daylight, 
could be seen from the court below brilliantly illuminated. Whilst acknow- 
ledging that he had often been disturbed by strange noises, odd music, 
loud laughter, and footsteps, for which he could not account, Mr. Home — 
at once the most fearless and least superstitious of beings — strenuously 
combated the idea of the lights, and it was only when, after watching for 
several nights with March and his associates, he himself beheld every 
window of his own apartment, one that he had left closed, locked, and in 
total darkness, lit up as if by a multitude of gas jets, that he could be 
brought to believe in the story his friends narrated to him. On several 
succeeding occasions the same party beheld this spectacle repeated, and 
whilst some of their number remained below to watch that no intruder 
passed out from the one entrance of the house, the others would hasten to 
examine the apartment, to find it enveloped in thick darkness. One of 
the curious features of this appearance was, the invariability with which the 


lights disappeared from the eyes of the watchers below, at the moment 
when the apartment was opened by the searchers above. Only on one 
occasion was this rule reversed, and that was on a certain night in February, 
when a larger number of persons than usual had assembled in the court 
below to watch for the phantom lights. 

They blazed out suddenly and in full radiance about one o'clock in the 
morning, when, after observing them for some five minutes, Mr. Home, 
Mr. March, and a nobleman whose name we are not at liberty to mention, 
determined to ascend the stairs and open the door of the haunted room ; 
and as they did so they agreed to give the signal of a whistle to those in 
the court below. At the moment when Mr. Home threw open the large 
door of the room in question, he and his companions were thunderstruck 
to perceive that it was full of company. 

One of the three observers had given the signal agreed upon of the 
whistle which he held in his hand, as he gazed upon the extraordinary 
scene that met the eye. The vast company seemed to be in the act of 
dancing. They represented ladies and gentlemen, arrayed, not in the 
Elizabethan style attributed to the Hatton period of the mansion, but in 
the costume of the reign of Charles the Second, and the whole air seemed 
to be full of waving plumes, fluttering ribbons, and sparkling jewels. The 
three witnesses, who subsequently compared notes with each other, and 
found their own observations fully corroborated by those of the others, 
affirmed, that the particulars of the whole scene as above related were 
plainly, clearly defined, in addition to which, all three declared that every 
one of these splendidly attired revellers wore, or appeared to wear, a mask, 
resembling some disgusting animal. 

Before the astounded witnesses could sufficiently collect their senses to 
take any action on what they saw, the lights began to pale and shimmer, 
the whole scene quivered, melted out slowly and gradually, as in a 
dissolving view, and at length, that is, in the space of a few minutes, the 
apartment was seemingly empty and in total darkness. The watchers 
below reported to those above, when at last they had sufficiently collected 
themselves to descend, that the lights were stationary for about five 
minutes after the whistle sounded, and disappeared more gradually than 

Immediately after this vision, the house became wholly uninhabitable 
even to Mr. Home, and the two friends who volunteered to share his 
quarters with him. 

Heavy poundings were often heard during the day, for which no account 
could be given. But these were nothing to the Saturnalia which ensued as 
soon as darkness had set in. Tramping of feet, clashing of arms, the 
clinking of glasses, the crash of broken china ; all the sounds attending 
drunken revels, rude brawls, and even murderous fights, were heard, at 
times with horrible distinctness. Low moans, wails, and bitter sobs, were 
still more frequent, and the rushing as of blasts of winds, from unknown 
sources, was a frequent feature of these frightful disturbances. 

The witnesses, and they were many, represented their experiences to 
their friends only to encounter the usual sneer of incredulity and scornful 
derision. Two or three clergymen volunteered to offer prayers, and one 
zealous Catholic went through the formulae of exorcism in the possessed 
mansion ; but always to encounter such a storm of blows, laughter, and 
hideously derisive sounds, as drove them in horror from the place, a retreat 
in which they were shortly imitated by the tenants, who never after 


recurred to their painful experiences without a feeling of deep awe, 
solemnity, and an earnest entreaty that their narration should not be met 
with the ordinary methods of rude denial, and insulting jest. 

Despite what he had already witnessed, Mr. Home had no knowledge of, 
or belief in, the reputed modern Spiritual manifestations, the spread of 
which, since the year 1 848, he had noticed but never investigated. 

About the year 1853, being invited to spend the evening with some 
musical friends residing in Holloway, London, Mr. Home was there 
introduced to Madame Albert, a French lady who was accompanied by 
her little daughter, a child of some eleven years of age. During the evening, 
the hostess proposed that they should try the the experiment of "table 
turning," which was at that time, the technical expression used for evoking 
Spiritual manifestations. Madame Albert had it seemed become developed 
for mediumistic powers, whilst little "Josephine," was reported to be a fine 
somnambulist or trance medium. When the seance was first proposed, Mr. 
Home laughingly alleged his entire ignorance of the subject, but at once 
placed himself in position at the table, under the direction of the attendant 
Sybils, " to see what would come of it." No sooner were the party seated, 
than Mdlle. Josephine seizing the pencil and paper which had been placed 
on the table, wrote in an incredibly short space of time, in a large bold 
hand, the following communication, addressed " To Mr. Lenox Home," 
a name which the child up to that moment had never heard. The writing 
was given in English, a language, it must be remembered, of which the little 
medium was entirely ignorant. 

" You say you know nothing of spiritual existence or the soul's power to return to 
earth. Oh, my friend ! Why will you reject the light that has already dawned upoa 
you ? [n your own house, you have heard the sounds, and seen the sights, which bore 
witness to the presence of human spirits. Have you forgotten the phantom dancers, 
whom you and your companions thought wore animal masks ? Those dancers were my 
cempanions in vice and wickedness. They and I lived amidst scenes of revelry too 
shameful to be detailed. We were associates of the frivolous roue, that occupied the 
throne of England, — Charles the Second, — and in the house where you found shelter, we 
often used to hold such revels as demons alone could take pleasure in. When we became 
spirits, the base passions with which our lives on earth were animated, became, so engraved 
upon our spirits, that all who looked upon us from a higher plane, beheld us transfigured 
into the semblance of the animals whose natures we partook of. Shocking as this 
disclosure of our true natures may be, it haply may help future generations to account 
for the idea of the doctrine of the transmigration of souls. Unhappily, that doctrine is 
not true. We might be happier as the animals whose limited instincts we represent, but 
oh, unhappy that we are ! we are at once the human beings we ever were, with the 
additional humiliation of knowing that we take to others the semblance of the lower 
creatures, whose passions we have imitated. Friend HorDe ! Our hell is, not to pass into 
other states, but to live in our oivn, and by the knowledge of what we have made our- 
selves, to grow into higher conditions. You thought we wore masks. Alas ! We had 
only dropped them, and exchanged the mask of seeming for the face of reality. In the 
spirit world, all its inhabitants are known for what they are, and the soul's loves take the 
shape of angelic beauty, or brutish ugliness, according to the tendencies of the life within. 
On the night when you beheld our revels, we were obliged, by the law of our being, to go 
through the earthly scenes which we had taken too much delight in. On earth sucl 
revels were our heaven ; in the spheres they are our hell. Their enforced enactment was 
part of our penance ; but thank God ! I have seen the errors of the past, and hencefor- 
ward I am atoning for it, and living my wasted life over again. I am on the road of 
progress, and even this humiliating confession will help me forward, and aid me to 
become stronger to save others and myself from the vices, the memories of which still 
cling to me like a garment. Farewell ! My earthly mission is done ; there will be no 
more haunting spirits in the old house in Hatton Garden." 

The signature to this singular communication was, " One who was known 
in the day and time of Charles Stuart as the finest woman of her age — Lady 

D. Dunglas Home. 

f. i _ uONOON 


Appended to Mr. Home's manuscript, entrusted to the author some 
years ago with a view of publication, were the following words : — 

" Great Heaven ! If this be indeed a true picture of the life hereafter, should it not 
make us afraid of doing wrong ? But, above all, what a wicked and soul-destroying delu- 
sion has been the clerical farce of salvation by a vicarious atonement ! — L. H." 



Representative Cases Considered. 

The circumstances of the following narrative, although they have been 
frequently referred to in other publications, are too nearly related to the 
early history of Spiritualism in Great Britain to be omitted. They bear, 
moreover, so closely upon the hypothesis that wise Spirits have been 
experimenting during this century in many directions, with a view of 
establishing telegraphic communications between the two worlds, that our 
present recital seems peculiarly apposite to this portion of the work. 

It seems that a young girl of about 13 years of age, the daughter of Mr. 
John Jobson, a resident of Bishop Wearmouth, near Sunderland, sometime 
during the year 1839 became the subject of a severe but inexplicable 

Mary Jobson had been a strong healthy girl up to the period named, 
when she suddenly seemed to collapse under an attack which confined her 
to her bed for over seven months, during which she became blind, deaf, 
and dumb. From time to time numerous physicians were called in, by 
whose directions the poor patient was subjected to all the penalties of the 
" heroic " system of treatment. 

Her case was described as "an abscess on the brain," but whatever the 
malady might have been, it was obviously increased by the applications 
resorted to by her medical attendants. 

Soon after the most serious features of this case became developed, it 
was remarked that the whole house, and especially the sick girl's chamber, 
resounded with unaccountable sounds, consisting of heavy poundings, 
pattering of feet, the ringing of bells, and the clashing of metallic substances. 

As the girl's disease progressed in violence, these disturbances grew more 
marked ; there were times however when they changed to soft and delightful 
music which centred in the invalid's chamber, yet resounded through every 
part of the dwelling. Sometimes it would seem as if a vast crowd of 
people were ascending the stairs and thronging into the room. Even the 
wind that might be occasioned by passing bodies was felt, when no one but 
theordinary attendantswere visible. During the progress of these phenomena, 
the tones of a human voice were frequently heard protesting against the 
application of leeches and blisters, and recommending mild herb drinks, 
which, when tried, invariably alleviated the poor patient's sufferings. On 
one occasion when several members of the family, together with Drs. Clanny 


and Embleton, were present, this voice spoke clearly and said ; " Your 
appliances will never benefit, but materially injure the girl. She will recover, 
but by no human means." On several occasions the glasses containing 
medicines, together with blisters and leeches, were snatched out of the 
attendant's hands, and thrown to distant parts of the room. Not unfre- 
quently a crooning tone was heard, as of a mother soothing a sick child, and 
the poor girl's hair was put back and smoothed by tender invisible hands, 
Dr. Beattie who witnessed many of these scenes, affirms, that it would be 
impossible either to describe or forget, the angelic expression of the invalid's 
face at the time when the manifestations of invisible presence were most 

About the sixth month of this strange drama, the ceiling of the room in 
which Mary Jobson lay, was suddenly found adorned with a beautifully 
painted representation of the sun, moon, and stars. 

The father of the patient — who from the first had been determinately 
hostile to the invisible actors, alleging that they were " demons," and the 
cause of his child's sickness — no sooner perceived this fresh proof of 
spiritual agency, than he proceeded to obliterate the paintings with a thick 
coat of whitewash. His work was in vain however, for the obnoxious 
paintings re-appeared as soon as the whitewash was dry, only fading out 
when the child's recovery was established. 

On June 22nd, 1840, Mary Jobson regained her speech, hearing, and 
sight, as suddenly as she had lost them. Her strength too returned, and in 
a few days, without any apparent cause for the change, she was entirely 
restored to her usual health and spirits. For several weeks the occasional 
sounds of music, voices, knockings, and the movement of bodies continued, 
but these phenomena ultimately ceased, and have never since returned. 

The chief witnesses to this wonderful history were the girl's parents, 
numerous friends and neighbours ; Doctors Embleton and Beattie ; also 
Dr. Drury, Messrs. Torboch and Ward, eminent surgeons, and Dr. Reid 
Clanny, F.R.S., physician in ordinary to the Duke of Sussex, and at the 
time of these occurrences, senior physician of the Sunderland Infirmary. 

Dr. Reid Clanny, who was not professionally called in to attend the 
child, became informed of her case through the reports that were in circula- 
tion concerning it. Like a true and candid scientist, this gentleman, heedless 
of all the wild rumours that reached him, called on the parents, and subse- 
quently followed up the case with the closest scrutiny, often witnessing the 
phenomena described, and satisfying himself according to his own published 
statement, " that the power — come from whence it may — was not only kind 
and beneficent, but that it manifested all the tokens of human intelligence, 
and was better able to prescribe remedies and delineate the course of the 
disease than any of the attendant physicians." 

These admissions were made in an account of the case which Dr. Clanny 
published in pamphlet form, and though he staked his reputation upon the 
truth of his statements, and cited the testimony of numerous respectable 
witnesses, including Doctors Drury, Embleton, Ward, and Torboch, his 
fearless and timely publication was met by the scoff of the press, the ridicule 
of those scientists who had not witnessed the phenomena described, and the 
special denunciation of the learned and pious. 

The pamphlet, nevertheless, was eagerly bought up, and a second 
edition soon called for. In this Dr. Clanny bravely maintained his position, 
adding the following earnest words from Mr. Torboch, one of the surgeons 
who followed the case throughout : — 


" I have had lengthened and serious conversations at different times with nearly all the 
persons who have borne testimony to this miraculous case, and I am well assured they 
are religious and trustworthy, and, moreover, that they have faithfully discharged their 
duty in this important affair between God and man." 

Since the above account was written the author has been favoured with 
a perusal of Dr. Clanny's pamphlet, from which the following few additional 
details are gathered. After commenting on the peculiarity of the voice 
heard speaking in Mary's chamber, Dr. Clanny says : — 

" The phenomena of human voices speaking, did not seem to be special to the sick 
girl's chamber. Mrs. Elizabeth Gauntlett, a schoolmistress, was suddenly startled by 
hearing a voice crying to her, ' Mary Jobson, one of your scholars, is ill ; go and see her, 
it will be good for you.' This person, the child's school teacher, did not know where she 
lived, but finding the address, she went as directed, and was called by the voice in a loud 
tone, audible to all those in the house, to come upstairs. On her second visit, delightful 
music filled the room, and was heard by sixteen persons. 

" The voice often declared the child did not suffer, her spirit being away, and her body 
being sustained by guardian spirits. These voices told many things of distant persons 
and scenes which came true. 

" Before the girl lost her speech she affirmed that she was often visited by ' a divine 
being who looked like a man, only exceedingly heavenly and beautiful.' Mr. Joseph 
Slagg, and Mrs. Margaret Watson, friends of the family, who often visited the sick girl, 
alleged that each of them had at different times beheld the same divine apparition, and had 
been assured by it that the girl would recover. On several occasions ' the voice ' desired 
that water should be sprinkled on the floor, and when the sceptical father refused com- 
pliance, water from some unknown source fell in showers around the witnesses. 

" On the 22nd of June, when the poor child seemed to be in the last extremity, the 
family assembled round her bed united in prayer that God would be pleased to take her 
and terminate her sufferings. At five o'clock in the afternoon the voice cried out, 
' Prepare the girl's clothes, and let every one leave the room except the baby.' This was 
a little child of two years and a half old, who was playing about near the window. When 
the family at length most reluctantly obeyed, they remained outside the closed door for 
fifteen minutes ; they then heard a voice calling out, " Come in," and when they entered 
they found Mary quite well, sitting in a chair with the baby on her knee, smiling and 

The report adds : — 

" Up to this time, January 30th, 1841, no relapse has taken place, and Mary Jobson 
seems as well as girls of her age ordinarily are." 

Dr. Drury, Dr. Clanny, and Mr. Torboch all assert that many persons 
of rank and some ministers of the Established Church visited Mary 
Jobson, and unreservedly testified to the truth of Dr. Clanny's published 

Few seekers into the evidences which cluster around the history of 
Spiritualism in England will forget the law suit instituted by a Mr. Webster, 
the proprietor of a house at Trinity, Edinburgh, for damages done to his 
property by Captain Molesworth, a gentleman, who with his family, rented 
Mr. Webster's house, and was accused of causing extensive dilapidations 
therein, by his attempts to discover the secret of the terrible hauntings 
which beset the place. 

Captain Molesworth entered upon possession of the house in question 
in June, 1835. Shortly after this, one of his daughters died, leaving a 
sister of about thirteen years old. This young lady soon after fell into 
ill health, took to her bed, and after some months of a strange and 
unaccountable illness, died. 

It was generally asserted that the cruel suspicions and harassing investi- 
gations, that followed upon the disturbances, the principal scene of which 


was the poor invalid's chamber, did more to hasten her decease, than 
either the phenomena, or the course of the disease. In this case as 
in that of Mary Jobson, delightful music, and audible human voices from 
unknown and invisible sources were constantly heard around Miss Moles- 
worth's bed. 

In other parts of the house, heavy poundings, loud enough to be heard 
in the street, together with groans, cries, footsteps, and rustlings, were of 
frequent occurrence. 

The sleepers were awakened at night by the beds being heaved up, and 
rappings, which would respond by given signals to questions asked by the 

In Mrs. Catherine Crowe's "Night Side of Nature," it is stated, that 
carpenters, masons, city officials, justices of the peace, and the officers of the 
regiment quartered at Leith who were friends of Captain Molesworth, all 
came to aid in his investigations, in the hope of detecting imposture, or 
exorcising his tormentors, in vain. 

Cordons of guards were stationed round the house by day and night, 
whilst the poor invalid, whose room seemed to be the chief centre of the 
hauntings, was not only carefully watched, but even tied up in a bag, and 
subjected to all sorts of harassing annoyances to make sure that she had 
no hand in producing the disturbances. 

Absurd and vexatious as these suspicions were, they were soon put to 
flight by the suffering girl's decease. Meantime, the evidence called forth 
by the trial for damages done to Mr. Webster's house, conclusively enough 
proved to the world the supramundane character of the hauntings, and the 
impossibility of any human agency accounting for them. 

The case of Elizabeth Squirrel, the vision seeress ; of the haunted house 
at Wellington — still in possession of its spiritual occupants, as the latest 
reports from Newcastle testify — together with many hundreds of well-attested 
instances of hauntings, ghost seeing, visions, wraiths, and divers other 
forms of Spiritual manifestations, occurring in Great Britain during this, and 
the preceding century, have been so minutely described in the works 
already alluded to, that it would be unnecessary to add to the examples 
already cited. 

In reviewing the narratives thus presented, there will invariably appear 
to be many striking points of resemblance amongst them. For instance ; 
they will most generally be found to represent the spirits of human beings, 
and to manifest human intelligence. Invisible though they may be to 
mortal eyes — except in rare instances — the actors seem to take cognizance 
of persons and things in the material world ; to hear speech addressed 
to them, and to respond intelligently by signal sounds or motions. 

In some cases — as in that of the " Sandford ghost" — the invisible 
presence seems to be malign and mischievous — in others, as illustrated 
by the bell-ringing at Great Bearing, the demonstrations appear to be 
simply meaningless and silly. 

Intelligence, skill, and kindness, marked the action of the invisible 
presence that attended Mary Jobson, and lessons of deep import and 
suggestion grew out of the hauntings detailed by Mr. Lenox Home. 

Could all Spiritual manifestations have been thoroughly sifted, and direct 
question and answer have taken the place of the foolish exorcisms, threats, 
and denunciations, with which these hauntings were formerly received, 
might they not have been explained upon the same hypotheses which are 
revealed to humanity in the open communion that now exists between the 
Spiritual and natural worlds ? 


By these we learn, that haunting spirits are magnetically fettered to the 
scene of their earthly crimes ; that the sounds and sights heard and seen 
in such places, are projected from the spirit world into the earth's atmos- 
phere by unhappy spirits ; the remembrance of their former evil deeds 
becoming their hell, in which they are compelled to re-enact the deeds 
that continually recuf to their minds. 

Other spirits of a higher grade with better intentions, and better guidance, 
ring and knock to attract attention, and compel enquiry ; and still again 
others, whose love for humanity prompts them to become the guardian 
spirits of dear relatives still remaining on earth, endeavour to make their 
watch and word known, as in the cases of Mary Jobson and Matilda 
Molesworth, by acts of beneficence and tokens of tender ministration. 

Could every demonstration of Spiritual presence, whether it comes in 
the form of haunting or loving ministry, be thoroughly investigated, whilst 
its phenomena would unquestionably afford to mankind the indication of 
Spiritual laws now unknown, it would also resolve itself into such strictly 
human intelligence, that we should marvel how we could have ever rele- 
gated it to the dreary horrors of a weird supernaturalism. 

Mr. S. C. Hall, the venerable editor of the Art Journal, was the 
first writer we believe who contributed to the literature of Spiritualism the 
well-known narrative of the spirit calling himself " Gaspar." 

This denizen of the other world seemed compelled, in his first attempts 
to communicate with earth, to manifest his presence by the usual array of 
terrifying sounds and movements which accompany supernatural agencies ; 
in process of time however he was enabled to converse with the family to 
whom he was attracted, through the methods of ordinary human speech. 
For over three years this Spirit took part in the daily life, interests, and 
welfare of his human friends ; talking with them, advising, and counselling 
them, with all the wisdom and affection of a beloved member of their 
household, and when at last he left them, in pursuance of some Spiritual 
conditions which, as he alleged, would aid his progress, but deprive him 
of the power to hold further audible intercourse with them, they felt " as if 
they had lost their best friend," and could hardly be reconciled to his 

Nothing can more conclusively prove that the darkest shadows of 
" Supernaturalism " have become dissipated, and given place to light and 
reason, than the present open communion with the Spirit world. In this, 
we recognize the men, women, and children of this world over again ; the 
good ascending into angel-hood, the indifferent still lingering on the threshold 
of the earth, with which their affections have been all too closely inter- 
woven,— and the evil-minded, either exhibiting the first monitions of 
remorse which impel them forward on the path of progress, or the same 
hardened adherence to criminal tendencies which await the softening 
influences of penitence, to lead them into the way of reform. 

The great American Seer A. J. Davis, describes in one of his works, a 
visit he made to the bedside of a man, suffering under an aggravated attack 
of delirium tremens. 

On entering the room, Mr. Davis beheld the apparition of a beautiful 
female Spirit standing at the foot of the bed, scattering visionary flowers 
over the coverlid, and endeavouring by magnetic passes of her fair hands, 
to soothe the sufferer's fever-haunted condition. 

On describing this celestial visitant to the family present, she was at once 
recognized as a departed relative, whose pure life corresponded to her 


angelic appearance. It seemed however that the spiritual perceptions of 
the unfortunate patient were sufficiently awakened to be conscious of the 
prese?ice, although not of its beneficent character, for in the midst of his 
frantic ravings, he was perpetually complaining of a deftion, who stood at the 
foot of his bed, stinging him with thorns, and throwing off fire from her 
hands. He often appealed to those around, asking if they could not see 
this demon, whose frightful appearance filled him with horror. Is not the 
delirium of ignorance and superstition just as capable of transforming 
angels into demons, as the delirium of drunkenness? 

We must now invite the reader to consider in some detail, the signifi- 
cance of four well-known movements, each of which, by the wide-spread 
influence they have exercised over their votaries, demands recognition and 
earnest attention from the students of psychological philosophy. These 
are Mormonism ; Shakerism, the sect known as Irvingites, and the Irish 
Revivals : of course the two former, although largely recruited from British 
sources, belong to the history of American Spiritualism. Neither of these 
movements may be commended to public acceptance, for their beneficial 
influence upon mankind. 

But, though the cui bono of the subject is not the point with which the 
facts of history are called upon to deal, it will become self-evident to 
thoughtful students, that there is something wonderfully significant in the 
lessons which these singular and exceptional movements teach us. For 
example ; Mormonism, which originated through the Spiritual Mediumship 
of Joseph Smith, illustrates with overwhelming force the depravity into 
which human beings may be plunged, by seeking authority for their 
religious beliefs, in the days of ancient barbarism ; and setting up for 
modern example, the old Jehovah system, which not only sanctioned, but 
even enjoined the horrors of relentless warfare, and the infamies of 

On the other hand, we have the religion of Anne Lee, the spiritually- 
inspired founder of Shakerism, rushing into that opposite extreme of 
excessive asceticism, which, if Shaker life and practice could prevail over 
the earth, would depopulate it in a single generation. 

Both these movements owe their origin to spiritually-inspired founders ; 
both are advent footprints in the wilderness of modern materialism ; but 
whilst Mormonism illustrates the futility of looking to -the past, to find 
authority for our religious beliefs, Shakerism equally proves the imbecility 
of attempting to inaugurate in the earthly present, a system of asceticism 
which only belongs to our condition as pure spirits, in the future. 


The third movement to which allusion was made above, is the wonderful 
Pentecostal outpouring which fell on certain members of a church presided 
over by the Rev. Edward Irving, from whom the affected persons were 
called by the name of "Irvingites." The following brief summary of this 
remarkable demonstration, is gathered chiefly from the history of Edward 
Irving by Mrs. Oliphant, published in Mr. Thomas Shorter's excellent 
account of Spiritual manifestations, entitled " The Two Worlds," and a small 
volume on " The Revivals," written by W. M. Wilkinson, Esq., solicitor, 
of Lincoln's Inn, London. 

The latter in introducing his subject says : — 

" Of Mr. Irving himself, it is only necessary to say that he believed and preached that 
the Church might and ought to have a restoration of the divine gifts which are promised 


in the gospels, and that the not having such, was a sign of its low state and was in fact 
its condemnation. 

" Whatever may be thought of his theory, he was a great and good man, as all who 
knew him testify. 

" Carlyle, who knew and loved him, says of him — ' He was the freest, brotherliest, 
bravest human soul mine ever came in contact with. 

" ' I call him on the whole the best man I have ever, after trial enough, found in this 
world, or ever hope to find.' " 

One thing is certain, that panegyrists and detractors alike, attribute to 
Mr. Irving a character of singular purity and rectitude, whilst it is univer- 
sally admitted, that his eloquence, and the marvellous power he exerted 
over his immense and fashionable congregations, were as remarkable even 
before the Spiritual outpouring with which his name is associated, as any 
phenomena which occurred during that wonderful visitation. 

It was in the magnificent church in Regent Square, erected at a cost of 
fifteen thousand pounds expressly for Mr. Irving — then the most popular 
preacher in London — that the outpouring of " the gift of tongues " occurred. 

It seems that the first manifestation of this singular power, commenced 
in Port Glasgow sometime in 1830. 

Mr. Irving, a Scotchman by birth, had commenced his ministerial career 
in Glasgow, and as the reputed demonstrations were of the character which 
he himself alleged the Church of Christ should possess, he became strongly 
interested in the tidings that reached him, and forthwith sent one of the 
elders of his own church to enquire into, and report upon the matter. 

The following extracts are condensed from Mr. Irving's own narra- 
tive of the "gift of tongues," published in Eraser's Magazine (vol. iv.), in 
which is embodied the report of the agent above alluded to. The latter, 
writing to his Pastor, Mr. Irving, says : — 

"About this time (1830), in the death-bed experiences of certain holy persons, there 
appeared many and very wonderful instances of the power of God's Spirit, both in the way 
of discernment and utterance. They were able to know the condition of God's people at a 
distance. In one instance, the countenance shone with a glorious brightness, as if it had 
been the face of an angel ; they spoke much of a bright dawn about to arise in the Church ; 
and one of them, just before death, signified that he had received the knowledge of the 
thing about to be manifested. . . 

" In March, 1830, on the evening of the Lord's Day, the gift of speaking with tongues 
was restored to the Church. The handmaiden of the Lord, of whom He made choice on 
that night to manifest forth in her His glory, had been long afflicted with a disease which 
the medical men pronounced to be a decline. It was on the Lord's Day, and one of her 
sisters, along with a female friend who had come to the house for that end, had been 
spending the whole day in fasting and prayer before God, with a special respect to the 
restoration of the gifts. They had come up in the evening to the sick chamber of their 
sister, and, along with one or two others of the household, were engaged in prayer, when 
the Holy Ghost came with mighty power upon the sick woman as she lay in her weakness, 
and constrained her to speak at great length, and with superhuman strength, in an unknown 
tongue, to the astonishment of all who heard. She has told me that this first seizure of 
the Spirit was the strongest she ever had ; and that it was in some degree necessary it 
should have been so, otherwise she would not have dared to give way to it. 

" The editor of the Morning Watch * writes : ' We have seen eight different individuals 
who have been eye-witnesses of these manifestations, and who are unanimous in their 
testimony to the supernatural, holy, and influential energy of what they there witnessed.' 
We subjoin the testimony of one of these, Mr. John B. Cardale, who is now the head of 
the church. He was specially sent by Mr. Irving to make enquiry, with five others, into 
these alleged tongues, and he thus gives their observations : — ' During our stay, four 
individuals received the gift of tongues. The tongues spoken by all the several persons 
who had received the gift are perfectly distinct in themselves and from each other. 
J. M'D. speaks two tongues, both easily discernible from each other. J. M'D. exercises his 

* A periodical established mainly as an organ of the Irvingites. 


gift more frequently than any of the others ; and I have heard him speak for twenty 
minutes together, with all the energy of voice and action of an orator addressing an 
audience. The language which he uttered is full and harmonious, containing many 
Greek and Latin radicals, and with inflexions resembling those of the Greek language. 
The only time I ever had a serious doubt whether the unknown sounds which I heard 
on these occasions were parts of a language, was ivhen Mr. M'D.'s servant spoke during the 
first evening. When she spoke on subsequent occasions it was invariably in one tongue, 
which was not only perfectly distinct from the sounds she uttered at the first meeting, 
but was satisfactorily established, to my conviction, to be a language. 

" ' One of the persons thus gifted we employed as our servant while at Port Glasgow. 
She is a remarkably quiet, steady, phlegmatic person, entirely devoid of forwardness or 
enthusiasm, and with very little to say for herself in the ordinary way. The language 
which she spoke was as distinct as the others, and it was quite evident the language 
spoken at one time, was identical with that spoken at another time. 

1(1 The chanting or singing was also very remarkable. J. M'D.'s ordinary voice is in 
singing, harsh and unpleasing ; but when thus singing in the Spirit, the tones are perfectly 

harmonious. On the morning after the day on which Mrs. received the gift of 

tongues, I heard her singing stanzas with the alternate lines rhyming. The tune was at 
first slow, but she became more and more rapid in her utterance, until at last, syllable 
followed syllable as rapidly as was possible, and yet each syllable distinctly enunciated. 

" ' These persons, while uttering the unknown sounds, as also while speaking in the 
Spirit in their own language, have every appearance of being under supernatural direction. 
The manner and voice are different from what they are on ordinary occasions. 

" ' Their whole deportment gives an impression not to be conveyed in words, that their 
organs are made use of by supernatural poiver. M. M'D. one morning, having, in conse- 
quence of a severe cold, so entirely lost the use of her voice as to be unable to speak out 
of a whisper, yet, on a sudden, commenced, and from ten a.m. to two p.m. continued 
speaking in a loud voice — sometimes in intercessory prayer in the Spirit, sometimes in 
denouncing the coming judgments, and occasionally speaking in an unknown tongue — 
and at the end of that time she relapsed exactly into her former state.' 

" When this messenger returned to London with his tidings, it was to find the tongues 
of flame sitting on his own wife and daughters. Still, not rashly, nor arrogantly, was 
the marvel proclaimed to the world. For some time, only in private meetings was the 
' gift invited to manifest itself.' There, philological learning pronounced the utterances 
something more than jargon, and observation failed to detect imposture. Prayer- 
meetings were then held every morning at the church in Regent-square, and were 
numerously attended. At these meetings, exhortations would be uttered in the ' tongue ' 
by one person, and the interpretation chanted in English by another. Warnings and pre- 
dictions were sometimes given. On Sunday morning, October 16th, a 'sister' {Miss Hall) 
burst forth in the open congregation with an utterance in the tongue. I calmed the 1,500 or 
2,000 people who had risen in alarm, bade the sister console herself — for she had struggled 
with the power that had possession of her, and hastened her into the vestry of the church, 
there to give it speech — and expounded to the congregation the 14th chap, of the First 
Epistle to the Corinthians, as explanatory of the occurrence. In the evening a ' brother ' 
produced even greater excitement than the morning speaker ; and in the course of the 
week all London was talking of this new phase. The ' unknown tongues ' continued in 
the church, and other ' utterances in the Spirit ' were also given ; and remarkable cases 
of healing by spiritual power occurred. 

" Those who speak in the tongue always declare ' that the words uttered in English 
are as much by power supernatural as the words uttered in the language unknown.' But 
no one hearing and observing the utterance could for a moment doubt it, inasmuch as 
the whole utterance, from the beginning to the end of it, is with a power, and strength, 
and fulness, and sometimes rapidity of voice altogether different from that of the person's 
ordinary utterance in any mood ; and I would say, both in its form and in its effects upon 
a simple mind, evidently supernatural. There is a poiver in the voice to thrill the heart and 
overawe the spirit after a manner whieh I have never seen." 

Besides " the tongues," the gift of healing became manifested in the 
church, and the power extended to other congregations. 

At Liverpool and Baldock in Hertfordshire, manifestations similar in 
character to those of the churches in Port Glasgow and Regent Square, 
became openly displayed. 

Mr. Irving at the earnest solicitation of many interested persons, wrote 
accounts of the manifestations which were published in Eraser's Magazine 


(vols. iv. and v.) ; he also contributed largely to the columns of the Morning 
Watch, a quarterly magazine in which the facts and philosophy of the 
strange movement were freely discussed. 

Mr. Irving very highly commends the manner and forms of this " divine 
speech," and by abundant and earnest reasonings, endeavoured to show 
that it was a renewal of Apostolic gifts and powers. After some two years 
continuance of these manifestations, certain members of Mr. Irving's 
congregation began to utter loud complaints of the disorders that had arisen, 
the result of which was, that a charge of heresy was ultimately preferred 
against him. 

At the trial that ensued " an utterance in power " came from Mr. David 
Dow, charging those who were faithful to arise and depart, whereupon Mr. 
Irving and Mr. Dow made their way out of church, and sentence against 
the pastor was formally pronounced. 

Besides this ruinous division in the excellent and amiable clergyman's 
congregation, there were other causes of disunion at work with the 
Revivalists themselves, which militated against the subject, and tended to 
bring it into ill odour with the world. The principal causes of this division 
originated with Mr. Robert Baxter, once an enthusiastic subject of the 
lingual gift, and subsequently a disbeliever in the divine origin of the 
power which he himself had manifested. 

This secession from the Irvingite ranks, was announced by Mr. Baxter 
himself in a tract which he published entitled, A narrative of facts 
characterizing the supernatural manifestations in the members of Mr. Irving's 
congregation, and other individuals in England and Scotland, and formerly in 
the writer himself. 

As no description of the subject can depict it in the same vivid light that 
it borrows from the testimony of witnesses and participators, we shall give 
the following quotations from Mr. Baxter's pamphlet as the best illustra- 
tion on record of " the power," and a subsequent condition of disenchant- 

Mr. Baxter says, writing of himself sometimes in the third person, and 
again in the first : — 

" He had heard many particulars of the extraordinary manifestations which had 
occurred at Port Glasgow, "and thought that there were sufficient grounds in Scripture 
to warrant a fair investigation of them. Being called up to London in August, 1831, he 
' had a strong desire to attend the prayer-meetings which were then privately held by 
those who spoke in the power and who sought for the gifts.' Having obtained an intro- 
duction, he attended, and heard ' the utterances,' both in the unknown and in the 
English tongue. In the latter there was, he says, ' a cutting rebuke to all who were 
present, and my own state of mind in particular. In the midst of the feeling 
of awe and reverence which this produced, I was myself seized upon by the power ; and in 
much struggling against it, was made to cry out, and myself to give f Orth a confession of my 
own sin in the matter for which we were rebuked. There was in me at the time of the 
utterance, very great excitement, and yet I was distinctly conscious of a power acting 
upon me beyond excitement.' 

" From this period, for the space of five months, I had no utterances in public ; though 
when engaged alone in private prayer, the power would come doiun upon me, and cause 
me to pray with strong crying and tears for the state of the church. On one occasion, whilst 
in my study, endeavouring to lift up my soul in prayer, the power came upon me, and I 
found myself lifted up in soul to God, and by a constraint I cannot describe I was 
made to speak a prayer that the Lord would deliver me from fleshly weakness, and graciously 
bestow upon me the gifts of his Spirit. This prayer was so loud, that I put my handker- 
chief to my mouth to stop the sound, that I might not alarm the house.' When I had 
reached the last word, the power died off me, and I was left as before, save in amazement 
at what had passed. 


" In January, 1832, when I again visited the brethren in London, the gifts in 
Mr. Irving's church were now being exercised in the public congregation. The 
day following my arrival, being called upon by the pastor to read, I opened upon 
the prophet Malachi, and read the fourth chapter. As I read, the power came 
upon me, and I was made to read in the power. My voice, raised far beyond its natural 
pitch, with constrained repetition of parts, and with the same inward uplifting which at 
the presence of the power I had always before experienced. When I knelt down to pray. 
/ was earned out to pray in the power for the presence and blessing of God in the midst 
of the church ; in all this I had great joy and peace, without any of the strugglings 
which had attended my former utterances in the power. 

" On the Sunday following, the power came in the form of revelation and opening of 
scripture ; and as I read, the opening of it was just as light flitting across the mind. A 
passage would be opened in the clearest manner, until portion after portion having been 
opened, and an interpretation given which I not only had never thought of, but which was 
at variance with my previous systematic construction of it. 

" If it were convenient here to make particular mention of men's names, I could name 
you many, who of late years have received such strange preservations, even against the 
common course of nature, that might convince an Atheist of the finger of God therein. 

" It hath been my own case more than once, twice, or ten times. When means have all 
failed and the highest art has sentenced me hopeless, I have been relieved by the preval- 
ence of fervent prayer." 

During the prevalence of "the power," a large number of seemingly 
miraculous cases of healing occurred with those upon whom the spiritual 
gifts were poured out. Among the most notable was the cure of a Miss 
Macdonald, an invalid of many years standing, who was entirely restored to 
health, by the touch, prayer, and command to " arise and walk," of her 
brother James, one of the Port Glasgow subjects of the "supernatural 
power." This same man, after raising his sister from the sick bed to 
which she had been confined for years, addressed a letter to a dear friend, 
a Miss Mary Campbell, who had just been given up to die by the doctors. 
In this letter, James Macdonald informed the sick lady, she must instantly 
arise and go forth to testify for the Lord. Without the least help, " the 
dying girl " arose, dressed herself, walked down to the meeting-room, and 
entered upon a career which lasted for many months as a prophetess of the 
new church. 

Mrs. Oliphant in her life of Irving, also mentions a sister of Mary 
Campbell's — Isabella, who was cured in the same way and with the same 

Still more renowned was the case of Miss Fancourt, the daughter of a 
clergyman, who for eight years had been a helpless cripple, and whom her 
father's congregation had been accustomed to see carried to church in the 
arms of attendants and laid on her back in her pew during the service. 
The wonderful cure of Miss Fancourt was effected in a single minute by 
the prayers of an eminent subject of the gifts, Mr. Greaves. As the cure 
has been reported at length in numerous religious as well as secular publi- 
cations, we must close our notice of it with a brief extract from a letter 
written by the lady's father, the Rev. T. Fancourt, to the Christian 
Observer, of November, 1831 : — 

" Her backbone, which was curved before, is now perfectly straight, and her collar-bones 
are quite equal, whereas one of them was previously much enlarged. It is four years 
since she walked at all, and then it was but for a short time with the assistance of a stick, 
and subject to a pain in her hip. She now walks stoutly and free from all pain." 

It is almost unnecessary to add, that whilst the fact of these, and many 
other equally marvellous cures could not be disputed, the invariable tone 
of explanation adopted by the religious journals was, that "the cures 


were wholly wrought by the name of Jesus ; " and " faith in the Lord 
Christ," &c., &c. These religious writers then, as now, forgot to explain 
why the millions of earnest Christians that have been done to death and 
tortured barbarously by other Christians, during the ages of Christian 
warfare and persecution, were neither saved from death at the stake, or 
mutilation, by faith in the name of Christ. John Huss, Latimer, Ridley, 
Joan of Arc, and tens of thousands of devout Christians, have called upon 
the name of their Lord in their hour of anguish in vain. If the prayer of 
faith was all that was necessary to save from death and agony, why were the 
Misses Campbell and Miss Fancourt cured, and ten thousand Christian 
martyrs unregarded? An equally pertinent question arises in reference 
to the thousands of cures which have transpired amongst the modern 
Spiritualists, many of which are recorded in their literature, and some few 
referred to in this volume. The prayer of faith in these instances is wanting, 
and the name of Christ is seldom or ever used. Can our Christian friends 
explain the modus operandi of these anti-Christian healing exploits ? Even 
Mr. Baxter, after abandoning the Christian solution of his problematical 
state, does not deny the facts of healing of which he was an eye-witness, 
and a subject himself. Can the " Satanic " theory upon which this eminent 
witness falls back, cover the ground of Spiritual healing as well as the 
name of Christ ? If so, can our Christian friends explain the difference of 
the power, and the superiority of one source over the other ? 

As the limitations of our space will permit of no more extended notice 
of this remarkable movement, nor of the vast multitude of witnesses whose 
testimony was rendered to the facts of healing as well as of tongues, we must 
conclude with the following brief extract from the life of Edward Irving by 
Mr. Wilks, one of his admiring followers. 

This writer, after detailing the circumstances of Mr. Irving's trial, and 
final withdrawal from the church, concludes with the following touching 
remarks : — 

" His public work was over. His flesh became wan ; bis raven bair hoary as with 
extreme age. His eye gleamed with an unquiet light, and the hectic spot on his pale 
cheek betrayed the fire burning at his heart. On December the 8th, 1834, he passed to 
that rest for which his weary spirit longed. The last words he was heard to utter were 
' If I die I die unto the Lord. Living and dying I am the Lord's.' " 

It would be needless to pursue in farther detail the course of the Catholic 
Apostolic Church, an organization which claims the noble-minded and 
devoted Edward Irving as its founder, although it neither adopts his name, 
nor conserves ■" the power" which made that name during four short years 
a milestone on the highway of immortality. 

Numerous records of kindred powers are to be found in the history of 
Spiritualism, but those which distinguished the uprising at Port Glasgow, and 
the Irvingites in London, undoubtedly owe a large share of their world-wide 
renown to the talents, eloquence, and unspotted life of the brave and 
devoted gentleman who gave all he was, and all he had, even to his very 
life, to uphold the truth and divinity of the mighty outpouring with which 
his name is associated. 

It is one of the triumphs as well as the consolations of Spiritualism, to be 
assured, that Edward Irving still lives, and though removed from the scenes 
of earthly trial in which his pure life was consumed, " he being dead, yet 
speaketh \ " 



The Irish Revivals. 

The fourth and last great movement of a Pentecostal character to which 
we can call attention as occurring during the present century, has been 
named " The Irish Revival," and though we have no direct account of its 
unfoldment before 1857 — nine years after the commencement of " Modern 
Spiritualism " in America, the scenes of the Irish drama were so distant 
from and unconnected with other European centres wherein " spirit circles" 
were generally held, and the people upon whom " the power " fell, were so 
far removed in rank and national isolation from the cultured classes 
amongst whom Spiritualism in Great Britain for the most part took root, 
that there does not seem even a possibility of tracing any connexion 
between the two movements, unless we admit the hypothesis of a 
universal outpouring of the Spirit all over the world and one moving in 
psychological currents of influence from all points of the compass. 

In commencing our necessarily brief review of the Irish Revivals, we must 
give some account of the place as well as the persons with whom they 
originated, and this we do in the words of William Arthur, A.M., a learned 
gentleman who published several voluminous tracts on this subject. 

After speaking of the colonies of Protestants from England and Scotland 
who peopled Ulster, and whose descendants form now its main population, 
Mr. Arthur says : — 

" The people are notoriously cool, practical, money-making, strong-willed, and fond of 

" None of the popular religious delusions which took effect in other places found their 
way into Ulster. Spiritual life was low, but the exaggerated crimes which prevailed in 
Romish parts of the land were rare. Still many forms of vice were very prevalent. 
Drunkenness raged like a plague ; swearing, cockfighting, gambling, and large numbers of 
illegitimate births, formed its natural train. A policeman on the streets of Belfast told 
us that he had lived in Ahoghill for two years, and that it was the ' worst wee place in 
the world.' On a day when a funeral took place, he said, there was so much drinking 
and fighting, that the lock-up was always full ; and on a fair day you could not go many 
yards without hearing drunken men cursing the Pope. 

" The origin of the present movement is clearly traced to Connor, a parish seven miles 
long, peopled by small farmers, weavers, and linen manufacturers, nearly all Presby- 
terians, mixed only with a handful of Church people, and scarcely any Roman Catholics. 

" There was a young man residing at Ballymena, a few miles away, who was zealous 
for religion after his manner, and stood in his own eyes as a Christian. But he heard a 
lady from England conversing with some young women, and describing true conversion. 
Her words reached the heart of the young man. He sought the inward and holy power 
of religion, and found clear and joyful acceptance with his Father in heaven. Full of this 
new happiness, he returned to his own parish. 

" In the month of September, 1857, he and three other young men joined together in 
secret fellowship, to pray for God's special blessing on the people around them. 

" Three months later what is called ' The Spring Communion' came. The parish had 
been more or less filled with tidings of the prayers that were being offered, and of the 
happy conversions which had taken place. Their minister had been preaching on the 
subject of a great revival, and telling what the Lord was doing for his vineyard in America,- 


with a strong desire for the like at home. The services of the Communion were crownod 
with unwonted influence. Life, inquiry, deep convictions, strong crying and tears — these 
became the familiar tidings of that favoured parish. Prayer meetings sprang up on every 
hand, and wonderful was it to the staid Presbyterian folk to hear, out of the lips of the 
unlearned and the ignorant, out of the mouths of babes and sucklings in religion, prayers 
of deep import and heavenly power." 

After many fervent expressions of thankfulness for the conversions 
effected as above shown, Mr. Arthur goes on to say : — 

" At a prayer meeting in the meeting-house there were about three hundred persons. 
All were unexcited, though earnest. At the call of the minister, a young man, one of the 
recent converts, read a portion of Scripture, and delivered a short exhortation. Then the 
minister called on them to spend a little time in silent "prayer. At first it seemed as if the 
moments would pass in deep silence ; but after a while, breathings began to be heard, 
low, subdued, but earnest — no voice, no tone, no ivords; but a breathing throughout the place, 
as if each one apart was breathing out the soul to God. That strange sound rose and came 
quicker till it almost rushed, and the place seemed all astir with suppressed but outbursting 

Very different results soon grew out of these peaceful " unexcited " 
prayer meetings, as the reader will perceive if, passing over a few pages 
rilled with descriptions of similar scenes and individual experiences, he 
takes up the thread of Mr. Arthur's narrative in June, 1859, two years later 
than the first "conversion" alluded to. We resume our extracts at the 
following point of advance : — 

" One who had felt the joy of pardoning love filling his own soul, and opening in his 
breast a little heaven, longed to see his mother, who lived in a neighbouring parish. He 
got one of his comrades to join him in earnest prayer for her conversion. After this, he 
went home to see if prayer had had any effect, and, to his joy and wonder, found that 
just while they had been praying, deep conviction had fallen uponhis mother's soul ; she had 
sought mercy, and was now rejoicing in hope of the glory of God. This triumph of 
prayer was no sooner won than came the question, Where was his brother ? Away at a 
cockfight. Thither he followed him : there he found him, and, seizing him, he said, ' I 
have a message for you from the Lord Jesus.' This went to his heart ; he too fled for 
refuge to the open arms of the crucified Redeemer. His burden fell off, joy and peace 
took possession of his soul, and he rushed away to his minister, exclaiming, ' I am saved ! 
I am saved ! ' 

" Converts from Connor then came to tell the people of Ahoghill what the Lord had 
done for their souls. It was a strange thing to hear weavers, and stone-breakers, and 
butchers, and others unskilled in speech, pouring forth reverent and thoughtful prayers. 
It was more wonderful still to hear them tell how the Lord had sent his arrows through 
their souls. 

" ' You ask,' cries a convert, ' if you did find mercy, how you would know it ? Ah, 
you would know it very ivell, you would feel it.'' And there his argument ended. But 
something was in these new-born souls — which went further than ten thousand arguments. 
The power of the blessed Spirit attended them. And then began those overwhelming affec- 
tions of body and mind together, which have resounded through the world, and made the 
Ulster Revival notorious to the religious and the curious alike. 

" In an opposite direction to Ahoghill lies the town of Ballyclare. There, one fair day, 
a slater coming home to dinner, was told by his wife that there was a man in the fair xoho 
had lost his reason ; for on the ' fair hill,' in his cart, he was praying aloud, and crying 
for mercy to his soul. The man went to see, and found it even so : it was a man from 
the neighbourhood of Broughshane, where the Revival had now begun ; and, as he came 
into the fair, such deep conviction of sin seized upon him, that he cared not for the eye 
of the crowd or the course of business, but felt he was going down into the gulf ; and he 
cried, ' Lord, save, I perish ! ' There was something in the cry which tvent to the soul of the 
slater, who had come to see the man ' out of his mind.' He felt, It is time for me to seek 
mercy too. 

"And, as if the Lord had said, 'Return to thine house, and show what great things 
the Lord had done unto thee,' he did return, and told his tale of redeeming love, and 
speedily the holy flame was lighted up in Ballyclare. 


" At Hyde Park, a village a few miles from Belfast, I had the happiness of witnessing 
a wonderful work of revival, and, on inquiry as to its origin, found it traced to a lad from 
Ballyclare. He told how the Lord had converted him, and seeing a boy impressed by it, 
fell upon his neck, and ' the affection of this boy seemed to break down the hearts of the 
people.' How slight a cause is followed by wonderful effects, when a mighty power of the 
Spirit operates ! 

" After nearly tioo years the first converts are steadfast, and the original seat of the 
revival more and more alive. Only within the last two months has it attracted public 
notice ; but in that time it has spread like fire, among country districts, market towns, and 
considerable cities. From Belfast to Coleraine, I have been permitted to see its effects, 
with wonder and deep adoration. I never read of anything equal at once in extent and 
transforming power, and hereafter it will be my endeavour to trace the work through 
some of those stages in which, instead of the tranquil and gradual progress which marked 
its early course, it burst forth with such manifestations as filled the newspapers, and 
became the all-absorbing topic of the country." 

As Mr. Arthur's views of revival practices are evidently dictated more 
in the spirit of orthodox sympathy with the actors than that of philosophic 
and deliberate investigation, we now turn to the testimony of a still more 
impartial collator of revival incidents, in the person of Dr. Massie, a writer 
of eminence, whose excellent account of the Irish Revivals is thus rendered 
in Mr. W. M. Wilkinson's volume on this subject before alluded to. Dr. 
Massie says : — 

" We may remark that the first noticeable cases of decided impression appeared in 
Ballymena, on the morning of Monday, the 16th of May ; and, up till noon of the fol- 
lowing Wednesday, the entire number was about thirty. These cases occurred chiefly in 
streets of an inferior description, and among the lower classes of the population. It 
would be impossible to ascertain the exact number so visited within the town — for cases 
are now to be found in every street, among all classes of the people. We know of one 
house wherein seven persons were impressed in the usual mysterious manner in the course 
of a single evening ; and the total number in Ballymena alone cannot be reckoned at less 
than three hundred. On the evening of Thursday, the 19th instant, the public excite- 
ment, particularly in Springwell Street, was intense ; and we visited that locality for the 
express purpose of witnessing and reporting upon the phenomena. On one portion of the 
street we found an assemblage of at least two thousand people engaged in services of 
prayer and praise under the leadership of laymen, six or seven houses elsewhere in the 
same street were crowded with people in every spot where standing room could be 
obtained. The doors, and in some cases the windows, were open, and besieged by a throng 
of all classes anxious to hear the proceedings within. These houses we found to be the 
homes of ' stricken ' parties, who were then labouring under the influence of the shock in 
sundry stages of its operation. Some were in a state of very great weakness and partial 
stupor ; some were dreadfully excited, calling upon God for mercy, with an earnestness 
of which no intelligent investigator could doubt the reality for a single moment ; some 
were uttering exclamations of despairing agony ; others were pouring forth accents of 
heart-touching and adoring gratitude. In all cases they were surrounded by crowds of 
friends or comforters. They were prayed over, in some cases by a single leader, in others 
by several persons at the same moment, the stricken person sometimes uniting with them 
in language of glowing and continuous eloquence, and at other times by inter jectional ex- 
clamations of doubt, hope, faith, or joy unspeakable. During the earlier paroxysms the 
sufferers generally experienced considerable relief from sacred music; and hence the 
devotional exercises were frequently varied by the singing of psalms, in which all who 
were within hearing appeared to join most cordially. This description of the proceedings 
in one house may be regarded as applicable to all the others — for we visited them all, and 
were favoured with opportunities for investigation in seventeen different cases. 

" In the course of the evening we had an opportunity of witnessing cases of 
' impression ' in the earlier stages, the scene at one of which we shall attempt to describe. 
Having made our way up a narrow staircase, crowded with anxious listeners, we entered 
a small apartment in which about twenty people of both sexes were grouped in various 
attitudes of deep attention or devotion. A neatly-attired young woman, apparently 
about twenty- two years of age, had been stricken an hour previously, and was supported 
in the arms of an elderly female, who was seated upon a low stool. The person impressed, 
appeared to be in a state of partial stupor, from which she was occasionally roused into a 
feeling of mental agony, depicted in heart-rending expressions of the countenance, and 


deep, low waitings of terrible despair. Her face was deadly pale, and her eyelids closed, 
except when partially raised by a convulsive paroxysm, and even then no part of the eye 
was visible, except a narrow line of white. Her pulse was intermittent and feverish, and 
her face and hands covered with perspiration. Occasionally she extended her arms with 
an action as if groping in the air, and at other times they were elevated high overhead, 
the hands clasped, and her features rigidly fixed into an expression of supplication, of 
which no language could convey an adequate idea. Her utterance was inter jectional and 
incoherent, mingled with sobs, moans, and agonizing expressions of despair, tike the fol- 
lowing :-»— ' Is there no hope ? ' ' Oh, my heart, my heart ! ' ' Pardon, pardon ! ' ' Oh, 
Jesus, save me ! ' ' Oh, God, have mercy ! ' Beside this poor girl two men were standing 
and praying aloud alternately. 

" In other portions of the room hands were clasped, and tears silently streaming from 
many an eye, but our attention was irresistibly attracted to the movements of a young 
woman, evidently of the lower classes, who had been ' stricken ' two days previously, but 
had now recovered, and was bending over the sufferer with emotions exhibiting the 
deepest and most affectionate solicitude. She told her of Jesus, who was ever willing to 
save ; she repeated passages of Scripture that spoke of hope and consolation to the peni- 
tent ; and then burst forth into a lengthened and apparently impulsive prayer, well 
expressed and perfectly intelligent, but chiefly interjectional. 

" Now, it may be asked, who was this earnest suppliant for peace and consolation to 
the afflicted sufferer ? Four days previous to the evening of which we write, she was a 
reckless and, apparently, God-forsaken young woman — a common street prostitute in Bally - 
mena ! Before we left the scene which we had thus attempted to describe, the impressed 
person had obtained considerable relief, and, at intervals, we observed that her lips were 
silently moving, as if in inward prayer. 

" In the meantime the movement was progressing with rapidity in every district of the 
surrounding country. Soon after breakfast hour on Saturday morning, six or seven young 
women became suddenly affected with all the usual symptoms, while engaged at work in 
the spinning factory at Raceview. Intense excitement immediately ensued, the alarm 
soon became general, and within an hour twenty or thirty people of both sexes were found 
prostrate. The business of the entire establishment was interrupted, and, as a matter of 
necessity, the factory was closed at twelve o'clock. It was re-opened on Monday, but 
nearly half the ordinary number of hands were absent, and we understand that the busi- 
ness of Ballygarvy bleachworks has been seriously impeded, owing to a similar course. 
About six o'clock on the evening of Sunday week, a congregation, numbering fully four 
thousaud people, assembled in the open air, in front of the Presbyterian Church at 
Broughshane, where services were conducted by the Rev. Mr. Robinson and a number of 
Revival converts from other localities. Numerous and strongly-marked cases of sudden 
' conviction ' occurred among the audience, and several persons were carried into the 
church, from which place they were not in a condition for removal till midnight. The 
total number of persons affected on that occasion has been estimated at more than one 
hundred. On the same evening open-air prayer-meetings were held at Cullybackey and 
Straid. At Carniney, about a mile from Ballymena, the assemblage numbered fully two 
thousand, and they separated into large groups, for each of which there was a speaker. 
Numerous impressions occurred, and some of the parties so affected were removed from 
the ground on cars, followed, in some cases, by ranks of people singing psalms." 

" Dr. Massie gives the following extracts from a Ballymena correspondent : ' Last night, 
at a prayer meeting in Wellington Street Church, so crowded that the doors and win- 
dows were surrounded by a multitude who could not obtain admission, scenes occurred 
which bowed the heart with awe and solemn fear, as if the invisible world was opening to 
view. Attempts have been made to describe such scenes, but no one can describe them, 
they must be witnessed. During the time that Mr. Shaw was speaking, a person labour- 
ing under stroDg convictions of sin was carried out into the session-room. He was a 
person who had had convictions before, but on this occasion they returned in a manner 
most distressing to witness. He was a strong, middle-aged man ; but in the mysterious, 
half -conscious state in which he was, his soul actually seemed to the beholders as the 
battle-ground between the powers of tight and darkness, filling his body with agony un- 
utterable. His cries for mercy, for salvation from Satan, and from his former sins, at 
first inarticulate, but at last so loud as to be heard over the body of the house — his clasped 
hands, as he knelt in prayer, with his face turned upwards, his eyes shut, every vein 
swelled almost to bursting, and the perspiration streaming down his face — his becoming 
calmer while listening to singing, and at last the torrents of tears running down his face, 
as he asked the 116th Psalm to be sung, showed the agonizing conflict that had been 
going on. Would that sceptics and those at a distance would at least suspend judgment 
until they saw one such case as this ! I would venture to say that if they had stood over 
that man in his agony and listened to his unutterable groanings for pardon and for peace, 


if not convinced themselves, they would speak of the present movement, not with sneers or ' 
mockery, but with solemn and reverential awe. Further, with respect to this man, he 
has shown one of the best tests of sincerity, in giving up a lucrative business, when first 
convinced of sin, about three weeks ago. He feels, as many now do, that a Christian and 
a whiskey- seller are not compatible terms. During the time that this man was suffering 
so much last night, others, all children, were brought in, or were seized tvith convictions in 
the room. The same cries for mercy, for deliverance from Satan, were repeated. During 
this scene in the session-room, the vast crowd in the church, led by one of the ministers, 
were praying, great numbers of them audibly, for those under convictions.' " 

" On the 18th of June, the Observer of Ballymena remarks — ' In the town and neigh- 
bourhood of Ballymena the mysterious influence continues in unabated operation ; and 
numerous cases, accompanied by all the wonderful phenomena so frequently described, 
are occurring daily. At the Presbyterian church, the congregation was so numerous on 
Sunday last, that many persons were unable to obtain admittance, and four or five new 
cases of " conviction " occurred during public worship. In the evening an immense con- 
course of the community assembled for united prayer in a grass park to the west of the 
Galgorm Road. All the churches in Ballymena would not have contained the number 
present ; and the spectacle was one of the most solemn we have ever witnessed. 

" ' The services were opened by the Rev. S. J. Moore ; after which addresses followed in ' 
succession from four or five lay converts. Their language was characterized by the 
unpolished but effective eloquence of nature, for they were thoroughly in earnest. Several 
strongly-marked cases of sudden conviction occurred, while these exhortations were in 
progress ; but the parties had been carried to a remote corner of the enclosure. The I 
services were brought to a conclusion by the Rev. Mr. Moore ; but the audience did not 
separate, for strange and most exciting scenes immediately ensued. Suddenly one person, 
and then another, and another, in rapid succession, fell to the ground with piercing cries of 
mental agony. The mysterious influence was at work. It spread still further among the 
assemblage ; and within half-an-hour we found not fewer than twenty human beings 
stretched upon the grass, exhibiting emotions, both of soul and body, sufficient to appal 
the stoutest heart. In all cases it appeared as if every fibre of the heart, and every muscle 
of the body were wrung with some excruciating torture. Then followed loud cries for the 
Redeemer's mercy, expressed in tones of anguish which no imagination can conceive or 
pen describe. 

" ' By some intelligent investigators it is believed that j ust in proportion to the fairness 
or immorality of previous character the visitation is more or less severe. The correctness 
of that opinion is liable to considerable doubt ; but we know that, from whatever cause, 
there is a great variety in the extent of suffering. Some cases are comparatively mild. 
But the majority of the cases of this evening were among the severest that we ever 
witnessed — and we have now seen hundreds of them. In general, the stricken parties 
were carried out from the pressure of the thronging multitude, to localities where they 
became objects of solicitude to smaller groups in other portions of the enclosure. At 
about half -past ten o'clock we reckoned nine circles or assemblages of this nature, in aj 
single one of which we found eleven prostrate penitents, smitten to the heart, and fervently 
supplicating God, for Christ's sake, to pardon their iniquities. 

" ' Over these parties, pious bystanders or some of the converted offered prayer. Other 
circles laboured to console the sufferers by singing appropriate hymns or psalms. In one 
of the circles we noticed a case of terrible severity, one in which visions of unspeakable 
horror must have been pictured to the imagination of the unhappy sufferer. A young 
woman lay extended at full length, her eyes closed, her hands clasped and elevated, and 
her body curved in a spasm so violent that it appeared to rest, arch-like, upon her heels and 
the back portion of her head. In that position she lay without speech or motion for several 
minutes. Suddenly she uttered a terrific scream, and tore handfuls of hair from her un- 
covered head. Extending her open hands in a repelling attitude of the most appalling 
terror, she exclaimed, " Oh that fearful pit ! — Lord Jesus save me !" "I am a sinner, a most 
unworthy sinner — but oh, Lord, take him away, take him away !" " Oh, Saviour of \ 
sinners, remove him from my sight I " During this paroxysm three strong men were hardly 
able to restrain her. She extended her arms on either side, clutching spasmodically 
at the grass, shuddering with terror, and shrinking from some fearful inward vision ; but 
she ultimately fell back exhausted, nerveless, and apparently insensible. How long she 
remained in that condition we are unable to say ; but we understand that she was treated 
with Christian sympathy, and removed from the field in safety before midnight. 

" ' This was an extreme case — not without parallel, but certainly the most frightful 
that we have ever witnessed. We may remark that, three days afterwards, that woman 
was visited by a Christian friend, who had been a witness of her agony. He found her 
weak in body, but her mind was thoroughly composed, She was a new creature. The 
light of peace and love vms beaming from her countenance, and joy reflected in her eyes as 


she told him of her perfect reconciliation with God, and her unwavering faith in the 
Redeemer. Now we do not pretend to explain the moving cause of these mysterious con- 
victions ; but we feel bound to say that such have been the results in every case brought 
under our notice during the last two months. In that respect there is not the slightest 
perceptible distinction in the influence, whether upon the old or the young, the rich or 
the poor, the learned or the unlearned. Whether the agonies are brief or lengthened, 
moderate or severe, the effect is invariably the same — the fruit is love, peace, joy, tem- 
perance, and humility. Some of the " impressed " recovered ability to walk, but the 
greater number were supported by their friends, or carried away, and the ground was 
entirely vacated about half-past eleven o'clock.' " 

Painful as it is to narrate, and call upon common-sense readers to 
follow these narratives, it is imperatively necessary that the philosophic 
student of psychology should trace out the workings of the wonderful 
modern Spiritual outpouring, in all its various phases. It is not an unin- 
teresting subject of consideration moreover, to observe how the same 
influx operating upon different grades of religious thinkers, is estimated by 
the ruling powers of modern society. When an ignorant and half-savage 
multitude screams and writhes, and, in convulsive agonies, only to be paralleled 
in the cells of Bedlam, howls forth supplications "that God will pardon them" 
for imaginary crimes, the clergy fold their hands, look reverently on, and 
cry, " Behold the work of the Lord ! " When a broken-hearted mother 
listens to the telegraphic signals which assure her the child she mourns as 
lost, still lives and blooms in Paradise, and she dries her tears, and 
calmly goes forth to proclaim in modest and eloquent terms, the fact of 
immortality demonstrated — that same clergy holds up its hands in holy 
horror, and cries, " Behold the work of Satan ! " 

It is time that a discerning public should have the opportunity of pro- 
nouncing judgment upon both sides of these pictures, and of comparing the 
theologic with the Spiritual influences prevailing during the psychological 
upheavals of this century. 

With this view we shall present a few more examples of the celebrated 
Revival movement in Ireland. 

A Belfast paper, speaking of Messrs. E wart's mill, Crumlin Road, says ;- — 

" On the morning of Tuesday, in one of the departments of a manufacturing concern, 
which employs a vast number of workers, male and female, nearly twenty girls were struck 
down, each in an instant, at their work, several becoming apparently insensible at once, 
and others uttering agonizing cries for mercy. The scene produced the greatest excite- 
ment throughout the entire works, and not a little alarm. Cars were provided for those 
who could not otherwise be removed to their homes, and the rest were assisted out of the 
premises, and taken to their respective places of abode. Orders were given that the work- 
rooms should be closed for the day ; but some additional cases of visitation occurred even as 
the young women were leaving the place and passing down stairs. Some of those attacked, 
lhave not yet been able to return to work. In most cases, on reaching home, the persons 
affected, or their friends, sought spiritual, and some of them medical advice ; and when 
prayer had been offered up, in a majority of instances, speedy relief both from physical 
find mental suffering appeared to be produced. Several of the young women, we have 
been informed, have found peace, and a number are earnestly seeking it in prayer." 

" The Rev. J. O'Brien, writing to the Dublin Express, says : — 

" ' Mrs. Connor has been one of the most striking cases I have seen. Her bodily affec- 
tion was very severe. She screamed so as to be heard a quarter of a mile off. She said 
' she had felt heavy for some days, and had to hold up her heart" putting her hands to her 
stomach. She was still in a very weak state. Her husband, who had been a man of very 
bad character, had been converted also, but was now able to return to his work, and spent 
ill his spare time in trying to convert others.' " 

" ' He speaks of another who " complained of a burning from her throat down to the 
bottom of her heart, and said that none but God could do her any good.' ' 

" The editor of the Ballymena Observer writes :— 


" ' We went to Ballyclare last night to attend a revival prayer-meeting, and, truly, I 
cannot understand it. I can only say that '' it is the Lord's doing, and marvellous in our 
eyes." The scene when we arrived baffles all description. Imagine a large meadow, with 
an immense multitude of people in all attitudes — some praying, weeping, and crying for 
mercy ; others lying in utter helplessness, only able to utter feebly their entreaties for 
pardon, surrounded by groups of friends and strangers, all interceding for them, and urg- 
ing them to call on Christ ; and again, others with their faces beaming loith a more than 
earthly light, listening to the speaker, with rapture, eloquently praising God ; fathers and 
mothers, tender children and strong men, the infant of a feiu years, &nd the grey-haired 
woman, all equally struck, all equally earnest and eloquent. I saw stalwart men led away 
as if they were helpless children ; and during the singing of one of the Psalms, a man 
beside us suddenly burst out into the most terrific cries, running round and round in 
circles in such a wild manner that it was dangerous tc be in his way — when his cries 
changed suddenly into calls on the name of Jesus, and in a few minutes, after the most 
awful suffering, he fell, unable to stand or even speak. The public-houses are empty, all 
through the town. There is a prayer-meeting in almost every second house. Groups 
about the streets are praying or conversing on the all-engrossing topic. Public works are 
stopped in consequence of this strange and awful manifestation. All places are alike ; 
people are struck down while following their daily avocations, resting on their beds, or 
traversing the streets. Among the people the visitation is sudden. The prayers and 
supplications for mercy by and for the afflicted are, oh, how awfully solemn and earnest ! 
From being one of the wildest toimis in the neighbourhood, Ballyclare has become one of the 
most religious' " 

" Dr. Carson, of Coleraine, who has written an excellent pamphlet on the Physical 
side of the Manifestations, gives the following : — 

" ' A poor child, I think about seven or eight years of age, came to my house one night 
at a late hour, and asked to see Mrs. Carson, who had gone to her bedroom. The inter- 
view was readily granted. The child became affected. Her imploring and heart-rending 
cries for mercy, for she said she was a sinner on the brink of Hell, were so absolutely dis- 
tressing that I had to leave the house for a time, as I could not bear to listen to the 
melancholy tones of her infant voice. The expressions of deep despair on her countenance 
could not be imitated by the best actor I ever saw on the stage. It was a dreadful scene. 
In a few hours, the poor child got the most perfect relief, and her countenance appeared 
almost superhuman with delight. She then began to pray, and her prayer would have 
melted the heart of a rock. It was so powerful, so fluent, and so full of thought, that it 
almost looked like inspiration in a child so very young.' " 

"The Rev. Dr. Spence, of the Poultry Chapel, giving the resiilts of his personal 
experience, says : — 

" ' I saw by the countenance of many of them that they were conscious of an unusual 
joy. I spoke to several of them individually about their spiritual change and their 
Christian hope. In some cases I could find no intelligent foundation for their joy beyond 
the simple fact that they had been " struck," and by-and-by had found happiness ; but in 
other cases I found the most profound sense of sinfulness, and the most loving reliance on 
the Lord. I endeavoured, when I was brought into contact with those who had been 
" struck," to test in every case the character of the change which had been experienced. The 
result was various. Sometimes I could find no solid scriptural basis for the transition from 
sadness to joy ; often, on the other hand, was my own soul refreshed by the simple narra- 
tive of a deepening sense of personal unworthiness, and a growing experience of the 
Saviour's grace. There may be ground, however, to fear that in not a few cases feeling 
alone had to do with the change.' " 

" Dr. Massie relates of ' M. Napoleon Eoussel, who came to see the revival, that he was 
full of mistrust, and that he had decided "to surrender his judgment only to evidence, to 
let no one know his intention of publishing." He describes the physical crisis much as I 
saw it ; in general consisting ' in wringing of the hands, raising the arms, moving the 
limbs, or holding the stomach in the hands, in a state of violent despair, or at least of great 
excitement under a sense of sin.' " 

"The Rev. Mr. Tocock writes :— 

" ' I was requested to come to a young boy, in a most frightful state, stricken in cfy, 
moment, and fearfully distracted, throwing out his arms, and kicking with his feet, and 
dancing and shaking in great agitation. I told him to be a little calmer, for he would 
displease the Lord by his conduct ; urged him to look to Jesus, and to pray for pardon ; 
engaged with him in prayer, he repeating the words ; then we sung, and being aided by 
two young converts, he came to Jesus, and found peace very soon afterwards.' " 

" From Ballibay it is written : — 

" ' The church ministers are beginning to join us. Twenty-five fell in one church along 
with the minister. In another church, there is a hundred of the congregation and the 
minister converted.' " 


" The Rev. Mr. Steel, of Dairy, describing a meeting at Glengarnock, says : — 

" ' About ten o'clock, a person rose and said that we ought to kneel and engage in 
prayer. A working man then rose, and, with a heart like to burst, poured out a most 
earnest prayer to Almighty God. At the close of the prayer, the whole meeting seemed 
to be moved by an invisible power. Here and there were persons crying out for mercy, 
and strong men crying in such a manner as I had never heard before. I have seen 
persons suffering under various stages of cholera — I have seen much agony in my day, 
but never such a sight as this.' " 

''The Ballymena Observer, describing similar cases, says : — 

" ' Ou Sunday evening last, an assemblage numbering 2,000 people, many of them from 
Ballymena, congregated at a prayer meeting in the open air near Kilconriola. The third 
speaker bad nearly concluded his exhortations, when a case of sudden impression, with all 
the ordinary symptoms, occurred among the audience. The patient was a young woman 
of the neighbourhood, who had been slightly affected some evenings before, at a meeting 
near Carncoagh. Some excitement immediately ensued, and other cases followed in rapid 
succession. Within half an hour fully twenty people of the audience were laid prostrate ; 
some of them utterly helpless, and for a time unable to utter anything but incoherent 
expressions of bodily pain and mental agony. The excitement now became intense, and 
the scene that ensued baffles all power of description.' " 

" Mr. Wilkinson, on p. 91 of his volume, ' The Revivals,' says : — ' Let us read the 
following, which we quote from the Ballymena Observer : — 

" 'The most extraordinary event of that evening occurred in the case of a mere child, 
only seven years of aye ; a poor barefooted girl, cleanly but indifferently clothed. Without 
the slightest appearance of any previous agitation, she was struck prostrate in a single 
moment. For a time her body was found to be perfectly rigid, and her face colourless. On 
partial recovery she clasped her hands, and, looking up, exclaimed in low accents, " Lord 
Jesus, have mercy upon me, and bring me to the foot of thy cross ! " For a considerable 
time she continued to repeat — but in an undertone, " Jesus !" "Jesus !" "Jesus !" Her 
fascinated and soul-absorbing look was fixed, far away beyond all spheres ; and the mild, 
unclouded spiritual light of that unwavering gaze into the heavens will never be forgotten 
by those who witnessed it. We certainly never saw any condition so manifestly preter- 
natural ; nor any result so nearly approaching to a practical illustration of the poet's 
beautiful, though fanciful, idea of the " Angel's whisper to a slumbering baby." The 
trance-like attitude of body, and the rapt expression of her eye, appeared to favour the 
supposition that a world of glory, invisible to other mortals, had been unveiled to her inner 
sight, and that, for a temporary period, she had been admitted to communion with the spirits 
of the just made perfect. We understand that the girl was restored to nearly her ordinary 
condition in about an hour. Phenomena analogous to the foregoing came under our 
personal observation at a house in Alexander Street, in the afternoon of Tuesday last — 
and it is worthy of special notice that the party affected had never been at any of the 
revival meetings. We there found an interesting girl, less than eight years of age, and we 
ascertained that her general character is that of a shy, intelligent, and truthful child — 
that she is a pupil in the infant department of Guy's free school. When we first saw her 
she was extended upon a pallet, and slowly recovering from a somnambulic trance, into 
which she had been instantaneously stricken about five hours previously when in the act 
of preparation for school. For some time subsequently to the visitation, her eyes were 
fixed on vacancy, her hands clasped, and her lips moving as in silent prayer. Her arms 
were frequently elevated, as if to grasp some object immediately in view ; and, on one 
occasion, she clasped her father's hands, and pointing upward, motioned him to look and 
pray. At another time she called upon the bystanders to raise her up, in order that she 
■might take hold of some glorious object presented to her imagination. On recovery from 
this state, she insisted that she had been in the company of superhuman beings in a world 
of light and blessedness ; and, to the utter amazement of her parents, she affirmed that she 
had there intuitively recognized her infant brother, ivho had died eleven months after his 
birth, and five years before she was bom / ' " 

" The following remarkable case is given in a Coleraine paper about the same time. It 
occurred at Kilconriola : — 

" ' The person affected was a married woman, of middle age. She appeared to be greatly 
excited and feverish ; her pulse was quick, there was a hectic tinge upon the cheeks, her 
eyes were bloodshot, and her face was streaming with perspiration, and for the space of fifty- 
six hours she was unable to taste anything but water. After the first four hours of rack- 
ing pain and incessant cries for mercy, she remained prostrate for nearly three days in the 
condition which we have described. During the prostration of this woman her house was 
visited by hundreds of the neighbouring people. She had never been taught to read or 
pray, and loas unable to distinguish one letter of the alphabet from another, yet she prayed 
with intense fervency, and exhorted the people to repentance with astonishing fluency and 


accuracy of speech. This case, like many others, was accompanied by visionary scenes — 
illusions, certainly, but of a very extraordinary character. Among other things she main- 
tained that a Bible, traced in characters of light, was open before her, and that, although 
unable to read, a spiritual poioer had endowed her with capacity to comprehend the meaning 
of every word in it. It is an undoubted fact that she repeated with literal accuracy, and 
as if reading from the volume, a very large number of quotations from the Old and Neio 
Testament, applying them in an appropriate manner in connection with the prayers wherein 
she was engaged ! but these perceptions gradually faded in her progress towards recovery, 
and entirely disappeared on restoration to her ordinary health.' " 

" The Rev. J. Marrable narrates the following, as occurring under his own eyes : — 
" ' I was particularly struck with the following case : N. C, not eighteen years of age, 
was in the act of holding a conversation with an invisible Being whom she called an "angel." 
I shall not attempt to describe this scene, or the words she uttered ; but when, in about 
half an hour, she awoke out of the trance, to see many faces looking in amazement at her, 
with tears flowing from all eyes, her tongue, which could scarcely articulate plainly before, 
became loosened, and in the most eloquent manner she addressed all present on the subject 
of salvation, with an expression of holy joy and gratitude beaming in her intelligent coun- 
tenance. She continued for several minutes in such eloquent strains that all present were 
compelled to admit that they had never seen or heard anything like it before. I would 
myself have gone a thousand miles to see this one case, and did not think it possible that the 
human countenance could be lit up with so sweet and happy an expression of delight.' " 
" Dr. Massie introduces the following narrative in these words : — 
" ' On Monday evening we called to visit a little girl in the Commons, called M. E. R. 
(aged fourteen), who had been labouring under conviction for some days previous. We 
found her in a melancholy, depressed state, and after conversing with her for a little, we 
intimated that we would engage in singing and prayer before leaving her. "While singing, 
she fell speechless at our feet, when it was evident to all that she had been deprived of 
both speech and sight ; her mind, however, was active as ever, and her sense of hearing 
unimpaired. During the forenoon, Drs. Macaldie and Clarke visited her, and expressed 
their opinion that none could heal her but the Physician of souls. Later in the day, the 
dispensary doctor visited her, and endeavoured to restore her by applying remedies to the 
body, but without effect. About half-past three in the afternoon of the next day, we again 
visited her, and sung, " Lo ! He comes with clouds descending," and ere this hymn was 
finished, her tongue was loosed, he reyes we reopened, and she joined us in praising God. 
This was about four o'clock on the evening of Tuesday— she having been eighteen hours 
deprived of sight and speech.' " 
" Dr. Massie proceeds : — 

" ' In compliance with numerous applications upon the subject, we proceed to notice 
other recent phases of manifestation not less astonishing. Two young unmarried women 
(whom we shall call Jane, aged eighteen, and Ellen, aged twenty-three) reside at a locality 
about two miles distant from Ballymena, and within three hundred yards of each other. 
Both were apparently in good health ; and about a month ago they were stricken with 
" conviction," accompanied by agonies of conscience and nervous excitement. It would 
appear, that a species of sympathy became established between them in such a manner, 
that whatever affected the one party was sure to exercise a corresponding influence upon 
the other. On Monday, about two o'clock in the afternoon, Ellen, whilst busily engaged 
at work in her own house, suddenly exclaimed that Jane had become ill — said that her 
mind told her so, and that she must go and visit her. With that intent she left the house ; 
and on entering that of her companion, found that she had just fallen into a trance — 
deaf, dumb, and motionless. Within a minute afterwards, Ellen had fallen upon the 
floor in a precisely similar condition, and both remained in that state and position for fully 
three hours. Both recovered at the same moment, and immediately on their recovery they 
were separated ; Ellen being forthwith taken to her own house, where she fell upon her 
knees, and was engaged in prayer for half an hour. To the great surprise of her relatives, 
she then affirmed that, precisely at four o'clock on the following evening, she would 
become deaf, dumb, blind, and without power of motion in one side of her body, for the 
space of six hours, and that she should be restored to. her natural condition at ten o'clock. 
On being asked how she could know that she would be visited in such a manner, she 
replied, " I cannot explain how I know it ; but my mind tells me that it will surely be as 
I have said." Every effort was made to remove the impression from the mind of the 
party thus affected ; and care was taken that Jane should have no information of what 
had been predicted in reference to her companion. Ellen continued at her ordinary work, 
and apparently in her usual health, throughout the forenoon of Tuesday ; and the hand 
of the house clock was secretly put back fifteen minutes in the course of the day. 
Precisely at the moment when the clock indicated that it wanted a quarter to four, but 
when the real time was fifteen minutes later, Ellen's arms dropped, her eyes closed, and she 


fell from her chair without speech or motion, and in a state of absolute insensibility ! 
She was carefully laid upon a bed ; and on examination it was found that the joints of her 
right arm and leg were perfectly immovable, and rigid as iron. The excitement among 
the people of the house was naturally very great ; but it was doubled in intensity when 
intelligence arrived that Jane had fallen into a state exactly resembling tloat of Ellen, 
precisely at the same moment that Ellen had been, thus affected. 

" ' In this abnormal condition both women remained for a period of six hours, and both 
awoke to consciousness, and in the full possession of all their faculties, precisely at the 
same moment. At five minutes before ten, Ellen's rigid arm regained its natural condition, 
and she was observed to raise her hand and lay it gently across her breast ; but up till 
the stroke of the predicted hour, no other change became perceptible. Before the remain- 
ing strokes of ten had sounded from the clock, she was fully awake ; and her first excla- 
mation, amid a house then crowded with anxious visitors, was, '' Christ is my Saviour ! 
He is all and in all ! " It may appear incredible, but the fact is established beyond all 
controversy, that these identical words were the first uttered by Jane in her own house, 
three hundred yards distant, as she awoke to consciousness at the same moment ! ' " 

Dr. Massie relates with great minutiae of detail, many additional cases of 
a similar character to those already given, together with instances in which 
the "stricken ones," both male and female, were poor ignorant people — 
some of them very young children, — servants, and workmen, — who could 
neither read nor write, yet, these persons in their " trances," did intelligently 
read out consecutive verses, and sometimes whole chapters of the Bible, 
and exhort, pray, and sing, with a fervency and eloquence, not to be equalled 
by the best cultured ministers of religion. The last cases which we can 
cite are as follows : — 

" The Rev. R. Gemmell, after saying, ' With regard to the bodily manifestations, I can 
give no opinion, nor do I like to hear any opinion, as I believe no man can give any satis- 
factory explanation,' gives the following : — 

" ' A young lad about sixteen years of age was struck down in his own house. It took 
four strong men to hold him, to prevent him from dashing his brains out on the floor. He 
continued in this state for several hours. When he recovered, he had lost the power of 
one of his sides, and was unable to utter a word distinctly. The third day after, I visited 
him, about three o'clock ; he was still in the same state, but, to my utter astonishment, 
when standing at the door at seven o'clock, he came running forward, and shook hands 
with me, and said, " Sir, I am now quite well !" ' " 

" Dr. Massie says : — 

" ' One fearful case was specified to me of an infatuated scoffer, who professed to fall 
down as an awakened and stricken sinner, while a companion, as depraved, ran to request 
the attendance of a servant of God. When they came to the spot where the feigned 
penitent was lying, they found him dead.' " 

" The Rev. Mr. Moore says : — 

" ' In my own congregation five or six cases — and some of them very painful — have 
occurred. We hear occasionally of dreams and visions — the mere drapery of the work, 
and the effect of its deep and intense reality — but though beautiful and interesting in 
themselves, such things are not made much of here, and the less the better. ' " 

" At Paisley, in September, similar cases were frequent. The Rev. Mr. Macgregor 
says : — 

" ' Among the young women affected, two were for a time deaf and dumb, and while 
in this state, their countenances indicated, from their expression, the most joyous 
happiness. Many of them had been dreaming dreams and seeing visions. It was the 
case that, wherever the revivals had arisen, they had dreams and visions, and they were 
to be regarded as evidence of the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.' " 

" The Rev. Hugh Hunter writes : — 

" ' It is now nearly five weeks since the Lord's work commenced in good earnest in 
this neighbourhood. It was going on amazingly in the neighbouring county of Antrim. 
Every day brought new tales of trances, sleeps, visions, dreams and miracles ; such as, that 
persons who never knew a letter of the alphabet when awake coidd read the Bible distinctly, 
sing psalms and hymns, preach, awd pray with ease, eloquence, and fluency.' " 

" The Rev. J. Whitsitt, of Drum, Monaghan, writes to a friend : — 

" ' It was true the report which you heard. At one of our meetings for prayer, at 
which there were a number of convictions, a dark cloud formed on the ceding, and, in the 


course of a few minutes, a number of forms burst out. One in particular was of human 
appearance, which passed and repassed across all the lights, and descended to the pew in 
which a young woman was rejoicing. The appearance lasted for three minutes, or more, 
produced no terror, but joy, especially among the converts. All present did not see it. 
Perhaps 300 saw it, and can testify to the reality. I cannot tell what it was ; the 
substance is in heaven, and will not be visible until the time when " every eye shall 
see Him." ' " 


Summary of Conflicting Opinions Concerning the Irish Revivals. 

It cannot be supposed that the mighty wave which had surged over the 
"stricken" subjects of the Irish Revival, could pass away without calling forth 
an immense array of diverse opinions from various leading minds, concern- 
ing the origin and significance of the wonderful movement. 

As a general rule the attempts to find an adequate cause for the marvels 
which flooded the land, during the Revival frenzy, may be classified thus : — 

i. The work proceeds from "the Devil." 

2. From the Holy Ghost. 

3. From interested and artful professional Revival preachers. 

4. From mesmerism, hysteria, and other unknown physical agents. 
About the time when the Irish Revivals were at their height, some scenes 

of a kindred character, though conducted on a more limited scale, and 
promptly checked by the officiating ministers of the time, were proceed- 
ing in some of the rural districts of England, and amongst the lowest of 
the East-end ragged schools of the metropolis. An able writer in the 
London Sunday Times thus comments on scenes of this character, of which 
he claims to have been an eye-witness in a ragged school in St. Giles' on 
the preceding Sunday. 

" Here are one hundred and fifty ragged, ill-fed, uneducated little boys and girls, from 
six to fourteen, kept until after ten at night to listen to a ' deeply impressive ' account of 
the doings in Ireland, in all their agonising details. Was there no mercy in the heart of 
the speaker ? No sense of childhood's weakness ? No thought of the Divine Justice ? 
And there they were rolling upon the floor, crying out until two in the morning about 
their sins. Great God ! how art thou insulted. Their sins ! Why surely, if God arose 
in His anger it would be, not to crush down and agonise these little friendless, hungry, 
orphaned children, only six years old, who cannot comprehend the meaning of such 
subjects, but He would rise against the high and the mighty, the men of wealth and 
statesman power, who, through neglecting their duty, have left these little ones to become 
the victims of hunger and cold, and hence also the victims of our hard laws, and, to them, 
cruel institutions. Comments upon such mockery and cruelty are needless." 

And again : — "I am not dealing unjustly in thus speaking. I see the poor little girl 
crying in the Irish churchyard ; I see the young women rolling in agony upon the Irish 
meadows ; I see the ignorant men, the hysterical women, and the fear-struck children in 
the Irish churches, with horrible anxiety pictured upon their terror-stricken countenances ; 
and I see the poor little boys and girls in the St. Giles' refuge rolling upon the floor, their 
young hearts filled, with fear through the story of Irish madness which, without stint or 
mercy, had been poured into their ears. Yes, I see all this, and more than this — more 

The Brothers Ira & W¥ Davenport 



than can now be told ; and then, while listening to the wild screams which burst from 
the agonized hearts of an ignorant and frenzied people, 1 hear also, and blended with the 
screams, the voices of the ' holy men ' — voices of the leaders and teachers in our spiritual 
Israel — raised as in thanksgiving to God for all this agony, which, either in their blindness 
or through their hypocrisy, they dare to call ' His great mercy.' I hear them pray that 
the same ' blessing ' may be granted unto us ; and, from all this, what is it possible to 
conclude other than that, if they are in earnest, then are they blind also ? but, whether 
earnest or not, they are endeavouring to inflict upon England one of the heaviest curses 
that could descend upon a people whose ancestors won freedom alike on the fields of civil 
and ecclesiastical conflict." 

Mr. Wilkinson, in his excellent work on "The Irish Revivals," says : — 

" Archdeacon Stopford of Meath is the champion of the physical mode of accounting 
for the Revival, whose arguments are the best poised, and sufficiently comprehend those of 
others having the same views. He does not, however, fail to see ' much good in the 
movement.' He says, 'Even a stranger cannot fail to be struck with the earnest concern 
about religion which appears to pervade the people ; as I listened to a street preacher — the 
best sermon which I heard in Belfast — it was impossible not to be impressed with the 
earnest and reverent expression of countenance in all the .working men and lads who 
gathered round, perhaps one hundred and fifty in number ; faces so earnest I never saw 
before in any congregation. From house to house I saw much of the same feeling.' " 

The question of hysteria has been so widely canvassed, that it is worth 
while to present the argument as it appears in one of Dr. Carson's 
excellent letters. Dr. Carson says : — 

" I see a good deal of time and labour have been spent in asserting, over and over 
again, that the physical manifestations are neither more nor less than hysteria. Were it 
not that the public might be misled by the plausible and ostentatious statements which 
have been put forward on the subject, I would not think of occupying time with its 

" There is no reason why the country should be free from hysterical cases now, more 
than at any other time. Hence, r as might be anticipated, some cases of hysteria are to be met 
with in every district where the Revival has appeared. But the man who will confine his 
observations to these cases, or confound them with the Revival manifestations, has but a 
poor capacity for the observation of facts. The fact is, the Revival and hysteria have 
scarcely any symptoms in common. Any person in the Revival district may easily convince 
himself of this fact by turning to the article ' Hysteria,' in the first work on the 'Practice 
of Medicine ' he can lay his hands on. To enter fully into the distinguishing marks of 
these two affections would extend this letter to an unreasonable length ; but there are 
two or three features which require to be noticed, and which are capable of being judged 
by all parties. . . . -Hysteria is almost entirely confined to the female sex. It is very 
common in the female, but so extremely rare in the male, that the late Dr. Hooper, and 
the present Dr. Watson, of London, in their immense practice, have seen only three cases 
each, which they could at all compare to hysteria, and these cases occurred in debilitated 
subjects. ... In regard to the Revival, it occurs chiefly amongst the lower and 
middle classes of society, who are obliged to earn their subsistence by their daily labour. 
It is to be found as readily amongst the hardy inhabitants of country parishes and moun- 
tain districts, as in towns and sities. If all ages are included, there are very nearly as 
many males affected by it as females. I have seen and known of an immense number of 
instances in which the strongest, the stoutest, most vigorous, healthy, and lion-hearted men in 
the country have been struck down like children, and have called, with the most agonising 
entreaties, for mercy for their souls. How could all this be hysteria ? " 

Dr. Watson, an eminent medical practitioner of London, who spent 
some time in personally examining the condition of many of the Revivalists, 
arrives at the conclusion that the principal source of the movement is a 
physical, though unknown agent, and his views are given in the following 
remarks : — 

" I now fearlessly state, that, in my opinion, there is a physical, as well as a spiritual, 
agent concerned in the Revival. There does not appear to me to be any other rational way 


of accounting for the facts. Whatever I may have been disposed to think at first, I am 
now fully satisfied the symptoms of a Revival case do not correspond to the effects which 
are manifested as the result of mere mental impressions. The unearthly tone of subdued 
entreaties, and the partial prostration of muscular power in the individual affected, are 
very different from the wild screams, and convulsive paroxysms, which arise from sudden 
mental anguish ; and we cannot consistently refer them to a sudden view of spiritual 
danger, because the same sudden vieiv of spiritual matters has been revealed to thousands of 
individuals of different constitutions, at different periods of the history of the world, without 
producing the like results. 

" The explanation by mere mental impressions will not satisfy a close thinker in regard 
to them. There must be a special physical agent concerned. 

" This view is greatly strengthened by the way in which the Revival has travelled. It 
has followed a steady, gradual, and uninterruped course from parish to parish, and district 
to district. It has travelled almost like a wave. Again, it was observed that the most 
illiterate convert, who had himself been physically affected, had far more power in producing 
the manifestations in the audience, than the most eloquent speaker who could address them. 
There did not seem to be any proportion between the words uttered by the speakers and 
the results produced. It looked more like a physical effect produced by individual on 
individual than anything else. 

" The idea of exclusive spirituality in the Revival would involve us in endless diffi- 
culties,, which can all be avoided by the simple idea of the double agency. If we do not 
adopt this view, what are we to do with those cases of deafness, dumbness, blindness, 
extraordinary visions, and prophesying, which have occurred in some localities ? They 
are not either directly or indirectly the effects of the Holy Spirit. They are entirely 
owing to the effects of the physical agent on the brain and nervous system. 

" In regard to the nature of the physical agent, I have no hesitation in acknowledging 
my utter ignorance. I know of nothing to correspond exactly with it in the whole range 
of philosophy. 

" No person but the man who has witnessed them could have any idea of the awful 
effects produced by a number of Revival cases. A scene like the one which took place on 
the night in which the new hall in Coleraine was first filled with these cases has, perhaps, 
never been equalled in the world. It was so like the day of judgment, when sinners 
would be calling on the mountains and the rocks to hide them from the storm of God's 
wrath, that it struck terror to the heart of the most hardened and obdurate sinner." 

As the Evangelical views of the causes operating to produce these Revivals, 
have already been sufficiently hinted at to make the reader aware that a large 
number of Ministers of the Gospel attributed the above movement to the 
direct action of the " Holy Ghost," it only remains to call attention to the 
very suspicious way in which those peculiar demonstrations were received, 
which in the form of trances, dreams, visions, and prophecies, seemed to be 
all too dangerously allied to the bete noir of every denomination, namely 
modern Spiritualism, a development which might well have been unknown 
to the poor illiterate subjects of the Irish Revivals, but which was by no 
means either new or strange to the better-informed Doctors, Lawyers, 
Divines, &c, &c, who watched the Spiritual epidemic of the unmanageable 
Irish Revivals. 

Mr. W. M. Wilkinson opens up this question with significant force when 
he says : — 

" What are we to think of that class of phenomena, of which there are so many 
instances, in which the converts have fallen into swoons and trances, and into those 
peculiar states of the organism in which they have seen and described visions of angels 
and devils — of heaven and of hell — and which were so common, ' that almost every girl 
now struck in Belfast had visions, and would be greatly disappointed if she had not.' 
' There are also very many astonishing statements and events which, some years ago, and 
in other circumstances, would have been called clairvoyance by those who believed that 
there was such a mode of obtaining knowledge.' Others, again, who could not read a 
word in their ordinary state, had a faculty or power, when in this wondrous state, of 
perceiving in letters of light, and reading whole pages from the Bible ; others of seeing 
things and persons at distances beyond the ken of natural eyes. . . . 

" Now, how it has come about we know net, but these phenomenal aspects of the 
Revival have brought down upon it, its bitterest opponents, and in view of them, the 


whole movement has been characterised by some religious critics as the direct work of 
Satan, and by the more sceptical as a work of imposture, or as the product of diseased 
imagination. Here, again, it is to be noted, that at first there are not so many words 
used against the calm and quiet part of the awakening ; but when it came to pass that 
its subjects were seers and seeresses no words are strong enough for its condemnation." ■ 

Again, Mr. Wilkinson in commenting on the pyschical aspect of this 
movement, and the various phenomena (far too numerous to admit of 
farther description) which corresponded with the manifestations of 
Spiritualism, says : — 

" In attempting to gather up facts of this nature at a distance from the places of their 
occurrence we find, of all those who could not in fairness omit noticing them, there is not 
one who gives them a kindly welcome. Several suppress them altogether, the others have 
to apologize for them in the best way they can. 

" The excellent Minister at Connor, when in the great excitement of prostrations and 
ecstatic phenomena, some similar cases were threatened amongst his flock, set his face 
against them altogether. Others are blamed for not having followed his plan, which had 
the good effect of preventing them. We shall see that they were amenable to this treat- 
ment, and it is a suggestive fact for our consideration. 

" In the early days of the excitement arising from these cases, some were made public 
through the newspapers, and there are others to be found in some of the narratives, but 
every day they become more difficult of access, as mention of them is seldom made, and 
it is only from occasional glimpses that we see how common they were — so common, 
indeed, that they occurred in the majority of the stricken cases, and those who did not 
have visions, or some of the other extraordinary phenomena accompanying their pros- 
tration, complained of the deficiency of the Holy Spirit, and feared that their conversion 
was not complete. . . . 

" We could have wished that these cases had been as fully stated and as largely 
investigated as the others, for they form a chapter in the book of man that is worthy the 
most serious and earnest consideration." 

We have already extended the notices of this singular movement to so 
great a length, that we turn, though most reluctantly, from the many 
suggestive arguments adduced by the author of " The Revival " to show 
that a great magnetic wave, contagious as magnetism ever is in its effects, 
world-wide in its centres of evolution, and purely spiritual in its source, 
underlies these Irish Revivals, just as surely as it does the doings of the 
Polter Gheist in Germany, the manifestations of clairvoyance in France, or 
the Rochester Knockings in America. 

Who can doubt that if this Revival had occurred on Mahometan ground, 
the visionists would have seen Houris and paradises ; screamed for Mahomet, 
and sought through .him reconciliation with Allah? Occurring in a land, 
the very atmosphere of which was saturated with Calvinistic ideas, and 
governed by a Calvinistic priesthood, the great magnetic influx which poured 
into the hearts and minds of a naturally impulsive and susceptible race of 
people, inevitably partook of the dominant religious idea ; and this was so 
strengthened by the powerful influence of Revival preachers, that it was 
only now and then that angel faces could look through the theological veil 
of terror, in which the peasantry were enshrouded, or in rare cases, that 
true Spiritual mediumship could be unfolded, and triumph over the 
unreasoning ecstasies of religious gloom and mystery. 

The sunbeam which gives life to the rose and lights up the blue eye of 
the violet, quickens the heap of corruption into the life of the foul reptile, 
and stinging insect. The sun of spiritual existence shines on the just and 
the unjust, and quickens, but creates nothing. 

Thus we may realise by careful research into the fanaticisms of the 
Irvingites, the abominations of Mormonism, the unnatural asceticisms of 
Shakerism, and the frenzied agonies of Irish Revivalism that " all are but 
parts of one stupendous whole" — differences of administration, but the same 
spirit working in all. 




In searching amongst the scattered records of Spiritual manifestations in 
England, the historian cannot fail to come to the conclusion that there are 
two well-defined sources of power which antedated in point of time the 
introduction of that systematic mode of telegraphy practised by the 
American mediums who commenced to visit this country in 1852. 

The first of these was the very general outpouring of Spiritual manifesta- 
tions noted in preceding chapters, and occurring in the form of haunting 
isolated phenomena, and Religious Revivals. 

The second was Animal Magnetism, which, by preparing the world for 
the study of occult phenomena, and unfolding in many organisms the 
potencies of clairvoyance and other Spiritual endowments, paved the way 
for the more pronounced and comprehensive demonstrations of Spiritual 

From the year 1820 to 1840, numerous gentlemen of learning and high 
social standing, openly avowed themselves disciples of Mesmeric philo- 
sophy, and practised with success healing by Animal Magnetism. 

As experiments of this character were very often productive of clair- 
voyance, prevision, trance speaking, and even Spiritual seership, a wide- 
spreading interest began to arise concerning these mysterious potencies. 
About the year 185 1, a Mesmeric Infirmary was established in Wimpole 
Street, of which Drs. Elliotson, Ashburner, Wilson, Haddock, Mrs. De 
Morgan, and numerous other ladies and gentlemen became patrons and 
supporters. In this institution, patients were treated by magnetic pro- 
cesses, and in many instances cures were effected of cases deemed hopeless 
by the ordinary methods of medical practice. 

For some years previous to the formation of this establishment, the 
advocates of Mesmeric philosophy had conducted an excellent periodical 
entitled the Zoist, in which hundreds of notable experiments were recorded, 
and the phenomena as well as the facts of magnetic practices were 
carefully detailed. 

In view of the persistence with which the columns of the secular journals 
are open to all manner of communications antagonistic to new discoveries, 
and new ideas, and closed against their advocates, the publication of the 
Zoist which was continued for many years, and supported by an able staff 
of editors and contributors, will be understood to have been the principal 
means of widening the sphere of knowledge on occult subjects, and 
preserving many valuable records which would otherwise have been lost to 
the world. 

In the initiatory numbers of this journal, Dr. Elliotson, one of its earliest 
and most distinguished supporters, alleges, that Mesmerism as a recognised 
"science," was first established in England in 1828, through the influence 
of an Irish gentleman, a Mr. Chevenix, who after a long residence in Paris, 
where he had witnessed, and personally assisted at a number of experiments, 


finally began to practise on his own account in Ireland, where he found a 
fine field for his operations amongst the susceptible peasantry of that 

Drs. McKay, Peacock, Cotter, Gooch ; Mr. Smith, surgeon to the 
Coldstream Guards ; Professor Gregory of Edinburgh, Drs. Klliotson and 
Ashburner of London, Dr. John Wilson, physician at Middlesex Hospital, 
and many gentlemen of equal standing in their profession, who had avowed 
themselves advocates of Mesmeric practices, succeeded, both in creating a 
wide-spread public interest in their philosophy, and in awakening the most 
relentless spirit of antagonism from those who thought proper to range 
themselves on the opposite side of the question. 

To those who realise with the author, that Mesmerism has been — humanly 
speaking — the corner-stone upon which the Temple of Spiritualism was 
upreared, the following notice of some of the curious experiments recorded 
in the early numbers of the Zoist, will be of interest. 

Dr. Ashburner, in reviewing a pamphlet written by Dr. John Wilson of 
Middlesex Hospital entitled, " Trials of Animal Magnetism on the Brute 
Creation," says : — 

" Dr. Wilson successfully magnetized fish, birds, and savage beasts. I was with him 
on one occasion at the Surrey Zoological Gardens while honest Mr. Cross was proprietor 
of the menagerie. The great male elephant was put into a deep sleep by the strenuous 
and energetic passes of my colleague. The keeper told me, ' The Doctor off with his coat, 
wrought like a Trojan, and got the old animal into a sound sleep and no mistake.' 

" Mr. Cross had a very savage and irascible hyena. Dr. Wilson mesmerised him, and 
it was amusing to see the delight of the fierce creature at the Doctor's approach." 

In the pages of the Zoist will be found an answer to the sneer with which 
those readers will peruse the above-named experiments who — having found 
their efforts to stamp out unwelcome facts ineffectual — proceed to depreciate 
their value by the imbecile query, " What is the use of it ?" The use of 
Mesmerism is shown, even in the early stage of the movement of which we 
are writing, by the facts that the Mesmerisers recorded ; namely ; well 
attested cures of typhus fever in its last and most hopeless stages ; con- 
sumption, dropsy, bronchitis, all manner of nervous disorders, besides many 
surgical cases. 

Amongst the latter, is described the perfect cure of a woman, employed 
in the Hospital at Hoddesden, superintended by the celebrated writer 
Mrs. Ellis, — who was suffering from a severe case of ovarian tumour, for 
which in fact she was on the point of submitting to a dangerous and 
doubtful operation. Dr. Ashburner hearing of her dilemma, persuaded 
her to try Mesmerism, through the instrumentality of which, she became 
entirely cured. Several other instances of a similar kind are recorded in 
the Zoist, including one, of malignant cancer, — a cure so thoroughly well 
proved, and of such a remarkable character, that we would refer the curious 
reader to its full details, which may be found given by Dr. Elliotson in the 
6th volume of the Zoist, page 213. Mesmeric practices received a strong 
impulse, especially in the unfoldment of remarkable psychological powers, 
in the year 1849, by the visit to England of two renowned French clair- 
voyants, Messrs. Alexis Didier, and Marcellet. 

Through numerous experiments conducted with these gentlemen, the 
Magnetizers were enabled to prove, not only that disease could be cured, 
but that mental power of a highly exalted and wonderful character could be 
evolved in the magnetic sleep. 


The French clairvoyants were adepts in the examination of obscure 
diseases, in tracing lost, hidden, and distant objects, also in the faculty of 
mind reading. 

The powers thus displayed in the magnetic sleep, were found to be more 
general than had hitherto been supposed ; hence, clairvoyance, in addition 
to the healing faculty, became another horn of the dilemma with which the 
materialistic opponents of the new philosophy found themselves compelled 
to do battle. 

To the voluminous writings of Mr. Henry Thompson, Professor Gregory, 
Mrs. De Morgan, Drs. Barth, Dixon, Elliotson, Ashburner, and Haddock, 
Mr. Joseph Hands, and above all, to the experiences of Drs. Deleuze and 
Eisdale, in India, we must refer the readers, desirous to acquaint themselves 
in farther detail, concerning the origin, practices, and results of Mesmerism 
in Great Britain. 

Quite recently — that is, at the present date of writing — the practice of 
Mesmerism, whether as a curative process, or an agent for the unfoldment 
of marvellous psychologic powers, has received a most favourable impulse 
from the writings, lectures, and private practice of Miss Chandos Leigh 
Hunt (now Mrs. Wallace), a lady who has thoroughly and philosophically 
mastered as much of the subject as can at present be known or experi- 
mented with. In a scholarly and exhaustive treatise written by this lady 
on the Science and Art of Organic Magnetism,* the powers and possibilities 
of this wonderful mesmeric force are admirably described, and the immense 
range of operations, both curative and psychologic, which the talented 
authoress delineates, renders it now, as heretofore, a reproach to the age, 
that no philanthropic as well as philosophic associations should be formed 
for the study of the stupendous principles suggested by Mrs. Wallace's 
writings, and practically taught by her, to all who are interested enough to 
put vague theory into the form of demonstrable proof. 

Another valuable work treating of the results, though not of the modus 
operandi of Mesmerism, is Mrs. De Morgan's work, written quite early in 
the advent of the Spiritual movement, entitled, " From Matter to Spirit." 
Our learned authoress says : — 

" Every wonderful effect produced by mesmerism, has since found its explanation or 
its counterpart in the spiritual phenomena, so that had unseen powers been working for 
our instruction, they could not have taken a better method of giving the needful 
elementary knowledge, than by making us acquainted with the processes and results of 

Mrs. De Morgan in illustrating the statement given above, cites 
numerous examples, amongst others, the following experience, recorded by 
Dr. Jacob Dixon in his published manual, entitled " Hygienic Medicine." 
This author says : — 

" Persons in some of the highest mesmeric states, appear to have gained an insight 
into the world of spirit. Of this I had striking experiences long before, the time of raps, 
seeing mediums, and mysteries of the present day. 

" Although I had too many instances of earthly clairvoyance to remain sceptical in that 
direction, yet I held all belief in intercourse with spirits to be a delusion. This scepticism 
was first shaken by the following occurrence. 

* Private Practical .Instructions in the Science and Art of Oi-ganic Magnetism. By Miss Chandos 
Leigh Hunt. Philanthropic Reform Publishing Office, 2, Oxford Mansion, Oxford Circus, 
London, W. 


" Being invited to see a young lady in a clairvoyant state, in which she professed to 
see and converse with spiritual beings, I entered the room after she had been put in the 
mesmeric state, whilst my name was not even mentioned or my presence known. . . . 
At length my friends asked, whether she could look for any spirit for the party sitting 
beside her. She would try. I mentioned two names without giving age, sex, or relation- 
ship to myself. 

" She then said : ' / am noiv in a garden quite full of flowers. There is a group of 
children. ... Two come out of the group. The girl is the oldest. They are ten ami 
eight years' old.' She then described perfectly every feature of the two children I had 
asked for, dwelling with animation on their beautiful appearance and surroundings. The 
ages she mentioned, however, were much in advance of the reality. 

" When I remarked this she said : ' They say that I see them as they are iww, you must 
remember, that they have been here some time.' " 

The writer adds — 

" It then appeared that the ages she mentioned would have been exactly correct had 
the two remained on earth." 

In the year 185 1, there was a society organised in England for the purpose 
of collecting and examining evidence into the alleged facts of " Supernatural- 
ism." In relation to this society, called in the usual tone of popular 
derision, " The Ghost Club," Mr. Robt. Dale Owen in his exhaustive work, 
" Footfalls on the Boundary of Another World," speaks as follows : — 

"A society was formed in the latter part of the year 1851 at Cambridge, by certain 
members of the University, for the purpose of instituting, as their circular expresses it, 
' a serious and earnest enqniry into the nature of the phenomena vaguely called 
supernatural.' The society included some of the most distinguished members of the 
University, most of them clergymen and fellows of Trinity College, and almost all of them 
men who had graduated with the highest honours. 

" The names of the more active amongst them were kindly furnished to me by the 
son of a British peer, himself one of the leading members. 

" To him also I am indebted for a copy of the printed circular of the Society, an able 
and temperate document, which will be found at length in the Appendix.* " 

Mr. Owen adds in a footnote to page 34 : — 

" The Society popularly known as ' The Ghost Club,' attracted a good deal of attention 
outside its own circle. Its nature and object came to my knowledge through the Bishop 
of , who took an interest in its proceedings, and bestirred himself to obtain contribu- 
tions to its records." 

Although we may often encounter in future chapters some of the 
individual members of this association of investigators, our notice of their 
combined researches must terminate here, hence we deem it not entirely 
out of place to anticipate by a few years the effect which those researches 
must have produced upon some at least of its members, when we give as 
the addenda to the subject, the following extracts from the London 
Spiritualist newspaper, dated April nth, 1879 : — 

" An Address by Mr. James Campbell. — Mr. J. A. Campbell, President of the Cam- 
bridge University Society for Psychological Investigation, will read a paper next Monday 
week, April 21st, at one of Mrs. Makdougall Gregory's evening receptions. There will be 
a large and influential gathering of Spiritualists and non- Spiritualists, the latter of whom 
will have an opportunity of learning that Spiritualism is not what it is represented to be 
by daily newspapers. The title of Mr. Campbell's address will be, ' The Eecord of the 
Seers concerning the Great Change.' " 

* Appendix. Note A. " Footfalls on the Boundary of another World." By R. D. Owen. 



In the Spiritualist of the same date, is an address from Mr. Camp- 
bell entitled : — The history of the movement known as Modern 
Spiritualism, and the facts and theories connected with it, by 
J. A. Campbell ; President of the Cambridge University Society for 
Psychological Investigation. Mr. Campbell's speech, although a most 
excellent one, would only anticipate statements which the progress of the 
history itself must unfold — but its presentation some twenty years or more 
after the formation of the society of which he was and we believe is still 
the honoured President, is noticed now to show that the subject has not 
proved an evanescent one, or unworthy the consideration of eminent and 
learned scholars during a period of nearly a quarter of a century. 




American Spirit Mediums in England. 

Hitherto our history of the Spiritual movement in Great Britain has 
followed the waymarks made by an invisible host in the production ofl 
spontaneous and unsought phenomena. We must now proceed to consider 
those results which grew out of the invocatory processes of the Spirit circle, 
and the agency of acknowledged Spirit Mediumship. 

Long before the rumour reached England of the American disturbances 
called the "Rochester Knockings," the practices of "table turning" by 
what was supposed to be willpower, were quite popular in many a fashion- 
able circle. That these curious evidences of an unknown force had an) 
connection with the agency of "disembodied spirits" never seemed to 
enter the imagination of " table turning " experts, until the advent ir 
England of Mrs. Hayden, an American lady, who came to this country on 
a professional tour, in company with her husband and a business agent — as 
an avowed medium for communications between earth and the world oj 
disembodied spirits. 

Very shortly after the advent of the " Rochester Knockings " in New Yori 
State, America, Mrs. Hayden, the wife of a respectable journalist, found 
herself the subject of the same strange rappings connected with intelli- 
gence, which distinguished the earliest American Mediums. Having beer 
induced to sit for the public as a professional Medium, Mrs. Hayden was 
visited by a Mr. Stone, an English gentleman on a tour through the United 

Mr. Stone received such striking tests of Spirit presence through Mrs. 
Hay den's mediumship, that in 1852 he persuaded her to accompany him 
to England, never doubting that his own countrymen would become as. 
much interested in the results of her marvellous gifts as he himself hac 


Alfred Russell Wallace, 




Ink-photo, sprague * c« london 


In all the accounts published of early Spiritualism in England, Mrs. 
Hayden is mentioned as the Medium who first introduced the American 
system of communicating with Spirits through the alphabet and rappings, 
and strange as it may appear to thoughtful minds that any human beings 
could do otherwise than hail with delight a system of telegraphy which 
restored to the mourner his beloved dead, and converted the mere hope 
of immortality into demonstrated proof, it is nevertheless an historical fact, 
that an avowed Medium for Spiritual communications no sooner appeared 
on the scene, than the leaders of the press, pulpit and college, levelled 
against her a storm of ribaldry, persecution and insult, alike disgraceful 
to themselves, and humiliating to the boasted liberalism and scientific 
acumen of their age. From the author's personal knowledge of Mrs. 
Hayden, she is convinced that her gentle womanly spirit must have been 
deeply pained, and the harmony of mind so essential to the production of 
good psychological results constantly destroyed, by the cruel and insulting 
treatment she received at the hands of many of those who came, pretending 
to be investigators, but in reality burning to thwart her, and laying traps to 
falsify the truths of which Mrs. Hayden professed to be the instrument. 
Sensitively alive — as all mediumistic persons are — to the animus of her 
visitors, she could feel, and often writhed under, the crushing force of the 
antagonism brought to bear upon her, without; — at that time — knowing 
how to repel or resist it. 

In those early days of the movement, the Mediums had neither the 
advantage of experience nor precedent in such embarrassing circumstances. 
Oppressed as they were by the opposing force which was purposely arrayed 
against them, their distress of mind only served to complicate the mental 
inharmony of the surroundings, and make it most difficult for Spirits to 
construct those delicate psychologic batteries, upon which the success of the 
communion depends. 

We all acknowledge that the most carefully prepared and chemically 
adapted elements are necessary to evolve the force of electricity, and 
promote a perfect result from the formation of a battery, yet we overlook 
the fact, that the mental and spiritual telegraph must work through laws 
just as absolute, and whilst men ruthlessly invade those laws and destroy 
the equilibrium under which that battery works, they triumphantly regard 
failure as an evidence, that no such battery was in existence at all. 

We not only know better now, but with all that tendency to exaggeration 
which marks the crises of man's ignorance and fanaticism, too many 
Spiritualists of the present day rush into the opposite extreme, and 
endeavour to palliate the most daring frauds, by pretending that sceptical 
minds and antagonistic forces have compelled detected impostors to prepare 
masks and other paraphernalia to personate spirits, when injurious conditions 
prevented their materializing, &c, &c. That the real truth lies between 
the extremes of antagonism on the one hand, and wilful imposture on the 
other, none can doubt. In Mrs. Hayden's time, there is good reason to 
believe that the occasional failures which occurred at her circles, were the 
result of cunningly prepared traps to involve the inexperienced medium in 
contradictory statements, and when once the would-be detectives thought 
they had succeeded in these notable plots, the columns of the public 
journals were filled with triumphant accounts of " the entire collapse of 
the Spirit rapping delusion." 

As an illustration both of the spirit of the times, and the manifest injury 
to Mediumship, which determined antagonism can exercise, we give a few 

. 9 



extracts from a little work which the writer has wisely bequeathed to 
posterity in an anonymous form. Doubtless "he builded wiser than he 
knew," and whilst his evil record serves the purpose of preserving both 
sides of the shield of history, he is spared the disgrace of sending down his 
name to posterity, branded with the tokens of folly his writings display. 

The title of the work is " Spirit Rapping in England and America," and 
the author after a derisive and perverted account of the American manifes- 
tations, goes on to detail the incidents of a seance which he professes to 
have held with Mrs. Hayden shortly after her arrival in London in 1852. 

Let the reader picture to himself the poor Medium, leaving the pleasant 
homes of New England, and establishing herself in the proverbially cold 
and cheerless shelter of a London lodging-house, in the "pea soup" 
atmosphere of a London November, and amongst a people not, at thai 
time, particularly in favour of " Yankee speculators." 

Sneering scoffers of the " gent " order, as described by the late witty 
writer, Albert Smith ; insolent aristocrats seeking for a new sensation and 
dividing their interest between wrenching off door-knockers at night, and 
Yankee Spirit rappers " by day ; glib press men bound to supply a funny 
item, and not caring if the fun is made out of the souls of their ancestors, 
so long as they were employed to indite journalistic satire against an 
unpopular thing — these were amongst the daily visitors of the poor foreigner, 
whose power to satisfy their demands depended upon the most peaceful 
and harmonious conditions of mind and body. When we add to this, that 
the Medium herself was as much a tyro in the means of producing success- 
ful manifestations, as those who sought her, the marvel is that any Spirit 
short of a Mephistopheles or Lucifer, could be enabled to rap out names 
and dates correctly at all. If the reader has fully possessed himself of the 
conditions under which the first Spiritual telegraphic messages were pro- 
duced in London, he need not be surprised at the results obtained, as 
narrated in the anonymous work which we are now about to quote. 
After a great deal of circumlocution of an unimportant character, the reader 
is informed that the visitors were " Brown " and " Thompson ; " names no 
doubt meant to imply that they were assumed to mask two very illustrious 
personages. After all sorts of derisive remarks about the Medium's lodging 
and surroundings, these gentlemen proceeded to hold a seance, of which the 
following extract is a specimen : — 

" At length, getting too weary of the scene to pursue it farther, ' I wish,' said Brown, 
' to ask some questions concerning the future ; can the spirits answer them without your . 
knowing what they are ? ' 'If they cannot, they will be silent,' said the medium, ' some- 
times they do so. Try.' ' As they are questions which I should not like to ask in public, 
will they see them written on paper ? ' '0 yes.' Brown wrote down very clearly : 
' Shall I soon be married ? ' ' Will the spirits answer this question ? ' Rat-tat-tat. ' Is 
" yes " the answer ? ' Rat-tat- tat. ' How many children shall I have ? ' was written next, 
Brown saying ' This is a question that must be answered in numbers. Does the spirit see 
it ? ' Rat-tat-tat. ' Can it answer me ? ' Rat-tat-tat. And so the spirit answered by 
the usual process, 'One hundred and thirty-six.' When the 1 was obtained, and then 
the 3 to go next to it, and then the 6 to go after that, the rapid growth of Brown's 
family amused Thompson, and the imminent carrying on of the sum into thousands was 
prevented by his ill-timed mirth. The production of children by Brown stopped, therefore, 
prematurely, at the number of one hundred and thirty-six. 

" The medium, who always asked whether the answers fitted, and who did not 
clearly know whether she might not be succeeding vastly, although she evidently felt a 
little puzzled by the sense that she was not doing so weU as might be expected, was now 
re-assured by the reverent tone in which the too explosive Thompson asked whether 
the spirits of his sisters were in the room. His only sister being in vigorous health, he 
did not expect her ghost ; but it was there, and very prompt to answer him. How long 
had she been dead ? Two years. 


" So the dreary labour was continued ; but we cannot fatigue our readers with the 
whole monotony of a sitting that was not enlivened by one happy guess." 

"Brown" cursorily remarks, among other contemptuous comments on 
this scene, that Mr. Stone, the party who had undertaken the management 
of the seances, enquired if they were satisfied, and offered if otherwise to give 
another seance free, to which the said Brown only adds in his gracious way, 
" But we had seen enough," and so there was nothing more to do than to 
show up the whole thing as " a humbug, through the medium of the press." 

The late Judge Edmonds, of New York, assured the author, that he did 
not dare to make up his mind definitively upon so unprecedented, and 
important a subject, until he had attended at least one hundred circles, 
and seen some fifty Mediums for various forms of Spiritual power. " It 
was through such methods of investigation as these," said this learned 
jurist, "that I at length became convinced of the fact that the soul of man 
is immortal, can and does communicate, and that we are even now standing 
in the dawn of a great and wonderful day of Spiritual science. This know- 
ledge so invaluable, and opening up possibilities so unlimited, is surely 
worth more than the cost of one hundred hours out of any man's life, 
however exigeant the demands upon his time may be." 

" But Judge Edmonds was a crazy Spiritualist," answers Brown. 
"Thompson and I spent one hour with a mejium, and found it all false ; 
what are his hundred hours' experiences compared to our one ? " 

Shortly after this, a favourable report appeared in the Leader, in which 
a party of ladies and gentlemen who had engaged Mrs. Hayden to attend 
t in their own house, bore testimony to her entire honesty, the excellence of 
the tests they had received, and the utter impossibility of her agency in 
producing either the sounds, movements, or intelligence ; whereupon 
certain gentlemen of the press, who seemed to have made it their special 
duty " to explode the thing," proceeded to the accomplishment of their 
creditable work in the way recorded as follows. " Mr. Lewes," the 
Leader's editor, or representative, was the party from whom the annexed 
report proceeded. He says, in the work on " Spirit Rapping," above 
alluded to : — 

" Before I had witnessed these ' astounding phenomena,' I had formed an hypothesis 
of the whole process, which turned out to be accurate. It did not seem in the least sur- 
prising to me that the questioner should be correctly answered, even when asking 
questions mentally, of which no living soul but his own knew the answer. I invariably 
said : 'The cause of your delusion is that you direct your attention to the thing said, 
and not to the way in which it is said. Whatever the trick may be, it will be just as 
easy to answer a question of one kind as of another — the nature of the question has 
nothing to do with it. If you ask where your grandfather died, his death being a 
mystery to the whole world, the answer is as easy as if you ask where Napoleon died ; 
because as it is you who really give the answer, not the medium, what you have in your 
mind is what will turn out to be the answer. You assure me solemnly that you do not 
tell the medium anything ; I declare unequivocally that you do. It is the same in cases 
of clairvoyance : you tell all, and fancy you are told. You do not tell it in so many 
words, but unconsciously you are made to communicate the very thing you believe is 
communicated to you.' . . . 

" I had formed an hypothesis, and according to that hypothesis I framed certain traps 
into which the medium would infallibly fall if my supposition were correct ; the 
hypothesis and the traps I explained to certain friends before the experiment was made, 
and the result not only fully confirmed expectation, but showed what was certainly not 
anticipated — viz., that the trick was a miserably poor one. 

" Our party comprised Mr. and Mrs. Masters, Sir William, Mr. Purcell, and myself (for 
obvious reasons, the names given are fictitious, except my own). It was after dinner, and 
we were smoking our cigars, when the footman announced that Mrs. Hayden was in the 


drawing-room. We soon joined her there, and found her talking to Mrs. Masters about 
the ' spirits,' in the most easy, familiar way — indeed, she always spoke of them without 
awe, but with implicit confidence — as if they had been pet monkeys. The conversation 
soon became general, as we formed a circle round the table. It of course turned upon 
the ' Manifestations,' and Mrs. Hay den was copious in anecdotes (adroitly mingled with 
aristocratic and well-known names) of the surprising success which had attended her. 
At last, the rappings having announced that the ghosts were impatient to do something 
for the money paid, we took our cards, on which the letters of the alphabet, and the 
numerals from one to ten, were printed, and the seance began. 

" Sir William was the first. He thought of one dead. On asking whether the person 
he was then thinking of was present, an alacrity in rapping assured him of the fact. He 
took his card ; the raps were distinct ; but the letters were all wrong. He tried another 
spirit— again the letters indicated were wrong. He tried a third, but a third time nothing 
came right. I was beginning to get anxious lest repeated failures should alarm the 
medium, and make her give some evasive excuse ; so I suggested that Mr. Masters should 
try. He tried — but with the same desperate ill success. It was now my turn. Let me 
pause here to remark that both Sir William and Mr. Masters were determined to give no 
clue whatever — they remained purely passive, awaiting a result ; they passed their 
pencils along the alphabet with such terrible uniformity that the medium was reduced 
to vague guessing, and of course in each guess it was thirty-five to one against her. This 
was what I had anticipated ; but it. was only negative evidence, and I was to elicit some- 
thing positive. 

" I thought of a relative of mine, and said aloud, ' I should like to know if she is 
present.' Eapping answered ' Yes.' Observe, the person I thought of was a real person — 
I was planning no trap this time, because the experiment was to be every way conclusive. 
I passed my pencil equally along the alphabet without once lingering, until after I had passed 
the letter J, with which her name began. Finding that I was not to have the real name, 
I thought I would try if I could not make the raps answer where I pleased. I chose N. 
Raps came ; N was written down. What name, thought I, shall it be ? Naomi or 
Nancy ? Before I had finally settled, my pencil had passed A, and as I saw E, I 
determined E should be the letter, and E was indicated. N E, of course, would do for 
Nelly, and Nelly was spelled ! Then came the surname, which ought to have begun with 
H ; but as my pencil did not linger at H, on we passed until we came to S, which was 
indicated without any intention on my part. I had then to invent some name beginning 
with S, which was not done at once, from the very embarras de richesses ; however, I 
thought would do, and was indicated ; then R ; and after that I resolved the name 
should be Sorel. It is unnecessary to follow further thus in detail my first trial ; enough 
if I add, that Nelly Sorel informed me she died in 1855, leaving six children, two of whom 
were boys, the eldest fourteen — every answer being ludicrously wrong, but declared by 
me to be ' astonishing,' which declaration was accepted in perfect faith by the medium, 
who thought she had got one good, credulous listener, at all events. That was my 
object — to make her fall into my trap it was necessary she should believe I was her dupe. 

" As far as my hypothesis went, it was confirmed by this conversation. I knew that 
it was the questioner who supplied the answer, and I made the answer turn out whatever 
I pleased — not, be it remembered, having that answer originally in my mind, so as to 
admit of any pretended 'thought reading' — but framing the answer according to the 
caprice of the moment, and invariably receiving the answer I had resolved on. Now you 
have only to replace acted credulity by real credulity, and the trick is explained. What 
I did consciously, the credulous do unconsciously. I spelled the words, so do they. 
The medium knows nothing ; she guesses according to the indications you give, and only 
guesses right when you give right indications ; therefore, if you ask what you and you 
alone can answer, she will 1 answer it only on the supposition that you indicate by your 
manner what the answer is. But if any doubt lingers in your mind, let this my second 
trial suffice. ' 

" To show how completely the answers are made at random, when no clue is given, but 
only a ' yes ' or ' no ' is required, here are four questions I wrote on a piece of paper, and 
the answers I received : — 

" ' Had the ghost of Hamlet's father seventeen noses ? ' Yes. 

" * Had Semiramis ? ' Yes. 

" ' Was Pontius Pilate an American ? ' No. 

" ' Was he a leading tragedian ? ' Yes. 

" I thought Mr. Purcell would have had a stroke of apoplexy, when I showed him 
these questions ; how he restrained the convulsion of laughter is a mystery ! 

" Let me not forget, that when Mr. Purcell called up a spirit, the answers were 
tolerably correct, not quite, but still near enough to be curious to one unsuspicious ; he 
confessed afterwards, however, that he had semi-consciously assisted the medium ; but, in 


his second conversation, he called up the spirit of an old family servant, who, at an 
advanced age, married an elderly woman, and who subsequently drowned himself. These 
were the questions and answers as written down : — 

"' Does James miss his children ? ' Yes. (Never had any.) 

" ' How many had he ? ' Yes. 

" ' How many boys ? ' Yes. 

" ' What did he die of ? ' Wafer. 

"To explain this ' wafer,' it may be observed, that Mr. Purcell meant the death to be 
called Water on the chest, which was his fallacious hint by way of an explanation of 
drowning ; and, when he said aloud that the word was incorrectly spelled wafer, whereas 
it ought to have been ' water on the chest,' Mrs. Hayden pointed triumphantly to the 
accuracy, ' Only one letter wrong, you see ; wafer instead of water ! ' and she referred to 
this several times in the course of the evening. 

" I have not half exhausted my stock of questions and answers written down at the 
time ; but the foregoing will surely suffice ; and, should they be deemed inconclusive, 
perhaps this one will close the question. As I had been so very successful in getting 
correct answers, and was evidently regarded by the spirits with singular partiality, they 
never declining to answer any question I put, it occurred to me to write this question on 
my paper, which I showed to Mr. Purcell : — 

" ' Is Mrs. Hayden an impostor ? ' 

"An unequivocating Yes, was the answer ; and, to make assurance doubly sure, Mr. 
Purcell affected not to hear that answer ; so we repeated the question, and again were 
assured that she was an impostor. This was the most satisfactory answer of the evening, 
and I felt very sorry that the medium was a woman — not a man, to whom I could have 
said, ' I asked the spirits if you were an impostor, and you hear them declare you to be 
one.' For I must plainly say, that a more ignoble imposture than this spirit manifestation 
never came before me — and that was the opinion of the whole party. It is easy for the 
reader to convince himself of this by a similar process." 

" In the following number of the Leader the editor observed : ' Iconoclasts are 
generally welcomed with abuse from devotees. Entering the temples of superstition and 
charlatanism, they smite the hideous idols from their pedestals, amidst the howlings of 
indignant worshippers. It was to be expected, therefore, that in exposing the imposture 
of spirit manifestations which America has shipped for our gullible market, we should 
have to bear hard words and worse insinuations from indignant dupes ; and what we 
expected we have received.' 

'' ' Dr. Ashburner, for example, has felt himself personally insulted, and has written 
an insulting letter, complaining of the " flippant " treatment this " very sacred subject " 
received at our hands, but as he opposes our experimental proof by nothing stronger than 
his own emphatic assertion, he cannot expect those who reason, to attach much weight to 
mere declarations.' " 

The portion of Dr. Ashburner's letter above alluded to, quoted by the 
veracious editor of the Leader, reads as follows : — 

"Sex ought to have -protected her from injury if you gentlemen of the press have no 
regard to the hospitable feelings due to one of your own cloth, for Mrs. Hayden is the 
wife of a former editor and proprietor of a journal in Boston, having a most extensive 
circulation in New England. I declare to you that Mrs. Hayden is no impostor, and he 
who has the daring to come to an opposite conclusion must do so at the peril of his 
character for truth. I defy Mr. Lewes or any one else to prove the acts of imposition or 
fraud in the phenomena that require the presence of such a medium as Mrs. Hayden for 
their development. I have calmly, deliberately, and very cautiously studied this subject. 
It may please superficial thinkers to treat it as they long treated Mesmerism and clair- 
voyance. The fire from the Zoist, the researches of Baron Von Reichenbach, Mr. Rutter's 
important discovery of the magnetescope, have settled, for posterity, the questions scouted 
by the twaddling physiologists of this generation. A battle is to be fought for the new 
manifestations. I have no hesitation in saying that, much as I have seen of Mesmerism 
and of clairvoyance — grand as were my anticipations of the vast amount of good to accrue 
to the human race, in medical and physical improvement, from the expansion given to 
them by the cultivation of their extensive relations — all sink into shade and comparative 
insignificance, in the contemplation of those consequences which must result from the 
spirit manifestations. This is a very serious truth, and must and will force its way. 
Animal magnetism and its consequences appeared marvellous to petty minds. The spirit 
manifestations have, in the last three weeks, produced miracles, and many more will, ere 
long, astound the would-be considered philosophers, who may continue to deny and speer 
at the most obvious facts. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, 

"York Place, March 14th, 1853.'' "John Ashburner. 


No reformers who have attempted to present a new idea to the world, 
and been compelled to run the gauntlet of ignorance and prejudice, will 
fail to acknowledge that antagonism is as necessary to ultimate success, as 
ready acceptance. 

So did it prove in the case of Spiritualism and " the American Medium." 
The attacks upon her so deliberately planned, carried out with utter dis- 
regard to all psychological influence, and subsequently so rudely and 
inhospitably trumpeted abroad as the blow which was for ever to crush out 
of existence the supernaturalism of thousands of years, had the effect which 
wise invisible wire pullers, might possibly have foresee?i. It called into print 
a perfect flood of testimony of a totally opposite character, and so far 
from crushing out the " delusion " by one fell swoop of the editorial pen, it 
became a hydra-headed messenger of an established Spirit telegraphy, to 
thousands of persons, who would otherwise have never known of its existence. 

From multitudes of letters which poured in from every quarter in favour 
of the truth of the manifestations, letters which the press were at that time 
compelled to place side by side with the opposing testimony, we select the 
following as specimens of what calm deliberative minds were — even in that 
early day — impelled to think of the newly-developed telegraphy. Both the 
following letters were printed in the Leader, in connection with reiterated 
charges on the part of the editor, against " the fraudulent practices of the 
American Medium." 

" Sir, — Having observed in your journal of the 5th instant a statement respecting the 
alleged spirit manifestations, from a correspondent who appears to have but partially 
investigated the matter, I take the liberty of transmitting to you a few additional 

" I, upon the first occasion, called the spirit of an old servant —the experiment was 
unsatisfactory ; I then attempted to help him, but got on with difficulty ; had I had 
the inclination, I feel confident answers could have been obtained equally absurd as 
those your correspondent prides himself with having so ingeniously succeeded in obtaining. 

"I, however, did not throw discredit on, or treat with scorn, the experience of others ; 
I, therefore, determined to try again the next evening, believing that the failure rested 
either in myself or some other unknown cause. I called the spirits of two of my own 
nearest relations, who might naturally be supposed to be more intimately connected with 
myself ; they both presented themselves, giving proofs of their identity which could 
never have occurred to me to seek. I tested them in various ways. I was also anxious 
to ascertain whether by willing strongly, and dwelling upon wrong letters, I could obtain 
false answers, but failed to influence them in any way whatever, whether the alphabet 
was placed upon, or concealed under, the table, and at each of the several successive 
interviews the rapport appears to be more thoroughly established ; whether I ask 
questions audibly or mentally, concise and clear answers are given, excepting in some 
few instances when no reply can be obtained. 

" So far as the moving of the table is concerned, I obtained my request, during the 
second interview, in so satisfactory a manner, that I consider time may be more profit- 
ably employed than in seeking a repetition of it ; it moved out of reach of Mrs. Hayden, 
and soon after suddenly regained its former position ; it also moved upon its axis in a 
peculiarly smooth, gliding manner ; not the top only, but the whole table, as I particularly 
observed, commencing with an almost invisible motion until it gained a rapid pace, and 
stopped suddenly. I immediately endeavoured myself to produce a similar motion, but 
was unable. 

"I will conclude by stating, that I have reason to consider Mrs. Hayden to be a lady 
possessed of courage, but, having a delicate and sensitive mind, any insults directed 
against her, whether personally or through the medium of the press, may be likely to 
have a tendency to disarrange and interrupt that subtle and mysterious agency so 
intimately connected with our higher nature. May I venture to recommend those who 
determine to investigate for themselves, to refrain from publishing the crude ideas of one 
hour's experience, especially should they arrive at conclusions opposite to those of 
the thousands who have been making the subject their earnest and constant study during 
the past five years ? I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

"March 21, 1853." " C. F. I.* 

Sir Charles Isham. 


Another letter makes us acquainted with a novel mode of Spirit writing 
by medium intervention : — 

" Sir, — Permit me, if you conveniently can, the opportunity of affording Mr. Lewes a 
peg on which to hang a few shreds of additional comments, in defence of his ' hypothesis' 
relative to the spirit-rapping ' imposture.' Mr. Lewes does not hesitate to impute, by 
anticipation, imposture to others, nor to ' act ' an imposture himself ; why should ' the 
spirits ' be denied their revenge upon him ? Are there no wags out of the body as well 
as in it ? Are we to dictate to the wag above how he is to treat the wag below ? 

" But, further, Mr. Lewes's hypothesis does not cover the whole facts of the pheno- 
mena. It does in no way explain the unexceptionably attested cases, recorded in the 
American literature on the subject, and in the records of private investigation, into 
which the vulgar notion of imposture, besides being excluded by the very nature of the 
occurrences described, is, on other grounds, wholly inadmissible. How, for instance, doe.-i 
it apply to the following case ? — A pair of scissors is held, by the points, by a ' medium,' 
over a sheet of writing-paper. One of the persons present drops a pencil into the thumb- 
hole of the scissors. Presently, the pencil stands apart from the steel, begins to move, 
and the hand of the medium is carried across the paper, and the signature of a person 
known to be dead appears ! The father, or other near relative of the person is present, 
and, from some peculiarity in it, disputes the genuineness of the signature. The recent 
letters of the person are appealed to, and there the very same peculiarity is found, and 
the exact correspondence of the two signatm'es demonstrated. 

" This case is reported in Horace Greeley's paper, the Tribune, and he vouches for the 
honour and capacity of his correspondent, who gives the original letter of the father, or 
relative of the alleged spirit writer. I mention it from memory, but am certain the 
main facts of the record are as stated. " A.+ 

" Liverpool, March 21, 1853." 

The next sword that was aimed against the new faith was drawn from 
an unexpected quarter, namely, by the hand of Dr. Elliotson, one of the 
most prominent writers in the Zoist, and a gentleman whose extensive 
experiences in mesmeric and psychologic phenomena suggested the expec- 
tation, that he would be prompt to welcome a phase of power so nearly 
related to many of the mental revealments that must have come under his 
own observation. 

We do not pause upon the stern and relentless acts of warfare which this 
gentleman directed against the American Medium, nor is it necessary to 
say that his adherence to the ranks of the opponents was all the more 
eagerly welcomed by them, because they had anticipated from Dr. Elliot- 
son's antecedents, a totally different result. It is a far pleasanter task to 
the author to record, instead of the harsh diatribes published in the Zoist 
by this ever faithful soldier of what he believed to be the truth, a delightful 
interview which she enjoyed with this venerable gentleman when, nearly 
sixteen years after the period now under consideration, Dr. Ashburner 
invited the .author to call with him upon an aged and infirm gentleman 
unable himself to go through the ceremony of the first call, but who, as a 
warm and devoted Spiritualist of many years sta?iding, was all anxiety to 
welcome and converse with Mrs. Emma Hardinge, or any of the well-known 
American Mediums of the holy faith. 

This " aged and infirm gentleman " was Dr. Elliotson, once the bitter 
foe, now the warm adherent of Spiritualism, a faith which the venerable 
gentleman cherished as the brightest revelation that had ever been vouch- 
safed to him, and one which finally smoothed the dark passage to the life 
beyond and made his transition, a scene of triumphant faith and joyful 

t Mr. Andrew Leighton. 




Besides the Leader, Zoist, and Household Words, the columns of several of 
the London journals began to be filled with/r<? and con articles on the subject 
of Spiritualism, soon after Mrs. Hayden's visit had opened up that topic as 
a theme of public discussion. Amongst other leading papers in which each 
side of the vexed question was allowed a fair representation, was the Critic, 
a journal to which Mr. Spicer, the well-known author of " Sights and 
Sounds," contributed a series of articles on the subject of Spiritualism, 
from which we give the following excerpts : — 

" As Sir Charles Isham has already given his public testimony to the facts witnessed 
by himself, I need not hesitate to say that I received from him, and other members of his 
family (including the rector of a parish in Nottinghamshire), the most explicit and positive 
assurance that they all, together with several others, heard these mysterious sounds at 
Lamport Hall,* in a perfectly private family circle (neither Mrs. Hay den nor any other 
professional medium being present). They all assured me that there could be no mistake 
or delusion about it. The rector alluded to also mentioned several satisfactory tests to 
which he had subjected Mrs. Hayden's spirits — receiving correct answers, through another 
gentleman present (who held the alphabet), to questions which nobody present could have 
known by any ordinary mode. I have also received letters from a gentleman of the very 
highest reputation and authority in the scientific world, and with whose writings and 
character my Cambridge studies have long ago made me familiar, as those of the most 
cautious reasoner whom I know.+ He is professor of mathematics in a well-known 
college ; is recognised as one of the first mathematicians in England ; and is pre-eminent 
for the profound and cautious scrutiny of principles and reasonings which characterises 
his writings. . . . Well, thus he writes to me : — 

" ' Those who can set it down as easily explicable by imposture, are among the easiest 
believers I know — if they know anything of such facts as I know from a plurality of 
witnesses to each.' 

" The founder of Socialism — the celebrated Eobert Owen — has been converted by these 
rappings, to a belief in a spiritual world, and a future state. He has published a manifesto 
to that effect. I met him one day last week at Mrs. Hayden's, and heard from his own 
lips the statement of several of the facts which had produced this conviction in him. 
This, of itself, is a curious fact, which I presume even the sapient writer of the Zoist will 
not deny. 2nd. The excitement on the subject in the United States, having already 
existed nearly five years, is so far from subsiding or dying away, that it is increasing and 
spreading wider and faster every day. Only a month or two ago, a Dr. Tyng, one of the 
episcopal clergy in New York, preached a sermon, at the usual time and place, warning his 
congregation to have nothing to do with these spirits. The preacher did not for a moment 
pretend to deny or doubt the facts ; but, like the Rev. Hugh M'Neile in this country with 
regard to Mesmerism, he considered them of Satanic origin. 

" The thing has scarcely begun in England as yet ; but already, within the few months 
since Mr. and Mrs. Hayden arrived in London, it has spread like wild-fire, and I have good 
reason for saying that the excitement is only commencing. Persons who at first treated 
the whole affair as a contemptible imposture, on witnessing these strange things for them- 
selves, become first startled and astonished, then rush blindly into all sorts of mad con- 
clusions — as for instance, that it is all the work of the devil, or (in the opposite degree) 
that it is a new revelation from Heaven. . . . That it is not imposture I feel perfectly 

* Lamport Hall, Northampton. Seat of Sir Chas. Isham. 
t Professor De Morgan. 


and fully convinced. In addition to the tests, etc., above named, I had a long conversa- 
tion in private with both Mr. and Mrs. Hayden, separately, and everything they said bore 
the marks of sincerity and good faith. Of course this is no evidence to other people, but 
it is to me. If there is any deception, they are as much deceived as any of their dupes. 

"A word or two as to its being a money- exhibition. In the first place, there are, to 
my certain knowledge, several persons who are mediums in private life, who, so far from 
making it public and getting money by it, are only too anxious to keep it quiet ; but, of 
course, such things cannot be altogether hushed up. Of these, one at least is a lady of 
rank (whose name I could give, if necessary), and others are in a position which renders 
all such charges as imposture and money-exhibitions perfectly out of the question. 

" In the present state of public opinion, however, nobody cares to avow their belief 
in these sort of things, unless they have a particular wish to be set down by their friends 
as lunatics, or are desirous of profiting by it in a pecuniary way. But even these are not 
fairly dealt with, I think. Mr. Hayden held a respectable position in America as editor of 
a newspaper of good repute and circulation ; and if he and Mrs. H. believed (as they state) 
that it was advisable to come over and make these things known here, why should they 
not be paid for their time and trouble ? But this, of course, has nothing to do with the 
main point — ' Are these rappings what they profess to be — the work of spirits ? ' " 

The " manifesto " of Robert Owen, referred to in the foregoing com- 
munication, says : — 

" I have patiently, with first impressions against the truthfulness of these manifesta- 
tions, investigated their history, and the proceedings connected with them in the United 
States — have read the most authentic works for and against them ; and although I loug 
continued to doubt, and thought the whole a delusion, 1 have been compelled to come to a 
very different conclusion." "While conversing with Mrs. Hayden, and while we were both 
standing before the fire, suddenly raps were heard on a table at some distance from us, no 
one being near it. I was surprised ; and as the raps continued, and appeared to indicate 
a strong desire to attract attention, I asked what was the meaning of the sounds. Mrs. 
Hayden said they were spirits anxious to communicate with some one. and she would 
inquire who they were. They replied to her by the alphabet that they were friends of 
mine, who were desirous to communicate with me. Mrs. Hayden then gave me the 
alphabet and pencil, and I found, according to their own statements, that the spirits were 
those of my mother and father. I tested their truth by various questions, and their 
answers, all correct, surprised me exceedingly." "In mixed societies with conflicting minds, 
I have seen very confused ansivers given ; but I believe, in all these cases, the errors have 
arisen from the state of mind of the inquirer." 

It would be impossible in this merely compendious notice of Spiritual 
progress in Great Britain, to pursue the course of Mr. Owen's investiga- 
tions in farther detail ; suffice it to say, they were followed out in the most 
thorough, calm, and deliberate spirit of enquiry. 

Mr. Owen lived to realize many corroborative proofs of Spirit intercourse 
from other sources than Mrs. Hayden's Mediumship, and in his last days 
was often heard to declare, the s«m of his whole life-long endeavour to 
bless and improve the condition of his fellow men, paled before that mighty 
illumination which brought, to him, but especially to earth's toiling martyrs, 
the assurance of immortality, and the certainty of reunion with all we have 
loved and lost on earth, " in another and a better world." 

Very shortly after the advent of Mrs. Hayden in England, the public 
were privileged to witness another phase of Spirit power in the person of 
Miss Emma Frances Jay, a young lady who had quite recently become 
developed as a trance medium in America, in fact the first phenomenon 
of this kind that had as yet appeared upon the public rostrum. 

Miss Jay's Mediumship consisted of speaking with extraordinary elo- 
quence on metaphysical subjects. She also concluded her addresses by 
singing ; both words and music being improvisations of remarkable beauty 
and sweetness. 


These exhibitions, although singularly interesting, did not furnish the 
indisputable proof of a Spiritual origin for which the sceptics of the time 
were seeking ; nevertheless, the wonderful improvisations poured forth by 
this gifted young sybil, might have convinced any experienced psychologist, 
that she was controlled by some power far transcending her normal capacity. 

After a few months spent amongst the aristocratic circles of England, 
wherein Miss Jay's interesting phase of Mediumship rendered her the 
centre of universal admiration, she returned to America, and as Mrs. 
Bullene soon became one of the most popular speakers of the American 

But the great era in English Spiritualism, from which may be dated 
unnumbered conversions, was inaugurated by the visit of Mr. D. D. Home, 
who though of European birth, was brought up by relatives in America, 
from which circumstance he was at first generally spoken of as an 
" American Medium." As Mr. Home's wonderful gifts have exercised an 
unbounded influence upon European society, and his whole career forms 
an epoch in human history — the effect of which can never be blotted out, 
we must claim the privilege of dwelling somewhat minutely upon his first 
introduction to England, and although his own published biography, 
together with a whole encyclopaedia of press notices, are already before the 
world, the history of the Spiritual movement in Europe would be inex- 
plicable, were we to omit due notice of so important a link in the chain of 
cause and effect as Mr. Home, and his marvellous Mediumistic career. It 
has been alleged that Mr. Home came to England in the spring of 1855 
for the benefit of his health, which, his friends deemed as a last, but 
almost hopeless chance, might be restored by an European trip. He was 
at this time about twenty-two years of age ; had been studying for the 
medical profession, and though already celebrated in New England for 
his wonderful medial powers, he would have devoted himself entirely to 
the practice of medicine, had not the development of consumptive tendencies, 
compelled him to comply with the wishes of his friends, and seek health in 
entire relaxation from his professional studies. 

Mr. Home never practised his Mediumship professionally. He seldom, 
if ever, sat in dark circles ; never refused to submit to any tests demanded 
of him ; was very careful not to sit in any such positions as to warrant 
the idea that he exercised any personal effort in producing the manifesta- 
tions, often drawing away from contact with the table, whilst a large 
amount of the most remarkable phenomena produced in his presence 
occurred without the agency of tables at all. He never refused to submit 
to personal examinations, to prove that he carried no concealed apparatus 
before the commencement of his seances, and in every word and act, mani- 
fested a spirit of candour and sincerity, which none but the most prejudiced 
and illiberal bigots could have misconstrued. 

We have already given some account of Mr. Home's wonderful Medium 
istic endowments in our French section, and the reader will find further 
illustrations of this gentleman's marvellous gifts in the reports of seances in 
succeeding pages ; it need only be added that Mr. Home's witnesses range 
from monarchs, princes, statesmen, scientists, and potentates, down to the 
professional and private grades of life, and throughout them all, it is 
impossible to find any proven account of fraud, or deception. 

It was this marvellous phenomenal being that came in the year 1855 to 
visit London, and became a guest of Mr. and Mrs. Cox, the noble-hearted 
proprietors of a fashionable hotel in Jermyn Street, St. James'. Amongst 


the many distinguished personages that Mr. Home met at Mr. Cox's was 
the late Lord Brougham, who having became greatly interested in the 
marvellous phenomena exhibited through the young American, asked 
permission to bring his friend Sir David Brewster to witness the new and 
mysterious power. 

As the correspondence which grew out of this, and a second visit which 
Sir David paid Mr. Home, when the latter became a guest of Mr. Rymer 
at Ealing, exercised a manifest influence upon the progress of Spiritualism 
in England in divers ways, at the risk of inflicting upon our readers, 
passages which have already attained to a wide-spread notoriety, we must 
here give a few extracts that will present a summary of the case in question. 

It would seem that the correspondence arose from the circumstance of 
the seance being reported in an American paper, from whence it was copied 
into the London Morning Advertiser, and this called forth from Sir David 
Brewster the following remarks, from which we only excise some unimportant 
preliminary words addressed to the editor. 

" To the Editor of the Morning Advertiser. 

" Sir, — It is quite true as stated by Mr. Home, that I wrote an article in the North 
British Review in which I have denounced ' table-moving and spirit-rapping ' in the 
strongest terms, and it is also true that I saw at Cox's Hotel, in company with Lord 
Brougham, and at Ealing, in company with Mrs. Trollope, several mechanical effects 
which I was unable to explain. But though I could not account for all these effects, I 
never thought of ascribing them to spirits stalking beneath the drapery of the table, and 
I saw enough to satisfy myself that they could all be produced by human hands and feet, 
and to prove to others that some of them at least, had such an origin." 

The letter concludes with a strong adjuration to Mr. Home to announce 
himself as the Wizard of the West instead of "insulting religion, common- 
sense, &c, by ascribing his power to the sacred dead." 

To this epistle immediately succeeded the following answers from Mr. 
Cox and Mr. Benjamin Coleman. Mr. Cox, who had been present during 
Sir David's first investigation, after alluding to his surprise at the letter in 
the Advertiser, and quoting several of its allegations, says : — 

" Without unnecessarily alluding to what I understand you saw at the house of an 
equally-disinterested investigator — for be it remembered all who have received Mr. Home 
in this country are above suspicion, and desire to arrive only at the truth — I beg to recall 
to your memory what took place at my house when Lord Brougham and you did me the 
favour to accept my invitation, and I will appeal to your candour to say whether there 
was a possibility of the various acts being effected by the hands or feet of anyone present. 

" I have a distinct recollection of the astonishment which both Lord Brougham and 
yourself expressed, and your emphatic exclamation to me — ' Sir, this upsets the philosophy 
°f 'fifty years.' 

" If the subject be beyond your powers of reasonable explanation, leave it to others ; 
for it is not just or generous to raise the cry of imposture, in a matter you cannot explain, 
taking advantage of your character to place humbler men in a false position, by allowing 
the world to think they were by ignorance or design parties to so gross and impudent a 

" I am, Sir David, 

" Your obedient servant, 

"Cox's Hotel, Jermyn Street, October 4, 1855." William Cox." 

Mr. Benjamin Coleman — a gentleman of wealth and high social standing — 
one who subsequently figured largely in the Spiritual movement and 
against whose honesty, integrity, and acumen as a keen observer, even Sir 
David Brewster could bring no allegation, next takes up the cudgels by 
addressing a letter to the Morning Advertiser, to the following effect : — 


" Sir,— Sir David Brewster has addressed a letter to you, attributing the phenomena 
which he witnessed in the presence of Mr. Home, to mechanical agency. 

" Sir David, although he had at least two interviews, and was invited to further 
investigation, failed to discover the mechanism by which these marvels were produced. 

" I am one of a hundred, who have recently witnessed these manifestations at the house 
of a friend, and I am sure that they were neither effected by trick, nor were we under a 
delusion. ... I was as much astonished at what I saw in Mr. Home's presence as 
any man, and when I found that Sir David Brewster had been a witness of similar 
phenomena, I called i*pon Sir David, and in the course of conversation he said, that what 
he and Lord Brougham saw, was marvellous, quite unaccountable. 

" I then asked him ; ' Do you think these things were produced by trick ? ' 

'' ' No, certainly not,' was his reply. 

" ' Is it delusion, think you ? ' 

" ' No, that is out of the question.' 

" ' Then what is it ? ' 

" To which he replied, ' I don't know, but Spirit is the last thing I will give in to.' 

" Sir David then told me what he and Lord Brougham had witnessed : ' The table — 
a large dinner table — moved about in the most extraordinary manner, and amongst other 
things, an accordion was conveyed by an invisible agency to his hand, and then to Lord 
Brougham's, in which, held by his Lordship's right hand, apart from any person, it played- 
an air throughout.' Mr. Coleman adds : ' Is it reasonable — astounding as the fact may 
be — to attribute such a performance to mechanical agency beyond detection, or that it 
should have been effected by Mr. Home's foot ? ' " 

After the perusal of this letter, Sir David published an answer, either 
denying in toto Mr. Coleman's statements, or shuffling out of them in the 
following way. After alluding to the conversation which Mr. Coleman had 
with him at the Athenaeum Club, he says : — 

" I may once for all admit, that both Lord Brougham and myself acknowledged that I 
we were puzzled with Mr. Home's performances, and could not account for them. 

" Neither of us profess to be expounders of conundrums, whether verbal or mechanical, 
but if we had been permitted to take a peep beneath the drapery of Mr. Cox's table, we 
should have been spared the mortification of this confession." 

As specimens of the form of denials which Sir David gave to the| 
allegations of Mr. Coleman, the following items may serve : — 

'' When all our hands were upon the table, noises were heard ; rappings in abundance, 
and when we rose up, the table actually rose, as appeared to me, from the ground. This 
result I do not pretend to explain, but rather than believe that spirits made the noises, I 
will conjecture that the raps were produced by Mr. Home's toes — or as Dr. Schiff has 
shown, ' by the repeated displacement of the tendon of the pei'oneus longus muscle, in the 
sheath in which it slides behind the external malleolus, and rather than believe that spirits 
raised the table, I will conjecture, that it was done by the agency of Mr. Home's feet 
which were always below it." 

It seems sad, nothing short of humiliating indeed, to find a man like 
Sir David Brewster — one who, as a scientist himself, should have been the 
first to give a hospitable welcome to a set of phenomena which involved 
so many hitherto unknown phases of science, as sounds and motions by 
invisible agency — driven to such rude uncourteous denials, or evasions 
unworthy of his character either as a gentleman or a man of learning, in 
order to dispose of facts which transcended the sum of his belief, and his 

The whole correspondence however — -which we may add was pursued 
on both sides of the question, in the same spirit as the above, — was shortly 
after summed up, at least as far as the impartial portion of the public were 
concerned — by a letter from Mr. T. A. Trollope, a gentleman whose 
position in the literary and social world is quite as pronounced as that 


of Sir David Brewster himself. It was addressed to Mr. J. S. Rymer of 
Ealing, and was afterwards published in the papers in connection with 
the entire correspondence. It is as follows : — 

" Florence, October 23, 1855. 

" My dear Sir, — I have read with much regret the letters from Sir David Brewster 
printed in the Morning Advertiser, to which you have called my attention ; and although 
it is extremely painful for me to come out from my tranquil obscurity into the noise aud 
wholly inconclusive bickerings of paper warfare, it is impossible for me when called on, 
to refuse my testimony to facts of which I was a witness. 

" Sir David writes — that when he was present together with Lord Brougham and Mr. 
Cox at Cox's Hotel — it was not true that a large dining-table was moved about in a most 
extraordinary manner. Further on he states that — ' the table was covered with copious 
drapery beneath which nobody teas allowed to look' These italics are Sir David's.* 

" I declare that at your house at Ealing, on an evening subsequent to Sir David's 
meeting with Mr. Home at Cox's Hotel, in the presence of Sir David, myself, and of other 
persons, a large and very heavy dining-table was moved about in a most extraordinary 
manner ; that Sir David was urged both by Mr. Home and by yourself to look under the 
doth and under the table, that he did look under it, and that whilst he was so looking, the 
table Was much moved, and ivhile he was looking, and while the table was moving, he avowed 
that he saw the movement. 

" Sir David Brewster further writes, that on this same evening the spirits were very 
active, prolific of raps of various intonations, making tables heavy or light at command, 
tickling knees, male and female, but always on the side next the Medium. I was repea- 
tedly touched on either knee, and on the lower leg, but I experienced no sensation at all 
akin to ' tickling,' neither did any of those present, who were similarly touched say that 
they were — or give any token of being ' tickled.' Moreover I affirm that Sir David 
Brewster, who sat next to me, declared to me at the time of being touched that he was 
touched on both knees. . . . Nor did he then speak of being ' tickled.' 

" Indeed the phraseology of this part of his letter is matter of the greatest astonish- 
ment to me. For it should seem wholly impossible that a man of Sir David Brewster's 
character, standing, and social position, in the grave and public examination of a question 
on which a young man's honour and character depend, if no yet higher interests are con- 
cerned, should intentionally seek to prejudice the issue in the minds of his readers, by a 
vulgar jest, puerile to those earnest enquirers who disbelieve the Spiritual origin of these 
phenomena, inexpressibly revolting to those who believe therein, and which, falling from 
less respected lips, would by all be termed mere ribaldry. 

" I must add one more remark on other passages of Sir David's letter. ' The party 
present at Mr. Cox's,' he writes, ' sat down to a small table, Mr. Home having previously 
I requested us to examine if there was any machinery about his person, an examination 
ihowever which we declined to make.' A few lines further on he says, with reference to 
ithe phenomena which then_occurred, ' / conjecture that they might be produced by machinery 
^attached to the lower extremities of Mr. Home.' Now I submit, that these two statements 
fshould not stand together. It appears to me both morally unjust, and philosophically 
tunsound, in the examination of evidence, first to decline the preferred means of ascertain- 
Jing the absence of machinery, and then to assume its presence. 

" I should not, my dear sir, do all that duty I think requires of me in this case, were I 
to conclude without stating very solemnly, that after many opportunities of witnessing 
and investigating the phenomena caused by, or happening to, Mr. Home, I am wholly 
convinced that be what may their origin, and cause, and nature, they are not produced by 
any fraud, machinery, juggling, illusion, or trickery on his part. 
" I am, my dear Sir, 

" Always most faithfully yours, 

"T. Adolphus Trollope. 

" To John Smith Rhymer, Esq., Ealing." 

Here this episode in connection with Sir David Brewster must rest. It 
is of importance that it should be recorded in this place for several reasons. 
First — Although the correspondence might with more justice to the young 
gentleman so harshly attacked and condemned without trial or evidence, 

* This statement is emphatically denied by Mr. Cox in letters preceding Mr. Trollope's. 


have been maintained in private, its publication served to obtain for 
Spiritualism, hundreds of investigators, few if any of whom could be found 
to duplicate Sir David Brewster's views of common sense, morality, or 
justice. Next — The position occupied by the disputants, commanded a 
notoriety for the case which it could scarcely have else obtained, and finally, 
the palpable animus which could have induced a man in Sir David Brewster's 
position, to descend to misrepresentation, evoked, as it deserved, a sentiment 
of indignation, which operated most favourably, both for Mr. Home, and 
the cause he represented. The young Anglo-American became all the 
fashion. Feted by potentates and nobles, courted, honoured, and sought for 
in every direction, it is not too much to allege, as the author can confidently 
do from many years' knowledge of this famous medium, that he preserved 
under all circumstances, his integrity and singleness of purpose. He sought 
no favours, accepted no fees (though he became the recipient of princely gifts 
and tokens of royal munificence). He was never vain- glorious, conceited, 
nor presumptuous. At times he was what he himself called " out of power," 
and though these seasons of incapacity to produce phenomena, sometimes 
lasted for weeks, the author can positively assert on her own, as well as 
on the testimony of hosts of the most authentic witnesses, that he was never 
known to supplement these mediumistic recessions by the smallest attempt 
at fraud or deception. Thus, though he became the subject of universal 
attack from those whose interest or predilection determined their antago- 
nistic attitude towards Spiritualism, he also became the centre of attraction 
to vast multitudes, who owed to him their first demonstrable proofs of the 
soul's immortality, and restoration to those, whom bereaved mourners had 
deemed for ever lost to them. 


Mr. D. D. Home's Manifestations. 

It may appear strange to those who consider how unprecedented in modern 
experience all the phenomena of Spirit communion are, that their recital 
excites so little attention and the repetition of spiritualistic narratives so 
soon palls upon the minds of the recipients ; . but the truth is, there exists 
too little variety amongst these phenomena to render reiteration tolerable. 

Then again, Spirit communications are for the most part addressed to 
individuals, and the innate selfishness of humanity renders personal matter 
wholly uninteresting except to the parties immediately concerned. 

As the intention of this work is to prepare a record for the use of future 
generations, we feel compelled to avoid the tedium of useless repetition on 
the one hand, and on the other to send down to posterity a complete 
set of such representative cases as will display the nature of the spiritual 
phenomena manifested in the nineteenth century. It is with this view that 
we select a few of Mr. D. D. Home's remarkable manifestations, as repre- 

S . C . Hall 


sentative cases which it would be difficult to transcend in interest. The 
following narrative, published in the London Spiritualist of March 30th, 
1877, was communicated by the charming authoress, Mrs. S. C. Hall, and 
reads as follows : — 

EASTER EVE — IN 1867. 

" The near approach of, perhaps, the happiest of our Festivals, sends my memory back 
to, I think, the most marvellous of all my experiences in Spiritualism : there may be 
among your readers some who will thank me for preserving and publishing a record of it. 

" I did not write concerning it at the time it occurred ; yet I can recall vividly every 
one of the remarkable incidents : they are as fresh in my mind to-day as they were ten 
years ago, for they ' happened ' on the Easter Eve of the year 1867 : and the Easter Eve 
of 1877 is now nigh at hand. 

"Although my recollection of the scene and circumstances is very vivid, I remembered 
that my friend Mrs. Henry Senior (the widow of Colonel Senior) had made some notes 
concerning them. I wrote to her on the subject, and the letter she has written in reply 
I ask you to print in the number of your publication that you will issue on the Easter 
Eve of the present year. 

" I need do little more than endorse, which I do, every sentence in her letter. I have 
had more startling experiences in Spiritualism ; but none at once so wonderful and so 
beautiful, so intensely convincing, so happy in comforting assurance of its holy truth, 
thoroughly upholding and confirming the faith that has, thank God, been my blessing 
through the whole of a long life. 

" It was not a dark sitting, but the light was subdued, and for a few minutes entirely 
excluded, when an absolute blaze of light filled the conservatory. We saw shadows (but 
having forms) pass and repass repeatedly, brought out into distinctness by the brilliancy 
of the light. When Mr. Home was ' raised ' (as he was twice) the gas in the chandelier 
was lit : although reduced, it was quite strong enough to mark his gradual progress 
upwards from the chair to the ceiling." 

Then follows Mrs. Senior's paper, which is quoted verbatim, with a few 
unimportant excisions : — 

" 5, Prince of Wales's Terrace, Tuesday. 
" Last Saturday (Easter Eve) we had a most wonderful seance at Mr. Hall's. I had 
long been telling him that I was convinced that allowing scoffers and unbelievers to come 
to our seances spoiled them, and that if he would but harden his kind heart for once, and 
allow us to have a selfish seance, I was sure it would be good — and last week he said to 
me laughingly that I should have my wish before I returned to Ireland, that Daniel had 
promised to come to them on Saturday, and that there should be no one asked but 
myself and Lady Dunsany — and so it was arranged. Lady Dunsany called for me on her 
way. We found Mr. and Mrs. Hall alone, but Daniel arrived soon after, and said when 
he entered the room that he had a very bad headache, which would, he feared, spoil our 
seance ; however, he sat down and chatted a little, and I then asked him to come over to 
the piano and '' croon," as I called it, as I had observed that his doing so always gave us 
a good seance. He played and sang several things, and then Lady Dunsany asked him 
for a soft Russian air of his wife's. He had not been playing it more than a minute, when 
a chair, which was at some distance from the piano, slid up to it, and placed itself beside 
him. I was sitting close to the piano on the other side, and saw it move before he did — 
' Oh !' he said — ' Here is Sacha' (his wife, who had left earth), and he went on playing 
some time longer, though his hands became perfectly stiff, and it was evident that they 
were not moved by his own volition. After a time his hands were withdrawn from the 
piano, and he became entranced, turned round the piano stool, and knelt down, and with 
hands clasped, poured forth a most beautiful prayer. . . . Mr. Home then came out 
of his trance, quite refreshed and pleased, and asked us to sit down at the table, which at 
once began to vibrate and ' tremble,' whilst loud and heavy knocks were heard upon it, 
upon the floor and the furniture. Presently the accordion was touched, and by the 
alphabet was spelt out ' We will play the earth-life of one who was not of earth.' Mr. 
Hall said ' That's nonsense,' but I answered, ' It must be our Lord's life,' and so it 
proved. First we had sweet, soft, simple music, like a lullaby, for a few minutes, 
then it became intensely sad for some time, and then we distinctly heard through 


the music the regular tramp of a body of men marching, and we exclaimed, 
' The march to Calvary.' Then the tapping sound of a hammer on a nail, the 
ringing sound of metal upon metal, then a pause, and afterwards came a crash, and 
a burst of wailing, which seemed to fill the room and the house ; it was followed by 
the most glorious triumphal music we any of us had ever heard ; it thrilled to all our 
hearts, and we were in tears when it was over — it certainly was not of earth. It evidently 
meant the resurrection of our Lord. We still sat at the table, but nothing more was done 
for some time ; then the muslin curtains were draped round Mr. Home ; and he was 
raised from the ground in them. . . . Then Mr. Hall's face and chest shone like 
silver, and they spelled out, ' He who giveth shall receive light.' The accordion was 
carried round the circle, played on Mr. Hall's head, then placed on my shoulder next it, 
and went to Mrs. Hall, on my right hand, and played on her head ; then played in the air 
round the circle (Mr. Home's hand not being near the instrument) ' The Last Rose of 
Summer,' and several other airs. Afterwards a great deal of martial music was played by 
a cousin of Lady Dunsany's, who had been in the Dragoons, and who had ' passed away ' 
in India, and who always comes to her. After this the spirit of a child, whose mother had 
sent Mrs. Hall flowers that morning, came and gave us each a flower. Mr. Home was then 
lifted to the ceiling. We heard his nail against it, and he said, ' Oh, I wish I had a pencil 
to make a mark.' However, he then came down, and Mr. Hall handed him a pencil, in 
case he should be again raised ; and five minutes afterwards he was again lifted up, and 
made a mark on the ceiling, which will remain there as a proof of what was done. When 
Mr. Home returned to the table we were all touched by hands on our brows and on our 

hands. Sacha gave each of us her peculiar little pinch, and I was touched by both H 

and E , and Lady Dunsany's cousin flipped all our hands with a flower. After a little 

time the spirits spelled out, ' We can do no more. Good night. God bless you ; ' and 
we heard the knocks and sounds die away in the distance out of doors, and we felt that it 
was all over. We were all beyond measure grateful for being allowed to witness what we 
could never forget as long as our lives lasted. That burst of music was still thrilling in 
all our hearts — nothing composed by mortal could ever touch it. I should have said that 
just before Mr. Home was lifted up to the ceiling the first time, his face and his chest 
shone with a silvery light, as Mr. Hall's had done. But, indeed, I have not told many of 
the minor things that took place. It was an evening of wonders." 

The next illustrative seance which we deem it necessary to associate with 
this record is supplied by the late Henry D. Jencken, Esq., barrister— a 
gentleman too well known in the elite of London professional society as 
well as among the Spiritualistic ranks, to need any additional proof of the 
authenticity of his narrative. 

Mr. Jencken himself was a witness of the facts narrated, and we may here 
add that Professor William Crookes in his published work entitled " Pheno- 
mena of Spiritualism," alludes to the seance about to be detailed, affirming 
that he received the narrative from the lips of three of the witnesses, 
namely, Lord Lindsay, the Earl of Dunraven, and Captain Wynne. 

Mr. Jencken, writing for the February number of Human Nature, says : — 


" Mr. Home had passed into the trance still so often witnessed ; rising from his seat, he 
laid hold of an arm-chair, which he held at arm's length, and was then lifted about three 
feet clear off the ground ; travelling thus suspended in space, he placed the chair next Lord 
Adare, and made a circuit round those in the room, being lowered and raised as he passed 
each of us. One of those present measured the elevation, and passed his leg and arm 
underneath Mr. Home's feet. The elevation lasted from four to five minutes. On resum- 
ing his seat, Mr. Home addressed Captain Wynne, communicating news to him of which 
the departed alone could have been cognisant. 

" The spirit form that had been seen reclining on the sofa, now stepped up to Mr. 
Home and mesmerised him ; a hand was then seen luminously visible over his head, 
about 18 inches in a vertical line from his head. The trance state of Mr. Home now 
assumed a different character ; gently rising he spoke a few words to those present, and 
then opening the door proceeded into the corridor ; a voice then said — ' He will go out of 
this window and come in at that window.' The only one who heard the voice was the 
Master of Lindsay, and a cold shudder seized upon him as he contemplated the possibility 


of this occurring, a feat wliich the great height of the third floor windows in Ashley Place 
rendered more than ordinarily perilous. The others present, however, having closely 
questioned him as to what he had heard, he at first replied, ' I dare not tell you ; ' when, 
to the amazement of all, a voice said, ' You must tell ; tell directly.' The Master then 
said, ' Yes ; yes, terrible to say, he will go out at that window and come in at this ; do 
not be frightened, be quiet.' Mr. Home now re-entered the room, and opening the 
drawing-room window, was pushed out demi-horizontally into space, and carried from one 
window of the drawing-room to the farthermost window of the adjoining room. This 
feat being performed at a height of about 60 feet from the ground, naturally caused a 
shudder in all present. The body of Mr. Home, when it appeared at the window of the 
adjoining room, was shunted into the room feet foremost — the window being only 18 
inches open. As soon as he had recovered his footing he laughed and said, ' I wonder 
what a policeman would have said had he seen me go round and round like a teetotum ! ' 
The scene was, however, too terrible — too strange, to elicit a smile ; cold beads of per- 
spiration stood on every brow, while a feeling pervaded all as if some great danger had 
passed ; the nerves of those present had been kept in a state of tension that refused to 
respond to a joke. A change now passed over Mr. Home, one often observable during the 
trance states, indicative, no doubt, of some other power operating on his system. Lord 
Adare had in the meantime stepped up to the open window in the adjoining room to close 
it — the cold air, as it came pouring in, chilling the room ; when, to his surprise, he only 
found the window 18 to 24 inches open ! This puzzled him, for how could Mr. Home have 
passed outside through a window only 18 to 24 inches open. Mr. Home, however, soon set his 
doubts at rest ; stepping up to Lord Adare, he said, ' No, no ; I did not close the window ; 
I passed thus into the air outside.' An invisible power then supported Mr. Home all but 
horizontally in space, and thrust his body into space through the open window, head fore- 
most, bringing him back again feet foremost into the room, shunted not unlike a shutter 
into a basement below. The circle round the table having re-formed, a cold current of 
air passed over those present, like the rushing of winds. This repeated itself several 
times. The cold blast of air, or electric fluid, or call it what you may, was accompanied 
by a loud whistle like a gust of wind on the mountain top, or through the leaves of the 
forest in late autumn ; the sound was deep, sonorous, and powerful in the extreme, and 
a shudder kept passing over those present, who all heard and felt it. This rushing sound 
lasted quite ten minutes, in broken intervals of one or two minutes. All present were 
much surprised ; and the interest became intensified by the unknown tongues in which 
Mr. Home now conversed. Passing from one language to another in rapid succession, he 
spoke for ten minutes in unknown languages. 

" A spirit form now became distinctly visible ; it stood next to the Master of Lindsay, 
clad, as seen on former occasions, in a long robe with a girdle, the feet scarcely touching 
the ground, the outline of the face only clear, and the tones of the voice, though 
sufficiently distinct to be understood, whispered rather than spoken. Other voices were 
now heard, and large globes of phosphorescent lights passed slowly through the room." 

Mr. H. D. Jencken, in the March number of Human Nature, continues 
his interesting account of the spirit manifestations through the mediumship 
of Mr. D. D. Home, as personally witnessed and carefully examined by 
himself and other competent investigators. He narrates an instance of 
the elongation of Mr. Home's body, and gives the measurements (care- 
fully made at the time) of the elongation of each part of the body. The 
most unique and striking portion of the phenomenon in this instance was 
the elongation and shortening of the hand. Mr. Jencken says : — 

"As the weight of the testimony depends much upon the accuracy of the tracing 
taken, I will describe my method in making the outline. I caused Mr. Home to place his 
hand firmly on a sheet of paper, and then carefully traced an outline of the hand. At the 
wrist joint I placed a pencil against the ' trapezium,' a small bone at the end of the 
phalange of the thumb. The hand gradually widened and elongated about an inch, then 
contracted and shortened about an inch. At each stage I made a tracing of the haud, 
causing the pencil point to be firmly kept at the wrist. The fact of the elongating and 
contracting of the hand I unmistakably established, and, be the cause what it may, the 
fact remains ; and in giving the result of my measurements, and the method adopted to 
satisfy myself that I had not been self-deceived, I am, I believe, rendering the first 
positive measurement of the extension and contraction of a human organism. 

"The phenomenon of elongation I am aware has been questioned, and I do not 
quarrel with those who maintain their doubt, despite all that may be affirmed. In my 


own experience I have gone through the same phases of doubt, and uttered disbelief of 
what I was seeing. The first time I witnessed an elongation, although I measured the 
extension of the wrist, I would not, could not, credit my senses ; but having witnessed 
this fact some ten or twelve times, and that in the presence of fifty witnesses, from first 
to last, who have been present at these seances where those elongations occurred, all 
doubts have been removed ; and that the capacity to extend is not confined to Mr. Home, 
was shown some months ago at Mr. Hall's, where, at a seance held at his house, both Mr. 
Home and Miss Bertolacci became elongated. The stretching out and contracting of the 
limbs, hands, fingers, above described, I have only witnessed on this one occasion, and I 
was much pleased to have a steady Oxonian to aid me in making the measurements 
above detailed." 

Mr. Jencken also relates the following incident of this seance: — 

"Mr. Home (in trance), now took a violet and a few leaves, and, kneeling down at the 
hearth, stirred the fire with his hand. He then showed us the flower, and seizing it with 
the fire-tongs, placed it in the fire. I distinctly saw the leaves burn away, and, on with- 
drawing the fire-tongs, only the stem was left. Twice he repeated the burning of the 
flower, then, handing the fire-tongs to Miss Bertolacci, he stepped on one side, and we saw 
the flower being replaced between the nippers of the fire-tongs. I asked whether they had 
re-formed the flower, to which he replied, ' No ; the flower has never been burnt, only 
shielded, protected from the fire ; the freshness of the flower has, however, been destroyed.' 
He then handed me the violet and leaves, which Miss Bertolacci took, and I believe has 
preserved. Mr. Home then showed his hands, which felt harsher and harder than in 
their normal state." 

Mr. Jencken adds that at a recent seance with Mr. Home, tongues of 
fire formed in an irregular circle round Mr. Home's head, flickering in fits 
and starts, from one to three inches long. 

The author would only add in this connection that she has herself 
witnessed Mr. Home's elongation several times in circles held at the resi- 
dence of John Luxmoore, Esq., 16, Gloucester Square, Hyde Park, 
London, and also been present on occasions when Mr. Home laid his head 
on a blazing coal fire without injury, handled blazing coals and placed the 
same in the hands of John C. Luxmoore, Esq., — the host — Professor 
Plumtree, Madame Maurigy, of 51, Albion Street, Hyde Park, and 
the author. 

We might enlarge this list of wonderful phenomena to the dimensions of 
a thick volume and still fail to relate all the marvels that Spirits have been 
enabled to display through the mediumship of Mr. D. D. Home. We 
must however conclude our notices of his remarkable powers by the 
following extracts from the work already referred to, namely " Researches 
in the Phenomena of Spiritualism," by Wm. Crookes, F.R.S. 

This eminent scientist was not only for some time an industrious investi- 
gator into the phenomena of Spirit communion, but he was bold enough 
to publish the result of those researches, and to maintain the purely occult 
origin of the manifestations he witnessed, in lengthy controversies with 
his fellow scientists, and divers members of the journalistic fraternity. 

Professor Crookes was aided and sustained in his brave arid unconserva- 
tive position, by Dr. Higgins, Sergeant Cox, and others of an equally 
eminent rank in the realms of science. 

Professor Crookes' papers were first published in the Quarterly Journal 
of Science, but it is from the volume of his collected articles that the 
following excerpts are now taken. He says :■ — 

" That certain physical phenomena, such as the movement of material substances and 
the production of sounds resembling electric discharges, occur, under circumstances in 
which they cannot be explained by any physical law at present known, is a fact of which 


I am as certain as of the most elementary fact in chemistry. My whole scientific educa- 
tion has been one long lesson in exactness of observation, and I wish it to be distinctly 
understood that this firm conviction is the result of most careful investigation." 

"Among the remarkable phenomena which occur under Mr. Home's influence, the 
most striking, as well as the most easily tested with scientific accuracy are, first, the 
alteration in the weight of bodies ; and second, the playing tunes on musical instruments 
(generally the accordion for convenience of portability) without direct human interven- 
tion, under conditions rendering contact or connection with the keys impossible. Not 
until I had witnessed these facts some half-dozen times, and scrutinised them with all the 
critical acumen I possess, did I become convinced of their objective reality. Still, desiring 
to place the matter beyond the shadow of a doubt, I invited Mr. Home on several occasions 
to come to my own house, where, in the presence of a few scientific inquirers, these pheno- 
mena could be submitted to crucial experiments." 

Mr. Crookes then proceeds to detail with unnecessary accuracy the pre- 
cautions he used to surround his experiments with indubitable proofs that 
Mr. Home had no agency in their production. 

The substance of the experiments was as follows. In a large room well 
lighted with gas, a wire cage was used in which the accordion could freely 
expand and contract without the possibility of human contact, with the 
single exception that it was held suspended in the cage by one of Home's 
hands extended over and resting upon the upper wire of the cage. This 
was under the table, but in such a position that the company could witness 
all the proceedings ; Professor Crookes's assistant being permitted even 
to go under the table and give an accurate report of what was going 
on. In this position there was first the- regular accordion movements and 
sounds with the instrument suspended from Home's hand ; then it was 
taken out and put in the hand of the next sitter, still continuing to play ; 
and finally, after being returned to the cage it was clearly seen by the 
company generally, moving about with no one touching it. The final 
paragraph of this description we give in the language of Mr. Crookes 
himself : — 

"The accordion was now taken without any visible touch from Mr. Home's hand, 
which he removed from it entirely, and placed upon the table, where it was taken by the 
person next to him, and seen, as were now both his hands, by all present. I and two 
others present saw the accordion distinctly floating about inside of the cage with no 
visible support. This was repeated a second time after a short interval. Mr. Home 
presently re-inserted his hand in the cage and again took hold of the accordion. It then 
commenced to play, at first chords and runs, and afterwards a well-known sweet and 
plaintive melody, which it executed perfectly in a very beautiful manner. Whilst this 
tune was being played, I grasped Mr. Home's arm below the elbow, and gently slid my 
hand down it until I touched the top of the accordion. He was not moving a muscle. 
His other hand was on the table, visible to all, and his feet were under the feet of those 
next to him." 

Prof. Crookes occupies quite a considerable amount of his work by 
republishing the vigorous lines of defence he was compelled to take up 
against his brother scientists, whose virulent opposition was awakened by 
the immense importance attached to his (Prof. Crookes') statements, con- 
sequently also to the influence which the obnoxious and unquenchable 
facts of Spiritualism derived from the allegations of so cautious and capable 
an investigator. 

On the multitude and variety of his researches he says : — 

" I may at once answer one objection w r hich has been made in several quarters, viz. ; 
that my results would carry more weight had they been tried a greater number of times, 
and with other persons besides Mr. Home. The fact is, I have been working at the subject 


for two years, and have found nine or ten different persons who possess psychic power in 
more or less degree ; but its development in Mr. D. D. Home is so powerful that having 
satisfied myself by careful experiment that the phenomena observed were genuine, I have, 
merely as a matter of convenience, carried on my experiments with him, in preference to 
working with others in whom the power existed in a less striking degree. Most of the 
experiments I am about to describe, however, have been tried with another person other 
than Mr. Home and in his absence." 

It would be unnecessary to follow out these experiments, with the result 
of which most Spiritual investigators are familiar ; we would only show how 
thorough they were by the following remarks : — 

" My readers will remember that, with the exception of cases especially mentioned, the 
occurrences have taken place in my own house, in the light, and ivith only private friends 
present besides the medium. 

" I have seen luminous points of light darting about and settling on the heads of 
different persons ; I have had questions answered by the flashing of a bright light a 
desired number of times in front of my face. I have seen sparks of light rising from the 
table, and again falling upon the table, striking it with an audible sound. I have had an 
alphabetical communication given by luminous flashes occurring before me in the air, 
whilst my hand was moving about amongst them. I have seen a luminous cloud floating 
upwards to a picture. Under the strictest test conditions, I have more than once had a 
solid, self-luminous, crystalline body placed in my hand by a hand which did not belong 
to any person in the room. In the light I have seen a luminous cloud hover over a 
heliotrope on a side table, break a sprig off, and carry the sprig to a lady : and on some 
occasions I have seen a similar luminous cloud visibly condense to the form of a hand and 
carry small objects about. 

" The forms of hands are frequently felt at dark seances, or under circumstances where 
they cannot be seen. More rarely I have seen tbe hands. I will here give no instances in 
which the phenomenon has occurred in darkness, but will simply select a few of the 
numerous instances in which I have seen the hands in the light. 

" A beautifully formed small hand rose up from an opening in a dining-table and gave 
me a flower ; it appeared, and then disappeared three times at intervals, affording me 
ample opportunity of satisfying myself that it was as real in appearance as my own. 
This occurred in the light, in my own room, whilst I was holding the medium's hands 
and feet. 

" On another occasion a small hand and arm like a baby's appeared, playing about a 
lady who was sitting next to me. It then passed to me, and patted my arms and pulled 
my coat several times. 

" At another time a finger and thumb were seen to pick petals from a flower in Mr. 
Home's button-hole and lay them in front of several persons who were sitting near him. 

"The hands and arms do not always appear to me to be solid and life-like. Some- 
times, indeed, they present more the appearance of a nebulous cloud partly condensed into 
the form of a hand 

"To the touch, the hand sometimes appears icy cold and dead, at other times warm and 
life-like, grasping my own with the firm pressure of an old friend. 

" I have retained one of these hands in my own, firmly resolved not to let it escape. 
There was no struggle or effort made to get loose, but it gradually seemed to resolve itself 
into vapour, and faded in that manner from my grasp. 

" On one occasion I witnessed a chair, with a lady sitting on it, rise several inches from 
the ground. On another occasion, to avoid the suspicion of this being in some way per- 
formed by herself, the lady knelt on the chair in such a manner that its four feet were 
visible to us. It then rose about three inches, remained suspended for about ten seconds', 
and then slowly descended. At another time two children, on separate occasions, rose 
from the floor with their chairs, in full daylight, under (to me) most satisfactory con- 
ditions ; for I was kneeling and keeping close watch upon the feet of the chair, and observ- 
ing that no one might touch them. 

" The most striking cases of levitation which I have witnessed have been with Mr. 
Home. On three separate occasions have I seen him raised completely from the floor of 
the room, once sitting in an easy chair, once kneeling on his chair, and once standing up. 
On each occasion I had a full opportunity of watching the occurrence as it was taking place. 

"As in the former case, Mr. Home was the medium. A phantom form came from a 
corner of the room, took an accordion in its hand, and then glided about the room, playing 


the instrument. The form was visible to all many minutes, Mr. Home being seen at the 
same time. Coming rather close to a lady who was sitting apart from the rest of the 
company, she gave a slight cry, upon which it vanished." 

Such are some of the phenomena obtained by a gentleman who pledges a 
name and fame standing as high as that of any scientist in the nineteenth 
century for the truth of all he alleges ; who backs up his own testimony 
with that of numerous other equally reliable and eminent witnesses, all of 
whom have everything to lose, and nothing to gain by the assertions they 
make. It only needs to add, that all the phenomena above alluded to were 
produced in the light, in private houses, and under circumstances which 
rendered the interposition of human agency impossible. 

If the Spiritualists themselves would but remember that — until Spirit 
communion is the common experience of the race — the world at large, 
and investigators seeking for truth in especial, have the right to demand 
that the records of phenomena shall be placed on equally unquestionable 
bases, the columns of the Spiritual journals would no longer be desecrated 
by the unseemly charges of bare-faced fraud from one party and savage 
recriminations from another. Spiritualism would ascend to the majestic 
pedestal of immutable truth like a phoenix rising out of the ashes of dead 
faiths and fleeting superstitions, and ere long it would compel the acknow- 
ledgment of humanity that it was the divine science of soul, and the religion 
of science.* 



The effect of Mr. Home's presence in England, the wide-spread reports of 
the marvels occurring through his mediumship, combined with the furious 
journalistic warfare which these reports elicited, acted like firebrands thrown 
into the midst of combustible materials, the sparks from which filled the 
air, and set the entire mental atmosphere ablaze with Spiritual influences. 

True it is, that the young medium's marvellous gifts were displayed only 
amongst that high class of society in which circumstances had contributed 
to cast his lot, and through whose personal interest he became the guest of 
many of the nobles and notables of the day. 

Still the contagion of the Spiritual outpouring was in the air, and vast 
numbers of persons to whom Mr. Home's seances were but a report, became 
stimulated to the endeavour to obtain manifestations through private experi- 
ments in their own families. The result was — as all experienced Spiritualists 
would anticipate, that demonstrations of medial power began to arise in 
vast numbers of family circles, and those who could not enjoy the privilege 
of investigating through the Transatlantic medium, were soon enabled to 
prove for themselves the wonderful facts of which rumour had informed 



* For further account of Mr. Home's mediumship and special seances, consult his own biography 
entitled "Incidents of my Life: By D. D. Home," files of the London Spiritual Magazine, Owen's 
"Footfalls on the Boundaries of Another World," and other English Spiritual publications of this 
century. — (Author. ) 


The chances are, that we should very generally find the modus operandi 
of individual investigation exemplified by the experience of Mrs. De 
Morgan — the wife of the celebrated mathematical professor — who, having 
been assured by Spirit friends communicating through Mrs. Hayden, that 
she could have equally good manifestations with those she then witnessed 
in her own house, at once proceeded to put in practice the instructions 
given, and form circles, the result of which soon became apparent in the 
development of remarkable medial powers in Mrs. De Morgan herself, in 
some members of her household, her friends, and not a few of her 

Experiences of this character soon began to multiply. Professor De 
Morgan, although not avowedly interested to the same extent as his 
estimable lady, candidly rendered his testimony to the occurrence of the 
marvellous phenomena which proved Spirit communion. In a short space 
of time after the advent of Mr. Home in England, the circles known to be 
held constantly, in various families, might be numbered by the thousand, 
and those who publicly ranged themselves as advocates of the truth of the 
communion, included some of the most distinguished and noteworthy 
persons of the day. Amongst the latter, and especially remarkable as 
being the earliest of the avowed believers of Spiritualism in England, may 
be named, Mary and William Howitt and Samuel Carter and Maria Hall ; 
all authors celebrated for their admirable writings, and ladies and gentlemen 
as much esteemed for their irreproachable private lives as for their eminent 
literary abilities — Dawson Rogers ; a gentleman of high social standing and 
influential press associations — the Countess, now Duchesse de Pomar, and 
Countess of Caithness, a lady who takes the highest rank both as an 
authoress and leader of aristocratic European society ; T. P. Barkas, 
F.R.S. ; Lady Otway, Frederick Tennyson, Robert Owen, and his son, 
Robert Dale Owen ; Lord Brougham, Lord Lyl ton, Archbishop Whateley, 
the Earl of Dunraven, Lord Adare, the Master of Lindsay, Lady Shelley, 
Mr. Sergeant Cox ; Wm. Wilkinson, Esq., the eminent solicitor, and other 
members of his family ; Sir Edwin Landseer • more than one member of 
the eminent literary family of the Trollopes ; Mrs. Browning, the celebrated 
poetess; George Thompson, the well known philanthropist ; Major Drayson 
the eminent astronomer ; Benjamin Coleman, Esq., and his amiable wife 
and daughter ; John Jones, Esq., of Enmore Park, Norwood ; Sir Chas. 
Isham, Bart., of Lamport Hall, Northampton; the Countess of Paulett; 
Mrs. McDougall Gregory, widow of the celebrated Dr. Gregory of Edin- 
burgh ; Lady Dunsany, Lady Helena Newenham, J. C. Luxmoore, Esq. ; 
Professor A. R. Wallace, the celebrated naturalist ; Cromwell Varley, F.R.S.; 
the renowned electrician ; W. F. Barrett, Professor of Physics in the Royal 
College of Science, Dublin ; Lord Rayleigh, F.R.S., Professor of Physics, 
Cambridge University ; the Earl of Crauford and Balcarres, F.R.S., President 
of the Royal Astronomical Society ; Dr. Lockhart Robertson, F.R.S., Editor, 
Journal of Science ; Drs. Ashburner and Elliotson, Dr. George Wylde, 
Dr. Robert Chambers, F.R.S. ; Professor Cassel, LL.D. ; Captain R. F. 
Burton, the celebrated traveller ; Dr. Fenton Cameron, Henry D. Jencken, 
barrister ; Professor Crookes, the renowned chemist ; Mrs. Anna Cora 
Ritchie, Thos. Shorter, Esq., known under the nom de plume of "Brevior;" 
Dr. Jacob Dixon, the eminent homoeopathist ; Wm. Tebb, Esq., and his 
lady; Gerald Massey, the renowned poet; C. C. Massey, the barrister; 
Hon. J. L. O'Sullivan, Rev. Sir Wm. Topham, A. Gooch, M.P. ; Dr. Gully, 
of Malvern; Chas. Blackburn, Esq., of Parkfield, Didsbury, Manchester; 


Jno. Fowler, Esq., of Liverpool, and Jas. Wason, Esq., barrister, of the 
same place ; Mrs. Honeywood, of Warwick Square, Belgravia ; Dr. 
Hitchman, LL.D., John Scott, Esq., of Belfast; John Rymer, Esq., of 
Ealing ; M. and Madame Maurigy ; W. Cox, Esq., Jermyn Street, St. 
James', and a long list of other ladies and gentlemen whose names we are 
not privileged to mention — to say nothing of hundreds of persons in the 
middle ranks of life, whose advocacy was of equal credit to the cause. 

It need hardly be added that since the above-named ladies and gentle- 
men contributed their influence and honourable names to bear the heat 
and burden of the early days of spiritual warfare, hundreds of others, 
scarcely less eminent or noteworthy, have graced the ranks of Spiritualism. 
Those who have become associated with the moving incidents of the grand 
historical drama will of course be mentioned hereafter, but a still larger 
number must necessarily be excluded, though most reluctantly on the 
author's part, from this over-crowded record. 

We recall the few names already cited, chiefly for the purpose of showing 
the class of individuals against whom the small wits of English journalism 
amused themselves by directing the shafts of ridicule and contempt, and 
that simply because they chose to believe what the testimony of their own 
senses proved to be truth. For this cause and for this only, the above-named 
parties were virtually branded either as fools, incapable of forming correct 
opinions, or knaves wicked enough to join in a world-wide system of 
imposition upon others.. No doubt the critics had hardly calculated the 
sum of the insolence of which they were guilty; still its substance meant 
neither more nor less than the assertion that the believers in Spiritualism — 
be they whom they may — were either all deluded or all deluders, however 
wise or honest they may have been on every other subject but Spiritualism. 

Now it must be borne in mind that neither the gifts nor the messages of 
Spiritualism were limited to the aristocratic circles of Great Britain. 

In a great many cases it was found, that some of the best Mediums were 
developed amongst the poor patients who sought aid at the Mesmeric 
Infirmary. The servants in great families also, who were often summoned 
to attend the circles of their masters and mistresses, at the suggestion of the 
communicating Spirits, frequently proved to be endowed with remarkable 
mediumistic powers, and these carried the tidings of the new revelation to 
persons of their own class, by whom quiet unostentatious methods of 
enquiry into Spiritualism were proceeding, with far more abundant results 
than the world at large was at all prepared for. 

Still there were circumstances tending to limit the earlier manifestations 
of Spirit power in Great Britain to private families, and the isolation of 
individual experiences. In the first place, there were no professional 
Mediums in England, but such as came from America, for some years. 

When European Mediums were either called upon or compelled — as was 
often the case — to abandon all other modes of gaining a livelihood, to 
devote themselves entirely to the exercise of their Spiritual gifts, it 
became an inevitable necessity that they should be recompensed for the 
time and labour involved in their services. It is only just to say, that in 
America — where every description of labour normal to the individual per- 
forming it, is recognised as natural and honourable — Mediumistic power 
was — from the incipiency of the movement — classified with every other 
faculty, and as such acknowledged to be a legitimate means of earning a 

In Great Britain the attempt to establish a pharisaical distinction between 


what is sacred and secular, ever has, and still does, stigmatize professional 
mediumship as "a desecration," &c, &c. Making all due allowance 
for the fraudulent spirit so common to human nature, and therefore, so 
certain to be found in the ranks of Spiritualism as well as amongst all other 
classes of society, we have yet to see why professional mediumship is not as 
legitimate an occupation as professional editorship, or professional work 
done in any other capacity for which the Creator has fitted the creature. 

We have yet to learn what gifts are specially sacred and what — by con- 
verse — are profane. When we have sufficiently proved these distinctions, 
we may be in a position to denounce the Mediums who claim the labourers' 
hire for their work. It is but justice to the sticklers for " sacred and pro- 
fane" gifts in humanity, to add, that they never affix these awkward lines 
of demarcation to the workers of any other denomination than those of 
Spiritualism ; the clergy as a body — from the archbishop who receives his 
twenty-five thousand pounds a year for Spiritual ministrations, to the poor 
curate upon his stipend of one hundred per annum — being deemed 
legitimately entitled to receive whatever they can get, unrebuked and un- 
questioned. Whether we are to consider the clerical calling as " profane " 
and therefore entitled to recompense, or '■'■too sacred" to be called in 
question at all, we have not yet been able to ascertain, but we do know for 
an absolute fact, that many an Englishman who does not hesitate to pay his 
quota of heavy rates to support the Church, has shrunk back in holy horror 
from paying a sixpenny fee to hear a fine Spiritual lecture, and excused 
himself on the ground that Mediumship was a " sacred gift," and should not 
be made the subject of mercenary traffic, &c, &c. Whether these asser- 
tions are designed to insinuate, that the Spirit Medium's gifts are from the 
Lord, and should not be paid, and those of the Bench of Bishops are from 
the other party, and may therefore become the subject of traffic, we cannot 
exactly determine. The inference is strong that way, and therefore, were 
it only for the sake of resisting the wholesale insult which this line of 
argument hurls against the clergy of all denominations, we ought to dis- 
regard such distinctions, or at least hold them in abeyance, until the line 
between the sacred and profane in human endowments is clearly defined. 
Meantime, the results of these curious opinions were, not favourable to the 
general dissemination of Spiritualism in Great Britain. For many years 
the belief was a close communion affair ; the luxurious entertainment of 
those who could afford to encourage Transatlantic Mediums as their guests, 
or devote leisure time to the culture of spiritual gifts in small retired family 

For a long time, the attempt to disseminate the knowledge thus obtained 
by aid of professional mediumship was so severely frowned down, that its 
earliest public exhibitions — as in the case of the Davenport Brothers — 
became occasions for the display of violence and ruffianism that would 
have disgraced the darkest of ages. We may also understand why — with 
an immense array of titled names and distinguished literary and scientific 
celebrities as its patrons — Spiritualism remained for many years unrepre- 
sented by any public demonstration. 

In 1859, Mr. Rollin Squire, the young American gentleman mentioned 
in our French section, paid a brief visit to Europe, for the purpose of 
recruiting his health and enjoying a holiday tour. 

Both in this country and on the Continent, Mr. Squire exercised his 
medial powers for the edification of large circles of admirers. Still, like 
Mr. Home, Mr. Squire was only known within the charmed limits of 


aristocracy, or such journalistic commentators as were from time to time 
invited as witnesses of the marvels enacted in his presence. Mr. P. B. 
Randolph, an eccentric trance speaker, and Mrs. A. E. Newton, a vision 
seeress and clairvoyant, were also received amongst the hmit ton of 
European Spiritualism, and each contributed their quota as honoured 
American visitors, in disseminating spiritual light amongst the more 
favoured part of the community. In 1864 the far-famed Davenport 
Brothers visited England for the first time. They were the only Mediums 
except the trance speakers, who had yet appeared in Europe through whom 
manifestations of spirit power could be given in public audiences. 

Professional Mediumship as above suggested, was at that time regarded 
with so much unreasoning distrust, that the announcement that what had 
hitherto been regarded as the "most sacred of gifts," was now to be made 
the subject of paying exhibitions, caused a thrill of horror to pervade even 
the minds of Spiritualists themselves. It was in deference then to this 
orthodox view of spiritual power and gifts, that the Davenports and their 
Entrepreneur, were induced at first to tender their inaugural manifestations 
in private circles, or gatherings convened according to custom, at the 
houses of the privileged few. 

As we feel justified in asserting that no subsequent phases of medium- 
ship exhibited on public platforms, have ever equalled in test conditions 
and clearness, the manifestations produced through the Davenport Brothers 
in the early days of their public career, we deem it a necessary part of the 
present record, to give a brief account of the phenomena which ordinarily 
transpired in their presence, and this we prefer to do, by reiterating a pub- 
lished statement attested by a large number of respectable witnesses, rather 
than offer the author's own unsustained views of these young men's 

Dr. Nichols, author of a sketch of the Davenport Brothers, during the 
very early portion of their career, says : " On the night of October nth, 
1864, a very distinguished company assembled at the residence of Mr. 
Dion Boucicault to witness the manifestations which are given in the 
presence of the Brothers Davenport." An account of the proceedings 
which transpired, Dr. Nichols alleges to have been drawn up and published 
by Mr. Boucicault himself. The following is a verbatim copy of the report 
in question : — 

" To the Editor of the ' Daily News.' 

" Sir, — A seance by the Brothers Davenport and Mr. W. Fay, took place in my house 
yesterday in the presence of Lord Bury, Sir Charles Nicholson, Sir John Gardiner, Sir C. 
Lennox Wyke, Rev. E. H. Newenham, Rev. W. Ellis, Captain E. A. Inglefield, Mr. Chas. 
Reade, Messrs. Jas. Matthews, Algernon Borthwick, T. Willes, H. E. Ormerod, J. W. 
Kaye, J. A. Bostock, H. J. Rideout, Robt. Bell, J. 1ST. Mangles, H. M. Dunphy, W. Tyler 
Smith, M.D., E. Tyler Smith, T. L. Coward, John Brown, M.D., Robert Chambers, LL.D., 
and Dion Boucicault. 

" The room in which the meeting was held is a large drawing-room, from which all the 
furniture had been previously removed excepting the carpet, a chandelier, a table and 
sofa, and twenty-six cane-bottomed chairs. 

" At two o'clock six of the above party arrived, and the room was subjected to careful 

" It was suggested that a cabinet to be used by the Brothers Davenport, but then 
erected in an adjacent room, should be removed into the front room, and placed in a spot 
selected by ourselves. 

" This was done by our party, but in the process we displaced a portion of this piece 
of furniture, thus enabling us to examine its material and structure before we mended it. 
At three o'clock, our party was fully assembled and continued the scrutiny. We sent to 


a neighbouring music seller for six guitars and two tambourines, so that the implements 
to be used should not be those with which the operators were familiar. At half-past 
three the brothers Davenport and Mr. Fay arrive. d They found we had altered their arrange- 
ments by changing the room which they had previously selected for their manifestations. 

" The then began by an examination of the dress and persons of the Davenports, 
and it was certified that no apparatus or other contrivance was concealed on or about then- 
persons. They entered the cabinet, and sat facing each other. Captain Inglefield then 
with a new rope, provided by ourselves, tied Mr. W. Davenport hand and foot, with his 
hands behind his back, and then bound him firmly to the seat where he sat. Lord Bury 
in like manner secured Mr. Ira Davenport. The knots on these ligatures were then 
fastened with sealing wax and a seal affixed. A guitar, violin, tambourine, two bells, and 
a brass trumpet were placed on the floor of the cabinet. 

" The doors were then closed, and a sufficient light was permitted in the room to enable 
vjs to see what followed. 

" I shall omit any detailed account of the Babel of sounds which arose in the cabinet, 
and the violence with which the doors were repeatedly burst open and the instruments 
expelled, the hands appearing as usual at a lozenge-shaped orifice in the centre door of the 
cabinet. The following incidents seem to us particularly worthy of note. 

"While Lord Bury was stooping inside the cabinet, the door being open, the two 
operators seen to be seated and bound, a detached hand was clearly observed to descend 
upon him, and he started back remarking that he had been struck. 

" Again, in the full light of the gas chandelier, and during an interval in the seance, 
the doors of the cabinet being open, and while the ligatures of the brothers were being 
examined, a very white thin female hand and wrist quivered for several seconds in the 
air above. 

" This appearance drew a general exclamation from all the party. Sir Charles Wyke 
now entered the cabinet and sat between the two young men, his hands being right and 
left on each, and secured to them. The doors were then closed and the Babel of sounds 
recommenced. Several hands appeared at the orifice, amongst them the hand of a child. 
After a time, Sir Charles returned amongst us and stated that while he held the two 
brothers, several hands touched his face, and pulled, his hair ; the instruments at his feet 
crept up, played round his body, and over his head, one of them lodging eventually on 
his shoulders. During the foregoing incidents the hands which appeared were touched 
and grasped by Captain Inglefield, and he stated that to the touch they were apparently 
human hands, though they passed away from his grasp. 

" I omit mentioning other phenomena, an account of which has been rendered elsewhere. 

" The next part of the seance was performed in the dark. One of the Messrs. Daven- 
port and Mr. Fay seated themselves amongst us. . . . Two ropes were thrown at 
their feet, and in two minutes and a half they were tied hand and foot, their hands 
behind their backs, bound tightly to their chairs, and their chairs bound to an adjacent 
table. While this process was going on, the guitar rose from the table and swung or 
floated round the room and over the heads of the party, slightly touching some. Now a 
phosphoric light shot from side to side over our heads. The hands and shoulders of 
several were simultaneously touched or struck by hands, the guitar meanwhile sailing 
round the room, now near the ceiling, now scuffling on the head and shoulders of some 
luckless wight. The bells whisked here and there, and a light murmuring was maintained 
on the violin. 

" The two tambourines were rolled hither and thither on the floor, now shaking 
violently, now visiting the knees and hands of our circle, all these foregoing incidents 
being simultaneous. Mr. Rideout, holding a tambourine, requested it might be plucked 
from him, when it was almost instantaneously taken. At the same time Lord Bury made 
a similar request, and a forcible attempt was made to pluck a tambourine from his grasp, 
which he resisted. 

" Mr. Fay then asked that his coat should be removed. 

" We heard a violent twitch and here occurred a most remarkable fact. A light was 
struck before the coat had quite left Mr. Fay's person, and it was seen quitting him, and 
plucked off him upwards. 

" It flew up to the chandelier, where it hung for a moment and then fell to the ground. 
Mr. Fay was seen meanwhile bound hand and foot as before. One of our party now 
divested himself of his coat, and it was placed on the table. The light was extinguished 
and this coat was rushed on to Mr. Fay's back with equal rapidity. 

" During the above occurrences in the dark, we placed a sheet of paper under the feet 
of the two operators, and drew with a pencil an outline around them, to the end that if 
they moved it might be detected. 

" They of their own accord offered to have their hands filled with flour, or any similar 
substance to prove they made no use of them, but this precaution was deemed unnecessary ; 


we required them however to count from one to twelve repeatedly that their voices con- 
stantly heard might certify to us that they were in the places where they were tied. Each 
of our own party held his neighbour so firmly that no one could move without two adjacent 
neighbours being aware of it. At the termination of this stance a general conversation 
took place on the subject of what we had witnessed. 

" Lord Bury suggested that the general opinion seemed to be that we assure the 
Brothers Davenport and Mr. Fay that after a very stringent trial and strict scrutiny of 
their proceedings, the gentlemen present could arrive at no other conclusion than that 
there was no trace of trickery in any form, and certainly there were neither confederates 
nor machinery, and that all those who had witnessed the results would freely state in the 
society in which they moved that so far as their investigations enabled tbem to form an 
opinion, the phenomena which had taken place in their presence were not the product of 
legerdemain. This suggestion was promptly acceded to by all present. 

" Before leaving this question, in which my name has accidentally become mixed up, I 
may be permitted to observe that I have no belief in what is called ' Spiritualism,' aud 
nothing I have seen inclines me to believe in it — indeed the puerility of some of the 
demonstrations would sufficiently alienate such a theory, but I do believe that we have 
not quite explored the realms of natural philosophy — that this enterprise of thought has 
of late years been confined to useful inventions, and we are content at least to think that 
the laws of nature are finite, ascertained, and limited to the scope of our knowledge. A 
very great number of worthy persons, seeing such phenomena as I have detailed, ascribe 
them to supernatural agency ; others wander round the subject in doubt, but as it 
seriously engages the feeling and earnest thought of so large a number in Europe and 
America, is it a subject which scientific men are justified in treating with the neglect of 
contempt ? 

" I am, &c, 

"Dion Boucicault. 
" Eegent Street, October 12, 1864." 

It may be asked with some point, why we republish accounts of 
phenomena so well known and which have long since been put into the 
shade — in the opinion of many Spiritualists — by the marvels of what they 
term "form materializations?" On the other hand, there has been a kind 
of fashion in the assertion, both within and without the ranks of Spiritualism, 
that the Davenport Brothers are "impostors," and many assume, without 
any known grounds for the assumption, that they have been proved to be 
impostors. To alt classes of objectors we would carefully commend a 
perusal of the seance reported above. Let it be remembered that it is 
written by one who only admits that his name is " accidentally " mixed up 
in the affair, and who guards that name with unnecessary caution from the 
charge of being a Spiritualist. 

All those who have witnessed the Davenports' seances know, that their 
phenomena were performed with lightning speed; that no singing was 
called for — "loud, louder, louder still" — during the dreary waiting time 
when Spirits are "materializing," and all who read the report of these press 
men, scientists, and sceptics, will observe, how often they insist upon their 
own caution in examining, and of the utter impossibility of their detecting 
fraud, or the personal agency of the Mediums in the phenomena. 

Now, uninteresting as the facts themselves may be, the above report 
shows a set of conditions under which human agency or contrivance was 
simply impossible. Our aim in dwelling upon this seance is to show, that 
in the case of the Davenports, as in those so often described as occurring 
with Mr. Home, stringent tests do not hinder the manifestations, neither 
does the presence of sceptics destroy them. 

Here are conditions under which conjurers may be defied and scepticism 
baffled ; and though imposture is impossible, true Mediumship could not 
fail to come out of such trials triumphant and unimpeachable. But these 


conditions are " too degrading for sensitive Mediums to submit to," urge 
their apologists, "and you who demand it of them, are no true Spiritualists ; 
you are Spirit grabbers, Mediums' enemies, the worst foes of Spiritualism," 
&c, &c, &c. To this class of talkers and writers, we have no answer to 
make, neither desiring nor intending to hold intercourse with them ; but to 
the confiding victims whose heart strings are wrung, and whose pockets are 
so often robbed to sustain impostors, we would say, See what Spirits could 
do, and did do, through the mediumship of the Davenports, and have no 
hesitancy in refusing to accord faith to any professions of Spiritual agency 
that are not equally well guarded round, against possibility of human 
interference and deception. 

That the poor Davenports were often inhumanly, and even brutally 
treated, we not only admit, but are about to demonstrate ; but the tests 
applied by the party whose record we have given, neither degraded nor 
insulted the Mediums ; on the contrary, they submitted to them cheerfully, 
and often, to the author's personal knowledge, suggested still more stringent 
tests, with which their manifestations could readily be given. 

The truth is, the- Davenports have seldom been fairly dealt with. The 
people that could not explain their manifestations, have contented them- 
selves, like Mr. Boucicault, by denying that they could be " Spiritual," 
because they were too puerile, whilst multitudes of Spiritualists who will 
gaze with rapture upon the tinsel ornaments sewed on to cheap finery by 
Mediums, whilst their masked dummies are contemplated with awe, 
stretched out on sofas, will turn with disgust from the obvious and unmis- 
takeable proofs of Spirit power, furnished through the Davenports, because 
they come from " such very low Spirits ! " Had we an opportunity of 
questioning Mr. Boucicault concerning his opinion as to what becomes of 
the great mass of mankind that sit nightly to watch his dramas, perhaps 
we might be in a position to show that the taste of the majority inclines 
to puerility only, and that anything that was not puerile, would not 
represent the vanished millions that have passed through the gates of death 
to the life beyond, where it is exceedingly doubtful, if puerile Spirits become 
wise in the twinkling of an eye, or low men and women suddenly become 
exalted angels. Meantime the question is not one of quality but kind. 
Were the manifestations recorded above, made by the Davenports, if not, by 
whom and what? 

These are the real questions at issue, and those manifestations can no 
longer be called "puerile," which defy the whole realm of science to explain, 
nor those Spirits be tabooed as " too low" for pious company, which prove 
the fact of man's spiritual existence, better than all the sermons that were 
ever preached from the mere standpoint of belief without knowledge. 

Following immediately upon the seance recorded above, with the Daven- 
ports, were others of a more or less wonderful nature. 

These exhibitions were at first confined to private circles held in the 
houses of the nobility, or of scientific persons ; at length however, the 
Mediums enlarged their borders, and appeared at the Queen's Concert 
Room, Hanover Square, attracting select and distinguished audiences, by 
whom they were still esteemed as entirely free from all shadow of fraud or 
suspicion. For some time the gentlemen of the press, especially those 
who were favoured with invitations to attend the more exclusive circles, 
were fair and candid in their statements concerning what they had witnessed. 
No sooner did it appear however that the Mediums seemed in a fair way 
to remunerate themselves for time and service by successful public exhibi- 


tions, than the press suddenly became alive to the " impiety," " American 
audacity," &c, &c, of the whole affair. 

Dr. Nichols in his biography of the Davenport Brothers quotes the press 
utterances of this character at large, and to judge by their general tone, 
the Davenports had become unmistakably popular, and were very generally 
feted and patronised by the highest rank of society, whilst their success in 
" making money " by their public exhibitions, and baffling all attempts of 
the scientific or learned to " find them out," very naturally, and very justly, 
merited the united storm of journalistic indignation from all parts of the 
country, and the united "anathema maranatha" of every pious professor of 
Spiritual doctrines, who could not prove what they professed, quite as well 
as the Davenports. So the storm raged, and so the enemies of the cause 
contributed to feed the flame by the virulence of the persecution directed 
against it. The culminating point of these proceedings however was 
reached, in a demonstration of popular sentiment displayed towards the 
Davenports on the occasion of their visit to the north of England. Although 
the character of this incident is such an one as no English writer would 
care much to descant upon, we feel obliged, in the interests of truth, 
to give the narrative in all its ugly details ; still we prefer to let others tell 
the tale. We shall therefore place it before the reader in the language of 
the parties most nearly concerned, and as the following letter from the 
Brothers Davenport contains published facts which for many years have 
remained uncontradicted, we cannot do better than reprint it in their 
own words. 

The following quotation, explanatory of the letter, is written by the Rev. 
J. B. Ferguson, A.M., LL.D., a gentleman from one of the Southern States 
of America, who having become well acquained with the Davenports, and 
placing implicit faith in their honesty, and the thoroughly Spiritual nature 
of their endowments, had consented to accompany them to England, as a 
travelling companion, and was well advised of all the facts which were 
published indeed under his own supervision. 

Writing to the author Mr. Ferguson says : — " The Brothers Davenport 
have been subjected to a series of extraordinary outrages in some of the 
provincial towns of England, which show that the spirit of opposition 
manifested by a portion of the public press is likely to take more violent 
form when it falls into a lower stratum of society. The facts connected 
with the riots at Liverpool, Huddersfield, and Leeds are very clearly stated 
in the following address of the Brothers Davenport to the British public, 
which, as a portion of the history of the movement, deserves a place in 
these records : — " 


" We appeal to the free press and the enlightened and fair-dealing people of the British 
Empire for a candid consideration of the following statement, and for the even-handed 
justice usually given in this country to all persons, rich or poor, citizens or strangers. 
We ask, also, as a matter of justice, that journals which have published accounts of the 
recent riots at Liverpool, Huddersfield, and Leeds, of which we were the victims, should 
also give the facts contained in this statement. 

" We beg, furthermore, most respectfully to commend to the consideration of the Right 
Honourable Sir George Grey and the magistracy and police authorities of the United 
Kingdom, the fact that within two weeks, in three of the most important provincial towns 
in England, without any fault of our own, transgressing no law of the realm, and offering 
no violence or injury to any person, we have been made to suffer in property, and have 
been menaced with extreme personal injury, with apparent danger to our lives, as will 
appear by the following statement of facts : — 


"After having given over two hundred public and private seances, or exhibitions of 
physical phenomena, such as have been described in all the leading journals of Europe and 
America, and in our published biography, at the Queen's Concert Rooms, London, and the 
mansions of the nobility and gentry of England, we visited Liverpool on the 13th of 
February, and, as is our custom, gave a private seance, to which the members of the press 
and others were invited, who reported the satisfactory character of the exhibition. 
February 14th we gave two public seances at St. George's Hall with like results ; a private 
seance at a gentleman's mansion and a public morning performance on Tuesday were 
alike satisfactory. 

" On Tuesday evening we were proceeding with another exhibition, when two persons, 
a Mr. Hulley and a Mr. Cummins, acting as a committee from the audience, in attempting 
to tie our wrists, caused so much pain that we were compelled to protest against the 
torture they were inflicting. We were willing to be tied with entire security, as we have 
been many hundreds of times by riggers, sailors, engineers, and other skilled persons, or to 
give any reasonable test in proof that we have no active part in the phenomena witnessed 
in our presence ; we had no fear of a ' Tomfool knot,' or of any mode of fastening that 
did not inflict unbearable torture. We declined to be bound by a committee whose unfair- 
ness and even brutality were soon manifest. Hulley and Cummins refused to retire and 
give place to another committee ; the audience was made to believe that it was the form 
of a particular knot, and not the cruelty of its application, to which we objected, and we 
were compelled by an unappeasable tumult to return the money taken for tickets, and 
postpone further proceedings. 

" On the following evening printed regulations were given to every person entering the 
hall, and read from the platform, in which we distinctly claimed the right of rejecting any 
person on a committee whom we should find acting with unfairness. This would be our 
right were we criminals on trial for felony. Before commencing, we invited all persons 
who were not satisfied with these regulations to retire from the hall, and receive the 
money they had paid for entrance. 

" Messrs. Hulley and Cummins, backed by a crowd of their friends, came again upon 
the platform, and, from their previous unfairness, were promptly rejected by us as a 
committee. They insisted upon tying us, and appealed to the audience to support them 
in their demand. They refused to leave the platform when requested, took possession of 
our cabinet, and in various ways excited violent manifestations in the audience. 

" We were then assured by a gentleman of Liverpool that unless we submitted to the 
demands of these men there would be a furious riot. He promised that they should not 
be permitted to injure us, and we finally yielded to his assurances. But they had no 
sooner placed the cords upon our wrists than they inflicted a degree of pain which could 
not be endured. We protested against this violence, but in vain, and, refusing to submit 
to it longer, had the cords cut from our wrists, and left the platform, which was 
instantly invaded by the mob ; our cabinet was broken in pieces, and Hulley and 
Cummins, the heroes of this assault of some hundreds of brave Englishmen upon four 
unarmed, unoffending, and unprotected foreigners were borne from the hall upon the 
shoulders of their friends, apparently proud of their triumph. 

" Our cabinet destroyed and our business interrupted, with heavy pecuniary damage 
in Liverpool, we returned to London, had a new cabinet constructed,. and on the following 
Monday returned to Halifax, where we gave our usual public and private exhibitions 
without interruption. 

" Our next engagement was at Huddersfield, February 21st. On our arrival we were 
informed that Hulley and Cummins, the heroes of the Liverpool mob, had been telegraphed 
to, and were coming with a strong deputation from that town, to break up our exhibition, 
The infuriated mob was the common talk of the town. We appealed to the police, and 
we are happy to say that, in this instance, a sufficient force was promptly sent to the hall 
for our protection. The crowd that assembled gave many indications of being prepared 
for violence. When our representative had stated the regulations adopted, and that we 
proposed simply the presentation of certain facts, without any theory, and asked for the 
appointment of a committee, two gentlemen, instructed, it was said, by Hulley and Cum- 
mins, came upon the platform and commenced to tie our wrists together behind us, which 
they did with needless severity. We bore the pain, however, until carrying the ropes 
thraugh the hole in the seat, they drew the backs of our hands down upon it with such 
violence as to threaten dislocation, placing their knees upon the seat, and in one instance 
upon the hands of one of us to give them greater purchase. This torture, deliberately, 
and to all appearance maliciously inflicted, we of course could not bear, and at our demand 
the cords were instantly severed. We exposed our livid wrists, in which every strand of 
the cord was visibly imprinted, to the audience, who, to the credit of their humanity, 
cried out ' Shame !' But the mob organized to break up our exhibition had no such 
feeling, and made a simultaneous rush for the platform, where, however, an efficient police 

Charles Blackburn Esq. 



force saved our property from destruction and us from a violence which, under the stimu- 
lating addresses of the heroes of the Liverpool outrage, expended itself in hootings and 

" We had engagements for two nights at Hull, but on our arrival we were informed by 
the gentleman who had engaged us, the chairman of the hall committee, and the police 
superintendent, that there were such indications of a violent mob, that we could not be 
permitted to give our exhibition, and we received from the gentleman chiefly interested 
the following note : — 

" ' Music Hall, Jarret Street,, Hull, 

( "22nd February, 1865. 

" * Sir, — As I believe there is reason to apprehend a disturbance at the hall this evening, 
if the siance of the Davenport Brothers takes place, I have come to the conclusion that it 
would be advisable to postpone the seance.' I am sorry to do this, particularly as yourself 
and the Messrs. Davenport have arrived in Hull, and are ready to fulfil your engagement ; 
but I am driven to do so by the organized attack which I am given to understand is in 
preparation. I am also urged to do so by the proprietors of the hall, who are alarmed 
lest their property should be damaged by any disturbance. 

" ' I remain, yours faithfully, 

" ' Robert Bowser. 

"'Rev. Dr. Ferguson, Royal Station Hotel, Hull.' 

" Failing to find at Hull that protection in our legal rights which we had suj>posed was 
extended to every man on English ground, we went to meet our next engagement at Leeds, 
where the scenes of Liverpool and Huddersfield were re-enacted with increased violence. 
We were met by an organized mob, and were refused the protection of the police when it 
was demanded. When the ringleaders or agents of the mob, taking possession of the 
stage, had subjected us to the same violence that had been planned and practised upon us 
at Liverpool aud Huddersfield — the mob again destroying our property, smashing the 
cabinet and breaking up or purloining our musical instruments, and we were protected from 
personal violence, amid the smashing of door panels and the howling of an enraged 
populace, by the tardy arrival of a detachment of police and the brave and firm conduct 
of one of its members — our agent, contrary to all justice, was compelled to order the 
return of the admission money paid by those who had come for the very purpose of 
making the riot from which we suffered. On the same day we had given a public seance, 
attended by the members of the press and some of the most respectable citizens of Leeds, 
in which the famous ' Tom-fool knot ' was used, and in which, so far as we were able to 
judge, the phenomena exhibited gave entire satisfaction. 

" It remains but to state two or three facts which may throw further light on these 

" In Liverpool, as reported in the Mercury, Mr. Hulley, when accused of acting 
unfairly to, and being an enemy of the Davenports, said, ' I avow it. I am a bitter foe 
to the Davenports.' After such an avowal, what right had he to act on a committee 
whose duty was strict impartiality ? 

" We wish to be just to the police. At Huddersfield, though they could not give us 
order, we were protected from actual violence. At Leeds such protection was withheld 
until too late to save our property. 

" At Liverpool the Mercury says : — 

" ' The appearance of Inspectors Valentine and Southwell, with a force of thirty men, 
did not stop the process of demolition. The police, indeed, did not attempt to interfere so 
long as only the property of the Davenports was threatened.' 

"The Leeds Mercury, reporting the violent proceedings against us at Huddersfield, 
says : — 

" ' Mr. Walker, not considering that his hands could pull the rope tight enough, used 

his knee to assist him, and the brother he was operating on again protested 

Several persons had at that time gone to the cabinet, and Davenport showed his wrist to 
some of them. It had a livid mark fringed with red, about the breadth of a finger, and in 
the hollow of this mark there were the marks of the individual strands of the rope.' 

" Yet some have been found to insist on inflicting this brutal torture upon us, with 
howling mobs to back them, as if we were malefactors or wild beasts. It may be doubted 
if such an amount of violence, wrong, and outrage has been inflicted on any unoffending 
men in England since Clarkson was mobbed by the slave-traders of Liverpool, and Priestly 
by the mad bigots of Birmingham. . . . 

" (Signed) 

" Ira Erastus Davenport. 
" William Henry Davenport. 
" William M. Fay." 




Another of the abnormal personages who made a deep mark upon the 
faith of European society, was Miss Nichol, better known as Mrs. Guppy, the 
wife of a gentleman of wealth and good social position, who previous to his 
union with Miss Nichol, had become remarkable in the Spiritualistic ranks 
as the author of a singular book entitled " Mary Jane." The speciality of 
this publication, which was issued in two handsome volumes, was to this 

Previous to the decease of his first wife, Mr. Guppy's attention had been 
drawn towards a succession of extraordinary disturbances occurring in his 
own house, and which continued for many months, in the form of rappings, 
movements of furniture, direct writings, and at last, when advised by 
Spiritualistic friends to try and obtain communications with the unseen 
tormentors through the ordinary methods of the Spirit circle, the manifesta- 
tions changed to intelligent question and answer, rendered through 
rappings, table tilting, and planchette writings. Being of a somewhat 
materialistic turn of mind, and greatly interested in the study of the natural 
sciences, Mr. Guppy — whilst compelled to admit the supra-mundane 
character of the" new development in his household — attributed it to a 
species of aromal force, given off unconsciously, from certain human organisms, 
a?id combining itself into a sort of magical impersonal personality, to which 
he gave the anomalous designation of " Mary Jane." As the said " Mary 
Jane" manifested a remarkable amount of intelligence, often transcending 
that of any member of the household, and betrayed moreover, tokens of a 
strong will of her own, Mr. Guppy conceived such an amount of respect for 
his " Ariel," that he proceeded to write her history, and completely filled 
the two volumes above alluded to, with accounts of her strange freaks, 
varied accomplishments, and demonstrations of preternatural power. 

After the death ot his first wife, Mr. Guppy being introduced to Miss 
Nichol, found in that lady's Mediumship, a very striking counterpart of his 
invisible friend Mary Jane's performances, The interest thus excited, not 
only ended in Mr. Guppy's complete conversion to Spiritualism, but also in 
the transformation of Miss Nichol into the wife of the wealthy scientist, in 
which position, as a non-professional Medium, Mrs. Guppy was enabled 
to exert a widespread influence both in England and many of the Conti- 
nental cities. 

As Mrs. Guppy's Mediumship is of that representative character which it 
is the aim of this work to depict, we avail ourselves of the accounts given of 
Mr. Guppy's seances, published by several authoritative witnesses. 

The first whose testimony we cite, is the late eminent jurist, Serjeant 
Cox, who, in a paper read before the Psychological Society of Great 
Britain, relates in very minute detail, how he one day called at Mrs. 
Guppy's residence at Highbury and solicited the favour of her company at 
a Spiritual circle, to be held that evening at his own residence. Serjeant 


Cox candidly states, that he desired to take Mrs. Guppy unaware of his 
invitation, and the lady in her own simple and amiable way, immediately 
complied with the request preferred. 

It was winter time, and the ground was covered with snow. Mrs. Guppy 
having arranged her dress, entered the hired cab which Serjeant Cox had 
brought, and drove with him some four miles to his residence. From the 
time of her arrival at his house, till the period of the seance, about five hours 
later, Serjeant Cox or the ladies of his family never for one moment lost 
sight of Mrs. Guppy, and yet within three minutes of the time that the circle 
had assembled, in a room which had been thoroughly searched, the one 
door locked, and the key deposited in Serjeant Cox's pocket, when the light 
was extinguished, heavy thuds were heard on the table, the lights were called 
for by signal, and the table w r as found to be covered with heaps of pure 
white snow. When this unwelcome freight of matter had been removed, 
the party re-formed, and the gas extinguished, more deposits were heard 
falling, fresh signals were made for lights, and the table was found literally 
piled up with lovely hothouse flowers, arranged with exquisite taste into 
divers fanciful groups. 

The author on one occasion, in a locked room, too thoroughly searched 
to admit of the concealment of a single article however small, was pre- 
sented, at her own request, with a live pigeon, which fluttered down upon 
her lap, almost as soon as asked for. The bird being released, and flowers 
asked for, when the signal was given for lights, an immense pyramid of 
flowers was found tastefully built up around a pot of tulips. The lights — 
at the request of the Spirits— -being again put out, the flowers, including 
immense branches of ferns, were so completely hidden or removed from the 
room, that though the one door was locked, and the key in the pocket of 
one of the company, the strictest search failed to reveal a single leaf. All 
that was left was the pot of tulips, on which was found a paper with very 
small writing, presenting the tulips as a gift to the author, " from the 

One of the most curious narratives in connection with this lady's 
Mediumship, is given in the following account, which was published as the 
statement of a seance, in which a gentleman present was suddenly, 
mysteriously, and unconsciously transferred from the locked circle room 
of Mr. Guppy's house, to the locked and closed premises of a friend of 
his, two miles distant. Quite twenty reliable witnesses at the two ends 
of the line, signed their names to an attestation, one party declaring the 
gentleman was in their midst at nine o'clock p.m. in a locked room, the 
key of the only door being in the pocket of one of the company, and the 
other party witnessing that the same gentleman suddenly made his appear- 
ance, at nine o'clock also, in a yard, locked, shut up, and enclosed on every 
side against the possibility of entrance, except by the locked and barred 
gate ; also, that on that night, when the rain was pouring, and the streets 
were covered with mud, this transfer of a human being, through two miles 
of space, was made, without leaving one trace of dampness or mud upon 
his clothing. 

The names of the twenty witnesses are those of well-known and respecta- 
ble persons, but as the gentleman himself would not allow his name to be 
published in connection with the circumstance, we simply allude to it, with- 
out ranging it in the category of the narratives given in this volume ; indeed 
we only reprint thus much of the details because the account which was 
sent to several London papers for publication, was prefaced by a concise 


summary of a similar event occurring in the experience of Mrs. Guppy, of 
which the most exaggerated accounts have been put in circulation. 

The following brief statement has been pronounced to be so reliable and 
accurate by all parties concerned, that we deem it in order to republish it. 
It must be understood, that it was printed in connection with the narrative 
of the gentleman before alluded to, in the New York Sun, from which we 
give the following extract : — 

" Before entering upon particulars, it is desirable to advert to a somewhat similar 
circumstance that took place on June 3rd, 1871, upon which occasion Mrs. Guppy, the 
famous medium, was conveyed instantaneously from her breakfast parlour at Highbury 
(where she was engaged making up her housekeeping accounts) to a locked room at 61, 
Lamb's Conduit Street, where she was suddenly found in a state of trance or unconscious- 
ness, upon a table around which ten persons were sitting for the investigation of alleged 
spiritual phenomena, in the presence of Messrs. Heme and Williams, the widely known 
professional mediums. A minute and circumstantial report of this event appeared in the 
current spiritual journals, as well as in several newspapers, attesting, not only her unex- 
pected arrival, but also the fact, amongst many others, that she held in her hand her 
housekeeping book and pen with the ink still liquid — such report being signed by all 
present at the seance in question — viz., N. Hagger, 46, Moorgate Street ; Caroline Edmiston, 
Beckenham ; C. E. Edwards, Kilburn Square, Kilburn ; Henry Morris, Mount Trafford, 
Eccles, near Manchester ; Elizabeth Guppy, 1, Morland Villas, Highbury Hill Park, N. ; 
Ernest Edwards, Kilburn Square, Kilburn ; Henry Clifford Smith, 38, Ennis Road, Stroud 
Green ; H. B. Husk, 26, Sandwich Street, W.C. ; Charles E. Williams, 61, Lamb's Conduit 
Street ; W.C. ; F. Heme, 61, Lamb's Conduit Street, W.C. ; W. H. Harrison, Wilmin 
Villa, Chaucer Road, S.E. Three members of this party (as a deputation), to fully test 
the circumstance and to prevent collusion, escorted Mrs. Guppy home, and took the 
testimony of Mr. Guppy and Miss Neyland to the fact of Mrs. Guppy' s presence in her 
home at Highbury, immediately preceding her appearance at Lamb's Conduit Street." 

In this case it must be borne in mind that Mr. Guppy — a gentleman of 
unquestionable probity — his housekeeper, and Mrs. Guppy's maid, testified 
to her presence in her house at Highbury about half-past eight in the 
evening, and at or about the same time, ten persons sitting in a third floor 
room, locked and bolted, in Lamb's Conduit Street, a distance of at least 
four miles, holding a dark circle, with the window closed, the one door 
locked, and the key in the pocket of one of the sitters, hearing a sudden 
noise on the table — struck a light, and found Mrs. Guppy in a state of 
partial consciousness, arrayed in a loose morning gown, housekeeping book 
in hand, sitting in their midst, on the table. 

Let it be noted also, that the whole of the witnesses were credible, 
respectable persons, and though their testimony was received with the fool's 
argument of ridicule, and bald denial, it was of a reliable character, and 
from persons whose witness thus given, would have been received in any 
court of judicature as undeniable. 

The next and last account we can give of Mrs. Guppy's Mediumship is 
one published by Miss Houghton in her " Record of Spirit Seances," and 
confirms numbers of other and similar statements made by Professors 
Wallace, Varley, Serjeant Cox, the late King Victor Emanuel of Italy, 
General Garibaldi, Prince George of Solms, Mr. R. D. Owen, and 
numerous other notables for whom Mrs. Guppy often sat, and who have 
freely testified to manifestations occurring in their presence of exactly the 
same character as the following extract from Miss Houghton's book : — 

" In October, 1868, a seance was held, at which eighteen persons were present, Miss 
Nichol being the chief medium. Each of the sitters wished for fruit, the wish being in 
every instance granted. The following were brought and dropped on the table around 
which the company sat : A banana, two oranges, a bunch of white grapes, a bunch of black 


grapes, a cluster of filberts, tliree walnuts, a dozen damsons, a slice of candied pine apple, 
three figs, two apples, some almonds, dates, pears, a pomegranate, two greengages, a pile 
of currants, a lemon, a bunch of raisins, which, as well as the figs and dates, were quite 
plump, as if they had never been packed, but brought direct from the drying ground. 
While the wishing was in progress a lady said, ' Why does not some one wish for 
vegetables, such as a potato or an onion ? ' and even while she was speaking a potato 
and an onion fell into her lap." 

In recalling the phenomenal personages who between the years 1 860 and 
1880 have contributed most liberally to the diffusion of Spiritual light and 
knowledge, it would be ungenerous to omit a notice of Mr. David Duguid, 
of Glasgow, a young man occupying the humble position of an industrious 
mechanic, and one whose limited means of education entirely precluded the 
expectation of an exhibition of his powers in the direction of the fine arts. 
The following account however, furnished to the London Spiritual Magazine 
by Mr. Benjamin Coleman, one of the most persevering as well as dis- 
interested observers of Spiritual phenomena, will give a fair illustration of 
the modes by which Spirit influence can evolve latent faculties and cultivate 
unknown germs of talent, even from the most unpromising sources. 

In the Spiritual Magazine of June, 1866, Mr. Coleman writes : — 

" There are several other mediums in Glasgow, one among them, Mr. David Duguid, 
a working cabinet-maker, is likely to be distinguished as a drawing medium. One very 
remarkable and interesting fact connected with this young man it is my purpose to 
relate, which I do upon the authority of Mr. H. Nisbet and Mr. James Nicholson, with 
whom I had the pleasure of becoming acquainted whilst in Glasgow. 

" After David had been recognised as a medium for the ordinary manifestations, he 
developed as a drawing medium, but made little progress at first without the aid of a 
young lady who formed one of the circle. When she placed her hand on the back of his, 
it would move with great facility, and at this stage his left hand only was used. 

" At the third sitting David became entranced with his eyes shut before commencing 
to draw. At each succeeding seance his powers increased as the trance condition became 
more intense, and his eyes more firmly closed. 

" The objects usually drawn at first were human heads and flowers ; but, when a 
certain proficiency was obtained, flowers, fruits, and a rough landscape were done in 
colours, the pencils and brushes being now taken in his right hand.* 

" At the fifth sitting, a remarkable painting in water-colours was commenced and 
finished, representing the entrance to an arcade, the archway being surmounted by the 
figure of Justice, standing upon a globe, around which a serpent is coiled, with the 
figures on either side of Hope and Charity. These figures are very masterly in concep- 
tion. The interior of the arcade is panelled with niches, in which figures and vases of 
flowers are placed. The floor is carpeted, and at the extreme end there is a rotunda, in 
"the centre of which a cross is placed. The picture is a transparency, and, when held up 
to the light the cross dissolves into a throne, upon which a figure is seated with a halo of 
glory surrounding the head, supported by twelve figures, six on each side. Those present 
were anxious to know the name of the artist, but he declined for the present to satisfy them, 
giving as a reason that he would ultimately give them the means of establishing his identity. 
Subsequently, they were told that he was an artist of celebrity, who had lived in the 
seventeenth century ; that he was born in 1635, and died in 1681 ; and that he was con- 
temporary with Steen, the celebrated Dutch painter ; that he had not been accustomed 
to paint figures, but that his delight had been to represent Nature, aud that he would 
attempt at their next sitting a sketch of one of his paintings — his masterpiece. 

" Accordingly, on the evening of the 18th of April the promised sketch was pencilled 
out, and on the 21st it was finished in water-colours, in the short period of four hours, 
and in the left hand corner the initials "J. R." were placed. This painting is considered 
a very able production. 

" Up to this time, none of the party had the least idea of the name of the spirit- artist, 
and their curiosity was unsatisfied until Mr. Logan brought an artist friend to see the 
picture, who was much struck with it, and said he was sure he had seen the painting 
somewhere, though he could not at the moment name the painter. 

" A day or two after, Mr. Logan's friend informed him that he had made the desired 
discovery, and showed Mr. Logan a volume of Cassell's Art Treasures' Exhibition, where, 


at page 301, there is an engraving, nearly fac simile of the spirit drawing, from a painting 
of ' The Waterfalls,' by Jacob Ruysdael, acknowledged to be his chef d'ceuvre. 

" This circumstance was communicated to the persons forming the circle ; but they 
determined to keep the medium in ignorance of the fact, being satisfied that in his 
normal condition he knew nothing of it. 

" At the next sitting, on the 28th April, David became deeply entranced, and after 
the usual short conversation between him and the spirit-artist, the latter spoke through 
the medium, and informed the company that he was aware of the discovery they had 
made ' that his name was Ruysdael.' They then placed before the medium Cassell's 
volume, which also contains a portrait of the painter, and invited the spirit's inspection 
of it. The spirit remarked that the engraving of the picture was a good copy, and the 
likeness tolerable when at the age of thirty. They then pointed the spirit's attention to 
the absence of figures in the new drawing which were in the original. The spirit 
replied, ' That the figures in his paintings were not by himself, but were put in by an 
artist friend ! ' which, upon reference to a biography of Ruysdael, they found to be 

" It remains to be stated that Mr. David Duguid, the medium, has no knowledge 
whatever of drawing, and that he is, as I have already said, a plain working man ; that 
the drawing was executed in the presence of several persons, including those I have 
named, in four hours, whilst the medium's eyes were fast closed ; and, further to satisfy 
the scepticism of some of those present, there was a bandage put over them during part 
of the time. The medium declares that he had no knowledge of the existence of 
Ruysdael's picture, nor that such an artist had ever lived, and there is no reason to 
doubt his asseverations." 

For the satisfaction of those who deem that the impelling motive with 
humanity in general, and Spirit Mediums in particular, is " the greed of 
gain," and the desire "to make capital" oat of the world's interest in 
Spiritual phenomena, we must here state, that David Duguid, although 
pursuing steadily the cultivation of his mediumship for many years— up to 
the time indeed of this present writing — has never done so professionally, 
but still lives by his mechanical labours, following out his simple unosten- 
tatious career, producing in the brief leisure hours he can afford to give to 
his mediumship, hundreds of paintings, drawings, and sketches, some of 
rare merit and others more indifferently executed, but all without the slightest 
attempt to convert his extraordinary gift to the same means of compensa- 
tion, which would be freely accorded to any other form of artistic production. 

We shall conclude this brief notice of our excellent and self-sacrificing 
Medium's career, with the following short excerpt, the nature of which speaks 
for itself. It is taken from The North British Daily Mail (Glasgow) of 
March, 1870, and reads thus : — 

" So much has been said and done lately regarding ' the exposure of Spiritualism,' that a 
few notes may be of interest as to what the writer witnessed the other night at a private 
stance given by Mr. David Duguid. This gentleman was comparatively unknown until 
publicly challenged by Mr. Bishop during his recent ' exposure of Spiritualism.' Mr. 
Duguid has never courted publicity, but at the same time he has always been very willing 
to give every information regarding his manifestations. The seance took place in his 
parlour, and was attended by ten gentlemen, five of whom were rank heretics regarding 
all Spiritualistic phenomena. Immediately on Mr. Duguid taking his seat at a small 
table he went into a trance condition, his eyes closing and a smile playing on his counte- 
nance. A piece of cardboard, about six inches by nine inches, which had been previously 
examined by the company, was then handed to him. After breathing on it Mr. Duguid 
made a rough pencil sketch, and then picking up his palette and brushes commenced to 
paint a landscape with his eyes firmly sealed. To make assurance doubly sure, a hand- 
kerchief was firmly bound across his eyes, but he did not appear to be the least incon- 
venienced by this arrangement, and painted away quite briskly, first rubbing in the sky, 
and then the faint outline of the distant mountains ; and finally boldly dashing in the 
foreground with a few vigorous strokes. At the suggestion of a gentleman present the 
light was put out, but this made no difference, the action of the brushes being quite 
audible in the darkness. After the expiry of half an hour the sketch was complete, and 
was a most remarkable picture to be produced under such peculiar conditions. What in 


Spiritualistic circles is called a 'direct drawing' was then attempted. A common card, 
coated with iodine, was placed on the table before Mr. Duguid, whose hands and feet 
were firmly secured with silk handkerchiefs. The gas was turned off, and the company, 
joining hands, sang the 100th Psalm. After the lapse of about five minutes a rap was 
heard on the table, and on the gas being lit Mr. Duguid was found sitting as firmly bound 
as before, and on turning up the card on the table, a nice little miniature landscape was 
observed, the colours being quite wet and newly painted. Without attempting to give 
an opinion or explain how such manifestations could be accomplished, we simply narrate 
the circumstances of the seance as they occurred." 

Besides the remarkably-endowed Mediums above mentioned, a large 
number of ladies and gentlemen moving in various distinguished circles of 
Great Britain have manifested extraordinary spiritual gifts and exercised 
them freely, in a non-professional way, for the benefit of their friends and 
acquaintances. Medium power indeed has been exhibited in every class of 
•society throughout the United Kingdom, and for some years it would have 
been impossible to visit any town or hamlet, without discovering way-marks 
of Spiritual power in the form of healings, trance speaking, Spirit drawing, 
writing, seership, or physical force manifestations. 

Besides the large number of private Mediums, of whose gifts we are not 
privileged to speak, except in these general terms, there are a great many 
excellent and disinterested labourers in the Spiritual vineyard, who give 
their services to the public in the capacity of clairvoyants, and trance 
speakers. Very few of these persons will receive compensation for their 
services, and many of them — especially in the North of England — voluntarily 
travel from place to place each Sabbath day, incurring a vast amount of 
fatigue and freely bestowing time and service, for the purpose of dis- 
seminating the glad tidings of Spiritualism, to all who will come to hear 
them. Throughout the large and thickly-populated districts of Yorkshire, 
Lancashire, Durham, and Northumberland, scores of these self-sacrificing 
missionaries may be found. Many of them are miners, pit men, weavers 
and factory hands, who, notwithstanding the unceasing toils of the week, 
cheerfully devote themselves to the duties of the Spiritual rostrum on the 
Sunday; and though they are simply "children of the people," and wholly 
untrained to such work, their rude natural eloquence, heightened by the 
afflatus of the spirit intelligences that speak through their lips, produces 
a much deeper influence upon audiences of their own class, than the 
metaphysical arguments of more polished speakers could dq. The very 
fact too, that wholly uneducated men and women can give correct diagnoses 
of disease, make cures that the medical faculty could never succeed in, and 
pour forth moving strains of exalted eloquence, far in advance of their 
normal capacity, clearly proves the control of some outside power, and 
brings conviction to many minds, that could not be reached by all the 
subtle logic of well-trained orators. 

We are not pleading in this category either for the expediency of non- 
professional Mediumship, or advising the exercise of inspirational powers 
upon the public rostrum, which are liable to be marred in transmission 
through illiterate channels, but in reporting the status of Spiritualism as it 
really exists,-we should omit one of the most important factors in Spiritual 
progress amongst the rank and file of society, if we failed to render justice 
to the self-devoted labourers who throughout England, but especially in the 
North, have for years rendered invaluable services as healers and speakers, 
with few to thank, and none to compensate them, save the consciousness of 
the good they have performed, and the approbation of the angels whose 
servants they are. If any readers are curious to learn who these self- 


sacrificing individuals are, let them turn to the plan of speakers for the 
Yorkshire districts as advertised in the Medium and Daybreak, the 
reports from the Lancashire, Durham, and Northumberland towns and 
mining districts, together with a few reports from the South and West, and 
they will there find a list of humble names recorded, whose place will 
surely be found, in the day when the Master of Life " numbers up his 

Before quitting the subject of non-professional Mediumship in England, 
we must call attention to the inestimable services rendered in higher and 
more influential grades of society than those above named— in fact, amongst 
the most distinguished and aristocratic circles of the metropolis — by Mrs. 
Everitt, a lady of independent position now residing at Hendon, formerly 
of Islington, London. Mrs. Everitt's Mediumship has been distinguished 
by the variety and intellectual character, no less than the force of the 
manifestations given in her presence. Besides loud rappings and the 
movement of heavy bodies which have been brought through closed doors 
and carried hither and thither in broad light, often ivithout human contact, 
Mrs. Everitt is a remarkable Medium for the production of the direct Spirit 
voice, and writings executed in the most minute form of caligraphy, in an 
almost incredibly short period of time. The illustration (given on another 
page) of these spirit writings, purported to come from Dr. Burns, a clergy- 
man of London, and one eminent alike for his noble character, his 
eloquence as a preacher, and the fearless candour with which he avowed 
his belief in Spirit communion. Dr. Burns granted the use of his Church 
to Dr. Newton for the purpose of practising therein his marvellous gift of 
healing. He attended several of Mrs. Everitt's circles ; publicly expressed 
his entire belief in their supra-mundane character, and after passing into 
spirit life, returned to those circles, to add his testimony as a spirit, to that 
which he had borne on earth as a mortal. The writing, of which a facsimile 
is given, was produced in nine seconds upon a piece of marked paper — in 
the presence of some ten witnesses — honoured guests of Mr. and Mrs. Everitt. 

Mr. Everitt has in his possession hundreds of similar writings — most of 
them produced under the most crucial test conditions. The writing here 
exemplified was produced by the Spirit of one well known to the parties 
present, and is of a thoroughly characteristic style. 

Sometimes the house in which the seances were in session has been 
shaken as in an earthquake. On other occasions the circle room has been 
filled with delicious perfumes or strong currents of air. 

The intelligence rendered by the direct writings, no less than the Spirit 
voices conversing with the company, is for the most part of a religious or 
moral character. The writings have not unfrequently been given in Greek, 
Latin, and Oriental languages, all of which are totally unknown to Mrs. 
Everitt. As an example of the preternatural mode in which these writings 
are produced, the following incident may be narrated. At a seance held in 
a semi-darkened drawing-room, with closed doors, and a company of some 
twenty persons assembled, a very large and splendidly illustrated book 
with paper covers, suddenly fluttered down from the ceiling and dropped 
in view of all present on the table in their midst. 

The book had been kept for many previous months in a locked drawer, 
in a room above that wherein it now appeared, and no human being at that 
time, could have had access to the place from which it was taken. 

This book was passed round amongst the company, of whom the author 
was one, and the illustrations being very fine, it was examined with so much 


5 =ij j ^> 




attention by all parties present, that not a leaf could have escaped observa- 
tion. Whilst the visitors were commenting on the astonishing though by no 
means unprecedented manner in which this manifestation had occurred, 
the Spirits spelled out by rappings the request that the lights should be 
put out. This was promptly done., but in less than twenty seconds another 
well-known signal was given for the restoration of the lights. Deeming 
that some preliminary had been forgotten which the Spirits wished attended 
to, .the chandelier was hurriedly relighted, when it was found that the 
margins of two leaves, at the place where the book was lying open, were 
covered with very fine pencilled writing. On further examination, it 
appeared that over twenty of the leaves were similarly marked, thus making 
in all, nearly three hundred words inscribed upon paper, that, sixteen seconds 
previously, had been proved to be entirely blank. 

It must be added, that although Mr. and Mrs. Everitt's position in the 
social scale placed them on an equality with all their guests, this excellent 
lady has ever cheerfully submitted to the most exzgea?it demand for tests, 
and furnished opportunities for thorough and searching investigation as 
gracefully, as if she had been a professional medium, or had not been in 
her own estimable character beyond all possibility of doubt or suspicion. 
For many years she devoted her varied gifts to the service of her 
friends, and such guests as could obtain an introduction to her delightful 
seances. Here the noble, the scientific, and the learned, no less, than the 
plain, untitled citizen, were freely welcomed, and ever hospitably enter- 
tained by the master and mistress of the mansion, and the author is in a 
position to affirm, that thousands of persons in this generation, owe their 
assurances of immortality, and their happiest hours of pure communion 
with blessed ascended ones, to the inimitable gifts of Mrs. Everitt, and the 
genial hospitality of her noble husband. 

Mrs. Everitt was also a seeress, and could readily receive impressions by 
mental telegraphy, from her friends. 

The author has often exchanged messages with this lady, when separated 
by miles of distance, such messages being invariably found subsequently to 
be correct. In Mr. Everitt, the cause of Spiritualism has found an equally 
indefatigable and able champion, Mr. Everitt's eloquent expositions of 
Spiritualism upon every available opportunity having attracted large 
audiences, and respectful consideration, whenever presented. 

If we speak sornewhat in the past tense of Mr. and Mrs. Everitt, it is not 
because their devotion to the cause of Spiritualism has waned, or the lady's 
Spiritual gifts have failed, but in the retirement of the family from the busy 
metropolis to the seclusion of a suburban residence, the opportunities for 
the exercise of Mediumship to all comers, have necessarily become very 
infrequent, and it is now only in the family circle and its immediate visitors, 
that Mrs. Everitt's charming phases of mediumship can be witnessed. 

We shall now direct the reader's attention to another wonderful display 
of Sibylline power manifested in the family of Mr. Bertolacci, a gentleman 
too well known and esteemed by his wide circle of friends, to incur the 
slightest shadow of suspicion, either in respect to the disinterestedness of 
his motives, or the truth of his statements. As Mr. Bertolacci was very 
free in placing the Mediumistic power of his family at the service of 
numerous credible witnesses, his testimony is susceptible of full verification 
in every particular. 

After eleven years of astounding and continuous demonstrations of Spirit 
power, Mr. Bertolacci — at the instance of his friends and numerous 


interested witnesses, — consented to embody his experiences in a small 
volume, which — in deference to his devoted adherence to the tenets of the 
Christian religion, or, it may be assumed, as a line of demarcation between 
himself and less orthodox believers in Spirit communion — he entitled as 
follows -.—Christian Spiritualism : Wherein is shewn the Extension of the 
Human Faculties by the Application of Modern Spiritual Phenomena, 
according to the Doctrine of Christ. By William Robert Bertolacci. — 
Published by Emily Faithfull. 

The following extracts are taken from a fine analytical review of Mr. 
Bertolacci's work by Mr. Thomas Shorter, the learned author of "The Two 
Worlds," editor of the London Spiritual Magazine, &c, &c. Mr. Shorter 
introduces his subject in these words : — 

" The experiences of M. Bertolacci extend over a period of eleven years, and this little 
volume must be regarded as only a synopsis or sample rather than a complete and elaborate 
history of them. Previously thereto, M. Bertolacci was, he informs us, a ' complete dis- 
believer in all miracles,' and he adopted the popular talk of 'laws of nature,' 'priest- 
craft,' and 'weak-minded credulity,' as all-sufficient to explain them. Under the 
influence of these derided manifestations this unhappy attribute and tone of mind has 
become changed to one of earnest and devout Christian assurance, as this book sufficiently 
evinces. But to come to the facts. M. Bertolacci says : — 

" ' We have produced most of the manifestations witnessed in other circles, such as 
table-turniDgs, and tiltings, raps and many sorts of sounds in different parts of the house. 
Tables and other objects have been raised from the ground without contact ; and have, 
when in the 1 air, resisted the efforts of a strong man to force them down again. Tables 
have been made to adhere so fixedly to the ground as to resist every endeavour to raise 
them ; and in more than one instance, when five or six persons have combined their whole 
strength, the wooden top, fixed on with strong screws, has been wrenched completely off, 
while the light framework and legs have remained adhering to the ground ; whereas these, 
immediately after, have risen quietly up into the air without being touched on being told 
to do so. Clocks have passed the hour without striking it on being told not to do so. . 

" ' In one circumstance, we obtained direct writing by placing a clean sheet of paper in 
a drawer overnight, the drawer and room being locked and secured, so that no one could 
obtain access to them. The next morning, was found written on the paper, as had been 
foretold through the planchette, " Christ soit avec vous," " Christ be with you.' " 

" The raps on the table being too slow a process for communicating information, the 
use of the planchette had been indicated. 

" By means of the planchette the author has thus obtained some 1,200 or 1,400 
pages of manuscript in English and French, including a work of 500 or 600 pages, 
explanatory of phenomena of which these writings form a part. 

" The seances have not been confined to physical manifestations, such as have been 
already named, nor has the attendance at them been limited to M. Bertolacci and his 
family ; intimate friends were at first admitted, and these introduced others, and the 
attendance so increased that after a short time it became requisite to appoint reception 
days, and on these occasions to hold both morning and evening meetings. These witnesses 
are, therefore, additional evidence to the facts certified by M. Bertolacci. 

" The proceedings of the stances were regulated by the planchette writing ; and we 
learn that — 

'"If among those present any one was ailing, or in a state of ill-health, they were 
generally singled out, and desired to come to the table. When there, they would often be 
told what their sufferings were, how long they had been ill, &c, although no previous 
mention had been made of the subject, and while under the surprise which these unex- 
pected communications generally created, they would be told that if they had faith in 
Christ they should be cured, which was, in several instances, realized immediately. 

" ' At other times, the seance would begin by first one person and then another being 
selected among the company, and each in their turn being conversed with by means of the 
planchette-writing. Then, to the astonishment of many present, persons appearing 
amongst us for the first time would be called by their Christian names, and others by 
their familiar nicknames, telling them their peculiarities of disposition, their favourite 
pursuits, and their thoughts at the very moment. It has constantly occurred that at the 
very time this was going on, the table on which the planchette was writing would be seen 
to rise into the air, all its four legs being a foot or more from the ground.' . . . 


" Contagious maladies, and even the action of poison, have been arrested, and organic 
disease successfully treated. The following is an instance : — 

" ' At one of our receptions, a Madame G a, of Pontoise, was, by appointment, 

introduced by mutual friends. The assembly was very numerous — some twenty persons 

being present. Madame G a had, for eleven months previous, lost the use of her legs 

from a paralysis which extended from her waist downwards, resulting from a premature 
confinement. It was with difficulty she could move about on crutches upon very even 
ground, and she had to be carried from the carriage which had conveyed her from the 
railway station to our reception room on the first floor, in the arms of her friends. 

■"'The stance was a very animated one. Many wonderful things occurred; the 
planchette had written at once under the hands of persons who had never witnessed 

anything of the sort before, &c, &c. Madame G a was then selected, and during 

fifteen or twenty minutes, she had it all to herself, much in the same way as it occurred 

with Mrs. K d previously to her being cured. Many tears were shed by Madame G a, 

who was deeply affected by the words of kind and gentle sympathy and of encouraging hope 
addressed to her by the sublimely inspired phrases written under the planchette. While 
this was going on, the rest of the company were conversing quietly among themselves in 
undertones. Then, all present being desired to give their whole attention, we were exhorted 
to join our hearts in an act of inward and fervent communion, and implore God to show 
His mercy upon our suffering sister. During the total silence which ensued, a short and 
impressive prayer was rapidly written under the planchette, which was read aloud, then 

the Spirit through the planchette, addressing Madame G a, wrote, " Do you believe in 

Christ's invariable goodness and power?" to which she answered, " Yes, truly I do." 
While she was answering, the planchette was writing, " Then stand upright ! " As though 
recollecting her weakness, for a moment she seemed to look round for assistance, and at 
the same instant the words, "Alone in Jesus Christ's name!" were written with such 
rapidity, that they seemed as if they had been struck off upon the paper ; and they had 

not time to be read, when Madame G a sprang on her feet, and she was no longer a 

paralytic. She was then told to walk up and down the room, which feat she accomplished 
with unhesitating firmness and perfect ease, and was after that sent downstairs to walk, 
accompanied, but unassisted, by my wife, for five minutes round the garden, where she 
was all the time in full view of the company assembled on the balcony and clustered round 
the windows ; and having come up again, she expressed her gratitude towards God for the 
mercy she had received, amidst the congratulations of all parties, who by that time had 
begun to be sufficiently recovered from their first surprise to reflect upon and appreciate 
the miracle which had been performed. We resumed our places. A thanksgiving to God 

was written through the planchette, and an hour afterwards, Madame G a's carriage 

having been previously discarded, she returned with the rest of the company, going on 
foot to the railway station, about a mile from our house, and was perfectly cured of her 

" Surgical cases were treated in like manner and with like results. M. Bertolacci 
says : — 

" ' When any of my girls cut themselves or met with any other accident, such as 
bruises, sprains, &c, not only is all pain immediately taken away, but indeed the healing 
. is almost as rapid. One day, one of them, in cutting a loaf of bread, gave herself a deep 
gash across the left hand, an inch long. The blood was flowing very copiously and had 
quite wetted a towel, which she had wrapped round it, through and through many folds, 
by the time she came to me, though she lost no time, however, in so doing. The towel 
was taken off, and I held the lips of the wound together, while those present joined us, 
during eight or ten seconds, in communion, the name of Jesus Christ having been 
invoked. The blood ceased to flow, and the wound was closed. Not more than four 
hours afterwards, some friends having come to pass the evening with us, she played 
several long pieces on the pianoforte, and had totally forgotten that she had cut herself 
in the day. Nevertheless, the wound was sufficiently severe to leave a scar still very 
plainly to be seen, although it is now somewhere about seven years since the accident 
occurred. On another occasion since that, one of her sisters cut the top of her thumb 
from one side to the other, down to the very bone, and was cured in the same manner, as 
completely and as instantaneously. 

" ' I have mentioned these two cases in particular to give my reader a notion of the 
efficacy of the cures ; but, indeed, it is almost of daily occurrence with us, either for one 
thing or the other — a cut, a bruise, and the blistering of an arm from the effects of a 
poisonous plant, having, the very day on which I write this narration, been cured, each in 
the space of eight seconds. A few days back, it was a hand and wrist which had been 

* Compare this case with the analagous and equally remarkable one of Miss Fancourt, as given 
in Brevior's "Two Worlds,'' pp. 230-235. 


pretty smartly scalded with boiling water. Toothaches and caries are as effectually 
stopped, even to the destroying of the nerve, in order' to obviate any recurrence of the 
pain from extraneous causes. On one occasion, when the request was made that the 
nerve should be destroyed, the most complete insensibility immediately succeeded ; but 
we were told, that as the tooth was only slightly attacked, if it were stopped within a 
few days, in order to keep the air and moisture from it, it would be preserved ; but that, 
if that were not done, in ten days it would begin to fall to pieces. It was not done, and 
on the tenth day, a large portion of the tooth fell off, and, in a very few days more, 
nothing but the bare root was left, which, however, was very easily extracted without 
occasioning the least pain.' 

" There can be no mistake about cases like these, the facts are recent, and are pub- 
lished to the world ; the witnesses are living, and well known as persons of credit and 
integrity. The faculty and the press may ignore or deny the facts ; from their ante- 
cedents it may be expected that they will do so ; but this, though it should affect their 
own credit, will not affect the facts, which are neither made nor destroyed by the 
opinions which may be formed about them. 

" We omit, from want of space, the magnetic and clairvoyant phenomena related, but 
the spiritual education of his family, as M. Bertolacci relates it, is something so unique 
that notwithstanding our already copious extracts we quote it in extenso. After a chap- 
ter on ' Initiation,' he proceeds : — 

" ' With this foundation to work upon, and confiding in the revelations and spiritual 
guidance by which we had already attained the degree of spiritual strength shewn in the 
preceding narration, I boldly withdrew my two younger daughters from the school they 
daily attended ; and in spite of the opposition and common-place arguments of other 
parties, began their new mode of education in the manner indicated by our invisible 
spiritual conductor, which was pursued much in the following order : — 

" ' Lessons were learnt by heart by reading to my students in their magnetic 
sleep, ordering them to retain in their memory when they awoke, all they had heard. 
Lessons were next learnt by heart by the pupils reading, themselves, once over, in 
their magnetic sleep, one or more pages of a book. When this began to become 
familiar, and the organs of memory showed that they were in a fit state of rapid obedi- 
ence, the action of the organs of outward perception upon the memory was submitted to 
the strong developing power of the soul's direct influence, and lessons were learnt by 
the simple inspection of (or staring at) the open page op a book, — the students 
being in their normal waking state. In the beginning, the inspection, or staring, was 
made to last a certain number of seconds, and that number being gradually reduced, 
after a short space of time, the duration of a single second or a mere glimpse at the page 
was sufficient for the pupils to retain in their memory the whole contents of it. 

" ' In this manner and in the following, the daily lessons of my children, equal at times 
to a week's corresponding school tasks, were learnt in the space of a few seconds ; lessons 
that take hours to interrogate them upon, with any degree of detail. Lessons are also 
learnt by a simple act op pious concentration prom books closed or totally out 
of sight. In this case, we have usually named the page where the beginning of the 
lesson is to be found, for we have, as yet, had recourse to the process less as a matter of 
immediate utility than as a practice of the powers of distant clairvoyance. It will be 
easily conceived that by a slight extension of this faculty, or rather by the special direc- 
tion being given to it, it may be applied to obtain references from, and even the perfect 
knowledge of, works one does not oneself possess, but which are known to exist in 
certain libraries and other places, rendered either by their distance, our own want of 
time or otherwise, inaccessible to us. 

" ( dictation. 
" ' Dictations were given by the teacher reading from a book in the ordinary 


the students through their pre-acquired clairvoyant capacities, the phrases becoming 
visible to them as soon as they are dictated. The mental dictations. — In this case the 
pupils are made acquainted — by the knowledge of their " inner man," and the perfected 
obedience of the organs of their "outer man" with the contents of the page held open in a 
position visible alone to the eyes of the teacher- — and as the latter desires to communicate 
a phrase to the pupils, they hear a voice dictating it aloud to them in the air, although 
no person is speaking at the time. 


" ' The direct clairvoyance gives the student a correct sight, with regard to 
the historical persons and facts treated of in the lessons learnt by the inspection of 
books, either open, closed, or,at a distance — as explained in the foregoing. 




" ' The sight of the plants, flowers, minerals, animals, &c, described or 
mentioned in their . books, as also such other useful details as may have been omitted by 
the author, or belong to a more minute study of the subject, is enjoyed in the same 


" ' Geographical and Astronomical Studies from Charts or Globes. — When a 
locality is named by the teacher, or is to be designated for any purpose in the course of 
study, the forefinger of the pupil is, by inspiration, instantaneously drawn to the exact 
spot of the map or globe where it is to be found. This action takes place before the 
reason of the students can have given them the slightest notion of the relative position- 
or bearing of the place, the head following the movement of the hand, instead of directing 
it. The students are also, by the facility they acquire for receiving inspirations, 
so perfectly identified with everything belonging to the places spoken of in their 
study of geography/, that they feel as though they were on the spot. So 
correct are the impressions made by the ubiquitous power of their souls on all the organs 
of the body in their temporarily perfected condition, that they appear to themselves to be, 
not where the lessons are going on, but in the very places therein referred to ; seeing, 
hearing, and feeling all that they are required or desirous to see, hear, or feel.' 

" M. Bertolacci has written in a tone of moderation and a religious spirit ; and he 
disclaims all idea ' that there is any peculiarity in his nature or that of his children, by 
which they are exceptionally qualified for the attainment of the gifts they have received.' "* 

Whilst no persons who have ever become acquainted with Mr. Bertolacci, 
or conversed with his witnesses — of whom hundreds are still living — are 
capable of questioning his veracity or impugning his statements, we know 
we are drawing heavily on the faith of those readers who are not personally 
cognizant of the overwhelming mass of testimony which surrounds the case 
and its narration. 

Perhaps in future ages, the substance of what we are now so reticent in 
offering to the acceptance of modern readers may be deemed trivial or 
insignificant, in comparison with the soul growth to which humanity may 
have then attained — meantime, where does our duty lie ? Why, even in 
turning to the motto of this volume, and accepting practically as well as 
theoretically the charge to proclaim "The truth against the world." 



Besides the merely phenomenal phases of Spiritualism illustrated by the 
narratives given in the last few chapters, the message which relates to the 
conditions of life hereafter, and the religious element which grows out of 
Spiritual communion, has not been lacking in its full share of representa- 
tion, in England, although there was a strong desire manifested on the 
part of some of those who stood in the position of "Leaders" in the ranks 
of English Spiritualism, to keep all questions of a religious and controversial 
nature in the background. 

The author's experience has ever been in this, as in all other departments 
of human thought and interests, when connected with Spiritualism, that 
Spirits themselves are at the helm of the new movement, and with or with- 
out the sympathy of mortals, they will raise up instruments, and create 

* This review may be found in full in the London Spiritual Magazine for October, 1865. 


opportunities for the impartation of whatever ideas they may determine to 
communicate. Thus it was, that whilst certain believers in Spirit com- 
munion, who were still steadfast in their adhesion to the Christian Church, 
and its belongings, were constantly deprecating the attempt to incorporate 
religious ideas with Spiritualism, and protesting — often in no measured 
terms — against the " infidelities " of the American trance speakers, the 
Spirits on the other side of the Atlantic were opening up opportunities, and 
presenting impelling motives to those very speakers, to visit the mother 
country, and widen the borders of Spiritualism from its conservative position 
in private families, to the more diffusive arena of the public rostrum. 

It has been quite a common practice amongst many European Spiritual- 
ists, to endeavour to narrow down the diffusion of Spiritualism to the private 
circle, or the perusal of such " well digested " literature, as was specially 
prepared to warn preaching Spirits off the sacred preserves of orthodoxy. 

All would not do however. The stream whose sources are not on earth, 
has made its own channels, and swept away all barriers that intervened to 
check the course laid out for its flow, by higher wisdom than that of 

It was under this special guidance, and in virtue of her commission 
from a well-tried band of Spiritual guides that the author — a Medium for 
many phases of Spirit communion, but chiefly recognised as a speaker 
under Spiritual influence, was impelled after many years' pilgrimage in the 
• New World to return, with her venerable mother, to settle once more in her 
native city of London. Mrs. Hardinge* reached England in the fall of the 
year 1865, a period that may truly be called, the blossoming time of 
Spiritualism in Great Britain. Her intention was to retire from her long 
and toilsome career as a public speaker into the quiet of home and literary 
occupations, but her arrival had been already anticipated by generous 
notices in the London Spiritual Magazine, and immediately on landing, 
she found herself surrounded by hosts of warm sympathizers, who although 
strangers — in the ordinary sense of social relations — were still one in heart 
with the new comer, in the desire to promote the interests of a much loved 
cause. It was in this spirit that Mrs. Hardinge, soon after her arrival in 
London, found herself compelled to abandon her projected seclusion, and 
once more to enter upon the vortex of effort to promulgate the truths of 
Spiritualism, by means of rostrum addresses. 

Early in the winter succeeding Mrs. Hardinge's arrival, a series of 
" winter soirees" were inaugurated, chiefly at the instance of Mr. Benjamin 
Coleman, Mr. William Wilkinson, Mr. Thomas Shorter, and other leaders 
of the Spiritual cause, interested in the promulgation of its philosophy. 

The scene of these gatherings was the Beethoven Rooms, Harley Street, 
Cavendish Square, where a splendid suite of salons, capable of seating 
several hundred persons was engaged, and where the guests were admitted 
in evening costume, by subscription tickets, or introductions permitted by 
the Committee. 

The company included many persons of the highest rank or eminence 
in literature and science, and at these gatherings Mrs. Hardinge gave 
weekly addresses in her capacity as an inspirational speaker during a period 
of many months. 

The subjects of the lectures were most generally selected by the audience, 
and questions on all manner of abstruse, scientific, and metaphysical 
points, were answered at the close of the addresses. 

* Now Mrs. Hardinge Britten. 


The proceedings were received with tokens of the highest interest, and at 
the close of each series announced, Mrs. Hardinge was induced to renew 
her lectures, at the earnest solicitation of the friends of the movement. 

How gladly the chief promoters of these meetings welcomed the oppor- 
tunity of extending phenomenal Spiritualism into the realms of philosophy 
and mental science, may be gathered from the glowing accounts that were 
published from time to time in the London Spiritual Magazine, especially 
the numbers for 1865-6. However gratifying these eulogiums might have 
been to the speaker, they can find no place here, and are only alluded to 
in order to mark the deep interest which inspirational addresses awaken, 
even in the minds of those least disposed to sympathize with the speaker's 
views, and to show how the cause progressed from phenomenal to intellectual 
phases of the movement. 

During her long and arduous career as a speaker in America, Mrs. 
Hardinge, having taken special interest in tendering the consoling doctrines 
of Spiritualism to the masses, was unwilling to narrow down her ministry 
to the exclusive and aristocratic listeners of the Harley Street soirees. She 
therefore proposed to her friends, that public meetings of a more general 
character should be inaugurated, the first to consist of three lectures on 
" America," to be given in St. James's Hall, the next to enter at once and 
publicly on the subject of Spiritualism in a course of Sunday evening 
addresses of the same character as those given at the winter soirees, to 
which all classes of the public should be admitted. To both these 
propositions Mrs. Hardinge's Spiritualistic friends lent their willing and 
generous aid. 

The secular lectures were at once undertaken, and called forth even from / 
the London Times wonderfully complimentary notices of the lady lecturer 
and her pretensions ; in fact, as these addresses were totally unconnected 
with the obnoxious, and all too popular Spiritual bete noir of the age, they 
were received with the most laudatory notices from the press in general ; 
so enthusiastic indeed was the tone of commendation adopted by the 
leading journals of the metropolis, that Mr. Benjamin Coleman, a Machiavelh 
of strategy, as well as an indomitable general of strategical forces, collected 
these reports from the various papers, and published them in pamphlet 
form for general distribution. 

As the very next appearance of Mrs. Emma Hardinge's name in the 
public journals was an announcement of her Sunday evening Spiritual 
lectures, Mr. Coleman was generally thought to have stolen a march on 
the secular press, which might have induced them to regret that they had 
contributed so large a share of advertising to " the Spiritualists' new Pythia," 
as one of the repentant journals now designated the lady, who but a short 
time ago had been the subject of unqualified laudation. 

Not any longer from the columns of the secular press, but in the London 
Spiritual Magazine came the announcement of the next move on the 
Spiritual chessboard, which was to the effect that the Sunday evening 
lectures were attracting such immense and enthusiastic audiences, that they 
would be continued for an indefinite period, or at least, as long as the 
speaker could remain in the country to give them. 

About this time a valuable impulse was communicated to the Spiritual 
movement by the publication of a new paper called The Medium and Day- 
break — started by Mr. James Burns, now so well known in connection with 
this and other periodicals, as well as being the founder of the Spiritual 
Institution, Southampton Row, Bloomsbury. The assistance which an 


editor of ability and a devoted Spiricualist like Mr. Burns was able to render, 
in publishing and distributing Mrs. Hardinge's lectures, can scarcely be 
estimated. The secular journals had obviously entered, into a conspiracy 
of silence in regard to meetings which were attracting immense and over- 
flowing audiences every Sunday. 

In this juncture Mr. Burns — of whom we shall have more to say here- 
after — devoted himself heart and soul to the work of publishing the 
addresses, which were issued, some in the columns of The Medium* 
others in tract and pamphlet form, whilst the Harley Street lectures were 
collected into small volumes, and distributed broadcast by hundreds, 
and on special subjects by thousands. By the indomitable energy of Mr. 
Burns, the press found themselves defeated by their own weapons, and 
from the time when this spirited publisher commenced in earrrest his work 
of literary propagandism, the movement acquired a diffusive popularity 
which made a deep mark upon public opinion both in the metropolis and 
in the provinces. 

Hitherto, circumstances had not favoured the dissemination of Spiritual 
teachings through the platform. 

English Spiritualists had been honoured with a visit from the celebrated 
American inspirational speaker and poet, the Rev. T. L. Harris, known in 
the Spiritual ranks as " The Medium," through whom was communicated 
the charming poems entitled, " A Lyric of the Morning Land," and " An 
Epic of the Starry Heavens." 

Unfortunately, Mr. Harris's visit failed to promote any interchange of 
kindly sentiment between the American and English Spiritualists, the former 
having incurred Mr. Harris's wrath for refusing to install him into the 
position of a settled ministry. The results of this disappointment he ex- 
pressed in his English addresses, wherein his former associates and fellow 
labourers were so roundly abused, that it was evident to his grieved listeners 
that the ex-reverend gentleman was afflicted with a very unspiritual form of 
Spiritualism ; hence his ministrations served rather to retard than advance 
the cause in England. Mr. B. P. Randolph, another American Spiritual 
lecturer, had also essayed the platform, but failed to reconcile his hearers 
to his marked eccentricities. A far more satisfactory expositor of the 
Spiritual doctrines had been found in the Rev. J. M. Peebles, formerly an 
American clergyman, but then a speaker on Spiritualism, whose eloquence 
created a deep impression on audiences gathered to hear him, on both 
sides of the Atlantic. At the time of Mr. Peebles' first visit, however, 
there was no available organization to give effect to his public efforts, hence, 
however valuable, they were not appreciated as they should have been. On 
several subsequent occasions Mr. Peebles' platform addresses were listened 
to with deep interest, and his visits to England welcomed with tokens 
of high appreciation. Time and circumstances combined to favour the 
effect of Mrs. Hardinge's advent in London, hence the results of her 
inaugural meetings were most influential in opening up opportunities for 
platform work in other directions. 

Although Mrs. Hardinge could never reconcile herself to a permanent 
residence in England, and for the last fifteen years has only revisited 
the country for limited periods of time, the kind greetings and cordial 
farewells — -often accompanied by substantial tokens of interest — -which these 
flying visits called forth, served to create pleasant " revivalisms," which 
heightened the effect and popularity of her labours. 

One of the most talented of the lecturers that succeeded Mrs. Hardinge 


during her absence in the United States was Mrs. Cora Tappan, a lady 
whose high reputation as an able and eloquent expositor of the Spiritual 
philosophy, stands unrivalled on both sides of the Atlantic. 

Mrs. Tappan's lectures were not only pronounced to be miracles of 
eloquence by the elite of the London Spiritualists, but by her efficient 
missionary labours in the provinces, she succeeded in awakening a wide- 
spread interest in Spiritualism throughout the country. 

We have already alluded to the remarkable test facts of Spirit presence, 
afforded by the visit of Mr. Charles Foster, an American medium renowned 
for exhibiting names of deceased persons, and test facts of Spirit presence, 
by writings in raised letters, on the arm. Besides this remarkable personage, 
England was visited by Messrs. Redman, J. B. Conklin, and Colchester, 
all powerful physical test mediums. 

The fact that they were professional mediums and demanded liberal fees 
for their services, was of course a subject of reproach, which the opposition 
could not afford to pass by unheeded. Not that the English people are 
grudging in their dealings, whether in trade, commerce, or art ; but, as we 
have already noted, the orthodox method of regarding Spiritual gifts as 
" Divine endowments," which must not be desecrated by association with 
" filthy lucre," threw an absurd and superstitious glamour over the subject, 
which exempted it from the ordinary methods of justice and common sense. 
When this unreasonable spirit was met on its own ground, and mediums, 
visiting the country from foreign lands, refused to - take compensation for 
their services, rich presents were often pressed upon them in greater prodi- 
gality than their services could have commanded as payment, but when set 
fees were required, the whole community was aroused to the iniquity of 
making God-like gifts the subject of traffic, &c, &c. 

We shall devote the remainder of this chapter to a brief notice of 
another Transatlantic visitor whose reputation for the beneficent use he 
made of his marvellous powers of healing by touch, had long preceded 
him; we speak of Dr. J. R. Newton of Rhode Island, U.S., who arrived 
in this country for a second visit during the month of May, 1870. 

Stimulated by the reports of his many wonderful cures, the leading 
Spiritualists of London met together at the "Beethoven Rooms," Harley 
Street, on Thursday, May 12th,, to tender to Dr. Newton a cordial welcome 
in the form of a public reception. 

The meeting was not only a representative one, the Spiritualists of eminence 
from the provinces as well as from the metropolis flocking in from all parts 
of the country, but those who attended were prompt to bear testimony to the 
excellent services of their distinguished guest, by relating several incidents 
in connection with his powers as a healer, the recital of which must serve 
in this place, as a sample of the good work performed by Dr. Newton 
during his brief residence in England. 

In the course of their several addresses, Messrs. Coleman, Tebb, Shorter, 
the Rev. J. M. Peebles — who happened to be in England at the time — 
and Mr. S. C. Hall, gave pointed and interesting delineations of the real 
status of English Spiritualism at the period in question, and the unpre- 
meditated testimony borne by these gentlemen at a time when their 
utterances were not given for effect on the outside world, may be received 
as of more value than any elaborately prepared statements. 

Mr. Benjamin Coleman, the chief promoter of the meeting, was unani- 
mously called upon to preside, and the exercises of the evening proceeded as 
follows. The Chairman, after stating that the object of the meeting was to 


give Dr. Newton a hearty welcome, closed a pertinent speech on the value 
of the healing power with the following remarks : — 

" In America Dr. Newton stands pre-eminent for his healing powers, as proved by 
recorded facts spread over the last fourteen years, and many of the cures effected by him 
were of a very wonderful description. When in New York and Boston, I heard of Dr. 
Newton's powers in this respect. One gentleman told me of a case where Dr. Newton had 
restored sight to a blind man, who bad been unable to see for seven or eight years 
previously, and who was cured by Dr. Newton in a few minutes. Dr. Newton only arrived 
in Liverpool last Saturday, May 7th, and he was asked to go on the following day and see 
Mr. Ashley, of that town, who had been afflicted with a very serious illness for some time, 
and Mr. Wason, who is present, has given me the following statement of what took 
place : — 

" ' Mr. Ashley resides at 5, Catherine Street, Liverpool. On the 27th December last he 
was at Oxford and broke a blood-vessel in the lungs. A leading medicaTman, Mr. Freeborn, 
was called in, who prepared Mrs. Ashley for the worst, and told her that there was no 
hope ; that her husband would go off in a rapid consumption, and none could say how 
soon ; he advised that he should not be removed to Liverpool, as his strength was not 
equal to the journey. Mrs. Ashley prayed fervently for Divine aid, that she might be 
comforted and directed according to her trial, feeling assured that her husband would 
shortly depart — and turning to her Bible, opened it at a venture, and found her finger, she 
knows not how, on the text in St. John, where Jesus, speaking of Lazarus, says, " This 
sickness is not unto death, but fortbe glory of God." From that moment she felt assured 
that her husband would not die, and she told Dr. Freeborn her strong impressions. Some 
little time after this Mr. Ashley was removed to Liverpool on a bed fitted up in a railway 
carriage. For about five months he was confined to his room, no one expecting his recovery 
except his wife. Once Mr. Gardiner carried him like a child down stairs, and had great 
difficulty in getting him back, and fears were entertained that he would not recover the 
shock. Last Saturday, May 7th, Dr. Simmons prepared Mrs. Ashley for the worst, and 
intimated that the great change might take place at any moment. Last Sunday, the 8th 
of May, Dr. Newton and myself went in a cab to Mr. Ashley's ; the Doctor went upstairs 
to Mr. Ashley's sick-room, requesting that none should follow but Mrs. Ashley. In about 
five or six minutes, Dr. Newton brought Mr. Ashley down stairs, and took him into the 
open air and said he was cured ; he told him that he could walk a mile and a half, which 
he urged him to do, and to eat a beefsteak and drink a pint of ale for dinner — although 
his doctor had fed him on slops for the last five months. Mr. Ashley came to the evening 
service and stood alone a considerable time, whilst Dr. Newton told the audience of the 
case, which Mr. Ashley confirmed in all respects. Mr. and Mrs. Ashley gave me this 
account yesterday (Monday), at their house, after Mr. Ashley had been out, and eaten a 
mutton chop with pudding and ale, and after a long walk. . . . Previous to Dr. Newton's 
seeing him, he had not been out of his bed for five months' " 

Mr. Coleman then went on to say : — 

" I cannot in this short address give one-hundredth part of the cases on record, some 
of which have taken place very recently. Mr. Watson, who has come over from America 
with Dr. Newton, told me that he had lost the sight of one eye, in consequence of a piece 
of steel getting into it by accident ; inflammation set in, and he lost the sight of the other 
eye. Two years ago his wife was impressed to induce her husband to go with her to 
Montreal from New York, to visit Dr. Newton. They arrived in Montreal as Dr. Newton 
was on the point of leaving it, and directly Dr. Newton saw the patient, whose eyes were 
covered with a bandage, he told him that he would do good to one of them, thereby 
showing a knowledge that both of them were not in the same state. He then removed 
the bandage, and said, ' You can see, can't you ?' and although he had only been in the room 
seven minutes, he found that he could read small print. Mr. Watson is present, and can 
testify to the truth of these facts. 

" In London Dr. Newton will doubtless encounter plenty of opposition ; if he does not 
succeed the medical profession will call him a sharper, and if he does succeed they will 
call him a lunatic ; they are sure to say that he is mad, because he has announced his 
intention not to charge a fee to anybody during his stay in England. 

" I do not believe that Dr. Newton will cure everybody, nor indeed half of those who 
call upon him, but there is no doubt that he can effect very wonderful cures, and that he 
has a great work to do in this country." 


After the reading of a cordial, and scholarly address, from the pen of 
Mr. Thos. Shorter, that gentleman was called upon to speak, which he did 
in substance as follows : — 

" I had the good fortune to make the personal acquaintance and friendship of Dr. 
Newton on the occasion of a brief visit he paid to this country in the autumn of 1864. 
I was then deeply impressed, as I think all who know him must be impressed, with his 
great simplicity and gentleness of character — his ingenuousness of disposition, singleness 
of purpose, and entire disinterestedness. I allude to this, not for the purpose of compli- 
ment, but because I believe that these qualities of character — this large-heartedness and 
quick active sympathy has had much to do with the marked success as a healer which 
Dr. Newton has achieved. On the occasion of that visit, as but little previous notice of 
it had been given, and it was at the time of year when most of our friends were absent 
from town, there were but few to meet him and hold out to him the hand of welcome. 
However, a genuine man with a high sense of duty, and who delights in the execution of 
a noble mission, is not easily discouraged, and I am glad to find that the untoward 
circumstances to which I have referred, have not deterred Dr. Newton from repeating his 
visit under happier auspices, and I hope it will be found with more satisfactory results. 
During the interval that has elapsed since his first visit the position of Spiritualism in 
England has changed very much for the better ; public opinion on the subject has grown 
and ripened ; publications and books devoted to its exposition and advocacy have 
multiplied ; the platform, too, as well as the press, has been called into requisition — 
lectures have been delivered, conferences held, Sunday services established, various forms 
of associative effort instituted, and societies and individuals have been stimulated to its 
investigation ; and thus conviction has spread, and a better understanding of the subject 
has been reached ; and to-night, instead of the few friends who welcomed Dr. Newton 
on his first visit, I am glad to see so goodly an assemblage. I trust that the work which 
Dr. Newton has begun so well in Liverpool will be continued in London, and that he will 
be as successful in curing disease in England as he has been in America. Many no doubt 
will think him mad, but looking at the results of this so-called insanity, I can only hope 

that it may soon become contagious Some four or five years since, when 

Dr. Newton was in Philadelphia, he was brought before a magistrate on some 
trumpery charge at the instigation of the doctors. Those whom he had cured, 
naturally indignant at the treatment of their benefactor, came forward unsolicited 
to the number it is said of about fifteen hundred, thronging the court and all its 
avenues, eager to tender their unsought- for evidence of the reality of then- cure. — 
these included the cures of blindness, deafness, lameness, paralysis, and other chronic 
maladies, seemingly incurable. Of course the charge was summarily dismissed. I will 
refer to one other case nearer home. The Rev. Frederick Rowland Young, pastor of 
the Free Christian Church, Swindon, was not only a minister of the Gospel, but a 
believer in the gracious word of the Master, ' The works that I do shall ye do 
also,' and when evidence was brought before him of the cures wrought by Dr. Newton 
in America, so strong was his faith, that he crossed the Atlantic to be cured by 
him. His faith was rewarded by an immediate cure. Not only did he return cured of 
the neuralgia with which he had been afflicted for many years, and which physicians had 
been unable to remove, but he himself received through Dr. Newton the gift of healing, 
which he has freely exercised in his own town and neighbourhood, as well as for the 
benefit of persons living at a greater distance. Last summer, while at Swindon for a few 
days, I heard much of these cures, and one case came under my notice of a poor woman 
who had lost her eyesight for many years who had been cured by Mr. Young by the simple 
laying on of hands and prayer ; and she was then going about her ordinary household 
occupations. Whether Dr. Newton will be as successful here as in America I cannot say. 
When I consider the educated prejudice and indurated scepticism with which he will 
have to contend, I confess my expectations are greatly moderated. All the more credit 
to Dr. Newton, who, knowing all this, and in the face of these repellent influences, has 
ventured again to come amongst us. The least we can do is to acknowledge his great 
kindness in doing so, and by our sympathy and co-operation to aid him all we can in the 
great and good work in which he is engaged — the relief of suffering humanity, irrespective 
of all considerations of sect, party, country, class, or creed." 

" Mr. William Tebb said : 'I do not rise to make a speech : there are those here, some 
of whom have already addressed you, who are accustomed to speak in public assemblies, 
and I am not. I cannot, however, refrain from expressing my concurrence with the 
sentiments contained in the address just read, and my satisfaction in seeing so many 
assembled here this evening to do honour to so distinguished a philanthropist as Dr. 
Newton. It is related of Faraday, that when he made a new discovery he would show 


it and explain it to his friends, evincing a delight which they could not always appreciate, 
and the question was frequently put to him, " What is the use of it ?" To which the 
Professor would reply, " Wait, and we'll find some use for it." Now, this question is 
frequently put with regard to Spiritualism, and I confess that if it was confined, as many 
seem to suppose, to the phenomena of raps, table-tipping, and the like, one might be 
puzzled to answer the question satisfactorily. But when it is shown there is a continuous 
influx from the spiritual world, which is manifested in all the variety of forms witnessed 
in the Apostolic age, in healing the sick, as illustrated by our guest Dr. Newton ; in 
inspirational speaking, so powerfully instanced in this hall by Mrs. Hardinge ; in the 
power to cast out^evil spirits ; and when the facts of modern Spiritualism demonstrate 
the truth of all the most cherished beliefs of humanity, showing the ever- watchful interest 
which those who have gone before take in those that remain, and giving us clearer and 
better views of the future as well as of the present life, I think we may affirm that the 
good is unquestionable. I do not, however, intend to pursue this subject, but permit me 
before taking my seat to assure Dr. Newton that the kindly feelings he has expressed in 
his letters to Spiritualists in this country are reciprocated by Spiritualists here towards 
himself and his fellow-workers. We in England owe a deep debt of gratitude to the 
earlier advocates of the movement in America, to public men like Governor Tallmadge, 
of Wisconsin, and Judge Edmonds, of New York ; to clergymen like the late Rev. John 
Pierpont, of Boston, the successor of the celebrated Dr. Channing, and Adin Ballou ; to 
men eminent in the scientific world, like the late Professor Mapes, and Dr. Hare, of 
Philadelphia ; to men like Dr. Willis, and A. E. Newton, who for their faith as Spiritualists 
have been expelled from college and from church, and many others — with noble women 
not a few, who have borne the loss of worldly position, the ridicule, vituperation, and all 
that general hostility which ever seems to follow those who identify themselves with the 
advent of unpopular truths.' 

" Mr. J. M. Peebles said : ' I feel some embarrassment in making any remarks, as this 
is a meeting of noble-hearted Englishmen to welcome a distinguished friend of my own 
from America. I am exceedingly happy to be in your midst, and especially to be upon 
this platform alongside a friend and brother whom I have known, loved, and respected 

for many years Truly it is often asked, " What good does Spiritualism do ? " 

It gives demonstration of a future existence, for even now clear-headed men often ask the 
question, " If a man die, shall he live again ? " Once, as a minister, I attended a funeral 
of an only child. My text was " Suffer little children to come unto Me, and forbid them 
not, for of such is the kingdom of heaven." The whole of my sermon was about "faith," 
but as the mother baptized the coffin with her tears, she turned and said to me, '' Tell me 
what you knoio about the immortal world ; my aching heart asks for more than faith — for 
knowledge." She added, " Tell me what you know of that world ; shall I know my child? 
Will my child know me ?" — and 1 was dumb. But now, since I have talked with the angels, 
and have heard their lute-like voices, I no longer talk only about '"faith," for now "We 
know that we have a house eternal in the heavens." Spiritualism teaches us and proves 
that there is an immortal life beyond the tomb. Spiritualism is spreading to the ends of 
the earth. I found its phenomena in Smyrna, in Constantinople, in Athens, and upon 
the Pacific coast ; in fact, wherever thinking men are found, there is this living truth 
proclaimed. I know much of Dr. Newton, for hundreds have clasped my hand who have 
been healed by him. To pick out solitary instances from among the large number is like 
trying to select some specially bright star from the thousands in the midnight heavens. 
In Buffalo, several years ago, I was present at the house of Dr. Newton, when a gentleman 
was brought in upon his bed, who for years had had paralysis ; Dr. Newton looked at him, 
simply laid his hands upon him, and said, " Disease, I bid you depart ! Arise ! you are 
well ;" and the man left the bed and crossed the room, then stood before Dr. Newton 
weeping with joy. " Stop," said Dr. Newton, " it is not I ; it is the spirit power of which 
I am but the humble instrument." On another occasion a lady could not get near him, 
and Dr. Newton was impressed to say, "It does not matter, she is well," and she was 

cured. He has cured the lame, the dumb, and the blind As Mrs. Hardinge 

stands at the head of American inspirational speakers, so Dr. Newton stands at the head 
of all the healing mediums connected with the movement. Before him disease departs, 
and when it does not depart at once, it sometimes departs very shortly afterwards, because 
of its cause being removed — a stream will flow for a little time after its sources of supply 
have been cut off. I have great faith in Dr. Newton's cures, far more faith than has been 
expressed by some of those who have spoken before me, because I have seen more of Dr. 
Newton's work than they have. I know that Dr. Newton will nobly do his work, and 
that he will be blessed by God and His holy angels : I trust that all present will extend 
to him love and warmth of soul. Personally, the more time I spend in England, the 
better I comprehend and love Englishmen, and I wish to bespeak for Dr. Newton cordial 
welcomes and greetings while he remains in this country.' 



" Dr. J. R. Newton then rose amid loud and continued applause. He spoke under 
spirit influence, with slowness and frequent pauses, and said : * I feel overwhelmed by 
your cordial welcome. I stand before you as a plain man, and feel like a little child. I 
am a practical Christian, and am ready at any time to make a sacrifice of myself for the 
sake of Christianity. It is a wonder to me that few men ever try to live daily as Jesus 
lived. When I became Christian in life, spiritual gifts were showered upon me, and this 
was as wonderful to myself as to those whom I address. I believe in spirit communion, 
and I even know the names of some of the spirits who control me in the exercise of my 
gifts. .... As to the power of healing, it is merely an illustration of the power of 
love. When any sick person comes before me, I lay my hands on that person and feel 
that I love him, and if the patient is not antagonistic, he is almost sure to be healed ; 
tell them I love them, and when this opens their hearts to me, the disease must 
depart. I make no profession to be a public speaker. I am entirely under the control of 

the spirits I cannot say that I have come to England at any sacrifice, because 

it was the will of my Father that I should come. I have not come to London to make 
money, and I shall receive rich and poor alike. The welcome I have received prevents me 
from speaking as freely as I wish to do. I have much to say, but I feel overwhelmed at the 

reception you have given me. I am heart and soul with you It is not a 

matter of belief with me that spirits control me — it is knowledge. Pythagoras, Socrates, 
and Plato walk the earth to-day, and so do all the great and good men who have gone 
before us. I shall meet you again next Sunday, and wish you all well, with many thanks 
and blessings for your kind attention.' 

" Mr. S. C. Hall said : Before the meeting closes, I should like to say a few words of 
congratulation to Dr. Newton. I believe that I express the sentiments of all Spiritualists 
when I say that it is their desire to give a cordial greeting to all Americans ; and that it 
is a great duty to bring Americans and Englishmen closer together, that they may under- 
stand each other better than they have done. I should not have risen at all except to call 
attention to one point. I want to tell Dr. Newton that Spiritualism is making great 
progress in this country among great men and great thinkers, and men who will become 
great authorities. I rejoice to tell him that a Society the other day called witnesses before 
them, and made clear and close inquiry ; that that Society is about to send forth a report 
which will do much good among outsiders. ... I believe that the report of the 
Dialectical Society will go far towards the removal of the chief obstacles in the path of 
Spiritualism, and make it easier to help on our divine belief. We shall then be, I trust, 
the humble instruments in God's hands of destroying the Materialism of the present age, 
for this I consider to be the great purpose of Spiritualism. ... I have myself full 
knowledge of the truth of Spiritualism, and I hope that many who are not Spiritualists 
will take my testimony as worth something when I express that certainty of belief. The 
more Spiritualism has been inquired into, the more its truth has been exhibited ; I thank 
God for having given us opportunities of proving that which we now believe and know. 
Dr. Newton has reached London at a good time, with less difficulties than of old to 
encounter, and with less probability of being considered mad or dishonest.' 

" Thanks haviDg been voted to the Chairman, the business part of the meeting then 
came to a close, and it assumed the character of a conversazione." . . . 


" On Sunday evening at the close of the service, and after a very excellent discourse 
by Mr. Peebles, Dr. Newton invited all who were afflicted with disease or pain to come 
forward. Many did so ; and declared themselves either cured or greatly benefited by the 
Doctor's treatment. These included headache, deafness, stammering, neuralgia, heart 
disease, &c. His success in one case was very marked ; that of the son of Mr. F. Cowper, 
388, Edgware Road, who had been unable to walk without crutches for eight years past. 
After Dr. Newton's treatment, the lad was able to walk home — a distance of about two 
miles. On Monday he attended at the Cambridge Hall, and had his spine straightened, 
which has made him measure about four inches taller. He now walks with a stick, and 
improves daily. On Sunday, May 22nd, a similar scene was witnessed, and on both 
occasions the hall was densely crowded." 


" The Medium says : ' Dr. Newton commenced a regular course of treatment of the 
poor on Monday morning, May 16th, in the Cambridge Hall, Newman Street, Oxford 
Street. He attends between the hours of nine and twelve, and will accept no money for 
his services. A large number came to be healed, and they have steadily increased each 


day. Many remarkable cures have been made. It would be of little use to fill our columns 
with an account of the remarkable instances of benefit which could be culled from the 
Doctor's treatment on one morning only. Dr. Newton commenced on Wednesday morning 
by removing a curvature from the spine of a young lady, the daughter of Lady Helena 
Newenham. A lad who had not spoken, except in a whisper, for three years, was enabled 
to speak, so as to be heard distinctly over the hall. Mr. Hubbard, of Rathbone Place, was 
cured of asthma of long standing. Mr. Watts, Rathbone Place, was cured of lameness 
from wounds. Mr. Charles Clutterbuck, 74 years of age, had been totally blind for six 
years ; after treatment, he could see faces and tell the colour of Mr. Watson's beard. 
Mrs. Anna Crisp, 23, King Street, had been paralyzed for three years ; cured by one 
treatment. She had been affected on one side throughout. — Robert Andrews, 151, 
Metropolitan Meat Market, was blind of one eye, and had pains in the head and hand ; 
after treatment he pronounced himself " all right." James Armstrong, 44, Brindley 
Street, Harrow Road, was afflicted with paralyzed legs for nearly two years. He could 
walk with difficulty on a pair of crutches, but he went away with his crutches over his 
shoulder. Many who were not perfectly cured were much relieved. Some were pro- 
nounced absolutely incurable. " It would be as easy to make new eyes as to cure you," 
said the Doctor to several who were entirely past recovery. Others were benefited, and 
some were told to come again ; others that their diseases were mitigated, and would pass 
away in a few weeks.' " 


" Since the foregoing was in type, we have received the following communication : — 

" ' To the Editor of the Spiritual Magazine. 

"'May 23rd, 1870. 
" ' Sir, — I have received a letter this morning from Mr. Wm. Ashley, of Liverpool, 
whose case I alluded to at Harley Street, and which was the first case upon which Dr. 
Newton tried his healing power after his arrival in England. Mr. Ashley now writes : 

" May 22nd. 
" You will be pleased to hear that I am gaining strength daily. I generally walk out 
one or two hours when the weather permits, either alone or with my wife. I enjoy my 
food as much as ever I did, and have no doubt but in a short time I shall be in robust 
health — thanks to dear Dr. Newton." 

" ' You can make whatever use you please of this communication. 

" ' You will see that the press is in full blast against the Doctor ; the Telegraph of 
this day being most violent ; the Echo of Saturday publishing a letter from a patient who 
was not healed ; the Advertiser denouncing him as a humbug. 

" The only fair account was given in the Daily News of Saturday ; but the writer did 
not half state the facts he witnessed. I was there, and many cases were marvellous — 
unmistakable ! " Yours truly, 

"Benj. Coleman." 


" The Liverpool Mercury has a long article on Dr. Newton's proceedings in Liverpool. 
On Sunday, May 8th, he attended two meetings and operated on from thirty to forty 
persons, and all, it is admitted, with one exception, professed themselves benefited. A 
portion of the London press has begun to Telegraph false reports and Echo dirty insinua- 
tions. "Tis easy as lying,' said Shakespeare, and newspaper scribes well know how easy 
that is. 

" The Daily News in a long article gives a tolerably fair account of some of the pro- 
ceedings during what the writer calls Dr. Newton's morning performance, and this toler- 
able fairness was so much a surprise to Dr. Newton, amidst the furious blasts of others of 
the press, that he had the innocence to thank the Daily News and even to ' bless ' the 
editor. This was too much for the editor, and he has hastened to repudiate the blessing, 
and to withdraw all his fairness, saying, with great truth, that such a thing was. never in 
his mind. A great deal more of this is of course in store for Dr. Newton, and he has 
made up his account to meet it. Perhaps the source of the Doctor's power to heal may 
itself render him not the most philosophic or prudent person in speaking, and he may not 
be a good exponent of the philosophy of the subject. In this way additional difficulties 
may be thrown in his own way, and in that of the public, to prevent their understanding 
the rationale of this power, even to the small extent to which it can be understood. . . 
. . . . But apart from this, we should be glad to know why a benevolent gentleman 
cannot assert this power in his own person, and endeavour to exercise it at his own cost, 


without drawing down on himself the blind ferocity of the press and the public. We do 
not know why he should be called a blasphemer and an impostor, and have the whole 
pack of the press, like so many hounds, yelping at his heels. In America, where we have 
watched his course for many years, he has relieved and cured thousands, and is a poorer 
man to-day than he was five years ago, though his powers of healing are said to be greater. 
Already he has been the means of curing many in England during this short visit ; and 
we should have thought the wise plan would have been to watch the result and tabulate 
his work, and see what it comes to before becoming abusive. It suits the temper of the 
press, and its ignorance of such matters, to begin by abuse ; and so we must be content 
to let them go on in their own way. Anything above mere physics always produces this 
unholy rage. We wish that some healer could be found who could cure this public 

Our Spiritualistic readers have, no doubt, like the author herself, too 
often heard the parrot cry of Cut bono to marvel why — even with all the 
excisions of extraneous matter we have made — we should have published 
the above account in extenso from the pages of the London Spiritual 
Magazine of December, 1870. 

To non-spiritualistic readers who may perchance glance over these 
pages we would say, "Read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest" the above 
account, before you again ask the ten thousand times answered question, 
" What is the use of Spiritualism ? " 


Of Spiritual Associations, 

In 1865 an association was formed under the name and style of "The 
Association of Progressive Spiritualists of Great Britain," and the following 
is a brief summary of its aims as reported in the London Spiritual Magazine 
for December, 1865 : — 

" The ' Association of Progressive Spiritualists of Great Britain,' which recently held 
its first convention at Darlington, has issued — ' A circular respectfully addressed to the 
friends of Spiritualism and the public generally ; ' in which, accepting as their definition 
of Spiritualism the motto of the Spiritual Magazine, they state that : — 

" ' The principal objects we have in view, are, as an association, to meet once a year, or 
oftener, if it be deemed advisable, for the purpose of social communion, interchange of 
sentiment ; to record our united experiences, and the progress which Spiritualism is 
making in and around us ; to devise means for diffusing among our fellow men and 
women the principles of this Divine philosophy, by the distribution of the best tracts and 
books we have upon the subject, and the delivery throughout the kingdom of lectures by 
persons of approved character and ability.' 

" A second convention is announced for the last week in July, 1866, at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. The secretary of the Association is Dr. McLeod, of Newcastle." 

Of the Convention announced as above, the reports were scarcely as 
favourable as could have been desired. A general lack of unity seemed 
to pervade the assembly and the papers presented were not calculated to 
edify those outside the ranks of Spiritualism, however interesting they 


might have been to the writers. The following remarks conclude a report 
of this gathering furnished by the London Spiritual Magazine : — 

" Amid much that is crude and undigested in the papers and speeches here reported, 
there are some well worthy a better companionship, especially one by Mr. Etchells, on 
' The Atmosphere of Intelligence, Pleasure, and Pain ; or a Chapter from the Harmony of 
Matter, as unfolded in the Circles of Spiritualists who meet at Brothers Chapman, Varley, 
and Etchells', Huddersfield.' This paper has evidently been prepared with great care ; 
the facts it relates, especially those concerning the phenomena of ' the Double,' are of great 
interest ; and the circles named by Mr. Etchells can hardly be better employed in the 
interest of Spiritualism than in the further prosecution of these investigations." 

For a few succeding years, conventions were held either in London or the 
provinces, but these gatherings were seldom participated in by the majority 
of the English Spiritualists, nor were they conducive to any very important 

Conventions appear to be more in harmony with the genius of American 
than English Spiritualism, and we have but few evidences that their action 
in England has promoted the progress of the cause or the spirit of unity 
amongst its supporters. 

The invariable struggle between the extremes of Radicalism and 
Conservatism which so often disturbs the harmony of associative bodies, is 
a prevailing condition, of which the Spiritualists have had to learn, by 
painful experience. 

One of their most severe lessons in this direction was read to them in the 
determined opposition manifested by "The Royal Society of Great 
Britain," against the admission of " Spiritualism " as a theme of discussion 
worthy the attention of that august body. Several of the Fellows were 
earnest believers in Spiritualism, and thinking they perceived in its 
phenomena, subjects quite as worthy the attention of eminent scientists as 
the genesis of a worm or the precise number of markings on a fossil trilo- 
bite, they made strenuous efforts to introduce papers on the subject of the 
marvellous demonstrations of unknown force which the phenomena of 
Spiritualism display. It was in the amazing assumptions of contempt and 
indifference with which these propositions were repelled, that the Spiritualists 
were led to believe that Societies in general are banded together for the 
defence of the old against the innovations of the new, and those who 
presume to try and enlighten the said Societies upon the subject of new ideas, 
must be taught, that anything a very learned, especially a Royal Society, 
does not already know, cannot exist, or if it presume to maintain an 
existence without the pale of such an authoritative body, cannot be worth 

It was doubtless under the influence of this high-toned monopoly of all 
knowledge worth the having, that Professor Tyndall, Mr. Palgrave, and 
other members of the Royal Society of Great Britain, maintained a long 
and acrimonious correspondence with Mr. William Wilkinson, Professors 
Wallace and Cromwell Varley, Sir J. E. Tennant, and others, on the question 
of bringing the phenomena claimed to be " Spiritual," before the members 
of the Royal Society, and although the Mediumship of Mr. D. D. Home 
was courteously tendered as an illustration of the assertions made by the 
Spiritualists, the scornful rejection of this offer seemed necessary to con- 
vince the zealous propagandists, how useless it is to try and convince 
those, who neither desire nor intend to be convinced of any facts they do 
not originate, or any truths they do not themselves already know. 


Although the action of Societies as a general rule appears to be 
ephemeral in connection with Spiritualism, its use being simply available 
for temporary purposes of propagandism, there have been a vast number of 
attempts at organization in the ranks of Spiritualism. One of the most 
permanent and influential associations that has ever been formed in Great 
Britain has been known under the name of "The British National Associ- 
ation of Spiritualists." It may not be generally understood that this 
organization owes its first foundation in the metropolis to the steadfast 
though quiet and unobtrusive efforts of Mr. Dawson Rogers, of Rose Villa, 
Finchley. This gentleman — one of the veteran Spiritualists of London — 
has for many years laboured unceasingly to promote the interests of 
Spiritualism, and both by purse and person has maintained every good 
work which has tended to advance " the cause." Besides devoting himself 
with tireless energy to the foundation and conduct of the " British National 
Association of Spiritualists," the movement owes to Mr. Dawson Rogers 
the foundation of the admirable periodical entitled Light. With the excep- 
tion of the London Spiritual Magazine, Light is unquestionably the highest 
toned, and most scholarly periodical that has ever issued from the Spiritual 
Press, and Mr. Dawson Rogers's good services to the cause of Spiritualism 
have been for many long years pursued so faithfully, so effectively, yet with 
such a total" absence of personal display, that we feel but too happy in 
offering this humble tribute to one, whose way marks in the path of progress 
have been far more prominent, than his honoured name. To return to 
Mr. Rogers's first great public effort in promoting the foundation of the 
British National Association of Spiritualists. In a brief sketch of this 
important movement published a few years since in the London Spiritualist, 
the editor says : — 

" Some time in 1873 it was resloved to form a national organisation of Spiritualists in 
Great Britain. This was done at a meeting at Liverpool, to which everybody had been 
invited by means of advertisements and special letters to well-known men. Thus was 
the standard raised of " Friendly union among Spiritualists." Fierce attempts were 
made to kill the organisation, more especially by the press, but the workers fought then- 
way, and succeeded in planting a central establishment in London, and in doing some 
public work in addition, more especially the founding of fortnightly meetings to consider 
public questions relating to Spiritualism." 

Soon after its first inauguration, the Society issued a well-prepared tract, 
in which was published the list of distinguished persons who became its 
members and associates. Although it would be impossible to give in extenso 
a list which includes more than a hundred names and addresses, it may 
not be out of place to make the following selection from amongst the most 
noteworthy personages of the association : — 



Alexander Calder, Esq., 1, Hereford Square, West Brompton, S.W. 


Blackburn, Charles, Parkfield, Didsbury, Manchester. 

Coleman, Benjamin, 1, Bernard Villas, Upper Norwood. 

Fitz-Gerald, Mrs., 19, Cambridge Street, Hyde Park, W. 

Fitz-Gerald, Desmond G, M.S.Tel.E., 6, Loughborough Road North, Brixton, S.W. 

Gregory, Mrs. Makdougall, 21, Green Street, Grosvenor Square, W. 

Honywood, Mrs., 52, Warwick Square, S.W. 


vice-pbesidents — Continued. 

Jencken, Henry D., M.R.I., Barrister-at-Law, Goldsmith Buildings, E.C. 

Massey, C. C, Barrister-at-Law, 96, Portland Place, W. 

Rogers, E. D., Rose Villa, Church End, Finchley, N. 

Speer, Stanhope Templeman, M.D., Douglas House, 13, Alexandra Road, South 

Hampstead, N.W. 
Wyld, Geo. M.D., 12, Great Cumberland Place, Hyde Park, W. 


Isham, Sir Charles, Bart., Lamport Hall, Northampton. 
Ivimey, Joseph, Berkeley Mansion, 64, Seymour Street, W. 
Joy, Algernon, M.I.C.E., Junior United Sendee Club, n.W. 
Stock, St. George W., M.A., Queen Street, Oxford. 
Theobold, Morell, 30, Mark Lane, E,C. 


His Imperial Highness Nicholas, Duke of Leuchtenburg, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Prince Emile de Sayn Wittgenstein, Lieutenant- General, Aide-de-Camp General de S.M.I. 

l'Empereur de Russie, Vevey, Switzerland. 
Ahmed Rassim Pacha, Khan de Rassim Pacha a Bahdje" Capoussou, Constantinople. 
The Baron Von Vay, President of the Spiritual Society at Pesth. 
The Baroness Adelma Von Vay, Gonobitz, bei Potschach, Styria, via Gratz, Austria. 
The Baroness Guldenstubbe, 29, Rue de Trevise, Paris. 
Colonel Don Santiago Bassols y Folguera, Madrid. 
El Visconde de Torres-Solanot, Madrid. 
The Hon. Alexandre Aksakof, Russian Imperial Councillor, Nevsky Prospect, 6, St. 

The Baron von Dirckink-Holmfeld, Pinneberg, Holstein. 
M. Gustave de Veh, Bischoffsberger Villa, Interlaken, Switzerland. 
Mme. de Veh, Bischoffsberger Villa, Interlaken, Switzerland. 
Signor Sebastiano Fenzi, Banca Fenzi, Florence, Italy. 
Baboo Pearychand Mittra, 7, Swallow Lane, Calcutta. 
James Mylne, Esq., Beheea, East Indian Railway, Bengal. 
A. J. Riko, Esq., Oude Molstraat, the Hague, Holland. 
M. C. Constant, Smyrna, Turkey in Asia. 

Dr. Maximilian Perty, Professor of Natural Science, Berne, Switzerland. 
Dr. Franz Hoffmann, Professor of Philosophy, Wurzburg University, Germany. 
Gregor C. Wittig, Esq., Kornerstrasse 2b, Leipsic, Germany. 
W. H. Terry, Esq., 84, Russell Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 
M. Leymarie, 7, Rue de Lille, Paris. 
Epes Sargent, Esq., Box 2,985, Boston, U.S.A. 
H. T. Child, Esq., M.D., 634, Race Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 
E. Crowell, Esq., M.D., 196, Clinton Avenue, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.A. 
M. F. Clavairoz, Consul-General de France, Trieste, Austria. 
G. L. Ditson, Esq., M.D., Albany, New York, U.S.A., 
W. L. Sammons, Esq., Cape Town, South Africa. 
J. H. Gledstanes, Esq., Merignac, Gironde, France. 
Rev. Samuel Watson, Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.A. 
Luther Cobby, Esq., 9 Montgomery Place, Boston, U.S.A. 
M. de Bassompierre, 285, Chaussee St. Pierre, Etterbeck, Brussels. 
M. A. Anthleme Fritz, President de l'Union, 67, Rue du Midi, Brussels 
Lieut.-Col. P. Jacoby, 11, Rue de Vienne, Brussels. 
Le Comte de Bullet, Hotel de l'Athenee, Rue Scribe, Paris. 
Captain R. F. Burton, F.R.G.S., H.M. Consul, Trieste, Austria. 
A. R. Wallace, Esq., F.R.G.S., Rosehill, Dorking. 
Isaac B. Rich, Esq., 9, Montgomery Place, Boston, U.S.A. 
W. S. Godbe, Esq., Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A. 
Dr. Grunhut, Waitzner Boulevard, 57, Buda-Pesth, Hungary. 
Dr. A. E. Nehrer, Eperjes, Hungary. 
Signor Damiani, Salita Pontecorvo, 60, Naples. 
Berks T. Hutchinson, Esq., 2, New Street, Cape Town, South Africa. 



The Liverpool Psychological Society. Secretary, S. Pride, Esq., 8, Grampian Road, Edge 

Lane, Liverpool. 
L'Union Spirite et Magnetique. Secretary, M. Charles Fritz, 121, Rue de Louvain, 

The Brixton Psychological Society. Hon. Sec, H. E. Frances, Esq., 22, Cowley Road, 

Brixton, S.W. 
The Spiriter-Forscher Society, Buda-Pesth. Secretary, M. Anton Prochaszka, Josefstadt 

Erzherzog Alexander-gasse, 23, Buda-Pesth, Hungary. 
Dalston Association of Enquirers into Spiritualism. Hon. Secretary, T. Blyton, Esq., 

74, Navarino Road, Dalston, E. 
Cardiff Spiritual Society, Hon. Sec, Mr. A. J. Smart, 3, Guildford Street, Cardiff. 
Sociedad Espiritista Espanola, Cervantes 34, 28, Madrid. President, El Visconde de 

Sociedad Espirita Central de la Republica Mexicana. President, Senor Refugio T. Gonzalez, 

7, Calle de Amedo, Mexico. 
Sociedad Espirita di Bogota, Colombia, South America. President, Senor Manuel 

Jose Angarita. 

For several years this Association has maintained its meetings, established 
a library, held soirees, investigating circles, and social gathings, with an 
amount of fidelity specially commendable in a movement so fluctuating as 
Spiritualism. Many internal changes have of course taken place, especially 
in its officers and directors. Many of its once prominent members have 
been removed by transition to a higher life ; others have been impelled to 
withdraw from personal motives, and still many eminent persons not 
enumerated in the first list, have become affiliated with the organization. 
So much influence for good however has been exerted by the persistent 
energy of its leaders, that we feel pleasure in adding a notice of the last 
change that has been effected in its arrangements. The excerpt we are 
about to subjoin was only published in May, 1882, and is taken from 

The annexed report is the last announcement of the British National 
Association of Spiritualists under that name, the society being henceforth 
destined to be known as "The Central Association of Spiritualists." 

The article is headed : — 


" Annual Meeting. — The annual general meeting of this Association was held on 
Tuesday evening last, at 38, Great Russell Street, Mr. E. Dawson Rogers, vice-president, 
in the chair. The principal business of the meeting was to receive the annual report of 
the Council and statement of accounts, and to consider a recommendation involving a 
change in the name and constitution of the Association. The report was unanimously 
adopted, as was also a proposition in favour of the adoption of the name ' The Central 
Association of Spiritualists,' by which designation, therefore, the Association will hence- 
forth be known. The change, we think, is a wise one ; but after eight years' familiarity 
with the title of the ' B.N.A.S.,' we give it up with some regret." 

Then follows an elaborate report of the Council, by which it appears that 
the society is still in a flourishing condition. The following items, however, 
may possess some interest to the reader, because they allude to the depar- 
ture of more than one honoured friend of the Spiritual cause, and give 
further particulars of the status of the association under its new designation 
in 1882. The report concludes thus : — 

" The following is a concise summary of the history of the Association since the last 
annual meeting : — 


'' Changes in the Membership. — Number of new members elected, 52 ; number of 
resignations 16. Deaths during the year — M. Le"on Favre, Prof. Friedrich Zollner, Rev. 
Sir Wm. Dunbar, H. D. Jencken, M.R.I., Alex. Thorn, Mrs. Hook, A. E. Hunter, B.A. 
(Cantab). Present number of honorary and subscribing members, 294. 

"Allied Societies. — The Gateshead Society for the Investigation of Spiritualism, the 
South African Spiritual Evidence Society, and the Paris Psychological Society have allied 
themselves to the Association during the year, making a total number of sixteen in 
friendly union. 

"Work of the Association. — A series of Discussion and Social Meetings has been 
kept up through the season. Many of these have been highly interesting and successful. 

" Mr. T. P. Barkas, F.G.S., was appointed as a representative of the Association at 
the discussion on Spiritualism at the Church Congress held in October of last year. This 
discussion, and the extent to which the report of it was circulated, has done much to 
raise the position which the whole subject of Spiritualism occupies in the public mind. 

'■ On the 5th and 6th of January last, conferences of an excedingly interesting 
character were held in the rooms of the Association, on the invitation of Professor Barrett, 
of Dublin. These conferences have resulted in the formation of a ' Society for Psychical 
Research,' which, while working to some extent on similar lines to those of the B.N.A.S., 
does not commit itself to a belief in Spiritualism, but aims at approaching the inquiry 
solely from a scientific standpoint. The Council feels that there is abundant room for 
such a society without in any way affecting the necessity for a Central Association 
avowedly for the investigation and propagation of Spiritualism. " 

The new organization alluded to in the last report sufficiently indicates 
its aims by its nomenclature — namely, " The Society for Psychical 

The announcements put forth by this Society point to the lines of de- 
marcation which separate it from any thoroughly pronounced Spiritual 
organizations ; in fact, the addresses of its President and Members on the 
occasion of its first general meeting, which took place in July, 1882, 
clearly show, that though Spiritualists may and do take part in its 
researches, a belief in Spirit communion is by no means the leading prin- 
ciple upon which the association is based. To illustrate this position still 
more forcibly, we append a note which the Society print in connection 
with their prospectus. It reads as follows : 

" To prevent misconception, it is here expressly stated that Membership of this Society 
does not imply the acceptance of any particular explanation of the phenomena investi- 
nated, nor any belief as to the operation, in the physical world, of forces other than those 
recognised by Physical Science." 

After publishing the list of eminent literary and scientific ladies and 
gentlemen who compose the officers and members of this association, the 
prospectus gives the following, which may present a satisfactory synopsis of 
the subjects of proposed research. 

" (1) Committee on Thought-reading ; Hon. Sec, Professor W. F. Barrett, 18, 

Belgrave Square, Monkstown, Dublin. 
" (2) Committee on Mesmerism : Hon. Sec, Dr. Wyld, 12, Great Cumberland Place, 

London, W. 
" (3) Committee on Reichenbach's Experiments ; Hon. Sec.,',Walter H. Coffin, Esq., 

Junior Athenaeum Club, London, W. 
" (4) Committee on Apparitions, Haunted Houses, &c. ; Hon. Sec, Hensleigh 

Wedgwood, Esq., 31, Queen Anne Street, London, W. 
" (5) Committee on Physical Phenomena ; Hon. Sec, Dr. C. Lockhart Robertson, 

Hamam Chambers, 76, Jermyn Street, S.W. 
" (6) Literary Committee, Hon. Sees., Edmund Gurney, Esq., 26, Montpelier Square, 

S.W. ; Frederic W, H. Myers, Esq., Leckhampton, Cambridge." 

Besides these well selected subjects for consideration, and the marked 
ability of the gentlemen who have consented to aid in their investigation, 

rawing tofU 


tor, of "2 ht of 


the success of the undertaking is guaranteed by the high standing and 
literary attainments of the parties under whose direction the work is 
announced to proceed. Any committee of investigators into psychic 
phenomena which includes the names of the subjoined officers and 
Council can scarcely fail to command the respect of the community at 
large and the sympathy of every earnest investigator into the subjects 
under consideration ; — 

Henry Sidgwick, Esq., Trinity College, Cambridge. 


Arthur J. Balfour, Esq., M.P., 4, Carlton Gardens, S.W. 

W. F. Barrett, Esq., F.R.S.E., 18, Belgrave Square, Monkstown, Dublin. 

John R. Holland, Esq., M.P., 57, Lancaster Gate, London, W. 

Richard H. Hutcon, Esq., Englefield Green, Staines. 

Rev. W. Stainton-Moses, M.A., 21, Birchington Road, London, N.W. 

Hon. Roden Noel, 57, Anerley Park, London, S.E. 

Professor Balfour Stewart, F.R.S., Owens College, Manchester. 

Hensleigh Wedgwood, Esq., 31, Queen Anne Street, London, W. 


W. F. Barrett, 18, Belgrave Square, Monkstown, Dublin. 

Edward T. Bennett, 8, The Green, Richmond, near London. 

Mrs. Boole, 103, Seymour Place, Bryanston Square, London, W. 

Walter R. Browne, 38, Belgrave Road, London, S.W. 

Alexander Calder, 1, Hereford Square, South Kensington, London, S.W. 

Walter H. Coffin, Junior Athenseum Club, London, W. 

Desmond G. FitzGerald, 6, Akerman Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Edmund Gurney, 26, Montpelier Square, London, S.W. 

Charles C. Massey, 1, Albert Mansions, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Frederic W. H. Myers, Leckhampton, Cambridge. 

Francis W. Percival, 28, Savile Row, London, W. 

Frank Podmore, 16, Southampton Street, Fitzroy Square, London. S.W. 

C. Lockhart Robertson, M.D., Hamam Chambers, 76, Jermyn Street, S.W. 

E. Dawson Rogers, Rose Villa, Church End, Finchley, N. 

Rev. W. Stainton-Moses, 21, Birchington Road, London, N.W. 

Morell Theobald, 62, Granville Park, Blackheath, S.E. 

Hensleigh Wedgwood, 31, Queen Anne Street, London, W.' 

G. Wyld, M.D., 19, Great Cumberland Place, London, W. 

Many other associations besides those already named have been formed 
with kindred aims. Some have maintained a more or less permanent 
existence — but whether they still survive or have passed out of being, 
all have achieved some use as temporary levers in the spiritual progress of 
the race. 




Spiritualism and the London Dialectical Society. 

It now becomes necessary to give a brief account of a movement which 
has exerted a marked influence over the progress of Spiritualism in Great 
Britain, namely, the investigations and published report of " The London 
Dialectical Society," the action of which in connection with Spiritualism 
arose thus. In January of the year 1869, an association composed of 
ladies and gentlemen distinguished for their literary and scientific attain- 
ments, entitled "The Dialectical Society," determined to investigate the 
subject of modern Spiritualism. 

The minute of the proceedings which inaugurated this investigation 
reads in their published report as follows : — 

" At a meeting of the London Dialectical Society, held 6th of January, 1869, Mr. J. 
H. Levy in the chair, it was resolved, — ' That the Council be requested to appoint a 
Committee to investigate the phenomena alleged to be Spiritual manifestations, and to 
report thereon.' " 

In consequence of this resolution, the members issued a circular couched 
in courteous terms, inviting the leading Spiritualists of England to assist 
them by personal or written testimony in the investigations they proposed 
to pursue. 

One of the first respondents to the call issued by the Council was the 
author of this work, who happened at that time to be in England, and who, 
in company with J. C. Luxmoore, Esq., of Gloucester Square, Mr. and Mrs. 
Everitt, and a few other Spiritualistic friends, waited on the Society at a 
meeting appointed for that purpose on the evening of March 16th, 1869. 
After offering such testimony as she felt to be apposite to the place and 
time, Mrs. Hardinge gave a long address upon the main features of the 
Spiritualistic movement, the characteristics of Mediumship, the Spirit 
circle, and the difficulties which beset the path of the investigator, all 
of which will be found duly recorded in the printed report of the Society. 
The address closed with a strong recommendation to the Society to con- 
duct their investigations, not in general sessions of the whole body, but to 
form themselves into groups or sub-committees, of from four to eight, or at 
most ten persons ; selecting the members, of these groups on the principle 
of mutual goodwill, or such cordial relations with each other, as would be 
most likely to produce harmony of feeling, and psychological equilibrium. 

In answer to various queries propounded by members of the Committee 
at this stage of the proceedings, Mrs. Hardinge described in detail the 
best and most approved methods of forming circles, founding her advice 
not on her own opinions, but on the well proved experiences of the 
Spiritualists with whom she had been associated for many years. 

During the entire course of this address, which was occasionally inter- 
rupted by appropriate questions, listened to with deep attention, and 


responded to by a cordial vote of thanks, the Spirits, or invisible audience 
present, availed themselves of the Mediumship of Mrs. Everitt, who was 
one of the party, to emphasize the entire speech with loud clear raps which 
resounded in unmistakable cadence to every sentence, on the uncovered 
library table, at which the Committee were seated. 

Both Mrs. Everitt and the speaker were too far from the table to give 
rise to the supposition that they had any agency in producing the sounds, 
yet these manifested an intelligence which was so unmistakable that it must 
have appeared astounding to the sceptics present. On some occasions, the 
invisibles emphasized the utterances with the customary signals for " yes " 
and "no," joining in most vociferously with the applause, and taking part 
throughout the proceedings with a force, spontaneity, and independence, 
which was as amusing to the Spiritualists as it was startling and unexpected 
to the rest of the party. 

After the official work of the evening was ended, the company amused 
themselves for some time by questioning the invisible rapper, and though 
the meeting did not in any way assume the form of a semice, or commit 
itself by making any report of this informal action of their invisible atten- 
dants, the curious proceedings obviously made a deep impression upon 
some of those present, whilst it called forth from others that involuntary 
spirit of denial, which would rather discredit the testimony even of the 
senses than recede from the standard of obstinate and preconceived opinions. 

It is more than probable that out of the large number of circulars which 
were sent to other well-known Spiritualists besides Mrs. Hardinge, not one 
failed to produce a response of more or less interest to the investigators. 

Amongst those respondents whose names will be found in the Society's 
published report, and who attended in person, to give oral evidence of their 
faith, are the following persons : — Mrs. Emma Hardinge, Mr. H. D. 
Jencken, M.R.I. ; Mrs. Honeywood, Mr. T. M. Simkiss, Mr. E. Laman 
Blanchard, Mr. J. Murray Spear, Mr. Benjamin Coleman, Mr. George 
Childs, artist; Mr. J. Enmore Jones, Miss Alice Jones, Miss Douglass, 
Lord Borthwick, Mr. James Burns, Mr. Thomas Sherratt, Professor Crom- 
well F. Varley, Miss Houghton, Mr. Thomas Shorter, Mr. Manuel Eyre, 
Mr. Lowenthal, Mr. Hockley, Mr. D. D. Home, Mrs. Cox, Signor Damiani, 
Lord Lindsay, Mr. Chevalier, Mr. Percival, Miss Anna Black well, &c, &c. 

Letters in response to the Society's circular were received from — Mr. 
George H. Lewes, Mr. Wm. Wilkinson, solicitor ; Dr. Garth Wilkinson, 
M.D. ; Dr. Davey, Dr. J. Dixon, Mr. Wm. Howitt, Lord Lytton, Mr. 
Newton Crosland, Mr. Robert Chambers, Dr. Lockhart Robertson, Dr. 
Charles Kidd, Mr, Edwin Arnold, Mr. J. Hawkins Simpson, Mr. A. 
Glendinning, Mr. T. A. Trollope, M. Leon Favre, Mrs. L. Lewis, The 
Countess (now Duchesse) de Pomar, M. Camille Flammarion, &c, &c, &c. 

Papers also, though of an antagonistic character, were received and 
published from Profs. Huxley and Tyndall, Dr. Carpenter, Mr. Bradlaugh, 
and others. 

It would be impossible without giving the substance of a volume of some 
400 pages published by the Dialectical Society as their ultimate report, to 
convey to the reader the least idea of the candour and zeal with which this 
investigation was pursued, nor the vast sum of testimony which resulted 
from it; in short, without any such intention on the part of its authors, the 
Dialectical Society's report forms one of the best collections of test facts and 
irrefragible testimony in favour of the Spiritual hypothesis, that has yet 
issued from the nineteenth-century press. 


It seems that the General Committee, acting on the suggestions before 
named, organized themselves into six groups or sub-committees, at which 
Mr. Home and other well-known Mediums lent valuable assistance, whilst 
on many occasions, phenomena of a very convincing character were 
evolved, no recognised Medium being present. The reports of the Sub- 
Committees in fact, when read and candidly considered in detail, are fully 
sufficient to establish the fact of an unknown super-sensuous and intelligent 
power communicating with mortals both by physical and intellectual modes, 
and that without any additional testimony from any other sources" 

"The Dialectical Society's Report on Spiritualism," was first published 
by the Society, and subsequently reprinted (by permission) with additional 
matter, by Mr. Jas. Burns, 15, Southampton Row, Holborn, London, 
where the curious reader can obtain it. Meantime, the following excerpts 
from the introductory portion of the work will be perused with interest. 

The General Council of the Sub-Committee, addressing the Society at 
large, report as follows : — 

" Your Committee have held fifteen meetings at which they received evidence from 
thirty-three persons who described phenomena which they stated had occurred within 
their own personal experience. 

' Your Committee have received written statements relating to the phenomena from 
thirty- one persons. 

" Your Committee invited the attendance, and requested the co-operation and advice 
of scientific men who had publicly expressed opinions favourable or adverse to the 
genuineness of the phenomena. 

" Your Committee also specially invited the attendance of persons who had publicly 
ascribed the phenomena to imposture or delusion. 

" Your Committee however, while successful in procuring the evidence of believers in 
the phenomena and their supernatural origin, almost wholly failed to obtain evidence 
from those who attributed them to fraud or delusion. 

" As it appeared to your Committee to be of the greatest importance that they should 
investigate the phenomena in question by personal experiment and test, they resolved 
themselves into sub-committees as the best means of doing so. 

" Six sub-committees were accordingly formed. 

" All of these have sent in reports from which it appears that a large majority of the 
members of your Committee have become actual witnesses to several phases of the 
phenomena, without the aid or presence of any. professional medium, although the greater 
part of them commenced their investigations in an avowedly sceptical spirit. 

" These reports hereto subjoined, substantially corroborate each other, and would 
appear to establish the following propositions : — 

" 1. That sounds of a very varied character, apparently proceeding from articles of 
furniture, the floor and walls of the room — the vibrations of which are often distinctly 
perceptible to the touch — occur, without being produced by muscular action or mechani- 
cal contrivance. 

" 2. That movements of heavy bodies take place without mechanical contrivance of 
any kind or adequate exertion of muscular force by the persons present, and frequently 
without contact or connection with any person. 

" 3. That these sounds and movements often occur at the times, and in the manner 
asked for by persons present, and by means of a simple code of signals, answer questions 
and spell out coherent communications. 

" 4. Tbat the answers and communications thus obtained are for the most part of a 
commonplace character ; but facts are sometimes correctly given which are known to one 
of the persons present. 

" 5. That the circumstances under which the phenomena occur are variable — the 
most prominent fact being, that the presence of certain persons seems necessary to their 
occurrence, and that of others, generally adverse — but this difference does not appear to 
depend upon any belief or disbelief concerning the phenomena. 

" 6. That nevertheless the occurrence of the phenomena is not induced by the presence 
or absence of such persons respectively." 

Thus far the sub-committees' personal experiences alone are touched 
upon. The report next proceeds to deal with the testimony of the various 


witnesses who, orally or by written statements — received as indisputable, in 
view of the character and standing of the deponents — gave in a vast mass of 
testimony from which the following numbered extracts are selected : — 

" 1. Thirteen witnesses state that they have seen heavy bodies — in some instances 
men — rise in the air, and remain there for some time without visible support. 

" 2. Fourteen witnesses testify to having seen hands or figures not appertaining to any 
human being, but life-like in appearance and mobility, which they have sometimes touched 
or even grasped and which they were therefore convinced were not the result of illusion 
or imposture. . . . 

" 4. Thirteen witnesses declare they have heard musical pieces well played upon 
instruments not manipulated by any ascertainable agency. 

" 5. Five witnesses state that they have seen red-hot coals applied to the hands or 
heads of several persons present without producing pain or scorching, and three witnesses 
state that they have had the same experiment made upon themselves with the like 

" 6. Eight witnesses declare that they have received precise information through 
rappings, writings, and in other ways, the accuracy of which was unknown at the time to 
themselves or any persons present, and which on subsecment enquiry was found to be 

" 9. Six witnesses declare they have received information of future events, and that in 
some cases the hour and minute of their occurrence have been accurately foretold, even 
days and weeks before." 

In addition to the above, evidence was given of gratuitously false 
statements alleged to come from spirits ; of spirit drawings produced under 
conditions which rendered " human agency impossible," also of " trance 
speaking, healing, automatic writing, the introduction of flowers and fruit 
into closed rooms ; of voices in the air, visions in crystals and glasses, and 
the elongation of the human body. 

After a careful and almost exhuastive review of the whole subject, 
notices of the literature, and the various hypotheses put forth by way of 
attempted explanation, the preliminary report of the General Committee 
concludes with the following remarks : — 

" In presenting their report, your Committee, taking into consideration the high 
character and great intelligence of many of the witnesses to the more extraordinary facts, 
the extent to which their testimony is supported by the reports of the sub -committees, 
and the absence of any proof of imposture or delusion as regards a large portion of the 
phenomena ; and further, having regard to the exceptional character of the phenomena, 
and the large number of persons of every grade of society and over the whole civilised 
world who are more or less influenced by a belief in their supernatural origin, and to the 
fact that no philosophical explanation of them has yet been arrived at, deem it incum- 
bent upon them to state their conviction that the subject is worthy of more serious 
attention and careful investigation than it has hitherto received." 

With a recommendation that the entire report together with the detailed 
reports of the Sub-Committees should be printed, here concludes one of the 
most remarkable, candid, and noteworthy summaries of a series of investi- 
gations into the phenomena of modern Spiritualism that the records of 
that movement can display. 

The very popularity of "the cause," the many honourable and distinguished 
patrons which it had attracted to its ranks, and the possibility of making 
easy profits by simulating its phenomena, have doubtless been the super- 
inducing motives which have caused such a vast flood of imposture, fraud 
and pretension to disgrace its honoured name, since the Dialectical Society 
issued their report. Still that volume remains, and the high character of 


those who constituted the witnesses, their entire disinterestedness and 
freedom from bias or motive to pervert the truth, and the care, caution, 
and indefatigable energy with which the research was pursued, will out- 
weigh with the capable thinker the adverse witness of determined prejudice, 
or even the soil of" ten thousand impure and fraudulent hands laid upon the 
fair form revealed by the investigations of this brave band of truth seekers. 
It is only to be regretted that the report of the Dialectical Society has not 
attained to a far wider circulation than it has hitherto enjoyed — still more 
that other associations composed of individuals as authoritative in name 
and place, as capable of judging rightly, and as faithful in seeking for and 
sifting evidence, have not followed so laudable an example, and by thus 
formulating and publishing abroad all that was found valuable and important 
in the movement, they would have tended to repress the atrocious licence, 
absurd fanaticism, and audacious frauds, that have been foisted upon the 
name and fame of modern Spiritualism. 



It must not be supposed that the course of Spiritualism in Great Britain 
moved on to the achievement of its many conquests over materialism and 
unbelief, without battles to fight, and obstacles to overcome. Besides the 
persistent opposition directed against this movement from the enemies who 
may be classified as the would-be monopolists of all knowledge, in religion, 
science, and literature, many and injurious have been "the foes of its own 
household," with which Spiritualism has had to contend. 

Whether excessive vanity or mercenary motives have been the causes 
which induced certain individuals, professing to be Mediums for Spiritual 
phenomena, to supplement the lack of natural endowments by artifice, it 
matters not now to enquire ; but it is an-assured fact, that few well-informed 
Spiritualists would venture to deny, that many manifestations have been 
exhibited, both by private and professional Media, more or less garbled by 
fraud, and interpolated by human contrivance. 

As our work is understood to record what Spiritualism is, not ivhat it is 
not, we do not feel called upon to dilate farther on the performances of 
tricksters than to note the fact of their interference, and the injurious effect 
they have had upon the progress of the Spiritual cause. 

It must suffice to say, that Spiritualism, like every other movement in 
human life worth counterfeiting, has had to endure its share of hindrance 
and disgrace from the camp followers who are ever found in the wake of 
the armies of progression. 

We know it is constantly alleged by detected impostors, that the frauds 
they can no longer conceal, were undertaken, " under the influence of evil 
spirits," generally those, who were attracted to the circle by some evil- 
minded sceptic. As to themselves — poor innocents ! — they were wholly 
unconscious, and should be regarded merely as victims, not as offenders. 

^'i jS^^^ limfj'f ^^m ^^^t^M 


From a Negative by J. Schmidt, Belper. 


To account for the prepared paraphernalia with which their frauds were 
perpetrated, they generally fall back upon the theory of conspiracies to ruin 
them, amongst the very sitters whom, they have attempted to cheat, 
&c, &c. To explanations of this character, alike insulting to common 
sense, and common honesty, no answer can be made. Unfortunately how- 
ever, the heartless impostors who have no scruple in robbing their victims, 
and imposing on the holiest emotions of the heart, generally find hosts of 
apologists, who not only seek to excuse their turpitude by the miserable 
platitudes suggested above, but follow up the detection, with torrents of 
abuse against those who will not tamely submit to be imposed upon. 

" Hard words break no bones," says the Spanish proverb. That may be 
true, nevertheless they are exceedingly hurtful to the feelings, and hence it 
is, that many an audacious cheat has been permitted to perpetrate his foul 
work unrebuked, for fear of the clamorous attacks with which the exposer 
is sure to be met by ill-judged partisanship, or fanatical credulity. 

True Mediums, whether professional or otherwise, deserve the most kind 
consideration and courteous treatment ; but that is a poor rule which does 
not apply both ways, and therefore the same consideration and courtesy is 
due to the investigator, especially when it is remembered that such investi- 
gations are generally made under the impulse of the most sacred affections, 
and therefore deserve to be treated with reverence and respect. 

Still the effect of detected imposture has been most injurious to the pro- 
gress of Spiritualism, and though its publicity may have served the purpose 
of stimulating the investigator to more caution in his researches, it has 
turned back many an one from seeking divine truth, in a path bristling with 
the way marks of deceit and lies. 

Other causes too, conspired to produce reactionary tides in public opinion, 
unfavourable to Spiritualism. 

Mr. Sothern, a popular actor, who under the alias of " Stuart," had once 
been the conductor of the well-known " miracle-circle" of New York, thought 
proper to amuse his English associates by contriving all sorts of caricature 
performances calculated to bring ridicule and discredit upon Spiritualism. 

Mr. Benjamin Coleman in his zeal for the cause he espoused, in exposing 
Mr. Sothern's performances, unfortunately republished certain statements 
copied from the New York papers, which gave the pretext for a prosecu- 
tion on the ground of libel. A trial ensued. The well-known aphorism 
that "truth is a libel" obtained with unmistakable force in this case, and 
Mr. Coleman and his publisher, the editor of the paper called The 
Spiritual Times, were mulcted in heavy damages. 

It is worth while in this connection to give a curious episode which may 
not be unimportant in weighing the statements of those, who — because 
they find fraud in one direction — pass a wholesale verdict of condemnation 
against the reliability of all phenomena. 

A report has often gained currency, that there was somewhere, though 
rumour never condescended to be explicit on the actual whereabouts, a 
mechanic who had been employed to manufacture apparatus by which a 
machine, concealed about the person, could produce the phenomena known 
as " Spirit rapping." 

More than one of the antagonists to Spiritualism have made allusion to 
this floating rumour, treating it as a well proven fact, and alleging that it 
fully explained the entire formulae of the (assumed Spiritual) rappings. 

Now these allegations have always been made with an amount of 
indefiniteness which has deprived them of credit, whether with the advocates 


or opponents of Spiritualism. For the benefit of both classes, we shall 
now proceed to give the floating rumour a clear and legitimate 

During the investigations of the Dialectical Society, there was a general 
flutter of opinion on the part of the antagonists to Spiritualism lest those 
who were heretofore sceptics, might prove too much and not improbably 
become themselves converted. 

In this direful contingency some one (whom this record does not care to 
immortalize) procured the attendance before the Dialectical Society's 
Council, of one Mr. William Faulkner, of Endell Street, London, who gave 
evidence in respect to certain magnets which he claimed to have manu- 
factured, by means of which " artificial raps could be produced," whilst the 
magnets were concealed about the person of "the Medium." 

Being closely plied with questions by the Spiritualists present, this gentle- 
man was unable to show that he had ever sicpplied. these magnets to a single ^ 
Medium known to any one in the Spiritual ranks save a Mr. Addison, the/^ 
accomplice of Mr. Sothern, and the gentleman at whose residence all the 
. tricks were performed, which Mr. Coleman exposed. 

It must be remembered that Messrs. Sothern and Addison made it their 
business to bring Spiritualism into ridicule and contempt by first pretend- 
ing to produce phenomena and then showing that it was only the result of 
trickery and deception. It was in aid of this notable work that Mr. 
Faulkner's magnets were manufactured, and in this way that Mr. Faulkner's 
testimony was expected to bring discredit on the entire mass of Spiritual 
phenomena ; in a word, those who contrived to cite this person, before the 
Dialectical Society's Council, evidently meant to show that because Mr. 
Addison's house was fitted up with artificial magnets designed to deceive 
the unwary and bring Spiritualism into ridicule, so all " Spirit rappings," 
whether occurring in the palaces of emperors and princes, or the homes 
of clowns and harlequins, must be produced by magnets manufactured by 
Mr. Faulkner, of Endell Street, London ! 

Comment upon this very flimsy attempt to destroy a world-wide truth 
with a harlequin's bat and ball is unnecessary; in short, a subject so justly 
relegated to oblivion would not be recalled at this time, were it not desirable 
to observe, to what desperate and puerile methods of warfare, the opponents 
of this great cause have been driven. 

Shortly after the Coleman prosecution, another of a still more complex 
and damaging character arose, in connection with Mr. D. D. Home, and 
an old lady by the name of Lyon. 

Although the details of this case may be fresh in the memory of readers 
of the present generation it is necessary, for the benefit of posterity, to give 
the following brief abstract of its salient points. 

It seems that Mrs. Lyon, an eccentric old lady, took a sudden and violent 
fancy to Mr. D. D. Home, and being a widow with a large fortune at her 
own disposal, she induced the young Medium to become her adopted son 
and heir. Settlements were made, and Mr. Home's name was changed to 
Lyon, by a formal parliamentary act. 

For a time all seemed to promise well for the future happiness of the 
contracting parties. At length however, the lady grew exacting, the 
adopted son restive ; she wearied of her fancy, he of his gilded chains. 
Disputes arose ; then estrangement, and the finale was, a demand on the 
part of the lady, for release from all her promises, and an immediate 
restitution of the gifts she had bestowed on the creature of her whim. 


Unfortunately for Mr, Home, the last-named demand implied an impossi- 
bility with which he could not comply. Failing to obtain her exorbitant 
demands, the whilom tender mother had the son arrested, and then 
commenced a vigorous prosecution against him for the restitution of all 
the gifts she had bestowed, on the plea, that Mr. Home had worked upon 
her feelings, and induced her to consent to the act of adoption by 
pretended Spiritual manifestations. 

A long trial ensued, in the published reports of which, not one tittle of 
evidence could be adduced in support of the lady's allegation ; on the 
contrary, her witnesses discredited and contradicted each other, and her own 
testimony was so silly and unsupported, that the judge was frequently obliged 
to advise her to be silent, as " her statements were too contradictory to be 
accepted." On the other hand it was shown by an immense number of 
the most respectable witnesses, that Mr. Home yielded to this lady's offers 
slowly and reluctantly, and that he even sent his friend and legal adviser 
Mr. William Wilkinson to call on her ; to place before her the magnitude of 
her undertaking, and beseech her to take time and good counsel, before 
consummating her hasty proposal. 

During the entire progress of this protracted trial, the balance of evidence 
was all on the side of the unfortunate Medium, and judging purely by the 
testimony adduced, not a doubt existed in the public mind, that Mr. Home 
would be honourable acquitted, and the prosecution anything but honour- 
ably quashed. 

But great are the uncertainties of the law ! Mr. Home was found guilty 
of exerting undue influence over the mind of an innocent aged lady, and 
ordered to give back all that he could restore, and so the matter was 
supposed to end. End there however it did not. So long as the details 
of the case were fresh in the public mind, Mr. Home was regarded as the 
victim of a very unjust verdict, whilst Mrs. Lyon was regarded as very 
much more of a wolf in sheep's clothing, than as the representative of her 
kingly name When the real facts at issue slipped out of the versatile 
memory of " the dear public " however, and ancient prejudice was permitted 
to re-assume her sway, the Spiritualists were constantly reproached with 
the acts of " that wicked Mr. Home," and the wrongs of that amiable and 
truthful old lady, Mrs. Lyon. Nay, the author in her wide wanderings over 
the world has frequently been reminded "how that dreadful Mr. Home 
had been imprisoned for life, for plundering and imposing upon his bene- 
factress, and how that dreadful delusion of Spiritualism was all exploded 
in consequence." It was of no avail to urge that Mr. Home was at that 
very time the honoured guest of the Emperor of Russia, and Spiritualism 
exerting more power and influence over the masses than ever. The 
slanderers "knew all about it," for did not every one "say so," and was it 
not enough that it was testified of by the authoritative tongue of common 
report ? 

At a still later date, other trials and other convictions occurred, and in 
more than one instance frauds and adventurers received their deserts, and 
suffered penalties which Spiritualists were as ready to pronounce well 
merited as were their opponents. Still the result of any judicial trials in 
which Spiritualism was concerned, invariably ended unfavourably for the 
cause, whatever the merits of the case might be. 

It is not to be wondered at then, that antagonistic individuals availed 
themselves of this mockery of justice in connection with an unpopular 
movement, and scrupled not to call in the aid of the law to punish the 
believers whose faith they could not change. 


Whatever the present generation may allege, posterity will surely realize 
that it was the prevalence of an unjust and bigoted public sentiment, and 
the certainty that the law would uphold that sentiment, which stimulated 
the vexatious prosecution that was quite recently instituted against the 
celebrated American Medium, Mr. Henry Slade, who, during a brief visit 
to this country en route to fulfil an engagement in Russia, was becoming 
all too popular with the visitors whom his limited time permitted him 
to receive. 

It was no doubt in view of this "perversion of public feeling" and "in 
the highest interests of morality and religion " that two self-styled scientific 
gentlemen called on the American Medium, and after endeavouring in 
every possible way to entrap him into some suspicious act, they openly 
accused him of fraud, caused his arrest and entered upon a vigorous and 
relentless prosecution against him. 

Again the details of the trial were utterly barren of proof that>#Ie 
charge was true. Except that the prosecution could not account for the 
phenomena produced, and therefore trumped up an imaginary and totally 
impractical hypothesis as to how it might or must have been done, there 
was not a shadow of evidence to prove fraud on the part of the 

For the defence, a large number of distinguished and respectable persons 
tendered their witness in favour of Slade's honesty, and the unmistakable 
character of the supra-mundane phenomena occurring in his presence. 
Only four of these favourable witnesses were allowed to testify, one of them 
being the celebrated author and naturalist, Professor A. R. Wallace. 
Notwithstanding the fact that the magistrate before whom the case was 
tried, was obliged to acknowledge that the evidence in Slade's favour " was 
overwhelming," after a most "Dogberry" like summing up, he sentenced 
Mr. Slade " under the fourth section of the Vagrant Act," to three months' 
imprisonment with hard labour, "/or using subtile crafts and devices by 
palmistry or otherwise to deceive" &c, &c. This notable conviction was 
soon after " quashed" on appeal to the Middlesex Sessions, for a formal 
error in the conviction. 

But the enemy was not to be deprived of his " pound of flesh." " In 
the interests of science " — as the prosecutors alleged — they commenced a 
fresh attack, and although the victim of this pitiful warfare — broken down 
in health and spirits by the cruel persecution directed against him — 
insisted upon meeting whatever further proceedings might be taken, his 
medical attendant declared that "any further attempt to face the storm 
would kill him outright," and his numerous friends and supporters absolutely 
forced him to proceed on his way to the Continent, to meet the engagement 
for which he had come to Europe. 

Jt is but justice to add, that when Mr. Slade's health became sufficiently 
restored, he wrote to one of his scientific accusers, offering to return to 
England at his own expense, to give him six seances at any place he might 
choose, under any reasonable conditions he might dictate, entirely free of 
charge and for the purpose of proving the absence of fraud on his part. 
This letter, long, clear, and manly as it was, the scientific and gentleman- 
like accuser doubtless deemed it "in the interests of science" utterly to 
disregard, even by a single word of reply. The unprejudiced reader may 
satisfy himself concerning the entire candour and honesty of this letter by 
perusing it on page %6 of Professor Zollner's work, " Transcendental 
Physics." 2 7 


It might be worth while to compare the facts thus briefly summarized, 
from already published accounts, with " the lying tongue of rumour," from 
which source the author has frequently heard, that " Slade had been caught 
in the act of tricking a party of celebrated professors ; tried, condemned, 
imprisoned, and that hence, the monstrous delusion of Spiritualism was all 
exposed and for ever exploded ! " 

For the rest of Mr. Slade'6 Continental experiences the reader is referred 
to the section on " Spiritualism in Germany," and the report of his seances 
with the Leipzig professors. 

It only remains to notice one more result of the prosecution, or more 
strictly speaking, the persecution, to which Mr. Slade was subject, and this 
was, the circulation of a memorial to the British Home Secretary, a few 
extracts from which will close this chapter. 

The Spiritualists of Great Britain probably never expected any other 
official result from their memorial than a silent smile of contempt from the 
party whose duty it would be to consign it to the Governmental waste 
basket — nevertheless they felt that its distribution would serve the purpose 
of registering the Spiritualists' version of their case, and give the too-trusting 
public to understand that the Bow Street magistrate's unfavourable verdict, 
had not yet become the funeral sermon of Spiritualism, also that this 
irrepressible cause still maintained a vigorous state of being, in which new 
conversions were effected with each succeeding day and hour. 

The Religio Philosophical Journal, an old established and excellent 
Spiritual periodical published at Chicago, U.S., reprinted the above-named 
memorial, the main points of which, together with the editor's comments, 
we give in the following extract : — 

" The British National Association of Spiritualists has prepared, and is circulating a 
memorial to the Home Secretary of the British Government, asking that the construction 
.heretofore put upon an Act for the Suppression of Vagrancy, whereby it is made a means 
of maintaining criminal prosecution against Mediums, may be corrected. The fourth 
section of the act classes as vagrants, ' Every person pretending or professing to tell for- 
tunes, or using any subtle craft, means or device by palmistry or otherwise, to deceive or 
impose upon any of his majesty's subjects.' It was under this clause that Henry Slade 
was prosecuted, and concerning his prosecution the memorial says : 

" ' As an instance in point your memorialists would refer to the case of Henry Slade, 
an American Medium, charged at Bow Street Police Court in the year ] 876, under the 
fourth section .of the said Act. For the defence the magistrate allowed to be called as 
witnesses four gentlemen, one of them of great scientific eminence, who were experts in 
the investigation of Spiritualism, and who had especially tested the Mediumship of the 
defendant on many occasions. These gentlemen gave evidence of facts wholly inconsistent 
with the supposition that the defendant was an impostor — evidence which the magistrate 
himself declared from the bench to be " overwhelming." In attendance were other 
witnesses prepared to give similar testimony. Yet the magistrate refused to allow them 
to be called : and, in giving judgment against the defendant, he avowedly put the evi- 
dence, which he had described as above, altogether out of consideration, expressly declar- 
ing that he based his decision " according to the known course of nature." The law, it is 
true, does not expressly sanction any presumption against the existence of agencies in 
nature other than and surpassing those generally known — and these it is, and not 
" miraculous " or " supernatural " powers that Spiritualists allege — but the persons who 
administer the law are unavoidably bounded by this common knowledge in dealing with 
evidence and the probabilities arising therefrom. It results then, that the magistrate who 
adjudicates "according to the known course of nature " in respect to phenomena which do 
not conform to such " known course " as interpreted by him, finds it practically unneces- 
sary to hear evidence beyond the mere proof of the alleged occurrence of the phenomena 
in question in the presence of a certain individual, when no other person also present can 
be taken to have produced them. The case is therefore prejudged ; and the examination 
of witnesses to prove that any alleged act of imposture was not really of that character 
is a superfluous mockery and pretence. It is upon this fact that no tribunal, without 


going into an exhaustive and impracticable inquiry upon an unfamiliar subject, can do 
other than take its own knowledge and experience as the standard of probability, that 
your memorialists chiefly rest their statement of the unavoidable injustice and prejudicial 
character of these prosecutions.' " 



Concerning the Literature of English Spiritualism. 

The first periodical issued in England in connection with the subject of 
Spiritualism was The Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph. When seeking for 
authentic information on this pioneer work, the author was referred to the 
following article which appeared in the year 1882 in the columns of Light; 
and its perusal will perhaps give a better idea than could otherwise be 
obtained of the regard with which the promoter of this periodical is still 
remembered : — 


" An event, unique in character, has recently transpired in this cosy little Yorkshire 
town, which will long be remembered with pleasure by all concerned, marking as it did 
the thirtieth anniversary of the introduction of Spiritualism into this country. The 
celebration, for such in character was the event alluded to, was conceived and executed 
by the committee and friends of the Keighley ' Spiritual Brotherhood,' Mr. John Pickles, 
the chairman, working energetically to that end, and being ably assisted by Mr. J. Smith, • 
the hon. secretary. Indeed, so earnestly did all work that a most successful issue was 
achieved. The proceedings consisted of a public tea and meeting on Saturday, July 8th. 
The objects the committee had in view were the presentation of the portraits of the three 
pioneer workers in the movement, viz., Messrs. John Wright, Abraham Shackleton, and 
David Weatherhead ; the two first-named persons, and the family of the last-named 
gentleman, who has passed hence, being the recipients of the gifts. In 1853 Mr. David 
Richmond, from the Shakers, of America, brought the particulars of Spirit phenomena 
with him to this country, and, paying a visit to Keighley, called upon Mr . David Weather- 
head to present the matter to the attention of that gentleman. As a result of the 
interview, a public meeting was held, at which table manifestations were obtained, through 
mediums discovered in the audience, by Mr. Richmond, who delivered an explanatory 
address. Mr. Weatherhead became convinced of the truth of Spirit intercourse, and at 
once entered heartily into the matter, sparing neither time, pains, nor purse in his zeal. 
He established the first printing press in the movement, printed the first English Spiritual 
periodical, the Yorkshire Spiritual Telegraph, and caused the circulation of innumerable 
tracts, pamphlets, &c, throughout the kingdom, and subsequently erected, at his own 
expense, the comfortable and commodious building used by the society at the present 
time. He contentedly bore all the expenses involved, and during his residence in the 
flesh was a true pillar of the cause. Messrs. Wright and Shackleton were the two trance 
mediums developed in the early days ; they have literally grown grey in the work. Their 
labours have been free of price, and as speakers, healers, and clairvoyants they have 
rendered valuable service to the cause. To do honour to these workers, and to express 
the high esteem in which they were held, the recent presentation was arranged. 
On Saturday the proceedings were opened by a tea, at which a very large company sat 
down. At seven o'clock the public meeting was opened by the chairman, Mr. J. Clapham, 
who said : ' Ladies and gentlemen, we are met here to-night to show our gratitude to the 
late Mr. Weatherhead, and also to Mr. Shackleton and Mr. Wright, for their past services. 
Keighley was the place where Spiritualism was first promulgated in this country, being 
introduced to us by Mr, David Richmond, of Darlington, who, with the assistance of Mr. 



Weatherhead, was enabled to deliver three lectures upon the subject in the Working 
Men's Hall, in June, 1853. The issues were, that Mr. Weatherhead took steps which 
resulted in the formation of the society which exists at the present time ; and soon after- 
wards the mediums named were developed, and they are still serving us to-day. These 
gentlemen, with Mr. Weatherhead, were the mainstays of the cause, and Mr. Weatherhead, 
during his life here, spared neither time nor means in spreading abroad this grand truth. 
It was he who established the first printing press, and distributed tracts, pamphlets, and 
other literature broadcast, the materials for which were largely obtained through medium- 
ship. He it was who bore the entire expense of the erection of the Lyceum Buildings, 
and in many other ways testified his earnestness and devotion to the cause. The outcome 
of his labours has been that to-day we have here a society in a flourishing condition, 
having one hundred and fifty members on the roll, some five or six active mediums 
constantly ministering to us, and a Sunday School composed of upwards of a hundred 
members. As, therefore, a slight mark of esteem and appreciation to these our pioneer 
workers, we are to-night to present to them the portraits before us, and all will join with 
me in saying they are most heartily deserved.' The portraits, in oil*, which are excellent 
specimens of the painter's art, were then presented. That to Mr. Wright was presented 
by Mr. John Scott, of Belfast ; that to Mr. Shackleton by Mr. D. Richmond, of Darlington ; 
and that of Mr. Weatherhead to his family, by Mr. J. J. Morse, of London ; and suitable 
acknowledgments were made in each case. The proceedings were varied by some excellent 
singing and reciting by a glee party and several friends, and altogether the event was 
marked by a hearty enthusiasm which evidenced the full sympathy of all present in the 
event of the day. 

" The series of meetings were held in the large Auction Hall of Mr. William Weather- 
head, who very kindly placed it at the disposal of the society free of cost. The above 
events will be long remembered by all present, and constitute an occasion that will be 
historical in its relations to the progress of Spiritualism in Great Britain." 

None but the pioneer of an unpopular cause can understand the value of 
the good work effected by Mr. David Weatherhead^ or the amount of 
martyrdom he must have incurred in its performance. 

In his time, the publication of a Spiritual journal, and the dissemination 
of Spiritual literature was only repaid by public odium and social ostracism. 

Mr. David Weatherhead, as the first publisher of the first Spiritual journal 
issued from the English press, undoubtedly courted the martyr's cross that 
was put upon him ; but who can doubt that he is now reaping the reward of 
the martyr's crown in the better life to which his brave spirit has attained ? 

After the Spiritual Telegraph, the oldest and most important work of the 
movement was the London Spiritual Magazine, which, during a period of 
nearly twenty years, sent forth its monthly record of Spiritual work and 
progress in Great Britain in choice language and scholarly form. This 
magazine was published by the accomplished writer William Wilkinson, Esq., 
solicitor, of Lincoln's Inn, a gentleman who contributed his wealth and high 
social position to the advancement of Spiritualism and the promulgation of 
its teachings, witho'ut fear of or favour from men. Mr. Wilkinson's under- 
taking was promoted and ably sustained by the literary assistance of Mr. 
Thomas Shorter, who — under the nom deplume of " Brevior " — has written, 
lectured, and laboured for the cause of Spiritualism, with a devotion and 
zeal that entitle him to the gratitude of every spiritualist in this generation. 
Quite early in the history of the modern movement, Mr. Shorter published 
an admirable and compendious work on the Spiritualism of all ages and 
times, entitled " The Two Worlds." The production of this lucid, and 
charmingly written work, would in itself have been sufficient to elevate its 
author to a high rank in the world of letters had the subject been any other 
than Spiritualism. Working on unceasingly, Mr. Shorter never paused to 
enquire whether the sublime truths he promulgated met, or opposed the 
popular taste. From the first opening of the immortal gates to the eyes of 
humanity in this century, up to the truly dark day, when the irreparable loss 


of sight fell like a pall across the noble gentleman's way, he has laboured 
with tongue, pen, and influence, to help to plant the standard of the faith and 
illuminate the path of others with the radiance of that better world, which 
alone remains to guide his darkened way on earth. 

Even since the affliction of blindness has fallen upon him, Mr. Shorter 
has not relapsed his efforts to steady the ark of progress as it moves on its 
way. His fearless testimony is ever ready, and his clear voice is heard at 
every public gathering of Metropolitan Spiritualists. A fine collection of 
choice poems has lately been issued by him, for the consolation and 
instruction of those who can see to read them, — and Mr. Shorter's career 
gives promise of closing like that of the good sentinel of Pompeian 
celebrity who died at his post— " faithful unto death." 

In addition to the invaluable services of Messrs. Wilkinson and Shorter, 
the London Spiritual Magazine numbered amongst its staff of contributors 
the flower of European Spiritual literati. 

Pre-eminent above all others, stands out the noble name of William 
Howitt, an author whose works are the pride of every well-informed English 
reader; a gentleman whom to know was to love and honour, and a 
Spiritualist whose fearless advocacy shed lustre on his cause, and became a 
tower of strength to his co-workers. Happily for the better appreciation of 
Mr. Howitt and his wonderful literary labours, a faithful transcript of his 
life is just now passing through the press in a volume entitled "The 
Pioneers of the Spiritual Reformation." Mr. Howitt's biography forms the 
opening chapters of this interesting work, and how full of valuable informa- 
tion the volume itself will be, may be gathered from the fact, that it is 
written by the daughter of Mary and William Howitt, Mrs. Watts, — a lady 
whose charming contributions to Spiritual literature have already become 
familiar to admiring readers over the signature of "A. M. H. W." It may 
not be inappropriate in this place to give an excerpt from the London 
Spiritual Magazine in which Mr. Howitt defines, in his own forcible 
language, the nature of some of his spiritual experiences. He says : — 

" We have seen tables often enough, lifted by invisible power from the floor ; seen them 
give answers to questions by rising and sinking iD the air ; we have seen them in the air 
keep time by their movements to a tune playing on a piano ; seen them slide about the 

floor of a room, laying themselves down when touched We have heard bells 

ring in the air, and seen them thus ringing move about a room ; seen flowers broken from 
plants, and carried to different persons, without any visible hand ; seen musical instru- 
ments play correct airs apparently of themselves, and even rise up, place themselves on a 
person's head, and play out a well-known air in fine style. We have heard remarkable 
predictions given through mediums, and which have come literally to pass ; heard wonder- 
ful descriptions of scenes in the invisible world made by persons in clairvoyant trance, 
which would require the highest imaginative genius to invent or embody in words ; have 
seen writing done by pencils laid on paper in the middle of the floor, not within reach of 
any person present, and innumerable such things." 

And in speaking of the drawings made by Madam Hauffe under spirit- 
influence, he takes occasion to make the following statement of his own 
experience as a spirit-medium : — 

" Having myself, who never had a single lesson in drawing, and never could draw in 
a normal condition, had a great number of circles struck through my hand under spirit- 
influence, and these filled up by tracery of ever new invention, without a thought of my 
own, I, at once, recognise the truth of Kerner's statement. The drawings made by my 
hand have been seen by great numbers of persons, artists as well as others, and remain to 
be seen, though the power is again gone from me. Giotto, or any pair of compasses, could 
not strike more perfect circles than I could under this influence, with nothing but a piece 


of paper and a pencil. No inventor of tracery or patterns could invent such original ones 
as were thrown out on the paper daj after day, with almost lightning speed, except with 
long and studious labour, and by instrumental aid. At the same time the sketches given 
through me are not to be named with the drawings, both in pencil and colours, produced in 
this manner through others who are well known." 

As an example of the logical yet religious tone of Mr. Howitt's philo- 
sophical articles on this subject we call the reader's attention to the subjoined 
passages, taken from the London Spiritual Magazine of April, 1863 : — 

" And all this time, in England, thousands and tens of thousands were daily sitting 
down in their families and circles of intimate friends, and quietly and successfully testing 
those angels under their own mode of advent, and finding them real. And both in 
America and here, as well as in most of the Continental nations, this has been the great 
mode of enquiry and convincement. Public mediums have, in reality, only inaugurated 
the movement : it has been, of necessity, carried on by private and family practice. In 
this domestic prosecution of Spiritualism, equally inaccessible to the vulgar sorcerer and 
the interested impostor — where every person was desirous only of truth, and many of 
them of deep religious truth — the second stage of Spiritual development, the more interior 
and intellectual, has been reached by a very large community. For there is, indeed, a 
very large section of society who are sick of empty profession, or disgusted with the 
dreary cheat of scepticism, and who have been long yearning for some revelation of the 
immortal hopes of earlier years, in some substantial and unmistakeable form . They have 
found this in the daily visits of their departed friends, coming to them with all their old 
identities of soul, taste, or memory of announcements of Christian truth, and of God's 
promised felicity. They have listened again and again to the words of their beloved ones, 
bidding them take courage, for there was no death, but that around them walked their 
so-called departed, ready to aid and comfort them in their earth pilgrimage, and to 
receive them to immediate and far more glorious existence." 

Besides the voluminous mass of historical and descriptive writings for 
which both Mr. and Mrs. Howitt have attained a world-wide celebrity, 
Mrs. Howitt has enriched the repertoire of Spiritual literature with a fine 
translation of Enmemoser's " History of Magic,'*' whilst Mr. Wm. Howitt's 
" History of the Supernatural," in two volumes, and his splendid magazine 
articles, are acknowledged to be amongst the best standard works of which 
the Spiritual cause can boast. 

Amongst the many popular and distinguished writers of the day who 
have fearlessly avowed their interest in Spiritualism and contributed talent 
and reputation to its advocacy, were Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, the former 
well-known as the editor of the London Art Journal, whilst Mrs. Hall's 
charming works of fiction, and other writings, have procured for her a 
world-wide celebrity. It would be difficult to exaggerate the valuable 
. influence exercised by this accomplished couple upon the cause of 

Moving in the highest ranks of European society, their residence was the 
scene of delightful reunions, where gifted Mediums and persons of the 
highest literary and scientific culture were brought together and combined 
to send forth an influence which permeated the ranks of the most 
intellectual classes of Europe. It is but a few short years since the fair 
form of the talented authoress, Maria S. C. Hall, vanished from her wide 
circle of admirers and passed to the land of light to which her hand had 
already pointed so many of earth's weary pilgrims. And thus after fifty 
years of heart and soul companionship, the noble octogenarian, S. C. Hall, 
was left alone on earth, at least so far as mortal sight is concerned ; never 
have the triumphs of Spiritualism become more manifest than in the 
fortitude with which this truly " Christian " gentleman sustains the tempo- 
rary separation between the mortal and the immortal. At a crowded 
reception tendered to the author by the Central Association of Spiritualists, 


a few months since, on the occasion of her visit to London, Mr. S. C. 
Hall — then over eighty years of age — made the speech of the night, and 
in a strain of glowing eloquence that thrilled every heart, and brought 
tears to every eye, he declared that the grave had not separated him from 
his angel wife. Her constant communications cheered his loneliness, he 
said: guided his 'mortal footsteps and gave him unceasing assurance that 
she in heaven and he on earth were now as ever one in heart, life 
interest, and undying interchange of loving communion. . . . What a 
triumphant illustration of immortal life over mortal death, and of the value 
of the much derided facts and philosophy of Spiritualism ! 

In addition to these eminent writers, many others of scarcely less celebrity 
assisted in making the London Spirihial Magazine a work as valuable in 
an aesthetic point of view, as it was interesting to the believers in Spirit 

One of the first volumes published in the interests of Spiritualism, and 
still a standard work with those who desire to trace out the movement from 
its incipiency, is Mrs. De Morgan's excellent sketch of her own experiences, 
entitled " From Matter to Spirit." 

Another valuable and timely compendium of Spiritual facts and philo- 
sophy is, "The Natural and Supernatural," written at an early period of 
the movement in England, by J. Enmore Jones, Esq., of Norwood. 

Mr. D. D. Home has published two interesting volumes at different times, 
the one called "Incidents of My Life," the other "Lights and Shadows of 

Omitting the long list of smaller volumes, tracts, pamphlets, leaflets, 
&c, &c, which swell the mass of English Spiritual literature, we next call 
attention to an admirable work — " Miracles and Modern Spiritualism," 
written by the celebrated author and naturalist, Professor A. R. Wallace. 
For the unpretentious size of this volume it would be difficult to find any 
work which presents a more unanswerable array of facts, logic, and scientific 
deductions ; in short, it is in every way worthy to be regarded as a Spirit- 
ualistic manual, of equal value to the well-informed Spiritualist, and the 
earnest investigator. 

Besides the intrinsic value of Professor Wallace's admirable work, the 
public have appreciated it all the more, from the fact that it emanates from 
the pen of one so highly honoured in the ranks of science and literature as 
Alfred Russell Wallace. Dividing honours with the alleged founder of the 
famous doctrine of " evolution " — Charles Darwin — a world-wide traveller, 
naturalist, and distinguished author, Professor Wallace has never hesitated 
to contribute his honoured testimony to the much-abused cause of Spirit- 
ualism. His clear logical speeches, unanswerable magazine and journalistic 
articles, and his noble defence and exposition of true Spiritualism, when 
and wherever opportunity has permitted, all have combined to render 
Professor Wallace's adherence to the cause of Spiritualism a tower of 
strength which can never be too gratefully remembered. 

Professor Crookes's record of experiments with Mr. D. D. Home, Miss 
Cook, and other Media ; Professor Zoellner's " Transcendental Physics," 
and the " Report of the Dialectical Society," have been already noticed. 

One of the most esteemed and gifted writers in the ranks of Spiritualism 
is the gentleman known by the nom de plume of " M. A., Oxon." 

Amongst this truly inspired author's collected writings, the most popular 
are, the four volumes entitled severally, "Psychography;" " Spirit Identity ; " 
"The Higher Aspects of Spiritualism ; " and "Spirit Teachings." 


.Nothing in the whole realm of occult literature can surpass the deep 
insight, and profound mastery of Spiritualistic problems, manifested in these 
works. And yet they are but a small part of " M. A., Oxon's " contribu- 
tions. His fine magazine and journalistic articles are to be found in most 
of the high-toned periodicals of the last few years, whilst his well-known 
signature invariably attracts every thoughful reader who desires to be 
instructed, as well as interested. 

Three of the most remarkable volumes that have of late issued from the 
English Spiritual press, are those, circulated chiefly amongst the publisher's 
personal friends, entitled, " Angelic Revelations." They are a collection of 
communications given through the Mediumship of a lady in private life, 
and received by a circle of ladies and gentlemen whose sessions were 
continued for several years in the city of Manchester. The seances were of 
the most exclusive character, and were only participated in by such persons 
as the controlling intelligences elected to receive. Each of these favoured 
individuals was named by the presiding " angels," according to the 
qualities of mind that distinguished them. To Mr. William Oxley, the 
well-known and highly-esteemed Spiritualistic author, was assigned the 
onerous task of recording the communications spoken in trance by the 

Thus the whole of the three volumes above named, have been written out 
and prepared for the press, and published in the highest form of mechanical 
art, by Mr. Oxley "the Recorder," with the permission of the controlling 
intelligences, and under the auspices of the Manchester circle,* No 
comment can do justice to the ecstatic style or remarkable views of the 
future life, indicated in these volumes. They must be read to be appre- 
ciated, and then they form but one fragment of the innumerable and 
diverse revealments of the after life, and man's spiritual genesis and exodus, 
which the trance utterances of the present dispensation have furnished us 
with. The volumes above mentioned are not the only ones for which the 
world is indebted to their accomplished publisher. 

Mr. William Oxley has written a remarkably fine poetical adaptation of 
the celebrated Hindoo Baghavat Gita ; an excellent metaphysical work 
entitled "The Philosophy of Spirit;" and he is now enriching the 
columns of the Medium and Daybreak with a graphic account of the 
ancient monuments of Egypt, which he describes and comments upon in 
the progressive spirit of an advanced thinker, and from the standpoint 
of his own personal knowledge, obtained during a recent visit to the 
wonderful old land of the Pharaohs. Mr. Oxley's name has become so long 
familiarized to every reader of the best Spiritual literature, by noble and 
high-toned articles, that many will rejoice in the opportunity of becoming 
better acquainted with their favourite author, through the accompanying 
fine illustrations. The introduction to the facsimiles of the spiritually pro- 
duced flower and the spirit foot are too graphically recorded in Mr. Oxley's 
own words to need any other comment than their perusal will suggest. 

Mr. Oxley, addressing the author of this volume, says : — 

" To Mrs. Britten, — I have the pleasure to furnish you with engravings of a materialised 
spirit's foot, which represents with perfect exactitude the plaster cast, moulded by a 
professional artist, from the paraffin wax envelope. Apart from any suggestions of 
trickery and collusion the cast itself tells its own tale, for it has the cuticle marks in the 
crucial parts, which it would be impossible to produce under any circumstances without a 

* " Angelic Revelations, concerning the origin, ultiniation, and destiny of the Human Spirit, &c, 
may be had from T. Gaskell, 69, Oldham Road, Manchester. 


mould formed of many parts, as auy mechanician, or even ordinary person can see at a 
glance. The cast foot is eight inches long by three inches in the smallest part, and nine 
inches in the widest part. The opening at the top of the foot is 2£ inches diameter. 
And yet through this opening the foot was instantaneously withdrawn. The medium 
was Mrs. Firman (now deceased). The modus operandi was as follows : I prepared the 
melted hot liquid paraffin, into which the little spirit form dipped her foot several times, 
so as to make it of sufficient thickness to maintain its figure. After this operation the 
spirit form — known to us as Bertie— put out her foot with the wax mould upon it, and 
asking me to take hold of it, which I did, the foot was withdrawn (or dissolved, I know not 
which) and the mould left in my hand. This was at the house of a friend in Manchester, 
April 11th, 1876, and next morning I took the wax mould to Mr. Bernaditto, who filled 
it with plaster, and, after melting the wax from the plaster, the result was a beautiful 
feminine human foot, of which the illustration is a faithful copy. The crucial test of 
this wondrous phenomenon is seen by reference to Figure II. The ball of the toe 
(see D c), half an inch thick, had to be drawn through an opening only a quarter-inch deep 
(see B a), which of course, under ordinary circumstances, is a physical impossibility, 
without destroying the fine bridge (see a c), and it is exactly on this bridge that the 
cuticle marks are delineated as perfectly as on the human foot. Your space will not 
permit me to give the means employed to eliminate anything like fraudulent action on 
'the part of the medium, neither is it necessary to do so, as the cast itself — still in my 
possession — leaves its own stamp of genuineness, for there is not a single mark that 
betokens anything contrary to what it really is, viz., a cast from a whole and perfect 
mould, without a division ; and I challenge the world to produce the like, otherwise than 
by similar agency. I, myself, made the so-called cabinet, which was the recess of a bay 
window, into which nothing could get without being seen by ten pairs of watchful eyes 
(there was a good light all through the seance). The medium, who was a woman of 
great size, went inside, and in the course of some fifteen minutes, the little psychic 
form of Bertie presented herself, and went through the operations as described above. 
After the performance she disappeared, and in a moment or two I drew the curtain aside, 
and there was Mrs. Firman entranced, and the sole occupant. Where was Bertie ? 

" The other illustration is from a photograph of a plant with flower, produced through 
the mediumship of Mrs. Esperance, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, August 4th, 1880.. The 
reader must take all accessories for granted, as it is superfluous to enumerate all the 
precautionary measures to ensure genuine phenomena. 

" The cabinet was a plain wooden box, five feet high, closed at top aud bottom, with a 
gauze division in the centre, and a curtain covering the whole front, about six feet wide. 
The medium sat in one compartment, and the company (about twenty persons) sat round 
in horse-shoe fashion. In a short time, a little figure, draped in white, known as Yolande, 
emerged from the other (empty) compartment. That it was not the medium was evident 
from the fact of the figure being much less in size, and different in outline, and I heard 
Mrs. E. breathing hard while the figure was outside. Yolande requested my friend, 
Beimers, to get a glass water-bottle, and some sand and water, which, when mixed, he put 
into the bottle, and returned to his seat. Yolande then made a few passes over the bottle, 
and actually created a white gauzy cloth before our very eyes. She then retired about a 
yard from the bottle, and sat down on the floor. Presently we saw — -for there was sufficient 
light to clearly distinguish the operation — the gauze veil gradually rising, as if there was 
something moving it upwards. In about two minutes, after rising about sixteen inches, 
Yolande rose to her feet and went to the bottle, from which she removed the covering, and 
lo ! there was a plant with green leaves grown out of the bottle, with its roots in the sand : 
but there was no flower on it. After we had somewhat recovered from our astonishment, 
Yolande took it up, bottle and all, and gave it into my hands. She then retired into the 
cabinet. After the company had inspected it, I placed it at my feet, and waited for what 
should come next. In a few minutes raps were heard, and then the alphabet was used. 
' Look at your plant ' was spelt out, and taking it up I found, not only that it had grown 
very considerably in size, but there was a beautiful flower about four inches diameter on 
it. This was produced while it was between my feet. I took it to my hotel, and next 
morning had it photographed, of which the engraving is an exact copy. The next night 
Yolande gave me a small rosebud on a short stalk, with not more than two leaves on. This 
1 put in my bosom, and kept it there during the time that the sCance lasted ; but having 
the impression that something was going on, I put my hand to feel it, and noticing that it 
felt different I kept my own counsel and did not disturb it. When the seance was drawing 
to a close, I drew forth my rosebud, when, strange to relate, it had developed into a bunch 
of three large full-blown roses, with a bud as well 1 These I also put away with the plant. 

" Extensive as has been my experience — now ranging over many years — with psychic 
sensitives, there have been no results more satisfactory and pleasing — i.e., on the physical 
plane — than the above which I have narrated, and curtailed, so as to give only the bald 


Known as " BERTIE." 

The Paraffin Wax Mould was presented by the 
Form ivhile still on her foot to Wm, Oxley, who 
took hold of it, when the foot was instantaneously 
withdrawn. Produced in Manchester (England) 
April 11th, 1876. 



Produced by the Materialised Psychic Form 
Yolande, which grew out of a glass water 
bottle in the presence of 20 witnesses at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, Aug. 4th, 1880. 

From Photograph taken next day in possession 
of William Oxley, Manchester. 


facts. The top leaves (six inches long), with a part of the stalk and remains of flower 
plant (preserved under glass), together with the foot — along with other hand casts — pro- 
duced under similar circumstances as told — are before me as I write, and I trust that they 
may be kept for ages to come as souvenirs, or first fruits of that mighty spiritual force and 
movement — now in its commencement— which is destined to change the face of the whole 
earth, both as a physical orb, and also the social status of humanity that, from generation 
to generation, will live and move upon its surface. Without trespassing further on your 
time and space, allow me to congratulate you on the part which you have been destined to 
play in this wondrous drama ; and unless I grievously err, the time will come — and at no 
very distant date — when this new volume, which you are now giving to the world, will be 
recognised and appreciated at its vastly more than mere money value. Each pioneer has 
his or her own specific work to perform ; and amongst these, none have laboured more 
assiduously, and more unselfishly, than the gifted editress of 'Art-Magic' ; 'Ghost Land' : 
and the authoress of the ' History of the Modern Spiritual Movement all over the Earth.' 
So states 

" Your Fellow Workman, 

" William Oxley. 
" Manchester, August 15th, 1883." 

Another of the writers who in any department of human thought rather 
than that of the " occult," would have achieved a world-wide celebrity, is 
the noble Countess of Caithness, now Duchesse de Pomar. Besides many 
fugitive contributions to the journalistic literature of the day, this accom- 
plished authoress has written two remarkable works all too little known ; 
the one, a volume of nearly 500 pages, entitled " Old Truths in a New 
Light," the other, " Serious Letters to Serious Friends." These publications 
are no mere poetical effusions of a high-born lady, but the brilliant, sterling, 
and philosophic arguments of a master mind, enclosed in one of Nature's 
fairest and most womanly forms. Soaring far above her compeers in the 
gay and fashionable world, this truly noble woman maintains her lead in 
the most aristocratic European salons, and yet dares avow herself an 
"occultist" in the profoundest sense of the term. In the midst of princes 
and potentates, this brave lady hesitates not to appear in loving companion- 
ship with the spirit mediums whom she honours with her friendship, and 
whilst many of the gay butterflies who crowd her Parisian fetes are spending 
their time in councilling how to adorn themselves with modistes and 
frisenrts, this high-minded and indefatigable labourer in God's vineyard, is 
penning sublime lines, which lift the soul up to heaven, and forge the 
golden links of an universal Brotherhood, for all humanity. Amongst the 
lesser works that have fallen from the Countess of Caithness's pen, is a 
charming brochure entitled '• A Midnight Visit to Holyrood." It is founded 
upon the singular relations which attach this lady to her much-beloved 
guardian spirit, the fair and hapless " Maria Stuart, Queen of Scots.". At 
the request of this angelic guide, the Countess paid a midnight visit to 
Holyrood, there to listen to the spirit voice of her, whose sighs of anguish 
had been borne on many a wailing breeze through those grim and mournful 

We would fain linger on the Countess's thrilling description of her inter- 
view with the presiding genius of the scene, did space permit. Failing 
this, we must still offer a brief extract from this fascinating little work, were 
it only to give the world —profoundly ignorant of true spiritual ethics — 
some idea of the tone in which purified spirits commune with mortals, and 
the character of the advice which the solemn pedagogues of the pulpit so 
irreverently assure their gaping listeners, proceed from " demons ! " 

The modes in which the spirit and the mortal hold communion is thus 
described by the Countess of Caithness. She says : — 


" It is now nearly eight years since I was first made aware of her (Marie Stuart's) con- 
nection with me ; or rather, perhaps, I should better describe our relations as my con- 
nection with her — but only three, since I have enjoyed the happiness of communion with 
her. I often feel her presence. She makes it known to me in many different ways ; and 
the oral communications I have received from her, and taken down at various times to 
the best of my ability, have swollen into the size of a small volume, These interviews 
have generally taken place in the quietude of my own room, and during the calm silence 
of the midnight hour. But she has also come to me amougst the wild hills of Scotland, 
or when seated on the high cliffs of Caithness overlooking the stormy Pentland Firth ; 
but only when its wild waves have been comparatively at rest, and reflecting the intense 
blue of the sky as serene as that which usually overarches the sunny Mediterranean, and 
when there has. been no sign of life around save the white sea-gull sailing majestically 
overhead between the earth and sky, and the crisp little white crested waves called ' The 
Merry Men of Mey' tumbling over one another as if in mad glee at my feet — have I felt 
her gentle presence, which is ever bright and soothing as a sunbeam, and heard her 
precious words, which have appeared to me sublime in their beauty, and in their intent, 
ever urging me onward in the path of truth and progress, and opening out fresh vistas to 
me of my pathway in the future." 

As a specimen of the communication above referred to, we commend 
the following excerpt from Marie Stuart to Marie Caithness : — - 

" Go not alone to the Word for life, but also to those who gave it, for they have added 
knowledge which is more appropriate, and better adapted to the present hour of spiritual 
growth and unfoldment. Reverently use the Bible for guidance and instruction. Use- 
Nature's great Bible even as reverently, but remember that the passive soul-inspired one 
will rise even to the beatitudes, gathering new thought-germs, watching the opening bulb 
and seed of original heaven-inspired ideas ; proving all things, holding fast unto that which 
will bear all the light which science, art, and reason can bring to bear upon them. You, 
my child, have a mind capable of grasping truths that are destined to make all nations 
free and inspired. Aye ! and this is accomplishing even now. Stand out before the 
world as one who dares think— one who courts the wisdom of the ages, and grasps the 
light of the universe to guide humanity forward. The sweet, ever- living truths given to 
the world by its inspired ones are to be revered, but let us not go backward with un- 
covered heads asking wisdom ; let us rather press forward even into the inner courts 
of the temple where Deific harmonies lull the soul into conditions of mind that admit of 
communion with the Builder of all worlds, the Origin of all life, all forms. Let us rise 
even to the holy altar where a John carried his gifts, and became filled with power." 

There is yet another literary work by the Countess of Caithness, to which 
we only call attention, without attempting in the present historical com- 
pendium to analyze its nature, or do justice to its merits. It was during 
the closing weeks of the year 1880, that the Countess of Caithness contri- 
buted a remarkable series of papers to the London Medium and Daybreak, 
on the signs of the times, and the occult prophecies which, from the most 
remote ages, had pointed to this period. The inspired writer gave an 
elaborate review of the Cabalistic interpretation of the Biblical writings. 
She reviewed the Apocalyptic, prophetic, and Pythagorean systems of 
numbers, and connected them, and the veiled significance of the mediaeval 
mystical writings with the present discoveries which are revealing the occult 
meanings in Oriental monuments and myths. - From all these sources the 
the learned writer drew the conclusion that the year 1880 completed one 
of those cycles of time known to, and defined by the ancient prophets, 
whilst the year r88i might be regarded as the commencement of an 
entirely new era, and one which physically, mentally, politically, and 
religiously, was destined to be regarded by future ages as the opening up of 
a new dispensation. The Bible, especially the Apocalypse and prophetic 
writings, was treated of in these remarkable essays, and their mystic mean- 
ings interpreted and brought to bear upon the present singularly disturbed 
condition of human thought, especially in respect to religious opinions. 


In testimony of her own implicit faith that a great world dispensation 
closed in 1880, and another, foretold by seers and prophets, inscribed in 
the ancient pyramid of Cheops, and manifest in the universal upheaval of 
human opinions to-day, was inaugurated in 1881, the Countess has adopted 
the date of the new era together with divers occult emblems on her letter 
paper, and in not a few of the ornaments which adorn her toilet, and the 
furniture of her mansion. 

, When the mists of the new dawn shall have melted into the sunlight of 
noonday truth, and the cyclic progress of the race shall be fully understood, 
especially in reference to the present transitional and catastrophic period, 
the essays of Lady Caithness, though they are now "cabala" to the 
unthinking multitude, will be then recalled and honoured as the advent 
voice which proclaimed the coming of the new Messiah, the dispensation 
of peace on earth and goodwill to all men. 

Another remarkable addition to the occult, if not the Spiritual literature 
of the times, has been made by the son of the noble lady of whom we 
have been writing — formerly the Count, now the Duke de Medina Pomar, 
This gentleman whilst yet in his teens, became the author of two beauti- 
fully written works of fiction designed to illustrate the doctrine of re-incarna- 
tion, a belief with which his mind is strongly imbued, and one which finds 
a more plausible and fascinating illustration in the young Duke de Pomar's 
writings, than in any of the abstract treatises yet produced on this subject. 
The names of the works in question are "The Honeymoon" and "Through 
the Ages." Both these novels are full of exalted sentiment, vivid descrip- 
tion, and thrilling interest. Both are designed to present in the form of 
what in ancient time would have been termed "parables," and in our own 
age are simply "works of fiction," grand lessons of ideality and Spiritual 
philosophy. " The Honeymoon " is a veritable dream of beauty ; visionary, 
pathetic, powerful, and enthralling. If not a direct inspiration, it is such a 
marvellous feat of writing for a mere boy, that it forms to the candid 
reader a far better proof of an invisible thinker guiding the pen of a mortal 
scribe than many a voluminous mass of "communications," labelled with 
the authorship of " the mighty dead." " Through the Ages " is a novel 
which — as its name implies — traces the progress of a Spirit through all 
those phases of mortal trial and discipline, which the re-incarnationists 
affirm to be essential to round out the full perfection of the soul through 
human experiences. 

It ever stern facts could be superseded by the sophistry of undemonstrated 
theories, it would be through the fascinating influences of a pen so facile, 
and an imagination so vivid as that of the Duke de Medina Pomar. The 
pictures are simply perfect, and if ever re-incarnation could be proved, this 
brilliant writer's " Through the Ages " would be a veritable modern Iliad 
of the faith. 

Since the production of these chefs d'eeuvre, the Duke de Pomar has 
published several dashing works of fiction in which his brilliant pen has 
been more prompt to lash the vices and follies of society, than to renew his 
earlier and more exalting task of lifting up the unthinking multitude to a 
higher standard of life and action Though still a very young man, the 
Duke has dropped his prolific pen, and to the deep regret of his many 
admirers, he floats on the surface of society, but writes, for the present, no 
more. Like all subjects of inspiration the fire of his special literary epoch 
is burnt out, but that it will be rekindled again none who have studied 
his peculiarly sensitive nature can question. Whatever the future may call 


forth, none who read the young Duke de Pomar's first literary productions, 
can hesitate to pronounce them the work of a very talented man, or a 
phenomenally inspired boy. If years are to decide the question, the 
latter position is the only solution of which his writings are susceptible. 



Still More Concerning the Literature of Spiritualism in England. 

Amongst the most important of the contributions that have been made to 
the literature of English Spiritualism are the writings of Mr. John Farmer, 
whose name has achieved a wide-spread popularity on both sides of the 
Atlantic, as the author of " A New Basis of Belief in Immortality," and the 
admirable pamphlet entitled, "_ How to Investigate Spiritualism." In both 
these works Mr. Farmer has dealt with his subjects in an equally scholarly 
and exhaustive mode. Both have commanded the respectful notice of the 
secular press, and hold a deservedly high place in the estimation of every 
reader of Spiritual literature. 

It may be remembered that Mr. Farmer's " New Basis of Belief in 
Immortality," was deemed worthy of being alluded to in terms of warm 
commendation by one of the great religious dignitaries of the late Eccle- 
siastical Congress assembled at Newcastle. We do not cite this as praise 
of any extraordinary value, but simply to show that the religious tone and 
authoritative character of that work could command the respect of such 
men as Canon Wilberforce, Dr. Thornton, &c, &c. 

One of the most candid and capable critics of the present day, the book 
reviewer of the Truthseeker, says of this volume : — 

" This is an exceedingly thoughtful book ; temperate, earnest, and bright with vivid 
and intelligent love of truth. Mr. Farmer is no fanatic, if we may judge of him by his 
book, but a brave seeker after the truth. Incidentally, he conveys a vast amount of 
information concerning what are called the phenomena of Spiritualism — what these 
phenomena are, under what conditions they are obtained, and to what they lead ; but his 
main purpose is to show how Spiritualism explains the Bible, supplies the key to not a 
little that is mysterious in ' historical Christianity,' and furnishes, as he says, ' a new 
basis of belief.' We commend his book to the attention of all who are prepared to give 
serious attention to a very serious subject." 

To the above-quoted opinions every intelligent reader, whether Spiritualist 
or opponent, must say Amen. 

In noticing the two most popular works that have emanated from Mr. 
Farmer's pen, it must not be supposed that these are his only contributions 
to the realm of Spiritual literature. 

Mr. Farmer is the author of a fine metaphysical essay on " Present Day 
Problems," and a work on Mesmerism, the modest title of which — " Hints 
on Mesmerism " — bears no proportion to the valuable, and truly practical 
matter it contains. It was to the zeal and enterprise of this gentleman also, 
that the excellent monthly periodical entitled The Psychological Review, 







after an interregnum of many months, was revived in July, 1881, and carried 
forward to the current year of 1883, 

Since the suspension of this magazine became inevitable, Mr. Farmer has 
given time and indomitable effort to the editorial management of the fine 
journal so often referred to in this volume, called Light. 

Mr. Farmer's devoted and untiring services in the cause of Spiritualism 
have been rendered in so quiet and unostentatious a manner, and his name 
has obtained so little prominence, except as the author of the popular 
works above referred to, that the reader may be surprised to learn how 
largely the present literary standing of the movement is indebted to him ; 
indeed it is with the view of " rendering honour where honour is due," that 
the author tenders this brief but well-merited tribute of acknowledgment 
to one of the best and most philosophic writers, as well as one of the most 
efficient and faithful workers in the ranks of Spiritualism. 

Of the other periodicals connected with the movement, it is only 
necessary to say, the first metropolitan journal that was issued as a weekly 
organ was published by Mr. Robert Cooper, and called The Spiritual Times. 

The unfortunate prosecution incurred by Mr. Coleman, involving in its 
results the publisher of this paper, occasioned its suspension after a short- 
lived existence. About 1870, Mr. James Burns commenced the publica- 
tion of an able, well written weekly paper entitled The Medium and Day- 
break. Still later the enterprising editor started a fine monthly magazine 
called Human Nature, 

This periodical — although filled with the articles of able contributors — 
maintained only an ephemeral existence compared to its cotemporary 
The Medium, which has continued through a period of thirteen years, and 
still holds its own against the claims of younger rivals. Its editor, like 
many of the prominent workers in the divided ranks of Spiritualism, has 
incurred some amount of both ban and blessing from his fellow labourers. 
Amongst his most determined antagonists however, none will deny him the 
credit of indomitable energy, perseverance, and a determination to uphold 
his paper, and all that he conceives to be his special work in connection 
with the cause of Spiritualism, at any sacrifice. Mr. Burns is a clever, 
lucid, and interesting speaker, besides being an expert phrenologist. His 
lectures on phrenology, temperance, vegetarianism, hygiene, &c, &c, are 
as creditable to his advanced thought as a practical reformer, as they have 
been instrumental in lifting up humanity to higher motives of life and 
action throughout Great Britain. In an excellent speech made at the 
anniversary celebration of the 31st of March, 1882, Mr. Burns gives the 
following graphic account of his first attempt at Spiritual journalism : — 

" Twelve years ago the Movement was expectant of a change — a widening out of its 
sphere of action. Some autumn seed had been sown to prepare for the harvest of the 
year just closed. Daybreak had been in existence as a monthly paper, and the Spiritualist 
had been commenced fortnightly. To our great regret it was not weekly, as we shrauk 
from the task of taking up the burden of a weekly paper, and hoped the Spiritualist 
would step in and save us. Sunday services had been started at Cavendish Rooms 
by Mr. Peebles, and a penny hymn book had been printed. The Spiritual Institution 
was at work, and means for bringing the phenomena before the public were in operation. 
There was at that time no public movement ; but the elements of such a thing were»in 
a state of combination and development. 

"The experienced journalist will smile when told that when we set about the first 
number of the Medium we had no contributors, no means, no experience, no ambition, 
no end to serve. The spirit world required a ' medium ' of the press, and we gave it 
one, by the aid of a kind lady, now in the spirit- world, who came in and laid a £5 note 
on the counter. Like a little stream at its fountain head, our fir&t number was insignk 


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Spiritual lecturer. It was represented to her that the unusual phenomenon 
of a lady speaking on religious subjects in the city of John K?iox. might 
awaken popular sentiments of an antagonistic character, especially as 
Spirit communion was to be the theme; one which, though well known 
and practised largely in private circles, had hitherto borne but an evil 
name in the censorship of Glasgow public opinion. Altogether the pro- 
spects were not very encouraging, but as the author had ever been 
accustomed to make choice of such scenes for her public efforts, as her 
wise and far-seeing Spirit Guides advised, she yielded to their persuasions, 
and proceeded to fulfil the proposed engagement. 

The visit was made ; more lectures were demanded than had been 
covenanted for ; and a far more satisfactory impression was produced than 
could have been anticipated. 

Several curious phenomenal occurrences marked this visit, which neither 
time nor place now permit us to notice. 

At the risk of incurring the charge of egotism however, we deem it 
necessary to the progress of the history, to give the following excerpt from 
the London Spiritual Magazine, of December, 1867, as it records the 
commencement of an era in Glasgow Spiritualism which our next quotation 
will bring down to the present day. 

The first notice is headed : — 

" Mrs. Hardinge has been delivering a course of lectures at Glasgow, under the auspices 
of the Association of Spiritualists in that city, and she seems to have created quite a 
sensation in Glasgow, and to have won the hearts of all who heard her. The newspapers, 
to their credit, whilst asserting that they do not agree with all she said, have not pub- 
lished, I believe, a word in derogation of the subjects of her discourses, and in some 
instances they commend her eloquence in unstinted terms of praise. The Christian 
News says : — . . . . " 

[Then follows a series of highly eulogistic personal notices, of no 
moment in the present record.] 

'' At the close of her course of lectures, the members of the Glasgow Association of 
Spiritualists presented Mrs. Hardinge with a souvenir as an additional mark of their 
respect, and as Mrs. Hardinge has found a new field by this visit to Scotland for the 
exercise of her great" gifts, I feel sure it will be improved on a future occasion, and will 
lead to a more general understanding of the truths of Spiritualism." 

Since the author's first and only visit to Glasgow, Mr. J. J. Morse, one of 
the most brilliant and eloquent trance speakers of the new dispensation, and 
Mr. Wallis, another very able and interesting Spiritual lecturer, have from 
time to time filled the rostrum most acceptably. The sensationalism 
awakened by the first public acts of propagandism — especially in con- 
sideration of the propagandist being a lady — has of course died away, but 
a steady and healthful growth of public sentiment in favour of the noble 
philosophy enunciated from the Spiritual rostrum has manifested itself in 
Glasgow, and still maintains its hold upon the hearts of a large number of 
the population. 

The indefatigable efforts of Mr. Hay Nesbit, the well known printer and 
publisher, and the sterling work of a large number of brave men and 
women who have formed and held circles, organized public meetings, and 
given platform addresses, have kept the lamps which light poor blind 
mortals to the higher life, well trimmed and burning. And this has been 


done too, at much disadvantage, the distance of Glasgow from the English 
metropolis and the places where Mediumistic effort is most rife, rendering 
the expenses of transit very heavy, and the time consumed in making the 
journey an obstacle not easily overcome. The following communication to 
the Religio-Philosophical Journal of America, by one of its most esteemed 
contributors, will give some interesting facts concerning the progress of 
Spiritualism in Glasgow : — 

" A Lyceum was started here last year, and is continued each Sunday afternoon under 
the supervision of the present writer. The library of the society is well stocked with the 
literature of the movement, both English and American, and is largely taken advantage 
of. ... Through the kindness of one of our most enthusiastic and generous members, Mr. 
James Bowman, the public library in our city has also been supplied with many volumes 
bearing on the subject. . . . Meetings are held in the room on severalof the week nights, 
Friday evening being devoted to Mr. David Duguid, so well known for his varied forms 
of mediumship so ably set down by Hay Nisbet, in his introduction to the volume "''Hand, 
Prince of Persia." . . . Mr. Duguid is one of the most retiring of men, working every day at 
his business of a photographer, and giving largely of his spare moments to those who are in 
earnest to investigate the subject. Numbers come from all parts of the world, who carry 
with them mementos of their visit in the shape of those marvellous productions, the little 
direct paintings which are sent forth as missionaries over the world. .... 

'' Only lately we had a visit from Irving Bishop, a conjuror of some note from your 
side, and this gentleman was taken in hand by all the professors of the Universities of 
Glasgow and Edinburgh, who presented him with an elaborate address, because he had 
exposed Spiritualism. Exposures have been most prolific in directing men and women to 
the subject, and Mr. Irving Bishop's visit was no exception to this. 

" Mr. Alexander Duguid, of Kirkcaldy, and a brother of Mr. David Duguid, the trance 
painting medium, is among the more recent platform workers, and does yeoman's service. 
In his private sittings, which have extended over many of the towns in Scotland, his 
clairvoyant powers have been most successful in bringing the fact of Spirit communion 
home to many hearts. He is largely sought after, and appreciated for his quiet, unas- 
suming manners and hopeful, manly life ; recently he has been in Loudon for the first 
time, where he met with warm reception from the friends there, speaking at Gospel Hall 
services, with ' M. A., Oxon ' in the chair. 

" Professor James Coates, who has resided in Glasgow for over eighteen months, has 
been quite a tower of strength to the movement since his arrival, ably filling this platform 
on many occasions, acting as secretary and energetically promoting the progress of the 
movement in many ways. Mr. Coates is a phrenologist and mesmerist, who has worked 
up a great reputation in circles outside the spiritual. 

" In Dundee the cause has taken firm root among a great number of families. . . . 
The Secretary of the Glasgow Association is Mr. John Munro, 12, Govanhill-street, Glasgow; 
the president, James Walker, a veteran in the cause. " J. K." 

" Glasgow, Scotland." 

It has often been questioned why Glasgow, a merely commercial centre 
and by no means remarkable for its tendencies to metaphysical speculations, 
should have taken the palm over Edinburgh, the reputed seat of science, 
learning, and as might be expected from such a reputation, of good breeding 
also. Whether the above-named desirable elements are peculiar to Univer- 
sity men in their presence or absence, the following excerpts written by Mr. 
J. Greenwell, now of London, a well known and reliable correspondent of 
the Medium, and a gentleman incapable of falsehood or exaggeration, will 
sufficiently prove. Mr. Greenwell, writing to the Medium about 1878, says : 

" Some time ago, Mr. Morse lectured at Edinburgh, and his merits were recognised by 
one eminent gentleman, whose words of commendation we quoted from the newspapers. 
As the gentleman in question contrasted Mr. Morse's abilities in the trance with those of 
men who are public teachers of the fashionable stamp, it might be imagined that revenge 
would be taken sooner or later. Reports in the Review and Scotsman have reached us of 
the meeting held in Upper Oddfellows' Hall, Forrest Road, Edinburgh, on Friday, June 6, 
at which Mr. Morse was advertised to speak on a subject to be chosen by the audience. A 
botanical term was voted for by the students, and they would have no other. . . , 


" As a supplement to the report, I must say that it was the most disgraceful meeting 
of any description that it has been my lot to attend. About a quarter of an hour before 
the lecture was to commence, 100 students, at the very least, came trooping into the hall, 
with the avowed intention of breaking up the meeting, for as soon as they gained 
admission, they began their ungentlemanly operations of throwing peas, singing songs, and 
performing on tin whistles, &c. Thinking they would probably quiet down when the 
lecturer appeared, Mr. Morse, with Mr. J. T. Rhodes as chairman, made their way on to 
the platform ; when, instead of abating, the noise was resumed with increased vigour, and 
neither the chairman nor Mr. Morse were allowed to speak, owing to the unearthly yells 
issuing from the very refined students. Mr. Morse, in the trance state, was then proceeding 
to deliver his lecture on ' Is Man Material or Spiritual after Death ? ' when the interruption 
broke out afresh, and continued for two hours, Mr. Morse under control all the time. The 
guides then declined to proceed further, and left the medium. 

"The meeting was then declared closed, when the students in a body made for the 
platform, and commenced to hustle Messrs. Morse, Rhodes, and myself most unmercifully, 
throwing the table from the platform, and smashing a form. Some one then got Mr. Morse 
into the ante-room, where I found him a few minutes afterwards quite overcome and in 
violent convulsions, which continued for almost an hour. It is really difficult to realise 
such a state of things in a free and Christian country in the nineteenth century, but such 
is the case ; and i feel more fully persuaded than ever that the power is only wanted to 
put the existing will in force, and we should soon see the ancient stake, or something more 
torturing, revived for the benefit of Spiritualists and Free-thinkers. 

" I know full well the feelings of indignation that will be evoked from the many friends 
of Mr. Morse, owing to the cruel treatment he has suffered here ; consequently I need 
not remind those friends that increased sympathy towards him is necessary on this 
occasion, the first instalment of which I feel sure would be accorded to him when he 
arrived in Glasgow. • . . 

" I am, yours in the cause of truth, 

"Jos. N. Greenwell. 

" Edinburgh, June 7." 

It is satisfactory to remember that the scenes described above took place 
some six years ago — since when, the general tides of progress may have 
even had a contagious influence upon the gentlemen of the Edinburgh 
University, and inspired them with a higher tone, both in the realm of 
morals and manners. 

In the British metropolis, many of the well-known Mediums of past 
years have retired from public life, Mrs. Mary Marshall, the well-known 
test and rapping Medium, being almost the only one remaining. Mr. 
Cecil Husk, a new Medium for the production of materialized forms, is 
highly reported of; and Mr. Towns, a veteran seer, still astonishes the 
strangers who visit him with revelations of their most secret thoughts. 

Miss Lottie Fowler, the inimitable clairvoyant, trance and test Medium 
from America, and Mrs. Kate Jencken {nee Katy Fox) — a name inscribed 
on the warmest spot of every true Spiritualist's heart — are also ministering 
most successfully to the investigators who seek for test facts of Spirit 
communion. It is much to be regretted that the cause of phenomenal 
Spiritualism has suffered a great loss, in the retirement into private life of 
Mr. Eglinton, a young gentleman who, though not classed as a professional 
Medium, was the subject — a few years since— of manifestations, the marvel 
of which has resounded through many countries of the earth. 

The Calcutta Indian Daily News publishes in its issue of January 28th, 
1882, the following striking communication concerning Mr. Eglinton's 
Mediumship :— 

" To the Editor of the Indian Daily News. 

" Sib, — In your issue of the 13th January, I stated that I should be glad of an oppor- 
tunity of participating in a seance with a view of giving an unbiased opinion as to whether, 
in my capacity of a professional Prestidigitateur, I could give a natural explanation of 
effects said to be produced by spiritual aid. 


" I am indebted to the courtesy of Mr. Eglinton, the Spiritualistic Medium now in 
Calcutta, and of his host, Mr. J. Meugens, for affording me the opportunity I craved. 

'' It is needless to say I went as a sceptic ; but I must own that I have come away 
utterly unable to explain, by any natural means, the phenomena that I witnessed on 
Tuesday evening. I will give a brief description of what took place : — 

" I was seated in a brilliantly-lighted room with Mr. Eglinton and Mr. Meugens. We 
took our places round a common teak- wood table, and after a few minutes the table began 
to sway violently backwards and forwards, and I heard noises such as might be produced 
by some one thumping under the table. I tried to discover the cause of this movement, 
but was unable to do so. After this Mr. Eglinton produced two common school slates, 
which I sponged, cleaned, and rubbed dry with a towel myself. Mr. Eglinton then 
handed me a box containing small crumbs of slate-pencil. I selected one of these and in 
accordance with Mr. Eglinton's directions, placed it on the surface of one of the slates, 
placing the other slate over it. I then firmly grasped the two slates at one of the corners. 
Mr. Eglinton then held the other corner, our two free hands being clasped together. The 
slates were then lowered below the edge of the table, but remained in full view (the room 
remaining lighted all the time). Instantaneously I heard a scratching noise, as might be 
produced by writing on a slate. In about fifteen seconds I heard three distinct knocks on 
the slates, and I then opened them and found the following writing : 

"' My name is Geary. Don't you remember me? We used to talk of this matter at 
the St. George's. I know better now.' 

" Having read the above, I remarked that I knew of no one by the name of Geary. 

" We then placed our hands on the table, and Mr. Eglinton commenced repeating the 
alphabet until he came to the letter ' G,' when the table began to shake violently. This 
process was repeated till the name of Geary was spelt. 

" After this Mr. Eglinton took a piece of paper and a pencil, and with a convulsive 
movement, difficult to describe, he wrote very indistinctly the following words : 

" ' I am Alfred Geary, of the Lantern ; you know me and St. Ledger.' 

" Having read this, I suddenly remembered having met both Mr. Geary and Mr. 
St. Ledger at Cape Town, South Africa, about four years ago, and the St. George's Hotel 
is the one I lived at there. Mr. Geary was the editor of the Ga/pe Lantern. I believe he 
died some three years ago. Mr. St. Ledger was the editor of the Cape Times, and I believe 
is so still. Without going into details, I may mention that subsequently a number of 
other messages were written on the slates, which I was allowed to clean each time before 
they were used. 

" In respect to the above manifestations I can only say that I do not expect my 
account of them to gain general credence. Forty-eight hours before, I should not have 
believed any one who had described such manifestations under similar circumstances. I 
still remain a sceptic as regards Spiritualism, but I repeat my inability to explain or 
account for what must have been an intelligent force, that produced the writing on the 
slate, which, if my senses are to be relied on, was in no way the result of trickery or 
sleight-of-hand. — Yours, &c, " Harry Kellar. 

" Calcutta, January 25th, 1882." 

Without commenting on the illogical position assumed, not alone by 
Mr. Kellar, but by hundreds of others who are compelled to admit both the 
supra-mundane character of the phenomena and intelligence displayed, and 
then wind up by denying emphatically that " either can be Spirits," it is 
enough to say that Mr. Kellar, the professional conjurer, duplicates the 
assurance of his Italian confrere, Signor Bellachini, in respect to Mr. Slade's 
manifestations at Leipzig. When two thoroughly skilled professional jugglers 
acknowledge that they cannot simulate by trickery, the demonstrations 
performed through Media without any trickery, is it not time that the 
flimsy pretence of Spiritual phenomena being all trickery and fraud, 
should be abandoned by travelling exposers, even though the petty set of 
shams they exhibit, of which any tenth rate juggler would be ashamed, 
were patronized by Scottish Lord Provosts and English Right Reverend 
Lord Bishops ? 

Another remarkably-endowed Medium' for physical manifestations who 
has till recently exercised her Mediumship successfully in many parts of 
England is Miss Wood, a young lady who was developed in private circles 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and subsequently became professionally engaged 


by the " Newcastle Spiritual Evidence Society," to give seances at their 
rooms for "form materializations." During her sittings with the Newcastle 
Society, Miss Wood cheerfully submitted to the most exacting tests, and 
amongst the numerous testimonials that were rendered to the integrity of 
her Mediumship, are the following — the first being from Mr. H. Kersey, 
then Secretary to the Society, and the other from the well-known scientist, 
Mr. T. P. Barkas, F.G.S. 

Mr. Kersey says, in writing to the Medium, Oct. 25th, 1878 : — 

" This morning, Oct. 20, I had the pleasure of witnessing some very convincing form 
manifestations through the medial power of Miss C. E. Wood, at the Newcastle society's 
rooms. I will spare unnecessary detail, and shortly say that the cabinet, which con- 
sisted of a curtain suspended across the corner of the room, was inspected by myself and 
others, both previous to and after the seance. The medium sat outside the cabinet in full 
view of all the sitters, numbering nineteen, the whole of the time, and was never once 
out of their sight. Three forms successively appeared, the first a woman, who, after 
several efforts, walked out of the cabinet and passed around the medium, and re-entered 
the cabinet on the other side of her. At the solicitation of the sitters she repeated this. 
The next form was a child, who came out of the cabinet, and succeeded in getting about 
two feet clear of the medium, but could not get around her. The last form was a large 
one, that of a man, but did not succeed in yetting far out. 

"'Pocka' controlled and spoke through the medium whilst the last two forms were 
out. Now the value of this to me, Sir, is that I never lost sight of the medium from first 
to last, and I am certain none of the sitters left their seats and went into the cabinet. 

I am, Sir, yours truly, 

" Newcastle-on-Tyne. "H. A. Kersey. 

" We, the undersigned, testify to the correctness of the above report : — 

" John Hare, Chester Crescent. 

" Martha Hare, „ 

" Nellie Hare, „ 

" H. Norris, 59, Newgate Street. 

" E. Sanderson, „ 

" Jane Hammarbon, Northumberland Street. 

" Jno. Mould, 12, St. Thomas Crescent. 

" James Cameron, Gallowgate Steam Mills. 

" W. C. Kobson, 8, Brandling Place." 

Mr. Barkas, writing to the same paper about a year previously, gives a 
slight account of Spiritualism in Newcastle and the formation of the first 
society there. He says : — 

" Spiritualism had been investigated in Newcastle-on-Tyne for twenty-five years. 
Prior to 1872 the manifestations had taken place in private houses and before select 
circles. In that year a society was formed for the investigation of the phenomena, and 
in a few months several members of the society became developed as mediums. In the 
year 1873 it was discovered that two young ladies had very great mediumistic power. 
The one, Miss Wood, was at that time eighteen years of age, and the other, Miss Fairlamb, 
was about a year younger. For some trifling remuneration as a compensation for much 
time spent in the interests of the society, the young women devoted themselves to the 
work, and soon there were not only trance controls, but extraordinary movements of 
tables, chairs, bells, and other articles of furniture and musical instruments took place in 
the dark, under test conditions. In 1874 spectral forms of human faces and hands pre- 
sented themselves at the openings of the cabinet in which the mediums were enclosed. 
Then fully developed forms ; and, to make certain of the genuineness of these phenomena, 
private seances were organised in the houses of well known gentlemen. Rigid but friendly 
tests of many kinds were tried, and the result was that materialisations took place, which 
nothing but a stubborn prejudice, perfectly inaccessible to the logic of facts, could resist 
or gainsay. 

" I have seen through the mediumship of Miss Wood, in a private house, living forms 
walk from the curtained recess, which it was utterly impossible for her to simulate. I 
have seen children, women, and men of various ages, walk forth under her mediumship. 


I have seen a materialised form and the medium at the same time. I have had through 
her mediumship a child-like form standing beside me for about half an hour together ; 
the child has placed its arms around my neck, and permitted me at the same time to 
plaoe my arm around her neck, and has laid its cheek against miue, breathed upon my 
face, and, in fact, caressed me precisely as a child would do its parent or Kuardian. This 
was not in darkness, but in light, and in the presence of professors and fellows of one of 
the leading universities in the kingdom. I have, under these conditions, and after having 
handled the psychic form, seen it gradually vanish or dematerialise, and become invisible 
in the middle of the room." 

A full and elaborate account of Miss Wood and the phenomena occurring 
in her presence has been published in pamphlet form by W. P. Adshead, 
Esq., of Belper, a wealthy and intelligent gentleman, who sent for Miss 
Wood to his own house, wherein he set up a wire cage, constructed for the 
purpose, in which the Medium, firmly secured, was placed, during a given 
number of experimental seances. 

The marvellous phenomena of many different materialized forms appear- 
ing under these circumstances, is fully detailed by Mr. Adshead, but as the 
manifestations present little or no variety in effect from those already 
alluded to, it would be unnecessary to describe them any further. We 
would commend Mr. Adshead's methods, however, to the attention of the 
various contending parties who now make the subject of "tests" the theme 
of warfare — the one side alleging that tests " degrade the Medium," and 
"ruin the conditions under which spirits manifest;" the other equally 
pertinaciously insisting that no Medium should claim credence for extra- 
ordinary or unusual occurrences without tests of the most crucial and con- 
vincing character. Miss Wood was Mr. Adshead's guest for some time. 
The manifestations were given in his own house, in the presence of scores 
of the most inveterate sceptics, and under the extraordinary conditions 
stated above. 

Yet Miss Wood felt no degradation in submitting to the tests imposed, 
and often invited them, nor did they spoil or even interfere with the mani- 
festations, numerous attestations to that effect being given and signed by 
the parties who attended the seances. The following paragraph, taken from 
page 24 of Mr. Adshead's pamphlet, offers perhaps what the world would 
deem one of the most striking proofs that can be rendered of Mr. Adshead's 
unassailable position in reference to these manifestations. He says : — 

" For the medium to liberate herself from her bondage, and place herself in such a 
position that, had she the necessary skill and appliances, she could represent the different 
forms we had looked upon, and then return to the condition in which we left her — the 
cage, tapes, and seals being found as when the seance commenced — would, to me, be almost 
as great a marvel as anything else which could be done. Indeed, so profoundly impressed 
am I with the impossibility of this being done, that unless those who have boasted that 
it is their mission to stamp out the ' imposture of Spiritualism,' of ' their great charity,' 
are moved to take the scales from our eyes, I have to say, I am prepared to write a cheque 
for two hundred and fifty guineas, and my friend, Mr. A. Smedley, will write one for a 
similar amount, and the five hundred guineas shall at once be paid to any person who 
will, under similar conditions to those described above, produce phenomena which shall in 
all respects be like those of which I have just spoken, and so distinctly explain the method 
by which they are produced that the person to whom the method is made known, or any 
other person or persons to whom, in turn, the said method may be made known, will be 
able at any time, or in any place, to produce exactly the same kind of phenomena as those 
which appeared when Miss Wood was screwed up in the cage. If, as is claimed, the 
marvels are simply clever conjuring, the above conditions will not be regarded as too 
stringent. It is also to be understood that those who accept this challenge forfeit a like 
sum in the event of failing to produce the phenomena under the conditions named above." 

Despite all the blatant pretensions of conjurers and their clerical sup- 
porters, Mr. Adshead's cheque so freely proferred, still remains unclaimed. 


QPnAClIF « C.? ifjMDfiN 


In Cardiff, South Wales, for several years past, circles have been held by 
a party of earnest Spiritualists, amongst whom was developed Mr. Spriggs, 
a non-professional Medium for the production of " form materializations." 
As Mr. Spriggs is now in Australia, placing his phenomenal powers at the 
service of the " Victorian Association of Spiritualists," we reserve all 
further accounts of his demonstrations for our Australian section. 

In the direction of healing, there are still a much larger number of 
excellent phenomenal individuals engaged, than we have space to particu- 
larize. Not one of the least remarkable, is Mrs. Illingworth, the celebrated 
seeress and medical trance Medium of Bradford, Yorkshire. Although' 
entirely uneducated, and the wife of a plain Yorkshire mechanic, this 
wonderful clairvoyant can trace — even by a lock of hair taken from the 
head of strangers at any distance — the most obscure diseases, prescribing 
under the influence of medical Spirits the most effective remedies for all 
complaints of a curable nature. And good Mrs Illingworth is only cited 
as a representative of many others whose beneficent labours are carried 
forward with eminent success throughout the North of England. Another 
of these highly gifted seers practises in the immediate vicinity of the 
author's residence near Manchester, and scores of Nicodemuses who would 
treat the openly avowed claim of Spiritual influence with holy horror or 
scornful derision, resort privately to Mr. Edward Gallagher* to be treated 
for complaints that baffle all the skill of the faculty — even to trace out — 
much less to cure. Many are the laudations that the author hears passed 
upon this quiet unassuming gentleman, who as a "clairvoyant" is 
permitted to describe hidden diseases and cure them by occult power, 
until his fame fills the country round and attracts even the sacred presence 
of the very "divines" who devote their next Sabbath's sermons to 
unsparing diatribes against the impious practices of Spiritualism. 

In the metropolis, Dr. Mack, the renowned Spiritual healer ; Mr. 
Younger, the fine mesmerist ; Mr. and Mrs. Hagon, Mr. Omerin, and Mr. 
Hawkins, all pursue their beneficent work with many a secret blessing, 
and many a public ban, as the reward of their services. These are all 
professional healers and their services are offered, and their addresses 
registered in the Medium, and that, much to the scandal of those who 
would cheerfully pay their twenty guineas to a solemn-visaged physician 
who gives a rough guess, and often an erroneous one, at the seat of their 
disease, and yet" shrink with horror at the idea of paying a modest fee to 
the clairvoyant and healer because the truths they tell, and the relief they 
impart, are " the gifts of God, and should not be made the subject of 
mercenary traffic." And thus it is, that when capable Mediums, and highly 
gifted seers and seeresses are starved out of their spheres of usefulness, and 
the sound of their good report is hushed, and for very sordid need of bread 
they are driven to abandon their Mediumistic calling, the world cries 
" See how this delusion of Spiritualism has died out," and the Pharisees 
rejoice that they have succeeded in " crushing out professional Mediumship.' 

* Mr. E. Gallagher, Greenfield Villa, Bloomfield Road, Heaton Chapel, Manchester. 



In the Provinces. 

Since it has been the custom to create an aristocracy of places as well as 
of classes ; to talk of London as the geographical apex from whence the 
traveller goes down to every part of England, whether to the north or 
south ; it has also followed, that prestige in every direction must originate 
in the metropolis, in order to fall into line with the subservience of public 

Whether the immense growth of many of the large provincial towns 
justifies this traditionary reverence for metropolitan lead, we do not care to 
enquire. Certain it is, that Spiritualism is one of the iconoclasts, that has 
boldly defied this proscriptive deference to "the hub" of the British 
kingdom, for it has taken a far deeper hold on the common sense and 
intelligence of thoughtful minds, and exercised a far wider influence on the 
masses in the provinces, than it has done in the great Modern Babylon. 

Whether this may be considered matter of praise or blame, the Modern 
Babylonians themselves may determine ; the fact remains nevertheless, and 
we are now about to speak in illustration of this position, by citing the ex- 
periences of individuals as well as societies, who have only as yet attained 
to the distinction of being classified as provincial Spiritualists. 

At the beautiful estate of Parkfield, Didsbury, near Manchester, till quite 
recently, resided Mr. Charles Blackburn, a gentleman who by his unnumbered 
acts of private and public munificence, has exerted a widespread influence 
upon the growth of English Spiritualism. Whilst there are but few of the 
leading Spiritualists who have not become familiar with the lineaments of 
his kind cheery face, and exchanged pleasant greetings with him in circles, 
social gatherings, and beneath his own hospitable roof, there are not many 
who know as well as the author, how much the cause of Spiritualism is 
indebted to Mr. Blackburn for timely aid in periods of trial. 

Mr. Blackburn's generous contributions were the chief support of the 
excellent periodical entitled The London Spiritualist. Professor Crookes in 
the closing lines of his authoritative work, entitled " Phenomena of 
Spiritualism," when writing of his experiences with the celebrated Medium, 
Miss Florence Cook, says : — 

" My thanks, and those of all Spiritualists, are also due to Mr. Charles Blackburn, 
for the generous manner in which he has made it possible for Miss Cook to devote her 
whole time to the development of these manifestations, and latterly to their scientific 

Few and simple as these words are, their significance is immense to those 
who follow out in detail, experiments which have obtained a world-wide 
celebrity, and are still of the highest authority as scientific testimony. 

Had Mr. Charles Blackburn's munificence taken no other shape than 
that of upholding the usefulness of a fine Spiritual journal, and enabling 


Professor Crookes, and through him, the entire generation, to profit by the 
wonderful Mediumship of a young lady in limited circumstances, this 
Manchester gentleman has done enough. But the waymarks of Mr. 
Blackburn's good services are to be found in many other directions — 
amongst scores of poor Mediums, and struggling societies whom he has 
aided. The investigator will remember him for the ingenious machines 
for weighing "materialized" Spirits which he has had constructed ; in the 
famous Newcastle " Blackburn Cabinet," and all the associative efforts to 
which his name has been given, and on which his benefactions have been 

Family cares and bereavements have thickened around this worthy 
gentleman's path of late, and compelled his withdrawal from the scenes in 
which he has so long and faithfully laboured, but he carries with him into 
his retirement, a philosophy which will be a quenchless light in the darkest 
hour of trial, whilst he leaves behind him " on the sands of time " footprints 
of good, that can never be erased from the grateful memories of men or 
the imperishable records of eternity. 

Another of the brave "provincial" Spiritualists, whose fearless advocacy 
has " helped to shake the world," is Mr. John Fowler, of St. Ann's, Sefton 
Park, Liverpool, a gentleman whose wealth, and influence, have been 
freely devoted to the advancement of the Spiritual cause. 

Mr. Fowler's name became memorable in the first instance, by the 
uncompromising faith in Spirit power which led him to stake the sum of 
one thousand pounds, against the ability of one Cumberland — an itinerant 
conjurer and " exposer of Spiritualism " — to imitate by trickery, the manifes- 
tations which are produced by Spirit power alone, through Mediums. It 
need hardly be stated, that Cumberland, like the rest of his craft, had taken 
ample care to make his appearance as an "exposer," just at the time when 
there were no public Mediums at hand to compete with him. As it is well 
known that very few Mediums are so peculiarly endowed as to be able to. 
meet large heterogeneous audiences, or furnish the force necessary for 
Spirits to produce phenomena requiring the most finely balanced psycho- 
logical conditions in the rude arenas of public antagonism, so Cumberland 
could safely retort Mr. Fowler's challenge, with the counter demand to 
place his Mediums and Spiritual manifestations on the same platform with 
his (Cumberland's) alleged exposures. 

As this, very" indifferent trickster was actually supported by the Lord 
Bishop of Liverpool, and, besides a right reverend chairman, claimed and 
advertised the " moral support " of hosts of other clergymen and church 
dignitaries, who, it thereby appeared, had been unable to find any other 
means of putting down the bete noir of their cloth — Spiritualism — so Mr. 
Fowler, perhaps moved to a higher concern for the honour of his " Dio- 
cesan," than that right reverend gentleman manifested for himself, addressed 
a letter to his Lordship through the public journals, advising him that he 
was only being made a tool of by an indifferent conjurer, and that the petty 
tricks Cumberland could display, bore no sort of relation to the manifold 
and inimitable phenomena produced by Spirits. 

Encouraged by the rich harvest which the poorest tricksters can reap 
from the " moral support " of English bishops and clergy when they come 
before the public under the pretence of destroying that cause which a 
whole bench of bishops could not otherwise assail, soon after Cumberland's 
disappearance from the scene, still another "exposer" hastened to Liverpool 
to secure its clerical patronage and pocket the coin of its gullible citizens. 


The new " exposer " was Irving Bishop, of American notoriety. Once 
again Mr. Fowler tried by the offer of the thousand pounds bait to tempt 
this adventurer into exposing anything that Spirits could do, under precisely 
similar conditions. This time the trickster's chairman and "moral supporter" 
was the Rev. J. H. Skewes, a clergyman of the Church of England, who 
after Bishop had utterly failed to expose anything but the credulity of his 
audiences, changed the base of his attack to his pulpit, where he treated 
his congregation to a succession of sermons on the demoniac character of 
Spiritual manifestations in the nineteenth century, and their angelic nature 
thousands of years ago, in illustration of which, amongst other notable 
instances of divine power, he cited the case of Jonah's living in the " cold, 
damp, and uncomfortable habitation of the whale's interior for three days 
and three nights." 

Although there were few platform orators of any standing in the ranks of 
Spiritualism, who would not have desired to measure swords with an 
antagonist of a somewhat different description to the Rev. J. H. Skewes, 
Mr. Fowler's determination to put clerical assumptions to the test, was 
indomitable, and as the author of this volume was engaged periodically to 
lecture for the Spiritualists of Liverpool, Mr. Fowler caused answers to Mr. 
Skewes to be announced, for two successive Sunday evenings, by Mrs. 
Britten. Mr. Fowler then, by a series of letters published in the Liver- 
pool papers, endeavoured to induce the reverend opponent to meet Mrs. 
Britten in public debate. Finding all his attempts in this direction 
only met with repeated evasions, Mr. Fowler requested Mrs. Britten to 
write out the replies given to Mr Skewes, the authenticity of which could 
be easily tested by the witness of the immense audiences assembled to hear 

These replies were subsequently published in several papers, and by the 
liberality of Mr. Fowler, thousands of copies were scattered broadcast 
through various English-speaking countries. 

The special circumstances which called forth these lectures, were stated 
in an introductory note which is republished below, as the final conclusion 
of the whole matter :• — 


" By information received from my Spiritualistic friends in Liverpool, I learn that the 
faith they profess, and of which I am one of the public exponents, has been repeatedly 
attacked by certain members of the clergy of that city, in sermons denunciatory of 
Spiritualism, and by the openly avowed ' moral support ' rendered to those travelling 
conjurers who profess by the exhibition of a few clumsy tricks to imitate and explain the 
modus operandi of Spiritual phenomena. The last, and, as I understand, the most per- 
tinacious of the clerical assailants above named, is a ' Rev. J. H. Skewes.' 

"Within the last few weeks, two sermons have been delivered by this gentleman, 
reported in a paper called the Protestant Standard, under the several (editorial) titles of 
' Death-Blow to Spiritualism,' and ' Spiritualism in its Coffin ! — Nailing Down the Lid ! ! ' 
It being the desire of my committee in Liverpool that I should answer these discourses, I 
proceeded to do so in two lectures, given at Rodney Hall, on the Sunday evenings of 
February 18th and March 4th, 1883. 

" As Mr. Skewes stated in his second sermon that there were still many points in 
Spiritualism that he had not noticed, my committee followed up my lectures by 
challenging him to debate the subject with me on a public platform, on conditions 
honourable to him and beneficial to the charities of Liverpool. In answer to the 
repeated invitations to accept this challenge, addressed to Mr. Skewes both by public and 
private correspondence, the reverend gentleman declines, on the ground that he has had 
no fair report of my Answers to his Sermons. 

" As the only report that has been given of my lectures is a series of paragraphs, headed 
1 Howlings from the Pit,' put forth by the Protestant Standard, a report which is not 


only interpolated by rude and unworthy personal remarks, but is most imperfect, and 
scarcely touches on half the matter contained in my first lectures, my committee have 
urged Mr. Skewes to debate the subject of Spiritualism either from the stand-points 
assumed in his sermons, or any fresh ones he might be able to allege against the 
Spiritual movement. As Mr. Skewes continues to base his refusal upon the absence of 
any authentic report of my Answer to his Sermons, I deem it my duty to the cause I 
represent, to place my Answer to Mr. Skewes's attack on record, and in such a form as 
cannot be mistaken. It is with this view that I put the annexed statements before the 
tribunal of public opinion. 

'" Before entering upon my task, I wish it distinctly understood that I make no pro- 
fession to repeat, except in general terms, the lectures given by me at Rodney Hall, in 
answer to Mr. Skewes's sermons. I am not ashamed to avow that I speak in public under 
the iuspiration of those whom I deem to be good spirits, whose wisdom supplies me with 
the ideas most appropriate to the occasion, and whose power far transcends my own to 
meet the demands which the spiritual rostrum makes upon me. Under these conditions 
I find it impossible to recall my lectures by memory, or to transcribe them, as they were 
original' y delivered. 

" The following Answer will, however, embody the sum of the arguments before used, 
and I have only to add, that, for any further elucidation of the question at issue, I still hold 
myself ready to meet Mr. Skewes in public discussion, under such conditions as may be 
agreed upon between him and my Liverpool Committee of Spiritualists. 

"Emma Hardinge Britten." 

It must be added that the lectures referred to, being a complete expo- 
sition of what Spiritualism is — and what it is not. Mr. Skewes's action, 
supplemented by Mr. John Fowler's indomitable enterprise, has undoubtedly 
aided in bringing Spiritualism to the notice of vast numbers of the com- 
munity who would otherwise have remained in profound ignorance of its 

Mr. Fowler also was the only individual, outside the ranks of the clergy, 
privileged to bear testimony to the faith of Spiritualism, before the English 
Church Congress, held in 1881, at Newcastle-on-Tyne. On this occasion, 
one or two of the clerical speakers present bore witness to the tone and 
temper of the times, by speaking unreservedly in favour of Spiritualism, 
whilst others exhibited the rancour and bitterness which this all too popular 
element had excited, by vituperation of a high ecclesiastical order. 

Whilst we could wish that Mr. Fowler's necessarily brief but compen- 
dious paper could be read by thinkers of every shade of faith, we can only 
find space for the following excerpts from his brave utterances : — 

" Every man must observe the present indifferent state of the intelligent public to the 
service and doctrines of the Church. Those who have had opportunities of observing the 
intellectual state of the country say that infidelity is on the increase. Now, what does 
the Church propose to do in this matter ? Of its seriousness proof is offered by the fact 
of this discussion. Until the facts of spiritual existence have been demonstrated, like 
Peter, who denied his Master, we want evidence, and, like Thomas, we want to put our 
fingers into the prints of the nails. If demonstration was needed to establish the faith in 
the hearts of the disciples, demonstration is as much needed to-day, to establish its claims 
in the experience of the present generation. The fabric cannot be maintained. It will 
fall to pieces without the interior leavening power of the Spirit. Narrow creeds and 
ceremonies cannot impose on and influence for ever the minds of men. Therefore, Modern 
Spiritualism has appeared as a Divine necessity of the times. It does not come to destroy 
the law and the prophets, but to establish that which came aforetime, and to make the 
possibilities of spiritual growth and strength in the heart of man more possible. . . . 

" Therefore we say that a case has been made out on behalf of Modern Spiritualism to 
be recognised and utilised by the Church itself, that it may become strong to defeat its 
own doubts, and, in the full reliance of its hope, do battle with the hard foes who deny 
the immortality of the soul. If Spiritualists do not universally retain their allegiance to 
the doctrines of the Church of England, it matters but very little. The Church, by 
fairly and squarely investigating the alleged facts, will bring together into one focus 
philosophers and thinkers who otherwise might have remained outside the pale of the 
Church. To shelve the question by saying that Spiritualism is an imposition displays 
either presumption or ignorance," , . . 


The example above given of Mr. Fowler's address, is sufficient to 
demonstrate its admirable lines of argument. The effect produced upon 
the community has been marked and healthful. A far more respectful 
sentiment has been manifested towards Spiritualism by the thinking classes, 
since the Church Congress was in session, whilst the impulse given to the 
cause in Liverpool, is sufficiently proved by the large numbers who gather 
together each Sunday to attend the Spiritualists' services. For the present 
these meetings are held in Rodney Hall, under the management of an 
efficient committee, and the presidency of John Lamont, Esq., a gentleman 
held in the highest estimation by all classes of his fellow-citizens, besides 
being a seer and inspirational speaker of remarkable power. Mrs. Hardinge 
Britten is the regular lecturer of the Society for two Sundays in each month 
during the present season ; Mr. W. J. Colville, from America, Mr. and 
Mrs. Wallis, Mrs. Groom and other speakers of pronounced excellence 
filling the rostrum on alternate Sundays. 

In Belper, Derbyshire, the Spiritualists enjoy the privilege of holding 
their Sunday services in the pleasant and commodious hall built, and 
generously placed at the disposal of his Spiritualist friends and associates, 
by Mr. W. P. Adshead, the gentleman before mentioned in connection 
with Miss Wood's seances. 

The kindly sentiments which prevail amongst the Spiritualists of Belper, 
and the many acts of beneficence towards the poor which are practised 
in their hall, fill the place with a high and holy influence, and fittingly 
consecrate it to the ministry of angels, on earth as in heaven. 

In Bradford, Yorkshire, a large and zealous society of working men 
and women have combined to hire a good hall, which they entitle the 
Walton Street Church, and here, as in Belper, the exalting influence of a 
specially-consecrated place, and the effect of well conducted and orderly 
services is felt by every sensitive who visits the meetings. Two other 
well attended meetings are held every Sunday in Bradford, besides what 
may be emphatically called " mass meetings " in one of the largest halls in 
the town, when the author, or other speakers from a distance, are engaged, 
by the energetic and self-sacrificing Bradford Spiritualists. 

A special hall has also been built and devoted to the Spiritual Sunday 
services, at Sowerby Bridge, Yorkshire, where a fine and well-trained choir 
of young people adds the charm of excellent singing to the elevating 
influences which pervade the place. 

Those who, like the author, have realised with painful sensibility the 
injurious or favourable effects produced by the different places where 
Spiritual services are conducted, will be ready to join with her in the 
fervent wish that wealthy Spiritualists would emulate the example of good 
Mr. Adshead, and provide in every town and hamlet of Great Britain a 
true Spiritual home for the people, and a fitting scene in which to invite 
the angels to come and participate in holy Spiritual exercises. If there be 
any truth in Spiritual revelations at all, those who would make such an 
use of the means committed to their stewardship on earth, would certainly 
find that they had been 

" Fitting up a mansion 
Which eternally will stand." 

In Leeds, Halifax, Keighley, Bradford, and nearly all the principal towns 
and villages of Yorkshire, well conducted Sunday meetings are held, some- 
times aided by renowned speakers from a distance, but in general ministered 


to by resident Mediums, most of whom — under trance conditions — 
give discourses far beyond the average of their normal capacity. The 
speakers are for the most part such devoted men and women as good 
faithful Joseph Armitage of Batley Carr ; Mrs. Dobson, Mrs. Illingworth ; 
Misses Hance, Shipley, and Harrison ; Mrs. Wilson, Mrs. Greig ; Messrs. 
Wilson Oliffe, Blackburn, and many others too numerous to mention. 
All these are working people, toiling during the week in their several 
vocations, but giving cheerfully, without stint, and often at the cost of 
labour and fatigue to themselves, their best service every Sunday to plat- 
form utterances, and that most commonly with little or no remunera- 

In the meantime, such noble gentlemen as Mr. John Culpan of Halifax, 
a Spiritual veteran who for thirty years has given means, untiring service, 
and an honoured name to the advancement of the cause. Mr. B. Lees, 
Mr. John Illingworth, Mr. Etchells, of Huddersfield, David Richmond, the 
veteran Spiritualist of Darlington, Dr. Brown, of Burnley, Mr. Foster, of 
Preston, good John Harwood, of Littleborough, and Peter Lee, of Roch- 
dale, splendid representatives of Yorkshire and Lancashire Spiritualism — 
these, and hosts of others, with not a few faithful and zealous ladies, devote 
themselves by purse and person to the best interests of humanity through 
the noble cause of Spiritualism. 

In a crowded record of this character, many a good and honoured name 
must necessarily be omitted, but none can doubt that they are all engraved 
in the imperishable types of the higher life to which their noble services so 
effectually point the way. 

In Newcastle-on-Tyne, the residence of the esteemed scientist T. P. 
Barkas, a " Spiritual Evidence Society" has been formed, which has done 
good service by maintaining Sunday meetings, and promoting seances for 
the culture of Spiritual gifts, and the investigation of phenomena. 

It was at these circles that Miss Wood — the celebrated physical medium 
mentioned in a former chapter — was developed. 

The Newcastle Society has moreover exercised a fostering influence upon 
that large section of country in the vicinity, devoted to the industries of 
coal mining. Here, as in Yorkshire, local Mediums and trance speakers 
keep alive the interest of their various districts, with addresses which produce 
a deep and favourable impression on their listeners. 

The author has herself visited two or three of these collieries, and was 
deeply moved by the sight of the earnest-looking sons of toil massed in 
serried groups around her. When no strangers visit them, they are 
addressed by some of the inspirational speakers who abound in these 
districts. One of the most eloquent, sincere, and popular lecturers of the 
Northumberland meetings is Mr. Henry Burton, a good and true man, 
whose life and preaching are both well calculated to demonstrate the exal- 
ting influence of Spirit teachings. 

The large manufacturing county of Lancashire, though by no means as 
thickly studded with zealous Spiritual communities as Yorkshire or Northum- 
berland, is nevertheless a stronghold of the faith. Liverpool has already been 
noticed ; meantime Rochdale, Oldham, Manchester, Burnley, Blackburn, 
and numerous other places of importance maintain Sunday meetings, where 
vast multitudes listen with profound interest to the consoling doctrines of 
Spiritualism, taught by the zealous local Mediums who are to be found in 
those districts. 

In the last named place, Blackburn, a large and busy manufacturing 


town, the author was instrumental in forming the excellent " Psychological 
Society," which now holds regular Sunday meetings there. 

After the occasion of Mrs. Britten's first visit, the secretary of the 
Society sent a report to the Medium which is reprinted for the sake of 
the declaration of principles it contains — one which might be profitably 
adopted by other religious societies besides the Spiritualists of Blackburn. 
Our correspondent says : — 

" Spiritualism is looking up at present in Blackburn. During the last few months we 
have had Mrs. Britten two Sundays occupying the platform of the Exchange : afternoon 
and evening each visit. The room will hold from 1,200 to 1,800 people, and was packed 
at each of the four lectures. . . . 

" We have also opened rooms for Sunday evening lectures, at the School of Science. 
There seem to be plenty of fresh faces every Sunday come to listen to what is said. We 
have a very nice meeting room, and best of all is, that everything is paid for ; we mind 
that, whatever comes or goes not to run in debt. We are very strong Trinitarians, but 
the Trinity we believe in is, ' One God ; no Devil, and twenty shillings to the pound.' 

" We feel confident if we only had real good speakers like Mrs. Britten, we could 
without any fear take the Exchange every Sunday. We make no charge for tickets or 
admission, but trust to the voluntary offerings of the people, and strange to say that 
although not making much more than bare expenses, we have never come short of meeting 
the expenses. The people are thirsting for more knowledge on the subject ; the pity is 
we have no one to give them the knowledge. — Yours, etc., 


In Macclesfield, an earnest and united Society of believers in Spiritualism 
have hired and furnished a pleasant little hall, where services are generally 
conducted by the Rev. Adam Rushton, an estimable gentleman, formerly 
a Unitarian Minister, but one who gave up sect, and even the goodwill of 
friends and kindred, to throw in his lot with those who believed in the faith 
of which he became convinced, and to which, in his modest and unosten- 
tatious way, he gives his life and able services, 

A similarly self-sacrificing profession of the Spiritual faith has been made 
by the Rev. Mr. Stoddart of Middlesboro', near Stockton-on-Tees. This 
gentleman was also an Unitarian Minister, but one whose persecutions for 
the sake of his faith have not as yet, been attended with a settlement as 
peaceful as that which Mr. Rushton finds in his little Macclesfield Society. 
Mr. Stoddart however is bound to make his mark, and the good angels 
he serves have obviously not forgotten their charge over their faithful soldier. 

In Nottingham, Mr. Wm. Yates, a gentleman of fine culture, and indom- 
itable energy, together with a few ladies and gentlemen of superior 
intellectual attainments, have struggled bravely to sustain an unsectarian 
representation of Spiritualism. Mr. Yates has also commenced the practice 
of medical electricity combined with magnetism, under the direction of 
beneficent healing Spirits, and report speaks in enthusiastic terms of the 
brilliant conquests he is effecting over otherwise incurable forms of disease. 

In Birmingham, resides Mrs. Groom, an indefatigable trance speaker, 
healer, and seeress, who adds to her interesting Sunday lectures, the faculty 
of seeing and describing the spirit friends of persons in her audience. The 
labours of this excellent Medium have effected an immense amount of good 
in the places she visits. 

In Birmingham, Walsall, Leicester, and other Midland towns and 
villages, small Sunday meetings are held, which promise, with good speakers 
and good management, to swell to large gatherings. 

In the West and South of England, less public evidence of progress is 
demonstrable, although there are many places where it is generally known 


that good Spiritual meetings have been held, and large numbers of private 
circles are in session. 

One of the most prosperous Spiritual societies in the South-west of 
England, is that established at Plymouth, where many private circles are 
held, and regular Sunday services are at present conducted with great 
acceptance by Mr. Clarke, an excellent inspirational speaker. 

The formation of the Plymouth Society, as well as much of the good 
work which it has achieved, is due to the labours of the Rev. C. Ware, but 
as this gentleman's experience is modestly narrated in his own statement 
recently published in the Society's report of their first anniversary cele- 
bration, we cannot do better than give the account which we find printed 
in a recent issue of Light, and which is to the following effect : — 


" The Free Spiritual Society of Plymouth last evening celebrated its anniversary at 
Richmond Hall, Richmond Street, it being exactly twelve months since its origin. The 
Rev. C. Ware, having laboured for two years in this town as a minister of one of the 
Methodist bodies, was suspended in January of last year on account of his belief in 
Spiritualism ; but a number of persons holding similar views having formed themselves 
into a Society, invited him to become their minister, in which capacity he has since 
acted. The Society during the year has considerably increased its membership and 
extended its operations, and now claims to enjoy the patronage, sympathy, and support 
of many influential friends beyond its formal membership. The proceedings last evening 
afforded a fair indication that the community is in a nourishing condition ; about eighty 
sat down to tea, and at the public meeting that followed, presided over by Mr W. T. 
Rossiter, of Torquay, addresses were delivered by several gentlemen from the town and 
neighbourhood. Several mediums also to> >k part in the meeting. 

" The Rev. C. Ware, after making reference to the general aspects of Spiritualism, 
said it was pretty well knowa that he had laboured in this town for two years as a 
minister of one of the Methodist bodies. During that time he became acquainted with 
Spiritualism, and at the outset it presented itself to him as an astounding and glorious 
reality. Because he would not deny what he knew to be the truth, and forego the study 
of the prof oundest subject that could occupy the mind of man, he was suspended from the 
denominational pulpit. There were those, however, who refused to submit to ecclesiastical 
tyranny and mental slavery, and these formed themselves into a Free Spiritual Society, 
and invited him to become their minister. The Society was formed twelve months ago 
in the house of one of their friends ; a few days afterwards they secured a room at the 
Octagon, and took their stand as a religious body. Soon after this they removed to their 
present hall. They had had to encounter great difficulties and various forms of opposition. 
In September, a conjurer, called Irving Bishop, came to Plymouth to give the ' death blow 
to Spiritualism.' For a time the subject was in everybody's mouth, and of course ' every- 
body ' went to hear h-im ; for a time Spiritualists seemed to be objects of commiseration 
until Irving Bishop proved himself a cheat, by failing to exhibit a single phase of 
Spiritualism. A correspondence thereupon commenced in the Western Daily Mercury, in 
which a whole galaxy of writers took part ; for a time the battle was tremendous, but he 
thought they could say without boasting that they poured into the enemy's ranks such a 
fire of stubborn facts as to leave their opponents ' without a leg to stand upon.' It was 
impossible for him to give them an idea of the advantage their cause derived from this 
controversy ; it was certainly the best work ever done for it. Since the year commenced 
they had placed a splendid harmonium in the hall, and he was pleased to tell them that 
the past week whs a worthy climax to the year's work, for he had not seen such vitality 
manifested at any time during the year. The fact was. that no cause ever had a brighter 
outlook than theirs. They had no creed, except the Fatherhood of God and the brother- 
hood of humanity ; and they enjoyed perfect liberty, their motto being to think and 
allow others to think ; their aim being simply the natural development of each individual 
human soul. They could reckon amongst their company that evening some ten mediums, 
and ere the meeting closed they would, no doubt, hear some of them speak in the trance 
state, expressing the thoughts of their invisible friends." 

Of the few professional speakers who are from time to time engaged in 
the work of Spiritual revivalism, the limitations of space will only allow us. 
to make very brief mention, 



Mr. and Mrs. Wallis of Walsall are both highly gifted trance speakers, 
and their eloquent ministrations are warmly appreciated wherever they 
go. Of unblemished character and moral worth, the very lives of this 
noble couple form a sermon, of which any religious denomination might 
be proud. Mrs. Groom has already been noticed. Several other acceptable 
speakers of the Spiritual rostrum might take exception to being classified as 
professionals, consequently, in addition to the author of this volume, it only 
remains to notice Mr. J. J. Morse, a most admirable lecturer, and a gentle- 
man who has rendered himself worthy of that designation, by Spiritual 
culture alone. 

When the author first knew Mr. Morse, he had risen from an obscure 
position of drudgery, to one but little better, as the shopman at Mr. Burn's 
Spiritual Institution. Here his marvellous powers as a trance Medium 
became unfolded, until at length, by virtue of being made the instrument 
of exalted and philosophic Spirits, he grew nearer to their level ; became 
one with them instead of simply their automatic mouthpiece, and finally, 
by force of these educational processes, and his own indomitable perse- 
verance, Mr. Morse has risen to a position of honourable eminence in the 
realm of Spiritual literature, and occupies the rank of one of the most 
attractive trance speakers of the day. 

In a cause which is still in transitu, and amongst a vast number of 
moving forms who are still makitig history, it would be as unwise to find 
fault with methods, and criticize the action of individuals, as to complain 
of the variable clouds which may disappear to-morrow, or the oppressive 
sunshine which may be modified in the course of a single hour. Every 
movement in Spiritualism is at present transitional ; nearly all the efforts 
at propagandism now conducted by Spiritualists, are expedients of the 
hour, whilst to-morrow may call for a widely different course of action. It 
need be no matter of surprise therefore, that the traditional grumbler finds 
ample food for his discontent to prey upon, whilst the enthusiast hails every 
gleam of sunshine that glances across his path, as the advent of the long 
looked for millennium. On the mountain top, or in the valiey, still we 
repeat we are but in transitu, and whilst we pause to criticize, dogmatize, 
or even attempt to organize, the occasion which seemed to call for our 
special line of conduct will have passed away, and sweep us along with the 
current to meet a new emergency of the times. 

It is under these ever-changing aspects of the Spiritual cause, that the 
author's pen has been again and again suspended by an invisible but ever 
present monitor, when she would have applied in her human blindness, 
words of censure in one direction, and urgent counsels in another. " God 
understands," murmurs the angel of guidance in the ear of the scribe. 
" Write — Behold I make all things new i " cries another angelic teacher. 
Satisfied that the movement which seems so confused and heterogeneous 
in the dazzled eyes of humanity, is dictated by divine wisdom, ruled by 
Almighty power, and working together for supreme good, our part is to 
keep our lamps trimmed and burning and wait for the coming of the 
Heavenly Bridegroom whose name is — Divine Order. 




Spiritualism in Australia, like that which pervades the whole world in 
this modern outpouring, has both a public and private representation. The 
latter is far more general than the former in every country except America, 
but although demonstrations of Spirit power are more commonly known in 
AustraHa amongst individuals and families, than on the rostrum, or through 
the columns of the journals, they are less available for the purposes of 
historical record. 

The author is in possession of hundreds of accounts of personal expe- 
riences and home circles, whilst ream upon ream of alleged Spirit com- 
munications have been tendered, for insertion in this volume. 

It must of course become obvious to every sensible reader, that records 
of this character have no interest for the public, however valuable they may 
be to individuals. 

As Spiritual phenomena are for the most part limited to a few general 
methods, and family communications — so interesting to the recipients — 
become monotonous in recital to others, it would be useless to reproduce 
them in pages designed for the benefit of the world at large. 

At the risk therefore of disappointing hundreds of well-meaning corre- 
spondents who have sent matter for publication, which the repertoire of 
thousands of Spiritualists could duplicate, we must dismiss this branch of 
our subject, with the acknowledgment that Spirit power has been far 
more widely diffused than the public in general is apprised of, and that if a 
tithe of its doings were given to the world, they would suffice to furnish the 
shelves of an extensive library. 

Aboriginal Spiritualism in Australia has many features of interest, were 
it within the scope of this volume to notice it. As this would not be 
possible, we must content ourselves by observing modern Spiritual develop- 
ment amongst the white settlers of Australia. 

It seems that many Australian colonists had heard of the Spiritual move- 
ment before visiting the country, and on their arrival, pursuing the 
customary methods of unfoldment through the Spirit circle, a wide-spread 
interest was awakened long before public attention was called to the 
subject. In Sydney, Melbourne, Ballarat, Geelong, Brisbane, and numerous 
other towns and mining districts, communion with Spirits was successfully 
practised in circles and families, up to about 1867. After that epoch it 
seems to have become, the subject of various journalistic reports of the 
usual adverse, eulogistic, or non-committal character. At or about that 
period, a large number of influential persons became interested in the 
matter, and not a few whose names were a sufficient guarantee of their good 
faith, began to detail wonderful experiences in the columns of the public 
journals. The debate and denial, rejoinder and defence, called forth by 
these narratives, served as propaganda for the ' movement, and rendered 
each freshly recorded manifestation, the centre of an ever-widening circle 
of interest. 


In Victoria, a gentleman of considerable wealth and learning, writing 
under the nom de plume of Schamlyn, entered into a warm controversy with 
the editor of the Collingwood Advertiser, in defence of Spiritualism. This 
brave advocate of the faith defines his position in unmistakable characters 
in a letter, from which we make the following pungent extract : — 

" I don't like to conclude without advertiog to that boast of the editor of the Collingwood 
Advertise? — ' That, as he had initiated the controversy, he did not intend to withdraw from 
the arena until he had thoroughly exposed the delusion or trickery,' and until he has shown 
that all spiritual publications are ' sublime rot,' I wish him to be informed that the moment 
he has accomplished the feat he has so magnanimously undertaken, he can draw upon me 
for Jive hundred pounds sterling, which sum I have offered for twelve months past (as 
our mutual friend Francis Waller can testify) to any person in or out of the colony, who 
can do what he, the editor of the Collingwood Advertiser, in his issue of the 21st inst., has 
ofered to do. The money is in the Union Bank of Australia, Melbourne. The savans of 
the world will have nothing to say to it ; they will not examine it ; which is a strong sign 
that they don't believe it can be accounted for by any known laws of natural science ; the 
clergy are frightened of it ; it is apt to let too much light into the laity ; and the com- 
monality pitch into it venomously, because it pleases their pastors, and gives an occasion 
for displaying their orthodoxy. Yours ever truly, 

" Walwa, 25th November, 1868. Schamlyn." 

This letter and many others by the same able writer, replete with sound 
sense and unanswerable logic, will be found printed in the appendix to a 
small volume entitled " Spiritual Communications." These were given 
through the mediumship of Mrs. Elizabeth Armstrong, a lady who resides 
at Melbourne, and in her capacity of clairvoyant physician, has wrought 
multitudes of cures which, under any other name than Spiritualism, would 
have been deemed " miraculous." 

At the time when the spirit communications were given which form the 
subject of the above-named volume, Mrs. Armstrong was one of the subjects 
whom " Schamlyn," a gentleman devoted to scientific research, and a friend 
of the family — magnetized by way of experiment. In the trance condition 
thus induced, Mrs. Armstrong's hand was moved to write messages, some of 
a wonderful test character from spirit friends of those around her — others 
in various foreign languages utterly unknown to the simple country- 
bred Medium, and others, ranging through the highest flights of science, 
philosophy, and metaphysics, but all in a style, entirely beyond the normal 
capacity of the Medium. To sum up these remarkable productions, we 
here reprint the short preface of the compiler, the gentleman who some- 
times signed his articles by his own initials S. G. W., and sometimes 
" Schamlyn." It is as follows : — 

" The following communications purport to be messages of love and instruction from 
departed spirits, who, in giving them, have used the hand and mouth of Mrs. Armstrong 
mechanically ; in every instance involuntarily, and often in spite of herself, and of her 
persevering resistance to their control. Almost all of them were written in the presence 
of witnesses ; many, unconsciously to herself, when in trance or asleep ; and some were 
found written in her book, no one knowing when they were written. Some also in short- 
hand, no variety of which had she, or I, or any of our acquaintance, any knowledge of 
whatever. These communications are given originally in a great number of handwritings, 
exactly according to the number of spirits who have influenced her; and whatever 
peculiarity of style, chirography, and signature has been adopted by the unseen agent — 
claiming to be a s/ irit — in his or her first communication through the hand of Mrs. Arm- 
strong, has been uniformly maintained throughout. None of the original writings are in 
her own hand. The quotations in Greek, Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic, are given in their 
respective characters." .... 

The author of this work — whilst a resident in Melbourne — enjoyed the 
privilege of an intimate acquaintance both with the clairvoyant, Mrs, 


Armstrong, and the gentleman whose initials are given above. From these 
parties she learned that the Medium's unfoldment did not proceed very 
smoothly, she being violently opposed to the controlling power, to which in 
fact she was only induced to succumb by personal methods, of which we 
give the following curious examples, extracted from "Schamlyn's" book, 
page 106 : — 

" Every night, for weeks past, Mrs. A. has been visited by a spirit whom she knew in 
his earth life ; he moves the chairs and bed about — pulls her out of her bed, bedclothes 
and all — takes the comb out of her hair sometimes, and makes her hair a tangled mass. 
One comb has been taken away about ten days ago, and she was told that when they, the 
spirits, are satisfied with her conduct, the comb will be replaced in her hair." 

And again : — 

" Wednesday, 15th. — Excepting Mrs. A.'s nightly trances, there has been nothing done 
since last writing. I mean nothing that I can report from personal observation. Bat 
every night for a month past, she has been visited by a spirit, who pulls her out of bed, 
sometimes head first, oftener feet first, bedclothes and all ; this sometimes is done four 
times in one night. She can give no reason for such apparently violent conduct, except 
her constant refusal to do what he desires her ; and the most unaccountable thing about 
the matter is, that spirits with whom we have long been conversant, and in whom we 
have learned to trust, from their uniform goodness and patience, second the advice of the 
nightly visitant. .... 

" Friday, 24th. — The nightly visits to Mrs. A. continue, and accompanied with the 
same apparently unnecessary violent movements of furniture, and pullings of clothes, &c, 
and still urging her to obey his behests, which she still refuses to do. The only writing 
that has been done, through Mrs. A.'s hand, for the last week has been the following : — 
1 Did you know how important to your development is every hour you are losing by your 
indecision, all. your hesitation would very soon cease ; and however revolting to your soul 
the irrevocable step may appear, do not let it stand in your way, or you will one day 
bitterly repent having done so. We are waiting for you ; so hasten on. Why do you 
keep lingering on your road ? Be brave, and let no fear daunt your onward progress.' " 

If the restoration of hundreds of suffering mortals to health can be 
accepted as sufficient motive to justify months of similar persecution on 
the part of spirits towards their recusant Medium, then the strange nature 
of Mrs. Armstrong's development is explained, and the aphorism — " the 
end justifies the means" — must be accepted in her remarkable experiences. 

Another influential supporter of the Spiritual cause who was an early 
convert, and for a time became a pillar of strength in its maintenance, was 
a gentleman connected with the editorial department of the Melbourne 
Argus, one of the leading journals of Victoria, and an organ well calculated 
to exert a powerful sway over the minds of its readers. 

As this early friend of the cause has subsequently retreated from its 
general advocacy, and allied himself with a small society banded together 
under an influence inimical to the interests alike of society and Spiritualism, 
we only allude to his adherence in the incipiency of the movement as one 
of the subtle springs by which its onward march became so marvellous a 

As the tides of public opinion moved on, doctors, lawyers, merchants, 
and men of eminence began to join the ranks. Tidings of phenomena of 
the most astounding character poured in from distant towns and districts. 
Members of the press began to share the general infection, and though 
some would not, and others could not avow their convictions, their private 
prepossessions induced them to open their columns for debate and cor- 
respondence on the subject. To add to the stimulus thus imparted, many 
of the leading colonial journals indulged in tirades of abuse and misrepre- 
sentation, which only served to increase the contagion without in the least 


diminishing its force. At length the clergy — moved from their customary 
apatny by the tidings of conversions amongst their own best supporters, and 
the obvious fact that the stream of public sentiment was leaving the dull 
platitudes of old theology far in the rear, began to arouse themselves and 
manifest their interest by furious abuse, biblical thunders, and ecclesiastical 
" anathemas." All would not do. Denunciation provoked retort ; discus- 
sion compelled investigation ; the results of which were, triumphant victories 
for the facts of Spiritualism. In New South Wales, as in Victoria, the 
illumination of supernal fires blazed forth — unlit by mortal hands, from every 
prominent centre. 

In Sydney, many converts of rank and influence suddenly appeared upon 
the scene. 

One of the noblest and best of men, one whom all classes and shades of 
opinion had been accustomed to look up to, honour and respect, now to 
be named alas, as the late Hon. John Bowie Wilson, Land Minister, and a 
valiant champion of temperance and every good thing that can reform 
mankind, became an open convert to Spiritualism, and by his personal 
influence, no less than his public defence of the (Cause made converts 
unnumbered, and sustained the work with the grasp of a colossus. 
Amongst the many others whose names have also graced the ranks of 
Spiritualism in Sydney, may be mentioned Mr. Henry Gale, an unswerving 
and self-sacrificing friend both of Spiritualism and Spiritualists. Mrs. 
Wilson and Mrs. Gale,