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DIVISION OF JiORTICTTr.TTroil 




THE 

ORGANIZATION, ACHIEVEMENTS 
AND PRESENT WORK 

OF THE 

DOMINION EXPERIMENTAL 
FARMS 



75617—1 



FOREWORD 

FOR thirty-seven years, "Service to the Canadian Fanner" has been the 
motto and sole aim of the Experimental Farms Branch of the Federal 
Department of Agriculture. 

Founded when scientific agriculture in the Dominion was in its infancy, the 
Farms first took up the study of those elementary, yet. basic, problems and 
principles having so vital a bearing upon agricultural progress. 

For the older-settled parts of this country, these have largely been solved. 
Their solution, however, has only cleared the way for the attack upon research 
and experiment, more advanced and complex, yet having an equally direct 
bearing upon successful farming. 

As new regions have been opened to agriculture, the organization and work 
of the Farms have expanded to take in the study of their problems. 

At present, then, the Farms stand ready to aid the farmer already success- 
fully established in Canada, in the endeavour still to better his farming practice, 
excellent though it may already be. 

To the settler, the Experimental Farms are as a friend who has gone before, 
and is now ready and anxious to impart his knowledge and experience to aid the 
newcomer in making himself a successful and contented Canadian farmer, no 
matter in what part of the Dominion he may choose to dwell. 

At first glance, the reader of the following pages may think that the organiza- 
tion of the Farms is a very complex one, made up of many, almost independent, 
divisions and farm units. Such is not the case. A more careful perusal will 
indicate that the work of the divisions of the Central Farm, as headquarters, 
and of the branch Farms and Stations, is so inter-related, inter-dependent, and, 
indeed, welded together, as to form the one smoothly functioning machine. 



75617—11 



LIST OF PAST AND PRESENT DIRECTORS, CHIEF OFFICERS OF 
DIVISIONS AND SUPERINTENDENTS OF 
BRANCH FARMS AND STATIONS 

D% re ciovs 

Wm. Baunders, C.M.G., L.L.D l88 H 9 " 

J. II. Grisdale, B. Agr., D.Sc 1911-1919 

E. S. Archibald, B.A., B.S.A 1919 

Assistant Director — 

Frank T. Shutt, M.A., D.Sc 1912 

A oricxtltin^ists ■ 

(Acting) Wm. Saunders, C.M.G., L.L.D 1887-1890 

Jas. W. Robertson, L.L.D 1890-1 ^' 

(Acting) Wm. Saunders, C.M.G., L.L.D 1897-1898 

J. H. Grisdale, B. Agr., D.Sc 1899-1911 

(Acting) J. H. Grisdale, B. Agr., D. Sc 1911-1912 

Imai Husbandmen — 

8. Archibald, B.A., B.S.A •■ 1912-1919 

G. B. Hothwoll, B.SA 1919 

Field Husbandmen— 

(Acting) J. II. Grisdale, B. Agr., D.Sc 1912-1919 

(Acting) E. S. Archibald, B.A., B.S.A 1919-1920 

E. S. Hopkins, B.S.A 1920 

Horlicultu rists — 

W. W. Hilborn 1887-1889 

John Craig 1890 1897 

W. T. Macoun 1898 

Poultry Husbandmen — 

A. G. ( Mbert 1888-1913 

F. C. Elford 1913 

■ting) Wm. Saunders, C.M.G., L.L.D 1887-1902 

( '. E. Saunders, Ph.D. (termed Experimentalist L903-1904) 1903-1922 

L. H. Newman, B.S.A 1923 

Agrostologists — 

M. 0. Malte, Ph.D 1912-1921 

Gordon P. McRostie, B.S.A., Ph.D 1922 

Chief, Fibre Division — 

'< \. G. Hramhill, B.S.A 1917-1918 

R. J. Hutchinson 1918 

Apiarists — 

F. \Y. L. Sladen • • • • 1914-1921 

G. B. Gooderham, B.S.A 1921 

Tobacco 1/ an — 

F. Charlan 1913-1924 

G. M. Slagg, B.S., M.S 1924 

Chc'tn ist&~~ 

ynk T. Shutt, M.A.; F.I.C.; D.Sc 1887 

Botanist — 

H. T. Gussow 1909 

Agricultural 1: ■! — 

A. G. Lochhead, Ph.D 1923 

( 'hit f Supervisor, Illustration Stations — ■ 

John Fixter 1915 

Chiefs, Extension and Publicity — 

J. F. Watson 1914-1917 

W. A. Lang 1917-1921 

F. C. Nunnick B.S.A 1921 

Farm Foreman — 

John Fixter 1887-1906 

D. D. Gray 1906-1918 

Farm Superintendent — 

D. D. Gray 1918 

5 



6 
supe RINTENDEnts op branch ^ 

^W^^^W.^ 1909 

Exp t;:::^.^'^p^,N:s- i 9 i 2 

Geo. W. Forrest 

R. Robertson 1887-1896 

_, W. W. Baird/B 8 A ■! 1896-1897 

Experimental Static, v'J ' : 1898-1913 

W. W. Hul& Fndenci ^.N.B.^ 1913 

C F. Bailey, B 8 A 

Experimental Station^'* Vi 1912-1 922 

Jos i Win ~' Ste - A ™ de la Po cat ^ e> £,- «*» 

^-^i^^p:::::::;;; ' 1912-1021 

0- Chevalier wnnam > Q«*.— l92 i 

& ^~^S?fi ::::: •■:::::::: 1912-19.6 

» J -. A- MccD LenB0 »««, Qui- 1911 

Expen menla i Station Lai' A 

Pas,,,) ,,,„, „ " ■ L* Ferme, Que .~ m4 

Experimental Statti^lr' "•; 

B 8. Ballantyne W ' * a ^ 8 *<«%, Ont.-L' 1916 

ax VerimeMal Station' u 

JA.C7. ffa »™,0nt.- 1916 

Expe ^jS % &!:! iriri '■ '■'■'■ ,'■ : : ; »»-i»us 

^^^ s ira^ * •'•'•' ::::: www 

& A. Bedford /fran <K Wan.- 192] 

«■ **Qlvea-ton. B.A 

^•Murray, B.8.A .' .' 1888-1 BOB 

ExJ*' M '''<illican Bsi 1906-1907 

Angus Maokay n Head > Soak.— 191 1 

W. H. Gi bson ; B.S.A ■'■ 1888-191:; 

in. JJ. MacICon/io n u"a 1913-1916 

*T5r^Eft25£-!^ ::;::: ]9l5 - ,!m ' 

Experimental Station Scot', v A 

ft E- Everest* &£g 8aik - 1909 

„ al - J. Iinhnr., B ,s A 

^lwi HI(: , lM , S7 . • ;^. ■ 1911-191 I 

Experiment Son' / ,n ', ■ • 

» r 5-H.Fair&R#"^.^te. 1921 

lf|ffi|i||^^ I» 

"^^ 1907 1gg 

p w - 1 . Hunter 

l U \f A. Shame ' BC ~ 1923 

[.. a- Moore, BSa 

Exn, ..■'"■ "• Hick B8 A 1888-1911 

l"fM^^^a.c._ ::::::::::::::: »"1£$ 

»r^«a^ :: i : d : ":::: :::::: »■» 

^Perir^ntal^tb B SJV 

WD -Albrth^: fi -^A/te- 1908 

1915 



THE ORGANIZATION OF THE DOMINION EXPERIMENTAL 

FARMS BRANCH 

When the Experimental Farms were first established in 1887, their organiza- 
tion largely followed that recommended by Prof. Wm. Saunders in his report 
of the previous year, on Agricultural Colleges and Experimental Farm Stations. 
His recommendation was as follows: — 

"The whole should be under the control of one head,. known as director or 
chief, whose residence should be at the central station, and whose duty it should 
be to visit the substations as occasion required and in conference with the 
managers of the substations arrange for the course and character of the work 
to be carried on at each, subject to the approval of the Minister of Agriculture. 
This arrangement would ensure desirable uniformity in the character of- the 
work performed and prevent the waste which would result from the unnecessary 
duplication of experiments. 

Central Station 

"At the central station there would be required, in addition to the director, 
a superintendent of agriculture charged with the care of farm stock and the 
dairy and field experiments. 

"A superintendent of horticulture, who should conduct experiments in 
fruit and vegetable growing, in determining the vitality and purity of seeds, 
and have charge of the nursery and propagating houses. 

"A superintendent of forestry, who should direct all forestry experiments, 
and inquire into all questions relating to tree culture and tree protection in the 
Dominion. 

"An entomologist whose duty it should be to investigate the habits of 
insects destructive to farm and garden crops, fruit, etc., as well as those affecting 
animals, with the view of testing such remedies as may be available for their 
destruction. He should also prepare such collections for the museum at the 
central station as would illustrate the insects injurious and beneficial to vege- 
tation, and duplicate collections of a similar character as early as practicable 
for each of the substations. 

"A botanist, to whom should be entrusted the special duty of investigating 
the injury done to field and garden crops, fruit and forest trees, by the lower 
forms of vegetable life, such as fungi, rusts, moulds, etc., to study the character 
and modes of growth of the noxious weeds prevailing in all parts of t he Dominion, 
with the object of devising means for their subjugation or destruction. He 
should also take charge of the botanic garden or arboretum, and of that portion 
of the central museum illustrating vegetable products. 

"A chemist, to whom should be referred all questions relating to agri- 
cultural chemistry, such as analyses of fertilizers, the determination of the 
chemical constituents of any substances which it may be desirable to use in 
experimental work in feeding; to make analyses of milk in connection with 
experiments in dairying, of wheats, to determine their ■ relative quality for 
nulling, and to have charge of all other subjects requiring special chemical invest- 
igation in connection with the work being carried on at any of the stations 

"A veterinary surgeon, whose services should be available when required 
for the treatment of diseases of animals at any of the stations, and whose duty 
it should be to study such diseases and prepare and submit a yearly report 



8 
Provincial or Substations 



of apiculture lldTZnl^ S& °* th S ?»^««M *™M be a superintendent 
agriculture to be" chief T? 1 ?? of ^culture. The superintendent of 
responsible to him i or the S' tl0n ' subordina t<' only to the director, and 
performance ofaTl work dKed f^f™™** of ,«* s1; ' ,m " and for tho due , 
horticulture and all other ■S to * b ,° undert aken. The superintendent of 
apiculture and ,5b? his SSSEr " 8ubordinate ( " the superintendent of 



Reports 



the reports^fCoffit^of an thf^r ***! d 1 irector as often as ref l uircd - iliwl 
to the Minister of Agriculture » *° be P resented through the director 

trative ^S'SSSS^SSM^ ^ d . irector ' in addition to his « lhuini »- 
However, as time wS on thf ™ S^ 6 ° f th , e lines of technical investigation, 
lines of work taken up and r,t IZ t mcrea ?e d » new divisions were formed, new 
that the duties tf K&2ji "23 C8tablis , hed - Finally, the director found 
his whole time, aammibt ration and general supervision took up practically 

has ^&iStT^&^rt^ m * haS not been -H-seded 
personnel. eCt cnan se oi conditions and expansion of work and 

and t^^^^f^^^^ «P of the Central Farm at Ottawa 
horse-breeding Farm at St CcWn n ,f fh T are ' in addit ^- the s P ecia 
Station at Farnham, Que u n Wt! m Q i^ aad thc Tobacco Experimental 
superintendent and of the c hiel < ffic ( "of " f'V T™ on of thc <^P Roup 
The number of Illustration Stations i, f ,' J "> '•'"•<•<> Division respectively. 

to the Pacific, is at present 136 ^r£ T <la ' ^^buted from the Atlantic 
charge of the Chief Supervisor of 'llln^.. 1 V0 ^? Ullu ' M ' is ,n,,l <''' the immediate 
has eight field lBbQra^2^S5&M te1 «»«- The Division of Botany 

In addition, a limited ,J!*T • Domi nion. 
main substations and six mino^substaS^ 11 ? 611 ^ 1 J Work is c ^ducted upon two 
of the country. lor sub stations, located in the more remote regions 

Farms* ^^£0^ of Dominion Experimental 

culture for the administration and ?h? "• and to the Mi ™ter of Agri- 
Upon his authorization all ex, ■ it , «P*™Wtttal activities of the branch, 
experiment carried on. ^©ncatures are mad,- and lines of research and 

Farms System^e located 22foSrt2S ^ d ? uar ters °* the whole Experimental 
and experimental work fall Each ' ', V1S,, " I , S >?to which the lines of research 
ofilcer - Ul ° f the8e divisions is in charge of a chief 

Each divisional chief officer ;» , 
carrying on of the experimental w, i""' i'T '" r" ,,u> direct °r for the efficient 
assistant or assistant^ clericS staff . S d ^ lsion ' and h *s under him an 
division has ahotted to k ace tun sun •' ?? rkm S f ° rce ;| * re °^ d < Each 
the work of the branch. SUm from the yearly appropriation voted for 

In the case of the Division of tii 1. ,- 
supervisors have immediate 'charge o the t°l 8ta £° M ' whUe its «**«* and his 
firs authorizes such work, givcf hi aDn ™w CO f nducted °* these, the director 
authorizes all expenditures The wan K I ° f an Y ^ggested changes, and 
which in addition to its cxperimentaTwork ™ Jf U1 o Wlth the Tobacco Division, 
supervision of the work onV TCtt^SS^ taBMdtati 



The Central Farm superintendent is immediately responsible to the director 
and has charge of the general working force not under divisional control, looks 
after the providing and adjustment of labour among the various divisions; he is 
responsible for discipline of the working force, has charge of work horses and 
machinery, etc. Although looking to the director for instructions, the Farm 
superintendent works in closest co-operation with the divisional officers m 
order to facilitate their farm operations. 

Each branch Farm and Station is under the charge of a superintendent, 
who is responsible to the director for the efficient administration and conduct of 
experimental work on that Farm or Station. To each branch Farm is allotted 
its share of the total appropriation of the branch. To aid him m the work the 
superintendent has under him an assistant, or assistants, a clerical staff, a iarm 
foreman, and skilled and unskilled labour as needed. 

The experimental work of the branch Farms is classified under the same 
general heads as is the work at the Central Farm, and the superintendents act 
in the closest co-operation with the heads of the various divisions at Ottawa, 
as to its planning and execution, all such plans, and expenditures connected 
therewith being approved by the director before operations are commenced. 
Copies of 'all records of experiments are sent to the divisions at Ottawa by the 
superintendents and the heads of those divisions make one or more visits of 
inspection over the branch Farms each year, reporting upon the condition of 
their work on each to the director, upon return. 

It has so far been found that the above system, while elastic enough to 
permit of individual initiative, places supervision over, and responsibility for, 
the work upon those most immediately in touch with it and best fitted by training 
and experience to conduct it most effectively, allowing, at the same time, the 
' fullest mutual co-operation. On the other hand, the plan provides that the 
director, as head of the branch, is thoroughly informed as to plans for experi- 
mental work and results being obtained therefrom, while, m administration, 
all important matters are brought to his attention and all expenditures receive 
his approval and authorization. 



THE DOMINION EXPERIMENTAL FARMS 

Their Establishment, History and Growth 

The year 1884 found Canada facing the necessity of studying her agricul- 
tural conditions and adjusting these to remedy obvious defects and meet 
more complex net ds. In the older settled provinces, primitive agricultural 
methods™ o longer sufficed and their consequences were becoming only too 
aWrent The possibilities of the West were being dimly recognized as was 
apparent, y i tl rairil>s introduced conditions and problems 

aUiteow?MS im^rtSt of all, it was seen that Canada's possible future 
as aWeTt nation depended upon a contented and prosperous people; that such 
Ito,™ iml prosperity were impossible unless agriculture were put upon 
rSSSSrt and profitable^ footing; that farming, while the most important 
mduX o?the country, was also a mode of life and that hence everything bear- 
ng upon that industry, and everything tending to a wider fuller and more 
complete life upon the farm, were deserving of the most careful attention. 

In the above year, then, the House of Commons appointed a Select Com- 
mittee to look into agricultural eonditions in Canada Briefly, the committee 
found the cause of the then prevailing agricultural depression to be, mainly, 
gnorance of good fanning methods, leading inevitably to soil impoverishment 
Jm!S crop .returns, consequent discontent and frequently abandonment of the land 
and emigration to other countries. 

At that time, the only institution in Canada, carrying on agricultural educa- 
tion and experimental work was the Ontario Agricultural College .at Guelph, 
establis led n 1873. It was serving a useful purpose, but having m view the 
varied sod and climatic conditions of Canada the applicability of its results 
was limited of its total farm area of 550 acres, only 24 were devoted to expen- 
Ten alwo k and that the value of its training was not widely appreciated may 
be gathered from the fact that, in 1883, the college had only nine graduates and 
and in 1884, eleven. . , _ , 

The then function of the Federal Department of Agriculture was defined 
to the conSS by the secretary of that department as follows: 'There has 
however been no general vote for the purposes of agriculture, lnere have 
,'c votes for particular branches-for instance, cattle quarantine and 
Section the gathering of sta.ist.es in certain 1^^,^^.^ 5*£ 
to exhibitions. Hitherto, these have comprised the whole functions of the 
department in relation to agriculture". 

Embodied in the report made to the House by the Select Committee, was 
a recommendation that an experimental farm be established and the next 
session a vote for this was passed. 

It was desired, however, by the Hon. John Carling then Mmister of Agri- 
culture that before such farm was definitely established, detailed information 
be obtained as to the operation, organization and scope of such institutions m 
other countries, particularly in the United States. Prof. William Saunders, 
of 1 ondon Ont., was commissioned to make this enquiry and report to the 
minister Professor Saunders at that time was a chemist, horticulturist and 
entomologist and held a chair in the Northwestern University at London. 

His scientific work along the above lines had long shown him to be far in 
advance of his time in agricultural investigations and naturally pointed him 
out as the most fitting man to investigate and report upon such researches else- 
where. 

11 



12 



In February, 1886, he presented to the minister his Report on Agricultural 
Colleges and Experimental Farm Stations, with suggestions relating to Experi- 
mental Agriculture in Canada. Among these suggestions, he recommended 
the establishment of a Central Farm at or near Ottawa, a Farm in the Maritime 
Provinces two Farms on the prairies and one Farm in British Columbia, out- 
msu d organization and indicating the main lines of investigation to be 

In the same year (1886) an Act was passed authorizing the establishment 
ot these five farms and under its authority Professor Saunders was chosen by 
the Minister of Agnculuture as the first Director of the Dominion Experi- 
mental Farms System. 

Under the Act, and based upon Professor Saunders' recommendations, 
the mam lines of investigation were to be as follows:— 

(a) Conduct researches and verify experiments designed to test the relative 
value, lor all purposes, of different breeds of stock, and their adaptability to the 
varying climatic or other conditions which prevail in the several Provinces and 
in the Northwest Territories; 

(b) Examine into scientific and economic questions involved in the produc- 
tion of butter and cheese; 

(c) Test the merits, hardiness and adaptability of new or untried varieties 
ot wheat or other cereals, and of field crops, grasses and forage plants, fruits, 
vegetables, plants and trees, and disseminate among persons engaged in farming, 
gardening or fruit growing, upon such conditions as are prescribed by the Min- 
ister ot Agriculture, samples of such surplus products as are considered to be 
specially worthy of introduction; 

(d) Analyze fertilizers, whether natural or artificial, and conduct experi- 
ments with such fertilizers, in order to test their comparative value as applied 
to crops of different kinds; 

(e) Examine into the composition and digestibility of foods for domestic 
animals; 

(/) Conduct experiments in the planting of trees for timber and for shelter; 

(g) Examine into the diseases to which cultivated plants and trees are 
subject, and also into the ravages of destructive insects, and ascertain and test 
the most useful preventive and remedies to be used in each case; 

(h) Investigate the diseases to which domestic animals are subject; 

(i) Ascertain the vitality and purity of agricultural seeds ; and 

(j) Conduct any other experiments and researches bearing upon the agri- 
cultural industry of Canada, which may be approved by the Minister of Agri- 
culture. 

During the next two years, the five farms were located and put into pract ical 
operation The Farm for the Maritime Provinces was located atNappan, N.S.; 
that lor Manitoba at Brandon, in that province, that for the Northwest Terri- 
tories at Indian Head, Sask., and the Farm for British Columbia at Agassiz, B.C. 
ine central 1 arm had also been located, an area of 466 acres, just outside the 
city Boundary of the capital, necessary clearing, levelling, fence and road-making 
naa oeen done, an arboretum and botanic garden laid out, erection of buildings 
put well under way, and experimental work commenced. 

th,^? r v' + ther( ? were 0ldy three divis ions of the work at the Central Farm, 
WHol ^ + ° gy . a ? d Botanv ' Chemistry, and Horticulture. Professor 

Z TfiX i? 10 "* , 1118 a« ™trative duties, assumed those of agriculture, 
uillv \ f _ " t0 ' k W0 , rk ' and also ex Perimental work with cereals. Grad- 

sunervise^W ,?* pan ?° n demanded the appointment of special officers to 
K P tairth«kLww mV ^ lg ^ i0n ,' although P^fessor Saunders continued 

cereal and h^l! nter r t -" 1 S" faV( ? Urite vocations of breeding work in 
cereals and horticulture, during his whole career as director. 



13 



Early in the present century, the need of further experimental stations 
became imperative. The West was rapidly becoming settled; the effect of 
variations of soil and climatic conditions were better understood; the good 
results obtained from the experimental farms already established were plainly 
evident; and in 190?! a Station was located at Lethbridge, Alta; in 1907, one at 
Lacombe m ^ame^province. ^ ^^^ ^^ g^^ atF t Vermilion, 
Alta and in 1912 at the Substation at Beaverlodge, Grande Prairie, Alta. 
In the same year a limited amount of experimental work in the testing of varieties 
.was arranged for at Forts Smith, Resolution and Providence, and at Grouard, 

Alta 'ln 1909 a Station was established at Rosthern, Bask., and one at Charlotte- 
town, P.E.L In 1911, one was established at Cap Rouge, Que., and one at 

COt In 1911 Dr Wm. Saunders retired, owing to age and ill health, and was 
succeeded in the directorate by Mr. J. H. Grisdale, who had been connected 
with the Experimental Farms Branch, as agriculturist, since 1899. 

To Mr Grisdale, as director, fell the heavy task of getting full lines of 
work under way on the newer stations so rapidly acquired during the lew 
nrecedine vears. His appointment also coincided with what may be termed the 
period of transition between the older and the newer, the primary and the (second- 
ary the basic and the more complex, systems of agricultural investigation 
Agricultural colleges had been founded in almost every province; knowledge had 
increased, methods improved and possibilities widened. It was necessary 
then that the Experimental Farms Branch should be kept m the forefront of 
the new movement. The work of the various divisions was, therefore thoroughly 
revised and broadened. Greater specialization was obtained by creating 
new divisions, such as those of Agrostology, Fibre Plants, Illustration Stations, 
Extension and Publicity, and Bees, or by dividing former divisions such as 
that of Agriculture, into Animal Husbandry and Field Husbandry, as had been 
done, in 1909, in the formation of the Divisions of Entomology and Botany 
This policy naturally led to the appointment of a number of chief technical 
officers and assistants, with more specialized training and duties. 

In 1914, the division of Entomology was made into a separate branch ot 
the department, owing to the fact that its work could not be localized and carried 
on upon the Experimental Farms, but must necessarily be conducted wherever 
outbreaks of insect pests might occur. 

An important change in supervision of the work became necessary m 
1910 Hitherto the director had supervised and inspected all work on the branch 
Farms This work had now become so broadened and .specialized that he 
could no longer do so and hence the heads of the various divisions at the Central 
Farm were given supervision, under the general control of the director, of their 
respective lines of investigation on the Branch Farms as well. _ As indicating 
this wider responsibility the word Dominion was prefixed to their official titles. 
In 1912 the Tobacco Division, formerly a separate branch of the department, 
was made part of the Experimental Farms, and in the same year the Experimental 
Stations at Ste. Anne de la Pocatiere, Que., at Kentville, N.S., Fredencton, N.B., 
Invermere, B.C., and Sidney, B.C., were established. Early in 1914, work 
on the new Experimental Stations at Lennoxville, Que., and Summerland, B.C., 
was put under way. 

The Great War, breaking out later in that year, made necessary the post- 
ponement of many features of this policy of expansion then well under way. 
Many of the staff of the Experimental Farms Branch left for the front, and it 
was considered inadvisable, or found impossible, to fill their places temporarily. 
The Experimental Farms, moreover, were called upon to play a leading part in 
stimulating and guiding immediate maximum production — leaving until later 
the further study of the problems underlying systems of permanent agriculture. 



14 



An ^^S^StS^Jtet^S 008 ^^ PTOSrPSS WaS mad T C - 
Fermc, in northern Quebec in the 1™ ° rden ' ¥ an - in 1915 > one at *? 
northern Ontario, in December IQU nVT' ^ d onc at Kapuskasing, hi 
deeded to the Federal DmarfZL* *" * i . ne , lan<1 ln the latter two cases was 
Farm purposes, by the pSKffiw Agriculture, to be used for Experimental 
ively. Internment canins werl L T^" 1 ! 1 ^ 1 ? j Q uebec :l »<> " f Ontario respect- 
labour was used to TTZ^rMe^l ?• b °j h th " S " P° mts ftnd the P™***' 
buildings. considerable extent in clearing operations and erection of 

of AgriS^to^STdS^ -T th °, H,,n - T " M - ( »««. ^en Minister 
of Director of Experimental tuJ? ""iV,' 1 ' !' f the department, and the position 

8 ™erlXr ^^^att: * * ^^ "^ * 
gation has bSn actively rlSWi ?? d if widor and morp systematic; invcsti- 
conditions. An additionalKH W? ***? ,lr:iwl ' : "-^ of war and post-war 
at Swift Current, Sas^Xe a i»™T ]> T\ k,cated - and WOTk got under way, 
Canadian horses hZ K estah 1 io ^fr ^ c >% to the breeze of French- 
the direct supervision h '! ? *t J ° ac , him > Qw>-, the work Ling under 

former Tobacco Stat on at IHm ,' Ulcnt f tho Ca P R ""«" Station* The 

mental work, and is now classed «f „ ?**%&> ?™J>*™i for wider expen- 

Central Farm, the Divfion rfAriiS^ Iftfe Experimental Station. At the 
work of other divisions g r eatlvwidT a B f« ten »togy has been formed and the 
the Poultry Division and tWoW^T* "? tho «K-Mng contest work of 
of the Division of Botany P P athol °gical and potato inspection services 

At the present time ovor i nnn ~ • 
s u«hed on the various farms T7ti?i, + am TO"m«ital projects are being 
the experimental work SPSch befnf T' \\°\ f' ° f course > °* any one farm, 
of the district whereir Z f^ iS T}"^! by the agricultural iossibilities 
prise a number of sul.-p, i ( , ! s JuiXf ^ A , ost of the8e ma in Projects conv 
. . The above is in ten (fed as th? h^^^ are fairl y wide experiments- 
history of the Experimental Fa™«^ feSt / e8um i of th «- "aUant points of the 
of the work of each d v tm anZf ^iT tem i The h] * u >"' : ""1 Sain features 
found in the following se c ti n S bram " h Farm > in STBatet detail, will be 



15 




■a 

B 
3 

■ 

i 



THE DIVISION OF ANIMAL HUSBANDRY 

G. B. Rothwell, B S A r>»™ • • 

- *-B.A., Dominion Animal Husbandman. 

HISTORY 

ISS^^^^^tj&^SSTy a 'io field ^sbaadry was tinder the 
eideavour was divided int » E iSS CT^i? 91 ?' h ° Wever > tms &* field ° f 
Divi,.ons permitting f greats «2Sk ^bandrv and the Field Husbandry 
he w ^\P r f^t timerte^nffi^ 011 ^ 1 ^ 6 Allimal Husbandry Divi- 
vSnr, T 1 husban dnm„, and ile Si/ ** D T ,ini ' m A " iinal Husbandman, 
" u s ,n W ^ on the ^-wtrimin' 1 "" 1 be8 k des the immediate super- 
F L P °r iS10 ^ of aU h >e stock no i , 1,ilrm at 0ttawa > **" the direction 

^^^^roughoutCanadaf !U1<1 ^P^enta! work on the Braneh 

brief and genemTTeiSfSt ofuvf £ I P™™t-day survey and an all too 

incl uded witl ithe results of the Ani m,l W W**. U wiU b * valued that, 

th ffi^ Divi8i - ^ « th0SC 

the lack of assistance mS^SlS^SJSf T eh f* the work then undertaken, 
£ flQif h& ^^^ special mentfonSi^ m -S e combination of animal and 
Do! VVl \ on the P^ent DSutvM^ tp0 / 8 i bl3 : beinade <* that period prior 

dominion Agriculturist. P y Mlms <*r of Agriculture held the position of 

Concrete evidence of tho 
through the medium of experiment ffnJ StanC ° given to ** "ve stock industry 

everfn th -° d8 1S great - Information t ? br ° ad ' the noed of application of 
Pnhl n - C / eaS 1 m ?, volui ne--throu K1 ah P n nor dl8Sen e unat, ' <1 in a *«*«# " f wa >' s "! 
artt o« ty ,' ? UUetins > P e riodicfl publc.S mm ° f the Divisi! »' " f Intension and 
?n S% e( i tures ' demonstrations add™«f*' P^P^ets and circulars; press 
S ™ S - yStm; , direc % to vTsiw ! " 8; - col *espondence from every Farm 
mns+ P r mental Work donefe Tthe LS 0M ' etc - Fr °m the vast amount 
aXv ne ? 8Saril y limited to the fnost & Y / Car f ' howeVOT > s P C( ' i(il ' menti °5 
val, e tT + l nt • T om P lished > w her e £e wS^S** H " es of work carried on and 
F " mdus fry, e Work ln question has been of very evident 

or i^S^S^S^ work may be d: - ifi " d - ^ ll0Ws: 

3' LWe Sto d l%°^ Live St -k 

J J. Dairy Manufacture k ' 

6. Live Stock Records and Cost Accounting. 
The Breeding of Live Stock 

SPECIALIZATION Thp V 

sSicSfh bra '^ h Farm ^tem^one o/r rd ? * he distribution! of live stock 
S^^^o^^Hmig^StoSJ^^??*^; that b. each Farm or 
rnel eS -°Bv r f S n eS kept ' ** ! iS&^Sfl 3 k£ ft** mai ?^med'a4 the breeds, 

to r L Z mllowmn such practice in . g n bi(t to . oc «asional change «r amend- 

dit d ons nf Stl r tC thG ada Ptabllity ^of the vaVf.^t^^ ° ^ H is P^ ble - first ' 
jS of cb mate and demand • second ? M * br *£ ds and olafl8eB 1 " <" rt ain con ' 
distnct and sectional breeding' and ehni, ^\ thGr the s P irit of community, 

g and choice of breeds, as per demonstration; 



17 

third, to encourage breeders of high class stock of desirable breeds by purchase, 
recommendation and advice where necessary; fourth, to discourage the intro- 
duction of unsuitable breeds, as indicated by sectional export and local require- 
ments. 

Introduction and Trials of Breeds — During the past twenty years, 
the three great dairy breeds, Holsteins, Ayrshires and Jerseys, have been intro- 
duced on Experimental Farms from the Atlantic to the Pacific ; French Canadians 
have been maintained in Quebec and- Ontario; Guernseys in Nova Scotia, the 
present headquarters of this breed in Canada. 

In the beef breeds, special attention has been given the Shorthorn, pure- 
bred beef or dual-purpose herds being maintained on Farms in six provinces. 
Aberdeen-Angus cattle are bred in Alberta, and the Herefords are to have 
representation in the West very shortly. One of the outstanding accomplish- 
ments has been the building-up of herds of Shorthorn cattle that may be con- 
sidered dual-purpose in the right sense, — at Brandon and Kentville. Besides 
the breeding of beef cattle, steer feeding has been carried on at practically every 
branch Farm where live stock work is a feature. 

With horses, the keynote has ever been the accentuation of the importance 
of draught type, two breeds being given special attention, Clydesdales and 
Percherons. Of these two great draught breeds, the Clydesdale has, to date, 
received the more marked attention. Nor must be forgotten a truly national 
breed, the French Canadian, of which, at Cap Rouge, there has been maintained 
since 'the starting of that Station, one of the foremost studs. Realizing the 
apparent danger of deteriorat on of the breed in the province of Quebec, mainly 
due to improper selection, the horse breeding work at this Station has been 
greatly enlarged of late. Working in conjunction with the French Canadian 
Horse Breeders' Association, and with a view to standardizing the French Cana- 
dian horse, some sixty of the best females available were purchased, and these, 
with the major part of the Cap Rouge stud, moved to a large farm near Quebec 
city. The good results which are certain to accrue in the rehabilitating of this 
great general purpose breed, may largely be attributed to the careful selections 
and breeding methods which have been a feature in horse breeding at Cap 
Rouge for the past twenty years. Here, this breed has been kept up to its best 
traditions and the resulting stud should prove the real nucleus of improvement 
and standardization during the next few years. 

Sheep. There |is scarcely a live stock Farm in the system where sheep 
are not bred in flocks of from demonstration size to those of western range 
conditions. The policy of specialization has finally meant that, for each Farm, 
there lias been selected a breed or breeds particularly suited to the district, 
this in many cases only after exhaustive breed trials during the past twenty- 
five years. Thus by no means all of the breeds are kept. Mention only might 
be made of Shropshires, Oxfords, Lcicesters, Southdowns, Dorsets, Hampshires, 
Suffolks, Lincolns and Cheviots. Particular attention has been devoted, the 
system over, to the Shropshire, as representing the best general-purpose breed 
for general Canadian conditions. 

Swine. As with sheep, herds of swine are maintained at practically all. 
live stock Farms and Stations. For many years, it has been possible to study 
the various breeds in different sections of Canada The result has been a 
concentration of attention on the main bacon breeds, the principal objective 
being to demonstrate that, for the production of a high-class article for com- 
petitive export trade, the Yorkshire, Berkshire and Tamworth are particularly 
suitable. Herds of from fifty to five hundred are maintained. Representatives 
of the heavier breeds, popular in the West — Duroc Jerseys and Poland Chinas — 
are maintained at Lacombe, Alberta. 

75617—2 



18 



Direct Effect of tht? Kt™,, 

it may be said thai no effort h* • CTro * o* Breeds. Speaking generally, 

selection of, "•■'■-■■ • BDared in +.!»«» »»«■+;« +\*« . „i, w n.nd 

ations have 



selection of 

ations ha 1 
and anirn 



'"' said thai uo effort h, CTI °N of Breeds. Speaking generally, 

'iof.mdividu,l , ■ I, v h 6D Bpar ? d m tll( ' l ,:lst » the search for, and 
have been Ina'h i . V '^ JMm " »'<' (1 berds, studs and Bocks. Import- 
-imals boucht the V-,. puiTh ; lf : , ' s ha ve been made from importations, 
derived mainly from ( ' If-"'' ,lf miporled stock. Such blood has been 
Percheron horses- Avrs i n / ni:un T ; »V l ■*» United States Clydesdale and 
cattle; Shropshire Lei2 r nf y '- ? ol «* em , Shorthorn and Aberdeen Angus 

AsJdl'from ^^mSorth°L?r et ' ° S,0,d &nd Corriedale BbeePJ 
distinct and^n^tetaS^lw^' }''';'' il,,tl demonstration, then- has been a 
1 "'<" 1 ^ock a1 nominal 1)ri( ^ R"* "'"' • l, ' rs due '" " 1 " distribution of well- 
m value. There is no P E»+^ y l° St ' p , nces - Such an elemenl is cumulative 
r^^y'^fromevlrTpSa?!^ °* «•»«■ really high-class sire to • 
durm « the past thirtv-five v < n i , V , ,unn ' ( !anada - si, "- ( ' their Inceptiom, 
fleeted stock has gone on ffi'JS? T tnl 'V ,1(m of richly-bred, registered and 
''-day. What was it worth ,£ r g "'" 1 l " uml: " i <»' stock is well recognized 
flocks w-r.-n.,is<,thorouBh]vdJi,-i "! IV , ( ' y '/"' s ag0 when high-class herds and 
Farms, the work wafaS nf^ed and in the cases of several Experimental 

There are thousands o ' f ?1 °?f er Qature? 

bred impetus from some ExrSL^S*^ 8 ,lli,( bave receive d the first pure- 
one s hundred and fifty miles f f , ,- I 9 ** '"' Station. Within a radius f 
of farmers whose nameThaVe ™t Y °?. the old( ' r Farme will be found hundreds 
the pure-bred stock sales booh * P ?' or whose smis ' names now appear, on 
for a bull calf, a ram lamb , ' I ? C °T or have ''»"»' back year after yef 
stock, feeling confident of nbt a E g b ^ r ' or 8ome 8°°d foundation female 

Breeding Methods M p & g °° ndwM »* *■"* h,< ll ■** P* 16 **' 
the system, pure breeding is hi;™ 6 Bre ? dmg - At ev «*ry 1™3 stock Farm .in 
improvement within a breed v^ JOT* <m; first - «° demonstrate the possible 
of families, strains, etc • second t? rrect " latln K and selection and by the study 
and out-crossing. There nr?. f P ? BMt of studies '" lin «' breeding, in-breeding 
f^vedatleastaprovtocSSJ-^ °, thc oIder Fa ™s that have not 
for one or more breeds and ,i f*' both m show ri ng and official records, 
developing of breed superiority J»a * entlrel y to the proper moulding and 
principles, (b) Cross-BreSa S '"'T'" ,lm,u " h °"^1 need to breeding 
Process of grading-up SJJ?°^ ° loss 8 eneral importance than the 
particularly with swine and t , i ' T* has been done in cross-breeding, 
considerable experimental work Is T7 6gree ' wilh sh( '°P- A t the present time, 
is a feature, with the object \ I '' Way <. at a11 Stations where swine breeding 
improvement to be exr ected ?™h™V M "" U '- :uid ^mplete figures as to the 
duction, by cross-breeding as e mi m .i th ? ^f^ of ™™™ S and cost of pro- 
posses This information t/Xr Sl*^ 6 P ure 'breds used in the various 
decided interest in view f , , ' J 1 ? that alread y obtained, will be of 
(?) Grading Up. Demonstrating Jk* ?°* g, radin S regulations now in force. 
sires on grade herds has be ''^ ° d( ' sl, ' :il ' 1( ' effect of the use of high-class 
fundamentally important w £TS P^Wd* attention since 1910. Thtf 
class of stock, although th bes t aV* 8 ? confint ' d to any one part cular 
cattle and sheep. With horses LTfi ! as been done with dairy cattle, bee 

On with the use of pure: bred siri , ' " ',' «P«™*ltal work has been carried 
Thl,'" ' s mai ntained. grada mares - With swine practically no 

!^ h -jSSlSji?S > ^SS , in tb « actual pure breeding of lg« 
breeds and the concent ration ,, I ,f- ,1, Vl m '- throu 8 h ^ of P^ v «° &<&™ hle t 
these breeds. ™ 0n ol effort in the improvement and popularizing of 



a work 
)nductec 
: pri 



19 



lying the methods of breeding and the proper application of these to the different 
classes of live stock, the nature of the work with these different classes and 
I creeds of live stock being, in a general way. of a somewhat similar nature. 

The OToiects have as their aim the improvement of pure-bred stock, the 
grading u, of common stock by the use of pure-bred sires and also the cross- 
breeding of the established breeds., this latter hue of work being more particularly 
featured with swine and sheep. 

The Feeding of Live Stock 

A consideration of this question naturally falls into two lines, feeds and 

feeding 

Ffeds Possibly the most valuable work in this connection has been in 
the testing of new feeds the product of both mill and farm, and the trial of 
by-products and commercial feeds. In farm-grown feeds, t he work with ensilage 
crops' has been of Outstanding merit. Throughout the past twenty- five years, 
the silo has been a prominent feature on practically every Farm and d is safe to 
sav thai in many parts of Canada, the popularity of silage has been due, in 
ereal measure to early trials and demonstrations on the various barms and 
Stations Still greater attention has been given to silage crops during the 
last three or four years. Realizing that corn is the greatest of all silage crops, 
but strictly confined in growing area by climatic conditions, special attention 
has been given to hardier silage crops for use under western northern and 
maritime conditions. The value of peas and oats, clover and other leguminous 
crops for silage has been demonstrated and, more recently still, work with the 
growing of sunflowers, where no other silage crop can be profitably grown, has 
?3een responsible for radical changes in methods of cattle feeding. Of the 
numerous experiments carried on with every kind of farm grown feed no mention 

can here be made. . , . ,, 

With the by-products, valuable original work has been carried on in the 
utilization of elevator offal, popularly known as grain screenings. While the 
original work was done at Ottawa, later feeding tests with this material have 
been made at practically all Farms and Stations, with nearly all classes of stock 
This work has had a large bearing upon the subsequent standardization and 
improvement of this material, together with the holding of it m Canada tor 
increased production of live stock during the war period, when standard reeds 
were high in price. Earlier still, similar work was carried on with the utilization 
of damaged grains, frozen wheat, etc. Much valuable work has been done m 
demonstrating the value of dairy by-products. Of the high-priced concen- 
trates, also by-products in nearly all instances, there is not one feed that has 
not been thoroughly tested. Much valuable experimental work has been done 
with molasses and kindred feeds. Possibly, however, the most valuable work 
has been done in the testing out of new feeds as already described, and of com- 
mercial feeds and untried by-products. . 

Feeding. One of the really outstanding lines of work has been in con- 
nection with beef cattle, where work at Ottawa, Brandon and Nappan, in the 
earlier days, concerning such questions as "Long vs. short keep steers," -'Finish- 
ing steers of different ages." "Baby beef," "Feeding loose vs. t ed." "Feeding in 
barns, sheds, corrals and in the open," "The value of dehorning," etc., were 
carefully treated along str'ctly experimental lines. Similar experimental work, 
with even more definite aims, has been carried on at Lennoxville, Que., Char- 
lottetown, P.E.I., Indian Head and Scott. Sask., and Lacombe, Alia. The sum 
total of the effect of this work as a. guide to beef raisers, particularly in the 
earlier days, is hard to surmise. One of the outstanding achievements in later 
years has been the demonstration of the possibility of effectively cutting down 
beef raising costs by the utilization of cheap shed and corral quarters, even in 
the colder parts of Canada. 



75617—2J 



20 



Another noteworthy line of w„^ e ■ ■ » 

out of the experimental feedm e wnl "T 5 recent development and arising 
cattle to Great Britain in neK k I* the experimental shipment of beef 
of shipping and the most profitaV XT' ? asct ; rtain the most profitable method 
tions governing the landing of cattlSnYn °Am C o to ship ' under the Iatest reg T, 
have been made and valuable Hnt" ?i? Id Countr y- Four large shipment- 
business collected. vamable data on this phase of the beef cattle feeding 

^dem^X^oTSSlSii^* ,° f the ^erimental work has bee» 
quarters and methods With « J n ssiblh ty, but the desirability of cheap feedmg 
demonstrating the value of mR i" 10 * 8 * lm P°rtant work has been done m 
feeding methods, etc. Products, wheat by-products, pastures, seU" 

been in co^E^S economvW nK .° f horses thc mos t valuable work bftS 

cheap succulents and roughagS ^V P J ff and rcarin 8> and the utilization ot 

° th w-T the stan dpoints of fealth I f able m con i™ction with grain feeding, 

With dairy cattle whil \t and economy, 
greater than with any 'other class of°lt^l °f . cx P crim ental work done is po^ly 
of this important department thn 1 * » *««ilt to point to any one pb<*« 
over others. Experimente w con 5Lt ^ ft 8 Worthv ° f Particular mention 
! alu + eof high-priced concSt?Jt2 f t a 0ttaw *° show the comparative 
coast to coast; experiment withVh" r °- Slla ? es for dair y «°ws carried on fr** 
sumed to milk produced; commerch mffT 8 ot Calves ; tne relation of feed con- 
mixtures; molasses for dkiryStl^f^ US com Pared with home compounded 
or on est; these are but alwofV™ -^ f ° r Calves > yearlings, cows in mg 
carried on, from which cJSS > m P°rtant lines of experimental wo* 

The testing of feeds and ak n " f r •? have becn derived and disseminated- 
^ ers a /fther extensive field oex D ern?ff? nt methods of Ceding dairy cattle 
Phase of that work. Some 25 £?!? T° rk and constitutes an import 
of feeding young and mature 2 £ T° ts are included in these methods 
combinations of feeds, and also of +b? the utiliza tion of feeds and differ^* 
and of dairy products. ° 0t the economy of production both of stock 

In beef cattle there nro si u 

the feeding of mature and young 53£ ***** u1 » 1ct "**• These deal with 
methods of treating the stew f 'S 7 !, t0ck and also steer feeding. Different 
^^^sandLthodsTfeTdi^^f 8 . 8 * * alld also the utilization of 

E or sheep there are some nine ft ' eatuwd iu these tests, 
and rearing of sheep and lam bs ?or WhT &*«* which deal with the fee*** 
application of the best known practices 7 l T and ,1Iill ' krt Ptoses and th e 
of f^ e ^ Mm6 ^^y-^xvroS^f t ° r b ° lh BUmmer and winter feeding- 
of feeding, these including economt f r "J™ 8 - ,[, ' ;,li ng with different phases 
comparison of feeds and dlffS^Lb^^ 011 aad »u£fc£Xe and the 
of hogs under both summer and winter ^conditions'' ^^ f ° r the Vari ° US 
Live Stock Equipment and & Accessor . 

Buildings.— The constiw »»wh» 

An3 le TT C T en i ent ' ^3°Z! e Par , m ■**«* of buildings sound * 
Animal Husbandry Division. The rn«1n ° n 't h cost > has been the aim of *J 
now being demonstrated on every lil man , 1 achie vements in building work <* 
up a* Mbws :- ever y "ve stock Farm in the System, may be summed 

' fe a eding? aP *** &nd C0 ™1 quarters are best suited to winter steer 
^. ih at growing colts and if) 1^ v, a 

o T unde r somewhat similar Temi'-ont T Y be e ? onomicall y housed and f 
3- That the expensive shelter is^S^ 001 " condi tions. 

where, outside of certain liSi an a V omi nation to sheep and sW» - 

cheap sheds or cabins formT^ t P T° d . s in the lif e of these anima^ 

iorm the most suitable shelter, the year round- 



21 



This clear-cut vindication of the economical building, embodying essential 
principles Z been an outstanding result in ammal housmg investigations 

With the more expensive type of building as for caMh = tij 
development of sanitation and convenience : ha i been -JW™™ IjoblZl' 
Possibly, fairly extensive studies, in the ^"jv2™5S2 
combined with later work in the proper correlation ol ventilation ana insulation 
b W bSdin« conStion, haveVoven one of the most valuable lines of 



investigation in construction work. . 

" fe ' . , . „ . „ + hp Central Farm of much detailed information in 

The disseimnation how ithe ^^J these lans based on the result of 

SLSt^U proviTSS value. These Stock plans show buildings 

S^^^A^plM* * hidings Lcted on the system. 
The main achievements in building work, then, may be summed up as 

Tstandarization of construction as far as possible, depending upon the 
vTrious ?lasL of stock and their essential requirements. 

2. T Ists of siiol for the past thirty years or from the time when this process 

3. Studies' fn'Sfofventilation and insulation as applied to farm build- 

ings. 

Equipment -There has been very little farm building equipment of import- 
anceShas Sot been tested out by this division. Theto^^w^ 
include stall fittings, watering devices, flooring materials litter earners .unfading 
devices etc etc At Ottawa, for example, in the one barn will be lound tour 
Sent makes of stall fittings and watering devices Incidentally, over the 
F^mBysSm, wiS be found practically every method of stable --y-enj and 
all tvnpa of mamrers gutters, drainage arrangements, etc. Ihus it is possible 
To Sst thoroughly ml large way, such manufactured outfits and to present 
conclusive results to the farmer. 

AccEssoniES.-The testing of accessories to live stock work covers a wide 
field In the dairy it has included separators, churns and different makes of 
the essential dairy Utensils; in the cattle barns, types o pai Is, rmlking machine^ 
marking or identification devices and systems, etc ; m the piggery and sheep 
V, n s tests of troughs self-feeders— both home-made and commercial— feeding 
rS,' c\tps:?nTm g arking devices. All of such work, carefully done has made 
possible defiAite and direct statements and comparisons. In such test work 
the trials of milking machines at Ottawa, where there are now thirteen different 
makes, and at Branch Farms, where different machines are in use, should be 
specifically mentioned. The development of home-made-types of self-feeders 
for swine, and thorough trial of this system of feeding, have proved of material 
assistance in connection with swine raising. 

The Health of Live Stock 

Research and control work in animal pathology is dealt with by another 
branch of the Department of Agriculture— that of Health of Animals. Much 
valuable information has been secured by the branch mentioned through co- 
operation and through the use of the Experimental Farm herds. Particularly 
would this have reference to tuberculosis control work. While, therefore, the 
field of work of the Experimental Farms Branch is distinctly limited as to studies 
in animal pathology, it may be claimed that much useful work has been done 
in prophylaxis, or disease prevention. It has been clearly ascertained that 
environment, feeding and management of the pregnant dam, may have much. 



22 



ambtiakWe^tA 60 ^^ as l ^ 11 »■ *»*. goitre in calves an d 
sary sut p mmts to , K ' "'i m P1 P' " t( '- ln fchiB connection, testing of nece* 

ally SttiS ^ and a <"***g finally evolved Las prWtjjj 
little understood ZS n™ ^^P^mental Fun,, herds. This comply*' 
forvervheav v ■ ■ « Y preventa ble and practically incurable, is response 
^^ofSlZ^ClirTV h ^- '» ^BtemCanada, thJ pb*£ 
In the West resulte S« ' * controlled entirely by diet and environment. 

Con*i,l,ml,l,:; ^ V s ,' ' ,™ 1 Sv^f U, ;/ md dee ? er *"««■■*» is under ^ v 
and swine. Preventive m ■ f ."' f ' U( ' s1l,m of parasitism in both sheep 

system developed to prW "f 7" ^f fo ™ d ' & the case of swine, the 

original, thoroSdy SS ,J ^ ITSU 1s - "' m,, ' s,i " :i1 parasitism was Largett 
PracticallyVj™ treSCl, Vf widH - v ado P ted " *tf 

of abortion of cattle hns i • ' ? ommend(>d °r advertised for the prevent** 

ages and class,' , t u ' | l$£ °?" A ^^ ">' treatment of the v*«g 
a^er thorough trial ,, v„ v "i tho avera 8 e ll(,, '<l oas been finally adopted 
to serum and Sine wS^? ^^ Particular attention has been give* 
mercial and GovernmS? ?T\ theee l "' m - US( ' (1 ^ manufactured by cog 
treatment and u IvTc 1 f»™tones. Alon K with abortion control *«* 
sterility and its Ses T* followm g abortion, such as retained pi**** 



With tulK,,; 'in,r n ^, et ^ have been carried on. 
.-temhavebTenfTveis^ij S" le a11 herda on the Experimental Fa ' 
no specific research %S?h£fcf the ° ontro] of ,h " Health of Animals Bram* 
careful study oTSra-^tonZ^^^^ by tha1 1 ^'"' h - At 0ttaW £ed 

imHo. +k„ r>_. made anA ., I i ..r opei:' 1 ' 



" ure uuu, at prist in writino- „,,+ t . •■"■ ""viiuation. it is inin<—' 

iM Parts „r C „ada thi "n", n J n f teen aerds <» Experimental Fart* 

^nce will be Sily^assed S Y a °f edited > with indications tha^ 

health. While emplo^d RS n" 1 "^ "'' "J™ Btock > "» fche " r " ls,t "" ,* 
the possibilities ot\,,cn-air IV 'i;//' : ' V '' V, ', ry cla88 of K »'"' k the system 0** 
strated for many years at (V, f, l " <l T m « have been particukriv weU den** 
cattle and calves, practical v nil K,> " S? e ' Her e> with the exception of d»»g 
We the year though . {MET** *** '" ild ** «StS S scni-u^; .', 

stock excellent. Tests of a rm,ti n 1 " ri8 ° rous > : "" 1 the health of the ^ 
"*} an ^lm 8 eoticides?d^2S^^ ra< ? CT hav " ll( '"" continuaUy carried^ 
ants, etc., together with t ! ap P hcati ^ for skn, affections, dy rep^ 

they are such as might be atmlS i ^/^ended treatments of disease, «» & 
+v In brief, then, while 1„ ? by - th « ° r ^ary Btockman. , () f 

the Division of AnixnS h£SJ«W ^ ? S6Me Me n " 1 ' ,;llt of thc ^ «S 
to the value of appSof oUre^f f h . bafl been found out with referjjjj 
treatments have been m , t™ s ! ''V' Co ^Parative way; comply 
much useful informal ion la been 1 'V'' 11 ' Klsis ' and " f ™ ^ " n ' 10, ' 1:l V. 
ounce of prevention is worth "p u '[' '''' ^ feference to ProW^i - A 



Dairy Manufacture 



dames are in operation r! J^J ^8 of any size are maintained, f- 
various makes of th,- essentfal 'dSrS^. 0Utlined ' tests are conducted ^ 
concerned, the aim has eo s efe 1 ^ 1 "^- '" so far as manufacture 
marketing milk in variousteS S.rf Ta** demo ^trate methods and costs * 
L Cg ft- pr o° d V cts as butter anJch lV md l r Varyin S conditions. Outside s- > 
mcludmgSt,ltoii.,Camembert etc Id u'T' 8everal other types of cheg 

ert, etc, and soft cheese such as Cream < Jouloffl*** 



23 



u «. w« manufactured. Investigational work along these lines 
and ( ottage, have been ™»™2S? B.C., and Ottawa < hit . < >f all the work 
has been main y carried on at Agaa Jjr»-^ « . m has ,, (>( , n in th( , h e . 

done, possibly the most us u. the c . s ^ -information and direction 

,„,„i oi ^che^ema^^^^ in this connection. 

have been give, it. b ; ^^ ^ eese has been originated ac Ottawa, after 

eonstnu'tuntte 'refrigerators, cooling rooms and ice-houses. 

Research Work in Hybridizing and Cross-Breeding 

+;„«■ wnvl- is in progress at the Buffalo Park at Wainwright, Alia. 
Tn , ,1 ''"'f md 1 td V s ,'lihased, made up of hybrids (bison + domestic) 
In 1015 a small nera the off of the matmg f 

hvinil Thi X 1 w as t e result ofmany years of private experimentation 
hybrids, ims nera won « Dominion Experimental Farms, with 

and) „ dispersion, wa » J™«J felE of toe bison-domestic cross and the 
the idea of mves^gat «R »» * silnlrtiu fm & 

advisabihty o carrying on further mjwm ^ purchased herd, 

of reasons, little result n as inui o brougW about within the 

&SS&SSSffjSlSS, £d y£kW More «— wo* 
'''"'tL t«W > obi^ re of this work is to investigate the possibility of 

aSS2SSS?tS&f!SI better bkneed ami gmeraUy wpewr beetag 
'^tfta'SSft^'tftto. against tan^rtag with ber species, 

and the domestic rare of cattle. The infusion ° f J^e >akb lood-a] a m> 
far from a violent cross-may therefore greatly aid in the desired luwon as 

rePt rm1y W SMSttKS- S?S& Par^ Wainwright, Aha. 

(Domllion itks 1^ 

some 8,000 head, representing, also, .nc.de.itally, one of the worlds greatest 

^^e^t^rb^nrdeSXhas been made possible by the concerted 
effort and co-operation of the Experimental Farms Branch. Department of 
Agriculture, ana the Parks Branch, Department ot the Interior. 

Live Stock Records and Cost Accounting 

It mav be objected that the above heading would described simple routine 
work onlv which 'in no sense should be regarded as outstanding. Nevertheless, 
the call for data as afforded by carefully kept records covering many years time, 
with 'reference to costs of rearing and production, comparative experimental 
costs and all of the data relative to such work— weights at different ages, feed 
reoui'rements as related to gain at different ages or under varying conditions, etc., 
has been such as to indicate this work as one of the most important carried 
on with live stock since the inception of the Experimental Farm system. Partic- 
ularly was this information found of value during the era of price -setting in the 



war period. Indeed cf 

?ol k e cltaT anCe r E F a arms d oTe e r nt r a,ly ^ant nature is it, that live 
been made M d cons ^uetion work tr , » i? f , ex P« r, mental feeding, breeding, 
of carrae CU ra^ 0r a e nT d m ° re *«2 * rwJ%£ ref< l rence has alrea ^ briefl { 
from several soiL^- SC ° Pe in this, at-first si tok*^ , year 0n the im P ortanC j 
verai sources in every province ■ in the Do • " mble > routinc work > derived 

In that PUbHcati0nand Extension Work 

S3? S^^C^S^i W0 ?. is * Httle value to the public 
thirty yUt fnT? Hus bandr£ DiS 7", fair of the value of publications 
Such pJbR;' 8 ann ual report' \n d . branch Farm « during the past 

Ventilation o T a8 Bull etin 72^ K Pr i H" 8 ' P am Phlets and circulars- 
be speciaZ L + rm Buil dings; anXiw ^* 1 ™ 1 in Canada ; Bulletin 78, 
Publffio2a?S t, ° n ^ J he above are'J n nr 51 ' Bacon ^ ™ Canada, migb 
While e xte^ Untheoffici al list represen tative of many other useful 

^^Z h ^^^^T^T^ h& \ W ^ the function of the 
ThousSs f l rymen desir °us of taffi^r ^ as that of supplying printed 
developed thlr ymen have taC iS t h?«, ^ 0epin 8' is worthy of mention. 

«P 5t: nnt f est «d c ^ 8 c «f t»ally useful work in this way, 
due to the IZ ♦ Perf ormance and Till ed c ow-testing in earnest, following 
some most int,r t t ary ^ turn of yearly st^ °/ Mcrit work Incidentally, 
infarmhe^^^ bv m any of these men, 

the ^^^^^^^^^ ^"^ imPr ° VC 
S-SS ftSS • T ° ^ S;fe f ?■*«& been taken up during 
and are SnaS^?? ce ° f Q^bec £ SSS ^ Ve been issued on the results- 

^riel'na^ff ^ -elSl^^^ Di ™ ion ■" <* a ^ 
have been introl > prraen ted themsolvl ^ ' Wlth the Possibility of valuable 
lous cure" have k^" ,- No "«** hafbeJn t^ great measure - No new breeds 
ficiaUy4 me of 1° d . Wc °vered. TnTL, r ° Wn on sex-control. No marvel- 
!t is possibTe b t £ ain lin(>s of work in °Sfr g .P* 868 c over-all too super- 
influences of exSnS? na anal ysis, that ?),' Ch f chK!Vom ent might be claimed, 
made. tXdm P le and precept of Ir greatest good has come from those 

wmch no mention whatever has here been 



25 












I ° 
K 3 




THE DIVISION OF FIELD HUSBANDRY 

E. S. Hopkins, B.S.A., Dominion Field Husbandman 

^^^dB^L^ZbZA^ iWe ^ th xf f ™»« * eth ° d * of Extern 

V 1 'I'e field husl.an.ln ™ S^"'/, ' S<> i°V *" f riim " Pr °vinees that the results 
The reader may turn there W? T '' : '- V " ''"" n divid «' d ^^ two sections. 
if time permits; it'*" J 1( ' S( ) " ,l,,n '" ^ch he is most concerned; 
Parts of Cana< a m ,v ,/ nw / ,' C ,i, V U ' rs reIatm « to work d »™ fa other 

^fa^ionswhS^ conclusion8 *•*» ■«* ** be 

conduced MSWSSSfaSSS ™kV^ l ]°fT n E *»™<-1 Farms have 
( ' ultlI ^l Pract ,. ] iTw , ; , k ' k f has lncluded maQ y ma *ed changes in agri- 
the D«,nini«m 'Expe i, ,1 ,. * ' i)arn fzthTil P"*™" *° the establishment of 
introduction of XcThas LreX f SK SS H bmd ? ^invented, the 

K^aStoSisiSs&iis^ Knun eariy b th - s *4 ^ ** 

earlv scerli.w Ti, i , , ll ' n \ , . (1 ' ll,M ' noniu > lls 'ii<'i'<>ases in yied following 

3 in a-,,,, •;;,;;;: s5 ;; s£sj T been establ ^ 8hed h >- w^SH 

should be cultivated and ensiled The usef m s f * r ° P and how !t 

demonstrated and types of rot inns W °f flotations has been 

prions kinds of farnSng. The X i rf difaiff "^ "" Suitable to 
in Eastern Canada and British CoWri? h«f h!^ ffl rpmovi "K surplus water 
methods have been learned wganK nt ?1 . b T demon8 * r ated, and unproved 
ARreat increase luis taken plae^ie,, J*!? mea,ls , of accomplishing this. 
as the need of increasing tl ' /erl utv o tl T""* and commercial fertilizers 
become realized. Finiy the S,l^ ?l » «**» P a * ? of ( anada has 



Decome realized. Finally, the invention Tf tk. ,,f n ,):u,s of ( ' a,l:l,|:l 1|:IS 




EASTERN CANADA AND BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Date of Seeding Grain 

«ive ^imSwerlsta^dlnSflnf^? 1 ""US* 6 s, ' ( ' din ^ of grain, exten- 
di as the land was n ^ f j ° ttaw "- The first seeing was made as 
irot mk successive seeding Ure made *i 

sP^gwasfo^to he 'verv^m,^ S ^ ding wh " ;l, ' "^ and barley early in the 

reST ^ ,,,, • — ' i^ofs^&kat^ 6 6eSl r T ltS '" "-'•>-- ^ 
vervr ■ n m \ After this «late al f.' .^' SeVen days after 1h( ' la,ld waS 

very rapidly decreased in yield P, , tj? T' 6XCept » the case of P eas ' 

y em. i erhaps, with many farmers and especially 



27 

in fields containing wet pot-holes or water courses, their first seeding would 
more nearly correspond with the second seeding at the Experimental Farm. 
Inasmuch as the land and the fvod were uniform, this decrease in yield was due 
solely to the late seeding. 

With spring wheat, the loss in yield by delaying seeding one week beyond 
the period which these experiments have shown to be the most favourable has 
entailed a loss of over 30 per cent; by delaying two weeks, fully 40 per cent; 
by delaying three weeks, nearly 50 per cent; and by delaying four weeks, a loss 
of over 58 per cent. 

With barley, the loss in yield by delaying seeding one week after the most 
favourable time, has occasioned a loss of 24 per cent; a delay of two weeks, 
a loss of more than 28 per cent; a delay of three weeks, about 40 per cent; and a 
delay of four weeks, a loss of 46 per cent. 

With oats, the loss in yield by delaying seeding one week after the most 
favourable time has caused a loss of 15 per cent; a delay ot two weeks, a loss 
of 22 per cent; a delay of three weeks, a loss of over 32 per cent; and a delay 
of four weeks, a loss of about 46 per cent. 

These heavy losses show the urgent need of seeding the crop as soon as 
possible. They show that the grains should be seeded in the following consecu- 
tive order: wheat first, then barley, oats and finally peas, so as to make the 
most economical use of time during seeding. While this summary of ten years' 
work was given to the public by the Dominion Experimental Farm twenty-two 
years ago and the first reports of it as early as thirty-two years ago, the results 
are just as true to-day as then. These points are farts established beyond all 
question of doubt, and it is folly for a farmer not to be guided by them; it is 
folly to learn this by experience. 

However, not all parts of Canada have conditions the same with respect 
to value of early seeding While experiments at Ottawa show an enormous 
advantage from early seeding, and experiments at the Ontario Agricultural 
College show even greater advantage than at Ottawa, nevertheless, in cooler 
sections of the country, this superiority is not as marked and, in some cases, 
is not evident at all. 

At Nappan, N.S., and at Agassiz, B.C., experiments were commenced in 
1891 to gain information on this question. The first seeding was made as 
soon as the land was ready to sow and five successive sect lings were made at 
one-week intervals. 

At Nappan, N.S., with the single exception of the sixth seeding with oats 
and barley, no significant difference exists between early and late seedings. 
At Agassiz, B.C., no superiority whatever was gained from the earlier seeding. 
It is possible that in these regions, some cultivation might be given the land 
previous to seeding in order to check the growth of weeds. 

Rate of Seeding Grain 

At Ottawa, experiments were started in 1901 to determine the best rates 
of seeding wheat, oats and barley on a sandy loam soil and also on a clay loam 
soil. 

Results have shown that heavy seedings of grain are entirely unnecessary 
and an absolute waste of seed. Just how small a quantity can be seeded and 
still produce the maximum yield cannot be stated definitely, unfortunately 
because it will vary with different soils. However, according to these experi- 
ments, \\ bushels of wheat, 2 to 2| bushels of oats and \\ bushels of barley 
would be quite a safe seeding. At Cap Rouge, Que., as an average of eight 
years work, a seeding of 2| bushels of oats was recommended 



28 
Mixed Grains vs. Grains Separately 

one or°morr^W the - eC ° nomy of sowin g each S rain by itself or mixed with 
five vears "of „« • grai ? s ,' ex P ei ™ents were started at Ottawa in 1900. After 
alone mvp ™ f enm ental work on various types of soil, it was found that oats 
o T 50 i Crage yidd P er acre of W* P^nds, barley an average yield 
of 1 7fi4 S«™?' a T cture of one bushel each of oats, barley and peas a yield 
a viold of ?To7 S ' and a mixtur e of lj bushels of oats and ohe bushel of barley 
grains mU h P ° unds / From these results it was concluded that single pure 
be nnVWi +i + ® xpccted to give more pounds per acre than mixtures. It may 
hnrW !1, , P resen t time, the soil being now much improved in fertility, 

barley gives somewhat larger yields per acre than oats. 

whprp tl • Afferent results, however, were obtained at Nappan, N.S., 
son!™.* i miX * e gram gave a sl ightly larger yield per acre than the grains sown 
^pu-ateiy. n \ B an average of thirteen years' work, commencing in 1897, a 
at th + t bushels of °ats, 1 bushel of barley and \ bushel of peae, seeded 
tne rate of 3 bushels per acre, yielded 1,929 pounds of grain per acre, compared 
nn a yield of 1,676 pounds per acre of oats seeded alone at a rate of 3 bushels 
per acre. Barley seeded at the rate of 2 bushels per acre gave, as a ten-year 
average, 1,663 pounds per acre. 



Ensilage Experiments 

To discover what was the best distance to leave between the rows of corn, 
extensive experiments were commenced in 1898 at Ottawa, Ont., Nappan, 
N.S., and Agassiz, B.C. At that time very little was known regarding the use 
of corn for ensilage and no one knew the best methods of cultivation. Accord- 
ingly, experiments were undertaken to learn the best distance to leave between 
the rows. 

The yields of corn at Ottawa and Nappan were practically as high when 
the rows were 42 inches apart as they were when at closer distances. Moreover, 
at the 42-inch distance the corn is more mature and would contain a larger 
amount of grain and total dry matter; besides, it is more easily cultivated and 
hence the weeds are kept in check more successfully. At Agassiz, an increase 
was found for the narrower seedings but in view of the disadvantages associated 
with these seedings as previously mentioned, perhaps a width of about 35 inches 
between the rows would be most satisfactory at Agassiz 
• m i^TwwT betw ? en seedin S corn in rows and in hills was commenced 
thirlrwi'f °t ta w a > the rows were spaced 35 inches apart and the plants 
thinned from 6 inches to 8 inches apart in the row, while the hills were placed 

Nnnn,n eS ^ Part Wlth fr ° m tv P to five P lante P er hil l. A t both Agassiz and 
JE Jow s were spaced 36 inches apart and the plants thinned to about 

foS to five^Ss^rldll W ^ ** ^ ""* pkCed 36 incheS apart with fr ° m 
rows^nS 8 'r^ nA tb at there is no difference in yield of corn sown in 
on the rn™ w^ 1S , somewhat quicker to seed in rows and not quite as hard 

wpSor^rSrv^n 611 SP^M in We ° dy gr0Und the hills offcr a mUCb 
hoeing PP ° rtumty t0 cu^vate the land and certainly do not require as much 

it m^be C i nt n ere S sW Jfc* M\ e the most satisfactory crop for ensilage, 
Ottawa Kearivdlwt^ that T ny <*Perhncnts were undertaken at 
and the most SS T™" what cro P & ave the largest yield per acre 
from clover! peafrven^v? Sag r , In ad dition to corn, ensilage was made 
horse beans ^rnktu'e of corned S'^ and pcas > a mixt ure of corn and 
beans to which was added ^t ^ ^r h ^™' and a mixtu re of corn and horse 
latter mixture iSTbSmJftS ?«§3! ^ I '° h " i,,ls of —flowers. The 

8S tne Robertson Mixture" and was thought to 



29 



comprise a combination of crops which would make a more balanced ration. 
However none of the crops or mixtures was found as satisfactory as the corn 
and, accordingly, that information was given to the public. 

In recent years, considerable experimental work has been done with sun- 
flowers alone for ensilage. The results indicate very strongly indeed, that in 
cool regions where corn does not grow successfully sunflowers make a very 
much superior crop for this purpose. In northern Ontario, m northern and 
eastern Quebec and in many sections of the Maritime Provinces, the sunflower 
may from present indications, come to occupy an important role as an ensilage 
cron Where corn grows satisfactorily, on the other hand, such as in old Ontario 
and districts in Quebec of similar climate, there seems to be no reason for changing 
to sunflowers. 

Drainage 

Extensive underdrainage work has been done on the Dominion Experimental 
Farms in Eastern Canada. The greatest value of tile drains consists in improving 
pot-holes and watercourses and thereby enabling seeding to be done very much 

earh Owm t g h to S the n c 5 ost of underdrainage varying enormously, depending upon 
the tvpe of soil and even upon the time of year when the work is done, it is 
thought inadvisable to present figures on this operation One point, however, 
may be mentioned, namely, that it is unnecessary to place tile drams deeper 
than two feet in clay lands, not only on account of the greater length of time 
required for the water to percolate to the tile, but also on account of the greater 
expense entailed. . 

Adequate surface drainage is also very profitable. It is folly to allow the 
waterto stand on the surface of the land when it may be removed by running 
a furrow through the field and shovelling a small outlet at the proper place. 
This takes but very little time and is one of the most profitable things a person 
can do, especially in a wet year. 

Hay Crops 

One of the most outstanding results of many years' experimental work 
with hay crops at Ottawa is that alfalfa included in the regular hay mixture 
has markedly increased the yield. The inclusion of only six pounds of alfalfa 
seed has always enabled two cuttings of hay to be made and, in some years, . 
as many as three cuttings. The average yield of hay for the last ten years 
on the large fields at Ottawa was 3-37 tons per acre, while in the province of 
Ontario, as a whole, the average yield was only 1 • 5 tons. It is certainly advisable 
to include alfalfa in the regular hay mixture, in districts where alfalfa will grow 
successfully. 

Another outstanding result in hay production is the value of a fertile soil. 
Hay responds to applications of manure or commercial fertilizers and is likely 
to give greater financial returns than when these materials are put on cereal 
crops. The results of these experiments are to be found under the heading of 
Manure and Fertilizers. 

To determine which grain would be most suitable as a nurse crop for grass 
and clover mixtures, extensive experiments have been conducted at Cap Rouge, 
Que., and Charlottetown, P.E.I. At Cap Rouge, slightly superior results were 
secured from barley while, at Charlottetown, slightly superior results were secured 
with oats. On the whole, there does not seem to be sufficient evidence yet to 
warrant the selection of either barley, wheat or oats for the express purpose of 
getting the best nurse crop; it seems advisable to select whichever grain seems 
most likely to produce, in itself, the largest monetary returns. 



30 



or *+ . £ 6 ra f s . and "lover seed should be seeded at a light rate per acre 
\nrfJ !V y ?, ' " ? very controversial question. An experiment was con- 
uuroea at L-ap Rouge m whieh a seeding of 8 pounds of timothy, 12 pounds "I 
rea .cioyer and 2 pounds of alsike was compared with a seeding of exactly one- 
naii tins amount. As a result of ten years' work, the heavier seeding gave only 
s per cent larger yields than the lighter seeding an increase which cannot be 
leiiaruea as significant. At Charlottetown the indications were thai a seeding 
oi / to 8 pounds of red clover combined with timothy and alsike was quite as 
satistactory as larger quantities of red clover. 



Rotations 






The practice of rotating crops in definite order is comparatively recent in 

agricultural practice. It is true that farmers in older days changed the crops 
on their held every few years but the changes were nut in definite order and were 
not based on a knowledge of any principle. Thanks largely to the work of the 
Rothamstead Experiment Station, in England, and to the researches of Hell- 
negal, who. alter more than twenty years of work, announced in 1886 that 
leguminous plants could draw their nitrogen from the air, the practice of rotating 
crops became established on an intelligent basis. 

The Dominion Experimental Farms commenced at Ottawa in 1904, an 
extensive system ol rotations, designed to learn the most economical rotations 
for various t ypes of farming. It was stated at that time that the "200-aere farm," 
on the Central Farm, Ottawa, had, five years previously, been arranged into a 
definite five-year rotation of clover hay, timothy hay,' grain, com or roots, 
and grain, and that the improvement in the yields was so noticeable as to warrant 
the establishing of extensive experiments on this problem. 

The most important deduction which can be made from these rotations 
is that fertility of the soil is, in Eastern Canada, the main limiting factor in 
crop production. Additions of manure or fertilizers must be made to secure 
heavy yields of crops and the response to these applications is greatest on root 
crops, followed in order by hay, corn and cereals. 

Barley responds to manurial treatment much more than does wheat or oats, 
this fact explaining why, on poor soils, oats is superior to barley while the con- 
trary is the case on rich soils. 

Leguminous hay crops, such as red clover, alsike and alfalfa, are very 

valuable in improving soils low in fertility. On rich soils, however, this influence 

is not so noticeable. Alfalfa, as has been stated, has considerably increased 

the yield of. hay at Ottawa and while its influence on soil fertility cannot as yet 

be definitely stated in comparison with that of clover, it is believed to be more 

potent on account of its deeper and more vigorous root system. Experiments 

on the influence of clover will be discussed under the next heading. 

c ,, ,. addition to the influence of the rotations upon the fertility of the soil, a 

splendid opportunity is offered to clear the lands of weeds which is a difficult, if 

* a "^Possible, task when the same crops are grown year after year on the 

rn^+i f" V Mor . l ; ov !' r ' ,u ' Hil ' ( ' (1 acreages of crops can be arranged in definite 

the l Emi 10 ' 1 W1 . g 7 C u the pro ' K ' r Proportion of the various crops and distribul e 
tne labour throughout the season. 

Clover for Soil Improvement 

cloveT^nXr n in h thll U h ^ k"5? $°™ with a «'«»» ««P all(1 ploughing the 

as In uv 1 f w \ M lh " Crop next y ear > H W:I * f '»«"» a* <mawa ' 

anlve n ge^i "« o ' ^TbuS «/ Hfl «« rt "•»* -eh year, that this land gave 
which had nriimwn L™ i °r °*H '"'"Pared with 48-5 bushels on land 

being S fSr^tt"' In + V" milar experiment with corn, the clover 
g Ploughed under in this case in the spring, it was found as an average of 



31 



four yea.' worktha^th^nd -'J^'^lISSS & A°S 

on the clover land compared with 344-6 bushels on land which had not grown 
clover These increases maybe taken 1.. radicate the value of clover in improving 
certain soils. . _ 

However, at Nappan, N.S., oats gave as an average yield for five years, 
59-8 bushels on land which had grown clover, compared With oo-2 bushels on 
land where clover had not been grown with the gran, crop the year previous 
Wfeat yielded 26 4 bushels, compared with 24-5 bushels and barley 33-3 
bushete, compared with 31-0 bushels, under conditions exactly similar to those 
the oats These increases are not signified although it must be said that 
in the later years of the work, greater increases appeared to follow the use of 
the clover in this manner. < ano ± , , iU ,• 

\n experiment was commenced at Ottawa in 18% to learn whether seeding 
10 uounds per acre of Mammoth red .•lover with a gram crop would increase the 
vie of grain the same year as that in which the clover was seeded: ,n other 
words to learn if the associated growth of this legume crop would increase the 
er cwth of the non-legume. Three years of work showed no increase from such 
a practice Moreover, in another experiment extending over four years in which 
the rate of seeding increased from four pounds up to fourteen pounds of Mammoth 
red clover seed per acre, no increase was noted when the larger amounts of clover 
were seeded. 

Manure and Fertilizers 

Farm manure is a much more important by-product than many people 
realize- indeed to realize its worth it is necessary to figure in dollars and cents 
the value of the increased crop returns from applications of manure. Experi- 
mental work at Ottawa has shown that a dressing of 15 tons of manure per acre 
applied once in four years on a four-year rotation of mangels, oats .•lover hay 
and timothv hay has resulted in increas.nl crops worth during the last nine 
years $64.23 on four acres of land-one acre being in each ol the above crops. 
The manure has been worth, on the average. $4.17 per ton, varying from $2.29 
in 1914 to $7 45 in 1920. These figures are sufficient to show the great money 
value of this by-product and to impress one with the need of care m its con- 
servation. 

Unrotted manure appears to be as valuable as rotted manure where equal 
but rather heavy applications are made to the land. Extensive experiments 
extending from 1888 to 1909 have shown very little difference in yields where 
manure was applied each year to the land. Twenty-one years of work gave an 

aee vielrl of 21-7 bushels of wheat on land to which was applied 12 tons 



aver; 



acre per year of green manure and 21-6 bushels from rotted manure; 35- (i 
bushels of barley from 15 tons per acre per year of green manure and 35-9 
bushels from rotted manure; 54-3 bushels of oats from the green manure and 
51-6 from the rotted manure; and 20-5 tons of mangels from 20 tons per acre 
per year of green manure and 20-2 tons from rotted manure. These yields are 
Strikingly uniform and show that, with such applications, no difference can be 
expected in yield from either class of manure. In view of the enormous losses 
in weight consequent upon rotting, it will readily be seen that a much larger 
supply of manure will be available from the unrotted source. 

Accordingly, unrotted manure is preferable whenever it contains no noxious 
weed seeds. If these are present, the manure should be allowed to rot in order 
that they may be destroyed before application is made to the field. This 
practice is extremely important; it may save a farmer hundreds of dollars. 



32 



Another important point which has been learned from experimental work 
is that smaller applications of manure, either made more frequently or covering 
larger acreages, have proved more profitable than heavy applications. While 
it is impossible, owing to the differences in the fertility of various soils, to 
prescribe what might be called smaller applications, it may be said in a genera 
way that an application of 15 tons per acre once in four years has given as good 
returns in a four-year rotation as an application of 18 tons per acre once in three 
years on a three-year rotation. Manure pays best when applied to an intertilled 
crop or to hay; on cereals it is not nearly as profitable. 

Commercial fertilizers are very valuable where the supply of farm manure 
is insufficient, for special crops, or where, on account of Borne marked deficiency in 
the soil, additional elements must be given beyond those supplied by manure. In 
recent experiments conducted at Ottawa during the last nine years where com- 
mercial fertilizers have been compared with farm manure and unmanured land 
on a four-year rotation of mangels, oats, clover hay and timothy hay, the ferti- 
lizers have given increased crops over unfertilized and unmanured land worth, 
per year, $52.02 on four acres of land— one acre being in each of the above 
«o°o P i S ; , 1 , fertlllzers have cost, on the average for the last nine years, 
$23.11 for the four acres of land, the net profit is $28.92, an increase of over 
12o per cent, which is certainly worth while. 

In this experiment, the following fertilizers were applied per acre: to the 
mangels, 100 pounds of nitrate of soda, 300 pounds superphosphate, 75 pounds 
muriate of potash; to each of the oat, clover hay and timothy hay crops 100 
pounds of nitrate of soda, were given. The average yields for nine years on the 
fertilized land compared with that not fertilized were respectively: mangels 
19-6 tons, compared with 12-0 tons; oats 51-4 bushels compared with 44-2 
bushels; clover hay 3-6 tons, compared with 2-0 tons.' As the timothy hay 
was pastured, comparative yields cannot be definitely stated. 

This topic is too extensive to discuss adequately in the short space allotted 
to this section. It is important, however, for farmers to make trials in a small 
way on their own farms before purchasing large quantities of fertilizers, in order 
to learn if profitable results are secured. It is important also to purchase the 
fertilizers on the basis of their composition and to make applications to such 
crops as give most profitable response. As lack of fertility in the soil is the 
main limiting factor in crop production in Eastern Canada, a study of this 
subject is well worth while. 

Cost of Producing Crops 

As early as 1892, accurate records were taken at the Central Experimental 
b arm, Ottawa, of the cost of producing farm crops. The object of these studies 
has been not only merely to learn the definite cost per acre required to handle 
the various farm crops but also to indicate which crops were most profitable 
ana which crops utilized labour throughout the season most satisfactorily. 

it may be of interest to study the profits and losses per acre during the 
last ten years on hay, oats, corn and mangels. The; cost of producing these 
crops has been figured at the prevailing rates while the returns have been based 
on the average market price throughout the year. As corn and mangels are 
not sow on the market, it has been necessary to estimate their value and while 

tn ,!,?"; 'T "• ay , Z ai ? widely > the following method is offered as an attempt 
to arrive at a logical basis. 

TFpwW"" 1 " 1 * ^ e ?P? rimen ts quoted by Henry and Morrison, "Feeds and 
of w' n age 382 -', lt 1S St&ted . that 315 P° unds °f silage are equal to 100 pounds 
contJL ,hZ M 8Uage COntams about 25 P er cent of dry matter while hay 
78 Doundfof JrS P f + Cen i ; -- ^Pounds of silage, therefore, would contain 
drvmattt- Th Y ? atter + whl e \ 00 Pounds of hay would contain 88 pounds of 
dry matter. The dry matter in the mangels, about 9 . 4 per cent of the harvested 



33 



. . ., „ i 11P n = the drv matter in the corn, according to feeding 

crop, is gl yen the same ^value ,as the dry ^ (<Feeds and Feeding » f page 

experiments referred to by Hei ny a . . possible to calculate 

240. As hay ■-""J^g ket vaM e » ft ig pogsible to figure the 

the value per pound oj the <1 y m mang els. 

approximate value of h^ a ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

The av ^ e yf b d u l e T;: S C0 rn 15-0 tons; and mangels, 20-3 tons. 
3-2 tons; oats, 61-5 buaheM, co , ^ Farm for the last ten ears 

The average cost at, *«,^* ral J^j ™ rn was $4 3.12, while to produce 
to produce and put in J« "^ °^3 man °g e " s cost $54.87. Now from the 
and store in the root cellar one s acre oi n a ■ fe m be geen that CQm 




pounds. Accordingly, to PJ™ T^f man ^ e ls it cost $28 . 76. Moreover, 
wnile to produce one ton of dry matter or m * g ^^ ^^ 

as eighteen years' results at 0« a wa Jowed mange g gy h ^ 

40 per cent larger fields ^than f^niM ■ * ^ g ^^ ^ tQ a ^ te 

district is » lfp j7 o ;. to ,^ h ^ r a e U f t el c S an be grown successfully is very much superior 
that corn in districts .where _lt can ™Jg> sunflowers or a mixture 

o? iT^XSZXl^^TL^rL^^ heavy burden of root 
growing. 

THE PRAIRIE 

x uv u™ Q r,t nf the Dominion Experimental Farms system in 
On the establishment of the dominion ^ p ^ 

1887, farms were located at Brandon Man ana at i Saskatc hewan. 

of the Northwest Territories now tonmnR the p lovinct 
Volumes could be written contrasting ^itions ^^f^Y progress made 
with those which now obtain and p outhnmg -to* ^^ ^^ P | cati ^ 

during those ^.^fiiS system^ had in the Prairie 
great opportunity which J^^^hereTere in both Manitoba and the 
Provinces, one might state that in 1881 the e wore u 
Northwest Territories combined oiJ g 10^9 \^™J ^ Ste nitoba m 

ays y? r ; « «H^^^^ 

S^SS while^ S S^an is estimated at 259,- 
OOoioOO bushels and that of Alberta ^f^™^ 

Rapid immigration brought , to th K^J^y work of the Dominion 
western farming and to the success oi these > tnc tar ^ u } 

Experimental Farms ; at ^^f^Z who have not yet abandoned 
Even to-day thei e arc th ^ 1 ™J « hen th farmed in a hum id climate, 
some old £^S°iX^ settlers who must learn new methods 
f **S£&i S " bt^ofiSle. Indeed, inasmuch .as there is now under 
u- +;^ m r v about one-fifth of the area of the prairies which is capable of 
b£ d£o tofto a^culCal purposes, there will be for many years to come a 
verv large immigration and a consequent urgent demand for expert assistance 
in crops and methods best suited to prairie conditions. 



75617—3 



34 



Differences Between Farm Practices on the Prairie and in Eastern 

Canada 

»„a °£ ac u coim * of * his lar g e immigration to the prairie from Eastern Canada 
fn farmm^rolo^rtw ^ ad + visable to ™n\ion Lme marked differences 
in tanning methods between these two regions. Not only must a newcomer 
to the west be prepared to change the old methods to wWcn S has bee^TaccuB- 
tomed but old residents on the prairie must be on guard against false doctrine 
or doctrine which should be used in the East only against raise aoot 

• T + he + fol , lc i win g Points may be enumerated as representing some of the more 
important differences in field husbandry practices-— 

1. When virgin land is broken on the prairie', it is necessary to let the sod 
decompose one complete summer before planting grain. The land should be 
broken before July 1 and thoroughly disced during the remainder of the season. 
In Eastern Canada, the land may simply be broken in the fall and the grain 
crop seeded next spring, but this is an utter failure on the prairie 

2 In most parts of the prairie and especially in the drier parts, spring 
ploughing of stubble land is much superior to fall ploughing Indeed there 
are only a few places, such as central Alberta, where fall ploughing maybe super- 
ior to spring ploughing. In some parts of the prairie, where not much difference 
exists, it may be wise to fall plough, in order to enable earlier seeding the follow- 
ing spring. In Eastern Canada, no one would think of spring ploughing for 
grain, fall ploughing being so superior. 

3. It is not absolutely essential, in most parts of the prairie, to plough 
clean stubble land for another grain crop. Frequently a good seed bed can be 
made by merely discing or cultivating the land before the seeding is done. 
However, if the land is weedy and especially with grassy weeds or weeds having 
underground root stalks, ploughing is absolutely necessary. It is the height of 
folly to "stubble in" such land. 

In Eastern Canada no one would think of seeding grain on stubble land 
without having it ploughed. The soil would be so hard that the seed would lie 
on the surface as on a table. 

4. Burning the stubble in the spring on the prairie often provides an 
excellent seed bed when the land is not going to be ploughed. This practice 
destroys some fibre which is commencing to be greatly needed to prevent soil 
drifting, but the fact remains that the burning has given good results and who 
is to say that fibre could not be put into the soil more economically by growing 
grass crops? 

■+wv.' rhe ^ ertuit y °* tne prairie soil is much greater than in Eastern Canada, 
with the result that applications of manure produce very much less effect, 
indeed, on many virgin soils, the application of manure has not given any 
increased crop. When the soil has produced crops for several years, the need 
oi manure is more m evidence but rarely does it pay for the cost of application 
wnen labour is figured at current rates. It is well to remember that the manure 
? T i~f P Iou S hed , m an d not top-dressed if the best results are to be scured; 
it should be applied on the lighter soils and poorer parts of the farm. The 
practice of green manuring, that is, of ploughing under a growing crop to enrich 
the soil, has not given any better results than summer-fallowing. 
Pon A * e8e con d *onsare quite different from those which prevail in Eastern 
Canada where lack of fertility is the main limiting factor in crop production, 
in +n C ' vlw a P. raine ». every effort should be made to conserve moisture while, 
on thP nSio • 1 + I l age 1S - P rov f d . ed t0 remove the surplus water. Soil moisture, 
aJeS ,'ii T m h T tlng factor in cr °P Production and special methods 
Ste^the ^w e -^ e i BUpply m °, St econ °mically. The summer-fallow consti- 
of SmlSi ge mean , S ° f conser ving moisture and improved methods 
FarZ tS. p efe a™ 1 ! WOrked out b ^ the Dominion Experimental 
u B SorweedcSdfo«t? anad? ^ summe r-fallow is almost unknown except as 
used lor weed eradication or in preparation for fall wheat. 



35 



7. Western rye .grass -**-»,£& ffi SS^ffSSi at e*5 

grasses for the prairie. In s« « "^ clover has also a value in dry areas. 

with Western rye as a good m * ture ^ s weet c ^ ^ standard hay 

In Eastern Canada ™^rfgj« a^ ^ ^^ 

^WEUX?!^ iW 5** It is too dry for them to grow sue- 

cessfully. , ., ___:-;- wViioh although not very serious, must 

8. Frost is a danger ^t^^a^ every effort should 
be taken into account m the northern arc , varieties f gra in. 

be made to seed early ^\ to use r^o^b^M^ var g ^^ ^ 

In view of these marked .differences »™it gome q{ 

prairie and those of Eastern C^and ^it may not be out of place to 
the more important results of the early wo k, y &nd Indian Read 

describe the pioneer experimental work at toe ^ ^.^ may 

SS^^JSJ*. a V ndf p^haps, quite profitable in their own work. 

Pioneer Experimental Work 

™„ p n4 ™ —When the Dominion Experimental Farms 
Methods of Sbeding Grain. ™T\™L Head broadcast seeders were 
commenced operations at Brandon ami ^^l^/Speriments were con- 
in vogue. The hoe drill wa ^^^XwoulagWe larger yields. As a result of 
ducted to determine ^*™P^S if^Sie Brandon Experimental 
eight years' experimental woik com ™ e ™ i f ' wheat f ro m the drill seeder 
Farm secured an average ^g^ J ^ e broadcast seeder-an increase of 

^ JSatf ASRWS ffontrbScast seeder-an increase 

of 3-6 bushels per acre. Bedford, former Superintendent 

It is very interesting to read what Mr S. A t » cd ™™> which in the early 
of the Brandon Experimental Farm say on this , question & ^^ 

days was very important indeed: "We ; ^d ^itc a c ontro y^ firm had ^ 
large manufacturer in the East about this tune. ^V™ * much annoy ed 
commenced manufacturing drills of a y.^ "fjthey were v y 
that I should publish the results of a drill m ^ n m f to b s ^at they considered 
were only making broadcast ™±™>™ A ^ h Z that a S long as our experi- 
I was very unpatriotic I sat down and to Id them tnat ^ I fdt j 

ments proved that dn 1 seeding produced a larger yiem ^ & 

was at liberty to pubhsh the [f ™ Q .J^md launders wrote to say that 
copy of their own to the director a Ottawa and 1* ^^ The 

I was perfectly right and that I was"™ manu f a cture drills the same 

first thing I heard was that the firm ^ dec ^ e h letter f r0 m them." 

as their American competitors. 1 re ceiyca no u ■ t j k at Brandon 

H SJ n n 0t HeTd g il°: "reat %St tin IT^^on and use of this 
and Indian Head ^d^ great d machine ig now al t un k n own m 

improved seed drill, vynue we be t of lace 

the West, it was ^ n ^ehy used m the early day .^^ y^ ^ ^.^ 

toeTes ting oMartlml^^ Farmers have to pay, by purchasing imple- 
men s ofthe experimental work of machine companies, buch work ean be 
menu,, iui " i;. ,, done k y Experimental Stations. 

mU %™ZnZl™™elonZJed in 1890 with what was called a press dril in 
comnarfso ™vHh an ordinary hoe drill. This press drill did not have a wheel m 
to™ of the spout, the seed being merely dropped behind a shoe and covered 
Sth a chain pressure could be applied to force the shoe deep into the soil. At 



75617— 3i 



36 

anTlQ founds ?Zft2 W °^' the boc dri11 *avc a yield of 30 busbeg 

when the press drill waf U scT P TtT W r V"* of » ' busheUs aml 19 ?2* 
the hoe drill gave a yield of 35 , dian F ead as a re Bult <>'' ^ ht ^,,*25 
a yield of 36 bushels and 38 n 1 "' k i :! ml 26 P ounds while the press drill gJJJ 

large enough to be regarded St' + The diff ercnce between these yields*^ 
n 1892 at *™toa,T^J£-S£' aAm * any superiority of either type of djg 
the seed with a chain aTSKW^ 6 between seed drills which coverea 
Plot yielded 37 bushels and 50 S„J ed ?T\ tho8e covering with a wheel. <£« 
that no appreciable dSnef p^ 8 ^ 6 the other gelded 38 bushels, sboWJJJ 
s ^d. unerence existed between these methods of covering & e 

only once%n™he%SiTwL y v ma u e that Lt is *ettet to cross seed than to b*$ 
m one seeding and the other Ll A'" con }™ d ^ that if one-half the seed ifVf^ 
the first seeding, larger yidd^, 1 ^ seedm K at right angles to the direction 
w distributed more unifoVndv il e !? CUrecl Thc argument is that the J^e 
utilization of the soil raoisW wTi ih % Surface and that more econon l 
tried at Brandon, the ™o s see ( W be ,fected. In ^> this experiment **J 
while the ordinary BeeCS^fr, 17 buBhcls and 30 pounds of whe» 
Date of Seeding p/A t! bushels and 50 Pounds. . ne 

years, were conducted at BranoW, ^Tt iv ^ ex Periments over a period of J* 
of seeding would give lC?, a ^ In ^ H «ad in order to learn wh»t jjg 

as soon as the land was ready to J' i°« ^^ The first seedin * "** t ft 
one week intervals. y to sow and five successive seedings were made 

feedings ^^SL^^^» of wheat were slightly superior to U& 
n!S m ff gave B »«SW the best rl°if edmgs 5 with oats, the second and tbj£ 
quite the equal of the earW * S Ult8 W ? 6 ' with harl ^ 1; >«' 1 ' ^dinge < e 
practically no difference between tV^" At Indian Head there seemed to J 
or barley. These results inZit th - , va »ous seedings with either wheat, <*» 
mdicate very ■Jw B 5&&S3 r J* results seS SS parts of < '-'!;' 
larger yields than BJ ^^^^^dWeh, early seeding produC g 

, These results were m,it« ler dl8tri cts no such superiority «*» 

of early seeding in Onta^ ThevTl"? 6 ' VT* to the very marked iaP-^g 
as was expected and fa Zt ^ * h °? as much superiority from : ' ,t 
seed mg> gave no j w i" t ^ any case *> With thc exception of the very ° 

seedW'- 111 these experiment m i i^ertheless, while early seedfaf % 
SSi^l" 1 order ^ avoid no^illt BUperior yield* it is very taP«*%3 

£m£ S dan S. er by late seeding It Y fr ° st and undoubtedly it is ui.« s * 
m mmd that, in many parts of fw H ?*ever, ibis point should be clearly bo» J d 
frost injury rather t^anuS tffl ^ *™ for e ^y seeding b » •J* 

Rate and Depth op ^7 ^Penonty exists in the earlier tee^f 
S&S^t""** ^aSn SL^- 00 ^^ in 1892, the md->; 
an^io^y^'^e^Sr^l^ 611 * rates °* Ceding wheat. A s 
and t/r^ 8 ' , a rate <'f li Si ? 6 ° f one bu8he] P« acre yiilded 32 fajjg 
These I ate ° f l * busb els P e lc vi P ^ a , cre S^ed 34 bushels and 36 po^JJ 
assatisf?f iments boated that 1^ ^1 ! 4 bushels and 32 P ounds ' **£$■ 
SonHnnJ ?- 0ry as 4 ^els \' , ,' l 7 shels Per acre of good wheat was M 
conducted m w delv =, , At Brandon, as .-, r» c „H «« <•„. „.o' «vnerii" 1 " ... 



1 U "muiyse 

L z bushels per acre. 



37 



Regarding the most suitable depth of seeding experiments were com- 
menced S 892 at Indian Head. As a result of eight years of experimental 
work seeding at a depth of 2 inches gave an average yield per acre of 34-47 
bushel of wheat, while seeding at a depth of 3 inches gave an average yield per 
acre of 32 6 bushels. There is not sufficient difference between these yields 
to warrant a definite statement regarding any best depth although other figures 
soV that seeding 1 inch deep or 4 inches deep are not as satisfactory as the 
tZh Ao 3-Sch depth. It is usually advisable to seed down to moisture but 
not to go too deep and certainly not below 4 inches. 

Breaking Land.— Owing to the large areas of virgin land which every 
vear are being broken from the prairie, it is very important to know the most 
Sfactorv methods of doing this work. One very elementary but nevertheless 
quHecardLS factor is the" necessity of early breaking in order to allow the 
Tl one comp ete summer to decompose. On no account should breaking be 
done ate in the summer or in the fall, because the yields of the two succeeding 
crops are distinctly inferior to the yields on earlier breaking As long ago as 
1890 the Brandon Experimental Farm called attention to this and reported 
avieldof 28 bushels 38 pounds of wheat on land which had been broken the 
previous spring, as compared with a yield of only 14 bushels and 20 pounds 
on land which had been broken the previous fall. 

There are two methods of breaking land: first, to shallow break and backset 
and second, to break deep without backsetting. Mr. Angus Mackay, for twenty- 
five' vears superintendent of the Indian Head Experimental Farm, lias had 
extensive experience with this problem. He states: "In all sections where the 
sod is thick and tough, breaking and backsetting should be done; while in dis- 
tricts where scrub abounds and the sod is thin, deep breaking is all that is 
necessary. The former is generally applicable to the southern parts oibaskat- 
chewan and the latter to Alberta and the northern parts of Saskatchewan 
where the land is more or less scrubby." 

Mr. Mackay mentions that in shallow breaking and backsetting "the sod 
should be turned as thinly as possible and when the breaking is completed 
(which should not be later than the second week in July) rollmg will hasten 
the rotting process and permit backsetting to commence early in August. 
The backsetting should be done in the same direction as the breaking and the 
same width of furrow turned. Two inches below the breaking is considered 
deep enough but three or four inches will give better results. Alter back- 
setting, the soil cannot be made too fine." Deep breaking consists in turning 
over the sod as deeply as possible, usually from four to five inches. 1 he surface 
should then be thoroughly worked in order to promote decomposition of the sod. 
A very important point is emphasized by Mr. Mackay. Whether the land is 
broken shallow or deep, it is necessary to have the work completed early, so 
as to take advantage of the rains which usually come during June or early in 
July. These rains cause the sod to rot, and without them, or if the ploughing 
is done after they are over, the sod remains in the same condition as when turned, 
and no amount of work will make up for the loss." 

The Summer-Fallow. — Owing to the small precipitation on the prairie, 
it is necessary to use a summer-fallow at more or less frequent intervals, depend- 
ing upon the locality, in order to store moisture in the soil. When settlers 
come from humid regions they are unfamiliar with this practice and frequently 
fail to handle the fallow in the most intelligent manner. Indeed, in this new 
country, there was no background of agricultural experience and even old 
residents used quite faulty methods in doing their summer-fallow work. As 
early as 1904 the Dominion Experimental Farms at Brandon and Indian Head 
showed an increased yield of wheat and oats of about 50 per cent on summer- 
fallow as compared with stubble land. 



In 38 

^l^r^^S SnffiSS a ■--- Practice twenty-five years jg 
the summef-f^in Mt plo »Shing tJ S it Tu 1 ^ fi rst of July. It was thpug 

thatave^Vfir * M not finished ,Si b ^ 0re that date - This meant SlY 

exhausted nfit 8 - owth of weeds bL 3 tlJ , tho end of July and consequent 

!n Sa s °kat c S h m ° lsture su P^y devel opcd and that the soil had be*** 

Bythismethod ^, Cases have fX m f Unt J ° uchcd until the weeds are f«J 
summer-faiC' wh f h, n « doubt saves w a Ured Soeds - J t '« then V^ft 
^ land has bp defeated - In the ffit n.° at tho time - the very object of ^ 
summer-f a i a S w bp n f Pum Ped dry by th t p P L ace ' 1 moi «ture is not conserved becajj 
of labour and a mea ns of eradL • Weeds : secondly, instead of using tbj 
r° f pK me P ,T e by ^ mytd^f Tf 8 ' a foundation is laid for /^ 
F , ar m at Indian i£ n !ft that Mr. ffiwL f ° ul , seeds turned under." I ^i 
of summer-faflowin 1 has don e more tW, W °5^ on the Dominion Experiment 9 
experimental wnA g i an . d > an d as this n™i ariyt hmg else to improve the method 
F «*s, theiwSh durin S the faJt t^S" 1 has recei ™d further very.o^ 
Pn E PAmNrT m ° St approv ea method?* &t , aU the prairie Experiment 
y ery much X Stub b LE Land ™ ethods are later on described. .' 

Prair ie the landTs* ° n \ he pr airie roTw^ S - tubble land for seeding e*** 
+ ca » be prepaid udt^ Uch m ore eaSThSrff ? Is in Eastern Canada - *? b3 
the grain mto t £ \ V S? rau ch EK and - consequently, a seed beg 

£ op quite toe 2£ J tubble withS S ; Ifc is often pos « ible ™ rely t0 f 

Pal1 Ploughing A;l° that which hafvf V1 ° US P^aration and harvest • 
par ation ) is,? n g 'J! hch . m Eastern Canfdn - CI iu given a great deal more «** 
fll B °th CS.Pwts of the prafrie di S ^ ap P r °ved method of soil P* 
these facts lonj^ mental Farm a Brt mctly inferi °r to spring plough^ 
Mr. S. A. Bedford^ and advis ed farm"! d ° n *? d at Mian Head discover^ 
14 would a PPe ar d V^ Uperin tendent S toe R Cga , rdin g thera - As early as-lfg 

5n , Weedy l and an , S GU Under the heading of "Stubble T** 

S^«J^^^^ ■<** g ^ -eds, it is -3 
imp ortant Pom? Stef ^ ^ i°^ I » folly to *disc in" *£%* 

C °kn Silage n the most earnest nd?- he - wceds - This is an c%treTa 
were commenced . £ ISTa Nce Betwi^T £ Vlce ls eiven. , fl 

^tance between **"**» ^iSn^i^ 1899 > definite experiment* 
between rows (21 28 V° f Cor n. iffA 1 ? to learn the most satisfactog 

—u^^fissfjaB ssrSd - corn and four dist 

the wider seeding T as T-? tly had MaS mat : ure than that growing on th c 
b ^terop Portuni g ^ quite the equd of ?k m ° lst,,t " content. At BrandgJ 
chance of eradicating ^T U ^ h ^t the ^° Wer 8eedi *?« 0wing ^.S 
Man ure and I eds ' thc *2-bch «£? lder roW8 :l,ld tenee the grea* 6 ' 
^ an ure as earlt as fe TII,IZB, w---Exnl Ce 1S UsualI y Preferred. e m 

been pia nne d ^ h 889 and, i n laK^ts were commenced with gj 
manure has n ot giv en 8 n ub i ec t. It may 6 £ 1 W tensive experiments haj 
deS! Ca !, es wh en W /" large increases n T'"'', ln a B^eral way, that f«^ 
decre ased y iolds ^ Quantities of m a a l a§ boen cx P e eted and, indeed^ 
treated ln recent Zl^ expc rience3 T fe Ve 1,,( " Sdied in the spring; 
here. ex Periment a l work a com«i h, + 8 Subject *■ m ° re exhaustively 

c °mplete statement cannot be m»d e 



39 

Regarding commercial fertilizers, quite extensive experiments were com- 
menced in 1901 and as a result of five years' work, it was decided that their 

USG lomTLolafedexperiments were also made in the early days in ploughing 
down leguminous and other crops as green manure but without satisfactory 

results. , 

Other Early Work 

Fall rve was grown in the early days on the Experimental Farms. In 
1906 Mr. Mackay mentioned that "for several years winter rye has been sown 
each fall early in September and has never failed to stand perfectly and give a 
good yield of straw and grain. For early spring fodder either for pasture or 
cutting green, it surpasses all other grains so far tested. At Indian Head 
from 1905 to 1908 inclusive, fall rye gave an average yield of 44 bushels per 
acre; in three of these years the fall rye was seeded on summer-fallow and one 

year MTXlwlsT P ltedly tried at Brandon and Indian Head but without 
success. It must be mentioned, however, that at Lethbndge some success was 

secured with fall wheat. . , „ , , 

Experiments with mixed grains were tried at Brandon for three years- 
in 1899 in 1909 and in 1910. The results indicated that oats alone gave a 
larger y'ield of grain than any of the mixtures which were tried. 

Experimental rotations were started at Brandon m 1895 and at Indian 
Head in 1899 but inasmuch as more extensive experiments along this line 
were commenced later, discussion of this topic will be deferred. 

Soil drifting problems were experienced m the early days. In 1900 Mr. 
Bedford wrote- The past season was exceptional for the large amount of injury 
done through drifting soil, thousands of acres of crop, both east and south-west 
of this place, being almost entirely destroyed from this cause. On the Experi- 
mental Farm, the benefits of seeding grass were very evident Knolls and other 
exposed spots which, in the early history of the farm, were often so badly blown 
as to lose the seed, were so protected by the fibre of grass plants ploughed under 
in former years, that the injury was scarcely noticeable. 

Mr Mackay in 1900 also stated: "On this farm during the past season 
nothing' was more apparent than the advantage of having grass roots in the 
soil to prevent drifting by the high winds that prevailed at that time. While 
the top soil of fallowed fields was day by day being carried away in clouds and 
the crops drying by inches, the land containing grass roots was not in any way 
disturbed and the injury done to crops was by dry weather alone." 

MORE RECENT EXPERIMENTAL WORK. 

In 1911 Dr. J. H. Grisdale, then Director of the Dominion Experimental 
Farm system arranged a considerably enlarged programme of cultural and 
rotation experiments on the prairie Farms. The same cultural experiments 
were conducted at all the farms while variations were made in the rotations in 
order to suit the varied needs of the different districts. The experiments were 
conducted at Brandon, Indian Head, Scott, Rosthern, Lacombe and Lethbridge. 
At Lethbridge additional experiments relating to irrigation were also com- 
menced. , , 

A very complete summary of the results of these experiments is now avail- 
able in the interim reports of all of these Experimental Farms for the year ending 
March 31, 1921. Only a very cursory statement of the more outstanding 
results can be given here. 

The extended experiments on breaking land on the prairie have amply 
confirmed the earlier work on this problem, the results of which, have been given 
previously. Anyone contemplating breaking new land should read these results. 



40 

mth dStll^e'cS^t^f ^ St t0 the l^on of the beg 
more deeply and 'S^ plou gting Tffi^ , ma de that deep ploughing * 
have failed to S nhTH- more ^ptlva U R - alIcgod that the s °il is ° pe - i« 
some cases re^^**** ■EhJ& BM ?? B * However, repeated tfl£ 
"satisfactory a^,?* 6Pe T r P^hing . Jp^d while local conditions .nay J 
!"" have to be sK; ? is We " to remenTl ° f from 4 inch ^ to 6 inches seen* 
m certain places n tS | b iT* 6 ^ches^T ' V his c °nnection that the plough 
m places and otc^t S% if the ploUh £ d ? to insure Ploughing four inc^ 
and causing a S?* 1 y jum P out of & SCt at 4 inchcs >t will run too shallo* 
"nk the plough to? h ° d , yield On tht "tf ° U ? d altogether, making a bad job 
g t0 ° dee &y for no bcrLJrf- ^ nd ' lt is a ™»te of power to 
«reased yields are secured. 

the ptrt? ?" 8 -eraJ^r FaU ° W ^^ 

P^Sthfc «ummer-fallowed every year & 

fallow or of reducing t , basing CvSf D ? et > ds M « ""est suitable. 1' ' 

KS*fc?5i?*s sQ a; £sms «ss 

sometimes cla f «« ndit ons , to , g factory results. It is not necess^ 
l n }y the land has bl\ '* not n*2£J? £ M ? ly dee P or to subsoil as ^ 
weeds. However -^5 ?■ infe ^d wf t} f u* , P lo »gh the summer-fallow *** 
inSv^f 110 ^ earli°tf t ls > s v «yTmport d ^ d8 :illd especially with gra^ 

««ue acreage of faN r, ed method of ' has sta rted to blow In such d : stricts, 
t0 ^ass pefiodtiuy^ lnstead ^n p ^^fo^rk^Se^oye^ 

* g whea t grown, and some land seeded 

, Exhaustive exn. I ^^ Treat ment 8 

m most parts of ?vf enmenta l Work A ■ 

BSflSr **£&££? *•*»*£ 52* years ha, amply confirmed, 
and on a ;i asteof ^ ^S^^&^SJ?? .^ aild Mr Bedford^ 
this e nn l he P rai »e; i cos *S th ere were t f 't l )lo »Khing on -lean stub 
the pS"" 1 ? ex Pense cS k hons of & I tmrty miUio " acres of stubl c 
wavs hi *> rms mvoMl b \ COnsi <lerablv a ^ t0 ? rc P aro this land for crop, 
in most nf dem °nstrated tL^ heat ^Ids on I^tf Fears of experiment on 
nec?s Sar v PaC f S wh ere ther * plou ghing SJ,h& bb > P re Pared in ten differ^* 
and S-V form a seed if , pra «ticaflv n bble * not a n absolute necessity 

as the 1,7! u su Perioritv ° r treatment* J ' j • t ^acombe, only, did "» 

fall PbuS mbe fi 8ures i^^y he reg3 and i* 8 not known for cert** 

cont?a rv gbn § ls th e besUre^ erages of seven a§ SI g nifi cant or not; however, 

against y P 7 dence » fortW^* ^ould K?« years Work tb « conclusion tbf* 

weeds Tn gleCt [ n g Ploughi ni ???8. 6^^^ in cen tral Alberta, unf 

In such cases it k g , WllC!n the land f ning musfc be given, however, 

lt .» absolutely eSeSiS T^-ospecially with grass? 

ai to plough. 



41 
Seeding to Grass and Clover 

Extensive experiments have been conducted to learn the most satisfactory- 
method of seeding grasses and clovers. Comparisons have been made between 
seeding alone without an accompanying grain crop — ordinarily called a nurse 
crop — and seeding with a nurse crop. The results of several years' work have 
shown that while slightly larger crops of hay have usually been secured from 
the seedings without the nurse crop, it is more profitable to use it in view of 
the money value of the nurse crop itself. 

In many districts it is sometimes difficult to get a good "catch" of grass 
or clover seed. In such districts it is advisable to seed down with the grain 
crop immediately after the summer-fallow in order that more moisture will 
be available for the young grass crop. Wheat is usually regarded as being 
a slightly better nurse crop than oats or barley. 

Breaking Sod from Cultivated Grasses and Clovers 

As a general rule, it is advisable to break the sod immediately after the 
hay crop has been removed, work the surface down and give such additional 
cultivation throughout the season as will control the weeds. This plan is more 
profitable because it enables the additional crop of hay to be harvested and while 
it does not give quite as large yields as ploughing in the spring and handling 
the land similar to the method used in breaking virgin prairie, nevertheless, 
it is usually more profitable. 

Where the hay crop is brome grass, it may be advisable to backset in Septem- 
ber, although, in some districts, once ploughing followed by thorough surface 
cultivation has controlled this grass quite successfully. With western rye 
grass backsetting is unnecessary. 

Applying Barnyard Manure 

Extensive experiments were commenced in 1911 to determine what value, 
if any, farm manure possessed and, if so, what method should be used in making 
applications to the land. This question is still controversial and conflicting 
evidence is given not only by farmers but by experimentalists as well. Taking 
the average results of five Experimental Farms on the prairie where twelve 
tons of manure were applied once in a three-year rotation of summer-fallow, 
wheat, wheat, there was an increased yield of wheat on the rotation of 6-7 
bushels. With wheat worth 80 cents a bushel this increased yield would be 
worth $5.36; the return, therefore, for applying the twelve tons of manure 
would be 44 cents a ton. It is probable that better results would be secured 
on sandy or poor soil and it is to these places on the farm that the manure 
should be applied if profit is to be secured. The best method of applying the 
manure is to spread it on the stubble land and plough it under, either in the 
fall or in the spring. 

Green Manuring 

So much is said about soil fertility and so much discussion is given to the 
nitrogen-fixing power of leguminous plants, that extensive experiments have 
been conducted on the Experimental Farms to learn if there is any real advantage, 
as expressed in increased yields, to be gained by ploughing under leguminous 
crops for green manure. There is, as yet, no such advantage to be gained. 
In many cases there is no increase at all over summer-fallowed land and in no 
case is the practice profitable. 



f Th * first me f S0U Packers 

«* "C^' *e M need J rCgarded " "" "k^' , 

St^^SS^*.*^ "«**" on the prairie, »$ 
SfflS."* int <%"ntlv " y ', ho »'™' c5 Til* ■""*» <« «* very impoj^, 
Sew what is not I?*«<ri SrS'"? 3 ' . to ex ™'">e «U «>«<> mc K i 

and ££, W* of those t . g Preci P itati ^> the results should * 

EX' r^A?^*^"**** in ^ between P^ 

dSerenn 6 to , the p5w ^ e e «ough £** Stubble ^ I the packer sho* J$ 

treaw'; +l . Mor eover *?£• Experimental Warrant th « conclusion that it g, 

e atment than those whf l Plots ^hi h l, error would easily account for «J 

which were packed e not P ackcd ^ceived less cult*' 9 



at 

was „ 
Nation 
Produc 
system 
No one 



j ^ hi le rotations Rot ations 

S^ ^S?Ste ?LT r a ly - 189 * a t Brandon and to g» 
oductN egardin R th ■ infl P , raine farms. T h acom Prehensive system of rotag. 
S ^^of theVoH ^ e of certain of' rot ations are used to gate »S 
Noo? e ° Cr °PP^g wTl '. mits broadest sen? PPl " R met hods on the pcr>f n 'd 
a ew,?? tcl1 what me f H r thr °w light "^ U is obvious that n0 ha ^iS- 
■»d«£li' n ^gular ^ n?, d ^ are goodT nci °wK P r rmanent method s of f»^P 
twenty ' r P , Ianted SSoiffi** of years ir, ^ are bad > if the land fa /3$r3 
a« atVe^ rty ^7^ then Bummer-faUog, 

establish Venning T+ • , Wor k, one' i , n 8 down of grass crops- ^* e 
prSSS "St that th f ° r th >« rei°l°dge would be exactly the sag, 

Wh?l. g % be dis cover^ that these rotations * e 

^onclusionV^ Work Cl!* v t * SyStem of cro PP in S land ° 

^S^^^^fV^^i^^ to d - very <£T* 

af ter corn j' In districts d , dnftin K is prevpn^ br ° llght to W- By U nn> 
le ftin sr " S quite th"e Q „? er / c °m Z™ ted . and, thereby, serious eco n°* t 
in v^u SSma ny years q al of wheat ,° + Ssatlsfa etorily, the yield of *» C L 

western rye grass, this decrease I* n ° 



^od^r^ebeene?^^^ 

J&fS? W T a -d^aS- to learn the influence of a 1 
1Ced and hence i t S v S**"^ t5^SJ t *P 00 % Prepared seed bed, on 
ma y be concluded th at f t t10 ^' no difference in yield 
at there is no reason for making 



43 

surface very fine at seeding time. This finding is rather welcome, inasmuch as 
a fine seed bed is more liable to drift as well as being more expensive to prepare. 

Additional experiments relating to the proper depth of seeding have con- 
firmed the findings of earlier work. A depth of from 2 inches to 3 inches is the 
most satisfactory. Seeding over 4 inches in depth is liable to be too deep while, 
on the other hand, seeding 1 inch in depth is too shallow. 

Further work with commercial fertilizers has not shown profitable results. 
Underdrainage, even in what were thought the more humid sections of the 
prairie, has not given increased yields. 

In recent years, considerable work has been done with sunflowers for 
ensilage. It may be said that in the cooler sections of the prairie where corn is 
not successful, sunflowers make a very satisfactory ensilage crop. Contrary 
to earlier views, sunflowers have not proved as drought resistant as corn; the 
latter crop not only grows with less water but is better able to resume growth 
after a protracted period of drought. 

Irrigation has been fairly extensively studied at Lethbridge, Alberta, as well 
as at Summerland and Invermere in British Columbia. Information has been 
secured showing what crops have been most profitable under such an intensive 
method of farming and what amount of water and at what times water should 
be applied to various crops. 

Since 1921 technical experiments under controlled conditions have been 
commenced to gain information regarding the more fundamental principles of 
moisture conservation. In the Prairie provinces precipitation is the most import- 
ant factor limiting the yields of crops. If the rainfall is sufficient during the 
summer months and, of course, if good farming practices are followed, large 
crops are secured, but if the rainfall is not sufficient or does not come at the time 
when it is required, the crops are poor. However, it is the object of scientific 
agriculture to study how the precipitation which does fall may be most effectively 
utilized. Extensive experiments on this problem are being undertaken on the 
Dominion Experimental Station at Swift Current, Saskatchewan and, in addition, 
further work is being done on the other Dominion Experimental Farms on the 
Prairie. 



44 




DIVISION OF HORTICULTURE 

W. T. Macoun, Dominion Horticulturist. 

™ „. . . t TT^„+;„iiltnrp is one of the original divisions in the Experi- 
»Jm£?££E& wSw^b^ in the g sprin f of 1887. At that time 
mentai i arms di.im ro _ or -i + f ru it growing was based on the experience 
available information "fSbStaS offered, told of how certain varieties 
nld^tcfedl^ th 7 em ?- l0yed - Farmers' meetings 

were Comparatively few in those days and information was slow in being dis- 
were comparativLi,y *«= factors affecting the success or failure of 

gemmated and as ^ ^6 pmeipa e in f orma tion was sometimes misleading, 
fruits were not Sf^fSmersVere ?3ffins to take the word of agents 
KuSeB Who ^uiSy f d[dnot know which varieties were suited to the 
Strict in which the? were selling trees. Great losses followed, as a large pro- 

porti w\h™ Fa - * °»* 

witn tne «™*" definite experimental work, the government taking 

;t"l\Cd chanc°e o" fossefSclrepor'ting the results through the many agencies 

Whic S ^^£tS£Sl£tS^ Central Farm was appointed Dominion 
In l^O'/^/^Xties were extended to the branch Farms and Stations. 
Hort ;? lt ^ 1 l i a imlffvS as it is now constituted, is divided into five 
. The Horticultural JJivi8ion,»B p , Vegetable Gardening, Orna- 

main subdivisions of work, namely. ^V""^' , rnrrewnndmcp ind office 
mental Gardening, Painting and Herbarium, and correspondence and office 
mental ^a™" 1 " 1 *' ., i s mU ch to do n connection with the Branch larms 

7Z\* ? % t he DreParatK reports and bulletins and matter for the press, 

and Stations, m the pi epara won ui y, F u / ,-+; / r, 1 it 11 -ol rlUtriM-n in rliftVrpnt 

in addressing public meetings and visiting horticultural districts m ditterent 
pari of Caifad P a for the purpose of studying the horticultural industry. 



POMOLOGY. 



The studv of varieties of fruits for the purpose of getting information in 
regard to tdr relative merits in regard to yie d, season quality and profit is 
nduded in pomology. It also deals with the identification classification and 
Scrbtion as weTas the propagation, planting and care of fruits, and with 
St in cultural methods, including spraying. The exhibition and judging 
off™ mav also be grouped under pomology, as also the origination of new 
varieties At present, some thirty-eight main projects are under study m this 

^ur^rpKwour years, much information useful to fruit growers 
throughout Canada was obtained as a result of the many experiments conducted 
bv -tho Horticultural Division, and following will be found some of the results 
which affect the largest number of people and should be of the greatest monetary 

Fruits— Origination of New Varieties 

Apples. 

The Mcintosh apple is acknowledged to be one of the most, if not the 
most popular apple in Canada to-day, its handsome appearance, tender flesh 
and fine flavour making a combination which few other apples possess. The 
Mcintosh apple at Ottawa is in season from late October to February or later. 

45 



before the season of TVr 

ii^V^^" ^gSTin" 8 n ?- hard ^ varietie8 «» commerce of J 
S over CanL are ?* ^ afottaw,,?^' and this may be said ^tie 
SepJIrnber S a n Where the apple i *Z ' henc , e there is room for new variety 
oraCost' d ? C ^ ober > and w 11 £*™P> tha * will be in season in Aug" 8 ]' 
almost as good, m qualit a Wl11 b * as handsome as Mcintosh and as g°° d > 
. 1 he dearth of eonH o 
Xfi io^ H 7 ticUltura " S \ nd a au ^ mn desSfirt varieties was early recoj; 
from eld of f ? S to ^rcom e ?his T^ 1898 tho P^ent Dominion H<j ' 
many others 5 SUc , h a * Fameuse fr^ 8 of " ew varieties were ragj 
many whiSf W * a > ge ^mber 'f^£ nto8h ' Wealthy, Northern Spy a»° 
promisW for ha l! frmte d, more t^^^ere inter-crossed. Out of* 

there at^enH ?* of Canada" and ^^ bave been named '- * JSJ! 
seedlings of m*:^* extended referSJ &S b ? ln S bet ter than varieties gr°* 
others are alS t0Sh ' th °ugh a m, "k D6 | d onlv be made here tc . cer^JJ 
very useful wW ^ Uallv PromisC*^ ° f 8eed,in * s of Northern Spy ^ 
Northern SnvflJ Northern Spy w^, and 8 °me of these will doubtless P/jJ 

Asa reTult oUh """^ M they W ^ 

^KSS^ofe *&!«* have be - carried on to *£ 
more than fiv e t *' W u hereas m ?887 J>, ° r + ^ e colder P a rts of Eastern Cana d * 
there are now ^ hardv > ^g keonlf th ? Work was b ^un there were a0 
more than two hunt *S f resul t of R^ J« available to the fruit fprgjj 
bemg sifted ou t in ^ W-keepin* vl^- at the Cent ral Experimental Fa^ 
ties may be retL ^ that those n™^ ?tle \ Under test at Ottawa, which & 

varieties which call; K Much SSKSS? the lar * est number of g °° d $5*° 
wider range o ' vaS* be grow n outside* g IS now done under glass, *b e b 

, The follfwW Ldl W ° rk With ^^ ^ P ° tS ' thUS giviDg " 

some of the croZl h ^? uld have a E Canadia ns a series of apples of * n 

18 firmer than m nR + tree is an earfv b2 favourabl y with Mcintosh in apPgL 

commercial sort 8 * 8Umnier ap p 1£ y rf^ and a good cropper. This vjjjj 

Joyce ^A M U 8 °° n become a verV p P 

^ift^ ff^» fit for use from two to three **£ 
<l u ahty, comparing a ?P le . attoactiv^" thr ° Ugh September and Octo J< 
Perhaps, not^^ /^ourably ? n Ve m n , a PPearance good to very g«o ile , 
we highly recommenH ♦£** a be arer as M a ,u ty with Mcintosh itself. Wh> d 

ber SJ-SHSSL* ^ M ^- a ^ a "** «"* "^ 
t^^J^^S^^^ fr - *• September to D^ 

is good. Th^^^^, thJX^' ^ d >^« » p«f^ e - whU ?a& 

of better quality if £ 8 ^commended to ^ briskl v subacid. The q^V e 
power, and i s a^iulT^ Th e tree i« ^ ace the Wealthy where an apP 
m quantity. regu ^ and heavy £ * gently very hardy, is a vtfgjj. 

er - r rees of this will soon be ava" 1 * 



47 

Lobo — Lobo is a Mcintosh seedling which is in season just before Mcintosh 
colouring" before the latter variety. It is one of the most highly-coloured of 
the Mcintosh seedlings and is considered very promising especially in the 
province of Quebec and in the State of New Jersey, where it is now fruiting. 

Hume —This variety, also a seedling of Mcintosh, resembles the parent 
very muchin colour of skin, flesh and flavour and is of good to very good quality. 
It also has a perfume somewhat similar to Mcintosh. It is, however, in season 
earlier than Mcintosh, and, like Lobo, is very promising as a variety to precede it. 

Patricia— By some persons, the Patricia is considered the best dessert 
apple of all these Mcintosh seedlings, but, as a commercial apple, it may not 
prove quite large enough, unless severely thinned, as it bears very heavily m 
rope-like masses The character of the flesh of this apple is superior to any of 
the others, and the quality is also very good. Ihe fruit is deep red in colour and 
it is in season from October to December. This is particularly recommended 
for home use. 

SEEDLINGS OF NORTHERN SPY 

The Northern Spy, while not hardy at Ottawa, has been crossed with 
Milwaukee, Lawver, North Western Greening, Walbridge and others at Ottawa, 
in the hope of obtaining hardy, late-keeping apples of good quality, and many 
long-keeping sorts have been obtained as a result of this work. Brief descrip- 
tions follow of some of the best of the open-pollinated seedlings. Most of these 
are long keepers. They will be tested thoroughly and gradually reduced m 
number. 

Ascot— Fruit medium to large in size, roundish to oblate; predominate 
colour crimson: flesh yellowish with traces of red crisp, tender, juicy; flavour 
subacid, pleasant; quality good; season November to middle of February or 
later. Resembles Northern Spy a little in outward appearance and considerably 
in flesh and flavour. 

Binao — Fruit above medium to large, roundish conical; predominate 
colour crimson; flesh yellowish with traces of red, tender, moderately juicy; 
flavour subacid sprightly, spicy, pleasant; quality good; season December to 
late winter. Resembles Northern Spy considerably m outward appearance, 
flesh and flavour. 

Donal —Fruit above medium to large, oblate to roundish, regular; pre- 
dominate colour, crimson; flesh yellowish crisp, tender, rather coarse, juicy; 
flavour subacid, sprightly, pleasant; quality good; season late October to 
March or later. A handsome apple resembling Northern Spy somewhat m 
colour. 

Elmer —Fruit medium in size, roundish; predominate colour deep crimson; 
flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, juicy; flavour subacid, sprightly, pleasant; 
quality good; season January to late winter. Looks and tastes somewhat like 
Northern Spy, though a smaller apple. 

Emilia —Fruit medium to above medium in size, roundish conical; pre- 
dominate colour, crimson; flesh dull white, crisp, tender, juicy; flavour briskly 
subacid, pleasant; quality good to very good; season December to April. 
Resembles Northern Spy in colour, shape, flesh and flavour. One of the best, 
also one of the latest to come into bearing. 

Niobe Fruit above medium size, roundish, regular; predominate colour, 

rather dull crimson; flesh yellowish, crisp, tender, moderately juicy; flavour 
mildly subacid, but sprightly, pleasant; quality good to very good; season, 
December to late winter. Resembles Northern Spy a little in outward appear- 
ance and considerably in flavour. Very popular with most who try it. One 
of the first to come into bearing, but tree is not as hardy as some of the others. 



48 
Sparta. — Fruit merl - 

Spiotta. — Fruit merl" 

oies Northern Spy considcrablv £? , Nov ember to February or la ct 
Sptro.- Fruit medium in 7 m Colour > « and flavour. 

bpiza. — Fruit mprl" 

W. Shape and colour £M» No thcrn a- Flavour a littlc Uk e N»r« 
^W.— Fruit K 3lu eramy like Northern St>v 

PPcaranee, colour, shape, flesh and flavour. 

Lawfam (T ^^^ LATE " KEEPIN « vak.kt.f.s of apples 

Promising wi™^,^ ^mewe).-^ T,»f , >w. *** 

on t2r tosh aas ^ ^Sf^ x ^a> 

jyESSB^^^Bf 1 ^ ••— variety, above «-« 
Mcintosh from that of otKoX th ^Pi?y or aromatic flavour wbij 

u , tS ' Pr om ls i ng as a better keeper " 

Madam {Mcintosh 

.. w ( ^..^ fa -^ ^ 




36 ,t An apple of g°°d quality, W^riS 
Bett"" W * iater keeper ' "* PPearance - Jt W better in quality <"' 

^SI^^S^o^* \ » r *« * *-* 

'• UI > ,)ut is better in quality. It 1S ' 

AWARDS RECElVFn », 

^ at Wta, .• I '°" NW T «™- op 4 P PU!S 

"taht, for p r „ai£ mt / al . ^Pertoeow '',:.' *** ?* *« «'"<"' """ l: ''i&- 
The silver w,! 8 rUlts ' ' through the Domi""° n B 



49 



1907— Jamestown Exhibition Norfolk Va. 

For Hybrid Apples and Selected Seedlings. 

1909— St. Catharines, Ont, xt-^hAA Am^« 

For Northern-grown Fruit, including Hybrid Apples. 

1913— Washington, D.C. 

For New Varieties of Hardy Apples. 

1917— Boston, Mass. 

For Display of Seedling Apples. 

192 ^orTolStion of New and Promising Winter Apples. 

1923— New York, N.Y. 

For the Lobo Apple. 

Method of Introducing New Apples of Merit. 

T? » «,„«■,, v , «r« trees of new varieties of fruits were sent to experimenters 
free fcj t " ' 1 ut \ * Ymnd that this was a slow method of getting them 
gro'wi A" V-ereial sc^e^getting Wo j^-ew.id^tt.sorts 

tT;;?! ' ti/pi- :;s.;: u s ™5s & a* i» quantities ** ^ «, it . 

8 £Ltn P unSmay be purchased by one mdivi^al to ensure £■ having 




that these new sorts will soon become popular 



Length of Time Required to Originate Fruit and Popularize 
A New Apple of Merit. 

Ti. j. i i„ „ iifo+;,np to brina a new fruit to the point where it can be 

obta , , d S u: »«£ 5 S l Sted from the seed. Most of the varieties 
now S grown commercially were, chance seedlings, but systematic effort 
is now being made to obtain new sorts by combining the qualities of two known 
varieties in one. Years 

From sowing seed to planting seedling trees in fruiting rows 3 

StefftocS&'cw^csoffriit.v.::: 5 

ss ss& s ^ m ^* *** f --,■•■ • ; v « 

If ™m'," v!-;ll.y nurserymen, time for nurserymen to build up stock ^ 

FromtuSd ' sale until ' trees ' are in full bearing in fruit grow,. s' ^ 

orchards • • ■ , •', ' ui k 

To popularize fruit after it is available O 

Total 40 

New Varieties of Plums. 

There is a very wide area in Canada where the season is not long enough 
for the plums" which are now in commerce to mature. Many seedlings have 
been grown but those from a native plum which ripens during the last week of 
July to the first week of August at Ottawa, but which itself is not quite large 
enough, have proved the best, These are much larger than the parent and better in 

75617—4 



quality, and ripen earlv in A 

Sson anH P-^ m ° St P ro ™sing of Z" L° bta ," led for the <* ™ry earlv ph** 

NEW Va ^ 1ES of Cu Rrants . 

SS3L3£^ the varieties of blacl 

otSrTKL ? T' and Some of these h™ S ^ nder , 8 ' f °rmerly Director of 

replaced by these, the value of the 4%fesS SS^S 



: v »y much increased- 



New Vabimm of Goo S eb tombs . 
orSinator «, Hort,cul tural Division. Three other S ders and thoroughly 

pEed to m a ziz?r^ oductw \^ :j ^ -3 e ;iii so n r ^ ou t t r *4 

particularly, combines thl f" ^ M f e h Charles *** MIt&^CT* 
resistance^ Te^ZeHcan.^ ^ ° f ^ EngHsh Varie ^ * thtt.'dES 1 

New Varieties of Raspberries. 
2!toli^*^pi3fiS r "Th^^r? 6 [" Canada ' ^ the 

New Vari Eties 0f Strawber ries . 

UnTted S^ t g ber r y and is f ast becoming ITrv 7 h f S ^^^ an exceptionally 
Plant is vi^ 8 ' Jt I s ha «d S ome L apf ( 2n P p 0P ^ r ' b ° th hl Canada and the 
Piant is vjgorous and productive. appearance and good in quality, and the 

Test of Varieties 

SS&kffi^'ft £z^t£t i sr%* part ° f *• ™ k of 

the Central F-T ?S S °° n as P^ible When t\ ^l* best suit ed to a district 
varied of f fufts r i mental Parm S 1888 it In ?/* ° rchard was P^ nted * 



51 

Effect of Very Cold Winters 

Since 1887 there have been exceptionally cold winters, in 1895-6, 1903-4 
and 1917-18 and this has resulted in obtaining very valuable data on the relative 
hardiness of varieties. Thousands of trees of many varieties were killed by 
these winters but afterwards it was possible to recommend varieties that were 
proven to be hardy. One example may be given to show the advantage of having 
many varieties in an experimental orchard, under the same conditions. After 
the severe winter of 1903-4, it was found that the Mcintosh apple tree was much 
hardier than the Fameuse, and fruit growers were urged to plant this instead 
of the Fameuse in the colder sections. This was again clearly proven by the 
severe winter of 1917-18, which killed off a large proportion of the Fameuse, 
while a relatively small proportion of Mcintosh was affected. Many thousand 
trees of Mcintosh must have been planted because of advice given by the Horti- 
cultural Division. On the other hand, the proving at some of the Branch 
Stations that there are practically no apples hardy enough to stand the severest 
climate in Canada must have prevented the loss of many thousands of dollars 
by people who would otherwise have purchased trees. 

Top-Grafting Tender Varieties of Apples on Hardy Stocks 

It was believed at one time that the top-grafting of tender varieties of 
apples on hardy stocks would make them sufficiently hardy to be grown success- 
fully where they could not in the ordinary way. Experiments conducted on 
the Central Farm have shown that this is not so. ...... 

In 1898 and later, ninety-two varieties were top-grafted, but the winter 
of 1903-4 killed practically all of them back to the stock. This definite informa- 
tion must have saved growers many thousands of dollars as a warning not to 
depend on top-grafting to make tender varieties hardy. It is true that, in some 
cases a variety top-grafted will live longer than if grown as a standard tree, 
and a top-graft will usually bear sooner, but as a method for making tender 
varieties hardy it is not recommended. 

Importance of Hardy Root Stocks for the Colder Parts of Canada 

During the past thirty-four years, much experience has been gained in 
regard to root stocks for various fruits, and the great losses which can be avoided 
by the use of hardy stocks has been well demonstrated in the Horticultural 
Division. ,, 

Apple trees obtained from nurserymen are usually propagated on roots 
not selected for hardiness, with the result that, in winters when conditions are 
favourable for root killing, many trees die from this cause. It has been shown 
by the Horticultural Division that by using crab apple roots for stocks, this 
root killing can be avoided, and if nurserymen would propagate all their trees 
on such stock much loss would be avoided. 

Very hardy fruits, such as the Americana plums, have been propagated on 
peach roots by some nurserymen. It has been shown by test in the Horti- 
cultural Division that roots of the peach, and other stocks often used, are winter 
killed, resulting in the dying of a hardy tree. Pears which are propagated on 
quince, to dwarf them, have been shown to be of no value at Ottawa, as the 
quince roots are winter-killed and the pear tree dies. 



75617— 4i 



52 



Ther f ReCOrdS ° fYieldSfr -^iv idualTree8 

^^^ SSS; ^S^iS&^ ^' «» any Part rf.Jf 
idea of w „ A R ,W( ,T' or one who dibSJfffi P^^ously for a long period. 
Since i«q 8 rees T 111 t car °aeh yearW tfST" to ,- rmv fruit > to 8 et a g °° 
tree ?S ' -° r t for , the P as * twXSL™ *»» ^ey eome into bearing.. . 
Divisior atjtt, Y f i Uit have be «> " << mi T' l lfi ^lds from each bearing 
that len g th rf*& "-ft* *•> P 0S ^K Sow^h P" ? *• Horticulture 
Mcintosh, desires to l™ UB ' , lf a Prospective 2L2* ^ tree has l,ornC K 
certain numbSt !, wh4t trees of th .s, , • " C J)||, 'l"'*s, Wealthy ° r 

Plan inucnSter th,n u S ' & figUres ca « 1 Sm " ar " lik< '^ *° bear in / 
Furthe,™ **? he oth «'™isc would ° " ^ «d he is then able to 

Planted Sesame tun?" IS""" 1 that som «trees of th 

will bear twice as mL> aad ^wing under 2 5? Sa ""' Vft riety of fnU* 
t-ee. It i s not vtt J'° r T r ?' fruit over a LS nf % 8i,ni,ar conditions, 
variation or not b,.5 n^T r hetb( ' r ' in th " *> t w! P*" tha » will another 
trees have s far IS trees F^ated SmSS^St^ is doe to bud 
concerned as° the' t£?hZF3fi£t ** ^S?^ Jf? b ^f 
>s required to settle this question Ch they Were P^PagateT &£ *gjf3 



Spraying 



2" ?" tt s P'ny calendars .luri„ t that o'rio Th P« bl '*cd in reports, 
ES? *» «*— « work, ^etl^^^Sl^eSi 



Cover Crops 

In the winter of 180^ fi +i, 
coverSoosVV 116 S °« b - ^"u^^Hlbg m orchards in eastern 
have been eonf Can , ada ' K b^^ ^ tlme >. ^ttle was known abouj 

^ftrtt^ r^^SpSter 48 were started r d 

value to ™ w ?\ the results of these exnerim ; Wenty ~ S , lx years, and the infoi" 
winter »nH « rdlS l s - The main uses *f e mUSt have be « n of very great 
« awbg and C afford ^ater protection Ztl Cr ° PS are to hold ^e snow U 
go in the sod-tn7 ng - °J the Sroundrto lessen ti e T\ of trees > to P reveIlt *& 
fag humus amir,,/" 1811 Ve Kctal,le mktt.-r in thef dept , h to which t& frost will 

leaching of Plant fo°f n; and to "^» fcbMK*** the P 1 ^ 086 of obta £" 
which we tried J, made available in the S1 ' ° P ln autumn *o P">vent the 
mina Jn of motw°r° P + ^ on witl > th" DivK oTT n^" 101 ^ the experiments 
desirable to hSJ S m the soil ™der differing ° f Chemi stry was the deter- 
while in other cS.sit e i s C0V f CT0 P ^^STLTZiT^' as wmetimes it « 
that ther was * T " ota latter of much £ m ° lsture as little as possible, 
amoiu,t CO n S er V ed y f d fference «n the Zft Ce " The analyses showed 
conserved by shadmg, by the differ^ cr ° s m ° istUre trans pired, a " d 

B Iden ^cationof Varieties of F ruits 

^ ISSSsS? 58 ^ ^ y ? f the Division of H f ;; 

Cl0sed Packages, the name of \ Phe >w requires that, whf 

01 the v anety must be on the out- 






53 

Bide. There are hundreds of varieties being grown in Canada and, in many 
cases, the grower does not know the correct names of some that he has. Hence 
it has been the custom for many years to send specimens for identification to 
the Horticultural Division, not only of the kinds of fruit which are packed m 
closed packages, but of other fruits as well. It can readily be understood that 
it is onlv bv long experience that one becomes sufficiently expert in varieties of 
apples, pears, plums, cherries, grapes, raspberries, gooseberries, currants and 
strawberries to be able to name correctly the many sorts that are sent in for 
test; hence the value of growers having the Horticultural Division to wh- eh to 
send specimens for name. Here there is a large collection of fruits with winch 
to compare those sent in and, because of travelling all over Canada, the chief 
officers of the division become familiar with the many varieties as grown m 
different sections. Furthermore, detailed descriptions are made in the Horti- 
cultural Division of the varieties of the different kinds of fruit, so that these 
can be referred to, for confirmation, in naming a variety. The value to fruit 
growers of having this source of information must be very great, 

VEGETABLE GARDENING 

That part of the work relatine; to vegetable gardening includes the testing 
of varieties of vegetables for comparison of their relative merits as regards 
season, yield qualitv, etc., the origination of new varieties the comparison of 
different strains of the same variety, cultural methods and spraying, and the 
study of commercial methods. Some 106 main experimental projects are now 
under way at Ottawa in this work. 

Many experiments have been carried on with vegetables during the past 
thirty-four years in the Horticultural Division, and the value of the information 
from the results of these experiments must be very great. It is in the breeding 
of new and better varieties, however, that the greatest value to the largest 
number lies. 

Origination of New Varieties of Vegetables 

There is such a vast area in Canada where the seasons are relatively short, 
that it is of the utmost importance that there should be earlier and better vege- 
tables, hence 1 needing has been carried on with corn, tomatoes, beans, peas, 
onions, celery, beets, carrots and other vegetables. Perhaps the greatest 
progress has been made with sweet corn, one of the most popular arfd widely- 
grown vegetables in Canada. 

Corn 

Early Malcolm. This variety, which was developed in the Horticultural 
Division, was introduced to the trade some years ago and has proved a very 
popular variety and profitable to market gardeners. It is a very earlv sweet 
corn of good quality and is in season about ten days before the Golden Bantam. 

Sweet Squaw. The Squaw corn is a variety which develops on the prairies 
at a lower temperature than any other variety tested, but it is not a sweet corn, 
hence does not compare favourably with sweet varieties for table use. This 
was crossed in 1913 with the Early Malakoff sweet corn, a very early Russian 
variety, in the hope of obtaining a sweet corn that would develop in a com- 
paratively cool temperature. An early sweet corn was obtained from this 
cross which has become very popular in Manitoba and other parts of Canada. 
It also is about ten days earlier than Golden Bantam, the popular main crop 
variety. 



Pickaninny p, , 

sasS? fiS'^a?'",? !» si 

proven * habit of thTnW ross carn -e the P ;" i It . WM crosse d in I(,1S wliJ , o* 
It il. , nt f od uct on nnZZ. tll " S1 ' Darts nf ii. * the °ar. The Pickani»"> . ,, 

r a :>»vai„ ab ;; BELs** ^Kot St 11 ';' province * where, ,,r l5 

ment? e ^ Cor » known W Pn ws all over r °" Kht to condition for efttiM 
mentioned. It is ^Wjfh % "JJ ^a because it is earlier than ; 
„ Bonift,*, Tho r , r than «ther Early iI tu \ New B ™Mwick sort prelaw 
corn i n America t f ? olden Bantam I . Malc «'m or Sweet Squaw. 

yeSfv" SWrtSto"-. ofi^ S."&« P°P*ar variety of *$ 
so as Siw net y w hich wo, Sr made inlfe a, , ld lo ng season in con^J 
has bee w ther to lenS l CqUal to Ban5^ 1CulturaI division to orig^J 
betwee n pf^i^d * thf fc> C?& *»»*, but earlier in aejg 
The R? /• lcka ninn v anH tt tln *> which «, Bantam type. Such a var«w 
lhe Ba »t.n g k a y y«d Howe's Bantam theV^ in 19 23- This is a *£ 
y early Varietyi Q, the latter being a vellow flint varieti 

the H ZaC - ?<2/ - T he Al ■' T ° Mat oes 

mbl »ed with extreme^a?!^ 60 *^ each year for g 

. Much work h t PEAS 

^eloped in the fe/''' ( » *»• witt, 

V ™- with l^rS^^oSTasTo? S f rain of «- English Wo-gj 
W8 ' " ut yet named ? r r ( ? Ved a Verv valuable^ sort. Otb* 
• are very promising. 

Ruby. Tfc. . B HUBA]Ui 

cultural Divi • IS a Vor .v fi 

Ktv'erVf^^^ <U fa the B*J 

ver y Popular varie y ' ?*»**» than <' j!'^ "t both inside and ** 

y< U » a seedling $ Vic? ' 80rte " Th ' S P romlSC 
Home Grn 
Duri «S the „„ Stable Seed 

vegetable swll „ , r ' """k attmt; 

ires* At^r ir-" tesaas ?r * -*» °°»°«rt 

proved v and d ^ribiS ® W'hed Kivi n K i V ™' . Who foun d it " f * xcelleB ! 

Cre^fPl^ahleS 8 ^* 110 ^ of gro Zl fe rosi ! lts in the Horticulture 

^^ ^ ooS ^ and pSpK Jiff' . T1 »« work must b»J 

gr °w much of their own J d havin S 8 ard ens, as shoW^ 



55 
Test of Varieties 



™, • t „,.; +i,.s offered for sale during the past thirty-four 

The companson of v^etaes o^d tor ^ ishing ^ regults 

years, by testing them s de by ^side in ui ^ ^ ^^ ^^ 

in the annual reports, must have provea 01 gr themse i ves , wer e able to learn 
going to the expense of ^^^Sfwould be desirable for them to plant from 
from the printed tables what varieties wouiu 
the stand-point of season, yield or quality. 

Cultural Experiments 

q -ii + ™r™it of dealing with many of the numerous cultural experi- 

Space will not PfrmAf deanng ducted durm the past thirty-four 

ments with vegetables that have nee s whiph haye geemed to 

years, but reference may be made 10 sui"<= 

be of greatest value. ■ 

w .,v, nntfltnp „ a l ne, the cultural experiments have been very 
PoTATOES.-With potatoe .alone ime nt on the value of good seed 

numerous, but the »«°»27 It was shown as far back as 1907 that 

is, perhaps, of the ff tes *™P°'t important, under certain conditions, in order 
a change of seed potatoes was most importan,^ ^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ 

to obtain maximum yields, borne > > ^ ur h dred bushels 

yielded Practically nothing as compa ed with trc n^^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ 

a"S^Kt& "ia I h point out the importance of good seed, based 

on experimental work. planting, depth of planting, kind of sets, 

The time of P^S, <fc ^"Ven some of the other experiments conducted, 

^^^■i^vj^n^^^ meaning much to potat ° growers - 

the results from M* °f w»> J < b tomatoes> cabbage , cauliflower, 

Results of f^^ig^Sr pLsnips and other vegetables will be found 

Ret™^ 0ne ° f them VegetablC gr0WCTS haVG b6en 

able to get useful information. 

ORNAMENTAL GARDENING 

rra. u r* ornamental trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants (involving 
The culture of °\ n .^^ m ^w' t part f the work of the Division of Horti- 
some 39 main projects) J«an important p^ ^^ charac teristic S , such as 
culture. This ncludes the sway information will be available 

height, form, colouring a g^m^bl °g places in such a way that the trees, 
to Canadians to enable ^mto ? f bg contrasted with one anoth 

shrubs and herbaceous plantewU o e ' ducation of the le by i ectures and 

toformpleaBmgMscapedMtt. encouragement of the beautifying 

bulletins on ornamental ' ^demng &re ^ of omam -j 

gl^mr^Kelte^cbdtd in this part'of the work, as they are orna- 
mental as well as useful. 

Collections of Plants for Study 

Collections of the best varieties of hardy plants, such as roses, lilacs, irises, 
phloxes paeonies, gladioli, and geraniums have been got together and are grown 
each vear at the Central Farm. They have, in past years, no t only been available 
for inspection by the public, but were made the basis for recommendation of 
best varieties to those who desire such information. 



56 

T , , Ornamental Grounds 

in e planting nf tv.„ 
meant much in +1, ornamental grounds «f *k ^ , h«iV« 

t, as tlu 1 , Vay of aspiration , 1 t] "' Central Farm must W 




GREENHOUSE WORK 



■ine greenhouses rrf +v, n 

s&sas** £ Sfttesasi ?- ■ ■ « * »/s 

beans and mS™ rop8 ' B,,, ' h as tone ' ,' m '' d " m b as l -'" > " obtained <> > 

information ^.V 1 - 1 aml ^rari i m i 1S!mt1 "'""^. geraniums, cyclase '• 
cro^^f^^^PeciaUy^lW* ornamental plants. The defin^ 
^4t£S?tt ° f VuHrfui s ^"S '"■«»»«!»« to grow greenhog 
of head l.'ttu, 1 ^ i a : TS " ltof wln<']ntl, ', " v,,rk ,n:iv be mentioned.^ 
entirely suita fe ' '' : "'' V Pa ™ Mark, „t 7'" demonstrated that one variety 
grown Thirty ( . '"''' lng in «°ld efiitS wlf man , y whiHl fa ave been 1 '""''. Iv 
house woS**^ experiment £jg- Sft^-g " ^J#£ 

PAINTING AND HEEBARJUM 

the fresh f 1 uitt^\ ltls,, ' sil ' < '' 1 to s l m , ,'""!'' whi, ' h are very useful for 
of dried spec m"* T^le. p or « i,'. .' ' "' J** a variety looks like, who" 
P lmenS ° f the ^>'y beauSVo ^ '''-V-'l-^rnwin.eolleet,.. 
iTmun^ wuamentaJ plants. 

LITERATURE PR EPARED 

During then t «.■ HORTICULTURAL DIVISION 

very great X ?J e amoui 't of inform^ m /' PWhleta, circulars, lecture* 
principal 1 but& i ^t Ve P rov «l very Tnln /i 1 *?****»* in this way has be* 
Plum, bush fS J W have »>«« i , .,' l ( \ to many '"'"I' 1 ''- Some of f 
editions of ^ ome 'o ferries, eranbeS "^ ISS " , " I im ' **"» " f the appl«J 
issued on veJSlw! ? he8e >ve been ) , ■ ' ,', " t:l1 t "" s ■■»'«• roses; new and revieed 
-ions, tomSoes td lndUClinK "•£> S^iffi MaD ? '—I'blets have been 
Republished , duriif';,: ma °oms Sd'Snf' "S? 80 ?"' ^ ""SS 
The horticultural^* u War ' on home v£ t , f ' !' v '- ral s|K ' rial PMOphwJ 
exhibitions. " taff has also rendWd *3T gardening and seed growing; 

much service at meetings and »* 



57 
CORRESPONDENCE 

* u w rtimiltural division has steadily increased, 
The correspondence of the aorneu ftda for disseminating mforma- 

notwithstanding the many other agei 10 ■ ^ ^ informat i orl by letter are 

tion, and it is now very large, reoi «>. the advice g i ven , and as a large 
those who are most likely to put into y . ■ technical information, it is believed 
proportion of the correspondents requ horticulture throughout Canada, 

much aid has been rendered those mteres ^ countryj it is neC essary to be 

As this correspondence comes from a"P h d from east to west through- 

familiar with the conditions from north to 
out the Dominion. 

BRANCH FARMS AND STATIONS 

i h Farms and Stations, in co-operation 
The superintendents of the branen ^ horticultural experiments each 
with the Dominion Horticulturist, car v luftble for the par ts of Canada that 

year, the results from which are espetw y ava ilable to the farmers of the 

each Farm or Station serves, and are maa 
district through annual reports and bulletins. 



58 











POULTRY DIVISION, EXPERIMENTAL FARM 

F. C Elford, Dominion Poultry Husbandman. 
History and Early Work 

r> 1+ v Division at the Central Farm in the year 
The establishment of the Poultry J^ investigational work with poultry 

1887 marked the first step taken in V anaa Qf this neW l y created division, Mr. 

carried on under government auspu- • , keeper, was appointed manager. 

A. G. Gilbert, a well known local '^SSSamtal this division, it remained 
For a number of years after tne tt> Dominionj and consequently it may 

the only government poultry pianx .u division has probably meant more 

truly be said that the pioneer worK 01 i » & than haye the effortg of any 

to the advancement of poultry keeping ieg to about the yea r 1900, at 

other, or in fact all other, government k established under the auspices 

which time the experimental work with jjgjjj 

of several provincial departments ad ^^ rf ltry knowled it is 

In the light of the mow reefflt de W . Gilbert covering the early 

interesting to look back oyer _the lepoits ma ^^^ work with the following 

years of his work on theXentrair.ui. sted Rod Game, Barred Rocks, 

breeds: Buff Cochin Andalusians^acK penciUed and Black Hamburgs, 
White Wyandottes, White Leghorns, di M i nor cas, Indian Games, 

Bearded Golden Polands, Houdans, ^ g and ^ avemge numb 

Red Caps, Dirigos, Coloured ^g8^ f * the sixty-eight pullets he reported 
of eggs laid during ^^VSSfreco^mended the second year of the life of a 
on, was forty-seven. Mr. ^ um }\ \ . 
bird as its best year for egg P rocluc ™ ' . ,, j poultry house at the Central 

In November, 1888, the > firs > sec faonof ^ongpo utry ^ ^ & 
Farm, which will be remembered by ^^3 % 1902 an open scratch shed 
later as it remained until torn a tisfactor y, and two years later a scratch- 

type house was built but was ; no fa ^g^g^ wa y s ' used until 1911, when it was 
ing shed type (closed) was constructed w 

remodelled to the open front stv e , d built in 1907 . This type 

The cotton front colony house was designe ^^ ^ ^^ ^ 

was used in milder sections pno far J»^^J ? one of the popu lar styles of 

introduce it into ^^fSrtiSly sections. 

construction, even in the most nor y ^ ^ 

Hatching. During J^^d before December 24. On May 8, 1897 a 
middle of May, and no pullet laid jc o ^ ^^ hatched « In the 

"Bessey" incubator ^^w demand for broody hens that as high as one 

spring of 1889 thM» "*£%£$£%& for a hen that would 'set' ". 

dolkr apiece was asked and actuayp ^ &g lgg9 Tfae 

Diseases. Roup was reported t of ^^ acidj gyringed mto 

remedy suggested was JJJ^J, was reported f rom a number of farmers m 
the nostrils In 1890 ^3 e broke J t with turkeys, and though no name 
Quebec. About thw fame *™ int to blackhea d. 

glV T en i«q, tt ?ndth Market was first mentioned, and Canadian prices 
In 1895, the Eng ^ mar werc brf h in Toronto> 35 cents; 

London ^r^ents Maniteba and W^est, 35 cents to 50 cents; .Montreal, 60 cents 



59 



Sas?.=a-» 



'"<""• !l "«l also its re. mmen l?° Ult T y ^ducers' AwoctfgJ 
amended grading for eggs and poult» 



~~ -uinmion. — *™ w «rK was extern L-i \ , ll J° r ("vision of the &*■ ' , lt 

the b 0wing t0 the extension '" '""' h FarmS ' '""^ 

EJ^^^S*^^ f 2 , S5Sfi W0 * -ith poultry to most * 

necessary and, sin ' , « ![ Um «» the aruS Wld i r fidd & work covered,* 

* the division includinl i * "JS"** o • hi ■ * 9 l offl «W b charge was foujj 

( '" d '»g work one f ** offic « havi, mi '* *** been made to the ^ 

one in charge 'of the , , "' K ° of Mng c?n " c, » ' «*<»W' over the pedigree »»j 
Province of Quebec ne ^ey and extensio , !, i 1l,r< '^''<Hit the Dominion, JJ 
^pectors f or ^' "k»«k> been foSM? Wlth Poultry, especially in * 
otf/ n ^ Conte «t S ThS? * of AockHn enr Sarytoa PPomt several pouljg 

o the Department of A^f i + C0 ^P era «^ UHf Ct, ^ n with their (ll,l - v '" 1 
veerm arian of th ° lAgnju Iw i( hSbeJS^^J Health ° f Animals BragJ 
and a special officer of Sv ° Carr y o» h,vS ?- nd P^ihle to secure a qua > <a 
hlstl ^e to the stud/^ft ^vision of ChemS^ 0118 in <**»«*» of pouWg 
, ., During the first miCal P^WS*^ ^ Farms Branch devotes 

buddi ng S ontheptnt^ thatt heclivisi () UUnccted with poultry keeping- 
convenience, a numbL t n f Htawa **JS£SLEX l***" 1 ^ the old perma** 
house were constated ^"WSS^ ^ ? lant -arranged for bf* 
ff»varietie s ,S order ? ^ n »»d w K r , U !"P L ' ^ooder houS, and a <* 
w ork In 1914 a lditi 01 ? n , ° hav( ' •wg* . 1 * Was redu ced to three or " 
?^*<»tar]a,^^.f<^,TrtdSh2£ "' uniform birds with which to 
^l abou * twelvTa^V^^tion, ,£&•]»* by the Health of Animf 



Resent Activities 

th n . e Present lines of a f ■ 

^htr^twly SSS 5 ^^ fa 52gj^ « f the division fall under 
^tions, poultry houses,, £ hicks - Bw5to?SS B ? ud 7 of feeds and feeding. 
peases, their prevent d ^° ushl gNS g m ^ n ck ' layin 8 birds, and fattening 
^d breeding. ' entlon and cure, an, the Z a f; ment , the study of poultry 

Problems connected with breeds 



61 



a ;«*+ nvnorimontal projects are now under way, involv- 

. Incubation. Some o ight gTSators, humidity during the hatching 
ing tests of various makes and sizes 01 "»*- .. ' t 
period, testing and culling of eggs, egg fertility, etc., etc. . 

n,, u«+o nre under way, comparing various styles and 

Brooding. Three projects ^,,^^1 brooding. Satisfactory results 
types of brooder, as combed Jith natui £ J*o g g ^ ^^ 

have been obtained from the coal sto^e moo b em8 of reari are 

to select, the degree of. heat which ttey prefer^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ rf 
divided into six experimental projects, mw & 

brooder house. . , , . ,. ,. • , , 

j. i ^^^Kiom« of feeds and feeding are divided 

Feeding, The •W-^^.gSjlS fed shing into two g This work 
into nine projects, and ^,^S£S2»Sw tests of feeds, both commercial 
covers a very wide nek mch "^g^^ development, and during its laying 
and home grown, for all stages 01 tne ooua rkct- A n interesting section 

period, as well as for «tock being msle^himarK ^^ ^ ^ 

of this work is the comparative results n .^ />;"/, ^ f d ' 
of wet mashes, as compared with hopper feeding of dry leeds. 

. , , . , r„„_ nroippts this is a very important part ot the 

Culling. Divided mtc , ou 'WW™^ than dually given it in the 
work, and is worthy of much closer ^™ duction> divided mto four experi- 
average farm flock. Tte problem^ ot j& ^ carried on by the divi , ion . 

mente are, of M ™ 8 %^ 6 J£Xupon a combination of many factors, such as 
Profitable egg production c lependbi ipoi t _ Two rather interesting 

breed and strain, housing, "^fJ^^T comparing the electric lighting of 
experiments in this cormectmn are th amou agw^ ^ ^ j^ 

fflftS^ a^wtf~ * iands substance to the laying and 

breeding stock. , , , ,, 

TT „ -uur ™ line of experiment has been more important than 

Housing Possibly ™^Z£g% year8) iu the study of types of poultry 
the work, contmued-ovei a long pa ou ^ throughout Canada. The 

house suitable for ^*^ rf fl Sd£i°£S£iau from 1 he old style, tightly 
history of this work is that 01 Ri-j""' se without artificial heat and with ample 
closed, heated poultry house to ^^^Jtey houses tested and recom- 
Sdby the Poulfn'^visi,!,: aiVnow in very general use throughout all 

parts of Canada. , . . • • ■ e 

■a Th c work with breeding, involving four experiments, is, of 

Breeding i he worfc ]t ^ It . has for its object, not so much 

course, one of the "^Wlf^Se formation of high egg-producing strains 

the creation of any new breeds i as .^^ & ^^ 

mthin the breeds f ? ^XKrvKn, and knowledge of the principles of 
i re i^°^he a st ess ;" for lias been very marked indeed on the poultry plants 
Duelling, lnesuccis. B u Farms Taking the average number ot eggs 

at the Central Farm and bianch 1« £ sev f nty -five, which is about cor- 
laid per hen per year ^J*™™ ~Ss increase in production and national 
rect, it is easily seen what an enormous »«• ■ hundred eees per bird 

wealth would result if ^^VSS caS tSn^ andlelSo^ in ^ 
On the ^f^^If^^b^ very much exceeded, and is being bettered 
farm flocks, this latter gg^JJSJSrfto, during the poultry year, Novem- 
EV Ml? oOcoe 31^920, the average of 139 pullets was 121 eggs each. 
From 170 nuUete during the following twelve months the average production 

Another good instance was a pen of White Leghorns, bred at the Central 
Farrrf and nllced in last year's Canadian Egg Laying contest. This pen of 
ten pulfets ^e age 241 eggs each. They came from mothers which averaged 



62 



Sd «J8£&££gE* r T -- Numcrous ^her instances might 
exceptional case "but b e L?ho Pr0duCt,on in the Farm flocks > these n °^ b j£2 
consistently better p^tL^^m^rl ^^ W ^ ^ ° 
^SSb^^^^-ork anient point brought «**bg 
side, which has offered the PmH B , rfc t W are transmitted through the » ' 
taken advantage of to dttrTw Y D / V1S ! on an excellent opportunity. Wg 
farmers and poultry k^ D ^br ? 0Ckere > from bred-to-lay strains to , 
is much greater than can !^be suppS. the C0Untr y- Thc demand lor th< * 
-L/Aying Contests tv.' i &A 

an excellent medium of" aroSS sta + rte d several years ago, and has pro** 
work was. commence? S ff iSerW^ ^keeping of 1)( ,tcr poultry. $ 
and has smce extended unt a S, Statlon > Charlottetown, in 1; t . 

one branch Farm in each^SiinS oftho°T? ^ B "»« conducted on f T ,» 
a Canadian Egg Laying contest 1°J ^ Don "nion, while at the Central U 
The good results of the S com ki? t0 , thc whole Dominion, is also carried <J 
of the pens entered. ItrntyT^+v 6 *^*/ shown b y the higher product g 
these contests, and ™ j£ *J£ fiw tCan&da is the ** c ™ntry to standard^ 
poultry based on production^ ^1^^^ to ■ ,,,,r,!,hlc0 thc ^0 8 iBtrftt, 

Dimabeb oe P 0ULTRY tT T m the Cgg 1Uying COnteStS - • Jl 

Branch of the Department of fi H" (,,Hrali, ' n with the Health of A»>»;\ 
allotted to the study of po U u rv f lculturo ' ai1 animal pathologist has bee 
made m this work, both in ! L T' and considerable progress has I 
M*m flocks fromVhichspe7bSS^ d in *K i(ientificati ^ J diseases affe flgj 
of treatment for the disease e™ ent m for lamination and the indicate 

r^^^^SJifc« W0r H with poultry offers an e*ceg£ 
surveys of farm flocks, iUu 8 trated W ° n gamed ^ mea ™ of P™ 11 ^ e ? tS 
been taken by the Poultry 0^11^' ? °" &ml ful1 ^vantage of th» Jg 
is steadily increasing, and the poX; H ru ' d ? mand ^ special poultry exhiW 
Experimental Farms exhibits made 'each ear" ^ ° f the °" tstan < iin 8 on ° S 
distrSs, SS^ffggf ^j^atioa of farm flocks in o**jg 
of advice and assistance by spSi,/ r " c ? l rds T of cost of production, the ggg 
dZT g - and man agement of Sel e £° th ° D \ vision in the breeding, fed** 
duction in the districts so covered '' eSUlted in markcd Urease of P r ° 



63 




Apiary 



at Central Farm, Ottawa, 1900 





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Part of Apiary at Central Farm Ottawa, 1921 



THE BEE DIVISION 

C B. Gooderham, B.S.A., Dominion Apiarist. 
History and Early Work 

Brandt, M^ B SS 9 f ^.Experimental Farms system was established J 

to establish an apkry at Se SS Ti UntU the fal1 of 1893 that » WftS tSK 
bees were purchased tt ?J entr , al Fa ™ at Ottawa. A few colonies of bla° 
of which the late Dr Ja7FSKf lacedin « hM 8eofthe Division of Entomology 



supervision of Mr. John Rxto tfcf 7" t > e chief ' and were UI 
from^^TX J f V7 ^^ Wan q ueens were obtain^ 
introduced b v Mr. Fixter M. w u" nan ' N'antford, Ont., and were «*!£ 
that would be of interest' and ivni °l terman suggested a number of experimen 
main experiment conduct S ,h 1? pr , 1Vate ^keepers, if carried out. ' ' 

started a^s to make ^thomnlrT ftS first three /ars after the apia/y ^ 
tions then in use SJjSSg*? ^ *£"» "4ta and brands of foggf 
tion with t he I Hvisionof rw? / , ex Perunen1 was conducted in conju 
The object of thks experiment w 7 M* th ° su Pe™on of Dr. Frank T ; ^ ;r 
tion would give the mo ™coL^ ? ^ ^ 0ut ' :is ****** ™ Possible, which f;>" ' v 
to produce 1 pound Ui wi!* PK 8, As il *** about 1 5 pounds of h ' t 
of wax could be given to the W '' ^^ *>»ow that if the right am . 
ment was conducted fo? a *£S3T h ° Wy Would be Produced. Tbto **£ 
tion then in general use am nl 1 S^ yf ' a ' *' **** various brands °V' I £5 
was weighed at the beglnS of J^ 1 ** 8 " A « iv( ' n P ortion of eaCt *18 
portion of comb drawn from 1 ? *T on - At the end of the season » ■»* 
extracted and the ^SbearefullvH f T da , tion W!ls carefully taken, the bgg, 
ment indicated that^he ^2MEf d - M ? Weighed ' The «* ults of U " S "?> 
eontauung about 7* t 8?eet to h?T' al ""Nation to give the bees ^ ,.,,,, 
that ia used by most bee WrS t T ml This h approximately the we| < 
sheets or 7* square feet to t), ^ namel y a foundation running ^ , 

certain temperature Ss moi % P n V as also found that waX miU i «* 
"I this foundation wJuteffiuU&r^f on b >' the b «™ and that the**, 
tion g ave an unsightly midrJ, ! (llll 8. th « walls of the cell, also, 1 ha1 dark foug» 
able in comb honey production T?** 8 th f COmb Tn,llh ^er, which is un< , {0 
the foundation when w ! ,t U W f also note « that more Wax was add ,, 
than was the case d rng "the flnw'l ° Ut I 11 ™* ,h " boney flow from buck** 
. . During the first t Zll° W J™ m ? l °^r. 



4 



""**" wa5 "ie case durins- tV.r> fl™„ t "«"ug me noney now irom uuv»- 
.. during the first two years Til T K W - , «*** 

the farm foreman's house S'fn i e b< T * ere Wintered in the cellar beoe» 
it was decided to try w mte i'T rly good r, ' sult -- tn the fall of 1895, hpwjj, 
and placing four inches of X ™° C0 ^ 0mes » utsi(l " by packing them in ^ 
side wintering was a faiSre ^ f h ™ und , e a?h hive. This first attempt at gj, 
experunent was not tried aeSJ ftni +1 i*^ ^ died the following spring- ;\ e d • 
^ a different method? KTS^, 1-1 of i 9 , 02 - ^en the colonies were; t r ; a 
each hive and this was covered Z ayCT °f buildin K Paper was tacked aro J« 
alargebox was placedo^r eaThL^n ° f • oUed pa p'' r " For extra ^ rouV 
The following spring the «■ ,s,'! y allowin S about 6 inches space all ^ 

very weak and diedlhortlvXr t^ re ^° Ved ° n March 2L (Jne Col °^i t"» l 
but did not build up verv Si i - 0thcr L was foun d to be in a f air condrtj 
1903-4, four colonic ^ were plaTed t™? that season - The following ^ (1 f 
were placed in a large packing case, allowing 6 inch' 



65 



acti hive and 12 inches all around 
cut straw on the bottom, 6 inches between ^ [et during ^ winter 

the outside and on top. The colonies were aj oa« ^ ^ removed fror n the 
and on -March 22, took their first good m ^- condition. No more outside 

case on April 22 and found to be in « x lg _ 14 when twelve colonies were 

wintering was attempted until the Win <; ■ h hives were placed close to one 
uadruple eases. Intta ssecag , 4 mcQes of pac king on the 



case on April 22 and founc 
wintering was attempted un- 
packed in three quadruple cases. T , ln . t,u ; ' .. UoNV( , ( l for 4 inches of packing on the 
another so as to conserve heat. Each case a ^ a dead _ air spa ce above, 

bottom and all four sides and 10 mches on to , ^ . q dover chftff and the 
One set of four hives was packed a cut -» : ; made in the cases opposite to 
third 8 e1 in planer shavings. Kl,,n 'be reduced during the cold weather In 
each colony and arranged so t h.-y «.'«» ' < « }' h n and 12. When taken out of 
the spring the bees bad their first flight on *^ all found to be 111 excellent 
the cases during the early part of Jm 1 » » • . (he cellar . Four colonies died 
condition, in fad , far better than t hose wi > ft ))ettel . insu i a tor than either 

mthe cellar and none outside. Shavmgsprovea ^^ hayc been int ered 

out si raw or clover chaff. Sixteen to twen*j 19l3 . 14 . In SO me years the oss 
outside in quadruple rases every yea r s ^ wmtered m the cellar; 

in bees has been slightly heavier 01 ^ / () (h( , extra protection given early 
in others the loss has been lighter. Owmg ^ h h d through in 

in the fall and again later in the spring, tnew conditl on for the honey 

the winter cases have always been n ^^g tbe winter of 1921-22, a number 
flow than those wintered in the cellar. » ' » - for the first time. The double 
of two-colony and single colony cases 1 were i oMea do not ppear to glV e 

cases have proved very satisfactory ' ^ (lins W eak in the spring. At 

sufficient protection, the colonies m **Tj'^ iaiBK A outside in quadruple cases, 
the time of writing, forty colonies are being 

six in double cases and four m single <• ■ • covered with straw and about 

In 1896-97 two colonks were buried m.^ d th the 



one foot 
exception 




^"iiniunui one yojm »>!.*■•--- . u^™, i^xperniuiii.n ...."« ^ 

and successful method of wintering Bees- ^ ^ r(jot ceUar gaV(? unsatls - 
house apiary were unsuccess u Hind vnntt jj^ ^ ^ ^ gprmg m a vcry 
factory results, most ot the bees arms. 
weakened condition. . hWh \ x satisfactory for spring protection. 

The house apiary, however, proyt U - J. (his prot( .etion from the cold 
The bees built up much more rapidly wnen . ed directly on thcir 

winds after coming out of the cellai than 
summer stands in the open. ascertain the most economical size 

In 1898, an experiment, was startea ,™ production. This experiment 

of foundation to use in sections loi como j ^ Ug obtained were the same 

was carried on over a period pfthreeyeai . ion m worke d on more readily 

for every year, namely that full sheets 01 u> gection8 are produced. Where 
by the bees and that more uniform ana " were very irregular, containing 

smaller sizes of foundation were used, ti • Thig fact is f u ll y recognized 

too many hole.-, and not being attacheooi 1 a ^ B&me experiments were 

by all comb honey producers at the 1 l ^ brood charnbe rs. Full sheets 

also carried out with regard to ioumla xu m weU _ built com bs of worker cells; 
here proved the best, as they gi ivc " ; \" d ' com b on the lower half where 
half sheets of foundation gave too nui 8tartcrs were used, the combs were 

there was no foundation, and wlieu --1 d j proportion of drone 

usually built crosswise of the frames and coma 

comb. , . . rec eived from fruit growers that bees 

In 1901, owing to many MjgJ th( , skin an d sucking the juices an 
were damaging the fruit by pui < ; t • & a8Certain if it was possible for bees 
important experiment was ( ' l " u]U ' , rimen t, four strong colonies of bees were 
to damage sound fruit. For tins e. 1 

75017—5 



honey left. No necta^wwIl^W wa + s removed ; the other two had ', 
ment was being carried^ J^S^i^f*" 8 **^ the time this.f jfi, 

chosen viz., peaches, pears nKfr^ 7 ' f(mr ki "ds of ripe fruit « , 
rurt chosen was sound ^ This fruit w gFapes ' care bein S taken that all $ 
to the bees, namely inside th e £ M f P ° Sed where [t ™ 8 easily aCC & 
house. An empty "super w as , nfcS 0n ^ in thc a P ia 'V a " d in the TtS 
frames were removed frorntL, ^ each of the four colonies, some of « 
suspended whole specks of fe d ,?"*■ and three £££ in which *g 
d^VT divided ^to two eomL?™ Plac - ed in the brood chamber. } t 
dpped in honey were hung wSK™?^ ln one whole specimens of ['» 

E^r^ 11 a sha 'P Penk, vvU r!i 0ih I r com Partment ^ fchat H , S 
S th + t d,pped and Pun tu e, r + P aC f d V The bees began to work at o 
durmg the first night- I hmt and the former was cleaned thorov^ 1 : 

Af&^^&gWeXK,^ fruit the Ces dustered thick ; 
m tt\ end ? f f ven d ^ all h ,- "r aS lon , K as they could obtain any l«gg t 
m the. brood chamber was st ,,-,,? £™% examined. The sound &Jg 
dinned tr f Velled a11 over it in'l 1 " "i ed but Poshed and slum- as though » 
Tffnnn? 1 * ?? also uninjured bit -t* an °P eni »£ through the skin. * . 
J^ rn q Ct ^ edfmitwas badly m i n T y J**» ol honey had disapp* 
Tontin,, w y ' and in ^me instTnc f and worthless; beneath each pun<^ 
continued for another week X d T iy had set in. The experiment *J 

wa'steV?^ Egain Sfe„ fruit , being left in the brood cha«£$ 
w~wJ Btltuted for that whiclTSL k ey and a fre sh supply of punctured &*j 

p ,„ whT?- Th ' se » »S h s d e i i 8 ' l "; B , ish »° d there 7 e e many ■)«»<!„ 
E Moximt^l ' """' ">« Wh^JiS'P? 1 '™«- A, there was no ' ' ,„■ 

SS^S^A the ^ -jys 

These e • eVery cast '- ° ther two experiments the r<-» 

^ed'n! tffi^ESEte 19 ° 2 ' —i the same kinds rfjfl 

PoSns n n Z$°£ ZT T * We^rS ^^T Th ? Wtt 
number nf ™i • the hive, n the «™ us year an d exposed m the ° e 

^ArS ^^s^r^ ries was us - d for th Vo!:"'' ;i 

them although , S 0t , appear to get or .f f . mits - Th e bees clustered oj 
on the tries wn« hey . clean ed the hSnev ft- ?u ^ to S et > any subsistence ^ 
also diJthat ?n "8? W* ***%fi£hi ?" #PP ed ^uit. Y The fruit eXP^ 
hives exactly in t^ hlVGS - °» July 29 «" and 8oon dried U P and *«F&** 
was coming in n+ ^- Saine Position Vti.T? C ras P b erries were placed i ,■ 
above ?xp?rimeri thlS time > so the Sp?i%! tr ? wberrieB - Considerable ^ 

experiments proved concbsiv e l v S S \ he '^berries untouched- (lit 

eiy that bees do not injure sound P 



67 



jmder any conditions but H-Jj^ « ^jfeS, Stf ft £* * & 
SSKSS SKfS.»K''S a at — time previoos by otber 

investigators in the United States. t t the value f sugar syrup as 

. In 1900, an experiment was starteoro received from various 

winter stores for the bees. Many ^^^ om dysentery, thought to be 
beekeepers that their bees suffered consiac no y^ ^ colonies were chosen 
caused by honey or honey-dew gatncreu • gtoreg were removed from 

for this experiment and in September an g ulated sugar to 

these colonies. Enough ^.^'T ° colonies up to a required weight, 
one part of water, was given to Dring w of dysente ry during the winter 

The colonies were very quiet, showed ° dition This experiment was con- 

and in the spring came out in excellent c ^^ obtained as in the 

tmued in 1901 with eight «j*JJ'J»; Amoved from eight colonies and four 
previous year. In 1904, all st -ores w _ four were giyen p 

of them were fed pure extracted honey, t During the winter there 

made of two parts granulated sugar to one i ^ ^ gpring thgy were taken 

was no sign of uneasiness in any ot the co • h ^ rapidly f th h y 

from their winter quarters in good conaic io . ^^ w&g heavief m thoge 

flow. The amount of stores consu me a aui s j d ^ ounceg more than Jn 

colonies fed on sugar syrup, being a* ^ei * t§ d ^ gugar gymp ig a 

those fed on extracted honey. "^JSE raon ths. 

satisfactory food for bees during ^Je winter m ^^ beeg ^^ ^ 

. Owing to many inquiries being ; recerv conducted during the winters 

wintered safely in damp cellars, an ^Pe"" . mo isture was really injurious 

of 1902-3 and 1903-4 to ascertain whether excess ^ ^ d ^^ 

to bees. During the first winter three coio^ gtand ^ them ^ ^^ 

over four pails of water in the cellar ana aiiow directl over seven pails f 

During the second winter six colonies werepa^ ^ ^^ fa addition ^ 

water. Six others were also placed over » ^.^ Thig gand wag kept wet 
having sand strewn over the floor gencdu remained quiet all winter and came 
at all times during the winter. J.ne u . The success of the experiment 

out in excellent condition the f ohowmg spi &• ^ ^^ The aip wag moigt 
was considered due to good ventilation in In ceUarg ^ &t &re damp 

at all times but the excess moisture was can umu i ate in the hives and 

and have not sufficient ventilation, moisture w 

cause moulding of the combs. . ,. h es we re purchased; two of them 

In May, 1896 torn -colonies of ' ItaHar i * ^ d one to Agassiz> B-C . 
were sent to Brandon, Man., one to Indian n , to kg beeg ^ &ny 

With the exception of Brandon this was the n ^ Nappanj ^ ^ 

of the branch Farms. In 1897 an W, p duri the first s . 

fittle experimental work was carried out at toes cr which stimulated 

The bees at Brandon did very well and P«£ u <* f f^^J In 1903j several 
the keeping of bees throughout the prov ^ become inter ested in 

colonies were sold from this Farm to local i , guccegg ^ 

beekeeping. In 1904, these , new beekeeper r^ ^^ were grown at 
more colonies were sold. In 1WW, &w • , tg _ It wag found that both 

Brandon to test their value as ^WZi worked on them most actively 
Plants yielded considerable nectar, that tne o Nappan carried on 

and that honey of a good quality was secure ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ 
experiments in the value of sugar syrup vs. j legg d nt 

with the results that sugar syrup gave better coo ^ ^ ^ 

Mr. Fixter relinquished his task °f look ^ Mr Q A fi ^ 

work was then taken up by Mr - .V; ^ •" % T 19 n a nd 1912. No experimental 
Mr. J. I. Beaulne next had charge of the apiary to rm a p 

work was done in the apiary from 1908 to ma, owe 

and continue testing out cellar wintering. 

75617— 5J 



Divmonofthe Farms Bra ,o| " %**« '<><>'< charge of the EntomologgJ 
panada, recommended that^» """'"^ the P os «bmtie a of honey P-'«»' lu ' ico 
»^r the apu^ultural work tL < T , ' ri " m '" d beekeeper be engaged to ^ 
was appointed in 1913 " t r, ' sult was thai the late Mr V \V. L- >] ', 
$<*» the Knto^S^-'-t Entomologist for Apfculture. I" fj? 
2&"*tothe city of (ft " b ° can * ? separate branch and moved 1 
^became a Expermiental ?t™ ^^ e - W0 F k wa8 separated from that br»» t 
m charge. A now a„in „ -I ', V ' S " m '" it8 ^ with Mr. Sladen as aP**, 

Extension of Work on Branch Farms 

^W^^Fat^ * '*" *»*¥ *»•• - to •*£ 

thrS work '" ''"■k«l.ini mil,, """'" Wlv ««btoed 1.1 carry on »« i,. 



iere 
Alt 
estabiishe 



town PPT >r er * arm « t ill -it 1 h, < •' ' ,: T m 'y> J5 - ( • ; I -ater on, 

Mord >",;;'"' Q r ; Le ^ox4e &' ^ Fredericton, N.B 
Alt i V .^osthern, 8ask • sT + 7 L:i Perme » Que.; Kapus 
Alta, Beaverlodge.Alta.; FbrtiJwP' 8a ? k -: Lacombe, Aha.: 
Farm oHS^R' B< ' ; A > "v "c "' Ahil " : Bummerland, B. 

2 tt ! a ' 1 0nt All .„, ( ;.,'- ( V and at the Central BxpenBjg ^ 
Si beekeeping i n th &?* work in demonstrating "" „, 
"' "aportanl work with i u ,.' t , provm( '^- These Farms, besides a°* 

cobS y f from ea(!h source tv? and ,1 "' time, length, and density 
colonies of bees on u»i M + u_ ce ; ] bis is ascertain^ L, 1. .".„;. ,„ nne <"' ° •.,«■ 



the „ 
observ 



durinp. +T » eer etlon of nectar T*i ascertain the effect ol cliin: ■'.' ■ . „ 

Son of^T* and a Ster'of L hM l " < " found A* '"'•■"'>' P reciplt heavy 
>( of nectar the follow , °L heavy snow fall tend to produce a be» J 

after E <by ^ We " ''ondS to ,m, ' r - Als,) fch »* '■«»"' ^ts, followed D ^ 
alter showers of rain. UclVe to maximum nectar secretion, especially J u 



conduct tTSS '"* ,1,ilt , ' onl ni « h,s ' '"' i 
ve to maximum nectar secretion, especial 

Recent and Present Work 



*'«eai work 

tt?i-r^ d ^tSS .!;r Mr - ^ lad<>n ^ i9 ^ was . thorough ^ 

te al ift 11 th ^ Produce 1 ,; 7 r :U ' ad '' 1 and of < he conditions of cU*% 

certain '°rr r ' whit(> dover and PflJf*?- 8 ? ecial attention has been fifa 
1 a C m l h,1Uns " ,h "- ]>la. I , ;," , ' <1 ' and h h« been found that, « ^. 
cloveTTs ,f S ° yi, ' Ms '''^v 1 m n 1,: '" greatest ^ey producers we h- , 

discovered °, a lu ' av y Produce" a" iU1 ? ^^ons, in some seasons. SJ* 
at Lethltn ld ? tified and their r .,i U , m i )er of 0,h( ''' boney plants have 
SfflSilT 88 *.^ sh «wn that t h r . ,1< ' t( : r "»"<^- For instance, exi>e>'» - , r 
golden ro f i an1l ! , " s «' xt «'ds north int gl ° n U \ whi, ' h idfidfa ^es honey in^J 
certain con n' d WHd !lx, ">' b m „ ," ,^ uthe ™ Alberta. Certain spec e> . 
n cond ^ons. Among otl ,, dls<: °ver e d to be plants of value U»< ()f 

8 or.,,. i 1011 ey pl ants that have been found to be 



69 



, ,, i ^ P linn sheep laurel, wolfberry, anise 
value are blueberries, wild radish fall ^f£ en '. continued and has given a 
hyssop, and bearberry. This study dm location of bees . 

fair knowledge of the most va uable places o ted over a num ber of years 

A studv of swarm control has also "^ ^j. i s effectually controlled 
and ftmitVal developed a ^^^^tr tL maiifhoney flow an la, surplus 
in certain localities, more bees^are Produced T tl d as follow^ 

number of young queens can be «*&*$£ sW arming by having larvae in .queen 
At the tim(L colony shows preparations^or ^ queen cells are destroyed^ 

cells, the queen is removed from the ^v destro yed ; the brood is equally 

Nine or ten days later, all queen ogJJJJft the middle of the hive, a spec al 
divided- a solid division board u n »M -tea id t entrances, and a young, 

portSis placed at the front of the gJ.*5JJ3L«i there are two laWg 
mated qu4n is introduced to either s^ m °f-^X b r od 

in one hive The colony is treated m i but not m the brood 

one queen, the bees are ■Ujjdtog^ Successfully and in the spring jus 
chamber. The two querns pass the win bloom tfa and all the bees 

before the first flow from .< an.Wmi .and m .^ & fa yo ac d clo8 e to the 

from one side of the division board are m g . dunng the first flo* .and 

original hive. This effectually prev «"» » flow . This system oi de- 

gives two good colonies in time for th 3 man j to aU co onies that 

queening and Jequeening for f^^^r two queens are to be introduced 
show signs of swarming, whether om> 

division board between them. 1 - "J* t replace winter losses 
the beekeeper surplus queens in the spring ; atte ntion at Ottawa. 1 he 

(Sen breeding has also received ag it will have a grater resist- 

object k£ product better stram ; ; . £ ,,.,,„, out the natural swarmun, 
ance to European foul brood ^ to endeavo hon( , y _ ma king qua h tie s or 

tendencies ami still retain jf! ht ' ' ,. ( s were procured from ^reliable feeders 

11ns purpose, several pure [tab JJ^gfc «« ^showing the desired °^nw2 

and tested at Ottawa. From these, «< temporary mating station was 

wen. chosen and used as breedmg ^ fifty lles nor *■ Mm, 

established in 1913 at Kazubazua, ^u , for m ihe expcrmient 

where vounjr queens and drones « t( . (1 wit h black drones as was mani- 

wasnofa success, as many of ^d hybrid workers. The -rk was continued 
test from the fad that they l ,n,am Y' „eens were raised later m the season than 
the second year but the drones and W*S™ was s( , ( , u ,,l but the queens were 




ot very poor quality, u"l»" ' , t .,i c( , n to lvapusKasm & .« «w*»-~- ^ _.__-_. 

were again raised at Ottawa and taken £ mnM ^ u swarming out of the 
Poor results were obtained there ana be undesirab i e . In 1918, queens 

baby nuclei boxes showed .thB station ^ ^ obtained the e 

were taken to Lac St. Jean in Q^JJ£ Nation was established at Duck Island 
as at Kapuskasing. In 1919 a mati J qu eens and drones of select 

in the eastern end of lake OttbM^™? mating The nrst year the attempt 
parentage, reared at Ottawa, were_ aKeni d wmk a f ared to b e 

was a failure as many of the que ens .did no fc ^^ ^ d th developed 
only partly mated, as they PW^rhSwevW, was successful and queens were 
into drone layers. The i second year, ,wn '^^ Durm g the third year, 
purely mated and introduced to .the -W y ^^ manyo f these were intro- 
about sixty-three queens were -succes* y ^ ^ of th b h F 

duced to colonies in the ^.^S^eekeeprs to be tested. Owing to the 
while a few were sent out to P"™J) k Island and the unreliability of the 
difficulty experienced in getting to uuc 



instant feS '" I,u ' yet 



70 



-?«3 



VGfLt*n i\- 

" ,lu ' foctthtt ( ;'"' pl, ' ,( '. fililur( ' s< > thai i1h ' 
and to estal LwV sl f nd f or the wi t,t V* 1 possible to leave the b e*^ 
P^vent bwSS,? 8 r edin g v:„ V* Was decided to abandon this ^ 
a » d j4Sl f'^ ®^£Ffig** using large ajjib^ 

. It is interest;? . thls yard y ar ' 1923 > ninety-two queens were 

apiarv has Wi g to note that n ruid 

'■"""tie? "mSlv 'r^'^V fnoS JW Production per hive to the <#• 
methods nf^ ln ! y due to the W ( ' M ( during the nasi emht vears. . ' '.„ 



. It is inter, V-* ™ tllls yard "~" **"*' ««*• ninety-two queens w«*' - 

apiary has hL g to note that tv nttfltf* 
c °n«ide?S^J'r idl ' ral »ly t^; ,T i^' Production per hive to the 0**+ 
"^^taelargerS^S the past eighl years &* 
ont rol and to a n ' " d ^ U8ed > t( > the development ;-;,„,,. 
5 "nprove th« s ' T!'^' 1 s< ' l, ' ( ' ,i '»" and breeding <>< " u( 
^der wav Z I rai " of bees kent. > 



S eth odsofwS du ^ toth eiargerS^8 the pasl eighl year 

the latter tendW t C ° ntro1 and tfanS " v '' s UHed . '" the developm< 
T here are ^ "3 Pr ° Ve Cfiffi T^"' S< ' l, ' ( ' tl " 11 * nd , "'"" <lin 
cental p ro £ T* "** *»y b fffiee h? 6 ? k( ' pt - 

Bee Division at Ottawa forty 



.five '' s| " 






71 




72 




THE TOBACCO DIVISION 

F .Cn^, DormmonTotaccoHus^an 

mn^ the then Minister of Agriculture estab- 
, Towards the close of the year }$**%££** for its duty the study and 
fehed in his department the Tobacco Brancn, ing and handling the tobacco 
demonetrSo? of cSrect methods of g^JSJ the use of tobaccos grown 
«op with a view to increasing, as rap dl> as p wQrk) d at ^ by 

in Canada by our tobacco manuiactur^ ^ ^ 190g tw0 asslsta nt S , 
°nly the one expert, gradually mc «■" re appointed, 

one for Ontario and the other for QueDec, w «- Harrow, Ont., and at tot. 
T In r^Se Experimental Tobacco Btat ons^.^ mam object 

Jacques l'Achigan and St. Cesaire, JgH^ in tobacco culture and they 
of these Stations was to carry on gen m ^ been conducted 1 1 1m 

^placed the experimental ^rXwod tobacco growers. This system 
Ontario and Quebec in co-operation wit» go°j he statlon at Farnham, 

had not dwa?s g^en the results hoped f«. J^ e , Th? Farnham Station 
Que., was established as replacing thatj *l S means of access and also as 

is of lareer area and much better situatea »» fa g tatl0 n. 

to obianting Shout difficulty the f°£jXched to the Experimental 1- arms 
R Late in 1912, the Tobacco V^J^ b toming a division thereof. 
Branch of the Department of Agncuiwi , 

Early Investigations 

• le expert referred to above during 
These cover the work done by the single ] i wag carried on in the 

the years 1906 to 1907. During tins period MMJgr c d rf ya 

fernSSttono pipe tobaccos grown J? ti*g£ o^ 
of Seed Leaf grown in Ontario, in which pwvm recogmZ ed, especially if one 

OVerpToductiS of White Hurley. "^JLdby those manufacturers who mr 
based one's opinion upon the v.ews ex p. ioj « *U ; 0ntan0 to con muc 

interested in this experimental ^thaM* ^ h of Quebec 

to specialize in the growing of W hi* Bjmj > h g eed Le af type 
to devote itself to the growing of tobaccos o ^ harvestmg the crop at an 

By setting out the plants a closer CUSga especially m the Yam- 

earlier stage of maturity it was found p osm ^^ of sultabl c g ar 

aska Valley, a leaf presenting all ^^interested in the preparation of tins 
binders, and certain manufacturers became m Coniiectlcu t. This was the 

Product, following the methods used m .the > st ^ gome )mllct 

beginning of the growing of cigai ^tobaccos ^ t th best 

published with a view to ^^3^ «n the establishment and care 
methods of sowing and curing : the cro] ^ t bases f the tobacco growing 
of tobacco seed beds, one of the most in y 
industry. , „ . 

Tobacco Seed Beds 

i »rmlicable both to Ontario and to Quebec, 
Speaking in a general way, ana apj idered some fifteen years ago as a 

the production of tobacco seedln gs w ^ t of failures therein. 

difficult enterprise, owing to the *$£ P 6 ^ too closely followed which gave 
At that time, in Ontario, methocts g in the Umted gtate8f 

excellent results some hundreds of miles 



/I 

condSons SSA^cHJ*"^ modifi ^ to meet the different di*# 
&?u^tta^ h rf ^ on the other hand, the •< 
harvested before autumn frost, W A P ^^ earl y in order that the / "" 
muoh f m + u and not sufficient - \ he .P lan ters to make their hotbeds '^ 
muchtoo thickly. C1Ultl > air ed, m which th( , s( , (>d w uriUa lly s ° 

bed ffl ^ "-der ^^I^g ^^ almost completely, i» Ogg 
tooh^L^^^aoteSkmiL? 1 ^ 011 the °^r hand, the se bC 
were always afraid would ^TJm of fermenting manure/which the ffO* t 
adviot f?^- Fai ^res ha Ve Li ' ' \ u,d whicb consequently they did J 
Si thc i Tobacc « Divfsion X mu ?\> 8s frequent since; foUoW»n« *, 
Protected and the temperaroros;,f? "^ )<>d * in Ontario have been fur* D 
earlv i/ esults of th ^v £1 osc "' ( ^><'<' have been Lowered, 
early years may, then, be £^7 ^ hy the Tobacco ,}ivisK,U 
The semi-hot bed ur,,W as foll »ws:— 

° f ^* ^ ** the ESft*S£y *■* superior to all other * 

Ihe advisability >.»« u._ f LC P«on of the exnensivo OT «ftnhouse. 



in* 8 
,yste^ 



of the seed hLfifX COrn st afc or even t establishing the seed »- ^ 

I , . bed so that it chills less rW **■«» stalks. This isolates tft« 

th,. ? C l mg g^erally, seed S , K the ni « ht - !•*> 

than T d h ° thos e under canvas! *"* Under gla *s furnish a much earlier pW 

See %^ d pelmntdeS Ured S ° U ' ab -t an inch thick, on the surface of ** 

tta^^ff i^ir? bed * *— «■ «* k,lls *$ 

steam treatment should last for tlu r t? mulatcs K^th. To be effective, 
riv« K e ++ S0win g of dry seed i« n Y T^** 58 at a Pressure of KM) po^ 9 ' jw 
gl ves^better results. "^ W «■* than sowing soaked seed, and g^ 

parts^SSEZ^f ? ■*■ a large scale, „ is well to di^ 
of thl T d beds should be ,ilT' ° rder t0 savc time in the spring- ^ 
^ sfid^^ During «#& 

unless the fro b . e exceeded until tw i n the bed has been found the r d 
SedkaE^^^toaL^P^ *ow six leaves, and aftejg 
As to 8ed and 1 he ventUa1 ' 

&S an ^StvS ^ accd »**>» «... necessity of rfj 

leavinfJhe so nlf g / he SUrfac e o?the bed '" tCnd ° IU * shown b >' s " m '' £?«* 
the L!Z * \ place in the frame T* & * Naming from the previous J, - 

thawsmoro l e i hotbed hl » SJtnrf" T» to ««• «* the 9urf MheV 
occasions Sc &' and this hmde^T^ 8Un ' but the depth of h c o 

l^,n !l T Ve mois ture. ier8 the development of the roots ai>< 1 

■ijunetm No 21 ui 
"Tob«cc„ s d B^.^* » »13 by the TobMM Divisi(m , anll ^ 

tion of the very Z n Ce of Quebec Sret J act ° ry even iu th ° *?* n£W 
bed (from J Z i/ aU Entity of s ( . ' bacco is P™™; (2) 'he denio^ e d 
of ventnatSS A °T ce **y Scordi^ T***^ to s « w 100 square feet oMgg 
tobaccok^^^^d at almost J° qualitv °f seed); (3) the pos^U 
grown, (4) the ascertain^ oTthf"' and in a11 P^s of Canada ( ,J 

g 0t the exact proportions in which elu" 1 " 



75 



, inll () f t he seed bed (about one ounce 
fertilizers may be applied in the P/W^ of soda solution used to ; stimulate 
Per square foot) ; (5) the strength of the > mtraw s of wat to be applied 

growth (about two and a quarter P£°*»*f feet S bcd)-this solution is useful 
at the rate of two gallons to ' t^f^g f late plants, 
when one desires to stimulate the grov^ 

The Plantation 

^- • • „ w encouraged early planting both 
In a general way, the Tobacco Division £-£££J plants find an abund- 
in Ontario and in Quebec. Early "^Jg* establish themselves thoroughly 
ant reserve of moisture in the soi 1; ^Jiht should such occur. Moreover, 
and later are in better condition to W«*£JJ* M the season so long that one can 
b no part of Canada where tobacco "JJgJ fc Ear l ier sowing of the seed then 
afford to forget the danger of early ^Xhelps in advancing the date of trans- 
Which is generally the most *""*£,£££ coincides with the time of season 
Planting in such a way that this ope depe nded upon, 

when favourable weather conditions may 

Fertility of Soil 

u • iri« in weight from tobacco plantations in 
Scarcely fifteen years ago, the yield* J £ » gatisfactory In some cases 

Canada were, generally speaking, '^S^^SSnil^,^^V^^^ 
these small yielas were due simpb/ to errors in even . Qn the Plants 

caused by lack of fertility in the soil, as m Quebec thls practice was 

were placed at much too great distances apart, 

almost general. , • tw0 winters, 1905-6, and 1906-7, 

A series of conferences was hjW- dunn^ M t the tobacco 

and the above situation was rapidTy Mg WW the different types of tobacco 
growers of Quebec know at what grtfMJJ ™ ^ edium Seed Leafs, and the small 
which they grow, such as Large S^LeaJs, ^ d ly pla ted 

Canadian tobaccos. The yields have "icre a Qf Jeaf from the pomt of 

fields of the two latter, and moreovei, the 1 
view of texture has improved. , ptween plants have been reduced, especially 

In Ontario, also, the distances between? ^ carried n on th e Harrow 

as between plants in the same row. IMJ dist ances for planting the White 
Tobacco Station have shown that the best 
Burley are: — 



White Burley Broad Leaf. 
Resistant White Burley 
White Burley Stand-Up. . . 



1918 

44" x 28" 

44" x 28" 
42"x26" 



1919 



44" x 28" 
44" x 28" 
42" x 26" 



1920 



44" x 28" 
44" x 28" 

44"x28" 



1921 



44" x 28" 
44"x28" 
44" x 26" 



,U* of experiments in 1918-1920 have shown 
. For the yellow tobaccos, the results 01 «P wMUj those of 1921) showed 

the distance of 36 inches by 3 9 V" n th es to be preferable, 
the distance of 38 inches by 24 inches to^u v ^ + 



as soon as the growing oi tobacco * « . gufficieIlt barnyard manure to ensure 
themselves unable to supply the son iall the use of chemical fertilizers 

profitable crops. During recent yean, * ghortage of barnyard manure, and, 
has been resorted to to make up iw chemical fertilizers has been given 

consequently, special attention to the use 



by the Tobacco D' i ■ 

profitable retain f< ^P«« J « toWo^n - ' Wlth 1 thl ' object of showing the v; { 
for the co^ 5 a,Ul ° f qualit V of or, J rowi ? K ' both from the point of **> 
res U lt s: -!° mpOS,t,on of the rno^t Vu ' hi W S° in order to establish*^ 

suitable fertilizers, have given the fo"° w 

(a) Su, n WHITE BURLEY (Harrw > Ont.) 
- "P«i Phosphate 320 lb. pel acre 



Q„i , r -• -"i"iu,ie. . . ozu in. per 

As ^ lphateof potash:;;; .500 

(b) Sulphate of 



- -s^S?.^*. „ t 10 to 12 £ ot ba ; yMd ,„ - 



* -~» "i amnion i-i 

Superphosphate. . 400 lb. per acre 

Sulphate of potash.'" 400 



— . at**-ar» fo »°»— , crop rach : ™ :„, w ^ 



«C:::r: w — >— > 



^7Phosphatr ma 1401b. 

Sulphate of potash.*.': 500 



per acre 



or: ~».«»ms or potash • • • 500 " 

(b) ss a ^—> - 

aS* blood 50 1b. per acre 

^P^pbosphate.. '"" 85 " 

The«H« ? hateof Potash.'.' 000 

an " s k 53 ^ '^ss&t- s *- "»- : •'■«- * 

th* it ^ rec!on >mondo,l thit h, ? y S P 1(: "1- to 

2ZK5?£«? ^U?w e fe^ - J be not applied direct* S 

s P«"s- YeU o v Ti rye B0Wn "' Hi e u , ° p - Th " necessary humus " •■ tb e 
Proportion of l 1 ft l, ' , '« ,s " lil,11 "<l . cwf"" *?<* ' ,l ""« 1 "" 1 under early % » 
be successfully ^^V °» KS ?£ d ripen * ate i "" 1 * iv " rfV 
tobacco using fK ' th " best practice* 1 " 1h < ' 01 '" ; "><l Sue cured tobacf jtJ, 
u utilizers on the Utter fcoman '»ethe com and follow »« 

Seed Leaps t? 
Sulphate of Ammonia Q ' 

siKr? late ' ' 300 lb. per acre 

TheaW^:l POt - h 14? 



^onoffcSr tWnofcon ^erci a l< r>- ' 180 
autumn at tl f J??"" M the , ' ' ■" , , J 1 '*" 1 ' "f supplementary to tf> g* 

tobacco, cerS ^ n ^ f ? bu 8bing under tb? P l 2 to Jn *«»■ P e * acre ni: " 1 '' ratio" 
crop of i92 i t wo d °y ( ' r - AccordnC t? i " V ■'' s '" 1 M furnished bv the r" • ,.,«, 
Phosphate o 2 Io 'n Pr ° bably be a h.:j l ' ,,|,llll, ' ;ili '»-^l'-vnl 1 ytl'«'' , > 

EmnWi-t f Unds P fir acre, J t ' f ?' i " , ' 1 '< ■»«'' the quantity "t M " 
lizers Sfc^^^^P^edunon^ Wder to ha sten matoity somewhat- rfi . 
the farmlse P lf 0n '"te** *^SKtti52f? 1*"^ using commercial % 
liters. However th ° are ' in °°n£^"2*?f ta of Preparing these fertH^i- 
over, if th^row ' t U \ mixed tPwSJ'fS?^* """"-y-mixed commercial*^ 
g^er has been able to stud v^ ^ VWnSfy cheaper, and, *°fi 

"udy hip sou and knows of ite needs or » 



1 1 

sition of his mixture accord- 
»t certain fertilising elements he can v«- the comP mend t ^ ng 

mixtures tried dried blood has given ex f nitrogen. As to pnosp o >. 

As to the method of aPP^.^SoS the tobacco rows, both to White 
indicate the advantage of apply" f J *£ n * oB of Virginia type. °toHr«g«n 
Burley and for the varieties of yjfi growers have gi ven < se < on u ve 
ment^ carried on in cooperation with ntar g ^ shghtl esseu s the o ost 
results. However, even when appha hroa ()nt;l experim^ts has given 

of labour, the chemical fertilizer applied u ^^ the tota i expense ot the 

an increase in yield worth from two to 
fertilizer . , „ rP sr own which may be planted 

In Quebec where those ifg^ SV^^^SSSt 
more closely together, applying the /S on has eonstanth lecommenaea 
the cheapest and best method, me 
application in this way. 

Preparation of Soil 

+1 land for the tobacco crop is 
H- time of "»-«^^S,t* ttS^hSf^ 

Burl'oy ia to be grow,.. W'Stft •*" "i^SE ■ 'fa P -"X 
harromng. in every trial the )"» » „ all tumn. ""r™";',,.. i arv!e of 

S&SSf JSKCS'Sl Lt _• ■ ^ „,„.,, , ,.„y ar d manure 
F OT thayeUowtobaocoj,theprecedm^»» ^^d^gtte^to 

taapplied. When not nsetl the rye which serv ,„.,,„ tdM«m 

should be ploughed under early '» £»Jg °5 and as much moisture as possible 

SK"* ' "'""' rt S " y the Mm. in the ou.uum In. been 

-lass shape for the young plants- f»» cultivation, etc., and thos on tne 
on the tobacco plantation, f ch .f c ! n d "uck(>ring, have not b een lost to view. 
Plants themselves, such as toppu g and ^ wlth th e tobacco growers 

Whenever the officers of the division om fulncss of these °P e ^ on *' ™J 

special attention is drawn pot onty to g ti It may be ^sai that 

to the necessity of performing jUwj >* n g Uig P en |ly carried on both n Ontario 
topping is much more car efullyj aa& ™* * and that a no table increase in 
and in Quebec than has been done in v 

the value of the product has resulted. attention from the beginning. 

Harvesting operations have ^«JJ£jng of the tobacco in time to secure 
These operations include not on ly th * gathe m g ^^ without injury to 
good and complete curing, but th « ^iuiSmum, and it must also be earned on 
the leaf, in order to reduce waste to a nun .^ At the present time, very 
methodically to reduce cost as m ^,; \Efpossessors of a special wagon for 
few tobacco growers in Quebec are no 



practifed fe Nation *£ Ration to th ,-min^' 

Uself. This reduces c 2 by ^the curing barn, and the pwbgj* 

« Jt has Kp. , ° nside mbl y £f ° f lovable scaffolds is &*?]> 

^ stem ?? titrated *** r<3( * uired in the cuBD * 

P^&^^&S^S^ BUtbn that brfjgl 
les ^nsthe r Ki th , e ; s ame tuBp d h ra «on of the c,^° Ssible compatible with P»J* 
peri od, and K ° f ****»£? &* ^ tt] Unng Process * considerabl ' ,,,1. 
# *■ KbS° re ? Ver t*&Sft% fromig°Pmen< of a clear colour^ 
fav °uredrwE after a t L ? hod f &?**' towards the end of the** 
a £ tu * CXL h Seemed to * * h «- the u^T is considerably ehe«*g 
n^ th * akl of USe of the o^^e labo Ur °V\ ths furnished with n»f ^ 
Xt bas been si apoint ^lpi e o rdlna ry lath Z J\ thc tim e of harvest, the* 
? ails i" diffi c l°r n on the p! l iro ninVtrt d ,F lroi 'Sh the base oi " ' 
T |uent ly A ' t0 k< *P b *, an . han * Cr^ hollmv(,n(1 ''f «'hi«-h tbe/ftV 
tobaccos inS (>s , **ri£g qR* c ondit* on "^ n j ai Station that the W t . it 
i , Th e geneS dforc igVLn h , e ieaf > whL" d diffic »'t to handle, and thjjrf 
Sft** the e StJ^ th ^ o ct rs - h " Serious when one is btfi ' 

**^^t^«tt^^*B«5^^gei in detail in Bunet'V 
Dacc ogroM n g ls «>ven to n A" ;i ', larms Publications. !»>' 
8 " ,,u >d8 best suit,,! to Canad' an 

^bat^r J nUou « grow ^^ 

I Jbe seed fig 1 •«* of JSJ?*** fo? »S ? ,h " «■*» of certain v*» * 
& ys esc apc 1 , k( i ComsSS^^tivelt^ 16 ' this practice incurs 0^p 

heV^^tsof? atl0n Penui?? 1 gr °^ yeaM m ' Cti(;ut Havana ' ' <"" 
IrttT ad vantalf;l 011 "» Sch^ ma *im£n A year u P on the 8flm fh?Vi 
are flowed. tage thereof, U a ?, d «e p5pSStf«? iuotion - Jt keepS *no «^ 

minim. ° ee, > and e ,™°"« toIS'. ■ "Ptoad L cco D '™ion, the I " ' r , 

|fcoo w &>Cr ■ asters &&£**•* 

( )*'« yc ar ° c ° ", grail , ' P"* We. „„» 

reatencd ,,„„ ' ol to cteve op to a <"" ,V" 



79 



r lx • • cr a finpr texture and a higher colour in 
Where one is desirous of ° ,ta ™nmence tl ie rotation with Indian corn, and 
the tobacco leaf, it is preferable to commence i tobacco following the Indian 
to apply the barnyard manure to that . «op. . after & hoed cro 

com is treated with the eommerc al ^^^andfree from weeds. 



like corn 
For 




t uiT v " B*"»vmg, jcuv" -- W, iinns IS nitrOClUCeu vy a, v, L yj V u! i«u ij*^ 

utilizers are mainly relied upon. ^ ™;, ou£ , hinK un der of the crop of clover, 
Ploughed under early in the spring. It pioug » regults _ The tobaccos 
«ther in the spring or in the '^umn has norj 5 s ^ ^ furnish & 

obtained on land so treated give a high y"JJ™ 
satisfactory proportion of light coloured leaves. 

The Fight Against Insect Pests 

1 ihn (surface in the seed bed until harvest, 
From the time il appears above tne . j a numcrous enemies, among the 
the tobacco plant is exposed to tlu .in. , . f k the p i ants mainly when 

most serious of which is the cutworm, win cha ttac^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ q{ 
recently transplanted into the held, cutting * le and when num _ 

the soil, and the tobacco horn worm, WDlcn »™ - the whole tobacco 

erous destroys almost entirely, and in a ^ely 

harv est. , .. mpftSU re is autumn ploughing, done late 

The most effective preventative me^ure_ ^ . e ^^ ^ ^ 

^ough to expose the last generation ot h rvffi J are degt d- As to 

feek in October. All larvse thoroughly txpo. c ^^ tica j method is to 

the cutworm more particularly, the ch eap ■ . ^ ^ b the „ se of tlu . 

Clear the field intended for tobacco m i th e spi =* poisoned with Paris green 
disc or drag harrow, and then to scatter Dran s Harrow Tobacco Station, 

^h,ch is readily eaten by the htingry wo ms. q£ araenate of lead at 

satisfactory results have been obtained irom ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ 

transplanting time. Before being tasen y, & ^ of powdered arse nate 

sprinkled with a solution containing an oun 1 hltion to cvaporat e, leaving 

of lead per gallon of water. Time is given 101 1 ^^ of ^ ^^ 
a white coat of arsenate of lead on jnejJJJ" before the end f June; formerly 
. The tobacco horn worm seldom < pe< ■ . pftrig greenj but ^ hag 

!t was combatted effectively enough Dy aua ^ ^^ effective and incurring 
generally been replaced by arsenate 01 u. ' , ^ conta i n more than one per 
less risk of burning the leaves as long as. it _ tions have been found to be 
cent of free oxide of arsenic. 1 he loll om ng pi >P ^ middle gtage of fcheir 

fully effective. As long as the plants have _no* 1 ^ Qf argenate of leftd fa 

normal development, a solution containing f bg ink]ed upon the 

Powdered form to one hundred gallons 01. ^ of tfae pJant _ Lftter> 

'eaves, taking care to reach, as tar wpw ^ lantation with machines, a 
when it becomes impossible to go *nrou* f arsenate of lead in powdered form, 
dust-gun is employed, spreading a mKtur eoj — ^^ should be made early 
and airslaked lime. In the lattei cs 1st, _ 1 1 ^ the vder may adhere 
in the morning before the dew has eV <^ e { arsenate f lead per acre is 

to the leaves as closely as possible *^ e y° ti wh i c h has reached its full 
sufficient to treat effectively a tobacco plantation wn 
growth. 

Diseases of Tobacco 

expects root rot, (Thielavia Basicola) , it may 
These arc numerous, yet if one e * J . d j gQ far been relatively little 
be said that the tobacco P^ n * atlon A?l^,t indicated for the sterilization of the 
attacked. In the seed bed, the ggjgjgH of root rot, and in a general 
soil suffices to free it of the genus o • nn n .^ ^ 

Way of all the germs of fungi- Un tat f" 



empknecUn h ? ° f Chemical fe7ffir S ^ For a time > 8UCCesS ^ ffi 

It has h ? Vy d0Ses - bu * t ( th an i ,cid taction, like superphospb^ 

of the oi ^ proved u P«n fffe* ms n, ' t ^ the result hoP*MJ 
to) accc hi the Seed be d, togetW LiTl T + u baCC0 Stati <>» «»t the dis nf * g 

crop will in TV ^ has n °t included th ''' 1 hau oncc hl four y ears an<l %Sl 
with root rot ^f^ly short Spat o ? P * 1 ** of <**"». or other leguxggl 
Harrow sStU AUh 1 ° Ush «* ffiSjiS^ P ^ in K ""'' Edition laud m ^ 

the aWetre au« 19 \ 2 and "ERffKg* ° n Certain |,!,Hs of the i, T nS ° 
Another r tl0n the la nd has Wn bec ° n »nK Prions in 1913 thank* 

ininrov^^/ , ent Years, 8 t>erf»l ■»**_, . 



>wi rot. 

The Selection, Fixation 
I i teen years a „ Im Provement of Varieties 

^T^'^^llrif^^a^ n0t "-' ** - Canadian tobac* 

Stte^^ — •*. « ^ C SteS 

of improved ^ r , le ™fc» of btrSri, lhe Tobacco Division immedia*^ 
a good crop S f nd as fixed mSSB 8 mt ° Canada "* of kuoWn ° 1 > 
the primary s," 10 .*£ and as SSSfS 8 ' *?<» which one might depend^ 
Broad Leaf $££ °' . thi * supply P ^ ^ UM £ 0rm as Possible. For Ontar* 
Kentucky ami a wf d m , 19 °? from the p XCGl Wrt ^' 1, ' ( ' t » ,n of White ?'£2 
source. RoTv^^^^t^ofThem^P^ 111611 ^ Station at LeXiDg S 
these | Wo g» Year these have £?* ' U ''"- v 8tand ^p from the B*jJ 

! n s Pite of tlu\ uar amon s the w^^ 01 ®^^ as "Canadian Standards 
been difficult tTSL'P*™ £vef £ S 0l °^ tario > and - in certain y ,' ' > 
^ Quebec trSn P,y , the ^and ^ gr ° Win 8 of seed'at Harrow, it ** 

^SS» bave bee, fixed. fi£ 

^Ported directly fr ^ to the CoSSP"?. ^ "<" Point of view oi > , a 
Connecticut Br oa dT , Wisc ^m ffi f Which c ' an b * obtained from f^ 
year there are dHvtf\ General Grant Tlti ap £ lies to certain selections ^ 
8e « d ^saynothSf^ m ^bec300O I ; rtt ^ H ™a and CaneUe. ^ 
ers' associations g ° f more <* less large ° ^T »*&* " f <* oice tob ,S 

As a rule, the plai fu rnished to seed houses or to P^ 11 

da - g ed by fro ^-e between , fc^^ W^year^b, gjj 



81 

• • n has demonstrated to 

" le grower the steps to take m order idizat ion. f er bags until 

^ quality without danger fromby br, theuae jtP^^ f h 

In the seed production work it wi d and then in of the later 

^sufficient number of seed capsules un(ll about twoU 

Rowing the capsules to ripening open c perni^ /^ J ecds are allowed 

J lv f taken on the characteristic ^^\ ter results, than it the 
fed S o me days earlier, and gives much dot ed r to 

t0 "pen completely under the bags. d is distributed °r elimm ates 

sp It might be added that before i the J ia separ ato r . g & h 

^edsmen for sale, it is cleaned by useO I J ^ f this carefu^c lant ation 

* ot only impurities but light seed. Tnej vigo rous plant 

?"»e uniform growth in the seed bed, a 

du d a better crop. 

c Tobacco 
Fermentation ot i 

tation of the Canadian Jj^rv^ 

toh The first experiment in £ «£-££&$* «**<£ ^f^ 
, ob accos suitable for pipe or cigar ust'v lftced a ; ou £f notes on the aroma 
**"* the winter of 1905-06 m *W*tiJ afforded to take » rim ent in tar 

^ufacturer. An opportunity was thU£ wa pU t unde * tobaccoB were 
* these tobaccos, and although the JK«> thereby. 

J 00 moist a condition, no damage was entirely tor 

Sol <i to a small manufacturer who usea 

BULK F.**^*"*' ^^ tcmpera ture 

v .The fermentation was ^T^S^iffJS^. 

"acco i 8 w from becoming brittle. ha kmg, the si he next su m- 

^er rup t e t l TVtu I nin, over Jj^flS* to ^Jfcigaf^bacco industry 
Pfeked into cases, Wisconsin type • ninp f the g 

£*. The above experiment was th* I industry had a 

m Can ada. , . v our experiment that fermentation 

f Two years later, convinced by our £ .^^ s01 tmg 
f ^tur e in Canada, independent manufactu ^ 

Chouses. ,nmenced these ^f^ble on the Central 

., The Tobacco Division reoojainggj was ava 

^e winter 1911-12, as soon as a surta ^"take 

Experimental Farm at Ottawa. ied n m f ^ts are liable to take 

n Bulk fermentation, such as is «J _ The ^roa f turer8 object to. 

Connecticut, was found rather ^j^hich tobaoco _mas kmg proce ss 

'.'•'.a sort of sweet taste, (plug « < u ^ com pact, "jSling it down, is not 
1 b« occurs whenever the bulks a re to tobaCCO and 

car ried on with the object of airing which t he 

carried on with sufficient care. a compact ° q{ moveable 

w In all cases, the practice oi buddn JJ^ ^dtot ^ & ^ b 

forkmen stood was found defect" e anu tour of the n^ g > h g 

««*», which would mould the «"»^£ny raised as 4JJ,, on ly, a bulk 
^e workmen stood. The frame it ^a under their own day h j 

this way the tobaccos are bulked do settling afte r ? lf rapidly> but no t 

^hich has been rapidly built "P *^ t ation establishes 
°* about five and a half feet. J el ^ t odour is avoidea 
to o abruptly, and generally any sw 



82 

70to 75I" *°-r k u- p ,ts f ermentSon i! av<ml eHHkfcthe Tobacco Dft, 
leave the^uE ' ahm)heit and at an CT ? an - a ™"" temperature of * (1 
condition ?f Vi uncov ered. i n d^«I ^ bumidity of 7.', to 80 per cent, < 

on the K,' W d > Wl v fl.x k T° UtSK,e of th(> bulk. These, wit 
in view of t S , ° f + the han <is, whi, h n , r , In j?° <'»"' sbould there develop m" v 
of the temperature of tin n" ^ d, ° ate a to ° high degree of httfl»d*> 



F ° UCED S ^^ T) 1N Cases 



For binder tl, ^ W Cases 

ft toM5d2 ^^o^S^ d &ost practical method under OgJ 
». about 90 tr M ?l hr ^ d tMdi„ , " 1 ;' il r' ^ kept at a tempera t£ 
modified X ent hum ''dity. KfL^spberepracfcfcally saturated, <%, 
ment S'if^ w »*take.pl t ^C?«, l lM >J rooms, the tobacco, are rap d £ 
w hen putT/thl mS ° f mou W which T C h ° Nooning, preventing the dev< | ( , 
fi ^*e P d the fiL? ^ 1 At th " " d of a bo , P t r0dUCt "VlU have con J, 
the aroinais cW i C ° lour ll:i * been acmriS "?*«*» the operation is practi ,• • 
f^edhtW^^'^^etobacc^' the toxt " r " <* the leaf is mod*** 
to sweat once « 8e S f the ne *t s , "" U "" s ^PPle and may be consider*™ 
bought out of + °r K Uring tbe h 1 t / ,rovid f d it contains sufficient m<^ ',„ 

? f this during thT ho ? room ' W^Xf* As a ^. tobaccos which, » ..,. 
However, S ,5? matu ring p Pri( , ( " 'T^mes a sweat smell, free them^ v 

when the tobacco^ 8 ? ^ I*5JN5?2 *? ^ f, ' <,m '«"«' 1 " Sept TeS 
aCC0 ls too dry when talL J° Wly ' and sometimes incornP 1 '*' ; 

Ktn from the sweating room. 



NATURAL S *^ in Cases 



, B * this method " IN CASES 

SSa^i^PbSft {ft- * sorted into its varying ■*£ 
*hich m^y e c r cur \ 8 T b ^ted to all th^ 8 ^. ^lo, and left to itself in a r*g 
ft first, the real 8w;» t Und . er these co n dftff" ,at + 10nB of temperature and hum«3 
tobacco growSri + n ° Uakin S place umSwl *£ ere is «& a ver y li « h * >» 
««ellent rSs ft in the Un?ted a the hot summer weather. In cer*g 
r^bthetoTaccoi?!^ 686 «^ dS«S^« this meth °d ■**. as a i» „ 
^ r two succes S i Ve " bjecteddl »infthoir tlrely "P on the temperature 8 ^ 
Wlt h it, a ith S J v , e fears at Ottawa ,, K"^" This m " th(,d has ,,cl '"/ I'- 
*?*ket the fKw 1,ght lea ves ' 8w t , , *** ' f ?und necessary to give it JP 
tbe. leaves of TS Se Ptember or OctnS "".""''entry to be placed upon*? 

«** in S ufficS mm T} 0r Father S&AtSS*^ ^^ *° ftf h" ' " 
on account of th' !i s ,s a costlv I ^ °' *• first sweating of which * 

the danger of tearing the 1^^" md h :thv!l > s ' l delicate oP^ 

In ^ of the f ,, fl SPECUL SWEATING PR0CESSE « 

^ ^a^^ r agSSSS n Jf *°"» ^ the Canadian tobacfj 
The experimeS JffSS ^ in Ohio t ' i',''" f " Hul »J«ct certain filler toba 
as te tobacco, aL n^ durin ? the v ^^eatment of Zimmer S P a» "J 

^^4stS-iotof^;!;i- 'kj, bemgtried. ,.;;;;;,, 



i MW tobacco, and thn aurin S the wbi+„ r :Um, ' nt < of Zimmer »P»"; o0 
proved in au wayfc ^ «W1 SS ^ 1o " 16 ' ■»*»« tried '"^ S 
had been preserve J anfl th i S proce ^. & + ibe lat er lot was oon»der»W 
, 1+ A lot of binder tS CfllK;d ' an d the W 8 * ha<1 been reduced, the an"" 
though the colou ° Wa s Cf : ° f th ,* 19 14 ha S ^ Was ^amaaed. . ,,,,,1. 

. ur was considerably 2 X* St Wa f also treated by this methj| f 
y darkened by the treatment, the reS^ 




•r.ws induced, Tnis ouuuj. —~- generally pra^-— « 

™s latter process, however, is s b ^ treated by any f the 

t0 be made up in cigars. , Lea f type, ^.however, is to reduce the 

^ , As to pipe tobaccos of the bee j u , mlc]K} , I wv, , mimmum . 

Methods indicated above. Ihe "J tobac cos to the veiy 
c «st of handling these medium-pi^ 

75617— 6J 



If they are baled on th t 

^^Xf^^t^Z^^ to ° — * -isture they jg 
a w ^y a S to £t f ^ bales JSffffi?*- - Thie ' ,l " l, ' ss Bhould ' b ° S 
PPtside. It woul, a le Centre of the I w ta , kfm down from time to time in f< 
high, and S pe a Snl ? Pear ^geroifs to Jt th l oso wl >i<'h were formerly on J* 
tobacco when bl g d g ^ erally > ^C on e k^' the8K P iles niore than four Wj 
*°n in rooms where Ih^ Safest "*5iod is t^ ° f the sta ^ of humidity of** 

Although speak' Su PPling of Green Tobaccos 

= 5^rK52^ moistening Kreen toba ccoB befog 

J«ng vaporCm 8 J5? te th e hum dHy'ofTl SUPple b Y natural means, that * 
f mg with a lot of toL at a low temperarl °. atmos Phcre or, in extreme eg ' 
edition from one °i ,a f C l? °J the 1922?^* ?f* * dded to tr ? ^ "dr • 

|°^^R^ ^olStS^ 08 ?^ ^opment of */« 
? nnn 068 of ^arborl toi a ^ alhlc by tE' e f ' th , e water used to render tb«* f 
1,000. on *te to 10 gallons Vf wntl ° f carb onate of potash at the rate 

When taken out f tl ™ " &b ° Ut the P ro P ortion 

B ,^5 K^fe'^x weeks of sweating, these tob< 
Jquid, m no cafe w as ZT thou Kht to fc Even « those hands which at « f 
was a very agreeable frS? n ° ted th at cook. T'f 1Ved to ° g reat an am °" b> 
, The use of an a % ° dour . slLX ° dour ' but on the contrary tb e 
$*dy sweated and ^ Sol ^n in thi ammonia cal. 
his lot had been subrmt?'^ whit « pots ^K* 1 ** of another lot of tobgg 
rt a ^y trace of baftJS t0 an «5Sc2 t0 the • ,1< '- 11 "' of bacteria, f* 
na and ^ndered it al.L SWeatin K, seemed to remove fro 
fillin saleable. 

T 

On ti, TT va "eties at pre "f S()1 "e oi them may not g* y, 

s km, etc Urin °co; Virginia rS Lon g leaf r„ l r, . Adco<*' 

nonets «*-u of h " ^^BS^ 

-d^E^ a ~* ^resting pgj 

hurleys t i ry Prior as ren rp jf t the tob acco n rn f Va f ieti es which at the pgj* 

Stand TJ* he a ? c hmati Z e d P SP f + tlng th e yeU ow °i Uced ir * Ontario, that is, f% 

m U P, and Johnson^ fe 011 of Wb toV U , e " CUred ^baccos, and, g & 

s distant B <»te Burley Broad Leaf, White Bur^ 



„ raav cite that of a special 

wv , In addition to the varieties --g^gffi *? *«#f$£g. "Bta 

^hite Burley originated by the Tobacco ^ £jg^E those of 

J*tf and Gold Leaf and tested for 8<*£J re an d greater cl f ™ tte toba cco. 

"*W variety, on account of its finer ^tgWJ future as a "igwett 

^0 ordinary White Burley, seems to lav ^ pi isi n had^cur^typ^ 

, . In Quebec, after having made sure i factu rer, specia 

^der tobacco giving satisfaction l to ' «^ ies of g««< '"J^aroma would 

jven to the possibility of establish ng van whether the . imented 

Used na „;„„_ «n„«„ tw> main point w ;_, nnr tant varieties f .,„„„.- 



t 1,200 pounds pw 
: strength less than ■ 



g*«rte and the strength less than tna, require 

0hl °- . u r „+ least that of Q u « bec ; r u is tobacco has 

. . The Canadian Zimmer Spanish, or a q tobaccoS need * ; After th 

? strong fermentation, such as ■"W^g 75 degrees Fat jenne j th 

be en fermented in bulk in a room at about ^^ m a hot room, ^^ h 

^mentations, and a maturing period ot *» £?£ ejected with the 

Packing of the tobacco in cases, th£ JWJJ^ as might be M 
the exception, of course, of such impi found tQO 

a g«ng of the tobacco. he Canadian Little Dutu Qbourg 

^ Speaking generally, the aroma oi tne ^ As t0 the £ * found it too 
f onounced by the manufacturers who w ^^ manU factur 
f Belgian variety), opinion was "Viae , ^ ^ 

ar °m a ti c , others favoured it highly. bec keep then- a* btaining 

, The Brazils grown in the P^thtigh we have Jjg^ the weight 
^ast the third generation. However- aiU t C^f^f^ mp etition with 
a yield somewhat higher titaagflfjjKto estabbsh rtwK gjg^ t0 a cclima- 
\ e £ acre is too low to enable this variety BraZllg gee m a which lt 1S 

°.ther varieties of fair yield. Mor^ver, deBtroye d by ms 
«J. Judging by the number of P anj- jn t s of Quebec 

ne ce 8sary to replace just after tranflggj^ funu8 hes in cert 
. The Cuban tobacco (Vuelta oe au j atio n. furnishing a 

a * aromatic leaf until at least the thud g selection of Cuban^i rm.^ to 
v . , The division has succeeded ***g$fr sufficient |o^UW b 

yi( 'Ul of some 1,200 pounds per ac re, w The problem* < ^ E n . 
«° nipete with other cigar and P>f ° ^Cuban tobacco comug^ wl h aye 
yied since we have delivered the On t good repu mix( , d ^ t h 

?fntal fields of the division to mantu * loyed notong rf excellent 

JJnittod thai these tobaccos maybe ^j m the m amiia 
^Ported Cuban tobaccos, but even reproduced 

' sars - a tried at Ottawa ^JJJJ to a cclima- 

t . The varieties of Philippine toha^ccu. Some seem <u emperatiu , ;s 
!'e characteristic odour of theMamU»t ^ scep tibihty to tnose ^ 1S 

^ e in Canada on account of their £•££„. HoWCV fn the 'province of Quebec 
*hich sometimes occur early * f^fsome ^*f winch was finished m 
a J exception and would appear >; ( the gating ofw cntral Experimental 
f a £ a cigar tobacco. One l°t f^^n tW warehouse at tlie u resembled 

* h * course of the winter of l?21-22 » Jg e As to ««J{JC^ was sufficiently 
farm, showed quite exceptional ^ quant f tfa middle uj and wra ppers. 

J. h at of the Cuban tobaccos an the text ^ as clgar bin 
hn o that a large proportion of them could 



tt Rfl 

intc «w produS ^^ di «»'^ ^. ; ; i,n, 'H ,n '' while even with ( "'. in 

, , 41 ^he Aurora a W/\ '"* wbi <* could i < '"" M ""' " waste, or at least » 
R* ? petiolate ft? ?° Wn in OhK& ^ d as " cigar binder. , f ,Y 

Cana daathi yjaf of rather heavy w the ni,1 »" of Mexican, is a vajj 
^^^•^iS^^Owlif^- Although it, has furnished 
*ould be subjecTedt,,! far h *ve bee/?!!* \ the m °s1 full flavoured oi "> „.„ 
these conditi STfiLtt Steon 8femiSn d h ^ e - U is the sole variety * ( , 
£ crha Ps a little i„ T lc « » fill,,. ; *g» which is ,„,„•! ised in ( >hio. \ : „ 

factur, rs . l0 ° loud, but consul '"" s1n '"^ and of a Bpecial »> * 

with i the pres ent time «. VCry ^^ble by certain *»° 

S^K-; i jjgjjjj n h addition ng * 

without speaking of S„ ° f accU ^tizeffi*^ I " :,i,ll >' Pown in Ontario, » 

ext.n e - G ? neral Grant tv «*P«touata \- }? U "!" r <"' cigar binders and ^ 
extensvvely in (g^* *Pe, varieties , , k *H* Connecticut and tol>< v „ 

haS '"^Ufe. * the -P^eg^^^ 



87 







Vision of ce REals 

L -H.N EWman Bg 

is to i" he fun(>ti on of th C ^ ,nMn Cere «K««- 

& g<&& mcSlf P^fefl ' '- Experunental Farms **j 
cW? nUnion eoSL* he (litT "r"> L ;, 'V ds ' ' , " i,s > be ans buckwheat »jj 
vS^T^onsfSt^^vwyiM t s .""'""Khoui Canada. |< 
varieties differing in u obv iou s that ft' «? a m »rked extenl both in soil «*" 

d - adaptabUity to those varying coo^ 




Proportion of\k ^ and iCr aew sorts were i ? auy K(>tl *"?• „«'- 
qualities of p '? e 0ar lin<ss , f ' °, n - These™* ntrod uced under the >'■",. 

tln * Passed, the Sf ;, r - C f ein «Pite of the object**} 
ese v ar, e t les became almost enti^? 

00 



89 

olthoueh in certain parts one 
^aced in the West by Marquis described be ow, alt «g ^ fc 
occasionally eomes across these vanrt e^g dual ^on mPj£g ^^ 

^ftern Canada, on the other hand B ^*™ ded most highly tor us ^ 

gje present time this is the vane y wom It 1S certainly me o ^ 

^ario, Quebec and the Maritime Pro£ d ig capa blc of *^ « han other 
^oupous and productive wheats known weather conditions rf()rit 

^antage on light soils «* «*£ffi£5 Canada on account of the P 
? s : It is not recommended '"H?^ _ Wi ni a m Saunders 

0f Marquis for that part of the D-JgJ originated by ^rj^ to-day; 
_ , W the many new varieties ?t cert wheat, are we 

££<* his assistants, a few, in addition to £ ( , ;u ., and *^jW^y ield 

J? ^ have the Arthur pea, a product a 'T tliere is probably 

£* we also have the Mackay ™"^5 C Vnada as a ^^comparative 
^ ut somewhat late in ripening. Ti ^ly as has the Mackay 
?° Pea which has stood out so promint importance to 

ak in themselves, of immt nse ^ founda . 

While the above varieties arc, m " tor Saunders for W valua ble to 
g**U, yet even greater credi* » f due WW en so extreme y 

g°n for future work the results of whicn 
a&adian agriculture. 



ian agriculture. 

Varieties of Wheat 



Varieties on ^^ ^.^ posi _ 

t . In 1903, Dr. Chas. Saunders i«gj"tf £S "^trkl'n^ametlo 
£°* he held with great credit to hnn> k up h e* ( , scended f ro m 

health forced him to retire in 1922. J teria l wh ch ha ( er 

Possession of a very large amount ot * :issis tants .1 « *« <u to appro v- 
S» crosses made by the director a> d m fleeted MJ0 J, ismg 

} 'is material was very carefully worked ^ ^ varieties- i^ b ^ 1( , s( . 
e n d modern methods and yielded *$$$IJ a careful mdhng an _ ^ ^^ 
$ .these were propagated and f a Kw sent ontothebrat^ QV 8 

Those standing highest in these tests were , d f ro m among idered the 

^al- Of all the varieties discovered and « Marqu ; ^ Fife and a 




above variety Vari 

A comparison .fl Canadais mere is, l y ?, on8 «ierably, yet all are agree? 

of the form e r *%££?> is Probably the fef ^ frura Red Fife wh " ,'i 
Farms, it i "hmv ^"^ to figures obtSrS ft means of measuring the m<"' ,. 
Past five yeaT,T t - hat ¥»"$» ta ouK f .T 0ur *«•& scattered brj»g 

were devoted^ w T ^huates of 1 1 , r ,', by approximately four bushels P<f 
Allowing for ' tl p ?"*«? Canada to the "T °- f ^stics, 21,665,535 ^. 
usually conside rfl w aCt that the yield obt s S.? UCtlon of <P*« Wheat in 19& 
l^nce Vum™y greater thttSatSSfc? ft,?" ^"mental Farms J 
bushels per" VI \' °? the average Mar«- ed throu ghout the country, £j 
1923 wa greS nSte , ad of io ™, S'JS^jn&M* Red Fife by only «g 

area was devoted Un ^ ls assuming that on i" 1 !t Would ha ve been had Mf 

yet I"" 6 ^^ftt^SS^S. " mUCh greater than H W ° 

^fiSV^-bS 5^ attention and deservedly * 

t0 their probable llT *"$$? ^g en? Ue W U . Ced within recent years. So** 

Propagation under sn - i ^ CXS 1 ^ more than an °P inioI \; 
Particularly earlv s ^ Clal edition! <? ?£? y d emonstrated their fitness ^ 

* u by Ottawa 623 °i, n° neede d, suVi SP f- Cial Purposes. Thus, **g 
ttawa 135 is now 2£L G . arnet Otta va 6 52 m,tles M ^lude Ottawa If* 
wheat was seldom 5? Wn to a considerable I"" 6 provi ng valuable. PrelufJ 
on the average aha a l te t mpted and a lwavs \f tcnt in diyt "cts where formerly 
vield and has an™* w ° T eks ahead 3 j ° Wn - at ^ reat risk - Xt roat T r 
flour of high bakinf ,2 ° n . ally hi gh weight H^ 1 *- This variety gives a »J 
, . ?uby Ottawa 62 1 gt n- P measured bushel. It produce* 

: ; «s e s ttawa !;; ua " y *- — ■ -* -«* - M ., ** * »»« 

account of It, earl&L f r^ Se P r oved ^ p a rVi?.„, F, , fe . many pure-line select*** 
also ha, larger kernel k ? matur es about ' Y distinot and noteworthy °J 
° f the sharp p £ ls , an a somewhat /hhiJ**** earlier than Red Fife, »» 
qualities of the d n h ? ad of Red Ftfe I \ ° T Square type of head inflJ^J 
Jstncts where Re?^ 1 ,?^ ^and'ha n^ *> e fin e baking and null»»J 
^/^^onbastl^^butXifft^ ^ quite valuable in oertjg 
of its susceptibilitv S ? t n the nam e 'Slv ^7^? to ° lft te in ripening. ^ '" 
ru «t is liable to occu? t6m rust ' this sorUsn^f? Flfe 0ttawa W-" O n acC< :" 
UF - 1S not recommended in districts ^<" 

Among then "** °« Vf*. 

^^ a S5^»lKS d ^on, the two hulg 



9 1 

• tips have not been 

£**■ in each case being the ^^VAojiS 
E?? ° n a ver y extensile seal.- as yet, ^ boU | he absence of huljurro 
gft* districts they may be .HWWJggg ^tractive to W to than 
to+w md mak ea these varieties particularly Liberty ripen. r 

J" 1 " feeder of young growing stock, eflgjWJ , be same tune ^ s 
BoS V T arieties as Banner, while J -aurel rmens aoc , n „h, , especially* J^^eties 
S* h Liberty and Laurel produce a air > « ^ , ts [ !U1 ding feature of both 
£ to consideration the absence of hull. An excelled 

th «r superior strengl h of straw. t of ordinary Banner, u 

th Ba nner Qt 4() e line selectaonou ma de Columbian 

the latter in comparative trial tests where suci ^ d im are 
Other promising oat varieties proau ^ , ft 477. 
^tawa 78, Longfellow Ottawa 478 and Proline 



New Barley Varieties 



■ • f barley P^uced by the^^V 

W- Al »ong the many new varieties of barieyj a 60 , Bearer 

^ ln g four deserve ' cia ] mention: Uunei It 

^§111 Ottawa 57, a?d Charlottetowu 8^ ^ fj" J of the 

is B e a rpr is a six-rowed variety paf*™*? very productive at 

br^^hat late in ripening and has prev commercial 

Dra *ch Farms as well as at the Central Farm- selected out of ajom^ 

bar] ^hine Se Ottawa 60 is another »«2d Jjg under the name oj^^ 

8 rSL^PPoeed to be of Asiatic origin ^ g ™ era ge, has yieldeu 

m J / L awa ' this variety, in an eleven-ye* Hrac tive appearance. 

mor « than either Manchurian or O.A.C. 2L of very attract^ v^ 

Tj nl .puckbill is a late-maturing, two-iowtd , te s tr w g ^ f 

S e - most two-rowed sorts, this vanety^S j s and in ' mbinatlon 

gjj is also of fair length. It '«gj. v " g sufficient length. oiW°™ suitab i e 

JfeiTfy best. Although not tested .for .a sumo promises to 

ff h la te oat varieties, it may be said that tWS^ ^ Victory. 

,0r Rowing in a mixture with such oats as m j^rfmental S^tion a ^ 

lot, F harlot tetown 80 is a selection made at .^ q{ the Chevaher WP 

Z-\° Wn > P -E.L, from an old two-rowed var y proyin ees, part* introductl0 n 

oS (>ty is ^commended for use mtfeMJJ ield ing power. 

Separative trials have indicated its «PJ"£* 

18 of undoubted value to Maritime agriculture 



N ew Varieties of Peas 



New Varieties u. 

. W as have been P r $X y Ottawa 25, 
Several excellent new variet.es J* foUowmg: M»W 
g°«g which should be mentioned •pij'Jj Cart ier Ottawa i The 

Ch ^ellor Ottawa 26, Arthur **£» ^ Black ffdf^). This 
Tie». acka y is a cross between Mummy gs a blacK 

e as are rather darker than most sorts .* n £ under tie 

* a v «y productive sort as already ^jfout of an old sort » valuable, 

sam Chan ^llor is an early variety selected^ ^ . consa dered 
es '7. n ,anie. The seeds are small ana y» ne eded. . . . in turn 

es ^all y in districts where early varies a ^Kw id of medium 

Wn Arthur is a pure line selection from « d K ye U0W ^an d 

J, a «oss betwe^ Mummy and Multipy. ^^y gives a good ^ f 

t0 ^rge si ze . This sort ripens rathe earty hur . The seed y but faas 
mp , Partier is a cross between Mackay ana ^ time as 

2 U «> size. The variety ripens at aboi 
Prov en rather more productive at Ottawa. 



92 
N *w Varieties of Flax 



'aueues of Flax 
borne verv viln.n 

Ottawa 53 ffi™*° n of fibre ha» e LJ ,et , ,ea ""Hto. both in seed !"'"' , 
™**y ovov 1'°;™ » W> »ed P od™ r sou *'- The vtriety , tfrfj 




The, Projects Under Way 

S'SffiS^Aaraa"* < » % 

Moratory technique, and milliag ■* 



93 




S 



I 





™ E DIVISI0N OF F0RAGE PLANTS 

G- P. MoKowi., B.8.A, Ph D n 
The settlement of ^ ^"^V* 

SSSS^^^^rt-vTUgSft^-^ or *• development of dJJ 
-nee C^hfflSf*** object 5ttfl^!*2W M D6W »**» 

in the natnrni ?, b tu a8si st in Bolvim, m "' Experimental Farms Br»» 

^SS^S^^T^S. probIems that continue t0 a 

"SaSS d «* e^t :i" ti^y ari0US P-blems relating to ft** 
division to look after this tl? T aS consi dercd advisable to #*» 

Pnase of experimental work. 

The funef ^^ * ^^^ 

or strains of S ^ wlt ^Ur,. s i &?« the most Satisfactory f?rf 
The crops ° PS ' ^ t0 breed im P roved Vftf 

^^1^^"^ S e est the ."*** of the Forage, Og 
horse beaus rane j 8UI L fl ™ers, and mL° p f ,, Vanous ki nds, alfalfa and ctovjj 
sunflowers and S ovK C - Becaus ° of the W fw™? fora ^ cro P 8 as soybC '^ 
practically Stffr 8 ^" 1 * C^ll ^ the grater part of the eg 
on by the ForaL f L^^g and im^enU? Prc ? duced for forage purpogj 
One of th h P D . lvisi «n. Provemen t work with these crops is c*** 

^^^J^S^V^V 0f tb * improvement of S 
Riding capacity are ?" rt"''^^ 1 ™ either by* (i 
mixed popilatirm £ e ,-, constan tly beine ?*+ hat P lants of different typf *L y 

individU Jo U P lkdy t0 b « compo SdW?" Xt is obvious 'KS 
yielding and otX- r ° ps are n o «S3S? ♦*£?* desirable and undesu > , 
yield of oSr ^ ™f .^desirabl e indtTdn«V h - S ^ T »>« P«* ence ° f S 
necessary to L t °iH <° dder cr °P 8 - Tohl 8 ls holding down the **£% 
• This can ti h t ? ** low -yieldiig pffi* the yield of 8Uch cropS ' 
inbreeding The . ^ ma J° ri ty of for,!! , ' bf 

to be inbred fW^ 8 of »u4e li "1?V a,lt ?' most efficiently be done J? 
purpose. ForXK^^^or^l^f 1 ° Ut by Protecting the P^ 
through the instrum bk r alfalfa and otW i° f V&nous ^6 *™ used rfed 
cl oth is commonlv^ allty of insects Tl egumes ^at are cross polltf^S 
grasses which are cr^", > r the S*?,?** made of an insect-prooi J*J 
Proof cotton maLSf 1 by wi mi-ea ri ed ^ Z ,f 10n of Plants like our vtfjj 
experimented wHh;tiou a qUit r Sa C r'S*^ made of some P*^ 
the manufacture of * ^ , grados of materUi, , Fora «e Crop Division ' 
several that, under L^^ ^ woStion ^ and methods of construction ^ 
excellent feoffi ?o£^T* ™S?JT > ' n * ad have finalIy perf °$* 
are used. From X** Wlth good sets of V? Contral F arm at Ottawa, S* 
separate the grSt^^ 8even 8 ucce 8s ? v i"^ * lth the P la "t« on which *jj 
component tn 1( br5E ty + ° f • our ^mmerST 110 " 8 of self fertilization K 
needing strains. im <ici a l forage crop mixtures into tl» e 






95 

their component strains 
Wag T his separation of our commercial £*ffi$&&* the attempt to 
b* 8 ° n « of the first procedures of the Jo rag • P con(lltl ons ; . ft 

^^^srsaasris^s^ •«■ crops as groups wi " 

be s t eferenc e to the improvement worK w 
8e rve our purpose. 

Hay and Pasture Grasses ^^^^ a Iarge 

Porti^^y « the most important grass ^^the first Wj££$ 
C 0D of Canada. As a consequence .t was o^ number of appamty 

Sfe ment wa * begun. In 1910 ,rld These were P.^Afscarded. 
Sfe* ty P es of Timothy were co lected. ' listin ^ nsh ed and disca 

^ mbreeding until the undesirable tyP«W Seed from *g» JJ "Vhis 
C?{ ^nty-four desirable types remame f comm ercial timothy "J^ of 
35£? and tested against the best ^*JL° distributed under the " 
C„w° of desirable types, which is n0 * *S t ive tests at the Vf^fxtures. 

to Sl^thy, has n ^ failed '- in ° Ur S Kffi over the c^^^gpTpure and 
81 ^ at le^ fifteen per cent, increased y ^ Bed are being ^kept p ^ 

are K he strains «* which the Boon timothy » «» m ^ ercia l mixtures, m 
t 'motK Ulg tested a ^ainst Boon timothy ana haye 

m °thy-growinu sections. „ mo emSS and Western R>e gra 

been ? WcBtp ™ Canada, Awnless Brome g™£ ved strains of each ^ 
RrS, f ° Und t0 be the most satisfactory. imP that Western Rye M 
not l ' S are b «ng bred. The discovery ^f lt was self-ferti « ed like oats 
a^^'^f utilized like most other ^^Sary to «»J*£f ^rations 
able .T ley - As a consequence, it was only ^n« > in succeeding g 

in Dle Plants and keep the resulting pr <^J3yderi«ble rfgM were 
S Jj* to establish pure strains. A / rea (i " g commercial mixtures by 
Profit, r ay - Some of these are ° Ut " y Red Fescue, Tall 

^^ftain, of Orchard grass MJ** S^P-,^^ 

ay ar >d pasture grasses^ alfalfas and clovers. 

Alfalfas and Clovers ^ go of 

tl*^ -d pasture types of ^~£$**> f"^ 
ab?nrl ypes are P r °™g their worth b W« types, however, have 
N2 Seed cr °P- Th ° CX . trem H aTaU abundantly- ided per ennial 

A ed an y Progeny that set seed at W »" ^ t shows a nee ietieB 

tendi Strain of led clover haS , been Zlbfe addition to the improve ^ 

afe° y and which Promises to be a valuable g carried 

*8& on the market. Improvement work ^ clovers . 
° Us sweet clovers, and with alsike and wi 

Field Roots and gugar beetS( 

fall 2S" ** -dud* breeding and impr^men t* ^ cr^fhe ob, ect 
ha h" d B *ede turnips and field carrots. ^ ig the most gap 

Va ion? 1 t0 "certain, nrst of aU ' W , hlCb r f any of them can be profitai v g 
ACh^ricultural areas of Canada ,* £ JJJ^, of any d strict w^ ^ 

to th P rYi n g determined the peculiar requ most desu-aoie been 

grow . dltf erent root crops, the various types &ny particular typ 

*£hli r u tested ou t- As soon as the superior^ gelected type 1B begu 
labl i8hed, breeding of improved strains ot 



9G 

Tntef 



S^SX^^el^aTlS Ottawa:* I„ J^d drains* of *jflj 
andof Globe ml „',- A """ d ' a KJJSa ^. Qm£ improved strains * gj, 
sw «de turnip Sn 1 at Sidn ey^Bcf e ,' S^' a » d at Charlottetown,^ 
*«*, Nova 8 C o£ g P ?°P a Kated f or fll A c ^-root-resistant strain of Bfg> 
t^nips are b£*» a »? See Edwa^fr^t tested areas of Ne* ^to 
strain of HatfJ«J T *P ed * SS Island - Improved strains of* ed 
fi ve experimentfe^'te carwt £\£» aml ** Ottawa, and an *gjrtf 
ntal Projects are comnrA • '''' K developed at Ottawa- li 
mpriSed m the work with roots. 



The low cost p C ° rn and Sunflowers 

Because of thit • m the acr eage of these crops gr° 

be followed by th ; r Pn The ^ore, thj £ fe abl « decrease in thi vegetat.v e f tfrf 
the natural hyfi v? mb »Won of ffi atlon of P*re strains of these croP^gJ 
wmch the pure slravn g ° Ur P°* ss dt !| 08t d ^able strains in order to ' ,-,,„» 
Ration of the rlos " W ° r,> i8 °Kd V^ ^ ma ry commercial m*** e ^ 
«al variety i n thatfh i mT&h ^ strains i,\ hc ,nix,, "•" vaulting from * ^ 
been rec 0gnized ha a t *e poo r yidd&fe^er, much superior to tig *gV 

hvK 8 h , as been fomfj^ted ffi£ *k 'tnerwise undesirable imhvidua 
hybrid plants that ?^ that the 22^ P rocess of inbreeding. .,1 ^ 

eristics of both i parSt the fiwt genSat-' 8 ° f Unlikc varieties of cony . )!iri . 

ng but lig ht S>«- Fw SSft' P08 ^many of the desirabj^ 
yielding ; dents win ^' $** corns S a cross between one of our earfXjJ^ 
as the flint andy e f 2JJ»t gen^tff <*• of our later-maturing "'" , 't'"' 1 " 
fdvant 011 beha S ll T st a * he aV y\ P ants that are almost as early gg fir* 
advantage to extend +? Crosse * beZ™ dmg as the dent, parent. // go*" 1 
gene A r arge *»K , he /rea m S» unlike types can be utilised W 
generations of faftZ* desir abl e S 3, U corn can be grown profitably- f tj 

£t^V e / trai ns whSh r -, a ve ry tZ a Y! ed on at the Central BWgJfflj 
instead of the badlv £- Wl1 °«S»ueT, ^ditional generations of 0*£jj*l* 
Stati? Xt ? sive work n^ Xed C( »nni 1° lm '" d true to type will be *« 

have b at Ha »ow On t 7* K3ff ff 1 ?* 1 tt0W "»' fcbe ^ >«»< 
nave been secured fr^ Hor neofthT K has bee n begun at the Expe'"^ 
States. At this stir the c <> n S£?* c «rnmerciafv rie ies and P ur e j i |U K 
fc" 1 ^ as S&v'^ Pro ^Sl B6 f 0M "'' Canada and the ^ J 
thatrir cty t( ' st * wl 1 ' s ***& ' : " I<1 vari eties will be origin^ ^ 
divtded ^^i n ! W ^ains or !' av " been condu rt Va ^ OUB agricultural ^nes W$c$ 
1Vld cd lnt0 ten ma?n ani,ties wouS i !' <l 1,,r vea r8 in these zones *pi 
nain ex Perimeniff p b e . best suited. The work Wi* 

lar P a rt of the c Pr T f tably grown and in such areas 
cro P rotation. 



. , „= tests of a 



bl hay crops, tests of a 

To meet this need ft. ^^^^Z^^^^^S 
& ld ^able number of different annual «og^ hays lt has been tfae 

1 e n v madc - In the teste of oat variety i«g in anV local. g « ^ with 

S a m ! ari °ty W^t gives the highest y^drfg of ^ hay. Jj j^irity of the 
£ anety that l m,,luws thC Kfd tTdetermine he **£££ per acre, the 

^e, experiments are being conducted to a« ai ^ stl ble nutncn 
2Jf at which they give the largesl amount 

Whol « work being divided into 9 promts. Te ff grass, JWJJJ^ f 

bo . Various varieties of millets, Sudan «^ g f these, «« *«J1 a* ^^ 
W h a ^ual and biennial, and various msture ^ ! _ hays. under 

av^^y ^own plants, are being j^J*^ or com bmat ions o 1 country- 
& lable boating which of the various p^ant & ltura l aieas 

6st » the most satisfactory for the different 



Hay and Pasture Mixtures 



Hay and Fasrux* ly 

, * the cost of its m amte ; h a c Agricultural 
( , 01) Wluaever live stock of any kind is kept the . ,& J** « ^ 

S**at on the abundance of the hay ana^ ^ortant con ar 

« , '^ i u which lt Ls locate d. One tw deternunatwn « the peculiar 
auction with these crops, is &***?%$, that will be stme extensive 
er ?!ant or combination of .fodder ■ idgg ^ at ion concernmg 




, Collections 
Botanical Investigations an ^ ^ intro duced 

fora A rep resentativc collection .has a , ^M^t^ , ^ fl S!^2 
! S« Plants of Canada, including ■ s;i1h1 specunens, |ec classified so 
a 'Ve grasses, amounting to seve a * ,, ( , ing ro m °3 Farm an excellent 
Province of the Dominion. All of these >» Bbcpenroentai ortu nity for 

fc %*« will soon be available at he Ojgfa afford a g^fassistance m 
fcWum of Canadian forage plan ts. 1 ^ ^ ls , g dcter mmation. 
the ^ tens ive study of our fodder pi ai its* . ucnt ly sent m marshes 

thc identification of specimens which are i ^ areas oi d t ed 

in A survey of the vegetation «<^ oV ^cotia has been niacfc up th e bu k 
o ; he Provinces of New Brunswick ^V^nne what i • > d for r added 

o?; v The object of this survey was to de*er ^ b(J substit ^ quaht> 

2*fe ° xisti i vegetation and if gj«55 of the resulting 7 
°- the present mixture to the bett en tit)11 . 
01 Cl »«d bay obtained from the areas in qo 



75617—7 



Methods of Conducting Fv„ 

col , * co-operation with th " ™ ^ 1 

^StrTT^^^t ,° f . Ca ^dian provincial *P*&2 

it L *JS2!^^?®2S2SS?" to - 8aiB additionaI inlor 

manner that 11 y d , esir able that evt„ te ex P e rimental dal B . ,, h a 

results be obt^ r f ults Gained be It lm ° ntal wor k be carried on in su< ' 
mentioned slrili as qui, ' kl v a* iToo^T 1 * :is P° S «>>1, and also tb»t«J 
inve S ti gat0IS ;, ' "^^.t i": 1 !;?"" 1 wi,h accuracy. The previgjg 

P whom they serve mowTc C um?I mati ? D fchat ™ U enable them *>&, 

accurate results i n the shortesl possible ** 



THE D,V,S.ON OF ECONOM.C E1BRE PRODUCTION 



R. J. Hutchinson, Chtf 
History 



History 

fc of the Fibre Division, the 
f act *» compiling any complete chronicle^ of the jg making commons ^ 
4 ^ must not b host Bight of-more «gS^«*^ rf f?^SS^ 
tl^ental and research work c» n ff^ ne inauguration * » ^Xina- 
mil 1 ] 10 growing economic necessity ^V^ tb fibre plaats reacfieai* 
ting V hviRion 8V««M experimental *»* ™ als0 forced uP°n u * t0 abruptly 
th?? 4 mt at a moment when the necess ty w m&tevm \ had been ^ 

cu 3ft? of flax products after the . ""J*** Bgg-g^ the 

inoVi els ewhere. In other words the 01 . t ion of a *«» however, the 
£ 7 t!lll y- the determining /actor m^c P^ t gj howe r^ 

v!!^ f °r which had already been teemy* the early efforts ,oi f tem . 
shon,!, X ! Kenc y of the war rendered it ^^duction at the expense 
r^ld be devoted almost entirely to higher pro^ 

P ° r 7 Postponement of purely «J«B*KS*yta »«^SS France, 
this f , •? Mtuation with respect to the Mien Belgium and IN ° r ion . 

Ch d ' Vl,S ]° n Was founded-was briefly » "J^, ta Germany s posses ^ 

0th Producers of large quant U ies of A^JX 1(II . tlon to its i * B 

recoj^' on aeeount of its ^.^fflhe mature ^^S evident 
^Ogmzed as the best known materia^ I he war advanced w hinos 

^ Lv + Crea8in « importance of the air ■"g^g mo re and WJJJ'Jgffltfai of 

in^nitary authorfties, hence each year brougi L tf n d canvases of 

flax°r ti0n ' thus ~*«»i a great °f,ctme of lanyards «*"£* <£■ eof thiS 
Varin 01 T :ilso nce ded for the manufacture o fac tureis, in tne riaI 

W* dnds > us ed for war purposes. Jf£* men dous abort** »ol ™^ tte mpted 
^Precedent demand, were confronted by atren fa t had never before a h 

to nl'f ° rts *«" made to grow flax in gggj :U le to g j£ * » aU the 

Ea?t A^ e H ° n a commercial scale. A M< } 1 a alld „, .Canada ^ 
net /, fnca - in Parts of Australia, Nf? faults than Canada. 000 

£tit lds *#*» " one gave "T ffrfB war only amounted to so^ ^ 
acr? on In Canada at the outbreak ot tne i ^ he did ne of 

8£r ,?» Chief of the Fibre ^f^ldian togSfflSSto encour- 
t , n and for flax fibre and the po^il^ ot ^ he cou kl render ^ 

4* demand, considered that the jP*^ du Sn ° f . fl f i^tSg forth the great 
Wh'l ; v,, ' v wa y possible, the greater pwou published settmg ^ the 

heed , U ^."hject in view ' a ^f , rg ng the farmers of Cana 
,, ltl) a . f or lnien as a war material and "*«" * iUust rated leC ^e & t t he stage in 
8*2 by producing more flax. Numero ua tfa op up to to f.^ 

„., • ? r owors. shnwino- (he best methods 01 j 19 i9, tne * f 10{) 



*hiJP? WMB i showing the best met 
„ Cr > it is snlrl +,» tl.o sninning " 



ar. P „ V " " W1 "» 'he uiuano j^> i/--, , - n -. to arouse uiv~-~~ ... asa result 

o th f, flax a( Willowdale, the object bein^ ° Jltifyin g to note, that, as 

o S2 l0Cality in th ° gr0Whlg ° f ^flax Produe'd in Canada increased 

acr, ? G Various efforts, the area of flax proa Division under- 

res T In 1914 to 20,000 acres in 1918. groW ers, the Fibre ^ 

tooW additi °n to the assistance given to « ice r the Product 

S t0 s eeure for the fanners the best po^ since practically n 

Was r eady f or marketing. This was very n 
^-_. oo 



the C • 10 ° 

produced? k n nce X thl 0Wers had any i dea of i I , theY 

acquaint the EurnVf 7 Were n °t aware rfA 8 Pkning value of the fibre thg 
^ Chief o the i Sf^-^^^ X t . ? J nu ' ln:i,k " t value. In order to 
to ^vea«£^^P 1 *wJonhar a iuM?«? a *^ ;u " 1 V:lll " > of Canadian fig 
Canadian g^f te ^ m ade. j£ j ' . ,ll >- oi flax shipped to Europe in ordj 
grown in <5^«J?» ****« un T T W?J rvi8ed U,i « ^st ! " fche ^Jfflrf 
war marketed in £ m the y <** 1917 to ^l th( ; ^ of practically all the ftj 
Since JU n^? 6 ' «* balance wi Si , Th( ' "*& Portion of this A bre 
from BekffWy all the flax p ro X, ?* *? ld to American spinners. , . 

this shortage thefts ° om Pletely f r * & lon of Belgium and the revolJ**} 
h ad been grown c " f ,° f «* lit? 8 "$&& of *« seed. In v** ° 
ml wW^ a 2 l S^^*^imi^ V K^^ a quantity of seed tb£ 
me ^t undertook S atde Partmentt«f^ tot ^ 

se ed was imported d * the «*<*« were mr > t lts Value - This the Irish Dep^ 
resulting ££** *to Canada S^**?,** K was found that wg 
lnt0 that country T?T J 8801 * bfirt Canadian soil for one year, ', 
source of seed suL mh ******* w "? t4 n did any other seed SmP°2J 
flaxseed were SS', and ' in the y?i l^fo^ * ake advantage of this 
^Proved most ; ^eland JsowS o^ T°'-T, bushds of Canadian gj 
19 1« and 1920 wh"? able to Canadian fl- In ' sh f:irm s- The saving of s 
Naturally^ n ^ P ri <» receiyed was* sT*' ■P*** during ""' " 
were being S a fi? 1 f u * a demand for I ? ° per bushcL fits 

ambiti OUs g fo r a ^ by the sale (I f 1, !'' ™ed and when enormous prog 

abroad, but we ! r 'r 1:i , nim * of ^sZcuT? 0Xnc exporter, who were J 
hf d the op Por 7 u e ni ri v ther T demrous f secuS 1 °! silence of Canadian > 
fi bre Production w hl Vh Fortunately Jff what Profit they mighl while tig 
Q s ^e of the fibre Was Qot ; > fibjeCS' ?? me sml wa8 sent to Ireland *J 
should have been tt yP°*ted was w " 0l1 Producing strain. Further*^ 

gamed m Ireland T + Would Sf »on have | ] ,' ,,K :U1 "rferior quality of &% 

government inspection 7%1 therefore de ', !'"' Ration it, had so recent 

Poses With tWstnTin ftbre flax "oed t 'm 1 " 1 ^'!'' to have a rifO*g 

franch, outlined a d ^T' the Fibre SES" 1 frorn Canada for seeding P u / d 

f °™ and this sTandar?l ard to **** aU fc * cooperation with the S* 

♦ Du "ng the w«; aS emb <>died £ t < !? s "«' <1 '<» export should <*» 

^^ork&ata^Pt 1 ? ^ the attenti " ,l ( '"""'"I Act , ,a 

fe n ^t that^l^ch^^t^ , ., ; 

More opti mum gjg d eal of experime ta vv'"','""'' 1 - However, it had ahjgj 

««Psmthiscount y 's r i ll<1 h " "Maine 1 t?^ WOuld have to ,,( ' COtl f& 
b «ng asked:- Iy " Su< '!' mportanl ,„ ' s ? e Kr " wi "K and handhng of gL 
luwh lUestlonB as the fofiowing were repeated 

ffet^ft^^acanfla,! 

^ ch ^ethfe? c i^^ 

{Jow much fertihs 7 n are best? 

S fc C!%f' Jl ^S , iftft "-■ i^iv,,,,—- * 

^bieharr'+V 1201 ' and which!,; i 

19l 7 With ^ object in e<,U< '° (1? 

^ tta ^ and^atlr^'^ "^ ate fl ax mill was built at Otta** J 

the results of the dftXt? ^^ »Si W 1 " shi| ' 1J "' flaX ^^' 




Retting Expenm— ^ fa ^^ 

ta^e qilontity of nax r tl^SE^rf 

yiel S W f h( ' n the flax is retted by the above me^ nax >«^ per 
than «? number one e rade fibre J r T/from dew-retted aax. weight from 

aan /hat of the yield of fibre produced fron were kept o^^ scU tching. 
elevJ? U i? n S the season of 1922, careful reco ^ „ d f Jf™? cent ; retting, 

Itl en dlffer ™t plots of flax after each ^Pg^eight of 34 ' *? JL f tow remam- 
10 5 8 fou nd that deseeding caused a loss » ^ the percentage 
UtoK i and breaking and scutching 36-08 pei 
b be »ng 4-40 and of long fibre 8-2. 




Tests of Flax ^^^ ^^ and hailing 

of fl T he amount of arduous hand labour "Sj^idn £ well Ig^iffjE 

Po Ss * ^ to the stage when it e**"*^ flax growing- ^t effor ^ has 

beS SSm S e ven the slightest know^f^ earliest ages, verj eliminate or 
been gr ° Wn a » d us « d extensively 8in + ce tn to. other cops, gtage wh 

red? made > in comparison with th»t a^ g this plant up ™ ^ ^ 

fUce th e old, laborious methods of preP^ ^ , g due to the &nd 
recl!? ld to the spinning factory. Per ^ re labour w j ; have changed, 
lit^tly, flax was P g r o W n in countries ,^- on , but now condition ^ 

S*e incentive to reduce the cost of P rodu £a P Max W ! r f va Td indeed, there is 
C C ° Untr y where S reat I" 1111 *, 1 *, 10 its pre-war quantity , and i The 

vS r - ab ^ to supply anything hke its P^ igt for several ycaj rf flax fi ^ 
Hne7- lndlca tion that this shortage may b rma lly 1°* S TC S industry is a 
fc industry is still confronted by an a br ing prosperity to tn 
ruZV 8 needed mo^ than anything else 
* "ottful supply of cheap fibre flax- 



■~ . i JJ oaucinsr thn J ^ gaged in tr^ r „ "• -^very country "",\ P 
"nposs.ble to hwvest fl aW , materi »h UnSFX * find ;i "»•»■ of lowering <' 
th ere are three oVS ^ b ^ a "v other 1? Vory m 'ent years it was belief 
capacity deseedS.^ ft""** **£? «?E? ^ * hand pulling but no* 
o7!^- ried a «d SinToS me i las l >een intend P "". on the m arket A !**£ 
for Irftmg fl f ro Z^ entor of theflaxpSr h ' Various scutching devices bTJ 
of In Canada wh e t iT^ ^ prac «cally completed a mach»' L 

^bouS v t n g d iS;o #SAJ? Jj5ft but where there is an .bun*"*} 
compete snc!e S 7 u fe n m ^ b ° i^LS?* *, flax ' the introduction g 
the Fibre Division T„ ,? an ^ °thcr flai * * H enabling Canadian growers J» 
tsa lm the cheapentl^^ welcomed aK nS 8 ?"»** For «* r?S 
such device to Ca2„ the cost of flax nr , h i anical invention that had f<J 
tests under Canadian^™ ,?■**■■ ha? be^^n The suitability of *g 

ondltlons have ttaraa sslasssS 

^e method f TeStSWithB ° by ^^a^e 
S^yS^^^^BiiW "?-* - use at p— J 

cons.derable'effor?ha s P £ S1Ve and "aSfifX 1 "^ KS^fh W-** 1 

a machine that would ot * Put for *h by fn* dan g er ?us. Recently, however. 
of scutching flax t^ OVercor ne the manv 7 ", tors wit h the object of evolv^f 
market which'aec^inTt 11 V h ^SaT^^ of the present method 
old method. CCOrdln g to their makers are ° W ? number °* machines on th e 

During the S pri n „ dec,ded improvement on tn« 

stratum was wator JL? y , lts Woi 'k- ThJ a Belf ast, Ireland and was m° 9 * 
ela-med for it ^«*ted and the ^***hU| was 5S h to*****; 

Arrangements wer ly did a11 that its inventor 

SSPff^^«*S7- - ^ machine to If* 

nbreT 11 ^ Was Superior &3 ^^ed^^m this trial. The result *■« 

i^?£^ rtb «»k^a£^ twl ^ffl&^ ? i ? e was wel1 cleaned li 

o d rnit^ 1 fibr e from the f ^ Fui 'thermore e V° Utched by hand, in that ' 
oidmethodofseut^^ the same amount 3 J ' th f e w *s a slightly higher y*£ 
gieat advantage i n f«!' The output in i-l Hax str aw than there was with the 
re ^ed to operate i{ aVour of theBoby ^K! 8 . Wa8 u ab out to" 'same Anoth* 

Chlne ls that no skilled labour * 
Trials „,:.,. ^ 



Trlal8Wl "">e W -,e ttedPIaj 



T „. A ,'urther t rial of f . ~ '"' "'""'"ted PIaj 

and the retting VToo Lt l } e ease of water-retting, * b ® 



™r-retted T« +k hiraw that has been a*" 
retting pro ce ,, „ le cas e of water-retting, t»° 
* Cess g°es on uniformly upon every 



103 . . ^^.ase. The flax 



£&*. p^nt. with m^i ■rsatfirtfii £sSa 

>* the S|,r, ' ad upon a grass field in not s u bject gome parts i 
^t ^f Se m water-retting, consequently, tow ' satisfactorily 

o ft* ^ore thoroughly ratted than are other* not scutch satom ^ 

fla * L a \ found "P<>n trial that tins «M eh m gettmg ti>e ^ ^ 

cle ^itTl hat Was dew-retted. The difficulty W ^ , nU fae U ;nul 

" »•* &?«% This defect W *t "Inch scutched 

Vv at er 7 A' 1 '' 1 h;ls since been tested at Ottawa 
' ~ re «ed fl ilx successfully. 

^. puller 



t Flax Puller 
Trials with the Vessot r ^^ ^ ^ ^ 

p f0v S ax for fibre has always bees ^«*Hyl£ & oT<^&^£*i$£ 

m.j llr ed delusively that cutting tins crop b> , rcdu ces the ^ el f ul iing 
a lway" y° r y materially the quality of thefi bre a hanica l device 
^S>? considered nntil recently tb»t»J ' impract f able b idea that 

P In n r ts fro » the soil would Nure the fi bre a v n esso t^co»ceived £ g 

? ^ach; Cent years a clergyman-Mr. »• J- , The important ciate d 

rft^ Could be made to pull flax f <*ff m Ichanfem ^/ n e was carefully 
b * tie V k Cana da of the invention o ^fj^.Vessot's jnacbjne Jf of the 
S?« Division. The principle, of ^ r warran t the co-oper ^ a 

divi s ,1 - ; " UI d ^ve sufficient P^se J*> J* out his ide« >and tU at le „gth, 
^chrnl Wlth Mr - Vessot in aiding him to carry ^ QttaW a un f tl0n 

»n the'" A nui "ber of preliminary trials were ^ m d a stage o^ ^ Q1 

^C a year uJ 920 ' jt was felt that the , ^Z A machine was s hiPP there and 
N «- MLS* 110 demonstration could be P* 1 "^* test could he he ^ agsist 
•f i> r y's Florida, during the winter, ^Vould be built m 
th Gh oved successful, a number of machines £ 

hAr vesting f the Canadian crop the next year 

**„«/'* Florida. 
Trials at Glen St. Mary * ^ ^^ leve Undjon- 

tai n e d h !, field upon which this trial was ■^JSSdS^.S'S very dry 
and C0 , a)0Ut 2() acres of flax which was rati T h soU ^ rf us 

^dtt amed ' occasionally, patches j/jgg* 'Flu- test wajabo dltlon8 . 

a 01 '<>. Which made pulling rather d. H J ^ ftVerftg e Cggi* on ac- 
T hero« a r w,,uld generally be encoun^^^erous '^"demonstration 
^Tlr 8 Very encouraging. £*»*££ present at thej ld pre - 

i 1 ^,.,, , s " n "' minor adjustments, but ver; sound, ana defca ted. it 
l^t* the prineiple of the , mac h ne - j puller had Hen about 

\v as f( • l »un.st tlie feasibility of a nut ' j cltyi cou 

25 hf ! ,,d that the machine when working alld use d 

aS pulle rs. ^chased by % ££ Our exper- 

to p^fter this trial, a pulling machine was P* Clinton On »ri the fl 

WE^Bf* ? f tlu- 1921 and 1922 season* • P yery good wort ^ to be 

18 if' 1 tld « machine has proved that < * 0° d haIld pulling 
rps S U l g ' but m places where it is badfc loag 

led to, in order to get best results. 

.„.„ Deseeding Machine 

Tests with the Van Allen ^ .fooling" *- e - draw mg 

^ « fibre flax is "- 1 T +,^rs off the seed 

f Cdf , method of removing the seed from W ^ t which^tear i 

>>oli indf ;> of the straw over a comb-bke «»»J ^ taken^tn^ e This 
Vj''«i flax is then bound up in bundle • ag by a , cleanmg » 
°PeratT d bolls ! "'e broken and the chaff rcmo reat deal ol 

ratl «n is very slow and expensive, as it enta 



104 

tog^r S^^cSSrjf S ° n the first *— * in using igj 
between th P n,„ lead of the sheaf fSL^ i W ° pairs of metfl1 P ullpvs set .S 
all broken e a ?dt e if S ' Wh j ch «**« inwTrd t^A &nd P assed thie or" four ttjg 
ripplingatkw 6 S - > '; d dr "P« out i, In * n « way the seed bolls are mos^ 
besides sompnf, rapi<1 ««»«& where !|, tms method » much quicker tjj[ 

The ^r^w^y ?£fi&r* of fiax has to be desee 

SaSSfc^W^S* b - -vented by Mr. Van ** 
thresher Thf t° n * C0 W^ P Sf *l " M foUowB: The attendant ptog 
are left fr J^ f m , s ° f «» flax aVe 2?VT s thc sheaf f""™" 1 i,,t 1 ° 2 
a scries of roller «" W with by the W ^ between belts and the be»J 
s « regulated tu' Whlch c ™sh the ^Lk f,^ mechanism. This consists i J 
deseedtglS ""8 ° f th " "A w££fti T J e PJ-ww of these roUe* * 
A 1l C ; ( - T ^ e str aw i s aft , v lu ' n the fla * is passed through «> 

to Purchase ono ? &Is We ™ made fSf "S^ tied ^kicked out . , 

fer one ££? at Cr'f by this 2 "Sgl me b f ore ? was finally *'& 

the straw SLi C mton > and has £™ ns n,i,<1 ""<' has been in opera"" 
inamamie P r S S ^ thout in a Vwa y g n^/^''? h ' nt satisfaction. It d^jg 
to attend it T i ° for ex P°rt, all in ™* T g - the fibre > »* also cleans the se* 
a Physica imS fe ca P«citv of C to^Ff 1(m " ^ two men are requj f 

of 1922. This^in J* avera Ke amount ,Vr\i e , ed !t with that quantity. 

^thesamemat eederis P° r tabr a ndo« i d &t Clinton durin * the "l£t 
ame manner as an ordinary Sn^ be moved fr ™ one fieffi to anotb* 

j M<un separator. 

Thelatetn Te8tSWithFlaxL ^in S Machine 

^o Stt^F 8 ^^-^^ fl^ f^ 8 b r —*■ the attention^ 
Experimentirivm f S A 1Ven ' lt a Prober *f £ff the s P read ^ d - Mr. V egj 
the stage where S, ° ttawa - Although >!i ls Upon flax s Pread at the Ccn , 
^bel Ul0 CeJ2 ^ ^ t ^*canbeTd^+^ chm, • '"is not as yet reacbjj 
clus ion of anot herT There « gooc fe, ^ is a ° doubtthat the ?*#*£ 

which will ai^ma erS aS ° n 'i Mr Ve X>t w]M ° beHeve tll!,, before ** 2ft 
materially m lowering f,,..'.' ha ve perfected this mechanist 

" Cr the c ost of producing flax fibre. 




105 , l. t select 

Oe sample from end. PWj^^Jdbe iw** **} c 1920 and 1921 
C Wr 8 a »"J warehouse, where they f C0UW ID ^ of the 
S W; fl Th i s mc thod proved very satisfacto y beeQ & ffi0st 

.J 5 n ax has since been sold. f fi aX would »>> . oper ation 

>%t^ al * radin g « f ■** a 1:U ' P ' Crade ^ 8 ^±t^noattemptbaf 
Sul d ? d tedious undertaking, because, to grao ftll this flax e _ stl u 

S m$? lmence ^ the time of harvesting, ana acc0 rdmg to * ^ t 
th e ,;'[', at any time in its processing ^*°^° approxim^n ° f the allt y of 
>?* sent from each producer ■with J o0 d idea o kctm g this 

S fcgft ««* was for sale, gave fcepjgg^ gained J»f ^ ad van- 
? a * CV rom which Jt was chosen - ?/ a Canadian crop oj n be carc full> 
tage oTt P v. rOVed that, in order to dispose of a <g ^ „, m ^ m whos e 
&ad e i th e producer and the satisfaction « ^J&yed by «« 
clu tyi«' + At Present a competent g raa , • '„ t his work. 
y ls to visit the scutch mills and supervise 

Outline of Work Undertaken ^ ^ . g 

of ^the fall of 1922> the flax mill at gf-. CSSi tha, * «*«* 

<k^r ftb0 ^ * ° f eXPenmU with eleven d^tfSKf 

Vfc^ Tksts. Tests are ^SSS^^V^S^t^SS 
a M oS four of wl >ich were imported f^^by the Cereal 1£ flaX broadcast. 
, Si r ° m Ja Pan; the others were originated ^ tQ w faW of m0 re 

^he^NG Tests. It has always been the pra ^ leg cond ucted at 

>f ' ason offered for doing so is that 8 *™^riineB * fShig. J"df^ 
?tta^ t ( hameter is obtained. This year j»«P me thods oh» ^ subject* 
Sutn Pennine the difference between tw broadcast^ was about two 
tdSl^i^ditions, the plots that «2£gStly l° n f r Te sts were also made 
?4 at' 1 U ' r heavy r'ains. The straw was *£ y ^ Jes* ^^ date s. 
Mt h 2Sl- r m ri Pening than that which was *> d Wltb sowing flaX 

S °wm g difW„t amounts of seed per acre ^ mat urity »* J£ d point f 

SSt V r iN0 AT DlFFEBBNT + D / T m S tlTe T Canadfan gg g^ that the rip* 
bec aul;i! harvested is important from ||br e It w k this doesno 

J Cro U p Se , - « interested in both the *f* ^ality of *•*&, of *f * J* * 
a Pplv t ? ni( ' s the better the yield ana w thc > ■ g ftnd s cea 

^li h 1° - the fi bre. It is, therefore, "f^hen bothjgj * determine the 
° (, »s W ? most economical to harvest flax conducted returns from 

>Kftft Th i« Year an experiment is* Maturity and 
th e It' f. harvesting flax at different stages 

a PPhc a tion of artificial fertilizers. is being made u J 

* I*r»r..- _ _ i7,«««. An enoru flaX & ou 



to d Po J LUe nce of Soil on Flax - L,IBW . J r: h i e for prod u T« number oi ^. u r" 
JjAft ^hich types of soil are most .suit al J&jdB^g f Chemistry. 

C7H from a field at Clinton, Ont., *V° by the Divm &rea as tne 

"8 process. 



Extension Work- t a ■ 

ye^t£ST n > ver y citable fTt£™T*' {t a W ears that this ^ 
flqv o«j settlers m some parts of A the P r °duction of fibre flax. For »»& 

are vTry S*^ ^fe^T** have been en^ed in groJ$ 
quallt^of fi r 1VC ? d entai l a S'K ^ Their m *ds through oj 
by more LSf i proc uced could be rn,,^- ° f hand lab <>ur. Furthermore, t» 
stratine bett^ rett i n S of the straw Tf lm P r ? v ^ by sowing better wedjj 
Caraqu'e" NB "S^ of ^mg flaxX?^ ^ W* in ViCW ££5 * 

In add'f community. 

thTmo^S^^^ a series of experiments «$ 

seed to sow « Va ," eties ' the b^TdU %° b,ect of these beir i to dctert^ 
in order to di^ ampl \ s of hemp seL 1* ° f f edin « ^ the proper amount? 
fibre. ° dlaCOVer the suitability d f TuT a ?°, sent to eleven branch F^Jjg 

Y 0t these different places for producing ^ 



107 




*HM 



™ E DIVISI °N OF CHEMISTRY 

p «ankT.Shutt,MA DS r 
The history f ft, r« ■ "' ' Dominion Chemi8t J 

It ^S^^euff^fc 18 ^ ***** from the establish^ 
Ottawa to ho r 88? m a s tnall room °™ m 1886 - »■ ™ rk W!lS , b 5 ' " f 
manent m»«T? o re ^ 0VP(l at the endftf equ, PPed as a laboratory in the 
Farm K&J ln the "Mni jt 11 Jf** and half (June, 1889) to mo ,,, 

thAotto"v aS an7 S . firP > «'" f? y th . at *« «** on the tSo ° f 

wasroadvforL dlt - was decided!!, 2 a ? acci dent, destroyed the pterw^ 
laboraw l l Cupat j on b June IS&fl T 5 W"** chemical building-' f 
original K'^ nec^arf tf*£j ^ ^'^ I? % W* g 

accommodation- ^ , The work has «t+i , Kement to practically lA \' tH l 
rno (1 at,i onandafurth k has at tl ^ rf w outgro* ^,. 

ExpeSoSf P° f th ° *W*mrtS G bUi,d!ng " ** 1,nS( ' nt '"-f of ^ 

appointed aJT 8 ' At ^e end of tl ? UtSet Consi ^ d of the cheE f^ ^ 
to-day, thesAJ e . Work bereaved™/ S< l Cond year an assistant chcBU^ e ; 
gatory nu^K'y technical sta ff tZtT^l a PPobtments have beji£* 
varied activiti ' / 0Ul ?een. The c] fif d m ch emical work, routine and J*** 
and the p rP nar n V aS for s °"»e ye a I" Cal f Work b connection with the ***** 
ants. Pre P ara t'on of s amples yt e ars Past necessitated the services of two <JJj. 
The Act of P r employment to two laboratory » sS 

" »i ^VS ftSfe ?• Omental Farm fl&jg, 
sh ould cornnrIl y **?& h as been n^t^ WOrk of the F»ivision of Che »' . i( „. 
1 E xp e P r - G and delude: qUIte clear that the activities of the **> 

^^iS^^ZZr^ "I""-! «- assistance rf«gj 

-^Hlf^^ntnc 3 *«•— by ana,ysi f a d d l^ 
Thereto ? hrou Sh the pubK'; viUl the m » n on the land, lc c 

hues of ende,f been a c °^tant effnr ♦ T ° f circular8 « bulletins and TGP tt^ e 
of Chemfcrr 11 b *£d £11^? these two broad and compr«* 
Policy laid down been in e «stenS f ^ Ut the thirty-odd years that the P* tb e 
that much beStl n earI ^ days of ' t a " drer o S pect shows that not only h*> 
an d develoKf ^^odtoCa^iS^^htatory °« en adhered ^ 

It i s n . r ! of b °th these bran. agriculture from the carrying 1° 
activities n7 h u Ps diffi eult to 1! ^ of Work - • -iou' 8 

^^S&iZ^^^&t l these two phases of the dWgSj 
service^har U m? T. the great worif* th ? agricultural industry. A j i( ,jl 
has placed on rectf* 6 ^ been the *"» th e educal ional wurk-the c l t V 
gyrations n q C l d resul ts ofirnm en l m °f biportant, but the research ^ 
• T he divi sio ^ rS - ValUC ' not 011 'y to present but also W 

^■ifiss^tir^ 4 ?"^^^ in - part > a bureau ° f ""wife 

f°d supply. g / r °, r *J e .assistance that 5^' 1D CVery Province of the P "^ 
^ stated in doll alue ° f tmschemi o«i C h er nistry of 'agriculture alone ca» oj 
aolla rs and cents. ^ S S + ? VlCe Orally and necessarily ^ 
nat thousands of farmers have **» 



109 •, j ris been 

n" 1 ar e h We feel assured tM« untr y, 

'" ""ilftP** there is ample evidenoe. We ^ ,^ g*^ ^ 

5.N., ; gemmating throughout « , ^U ^ ^ ^fitable voca- 
S ln, 'M , ; m,,s1 effective way, those '' '> .' ' a rational ana P 
V Practice, g0 far towards making t*r&a* 

\rTAL WORK 
INVESTIGATORY AND EXPERI^E ^ ^ account^ 

:>Vt 8p ^ mailable herein it »U ^jS^k!^S^?S 

JS Hiis ! """'" hnportam phases d the expjni ^ b( , { ,, » m k a ^ 

'"-..^/"•'"nit must, f necessity, be gf-,^ character 01 %u% t b 
B&Vfc* the selection, owing to the *#« b ed , ho ^ ye t0 e - 
i' ,fl1 o? t Ms in whi <* i( to P ro8ecU ^T>rove of interest ana ^^agricul 

SSSmS aCtMtie8 " f the ,livision r ^te t£ problem <>' C '** 
V ze th e value of chemistry applied to toe j 




i» , r W+- ^miilarlv the worn, exhauM< " almost- »«' 

" <l '*y I:* [«>* SioiS funning met hodj gjjj^ ^ g to sod 

,- s, ) ,/\ > Kr,an 1 oun..s ( ,ttlH^rimpurUxntcons ^ts r* 0] ectB 

S^fc^ ■'«■ * Kd^^fevWon include ^ 
foil lli5 Hat , 01> Production have been under q{ tlllfe 

'""wi^'^re at preBent epgagin g the atten* the Prairie Provinces 

fcefesss** *■* * - verai 'pes*^**"* rotatlons 

'V ( l Ul the Loss or gain of plant food reeu» 



SiS'^-Stt '» °< Ptal food over period of «<$ 
'« el ved no manure. s ' Km popped and summerfallowed but *' 

"T*? 5 ?^" EdW " d Isl »<' -* - a p n ,i mi ,,»ry step b » S °" 



mity of 

ill' 

int. 



Inv ♦• l Jrovi nce. — loian a soils as a preliminary step •« 

* Tnmk Pacifi ^ ^ail^VS^ northern Ontario, along the £•£ 
« ^he Cla SSIFICATIOm ' lth a Vlew to their economic improve!* 

^'T-arimSt^^^mation Service f W ° rk , was undertaken in 19lf J # 
a Jarge and i?L he + Interi °i-. It W L ( T. m( ? rly the Irrigation Branch) ^ 

Its oil ? P0rtant Phase of h( W y ^creased in volume and now *° 
grapiy *f3 ls > supplement H1 °" K "****. u «? 

^*S£££^i**E!« t° hS 0I S °J the « engineer on the fr 
r der irrgat i? f f a ' kali c,,,,!,,,, ""P' 1 ' 1 " 'ands by a pronounceme t, •„,„ 

:, " d s are n«; „1 ^ are as in qCtion V 1 t*^ ^ "*^ f ° r '"/ S^ 1 ""' 
bridge, andTll soil Uy tested to a , "th 1 f ° f this ond > a11 « urv< ^ *t S 
*? the nau *? grou Ps concerni, « £ • °u nve fee * hi the field by the c g ( , t 
Experiment £ Conc , e *tratio E f, Wl " r \ 1h <''" may be any doubt m f*^ 
18 release? fo^frms Oratories fS 5 ft* cont ent, are forwarded *V 
0r chemical L?i tlVatlon u "^ ■,! ti deta,1 ? d analysis. No qu^f' » 

SaW?3&ft5» «f tS £ .den, » £d 

ca tion f iSSSff 0e- ^«3SSffi2 iM 6 areas which, as they &fyp 

" at «l with afe ,7 at , er > wi th„ul effi, nd + °V Iry faj ™ing methods. ^JJ* 
tnes : it is enni i U f has ruined „ i Cle V* drainage, to soils seriously i "',„.- 
"^iSfrS <'*I><-t t i eds of thousands of acres in ^W 

Preting the eh to this classificaW llSastrous experience. . to ^ 

^ nec^^nd PhS K^ and f,,, the purpose of oomjgjfcj 
M ,°vement of Alt r Se mc ^de "tW t « tain ' s l"'-^'l investigations baj^ 
""slated to cron cv 2 hea vy Clav a ,'' I ,, ' n "" of Irrigation on the J*J * 
**<** which ch™ W - h " a "d "Thc y N S ° ds ' "The Alkali Content <f*%M 
many and dffiBfcl?? 6 Utt » tracts irf*^ 6 of Burn-outs", apparently * .r 
mo « important of t u lt SUec essful p ro " J th( ; »™n-ari«l belt. The probl^j {jl , 
^.Assistance is f al ti m . CaU be «SSET ^^ &C «*»*» ° f ^ ^ 

a n rSSSSSWSff^^ ? eclamati on Service in eoB-aJgft 
^d quality of { h M a l ' H is chie v n ' k Was '"'«'". in 1918. While it ■'..„.. 
» eff ectivj $££# involved f? £??** with determining the eg J 
as to the agrioSffi " man y of thci ^^ 'scheme. The estnu; l ■ _ r t 
^l^emicaldaSl^?? ib iKtie 80 fthl Proje ^ is very large and ft rj icil 

Ant the «^ndiC dec,a •» ^"fSBS! iSJ*- " 




T r'epo 8 its, cements, etc., which are n— f 

£" Datu - * burnouts. . icreasing ly ffiffSr** 

"^PU^^ation of Soils fob FabM^S. 1 , imptfggj, f Chemistry 

M»ioh lotted for examination testae* to the t V jS possible- 

' S| "n\ 1 ,, ; , »»Kl> additions to its stal f of ; ' h;in wasfor ^llfrom the delta 

s, la ll( -«l to render with greater dispatc t D m , „ »n f ,, )U1 

of » are received from every W^gA of ! h, f Si » f 0,ltan °' 
S4t£?* r riv( '''' fro°» the il - , ^ :,t 1 , i a mi the older farm 
W ,l ff the virgin prairie, as well as from accordance 



r th e V r ;m ' received irom every F .» ■ hsir ds « w»- " i an ds 01 - 

S4t£?* r riv '''-- fro°» the ii - , ^ :,t ;; a ?££*»«> oM* &Bn , Bnce 

V-l, (l <>>< the virgin prairie, as well as fro* accordance 

-?L and ^e Maritime Provinces. . v;U y f^fSfa chemical and 

with 1 / mature and extent of the examination . ]i( . hl(leS bo t 
% S C f ^formation sought by the sender, f urther dts 

-n U determinations , • the light of what lly e as> 

3?fi? **• thus obSdned and studied ^m* WJj. «j*J* t0 the su*> 
inw of the area involved the e»^_2£g reliable : _ 1(MuUlt ions for its 
ahili^ 1 -Ration and form a basis for f^S, and recoil 
^Se^ soil for general or specific purpo ^ ^ ^ ^oojfPgJ 

Vre^f gjdficant to note thafmost ^gS** g^S*e J^ 
h Py c ^ts f 0r advioe ag t0 citable fer 1 , iu connection ^ „f the 

"^Cl re P re sentative. The correspondent rf a „ vim -cs of tn 

K°*£h ? now V «T la rge; tt may tl mahout the old* 
SS^terest manifested by farmers throng 
n ln this important matter. 

Barnyard Manure ^^pb^rfjg 

S*$ft* from a study of the influence ^g^fi. gj** iff^JE 

>3t f Ps tigation S -the Division of » i()ll f m ()f food, of W; 

<K*± )f attention to the analytical cxami ^ fluenc e V aha 
Not?* 1 "' object of ascertaining prungrn ^position* » ion8 , have, from 
^^hods of handling and storage, on ^ m these ^ eS J| are thus advisea 
StoSS?" bas «l on the data obtained jrom (inlll}U ,n «; and fermenta- 
r 'W? 16 ! bc(l » '8B«ed to the farmers )nSS( . s by 1 a , tu se t m below 

S f V ,,( ' employed for the prevent^ o^ ,im \ r r more valuable ^ 
'" »nS th ," manure.; Since 1 bese losses of , e 1S „ v i „ to the he 

8 the ti * e leav es the stable, it follows that m , ,t 

thft CSu ? f ite Production. Conseqiu ntiy, therefrom- vn th at mange 

tn e manure. 



It was shown further *Uo± _ . wl of 

field-heated Sid^Sen^f* 6 ,? Utt « e bea P s wh( ' ther in Y f tU 
months— January to MareV, ™ ° ColdeBt weather. In the course of V* 
fermentation, 60 per ST^T^* f° " il, '< 1 k*t, chiefly through 8***j 

of its nitrogen. * ° f lts 0M K 1,1;i1 organic matter and nearly 30 per C<JI 

showS'no'Tgns'o ? Ew° t? PU *° n th ^ Md - ^esh from the barn and ^ 
the great part of the p h£'? I 7! the course of the experiment ,J { 
analyses, made immediatelv kT aU heaps were frozer > through, and tffa 
they had sustained nS ',1 ? scatt .e»ng them in the spring, pw^j* 
no loss either of organic matter or of plant food substances- 

Clover as a Fertilizer 

I^dou^^niwAS^t^I^*^ undertaken by this divis^ 
invested chiefly i n the al 1 - tmtod %> fertilizing value of clover-a v . 
and to render mineral p. 1 i Verto absorb nitro Ren from the soil atmosP 1 fl 
its physical influence as !soun f f?° re readil y available in the soil, apart tr 
The .investigations revealorl +K muBaml conserver of moisture. ^ll 

^^^•WiM^.' VIOTS crop of "' 

30 t°o 15 4°5 P p°ound S s of T*F * ^ 
85 to 115 poZds of f + ° SI l h01 ' 1C acid P cr acre - 
A single crop of ol * h per acre - I ft* 

amount of nitrogen no .CthS^ n der Would > thus > f«nush the soil wrt& 
, Further wperin^™? *" be ^PPKed in 10 tons of manure f • .,,„ 
Ploughed down, on the viK ^ e P^tical value and influence of f°l& 
grown after clover were in l°fi Bubse <l«ent crops. Thus, the yields of B | 
year 29 per cent greater £ ^ Y T' 28 P er ««* neater and, in the se J d 
not been grown and turned Lf™* i r , om ad J» ini ng Sots on which clovei » 
^^oredecidedfyfa^hSf;! ! "' Terence in the yields of straw 

Similarly c \ 0Vpr ulV0Ur aDle to the clover plots by 

nearly3ton S p CT acrean5S r rt;rT e ', in,n ' :is,;i the ^eld of Indian corn 
., The instances f| u ' r , v , V 4 ° to 50 b ^hels per acre. c . ^ 

the dissemination „(' , 2^ e to convey some idea of the benefits w£ 
agriculture. Uata flom these experiments have conferred on Ctf** 

g . nc ^vesications with Fertilizers 

JJpfiJ? SSffSS^Sff?^ Experimental Farms System •»* *S! 
h Id greenhouse and laboXw + ? 1V1 - 81 , 011 ,,f Chemistry has carried outJJ^ 
in V ?h Ual>1 ° data Sron? Wlth cora mercial fertilizers and obta" 

r^^P^^ariySaV^^^N.^ divisio 'i ^voted itself in jjj 
mg sod fertilit probes cvoTvelf a Up , plipation '»' Canada of theories resP J„ 
countries. 1S ' evoI Ved from long experience in the older Im»oP 

^P^" iSw^j Jjj^f '«»{""'«?■ by cops to fertilizers (in O^jgi 
it vaned only in deg?eCan??h2^ y dlff , er <»cei * boU and climatic "«',,,! 
P^uples. 8 ' and that the results obtained conformed to eft**** 

need"?™ W ate (,f Potash, the DiviS?^ ' am ™nia, superphosphate, bg, 
and Sf " lforrn ation coincident S?K° f ? lemis t'T sought to meet the g f* tr y 
and as they came into use as Wip 1 " dcvelo Pment of the fertilizer W&Ljt 

by-products as dried luooranrt.k ;r ft', eXperimented with SUch 



^li Zl .' ,,f substitutes, and durmgthat per n( , pll( ,lu . * ti Uzing * m 

"■"<l„ ; V v " r " I* 1 — l on trial- Of these, ^ a d.sf ' f ils potash w 



i- BuccessfuUy 

rtot i tUizer being 

the frrt ff „.ri- 

a l»f« e *S 1916) 

M& S in the 




? ( >f -S?" r " 11 *"" apparently, supe ^ lu . yield w te 

"' <•.,,.. Jttt experiments either to nu'iease to , ipp y n 

P "''' (| ,s ' « + «hle time at J 1 clir ned o 

1"' Omenta to aacertair, the «*•*$$? el gfcl **5$SS* 
H « s " "'" Potato crop in the early P^tfcg c fo£ the tim e of P 
*<*e „ | f :'■" and western Canada,. }K r a e wa9 »PP lied 

, e " t ' l ""'<l when all the nitrogen of soda 



114 
T) 

pX^^'^^ol^^^^ated, specially where a gg 
E ""f' , ' fl,,, ' tiv ^«<l Profit^] ti lnl, '° K " n ' Phosphoric aoid and P» „ ( i 
It has P ° taSh ' Pr ° htabl(! th an nitrate of soda, superphosphate * 

^S^^^^^^^f^ use « f '««»•« "■ ^ociated ^ 

rffSw^'.^^^tymavbeiS f ^-year rotation of potatoes, 0* 
fertriizers and the pbuffi^ofl^ed through the judicious apphf*' 
\izeJt dlVlsion h *8 at pros™ t + ' V6r ^te^ath in the third year- 
fegW ^tinct experiments •»«£ 

The mor^h ■ S ^em various branch Farms and St»' 

of niSf com P ari son of ^traW^ US th " ir ob iects the following:- „,., 

<>t nitrogen. ol 8(, da with si,lr^„+ * ,< a s<>» 11 ' 

To ascert ' sulphate of ammonia as a D 

"|?iS^g*^S- J n«i ,. ,, ,o^ 

sai?ftfev-^Bif«s. .«# 

To ascert- i th manure, (1) continuously. ^ 

r?ii^ h ffiSsriws^ *•*-*« 

To SS ";r most ""iiiil I, r . ""J' 1 «*°W ground lime* - , 

■*-*-*. J!J5*J- <* Ph.,,,!,.,!,. ,„,„ „„ ^ 5 , olll lim , ,!.* * 
a ^ Feeding Stuff, and Pod<lm 

analysis :m . k' 1 ""'- Several hunS **? ,Ur ? u * chen "cal work and <>' tt , 
market. '| ffi? an ' 1 <»">• include ' . "' *Uch samples are s..l>">" il > 

a PPreciatea swVT* !' f eonSSStTR T^ v * "'' ,l,i11 feeds - etC -' V* 
mformation' th 1 V *&**** the i ,;, £L a + Ctlca J value and one thai » f^e 
tratesandus it Tm + ,,S him 1 " P • ■ sT "* P ro F essive farmer WJth, 

Another i ri ' t, ' ,1,all yi»tt;''? 1 ,, . llll ™ 11 y bia feeds and «■"'" 

fartroduSd in UU ' h 0f «* work h^T 8 h ' S st "*' k ' *& 

"""»-" tth-s ::,-7' w ' ■** s u J";" 1h " «**»» examination of Jf3 

( - ,)m . the var, V , U " ( ' xl >a»sti V( U ' '',* «''<l sweet clover, which " .,,, 

' 110 " S le SUm eS and alii, V , h ;" H '- Native and introduced ff>£t 

"'"' s us ed us forace. silage or hay ** 






115 1 xluable infor- 

^co-i^ble attention. ^it^^h^^ 

for ^^th reaped to the stage of BWJ&m the largest amoun 

**5gj* ensiled with the view pi obtaining gtuffg lth 

i '" T ai1 "- f oominercwd fe ^ the division 

J vi ( ; f,1 j;th«T phase includes the examination of ^ use fulw** rf bra n, 
ha s j J"' 1 establishing standards of l" 11 '^/.,, two tap* 8 *, lu'ts as milled 
}* ,st ( concluded the analysis of more h. rf +h ,, s , prod 

Vi m, <l<ilin K s and feed flour, representatrv , work include the 

^ ou t the Dominion. in lh is bran<* ot 

^Ho^P^i^ts a1 present being earned on wheafc 

" +c neaSj bariej 

fe»ft **w*m the differences b eo^tS and J*"^ for hay 
!> ^ resulting from irrigations oi **&"*. „ r ats and barte; 

: " .liiT,'' ""Muiry to ascertain the feeding vain com monly 

' Pen * stages of growth. f va i able of the m< 

KroC' ^estigation to determine the most v imposition during 

J ' Va neties of corn for silage purposes- cu; ,„ comp ripenin g 

^i e fttion 8 to determine the Agg^E** of *" * + -. 

"> C^ of the sunflower plant from the a P P« ^ ^^ betW een 

fi^^t'igations to determine ^.f^^ ' ' fl ,, m ftD area fro* 
^second cuttings of many varieties of* * crops % from an area 

»hbolT igati ° n 1 " «**•? 1h, \"r - n'd as )->,:; w h •*"* to seed 
V V irst and second cuttings were en d g io>v 

N ti, ", "' sl «»tting was cured as bay and to aSC ertam 

7 T threshed. . + . in ig being «» llt fij ,,„ tbe market- 

^n ;: h "'ui ( . a l and rnicrosconical examination « ,, a ie ion- 



116 
Farm Roots 



SdSSl 7 " It *?S5 Sit f ^ Varieti - ot farm roots ****$ 
included the analysis v,L v cont ent, has been determined The work ' ' 

KSSrV* &2S Fa^te? 1 ?'.^ SdSiJ grown «jg 
onlv »m y f£ 0Wn that laree Wfl Y e P lvlsl °n of Forage Plants. J le + n0 t 
proneX 8 ^ Several cSra 3 e f rences »> respect to nutritive value exist, ^ 
P r °Perly speaking, reputed ^ri^iefS + ?° ts but also amo *g varietieS ' ° r 
A ra i Us ln mangels rta , ' of thc same cl ass. . flrtl 

TV ?<!r Mnt dry matter y lnattet and 'n carrots (15 varieties) ' 

■fiSZkZI . V u cry lli »«-ct typ™ w, '* c ' two "dl-taown varieties, « ,,. 
proved i?"' " le wl >* Heriod P ?verv ,? e,S " f rown "Me by side and an" 1 : %,, 
5ry mat r e iT'? 7 r r *«SSSff4 ^ Q .*t?*fA 

^ Muence „ f Env lr „ nment on fc ^^ ^ wheat 

«iency of mnS 6 gram 5^ markedly 5, .^rature conditions during ^ 
to a Lni moi8tu l rc ln the soil i n the 0^,1 lts imposition. If there IS » s " p 
week! of tf ° Wth ' then a fairly drv S oU lly W of the se ^'»» to bring the gg 
prote L J& T° n hasten *^Sy a»f° hl , gh temperatures during the gj, 
of , . Uen) intent, it i s I uL and conduce to a hard berry with a * t 

aciilethe gG - mCaSUre t0 mSeoroW-T 1 * ° f rich Soil and of here, it/ !, r 
™ th * m ^^«^^£\^™ ^ich frequently <*» 

uk Western provinces. 

TheFw «"^ Value o, RainandSnow 

. -ine chief obieet nf +1 • • 

work | eene™ilv Wh - C + t' H ma y wen be "n l "' ! ,itr " K "" ( '""'l-'>'"«ls in the pfe 
regarded as V th .*<>&, manures LTO^' serve to enrich the soil " 
measured bv" domm ant element of nl ^'V 1 ' 1 "™ shows that nitrogen n* > , v 
ftttmeSJ ,3 e ^ abl enitSmi«tt food ' thilt «». crop growth is ^.y 
ffby ba c V^ C f ptin .8 the ^2°™^ * the soil. The growth of ord«gg 
Hen^tnis, ' : ", 1lVI1v ' «SS5 2K? nitr ° g6n aml there is also a cagS, 
^udy otefff^ affords ckte^Tonsid^ - 068868 ^sequent upon tff 
minations . r ; Unportan t Problem of tS ab , le lnterest »i connection wit l 
"'ally iSff at °tt»wa, buY 1 , X U ^ of soil ^trogen. The d 

^& Dy n fe Per ^ aS ^^e« d r ^ di ^ a total amount of ^ 
*— -d 1 7 . 14 po^-- r ^54 , ; oun ^1 



117 r iod is therefore 

ni tratS° U ? dB ' an amount equivalent to that in ^gg 

the ^ Sol vent action of the rain and not to ^ s jffl P^W 

^ "ration of the combined £**?£% for J-JJg of nitrogen J 
a *PrSfr ° f tho ^tal rainfall to that of sn ber f P°" n from which it w 
^ef^tely 5:2, while the ratio **%a*od*** ° " 
be cl ea ,^ 8hed b y these, respectively, 1S ' l .- , h aS snow- 

eart ^traiA approximately twice as n< even tion 

Soft Pork: Its Character, Causes and re ^ ^^ 

*• ft ^ort bacon trad, is one of ^ jd^ffljj ^'^1-.^ 
a CS and '<* first-class Canadian bacon ^m lt l8 one rcquuem 

**«&? of m '™Y minions of dollars anrn hoW eyer, tha m ust be un 
of thi 8 l lts l^it. It is to be borne "i^mci, and that * ;; ofit . Only 
>d anT and remunerative market a ; ^ arrie d on witn I 
C Wba; d met if tbis export trade is to b ^ , Eng l, s h ma 

>*n can be profitab i y exported *oJ£g baC on *£ r tende ncy to #* iceS 
>e i? ? 8 the qualities necessary for to* ^ . A ^d-gJJJ^ a 

Wd e ? n of greate? importance thanthat of * th ba con J UIl8a leabie 
and ' | SS " r aabbineas is quite sufficient tor lt altoget 

p fofi ? thls softness is at all pronounced, hag from ^^ally 

^dL>^ P-portion of the pigs *fi&5l* *f%& *£*£+ 

C C . d . K,jf t Pork, and this detrun* to < m dis tricts slb H sug ^ 

^WlJa* 1 the P^duce of swine ^^wtf^ffieedH ^ 
^W: the nature and cause or causes * * involvedj toe ^nnnatw^ 
300 p ^measures, occupied three year ana ( , in u-a bacontog 

5f| *be fat of which was submitted to en ^ f t o ^ "^imately 
a Wh * V " su,t ">' this work we established tnj (<fij > baco app roxim 

<S lar ?er proportion of olein than , th< t in (flu ,dU to 

U3**Pa&itfi andstearin (sokdfet to be gained 

Yfeas i n 1lu , latter it waS about U J ^formation W factors- ial 

th e eJV^me of the trial was such f°* lloWin g poss clurl ng the 

? e ct im™ +i iu„ „r +»„• Dork ot w»\ ,.._. all d to; 



W » ^Thar^er* the food employ ^ so ftness,^ be fed jg-ffi 
S> 4 Indian corn and beans tend ; uged they ^ . wltb ^um 

>f Q* of olein in the fat. If tl.es. -grains a ^ m con^n corn ma y 
}t ha 8 K ass ' firm Pork is to be produced . £ rfoti l of £ ley> 

^th'^^ *own that a considerable M . f the jor peftS an d 
. I Srain ration without mjurina tfto VJ mixture ot 
^equ^i hat a Srain ration consisting ° uab ty. 
qua] Parts, gives a firm pork of excellent i 



118 

acts in wS^,2l2j2«^tt«^ and rapid growth but 00***" 

o. That rape nmvvSn any tendency to softness ,k 

JS k be ?«d in coSjinffi fS; ; , r i " , r ,, T -■?£*, turnips and -gtf 

«■ That th " U1 i " J, "' i " K h<> q 

than that of finfehea^&S^ 8 ,Bd ^ mala (,i ' thrifty •""»* M*" 
K "** have ^creased steadily to the finishing weigh*- 

Waters from Farm Homesteads 
rure water is 1 

H&* P^e watS ££££ £* }£* aS wh " 1 ™' *>°<*-* nd f iflS 

hoea t;,i m ? Ure ^ter is l Zl* ( "' the m ?st valuable assets that a farm 
stock ft ld feVCT and alHe d ( |k J^^J H; is frequently the cause of < '£,. 

throughout the country generally md,rectl y proving the farm water SUPP^ 

^*SSS2fty& ft!*} ** cause of polluted water on g 
sacS,° SOme simi] ar source V. 1"' ^ WeU in «» barnyard or >' , 
satnfieed to convenience It k nil < l ntam,nati ""- Safely has too often b^ 
electinT^- f nd H is & daUeft' a l t t,<m 1 an «"W clatter that is » 

Duri* S a neW W(li M "• UI ' K "' 1 1 " n ' cognize 

Iwrfc^^^ave^beel a^f *' 8 exist — . ^eral thou^g 

-^ 

and for tlk n aimns a P^ble supnl? £5ftJ Wn haa P roven the <"& '"T " ' 
tor this purpose a household 8 don r th<>K " W impregnated water' 

uestU! s till is recommended. 

Insecticides and Fu„gi clde8 

insurino. « I g UU(k, ''taken. The i 7 ^terials nolv upon the Canad»L 
ternuning their msectfcidal and PftSKSS T "*" V(TV " ,:l, '' li;ill - v aSS 



119 , tlie examina- 

*.&Sf yea,, the scope of ^^SJEhTSS^^S 
the 2* jaaterials entering into the eompo»g° ^ of ^ nt stand^a. 

ferfgg exaxninaS ^imported «^ l j£>W»jSh3 *» J^gg 

^ 2 2 m or<le '- to B69 that these mat. tUUB of ^ hCl U ^ ( np 

! ;M , ■'•« of fchia work is 1wo-foUl -I"'; , ( ' , nner from ^ . ah ere ^ n 

N, flftS? 1 of thc Canadian packer .and g frvU t _p g i impr0 vement 
Sb t , 1 ; ,t ter applying more espec.a , to i ducmg ma. 

th( ' qu Sf * his control work has resulted in V fts , exten^ 

5^% of both imported and exported too ^ ,,., ase 
>! fe the p M t four or five year* gjSgS J$fi£ of Fo^mi 

Jf on,- ;: 1l, ; u °* evaporated and condensed .m H| ., t h MB ct of ensu n 

the w rk Wus Elated at the instance <i , vlth the o ^ that Cana 

st ea > Period and has been n>nt""."" Jgg dairy PJ*, 
^nj^f/eliahle market for these impo *» e m Buropt gh xj 

1 ** oaay have a reputation second to devoted *o ft BUir mal*des^ 

<S! y ' >>*> ■«*«*£ f 5*^^ KuS5u%«, Jg*SS* 
i. Aa,i * Cai,i,dl! '» and imported fruit pro . "^determine tne £ berry 
ha veb^ t0d by some of the larger ( *&?££ Wbte tog^ oU t on straw ^ 
° f i&^rried on to ascertain howfajrt JP« 9 gg* t0 the jjgg 
Nfi fru * !«*» in jams. Most of the ^ ol)ta ned P ^ ll( . t . m _ 
l8c o2 an,i - * rora the ivsults which ^ idera ble extent &od veget 

5? d «red that adulteration to any cons* installe 1 al purposes 
deh^ he department of Agriculture has recent J ep^^p***^ 



^<Z U ' n * J uic « in J iims - M( ^ K° have been obtain- - be d et^ le 
18 C5 an<l > frora the results which have ext ent an(1 veget 

S de red that adulteration to any <»^L tl y inst*» ed " ta l purpoj e 
J A De Partment of Agriculture bg£g*l* «9* ££, and P^f^ied 
Wv ors at several points in .t»c ^ pieties ofpW hftV e J*** and 
SB 'I 1 addit ion to other frutts, sever. lW:l . Anaiy ^ ta ug after 
°ut i^d al the Exnerimental Farm at iW ,<,r ; cont d f ru= t . 




The m • 12 ° 

as follows^? 01 " pr °J ects in progress mtuw •■ . r <,-ibut ecl 

* Kitss in the Division of Chemistry are diBW° u 

W work with soils 7 

« fertilizers. oj 

feeding stuffs and 'fo'cirfVrs 9 

%»******,£&::. i 

" ^ugar beets ... 1 

« farm roots 3 

^Healfe '^' (, ;'""-l loods bisivion 

td e S t0 thG hrt °w5 ^uV of rain , 

T*S2S& thC ^-upply f 0r farm , 

or ^StSerl:;r i,<; '' f,h ' :i ^- :,: 5 

Total.. __— -— 

til 




^"^W* Potatoes. 



Le't. from certified 



«eod 622 bush. 36 lb. 



Per *»». Righti home grown ^j 484 



busl-i' 18 - 



THE 



DI VISION OF BOTANY 

Dominion Botanist 
T. GtJssow, Domw 




V 7 ? the Experimental I <ar - tl( . ( . to boti . i()11 f w^. 

° WSiW* 16 Eor a sil, - 1( ' " ,,u r r t ", v •■ **' homology. al ' d Eluded 
a^ ^mted under one bead. In that year, j^on llg iy uwj n 

> Sp Wt ^ divided into two separate , ( , w ork, aj * 

*CS^ m S demand for advice cm p Ji . p ;H |,mi t ftbo ve a , a 
as tho W "'' k of **» Parent division, the m ere. ol bot tn rf thc ge n 

Z^^^^^%^^^ * tbe 

More Recent Deveiopmen-^^^ 

« tfcn July, 1909) on the ^o^^^te^ £*$ ffi 

N^m 1 an ^cer as the late Dr. b ; d best 0»» 

VS, °J Botany along such lines as app<- a apP rog» 

t . Af ds fi of the fahning public of Canada- |OlB0 »M£ o J5*rf 6 Sffi5- 
S IVir 1 ' ;ii(1 <"> by a single assistant and j^ all t^^ e f any »^ he 

S*L U ', tim( ' being, it was necessary to P 1(J t0 take the woric 

5Sal w al "'"-"-.v. in which itwouldbej ^ tht * 
lvis io n fij* that required ait.ni ion. A im information on w 

T * fel1 mto two principal seel ions. . accurate ^ ,. in!l( u, so a 

g<8j listed the demand, evergrowing, J*^ p^^^-fg. 
f>n bv\ an , d f< "- the determination £**£* formed a m^ jetton o^ at 
l r W L he la ^ Dr. Fletcher, whose hg^ar P^^imen^ 8 
&* in, 'TV 1 division's collection of ^a ()i the ^£ dder plants 
°V n U „ u ded charge of the extensxve a t '[^provement 
a ' a * well as the work relating to the «m 



121 



122 



PLANT PATHOLOGY 



A ^iM PATHOLOGY 

^Hc whSj^^^^toplace o„ a firm basis one of the phases d* 
attention, perchance beeaute hi %?*****&>*, had nol received *W% 
rtudvol msect pests, viTX«E f 80 ** 1 ** Alined him more towards^, 
monly known as plant pathXt Y ° f the diseases of P^tB, now more <o» 

Oniony; the first r»». 1 1 ' »ii 

^^thenewdlvffK^f ! ! n,s, • " M «» ^ing, by the office^ 
et widely prevalent and sen^Sv t ?° + dlse ¥ e n ™ to the Continent of Ang ,„■ 
^rtdwease, which was foSTb In^- 8tructive m E u«>pe, viz., potato «;;'» k > 
Bay Newfoundland, the ! . " s P^ens Submitted from Red Island, ?{•*%. 
S SC0Very ' and ^ 1 i-u , "> S + and oldes1 crown colony of the E f ,.,, 

from a p^ble, and indeed nZ B w^ to k, "'» 1h " Dominion of Canad* ^ 
Swh onsiderabl e Potato i I,, ?,.S blc lnvasion of the disease, owing Jojd 
effective action, clearly i d •+ tl0ns from Europe, railed for pro^P* JJ, 
division might profiSfyde^ 8 VnUuu *°~ "Pon whichSe work of *• " 

It was The DeStmCtiVe In8ect an <* Pest Act 

S d £°*V^^^ *W» the officer of tfjgj 

profit^ Wr v ltGr WiU Says be ,5 r ; ( harl ? s Gordon Hewitt, whose **>$& 
So onprir charactei an d be CauS e™ f c ? bered because of its most agreeable J£t 
earned n™ b ° tween ^e two n ew V •"• g0nerous attit " d e towards the «J*J| 
relatilt 16 interest <* the Tat &'?' th at the then Director sou? ,,, 
hW + W , ^<%C 8 2S!' Sytln «.Y Fisher, Minister of Agnct^ 
Mav 1 *So $P*2?*K Insect and P ^ and future interests by the V^^ ol , 
•u v ins,\ 10 - This A ^t Ss at n Act ' t0 Which ro Y al assent was givg f 
StvTS^^^^^edSrSct?^ 61111 ^ *"> introduction into Canad* t 
hndnnH fe^PPrtation S ff ,° V(, «" t: 'ti"n. and took immediate « d . 
To t! 101 A ° Urinsisla nds ^ ° f P° tat0 ^ ^om Europe, N^ 1 "" 

opSal SM^ "'■—" comparative freedom^ 

S^r^^^dautKrSesnf+K P^ ta P reva1 ^ abroad. In •• : " 1 ,,,,<•' 
from , P asumlar Ac * was paSel i, ' ,uU "' Stat ^ of America, where suD 
° m the mvasi «n of foreigVp^sts a^ddS en1 " W, ' M P rotected ' '' ''' 

For 8 PlaUt Di8eaSC Inves t^ations 

SuSHF^^ntaSy^^ of , *• ^vision, its work was caM 
st uce S % ^ ment a "-l Pre ■ ' ntil he r Pl!mt ,liwil »"* ™ti with and to g£ 
^TSnJ^^^y^thfnJwoffi^ ; ' S H :IS was possible under the &%* 
to mate I, 1 '" 1 Editions and be ' 7, u charge of *& ^vision became tan i 
equ p M y CllanSC evw 'v I' 1 n 1, ,'' mS ,' Wliich > hl so *«* a country, *■** 

Wfi^^^gatioiltod^o,?!! 1111168 ' the ^sion was organised 
the European n° r° bleiM th mst K p , W ° rk ta plant Pathology. ^ 
known i >hst( ' r "»* of wh it, ^ i ''' y ""I'ressedusat the time, con ' , 

S Urobnl r* ° r Crow n gaU t£ I ^ thc cause a «d nature of the dA 
AlilXghtSw 1 ?" 1 thi ^onti S'"' (1 ™';' St w- beUeved "' , p c 
developments^t tlm f no ev Wence cmTd V f 7 P °^ e( l whitc pines W rt 1»*" 
shores and ( "i,?°, Wed that the diseas , ' , Und - that su ' 1 ' waa the [ d tb^ 
siderabk lJ?! ted ^ re or less sZ^ l ' P revi ou8 to 1909, reached^ 
growersof ety> The ^5S^ Until at last it gave cause fo - c U 
g owers of y 0U ng f ruit tree n Jf *J«e is one of interest to nursery."'' 'J of 

toSt lt w as held that the disease was no^ 



123 , to-day, while 

a so»- „r,dcrstood, and ins t the 

^ ^ ^ later the cause H^fiS* <3$*3U* «" 

Nfi!J* yet no evidence of its dcstruc ga ll S , wh« 

^,„ ; « «' young stock actually infested wit* ser vedas 

i? 1 Plant tumors i Vo.borator3 a*VY DO isoning °) 

% J*5? ^ ^organisation, the ^S*«g of Stive P?*» t8 
,lil "t s tL° f ^onnation, inauiries reacning hl a ( .„t.he > " . 
'"' .-,,,;, ';' control of weeds, of plant °^ ea f£ig e pla* ts ' l h ' fodder and forage 
n ^ for information on grasses and I rag c . illin »r «i J t va « 

l'l !lllK ll,1 "K the year L912 the phase of the ^orK v . llu( . s o ' . lyJ ipP«» » ' 
> ,; t ""'"Iv confined to testing the •2**^n^^Pl*»^ , * flW 
MJS Hs olovers.alfalfa, grasses, «%£%., that of Forag 

h,s ifc^ hl CQ ar8 ' a separate < '^ '', t ,„tion. b orchards £ ™ 

. > 1)0r tant wnrt 5™,ij mJTive undivided aw . , n peacn ^ piooiei 



i!,,,,. , ""on as clovers, alfalfa, grasses, . . -• ; twl i, u. 

^ in U ';'' 1 m charg : a separate « bvtf V', t ,„ti<»n. b orchards m » 

v. S ; tai : t *<»* eould receive undivi* ; « nx P.^ to this P« b ^ 
!Siru 1hi * time, a peculiar disease f^fa t0 doJ^« ^ that irt ^ 
lt OtS nut belt, and after several years at ■ i it was re 1 kj into" 

f? fe~7 ^ unsuitable for P^^^^U^S^ 
^K.. ,on t to bring the orchards and their , laboratory shoj 

^82j> H wasprincipaJly the ciiagggg ba1 a branch ^ . 1912, < 
• ' ^ hTV Kiltions at Ottawa, so it was de cidea rf t a rl o pU bbc at 
S* ,&M right in the fruit growing *Jg its doors ^ Fruit grow 
^i, n . >t pathological field laboratory opene useful *° ddu rmgP«* 
ll: '«l ,"" u>s . Ont. This was found to be a mo ^terpr ew ^ t growing 
>tS ert a 4vice riihJ aJhand. Our aims could & «m ^ gr ^ers t 







SWT th « durable criticism, gg^ which JJ m ethod ^-— e 

>y Vflf f Clu ' ,,ful treatmenl ol a eed lin ost en 

Wb*J*« ago-it is possible to eliminate 

y th is disease. 



v, ■ 124 

■from year to 

discu ss i 0n Ca 0f ln a ref , er ^ce to pla^t 5tr ly , t0 - C r°P erate with the United , fl > 
CanadalookL P -°! lc y of soundrnt? f? le g^lation, but to enter into a car 
«ons f rom *J d ^ h ^n 8 idcSJeS^ na ^ nal le « isl ation to which a country , 
^ aS e H d b « ad of WiiSSXdSff b + CC r P ° f its dependence upon i«jpj^ 
of an Inttvtr Pr ? sent the vtews nil St ° Ck for Propagation. An oppo^ ioJl 
a *d subsem,! tl ?, nal P %topaIhowt ^ u jrements of Canada on the occ* s 
to whicft n % at a similar o g onf Conferen ee held early in 1914 in %, 
breakff^ B^SSt w^ ?"? 5* Wa geninge n ; Holland, >» > 
measures L W ° rld Wa r unfortm, Jm ^ as Ca ™dian delegate. The o 
8 Unani mo Us ly agree du p ^ y t p |f tponed the going into effect of etft* 
p n at the hrst conference. 

In the In spection Service 

dlS JrF^^mewLtSS Chief 4 iscove ^d the presence of a J **! 
ha d a m os w r0pean origin 4 ^ SCat \ but which was recogn ^d f 
placed bv ti CU tt 10Us eff ect, in^mu,*? 6 ^ SCab - The discovery of this dg g 
Ho^er y &%^State S ^SSefnnV e ? Ulted in an actual embargo I ',, 
its histori i l^ ltcd St ates haZS upoT \ lm Portations of Canadian P«^ p 
^Port £'^ hlCh , factin ^elf wcmEv^ that ? c ™ ^ largest potato croP 
after coS T, d the ^r *E ^no^fiLT*^ 6 * 1 ' * «* inhibiteftheCan;^ 
inspection ^n ablene g°tiations the^o 5 Catlon f of the regulations were _ secjr 
Th?cSL? d frtification se vice o nT? ° f ^ hich was * e ^ugurat^^. 
tive SK^VL^^^f^^tt 6 ?,^ ex P° rt t0 the V &A2£*' 
reasonablv f? ? CSt Act > a nd thoSS * fdl , within the scope of the VfV^W 
solution L' , 0B ? powd ery S ont Carloads of Potatoes, certified^ 

t^de of ES&St %^ffm2 VIT PaSSed thc bord;r -, ^JSp* 
embargo V.r n V? e Evinces, w hH « \ once more permitted the &V 
«rtiStorv^?o the Plant PathoTonV, 1 6te the mos t seriously affected by J t 
grade of "nt!+ Canada as * whole IS ^° lnt of view, this solution *■»&( 
the export retT^ 1 the «*S£aTr? ^ 8Ulted in &« export of a BUjjfy 
It was obvi h ° f diSGaSed P ° tat ° eS bar 

resplai blo t >r a S le edu t ca t'onal cha?a c ter T? S "J once at t a eked by a vf° T % 
Predericton N T? e + ? tabllsh ment of two ™ ^ d ' this occurrence was WJ n t 
Charlottetow^-p ir 1 ? 6 c , en tre of theTariS held ^oratories in lWVg » 
wer e begun^' ,; L ' also de eply intS T- e export trade, and the other 
of this disease tfc & \ Series of Co-oSSS* in the American markets. Tf ol 
so far. 6aSe thr °ughout Eastern E! c t ?f **» aiming at the co»£ 
. Success atW,„, «. d& ' the Wcst being almost entirely V , 



Success attend d t, ^^aa a , the West being almost entirely 

^pS^^P^Jl^ ?-:*-, our experiment 

We SSff ,Sf «>***» exported llShed ' althou g h a hi g h tariff 
2SS P^uct d r^ ^^^^arkable development >^ 
organization of , Q ° f Potatoes free f r Z ^' Whlch gave rise to an ende^ 
^e Doming a f n v al potat o V^^f' or as fr ee as possible, by ^ 

As a cSej;^* took the ^ and certification service » ^ 

"i-aMe in theseS tubTl. 1 ^ esca Ped i^V* 1 *^ "^J X^ 
luber . wh lc h appears mSu' , ? hese diseases are not xc 

wears q Ul te healthy, y et , when tubers resul* 1116 



125 . ld of from 

Km ,. -w a reduction m > dise ases 

tWL^^ed hills are planted, there is WJtbe P'f^fbeen for the com- 
<l5 £ forty per Si It is 'doubtful wl ethc. ft u b 

WC rT e b een discovered at such an ^f Cl United Stat ()i . fcw0 exai » 
Se( lCt ^nation of potatoes for fflcport to sts of one ateemj 

a %T f hcl d work. Briefly, this inspection J on dete nwnatH» tMl thoU gh 
° r Pres° ?* Wowing potatoes in ihB.*"*J%r , e *e£ c t„g 

W ? 1C0 °* diseases, purity of variety j ^ ct follo wed by ■* * ^^ v*»bl3 
0f the hl aCt0P8 - This iiolcl crop inspection is elimm ation 
a «fifl es t, a which is principally an»edat* wilt, etc. ion from P o 

, gg the seed tuber, such as scab, black ^iderabl » g JUan has been 
V rg ^ Bystem of inspection has attracted dua ily the ;J , flf ^aty 

SJed f Wc11 :i * f1 '""' Provincial author***- tun iform stajo ^ coU ^on 
NX f / om Province to province aim ng illdic ate *fi£L as a seed P<gw; 
yfe and the results obtained wou M n f good name south * <^ eS 
N«E£ United States, ( lanada has es tablisne a igbbours to tn geed p0 tatoe 
ot^^S centre to which, sooner or ■ later om » £ pwjorf**^ retaining 
> frL ^ anv fate, 1 be object is to st muia spe cts 

th e fc\ disease and of high yield, with gooa , mC lu 

. ff * this industry. 4 , 1pd f r0 m the ?■* Bfjfc work m cio 

^, ig ^spection system has now extended. tr carrieS on 
C0 -4 n?- ta - In B "tish Columbia, the d£g ? o99 acres pro 

, W^ With the provincial governrnen^ of w hici 

Vd ,1 9 2 3 . 9-681 acres of potatoes were insp 
Bee o of a very high quality. 

_ _,. Wrnblem • ,.H,ire 



, r^UVo i "i visum nau «.-iiu.^«'"-- , f,,.. tlie i~- f.vhilUsw ~„rrll m lu 

Jttacg ftU* most reasonable methods fej . a very ^tiveresearcn 
>lt7 & °P id omic was made the s. ct f c0 -op ^ ther at 

h e s of , vh h enphaswe the nee . as ^^ a nd 

>ipped Pr0b ! em » s Meeting the Donjon one at If; ^ begun- he d 
Ill <fA m 1917, two new field labors^ V, ,,-tant 1 ■ ■ be cn fl f cll ltiv- 

gjW Bask, and work alonK tbese«nP ,, b w> rUS t ol c ft 

> mt U8t be remembered thai tie grain ru „.,, pieties, orj£ by 
n 6(i EX? aspects a11 over the world, the go a^ resl8 a ^^ da oag 
NSft " r the discovery of one or n « hl cro p S gat ors are spen 

>, .T 1 ^owledge of how to protect tbeg£ juveattg ^ 
S Li laost tempting one, and a la'* _ m ._ which * ity in f Sled 
^ irr, re tim( ' on the solution of the pro ,, ut to 1 " » attentaon so£J^ 
, k>'^'" t ones, not to the fa'^Soiight ^^ceeded .» [ ' ' t . sU its 

"lis,,, ! "",e to time there have lu« ' h have au< t gt( , i tf 

fw Cj7 b « claims from persons who staw directions t0 b e so 

fi*K?« -il treatment. Whenever^ ])rol ,U,n - | g nS eogjS »» 
J ca n h! V 1 BU PPoxt were found. The ^^ researcu f^Morden, 

Nacw Soh '"d at all, by painstaking,^ this work J Bra ndon, *w d 

( >Sa - us possible. At the presenl _; u Farms aj ^ ev-an 
Nfi ' ""' with the Dominion Expfjaf Univera^ 8 ° ecia Uy brmgsm 
^i II( ;!! - Rosthern, Scott and vnth the winttl peg^ ef «! reaults may 
>®bi rhe Manitoba Agricultural OoUege ' b gd that u wbich vai 
ob tHi„ ,! tjr,, v d assis(;m( ,, b0 b ^r. I^ble degree 
u b'om the observation of the rem 



12b 

aLpn?t a o y ttfaStt &»*! d - m "*- ^ ^ ° f ""fi 3** 

includes our most imnorW^ . e to fort y P er ce *t; in common wheat, wn 

ility varies from ZZZltTZlT^ &S ^ rquis Rcd Fife ' *°" SS3& 
resistant, showing infection 5 * ,3 i ty - five P er cent; the emmers are unit or 

common with the aW A LrV m ° re than one P er cent > in tCStS "TtW 
Saskatchewan University f«™ £ T made by Prof - W - P - Thompson Ol 
free from rust. UVersity > froi « the durum wheat Iumillo, remained altoge" 1 

T^^tSUhttc^^fJ ° f the "*» laboratories, arrange*^ 
the Manitoba AgHculturTcol Y ° f J^atchewan University, Saskatoon, *» 
those institutions ™Krf' . W . ,M "Pcg, to establish two laboratory .- 
attention principaUy to TJL«i Do ™ T , uon officials, both of which devote W 
It has 1 • Pathology. i 

inasmuch as these oHSg Dominion causes peculiarly local P^K 
or agriculture. For histanoo T" C ^ ain bra ™hes or systems of hortu; > I 
«* Western C*^^*5J«*^ ta the orcba ^ "•** B, J . d 2fS 
•prominently interfering with 3?? , ? Wy .- I] > the East, certain diseases^ 
not even exist in the WeTt th; Production of certain fruits, while these & 
Principal diseases which e^ "^ has its own specific troubles. Am; 1 ^ 
or pear blight, caused bihSS^ t0 th ° fruit &™™ in the ^fVe* *> 
allowed to continue its rav f e i" TP msm *- This disease, no douW , ■ „. 
Other problems of a local I Si V !< 8 ° OD S( ' riouslv ^terfere with pro' J „„. 
fruit growers in certSo^&f ^F^ 1 ar( ' also receh ing close attent^ 
from various ca ,« an J. i oc ' ' * «>' British Columbia suffer severe annual 1<;- 

» internal breakdown of apples, drougth spot,. „ 
, ■ I ro very careful study, such as the deter*** f 



core f+c on.... . ' ""y 11 as 



core, etc. These troubles racS^* 1 brea kdown of apples, drougth spo^ (i( „> 
of factors controlling ffiKS V J rvM study, such as the determ^ „, 
eacbng of soils du! CtaJLttS » ^ ° fmits < a determination of the egg „ 
the translocation of food n ' ? d s,nHl ar physiological factors inv<'l 
frost. Advice in regard to t h ,' i "T, the leavps . before these are injured 
then obscure natur ( ^, i, , r. 1 ^'^ was urg'ently needed, but p****^ 
ally, in 1921, there was "t Xtt n , qu,ry had first to be conducted, and ^ „. v 
to supply the needs KhtdiS '1 ^mri**, B C , a further lib** • 
In Nova Scotia in rmm^ communities concerned. . fle 

a Pknt pathological l^\ ^^ «j? Experimental Station at Kjgy 
oraer. One of tho «»„ui... !'' ,s oeen author •/,.,! .,„.i ,.;n , , he m ^° •..-,■ 



^^thologicai^ffhSeln^ Vi" '->™>al Station at I 
mile; t^^^ProblenwinNovrs^ 110 ^^ aild wil1 soon be m 

under the existing conditions C ° tl:i ls a PP le scab, which seems 



bo 



The Results and Value of the Work 



. «.«c ui me worK 

m xv f rmed in thc ' mSts of »l th f <livisi " u - The direct value o*^ 
evSSn/T reS - Aclvisi, r' Knf,1 "«' in Canada is difficuH to >' ; „, 

K\^ T , has sh,w " the L R ? u ' nil PubHc along lines of plant d*f% 
hL^SS 1 ^ tho ^ SeS uul "■ Naturally, the firs essential Jjg w 
the staff m!'' Actions re 1 ti ; 'I UW " recognise them as early as pjjj^ 
tunitvt; , l he Vision are . . , J? cont rol or prevention. For H' is P'Sool- 
offi?d£i^ me ^^mtefe 8 fe S ea ? er feo ava il themselves of an <;',„■ 
«S faJm^ 86886 ^^? ■ndSSSf. pe °P le ' '" "P^n S> then, the i»Eg^P 



C ***t +v U ? till 8tommions of dollars. iolll . to p, t0 wgw ^ 

C Who '""■ - l;,i " with formalin or V ' . [oS9 PJ 1)lish ,s of „.,!. 

hi '""tiv, i; "" , Practice treatment, should* ,,,, "^his^M every 
K ? 1 evl dl8ea8e . causes the loss ol more tn per acre |n ,in , t \ 

C ^F7»*< A1 «" cost of very ff ^^structr* aft* ■";\ i ;. In have 

fi&r £h d , l8easea ia neadea ^ n, r!' ; i,i ^hes of ^ e 1)n . 

25*4 1 ( h ■'■- grain is grown. I" *• l , ,, researches bing 

''■"'ly ;, •'■•■v,„t this enormous loss, bat tb< *tf5Srf*H 

t]»„ An,,! d v , V!l >s of lessening it. , ... llu . prevent^ ioD „t com , (MM) 
lit >m '" " 1,;,s " of ""'' woA deals w^t&e^f imp; h1 to, etf» fri)I11 
11 *>S "" of ( ! anada from abroad by "" . s ,,,,,, refe" tilt0 < ■ » oun t 
4S "x !; °om, aursery Btock, etc. A; Mir i«i«"' , ,n "^learned ■* 
>P, ^ grave dangers through J^en* S&S H A*. «U**3 



I,,, u » a f ' States, for instance no aw* Durc es » l mropea" 

Vy! E ^year 8 ' depleted that country sr« ^^ ofj^ty 

j experiencing a1 preset ^^t^Sg^^SS^ 
C> C feter rust. This rust came „„, spread** e wi u teU • £ con . 

ii il, ':"s v . V"; 1 !"- 1 - our efforts in P^Sessfu 1 ' °S BiW»*f dJSuctive 

-k '" th J'' 



iHlu, l , ' ' " In'lllU Ul pri'siu. Mil"!" :,,,f i« ■ , n ]1KU«" 

feter rust. This rust can-' l lll( , spread*^ w ulte&.£ ,,„„_ 
Wsv^ther ,,ur efforts in preve nl ^sfnl.m^ %?&09*f l J^ctive 
J "' hft able whi te pine area wfflbesui <^ vin g »f «» v ,,i do 
f ^l e X ^>ited Stated would justify th?^ ^ d iseae< 

"a,,.; •"•>,,; yet conditions under «'»" 
" general in <'m, i: u1:i. 



ever beco^iabShedT 6 ^^ con s>derable losses in Europe; if i* ff eS 
might have to be doubled iL^SSw 1 eV( ' nt u^Hy the area now under p<*' t . 

The safest means t ££5 fl**}* »* thc harveBt " ,,joycd at ff* 1 
prohibition of the import ,tW, * anada from suph insidious enemas s d , 
or at any rate to carry on IV Rotation or vegetable matter from aWJj£ 
m future is only to b e admit S mspectlon of all incoming vegetation. . lfl 
authorized official of the " pv» V accom Panied by certificates issued ■ lt 
concerned Imd !,«,.„ in'^'f'-'K, V-.untry, stating that the consign^ 
. Eventually, it j B f Z ' ™ shipment and been found free k**&$» 
in prohibiting altogether tht .'f * te , m ational efforts will be made to u y 
to another. As soon as \ , 1 " ° f any ,lis( ' aKed matter from one cou » w 
^"rred in bspecting inSed SW , eomea bto ( ' ff( ' rt - the 'T'loul t ful 
protection at tin. l,e H t^ 1 S, 1 ma * er ! lal for di ™'*> which affords do" , 
;»> ">1 within our „wnu '''Tf 1 •** greater advantage towards .djJJ 
m its work under the DestoX t he8e are 8omp of the aims of the 
. J he main experimental tTy Ins °!' t ai " 1 1Vst Act. . . h >' 

ormly have the SdSBtaS rfS" d< ? ne b tlu ' field laboratories, «*»* ,3* 
of which have the furtRlvl "'"^ ? ltuated in important centres, and » 

, Th e central offi( , e ? *™ ta « e " f the use of land for such purposes, 
each m some particular nl- ^7 maintains a scientific staff of spf 1 *^?, 
bacterial diseases of nLu f plant Pathology, such as forest pathfgfl 
increased very largely^' ^ •^ neral mycology Tl e executive work* 
accounts, P^ha^sfZ^^e work of thedrvision grows. All fgfa 
° ffice ^n its field stations ' " d general (,1Ii( '<' work, passes through 

^^JffSStS StSSP reSearch by a11 »■ ° fficers - 1his 'S?* 
use to the best advantage 2SJT* l" ul co-ordination of efforts in order 

Visitors from a + h d and resources. HV 

croo n " y ? Canad a it is W i" ,y rea ? hm « """''• ambers of the fa^S 
nossil du, ,' t,on - through el • 1,,,! Work " f the division will serve to j 

Possible under up-to-datefanS*? 01 ^ ,,lant leases, to the highest 

fining conditions. 

T] ECONOMIC BOTANY. 

' ' (IV) Sllrv "y of ( C& ( wLas! U1Pmeni : ' ' ' ' ' UrSU 
! v Present Lines of Work 

^^S^^^SS^J 1 ^ P^icularly during the summer g#S 

for pu ... al '"- K w,tl ' the wild "' r iltun ' : "" 1 sale of medicinal ,,, 

to m ; I '" «» Press , 'ilf "> Canada, etc. In addition, ^e 

and ei n, ',.' " W L th some topic nfTf able ll, " ,s " Me l" l '' ,arc<1 ^Sle*^ 
medicim ,. h, aV(> been kmiX &?$**« '" fanners. VarioUfl gj^ 

weclswitl c 1 l nV' 1 '; ldu " llti "» <»f w.,,l' S , ] ? ,Vls "" 1 ''<' ali "g ^th flax enlt ij)g 
2 Plan ak ' 1>,,1Son "ns plants' wild rice and M"' • 

^Zi^^^&si <,r ra " aiia fOT ***^Jt 

wild fruit: ■ ' i^ 11 ""' or have ' , y a T e "" xi,JU s or poisonous t!i „» 

ldlble or poisonous ' ,r, """»"- importance and whether 0« 



129 . , scaS on and 

•> , „ +0 -i dun»g tnt rn h ; s hst 

J - V ' E I h ^ an exchange list of tf^tfSE,* gRStt*? 1 -^ 

">e who wish to ^,)ernnent wrtl mllBS enttc . cj y ; 

R;mll ''>s in the United States. B **£' ey ion, and »° p ro oure m rjtwjj 
South Wales. Java, .lap ■ >, [ir , n h ,; t ,„ , he climate 

Jans of this exchange syst • {or cU ltivatio 
ioi plants thatnright be stutai 

Equipment 



^peri" 



U} lm,l, ia "- v ol Belfast, Lreia««i • , se vt ■>- • el - 

'«' leS ThiB "-P was grown both .£> gj^ 9 on*j* ture d J* oVe d 
I, "<;<l i,, , ;,1 "1 quality were both ^fffi was " i; ,|,r^° nF 
to^l), ho fitting. A sample of the &bre i„t. 

l0 W s ; ;;;;- Tw mes Company of Ontario, ^^y. several >^ )f 

S n St, ''""'"% bug to ripen the seeds s- « W ^«^ u n 'g£2 "> 

C 6 J §£j*. A tall Russian variety g ^ d , ee -»., t , *»**&* 

C"*d? |,1:u "s attained a height oi ten , , lilS , 1 « • ■ in the hea 
:,,.'« th,; ^ obtained from each h«*d. ,„ lt of n*"* 01 _ s an d 

8 KhC '-'Is quickly, as owing to the a'- tl yeftW 

.... . Bo, J° b ecome mouldy. , , vvcr e grown or tbi8 s, ^^ 

&*^~*«* varieties of ^Pg/W f&jU^cU- 
«5S to i K00d cr °P of seedd was ' ,1,ta ' used §*fge Dom»»« m 
"?&■«&£ Very ^ritious, and f^elnaly^fpercaat: , from the 
*> f<t m 1 \ ,rpoS( ' s - Several samples *£ e ?£ twentt \ htam<-'i , ls each 
V C W^ f,il intent to be slight* ' «*J tl is &*„&* *££* by 
C^C 0lL PLANT.-Several variety ' ^idera'' ^ g determ 1 
' for 2^' Holland and Russia, rip<'f d ./ l0 whole seed 
^ **W«1 yeaM The Qil c(mt(nlt () f tnc 



Ihi EtVT^ TVe a S g d fr0m , thirt ^ nine to forty-seven D* «g| g 
around tS** the Seed P°ds when riS ^^ to the culture of this pW 1 ^ 
and erown Pare , nt P lan t- Howevo?" b , Urst ^ccessively and scatter the J J t 
on thTpTanf^ a , Ct ° ril y ** ffiS .^arge-seeded variety has been f ^ 

Mustar Is ° not °P en yCars ' in which the seed P° d 

EC^^^ASi 01 ^V^llow and black mu^rd seed J$ 
wer^SmftL^^^apesorS b ack variet y is > however, a ^f^rie^ 
reporS u^l t0 one of t4 leading fr ° mthe P° d - Samples of both v** 6 b0 
not as LZ T s: " T he yeUow ™ g mu » tar d manufacturers in Canada. t 
mustard, aS the sta ndard E'!,^ Ust T d 8eed ^ a fairly good fl^to* 
tne W S?' S good v »latile strS' W " ch w< ' insider the best . The ;ll , 

ChicorI !L5" 0Wn -" and gO0d flavour > and, to our mind, ■ * 

^Tt^T^SeofSf^ k — - "Large MagdebuV$ 

faEoSjB S s ^Xc£ ^^ experimented with, \f$& 
seedYpSf 1 pur P°^s. One variS u thc ' Wh " produced was too ,_,,, 

varietrSV 3 ^ year f«t£ bSsl° WBVW ' W;,s 8ec ^ ed whicb WlS*** 

Orm^ P gave a brush" kni?? r 5™ yeare - S( '<'d was selected fr°B» 
belladom? ^"-Climatic Sl°l f»*^w. inches. ll0l „»; 

^tisfac^Sf^^ Wgreek Lt «.^° been made on °PT\ ^'' 
CTOr y results m most eaSr' lus< '> dlH and other medicinal pi*** 3 ' 

^ the course of ^ ° f Canadi ^ Weeds 

observSK ^aS^^eanCwetl ' ? erence; and at 1l "' Bame SSV 
reports on the ^ ?P eri ence in wJ ?" ">K farmers and others to B*J bU c1> 
indicate fefi! T T*?, * ^calitieslS 1 ^n 61 " 8 also - Some thousands „> 

what conmS h f ably how far the 7 "" Canada are ™w on file, and ff^jf/t 
are proving tmuh, m > ""^ dlS"""? ™*cU, have spread and ^y 
more applf cah K T me - We are t ? ' t nd topping or farm P^* 1 '„•>- 
which Eel s 0n fl ' ° Cal c °ndH a ons ,7, enabled to *•*» °™ advice to fig ,„, 
we can ^ i£^, <* «Pfoff&W &re also *ade aware of the P"' 1 ,,irb 
existing in L^^ 1 ^ 6 to mvesS^ti W^ rfect knowledge of the facts, «J. eP 
of Perenniafs, ' +1^ areaa »6wR furthcr - The striking difference* > 
having notS ^ and Rulsianfe, m th e soil and moisture pregj > 
+ . 8 coSS^le witHKhe? 8 * 16 ' a l0Cali ty badly infested ^ 

SffiS^^b^^y "« may be gathered of theP^ 
r ° f P ro ^cts under w!vi n °, re ^arch, brief reference is her \* 
y m the lines of work detailed above .— 

<\> VegetiS^^Mfagatioiu, 40 

w^^^-Asaja^-;--".:::::: $ 

Total. . 



170 



Th e DIVISION of agricultural bac 

i-> Bacteriologist 
A. G. Lochhkad, Ph.D-^ +ioU of the activities 

« tft Vision, representing the most recent £J*gg for «- P-g^ 

Jecil,)' ;»«! attention ... those matters » ^cctfon ■*££*&? to .the 
^tL»? 0n the science of bacteriology. J . » a direct ieia as^st the 

>i t £; practice, problems «* *k*S is. -JKjffl problems of 
f6 er « in ?l ^ro-organisms, and so this cuvj > m their bj 

es ^ ch wf 01 r kvestgationai work by ocM>] ^gjacter. 

Pr,! 1 * are essentially bacteriological in manufacture 

of ,*&?£ amo ^ 1 lu.se.' are-.- , ion an d ma^tena**^ l«» dmg *° 

S ^y' 1 Husbandry : Pure milk produc on balldr y proDi 
St Mi es y of Pfod Uct ^ cial hases of animal C eneial, 

to ^orL^ 1 " 1 of animals. „ . Hu , b andry, Wg Manufacture ot 

fe n fc llt ^e, Field Husbandry, Cereal Bu*g . noculat ,on, 

%,pj action of fertilizers, Iconics a> 

A lSu t rVation of f " (,<ls «» d t''- ,l - stuffS ' • , ub ation. 

^u&>' : diseases of bees. , ... of poultry, m° ubftt 

StS?? Husb andrv: Sanitation, heal th J of agric'ltm 

it n A be,riJi:. be supplied. . ftnU i P piiig a 1,a < , (1 . ( . m ber, l»f ,j iv idcd 

lal h(! Ce?S n J Wa * made this year fj qui* i()ll , n p mfty b e d W 

inStor" 1 S which was ready for ooeuj lll( . work do » consists 

C *SMS fl consi8ts at P resent ° f tW ^d rtearcb. , h , a dairy j*J*23 
C 1 °Wr,^ r, ' , ' t ''''«' ana extension, and r ^ inilk g epa ratioa» 
a S 1 «t u ' Ui, V"u of miscellaneous samples J ture) , m ^ 

jSS, 8 *?-. submitted for analysis, an n dy been ci 

^ Wi ?o° f ^-cultures for legume ^^tions^ Th , ota* *£ 
i>l in » 8ard t0 th e research work, mv^f divi» £j aS regards sour 
3*^ at n "Oration ™tb several ° Spr° duct For the "» im a» 
St^W 111 '""'"'• -y deal with pure ggj al , C s JJJ^ from 
C re ' a ""^ and with the retting , „„ m ,lkn* 

H^uti, 11 ^. '-'creased assistance wil g %>blemS ° f P 
(1 ' ar e , ' m c °Pi«K with some of tne 1 
■ Pressing for solution. 



756 ^ 9 l l3 i 



132 




Marquis Wheat-O,, 




-K'-ownonfan,^^ 

l J amb n rum„, t sl4 Pring " loUghed atubbl °- Illu stratioB Statl0l>S ' 



N RATIONS 
T HE DIVISION OF ILLUSTRATE 




iueb c , S«an a dietrid is to divide > ' " usllil ily a ■ hay l8 

h *Vl .' V)y Bmnawick and Nova Scotia, ^ g00D as 

<?lp H ,<•„,. *g£3?*g***«" -* d 

<■ ^"fe::: ,; ,&"^i.ii , 'i- s ' „ ■ >-'""" 

. -^"Pounds timothy. _.. cU t clover W hoe d crop 

S lu ! Vkah. Clover Hay I'"-*' ' b e P****** 

, C? or clover bay. . nftS ture.- T ° be P , _. each crop, 

as < Uri ," Year. Smothy bay « P* 81 n f perf orn>f J^r and on 

i 3,2 Wiataken off. . (1 Knurs ^rkfg casuaMffiaportance 

'Mliw' " ' ,l ' accounts are kepi o U* L o. ( ( . ri , lt .> » the imi> 

$•25* ^ cosl of production is ^sTon *e vnsb to 
0! 8^^ of the strict, the first unpwsswntg. 

leitt and the necessity of keepmg fa** * 

133 



134 



The successf ' timUlati ° n ^ ^ Cultu ~' Methods 

S to^'iK^o IZt A d f P ^ dent u P° n favourable soil conditio"* 
f P fl n 1 P ^ ts be d ^troy e d The ^ tenslon ' "Moisture, air and also that co» 
actoryy^lds can often be traced tn1f erenC , e between satisfactory and unsafe* 
n "**! ^^ons. Whilo ™ l ^0 the quality and timely performance of t b|J 
SS' Thus the lls o&t ,°P era tion is essential, economy* :l1 ' 
^^couragedonthelllusSlLll*! more ho ™<* and vdder machines * 
and economic production. llUstratlon Stations, as a means of obtaining efficien< J 

K^tSS^ to bring about those conditions «jjjg 
arenntT G Value of the plmJh ^ ?u' the P loil S h P^ys an all-impor 
SandSr d ^ dand »tonften c^/m 6 time of >'" ; " th « ^d is P loUg , - 
S ■ t ion ? i? 61 ? P erf ormance of th£ l^T "^ be traced directly to the PjJ 
heavy elf ? a f1 ln du Lie^re hi s S f OP f atlon - This season, on the IHustra' U 
PoS<5 y S d w:is ^ken one Llf Was „ clearl y demonstrated, a 3i-a£ e 
acre* 1 The P ° rtion that was ft WM ploughed the other was s P r> J 
ManvTnT, aS the cr °P from tITsnt Pl 7 ghed Rave a yield of 30* bushels pj 
S^^^^iahSLSSSff^i^ land Wsw Poetically a failu J 
usm* W 68S and Efficient roll ™ T y '" dry seasons > due to delayed |*>og 
^fl^^^^2wf& h ^ T<min «' discin R and cultivating- : ; 
on the Illustration Stations we are dS ' m ° re . w " rk ean be do ™ in a K iv ? n 5 
hlS> afe dem onstratm K the necessity and practical 

Not un • StImUlating CIover Seed Growing 

T^^^?^^S?t£± Ill ^^on Stations was red -tog 
have b ee n l' ^ Prince Edward iSS 106 of Q uebec - In NeW BrunS * 
the clover « If ed fr , ora Second cr^ 7** g0od cro P s of red - cl ° V S K 
June otw - an earlv «tart and tho fi P ° f clover - when the season is such t ' 
seed from fu 1 ^' H is best to pasW first + cro P can be cut by the last week 

obtained W hen th^' In ™ h n^ ^ middle ° f June and t0 SfS 
inustraticn^ + ' efirstcr op is harvest? iV tano we find that best results »' 

and 22S OntaT ^ tho *^ plrt 3 ff 1 The SySt ° m ¥ ""^SbS 
in June to h* °' ls to °ut the first l the , P rovi nce of Quebec, sou« e 
Care must it %T Ct ' when the second^ °? early ' not la ter than the la**£ 
Red £t^ n t0 cut high enmul^ T?* 8 start at the base of the pUtf£ 
bridge Eats? h ^- been «2*ffi!?„?* to destr °y these secondary «h< 
CampbeK r! J £ he ' St - Cle L a 'lf ™ n on fche stations at Aubrey, SJgJ 
seedgrowiLn y ' New Carlisle ' and wS^ Casimir . Bessisville, Pierre^ 
In tT ^ a comm ercial b'asi;1 ln Wo °. dstock - Fr om these centres, rfjj 
estabUsW dlSl ; rict s »rroundin^ tu " Xt ' ;1,ded into the surrounding dW*« »■ 

who grew five c aS been Purchase^hwf &S been taken U P <l uite cxte V^ 1 
year threshed I iW? the ftr st year Zv " ° Perator of the Illustration Sta , 
Roddick at aS lrty acres - On the H V ° n t acres the sec «nd year, and the tl 
of five sinfe ftf/fi , clov «r seed has h l ^ tratl ^ Station operated by Mr. SJg 
red clover Led f; tabhshr nent i n ?9" lfi been successfully produced four years oU 
$1,377. Up to th a .- Cost of six cents' n 1919 ' he harvested 2,700 pound 9 
seed. Thefts' biliH me the ^C^Lffl'}?? n ,1 tin g him a clear prog -J 
tosuchanexwt ° S of this work^4 bI !f h . ed he had never grown c' ^,, 
that $40,000 wort, ? at f ' mthe sa me year thl ded into the surrounding dugj 
' ° rth of seed was sold co 1 S ?? retar y of the farmers' club repO^ 

co-operatively through their association- 




, A PPWn t the Practice of Af«r-*««"« C J rf • *£ 

sfe r »„,.,.„„„.., H, ; ,.u-„t,r;s v&g:s* , gz 

a* be *.. ( .,i , Preparing sod land for p°5x,„iwv the ,? in hoed oroi om - 
fi^o <l wltt grain, clover and un yj > l0 i, iV ...lU; * lti vatio[> »•£ an d 
Ntll ma ny farm™ -„„ find it impossible™ ve8 i ,u a in „ 



O as , m « h t( > keep down all greeny cult ,iva« * cU itivateu - h . lllo w 
7"P is taken off, the practi c * kt , pt , w rll < discC d or or 

£ ^^satisfactory, provided -'• h a wla ,thor it J ^ r ** 
»d S; F«m to freeing up, aU ^ g de pth 
V S*2« again be fall P^tfaoS • Static t f cultivated 

( . p ^ ng on the nftture 0j the ; L 1|istr!l t.»« 91 i A ug^ • 0**4 
»*? u he "Wtunii from one of £ , H^,* early f u . f be hel8 . 

tJcNtlv ? J . s, ' n > the Brat was ploughed .so « lE , tb ; ie lded 4* t free 
E^lL d V rin ? the autumn and P '» ,! llt iva;ed PjJJpd **Sed P lot 
C^iS J?° boahela of oats and the ma lvCl tfja cu T' ide r- 
h!S 42 ^ titivated plot was ,-o"» ; (h Bitfjg U:l , g:|» $£ passing 

Hjfiaft 0u ;i similar demonstra ttt» ^ P r CioliS ^ d 'S apP^ 
tl t l '*<r- m m °™ than the uncultivated. tio n fS iv atioO l' LlD8 

o>Rh ( V he cen -tres surrounding the Wghfit* tuU 
°th er l f ^strict, one can readily see atter 

Introducing Mantis and T „,p 

&ss - ■-.«•! &£**£&&'"*' 



1 to ,^t __ 




"' -V^ and the W 

on btanon at MeotTaf "'I'", made " Salter Tait, op« 
W r iwi11 be ablet ., ' &8katchew an, writes:— 




I ™„, 1(l * J ™ve r«»i" sale as th>" - „ 

cannot supply the demand forMarqu*- ^ 

to 1X^*1 by the fad that the only ** 
raoKea with those w£ N< ' ( '" at the Chw' ''","' Mr ,lu « h HOI, ^ 1 ">' ,lml i<)2l 
^erreviUe, Que w 'J'"'* hoi »or 8 , ' : 'f '1 International Exhibition «■ l ',; v , 
«**? QPerators'whn '"' *»*■ and JhJ? lblts ? f fa ™ Produce, Mr. TraV ■ ( . 

petitions. who annually win j ' ' ^""^ TJ,,s, are only a &»* "., „- 

lK,n,ni1 '* », their local seed and crop "" 



138 
edge, with little hand* t M 

la bour t0 f^ t l! he e ^Cto ^7 im P° rtant t0 have the side perpf *> 
ranged from ,2^ U P crfeSvL^ The cost of the horse ^VjC* 
TheSgJc * 32 each - trench <*, with the dimensions as »° 

ma£ ed ^ &*£*£?*" in e ^-t condition, the stock jtt 
efficient met£? T^^ eri ^cehi ^ Parat ^ vel y small percentage o *P »d 
stock inS? d n goring corn n'l ^ at the trench sil ° iS *->'■ "^ ^ 
on these TelS^ S ^hewaJ d ^ Unflo i T er8 for th « winter f ?*2JW 
-* «- the^^tio, 8t - J ^-S&^treSV 



<*> fefttt^^aJS 1 ^ — available in these *** 
^ field n tlfied See d ;"'"" TS for B eed purposes. -tri* 

°^e o fth e P S ranCe ' «* contrast? T^ f ° r ^ m * nt t0 ° tber w ^ 
> Passerst tt" w here f '. S , '« been very marked, so much ^ „ 



Uve Stock and P ouitry 



Though the T,l and P ° ultr y 

hegrading^ftfust g hanJin h T' Jt is &% resized that eroP t jo 
1o ««* °I*ra1 o V 'f i nry herd , 'f- To stimulate a keener mge^j 

w °rk. The recoJd Ifr tra «on s i ' lles and daily record sheets are » V 
year to y ea r Jg ?**** are Sent S °f, s,s <*> be induced to take up „, 
rendered in th? bS^ eBWat £tb?f m ° nth - so th at we can *?"&* 
have a number of f a ^ mng of Pure-b ( ', ,ee " mad e- All possible assis*^ to 
these herd ti£ bSE"!-* <S£S2A** sires. WheS possible, ** > *$> 
, , ... A nock of we U f P ra + tlVel y- In ?jr ty t0 the lustration Sta1 ion I gj 
utdize a great deal off Pt P ° u ltry is « n W « Y the benefits are far-reaching 
« at free range so ££??* ^Tand^f table •" 1 J"" lt <" anv i&X *A^K 
with th, s strength of n n al for th « Ktfi* 1 * Same tim * the farm provide* ,,!.■ 

11,1 Judicious hou s hi^«tution c 27 ment of a strong constitution- ° f >, 
assured. Usin g and feeding" *m aying ability on the part of tl ^ 

trn+ > order to stimuli Part of the operator, and pr° ft1 

tration Stations iH„ ate heater into, , • f flU**' 

of Poultry on ea n oTt^ fe ac ™ if/, 11 . ** farm flock, the Division <>/„„„- 

mor e profitable. ° f the I^traE h A hls by introducing bred-to-laY S* pC l 

U b tat 10 ns, and in this way make the 



189 
Sui »mer-FaIlow Treatment for the !**«• P^' 1 " ^ grahl 

fefe *»* for many year* that *£^**(*Sffi 
\tS& c, : Jt °ae i hat will do permanently. 1° «J Di vision o listricts 
( !f > C r , ; ,<(| ^th this onr crop ^' st , e ,"i i( ; s in twenty-^ f theS e 
! W l ;<'.|; 1 '; '^'l-Hshed comparative demox^ati°» tioI1 , J alo?g . 
WS M oh 8a8l ^tchewan. On the WustratioD fo Un yea ^^ 
!f H tWo 4a WM ■«»*» continuously on *f«gJ? B d a threej ca 
CS, ffif notation of wheal and Bummer-fahw thc f( r > bug , s 
^JSwgft- summer-fallow. The average yg oon tinuou sly f - vh| ,h 
,f ', l£S Btati0M was, in the case o wheat u , 1 ' ■ hold ing 

C l, 7.»"l summer-fallow 20} bushete ! ,.,iv, the JJJ^ p or 
<> of H, t ,, lunus| Bteadi iy became (h . m n o heva lue 

of f ea Son ; " soil was ,.„,| U( , 1(li , ml , in some oases, ^ ftbftI1 doned « 

>>>»»,., f^pwing of « Ih,u continuously &as m u9 tratioi 

\; he sv a r 0W h;ls been realized. f _ Uo w on «» is shallow 

w!Si?^ followed in handling the ^ffrooted gr^ ^tivatec 



V aie aft* ; .' S " Pulverizes i he soil too muw. ha rd-and-& 

** crop Mure. lloW in the «»«*" 

' Stable Recurrence of Sumnier-Fa 1 "" bin s 1k 

5$?#.*™- !»;■''* ;:::--€ &#& 

S£*?*t£ T^to demonstrate the l''' 1 ' 11 '; 1 ' , ' is being, 1 ■ ,-v ^ wl 3 

^J&i,;:: «*» of the «»gtfffiK ^flSa^y; ^-JS 
.l^lfh h Ye-,, n1 duration, one m ^lncn j , t n i d> n rye : e , , 

' K*» *££• n '" ^st rotation is fallow gj^ded to < followed *^ 

"."> 52' wheal ; the third is faUow, wheatse :U r •■ < llllU ,l n 
NJ'MI, ,\ ' ;, "< l two jrears' hay. Btaa^S oa ts are g^ere has ]gg 

S»C aS A° f '»»' "hort rotations, w h« rt **, fegdg* unsuitable 

r Cri abl e v'oi u ' re this h:l * be* ,l '""' ', ■ n to rend« tuc d 

d SSi ak nt0( ' r Srain produced, sufficient fo llowea, 

S2 "<" ,„ r/ '" lower its g ra de co '!''"f loI1 ger ro^ ^ u rye 

^ r , " s f ;»«nin K constituents, the loss ol 



140 
Growing Alfalfa 



p '"s miana 

S^ ep ^8 upoSJlSS such a variet y « f < liffprcnt S2S 

»oduction only after 'jl^hty in which it is «™»m. Many 8U cC d 



in 
L ess 




E„c„ uragingtheproduct . oiio[Fa|i 

J-' all rye has m nY 

is lessS I t l ng0CCUrs - it is foS^v ^ berta and Saskatchewan. I." B f u| u* 
iSrs^te t0 soil <W th,J , In wi at summ er-fallow sown to rye * £>> 
Rmtel^ in «B wa r , I, " 80wn t0 s P"»k wheat; the ^gj* 
nection it f i th rt is " f pi«?J? m , ore ™>isture available, and . J* 0? - 
succession f a n Wn f <™>d that Value for combatting weeds, to ' ,,, U> 

On th/ 0ll + T ed ^ an, 11 r ' , ^"'"'"■r-fallmv and two crops of $*&. 
ehewan m^ b ^*t Slhefc T- U P^ally eradicate ^ g °>tj 
1l 'r<mKhrioli i ' encou ragemen u ; i tr:,1,, ' 1 > Stations in Alberta an< ; ,, rl .a 

^ti^iSi^ * «i ^ as sea-ffsj^ss s# s0 

Theint , Intr ° dUCti0n0fWe — " R ye Grass 

^:dE^^^^z;z r® int ° the «*•*« « *. «^i$ 

! '^nnS^^^ m8 ^.i.llvl,,, ;!,,' ; ; ]l serves a twofold purpose. ><,,,„•>■ 

WngbgW 1 E ir h > Western , Mlf "' l 7 1 P™™ hay to carry ^Tyi^ 
Itsvalu, VJ wr ^ tons P«acrV ,,' T h , cen fo ""<l very suitable, » 8 >,,.>' • 
^ «HffiK?tn«? ad to ; ' C ' •« „ SS h T 68ted > depending ox. ^> 
have become * , he K,,il - • »"o JoS^* als °' 1 "' ,,;nis <' °* »■ iil,n,us n " S» ^ 
the ejfa d ^ted in hu^fcT ^ Ppm 8' the Boil8 iu ¥**£** { ° 
To buoop i'- m maQ y district 8 • t 1(,y llilvt ' lost their binding P° w . 

c'liinnti,- ,,,, if J ry s< ! ,ls > b) pour,,' X?? 1 . rye ' ;i W( '" prepared seed )( 
*** wiS or » 1 '* h1( ' 1 ' SdS wilW 1B advfeable . P« ;icre " U £ i dc i 
on the TlhltV'tT w Ut a »urse tL T K1 yr Dettei *«&■. Xt »** £ 5^ 
a nurse cm 'o, 11 Sta f ioll «. &at S'tJ? "'," dri « "^'"mx i( h:,s '"''"J i '"" 
«op on a well PrepWd^!^' 68 ? 1 * 8 are obtained by seeding** ,^ 

1 summ er-fallow. The seed is very W 1 * 



I 1 1 • „ the grain drill 

, ,.anl£ l> lw 6 _J into 



a 111 . + he Krai n dr I 

, Hi i v, «t— using »W 8 d int o 

K^-gd with twice its quantity ■W&'SS S&» t0 ^ 
««* sou 18 * dvi8able to sow shallow but**? ^ :lU gro* 

l St . C ; Duri "S the first season it '«* lch . , ich purpose 

V,?> £?$ U al1 on the ground to ^/^ fodder, foi « 
" ^y. season the clop may be .cut for alg0 dude. 

i, |lr "(l>„. i tUlT ">n work with this <Top, ontnc in to „ or dinary SS&r. 

? «£** of Western rye grass seed ^ Th e old th re .her 

^St£! 6n side ' nor ^ allow it to Be^IewiStber^J^ds tff •££ 
r^S I | ';«'-'^ f„r seed and threshing done** ^ g „ btfDS 

fjjttvj : ,M '->ti.. n Stations 850 p«m» » / ,l " J lC value of ^ th0 tba t tbe> 
''■' Cc Wd' of /hoice seed was harvested. T&e^ operators 
'"or,. ' Ul ' 1 . it- is being increasingly jr.ro* • j sup ply- 
6 ^quiries for Oed than they can pos» 

Introducing Sweet Clover ^ ^^ ^ 

&^15S^ a weed, sweel ^^^J^S^S 
^S^S&f.^ s,,il * low to fertUity ai id org , )lo aS a gggj in rend . 

% >:^ ^^ which render it U^ '*$&<* £ *B £»" ° f <%$*»* 
■„ v 1(1 l>io Khction. I t8 deep-rooting b »> ' dept hs ; j* i;ltu ,n of so d 

O ,1,,; " " more porous anS to feed at P*» , „,ac i:lS been so* 
: '"- tlc SXft ;mtl cold, sweet olover ada • d (1 the seed 

^Sd^'P^dedthesoUiBUotaour.i "JffljA* 

^3* 11. '• ., „f the West, Fortius' llu ,. 



^^ated^'P^dedthesoUiBUOtsou,, Sreasou, 

to<w°* 11? !• , f the West, • F ,. tins' 

soft^ussiepleted, drifting f^JS&gffiijZ **ff*8K 
Q>afe ; ! useful plant because oi these ££ blisb ed ohre this « 
^>8ta£ fi eld8 of sweef olover have been e^ over can 

^diSn 118 ' ^ determine to what extents 




k 



[aneties of garden and nov district. t; then 
for benefil Sf the surround"* o» evidences. 
*uty. Their presence in the ci^ fboXDett K 

apparent for the estabusnu 



142 




Tu A *D PUBLICITY 

THE ^VISION of extension and 

-h, P. C. NTWKtGK, B.S.A., < tb()s0 r crec 

.„; Utfe- of Extension and ^e^^^R^- d % d ^ 
'- afw Central Experimental Farm, bav ^ rk bad bee ,, work ^ 
;:,,, <, s , : , ' r, " i " preliminary ^jffo the ?^fl«^J?BSW 

11 1 , Vb™" 1 "- As the vni.u.l.h; results ivi „ ( ,ns « ti „»j lin '\ 8te niatic 
<u u , "'<• investigational and reseaxcfi iitc co nne a sys^m 
l.,,, " I " and more evident thai somej &ed a n a in ,, , <i 

f) f K- to ai? mtal Parma and the t^^ZoTg^hmongto* ' 
«S»C^ U .^«' this knowledge should • • ? ,, a ^ h 



of 



H "''v.s 1( ,n of the securing ^Sa«^,«o il M0i>»^J^2«a» tifl * 
, ''"Kularlv to the newspapers of' £, for ■■SeaJJJ - n thc prep 

P '"'.v.siun o! the securing pi wj 1 ^ assists 4 
*W£ !?»»>* of exhibition cireulars- exblbl ts. 

4) T j "t bulletins for publication. Omental *a p minion 

| ' Preparation and staging o h*P e for the£ the 

^ 8) i ' Urging of the mailing b£ rf intern sW for »se 
o^^S^ment of a central bureau ^0 ot J bran*** JWana- 
^So??? Pwms System, and ^Steu^fi^tern slides ***$&&» 
W (?) ^Central Farm and the ^P^fsetsof&uiturftlo^rposes, 
.:„ , " supervision of the 1»"'P«™ •" t „r:il and 1 < educaWJ^J of these 
:, <>U, S,, '-'P1 , which are len1 to :l " ' , ( 'ai.a'la, ".'■ , a son dmg 

*&ttV%2S£S&* ,;,.,.— "" d ° 

*<> „,„„,„ ,„,».«* "';;:; „, *-**»— * 

' ll 'Clv} ll ' l '-'"0-..ll,cravcm.,,"(«''' ,,1 ' ,l ' : '' 

Press ArHc<« .i.-^'Sfflf?- 

X ,"«»''"■'- (of »i,i,i, thaw -i; 1 ; V \i : ii.'> " ,s «r«« l ? f , , v to »•*•,£! 

MaSSR?" " r Canada irere a»W "Jjviaior.- "IJ, regolarg^da are ">°» 

g»^*. thou gh occasionally the i ,. n dcayom k ^ un free iy e 

S Cri Jh ese articles arc short and ai a in taagj^e a 1 c f Ilia n) _£ 
Nicaf'/^PPy and readable rtyte, « pere ■ «J d tbe res u» th e read 
Nhl armw - Many hundreds « or ^atiou,g 1:iC ed b< 
?KC C ln tins way much tfcn^Sg constant *- 
*<5^*»« -Iducted, <£*£* 



, J»w bcm K conducted, ait 
0ft ho rural districts of Canada- ^ 



T 144 

it can be readil Ji 

SS y r^^^nTht'exter 811 , 11 " 8 Press «** the farmers of : OjjJ 
■ s it S » , ° f ,r mal an d plant dS 6 ngly Valuable this is in the evellt ° f wee^. 
means o P f ° S T bl f. c t0 P la ce in the W? 6S ?\ the appearance of new noxious^ 

S 8 °of '{Ration- and nf „±-° f th<5 farmers > with ^ little fV 

farmers of tl S T^ ature ^re n t m /5 ari1 ^ methods of control. ^ 

men o the Dominion dStft 0111 * newspapers and thus to 

of ri rtl , Cle l with a general 2r . "* tW ° months of l ™ 2 - inc* 

fc a naSf bUt Whe ' e STJSJSS T Sent to the Paper* in all the pgg? 
^'hcre Se iff Pr ° vince - the article's tG ? rcfers to conditions in one pr°2> 
the information i s appeal/ Sent onl y to the newspapers in the dtfW 



the 



conditions TT' whi ch contain! fl- ^ There are two editions, nai 
taininR art n th ° Prairic S^^^^P^Uj prepared for ag 
easS nrn ' ° S a PP^able KS^ the "Eastern and B.C." edit 
e m provinces, conditions found in British Columbia »»« 

^l^^^j;;;n;! d ^v7 Popular . Its articleS) f *^$ 

done 3 t t . entlon at the time each^^ manner > with features of ^ It K 
th « corresnn» f r ° USe inte rest in tho J T U l , '" ;,H "'* ^e farmer's hands- A { 
tion, n avt d ff C u e recei ved Som tZ°* k ° f the Experimental Farms. ^ 
Unu ? attnbu ted to the rSce v rmerS / U over Canada asking for i» for 
Bran ■ Y ar,ls of ^OOO corXI ng ° f ^sonable Bints." ,. ^ ifi 

*2 te^t egular ^ « fSSjP! i 1SSU " ; "'" ■«* out from the P^> 
diBtriln ti ,S i ° Ut *° bank « ' S • ' "'" , !« hou t Canada, while 63,000 oggf* 
'•''^ially ccMl em + t0 the farnW JTi?- P*/* 8 " f Canada winch co-opj* ; ,n' 
y co-operating i n this Wl tl "' ,r «*»Wrta. The following ba*^ 

Scant& a S -tia ~~ 

The Bank of M Ba " k of Commerce The Standard Bank of Canada 

T he Bank T ,mtrca l Tbe Royal Bank of Canada 

Tfc Sterling Crr- Weyburn Security Bank 

Ih e Molsons r , of Canada H mon Bank of Canada 

The Imperial p , ' Pinion Bank of Canada 

J eriai Bank of Canada La Banque Provinciale 

t he following. Q , lnt .. . La Banque D'Hochelaga rfr 

a b -ch of Baagrs-ijg. ^ ,., received ,,„„ ,**•* 

farmein "* tha t th^e °^ ta ** : , . by < 

*»£in?3 ° ften «5?Sn5tff B ft Hints ' « e much JPSfieoV 

tt Besi des tCe blr th6y ^ Print?r' J l,ank :U ' <1 «**■ * W '^ d 

^^tn^LW on the regular »&***£ 

w ho distribute ST""** 1 <to*m££T. £ f - this Publication are sent W& 

^ich they ar e c ^ Paniphlp t to 1^ °, n;,ls :ill(1 ^er agricultural*^ 
companies a a^cted, whil . 1 ' n '7'' 1 ''''- of the various organizatio^ to 
™mber of copieS^ a ^n ffi^ ° «**■ are sent to various f J yl 
ami French of K„?^ d of *he W £, dlsl nl)ution among farmers. Jjjl* 
both the " Prairi ^ ^jewag 413,500. Tins includes the E^ 
cl Eastern and B.C." editions. 



145 
Exhibition Circulars ^ ^ ^ ^ 

^!;:;;; 1 , -v, ,,„„„ ( . sl)( . ( . ia „ y K«r£'££^^ 

S^*ta«BW Kami* exhibit £J ^ COUC^ f °« \ ;lls with l*g« 
I n <* " '" ; > Popular manner, and Pje w collection' u , lllt . these 

i Prol unv agricultural ...alters. In *£* li:lS ° >v have been Jfouna 

Nla ' *" s "ith which the Canadianfarg^ at fairs, ^Sqdri* on Ste 

H'o . "'/. Primarily intended for ^^^tBUia^^toapphcants. 

^nd&^ly useful in answering correS i;lV e Lee., sent Dy isSlie d:- 
C ,al Ejects, and lar^ennn.bersnlsol h;lVC been 

i.C°^ng is a-list of the exhibition cuculax. 

Ua?ftss ^^^-^ 

5. b£ '"* " f grain recommended by the Dom.n.on 

''■ 'n,„ ' """ l " and Sale of Seed Grain- Quebec 

7 - *C T'""^' Paltry House. . „„, adjacent P**" .Eastern Q"« bec - 

8- l> r : "'" Pfeld Root Varieties tor Ontano and « U^ and E* 
j2S*"Wd Boot Varieties for the If*** 

0-aS Stations for Central and Fasten^ 

1. <fi"»«w» Grass vs. Western Eye a* 888 ' 

, ■ iL^ 8 ^apes for Home Use. 

"*■ C i"'" 1 ^ock. 
18^*8 and Rearing of Youni Chicks. 

, • Ton l Clover — Tht- Truth. 

1 6. j. T p Graftiag . , ; , m ,i Trees. 

*.fc*^Cold Frames. . ^i* and Ca» of W« 

l «-& tioa of Fruit Trees from Mice and BaW> 

19. T ,- kl, 'Ti.. K i„ < •,„;„!:, 
^Cr^Culture in Canada. 

21. J?** Milk. 

22. <-,'"'" from Dairy Cows. 

^C^^er Cheese. 

^ S t ,,,'|'! | '. < ' Beand H " lh '''- 

2 5. o treatment for Grain Smut. 

36. Th ^8ue of Publications. t . 

27, ij.® ; "'i, l( .,. M ., Manufacturer. l' ! " J: 

28. T , '■ farmer as a Manufacturer. Par' 

29 - b7l armer as a Manufacture! •. tVt IU * 

30, ^,"' k Raising. 
■H. 'J R ■^ a &agemen1 of Turkeys. 
32. ^J^anagemenl of Geese. 
38, ■ J y h "^« Bank. 

' M - IV !' mii " K " r Liv<! sto, ' k - ■ , Columbia. 

35. ,. " p arm \\ „ii, . ... of Canada. Bn tisb i tiirio . 

36 fe> Rotations for Dry Fan I £ J '„ fcion Cere^ * andj*"^, 

37. v^»of Grain Recommended by „ li(m Cereal ]n , yl ,nu»« 

3 8 . !•*•*■ of Grain Recommended by the W^^ ^,,,,,1^ 
3 9 J^eties of Grain Recommended by t« 

40. R lann 'ng the Home Lot. , p _ M ay Make 1 i«'» ■ ■ 

41. ?" autif «l Homes and How the Farm* 

42. i J'' I) rainag i the Farm. 

4 3 ^ Water for the Preservation of JMW 

44 p P Nests. 
45 - . J> otato Scab. 

J yo " know your weeds? 



146 

46. Apple Scab. 

47. Seed Oats, 



51. Facts about Hon ey ^ Prov ^es. 

52. Care of Farm Machinery. 

54! ThTuS; JoXTur ^ ^ ^ D °" C -alist. 

57.PittbgR 00 r gmEastern ^nada. 
58. Mangel Seed Growhg. 
^•^Steer-Feedbg 

60. The Feeding f Swine. 

61. The Feeding f Sheep. 

62. Cream Cheese. 

•8- The ft.^ ot d™^*™^ '» tt. E„t, m ft^ „ d ftc . 
«»• i>uttermaking. 
70. Crate Feeding 

73- Hardy Bush FrSj^^ *? Ir " gated F — 

79 - inning 1 Western? andBarley - 
80. Alfalfa ^ r ' le . VVester n Farmstead. 

81 Potntn ? ^ g m Man itoba. 

86.Limeinti:uU C ure OUSe0fMiteS - 
87.The PeedingofHorses 

|^^l£rn n tr lAmedP ^ 
93.Self. FeederforH i ^3. 

94. Corn for Ensilage.^ 

or' S e £ beep Bar ". 

96- The Farmer's Pigge^. 

99. Mushroom CuU ^W^ °° St ° f D ^ Products by using Silage made fro* ** 
J0i: ^^e Maritime Provinces. 

103' u onstractio »' 

104: Fertffi^S^X ?^ Irrigated F — 

IS ^dfrwintel T S ' SmallFrUitS aml LaWM - 

107. G ~wi ng r peS^ t Cwb^S|S ,in f K n 0f Beef ° attle in Eastern Canada. 

eedmg of Beef Cattle in Northwestern Saskatchewan- 



study the appearance r>f +v> 

originated on the Dominion Kv,"" •** <,H ' *<**& of the straw. The variety 

mence through th ese S^ eMmental Farms have been given much pr^ 

J^^SltaSfS? ^S J" D ^8bn has been filled with a flU^J 
Of table hnen, rugs, twineVSc SS" ° f * be P ro ^ss of manufacture and samP' e 
. The exhibit from the Srf V" Canada from Canadian flax. . ])g 

£t°? r arioties ££ta ££°I For - ge Plants has consisted of specl 2 d 

for the district in which the < 3& h ? ■" and °W seeds especially recommend* 
,. The Horticultural DiW WaS bein « Splayed. , , „, 

gj- Ottawa Valle^stcUr^r *?** *•**•* fruits recommended^ 
The d P15l 1-? f good Vialit/ ft' °T" ated on «« Central Farm and cjjj 
rounHin Slra l )lllty of ^ving inteS'T * a plant br( *ding has also been shoW» 
loundmgs has also been emphasS ^ and attention to the farm home * 

V^^^^SSi^h^ hive has been an interesting fi**g 
for the bee-keeper h ave a Lef 1, 7"'. Il ""'" y factors and other equip^ 
. , In the Division of * 180 . been displayed. , n 

rSardi^T? CTC ^ lf e^tiu^erehIv^ b f S ° d on ***¥&>• Samples °/ StS 

fegardmg their use has been nhelfl °, bcen exh ibited and valuable inform** 10 
.. Suitable exDlannt , P ed before the public , „ 

^visional ^Zr^Ztt^i 1 Ways foi - d ' a P-rt of -ch one rfg 
P ete nh° rk ° f each divisi ' T Castrating important methods and fe*g! 

£ J an g« m the structure oiK b S£. U-ed with (>X(;cllent effect. A c0 J 
Sve I US0 ^ L Diff «ent Su ™° f 1 " 1 "* 8 has bc ™ made each year and 
nave thus been present^ iL or phases of the work of the virions d^^°\ 
to sustain the in?eSofC r U;,> meth ° ds ° f PrSation vSS ****& 

^^^^S&S^T^ PartS 0f Canada > ^ '^"rS 
rnende° d Wn n "t 6 Varie ties H, jf Ul( ' ^tricta in which the exhibits were 

S si Y aci exhib it have b™ i tiniSS(S ' fruits > vegetables, etc. Ijgj 
results in the districts in wluci ?S those which have been found to p« he 

wnich the exhibit %as being placed. 

Special Enlar ^ the Mailing List 

" uT M "' ^ tlnS IHlrpose ' on whi( ' 1 ' »■ Prated the following 1 

, ^ Bejr;" DEPAR ™ ENT °* ^™E, OTTAWA 

g ^s^i F ^^ro ^-^to Wo8e , 9 Me „„ th( , rf-jfts 

anyofwlm-i, ,,.:.' '/ r fe- Along with itthfn^ 8 ^ ]IIV1 ' S . wM«h ''"" ,: "" s "n .li""-' 
K you ,r ' , ° n ref l" e ^- Apartment Bends ou1 a list of new P" bl " '' 

jwu are not receivinp- tv 

theF^^ - «• in iJli I" P '" ,IU ' Uti0n aad WLsh to (1 " *"• «U h aad return d* ** 
^e French edition. Ea ^ »d in Fren,,, Write „ ..„„ „• y(1 u de*" 

Wome 

£WaZ Address. ' 

Rural route number 

or street and number 

Cull Illy ■ ' ' 

Province. . . • • ' ' 



149 1)o minionKxperi- 

^SL^sareplacedii M picuouB ^l^^f^^t&As 

£Nffi? ^ibil ;is staged. ^r ne ^molV^ one °La£ntion- »f"5j 
fi ^ '"/> ^Partmen of Agriculture s > n V > prompt a ^ toUcb with the 

;>i publications B r ;HHl,wl,n b ,;,,,,,,,,. ';, n . ices . 

^0{ t J^armer8have,inthi8Wfly, b e^ elveS oftheu 
''■"'ins" and are aow availing w 

„ elides 



tli 



1 and are aow avauuns — 

Central Bureau of Lantern 

,,-^mflUdespert' 



Central Bureau of Lantern ^ ^ f 

t>fn, V ,l,visi '' lls and ,hl ' l "' :, .'"' h Kcture work- ^ ^ten d *£2ted 
J> a £ , ,""" to time, in connection w •> >< ,,„.,, Cental work coquet 
>e tf c e fj convenience, particularly to the£ f ,„„. > are sent t^tn 

£ ,h " < V '" grated lectures on the ; of these sU Frince Ed* 
I '"'-i.it ' " '•' 1 and branch Farms. . ( ""' . iis h Columbia 
H 'H "Jcnts in each province from &* ^ m connection 

H^ivi, um ;ils() prepare8 cha^ wh^Sf "ereai work, etc 
tUre s on crop rotafcons, breeding^ 

Lantern Slides for Lending ^ ^^_ 

jj&fc the Utter part of iW. S^^ffHS^ Jg 

S C, ? > s "t«»f l»nt<-rn slides < ^°*f £cieties ••>' pre p ft red are 

n j, ' ( ' ? ,ltuml organizations and other s< ^^ beei 
f °Ho*g .treated. The two sets which bav 

K *ub ]ects ._ Grounds- 

;^ho Pi anting and Care of the Farm ^ j £g 

T} Profitable Poultry Keeping; d in each s f c f f e screen. 

S& e are between fifty and W&ZZ fcype-^^ojected on *» * ^ bject 

rf>{ « I.- r of about twen ty- sli y defl ar - .'„ jr»-*8i a 

L^Cli? 8Udes . ^ch may be r^^Sred l» Sre**^ *ese ^ 

?« 4 ' ■'«■«' -ets of slides have been > ^ ma ,,, ( .,,ve • >vjiy> as 

> S; + 0nly :i li " li,, ' d announcement^' * , v bee oharg< 
JAR** number of requests for ,' , s „-s is the**! 
^ *|l*ade and the only cost to " lecture s " ut u „t.l 

, T> lQ n pays the return charges- fttio n oftw sl .„d , ,. fche 

S* a' *akin« of «.„. slides and *?,£?%• ""< fXstsi* **g£d*»d 



|u^ ;/ a number of requests for / 8 is the -e ( 

ll "H , H . ."'ade and the only COflt *** lect ureB . ut „ 

,. T >"» Pays the return charges- fttion oftW sl ,„d , . the 

"I- , ' taking of the slides and ""'/'were not • ■ ,. & weeks uged 
," time imd as a result, the rig* Du ring ^ n were s^U of our 
S; J, 11 '" fecund week of February, IW* ' va ilable, > , ult this ), • MV ed 

J ferment t ,a these Slides wer< ^ttog**^ b^jbgj at tl ,,r 
x h. llN ">■!> meetings in Canada. ' ll:ir . M- lanceS of ovn t tlie se 

St *«k will prove exceedmglj pop ilt ■ « u , 11( :,». - illustrat h, 

NtiSr w| '<' have used the shdes, rep average d , , r hdc led 

Sgg -ul, 8ome running over 400- q tlu , pri ,it • is subject J^ wit b great 
S hi 88 h: 's been 148. On account w Be t on hav^ 

S?OT**S urban home jggg^ niade. - ng the ta^ if conn ectoon 
W* *e Utter part of 1923 and .h an d wWJ» subjects m 

u "'l have Been lent to ma»y to* ^ iUllS trating 

h 18 the intention to prepare sets sygtein . 

0e Work of other divisions ol 



It 
th, 



150 



Distribution of Literature 

A considerable volume * . in 

SKS" With , the appliTati°on s C ?o!: e8POI M ence is conducted in this dHgjfli 

Nume P r amP tS and bulletins d fr ° m farmers and others for 6 * 

TiSP¥^Ttho^\ ior ex «™ and publicity work have , pj 
sent oT col j ecti ons oTmodKfT' ^ ars which **™ boon taken W^fflo 
parts nf/° r demonst ration DUrn l Var ' ous kin ds of farm buildings h^JSfl 
prooer?! ^ f/T^- CoUecS f ** ^^Ural short courses *jfU 
KS lab f U f d w hich have w. ^ 9 S have bcen P ut up in b ° »« d 
and soln gS held whe re th sub t USe , d in co »nection with short courses, g 
p"acedl lm ^ r ° Vement - Co BS. Un * d « r discus ^ pertained to seed select 
Sarts of n p attra f tive cases and I?! ° f - flax ' 8 rain » •& forage plants h^i* 
Placed in + t Dad , a - A Part3 ar iv ^ P ln V l arious coll <* e museums in dfifa, 
nuSr nf he P om ^rci a i 37 , con iprehensive and attractive e%h*J* V 
connection P °-Vi try ho ^e modek I ° du8tr,al Museum of Montreal in 1918; 
1921 2 tZ Wlth ; a nu mber o? lj + rC Pr u 6pared and ^nt to Alberta for f e f 
andtS? ' • Re q ues tsfora s w e n e n tln S s A^g held there during the winter d 
dLtrnn^ 181011 is endeavoS ° ° f this kind are b «ng constantly rece* 
WtTe a « mg I kn °wledgr f The Z 'u™ f armRrs and a » "thers in Canada »J 
comnreh" arch divisi °ns of the' W* ° f the investigational work oonda^j 
Son ™» 1V \ a manner «* Possihn; Per T raDntal Farms Bystem, in as wide Jf 

sideSon «f + t 6 made still more !;i l anS Whereb y the future W0Fk #' 
•aeration at the present tiro™ Valuable and efficient are being give" c0 



151 






152 




Ce "»l Plots 1922- 



1 gpeti 



»«W Station, Charlottetown. pJSJi 



,'\- * 




ws in p..,,. 

"Mure, 1922— 



Expori 




""-W Station. Chariottetown.P.K.1. 




""^ty offers. rcgU lted 

cereals L^rtf^l&JS 

n Ap,5i , ,l,,n " in L912, and it was S about ^is Station It drop* A 
'V ,™ 1 . 1916. This barley tafl » verg Ia tried »* f ht , provi lU \ - Barle? • , 
jC^e of tin , h ni-xt best g ; % U«;^ a ■' 1 '- l 3I I W>°° f At 
£i£ a £^ Practically replaced^ ,,„,, b £ rtbaS rfgj p n,vi» J ; hslS 
Nerv /•" m u "' &eld and u Ktbis sUpe the farms l , v Vr ,ll,H y over 
MrSH? t0 «»' yearly o^TO^P^fS^t^iSoixbu^lS^ 
S» t ' l,ll ' slu ' 1 - ,llis would ^-Phas already f£ d &*& " lU iD c o- 

Nt . f '' a iu other provinces, " > ; ', £ ro babl3 aau c o»d ucte ,{nce, t0 

Wl ev ° th ers, and Us General use would P ^ n co vU j eg 

e ^op of ( -ailla. . . investigate **£■£ ls i a nd co** 

>tm° sori « s of experimental^ Jn dfe« ce tfd*« a 
HsXX* with a number of t «gjf>ed » pn 

rmi ne the variety of oats best 



154 

^^%hS&fjg&f£p *«* 1912-16, and the average retu^ 
fading variety. During the fiL PS demons ^ated that Banner oats was .W 

"ore gram than Old Islf nd Black ^T* U P u roduced 6 bushels and 2 P °t hS 
Ll gowo. ^ lack - and seven bushels more grain per acre th*" 

^B^^d^tor^S" 1 *? ^ St8 Was with ^elve farmers, for one yejj 
much superior in colour and ami aimer 0ats a & ain Ied in y ield > and 

, All promising new va^r, an ° e to the Vict ory- m* 

Jt the Central J&£l?'^* cereals originated through plant breeg{ 
S*Sk- the b , est c °mmerciX t ? u n t r & \ he Ch arlottetown Farm In addi o0 , 
tions by careful hand-select on F, V* lm P rov ^ under the C.S.G.A., regu* 
S P n r °P a gated, multiplied S;t P Sf h W the superior plants from each ^ 
Sp ff trt ? distrib uted beS l ft ' d an 3 l 0ld as foundation stock to app^f JJ 
the Station for seed production g0Verned by the amount of land available on 

Forage Plants 

J-ft the work with f A 

°been Wit Y armers t^^hSt°S? ' C °-°- Perative experiments have been oaflg* 
satil^ ° Ut whene ver rZeste/ V J nCe ^- with alfalf ^- Inoculated sod & 
a mlr ^ y a fora g e cro or pi and wb ile alfalfa is not believed to be J 
thSfi iJT received this inform^ ^J^ d Island ** ** red clover, yet ■£ 
a nerinJ ds , bare - M any strSns S« and , have be en saved the loss of bavm* 
stand, • ° f fi years > and the hardielf alfa and other cl °vers have been tested o^ 
havAV 11 firs t P'ace for hZ %Z°T mmded - Am ong the grasses, tim°f y g 

have shown that they are p?Lisinli* 0P ' ° rchard * rass and meadow l*& 
The records D v,„~ ., * T mm S grasses for rmstiire. 



h "" V ura ? P lace for hav V~i " uenaed - Among the grasses, w"" rU e 
have shown that they are p?Lisin K ed * 0P ' ° rchard g^s and meadow l*& 
The records show th,\ tT g g 8es for Pasture. nV 

om y in y Th' ^ ^^^erliretdvi^d 1 ; C&nnot be cou »ted on for a fulljg 
affowoH 5 6 -° ff years - In good rZl d t0 S0W oats . Peas and vetches to repj» 
h on v i Vl Pen > and wih Produ C ° r A yearS ' the oats" peas and vetches may. J, 
K!l^ with suE^ a hea V Cr °P of grain. Work at this Stat>° 



tn =+ Q i-vuucea 14 tons 1 Onn >™ j ^»ge crop. In 1921, the J.vi»«"- f „d 
method"?^ , S0ilin g crop- Thev T^ aCre of 8 reen forage'. This was g 
of sunfl ° fGedln S w as recommend^ + ' ^ leaves and stalks clean. W 
and ™?°i Wer and no silo- hS? f ^ dairy fa ™er who had quite an ajf 
gave So n g H°° d gains in thdTnd Kw th ?, hi8 C0WS at * the sunflowers «**£ 
In 1922 r ° f ripe Se ^ Gd SeCd ° f thG Mamm0th 

SSSSSSjS 115 ^tE^E" r n; a sil ° - buil * a 3 d - KSK 

1272 l e corn ensilage. In low *C he steers ate it well, but the dairy c % 

for a ge POUnds ' and the corn aveS ll T^ rS avera «« i a yield ° f *f *S* 
™' averaged 16 tons, 438 pounds, per acre, of g re 

ine work witl n 

amonttt 1 ? ^^ SSeT^,?^ ^-t to club root; ov* g 
and hL n r n? Xpe . nmen tal and IilfJ 921 ; This has since been distribute 
A P - 6d t0 be more rUsw A° n Stations of the Maritime Prov»^ 
demow ?? of six farm rotJS han any ot her strain yet tried. 

d^enUvT- Accu Ste1f c 1 ° r 1 d s s Wa « ,a L d out in 1912, under a plan suited g 
articles, bTe?/ Can be "2 n^L^Tu kept ' and tb e results from tbj 
on the trahV e J ery „ su mrner thev' ,L l° f nly throu S h reports, bulletins and Pj 
strated methnH Cal 8 to s Pend a f e w\ bef ° re tb e eye of every farmer who • V^ 
fertility rfS °f eradicating noxh°7 S &t 1 The Farm "' Tfa ese have de*** 
year. y the land b Y applyinJ 1 ^ 8 Weeds and of steadily increasing * 
^ P y Dg manure at the rate of five tons per acre P e 



Cultural Methods ^ ^ ^ ^ bee n under- 

ItCfethexnost interesting wor* j ^JSS^^ift^ffiSt 
fer Soi l Lh ? « Experimental Station »*f hundred ploj 5 in getting tbe^ of 
SSal l dl , i!e rent methods. Over three dra , n ing »J° d quite a nuw ^ 
><4 Z° Tk - Several years were *****' back to Iji^ents. A feW 
N arti 1 P ° ssible - The records now date ^d expe rim 

f ^lt S oK t Cl ? S have been sent out based on be Sh?ng of 

.. ^,° btai ned are: ,. . st before ^dug/deep plo^* 

b^o h l L See f ng with a dri1 !' r °tbe g g S£ * aS SougBS- V fodVoughed 
*i d (5 £ tt ? aft er seeding or when the S r » llo w Ploughing- T^re oats 
iSC*^ * avc bctter y ieldS Irons th^n «P rl f ei rand 5 P^J Method of 
L* *W ° f Sod gave much better crops* bushels a poore st m bing . 
J* agf} and top-worked in autumn g g* ing . Even aQy n g pi & 
I Ut,l Ci han s °d Ploughed the following ^ oa tstna ^ iy P using 

Sd aS^gWng gave 6 bushels per acre potatoes or crop wl tn 
5St£ ? has P roduced a boed , Cr ^'d for the followmg g f 

6 *Cgh° P the seed bed iS ne of the best ff y %<£ni at 

^iV s ra ther surprising to find ^\°fS^tJ^^ *&*&>«*" 
**St*f land when sown at the ^els and 1 Jl^re «tofA,»to sown 
S 1 ° f ** bushels P er acre gaVC ^hiced 600 pound- 1 dld the P 

V * 0r * Sickly but the area P^ge second year 
^CJ ^^ Pounds more timothy tn 
Ue f ate of 2i bushels of barley per a 

Horticultur e visit the Station 

- B . wives, who^Jg an d small 

•^ 'armers, and more »«*■*&» 'S^^^S^^^ 
fcjf •*»««, t ' ake a very grcayf f nves tiga ons - erent sorts 

5»«uf v p x lant ation 8 . In these, f ar f varie ties of the a me thods, with 

Q* y ° ar * to determine the best van ! met. ^ FarDa 

Ult8 a nd flowers. + . nS conducted ^ C tbe Expense 

all of Vmncnts and demonstrations. J ^ na bh ber £ «* y 

8teS,J h f important vegetables and Jru of a very ^ .» the ^derate 

KarSJy to Wilt, in assuring the bucce ^ e ft ra rc found s elimg 
a &*. In fact, ripe tomatoes wine bleS t0 propaga**} 

I* £ years a go, are now common veg been P.^ and 

^throughout the country^ blfiB „d floW^ w0 men 
f <* s r any of the better sorts o ve| ^ d t0 the sc 
the f ed or tubers and sold or distno 
Iar «iers of the province. 

L i,e Stock ^ ^^^ ojigtaa^ 

Wh Cereal > forage and garden c v tb e X been puD nUm ber £ * t 

i3? S and s tecrs have been carr** fa u smg Rgg a large statemg of 

Sf^tion on methods of feeding . al *ays ^ a detai &nd gam 

e^J*. An annual auction sale o f 8 he and we 
thl d Persons to the Farm. AJ me thods oi 
;j^ t lme f the sale, of the feeds, n 
^ an imals auctioned. 



A 1 ,- • 156 

Additions to thn ■ • i 

bt&r 1 r^SKtaJSftS ri frOIn *« to time have *«*»$ 
Ayrshire P?tr bred , stock are now £S husb andry and the following <***£, 
leaclin^fair ll^iSrf ^E^ Farm: Clydesdale **■* 
now CJ + a u nd editions, and I „. , ny of these have been shown ** 

^z^\Tr' mt ^^ii r odiy number ° f the ^ ^ rize rib 

K^tJok'eVr^ ^d^ord" 1 ^ ° f Performance. They 'g 

of milk and 662 n f ^"^ AyrS. ^crcup of Glenholm," No. B**J, 

cows Sfi^ P ^ d80f butter fS I •f l reCOrd of ^nada. giving 16,444 po'» 

°f Sunny Sbi^ ft 0j - ^5jW " ' " st of * ' 02 per cent. In 1«%*C 

lbs. of milk P ' N °- 7258 E in the 1 ™ 0Ve * H' 000 lbs - milk - J » 192 " ||) 

kl tht 2 -year-old class is finishing with over 12, U 

. Poultry 

m* -£his Station led tho «, 

ittf^ 1 J« uS? a rnostj parked advance in the poultry to£g 

started at othe^ based °* the S?* Wa , s *t arted a* CharfottetoWU «» * 

most vital C ce ^mental F^mT^/ this ' elcve " others have tt5 * 
From these nl + V\ e P re sent verv^m-l? 80 con tests are now recogn'Z' .. 
«on of Po^ltrv f £ aVe S r °wn the T ? ld d 7 elo V™^ of the poultry £*gg. 

The ° y ' Q Which Canada h«,!^ 0rd , of Performance and the Reg** 1 
Island co a Lf ge profit over cost of f ed aH other countries. , r U 

earns a^^fs f 1-30 £»£« f «£ « all the hens in the five Prince Ed< 

assuming ShaK* ° f $1 P°r Sum^K*? 8 that the average hen in 0**$ 
increased to th P & rGSult of the conte Z 1Ch 1S . more than she really do*, * 

then the 31 324 4 q s Ve / ag , e of •ilSS'JS* b ? ng Carried on - thc «"?v3l3* 
tban at present f -° wIs in Canada w« M lward Isla "d Egg Laying Cont* 
greater Q Z' m roun d number?^? Garn a ne t profit of 30c. each |B*g 
nancial advantage of th^Dommto? W ° Uld produCe * 9 ' 400 ' 

Whenth E ^"^^^^turalLand 

M-MSS*^ in 1909, at Cha^g 

bushels of wheit d ! n 19l0 > has sW ' W , hlch did ** Produce enough b^ 

Experim^ d 8 ° bu shels o?o-i ' ,,r ° ,lucod over 50 bushels of barley- 
d emonstra Td "h S ^ c ondu cte d 25 "*?«**%, per acre. ^ 

th e level of fc a ^^h > 3e drillM b1 f rra,lean outlets > and S ££** 
°l other swam p g ? r n p T al Wate ' table % C ? almost anywhere in the Pf v "'V 
S^ved to £* ai ^ n , ot exceeding 5£ f^- ® the wat er from a '*?**%* 
A* Present the fii °i the surf ace * a on p ° acre ,n extent. One such outlet 
18 being drain ed Blake pro Perty, recently In" ^ of 2 2< 000 RaUons per 4JJ, 

ltly added to the Experimental bt» w 

Many inves • Bee Investi 6ations 

l^^sTh^^^orbC'iV With breeds of bees, B-Jg^ 
as Possible to the T^ ^^1^?' "S 6 " 18 °* «adioating bee dtfg^ 

furmsh to the li^ ^ ^imental Farm V* ked . to a PP ly as early in &»*"* 
vis ted every anrL/ °^ r ability T? m . for assistance, which we arc refj et 
stance SOSSk^ ^ £%!&$** ^ thr'ee'seasons, the b^Jl 
on - seated m the province, giving l' 1 ' 



th Ui rill «-n 'l^tnni-iK to the farmers, the vaiue u. 
M, S >»»1 '■ '•'"■■"-• , , the work and the results 

S v^enS 1 ? 1 " sum up briefly all the pha.es o - im>l , estimate o* 
So> e t. ' ,; """<l. Qor to makeeven an a PP/fSVssification of the 
%X of tW v' £ rovince > bu1 the EoUowing « J J^ e beeI1 uiadertaken or 
Prc ' K "ni „ ;"' k ; ""l the number of projects that 



' way in each: 



No. of 
Projects 






Divi: 



fj . 






I: "l'-u us 



Tot* 



18 
IS 
71 
10 
28 
22 
II 
10 
10 

201 



159 




THE EXPERIM ^AL STA TION P0 R THE ANNAFOUS **> «* 

WALLIS VALLEY 

• S. Blaih, Superintendent 
The lor r L °cation and History > ' v ' 

WS^; The • ' «. ,: ' t,,m "" "'" i-> of the Nova Scot* (ll JjJ f 
S?»ri«V2 Ha,lt « filfe 1 ptereBt/eentred in the <••■;" , rijJU 
The oJivV^'^^-ntal ' 1, | ' 1 "'•" aeatetance be given ^V^R 
^tabliHhL'f^nal of f ( ' 5«d them in their fruit-groWj^ :1I , ,v ; 
"'•■"'"aSrt tof aHo,ti , V' ' "' above Association ceo ',,„„, tl J* 
8tettd WS£? he ^'v I 1 S r, 1 ' <ml at WoKville, N.B., ■% J., ■*5<? 
est t bl ^i U 7 lv -' a. , • / oUoge of Apiculture, Truro, >; ilMl ,rj J( / 

known a . + , of th e present v n ,n l1s Place. This agreement «;' f W*tfP 
P^ment'of^ 8 *S ofo^ 6 B&tiS prober?? consist^** prjV 
^^X1,V*SttftK' w:is Purchased in 1910 %^JSA 
l *a pure .'' ' n s - Eaton i OUKh ;i committee of the Fruit ^frtffid 
A 8ricnlC •„ u us l»'-"P or v ■' Uils ^airman, and the most act) ,. | , :1 ri'" c l J 
far m waTfo?! 911 and'S* 8 * 1akl '» over by the Doininion IJU it 
^derthecUrL^ 6 *OBt , ' ;' Uttit '" >>"' Experimental B***y d fjM 
8 an tin g o 2 ectlon of M? j \ l "' l «'-'n<,l. « ),„,,„ inns were star* , ..iK, 
the PolSn oW " f "--'h' n ft* i l,T ' •'"'< l Bufficienl land o^tf*,** ^ 
'; nK;i Sed as S1 , Pressor M ' <lu ' "Pnng of L912. VY. SarfffJJT (2". > |v 
1912* M 8u Perbten4e?t i? 0rtic ^tur? at Macdonald OoKtf* 
., As al readv , ' ul assu '""'l duties in that capacrtt ,;i - 

fl Sred<5 



;T', m 1923 »r nal J,, »n Tulk . " Iar l:ill<l w« purchased iron; • 
S? a *<* „ '/ "•'»•<■■•' of 22 SS P/operty, consisting of L30 acres; 
"'V is situaS ;u ' n ' s « the nt as Pjpchased from Edward W ' 

n ° Ini| e from t lary of the town of KentviUe, w» 
K, "tvillo railway station- 




~» aeeessapy CT *??*«%. W,;"" 1 ' ;i « a Bubsoil ranging ' " ' ,, m; 
r iar ht ' e « u "L. at,8fa ct«>r V ' '■'''.' the clay BubsoU predo>«»*S "'' 



ii" 1 



161 



Horticulture 7Q0 

^"S ucroK o.„ ., . ._ „„„u.„.,i ( , ws . included to W^J^uUce 



S' 2 ?^ r iU ^ : "" *™>ted to orchard trees, to ^ ,nS and Quin 
S Xi Wit htL 370 Plum, L50 cherries, 100 peach, and a flj • 1 ; the total i| 
'wS^telv 4 rS Lowing on the more or less broken front* Qf 9 2 

Sl>54 y f *> 00 « trees* There are 240 vanet.es of apples t a 

? % , 5 °0 Var!T ies ' 47 of P""* 68 ;md 12 ° 'TT to i e Election of apples 
S ,'" ; "li i ; '," u>s of orchard fruits. Included ffl JtJ * ^ W( ,ll at JhM 

S2SSS ';" dl ^' Pieties, all of which do except wg^d Eng b* 
>i, 7 . 1(nv '.<;' whirl, has partcular merit above the old, » 1(litl() „ to the 
WN „,, v JJJe extensive!? grown to this fruit section^ i liiril varieties- 
SS «**I ' "' u ' '"'*- cultural tests are being carried oi ' h:(V( , ,,,,,, con 
<S quit? devoted t0 fertuiaer trials, and V*#*$g£i is proving^ of 
. i ia toC !l » extensive scale. The toformat on .ol ^ profitably w»3g 
XS " 8row< " « handling their orchards "J ". h s ' ma ll fruitsand 
h 8S Sit"*? 8et :,silll> '«■ variety and cultural tea *■ h0M engaged "J 
ST * f' irum *!»<* work are of great asms ance ' tioD :1 nd an 

>fe '-n ,'""r- Po tatoes have received f^i^e from disease. The 
SJS 1; "' I" s r d " <" encourage the use of seed stock ti , u i ;l r and the 

SS * sSSi^onstrated the importance ol care . is fc0 keep the 

H ';■<■ f,,„ ''>• increasing for certified seed. h ' . " sti ii greater «J^g 
S>ixl ff Mosaic, and it would seen, desirable ■ . J^e-free stoca 
. (, ; '•- ill || [""* ^Portant work to order thai a suppU 

HS> S\ 8tatio * and the leading varieties o < ; "mailable as to the 
HtoK bee » Planted, so that information is now 
)e lu "st suitable for home decoration. 

Tk BeeS • - of 

'»,,. 'nt. g 8 and two out apiaries of eight colonies age d with P 

tma!^y considered thai bee* can he 0J having^ 

$3^fcJXi tha * orcharding is more pro ftgJJ^ poison £*JJJJ3 
>t +: Ve ly .,». .Pollen and n.iH m the set ot fruit- " C)W . Tipsts and_dwe» 



St >ly '' 

Ntt***, ajftv / orchardists lor the control oi -~ • ■ |s im(lc r «££;£*, 
,„ (li l th r(niKh th( , (ll( , n of poUen li ' > to the } f be 

;lc I" 1 «S pollen, which is mixed «JPjJ e 'whether this can 
'''Ui r r '^Hs. Experimental work to determ 

^S carried on! 

of^tft A J 8 bein«^ 



;:;-.: 



s&* 



of .it*.,, 8 bein,. * ° «eveioi)ing mio a i'", ;, t(1 ti nn nm c " ""Vi" production 
'Mv ^ Sei^dually improved. On the Stajon,^ ^ the? J d 

C C aua ls SVi? n of stock W meanfl of ? apI StiS low produce* bgj Une 
ilC g °f or, th ., thc consequent eltounation oi the^ ^ along tws 

fcii i£d h - birds «■ h ^- si 'f r& rtro&on. f^/nlxna^nerd 
e 'yl lecl on „ d , lr nprovement in the egg P r « tl1 met hods of rnanag 
> C U fairly definite information a to m 
l7 --U ec °nomical returns is available. 



162 
Live Stock . „ in 

to 



theproSi'o^ -1 ^, the Yorkshire breed is used, with the aim *££&£ 
%£? PUr P°^ are & ^ lwco » "<«■ ^ lm B « rials with Jjjj us" 
makemost profitable ^S," 1 ' ' to determine the feeds one may g'° v , „ 

cef in, f . s V( , i . ci . m, 1 , UVS; although o| . S( , (i1r|| loun(hl „„n >> f , ,„.>!„ 

S!i dai '7. «n«. f, ; ,hl ::"-' <»»• & is b 0P ed that, by u**j2U , :-•: 



to > 1N . ^ 



nntn^o ? 1U(S mie is <,+ i„ ,; M'lam oi merit ni»y w ~ i,, r <> ' . 'H 1 ' 

EX e , tam th e beef f ,'• ) '°J ,or tion of really rood milkers IB llu ?!$ "VfS 
The°b d ,n ,f ^«2»S8?! tt are dosimble All cows are -' „ 
The ft CalveB «S d noso/l T th,,s " n <>t Qualifying are discarded , )V 1 4 
feed rf dn< r ■'"..,! ," 1 J f ? r feeders or turned into steers %,■*$>. 
ecorH! q Tr d to develop fe^ bead. Information as to i. ' fro^e 
all al ,°i f0C(lil 'K te ^''r^'K'^vth in you,,.- stock is **S^,V 
KLSi fitt ^ B mark V- S,( '" rs ''<"' wLterleeding are purjg oi J, 
■S^^^tKi* 01 Becurm « formation J to be J .,1,1c 
" ipmen t of such stock w^""" 1 lik(>1 v to prove the m<»st pro*" 
Ha, n.e,. llt iv been made to. Greal Britain. 

Tl , t , Fertilizer Experiments , „„ i H' 

FJb orchardin,, _, , , ,„ K" V 



. ,lel)<' |1( ...-i' 1 



extensive w Cpt to «1PP Iv ' m!,Jont >' ol orchardists <"» • , ,, i „, t- 
to detorl ts are beina ire / !' requirements of fertilizer, a ' . • gtfj Jt 
WbeS mc , he r ates tl ' w,1h commercial fertilizers, in v«' ir g^ 
^lS^- dt Konne^ «* y '"' ased f °r »'«• gre ateet , ' r '", ' >i'P "W 
area?™ ** ! s Ver y beX ftf *' the s " u °< "bich is usually acid, ^ *> , s 
ClaS" ybKB 1 * 1 *! I" almosl double the jJVft 
nnles a fh/, t0 * he fec1 hat fS^ f ertUized m the same way. . ' , r iy pj » 

red <W f nd is trea e' ! f ?? od sl: »"l <•<' Hm,-,- -u lands »»* (1 ,r »jjrf 

bacteS'd^^elytol^J "me and thai no crop so I-'"' iro^V 

of root,, "? th V ro °t 8 , br ' , ,,,w, ' r " r u ^>z in, by means of the i „^ „- 

«es of t t, ' r -', l( ' ( ' ;i ^. is Kiven ° U I lt8 ? i **»*&, which, when tbe£Jjf> 

01 th e sod are also £ . '" '" ** crops that foUow. The P >' )f ^ 

8watly improved by the rool develop»en1 

T«l« „.,., Fora S e Mants a„d Cereals 

the p " tbus made f .T'V" due attention. Fibre oropfl */>*-, ^ 
yieloVS ol BatheringSi 6 '" r " ms " interested ... this ^°Lx<ff ^ 

a "d , i, ( ; V uv ''"'"'K t , m''." mati on on the question of ^ d ^ 

mixt nrei of t S^ d ^ tb S< ''''''<-''1 strains of grass 68 
Principal grasses and clovers. 



s* 



163 
Illustration Station Work 

I-,,' <* fi^tendenl of the Kentville Farm has genera^ | cotift . In this, 
4>fi? niustratb^^^^ 
C'Jt i , ?' ■ supervisor who inspects the details of w in tending to 

< h " "R ih ,,!ll , ,,,is lhlc of activity iS P 3? tocfeSe the profits^ farm 

%i 0tl * in S tural standards, and consequently »« ^Wished. 
1**1* mm /'"'*" communities where the Stations . m U)US departm^ 

18 ' s f"H., lM,| i ">' Projects now receiving attention > u^^ ,. J; fertilizers, 
p ^ltr v V, horticulture, 65; forage crops, 20, « - 
y * 17 ; apiary, 21; field crops and cereals, • 



^Uj 



THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM FOR NOVA SCOTIA 

W. W. Baird, B.S.A., Superintendent. 

Establishment and LocATioN.-The Experimental Farm for Nova 
Scotia is located at Nappan, in the county of Cumberland about eight nules 
from the border line of New Brunswick It was estebhshed in 1888 being 
one of the original farms authorized under the Act passed by the Dominion 
Parliament in 1886. It was first known as the Experimental Farm for the Mari- 
time Provinces, the activities of the Farm at that ^SSttSffc^SS^ 
the needs of the three provinces. Later Stations were established at Charlotte- 
town, P.E.I., Kentville, N.S., and Fredericton, N.B., and this Farm has since 
been called the ^^^^^^2%^ three hundred acres, 

son, f RE ;"' J he 7 lg ri !Tdvte5o marsh land, and one hundred and 
some forty-five of which were d\ke lanu. ih ma '„■,,„. ;_ „.._>. 

twentv acres of unland were under cultivation. The remainder was in rough 

"ki i j i j V« m 1015 to 1918, n nety-two acres of the original 
unbroken land and woods, trom lyioro lvio, ■> mntauan»thi> 

wooded area were cleared and brought under the^ plough^ thus increasing toe 
original unland under cultivation some 76 A per cent. In 1919, the adjoining 
r a t t iu xu • i j- „ L« hundred and twenty-five acres of marsh land 

arm to the south including one lmmle« permitted enlarging the 

vas purchased. These much-needed 1 ' P and Uve stock B There 

scope of the Experimental work both wrt* n ^tivated uplandj about eighty 
are now two hundred and sevent y-five_ acres o ^ ^ ^ 

s: astfrti'sia 5SS5*e» bunded a S ixty- fi ve „ 

Soil 

mi. -i ,„• ^ us»fl„ Mav lnam with some parts gravelly, and with 

The soil of this Farm is chiefly cla\ loam, « , it , i „„>,.,] .„.,,., 

a sub-soil varying from a heavy ^yy pan to grau > ; *J w^hmgji «» 

running from a sandy to W^WS most beneficial results: A marked 
heaviest clay have been and er^ra.n d *jth. no , under-drained 

improvement has been noted 1 '\j^ f) t ^ Vceks earlier in the spring, which, 
areas. It can be worked from two to tnree wee* valuable asset 

it will bake very hard and a poor seed bed results. 

Live Stock 

t • , - ,• a K^orlintr is one of the main activities of this Farm, 

Live stock feeding and ^m^SSZmmi of dairying and beef raising 
the surrounding country favouring tne °- evtl "t" , „„,.:,.„ if,™ 
to a much greater degree than other branches of agriculture 

t> i-i /au +k™.n<A The breeding herd maintained at this frarm 

is of £**<£ ( SSS S 'peSnU of milking blood obtained from the 
dam's side The ma ority of these cows were selected from the dual-purpose 
herd lent at the Kentvi lie Experimental Station and only those showing beef 
tenancy were chSr The herd to-day consists of eight mature cows one 
two-yea? ok heifer four yearling heifers, one yearling bull, one heifer and one 
bull Ser one year of age! one aged bull and three yearling steers All calves 

165 



160 



arc allowed to suckle their dams Individual „„„ j . 

and, in this way, the actual cost JlwZS^lZ^Z^fr* °J feed c ° n *"™ d 
cost of rearing Shorthorn calvel to SSSSS ™ ^ ta ° btdined ' als ° *? 
age. These records also show the nrofit tn«? fron \° ne Year to two years of 
herd under present-day conditions Good K ** ^ "f^ from a heef 
to purchase Shorthorns^or the ir^ove^ntoftl/eh stck t0 ^^ "^ 



Projects. 



heavy feeding/ (3) Effe* ! of del ^S^f'lf b f steers ! & Medium vs. 
tied vs. loose in box stalls; (6) Influence of ^ VS / h £ aVy SteCTS; (5) Feeding , 
finishing good beef steers ( ) Feed! If w f f ding steers; (7 > Costs of 

(9) To determine the value of moLsT, in Tv? hu } che ™ vers us good stackers; 

(10) Roots vs. ensilage in the f t " din 'of K \ ratu "\ for **&&& beef steers; 
in open sheds vs. in barn; (12 To srol tl ^t^ (11) Finishin K beef steers 
breeding of beef cattle :l! ,d the annK , 'Problems related to the successful 
already established. To imnmvr t ,'? 1°" ? "2? P rinci P les of breeding as are 
stration in feeding and devSorZl* H 6 * ? ttle of the distric t by demon- 

the district; (13) R de^feSativettoS ° f ^ buHs t0 farnUH 5 *S 
oats vs. corn; (14) To show the diff c . alu e of ground screenings vs. crushed 
steers vs. beef type; (15) To ,l P to»J . ?u m feedin S and finishing dairy type of 
determine the cost of maintaining WlSd.** ° f ^'^ beef daV6S; (16) T ° 



GtJEBNSETS. 



The breeding herd of Guernsevn nt +l • v 
three two-year-olds in milk two hv„' „ u™ mnsists of six mature cows, 
females under one year, dmXSmEK °1? n °! ^ milk ' one yearlinR ' fcw0 
bulls. Individual records are kentS '. r - oe bul1 calves and two mature 
these records the feed cost of milk nV^? r °i- UCtl . 0n and feed cons umed. From 
dairy calves from birth to one vearoE!°? 1S obtained > the cost of rearin « 
ping first calf; also the possible nrofit rPnTl^" 1 one £ car to the date of dr0 P" 
cost. Each year a number of good IhnlU 2ed r fr T a Guernse y herd over feed 
ment of their stock. S are offered to breeders for the improve- 

The five mature cows in thi* Wri u« 
of 5.67 per cent with an average of 502 Unn g T? 5° ^ eragc butter fat test 
for 100 pounds of milk of §2 09 or Tnrofi 1 ? ounds / at } Wlthan average feed cost 
All cows are entered in the Record of PerforrnTnc C ° St ° $1 ° 8 ' 31 **' C ° W ' 



Grade Herd. 



the S^^yThJftTK 6 ! m P, rovem ^t of the common dairy cow bv 
twervehS4 P Kh!iO^^ T 1 » grcat dea l of attention. In 1910, 
to colh,, data o" h cas v. r Ftafn Sed / 0r fr «!**»«*, the object being 
or mixed breeding in flu ,,,' , i pure - brt ' d dairy sire on a herd of common 
proportionated g^eat ^market v P r ° du ^ on of the progeny as well as their 
first bred to an Ayrshire bS? F ^ ? h ? grade foundation heifers were 
along as for purSbreds btfa^ **&» Cross » A > breedin S *•■ carried 
Ayrshire bull. The next EtS? A 3TOhire crosses always to a pure-bred 

yielding the first cross ■ II, 1 i ^nST ^T herd WaS bred to a Holstein bul1 ' 
breeding. All heifers vZwf } * '' i AH P r °g env wa « bred to a bull of like 
and for fall calving Each f™^? 1° ir ^f n as nea r two years of age as possible 

! """" ''"'• WuS? lut e^i to '? h f lf f r Wil1 ' !" her heifers ' or ™ te a famil >' 
oeen incorporate.) mto the number of all her progeny. 



167 

j + i M u P n collected on (a) Cost of rearing to first calving; 
Accurate data have been couecrea o v 7 character and quantity of 

(6) Cost of feeding. for each ' ^JJ*« PJ«»; d <g ^££ ^ uced j^ ^ 
feeds for each *^Kth Sation period; (/) Photographic 
tion period; (e) Profit produced in -j"^^ hei f e r which show the influence 
records of each of the progeny of each found.. n en , x]) , rim ent has not been 
of heredity as to quality, size and type- « - mWrv ^ mi r :uu l valuable informa- 
completed yet, the data so far ^^^^d influence of a pure-bred sire 
tion. The first outstanding feature is t be mars* ^ character- 

on the average grade herd in tr f sm " m ^. n , Tb£e nave been most marked 
istics,such as colour, size and conformity ™?yv^ marking has been as 

in both Holsteins and Ayrshires. „ In tt ■ »'■ j ))rml H( ,lsteins have 

high as 98 per cent, in Ayrshire 95 per cen • Holsteins have sh qwn 

Bcored 90 per cent and Ayrshires 8o per am. 
96 per cent and Ayrshires 90 per cent, . f h resll i ts obtained from the 

Space will not permit of a detailed [analyse 0^ f «g £ ^ & ^ 

production of the progeny compared ™J tn *£ basis of comparison is that of 
jvul give this in a general way. ine < y first-cross Ayrshires, 29-5 

1 .utter fat. The data so far show that > n ^period ^ ^ ^^ production, 
per cent are superior to their dams, covw^s i ^ q{ fiye yeanj - 6 per C(>]it 
In the case of second-cross AynMW»i^« ^^a-c-rc.ss Avrshires, over a period 
were superior to their dams. In the case o R ^ ^ Qoted th&t ft 

of three years 66-6 per cent were su P e . nc * t ° h " ucce eding cross. In the case of 
gradual increase has been obtained in e- Vears 33 • 2 per cent were superior 
first-cross Holsteins, covering a penoc i ol n\t j ■ d . CT0SS Holsteins, covering 
to dams in butter fat production. In the case m _se ^^ j^ 
a period of three years 90 per ^nt showed superio^ ^ ^ ^^ 1)l)taill0(l ,, v 
One of the most important phases oi«. ^ lifications for 

using a pure-bred sire of the right breed tygV ^ * { ^ right breed type but 
production in his ancestry, vs. using a p ur ? nr ancestrv . 

not sufficientlv qualified by official P r0 ^ UCT10 f " thc standpoint of the breeder 
The foregoing results are worthy J™* * ° de her d or a pur, bred herd. 
who is selecting his herd sire whetl i r 1 e ' o fc ^ M[qw ^ ^ 

The principle is the same and one may expect 

tion. . „„ mr .iitpd over a period of nine years 

The cost of milk production was ^J^^ertioii of females was made 
from the grade herd mentioned above, * Tlus wou ld tend to increase 

because all were retained for experimental pun . ■■ ^^ th{j ftve 

the cost of production, as the &***£*£ from a grade herd may be of 
duction. Nevertheless, it is felt tliat y R '' * T , u , mn( .-year average was as 
interest and value to the breeder an diee at . m ds milk W;f< 

follows :-Amount of different feeds ""5J™j£J , nd 35 pounds green feed at 
37 pounds meal, 113 pounds roots 81 mi >■ ^ d §3 t 

an average cost of $1.77 per hundrec < «h ^ j***^ ^ ^ ^^ 
hayat$13perton greenleechdS J s , hiri . s kcpt at this 

SHBBP-Pure-bred F/ccfc. The bree °™« ^ ten yearlings, four pure- 
Farm consists of fifteen mature ewes, »'" v Data are being collected on 
bred rams (three shearlings and one 1 .wo- ■■ ^ Kali lambs and supplying 
the cost of maintaining a P ure - D ^_™ th( , se ason of 1922, the thirty-one ewes 
breeding stock to the breeders. J*™*^ ,35.5 per cent. 
bred, dropped and raised i orty-two «»** grade ewes was purchased and 
Grade Flock. In 1917,. a bunch of J^" 1 ®^ ^ ^ ^j fleece 
bred to a good ram, P° ssess ™S * 0t r ° "quallv as good with the following results:- 
^^^^^^^1!^A?S^!^Si^ and one-quarter pounds per 
The grade ewes gave a w ° o1 , cup JX H „ tha t averaged eight and nine-twentieths 
fleece. Tli8friwrW{^^^ 6 ^£fSfc combing, 11-6 per cenl 
KT^and fSt&tlZ -mbing. Their progeny, in turn, gave an 



168 



combing, showing an increase in^hre ve! r 1 ™ d 3 ' 4 Per Cent loW 

pounds per fleece. To the breeder E Sdf ofTnnV™ 5? *""•■**■ 
an increase in production of 2fi2-^ n™,J i , , .° ewes > thls would mean 

pound, would fea\izelLt^L^^ f WW \^\^ UKd at 30 cents P er 
going results are indicative o ^ Se fact t UtT>, fl0Ck ° f I 8 - 75 '. The ^ 
pnce and that good sires with officii m,»lffin*- ap ^ &Te dear sires at any 
at any reasonable figure. qualifications in ancestry are cheap sires 

two Si,SlSf nalnelvTf^ *»* «***«<>» * thfe *»■ 
in maintaining these herds i's 7 M° r J B S WB and B ?rkshires. The objed 
duction unffpres^t^fcondifc^ 1 ^ to , collect data on eosrt of P r °- 
different feeds inTSicTSSSf 00 ^^^^ 11 ^ 6 the relative value of 
stock. ttonomical production and, third, to supply good breeding 

used^enWaffa^worW^^. 1* thi l Farm > the heav y h ^ses being 
necx^sarv^lrivmg Some Lei W*" horSes do tho ex P ress ™k and 

dales and da, a afe bSfflffiS ™ fl^ gl / P " UJ th °, brocdin « ° f Cl ^ d ^ 
age, and also on the 3 KSH^j3j£^ "** ^ *" ^ " f 

Field Husbandry 

Three-year rotation "D "—First voov ™ * 
third year, clover hay. ' y ' 0ots or corn ; second J' ear - grain; 

Four-year rotation "C."— First v PQ r « * 

third year, clover hay; fourth /e^/moIhyTayonSure ^ ^ ***'' 
Five-year rotation "B."~ First v P ,r ™ / P< l! >™re. . 

"^.^^fa^iKffiff^s^cr - year ' grain; 

barie^SiS te/cZ^W S3 ? the r ° f producing wheat ' oate ' 
These figures, wJSwaoSS^^?^™ ensilage ' °- pv - ensila e e and h;iV - 

in de S^ rHr^- ft ssatsf" t0 the farm "" 

™^trS^i^Z^rt ed JS? ?u rty Pl0ts 0f fortieth of an 
« elay loam, ^l^flS^.^^^^S b f eillg C °» du «<"! 
land for grain; (2) The he«t ml+i, i /' . ' • best method of preparing sod 
after harvest; 3 The best denTnf n! < j ult,va « n g ^"flower ground for grain. 
01 preparing sod for root To) K^^^ f ° r grain; (4) The best method 
best method of preparer 4nHl,2f* S f dmg nurse cro P of oats 5 («) The 

yard manure; ( 8 rSmzerpl a T sun fl° wers ; (7) Experiments with barn- 
seed bed for ' g an (10 Exn S f f "^ hay; (9) Best method of Preparing 
manure versa! no gri n man™ 6 "^ the Value ' ° r *» ^ S «, of green 

^<SuSed e o^^e V ^ e £552?* ^ anurc as , a *>*******»$ is 

years at the rate of twentv t™ ' one " half receiving a top dressing every four 

A test was started in 1921 Yn If PC - "2? wh ! le the balance is left undressed, 
manure and commercial tofflfeSTS 5* ^ ° f an a PP Iic ation of barnyard 
* being conducted w h r Un out m ^ ■? ' ^ Ugh PaStUre " An ex P eri ment 
being compiled, as there are tnnn^ ?' i and and , data on cost of renewing are 
are gradually becoming tZTX °a &C T ,° f such land in this district that 
Tests are hemg coSUtoffiSSS Z\^ *"*< ° f draina S e and Ploughing. 
on run-out marsh lands. aetermine the value of using commercial fertilize.- 



169 
Forage Crops 



Variety tests of turnips, mangels, sugar beets and carrots are being con- 
j . y ?V m Z ■ i- ± i-" iuj h - », data are being collected on punty 

ducted in triplicate plots of l" 1 ™ « "^ ^ub-root-resistant swede turnips hu 
and trueness of type ^J the jrowi n g ot cm ^ ^^ 

°een receiving attention for the past uiree j-™ 

Cereals 

_. . . .. . ,. • • ^rrmrisps varietv tests with wheat, oats, barley 

The work m this division comprises ^" Ll - , . d Rurt)0ses 

and buckwheat and the development of good elite stock tor seed purposes. 

Fertilizer Tests 

™ , . , „ +q j tn determine the benefits that may be derived 

These are being conducted to*MOD«r 
from applications of complete fertilizers to the hoed c „p dup li cate , 

upon the subsequent crop of a ^X^^^ff, fertilized and planted to pot* 
together with ten check plots, have been laici on, it 

tt" tSSStZASi £*S — *,,«. ft*. .923 fc, Hi. 

w-ork. _ .. 

Poultry 

, • ±u u^ori kpnt it this Farm. Similar work 
The Barred Plymouth Rock is f*^S$. fig Ures are being collected 
to that with live stock is being earned on w it! j pou try « d . damg g da] 
to show the value of using cockerels selected from ^P d * k d > 

pedigree breeding work is also receiving caref ul at en tio ^ Jg- 

te being made. In three years one family ^has ; J ^ 

|ng records: 308, 272, 273, and 224 eggs, "^ 9g£ value of commercial vs. 
lected on cost of production of eggs and cMcks v* 

home feed mixtures? milk vs.. beef scrap ^f^t^ductd yearly at this 
The Nova Scotia egg laying ^^S? ea tu™ of ^poultry work. 
Farm, commencing in 1919, and is a .very poi h poultry industry 

It has been the means of stimulating »P^Sce received at this Farm 
nthe district as is evidenced by: (D A^Xm breeding, feeding and care 
or information on poultry house gg™g* STSSLb started. (2) The 
and management has more than tripieo The ayerage produc tion from 

'ncrease in demand for bred-to-lay stock, w i 090-21 it was 127.7 eggs 

the contest for 1919-20 was 121 .1 ^ PJ ^' m J f?£\^ I ™l ™ ff 3 
Per hen; in 1921-22 the production was 138 ^ s e e «f n a Auction. These results 
eggs per hen— a gradual yet creditable » icre ase « v 
are certainly indicative of interest and progress. 

Horticulture 

. , , ,- • • u„* f^r its work varietv testing of vegetables, 
The horticultural division *^J*££, investigating the besl methods 
strawberries, bush fruits, ^^.^StSes and noting their effects ou 
f cultivation of these crops testog ; spray riin ,. Jlts al ,. being conducted 

different crops especially -apples and pot ^^ ^ „„.„ ^ h( , 

to determine the varieties o apple. , ^ entation of the home grounds 

most profitably grown in this district, i different varieties of orna.nen- 

fra'srassswsa « —& *>-» ■«■ »- tested. 

Bees 

rr i • „, mnintained at this Farm. Data are being collected 

,n JT li 7 C °\TT f IS ni and feeding of bees and on the profits of bee- 
,°n the best methods of wintering auu iccu & *- . 

keeping. The average production for the season of 1922 was 121 pounds per 

eolony. 



170 




ve> 





THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR NEW BRUNSWICK 

C. F. Bailey, B.S.A., Superintendent. 

rni -r ■ ,, Q t „ t ;„ T1 fnr New Brunswick is beautifully situated on the 
The Experimental Station for. New £T ^ rf y^^^ 

8t John nyer, three and a h alt notes t rom tn fee ^ ^ ^ 

&Ut within the City limits. It W88 otao isneu , n rirpd <ind fiftv qcrex 

525 aeres, of which 300 acres are under cultivation nehund red an d^tyacres 
of this have been cleared and broken since the Station was established 
u is nave oeen cieanu a d . su i,_ s0 ,i. a few small 

The soil, in general, is a cia\ 10am »"" j , 

areas are of a loamy nature and underlaid by ■J^jf^Dd durin* the war 
The develoDment of the work, except for a brief period duiing tn< war, 
ine oe-vejopimni oi un f ', m ,i,ensive experiments are now under way 
''••» been rapid. A number of comprenensivt i conclusions 

«D the different divisions, and while A is too soon as yet to dra* conclusions, 
definite results may be expected in the near future. 



Buildings. 

BmLDiNGS.-The buildings include five houses, one horn- barn , one main 
jattle barn, one dairy barn attached to inain ba n, two ^^'™£* 
i- isolation barn, one f p ^ p h(d 'Xv administratic>n building and pump 
sheds, eighteen poultry houses P°«ngs w£b the exception of three houses 
jnd power house. These are all uew d > f hani ^ _ Q 

< d two barns which have been remoddA* i ^^ 

eows. . . . 

ORGANiZAT.ON.-The work of the farm falls under the Mj^dl«^ 
„ Animal Husbandry; Field Husbandry;. Cereal Husbandry, Horticulture, 
borage Crops; Poultry; Chemistry; Apiculture. 

Animal Husbandry 

C'ATTL E .-The stock on November .24, 1923, totalled **%££ «j 

deluded fifty-six pure bred cattle -£»££&. ^thtnuSbS 3"J** 
steers and four are work oxen, ine loiiowiug i« 
°f each breed : — 

Ayrshire. 9 milch cows, 12 heifers, 2 bulls. 

HolBteins » M „ n « 1 « 2 steers. 

Shorthorns ° 

Grade Stock — 

Ayrshire ' steer. 

Shorthorn 1 steer. 

Working cattle 4 oxen. 

T , . ... f+]a includes keeping records of milk production, cost of 

ihe work with cattle mciutie: wfp's , • v „,, nD . ^ nn \r 

m;il- i ..- * r „w,Hiic nsr baby bee and COS! ol learing JOUllg stock. 

r "'lk production, cost of prodin - a ,• , ill( , on . All experiment to 

production was begun last year. 

171 



172 

he herd at the present time is s 
causes 



J2" ^4^ESi££E2? than « s -l-' This is due to several 
mixed breeding and SJ a l cTthe co ^ 1 T begUn - T^nty-six cows of. 
were secured as foundation cows tL= ° T*? 6 New Brunswick fain- 
Dual-purpose Shorthorn and" i^shire bu f s \Z %? J° t ^'^ ^^ 
to compare the female nroeenv of +v, 1 he object of the experiment was 

tion, cost of mi k^u^^SST"* ^ their damS ' for milk P rodu< " 
-re to be kept fo? ?hree ^ generatiZ foi WI * tyP % The female P rog ' » y 
foundation cows, but lossesC h t i * he P ur P ose of comparison with the 
ment has there* m^bS^SS^S^ made . th > impossible. The experi- 
During the past year the heJdsw'f d *¥ remaimn g grade stock disposed of. 
shires and HolstJir, ihich failed tnT'^' CuIle , d " A11 the Shorthorns, Ayr- 
were disposed of. The remaS i^ff*? "? the R0P ' or were off **&' 
creditabk. One of the He ?e S^tE? S^'* "\ these two herds are now wr - v 
pounds of milk testing 3 5 S?Stf? n ?°7f ? rmsby 67693 ' Produced 18,318 
in her first laetatio ^ no 7 The K^t ^ ?f 67 ° P °^ -° f fat ' fa 365 ^ 
Hors — Th 8 y accredlted in February, 1922. 

one age?lLllion%lnw m^.fr.f 6 ° f WTiting numher seventeen, consisting of 
gelding one v Sina- mnrf ^ C mar es ' one 2 -y™r-old mare, one 2-year-old 
one gride ClXdale mare Z T }V? °^T aU P Ure - bred Clydesdales; also 
mare one PercSron n n V , f»* Grydasdato geldings, one grade Clydesdale 
mare; sired 1 % Z "mKreds **"**«* ^^ a " d tW ° B^^ P^ ose 

upkiSnumSlS^ ^ fc i e f eed consumed, blacksmithing, cost of 
.' m.rds the c " f , M ^ P 61 *?™"*? ^ *ach mature horse. From these 

of the feed coilmed bv eih°H r Sf ^ 1S C ? mpUed - R, ' cords are also k(> l" 
of the cost of rai 32 hor £ ^ '"^ at the Station and data are gathered 
of age. The nv Utn ho«f S ' X ?°? th £ one y ear - two y ear * and three years 

Buttar 329 („C 38071 > « Cxce P tl0 » ally creditable one. The stock ram, 
a splendid indhidual H lmP ° rted fr0m Scotl;uul in A P ril > 1923 > a » d is 

exper^en^d™^ V** experiments, ■ early weaning 

early weaned lambs ™ lue of rape for ewes > market lambs « u(l 

They S Tndud7d T one h boar at twn ?¥" ° n ? ovember 24 > 1923 > stalled eleven- 

all pure-bred Yorkshire; ti **& TO fivc 7 0Xm & so ™ a » d th ree barrows. 

The herd sire Roterfiel 1 wl !, ^' th ° Ugh Small > is of excellent quality. 

in April, 1923 Sfis o esnecklfv fV^V WaS imported from Scotlantl 
The wnri- Jui u es P cc , lall y fine bacon type. 

litters, rearing ™L Z™^? kee P in S careful records of cost of raising 
cost o'f produLl Son Tnrl evn tenanC + e ,° f br ,°° d S0W ' maintenance of boar. 
ducing high-class bacon a £ d + £ x P erime ntal work with different rations for pro- 
grown^rfins are coZared w^tW ^' buckwheat and ba rley, which are home- 
of production and quahtv oi ^rnH, ?' *£> im V oHed g rain ' both ™ to economy 
to ascertain the ^l2e of tinL^. 5*' • Lx Pf nme nts are also being carried on 

Goats.-A flock ot A^T a ? d mineral matter for h °S s - 
to March, 1923 Thev wpf.rf g ? tS T- S mamta med at this Station from 1918 
of using goats for HSKfi? ln .<»;der to obtain data on the feasibility 
would eat only certain kinds of 1^"^ b , ush land ' U was found tha t they 
New Brunswick wS "pracfiSlv w tu ' and ^ the m ° hair from S oats raised iD 
Sold at a profit and fo? thSe -- % * &t flesh f ° r meat COuld not b ' 
the purpose of clearing land T^f ? W&S f ° UI ? d im P ra ctical to keep goats for 
• mgiand. They were accordingly disposed of. 



173 




„ ,.i, j , nl »7i ;„ t he forceround— Experimental Station, Fredcricton, N.B. 

Pasture Scene showing Princess of Northland, 10W. 1. m tne lorcgrounu i~. 




A yield of 2j tons per acre 



from a 3-year rotation— Experimental Farm, Xappan. N.S. 



174 
Field Husbandry 



faarStSMS falfejSSttW \ d, ' V,,, " (1 «' fiel <> Landry. A 
which was laid off this vear flQOJtt * '• Wlth the exception of 12 acres. 

rotation consists of: first vear \uLi I rotatlon experiments. The four-year 

clover hay; and fourth vear n ™ *£**'' » 8eCOnd year > ^rain; third year. 
With commercial fertilizer' is n\mlu i > U f arnvar(1 manure, supplemented 
hoed crops grown include corn fo r in SfJf « Cr ° PB m th< ' 1 " ,; " i "»- The 
mangels. Oats, with smaller areVs, M i B ™ tow »»i turnips, potatoes and 
the grain crop. The hay crop con«Ut Tf i i at "? mixed K rah,s - comprise 
Careful records arc being kern nf t» "V d ° Ver ' alsik( ' clover ;md timothy 
crops. Corn, though it frrmienth !. i y ' and ( '" s,s of Producing the above 
successfully grown for ensilji 2"' ''• ^ httl( ' * development, has been 
yield ranges from 10 toS2! P " *""* the S,ation was established. The 
ton. Sunflowers have been suco^fif®' at a cost of from $3 - 40 t(l s: ' -' P er 
years. The yield has averased M? * y gr ° WB for ensila ge purposes for three 
$4 per ton. g cl i6 ton * Per acre, at an average cost of about 

Oats, peas and vetches h».vo t 
results. The yield has ranged Jfr^iST °* a I? a * e P ur Poses with varying 
quarter tons per acre at •, 7, t, * t R y over thm ' tons to "'ne and three- 
barley are successfully and e , „ ! • T $5 t0 $1 ° P( ' r t,,n - Wheat, "^s and 

Hay yields range from 1^5^ " ** ^^ 

In 1913 an e • . ' ^ acre ' 

for underdrains. ^onT'nol,^ I'V*" 11 , t(> ,( ' st thp vahl( ' "f different materials 
All arc working well ex<Vnt th nis1 ' :m ! 1 concrete and clay tile were used. 

except the concrete t,le which have broken down badly. 

Cereal Husbandry 

The work with cereals hoo k« i 
of different varieties of whe' u , 7" > f' ly confined »> the past to the testing 
relative merits for this district t» ba ™ ev > Peas and beans, to determine their 
begun to determine the rel.tivem^.T 8 . Dast season > experiments were 
ments were also begun to oht< ! r m ' ,am 8tra,ns of Banner oatB. Experi- 
seeding g t0 ° btaln information on different rates and dates of 

Among thTdiff erent varS? !ff S? su P l ' ri » r »y <> f Victory and Banner oat- 
Early Russian 5El2w W ? tested ' the Huron > White Russian and 
varieties of barley which *,V> ' , ( ada pted to this section. The two 

P.A.C. 21. Winter wheat h\- " P. ron \ lsmg are Chariottetown No. 80 and 
winter-killed, it is not freliable cSp ° Wing t0 the dangcr of its being 

Forage Crops 

Extensive foraee rrtm ;«,., »• *■ 
mentofthefarm. Durini t e ' /. ''" "*** ,,( ' gun soon after the estabfish- 
experiments under wav htv „ t" "f ( ' u '' n ' quite lar - tl ' ( ' lv discontinued, and the 
to justify definite conclusions 7 Cn 0amed on a suffi cient length of time 

their value for aSSwurnSi* 11 a 8UnfloWe L? '*» being tested to determine 

li:is ,""i .vet been obtaii e d I iv' „ reaI ly satisfactory variety of ensilage corn 
to .obtain a variety thai w icon mm , '-' n , lg ,uade hv Bele <*ion and bleeding 
able for this district com bme high yields with the early maturity so desir- 

has matured y f ou r ou {° W f the^e"™ ■! Vit,1 ! f ' 11 '. s l 1 1 ,ride > Procured five years ago, 

"ve Mais and yielded a satisfactory crop. 



175 

Variety tests are also being carried on with swedes, mangels, sugar beets 
and carrot's. Mangels and sugar beets are not reliable crops here. Swedes 
grow well, and several varieties show promise. One of the outstanding features 
°f our variety test of swedes in 1922 was the marked resistance of a strain of 
Langholm to' club root. . . , , 

During the war extensive experiments were made in turnip seed production. 
When carried on in' a commercial way, the project was not very successful on 
account of the loss of roots in storage. At the present time, only sufficient 
M '«'d is being grown annually to supply our farm needs, and when grown m this 
s mall way the result is practical and applicable to the individual farmer. 

Grasses, clover and alfalfa, alone and in various combinations are being 
experimented with for hay crops. Mixtures of alsike and red clover with 
timothy have given the best yields to date. 

Experiments are also being carried on with grass mixtures when seeded 
*Hh nurse crops as well as without nurse crops. 

The following experiments are being carried on with alfalfa: (1) Broadcast 
v «. rows; (2) Inoculated vs. uninoculated; (3) Limed vs. unlimed. The crop 
«as not been found to be satisfactory on account of killing out during the second 
Winter. 

Poultry 

, The development of the poultry work at this Station has been rapid during 
the past five years. During the first years the Station was established, several 
^eeds of hens were kept, and, with the accommodation available, it was difficult 
to make much progress with any of them. At the present time only one breed 
*»»., Barred Plymouth Rocks, is kept. Every effort is being made by careful 
feeding, to raise the egg standard. An average production for the year of 
246-3 eggs from one of our pens of this breed m the 1922-23 New Brunswick 
Egg Laving Contest, and individual hen records of 30b and 291 eggs speak 
w ell for the success of the efforts in this direction. 

Records are being kept of the cost of egg production, hatching results, cost 
of rearing chicks and growing them to marketable age. Different types of 
houses, incubators and brooders are being tried, and experiment s are I ,eing carried 
<* to compare beefscrap with skim-milk, water with milk, commercial with 
home mixed feeds, and different grain feeds, for laying hens (hick feeding 
and caponizing experiments are also being carried on. These trials have been 
inducted two seasons and conclusive results will soon be available 

Egg laving contests have been carried on at tins Station for the past three 
years. Registration has been available for hens laying oyer 200 eggs during 
■ e .ither of the past two contests. Twenty-five hens qualified in 1922 and torty- 
gx in 1923. The records have been especially creditable. In 1921 the New 
Vnswick egg laving contest had the second highest average production of any 
Canadian contest. In the 1923 contest, a pen of Barred Rocks belonging to 
this Station had the highest pen production for any contest pen in Canada. 
°ne hen in this pen, Fredericton Eighteen, laid 306 eggs. 1 his records equals 
the highest individual record in any Contest. 

Fertilizer Experiments 

T Commercial fertilizers are largely used by the potato growers in the province. 
J 1 * order to meet the demand for information, extensive fertilizer experiments 
have been carried on since the establishment of the Station. 

Fertilizers with varying percentages of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and 
Potash, applied in various quantities per acre, have been tested. Different 
Carriers of these elements have also been experimented with. Because oi the 
difference in soils and the variation in the price of potatoes, it has not been 



176 



Extensive experiment have been oniric «« * j x , * 

commercial fertilizer for garden crops Tl e , i ° determ ! ne thc value ° f 
manure generally used for SSJorSSn S^JS™ 1 ? s ^ w that one - half the 
with increased profits. P e re P Ia ced with commercial fertilizer 

the vtt^StBffi:, 6 ^^ were begun to determine 
basic slag for renovating okl pa ' u 7 "a T* als ° *? determine the value of 
permit of study of orchard fertilization. g 0rchard was al ?° set out *° 

Apiculture 

There are forty colonies of hep-; in +v,„ 

have been built up'from eight oldrolomiL^^^ ^ P resen J time - TheSC 
since the spring of 1922. col °wes and by the purchase of package bees, 

conducted on^warT control ^wS^^ 6 ** 011 a ? d ex P er ™ents are being 

wintering., and methods of strerSwr^T' T^ ° f makm « increase ' 

wengtnenmg weak colonies in thc spring. 

Illustration Stations 

There are now, in the r>rnvmn Q ~t -\i t. 
Stations. These vary in size ?rZA??«tTT k ' seventeen Illustration 
ated one in each county. PraSSl Smn + W f- nty-four acres - The y are sitU ' 
tration Stations, including the roHt£ T tratl0n l "* Carried on at the Illus ' 
tillage, seed treatment, spraying e to r'T' & 6 USe of good seed > P r0 P ef 
the live stock and poultry owned hv ,, ons f lderable attention is also paid to 
Summer meetings are held'at thokiJi farmers operating these Stations, 

oughlv explained to the farmers of the i^' ™r ^methods pursued are thor- 
carried on at the Illustration Stations Sft^u Th ° farm practi f 
Fredericton Experimental Station and Ifl^ after that carried on at the 

there are brought home to the fonners o tl ^^ ° f PraCtical ex P erimentS 

■<wuiBtB oi tne province. 

Agricultural School 

ment of Agriculture and the ExpSen^S^^ N ir7 Brun ? wick Depart f 
1923, the Provincial Department of ZZ S ° n - , Dumg the summer ° f 

at the Experimental SaS L t4^cfe W*^ ' ^^ &g P CultU £ 

agriculture, and propose, during 1924 t r > «L 7 , are condU 3 Ctln g passes * 
as well. The live stock at Z IJ»f ' . ^duct classes in domestic science 

judging, etc Thi co^neration P r] eilta Station are available for cla * ses i» 
Agriculture torn n the sXoU? ,^ f^* the New B ™nswick Department of 
the work of the E^rimen?Li ffl£2 ?T ^ and at the same t™ e to bring 
building in wMchttesTSZ. o ° D before t he youths of the province. The 
by 52 feet, Wt of concrete tlnl C °? ducted * a handsome two-story one, 86 
Btory there £ L exce lent ft?H* h - a f^^^al steel frame. In the lower 
upper story i s divided So S« ° Ck JU(lg n\ ng Pavilion, 66 by 48 feet. The 

Experimental Bffl^fiSS,^?^, h**, ^^ ^S^ USed by *« 
for the students. This schoT.^ • Y , U ha ? been conv erted into a dormitory 
ims school supplies a long felt need in the province. 



177 




178 




Day and Demoort 



ra.,on-Exp. rirwntal g M ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^.^ 



THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR EASTERN QUEBEC 

J. A. Ste. Marie, B.S.A., Superintendent 

Establishment and Area. The Experimental Station for eastern Quebec 
Was established in 1910, when two farms of 84 and 60 arpents respectively 
were bought. In 1913, 125 more arpents were added, making a total of 269 

arpents or 200 • 8 acres. . . , , . , .. . , , , 

Location The Experimental Station is located at the south side of the 
Canadian National Railway at Ste. Anne de la Pocatiere, Kamouraska county, 
and at the end of the Agricultural College's farms which are close to the town 
on its west side and about one mile from the St, Lawrence river It is on the 
main Canadian National Railway Montreal-Hali ax line, and 73 miles below 
Quebec on the south shore. Its latitude is 47 • 22 degrees north and is longitude 

lo d iL gre The Tower part of the farm, which has an altitude of 47 feet above 
that of the St. Lawrence river, is of a very j heavy blue clay and level. he 
soil of the upper part, which rises to an altitude of 334 feet, is very stoney and of 
a coarse, gravelly nature and quite uneven. _ 

Building.' The Station has now a fairly good set of buildings, including 
housing accommodation, horse barn, cattle barns, sheep barn, piggery and poultry 

houses. _ , 

Live Stock 

Horses. The stud is now composed of sixteen pure-bred Percherons and 
three grades. In 1917, two pure-bred mares were imported and four more, were 
added in 1918 and 1919. It is hoped that a few good individuals will soon be 
available for sale as breeders every year. Besides supplying horse-power for 
the farm work, the following experimental projects are earned with horses: 
Cost of maintenance; Joint 111 control (pot .assium iodide w. bone meal); Work** 
no work for pregnant mares; Spring vs fall foals; Cost oi raising colts from birth 
to one year old; Cost of rearing colts from one year to two years of age; Cost 

°CAT?LE Ve pur (; -bred Ayrshire* are kept at this Station and the herd is now 
composed of the following 1 senior sire, 1 junior sire, 24 cows, 11 heifers, 12 
calves. Besides raising outstanding males and females for the improvement 
of the herds of this part of the province, the following experimental pro.,, 
are under way:-Silage (sunflowers, corn and green f eed) vs. roots (turnips) 
vs. peas and oats, for dairy cows; Mineral feed for dry and m. king cows; Potas- 
sium iodide and mixture for pregnant heifers and heifer calves; Home-made 
calf meal vs. commercial; Heifers, cost of growing; Cost of raising heifers from 
birth to one year old; Cost of milk production. 

Swine. A boar and ten Yorkshire sows of high quality are kept at this 
Station. Between fortv and fifty pure-bred males and females are distributed 
annually to farmers and farmers' clubs and the balance of the hogs raised are 
kept for experimental purposes. The projects under way are:- Housing and 
cost to produce fall and spring litters; Skim-milk vs powdered skim-milk to 
feed growing pigs. Corn vs barley vs. oats; Pigs, cost of raising 

Sheei- A pure-bred Leicester flock of twenty-five sheep and ten ewe lambs, 
headed by an imported Leicester ram, and a commercial flock of fifteen Leicester 
sheep headed by a pure-bred Shropshire ram, are kept at this Station. The 
pure-bred flock 'is kept primarily to raise high quality ram and ewe lambs for 
distribution and the commercial flock to test the influence of a Down breed ram 
on Leicester ewes in producing lambs for the market. 

75617-12* 179 



180 



There is in this part of the province a v* TO i 
land where sheep could be kept to advance t ?£" area ° f rou S h and P oor 
and induce farmers to keep more sheen iX,!) ° throw more U % ht u P° n this. 
now being carried on :-Comparison of crc ss hro^n n 8 experimental projects are 
for eastern range conditions; Breedin/ew uZ ambs; EarIy vs - late lambing 
sheep to lamb in March vs. April; BrledW t • ?' year old shee P; Breeding 
to raise lambs for market, ' areedm S Leicester ewes to a Shropshire ram 

Field Husbandry 

The work in Field Husbandry is mrft. -* • 
divis.ons: To determine the moTt IS ^tensive and is arranged in four 
crops to grow -in this part of the province tf ge ° U , S CU l tural methods, the best 
field scale and the effect of drainage In l ^ lue ° f chemic al fertilizers on a 

oarried:-A Three-year rotafiFftSo sT y fe j° L The followin S work is 
(four sets of fields). C, Frve-year nStSU u fields) ' B " F our-year rotation 

The projects carried in the nL, « £ S ( ^ wo sets of fieldf 0- 
sunflowers; Mangel, vs. swedes; ffiS d° U(w: Roots , s . corn; Corn vs. 
ing roots; Clover growing fol owkeco™ " Corn and sund owers vs. follow- 
ed sunflowers on drained I t-». unanfi 1 SU f°™ s and roots; Roots, corn 
drained vs undrained land; (V,s of ."v f ld '' Cost of wheat Production on 
flowers and roots on drained r« undrSoH l^rt^* 1 ? 11 followm 8 corn < sun ' 
subble for the growing of roots- Corn 5 fl d; S ° d land vs ' oats and P eas 
silage; Peas, oats and vetches V< V," * s - f sun flowers ,*. sunflowers and corn for 
experiment. ts - cl over for hay; Oats M . barley; Fertilizers 

Horticulture 

varieties JL£^tan?ehSj and t^lf '? 19 \ 3 and com P™es the testing of 
red, white and black currants gZeWi " T* <*?*»? bush fruite > m <3mg 
+>,„ T e i trc( ," fruir orchard ao? ^.^raspbemesandofstrawborri,,. 

the standard varieties grown in ! S U ,? trees - including practically all 
vanetaes originated at the (Vntra £ l- and a f n ' at man y mosses and new 
The trees have withstood th( , lr < ^ * " u-ntal Farm, Ottawa and elsewhere, 
orchard was started. Of the 26? aSSlli^ d( T remark ably well since the 
those which have now come to SeaKftS? 68 ^ Sf ' edlin S s ™ d «" observation, 
Pedro obo Rupert, Thurso, K ffi ,"'7^ [" Y? rtbv ° f note are: Melba 

Of the plum varieties undei • obsen-^S k ;». Herald ' Brisco ' Kdso - 
vLw- Pr r ince are Paving more^^^^^yro^dhitnispart 
varieties doing best in order of merit™?!? ° T, ellmatic conditions. The 
morency, Lombard, Hudson iSs^L ^ Blue ' Reine Claude d « Mbnt- 

rhe same may be said nf + V f k Unders ' Kerrv , Greengage. 
PCMistenl bearers are: ^£i£Z*f? *?L the best ad Vd and most 

A certain acreage of land is also Xv *?? Rlchmond . Cerise d'Ostheim. 

testmg of a great numbei of varieties o *fl V * getabl ? ga Z denin * and to * he 
groun ™- varieties of flowers and shrubs to beautify the 

way at the Station.^ 1 ' "** <3t P erin «snta] projects in horticulture now under 



Cereals 



In this Dart nf +i 

native £ sow the C ^ V E vlrife where the farms are s ™»> * » 
Hsto il/ et - Ums - To assist in solvWsnL 110 ^' to brin g forth th * highest 
Sof^^ en ^P ro J^ar?b^clS e ° f , thesc Problems, the following 
Vnrktv ^ , Var f iety te ^ of barley ^& ; 7*°^ test of wheat; Variety 
Vamty test f flax for ^ Bjtt"?^ *"* ° f ^ 



181 
Forage Crops 



Twelve acres of the Station are devoted to the testing of varieties of grasses, 
clovers roots, corn and sunflowers, to determine the highest yielding and best 
adapted varieties for this part of the province. The work ,s divided into thirteen 
main experimental projects. 

Fertilizer Experiments 

t-u *■ f mn ; n f n ;n.n<r qnd increasing the fertility of the land has 

The question of 7"J^« a X3 f the Station has been set aside 
always been one of ^^S^^TbB object of this work is to ascertain 
or experimental work in this .connect ™- . ^ f the fol i owi „ g: -burnt lime: 
the relative effects on crop yields oi appn^wu » « K ,,nerho<?nhatp- o corn- 

ground limestone (with and without manure), bas \ c f^' S T tp 3ne if D o^S 
plete fertilizer mixture,' (with and without manure) and to determine if po 3 sible, 
which element of plant food is most essential crop production. 

Botany 

. , , , , • i i„u„ ra tnrv was built at this Station in 1923 and a special 

A Plant pathological l^ratoryw^uiita imental work on diseases 

officer is in charge to carry on reseaicu ai i T . . , ,, . j 

affecting the various farm and garden crops in ^^^/J^^^S 
quarters for the officers inspecting fields for certified potato seed production, 
an increasingly important industry in this province. 

Poultry 
The Barred Plymouth Rock and R^de Island Red b «eda are kept These- 
two breeds are nracticallv the only ones kept in this part ot tne province, t egi 
wee breedbrwKarted^two years ago with the object of selecting and multiply- 

ViS^SS^^SvA^ ^^ThelarmtrT "" * 
53 chicks a P nd mak/and female birds o high qual t> ^farmers^ 

Five main experimental projects are being carneu 
me ^^fcI^^tJ , trtd y vance in poultry breeding throughout 
oJ^dSSEr 3 obtaining offidgly rggmtgjg. £■£-£ 
birds of high quality became obvious This official "*og > - 

contest will supply. The f!«^.^j^^jS^!^SS£ 
year, are eligible for registration in the tU« ^ - 8 ^ 

Station is of a recent origin, it is already awakening verj 
prove of great benefit to the poultry keeper. 



Bees 



™ . . ,. i • i 10 = fnr q lone time past been noted for the 

This section of the province has lor a long u „i flora nrevailine It is 

hj gh Tl i,y „r hon- e^j^&rHwMrs8rsM*5 

planned to have at this s :?"™'^. ft™ divisible brooding frames; Bees, 
carry on e X penn,™tol promts ■> a* w , 10-#SSe n. 12-frame; 

SSi^S J&^TJSfW-Wi W'n«™ng bees. Silo, „. oHIar. 

Flax 

This crop was quite extensively grown a few years ago in this part of the 
province but wing to the influx of imported goods, it has had a temporary 
province, out, owing overcome with the coming of a small flax mill. 

Ftx'ofatuaHtrsecon" o nonTcan be grown here and in this connection a 
few experirntll projects are carried, such as variety tests for fibre produc- 

tion. 

•Canadian National Poultry Registration Assn. 



182 
Illustration Stations 

s&rF^'^ttiiz and f ble conclusion , 

a more progressive agriculture?' KS£?H£2g 2" *&* Value kW,£S 

an Illustration Station is established 
Extension and Publicity 
This work is carried on m +»,, l - 

SflLfe^?4 and ilJ ^trat ve exS the medium of ^all and large fairs 
(2) the distribution of much 1 teLS V re shown fo * the benefit of visitors 

KtiTuS experiment ^ STotes'S'f 1 inf ™r ; wttaJSS 

agricuhn^l ^^^ livestock S ft? r P F*\ artlcIe8 ' f «™ers' days at 
agricultural lectures m different P^lfiS^""^ and ^ ^ock and 



183 




184 





THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR CENTRAL QUEBEC 

G. A. Langelier, D. Sc. A., Superintendent 

EsTABLisHMENT.-The Station Mas established on January 1, 1911. It 
comprises lots 23, 26, 27, 30, 31 of the first concession of Demaure Seigniory, 
in the parish of Cap Rouge, county of Quebec, and is in a solid block 

AREA.-The property comprises 425 arpents or about 350 acres, about two 
thirds of which are in cultivation. The soil varies from a ligh ; sandy to a heavj 
clayey loam and represents all classes which are found m the district; some 
of it is suitable for every plant, bush, or tree which will thrive in central Quebec. 

Abbangbmbnt.— The farm has been divided in such a manner that practical- 
ly each field may be used in the most advantageous way for experimental pur- 
Poses. Sometimes special rotations have to be taken up so as to bring certain 
crops around at short intervals. , .. 

LocATiON.-The farm is in Cap Rouge village, about nine miles west of 
the old, historic City of Quebec and is connected with the Matter by a .good 
macadamized road. The nearest railway station is Cap Rouge, about halt a 
mile distant, on the Quebec and Montreal north shore line of the Canadian 
National Railways. The Grand Trunk Pacific touches the northeast corner 
of the property while the Canadian Pacific station at Lorette is about five miles 
away. The name of the post office is Cap Kouge. 

LINES OF WORK 

Everything done at Cap Rouge converges towards experimental work. 
For instance clearing draining, fencing are preparatory to getting land m shape 
for thfs while Stag rS Modeling barns and stables may become necessary 
because the stuT herds and flocks require larger numbers of animals or else 
special facilities for feeding "individually. The main divisions of the work are 
Sdc^in^emeSeSai^tion, forage crops, cereas live stock, poultry 
horticulture In 1023 there were 163 different projects, as follows; 5 for field 
Cbanl^ for TmlsS, 23 for forage drops, 20 for cereals, 11 for animal 
husbandry, 10 for poultry, and 90 for horticulture. 

Soil and Crop Management 

The main projects which come under this head are a comparison of autumn 
mriStSSSSSbtS^ corn, the determination of the average yield per 
acre ami the cost ; ner ton of digestible nutrients in the principal crops of the 
S^ASSSmSSSSl rotations also of corn sunflowers, peas and 
oats for silage, of corn for silage planted in drills and in hills, of rates of seeding 
oats of rates of seeding timothv, red clover and alsike, of the yield of hay after 

ttttfrtJ^Vto after different rates of sowmB oats - 

Fertilization 

At nnp time there were sixty-seven plots, on sixty of which different com- 
bi«E«Uate of soda dried blood acid phosphate, basic 
slag, tankage, bone meal, and muriate of potash were tried Other experimental 
work done was to compare different forms of nitrogen, also of phosphorus to 
hud out the influence of phosphoric acid in promoting the maturity of Indian 

185 



186 



corn, and to get at the value of &™ a 

projects at the present time are the Xct^T d ™ & , fertiu *zer. The two main 
herbage on meadows and pastures and tfc C slage on the composition of 

with ground limestone. The part Dlavwl ff *SP p ? b * vb value of burnt lime 
tune, receive attention, besides farm £„« ' also by organisms, will, with 

such as lime, and chemical fertilizers S ' green manures . amendments 



Forage Crops 



One of the important parts nf tv. i • , 
best adapted to Central Quebec S iqoqVi? e testing of varieties and strains 
on which were grown timothy ' alfalfa «i i W f re 44 ° plots for this Purpose, 
sdage and for grain, sunflower's JaSmL™*' T d ' and sweet clover - com for 
sugar beets. The number of nknwS mangels ' fal1 and swed e turnips and 
correct as far as possible, the vie d of +f g T , counted in all plots so as to 
samples are taken, accurately wd^d -T ^f the stand is «ght, composite 
Chemist for analysis, to get at the SeH'.f, d " ed and sent to the Dominion 
work has been done with alfalfa £?? i Y ""^ P ° r acre - Some breedin 8 
and with swede turnips for dn „°L hardmess - ™ th corn for early maturity, 
of a comparison of different mixtures nS Content - The other projects consist 
of certain varieties of oats for W nf g ? SS ° S ?"* C '° Vers for ha Y and Pasture, 
for seed production, of horn 5 Brown lZt End met , hods of sowine red clover 
type of roots grown from seed bcSt f commercial root seed, of trueness to 
helping the germination of maneeul i"° m !u C leadmg seedsmen . of methods of 
seed production with red cS ,n!f 'f°i the P rofit derived from oay or from 
the district of clover grown from JS adaptability to the conditions of 

of Canada. * lrom &w d procured in different parts of Europe and 



Cereals 



not only for every district but for I su , ltft We varieties and strains will be found 
why the testing of varieties zndZrT W °/ SOi I° f every district - This * 
oats and spring wheat is recrivW ? ° f b f r , lcy ' field beans > field P^s, flax, 
advertised, sorts are given a nreL ' careful attention. Ihe new, or much 
carefully compared with the o™i Y *"*] ? the nurser y wh ere they are 

hat are subject to disease/a e l2 D orvtTH nded for . Ce u ntral ^ uebec - Those 
the same as the standard varieties Z H + lders > weak ln the straw, or practically 

which show some merit are ™S i +1 eft aSlde a f ter the first y ear ; th e ones 
which promise to be valuable ^ « + ! nurscr y.the second year, and the few 
grown during at least Elw^ the tnal P 1 * 8 wh ere they must be 
mended. Variety and strain testing t ^ ,*" Clther finally re J ected or recom - 
Project to find methods of ohSS 6 S ° im P° rtant that there is a special 

* intended to compare plots of ,1?ff m °? accurate da t a ; in this experiment it 
of replication, of borders of J ,w nt T and sha P es > to stud y the effect 

K^^showiiitseiftobrweUsStt S^ 8 ^^^ plots > etc " After a 
••ads are selected from it the 1™ t0 * the « ondltl ons of the district, typical 

the one which gives the bes reS^ ° f 25^ ¥ ad is grown separately and 
rial plots for five vears to ^nS V* SS phed and af te™ards sent to the 
have thus been obtained SESSmJu !"? ^ mother variety ' Three Btrainfl 
CapRouge31;andHuronVi t 0,"^ bar ^' Ca P Rouge 14; Banner oats 
varieties and will be of^ c d^^^ u ^J^\^^ontmdedthep M ^ 
projects which receive bSSSSTS + fr ? m the autumn of 1924 - Other 
barley, oats and oai bariefLJ 1 fA Ure + S f ° r grain Production; oats and 

varieties, comparison of so-cXd ™l whea V percenta « e of hulls in different 
**£ .Purposes, and a study of wW infl VM1 ^ iefl with commercial grain for 
M! " ,h - >t is the varietyfSe 2^TJ^ tt ^ ok ^ < » ualitie8 offieldpeas, 
j, me son, or the preceding crop. 



187 
Live Stock 

Work with live stock is now confined to horses and dairy cattle, and experi- 
ments are conducted, or have been conducted, in breeding, feeding, housing, 
and management of each class of the above-named. 

, The superintendent of the Cap Rouge Station is also superintendent of the 
norse farm at St. Joachim, which is on a trolley line, 2o miles east of Quebec 
city. French-Canadian horses are used for experiments having the main object 
°f improving this excellent general purpose breed. Some ninety head are kept 
a t present and over thirty mares, all registered, are due to foal in 1924. Different 
Methods of breeding, close, in line, or outcrossing, are now the main project, 
b ut other ones include the feed requirements of young horses until of working 
a ge, feed requirements of working horses, wintering idle horses at low cost, 
»ork vs. no work for brood mares, and the raising of autumn colts. All these 
horses, including weanlings, with the exception of the few mares kept for work, 
are wintered in open front, single-boarded sheds and there are no sounder hardier 
stock to be seen anvwhere. 

A cup and diplomas have been awarded the Cap Rouge Station for best 
stallion, best mare and best lot of French Canadian horses. 
. The herd of French-Canadian cattle at Cap Rouge, numbering over eighty 
head, is unexcelled from the point of view' of production, and the herd is fully 
accredited, that is, is free of tuberculosis. The two-year, three-year and four- 
year-old champions in Record of Performance are all in the same stable and it is 
the exception, rather than the rule, for a heifer not to qualify for Record of 
Performance with her first calf. In breeding up this herd, the mam lessons 
learned were that it is useless to attempt anything if the stock is not kept per- 
fects healthy, also that the use of bulls out of heavy producers is absolutely 
necessary to increase the average milk yield of a herd. Amongst the important 
Projects are the improvement of a dairy herd by the use of sires of known pro- 
ductive ancestry, a comparison of close breeding, line breeding and outcrossing, 
also of whole milk with skim milk and substitutes for raising calves, the food 
requirements to rear heifers until of milking age, heavy vs. light gram feeding 
f or winter production, wintering stock in single-boarded, open-front sheds, and 
extra good vs. poor rearing of heifers as influencing type and production of the 
mature cow. . ,, , , , 

First prizes have been awarded the Station for old herd, young herd and 
8et of sire. 

Poultry 

A flock of about 500 Barred Rocks is kept during winter and some 1,250 
bricks are hatched annually. As it has been proven by a careful experiment 
°f five years' duration that early pullets arc the most economical winter layers, 
only 150 hens are kept over while 350 pullets are added each year. With the 
aid of trap nests, wire covered trays in the incubators and sealed wing bands, 
Pedigree breeding is conducted so that any bird s ancestry can be traced at any 
time. When starting this work five years ago no male bird was used if not out 
of a dam with a yearly production of more than loO eggs, but the minimum 
requirement is now over 200 eggs. This pedigree work is not only interesting 
rorn the point of view of trying to breed up the Cap Rouge flock -of Barred 
ftocks but also from the general point of view of genetics. Amongst the other 
Projects are hatchability of eggs and viability of chicks from pullets and from 
hens, also from good and from poor layers, comparison of fluctuations of tempera- 
ture in houses of different widths, of methods of preserving eggs, of time of year 
*hen cockerels, also breeding hens, should be sold, of commercial grain vs. 
screenings of water vs. snow, of roots, sprouted oats, clover, Fpsom salts, of 
b eef scrap' skim milk, powdered skim milk, green bones and raw meat. 



188 
Horticulture 



A great deal has been done at tko r„„ r» c^ , • 

and flower., as there are a to™ U™ 9 * P ? 0U *f Statlon "»th fruits, vegetable* 
district with two fair-sized C i t £ SK ?T& ° f Pe °?' e interest ^ in these in » 
main phases of the work have W» ? K ° f ln T< sma11 - industrial centres. The 
and cultural experiments R~ er" S^ and breeding varieties and strain- 
far jmJpK toiil o&l^rS^ bPen -* WWCh ^ * 

berries, currantfa^gooselSS ffiS * '"^ ^ *«*«*«. ^ 
pears, and grapes In JmTO bu . t * here are also Projects relating to cherries. 
trees, bushes, Sines !«,;?, vanetiea and strains of fruits comprising 6,70b 
that the following Tmav be recount ETC ^ ,T2* MMft, * r ' wit h the "^ 
parent, Duchess, Wthv f,«°T ed / or ^ e tllstm ' t: a PP les > YelIow TranS ' 
gooseberries. Si v J ' 'w "T to . mi ^»^er; black currants. Clin** 

berries, earlV &t m f S ' Sfa' Excelsior > mid-season, Dunlap; rasr 
especially of blad currS t *, w' B f^ A few selections and seedlings. 
important pSSW strawberries, are very promising. Amongsl the 
cover crops f„an\nn lp Z\ T'i ** mmUoned a comparison of differed 
Strawberr es. a u heS c^e t'V' S"° ° f the u hil and matted row systems ft* 
as fillers. * ° f « ta °l«hing an orchard of Mclntoahes with Wealth^ 

for dtSw&SnfJhr^mn"" ""*" * th ° Pr ™ U -N*** 
attentionfS S?f ° f 'T ! m P° r t ancc in t^ district has received 
corn, cucumbers SSEEft "*'• beCts ' Cabbage ' Carrots ' c *^ower, celery, 
rhubarb, squash tomatorr'- 01110118 : par , Snips ' peas > Potatoes, pumpkin- 
scale Ott'ffTfiS'r 1 '!: watermelons. An idea may be had of the 
kind of vegetable onlvtl? has , been inducted when it is known that for one 
Plant breeS , b/, ( t0 ' t *!?fr' 1 £ Strains or varieties were tried. 

beans, beets cfbWeenrn'' ? ucce88ful mdeed , especially with asparagus, 
have been mad, w K'ffi ' ^IT' *?**> End tomatoes. Cultural experinv 
In oZt thirteen of the above-named vegetables. 

nials annS andt "' £2 T ^"ftf and strains of *"**> shrubs, pcren- 
because thev were not hL ^ 'T teStecL A number have been discarded 
and season **** en ° Ugh or not as I*** as others of the same si*e 



189 




-+ — & 



190 




THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR THE EASTERN TOWNSHIPS 

J. A. McClary, Superintendent 

l tp tpni Townships and southern Quebec 
... rhis Experimental Station for the *^ ie " It is i oca ted partly in the town 
!?■ established at Lennoxville on April 1, i»i*- fa boundcd on the north by 

J lennoxville and partly in township ol AS ™ 1 - . , st by divisional lines, on 
J e S *- Francis river and the Cookshire road, ^.{JJga, lines and on the west 
gf 8o uth by the Canadian Pacific *^W^ n fJZa the town of Lennoxville, 

> th * Bishop's College property. It is on ^as a population of 25,000 and is 

> miles from the citv of Sherbrooke, which has a ^pop ^.^ ^ ^ Montreal 
^metropolis of the Eastern Townships one nu J ennoxviUe is reac hed by the 
^ thirty miles from the American boundary . ^ Bogton and Maine 
Radian Pacific, Canadian National, ^ ^Sherbrooke by electric railway. 

aiKv ays, as well as connected with the city « ot ^r in {he town of Lennox- 

vilI The area of the Station is 600 acres 120 acre ^j*^ ;nul forty acrea ,,, 
t ,'. lc and 480 acres in the township of Ascot, j> ^ thm; famg d , 
S*,?** were purchased in the winter _of l9 ^'^„e acquired from the Soldier 
SK? foldings. One hundred and sixty acr es ^ . ^ previous l y used as a 

ettlement Board in the spring of 1920, tn it ,i u « ^ ami ,, mslsts of 

feng centre for returned.men. Three hundred Mr ^ ^^ ,, y bmld . 
^le land. 200 acres being already undercira » -j 200 acres in permanent 
J». ornamental grounds, vegetable garden and poultr. , 

^ture and 50 acres in wood-lot, . po „ sis ts of a heavy loam with clay 

,,., fhe soil in the lower parts near themer cow ^^^ b places. 

Ubs °il; the higher elevations are light loam wren, B.^ were re^tabhshed, on 
M ■ As soon as the Station was acquired, a do • oa dsides and other divis- 
&ch Permanent fences were erected, as well as along 

nal lines. . .,„ + he carrying on of experiments 

W, 1 * the general work of this Station, Jeajesxn g^ ^ tbe 

, , h cereals, roots, corn, grasses, clovers, J g .0 . ; . rf ^ , T th]s 

£**. above all others, has been to mcrease tne iei ^ ^^ ^ tQ g short 
r, t ' mu ch attention has been paid to the Keep ► • tant part. 

Nation of crops in which clover has play* •» ». st of eight dwelling-houses 
M,. The buildings on the Station at 1>>'<f >ut < . ind employees; seven ot these 
Hr *h are occupied by the "upmntandmV* purchased, toe oi the original 
], '^e original houses on the proper tv w « H Threc of the barns, 

Sll Gs is occupied as an office and horfaculturai ouu, ^ ^ ^ | . k( . rs 

a^hepropertv when purchased, are used *«^? you ng breeding stork. 1 here 
^^teredforsprmginarket,andonei8UseaK • odatinK fifty head, a 

, ;; built, in 1915, a dairy barn 3- by 96 • J ^ ban , 30 by ,5 feet, 
S '>' building 22 x42H feet, piggery 24 by ou - 
u a n implement shed 30 by 100 feet . 

Live Stock 

e of the districts best adapted For 
li V(i The Eastern Townships is considered one of ^ cHniat( , S(lll p 

«Prin t0ck raisin * « the province of Que » , sweet nutritious grass for 

5* *ater and hillv, rolling **£***%£ purchase was made of a herd of 
t ^e r feed. In December, 1916, the first pur miul!H ,,, th.rty-four 

;i n .ty-thre e registered Ayrshires. Th * f^'pjece -77928-. Six registered 
" ,l » headed by the herd sire, Ottawa Masterpiec 

191 



192 



Shorthorns were nurchned ;„ t 

head. This herd' is htded v^'notedH 9 ' T* at ^ CS ^ there «" seventee* 
wood Lassie's Lad," -135100-- \Tl t^ TpoSe Sh °rthorn bull, "Weld- 
small [nucleus of a Jersey hen which a *J£2fr ™™> **? Was Purchased a 

For the purpose of consuming iZ u Cnt com P nses eight head, 
and at the same time, of conduXe exn'f "T^ct hay and silage produced, 

rW 7 S Ar are P urcll ased every auW^nT entS * *£* feeding ' ninet ^ head of 
nrst of May. y autumi1 and are usually disposed of about the 

fe^^^Sy^VcS,™^ 6 *& and fr0m these s ™ s tw '° 
breeding purposes at the age of rix ^ «" i° f , these young P igs are sold for 
feeders with different grain rations tt' kS ba , lance .^e used as experimental 
the most satisfactory hS^SS^ShJ^ff^ m order to have data o0 
bacon production. End method of feeding for the most economical 

T ^^*S^S^^^^J^ vu foTb l-*™ high grade Oxford 
much along the same lines as ^X The WOrk ™ th shee P is conducted 

been done. ThrnotedtmnoHed^ *!?fr Very Iittle breedin S ™rk has ye< 
years of age, weighing 2 KounH, wV t™' Snelston T °PPer" 38528 four 
Snelston Hall. ffinTCS wh ,cli ™s presented by Mrs. Stanton of 
Purpose of improving ?he ffi! ' * ^ ? omini °n Government for the 
May where he" has stood f£ se^rincl ^^ "** *"* t0 this Station laS < 
ere are twenty projects in live stock work underway at this Station. 

Horticulture 

one SL^clSitxIvlt' 11 " S,at r ^ UpieB proximately twenty- 
breeding work with fruit vVgeHlL 1 r T CtS - ^^ mdude ^™ents and 

FnuiTs—Strawberr S r eget , ableS ' Wrs > ornamental shrubs and trees, 
suited to the district and v,ri? n f' currailt * and gooseberries are well 

each^rsi„ n . Ul( ,u^,\;^ii:;s i ;:; ,h ,h " so fn,its have b "™ conducted 

^l^tSi^r^Z^At Pr ° Ved <h> r ndable ' M onl >' the earliest 
fall badly. A project • h 1 , ,,' h Vy ,n »j" n : ,al varie ties of the latter winter- 
is at present under way J * ° f Sloping a hardy strain of blackberry 

the wuitCTmon?i,lbe e S^L t Ti^ t, ? re8 , fre quently experienced during 

^^tableforthecomnSnr^,,^* 110 ** 1 ? wb A ch th " Stath,n " »tuated '» 

vanet.es of apples, pK 3 P ™ ***"} of tree fruits, as most of the standard 

However, as a testing grouTl for T ' r " wm, «- kl11 three seasons out of five- 
capacity the Station & inToo^^^ 688 ! the slUliltion is ideal and in tllis 
mental Farm system and to the co ,r- t """^ 7 aIuabIe Service to the Ex P eri ' 
survive the Lennoxville winters S7 % a *±°b Varieties of tree '"»'* , b* 
situated much farther nor ' ln a " P*>bability, prove hardv for districts 




the new varieties, Sh L the Mdhl 6 V TSf ^ ana several of the best o 

":::::• el^ ~ ffi *^> ^° apple > and *• Kahinta 

commercially, has been Sftffi hardy varieties that are not obtainable 
may be produced, chiefly , otW fvi ? 'fended to distribute such tre& «* 
varieties are not likely to ^succeed '" ** Where standard conunercial 



193 

Vegetables— Practically all kinds of the common garden vegetables do 
£ e H at Lennoxville and the district is quite suitable for vegetable gardening 

* orty-,seven projects are being conducted with vegetables at the Station. These 
{delude variety tests and cultural experiments with the various species, and 
deeding for increased production with several of the principal varieties. 

Ornamental Gardening.— Perennial and annual flowers are almost always 
Successful in the district, and a continuous display of bloom is easily maintained 
,r °m early spring until late fall. Perennial phlox is particularly successful and 
? large collection of the best varieties is established throughout the perennial 
b °rder. Several excellent seedling varieties of this species have been developed 

* the Station. , . . . . 

, Although a number of the best ornamental trees and shrubs have not proved 
Jardy, it has been found that a great many desirable kinds are quite suitable 
an d may be safely recommended for the district. 

Cereals 

, Previous to 1922, little or no experimental work with cereals was conducted 
at the Station. In that year a few of the popular varieties of oats, barley and 
***ing wheat were tested and, in 1923, these experiments were enlarged and 
fftended to include systematic variety tests with the aforementioned cereals 
ai >d also with field peas, beans, fall rye and winter wheat All varieties are 
?*ted in duplicate in fiftieth-acre plots, separated by four-foot paths and the 

a ages indicated by fourteen-foot roadways. In order to determine soil variation 
a *d thereby permit of more accurate comparisons, the various experiments are 
decked by several replications of a standard variety spaced at regular intervals 
[.Sughout the ranges. It is hoped that this method will be productive of 
air ly reliable results. 

Poultry 

,. During the early spring of 1919, about three acres of land, just within the 
fems of the town of Lennoxville, were permanently fenced for poultry work. 
3* soil is of a very sandy nature and very well adapted or the purpose. An 
^ministration hnilHW JL nut up. with cement basement used for incubation 




Put in each fall for cost experiment 

g" used with brooder stoves for brooding the chicks each spring, for housuig 
*> growing stock while on range during the summer and as special pens for 
t^ing stock during the winter and early spring A 2 440 egg mcuhator was 
^tailed and coal-burning brooder stoves are used. Bamd Plymouth Rocks 
ft* chosen as a very suitable breed for the cold climate of the Townships, 
? ei «g a good winter layer when bred for production and, at the same time, a 
S2°d bird for table purposes. Eggs for hatching were bought in April and early 

<<>> of 1919, and from the chick? hatched, a start was made to build up a good 
fcd-to-lay strain of winter layers. All females are trapnested and only those 
^Viduals making a good showing are used as breeding stock. 
, A decided improvement in the average production each year has been 
forded; a number of individuals have made records of over 2o0 eggs, including 
**o hens which made, in 1921, the records of 301 and 290 eggs respectively 
: About 2,000 chicks are hatched annually, 1,000 being sold as day-old chicks 

' «nall lots to farmers wishing to secure a start in a better strain of producers, 

! h(! other 1,000 being grown on the Station to replace the birds in the laying houses 

S t0 supply breeding cockerels for sale to farmers to improve their flocks, 

M »le a certain number are used for experimental work in crate feeding. The 

75617—13 



194 



projects under way are as follows: Cost of feeding chicks; Cost of feeding l' 1 ' 11 " 
of various ages; Cost of winter eggs; Difference of ability to produce eggs' 
Crate feeding; Early vs. late hatched pullets for winter eggs; Eggs required t° 
pay feed for four winter months; Eggs required to pay feed for twelve months- 
During the summer of 1922, a building was erected just west of the pouM 
plant to house the birds entered in the first Quebec Western Egg Laving Contest- 
This building is 16 by 136 feet, with a feed room in the centre, and ten pe» s ' 
6 by 16 feet each, to each annex to the house, each pen being equipped wit" 
trapnests, hoppers, etc., for the accommodation of ten birds Every pen ^ 
filled on October 30, 1922. Some very valuable data were secured on production 
and costs of different breeds, and an extraordinary amount of public intend 
was aroused m the community. The second contest commenced on November 
1, 1923, with every pen filled again. 

The greater interest being taken in poultry work in general, the more sanity' 
way in which poultry buildings are kept, and the greater numbers of neW-l» ld 
eggs for sale during the winter months are indications of encouragement f° r 
the work being carried on by the Experimental Station. 

Bees 

Since 1918, a few colonies of bees have been kept at this Station, largely 
for demonstration purposes. As the district is suitable, and bees are kept by 
many, it was decided in the fall of 1922 to build up an apiary with which W 
conduct experiments. Beginning with three colonies in the spring of 1923. 
the apiary was increased by division to twelve colonies. These are well estab- 
lished m standard ten-frame hives and, at the time of writing, are well supphf d 
with bees and in good shape for winter. An experiment has been started for the 
purpose of comparing outdoor wintering, in specially prepared cases, with winter- 
ing in the cellar. 

Forage Crops 

Forage crop experiments include the following lines of work: Varietj 
with ensilage corn sunflowers, field roots, clovers, grasses, annual hav crops 
and alfalfa; tests of various mixtures and combinations of grasses and" clover* 
for hay production; red clover seed production, and breeding for increased 
productiveness with mangels, swede turnips and sunflowers In all eighteen 
projects are under way and the area used is approximately eleven acres. 

Corn and Sunflowers Owing to the cool weather frequently experienced- 
during the growing season throughout part of the Eastern Townships, ensilaff 
corn has not proven as reliable a crop as in other sections of the country. A ? 
a result of experiments conducted during the past four years, it has been foU» d 
that sunflowers may be very profitably used as a forage crop, and that, *»<* 
mixed and planted together with corn, the probability of securing a crop f°f 
ensuing is greatly increased At present this mixture is used almost entirely »* 
the Station for the production of ensilage, and the example thus set has been 
instrumental in inducing many farmers throughout the district to adopt its use- 

Grasses and Clovers. Although a number of mixtures and combination 5 
of grasses and clovers for hay production have been tried out from year to yefj 
the results thus far obtained indicate that the most profitable crops may & 
obtained from the popular mixture of red clover, timothy and alsike. Up*? 
the present, experiments with clover seed production have not been successfn 1 
m indicating a method whereby a profitable crop may be produced. 

Alfalfa. So far, alfalfa has not proved to be entirely successful. Thj* 
is apparently due to unfavourable soil and climatic conditions, as most soi» 
throughout the district are more or less acid and the winter and early sprint 



thf-r (luring April. Where soil acidity 
intensely cold, followed by uncertain *£«" Bome times successful. A variety 
h as been corrected, the hardiest Y^|rf. ^ 22 and - B being cont i nue d. 

test with alfalfa was started at the btat ^ ^ ^^ produce & 

J Field Roots. Field roots, especial V^ships, and in the more eastern 
dependable crop throughout the eastern ^ ^ considerable extent as feed 

Portion, where corn is uncertain, they are g g ta tion consists of variety tests 

f °r live stock. The work with held roots, a ,. f increa sed productiveness 
*ith mangels, turnips and field carrots, and breeamg 
With a variety each of the first two named. 

Flax for Fibre and Hemp 

j v, „ were grown at the Station in 1917, and, in 
, Small plots of flax and hemp were gr ^ for companson . i n 

the years 1920 and 1922, two varieties oi i ^^ both hemp and flax, 

1 923 > a fairly comprehensive group oi expe ^^ of seeding flaXi anc tests 
*as started.' These include variety test »"*. th ' anges checked with regularly- 
°fhemp. Each experiment is duplicated anu ^.^ ^^ . g gh d to tbe 

spaced plots of one variety. After har 7 esl ' tting an d scutching. Up to the 
Central Experimental Farm, for threflbmg, SUCC ossfully grown in the 

Resent, the results obtained indicate that flax may 
district but hemp is uncertain. 

Field Husbandry 

lnr.e in field husbandry at this Station 
Very little experimental work was asm {vd Thcs( . include a corn- 

Prior to 1921, when sixteen new P 1 '".! 1 '''; * i(h drainage, renovation of worn- 
DarU™ ~( Aitf^^t rr.faf.imi svstems, woik « . _ P( . lf i llc fion of succulent 



'"»>r to iyzi, wnen si.\u-i-n «.« ■■ , . , - th drainage, iouw. - — ----- 

Parison of different rotation systems, *** fw the pro duction of succulent 

°ut pasture lands, a comparison of diflei li ■ imentg in plots. 

roughage, besides fertilizer and cultural _h ^ present time, no definite 

Rotations. On many eastern farms ,tnen •■ ■ , at amount of hay land 

system of rotation practised. The result is tna ^ & ^ crop u , ^ 
becomes run-out before it is turned over lor g duction of the proper balance 
main requirements of a good rotation are. W™ i tfae feeding of sto ck, (2) the 
°f dry. roughage, succulent roughage and gran Qn large f B wh( , r , 

maintenance of soil fertility, (3) to°*%&£ ^ economica l y m hoed 
certain fields arc too far from the f^J^SU, one with an intertilled crop 
Wop, a good plan would be to practise two sjs ? Jn d hay or gl . ain? 

or the fields nearest the barn, and another man ^ ^^ the t talll( . 
''''> and pasture, for the outlying fields. ln ° r t the following rotations are 

m, or svstems, for this section of the coun 
oemg tested at this Station. „ tons f man ure per acre applied 

. Three-Year Rotation.-First year, corn, tQ clovers an(1 tim „ t . hv: 

* winter for corn; second year, gram, seeaea 

third year, clover. nrn 16 t0 ns of manure per acre applied 

t Four-Year Rotation.-First yew, corn, and clfivers; third year) 

f or corn; second year, grain, seeded down 
clover hay; fourth year, timothy nay. ^ corn> 20 tons f manure 

Five-Year Rotation.-First year, oats, J> led down to timothy and clovers; 
Per acre applied for corn; third year, , barie> 
f ourth year, clover hay; fifth year, tirno y . ^^ Jg tQng of manure 

-Stx-Fear JZotato7m.--lst year, oats ' . t hird year, barley, seeded down to 
Per acre applied on oat stubble for com, fifth ar> timothy hay 8 tons 

timothy and clovers; fourth year clover ^ mothy sod; sixth year, timothy 
of manure per acre applied as top dressing 



hay. 

75617—13$ 



196 



Hay and Gram Rotation.— First year, oats, manure applied at the rate of 
8 tons per acre and seeded down; second year, clover hay; third year, timothy 
hay, 8 tons of manure per acre applied as top dressing; fourth year timothy hav. 

In all eighteen acres of land are used for this work each crop occupying 
three-quarters oi an acre. VJ 

+ , A £ u + r :y ear rotation consisting of com, grain and two years' hay is followed 
on the Station 1 he seeding mixture used for all rotations is made up of timothv 
10 pounds, red clover 8 pounds and alsike 2 pounds per acre. 

Drainage Experiment. In order to show the advantage, if any, of under- 
drainage, from the standpoint of profit on capital invested, an experiment was 
begun in 1921 with two 22-acre fields. Field No. 1 was undernamed in 1919, 
the .rams being bO feet apart, Field No. 2, which is used as a check, has practic- 
ally the same slope and soil conditions and is not underdrained. The soil on both 
fields is practically all clay loam overlying a clay subsoil. A four-year rotation, 
consisting of corn gram and two years' hay, is practised on both fields. The 
experiment has not been conducted long enough yet to give conclusive results. 
Permanent Pasture Renovation. Throughout Eastern Canada are large 
areas of permanent pasture land winch have had nothing done to them since 
the forest was removed The result is that weeds, moss and scrub bushes are 
replacing the grass and making such areas practically worthless for grazing. 
With the object of ascertammg the quickest and cheapest method of bringing 
such lands back to a condition of productivity, experiments with ploughing, 
discing, seeding and fertilizing are being carried on. As the soil in those pastures 
is usually acid, some work with agricultural lime is also being done 

Succulent Roughage Experiment. In order to compare the cost of pro- 
duction of root and ensilage crops, an acre each of swedes, corn, sunflowers 
and oats, peas and vetches are grown side by side under uniform soil conditions. 
Each crop received 16 tons of manure per acre. Dry matter determinations 
are made and the crops compared on the basis of total digestible nutrients pro- 

Plot ExPERiMENTS.-The cultural and fertilizer experiments in plots are 
being conducted in a fairly uniform field containing about twenty-six acres. 
The soil is nearly all a light loam with a gravelly sub-soil. The plots are one- 
twentieth of an acre in size and are separated by a four-foot pathway with a 
twenty-foot roadway between the ranges. In order to eliminate, as much as 
possible, any error due to variation in soil fertility, the work is all being done 
in duplicate, with check rotations for each experiment. The following are the 
experiments conducted in 1923: — 

Cultural Experiments. 

(1) Preparing sod land for corn. 

(2) Deep versus shallow ploughing. 

(3) Seeding grass seed. 

(4) Preparing sod land for grain. 

Fertilizer Experiments. 

(1) The use of lime. 

(2) Reducing manure. 

(3) Fertilizing hay. 

(4) Green manure crops. 

(5) Fertilizers for potatoes. 



197 



MAP 

EXPEUIMENTIU. STATION 




THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR NORTHERN QUEBEC 

Pascal Fortier, Agr., Superintendent 
fn <£%tT S ? n NT \ In , 191 A*?. Provincial Government of Quebec ceded 

££££$£££7% JES^Sfcfi ir.r a camp for th i e 

|d^ ar in^ iSL^-ass ?4Siirtt& i 5 

this point, the idea being to utilize the labour of the prisoned of wa r to a o- 

Eato LT,n\T, tli U T "S^TS* land ' action "rbuikings etc, \'t- 
Later, lots 5 and 6 of the township of Da quier were exchanged for lota 1 nnr 2 in 

five mues^E^nfcS town'ollf ^T*', Sk^T. **« 

manj , s i , f fion^n* T* ^ dvan ^s. It is traversed by 
S?S nnrl the pn ntv hnf , !"" ab " ead y Under cro P * about 45,080 

acres, and the county has a population of some 16.000 people The Experi- 
mental .station itself is crossed bv a stmvpI mo,l „-!,; l yeypu;. me ™P" 
nmnitv tr> Hie ntl.,.,- t !,.-.« s. , * a giavel load which runs from one end of the 
countj to the other, that is, from Senneterre to La Reine 

throu^FarminL ^^ Tbe - Canadian Na « onal Railway runs 

howeTei sufficient InlVn ^-l F" land is Poetically level, there being, 
hea^ Jiav to 8 \n oY el^l"^ ° f g °° d drainage - The soil varies from ft 

drained, the rest is covered by a system of surface dramas 

shed and IbSSK C P b, ' n ' P ° Ultr! ' h ° US<! » and h '°° d °* "»"». ™P"-""< 



Live Stock 



and sns^^fia ssr £%bz hors ri s i» or ^ farm r k 

No experimental work in feet hJTbeS <S Sfcrtf* 1 Per . cher ° n S rade ^ 
is kept of all work done and cost of feeds ° W ' th theS ° S ° far ' but reC01 

and onTvounJbul/'anof* ff T^ ° f ° ne bull > thirteen cows > *» calves 
beL trades Thi' M nli? G breedln g- some being pure-bred, the others 
being graces, the following experiments are under wav with ttiia hPrH- (I) 
Cost of raising calves; (2) Improving of a grade herd by the use of a pure bred 
buU, the production of whose ancestors is known; (3) Cort of milk production- 



199 



* ™ this Station five sows, one boar, and thirty- 
a Swine. There are at present on this ow ^ ^^ ^ q{ ^ bacoQ typ( , 
three young pigs. They are ot the 11 ^^ of the young stock; and 

deeding experiments are now cameu u _ for breeding purposes. Some of 
others are sold to the settlers ot the aisu ^ ^ )f fwd to raige & gQW 

'he experiments under way with swine a •, ' mea i a home-grown feed, with 
to one year of age; (2) Comparison « "Jg f k duction 
Indian corn meal for fattening swine, W ^" f gf ty .f our lambs, fifty-one grade 
Sheep. The flock is at present ma "? "' " The following experimental 

e Wes, and two pure-bred registered Oh ^evio ^ rf ^ flock by the uge of 

*ork is being conducted with these W"' ". (3) Best time for marketing 
f Pure-bred male; (2) Breeding at different ages, (. 

ambs - Field Husbandry 

followed on the Experimental Station 
. Rotations. The general rotation i second year, grain seeded 

* one of six years, as follows: hist year, i ^ Thm arCj however , other 
<Wn, followed by four years of has a R1 ' es best suited to conditions in the 
stations under trial to ascertain the on« firgt yeaT) sun fl owe rs, man- 

district. A rotation of three years is Deuug ^^ down; third yeM>) 

«red at the rate of 12 tons per acre; second j ea , 
hay. f t ear sunflowers, manured at the 

(2) One of four years, as follows, m j n tQ clovera an d grasses; 
'ate of 16 tons per acre; second year oats seem 

third year, clover hay; 4th year, g rass , na y\ vea , oa ts; second year, sunflowers, 

(3) One of five years, made up ot. .nw. , barley seeded down to 
Manured at the rate of 12 tons per acre, gragg hay 

clover and grasses; fourth year, clover n "*'„ . r potatoes, manured at the 

(4) A rotation of six years made u] p o I. n j baj . leyj geeded d to 
r ate of 16 tons per acre; second year, «"»•« gg hay . slxth year) 
clover and grasses; fourth year, clover haj , nn» 

gr ass hay. , _ roa -~ including the following grains: first 

There is also a rotation of five y e ^' ndve ar, summer-fallow ; third year, 

v ear, oats, seeded down to red clover, sc ^ ^ ^^ and t he other 

half of the area sown to winter wheat wre clover hay; fifth year? 

half sown to winter rye, clover and glasses, io 

grass hay. . . ,, iv i,] pd into as many acre fields as there 

The area devoted to rotations w ai w rf ^ retlirns and costs on each 

a re years in each rotation. Record ™ - following points:— 

rotation. Data are being gathered on tne h soU f cr tilit y 

(1) The value of a short rotation in. TC * fo sod on following crops. 

(2) The effect of one, two, and , tn " rond and third year. 

(3) The yield of hay for the fast, seco a Uowing tftU grain and follow- 

(4) The yield of sunflowers following sod, 

"hg a clover sod vs. a grass sod. hav and grain. 

(5) The yield of grain after sui flj « ' JJ tations containing different vane- 

(6) The comparative value of dmxrei 
ties of crops in varying proportions. 

(7) Autumn sown vs. spring sown grain. 

(8) The value of a summer- fallow • win <r. , 

(9) The profit to be expected from p ^g experiment was commenced in 
Growing of Roots and &»sriA « • flowergj Ind i an corn, and oats, peas 

1922, in order to ascertain the W 1 ™™ tg The rotation in this experiment 
a »d beans, for ensilage, compared y'« - area ig g()Wn to var i 0U s field roots, 
* as follows: first year, one-quarter o ^ ^^ OIU> . quar t e r to peas, oats 

one-quarter to sunflowers, one ^ ua /J; f i ()W n to clovers and grasses; third year, 
and beans; second year, oats seeded down 
clover hay; fourth year, grass ha} , 



200 



° f8W ^e€T^ f0ll, ? W ^ b /^Sl0^ LI C TK Par u e the V h ^"S ™ d er 
ine rotation is as follows- «„ t S- Iollow ed bvbuckwheqt 

second year, half the S^ffidSh 'IZ' °* ^^e/downto sweet clover: 
lover am arV ° r St0d for Srain, if ZlsS fV 7 hMh 1S P^g^d under, and 

Sr 5«J of^SSTSS ° h S k P, f - -Soyed on which 
year cbver'w % SeC °, nd >' ( ' ar > Parley SedTl" ? 0t ? are Under the station 

y e™ Si h ;:, ™ y r- grass ^ ^ t0 clover and grasses ; third 

parison with the two Pn^Z^? fJ lAKVR f~^^ experiment is for corn- 
tons of manure per acre aTpKi^ ls as foll o^: first vear oats (16 
ES ,hlni year > «^?fefcSr"' barley Seeded down'tolLver 

comparison with the four 553K LlMEST ™ E .-Thifis t »* -tulied in 

ton SSlS*. »« *»■ of 2SSr S,to; A Wtatioa Used - -follows: 

DRAINAGE EXFERIMEXT — TW 

t^r^^^P^edmwideZ^^PfFient has in view a comparison 

staar ' ■ h ~ *= s^z-Jtss 

Cereals 
rf^pi^V?" 1 * 5 '~i!Sd i" IS? Sr^„ fOT "P^ntal work with 

Forage Crops 

lests of varieties nf 

and sunflowers, comprising St &SS5 T^' - f ° rage beets - ^dian corn 

ollowiL and a field has J"st been dra ^neH r ?n "a**? in a "' were commenced 
ioiiowuig comparative tests n fT» . d *? order to commence in 1924 the 

;i k 7'lover and sweet clfverc^Trf 1 ^f , ° f white clover, ?ed clover, 
•ml alone, of late and of eaS m? S ° n ,° f yiL ' lds of passes sown with clover 
grasses and tests of alfalfa ly matunng cIover *> with late and earl^ maSr.ng 

Horticulture 

In 1912 Ifi'i i 

-fewer 'S S^^StSSSff; ° f "* T" ^ 512 "*" ^ 

only 19 in !n kllI( ' d ' aml :l large number of th? aS - Pf tlcularI y sever o on trees, 

Expe in , ? aSSmg throu gh 'the w^nte r t thn T^ W<?re Severel >' damaged, 

the I ™ n " , have b een commenced ! wHlTo 7* Sh ° Wmg any damage whatever. 

R * . y m the a «umnnoi !I tain ^f 8 ? methods of ripening 

Bt«A Fnata.—. Curr«,*«, " , r to lesse n winter injury. 

wlRrawh and aU ha -e Proved Cdy"*?' «»>«£*«<*> and raspberries are 



201 

Vegetables.— Over 200 varieties are under test every year and notes 
are taken on date of sowing, date of germination, date of setting out, date of 
flowering, when first in use, height and weight of harvest, etc., etc. A large 
number of experiments are also being conducted on various cultural methods 
with garden crops. 

Flowers— From 175 to 200 varieties of flowers are tested each year.' 
Although many of these do not prove hardy, yet a good portion do well and 
furnish evidence that as attractive a flower garden can be made in Northern 
Quebec as in any other part of the province. 

Ornamental Grounds.— A definite plan has been drawn up for the orna- 
mental plantings on the Station, but it will still take several years to complete 
this work, which is being done from time to time as opportunity affords. 

Poultry 

About four acres have been fenced in for work with poultry. The poultry 
area is to the south of a rocky and wooded piece of land, which gives protection 
against north winds. In this enclosure there have been built three 100-hen 
poultry houses, four colony houses and a brooder house. One of the 100-hen 
houses is divided into two pens, and another into four pens for pedigree breeding 

Work 

In order that settlers might learn that the construction of a good poultry 
house is quite within their means, one has been built on the Station using logs, 
following the plan of the building described m bu letin No. 87 of the Experi- 
mental Farms A solid foundation was put in, the logs were peeled the corners 
dovetailed and the joints stopped up and covered with mortar It is a cotton- 
front house and the ceiling is made of strips with the space between the strips 
and the peak of the roof filled with straw. Trap nests are installed in all the 
poultry Wes ^ ^ pJy?louth R ock d the experi ments 

carried on comprise work in feeding, selection, pedigree breeding, incubation 
and brooding. 



202 



"J 

u 



.liii 




203 




Log Poultry House, 



, Experimental Station, Kapuskasing. Oat. 



THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR NORTHERN ONTARIO 

Smith Ba LLANTYNE> Superintendent 

at Kapuskasing Jde^Ctlfe for n I,0rtliem 0ntario located 
Deputy Minister of Agriculture ■ , J ffi n 19 rl 4 ' b : v Dr - J- H. Grisdale, present 
Arrangements were made with the ProvW Li p™* 01 " ° f Experimental Farms- 
knd and negotiations were entered Wfi2T! mMlt for Possession of the 
Department of Militia and Defencf u ' k*?, b * b I»«* operations of the 
^^forinteeddiSfiStt^ would be utilised as 
Tl I arrived on Deeem- 

of^e timber and ^cfeariJ'S^ti ^ ^ ei ? pIoyed for thp moving 
avai able for experimental work atth ^,n ' + ° *£, a J large area "™M become 
ment seemed to have many meSs a , 1 ' >St P ,° SSlble date " While thi « arrange- 
actual practice, it did „„ta m mi,it l / f" tages "o^lined, nevertheless, in 
The total area cleared in this ^S££ ££&£ mWh M had been *** ioT ' 
Location.— The Exnerime + lo s a,bout 300 acres. 

«"«« lying .immediately south fX Stafton Property consists of that block of 
KapuskSsmg ; river, in the JoSnuhL ,' ' a /. ,anNa t'onal Railway and west of the 
It is situated 548 miles nearly s U + ? ^ and J ihe district of Cochrane. 
straight east of Winnipeg and aKl^S 1 from Toronto, 706 miles nearly 
Factory at James bay. The K? i J ™ m* neaHy stral £ ht south of .Moose 
Company * located on the eJ T 4| ' '"'P-™'" operated by the Spruce Falls 

deoftlnM-aihvay.i.nn.e.liatelva ts , h ° Ka f u « kasi "K river and the south 
while the new townsite of KapSkS , n ! er , from th '' Experimental Station. 
from the pulp-,nill and the S £££" t H ? ted ,m " u / d,at "'- v acr08 * the raUway 
23' N. latitude and 82° 29' V ! ; U> , 8tat ?? n ' wh "' h j * on ground that is 49° 
se a level. "' *ongrtude with an elevation of 720 feet above 

adds materially Sltaldtffi?L i ! 8 , itlIat . ed ° n the Jam "« bay slope, which 
mental Station, because itTkcated *! T^ f ° r a Northt ' rn 0n tarfo Experi- 
done at present, in northern Ontario S aS far n ° rth , as an > r farmin 8 is being 

which are obtained at this location sho-.n. con ^ uent ly any success or results 

W^ 1 '" ' listn,t Sf ' 1 ' V « i by the Station ^ reaCh of settlers in the 

Station, which ^'maoY uTof Sf 9? °l ^ ',- ( ' Upi(>d b - y the Experimental 
and thirteenth concessions of iL^J^JP' ^'^> and 28 ' in both the twelfth 

o00 acres of this have been cCedanJn^ 1P ^ ^' ! """ ** ^ PreSent ^ 
have been established in n^nZ FT ^ Ration, 225 acres of which 

Besides the 500 acres und < , i/k ti L * *k ° M and other experimental work- 

timbered and burned over T] KKf°' thCTe . a , rC 3 °° acres which have been 

after it had been burned and rs' be! nT Seed " d mth tim " th - v and c '» v er soon 

Soi P ~ n the Farm furnishing excellent pasture for all live 

Jja OcSaioSmuskS areas JEffa* ?**"!? ° ntari ° is a fairl y heavv clay, 
he«v Und - ■ The K; 'l"^ ^ g ji / f 7 Jftances, s»d and sandy loam may 
b^elaywthepredominatliK WrfLSi7 r T esentative of the fi rst two, as 
shallow muskeg areas which £ S5 hi l""' 1 *' U the Station > with occasional 

. In general, it may be stataH U \lf **$ Jire easil y drained, 
eastern section has a good sW ftow^f 1 " 1 , ms g0od naturaI draina ge, as the 
central area of the farm is served bv t^ ^ a P uska sing river, while the main 
mile a P art a "d run north an south * S* ? ma * Cre ? k , S which are ab "ut one-half 

south. The land on either side of these is ploughed 



205 



east and west, so that the creeks form a natural and very efficient outlet for 
spring freshets and high water at any other times of the year. 
, If, in clearing, the soil does not get too heavy a bum, a fair amount of 
humus is available on new land, for crop production. If the land is not to be 
completely cleared within the next year after it is burned over, it has been found 
advisable to seed it out with timothy and clovers, the latter predominating, as 
the clover soon forms a good sod which makes luxuriant pasture; prevents the 
growth of weeds; hastens the further decay of any roots which may remain in 
the soil and, above all, adds materially to its nitrogen and humus content, so that 
*hen it is eventually cleared and ploughed, there is plenty of plant food to 
Produce excellent growth of cereal and forage crops, borne of the heaviest crops 
ever produced on the Station have been grown on new land during the first 
•Season following the treatment outlined above. 

Chemical analysis has shown that the most outstanding feat re of tlie sub- 
til at the Station is its high lime content, which, dnubtles. account to a large 
extent for the marked success with which leguminous plants of all kinds arc 
Ei'own, including red clover, alsike clover and altalta. 

Climate.-No one disputes the excellence of the soil m the northern Ontario 

Wing operations to the ?»g5*^£ JSgE period 1918-1922 has been 
23-64 J£ a a3 BttSfcSS the growing season, Mav 1 to 

& d "eafairuidicationof&elow^t^ap^ February, -41 

during each month of the yeai. J '™ u „% y ' Wrpps . $L 2 degrees ■ June 
degrees; March, -30-8 degrees; April 3-2 de*p c. s, ut>, _u gu.es June 
26-6 degrees; July, 32-8 degrees August ^29- degree 'J^^f^* 
degrees; October, 11-2 degrees; November, -15 b degrees ana uecenmer, 
"~oo-8 degrees 

Buncos .-The Station has been fair* ^ well •£*££* modern binld- 

SSSS^SE an^eiient view to the Canadian National 

b S i4t^^ 

kulJf n ' ?^ y - i « n?l thes So are connected by a feed room, 16 by 
J used for cattle in box-state, these two ^ j gQ ^ 

lot I 6 *' k n "SftTSff £ til uo ,10 by 36 feet? a bee house, 16 by' 20 feet, 
&fcf P IT' 3 ° r- TV vV fee with an ice-house attached 14 by 20 feet, 

iSS^Sti^nitSSSA^ t ite i rs,,n " b ^h?H r are f 

TW i ", /oLinrrl 100-bird poultry houses 16 by 32 feet, two of 

A «ere are also three standard iuu ouu £"<• . ^ u oa -,A aa aiv 

*bich are constructed of logs, one breeding house 16 by 40 feet, besides six 
colony houseT 1C !by IS 5 feet each. The horticultural department has a large 
r °ot cellar 24 by 50 feet in size. 

Animal Husbandry 

Horses— A sufficient number of horses are kept to carry on the necessary 
Jarm work No pure-lTreds have been kept to date and no breeding work has 
heen attemnted The animals on hand are mostly Clydesdale grades with a 
fe^PerSron grades? Records are kept of the cost of maintenance and the 
*°st per hour of horse labour. 



206 



Dairy Cattle.— The dairy herd in the past has mostly consisted of grade 
Ayrshire cattle with a few Holstein grades. This summer, however, a start 
has been made with pure-breds, when five Ayrshires were purchased in a good 
Ayrshire centre of Quebec and added to the herd. The dairy herd sire, of course, 
has always been a pure-bred with both individual and pedigree merit'. 

Considerable experimental work has been carried on with dairy cattle, 
including the cost of rearing, the cost of producing milk, sunflower vs silage 
for growing calves and for the milking herd. 

We have found that milk can certainly be produced at a profit in northern 
Ontario and that both sunflower and o.p.v. silages are quite suitable as the major 
portion of the roughage for dairy cattle. 

Beef Cattle -The raising of beef cattle has also received considerable 
attention at this btation. The beef herd has consisted of good tvpev Short- 
horn grades and the herd sire has always been a pure-bred with good breeding- 
No record is kept of their milk production, as the majority of the calves arc 
allowed to nurse their dams, and the whole herd is given a large run of stump- 
lancl pasture which has been seeded out and gives an excellent growth of grasses 
and clovers. & 

The beef herd has been utilized for considerable experimental work which 
has included winter feeding of beef calves and sunflower vs.o.p.v. silage for beef 
cows and growing calves. As with the dairy cattle, we have found each of these 
silages to be very suitable for feeding beef cattle, both old and young. 

Sheep.— A nice flock of pure-bred sheep is kept and used to some extent 
for experimental work along the lines of cost of feeding and comparison of feeds. 
1 he male offspring are sold to settlers at a nominal figure as breeders, as will 
also the ewe lambs, once the station flock is increased to a sufficient number. 

Swine.— A large herd of breeding sows is maintained. They are all pure- 
orect Yorkshires and their offspring are used for experimental work or sold to 
settlers as breeders. In many cases they are sold as gilts or, in some cases, 
as young sows carrying their first litters. 

The experimental wwk to-date has largely been along the lines of comparing 
leeds and methods of feeding, for the most economical and satisfactory produc- 
tion ot the bacon hog. We have found, for instance, that the use of the self- 
feeder and of clover pasture tends to lower the cost of production, particularly 
when the cost of labour is included. 

Field Husbandry 

Rotation of Crops.— When a new country is first being cleared and opened 
up, it would practically be impossible for the settlers to follow a definite and 
permanent system of rotation of crops. Nevertheless, as the country develops 
and larger areas are brought under cultivation, the need for such a system will 
become more and more apparent, In order to be in a position to furnish the 
settlers with reliable data on this phase of farm management, an elaborate 
experiment in crop rotations was commenced at this Station in 1922. 

The area allotted to each rotation is one acre for each year that the rotation 
covers, that is a three-year rotation would occupy an area of three acres and » 
lour-y ear rotation an area of four acres and so on. The areas are not as large 
as might be desired; but they are large enough to make possible the keeping of 
field dY P roductlon ^d in this way they are representative of average 



207 
The soil on 



i +;^r,= «rp located might be described as a clay 
_ which these rotations are ^ocatec ^g ^.^ established and 

loam with some shallow muck are* ison . Some of the main points 

therefore should not affect the ba f°^e r o ta tions are as follows :- 
on which it is hoped to get data on from these row* 

1. The value, if any, of a short rotation in buildmg up the fertility of the 

soil. . „.f„ cod one, two. and three years old. 

2. The effect on the follow cr«p of a sod, on^ ^^ 

3. The yield of hay from fir si ^ secona, ^ foUowing clover or 

4. The yield of sunflowers, following ° 

grain - . «. n\ O ,mflowers, (2) hay, (3) grain. 

5. The yield of gram after (1) sunnw ,v; 8 rtions of thft 

6. The success of various rotations mvoi B 
different types of crop. . . 

7. The success of fall vs. spring g ' d witn a cleaning crop like pota- 

8. The value of summer-fallow as compa 

toes or sunflowers. „ oV . rfm 

9. The value of potatoes aj a mo^«W. ^.^ 

The following are the rotations u ™ e sunflowers; second year, 

Rotation A (Three Years' Duration). -Inst ye , 
oats; third year, clover hay; , __-pi r st vear, sunflowers; second year, 

Rotatiol B '(Four Years' /> w ^vear timothy hay- 
oats; third year, clover hay; touring ¥ ; rt , t vear, oats; second year, sunflowers; 

RotationC (Five Years' Duration). ;7™ fiflh ' V( , u , timothy hay. 
third year, barley; fourth year, clover w. potatoes; second year, 

Rotation D (Six Years' Durati on) ™\ \ 'fifth year, timothy hay; 
Wheat; third year, barley; fourth year, cio 
sixth year, timothy hay. ,. v ipw vear, oats seeded to clover; second 

Rotation E (Five Years' » uratl0 f a ^l^. fourth year, clover hay; fifth 
year, summer-fallow; third year, fall *neat, 
year, timothy hay. numerous cultural problems which 

Cultural Experiments.— inere a im , t hods of treating the various 

confront every farmer in connec twn «'■ a new country where the local exper- 
farm crops. This is particularly true si ^^ back for only a compa ra- 

ience of even the oldest farmer in tnt . » rf collecting some reliable data 

tively short period of time. Witn " J. ob i ems , a number of experiments 
on a number of the more important cul ™ - n 
have been established including the following 

1. Rates of seeding sunflowers. 

2. Rates of seeding ensilage crops. 

3. Dates of seeding ensilage crops. 

4. Ensilage and root ^>^ n ^ d gummer-f allowing. 

5. Ploughing down sweet closer anas ^ wheftt< 

6. Ploughing down sweet clover ai ^ peag m the rota tion. 

7. No green manure crop ploug i"> w ithout peas in the rotation. 

8. .No green manure crop ploughed down, 

9. Farm manure experiment. 

10. Lime experiment. 

11. Drainage experiment. 

12. Surface drainage experiment. 

13. Methods of applying barnyard manur 

14. Treatment of virgin sou. 

15. Land clearing experiment. ^ been m operation for more than 
Although none of these expenm ^ ^ twQ years> yet considerable 

three years and the majority ot tbenv " •> d 
very valuable data have already been colectea. 



208 
Horticulture 



and SStfSt&'SS ^JSgfil ° f great T^™ at tbis Station 
Orciiuu -I h a^eady been accomplished. 

203 8pecime^ 8 \epLVntinM8TffeiJn 1 ? 1 v r ? V the ^cultural grounds, some 
apples, plums and crabs were set Z • i m!? 8 a ^ d strains of th e mor e tardy 
107 are still alive and a f >w of tl em bor f 19 /- 8 - ,„°i the original 203 tr ^ set, 
from winter-killing and other 1? baA lr \ 1923 " The 96 ^Mch have died 
the present time there a? 179 trees in /v? near u lv j 1 ' 1 been re P laced > so that at 
leaved willow hedge is beJM |r 1 1 , 0FChai 1 which are alive - A laurel- 

and it is hoped that the ELlrom^ff a ,,T d the horticultural grounds 
success of the fruit trees. ™ thls Wl11 have a marked bearing on the 

varietySts as^foU^R^S^^ work with sma11 frui ts has consisted of 
varieties; gooseberries, fifteen 3 *<'ven varieties; black currants, fourteen 
berries, eighteen varieties van eties; raspberries, eight varieties; and straw- 

informSnSered'sL^rbe'of SO *** fr ° m most of these tests and the 
come to select varieties forlS homeXSfons ^^ "^ When they 

numb^oTvarieti^of^el'X' 1 '"""^ ha ^ e , been c °nducted with a large 
mining of the relative values of 2? f 1 ? artl / ular attention given to the deter- 
yield and quality Some if tho ^TlT fr T the standpoints of earliness, 
beets, carrots. SvJSZZrtfiZiZ ^ lmder t6St f 6 beans > b road beans - 
tuce, onions.parsley narsniis nl^ 7' C ° m ' cu « umb ^, kohl rabi, kale, let- 
falsify, sage tomatoes and tn& P °w-?f ' V™^™' radish, spinach, squash, 
been obta&, showSrXt *T2Z ^ n T ly a11 of these fair success haa 
settler in the nortnTuntry reasonabI y good garden may be grown by any 

Moom froTeWiS P !mtinJ^ e ii a - pride in flowers - the beautiful displav of 
The choicest variet ie J of tnnn « • " an outsta nchng feature on the Station, 
an attractive contrast each ^ " are,ssl » "ocuscs, hyacinths, and freesias make 

A wide border in £ ? g ^"V* 1 ?, winter so recentlv P ast - 
the superintendent house *2E t a balf - raoon > is located on either side of 

appearance to those who vLt the Station!^^ and Pr6SentS & Very pleasing 

given 1 some X.nt"on B inline linflT ° f i^f belts and hedges has been 
among the best for quick erowth n V ^ ™ loW and Russian P°P lar aIT 
dumps, the lilacs, hSu dZ r r Hmd >\ reak s- For lawn decoration and 
are among the hardiest Pol Lh- g ?u a ',? osa rUgosa and Golden currants 
seem to be among the best tried ' Cara g ana and laurel-leaved willow 



Cereals 



in 0^ 1 3S£t?tlityTSllff ^ T if ° rm one - fo ^th acre plots 
Among those tested are LlTwW f ? ° neS to .S row "» northern Ontario. 
barley, peas, and flax the M Tir T ' «i ^ ,f pnng wheat ' s Pnng rve > oats, 
carried on in connection wfth t h P LstH fi ^ e - , Th< *° have a ^ been some tests 
4 , The cereal work is m oroeess nf ateS °- f Seeding for fal1 wh «at and fall rye. 
at least 100 extra strains Ld sorts iSS™* 10 *' M lt is the intention to ™l" de 
ruphcate, in order to tit adSiKf ?T * ■ Iod *? w plots ' each in ^ ad ' 

aamtional material originated at the Central Farm. 



209 
Forage Crops 



. , . k J- f greater importance than any of the 

If one particular kind of fl0k s l h s f crops; because live stock is 

others in northern Ontario it is S?* ^JgSfag operations in this section, 

bound to play a very important part mfirtaw r g I stQck Accordi ; 

and good crops of forage will Jf v jS^an any of the others at this Station. 

Ins W ork has been more largely developed ti a ^ ^ ^ ^^ g 

Land for over 2,000 experimental plots i nas ^ ^^ ^.^ ^ q{ 

and the experiments cover a wide ana w rf annual h and to deter _ 

sunflowers; variety test of cornea... JjMW* ^ ^^ hay . ^^ 

ttttne the best dates of cutting same, variety . ^ ^ th mangc \ s; varie ty 
9a annual hay; sweet clover as a " u ;' a } a , 1 a [urnips; dates of seeding fall turnips; 
l est of swede turnips; variety tesi . «» production from grasses alone 

Variety test of field carrots; a comparison oi jgjH for h production; 

and in combination with clovers, ""^ i ture on red clover; methods of 
«rome grass; perennial red clover, i , on a if a if a; red clover seed 

seeding alfalfa for hay production tr o duction; var iety test with 

Production; alsike seed production, ti m wv *- Me and earl dover 

fed clover; late and early clover with Ut and JS^ ^ 
'n standard hay mixture; variety test wrtn 

Fertilizer Experiments 

■cultural chemistry has received a good deal 

, The experimental work in agncu unforeseen circumstances, however, 

of attention at this Station. 0win ^ ™ S c rious i y interfered with. The first 
the experiments as established hayeioe: thirty-four plots and arranged 

experiment was established in 1WU, J^wnSm fertilizers in a four-year rotation 
^ith the idea of determining the effect otvano ^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ 

as follows: First year, potatoes; seconaye*. ^ compl( , u . ly ( . over ed with 
and fourth year, timothy hay. This ™ e , a ' f] . im |, v the Spruce Falls 
*ater in 1922, owing to the construct o no ^ m ^ t[un M formerly out . 
,V°mpany and the consequent rise oi , tl rcsu lts obtained were only 

»ned had not been completed, consequ«niL 
Partial. -afcaMiahed along similar lines only on a 

In 1921 a second experiment was «|» D ' U d a n0 n-manured area. The 
toore extensive basis, covering a manu wi( '_ (w(inlipth . acre plots for a four . 
Manured area was divided into tmrty-i' vetches; second year, oats; 

year rotation as follows: First year, oate, peas ana 
third year, clover hay; fourth year, mure a . J ^ wenty _ e i g ht one-tenth-acre plots 

The non-manured area was C"™"*\ oatS; pea s and vetches; second 

'Or a five-year rotation as follows, cm . ^ p i oug hed down as a green 

year, oats; third year, sweet clover jni and fifth year; ^ clover- 

Manure on one-half of each plot, fourtn yea^ ^ ^ seagon of 1Q22 wm , ( _ 
tins experiment was conducted tor tw jr lover failed to catch and, as a 

extremely dry that the sweet clover and red c , 
r esult, the returns of the experiment were i . - hensive and elaborate fertilizer 

It is the intention to estabhsh a .more ^c ^ ^^^ to follow it through 
experiment than either of the two ciisc< «" f t ilizers and what combinations 
to some ultimate conclusion as to just "' < V eri 
of fertilizers give the best results on new land. 

Poultry 

lL . G . tinn was not established until 1921, when the 
Poultry work on this B Jation {e and three portab i e colony 

nrst permanent 100-bird poultry house lu y j hag beeQ 

hou seS) each 10 by 12 feet, were ' ^n^^d ^ goo' birds, 
enlarged until now there is ample accommuu* 
75617—14 



210 



The Barred Plymouth Rook k the „ i u 
to be quite suitable 'to our northern c\tj Y f recd , ke P* to date and seems 
birds of good size, reasonably hard and™ I™ Sft* c . on d*ions. They are 

The experimental work of the D ]ai h. K g ° 0d , 8hoW ?« in e ^g production, 
breeding, feeding, housing and IS has been along fche linc « of comparing 
experiments under way art Skim S mana f f ' !1,f ' llt methods. Some of the 
sprouted oats vs. closer leaves nfl be , ef S , crap; crate fattening cockerels; 

late pullets, yearling hens J t«!,! greer \ f eed; comparison of early pullets; 
artificial lights vs. no Hghte tw °-y ear -°W hens as winter layers; also use of 

We have found that skim miit • 
profit may be obtained by SSi *. superior to beef scrap and that a fair 
grains such as wheat oats anrf Wi ng cockerels and also that home-grown 

A start has R ?££ £*SS- "" ^ 8Uitftble f OT thi * Purpose 
the highest producing females V ! f^ w ° rk - From the trap-nest records 
in this way, some excellent sVn,L- ,', !'' *? d mated with Pedigreed males and, 
farmers of northern Ontario e obtamed for distribution among the 



Bees 

The 



yard was opSted thra ve'-Ir Z?f p [ l °-' ess of "*"WW>maat. A queen mating 
yard. year and to tins may later be added a queen rearing 

effect of vSuTtSS oTweJw ^X h f been along the lines of ^ting the 
and outside winterme bother 1m the hon . ey flow and a comparison of inside 
ng, iJoth of which have given very good satisfaction. 

Extension and Publicity 

Several of the lartrnr fnii *-■ 
from this Station. The evh h?f T V1Slted , each year h ? an exhi °it put up 
as possible and has proven , «n Jfl? ■ * ma , de as int eresting and educational 
Ontario settlers. D efficient way of getting into touch with northern 

meetings and^othef agriculrnlT ^? fluently available to attend farmers' 

to assist InanyiwwjSffimTi.fSSf™?? 8 a , m ar f alwa y s read y and willing 
section of the province of Ont«,ri agncultural development of this new farming 

therenderingofexcenlU'S-vtir^ tha - a , good foun dation has been laid for 

for while the sStS h ° ««" cultural ^rests of northern Ontario, 

under experimen X n V f j * T™ ,, , lpre are alread y 13 ? distinct projects 

hortieultu^re 50 cereals 10 I'"" 1 A " ,mal husband ry, 10; field husbandry 30; 

bees, 2, and thViist fstrorlnoii T ge cro , ps - 25 ' "hemistry, 3; poultry, 7; and 

gations shoud prove f±f^ ^ <£*"***; The results of a11 these ^esti- 
to serve. * 0l gfeat value to th e people whom this Station is intended 

Illustration Stations 

work^ be^dM ZTr l l be6n e 1 ablish ed in Northern Ontario, where 
the Experimental Slon^ Ka^lng! BUPen f° n ° f «" -perintendent of 



211 



Experimental Station. Harrow. Ont 



o««-wr» 



■5. A,« Cv«»o B*«H 4 iT«»lt 
7 li<i &(•<< ftlitrJ 



J V*Tt«. Tah* 
3 Jrt'rfi»a Roow 

JvfUMnMMMTi BtW«N<l- 



14 G*l»ct 

16 A,« C**«* 6*«* 

17 G«w * Ho«a* &»«*» 

* p PtoNHB G»»TA*M 



KINGS V 



LLC K.Q A P 



r. 



(bum 



HoKTicvLTuIM. 

a i a*. 



^9 Ac 



(-23 Ac 





E 

24 (to. 



A 

24-2 A* 




75617—141 



THE EXPERIMENTAL STATPO^FOR SOUTHWESTERN 

D- D. Bigges, M.S.A., Superintendent 

Han^w%obacco SteS^wM^wte ^ ^ tario and formerly called the 
50 acre, of leased land an, w^ oSS m "2?' ^ reCently h comprised 
township of Colchester South in tt ° n f por , tlon of lot 15 in the Gore in the 
1923. the Federal Department of &?T ^ ° f E f ex - Hoover, on April 23, 
the Station now cons is t of ' "on J g "T^ure purchased the whole of lot 15 and 

Facility of fSSS 8 °t ' ind m \ Solid , block " 
one mile from the Farm builHin J 7T ^ nea £ est rail way station is at Harrow, 
Railway. That hWun "fro? 'w i? 6 ^dian branch of the Pere Marquette 
EngsviUe, nine JK/d&SS JST^ f ° *l P ™ 8 ' Thpre is a ^ ;lt 
nections can be made a \\ , 1 ■ i ''",' m< " wbjob runs to Windsor. Con- 
Canadian Pacific, C n 1 ]'&?.' ^r '. ; \ indsor witb the main linps " f fcbe 
Good gravel roads mS h iS ''' Tt^ and Michigan Central railroads. 
many miles distant Experimental Station readily accessible to farmers 

of the^ann. 1 '' Whit slhT^^V* rieS ^^rably on different portions 
heavy sandy loam with a saudv^fh • T Bes fr ° m , a light sand y loam to a 
sand and other areas of 'liirhttt sub - s ° l1 ' there are also sma11 areas of black 
for the production of all fie Id S J°T TmiS W find 0n the farm soil Stable 
of Ontario. ' and garden cr °P s grown in the southwest peninsula 

^^iS^SThSSf^ ^° are ] lwder cu "ivation. The balance is 
level and is not underdr^mod " g "^ ""* ditcheS ' The Iand is Poetically 

WttaSXf^c^ 8 ^^?? 1 *' 8 h T e ' f T man ' s Mtt «P. one teamster's 
barn, tobacco stZ 1TZ > , foUI tob u aCCO flue " cur mg barns, horse 
the buildings. g ' granar y> implement shed and pump house comprise 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

atpSn^taTttation^anTSttf 6 W ° Uld *??& this was P rimarib / a Tobacco 
work was conducted or ?he SS^fe "ff? ° f 192 L 3 > the bulk of the experimental 
the fine-cured type a»id tl • , ' f tobacco chiefly grown in 0ntar10 ' a*™ 1 * 
of the latter. air-cured type, White Burley comprising the bulk 

culture whiScouldVlJ t^ ?° Ver P rac tically every phase of tobacco 
a ^ort^asonrinwl SwiS^ to - the grower '' aQd si »<* tobacco is 
acre, with its value , ZL, n t C 1° P '- gl , ving ' as a rule ' lar S e returns per 
necessarily very Kid inTha?ac^r ^ and quality ' the 4>eriments a» 

Production of Seedlings 

the production of'B.acco ^'JSKT* l^ 11 ! 8 is of Paramount importance in 
ally made a failure of lip If 1 rec ° Utly ! he nu mber of growers who annu- 

The results of ou l ^ £1 t ? aCC0 culture was astounding. 

jnethods and giving the l.i d Sonafc Pr0Ven ?**> em P lo ymg the proper 

assured. It has been show, that bv S C T abunda ^e of early seedlings is 

can be grown as early as in a wcenLn ? & g ^ s - C0Vered ' semi - hot bed, plants 

• m a greenhouse to which no artificial heat is supplied- 



213 



tr *u 11 „,„,. +Ko panvns-covered, semi-hot bed is most economical and 
For the small grower the e **™g°™^ glass-covered cold bed. The results 
will produce plants just as ejflj a-- t K h fgM ^.^ d 

further indicate that the soil ot tne Deu»' u _ j: c „ q / oc + u„ d „;i :„ + u„ 



,UUIpr , m TCT *w for the control of weeds and diseases, the soil in the 

bTmust^sSS. S?t£2ito thirty minutes with 100 pounds pressure 

on^til^tea^ 

soil than on ^^orih.,,1 so 1 that the rate g^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

germmative power of t he seed set cl ge ( * ^ ^ ^^ ^ cold ^ 

rate of one-seventh ot an ou™e per iu q ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

the semi-hot bed may be made ana biiamt 

as when made and steamed ^^^^'reguite has had a marked effect on the 

That the dissenuna tic n ^ J™^ b the steadily decreasing number of 

^tureoftobacwmOntanoisevidOTce^ transplanting 

te^slen^r and b/SfaS thalTor the past ft years, steStion of 
the b"ds has Sen untersal while only eight years ago it was exceptional. 

Variety Tests 

• • .- i„wr number of varieties of the flue-cured type and 

Since its inception, a large numotr tegted ^ ^ ^ a ^ 

of the Burley and other air-cured type na ^ for 

regards both yield and quality ^t flue- cured V ^ iety and ' at pr " S, ' nt ' * 
general run of soils, the i Warn< is tne o Hickory Pryor has proven to be 

is by far the most widely-grown variety. A ne ^ ^ J 
the second best and is recommended for t* m. a JV ^ Bnmdl(i;if g^^ 

The varieties of Burley giving « es* ^ Broad , (>af Rurl( , v is 

Standup and Resistant. For hotii ^ } ■< > „ ^ station Standup Burley for 
recommended for undiseased J»WJJ aud other dark type, of soil; and the 
undiseased sandy loams lfMclay loa » , u The bulk of tho Burley 

Resistant Burley for all doubtful o r d. a, _c - reC0 mmended, the 

crop is made up of these three varieties ana, oy y b 

quality of the crop is being improved. air . cure d type which has been intro- 

For the production ot Oreen iu\ . , Greenwood are apparently the 

duced during the past year, the Utue nm 
best varieties. 

Fertilizer Tests 

*= ^ith fertilizers are being conducted on all 
Very exhaustive experiments wrth ftg"^ ^ th( , ,„, st formula3 from 

types of tobacco grown in tne pi >> . ■ qua i ity f C rop, are being sought; 
the standpoints of economy, f^ >™£ d 'tash studied; home-mixed tVrti- 
the effect of various sources of nitrogen ^ k .^ ferti]izera M n ,„ ards ocollomy 
hzere are compared with ready-nuroo me thods for applying fertilizers 

and effect on yield and quality, aim 

are being sought, la .„Maa and have proven 1 hat liberal applications 

The results have been oJ*»*J , J ^LjL profl , al ll( , T he net return 
of fertilizer, even on fairly ^e^^uS J m ^llo.lO to $238.35 during the 
per acre with flue-cured to bacco as g ^ ^ B ^ ^^ 

past seven years. During the same p* ilul i C ate that, on the average soil, 

from $56.06 to $223.3o per acre. .la* j» flue . cure d type would consist of 
the best and most economical .torm uia add h hate 

140 pounds of sulphate of ammon^ewpouna pw^ ^ j^ ^ 

and 200 pounds ot sulphate of : potaan > P; b supplied by drie d blood 

one-half of the nitrogen ^J^^ readily drillable fertilizer thus 
with just as satisfactory remits economica i formula is apparently 320 

PounTof surpn^teS'ammS,^ pounds of acid phosphate and 200 pounds 
of sulphate of potash, per acre. 



214 



of appli'ca'SL the fertili " r '" "" r ° W '" ■»■«•«* the most profitable method 

That these results are exerting a very decidprf infl,,™™ *u 
evidenced by the steady annual increase "n the amo ,nt nf f ??• 6 gr< i Wer8 " 
of them mixing their own, and by the faS th«,?Th fertilizer used, some 

fertilizer problem and attempting 5 ^ eWand un^JE^" 6 ^ Udyi ?« the 
wHclWetermine the ya.ue P f /fert^r £? h^Selrfng TTe £2 

opera^etrttt^ - ^ Station, co- 

types of soil throughout the tobacco belt w th th * h ^T? 8 ' ° n differen * 

best formula- as well as of iriv™ J Tl b ^ lt ' 1 ^ lth the purpose of determining the 
fertilization. gmng & PmctlCal demonstration of the effect of proper 

Manure Experiments 

indirect applications of manure to Burlev f i + 'f Ct &S c . om P are d with 

needed in conjunction with a good artifichl Wi! th ?, ? Uantlty ° f manur J 6 

spring applications of manure^ -tobacco J and t0 COmpare faU ^ 

^ii^^^^^l^^^^^^^^toBurUv remote 
yield, as direct ^XSrLtentW^f ^V* g° od as regards 
the fall or in the spring w th mK ^Sd+f a"* ""? be appHed either * 
of manure per acre in" S&2&T& £«SW£££^ 

Rotation Experiments 

Three rotations with the flue-ourpd tvn» „t +„k„ i , 

the air-cured type have been Sd^^ro^^e^ I&SS?™ "* 

Flue-Cured Type 

Four-year— Corn, tobacco, cereal, grass. 
Four-year— Tobacco, corn, cereal, grass. 
Five-year— Tobacco, corn, cereal, grass (two years). 

Air-Cured Type 

Three-year— Tobacco, corn, cereal. 
Four-year— Tobacco, corn, cereal, grass, 
^pur-year— Corn, tobacco, cereal, grass. 
I'lve-year— Tobacco, corn, cereal, grass (2 years). 

he D^rioLfrZJ *^ 101 ! 8 S ° me Cr ° P received an a PPlication of manure during 
Th T station and green cover crops were used wherever doss h e 

rA P [Tl S \Zt that T °l{ h ? \ bove 'otatiWoffie 1 followed 

/^'heretho SSrtSS? ^T^l that , the lncrease in soil fertility was 

^•^flueJeeontnpn,^ "T!^. ^ the rotation follow *d exerted 

• ^ t P - ^ed with root rn? I J he t0baCC ° P. roduce d; and that on soils 

^ > Efficient to eri r<7 T- rotatlon > w ™ch red clover was not 

'^ the best rn t « + the il 8e T- Fl '° m the ^andpoint of both 
. '£, . tne best rotation for the flue-cured tvDe was thp fmir veal 

<orn preceded the tobacco. The five^arTtation fS?£ 



215 

four-year rotation with tobacco preceding the corn resulted in the production of 
too coarse a leaf and a poorer colour Considering yield, « con n ^ n an ;;.q uah ty, 
the four-year rotation is best for Burley and, apparently, the one in which corn 
Precedes the tobacco is to be preferred. 

One field has been cropped to Burley continuously for eight years and despite 
the fact that it has received heavy applications of manure and fertilizer annually, 
the crop becomes poorer in yield and quality and more diseased every year. 

The above results together with decreased yields and increased disease 
infections; ^arelonv'ncfng th'e growers that a good rotation is essential and much 
advice is being requested and given regarding suitable ones. 

Cultural Experiments 

, These include distances of transplanting depth f ^ivation, time of 
Ploughing, height and time of topping and methods of harvesting. 

tv, if ■ j- * +u + +v,p dktance at which the tobacco is transplanted 

in th fi'uT tS mdlCa I H ^flnence on both the yield and the quality. The 
n the field has a very marked J"^ ™jY the powers and closer planting 

th V S COn , stantl T bemg ^Ti^oS the rule. Under average conditions, 
than was formerly practised is becoming tne i u ^ 

the best distance for transplanting the flue-tureu v»i «™ j 

and for Burley 28 by 44 inches. . . 

Apparently the best method of cation . to- jjnjetti >wp dejgr 

at first and gradually diminish the depth as the plant increases in size, until 

at the last only the crust is being broken. 

T , • ,. . j.- „t C ^il moisture is generally one oi the most 

In this district, conservation of soil moisture g y 

mportant factors in tobacco growing. I or ^ ttoa t , ^ fi 

tt^w^^ returns ' va - ing from 

*24 to $100 per acre, over spring ploughing. ,. 

„ uv/ iraauc,« x ,, y , -„u +an h time of topping exert a marked influence 
It has been found that the height and tmie oi topp g dg 

on the yield and quality of the crop. La ^ or ^ d ^ ^ ercent J 

^^/o^V^^^J^STSSS^ the part of some growers 
Of stalk to leaf. While there is st ' u a jena™ . y overcorae by demonstrations, 
o top too high this defect is ^^S^pCt as sLi as needed and 
etc and most of the growers are now topping t ne p . h hd ht 

taking into consideration the various factors mum ueu 
*hich the plant should be topped the lit gt lk method of 

The experiments h^e shown conclusive ij f ^ ^ ^ 

harvesting results in a QnickCT cure, lessens oang b a 

barn, and gives a product of better ^quality • Whl e d J | ini in p^^^ 
the original method of spudding, the split stalk mom j » a 
and there are districts in which it is employed universal* . 

Growing Tobacco Seed 

tt -, , , i^^o+ nil of the tobacco seed used by the growers 

L nt.l the past few years, almost a of tne i ^ 

vas imported. Since changes ,in so J and ^^o determine the value of accli- 
effect on tobacco, experiments were ^artea acclimatized 

matized seed as compared ^jj^ft,, produced plants which ripened 
seed not only produced earlier seedlings g a ^ d ^ Th 

Sl 1 ^^ ^^hv^Sf^wers K seven years large quantities 
oilZ\^ir^n g?owno g n r the Station to satisfy the demand for aceli- 
matized seed. 



216 
Disease Control 



i D ov H ed b H e l aDd * the Sew. Disete'r ^7^ the C °» tro1 of diseaS6S 
of so uEl and + tl \ e f^tiveness of *3Sh?"*?? Strahls have been tested 
.4 measures :°" teSte± Those »'vos i2 "? glcide8 . and different methods 
planW ! r r f + v, m0re - effectiv * than co lt rni r ° nglymdi ^ted that prevent- 
he W?5en? nn^f ^' Vlg0rous ^Un^ Tlnnl T*",!" 68 and that by trans- 
rot SnTdimnin d L Sease \ in the field. fuch °f ^ P , had been taken towards 
aSation „ f "* best Prevented D ?th nt b u d diseases as m °saic, root 

I muv r ll! C , "I, 18 and changing the soifth °™ Ugh soil sterilization, careful 
of the nW W the root rot appear aftel Jr. 6 " 1 at le ast every three years. 
M^S^X^J^^^ZS^ th ° Se Precautions the soil 
ust be Iterfli d Sh .°u Uld be changed. \y5 7 hn K F«>p and, if at all possible, 
liti n S the 1 Wlth a bich loride of merenr v' Ch , dlSeases as wildfire, the seed 

Sri!Satn ab °b V y e 3£££"- 1 ^ ^ ^ * 

chemicals. 7 steamin S has p ro ven sunerior ♦ -,- -^ 

& the field, most of the dise, stenhzation with 

KSSSLi?** P^^SJCTa 1 ? f t ° Und are COntrolled b«t by 

Insect Control 

investigations along this lino j, 
^tlKo^^^ SP ^ ing ^e tobacco with 

womt? taSS°8? £J5 P, ' 0Ven '"osl eSe f ° n0mical P^cedure. 
fairly satisfa^ "• ° f P ° lson «l bran K^* iLTf 1 T^f ^ ^* 

j i-urea just before transplanting is 

Curing Experiment 

Since the value of tobacco H 

*UE£gE2 fir* ^1^53*5 r h > and — colo f 

the best colon? The t i ° CUrm S P^ce'ss n u*?* has be en done towards 

harvesting AftVrlnAttr ft"* 1 b * "per n So, T f0Und that ' to produCe 
immediately a, d tl firPS > ^ flu e-curecU vnp t0 A et fairlv ri P e beforG 
be scaffolded ' led ' , S i ,rt ^-, , In ^ir l£ heJT be hun S in th * barI1 
improvement in c£ 'Vi ' ¥*• for about 1 th ? a,r " cur ed types may 
However, if the weSLf? less danger of Dole J days with a ****&* 
Immediately ther 1S Settled it is £ ? ? and (rther bam damage. 

Small charcoal fires built g ^ Cr ° P in the barB 

SbSfiSV »5S fc f Z^ the A- of the air-curing 
HuesS^Sj^ e c k u "ng Process P thIS Verv Active in preventing 

furnaces and afpSCK ^ incl ^3 test? Y f lm P r ?™S quality. 

to determine le prcmer h T Variou * tfnes of f° f , Various types of curing 

in the curing process P hUnudltv to *au3K in t? 1 f wel1 as investigations 
The Johnson Patent curin * ' b&m at different stageS 

and found inadequate tor ?h g furnace f °r burnin, „ , 

Tests of theTcVeTt-ctS-f , Size of^°^ '^ »»-. been tested 

it fairly satisfactory for the 7,1 ° d an d coal hnrrZ * 

economical as the coal burning 



rin«r has been tested for two years and found 

Steam as a source of beat m cuni g ttire can be maintained with 

highly satisfactory. A more unim " tus teste d, fire risk is eliminated, 

steam than with any other heating < i j rAs fue i than the original wood 

and the system is much more economi <- in flue - C uring tobacco with steam 

burning furnaces. This Station is row i ^^ md higher in price; the 

heat and, as wood and natural gas u Ued on many farms, 

steam curing system will doubtless ijem relative humidity m the curing 

The experiments have P«>yen tn a* ^ of the tobacco being cured 

barn will vary somewhat according to y ^ a „ caseS) t h e humidity 

and that, while no real, definite » formula ^ ^ aves begl „ to yellow, 72 per 

should be about 79 per cent when the do go ^ cent ^ ^ t ips b 

cent when the middle leaves begin to J e ^ w enough to fix the co i our . 
to yellow, and 47 per cent when tne w 

■ „«t« with Corn and Tobacco 
Fertilizer Experiments witn u 

i +« hive followed tobacco crops which 
While, on the Station, ^^J it 'has frequently been found that, 
had been highly fertilized and ™?"*™' o{ 30 pounds per acre of 16 per cent 
even under such conditions, -^fiXS* in yield to pay for the fertilizer, 
acid phosphate would give sufficient mere** ^ ^^ on which no com- 
These results indicate that, on general |» ]ms of ac ,d phosphate to 

mercial fertilizer is being used, moaer 
those crops would be profitable. 

Extension Work 

«<r thp growers through personal 
Aggressive extension work is being done"*"* t g eriments . Exhibits are 
vWt.7SSr V SSS > bulletins »^^£S2dent also serves as a judge, 
shown at the local fairs, at which tne sup 

Expansion 

u r, P nf the principal tobacco Experi- 

While this Station will continue to be one > broadening ^ ; scope of 

mental Stations, its enlargement :*™ .^horticulture, field ^*^ * ora *J 

work, which will include experiment n" ^ work; variety tests, and 

crops', cereals, etc. .^SX^ff^M^ 

experiments and hundreds ot far 1ori+0 H f nr wor k in 

of varieties of soy beans were ^J***^ bulbs were planted for work m 



There is an apple orcnar ""„ tlv taken 
on the portion of the farm recent!* w 
important experiments in the luiuie. 



218 




m°Z° 



^DNVMoiir avo-a 



THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR SOUTHERN MANITOBA 

W. R. Leslik, B.S.A., Superintendent 

„ TTnN _The Experimental Station at Morden, Man., 

Location and Description. ^^ been run l)V pr i va te owners for over 
was purchased in 1914. I he ran ..^^^ with wee ds. To clean up the land 
forty years and had become Daai > • ex ^ menta ] WO rk was commenced in 

it was well fallowed in l»io am \. _ has see n expansion in the numbers 

the spring of 1916. Each succeeding year na 

of projects carried on. acreg It com pris(>s the north half 

The area of the Station is aW j™ of the lst Meridian, less some twenty 
of section 4, township 3, range o, Canadian Pacific, which runs through 

acres taken off by the two raUways^ Great Northern) which traverses 

the centre of the farm from east tc ' ^st^* direc tion. 

diagonally the western end in a no ^ ^^ Qf Morden> which prideg 

The Station is adjacent on tne ea le _ Growmg District" of Manitoba. 

itself upon being in the centre oi v fgw acrcg are cJay loam . The soil 

The soil is mostly fine sandy loam, » t deal of the pr0 vince. The soil 

is characteristic of the district ano o 6 much heavier clay, but that famous 
of the Red River Valley to the tSLS,-, f the Manitoba Agricultural College 
area is served by the Experimental °,^ bgoil is a pervious clay and at a depth 
at Winnipeg. The Morden Station i » ^^ . g encount . pre d. The wells are 
of from eight to fourteen feet, S™*^ , fford a i arge supply of water, which, 
only from fourteen to twenty ieei <w for gtock and household, including 
although somewhat alkaline, is useo g^ ' ... t0 conta in much salt and 

drinking purposes. Water from deep 

to be decidedly unpalatable. southern Manitoba in a general 

While the Morden Station au ° s L j tura i work. For this reason, of the 
agricultural sense, it specializes s in non- reserved f or horticultural projects. 
Station's total of 300 acres,^ 105 aci « > m ^ fie]d hus b an dry rotations 

Of the remaining acreage bo are in v < > the product jon of seed to be 

and 40 acres are used for growing field crop 
distributed to farmers. 

Animal Husbandry 

., stat ion at Morden has been equipped with 
Horses. The Experimental btauo ^ be uged ag foundatlon stock 

Percherons. There are three PJ^-wea ^^ ^ gr&de p erche rons and are 
for breeding purposes. The ° w "£ k * ot performed by tractor, 
used for doing most of the tarm thriving herd of Ayrshire dairy 

Cattle.— The Station has a sma fa fu „ y accredite d and young 

cattle. In all there are thirteen lJLJ ^ famerg . As thc cows freshen 

bulls are disposed of readily «Vf pSonnance test. Six have completed their 
they are entered in the Record oi mio twQ were y g cows which will 

tests and four of these qualified.. ine ^ begt record to date has been 

probably qualify under s"^ 1 ^^ twelfth year, with a production in 36o 
made by Greenbank Lottie 2nd i < ^ Dut terfat. 

days of 12,241 pounds milk ana ovo v sunn0 wer silage is compared with 

Feeding tests are carried on m ^ fcd as a partial replacement 

corn silage as a feed for dairy cows. 



for silage. 

219 



220 




221 



tlvm sunflowers as a silage crop at Morden. Sun- 
Corn is in greater favour th ^™™" h mor e than an average flow of urine, 

flower silage freezes readily, ™ 11 "*™™ s ilage. As southern Manitoba can 

and seems to be less palatable than com . & bable that sunflowers will be 

grow very satisfactory crops ot corn. 

planted to any great extent. district and are a useful fodder 

Mangels produce excellent crops, in . g not in their favour, but 

for dairy cows The labour in gjW^SaSe change in succulent feed for the 

a small plot of mangels affords a palatat 

dairy herd. „ conducted each winter. 

Experimental steer feeding is us fanning in southern Manitoba. 

Sheep.-A small flock of i * e ep f 8 « ^ ^ ya]ue ■ kecp ing woods in 

These animals thrive on rough feeds andM -^ too far advanced before 

check and in preventing plant (fl»J**HE land after threshing. The btation 

«,w™*!«. u„5;„„ They do well on siuuux 



cultivation begins. 



cultivation begins, iney uu » — 

flock is proving fairly profitable. „ r : mcnt was conducted. A nondescript 

Froml91Gtol923.agrading-upex,Knnu j nyj h 

lot of prairie owes was V*«^*3& flock in 1923 »■ •J^-ggJ', 
been bred to registered Hampshire ams anfl bred sires. The grade Hamp- 

of the efficacy of the continued used of gooa p 
shire flock is uniform and of good type. bred ewes was secured and, in 

In the spring of 1923 .p^ ^available at the Morden Station. 
future, foundation stock of this breed will 

Field Husbandry 

. j diseases, labour problems, 

Because of weeds, **.*#*2&ml£2J£i i » close * ^"^m^SvauTe 
etc, strictly grain fanning is aPP^K, crops and cropping sj steins of value 
The field work on this Station is devoted to 

in a diversified type of farming. ■ this department is the experi- 

An important phase of the *£«%££ treatment for vanous^ODS and 
ments with crop rotations. How ■ a i ^^ ^^ m scope each year, 
pure seed production are two furtnei I J . planned and based on 

K OT ATION s.-On this Station £%£%£* ^^SX 
Previous experience obtained by the oWer^ ^^ of ih&[ merlts caused 
ticularly that of Brandon. Man- . 
following to be adopted at Morden. is ac1apt;l ble by the stock 

flower land and is seeded clown w« ^ 




-*op oi wneai u»b i"" V,;~ h . iv is removeu, ««< ---, - f the rotation. 

ducted as a check i. ■ ™ml» ■ ' T]li , „!„,,( I »"' r| '» 1 ''"'-' wheat rtubble 

duration. Wheat n the h -l ' " '• ,. ,„.„„, ploughing ui 

Wheat the second *^*&ff« ^ . , ,, ; ,f ^areao 

*s done for a crop of oats ino * aIld onc -quauer mi 

a «„„u ^„.,vtpr in a leea liuh> 



a cash crop, one-quarter in a 



222 



and ^^^^Tf^Z ti0I X d fr ds itS f t0 a r r t intensifie S 
a.number of years on'theBrandSnT™ > having been profitable through 
Station to determine its 1^2 ap^icaWHty "" mduded * ^ r ° tati ° nS at thiS 

The c Jm rtubbleTT^hK^* 1 ^ T***?" C ° m ■*■**■ 'allow land, 
ploughed for wheat the Z^J 1S ° ed for , whea t- The wheat stubble is fall- 

oats'the thTrd year ThTs oat IZ' ?**■ ^7 SP ™ g pl ° Ughing is d ° ne '? 
seeded to a mixture of ZtS v P ,S UtlllZ ^ d , a , S a nurse cro P' One-half is 
Rye grass aloneWhiS ! T ? ye grass and alfalfa and one " half to Western 

fZti mf?h e ye^° h lSXe M^SKhS 8 Wb year ' ^ t y , or paSt r 
ploughing threeWhesrWrT It *- he fif ^ year ' thls land ls broken U P ^ 

after which i Ts p&hedto , diST f" ?P ? lM ? t0 - tWS ^ the f f° Wing Spi ' ing ,' 
occupies the sixth yearS the rotation " preparatlon for corn > which 

crop F 1V£tf s the?-~T> hiS T iS °/ f0Ur >' ears ' duration - Fal1 «*» « ^e first 
are^and S on the n t r d i, ,? t a hc tMrd year fal1 ^ is Bown on one-half fche 
is conducted tn Hit °^ ^t lf - Summ er-fallowing is done the fourth year. It 
compandor with uW™ 6 " P rofitableness of fa " ^ on summer-fallow in 
and the TnflJence n ? ° n s » mm er-fallow in the "Old Manitoba Rotation," 
wheat ^stubbF A?L tt C T d + Cr0P ° f f fa " rye in the rotation when «eded on 
On half the ar ea of thf ^ S \?°P °[ Ml W' the land is Ploughed for wheat. 

other ha f f tSs ll i^PV? the SeC ° nd year ' fal1 r ^ e is seeded and the 
crops. Ca 1S P lou g hed f or oats, giving in the third year these two 

detert£elSl?J ,tafe0n '. of six y ears ' Nation, is included, with the aim of 

from h is c"od, X^XT'TV*™ ° r the farmer who desires to ^ value 
on landwhl „ W fee <?»ng them to live stock. It will also benefit farmers 

o ^ the relation Sf5* gT °T + g 1§ a " ended with difficult y- The first two years 
as nurse cZ 2 Uuf w° ats - Th e . third year, barley is seeded and used 
of Western R,- « ^r Western Rye grass and the other half for a mixture 

•uk 1 S r n S gr ^f a 2 d , alf:llf:u These Produce hay crops in the fourth year 
n" mured ,nH S U1 '° ?1 fi / th , year - Durin S the faI1 of th * «* W this fiefd is 
Sscing and na P n°oSg ^ ^ **" f ° ll0Wing Spring is P re Pared for corn by 
is used e m S ^n» j^rquis wheat is grown on the rotation fields. Kubanka wheat 
fall ploughing. atlon for comparison with Marquis on summer-fallow and on 

farmSs glStered BaDner ° atS are used and the sur P lus sold for se ed to surrounding 

O.A.C. 21 is the barley used on the rotations. 
The StetSn I£T m0t } 1 sunflowers a re used and Northwestern Dent corn- 
II linoi mSwtS 8 an A d Se i eCtS lts 0Wn Seed corn " The foundation stock was 
yieldin; corn w't ^ ^P 1S being made to get an early-maturing, heavy- 
good Th?,l?.m.fn1 f° G Northwestern Dent type and results so far have been 
good, ihe demand for seed corn grown on the Station increases yearly 



Horticulture 



mitted the^mi ^ Borden Station in southern Manitoba has per- 

S horticulw^Tn -u. Cr aDd m ° re SCientific research and experiment 

vaiC in thns P n?- yaS P ° SSlble u Under the climatic and other conditions pre- 
heated TInZ? nC regl0n ? where Experimental Farms had hitherto been 
n horticuSjri w^ m ? Tf^t' ^ if not all > of the P ro olems of research 
the* were freoueml5 f e ^ at ^ CeDtral Farm ' 0ttawa - Res ^ ts oh ^ ed 

Pifidbtefa UZTZ It ob£, forth aPply t0 Pr u airie conditi ons- It is now 
K oul Problems for the prairies on the prairies. 



223 



u t , oiHinff in the work of plant breeding with fruits and vege- 
A greenhouse f°r aichng m tn e ' and bush fruits are growing in tubg 

tables was built m 1922 Many t _ ^ hand fop tfae active prosecut](m 

for use in this work and S^ocl equip ada ted for cu lture on the prairies. 

of the task of developing newvaneties ™ k> eighty acres are for fruit culture 

Of the 105 acres for ^^"KirKrowini, and twenty acres are devoted 
and nurseries five acres are for veggfWepj ^ * systematic arbo retum. 
to ornamental grounds and the estao oyer 20Q Qamed varieties 

FEUITB.-IU th et«e f mit plantations g q£ and plum g 

of standard apples and crab appes over io y^ ^ ^^ ^ 

and also several varieties of sour ^cnerr ^^ ^^ g{MX)0 8eedHng appleg 

Besides the named variet les tiie e ightv-two trees have been selected 

set out for test. Of the ones ™ tin |*^f 7' tne se are of real promise in point of 
to be propagated for further test. D " excellent degree of hardiness at 

quality and most of them seem topossj g ^ m seedhng cherries 

Morden. There are also about l.uwseeus ^ ^ 1923 & gQod ^ q£ appJeg 

Controlled fruit breeding beg an mi , ^ d gome ^^ 

and plums of known parents was Harvest 
berry breeding was also P erforn ^- d - m w hich are being tried productions 

Test orchards have been S°mmenceu Dakota Experimental Station, 

of the Central Experimental b arm, ™ d fruit pro ductions from Iowa 

the Minnesota State Fruit Bre eding , r a ._ breederg Another orchard is 
and other Stations as well as from P riv ,, ' t d from many different northerly 
planted only with selected wild fruits collected 
points of this continent. hpine tested, such as inter-planting fruit 

Different planting methods arc ue & treeg close i y in roW8l planting trees 
trees with individual spruce t J :ee pJ > l airA A% Te es of exposure in regard to shelter 
in clumps, and planting trees in different aeg 
belts. i avT . P riments are extensively involved in growing 

Variety testing and cultural expenii^ blackberries, dewberries, red, 
small fruits such as strawberries, ^J . Hardy varieties of grapes t linve 
white, and black currants, and gooseberries, 
when given moderate care. „rimp considerations in growing fruits on 

It has been clearly proven tb f /"" v _ traPi which will check the drifting 
the prairies include: (1) The use j ot a _snu ^^^ the trees in springtime, 
snow so that it will not fill in tne oi Th;g . g begt supp ii e( i by tree wind- 

(2) The absolute necessity of mucc is ue • ghelter are t h e . native white spruce 
breaks and hedges. Excellent maw* 1 " flowe rs provide helpful temporary 

and the Caragana arborescens. oora .v ^ fruit treeg unlegs they are on 

and auxiliary shelter. (3) It is um ^ e roots f Siberian crab and plums 

hardy roots. It is well *o have app i exposure is decidedly an adverse 

on native plum roots. (4) A soutb t e ™ 1p Sl c °f s?n where possible. (5) Well-drained 
condition; a north-eastern slope is to . u • han dicapped where they are not 

soil is requisite. (6) Apple trees are ui j Low-headed trees are most 

protected from sun-scald, rabbits ami r whips s hould be planted in 

likely to have satisfactory careers. ^' d lums an d crab apples can rapidly 
preference to older nursery stocK. iw Uty fru it by top-grafting to hardy 
be converted into producers ol R°,°" H most like i y to succeed in all localities 
named varieties. (10) The irm v ^ 

are raspberries, currants, and pmms. ally embarked upon in variety 

Vegetables. Many P/°J e ?;£ ~ e tables. Vegetable breeding was corn- 
testing and cultural methods witn ve» im p ro ve the list of adapted melons, 
menced in 1922 and efforts are being made i> 

sweet corn, pop corn, tomatoes and ot . ^ ^^ tomatoeS; me i ons an d 

A number of "warm season ^ J, matu ring varieties are sought by 
peppers do well at this Station. »^ u withstand the cooler nights character- 
plant breeding and selection as *ill be tte r w ^ 
stic of the more northwesterly parts o 



224 



To encourage increase in the number of varieties nf v Dno t„ki i 

grown in home gardens, such comparatively rare veitnhl 68 c , omm ^ 
Zealand spinach, peanuts, artichokes? broad bean" nok K,f Al ^-' ?T 
and cress are grown in demonstration plots ' P anS ' kohl rabl ' leeks 

Considerable stress is put on potato culture TMrt^ * . 
given to prevent loss from diseases Various ™S',,r»? ? nt treatmen t s *«* 
About twelve acres of certified seed not rW^ cu,tu ral systems are employed, 
among growers. potatoes are grown annually for distribution 

Ornamentals. Since 1916, nroieets h<K» k j , . 

annual flowers, herbaceous oerennin? 7 % beeQ con ^ucted in growing 

splendid range 'of all X^cC aSntS f ° rnam ? ntal Shrubs ' The ^ e is ■ 

Roses have been V^^t^^^g ™* *""?"**• 
done in 1923. A new rose inrHm h.7i a d some bree dmg work was 

of roses will be growing Tn^karef fe £ ad ? and sh ° r % one half acre 
Manitoba's leading breeder of roses Mr P T t° n ^ ftS c °-°P erati ™ of 
work. Mr. Skinner has supplied specimens",* 'hi ! °'D«>Pniore, in this 

•Specimen climbing plant? are aXngTalo n* tl ^V^f H? P roductionS - 

SP^cinien hedges are in view from the Central Lveway "^ *' 

>hrubl"ri"\Jo^ * miXed ^^eous border flank 

test of numerous spe^K Tai wcd^ft fP?^ be ? US £ ° f thia 
prairies in this arboretum. their first tnals on th e Canadian 

Cereals 

tation wnbdLr^^'and IZett* B " d V / rieties and further experimen- 

of the leading whStTaCbalS SdTf*^' The respective merits 
plots. ' ' a rlty ' and flax varieties are determined in trial 



- *W3fi1J2fr^& J »* P a * - a grain and forage 
grows several acres each ^ear for seed for wWwf re J Condu , c ^ d - This Station 
I include Mackay, Arthur ChanYX? M the j^and is good. Varieties 
Since field bean culture mnvll' Marrowfat, and Canada Field, 
tests with theJ™ehSZ™C7iltlS^ C&TT ' led ° n in this loCality > 
Robust, Darling, Hunter, Norwegiaf W g p S " ch ya ^ les a t Ea _ rly Wonder > 
seven varieties of white beans X^tLT*. ♦ • *' and Great Northern. These 
to local conditions. \avv PiS and 0^^^' "T chosen as the best suited 
maturing. J 0t and Great Northern are somewhat late in 

Forage Crops 

-^o^^Lt^^rFZT^ leading t0 an J-r- in 

position of comparative obscuritv , h « ' • fodder Crops are risin S from a 
Realizing this f a ,t exnerime,, 152 , promi nent in Manitoba agriculture. 
Station. ' ex P ,1,in ™ tf > W1 *h such crops have been commenced on this 

on. ^L:TsStr^nhI^ iPS ' ""^ and Md carrots are carried 
and brome grass, £e brinl^lf ^ " - WeStern Rye > timothv ' the fescues > 
of hay and Wurrplt^for IS prSrtes™ ^^ ^^ SUh&Ue St ™™ 

In lJra"SlS*Sr5gS5 $&g** and SWeet clover are conducted, 
and in ScptemberT second olif yie u ded a splendid hav cro P early in June 
seven*bushels per acre P WES harvested for seed, which yielded nearly 



225 



• tic of alfalfa, cultural methods in its production 
Besides testing varieties ' - th . w ;thout nurse crop, and seeding 
are being conducted, such as s < < j™*^^ 
on summer-fallow and on ial l-l >i^ g logsom gwee1 „iover an . tested for pasture, 

hay, and seed production. clovers has so far been confined to variety 

The experimental worio ■ ( rf th „ S( , suitable for Southern 

and strain tests. Only the naro* 
Manitoba. , mi n ets Sudan grass, vetches, and soiling crops 

Annual forage crops, su< u asiuu ^ sib( , ri;t n and common millet strains 
such as rape and sorghums, are in ^ ^ or ]iastui . tl nas given good results 
have proved of value. SuxUUl 8 , Kaffir corn a re very useful as soiling crops, 
and Amber sugar cane, te tem», » ()11<r f or age crops in Southern Manitoba. 

Corn is taking a leading pia< e ^ [ ( ,. ldnig varieties to determine 

Because of this, tests arc carnea - ^ pr(Hluetioll . included in ti 

their value for silage, dry fodder, a Man i toDa Flint, Minnesota 13, Leam- 

are varieties such as Northwestern "W^ J E:(I ., V and Ge hu. 
ing, Wisconsin No. 7, {W«J» ' comparison with corn, for silage purposes. 

Sunflowers are being; te^eu. i ' , • an Mixed Mennomte, and several 

Varieties such as Mammoth Russian, Mancnui 
C.P.R. selections are being grown. 

Poultry 

> maintained. These are the Barred Ply- 
Flocks of two utility »fe(Mls art Mand Red M hens are trap . 
mouth Rock and the Single torn ^ tfae end that stra i ns witli high egg- 
nested and pedigree work u . ear jS^ g sto ck made available to farmers, 
production may be developed an production has been experienced. 
Very satisfactory improvement m a. jk^ ^ Qye ^ be profitable . Cost 
The two breeds kept have many m< ™ ltry seems to offer an attractive side 
accounting is done and the keeping 
line for the farmer. .,, , vin ,r tens and with chicks and cockerels. 

Feeding experiments tare run wrcnj ~* and m presg artlcles . 
Results of these are published in a,nnu 

Bees 

■ ■ farmer to grow more and more of his own 
The tendency is for the P r: \ m, '£" ies f bees is along this line. Manitoba 

food. The keeping of two or mow ooi ^ readily an d surplus colonies 

is a good honey-producing W«»7. 

of bees find quick sale at a tan pi • , in f orrn ation on the care of bees 

There is a good field of service, use* g^ ^ different thods f 

in Manitoba. The Station has proj' j )rood . body> of increasing colonies and 

wintering, of swarm control, oi size j ^^ ^^ renders much asslsta nce 

of securing honey. The information J becoming more numerous. 

in answering the inquiries whicn a 

Tobacco 

„™w rinidlv at Morden and would seem 

Commercial varieties of totayjgJT ^ff m serious drawback It is 

to offer an additional sic le-hne if rt *^L to th e leaves as they near the stage 

difficult to prevent the wind doing ;dam g ^ ^ T well-sheltered 

of maturity! The large ^fj^efsp^ and Canelle W ° Uld P Y g 

enclosure such varieties as Comstociv i 

good results. 
76617—15 



226 
General 



*J*£g£ Sfi^SfSSSft lmS n0 I UndCTWil >' a total rf 135 experi- 
AnimaJ Husbandry, six- Fi'd H i T g th ° different ^visions as follows: 
eight; Cereals, se/en: Fora^ Orn™ ? ^ £^ ve 5 Horticulture, seventy- 
Tobacco, one. ' * 0ra S eCro Ps, twelve; Poultry, nine; Bee-keeping, ten; 

Success is bcine met in fi™u 
of cereals, including" corn and thT'. mg ' m X e g etabIc work, in producing seed 
with poultry and bees. The verv rr^ i VV lairvim 3> in sheep-raising, and 
of crop rotations are being confirmed ehts denv ed from advocated systems 

Public picnics are held n+ fhJsn *■ 
made at various agricultural fnirL! 3i? fr0m time to time - Exhibits are 
given Agricultural Society meetings ^ ° m Assistance is frequently 

mcreasing numbe^o^fnquirie's ^ Ch rr f nC ° U + ra f ed in their wor k by the constantly 
f « m ^^dotherhome-nia3Sn?nJI?aXcte r amstmoe being received fro111 



227 



oMiNioN Experimental Farm 
Urandon. Man. 




iffiS'JS 

; ■:;-...■ ... 

r teem 

| | . '.■.j 

I J.f(» &•»■ 

i| >tti filK"t Cow*' 



,1 fu.. h'«L««. t 



75617—151 



228 




— 
1 






I 



THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM FOR MANITOBA 
w . C . M.'Kn.L.rAN. B.S.A. ntendent 

x , T,r m for Manitoba was established at Brandon in 

The Experimental Farm tor townghip ]„. rang e 19, west of the 

1888. It is located chiefly on . ecw ^ q{ Bectiong 2l > ;m(1 37 of the s:un( , 

Principal meridian but also iik A Qut ->\ miles from the business centre 

township. The farm bulletin^ < Farm jg within the corporation limits. 

of the city of Brandon. Most ch ..,,„„, two-thirds of which is on the level 

The area of the Farm is <>•>- . < », gome .,-„ acres of the valley laml 

bottom land of the Assmi D0 ™ e ' lh( . remainder being roadways, woods, 

are available for agricultural pui > Th( , r() is ,, n area f a b out fifty acres 

watercourses, sloughs ami a "j™. , , ( , V( ,]. thl . remaining portion of the Farm 

of very light arable land on tnei r f the Assiniboine valley and suitable 

is rough. steei> land forming tii > ^ permanent pasture. 

onlv for building sites, tree pui '• t . dmvn noar tho nvor ls very 

The valley land is heavy, m ■ "^ foQt rf th(> hH1 whi( . h forms thp hauk 

heavv, tenacious clay. I ha nea nior(1 easih . worked. The arable land 

of the valley, contains more sana a -^ ^ ^^ an( , s . m( , Bub u 

on the upland is very poor, ligm. • •' . . & lH , aut jf u i collection of trees and 

Shelter belts and avenues ° " u . n ' (1 ,, nt ' s residence, were planted shortly 

ornamental shrubs about ithe super Qym we U m d now provide a splendid 

after the Farm was started I " >' ' ltura i beauty of the location, make the 

shelter from the winds, and. ywtn h n a i, m0 . 

Farm a beauty spot well worth a MMt to' t 

Animal Husbandry 

r ttle The Brandon Farm has been allotted 
Dial Purpose Shorthorn ^<u . ^ h( , n , fe , argely de8 c en ded 

the dual-purpose strain of Snortno 1 ^ C(1]ltral Farm at Ottawa 
from an importation from Eng la ml ^ ^ u , rrvd to Brandon in 1911. The 
over twenty years ago. 1 he ner* 1 ilkilllI inheritance and the selection ol 

use of sires of good beef type an. niins t() 1h( , desired standard, have 

the herd by culling out those not co ^^ hml (lf good bee! type and 
resulted in the development ot a , ivi(lual reC ords of over 12,000 pounds 

with a reasonable ability to m *■ ■ herd ave rages of over 6,000 pounds have 
of milk in a year have been n*™"Jj to .. ^credited" by H,e Health ol Annuals 
been made in some seasons. 1 m , losis . 
Branch as being entirely free fromw ^ ^ li( . ( , n , (l f^ feeding 

FBEDINfi EXPEBTMENTS. IM ' r f feeds has been tried out. 

experiments from time to tune- - compa riBon of corn and sunflower 

Recent work has been along th . . <ila ge uM been shown, but also the BUper- 
silages, in which the value of sunflower 
iority of corn silage. Experiments have been earned on in 

Stebb Feeding Bxpebiments. h ^^ ^ ( , a| . ly years of the Farm. 
regard to the feeding ol steers* over rf a( . tK . ally a i] the feeds that are 

These experiments have covered tne >w* ^ ( . (im])aI . isol! n f different 

available for this purpose 10 Man™ , ^ ffiedmg , ^horning, etc. 

ages and types, methods oi housing, j . ^ ^ time ml nmng the public 
S&ecial publications ^J"'",^ This Farm has been the pioneer among 
in regard to the steer feeding re suit • mty of feeding stock successfully 

agricultural institutions 111 proj » V ™ R „.,[ testa have been made corn- 
in the open air in our ( amuln 1 ' . f^ wann s)a|)lc sheltcr . 
paring feeding m the bush or m op. n. 



230 



Horses. The Clydesdale breed is I™.™* ^ *i • ^ 
raised each year and some • erv re %Z i '"* Farm ' A few colts are 

the stud. A small amZ tfexpSenS f'ST^T "'' tlu> breed «• in 
but they arc. kepi chiefly to perETh?wJw$ *\ h horees bas '"'™ <lone > 
maintenance of work horses 1 are TmpUed ° :mn ' Figures on ( '" st of 

Oxford Down rams^vas car ed on K 191^ Sft h 7 4 * he « ° f I"™ bred 
in the improvement of the flock E, t l l 18, T' lh VlTV strikin « r( ' suhs 

in which rams of the Orford Down R^ ?•' * 1,r( • <,,1 u ' s1 has , "' ( ' 11 operated 

we directed toward the productioTof t W^! M £?*» and breedi »I operations 

vigor and easy feeding qua ,1" 1] ,„,?"" tyiK '" together w ' ith Prolificacy, 
Some of the besl young h'l ' r o s„i , tWt 'V' y s,nvs •» bred «"* «*»*»»■ 
feeding tests and mariSing « Tbacon h™ r, ' (,(l( ' rs and the remainder used for 

Experiments have been condnr.t.J'^' 
tor swine. Practically all t he ec " - ^'n' T" n - V( ' r - V "**» ran * e '> f feeds 
have been included in these te.t p : ,° for Bwme production in Manitoba 
years to pasture experiment? tit ,/ a, ' t "' ula , r attention has been paid in recent 
of substitutes for milk such'- , S '\ o1 ? cleane d wheat screenings, and tests 

the ^ terh o^^ofswmehaveaL^ c ^So n . Experimenta in n ' sanl l " 

Field Husbandry 
Under the heading of Field vr>, i i 
dealing with the methods emnlovedi* 7*Er* ;U ' e Carriod on a " the experiments 

*e Choice and inmrovem f • « rmvm R of field crops as distinct from 

"forage crops". nnpr ' mnKnt " f var.et.es, which come under "cereals" and 

1910 and Continued^til rtLflS2" n ?^5 with cro P rotations were started in 
These rotations were s t 'ot'et "V" 22 "P l923 *««> thrir °P era tif,n - 
Pared with straight grain low £ T ***"& typcs of mixed farmin S M eom ' 
following rotations wSJMSSl tiufS^ P*"^ in Manitoba - The 

Rotation D (Four years' cl>i,r,r \ t-' 
(manured); third year.U; ^££^2^ ~ l » •*- 

third year, JBS^^! ^ Sl """" 1 ^ wheat; 
clover); fifth year, hay ' ' " ats '"' ,,arl(,y |s( ' ( ' ,1,,d Wlth grass and 

thin/ { y^J;:zn^s^r *r^> second ^ wh - a,; 

hay or pasture; ™^J^£*^'' fourth year, hay; fifth year, 

yearfolSrthli^s^erl^-" ^ F"' Wheat ^™d> ; second 
-'"1 -lover,; uX/e^h^S^ 0W V fourth yo:u ' wheat f 8 ^^ with K^ 88 
»«/ ,/ /, ,■ , J ' th year > h:l . v or Pasture. 

^^^A^SS^^-J^ ***> C0 ™ 0»«n««l) or fallow; 
Pasture' or hav fifth e I , KR,S , suu dovt ' r: ' : t°ird year, bay; fourth year, 
«ed); seve, Vvea • U vSr (breakln ^P Bod); sixth year (wheat man- 

8otato)« ll- r • S year ' a,mua! P astur1, crops; 

third yea'- c.lnSaXed, ' /M f rn "'«")-I^t year, wheat; second year, wheat; 
^falfa se ( .din,Vit h rd ^e Z F** OS** mh ^ ha, ' h> ^' B ^ year, 

,lill,h .-•«-■. alfalfa; te ml " " r Ifa h7 ^VT' ^l & ^ th >' < ' al '' a ^ £ft ' 

year, alfalfa (ploughed up after first cutting). 



231 



tsMom* have shown a distincl advantage over Rotation 
The mixed fanning rotations juh r _ } ^ ]>vm g befcter profit realizi , ( , 

E., the straight grain growing o . . dition other important info.mation 

and the land has been kept in Deraw _ 

has emereed from the rotation experunenu 

nas emergea Crops— In the rotation experiments, the 

Cost of Production fi °^/^carefuUy recorded. These figures give data 
rest of operation of each neia J* fann ( , nips ontor i ng ]n to the rotations, 

on the eost of production » iea ^ u " -gentative fields are published each year 
These cost figures from a f« 1( I 

in the Farm report. C BOrs,-Ever since the starting 

Cultural ExpBBIMBNTB wi • leral)1(l amount of experimental work on 
of the Farm, there has been a wu r - nntHlU as tosts of different grades 

the methods of gram &ovimg- ■ o fo] . gmut am()U „ts of seed per acre, 

of seed, kinds of seed drill, T,( ' 1 summ er fallow for conserving moisture, 

dates of seeding and the "86 <>i ^ obtame d. In 1911. a more corn- 

have been undertaken and concnw . ted _ These have been carried on 

prehensive set of experiments iwae ' , ^ ration8( alu i Borne additional tests 
sine,., with some modifications w g The fo ii owmg axe the teste of this 
have been started as need to ft ue - complete d:— Depth of ploughing on 
type now being conducted or reo j d(>pt]l „f ceding for wheat and oats. 
summtT-f allow, stubble land and •**» heatand ats, dales ul ploughing 

treatment of stubble knd in preparation^ ^ ^^ ^^ mt? tdle«rcrops 
summer-fallow and one pOT""* J?L e M substitute for summer-fallow, grain 
as substitute for summer-fallow, P°^_ falloWj fall cultivation before summer- 
crops in rows as substitute for . inn ^^ ^ oi[U m regard to time 
fallow, application of barnyard n^^ vs . fr ,. sh and quantity to apply 
and method of application, rottea n^ „,,,, th( . preparation of eon. and 
the use of green crops plough I in w . ( , „ f dat ,. s ,,f seeding, quantities 
sunflower land for wheat t&J*Xr£ „„ st en. rust attacks on wheat, the use 
of seed, previous crops, and fevers ^^ rf s( , ( . ( , mg fall ^ and 
of commercial fertilizes for wheat ana 

quantities of seed of fall rye. ^^ —W& ^ ^ in( . r ,. aS( . d 

Cultural Experiments wiTir fo ^ y ,, irs . has come a demand 

interest in forage crops and *«edttrm crops should be grown To meet this 
for information in regard to how «J»^ and each year the scope of the 
demand, experiments have been V . , cnp(li Tho experiments now being 

experimental work along this toe isbemg depth rf ptoujthmg for corn, 

conducted include the ^flowing. ^ of planting corn methods and degree 
methods and rates of P^WgrS anting and as intertillage, application of 
of cultivation for corn both before ^ ^ ^ { application, kind 

barnyard manure for corn in regard W Qi ploughing for sunflowers. 

of manure, and mtes of apphcation, tune ^ ]m h()( , a ratr , 

date of planting sunflowers, c e, rth o ^ ftf maturity of sunflowers 

of planting sunflowers, cultivate f^ 1 for ceding down grasses nurse 

for cutting for ensilage, preparato O "£ of breaking up alfalfa and grass 
" nurse crop ^V^g*" alfalfa, quantities of seed per acre 
SOd, kinds of nurse crop with wjnch to BO cover, Hubam annual 

of alfalfa, Western rye grass tanoury , and alfalfa, dates of seeding 

sweet clover, and mixtures ^ J2droWB, instead of close seeding, dates of 
alfalfa growing alfalfa in cultivated u -, d th of smling sweet 

seeding fwS "lover, nurse crops^swee^^ ^ rf ^^ ^ ,„. ^ 

clover, growing sweet clove f( , ( , (1 

feed, quantities of peas and oals to. g 



232 
Cereals 



prominent ever since. No cereal l.ree, i, V also been about the most 

but the new varieties originated bvlw &T* *""! yet been done at Brandon 
and the way in whid C t \f°»:»" CereaUst are tried out here 

Brandon tests, has much to do wi It!?^"*? 00 * M shown * the 
rejection. In the early history of th7pw Belecfclon for propagation or their 
was brought together from many d iff™ ■ * V f^ brge eoll ectian of varieties 
it was possible to discard rac "£l th'''' 'v' Aft f s '" m ' years ' ^ 

as have shown their merit are retained t i' ,. NoW ' " nlv s,lrh ol(1 varieties 
appear worth a trial are hSdffS , matt£ what Si "*• ''""' ^5" that 
are carried oil with hard red sprine w 1 '. ,i V h , 6lr 0ngU1, Vam '^ tl ' sts 

barley, fall rye, spring rye, IteTS^IdbSS^ "^ ^ °«* 

Forage Crops 

that ^ss^ajj* asiys- <?, that ** —** *■**■ 

of their value. Alfalfa has nroy .'■ , 0m aU T™™ and tests are made 
and many strains have We,, te' te 1 V , ^f^I successful at Brandon, 
including sweet clover, are fiftd m the "t T^f rf graSSy , ^ 0ther cloVCT8 ' 
crops. Different mixtures of gra ses „ ° f P en>, ,' mal "■"' biennial hay 

is made of annual hay crops suitS and + . clov < >rs , are also compared. A test 
the same seas,,,, as planted T»fl(. \l Production of hay or green feed 

Manitoba and tests of varieties of t i " , ,m P°rtant ensilage crop of 

duction of home grown seed of 1 ^i"! always carried on - ™e pro- 
attention with success. Sunflowers J' 11 ;;' foi ' (> , nsil age has received some 
are being investigated. Tests with fi i 7 P08Slble cro P s for sila ^ e Purposes 
have been conducted for many vears! ' eSpet ' iall y man g els and turnips, 

Horticulture 

?«noundin^ r and mX g D SuSS ) J?A! develo P|aent of beautiful home 
has always* bee,, an IS ' ' ^ mV " fooda for the farm table 

In the pioneer d : ™ of M*3 *?" °. f Brandon Experimental Farm. 
Power se'eds was i to^l^A^ 11 ° f te ' *"*■■ and 
approving their home surou^dtoS ;S J f US way ' , many got 8tarted in 
With the growth of comme, " -iV WOU \ d not otherwise have done so. 

the free distri ,tion 't P "'", te i? W «*«»*» of this material. 

demonstration o he ,s ,, h , Tl hM bee ? aba * d oned. However, the 
pounds surro,,n ( lin^, ::!„;,;; J ■:''; *** and flower growing on the 
to visitors. New varieties , * h ", US( ' ,,0,,t,nuf 'S to be an inspiration 

Each year, annual illweand'tlow 1 *", *nf CoUeCtion from timc *» «■»■ 
blr,om > :l "'l tests are nndVa t ^ ~ ■ are ,1S( '' 1 to ma ke a display of 

the vicissitudes of the climato ^Sffil&S** ^ * ^^ 

find or develop a Sv "pnl^for \V"\ '^ " devoted to endeavours to 

haye not been really successful I , ,T t,,b:l - f'P to the present tle.se efforts 
able locations in Southeastern M !!, T K< ' apples are - rmv " in specially favor- 
to be hardy here at Brandon and ' ,\\ ' d ') d Bome crab a P''''' s *" found 
generally hardy apple of s an, ,f T f' *™>&** this province, but no 
trees a f all the hardiest kSkhZJT basbeen produced! Thousands of 

"axe been planted at BrandoD and tens of 



233 



iseful apples so far produced are some 
thousands of seedlings. The most g aunder s between the wild Siberian 

of the hybrids made by the lat - eg _ T)u , s: , ap? :>s , though small, are 
crab (pyrus baccata) and s U mdai i . (>s ,„. j.dly. 

hardy and can be used for the «a^ has been done with plums both m selecting 

Considerable experiment^ « k n . iu testi „g vanet.es introduced by plant 
desirable strains of the native P lum a " od ualitv are grown here quite sue 
breeders and nurserymen. Plums 01 g 
fully. , . thG cho i c e of varieties of small fruits, includuig 

Experiments in regard to the i . raspbem es and strawberries are 

red, black and white curran^jgoos eww ^ the b t m , tho , s ol naniUmii 
carried on. There are also tes ts n rg Btraw bernes in winter. 
these fruits and of protecting **&»%££ * one of the most popular features 

Veoetabwjs.— The vegetable garaen ;u . ( , ^ entir?lv 

Of the work o Brandon **f aU *£j£Z l success has been attained with 
witho ,t : r tificial watering, and ( jonspicu US^^ ^^^ tly . 

several kinds not generally f™g%L I beets, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, 
Variety tests are conducted wlth , . i" tnce musk melons, onions, parsnips, 
,; iu u nb , herbs, kohl raH lettuce, mus^ 
pe,s peppers, potatoes, pumpkin, "J^e'g^ successfully and information 

S£i" »,ri c»»ii«owrr, tes*« , - 1 ;„ 1 ;',',„„, l«3**2d*.*SS 

and methods of starting, I.e., ™*?J toTe I mpleted "'!';''' „ ' , , , 

With beets, Tots and ,«;.- i»l>-; , „ ,|„. Arte ?f ptatog » now , , 

apart to thin the vegetables, and oneo Methods of starting muak 

wV ^.»'P'^Sg^ta^^ n „Ae"*btnSo/otr;« 

,,- i .„j T'Up method <>i B 1 " . ° 1 stakinE to mat ies wnun nave 

recently completed, ine tu . runm g and bwuuub 

been altered as a result of the tesw 

been carried on here. Poultry 

j^ttp breeds of poultry are kept. The 

winter, are the object i\<- ' ' , ■ t .. m . f fowl. 1( . h ,. •■!,, i-, lllU -n This is 
been attained in ltfffl$ m t £& in this way >s de fln > knojn. £«. 
so that progeny of eacni o wi • trap nesting. p< "*« 
accomplished by individual ma* h h 

hatching, and marking eac h nek* - to the ^ J^JjMjJ&S 

Experiments are conduct for laying ■ ^ ; of ^^ 

this climate, .net hods an k . han(11 ,,,«••: production, 

fattening cockerels, etc., »>' ' * f art ifi c ial lighting in winter gg , 
ehicksehick rearing t ;<;;•' ; th( , MaIlito l,, pou tryma- ^^ _ 

and other points of inter< c te8< ,, conductea oy Manitoba. 

?}%*ir to vL T9 . :; its each ««■ «* ... ; - h<is fm v ,,„ ks . 

mental Farm, lens ot i , s , (it eac hyeai . n fa 

The contest starts on Novemw rodu ctaon u u u stimulated 

Reports are. issued weekly J> ,„,,;,„, J^e contest worK 

Prizes are given for the Ik. ^ part icularl3 m tgg 1 

general interest in l' 011 '^,,,, ',,[" fancy points. 
ideal in breeding rather than pm . 



234 
Extension and Publicity 

reports!' elch of wnicfvlovei I ^p£&* thp Pl J blic ^ inea ™ of annual 
earned on, the officers of the Farm ' I B!" - A larse correspondence is 

to mquirers about their work or tc rJ^ » g ™»JyeB in readiness to reply 
contributed to "Seasonable H„ 1" l ™ti- M 5 utoba farmin S- Articles are 
agricultural, daily and local pre- ' i vn, P - l ' l,1,( ' atlon of «W Branch, and to the 
cultural fairs to demonstrate the wort Yr A* "r s< ' nt ( ' arh >' ( " ir t0 :l f e* agri- 
JWrt, to fanners' meetings thrSou '' ^ Addres ^ are given, on 
'"'I'l Days" are held on ^,i<- . ' • P rovince - During the summer 
examine the work of different de, ,,,,,'" "facially invited to come and 
open to public inspection at all tinil's * "' ' arra Work > bllt the Farm ^ 

' ion Stations fTthe Province "tfflS! '"5" es,ablisl "'"-''t of several IUustra- 
vision of the Superintendent of ^the Bnmdon F* *" '* mdet the RP,leni1 su,M ' r ~ 



235 







236 






»! 



















'«* 




^ D cm ITHEASTERN SASKATCHEWAN 
THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM FOR SOUTHEAS 

History and Early Work. 

xi „,l was purchased in 1887, from the 

The Experimental Fan. J^^TA«Tttii'3tt 

Bell Farming Company, and co^ £ ^. ond -enduu. a, ^ « an , of^the 

19 township IS, range 12, wg - ^ , ^ hip < gg-gg^ of tho 

northeast quarter of section ^ puns along tin &oin '" H d vhi( . h ; s 

line of the Canadian Pacific Ratfj* yru ^ trnvn of In ^ Jlead 

Farm. The Fann lies nn^JJ V „ u , capital o the ,. nu ^ i ^ 

approximately 47 miles eas t of <<^ and the Lmt ed Stat. 

toba boundary is some 103 mik&<< 1 , tl , southern 

south, of the Farm. . f -„ hea vy clay and toward ^esouthern 

The northern part of the ^^ft 3^jg,^SSSS 
side it, becomes more loamj D to- ^ f nl) one entering on 

the entire area. Two ereeks m ^/^ dramagefor moil £ : tj^ along 
and the other on the west, a ml l occasional seasons. 

they do not flow all "W»»*' t gE and quality, .rf* ^his nature 
these creeks, being uneven a jg* constitutes the ojrtyare ^^ 

nature, is left as permanent pastur rf tlieland i» dc^oi £ ^^ 

on the farm. AtoJ^^^^iaitoi^J^^gK areas are on 
in crop rotation and in addition tc 1 .• v u f the various gr; 

each year to the mu tiphc , he carry mg Jgjy d ^ to plot 

pasturage experiments to determin mogt uniform sou imately 17 

and clovers/while a 50-acre field lot t experiments. Appronm j^ 

work, including variety •testing and ^ la^^fti,, and 

ya^levoted to the growm ££.££*. 

The first superintendent , wj M»^ 1^1-""; " ( \ ' ,1,,'d in 1915, 
1887 until 1913, when he *.£ -^ then appointed^ du (j ^^ tfae 

Farms. Mr. T. J. Harris.;.,. - ^ „ S . A „ who resigned in 

being succeeded by Mr." _• pointed. . w ,, <t waB unsettled and 

present superintendent was ^ (>( tllP Farm, the V ( * imental work 

At the time of the -£*Jg£i-l P^^Sding^S in the develop- 
very little was known of. J* ^tendent, was a " f j work> cultural 
of the Farm, under its fiwtsvg J rf c^^Xtionized the farming 

ment of the country. As mtro duced *»!?™ the farming industry 

methods and new varieties ^^"carious ** nn "S^ent of the country 
methods in the province an dj from pr bled tl d, d »' k was 

was placed on stable f oundafaon^ wbicn ^ cl basis M^ Qf t 
to take place very rapidly on a sate ^ ^ the ni» ; ^^ . g 

mainly responsible, through his wo^ guccessfu l farming in 
summer-fallowing methods on 

so largely based at the present tunc ^ WW^^^S 

Extremely valuable ^^^dation for he ni^ng ™ wdfare 

shrubs and trees, thus laying the «* ^ .. ( , ssc , ntia i to the con 
homes and productive gardens 

-Or n /lAnnYtiim fir _ 



M VUlCO .U1U 1JWUUVW.-- C 

of a community. .,.,- 



238 

pro ects are now being carried on \v , ■♦ ■ :lll,l 1 fort >' different experimental 
of these projects are on JC scaled id* "ft™*"* that Poetically all 
may he conceived. ' me ldea of the magnitude of the work 

Animal Husbandry 

Under this head, twentv-five r>rr>;„„+„ • , 

horses, the breeding of high-cHss m2 £ J"?, T"!? 1 , 0n - These include - in 
maintained is one of the kmest' ^Jk / C1 y desdal es. The stud of mares 
Canada and the work of theSKKLSS a TV g the ^^utional farms i., 
as well as the production of colt yIZ^TI $*& ""^ ^ thesc mares 
prizes when exhibited in competition^ rt ^ her ° havo taken excellent 
at the largest shows of (2 " a the TT ffe fr ° m *" ° VCr the ^tinent 

control of navel-ill i u f oa Hre bS^S?!? S**"*, Valuabl ° data on tbe 
brood mares. Accurate os l t ? ejected through experiments with the 
classes of horses on the Farm ° Pt ° n the feedin g of a11 the various 

of ttSlSdCS; been'lnost' ';:;■ S T tS J^ ^^r thorns, the females 
operations. particma^phS? h« kS 7 ' V***, 011 the Farm - In th « breeding 
combined with a profit 5 t ,ta 7' a T' 0n ! he best beef conformation 
attained along these lines fi iJ'TW and marked success has been 
era in the Province and are !o d snZ f / "7 ""* S ° Ught after by farm " 
ments are conducted with uJbWSSE a ?, :i , moderate P rices - Feeding experi- 

In addition to the breeding h„Ji u 

three carloads, are fed each venr si' a n + umber ? s teers, usually from two to 
branch of live stock operations valuable data are obtained in this 

abno^M^f^SSiwTorik 68 i„ d , f mdPS r re Carried ' and are T ed ' 
was concluded in 1921 the H-.t w , g, radln g-up experiment which 

the flock could be changed from S ^°T ed that ' in three generations, 
flock, practically indistinguisl , e f • SrTJ mongrel lot into a high-class 
carried on with feeSS^ffiSfo?^ pure - breds - Experiments are also being 
paring the n turns SftSiKJ elriV mS '"""J" 8 ^ a " d ^ iu C ° m - 

SwraB.-Pure-bred kids of W ? n 1 d \ Um " early and latc lambs - 
tained and the progeny «?«2d«S Berkshlre and Yorkshire swine are main- 
bacon hogs. MeSSaof hanSK?-. J P ^ er,mental work in the production of 
milk products v . < £ t dUeT^f'in ry n -T" Pa8tUre J ^-^^ ™ hand-fed; 
of the projects bei„ R conducted UerS ' methods of housi,lg ' are some 

The best of the pigs find ready sale as breeding stock. 

Field Husbandry. 
•tStA b ,1 , • ■ , ,' ,. ri ' £ " v,,t " d "' J* »'"*■ four rotation* aro betag 

&-^£L isr- wS — ,*«—■ 

3rd « Wheat 8o n ? tS 0a,s 

4th " ^ orn Corn Summer-fallow 

5th << S Barley Wheat 

6th « "ay Hay Oats 

7th " Uav and bre ak Hay or pasture Hay 

8th " » Hay or pasture Hay or pasture 

9th " Hay and break Hay and breaking 



Corn 



239 

tin" „n,l "R" have been carried on since 1011 and 

Of these rotations, C J " marke d difference in favour of rotation "R", 

average net returns have snown » the decline in thp price of grain 

this difference being *B*^ A £grjL war years. Rotations <T" and "J" 
from the high point reached our « ^^ for ^ pagt ^ y( ,. u . . , iut ^ 

have only been maintained in tne 11 i ^ Rotati()n «j» j s ne which, from 

promise of being exceptional!} P' ^ guitabIe for adoption, either in its 

the limited trial given as yet, promi ■ ^^ proportion f ,| lis ])art of the 

entirety or in modified torm, ov 

province. . . . arp use d to investigate other field husbandry 

A large number of plots are u»e ^ ^ r()tation r „ S( ,,, ( , f;l|1 ryf ,. 

problems, such as dates ot ~f**^_„_,. dates of seeding sunflowers; commercial 
cultural methods for growing ^KerretaB of seeding alfalfa; rates of seeding 
fertilizers; summer-fallow suosin-,^ ^^ (f S(i( , (lin{ , W( , st ern rye grass; 
sweet clover; rates of seeding u ' | tment; application of barnyard manure; 
stubble treatment; summer-mi u ' ' , K ,. ass so d; methods of Beeding 

green manuring; methods of breaking 

down to grasses and clovers. Jn operat j OI1 one full year, so that no 

These experiments have *»»£ yet . They took the place of another 

final results can be given Iro m u ' ( , arri( , t i n for nine years and on which 
equally large series which /f \* ', . v h j cn enabled important information on 
definite results had been .obta. no » ™ 
cultural operations to be given to farmer. 

Cereals 

•cts are here under way. Variety testing 
A total of fifteen separate P ro £* wheatj fa n wheat, oats, barley, flax, 
work is carried on extensively m W '"^ varieties are tested in comparison 
peas and fall rye. New and H*»" be prop erly determined A number of 
so that the value of the i"'^ ,", ' "mise and will be multiplied and distri- 
new early sorts are showing' to « " _ ior t() existing varieties. 

buted as soon as they de&ute^lggj Rasing the scope of this work which 
Plans are under way for gi ea O been m the past to th( . farmers 

should make it even more valuable tnan 

of Western Canada. , vciriet i es , pure lines of seed oi the best varieties 

In addition to the testing of vane ^ >]e t(J farmers t0 improV e the pro- 
are multiplied in larger areas a a r , d m this way finds ready sale each 
duction of their farms The sec f ^ L qumtotoea of seed are 

year and is appreciated by [gg"^ t he Central Farm at Ottawa tor dlS- 
also shipped to the Cereal Division 
tribution. Forage Crops 

• i on in forage crops. These include 

Some twenty-one P ro J ec .S;?f of Xvarious classesof forage crops. Testing 
testing, m triplicate plots, varetaes ot^ ^ (iin( . t , ut oate for hay are 

of oat varieties for the pn-du on ..i ^ ;uu , , ()V( ,. S , va nous nurse 

also under test as well as ra U ( ^ mixtul ,. s ot ..lovers and grasses 

crops, depths of seeding elov^w^^ been started to determine the 

In addition, pasturing ex ■ ■> d()Vt , rs , alum . B nd m combination. 

carrying capacity of various grass* 

Horticulture 

i CT v in this branch of the Farm operations. 
Forty-one projects are under way rf ^^ soI , Sj a] fl( 

The work covers apples, plums^l MV ^ ^ IIllxtu as ^ 

perennial flowers, ornamental shrub, ana ^ variety t( . stmK tt , k ls mc . d 
as the various vegetab e crops • ^J , fruir eutt ingB are sent out each year 
on with practically all .ot th < ■ ^ they pay carnage and packing 

to farmers in the V™" wl \^J% readily taken each year under this system. 
charges. All available material 



240 
Poultry 



The breed u ^ C, i T." W^ :lre bein 8 carried on. , , ,, 

beto built up, !.;,. : " h ,V N ""' Wyandotte and a high-class flock J 
^teNiSSS 16 fOT ''^-Producing ability Large numbers 
mvariab^good " 1 " ^nS"? stock are disposed of each year with aim** 
attl.wi.-.: * , resut& - . ihe Saskatchewan P™ t<u,;„„ /-.„„/„„«. ;«, ^nducteq 



each year that K,! " i m,1,t has b,H ' n note d ^ ^e production recorded 
tens and hatehi,. p , " L ' f vr . * ay< Feedin g experiments for chicks, lay** 
work with hen. amfnuiw ( f med on > as w, '» m tensive individual pedip* 
3 ^ l'-'hrv , ' V" egg-production and hatching ability. V*rg 
w be given t |„' ( " ,)< ' , ; n compared and unquaUfied reconimendatg 

» being ,ene,,l,v JESSES iSr iBMOOfa * BtraW_l0ft h0USe " 



Fibre Division 



hemp, flax 2R^"3hJS "^ branch ' bcludm « v:iriety tCStS *** 

oi Handling the resultant products. 

Chemistry 

jery imported featur?onff ""i *" F rowth and development of wheat is » 

^ta are collected each IS T.° rk U ? der this <*"*«» and extremely valuable 

on the Farm with ZS th !' ou « h correlating the meteorological records 

" weekly observations of the wheat under test. 



lie wheat under test. 
Extension and Publicity 



•^S&^SSlSiSS art ¥ es are pre P ared each y ear for distribut S 

1 '"- results before fj?' results ^ are an invaluable method of bring** 

^SfSfiiSP^ exhibit is made at as many as no-J* 
"» these districts; v o do Vi 1 ,S P art of thc P ro ^«e each year so that farmed 

opportunity of seeing ^heresSltsM- 1 * VK fiS a to visit the Farm • fl l 1 *S5 
information from the meSL ° t f ^ orae of tne &"* of work and also of securtf* 

Specimens of the herds n ml i i staff in char & of the exhibit - fairs 

to demonstrate the quant v ' ,i Utls *? exhibited at some of the larger faj 
hands of private breeders 6 ammals as compared with those m tn 



241 




75617—16 



242 











riir.ental Station, Rosthern, Suit 



ounv FOR CENTRAL SASKATCHEWAN 
THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR CE* 

« a B.S.A., Superintendent 
W. A. Munko, B.A., £>.^ 

History and Past Work . 

♦ , * strong demand for an institution 
Taxation was established in ^SSS^^ffg-g^ 
°* its kind in the northern sett led P** diately south of the town ^o ^ 

*as purchased in 1908, located >X" between Saskatoon and rnnc 
fd adjoining the east side of ^.^L purchased, making the total P r 
^ 1913, three more quarter-sections wer P .^^ 

a >-ea of the Station 649 acres. it bk , for expermiLnUi 

„ To bring this land into a °«^t"Zb "^l f r^evenSon of soil- 
aU the problems of bringing a w J^ was that of P ^» u Hmit . 
condition of fertility. '*%£«&£ have been devised, eaeh 
Jf fting in dry seasons. Ihree m me . iSlll ,,nent that a 

clump of trees is effective against sod-dr £t g ^ re no d ; .ma g ch|mp 

•.">«> foot in height of the trees. lna f l ]nm drcd feet *o ^l ( ,, nipara . 

f rom soil-drifting for a distance ^{"Jhowev*, is only fe^ o ' f th „ 

J trees thirty feet high. This method, >o^ natural bluffs, 

Jvely sma n areas S uch as gardens i b the r f stock. 

Acuity of protecting the young t ees ^3^^ implies, 

2. MANURE.-The aPP hcat I°" ff °; t ive against soil-dnlting. 
°nce in three years has proved eneci 

* course, that live stock be kept. a ,, :lin .t sod- .. "g ^ 

3. Soo.-A well-established od s en ^ „ a wi ^rifting. 
£*r 8 after it is broken up. IT *2*£tk», there » - ■ , ot the 

'" introduced into a five-or six-J tar catch of grass se reg ularly 

Jut sometimes it is quite impowbte to . f ^ seedmg*^ ,. ( .„„, 

dr y season. It has been found, however- , , yearB arc ^.'Sl^rifting. 
e ^ry year in its place in the rotation, the ^ , ** ^ 

cnougMo destroy the effectiveness ofg^ is ^ { weeds, ajdjart^ 

Another difficulty to be overcome ^ . lt ha 8 harvest. 

?t8. After trial of many metho ds of ^ ra ^ 1;vml ,„ foefaU « » mi( , (ill , 
^"iplest means of treating wild oats «£ early in spnng and a ^ ^ 
^her with double disc or plo«e\ ha "° so w to barley or oat*. t 

0r late May. Then shaUow-plough an s^ ^ all practical p P hy 

completely eradicate the wild °**> Marked summer ^> ». 
f °r high-class seed production, A w ^ m eradicate wild oa«. 
a n intertilled crop kept clear of weeds, 



Live Stock 



, he farm and all the work 

HoBsas.-There are seventeen JJ—^lS* -^Sy W 

V" the land is don,, by these. ^IdbedK much more e onomic g^^ 
b nt it was found that the work cou d be « ReCord IS kept havp 

a |'d the tractor is now used for belt J con8 umed. WJ number of 

f work done by each horse and of «w fc up the standard 
^■n raised during the past ten y< 
ln e horses. 



243 

75617— 16^ 



244 
Beef Cattle. 



spring. With the exceS . t he , J Y S± n * e a " tllmn «* « till 
fed because of poor ctods the «1S?. I91 »-20, when there were no steers 
and the season of 1920-2 wWch wTfoC^ K^ COme ^ eni feed Bh ^age 
price of good cattle to IhenSr^ flowed by an unexpected drop in the 
from winter feeding ; opSSS?' F l ?" ^ 1914 has Bhown B°°d return 
investigations tothkE?- Allowing are some of the conclusions from 

1. It permit, of employment of labour during an otherwise slack time of 




gram, roots and ensilage as well as th« p«« +i g . ' lndud »>g hay, straw, 
In undertaking this work h f, ' tU> thems(> lves. 

1 Expensive Imildi " g P ° Ults should be bo ™ p ™ mind:- 

i. £ixpensiv( buildings are unnecessnrv a „ * * • i • 

SSSJSSr™ * " ' •■»' S?i-t-£ SS&SSSS& 

Dairy Cattle. — The chirv hr,. i 
the herd bull and eight bull Valves C1( ' rons,sts °f twenty-three females besides 
has a record of 18,525 ! pounds SK^S* C ° W ' R ', KS - M»*feal Gypsy Keyes, 
of nine eows that have comnE v, o»'ffS 1 soId aud tho average production 
Five two-year-old hrfffff SJS u*H~ f ' J 8-1 i8 U ' 378 poun ' ls of milk ' 
average. This high average m In T- i,^* are not likel y t( » l <™er *»"■ 
the fact that the herd haf b£n 55? V? the more remarkable to view of 
in 1914 and no outside stock h- , h!I^ P ^ rom two heifer ealves purchased 
herd as it now stands is a striking ,v" 1,lt , rodu, ' od except the herd bulls. The 
beginning by good feeding ,..,,.,.£,1 i pe of what can b e done from a small 
The progeny of the original eows are ^ ana ^ ment and the use of good bulls. 
and three-year-olds, the best records' «* +£ • < T lses ' exceeding, as two-year-olds 

The projects under way w th c a l T + - -^ matUrC ^ 

relative merits of various home m^f if lncIude investigations into the 
cows, management and housine cow. * calv es, yearlings and mature 

average production of the herd hv 21 t maximu m production, increase of 
cost of feeding milch cows. superior bulls, cost of raising calves, 

ram were purchased. 'The ewes w£™ f undrcd range-bred ewes and a Leicester 
of merino blood. Repeated seWn™I "u" breeding showing a preponderance 
well-fleshed ewes WSSLSfiST On, ^ ""^ every ^ for lar g c 
and the present flock of fiftv hrwK y Leice ster rams have been used, 

and have fleeces of a compactness S^? are L as lar ^ e as tyP> cal Leicester 
average weight of fifty-two flecesLK ^ that of the Down breeds. The 

Work with sheep included t!f ^ 9 " 4 P ° Unds - 
of keeping a flock, improvement hv £ !? M m the use of various feeds, cost 
goitre in young lambs. y Dre edmg and selection and prevention of 

Swine. — The Berkshire and T 
on the Station. Elaborate trials of ^^ b , ecds of Bwme are represented 
man endeavour to produce select hfo^u leeds and pastures are being made 
With large litters of pigs which m,w °. gS> • Selecti ™s are made from sows 
to the desirable type" ConmarkonT^ 08 * T ckly and confo ™ »«* closely 
of eacWSreed and of crosses betweeVthel "* '" ieeding trials between pigs 



245 
Field Husbandry 



+™-Atifv-two projects, including sixteen cultural 
In this division there arc ™ e h m * cultural ^ i]U>m(U . s investigation into 
experiments and six rotatlOT*. methods of applying them, tune and 

the value of manure ant fertil zersa ^^ ^ ^^ rf Medmg th(j 

depth of ploughing stubble ana ™> ^ q{ summe r-fallowin»;. summer-fallow 
various grains, clovers and grassy , - s guch &g peas and vctches _ 

substitutes and value of p bugh ing under gg* f^ ^^ ^^ ftnd ^ 
The rotations under trial *™°y.' 1911 an d SO me important conclusions 
Most of them have been under way since 
have been arrived at. , in and summer-fallow brings about a 

1. A rotation involving : ° m > £ ' t0 soil-drifting and weed growth, 
condition, after a few years, ™ v0 ™*" { vears a nd left in sod tor two years 

2. Grass introduced every four to six y 

prevents soil-drifting. ff . the so il, a hay crop is not usually 

3. Apart from its beneficial ttttct o 

profitable. clwtitute has almost as beneficial an effect on a 

4. A corn crop grown as a su . i , r . falloWi but turnips and sunflowers 
succeeding wheat crop as has a t>ar ■ {[ p apart from the opportunity 
have a detrimental effect on the succeet g 

they afford for the eradication ot *< " er acre preceding a summer-fallow 

5. An application of ten tons ° ' • for at least three years and shows a 
or an intertilled crop prevents so - ui. fe succeeding the application. 
marked increase in the yield ol tne i £ sunflowers . hay, oats and wheat 

6. A rotation involving root " ; nV()lviriK only hay and grain or gram alone, 
shows more profit per acre than one in% olv ing 

Horticulture 

• ** under way in horticulture, including investig- 

There are sixty-three projects una. ; iri) , ti( . s (lf treeB) shrubs, herbaceous 
ations into cultural methods and WSU ^ vegetables. There is no green 

perennials and annuals, awn ff^> .„„, met hods used are such as may be 
house on the Station and the W«" ' ln the ornamenta] work, trees shrubs 
employed on any well-managed ^taxm rfea t(l u . <{ tll( , ir hardiness and many 
and flowers are introduced from JbJJ , )uf V( ,,. v usefu i. Especially is this so 
from Russia are proving not on lyl a ■„,,,., ■ an orna- 

of the Siberian pea tree or c . a Sp n -uits 'and is proof against insects, frosts, 
mental shrub, one of the best neage f ^ w[ R ^j.^ 

hail and drought. Itj ■f«f ! « ^g^SSa! for a good garden is an adequate 

It has been found that the tojej™ ^ de east and west and lour hundred 
windbreak. Enclosures two h^rf^ by caragana hedges, lorn, adequate 
feet long, north and south. «w™S3Ss. With such protection and a yearly 
protection for tender fruits and v^etew crabapples pi the hardier 

application of rotted manure ^U worKea ragp berries and strawberries 

varieties, Manitoba P*m "Sfjj h ve such tender vegetables as tomatoes, 
have proved perfectly hardy W id so nav com Jq t , „, ,,.».,, 

celery! pumpkins, squash, cucambers^M i f ^ ordinary ^ dnllj in roWB two 
an acre was sown to cabbag* , were harvested, 

and a half feet apart, and twentj - 

Cereals 
i had an area of 45 acres and is almost 

The field devoted to this ^ornfinevery respect as is possible and affords 
&SSL ^e S of ^eties rf varieties 

There have been under test at tin t 32 vaneties of corn, one 

of barley, 19 varieties of f***} J ' nax . Many of these varieties had been 
variety of field beans and 3 varietur 



246 



developed at Ottawa and were sent to the branch Farms to prove themselves 

he n^™^ ™ m W HI 1 v' farmPrS - .J 1 ?? tte ™ reached the X of 
oerng given a name. With Marquis and Red Fife wheats as » standard it is 
difficult for another sort to equal them in yield, qualifr atd^UnW^nd if t 

dues not do so it is not recommended to the farn e Th ea,lincss .. dm i " '* 
other kinds of or-un TV.o „ T . . Iarm(1 - i he same applies to a 1 

oiner Kinds gram. 1 he new sort must at east prove eaual to the established 
standard varieties or it is discarded established 

1 allowNs f no! , X.n's H th ( . t n?o / h(, -;'Tr ly ? Mch ia m " st «**■«■ for summer- 
SX^o£ , ?!l?y^3^ U " ' ' eSS ^^^ C ° nditi0nS ' 8UCh 

Forage Crops 

Therlt,ve be ( ai tn!Tat C Z S ^''?- 1S,S M ,r l " ,,ltur811 methods ■»■ variety tests, 
um',,; ;itlm , 44 varieties of wwia turnips, 25 of fall 

" ',". lH ™ V" SU ' CVi r 35 0f Carr0ts «» <l 32 Of field corn. 

SS h\Suc e edf S t^JffS^SOSSt £ ST A ™f 

or otherwise. years netore it is passed upon, favourably 

Following the growing of the fodder crops various methods are tried out 

srss saar ■» *• ^ fcsu&ss^wss: 

Poultry 

much in^maU,!;; b^^poTeSitaS^ "S*^, ^ ^° f* 
a fl «ck of Barred Plymouth bJSS^SSSSJS?" " ^i***** 
duction, many of the hens ,u,w havmg frSordo S^ 0n and ^^ '' KK "E - 
periments are being conducted with - i , U '- ^ f yoar > Kx ' 
with different kinds of houses, with meubSs I /'M/"''^'";" 
and with methods f fattening and 5£^j£S™85« * B — rt »*" 

and Pe^di^ " S " m " WOrk rarriwl "» ^Manutih Bronze turkey. 

Apiculture 

Two'coLntefo/fe "'' "'^''^'''JV^'duced on the Station is that of bees. 
- „ ■ i ,r i r r 7 m,,v V <l ,1 '"'" Ottawa in May 1923, and during the 

, .", b 1 o v T m "' , '" l0, V , ' S Uml P* *"** "'»' ^dred and twelve 

pounds ot honej . 1 wo eolomes are being wintered outside and two in a cellar. 



247 




218 




g 




™ ^ * t st ATTON FOR NORTHWESTERN SASKATCHE- 
THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION *^ 1W 

M. J- Tinline, B.S.A., Superintendent 

*„i Station for northwestern Saskatchewan is situated at 

The Experimental Station rori gaskatoon and about 50 mi les from the 

Scott, 100 miles west oftae cn^ tredegB tract of prairie land on which 

eastern boundary of Amend. occasional ravines and a few small 

the Station is located is broken only oj 

lakes. h district took place in 190G when home- 

The first inrush of settlers into tne ^ ^.^ ^^ Th(> failway ^ 

steaders moved in from Uatu eior L > , Trunk p acific rca ched Scott in July, 
struction for the main line ol tne w 

1908. fl+A+ ; nTI a t Scott was started in 1910, when 198 J acres 

The Experimental Statu* at »«"* of th „ lan(1 , m)ke n up. In 1914, 
of raw prairie was purchased ami* f about 2Q0 is arable land) the 

approximately 320 acres was ««*«2rtare. 

remainder being ravines suita J uniform and representative 

The soil is a chocolate-coloured J^ «^j£ s( , ( . tious . 

of the soil over quite a large a . ■ Station f or a period of eleven years shows 

The meteorological records on tne - ^ ^^ J3 jn( . h( , s Iq only 

the total annual precipitation toini^ exceeded 2 inches and in two years 
one year has the precipitation reo confronting settlers and experi- 

it has been less than 8 inches. ^1^ of « dry farming." They differ from 
mcntalists are, therefore, ess enua _ f . u . tlu , r south in that here the growing 
the problems confronting the ^JJ™ C()0 l er . 

season is shorter and the sumnic v* ^ ^^ ^ ^.^ ^^ ^^ 
For the reason that the ianu « pd tn(1 j r attention to the production 

cultivation, the early settlers nr so gome farmg , (]ld a f( . w p \ anUH[ 

of grain. Live stock and poultrj wer< aaaec 

trees. , f arme rs, while others were inexperienced, 

Some ofthe settlers were experience *. un(1( , r the new conditions. It 

but all had much to learn regara - ; rinH , r , t:1 i station conduct experiments 
was necessary, therefore, that .in _| ^ ^ m;iin 80UrceB f revenue, but 
not onlv with grain crops, wnicn " ^ tm . s alld shrubs, vegetables, 

that experiments with live stock, e ^ ri , n ,. lU crop rotations and 
etc., be undertaken. Ex l )cr ," '' d hi 191 1. The orchard, arboretum and 
cultural investigations was comment experiments were begun m 1913. 

lawn were established m 19U. '""« 

Live Stock 

• i ade Clvdesdale mares was started in 1911 

Breeding operations with &* £ the additional horse labour required 

and sufficient colts were raised joi station . Four pure-bred Percherons 

by the rapidly increasing wore ou incrcase , have multiplied until there 

were secured in 1920 which, dvu. * ^ ghorthorlls was received from 

are now eleven. The nucleus ior TMg herd has incr eased until 

the Indian Head Experimental Farm in 
now there are 32 head. 



249 



250 



The flock of Bheep, numbering 172 head ia rnmn^^A e c u j 

Shropshires and Cheviots, and grfde Shromh^es (cTTnl 5 t7 ^ re ^ T f 
In the eight years the flock ha! been on SeBtoSTSS Sd t '^ 

amounted to $6,335.50. A number of fnrmerV & returns have 

flocks from the Station " m ° rs haVe P ur ^ased foundation 

their^ofiSenTf^ iKfi J2*?%3S "-been to determine 

sweet clover to have a greater can vim " tn'acin «P*™**» ^e shown 

Investigational work bS sh„w ^i f =»i <;ny other pasture crop. 

lambs can be elimitated by feeding „ iUu onnntft, tm + g fr ° m • g °! tl i e m 
th e ewes< J s a fcmau Quantity of potassium iodide to 

The swine on the Station have proven profitable The exoeriments have 
included cross-breeding. Methods of feedine have ll™ w ? nmtn1 * 'V 
whole grain vs. crushed grain: rye vs l3v- 2f fc^*' f ch f '"S^S 

of feeding: pasture vs. n„ pasture- butteS Ik vl" fe f dl ?« vs - trough method 
feeding ;! m,l breeding to produce select baco™ g ° ; ^ meth0d ° f 

Winter (ceding of steers has been conHnM^ri t™ „ . i * i 

the results have been summarized in Pam fet No 7 T^K* " 5 ?? B ^ 
is being encouraged as much as possil £J P . £ » n oviJ T'"''' ° f + f ?™S! g 

surplus farm labour .luring the winter peHo Tt off employment for the 

coarse grains profitably and prJKTSffli J? 5?°* * a T th ° d ° f ""J"**™* 
land j lHovmes tertilizer that can he returned to the 

In the animal husbandry division there . lm +,..„ i u 
nay . ere are twenty-three projects under 

Poultry 

expeSei^wSnSud^St proie^TlS^C? 1 - ^ k ' * ^ ™" 

permit experimental work and to En «.«?» pla . n V S , ° f sufficicnt size to 
are all trap-nested and a part oT the floKs pXeed"^ S& JS* ?T 
are kept for use on the Station and for seTlinf o nnn'u ? C b , St ° f the cockerels 

Many poultry houses throughout t le aistrkt Z T^ , u » 
some of the houses on the Station an,] l';j ^ , Ul - Vc been modelled after 
in the methods of feeding and bot^or^p^ductio^ 68 * ^ *"* takeU 

Forage Crops 

During the first years of settlement v,n+;,.„ i i 
hay and pasture, but breaking the^JtiS I?* 1 *** W 88 V™** ^P»« 
result that hay became scarce and dos^IL^ i™^ ^^ "** ^ 
of pasture land. This has resulted in SSkS^FT* ^ Cai T ymg "¥*&? 
herds. ck own<1 's disposing of part of their 

Grain fanning proved profitable for a tim P W 
• ■very district, soil drifting in some sections '■ \ n lncrease m weeds in 

in others, have compelled fanners to turn tl„' 1 A'^ pests and crop discilscs 
which includes the keeping of uve stock^ ' ^tion to diversified farming, 
could not continue, the Experimental Sta'tio , n'iT"** i & SmgIe Crop Systenl 
with forage crops until, at present, ce » Z^ nu , mer0US experiments 
of 612 plots. "' P ro Ject8 under way with a total 

These experiments include determining the bet ™ Q+ i a t i- j 
to grass, the best crops to grow for n- sL l,M method of seeding down 
roughage for winter feed. It has been Wen lint 1 best . cro P s to Provide 
Western Rye grass with a nurse cro, ' f 1 ' ' * P°. ssl ble to seed down 

rotation will increase the yields of Ira ! „ II. P troductl °n <* grass into a 
profitable as a pasture crop. The eSSL 25 T g *"?* but that H is not 
be an outstanding pasture for most kin "fstoT t"™ *?"* ^ *? 
outstanding merit. The Station began KwtiLttS tk "^ "^ " 

b lm irrigating the growing of sunflowers 



251 



ri. t^o Montana Experimental Station pronounced them 
for ensilage shortly after tne w« one of the first silos constructed 

satisfactory. For ^e storage ™ "^^ at the Scott Station. Good yields 
in northwestern Saskatcnu wau. , obtained and from a five-pound sample 
of Western Rye grass ^^TJcrop Division of the Central Experimental 
received in 1921 from the ^vage ^ obtained in two years. This strain 
Farm, 3,461 pounds of *»* "J^ the name of Grazer and the first year's 
has within the last year been gt 

crop has been distributee . ^ work with forage crops was summarized 

Information regarding ix> whi(jh may be ()btaine d by applying 

in Circular No. 107, publ ISM a ' ; . Branch, Department of Agriculture, 
to the Scott Station or to the 1 ublicaxioi 

<)ttm Field Husbandry 

i , ,vnrl- nviv be divided under three main headings, 
The field husbandry m k • ^ ^^ ( , nip manageme nt experiments. 
crop rotations, cultural mvesw^» an(( d&tea (J , see< jing graiu and 

The latter include ^'^^.n machinery. 
forage crops, etc., and testing 

Crop Rotations 

Three of the rotations established in 1911 are still 
Crop KoTATioNS.-Thre f^.^ wm! ;ldded in 1921. 

in operation, while thicc i rotations under way at the present time 

The following is an outline oi 

on this Station: iw/i/*W) —First year, summer-fallow; second 

Rotation "C" {Thru Years Duration,. 

year, wheat; third year, w M«- ■ _ First vcar , sumnier-l'allow; second 

Rotation "J" (Six 1 f r %jXS£ oats (seeded down 12 pounds Western 

year, wheat; third year ^,^™SS 

Rye); fifth year, hay: Bath yea . , First yeai , summer-fallow; second 

Rotation "P" (Eight Years tw^J w pummcr _ fal i, )W . l5 tons per acre of 

year, wheat; third year, wheat ^: g^*, , un rlowers; sixth year, barl< 

rotted manure ploughed ull « er ' R g p0U nds sweet clover; eighth year, 

seeded down 10 pounds Western i. 

pasture. . y > Duration).— First year, summer-fallow; 

Suwei CTwer flo'a *°» Liffirfd seeded to 15 pounds sweel clover seed per 

second year, wheat (hall tne m. 

acre). . 1)(1( . n i u existence since 1911, rotation "J" 

Of the three rotations tnaxna ^ V)mi foUowed witn considerable 

is undoubtedly the most l^!" 1 ,'; " : inu , m alists on other Stations From the 
interest botli by farmers and try ■*& & number of farmers have started 

information received it would appc. ^ rotation8) the one including sweet 
this rotation on then farms, ui j^ und( , r way ., , uffu . lont length of 

clover is quite promising but n i - ^.j the tw0 seasons it has been in full 
time to warrant recommending TC \ haVC b( .,, n obtained, and m harvesting 

operation, good stands o BWeet ° ^ of lhc wee ds have been harvested 
the sweet clover crop a goodij v 
therewith. __The cultural investigation work including 

Cultural If^^l^S-Prairie breaking; depth of ploughing; summer- 
fourteen projects, ibm follows, r ^.^ ^ ^ , ind clovcr; breaking 

fallow treatment; Btubbfc man J , ));U . nvanl manure; green manuring; 

Bod from cultivated ^^e^" depth of seeding; harrowing growing gram; 
seedbed preparation; sou pacs ^ determinati0Bfi 

summer-fallow substitutes, son 



252 



and the treatment of stubble in p iSfcT^'^ substitutes; 
the summer-fallow treatment and thr 3V, T Th& - data obtamed fr °m 
crops have been of particular in teles t to tl ff * pre P arin S **«« land for 
wan. The following Sea some of U , T™ ? north ^stern Saskatche- 

g gives some of the information obtained and disseminated. 

Stjm.mkk-Fallow. — That tho na*u. „i i. i 
higher yields than later plough 1 Ian f£&£2 . rT* , ^ £ Ve 
six inches is not profitable! lat P lou g h 'ng more deeply than 

i-eaStS^ has not 

results as the early-ploughed fallow kept cSated glVGn &S g °° d 

under have been decidedly ^nTfitEml f summer-fallow and ploughed 

to common belief, takes more S '%* 'T U ** tha \ a Weed cro P' contrai T 

is returned when plo^S unde7 ifi u£°2?T *H ^ m ? 0win « **» 

mvariablybeenobteiSo^BSWaUoweHW^r ° f ■£*■? have almost 
The growine of erain anrf , Z! ' her ^^ or without a nurse crop. 

fallowed was ^yoSSSdl^Y^? * WWi ^ knd that is bein ^ Summer ~ 
yet available. commence d ™ 1921, consequently no definite information is 

teBts^TL^^rop^o^J&^f 011 T ^.-Bepated 

decreases the yield of the SriT destroys the stubble in the fall 

invariably given a higher yield Sfe T& ^ g"' r * to i of ■««• has 

at this Station, the depth Sget^wXfffiS?^ u Under aVCTage condi t ions 
two and one-half inches. Good caches of ™ F^ ¥* rGSUltS haS been about 
out a nurse crop, have alwtJTbel* W^l 8 ^! "^ d ° Ver ' both with and with " 
following the third crop -of grain llfZloTT *• ft" Btatkm ' GVen with ° r 
increased yield of nearly six bushels of »& "d^W average shows an 

cations of 12 tons of rotted m!nf,™ , at PCT acre suiting from the appli- 

before ploughing The so S2?i£?£ 0re applied on the &**«* stubble 
plough.' I land. ' tktl has been beneficial when used on spring- 

the effect of several culturaTSmente ^ ffhT.* aBO f t ^ n ' "? * M "• P 088 ** 16 ' 
the soil. treatments on the amount of moisture stored in 



Cereals 



Testing varieties and strains of cere-. Is- k c „i i_ 

attention and there are now thirteen S s t Z ^ ^ ^T' 
years, it was considered essential that ... ,•! , I Way " Dunn 8 the earl y 

in order to have the S^ff JSSjSrtSESJj V T tie8 0I , ly be tested ' 
have proven that liter m\t, Vi, 1 , ■ i- • ^P^ge. Repeated experiments 
inforniatin has b< en nWe^hlf T^ mvanabl >- 8™ heavier yields. This 
to havf prevented farmers 1, + the ^-T™ aud in one stance it is known 

acres to an "arty m'Zin V^T^I^ *°™* Some hundreds of 
the Station that ve will . 7 'i whlch ' a «*»din« to the results on 

of grain per acre F^rv llf """ft a ° SS to them of from 10 to 15 bushels 
from the^S'Exp^eSd^™? UeC V.° n °J W, ! rtwd sdectionS of ■"*» 
way to include in the TeTts afl stoSsYw^ tGSted End planS are n0W Under 
on the prairies Samnl^ n? • * hat , have any P r °mise of proving useful 

year, strains of the Zd BdfvTri!?* " by ?? farmerS are tested a * d ' this 
have been included in the teSs y reCeiV6d fr0m Several different 



sources 



253 



i • * a,,»oA varieties has a good effect in preventing multi- 
Testing ^wly-mtroducedj a >< •- "^8 ^ ^ ^^ - ^ 

plication of these by the process ^ f Kx rinu , nta i Farm has been increased 
selected stock received from 1 _ m kli fchem wi1 , 

and has proven of g^*^ ^ Reasonable prices. During the 
foundation stock o » * »cr g^ ( . h(iU . e sml has been „,,,, farm , 

prac^^r^'clio!. «f northwestern Sas^tchewa,, 



Horticulture 

Tl 



i i = flnwers and vegetable gardens in the home-building 
rhene^ of trees, s^^oweraanovep ^^ ^ ^ ^.^ ^ 

process under way on tne ' ' • llr , m , an< J a t the present time there is a total of. 

numerous experiments m noiiRu, 

fifty-one horticultural projf * (i of varieties of apples, plums, cherries, 

These projects include t " tl !. n ; lu , rri(ls . Th( , arboretum includes all the 

bush fruits oi various kinds ai ■ ^ Experimental Farms on the prairies. 

material that has proven barayou^^^ ^ ^ ^^ farther ^^ ^ ^ 

It is interesting to note wax _ . ]ar j ias proven hardy and is a rapid 

tender for this district, while Russian i regdtg from wiUow8) whUo 

grower. The climate and sodane wo * ^ ^^ ;m outstanding shrub> 
the Caragana has thrived ^Xaysbeen some doubt as to whether evergreen 

for hedge purposes. 1 here 1 i. s arwg ^ ^ prairi( , s . Both White spruce and 

trees would thrive m tne c ay <v{ [ positions, have made a good growth. 

Lodge Pole pine, even in ™*^J3£lxat crops and in the collecting of snow 
The value of windbreaks m proteci ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ m ^ 

to provide additional ,uo ^ tuI . v( ,. irs The yields of potatoes grown inside 
quite evident during the J^V 1 ?" been compared with yields of potatoes in the 
an enclosure made with hedges w ^^ hag been obtainea from tne 

open tields and an increase of over iu i 

protected crops. ,•„ } nnr ticulture on the Station is quite noticeable, 

The influence of the work m ^°f^ lge8) a mim bcr of which have made a 
particularly in the small [town. - wb jj e t ne improvement in the village home 
commencement at street tree ma ««& merease m the number of small fruit 
surroundings is quite marJcej • Saskatchewan and the interest taken in 

plantations established in northwestern l c ifvi 

the horticultural work generally has been ve y g 

Publicity and Extension 

ui = 5* pvnerimental work is that of conveying informa- 
One of the big problems mLX l> le This i s accomplished in several 

tion obtained on the Station to i i pamphlets and circulars and by 

ways. First, through annual ripo Cultural press; second, through the medium 
• means of articles in the rural anu *& ^^ to the summer f a i rS; Wltn attend- 

of an exhibit made up at the ™" i(ms lines f experimental work; third, by 
ants in charge who discuss tne . v ^ ^ ^ gtation and accompanied 

means of lantern slides ^ ustra ^. information as possible; fourth, through 
by a lecturer, who gives as ™ u . The fifth wa y in which the information 

correspondents writing for intori11 ' . ' come to t h e Station, see the experiments 
is disseminated is through vlMTO '' hpm Thc s i xt h method is one that is not 
and have the results explained " , important. It consists of one person 
often thought of, but it 1S I . l( '\ 1 ti(lU an ,i passing it on to his neighbour. In 
receiving information from ini. " here tne settlers drive, in many instances, 
district such as the one at sews, « gtfttion j t is difficult to estimate just how 
sixty and seventy miles to "art we o adiates . 

far beyond this the influence of tlu Station 



254 




EXPERIMENTAL STATION ka»*«w«a.M 
SWIFT CVRRENT.SASK 



THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR SOUTHWESTERN SAS- 

J G. Taggart, B.S.A., Superintendent 

t-. • O n+ol Citation for southwestern Saskatchewan was 
The Dominion Kxpcrnnentai .r ^ ^ ^.^ ^ & ^.^ q{ ^^ 

established late m 1920. ine sue ,*. Current . As now laid out. the Farm 
land adjoining the east .^f f " f m S ^f C entre of that town, 
buildings are just two innes ^ establishing the Station was carried 

Until October 1, IK"* ™* ]} Mac Kenzie, Superintendent of the Experi- 
on under the direction or so. . • -^ ^ Chalmers as foreman in immediate 
mental Farm, Indian Weaci, • ^ thg sent superintendent, was 

charge of the work. On V c ;°"„ , sum mcr of 1921, some 400 acres of land 
appointed. During the i spring an. fa ^ following yearj the Farm 

were broken and put into shape w ^^ 

was fenced and a house and a implements : experimental 

In^^eStatdonwase^xppedw^^^ ^ 1^^. { h(ia] . dm ,, 

work in field husbandry, forage c ™^ me smaller buildings were erected and a 
S'h^StttmcaSe^as established by transferring some breeding 

stock from the Indian Head J' a ™ * iinpntal work has been greatly increased; 

During the season ot liMd, ince £. , md , m imp i cm ent shed have been 

an additional 80 acres broken, wo ff * ctcd in the grounds by grading roads 
built and a considerable improvemei 
and planting trees. under ftre briefly described 

Some of the important lines ot wont 

as follows: — . -_ 

Field Husbandry 

(Total number of projects, thirty-four) 

, • fi,.irl husbandry is carried out, both on fortieth-acre 
Experimental work m field '■ > : ; ; ( , a( . h Th( , work on thc lan , (M . 

plots and on fields of from fn e x ' ([ ; ()f 8ummer -fallowmg, (b) methods of 
fields consists of studios 01 W J .^ m)pj ( c ) a comparison of rotations 

preparing stubble land lor a see u gra i n . gr owing rotations. A portion 

including corn and grass wira » "« , ini( , n1a i xvor k is used for growing 

of the Farm which ^' wu' com, sunflowers and hay. 
feed crops such as oats, ™ Tlty ' ' gixty acres , a u field work described 

On the plot area, which now additional methods are under test 

above is laid out in triplicate plots ; ^^ Qwing ^ hu , k q{ Qver 

on the plots which could not dlwic rim ,. nls wit h corn. Almost every 

three hundred plots are devoi . Saskatchewan is under investigation. 
phase of corn growing in sou • and graiu met hods of preparing 

Such matters as varieties, bou < and in hi „^ d . lt(1 ()f p i, int i ng 
land, methods of planting and ^ cm * ar0 belng earefuUy studied. 
and the influence of corn on Jin * ^ mpthods ()f gecdmK Kr:l!><1 ., 

Methods of preparing land tor gr ^ ^ to dis( . OV( . rinf , Aether there 
and clovers are being ^2hSSi«b of growing these crops under conditions 
are any economically suc< [■■ > 
which prevail in this district. 

255 



256 




Difgiiig a trench alto [the F 



«no .v. T,„-„, -|.;x l ,r„„,„, ! ,, Statta, Swif, Current. Bull 



257 



„f fif>lH husbandry work which, heretofore, has not been 
Another type ° f feW husba «JJ j p is the testing of new 

systematically unde ^\™ ™ e of the older implements about the use of 
farm implements as wen ^ g f tn new implements now under 

which there is still ;«"*g3£ Tibbie burner, corn listers, and special 
test are a combined reaper tnre,ne , implements commonly used by 

types of cultivators f™. ^"^j^ teste d are seed drills of different types 
farmers, the only ones being special 
and two types of land packer. 

Forage Crops 

i ■ fnrnjre crops includes a total of twenty-two projects. It 

The work in lorage uui f th mrmcrs w ho are in, or contem- 

has been laid out to secure info ™^£ duction . The first phase of the work 

plate going mto, some pna^ } . ies , md varieties of 

consists of the mtroductaon M*™™,^ probab ility of being useful here, 
forage crops as have snuwu, , important forage crops, methods of 

Then, with what ^V i, t .tion with grain crops, are being investigated, 
production, particularly m . g to 8ecure information which may be 

The purpose of the f° ra f e C [°P 2 more sta ble and better-balanced system of 
used by farmers in developing 

farming. Cereals 

(Total number of projects eight) 

< n iin„ varieties of each of the important cereals, together 
AnumberofweU-toownvanet« ^ ^ rf fcheg( ^ gr(?wn 

with several new sorts, arc * pi ans are now being prepared lor starting, 

on both fallow and second-crop •"»!*• f 1>lirt ,_ii ne strains and hybrids of wh( 
in 1924, the testing ol a huge ^umber p ^ at|( , mpted _ 

oats, and barley. No cereal breeding 

Horticulture 
(Total number of projects, thirty-seven) 

a ■ „ pvneriments were started in the spring of 1923 to 
In vegetable gardening, «g«™ f „\m\xa&, spacing, dates of planting and 

determine the tot ^S^ggd garden vegetables. 

cultural methods of all ot the una a 6 ghmbs and flowcrs has bccn fof 
The only work ^detam ^ t bcen t under way 

decorative purposes; no systematic expen 

Poultry 

A flock of 100 Rhode Island Red hens is maintained, but no experimental 
work is yet conducted. ^.^ Husbandry 

(Four projects) 

, tp , „i<rMeen work-horses and colts, chiefly grade Cly.les- 
There are on the Farm eighteen *o ^^ ^^ ^ ^^ consistg rf ^ 

dales. No horse breeding wont j ^^ werfl tr , msferre d f rom Indian 
head of dual-purpose bhortuorns p bred on tfae Farm Thc pur| 

Head in May, 1922, the ™ ma ™?\^™° d milk-producing ability, so that stock 
is to breed animals of a "'"l: want animals of this type. Forty range steers, 
may be sold to farmers .who , want^ ^ hased for feeding experiments 

mostly of Hereford breeaiug, 
in the winter of 1923-24. 

75617—17 



258 



of lMW^HSf] <,rih Sil " With .u a C ^ Pacity of ll5 tons ^ a trench silo 
s on 1 "i w • ; i m T ° n ^Station, primarily for the purpose of 

Illustration Stations 

in m^Slw^Zr^r" commen ^ 1 m the province of Saskatchewan 

IiKmH ,"" ,S arc nmv l ' an '- vins on demonstrational work, 
!SSf£S?sSftr ST S " 1U ' rvls , 1011 of t h e Superintendent of the Experi- 
Ssor of th dS r n 7'?.' T h ° + - V ° rk . S in operation with the Chief Super- 
obtained in this wort fc ln ! ls t™tion Stations at Ottawa. Results already 
oDtainett m this work have been extremely valuable. 



259 




75617—17* 



260 





# 



L«cr*_ 



Tj "" " f **■» in -he ^ Re^r^-tettbri 



dge, Alta. 



TrriT o TA TION FOR SOUTHERN ALBERTA 
THE EXPERIMENTAL STATIC 

w H F**nBU>, M.S., Superintendent 

■ * T^thbridge comprises 400 acres, situated 
The Experimental Station a t L « th bndg L thbrldge> and .crossed 

one mile east of the corporate lmitsoi padfic j^lway The buddies 

by the Crowsnest branch of the Oam ^ ^ ^^ a httle over three and 
are located on the east side 01 u « f fae city . Dominion 

one-half miles from the business centre ^as. donated to the Domm on 

This land together with the*'" 1 . 1 •, Irr jg a tion Company. Possession 
Government by £ Alberta Bg^%KSd at that ttoiewas, nj-gj 
was obtained in the late garner wlTbroken, fencedj and buildings erected, 
virgin prairie. During IW' » 
The first crop was grown in !«"»• 

Two Farms 

nr ri,»H on in southern Alberta, 

found in widely separated part* id g^'J' where bottr typ« i*^™™ 

lished, tins fact was r : ^ecauUi ;mcnt There arejWor^ eauy 

could be carried on under one ag a dr> u™i 

farms operated here-one half the o ^ compare the relative mi 

as an irrigated farm. The °°£ ct individ ual problems. main 

two systems, but to study ther r £ . t( . lv through the ^centre, y ^^ 

ffi^^igS yBtfSSttC althougn 
loam and is representative ol a g ■ ,, so me. ... +Vl „ boeinning of 

perhaps slightly lighter */*«$££?£. comment M^ p *g ^ 

The establishment of th e S u » Previous to a tun , ^ 

extendvewheatfarnungmsou^Al^r^. j pnnjrtjjjjjw^, 

under range conditions was the 1 ^ province from the in ' anadian 

and rapid settlemenl of that pa rtaM , * a by the mam me of the oa 
north to, and including, .the <^\ .^pidly to gram grounn,. ^ ^ 

Pacific Railway, stock BjgJg Jj^g cstublishi uent, spec ^ ^ of 

During the early years of the £ ^ has u ^ 

given to experiments dealing « K ^ . wheat, and var . 
sod land, suitable varieties of spring ^ ()nly a f « > ar_ 

lems that arise to any new d^nct butj dry seasons were x P < J in 

As the country grew ode on« T^ ; c ^nd e 

grain crops failed or partially faded- t on £T^udled and remedial 

districts, soil drifting occurred t» , s haV( . been Jurted ana 

a major problem. These Qe J .^ve been tovest^, the resura 
methods of cultivation and cropping^ M u> tl :U ,, , rei ti to J ^ 

it is believed, have been o ^ ' > " t lt has resulted ^g£"£Sed amongst 
. A very important d^lopmentt^ .^^ ^ on a ou ^ 

ust mentioned has been th< m f h(i pl . oV ince. 1™ , Leth . 

farmers generally in the sout h, ^^ ^J^JjS&P** ^' l 

formation of a number of in* 1 { tha n 10;>,000 acres 
bridge Northern, which contains 



262 



S°" ° f th< ' S : irr ga 1 tl0n districls ' thf ' rt ' 1 '"" 1 >>een developed 

, I th Hi;^ n, K r i V 1 , 1 ''''! ( ' , ' ,s °V he Caa »&** P^ific Railway Company 

Can3aL«5£?W « n 8 *™ als °, the pro J ect P artialIv completed of the 
anada Land and ^Irrigation ( ompany, located northeast of Medicine Hat. 

mart of 11 K& i T'Jt: " Story of southorn Alberta ^e the establish- 
• id ■ t, h 1 , Ll ' ,1,, : nd ,g ( - > ' * ^11 be seen that, in the settlement of the 

is,',; 1 T , PUrC st0 , ck r aisln g under range conditions to grain growing 

TH ■ are? fef^ ^ ^ ^ a VCTV extensive development in irrigation" 
■ < iM - \t ^ ?n + W ^ 1Ch th ° ™& ation wo ^s have been erected and which 
actua h can be irrigated in southern Alberta is 1,138,000 acres. 

lems nee »H»rK! ' S^J* *%* Stat j° n ' investigations dealing with the prob- 

e le , uHi . rt 011 farmer have been carried on - S ome of the prob- 

, ,' l ,. . f Ve ^en the Reparation of the land, the proper use of irrigation 

f ma'k W * h / determ mation of the most suitable crops to grow. The importance 

a beon g W J 1 m £ J ° r ( * r ° P ^ and lts abilitv t0 ''"rich the soil for other crops, 

to donZtt £ Ex P er ,T l ' n,s m the whl,< ' r Ceding of steers and lambs 

t fc £2 l \° P r fitabk n : tUn r that mft y "» ^ by marketing the ha^ 

ur li : h • " n TO1 >^tcntly carried on. Experiments along horticul- 

all ,it Zl f / 1V f c ? llsu >eral)le attention. The possibilities of growing 

conTrefcM Sjitt £*? "T^ bave h " 1 '" established, and a very 

rSJSS *-hat c au be done in the growing of trees and shrubs, 

1- -content h ",'" i at,ractlve . farm homes, is tobe seen in the present 
tu^ciopment oi the grounds surrounding the buildings. 



Live Stock 



eonfiSclnlh toevn ;i ( ' 0,n , PnMn 7 S " In " ,mu ' experimental projects, has been 

K Z \is : X' n r ■# ! "' r u ," r feedm « ° f steers ** iambs - Due , 

beinet"kin w t , t ' -° f t* an,1 ' b "<» on the dry and irrigated farm 

S3 o^he U ?aS^^eTu^:r^t "" be0n f0Und fe "^ *° ^ 

DrimaS^for~Sk 8 ^^ Uy T^' about ^ty-five, and they are kept 
E a fthoueh L Ti e " ft >P( ' ( ' ial breedin 8 "«* has yet been under- 
taken, although some good work-horses from the grade mares have been raised 
It has been clearly demonstrated that ilf-.lfn iJ n .TV; 7 i J * raised. 

under heavy work and the nreiu, ee hAl l ta lh a » ;ltl f lctol Y bay lor farm horses 
is not well founded. Prejudice held by some horsemen against this feed 

Of difnS B ^hf^f^w flS ? TS ~ In a,, - v w 'w irrigated district, the problem 
h ah - - : S y "r 0D ' he farm rathe * ^an by baling and sh.p- 

cut oa straw, corn fodder, corn silage and sunflower silaee 
The results of ^the feeding tests to date indic^a^ 

rathil n.iulhvl.aHngandsl-;^;:^ ^ '"' ^fitabiy marketed on the hoof 

common* S^SEt'S Sgted firm C ° nJUllCti0n "** ^ ^ that an ' 
with ( cut I ; ufalfa r0f,,:ihl1 ' '" ^ ° at 8toaw when jt is ( 'u. and fed in conjunction 

grai.idunllg'H,;.' 1 ;;;;;;;:;^ z!T' n :uul h is neces -^ to f - d libera11 ^ - th 

the ^!ie,Tof sueh', ! 7!!J"T l H&** M " ril - e ^es are kept at the Station, 
of alfalfa go |, 'i" 1 ": ig t0 determine, if possible, the feasibility 

•»"" i pasture usmg the forest reserve nearby in the 



263 



t. i in- « ;„= Thp cxDeriment has not been carried on for sufficient length 
Rocky Moimt^; ^e^nme sh ^ be profitably handled in ^ 

l^^nftXKe item of expense in the railroad charges to and from 

the forest reserve. breeding work is being carried on. The 

In addition to he above ^^ ^^ then ^ ^.^ 

chief object is opU* g 0od quality and enough of the Merino character- 
but retaining a tight heeceoi goo h •> . h been attempted by crossi 

istics to make them g°° d h ra ?f^ e e \ ve , and the Lincoln ram with Rambouillet 

?£Sft£^»?*2^% c r ied t- This work hafi not been 

cirri eTfJ mSSS to warrant deductions being drawn. 

<Lr> Fe«fc«0 tfxperimente.-Sheep feeding experiments have been carried 
Meep *ceflt«ff ^ ' m lfalfa as the main roughage in conjunction with 

^fSvSabiroT&ated farm. The investigations to date warrant 

the Yl) t?st d oSb!e S to stubble graze and fatten range lambs in the fall and 
Winte (2)Ttl h more profitable to dispose of alfalfa by feeding it to fattening lamb. 

thm S) b O&i^^^ oTproduotion, roots are not likely to Ik; raised 

(3) Owing to im ,in& ±bf& m thc form ()f an :u iihtion to 
for fattening range lambs VV hen tea ^ ^ ( 
alfalfa, slightly ^f SoTvXable asTsupplement. 

roughage. Roots are, ™f "ore, vai one-third oat-sheaves was fed, 

(4) When a ration ofjrtro^«J»a^a« ^ ^ ^ ^ 
the lambs ate more rougha ^ and "aad eg g gubstitute for ^ When 

(5) Screenings (No. 1 _ stock tooa; < ds f 

aifalfa was the ^^^^j'^^qSpS barley and oats); that is, 

screenings to equal 100 pounds ,ol gra v i^.^ ^ 

recleaned screenings a. 944 pe r ce ^ eh ^ than 

[?i JnTXr^rJhlSnt " iisfa\.t„ril^ it is necessary to feed grain in 
ilddi *W ThcSy protection necessary for fattening lambs is shelter from winds 

and a dry place to bed. 

Horticulture 

(Comprising 73 projects) 

T .i • n t ions there were set out in the irrigated orchard, twenty- 

In the spring of 1908, IW™ , d , ve varieti es of cross-bred, 
six different varieties of standard ana era , staudard and cra b and 

apples, and. in the non-.rr gated «*J*^£ J^S ^ ^ & 

seventeen cross-breds. AHhougii a no cross-breds. These 

and most of them fruited, there are none nojr eu Saunder8 first Director 

varieties are the result of work-lone £*»»» gj ^ crab of ' R ussia (fVus 
of the Experimental Farms system, £«J«^ le Th „ treea :q >p, :L r hardy 

i^t^'JfeWs* - ;i1 " ** ** are ,,f doubtful 

commercial value. rotations of red, white, and black currants, 

Inthe.springo "gg^SSfJKS^ and irrigated land The 
gooseberries and raspbernes were bc nrolific Many of the gooseberries 

Currants have all been ^j^^ffSU and nave beerfproductiye 
St with them ifha. ten found pessary to bend the canes over and cover with 
^\Z^Z^1^e* well adapt,! to Alberta conditions. 
Under irrigal ion they are a profitable commercial crop. 



264 



success. cultural methods have been carried on with 



Perhaps one of the most outstanding results r.K+oi™,-] j, 1 xv, j 
strationof the rapid and satisfactory Trowth 1 ? tainec » has been the demon- 
planted for windbreaks. In an absobtdvTreoll P os f bl ? to get from trees 
feature. aosoiutely treeless country this is an important 

Field Husbandry 

third of his land under mmmSSS^g Year lT to . kee P at + leaSt Tl 
is to conserve moisture. The year that X/ f a . lh /„ maln , ob J ect a™ed at 
has a chance to percolate into tl e subtJ JSi f -?S° W ' the j> reci P itation 
vegetation, and it is thus stored hanaShlnL f* b + £ lng USed ^ SUpP ° rt 
during the periods of dry weather the follottg seas^ ' the Cr ° P t0 draW Up ° D 

The use of intertilled crops as a siiW;+„f Q f ' 
that is being given most careful studv Tn n r + Bu . mmCT ,- fall ° w is a sub ect 
less scanty this is a most satisSt Jz lo . call1 f s w here the annual rainfall is 
found that grain crops in a J i^' bUt * "f"**^ Jt has been 

ing an intertilled crop as when seeded s Infl n S ood T returns wb «n follow- 
rainfall is a lit tic more abundant f^JSETT^P?"' In a 8eason when the 
one treatment as with the other.' g yi ° ld wlU be C( l ually as S° od with the 

The hay question is perhaps one of the m™+ 1 • 
the farmer on non-irrigated land ^ for 1 1\ * P^I^W problems confronting 
introduce a summer-fallow every 't lir',1 ™„t P ?. emi 1 lal cro P- h is '^possible to 
of soil moisture conserved thereby stimulate growth by the add ; tion 

Dry Land Rotations 

The necessity of havine in in+r^ri,,„ 
of determining suitable rotations o h r 'v LT^t 1 ™ "^ the P roblem 
ation along this line a number of rotatfrS , ? dlfficult one - To S ather inform " 
and an outline of them is herewith ^^1 mm ^ rated » the spring of 1911 

Rotation "B" (Two years' duration V m * 
year, grain, wheat. duration). First year, summer-fallow; second 

Rotation "C" (Three years' i, +• n t,- 
second year, grain, wheat; third year 22. ȣ . * ycar ' RUmmeI " f allow i 
Rotation "T» (Ten years' dW«f T' « ° f C0MSe gramB ' 

year, wheat; third year, oate or barleWnS?? ^ ^ m »^-fallow; second 
seeded to alfalfa late June in rows '-' J i " th ycar ' summer-fallowed May, 
seed; sixth year, alfalfa f/,r hay , V Se d f *»%'> 6fth year " alfalfa for hay °* 
eighth year, sunnier-fallow nint J ye r T*? yeal '' &lfalfa for hay or seed ' 
manure applied on stubble. ' cl cro P 8 ; tenth year, wheat—. 

Rotation "M" (Six years 1 duration^ v * 
year, wheat; third year. coarae SS, ™ St year ' summer-fallow; second 

Bummer-faUow; fifth year,pS fffiSffi"' on . st ! ,hhIt - ™ "I; fourth year, 

Rotation «S» (Nine y,,;;,' ^ ,o )r 7''^ ^ ^ ° P ^ 
year, hoed crops; third year wh.Vt f , + i St year ' summer-fallow; second 
wheat; sixth, year, coarse mun ; V e X \ **"' SUI »'ner-f allow; fifth year, 
peas and oats for hVy^eedKfall^e^nStl SUmmer - fallow ; *** ! 



Year, rye pasture. 



265 
Rotations (Irrigated Land) 



_ .. > „„„ u ppn pctablished on the irrigated farm and each has 

Three rotations have J-g-^gg a satisfactory rotation for the irri- 

SSSSftSS m-srple than it is A the dry land, as almost any crop 

adapted to **^^%J&5Z irrigation rotations, as this crop 

Alfalfa, ifl ^" "J^SlSt feed for live stock, returns organic matter 

S3K tSJK SStSL in increased yields of the crops following, 

and is valuable asa weed «J™^ ^ ^ alfalfa: second year, 

Rotation U W^ a £ rth year) alfalfa; fifth year, alfalfa; sixth year, 
alfalfa; third year, alia 1 ft , tern ™j £ ho( , d . ei hth year wheat; 

alfalfa, manured TO^ftj^gSd down to alfalfa. 

nmth year, oa tenth > ear, bay_ Thig ^ ^ ^^ ^^ ^ 

Rotation "V (Alfa Jfa conn nu y, an alf&lfa fidd ^^ 

favourable con enyear8 ' duration) .-First ten years, alfalfa; eleventh 

year btle" t^lftKu-, corn; thirteenth year, wheat; fourteenth year, oats; 

^^e ToveTreally a rotation within a rotation. Instead of breaking up 

one ffiS&SL T ch v rfi -J «*«« — J^MSSM S3 

crZ andTheTJdstS halbetnuS for these Sops are seeded down to alfalfa. 
The P cereal and hoed crops are used as a five years' rotation. 

Irrigation Experiments 

(Ten projects) 

t c+^n+inns are under way at the Station regarding the proper use of 
irrigSr wate? S purpose of the experiments is to obtain information 
regarding: — 

(1) The stage of development of crops when the first and subsequent 
irrigations of the season should be applied. 

(2^ The moisture content of the soil when crops require negation. 

(3) The number of irrigations necessary for different crops. 

( «S S: ^2£5&. P- application for the soil on tnis Station. 
6 Th desirability of cultivating hay and grain crops after irrigating. 
5 The correlating of data obtained, in an endeavour to find a way for 
relieving the "akToacfof water required m June and July. 

i i • *„•„ u.ovs- (a) Bv keening careful note of the 
. . Theproblemja^^^ all water used on 

irrigations required by tlu g< n. > in .^ f ter nn we ll-prepared plots 

the fern. W By applvmg defin^ quantmea . J ^ me> 

at different stages of PjjJjg^S po: toes are the crops included in the plot 
mixed pasture grasses, sunflowers lantr pora f of wth for 

tests. Each of these crops recev es m t. a to J»- , s h,t-blade. flowering 

example, wheat is irrigated *****££ toiZ Bve inches of water are 
S^tS^tffl-^El -Plaid four, six and eight inches to the 
grain, alfalfa and grasses. 



266 

Soil Moisture 



As the purpose of irrigation is to increase the moisture content of the soil, 
SS^"TBSL^ *" F*? ° n b COnnection wiKhe irr^tion 
odSZ foot „S S a 6 !f U r d T d r, lsturP determinations made of each 
separate toot of soil to a depth of six feet before and after each irrigation ind at 
other t,mes as deemed necessary. This phase of the ^ nvesTigaS t supplying 
some interesting data, which promise to be of considerable value re^aXiS? 
water-holding capacity of the soi 1, the amount of water that can be affied w itl. 
safety, the demands made on the soil for water by various crons at different 
stages of their development, and kindred problems P different 

Forage Crops 

(Twenty projects) 

and h-rll^n™ r e T U T i6d °" Wi ? C ? m u' sunflow ^ and roots on both the dry 
and ungated land. Tests are made of the same varieties of roots from seed ob- 
tained from a number of seedsmen, to determine the p u itv of the eed supplie 
A Urge number of varieties and strains of grasses and legumes are und? est 
to find, if possible, a saturfactory perennial hay and pasture ^rop for 5he drv land 

mtefa££d£d< aSK b f - suit ": 1 f(,r ir ^ ated SSL £ih£ 

crop tor irrigated land alfalfa stands in a class by itself, so at all times careful 

SSiStaTZS r? nlatiVC t0 th " In ° St 1-dySd produS strains 

J he question of seed production is receiving most careful attention. 

Cereals 

(Fourteen projects) 

vearon^both It SfiSl 7"^Sm "V 1 "' fii,Tm ' nt 6 rains are conducted each 
year on both the dry and irrigate. 1 lands. Whenever possible lanrer Quantities 
of the better sorts are raised lor seed distribution amoSgTarmers* *S?2E 
is almost the only crop grown on the dry farms of the district the problem of 

S^ff^KSfk I 1 "" n °* b T/ eri0UB ' as the Be^ Lr^ uK^ue 

-^ r r 1!! T^ for , matu ™g almost any of the varieties 

in m,,nl> grown Cereal investigations have therefore been principaUy the 

ra % , , k T V va ;: ( ' tlf T-,. The m: 'i'"' P^ of the work affecting 

gram farming has been along cultural lines, due to the difficulty of producing 

satisfactory crops with limited rainfall. ~ producing 

Poultry 

(Twelve Projects) 

One breed, the Barred Plymouth Rock, is kept at this Station. For a 
h- h\ i y 7 rS " 7 Pfdigree feeding has been carried on, with the result 
The ™ ,, CXC f lk ; nl u *dlty birds. With good egg records, has been developed. 
C „ r e 1 production of all pullets kept .luring the season of 1922-23 was 
in tl f!l? i ' d ' U , 1,en ° f my ave raged 211-5 eggs an. I twenty birds entered 
1 5 ,; , . ' l 7"- li,y " lg C " ni ^ ave raged 229 eggs per bird. One bird laid 
«0 eggs u her laying year and 302 in the contest vear. 

fromthfcw , ],ract,ce + of the Station to supply hatching eggs and cockerels 

Ui u, h ' "'"'V r ,m to 1 f an » ers ^d -thers for the imrp^e of increasing 
k , 1 - ,U a ^e poultry kept i„ the province. Hundreds of poultry 

i. 1 1. " i , T, T S, '; d V U th / s wa - v ' and »bnost invariably report an increase 

t lueed 1 theUr fi0Cka dUe to fche bl00d Of high producer.., thus 



267 



In addition to the breeding work, proper methods of flock management 
suited to local climatic conditions are being worked out. One of the outstanding 
Xculties met with locally is the securing of satisfactory hatches in incubators. 
Several makes of incubator have been tested, but none has been found entirely 
satisfactory here, if operated according to the maker's instructions Various 
me thof. of operating have been tested, and the proper application of moisture 
now gives promise of doing much to solve the problem. 

4t „„ t . Frr Laying Contest— The Alberta egg laying contest was 
rtartec hS the Lethbrtdge Station November 1, 1919 and has been repeated 
each veai -since That the interest in the contest is increasing and the quality 
o? the bkds sent in improving are shown by the number of entries received 
oi ine uiruh scii i number of pens entered for each of the 

^^eye^ot^SVerhnental Station pens, were 1st 11; 2nd, 20; 
3rd 5- 4th 22- 5th 27* and the average production per bird for four years 
were 1st, 122; 2nd, 128; 3rd, 131; 4th, 168. 



Bees 

(Four Projects) 



Bees have been kepi at this Station for a number of years, the work imder- 
* i h, no- hPPii ormoipaUy to determine the possibilities of the industry 
n^SitK Al S SSSflS a suitable method for carrying the bees through 
the TcSable, and often severe, weather oi the winter. It has now been 

, +W hees can be relied upon to produce a large annual yield of excellent 
shown at bees Y» Lccessfully wintered outside in packing cases, 

SLoilg the necessity of constructing expensive cellars or other elaborate 
winteT quarters. ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ fch ind [s fast assum ^ 

imnortance in the alfalfa areas of the irrigated sections of the province. To 
k en ab eas with the rapid development of bee-keeping, arrangements : „, 
Sg made to broaden the scope of investigation m apiculture. 

Extension and Publicity 

t jjv „ +„ +hp annual report of the Station, which is sent to all interested 

In addition to the annual «^ idc , rcsuhs of all ri _ 

parties and the issm ng of b u etu * and s ^ ^^ ^ & ^^ 

mental work ^^fjJK members of the staff address farmers' 
of ways. Thesupenntendent an i a r numerous Letters of enquiry 

meetings, exhibit WJJJ »J 1 gSm visit the Station not only on special 
OclaS whtTpre^^aS is arranged, but at other time* throughout 

the season. 

Illustration Stations 

« + „+;,,n work in the province of Alberta was commenced in 
Illustration Statu n k " j « M operation in that province, all 

1915, and there ar ^ present ^ . mt( , mlc > lt of fche Lethbridge Experi- 
undcr the general oversight » )H ,' inl()r nation has already been obtained on 
rSilL cuiiural p c^s Vanet.es, etc. most suitable for different styles 
f'tSilitbs where these Stations are being conducted. 



268 




THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR CENTRAL ALBERTA 

F. H. Reed, B.S.A., Superintendent 

History and Description 

The Dominion Experimental Station for Central Alberta was established 
at Lacombe in March, 1907. Lacombe is centrally located in one of the largest 
Iivp stock «md mixed farming areas of the West. It is easily accessible, being 
ocatednrmiks north of Calgary and 80 miles south of Edmonton on the 
Calgary and Edmonton trail, and on the Canadian Pacific line between Calgary 
and Edmonton The Canadian Pacific Railway also operates a line running 
e«st from Lacombe and the Lacombe and Northwestern Railway line has 
opened Z a larg" new district to the west and north The Canadian National 
E^v has a right of way into the town from its line five miles south. As 
the Calgary and Edmonton trail, and the two lines of railway pass through 
the farm just south of the town, an excellent view is afforded to travellers of 
the experimental plots and the buildings. .„„„_- 

the aSP™*™^ the Canadian Pacific Railway station is 2 795 feet above 
sea-level and its situation is 52° 28' N. latitude and 113° 44/ W longitude. 
The Experimental Station is situated about one mile southwest of the railway 
station and just on the southwest corner of the town. 

The tonography of the district shows a series of broad, fertile valleys. 
These vallevs become broader and shallower towards the east until the open 
prairie is reached; while, towards the west, the valleys become narrower and 
the "and rougher as the foothills grade into the mountains. The same type 
of country extends, with slight variations, southward as far as Calgary, and 
northward throughout the entire Edmonton district, and is situated m, or 
constitutes, the park belt of Alberta. 

The soil of the district varies from a sandy to a dark chocolate loam 
vnrvine in depth from one to four feet, and is underlaid by a deep subsoil 
whTch varies from a gravellv loam to a stiff clay. The 490 acres of land in 
+Vrik-nr.,-hn P ntal Station, while fairly uniform in character, varies m places 
SeSSBS loam four feet in depth with stiff clay subsoil, to a sandy 
loam one foot deep with sandy subsoil. The farm is quite representative of 

the dist™^ conditions are so important in crop production and for the 
health and comfort of both man and live stock, accurate records are made at the 
Experimental Station of the daily temperatures, precipitation, evaporation 
LxpumiBuiiu oj, c mate of central Alberta is in almost 

"^W ide" Thttrivailmg bright, warm sunshine, with very little of 
the hieh winds which are so trying in many districts, is most pleasing, and at 
the same time very suitable for the production of farm crops. While there is 
but Tittle dTmp cloudv weather and an average annual precipitation of only 
i7*03 ££%£ he last fifteen years, the fact that most of the rain falls 
during The growing season in June, July and ear ly August renders it immed- 
3 avauabte, and usually quite sufficient, for abundant plant growth. 
June Ju^ and August are the wettest and also the warmest months of the 
veai Ss moisture and heat, combined with sunshine from three o'clock in 
the morning until nine o'clock at night, force a very rapid, strong growth 
A shTtTowing season, with late spring and early fall frosts and occasional 
dry years, presents many crop problems, but, where proper farming methods 
are used, a crop failure in the Lacombe district is unknown. 

269 



270 




Cultural Plou-480 require,!. Experimental Station, r.acombe. Alt*. 



• 271 

The winter weather of central Alberta is modified by the warm chinook 
winds that extend northward from the southern part of the province. These 
winds, while seldom warm enough to remove the snow, are a big factor in 
modifying the climate for a considerable distance east of the Rocky moun- 
tains. The thermometer seldom falls below - 20°, and though, at times, the 
temperature is down to - 40° these severe cold spells are of short duration and 
are always accompanied by bright sunny. days. 

The Station farm comprises about 490 acres. All of this land is now 
devoted to experimental work of various kinds, and a second farm of 480 acres, 
four miles north of the Station, is leased and used for pasture and for the growing 
of hay, greenfeed and coarse grains for feeding the large numbers of pure-bred 
animals which are kept for the production and distribution of breeding stock, 
and for experimental work in breeding, housing and feeding. 

Field Husbandry 

When the Station was started in 1907, settlers were coming into the country 
in very large numbers, and these newcomers looked to the "Government Farm" 
as a reliable source of information. The object of the experimental work has 
been to assist farmers in solving the many problems of a new country as it 
developed from the homestead and ranching era into a purely grain farming 
stage and later into a highly developed type of mixed farming, with the keeping 
of large numbers of pure-bred live stock. As some of the land at the Station 
has been under cultivation for thirty-one years, it is particularly adapted for 
this purpose. The first work was to determine what varieties of wheat, oats 
and barley were best suited to the district. The next problem was to find 
mot hods of cultivation which would conserve moisture, retain soil fertility, 
control weeds, and produce paying crops. The third stage was to develop 
crop rotations which while retaining a cash grain crop, would provide for pasture 
and forage crops and the production of coarse grains for the feeding of beef 
cattle, dairy cows, sheep and hogs. In 1911, an extensive series of cultural 
experiments was started. These comprised tests of many methods of stubble 
treatment, summer-fallow treatment, depths of ploughing, applying manure, 
dates rates and depths of seeding, methods of seeding down grasses and breaking 
sod and the growing of roots and silage crops. The nine years' results now 
available from these experiments have provided very valuable information for 
both old and new settlers. 

In 1921 a new series of cultural experiments was started, based on the 
results of the previous experiments and designed to cover some of the more 
recent problems of soil drifting, summer-fallow substitutes, growing of grain 
in group rows etc. This work requires 18 acres, divided into 480 plots. In 
1911 a series of four crop rotations was started. Two of these rotations were 
for grain growing exclusively, while the other two contained pasture and forage 
crops In 1922, nine other rotations were added, covering a much wider range 
of problems such as the growing of sweet clovers, annual and biennial, the place 
of fall rye in farming, the growing of grain in intertilled rows, methods of growing 
and controlling alfalfa and Brome grass and the economical production of 
greenfeed silage crops and roots. The thirteen rotations now under trial require 
253 acres 'divided into 52 blocks or small fields. Accurate and complete records 
are made of every item of cost of production on all of these rotations, seed, 
rent of land horse and manual labour, machinery depreciation, and loss in 
soil fertility as nearly as this may be obtained from check plots. In the 480 
cultural plots and 52 rotation blocks, 45 distinct experiments in field husbandry 
are under way. 



272' 
Cereals 



In experimental work, negative results are often almost as valuable as 
positive ones In cereal work, the object has been to decide what varieties of 
wheat oats, barley and peas are best suited to central Albertan conditions of 
climate and soil. In doing tins, it has been found that many varieties, which 
are heavy yielders m other districts, are entirely unsuited to central Alberta 
and, if used, mean crop failure. It has also been found that some of the older 
varieties are peculiarly adapted to these conditions. Perhaps the most valuable 
work m cereals has been the trying out and introducing of new varieties of grains 
produced by the Dominion Cerealist. Among these are Marquis, Ruby and 
Prelude wheats, a selection of Banner oats, Ottawa 49, and Bearer barley. A 
new cross-bred wheat called Producer, Ottawa 197, which will, in a few years, 
be available lor ( distribution, has, over a five-year period, produced considerably 
heavier yields than Marquis, and requires approximatelv three days less to attain 
maturity. Garnet, Ottawa 652, is one of the most promising new varieties of 
™ • an ;. 1 md »"^ons are that it may prove a serious rival of Ruby, Ottawa 
623, for districts requiring a very early ripening variety. It matures in from 
two to four days less tune than Ruby, and. over a four-year average, has pro- 
duced t, bushels more per acre. For districts where early fall frosts are not the 
limiting factor in barley production, Bearer, Ottawa 475, can be recommended 
as, with the exception ol one rather unsuitable variety, it is the heaviest yielding 
sort under test. Since the Station was started in 1907, fifty-five varieties of 
spring wheat, sixty-hve varieties of oats, seventy varieties of barley and twenty- 
fave varieties of held peas have been grown on the variety plots. While a few of 
these have been found to be particularly adapted to the conditions of the district 
and have given outstanding yields, many varieties have proved quite unsuitable 
and have been discarded. In cereals there are now fifteen projects under way, 
including some work in plant breeding and the selection of new strains of varieties, 
lhe production of registered seed grain is also receiving special attention. 

Forage Crops 

As the Station is located in a prominent live stock district, the production 
ot lorage crops is an important line of work. There are now twenty-nine 
projects under way. These include the testing out of twenty-five strains of 
Western Rye grass, four of timothy, fifteen of red clover, five of White Dutch, 
nve ot sweet clover, and eight strains of alfalfa. These grasses and clovers are 
grown singly and m combination with brome, red top and other grasses, and are 
compared for hay production and as pastures. The production of ensilage crops 
is very important, and for this purpose eight varieties of sunflowers and fourteen 
varieties of corn are under test. These are grown in comparison with different 
varieties of oats for ensilage. Many varieties of swede turnips, field carrots, 
manges and sugar beets are being tried. Wherever possible, home-grown seed 
is used in comparison with commercial seed, and, almost without exception, 
home-grown seed has given the better results. In all of this work it is found 
that while some strains and varieties are well adapted to central Alberta con- 
ditions, many are quite useless, and yet all of these strains and varieties are to 
some extent on the market. As the use of an early maturing variety of sun- 
nowers which will yield a heavy tonnage is very important, selection work with 
some UU strains has been commenced. The difference in the strains is, in most 
cases, quite marked. 

Horticulture 

Moi 611 the . Station was started, avenues and shelter belts of elm, ash and 
! !!l7 aP W ° re PA ant ? d - and > around the gardens, hedges of laurel-leaved 
w illow and" caragana. On the main lawn, some seventy different kinds of orna- 



273 

mental trees and shrubs were set out in small clumps. In the sixteen inter- 
vening years these have grown well, and now, with the borders of perennial and 
annual "flowers which have since been added, make the grounds a beautiful 
sight, well worthy of a visit. 

The object of the experimental work in horticulture has been to ascertain 
what varieties of ornamental trees, flowers and shrubs, what varieties of garden 
vegetables, what bush fruits, and what tree fruits are best adapted to central 
Alberta, and to develop the most suitable cultural methods. It has been amply 
demonstrated that probably in no part of Canada can vegetables and bush truits 
of higher quality be produced; and that every farmer can, with a little extra 
effort and care, have a good farm garden and an attractive farm home. All the 
common vegetables do well in this soil and climate. Red and black currants, 
gooseberries and raspberries give heavy yields of excellent fruit. Strawberries 
are grown with great success. The gooseberries and raspberries require to be 
covered with earth during the winter, and the strawberries should be covered 
with straw. Tests of varieties, methods of cultivation, and winter protection 
are being made. The arboretum contains the oldest and largest collection of 
trees and shrubs north of Calgary, and an effort is being made to test all of the 
annual and perennial flowers suitable to northern conditions. As the country 
becomes older, farmers and townspeople are building new and better houses, 
and making permanent homes. When laying out lawns and gardens, the infor- 
mation from the Experimental Station is of very great service to them. 

The growing of tree fruits has, so far, not been a success, though several 
hundred trees of plums, crab-apples, standard apples and cross-bred apples have 
been planted at various times. A few trees of the standard and cross-bred 
apples have produced fruit, but, without exception, after bearing fruit the tree 
has died during the following winter. The crab-apples and plums have been 
more hardy, and at present there are a few crab-apple trees and several plum 
trees in the orchard which have borne fruit, 

Horticulture is one of the important branches of the work at the Station, 
and forty-eight different projects or experiments are now under way. 

Apiculture 

During the last few vears, the keeping of bees has been receiving a great 
deal of attention in many parts of Alberta. For this reason, the few colonies 
of bees which have been kept at the Station for several years have been given 
more attention and the numbers greatly increased. It has been found that the 
production of honey depends very much on the type of weather during the 
summer months. The nectar is collected very largely from wild flowers and 
the honey is of very high quality, but frequent showers are necessary to prolong 
the blooming period. The wintering of the bees is not difficult, as excellent 
results have been secured from colonies wintered in a room in the office basement, 
and from colonies wintered in the open in a box with about six inches of straw 
or shavings surrounding the hive. During 1923, the thirteen colonies carried 
over the previous winter produced an increase of ten colonies and gave an average 
yield of 93 pounds of extracted honey, per colony. Twenty-three co onies have 
been put into winter quarters. Experiments are under way in control of swarm- 
ing, methods of wintering, and size of frames. 

Poultry 

Poultry is rapidly receiving more attention as a profitable branch of farm 
operations in central Alberta. The plant at the Station consists of eight build- 
ings exclusive of colony houses. White Wyandottes, Barred Rocks and Single 
Combed Rhode Island Reds are the three breeds kept. There are also small 
75617—18 



■274 



flocks of African geese and Pekm ducks. Practieally all the young males are 
sold to farmers m the surrounding district. In addition to breed comparisons. 
experiments are conducted in methods of incubation and rearing, costs of rearing 
clucks and producing eggs, kinds oi feeds and methods of feeding and in breeding 
of pedigreed sock. t.ood pen and individual egg records have repeated^ 
demonstrated that excellent winter egg production can be secured in this climate, 
usmg ony home-grown feeds. Artificial heat is found detrimental rather than 
beneficial and all that .s required is well buill train,, houses, free from draft,, 
liut well ventilated through cotton fronts. 

Live Stock 

I v nwV'of b «n C n°n nU ' ,'"! ^^^ fact <*"* the keeping of hve stock is a necessarv 

, rf/T Permanent farming in central Alberta. With an 

i „ ' ' V t<T ; ! v:ula ,lc m lakes, sloughs and streams, with good 

ee n, t ,w' , !" T d8 .!? d ^ bluffs, and with an abundance of rough 

Ivnln t ft , all<1 n,,t .™'d bay, corn, sunflowers and roots always 

'• h t f ,, r/, -'■ n ' r "T z r l ,h:lt the LacombR di^ct was peculiarly 

™ "u' R I 1 "' 1 , the P^UCtion of Live stock. For these reason;. 

Im r f t ?T ^f'^y ** one Of the largest and most important 

npr i of ni a ,h ;' Ex P.erimental Station. Qnfortunately, space will 

eSSien^LpSSS^ "" ""*" * "** **** "" 

The e w!.n!'i!, T;!w Wlth Hve - twk <m this Station w «s the feeding of beef steers. 
m Mufff or^ H ^T 8011 ' m Kr ' mi,s ke P* iu sta ble S] in corral" and sheltered 
oat ' ,w U i ] ,,m 'T m , vn ,(,< " ls were used . Prairie hay, green feed. 
could b em 1 ° W I' ' r ^^ a " <l " ats - ll ^ found that good profits 

S^ 1 S!n m co S 1 S. feedmg ' : "" 1 that th " ""■* " r " fit < ™ — ' £om 

l)UtHw I !^mrun»il7ow ,m , 1 ' Tj»»»-faed Jersey cows were purchased. 

, lr ' W '"'!' herda of 17 Pure-bred Eolsteins, and twenty 

r etc l;/ "T C ^ le Were bou - ht ' all < 1 dairy and beef barns were 

f£ u i.l u n v ■ K T k mth cattle commenced at the Station. In addition, 

ooSfreVn™ h Was ^"unenoed, using pure-bred dairy bulls on grade 

aXeiS iis/r ; a, a: ^k^wn d r r d fl , ' an ";" ^ 

S^ - J!ura^^J5* E ^^ jt-h M pureberd sK? 

ee, . I i ] CS 0l n ", lk m 365 days, the best records have recently 

i . ui b the younger cows bred a1 the Station. The champion two-year- 
old milk record for the Prairie Provinces is held, at time of writing, by L.B.8. 

67 i m ' ' a t wll ' y (U> ' record Of 18,184-8 pounds of milk and 

676 Pounds butter Her stable mate. L.E.S. Johanna Alcartra. is the cham- 
pion r two-year^Id butter producer of the Prairie Provinces with an R.O.P. 

ot r i, i '"n" ° " 1,lk "f d 7S " Pouuda '"' butter in 375 days. Several 

In' i m VT" IT" 1 reC0 ^ S h;,V '' m '" ,l11 - v 1 "' ,> » U^e, and 'the average 

. i 1 ,h 't^ mU ' v ] l - ]n ^ A)rM Hoktein cows completing their lactation 

K • H 35 « ;, V"', , ',' i ' P0Unds '"' milk and 025 pounds of butter. Si* 

die, averaged 8,416 pounds of milk and 364 pounds of butter. Nine 

« IT re, t T;„°i ( ' x ;. 1 T rmH ' ,,,al «»k are under way. including the comparison 

2 1 :;' 1 I'av, giren teed and silages for milk production; the com- 

aSTand nXtfTV?* 8 :m ! 1,arl, ' v fed al(,, »' ''""1 m combination with mol- 

•'.:, -in.' h i : , "" 'T ^Production; methods of feeding and costs of 

1" 'ion In ■ 11 v, S ' 7 %"' l^ 6 ^ COWS for re «ord milk and butter pro- 

"on. In all experimental feeding, accurate, records are kept of feed costs. 



275 

As large numbers of animals are necessary for reliable experimental work, 
the herds have been developed until there is now a total of 151 head, about 
equally divided between the two breeds. So far, very few breeding females 
have been sold, but annually a number of good young bulls of both breeds 
are disposed of to breeders in Alberta and British Columbia. 

Owing to lack of suitable stabling for such a large herd, not as much experi- 
mental work has been possible with the Aberdeen Angus as with the Holsteins. 
However, data have been compiled on the costs of maintaining and developing 
the herd' and eight experiments arc now under way, including methods and 
costs of wintering yearling heifers and nursing cows; cost of raising bulls to 
one year of age and heifers to two years of age; the comparison of various feeds 
for beef production; the economy of feeding yearling steers for beef and the 
cost of fitting a show herd. 

Dairy Manufacturing.— About half of each day's milk, roughly 500 
pounds, is made into cheese, and the whey is fed to the pigs. Only Cheddar 
cheese is made, put up in small cheese of about ten pounds each. For this 
there is a very keen demand. The remainder of the milk is separated and the 
cream sold to the local creamery. The skim milk is necessary for the dairy 
calves. The making of cream cheese has been tried, but a market cannot 
be found. 

Swine. — Hog raising has, during the last few years, been for many farmers 
the most profitable branch of their operations. One reason has been that very 
little capital is required to start in the business and the increase in numbers 
is very rapid. Hogs were first kept at the Lacombc Station in 1912, when 
four Yorkshire sows were sent from Ottawa, and one Berkshire sow was pur- 
chased locally. In 1915, although a large number of market hogs had meantime 
been sold, the breeding stock had increased to sixty head. In 1915, a large 
piggery was built containing ten farrowing pens, teed room, weigh scales and 
water supply, with storage room overhead for feed and bedding. The work 
with swine was rapidly increased, and, in 1917, 675 hogs were used in experi- 
mental work, in addition to eighty head of breeding stock. Three breeds, 
Yorkshires. Berkshires and Duroc-Jerseys, have been kept, and every effort 
has been made to secure the best boars available and to establish good strains 
of the breeds, the object being to secure the best possible type of each lor the 
breed comparison experiments, and to have for sale only breeding animals oi 
superior merit. In the breed comparison tests, it has been found that the 
Yorkshire is superior in prolificacy, in hardiness, in the time required to reach 
market size and weight, in economy of pork production, and in the number oi 
■-Vied bacon" hogs produced. As the Duroc-Jersey lias not given satisfactory 
results in the comparative breed tests, and as it has been found impossible to 
produce any "select bacon" hogs from this breed, they have been discarded 
this fall (1923). Tamworths may be substituted if satisfactory foundation 
stock can be secured. Some work with cross-bred hogs is also being carried 
on. In' addition to the numerous breed comparisons, some of the other experi- 
ments under way are: Methods of feeding lor bacon production; the self feeder 
vs hand feeding; pasture vs. indoor feeding with and without minerals; tankage 
VB. oilcake meal for weaned pigs, different kinds of hog pastures; methods of 
wintering brood sows; a comparison of fall vs. spring litters. There is always 
a wide demand for breeding swine from the Station, and annually, large numbers 
of young boars and gilts are sold to all parts of Alberta and British Columbia. 

Sheep. Sheep cost the least in feed and care, and usually give the largest 

net returns of any animal on the farm. The keeping of sheep was commenced 
at the Lacombe Station in October, 1913, when twenty range ewes were pur- 
chased and mated to a pure-bred Shropshire ram. This grading-up experiment 
was continued until 1917. when BOme Kill range ewes were added, and an cxperi- 
1617 — 184 



276 



ment was started with the object of testing the relative merits of different 

OvfnrH'Hn^^v P T 0r F^Sf U - P the , average ran ge nock. Shropshire, 
Oxford, Hampshire, Leicester Cheviot and Corriedale rams are being used 

S^SJSES T h Z? k T* dl u stinctl y separate for breeding purposes, 
and pure-bred rams of good type have been used continually. All of the origina 

ZZ hllfl^ ? °i a ? d !S? fl0ck now consists of M second and third 
cross sheep of the six breeds, together with the pure-bred rams, in all 871 head. 

Srt u nvoHnott^T^ Y 6 b / en made aS to the comparison'of the six breeds 
™H IhJZr S £ W ° and mutt0n ' P rolifi cacy, hardiness of the lambs, 

Z i 1 J 1 ° n f mmer range and in wintpr feed lots. Numerous 

feeding experiments are under way to test the relative values of the different 

E5 S Zt^r 8 f ° r S C aUe r g of wethers and lamb *- Wethers have 
ItX winter f,iiT m + ^ fat d? 8 " 58 and later in the carcass competitions 
at the winter fairs, thus testing their suitability for market requirements. 

wher. H SVe o n }Y, ?rad< \'o^n k h0rses were ke Pt at the Station until 1912 
u H h,eo it t 10n I 3 ?? acres of land ' ten mares were added for work 

vinlKfT^, ' h , e ^ tW0 were Pure-bred Percherons, and four 
^t Sentt in t he fl^^f i o^n T a he Perch eron mares were shipped to the Station 
dnle IV, W Si w'. SeV ^ al foals have been raised from the Clydes- 
S 19^1 twonnre IwH^ t A t J7**> 0wing largelv to the lack of good Sires. 
Jh»iS t£ w"?^ Clydesdale mares of good type and breeding were pur- 
StSnH Ji fin foa i s J rom these mares were lost from various causes, but an 
htotilr hlS / + T r ra ^ ed from ^e best mare. On May 16, 1923, 
ernrJZ hv th S'T andh ree Shire mares, presented to the DominioA Gov- 
?W ™,ri gllSh Shl J re , Horse Societ y- arr ^ed at the Station. One of 

Iter flleH V + acc ° m P aiued b // ten-days-old filly foal, and one of the mares 

SSLSft r?*5 "?? and f0al Were - unfortunately lost. The two Shire 
mares and seven Clydesdale mares have been bred to the Shire stallions. There 

PlvHeJnli \\ 6 atl ° n £*?& h0rses : five Pure-bred Shires, eight pure-bred 
, " Z I le \ t , hree Pure-bred Hackneys and four grade Clydesdales. Experi- 
Z ei A , aS /° /F beeQ lim,ted t0 the costs of wintering work horses in 
fables and outside, the costs of keeping work horses for a yelr, and the costs 
of rearing young horses. It is now planned to do some experimental breeding 



277 




THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR THE OKANAGAN VALLEY 
AND THE DRY BELT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 

W. T. lit nteu, B.S.A., Superintendent 

This Station was established in 1914, on the northern extremity of the 
Penticton Indian Reserve No. 1, and comprises a total area of 545 acres. Of 
tins, 260 acres is range land, and of the balance, which is under irrigation, 
approximately 160 acres is arable and under cultivation. Situated three miles 
south of the town of Sununerland and six miles north of Penticton, the irrigated 
farm rises to an elevation of approximately 400 feet above lake level, on the west 
shore ot ( >kanagan lake. The elevation of this body of water is 1,130 feet above 
the sea. 

A daily boat service south from the main line of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, coiinecting at Sicamous, supplemented by daily train service east 
from the Crowsnest Pass and west from Coast points, 'provide easy access 
to the Station from all directions. 

The Farm has a southeastern exposure and the arable land may best be 
described as bemg formed of a series of large and small benches at various levels 
above the lake. 1 he soils are typical of the Okanagan Valley, and are comprised 
of a wide variety ol types, ranging from a heavy, sihv clay to the lightest 
of sands with the subsoil ranging from the coarsest of gravels to clay. In 
places the gravel appears almost at the surface and again the surface soil is 
very deep I his variety of type in the soils enables the Station to Study the 
action of almost any class of land under irrigated conditions. 

1 he climate m the .southern Okanagan is unique for the Dominion of Canada, 
inasmuch as the total hours of sunshine are many, the growing season unusuallv 
long with cool nights, and the rainfall sparse. The average precipitation recorded 
tor the five years 1917-22 was 9.64 inches. Extreme cold is rarely experienced. 

\\ atcr lor irrigation purposes is supplied by a gravity system by the muni- 
cipality of Summerland, supplemented by two Station pumping plants, one, a 
semi-Dersel oil outfit, lifting water from Okanagan lake to augment the water 
supply on the lower benches, and the other a direct -driven, electric, two-stage 
pump, lifting from Trout creek to the highest point on the irrigated farm. 
Ihis creek forms the northern boundary of the property. On the Station itself, 
a very complete gravity irrigation system was installed in 1915 which is capable 
of delivering water m any measured quantity desired to all the irrigable land. 

The permanent buildings on the Station are modern in every respect. 
They consist of an administration building for the poultrv division, main office, 
boarding house, foreman's house, assistant to the superintendent's house, horse 
barn, horticultural building with storage basement, and plant pathological 
laboratory. The white frame and stucco type predominates, and when the 
balance of the temporary buildings at present being used have all been replaced 
by permanent structures, the plant of this Station will present a very pleasing 
appearance. 

Horticulture 

Tree Fbuits.— Situated in the heart of British Columbia's tree fruit area, 
the Summerland Station has devoted special attention to experimental work in 
tins branch ol horticulture. In 1916, a twelve-acre apple orchard was set out. 
len varieties of apples which were grown commercially in the Dry Belt of British 
Columbia were used i u the planting, and the trees were so arranged that each 
acre is a duplicate of the next. The orchard is divided into six blocks, each two 
acres m area,, and each of these blocks is under a different system of cultivation. 

278 



279 



The object of this experiment is to determine the most economical method of 
developing a young orchard and of maintaining it after it reaches bearing age. 
The effect of clean cultivation, alfalfa and vetch cover crops and various inter- 
crops, on growth and vigour of trees, yield of fruit, texture and condition ot soil 
water requirements, and cost of operation is being recorded. This orchard 
is also serving for tests of systems of pruning and methods ot thinning 

In addition to the cultural blocks, there are five acres of orchard devote, 
to the testing of apple varieties. This orchard is planted to two trees each of 
he more important varieties grown in the district, and two trees each of a number 
of seedlings and cross-bred varieties originated at Ottawa. The object of tins 
expernnent is to test varieties, old and new, under Okanagan conditions, for yield, 
keening quality, hardiness, and disease resistance. 

The recent construction of a packing house with storage basement has made 
it possible to carry on a number of experiments in the storage of apples. A 
Wdv is being made of the effect of ventilation and humidity on the storage 
life of apple varieties. Data are also being collected with regard to the effect 
which various cultural conditions and methods of handling have on the keeping 
Quality of fruit. An attempt is being made to determine the stage ot maturity 
at which apples should be picked in order to ensure long storage lite. 

Similar work is being carried on with stone fruits, five acres being utilized 
in cultural, pruning and thinning experiments with plums, prunes, peaches, 

^VFciKTuu^^rhe work with vegetables includes the testing of varieties 
and methods of planting, the selection of improved strains and the study ot 
i galnm requirement*. An effort is being made to determine the varieties 
mort suited t', the district and also to develop new varieties or strains adapted 
to local needs and conditions. Particular attention is being paid to the improve- 
ment of cantaloupes and tomatoes, both of which are grown on a large scale 
n the southern Okanagan country. In order to ascertain the most economical 
irrigation practice for truck crops, information is being sought with regard to 
the most advantageous amount of irrigation water to apply per season, time to 
aonlv it frequency of application, and amount to apply at each irrigation. 
IUs expected that a greenhouse will be provided in the near future, so that more 
work with tender vegetables can be undertaken. .,„... , j 

O n ImStal GifouNDS.-The situation of the Smnmerland Station lends 
itself admirably to landscape work. While the Station is still young, a good 
tar has been made in laying out the grounds. A l^e riumber of orna mental 
shrubs have been found to thrive under our climatic conditions, while the peren- 
nial border is a source of inspiration to the many visitors who frequent the 
Station grounds. Bulbs are used to good advantage in providing a display 
in the spring, while, in the summer and autumn months, the gardens are bright 
with annuals of many and varied hues. 

Agronomy 

Agronomy as conducted at this Station consists of four divisions: Field 
Husbandry Forage, Cereal and Economic Fibre Production. 

Experiments under way at the Station in systematic rotations and measure- 
ments 7,f water as applied to crops under irrigation were probab y the first to 
be Conducted 1 in the southern interior of British < iolumbia. In held husbandry, 
a seven-vear rotation is under test as follows: — 

F i vear. hoed crop: second year, spring wheat, followed by five years 
in alfalfa The essential object of this rotation is to improve the soil, which is 
IS ' deficient in nitrogen and humus. Alfalfa, being an excellent soil 
i e- and a verv productive crop under irrigation, is satisfactorily fulfilling 

W ie ct in view. Advantage is taken of the hoed crop year to make compar- 
ative teste, "or drought resistance and yield, of different varieties for corn and sun- 
flowers for ensilage and stock feeding. 



280 



t^tiSJSt t ra § e Cr ° P ^ ver l clo8e attention is being given to the selecting and 
testing for hardiness, drought resistance, purity of type and vield in both ereen 
and cry matter of grasses, clover, alfalfas, sunflowers^ corn, I S nJ ^ mangefs 
con r d°n^ P ri lgar TL ee r an t d Tl^^ ^°^ r work in *eed productionizing 
of ^miirl Wn- P l° ]eCt ^u he P roduc ti«n of pure foundation seed 

iftfj high-yieldmg varieties. This service has already been of great 
value to the seed growing industry of British Columbia 

oats bflv^S'h^T^p 80 f u ha / + ^ en COnfined t0 testin S varieties of wheat, 
Sufi Y ' eanS ' ReSultS ° f thlS work are on record from 1916 to 1923 



in JoVnlTe™ J™^^,! 011 ' K seve ral experiments have been conducted 
in growing hemp for seed. The object is to produce seed in the Dominion 

wTldTeetfoTdW* °/w eXiStlng high rate °" dut y TeL "o date howrer! 
seed ProdTction ^ ^^^ SeaSOn is to ° short for economic hemp 



Live Stock 



due chiS? t°o lack S nf °rlSf deVelo ? ed f ^t to any great extent at this Station, 

with T th e P P Ch r nS™ haS h ?r eVe ^' alrea<J y made a very enviable reputation 
White WyandXs * QUahty ° f to St ° ck ' which consists exclusively of 

staff ^flhfsummete 6 ^ ^ ° CC V pied a P romi »ent place in the work of the 
at Lerent nn^fin A S ^ ho \ Illustration Stations have been established 
Coh Sn P nw Armst . ro . n ?' Sa , lm °n Arm, Kamloops, and in central British 
th™£ the w£, f ad ™ m t s . tered ^der the Division of Illustration Stations, 
hinTrtrvL ^vt ^ d S + ^ tl0n -, The su Pervisor of these has rendered inva- 
luable service in extending the work of this Station to those outlying districts. 
™w ,S£ T Experimental Station may be said to have performed its 
mono; TifJZ77 ™ rkwith ^e fruit growers of the Okanagan Valley 
ES'„ -f d(>al «f effort has been expended during the past few years 
KiS^ ^ hU * g /° We , rS 0f this district in their local problemsf and 
l»h? P r t >l g h fl 1 ^"cultural Practices in general. Work of inestimable 
bnSi™ lf m beeD P er , fo ™ed. The greatest emphasis has been placed on soil 

SfflTrt tl l e ^ ailable time of the staff has bee ^ to a great 
ofmiw v K mdl ,: idual su Pervision of this problem. Series after series 
iTSSt^ 11 ? ln reCent years ' and as a result the fruit growers of 
J «t th™v ? 6 btat f ,0n , ln vef y hi S h re gard. From this, it can be inferred 
that the work has been of value to the Okanagan district. 



281 




282 










"l.H 



"a 



3 



.9 

i 



THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA 

W. H. Hicks, B.S.A., Superintendent 

The Farm at Agassiz was purchased by the Dominion Government in 
1888 and possession was obtained in September, 1889. It is situated at the 
station of the same name on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 70 
miles east of Vancouver. The Farm lies under the shadow of Mount Cheam, 
about two miles from the Fraser river and five miles from Harrison lake. 

The property consists of some 1,400 acres, 300 of which have been, or can 
be, brought under cultivation. The remainder is mountain or "bench" land, 
which was purchased to preserve the fine growth of timber trees on it and also 
to test the possibility of setting out orchards on the mountain slopes, where the 
situation made it otherwise impossible to make use of the land. 

The soil is a loam of varying quality, underlaid with gravel. Near the 
mountain it is more peaty in nature, but fertile when cleared and drained. Of 
the 300 acres of bottom land, 250 have been cleared so far. 

Water for the stock and domestic use is supplied from a concrete and stone 
reservoir on the mountain side, from which it is piped to the various farm build- 
Alt hough work along all the main lines of agriculture has been carried on here 
since the establishment of the Farm, a specialty was made of the testing of var- 
ieties of fruits, and of forest, nut and ornamental trees. This work was earned 
on for twenty-two years, and a very complete collection of data gathered as to 
the suitability of varieties for this part of British Columbia. 

With the development of agriculture in other parts of the province from 
time to time, it was found that many sections were much better suited for fruit- 
growing, both from their climatic and soil conditions, than was the Agassiz 
district, where the winter weather is very changeable, ice-storms occasionally 
causing great damage by breaking down the trees, and severe frosts, occurring 
when the soil is saturated with moisture, leading to extensive winter-killing. 
The weather is frequently cold and wet at blossoming time, and lack of sunshine 
prevents good colouring of the fruit The results obtained from the orchards 
on the mountain slopes were much more favourable than from those on the 
bottom land, due partly to better drainage and, perhaps, to the higher altitude 
well, but owing to the difficulty in reaching these areas this work was dis- 
continued. 

The results at Agassiz with forest and nut trees have been fairly successful. 
A considerable area is devoted to the growing of shrubs, hedges and flowers, and 
on the lawns almost every variety that will grow in this climate may be found. 
In the flower garden, roses, bulbs, perennials and from eighty to one hundred 
varieties of annuals give bloom from the latter part of March to November 15 
and in some seasons, later. 

In 1911, it was decided to make a change in the character of the experimental 
work most extensively to be pursued at the Agassiz Farm. As indicated above, 
the horticultural possibilities of the district had been thoroughly explored and 
its drawbacks as compared with newly opened and more favourable districts 
were evident. While, therefore, horticultural work at the Agassiz Farm has 
been continued, in the above year it was decided to go more especially into 
dairy farming, a line of work in which little had heretofore been done experimen- 
tally, but which had become one of the chief agricultural industries of the 
district. 

283 



284 

Animal Husbandry 

Cattle.— During the period from the establishment of the Farm until 1911, 
little work was attempted with dairy cattle while in the last few years of that 
period a good herd of Shorthorns had been collected. At that time it was decided 
to go more extensively into dairy farming and since then till the present day 
? o!? 1 o g , aS ^ een f the Tv lm P? rtan t bra ^h of the Farm work. In December, 
1911, 28 head of grade Holstein females were imported from the Province of 
Ontario, accompanied by a pure-bred bull, in the effort to form a grade herd 
of high-producing cows by the use of pure-bred sires, and to demonstrate what 
could be done in turning out first-class dairy products at a profit. Feeding ex- 
periments of many kinds were also carried on, the results of which have been of 
value and interest to dairy farmers, the more important ones probably being 
comparisons of corn clover, peas and oats and sunflower silages. It is interest- 
ing^ to note that milk production in the grade herd was increased 29.72 per cent 
and butter fat production 2d. 09 per cent in two generations, by the use of good 
sires. 

After ten years' work with the grade cattle they were disposed of to make 
room for the rapidly increasing pure bred herd which was started in June, 1912, 
by the purchase of three foundation cows and added to in October, 1915, by 
two two-year old heifers and two heifer calves, in December, 1920, by a yearling 

S e wVl m 2 m? J ll 2 'i y - an ° ther yearlin & hcifer - These nine females 
cost less than $2 000, and with their progeny now total at the present seventy-six 
head This herd is one of the best of its size in Canada, not only from the 
standpoint of type but a so of production. They have competed at Class A 
Exhibitions in British Columbia and have always won a championship where 
shown, as well as many first prizes. Yearly testing under r!o.P. rules has 
been carried on extensively Nine records of over 18,000 pounds of milk in a 
year and five of over 20,000 pounds have been made, besides many creditable 
records by two-year old heifers. 

The famous past world's record butter producer, Agassiz Segis May Echo, 
was born and developed on this Farm. She produced ,in 365 days, 30,886 pounds 
of milk and 1,681 -2o pounds of butter. This was the world's record from 
January to June, 1923. 

Testing for tuberculosis has been regularly and carefully done, without 
locating any re-actors during the past nine years. When the Federal Accredited 
Herd schemes were inaugurated, the Agassiz herd was entered and was one of 
the nrst to qualify. 

The milk from the cows is removed to a modern-equipped farm dairy where 
a portion of it is separated, the skim-milk going to the calves, pigs and poultry, 
while considerable of it is used for experimental work in cheesemaking. Cream, 
Font 1 Eveque, Cheshire, Wensleydale and Stilton cheese have each been made 
in varying quantities and of excellent quality. The Stilton especially is of 
prime quality, being considered equal to that imported from England. 

The change from chiefly horticultural work to dairying, in 1911, necessitated 
the erection of several buildings. A new dairy barn was built, in which an • 
attempt was made to combine cheapness and utility with sanitary conditions, 
iignt and air. lhe stable was made to hold forty-two cows and has concrete 
noors and iron fittings throughout. It is 86 feet by 39 feet with 9-foot ceiling 
and has a feed and mixing room 22 feet by 25 feet to which three silos are joined, 
lhe latter are of wooden staves, are 18, 16 and 14 feet in diameter and 30 and 
<sb leet high, with a total capacity of approximately 600 tons. 
mnH,Iw ^nalstone wall stable to which the new barn was joined was re- 
K fir t s , t T lth four box stalls for cows and an e q"al number of calf pens and 
nrnvirWl fnr * a T™ P ro 7 ided witb - a new barn, six other box-stalls were 

provided for Cows and three calf pens were added. 



285 

Horses— Previous to October, 1917, horses were maintained solely for work- 
ing purposes. At that time an imported Clydesdale mare Melita was purchased 
and, later, four Canadian-bred fillies were secured. These have formed the 
basis of a good Clydesdale stud, numbering at the present time twenty-three 
head, nineteen of which are pure-bred. They provide the horse power for farm- 
ing and a few of the best mares 'raise foals each year. One of the choicest mares 
is Melita Pride, bred on the Farm and sired by Pride of Dumburle. This filly 
was Grand Champion at Portland, U.S.A. in 1922 and at the Provincial Exhi- 
bition New Westminster, B.C., in 1923. 

Sheep.— For a number of years, a fair-sized flock of Dorset Horned sheep 
has been maintained on the Experimental Farm. The flock is a good one, 
of excellent type and very prolific. They are noted for their fecundity and 
frequently produce triplets, which they raise well. A specialty is made of 
raising lambs out of season and selling to the Easter market. This has proved 
a profitable branch of the sheep business in this province, particularly during 
prosperous times. Of late years, a few of the best individuals from the flock 
have been shown at the largest Coast fairs and have always carried off more 
prizes than any other two flocks. The senior flock ram has been a Grand 
Champion eight times and never defeated. Some excellent work in improving 
grade flocks with good rams has been accomplished and valuable data in con- 
nection with feeding experiments are available. 

Swine.— At first, the swine on the Farm were kept chiefly for supplying 
pure-bred stock to people in the out-lying districts of the province rather than 
for experimental feeding purposes. The demand for young stock has been 
usually great er t ban 1 he supply. As the by-products of the dairy herd increased, 
hog raising was entered into more extensively and some very valuable and 
interesting data were secured. This is particularly true regarding the value 
of rice meal and other rice products for swine feeding. Only one breed is kept 
at the present time i.e., the Yorkshire, as this breed is well suited to conditions 
in this province and is quite popular. A modern piggery was built in 1915. 
It is equipped with ten pens, feed cooker, scales and storage space for feed and 
bedding. This building is used for the sows only at farrowing time and for 
fattening market pigs. The breeding stock is housed in portable cabins placed 
in the bush, where the sows get plenty of exercise and not too much feed. 

Poultry 

About two acres of land, part of which is well shaded by a nut plantation, 
forms the area devoted to the poultry plant. ,The poultry department, as it 
is today, differs considerably from the plant in its early history, when it contained 
only three houses. These were what is known as the "Ottawa Cotton Front" 
the "Woods" and the "Tolman", all of the same size, viz., 20 by 14 feet. 
Originally, no less than six breeds were represented, but with development of 
various lines of work it was found advisable to reduce the number of breeds 
to two, one being the Barred Plymouth Rock, a worthy representative of the 
general purpose type and familiarly known as the "farmers' favourite". The 
other breed, representing the purely egg-laying type, is the Single Comb White 
Leghorn, which is unexcelled as the premier bird of the British Columbia 
commercial poultryman. 

Considerable experimental work is being carried on from year to year 
in feeding, range vs. confinement, various styles of housing, in fertility and hatch- 
ability, while pedigree breeding is carried out in such detail that every bird 
retained for breeding purposes is pedigreed. In the hatching season, settings 
of eggs are sold, the demand always being greatly in excess of the supply and for 
breeding purposes the demand for cockerels is always considerably more than 
can be met. 



280 



With the inception, three years ago, of an Egg Laving Contest at the 
Farm, the poultry work took another leap forward. The contest is conducted 
as one of a chain of contests carried on throughout the Dominion by the 
Experimental Farms Branch and open, in each province, to poultrymen within 
that province. Besides the value of any advertisement each contestant may 
receive, these contests are the only channel leading to registration whereby, 
after qualifying in such a contest by laying 200 eggs or over, these eggs weighing 
24 ounces to the dozen, and conforming to the required standard of the breed 
concerned, a bird can be registered in the Canadian National Poultry Record 
Association. 11ns scheme of registration of poultry has been recently inau- 
gurated throughout ( anada and is the first of its kind in existence, 'in the 
three contests to date, the Farm pens have taken high honours. In the 1920-21 
contest, the I arm Barred Rock pen stood sixth out of twenty-six pens with 
the White Leghorn pen seventh; in the L921-22 contest, comprising twenty- 
nine pens, the Farm won with a Barred Rock pen. the average of this pen being 
260 eggs per bird while the White Leghorn pen stood second; in the 1922-2:; 
contest, composed of thirty-six pens, the Farm Barred Lock pen finished first 
with the White Leghorn pen fifth. These results are in themselves sufficient 
evidence of the fact that the poultry department has developed into one of 
great importance on the *arm, particularly as the Farm birds have been brought 
in this way into close and successful competition with the birds of the foremost 
poultry breeders of British Columbia where the poultry industry is in the front 
runR. 



Bees 

A few colonies of Italian bees are always kept. They prove a profitable 
sideline, as hey winter successfully outdoors and. in most seasons, produce a 
tair crop ot honey. • ' l 

Field Husbandry 

The aim of the field work is the supply of suitable feeds for dairy cattle 
as well as tor hogs, sheep, chickens and horses. The Farm is divided into 
four fields which are worked as a four-year rotation consisting of- first year 
hoed cropjsecond year, gram seeded down; third year, hay; fourth year, pasture! 
Other sections are devoted to the growing of cereal varieties, forage crops 
varieties ol grasses, clovers, roots, corn and sunflowers. Flax for fibre can 
also be grown successfully, but as yet, no market is available in British Columbia 
for this product. Some valuable data have also been secured on the valu< 
commercial fertilizers in determining the most profitable combination and 
quality of a mixture as measured by its influence, in relation to cost, throughout 
a three-year rotation. 



287 




2SN 




( 'ambridge Uussett Potatoes, just prior to blooming, 1922— Experimental Station, Invermere, B .< 



THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR THE UPPER COLUMBIA 

VALLEY 

R. G. Newton, B.S.A., Superintendent 

The present site of the Experimental Station for the Upper Columbia Valley 
was selected in 1910, adjoining the townsite of Invermere, which is situated 
about midway of the Columbia-Kootenay Valley. The valley is about 190 
miles in length and is bounded on the east by the Rocky mountains and on 
the west by the Selkirk range. The bottom lands of the Columbia River Valley 
are quite flat and alluvial in character. From the flats, the land rises in a series 
of benches, finally emerging into the foothills and mountains. Some of these 
benches present the appearance of rolling prairie, while others are covered 
with a fine growth of timber. The Experimental Station is situated on the 
first bench overlooking lake Windermere and about 150 feet above its water 
level. It consists of 70 acres, the soil being light and deficient in humus. At 
the present time there has just been acquired some 240 acres across the lake at 
Windermere. This additional area is needed for increased work in forage crops, 
field husbandry and live stock. Clearing commenced at Invermere in 1911 
and the first crops were harvested in 1912. When the Station was started, 
fruit growing was the main feature, but it has been fairly well demonstrated 
that tree fruits are not a commercial proposition in this district; however, 
the growing of the hardier varieties for home consumption should be encouraged 
on all the farms and ranches. 

The average annual precipitation as recorded at the Station during the 
past nine years is 11-98 inches, varying from 14-47 in 1915 to 9-17 in 1922. 
Of this, a little more than half falls between April and September, so that irri- 
gation is absolutely necessary if crops are to be assured. Irrigation water 
is supplied to the Station, by the local irrigation company, between May 1 
and September 30. We are confident that if later applications of irrigation 
water were made there would not be so much winter killing of the clovers 
throughout the district. Irrigation would certainly improve all sections of the 
valley where dry-land farming exists at the present time. 

The following numbers of projects are being carried on at the Station:— 
Animal husbandry, 3; forage crops, 8; field husbandry, 4; cereals, 5; horti- 
culture, 64; poultry, 10; apiary, 6. 

On account of the present small acreage, very little work has been under- 
taken with live stock. However, Clydesdale horses, Ayrshire cattle and York- 
shire swine are kept, and good representative sires of these breeds are available 
for use by the community. 

Field Work 

As to crop rotations, a three-year, a four-year and two six-year rotations 
are being carried out, featuring potatoes, peas, cereals, and some hay and pasture 
crops. Up to the present, the three-year rotation (consisting of oats seeded to 
clover; clover; potatoes) has shown the greatest returns per acre. Clover, 
alfalfa, and mixtures of clover and grasses are being tried as hay crops. Clover 
winter-kills badly, especially when going into winter with insufficient root 
moisture. Alfalfa is strongly recommended for long rotations or as a permanent 
crop. Two crops of alfalfa are harvested each season, running from 4 to 5 tons 
per acre. Three cuttings for hay could be made, but better results are obtained 
by pasturing, or ensiling the last cutting. For a short rotation, clover and 
grasses have out-yielded alfalfa and grasses over a three-year period, the grasses 
standing in the following order: meadow fescue, Western Rye, orchard grass, 

75617—19 289 



290 



timothy and tall oat. Several select strains of Western Rye grass are being 
tested alongside of commercial seed and are showing up as decidedly superior 
to the latter. \ ariety tests with the following forage crops are being conducted : 
corn ' sunflowers, swedes, mangels, sugar beets and carrots. Various cultural 
and fertilizer experiments are being conducted with grains and potatoes. Variety 
tests with wheat, oats, barley and peas are being carried on. Field peas are 
possibly, the most outstanding crop in this line, Prussian Blue averaging 58 
bushels per acre for the past five years. The average vield of the other leading 
cereals over a six-year period is as follows: Marquis wheat, 36 bushels; Huron 
wheat, 36 bushels; Banner oats, 73 bushels; Gold barley, 49 bushels per acre. 

Horticulture 

As previously mentioned, the Station was primarily started to test out the 
district as a fruit-growing section, but that apples had not proved a commercial 
proposition. Hardy varieties such as Wealthy, Yellow Transparent, Rupert, 
Dudley, Okabena, Pinto and C harlamoff, may be grown for home consumption. 
Crabs currants raspberries and strawberries do very well, but, on account of 
our late season, they reach the market at the end of the season and are, therefore, 
at a discount. Variety tests of fruits, vegetables and flowers are carried on. 
and during the past eight years data have been collected on these. On account 
of our short season without frost, usually from the middle of June until the 1st 
September, special cultural methods have to be adopted in forcing to maturity 
such fruit as tomatoes, cucumbers, melons and squash. Potatoes and peas are 
the most outstanding vegetables, on account of their large yields. Forty-five 
vanct.es and strains of potatoes are l„u Ilg tested and a great many cultural 
experiments are under way Last season, in the variety tests of potatoes the 
yields rail from 14 to over 50 tons to the acre. A stock, or strain, of Lincoln 
peas that has been developed on the Station was sent out to the other Farms 
and Stations throughout the Dominion, and about 75 per cent reported that it 
had stood first in their variety test. A number of seedling selections at the 
present time promise to outyield this variety considerably, and are of eaual 
quality. H 

Poultry 

In the poultry section, White Leghorns and White Wvandottes have been 
experimented with at the Station. Pedigree trap-nesting is carried on a 
superior strain of high producers being the object in view. Various poultry 
houses have been tried, the one giving the best satisfaction is the farmers' hen- 
house with a capacity for 100 birds. Hatching, feeding and fattening trials are 
carried on and data collected. The most outstanding achievement from the 
poultry is the record of "Lady Dot", E.3, which produced 325 eggs in her pullet 
year and 224 in her second year. In her second year, thirteen sons and thirteen 
daughters were raised from this bird. The males were distributed, as far as 
possible, to other Farms and Stations. A small flock of Bronze turkeys is kept 
and no difficulty or trouble has been experienced with black-head, the dreaded 
turkey disease. 

Bees 

The apiary for demonstration and experimental work has shown very good 
results for the past seven years, the average production per colony for that 
period being 90. pounds of extracted honey. Experiments in swarm control, 
leeriing and wintering are being carried on. The Kootenay hive case has been 
used with good results up to last winter, which was very severe and during which 
losses occurred The honey is put up in 5-pound containers and finds a ready 
market, 1 he district is one of the few sections of the Province that are free 



291 



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75617— 19£ 



292 




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THE EXPERIMENTAL STATION FOR VANCOUVER ISLAND 

E. M. Straight, B.S.A., Superintendent 

Establishment.— The Experimental Station for Vancouver and adjacent 
islands was established in the North Saanich district, near Sidney, in 1912 
The land when purchased was in hush and heavy timber, but, except for the 
park area, the Farm is now cleared and in a high state of cultivation Ihe 
clearine of land on Vancouver island constitutes a problem of considerable 
magnitude, for the rocks, like the trees, are large. When these giant trees are 
removed, the area levelled and made fit for the plough, a very considerable 
portion has to be til,' drained, adding greatly to the labour and consequent cost 
The total area of the Farm, since the purchase of the Victoria and Sidney right 
of way, is about 130 acres. 

Situ vtion.— The Station is delightfully situated on the strait of Georgia, 
about 15 miles from the city of Victoria, and near the northern end of the Saanich 
Peninsula— the garden of Vancouver island. The farm is traversed by a branch 
of the Canadian National Railway, aim by the British Columbia Electric with a 
station on the property. These, with several bus lines, make transportation to 
and from Victoria easy', but from the northern part of the island the whole penin- 
sula is difficult of access. The proposed ferry to be inaugurated next year 
connecting Patricia and Mill Bays will make Vancouver island a unit as nothine 
else would. . 

Soil— The soil, though typical of the district, is a study m itself , and 
makes great care necessary in conducting experimental work. A small held 
may contain many types of soil, varying physically and chemically without 
apparent cause, from a black prairie soil to muck, to hardpan. to brick clay or 
to sand. This variation makes it difficult to obtain uniform and sulhc ently 
large areas to conduct exact experimental work, yet it broadens the scope ol an 
investigation for the project may be repeated on various types ol soil. 

Buildings.— The buildings consist of superintendent's house, foreman's 

cottage gardener's cottage, dairy barn, horse barn, implement shed, root house, 

' horticultural building, office, and numerous laying sheds and colony houses m 

connection with the poultry plant. During 1923, a continuous poultry contest 

house of sufficient size to accommodate thirty-lour pens ot pullets was con- 

si" ri ] ct( m 1 

Though practically all phases of farm work are represented at the Station, 
particular stress is laid on horticulture, apiculture, and poultry husbandry. 
Cereal husbandry, forage crop work, field husbandry and live stock all receive 
their share of attention, but the major part of the work is given to the more 
intensive side of agricultural production— that in which the farmers on Van- 
couver island are chiefly concerned. 

Horticulture 

The fruits and vegetables of Vancouver island are well known over much 
of Canada. Small fruits, especially, are shipped, and favourably Spoken of, 
over the Prairie Provinces. The industry grows with the years. Through co- 
operative effort in marketing, and otherwise, the growers look for great expan- 
sion, especially in strawberry and loganberry culture. The Experimental 
Station has kept pace with the growers in the determination of the value of 
varieties ami svstems of growing these and other fruits, and all the various 
cultural methods in use in the different provinces of Canada, are under test. 

293 



294 



Among the tree fruits may be found specimen trees of nripHr-niw oil * +i 
pears, cherries, plums and many of the apples grown on Vancouve is and" 

wSrld tC » qmt t G C r? et ?', and indudes Vari " ti - from manv par s o e 
world. Thus a constant object lesson is set up, while the merits mdpmprit'nf 
each variety are carefully recorded. All of the newer in£n£wi ^ f • -!i 
are under trial and reports are made regarding them In iht^l^T^ 
fertilizer needs of soils are determined fron thfstendnoS n t J™^ * ' 
while the relative value of sod vs. clean cultivation S^f u ■ * ?- ulture ' 

cover crop, are standard projects. Ovation, and clean cultivation vs. 

^^Sssx^ss^jss! f yss&s^& T£ f Canada 

grown bulbs has been determined at ths Station That tM ■ I ^ the , forei S n - 
generally known, the Station has furnished bulbs to Jl tL ^ ma ^ be ^? re 
Experimental Farms and Stations in Canada in orH^W ♦? other Dominion 
upon. Because of disease, often found?* Mne Snorted "hnlhT ""* ?* reP ° rted 
in this line is hoped for. imported bulbs, great expansion 



cu^mX^ **"** a11 standard 

vegetables have been exploded and^e^totoier&hrir*ir TT™* 
strated over a period of many years. concerning their growth demon- 

Flowers -One of the most attractive features of the Farm is the disnhv 

£.i° We ?' C T S1Stmg , / an ^ a,S ,' P erennial * and shrubbery The collection is 
large and quite complete. Much of the world has Vwn H™ ,,„ co . Hectlon . 1S 

the collection together The mildness of the climate S pelted IK eo? 
many semi-tropical plants not found in other nart* of rwi t> 

L n ito 10 b e m h fr n SPr l g ^^ ?if Cember > Wh "" a %£*£ -ccetfon of ToVerS 
Jhl end e o? a the y°ear ^ ^ ^ PUSheS thr ° Ugh the fro ^ e2th until 

Apiculture 

The possibilities of apiculture are receiving close attention Definite 
problems are being carefully studied. Already it has been demonstrated that 
bees ar e the most potent factor in the pollination of fruit trees. JuThow much 
work they are able to perform and how important other insects may be into 
connection are matters that are still under investigation. The island Ms heme 
mapped from the beekeeper's standpoint as rapidly as time wi permit ad 
the various systems of wintering, prevention of swarming, etc., are under test 

StKcorAeT 011 eight projects were either in the process of S*Sfc!2 

Poultry Investigations 

on VancIuvJ iSnJ the Stat Ti in JWP* with th « importance of the industry 
clprehensive hn\ ' » an o^nding feature of the work, which is not onlv 
S HW I b V l t 1 exact - Whlte Wyandottes are kept exclusively. The work 
En for £ We "r k rr- an 1 the demands for information, for eggs for incut 
Side ' In orde? to fife "ll f °J ^f™' are Constant and alm <^ Dominfon 

of some of the TnS, ?. + ?te the type of J work bein S carried on > a brief outline 
oi borne ot tne investigations is presented. 



295 



Nearly all eggs are incubated during the three months March, April and 
May! Questions as to when they should be incubated from the standpoint 
of obtaming future layers, breeders, or market birds, are distinct problems 
and must be considered as such. The project now under study cons, ders 
fncubTtion wholly from the standpoint of incubation and tabulate ^ results 
obtained month by month, other factors being equal It ha s been f ound that 
so far as the island is concerned, early-hatched chicks not only hatch better, 
but the viability of the birds in early season is superior to that of the May- 
hatched chicks The converse of this is undoubtedly true m many parts of 
Canada, especially in those sections where layers and males are closely confined 
all winter. . 

Chickens are brooded by various methods year by year, \anous types 
of brooders including the electric, have been used, as well as the natural method. 
All the methods hav! advantages and disadvantages. Recently, the coal stove 
^ooderTas come to be especially well thought of. With t^ of W £ 
the whole colony house is turned into a brooder; heat is plentiful while the 
chicCs are able to find, in the various parts of the house, just that degree of 
S rmth they require. In a brooder of this type the air circulates freely and 
rcTnsequently pure. The chicks are not forced to pile up in the centre to 
keep warm, and the capacity of the brooder is much greater than with many 

other types. . . l-„v« 

Definite figures have been kept as to the feed cost of raising young chicks, 
which has been found to amount to 9 • 5 cents per chick up to eight weeks old. 

The feed consumed by those that did not live to be eight weeks old is charged 
in the above. nrio . , 

The cost of feeding laying stock (Wyandottes) for the year 1922 has been 
determined using pens of birds hatched in March, April and May. An average 
c« t h,s been obtained from the amounts of feed used month by month based 
on prices current on Vancouver island at that time. It was found that the 
average number of pounds of grain consumed per bird was 87-9 and that the 
total cost of same was $2.45. > . 

The cost of producing one dozen eggs is known only to a few, and is not 
easy to obtain. For a number of years this phase of the work has been given 
much attention. , 

Two types of laying sheds are in use at the Station, namely the Woods 
and the shed-roof open front. The latter is much preferred on account of its 
simplicity and economy of construction. It is airy and provides for a maximum 
of sunhgnt During the past Six years the birds housed in the shed-roof houses 
have been immune from colds and roup. 

The breeding of lavers has been continued. Much emphasis has been 
placed on the various factors which converge to form the real breeding Problem 
The breeder is not satisfied with high production if the eggs are small, if the 
lavers are much below weight, if the hens are off-type, or if chicks arising from 
the high-producing type lack vitality or viability; yet, one or more of these 
factors is often lost sight of. with the result that a weakness persists, is multiplied, 
'md eventually destroys the model. A mental picture of the ideal \\yandotte 
fs constantly kept in the mind's eye and though it is not possible at al times 
to measure up to the standard set, much may be done. Close attention to 
detail in the breeding work has borne fruit. Almost every year one or more 
birds of outstanding performance have been produced. Among these are Lady 
Victoria and Saanich Belle. 

A studv has been made of the relation existing between weight and produc- 
tion in Wvandottes. Contrary to the idea often advanced, we have found 
that the heavier the bird the greater the production. For example: 4 J pound 
MtatlSS L MO* eggs in the year; from 4* to 5 pound, 196-5; and from 



296 



5 to 5§ pounds, 208-8; 5* . to 6 pounds, 197 ; over 6 pounds, 210 • 7. The relation 
between weight and production is nearly constant. The heavier the bird the 

. 52T4!3&to in T di?idua a is aW S ° faT " aVCrageS g °' bUt d06S n0t ^ f0lI °- 

h a ,J Tee mT \ ge f °n P ^ u aS beeD recom mended, and vet manv breeders 
have secured excellent results m very small houses, with practically no range 
at all To determine which system will give better results is the object of the 
,xperiment begun in 1922. It has been found, so far as the work has progressed! 

hat the birds laid better when confined than when on range, but that the cost 
of feed in confinement was greater than on range. In order to secure further 

.formation concerning the incubation of eggs from the two pens (confinement 
vs. range), hatching and rearing results have been tabulated. It was found 
that the number of chicks alive on July 1. hatched from the range pen was 
more than double that from the confined pen 

witl.T! 10 I'™ 0118 co ™ mer + cial feeds use d/or poultry are being fed in comparison 
with the home-mixed ration such as is fed at the Station. The conclusion as 
determined by results of one year only, is that while hens laid more egg"' on 
the home ration, the feed cost more than the commercial The exnhnation 
may be found in the fact that concentrated protein substances ar S i 
many forms, some of which may be cheaper than beef scrap. 

Cereals 

Perhaps no more interesting line of work has been undertaken than that 

ol 1 tll . f * i , C0, V 11 Vr- n TT"; ■ DurmK *£**"*>• ****> the nx.tr, 

of the soils of this district is never sufficient for best results, while the winter 
rams are excessive. This moisture factor suggests the line o i r< c dure if 
grams can be found of sufficient hardiness to Withstand £ \LZ™ Snd 
Muter, rhe whole oi America has be,,, combed to secure such seed. For he 
last two years we have been able to report wheats, barleys and oats quite hardv 
under our conditions, while the yield when fall sown is often double that of the 
same variety when sown in the spring. The winter moisture uile whUe 
the crop is harvested the next year during the driest time. During 923 St 
mam projects in the cereal department were being investigated. ' 

Forage Crops 

Forage crops receive as much attention as the limited area will permit 
Here all the forage crops such as roots, corn, sunflowers, etc.. are grown and the 
behaviour of each noted. A. present sixteen projects are being earned on 

Animal Husbandry 

A small herd of dairy cattle (Jerseys) is kept at, the Farm. Among tb 

160MO l ; SS ' <: , lK Vr COm P leted h <* H-OJP. Nvith a prodSo 

lb 018-9 pounds of milk. Other C0 W8 have done nearly as well The cost of 

milk production and breeding problems are being studied. 

Field Husbandry 

runnm^ov^hS S? hu * bandr > r has , been c ™fined to the regular rotations 

ions f Z P n U fi and £* y ^f S ' but var ying som ewhat to suit the peculiar 

o t in , wi .! ' Tf*' The c COSt ? f Production of the various crops is 

The To t , romal le t 3**™ S"**- °\ l0SS betWeen the different stations, 
ine most prontahle lute of procedure is thus arrived at. 



297 
General 

The effect of fertilizers, singly and in combination, is being noted and the 
sugar content of beets, ensilage mixtures, etc., receive attention. 

In the botanical division, the weeds of the district and plant diseases have 
been studied in general, while a few problems such as "control of moss on lawns ' 
and "rose mildew" have received special attention. 

Illustration Stations 

A commencement has been made in the endeavour to demonstrate 
some of the results obtained on the Sidney Experimental Station by establishing 
two Illustration Stations on the island. It is hoped to increase the number of 
these in the near future. 

THE EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTATIONS 

For ascertaining the agricultural possibilities of a remote district, where 
the establishment of a regularlv equipped experimental station is not warranted, 
for a time at least, the "substation" fills a most useful purpose. Its location 
and operation arc simple and inexpensive. A farmer of the district is found 
possessing a good practical knowledge of agriculture and a willingness to undertake 
the work and from him a varying area of his farm is rented, he to conduct experi- 
ments according to instructions and report results in return for a payment for 
services as agreed upon. . 

The above is the typical arrangement made although, when expansion ol 
work warrants, larger areas may be rented and the operator's full time employed 
thereon; or on the other hand, when the amount of work desired is very small, 
the operator is paid a small sum yearly, simply to test seeds sent him, no rental 
being paid. 

Experimental Substation, Fort Vermilion, Alta. 

The oldest substation of the Experimental Farms system is that of Fort 
Vermilion on the Peace river, some 350 miles north of Edmonton, in 58° 24 
north latitude, 116° west longitude and at an elevation of 950 feet above sea- 
level. Work here commenced in 1908 on an area of 5 acres rented from Mr. 
Robert Jones, a farmer of the district, who has since conducted the experimental 
work. This work has grown until 25 acres are now devoted to experiments in 
cereals, forage crops, horticulture, field husbandry, etc., Mr. Jories' full time now 
being taken up by the Department of Agriculture. 

Excellent results have been obtained from the experimental work conducted 
at this point. In no season has there been a crop failure; in fact Mr. Jones 
states that a "crop failure is unknown". The growing season is, of course, short, 
but in summer the "day" i.e. from sunrise to sunset is some 18 hours long and 
growth is extremely rapid. 

In horticulture all the hardier sorts of vegetable, such as beets, carrots, 
onions, lettuce, radish, parsnips, spinach, potatoes, and turnips, and also more 
tender kinds such as beans and corn, grow readily in the open. Others such as 
cabbage, cauliflower and tomatoes are started under glass, as is done in other 
parts of Canada. , 

Small fruits, such as strawberries, currants and raspberries do well; goose- 
berries, plums and apples have not yet succeeded and work is being continued to 
secure forms of these hardy enough to resist winter-killing. 

Flowers bloom profusely and the hardier varieties of ornamental trees and 
shrubs have done well. 



298 

The success with cereals has been outstanding. Earlv maturing varieties 
must, of course, be used and the yields of these are never as "high as are obtained 
irom varieties having a longer season, yet the six-yea* average of five varieties 
of wheat has run from 58 bushels 40 pounds per acre to 41 bushels 50 pounds 
with a weight per bushel from 64.9 to 62.7 pounds. Three varieties of oats 
tested for the same period, gave yields of from 88 bushels 33 pounds to 63 bushels 
2 pounds per acre; four varieties of barley from 60 bushels 40 pounds to 51 
bushels 42 pounds and two varieties of peas on a seven-years' average, yielded 
35 bushels 52 pounds and 34 bushels 20 pounds respectively. 

With forage crops, the work, although not very extensive, has been sound, 
and productive of valuable results. Roots such as swede and garden turnips, 
mangels, sugar beets and carrots have given good returns. Indian corn for 
ensilage is not a sure crop, the shortness of the growing season preventing its 
reaching a stage to make good ensilage. Sunflowers for ensilage, however 
tested m 1921 and 1922, gave very promising results, both as to qualitv and 
yield. J 

With grasses and clovers, alfalfa, sainfoin, red clover and alsike, brome grass 
timothy, western rye grass, meadow fescue and several annual grasses, such as 
canary grass and millet, have been- tested. Yields of all these have been most 
satisfactory. >ome difficulty was at first experienced with alfalfa, owing to 
winter-killing, but by the use of hardier varieties and strains, this has been 
largely overcome. 

NoTE.—For further details of experiments at Fort Vermilion, weather records, etc., the 
r f a p er JV efer r d tC \ ^P™"!™'"! F *™ Bulletin No. 6, New Series, Results of Experiments 




ling Variety Plots of cereals at Beaverlodge, 1923 



299 
Experimental Substation, Beaverlodge, Alta. 

Work here was undertaken in 1914, by Mr. W. D. Albright, who volunteered 
to do some experimental work upon his farm, without remuneration. It has 
since gradually expanded until now over forty acres are devoted to experiments 
in cereals, forage crops and horticulture. Some work with live stock is also 
undertaken. An experimental silo has proved the feasibility of ensilage practice 
in the district. Mr. Albright's time is now fully taken up with the work. 

The substation is located some 28 miles west of the town of Grande Prairie 
and 25 miles cast of the boundary of British Columbia. Its altitude is 2,500 
feet above sea-level. 

Temperatures and precipitation records have been accurately kept since 
the latter part of 1915 and an evaporimcter, a soil thermograph, and a sunshine 
recorder were installed in 1922. A study of these records indicates that while, 
in the average year, temperatures are rather low and the rainfall only moderate 
and somewhat irregular, yet restricted evaporation and the absence of scorching 
heat waves permit of the most effective use by crops of the soil moisture avail- 
able. 

The work at the Beaverlodge Station covers a very wide field, although, 
of course, in no particular line has it yet been possible to carry on a very large 
amount of detailed research and experiment owing to limitations of staff, equip- 
ment, and land. The problems connected with forage crops are perhaps among 
the most pressing in this district, both as a source of fodder to permit of successful 
live stock husbandry, and also as preserving soil fertility. The experimental 
work going on includes : — 

Forage Crops 

(1) Nurse Crop Experiments. — This includes comparison of effects of seeding 
down with and without nurse crops ; comparison of the various cereals as nurse 
crops, and at varying rates of sowing. It has so far been found that the seeding 
of hay crops alone without a nurse crop has given the heaviest yield, though 
possibly it is not the most profitable practice. 

(2) Pasturing Test in Seeding Down. 

(3) Grass and Clover Mixture Experiments. — This is to compare various 
mixtures of grasses and legumes for hay production. It has been found so far 
that the combination of alfalfa and Western rye has given the best yields. 

(4) Thickness of Seeding Tests with Grasses. — In order to secure the best 
rate of seeding for timothy, Western rye, and Red top for general farm practice, 
five pounds per acre of timothy seed is recommended; Western rye should be 
sown more thickly, but the best rate is not yet decided. 

(5) Inoculation Tests with Legumes. — The necessity of this has been very 
clearly indicated by the experiments carried on. 

(6) Legume Root Penetration of Hard Sub-Soils. — The extent and effect 
of root penetration on hard sub-soils is most surprising, as shown by the results 
obtained. 

(7) Cultural Experiments with Alfalfa. — It has been found that when not 
inoculated, alfalfa has given the very best results if seeded thinly in inter- 
cultivated rows, but when inoculated, the larger yields have generally been 
obtained from broadcast seeding, except in extremely dry seasons. 

(8) Variety Tests with Alfalfa. 

(9) Grasses and Clovers for Seed Production. — All the common grasses and 
clovers have regularly demonstrated their ability to mature good seed in ample 
quantities in this district, with the exception of alfalfa previous to 1922. During 
the last two years, however, alfalfa has ripened good crops of seed. 



300 



(10) Variety Tests of Sunflowers and Corn. — Sunflowers have proven a 
productive crop for ensilage, but earlier varieties are desired. Several of these 
originated in the Cereal Division are now under further test. With corn for 
ensilage, the average temperature is too low to make it a safe crop. 

(11) Variety Tests of Field Roots.— These are an irregular crop under 
ordinary cultural conditions. 

(12) Variety Tests with Clovers and Grasses.— A considerable number of plots 
are devoted to this work, including tests of some of the best strains of rve grass 
selected at Ottawa. 

(13) Miscellaneous Forage Crops.— Millets and Sudan grass have proven 
too tender. Rape is but a moderate success in broadcast formation but docs 
well m drills. Oats on well-prepared land often yield three to four tons of cured 
forage per acre. Combinations of oats with peas and vetches have scarcely 
been so productive. 

Cereals 

The work with cereals includes varieties of all the most likely kinds of 
spring wheat, oats, barley, rye, and peas, and also with a few kinds of winter 
rye, winter wheat, and other winter annuals. With the spring grains, very 
early sorts arc not desirable owing to adverse conditions early in the season- 
on the other hand, late varieties are too subject to frost before maturity, so 
that the medium early sorts are best suited to the Grande Prairie district. Plot 
yields at the Substation have run as high as 136 bushels per acre of Victory oats 
and 08 bushels per acre of Huron wheat. Some of the most promising varieties 
and strains of spring wheat grown in 1923 were Ruby, Garnet, and Early Tri- 
umph. Among oats, the standard old variety, Banner, ranks high. Other good 
kinds are Ligowo, Gold Rain, Abundance, and Victory. The Liberty hulless 
oat does well, giving a yield equivalent to about 107 bushels of ordinary oats. 
Tests of varieties of some 15 barleys and 11 sorts of peas are also under way 
Spring rye. flax and buckwheat all yielded well in 1923. Three kinds of winter 
rye, six of winter wheat, also winter barley, emner, oats and hairy vetches have 
been seeded this year. In the past as high as 57 bushels of winter rve per acre 
have been harvested. 

The work with field husbandry comprises thickness of seeding tests dad 
of seeding experiments and cultural work. 

The investigational work on soils and fertilizers is very carefully conducted 
and is already yielding most valuable results. Data so far obtained would 
seem to indicate that, owing to climatic conditions, soluble nitrogen probably 
takes rank second to moisture as a direct limiting factor in crop production. 

The possibilities of horticulture in the Grande Prairie district are being 
well demonstrated; currants, strawberries, and raspberries are regularly raised 
with fair success for local use, and all the usual garden vegetables are success- 
fully grown. Potatoes have given yields ranging from 100 to 400 pounds per 
acre according to conditions of the season. It has been found that sprouting 
in trays and early planting have proven sound practices in backward years. 
Nearly 300 plots of potatoes were grown experimentally in 1923, comprising 
tests ot varieties and strains and also the comparison of various cultural methods. 
N ith trees, shrubs and flowers, a very fine collection and display is to be found 
on the Station, indicating to the farmer the possibility and desirability of the 
beautification of the surroundings of the farm home. ' 

A commencement in beekeeping was successfully made in 1923. 

With live stock, some experimental work with cattle and hogs has con- 
tained the experience of pioneer farmers in the district that the climate is well 
adapted to live stock husbandry. In 1922, a carload of cattle were fattened, 
in a cheap pore and straw shed, with homegrown feeds, and after a 440-mile trip 
to Edmonton, the cattle topped the market by an easy margin 



301 

In 1922, some 88 hogs were fed experimentally to compare breeds and feeds 
and also to obtain data as to the requirements of the bacon hog industry. Some 
very valuable information was obtained in this work, which will be continued. 

Swede Creek, Dawson, Y.T. 

Arrangements were made in 1917 for some experimental work to be conduc- 
ted on an area of 20 acres on the farm of Mr. Jas. Farr. Soil improvement ■ 
was found to be necessary, and this work necessarily slow, and further hampered 
by transportation difficulties and high cost of fertilizers, has prevented other 
tests and experiments so far taking so wide a range, or producing such clear-cut 
results, as have been obtained on some other Substations. 

Progress, however, has been made. Good crops have been harvested 
each year of wheat, oats, and barley. Root crops have so far given only fair 
yields, owing to soil and climatic conditions. Some difficulty is, naturally, 
being experienced with winter-killing of clover and considerable reseeding has 
been found necessary, but on those plots which survived, average yields have 
been obtained. Wheat, oats and barley have done well. In 1922 part of the 
wheat crop (of the Prelude variety) was ground into whole wheat flour and 
proved far superior to the imported article as obtained locally. In 1923, the 
same variety gave a crop weighing 64 pounds to the bushel. 

The hardier vegetables have done fairly well in most cases. With these, 
as indeed with all other crops, the variation from season to season has so far 
been most marked, owing to scanty rainfall, late opening of spring, or early fall 
frosts, in some years. The land, moreover, has not yet reached a condition 
where best possible results can be expected. 

Salmon Arm, B.C. 

A limited amount of experimental work, principally with fruits, is being 
conducted, on his farm, by Thos. A. Sharpe, formerly Superintendent of the 
Experimental Farm at Agassiz, B.C. Work here was commenced in 1911, and 
considerable progress has been made in the testing and originating of varieties 
of fruits suited to the conditions of the Salmon Arm district. 

Forts Smith, Resolution and Providence 

Work here began in 1911. These forts are Hudsons' Bay Company posts, 
Fort Smith being located on Slave river, about half-way between lake Athabaska 
and Great Slave lake. Fort Resolution is on the south shore of Great Slave 
lake and Fort Providence is a short distance northwest of the western end of 
that lake, on the Mackenzie river. A mission for the Indians is located at each 
fort and the fathers in charge have done the experimental work for the depart- 
ment. 

Conditions of transportation, soil and climate and limited facilities for 
the performance of cultural operations and the accurate observation of results 
have limited the work to the testing of varieties of cereals, forage crops, veget- 
ables and ornamentals, etc. In some years a fair measure of success has been 
obtained; in others, late spring and early fall frosts, dry or too wet seasons, 
insect and bird damage, have seriously affected results. Valuable data are 
being gathered however, as to the agricultural possibilities of this region. 



302 

Betsiamites Saguenay County, Quebec 

Some experimental work here was arranged for in 1921. Settlement along 
the north shore of the lower St. Lawrence river is scattered and the region is 
never likely to be one of great agricultural importance. However, until the 
present, the settlers have been importing most of the necessaries of life, and it 
was with the view of ascertaining how far they might become self-supporting 
as to agricultural produce that experimental work was commenced. It may 
also be found possible to grow feeds locally which will permit of new lines of 
industry and additional sources of income. 

Substations Now Discontinued 

From time to time during the history of the Experimental Farms, substation 
work has been conducted at points other than those mentioned above, but for 
one reason or another has been discontinued. Some of these points were: 

Kamloops, B.C. — In a district having a very scanty rainfall. Some study 
of "dry-farming" methods was here made. Extension of such work on the 
regular Experimental Farms on the prairies made further work at Kamloops 
unnecessary. 

Grouard, Alta. — Some testing of varieties of cereals, forage and garden 
crops, was conducted here for a number of years by the fathers of the mission. 
Changes among these, however, left no one to continue the work. 

Athabaska Landing, Alta. — Work was discontinued here owing to the 
operator being no longer in a position to carry on experiments. 

Abitibi District, Northern Quebec— Work here some years ago was 
unsuccessful, chiefly owing to the operator's inability to perform the necessary 
seeding and cultural operations in good time. At present, the regular Experi- 
mental Station at La Ferme in northern Quebec fills all requirements. 



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BIBUOTHEQUE CANADIENNE DF L AGRICULTURE 

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