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'E 1.3 no .,29 1927 



COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 



ORGANIZATION OF A 
HEALTH INSTRUCTION PROGRAM 

FOR 

ONE-TEACHER SCHOOLS 




(REVISED REPRINT) 



Bufletin No. 29 
Harrisburg 
1927 



PmmmiA S TATS LIBHAHY 



GANSER LIBRAR^ 
MILLERSViLLE STAtE COLLEG,^ 
MILLERSVIILE. P\ 17551 



COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 



ORGANIZATION OF A 
HEALTH INSTRUCTION PROGRAM 

FOR 

ONE-TEACHER SCHOOLS 




(REVISED REPRINT) 



BuUetin No. 29 
Harrisburg 
1927 



Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION 

Harrisburg 



Superintendent of Public Instruction 
John A. H. Keith 



Division I 

Narmal Schools, Secondary Schools, Special and Extension Edu- 
cation, Certification of Teachers, Institutes and Departmental 
Library 



William M. Denison, Deputy Superintendent 

Division III 

Vocational Educationa Under Federal (Smith-Hughes) and 
Pennsylvania Laws 

LiNDLEY H. Dennis, Deputy Superintendent 

Division IV 

School Visitation, Conference and Advice 



James N. Rule, Deputy Supe^^intendent 



Division II 



Legal Relations and Services to School Districts 



Robert C. Shaw, Deputy Superintendeyit 



Division V 



Service to Professional Examining Boards and Higher Educa- 
tion 



Charles D. Koch, Deputy Superintendent 



Division VI 



State Library and Museum 



Frederic A. Godcharles, Director 



STATE COUNCIL OF EDUCATION 



John A. H. Keith, President and Chief Executor Officer 



Mrs. Edward W. Biddle 
John J. Coyle 



Carlisle 

Philadelphia 

Dimock 

. . Pittsburgh 
Philadelphia 
. . . Somerset 

Corry 

. Bryn Mawr 
. . . Mansfield 



Francis R. Cope, Jr. 
Charles E. Dickey. 
Samuel S. Fleisher 



Mrs. Alice F. Kiernan 
f. a. loveland 



Marion Edwards Park 
William R. Straughn 



James N. Rule 



Secretary 



PENNSYLVANIA SCHOOL EMPLOYES' RETIREMENT BOARD 
H. H. Baish Secretary 



FOKEWOIJD 



This bulletin aims to provide suggestions and helps for the organi- 
zation of a program of health instruction in one-teacher schools. Tlie 
material indicates desirable outcomes in terms of knowledge, habits, 
and attitudes; situations that will provide purposeful health ac- 
tivities; and subject matter references to the State Course of Study 
in Health Instruction for graded schools and also to modern texts in 
the field of health instruction. A basis for the measurement of the 
resiilts of instruction in health is suggested. 

The bulletin has been prepared by Miss Helena McCray, Super- 
visor of Health Instruction, under the general direction of Mr. W. 
G. Moorhead, Director of Health and Physical Education. 

John A. H. Keith. 
Superintendent of Public Instruction. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2015 



https://archive.org/details/organizationofhe00penn_2 



ORGANIZATION OF A HEALTH INSTRUCTION 
PROGRAM FOR ONE-TEACHER SCHOOLS 



General Aim : To promote such health habits, skills, attitudes, and 
knowledge as will enable the individual to make 
adjustments for right living. 

1. To establish health habits 

2. To present to older pupils, information sup- 
porting the health habits and attitudes so 
motives will be strong enough to facilitate the 
carrying out of health habits and attitudes 
during school life and the continuance of them 
in after school life. 

3. To develop an understanding and an apprecia- 
tion of, and right attitudes towards physical, 
mental, social and moral health as a basis for 
happiness and service in personal, family and 
community life. 

4. To maintain at all times a clean and sanitary 
school environment. 

In preparing a health program for a school, teachers should first 
make a study of the community. Knowledge of living conditions of 
the people, their attitiide towards sanitation, and the traditions of 
various groups will help a teacher to proceed with clearer under- 
standing to a solution of health problems of her pupils. 

The next step is to make a survey of the school building to discover 
conditions that may be improved. The progressive teacher under- 
stands that health lessons are of little avail when taught in rooms 
in which unhygienic conditions exist. 

The third and most important step, is to learn the needs of each 
individual child. These are to be met as rapidly as possible and 
should largely determine the health program for the jeav. 

To organize a program on a pedagogical basis, application of psy- 
chological principles is just as necessary in health as in any other 
subject. A school health program may be effectively arranged under 
the following three general topical headings: 

1. Outcomes in terms of habits, attitudes and knowledge. . 

2. Situations and activities. 

3. Subject matter. 

OUTCOMES 

Under "Outcomes" are listed results in terms of health habits 
and attitudes to be secured. Along with these habits and attitudes 
pupils should gain related knowledge adapted to their mental de- 



Specific Aims : 



7 



8 



velopment. This information is necessary to make motives strong 
enough to carry outcomes over into daily living during and after 
school days. 

SITUATIONS 

All natural situations in the school room and in the pupils' daily 
lives that will provide opportunity to exercise a desired habit or 
create a right attitude should be used. Natural situations such as 
making use of the actiial lunch served at school are of much more 
value than any artilicial devices, such as dramatizing a good lunch. 

Under "Situations and Activities" suggestions are made to which 
the teacher will be able to add from her own and the experiences of 
her pupils. 

If efforts are to be used to the best advantage, the laws of learn- 
ing must be kept in mind. Attention is called to the following three: 

1. Law of Readiness Presenting lesson at an opportune time 

makes it much more effective. 

2. «Law of Exercise Doing things is more essential than just 

talking about them. 

3. Law of Effect Gaining satisfaction from what is done will 

help to form right habits. 

SUBJECT MATTER 

Under "Subject Matter" teachers are urged to make notes on refer- 
ences to material found especially useful in preparation of lessons. 
As supplemental to the basic classroom text, the teacher should have 
desk copies of at least two or three modern texts. The symbols used 
under "Subject Matter" refer to the following modern texts: 



Health and Success H & S 

Health and Good Citizenship H&GC 

Health for Every Day HED 

Health in Home and Neighboi'hood HH&N 

Everv Day Health, Book 1 EDHBkl 

Every Day Health, Book 2 EDHBk2 

Healthy Living, Book 1 H L Bk 1 

Healthy Living, Book 2 H L Bk 2 

Journey to Health Land JHL 

Boys and Girls of Wake-Up Town BGW 

The Land of Health L H 

Syllabus in Hygiene and Physiology, 

Grades 1-8 Syl 



(The names of authors and publishers are given on page 26) 

Teachers will find some good suggestions in the 
Junior Red Cross Calendar under the title, "Fit for 
Service," and in the Junior Red Cross News. These 
may be secured from the American Red Cross, 
Washington, D. C. 



9 



PUPIL-RESPONSIBILITY 

In the Topic Outline for Grades 7-8, in the second column, sugges 
tions are made for committees that will help to provide healthful con- 
ditions in the school room and promote right attitudes toward health. 
The fifth and sixth grade pupils should take charge of some of these 
duties in schools having only the first six grades. At the beginning of 
the term, committees should be organized. In schools where the 
*"A" Group is small, younger pupils may assist with some duties. 

During one of the first hygiene periods, the teacher should explain 
the purpose of forming the committees, and present some such out- 
line as the following : 

Suggestive Outline for Discussions in Committee Meeting: 

1. What conditions existing in the school are committee re- 
sponsibilities ? 

2. What are the specific responsibilities and duties of each com- 
mittee? 

3. What are the possibilities for improvement of the above con- 
ditions during the month or term? 

4. What are the responsibiliiies of each of the following groups 
or individuals: pupils, teacher, supervising pi'incipal, jani- 
tor, parents, nurse, doctor, dentist, health officers, school 
directors, county superintendents, and community? 

5. What information does each committee need in order to pro- 
ceed with its work properly? 

6. Wliat essentials should each committee try to teach through 
poster work? 

7. How is each committee's service related to topics studied in 
hygiene ? 

8. What is the best form for giving report of committee? 

9. How can each committee help make the efi'orts of other com- 
mittees successful? 

The teacher then asks pupils for suggestions as to ways in 
which each committee may promote health in the school, the 
home, and the community. Each member of the class will make 
a cop;^ of the outline. All committees are requested to report 
on the first three questions during the next hygiene period. 

Pupils should be required to keep careful reports of their work. 
Interest may be stimulated by the use of bulletin boards, health 
booklets containing material selected to illustrate objectives, a health 
section in the school library including bulletins secured from the 
Federal Government and the State Health Department. 

Pupils should be encouraged to take pride in keeping their school 
in the best condition possible and made to feel that it is an honor to 
serve on committees. Initiative, responsibility and leadership that 
might otherwise never be discovered are developed by giving pupils 
opportunities for self-expression under guidance. 



*Group "A," Grades 8-7; "B," Grades 6-5; "C," Grades 4-3; "D," Grades 2-1. 



IQ 



To develop right habits, opportunities should be provided to ex- 
ercise them; to create right attitudes, time should be allowed for 
appreciation of the best conditions and situations existing. Both 
habits and attitudes will be strengthened by granting requests to 
make improvements which bring feelings of satisfaction. In this 
way, respect for worth while service is stimulated and may be used 
for the promotion of health. 

To make pupil-responsibility most successful, three steps must be 
taken by the teacher; (1) determine possibilities of pupil-service in 
carrying out a health program in school, home and community; (2) 
determine responsibilities of dift'erent officials and groups; (3) co- 
ordinate the work of each committee with the proper agencies. In 
taking each step, pupil-activity and interest must be used to the ut- 
most. 

These outcomes are so essential that the teacher who fails to use 
natural situations to help pupils put into practice the information 
gained from health instruction is missing the key that unlocks the 
possibilities lying dormant in youth to conserve and promote both 
personal and public health. 

The enlistment of the intelligent cooperation of the parents is one 
of the most effective factors in securing results for the continuance 
of healthful living of children. The teacher that uses measures 
to promote health education in the home is the one that may be cer- 
tain her health instruction shall bear fruit not only while school is 
in session, but in the years that are to follow. 

Calling on parents and showing an interest in the improvement 
of the child's physical condition, makes an appeal to the father and 
mother that will be appreciated in the majority of cases. An ex- 
planation of the purpose of the health program will help them to 
understand our aims. This opportunity should be used when offered 
in a parent-teacher association. Only through their assistance can 
we secure all we hope for everv child. 

'Note: Lessons are not to be taught in the order given in the out- 
line hut as teachers see the time to be opportune. The purpose of 
this material is to help the teacher 'to wganize her program so that 
she may use to 'the best advantage the Health Sgllabus in Physiology 
and Hygiene and the texts found in the schools. After studying a 
topic, she will be able to measure results of health instruction more 
definitely by checking outcomes in 'terms of habits, attitudes, and, 
knowledge. 



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now TO MEASURE RESULTS. 

1. Appearance of children. 

2. Appearance of pupil's desk and floor underneath. 

3. Attitude judged by teacher's obsei'vation of behavior; mani- 
festation of interest and pleasure, or the opposite, in health 
activities as shown in face and voice, or as expressed in words. 

4. Number of corrections of physical defects. 

5. Number of children who maintain weight within normal 
range and of those underweight children who have reached 
normal range since first weighing of year. 

6. Decrease in number of absences due to illness. 

7. Number of children immunized against diphtheria and small- 
pox. 

8. Number maintaining good posture. 

9. Use of playgrounds. 

10. Conduct of lunch period. 

11. Health habit questionnaires, records and other devices. These 
determine health habits foi'med, those in process of forma- 
tion, and those still unformed. 

12. Health knowledge tests appropriate to grade level to be given 
at beginning and end of term. Such tests give teacher and 
children a definite measure of their achievement. 



MEASUREMENTS FOR TEACHER. 

1. Am I setting an example before my pupils by keeping the 
health habits myself? 

2. Does my room measure up to standards? (Ventilation, tem- 
perature 68°, humidity, cleanliness, tidiness, light, seating.) 

SUMMARY OF YEAR'S WORE. 

1. Number pupils clean in appearance. 

2. Number pupils tidy in appearance. 

3. Number pupils having tidy desk and floor underneath. 

4. Number pupils with attitude of cooperation. 

5. Number pupils maintaining correct posture. ■ 
*6. Number pupils within weight safety zone. 

7. Number of pupils receiving dental slips. 

8. Number remediable physical defects coi'rected. 

9. Number absences due to illness. 

**10. Number active committees among pupils. 



*In some schools this will be impossible for teacher to know. 

**In lower grades number of monitors may he given, or whatever is used by teacher. 



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