Skip to main content

Full text of "North American flora"

See other formats


Herb. 

XN 
.072 









V.I 8 pt^ 



iy35 




Volume i8 



Part 6 



NORTH AMERICAN FLORA 



(POALES) 

(CYPERACEAE) 

CARICEAE (continuatio) 

Kenneth Kent Mackenzie 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN 
October 21, 1935 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 313 

blade short or nearly wanting; upper bracts reduced, bladeless or nearly so; scales appressed, 
ovate, obtuse to acuminate, thin, blackish, white-hyaline at apex, and with a very narrow 
whitish-hyaline margin and poorly developed slender lighter midvein, wider but noticeably 
shorter than the perigynia; perigynia narrowly lanceolate, 3.5-5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide below 
the middle, flattened-triangular, not inflated, purplish-black above, greenish-white or straw- 
colored below, membranaceous, glabrous but minutely puncticulate, two-edged and very 
obscurely few-nerved, toward base tapering and short-stipitate at base, the upper half very 
long-tapering and strongly ciliate-serrulate on the margins, the tip strongly white hyaline, 
obliquely cleft, becoming bidentulate or bidentate; achenes narrowly obovoid, 2 mm. long, 
0.75 mm. wide, triangular with concave sides and sharp angles, filling body of perigynium, 
brownish, striolate, substipitate, strongly apiculate, jointed with the straight slender style; 
stigmas 3, brownish, slender. 

Type i-OCahtv: Melville Island, North America. 

Distribution: Greenland to Northern Alaska, and southward very locally on the highest 
mountains to Colorado; also in arctic Eurasia. (Specimens examined from Greenland, Ellesmereland, 
Ungava, Quebec, Keewatin, northern Alaska. Alberta, central Colorado.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 731; ed. 2./. 1025; Kunze, Suppl. Riedgr. pi. 14, f. d- 
Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 89./. 67; Fl. Dan. pi. 2373; Boott, 111. Carex 77. pi. 212. 

Note: This species is closely related to the widely distributed Eurasian species C. fuliginosa 
Schkuhr. Riedgr. 1: 91. pi. CC,f. 47C. 1801 (Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: pi. 249, f. 614; Anderss, 
Cyp. Scand, 1: 26. pi. 7,f. 90; Hegi, 111. Fl. Mittel-Eur. 2: 105./. 240; Hallier, Deuts. Fl. pi. 439; 
Kunze, Suppl. Riedgr. pi. 14, excluding/, d). That species has more leafy culms, some of the leaves 
nearly equal the culm, the lateral spikes are rounded at base, and the perigynia are 5-6 mm. long. 

364. Carex atrofusca Schkuhr, Riedgr. 106. pi. Y, f. 82. 1801. 

"Carex limosa L." Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2. 2: 222. 1772. (From central Europe.) 
Carex ustulala Wahl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Nya Handl. 24: 156. 1803. (Type from Scandinavia.) 
Trasus ustulalns S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PL 2: 66. 1821. (Based on Carex ustidata Wahl.) 
Carex ustulala a typica Regel, Acta Hort. Petrop. 7: 571. 1881. (Based on C ustulala Wahl.) 
Carex atrofusca i.flavescens Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 554. 1909. (Type from Norway.) 

Loosely cespitose and short-stoloniferous, the stolons slender, ascending, light brownish, 
the clumps small, the culms few together, 1-3 dm. high, strict, erect, nodding, much exceeding 
the leaves, phyllopodic, obtusely triangular, smooth or nearly so, brownish-tinged and slightly 
fibrillose at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well- 
developed blades 5-10 to a fertile culm, the lower clustered, the upper somewhat scattered, the 
blades flat, thickish, light-green, short, usually 2-9 cm. long (rarely more), 2-4 mm. wide, 
roughened at the attenuate apex, the sheaths tight, more or less yellowish-brown-tinged ven- 
trally, the ligule short; terminal spike staminate or gynaecandrous, slender-peduncled, 8-15 
mm. long, 3-4.5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, acute to obtuse, black with narrow 
lighter center and white-hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, approximate or little separate, 
drooping, on slender, smooth peduncles 1-2 times their own length, the lowest peduncle or all 
with an empty scale, the spikes ovoid or short-oblong, round -truncate at base, 8-18 mm. long, 
7-9 mm. wide, densely flowered, containing 15-30 ascending perigynia in several rows; lowest 
bract long-sheathing, the sheath 4-12 mm. long, usually strongly purplish-tinged, its blade 
short or rudimentary; upper bracts much reduced; scales appressed, oblong-ovate, acute to 
obtusish, thin, black with narrow lighter midrib and scarcely developed hyaline margins, some- 
what narrower and shorter than perigynia; perigynia ovate or oblong-ovate 4—5 mm. long, 
1.75-2 mm. wide, much flattened, triangular, not at all inflated, usually black or at base straw- 
colored, the edges greenish, thin, membranaceous, slightly granular, short-ciliate-serrulate 
above, 2-ribbed, otherwise nerveless or nearly so, round-tapering at base, short-stipitate, 
round-tapering at apex, abruptly minutely beaked, the beak 0.5 mm. long, bidentate, slightly 
yellowish-hyaline; achenes obovoid, 1.75 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide, narrower and shorter than 
perigynia, triangular with concave sides, brownish, granular, strongly slenderly stipitate, 
abruptly strongly apiculate, obscurely jointed with the slender, straight style; stigmas 3, 
slender, brownish, rather short. 

Type locality: "Habitat in Alpibus Vochein, M. Terglau, Kerma." 

Distribution: Meadows in calcareous regions, Greenland and Labrador to northern Alaska; 



314 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

widely distributed in arctic-alpine localities in Eurasia. (Specimens examined from Ellesmereland, 
Ungava, Keewatin, Alaska.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2./. 1024; Schkuhr, Riedgr. pi. Y,f. 82; Fl. Dan. pi. 
1590; Boott, 111. Carex 70. pi. 193, f. 3; Jour. Russe Bot. 1911: 150./. 124; Sturm, Deuts. Fl. 53: 
pi. 5; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 90./. 68; Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: pi. 250, f. 615; Engl. Bot. pi. 2404; ed. 2. 
pi. 1663; Coste. Fl. Fr./. 3881; Hegi, 111. Fl. Mittel-Eur. 2: 106./. 242; Lindm. Bild. Nord. Fl. pi. 
435 A; Hallier, Deuts. Fl. pi. 439; Sv. Bot. pi. 717. 

365. Carex Lemmonii W. Boott, Bot. Gaz. 9: 93. 1884. 

"Carex fuha var. Hornschuchiana Boott" W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 250. 1880. 

"Carex Cherokeensis Schw." W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 248. 1880. 

Carex albida L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1 : 9. 1889. 

Carex luziilaefolia f. albida Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=°: 558. 1909. 

"Carex serratodens W. Boott" Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 666, in part. 1909. 

Carex Abramsii Mackenzie, Bull. Torrey Club 36: 482. 1909. (Type from southern California.) 

Loosely or densely cespitose, stoloniferous, the rootstock short, the stolons very short, 
ascending, the culms slender, erect, 2-8 dm. high, exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, obtusely 
triangular, smooth or nearly so on the angles, fibrillose and light-brownish-tinged at base, the 
dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; sterile shoots more or less elongate, conspicu- 
ous; leaves with well-developed blades 4-8 to a fertile culm, the lower clustered, the upper 
widely separate, the blades erect, thin, deep-green, flat, 5-25 cm. long, 1.5-4 mm. wide, rough- 
ened at apex, the midvein conspicuous below and the two mid-lateral veins above, the sheaths 
tight, truncate at mouth, the ligule short; terminal spike staminate, more or less strongly 
peduncled to nearly sessile, linear, 6-25 mm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide, strongly overtopping the 
uppermost pistillate spike; scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, reddish-brown with whitish-hyaline 
margins and lighter center; pistillate spikes 2-4, the upper approximate, the lower widely 
separate, erect, the upper not exsert-peduncled, the lower strongly exsert-peduncled, narrowly 
oblong, 0.5-2 cm. long, 4-7 mm. wide, occasionally staminate at apex, the peduncles slender, 
rough, closely flowered, the perigynia 15-30, spreading-ascending in several rows; bracts 
leaflet-like, the lower sheaths 1-5 cm. long, slightly tubular, green, concave at mouth, the 
blades erect, longer than the sheaths but much shorter than the culms; scales broadly ovate, 
acute to obtusish, glabrous, reddish-brown with lighter 3-nerved center and broad white- 
hyaline margins, the midvein not prominent at apex, slightly narrower and shorter than the 
perigynia; perigynia narrowly ovoid, 3.5-4 mm. long, 1.5-1.75 mm. wide, triangular, not 
inflated, light-green or blackish-tinged above, membranaceous, puncticulate, 2-ribbed and 
finely nerved, round-tapering at base and short-stipitate, tapering or abruptly narrowed into 
a hyaline-tipped, more or less serrulate, obliquely cleft, bidentulate beak one third the length 
of the whole, the teeth very short (0.25 mm. long), spreading or erect; achenes obovoid, 1.75 
mm. long, 1 mm. wide, triangular with concave sides and sharp angles, closely enveloped, 
brown, short-stipitate, slenderly apiculate, jointed with the straight slender style; stigmas 3, 
reddish, slender, short; anthers 1.75 mm. long. 

Type locality: Sierra Nevada, California (Lemmon). 

Distribution: Confined to the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, from Tehama to 
Tulare counties, and the San Bernardino and San Jacinto mountains of southern California. (Speci- 
mens examined showing range as given.) 

Illt'STRation: Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 787. 

Note: C. albida L. H. Bailey is based on very young and poor material, and apparently is best 
placed under this species. 

366. Carex ablata L. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 13: 82. 1888. 

Carex albata (sic) L. H. Bailey, Macoun, Cat. Can. PI. 4: 139. 1888. (Misprint for C. ablata L. H. 

Bailey.) 
" Carex frigida All." Olney. in S. Wats. Bot. King's Expl. 371. 1871. 
Carex luziilaefolia var. ablata Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4": 558. 1909. (Based on C. 

ablata L. H. Bailey.) 
Carex owyheensis A. Nelson, Bot. Gaz. 53: 219. 1912. (Type from Owyhee Mountains, Idaho.) 
"Carex luzulina Olney" Mackenzie, in Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 134, in part. 1917. 
"Carex Lemmonii W. Boott" Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 48: 22, in large part (including/. 9-12). 1919. 

Densely cespitose, the rootstock short, the clumps medium-sized, the culms slender, 
erect, 2.5-6 dm. high, much exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, obtusely triangular, smooth or 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 315 

nearly so, fibrillose and light-brownish-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year 
conspicuous; sterile shoots short; leaves with well-developed blades +-9 to a fertile culm, the 
lower clustered, the upper scattered, the upper blades the larger, the blades flat, light-green, 
thin but firm, spreading to erect-ascending, acuminate or acute, 5-20 cm. long, 3-4.5 mm. 
wide, strongly roughened toward apex, the sheaths tight, truncate at mouth, the ligule as long 
as wide; terminal spike staminate or often with a few perigynia, sessile or slightly peduncled, 
linear, 8-20 mm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide, little overtopping the uppermost pistillate spike, the 
scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, subciliate, reddish-brown to brownish-black, with lighter 
roughish center and hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 3-6, occasionally staminate at apex, 
erect, the upper and the staminate closely aggregated, the lowest 1 or 2 usually widely sepa- 
rated, the upper sessile or short-exsert-peduncled, the lower on rough peduncles exserted 1-4 
times the length of the spikes, the spikes linear-oblong or narrowly oblong, 8-30 mm. long, 
4—7 mm. wide, closely 15-30-flowered, the perigynia ascending-spreading in several rows, or 
sometimes attenuate or slightly compound at base; bracts leaflet-like, long-sheathing, the 
sheaths 1-4 cm. long, slightly tubular, the blades short or rudimentary, much exceeded by 
culms; scales ovate, obtusish, subciliate, purplish-black with lighter 3-nerved center and hya- 
line margins, the midvein roughish above, not extending to the apex, as wide as but strongly 
exceeded by perigynia; perigynia lanceolate, 3.5-5 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, flattened-tri- 
angular, not inflated, glabrous, slightly ciliate-serrulate, membranaceous, puncticulate, 
greenish or straw-colored, usually strongly purplish-black-tinged, 2-ribbed and finely nerved, 
rounded at base and short-stipitate, tapering at apex into the hardly difi'erentiated bidentulate 
beak about 1 mm. long, dark-purplish at tip; achenes obovoid or oblong-obovoid, 1.75 mm. 
long, 1 mm. wide, sharply triangular with concave sides, closely enveloped, brownish, sessile, 
apiculate, jointed with the straight, slender style; stigmas 3, slender, short, dark-reddish; 
anthers 1.75 mm. long. 

Type locality: A specimen collected by Macoun on Mt. Mark, Vancouver Island, is taken as 
the type. 

Distribution: Mountain bogs and meadows, Montana and northwestern Wyoming to British 
Columbia, and southward to Utah and California. (Specimens examined from northwestern Wyo- 
ming, Idaho, British Columbia, including Vancouver Island, Washington, Oregon, Utah, northern 
California.) 

Illustrations: Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 789; Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 48: 25./. 9-12. 

367. Carex luzulina Olney, Proc. Am. Acad. 7: 395. 1868. 

Densely cespitose and short-stoloniferous, the rootstocks short, slender, the stolons 
ascending, the clumps medium-sized, the culms 1.5-9 dm. high, erect, slender, much exceeding 
the leaves, phyllopodic, obtusely triangular, smooth or nearly so, fibrillose and light-brownish- 
tinged at base; sterile shoots conspicuous, elongate; leaves with well-developed blades 6-12 
to a fertile culm, clustered near the base, the blades flat, thickish, stiff, light-green, 5-35 cm. 
long, 3-8 mm. wide, long-attenuate to acute, roughened toward the apex, the sheaths thin 
ventrally, convex at mouth, the ligule narrow, as long as wide; terminal spike staminate or 
often with a few perigynia, erect, sessile or nearly so, linear, 10-15 mm. long, 4-5 mm. wide, 
little exceeding the uppermost pistillate spike, the scales obovate, very obtuse, subciliate, 
reddish-brown with broad lighter center, rough above, and with hyaline margins; pistillate 
spikes 2-4, the lowest 1-4 cm. (or rarely even 7 cm.) distant, erect, little to strongly exsert- 
peduncled, the peduncles slender and roughish, the upper closely approximate to the staminate 
spike, erect, slightly or not at all exsert-peduncled, the spikes oblong, 7-20 mm. long, 6-9 mm. 
wide, closely flowered, containing 20-35 spreading-ascending perigynia in several rows; bracts 
long-sheathing, the blades leaflet-like, much shorter than the culms, the sheaths tubular, 
scarcely enlarged upwards; scales ovate, obtuse or acutish, subciliate, reddish-brown with 
broad lighter center and slightly hyaline margins, the midvein extending or nearly extending 
to the roughish apex, nearly as wide as but somewhat shorter than perigynia ; perigynia lanceo- 
late, 4-5 mm. long, 1.5-1.75 mm. wide, flattened-triangular, not inflated, glabrous, ciliate- 
serrulate on margins, membranaceous, puncticulate, light-green or yellowish-green, purplish- 
black-tinged, 2-ribbed and obscurely few-nerved, round-tapering at base and sessile, tapering 



316 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

at apex into the dark-purplish-tinged, bidentulate beak 0.5-0.75 mm. long; achenes obovoid, 
1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, sharply triangular with concave sides, closely enveloped, brownish, 
short-stipitate, apiculate, jointed with the straight, slender style; stigmas 3, slender, reddish- 
brown, short. 

Tyke locality: Mendocino City, California {Bolander 4740). 

Distribution: Mountain meadows and bogs, in the coast ranges of northwestern California 
and southwestern Oregon. (Specimens examined from range as given.) 
Illustration: Abrams, 111. FI. Pacif. St./. 788. 

368. Carex luzulaefolia W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 
2:250. 1880. 

Carex luzulaefolia var. slrobilanlha Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 20: 305, 307./. 18. 1905. (Type from 

Donner Lake, California.) 
Carex pseudo-japonica C. B. Clarke, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8: 81. 1908. (Type from Donner Lake, 

California.) 

Densely cespitose, the rootstocks short and thick, the clumps medium-sized, the culms 
4—10 dm. high, erect, rather stout, much exceeding the short leaves, phyllopodic, obtusely tri- 
angular, smooth or nearly so, fibrillose and dark-brown at base, the dried-up leaves of the 
previous year conspicuous; sterile shoots little elongate, conspicuous; leaves with well-developed 
blades 7-15 to a fertile culm, the upper 2 or 3 very widely separate from one another, the rest 
clustered at base, the upper sheath 4—9 cm. long, the blades usually widely spreading, fiat, 
deep-green and very leathery, thick, usually 8-15 cm. long, 5-15 mm. wide, strongly striate, 
very short-tapering, roughened at apex, the sheaths thin ventrally, truncate at mouth, the 
ligule very short; terminal spike staminate or occasionally developing a very few perigynia, 
sessile or peduncled, 1-2 cm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, very obtuse or 
mucronate, brownish or purplish-black with lighter center and narrow hyaline margins; pis- 
tillate spikes 3-6, erect, the upper 1-3 approximate and exsert-peduncled, the others usually 
strongly separate and long-exsert-peduncled, the peduncles smooth, the spikes oblong-cylin- 
dric, 12-25 mm. long, usually 6-8 mm. wide, round-tapering at base, closely flowered, contain- 
ing 15-50 ascending perigynia in several to many rows; bracts long-sheathing, the blades rudi- 
mentary, much shorter than inflorescence, the sheaths strongly enlarged upward ; scales ovate, 
smooth, shining, acute to cuspidate, purplish-black with conspicuous lighter midrib and narrow 
hyaline margins, the midvein sharply defined to tip, slightly rough, as wide as but shorter than 
the perigynia; perigynia ovate, 4.5-5 mm. long, 1.75-2.25 mm. wide, much flattened, not in- 
flated, glabrous, membranaceous, puncticulate, green- and purplish-black-mottled, obscurely 
nerved, rounded at base, short-stipitate, abruptly contracted into a smooth, purplish-black- 
tipped bidentate beak 1.5-2 mm. long; achenes obovoid, 1.75 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, about 
half the width of the perigynia, sharply triangular with concave sides, loosely enveloped, 
yellowish-brown, short-stipitate, apiculate, obscurely jointed with the straight slender style; 
stigmas 3, light-brownish, slender, short; anthers 3.5-4 mm. long. 

Type locality: Sierra Nevada, California, above Ebbetts Pass, near lake {Brewer 2019). (See 
Erythea 8: 66. for discussion as to type.) 

Distribution: In the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, from Shasta County south to 
Tulare County. A handsome species. (Specimens examined showing range as given.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 20: 307./. 18; Erythea 8: 65./. 34; Jepson, Fl. Calif. 1: 232. 
. 34, a-c; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 790; Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif./. 192. 

369. Carex fissuricola Mackenzie, Muhlenbergia 5: 53. 1909. 

Carex luzulaefolia W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 250. 1880. (In part, not as to type.) 
Carex ablata var. Uizuliformis L. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 25: 272. 1898. (Type from Sierra Nevada 

Mountains, California.) 
Carex luzulaefolia var. ablata f. luzulaeformis Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4^°: 558. 1909. 

(Based on C. ablata var. luzuUformis L. H. Bailey.) 

Densely cespitose, the rootstocks very short, the clumps medium-sized, the culms 5-8 
dm. high, erect, much exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, obtusely triangular, slightly rough- 
ened above, dark-brown and fibrillose at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year con- 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 317 

spicuous; sterile shoots little elongate, conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 6-10 to 
a fertile culm, the upper 2 or 3 very widely separated from one another, the rest clustered at 
base, the upper sheath 6-9 cm. long, the blades light-green, thickish but not leathery, flat, 
7-25 cm. long, 3-8 mm. wide, very short-tapering, strongly striate, roughened at apex, the 
sheaths thin ventrally, truncate at mouth, the ligule very short; terminal spike staminate or 
often developing a few perigynia, sessile or short-peduncled, obclavate, 8-15 mm. long, 3-5 
mm. wide, the scales oblong-oblanceolate, abruptly acute or mucronate from the projecting 
midvein, brownish-black with light-colored center and roughish, scarcely hyaline, subciliate 
margins; pistillate spikes 4 or 5, the upper 1-3 sessile or short-peduncled, and with the stami- 
nate spike closely aggregated, the others more or less strongly separated and short- to long- 
exsert-peduncled, the peduncles rough, the spikes oblong, 8-30 mm. long, 6-9 mm. wide, 
rounded or somewhat attenuate at base, closely flowered, containing 15-40 spreading-ascending 
perigynia in several to many rows; bracts long-sheathing, the sheaths tubular, green, scarcely 
enlarged upward, the blades short or rudimentary, much shorter than the culms; scales nar- 
rowly ovate, acute, cuspidate, or short-awned, brownish-black with lighter hispidulous 
center, the margins narrowly hyaline, the midvein conspicuous to the tip, narrower and 
shorter than the perigynia; perigynia ovate, 4.5-5 mm. long, 1.75-2 mm. wide, much flattened, 
not inflated, very sparsely hairy at least when young, ciliate-serrulate on the margins above, 
membranaceous, puncticulate, green- and purplish-black-mottled, obscurely nerved, rounded 
at base, short-stipitate, abruptly contracted into a bidentate beak one fourth to one third the 
length of the whole; achenes obovoid, 1.75 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, about half the width of the 
perigynia, sharply triangular with concave sides, loosely enveloped, yellowish-brown, substipi- 
tate, apiculate, obscurely jointed with the straight slender style; stigmas 3, slender, light- 
reddish-brown; anthers 3 mm. long. 

Type locality: Canon at the head of south fork of Humboldt River, Elk County, Nevada 
{Heller 2401). 

Distribution: Mountain meadows, Wahsatch Mountains, Utah, western Nevada, and the 
Sierra Nevada of California from Tulare County north to El Dorado County. (Specimens examined 
from Utah, Nevada, California.) 

Illustration: Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 791. 

Note: Carex herbariorum L. H. Bailey (Bot. Gaz. 17: 150. 1892), erroneously guessed to have 
been collected in the western United States, is C. Morrowii Boott ("C. japonica" Hort.), a Japanese 
species sometimes in cultivation. 

370. Carex misandroides Fernald, Rhodora 17: 158. 1915. 

Loosely cespitose, the rootstocks slender, elongate, descending obliquely, the culms 
mostly 1-3 dm. high, erect, slender, shorter than or exceeding leaves, phyllopodic, obtusely 
triangular, smooth or slightly roughened above, chestnut-brown-tinged at base, the dried-up 
leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 4—8 to a fertile 
culm, clustered above the base, not septate-nodulose, the blades yellowish-green, stiff-involute, 
5-10 cm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide, long-attenuate, little roughened, the tip triangular, soon drying 
up, the sheaths (at least the lower) cinnamon-brown-tinged ventrally, soon breaking, truncate 
at mouth, strongly striate dorsally, the ligule very short; staminate spikes 1 or 2, sessile or 
short- or slender-peduncled, 1-1.5 cm. long, the scales obovate, obtuse, purplish-black with 
hyaline apex; pistillate spikes 1-4, sometimes androgynous, the uppermost sessile or short- 
peduncled, the others on long roughish capillary peduncles, the lower 1 or 2 on arcuate spread- 
ing peduncles 0.2-3.5 cm. long, the lowest frequently basal or nearly so, the spikes ovoid or 
oblong-ovoid, 0.5-1.8 cm. long, 6 mm. wide, closely flowered, except for the 2 or 3 basal flowers, 
the perigynia 15-30, appressed-ascending in several to many rows; bracts rather short-sheath- 
ing, tight, strongly purplish-tinged, all except the lowest bladeless or short-bladed ; scales 
oblong-ovate, thin, closely appressed, minutely roughened, shining, about the width of but 
exceeded by the perigynia, obtusish to short-rough-awned, purplish-black with narrow white- 
hyaline apex and yellowish midvein conspicuous to tip ; perigynia oblong-lanceolate, 5-6 mm. 
long, 1.75 mm. wide, strongly flattened, not inflated, minutely asperulous on nerves, ciliate on 
margins, thin, membranaceous, shining, straw-colored below, purplish-black above, obscurely 
and slenderly several-nerved, tapering at base and short-stipitate, tapering at apex, scarcely 



318 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

beaked, the apex white-hyaline, bidentulate, obliquely cut; achenes lenticular, oblong-obovoid, 
1.75 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, much narrower and shorter than perigynia, yellowish-brown, 
strongly stipitate, short-apiculate, jointed with the straight, slender style; stigmas 2, slender, 
blackish. 

Type locality: Table Mountain, Port a Port Bay, Newfoundland {Fernald 6° St. John 10801). 
Distribution: Mossy knolls in dry limestone barrens, Newfoundland; Gaspe, Quebec. (Speci- 
mens examined from Newfoundland and Quebec.) 

53. Virescentes Kunth, Enum. PI. 2: 429. 1837; Tuckerm. Enum. Caric. 14. 1843; 
Carey, in A. Gray, Man. 553. 1848; L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 100, mostly. 1886. 
Pendulinae Fries, Fl. Scan. 188, in small part. 1835. Montanae Fries, Fl. Scan. 189, in 
small part. 1835. PallEscentes Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 71. 1845; L. H. Bailey, Proc. 
Am. Acad. 22: 112. 1886. Granulares O. F. Lang, Linnaea 24: 582, in part. 1851. 
ToMENTosAE O. F. Lang, Linnaea 24: 586, in part. 1851. Globulares Meinsh. Acta Hort. 
Petrop. 18: 393, in part. 1901. Caricigyne (3) Virescentes C. B. Clarke, Kew Bull. Add. 
Ser. 8: 147. 1908. Pachystylae Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4^0: 428. 1909. Species 
are referred by Holm (Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 16: 458. 1903) to the Cenchrocarpae Holm and 
{op. cit. 459) to the Trachychlaenae Drejer. 

Culms aphyllopodic, tufted, leafy toward the base; leaves with at least the sheaths 
pubescent; terminal spike gynaecandrous or staminate; lateral spikes pistillate, closely many- 
flowered in several rows; bracts sheathless or nearly so, at least the lower leaf -like; scales obtuse 
to cuspidate or awned; perigynia green, round-triangular in cross-section, membranaceous to 
subcoriaceous, from little to rather strongly inflated, several-nerved or ribbed, glabrous or 
hairy, rounded or pointed or tapering at the apex, the orifice entire or nearly so; achenes 
triangular, apiculate, the apiculation often bent, jointed with the short thick style; stigmas 3. 

Dry-ground species of the temperate parts of North America and Eurasia. Two species 
occur in the mountains of northern South America. The group is not otherwise represented 
in the tropics or in Australasia. 

Terminal spike staminate, linear; ligule longer than wide. 

Perigynia lightly nerved, sessile, beakless; scales ovate. 371. C. pallescens. 

Perigynia strongly many-ribbed, broadly short-stipitate, abruptly beaked, 

the beak short, cylindric; scales ovate-orbicular. 372. C. Torreyi. 

Terminal spike gynaecandrous, clavate at base; perigynia beakless or short- 
pointed or tapering at apex. 
Perigynia densely pubescent, green; lower spikes more or less strongly dis- 
tant and peduncled; ligule conspicuously longer than wide. 
Lowest bract setaceous, 0.5 mm. wide, twice exceeding inflorescence; 
pistillate spikes oblong-cylindric to oblong-globose; perigynia 
broadly obovoid; leaves usually exceeding culms; achenes bent- 
apiculate; style as long as apiculation. 373. C. Swanii. 

Lowest bract leaflet-like, 0.5-3 mm. wide, somewhat exceeding inflor- 
escence; pistillate spikes linear-cylindric ; perigynia oblong-elliptic 
or obovoid; culms exceeding leaves; achenes straight-apiculate; 
style much longer than apiculation. 374. C. virescens. 

Perigynia glabrous or at most asperulous (or with very sparse pubescence 
when young); spikes contiguous or approximate or the lowest 
slightly remote, sessile or nearly so; ligule shorter than or about as 
long as wide. 
Rootstocks woody, elongate; culms becoming decumbent; lowest bract 
shorter than inflorescence; perigynia elliptic-ovoid, tapering at 

apex, strongly several-ribbed dorsally. 375. C. boliviensis. 

Culms cespitose, erect; perigynia varying from strongly ribbed to 
nerveless ventrally, not tapering at apex. 
Perigynia more or less flattened ventrally, rounded at apex, nerved; 
achenes with a somewhat bent short-apiculate tip ; style very 
short. 
Leaf -blades glabrate or nearly so, stiff, with revolute margins; 
perigynia somewhat flattened, very obscurely nerved or 
nerveless ventrally, more or less strongly nerved dorsally 

especially towards apex. 376. C. complanata. 

Leaf -blades strongly short-pubescent, not stiff, flat; perigynia 
markedly flattened ventrally, strongly nerved dorsally, and 
less so ventrally. 377. C. hirsutella. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 319 

Perigynia turgid, nearly round in cross-section, short-pointed at 
apex, coarsely nerved or ribbed ; achenes with a very abruptly 
bent apiculate tip or style. 

Perigynia 2 mm. long, brownish-green; pistillate scales not 
pilose, obtuse or short-cuspidate; leaf -blades glabrate, with 
traces of pubescence. 378. C. caroliniana. 

Perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm. long, olive-green; pistillate scales sparingly 
pilose, cuspidate or awned; leaf-blades soft-pubescent, es- 
pecially below. 379. C. Biishii. 

371. Carex pallescens L. Sp. PI. 977. 1753. 

Carex pallida SaXish-Vrodr. 29. 1796. (Type from England.) 

Trasus pallescens S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 89. 1821. (Based on Carex pallescens L.) 

Carex undulala Kunze, Suppl. Riedgr. 23. pi. 4,f. 2. 1840. (Type from Lapland.) 

Carex pallescens var. cylindrica Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 506. 1846. (Type from Germany.) 

Carex pallescens var. undidata Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: 22. pi. 251, f. 618. 1846. (Based on C. 

undulala Kunze.) 
Carex pallescens var. undulala Carey, in A. Gray, Man. 552. 1848. (Based on C. undulala Kunze.) 
Carex pallescens var. glaberrima K. Koch, Linnaea 21 : 612. 1848. (Type from southwestern Asia.) 
Carex pallescens var. alpeslris Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 714. 1866. (Type from Transsylvania.) 
Carex leucanlha Schur, Enum. PL Transsilv. 714. 1866. (Type from Transsylvania.) Not C 

leucanlha Arn. 1846. 
Carex pallescens var. leucostachya Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 714. 1866. (As synonym of C 

leucanlha Schur.) 
Carex punctata X pallescens Briigger, Jahresb. Nat. Ges. Graubiind. 23-24: 120. 1881. (Type 

from Germany.) 
Carex sylvatica X /"a/Ze^ceMi Briigger, Jahresb. Nat. Ges. Graubiind. 23-24: 120. 1881. (Type from 

Switzerland.) 
Carex pallescens var. typica G. Beck, FI. Nieder-Oesterr. 140. 1890. (Based on C. pallescens L.) 
Carex pallescens var. subglabra G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 140. 1890. (Type from Austria.) 
Carex microstoma Franch. Bull. Soc. Philom. VIII. 7: 48. 1895. (Type from China.) 
Carex tymphaea Formanek, Verh. Nat. Ver. Briinn 34: 279. 1896. (Type from central Europe.) 
Carex pallescens var. brevibracteata Neuman, Sv. Fl. 702. 1901. (Type from Scandinavia.) 
Carex pallescens var. pygmaea Lackowitz; Asch. & Retzd. Verh. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brand. 44: 165. 

1902. (Name only; type from Berlin, Germany.) 
Carex pallescens f. elatior Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2=: 145. 1903. (Type from central 

Europe.) 
Carex pallescens var. leucanlha Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 146. 1903. (Based on C. 

leucanlha Schur.) 
Carex pallescens f. pygmaea "Lackowitz" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 433. 1909. (Based 

on C pallescens var. pygmaea Lackowitz.) 
Carex pallescens f. alpeslris "Schur" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 433. 1909. (Based on 

C pallescens var. alpeslris Schur.) 
Carex pallescens f. brevibracteata "Neuman" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pfianzenreich 4-»: 433. 1909. 

(Based on C. alpeslris var. brevibracteata Neuman.) 
Carex pallescens f. cylindrica "Petermann" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 433. 1909. 

(Based on C pallescens var. cylindrica Peterm.) 
Carex pallescens f. glaberrima "K. Koch" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-": 433. 1909. (Based 

on C. pallescens var. glaberrima K. Koch.) 
Carex pallescens var. subsilvatica Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=i>: 433. 1909. (Type from 

Switzerland.) 
Carex pallescens var. luxuriosa Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4'": 433. 1909. (Type from 

Germany.) 

Cespitose but not very densely, the rootstock short, the stolons very short-ascending, 
the culms slender, not stiff, erect, 2-6 dm. high, in medium-sized clumps, rather sharply tri- 
angular, with slightly concave sides, short-pubescent, rough above, from shorter to longer than 
the leaves, aphyllopodic, brownish-red-tinged at base; leaves with well-developed blades 2 or 
3 to a culm, on lower third, but not bunched, not septate-nodulose, the blades more or less 
strongly soft-pubescent below, erect-ascending, 8-35 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, deep-green, 
flat with slightly revolute margins, not stiff, the sheaths tight, more or less strongly soft- 
pubescent, cinnamon-brown-tinged, deeply concave at mouth, the ligule prominent, longer 
than wide; uppermost spike staminate, erect, short-peduncled, linear, subclavate, 1-2.5 mm. 
wide, 5-30 mm. long, the scales oblong-obovate, acute or mucronate, greenish or yellowish- 
brown; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, short-oblong to oblong-cylindric, 5-20 mm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, 
closely 15-40-flowered, in several to many rows, erect to spreading, approximate or the 
lowest somewhat separate, on capillary smooth peduncles varying from very short to 15 mm. 
long, lowermost bract leaf-like, well-developed and much exceeding the inflorescence, not 
sheathing or but little so, sometimes undulate at base; uppermost bracts much smaller; scales 



320 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

ovate, the lower cuspidate or acuminate, the upper acute, about as wide as and from a little 
shorter to a little longer than the perigynia, yellowish-brown or greenish-white with 3-nerved 
green center; perigynia ascending or somewhat spreading, broadly elliptic, 2.5-3 mm. long, 
1.5 mm. wide, orbicular or obscurely triangular in cross-section, membranaceous, greenish or 
yellowish-green, sessile, minutely puncticulate, rounded at base, abruptly rounded and beak- 
less at apex, glabrous, finely lightly many-nerved; achenes obovoid, loosely enveloped, tri- 
angular with concave sides, 1.75-2 mm. long, 1-1.25 mm. wide, substipitate, short-apiculate 
with straight tip, jointed to the thickish, very short style; stigmas 3, slender, rather short. 

Type locality: "Habitat in Europae paludibus." 

Distribution: Dry sunny banks and meadows, Newfoundland to Wisconsin, and southward to 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Illinois; widely distributed in Eurasia. (Specimens examined from 
Newfoundland, Miquelon, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ontario, 
Ohio, Michigan.) 

Illustrations: Schkuhr, Riedgr. pi. Kk, /. 99; Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. /. 768; ed. 2. /. 1031; 
Engler, Pflanzenreich 42»: 430 /. 68, E-H ; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 465; Kunze, Suppl. Riedgr. pi. 4,f. 2; 
Fl. Dan. pi. 1050; Boott, 111. Carex 139. pi. 450; Jour. Russe Bot. 1911: 113./. 93; Sturm, Deuts. Fl. 
53: pi. 8; Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: pi. 251, /. 617-618; Anderss. Cyp. Scand. pi. 7, /. 78; Host, 
Gram. Austr. 1: pi. 74; Leers, Fl. Herborn. pi. 15, f. 5; Engl. Bot. ed. 2. pi. 1657; Benth. Handb. 
Brit. Fl. /. 1124; Coste, Fl. Fr. pi. 3905; Hegi, 111. Fl. Mittel-Eur. pi. 50, f. 3; Hallier, Deuts. Fl. 
pi. 440; Karst. Deuts. Fl. 349./. 175 (1-3); Lindm. Bild. Nord. Fl. pi. 437 B. 

372. Carex Torreyi Tuckerm. Enum. Caric. 21. 1843. 

Carex abbreviaia Schw.; Boott, Trans. Linn. See. 20: 141. 1846. (Concerning type locality see note 
below.) 

Cespitose, but not very densely, from short-prolonged rootstocks, the culms erect, slender, 
not stiff, 2.5-4 dm. high, in medium-sized clumps, sharply triangular with slightly convex 
sides, short-pubescent, usually exceeding the leaves, very rough above, aphyllopodic, dark- 
purplish-tinged at base; leaves with well-developed blades 2 or 3 to a culm, not septate-nodu- 
lose, inserted on lower third but not bunched, the blades softly short-pilose, fiat with slightly 
revolute margins, flaccid, erect or ascending, 8-25 cm. long, 1.5-3 mm. wide, deep-green, the 
sheaths tight, soft-pubescent, cinnamon-brown-tinged, deeply concave at mouth, the ligule 
conspicuous, longer than wide; uppermost spike staminate, linear-clavate, erect, usually 
short-peduncled, occasionally nearly sessile or long-peduncled, 8-16 mm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, 
the scales ovate, acuminate or acute, 3-nerved, yellowish-brown with broad hyaline margins; 
pistillate spikes 1-3, short-oblong, 6-12 mm. long, 4—7 mm. wide, closely 10-25-flowered, in 
few to several rows, erect, sessile or short-peduncled, approximate or the lowest somewhat 
separate; lowermost bract short, from about the length of to exceeding the inflorescence, 
sheathless or very nearly so; uppermost bracts much smaller; scales ovate-orbicular, the 
lower acuminate, the upper acute, about as wide as but only half the length of the perigynia, 
reddish-yellow or brownish-yellow with broad white-hyaline margins and 3-nerved green 
center; perigynia ascending, broadly ovoid or broadly obovoid, 2.5-3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, 
obscurely triangular in cross-section, round-tapering at base into a short broad stipe, mem- 
branaceous, puncticulate, strongly finely many-ribbed, yellowish-green, abruptly rounded at 
apex and depressed and abruptly beaked, the beak short, cylindric, truncate at orifice, hyaline 
and colored; achenes obovoid, nearly filling the perigynium, triangular Aj^ith concave sides, 
2.5 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, substipitate, short-apiculate with straight tip, jointed with the 
very short thick exserted style ; stigmas 3, slender, short but rather prominent. 

Type locality: See note below. 

Distribution: Dry soil, Manitoba and Minnesota to Alberta, and southward to South Dakota 
and along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains to Colorado. (Specimens examined from Manitoba, 
Minnesota, Saskatchewan, North Dakota, South Dakota, Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 769; ed. 2./. 1032; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 464; Engler, 
Pflanzenreich 42": 430./. 68, J-K; Boott, 111. Carex 21. pi. 56, f. 1; Am. Jour. Sci. 49: pi. EE,f. 109. 

Note: Evidently specimens of this species were mixed by Torrey with Carex pallescens. It 
may be surmised that the Schweinitz specimen came from Torrey, and that he in turn had received 
them as a part of the Richardson material collected at Carlton House. The species is not known 
from Pennsylvania or New York and the facts recited by Boott (111. Carex 1: 21.) self -evidently 
show some mix-up of specimens. In the original description the type locality is not given and is 
erroneously guessed. It and the correct authorship of the species was supplied later by Boott {loc. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 321 

tit.). Specimens in the Torrey Herbarium are the basis for the type locality given for C. Torreyi 
Tuckerm., "Hab. Nov. Ebor., Torr." These further illustrate the same mix-up. 

Editoriai^ Note: In his manuscript the author used Schweinitz's name for this species, regarding 
C Torreyi as a homonym of C. Torreyana Schw. 1824 and C. Torreyana Dewey, 1826. 

373. Carex Swanii (Fernald) Mackenzie, Bull. Torrey Club 

37: 246. 1910. 

"Carex virescens Muhl." Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. 1 : 316. /. 743. 1896. (And other recent authors.) 

tiotC.virescensWMd. 1805. 
Carex virescens var. minijna Barratt; L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1: 77. 1889. (Type from 

Connecticut.) Not C. minima Boullu, 1878. 
Carex virescens var. Swanii Fernald, Rhodora 8: 183. 1906. (Type from Manchester, Vermont.) 
Carex virescens var. enormis Farwell, Am. Midi. Nat. 12: 51. 1930. (Type from Michigan.) 

Densely cespitose, the rootstock very short, the clumps medium-sized, the culms slender, 
erect or in large forms prostrate, usually 1.5-6 dm. high, but sometimes up to 13 dm., leafy, 
triangular, roughened above, sparsely hairy, normally exceeded by the leaves, but sometimes 
exceeding them, aphyllopodic, reddish-purple-tinged at base, but much less so than in Carex 
virescens, the basal sheaths breaking and becoming filamentose; sterile shoots elongate, con- 
spicuous; well-developed leaves 3-6 to a culm, not bunched, the blades short-pilose (more 
strongly beneath), flat, erect-ascending, flaccid, dtill-green, the larger 1.5-3 dm. long, 1.5-3 
mm. wide, long-attenuate, the uppermost usually inserted shortly below the lowest spike 
(usually about 3 cm. but occasionally much more), strongly exceeding head; sheaths long, 
tight, short-pilose, the lowest yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule 
conspicuously longer than wide; spikes 2-5, oblong-cylindric to oblong-globose, 5-20 (30) mm. 
long, 3-5 mm. wide, the lower half of the uppermost staminate and clavate, the remainder 
pistillate, erect, the upper approximate and sessile or short-peduncled, the lower more or less 
distant and more strongly peduncled, closely 10-30-flowered, the perigynia erect-appressed 
in several to many rows; bracts sheathless, the lowest setaceous, 3-6 cm. long, 0.5 mm. wide, 
twice exceeding inflorescence, the uppermost much smaller; pistillate scales broadly ovate, 
small, hyaline with 3-nerved green center, narrower than the perigynia, varying from strongly 
awned and about the length of the perigynia (the lowest) to acuminate or acute (the upper- 
most) ; scales of staminate flowers hyaline with green midrib, from acuminate to strongly 
obtuse; perigynia 2-2.25 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, broadly obovoid, compressed-triangular, 
not inflated, green, membranaceous, strongly white-hirsute, more or less strongly nerved 
dorsally, sessile, short-tapering at base, beakless and rounded or slightly tapering at apex, the 
orifice entire; achenes obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, triangular with concave sides, 
completely filling the perigynium, yellowish-brown, short-stipitate, shortly bent-apiculate, 
jointed with the very short thick style which is as long as the apiculation; stigmas 3, short, 
brownish. 

Type locality (of Carex virescens var. Swanii on which C Swanii is based) : Manchester, Ver- 
mont {M. A. Day 202). 

Distribution: Dry woodlands and thickets. Nova Scotia to Wisconsin, and southward to 
North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas. (Specimens examined from Nova Scotia, Maine, New 
Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Ohio, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Kentuckv, Tennessee, Missouri, Arkansas.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. /. 743; ed. 2./. 1026; Rob. & Fern. Man. f. 433; Rep. 
N. J. Mus. 1910: ^Z. 25, f. 6; Boott, 111. Carex 28, in part. pi. 73 (right hand figure); Knobel, Grasses 
pi. 26, f. 66. 

Note 1: See discussion in Bull. Torrey Club 37: 246-249 concerning this species and Carex 
virescens Muhl. 

Note 2: A specimen in Herb. Goodenough from Jamaica may be surmised to be from Jamaica, 
Long Island, New York. Extensive collecting in the Island of Jamaica has not resulted in the dis- 
covery of any species of this group. 

374. Carex virescens Muhl.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 251. 1805. 

Carex coslata Schw. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 67. 1824. (Type from Easton, Pennsylvania.) Not C. 

coslata Presl, 1819. 
Carex virescens var. costala Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 9: 260. 1825. (Based on C. costata Schw.) 
Olamblis virescens Raf. Good Book 26. 1840. (Based on Carex virescens Muhl.) 



322 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Carex virescens var. elliplica Olney, Caric. Bor.-Am. 5, name only. 1871 ; L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey 

Club 1 : 76, as synonym. 1889. 
Carex costellata Britton, Bull. Torrey Club 22: 223. 1895. (Based on C. costata Schw.) 

Densely cespitose, the rootstock very short, the clumps medium-sized or large, the culms 
slender, erect or ascending, 4—10 dm. high, leafy, triangular, roughened above, sparsely hairy, 
much exceeding the leaves, strongly aphyllopodic, strongly reddish-purple at base, the basal 
sheaths breaking and becoming filamentose; sterile shoots elongate, conspicuous; well-devel- 
oped leaves about 4 to a culm, not bunched, the blade short-pilose (more strongly beneath), 
flat, flaccid, deep-green, erect-ascending, about 2 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, long-attenuate, 
the uppermost inserted very much (usually 2-3 dm.) below lowest spike, the sheaths very long, 
tight, short-pilose, yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, deeply concave at mouth, the ligule 
much longer than wide; spikes 2-5, linear-cylindric, 1-4 cm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide, the lower 
half of the uppermost staminate and clavate, the remainder pistillate, erect, the upper ap- 
proximate and sessile or short-peduncled, the lower separate and more strongly peduncled, 
closely flowered above, rather loosely flowered at base, the perigynia 20-60, erect-appressed 
in several rows; bracts nearly sheathless, the lowest leaflet-like, 0.5-3 mm. wide, and at times 
as much as 2 dm. long, somewhat exceeding the inflorescence, the upper much reduced; pis- 
tillate scales broadly ovate, small, hyaline, with 3-nerved green center, narrower than the 
perigynia, varying from strongly awned and nearly the length of the perigynia (the lowest) to 
acuminate, acute or even obtuse (uppermost) and much shorter than the perigynia; scales of 
staminate flowers hyaline with green midrib, from acuminate to strongly obtuse; perigynia 
2-2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, oblong-elliptic or obovoid, compressed-triangular, not inflated, 
deep-green, membranaceous, strongly white-hirsute, usually strongly costate dorsally, sessile, 
beakless, tapering somewhat to the blunt apex and more at base, the orifice hyaline, entire; 
achenes elliptic-obovoid, 1.5-2 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, triangular with concave sides, completely 
filling the perigynium, dark-brown, sessile, straight-apiculate, jointed with the short rather 
thickish style which is much longer than the apiculation; stigmas 3, short, dark-brown. 

Type locality: "Habitat in Pennsylvania." 

Distribution: Dry woods, usually on rocky banks or steep slopes, Maine to Indiana, and 
southward to Georgia and Tennessee. (Specimens examined from Maine, New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, District of Columbia, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Ohio, 
Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee.) The record from Ontario is based on Carex Swanii (Fernald) 
Mackenzie. 

iLLUSTRATiONs: Schkuhr, Riedgr. pi. Mmm.f. 147; Britt. & Brown, 111. Fi./. 744; ed. 2./. 1027; 
Rob. & Fern. Man./. 432; Boott, 111. Carex 28, in part. pi. 73 (left hand figure). 

Note 1: See discussion in Bull. Torrey Club 37: 246-249 concerning this species and Carex 
Swanii (Fernald) Mackenzie. 

Note 2: Fendler 1604 from Venezuela, referred here by Boott (111. Carex 28) and by Kiikenthal 
(in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42»: 432) represents a closely allied but distinct species. 

375. Carex boliviensis Van Heurck & Muell.-Arg. in 
Van Heurck, Obs. Myc. 32. 1870. 

Carex Lwew/3?aMa Griseb. Abh. Ges. Wiss. Gott. 19:171. 1874. (Type from northwestern Argentina.) 
Carex galbana L. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 25: 271. 1898. (Type from State of Mexico.) 

Cespitose from elongate, interwoven, woody rootstocks, the culms 0.5-4.5 dm. high, 
sharply triangular, very slender and becoming decumbent, rough on the angles above, about 
twice exceeding the leaves, brownish and somewhat fibrillose at base, phyllopodic, the dried- 
up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 5-10 to a fertile 
culm, clustered immediately above base, the blades stiff, slightly glaucous-green, spreading, 
at base flat or channeled, 2.5-10 cm. long, 1.5-3 mm. wide, the apex slender with revolute 
margins, sparsely pubescent at base, especially on margins, otherwise glabrous, the sheaths 
truncate at mouth, yellowish-brown-tinged and reddish-brown-spotted, the ligule very short; 
spikes 2 or 3, closely contiguous, the terminal normally gynaecandrous, 8-16 mm. long, 4—5 
mm. wide, sessile or slightly peduncled, the lower half staminate and clavate, the lateral 
somewhat shorter, pistillate, oblong, erect, sessile, or very nearly so, closely flowered, the 
perigynia 10-25, erect-ascending, in several rows; bracts sheathless, the lowest scale-like. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 323 

long-awned, shorter than inflorescence, the head sometimes with an empty leaflet-like bract 
developed I cm. or less beneath spikes; scales ovate, obtuse or acutish or slightly mucronate, 
reddish-brown with 3-ncrved lighter center and slightly hyaline margins, rather narrower than 
and about two thirds the length of pcrigynia; perigynia elliptic-ovoid, 3 mm. long, 1.75 mm. 
wide, not inflated, somewhat flattcned-triangular, subcoriaceous, light-olive-green, puncticu- 
late, granular, lightly nerved ventrally. strongly several-ribbed dorsally, glabrous, sessile, 
round-tapering at base, short-tapering at apex, the apex beakless, minutely emarginate; 
achenes oblong-obovoid, nearly filling perigynium, triangular with concave sides, 2 mm. long, 
1.25 mm. wide, substipitate, yellowish-brown, granular, short-apiculate, the apiculation 
straight, jointed with the short thickish style which is much longer than the apiculation; 
stigmas 3, short, blackish. 

Type locality: "In Bolivia andinae prov. Larecaja prope Sorata altitud. 10-11.000 ped. 
{Mandon n. 1428 in hb. H. van Heurck et in hb. DC.)" 

Distribution; Dry open places, high mountains, from Mexico State to Argentina. (Specimens 
examined from State of Mexico to Argentina and Bolivia.) 

376. Carex complanata Torr. & Hook.; Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 

3:408. 1836. 

Carex triceps Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 170. 1803. (Type from Carolina.) Not C. triceps Schrank, 

1789. 
Facolos complanata Raf. Good Book 26. 1840. (Based on Carex complanata Torr. & Hook.) 
Carex Bolliana Bock. Flora 61 : 40. 1878. (Type from Texas.) 

Cespitose in rather small clumps, not stoloniferous, the culms slender but stiff and erect, 
2-6 dm. high, glabrate, triangular with slightly concave sides, strongly exceeding the leaves, 
aphyllopodic, strongly reddish-purple at base; well-developed leaves usually 4-6 to a culm, 
on lower fourth, mostly bunched above the base, the blades glabrate with traces of pu- 
bescence toward base or occasionally below, not septate-nodulose, 1-3 dm. long, 1.5-3 mm. 
wide, thickish and rather stiff, ascending, flat with revolute margins, long-attenuate, the 
uppermost inserted from shortly to much below inflorescence and more or less strongly ex- 
ceeding it; sheaths long, tight, sparingly hairy, concave and short-pilose at mouth, the ligule 
much wider than long; spikes 2-5, usually 3, oblong, sessile or nearly so, 6-15 mm. long, 5-7 
mm. wide, approximate or the lowest slightly remote, the terminal gynaecandrous with the 
lower third staminate and clavate, the lateral pistillate, closely 15-30-flowered in several to 
many rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, several times length of inflorescence, not sheathing, the 
others much smaller; pistillate scales ovate-triangular, several-nerved, straw-colored and 
reddish-brown-tinged with hyaline margins and green center, narrower and from shorter to 
slightly longer than perigynia, varying from obtuse to short-rough-awned ; staminate scales 
greenish-straw-colored, acuminate or short-awned; perigynia broadly obovoid, somewhat 
flattened ventrally and obtusely triangular, at maturity appressed or ascending, olive-green, 
submembranaceous, more or less granular-roughened and slightly asperulous, very obscurely 
nerved or nerveless ventrally except for the two marginal nerves, more or less strongly nerved 
dorsally, especially toward apex, 2-2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, round-tapering and sessile at 
base, rounded and beakless at apex, the orifice slightly emarginate; achenes obovoid, sharply 
triangular with concave sides and prominent rounded angles, nearly filling the perigynium, 
1.75 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, short-stipitate, short-apiculate with somewhat bent tip, jointed 
with the very short thickish style; stigmas 3, slender, short; anthers reddish. 

Type locality: "Hab. Texas, T. Drummond. (Texas collection III, No. 424.)" 
Distribution: Dry, often sterile, pine lands. Florida and Texas, and northward to southern 
New Jersey, chiefly on the coastal plain, and in the interior to Arkansas. (Specimens examined 
from New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Texas.) 
Illustration: Am. Jour. Sci. 48: pi. DD, f. 103. 

377. Carex hirsutella Mackenzie, Bull. Torrey Club 50: 349. 1923. 

Carex hirsuta Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 252. 1805. (Type from North America.) Not C. hirsuta Suter, 

1802. 
"Carex viridula Michx." Schw. & Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 320. 1825. 



324 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Olamblis hirsula Raf. Good Book 26. 1840. (Based on Carex hirsuta Willd.) 

Carex triceps var. hirsula L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1 : 35. 1889. (Based on C. hirsula Willd.) 
"Carex Iriceps Michx." Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. 1 : 316. 1896. 

"Carex complanala Torr." Mackenzie, in Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2. 1: 414. 1913. 
Carex complanala var. robusla Burnham, Torreya 19: 134. 1919. (Tvpe from Lake George, New 
York.) 

Cespitose, not stoloniferous, the culms slender but stiff and erect, 2-9 dm. high, growing 
in small to good-sized clumps, somewhat pubescent, triangular with slightly concave sides, 
usually exceeded by the upper leaves, strongly reddened at base; well-developed leaves usually 
5 or 6 to a culm, on lower fourth (except uppermost) but not bunched at base, not septate- 
nodulose, the blades strongly short-pubescent on both sides, 1-2.5 dm. long, 1.5-4 mm. wide, 
flat, not thickish and not stiff, erect-ascending, the upper culm-leaf inserted from moderately 
to much below the inflorescence, but usually exceeding it; sheaths long, tight, hairy, concave 
and short-pilose at mouth, the ligule wider than long; spikes 2-5, usually 3 or 4, oblong or 
oblong-cylindric, 6-18 mm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, the uppermost gynaecandrous with lower 
third staminate and clavate, the others pistillate, all approximate or the lower somewhat 
separate, erect, sessile or very short-peduncled, closely 15-30-flowered, in several to many 
rows; lower bract 1.5 mm. wide, about three times the length of the inflorescence, the others 
much smaller; pistillate scales ovate-triangular, with green 3-nerved center and broad hyaline 
margins, narrower and shorter than the perigynia, varying from short-cuspidate to obtuse; 
staminate scales whitish with green midrib, acuminate or cuspidate ; perigynia broadly obovoid 
or obovoid-orbicular, obscurely obtusely triangular, markedly flattened ventrally at maturity, 
appressed or ascending, submembranaceous, more or less granular, slightly more than 2 mm. 
long, 1.5 mm. wide, round-tapering at base, rounded and very obtuse at apex, or very minutely 
pointed, strongly several-nerved dorsally, more lightly several-nerved ventrally; achenes 
sharply triangular with concave sides and prominent rounded angles, obovoid, nearly filling 
the perigynium, 1.75 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, sessile, short-apiculate with somewhat bent 
tip, jointed with the very short thickish style; stigmas 3, slender, short; anthers yellowish. 

Type locality (of Carex hirsuta Willd. on which C. hirsulella is based): "Habitat in America 
boreali." 

Distribution: Dry copses and meadows, best developed in calcareous districts, Maine to 
southern Ontario and Michigan, and southward to Alabama and Texas. (Specimens examined from 
Maine, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 
Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Ontario, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, 
Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas.) 

Illustrations: Schkuhr, Riedgr. pi. Www, f. 172; Britt. & Brown, III. Fl./. 745; ed. 2./. 1028; 
Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 430. /. 68, A-D; Rep. N. J. Mus. 1910: pi. 25, f. 2; Boott, 111. Carex 48, 
in part. pi. 128 (as C. triceps). 

378. Carex caroliniana Schw. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 67. 1824. 

Carex Smilhii Porter; Olney, Caric. Bor.-Am. 2, without description. 1871; Wood, Bot. & Fl. ed. 

1873. 374. 1873. (Type from southeastern Pennsylvania.) Not C Smilhii Tausch, 1821. 
Carex gynandra var. caroliniana Olney, Caric. Bor.-Am. 5. 1871. (Based by synonymy on C. 

caroliniana Schw.) 
Carex triceps var. Smilhii Porter; L. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 13: 88. 1888. (Based on C. S^nilhii 

Porter.) 

Densely cespitose, not stoloniferous, the culms slender but stiff and erect, 2.5-8 dm. high, 
growing in small to medium-sized clumps, glabrate, triangular with concave sides, usually 
much exceeded by the upper leaves, aphyllopodic, strongly reddened at base; well-developed 
leaves usually 4 or 5 to a culm, on the lower half (except uppermost) but not bunched, not 
septate-nodulose, the blades essentially glabrate, but with traces of pubescence especially 
below and toward the base, 1-3 dm. long, 1.5-3 mm. wide, not stiff, flat, erect-ascending, the 
upper culm-leaf inserted from 2-12 cm. below the inflorescence and much exceeding it; the 
sheaths long, tight, more or less strongly soft-hairy, truncate at mouth, reddish-brown-tinged 
or spotted ventrally, the ligule about as long as wide; spikes usually 3, oblong-cylindric to 
cylindric, 8-18 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, the uppermost gynaecandrous with its lower half 
staminate, the others pistillate, all approximate or the lower slightly remote, erect, sessile or 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 325 

slightly peduncled, closely 15-30-flowered in several rows; lowest bract about 1 mm. wide, 
several times the length of the inflorescence, not sheathing, the others much smaller; pistillate 
scales ovate-triangular, not pilose, straw-colored and slightly reddish-brown-tinged, with 
broad hyaline margins and 3-nerved green center, narrower and shorter than the perigynia, 
varying from short-cuspidate to obtuse; staminate scales straw-colored with green midrib, 
acuminate; perigynia obovoid-orbicular, obscurely obtusely triangular, being nearly round in 
cross-section, turgid and not flattened, squarrose-spreading at maturity, brownish-green, 
strongly few-ribbed, submembranaceous, glabrous or slightly asperulous, 2 mm. long, 1.5 
mm. wide, tapering at base, abruptly tapering above and short-pointed or at times slightly 
beaked, the orifice entire or minutely emarginate; achenes strongly triangular with concave 
sides and prominent rounded angles, not entirely filling perigynium, broadly obovoid, sessile, 
1.5-2 mm. long, somewhat narrower, with abruptly bent very short-apiculate tip, jointed with 
the very short thickish style; stigmas 3, slender, short. 

Type locality: "Carol." 

Distribution: Dry meadows, New Jersey and Pennsylvania to North Carolina and Texas. 
(Specimens examined from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, 
Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, Ohio, Indiana, Tennessee, Missouri, Arkansas, Oklahoma, 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, III. Fl. /. 746; ed. 2, /. 1029. 

379. Carex Bushii Mackenzie, Bull. Torrey Club 37: 241. 1910. 

Carex hirsiUa var. cuspidala Dewey, in Wood, Class-Book ed. 1861. 758. 1861. (Type from Illinois.) 
Carex triceps var. longicuspis Kiikenth. in Engler, Pfianzenreich i-o; 431. 1909. (Type from St. 
Louis, Missouri.) 

Densely cespitose, not stoloniferous, the culms slender, but stiff and erect, 3-9 dm. high, 
in medium-sized clumps, sparingly pubescent, triangular with concave sides, shorter than or 
exceeded by the leaves, aphyllopodic, more or less strongly reddish-tinged at base; well- 
developed leaves 3 or 4 to a culm, not septa^^e-nodulose, on the lower half (excepting upper- 
most), not bunched, the blades short, soft-pubescent, especially below, the larger 2.5 dm. long, 
1.5-3 mm. wide, flat, erect-ascending, not stiff, the uppermost bract-like leaf usually shortly 
below the inflorescence and exceeding it, the sheaths long, hairy, tight, concave or truncate 
and slightly reddish-brown-tinged at mouth, the ligule about as long as wide; spikes usually 
2 or 3, oblong or oblong-cylindric, 5-20 mm. long, 5-8 mm. wide (without the scales), the 
uppermost gynaecandrous with its lower half staminate, the others pistillate, all erect, sessile 
or nearly so, densely 15-40-flowered in several to many rows; bract of lowest spike slender, 
awl-shaped, somewhat to much exceeding the head, not sheathing; second bract when present 
much smaller; pistiUate scales triangular-lanceolate, long-acuminate, cuspidate or awned, 
sparingly pilose, narrower than but strongly exceeding the perigynia, somewhat reddish- 
brown-tinged, with 3-nerved green center and hyaline margins; scales of staminate flowers 
similar; perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, broadly obovoid, obtusely obscurely 
triangular, nearly round in cross-section, somewhat swollen at maturity, turgid and squarrose- 
spreading, olive-green, submembranaceous, rather strongly several-ribbed, minutely asperu- 
lous, tapering at base, substipitate, rounded but somewhat tapering at the blunt or slightly 
pointed entire apex; achenes obovoid, 2.5 mm. long, 1.8 mm. wide, sharply triangular with 
concave sides and prominent rounded angles, nearly filling the perigynium, substipitate, 
apiculate, the apiculation abruptly bent, jointed with the short bent thickish style; stigmas 3, 
slender, short. 

Type locality: Fulton, Arkansas. (Bush 2514). 

Distribution: Dry meadows and banks in calcareous districts, Massachusetts to Michigan and 
southward to District of Columbia, Mississippi and Texas. (Specimens examined from Massachu- 
setts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, 
District of Columbia, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missis- 
sippi, Texas. 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2, /. 1030; Rob. & Fern. Man. /. 431 (as C. triceps 
var. hirsuta). 

Note: This species has a marked general resemblance to Carex Buxbaumii Wahl., a species 
to which it is not at all related. 



326 



NORTH AMERICAN FLORA 



[Volume 18 



54. Hirtae Tuckerm. Enum. Caric. 14. 1843; L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 72. 
1886; Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich, 4-°: 742. 1909; Borner, Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 21: 
265. 1913; Mackenzie, in Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 140. 1917; Mackenzie, Erythea 8: 83. 
1922. (AH in greater part.) Lasiocarpae Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 70. 1845. Lanxjgino- 
SAE Carey, in A. Gray, Man. 560, in part. 1848. Scariosae Carey, in A. Gray, Man. 560, 
in part. 1848. Aristatae Carey, in A. Gray, Man. 561, in small part. 1848. BifurcataE 
Kukenth. Bot. Jahrb. 27: 545, in part. 1899. Trichocarpae Holm, Am. Jour. Scl. IV. 16: 
462, in large part. 1903. Treated by L. H. Bailey (Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 71. 1886) as 
belonging to the Trachychlaenae Drejer; also {op. cit. 74) as a subsection of the Paludosae 
Fries. Species are referred to the VesicariaE Tuckerm. by Meinshausen (Acta Hort. Petrop. 
18: 366. 1901). 

Culms stout, leafy; rootstocks usually with long horizontal stout stolons; leaves septate- 
nodulose; spikes 3-10, the upper 1-5 staminate, slender, the others pistillate, many-flowered, 
erect; bracts leaf -like, equaling or exceeding the culm, often sheathing, especially the lowest 
one; pistillate scales ovate or lanceolate, acute to aristate; perigynia mostly ascending, rarely 
spreading, coriaceous or subcoriaceous or membranaceous, ovoid or oblong-ovoid or lanceolate- 
ovoid, somewhat inflated, nearly orbicular in cross-section, many-ribbed or many-nerved, 
usually hairy, round-tapering or rounded at the base, tapering or contracted into the biden- 
tate or obliquely cut beak; achenes triangular, often short-stipitate, the sides flat or deeply 
concave, apiculate, jointed with the straight or slightly flexuous, slender style; stigmas 3. 

Species of wet or swampy or even dry places. Eight species are widely distributed in the 
temperate parts of North America, of which one is also widely distributed in Europe and 
eastern Asia. One species, of broad range in Eurasia and reaching northern Africa, is very 
sparingly naturalized in North America. A few endemic Asiatic species are known and several 
more occur in South America. The group is not known in Australasia. 

Perigynia glabrous to sparsely short-pubescent, the beak strongly bidentate. 
Culms brownish at base; perigynia strongly spreading, lanceolate-ovoid, 
tapering into the beak, strongly many-ribbed; pistillate scales 5-7- 
ribbed. 
Culms purplish-red at base; perigynia appressed-ascending, ovoid, con- 
tracted into the beak, many-nerved, the nerves impressed; pistillate 
scales 3 -nerved. 
Perigynia densely or strongly pubescent, the ribs often largely obscured by 
the pubescence. 
Perigynia with beak strongly bidentate. 

Staminate scales not long-ciliate; foliage glabrous; sheaths not pilose 
at mouth; perigyniutn-teeth 0.25-0.5 mm. long (native species). 
Fertile culms phyllopodic, many-leaved, brownish or slightly pur- 
plish-red at base; sheaths not breaking and becoming filamen- 
tose ventrally; lowest bract conspicuously sheathing. 
Fertile culms aphyllopodic, few-leaved, strongly purplish-red at 
base; lowest bract sheathless to short-sheathing or some- 
times long-sheathing; sheaths (at least the basal) breaking 
and becoming more or less strongly filamentose. 
Perigynia strongly and conspicuously 15-20-ribbed; peri- 
gynium-beak nearly half the length of the body, the teeth 
spreading, scabrous within. 
Perigynia with ribs largely obscured by the dense pubescence; 
perigynium-beak short, 1 mm. long, the teeth erect. 
Leaf -blades flat with revolute margins, 1.5-5 mm. wide, 
long-attenuate; lowest bract usually moderately exceed- 
ing culm; culms sharply triangular; achenes straight- 
apiculate. 
Leaf-blades strongly involute except toward base, 2 mm. 
wide or less, very long-attenuate; lowest bract strongly 
exceeding culm; culms obtusely triangular; achenes 
bent-apiculate. 
Staminate scales long-ciliate; foliage usually soft-hairy; sheaths pilose 
at mouth; perigynium-teeth 0.75-1 mm. long (introduced species). 
Perigynia with beak hyaline-tipped, obliquely cut at orifice, becoming 
shallowly or deeply bidentate at maturity. 
Foliage softly pubescent; staminate scales conspicuously white-ciliate; 
pistillate spikes 4.5-6 mm. wide, oblong-cylindric; perigynia 2- 
ribbed and obscurely nerved. 
Foliage glabrous; staminate scales not ciliate; pistillate spikes oblong 
or short-oblong-cylindric; perigynia strongly many-ribbed. 



380. C. turgescens. 



381. C. Walleria7ia. 



382. C. Halliana. 

383. C Houghtonii. 

384. C. lanuginosa. 

385. C. lasiocarpa. 

386. C. hirla. 



387. 
388. 



C. Sariwelliana. 
C. veslila. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 327 

380. Carex turgescens Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 419. 1836. 

Cespitose from slender, elongate rootstocks, the stolons long, slender, horizontal, the 
culms 6-9 dm. high, slender, erect, obtusely triangular, much exceeding the leaves, smooth or 
nearly so, phyllopodic, brownish and more or less fibrillose at base; leaves with well-developed 
blades 3-6 to a fertile culm, on the lower third but not bunched, sparingly septate-nodulose, 
the blades firm, light-green, flat above with more or less revolute margins, channeled towards 
base, usually 1-3 dm. long, 1.5-5 mm. wide, long-attenuate, much roughened towards the 
apex, the sheaths tight, chestnut-brown-tinged at mouth, and prolonged upward beyond base 
of blade, the ligule much longer than wide; staminate spike solitary, slender-peduncled, 
narrowly linear, 3.5-5 cm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide, the peduncle rough, the scales obovate, 
obtuse, light-reddish-brown with green 1-3-nerved center and white-hyaline margins; pis- 
tillate spikes 2 or 3, widely separate or sometimes approximate, erect, the upper on peduncles 
exserted one half to two times length of spikes, the lower on peduncles exserted 2-5 times 
length of spikes, the peduncles roughish, ancipital, the spikes oblong to globose, 2-3 cm. long, 
1.5-2.5 cm. wide, loosely flowered, containing 10-20 strongly spreading perigynia in several 
rows; bracts leaflet-like, the lowest very long-sheathing, the upper shorter-sheathing, from 
much shorter than to exceeding inflorescence ; scales ovate, acute to cuspidate, long-persistent, 
pale-yellowish-brown with strongly 5-7-ribbed green center and hyaline margins, about half 
width and one third to one half length of perigynia; perigynia lanceolate-ovoid, suborbicular 
in cross-section, somewhat inflated, 8-11 mm. long, 3-3.5 mm. wide, olive-green or becoming 
brownish-yellow, subcoriaceous, strongly and coarsely 20-30-ribbed, densely puncticulate, 
rounded and slightly tapering and substipitate at base, tapering at apex into the bidentate, 
slightly serrulate, hyaline-tipped beak 2-3 mm. long, the teeth stiff, erect, ciliate-scabrous 
within; achenes broadly obovoid, 3-3.5 mm. long, 2-2.5 mm. wide, loosely enveloped in lower 
half of perigynium-body, triangular with concave sides, short-stipitate, yellowish, abruptly 
apiculate and jointed with the long, straight, slender style; stigmas 3, slender, reddish-brown, 
rather short. 

Type LOC.4LITY: "Hab. New Orleans, Dr. T. Ingalls." 

Distribution: Wet pine lands. North Carolina to Florida and Louisiana. (Specimens ex- 
amined from South Carolina. Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana.) 
Illustration: Boott, III. Carex 90. pi. 264. 

381. Carex Walteriana L. H. Bailey, Bull. Torrey Club 20: 429. 1893. 

Carex striata Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 174. 1803. (Type from Carolina.) Not C. striata Gilib. 

1792. 
"Carex bidlata Schk." EU. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2 : 556. 1824. 
"Carex polymorpha Muhl." Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 413. 1836. 
Carex striata var. /3 Boott, 111. Carex 58. 1858. (Type from New Jersey.) 
Carex striata var. brevis L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1: 34. 1889. (Based on C. striata var. /3 

Boott.) 
Carex Walteriana var. brevis L. H. Bailey, Bull. Torrey Club 20:429. 1893. (Based on C. striata 

var. brevis L. H. Bailey.) 

Loosely cespitose and freely long stoloniferous, in large beds, the stolons horizontal, 
tough, scaly, the culms aphyllopodic, 2-8 dm. high, slender, erect, sharply triangular, smooth or 
slightly roughened above, usually exceeded by the upper leaves, purplish-red at base, the 
basal sheaths breaking and becoming filamentose; sterile shoots with many leaves, short; 
leaves with well-developed blades 3-6 to a fertile culm, the lower somew^hat clustered, the 
upper regularly disposed, the blades septate-nodulose, thickish, light-green, strongly chaimeled 
and keeled at the base, flat above, usually 1.5-4 dm. long, 1.5-5 mm. wide, long-attenuate, 
much roughened towards the apex; sheaths more or less yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, 
concave at mouth, the ligule wider than long; staminate spikes 1 or 2, linear, 1.5-5 cm. long, 
3-4.5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, obtusish, slightly ciliate, reddish-purple with 
lighter center and hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 1 or 2, erect, not or but shortly exsert- 
peduncled, strongly separate, narrowly oblong, 2-6 cm. long, 5-10 mm. wide, containing 
10-30 appressed-ascending perigynia in few rows, closely flowered above, rather loosely flowered 
below; bracts leaf-like, exceeding culm, the sheaths 0.5-3.5 cm. long; scales ovate, long-acu- 



328 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

minate, short-cuspidate, or acute, reddish-purple with very wide 3-nerved green center and 
white-hyaline margins, narrower than and from half as long to nearly as long as the perigynia; 
perigynia narrowly to broadly ovoid, suborbicular in cross-section, somewhat inflated, 4-6 mm. 
long, 2-2.5 mm. wide, many-nerved, the nerves impressed, slender, the walls coriaceous, 
glabrous or sparsely short-pubescent, rounded at base, short-stipitate, contracted into the 
broad bidentate beak about one third the length of the body, the teeth widely separate, erect, 
or somewhat spreading, 0.5 mm. long, thickish; achenes obovoid, triangular with concave 
sides, rather loosely enveloped, sessile, 1.75-2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, conspicuously bent- 
apiculate, jointed with the straight slender style; stigmas 3, slender, blackish. 

Type locality (of C. striata Michx. on which C. Walteriana is based) : " Hab. in Carolina." 
Distribution: Sunny pine barren swamps near the coast, southeastern Massachusetts to 

Florida. (Specimens examined from Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Virginia, 

North Carolina, Georgia, Florida.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. /. 709; ed. 2. /. 1065; Rob. & Fern. Man. /. 522; Rep. 

N. J. Mus. 1910: pi. 23, f. 7; Boott, 111. Carex 57. pi. 151. 

382. Carex Halliana L. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 9: 117. 1884. 

Carex oregonensis Olney; A. Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 8: 407, name only. 1872; L. H. Bailey, Proc. 
Am. Acad. 22: 73. 1886. 

Loosely cespitose, and stoloniferous, the stolons long, horizontal, slender, rather tough, 
scaly, the clumps small, the culms erect, 1-5 dm. high, stiff, sharply triangular, smooth, 
phyllopodic, exceeding or about equaling leaves, brownish or but slightly purplish-reddened 
at base, and little or not at all fibrillose ; sterile shoots more or less elongate, with ascending or 
erect blades; leaves with well-developed blades 4—8 to a fertile culm, clustered near base, 
sparingly septate-nodulose, the blades thick, glabrous, light-green, 1-3 dm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, 
flat above, strongly channeled at base, long-attenuate, and much roughened towards apex; 
sheaths tight, not breaking, yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule 
as wide as long; terminal 2 or 3 spikes staminate, approximate, sessile or short-peduncled, 
linear-clavate, 0.8-2.5 cm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide, the peduncle smooth, the scales oblong- 
obovate, acutish, glabrous, erose, purplish-brown with lighter center and dull-white-hyaline 
margins; pistillate spikes usually 3 or 4, more or less strongly separate, erect-appressed, the 
upper sessile or nearly so, the lower peduncled, the peduncles smooth, the spikes linear- 
cylindric, 1.5-5 cm. long, 4.5-6 mm. wide, closely flowered above or attenuate at base, con- 
taining 20-40 appressed-ascending perigynia in several rows; bracts leaf -like, exceeding or 
equaling the culms, the lowest bract conspicuously sheathing, the others less so, the sheaths 
15 mm. long or less; scales ovate, acute to cuspidate, slightly wider to rather narrower than 
and from about half to nearly length of perigynia, purplish-brown with conspicuous 3-nerved 
green center and dull-white-hyaline margins; perigynia with ovoid or obovoid body, little 
inflated, obtusely triangular in cross-section, 4—5 mm. long, 2-2.25 mm. wide, densely white- 
hispid, obscurely but strongly 15-20-ribbed, subcoriaceous, light-brownish, rounded at base, 
contracted at apex into the broad, strongly bidentate beak one fourth to one third the length 
of the whole, the teeth whitish, erect or slightly spreading, 0.25-0.5 mm. long, rough within; 
achenes obovoid, 2.5 mm. long, 1.5-1.75 mm. wide, closely enveloped, filling body of perigy- 
nium, sharply triangular with concave sides, sessile, brown, apiculate, jointed with the straight 
slender style; stigmas 3, slender, blackish. 

Type locality: Oregon. 

Distribution: Mountain meadows, from southern Washington to Siskiyou county, California. 
(Specimens examined from Washington, Oregon, northern California.) 

Illustrations: Engler, Pflanzenreich 42" : 746. /. 127; Erythea 8: 84. /. 46; Abrams, 111. Fl. 
Pacif. St. /. 831; Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. /. 204. 

Editorial Note: In his manuscript the author used Olney's name for this species, regarding 
C. Halliana as a homonym of C. Hallii Olney, 1871. 



383. Carex Houghtonii Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3 : 413. 1836. 

rex Houghloniana Torr." Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 30: 63. pi. Bb, /. 91. 1836. (Based on C, 
Houghtonii Torr.) 

Loosely cespitose and stoloniferous, the stolons long, horizontal, slender, rather tough. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 329 

scaly, the clumps small, the culms erect, rather stiff, stoutish, 1.5-6.5 mm. high, sharply tri- 
angular, rough above, aphyllopodic, much exceeding the leaves, strongly purplish at base, the 
basal sheaths breaking and sparingly filamentose; sterile shoots elongate, with erect blades; 
leaves with well-developed blades usually 2-4 to a fertile culm, on lower third but not bunched, 
sparingly septate-nodulose, the blades glabrous, deep-green, thinnish, erect, flat with slightly 
revolute margins, long-attenuate, 8-20 cm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide, roughened especially on the 
margins and towards the apex, the sheaths glabrous, tight, thin and yellowish-brown-tinged 
ventrally, not breaking, concave at mouth, the ligule as long as wide; staminate spike solitary 
(or often with an additional sessile shorter one near its base), slender, erect, linear, rough- 
peduncled, 1-3.5 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, acutish or obtuse, smooth, 
subciliate, reddish -brown with white-hyaline margins and lighter center; pistillate spikes 1-3, 
normally 2, erect, sessile or short-rough-peduncled, remote, oblong, 1-4.5 cm. long, 8-12 mm. 
wide, the perigynia 15-30, closely arranged (or somewhat loosely at base), spreading or some- 
what ascending in several to many rows, lower bract leaf-like, usually equaling or exceeding 
the culm, very short-sheathing or short-sheathing, the others much smaller; scales lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate, awned or cuspidate or the upper acuminate, narrower and shorter than 
the perigynia, reddish-brown with broad 3-nerved green center and narrow hyaline margins; 
perigynia with obovoid body, little inflated, obscurely triangular in cross-section, 5-6 mm. 
long, 2.5 mm. wide, strongly and conspicuously 15-20-ribbed, short-hirsute, submembrana- 
ceous, olive or brownish-green, rounded at base, abruptly contracted into a bidentate beak 
2 mm. long, nearly half the length of the body, strongly purple between the teeth, the teeth 
spreading, 0.5 mm. long, scabrous within; achenes obovoid, 3-3.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wnde, 
closely enveloped, nearly filling the perigynium-body, triangular with concave sides, yellowish- 
brown, substipitate, prominently apiculate, jointed with the straight slender style; stigmas 3, 
slender, short, blackish. 

Type locality: "Found at Lake La Biche near the sources of the Mississippi River by Dr. 
Houghton; in the herbarium of Dr. Torrey." 

Distribution: Open sterile sandy or rocky soil, Newfoundland to Saskatchewan, and south- 
ward to Maine, Ontario, Michigan, and Minnesota. (Specimens examined from Newfoundland, 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, New York, Ontario, 
Manitoba, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Saskatchewan.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. 30: pi. BB, f. 91; Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. /. 710; ed. 2. /. 1069; 
Rob. & Fern. Man./. 520; Boott, 111. Carex 19. pi. 51; pi. 151 (perigynium only). 

Note : The name of this species as first published by Dewey was erroneously given as Carex 
Houghloniana Torrey {I. c). Torrey corrected this to C. Houghlonii (I. c), saying: "It is hardly 
necessary to remark that in accordance with well established rules of botanical nomenclature, and 
the uniform practice of the most accomplished naturalists, we adopt the genitive termination where- 
ever a species is named after its discoverer." 

Later when Dewey came to publish C. Sarlwellii (Am. Jour. Sci. 43: 90. 1842), we find him 
saying: "Found by Dr. S. P. Sartwell in Junius, Seneca County, N. Y., after whom it is named, with 
the genitive termination and in accordance with well established rules of botanical nomenclature." 
But sad to relate we find the Index Kewensis (1: 438) citing this latter name as C. Sartwelliana 
Dewey. 

384. Carex lanuginosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 175. 1803. 

Carex pellita Muhl.; Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 302. 1805. (Type from Pennsylvania.) 

Diemisa pellita Raf. Good Book 27. 1840. (Based on Carex pellita Muhl.) 

Carex Walsoni Olney, in S. Wats. Bot. King's Expl. 370. 1871. (Type from Carson City, Nevada.) 

Not C Walsoni Boott, 1867, as synonym; nor C. Watsoniana Steud. 1855. 
"Carex aemaiorhyncha Desv." Olney, in S. Wats. Bot. King's Expl. 373. 1871. 
Carex fili for mis var. lalifolia Bock. Linnaea 41: 309. 1877. (Based on C. lanuginosa Michx.) 
Carex filiformis var. aemaiorhyncha W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 250. 1880. (As to plant 

described only; not C aemaiorhyncha Desv.) 
Carex filiformis var. lanuginosa B. S. P. Prel. Cat. N. Y. 63. 1888. (Based on C lanuginosa Michx.) 
Carex lanuginosa var. kansana Britton; Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. 1 : 305. 1896. (Type from Kansas.) 
Carex lasiocarpa var. lanuginosa Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 748. 1909. (Based on C. 

lanuginosa Michx.) 
Carex lasiocarpa var. lanuginosa f. kansana "Britt." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich, 4=": 748. 

1909. (Based on C. lanuginosa var. kansana Britton.) 

Cespitose and freely long-stoloniferous, the stolons horizontal, long, tough, scaly, the 
culms 3-10 dm. high, in large beds, stiff, erect, sharply triangular, rough above, aphyllopodic, 
dark-purplish-red at base, the lower sheaths breaking and becoming more or less strongly 



330 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

filamentose; sterile shoots numerous, elongate; leaves with well-developed blades 2-5 to a 
fertile culm, more numerous on the sterile shoots, septate-nodulose, the blades dull-green, 
thinnish, flat with revolute margins, often exceeding the culms, 2-6 dm. long, 1.5-5 mm. wide, 
long-attenuate, rough, especially towards the tip; sheaths more or less purplish-tinged and 
deeply concave at mouth, the ligule as long as wide; staminate spikes usually 2 (the lower 
often small), slender, erect, long-peduncled, 2-6 cm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide, the scales ob- 
lanceolate, acute to cuspidate, smooth or subciliate, light-reddish-brown with lighter center 
and dull-hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, widely separate, erect, sessile or short- 
peduncled, oblong-cylindric, 1.5-5 cm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, closely many-flowered, the peri- 
gynia 25-75, ascending in several to many rows; bracts sheathless or very short-sheathing, the 
blade of the lowest usually moderately exceeding the culm ; scales lanceolate, long-acuminate, 
mucronate or awned, more or less ciliate, narrower than the perigynia, the lower usually 
exceeding the perigynia, the upper shorter, reddish-brown with broad 3-nerved green center 
and hyaline margins; perigynia broadly obovoid or ovoid, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.75-2 mm. wide, 
suborbicular in cross-section, somewhat inflated, coriaceous, dull-brownish-green, densely soft- 
hairy, the numerous ribs usually largely hidden, sessile, rounded at base, abruptly very short- 
beaked, the beak 1 mm. long, deeply bidentate, the teeth erect, 0.5 mm. long; achenes broadly 
ovoid, triangular with concave sides and blunt angles, rather loosely enveloped, 1.75-2 mm. 
long, 1.5 mm. wide, sessile or nearly so, yellowish-brown, punctate, short-apiculate, jointed 
with the very short, straight style; stigmas 3, slender, blackish. 

Type locality: "Hab. ad lacus Mistassins, " Quebec. 

Distribution: Sunny swampy places, mostly in calcareous soils. New Brunswick to British 
Columbia, and southward to Tennessee, Arkansas, Texas, New Mexico, and southern California. 
One of our most widely distributed species. (Specimens examined from New Brunswick, Quebec, 
Ontario, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, District of Columbia, Tennessee, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, IlUnois, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, 
North Dakota, South Dakota, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, 
New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Idaho, British Columbia, including Vancouver Island, Wash- 
ington, Oregon, California.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 711; ed. 2./. 1067; Schkuhr, Riedgr. pi. Nnn, f. 149, 
150; Rep. N. J. Mus. 1910: pi. 23, f. 3; Boott, 111. Carex 48. pi. 129; Erythea 8: 85. /. 47; Jepson, 
Fl. Calif. 1: 240. /. 36. d-f; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St. /. 832; Torr. Fl. N. Y. pi. {first no.) 145 (as 
Carex pellita); Clements, Rocky Mt. Fl. pi. 45, f. 15. 

Note: The habitat of this plant dififers from that of C. lasiocarpa Ehrh. very markedly, as 
does also its distribution 

385. Carex lasiocarpa Khrh. Hannov. Mag. 1784: 132. 1784. 

"Carex hirta L." Oeder, Fl. Dan. 7: 5. pi. 379 (in part). 1768. (From northwestern Europe.) 

"Carea: iowew^osa L." Lightf. Fl. Scot. 553. 1777. (From Scotland.) 

Carex splendida Willd. Fl. Berol. 33. pi. l,f. 3. 1787. (Type from northwestern Germany.) 

" Carex filiformis L." Gooden. Trans. Linn. Soc. 2 : 172. pi. 20, f. 5 (and most authors). 1794. (From 
England.) 

Trasus filiformis S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 59. 1821. (As to plant described only. Based 
on Carex filiformis of authors.) 

Diemisa filiformis Raf. Good Book 27. 1840. (Based on Carex filiformis of authors.) 

Carex filiformis var. australis L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1: 56. 1889. (Type from central 
Europe.) 

Carex filiformis f. meduanensis Lev. & Vaniot, Bull. Acad. Geogr. Bot. 10: 35. 1901. (Type from 
France.) 

Carex lasiocarpa f. robusta Junge, Verb. Nat. Ver. Hamburg III. 12: 21. 1905. (Type from Ger- 
many.) 

Carex lasiocarpa f . slricla Junge, Verb. Nat. Ver. Hamburg III. 12 : 22. 1905. (Type from Germany.) 

Loosely cespitose with long-creeping rootstocks long stoloniferous, the stolons horizontal, 
long, tough, scaly, the culms 3-12 dm. high, in large clumps, erect, slender, obtusely triangular, 
smooth, aphyllopodic, purplish-red at base, the lower sheaths long, breaking and becoming 
strongly filamentose; sterile shoots very numerous, elongate; leaves with well-developed 
blades 2-5 to a fertile culm, more numerous on the sterile shoots, septate-nodulose, the blades 
light-green, thinnish, very elongate, often 7 dm. long, 2 mm. or less wide, flattish at base, 
strongly involute above, the tip very long-attenuate, roughened triangular and soon becoming 
dried-up, the sheaths yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule as long as 
wide; staminate spikes usually 2 (the lower often small), slender, erect, long-peduncled, 2-6 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 331 

cm. long, 2.5-3.5 mm. wide, the scales oblanceolate, acute to cuspidate, smooth, light-reddish- 
brown with lighter center and dull-hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 1, 2 or 3, widely separate, 
erect, sessile or very nearly so, 0.5-5 cm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, oblong-cylindric, closely flowered, 
the perigynia 15-50, ascending in several to many rows; bracts sheathless or very short-sheath- 
ing, or at times the lowest long-sheathing, the blade of the lowest strongly exceeding the culm, 
those of the others shorter than to exceeding the culm; scales lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 
sparingly ciliate at tip, narrower than the perigynia, the lower mucronate-awned and exceeding 
the perigynia, the upper acute and exceeded by the perigynia, purplish-brown with broad 3- 
nerved green center and very narrow dull-hyaline margins; perigynia oblong-obovoid or 
oblong-ovoid, suborbicular in cross-section, somewhat inflated, 3-5 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, 
coriaceous, dull-brownish-green, densely soft-hairy, the ribs very obscure, round-tapering at 
base, strongly contracted at apex into a short,, bidentate beak 1 mm. long, the teeth erect, 0.5 
mm. long; achenes broadly ovoid, triangular with concave sides and blunt angles, rather 
loosely enveloped, 1.75-2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, sessile or nearly so, yellowish-brown, 
strongly punctate, abruptly slenderly apiculate, the tip bent, jointed with the straight or 
flexuous slender style; stigmas 3, slender, blackish. 

Type locauty: Sweden. 

Distribution: Sphagnum swamps, usually in large colonies on borders of lakes, calcareous 
districts, glaciated regions. Newfoundland to Keewatin and British Columbia and southward to 
northern New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Iowa, Idaho and Washington. (Specimens examined from 
Newfoundland, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ontario, Ohio, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Keewatin, Idaho, Wash- 
ington, British Columbia, Vancouver.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 712; ed. 2./. 1068; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 519; Schkuhr, 
Riedgr. pi. K,f. 45; Fl. Dan. pi. 379 (except separate spikes) and 1344; Boott, 111. Carex 50. pi. 132; 
Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St. /. 833; Jour. Russe Bot. 1911: 194. /. 158; Sturm, Deuts. Fl. 53: pi. 3; 
Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: pi. 265. f. 643; Trans. Linn. Soc. 2: pi. 20. f. 5; Anderss. Cyp. Scand. 
pi. 8.f. 103; Host, Gram. Austr. 1: pi. 86; Coste, Fl. Fr. pi. 3859; Hegi, 111. Fl. Mittel-Eur. pi. 54. 
f. 4; Engl. Bot. pi. 904; ed. 2, pi. 1676; Benth. Handb. Brit. Fl. ed. 2,/. 1122; Hallier, Deuts. Fl. 
pi. 445; Karst. Deuts. Fl./. 171 (J); Willd. Fl. Berol. pi. l,f. 3. 

386. Carex hirta L. Sp. PI. 975. 1753. 

Carex hirla * hirlaeformis Pers. Syn. PI. 2: 547. 1807. (Type European; not definitely given.) 

Carex villosa Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. 4: 346. 1812. (Type from England.) 

Carex hirla var. siiblaevis Hornem. Dansk Oecon. PI. ed. 3. 1: 953. Je 1821 ; Fl. Dan. 29: 7. pi. 1711. 

S 1821. (Type from Denmark.) 
Trasus hirtiis S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 58. 1821. (Based on Carex hirla L.) 
Carex hirla var. hirlaeformis Reichenb. in Mossier, Handb. ed. 2. 1649. 1829. (Based on C. hirla * 

hirlaeformis Pers.) 
Carex hirla var. huttiilis Peterm. Fl. Lips. 62. 1838. (Type from Leipzig, Germany.) 
Carex hirla var. vulgaris Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 516. 1846. (Based on C. hirla L.) 
Carex hirla var. major Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 516. 1846. (Type from Leipzig, Germany.) 
Carex hirta var. villosa Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 516. 1846. (Type from Leipzig, Germany.) 
Carex hirla var. glabrala Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 516. 1846. (Based on C. hirla * hirlaeformis Pers.) 
Carex hirla var. androgyna Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 517. 1846. (Type from Leipzig, Germany.) 
Carex hirla a vera Neilr. Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 122. 1859. (Based on C hirla L.) 
Carex hirla var. pseudo-hirla Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 711. 1866. (Type from Transsylvania.) 
Carex hirla a pilosa Celak. Prodr. Fl. Bohm. 74. 1867. (Type from Bohemia.) 
Carex hirla /3 snbglabra Celak. Prodr. Fl. Bohm. 74. 1867. (Type from Bohemia.) 
Carex hirla var. spinosa Mortensen, Bot. Tidssk. 5: 94. 1872. (Type from southern Sweden.) 
Carex hirla var. glabrescens St. -Lag. in Cariot, fetude Fl. ed. 8. 2: 871. 1889. (Type from France.) 
Carex hirla var. hirlaeformis f. subhirlaeformis Kneucker, AUg. Bot. Zeits. 4: 165. 1898. (Type from 

Baden, Germany.) 
Carex hirla f. hirliformis Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 223. 1903. (Based on C. hirla * 

hirlaeformis Pers.) 
Carex hirla f. major Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 223. 1903. (Based on C. hirla var. 

major Peterm.) 
Carex hirla f. paludosa A. Winkler; Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2=: 223. 1903. (Type from 

central Europe.) 
Carex hirta var. aqualica Waisb. Magyar Bot. Lap. 4: 76. 1905. (Type from Hungary.) 
Carex hirla f. humilis "Peterm." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-": 751. 1909. (Based on C. 

hirla var. humilis Peterm.) 
Carex hirla f. lalifolia Waisb.; Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-": 751. 1909. (Type from 

Hungary.) 
Carex hirla f. villosa "Peterm." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-": 751. 1909. (Based on C. 

hirla var. villosa Peterm.) 



332 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Carex hirta f. suhhirtaeformis "Kneucker " Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 751. 1909. (Based 

on C. hirla var. hirlaeformis f. subhirtaeformis Kneucker.) 
Carex hirla f. pseudo-hirta "Schur" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420; 751. 1909. (Based on 

C. hirla var. pseudo-hirla Schur.) 
Carex hirta f. spinosa "Mortensen" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 'i-^l 751. 1909. (Based on 

C. hirta var. spinosa Mortensen.) 

Loosely cespitose and long-stoloniferous, the stolons stout, tough, horizontal, scaly, the 
culms 2-10 dm. high, erect, rather slender, obtusely triangular, aphyllopodic, exceeding the 
leaves, smooth or nearly so, brownish or purplish at base, the basal sheaths breaking and be- 
coming somewhat filamentose, the sterile shoots elongate, the leaves clustered at apex ; leaves 
(not bracts) with well-developed blades 2-5 to a fertile culm, soft-hairy or rarely glabrate, ob- 
scurely more or less septate-nodulose, the lower clustered, the upper scattered, the blades thin, 
light-green, flat, 5-25 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, strongly roughened towards the long-attenuate 
apex, the sheaths tight, white-pilose and concave at mouth, the ligule as long as wide ; staminate 
spikes 1-3, the upper slenderly long-peduncled with a scale-like bract at base, linear-oblong, 
1.5-3 cm. long, 2.5-3.5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, truncate or obtuse, often awned 
cuspidate or mucronate, strongly long-ciliate and white-pilose, purplish-brown or becoming 
tawny-red with green 3-nerved center and hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, very widely 
separated, the lowest often nearly basal, erect, short-exsert-peduncled (the peduncles slender, 
hairy), oblong, 1.5-5 cm. long, 6-9 mm. wide, closely flowered above or more loosely at base 
and containing 10-35 ascending perigynia in several rows; bracts leaf -like, the lowest strongly 
sheathing, the upper short-sheathing, the uppermost usually exceeding culm ; scales lanceolate- 
ovate, white-hairy and long-ciliate, long-acuminate, mucronate, or awned, narrower than and 
(excluding awn) from half to two thirds the length of the perigynia, purplish-brown, with green 
3-nerved center and hyaline margins; perigynia ovoid-lanceolate, suborbicular in cross- 
section, somewhat inflated, 5-9 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, usually strongly white-pubescent, 
submembranaceous, greenish-straw-colored or light-brownish, strongly 15-20-ribbed, rounded 
at base, very short-stipitate, tapering at apex into a strongly bidentate beak, 1.5-2.5 mm. long, 
the teeth slender, 0.75-1 mm. long, hispidulous within and without; achenes obovoid-oval, 
loosely enveloped, 3 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, triangular with obtuse angles and slightly 
concave sides, yellowish, substipitate, tapering at apex, slender-apiculate and jointed with 
the nearly straight, slender, deciduous style; stigmas 3, slender, blackish. 

Type locality: "Habitat in Europae sabulosis." 

Distribution: Dry fields and waste places, Prince Edward Island to eastern New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, and the District of Columbia; also Oregon. Very locally naturalized or adventive from 
Europe, erroneously recorded from Tennessee. (Specimens examined from Prince Edward Island, 
Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, District of Columbia, Oregon.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 713; ed. 2./. 1072; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 524; vSchkuhr, 
Riedgr. pi. Uu. f. 108; Fl. Dan. pi. 425, 1711; Sturm, Deuts. Fl. 55: pi. 16; Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 
8: pi. 257, /. 628; Anderss. Cyp. Scand. pi. 8, f. 101; Leers, Fl. Herborn. pi. 16, f. 3; Coste, Fl. Fr. 
/. 3860; Engl. Bot. pi. 685; ed. 2. pi. 1677; Benth. Handb. Brit. Fl. ed. 2./. 1123; Hegi, 111. Fl. Mittel- 
Eur. pi. 54, f. 5; Garcke, Fl. Deuts. /. 2362; Hallier, Deuts. Fl. pi. 449; Karst. Deuts. Fl. /. 171 
{1-2); Thome, Fl. Deuts. pi. 92, A-C. 

387. Carex Sartwelliana Olney, Proc. Am. Acad. 7: 396. 1868. 

Carex yosetnilana L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1: 8. 1889. (Change of name only.) 

Carex Congdonii L. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 21: 6. 1896. (Type from Tuolumne County, California.) 

Cespitose from stout rootstocks with short-ascending stolons, the culms rather stout, 
rather stiff, 3-9 dm. high, phyllopodic, much exceeding leaves, sharply triangular and slightly 
roughened above, brownish or purplish-red and not fibrillose at base, the basal sheaths not 
breaking and becoming filamentose, the sterile shoots elongate, the leaves clustered towards 
apex; leaves with well-developed blades 8-15 to a fertile culm, clustered on lower third, softly 
pubescent, not septate-nodulose, the blades light-green, not rigid, flat with revolute margins or 
channeled towards the base, usually 1-3.5 dm. long, 3-7 mm. wide, strongly roughened towards 
the attenuate apex; sheaths strongly cinnamon-brown-tinged and red-dotted ventrally, con- 
cave at mouth, the ligule longer than wide; terminal spike staminate, or occasionally with a 
few perigynia, more or less peduncled, linear or linear-clavate, 12-30 mm. long, 4.5-6 mm. wide. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 333 

the scales narrowly oblong-obovate, conspicuously white-ciliate, obtuse, purplish-brown with 
straw-colored center and narrow hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 3 or 4, approximate or 
somewhat separate, erect, sessile or slightly peduncled, oblong-cylindric, 12-40 mm. long, 
4.5-6 mm. wide, containing 40-200 appressed perigynia, closely packed in several to many 
rows; lowest bract leaf -like, very lightly sheathing, about equaling inflorescence, the upper 
bracts much reduced; scales ovate or ovate-lanceolate, white-ciliate and appressed-hairy, 
awned, mucronate, or acute, purplish-brown with white-hyaline margins and conspicuous 
green 3-nerved center, somewhat narrower and from shorter to longer than the perigynia; 
perigynia 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.25-1.75 mm. wide, greenish or in age straw-colored, submem- 
branaceous, white-pilose, the body obovoid or oblong-obovoid, triangular, not inflated, two- 
ridged and obscurely nerved, short-tapering at base, short-stipitate, abruptly beaked, the 
beak 1 mm. long, slender, conic, hyaline-tipped, obliquely cut, at length minutely bidentate; 
achenes broadly obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide, closely enveloped, triangular with 
concave sides and blunt angles, substipitate, yellowish, granular, abruptly short-apiculate, 
jointed with the short, rather slender style; stigmas 3, dull reddish-brown, slender. 

Type locality: "California, Yosemite Valley, alt. 6000 feet, Brewer 1636; Bolander 6221." 

Distribution: Mountains of California; Sierra Nevada from Tuolumne to Tulare counties and 
in the San Jacinto mountains. (Specimens examined showing above range.) 

Illustrations: Erythea 8: 84. /. 45; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St. /. 830; Jepson Man. Fl. PI. 
Calif. /. 203; Jepson, Fl. Calif. 239. /. 36, a-c. 

Editorial Note: In his manuscript the author used C. yosemitana as the name of this species, 
regarding C. Sarlwelliana as a homonym of C. Sarlwellii Dewey, 1842. 

388. Carex vestita Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 263. 1805. 

Loxolrema vestita Raf. Good Book 25. 1840. (Based on Carex vestita Willd.) 

Carex vestita var. Kennedyi Fernald, Rhodora 2: 170. 1900. (Type from Wilmington, Massachu- 
setts.) 
Carex vestita f. Kennedyi "Fernald" Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=0: 744. 1909. (Based on 
C. vestita var. Kennedyi Fernald.) 

Loosely cespitose and strongly stoloniferous, the stolons long, horizontal, rather slender, 
tough, scaly, the clumps small, the culms 3-8 dm. high, slender, strict, sharply triangular, very 
rough or smoothish above, aphyllopodic, strongly exceeding the leaves, reddish-tinged at 
base, the lower sheaths breaking and becoming filamentose; sterile shoots elongate, phyllo- 
podic; leaves with well-developed blades 2-4 to a fertile culm, on lower third, not septate- 
nodulose, the blades 0.5-2 dm. long on the fertile culms, up to 2-3 dm. on the sterile, 2-5 mm. 
wide, light-green, smooth, thin, flat with revolute margins or channeled at base, rough on both 
surfaces towards apex, the sheaths tight, yellowish-tinged and red-dotted ventrally, not 
breaking and not becoming filamentose, the ligule about as long as wide; staminate spike 
usually solitary (occasionally with an additional smaller one at base), slender, erect, cylindric, 
clavate, sessile or nearly so, 1-5 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, 
reddish-brown with white'hyaline apex and margins and light-colored center, not ciliate; 
pistillate spikes 1-3, often staminate at apex, approximate or the lowest more or less strongly 
remote, erect, sessile or very nearly so, oblong or short-oblong-cylindric, 6-30 mm. long, 5-8 
mm. wide, densely flowered, the perigynia 25-50, appressed-ascending in several to many 
rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, 4 cm. or less long, not sheathing, much shorter than culm, the 
upper bracts much reduced; scales ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, slightly ciliate, narrower and 
usually somewhat shorter than the perigynia, purplish-brown with green 3-nerved center and 
hyaline margins; perigynia obovoid, obtusely triangular in cross-section, not inflated, 3-4 mm. 
long, 1.75 mm. wide, 2-keeled and strongly many-ribbed, strongly white-hirsute, the pubes- 
cence largely concealing the nerves, olive-green or yellowish-green, subcoriaceous, tapering at 
base and substipitate, abruptly tapering into the short-conic strongly hyaline-tipped beak, 
scarcely 1 mm. long, the orifice oblique, becoming deeply bidentate; achenes obovoid, closely 
enveloped, triangular with blunt angles and slightly concave sides, 2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. 
wide, sessile, yellowish, granular, abruptly (often bent-) apiculate, jointed with the slender, 
deciduous style; stigmas 3, slender, long, dark -reddish-brown. 



334 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Type locality: "Habitat in America boreali" (Pennsylvania). 

Distribution: Open dry sandy woods and thickets, acid soils, southern Maine to eastern New 
York and Pennsylvania, and southward to District of Columbia. (Specimens examined from 
Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, District of Columbia.) Erroneously attributed to Georgia by Pursh and 
subsequent authors following him. 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, III. FI./. 708; ed. 2./. 1066; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 521; Schkuhr, 
Riedgr. pi. Bbbb, f. 182; Rep. N. J. Mus. 1910: pi. 25, f. 7; Boott, 111. Carex 49. pi. 131. 

55. Fecundae Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-": 401. 1909. "PolysTachyae 
Tuckerm." L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 95. 1886. TrichocarpaE Holm, Am. Jour. 
Sci. IV. 16: 462, in small part. 1903. Vigneandra PichinchensEs C. B. Clarke, Kew Bull. 
Add. Ser. 8: 139. 1908. 

Culms stout, sharply triangular with concave sides, brownish or purplish at base; leaf- 
blades broad, coriaceous; spikes numerous, androgynous, simple or the lower branched, or 
paniculate, in which case the terminal branch is longer than the others, mostly 2-6 together, 
or some in the inflorescence single, densely flowered, the lower exsert-peduncled, sometimes 
nodding; lower bracts short-sheathing to nearly sheathless; perigynia membranaceous, lanceo- 
late or elliptic to obovoid or broadly obovoid, smooth, contracted into a short or longish beak, 
the orifice bidentate or bidentulate, sometimes ciliate, rarely nearly beakless; achene filling or 
nearly filling perigynium-body, triangular with sides concave above or lenticular, apiculate, 
jointed with the slender style, often strongly constricted in the middle; stigmas 3 or 2. 

A group represented by a number of species in the mountains of tropical South America 
and extending north into Mexico, where it is also rather well developed. 

Achenes strongly constricted in the middle; perigynia obtusely triangular, 

not oblique, the beak straight. 

Perigynia obovoid or broadly obovoid, 2-2.5 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. 

wide, prominently 2-keeled, otherwise nerveless; stigmas short. 

Lower sheaths cinnamon-brown; spikes all androgynous; perigynia 

obovoid, strongly purple-resinous, the beak bidentate; achenes 

oblong-obovoid ; spikes 3-6 cm. long. 389. C. tuherculala. 

Lower sheaths reddish-purple; upper spikes staminate or nearly so; 
perigynia broadly obovoid, obscurely resinous, the beak shal- 

lowly bidentate; achenes obovoid; spikes 3-10 cm. long. 390. C. Ehrenbergiana. 

Perigynia elliptic-obovoid, 3.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, finely several- 
nerved as well as strongly 2-keeled; stigmas long. 391. C. psilocarpa. 
Achenes not constricted in the middle; perigynia compressed -triangular, 
oblique, the beak somewhat excurved; perigynia nerved (except in 
C. Cortesii) as well as 2-keeled. 
Achenes triangular; stigmas 3; perigynia not hispid-serrulate. 
Achenes yellowish-brown, oblong-elliptic. 

Lower sheaths cinnamon-brown; spikes linear-cylindric, 5-15 

cm. long; perigynia nerved as well as 2-keeled. 392. C. chordalis. 

Lower sheaths dull-purplish-brown; spikes 2.5-7 cm. long; 

perigynia 2-keeled, otherwise nerveless or nearly so. 393. C. Cortesii. 

Achenes purplish-black, shining, oblong-obovoid ; lower sheaths 
purplish-brown. 
Spikes 2.5-7 cm. long; pistillate scales reddish-brown; beak of 

perigynium with very short teeth. 394. C. melanosperma. 

Spikes 3-12 cm. long; pistillate scales purplish -black; beak of 

perigynium with slender teeth 0.5 mm. long. 395. C. Donnell-Smilhii. 

Achenes lenticular; stigmas 2; perigynia hispid-serrulate above. 396. C. Lemanniana. 

389. Carex tuberculata Liebm. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. V. 
2:270. 1850. 

Cespitose, the rootstocks stout, oblique, elongate, the culms stout, stiff, erect, 6-9 dm. 
high, sharply triangular with slightly concave sides, roughish above, about equaled by the 
leaves, phyllopodic, but very lowest leaves bladeless, cinnamon-brown-tinged at base; leaves 
on lower third of culm, obscurely very sparingly septate-nodulose, the blades light-green or 
somewhat glaucous-green, coriaceous, strongly many-striate, channeled above, sharply keeled 
below, and with very strongly re volute margins and prominent midrib, usually 2.5-5 dm. long, 
4-8 mm. wide, long-attenuate and much roughened towards the apex, the sheaths concave at 
mouth, very thin ventrally and yellowish-brown-tinged and red-dotted, breaking and sparingly 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 335 

filamentose, the ligule nearly as long as wide; spikes 7-16, androgynous, the staminate part 
conspicuous, not widely separate, all but the qppermost in pairs or threes, slender, drooping or 
slightly roughened, spreading on very slender peduncles, shorter or the lower longer than the 
spikes, the spikes linear-cylindric, 3-6 cm. long, 4-5 mm. wide, densely flowered above, more 
loosely at base, the perigynia 25-75, spreading-ascending in several rows; lowest bract leaf- 
like, very short-sheathing, equaling or exceeding culm; upper bracts much reduced; staminate 
scales oblong-obovate, mucronate or obtuse, purplish-brown with lighter center and whitish- 
hyaline apex and margins; pistillate scales ovate, appressed, slightly keeled, the lower short- 
cuspidate, the upper acutish, somewhat shorter and narrower than the perigynia, purplish- 
brown with 3-nerved center and narrow white-hyaline margins; perigynia obovoid, obtusely 
inflated, triangular in cross-section, 2-2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, membranaceous, pale- 
green, strongly purple-resinous (sometimes appearing as small tubercles on the angles), smooth, 
prominently 2-keeled, otherwise nerveless, round-tapering at base, sessile or very nearly so, 
abruptly contracted into a short, straight, bidentate beak scarcely 0.5 mm. long, the orifice 
hyaline; achenes not closely enveloped but nearly filling perigynium-body, oblong-obovoid, 
obtuselj' triangular with prominent angles and convex sides above, constricted in the middle, 
1.5-2 mm. long, 1.25-1.5 mm. wide, yellowish, or in age dark-colored, somewhat resinous, gran- 
ular, sessile or nearly so, abruptly somewhat bent-short-apiculate, jointed with the straight 
slender style; stigmas 3, slender, short, dark-colored. 

Type locality: Chinantla, Puebla. Mexico; alt. 7000 feet {Liebmann 563). 

Distribution: Known only from the type collection. 

Note : The above description is made up from a photograph of the type specimen supplied by 
Carl Christensen of Copenhagen, from fragments of the type, and from the descriptions of Liebmann 
and Kiikenthal. 



390. Carex Ehrenbergiana Bock. Linnaea 41: 175. 1877. 

Carex tuherculata var. Ehrenbergiana Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-0: 408. 1909. (Based on 
C. Ehrenbergiana Bock.) 

Rootstock stout, the culms stout, stiff and erect, 6-9 dm. high, sharply triangular with 
slightly concave sides, smooth or nearly so, exceeding the leaves, strongly phyllopodic, reddish- 
purple at base; leaves with well-developed blades 6-12 to a fertile culm, on lower third, ob- 
scurely sparingly septate-nodulose, the blades light-green or somewhat glaucous-green, coria- 
ceous, strongly many-striate, channeled above, sharply keeled below and with strongly revolute 
margins and prominent midrib, usually 2.5-5 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, long-attenuate, much 
roughened towards the apex, the sheaths concave at mouth, very thin ventrally and yellow'ish- 
brown-tinged and red-dotted, breaking but little or not at all filamentose, the ligule nearly as 
long as wide; spikes 15-18, the upper 3 or 4 staminate or with a few perigynia, the middle ones 
androgynous (the staminate part short), the lower pistillate, not widely separate, all but the 
uppermost in pairs or threes, slender, drooping or spreading on slightly roughish, very slender 
peduncles shorter or sometimes longer than the spikes, the spikes linear-cylindric, 3-10 cm. 
long, 5 mm. wide, densely flowered above, more loosely at base, the perigynia 25-75, ascending 
in several rows; lowest bract leaf-like, short-sheathing, purplish-tinged at base, equaling or 
exceeding culm; upper bracts much reduced; staminate scales oblong-obovate, mucronate or 
obtuse, purplish-brown with lighter center and whitish-hyaline apex and margins; pistillate 
scales ovate, appressed, slightly keeled, the lower cuspidate and exceeding perigynia, the upper 
acute and sometimes shorter, narrower than perigynia, purplish-brown with lighter 3-nerved 
center, prominent especially at apex, and narrow hyaline margins; perigynia broadly obovoid, 
inflated-triangular in cross-section, 2-2.5 mm. long, nearly 2 mm. wude, membranaceous, pale- 
green, minutely purple-dotted, obscurely resinous, smooth, prominently 2-keeled, otherwise 
nerveless, round-tapering at base, sessile or very nearly so, abruptly contracted into a short 
conic beak scarcely 0.5 mm. long, the orifice hyaline, shallowly bidentate; achenes obovoid, ob- 
tusely triangular with prominent angles and convex sides above, not closely enveloped but 
nearly filling perigynium-body, 1.5-2 mm. long, 1.25-1.5 mm. wide, yellowish, sessile, strongly 



336 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

constricted and bent in the middle, abruptly apiculate, jointed with the short, straight, slender 
style; stigmas 3, slender, short, dark -colored. 

Type locality: Mexico {Ehrenberg 855). 

Distribution: Mountains of middle Mexico. (Specimens examined from Hidalgo.) 

391. Carex psilocarpa Steud. Syn. Cyp. 195. 1855. 

Carex maculala Liebm. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. V. 2: 268. 1850. (Type from State of Mexico.) 

Not C. tnaculata Boott, 1846. 
Carex consors C. B. Clarke, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8: 76. 1908. (Type from Salazar, Mexico.) 

Rootstocks stout, horizontal, the culms stout, stiff, and erect, 5-9 dm. high, strongly 
phyllopodic, reddish-purple at base, very sharply triangular with concave sides, roughened 
above, exceeding the leaves; leaves with well-developed blades 8-15 to a fertile culm, mostly 
clustered above base, sparingly septate-nodulose, the blades somewhat glaucous and coria- 
ceous, sharply keeled below and with strongly revolute margins and prominent midrib, usually 
3-6 dm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, long-attenuate, much roughened towards the apex, the sheaths 
concave at mouth, very thin ventrally and yellowish-brown-tinged and red-dotted, breaking 
but scarcely filamentose, the ligule nearly as long as wide; spikes 8-12, androgynous, all 
approximate or little separate, all but the uppermost in pairs, flexuous and drooping or the 
upper spreading on rough, slender peduncles, shorter to much longer than the spikes, the 
spikes linear-cylindric, the well-developed ones 2-12 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, the upper one 
fifth to one sixth staminate, the remainder with 25-75 ascending, or at length spreading peri- 
gynia in several rows, closely arranged above, loosely towards base; lower bracts leaflet-like, 
scarcely sheathing, strongly purple-tinged at base, equaling or shorter than the inflorescence; 
upper bracts much reduced; staminate scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, purplish-brown with 
lighter center and whitish-hyaline apex and margins; pistillate scales oval-ovate, the lower 
cuspidate and exceeding perigynia, the upper acute and shorter, somewhat narrower than 
the perigynia, purplish-brown with lighter 3-nerved center and narrow hyaline margins; 
perigynia elliptic-ovoid, rather obtusely triangular, membranaceous, slightly inflated, greenish- 
straw-colored, strongly 2-keeled and finely several-nerved, rather sparingly purplish-red- 
dotted, glabrous, 3.5-4 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, tapering to a substipitate base, abruptly 
short-beaked, the beak 0.5 mm. long, minutely notched and somewhat ciliate at apex, dark- 
tinged; achenes obovoid, 2 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, closely enveloped, triangular with con- 
spicuous rounded angles and convex sides above, constricted in the middle, brownish-black, 
sessile, abruptly bent-apiculate, jointed with the curving slender style of its own length; 
stigmas 3, slender, long. 

Type locality (of C. tnaculata Liebm. on which C. psilocarpa Steud. is based): "Orizaba," 
South Mexico, at 8000 to 10,000 feet (Liebtnann). 

Distribution: Mountains, Mexico (State of), Puebla and Hidalgo. (Specimens examined from 
state of Mexico and Hidalgo.) 

Note: The name as given originally was misprinted as " spilocarpa." Steudel's description is 
copied from the description of Liebmann, with an occasional word or words omitted. 

392. Carex chordalis Liebm. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. V. 2: 269. 1850. 

Carex Jamesonii var. /3 Boott, 111. Carex 109. pi. 335. 1862. (Type from Valleseta, Colombia.) 
Carex Jamesonii var. gracilis L. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 13: 88. 1888. (Based on C. Jamesonii var. /3 

Boott.) 
Carex Jamesonii var. chordalis Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 409. 1909. (Based on C. 

chordalis Liebm.) 

Cespitose, the culms stout, stiff, erect, 6-12 dm. high, sharply triangular with concave 
sides, slightly roughened above, exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, cinnamon-brown-tinged at 
base, the basal sheaths not breaking and becoming filamentose, or but little so; leaves with 
well-developed blades 6-10 to a fertile culm, mostly clustered above the base, sparingly septate- 
nodulose, the blades coriaceous, glaucous-green, sharply keeled and channeled below, flat 
above, usually 3-6 dm. long, 5-10 mm. wide, the margins strongly revolute, long-attenuate, 
much roughened towards the apex, the sheaths very thin ventrally and yellowish-brown- 



Part 6. 1935] CYPERACEAE 337 

tinged and red-dotted, the ligule much longer than wide; spikes 15-25, androgynous, the in- 
florescence 2-4 dm. long, the lower spikes mostly in twos to fours, the upper single, erect to 
drooping, on unequal, long, slender, rough peduncles, mostly shorter than the spikes, the 
spikes linear-cylindric, flexuous, the well-developed ones 5-15 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, closely 
flowered above, more loosely towards base, the upper one fifth to one sixth staminate, the 
perigynia 50-200, spreading-ascending in few rows; lower bracts leaflet-like, scarcely sheathing, 
longer or shorter than the inflorescence; upper bracts much reduced; pistillate scales oblong- 
lanceolate, shortly rough-awned, dark-purplish-tinged with 3-nerved green center and very 
narrow hyaline margins, as wide as and from longer to shorter than the perigynia; staminate 
scales similar, but lighter in color; perigynia lanceolate, compressed-triangular, not inflated, 
3.5-4.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, oblique, slightly excurved, membranaceous, glabrous, light- 
green or yellowish-green, 2-keeled and slenderly several-nerved, round-tapering at base, sub- 
stipitate, tapering into the smooth, hyaline-tipped, bidentate beak 1 mm. long, the teeth 
short, erect, hispidulous within; achenes oblong-elliptic, 2 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide, closely 
enveloped in lower part of perigynium-body, triangular with convex sides above, not constricted 
in middle, yellowish-brown, substipitate, apiculate, jointed with the slender, more or less 
flexuous style; stigmas 3, brownish, slender, short. 

Type locality: Hacienda de Castresana, Oaxaca, at 7500 feet alt. (Liebmann, June 1). 
Distribution: Southern Mexico to Colombia. (Specimens examined from Vera Cruz.) 
Illustration: Boott, 111. Carex 109. pi. 335. 

393. Carex Cortesii Uebm. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. V. 2: 268. 1850. 

Carex GaleoUiana C. Meyer; Galeotti, Bull. Acad. Brux. 9-\ 248, name only. 1842. (Type from 

Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico.) 
"Carex Jamesonii Boott" L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 98. 1886. 
"Carex pinchinchensis H. B. K." Bock. Linnaea 39: 147. 1875. (As to plant of GoUmer.) 
"Carex viridis Jungh." Bock. Linnaea 40: 330, in part. 1876. 

Cespitose, the rootstocks short, stout, the culms stout, erect, 6-12 dm. high, sharply 
triangular with concave sides, smooth or nearly so, exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, dull- 
purplish-brown-tinged at base, the basal sheaths breaking and becoming more or less filamen- 
tose; leaves with well-developed blades 7-15 to a fertile culm, sparingly septate-nodulose, the 
lower clustered, the blades glaucous-green, coriaceous, stiff, strongly keeled and channeled 
towards the base, flat above, the margins strongly revolute, usually 3-6 dm. long, 3-6 mm. 
wide, long-attenuate, roughened towards the apex, the sheaths thin-hyaline and yellowish- 
brown-tinged and red-dotted ventrally, the ligule longer than wide; spikes 15-25, androgy- 
nous, the inflorescence 1-2 dm. long, the lower spikes often in twos, the upper single, drooping 
on unequal, long, slender, rough peduncles mostly shorter than the spikes, the spikes linear- 
cylindric, somewhat flexuose, the well-developed ones 2.5-7 cm. long, 4—6 mm. wide, closely 
flowered or somewhat loosely at base, the upper one fourth or one fifth staminate, the perigynia 
30-100, spreading-ascending in few rows; lower bracts leaflet-like, very short-sheathing, 
longer or shorter than the inflorescence; upper bracts much reduced; pistillate scales lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate, shortly rough-awned or cuspidate, dark-purple with 3-nerved greenish 
center and very narrow hyaline margins, narrower and somewhat shorter than the perigynia; 
staminate scales similar, but lighter in color; perigynia broadly oblanceolate, compressed- 
triangular, not inflated, 3 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, oblique, slightly excurved, membranaceous, 
light-green or yellowish-green, red-dotted, 2-ribbed, otherwise nerveless or nearly so, rounded 
at base, substipitate, tapering into the smooth, hyaline-tipped, bidentate beak 1 mm. long, 
the teeth short, erect, hispidulous within; achenes oblong-obovoid, 2 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide, 
closely enveloped, nearly filling perigynium-body, triangular with convex sides above, not 
constricted in middle, yellowish-brown, substipitate, apiculate, jointed with the slender 
flexuose style; stigmas 3, brownish, slender, short. 

Type locality: Cerro de Sempoaltepec, Oaxaca, at 10,000 feet {Liebmann) . 

Distribution: Mountains of southern Mexico. (Specimens examined from Mt. Sempoaltepec, 
Oaxaca.) 

Note: Carex Jamesonii Boott, of South America, has achenes strongly constricted in middle, 
bracts with a conspicuous black band at base, the lowest many times exceeding the culm, and scales 
markedly longer than the perigynia. 



338 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

394. Carex melanosperma Liebm. Danske Vid. Selsk. Skr. V. 

2:269. 1850. 

Carex Jamesonii var. melanosperma Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 409. 1909. (Based on 
C. melanosperma Liebm.) 

Cespitose, the rootstocks short, stout, the culms stout, erect, 6-12 dm. high, sharply tri- 
angular with concave sides and smooth angles, exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, purplish- 
brown-tinged at base, the lower sheaths breaking and becoming more or less filamentose; 
leaves with well-developed blades 7-15 to a fertile culm, sparingly septate-nodulose, the lower 
clustered, the blades glaucous-green, coriaceous, stiff, strongly keeled and channeled towards 
base, flat above, the margins strongly revolute, usually 3-6 dm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, long- 
attenuate, roughened towards the apex, the sheaths thin-hyaline and yellowish-brown-tinged 
and red-dotted ventrally, the ligule longer than wide; inflorescence 1-2 dm. long, the spikes 
15-25, androgynous, the lower in twos to fours, the upper solitary or in pairs, drooping on 
unequal slender rough peduncles, mostly shorter than the spikes, the spikes linear-cylindric, 
somewhat flexuose, the well-developed ones 2.5-7 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, closely flowered 
or somewhat loosely at base, the upper one fourth or one fifth staminate, the perigynia 30-100, 
spreading-ascending in few rows; lower bracts leaflet-like, very short-sheathing, strongly 
exceeding the inflorescence; upper bracts much reduced; pistillate scales lanceolate or ovate- 
lanceolate, shortly rough-awned or cuspidate, reddish-brown with 3-nerved greenish center 
and nearly obsolete hyaline margins, somewhat narrower than and about length of perigynia; 
staminate scales similar but lighter in color; perigynia elliptic-ovoid, somewhat flattened, 
suborbicular-triangular in cross-section, not inflated, 2.5 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, slightly 
excurved and oblique, membranaceous, smooth, dull-green or yellowish-green, red-dotted, 
2-ribbed and strongly few-nerved, rounded at base, sessile or nearly so, contracted into the 
smooth, hyaline-tipped shallowly bidentate beak 0.5 mm. long, the teeth very short, erect, 
smooth within; achenes oblong-obovoid, 1.75 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, very closely enveloped, 
nearly filling perigynium-body, triangular with convex sides above, purplish-black, shining, 
slightly puncticulate, not constricted in middle, substipitate, very slightly apiculate, jointed 
with the slender style; stigmas 3, slender, brownish, short. 

Type locality: Between Huitamalco and Tiuzultan, Puebla, at 5000 feet {Liebmann 938, 
May 1). 

Distribution: Known only from type locality. (Specimens examined from Orizaba, Veracruz.) 

395. Carex Donnell-Smithii L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 

1:56. 1889. 

"Carex viridis Jungh." Bock. Linnaea 40: 330, in part. 1876. 

Carex Pillieri Bock. Allg. Bot. Zeits. 2: 190. 1896. (Type from Costa Rica.) 

"Carex Jamesonii Boott" C. B. Clarke, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 469. 1908. 

Carex Jovis C. B. Clarke, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10 : 470. 1908. (Type from Costa Rica.) 

Cespitose, the culms stout, erect, 3-10 dm. high, sharply triangular with concave sides, 
more or less roughened above, usually exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, strongly purplish-red- 
tinged at base, the lower sheaths breaking and becoming prominently filamentose ; leaves with 
well-developed blades 7-15 to a fertile culm, the lower clustered, the blades glaucous-green, 
coriaceous, stiff, flat with revolute margins, keeled and channeled towards base, usually 3-6 dm. 
long, 3-10 mm. wide, long-attenuate, roughened towards the apex, the sheaths thin, hyaline 
and red-dotted ventrally, the ligule longer than wide; inflorescence compound, 2-6 dm. long, 
the lower primary branches usually in twos to fours, drooping or weakly erect, on rough 
filiform peduncles, unequal in length, usually shorter than the branches, the lower branches 
with several to many spikes, the upper simple; spikes androgynous, very numerous, very 
narrowly linear, cylindric, elongate, 3-12 cm. long, 3.5-5 mm. wide, containing 20-50 loosely 
disposed ascending perigynia below in few rows, the upper one fourth to one sixth staminate; 
lower bracts leaf-like, short-sheathing, from shorter than to exceeding inflorescence, the upper 
much reduced; pistillate scales lanceolate-ovate, strongly hispid-awned to cuspidate, purplish- 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 339 

black with lighter 1-3-nerved midrib, and slightly hyaline apex and upper margins, as wide 
as perigynia at base and from slightly shorter to slightly longer; staminate scales similar; 
perigynia lanceolate, scarcely inflated, compressed-triangular in cross-section, oblique and 
frequently bent in middle, 3.5-4 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, membranaceous, puncticulate, 
dull-green, often purplish-black-tingcd, 2-ribbed and strongly few-nerved, tapering to a short- 
stipitate base, abruptly beaked, the beak e.xcurved, oblique, slender, slightly rough, 1-1.5 mm. 
long, purplish-black-tinged, bidentate, the teeth slender, erect, stiffish, scabrous within, 0.5 
mm. long; achenes oblong-obovoid, 2-2.5 mm. long, 1-1.25 mm. wide, closely enveloped, 
filling body of perigynium, triangular with strongly convex sides above, purplish-black, 
shining, not constricted in middle, substipitate, short-apiculate, jointed with the slender 
more or less flexuose style; stigmas 3, dark-brown, slender, short. 

Type locamty: Pansamala, Alia Verapaz, Guatemala {H. von Turckheim 659). 
Distribution: Guatemala and Costa Rica. (Specimens examined from Guatemala and Costa 
Rica.) 

396. Carex Lemanniana Boott, Trans. Linn. Soc. 20: 121. 1846. 

'Carex pichinchensis H. B. K." Bock. Linnaea 39: 147, in part. 1875. 

Carex Lemanniana var. simplex Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-" : 405. 1909. (Type from Costa 
Rica.) 

Cespitose and short-stoloniferous, the rootstocks stout, woody, the stolons ascending, 
the culms 2.5-6 dm. high, stiff, erect, sharply triangular with concave sides and more or less 
roughened above, exceeding or shorter than the leaves, phyllopodic, dull-brownish at base, the 
lower sheaths not breaking and becoming filamentose; leaves with well-developed blades 7-15 
to a fertile culm, clustered, the blades glaucous-green, coriaceous, stiff, channeled above and 
keeled towards the base below, the margins revolute, usually 1-4 dm. long, 2.5-8 mm. wide, 
long-attenuate, roughened towards the apex, the sheaths thin, yellowish-brown-tinged and 
red-dotted ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule wider than long; inflorescence not or but 
sparingly compound, 1-2.5 dm. long, the spikes 4-20, simple or the lower more or less com- 
pound, weakly erect or drooping on nearly smooth, very slender peduncles usually shorter 
than the spikes; spikes androgynous, linear-cylindric, 2-8 cm. long, 3.5-5 mm. wide, containing 
20-40 rather closely disposed (or more loosely towards base), ascending perigynia below in 
several rows, the upper one fourth to one sixth staminate; lower bracts leaf -like, rather short- 
sheathing, usually exceeding inflorescence, the upper much reduced; pistillate scales ovate- 
lanceolate, short-rough-awned to cuspidate, purplish-black with lighter 1-3-nerved center 
and narrow hyaline upper margins and apex, wider and longer than the perigynia; staminate 
scales similar, duller; perigynia oblong-obovate, not inflated, plano-convex, sharp-edged, 2.5 
mm. long, 1 mm. wide, straight, membranaceous, puncticulate, straw-colored and strongly 
purplish-splashed, 2-ribbed (the marginal), obscurely striate ventrally, strongly several- 
nerved dorsally, hispid-serrulate above, rounded at base, slightly stipitate, abruptly beaked, 
the beak straight, 0.5 mm. long, shallowly bidentate, purplish-tinged above, the orifice hya- 
line, the teeth very short, stiflSsh, scabrous within, somewhat spreading; achenes lenticular, 
oblong-ovate, 1.75 mm. long, 0.85 mm. wide, closely enveloped, filling body of perigynium, 
brown, dull, not constricted in middle, sessile or nearly so, abruptly short-apiculate, jointed 
with the short slender style; stigmas 2, dull-brown, slender, short. 

Type locality: "Hab. in locis humidis mentis ignivomi Cotopaxi, Columbiae, Amer. Merid. 
Harlweg, no. 1446, Herb. C. M. Lemann; Columbia Dr. Jameson 220, Herb. Lemann." 

Distribution : Costa Rica to Columbia and Ecuador. (Specimens examined from Costa Rica 
and Panama.) 

Illustration: Boott, 111. Carex 72. pi. 198 (left hand only).- 

Note: The Costa Rica records of Carex pichinchefisis H. B. K. in C. B. Clarke's publication 
(Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 10: 469. 1909) are based on this species. 

56. Anomalae Carey, in A. Gray, Man. 557. 1848; L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 
72. 1886; Mackenzie, in Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 135. 1917; Mackenzie, Erythea 8: 66. 1922. 
TuMiDAE Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 611. 1909. (Not Tumidae Meinsh. Acta 



340 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Hort. Petrop. 18: 376. 1901.) The species are referred to the HymenochlaenaE Drejer by 
Holm (Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 16: 462, 463. 1903). 

Culms stout, leafy; leaf-blades broad, flat, not hairy, not septate-nodulose; terminal 
spike staminate, linear; lateral spikes pistillate, linear-cylindric, scattered, closely many- 
flowered or very many -flowered in several rows; bracts leaf-like, sheathless or the lowest little 
sheathing; perigynia ascending or in age spreading, obovoid, small, 2.5-4 mm. long, membrana- 
ceous, dull-green or brownish-green, 2-ribbed and nerveless or nerved, tapering or rounded at 
the base, obtusely triangular, slightly inflated, abruptly beaked, the beak conic, obliquely cut, 
becoming bidentulate or bidentate; achenes triangular, short-apiculate, more or less closely 
enveloped, the style straight, slender, jointed with the achene, at length withering, its base not 
enlarged; stigmas 3. 

A group strongly developed in eastern Asia, where it is represented by numerous species. 
Three species are known from Australasia ; and two from the temperate parts of North America, 
one from the eastern part, and the other from the western part. The group is not known from 
Europe, Africa, or South America. 

Perigynia strongly scabrous-papillate, 2-ribbed and strongly several-nerved; 
leaf -blades very scabrous above; culms brownish at base; achenes straight- 
apiculate. 397. C. scabrata. 

Perigynia smooth or nearly so, somewhat rugose, 2-ribbed, otherwise nerveless; 
leaf -blades smooth above (except on the veins towards the tip); culms more 
or less strongly purplish-tinged towards base; achenes bent-apiculate. 398. C. amplifolia. 

397. Carex scabrata Schw. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 69. 1824. 

Loosely cespitose and freely stoloniferous, the stolons very long, horizontal, tough, 
stoutish, brownish, scaly, the clumps medium-sized, the culms 2.5-9 dm. high, erect, stifflsh, 
sharply winged, triangular with concave sides, exceeded by leaves, very rough above, obscurely 
phyllopodic, brownish at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; sterile 
shoots prominent, phyllopodic; leaves with well-developed blades about 4 to a fertile culm, 
regularly disposed, sparingly septate-nodulose, the blades flat, 1-4 dm. long, 5-18 mm. wide, 
deep-green, thin, flaccid, very rough on the margins and very scabrous on the upper surface, 
the two mid-lateral nerves prominent above, the sheaths smooth dorsally, very thin and some- 
what yellowish-tinged ventraUy, deeply concave at mouth, the ligule conspicuous, longer than 
wide; staminate spike solitary, linear, from little to strongly peduncled, 1.5-4 cm. long, 3 mm. 
wide, the scales oblong-ovate, obtusish or acute, slightly ciliate, reddish-brown with lighter or 
greenish 3-nerved center and narrow hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 3-8, usually 4 or 5, 
erect, the upper contiguous, the lower often strongly separate, the lowest on a long, slender, 
rough peduncle often several times the length of the spike, the upper on shorter peduncles or 
nearly sessile, the spikes linear-oblong, 1.2-6 cm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, closely flowered or 
somewhat loosely at base, the perigynia spreading-ascending in several rows; lowest bract 
leaf-like, not sheathing, exceeding inflorescence, the upper reduced ; scales ovate or lanceolate, 
ciliate, acute to short-awned, narrower and usually shorter than the perigynia, light-reddish- 
brown with strongly 3-nerved green center; perigynia dull-green, strongly scabrous-papillate, 
membranaceous, 2-ribbed and strongly several -nerved, 2.5-4 mm. long, the body obovoid, 
not or but little inflated, obtusely triangular in cross-section, 1.5-2 mm. wide, strongly tapering 
at base, substipitate, abruptly contracted into a rough, conic, more or less excurved beak 
nearly its own length, the orifice hyaline, obliquely cut, at length bidentulate or bidentate; 
achenes small, broadly obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, rather closely enveloped, triangu- 
lar with concave sides and prominent thickened angles, brown, papillate, nearly sessile, shortly 
straight-apiculate, jointed with the slender style; stigmas 3, slender, short, dull-reddish-brown. 

Type locality: "New Eng." and more specifically "In various parts of Berkshire county, 
Massachusetts" (Dewey). 

Distribution: Springy banks in woodlands, Nova Scotia and eastern Quebec to Ontario and 
Michigan, and southward mostly in the mountains to South Carolina and Tennessee. (Specimens 
examined from Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Maine, New 
Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 341 

vania, Delaware, Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Caro- 
lina, Tennessee.) 

luMisTKATioNs: Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1 : pi. 26. f. 2; Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. /. 707; ed. 2. /. 1034; 
Rob. & Fern. Man./. 518; Boott, 111. Carex 158. pi. 517; Am. Jour. Sci. 11: pi. K.f. 32. 

398. Carex amplifolia Boott, in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 
2: 228. pi. 226. 1839. 

Cespitose and stoloniferous, the stolons long, horizontal, stout, tough, blackish, scaly, 
the culms stout, erect, 5-10 dm. high, sharply winged-triangular, rough on the angles above, 
exceeded by the bracts and often by the upper leaves, more or less strongly purplish-tinged 
towards base, phyllopodic, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous, sterile shoots 
prominent, phyllopodic; leaves with well-developed blades 6-12 to a fertile culm, the lower 
clustered, the upper regularly disposed, septate-nodulose, the blades flat, thin, flaccid, light- 
green or glaucous-green, usually 1.5-4 dm. long, 8-18 mm. wide, rough on the margins towards 
the apex, smooth above except on the veins towards the tip, the two mid-lateral nerves very 
prominent above, the sheaths more or less hispidulous dorsally, very thin, whitish-hyaline 
and usually brownish-tinged opposite the blades, the ligule conspicuous, much longer than 
wide; staminate spike solitary, linear, short-peduncled, 4-9 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, the scales 
oblong-obovate, obtuse, mucronate, or strongly awned, brown with lighter center and con- 
spicuous hyaline apex; pistillate spikes 3-6, usually 4 or 5, the upper approximate, the lower 
from little to strongly separate, erect, short-peduncled or the upper nearly sessile, the peduncles 
rough, the spikes linear-cylindric, 3.5-14 cm. long, 6-7 mm. wide, closely flowered above, more 
loosely below and containing very many spreading perigynia in few to several rows; lower 
bract leaf-like, exceeding inflorescence, little sheathing, the uppermost much reduced,' scales 
varying from lanceolate and acuminate or awned (the lower) to ovate and acute (the upper), 
often mucronate, sometimes strongly awned, narrower and all except the lower shorter than 
the perigynia, brownish-purple with lighter 3-nerved center and hyaline apex; perigynia 3 
mm. long, the body ovoid, not or but little inflated, obtusely triangular in cross-section, 1.5 
mm. wide, brownish-green, smooth or nearly so, somewhat rugose, membranaceous, 2-ribbed, 
otherwise nerveless, rounded and substipitate at base, abruptly contracted into a conic, more 
or less excurved beak of nearly its own length, the orifice oblique, hyaline, becoming bidentu- 
late or bidentate; achenes small, broadly obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, rather closely 
enveloped, triangular with slightly concave sides and thickened angles, brown, granular, sub- 
stipitate, shortly bent-apiculate, jointed with the slender style; stigmas 3, slender, dull-reddish- 
brown. 

Type locality: "Hab. marshy places. Columbia River. Douglas." 

Distribution: Wet soil, Idaho to British Columbia, and southward to San Mateo and Tulare 
counties, California. (Specimens examined from Idaho, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, 
California.) 

Illustrations: Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. pi. 226; Boott, 111. Carex 17. pi. 48; Erythea 8: 67./. 35; 
Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St. /. 793; Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. /. 193. 

57. Shortianae L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 71. 1886. By Carey (in A. Gray, 
Man. 550. 1848) referred to the Atratae Kunth. By Kukenthal (in Engler, Pflanzenreich 
420. 424^ 427. 1909) referred to the MaximaE Aschers. 

Culms leafy; leaves glabrous, the blades flat; spikes 4 or 5, the terminal gynaecandrous, 
the lateral pistillate or gynaecandrous with a few staminate basal flowers, erect or drooping, 
cylindric, more or less peduncled, closely many-flowered; bracts nearly sheathless or short- 
sheathing, the lower leaf-like; pistillate scales 3-nerved, mucronate to acute; perigynia very 
broadly obovoid, compressed-triangular in cross-section, membranaceous, nerveless, trans- 
versely corrugated, tapering to a short-stipitate base, abruptly short-beaked or minutely 
beaked, the orifice entire or very nearly so; achenes loosely enveloped, triangular with concave 
sides, jointed with the short, slender, deciduous style; stigmas 3, short. 

One species of calcareous districts in the eastern United States and adjacent Canada. 



342 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

399. Carex Shortiana Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 30: 60. 1836. 

Carex Shorlii Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 3: 407. 1836. (Type from Lexington, Kentucky.) 

" Carex for mosa Dewey" Kunth, Enum. PI. 2: 431. 1837. 

Carex ohiolica Hochst. & Steud.; Steud. Nom. Bot. ed. 2. 1: 293. 1840. (Name only; type from 

Ohio.) 
Carex oposandra Kunze; Steud. Syn. Cyp. 202, name only. 1855. 
Carex aporandra Kunze; Boott, 111. Carex 92, name only. 1860. 

Cespitose and not stoloniferous, the clumps medium-sized to large, from very short, 
thick, dark, fibrillose rootstocks, the culms 3-9 dm. high, rather stout, stiff, erect, sharply 
triangular, very rough above, usually shorter than the leaves, phyllopodic, brownish at base; 
leaves with well-developed blades 4-8 to a fertile culm, regularly disposed and not bunched 
towards base, the blades flat, 1-3 dm. long. 4—8 mm. wide, stiff, rather light-green, with very 
rough edges, the middle nerves on each side prominent above, the sheaths greenish-white, 
sparingly septate-nodulose dorsally, light-brownish-red-tinged ventrally and thin and slightly 
transversely rugulose, concave at mouth, extending up beyond point of insertion of blade and 
continuous with the prominent ligule which is longer than wide; terminal spike erect, short- 
peduncled or nearly sessile, the upper half or three fourths pistillate, the rest staminate, the 
whole 2-3.5 cm. long, the staminate scales oblong-obovate, cuspidate to obtusish, reddish- 
brown or straw-colored, with 3-nerved green midrib and hyaline margins; lateral spikes 4 or 5, 
pistillate with a few basal staminate flowers, the lower more or less strongly separate, the upper 
approximate, erect, the lower on slender, roughish peduncles often several times the length 
of the spikes, the others on shorter peduncles, with the uppermost often sessile, the spikes 
linear-cylindric, 1-3.5 cm. long, 4—5 mm. wide, the perigynia 20-60, spreading or the upper 
somewhat ascending, closely packed in about six rows; lowest bract leaf-like, little sheathing, 
exceeding inflorescence, the uppermost reduced; scales ovate, mucronate or acute, much 
narrower than and from somewhat shorter to somewhat longer than perigynia, reddish-brown- 
hyaline with strongly developed 3-nerved green center; perigynia very broadly obovoid, 
compressed-triangular, 2.5-3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, membranaceous, nerveless, olive-green or 
soon cinnamon-brown, transversely corrugated, smooth, strongly cuneate-tapering at base 
and short-stipitate, very obtuSe at apex, with a central, usually bent ridge bearing in the 
middle the very minute (0.2 mm. long), often bent beak with entire or emarginate orifice; 
achenes oblong-obovoid, triangular, with somewhat concave sides, 1.75 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, 
granular, sessile, very short-apiculate, jointed with the short deciduous style; stigmas 3, 
slender, short. 

Type locality: "Found in Lexington, Kentucky, by Dr. Short and named in his honor." 

Distribution: Moist woodlands and thickets, in calcareous districts, Pennsylvania to southern 
Ontario and Iowa, and southward to Virginia, Tennessee, and Oklahoma. (Specimens examined 
from Pennsylvania, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, 
Ontario, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas.) 

Illustrations: Boott, 111. Carex 92. pi. 271; Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 706; ed. 2./. 1044; Rob. 
& Fern. Man./. 439; Drejer, Symb. Car. pi. 1; Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist. Univ. Iowa ^*: pi. 2; Am. Jour. 
Sci. 30: pi. AA,f. 87. 

Note: Boott (111. Carex 2 : 92) erroneously states that Dewey ascribed the name Carex Shortiana 
to Torrey. Dewey published it as his own species and in his alphabetical list of species (Am. Jour. 
Sci. II. 42: 325), published shortly before he died, he continued to treat it so. 

58. Pendulinae Fries, Fl. Scan. 189, as to first species cited. 1835. TrachychlaEnaE 
Drejer, Symb. Car. 9. 1844; Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 16: 459, in small part. 1903; Kukenth. 
in Engler, Pflanzenreich A?^: 415, in smaller part. 1909. FlaccaE O. F. Lang, Linnaea 24: 
581. 1851. GlaucaE Aschers. Fl. Brand. 1: 783, in part. 1864. Referred in part by Tuck- 
erman (Enum. Caric. 11. 1843) and by Bailey (Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 87. 1886) to the AcutaE 
Fries. Referred by Bailey (Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 72. 1886) in part to the AnomalaE Carey 
and in part {op. cit. 91) to the Crvptocarpae Tuckerm. Referred by Holm (Am. Jour. Sci. 
IV. 16: 458. 1903) in part to the Aeorastachyae Drejer. Referred by Kukenthal (in Engler, 
Pflanzenreich A?": 423, 424, 427. 1909) in part to the Maximae Aschers. and in part {op. cit.) 
to the Paludosae Fries. 

Phyllopodic; culms leafy below, the lower sheaths not filamentose, or filamentose ven- 
trally; spikes 2 to 7, the upper 1-3 staminate, linear, the lower 2-3 pistillate (sometimes stam- 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 343 

inate at apex), linear-cylindric or oblong-cylindric, closely very many-flowered, the lower at 
least long-peduncled, and often more or less drooping; lowest bract from nearly equaling to 
exceeding the inflorescence, subsheathing; scales sharp-pointed to long-awned; perigynia 
coriaceous, granular to submembranaceous, firm, appresscd-hispidulous to nerveless, except 
for the two marginal nerves, to strongly ribbed, scarcely inflated, minutely to short-beaked, 
the orifice entire to shallowly bidentate; achenes rather closely enveloped, triangular, apiculate, 
jointed with the very abruptly bent or straight style; stigmas 3, slender. 

Represented by one or two species, widely distributed in Europe and extending into 
northern Africa and western Asia, and by three in the southeastern United States; one species 
is adventive or introduced in several parts of North America and also in New Zealand. 

Perigynia appressed-hispidulous; style very abruptly bent. 400. C.Jlacca. 

Perigynia papillate or granular; style straight. 

Perigynia strongly ribbed, squarrose, often but slightly glaucous; pistillate 
scales not retuse; staminate scales tapering into the awn; basal sheaths 
not filamentose. ^0\. C. Joorii. 

Perigynia nerved, ascending, very glaucous; pistillate scales deeply retuse; 
staminate scales retuse, abruptly awned. 
Pistillate spikes erect, the lower short-peduncled, pistillate scales pur- 
plish-brown-tinged, oblong-obovate; perigynia strongly nerved, at 

least above; basal sheaths little if at all filamentose. 402. C. verrucosa. 

Pistillate spikes nodding at maturity, the lower long-peduncled; pistil- 
late scales reddish-brown-tinged, obovate; perigynia obscurely 
nerved ; basal sheaths usually filamentose. 403. C. glaucescens. 

400. Carex flacca Schreb. Spic. Fl. Lips. App. 1771. 

Coreic gZa«ca Scop. Fl. Carn. ed. 2. 2: 223. 1772. (Type from Carniola.) 
"Carex limosa L." Leers, Fl. Herborn. 201. pi. 15, f. 3. 1775. (Plant from Germany.) 
Carex limosa /3 Leers, Fl. Herborn. 201. 1775. (Plant from Germany.) 
Carex recurva Huds. F\. Angl. ed. 2. 413. 1778. (Type from England.) 
Carex aspera Wind. F\. BeTol. 32. 1787. (Type from Berlin, Germany.) 
Ca»-eA,- 2;e;-wa 7 Lam. Encyc. 3: 395. 1791. (Based on C. g/o!<ca Scop.) 
Carex Irachycarpos Link, Jour. Bot. Schrad. 17992; 310. 1799. (Type from Portugal.) 
Carex Micheliana Smith, Trans. Linn. Soc. 5: 270. 1800. (Type from Aberdeen, Scotland.) 
"Carex acuta L." Suter, Fl. Helv. 2: 261. 1802. (Plant from Switzerland.) 

Carex nigro-lulea Gaudin, Etr. Fl. 196. 1804; Agrost. Helv. 2 : 196. 1811. (Type from Switzerland.) 
Carex thuringiaca Willd. vSp. PI. 4: 250. 1805. (Type from Thuringia.) 
Carex reciirva /? C. aspera Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 299. 1805. (Based on C. aspera Willd.) 
Carex ambleocarpa Willd. Sp. PI. 4: 307. 1805. (Based on C. Micheliana Smith.) 
Carex geniiensis DC. Cat. PI. Hort. Monsp. 87. 1813. (Type from Genoa, Italy.) 
Carex glauca /3 C. aspera Poir. in Lam. Encyc. Suppl. 3: 277. 1813. (Based on C. aspera Willd.) 
Trastis glaucus S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 67. 1821. (Based on Carex glauca Scop.) 
Trasus glaucus var. Michelianus S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2 : 68. 1821. (Based on Carex Michel- 
iana Smith.) 
Trasus glaucus var. ramosus S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 68. 1821. (Type from England.) 
Carex glauca var. vulgaris Spenner, Fl. Frib. 68. 1825. (Based on C. glauca Scop.) 
Carex glauca var. oligostachya Spenner, Fl. Frib. 68. 1825. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex glauca var. gynobasis Spenner, Fl. Frib. 68. 1825. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex glauca var. erecta Spenner, Fl. Frib. 68. 1825. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex glauca var. brevislachya Spenner, Fl. Frib. 68. 1825. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex glauca var. glabra Spenner, Fl. Frib. 68. 1825. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex glauca var. androgvna Spenner, Fl. Frib. 68. 1825. (Type from Gemany.) 
Carex stictocarpa Smith, Engl. Fl. 4: 127. 1828. (Type from Scotland.) 
Carex glauca forma Kunth. Enum. PI. 2: 459. 1837. (Based on C. thuringiaca Willd.) 
Carex glauca f. typica Drejer, Symb. Car. 20. 1844. (Based on C. glauca Scop.) 
Carex glauca f. arrecta Drejer, Symb. Car. 20. 1844. (Based on C. ambleocarpa Willd.) 
Carex glauca f. bulbosa Drejer, Symb. Car. 20. 1844. (Type locality not given.) 
Carex glauca var. scabra Peterm. Flora 27: 337. 1844. (Type from Germany.) 

Carex glauca var. sphaerostachys Lange, Haandb. Danske Fl. ed. 2. 620. 1859. (Type from Den- 
mark.) 
Carex glauca var. arenosa Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 713. 1866. (Type from Transsylvania.) 
Carex glauca var. leptostachvs Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 713. 1866. (Type from Transsylvania.) 
Carex glauca var. laxiflora Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 713. 1866. (Type from Transsylvania.) 
Carex glauca var. ambleocarpa Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 713. 1866. (Based on C. ambleocarpa 

Willd.) 
Carex flacca f. melanostachya Uechtr.; Fiek, Fl. Schles. 486. 1881. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex glauca var. rotundala Callme, Deuts. Bot. Monats. 6:1. 1888. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex glauca f. subrotundata Kiikenth. Deuts. Bot. Monats. 8: 107. 1890. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex flacca var. typica G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 141. 1890. (Based on C. flacca Schreb.) 
Carex flacca var. aggregala G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 141. 1890. (Type from Austria.) 
Carex flacca var. basigyna G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 141. 1890. (Type from Austria.) 



344 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Carex flacca var. pallida G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 141. 1890. (Type from Austria.) 

Carex flacca var. microcarpa G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 141. 1890. (Type from Austria.) 

Carex flacca var. melanocarpa Murr, Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 41: 90. 1891. (Type from Austria.) 

Carex flacca var. oogyna Murr, Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 41 : 90. 1891. (Type from Austria.) 

Carex hinnulea C. B. Clarke, Symb. Ant. 2: 159. 1900. (Type from Jamaica.) 

Carex glauca var. depauperata Hoschede, Bull. Acad. Geogr. Bot. 12: 205. 1903. (Type from 

France.) 
Carex glauca stirps eu-glauca Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 135. 1902. (Based on C. 

glauca Scop.) 
Carex glauca var. silvalica Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2^: 135. 1902. (Type from central 

Europe.) 
Carex glauca var. typica Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2^: 135. 1902. (Based on C. glauca 

Scop.) 
Carex glauca var. typica subvar. pallida Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 135. 1902. (Based 

on C. flacca var. pallida G. I$eck.) 
Carex glauca var. typica subvar. melanostachys Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2^: 135. 1902. 

(Based on C. flacca f. jnelanostachya Uechtr.) 
Carex glauca var. typica subvar. thuringiaca Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 136. 1902. 

(Based on C thuringiaca Willd.) 
Carex glauca var. Micheliana Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 136. 1902. (Based on C. 

Micheliana Smith.) 
Carex flacca var. chlorocarpa R. Keller, Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 3: 377. 1903. (Type from south- 
eastern Switzerland.) 
Carex glauca f. pubicarpa Rohlena, Sitz.-ber. Bohm. Ges. Wiss. 190438; 95. 1905. (Type from 

Montenegro.) 
Carex glauca f. aristolepis Kukenth.; L. Gross. Mitt. Bad. Bot. Ver. 210/211 : 75. 1906. (Type from 

Germany.) 
Carex glauca f. scabra "Peterm." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 417. 1909. (Based on C. 

glauca var. scabra Peterm.) 
Carex glauca f. thuringiaca "Kunth" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4™: 417. 1909. (Based on 

C. thuringiaca Willd.) 
Carex glauca i. subrotunda Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich A-": 417. 1909. (Change of spelling 

for C. glauca f. subrotundata Kukenth.) 
Carex glauca f. leptostachys "Schur" Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 417. 1909. (Based on 

C glauca var. leptostachya Schur.) 
Carex glauca f. laxiflora "Schur" Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 417. 1909. (Based on C. 

glauca var. laxiflora Schur.) 
Carex glauca f. silvatica "Asch. & Graebn." Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 417. 1909. 

(Based on C. glauca var. silvatica Asch. & Graebn.) 
Carex glauca f. pallida "G. Beck" Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 417. 1909. (Based on C. 

glauca var. pallida G. Beck.) 
Carex glauca f. flavescens Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42": 417. 1909. (Type European.) 
Carex glauca f. chlorocarpa "R. Keller" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 417. 1909. (Based 

on C glauca var. chlorocarpa R. Keller.) 
Carex glauca f. melanostachya "Uechtr." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 417. 1909. (Based 

on C. flacca f. melanostachya Uechtr.) 
Carex glauca f. Micheliana "Asch. & Graebn." Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42": 417. 1909. 

(Based on C. Micheliana Smith.) 

Loose cespitose from slender, elongate rootstocks, sending forth long slender horizontal 
stolons, the culms slender but stiff and erect, phyllopodic, 2-6 dm. high, exceeding the leaves, 
sharply triangular with flat sides, rough above, reddish-brown at base, leaves with well- 
developed blades 8-15 to a fertile culm, mostly clustered near the base, not septate-nodulose, 
the blades flat with revolute margins above and keeled below, usually 1-4 dm. long, 2-5 mm. 
wide, glaucous, thick, spreading, rough-serrulate on margins, the sheaths tight, copper-colored 
ventrally, concave at mouth, not breaking nor becoming filamentose, the ligule much wider 
than long; sterile shoots aphyllopodic, the lower sheaths breaking and becoming sparingly 
filamentose; staminate spikes 1-3, approximate, the uppermost short-peduncled, the lateral 
sessile, linear, 1.5-4 cm. long, 2-6 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, brownish- 
black with lighter midrib and hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, not aggregated, at first 
erect, soon more or less nodding on slender, rough peduncles, usually somewhat shorter than 
the spikes, often staminate at apex, linear- or oblong-cylindric, 1-4 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, 
containing 50-100 ascending or at length somewhat spreading perigynia closely packed in 
several rows; bracts leaflet-like, the lowest equaling or exceeding inflorescence, sub-sheathing 
and dark-tinged at base; scales ovate-lanceolate, acute, acuminate or often short-mucronate, 
dark-brown with lighter center and hyaline margins, nearly as wide as and often nearly equal- 
ing perigynia; perigynia ovoid-oval or obovoid, suborbicular and slightly triangular in cross- 
section, 3 mm. long, 1.7 mm. wide, nerveless except the two marginal nerves, granular, sparingly 
appressed-hispid above, coriaceous, straw-colored or becoming brownish-black, rounded 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 345 

and substipitate at base, rounded at apex, abruptly very minutely beaked, the beak hardly 0.3 
mm. long with entire orifice; achenes obovoid, 2.5 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, rather closely 
enveloped, triangular, the angles rounded, the sides rather convex below, brownish-puncticu- 
late, jointed with the very abruptly bent, very short, non-exserted, slender style; stigmas 3, 
slender. 

Typk locality: "Ad fossas passim, v. c. loco ab ill. Boehmero indicato," Leipzig, Germany. 

Distribution: Naturalized in meadows, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario; St. Croix; Jamaica. 
Widely <Hstributed in Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa. (Specimens examined from Nova 
Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, Jamaica.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 742; ed. 2./. iOJJ.-Rob. & Fern. Man./. 457; Schkuhr, 
Riedgr. pi. 0,f. 57a; pi. P,f. 57b; pi. Zz, /. 113; pi. Ppp.f. 155; pi. Cccc.f. 184; Fl. Dan. pi. 1051, 
2666; Sturm, Deuts. Fl. 53: pi. 15; 69: pi. 11 (as C. erythroslachys); Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: pi. 
269, f. 648; pi. 270, f. 650 (C. clavaeformis) ; Leers, Fl. Herborn. pi. 15, f. 3 (as C. limosa); Drejer, 
Symb. Car. pi. 6; Anderss. Cyp. Scand. pi. 7,f. 79; Host, Gram. Austr. 1: pi. 91; Coste, Fl. Fr. /. 
3852, 3854 (C. clavaeformis); Hegi, 111. Fl. Mittel-Eur. pi. 50. f. 1; Engl. Bot. pi. 1506; pi. 2236 (var. 
Micheliana); Suppl. pi. 2772 (C. slictocarpa); ed. 2. pi. 1664, pi. 1665 (var. Micheliana), pi. 1646 
(var. sticlocarpa); Benth. Handb. Brit. Fl. ed. 2. /. 1132; Baxter, Brit. Bot. pi. 440 (as C. recurva); 
Hallier. Deuts. Fl. 349. pi. 438. pi. 449 (C. clavaeformis); Karst. Deuts. Fl. 349./. 175 (5); Thome, 
Fl. Deuts. pi. 97, A-B; Willd. Fl. Berol. pi. l,f. 2; Willd. Acta Berol. pi. 3. 

Note: The name Carex glauca has been attributed to Murray (Prodr. Stirp. Getting. 76. 1770). 
He, however, merely gives reference to Haller 1408 , without giving a binomial name. Haller's 1408 
is one of the synonyms given by Scopoli in establishing C. glauca Scop. 



401. Carex Joorii L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 72. 1886. 

"Carex macrokolea Steud." Rob. & Fern. Man. 247, 1908. 

Loosely cespitose, from creeping, stout, tough, blackish, scaly rootstocks, the culms 
strongly phyllopodic, 4—10 dm. high, erect, stout, exceeding the leaves, sharply triangular 
and much roughened above, reddish-brown at base, the sterile shoots numerous, phyllopodic; 
leaves with well-developed blades 8-15 to a fertile culm, on the lower half, the lower bunched, 
the upper separate, not septate-nodulose, the blades thin but stiff, glaucous, channeled at 
base, flat with revolute margins above, 2-5 dm. long, 3-10 mm. wide, serrulate-margined and 
very rough towards the long-attenuate apex, the sheaths very thin and yellowish-tinged 
ventrally, not filamentose, truncate at mouth, the ligule short; staminate spike one, long- 
rough-peduncled, erect, 1.5-3 cm. long, 3 mm. wide, the scales narrowly oblong-obovate. 
tapering into a short, rough awn, white-hyaline with green, three-nerved center and slightly 
reddish-brown-tinged; anthers red, 4 mm. long; pistillate spikes 3-5, approximate or the lowest 
separate, erect, the lower on rough peduncles shorter or somewhat longer than the spikes, the 
upper shorter-peduncled to nearly sessile, oblong, 1.5-6 cm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, sometimes 
sparingly staminate at apex, densely flowered, the perigynia 15-50, squarrose-spreading at 
maturity in several to many rows ; lowest bract slightly sheathing, leaflet-like, from somewhat 
shorter to longer than inflorescence, the upper much reduced; scales obovate, not refuse, 
abruptly rough-awned, the body narrower and shorter than the perigynia, hyaline with green 
3-nerved center and more or less reddish-brown-tinged; perigynia very broadly obovoid, 
inflated-suborbicular in cross-section, 4 mm. long-^ 3-3.5 mm. wide, strongly many-ribbed, 
dull-green, often but slightly glaucous, submembranaceous, tapering at base, sessile, the beak 
1 mm. long, flat, conic, straight or slightly bent, the orifice entire; achenes rhomboid-orbicular, 
rather loosely enveloped, 2.5 mm. long and somewhat wider, triangular with deeply concave 
sides and blunt somewhat knobbed angles, yellowish, sessile, abruptly apiculate, jointed with 
the straight, short, thickish style; stigmas 3, reddish-brown. 

Type locality: "Comite Swamp, near Baton Rouge, La." (Joor). 

Distribution : Hummocks in cypress swamps, Florida to Texas, northward to Maryland, and 
in the Mississippi Valley to western Tennessee and southeastern Missouri. Flowers in summer. 
(Specimens examined from Virginia, Maryland, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, western Tennessee, southeastern Missouri.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2./. 178; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 517 (as C. macrokolea 
Steud.). 



346 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

402. Carex verrucosa Muhl. Descr. Gram. 261. 1817. 

Carex glancescens var. androgyna M. A. Curt. Am. Jour. Sci. 44 : 84. 1843. (Type from Wilmington, 

North Carolina.) 
Carex verrucosa var. androgyna "M. A. Curt." Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 48: 140. pi. DD,f. 99. 1845. 

(Based on C. glaucescens var. androgyna M. A. Curt.) 
Carex macrokolea Steud. Syn. Cyp. 223. 1855. (Type from New Orleans, Louisiana.) 
Carex brasiliensis var. gracilis Bock. Linnaea 41: 292. 1877. (Excluding citations mostly; type 

from Louisiana.) 
Care* sp. Harper, Bull. Torrey Club 32 : 460. 1905. (Brunswick, Georgia.) 
Carex glaucescens f. macrokolea Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4^°: 733. 1909. (Based on C. 

macrokolea Steud.) 

Loosely cespitose, from creeping, rather slender, tough, blackish, scaly rootstocks, the 
culms 6-12 dm. high, stout below, rather slender above, sharply triangular with concave 
sides and smooth angles, much exceeding leaves, phyllopodic, reddish-brown at base, the 
basal sheaths little if at all filamentose; leaves with well-developed blades 6-12 to a fertile 
culm, mostly clustered near the base, not septate-nodulose, the blades deeply channeled, 
keeled and somewhat triangular at base, flat above with revolute margins, 2-7 dm. long, 4-10 
mm. wide, glaucous, punctate, firm, much roughened towards the long-attenuate apex, the 
sheaths very thin and yellowish-tinged and strongly dark-red-dotted ventrally, truncate at 
mouth, the ligule short; staminate spike normally one (or with 1 or 2 additional sessile ones at 
base), erect, linear, 3-6 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, the peduncle rough, the scales oblanceolate or 
obovate, deeply retuse, abruptly strongly rough-awned, purplish-brown with green 3-nerved 
center and very narrow hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 3 or 4, or occasionally up to 6, strongly 
separate, erect, the lower on short peduncles, the upper sessile or nearly so, 2.5-8 cm. long, 
7-10 mm. wide, densely flowered, the perigynia numerous, ascending, in several to many rows; 
lowest bract leaflet-like, slightly sheathing, exceeding inflorescence, the others reduced; scales 
with oblong-obovate bodies, narrower and somewhat shorter than the perigynia, purplish- 
brown with green 3-nerved center, and very narrow hyaline margins, deeply retuse, abruptly 
rough-cuspidate, the awns from one third to twice the length of the body of the scale; peri- 
gynia broadly obovoid, triangular, not inflated, 3-4.5 mm. long, -2.5 mm. wide, very glaucous, 
strongly several-nerved (at least above), papillate, subcoriaceous, tapering at base, sessile or 
nearly so, contracted at apex into a minute (0.25 mm. long) beak with entire orifice; achenes 
very broadly rhomboid-obovoid, triangular with deeply concave sides and prominent blunt 
angles, 2.5 mm. long and about as wide, closely filling perigynium, granular, sessile, abruptly 
apiculate, jointed with the straight, slender style; stigmas 3, slender, reddish-brown. 

Type locality: "Habitat in Georgia et Carolina." 

Distribution: Pineland swamps, South Carolina to Florida and Louisiana. Flowers in spring 
and sometimes again later in the season. (Specimens examined from South Carolina, Georgia, 
Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. /. 741; Boott, 111. Carex 89, in part. fl. 262; Am. Jour. 
Sci. 77: pi. M, f. 41 (C. verrucosa); Am. Jour. Sci. 48: pi. DD, f. 99 (C. verrucosa var. androgyna). 

Note: A scrap of this species received from Muhlenberg is preserved in the Torrey Herbarium. 
The species answers to his description and that of Elliott (Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2 : 555. 1824). It does 
not at all agree with Carex slricla Lam., as intimated by Kiikenthal (Pflanzenreich 420: 733. 1909). 

403. Carex glaucescens Bll. Bot. S. C. & Ga. 2: 553. 1824. 

Carex sempervirens Schw. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1 : 70. 1824. (Type from Hillsborough, North Carolina.) 

Not C. sempervirens Vill. 1787. 
Carex inundala Willd.; Schlecht. Linnaea 10: 267. 1835. (Type from "Carolina.") 
Edritria glaucescens Raf. Good Book 26. 1840. (Based on Carex glaucescens Ell.) 
Carex glaucescens var. polystachys M. A. Curt. Am. Jour. Sci. II. 7: 410. 1849. (Type from Society 

Hill, South Carolina.) 
Carex rufidula Steud. Syn. Cyp. 220. 1855. (Type from Louisiana.) 
Carex verrucosa var. glaucescens Wood, Bot. & Fl. ed. 1871. 379. 1871. (Based on C. glaucescens 

Ell.) 
Carex brasiliensis gracilis Bock. Linnaea 41 : 292. 1877. (As to citations mostly.) 
"Carex verrucosa Muhl." Rob. & Fern. Man. 247. 1908. 

Loosely cespitose from creeping, stout, tough, blackish, scaly rootstocks, the culms 5-12 
dm. high, stout below, slender above, exceeding the leaves, sharply triangular with concave 
sides, somewhat roughened above, strongly phyllopodic, reddish-brown-tinged at base, the 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 347 

basal sheaths usually strongly filamentose; leaves with well-developed blades 5-10 to a fertile 
culm, on the lower half, not septate-nodulose, the blades deeply channeled, keeled and tri- 
angular at base, flat above with rcvolute margins, glaucous, firm, 2-6 dm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, 
very rough towards the long-attenuate apex, the sheaths very thin and yellowish-tinged and 
red-dotted ventrally, truncate at mouth, the ligule short; staminate spike one, erect, linear, 
2.5-6 cm. long, 4-5 mm. wide, the peduncle rough, the scales oblanceolate or narrowly obovate, 
retuse and abruptly strongly awned, reddish-brown with green 3-nerved center and very 
narrow hyaline margins ; pistillate spikes usually 3 or 4 but reported sometimes to be as many 
as 12, more or less strongly separate, on rough, slender peduncles of about their own length, 
at first erect, finally nodding, the spikes linear-oblong, 2.5-5 cm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, densely 
flowered, often more or less staminate at apex, the perigynia numerous, ascending, in several 
to many rows; lowest bract leaf-like, short-sheathing, equaling or exceeding the inflorescence, 
the upper much reduced; scales with obovate bodies, narrower and shorter than the perigynia, 
deeply retuse, reddish-brown with prominent 3-nerved green midrib, the lower (at least) 
abruptly long-cuspidate; perigynia broadly ovoid or obovoid, triangular, not inflated, 3-3.5 
mm. long, 2-2.25 mm. wide, very glaucous, papillate, subcoriaceous, 2-ribbed and obscurely 
several-nerved, round-truncate and very short-stipitate at base, contracted at apex into a 
minute (0.25-0.5 mm. long) beak with orifice entire or nearly so; achenes broadly rhomboid- 
obovoid, closely enveloped, 2.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, triangular with deeply concave sides 
and prominent blunt angles, brownish, granular, sessile, abruptly apiculate, jointed with the 
short, straight, slender style; stigmas 3, slender, reddish-brown. 

Type locality: South Carolina. 

Distribution: Pineland swamps, Louisiana to Florida, and northward to southeastern Vir- 
ginia. Flowers in summer. (Specimens examined from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. ed. 2. /. 1046; Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=»:/. 125, H, J.; 
Rob. & Fern. Man./. 516 (as C. verrucosa); Boott, 111. Carex 89, in part. pi. 261, 263; Drejer, Symb. 
Car. pi. 3; Am. Jour. Sci. V. 3: 261./. 1-3; Am. Jour. Sci. II: pi. M,f. 39. 

59. Limosae Tuckerm. Enum. Caric. 12. 1843; Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 71. 1845; 
Carey, in A. Gray, Man. 549. 1848; Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4'°: 502. 1909; 
Mackenzie, in Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 135. 1917. Penduunae Fries, Fl. Scan. 189, in part. 
1835; L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 94, mostly. 1886. Aeorastachyae Drejer, Symb. 
Car. 9, in small part. 1844; Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 16: 457, in small part. 1903. Aeora- 
stachyae Limosae Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV, 49: 431. 1920; op. cit. V. 3: 262. 1922. 

Culms slender, leafy below; roots yellowish-brown felted; leaf -blades narrow; terminal 
spike linear, staminate or gynaecandrous; lateral spikes 1-4, pistillate or gynaecandrous with 
a few staminate flowers, distant, narrowly oblong to oblong or suborbicular, closely several- 
to many-flowered in several rows, drooping or weakly erect on slender peduncles; bracts 
leaflet-like, sheathless or very short-sheathing; perigynia appressed or ascending, coriaceous 
or membranaceous, ovoid to broadly elliptic, glaucous-green or straw-colored, beakless or 
nearly so; achenes triangular, usually closely enveloped, jointed with the short, straight, 
slender, somewhat exserted style; stigmas 3. 

Seven species, of sphagnous bogs or swamps; five of them widely distributed in the colder 
and temperate parts of Eurasia and North America, one restricted to the Atlantic coastal 
plain of the United States, and one confined to the southern part of South America. 

Perigynia suborbicular-triangular in cross-section. 

Pistillate scales partly enveloping the perigynia at base; pistillate spikes 
6-20 mm. long; perigynia 2-25 in each spike. 
Perigynia 3-3.5 mm. long, round-tapering at apex; achenes elliptic; 
pistillate scales broadly ovate to suborbicular; culms obtusely 
triangular, stiff; pistillate spikes usually 2-10-flowered. 404. C. rariflora. 

Perigynia 4-4.5 mm. long, tapering at apex; achenes broadly obovoid; 
pistillate scales broadly ovate; culms sharply triangular, not stiff; 
pistillate spikes usually 10-25-flowered. 405. C. slygia. 

Pistillate scales not enveloping the perigynia at base; pistillate spikes 1.5-5 

(usually 2.5-4) cm. long; perigynia 20-60 in each spike. 406. C. Barrallii. 

Perigynia compressed-triangular in cross-section. 
Pistillate scales short-cuspidate to obtuse. 



348 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Plant strongly stoloniferous ; leaf-blades more or less glaucous, deeply 
canaliculate, 1—3 mm. wide; pistillate scales persistent, ovate to 
suborbicular, about the length of to somewhat exceeding peri- 
gynia; perigynia minutely beaked; fertile culms obliquely ascend- 
ing, strongly phyllopodic. 407. C. limosa. 

Plant loosely cespitose; leaf -blades deep-green, 2-4 mm. wide; pistillate 
scales soon deciduous, lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, usually con- 
spicuously exceeding perigynia; perigynia scarcely beaked; fertile 
culms erect, clothed at base with the dried-up leaves of the pre- 
ceding year. 408. C. paupercula. 
Pistillate scales terminating in a slender rough awn 2-12 mm. long. 409. C. macrochaela. 

404. Carex rariflora (Wahl.) Smith, Engl. Bot. pi. 2516. 1813. 

Carex limosa var. pauciflora Wahl.; Schkuhr, Riedgr. 105. 1801. (Type from Norway.) 
Carex limosa var. rariflora Wahl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Nya Handl. 24: 162. 1803. (Type from Lapland.) 
'Carex laxa Wahl." Schkuhr, Riedgr. Nachtr. 79. 1806. (Plant from Lapland.) 
Trasus rariflorus S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 68. 1821. (Based on Carex rariflora Smith.) 
Carex rariflora var. ? pallidior M. N. Blytt, Norges Fl. 1: 210. 1861. (Type from Norway.) 
Carex rariflora va.T.firmior Norman, Forh. Vid.-Selsk. Christ. 27": 5L 1893. (Type from northern 

Norway.) 
Carex rariflora var. firmior f. rufescens Norman, Forh. Vid.-Selsk. Christ. 27i6: 51. 1893. (Type 

from northern Norway.) 
Carex rariflora var. firmior f. expallida Norman, Forh. Vid.-Selsk. Christ. 27": 51. 1893. (Type 

from northern Norway.) 
Carex rariflora var. flrmior f. baeostachya Norman, Forh. Vid.-Selsk. Christ. 27": 51. 1893. (Type 

from northern Norway.) 
Carex rariflora var. hrevipedunculala Meinsh. Acta Hort. Petrop. 18: 351. 1901. (Type from 

Sachalin.) 
Carex rariflora f. pallidior "M. N. Blytt" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 504. 1909. (Based 

on C. rariflora var. (?) pallidior M. N. Blytt.) 
Carex rariflora f. rufescens "Norman" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 504. 1909. (Based 

on C. rariflora var. firmior f. rufescens Norman.) 
Carex rariflora f. baeostachya "Norman" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42": 504. 1909. (Based 

on C. rariflora var. firmior f. baeostachya Norman.) 
Carex rariflora f. brevipedunculata "Meinsh." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich, 42": 504. 1909. 

(Based on C. rariflora var. brevipedunculata Meinsh.) 

Loosely stoloniferous, from slender, elongate, dark-colored, scaly, branching rootstocks, 
the clumps small, the culms 1-3.5 dm. high, stiff, much exceeding the leaves, obtusely tri- 
angular, the angles smooth, dark -purplish-brown at base, and clothed with the short-bladed 
dried-up leaves of the previous year; leaves with well-developed blades 3-6 to a fertile culm, 
clustered at the base, the blades green, erect, thickish and stiff, fiat or with somewhat involute 
margins, 5-20 cm. long, 1.5-2.5 mm. wide, somewhat roughened towards apex; the sheaths 
very thin and hyaline ventrally and slightly yellowish-brown-tinged, obliquely truncate at 
mouth, the ligule prominent; terminal spike staminate, peduncled, erect or sometimes droop- 
ing, linear, 6-15 mm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, several-flowered, the scales oblanceolate or obovate, 
acute or obtusish, dark-reddish-brown with lighter midrib and very narrow hyaline margins; 
pistillate spikes 1-3 (usually 2), approximate, the lowest on a slender, smooth peduncle of its 
own length, at first erect, later drooping, the others on shorter peduncles and more erect, the 
spikes narrowly oblong, 6-15 mm. long, 3.5-5 mm. wide, the perigynia usually 2-10, suberect, 
rather closely packed, but in few rows; bracts colored at base, the auricles prominent, the 
lowest bract leaflet-like, 5-20 mm. long, short-sheathing or sheathless, shorter than inflores- 
cence, the upper rarely prolonged; scales broadly ovate or suborbicular, obtuse to abruptly 
mucronate, dark-reddish-brown varying to yellowish or reddish-brown or dark-brown, with 
lighter midrib and very narrow hyaline margins, about length of but wider than and partially 
enveloping perigynia; perigynia ovoid to broadly ovoid-elliptic, suborbicular-triangular in 
cross-section and slightly 2-edged, several-nerved on lower half, 3-3.5 mm. long, 1.75-2 mm. 
wide, glaucous-green, coriaceous, densely papillate, smooth, tapering to an obconic substipitate 
base, round-tapering and beakless at apex and with entire orifice, but often tipped by the 
persistent style; achenes triangular, with slightly convex sides, elliptic, black, substipitate, 
2 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, in lower two thirds of perigynium, rather closely enveloped, taper- 
ing at apex and apiculate and obscurely jointed with the style, the latter slender, exserted, at 
length deciduous; stigmas 3, slender, elongate. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 349 

Type locality (of Carex limosa var. rariflora, on which C. rariflora is based): "Hab. in locis 
irriguis infra alpinis per Norlandiam Septentrionalem." 

Distribution: Cold open bogs and wet slopes, acid conditions, Greenland to Alaska, and 
southward in the east to Mt. Katahdin, Maine; also widely distributed in arctic and subarctic 
Eurasia. (Specimens examined from Greenland, Labrador, Newfoundland, St. Pierre, Miquelon, 
Quebec, Mt. Katahdin, Maine, Keewatin, Mackenzie [Seward Peninsula and Aleutian Islands], 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown. 111. Fl./. 733; ed. 2./. 1035; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 468; Engler, 
Pflanzenreich 4™:/. 80, A-D; Fl. Dan. pi. 2432; Boott, 111. Carex 79. pi. 217; Jour. Russe Bot. 
1911 : 141. f. 117; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 68./. 38; Anderss. Cyp. Scand. pi. 6,f. 70; Engl. Bot. pi. 2516; ed. 
2. pi. 1649'; Schkuhr, Riedgr. pi. Aaa, f. 78 (as C. laxa Wahl.). 

Note: The Minnesota record for this species is based on a specimen of Carex limosa L. 

405. Carex stygia Fries, Mant. 3: 141. 1842. 

Carex rariflora var. slygia Anderss. Cyp. Scand. 35. 1849. (Based on C. stygia Fries.) 
Carex limosa var. Bock. Linnaea 41: 164. 1877. (Type from Sitka.) 
Carex nigrita Fisch.; Bock. Linnaea 41 : 164, as synonym. 1877. (Type from Sitka.) 
Carex limosa var. stygia L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 95. 1886. (Based on C. stygia Fries.) 
Carex limosa var. nigrita (Fisch.) "Bock." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42": 504, as synonym. 
1909. (Based on C. nigrita Fisch.) 

Loosely stoloniferous from slender, elongate, dark-purple, scaly and fibrillose rootstocks 
usually bulbous-thickened at the nodes, the culms arising singly or a few together, slender, 
2-6 dm. high, sharply triangular, erect but not stiff, smooth or slightly roughened above, 
usually somewhat exceeding leaves, dark-purplish at base and conspicuously clothed with the 
dried-up leaves of the previous year; leaves with well-developed blades usually 3-5 to a fertile 
culm, on the lower fourth, the blades green, not stiff or thickish, fiat with slightly revolute 
margins, usually 1-3 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, roughened towards the attenuate apex, the 
sheaths thin and hyaline ventrally and slightly yellowish -brown-tinged, obliquely truncate at 
mouth, the ligule prominent; terminal spike staminate, erect, strongly peduncled, many- 
flowered, 1-2.5 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, dark-reddish- 
brown with narrow but conspicuous white-hyaline margins and lighter center; pistillate 
spikes 1 or 2, more or less strongly separate, drooping on smooth capillary peduncles about 
length of spikes, the spikes oblong, 12-20 mm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, containing usually 10-25 
closely packed appressed-ascending perigynia in several rows; bracts reduced, leaflet-like, dark, 
auricled but not sheathing, shorter than inflorescence ; scales broadly ovate, acute to abruptly 
short-cuspidate, black with lighter midrib, as wide as and usually slightly shorter than mature 
perigynia and somewhat enveloping them towards base; perigynia ovoid, flattened, suborbicu- 
lar-triangular in cross-section, glaucous-green or whitish, 2-edged, strongly several-nerved, 
4-4.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, tapering at base, coriaceous, very densely papillate, smooth, 
short-tapering at apex but not beaked, the orifice entire; achenes triangular, broadly obovoid, 
3.5 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, closely enveloped, contracted above and apiculate and obscurely 
jointed with the slender, at length deciduous, short-exserted style; stigmas 3, slender, long. 

Type locality: Finmark. 

Distribution: Abundant in boggy places on the Pacific coast, where it is a characteristic species 
often collected, from northwestern Washington to St. Lawrence Island; also very locally in northern 
Europe. (Specimens examined from Washington, northeastern Vancouver, Queen Charlotte Islands, 
Alaska along entire coast.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. V. 3: 261./. 8-11; Anderss. Cyp. Scand. pi. 7,f. 71. 

406. Carex Barrattii Schw. & Torr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1 : 361. 1826. 

Carex littoralis Schw. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1: 70. 1824. (Type from Cape May, New Jersey.) Not 

C littoralis Krock. 1814. 
Olamblis Barrattii Raf. Good Book 26. 1840. (Based on Carex Barrattii Schw. & Torr.) 
" Carex flacca Schreb." Carey, in A. Gray, Man. 549. 1848. 
Carex variegata Scheele, Linnaea 23: 565. 1850. (Type from New Jersey.) Not C variegala Lam. 

1789. 

Loosely cespitose, forming beds, sending forth long, horizontal, stout, yellowish-brown, 
scaly stolons, the culms 3-9 dm. high, slender but usually strict, with concave sides, much 
exceeding the leaves, sharply triangular, the angles smooth or nearly so, brownish-tinged at 
base, strongly aphyllopodic, the basal sheaths breaking and becoming filamentose, sharply 



350 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

keeled and strongly glaucous; sterile shoots very leafy, obscurely aphyllopodic, i. e., 2-4 of the 
basal sheaths bladeless, the others very long-bladed ; leaves with well-developed blades 4-6 to 
a fertile culm, on the lower third, the blades erect or ascending, with strongly revolute margins, 
thin but firm, flat or more or less channeled above, 0.5-3 dm. long, or up to 5 dm. on the 
sterile shoots, 2-4 mm. wide, light-green or glaucous-green when young, rough towards the 
tip, long-attenuate, the sheaths smooth dorsally, hyaline and yellowish-brown-tinged and 
red-dotted ventrally, the ligule conspicuous, longer than wide; staminate spike solitary (occa- 
sionally with an additional smaller one at base), strongly peduncled, linear, 3-5 cm. long, 
2.5-5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, brownish or blackish with slender, lighter 
midvein obsolete at tip, and narrow hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 2-4, slightly separate, 
drooping on slender, smooth peduncles or the upper more erect, the peduncles from the length 
of to much shorter than the spikes, the spikes linear -oblong, 1-5 cm. (usually 2.5-4 cm.) long, 
4.5-6 mm. wide, from little to strongly staminate above, closely flowered or somewhat attenu- 
ate at base, the perigynia very numerous (20-60), ascending in several rows; lower bract 
short-sheathing, squamiform, 2-7 cm. long, shorter than culm, yellowish-brown-tinged at 
base; upper bracts scale-like, much reduced; scales ovate, obtusish or acute, thin, close-ap- 
pressed, nearly as wide as but somewhat shorter than the perigynia, black or brownish with 
lighter 1-3-nerved midrib and very narrow hyaline margins; perigynia ovoid or oval, subor- 
bicular in cross-section or more or less triangular-suborbicular, 2.5-3 mm. long, 1.25-1.75 
mm. wide, 2-ribbed and faintly few-nerved, membranaceous, puncticulate, granular, straw- 
colored, strongly blackish-tinged, sessile and rounded at base, rounded at apex and abruptly 
minutely beaked, the beak 0.2-0.5 mm. long, nearly entire; achenes triangular with concave 
sides, very closely enveloped and filling perigynium, ovoid or oblong-ovoid, 2 mm. long, 
1-1.5 mm. wide, yellowish, granular, substipitate, minutely apiculate, jointed with the very 
short, slender style; stigmas 3, slender, dark-tinged, rather long. 

Type locality: "Hab. on the sea-coast of New Jersey near Cape May." (Z. Collins.) 

Distribution: Acid swamps in pinelands, near the coast, Connecticut to North Carolina. A 
very local species. (Specimens examined from Connecticut, Long Island, New Jersey, southeastern 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown. 111. Fl. /. 732; ed. 2. /. 1038; Rob. & Fern. Man. /. 469; Rep. 
N. J. Mus. 1910: pi. 23. f. 4; Boott, 111. Carex 69. pi. 189; Am. Jour. Sci. 12: pi. P.f. 51; V.3: 261. 
/. 4-7. 

Note: Recorded from Alabama by M. A. Curtis (Am. Jour. Sci. II. 7: 410. 1849) but I have 
seen no specimens from south of North Carolina, and the species is not listed by Mohr in his " Plant 
life of Alabama." 

407. Carex limosa L. Sp. PI. 977. 1753. 

Carex elegans Willd. Fl. Berol. 34. pi. 1, f. 4. 1787. (Type from Berlin, Germany.) 

Trasus limosus S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 67. 1821. (Based on Carex limosa L.) 

Carex limosa subsp. C. oblonga Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 10: 42. 1825. (Type from White Mountains, 

New Hampshire.) 
"Carex laxa Wahl." Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 26: 376. 1834. 
Carex limosa var. vulgaris Tausch, Flora 17: 178. 1834. (Type European.) 
Carex limosa var. alpeslris Tausch, Flora 17: 178. 1834. (Type European.) 
Carex limosa var. acuminata Tausch, Flora 17: 178. 1834. (Type European.) 
Carex limosa var. slenocarpa Tausch, Flora 17: 178. 1834. (Type European. 
Carex limosa var. ciclocarpa Tausch, Flora 17: 178. 1834. (Type European.) 
Facalos limosa Raf. Good Book 26. 1840. (Based on Carex limosa L.) 
Carex limosa f. paucijlora Asch. Fl. Brand. 1 : 783. 1864. (Type from central Europe.) 
Carex limosa var. Painei Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. II. 39: 71. 1865. (Type from Utica, New York.) 
Carex litnosa f. stans Bolle, Verh. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brand. 7: 27. 1865. (Type from central Europe.) 
Carex limosa var. radicalis Paine, Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Cab. 18: 162. 1865. (Type from Herkimer 

County, New York.) 
Carex glaucocarpa St. -Lag. in Cariot, fitude Fl. Ed. 8. 2: 856. 1889. (Based on C. limosa L.) 
Carex limosa subsp. subalpina Briigger, Kneucker, Allg. Bot. Zeits. 5: 196. 1899. (Type from 

Switzerland.) 
Carex limosa subsp. subalpina f. pallescens Kiikenth.; Kneucker, Allg. Bot. Zeits. 5: 196. 1899. 

(Type from Sweden.) 
Carex limosa f. laxiformis Lackowitz; Asch. & Retzd. Verh. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brand. 44: 164. 1902. 

(Type from central Europe.) 
Carex limosa f. robuslior Lackowitz; Asch. & Retzd. Verh. Bot. Ver. Prov. Brand. 44: 164. 1902. 

(Type from central Europe.) 
Carex limosa var. fusco-cuprea Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 505. 1909. (Type from 

Jajjan.) 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 351 

Strongly long-stoloniferous from slender, long-running, brown, scaly rootstocks, the 
culms one to several together, slender, arising obliquely, 2-6 dm. high, much exceeding their 
leaves, sharply triangular, erect but not stiff, more or less roughened on angles or nearly 
smooth, purplish-red at base, mostly strongly aphyllopodic; leaves with well-developed blades 
1-3 to a fertile culm, on the lower third, the blades not thick, but strict, deeply canaliculate, 
more or less glaucous, 5-15 cm. long, 1-3 mm. wide, rough pn margins and towards apex, the 
sheaths very thin and hyaline ventrally, the lower sometimes slightly filamentose, the ligule 
very short; sterile culm-blades more numerous, much longer, 12-36 cm. long; staminate spike 
solitary, slender, long-pcduncled, erect or drooping, linear, many-flowered, 1-3 cm. long, 2.5 
mm. wide, the scales broadly obovate, short-cusped to obtuse, light-reddish-brown with 
conspicuous lighter midrib and very narrow hyaline margin; pistillate spikes 1-3, slightly 
separate, drooping on very stender smooth peduncles (slightly dilated upward), from slightly 
shorter than to three times length of spike, the spikes oblong, 1-2.5 cm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, 
occasionally somewhat staminate at apex, the perigynia 8-30, appressed, rather closely packed 
but in few rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, narrow, 2-6 cm. long, but shorter than inflorescence, 
sheathless or very short-sheathing, its auricles prominent, brownish, the upper much reduced; 
scales ovate to suborbicular, with prominent mid-nerve, short-tapering or rounded at apex, 
cuspidate to acutish, brown or yellowish-brown or reddish-brown or purplish-brown, with 
green or lighter 1-3-nerved center, wider than and from about length of to somewhat longer 
than perigynia but not or but little enveloping them towards base, persistent; perigynia 
broadly ovoid, 2.5-4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, compressed-triangular, thick but flattened and 
two-edged (the margins thick), prominently few- to several-nerved on each face, glaucous- 
green, coriaceous, strongly papillate, rounded-truncate and substipitate at base, rounded and 
minutely beaked at apex with entire or emarginate orifice, but often tipped by the persistent 
style; achenes triangular, oblong-obovoid, 2.25 mm. long, 1.8 mm. wide, in lower half of peri- 
gynium, rather closely enveloped, dark-brown, sessile, apiculate, jointed with style; style 
short, not enlarged at base, exserted, at length deciduous; stigmas 3, slender, long. 

Type locality: "Habit in Europae frigidae paludibus sylvaticis." 

Distribution: Sphagnum bogs, acid conditions, Labrador and Newfoundland to Yukon, and 
southward to southern Delaware, Iowa, Montana, and California, mostly in glacial regions; also 
widely distributed in the cooler portions of Eurasia. (Specimens examined from Labrador, New- 
foundland, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Ontario, 
Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Montana, Cali- 
fornia, Oregon, Washington, Vancouver, British Columbia, Yukon.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 734; ed. 2./. 1036; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 467; Engler, 
Pflanzenreich 4:0: 503./. 80, E-G; Rep. N. J. Mus. 1910: pi. 23, f. 5; Boott, 111. Carex 78. pi. 216; 
Fl. Dan. pi. 646; Jour. Russe Bot. 1911: 143./. 118; Sturm, Deuts. Fl. 53: pi. 7; Reichenb. Ic. Fl. 
Germ. S: pi. 238, f. 592; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 68. f. 39; Anderss. Cyp. Scand. pi. 7,f. 73; Willd. Fl. Berol. 
pl. l,f. 4; Engl. Bot. pi. 2043; ed. 2. pi. 1647; Benth. Handb. Brit. Fl. ed. 2./. 1131; Coste, Fl. Fr. 
. 3883; Hegi, 111. Fl. Mittel-Eur. pl. 49, f. G; Hallier, Deuts. Fl. pl. 435; Karst. Deuts. Fl. 351. /. 
177 {5); Lindra. Bild. Nord. Fl. pl. 436B; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 794. 

408. Carex paupercula Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 172. 1803. 

Carex limosa var. irrigua Wahl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Nya Handl. 24: 162. 1803. (Type from northern 

Sweden.) 
Carex limosa var. irrigala Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 243. pl. 15, f. 2. 1812. (Type from Lapland.) 
"Carex lenticidaris Michx." Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 7: 273. 1824. 

Carex irrigua Smith; Hoppe, Caric. Germ. 72. 1826. (Based on C limosa var. irrigua Wahl.) 
Carex abjiciens Steud. Syn. Cvp. 209. 1855. (Type from "Missouri," identified by L. H. Bailey.) 
"Carex magellanica Lam." Boott, 111. Carex 80. pl. 219, 220. 1860. 
Carex planifolia Kohts, Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 20: 141. 1870. (Type from Tirol.) 
Carex limosa var. suhalpina Briigger, Fl. Chur.^53. 1874. (Type from central Europe.) 
Carex limosa var. hiimilior St. -Lag. in Cariot, 6tud. Fl. ed. 8. 2: 857. 1889. (Based on C. irrigua 

Smith.) 
Caj-e.v Gfn^/howa H. Lev.; Lev. &Vaniot, Bull. Acad. Geogr. Bot. 10:221. 1901. (Type from Japan.) 
Carex magellanica var. planitiei Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 132. 1902. (Type from 

eastern Prussia.) 
Carex paupercula var. irrigua Fernald, Rhodora 8: 76. 1906. (Based on C limosa var. irrigua 

Wahl.) 
Carex paupercula var. pallens Fernald, Rhodora 8: 77. 1906. (Type from North Sydney, Nova 

Scotia.) 
Carex paupercula var. brevisquama Fernald, Rhodora 20: 152. 1918. (Type from Charlevoix Co., 

Quebec.) 



352 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [VolumB 18 

Loosely cespitose, usually forming medium-sized clumps from much branched, slender, 
short to elongate rootstocks, the culms slender, erect, 1-8 dm. high, exceeding the leaves, 
sharply triangular, from smooth to strongly roughened above, purplish-brown at base and 
conspicuously clothed with the dried-up leaves of the previous year; leaves with well-developed 
blades 3-12 to a fertile culm, on the lower half, the blades deep-green, erect, not thick or stiff, 
flat with slightly revolute margins, 5-20 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, somewhat roughened towards 
apex, the sheaths very thin and hyaline ventrally, faintly to strongly red-dotted, concave 
at mouth, the ligule prominent; terminal spike staminate, but at times developing a few 
perig>'nia above, long-peduncled, usually erect, linear, 7-15 mm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, the scales 
loose, oblanceolate or obovate, cuspidate to obtuse, very variable in color, the body yellowish- 
brown to dark-brown with green or lighter midrib; lateral spikes 1-4 (usually 2 or 3), pistillate 
or with very few staminate flowers at base, approximate, drooping or somewhat erect on slender 
smooth peduncles (slightly dilated upward) from as long as to four times their length, 4-22 
mm. long, 4-8 ram. wide, suborbicular to oblong, the perigynia 5-20, ascending, rather closely 
packed but in few rows; lowest bract leaf-like, slightly sheathing and darkened at base, erect, 
equaling or exceeding inflorescence, the upper reduced; scales lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 
tapering at apex, cuspidate, narrower and not covering but usually conspicuously longer for 
rarely shorter) than perigynia, the center 3-nerved, prominent, the scales varying in color 
from castaneous throughout to green in center with broad brownish margins or castaneous 
below with greenish tips, deciduous before the perigynia and not enveloping them; perigynia 
pale or somewhat glaucous-green, broadly ovoid to broadly elliptic, 2.5-3 mm. long, 1.75-2.25 
mm. wide, compressed-triangular, thick but flattened and 2-edged, coriaceous, densely papil- 
late, prominently few-nerved on each face, rounded and obconic-stipitate at base, rouncfed at 
apex and scarcely beaked, the orifice entire or emarginate, often tipped by the style; achenes 
triangular, ovoid-oblong, 2 mm. long, 1.2 mm. wide, sessile, apiculate, jointed with the short, 
slender, at length deciduous, exserted style; stigmas 3, slender. 

Type locality: "Hab. ad lacus Mistassins" (Quebec). 

Distribution: Sphagnum bogs, acid conditions, Newfoundland to Alaska, and southward to 
Pennsylvania, Minnesota, Colorado, and Utah; also widely distributed in the cooler portions of 
Eurasia. (Specimens examined from Labrador, Newfoundland, Miquelon, Quebec, Prince Edward 
Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Saskatchewan, 
Alberta, Colorado, Utah, Mackenzie, Yukon, Alaska, Washington.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 735; ed. 2./. 1037; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 466; Engler, 
Pflanzenreich 4^0: 503./. 80, H-K; Fl. Dan. Suppl. pi. 106; Boott, 111. Carex 80, in part. pi. 219-220; 
Jour. Russe Bot. 1911: 143./. 119; Hoppe, Deuts. Fl. 53: pi. 6; Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: pi. 238, 
f. 593; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 67. /. 37; Am. Jour. Sci. 9: pi. A, f. 2 (as C. lenlicularis); Anderss. Cyp. 
Scand. pi. 7,f. 72; Engl. Bot. Suppl. pi. 2895; ed. 2. pi. 1648; Coste, Fl. Fr. /. 3882; Hallier, Deuts. 
Fl. pi. 433; Wahl. Fl. Lapp. pi. 15, f. 2. 

Note: The South American Carex magellanica Lam. (Encyc. 3: 385. 1791), with which this 
has been confused, not only has the terminal spike normally gynaecandrous, but the perigynia are 
elliptic-ovoid and much narrower and longer in proportion in the only specimen (Chili, Valdivia, 
Philippi) with mature perigynia seen by me. They are like Boott's right-hand figure b (111. Carex 
pi. 218). Immature perigynia as drawn by Schkuhr (Riedgr. pi. N, /. 51) and by Boott (111. Carex 
pi. 218) are not characteristic. The scale and sheath distinctions made by Fernald (Rhodora 8: 
74, 75) I have not been able to follow. 

409. Carex macrochaeta C. Meyer, Mem. Acad. St.-Petersb. 
Sav. Etr. 1: 224. pi. 13. 1831. 

Carex excurrens Cham.; Steud. Syn. Cyp. 228, as synonym. 1855. 

•'Carex podocarpa R. Br." Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 29: 251. pi. Z, /. 83. 1836; Boott, 111. Carex 4: 

197, in part. 1867. (Plants from northwestern America.) 
Carex macrochaeta var. emarginata Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 17: 314. 1904. (Type from Kukak 

Bay, Alaska.) 
Carex macrochaeta var. macrochlaena Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 17: 315. 1904. (Type from St. 

Paul Island, Bering Sea.) 
Carex Kuhleweinii Gand. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 66: 295. 1920. (Type from Sitka, Alaska.) 

Loosely cespitose in medium-sized clumps from densely matted, tough, scaly rootstalks, 
the culms 2-6 dm. high, slender, erect, or nodding at apex, sharply triangular, more or less 
strongly exceeding the leaves, smooth or slightly roughened above, aphyllopodic, strongly 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 353 

purplish-red-tinged and fibrillose at base; leaves with well-developed blades 2-5 to a fertile 
culm, on the lower third or half, but not clustered, light-green, firm, the blades flat with revo- 
lute margins, 0.3-2 dm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, somewhat roughened towards the blunt-tipped 
apex; sterile culm-blades longer, 1.5-3 dm. long, long-attenuate, sheaths yellowish-brown- 
tinged ventrally, concave at mouth, strongly prolonged beyond base of blade, the ligule as 
long as wide; staminate spike usually solitary, peduncled, oblong-linear or narrowly oblong, 
1.5-2.5 cm. long, 4-8 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, blackish with minutely hyaline 
edge and conspicuous light-colored midrib strongly exserted at the bifid or emarginate apex as 
a slender rough cusp; anthers very conspicuous, 5 mm. long; pistillate spikes 2-4, more or 
less strongly separate, the upper erect and short-peduncled or nearly sessile, the lower varying 
from short-peduncled and erect to strongly (2-4 cm.) peduncled and drooping, the peduncles 
slender, smooth, the spikes oblong or oblong-cylindric, 1-3 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide (without 
awns), closely flowered, containing 15-40 closely appressed perigynia in several rows; lower 
bract leaflet-like, shorter than or exceeding inflorescence, not sheathing, often dark-auricled; 
upper bracts reduced; scales ovate-oblong, black with slightly hyaline margins and whitish 
midrib, the midrib excurrent as a very slender rough cusp 2-12 mm. long from the emarginate 
or bifid apex, the scales slightly narrower and shorter than the perigynia; perigynia oblong- 
ovate or oblong-oval, much compressed, thin, 4.5-6 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, thin, membrana- 
ceous, minutely papillate, straw-colored, occasionally dark-blotched, obscurely slenderly 
nerved, substipitate, rounded at base and round-tapering at apex, abruptly very minutely 
(0.2 mm.) beaked, the orifice purplish, entire or very obscurely emarginate; achenes oblong- 
obovoid, 2-2.5 mm. long, 1-1.25 mm. wide, loosely enveloped in lower half of perigynium, 
triangular with sides concave below, short-stipitate, brownish, apiculate, jointed with the 
nearly straight, slender style; stigmas 3, reddish-brown, thickish towards base. 

Type locality: "Habitat in Unalaschka." 

Distribution: Wet open places, Multnomah Falls, Oregon, northward along the coast mostly 
west of the mountains to the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands and southward on the Asiatic coast to 
Sakhalin; locally in the interior. A handsome plant and one of the most characteristic species of 
the Alaskan coast. (Specimens examined from Vanc9uver, Yukon, Alaska.) 

Illustrations: Mem. Acad. St.-Petersb. Sav. E;tr. 1: pi. 13; Am. Jour. Sci. 29: pi. Z, f. 83; 
IV. 18: 18./. d; V. 3: 142./. 1-9; Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=o: 413./. 65, A-C; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. 
St./. 795. 

60. Atratae Kunth, Enum. PI. 2: 431. 1837; Tuckerm. Enum. Caric. 12. 1843; Carey, 
in A. Gray, Man. 549. 1848; L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 76. 1886; Kukenth. in 
Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 382. 1909; Mackenzie, Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 136. 1917; Macken- 
zie, Erythea 8: 67. 1922. MelananThaE Drejer, Symb. Car. 9. 1844; Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. 
IV. 16: 457. 1903. Nigrae O. F. Lang, Linnaea 24: 566. 1851. Caricigyne alpinae and 
atratae C. B. Clarke, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8: 146. 1908. ScitaE Kukenth. in Engler, Pflan- 
zenreich 4-°: 410. 1909. AeorastachyaE Nesophilae Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49: 431. 
1920; Am. Jour. Sci. V. 3: 138, et seq. 1922. Certain species belonging to this group are by 
L. H. Bailey (Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 77. 1866) classed with the Rigidae Fries, and by Holm 
(Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 16: 457. 1903) with the AeorastachyaE Drej. Treated as a genus 
Limivasculum, subgenus Hymenotheca by Borner (Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 21: 269. 1913). 

Culms aphyllopodic or phyllopodic; terminal spike gynaecandrous or staminate, the 
lateral 1-10 pistillate or with a few staminate flowers at base, from sessile, erect and closely 
approximate to long-peduncled, nodding and distant; bracts sheathless or nearly so, dark- 
colored at the base, the blades short; scales usually dark-tinged; perigynia membranaceous 
or more or less coriaceous, straw-colored or greenish, often strongly dark-tinged, elliptic to 
broadly obovate, circular in cross-section to much flattened, papillose to puncticulate; glab- 
rous, abruptly short-beaked or beakless, the orifice entire or bidentate; achenes triangular, 
apiculate, jointed with the straight, slender, often exserted style; stigmas 3. 

A group containing many species and strongly developed in the cooler and mountainous 
portions of the northern hemisphere, especially in North America and Asia. One species occurs 
in southern South America; and one is recorded, possibly erroneously, from Australia. 



354 



NORTH AMERICAN FLORA 



[Volume 18 



Culms central, arising from the midst of the persistent leaves of the previous 
year or their desiccated fragments (clothed at base with the dried-up 
leaves of the previous year, except in a few species with non-filamentose 
lower sheaths). 
Terminal spike in some plants pistillate and linear-oblong or cylindric or 
staminate only at apex; in others staminate. 
Pistillate scales ovate or ovate-lanceolate, long-acute or acuminate, 
2-3 times as long as the perigynia; perigynia obovoid, obtusely 
triangular, somewhat flattened on one side. 
Pistillate scales orbicular to broadly ovate, obtuse to slightly mucro- 
nate, little exceeding the perigynia or at maturity slightly shorter; 
perigynia broadly obovoid to suborbicular, sharp-edged, plano- 
convex, becoming obtusely triangular at maturity. 
Terminal spike staminate or gynaecandrous, not pistillate and linear- 
oblong or cylindric. 
Pistillate scales small, 1.5-2.5 mm. long, obtuse or acutish, or the lower 
acute, broadly ovate, broadly obovate, or orbicular; perigynia 
2-2.5 mm. long (or up to 3.5 mm. in C. Vahlii and in C. slylosa). 
Terminal spike gynaecandrous, or staminate and inconspicuous; 
perigynia obtusely triangular in cross-section; pistillate 
spikes short, peduncled or sessile. 
Culms stiff, obtusely triangular; scales about covering perigynia, 
dark-reddish-brown, the midvein prominent; perigynia 
slightly ciliate at mouth, scarcely beaked. 
Culms not stiff or somewhat stiff, sharply triangular above; 
scales much shorter than the perigynia, purplish-black, 
the midrib obsolete or obscure; beak of perigynium not 
ciliate at mouth. 
Terminal spike gynaecandrous, conspicuous; stolons rather 
short; perigynia with short but prominent minutely 
bidentate beak. 
Terminal spike generally staminate, few-flowered and in- 
conspicuous; stolons long and conspicuous; perigynia 
barely beaked, the orifice entire or nearly so. 
Terminal spike staminate (or with a few perigynia), peduncled; 
lower pistillate spike on a peduncle as long to twice as long as 
spike; perigynia suborbicular or nearly so in cross-section, 
abruptly minutely beaked, the orifice entire; style prominently 
exserted. 
Pistillate scales larger or sharp-pointed or both; perigynia 3 mm. or 
more long. 
, Terminal spike staminate. 

Perigynia strongly flattened. 

Leaves of fertile cuhns widely separate, only the upper 2-4 
blade-bearing, the lower bladeless; culms strongly 
aphyllopodic and purplish-tinged at base; leaves of 
the previous year not persistent or much desiccated 
at flowering time. 
Staminate and pistillate scales obtuse to acute, the mid- 
vein nearly or quite obsolete or inconspicuous; peri- 
gynia 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless; 
achenes slenderly long-stipitate. 
Staminate and pistillate scales with conspicuous mid- 
vein usually more or less excurrent as a short cusp; 
perigynia granular-roughened, marginally 2-ribbed 
and very obscurely nerved; achenes short-stipitate. 
Leaves many on lower third of culms; culms clothed at base 
with dried-up leaves of previous year, not purplish- 
tinged at base. 
Perigynia smooth, light-green, concealed by scales; mid- 
vein of scales prominent; pistillate spikes linear. 
Perigynia granular-roughened, darker, prominent in the 
spikes; midvein of scales nearly obsolete; pistillate 
spikes short-oblong to cylindric. 
Perigynia nearly round or obtusely triangular in cross-section, 
little or not at all flattened. 
Lower sheaths not breaking ventrally and becoming fila- 
mentose; perigynia membranaceous, nearly round in 
cross-section, 3.5-4.5 mm. long. 
Lower sheaths breaking ventrally and becoming filamentose; 
perigynia subcoriaceous, obtusely triangular in cross- 
section, 2.75-3.5 mm. long. 
Terminal spike gynaecandrous, the terminal flowers pistillate. 
Pistillate scales abruptly slender-awned. 
Pistillate scales not slender-awned. 

Perigynia sub-inflated-triangular, scarcely compressed. 



410. C. idahoa. 



411. C. Hallii. 



All. C. Parryana. 

413. C. Vahlii. 

414. C. holostoma. 

415. C. stylosa. 



416. C. montanensis. 

417. C. spectabilis. 

418. C. nesophila. 

419. C. podocarpa. 

420. C. Raynoldsii. 

421. C. ahoriginuvi. 

422. C. Gmelini. 



Part 6, 1935] 



CYPERACEAE 



355 



Perigynia subcoriaceous; rootstocks long-creeping; leaf- 
blades very smooth. 
Perigynia membranaceous; rootstocks short-creeping or 
cespitose; leaf-blades roughened towards apex. 
Spikes closely contiguous, forming a dense head; 

perigynia with conspicuous beak 1 mm. long. 
Spikes or lower spike strongly peduncled, distant; 
perigynia abruptly minutely beaked. 
Perigynia strongly compressed. 

Spikes 3-6, not oblong-cylindric; walls of perigynia not 
papery; perigynia 2.5-4.5 mm. long, nerveless or 
obscurely nerved on face, dull-green to brownish- 
black. 
Perigynia not granular-roughened (under a lens), 
the margin (at least) green or whitish-green. 
Spikes contiguous, sessile or nearly so, forming a 
dense head ; scales lanceolate, strongly exceed- 
ing perigynia; culms stiff, erect. 
Spikes or lower spike more or less peduncled, 
usually distant, erect or nodding; scales 
wider, shorter than or about equaling 
perigynia; culms more slender. 
Lateral spikes oblong or ovoid, pistillate, 
erect on stiff peduncles. 
Scales with mid vein largely obsolete; ma- 
ture perigynia 3.5-4.5 mm. long, wider 
on either side than the achene, the 
latter on a stipe of nearly its own 
length; sheaths not purplish-tinged 
ventrally. 
Scales with prominent midvein; mature 
perigynia 3.5 mm. long, narrower on 
either side than the achene, the latter 
much longer than its stipe; sheaths 
normally purplish-tinged ventrally. 
Lateral spikes linear, gynaecandrous, the 
lower nodding on long slender peduncles. 
Perigynia granular-roughened (under a lens) es- 
pecially on the upper margins, yellowish- 
brown or dark-tinged. 
Spikes contiguous, sessile or short-peduncled, 
forming a dense head; culms stiff, erect. 
Lowest spike slightly separate, short-pe- 
■ duncled; scales purplish-black with very 
conspicuous white-hyaline apex and upper 
margins. 
Spikes very densely aggregated, sessile; scales 
purplish-black with very inconspicuous 
hyaline upper margins. 
Spikes or lowest spike strongly peduncled, usu- 
ally distant, erect or nodding. 
Perigynia wide-margined, the margins as wide 
as the achene; lateral spikes linear- 
oblong, oblong, or ovoid. 
Upper pistillate scales exceeding the peri- 
gynia; lateral spikes ovoid; lowest pe- 
duncle less than the length of its spike. 
Upper pistillate scales exceeded by the peri- 
gynia; lateral spikes oblong or linear- 
oblong; lowest peduncle 1-2 times as 
long as its spike. 
Perigynia sharp-edged, the margins much nar- 
rower than the achene; lateral spikes linear. 
Spikes 6—10, oblong-cylindric; perigynia 5 mm. long, 
lightly 3-nerved, light-green, the walls papery; 
scales much shorter than perigynia. 
Culms lateral, arising from without the tufts of leaves of the previous year 
and not clothed at base with the dried-up leaves of the previous year, 
aphyllopodic, the lower sheaths breaking ventrally and conspicuously 
filamentose. 
Terminal spike staminate or with perigynia in the middle; perigynia not 
glaucous or light-green, the beak bidentate, the teeth hispidulous 
within; perigynia usually exceeding the scales. 
Terminal spike gynaecandrous; perigynia glaucous or light-green, the 
beak minutely bidentate, the teeth not hispidulous within; scales usu- 
ally strongly exceeding the perigynia. 



423. C. leiophylla. 

424. C. Nelsonii. 

425. C alrosquama. 



426. C. Helleri. 



427. C. e papulosa. 

428. C. heteroneura. 

429. C. hella. 



430. C. albo-nigra. 

431. C. nova. 



432. C. chalciolepis. 

433. C. alrala. 

434. C. atraliformis. 

435. C. Merlensii. 



436. C. serralodens. 

437. C. Buxbaumii. 



356 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

410. Carex idahoa L. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 21: 5. 1896. 

Rootstocks not seen, the culms 2-3.5 dm. high, central, slender but strict, somewhat 
fibrillose but not filamentose at base, much exceeding the leaves, obtusely triangular, but 
slightly roughened above, phyUopodic, more or less purplish-brown-tinged at base, the 
dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves Avith well-developed blades 5-10 to a 
fertile culm, clustered just above the base, not septate-nodulose, the blades light-green, thin, 
flat with somewhat revolute margins, 3-20 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, somewhat roughened 
towards the apex, long-attenuate, the sheaths very thin and white-hyaline ventrally, concave 
at mouth, the ligule about as long as wide; spikes usually 3, frequently all pistillate, linear- 
oblong or cylindric, erect on short, stiff, scabrous peduncles, approximate, forming a narrow 
head 3.5-5 cm. long, the lateral spikes 1-2 cm. long, 4—6 mm. wide, the terminal 2-3 cm. long, 
6-8 mm. wide, the perigynia numerous, appressed-ascending in few rows; bracts sheathless, 
usually less than 1 cm. long and much shorter than the subtended spikes; pistillate scales ovate 
or ovate-lanceolate, long-acute or acuminate, brown with conspicuous lighter center and very 
narrow hyaline margins, wider than and 2-3 times as long as the perigynia ; perigynia obovoid, 
somewhat flattened on one side, obtusely triangular, not inflated, 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, 
glabrous, membranaceous, puncticulate, 2-ribbed, otherwise nerveless or nearly so, tapering to 
base, substipitate, the body yellowish-green, rounded and abruptly short -beaked at apex, the 
beak purplish, 0.5 mm. long, emarginate to shallow'ly bidentate; achenes obovoid, 2 mm. long, 
1.35 mm. wide, ver>' closely enveloped, triangular with concave sides, tapering to base, sessile, 
brownish, granular, abruptly apiculate, jointed with the short style; stigmas 3, blackish, 
slender, short. 

Type locality: Beaver Canon, Idaho (Rydberg 2339). 

Distribution: Mountain meadows, Montana and Idaho. (Specimens examined from Idaho 
and Montana.) 

411. Carex Hallii Olney; Porter, Rep. U. S. Geol. Surv. Terr. 

5:496. 1872. 

Carex Parryana var. unica L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1: 54. 1889. (Based on C. Hallii 

Olney.) 
Carex Parryana var. Hallii Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42": 388. 1909. (Based on C. Hallii 

Olney.) 
Carex Elrodi M. E. Jones, Bull. Univ. Mont. 61: 70. 1910. (Type from Monida, Montana.) 

Loosely cespitose and stoloniferous, the stolons long, slender, horizontal, scaly, the clumps 
small, the culms 1-6 dm. high, central, slender but stiff, papillose, usually strongly exceeding 
the leaves, obtusely triangular, smooth or nearly so, phyUopodic, reddish-purple and more or 
less fibrillose at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well- 
developed blades usually 5-12 to a fertile culm, clustered near the base, not septate-nodulose, 
the blades erect, ascending or spreading, light-green, thin but stiff, flat with revolute margins, 
usually 5-20 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, strongly roughened towards the apex, very long-atten- 
uate, the sheaths thin and white-hyaline ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule about as long 
as wide; spikes 1-5, often all pistillate, the terminal w^hen staminate erect, usually short- 
peduncled, linear, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, reddish- 
brown with lighter midrib and conspicuous white scarious margins; pistillate spikes (often 
only one) contiguous or the lowest slightly separate, erect, the lower and uppermost short- 
peduncled, the middle nearly sessile, the lateral short-oblong to linear-oblong, 6-30 mm. long, 
3-5 mm. wide, the terminal linear-oblong, densely flowered, containing 10-100 appressed- 
ascending perigynia in several rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, shorter than the head, the upper 
much reduced, all with darker-colored auricles at base or slightly (1-3 mm.) sheathing; scales 
orbicular to broadly ovate, very obtuse to slightly mucronate, brownish-purple with lighter 
midrib and conspicuous white scarious margins, wider and a little longer than and concealing 
the perigynia or at maturity slightly shorter; perig>'nia plano-convex, thick, with broadly 
obovoid or suborbicular body, becoming obtusely triangular by ripening achene, not inflated, 
2-3 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, membranaceous, puncticulate, glabrous, the upper margins spar- 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 357 

ingly scabrous, light-green or whitish, often dark-purple-tinged towards tip, sharp-edged, 
2-ribbed, otherwise nerveless or lightly few-nerved dorsally, rounded at base, short-stipitate, 
rounded at apex and abruptly minutely beaked, the beak 0.3 mm. long, bidentulate, hyaline 
and ciliate at mouth; achenes obovoid, closely enveloped, filling perigynium, 1.75-2 mm. long, 
1.5 mm. wide, triangular with slightly concave sides, sessile, brownish, slightly granular, 
strongly apiculate, jointed with the short, more or less exserted style; stigmas 3, slender, 
short, brownish. 

Type locality: Pleasant Valley, Idaho. 

DiSTRiBUTiov: Mountain meadows, Hudson Bay to North Dakota, Colorado, and Alberta. 
(Specimens examined from Manitoba, North Dakota, South Dakota, Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, 
Colorado.) 

Illustration: Bull. Univ. Mont. 61: pi. 3 (right-hand figure). 

Note: The perigynia in this species are more beaked than in Carex Parryana Dewey, the achenes 
are sessile and the style is shorter. It is a plant of more southern range than that species. 

412. Carex Parryana Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 27: 239. pi. U,f. 65. 1835. 

Carex arclica Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 27: 239. pi. U, f. 66. 1835. (Type from Carleton House, 

Saskatchewan.) Not C. arclica Deinb. 1842. 
Carex Parryana var. /S Torr. Ann. Lye N. Y. 3 : 426. 1836. (Based on C arclica Dewey.) 

Very loosely cespitose and stoloniferous, the stolons long, slender, horizontal, scaly, the 
clumps small, the culms 1.5-4 dm. high, central, slender, stiff, papillose, usually strongly 
exceeding the leaves, obtusely triangular below, smooth, or slightly roughened above, phyllo- 
podic, reddish-purple and scarcely fibrillose at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year 
conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades usually 5-12 to a fertile culm, clustered near the 
base, not septate-nodulose, the blades erect or ascending, light-green, thin but stifT, flat with 
revolute margins, 5-30 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, roughened towards the apex, long-attenuate, 
the sheaths very thin and white-hyaline ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule about as long as 
wide; spikes 3-5, the lateral pistillate, the terminal gynaecandrous (sometimes nearly stamin- 
ate), more or less strongly separate or the upper approximate, erect, linear, 0.7-2 cm. long, 
3 mm. wide, the lower short-peduncled, the upper sessile, closely 7-2G-flowered in few rows, 
the perigynia closely appressed; lowest bract usually shorter than the head, not sheathing or 
but short-sheathing, purplish-red-tinged at base, the upper much smaller; scales small, 2-2.5 
mm. long, persistent, dark-reddish-brown, with green midvein prominent to apex, and con- 
spicuous white-hyaline margins, suborbicular, obtuse or short-mucronate, as wide as and about 
length of perigynia and concealing them; perigynia broadly obovoid, unequally triangular and 
sharp-edged before maturity, obtusely triangular at maturity, not inflated, 2-2.5 mm. long, 
1-1.5 mm. wide, glabrous, membranaceous, puncticulate, straw-colored, purplish-tinged and 
rough-granular towards apex, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless or nearly so, short- 
tapering and short-stipitate at base, tapering or somewhat rounded at apex and scarcely 
beaked, the beak 0.1-0.2 mm. long, bidentulate, hyaline and slightly ciliate at mouth; achenes 
obovoid, very closely enveloped, filling perigynium, 1.5-1.75 mm. long, 1-1.25 mm. wide, 
triangular with slightly concave sides, shortly stipitate, brownish, slightly granular, strongly 
apiculate, jointed with the slender more or less prominently exserted style; stigmas 3, slender, 
short, brownish. 

Type locality: "Hudson's Bay" Manitoba {Dr. Richardson). 

Distribution: Plains and openings, Manitoba to Alberta and Mackenzie. (Specimens ex- 
amined from Alberta, Saskatchewan, Mackenzie.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. 27: pi. U.f. 65, 66; Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 717; ed. 2./. 1041; 
Boott, 111. Carex 28. pi. 71. 

413. Carex Vahlii Schkuhr, Riedgr. 87. 1801. 

Carex Halleri Gunn. Fl. Norv. 2: 106. 1772. (In part; as to Fl. Dan. pi. 403, not as to type.) 
Carex alpina Lilj. Sv. Fl. ed. 2. 26. 1798. (Type from Lapland, Swartz not given as author.) Not 

C alpitia Schrank, 1787; nor C. alpina Honck. 1792. 
Carex alpina var. inferalpina Wahl. Fl. Lapp. 241. 1812. (Type from Lapland.) 
Carex media R. Br.; Richards, in Frankl. Journey 763. 1823. (Type from 54°-64°, northwestern 

Canada.) 



358 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Carex alpina var. heterostachya Anderss. Cyp. Scand. 39. 1849. (Type from northwestern Europe.) 
Carex alpina var. nigrescens Anderss. Cyp. Scand. 39. 1849. (Type from northwestern Europe.) 
Carex Angarae Steud. Syn. Cyp. 190. 1855. (Type from the Angara river, Siberia; doubtfully 

referred here.) 
"Carex sabulosa Turcz." Freyn, Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 46: 132. 1896. (Plant from Transbaikalia.) 
Carex alpina var. Slevenii Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 16: 21, 27. 1903. (Type from Colorado.) 
Carex alpina f. nigrescens "Anderss." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 386. 1909. (Based on 

C. alpina var. nigrescens Anderss.) 
Carex alpina f . robuslior Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42" : 386. 1909. (Type from Switzerland.) 
Carex alpina f. inferalpina "Wahl." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42": 386. 1909. (Based on 

C. alpina var. inferalpina Wahl.) 

Loosely cespitose and stoloniferous, the stolons rather short, slender, scaly, the clumps 
small or medium-sized, the culms 2-8 dm. high, central, slender, not stiff, erect to decumbent, 
sharply triangular above, smooth or slightly roughened on the angles above, much exceeding 
the leaves, phyllopodic, purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year 
conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 8-15 to a fertile culm, chiefly bunched above 
the base, not septate-nodulose, the blades light-green, thin, erect or spreading, flat with slightly 
revolute margins, 5-15 cm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, long-attenuate, roughened on the margins, 
especially towards the apex, the sheaths hyaline ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule very 
short, much wider than long; spikes usually 3, the lateral pistillate, the terminal conspicuous, 
gynaecandrous, closely aggregated or approximate, erect, short-oblong to suborbicular, 4-8 
mm. long, 3-4.5 wide, the lower short-peduncled, the upper sessile, closely flowered, the 8-25 
perigynia ascending in several rows; lowest bract usually shorter than the head, not or but 
very little sheathing, slightly darkened at base, the upper much smaller; a larger bract occa- 
sionally developed shortly below the inflorescence; scales small, 1.5-2.5 mm. long, long persis- 
tent, purple-black, the staminate ovate-lanceolate, acutish, with lighter midrib and white- 
hyaline margins, the pistillate broadly ovate, acutish or obtuse, the midrib obsolete or nearly 
so, the margins white-hyaline, nearly as wide as but much shorter than the perigynia; peri- 
gynia obovoid or oblong-obovoid, 2-3.5 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, obtusely triangular, 
slightly inflated, membranaceous, yellowish-green becoming yellowish-brown, granular and 
strongly puncticulate, glabrous, 2-ribbed, otherwise nerveless, tapering at base, sessile, some- 
times slightly serrulate, rounded and abruptly beaked above, the beak short (0.5 mm. long) 
but prominent, minutely bidentate, purplish-tinged, not ciliate at mouth, achenes obovoid, 
1.75 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, rather loosely enveloped in lower part of perigynium-body, tri- 
angular with concave sides, yellowish-brown, granular, substipitate, abruptly apiculate, 
jointed with the slender, short, more or less exserted style ; stigmas 3, slender, blackish, short. 

Type locality: "In alpibus Norvegiae rarius, e.g. in Soder Ranen." (Oeder, El. Dan. pi. 403.) 

Distribution: Dry sunny places, in calcareous districts, Greenland and Newfoundland to 
Alaska, southward to Ontario and Wisconsin, and in the mountains to New Mexico; widely dis- 
tributed in arctic-alpine Eurasia. (Specimens examined from Greenland, Labrador, Newfound- 
land, Quebec, Keewatin, Ontario, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Mackenzie, 
Yukon, Alberta, South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. El./. 714; ed. 2. /. 1039; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 428; Schkuhr, 
Riedgr. pi. G, f. 94; pi. Ppp, f. 154; Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=0: 385./. 60, A-E; Boott, lU. Carex 112. 
pl. 356, 357; Fl. Dan. pi. 403; Jour. Russe Bot. 1911: 100./. 79; Clements. Rocky Mt. El. pi. 45, f. 
8; Am. Jour Sci. IV. 23 : 425. /. 13; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 63. /. 31; Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8 : pl. 235, f. 
588; Anderss. Cyp. vScand. pl. 6,f. 66; Coste, Fl. Fr. pl. 3843; Benth. Handb. Brit. Fl. ed. 2./. 1113; 
Engl. Bot. vSuppl. pl. 2666; ed. 2. pl. 1636; Hegi, 111. Fl. Mittel-Eur. 2: 84./. 230; Gmel. Fl. Sib. 1: 
pl. 31, f. 1 (doubtful). 

Note 1 : The name Carex alpina is attributed to Swartz by Wahlenberg (Sv. Vet.-Akad. Nya 
Handl. 24:160. 1803) and by Andersson (Cyp.Scand.39. 1849), but there is nothing in the original 
publication to bear this out. 

Note 2: Carex Halleri Gunner (Fl. Norv. 2: 106. 1772) is based upon Haller's no. 1356 (Hist. 
Stirp. Ind. Helv. 2: 184. 1768), upon a species of vScheuchzer (Agrost. 493. pl. 11, /. 8. 1719) and 
upon Flora Danica (7: 8. pl. 403. 1768). Haller's polynomial name enlarged by the word androgyna 
from his text is given. The habitat is given as "in alpibus" of Norway, as given in the Flora Danica. 
In the Flora Danica Haller and Scheuchzer are both cited and there is no original description. The 
Norwegian plant of the Flora Danica is C. alpina Lilj. Haller's plant from which the name is taken 
and which should be regarded as the type, is entirely different. His description says "spica ex tribus 
composita congestis .... androgynae omnes .... glumae mucronatae .... 
capsulae .... mucrone longiusculo, simplici." It is compared with a figure in Micheli (Nov. 
Pl. Gen. 68. No. 5. pl. 33, f. 6. 1729) and with Scheuchzer's figure referred to above. It is doubt- 
fully referred to C. approximala Hoppe by Gaudin (Agrost. Helv. 2: 107. 1811; Fl. Helv. 6: 54. 
1830). The description does not apply to this, but it does seem to me to well answer an immature 
specimen of the mountain form of C. leporina L. (Kiikenthal, Pflanzenreich 42»: 211. 1909), as do 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 359 

the figures of Micheli and Scheuchzer. I cannot find any other Swiss sedge to which it does apply. 
I am therefore treating C. Halleri as a synonym of C. leporine L. or one of its varieties and as typified 
by Haller's no. 1356, from which the name came. 

414. Carex holostoma Drejer, Nat. Tidssk. 3: 449. 1841. 

Carex alpina var. holosloma L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 76. 1886. (Based on C. holostoma 
Drejer.) 

Loosely cespitose and stoloniferous, the stolons long and conspicuous, slender, horizontal, 
the culms 1-2 dm. high, central, sharply triangular, somewhat stiffly erect, smooth, shorter 
than or exceeded by the leaves, phyllopodic, purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves 
of the previous year conspicuous, leaves with well-developed blades 6-10 to a fertile culm, 
bunched towards the base, not septate-nodulose, the blades 5-20 cm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, 
light-green, thin, erect, flat with revolute margins, long-attenuate, little roughened except at 
apex, the sheaths thin and yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule 
longer than wide; terminal spike generally staminate, sessile, inconspicuous, overtopped and 
largely hidden by the contiguous pistillate spikes, linear, 3-8 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, few- 
flow'ered, the scales ovate or obovate, acute or obtuse, purplish -black with inconspicuous 
lighter midvein and conspicuously white-hyaline margins above; pistillate spikes 1-3 (usually 
2), erect, sessile or short-peduncled, aggregated or the lower more or less remote and more or 
less strongly peduncled, linear, linear-oblong, or short-oblong, 6-10 mm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, 
closely flowered, the perigynia 10-30, appressed-ascending in several rows; bracts sheathless, 
black-auricled, the upper reduced and squamiform, that of the remote spike (when present) 
leaflet-like and shorter or longer than the inflorescence; scales small, 1.5-2.5 mm. long, broadly 
ovate, broadly obovate, or suborbicular, obtuse or the upper acute, purplish-black with obscure 
lighter midvein and narrow^ white-hyaline apex, as wide (at base) but shorter than the mature 
perigynia; perigynia obovoid, slightly inflated, obtusely suborbicular-triangular in cross-section, 
2-2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, membranaceous, densely granular, not serrulate, very obscurely 
few-nerved, straw-colored below, purplish-black-tinged above, tapering at base, sessile or nearly 
so, truncately or abruptly contracted into a very minute nearly entire beak 0.1 mm. long; 
achenes obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, nearly filling perigynium, triangular with concave 
sides, granular, yellowish-brown, sessile, abruptly apiculate, jointed with the very short, 
black, more or less exserted style; stigmas 3, slender, blackish, short. 

Type locality: "In locis humidis ad radices montiuni Groenlandiae occidentalis (69°-71° 
L. B.) legit J. Vahl." (Fl. Dan. pi. 2428.) 

Distribution: Keewatin, West Coast of Greenland between 68° 21' and 70° 20'; extreme 
northern Norway and Lapland. (Specimens examined from Chesterfield Inlet, Keewatin, Green- 
land.) 

Illustrations: Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=0: 385./. 60, F, G; Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 23: 425./. 3-10; 
FI. Dan. pi. 2428; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 63./. 32. 

415. Carex stylosa C. Meyer, Mem, Acad. St.-Petersb. Sav. Etr. 
1: 222. pi. 12. 1831. 

Carex nigritella Drejer, Nat. Tidssk. 3: 450. 1841. (Type from southern Greenland.) 
Carex beringiana Cham.; Steud. Syn. Cyp. 229. 1855. (Type from Unalaska.) 

Cespitose in large mats, the clumps dense, from stout, fibrillose, creeping rootstocks, the 
culms 1.5-5 dm. high, central, slender, depressed, papillose, much exceeding the leaves, sharply 
triangular, roughened above, phyllopodic, purplish-red-tinged and slightly fibrillose at base, 
the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades usually 
5-10 to a fertile culm, clustered near the base, the blades light-green, firm, erect or ascending, 
flat W'ith slightly revolute margins, or channeled towards the base, papillose, usually 8-30 cm. 
long, 1.5-3 mm. wide, long-attenuate, much roughened towards the apex, the sheaths j-ellowish- 
brown-tinged ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule as long as wide; terminal spike staminate 
or with a few perigynia, linear, 1-2 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, peduncled, the scales obovate, 
obtusish, dark-purplish with lighter center and hyaline margin at least at apex; pistillate 
spikes 2 or 3, approximate or the lower somewhat separate, erect, the lower on smooth peduncles 



360 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

once to twice their own length, the upper shorter-peduncled or nearly sessile, oblong, 7-18 mm. 
long, 4.5-8 mm. wide, closely flowered, containing 10-40 ascending-spreading perigynia in 
several rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, sheathless, dark-auricled, usually much exceeded by 
inflorescence, the upper much reduced; scales 2-3 mm. long, ovate, obtuse or the lower acute, 
as wide as but shorter than the perigynia, purplish-black with lighter midrib extending to 
the apex and hyaline margins; perigynia oval or ovoid, suborbicular or nearly so in cross- 
section, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.5-1.75 mm. wide, yellowish-brown and more or less purple-black- 
tinged, glabrous, puncticulate, papillose above, subcoriaceous, strongly 2-ribbed and nerveless 
or very obscurely nerved, tapering or rounded to a stipitate base, round-tapering and abruptly 
minutely beaked at apex, the beak very minute, 0.1-0.3 mm. long, the orifice entire, filled by 
the slender prominently exserted style 1 mm. long; achenes broadly elliptic or broadly ovoid 
or elliptic-quadrate, filling perigynium or nearly so, 1.5 mm. long and about 1.25 mm. wide, 
brownish, triangular with thick angles and sides concave below, truncate or rounded and 
broadly substipitate at base, truncate or rounded above and abruptly slender-apiculate, 
jointed with the straight or rarely bent slender style; stigmas 3, slender, short. 

Type locality: Unalaska. 

Distribution: Open places, arctic and subarctic coastal regions from Greenland to Alaska, 
and southward on the Atlantic coast to western Newfoundland and northeastern Quebec and on the 
Pacific coast to northwestern Washington; also very locally in extreme northern Eurasia. (Speci- 
mens examined from Greenland, Labrador, Newfoundland, northeastern Quebec, Alaska, British 
Columbia, Vancouver Island, Washington.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. /. 716; ed. 2. /. 1040; Kunze. Suppl. Riedgr. pi. 29; Fl. 
Dan. pi. 2369; Boott, 111. Carex 141. pi. 454; Jour. Russe Bot. 1911: 105. /. 87; Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 
23: 425./. 11, 12; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 65./. 33. 

416. Carex montanensis L. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 17: 152. 1892. 

" Carex fuliginosa Schkuhr" Seem. Bot. Voy. Herald 42. 1852. 

Carex venustula Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 17: 304. 1904. (Type from Cook Inlet, Alaska.) 

"Carex podocarpa R. Br." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42»: 411. 1909. 

Loosely cespitose, the rootstocks more or less elongate, slender, brownish, the new shoots 
at the base of the old, the culms 1-5 dm. high, central, rather slender to base, stiff below, more 
or less nodding above, bluntly triangular, obscurely papillose, exceeding the leaves, little to 
strongly roughened above, reddish-purple-tinged and somewhat fibrillose, strongly aphyllo- 
podic; sterile shoots elongate, aphyllopodic; leaves with well-developed blades usually 2-4 
to a fertile culm, the upper much the longer, widely separate on lower third, not at all clustered, 
the blades erect, deep-green, thin but firm, flat, usually 0.5-1.5 dm. long (or up to 2.5 dm. on 
sterile shoots), 2-4 mm. wide, short-tapering, roughened towards apex, the sheaths rounded 
and smooth dorsally, reddish-brown-tinged ventrally, not at all filamentose, the lower sheaths 
long and conspicuous, the ligule conspicuous, much longer than wide; staminate spike solitary 
(or with an additional small sessile one at its base), erect, oblong or oblong-obovoid, slender- 
peduncled, 0.7-2.5 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, black, the lighter 
midrib inconspicuous, usually not extending to apex, the margins not hyaline ; pistillate spikes 
2 or 3, rarely 4, occasionally slightly staminate at apex, approximate or a little separate, 
drooping or weakly erect on slender, smooth peduncles from somewhat shorter than to twice the 
length of the spikes, the spikes oblong to linear-oblong, 1-2 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, closely 
flowered, the perig^mia 15-30, appressed-ascending in several rows; bracts squamiform, sheath- 
less, black-auricled, usually much shorter than culm; scales oblong-obovate, obtuse to acute, 
mudh shorter than to about length of but much narrower than perigynia, thin, closely appressed, 
black, the margins not hyaline, the midvein obsolete, or rarely with somewhat lighter midvein 
not extending to apex; perigynia oblong-ovate or elliptical, much flattened, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. 
wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless, very membranaceous, granular, straw- 
colored at base, strongly blackish-tinged above, rounded at base, substipitate, round-tapering 
at apex and abruptly minutely beaked, the beak 0.25 mm. long, black, entire or becoming 
bidentulate ; achenes triangular with concave sides, obovoid, one third to one fourth the width 
and about half the length of perigynium, minute, 1.5 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide, slenderly 



I 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 361 

long-stipitate, brownish, apiculate, jointed with the slender, straight, short-exserted style; 
stigmas 3, slender, rather long. 

Type locality: "Montana, Upper Marais Pass, W. M. Canby, Aug. 2, 1883 {no. 350) and along 
subalpine streams, Park County, Frank Tweedy, Aug. 5, 1887. Also on mountain slopes, Kootanie 
Pass, Rocky Mountains of British America, John Macoiin, Aug. 9, 1883." 

Distribution: Meadows and along streams in the mountains, Alberta to southern Alaska, and 
southward to Montana and Idaho. (Specimens examined from Alberta, Montana, Idaho.) 

Illustration: Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 48: 25./. 1-5 (C. venustula Holm). 

417. Carex spectabilis Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 
29: 248. pi. X,f. 76. 1836. 

Carex nigella Boott, in Hook, Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 225. 1839. (Type from Columbia River.) 

"Carex podocarpa R. Br." W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. CaHf. 2: 245. 1880. 

Carex invisa L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 82. 1886. (Type from Summit Camp, California.) 

Carex Tolmiei var. nigella L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1: 47. 1889. (Based on C. nigella 

Boott.) 
'Carex Tolmiei var. invisa Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 412. 1909. (Based on C invisa 

L. H. Bailey.) 
"Carex venustula Holm" Mackenzie, in Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 136. 1917. 

Carex spectabilis f. chrysanlha Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49: 202. 1920. (Type from Washington.) 
Carex spectabilis f. alpina Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49: 202. 1920. (Type from Washington.) 
Carex spectabilis var. superba Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49: 202. 1920. (Type from Alberta.) 
Carex spectabilis var. elegantula Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49: 202. 1920. (Type from British 

Columbia.) 
Carex spectabilis var. gelida Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49: 202. 1920. (Type from Alberta.) 

Loosely cespitose, the clumps medium-sized from densely matted, stout, tough, strongly 
fibrous, short-branching rootstalks, the culms 2.5-9 dm. high, central, slender, erect, sharply 
triangular, smooth or slightly roughened above, papillose, more or less strongly exceeding the 
leaves, purplish-tinged at base, arising from the center of the tuft of dried-up leaves of the 
previous year, the lower culm-leaves very much reduced; sterile shoots aphyllopodic; leaves 
with well-developed blades 2-5 to a fertile culm, on the lower third or half, strongly separate, 
the blades flat with slightly revolute margins, usually 0.5-1.5 dm. long, 2-5 mm. wide, light- 
green, firm, papillose, short-tapering, somewhat roughened towards the apex, the sheaths very 
long, very fragile and more or less yellowish-brown-tinged and purplish-dotted ventrally, pro- 
longed at mouth beyond base of blade, the ligule wider than long; sterile-culm blades much 
longer, 1.5-4 dm. long, and narrower, long-attenuate; staminate spike solitary or occasionally 
two, erect or sometimes drooping, the upper more or less peduncled, the second sessile, linear- 
oblong, 8-20 mm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, blackish with conspicuous 
thick light-colored midrib more or less excurrent as a short cusp; pistillate spikes 2-4, more or 
less strongly separate, erect, the upper short-peduncled or nearly sessile, the lower more strongly 
peduncled, oblong or linear-oblong, 1-3 cm. long, 3.5-5 mm. wide, closely flowered, but little 
attenuate. at base, containing 15-30 appressed perigynia in several rows; lower bract leaflet- 
like, shorter than or exceeding inflorescence, sheathless; upper bracts reduced, the auricles 
often dark-tinged ; scales oblong-ovate, purplish-black with the margins slightly hyaline and 
with conspicuous, thick, whitish midvein prominent to apex and usually excurrent as a very 
short cusp, usually narrower and slightly shorter than the perigynia; perigynia oblong-elliptic 
or oblong-ovate, much flattened, 4-5 mm. long, 1.75-2 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), 
otherwise very obscurely nerved, membranaceous, granular-roughened, light-green, strongly 
purplish-blotched, rounded and sessile at base, rounded at apex, abruptly tipped by an 
emarginate or bidentulate beak 0.5 mm. long; achenes linear-ovoid, 2.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, 
loosely enveloped in lower half of perigynium, triangular with blunt angles, light-brown, 
puncticulate, short-stipitate, apiculate-tipped, jointed with the straight slender style ; stigmas 
3, reddish-brown, slender, short. 

Type locality: "Found in the arctic regions." 

Distribution: Mountains and meadows, from Yukon to Montana, and southward in the 
higher mountains to Tulare County, California. (Specimens examined from California, Oregon, 
Washington, British Columbia, including Vancouver Island, Montana, Alberta, Yukon.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. 29: pi. X,f. 76; IV. 18: 17, 18./. A, a-c; IV. 49: 197./. 5-15; 
Abrams, Fl. Pacif. St. /. 796. 



362 , NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

418. Carex nesophila Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 17: 315. 1904. 

Carex melastoma Fisch.; Boott, 111. Carex 100, as synonym. 1860. (Plant from Bering Straits.) 
Carex macrochaeta var. siibrigida Kiikenth.; J. M. Macoun, in D. S. Jordan, Fur Seals N. Pacif. 

3:573. 1899. (Type from St. Paul Island.) 
Carex salina var. Iristigrnatica Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 362, in part. 1909. (Type 

from St. Paul Island, Bering Sea.) 
" Carex salina var. thulensis Th. Fries " Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49 : 439, as to plant described. 1920. 

Loosely long-stoloniferous, the stolons slender, long-creeping, at length ascending, with 
light -brown scales breaking into numerous fibers; culms 1-4 dm. high, sharply triangular, 
papillose, smooth, stiff', mostly strongly exceeding leaVes, phyllopodic, light-brownish at base, 
arising from the center of the 4-10 dried-up leaves of the previous year, the lower culm-leaves 
shorter than the upper; leaves with well-developed blades 3-5 to a fertile culm, clustered above 
the base, the blades flat with strongly revolute margins, mostly 1-3 dm. long, 2.5-6 mm. wide, 
smooth except at apex, stiff, thtckish, papillose, short-tapering, the sheaths smooth, white- 
hyaline or yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, the ligule wider than long; terminal spike stam- 
inate, sessile or short-peduncled, oblong-oblanceolate, 1-2 cm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, the scales 
oblong-obovate, obtuse or acute or slightly cuspidate, purplish-black with conspicuous 3- 
nerved narrow white center often excurrent as a short cusp; lateral spikes 3-5, erect, pistillate, 
linear-oblong, mostly 1-3 (0.5-3.5) cm. long, 4—5 mm. wide, densely flowered or somewhat 
loosely at base, the perigynia 15-40, appressed in several rows, the upper spikes sessile or 
short-peduncled, the lower on long stiff' peduncles; bracts sheathless or nearly so, the lowest 
leaf-like, often dark-auricled, shorter or longer than the inflorescence, the upper bracts much 
reduced; scales obovate or oblong-obovate, largely concealing perigynia, purplish-black with 
conspicuous slender 3-nerved midveln, obtuse, acute, or the midrib often slightly excurrent as 
a very short awn; perigynia ovate or oblong-ovate, strongly flattened-triangular, 3-4.5 mm. 
long, 1.5-1.75 mm. wide, light-green, or brownish or purplish-black-tinged in age, membrana- 
ceous, puncticulate, smooth, very lightly 2-ribbed (the marginal) and 3-nerved on either face, 
round-truncate and substipitate at base, round-tapering and abruptly minutely beaked, the 
beak 0.25 mm. long, slender, smooth, slightly emarginate; achenes oblong-obovoid, normally 
triangular, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, very short-stipitate, yellowish-brown, bluntly apiculate, 
jointed with the slender included style; stigmas normally 3, slender, rather short. 

Type locality: St. Paul Island, Bering Sea (James M. Macoun 16614, 16616). 
Distribution: Islands off the coast of western Alaska and northeastern Asia. (Specimens ex- 
amined from Alaskan islands.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. V. 3: 142./. 10-12. 

419. Carex podocarpa R. Br.; Richards, in Frankl. Journey 751. 1824. 

Carex Tolmiei Boott, in Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 224. 1839. (Type from Columbia River.) 
Carex microchaela Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 17: 305. 1904. (Type from Indian Divide, Yukon.) 
Carex Paysonis Clokey, Am. Jour. Sci. V. 3: 89. 1922. (Type from Jackson's Hole, Wyoming.) 

Very loosely cespitose in medium-sized or small clumps, the rootstocks long, scaly, fibril- 
lose, tough but rather slender, branching, the culms 1.5-5 dm. high, stiff, erect, sharply tri- 
angular, smooth or a little roughened above, papillose, much exceeding the leaves, brownish- 
tinged and fibrillose at base, arising from the center of the dried-up leaves of the previous year, 
the lower culm-leaves little reduced; sterile shoots aphyllopodic; leaves with well-developed 
blades 8-15 to a fertile culm, clustered near the base, the blades flat with revolute margins, 
3-25 cm. long, 2.5-5 mm. wide, light-green, firm, papillose, short-tapering, somewhat roughened 
towards the apex, the sheaths short, fragile and yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, short- 
prolonged at mouth beyond base of blade, the ligule wider than long; sterile shoots with similar 
blades; staminate spikes 1 or 2, short-peduncled, oblong-clavate, 1.5-3 cm. long, 3-4.5 mm. 
wide, the scales oblong-oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, purplish-black with conspicuous, 
thick, light-colored midrib more or less exserted as a short cusp; pistillate spikes 2-6, more or 
less strongly separate, erect, the upper sessile or nearly so, the lower on slender peduncles 
somewhat shorter than the spikes, the spikes short-oblong to oblong-cylindric, rounded or 
slightly attenuate at base, 0.7-2.5 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, densely flowered, the 15-40 peri- 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 363 

gynia appressed-ascending in several rows; bracts sheathless, dark-auriculate, the lower 1 or 2 
leaflet-like, shorter than the inflorescence, the upper much reduced; scales ovate or ovate- 
lanceolate, slightly narrower and from slightly longer to slightly shorter than the perigynia, 
purplish-black with minutely hyaline margins and conspicuous, thick, whitish midvein 
usually prominent to apex, varying to nearly obsolete, more or less excurrent as a very short 
cusp, sometimes merely obtuse or acute; perigynia ovate, much flattened, 2-4 mm. long, 1.5- 
1.75 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), faintly several-nerved, membranaceous, papillose, 
light-green, strongly purplish-blotched, rounded and sessile at base, round-tapering at apex, 
minutely abruptly beaked, the beak 0.2 mm. long, bidentulate, purple-tipped; achenes oblong- 
obovoid, 1.75 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, loosely enveloped in lower half or two thirds of perigy- 
nium, triangular, light-brown, puncticulate, short-stipitate, apiculate, jointed with the straight, 
slender style; stigmas 3, reddish-brown, slender, short. 

Type locality: Lat. 64°-69° northwestern Canada. 

Distribution: Mountain meadows, Yukon to Oregon and Wyoming. (Specimens examined 
from Yukon, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. V. 3: pi. 2,f. 7-12; Jour. Russe Bot. 1911: 108./. 90. f. 91 (as C. 
macrochaela) \ Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St. /. 797; Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. pi. 224. 

Note: As to Carex podocarpa R. Br. and Carex Tolmiei Boott see the views of Boott (Hook. 
Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 224. pi. 224. 1839). Clarke (Jour. Linn. Soc. 35: 403. 1903), and Holm (Am. Jour. 
Sci. IV. 48: 17-20, 1919;49: 200-201. 1920). 



420. Carex Raynoldsii Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. II. 32: 39. 1861. 

Carex Lyallii Boott, 111. Carex 150. pi. 483. 1867. (Type from east side of Cascade Mts.). 

Loosely cespitose, the rootstocks stout, scaly, creeping, the culms stout, erect, stiff, 2-7.5 
dm. high, rather sharply angled, usually exceeding the leaves, smooth or nearly so, phyllopodic, 
purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with 
well-developed blades usually 5-10 to a fertile culm, clustered towards the base, the blades 
light-green, stiff, erect or ascending, flat with revolute margins, 5-20 cm. long, 3-8 mm. wide, 
attenuate, roughened towards the apex, the sheaths yellowish-tinged ventrally, concave at 
mouth, the ligule wider than long; terminal spike staminate, sessile or nearly so, linear, 1-2 
cm. long, 3-4.5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, firm, obtuse or acutish, purplish-brown 
with lighter center and narrow hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 2-4, approximate or the 
lowest slightly separate, erect, the upper sessile or nearly so, the others more or less strongly 
peduncled, the peduncles nearly smooth, slender, stiff, the spikes oblong, 1-2 cm. long, 6-8 
mm. wide, densely flowered, containing 15-40 ascending-spreading perigynia in several to 
many rows; bracts sheathless, dark-auricled, the lowest leaflet-like, about the length of the 
culm, the others much reduced; scales broadly ovate, dark-purplish-black with lighter-colored, 
often nearly obsolete midrib and very narrow hyaline margins, short-acute or cuspidate, 
about as wide below as but considerably exceeded by the perigynia; perigynia oblong-oval or 
oblong-obovoid, somewhat inflated, suborbicular in cross-section, 3.5-4.5 mm. long, 1.75-2 
mm. wide, glabrous, puncticulate, subcoriaceous, 2-ribbed and strongly several-nerved, 
yellowish-green, becoming yellowish-brown, substipitate, round-tapering at base, rounded 
and abruptly contracted at apex into a minute, purple-tinged, entire or emarginate beak 0.5 
mm. long; achenes obovoid, 2.25-2.5 mm. long; 1.5-1.75 mm. wide, nearly as wide as but 
shorter than perigynia, triangular with thick angles and sides concave below, substipitate, 
yellowish-brown, minutely granular, apiculate, jointed with the straight, slender, slightly 
exserted style; stigmas 3, slender, short. 

Type locality: "Pierre's Hole, vallev of Snake River, June 20, 1860, 6000 ft. altitude, and 
Henry's Fork, June 22, 1860, 5500 ft. altitude. Dr. F. V. Hayden." 

Distribution: Mountain meadows. Alberta to British Columbia and southward to Colorado, 
Utah, and middle California. (Specimens examined from Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, 
Colorado, Utah, California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia.) 

Illustrations: Erythea 8: 68./. 36; Jepson Man. Fl. PI. Calif./. 194; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. 
St./. 798; Boott, 111. Carex 150. pi. 483. 



364 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

421. Carex aboriginum M. E. Jones, Bull. Univ. Mont. 61 : 69. 1910. 

Cespitose in medium-sized clumps, the rootstocks very short, tough, dark, fibrillose, the 
culms very slender, 5-9 dm. high, sharply triangular, papillose, smooth, much exceeding the 
leaves, aphyllopodic, purplish-red-tinged at base, the basal sheaths breaking and sparingly 
filamentose, the dried-up leaves of the previous year short; leaves with well-developed blades 
4-8 to a fertile culm, clustered above the base, the blades erect, 0.5-1.5 dm. long (or up to 3 
dm. on the sterile shoots), 1.5-3 mm. wide, channeled, the margins revolute, light-green, 
stiff, papillose, long-attenuate, the sheaths thin and hyaline ventrally, yellowish-brown-tinged, 
the ligule wider than long; staminate spike slender-peduncled, linear, 1-2 cm. long, 3.5 mm. 
wide, the scales broadly obovate, obtuse, purplish-red with lighter 3-nerved center and con- 
spicuous white-hyaline margins; pistillate spikes usually 2, erect, approximate or more or 
less strongly separate, the upper sessile, the lower on short, smooth peduncles, short-oblong, to 
linear-oblong, 8-25 mm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, closely flowered, the perigynia 10-30, ascending 
in few-several rows; lowest bract squamiform, shorter than head, sheathless or very short- 
sheathing, the upper much reduced, biauriculate ; scales orbicular, nearly the width but only 
half the length of perigynium, 3-nerved, sharply keeled, obtuse or rough-mucronate, purplish- 
red with lighter center and white-hyaline margins; perigynia obovoid, obtusely triangular in 
cross-section, 2.75-3.5 mm. long, 1.75-2.5 mm. wide, 2-ribbed and finely many-nerved, sub- 
coriaceous, puncticulate, straw-colored, strongly purplish-red-blotched, round-tapering and 
sessile at base, abruptly beaked, the beak flattened, 0.25 mm. long, bidentulate, the teeth 
scarcely hispidulous within, the notch wide; achenes obovoid, 2 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, 
closely enveloped and filling lower three fourths of perigynium-body, triangular with concave 
sides, broadly substipitate, brownish, abruptly slenderly apiculate, jointed with the very 
short style; stigmas 3, slender, reddish-brown, rather short. 

Type locality: "Indian Valley, southern Idaho, near Salubria, July 12, 1899." 
Distribution: Dry gumbo soil, wet in the spring, Idaho. (Specimens examined from Idaho.) 
Illustrations: Bull. Univ. Mont. 61: 70./. 1-3. 



422. Carex Gmelini H. & A., Bot. Beech. Voy. 118. pi. 27. 1832. 

Carex sp. Gmel. Fl. Sib. 1 : 139. pi. 30, f. J. 1747. (Type from Kamtschatca.) 

Carex acrolepis Ledeb. Denks. Bot. Ges. Regensb. 3: 56. 1841. (Type from Siberia.) Not C 

acrolepis Liebm. 1851. 
Carex lalicuspis Franch. Bull. Soc. Philom. VIII. 7: 38. 1895. (Type from northern Japan.) 

Cespitose, the clumps dense, from short, stout, scaly rootstocks, the culms 1-6 dm. high, 
stifl', papillose, sharply triangular, roughened above, aphyllopodic, strongly purplish-red- 
tinged at base, the basal sheaths breaking and becoming very sparingly filamentose, the dried- 
up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades usually 3-5 to a 
fertile culm, clustered above the base, the blades light-green, firm, erect, papillose, flat with 
slightly revolute margins or channeled towards the base, 0.5-3 dm. long, 1.5-4 mm. wide, 
long-attenuate, strongly roughened towards apex, the sheaths strongly yellowish-red-tinged 
and red.-dotted ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule as long as wide; spikes 3-6, closely 
approximate or the lowest more or less strongly separate, the terminal gynaecandrous, the 
lateral pistillate, erect, short-peduncled (the peduncles rough), or the upper nearly sessile, 
oblong or oblong-cylindric, 1-3 cm. long, 5-10 mm. wide, closely flowered, containing 10-30 
appressed-ascending perigynia in numerous rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, sheathless or very 
nearly so, dark-auricled, about length of inflorescence, the upper bracts reduced; scales ovate, 
purplish-black with lighter 1-3-nerved center excurrent as a prominent rough cusp and nar- 
rowly white-hyaline margins, as wide as but usually shorter than the perigynia; perigynia 
oblong-ovate, plano-convex, 4-5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, subcoriaceous, yellowish-brown, 
purple-dotted, puncticulate, nerveless or nearly so ventrally, finely many-nerved dorsally, 
abruptly rounded to a short-stipitatc base, rounded and abruptly minutely beaked at apex, 
the beak purple-tipped, 0.25 mm. long, bidentulate; achenes obovoid, 1.75-2 mm. long, 
1-1.25 mm. wide, loosely enveloped in lower part of perigynium, yellowish-brown, triangular 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 365 

with sides slightly concave below, substipitate, abruptly slender-apiculate, jointed with the 
straight slender style; stigmas 3, slender, short. 

Type locality: Kamtschatca (Krazcheninnicow), " Carex n. 77, Gmel. Fl. Sib. v 1. n 139 
t. 30." 

Distribution: Along the coast, occasionally in the interior, from British Columbia to the 
Shumagin and Pribilof islands; also on the Asiatic coast as far south as northern Japan. (Specimens 
examined from British Columbia. Yukon, Alaska, Bering Straits.) 

Illustrations: Gmel. Fl. Sib. 1: pi. 30. f. I; H. & A. Bot. Beech. Voy. pi. 27; Engler, Pflan- 
zenreich 420: 397./. <52, ^-C,- Boott, 111. Carex 139. ^/. 4-^0,- Jour. Russe Bot. 1911: 106. /.**,• Ostenf 
Fl. Arct. 67./. 36. 

423. Carex leiophylla Mackenzie, sp. nov. 

Loosely cespitose from long-creeping, slender, stout, fibrous rootstocks, the culms 2.5-3.5 
dm. high, smooth, papillose, sharply triangular, slender and more or less nodding, not at all 
stiff, exceeding leaves, phyllopodic, purplish-tinged and more or less fibrillose at base, the 
dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 10-15 to 
a fertile culm, clustered on lower fourth, the blades mostly 1-2 dm. long, 2-3.5 mm. wide, 
yellowish-green, papillose, flat or slightly channeled with somewhat rcvolute margins, thick 
with prominent midvein, triangular and long-attenuate towards the apex, very smooth through- 
out, even towards the apex, the sheaths whitish, very membranaceous, and readily breaking 
ventrally, the ligule as long as wide; spikes 4 or 5, sessile, very closely aggregated into an 
oblong-ovoid head about 2.5 cm. long and 12-16 mm. wide, the terminal gynaecandrous with 
a few staminate flowers at base, the lateral pistillate with 10-20 spreading-ascending perigynia 
closely packed in several to many rows; bracts sheathless, the lower with dilated dark-purplish 
base, short-prolonged but exceeded by head, the others scale-like; scales ovate or lance-ovate, 
acute, purplish-brown with slightly hyaline margins and apex and with slender midvein not 
conspicuous for its whole length, about width of but shorter than mature perigynia; peri- 
gynia ovoid, 4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, suborbicular in cross-section and somewhat inflated, 
straw-colored, purplish-blotched, 2-ribbed and obscurely many-nerved, minutely granular, 
subcoriaceous, strongly stipitate, round-tapering at base, more or less abruptly contracted at 
apex, the beak 1 mm. long, bidentate, purplish, and strongly white-hyaline at the orifice; 
achenes triangular, oblong-obovoid, 2.25 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, loosely enveloped, sessile, 
apiculate, jointed with the slender included style; stigmas 3, slender, long. 

Laxe cespitosa e rhizomatibus repentibus; culmi acute triangulares plusminus nutantes 
folia superantes; folia 10-15 crassa paullo revoluta glabra, costa crassa, vaginis albidis; spicae 
4 vel 5 sessiles in capitulum oblongum confertae, terminalis gynaecandra basi mascula, later- 
ales femineae, bracteis brevibus evaginatis; squamae ovatae vel ovato-lanceolatae acutae 
purpureo-brunneae perigymiis breviores; perigynia ovoidea 4 mm. longa straminea paullo 
inflata 2-costata inconspicue multinervata, in rostrum bidentatum 1 mm. longum contracta; 
achaenia triangularia oblongo-ovoidea apiculata. 

Type collected at Carcross, Upper Yukon Valley, Alice Eastwood 725. 

Distribution: Known only from the type locality. (Specimens examined from Yukon.) 

424. Carex Nelsonii Mackenzie, in Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 137. 1917. 

Loosely cespitose, the rootstock short-creeping, rather slender, light-brown, the culms 
1.5-3 dm. high, stiff, erect, triangular, smooth, much exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, 
fibrillose and brownish and sparingly dark-purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of 
the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 5-12 to a fertile culm, 
clustered near the base, the blades thick, dull-green, flat with scarcely revolute margins, 
channeled at base, 3-15 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, short-attenuate, roughened towards the apex, 
the sheaths whitish ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule much wider than long; spikes 2 or 
3, closely aggregated, sessile and forming a dense capitate head, the spikes oblong or obovoid, 
10-12 mm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, the lateral pistillate, the terminal gynaecandrous and somewhat 
clavate at base, densely 15-35-flowered, the appressed perigynia in numerous rows; bracts 
sheathless. scale-like and inconspicuous or the lowest short-prolonged; an empty bract-like 



366 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

leaf usually 1 cm. below head and about equaling the inflorescence often present; scales ovate 
or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or slightly acute, black, the midvein obsolete and upper margins 
not hyaline, narrower and shorter than the perigynia; perigynia oblong-obovoid, somewhat 
inflated and compressed-suborbicular, 4 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, yellowish-green, strongly 
blotched with piu-plish-black, membranaceous, 2-ribbed (the lateral), otherwise nerveless, 
puncticulate, granular-roughened on margins above and ciliate-serrulate, glabrous, rounded 
at base, substipitate, somewhat abruptly contracted into a purplish-black, cylindric, sharply 
bidentate, sparsely ciliate-serrulate beak nearly 1 mm. long,' achenes small, obovoid, 1.5 mm. 
long, 0.75 mm. wide, scarcely half length of perigynium, triangular with flattened sides, 
stipitate, yellowish-brown, granular, apiculate, jointed with the slender style; stigmas 3, 
slender, very short, whitish at flowering. 

Type locality: La Plata Mines, Wyoming (A. b' E. Nelson 5264). 

Distribution: Mountain meadows at 3000-4100 m. elevation, Wyoming and Colorado. (Speci- 
mens examined from Wyoming and Colorado.) 

Illustration: Clements, Rocky Mt. Fl. pi. 45, f. 7 (as C. alrata). 

425. Carex atrosquama Mackenzie, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 
25:51. 1912. 

Carex apoda Clokey, Am. Jour. Sci. V. 3 : 88. pi. 2,f. 1-6. 1922. (Type from Custer County, Idaho.) 

Densely cespitose, the rootstocks very short, slender, the culms 1.5-5 dm. high, slender, 
erect, or at maturity nodding, sharply triangular, slightly roughened above, much exceeding 
the leaves, phyllopodic, dark-purplish-red-tinged at base, the lower sheaths sparingly filamen- 
tose, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 
7-10 to a fertile culm, on lower fourth, mostly clustered near base, the blades deep-green, 
firm, flat, with slightly revolute margins, 0.5-2.5 dm. long, 1.5-3.5 mm. wide, mostly erect, 
attenuate, roughened towards the apex, the sheaths whitish or yellowish-white ventrally, 
concave at mouth, the ligule as long as wide; spikes 3 or 4, the lateral pistillate, the terminal 
gynaecandrous and clavate at base, approximate or the lower slightly separate, the lower 1 
or 2 on erect peduncles half to twice their own length, the others sessile or nearly so, the 
peduncles rough, triangular, the spikes oblong, 6-20 mm. long, 5-6 mm. wide, densely 15-35- 
flowered, with appressed perigynia in several rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, slightly or not at 
all sheathing, not or but little purplish-tinged, shorter than or exceeding the inflorescence; 
upper bracts much reduced ; scales broadly ovate, obtuse or slightly acute, black, the midvein 
obsolete or very indistinct, and the upper margins not at all or but very slightly hyaline, 
nearly the width of but markedly shorter than the perigynia; perigynia narrowly elliptic- 
obovoid, 3.25 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, nerveless, granular-roughened above, puncticulate, 
olive-green, becoming yellowish-brown, sometimes slightly purplish-spotted, membranaceous, 
slightly inflated, suborbicular and but little flattened at maturity, glabrous, sessile, round- 
tapering at base, abruptly contracted into a minute shallowly bidentate purplish-black beak 
0.5 mm. long; achenes obovoid, 1.5-2 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, rather loosely enveloped in 
lower part of body of perigynium, triangular with sides somewhat concave below, stipitate, 
dull-yellowish-brown, slightly granular, apiculate, jointed with the slender, not exserted style ; 
stigmas 3, short, slender, whitish at flowering. 

Type locality: Head of Smoky River, Alberta (A'^. Hollister 14). 

Distribution: Mountain meadows, Alberta to British Columbia, and southward to Montana, 
Idaho and Oregon. (Specimens examined from Alberta, British Columbia, Montana, Idaho, and 
Oregon.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. V. 3: pi. 2, f. 1-6; Abrams. 111. Fl. Pacif. St. /. 804. 

426. Carex Helleri Mackenzie, Erythea 8: 80. 1922. 

Carex alrata var. nigra W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 239, in part. 1880. 
"Carex nova L. H. Bailey" Smiley, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 9: 124. 1921. 

Very densely cespitose, not stoloniferous, the culms 0.5-3 dm. high, slender but strictly 
erect, sharply triangular, roughened on angles beneath head, exceeding leaves, phyllopodic. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 367 

purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year inconspicuous; leaves 
with well-developed blades usually 6-10 to a fertile culm, clustered near the base, not scptatc- 
nodulose, the blades flat with slightly revolute margins, stifT, light-green, erect or ascending, 
up to 1 dm. long, 2^3.5 mm. wide, strongly attenuate, the sheaths very thin ventrally, usually 
whitish, often reddish-dotted, concave at mouth, the ligulc as long as wide; spikes 3-5, closely 
aggregated, the terminal gynaecandrous, sessile or short-peduncled, with few staminate flowers, 
the lateral pistillate, sessile or very short-peduncled, oblong, 10-20 mm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, 
obtuse at apex, rounded or the terminal one tapering at base, very densely 25-50-flowered, 
the appressed-ascending perigynia in many rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, not sheathing, 
shorter than inflorescence, strongly purplish-margined or auricled at base; upper bracts much 
reduced; scales lanceolate or lanceolate-ovate, aristate or acuminate, purplish-black, with 
white midvein extending entire length or in places obsolete, longer but much narrower than the 
perigynia; perigynia very strongly 2-edged and flat save where distended in center by achenc, 
broadly oval to orbicular, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 2-3 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise 
nerveless, membranaceous, smooth, puncticulate, strongly purplish-tinged, except the light- 
green margins, rounded and sessile or substipitate at base, rounded above and very abruptly 
minutely beaked, the beak apiculate, 0.25 mm. long, shallowly bidentate, purplish-tinged; 
achenes narrowly oblong-obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide, much narrower and shorter 
than the perigynia, triangular with shallowly concave sides, substipitate, yellowish-brown, 
abruptly apiculate, jointed with the straight slender style; stigmas 3, slender, whitish at 
flowering. 

Type locality: Mt. Rose, Washoe County, Nevada (Heller 9975). 

Distribution: At high altitudes in the Sierra Nevada of California, from Tulare County 
north to El Dorado County; also in the White Mountains of California and the high mountains of 
western Nevada. (Specimens examined showing distribution as given.) 

Illustrations: Erythea 8 : 70. /. 38; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 801; Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. 
/. 196. 

427. Carex epapillosa Mackenzie, in Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 138. 1917. 

Densely cespitose, the rootstocks very short, the culms 1.5-6 dm. high, erect, usually 
rather stiff, sharply triangular, smooth, exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, dark-purplish-red- 
tinged and brown-fibrillose at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; 
leaves with well-developed blades 5-8 to a fertile culm, on lower fourth, the blades stiff, erect, 
light-green, flat with somewhat revolute margins, 0.5-2 dm. long, 3.5-7 mm. wide, attenuate, 
smooth except towards the apex, the sheaths whitish or dull-yellowish-tinged ventrally, tight, 
dorsally somewhat septate-nodulose, concave at mouth, the ligule very short, much wider 
than long; spikes 3-6, usually 4 or 5, the terminal gynaecandrous, its lower third staminate, 
the lateral pistillate, all approximate, the upper closely aggregated, the lowermost on peduncles 
3-10 mm. in length, erect or erect-ascending, oblong, 1-2.5 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, very 
closely flowered, with 30-60 appressed-ascending perig>'nia in many rows; bracts sheathless, 
dark-purplish-tinged at base, the lowest leaflet-like, usually shorter than the head, the others 
scale-like; scales blackish, ovate or lanceolate, acute, acuminate, or cuspidate, about the 
length of the perigynia but much narrower, the light-colored midvein often conspicuous for 
its entire length; perigynia oval or oval-orbicular, strongly flattened, not inflated, 3-4 mm. 
long, 1.75-3 mm. wide, membranaceous, puncticulate, very smooth, not at all papillose, 2- 
ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless or very obscurely nerved, dull-yellowish-green or 
purplish-blotched, sessile, rounded at base and apex, abruptly minutely beaked, the beak 
purple, slender, 0.5 mm. long, bidentate; achenes obovoid, small, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, 
occupying about a third of width of perigynium, triangular with sides somewhat concave 
below or rarely lenticular, dull-yellowish-brown, granular, strongly stipitate, apiculate, jointed 
with the straight, slender, at length deciduous style; stigmas 3 or rarely 2, slender, short. 

Type locality: Marysvale, Utah {M. E. Jones 5345). 

Distribution: Mountain meadows, Wyoming to Washington, and southward to Utah and 
California. (Specimens examined from Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, Washington, Oregon and Cali- 
fornia.) 

Illustration: Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 802. 



368 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

428. Carex heteroneura W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 240. 1880. 

" Carex alrata L." W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2 : 239. 1880. 

Carex alrata var. erecta W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 239. 1880. (Type from California.) 

Carex quadrifida L. H. Bailey, Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 3: 104. 1891. (Type from Mt. Dana, Cali- 
fornia.) 

Carex quadrifida var. lenis L. H. Bailey, Proc. Calif. Acad. II. 3: 104. 1891. (Type from Mt. 
Dana, California.) 

Carex quadrifida var. caecaL,. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 21:8. 1896. (Type from San Jacinto Mountains, 
California.) 

Carex atrala subsp. alraliformis var. erecta "W. Boott" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich i-": 
399. 1909. (Based on C. atrata var. erecta W. Boott.) 

Carex atrala subsp. alraliformis var. erecta f. lenis Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 399. 1909. 
(Based on C quadrifida var. lenis L. H. Bailey.) 

Carex atrata subsp. alraliformis var. erecta f. caeca Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 400. 1909. 
(Based on C quadrifida var. caeca L. H. Bailey.) 

"Carex atrala var. discolor L. H. Bailey" Smiley, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 9: 124. 1921. 

Very densely cespitose, the rootstocks usually very short, the culms 2.5-10 dm. high, 
slender but erect, exceeding leaves, acutely triangular above, smooth or somewhat roughened 
above, phyllopodic, strongly purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous 
year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades usually 5-10 to a fertile culm, on the 
lower third, the lower clustered, the blades stiff, erect, light-green, flat with slightly revolute 
margins, 0.5-3 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, attenuate, much roughened towards the apex, the 
sheaths yellowish-tinged ventrally and usually more or less purplish-red, concave at mouth, 
the ligule as long as wide ; spikes 3-6, usually 4, closely approximate or the lowest 1 or 2 from 
little to strongly separate, the terminal gynaecandrous, rarely staminate, the lateral pistillate, 
erect, the upper very short-peduncled or sessile, the lower on peduncles from one half to twice 
the length of the spikes, the peduncles triangular, rough, the spikes oblong or rather broadly 
linear-oblong, 0.7-2.5 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, densely flowered, containing 15-40 appressed- 
ascending perigynia in many rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, sheathless or nearly so, purple- 
auricled, from much shorter than to exceeding inflorescence; upper bracts much reduced; 
scales dark-purple-brown with lighter center conspicuous to the tip and minutely hyaline 
margins, the staminate ovate or obovate, obtuse or acute, the pistillate ovate or lance-ovate, 
acute, half width and from nearly length of to noticeably shorter than the perigynia; perigynia 
broadly oval or obovate or suborbicular, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.75-2.5 mm. wide, very strongly 
flattened, not inflated, membranaceous, glabrous, puncticulate, not granular, greenish-white 
with green edges, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless or obscurely few-nerved dor- 
sally, sessile, rounded at base and apex, abruptly minutely beaked, the beak slender, purple, 
minutely bidentate, 0.25 mm. long; achenes minute, obovoid, 1.75 mm. long, 0.75-1 mm. wide, 
half width of perigynia, triangular with slightly concave sides, short-stipitate, yellowish-brown, 
granular, apiculate, jointed with the slender style; stigmas 3, slender, very short. 

Type locality: Lake Tahoe to Bear Valley, California {Kellogg). 

Distribution: Mountain meadows, Sierra Nevada of California, from Tulare County to 
Placer County; in the high mountains of southern California, and in the high mountains of western 
Nevada. (Specimens examined showing range as given.) 

Illustrations: Bull. So. Calif. Acad. 4: pi. 12; Erythea 8: 71./. 39; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St. 
/. 803; Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif./. 197. 

429. Carex bella L. H. Bailey, Bot. Gaz. 17: 152. 1892. 

Carex alrata var. W. Boott, in Rothr. Bot. Wheeler's Surv. 278. 1878. (Type from Mt. Graham, 
Arizona.) 

"Carex atrata var. ovala Boott" L. H. Bailey, in Coult. Man. 388. 1885. 

Carex alrata var. discolor L. H. Bailey, Jour. Bot. 26: 321. 1888. (Type from mountains of Colo- 
rado and Utah and southward.) 

Carex atrata subsp. alraliformis var. discolor Bailey; Kiikenth, in Engler, Pflanzenreich A-": 399. 
1909. (Based on C. atrata var. discolor L. H. Bailey.) 

Cespitose, the rootstocks short-creeping, fibrillose, the clumps medium-sized, the culms 
very slender, 5-9 dm. high, often drooping, much exceeding the leaves, sharply triangular, 
roughened on the angles above, phyllopodic, cinnamon-brown and more or less strongly 
purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with 
well-developed blades usually 8-12 to a fertile culm, on the lower half, but not bunched, not 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 369 

septate-nodulose, the blades light-green, firm, erect, flat, usually 2-4 dm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, 
long-attenuate, roughened on the margins and towards the apex, the sheaths very thin ven- 
trally and dull reddish-brown-tinged or dotted, concave at mouth, the ligule as long as wide; 
spikes 3 or 4, the lower strongly peduncled, more or less drooping, the peduncles slender, 
roughish. 1.5-4 cm. long, the upper spikes erect, short-peduncled or nearly sessile, the upper- 
most contiguous, the others more or less strongly separate, gynaecandrous, the lateral with a 
few staminate flowers, the terminal half staminate, the lateral oblong-linear, 12-25 mm. long, 
4-5 mm. wide, closely flowered, containing 15-30 appressed perigynia in few rows, the terminal 
spike slightly wider; lowest bract short (2-5 mm.), sheathing, leaflet-like, exceeding head, the 
upper much reduced; staminate scales oblong-obovate, acutish, dark-purplish-brown with 
lighter midrib and shining white-hyaline margins; pistillate scales ovate, obtuse or acute, 
dark-purplish-brown with lighter midrib usually conspicuous throughout, and shining white- 
hyaline margins, nearly as wide as but shorter than mature perigynia; perigynia strongly 
flattened but swollen by ripening achene, broadly oval to oblong-oval, 3-4 mm. long 1.75-2 mm. 
wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless or lightly 2-3-nerved on one face, whitish- 
green, little or not at all purplish-tinged, membranaceous, puncticulate, smooth, not granular, 
rounded at base, substipitate, rounded at apex and abruptly beaked, the beak apiculate, 
0.3 mm. long, purplish-tinged at mouth, shallowly bidentate; achenes obovoid or oblong-ob- 
ovoid, 2-2.5 mm. long, 1.75 mm. wide, little narrower but much shorter than perigynia, triangu- 
lar with sides concave below, substipitate, yellowish-brown, granular, short-round-tapering 
at apex, strongly apiculate and jointed with the straight, slender style; stigmas 3, slender, 
short, whitish at flowering. 

Type locality: "Mountains, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona." 

Distribution: Wooded hillsides and along streams in the higher mountains, Colorado to Utah, 
and southward to New Mexico and Arizona; erroneously recorded from California. A handsome 
species. (Specimens examined from Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona.) 

430. Carex albo-nigra Mackenzie, in Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 137. 1917. 

Cespitose, the rootstocks short, slender, the culms 1-3 dm. high, stiff, rigid and erect, 
sharply triangular, roughened towards apex, much exceeding leaves, phyllopodic. purplish- 
red-tinged and but slightly fibrillose towards base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year 
conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 6-12 to a fertile culm, clustered at base, not 
septate-nodulose, the blades light-green, firm, erect or ascending, flat with slightly revolute 
margins, 5-20 cm. long, 2.5-5 mm. wide, roughened towards the strongly attenuate apex; 
sheaths whitish ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule as long as wide; spikes usually 3, 
approximate or the lowest slightly separate, the lowest on an erect peduncle shorter than the 
spike, the others sessile or nearly so, the lateral pistillate, narrowly oblong, very closely flowered, 
8-10 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, with 8-20 appressed perigynia in several to many rows, the 
terminal gynaecandrous, clavate at base, 10-12 mm. long, 6 mm. wide, with about 25-30 
appressed perigynia in several to many rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, about equaling inflores- 
cence, brownish-purple-tinged and subsheathing at base, the others scale-like; scales broadly 
ovate, obtuse or acutish, purplish-black, conspicuously white-hyaline at apex and on the 
margins, the midvein normally more or less obsolete, mostly wider than (except at apex) and 
nearly length of the perigynia; perigynia much flattened, broadly ovate or obovate, 3-3.5 mm. 
long, 2 mm. wide. 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless or nearly so, membranaceous, 
glabrous, granular, purplish-black, rounded at base, substipitate, rounded at apex, and very 
abruptly contracted into a minute, apiculate, shallowly bidentate beak scarcely 0.5 mm. long; 
achenes obovoid, 1.25 mm. long, 0.75 mm. wide, narrower and shorter than the perigynia, 
triangular with concave sides, granular, light-yellowish-brown, substipitate, apiculate, jointed 
with the straight, slender style; stigmas 3, slender, short, whitish at flowering. 

Type locality: Needle Mountain, Wyoming {Merrill Cary 613). 

Distribution: Dry mountain sides at high elevations. Alberta to Washington, and southward 
to Arizona and California. (Specimens examined from Wyoming, Colorado, Alberta, Utah, Arizona 
California, Washington.) 

Illustration: Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 805. 



370 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

431. Carex nova L. H. Bailey, Jour. Bot. 26: 322. 1888. 

' Car ex atraia var. nigra Boott" Olney in S. Wats. Bot. King's Expl. 371. 1871 (and other authors). 
"Carex nigra All." Olney, Caric. Bor.-Am. 10. 1877. 
"Carex melanocephala Turcz." Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 16; 21, 27. 1903. 

Carex violacea C. B. Clarke, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8: 87. 1908. (Type, Hall &= Harbour 587 from 
Colorado, erroneously attributed to California.) 

Cespitose, the rootstocks short-creeping, slender, the clumps medium-sized, the culms 
stiffly erect, 1.5-6 dm. high, exceeding the leaves, sharply triangular, smooth or more or less 
roughened above, phyllopodic, strongly purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of 
the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 8-15 to a fertile culm, 
chiefiy bunched above the base, not septate-nodulose, the blades firm, erect, light-green, fiat 
with slightly revolute margins, 5-15 cm. long, 2.5-5 mm. wide, roughened at the attenuate 
apex, the sheaths hyaline and yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule 
as long as wide; spikes 3 or 4, the lateral pistillate, the terminal gynaecandrous, sessile, very 
closely aggregated into a dense terminal head 8-18 mm., long and about as wide, the spikes 
suborbicular, 7-12 mm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, very closely flowered, the spreading-ascending, 
at length squarrose perigynia in many rows; head subtended by an empty bract 2-30 mm. 
below, little sheathing, darkened at base, from shorter to longer than the head; other bracts 
obsolete; scales lanceolate or oblanceolate to obovate, obtusish to acutish or short-cuspidate, 
purplish-black with very narrow hyaline margins above, the midrib very inconspicuous, the 
pistillate shorter and narrower than the perigynia; perigynia much flattened, but strongly dis- 
tended by ripening achene, ovate-suborbicular to obovoid, 3-4 mm. long, 2-3.5 mm. wide, 
2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless, membranaceous, granular, remotely and spar- 
ingly ciliate-scabrous, purplish-black with green margins and straw-colored at base, rounded 
and substipitate at base, rounded at apex, abruptly short-beaked, the beak apiculate, 0.5-1 
mm. long, sharply bidentate, purplish-black; achenes narrowly obovoid, 1.75-2 mm. long, 
1 mm. wide, much shorter than and about half as wide as perigynia, triangular with sides 
concave below, short-stipitate, yellowish-brown, granular, short-round-tapering and abruptly 
apiculate at apex, jointed with the slender straight style; stigmas 3, short, slender, dull- 
brownish. 

Type locality: "Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado and southward." 

Distribution: Along streams and in mountain meadows at altitudes of 2400-3900 meters, 

Montana to New Mexico and Utah. Erroneously recorded from California. (Specimens examined 

from Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah.) 

432. Carex chalciolepis Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV, 
16: 28, 29./. 1-5. 1903. 

Carex atraia var. chalciolepis Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 399. 1909. (Based on C. 
chalciolepis Holm.) 

Densely cespitose ; the rootstocks very short, the clumps medium-sized, the culms slender 
and weak, nodding or even reclining, 2-7.5 dm. high, exceeding the leaves, sharply triangular, 
smooth or slightly roughened above, phyllopodic, purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up 
leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well-developed blades 5-10 to a fertile 
culm, on the lower half, the lower bunched, the blades erect, stiff, dull-green, flat, with slightly 
revolute margins, 7-15 cm. long, 2.5-6 mm. wide, long-attenuate, slightly roughened towards 
the apex on the margins, the sheaths white or yellowish-tinged ventrally, concave at mouth, 
the ligule wider than long; spikes 2-4, closely aggregated or the lowest slightly separate, the 
terminal gynaecandrous, the lateral pistillate, all varying from short-peduncled to sessile, 
oblong (especially the lateral) to broadly ovoid (especiahy the terminal), 1-2.5 cm. long, 6-10 
mm. wide, very closely flowered, the perigynia appressed-ascending in many rows; lowermost 
bract leaflet-like, from shorter to longer than the inflorescence, darkened and slightly or not 
at all sheathing at the base; upper bracts much reduced; scales brown-copper-colored, very 
thin and closely appressed, the staminate lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, with very incon- 
spicuous midrib and narrow hyaline margins, acute to short-cuspidate, the pistillate similar 






Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 



371 



but the midrib not apparent, mostly narrower than but exceeding the perigynia; pcrigynia 
broadly ovate-suborbicular to obovate, 3-4 mm. long, 2.3-5 mm. wide, much flattened, but 
distended by the ripening achene, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless, membrana- 
ceous, puncticulate, granular above, dark-purple, the upper margins often green, round- 
truncate at base, sessile, rounded at apex, sparsely ciliate-serrulate along the margins, abruptly 
short-beaked, the beak 0.5 mm. long, cmarginatc, dark-purple; achenes narrowly obovoid, 
2 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, triangular with sides slightly concave below, much narrower than 
perigynia, dull-yellowish-brown, minutely granular, very short-stipitate, apiculate, jointed 
with the straight slender style; stigmas 3, short, slender. 

Type locality: Pagosa Peak, Colorado (C. F. Baker), and Mt. Kelso {Holm). 

Distribution: Mountain slopes and meadows at 2400-3900 meters elevation, Wyoming and 
Colorado to Utah and Arizona. (Specimens examined from Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Arizona ) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. vSci. IV. 16: 29. /. 1-5; Clements, Rocky Mt. Fl. pi. 45, f. 6 (as C. 
atrata). 

433. Carex atrata L. Sp. PI. 976. 1753. 

Carex alrata var. varia Gaudin, fitr. Fl. 178. 1804. (Type from central Europe.) 

Carex atrata var. recliuscula Hartm. Skand. Fl. 41. 1820. (Type from Sweden.) 

Trasits atratus S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 56. 1821. (Based on Carex alrata L.) 

Loxanisa atrata Raf. Good Book 26. 1840. (Based on Carex alrata L.) 

Carex castanea Mielichh.; Sauter. Flora 32: 665. 1849. (Type from Central Europe.) 

Carex atrata var. briinnescens Anderss. Cyp. Scand. 37. 1849. (Type from Sweden.) 

Carex atrata var. spadicea Beurl. Bot. Notiser 1853: 36. 1853. (Based on C. alrala var. brunnes- 

cens Anderss.) 
Carex Siberi Rota, Prosp. Fl. Bergamo 103. 1853. (Type from Lombardy.) 
Carex atrata var. laxa Neilr. Fl. Nieder.-Oesterr. 107. 1859. (Type from central Europe.) 
Carex atrata f. gelida Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 708. 1866. (Type from southeastern Europe.) 
Carex atrata var. bicolor Celak. Prodr. Fl. Bohm. 67. 1867. (Type from central Europe.) 
Carex frigida X a/raia Briigger, Jahresber. Nat. Ges. Graubund. 23-24: 119. 1881. (Type from 

Switzerland.) 
Carex atrata var. typica G. Beck, Fl. Nieder. Oesterr. 137. 1890. (Based on C. atrata L.) 
Carex atrata f. caslanea K. Richt. PI. Eur. 1: 157. 1890. (Based on C. castanea Mielichh.) 
Carex atrata f. decoloratts Neuman, Sv. Fl. 698. 1901. (Type from Sweden.) 

Cespitose, from slender, brownish, fibrillose, short-elongated rootstocks, the culms 1.5-5 
dm. high, stiff below, slender and nodding above, papillose, sharply triangular, smooth or but 
little roughened above, much exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic and purplish-red-tinged and 
more or less fibrillose at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves 
with well-developed blades 7-15 to a fertile culm, mostly clustered near the base, the blades 
flat with slightly revolute margins and channeled above, light-green, stiff, papillose, usually 
5-20 cm. long, 2-8 mm. wide, roughened towards the attenuate apex, the sheaths hyaline and 
usually more or less yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, strongly high-convex at mouth, the 
ligule as long as wide; spikes 3-7, approximate or the lowest somewhat separate (usually less 
than 5 cm.), the upper short-peduncled and weakly erect, the lower on peduncles from shorter 
to longer than their own length and from weakly erect to nodding, the peduncles triangular, 
slender, smooth, the terminal spike gynaecandrous, the upper three quarters pistillate and 
ovoid or oblong-ovoid, the whole generally 12-24 mm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, the lateral spikes 
similar but pistillate throughout and slightly narrower, densely flowered, the 15-50 perig>'nia 
closely appressed in several to many rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, not sheathing, but dark- 
auricled, from shorter than to exceeding inflorescence; the upper much reduced; scales ovate 
to oblong-ovate, black or fading brownish-black, usually with inconspicuous lighter midrib 
extending to apex and whitish-hyaline tip and very narrow margins, strongly acute to obtusish, 
about as wide as (except towards apex) and usually slightly longer than the mature perigynia; 
perigynia broadly oval to obovate, more or less strongly flattened, 3-4 mm. long, 1.5-3 mm. 
wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless, submembranaceous, papillose, yellowish- 
brown and more or less strongly purplish-blotched, round-tapering and substipitate at base, 
rounded at apex, very abruptly beaked, the beak apiculate, 0.5 mm. long, emarginate. purplish- 
tipped; achenes narrowly oblong-obovoid, 2-2.5 mm. long. 0.75-1 mm. wide, occupying two 
thirds or half of perigynium and about half its width, triangular with blunt angles and sides 
concave below, short-stipitate, yellowish-brown, short-apiculate, jointed with the straight 
slender style; stigmas 3, slender, brownish-black, short. 



372 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Type locality: "Habitat in Alpibus Europae." 

Distribution: Arctic or alpine meadows in calcareous districts, Greenland to Alberta, and 
southward to Colorado and Nevada; widely distributed in arctic-alpine Eurasia. (Specimens ex- 
amined from Greenland, Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Nevada.) 

Illustrations: Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=0; 397. /. 62, D-G; Schkuhr, Riedgr. pi. X, f. 77; Fl. 
Dan. pi. 158; Jour. Russe Bot. I91I : 107./. 89; Sturm, Deuts. Fl. 47: pi. HI; Clarke, 111. Cyp. pi. 
144, /. 5-9; Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 16: 29. /. 6-7; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 65. /. 34; Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: 
pi. 237, f. 592; Anderss. Cyp. Scand. pi. 6, f. 67; Engl. Bot. pi. 2044; ed. 2. pi. 1635; Benth. Handb. 
Brit. Fl. ed. 2./. 1115; Coste, Fl. Fr./. 3840; Host, Gram. Austr. I: pi. 88; Hegi, 111. Fl. Mittel-Eur. 
pi. 52, f. 3; Karst. Deuts. Fl. 351./. 177 {4); Hallier, Deuts. Fl. pi. 434; Lindm. Bild. Nord. Fl. pi. 
435 B. 

434. Carex atratiformis Britton, Bull. Torrey Club 22: 222. 1895. 

Carex ovata Rudge, Trans. Linn. Soc. 7: 96. pi. 9. /. /. 1804. (Type from Newfoundland.) Not 

C. ovala Burm. /. 1768. 
Carex alrata var. ovata Boott, 111. Carex 1 14. pi. 362. 1862. (Based on C. ovata Rudge.) 
Carex atrala subsp. atratiformis "Britton" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 399. 1909. 

(Based on C. atratiformis Britton.) 
X Carex quirponensis Fernald (C. atratiformis X Halleri), Rhodora 28: 164. 1926. (Type from 

Quirpon Island, Newfoundland.) 

Cespitose, the rootstocks slender, short, the clumps medium-sized, the culms slender, 
2-9 dm. high, much exceeding the leaves, sharply triangular, more or less roughened above, 
phyllopodic, purplish-red-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; 
leaves with well-developed blades 6-15 to a fertile culm, clustered above the base, not septate- 
nodulose, the blades flat with revolute margins, glaucous-green, thin but firm, erect or ascend- 
ing, 1-2.5 dm. long, 2.5-5 mm. wide, short-attenuate, much roughened towards the apex, the 
sheaths white-hyaline ventrally, often yellowish-tinged, concave at mouth, the ligule wider 
than long; spikes 3-6, the lateral pistillate with a very few basal staminate flowers, the terminal 
gynaecandrous, approximate or little separate, the lower nodding on slender, rough peduncles 
1-2 times the length of the spikes, the upper more erect on shorter peduncles, the spikes 
narrowly oblong, 1-2.5 cm. long, 4-6 mm. wide, or the terminal one slightly wider, densely 
flowered, the 10-30 closely appressed perigynia ascending in several to many rows; lowest 
bract leaflet-like, mostly shorter than the culm, scarcely sheathing, slightly darkened at base ; 
upper bracts much reduced; scales ovate, obovate or oblong-lanceolate, acute to short- 
cuspidate, dull, not shining, dark -reddish-brown to brownish-black with nearly obsolete mid- 
rib and minutely hyaline margins, the pistillate about as wide as and slightly longer than the 
perigynium; perigynia ovoid to orbicular-ovoid, flattened-oval in cross-section, 2-edged, dis- 
tended over achene, slightly inflated, 2.5-3 mm. long, 1.5-1.75 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the mar- 
ginal), nerveless or few-nerved, membranaceous, granular, puncticulate, purplish-brown, or 
straw-colored below, obscurely very short-stipitate, rounded at base, round-tapering and 
abruptly short-beaked at apex, the beak apiculate, 0.5 mm. long, shallowly bidentate; achenes 
small, obovoid, 1.5-1.75 mm. long, 0.75-1 mm. wide, loosely enveloped in lower part of peri- 
gynium, triangular with lightly concave sides, nearly sessile, silvery-black and shining, strongly 
granular, apiculate, jointed with the slender style; stigmas 3, slender, short. 

Type locality (of C. ovata Rudge, on which C atratiformis is based): "Habitat in Newfound- 
land." 

Distribution: Sunny banks and meadows along streams in calcareous districts, Labrador and 
Newfoundland to Yukon, and southward to Maine, Michigan, and Alberta. (Specimens examined 
from Labrador, Newfoundland, Quebec, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Michi- 
gan, Alberta.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 715; ed. 2./. 1042; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 429; Boott, 
111. Carex 114. pi. 362; Trans. Linn. Soc. 7: pi. 9,f. 1. 

435. Carex Mertensii Prescott; Bong. Mem. Acad. St.-Petersb. VI. 

2; 168. 1832. 

Carex columbiana Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 30: 62. pi. BB,f. 90. 1836. (Type from Columbia River.) 
Densely cespitose, the rootstocks very short, stout, the clumps large, the culms 3-10 dm. 
high, slender, erect, usually much exceeding the leaves, very sharply triangular with concave 
sides and narrowly winged, very rough on angles, aphyllopodic, purplish-red-tinged at base; 
leaves with well-developed blades 3-6 to a fertile culm, regularly disposed on the lower half, 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 373 

not bunched, the blades erect, flaccid, Hght-green, flat with slightly revolute margins, 1-4 dm. 
long, 4-7 mm. wide, attenuate, roughened towards the ape.\, the sheaths rather loose, cinna- 
mon-brown-tinged, concave at mouth, the ligule very short; spikes 5-10, approximate, more 
or less strongly drooping on peduncles varying from much longer (the lower) to shorter (the 
upper) than the spikes, the peduncles slender, roughish, the spikes cylindric, 1-4 cm. long, 
7-9 mm. wide, the lateral with a few staminate flowers at base, the terminal varying from 
staminate below to nearly all staminate, closely flowered except at base, the perigynia very 
numerous, appressed-ascending in several to many rows; the lower 2 or 3 bracts leaf-like, 
sheathless or very short-sheathing, exceeding inflorescence; upper bracts much reduced; 
staminate scales oblong-obovate to lanceolate, acute to obtuse or mucronate, dark-purplish- 
brown with conspicuous, lighter-colored, nerved center and very narrow hyaline margins; 
pistillate scales ovate-lanceolate, acute or mucronate, similar in color, much narrower and 
much shorter than and nearly concealed by the perigynia; perigynia broadly ovate or obovate, 
4.5-5 mm. long, 2.5-3.5 mm. wide, very thin and flattened save where distended over achene, 
glabrous, scarcely granular, very chartaceous, light-green, or becoming whitish or light-brown, 
purple-spotted, 2-ribbed (the marginal) and finely few-nerved, rounded at base, nearly sessile, 
short-tapering at apex, minutely beaked, the beak 0.25-0.5 mm. long, slender, purplish-tipped, 
entire or emarginate; achenes small, oblong-obovoid, 1.75-2 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, much 
narrower and shorter than perigynia, strongly stipitate, triangular with sides slightly concave 
below, silvery-brown, apiculate, jointed with the slender style; stigmas 3, slender, very short. 

Type locality: Sitka, Alaska. 

Distribution: Rocky slopes, Yukon and southern Alaska to northern California, and eastward 
to Montana. (Specimens examined from northern California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, 
British Columbia, including Vancouver Island, southern Alaska, western Yukon.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. 30: pi. BB, f. 90; Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=»: 397. /. 62, H-L; 
Hook. Fl. Bor. Am. pi. 217; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 807; Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris III. 8: pi. 13, 
f. 1 (excellent). 

436. Carex serratodens W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 
2:245. 1880. 

Carex bifida Boott; Olney, Proc. Am. Acad. 7: 394. 1868. (Type from Salinas Valley, south of 
Monterey, California.) Not C. bifida Roth; Steud. Nom. ed. 1. 155. 1821. 

Carex aequa C. B. Clarke, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8: 86. 1908. (Type from San Mateo County, 
California.) 

Loosely cespitose with short, ascending stolons, the culms 3-12 dm. high, slender, sharply 
triangular, smooth or roughened immediately beneath spikes, papillose, exceeding the leaves, 
aphyllopodic and strongly purplish-tinged at base, the basal sheaths breaking and becoming 
filamentose; sterile shoots strongly phyllopodic, very conspicuous; leaves with well-developed 
blades 2-5 to a fertile culm, clustered on lower fourth, the blades 1-6 dm. long, 1.75-4 mm. 
wide, flat, pale-green, papillose, slender, long-attenuate, roughened towards apex, not septate- 
nodulose, the sheaths very thin and dull-white-hyaline or yellowish-brown-tinged and red- 
dotted ventrally, the ligule strongly red-dotted, as long as wide; terminal spike staminate or 
gynaecandrous, slightly peduncled or nearly sessile, linear, 1.5-3 cm. long, 3-4.5 mm. wide, 
the scales oblong-obovate, from roughly short mucronate to obtuse, reddish-brown with 
lighter center and slightly hyaline apex; pistillate spikes 2-5, the lower 1 or 2 more or less 
separate, the others closely approximate, erect, sessile or the lowest slightly peduncled, oblong, 
6-18 mm. long, 5-8 mm. wide, densely flowered, containing 20-40 ascending and at length 
spreading or squarrose perigynia in many rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, erect, from shorter 
than to exceeding culm, scarcely sheathing, purplish-tinged at base; the other bracts much 
reduced; scales ovate, acute to shortly rough-mucronate, somewhat narrower and slightly 
shorter than perigynia, reddish-brown with lighter center; perigynia oblong-ovate or ovate, 
flattened-triangular in cross-section, 3-5 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, many (about 10)- nerved, 
light-green, purplish-dotted, puncticulate, the walls thin, round-contracted and sessile at 
base, rather abruptly tapering at apex into the slender bidentate rough beak 0.5-1 mm. long, 
the notch narrow, the teeth erect, minute, hispidulous and purplish-tinged within; achenes 
obtusely triangular, obovoid, 2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, loosely enveloped, in lower half of 



374 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

perigynium, short-stipitate, abruptly slenderly apiculate, jointed with the straight slender 
style; stigmas 3, reddish-brown, slender, short. 

Type locality: California, without locality or collector being given. 

Distribution: Open places, Jackson County, Oregon, and southward in California, mostly 
in the Coast Ranges, to San Bernardino County. (Specimens examined from range as given.) 

Illustrations: Erythea 8:69./. J7; Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 48:25./. 6-8; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St. 
/. 799; Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif./. 195. 

Note: The name Carex bifida Boott (Olney, Proc. Am. Acad. 7: 394. 1868) is unfortunately 
antedated by the rather obscurely published Carex bifida Roth (Steud. Nom. Ed. 1. 155. 1821), 
based on the imperfectly understood Carex biparlita F. G. Dietrich (VoUst. Lex. Gaertn. Nachtr. 2 : 
16. 1816; not C. biparlita AIL). Kiikenth. (Pflanzenreich 4-o: 239. 1909) gives Dietrich's species 
as "species vigneae inextricabilis, " which is very doubtfully accurate. 

437. Carex Buxbaumii Wahl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Nya Handl. 24: 163. 1803. 

Carex polygama Schkuhr, Riedgr. 84. pi. X, /. 76; pi. Gg, f. 76. 1801. (Type from northwestern 

Europe.) Not C. polygama J. F. Gmel. 1791. 
Carex subulata Schum. Enum. PI. Saell. 1: 270. 1801. (Type from Denmark.) Not C. subulata 

J. F. Gmel. 1791. 
Carex Buxbaumii var. alpicola Hartm. Scand. Fl. 41. 1820. (Type from Scandinavia.) 
Physiglochis Buxbaumii Raf. Good Book 27. 1840. (Based on Carex Buxbaumii Wahl.) 
Carex Buxbaumii var. macroslachya Hartm. Scand. Fl. ed. 5. 268. 1849. (Type from Scandinavia.) 
Carex Buxbaumii var. auslralis Anderss. Cyp. Scand. 39. 1849. (Type from Scandinavia.) 
Carex Buxbaumii var. heteroslachya Anderss. Cyp. Scand. 39. 1849. (Type from Scandinavia.) 
Carex albo-atra Muhl.; Boott, 111. Carex 136, as synonym. 1867. 
"Carex fusca All." L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1 : 63. 1889. 
Carex Buxbaumii var. oenipontana Gremblich; Appel, Mitth. Bot. Ver. Thiir. 8: 43. 1895. (Type 

from central Europe.) 
Carex Buxbaumii f. virescens Norman, Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christ. 27^^: 50. 1893. (Type from Fin- 
mark.) 
Carex Buxbaumii f. mitis Norman, Forh. Vid. Selsk. Christ. 27^^'. 50. 1893. (Type from Scandi- 
navia.) 
Carex tarumensis Franch. Bull. Soc. Philom. VIII. 7: 37, 1895. (Type from Japan.) 
Carex picea Franch. Bull. Soc. Philom. VIII. 7: 39, 151. 1895. (Type from Japan.) 
Carex Buxbaumii f. macroslachya "Hartm." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich. A-": 394. 1909. 

(Based on C Buxbaumii var. macroslachya Hartm.) 
Carex Buxbaumii I. oeniponlana "Gremblich" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 394. 1909. 

(Based on C. Buxbaumii var. oenipontana Gremblich.) 
Carex Buxbaumii f. heteroslachya "Anderss." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 394. 1909. 

(Based on C. Buxbaumii var. heteroslachya Anderss.) 
Carex Holmiana Mackenzie, Bull. Torrey Club 36: 481. 1909. (Type from Montana.) 
Carex polygama var. heteroslachya Farwell, Rep. Mich. Acad. 19: 254. 1917. (Based on C. Bux- 
baumii var. heteroslachya Anderss.) 

Loosely cespitose and stoloniferous, the stolons long, slender, horizontal, scaly, the culms 
2.5-10 dm. high, erect, very slender, sharply triangular and rough above, papillose, aphyllopo- 
dic, strongly purplish-red-tinged at base, the basal sheaths breaking and conspicuously fila- 
mentose; sterile shoots phyllopodic; leaves with well-developed blades 2-4 to a fertile culm, on 
lower half, not clustered, the blades erect, light-green, more or less glaucous, thin, papillose, 
flat with revolute margins, channeled towards the base, sharply keeled, usually 1-2 dm. long, 
1.5-4 mm. wide, long-attenuate, rough on margins and towards apex, the sheaths thin, yel- 
lowish-brown-tinged and purplish-dotted ventrally, the lower sharply keeled, the ligule longer 
than wide; spikes 2-5, approximate or the lower more or less separate, the terminal short- 
peduncled, gynaecandrous, oblong-ovoid, 1-4 cm. long, 8-12 mm. wide, the basal staminate 
part short, the lateral pistillate, sessile or nearly so, ovoid or oblong-ovoid, 0.5-2 cm. long, 
6-10 mm. wide, densely flowered, the 10-40 perigynia appressed-ascending in many rows; 
bracts sheathless, squamiform, dark-auricled, the lowest shorter than or equaling inflorescence, 
the upper much reduced; scales lanceolate, narrower than and usually longer but sometimes 
shorter than the perigynia, long-acuminate or aristate, varying to acute or even obtusish, 
purplish-black or purplish-brown with light midvein prominent to apex; perigynia elliptic or 
obovoid, triangular-biconvex, 2.5-4 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, glaucous-green, densely 
papillose, subcoriaceous, 2-ribbed (the marginal) and finely many-nerved, rounded and short- 
stipitate at base, rounded and abruptly very minutely beaked, the beak 0.2 mm. long, bidentu- 
late, purplish-tipped; achenes suborbicular-obovoid, triangular with blunt angles, 1.75 mm. 
long, 1.5 mm. wide, nearly filling lower four fifths of perigynium body, brownish, strongly 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 375 

punctate, short-tapering at base, abruptly short-apiculate, jointed with the short, slender 

style; stigmas 3, slender, reddish-brown, rather short. 

Typk locality: "Hub. in paludosis Sueciae, e. g. in Stormossan ad Oesthammar et in Lapponia 
iibique." 

Distribution: Sunny swamps or wet meadows or sprinRv places in calcareous regions. New- 
foundland to southern Alaska, and southward to Georgia, Arkansas, Colorado, Utah, and Cali- 
fornia; widely distributed hut a very local species in many parts of its range; also widely distributed 
in Eurasia. (Specimens examined from Newfoundland, Miquelon, Quebec, including Anticosti, 
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island' 
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, District of Columbia, North Carolina! 
Ontario, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Kentucky, Illinois, Iowa. Missouri, Arkan- 
sas, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Montana, Colorado, Utah, British Columbia, including 
Vancouver Island, Oregon, California.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 718; ed. 2./. 1043; Rob. & Fern. Man./ 430; Schkuhr 
Riedgr. pi. X, f. 76; pi. Gr, f. 76; Rep. N. J. Mus. 1910: pi. 25. f. 4; Fl. Dan. pi. 1406; Roott, III! 
Carex 136. pi. 438, 439; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. States/. 800; Jour. Russe Bot. 1911 : 105./ 86; Sturm 
Dents. Fl. 61 : pi. 9; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 67. /. 35; Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: 235./. 589; Anderss Cyp' 
Scand. pi. 6.f. 35; Engl. Bot. Suppl. pi. 2885; pi. 1637; Benth. Handb. Brit. Fl. ed. 2. pi. 1114; Coste 
Fl. Fr. /. 3842; Hegi, III. Fl. Mittel-Eur. pi. 48, f. 2; Hallier, Deuts. Fl. pi. 434; Karst. Deuts. Fl. 
351./. 777 (J). 

Notr: Carex subulata vSchum. is by a typographical error cited by Boott (111. Carex 136) as 
Carex lubulala Schum. 

61. Acutae Fries, Fl. Scan. 191. 1835; Tuckerm. Enum. Caric. 11. 1843; Carey, in 
A. Gray, Man. 546. 1848; L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 82. 1886; Kukenth. in Engler, 
Pflanzenreich 4-°: 296. 1909; Mackenzie, in Rydb. Fl. Rocky Mts. 138. 1917; Mackenzie, 
Erythea8:72. 1922. Leimonastes Reichenb. Fl. Sa.x. 45. 1842. Microrrhynchae Drejer, 
Symb. Car. 9. 1844; L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 76, in large part. 1886; Holm, Am. 
Jour. Sci. IV. 16: 457. 1903. AeorasTachyaE Drejer, Symb. Car. 9, in small part. 1844; 
Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 16: 457, in small part. 1903. AuriTae Heuffel, Flora 27: 536. 
1844. Rigidae Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 72, 232. 1845; L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 
77, in part. 1886; Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-0; 299. 1909. Caespitosae Fries, 
Summa Veg. Scand. 226. 1845. Prolixae Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 228. 1845. Aquatiles 
Fries, Summa Veg. Scand. 229. 1845. Idiomorphae O. F. Lang, Linnaea 24: 546. 1851. 
LiMNONASTES Pax, in E. & P. Nat. Pfl. 2-: 124. 1887. Forsiculae Franchet, Nouv. Arch. 
Mus. Paris HI. 10: 103. 1898; Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 334. 1909. LiMOXO- 
nastes Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 83. 1902. Euvignea C. B. Clarke, Jour. Linn. 
Soc. 37: 3. 1904; C. B. Clarke, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 8: 141. 1908, with minor groups as 
follows: (1) Vulgares (A) Muticae, a Goodenoides, b Rigidae, c Aquatiles, d Acutae, e 
NoTHAE; (B) / LoNGiGLUMAE, g Aristellatae ; (2) BiDENTEs; (3) Longirostres; (4) In- 
SIGNES. Praelongae Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4^": 345. 1909. Aeorastachyae 
apertae Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49: 431. 1920; Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. V. 2: 285, 288. 1921. 
Aeorastachyae magnificae Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49: 431. 1920; Holm, Am. Jour. ScL 
V. 2: 285, 291, in part. 1921. Aeorastachyae phacotae Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49: 431. 
1921. Aeorastachyae ternariae Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 49: 431. 1920; Holm, Am. 
Jour. Sci. V. 2: 322. 1921. Treated as part of Vignea Beauv. by Lestiboudois (Ess. Fam. 
Cyp. 22. 1819); as a genus Vignantha by Schur (Enum. PI. Transsilv. 705. 1886); and as a 
genus Limivasculum subgenus Limivasculum by Borner (Abh. Nat. Ver. Bremen 21: 268, 269. 
1913.) 

Culms leafy below, aphyllopodic or phyllopodic; terminal one to several spikes staminate 
(rarely gynaecandrous), linear, the others pistillate, linear to cylindric or oblong, closely many- 
flowered, sesssile or peduncled; bracts sheathless or rarely short-sheathing, leafy or squami- 
form, bi-auriculate and often darkened at the base; perigynia membranaceous to coriaceous, 
plano-convex or bi-convex or turgid, elliptic to obovate, 2-ribbed (the marginal) and otherwise 
nerveless or nerved or ribbed, margined, puncticulate, beakless or abruptly minutely beaked, 
the orifice entire to deeply bidentate; achenes lenticular, apiculate, jointed with the straight, 
slender, sometimes exserted style, its base not enlarged; stigmas 2. 

A group of numerous species characteristic of open swamps, represented in all the 
cooler portions of the northern hemisphere and sometimes found in the mountains in the 
tropics; probably best developed in Asia, but also well represented in North America, forming 



376 



NORTH AMERICAN FLORA 



[Volume 18 



a great part of the sedge meadows. The group is also represented by several species in the 
cooler southern parts of South America and several species are found in the cooler parts of 
Australasia. It barely reaches northern Africa, but several species are known in the mountains 
of Madagascar. A species is known in the Hawaiian Islands. Its study presents unusual 
difficulties. The fundamental distinguishing characters are found in the underground parts 
and in the lower parts of the culms; these are unfortunately usually not gathered by collectors. 
The scales and spikes vary much in size and shape in the same species, and distinctions based 
upon them need an unusual amount of verification by a study of abundant material. 

Flowering culms arising from the center of previous year's tufts of leaves 
and surrounded at base with dried-up leaves of previous year. 
Lower sheaths of flowering culms not breaking ventrally and becoming 
filamentose. 
Lowest bract shorter than inflorescence; pistillate scales with obso- 
lete or slender midvein ; strongly stoloniferous, the culms arising 
one to few together, low. I. RigidaE. 

Lowest bract equaling or exceeding inflorescence; pistillate scales 
with slender midvein or broader light-colored center; culms taller, 
less stiff, in larger clumps. II. VtJLGARES. 

Lower sheaths of flowering culms (of season's growth) breaking ven- 
trally and becoming filamentose. III. SenTAE. 
Flowering culms all or mostly arising laterally and not enveloped at base 
by the previous year's tufts of leaves. 
Pistillate spikes erect; culms slender to the base or rarely stoutish. 

Lowest bract poorly developed, usually much exceeded by inflores- 
cence. IV. Strictae. 
Lowest bract conspicuously developed, from somewhat shorter than 

to exceeding inflorescence. V. ForsiculaE. 

Lower pistillate spikes or all nodding or curved; culms stout below. VI. PraelongaE. 

I. Rigidae. 

Dried first-year leaf -blades at base of fertile culms stiff, rigid and conspicu- 
ous, concealing the base of culms; fertile-culm leaves all blade-bear- 
ing, the lower sheaths not purplish or hispidulous dorsally. 
Perigynia plano-convex, puncticulate, appressed. 
Perigynia ovoid or obovoid. 
Perigynia elliptic. 
Perigynia soon turgid, papillose, more spreading. 

Culms stiff; perigynia squarrose-spreading, the beak 0.2-0.5 mm. 

long, often bent; scales obovate, exceeded by the perigynia. 
Culms slender; perigynia spreading-ascending, the beak 0.1-0.2 mm. 
long; scales lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, exceeding the peri- 
gynia. 
Dried first-year leaf -blades at base of fertile culms much desiccated, not 
stiff, rigid, or conspicuous, not concealing the base of the culms; 
lowest fertile-culm leaves (of season's growth) not blade-bearing, 
the lower sheaths purplish and more or less strongly hispidulous 
dorsally. 
Lower bladeless sheaths of fertile culms (of season's growth) incon- 
spicuous and largely hidden by old dead leaves; lower sheaths 
sparingly hispidulous; culms sharply triangular and rough above. 
Perigynia plano-convex or flattened-biconvex, appressed-ascending; 
sterile shoots phyllopodic. 
Perigynia membranaceous, appressed, straw-colored; scales 

conspicuous. 
Perigynia subcoriaceous, spreading, olive-green; scales very 
short, largely hidden by perigynia. 
Perigynia deeply concave ventrally, convex dorsally, curved out- 
wardly and spreading; sterile shoots aphyllopodic. 
Lower bladeless sheaths of fertile culms (of season's growth) conspicu- 
ous; sterile shoots strongly aphyllopodic. 
Lower bladeless sheaths very long, strongly hispidulous; leaf -blades 
dull-bluish-green, very long (often 6-9 dm.); culms narrowly 
wing-angled and very serrulate; perigynia exceeding scales. 
Lower bladeless sheaths short, hispidulous; leaf -blades light-green, 
1.5-3.5 dm. long; culms sharply triangular; scales exceeding peri- 
gynia. 

II. VULGARES. 

Perigynia conspicuously nerved or ribbed ventrally, the nerves raised. 

Perigynia membranaceous, slenderly nerved, the beak apiculate, entire. 
Plants cespitose or with ascending stolons; lowest bract exceeding 
culm; perigynia more or less slenderly stipitate. 



438. C. concolor. 

439. C. anguillata. 



440. C. scopulorum. 

441. C. Chimaphila. 



442. C. gymnoclada. 

443. C. accedens. 

444. C. campylocarpa. 

445. C. prionophylla. 

446. C. miser ahilis. 



Part 6, 1935] 



CYPERACEAE 



377 



Lowest bract short-sheathing; sterile shoots phyHopodic; culms 
densely cespitose; pistillate scales brownish-recl-tinged; peri- 
gynia short-stipitate, few-ribbed on both faces, oval-ovate. 
Lowest bract sheathless or nearly so; sterile shoots aphyllopodic; 
culms less densely cespitose; pistillate scales blackish. 
Perigynia short-stipitate, several-ribbed on both faces, sub- 
orbicular; achenes sessile. 
Perigynia strongly stipitate, ovate; achenes substipitate. 

Perigynia light-green or in age glaucous-green, nerved, 

very minutely granular; scales long persistent. 
Perigynia yellowish-green, ribbed, papillate-roughened; 
scales deciduous. 
Plants strongly stoloniferous, with horizontal stolons; perigynia 
from nearly sessile to strongly stipitate; lowest bract shorter than 
or but moderately exceeding the inflorescence. 
Perigynia coriaceous, strongly ribbed, the beak broad, bidentate; lowest 
bract about equaling inflorescence. 
Perigynia nerveless ventrally or with obscure impressed nerves. 
Perigynia turgid; scales divaricate. 
Perigynia not turgid; scales appressed. 

Perigynia ovate-orbicular, olive-green, scarcely 2 mm. long. 
Perigynia narrowly elliptic to broadly ovate or obovate, light-green 
to straw-colored, 2.5-3.5 mm. long. 
Sheaths usually strongly dark-colored ventrally at mouth; lower 
pistillate spikes subcernuous on long peduncles; pistillate 
scales whitened at tip, especially in age; long horizontal 
stolons absent. 
Culms very rough on the angles; blades obscurely septate- 
nodulose, the sheaths smooth dorsally; pistillate spikes 
usually 2, 1-3 cm. long, the perigynia 25-50; lowest bract 
shorter than culm. 
Culms smooth or roughened above; blades strongly septate- 
nodulose, the sheaths hispidulous dorsally; pistillate 
spikes 3-5, 2-9 cm. long, the perigynia 50-150; lowest 
bract usually exceeding inflorescence. 
Sheaths not colored ventrally at mouth; lower pistillate spikes 
not nodding; pistillate scales not whitened at tip; sending 
forth long horizontal stolons. 
Perigynia narrowly to very broadly elliptic, broadest below 

apex, less than 3 mm. long, 1-1.5 mm. wide. 
Perigynia strongly obovate, broadest at the apex, 3 mm. long, 
1.75 mm. wide. 

III. SentaE. 

Beak of perigynium bidentate, hispidulous between the teeth; pistillate 

scales mostly rough-cuspidate or rough-awned. 
Beak of perigynium entire or emarginate, not hispidulous between the 
teeth; pistillate scales not rough-cuspidate or rough-awned. 
Culms cespitose; long horizontal stolons present; leaf -blades 3-12 mm. 
wide; lowest bract conspicuously developed; perigynia few- to 
several-nerved both dorsally and ventrally. 
Lower leaf-sheaths (of year's growth) sharply keeled dorsally; culms 

very stout below, 1-1.5 m. high; leaf-blades 6-12 mm. wide. 
Lower leaf-sheaths (of year's growth) rounded dorsally; culms more 
slender, 3-10 dm. high; leaf -blades 3-5 mm. wide. 
Culms very densely cespitose; long horizontal stolons absent; leaf -blades 
1-2 mm. wide; lowest bract very short, conspicuously black- 
auricled; perigynia nerveless (except for marginal ribs). 



447. C. lenlicularis. 

448. C. paticicoslala. 

449. C. Kelloggii. 

450. C. Hindsii. 

451. C. acuta. 

452. C. nebraskensis. 

453. C. aperla. 

454. C. interrupla. 



455. C. Suksdorfii. 

456. C. sitchensis. 

457. C. aqualilis. 

458. C suhslricla. 

459. C. Barbarae. 

460. C. SchoUii. 

461. C. senla. 

462. C. lugens. 



IV. Strictae. 

Beak of perigynium entire or emarginate. 

Pistillate scales straw-colored to reddish-brown or purplish-black with 
lighter center; if purplish -black, plants with long horizontal 
stolons (not Pacific Slope). 
Perigynia inflated, brownish at maturity, minutely granular towards 
apex; achenes suborbicular; plants rather loosely cespitose with 
short ascending stolons; pistillate scales divaricate at maturity; 
ligule as long as wide or somewhat longer; lower sheaths not at 
all or very sparingly filamentose. 
Perigynia unequally biconvex, not inflated, green or straw-colored; 
achenes oblong-obovate or oblong-quadrate. 
Lower sheaths not filamentose ventrally, strongly septate-nodu- 
lose dorsally; ligule much wider than long; perigynia slightly 
granular-roughened towards apex only, soon straw-colored; 
plants forming beds; long horizontal stolons numerous; leaf- 
blades light-green. 



463. C. Haydeni. 



464. C. Etnoryi. 



378 



NORTH AMERICAN FLORA 



[Volume 18 



Lower sheaths filamentose ventrally; ligule much longer than 
wide; perigynia granular-roughened, green. 
Plants forming beds; long horizontal stolons numerous; leaf- 
blades glaucous-green, light-green, or blue-green, flat or 
nearly so to base; leaf -sheaths markedly hispidulous ven- 
trally and with a narrow hyaline jagged-ciliate margin at 
mouth. 
Culms very densely cespitose, forming dense tussocks, long 
horizontal stolons usually not conspicuous; leaf-blades 
deep-green, channeled and keeled towards base; leaf- 
sheaths smooth ventrally and without a narrow hyaline 
jagged-ciliate margin at mouth. 
Pistillate scales purplish -black with light-colored midvein (sometimes 
nearly obsolete); long horizontal stolons absent; achenes sub- 
orbicular or broadly obovate; ligule somewhat longer than to 
much shorter than wide; leaf-blades light-green or glaucous- 
green (Pacific Slope). 
Culms very densely cespitose; lowest bract often much shorter than 
inflorescence; perigynia conspicuously slenderly few- to 
several-nerved both dorsally and ventrally. 
Perigynia inflated, 2.5 mm. long, broadly oval-ovoid or broadly 

obovoid. 
Perigynia not inflated, 2.5-4 mm. long, plano-convex, oblong- 
obovate to obovate. 
Culms loosely cespitose from a creeping rootstock with short ascend- 
ing stolons; lowest bract about equaling inflorescence; perigynia 
obscurely slenderly nerved. 
Beak of perigynium bidentulate; pistillate scales purplish-black with 
lighter center; culms loosely cespitose, without long horizontal stolons; 
achenes orbicular-obovate; perigynia not inflated (Mexican). 



Represented by one species in our area. 



Represented by one species in our area. 



V. FORSICULAE 



VI. Praelongae. 



465. C. striciior 



466. C. stricta 



467. C. siihorhicidala. 

468. C. nudala. 



469. C. aculinella. 



470. C. Endlichii. 



All. C. eurycarpa. 



472. C. lorta. 



438. Carex concolor R. Br. Chlor. Melv. 25. 1823. 



Carex rigida Gooden. Trans. Linn. Soc. 2 : 193. pi. 22, f. 10. 1794. (Type from Scotland.) Not C. 

rigida Schrank, 1789. 
"Carex saxatilis L." Schkuhr, Riedgr. 1 : 54. 1801. (Plants from Europe and Greenland.) 
Carex rigida var. recurva S. F. Gray, Nat. Arr. Brit. PI. 2: 51. 1821. (Type from Great Britain.) 
Carex Bigelovii Torr. ; Schw. Ann. Lye. N. Y. 1 : 67. 1824. (Type from the White Mountains, New 

Hampshire.) 
Carex Washingtoniana Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. 10: 272. pi. D, f. 14. 1826. (Type from Mt. Wash- 
ington, New Hampshire.) 
Vignea saxatilis Reichenb. in Mossier, Handb. ed. 2. 1624, in part. 1829. 
"Carex Waskingtofiia Dewey" Eaton, Man. ed. 5. 156. 1829. (Change of spelling.) 
Carex saxatilis var. fi Torr. Ann. Lye N. Y. 3 : 397. 1836. (Based on C. Bigelovii Torr.) 
Carex saxatilis var. rigida Laest. Nov^ Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. 11: 287. 1839. (Based by inference 

on C rigida Gooden.) 
Carex saxatilis var. a Laest. Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. 11 : 287. 1839. (Type from Sweden.) 
Carex saxatilis var. inferalpina Laest. Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. 11: 287. 1839. (Type from 

Lapland.) 
Olotrema Washingtoniana Raf. Good Book 25. 1840. (Based on Carex Washingtoniana Dewey.) 
Onkerma rigida Raf. Good Book 27. 1840. (Based on Carex rigida Gooden.) 
Neskiza saxatilis Raf. Good Book 27, in part. 1840. 

Diemisa concolor Raf. Good Book 27. 1840. (Based on Carex concolor R. Br.) 

Carex caespilosa var. elliptica Drejer, Nat. Tidssk. 3 : 456. 1841. (Type from Igalliko Bay, Green- 
land.) 
Carex saxatilis var. typica Drejer, Nat, Tidssk, 3 : 460. 1841. (Type from Lapland.) 
Carex saxatilis var. infuscata Drejer, Nat. Tidssk. 3: 460. 1841. (Type from Greenland.) 
Carex saxatilis var. pudica Drejer, Nat. Tidssk. 3: 461. 1841. (Type from Iceland.) 
Carex saxatilis var. lutosa Drejer, Nat. Tidssk. 3: 461. 1841. (Type from Greenland.) 
Care;c /iy/)er6orea Drejer, Nat. Tidssk. 3: 461. 1841. (Type from Greenland.) 
Carex rigida var. inferalpina Fries, Mant. 3: 147. 1842. (Based on C. saxatilis var. inferalpina 

Laest.) 
Carex rigida var. saxatilis Fries, Mant. 3: 148. 1842. 
Carex rigida var. glacialis Fries, Mant. 3: 148. 1842. 
Carex rigida var. Bigelovii Tuckerm. Enum. Caric. 19. 
Carex hyperborea f. latifolia Anderss. Cyp. Scand. 52. 
Carex hyperborea var. paradoxa Drejer; Liebm. Fl. Dan. 42: 7. pi. 2483. 

land.) 
Carex Friedrichsthaliana Steud. Syn. Cyp. 211. 1855. (Type from Greenland.) 



(Based on C. saxatilis var. rigida Laest.) 
(Based on C. saxatilis var. a Laest.) 
1843. (Based on C. Bigelovii Torr.) 
1849. (Type from Lapland.) 

1849. (Type from Green- 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 379 

Carex saxalilis var. pallidior a. major Blytt, Norges Fl. 1 : 210. 1861. (Type from Norway.) 
Carex saxatilis var. pallidior h. minor lilytt, Norges FI. 1: 210. 1861. (Type from Norway.) 
Carex dubilala Dewey, in Wood. Class-Hook, ed. 1861. 755. 1861. (Type from the White Moun- 
tains, New Hampshire.) 
Vignanlha rigida Schur, Knum. PI. Transsilv. 705. 1866. (Based on Carex rigida Gooden.) 
Carex vulgaris var. hyperborea Koott, 111. Carex 167. 1867. (Based on C. hyperhorea Drejer.) 
Carex vulgaris var. alpina Boott, 111. Carex 167. 1867. (Based on C. rigida Gooden.) 
Carex vulgaris f. Bock. Linnaea 40: 417. 1876. (Based on C Bigelovii Torr.) 
Carex Drejeriana Lange. Fl. Dan. 50: 10. pi. 2975. 1880. (Type from Greenland.) 
Carex hyperborea var. tenuifolia Lange, Consp. Fl. Groenl. 145. 1880. (Type from Greenland.) 
Carex Warmingii Holm, Bot. Jahrb. 8: 294. 1887. (Type from western Greenland.) 
Carex Fyllae Holm, Bot. Jahrb. 8: 294. 1887. (Type from western Greenland.) 
Carex spiralis Ewing, Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow II. 2: 110. 1888. (Type from Scotland.) 
Carex hyperborea f. cuspidata Rosenv. Consp. Fl. Greenl. 723. 1892. (Type from Greenland.) 
Carex caespilosa var. rigida Benth. & Hook. f. Handb. Brit. Fl. ed. 6. 496. 1896. (Based on C. 

rigida Gooden.) 
Carex rigida f. aggregate Almq.; Neuman, Sv. Fl. 707. 1901. (Type from Sweden.) 
Carex rigida i. juncelliformis Almq.; Neuman, Sv. Fl. 707. 1901. (Type from Sweden.) 
Carex rigida f. glacialis "Fries" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-o: 301. 1909. (Based on C. 

rigida var. glacialis Fries.) 
Carex rigida f. infiiscata "Drejer" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42»: 301. 1909. (Based on 

C saxatilis var. infuscata Drejer.) 
Carex rigida f. lutosa "Drejer" Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 301. 1909. (Based on C 

saxatilis var. lutosa Drejer.) 
Carex rigida f. pudica "Drejer" Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=0: 301. 1909. (Based on 

C. saxatilis var. pudica Drejer.) 
Carex rigida var. concolor Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42«: 301. 1909. (Based on C. con- 
color R. Br.) 
Carex rigida var. concolor f. latifolia Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich i-<>: 302. 1909. (Based on 

C hyperborea f. latifolia Anderss.) 
Carex rigida var. coticolor f. Drejeriana Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 302. 1909. (Based 

on C. Drejeriana Lange.) 
Carex rigida var. concolor f. paradoxa Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-": 302. 1909. (Based on 

C. hyperborea var. paradoxa Drejer.) 
Carex rigida var. coticolor f. cuspidata Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-": 302. 1909. (Based on 

C hvperborea f. cuspidata Rosenv.) 
Carex Hartzii Gand. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 66: 296. 1920. (Type from Greenland.) 

Strongly stoloniferous, the culms arising one to few together, the stolons horizontal or 
ascending, stoutish or slender, purplish-red, scaly, the culms stout, stiffly erect, 1-4 dm. high, 
papillate, sharply triangular, usually exceeding the leaves, smooth or roughened above, strongly 
phyllopodic, brownish-purple-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year numer- 
ous and very conspicuous, all the leaves of the year blade-bearing; sterile shoots aphyllopodic; 
leaves with well-developed blades usually 8-20 to a fertile culm, clustered near the base, 3-5 
of the flowering year, the rest of the previous year, sparingly septate-nodulose, the blades 
ascending or spreading, thickish, stiff, fiat with revolute margins, bluish-green, papillate, 
0.5-3 dm. long, 2-8 mm. wide, short-tapering, smooth except at apex, the sheaths dull-whitish 
or light-yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, not hispidulous dorsally, the ligule as long as wide; 
terminal spike staminate (rarely with a few perigynia), usually strongly peduncled, linear, 
0.5-2.5 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, the scales obovate or oblong-obovate, very obtuse, brownish- 
black with lighter center and usually narrow hyaline margins, especially at apex; pistillate 
spikes 1-6, usually 2 or 3, approximate or the lowest more or less distant, erect, the upper 
sessile or nearly so, the lower short-peduncled, narrowly oblong or linear, 0.5-3 cm. long, 3-6- 
mm. wide, the upper often staminate at apex, closely flowered, the perigynia 10-40, appressed- 
erect in few to several rows; lower bract leaflet-like, normally shorter than the culm, sheathless, 
black-auricled, the others much reduced, scale-like; scales oblong-obovate, 3-4 mm. long, 2 
mm. W'ide, strongly puncticulate, blackish with lighter midrib and verj- narrow hyaline mar- 
gins, rarely somewhat paler, usually very obtuse, rarely somewhat mucronate, usually wider 
and longer than and completely concealing perigynia, but sometimes narrower or shorter, 
slightly enveloping perigynia; perigynia unequally biconvex, not turgid, more or less flattened, 
oblong-obovoid, or obovoid, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), 
otherwise nerveless, puncticulate, membranaceous, light-green, very often strongly purplisn- 
black-spotted or blotched above, rounded to a nearly sessile or substipitate base, not serrulate 
above, abruptly minutely apiculate, the beak 0.1-0.3 mm. long, entire, straight, purplish- 
black; achenes lenticular, oval or obovoid, 1.5-2 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, filling more than 
three fourths of lower part of perigynium, light-brown, granular, broadly substipitate, slightly 



380 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

apiculate, jointed with the short, straight, often slightly exserted style; stigmas 2, slender, 
white or' becoming yellowish-brown. 

Type locality: Melville Island, Arctic America. 

Distribution: Sunny rocky shores and exposed places; arctic-alpine, throughout the colder 
parts of Eurasia and North America, and southward in the higher mountains. In North America 
it ranges from Greenland to Alaska, and southward to the mountains of New Hampshire and northern 
New York. (Specimens examined from Greenland, Ungava, Labrador, Newfoundland, Quebec, 
Maine, New Hampshire. Vermont, New York, Mackenzie, Alaska.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. /. 7Z5; ed. 2./. 1051; Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 300./. 
46, A-E; Schkuhr, Riedgr. pi. U,f. 71; pi. J,f. 40; pi. Tt, f. 40; Boott, 111. Carex 167. pi. 568-574; 
Fl. Dan. pi. 159, 2482. 2483, 2975; Jour. Russe Bot. 1911: 81./. 63; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 77, 78./. 52, 
53; Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: pi. 225, /. 578; Am. Jour. Sci. 10: pi. D, f. 14; Trans. Linn. Soc. 2: 
pi. 22, f. 10; Anderss. Cyp. Scand. pi. 5,f. 46 (C. rigida),f. 47 (C. hyperborea); Engl. Bot. ed. 2. pi. 
1640; Hegi, 111. Fl. Mittel-Eur. pi. 48, f. 1; Karst. Deuts. Fl. 341./. 170 (7); Hallier, Deuts. Fl. pi. 
432. 

Note: One of the most widely distributed far northern species. Like so many northern plants, 
its size and development depend on its place of growth. Plants in wind-swept localities are much 
smaller and more rigid than plants in near by localities a little more protected from the very strong 
northern winds. As a result many names have been proposed of no systematic value. 

439. Carex anguillata Drejer, Nat. Tidssk. 3: 454. 1841. 

Carex rigida var. concolor f. anguillata Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 302. 1909. (Based on 
C. anguillata Drejer.) 

Loosely cespitose, the stolons stoutish, scaly, reddish-brown, horizontally ascending, the 
culms one to few together, 1-2.5 dm. high, slender, stiff, erect, papillate, smooth, triangular, 
exceeding leaves, strongly phyllopodic, purplish-red-tinged at base, the lower leaves longer 
than the upper; leaves with well-developed blades 8-15 to a fertile culm, on the lower third; 
sparingly and obscurely septate-nodulose, the blades mostly 4-12 cm. long, 2-3.5 mm. wide, 
channeled above, the margins revolute, firm, yellowish-green, rather long-tapering, ascending 
or somewhat spreading, sparingly roughened at tip only, the sheaths smooth dorsally, whitish or 
slightly yellow-tinged ventrally, the ligule wider than long; staminate spike solitary, strongly 
peduncled, linear, 1-1.5 cm. long, 3 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, reddish- 
brown with wide conspicuous white-hyaline margins and lighter 1-3-nerved center not ex- 
tending to apex; pistillate spikes 1-3, strongly separate, linear-oblong, 1-3 cm. long, 3-4 mm. 
wide, erect-appressed, the upper short-peduncled, the lower on a long, slender but stiff peduncle, 
mostly of its own length, closely flowered above, mostly very loosely towards base, the peri- 
gynia 12-30, erect-appressed in few rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, sheathless, reddish-brown- 
tinged at base, much shorter than head; upper bract much reduced, strongly bi-auriculate 
and dark-reddish-brown-tinged; scales closely appressed, broadly ovate, very obtuse, some- 
what narrower and somewhat shorter than perigynia, dark-reddish-brown with very narrow 
hyaline margins and 1 -nerved lighter midvein not extending to apex; perigynia elliptic, plano- 
convex, much flattened, 2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise 
nerveless, membranaceous, not at all inflated, not granular, pale or glaucous-green below, 
more or less yellowish-brown-tinged above, rounded and substipitate at base, abruptly apicu- 
late, the beak 0.1-0.2 mm. long, straight, entire; achenes lenticular, suborbicular, 1.5 mm. long, 
nearly as wide, closely enveloped, filling lower three quarters of perigynium, broadly short- 
stipitate, brownish, apiculate, jointed with the short, slender, short-exserted style; stigmas 2, 
slender. 

Type locality: Iceland, .Sleenslrtip. 

Distribution: Open rocky places. North Labrador and Keewatin, Iceland. (Specimens ex- 
amined from Keewatin, Fullerton and Wager Inlet, Hudson Bay.) 
Illustration: Fl. Dan. pi. 2846. 

440. Carex scopulorum Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 
14: 422; 421./. 1-6. 1902. 

Carex Tolmiei var. suhsessilis L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1 : 47. 1889. (As to Colorado 
specimens only.) 

Strongly stoloniferous, the culms one to few together, the stolons stout, ascending or 

horizontal, purplish-red, scaly, the culms stiffly erect, 1-4 dm. high, stout, papillate, exceeding 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 381 

the leaves, sharply triangular, smooth or roughened above, strongly phyllopodic, brownish or 
dull-purplish-brown-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year numerous and 
conspicuous, all the leaves of the year blade-bearing; sterile shoots aphyllopodic; leaves with 
well-developed blades usually 8-15 to a fertile culm, 3-5 of the flowering year, the rest of the 
previous year, clustered near the base, slightly septate-nodulose, the blades erect, thickish, 
flat with revolute margins, light-green, papillate, 0.5-3 dm. long, 3-7 mm. wide, short-tapering, 
roughened at apex only, the sheaths light-yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, not hispidulous 
dorsally, the ligule as wide as long; staminate spike solitary, sessile or more or less peduncled, 
linear or linear-clavate, 1-2.5 cm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide, often partly pistillate, the scales 
oblong-obovate, obtuse to acute, black, usually slightly hyaline at apex, the midvein whitish, 
usually prominent; pistillate spikes 2-6, usually 2-4, closely aggregated or the lowest occa- 
sionally separate, erect, the upper sessile or nearly so, the lower short-peduncled, oblong, 
1-2.5 cm. long, 6-7 mm. wide, the uppermost often somewhat androgynous, closely many- 
flowered, the perigynia squarrose-spreading in many rows; lower bracts squamiform, much 
shorter than the culm, sheathless, conspicuously black-biauriculate; upper bracts reduced, 
scale-like; scales obovate, usually obtuse, black, sometimes with lighter midrib and very 
narrow hyaline margins, from nearly the length of to much shorter than but narrower than 
the perigynia; perigynia strongly biconvex and turgid, orbicular or broadly obovoid, 2.5-3.5 
mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless, papillose, membrana- 
ceous, pale at base, purplish-black-spotted or blotched above, rounded to a nearly sessile or 
substipitate base, not or very sparingly remotely serrulate above, apiculate, the beak 0.2-0.5 
mm. long, entire, purplish-black, often abruptly bent; achenes normally lenticular, subor- 
bicular or broadly obovoid, 1.25 mm. long, nearly as wide, nearly fdling lower three quarters 
of perigynium, light-brown, sessile, minutely apiculate, jointed with the slender short-exserted 
style; stigmas 2, slender, whitish or becoming yellowish-brown. 

Type locality: "We found this species very abundant in the"region of Clear Creek Canon 
(Colo.), also near Leadville, (Colo.); it grows in thickets of willows along creeks at an elevation of 
between 3600 and 3900 met." (Holm). 

Distribution: High mountains, from Colorado and Wyoming to Nevada and the Sierra 
Nevada of California (Tulare County). (Specimens examined from Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, 
Washington, Nevada, California.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 14: 421. /. 1-6; Engler, Pflanzenreich i-": 300. /. 46 F; 
Abrams, III. Fl. Pacific St. /. SOS. 

441. Carex Chimaphila Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 
16: 33; 32./. 11-13. 1903. 

Carex scopulorum var. Chimaphila Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 303. 1909. (Based on 
C. Chimaphila Holm.) 

Strongly stoloniferous, the culms in small clumps, the stolons long, stout, horizontal or 
ascending, purplish-red, scaly, the culms stoutish, but not stiff, 2-5 dm. high, papillate, much 
exceeding the leaves, usually roughened above, strongly phyllopodic, purplish-brown-tinged at 
base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year numerous and conspicuous, all the leaves of the 
year blade-bearing; sterile shoots aphyllopodic; leaves with well-developed blades 10-15 to a 
fertile culm, 3-5 of the flowering year, the rest of the previous year, clustered near the base, 
slightly septate-nodulose, the blades erect, thickish, flat with slightly revolute margins, light- 
green, papillate, usually 1-3 dm. long, 3-6 mm. wide, short-tapering, roughened towards the 
apex only, the sheaths light-yellowish-brown-tinged ventrally, smooth or very nearly so 
dorsally, the ligule as long as wide; staminate spike solitary, often partly pistillate below or 
above, short-peduncled or sessile, linear-oblong, 1-2.5 cm. long, the staminate part 4-6 mm. 
wide, the scales oblong-oblanceolate, acute to short-cuspidate, black with lighter midrib and 
very narrowly hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 2-4, contiguous or the lowest somewhat re- 
mote, erect, the upper peduncled, the lower on peduncles shorter than the spikes, oblong, 1-3 
cm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, densely flowered, containing 20-40 spreading-ascending perigynia 
in several to many rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, sheathless, dark-auricled, exceeded by culm, 
the upper much reduced; scales lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute to acuminate, about 



382 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

half the width of but usually noticeably exceeding perigynia, black throughout or usually with 
lighter midrib and hyaline apex and upper margins; perigynia flattened-biconvex and turgid, 
broadly obovoid or suborbicular, 2.5-3.5 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), 
otherwise nerveless, papillose, membranaceous, pale towards base, purplish-black-blotched 
above, round-tapering to a substipitate base, remotely very sparingly serrulate above, truncate- 
rounded at apex, and abruptly very minutely beaked, the beak 0.1-0.2 mm. long, entire, 
purplish-black; achenes normally lenticular, suborbicular or broadly obovoid, 2 mm. long, 
1.5 mm. wide, nearly filling lower two thirds of perigynium, light-brown, sessile, minutely 
apiculate, jointed with the slender, short-exserted style; stigmas 2, slender, whitish or becom- 
ing yellowish-brown. 

Typr locality: Long's Peak, Colorado (Holm). 

Distribution: Rocky slopes and meadows, high mountains, Colorado and Wyoming. (Speci- 
mens examined from Colorado, Wyoming.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 16: 32./. 11-13. 

442. Carex gymnoclada Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 
14: 424./. 12-14.* 1902. 

"Carex vulgaris var. alpina Bootf ' W. Boott in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 240. 1880. 

Carex vulgaris var. bracteosa L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 81. 1886. (Type from Ebbett's 

Pass, California.) 
Carex niidala var. anguslifolia L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1: 16. 1889. (As to Lyall plant 

only.) 
Carex Tolmiei var. subsessilis L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1 : 47. 1889. (As to Oregon plants.) 
Carex brachypoda Holm, Am. Journ. Sci. IV. 20: 302; 307./. 4-6. 1905. (Type from Crater Lake 

National Park, Oregon.) 
Carex rigida var. hesperia Piper, Contr, U. S. Nat. Herb. 11: 173. 1906. (Based on C. rigida var. 

bracteosa L. H. Bailev.) 
"Carex rigida Good." Smil'ey, Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 9: 120. 1921. 

Strongly stoloniferous, the stolons stout, ascending or horizontal, clothed with somewhat 
shining, purplish-brown scales, the culms in small clumps or single, stiffly erect, 2-6 dm. high, 
papillate, strongly exceeding leaves, sharply triangular, from very rough above to smooth, 
phyllopodic, brownish or dull-purplish-brown-tinged at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous 
j'ear inconspicuous and short, the lower leaves of the year reduced to bladeless or short- 
bladed sheaths; sterile shoots phyllopodic; leaves of the year with well-developed blades 3-6 
to a fertile culm, clustered on lower fourth, septate-nodulose, the blades strictly erect, light- 
green, thick, usually 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 2.5-5 mm. wide, flat with revolute margins, tapering 
and sharp-tipped, rough towards apex, the sheaths very thin and hyaline ventrally, slightly 
yellowish-brown-tinged, short-hispidulous dorsally , the ligule as long as wide ; staminate spike 
solitary, sessile or more or less peduncled, linear-clavate, 1-3 cm. long, 2.5-4 mm. wide, the 
scales oblong-obovate, obtuse or acutish, black, usually slightly hyaline at apex, the midvein 
whitish, often nearly obsolete; pistillate spikes 1-3, contiguous or somewhat separate, erect, 
sessile to short-peduncled, oblong to cylindric, often staminate at apex, 5-25 mm. long, 4-6 
mm. wide, closely flowered, the 8-50 perigynia ascending or spreading, in several to many 
rows; lowest bract black-auricled, not sheathing, squamiform, much shorter than the culm, 
the others much reduced, strongly black-auricled; scales ovate, obtuse or acute, black with 
w^hite (often nearly obsolete) midvein and slightly hyaline margins, noticeably narrower than 
and from shorter than to exceeding perigynia; perigynia flattened bi-convex or plano-convex, 
not inflated, broadly obovate to suborbicular, 2.25-3.5 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, 2-ribbed 
(the marginal), otherwise nerveless, granular, membranaceous, pale at base, purplish-black 
at apex, not or very sparingly remotely serrulate above, round-tapering and slightly stipitate 
at base, rounded at apex, abruptly apiculate, the beak very short, 0.1-0.25 mm. long, entire, 
purplish-black; achenes lenticular, broadly obovate, 1.5-1.75 mm. long, 1.25 mm. wide, 
nearly filling lower two thirds of perigynium, brownish, substipitate, abruptly apiculate, jointed 
with the very short, not exserted, slender style; stigmas 2, slender, yellowish-brown. 

Type locality: Bogs of Hurricane Creek, Oregon {Cusick 2487). 

Distribution: In wet meadows, in the higher mountains from Washington south to Tulare 



* Exc. ref. to Carex Tolmiei var. angusta Bailey. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 383 

county, California, and eastward to Colorado. (Specimens examined from Washington, Oregon, 
Idaho, Colorado, California.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 14: 425,/. 12-14; 20: 307./. 4-6 (Carex brachytoda Holm)- 
Erythea 8 : 73. /. 40; Abrams. 111. Fl. Pacif. St. /. 810; Jepson, Man. Fl. PI. Calif. /. lOH. 



443. Carex accedens Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 
16:457. 1903. 

Carex stylosa var. vireyis L. H. Bailey, Proc. Am. Acad. 22: 79. 1886. (Type is taken as from Mt. 

Adams, Washington.) 
Carex sprela L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1: 6. 1889. (Based on C. stylosa var virens L H 

Bailey.) Not C. 5/>re/a Steud. 1855. 

Strongly stoloniferous, the rootstocks stoutish, horizontal or ascending, scaly, purplish- 
brown, the culms 2.5-4 dm. high, stiff, stoutish, very sharply triangular, strongly roughened 
above, papillate, exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, purplish-brown-tinged at base, the 
dried-up leaves of the previous year not very conspicuous, the lower leaves of the year all 
blade-bearing; leaves of the year with well-developed blades 4-5 to a fertile culm, on the lower 
fourth, erect, flat with revolute margins, elongate, not rigid, light-green, papillose, short- 
tapering, 1-2.5 dm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, the sheaths, at least the lower, hispidulous and 
purplish-brown-tinged dorsally, white-hyaline ventrally, the ligule longer than wide; terminal 
spike staminate, or rarely gynaecandrous, sessile or nearly so, 1.5-2 cm. long, 5-6 mm. wide, 
the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, purplish-black, with white midvein not e.xtending to apex 
and minutely hyaline apex; pistillate spikes 2-4, closely aggregated or the lowest more or less 
distant, sessile or the lower one or two peduncled, oblong, 0.7-2 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, 
densely flowered, with 20-40 spreading-ascending perigynia in several to many rows; bracts 
not sheathing, the lowest leaflet-like, dark-auricled, 8 cm. long or less, much shorter than culm, 
the others much reduced; scales ovate or lanceolate-ovate, purplish-black with white midvein 
usually not extending to apex, not hyaline-margined, obtuse or acutish, much narrower and 
much shorter than perigynia; perigynia broadly obovoid or suborbicular, flattened, biconvex, 
scarcely inflated, 3 mm. long, 1.75-2.25 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless, 
granular, subcoriaceous, resinous-dotted towards apex, olive-green, often purplish-dotted 
above, not serrulate, sessile, abruptly apiculate with a very minute, entire, dark-colored, 
straight beak 0.1-0.2 mm. long; achenes lentictilar, oblong-obovoid, 2 mm. long, 1.25 mm, wide, 
nearly filling lower two thirds of perigynium, brownish, substipitate, abruptly apiculate, 
jointed with the slender, short-exserted style; stigmas 2, slender, whitish or in age yellowish- 
brown. 

Type locality (of C. stylosa var. virens L. H. Bailey, on which C. accedens is based): "Sauvies 
Island, Oregon, and Mt. Adams, Washington territory, at 5000 feet, Howell." 

Distribution: Rare and local. Mt. Adams and Mt. Rainier, Washington. (Specimens ex- 
amined from both localities.) While Howell reports this mountain species from Sauvies Island, 
Oregon, and says it forms "part of the sedge pasturage of the Columbia," it is to be surmised that 
he confused it with Carex aperla Boott, and that his labeling represents some mistake. 

Illustration: Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacific St./. 809. 

444. Carex campylocarpa Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 
20: 304; 307./. iJ-75. 1905. 

Loosely cespitose, the rootstocks slender, ascending, elongate, sending forth slender 
horizontal stolons, the culms 3-6 dm. high, slender, erect, sharply triangular and very rough 
on the angles above, papillate, exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, strongly purplish-tinged and 
fibrillose at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year few, rather inconspicuous, the lower 
leaves of the year reduced to bladeless sheaths; sterile shoots aphyllopodic; leaves with well- 
developed blades about 4 to a fertile culm, obscurely septate-nodulose, the blades erect, widest 
above, light-green, papillate, thinnish, flat with revolute margins, 1.5-3.5 mm. (averaging 
2.5-3 mm.) wide, very sharp-tipped, short-tapering, the margins rough above, the sheaths 
slightly hispidulous dorsally, very thin, olive-tinged, and red-dotted ventrally, concave at 
mouth, not filamentose, the ligule longer than wide; staminate spike solitary, subsessile or 
short-peduncled, oblong-clavate, 6-20 mm. long, 3-5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate. 



384 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

obtuse or acute, black with obsolete or slender, white midvein; pistillate spikes 2 or 3, the 
upper contiguous and sessile or nearly so, the lower separate, erect and short-peduncled, or 
sometimes strongly peduncled and drooping, short-oblong to linear-oblong, 5-20 mm. long, 
4.5-6 mm. wide, closely 10-30-flowered in several rows, the perigynia ascending or excurved- 
spreading; lowest bract leaflet-like, shorter than inflorescence, sheathless, purplish-black at 
base, the upper much reduced, black-auricled ; scales ovate, obtuse, black, sometimes with 
minutely hyaline apex, the slender midvein nearly or entirely obsolete, narrower than and 
from half to nearly as long as the perigynia; perigynia ovate or elliptic, 3-3.75 mm. long. 
1.5-1.75 mm. wide, flattened biconvex, often with convex outer face and concave inner face, 
becoming very slightly turgid, membranaceous, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless, 
dull-green below, purplish or purplish-mottled above, granular, very sparingly remotely serru- 
late above when young, rounded and substipitate at base, tapering above, abruptly short- 
apiculate-beaked, the beak 0.2 mm. long, black, entire; achenes lenticular, obovate, 1.5-1.75 
mm. long, 1 mm. wide, in lower half of and narrower than perigynium, yellowish-brown, short- 
stipitate, apiculate, jointed with the slender, not exserted style; stigmas 2, slender, yellowish- 
brown. 

Type locality: Cathedral Spring, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon {Coville 1457). 
Distribution: Alpine meadows and stream-banks. Cascade Mountains, Oregon and Washing- 
ton. (Specimens examined from Oregon, Washington.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 20: 307./. 13-15; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 811. 



445. Carex prionophylla Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 
14:423. 1902. 

Stoloniferous, the stolons stout, ascending, clothed with the somewhat shining purplish 
scales, the culms in small clumps or single, 5-15 dm, high, erect or decumbent, slender above, 
exceeding the leaves, papillate, very sharply triangular, narrowly wing-angled and very 
serrulate on the angles, strongly reddish-purple at base, apparently strongly aphyllopodic, 
arising from among the few much dried-up and inconspicuous leaves of the previous year, the 
lower leaves of the flowering year very conspicuously reduced to bladeless sheaths; sterile 
shoots strongly aphyllopodic; leaves of the year with well-developed blades 3-5 to a fertile 
culm, clustered well above the base, sparingly septate-nodulose, the blades dull-bluish-green, 
thick, papillate, flat, with slightly revolute margins, very long (often 6 dm.), 4-5 mm. wide, 
very scabrous, short-acute, the lower bladeless, the sheaths very long and conspicuous, 
rounded and strongly hispidulous dorsally, yellowish-brown-tinged, strongly purplish-red- 
dotted, and very fragile ventrally, the ligule as long as or longer than wide; staminate spike 
solitary, short-peduncled, 18-25 mm. long, 3-4.5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse 
or acutish, black with lighter slender midrib and scarcely hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 3 
or 4, erect, sessile, or the lowermost slightly peduncled, approximate, or the lowest more or 
less strongly separate, oblong- or linear-cylindric, 1-2 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, closely flowered 
with 15-40 appressed perigynia in several rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, exceeded by inflores- 
cence, sheathless but dark-auricled, the others reduced to dark auricles; scales oblong-ovate, 
acutish or obtusish, half as wide as and shorter than to nearly as long as the perigynia, black 
throughout or with lighter midrib; perigynia obovate or oblong-obovate, plano-convex, not 
turgid, much flattened, 2.5 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerve- 
less or very obscurely few-nerved dorsally, green, granular, membranaceous, round-tapering 
and substipitate at base, abruptly rounded and minutely beaked at apex, the beak 0.25 mm. 
long, purplish-black, entire; achenes lenticular, obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, nearly 
filling lower two thirds of perigynium, nearly sessile, apiculate, jointed with the short slender 
style; stigmas 2, slender. 

Type locality: Northern Idaho. Region of the Coeur^d'Alene Mountains, near mountain 
streams; divide between St. Joe and Clearwater River. 

Distribution: Springy and swampy places along mountain streams, northern Idaho and north- 
eastern Washington. An excellent species. (Specimens examined from both localities.) 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 14: 425./ 7-77; Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 812. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 385 

446. Carex miserabilis Mackenzie sp. nov. 

vStrongly stolonifcrous, the stolons stout, ascending, clothed with the somewhat shining 
purplish scales, the culms in small clumps or single, erect, stiff, 2.5-6 dm. high, papillate, 
exceeding leaves, sharply triangular, strongly roughened above, purplish-tinged at base, 
arising from among the few, much dried-up and inconspicuous leaves of the previous year, the 
lower leaves of the year reduced to bladeless sheaths; sterile shoots strongly aphyllopodic; 
leaves of the year with well-developed blades 2 or 3 to a fertile culm, somewhat septate- 
nodulose, widely separate on lower half, the blades erect, light-green, thick, papillate, flat with 
revolute margins, mostly 1.5-3.5 dm. long, 3.5-5 mm. wide, tapering and sharp-tipped, rough- 
ened towards the apex, the sheaths hispidulous dorsally and white-hyaline, yellowish-tinged 
and red-dotted, and very fragile ventrally, the ligule as long as wide; staminate spike solitary, 
short-peduncled or nearly sessile, narrowly obovoid-oblong, 1-1.5 cm. long, 4.5 mm. wide, 
the scales oblong-obovate, obtuse, black with more or less hyaline margins, the midvein 
slender, mostly obsolete; lateral spikes 2 or 3, short-peduncled or sessile, closely approximate 
or the lower somewhat separate, pistillate or staminate at apex, broadly to narrowly oblong, 
0.75-3 cm. long, 6-8 mm. wide, closely flowered, the perigynia 10-40, ascending in several to 
many rows; lowest bract black-biauriculate at base, broad, 2.5-3 mm. wide, shorter than the 
culm, the upper much reduced, strongly black-biauriculate; scales oblong-ovate to lanceolate, 
obtuse or acutish, black, the midvein slender, usually obsolete, slightly narrower than but 
mostly exceeding perigynia; perigynia plano-convex or slightly biconvex, obovate, 2.5-3 mm. 
long, 1.5 mm. wide, 2-ribbed (the marginal), otherwise nerveless, granular, membranaceous, 
not turgid, usually straw-colored at base and purplish-black-tinged above or throughout, 
rounded and substipitate at base, rounded at apex, abruptly minutely beaked, the beak 
purplish-black, 0.1-0.3 mm. long, entire; achenes lenticular, obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, 1 mm. 
wide, nearly filling lower two thirds of perigynium, brownish, sessile, abruptly apiculate, 
jointed with the very short, not exserted style; stigmas 2, slender, yellowish-white or in age 
yellowish-brown. 

Valde stolonifera; culmi triangulares 2.5-6 dm. alti rigidi, inter folia defoliata anni prae- 
cedentis orientes; vaginae inferiores hispidulae non foliatae; folia pallida 1.5-3.5 dm. longa 
culmis breviora; spica mascula solitaria obovoideo-oblonga, squamis oblongo-obovatis obtusis; 
spicae laterales 2 vel 3 breviter pedunculatae vel sessiles, femineae vel apice masculae, oblongae; 
perigynia plano-convexa obovata 2.5-3 mm. longa 2-costata apice in rostrum minutum rotun- 
data, squamis oblongo-ovatis vel lanceolatis perigynia saepe superantibus, costa obsoleta; 
achaenia lenticularia obovoidea. 

Type collected at Chiwaukum Lake, Chelan County, Washington (Eggleston 13567). 
Distribution: Swampy meadows and wet grounds, mountains of eastern Oregon, Washington, 
and northern Idaho. (Specimens examined from eastern Oregon, Washington, Idaho.) 

447, Carex lenticularis Michx. Fl. Bor. Am. 2: 172. 1803. 

Carex lenticularis var. albi-moniana Dewey, Am. Jour. Sci. II. 29: 348. 1860. (Type from White 
Mountains, New Hampshire.) 

Carex lenticularis var. Blakei Dewey, in Wood, Class-Book, ed. 1861. 755. 1861. (Type from 
Harrison, Maine.) 

Carex lenticularis var. merens Howe. Ann. Rep. N. Y. State Mus. 48: 149. 1897. (Type from 
Adirondack Mountains, New York.) 

Carex lenticularis var. eucycla Fernald & Wieg. Rhodora 15: 134. 1913. (Type from Newfound- 
land.) 

Densely cespitose, forming large clumps, the rootstock very short, the culms 1-6 dm. 
high, erect, slender, sharply triangular above, smooth or somewhat roughened above, papillose, 
usually shorter than but sometimes exceeding the leaves, pliyllopodic, brownish at base, the 
dried-up leaves of the previous year not very conspicuous; sterile shoots phyllopodic; leaves 
with well-developed blades 4-9 to a fertile culm, clustered on the lower third, the blades erect, 
thin, light-green, flat above, plicate at base, long-attenuate, 0.5-4 dm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, 
roughened towards the apex, the sheaths very obscurely or not at all septate dorsally, not 
hispidulous, thin-white-hyaline and yellowish-brown-dotted ventrally, concave at mouth 



386 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

(often deeply so), the ligule longer than wide; staminate spike solitary, sometimes with a few 
perigynia, from little to strongly peduncled, linear, 8-30 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, the scales 
oblong-obovate, very obtuse, with broad 3-nerved green center and narrow hyaline margins 
and an intermediate reddish-brown or dark-purplish zone; pistillate spikes 3-5, erect, the upper 
sessile, the lower short- (rarely long-) peduncled, the lower from little to strongly separate, the 
upper contiguous, typically elongate-linear and 1.5-4.5 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, closely flowered 
above, often attenuate towards base, the perigynia numerous, ascending, in few rows; lowest 
bract leaf-like, erect, short-sheathing, strongly exceeding inflorescence, the upper ones smaller, 
biauriculate ; scales suborbicular-ovate to oblong-ovate, small, very obtuse, narrower and 
usually noticeably shorter than perigynia, sometimes about equaling them, dark-purplish or 
brownish-red-tinged with broad 3-nerved green center not extending to the apex, and wide or 
narrow hyaline margins especially at the apex; perigynia soon deciduous, obovate, varying 
to orbicular-obovate or oblong-obovate, flattish, biconvex and 2-edged, 1.8-3 mm. long, 1-1.5 
mm. wide, glaucous-green, slightly yellow-glandular-dotted, membranaceous, lightly few- 
ribbed on both sides, minutely papillate, round-tapering or rounded-truncate and slenderly 
short-stipitate at base, tapering or rounded at apex, and abruptly apiculate, the beak slender, 
0.25 mm. long, with entire, rarely dark-tipped orifice; achenes lenticular, oblong-quadrangu- 
lar, 1.75 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, filling lower three quarters of perigynium, brownish, papillate, 
sessUe, abruptly short-apiculate, jointed with the very short, slender style; stigmas 2, reddish- 
brown, slender, short. 

Type locality: "Hab. per tractus montium, a sinu Hudsonis ad Canadam, praesertim ad 
lacum Cycnorum dictum." 

Distribution: River and lake shores, in calcareous districts, Labrador and Newfoundland to 
Mackenzie, and southward to Massachusetts, Minnesota, Saskatchewan, and Idaho. (Specimens 
examined from Labrador, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Maine, New 
Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, New York, Ontario, Michigan, Minnesota, Manitoba, Sas- 
katchewan, Idaho, Keewatin, Mackenzie.) 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl./. 723; ed. 2./. 1053; Rob. & Fern. Man./. 421; Engler, 
Pflanzenreich 42»: 308./. 47; Boott, 111. Carex 30. pi. 77. 

Note: See Fernald's treatment of these varieties. 

448. Carex paucicostata Mackenzie, Erythea 8: 74. 1922. 

"Carex lenticularis Michx." W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2 : 242, in part. 1880. 
Carex interrupla var. impressa L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1: 18. 1889. (Type from Sierra 
Nevada, California.) 

Densely cespitose, forming large or medium-sized clumps, the rootstocks very short, 
tough, the new shoots very short-ascending, at the base of the old, long horizontal stolons 
absent, the culms 2.5-5 dm. high, slender, strict, sharply triangular, smooth or slightly rough- 
ened above, papillose, shorter than or exceeding the leaves, phyllopodic, brownish and some- 
what fibrillose at base, the dried-up leaves of the previous year conspicuous; leaves with well- 
developed blades 5-10 to a fertile culm, clustered on lower fourth, the blades erect, thin, 
usually 1.5-2.5 dm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, flat above, more or less channeled towards base, 
light-green, long-attenuate, roughened towards the apex, obscurely septate-nodulose towards 
base, the sheaths rounded and not hispidulous dorsally, light-yellowish-brown or whitish- 
hyaline ventrally, concave at mouth, the ligule longer than wide; staminate spike solitary, 
rarely with a few perigynia, short-peduncled or nearly sessile, linear, 2-3 cm. long, 2.5-4 mm. 
wide, the scales oblong-obovate, very obtuse, dark-reddish-brown with broad whitish center 
and hyaline apex ; pistillate spikes 4-6, more or less strongly separate or the upper approximate, 
erect, linear, 1-4 cm. (typically 2-3 cm.) long, 3.5-5 mm. wide, erect, the lower short-peduncled, 
the upper sessile or nearly so, closely flowered or somewhat loosely at base, with numerous 
appressed-ascending perigynia in several rows; lowest bract leaf-like, sheathless, exceeding 
culm, the others reduced, dark-biauriculate; scales oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or 
acutish, l)lackish, with narrow whitish center not extending to tip and minutely hyaline apex, 
usually a little shorter than and about half width of perigynia, falling early but after peri- 
gynia; perigynia suborbicular or very broadly obovate or very broadly ovate, strongly 
flattened, biconvex, 2 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide, glaucous-green, granular and resinous. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 387 

membranaceous, 2-ribbed (the marginal) and coarsely 3-5-nerved ventrally and 7-9-nerved 
dorsally, rounded and slenderly short-stipitate at base, rounded and abruptly minutely apicu- 
late at apex, the upper part not conspicuously empty, the beak 0.1-0.25 mm. long, subentire, 
black-tipped; achenes lenticular, blackish, suborbicular, 1.5 mm. long and nearly as wide, 
filling more than three fourths of perigynium, sessile, abruptly apiculate, jointed with the 
straight, short, slender style; stigmas 2, slender, dark-colored. 

Type locality (of C. inlerrnpta var. impressa L. H. Bailey, on which C. paucicoslala is based): 
"Summit Camp, California. Kellogg, Yosemite Valley, Bolander 6198." 

Distribution: Wet places, mostly around lakes, in the Sierra Nevada of California, known 
from Tulare County to El Dorado county. (Specimens examined showing range as given.) 

Illustration: Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 814. 

449. Carex Kelloggii W. Boott, in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 240. 1880. 

Carex acuta var. pallida Roott, 111. Carex 166. pi. 554. 1867. (Type from Oregon.) 

"Carex vulgaris var. juncella Fries" Olney, in S. Wats. Bot. King's Expl. 368, in part. 1871. 

"Carex caespilosa L." Olnev; A. Grav, Proc. Am. Acad. 8: 407. 1872. 

"Carex decidua Boott" W. Boott. in S. Wats. Bot. Calif. 2: 240. 1880. 

"Carex aquatilis Wahl." Kurtz. Bot. Jahrb. IQ: 417. 1894. 

Carex vulgaris var. lipocarpa Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 17: 308, in part. 1904. (Type not definitely 

designated.) 
Carex limnaea Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 20: 301, 307. /. 1-3. 1905. (Type from Crater Lake, 

Oregon.) 
Carex Hindsii var. brevigluma Kiikenth. in Kngler, Pflanzenreich 4-": 307. 1909. (Type from Lake 

Pend d'Oreille, Idaho.) 
Carex lenlicularis var. paullifructiis Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich ^-"l 308. 1909. (Type from 

Palouse Creek, Washington.) 
Carex Goodenovii var. lipocarpa M. E. Jones, in Bull. Univ. Mont. 61 : 172, in part. 1910. (Based 

on C. vulgaris var. lipocarpa Holm.) 

Cespitose, forming medium-sized or large clumps, the rootstocks short or more or less 
elongate, slender but tough, the culms 1-6 dm. high, erect, slender, sharply triangular above, 
more or less roughened above, papillose, usually shorter than but sometimes e.xceeding -the 
leaves, phyllopodic, brownish and somewhat fibrillose at base, the dried-up leaves of the pre- 
vious year conspicuous; sterile shoots aphyllopodic; leaves with well-developed blades 5-10 to 
a fertile culm, on the lower third, more or less clustered, the blades erect, thin, light-green, 
flat above, channeled towards base, usually 1-3 dm. long, 1.5-2.5 mm. wide, long-attenuate, 
much roughened at the apex, the sheaths very obscurely or not at all septate, rounded and 
not hispidulous dorsally, thin-white-hyaline and yellowish-brown-dotted ventrally, concave 
at mouth (often deeply so), the ligule longer than wide; terminal spike staminate, rarely some- 
what pistillate, more or less strongly peduncled, 1-4 cm. long, 3-4 mm. wide, the scales oblong- 
obovate, obtuse, purplish-brown with conspicuous lighter center and hyaline margins; pistillate 
spikes 3-5, approximate or slightly separate, erect, the lower short-peduncled, the upper 
sessile or nearly so, linear-cylindric, from not at all to noticeably attenuate at base, generally 
1.5-3.5 cm. long, about 4.5 mm. wide, containing numerous appressed-ascending perigynia 
in few to several rows; lowest bract leaf-like, strongly exceeding inflorescence, sheathless or 
nearly so, the upper reduced, biauriculate ; scales oblong-ovate, obtuse or slightly acutish, dark- 
purplish-brown with broad, lighter, usually 1 -nerved center not extending to the apex, and 
narrow hyaline margins, narrower than and from much shorter than to about the length of the 
perigynia; perigynia soon deciduous, ovate, flattened biconvex, 2-edged, 1.5-3 mm. long, 1.25 
mm. wide, light-green, not at all dark-colored, granular, not or rarely yellow-glandular, mem- 
branaceous, 2-ribbed (the marginal), lightly several-nerved on both sides, round-truncate at 
base and slenderly stipitate, rounded at apex, abruptly apiculate-beaked, the beak 0.1-0.25 
mm. long, entire, usually conspicuously black-tipped ; achenes lenticular, suborbicular, about 
1 mm. long, filling lower half of perigynium, blackish, granular, substipitate, abruptly short- 
apiculate, jointed with the short slender style; stigmas 2, slender, dark-colored. 

Type locality: Sierra Nevada Mountains of California {Kellogg; Lemmon). 

Distribution: Sunny swamps and wet meadows, Alberta to Colorado, and westward to Alaska 
and California (where confined to the higher Sierras). (Specimens examined from Alberta, Montana, 
Wyoming, Colorado. Utah, Idaho, Alaska, British Columbia, includmg Vancouver Island, Wash- 
ington, Oregon, California.) ,^^ ,--,.. m 

Illustrations: Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 20: 307./. 1-3; Boott, 111. Carex 166. pi. :>34; Abrams. 111. 
Fl. Pacif. St./. 816. 



388 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

450. Carex Hindsii C. B. Clarke, Kew Bull. Add. Ser. 
8: 70 (excluding Montana specimen). 1908. 

Carex decidua Boott, 111. Carex 163. 1858. (As to North American plant, not as to type.) 

"Carex vulgaris Fries" Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 10: 269. 1900. 

"Carex inlerrupla Bock." Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 10: 269. 1900. 

Carex vulgaris var. limnophila Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 17: 307. 1904. (Type from St. Paul 
Island, Bering Sea.) 

Carex vulgaris var. lipocarpa Holm, Am. Jour. Sci. IV. 17: 308. 1904. (Type not definitely desig- 
nated.) 

Carex Goodenovii var. limnophila M. E. Jones, Bull. Univ. Mont. 61: 72. 1910. (Based on C 
vulgaris var. limnophila Holm.) 

Carex Goodenovii var. lipocarpa M. E. Jones, Bull. Univ. Mont. 61: 72, in part. 1910. (Based on 
C. vulgaris var. lipocarpa Holm.) 

Cespitose, forming medium-sized or large clumps, the rootstocks short to long, stout, 
tough, branching, creeping and descending, often fibrillose, the culms 1-5 dm. high, slender 
but strict, sharply triangular, papillose, smooth or slightly roughened above, shorter than or 
often exceeded by the leaves, phyllopodic, brown or purplish-brown at base, the dried-up 
leaves of the previous year conspicuous; sterile shoots aphyllopodic; leaves with well-developed 
blades 5-10 to a fertile culm, clustered on lower third, the blades erect, thin, firm, light-green, 
flat above, channeled towards base, usually 1.5-3 dm. long, 1.5-3 mm. wide, long-attenuate, 
much roughened towards the apex, the sheaths obscurely or not at all septate-nodulose dor- 
sally, not hispidulous, thin-white-hyaline and yellowish-brown-dotted ventrally, concave at 
mouth (often deeply so), the ligule as wide as long; staminate spike solitary, short-peduncled 
or nearly sessile, linear, 1.5-3.5 cm. long, 2.5-4.5 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, very 
obtuse, purplish-black with broad lighter center and white-hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 
3-6, more or less strongly separate or the upper approximate, linear, 1-4.5 cm. (typically 
2-3.5 cm.) long, 5-7 mm. wide, erect, the lower short-peduncled, the upper sessile or nearly so, 
densely flowered, with numerous appressed-ascending perigynia in several to many rows; lowest 
bract leaf-like, strongly exceeding inflorescence, sheathless or nearly so, the upper reduced, 
biauriculate ; scales oblong-oblanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acutish, purplish- 
black with narrow or broad lighter center not extending to the apex, hyaline apex and upper 
margins, much shorter than and about half the width of perigynia, early deciduous; perigynia 
early deciduous, ovate, strongly flattened, unequally biconvex, 2-edged, 2-3.5 mm. long, 1.5-2 
mm. wide, membranaceous, slenderly about 5-ribbed on both sides, yellowish-green, papillate, 
rounded or truncate and strongly (0.5-1 mm.) slenderly stipitate at base, tapering or contracted 
into an apiculate, subentire, usually black-tipped beak, the beak 0.1-0.25 mm. long; achenes 
lenticular, suborbicular, 1.5 mm. long and about as wide, filling lower two thirds of perigynium, 
brownish-black, granular, substipitate, abruptly short-apiculate, jointed with the short 
slender style; stigmas 2, reddish-brown, slender. 

Type locality: Columbia River {Hinds). 

Distribution: Wet meadows along the coast, from northwestern California to the Aleutian 
and Commander Islands; abundant on the Alaskan coast. (Specimens examined from northwestern 
California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, including Vancouver Island, Alaska.) 

iLLtJSTRATiONS: Bot. Gaz. 10: pi. 3,f. 1-5 (as C. decidua): Abrams, 111. Fl. Pacif. St./. 815. 

451. Carex acuta L. Sp. PI. 978. 1753. 

Carex nigra verna vulgaris L. Fl. Lapp. 257. 1737. 

Carex spicis masculis pluribus B Carex nigra verna vulgaris L. Fl. Suec. 280. 1745. 

Carex acuta var. nigra L. Sp. PI. 978. 1753. (The type variety.) 

Carex diversicolor Crantz, Inst. 1: 405. 1766. (Based on C. acuta L.) 

Carex nigra Reichard, Fl. Moeno-Franc. 2: 96. 1778. (Based on C. acuta var. nigra L.) Not C. 

nigra All. 1785. 
Carex fusca All. Fl. Pedem. 2: 269. 1785. (Type from Switzerland; as to identity sees Gaudin, 

Agrost. Helv. 2: 190-191.) 
Carex alpina Honck. Syn. 1: 374. 1792. (Type from Germany.) Not C alpina Schrank, 1789. 
"Carex caespitosa L." Gooden. Trans. Linn. Soc. 2: 195. pi. 21, f. 8. 1794. (Plant from Great 

Britain.) 
Carex ambigua Moench, Meth. 325. 1794. (Type from west central Germany.) Not C. ambigua 

Link, 1799. 
Carex polyandra Schkuhr, Riedgr. 59. pi. Dd, f. 90. 1801. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex aqualilis var. C. nardifolia Wahl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Nya Handl. 24: 165, in part. 1803. 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 389 

Carex acuta (var.) Sw. Sv. Bot. pi. 408 (/. B). 1808. (Plant from Sweden.) 

" Carex saxalilis L." Schultes, Oesterr. Fl. ed. 2. 1: 146. 1814. (Plant from Austria.) 

Carex M'dnchiana Wender. Schr. Nat. Ges. Marburg 1 : 130. 1823. (Rased on C. amhigtia Moench.) 

Carex anguslifolia Smith, Engl. Fl. 4: 127. 1828. (Type from Angusshire, vScotland.) 

Carex caespilosa var. curvala Fleischer, Ricdgr. Wiirtemb. 15. 1832. (Type from Wiirtemberg.) 

Carex caespilosa var. recta Fleischer, Riedgr. Wiirtemb. 15. 1832. (Type from Wiirtemberg.) 

Carex stolonifera Hoppe, in Sturm, Deuts. Fl. 69: pi. 6. 1835. (Type from the Alps.) Not C. 

stolonifera Hhrh. 1791. 
Carex caespitosa var. alpina Gaudin. Syn. F""!. Helv. 782. 1836. (Type from Switzerland.) 
Carex Goodenowii Gay, Ann. Sci. Nat. II. 11: 191. 1839. (Based on "C. caespitosa L." Gooden.) 
Carex caespitosa var. polymorpha Laest. Nova Acta Soc. Sci. Upsal. 11: 284. 1839. (Type from 

Lapland.) 
Osculisa acuta Raf. Good Book 27. 1840. (Based on Carex acuta L.) 
Vignea caespitosa var. polygama Peterm. Fl. Bienitz 16. 1841. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex i;?</garts Fries, Mant. 153. 1842. (Type from Lapland.) 
Carex vulgaris var. tornata Fries, Mant. 154. 1842. (Type from Scandinavia.) 
Carex vulgaris var. juticea Fries, Mant. 154. 1842. (Type from Scandinavia.) 
Carex Gibsoni Bab. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 11: 168. pi. 5. 1843. (Type from Yorkshire, England.) 
Carex turfosa Fries, Bot. Notiser 1843: 104. 1843. (Type from Sweden.) 

Carex vulgaris suhsp. juncella FVies, Bot. Notiser 1843: 105. 1843. (Type from Scandinavia.) 
Carex Goodenovii var. polygama Peterm. Flora 27: 334. 1844. (Based on Vignea caespitosa var. 

polygama Peterm.) 
Carex intricata Tineo; Guss. Fl. Sic. Syn. 2 : 574. 1844. (Type from Sicily.) 
Carex vulgaris var. zonata F. Nyl. Spic. PI. Fenn. 2: 19. 1844. (Type from Finland.) 
Carex vulgaris var. androgyna Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 500. 1846. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex vulgaris var. tenuis Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 500. 1846. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex vulgaris var. ramosa Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 5Q0. 1846. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex vulgaris var. atra Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 500. 1846. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex vulgaris var. polygama Peterm. Anal. Pfl. 500. 1846. (Based, by inference, on Vignea 

caespitosa var. polygama Peterm.) 
Carex vulgaris var. chl'oroslachya Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: 13. pi. 226, f. 579. 1846. (Type from 

central Europe.) 
Carex vulgaris f. polygama Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: 13. pi. 227, f. 580b. 1846. (Type from 

central Europe.) 
Carex vulgaris f. basigyna Reichenb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 8: 13. pi. 227, f. 580c. 1846. (Type from central 

Europe.) 
Carex acuta var. minor Neilr. Fl. Wien. 71. 1846. (Based on C. acuta var. nigra L.) 
Carex vulgaris var. humilior Maly, Enum. 34. 1848. (Based on C. stolonifera Hoppe.) 
Carex vulgaris var. Bructeri G. Meyer, Fl. Hanov. Exc. 598. 1849. (Type from Hanover, Germany. 
Carex melaena Wimmer, Uebers. Arb. Schles. Ges. 1849: 79? 1850. (Type from Ohlau, Germany.) 
Carex chlorocarpa Wimmer, Uebers. Arb. Schles. Ges. 1849: 79? 1850. (Type from Breslau, Ger- 
many.) 
Carex vulgaris var. elatior O. F. Lang, Linnaea 24: 556. 1851. (Type European, but not definitely 

designated.) 
Carex vulgaris war. juncella Hartm. Skand. Fl. ed. 6. 297. 1854. (Based, by inference, on C. vul- 
garis subsp. juncella Fries.) 
Carex caespitosa \aT. fuliginosa Doll, Fl. Bad. 260. 1856. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex vulgaris var. fuliginosa A. Br.; Doll, Fl. Bad. 261. 1856. (Type from Germany.) 
Carex juncella Th. Fries, Bot. Notiser 1857: 207. 1857. (Based on C. vulgaris subsp. juncella 

Fries.) 
Carex vulgaris var. longepedunculata Blytt, Norges Fl. 213. 1861. (Type from Norway.) 
Carex vulgaris var. rigida Blytt, Norges Fl. 213. 1861. (Type from Norway.) 
Carex vulgaris var. atra Blytt, Norges Fl. 213. 1861. (Type from Norway.) 
Carex vulgaris var. anomala Blvtt, Norges Fl. 213. 1861. (Type from Norway.) 
Carex w/ermet/ta Miegev. Bull Soc. Bot. Fr. 10: 93. 1863. (Type from France.) Not C. tw/cr- 

media Gooden. 1794. 
Carex Goodenoughii Asch. Fl. Brand. 1 : 776. 1864. (Change of spelling for C. Goodenowii Gay.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. tornata "Fries" Asch. Fl. Brand. 1: 777. 1864. (Based, by inference, on 

C. vulgaris var. tornata Fries.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. juncella "Fries" Asch. Fl. Brand. 1: 777. 1864. (Based, by inference, on 

C. vulgaris subsp. juncella Fries.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. juncella f. chlorostachya "Reichenb." Asch. Fl. Brand. 1: 777. 1864. 

(Based, by inference, on C. vulgaris var. chlorostachya Reichenb.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. turfosa Asch. Fl. Brand. 1 : 777. 1864. (Based on C. turfosa Fries.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. stolonifera Asch. Fl. Brand. 1 : 777. 1864. (Based on C. stolonifera Hoppe.) 
Vignantha vulgaris Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 706. 1866. (Based on Carex vulgaris Fries.) 
Vignanlha vulgaris var. chlorocarpa Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 706. 1866. (Based on Carex 

chlorocarpa Wimmer.) 
Vignantha vulgaris var. subfasligiata Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 706, excl. syn. 1866. (Type from 

Transsvlvania.) 
Vignantha vulgaris var. turfosa Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 706. 1866. (Based on Carex turfosa 

Fries.) ,,.. , . 

Vignayitha Monchiana Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 706. 1866. (Based on Carex Monchiana 

Wimmer.) , . 

"Carex limida Fries" A. Grav. Man. ed. 5. 582. 1867. (Plant from Boston, Massachusetts.) 
Carex acuta var. anguslifolia Celak. Prodr. Fl. Bohm. 63. 1867. (Type from Bohemia.) 
Carex vulgaris var. teres Boott, 111. Carex 168. pi. 559, f. 1, 2. 1867. (Type from Sweden.) 



390 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Carex vulgaris var. intricata Boott, 111. Carex 169. pi. 561. f. 3. ■ 1867. (Based on C. inlricata Tineo.) 

Carex vulgaris var. laxa A. Blytt, Veg. Sognefj. 83. 1869. (Type from Norway.) 

Carex vulgaris var. angnstifolia A. Blytt, Veg. Sognefj. 83. 1869. (Type from Norway.) 

Carex vulgaris var. " atrata Blytt" A. Blytt, Veg. Sognefj. 83. 1869. (Error for C. vulgaris var. 

air a Blytt.) 
Carex vulgaris var. conferla A.. Blytt, Veg. Sognefj. 83. 1869. (Type from Norway.) 
Carex vulgaris var. typica Meinsh. Fl. Ingr. 409. 1878. (Based on C vulgaris Fries.) 
Carex vulgaris var. subratnosa Meinsh. Fl. Ingr. 409. 1878. (Type from Russia.) 
Carex vulgaris var. sabulosa Meinsh. Fl. Ingr. 409. 1878. (Type from Russia.) 
Carex vulgaris var. leucocarpa Meinsh. Fl. Ingr. 410. 1878. (Type from Russia.) 
Carex vulgaris var. minula Meinsh. Fl. Ingr. 410. 1878. (Type from Russia.) 

Carex acuta var. turfosa " Wimmer " Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 432. 1881. (Type from Lyck, Germany.) 
Carex acuta var. turfosa f. picta Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 432. 1881. (Type from Lyck, Germany.) 
Carex acuta var. nigra subvar. vulgaris "Fries" Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 433. 1881. (Based on C 

vulgaris Fries.) 
Carex acuta var. nigra subvar. vulgaris f. badia Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 434. 1881. (Type from 

Germany.) 
Carex acuta var. nigra subvar. vulgaris i. fuliginosa "A. Br." Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 434. 1881. 

(Based on C. vulgaris var. fuliginosa A. Br.) 
Carex acuta var. nigra subvar. sejuncta Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 434. 1881. (Type from Burgundy.) 
Carex acuta var. nigra subvar. sejuncta f. grata Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 435. 1881. (Type from 

Germany.) 
Carex acuta var. nigra subvar. sejuncta f. melaena "Wimmer" Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 435. 1881. 

(Based on C melaena Wimmer.) 
Carex acuta var. 7iigra subvar. subenervis Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 436. 1881. (Type from Lyck, 

Germany.) 
Carex acuta var. nigra subvar. juncella "Fries" Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 436. 1881. (Based on C 

vulgaris subsp. juncella Fries.) 
Carex acuta var. nigra subvar. chlorocarpa "Wimmer" Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 436. 1881. (Based 

on C. chlorocarpa, Wimmer.) 
Carex acuta var. nigra subvar. tornata "Fries" Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 436, 1881. (Based on C 

vulgaris var. tornata Fries.) 
Carex acuta var. oxylepis Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 437. 1881. (Type from Lyck, Germany.) 
Carex acuta var. oxylepis subvar. diluta Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 437. 1881. (Type from Lyck, 

Germany.) 
Carex acuta var. oxylepis subvar. melanolepis Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 437. 1881. (Type from Lyck, 

Germany.) 
Carex acuta var. oxylepis subvar. stygia Sanio, Bot. Contr. 6: 437. 1881. (Type from Lyck, 

Germany.) 
Carex acuta var. macrocarpa Celak. Prodr. Fl. Bohm. 754. 1881. (Type from Bohemia.) 
Carex acuta f. pseudosparganioides Celak. Prodr. Fl. Bohm. 754. 1881. (Type from Bohemia.) 
Carex vulgaris var. tenuis Hartm.; Lange, Haandb, Danske Fl. ed. 4. 132. 1886. (Type from 

Denmark.) 
Carex vulgaris var. strictiformis L. H. Bailey, Mem. Torrey Club 1 : 74. 1889. (Type from Quebec.) 
Carex rigida var. Goodenovii L. H. Bailey, Jour. Bot. 28: 172. 1890. (Based on C Goodenovii Gay.) 
Carex rigida var. strictiformis L. H. Bailey, Jour. Bot. 28: 172. 1890. (Based on C. vulgaris var. 

strictiformis L. H. Bailey.) 
Carex rigida var. juncea L. H. Bailey, Jour. Bot. 28: 172. 1890. (Based on C vulgaris var. juncea 

Fries.) 
Carex rigida var. teres L. H. Bailey, Jour. Bot. 28: 173. 1890. (Based on C vulgaris var. teres 

Boott.) 
Carex rigida var. turfosa L. H. Bailey, Jour. Bot. 28 : 173. 1890. (Based on C. turfosa Fries.) 
Carex nigra G. Beck, Fl. Nieder. Oesterr. 136. 1890. (Based on C. acuta var. nigra L. as was C. 

nigra Reichard, 1778.) 
Carex nigra subsp. typica G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 136. 1890. (The type subspecies.) 
Carex nigra subsp. typica var. basigyna G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 136. 1890. (Based on C. 

vulgaris f. basigyna Reichenb.) 
Carex nigra subsp. typica var. basigyna f. ramifera G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 136. 1890. (Type 

from Austria.) 
Carex nigra subsp. typica var. alpicolaG. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 136. 1890. (Type from Austria.) 
Carex nigra subsp. turfosa G. Beck, Fl. Nieder-Oesterr. 136. 1890. (Based on C. turfosa Fries.) 
Carex vulgaris var. densicarpa Kneucker; L. Klein, in Seubert, Exc.-fl. Baden, ed. 5. 62. 1891. 

(Type from Baden, Germany.) 
Carex vulgaris var. salinoides Kiikenth. Mitth. Thiir. Bot. Ver. II. 5: 17. 1893. (Type from 

Oslo, Norway.) 
Carex Goodenovii f. microlepis Norman, Forh. Vid.-Selsk. Christ. 27is: 49. 1893. (Type from 

Norway.) 
Carex vulgaris var. silvalica Russow; E. Lehm. Arch. Nat. Dorpat 11: 162. 1895. (Type from 

central Europe.) 
Carex vulgaris var. androgyna Russow; E. Lehm. Arch. Nat. Dorpat 11: 162. 1895. (Type from 

central Europe.) 
Carex vulgaris var. aquatiliformis Kiikenth. Oesterr. Bot. Zeits. 46: 163. 1896. (Type from 

Norway.) 
Carex vulgaris var. pumila Kiikenth. Allg. Bot. Zeits. 4: 2. 1898 (Type from central Europe.) 
Carex vulgaris var. elatior subvar. latifolia. Kiikenth. Allg. Bot. Zeits. 4: 3. 1898. (Type from 

central Europe.) 



Part 6, 1935] CYPERACEAE 391 

Carex vulgaris var. elalior subvar. angustifolia Kvikenth. Allg. Bot. Zeits. 4: 3. 1898. (Type from 

central Europe.) 
Carex vulgaris var. elalior subvar. juncella "Fries" Kiikenth. Allg. Bot. Zeits. 4: 3. 1898. (Based 

on C. vulgaris subsp. juncella Fries.) 
Carex vulgaris f. Roussiaei H. Lev.; Lev. & Vaniot, Bull. Acad. G6ogr. Bot. 10: 37. 1901. (Type 

from Mayenne, France.) 
Carex flacca X Goodenoughii Ostenf. in Warming, Bot. Faeroes 82. 1901. (Type from the Faeroe 

Islands.) 
Carex vulgaris var. elalior subvar. angustifolia f. subovalis Kneucker, Allg. Bot. Zeits. 7: 56. 1901. 

(Type from Baden, Germany.) 
Carex vulgaris var. commtinis Meinsh. Acta Hort. Petrop. 18: 334. 1901. (Based on C vulgaris 

Fries.) 
Carex vulgaris var. leucolepis Meinsh. Acta Hort. Petrop. 18: 334. 1901. (Type from Russia.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. elalior Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2^: 95. 1902. (Based on C. 

caespitosa var. elalior O. F. Lang.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. elalior suhvar. lornala Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 95. 1902. 

(Based on C. vulgaris var. lornala Fries.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. elalior subvar. recla Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2=: 95. 1902. 

(Based on C. caespitosa var. recta Fleischer.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. elalior subvar. recla f. silvalica Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 95. 

1902. (Based on C vulgaris var. silvalica Russovi'.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. curvata Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 96. 1902. (Based on C 

caespitosa var. curvala Fleischer.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. curvala subvar. hasigyna Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 96. 1902. 

(Based on C. vulgaris f. basigyna Reichenb.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. curvala subvar. basigyna f. suhramosa Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 

2-: 96. 1902. (Based on C. vulgaris var. subramosa Meinsh.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. curvata subvar. basigyna f. chloroslachya Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. 

Fl. 2-: 96. 1902. (Based on C. vulgaris var. chloroslachya Reichenb.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. curvala subvar. basigyna f. melaena Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 

2-: 96. 1902. (Based on C. melaena Wimmer.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. curvala subvar. polygama Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 96. 1902. 

(Based on C. caespitosa var. polygatna Peterm.) 
Carex Goodenoughii memor. Gibsoni Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 97. 1902. (Based on 

C. Gibsonii Bab.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. juncea Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2-: 97. 1902. (Based on C 

vulgaris var. juncea Fries.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. pumila Asch. & Graebn. Syn. Mitteleur. Fl. 2^: 98. 1902. (Based on C 

vulgaris var. pumila Kiikenth.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. subrigida Kiikenth.; Brockm.-Jer. Fl. Puschlav 91. 1907. (Type from 

Switzerland.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. pumila Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42»: 314. 1909. (Based on C. 

vulgaris var. pumila Kiikenth.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. polyandra Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 314. 1909. (Based on C. 

Polyandra Schkuhr.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. androgyne Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=°: 314. 1909. (Based on C. 

vulgaris var. androgyna Russow.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. basigyna Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 314. 1909. (Based on C 

vulgaris f. basigyna Reichenb.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. subramosa Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 314. 1909. (Based on C 

vulgaris var. subramosa Meinsh.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. subfasligiala Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 314. 1909. (Based on 

Vignanlha vulgaris var. subfasligiala Schur.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. subselacea Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 314. 1909. (Type from 

Silesia.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. badia "Sanio" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-»: 314. 1909. (Based on 

C. acuta var. nigra subvar. vulgaris f . badia Sanio.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. fuliginosa Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-<': 315. 1909. (Based on C. 

caespitosa war. fuliginosa Doll.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. Roussioei "H. Lev" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=<i: 315. 1909. 

(Based on C. vulgaris f. Roussiaei H. Lev.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. chloroslachya "Reichenb." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-»: 315. 1909. 

(Based on C. vulgaris var. chloroslachya Reichenb.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. leucolepis "Meinsh." Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=i>: 315. 1909. 

(Based on C. vulgaris var. leucolepis Meinsh.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. oxylepis Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=°: 315. 1909. (Based on C. 

acuta var. oxylepis Sanio.) 
Carex Goodenoughii f. zonata " Nylander " Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=°: 315. 1909. (Based 

on C vulgaris var. zonata F. Nyl.) 
Carex Goodenoughii memor. polygama "Peterm." Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42": 315. 1909. 

(Based on Vignea caespitosa var. polygama Peterm.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. lornala " Fries" Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4:»: 316. 1909. (Based 

on C. vulgaris var. lornala Fries.) A combination previously made. 
Carex Goodenoughii var. lornala f. pleiandra Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-": 316. 1909. 

(Type from Thuringia.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. lornala f. densicarpa "Kneucker" Kukenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=°: 

316. 1909. (Based on C. vulgaris var. densicarpa Kneucker.) 



392 NORTH AMERICAN FLORA [Volume 18 

Carex Goodenoiighii var. siibcaespilosa Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4=": 316. 1909. (Type 

from Ireland.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. slrictiformis "L. H. Bailey" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 42°: 316. 

1909. (Based on C. vulgaris var. slrictiformis L. H. Bailey.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. recta "Fleischer" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 316. 1909. (Based 

on C. caespilosa var. recta Fleischer.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. recta f. grata "Sanio" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-'>: 316. 1909. 

(Based on Carex acuta var. nigra subvar. sejuncta f. grata Sanio.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. recta f. silvatica "Russow" Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4™: 316. 

1909. (Based on C. vulgaris var. silvatica Russow.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. recta f. subovalis Kneucker; Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 317. 

1909. (Based on C vulgaris var. elalior subvar. angustifolia f. subovalis Kneucker.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. recta f. aquatiliformis Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 317. 1909. 

(Based on C. vulgaris var. aquatiliformis Kiikenth.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. salinoides Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 420: 317. 1909. (Based on 

C vulgaris var. salinoides Kiikenth.) 
Carex Goodenoughii var. ste^iocarpa Kiikenth. in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4-°: 317. 1909. (Type from 

Scotland.) 

Loosely to densely cespitose, the clumps large to small, sending forth long, horizontal, 
slender but tough, brownish, scaly stolons, the culms erect or somewhat curved, stiff to slender, 
sharply triangular, papillate, smooth to strongly roughened above, usually strongly exceeding 
the leaves, but occasionally shorter, brownish-tinged and often fibrillose at base, strongly 
phyllopodic, the dried-tip leaves of the previous year very conspicuous; sterile shoots phyllo- 
podic; leaves of the flowering year with well-developed blades usually 5-8 to a fertile culm, the 
lower clustered near the base, the blades erect, ascending, spreading, or even recurved, flat or 
channeled towards base with involute margins, narrow, 5-30 cm. long, usually 1.5-2.5 mm. 
wide, light-green, thin but firm, sometimes stiff, papillate, roughened towards the apex, 
usually long-tapering but often short-tapering, the sheaths rounded and smooth dorsally, 
white-hyaline and often yellowish-brown-tinged, the ligule wider than long; terminal spikes 
staminate, often with 1 or 2 smaller ones at base, from short-peduncled to long-peduncled, 
linear, 1.5-4 cm. long, 2-4 mm. wide, the scales oblong-obovate, very obtuse to acutish, 
brownish or blackish, with lighter midrib and inconspicuous hyaline margins; pistillate spikes 
2-4, often staminate above, erect, all sessile, or the lower short-peduncled, contiguous or more 
or less separate, oblong to linear-oblong, 1-4.5 cm. long, 5 mm. wide, densely flowered except 
occasionally towards base, containing 20-100 appressed-ascending perigynia in several to 
many rows; lowest bract leaflet-like, mostly shorter than but frequently more or less strongly 
exceeding the culm, sheathless, but biauriculate, the upper reduced, strongly dark-auricled; 
scales ovate or oblong-ovate, obtuse (at least middle and upper), narrower and shorter than 
the perigynia, black or dark-colored with lighter midrib and inconspicuous hyaline margins; 
perigynia plano-convex, not turgid, strongly flattened, obovate, ovate, oval, or suborbicular, 
2.5-3 mm. long, 2-2.5 mm. wide, green or often darkened at apex, membranaceous, puncticu- 
late, 2-ribbed (the marginal), and lightly several-nerved on both sides, short-stipitate to long- 
stipitate, rounded at base and apex, minutely apiculate-beaked, the beak 0.1-0.3 mm. long, 
entire or very nearly so, ciliolate at tip; achenes lenticular, suborbicular, 1.5 mm. long, nearly 
as wide, broadly substipitate, rather loosely enveloped in lower half of perigynium-body, 
short-apiculate, obscurely jointed with the straight slender style somewhat enlarged at base ; 
stigmas 2, slender. 

Type locality: "Habitat in Europa ubique in siccioribus." 

Distribution: Wet meadows near the coast, Greenland to Rhode Island; erroneously recorded 
from Pennsylvania and various parts of western North America; widely distributed in western 
Europe; doubtfully recorded from northern Asia; reported from South America, but this is undoubt- 
edly some allied species. (Specimens examined from Greenland, Labrador. Newfoundland, St. 
Pierre, Miquelon, Quebec, including Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Bruns- 
wick, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island. 

Illustrations: Britt. & Brown, 111. Fl. /. 724; ed. 2. /. 1052; Schkuhr, Riedgr. pi. Aa, Bb, f. 
85; Boott, 111. Carex 166. pi. 557-560; pi. 561, f. 1-4; pi. 565; Fl. Dan. pi. 2478; Jour. Russe Bot. 1911 : 
84./. 66; Sturm, Deuts. Fl. 50: pi. 13; 69: pi. 6; Reichenb. Ic. Fl Germ. 8: pi. 226, f. 579; pi. 227, 
f. 580; pi. 228, f. 581; Ostenf. Fl. Arct. 73. /. 44; Trans. Linn. Soc. 2: pi. 21. f. 8 (as C. caespilosa): 
Anderss. Cyp. Scand. pi. 5,f. 52; Engl. Bot. pi. 1507; ed. 2. pi. 1643; Benth. Handb. Brit. Fl. ed. 2. 
/. nil; Coste, Fl. Fr. pi. 3849; pi. 3848 (as C. turfosa); Hegi, III. Fl. Mittel.-Eur. pi. 47, f. 5; Host, 
Gram. Austr. 1: pi. 91 (as C. caespitosa); Hallier, Deuts. Fl. pi. 430 (as C. caespilosa); Karst. Deuts. 
Fl. 341./. 170 (5),- Sv. Bot. pi. 408, f. B (as C. acuta var.); Jard. Ann. Nat. Hist. 11: 168. pi. 5. 

Note: As to applicability of the name Carex acuta L. to the present species, see Wulfen, Fl. 
Norica Phan. 747. 1858; Mackenzie, Bull. Torrey Club 50: 343. 1923. 



% 



New York Botanical Garden Librar 




85 00275 8785