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9^ nsslLY 





T. W. RHYS DAVIDS F.B.A. D.Sc. Ph.D. LL.D. D.Litt 

Part I (A) 




First published - - - 1921 
Reprinted - - - - 1949 
Reprinted . - - - 1952 




T. W. RHYS DAVIDS, F.B.A., D.Sc, Ph.D., LL.D., D.Litt. 




Printed in Great Britain by 
Billing and Sons Ltd., Guildford and Esher 





It is somewhat hard to realize, seeing how important and valuable the work has 
been, that when Robert Caesar Childers published, in 1872, the first volume of his 
Pali Dictionary, he only had at his command a few pages of the canonical Pali books. 
Since then, owing mainly to the persistent labours of the Pali Text Society, practically 
the whole of these books, amounting to between ten and twelve thousand pages, have 
been made available to scholars. These books had no authors. They are anthologies 
which gradually grew up in the community. Their composition, as to the Vinaya and 
the four Nikayas (with the possible exception of the supplements) was complete within 
about a century of the Buddha's death ; and the rest belong to the following century. 
When scholars have leisure to collect and study the data to be found in this pre- 
Sanskrit literature, it will necessarily throw as much light on the history of ideas and 
language as the study of such names and places as are mentioned in it (quite inci- 
dentally) has already thrown upon the political divisions, social customs, and economic 
conditions of ancient India. 

'Some of these latter facts I have endeavoured to collect in my 'Buddhist India'; 
ancjLpCThaps the most salient discovery is the quite unexpected conclusion that, for 
about two centuries (both before the Buddha's birth and after his death), the para- 
mount power in India was Kosala — a kingdom stretching from Nepal on the North 
to the Ganges on the South, and from the Ganges on the West to the territories 
of the Vajjian confederacy on the East. In this, the most powerful kingdom in India; 
there had naturally arisen a standard vernacular differing from the local forms of speech 
just as standard English differs from the local (usually county) dialects. The Pali of the 
canonical books is based on that standard Kosala vernacular as spoken in the 6^^ and 
^"> centuries B. C. It cannot be called the 'literary' form of that vernacular, for it was 
not written at all till long afterwards. That vernacular was the mother tongue of the 
Buddha. He was born in what is now Nepal, but was then a district under the suzer- 
ainty of Kosala and in one of the earliest Pali documents he is represented as calling 
himself a Kosalan. 

When, about a thousand years afterwards, some pandits in Ceylon began to write 
in Pali, they wrote in a style strikingly different from that of the old texts. Part of 
that difference is no doubt due simply to a greater power of fluent expression unham- 
pered by the necessity of constantly considering that the words composed had to be 
learnt by heart. When the Sinhalese used Pali, they were so familiar with the method 
of writing on palmleaves that the question of memorizing simply did not arise. It 
cam* up again later. But none of the works belonging to this period were intended 
to be learnt. They were intended to be read. 


On the other hand they were for the most part reproductions of older material 
that had, till then, been preserved in Sinhalese. Though the Sinhalese pandits were 
writing in Pali, to them, of course, a dead language, they probably did their thinking 
in their own mother tongue. Now they had had then, for many generations, so close 
and intimate an intercourse with their Dravidian neighbours that Dravidian habits of 
speech had crept into Sinhalese. It was inevitable that some of the peculiarities of 
their own tongue, and especially these Dravidanisms, should have influenced their style 
when they wrote in Pali. It will be for future scholars to ascertain exactly how far 
this influence can be traced in the idioms and in the order of the arrangement of the 
matter of these Ceylon Pali books of the fifth and sixth centuries A. D. 

There is no evidence that the Sinhalese at that time knew Sanskrit. Some centuries 
afterwards a few of them learnt the elements of classical Sanskrit and very proud 
they were of it. They introduced the Sanskrit forms of Sinhalese words when writing 
'high' Sinhalese. And the authors of such works as the Dathavagsa, the Saddhammo- 
payana, and the Mahabodhivaijsa, make use of Pali words derived from Sanskrit — 
that is, they turned into Pali form certain Sanskrit words they found either in the 
Amara-kosa, or in the course of their very limited reading, and used them as Pali. 
It would be very desirable to have a list of such Pali words thus derived from Sanskrit. 
It would not be a long one. 

Here we come once more to the question of memory. From the iiih cent, 
onwards it became a sort of fashion to write manuals in verse, or in prose and verse, 
on such subjects as it was deemed expedient for novices to know. Just as the first 
book written in Pali in Ceylon was a chain of memoriter verses strung together by 
very indifferent Pali verses, so at the end we have these scarcely intelligible memo- 
riter verses meant to be learned by heart by the pupils. 

According to the traditions handed down among the Sinhalese, Pali, that is, the 
language used in the texts, could also be called Magadhi. What exactly did they 
mean by that? They could not be referring to the Magadhi of the Prakrit grammarians, 
for the latter wrote some centuries afterwards. Could they have meant the dialect 
spoken in Magadha at the date when they used the phrase, say, the sixth century A. D. ? 
That could only be if they had any exact knowledge of the different vernaculars of 
North India at the time. For that there is no evidence, and it is in itself very 
improbable. What they did mean is probably simply the language used by Asoka, 
the king of Magadha. For their traditions also .stated that the texts had been brought 
to them officially by Asoka's son Mahinda; and not in writing, but in the memory 
of Mahinda and his companions. Now we know something of the language of Asoka. 
We have his edicts engraved in diff'erent parts of India, diff'ering slightly in com- 
pliance with local varieties of speech. Disregarding these local differences, what is 
left may be considered the language of head-quarters where these edicts were cer- 
tainly drafted. This 'Magadhi' contains none of the peculiar characteristics we associate 
with the Magadhi dialect. It is in fact a younger form of that standard Kosalan 
lingua franca mentioned above. 

Now it is very suggestive that we hear nothing of how the king of Magadha 
became also king of Kosala. Had this happened quietly, by succession, the event 
would have scarcely altered the relation of the languages of the two kingdoms. That 
of the older and larger would still have retained its supremacy. So when the Scottish 
dynasty succeeded to the English throne, the two languages remained distinct, but 
English became more and more the standard. 


However this may be, it has become of essential importance to have a Dictionary 
of a language the history of whose literature is bound up with so many delicate and 
interesting problems. The Pali Text Society, after long continued exertion and many 
cruel rebuffs and disappointments is now at last in a position to offer to scholars the 
first instalment of such a dictionary. 

The merits and demerits of the work will be sufficiently plain even from the 
first fasciculus. But one or two remarks are necessary to make the position of my 
colleague and myself clear. 

We have given throughout the Sanskrit roots corresponding to the Pali roots, 
and have omitted the latter. It may be objected that this is a strange method to 
use in a Pali dictionary, especially as the vernacular on which PaU is based had 
never passed through the stage of Sanskrit. That may be so; and it may not be 
possible, historically, that any Pali word in the canon could have been actually derived 
from the corresponding Sanskrit word. Nevertheless the Sanskrit form, though arisen 
quite independently, may throw light upon the Pali form ; and as Pali roots have not 
yet been adequately studied in Europe, the plan adopted will probably, at least for 
the present, be more useful. 

This work is essentially preliminary. There is a large number of words of which 
we do not know the derivation. There is a still larger number of which the derivation 
does not give the meaning, but rather the reverse. It is so in every living language. 
Who could guess, from the derivation, the complicated meaning of such words as 
'conscience', 'emotion', 'disposition'? The derivation would be as likely to mislead as 
to guide. We have made much progress. No one needs now to use the one English 
word 'desire' as a translation of sixteen distinct Pali words, no one of which means 
precisely desire. Yet this was done in Vol. X of the Sacred Books of the East by 
Max Muller and FausbOll '). The same argument applies to as many concrete 
words as abstract ones. Here again we claim to have made much advance. But in 
either case, to wait for perfection would postpone the much needed dictionary to 
the Greek kalends. It has therefore been decided to proceed as rapidly as possible 
with the completion of this first edition, and to reserve the proceeds of the sale for 
the eventual issue of a second edition which shall come nearer to our ideals of what 
a Pali Dictionary should be. 

We have to thank Mrs. StEDE for valuable help in copying out material noted 
in my interleaved copy of Childers, and in collating indexes published by the Society; 
Mrs. Rhys Davids for revising certain articles on the technical terms of psychology 
and philosophy; and the following scholars for kindly placing at our disposal the 
material they had collected for the now abandoned scheme of an international Pali 

Prof. Sten Konow. Words beginning with 5 or H. (Published in J P T S. 1909 
and 1907, revised by Prof. Dr. D. Andersen). 

Dr. Mabel H. Bode. B, Bh and M. 

Prof. Duroiselle. K. 

Dr. W. H. D. Rouse. C—N. 

In this connection I should wish to refer to the work of Dr. EdMOND Hardy. 
When he died he left a great deal of material-; some of which has reached us in 
time to be made available. He was giving his whole time, and all his enthusiasm to 

1) See Mrs. Rhys Davids in J R A S.^ 1898, p. 58. 


the work, and had he lived the dictionary would probably have been finished before 
the war. His loss was really the beginning of the end of the international undertaking. 
Anybody familiar with this sort of work will know what care and patience, what 
scholarly knowledge and judgment are involved in the collection of such material, in 
the sorting, the sifting and final arrangement of it, in the adding of cross references, 
in the consideration of etymological puzzles, in the comparison and correction of 
various or faulty readings, and in the verification of references given by others, or 
found in the indexes. For all this work the users of the Dictionary will have to 
thank my colleague. Dr. William Stede. It may be interesting to notice here that 
the total number of references to appear in this first edition of the new dictionary is 
estimated to be between one hundred and fifty and one hundred and sixty thousand. 
The Bavarian Academy has awarded to Dr. Stede a personal grant of 3100 marks 
for his work on this Dictionary. 

Chipstead, Surrey. July, 1921. T. W. RHYS DAVIDS. 

List of Donors to the Pali Dictionary Fund 
down to 1 July, 1921. 

His Majesty the late King of Siam 


Mrs. Ludwig Mond 

Royal Asiatic Society (ten donations) .... 
Victoria University of Manchester (four donations) 

British Academy (five donations) 

Gilbert H. Richardson, Esq. (three donations). . 

Lord Chalmers, K.C.B 

Mrs. Plimmer 

F. L. Woodward, Esq. (two donations) .... 

Captain Meysey Thompson 

Mr. Kojiro Matsukata 

Professor Charles R. Lanman 

Professor James H. Woods 

per Professor C. R. Lanman: 

Mr. Charles D. Burrage 

Mr. Albert W. Ellis 

Mr. Charles T. Grinnell 

Dr. William S. Bigelow 

Mrs. Isabella S. Gardner 

Professor James R. Jewett 














I I 



25 00) 
100 00) 25 

5000) 12 

25 00) 6 6 1 1 
£2160 6 5 

1 1 



At the present prices of printing and paper the whole Dictionary 
is estimated to. cost about M. 3500. At least M 1000 more is there- 
fore now urgently needed. 


List of the Chiefs Books consulted for Vocabulary 

(with Abbreviations). 


la Canonical. 

Anguttara-Nikaya 5 vols. P T S. 1885 — 

1900 (A). 
Buddha- Varisa P T S. 1882 (Bu). 
Cariya-Pitaka P T S. 1882 (Cp.)- 
Dhammapada P T S. 1914 (Dh). 
Dhamma-Sangani P T S. 1885 (Dhs). 
Digha-Nikaya 3 vols. P T 8. (D). 
Iti-vuttaka P T S. 1890 (It.). 
Katha-Vatthu 2 vols. P T S. 1894, 95 

Khuddaka-Patha P T S. 1915 (Kh). 
Majjhima-Nikaya 3 vols. P T S. 1887 — 

1902 (M). 
Niddesa I Maha° 2 vols. P T S. 1916, 

17 (Nd'). 

Niddesa II Culla° P T S. 1918 (Nd^). 
Patisambhidamagga 2 vols. P T S. 1905, 

1907 (Ps). 
Peta-Vatthu P T S. 1889 (Pv). 
Puggala-PaMatti P T S. 1883 (Pug). 
Sarjyutta-Nikaya 5 vols. P T S. 1884— 

1898 (S). 
Sutta-Nipata P T S. 1913 (Sir). 
Thera-therlgatha PTS. 1883 (Th i) & 

(Th 2). 
Udana PTS. 1885 (Ud). 
Vibhanga PTS. 1904 (Vbh). 
Vimana-Vatthu PTS. 1886 (Vv). 
Vinaya-Pitaka 5 vols. London 1879 — 

83 (Vin). 

lb Post-Canonical. 

AtthasalinI, PTS. 1897 (DhsA). 
Buddhadatta's Manuals, PTS. 191 5 

Dathavaijsa, J P T S. 1884 (Davs). 
Dhammapada Commentary, 4 vols. PTS. 

1906 — 14 (DhA). 
Dipavagsa, London 1879 (Dpvs). 
Jataka, 6 vols. London 1877 — 96 (J). 
Khuddaka-Patha Commentary, PTS. 

19 1 5 (KhA). 
Mahavagsa, PTS. 1908 (Mhvs). 

Maha-Bodhi-Var)sa, PTS. 1891 (Mhbv). 
Milindapaiiha, London 1880 (Miln). 
Netti-Pakarana, PTS. 1902 (Nett). 
Panca-gati-dlpana, J P T S. 1884 (Pgdp). 
Peta-Vatthu Commentary, PTS. 1894 

Puggala-Paniiatti Commentary, J P T S. 

1914 (Pug A). 
Saddhammopayana, J PTS. 1887 (Sdhp). 
Sumangala-Vilasini, vol. I, PTS. 1886 

(DA I). 


Sutta-Nipata Commentary, 2 vols. P T S. 

1916 — 17 (SnA). 
Therlgatha Commentary, P T S. 1891 


Vimana-Vatthu Commentary, PTS. 1901 

Visuddhi-Magga, 2 vols. PTS. 1920— 

21 (Vism). 

Note. The system adopted in quotations of passages from Pali text is tliat proposed in J P T S. I909i 
pp. 385 — 87, with this modification that Peta-v.-itthu (Pv) is quoted by canto and verse, and Culla-Niddesa (Nd') 
by number of word in "Explanatory Matter". 


Avadana-sataka, ed. J. S. Speyer (Bibl. Buddhica III), 2 vols., St. Petersbourg 
1906. (Av. 1). 

Divyavadana, ed. Cowell & Neiil, Cambridge 1886. (Divy). 
Jataka-mala, ed. H. Kern (Haward Or. Ser. I), Boston 1891. (Jtm). 
Lalita-vistara, ed. S. Lefmann, I. Halle 1902. (Lai. V.). 
Maha-vastu, ed. £. Senart, 3 vols., Paris 1882 — 1897. 
6iksa-samuccaya. Ed. C. Bendall. St. Petersburg, 1902 [Siks]. 


Buddh. Manual of Psychological Ethics (trsl. of the Dhamma-sangani) by Mrs. 
Rhys Davids (R. As. Soc. Trsl. Fund XII), London 1900. [Dhs trsl.). 

Compendium of Philosophy (trsl. of the Abhidhamm' attha-sangaha) by S. Z. 
Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, PTS. Trsl. 1910. {Cpd.). 

Dialogues of the Buddha, trr.l. by T. W. and C. A. F. Rhys Davids, London I. 
1899; II. 1910; III. 1921. (Dial.). 

Expositor (trsl. of the Attha-salinI), by Maung Tin, PTS. Trsl. 1920, 21. 

Kathavatthu trsl. ("Points of Controversy), by Aung and Mrs. Rhys Davids, PTS. 
Trsl. 191 5. [Kvu irsl.). 

Kindred Sayings (Saqyutta Nikaya I), by Mrs. Rhys Davids, PTS. Trsl. 1917. [K S.). 

Mahavagsa trsl. by W. Geiger, PTS. Trsl. 1912. 

Manual of a Mystic (Yogavacara), trs. by F. L. Woodward, PTS. Trsl. 1916. [Mystic). 

Neumann, K. E., Lieder der Monche und Nonnen, Berlin 1899. 

Psalms of the Brethren (trsl. Mrs. Rhys Davids), PTS. Trsl. 1913. 
„ , Sisters ( , „ , , ). , , I909- 

Questions of Milinda (trsl. T. W. Rhys Davids), S B E. vols. 35, 36. 

Vinaya Texts (trsl. Rhys Davids & Oldenberg), „ , „ , 13, 17, 20. 


Abhidhanappadipika, ed. W. Subhati, Colombo' 1883. (Abhp.). 
Andersen, D., A Pali Reader, 2 pts; Copenhagen 1901, 1907. 
Aufrecht, Th., Halayudha's Abhidhana-ratna-mala, London 1861. 
Brugmann, K., Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indogerm. Sprachen, Strass- 
burg 1902. 

Childers, R. C, A Dictionary of the Pali Language, London 1874. 


Geigef, W., Pali Literatur und Sprache, Strassburg 1916. (Geiger, P. Gr.). 
Grassmann, W., Worterbuch zum Rig Veda, Leipzig 1873. 
Journal of the American Oriental Society (y A i>\). 

, Asiatique, Paris {J. As.) 

, of the Pali Text Society {J P T S.). 

„ „ , Royal Asiatic Society, London {J^ R A S.). 
Kaccayana-ppakarana, ed. & trsl. Senart (J. As. 1871) (Kacc). 
Kern, H., Toevoegselen op 't Woordenboek van Childers; 2 pts (Verhandelingen 
Kon. Ak. van Wetenschappen te Amsterdam N. R. XVI, 5), Amsterdam 19 16. (Toev.). 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift fiir vergleichende Sprachforschung {K Z.). 

Mahavyutpatti, ed. Mironow (Bibl. Buddhica XIII) St. Petersbourg 1910, i r. (Mvyut). 
Miifler, Ed., Simplified Grammar of the Pali Language, London 1884. 
Trenckner, V., Notes on the Milindapanho, in J P T S. 1908, 102 sq. 
Uhlenbeck, H., Kurzgefasstes Etym. Worterbuch d. Altindischen Sprache, Am- 
sterdam 1898. 

Walde, A., Lateinisches Etymologisches Worterbuch, Heidelberg^ 19 10. 
Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, Leipzig 1847 sq. [ZDMS.). 


1. Titles of Books (the 

A Anguttara \a 

Abhp Abhidhanappadipika. . . 4 

Ap Apadana \a 

Av. S. Avadana-sataka .... 2 

Bdhd Buddhadatta i 

Brethren: see Psalms 3 

Bu Buddha-varjsa \a 

Cp Cariya-pitaka la 

Cpd Compendium 3 

D Digha la 

Davs Datha-vaqsa lb 

Dh Dhammapada la 

Dhs Dhammasangani . . . . la 

Dhs trsl. Atthasalini 3 

Dial. Dialogues 3 

Divy Divyavadana 2 

Dpvs Dipavagsa ib 

Halayudha: see Aufrecht .... 4 

no. refers to 

I ks 

I Kvu 
Lai. V. 

M Vastu 



J As. 


Itivuttaka la 

Jataka , 

Journal Amer. Or. Soc. , 

, Asiatique. . . , 

„ Pali Text Soc. 

„ Royal Asiatic Soc 

Jatakamala 2 

Kaccayana 4 

KhuddakapStha . . . . la 






section of A). 

Kindred Sayings . 
Kathavatthu . . 
Kuhn's Zeitschrift 
Lalita Vistara . . 
Majjhima . . . 
Mahabodhi-vagsa . 
Mahavaqsa . . . 
Milinda-panha . . 
Maha-vastu . . . 
Mahavyutpatti. . 

Mystic: see Manual . . . 

Nd' Mahaniddesa . . 

Nd'^ Cullaniddesa . . 

Nett Netti-pakarana. . 

Pgdp Paiicagati-dipana . 

Ps Patisambhida-magga 

Pug Puggala-pafifiatti . 

Pv Petavatthu . . . 

S Sagyutta. . . . 

S B E Sacred Books of the 

Sdhp Saddhammopayana 

6iks ^iksasamuccaya 

Sisters: see Psalms . 

Sn Sutta-nipata 

Th I Theragatha. 

Th 2 Therlgatha . 

Toev. Toevoegselen 





























Ud Udana la 

Vbh Vibhanga la 

Vin Vinaya i« 

Vism Visuddhi-magga . . . . i6 

Vv Vimanavatthu 

ZDMG. Zeitschrift der Deutschen 
Morgenlandischen Gesell- 


2. General & grammatical terms. 

A in comb" with a Title- 
letter (e.g. DhA) = Com- 
mentary (on Dh). 

abl. ablative 

abs. absolute(ly) 

abstr. abstract 

ace. accusative 

act active 

add. addition 

adj. adjective 

adv. adverb 

Ags. Anglo-Saxon 

aor. aorist 

appl. applied 

art. article 

attr. attribute 

Av. Avesta 

BB Burmese MSS 

bef. before 

BSk. Buddhist Sanskrit 

C (& Cy) Commentary (when 
cited in explo of a Text 

caus. causative 

cert. certain 

coll. collective 

combd, comb" combined, 

comp. comparative, comp- 
arison, composition 

cons, consonant 

corr. correct(ed) 

correl. correlation, correla- 

cp. compare 

cpd. compound 

dat. dative 

den. denominative 


derived, derivation 
















distinct, disting 









for instance 




























loco citato 





literal(ly), literary 













medium (middle) 








frequently, Frequen- 


noun, note 







Name of person 
„ „ place 





ger. gerund 

Ger. German 

Goth. Gothic 

Gr. Greek 

gram, grammar, °atical 

grd. gerundive 

ibid. at the same peissage 

id. the same 

id. p. identical passage 

i. e. that is 

i. g. in general 

Obulg. Old-bulgarian 

Ohg. Old-high-german 
Oicel. „ -icelandic 
Oir. , -irish 

onom. onomatopoetic 

opp. opposed, opposite 

ord. ordinal, ordinary 

orig. original(ly) 









S. V. 

Sub voce (under the 




Pali Text Society 

word mentioned) 








quod vide 



(which see) 










reference, referred 


translated, transla- 


past participle 





present , 


relation, relative 

1. 1. 

technical term 



t. t. g. 




















and following 


variant, various 




Singhalese MSS. 

var. lect. various reading 

















3. Typographical. 

*(s)quel indicates a (reconstructed or conjectured) Indogermanic root. 

*Sk means, that the Sanskrit word is constructed after the Pali word; or as Sk. 

form is only found in lexicographical lists. 
k: the cap over a vowel indicates that the a is the result of a syncope a + a (e.g. 

khuddanukhudda), whereas a represents the proper a, either pure or contracted 

with a preceding a (khinasava = khina + asava). 
° represents the head-word either as first (° — ) or second ( — °) part of a compound; 

sometimes also an easily supplemented part of a word. 
> indicates an etymological relation or line of development between the words 

™ and ss; means "at similar" or "at identical, parallel passages". 

The meaning of all other abbreviations may easily be inferred from the context. 


A-' the prep, a shorteoed before double cons., as akko- 
satl (a + krus), akkhaU (a + khya), abbahati (a + bfh). 
— Best to be classed here is the a- we call expletive. It 
represents a reduction of a- (mostly before liquids and 
nasals and with single consonant instead of double). Thus 
anantaka (for a-nantaka = nantaka) Vv.8o^; amajjapa 
(for a-majjapa = majjapa) J vi.328; amapaya (for a- 
mapaya ^ mapaya) J vi.518; apassato (= passantassa) 
J VL552. 

A-' (an- before vowels) [Vedic a-, an-; Idg. 'n, gradation 
form to 'ne (see na^); Gr. i, «i>-; Lat. *en-, in-; Goth., 
Ohg. & Ags. un-; Oir. an-, in-] neg. part, prefixed to (i) 
nouns and adjectives; (2) verbal forms, used like (1), 
whether part.^ g"'-i i'''^- or '"/■; (3) finite verbal forms. 
In comp°. with words having originally two initial cons, 
the latter reappear in their assimilated form (e. g. appatic- 
chavin). In meaning it equals na-, nir- and vl-. Often 
we find it opp. to sa-. Verbal negatives which occur in 
specific verb, function will be enumd. separately, while 
examples of neg. form, of (l) & (2) are given under their 
positive form unless the neg. involves a distinctly new 
concept, or if its form is likely to lead to confusion or 
misunderstanding. — Concerning the combining & contrast- 
ing (orig. neg.) -a- (a) in redupl. formations like bhav- 
S-bbava see a^. 

A-' [Vedic a-; Idg. *e (loc. of pron. stem, cp. ayaq ; 
orig. a deictic adv. with specific reference to the past, cp. 
Sk sma); Gr. <-; also in Gr. ixu, Lat. equidem, enim] 
the augment (sign of action in the past), prefixed to the 
root in pret.^ aor. & cond. tenses; often omitted in ordi- 
nary prose. See forms under each verb; cp. also ajja. 
Identical with this a- is the a- which functions as base 
of some pron. forms like ato, attha, asu etc. (q. v.). 

A-* the sound a (a-kara) J vi,328, 552; VvA 279, 
307, 3»'- 

Aljsa' [Vedic aqsa; cp. Gr. iS^c$, Lat. umerus, Goth ams, 
Arm. us] (a) the shoulder AV II. no; Sn 609. aqse ka- 
roti to put on the shoulder, to shoulder J 1.9. (b.) a part 
(lit. side) (cp. °asa in kot{h3sa and expln of ansa as 
kot^Ssa at DA 1.312, also v. 1. mett3sa for mettaijsa 
at It 22). — atit'ai]se in former times, formerly D 11.224; 
Th 2, 314. mettagsa sharing friendship (with) A iv.151 = 
It 22 = J IV.71 (in which connection Miln 402 reads 
ahii)sa). — Disjunctive ekena aijsena . . . ekena ai)sena 
on the one hand (side) ... on the other, parlly . . . partly 
A 1.6 1. From this: ekai]sa (adj.) on the one hand (only), 
i. e. incomplete (opp. ubhayaijsa) or (as not admitting 
of a counterpart) definite, certain, without doubt (opp. 
dyidba): see ekai]sa. — paccansena according to each 
one's share A 111.38. putaijsena with a knapsack for 
provisions D 1.117; A It 183; cp. DA 1.288, with v. 1. 
pufosena at both passages. 

-kQta "shoulder prominence", the shoulder Vin 111.127; 
DhA 111.214; IV.136; VvA 121. — vattaka a shoulder 
strap (mostly comb<l with kayabandhana; vv. II. °vaddhaka, 
°bandhaka) Vin 1.204 (T. ''bandhaka); 11.114 (ddh); iv.170 
(ddh); Vv 33W (T. "bandhana, C. v. 1. "valtaka); DhA 

AQSa^ [see next] point, comer, edge; freg. in comb" 
wiih numerals, e. g. catur° four-cornered, chaj", atth°, 
8olas° etc. (q. V.) all at Dhs 617 (cp. DhsA 317). In 
connection with a Vimana: ayat° with wide or protruding 
capitals (of its pillars) Vv 84"; as part of a carriage- 
pole Vv 642 (= kubbara-phale patitthita hetthima-ai)s5 
VvA 26s). 

Aqsl (f.) [cp. Vedic asri, a^ra, a^ani ; Gr. 'itifoi; pointed, 
^pi(, also Vifif sharp: Lat. acer sharp. Further connections 
in Walde Lat. Wtb. under acer] a comer, edge (= atjsa') 
Vv 78'^ (= aQsa-bbaga VvA 303). 

Al)8U [cp. Sk. ansu (Halayudha) a ray of light] a thread 
Vin 111.224. -malin, sun Sasv i. 

Akata (adj.) [a -f- kata] not made, not artificial, natural ; 
"yusa natural juice Via 1.206. 

Akamplyatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. akampiya, grd. of a -|- kampati] 
the conditio^ of not being shaken, stableness Miln 354. 

Akalu (cp. agalu) an ointment J iv.440 (akalun candanan 
ca, v. 1. BB aggalun; C. expl» as kalSkalun ca ratta- 
candanan ca, thus implying a blacking or dark oint- 
ment); VI. 144 (°candana-vilitta ; v. 1. BB aggalu"); Miln 
338 (°tagara-tilisaka-lohita-candana). 

Akaca (^dj.) [a -f- kaca] pure, flawless, clear D 11.244; Sn 
476; J V.203. 

Akacln (adj.) = akaca Vv 60'. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) 
proposes reading akkacin (= Sk. arka-arcin shining as 
the sun), but VvA 253 expls by niddosa, and there is 
no V. 1. to warrant a misreading. 

Akasiya (adj. -n.) [a -f- kisikaP] "not from the kasf-coun- 
lry"(?): official name of ccrlain tax-gatherers in the king's 
service J vi.212 (akasiya-sankbata raja-piu'isa C). 

AklCCakara (adj.) [a -f- kicca + kara] I. not doing one's 
duty, doing what ought not to be done A 11.67 > Dh 292 ; 
Miln 66: DA I.296. — 2. ineffective (of medicine) Miln 151. 

Aklriya (adj.) [a -f- kiriya] not practical, unwise, foolish 
J 111.530 (°rupa = akattabba-rDpa C); Miln 250. 

AkilaSU (adj.) [a 4- kilasu] not lazy, diligent, active, untiring 

5 1.47; V.162; J 1.109; Miln 382. 

Akissava at S 1.149 is probably faulty reading for akincana. 

Akutobhaya (adj.) see ku°. 

Akuppa (adj.) [a -f- kuppa, grd. of kup, cp. BSk. akopya 
M Vastu 111.200] not to be shaken, immovable; sure, stead- 
fast, safe Vin Ml (akuppa me ceto-virautti) = S 11.239; 
Vin 11.69; IV.214; D III. 273; M 1.205, 298; S 11.171; 
A 111.119, 198; Miln 361. 

Akuppata (f.) [abstr. fr. last] "state of not being shaken", 
surety, safely; Ep. of Nibbana Th i, 364. 

Akka [cp. Sk. arka] N. of a plant: Calotropis Gigantea, 
swallow-wort M 1.429 ("assa jiya bowstrings made from 
that plant). 

-nala a kind of dress material Vin 1.306 (vv. II. agga" 

6 akkha"). -va(a a kind of gate to a plantation, a movable 
fence made of the akka plant Vin 11.164 (<^P- akkha-vata). 

Akkanta [pp. of akkamati] stepped upon, mounted on A 
1.8; J 1.7 1 ; Miln 152; DhA 1.200. 

Akkandatl [a -|- kandati, krandj to lament, wail, cry 
S IV. 206. 

Akkamana (nt.) [cp. BSk. akrama^ia Itm 31W] going near, 
approaching, stepping upon, walking to J 1.62. 

Akkamati [a -|- kamati, kram] to tread upon, to approach, 
attack J 1.7, 279; ThA 9; — to rise Vin ill. 38. — ger. 
akkamma Cp. 111.71. — pp. akkanta (q. v.). 

Akkuttha (adj. n.) [pp. of akkosati] I. (adj.) being reviled, 
scolded , railed at Sn 366 (=: dasahi akkosavatthuhi 
abhisalto SnA 364); J VI.187. — 2. (nt.) reviling, scold- 
ing, swearing at; in comb" akku^fba-vandita Sn 702 
(= akkosa-vandana SnA 492) Th 2, 388 (expl" ThA 
256 as above). 

Akkula (adj.) \= akula] confused, perplexed, agitated, 
frightened Ud 5 (akkulopakkula and akkulapakkulika). 
See akula. 




Akkosa [a + kniS = krunc, see kmica & kofica' ; to sound 
loot kr, see note on gala] shouting at, abuse, insult, re- 
proach, reviling Sn 623; Miln 8(-f- paribhasa); SnA 492; 
ThA 256; PvA 243; UhA 11.61. 

-vatthu always as dasa a°-vatthnni 10 bases of abuse, 
10 expressions of cursing J 1.191; SnA 364, 467; DhA 
i.2iz; 1V.2. 

AkkOSaka (adj.) [from l.isl] one who abuses, scolds or re- 
viles, -f paribhasaka A 11.58; 111.252; iv.156; v. 317; 
PvA 251. 

AkkOSatl [to krUS see akkosa] to scold, swear at, abuse, 
revile J 1.191; 11.416; 111.27; l^hA 1211; 11.44. Oflen 
eomb'l with paribhasati, e.g. Vin 11.296; DhA IV.2; 
PvA 10. — aor. akkocchi Dh 3 ; J 111.212 (= akkosi 
nh.\ 1.43. Der. wrongly fr. krudh by Kacc. VI. 4: 7; 
cp. Franke, Einh. Pali-gramm. 37, and Geiger P. Gr. § 
164). -pp. akkuttha (q. v.). 

Akkha' [Vedic aksa; Av. asa; Gr. Him a/-'*?* chariot 
with o/ie axle); Lat. axis; Ohg. etc. ahsa, E. axle, to 
root of Lat. ago, Sk. aj] the axle of a wheel D 11.96; 
S V.6; A 1.112; J 1.109, '92; V.155 (akkhassa phala- 
kar) yatha; C: suvannaphalakarj viya, i.e. shiny, like 
the polished surface of an axle); Miln 27 (+ isa + cak- 
ka), 277 (atibbarena sakatassa akkho bhijjati: the axle 
of the cart breaks when the load is too heavy); PvA 277. 
-akkhan abbhanjati to lubricate the axle S 11.177; M''" 


-chinna one whose axle is broken; with broken axle 
S 1.57; Miln 67. -bhagga with a broken axle J v.433. 
-bhanjana the breaking of the axle DhA 1.375 ; PvA 277. 

Akkha^ [Vedic aksa, prob. to aksi & Lat. ocuUis, "that 
which has eyes" i. e. a die; cp. also Lat. alea game at 
dice (fi-.* asclea?)] a die D 1.6 (but expl<l at DA 1.86 as 
ball-game: gulakila); S 1.149 = A v.171 := Sn 659 (ap- 
pamatto ayai] kali yo akkhesu dhanaparajayo); J 
1.379 (kut° a false player, sharper, cheat) anakkha one 
who is not a gambler J v. 1 16 (C. : ajutakara). Cp. also 

-dassa (cp. Sk. aksadarsaka) one who looks at (i. e. 
examines) the dice, an umpire, a judge Vin 111.47; Miln 
114, 327, 343 (dhamma-nagare). -dhutta one who has 
the vice of gambling D 11.348; 111.183; M 111.170; Sn 
106 (+ itthidhutta & suriidhulta). -vata fence round an 
arena for wrestling J IV.81. (? read akka-). 

Akkha^ (^d].) ( — °) [to akkhi] havhig eyes, with eyes PvA 
39 (Bli rattakkha with eyes red from weeping, glosson 
assumukha). Prob. akkhana is connected wiih akkha. 

Akkhaka [akkha' + ka] the collar-bone Vin IV.213 (adhak- 
khakag); Y.216. 

Akkhana [a -\- khana, BSk. aksana AvS 1.291 = 332] wrong 
time, bad luck, misadventure, misfortune. There are 9 
enuind at I) 111.263; the usual set consists of 8; thus D 
111.287; VvA 193; Sdhp 4 sq. See also khana. 

-vedhin (adj. n.) a skilled archer, one who shoots on 
the moment, i. e. without losing time, expl<l as one who 
shoots without missing (the target) or as quickly as light- 
ning (akkhana = vijju). In var. combns. ; mostly as 
durepatin a. A 1.284 (+ mahato kayassa padaleta); 
11.170 sq. (id.), 202; IV.423, 425; J 11.91 (explJ as either 
"aviradhita -vedhl" or "akkhanarj vuccati vijju": one 
who takes and shoots his arrows as fast as lightuing), 
111.322; IV. 494 (C. expl"s aviraddha-vedhin vijju-alokena 
vijjhana -samattha p. 497). In othei- comb" at J 1.58 
(akkhanavedhin + valavedhin); v. 129 (the 4 kinds of 
archers: a., valavedhin, saddavedhin & 3aravedhin). 

In BSk. we find aksunnavedha (a Sanskrilised Pali form, 
cp. Mathura ksuna = Sk. ksana) at Divy 58, 100, 442 
(always with darevedha), where MSS. however read ak- 

suna°; also at Lai. Vist. 178. See Divy Index, where 
trsl" is given as "an act of throwing the spear so as 
to graze the mark" (Schiefner gives "Streifschuss"). — 
A^o/e. The explanations are not satisfactory. We should 
expect either an etym. bearing on the meaning "hitting 
the centre of the target" (i. e. its "eye") (cp. E. bull's 
eye), in which case a direct relation to akkha = akkhi 
eye would not seem improbable (cp. formation ikkhana) 
or an etym. like "hitting without mishap", in which 
case the expieision would be derived directly from ak- 
khana (see prec.) with the omission of the neg. an-; 
akkhana in the meaning of "lightning" (J 11.91 C.) is 
not supported by literary evidence. 

Akkhata (adj.) [pp. of a + kfan, cp. parikkhatai] unhurt, 
without fault Mhvs 19, 56 (C. niddosa). — ace. akkha- 
tar) (adv.) in safety, unhurt. Only in one phrase Vv 84'- 
(paccagamug Pataliputtar) akkhatarj) & Pv iv.ii' (nes- 
sami tar) Pataliputtag akkhatai)); see VvA 351 & 
PvA 272. 

Akkhaya (adj.) [a -|- khaya, k§l] not decaying, in akkhaya- 
patibhana, of unfailing skill in exposition Miln 3, 21. 

Akkhara (adj.) [Vedic aksara] constant, durable, lasting D 
111.86. As tt. for one of 4 branches of Vedic learning 
(D 1.88) it is Phonetics which probably inculded Gram- 
mar, and is expld by sikkha (DA 1.247 = SnA 477) — 
pi. nt. akkharani sounds, tones, words, citt'akkhara of 
a discourse (suttanta) having variety & beauty of words 
or sounds (opposed to beauty of thought) A 1.72 = 111.107 
= S 11.267. Akkharani are the sauce, flavour (vyanjana) 
of poetry S 1.38. To know the context of the a° the 
words of the texts, is characteristic of an Arahant Dh 
352 (C. is ambiguous DhA iv.70). Later: akkharat) a 
syllable or sound PvA 280 (called sadda in next line); 
akkharani an inscription J 11.90; IV.7 (likhitani writ- 
ten), 489; vi,390, 407. In Grammar: a letter Kacc. J. 
-cintaka a grammarian or versifier KhA 17; SnA 16, 
23, 321. cp. 466; PvA 120. -pabheda in phrase sakkha- 
rappabheda phonology & etymology D 1.88 (akkha- 
rappabhedo ti sikkha ca niruiti ca SnA 447 = DA i.247) 
=: A 111.223 = Sn p. 105. -pinda "word-ball", i.e. se- 
quence of words or sounds DhA iv.70 (= akkharSnan 
sannipato Uh 352). 

AkkharikS (f.) a game (recognising syllables written in the 

air or on one's back). D 1.7; Vin 11.10; 111.180. So expld at 
DA 1.86. It may be translated "letter game"; but all 
Indian letters of that date were syllables. 

Akkhata (adj.) [pp. of akkhSti] announced, proclaimed, 
j told, shown A 1. 34 (dur"); 11195; iv.285, 322; v.265, 
1 283; Sn 172, 276, 595, 718. 

I Akkhatar one who relates, a speaker, preacher story-teller 
I S l.ll, 191; 111.66; Sn 167. 

j Akkhati [a + khya, l<ig. *seq"; cp. Sk. akhyati, Lat. 
inquam, Gr. hvsTU, Goth, saihvan, Ger. sehen etc. See 
also akkhi & cakkhu] to declare, announce, tell Sn 87, 
172; imper. akkbahi Sn 988, 1085; aor. akkhasi Sn 
251, 504, 1131 (=: acikkhi etc. Nd^ 465); fut. akkhissati 
Pv IV. 1^1: cond. akkhissar) Sn 997; J vi.523. — Pass, 
akkbayati to be proclaimed, in phrase aggar] a. to be 
deemed chief or superior, to be first, to excel Miln 118, 
182 ( in BSk. agram akhyayate M Vastu 111.390); ger. 
akkheyya to be pronounced S 1.1 1 ; It 53. — pp. akkhata 
(q. v.). — Intensive or Frequentative is acikkbati. 

Akkhana (nt.) [Sk. akhyana] telling stories, recitation ; tale, 
j legend D 1.6 (= DA 1.84: Bharata-Ramayanadi); 111.183 ; 

M 1.503; III. 167; Sdhp. 237. — preaching, teaching Nd' 
I 91 (dhamm°). The 5il> Veda J v. 450. (vedam akkhana- 

pancatnan; C: Itihasapancamar) vedacatukkar)). — The 

spelling akhyana also occurs (q. v.). 



Akkhayika (adj.) relating, narra'.ing J III. 535 ; lokakkhayika 
katha talk about oature-lore I) 1.8; Miln 316. 

Akkhayin (adj.) telling, relating, announcing S 11.35; 
J III. 105. 


Akkhi (nt.) [to *okS, an enlarged form of *0<J", cp. Sk. 
Iksate, ksana, pralika, anika; Gr. otrirt, i!r\i (Ki/xAibi|'), 
h^sxX^Lic,, wfda-uToy; Lat. ociilus, Ags. eowan (= E eye & 
wind-ow); Goth. augo. See also cakkhu & cp. akklia^ & 
ikkhanika] the eye. M 1.383 (ubbhatehi akkhklhi); Sn 
197, 608; J 1.223, 279; V.77; VI. 336; I'v ii.g-" (akkhini 
paggharanti: shed tears, cp. rv.\ 123); Vv.\ 65 Ciai 
bhamanti, my eyes swim) cp. akkhini me dhiiniaynnti 
DhA 1.475; I^liA 11.26; III. 196 ('ini ummiletva opening 
the eyes); Sdhp 1O3, 380. — In comb" with sa- as 
sacchi & sakkbi (q. v.). As adj. ( — ") akkha-^ (q-v.)- 
-anjana eye ointment, coUyrium UhA 111.354. -kUpa the 
socket of the eye J iv.407. -ganda eye-protuberance, i. e. 
eye-brow (?) J vi.504 (for panuikha T.). -gutha secretion 
from the eye Pv.\ 198. -guthaka id. Sn 197 (= dvihi 
akkhicchiddehi apanila-ttaca-mar^sasadiso a^-guthako SnA 
248). -chidda the eye-hole SnA 248. -dala the eye-lid 
DA 1. 194; ThA 259; DhsA 378. -pata "fall of the eye"', 
i. e. a look, in mand° of soft looks (adj.) PvA 57. -pura 
an eye-full, in akkhipuraij assuq (assu?) an eye full of 
tears J. vi.191. -mala dirt from the eye Pv iii 5' (=: 
"gutha C.)i -roga eye disease DhA 1.9. 

Akkhika' ( — °) (adj.) having eyes, with eyes Th 1.960 
(anjan" with eyes anointed); DhA iv.98 (addh° with 
half an eye, i.e. stealthily); Sdhp 286 (tamb° red-eyed), 
-an" having no eyes DhA 

Akkhika- (nt.) [cp. Sk. aksa] the mesh of a net J 1.208. 
-baraka one who takes up a mesh (?) M 1.383 (corresp. 
with andabaraka). 

Akkhitta' see khitta. 

Akkhitta- (adj.) [BSk aksipta Divy 363, pp. ofa-fk§ip] 
hit, struck, thrown J 111. 255 (= akaddhita C.). 

Akkhin (adj.) = akkhika J 111.190 (mand° softeycd); Vv 
32' (tamb° red-eyed); DhA l.ll. 

Akkhobbha (adj.) [a + ksubh, see khobha] not to be 
shaken, imperturbable Miln 21. 

Akkhobhana (adj) = akkhobbha J v.322 (= khobhetun 
na sakkha C.). 

AkkhObinl (f.) [:= akkhobhinl] one of the highest numerals 
(I followed by 42 ciphers, Childers) J v.319; vi.395. 

Akhatl(}aphulla see khanda. 

Akhata (adj.) not dug: see khata. 

Akhetta barren-soil : see khetta. — In cpd. °nnu the neg. 
belongs to the whole : not knowing a good field (for 
alms) J IV.371. 

Agati see gati. -""gamana practising a wrong course of 
life, evil practice, wrong doing D ill. 228 (4: chanda^ 
dosa° moha° bhaya"); A 11.18 sq., J iv.402; v.98, 510; 
PvA 161. 

Agada [Vedic agada; a -|- gada] medicine, drug, counter- 
poison J 180 ("harltaka); Miln 121, 302, 319, 334; 
DA 1.67; DhA i.2i5;'PvA 198 (= osadhag). 

Agaru (adj.) [cp. Sk. aguru, a -f- garu] (a) not heavy, not 
troublesome, only in phrase: sace te agaru "if it does 
not inconvenience you, if you doini mind" (cp. BSk. yadi 
te aguru. Av. S 1.94, 229; 11.90) Vin. 1.25; IV.17, D 
1.51; DhA J.39. — (b) disrespectful, irreverent (against = 
gen.) D 1.89; Sn p. 51. 

AgalU [cp. Sk. aguru, which is believed to appear in Hebr. 
ahalim (aloe), also in Gr. i\6<i & a> iAAojjov] fragrant 
aloe wood, Agallochum Vv 53' (aggalu = VvA 237 aga- 
lugandha); Vv.\ 158 (-4- candana). Cp. also Av. §1.24, 
and akalu. 

Agara (nt.) [cp. Sk. agaia, probably with the a- of com- 
munion; Gr. iyii'pu to collect, iyofi market. Cp. in 
meaning & etyni. gaha']. — I. house or hut, usually im- 
plying the comforts of living at home as opp. to anagara 
homelessness or the state of a homeless wanderer (men- 
dicant). See anagariya. — Thus freq. in two phrases 
contrasting the state of a householder (or layman, cp. 
gihin). with of a religious wanderer (pabbajita), 
viz. (a.) kesamassurj oharetva kasayani vatthani ac- 
chadetva agarasma anagariyai] pabbajati "to shave off 
hair & beard, put on the yellow robes, and wander forth 
out of the home into the homeless state" D 1,60 etc.; 
cp, Nd- 172". See also S 1.185 (agarasma anagariyar] 
nikkhanta); M 11.55 (agarar) ajjbavasata) ; Sn 274, 805 
("n avasati), and with pabbajita D 1.89, 115, 202, 230; 
I'v 11.13I'. — (b.) of a "laja cakkavattin" compared with 
a "sambuddha": sace agararj avasati vijeyya pathavirj 
imar) adandena asatthena . . . sace ca so pabbajati 
agara anagariyai) vivatacchado sambuddho araha bha- 
vissati "he will become the greatest king when he stays 
at home, but the greatest saint when he takes up the 
homeless life", the prophesy made for the infant Gotama 
D 11.16; Sn 1002, 1003. — Further passages for agara 
e.g. Vin 1. 15; D 1. 102 (BB. has v. 1. agyagara, but 
DA i.270 expl. as danagara); A 1.156, 281; 11.52 sq.; 
Dh 14, 140; J 1. 51, 56; 111.392; Dpvs. 1.36. — 2. ana- 
gara (adj.) houseless, homeless ; a mendicant (opp. gahattha) 
Sn 628 =r Dh 404; Sn 639, 640 (4- paribbaje); Pv 11.2' 
(= anavasa PvA 80). — (nt.) the homeless state (= ana- 
gariya) Sn 376. See also agga'-. — 3. "agara: Owing 
to freq. occurrence of agara at the end of cpds. of 
which the first word ends in a, we have a dozen quite 
familiar words ending apparently in agara. This form 
has been considered therefore as a proper doublet of 
agara. This however is wrong. The long a is simply a 
contraction of the short a at the end of the first part 
of the cpd. with the short a at the beginning of agara. 
Of the cpds. the most common are: — agantuk" recep- 
tion hall for strangers or guests S iv.219; v. 21. — itth° 
ladys bower S 1.58, 89. — kut" a house with a peaked 
roof, or with gables S 11.103. 263; III. 156; 1V.186; v.43 ; 
A 1230;, 364; IV.231 ; V.21. -kotth" storehouse, 
granary D 1. 1 34 (cp. DA 1.295); ^ 1.89. -tin" a house 
covered with grass S iv.185; A l.ioi. -bhus° threshing 
shed, barn A 1.241. -santh" a council hall D 1.91 ; 11. 147; 
S IV. 182; V.453; A 11.207; 1V.I79 sq. -sunn° an unin- 
habited shed; solitude S v. 89, 157, 310 sq., 329 sq.; 
A 1.241 (v. I. for bhusagara); 111.353; iv.139, 392, 437; 
V.88, 109, 323 sq. 

A{^aka (nt.) [fr. agara] a small house, a cottage M 1.450; 
j V1.8I. 

Agarika (adj.) i. having a house, in eka°, dva" etc. D 
1. 166 = A 1 295 = 11.206. — 2. a householder, Uiyman 
Vin 1. 17. f. agarika a housewife Vin 1.272. See also 

Agarin (adj.) [fr. agara] one who h.-is or inhabits a house, 
a householder Sn 376, Th 1.1009; J 111.234. — f. aga- 
rini a housewife Vv 52' (= gehassamini VvA 225); 
Pv 111.4^ (id. PvA 194). 

Agariya = agarika, a layman M 1.504 ("bhiila). — Usually 
in neg. anagariya (f) the homeless state (= anagarat)) 
as opp. to agara (q. v.) in formula agarasma anagari- 
yar) pabbajita (gone ont from the house into the home- 
less state) Vin 1. 15: M 1.16; 11.55, 7$^ A 1.49; D III. 30 
sq., 145 sq.; Sn 274, 1003; Pv 11. 13'"; DA 1.112. 



Agga' (adj. n.) [Vedic agra; cp. Av. agro first; Lilh. 
agrs early] I. (adj;) (a.) of time: the first, foremost Dpvs 
IV. 1 3 (sangahai) first collection). See cpds. — (b.) of 
space: the highest, topmost, J 1.52 (°sakha). — (c.) of 
quality : illustrious, excellent, the best, highest, chief Vin 
IV.232 (agga-m-agga) most exellent, D 11.4: S 1. 29 (a. 
sattassa Sambuddha); A 11.17 := Pv iv.3*' (lokassa Buddho 
aggo [A: aggaq] pavuccati); It 88, 89; Sn 875 (suddhi); 
PvA 5. Often combd. with settba (best), e.g. D 11. 15; 
S 111.83, 264. — 2. (nt.) top, point, (a.) lit.: the top or 
tip (nearly always — °); as ar° point of an awl Sn 625, 
631 ; Dh 401 ; kus° tip of a blade of grass Dh 70; Sdhp 
349; tin" id PvA 241; dum° top of a tree J n.155; 
dhaj° of a banner S 1.219; pabbat" of a mountain Sdhp 
352; sakh" of a branch PvA 157; etc. ■ — (b.) yfg-. the 
best part, the ideal, excellence, prominence, first place, 
often to be trsl. as adj. the highest, best of all etc. S 11.29 
(aggena aggassa patti hoti: only the best attain to the 
highest); Mhvs 7, 26. Usually as — "; e.g. dum° the 
best of trees, an excellent tree Vv 35*' (cp. VvA 161); 
dhan° plenty D 111.164; madhur° S 1.41, 161, 237 ; bhav^ 
the best existence S 111.83 j rup° extraordinary beauty 
J 1. 291; labh° highest gain J in. 127; sambodhi-y-agga 
highest wisdom Sn 693 (:= sabbafinuta-nanan SnA 489 ; 
the best part or quality of anything, in enum" of the five 
"excellencies" of first-fruits (panca aggani, after which the 
N. Paiicaggadayaka), viz. khettaggan ras" kotth" kumbhi° 
bhojan° SnA 270. sukh° perfect bliss Sdhp 243. Thus 
freq. in phrase aggag akkhayati to deserve or receive 
the highest praise, to be the most excellent D 1. 124; 

5 111.156, 264; A 11.17 (Tathagato); It 87 (id.); Nd^ 517 
D (appamado); Miln 183. — 3. Cases as adv.: aggena 
(instr. ) in the beginning, beginning from, from (as prep.), 
by (id.) Vin II. 167. (aggena ganhati to take from, to 
subtract, to find the difference; Kern Toev. s. v. unneces- 
sarily changes aggena into agghena), 257 (yadaggena at 
the moment when or from, foil, by tad eva "then"; cp. 
agge), 294 (bhikkh° from alms); Vbh 423 (vass" by the 
number of years), aggato (abl.) in the beginning Sn 217 
(-|- mnjjhato, sesato). aggato kata taken by its worth, 
valued, esteemed Th 2, 386, 394. agge (loc ) 1. at the 
top A 11.201 (opp. mule at the root); J IV.156 (id.); Sn 
233 (phusit° with flowers at the top : supupphitaggasakhii 
KhA 192); J 11.153 (ukkh"); III. 126 (kup°). — 2 (as 
prep.) from. After, since, usually in phrases yad° (foil, 
by tad°) from what time, since what date D 1.152; 11.206; 

6 ajja-t-agge from this day, after to day D 1.85; M 1.528; 
A V.300; Sn p. 25 (cp. BSk. adyagrena Av. 3.11.13); 
at the end: bhattagge after a meal Vin 11.212.' 

-anguli the main finger, i. e. index finger J ¥[.404. 
asana main seat DA 1.267. -upatthaka chief personal 
attendant D 11.6. -karika first tasie, sample Vin 111.80. 
-kulika of an esteemed clan Pv 111.5' (^ setth° PvA 
199). -nna recognized as primitive primeval, D 111.225 
(porana -f-), A 11.27 sq.; IV. 246, Kvu 341. -danta one 
who is most excellently self-restrained (of the Buddha) 
Th 1.354. -dana a splendid gift Vin 111.39. -dvara main 
door J I.I 14. -nakha tip of the nail Vin iv.221. -nagara 
the first or most splendid of cities Vin 1.229. -nikkhitta 
highly praised or famed Miln 343. -nikkhittaka an 
original depositary of the Faith Dpvs IV. 5. -pakatimant 
of the highest character J v.351 (= aggasabhava). -patta 
having attained perfection D iii.48sq. -pasada the highest 
grace A 11.34; It 87. -pinda the best oblation or alms 
1.141; M 128; JI.204. -pindika receiving the best obla- 
tions J VI. 1 40. -puggala the best of men (of the Buddha) 
Sn 684; DhA 11.39; Sdhp. 92, 558. -purohita chief or 
prime minister J vi.391. -phala the highest or supreme 
fruit (i.e. Arahantship) J 1.14S; Pv iv.188; PvA 230. 
-bija having eggs from above (opp. mula°), i. e. propa- 
gated by slips or cuttings D 1.5; DA 1. 81. -magga (adj.) 
having reached the top of the path, i. e. Arahantship 
ThA 20. -mahesi the king's chief wife, queen-consort 
J 1.262; 111.187, 393; v.88; DhA 1.199; PvA 76. -raja 
the chief king J vi.391 ; Miln 27. -vara most meritorious. 

best Dpvs vi.68. -Tada the original doctrine (= thera- 
vada) Dpvs IV.13. -vadin one who proclaims the highest 
good (of the Buddha) Th i, 1142. 

Agga' (nt.) (only — °) [a contracted form of agara] a 
(small) house, housing, accomodation; shelter, hut; hall. 
dan° a house of donation, i. e. a public or private house 
where alms are given J 111.470; iv.379, 403; vi.487; 
PvA 121; Miln 2. salak° a hut where food is distributed 
to the bhikkhus b; tickets, a food office J 1.123, VvA 75. 

AggatS (f.) [abstr. of agga] pre-eminence, prominence, 
superiority Kvu 556 ("ij gata); Dpvs IV.I (gunaggataq 
gala). — (adj.) mahaggata of great value or superiority 
D 1.80; III. 224. 

Aggatta (nt.) [abstr. of agga = Sk. agratvan] the state or 
condition of being the first, pre-eminence PvA 9, 89. 

Aggavant (adj.) occupying the first place, of great eminence 
A 1.70, 243. 

AggatU see agalu. 

Aggaja & Aggala (f.) (also occasionally with 1.) [cp. Sk. 
argala & argala to *areg to protect, ward off, secure etc., 
as in Ags. reced house; *aleg in Sk. raksati to prctect, 
Gr. aAi|« id., Ags. ealh temple. Cp. also *areq in Gr. 
ixpxEu z= Lat. arceo, Orcus, Ohg rigil bolt.] a contrivance 
to fasten anything for security or obstruction: I. a bolt or 
cross-bar Vin 1.290; D i.8g (°r) akoteti to knock upon 
the cross-bar a = kavata DA 1.252); A iv.359 (id.); 
S. IV.290; A i.ioi = I37:=iv.23i. (phusit° with fastened 
bolts, securely shut Th 1.385 (id.); Vin iv.47; J. v.293 
(°r) uppTleti to lift up the cross-bar. — 2. a strip of cloth 
for strengthening a dress etc., a gusset Vin 1.290 (-f- tunna), 
392 (Bdhgh on MV VIII.21, l); J 1.8 (-}- tunna) vi.71 
(°r) datva); Vin iv.121. 

-dana putting in a gusset J 1.8. -phalaka the post or 
board , in which the cross-bar is fixed (cp. "vatti) M 
111.95. -vatti ^ °phalaka Vin 11.120, 148. -suci ijolting 
pin M 1.126. 

Aggi [Vedic agni = Lat. ignis. Besides the contracted form 
aggi we find the diaeretic forms gini (q. v.) and aggini 
(see below)] fire. — i: fire, flames, sparks; conflagration, 
Vin 11.120 (fire in bathroom); M 1.487 (anaharo nibbuto 
f. gone out for lack of fuel); S iv.185, 399 (sa-upadano 
jalati provided with fuel blazes); Sn 62; Dh 70 (:^ asani- 
aggi DhA 111.71); J 1.216 (sparks), 294 (pyre); 11. 102; 
111.55; I v. 1 39; VvA 20 (aggimhi tSpanai) + "dake tema- 
naq). — The var. phases of lighting and extinguishing 
the fire are given at A lv.45: aggiq ujjaleti (kindle, make 
b.urn), ajjhupekkhati (look after, keep up), nibbapeti 
(extinguish, put out), nikkhipati (put down, lay). Other 
phrases are e.g. aggiq jaleti (kindle) J 11.44; ganhati 
(make or take) J 1.494 (cp. below b); deti (set light to) 
J 1.294; nibbapeti (put out) It 93; Sdhp 552. aggi nib- 
bayati the f. goes out S "85; M 1.487; J 1. 212 (udake 
through Vater); Miln 304. aggi nibbuto the f. is exting- 
uished (cp. '^nibbana) J 1.6 1; Miln 304. aggina dahati to 
burn by means of fire, to set fire to A 1.136, 199; 
PvA 20. udar" the fi.e supposed to regulate digestion 
PvA 33; cp. Dial. 11.208, note 2; kapp'utthan" the 
universal conflagration J III. 185; dav" a wood or jungle 
fire J 1. 212; nar the burning of a reed J vi.ioo; padip" 
fire of a lamp Miln 47. 2. the sacrificial fire: In one or 
two of the passages in the older texts this use of Aggi 
is ambiguous. It may possibly be intended to denote the 
personal Agni, the fire-god. But the commentators do 
not think so, and the Jataka commentary, when it means 
Agni, has the phrase Aggi Bbagava the Lord Agni, 
e. g. at J 1.285, 494) 11-44. The ancient ceremony of 
kindling a holy fire on the day the child is born and 
keeping it up throughout his life, is also referred to by 
that commentary e. g. J 1.285 \ "■43- Aggit) paricarati 
(cp. "paricSriya) to serve the sacred fire Vin 1.31 (jajilS 




aggI paricaritukama); A V.263, 266; Th 2, 143 (^ aggi- 
huttan paric" ThA 136); Dh 107; J 1.494; DhA II.232. 
aggii) juhati (cp. '^homa, "^hutta) to sacrifice (in)to the 
fire A 11.207 ) often combd- with aggihuttan paricarati, 
e.g. S 1. 166; Sn p. 79. aggiq namati & santappeti to 
worship the fire A v. 235. aggissa (gen.) parieariko J YI.207 
(cp. below °paricarika) ; aggissa adhanai) A IV. 41. — 3. 
(ethical, always — ") the fire of burning, consuming, feverish 
sensations. Freq. in standard set of 3 fires, viz. rag°, dos°, 
moh", or the fires of lust, anger and bewilderment. The 
number three may possibly have been chosen with refer- 
ence to the three sacrificial fires of Vedic ritual. At S 
IV.19; A IV.41 sq. there are 7 fires, the 4 last of which 
are ahuneyy", gahapat°, dakkhineyy", katth". But this 
trinity of cardinal sins lies at the basis of Buddhist ethics, 
& the fire simile was more probably suggested by the 
number. D lti.217; It 92, Vbh 368. In late books are 
found others: ind" the fire of the senses PvA 56; dukkh° 
the glow of suffering ib. 60; bhavadukkli° of the misery 
of becomings Sdhp. 552; vippatisar" burning remorse 
TvA 60; SOk° burning grief ib. 41. 

Note. The form aggini occurs only at Sn 668 & 670 in 
the meaning of "pyre", and in comb°- with sama 
"like", viz. aggini-samaq jalitai) 668 (= samantato jali- 
taq aggii) Sn A 480); aggini-samasu 67o(=aggisamasu 
Sn A 481). The form aggini in phrase niccagginl can 
either be referred to gini (q. v.) or has to be taken as 
nom. of aggini (in adj. function with i metri causa; 
otherwise as adj. agginiij), meaning looking constantly 
after the fire, i. e. careful, observant, alert. 
-agara (agyagar-i) a heated room or hut with a fire Vin 
1.24; IV. 109; D i.ioi, 102 (as V. 1. BB for agara); M 
1. 501; A V.234, 250. -khandha a great mass of fire, a 
huge fire, fire-brand S 11.85; A iv. 128; Th z, 351 
(°samakama); J iv.139; VI. 330; Ps 1.125; Dpvs vi.37 ; 
Miln 304. -gata having become (like) fire Miln 302. -ja 
firc-bom J v.404 (C; text aggijata). -ttha fire-place J 
V.155. -tthaiia fire-place Vin ir.120 (jantSghare, in bath- 
room), -daddha consumed by fire Dh 136; Pv 1.7*. 
-daha (inaha°) a holocaust A 1. 178. -nikasin like fire J 
111.320 (suriya). -nibbana the extinction of fire J 1.212. 
-pajjota fire-light A 11. 140 (one of the 4 lights, viz. 
canda°, suriya°, a°, panna"). -paricarana (-tthana) the 
place where the (sacrificial) fire is attended to UhA 1. 1 99. 
-paricariya fire-worship DhA 11.232; Sn A 291 (pari") 456. 
-paricarika one who worship the fire A v.263 (brahmana). 
-sala a heated hall or refectory Vin 1.25, 49 = 11.210; 
I.139; II.154. -sikha the crest of the fire, the flame, in 
simile °ufama., like a flaming fire Sn 703 ; Dh 308 = 
It 43, 90 (ayogula). -butta (nt.) the sacrificial fire (see 
above 2), Vin 1.33, 36 = J 1.83 ; Vin 1.246 = Sn 568 
("mukha-yaiina) ; S I 166; Dh 392; Sn 249, p. 79; J 
IV. 211; VI. 525; ThA 136 (= aggi); DhA iv.151 ("n 
brahmano namati). -huttaka (nt.) fire-offering J vi.522 
(= aggi-jahana C). -hotta = °hutta SnA 456 (v. 1. BB 
"hntta). -homa fire-oblation (or perhaps sacrificing to Agni) 
D 1.9 (= aggi-juhana DA 1.93). 

Agglka (adj.) [aggi -\- ka] one who worships the fire Vin 
1. 71 (jatilaka); D 11.339 sq. (ja'.''a)) S I.166 (brahmana). 

Aggha [see agghati] i. price, value, worth, Miln 244; 
Mhvs 26, 22; 30, 76; VvA 77. — mahaggha (adj.) of 
great value J IV.138; v.414; vi.209; P" u.l''. See also 
maharaha. appaggha (adj.) of little value J. iv.139; v.414. 
— anaggba (nt.) pricelessness, J v.484; cattati anagghSni 
the four priceless things, viz. setacchatta, nisidanapallanka, 
adharaka, pSda])ithika DhA III. 120, 186. (adj.) priceless, 
invaluable j v.414; Mhvs 26, 25; DhA iv.216. — agghena 
(inslr.) for the price of Vin II.52, cp. Bdhgh on p. 31 1, 
312. — 2. an oblation made to a guest D 11.240; J 
iv.39^ = 476. 

-karaka a valuator J 1.124. -pada valuableness J v.473 
Clakkbanai] nama mantai]). 

Agghaka (adj.)r=:aggha; worth, having the value of ( — ") 
Mhvs 30, 77. aa° priceless Mhvs 30, 72. 

Agghati (intr.) [Sk. arghati, argh = arh (see arhati), cp. 
Gr. aAifi) reward, aA<^»ai to deserve] to be worth, to have 
the value of (ace), to deserve J 1.112 (satasahassai) ; ad- 
dhamasakar)) ; vi.174, 3^7 (padarajaq); DhA 111.35 (manin 
nSgghama); Mhvs 32, 28. Freq. in stook phrase kalai] 
nagghati (nagghanti) solas!;] not to be worth the i6'h part 
of (cp. kala) Vin n 156; S 1.233; Uh 7°; ^v 20' (= 
nanubhoti Vv.\ 104), 43'; J v.284. — Caus. aggbapeti 
to value, to appraise, to have a price put on (ace.) J 
1. 124; IV. 137, 278; Miln 192; Mhvs 27, 23. Cp. aggha- 
panaka & agghapaniya. 

Agghanaka (adj.) (— °) [fr. *agghana, abstr. to agghati] 
having the value of, equal to, worth Vin IV. 226; J 1.61 
(satasahass°) , 112; DA 1.80 (kahapan°); DhA 111.120 
(cuddasakoti°) ; Mhvs 26, 22; 34, 87. — f. "ika J 1.178 

Agghanlya (adj.) [in function & form grd. of agghati] pri- 
celess, invaluable, beyond the reach of money Miln 192. 

Agghapanaka [fr. agghapanatoagghapeti, Caus. of agghati] 
a valuator, appraiser J 1.124, '25; v.276 C^ika). 

Agghapaniya (adj.) [grd. of agghapeti, see agghati] that 
which is to be valued, in °kamma the business of a 
valuator J iv.137. 

Agghika (nt.) ( — ") [=: agghiya] an oblation, decoration 
or salutation in the form of garlands, flowers etc., there- 
fore meaning "string, garland" (cp. Sinhalese aga "festoon 
work") Mhvs 19, 38 (pupph'') 34, 73 (ratan") 34, 76 
(dhaj°); Davs 1.39 (pupphamay°) ; v.51 (kusum°). 

Agghiya (adj. -n.) [grd. form from agghati] i. (adj.) valu- 
able, precious, worth J VI.265 (mani); DhA 11.41 (ratan' 
of jewel's worth); Mhvs 30, 92. — 2. (nt.) a respectful 
oblation J v.324 = VI.516; Dpvs vi.65 ; VI1.4. 

Agha' (nt.) [cp. Sk. agha, of uncertain etym.] evil, grief, 
pain, suffering, misfortune S I 22 ; M 1.500 (roga ganda 
salla agha); A 11. 128 (id.); J v.ioo; Th 2, 491; Sdhp 
51. — adj. painful, bringing pain J vi.507 (agha-m-miga 
=: aghakara m. C). -bhuta a source of pain S 111.189 
(-(- agha & salla). 

Agha- (m. nt.) [the etym. suggested by Morris JPTS 
1889, 200 (with ref. to M 1.500, which belongs under 
agha') is untenable (to Sk. kha, as a-kha = agha, cp. 
Jain Prk. khaha). Neither does the pop. etym. of Bdhgh. 
offer any clue (= a -j- gha from ghatl that which does 
not strike or aghattaniya is not strikeable DhsA 326, 
cp. Dhs. trsl. 194 & J IV.154 aghe thita = appatighe 
akase thita the air which does not offer any resistance). 
On the other hand the primary meaning is darkness^ as 
seen from the phrase lokantarika agba asagvuta an- 
dbakara D 11.12; S v.454, and BSk. agbasaqvrta M 
Vastu 11.240, adj. dark M Vastu 1.41; 11.162; Lai Vist 
552] the sky, orig. the dark sky, dark space, the abyss 
of space D 11.12; S v.45 ; Vv i6' (aghasi gama, loc. ^ 
vehasai) gama VvA 78); J |V.I54; Dhs 638 (-j- aghagata) ; 
Vbh 84 (id.). 

-gata going through or being in the sky or atmosphere 
Dhs 638, 722; Vbh 84. -gamin moving through the 
atmosphere or space i. e. a planet S 1.67 = Miln 242 
(adicco settho aghagaminai)). 

Aghata at Th i, 321 may be read as agha-gata or (prefer- 
ably) with v. 1. as aggha-gatai), or (with Neumann) as 
agghai) agghalanai). See also Mrs. Kb. D, Psalms of the 
Krtthren.^ p. 191. 

Agghammiga [to agha' ?] a sort of wild animal J Vi.247 
(= aghavaha miga) 507 (= aghakara). Cp. BSk. agha- 
rika Divy 475. 

Aghavin (adj.) [to agha'] suffering pain, being in misery 
Sn 694 (= dukkhita SnA 489). 



Anka' = anga, sign, mark, brand Miln 79; °karana 
branding J IV. 366, 375. See also anketi. 

Anka^ [Vedic anka hook, bent etc., anc, cp. ankura & 
ankusa. Gr. xyxm elbow, xyxvfx =^ anchor; Lat. uncus 
nail; Ohg. angul = E. angle] (a.) a hook J v.322 = 
VI.2:8 (v. 1. BB anga). — (b.) the lap (i. e. the bent 
position) or the hollow above the hips where infants are 
carried by Hindos mothers or nurses (ankena vahati) Vin 
11.114; D 11.19 (anke pariharati to hold on one's lap or 
carry on one's hips), 20 (nisidapeti seat on one's lap); 
M 11.97 (ankena vahitva); Th i, 299; J 1.262 (anke 
nisinna); 11.127, 236; vi.513; DhA 1. 170 (ankena vahitva) 
PvA 17 (nisidapeti). 

Ankita [pp. of anketi] marked, branded J 1. 231 (cakkan- 
kita Salthu pada): 11. 185 ("kannaka with perforated ears). 

Ankura [cp. Sk. ankura, to anka a bend = a tendril etc.] 
a shoot, a sprout (lit. or fig.) J 11.105; VI.331 (Buddh °a 
nascent Buddha), 486; Dhs 617 ("vanna); Miln 50, 25 1 
269; Sdhp 273; Mhvs 15, 43. 

Ankusa [Vedic ankusa; to anC, see anka'] a hook, a pole 
with a hook, used (l) for plucking fruit off trees, a crook 
J 1.9 Cpacchi hook & basket); v.89 = vi.520 (pacchi- 
khanitti''), 529 (= phalanai) ganhanatthai) ankusaq). — 
(2) to drive an elephant, a goad (cp patoda & tutta) 
Vin 11.196 (+kasa); J vi.489; Th.\ 173 (ovadan anku- 
saq katva, fig. guide); Sdhp 147 (dand°). — (3) N. of a 
certain method of inference in Logic (naya), consisting 
in inferring certain mental states of a general character 
from respective traits where they are to be found Nett 
2, 4, 127; Nett A 20S; — acc° beyond the reach of the 
goad D 11.266 (naga). See also ankusaka. 

-gayha (the art) how to grasp and handle an eleph.- 
driver's hook M 11.94 (sippa). -gaha an eleph. -driver Dh 

Ankusaka [see anka-, cp. ankusa] I. a crook for plucking 
fruit J 111.22. — 2. an eleph.-driver's hook J 111.431. 
-yattha a crooked stick, alpenstock, staff (of an ascetic) 
J 11.68 (+ pacchi). 

Anketi [Denom. fr. anka'] to mark out, brand J 1.451 
lakkhanena); 11.399. — PP- ankita, q. v. 

Ankola [dial, for ankura] a species of tree Alangium 
Hexapetalum J vi.535. Cp. next. 

Ankolaka = ankola J 1V.440; V.420. 

Anga (nt.) [Vedic anga, anC cp. Lat. angulus = angle, 
corner etc., ungulus finger-ring = Sk. angullya. See also 
anka, anguttha & angula] (1) (lit.) a constituent part of 
the body, a limb, member; also of objects : part, member 
(see cpd. "sambhara); utfam^anga the reproductive organ 
J v.ig7; also as "head" at ThA 209. Usually in cpds. 
(see below, esp. "paccanga), as sabbanga-kalyani perfect 
in all limbs Pv 111.3^ (= sobhana-sabbanga-paccangi PvA 
189) and in redupln. anga-m-angani limb by limb, with 
all limbs (see also below anga -)- paccanga) Vin 111.119; 
Vv 38^ ("ehi naccamana); Pv Ii.i2i», '■'', '8 (sunakho te 
khadati). — (2) (fig.) a constituent part of a whole or 
system or collection, e. g. uposath° the vows of the fast 
J 15°) bhavanga the constituents or the condition of 
becoming (see bhava & cp. Cjx/. 265 sq.); bojjbanga 
(q. v.). Esp. with numerals : cattari angani 4 constituents 
A 11.79 (^'2. sila, samadhi, paiiiia. vimutli and rupa, ve- 
dana, sanna, bhava), atthangika (q. v.) raagga the Path 
with its eight constituents or the eightfold Path (KhA 
85 : atth' angani assa ti) navanga Buddha-sasana see 
nava. — (3) a constituent part as characteristic, promi- 
nent or distinguishing, a mark, attribute, sign, quality 
D I.I 13 sq., 117 (imina p' angena by this quality, or: 
in this respect, cp. below 4; DA 1.281 expls tena kara- 

nena). In a special sense striking (abnormal) sign or mark 
on the body D 1.9, from which a prophesy is made 
(: hattha-padadisu yena kenaci evarupena angena saman- 
nagato dighayu . . holi ti . . angasatthan = chiromantics 
DA 1.92). Thus in comb"- with samannagata & sam- 
panna always meaning endowed with "good", superior, 
remarkable "qualities", e. g. J 1.3 (sabbanga-sampanna 
nagarar) a city possessing all marks of perfection) ; 11.207. — 
In enum"- with var. numerals: tlhi angehi s. A 1.1155 
catlari sotapannassa a- D 111.227 = A iv.405sq.; paiic- 
anga-vippahino ( i. e. giving up the 5 hindrances, see 
nivarana) and paiicanga-samannagato (i. e. endowed with 
the 5 good qualities, viz. the sila-kkhandha, see kkhandha 
II. Ad) S 1.99 = .\ 1.161; V.15, 29. Similarly the 5 attri- 
butes of a brahmin (viz. sujata of pure birth, .ijjhayaka 
a student of the Vedas, abhiriipa handsome, silava of good 
conduct, pandita clever) D 1.119, '^o. Eight qualities of 
a king D 1.137. Ten qualities of an Arahant (cp. dasa' 
B 2) S 111.83; Kh = KhA 88; cp. M 1.446 (dasah' 
angehi samannagato rarino assajaniyo). — (4) (modally) 
part, share, interest, concern ; ajjbattikai] angaij my own 
part or interest in the outside world) A 1.16 sq. = S 
v.ioi sq. ; It 9. rafiiio angai) an asset or profit for the 
king M 1.446. Thus adv. tadanga (see also ta° i.a) as a 
matter of fact, in this respect, for sure, certainly and 
tadangena by these means, through this, therefore M 
1.492; A IV.411; Sdhp 455, 456; imina p^ angena for that 
reason M 11.168. — In comp"- with verbs angi° (angi°) : 
angigata having limbs or ports, divided D.\ 1. 313; cp. 
samangi (-bhuta). 

-jata "the distinguishing member", i. e. sign of male 
or female (see above 3); membrum virile and muliebre 
Vin 1.191 (of cows); 111.20, 37, 205; J 11-359; Miln 124. 
-paccanga one limb or the other, limbs great and small 
M 1.81; J vi-20, used (a) collectively, the condition of 
perfect limbs, or adj. with perfect limbs, having all limbs 
Pv II.I2'2 (:= paripunna-sabbanga-paccangavati PvA 158); 
SnA 383; DhA 1.390; ThA 288; Sdhp 83 fig. rathassa 
angapaccangan M 1.395; sabbanga-paccangani all limbs 
Miln 148. — (b) dish'ibiitively (cp. similar redupl. forma- 
tions like chiddavachidda, setthanu-setthi, khandakhanda, 
cunnavicunna) limb after limb, one limb after the other 
(like angamangani above 1), piecemeal M 1. 133 (°e da- 
ssyya), 366; J 1.20; IV. 324 (cbinditva). -paccangata the 
condition or state of perfect limbs, i. e. a perfect body 
VvA 134 (suvisuddh°). -paccangin having all limbs 
(perfect) D 1.34 (sabbanga-peccangi); PvA 189. -raga 
painting or rouging the body Vin 11.107 (+ mukha"). 
-latthi spront, offshoot ThA 226. -vata gout Vin 1.205. 
-vijja the art of prognosticating from marks on the body, 
chiromantics, palmistry etc. (cp. above 3) D 1.9 (see expl. 
at DA 1.93); J 1290 (°aya cheka clever in fortune-tel- 
ling) ; °annbhava the power of knowing the art of signs 
on the body J 11.200; v.284; °pathaka one who in versed 
in palmistry etc. J 11.21, 250; v-458. -vekalla bodily 
deformity DhA 11.26. -sattha the science of prognostic- 
ating from certain bodily marks DA 1.92. -sambbara 
the combination of parts Miln 28 ^ S 1.135; Miln 41. 
-hetuka a species of wild birds, living in forests J vi.538. 

Angara' (nt.) [cp. Sk. angana & °na; to anga?] an open 
space, a clearing, Vin 11. 218; J 1. 109 (= manussanan 
saiicaran.vtthane anavate bhumibhage C); 11.243, 29°! 
357; Davs 1.27. — cetiy° an open space before a Chaitya 
Miln 366, DA I.191, 197; VvA 254. raj° the empty 
space before the king's palace, the royal square J 1. 124, 
152; 11.2; DhA 11.45. 

-tthana a clearing (in a wood or park) J 1.249, 421. 
-pariyanta the end or border of a clearing J 11.200. 

Angara' [prob. to anj, thus a variant of aiijana, q. v.] ; 
a speck or freckle (on the face) A v.92, 94 sq. (+ raja). 
Usually in neg. anangana (adj.) free frjm fleck or blemish, 
clear, (of the mind) (opp. sangana Sn 279); D 1.76; 
M 1.24 sq.; 100 (-j-raja); A 11.211; Sn 517 (+ vigata- 



raja = angananan abhavix malanan ca vigama . . . SnA 
427), 622 = Dh 125 (^ nikkilesa DhA 111.34); Dh 236, 
351; Pug 60; Nett 87. 

Angada [cp. Sk. angnda ; prob. anga -f- da that which is 
given to the limbs] a bracelet J v. 9, 410 (citt°, adj. with 
manifold bracelets). 

Angadlll (adj.) [to angada] wearing a bracelet J v. 9. 

Angara (m. nt.) [Vedic angara] charcoal, burniog coal, 
embers A 111.97, 3^0, 407; J 1.73; 111.54, 55; v.488; 
Sd 668; Sdhp 32. kul° the charcoal of the family, a 
squanderer S IV. 324 (see under kula). 

-kataba a pot for holding burning coal, a charcoal 
pan D.\ 1. 261. -kapalla an earthenware pan for ashes 
UhA 1.260; Dhs A 333; VvA 142. -kammakara a charcoal 
burner J VI. 209. -kasu a charcoal pit M 1.74, 365; Th 2, 
491; J 1.233; Sn 396; ThA 288; DhA 1442; Sdhp 208. 
-pacctai a basket for ashes DhA iv.tgi. -pabbata the 
mountain of live embers, the glowing mount (in Niraya) 
A 1. 141; Miln 303; Pv.\ 221 Caropana); Sdhp 208. 
-mar]sa roast meat Mhvs 10, 16. -masi ashes DhA 
III. 309. -rasi a heap of burning coal J in. 55. 

Angaraka (adj.) [cp. Sk. angaraka] like charcoal, of red 
colour, N. of the planet Mars DA 1.95; cp. J 1.73. 

Angarika a charcoal-burner J VI. 206 (== angara-kamma- 
kara p. 209). 

Angarin (adj.) [to angara] (burning) like coal, of bright- 
red colour, crimson Th I, 527 = J 1. 87 (duma trees in 
full bloom). 

Angika ( — °) (adJO [fr- anga] consisting of parts, — fold) 
only in comp"- with num. like auh°, duv° (see dve), 
catur°, panc° etc., q. v. 

Angln (adj.) limbed, having limbs or parts, — fold, see 
catur° & pace" (under anga-paccangin). — f. angini having 
spronts or shoots (of a tree) Th 2, 297 (= ThA 226). 

Anguttha [cp. Sk. angustha, see etym. under anga] i. the 
thumb Vin HI. 34; Miln 123; PvA 198. — 2. the great 
toe J n.92; Mhvs 35, 43. 

-pada thumb-mark A IV.I27 = S 111.154. -sineha love 
drawn from the thumb, i. e. extraordinary love Pv 111.5^, 
cp. PvA 198. 

Angutthaka = anguttha J IV. 378; V.281; pad° the great 
toe S V.270. 

Angula [Vedic angula, lit. "limblct" see anga for etym.] 
I. a finger or toe M 1.395 (vank' angulan karoti to bend 
the fingers, v. 1. angulin); A 111.6 (id.); J v 70 (gon° 
adj. with ox toes, expld- by C. as with toes like an ox's 
tail ; vv. 11. "anguttha and °anguli). — 2. a finger as 
measure, i. e. a finger-breadth, an inch Vin 11.294, 3°^ 
(dvangula 2 inches wide); Mhvs 19, 11 (atjh"); DhA 
III. 1 27 (ek°). 

-atthi (? cp. aoga-latthi) fingers (or toes) and bones 
DA 1.93. -anguli fingers and toes DhA 111.214. -antarika 
the interstices between the fingers Vin 111.39; Miln 180; 
Dh.\ 111.214. 

Angulika (m.) [= anguli] a finger J 111.13 (paiic°); v.204 
(vatt'' = pavaj' ankurasadisa valtanguli p. 207). See also 


Angull & Anguti (thus always in cpds.) (f.) [Vedic anguli 
&L °i; see anga] a finger A IV. 127; Sn 610; J 111.416; 
IV.474; V.215 (vatt° with rounded fingers); Miln 395; 
DhA 11.59; IV. 210; SnA 229. 

-patodaka nudging with the fingers Vin 111.84 = iv.l 10; 
D 1.91 = A IV. 343. -pada finger-mark A IV.127 = S 
111.154. -potba snapping or cracking the fingers J v.67. 
•muddika a signet ring Vin 11.106: J iv.498; v.439, 467. 
-sanghattana" = potha DA 1.256. 

Anguteyyaka (nt.) [cp. Sk. anguUyaka thr.t which belongs 
to the finger, Mhg. vingerlin ^ f'Dgj ^* bracelet, Fr. 
bras; thimble thumb etc.] an ornament for the finger, a 
finger-ring J 11.444 (= nikkha). 

Acankama (avj.) [a + cankama] not fit for walking, not 
level or even Th i, 1 174 (magga). 

Acittaka (adj.) [a -f citta^ + l^a] I. without thought or 
intention unconscious, unintentional DhA 11.42. — 2. 
without heart or feeling, instr. aeittakena (adv.) heart- 
lesely J iv.58 (C. for acetasa). 

Acittlkata (adj.) [a -f citta'^ -f kata; cp. ciltikara] not 
well thought of Miln 229. 

Acira see cira & cp. nacira. 

Acela (adj. -n.) [a -f- ceia] one who is not clothed, esp. 1. 1. 
for an anti-Buddhist naked ascetic D 1.161, 165; 111.6, 
12, 17 sq.; S 1.78; J v.75. 

Acelaka = acela D 1.166; III 40; A 1.295; 11.206; 111.384 
("savaka); J 111.246; vi.229; Pug 55; DhA 111.489. 

ACC- I. a -f- c°, e. g. accuta ^ a -)- cuta, — 2. Assimilation 
group of (a) ati -|- vowel; (b) c -f cons. e. g. aeci = arci. 

ACCaga [ati -\- aga] "y^ sg. pret. of ati-gacchati (q. v. for 
similar forms) he overcame, should or could overcome 
Sn 1040 (expld. wrongly as pp. = atikUanta at Nd^ 10 
and as alita at DhA iv.454); Dh 414. 

Accankusa (adj.) [ati -f- ankusa] beyond the reach of thp 
goad D 11.266 (naga). 

Accatari see atitarati. 

ACCati [Vedic arcati, fC, orig. meaning to be clear & to 
sing i. e. to sound clear, cp. arci] to praise, honour, cele- 
brate Davs v. 66 (accayittha, pret.) — pp accita, q. v. 

Accanta (adj. — & adv. ° — ) [ati -f anta, lit. "up to the 
end"] I. uninterrupted, continuous, perpetual J I.223; 
Miln 413; Vv.A. 71; PvA 73, 125, 266; Sdhp 288. — 
2. final, absolute, complete; adv. thoroughly S 1. 130 ("q 
halaputta' mhi); 111.13 = A '-291 sq. ; v. 326 sq. (°nittha, 
■^yogakkhemin); Kvu 586 (°niyamala final assurance; cp. 
Kvu trsl. 340). — 3. (° — ) exceedingly extremely, very 
much A 1.145 ("sukhumala, extremely delicate), Miln 26 
(id.); Sn 794 (°suddhi z= paramattha-accantasuddhi SnA 
528); Th 1, 692 (°ruci); Dh 162 (°dussilya = ekanta" 
DhA 111.153). 

Accaya [from acceti, ati -f- i, going ou or beyond ; cp. Sk. 
atyaya] (i) (temporal) lapse, passing; passing away, 
end, death. Usually as instr. accayena after the lapse 
01, at the end or death of after Vin 1.25; D 11.127 (■'a'- 
liyS a), 154 (mam° when I shall be dead); M 1.438 
(temas° after 3 months); S 1.69; Snp. 102 (catunnaq 
niasanaq), p. 1 10 (rattiyS); J 1.253 (ekaha-dvih°), 291 
(katipah° after a few days); PvA 47 (katipSh"), 82 (da- 
samas°), 145 (vassasatanoij). — (2) (modal) passing or 
getting over, overcoming, conquering, only in phrase 
dur-accaya difficult to overcome, of kamapanka Sn 945 
(:= dur-atikkamanlya SnA 568), of sanga Sn 948: tanhS 
Dh 336; sola It 95. — (3) (fig.) going beyond (the norm), 
transgression, offence Vin 1. 133 (thull° a grave offence), 
167 (id.); 11.110,170; esp. ia foil, phrases: accayo mai) 
accagauia a fault has overcome me, i. e. has been com- 
mitted by me (in confession formula) D 1 85 (= abhi- 
bhavitvS pavatto has overwhelmed me D.\ I.236); A1.54; 
M 1.438 (id.); accayar) accayato passati to recognise a 
breach of the regulation as such Vin 1.315; A 1.103; 
11.146 sq.; '"ij desetl to confess the transgression S 1.239; 
"r) accayato pafiga^haM to accept (the confession of) the 
fault, i. e. to pardon the transgression , in confession- 
formula at D 1.85 = (Vio 11.192 ; M 1.438 etc.). In the 



same sense accaya-pa^iggahana pardon, absolution J v.380 ; 
accayena desanaij patiganhati J I..379; accayai] kha- 
mati to forgive Miln 420. 

Accasara (adj.) [a form. fr. aor. accasari (ati 4- Sf). influ- 
enced in meaning by analogy of ati -f- a + sara (sinf)- 
Not with Morris (J. P. T. S. 1889, 200) a corruption of 
accaya + sara (Sfllf)) thus meaning "mindful of a fault"] 
I. going beyond the limits (of proper behaviour), too 
self-sure, overbearing, arrogant, proud S 1.239 (v. 1. acca- 
yasara caused by prolepsis of foil, accaya); J iv.6 (+ 
atisara); DhA iv.230 (= expecting too much). — 2. going 
beyond the limits (of understanding), beyond grasp, trans- 
cendental (of panha a question) M 1.304; S V.218 (v. 1. 
SS for bB reading ajjhapara). Cp. accasSrin. 

Accasara (f-) [abstr. to accasara] overbeariog^ pride, self- 
surity Vbh 358 (-f maya). Note. In id. p. at Pug 23 
we read acchadana instead of accasara. 

Accasari [fr. ati 4- Sf] aor 3. sg. of atisarati to go beyond 
the limit, to go astray J v.70. 

Accasarin (adj.) = accasara 1., aspiring too high Sn 8 sq. 
(yo naccasarl, opp. to na paccasarl; axpl^- at SnA 21 by 
yo nStidhavi, opp. na ohiyyi). 

Accahasi [fr. ati -|- hf] aor 3 sg. of atiharati to bring over, 
to bring, to take J 111.484 (= ativiya abari C). 

ACCftbhikkbaoa (° — ) [ati 4- abhikkhana] too often J V.233 
("saqsagga; C. expl^- ativiya abhinha). 

Accaraddha (adj. adv.) [ati -|- Sraddha] exerting oneself, 
very or too much, with great exertion Vin 1.182; Th i, 
638; SnA 21. 

Accayata (adj.) [ati -f ayaU] too long A 111.375. 

ACCaylka (adj.) [fr. accaya] out of time, viz. I irregular, 
extraordiiiary J Vl.549, 553. — 2. urgent, pressing M 
1.149 (karaniyan business) 11.112; J 1.338; v.17 °r) (nt.) 
hurry DhA 1. 18. See also acceka. 

Accasaona (adj.) [ati 4- Ssanoa} very near, too near PvA 
42 (na a. n'&tidura neither too near nor too far, at an 
easy distance). 

Acc&hita (adj.) [ati 4- ahita] /ery cruel, very unfriendly, 
terrible J :v.46 = v.146 (= ati ahita C.) = vi.306 (id.). 

Accavadati [ati 4- avadati; or is it = ajjhSvadati = adhi 4- 
avadati?] to speak more or better, to surpass in talk or 
speech; to talk somebody down, to persuade, entice Vin 
1V.224, 263 ; S 11.204 sq- ; J V.433 (v. 1. BB ajjharali), 434 
(v. 1. BB aghScarati for ajjhacarati = ajjhavadati?). 

Accl & (in verse) acci (f) [Vedic arci m. & arcis nt. & f. 
to fc, cp. accati] a ray of light, a beam, flame S iv.290 
(spelt acchi), 399; A IV.103; V.9; Sn 1074 (vuccati jala- 
sikha Nds 11); J V.213; Miln 40; ThA 154 (dip'); 
Sdbp 250 

Acclka (f.) [fr. acci] a flame M 1.74; S 11.99. 

Acclta [pp. of accati] honoured, praised, esteemed J VI. 180. 

Accimant (adj.) [fr. acci, cp. Vedic arcimant & arcismaat] 
flaming, glowing, fiery; brilliant Th 1,527; J v.266; vi.248; 
Vv 38*. 

Accl-bandha (adj.) [=accibaddha?] at Vin 1.287 's expl<i- 
by Bdhgh as caturassa-kedara-baddha ("divided into short 
pieces" Vin Texts 11.207), i. e- with squares of irrigated 
fields. The vv. II. are acca° and acchi°, and we should 
prefer the conjecture acchi-baddha "in the shape of 
cubes or dice", i. e. with square fields. 

AcCUggaCChatl [aii -|- uggacchati] to rise out (of), ger. 
accuggamma D II.38 ; A V.152 (in simile of lotus). 

Accuggata (adj.) [ati 4- uggata] I. very high or lofiy Miln 
346 (giri); VvA 197; DhA 11.65. — 2- '°° '"'g''. '• s- 
too shrill or loud J VI.133 (sadda), 516 (fig. = alikuddha 
very angry C). 

Accu^a (adj.) [ati 4- unha] very hot, too hot Sn 966 ; 
Nd' 487; DhA 11.85, 87 (v.l. for abbhunha). See also 

Accuta (adj.) [a 4- cuta] immoveable ; everlasting, eternal ; 
nt. °i] Ep. of Nibbana (see also cuta) A iv.295, 327 ; 
Sn 204, 1086 (=nicca etc. Nd- 12); Dh 225 (=: sassata 
DhA in.321); Sdhp 47. 

Accupattliapetl at J v. 124 is to be read with v.l. as apaccu- 
patthapeti (does not indulge in or care for). 

Aaccupati at J iv.250 read accuppati, aor. 3rd sg. of 
accuppatati to fall in between (lit. on to), to interfere 
(with two people quarelling). C. expK atigantva uppati. 
There is no need for Kern's corn acchupati (Toev. s. v.). 

AcCUSSanna (adj.) [ati 4- ussanna] too full, too thick Vin 

Acceka = accayika, special; °civara a special robe Vin 
111.261 ; cp. Vin Texts 1.29'. 

Accetl [ati 4- eti fr. I] i. to pass (of time), to go by, to 
elapse Th i, 145 (accayanti ahoratta). — 2. to overcome, 
to get over Miln 36 (dukkhaij). — Caus. accetl to make 
go on (loc), to put on J VI. 17 (sulasmiij; C. avuneti), 
but at '.his passage prob. to be read appeti (q. v.). 

AcCOgaIha (adj.) [ati -j- ogalha] too abundant, too plentiful 
(of riches), lit. plunged into A iv.282, 287, 323 sq. 

Accodaka (nt.) [ati 4- udaka] too much water (opp. ano- 
daka no water) DhA 1.52. 

Accodara (nt.) [ati -f- udara] too much eating, greediness, 
lit. too much of a belly J iv.279 (C. ati-udara). 

Accha' (adj ) [cp. Sk. accha, dial., to fc (see accati), thus 
"shining"; cp. Sk. rksa bald, bare and Vedic rkvan bright. 
Monier-Williams however takes it as a -|- cha fr. chad> 
thus "not covered, not shaded"] clear, transparent Vin 
1.206 (°ka5jika); D 1.76 (mani = tanucchavi DA 1.221), 
80 (udakapatta), 84 (udaka-rahada) ; M i.ioo; S 11.281 
(°patta); ill. 105 (id.); A 1.9; J li.ioo (udaka); Vv 79>« 
(vari); DA 1.113 (yagu). 

-odaka having clear water, with clear water (of lotus 
ponds) Vv 4411; 8i5; f °odika Vv 4l» = 6o'. 

Accha' [Vedic rksa = Gr. Stpxro;, Lat. ursus, Cymr. arth] 
a bear Vin 1.200; A lli.ioi; J v.197, 406, 416; Miln 23, 
149. At j Vl.507 accha figures as N. of an animal, but 
is in expl"- taken in the sense of accha* (accha nama 
aghammiga C). Note, Another peculiar form of accha 
is P. ikka (q. v.). 

Accha' = akkha' (a die) see acci-bandha. 

Accha* (adj.) [Ved. rksaj hurtful, painful, bad DhA lv.163 

Acchaka = accha>, a bear J v.71. 

Acchati [Vedic asyati & Sste, as; cp. Gr. ^ina,i\ I. to sit, 
to sit still Vin 1.289; A 11.15; It 120 (in set carat! titjhati 
a. aayatl, where o'berwise nisinna stands for acchati); 
Vv 74' (= nisidati VvA 298); PvA 4. — 2. to stay, 
remain, to leave alone Th i, 936; J iv.306. — 3. to be, 
behave, live Vin 11.195; D 1.102; S 1.212; Vv ii'^; Pv 
IU.3' (= nisidati vasati PvA 188); Miln 88; DhA 1.424. 
In this sense often pleonastic for finite verb, thus aggii] 



karitva a. (= aggii) karoti) D 1.102; aggii) paricaranto a. 
(= aggii] paricarati) DA 1.270; tantar) pasarento a. (= 
tantaq pasoreti) DhA 1.424. — Pot. acche It no; aor. 
acchi Vin iv.308; DhA 1.424. 

Acchanna (adj.) [pp. of acchadeli] covered with, clothed 
in, fig. steeped in (c. loe.) J III.323 (lohite a. = aimugga C). 
At D 1.91 naccbaana is for na chanoa (see channa'^)= 
not fair, not suitable or proper (patirOpa). 

ACChambhln (adj.) [a + chambhin] not frightened, undis- 
mayed, fearless Sn 42 (reading achambhin; Nd^ 13 expK 
abhiru anulrasi etc.); J vi.322 (= nikkampa C). See 

ACChara' (f.) [etym. uncertain, but certainly dialectical; 
Trenckner connects it with acchurita (Notes 76); Childers 
compares Sk. aksara (see akkhara); there may be a con- 
nection with akkhana in akkhana-vedhin (cp. BSk. acchata 
Divy 555), or possibly a relation to a + tSBTi thus 
meaning "stealthily", although the primary meaning is 
"snapping, a quick sound"] the snapping of the fingers, 
the bringing together of the finger-tips: I. (lit.) accbaran 
pabarati to snap the fingers J 11.447; HM91 ; iv.124, 126; 
V.314; VI.366; DhA 1.38, 424. — As measure: as much 
as one may hold with the finger-tips, a pinch J v.385 ; 
DhA 11.273 Cgahanamattai)) ; cp. ekacchara-matta DhA 
11.274. — 2. (fig.) a finger's snap, i. e. a short moment, 
in ek^accbara-kkbane in one moment Miln 102, and in 
def. of acchariya (q. v ) at D.\ 1.43; VvA 329. 

-sangbata the snapping of the fingers as signifying a 
short duration of time, a moment, "matla momentary, 
only for one moment (cp. BSk. acchatasanghata Divy 
142) A, 34, 38; IV.396; Th i, 405; 2, 67 (expld. 
at ThA 76 as ghatikSmatlam pi khanai) angulipothana- 
mattam pi kalai)). -sadda the sound of the snapping of 
a finger J in. 127. 

Acchara' (f.) [V'edic apsaras ^ apa, water + sarati, orig- 
water nymph] a celestial nymph M 1.253 (p'- accharayo) 
11.64; Th 2, 374 (= devacchara ThA 252); J v.152 sq- 
(Alambusa a.) Vv 5^ (= devakafina VvA 37); Vv 172) 
18" etc.; DhA 111.8, 19; PvA 46 (dev°); Miln 169; 
Sdhp 298. 

Acchat^ka (nt. or f. ?) [fr. acchara'] in °r) vadeti to make 
heavenly music (lit. the sounds of an acchara or heavenly 
nymph) A IV.265. 

Acchariya (adj.-nt.) [cp. Sk. ascarya since Upanishads of 
uncertain etym. — The conventional etym. of Pali gram- 
marians connects it with acchara' (which is prob. correct 
& thus reduces Sk. ascarya to a Sanskritisation of accha- 
riya) viz. Dhamraapala: anabhinha-ppavattitaya acchara- 
paharana yoggaij that which happens without a moment's 
notice, at the snap of a finger; i.e. causally unconnected 
(cp. Goth, silda-leiks in similar meaning) VvA 329; and 
Buddhaghosa: acchara-yoggan ti acchariyaq accharaq paha- 
ritur) yuttan ti attho DA 1.43] wonderful, surprising, 
strange, marvellous D 11.155; M 1.79; 111.118, 125, 144 
(aii°); S IV.371; A 1.181; Miln 28, 253; DhA 111.171; 
PvA 121; VvA 71 (an°). As nt. often in exclamations: 
how wonderful! what a marvel! J 1.223, 279; iv.138; 
VI.94 (a. vata bho); DhA IV.51 (aho a.); VvA 103 (aho 
ti acchariyatlhena nipato). Thus freq. combd- with ab- 
bhutai) = how wonderful & strange, marvellous, beyond 
comprehension, e. g. D 1.2, 60, 206, 210; II. 8; and in 
phrase acchariya abbbuta dhamma strange & wonderful 
things, i.e. wonderful signs, portents marvels, M III. 118, 
125; A 1V.198; Miln 8; also as adj. in phrase accbariya- 
abbhuta-(citta-JJata with their hearts full of wonder and 
surprise DhA iv.52; PvA 6, 50. — See also acchera & 

Acchidana (nt.) [fr. acchsdeti] covering, clothing Th I, 
698; Miln 279. — fig. protection, sheltering J 1.307. 

AcchadanS (f.) [= prec] covering, hiding, concealment 
Pug 19, 23. — Nott. In id. p. at Vbh 358 we read 
accasara for acchadana. Is the latter merely a gloss? 

Acchadetl [a -f chadeti<, Caus. of chad, cp. BSk. accha- 
dayati jivitena to keep alive Av. 6, 1. 300; Divy 136, 
137] to cover, to clothe, to put on D 1.63 =: It 75; J 
1.254; 111.189; IV.318; Pug 57; Pv' (ger. acchada- 
yitvana); DA 1.181 (=: paridahitva); PvA 49, 50. — fig. 
to envelop, to fill J vi.581 (abbhar) rajo acchadesi dust 
filled the air). — pp. accbanna (q. v.). 

Acchi at S IV.290 is faulty spelling for acci (q. v.). 

Acchijja (v. 1. accheja) destroying (?) S 1. 127. Is the reading 
warranted? Cp. acchecchi. 

Acchidda see chidda. 

Acchlndati [a -f- chindati, lit. to break for oneself] to remove 
forcibly, to take away, rob, plunder Vin IV.247 (sayaij 
a. to appropriate); J 11.422; HI. 1 79; iv.343; Miln 20; 
Sdhp 122. — ger. accbinditva J 11.422; DhA 1.349; 
PvA 241 (sayar)); & accbetva M 1.434. Caus. 11. accbin- 
dapeti to induce a person to theft Vin iv.224, 247. 

ACChinna (adj.) [a -|- chinna, pp. of acchindati] removed, 
taken away, stolen, robbed Vin IV.278, 303; J 11.78; 
IV.45; V.212. 

Acchiva [*Sk. ^ksiba and akslba] a certain species of tree 
(Hypanthera Moringa) J vi.535. 

Acchupeti [a -f- chupeti, Caus. of chupati] to procure or 
provide a hold, to insert, to put on or in Vin 1.290 
(aggalag) n.l 12. 

Acchecchi [Sk. acchaitsit] 3"'d sg. aor. of chindati "he has 
cut out or broken, has destroyed" (see also chindati 3), 
in comb", with tanbar) M 1.122; S 1.12, 23, 127 (so read 
for acchejja); IV.105, 207. It 47 ; A III. 246, 445; DhA 
IV.70 (gloss acchindi, for acchidda pret. of Dh 351). The 
v. 1. at all passages is accbejji, which is to be accounted 
for on graphological grounds, ch & j being substituted 
in MSS. Kern (Toevoegselen s. v.) mistakes the form & 
tries to explain acchejji as adj. = ali-ejin (eja), acchecchi = 
ati-icchin (iccha). The syntactical construction however 
clearly points to an aor. 

Acchejja = a 4- chejja not to be destroyed, indestructible, 
see chindati. 

Acchedana (nt.) [abstr. to acchindati] robbing, plundering 
J VI.544. 

Acchera (adj.) := acchariya wonderful, marvellous S 1.181; 
Vv 84" (comp. accheratara) ; Pv III.5' (°rupa = acchariya- 
sabhava PvA 197); Sdhp 244, 398. 

Accheraka (adj.) = acchera (acchariya) J 1.279; Bu 1.9 

Aja [Vcdic aja fr. aj ( ago to drive), cp. ajina] a he- 
goat, a ram D 1.6, 127; A 11.207; J '•241; in.278 sq. ; 
V.241 ; Pug 56; PvA 80. 

-elaka [Sk. ajaidaka] goats & sheep D 1.5, 141; A 11.42 
sq., 209; J 1.166; vi.iio; Pug 58. As pi. ">a S 1.76; It 
36; J IV. 363. -pada goat-footed M 1.134. -pala goatherd, 
in °nigrodharukkha (Npl.) "goatherds' Nigrodha-tree" Vin 
1.2 sq. Dpvs 1.29 (cp. M Vastu 111.302). -palika a woman 
goatherd Vin III. 38. -lakkbana "goat-sign", i. e. prophe- 
sying from signs on a goat etc. D 1.9 (expld- DA 1.94 as 
"evarupanaq ajanaq mansaq khaditabbni) evarupSnai) na 
khaditabban ti"). -la;idika (pi.) goats' dung, in phrase 
najimatta a. a cup full of goats' dung (which is put down 
a bad minister's throat as punishment) J 1.419; DhA 
11.70; PvA 282. -vata "goats' habit", a practice of certain 
ascetics (to live after the fashion of goats) J IV.318. 




Ajaka a goat, pi. goats Vin 11.154. — f. ajika J 111.278 
& ajiya J v.z^i. 

Ajagara [aja + gara = gala fr. *gel to devour, thus "goat- 
eater'] a large snake (rock-snake?). Boa Constrictor J 
VI.507; Miln 23, 303, 364, 406; DhA III. 60. Also as 
ajakara at J 111.484 (cp. Trenckner, Notes p. 64). 

Ajacca (adj.) [a-f-jacca] of low birth J 111.19; VI. 100. 

Ajajjara see jajjara. 

Ajaddhuka & Ajaddhumara see jaddhu. 

Ajamoja [Sk. ajamoda, cp. Sk. ajaji] cummin-seed VvA 186. 

Aja (f.) a she-goat J 111.125; 'v.251. 

Ajanana (° — ) (nt.) [a -f- janana] not knowing, ignorance 
(of) J V.199 (°bhava); VI.177 (°kala). 

Ajina (nt.) [Vedic ajina, to aja, orig. goats' skin] the hide 
of the black antelope, worn as a garment by ascetics D 
1.167; Sn 1027; J 1.12, 53; IV.387; V.407. kharajina a 
rough skin (as garment) M 1.343; S IV.118; A 11.207; 
Sn 249 (= kharani a°-cammani SnA 291). dantajina ? 
ivory (q. v.). 

-khipa a cloak made of a network of strips of a black 
antelope's hide D 1.167; S 1.117; .\ 1.240, 295; 11.206; 
Vin 1.306; 111.34; J VI. 569. -paveni a cloth of the size of 
a couch made from pieces of ant. skin sewn together 
Vin 1. 192; D 1.7 (= ajina-cammehi maScappamSnena sib- 
bitva kata paveni DA 1.87); A 1.181. -sati a garment 
of skins (= ajina-camma-sati DhA IV.156) Dh 394=:} 
1.481 =: III. 85. 

Ajlnl aor 3rd sg. jayati, q. v. 

Ajiya = ajika (see ajaka). 

Ajlra (nt.). [Vedic ajira to aj, cp. Gr. ayp^c, Lat. ager, 
Goth, akrs ^ Ger. Acker, = E. acre] a court, a yard 
Mhvs 35, 3. 

Ajiraka (nt.) [a-l-jlraka] indigestion J 1.404; 11.181, 291; 
111.213, 225. 

Ajeyya" & Ajjeyya (adj.) [a -f jeyya, grd. of jayati, q. v.] — 

(a) not to be taken by force Kh vm.8 (cp. KhA 223). — 

(b) not to be overpowered, invincible Sn 288; J v. 509. 

Ajeyya'^ (adj.) [a -f- jeyya, grd. of jiyati, q. v.] not decaying, 
not growing old, permanent J vi.323. 

Ajja & Ajja (adv.) [Vedic adya & adya, a -f- dya, a° being 
base of demonstr. pron. (see a'') and dyi. an old loc. of 
dyaus (see diva), thus "on this d.iy"] to-day, now Sn 75, 
153, 158, 970, 998; Dh 326; J 1.279; "'■425 (read 
bahutai) ajja; not with Kern, Toev. s. v. as "food"); Pv' (= idani PvA 59); PvA 6, 23; Mhvs 15, 64. — 
Freq. in phrase ajjatagge (=: ajjato + agge(r) or ajja-t- 
agge, see agga') from this day onward, henceforth Vin 
1.18; D 1.85; DA 1.235. 

-kalai) (adv.) this morning J VI. 1 80; -divasa the present 
day Mhvs 32, 23. 

Ajjatana (adj.) [cp. Sk. adyatana] referring to the day, to 
day's, present, modern (opp. porana) Th i, 552; Dh 227; 
J 11.409. — dat. ajjhatanaya for to day Vin 1.17; PvA 
171 & passim. 

Ajjata (f.) [abstr. fr. ajja] the present lime, in ajjataS ca 
this very day S 1.83 (v. 1. ajjeva). 

Ajjati [Vedic arjati, fj, a variant of arh, see arahati] to 
get, procure, obtain J 111.263 (?). pp. ajjita (q.v.). 

Ajjava (adj.-n.) [cp. Sk. Srjava, to fju, see uju] straight, 
upright (usually combd- with maddava gentle, soft) D 
III. 213; A 1.94; 11.113; III. 248; Sn 250 (+ maddava), 
292 (id.); J 111.274; Dhs 1339; Vbh 359 (an°); SnA 
292 (=: ujubhava), 317 (id.). 

Ajjavata (f.) [fr. prec] straight forwardness, rectitude, up- 
rightness Dhs 1339. (+ ajimhala & avankata). 

Ajjita [pp. of ajjati] obtained Sdhp 98. 

Ajjuka [*Sk. arjaka] N. of a plant, Ocimum Gratissimum 
Vin IV.35; DA 1.81 (all MSS. have ajjaka). 

AjjukaoOS [*Sk. arjakarna] N. of a tree Pentaptera To- 
mentosa J vi.535 (nn). 

Ajjunho (adv.) [haplology fr. ajja-junho; see junhs] this 
moonlight night Vin 1.25 ; iv.80. 

I Ajjuna [Vedic arjuna, to raj; cp. Gr. apy6( white, iipyufOf 
silver, Lat. argenium] the tree Pentaptera Arjuna J VI.535 ; 
DhA 1.105 ("rukkha). 

Ajjh- Assimilation group of adhi -j- vowel. 

Ajjhaga [adhi -p aga] 3rd sg. pret. of adhigaccbati (q. v. 
for similar forms) he came to, got to, found, obtained, 
experienced S 1. 12 (vimanai)); Sn 225 (expld- at KhA 
180 by vindi patilabhi), 956 (ratiri; expH- at Ndi 457 
by adhigacchi); It 69 (jatimaranaq); Dh 154 (tanhanai) 
khayaij); Vv 32' (visesan attained distinction ; expld- at 
VvA 135 by adhigata); 50^1 (amataq santir); expld- VvA 
215 by V. 1. SS adhigaiichi, T. adhigaccbati). 

Ajjhatta (adj. -n.) [cp. Sk. adhyatma, cp. atta], that which 
is personal, subjective, arises from within (in contrast to 
anything outside, objective or impersonal); as adv. & ° — 
interior, personal, inwardly (opp. babiddba babira etc. 
outward, outwardly); Cp. ajjhattika & see Dhs. trsl. 272. — 
D 1.37 (subjective, inward, of the peace of the 2"<i jhana), 
70 ^ A 11.210; v. 206 (inward happiness, a. sukkhag = 
niyakajjhattai] altano santaoc ti attho DA 1. 183 cp. DhsA 
'691 338, 361); S 1.70, 169; 1127 (kathaq kathi hoti is 
in inward doubt), 40 (sukhar) dukkhaq); 111.180 (id.); 
IV. I sg. (ayatanani), 139, 196; v.74 (tbitaQ cittai) ajjhat- 
tar) susanthitaq suvimuttaq a mind firm, inwardly well 
planted, quite set free), no, 143, 263, 297, 390; A 1.40 
(rupas.iii5i), 272 (kamacchanda etc.); 11.158. (sukhaduk- 
khai)), 211; 111.86 (cetosamatha), 92 (vupasantacitta); IV.32 
(sankhiltai)), 57 (itthindriyar)), 299 (cittaq), 305 (riipa- 
safiui), 360 (cetosamatha), 437 (vupasantacitta); v 79 sq., 
335 ^'1- C^ati); It 39 (cetosamatha inivard peace), 80, 82, 
94; J 1045 (chatajjhaita with hungry insides); v.338 (id.); 
Ps 1.76 (cakkhu etc.); Dhs 161 (^ attano jataq DhsA 
169), 204, 1044; Pug 59; Vbh I sq. (khandha), 228 
(sati), 327 (paiifia), 342 (arllpasarim). — adv. °r) inwardly, 
personally (in contrast-pair ajjbattai] va bahiddha va ; see 
also cpd. "bahiddha) A 1.284; 11.171; iv.305 ; v.6i ; Sn 
917 (= upajjhayassa va acariyassa va te guna assu ti 
Ndi^ 350). 

-arammana a subjective object of thought Dhs 1047. 
-cintin thought occupied with internal things Sn 174, 388. 
-babiddba inside & outside, personal-external, mutual, 
interacting S 11.252 sq.; II1.47 ; IV. 382; Nd' 15; Dhs 1049 
etc. (see also bahiddha). -rata with inward joy D 11.107 = 
S V.263 = Dh 362 = Ud 64 (-f samahita); Th I, 981 ; 
A IV.312; DhA IV. 90 (= gocar' ajjhatta-sankhataya kam- 
matthana-bhavanaya rata), -rupa one's own or inner form 
Vin 111.113 (opp. bahiddha-rQpa & ajjh''-bah° r.). -saii- 
nojana an inner fetter, iuward bond A 1.63 sq.; Pug 22; 
Vbh 361. -santi inner peace Sn 837 (= ajjhattanaq raga- 
dinai) santibhava SnA 545; cp. Nd' 185). -samuttbana 
originating from within J 1.207 ("f hiri; opp. bahiddha"). 




Ajjhattika (adj.) [ajjhatta + ika], personal, inward (cp. 
Dhs Irs!. 207 & Nd' 346: ajjhattikai] vuccali cittai)); 
opp. bahira outward (q. v.). See also ayatana. — M i.6^; 
S 1.73 Ca rakkha na bahira); IV.7 sq. (ayatanani); V.IOI 
(anga); A 1.16 (anga); 11.164 (dhatuyo); 111.400 (ayata- 
nani); V.52 (id.); It 114 (id.), 9 (anga); Kli iv. (= KhA 
82); J IV. 402 (bahira-vatthui) ayacitva ajjhattikassa oamai] 
ganbati); Dhs 673, 751; Vbh 13, 67, 82 sq., 1 19, 131, 
392 sq. 

Ajjhapara S v. 218: substitute v. I. accasara (q. v.). 

Ajjhappatta (& Ajjhapatta) [adhi + a + *prapta] 1. 

having reached, approached, coming near to J 11.450; 
VI. 566 (p; C. attano santikarg patta). — 2. having fallen 
upon, attacked J 11.59; V.198 (p; C. sampatta) — 3. 
attained, found, got Sn 1134 (= adhigacchi Nd^); J 111.296 
(p. C. sampatta); v. 158 (ajjhapatta; C. sampatta). 

Ajjhabhavl 3"' sg. nor. of adhibhavati to conquer, over- 
power, overcome S 1.240 (prohib. ma vo kodho ajjha- 
bhavi); J 11.336. Cp. ajjhabhu & ajjhobhavati. 

Ajjhabhasi y^ sg. aor. of adhibhaseti to address S iv.117 
(gathahi); Kh v. = Sn p. 46 (gathaya); PvA 56, 90. 

Ajjhabhu (3'"* sg. aor. of adhibhavati (q. v.) to overcome, 
conquer It 76 (dujjayaij a. he conquered him who is hard 
to conquer; v. 1. ajjhabhi for ajjhabhavi). Cp. ajjhabhavi. 

Ajjhayana (m.) [adhi -f \] study (learning by heart) of 
the Vedas Miln 225. See also ajjhena. 

Ajjhavodahl 3'''' sg. aor. of ajjhodahati [Sk. adhyavadhati] 
to put down J v. 365 (= odahi, thapesi C). Kern, Toev. 
s. V. proposes reading ajjhavadahi (= Sk. avadhat). 

Ajjhagare (adv.) [adhi -f- agare, loc. of agara] at home, in 
one's own house A I.l32^1t 109; A 11.70. 

Ajjhacarati [adhi (or ati?) -|- a -f- car] I. to conduct one- 
self according to Vin 11.301; M 1.523; Miln 266. — 2. to 
flirt with (perhaps to embrace) J IV.231 (aniiam-aiiiiai)). 
pp. ajjbacinna. See also accSvadati & aticar.iti. 

Ajjhacara [to adhi (ati?) + a -t- car] l. minor conduct 
(conduct of a bhikkhu as to those minor rules not in- 
cluded in the ParSjika's or Saijghadisesa's) Vin 1.63 (see 
note in Vm. Texls^ 1.184. — z- flirtation Vin 111.128 
(in the Old Cy as expl" of avabhasati). — 3. sexual inter- 
course J 1.396; v.327 (°cara v. 1. for ajjhavara); Miln 
127 (an°). 

AjjhSclO^a [pp. of ajjhacarati] habitually done Vin 11.80 
sq., 301. 

AjjhajlVa [adhi (ati ?) -f- a -f jlv] too rigorous or strenuous 
a livelihood M 11.245 (+ adhipatimokkha). 

Ajjhapajjati [adhi + a -f pad] to commit an offence, to 
incur, to become guilty of (ace.) Vin IV. 237. pp. ajjha- 
panna (q. v.). 

Ajjhapatti (f.) [abstr. to ajjhapajjati] incurring guilt Dhs 
299 (an°). 

Ajjhapana' (nt.) [fr. Caus. 11. of ajjheti] teaching of the 
sacred writ, instruction Miln 225. 

Ajjhapana'^ (nt.) [a + jhapana fr. k§a] burning, conflag- 
ration J VI.311. 

Ajjhapanna [pp. of adhi -f- apajjati] become guilty of offence 
D 1.245; '"-43; S 11.270; A IV. 277, 280; V.178, 181. 
an° guiltless, innocent Vin 1. 1 03; D 111.46; S 11. 194, 269; 
A V.181; Miln 401. For all passages except A iv.277, 
280, cp. ajjhopanoa. 

AjjhapHita [adhi -F a -f pilita] harassed, overpowered, tor- 
mented PvA 180 (khuppipasaya by hunger & thirst). 

Ajjhabhava [cp. Sk. adhyabhava] eccessive power, predo- 
minance J 11.357. 

Ajjhabhavati [adhi + a -f bhu, in meaning of abhi -f bhu] 
to predominate J 11.357. 

Ajjhayaka [cp. Sk. adhyayaka, cp. ajjhayana] (a brahmin) 
engaged in learning the Veda (mantajjhayaka J vi.209; 
SnA 192), a scholar of the brahmanic texts, a studious, 
learned person D 1.88, 120; III. 94; A 1.163; ■"•223; Sn 
140 ("'kula: thus for ajjhayakula Fsb.); Th I, 1171 ; J 1.3; 
VI.201, 498; DA 1.247. 

Ajjhaniha (& °riiha) (adj.) [to adhi + a -f ruh] growing 
up over, overwhelming A 111.63 sq. =: S v.96; J III. 399. 

Ajjharu|ha (adj.) [pp. of adhi 4- a -f ruh] grown up or 
high over J 111.399. 

Ajjharuhat! [adhi -f arohati cp. atyarohati] to rise into the 
air, to climb over, spread over S 1.221 ^ Nett 173 (=: 
ajjhottharati SA; cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Kindred Sayings 1.285). 

Ajjhavadati see accavadati. 

Ajjhavara [fr. adhi -|- a -[- var] surrounding; waiting on, 
service, retinue J v.322, 324, 326, 327 (expld at all pas- 
sages by parisa). Should we read ajjhacara? Cp. ajjhacara. 

Ajjhavasatar [n. ag. to ajjhavasati] one who inhabits D 
1.63 (agarat]). 

Ajjhavasati [adhi + a -f- vas] to inhabit (agarai) a house; 
i. e. to be settled or live the settled life of a householder) 
D 11.16; M 1.353; Vin IV.224; J 1.50; Pug 57; Miln 
348. — pp. ajjhavuttha (q. v.). 

AjjhaVUttha [cp. Sk. adhyusita; pp. of ajjhavasati] inhabited, 
occupied (of a house) Vin 11.210; J 1.145; "-333; PvA 
24 (°ghara); fig. occupied by SnA 566 (= anosita). 

Ajjhasaya [fr. adhi -f a 

on, BSk. however adhy 
wish, disposition, bent 
tising); J 1.88, 90; 
PvA 88, 116, 133 (adj. 
Sdhp 219, 518. Kreq. in 
to his wish, as he wan 

Ajjhasayata (f.) [abstr. 
127 (ular" great desire 

-f sri, orig. hanging on, leaning 

asaya Divy 586] intention, desire, 

D 11.224 (adj.: intent on, prac- 

11.352; V.382; DhsA 314, 334; 

dan° intent on giving alms), 168; 
phrase ajjhasayanurupa according 
ted PvA 61, 106, 12S. 

to ajjhasaya] desire, longing PvA 
for c. loc). 

Ajjhaslta [pp. of adhi -f a -I- srf] intent on, bent on Miln 
361 (jhan°). Cp. ajjhosita & nissita. 

Ajjhittha [pp. of ajjhesati] requested, asked, invited Vin 
1.I13 (an° unbidden); D 11.289 (Buddhaghosa and text 
read ajjhitta); Sn p. 218 (= ajjhesita Nd^ 16); J vi.292 
(=anatta C); DhA IV.IOO (v. I. abhijjhiltha). See also an". 

Ajjhupagacchati [adhi -f upa -f gam] to come to, to reach, 
obtain ; to consent to, agree, submit Th 2, 474 (= sam- 
paticchati ThA 285); J 11.403 ; Miln 300; pp. ajjhupa- 
gata (q. v.). 

Ajjhupagata [pp. of ajjhupagacchati] come to, obtained, 
reached A v.87, cp. 210; y.187 sq. 

Ajjhupagamana (nt.) [adhi -f upa -f gam] consent, agree- 
ment, justification Vin 11.97, 104. 

Ajjhupaharati [adhi -|- upa + hf; cp. upaharati] to take 
(food) to oneself J 11.293 (a"""- ajjhupahari = ajjhohari C). 

Ajjhupekkhati [adhi -\- upa + ik$; cp. BSk. adhyupek- 
sati] 1. to look on A 1.257; M'ln 275. — 2. to look 




on intently or with care, to oversee, to take care of A 
IV.45 (katth'aggi, has to be looked after); PvA 149 (sisaq 
colag va). — 3. to look on indifferently to be indifferent. 
to neglect Vin 11.78 = 111.162, cp. J 1.147; M 1.155; 
11.223; A 111.194, 435; J V.229; DhA IV.125. 

Ajjhupekkhana (nt.) & °a (f.) [abstr. from ajjhupekkhati] 
care, diligence, attention Ps 1. 16; n.119; Vbh 230 sq.; 
DhA IV. 3. 

Ajjhupekkhltar [n. ag. to ajjhupekkhati] one who looks 
on (carefully), one who takes care or controls, an over- 
seer, caretaker S v. 69 (sadhukai)), 324 (id.), 331 sq. ; 
Vbh 227. 

Ajjhupetl [cp. Sk. abhyupeti ; adhi -j- upa + I] to go to 
meet, to receive J IV.440. 

Ajjhetj [Sk. gdhyayati, Denom. fr. adhyaya] to be anxious 
about, to fret, worry Sn 948 (socati+); expld at Nd' 
433 i>y nijjhayati, at SnA 568 by abhijjhati (gloss BB 

Ajjhena (nt.) [Sk. adhyayana, see also ajjhayana] study 
(esp. of the Vedas) M Ill.i; J H.327 (as v. 1. to be pre- 
ferred to ajjhesana); 111.114 (=japa); (pi. = vede); 
VI.201 =207; Vbh 353; SnA 314 (mant'). 

-kujja (°kuta v. 1.?) a hypocrite, a pharisee Sn 242; 
cp. SnA 286. 

Ajjhesatl (adhi -4- i§; cp. BSk. adhyesate Divy 160] to 
request, ask, bid DhA IV. 18; aor. ajjhesi Vin 11.200; pp. 
ajjhittha & ajjbesita (q. v.), with which cp. pariyittha 
& °esita. 

Ajjhesana (f-) [see ajjhesatl] request, entreaty Vin 1.6 =r' 
D 11.38 = 3 I.I 38; J 11.327 (better v. 1. ajjhena). 

Ajjhesita [pp. of ajjhesatl; cp. ajjhittha] requested, asked, 
bidden Nd- 16 (= ajjhittha). 

Ajjhokasa [adhi -j- okasa] the open air, only in loc. ajjho- 
kase in the open Vin 1.15; S 1.212; DhA iv.ioo. 

Ajjhoga|ha [pp. of ajjhogahati] plunged into, immersed; 
having entered M 1.457 ; S I.20I ; Miln 348. 

Ajjhogahati (& "gaheti) [Sk. *abhyavagahate; adhi (= 
abhi) -)- ava -|- gah] to plunge into, to enter, to go into 
D I.IOI (vanaq), 222 (samuddar)); M I.359, 536; Airi.75, 
368; IV.356; V.133; Vin III. 18; J 1.7; Nd' 152 (oga- 
hati-f-); Miln 87 (samuddar)); 300 (vanaq). — pp. ajjho- 
galha (q. v.). Cp. pariyogahati. 

Ajjhothapeti [adhi -)- ava -|- thapeti, Caus. of sthS] to bring 
to PvA 148 (gamaq), where we should read "tthapeti. 

Ajjhotthata [pp. of ajjhottharati] spread over; covered, 
filled; overcome, crushed, overpowered J 1.363 (ajjhottata^, 
410; V.91 (= adhipanna); DhA 1.278; PvA 55; Davs v.5. 

Ajjhottharati [adhi + ava -f- str] to cover over, spread 
out, spread over, cover; to submerge, flood Vin l.lli; 
J 1,61, 72, 73; Miln 296, 336; Dh 1.264; 1*355. °ttha- 
riyati to be overrun with (instr.), tp be smothered, to 
be flooded A 111.92 ^= Pug 67 ; aor. ajjhotthari VvA 48 
(gamapadeso : was flooded), pp. ajjhotthata (q. v.). 

Ajjhopanna (?) only found in one stock phrase, viz. gathita 
(q. v.) muccbita ajjhopanna with ref. to selfishness, greed, 
bonds of craving. The reading ajjhopanna is the lectio 
difficilior, but the accredited reading ajjhosana seems to 
be clearer and to harmonize better with the cognate 
ajjhosita & ajjhosana (n.) in the same context. The con- 
fusion between the two is old-standing and hard to be 
accounted for. Trenckner under v. I. to M 1. 162 on p. 543 
gives ajjhopanna as BB (= adhi-opanna). The MSS. of 
Nd' clearly show ajjhopanna as inferior reading, which 
may well be attributable to the very frequent SS sub- 

stitution of p for s (see Nd^ Introd. XIX.). Besides this 
mixture of vv. 11. with s and p there is another confusion 
between the vv. II. ajjbapanna and ajjhopanna which 
adds to the complication of the case. However since the 
evidence of a better reading between these two prepond- 
erates for ajjhopanna we may consider the o as established, 
and, with a little more clearness to be desired, may in 
the end decide for ajjhosana (q. v.), which in this case 
would have been liable to change through analogy with 
ajjhapanoa, from which it took the a and p. Cp. also 
ajjhosita. The foil, is a synopsis of readings as preferred 
or confused by the Ed. of the var. texts. — I. ajjho- 
panna as T. reading: M 1.162, 173, 369; A 1. 74; 11.28; 
111.68, 242; Md 75, 76; DA 1.59; as v. 1.: D 1.245. — 
2. ajjhosana as v. 1. : A 1.74 (C. expls- ajjhosaya gilitva 
thita); Nd^ under nissita & passim; Ud 75, 76 (ajjho- 
sanna); DA 1.59 (id.). — 3. ajjbapanna as T. reading: 
D 1.245; "l.43i 46; S. 11.194, 270: IV.332 (ajjbapanna); 
A V.178, 181; N'd2 under nissita; Miln 401; as V. 1.: 
M 1.162; A 111.242; Ud 75, 76. 

Ajjhobhavatl [adhi -|- ava -f bhu, Sk. abhi°] to overcome, 
overpower, destroy J 11.80 (aor. ajjhobhavi := adhibhavi C). 

Ajjhomaddatl [adhi -\- ava -f mfd] to crush down A iv.191, 

AjjhOmUCChita [pp. adhi + ara -f murch, cp. adhimuccita] 
stiffened out (in a swoon), lying in a faint (?) A III. 57 sq. 
(v. 1. ajjhomuncita or °muccita better: sarire attached to 
her body, clinging to her b.). 

Ajjholambatl [adhi -f ava + lamb] lo hang or hold on 
to (ace), to cling to S 111137; M 111.164 = Nett 179, 
cp. Sdhp 284 & 296. 

Ajjhosa = ajjhosaya, in verse only as ajjhosa titthati to 
cleave or cling to S iv.73; Th 1, 98, 794. 

Ajjhosatl [adhi -f- ava -f- sayati, s8, to bind, pp. sita : see 
ajjhosita] to be bound to, to be attached, bent on; to 
desire, cleave to, indulge in. Fut. ajjbosissati (does it 
belong here?) M 1.328 (c. ace. pathavir), better as ajjhe- 
satl). grd. ajjhositabha M 1.109 (+ abhinanditabba, v. 1. 
"etabba); DhsA 5 (id.); ger. ajjhosaya (q. v.) pp. ajjho- 
sita (q. v.). 

Ajjhosana (nt.) cleaving to (earthly joys), attachment, D 
11.58 sq.; 111.289; M 1.498 (+ abhinandana); S 111.187; 
A 1.66; II. 1 1 (ditthi°, ksma° -j- tanha). In comb"- with 
(iccha) and muccha at Nd* under chanda & nissita and 
tanha (see also ajjhopanna), and at Dlis 1059 of labhx, 
(the expl"- at DhsA 363, 370, from as to eat, is popular 
etym.) Nett 23 sq. (of tanha). 

Ajjhosaya [ger. of ajjhosati, cp. BSk. adhyavasaya tisthati 
Uivy 37, 534] being lied to, hanging on, attached to, 
only in phrase a. titthati (-j- abhinandati, same in Divy) 
M 1.266; S. iv.36 sq.; 60, 71 sq.; Miln 6g. See also 

Ajjhosita [cp. Sk. adhyavasita, from adhi -|- ava -f sfi; but 
sita is liable to confusion with sita =3 Sk. srita, also through 
likeness of meaning with esita; see ajjhasita & ajjhesita] 
hanging on, cleaving to, being bent on, (c. loc.) S 11.94 
(-)- mamSyita); A 11.25 (dittha suta mufa +); Nd* 75, 
106, 163 = Nd- under nissita: Th 2, 470 (asare =: tan- 
havasena abhinivittha ThA 284); Pv iv.8*(mayhai) ghare ^ 
tanhabhinivisena abhinivittha PvA 267 ; v. 1. BB ajjhesita, 
SS ajjhasita). -an° S iv.213; v.319; Nd' 411; Miln 74 

Ajjhohata [pp- of ajjhoharati] having swallowed Sdhp 610 
(balisaq maccho viya: like a fish the fishhook). 

Ajjhoharana (nt.) = ajjhohara I. A v.324; J vi.213. 




Ajjhoharaniya (adj.) [grd. of ajjhoharati] something fit to 
eat, eatable, for eating J vi.258; DhA 1.284. 

Ajjhoharati [Sk. abhyavaharati ; adhi (= abhi) -f- ava + hfj 
to swallow, eat, take as food M 1.245; J 1460; ".293; 
vi.205,213; Miln366; PvA 283 (aor.)-pp. ajjboba^a (q.v.). 

Ajjhohara [Sk. abhyavahSra] 1. taking food, swallowing, 
eating & drinking Vin IV.233; Miln 176, 366. — 2. N. 
of a fabulous fish (swallower"; cp. timingala) J v.462. 

Ancati J 1.417, read anchati (see next). 

Aiichat] [in meaning ^ akaddhati, which latter is also the 
Sk. gloss (akarsayati) to the Jain Prk. arjchavei =: anchati : 
see Morris, J. P. T. S. 1893, 60] to pull, drag, pull along, 
to turn on a lathe D 11. 291 (bhamakaro dighai] a., where 
K has note: anjanlo ti pi acchanto ti pi patho) ^ M 1.56 
(vv. 11. p. 532 acch° & ajij"); Th I, 750 (ancami T., v.l. 
annami). Anchati should also be read at J I 417 for uda- 
kai) a&canti (in expl"- of udancani pulling the water up 
from a well, q. v.), where it corresponds to udakai] 
akkaddbati in the same sentence. 

Anja (adv.) [orig. imper. of anjati' ; cp. Sk. anjasS (instr.) 
quickly, Goth, anaks suddenly, lit. with a pull or jerk] 
pull on! go on! gee up! J 1.192. 

Aiijatl' [= Sk. rnjali, rjyati to stretch, pull along, draw 
out, erect ; cp. Sk. rju straight, cans, irajyati ; Gr. ipiyu ; 
Lat. rego, rectus ^ erect. See also P. uju, anchati, ajjita, 
Snaiija-anejja]. See anja, anjaya, anjali, anjasa. 

Anjati'^ & Aiijeti [= Sk. anjayati, Cans, of anakti to smear 
etc.; cp. Sk. anji ointment, ajya butter; Lat. unguo to 
anoint, unguentum ointment; Ohg. ancho = Ger. Anke 
butter] to smear, anoint, paint S 11. 281; J iv.2i9 (akkhini 
anjetva, v.l. BB ancitva). Caus. 11. anjapetl DhA 1.21. — 
pp. aSjita (q. v.). 

Aiijana (nt.) [from anjati'^] ointment , esp. a collyrium 
for the eyes, made of antimony, adj. anointed, smeary; 
glossy, black (cp. kanha 11. and kala' note). — I. Vin 
1.203 (''"S kinds viz. kal", ras°, sot°, geruka, kapalla); 
D 1.7, 12; DA 1.98 (khgr°); 284; DhA 111.354 (akkhi° 
eye-salve). — 2. glossy, jet-black J 1. 194; 11.369; v.416. 
The reading anjana at A iv.468 is wrong, it should be 
corrected into thanamajjanamattag. See also pacc°. In 
meaning collyrium box at Th 2, 413 (= afijana-nali ThA 
267); DhA 11.25. 

-akkbiba with anointed eyes Th I, 960. -upapisana 
perfume to mix with ointment Vin 1.203; Il-li2. -cunna 
aromatic powder DhsA 13. -nali an ointment tube, col- 
lyrium box ThA 267. -rukkba N. of a tree ("black" 
tree) J 1.33 1. -vanna of the colour of collyrium, i.e. 
shiny, glossy, dark, black D n.i8 (lomani); J 1.138 (kesa), 
194; 11.369; PvA 258 (vana). 

Anjani (f.) [fr. afijana] a box for ointment, a collyrium pot 
Vin 1.203, 204; II. 135; IV. 168} M 11.65 = Th 'i 773- 

Anjanisalaka (f.) a stick to put the ointment on with Vin 
1.203; "135; J I1I-419- 

Anjaya (adj.) [from anjati'] straight J 111.12 (vv. 11. ajjava 
& and ajjava better?) expH by C. as ujuka, akutila. See 
also ajjava. Should we assume misreading for anjasa !> 

Anjali [cp. Sk. aiijali, fr. anjali i] extending, stretching forth, 
gesture of lifting up the hands as a token of reverence 
(cp. E. to "tender" one's respect), putting the ten fingers 
together and raising them to the head (VvA 7 : dasa- 
nakha-samodhana-samujjalar) arijaliq paggayha). Only in 
stock phrases (a.) anjalir) panameti to bend forth the 
outstretched hands Vin 11. 188; D 1.118; Sn352; Sn p. 79. 
(b.) °t) pagganhati to perform the a. salutation J 1.54; 
DhA IV.212; VvA 7, 312 (sirasmir) on one's head); 
PvA 93. (c.) °ij karoti id. PvA 178; cp. katanjali (adj.) 

with raised hands Sn 1023; J I.I 7; PvA 50, and anja- 
likata id. Pv 11.1220. Cp. panjali 

-kamma respectful salutation, as above A 1.123; 11.180; 
IV.130; Vv 788, 83"; DhA 1.32. -karaniya (adj.) that 
is worthy of being thus honoured D lli-S; A 11.34; 111.36; 
IV.13 sq.; It 88. 

Atijalika (f ) [^ anjali] the raising of the hands as a sign 
of respectful salutation Vv l» (expH at VvA 24 as dasa- 
nakha-samodhSna samujjalai) anjalii} sirasi pagganhantl 
guna-visitthanai) apacayanai) akSsii)). 

Anjasa [Sk. anjasa (?). Cp. arjava =^ P. ajjava, see anjati' 
& anjaya] straight, straightforward (of a road) D I.235 ; 
J 1.5; Th 2, 99; Vv 5oa> (cp. VvA 215); VvA 84 (= 
akutila); Mhvs 25, 5; Miln 217; Sdhp 328, 595. Cp. 

ASjlta [Sk. ankta & anjayita, pp. of anjeti] smeared, anointed 
J 1.77 (su-anjitani akkhini); iv.421 (anjit'akkha). 

Aiina (pron.) [Vedic anya, with compar. suff. ya; Goth. 
an|)ar; Ohg. andar; formation with n analagous to those 
with 1 in Gr. itAAo? (aAJo^), Lat. alius (cp. alter), Goth, 
aljis Ags. elles = E. else. From demonstr. base *eno, see 
na' and cp. a'] another etc. — A. By itself: I. other, 
not the same, different, another, somebody else (opp. 
oneself) Vin ill. 144 (annena, scil. maggena, gaccbati to 
take a different route); Sn 459, 789, 904; Dh 158 (opp. 
altanaq), 165; J 1.151 (opp. attano); 11.333 (anfiar) vya- 
karoti give a diff. answer). — 2. another one, a second; 
nt. else, further Sn 1052 (= uttarii] nt. Nd* 17); else 
J 1.294. aniiai) kinci (indef) anything else J 1.151. yo 
an5o every other, whoever else J 1.256. — 3. anne (pi.) 
(the) others, the rest Sn 189, 663, 911; Dh 43, 252, 
355 j J I 254. — B. del. in correlation : i . copulative, anna . . 
anna the one .. the other (. . the third etc.); this, that 
& the other; some .. some Vin 1.15; Miln 40; etc. — 
2. reciprocative anno annar), annamanSar), aniionnai) one 
another, each other, mutually, reciprocally (in ordinary 
construction & declension of a noun or adj. in sg. ; cp. 
Gr. aAA^Awv, aAAi)Aoi/« in //.). (a.) anno anSai] Dh 165. 
(b.) annamanna (cp. BSk. auyamanya M Vastu 11.436), 
as pron. : n'alai) anuamannassa sukb3ya va dukkhaya vl 
D 1.56 := S 111.211. n'afinamannassa dukkhaij iccheyya do 
not wish evil to each other Sn 148. dandehi anuamaSnai) 
upakkamanti (approach each other) M 1.86 = Nd* 199. 
°i) agaravo viharati A 111.247. dve jana °q ghatayiqsu 
(slew each other) J 1.254. aiinamanBaq hasanti J V.Hi; 
"q musale banlva J v.267. °q dandabhigatena PvA 58; 
or adj. : aiinamaniiaq veraq bandhiqsu (established mutual 
enmity) J 11.353; °0 piyasaqvasaq vasiqsu J II. 153; anna- 
mannaq accayaq desetvS (their mutual mistake) DhA I.57; 
or adv. dve pi aiinamanBaq patibaddha citta ahesuq (in 
love with each other) J III. 1 88; or °^: annamanna-pac- 
caya mutually dependent, interrelated Ps U 49, 58. — 
(c.) annonna ("— ) J v.251 ("nissila); Davs v.45 ("bhinna). 
— 3. disjunctive aiina . . anna one . . the other, this 
one . . . that one, different, different from aniiaq jivaq . . 
aiiBaq sariraq one is the soul . . the other is the body, 
i. e. the soul is different from the body D 1.157; M 1.430; 
A V.193; anfia va saiiiia bhavissati aQiio atla D 1.187. 
Thus also in phrase annena aiinai) opposite, the con- 
trary, differently, contradictory (lit. other from that which 
is other) Vin 11.85 (paticarati make counter-charges); D 
'■57 (vyakasi gave the opposite or contradictory reply); 
Miln 171 (aiiiiaq kayiramanaq aniiena sambharati). — 
ananna (i) not another, i.e. the same, self-same, identical 
M 1.256 (= ayaq). — (2) not another, i. e. alone, by 
oneself, oneself only Sn 65 ("posin; opp. paraq) = Nd 4, 
cp. Nd* 36. — (3) not another, i. e. no more, only, alone 
Sn p. 106 (dve va gatiyo bhavanti anaSiiS: and no other 
or no more, only two). See also under cpds. 

-adisa different J vi.212, °ta difference PvA 243. 
-kbantlka acquiescing in diff. views, following another 




faith (see khanlika) D 1.187; M 1487. -titthiya an ad- 
herent of another sect, a non-Buddhist.; D 111.115; M 
1.494, 512; P "-2', 32 sq., 119; 111.116 sq.; iv.51, 228; 
V.6, 27 sq.; A 1.65, 240; 11.176; iv.35 sq.; Vin 1.60; 
J 1.93; 11.415- -ditthika having diff. views (combd- with 
aiina-khantika) D 1.187; M 1.487. -neyya (an'^) not to 
be guided by somebody else, i. e. independent in one's 
views, having attained the right knowledge by oneself 
(opp. para°) Sn 55, 213, 364. -mano (an") (adj.) not 
setting one's heart upon others Vv li* (see VvA 58). 
-vada holding other views, an° (adj.) Dpvs iv.24. -va- 
daka one who gives a diff. account of things, one who 
distorts a matter, a prevaricator Vin lv.36. -vihita being 
occupied with something else, distracted, absent-minded 
Vin IV.269; DhA 111.352, 381; "ta distraction, absent- 
mindedness DhA 1.181. -sarana (an°) not betaking one- 
self to others for refuge, i. e. of independent, sure know- 
ledge S 111.42 =: V.154. -sita dependent or relying on 
others Sn 825. 

Annatama (pron. adj.) [afiiia -f- superl. suff. tama; see also 
aiifiatara] one out of many, the one or the other of, a 
certain, any Mhvs 38, 14. 

Aiifiatara (pron. adj.) [Sk. anyatara, anna -f- compar. suff. 
tara, cp. Lat. alter, Goth, anjiar etc.] one of a certain 
number, a certain, somebody, some; often used (like eka) 
as indef. article "a". Very frequent, e.g. Sn 35, 210; It 
103; Dh 137, 157; J 1.221, 253; 11.132 etc. devannatara 
a certain god, i. e. any kind of god S IV.180 =: A iv.46l. 

Anfiattha (adv.) [from aiina = aSnatra, adv. of place, cp. 
kattha, ettha] somewhere or anywhere else, elsewhere 
(either place where or whereto) J 1.291; 11.154; DhsA 
163; DhA 1.212; 111.351; PvA 45; Mhvs 4, 37; 22, 14.' 

Annatra (adv.) [anya -\- tra, see also aniiattha] elsewhere, 
somewhere else J v.252; Pv iv.iOJ. In comp"- also = 
aiiiia°, e. g. aSnatra-yoga (adj.) following another discipline 
D 1. 187; M 1.487. — As prep. c. abl. (and instr.) but, 
besides, except, e.g. a. imina tapo-pakkamena D 1.168; 
kii) karaniyar) a. dhammacariyaya S i.ioi; ko nu aiiiiatra- 
m-ariyehi who else but the Nobles Sn 886 (= thapetva 
saniia-raattena SnA 555). -kit) annatra what but, i. e. 
what else is the cause but, or: this is due to; but for 
D 1.90 (vusitava-mani k. a. avusitatta); S 1.29 (k. k. a. 
adassana except from blindness); Sn 206 (id.). 

Anfiathatta (nt.) [aiiiiatha -f- tta] I. change, alteration S 
111.37; IV.40; A 1.153; 111.66; Kvu 227 (= jara C, cp. 
JCvu trsl. 55 n. 2); Miln 209. — 2. difference J 1.147; 
It II. — 3. erroneous supposition, mistake Via' 11.2; S 
III.91 ; IV.329. — 4. fickleness, change of mind, doubt, 
wavering, M 1.448, 457 (-f don\anassa); J 1.33 (cittaq); 
PvA 195 (cittassa). 

Afiiiatha (adv.) [aiiiia -|- tha] in a different manner, other- 
wise, differently S 1.24; Sn 588, 757; DhsA 163; Pv.\ 
125, 133. anannatha without mistake Vv 44 '8; anan- 
natha (nt.) certainty, truth Ps 11.104 (= tatha). 

-bhava (i) a different existence A 11.10; It 9 = 94; 
Sq 729i 74°) 752; (2) a slate of difference; i.e. change, 
alteration, unstableness D 1.36; S 11.274; '"-S, 16, 42; 
Vbh 379. -bhavia based on difference S 111.225 sq.; 
rv.23 sq., 66 sq.; an° free from difference Vin 1.36. 

Aiinadatthu (adv.) [lit. aiinad atlhu let there be anything 
else, i.e. be it what it will, there is nothing else, all, 
everything, surely] part, of affirmation = surely, all-round, 
absolutely (ekaqsa-vacane nipato DA l.iil) only, at any 
rate D 1.91 ; 11.284; Sn 828 (na h^ annadatth' atthi pa- 
saqsa-labha, expld- SnA 541 as na hi ettha pasaijsa-labhato 
afirio attho atthi, cp. also Nd' l68); Miln 133; VvA 58; 
PvA 97, 114. 

-dasa sure-seeing, seeing everything, all pervading D 
1. 18; HI.135, 185; A 11.24; 111.202; IV.89, 105; It 15. 

Anfiada (adv.) [anna -(- da, cp. kada, tada, yada] at another 
lime, else, once S IV. 285 ; J v.12; Dh.\ IV.125. 

Anna (f) [Sk. ajiia, ^ 5 + jfia, cp. ajanati] knowledge, 
recognition, perfect knowledge, philosophic insight, know- 
ledge par excellence, viz. Arahantship, saving knowledge, 
gnosis (cp. on term Cotiipend. 176 n. 3 and Psalms of 
Brethren introd. xxxiii.) M 1.445 j S 1.4 (sammad°), 24 
(annaya nibbuta); 11.221; v. 69, 129 (ditth'eva dhamme), 
I33i 237; A 111.82, 143, 192; V.108; It 39 sq., 53, 104; 
Dh 75, 96; Kh vii.ii; Miln 334. — annai) vyakaroti 
to manifest ones Arahantship (by a discourse or by mere 
exclamation) Vin 1.183; S 11.51 sq., 120; IV.139; v.222 ; 
J 1.140; 11.333. See also arahatta. 

-atthika desirous of higher knowledge Pv iv.i'*. -ara- 
dbana the attainment of full insight M 1.479. -indriya 
the faculty of perfect knowledge or of knowledge made 
perfect D 111.219; S v.204; I' 53; P"g 2; Dhs 362, 
505i 552; Nett 15, 54, 60. -citta the thought of gnosis, 
the intention of gaining Arahantship S 11.267; A 111.437. 
-pativedha comprehension of insight Vin 11.238. -vimok- 
kha deliverance by the highest insight Sn 1105, 1107 
(Nd2 19: vuccati arahatta-viinokkho). 

Annana (nt.) [a -j- nana] ignorance ; see nana 3 e. 

Aiinanaka (nt.) [Demin. of aiinana] ignorance Vin IV.144. 

Annanin(adj.) [a + nanin] ignorant, not knowing DhA III. 106. 

Aniiata' [pp. of ajanati, q. v.] known, recognised Sn 699. 
an° what is not known, in phrase anaiinata-niiassamf t' 
indriya the faculty of him (who belives): "I shall know 
what is not known (yet)" D ni.219; S v.204; '' 53) 
Pug 2; Dhs 296 (cp. Dhs trsl. 86); Nett 15, 54, 60, 191. 
-manin one who prides himself in having perfect know- 
ledge, one who imagines to be in possession of right 
insight A 111.175 sq.; Th I, 953. 

Aiinata^ [a -j- tiata] unknown, see iiata. 

Aniiatatca' [a -j- iialaka, cp. Sk. ajfiati] he who is not a 
kinsman DhA 1.222. 

Afinataka^ (a<5j) [Demin. of aniiata'] unknown, unrecog- 
nisable, only in phrase "yesena in unknown form, in 
disguise J 1.14; 111.116; v. 102. 

Aniiatar [n. ag. to ajanati] one who knows, a knower of 
D 11.286; M 1. 169; S i.loS (dhammassa); Kvu 561. 

Aniiatavin (adj. -n.) [from ajanati] one who has complete 
insight DhsA 291. 

-indriya ("tav' indr.) the faculty of one whose know- 
ledge is made perfect Dhs 555 (cp. Dhs trsl. 150) and 
same loci as under antiindriya (see aiina). 

Aiinatukaina (adj.) [a + jiiatui) -f kama] desirous of gaining 
right knowledge A in. 192. See ajanati. 

Afinaya [ger. of ajanati, q. v. for detail] recognising, knowing, 
in the conviction of S 1.24; A 111.41; Dh 275, 411. 

Annionna see aniia B 2 c. 

Anhamana [Sk. asnana, ppr. med. of asnati, aS to eat] 
eating, taking food; enjoying: only SS at Sn 240; all 
MSS at 239 have asamana. SnA 284 expls- by aharayamana. 

Atata [BSk. atata (e. g. Divy 67), prob. to at roam about. 
On this notion cp. description of roaming about in Niraya 
at Nd' 405 bottom] N. of a certain purgatory or Niraya 
A V.I 73 = Sn p. 126. 

Atanaka (adj.) [cp. Sk. atana, to at] roaming about, wild 
J V.105 (°gavi). 

Atani (f.) a support a stand inserted under the leg of a 
bedstead Vin IV.168; Sam. Pas. on Pac. 14 (quoted Min. 




Pat. 86 and Vin iv.357); DhA 1.234; J >i-387, 425, 484 
supports of a seat. Morris^ J. P. T. S. 1884, 6g compares 
Marathi adani a three-ltgged stand. See also Vin Texts 11.53. 

Atala (adj.) [cp. Sk. atta & att.llaka stronghold] solid, firm, 
strong, only in phrase ataliyo upahana strong sandals M 
II. 155 (vv. 11. pataliye & agaliyo) = S 1.226 (vv. 11. ata- 
liyo & ataliko). At the latter passage Bdhgh. expl^. ganan- 
gan-iipahana, Mrs. Rh. D. {A'indrett Sayings 1.291) trsls. 
"buskined shoes". 

Atavi (f.) [Sk. atavi: Non-Aryan, prob. Dravidian] I. forest, 
woods J 1.306; II. 117; III. 220; DhA 1. 13; PvA 277. — 
2. inhabitant of the forest, man of the woods, wild tribe 
J VI. 55 (= atavicora C). 

-rakkhika guardian of the forest J 11.335. -sankhepa 
at A 1.178 = 111.66 is prob. faulty reading for v. 1. "san- 
kopa "inroad of savage tribes". 

A^a' [cp. see attaka] a platform to be used as a watch- 
tower Vin 1. 140; DA 1.209. 

Atta^ [cp- Sk. artha, see also attha 5 b] lawsuit, case, cause 
Vin IV.224; J 11.2, 75; IV.129 (°q vinicchinati to judge a 
cause), 150 (°i) tfreti to see a suit through); vi.336. 

Atta' [Sk. arta, pp. of ardati, fd to dissolve, afflict etc. ; 
cp. Sk. ardra (= P. adda and alia); Gr. Hfiu to moisten, 
'ifix dirt. See also attiyati & attita] distressed, tormented, 
afflicted; molested, plagued, hurt -Sn 694 (-f- vyasanagata ; 
Sn.A 489 atura); Th 2, 439 (= attita ThA 270), 441 
(=pi!ita ThA 271); J iv.293 (= atii'ra C); Vv So" (= 
attita upadduta VvA 3H). Often — °: inatta oppressed 
by debt M 1.463; Miln 32; chat^ tormented by hunger 
Vv.\ 76; vedan" afflicted by pain Vin 11.61 ; ill. 100; J 
1.293; stlcik" (read for sucikattha) pained by stitch Pv 111.2'. 
-ssara cry of distress Vin 111.105; S 11.255; J '-265; 
11. 1 17; Miln 357; PvA 285. 

Attaka [Demin. of atta'] a platform to be used as a watch- 
house on piles, or in a tree Vin 1.173; ii-4i6; 111.322, 
372; DA 1.209. 

Attana at Vin II. 106 is obscure, should it not rather be 
read with Bdhgh as atthana? (cp. Bdhgh on p. 315). 

Attala [from atta] a watch-tower, a room at the top of a 
house, or above a gate (kotthaka) Th I, 863; J III. 1 60; 
V.373; Miln I, 330; DhA 111.488. 

Attalaka [Sk. attalaka] = atiala; J 11.94, 220, 224; VI. 390, 
433; Miln 67,"8i. 

Attita (& occasionally addita, e.g. Pv 11. 6-; Th 2, 77, 89; 
Th I, 406) [Sk. ardita, pp. of ardayati, Caus. of ardati, 
see atta'] pained, distressed, grieved, terrified Th I, 157; 
J 11.436; IV.85 (v. 1. addhita); v. 84; VvA 311; ThA 270; 
Mhvs I, 25; 6, 21 ; Dpvsi.66; 1123; XIII.9; Sdhp 205. — 
See remarks of Morris J. P. T. S. 1886, 104, & 1887. 47. 

Attiyati & Attiyati [Denom. fr. atta', q. v.] to be in trouble 
or anxiety, to be worried, to be incommodated, usually 
combd. with harayati, e. g. D 1.213 (+ jigucchati); S 
1. 131; M 1.423; Pv i.io2 (= atta dukkhitS PvA 48), 
freq. in ppr. attiyamana harayamana (-f jigucchamana) 
Vin 11.292; J 1.66, 292; It 43; Ndi 566; Ps 1. 159. — 
Spelling sometimes addiyami, e.g. Th I, 140. — pp. attita 
& addita. 

Attiyana (nt.) [cp. Sk. ardana, to attiyati] fright, terror, 
amazement DhA 11. 179. 

Attha' [Vedic astau, old dual, Idg. •octou, pointing to a 
system of counting by tetrads (see also nava); Av. aSta, 
Gr. ixTu, Lat. octo, Goth, ahtau =: Ohg. ahto, Ger. acht, 
E. eight] num. card., eight, decl. like pi. of adj. in-a. 
A. The number in objective significance, based on natural 
phenomena: see cpds. "angula, "nakha, °pada, °pada. 

B. The number in subjective significance. — (l) As mark of 
respectability and honour, based on the idea of the double 
square: (a) in meaning "a couple" attha matakukkute attha 
jiva-k. gahetva (with 8 dead & 8 live cocks; eight instead of 
2 because gift intended for a king) DhA 1.213. sanghassa a 
salakabhattai] dapesi VvA 75 = DhA III. 104. a. pinda- 
patani adadaij Vv 348. a. vattha-yugani (a double pair as 
offering) PvA 232, a thera PvA 32. — The highest res- 
pectability is expressed by 8X8 = 64, and in this sense 
is freq. applied to gifts., where the giver gives a higher 
potency of a pair (2'). Thus a "royal" gift goes under 
the name of sabb-atthakai) danar) (8 elephants, 8 horses, 
8 slaves etc.) where each of 8 constituents is presented 
in 8 exemplars DhA 11.45, 4^, 71- In the same sense 
atth^ attha kahapana (as gift) Dh.A 11. 41; atth-atthaka 
dibbakanfia Vv 67' (= catusatthi VvA 290); atthatthaka 
Dpvs VI. 56. Quite conspicuous is the meaning of a 
"couple" in the phrase satt-attha 7 or 8 = a couple, 
e.g. sattattha divasa, a week or so J 1.86; J II.IOI ; VvA 
264 (saqvacchaia years). — (b.) used as definite measure 
of quantity & distance, where it also implies the respect- 
ability of the gift, 8 being the lowest unit of items that 
may be given decently. Thus freq. as attha kahapana 
J 1.483; iv.138; VvA 76; Miln 291. — In distances: a. 
karisS DhA 11.80; iv.217; PvA 258; a. usabha J iv.142. — 
(c.) in comb"- with 100 and 1000 it assumes the meaning 
of "a great many", hundreds, thousands. Thus attha satar) 
800, Sn 227. As denotation of wealt (cp. below under 
18 and 80): a-°sata-sahassa-vibhava DhA IV.7. But attha- 
sata at S iv.232 means 108 (3 X 3^), probably also at 
J V.377. — attha sahassar) 8000 J v.39 (naga). The same 
meaning applies to 80 as well as to its use as unit in 
comb"- with any other decimal (18, 28, 38 etc.): (a) 80 
(asTti) a great many. Here belong the 80 smaller signs 
of a Mahapurisa (see anuvyaiijana), besides the 32 main 
signs (see dvattirjsa) Vv.\ 213 etc. Freq. as measure of 
riches^ e.g. 80 waggon loads Pv II. 7'; asTti-kotivibhava 
DhA III. 129; PvA 196; aslti hatlh' ubbedho rasi (of gold) 
VvA 66, etc. See further references under asiti. — (|3) The 
foil, are examples of 8 with other decimals: 18 attha- 
dasa (only M 111.239: manopavicaia) & at^harasa (this 
the later form) VvA 213 (avenika-buddhadhamma : Bha- 
gavant's qualities); as measure J vi.432 (18 hands high, 
of a fence) ; of a great mass or multitue : attharasa kotiyo 
or °koti, 18 kotis J 1.92 ^of gold), 227; iv.378 ("dhana, 
riches); DhA 11.43 (of People); Miln 20 (id.); a. akkho- 
hini-sankhasena J VI 395. a. vatthu Vin 11.204. — 28 
atthavTsati nakkhattani Nd' 382; patisallanaguna Miln 
140. — 38 atthatiQSa Miln 359 (rajaparisa). — 48 attha- 
cattarisar) vassani Sn 289. — 68 atthasatthi Th i, 1217 
°sita savitakka, where id. p. at S 1. 187 however reads 
alha satthi-tasita vitakka); J 1.64 (turiya-satasahassani) — 
98 atthanavuti (cp. 98 the age of Eli, i Sam. iv.15) 
Sn 311 (roga, a higher set than the original 3 diseases, 
rp. navuti). — (2) As number of sitmnietry or of an 
intrinsic, harmonious, symmetrical set, attha denotes, like 
dasa (q. v.) a comprehensive unity. See esp. the cpds. 
for this application. "at)sa and ^angika. Closely related 
to nos. 2 and 4 attha is in the geometrical progression 
of 2. 4. 8. 16. 32. where each subsequent number shows 
a higher symmetry or involves a greater importance (cp. 
8X8 under i a) — J v. 409 (a. mangalena samannSgata, 
of Indra's chariot: with the 8 lucky signs); VvA 193 
(atthahi akkhanehi vajjitai) manussabhavag : the 8 unlucky 
signs). In progression: J IV.3 (attha petiyo, following 
after 4, then foil, by 8, 16, 32); PvA 75 (a. kapparukkhS 
at each point of the compass, 32 in all). Further: 8 expres- 
sions of bad language DhA IV. 3. 

-agsa with eight edges, octagonal, octahedral, implying 
perfect or divine symmetry (see above B 2), of a diamond 
D 1.76 =: M III. 121 (mani veluriyo a.); Miln 282 (mani- 
ratanai) subhai) jatimantar) a.) of the pillars of a heavenly 
palace (Vimana) J vi.127 = 173 = Vv 78' (a. sukatfE 
thambha); Vv 84" (ayataqsa = ayata hutva attha-solasa- 
dvattiqsadi-aqsavanto VvA 339). Of a ball of siring Pv 




IV.3M (gulaparimandala , cp. PvA 254). Of geometrical 
figures in general Dhs 617. -anga (of) eight parts, eight- 
fold, consisting of eight ingredients or constituents (see 
also next and above B 2 on significance of attha in this 
connection), in comp". with °ufela characterised by the 
eight parts (i. e. the observance of the first eight of the 
commandments or vows, see sila & cp. anga 2), ot uposatha, 
the fast-day A 1.2 15; Sn 402 (Sn A 378 expls. ekam pi 
divasar) apariccajanto atthangupetai] uposathai] upavassa)^ 
cp. atthanguposathin (adj.) Mhvs 36, 84. In BSk. always 
in phrase astanga-samanvagata upavasa, e. g. Divy 398 ; 
Sp. Av. 6 1.338, 399; also vrata Av. §1.170. In the same 
sense atthangupeta patibariyapakkha (q. v.) Sn 402, where 
Vv 15' has °susamSgata (expH- at VvA 72 by panatipala 
veramanl-adihi atthah' angehi samannagata). ° samannagala 
endowed with the eight qualities (see anga 3), of rajs, a 
king D 1. 137 sq., of brahmassara, the supreme or most 
excellent voice (of the Buddha) D 11.211; J 1.95; VvA 
217. Also in Buddh. Sk. astangopeta svara of the voice 
of the Buddha, e.g. Sp. Av. 6 1. 149. -angika having 
eight constituents, being made up of eight (intrinsic) parts, 
embracing eight items (see above B 2) ; of the uposatha 
(as in prec. atthang^ uposatha) Sn 401 ; of the "Eight- 
fold Noble Path" (ariyo a. maggo). (Also in BSk. as 
astangika marga, e. g. Lai. Vist. 540, cp. astangamarga- 
desika of the Buddha, Divy 124, 265); D 1. 1 56, 157, 
165; M 1. 118; It 18; Sn 1130 (magga uttama); Dh 191. 
273; Th 2, 158, 171; Kh IV.; Vin; Nd^ 485; DA 
1.313; DhA 111.402. -angula eight finger-breadths thick, 
eight inches thick, i. e. very thick, of double thickness 
J II. 9 1 (in contrast to caturangula) ; Mhvs 29, II (with 
sattangula). -addha (v. 1. addhattha) half of eight, i. e. 
four (°pada) J VI. 354, see also addha'. -nakba having 
eight nails or claws J VI.354 (: ekekasmiq pade dvinnai) . 
dvinnag khuranai] vasena C.). -nava eight or nine DhA 
III. 179. -pada I. a chequered board for gambling or 
playing drafts etc., lit. having eight squares, i. e. on each 
side (DA 1.85 : ekekaya pantiya attha attha padani assa 
ti), cp. dasapada D 1.6. — 2. eightfold, folded or plaited 
in eight, cross-plaited (of hair) Th I, 772 (atthapada-kata 
kesa); J 11.5 ("tthapana = cross-plaiting), -padaka a small 
square (|), i.e. a patch Vin 1.297 ; 11. 1 50. -pada an 
octopod, a kind of (fabulous) spider (or deer?) J v.377; 
VI. 538 ; cp. Sk. astapada = sarabha a fabulous eight-leg- 
ged animal, -mangala having eight auspicious signs J 
V.409 (expl<i' here to mean a horse with white hair on 
the face, tail, mane, and breast, and above each of the 
four hoofs). -Tanka with eight facets, lit. eight-crooked, 
i. e. polished on eight sides, of a jewel J vi.388. -vidba 
eightfold Dhs 219. 

Attha^ see attha. 

Atthaka (adj.) [Sk. astaka] — I. eightfold Vin 1.196 = Ud 
59 (°^aggikani); VvA 75 = DhA 111.104 (^bhatta). — 2. 
°a (f.) the eight day of the lunar month (cp. atthami), in 
phrase rattisu antar^at^bakasu in the nights between the 
eighths, i. e. the %^^ day before and after the full moon 
Vin 1. 31, 288 (see Vin Texst 1.130"); M 1.79; A 1.136; 
Miln 396; J 1.390. — 3. °q (nt.) an octad Vv 672 (atth° 
eight octads = 64); VvA 289, 290. On sabbatthaka see 
attha B I a. See also antara. 

Atthama (num. ord.) [Sk. astama, see attha'] the eighth 
Sn 107, 230 (cp. KhA 187), 437. — f. °i the eighth 
day of the lunar half month (cp. atthakS) A 1. 1 44; Sn 
402; Vv 16' (in all three pass, as pakkhassa catuddasi 
pancadasi ca atthami); A 1.142; Sn 570 (ito atthami, 
scil. divase, loc). 

Atthatnaka = atthama the eighth. — i. lit. Miln 291 (att° 
self-eighth). — 2. as tt. the eighth of eight persons who 
strive after the highest perfection, reckoned from the first 
or Arahant. Hence the eighth is he who stands on the 
lowest step of the Path and is called a sotapanna (q. v.) 

Kvu 243 — 251 (cp. Kvti irsl. 146 sq.); Nett 19, 49, 50; 
Ps II. 193 (-)- sotapanna). 

Afthana (nt.) [a 4- tt^^"^] stand, post; name of the rub- 
bing-post which, well cut & with incised rows of squares, 
was let into the ground of a bathing-place, serving as a 
rubber to people bathing Vin 11.105, '°^ (read atthane 
with BB; cp. Vin 11.315). 

Atthi"' [= attha (attha) in comp"- with kaf & bhu, as 
freq. in Sk. and P. with i for a, like citti-kata (for citta°), 
angi-bhuta (for anga°); cp. the freq. comb"- (with similar 
meaning) manasi-kata (besides manasa-k.), also upadhi- 
karoti and others. This comb"- is restricted to the pp and 
der. ("kata & °katva). Other explns- by Morris J. P. T. S. 
1886, 107; Windisch, M. & B. 100], in comb"- with 
katva: to make something one's attha, i. e. object, to 
find out the essence or profitableness or value of anything, 
to recognise the nature of, to realise, understand, know. 
Nearly always in stock phrase a^thikatva manasikatva 
D 11.204; M 1-325, 445; S 1. 112 sq. = 189, 220; v.76; 
A II. 116; 111.163; J 1.189; V.151 (: attano atthikabhavai] 
katva atthiko hutv3 sakkaccai] suneyya C.) ; Ud 80 (: adhi- 
kicca, ayai) no atlho adhigantabbo evaq sallakkhetva taya 
desanaya atthika hutva C); Sdhp 220 (°katvana). 

AttW (nt.) [.Sk. asthi = At. asti, Gr. 'iinm, 'ixrrfiotot, ar- 
Tpa^aAo?; Lat. os (*oss); also Gr. '6^0( branch Goth, asts] — 
I. a bone A 1.50: iv. 129; Sn 194 (°naharu bones & 
tendons); Dh 149, 150; J 1.70; 111.26, 184; vi.448(°vedhin); 
DhA III. 109 (300 bones of the human body, as also at 
Susruta 111.5); KhA 49; PvA 68 (°camma-naharu), 215 
(gosls"); Sdhp 46, 103. — 2. the stone of a fruit J 11.104. 
-kankala [Sk. °kankala] a skeleton M 1.364; cp. °san- 
khalika. -kadall a special kind of the plantain tree (Musa 
Sapientum) J v.406. -kalyana beauty of bones DhA I-387. 
-camma bones and skin J 11.339; DhA 111.43; ^''^ 68 
-taca id. J n.295. -maya made of bone Vin 11. 11 5. 
-minja marrow A iv.129; DhA 1.181 ; 111.361 ; KhA 52. 
-yaka (T. atthiyaka) bones & liver S 1.206. -sankhalika 
[B. Sk. °sakala Sp. Av. § 1.274 sq., see also atthika"] a 
chain of bones, i.e. a skeleton DhA 111.479; PvA 152. 
-sanghata conjunction of bones, i.e. skeleton Vism 21; 
DhA 11.28; PvA 206. -aancaya a heap of bones It 17 = 
Bdhd 87. -sanna the idea of bones (cp. atthika°) Th i, 
18. -san^ana a skeleton Sdhp loi. 

Atthika' (nt.) [fr. atthi] I. = atthi I a bone M ni.92; J 
1.265, 428; VI.404; PvA 41. — 2 = atthi 2 kernel, stone 
DhA 11.53 ('al°); Mhvs 15, 42. 

-sankhalika a chain of bones, a skeleton A 111.324 
see also under katatthika. -sanna the idea of a skeleton 
S V.129 sq.; A 11.17; Dhs 264. 

Atthika' at PvA 180 (sucik°) to be read a^tita (q. v.) for 

Ahttlta' see thita. 

Atthlta'^ [S -f- thita] undertaken, arrived at, looked after, 
considered J 11.247 (= adhitthita C). 

Atthita^ see atthika. 

Atthllla at Vin 11.266 is expld- by Bdhgh on p. 327 by 
gojanghattika, perhaps more likely = Sk. asthlla a round 
pebble or stone. 

A()<]ha' (& addha) [etym. uncertain, Sk. ardha] one half, 
half; usually in comp"- (see below), like diyaddha i^ 
(°sata 150) PvA 155 (see as to meaning S/^i/f, /'^/u Valihu 
p. 107). Note, addha is never used by itself, for "half' 
in absolute position upaddha (q. v.) is always used. 

-akkhika with furtive glance ("half an eye") DhA iv.98. 
-attha half of eight, i. e. four (cp. atthaddha) S 11.222 
(°ratana); J VI. 354 (°pada quadruped; v. 1. for atthaddha). 
-a}baka \ an a^haka (measure) DhA iu.367. -u^4h3 [<=?• 




Maharastrl form cauttha = Sk. caturtha] three and a half 
J 1.82; IV.180; V.417, 420; DhA 1.87; Mhvs 12, 53. 
-ocitaka half plucked off J 1.120. -karisa (-matta) half 
a k. in extent VvA 64 (cp. attha-karlsa). -kabapaija ^ 
kahSpana A V.S3. -kasika (or °ya) worth half a thousand 
kasiyas (i. e. of Benares monetary standard) Vin 1.281 
(kambala, a woollen garment of that value; cp. Vin Texts 
11.19s); H150 (bimbohanani, pillows; so read for addha- 
kSyikSni in T.); J v.447 (a°-kasiganika for a-°kssiya° a 
courtezan who charges that price, in phrase a°-k°-ganika 
viya na bahuonar) piys manapa). -kumbha a half (-filled) 
pitcher Sn 721. -kusi (tt. of tailoring) a short intermediate 
cross-seam Vin 1.287. -kosa half a room, a small room 
J VI. 81 (= a° kosantara C). -gavuta half a league J vi 55. 
-cula (°vaha vihi) ^ a measure (of rice) Miln 102, per- 
haps misread for addhalha (alha = alhaka, cp. A 111.52), 
a half alha of rice, -tiya the third (unit) less half, i. e. 
two and a half VvA 66 (masa); J 1.49, 206, 255 (°sata 
250). Cp. next, -teyya = "tiya 2J Vin iv.117; J 11.129 
(°sata); DA 1.173 (^- •■ KB for °tiya); DhA 1.95 (°sata), 
279; PvA 20 ("sahassa). -telasa [cp. BSk. ardhatrayodasa] 
twelve and a half Vin I 243, 247 ; D 11.6 (°bhikkhu- 
satani, cp. tayo Bib); DhA 111.369. -dandaka a short 
stick M 1.87 = A 1.47; 11.122 = Nd- 604 ^ Miln 197. 
-duka see °ruka. -nalika (-matta) half a nali-measure full 
J VI. 366. -pallanka half a divan Vin 11.280. -bhaga half 
a share, one half Vv 13' (=: upaddhabhaga VvA 61); 
Pv i.ii'. -mandala semi-circle, semi circular sewing Vin 
1.287. -mana half a mana measure J 1.468 (m. = atthan- 
nai) nSlinai) namai) C). -masa half a month, a half month, 
a fortnight Vin III. 254 (unak°); A v.85 ; J III. 218; VvA 
66. Freq. in ace. as adv. for a fortnight, e. g. Vin IV.117; 
VvA 67; PvA 55. -masaka half a bean (as weight or 
measure of value, see masaka) J 1.1 11. -masika half- 
monthly Pug 55. -mundaka shaven over half the head 
(sign of loss of freedom) Mhvs 6, 42. -yoga a certain 
kind of house (usually with pasada) Vin 1.58 = 96, 107, 
'39i 239, 284; II. 146. Ace. to Vin T. 1.174 "" Kol<l 
coloured Bengal house" (Bdhgh), an interpretation which 
is not correct : we have to read supanna vankageha "like 
a Carul.a bird's crooked wiug", i. e. where the roof is 
bent on one side, -yojana half a yojana (in distance) J 
V.410; DA 1.35 (in expl"- of addhana-magga); DhA 1.147 ; 
11.74. -ratta midnight A 111.407 (°ar) adv. at m.); Vv 81'" 
(°rattayaij adv. = addharattiyaq VvA 315); J 1. 164 (sa- 
maye); IV.159 (id.), -rattl := "ratta VvA 255, 315 (=r 
majjhimayama-samaya) ; PvA 155. -ruka (v. 1. °duka) a 
certain fashion of wearing the hair Vin 11.134; Bdhgh 
expl"- on p. 319: adhadukan ti udare lomaraji-thapanar) 
"leaving a stripe of hair on the stomach", -vivata (dvara) 
half open J v. 293. 

A(J(jha^ ('"^JO [Sl<. adhya fr. rddha pp. of fdh, rdhnote & 
rdhyate (see ijjhati) to thrive cp. Gr. aASofiai thrive, Lat. 
alo to nourish. Cp. also Vedic ida refreshment & P. iddhi 
power. See also ajhiya] rich, opulent, wealthy, well-to-do ; 
usually in comb"- with mahaddbana & mababhoga of great 
wealth & resources (foil, by pahuta-jataruparajata pahuta 
vittupakarana etc.). Thus at D 1.1 15, 134, 137; III.163; 
Pug 52; DhA 1.3; VvA 322; PvA 3, 78 etc. In other 
combn- Vv 31* ("kula); Nd^ 615 (Sakka = addho mahad- 
dhano dhanava); DA 1.281 (=issara); DhA 11.37 (°kula); 
Sdhp 270 (satasakh"), 312 (gun°), 540 sq. (id.), 561. 

A(j()haka (adj.) wealthy, rich, influential J iv.495 ; Pv 11.8' 
(= mahSvibhava PvA 107). 

A4<]hatl (f.) [abstr. to addha] riches, wealth, opulence 
Sdhp 316. 

A(ja [Sk. fna; see etym. under ina, of which ana is a 
doublet. See also Sijanya] debt, only in neg. ana^a (adj.) 
free from debt Vin 1.6 = S 1.137, 234 = D 11.39; Th 2, 
364 (i. e. without a new birth); A 11.69; J v.481 ; 
ThA 245. 

AqU (adj.) [Sk. anu; as to etym. see Walde Lat. Wtb. 
under ulna. See also ini] small, minute, atomic, subtle 
(opp. tbula, q. v.) D 1.223; S 1.136; v.96 (°bija); Sn 299 
(anuto anui) gradually); J in. 12 (=r appamattaka); iv.203 ; 
Dhs 230, 617 (=kisa); ThA 173; Miln 361. Ne/e anu 
is freq. spelt anu, thus usually in cpd. °matta. 

-tbula (anuqthula) fine and coarse, small & large Dh 
31 (= mahantaii ca khuddakaii ca DhA 1.282), 409 = Sn 
633; J IV.192; Dh.\ iv.184. -mitta of small size, atomic, 
least Sn 431; Vbh 244, 247 (cp. M 111.134; A 11.22); 
Dpvs IV.20. The spelling is antunatta at D 1.63 = It 
118; Dh 284; DA 1. 181; Sdhp 347. -sahagata accomp- 
anied by a minimum of, i. e. residuum Kvu 81, cp. Kvu 
trsl. 66 n. 3. 

Aquka (adj.) = anu Sn 146, KhA 246. 

A^da (nt.) [Etym. unknown. Cp. Sk. anda] I. an egg Vin 
111.3; S 11.258; M 1. 104; A IV.125 sq. — 2. (pi.) the 
testicles Vin 111.106. — 3. (in camm°) a water-bag J 1.249 
(see Morris J. P. T. S. 1884, 69). 

-kosa shell of eggs Vin 111.3 = M .104; A iv.126, 
176. -cheda(ka) one who castrates, a gelder J iv.364, 
366. -ja I. born from eggs S ni.241 (of snakes); M 1.73; 
J 11.53 =r v.8S; Miln 267. — 2. a bird J. v.i8g. -bharin 
bearing his testicles S 11.258 := Vin iii.ioo. -sambhava 
the product of an egg, i.e. a bird Th i, 599. -baraka 
one who takes or exstirpales the testicles M 1.383. 

A^ljaka' (nt.) = anda, egg DhA 1.60; 111.137 (sakuri°). 

A^cjaka^ (^<JJO [Sk. ? prob. an inorganic form ; the diaeresis 
of candaka into c' andaka seems very plausible. As to 
meaning cp. DhsA 396 and see Dhs trsl. 349, also Mor- 
ris J. P. T. S. 1893, 6, who, not satisfactorily, tries to 
establish a relation to ard, as in atta'] only used of vaca, 
speech: harsh, rough, insolent M 1.286; A v.265, 283, 
293 (^loss kantaka); J in. 260; Dhs 1343, cp. DhsA 396. 

Aooa (food, cereal). See passages under aparanija & pubbapija. 

AQQava (nt.) [Sk. arna & arnava to f, rnoti to move, Idg. 
*er to be in quick motion, cp. Gr. 'ifrntii ; Lat. orior ; 
Goth, rinnan =: E. run; Ohg. runs, river, flow.] i. a 
great flood (.=: ogha), the sea or ocean (often as mah°, 
cp. BSk. maharnava, e.g. Jim ,'31") M 1.134; S 1.214; 
1V.157 (maha udak°); Sn 173 (fig. for sarjsara see SnA 
214), 183, 184; J 1. 119 (°kucchi), 227 (id.); v. 1 59 (mah"); 
Mhvs 5, 60; 19, 16 (mah°). — 2. a stream, river J lii. 
521; V.2S5. 

AQha [Sk. ahna, day, see ahan] day, only as — ° in apar°, 
pubb°, majjh°, say", q. v. 

Atakkaka (adj.) [a -f- takka-] not mixed with buttermilk 
J YI.21. 

Ataccha (nt.) [a -|- taccha*] falsehood, untruth D 1.3 ; J 
VI. 207. 

Ati (indecl.) [Sk. ati = Gr. 'In moreover, yet, and ; Lat. et 
and, Goth. i{); also connected with Gr. onif but, Lat. 
at but {z=^ over, outside) Goth. a]){)an] adv. and prep, 
of direction (forward motion), in primary meaning "on, 
and further", then "up to and beyond". I. in abstr. 
position adverbially (only as Itg): in excess, extremely, 
very (cp. 11. 3) J vi.133 (ati uggata C. = accuggata T.), 
307 (ati ahitai] C. ■= accfihitai) T.). 

11. as prefix, meaning. — l. on to, up to, towards, 
until); as far as: accanta- up to the end; aticchati to go 
further, pass on; atipata ••falling on to"; attack slaying; 
atimSpeti to put damage on to, i. e. to destroy. — 2. over, 
beyond, past, by, trans-; with verbs: (a.) trs. atikkamali 
to pass beyond, surpass; atimaniiati to put one's "manas" 
over, to despise; atirocati to surpass in splendour, (b.) 
intr. atikkanta passed by; atikkama traversing; aticca 
tranrgressing ; atita past, gone beyond. — Also with 





verbal derivations: accaya lapse, also sin, transgression 
("going over"); aiireka remainder, left over; atisaya over- 
flow, abundance; atisara stepping over, sin. — 3. exceed- 
ingly, in a high or excessive degree either very (much) 
or too (much); in nominal comp"- (a), rarely also in 
verbal comp"- see (b). — (a) with nouns & adj.: "asanna 
too near; °uttama the very highest; °udaka too much 
water; °khippa too soon; °dana excessive alms giving; 
°daruna very cruel ; "digha extremely long ; "dura too near ; 
deva a super-god °pago too early ; °balha too much ; °bhara 
a too heavy load; "manapa very lovely; "manohara very 
charming; °mahant too great; °vikala very inconvenient; 
"vela a very long time; °sambadha too tight, etc. etc. — 
(b.) with verb: atibhunjati to eat excessively. 

III. A peculiar use of ati is its' function in reduplica- 
tion-compounds^ expressing "and, adding further, and so 
on, even more, etc." like that of the other comparing or 
contrasting prefixes a (a), anu, ava, pati, vi (e. g. khan- 
dakhanda, setthSnusetthi, chiddiivacchidda, angapaccanga, 
cunnavicunna). In this function it is however restricted to 
comparatively few expressions and has not by far the wide 
range of a (q. v.), the only phrases being the foil. viz. 
cakkaticakkar) manclitimancai) bandhati to heap carts 
upon carts, couches upon couches (in order to see a pro- 
cession) Vin 1V.360 (Bdhgh); J 11.331; IV.81 ; DhA iv.61. 
-devatideva god upon god, god and more than a god 
(see atideva); manatimana all kinds of conceit; vankati- 
vanka crooked all over J 1.160. — IV. Semantically ati 
is closely related to abhi, so that in consequence of 
dialectical variation we frequently find ati in Pali, where 
the corresp. expression in later Sk. shows abhi. See e. g. 
the foil, cases for comparison: accunha ati-jata, "pllita 
°bruheti, "vassati, °vayati, '^vetheti. 

Note The contracted (assimilation-) form of ati before' 
vowels is ace- (q. v.). See also for adv. use atiriva, ati- 
viya, atlva. 

Atl-ambila (adj.) [ati + ambila] too sour DhA 11.85. 

Ati-arahant [ati -\- arahant] a super-Arahant, one who sur- 
passes even other Arahaots Miln 277. 

Atl-lssara (adj.) very powerful (?) J V.44I (°bhesajja, medicin). 

Ati-U^ha (adj.) too hot PvA 37 ("atapa glow). See also 
accunha (which is the usual form). 

Ati-Uttama (adj.) by far the best or highest VvA 80. 

Atl-udaka too much water, excess of water DhA 1.52. 

Ati-USSUra (adj.) only in loc. "e (adv.) too soon after sun- 
rise, too early VvA 65 (laUdhabhattatS eating too early). 

Atl-etl [ati -f 1] to go past or beyond, see ger. aticca and 
pp. atlta. 

Atikata (PP-) more than done to, i. e. retaliated ; paid back 
in an excessive degree A 1.62. 

Atlkaddhatl [ati -f- kaddhati] to pull too hard, to labour, 
trouble, drudge Vin 111.17. 

Atika^ha (adj.) [ati -f kaijha] too black Vin IV.7. 

AtikarUQa (adj.) [ati -j- karuna] very pitiful, extremely mis- 
erable J 1.202: IV. 142; VI.S3. 

Atlkassa (ger.) [fr. atikassati ati + krs ; Sk. atikf-sya] pul- 
ling (right) through J v. 173 (rajjuq, a rope, through the 
nostrils; v. 1. BB. anti°). 

Ailkala [ati + kala] in instr. atikalena adv. in very good 
time very early Vin 1.70 (-f- atidivS). 

Atlkkanta [pp- of atikamati] passed beyond, passed by, 
gone by, elapsed; passed over, passing beyond, surpassing 
J 11.128 (llpi saijvaccharani); DhA 111.133 (layo vaye pas- 

sed beyond the 3 ages of life); PvA 55 (mase °e after 
the lapse of a month), 74 (kati divasa °a how many days 
have passed). 

-manusaka superhuman It 1 00; Pug 60; cp. BSk, 
atikrSnta-manusyAka M Vastu 111.321. 

Atlkkantika (f.) [Der. abstr. fr. prec] transgressing, over- 
stepping the bounds (of good behaviour), lawlessness 
Miln 122. 

Atikkama [Sk. atikrama] going over or further, passing 
beyond, traversing ; fig. overcoming of, overstepping, failing 
against, transgression Dh 191; Dhs 299; PvA 154 (kati- 
payayojan°), 159 ("carana sinful mode of life); Miln 158 
(dur° hard to overcome); Sdhp 64. 

Atikkamaqaka (adj.) [atikkamana -f ka] exceeding J 1.153. 

Atikkamatl [ati -f-kamati] (i) to go beyond, to pass over, 
to cross, to pass by. (2) to overcome, to conquer, to sur- 
pass, to be superior to. — J iv.i4i; Dh 221 (Pot. °eyya, 
overcome); PvA 67 (maggena: passes by), grd. atikka- 
tnanlya to be overcome D 11.13 (an°); SnA 568 (dur"). 
ger. atikkamtna D 11. 12 (surpassing); It 51 (maradheyyaq, 
passing over), cp. vv. 11. under adhigayha; and atikka- 
mitva going beyond, overcoming, transcending (J iv.139 
(samuddai]); Pug 17; J 1.162 (ratthaq having left). Often 
to be trsl. as adv. "beyond", e. g. pare beyond others 
PvA 15; Vasabhagamai) beyond the village of V. I'vA 
168. — pp. atikkanta (q. v.). 

Atlkkametl [Caus. of atikkamati] to make pass, to cause 
to pass over J 1.151. 

Atlkkhippai) (adv.) [ati 4- thippa] too soon Vin 11.284. 

Atlkha^a (nt.) [ati + khana(na)] too much digging J 11.296. 

Atlkhata (nt.) = prec. J 11.296. 

AtlkhiQa (adj.) [ati -f khina] in capatikhlna broken bow(?) 
Dh 156 (expld- at DhA m.132 as capato alikhlna capa 

Atiga ( — °) (adj.) [ati + ga] going over, overcoming, sur- 
mounting, getting over Sn 250 (sanga°); Dh 370 (id.); 
Sn 795 (sima°, cp. Nd" .99), 1096 (ogha°); Nd' 100 (= 
atikkanta); Nd* 180 (id.). 

Atlgacchati [ati -}- gacchati] to go over, i. e. to overcome, 
surmount, conquer, get the better of, only in prel. (aor.) 
3rd sg. accaga (q. v. and see gacchati 3) Sn 1040; Dh 
414 and accagama (see gacchati 2) Vin 11.192; D 1.85; 
S 11.205 ; DA 1.236 (= abhibhavitva pavatta). Also 3'-'l pi. 
accagur) It 93, 95. 

Atlga|etl [ati + galeti, Caus. of galati, cp. Sk. vi-galayati] 
to destroy, make perish, waste away J VI.211 (= atig5- 
layati vinaseti C. p. 215). Perhaps reading should be 
atigajheti (see atigalhita. 

Atlga|ha (adj.) [ati + galha i] very tight or close, inten- 
sive J 1.62. Cp. atigajhita. 

Atigalhita [pp- of atigalheti, Denom. fr. atigalha; cp. Sk. 
aiigahate to overcome] oppressed, harmed, overcome, de- 
feated, destroyed J V.401 (=: atipllita C). 

Atlghora (adj.) [ati + ghora] very terrible or fierce Sdhp 285. 

Atlcarana (nt.) [fr. aticarati] transgression PvA 159. 

Aticaratl [ati -|- carati] I. to go about, to roam about Pv 
II.I2"- PvA 57. — 2. to transgress, to commit adultery 
J 1.496. Cp. next. 

Atlcaritar [n- ag. of. aticarati] one who transgresses, esp. 
a woman who commits adultery A 11.61 (all MSS. read 
aticaritvS); iv.66 (T. aticaritta). 




Aticariya (f-) [ati + cariyg] transgression, sin, adultery D 

Aticara [from aticarati] transgression Vv 158 (= aticca 
cara VvA 72). 

Aticarin (adj. n.) [from aticarati] transgressing, sinning, 
esp. as f. aticarini an adultress S 11.259 ; iv. 242; D lli.190; 
A 111.261; Pvii.t2'«; PvA 151 (v. 1. BB), 152; VvA no. 

Atlcltra (adj.) [ati + citra] very splendid, brilliant, quite 
exceptional Miln 28. 

Aticca (grd.) [ger. of ati + eti, ati + i] '■ passing beyond, 
traversing, overcoming, surmounting Sn 519, 529, 531. 
Used adverbially = beyond, in access, more than usual, 
exceedingly Sn 373, 804 (=: vassasatai) atikkamitva Nd' 
120). — 2. failing, transgressing, sinning, esp committing 
adultery J v,424; VvA 72, 

AtiCChat! [*Sk. ati-rcchati, ati + f, cp. annava] to go on, 
only occurring in imper. aticchatha (bhante) "please go 
on, Sir", asking a bhikkhu to seek alms elsewhere, thus 
refusing a gift in a civil way. [The interpretation given 
by Trenckner, as quoted by Childers, is from ati -(- i§ 
"go and beg further on". (Tr. Notes 65) but this would 
entail a meaning like "desire in excess", since ij does 
not convey the notion of movement] J III. 462 ; DhA IV. 98 
(T. aticcha, vv. 11. °atha); VvA 101; Miln 8. — Caus. 
aticchapeti to make go on, to ask to go further J 111.462. — 
Cp. icchata. 

AtiCChatta [ati + chatta] a "super"-sunshade, a sunshade 
of extraordinary size & colours DhsA 2. 

Atltata (adj.) [ati -|- jata, perhaps ati in sense of abhi, cp. 
abhijata] well-born, well behaved, gentlemanly It 14 (opp. 

Atitarati [ati -|- tarati] to pass over, cross, go beyond aor. 
accatari S iv.l57 = lt 57 (°ari). 

AtitUCCha (adj.) [ati + tuccha] very, or quite empty Sdhp 430. 

Atitutthi (f.) [ati + tutthi] extreme joy J 1.207. 

Atitula (iidj.) [ati -j- tula] beyond compare, incomparable 
Th I, 831 = Sn 561 (= tular) atito nirupamo ti allho 
SnA 455). 

Atitta (adj.) [a -|- titta] dissatisfied, unsatisfied J 1.440 ; Dh 48. 

Atittha (nt.) [a + tittha] "that which is not a fording- 
place". i. e. not the right way, manner or time; as " — 
wrongly in the wrong way J 1343; IV. 379; VI. 241 ; DhA 
111.347; DA 1.38. 

Atlthl [Sk. atithi of at = at, see atati ; orig. the wanderer, 
cp. Vedic atithin wandering] a guest, stranger, newcomer 
D I.I 17 (= aganluka-navaka pahunaka DA 1.288); A 
11.68; 111.45, 260; J iv.31^ 274; V.388; Kh VIII.7 (= 
n' althi assa thiti yamlii va tamhi va divase agacchati ti 
atithi KhA 222); VvA 24 (= agantuka). 

Atldana (m.) [ati -{- dana] too generous giving, an exces- 
sive gift of alms Miln 277; PvA 129, 130. 

Atidaruna (adj.) [Sk. atidaruna, ati + daruna] very cruel, 
extremely fierce Pv 111.7'. 

Atlditthi (f) [ati -f ditthi] higher doctrine, super know- 
ledge (?) Vin 1.63 =z 11.4 (-|- adhisila; should we read 
adhi-ditthi ?) 

Atidlva (adv.) [ati -f div5] late in the day, in the afternoon 
Vin 1.70 (4- atikalena); S 1.200; A in. 117. 

Atldlsati [ati + disali] to give further explanation, to explain 
in detail Miln. 304. 

Atidigha (adj.) [ati -f dfgha] too long, extremely long J 
IV. 165; Pv II. lo^; VvA 103 (opp. atirassa). 

Atidukkha [ati + dukkha] great evil, exceedingly painful 
excessive suffering PvA 65; Sdhp 95. In atidukkhavaca 
PvA 15 ati belongs to the whole cpd., i.e. of very hurt- 
ful speech. 

AtidQra (adj.) [ati + dura] very or too far Vin I.46; J 
II. 1 54; Pv II. 9" = DhA III. 220 (vv. 11. suvidure); PvA 
42 (opp. accasanna). 

Atideva [ati -f deva] a super god, god above gods, usually 
Ep. of the Buddha S 1.141 ; Th I, 489; Nd' 307 (cp. 
adhi°); Miln 277. atidevadeva id. Miln 203, 209. devati- 
deva god over the gods (of the Buddha) Nd^ 307 a. 

Atidhamati [ati -f- dhamati] to beat a drum too hard J 1.283 ; 
pp. atidhanta ibid. 

Atidhatata [ati + dhsta + ta] oversatiation J 11.X93. 

Atidhavatl [ati + dhavati 1] to run past, to outstrip or get 
ahead of S 111.103; iv.230; M in. 19; It 43; Miln 136; 
SnA 21. 

Atidhonacarin [ati -{■ dhonacarin] indulging too much in 
the use of the "dhonas", i. e. the four requisites of the 
bhikkhu, or transgressing the proper use or normal ap- 
plication of the requisites (expl"- at DhA 111.344, cp. 
dhona) Dh 240 = Nett 129. 

Atlnametl [BSk. atinamayati, e. g. Divy 82, 443 ; ati -f 
nanieti] to pass time A 1. 206; Miln 345. 

Atlnigganhati [ati 4- nigganhati] to rebuke too much J 
VI.417. ■ 

Atinlcaka (adj.) [ati + nlcaka] too low, only in phrase 
cakkavalar) atisambadhat] Brahmaloko atinicako the 
World is too narrow and Heaven too low (to comprehend 
the merit of a person, as sign of exceeding merit) DhA 
1.310; 111.310 = VvA 68. 

Atinetl [ati + neti] to bring up to, to fetch, to provide 
with Vin II. 1 80 (udakaij). 

Atlpao^ita (adj. [ati -f pandita] too clever DhA IV.38. 

AtlpriQ(Jltata (f.) [abstr. of atipandita] too much clever- 
ness DhA n.29. 

Atipadana (nt.) [ati -J- pa -f dana] too much alms-giving 
Pv n.943 (:=atidana PvA 130). 

Atipapafica [ati -f p.] too great a delay, excessive tarrying 
J 1.64; 11.93. 

Atipariccaga [ati -(- pariccaga] excess iu liberality DhA 

Atipassatl [ati -|- passati: cp. Sk. anupasyati] to look for, 
catch sight of, discover M III. 132 (nigai]). 

Atipata [ati -^- pat] attack , only in phrase panatipata 
destruction of life, slaying, killing, murder D 1.4 (panati- 
pata vcramani, refraining from killing, the first of the 
dasasila or decalogue); DA 1.69 (= panavadha, pana- 
ghata); Sn 242; Kh n. cp. KhA 26; PvA 28, 33 etc. 

Atipatln (adj. -n.) one who attacks or destroys Sn 248; 
I VI.449 (in war nagakkhandh" ==: hatthikkhande khaggena 
chinditva C); PvA 27 (pan"). 

Atipateti [Denom. fr. atipata] to destroy S V.4S3; Dh 246 
(v. 1. for atimSpeti, q. v.). Cp. paripateti. 

Atlpipita (adj.) [ati + pinita] too much beloved, too dear, 
loo lovely DhA V.70. 




Atlpl]ita [ati + pllita, cp. Sk. abhipidita] pressed against, 
oppressed, harassed, vexed J V.401 (= atigalhila). 

AtippagO (adv.) [cp. Sk. atiprage] too early, usually ellip- 
tical = it is too early (with inf. caritui) etc.) D 1.178; 
M 1.84; A IV.35. 

Atibaddha [pp. of atibandhati ; cp. Sk. anubaddha] tied to, 
coupled J 1.192 = Vin IV.5. 

Atibandhati [ati + bandhati; cp. Sk. anubandhati] to tie 
close to, to harness on, to couple J I.191 sq. — pp. 
atibaddha q. v. 

Atibahala (adj.) [ati + bahala] very thick J vi.365. 

Atiba|ha (adj.) [ati + balha] very great or strong PvA 178; 
nt. adv. "g too much D 1.93, 95; M 1.253. 

Atibaheti [ati + baheti, Caus. to bfh' ; cp. Sk. abrhati] to 
drive away, to pull out J iv.366 {= abbaheti). 

Atibrahina [ati -f- brahraa] a greater Brahma, a super-god 
Miln 277 ; DhA II. 60 (Brahmuna a. greater than B.). 

Atibruheti [ati 4- brnheti, bfh'^, but by C. taken incorrectly 
to bru; cp. Sk. abhi-brnhayati] to shout out, roar, cry 
J V.361 (= mahasaddai) nicchareti). 

Atibhagjni-putta [ati -|- bh.-p.] a very dear nephew J 1.223. 

Atibhara [ati + bbara] too heavy a load Miln 277 ("ena 
sakatassa akkho bhijjati). 

Atlbharita (adj.) [ati -)- bharita] too heavily weighed, over- 
loaded Vtn IV.47. 

Atibhariya (adj.) too serious DhA 1.70. 

Atlbhuiijati [ati -f- bhunjati] to eat too much, to overeat 
Miln 153. 

Atibhutta (nt.) [ati -|- bhutta] overeating Miln 135. 

Atlbhoti [ati -f- bhavati, cp. Sk. atibhavati & abhibhavati] 
to excel, overcome, to get the better of, to deceive J 1.163 
(^ ajjhottharati vanceti C). 

Atimannati [Sk. atimanyate; ati + man] to despise, slighten, 
neglect Sn 148 (=: KhA 247 atikkamitva maniiati); Dh 
365, 366; J 11.347; P» '-7° ("issaij, V. 1. °asir| = atikka- 
mitva avamaiiSiq PvA 37); PvA 36; Sdhp 609. 

Atimannana (f-) [abstr. to prec, cp. atimana] arrogance, 
contempt, neglect Miln 122. 

Atimanapa (adj.) [ati -\- manapa] very lovely PvA 77 (-f 

Atinianorama (adj.) [ati -|- manorama] very charming J 1.60. 

Atimanohara (adj.) [ati -\- manohara] very charming PvA 46. 

Atlmanda(ka) (adj.) [ati -J- manda] too slow, too weak 
Sdhp 204, 273, 488. 

Atimamayati [ati -f mamayati, cp. Sk. atimamayate in diff. 
meaning z= envy] to favour too much, to spoil or fondle 
J 11.316. 

Atimahant (adj.) [ati -f mahant] very or too great J 1. 221 ; 

I'vA 75. 

Atltnapeti [ati -j- mapeti, Caus. of mi, minate, orig. meaning 
"to do damage to"] to injure, destroy, kill; only in the 
stock phrase panag atimapeti (with v. 1. atipateti) to 
destroy life, to kill D 1.52 (v. 1. "pateti) = DA 1.159 
(: panai) hanati pi parehi hanapeti either to kill or incite 
others to murder); M 1.404, 516; S IV.343; A ill. 205 
(correct T. reading atimateti; v. I. pateti); Dh 246 (v. 1. 
°pateti) = DhA 111.356 (: parassa jivitindriyai) upacchindati). 

Atimana [Sk. atimina, ati -|- mana] high opinion (of one- 
self), pride, arrogance, conceit, M 1.363; Sn 853 (see 
expl"- at Nd' 233), 942, 968; J vi.235; Nd' 490; Miln 
289. Cp. atimaiinaDa. 

Atimanin (adj.) [fr. atimana] D 11.45 (thaddha -)-); Sn 143 
(an") 244; KhA 236. 

Atimukhara (adj.) [ati -f- mukhara] very talkative, a chat- 
terbox J 1. 418; DhA 11.70. atimukharata (f. abstr.) ibid. 

Atimuttaka [Sk. atimuktaka] N. of a plant, Gaertnera 
Racemosa Vin 11.256 = M 1.32 ; Miln 338. 

Atimuduka (adj.) [ati -f- muduka] very soft, mild or feeble 
J 1.262. 

Atiyakkha (ati -j- yakkha] a sorcerer, wizard, fortuneteller 
J VI. 502 (C. : bhutavijja ikkhanika). 

Atiyacaka (adj.) [ati -)- yacaka] one who asks too much 
Vin III 147. 

Atiyacana (f.) [ati -|- yacana] asking or begging too much 
Vin 111.147. 

Atirattig (adv.) [ati -f- fatti ; cp. atidiva] late in the night, 
at midnight J 1.436 (opp. atipabhate). 

Atirassa (adj.) [ati 4- rassa] too short (opp. atidigha) Vin 

IV.7; J VI.457; VvA 103. 

Atiraja [ati -)- raja] a higher king, the greatest king, more 
than a king DhA 11.60; Miln 277. 

AtiriCCati [ati -f- riccati, see ritta] to be left over, to remain 
Sdhp 23, 126. 

Atiritta (adj.) [pp. of ati -f rlC, see ritta] left over, only 
as neg. an" applied to food, i. e. food which is not the 
leavings of a meal, fresh food Vin 1.213 sq , 238; 11. 301; 
IV.82 sq., 85. 

Atiriva (ati-r-iva) see ativiya. 

Atireka (adj.) [Sk. atireka, ati -J- ric, rinakti ; see ritta] 
surplus, too much; exceeding, excessive, in a high degree; 
extra Vin 1.255; J '-72 (°padasata), 109; 441 (in higher 
positions); Miln 216; DhsA 2; DhA 11.98. 

-civara an extra robe Vin 1.289. -pada exceeding the 
worth of a pada, more than a pada, Vin III. 47. 

Atlrekata (f.) [abstr. to prec] excessiveness, surplus, excess 
Kvu 607. 

AtlrOCati [ati -j- rue] to shine magnificently (trs.) to out- 
shine, to surpass in splendour D II 208; Dh 59; Pv ll.gW; 
Miln 336 (4- virocati); DhA 1.446 (= atikkamitva viro- 
cati); 111.219; FvA 139 (= ativiya virocati). 

Ativankin (adj.) [ati -|- vankin] very crooked J 1.160 (van- 
kativankin crooked all over; cp. ati III.). 

AtivaOOatl [ati -\- vannati] to surpass, excel D 11.267. 

Ativatta [pp. of ativattati : Sk. ativrtta] passed beyond, 
surpassed, overcome (act. & pass.), conquered Sn H33 
(bhava°); Nd^ 21 (= atikkanta, vitivatta); J v.84 (bhaya"); 
Miln 146, 154. 

Ativattati [ati -f- Vft, Sk. ativartate] to pass, pass over, 
go beyond; to overcome, get over; conquer Vin 11.237 
(samuddo velar) n'); S 11.92 (saijsarar)) ; IV. 158 (id.) It 9 
(sar)sarar|)= A lI.lo = Nd' 172=; Th 1,412; J 1.58, 280; 
1V.134; VI. 113, 114; PvA 276. — pp. ativatta (q. v.). 

Ativattar' [Sk. *alivaktr, n. ag. to ati-vacati; cp. ativakya] 
one who insults or offends J v.266 (isinaq ativattiro = 
dharusavacahi atikkamitva vattaro C). 




Ativattar^ [Sk. *ativartr, n. ag. to ati-vattati] one who over- 
comes or is to be overcome Sn 785 (svativatta = durati- 
vatta duttara duppatara Nd' 76). 

Atlvasa (a4J0 ["'' + ^^^^ ^'^- vas] being under somebody's 
rule, dependent upon (c. gen.) Dh 74 (=: vase vattati 
DhA 11.79). 

AtivaSSatl [ati 4- vassati, cp. Sk. abhivarsati] to rain down 
on, upon or into Th I, 447 := Vin 11.240. 

Atlvakya (nt.) [ati + vac, cp. Sk. ativada, fr. ati + vad] 
abuse, blame, reproach Dh 320, 321 (= attha-anariya- 
vohara-vasena pavattaij vitikkama-vacanaq DhA IV.3); 
J VI. 508. 

Ativata [ati + vSta] too much wind, a wind which is too 
strong, a gale, storm Miln 277. 

Atlvayati [ati -f- vayati] to fill (excessively) with an odour 
or perfume, to satiate, permeate, pervade Miln 333 (-f- 
vayati; cp. abhivayati ibid 385). 

Atlvaha [fr. ati -\- vah, cp. Sk. ativahati & abhivaha] car- 
rying, carrying over; a conveyance; one who conveys, 
i.e. a conductor, guide Th I, 616 (said of sila, good 
character); J v.433. — Cp. ativahika. 

Ativahika [fr. alivaha] one who belongs to a conveyance, 
one who conveys or guides, a conductor (of a caravan) 
J V.471, 472 (° 

Ativlkala (adj.) [ati -j- vikala] at a very inconvenient time, 
much too exete D i 108 (= sutthu vikala DA 1.277). 

Ativijjhati [Sk. atividhyati, ati + vyadh] to pierce,^ to 
enter into (fig.), to see through, only in phrase pannaya 
ativijjha (ger.) passati to recognise in all details M 1.480 ; 
S V.226; A 11.178. 

Ativiya (idv.) [Sk. ativa] = ati + '*», orig. "much-like" 
like an excess ^ excessive-Iy. There are three forms of 
this expression, viz. (i) ati -|- iva in contraction ativa 
(q. v.); — (2) ati -f- iva with epenthetic r: atiriva D 
11.264 (v- '• SS. ativa); Sn 679, 680, 683; SnA 486; — 
(3) ati -f- viya (the doublet of iva) =: ativiya J 1.61, 263 ; 
DhA 11.71 (a. upakara of great service); PvA 22, 56, 139. 

Atlvisa (f.) [Sk. ativisa] N. of a plant Vin 1. 201 ; IV.3S. 

Ativlssattha (adj.) [ati + vissattha] too abundant, in "vakya 
one who talks too much, a chatterbox J V.204. 

AtlviSSaslka (adj.) [ati -j- vissasika] very, or too confiden- 
tial J 1.86. 

AtivlSSUta (adj.) [ati -j- vissuta] very famous, renowned 
Sdhp 473. 

Ative^hetl [ati -f vejt, cp. Sk. abhivestate] to wrap over, 
to cover, to enclose; to press, oppress, stifle Vin II.IOI; 
J V.452 (-ativiya vetheti pileti C). 

Atlvela (adj.) [ati + vela] excessive (of time); nt. adv. "g 
a very long time; excessively D 1.19 (= atikalai) aticiran 
ti attho DA 1.113); M 1.122; Sn 973 (see expl"- at Nd' 
504); J 111.103 = Nd' 504. 

Atilfna (adj.) [ati -f- Ii°^] t°° much attached to worldly 
matters S v.263. 

Atflukha (adj.) [ati -|- lukha] too wretched, very miserable 
Sdhp 409. 

Atiloma (adj.) [ati + loma] too hairy, having too much 
hair J VI.457 (opp. aloma). 

Atlsaficara ("cara?) [ati + saiicara] wandering about too 
much Miln 277. 

AtlsaQha (adj.) [ati + sanha] too subtle DhA 111.326. 

Atlsanta (adj.) [ati + santa'] extremely peaceful Sdhp 496. 

Atisambadha (adj.) [ali + sambadha] too light, crowded 
or narrow DhA 1. 310; 111.310 = VvA 68; cp. atinicaka. — 
f. abstr. atisambadhata the state of being too narrow J 1.7. 

Atisaya [cp. Sk. atisaya, fr. ati + Si] superiority, distinc- 
tion, excellence, abundance VvA 135 (= visesa); PvA 
86; Davs 11.62. 

Atisayati [ati + si] to surpass, excel ; ger. atisayitva Miln 
336 (+ atikkamitva). 

Atisara (adj.; [fr. atisarati; cp. accasara] transgressing, 
sinning J IV.6; cp. atisara. 

Atisarati [ati + Sf] 'o go '°o ''"■'i '° B° beyond the limit, 
to overstep, transgress, aor. accasari (q. v.) Sn 8 sq. 
(opp. paccasari; C. atidhavi); J v.70 and atisari J iv.6. — 
ger. atisitva (for *atisaritva) D 1.222; S IV.94 ; A 1.145; 
v.226, 256; Sn 908 (= Nd' 324 atikkamitva etc.). 

Atisayai) (adv.) [ati + sayaij] very late, late in the evening 
J V.94. 

Atisara [fr- ati 4- Sfi see atisarati. Cp. Sk. atisara in diff. 
meaning but BSk. atisara (sStisara) in the same meaning) 
going too far, overstepping the limit, trespassing, false 
step, slip, danger Vin 1.55 (sStisara), 326 (id); S 1.74; 
M III. 237; Sn 889 (atisaraij ditthiyo = ditthigatani Nd' 
297; going beyond the proper limits of the right faith), 
J V.221 (dhamm°), 379; DhA 1. 1 82; DhsA 28. See also 

Atislthila (adj.) [ati + sithila] very loose, shaky or weak 
A 111.375. 

Atisita (adj.) [ati + sita] too cold DhA 11.85. 

Atisitala (adj.) [ati + sitala] very cold J 111.55. 

Atiliattha (adj.) [ati -f hattha] very pleased Sdhp 323, 

Atiliarati [ati -f hf] to ca'"T over, to bring over, bring, 
draw over Vin 11.209; iv.264; S 1.89; J I.292; v. 347. — 
Caus. aliharapeti to cause to bring over, bring in, reap, 
collect, harvest Vin 11.181; III. 18; Miln 66; DhAiv.77. — 
See also atihita. 

Atillita [ati + hf, PP- of atiharati, hita unusual for hata, 

perhaps through analogy with Sk. abhi -|- dhi] brought 

over (from the field into the house), harvested, borne 
home Th I, 381 (vihi). 

Atihina (adj.) [ati 4- hina] very poor or destitute A iv.282, 
287; 323 (opp. accogalha). 

Atihi]eti [ati + hid] to despise J IV.331 (= atimanoati C). 

Atita (adj.-n.) [Sk. atita, ati -f ita, pp. of |. Cp. accaya & 
ati eti] 1. (temporal) past, gone by (cp. accaya I) (a) 
adj. atitai) addbanai) in the time which is past S 111.86; 
A IV. 219; V.32. — Pv II. 12'- (atltanai), scil. attabhava- 
oari, pariyanto na dissati); khan&tita with the right mo- 
ment past Dh 315 = Sn 333; atitayobbana he who is 
past youth or whose youth is past Sn no. — (b) nt. 
the past: atite (loc.) once upon a time J 1.98 etc. atitai] 
ahari he told (a tale of) the past, i.e. a JStaka J 1.213, 
218, 221 etc. — S 1.5 (atitai) n&nusocati); A 111.400 (a. 
eko anto); Sn 851, 1112. In this sense very frequently 
comb<i- with or opposed to anagata the future & pac- 
cuppanna the present, e. g. atitinagate in past & future 
S 11.58; Sn 373; J VI. 364. Or all three in ster. comb"- 
atlt'-auagata-paccuppanna (this the usual order) D in, 100, 
135; S 11.26, no, 252; 111.19, 47, 187; IV.4 sq.; 151 
sq. ; A 1.264 sq., 284; 11.171, 202; 111.151; v.33; It 53; 
Nd'^ 22; but also occasionally atita paccuppaona anagata, 




e. g. PvA lOO. — 2. (modal) passed out of, having over- 
come or surmounted, gone over, free from (cp. accaya 2) 
S 1.97 (maranai) an° not free from death), 121 (sabba- 
vera-bhaya") ; A 11.21; in. 346 (sabbasaqyojana°); Sn 373 
(kappa'), 598 (khaya°, of the moon = unabhfivai) atlta 
Sn A 463); Th I, 413 (c. abl.) — 3. (id.) overstepping, 
having transgressed or neglected (cp. accaya 3) Dh 176 

-at)9a the past (= atita kotthase, atikkantabhavesu ti 
attho ThA 233) D n.222; 111.275; Th 2, 314. -aramm- 
ana state of mind arising out of the past Dhs 1041. 

AtfradaSSifl (adj.-n.) [a -f tira + dassin] not seeing the 
shore J 1.46; vi.440; also as atiradassani (f.) J v. 75 
(nava). Cp. D i 222. 

Ativa (indecl.) [ati -|- iva, see also ativiya] very much, 
exceedingly J n.413; Mhvs 33, 2 etc. 

Ato (adv.) [Sk. atah] hence, now, therefore S1.15; M 1.498; 
Miln 87; J V.398 (=tato C). 

AtOina [etym.?) a class of jugglers or acrobats (?) Miln 191. 

Atta' [a + d -|- ta ; that is, pp. of Sdadati with the base 
form reduced to d. Idg *d-to; cp. Sk. atta] that which 
has been taken up, assumed. Atta-danda, he who has 
taken a stick in hand, a violent person, S 1.236; iv.117; 
Sn 630, 935 ; Dh 406. Attanjaha, rejecting what had 
been assumed, Sn 790. Attaq pahaya Sn 800. The opp. 
is niratta, that which has not been assumed, has been 
thrown off, rejected. The Arahant has neither atta nor 
niratta (Sn 787, 858, 919), neither assumption nor rejec- 
tion, he keeps an open mind on all speculative theories. 
See Nd 1.82, 90, 107, 352; 11.271; Sn.\ 523; Dh.A. iv.180 
for the traditional exegesis. As legal t. t. attadanarj 
adiyati is to take upon oneself the conduct, before the 
Chapter, of a legal point already raised. Vin 11.247 
(quoted V.91). 

Atta'^ see attan. 

Atta-^ [Sk. akta, pp. of aiijati] see upatta. 

Attan (m.) & atta (the latter is the form used in comp") 
[Vedic atman, not to Gr. msimi; = Lat. animus, but to 
Gr. arjidf steam, Ohg. atum breath, Ags. ae{)m]. — I. 
Inflection, (i) of at Ian- (n. stem); the foil, cases are the 
most freq.: ace. attanar) D 1.13, 185; S 1.24; Sn 132, 
45'- — ge°- dat. attatio Sn 334, 592 etc., also as abl. 
^ '"-SS? (attano ca parato ca as regards himself and 
others). — instr. abl. attana S 1.24; Sn 132, 451; DhA 
11.75; PvA 15, 214 etc. On use of attana see below 
111.1 C. — loc. attani S v. 177; A 1.149 (attani metri 
causa); 11.52 (anattani); 111.181; M 1. 138; Sn 666, 756, 
784; Vbh 376 (an°). — (2) of atta- (a-stem) we find 
the foil, cases: ace. attai] Dh 379. — instr. attena S 
IV.54. — abl. attato S 1.188; Ps 1.143; 11.48; Vbh 336. 
Meanings, i. The soul as postulated in the animistic 
theories held in N India in the 6tli and 7'h cent. B. C. 
It is described in the Upanishads as a small creature, in 
shape like a man, dwelling in ordinary times in the heart. 
It escapes from the body in sleep or trance ; when it 
returns to the body life and motion reappear. It escapes 
from the body at death, then continues to carry on an 
everlasting life of its own. For numerous other details 
see Rh. D. Theory of Soul in the Upanishads J Ji A S 
1899. Bt. India 251 — 255. Buddhism repudiated all such 
theories, thus differing from other religions. Sixteen such 
theories about the soul D 1.3 1. Seven other theories D 
1.34. Three others D 1.186/7. A 'souV according to general 
belief was some thing permanent, unchangeable, not af- 
fected by sorrow S iv.54=:Kvu 67; Vin 1.14; M 1. 138. 
See also M 1.233; iii-265, 271; S 11. 17, 109; in. 135; 
A 1.284; n.164, 171; V.188; S IV.400. Cp. atuman, tuma, 
puggala, jiva, satta, pana and nama-riipa. 

2. Oneself, himself, yourself. Nom. atta, very rare. S 

1. 71, 169; III 120; A 1.57, 149 (you yourself know whether 
that is true or false. Cp. Manu vin. 84. Here atta comes 
very near to the European idea of conscience. But con- 
science as a unity or entity is not accepted by Buddhism) 
Sn 284; Dh 166, 380; Miln 54 (the image, outward 
appearance, of oneself). .\cc. attanar) S 1.44 (would not 
give for himself, as a slave) A 1.89; Sn 709. Ace. attar) 
Dh 379. Abl. attato as oneself S 1.188; Ps 1.143; 11.48; 
Vbh 336. Loc. vttani A 1.149; 111.181; Sn 666, 784. 
Instr. attana S 1.57 = Dh 66; S 1.75; 11.68; A 1.53; 
in. 211; IV. 405; Dh 165. On one's own account, sponta- 
neously S IV.307; V.354; A 1.297; 11.99, 218; 111.81 ; J 
I.I 56; PvA 15, 20. In composition with numerals atta- 
dutiya himself and one other D II. 147; "catultha with 
himself as fourth M 1.393; A 111.36; "pancaraa Dpvs 
VIII.2; °saltama J 1.233; "atthama VvA 149 (as atta-n- 
atthama Vv 34"), & "atthamaka Miln 291. 

anatta (n. and predicative adj.) not a soul, without a 
soul. Most freq. in comb"- with dukkha & anicca — (i) as 
noun: S 111.141 ("anupassin); IV.49; v.345 ("saiiriin) ; A 
11.52 = Ps 11.80 (anattani anatta; opp. to anattani atta, 
the opinion of the micchaditthigata satta); Dh 279; Ps 
"■37i 45 ^1- (°anupassana), 106 (yaq aniccan ca dukkhan 
ca tai] anatta); DhA in. 406 ("lakkhana). — (2) as adj. 
(pred.): S iv.152 sq. ; S IV.166; S iv.i30 sq., 148 sq.; 
Vin 1. 1 3 = S 111.66 =: Nd2 6S0 Q I ; S in. 20 sq. ; 178 
sq , 196 sq.; sabbe dhamnia anatta Vin v. 86; S in. 1 33; 
IV.28, 401. 

-attha one's own profit or interest Sn 75; Nd'^ 23; J 
IV.56, 96; otherwise as atta-d-attha, e.g. Sn 284. -atthiya 
looking after one's own needs Th i, 1097. -adbipaka 
master of oneself, self-mastered A 1.150. -adhipateyya self- 
dependence, self-reliance, independence A 1.147. -Sdhlna 
independent D 1.72. -anuditthi speculation about souls 
S nr.185; IV.148; A in. 447; Sn 1119; Ps 1.143; Vbh 
368; Miln 146. -anuyogin one who concentrates his 
attention on himself Dh 209; DhA in. 275. -anuvada 
blaming oneself A 11.121 ; Vbh 376. -unna self-humiliation 
Vbh 353 (4- att-avaiiiia). -uddesa relation to oneself Vin 
III. 149 (= attano atthaya), also "ika ibid. 144. -kata 
self-made S 1.134 (opp. para°). -kama love of self A 
11.21; adj. a lover of "soul", one who cares for his own 
soul S 1.75. -kara individual self, fixed individuality, 
oneself (cp. ahaijkara) D 1.53 (opp. para°); A 111337' 
(id.) DA 1. 160; as nt. at J v.401 in the sense of service 
(self-doing", slavery) (atlakarani karonti bhattusu). -kila- 
matba self-mortification D in. 113; S iv.330; V.421 ; M 
ni.230. -garahin self-censuring Sn 778. -gutta self- 
guarded Dh 379. -gutti watchfulness as regards one's 
self, self-care A n.72. -ghaiina self-destruction Dh 164. 
-ja proceeding from oneself Dh 161 (papa), -nu knowing 
oneself A IV. 113, cp. D 111.252. -(n)tapa self-mortifying, 
self-vexing D in. 232 = A 11.205 (opp. paran°); M 1.34I, 
411; 11.159; Pug 55, 56. -danda see atta'. -danta self- 
restrained, self-controlled Dh 104, 322. -ditthi speculation 
concerning the nature of the soul Nd' 107; SnA 523, 
527. -dlpa relying on oneself, independent, founded on 
oneself (-(- attasarana, opp. atina") D II. 1 00 := HI. 42; 
V.154; Sn 501 {^= attano gune eva attano dlpaij katva 
Sn.A 416). -paccakkha only in instr. °ena by or with 
his own presence, i.e. himself J v. 119. -paccakkbika 
eye-witness J v. 11 9. -paccattbika hostile to oneself Vin 
11.94, 96. -patilabba acquisition of a personality D 1.195 
(tayo: olarika, manomaya, arupa). -paritapana self-chast- 
isement, mortification D 111232 = A 11.205; M 1. 341; 
PvA 18, 30. -paritta charm (protection) for oneself Vin 
II. 1 10. -paribhava disrespect for one's own person Vbh 
353. -bhava one's own nature (i) person, personality, 
individuality, living creature; form, appearance [cp. Dhs 
irsl. LX.XI and BSk. atmabhava body Divy 70, 73 
(°pratilambha), 230; Sp. Av. is 1.162 (pratilambha), 167, 
171] Vin 11.238 (living beings, forms); S v.442 (bodily 
appearance); A 1.279 (olarika a substantial creature); 
II. 17 (creature); DhA 11.64, 69 (appearance); Sn.\ 132 
(personality). — (2) life, rebirth A 1.134 sq.; 1114 12; 




UhA 11.68; PvA 8, 15, 166 (atita °a former lives), "q 
pavatteti to lead a life, to live PvA 29, i8l. Thus in 
cpd. patilabba assumption of an existence, becoming 
rebovn as an individual Vin H.185; in. 105; D III. 231; 
M 111.46; S 11.255, 272, 283; III. 144; A 11.159, '88; 
III 122 sq. — (3) character, quality of heart Sn 388 (= 
citta SnA 374); J 1.61. -rtipa "of the form of self", 
self-like only in instr. ''ena as adv. by oneself, on one's 
own account, for the sake of oneself S iv.97;.A 11. 120. 
-vadha self-destruction S 11.241; A 11.73. -vada theory 
of (a persistent) soul D 111.230; M 1.66; D 11.58; S 11.3, 
245 sq.; 111.103, 165, 203; iv.l sq., 43 sq., 153 sq.; 
Ps 1. 1 56 sq.; Vbh 136, 375. For var. points of an "at- 
tavadic" doctrine see Index to Saqyutta Nikaya. -vya- 
badha personal harm or distress self-suffering, one's own 
disaster (opp. para°) M 1 369; S iv.339 = A 1.157; A 
11.179. -vetana supporting oneself, earning one's own 
living Sn 24. -sancetana self-perception, self-conscious- 
ness (opp. para") D 111.231 ; A 11.159. -sambhava origin- 
ating from one's self S 1.70; A IV. 312; Dh 161 (papa); 
Th 1 , 260. -sambhuta arisen from oneself Sn 272. 
-sammapanidhi thorough pursuit or development of one's 
personality A 11.32; Sn 260, cp. KhA 132. -sarana see 
"dipa. -sukba happiness of oneself, self-success Dpvs 
1.66, cp. II. II. -hita personal welfare one's own good 
(opp. para") D 11.233; A 11.95 sq. -hetu for one's own 
sake, out of self-consideration Sn 122; Dh 328. 

Attaniya (adj.) [from alts] belonging to the soul, having a 
soul, of the nature of soul, soul-lika; usually nt. anything 
of the nature of soul M 1. 1 38 = Kvu 67; M 1.297; 
11.263; S III. 77 (yai) kho anattaniyai] whatever has no 
soul), 127; iv.54 = Nd2 680 F; S iv.82 = 111.33 = Nd^ 
680 Q 3; S 1V.168; V.6; Nd; 680 D. Cp. Dhs trsl. 
XXXV ff. 

Attamana [atta' + mano, having an up raised mind. Bdhgh's 
expl"- is saka-mano DA 1.255 = atta -|- mano. ^^ applies 
the same expl"- to attamanata (at Dhs 9, see Dhs trsl. 
12) = attano manata mentality of one's self] delighted, 
pleased, enraptured D 1.3, 90 (an"); 11.14; A in. 337, 
343; IV.344; Sn 45 = Dh 328 (=: upalthita-satt Dh.\ 
IV.29); Sn 995; Nd' 24 (= tuttha-mano hattha-mano etc.); 
Vv i«; Pug 33 (an"); Miln"i8; DA 1.52; DhA 1.89 
(an^-dhatuka displeased); PvA 23, 132; VvA 21 (where 
Dhpala gives two expl°^, either tutthamano or sakamano). 

Attamanata (f) [abstr. to prec] satisfaction, joy, pleasure, 
transport of mind M 1. 114; A 1. 276; IV.62; Pug 18 (an"); 
Dhs 9, 86, 418 (an"); PvA 132; VvA 67 (an°). 

Attala (adj.) [a -\- tana] without shelter or protection J 
1.229; M'ln 148, 325; ThA 285. 

Attha' (also attba, esp. in combns mentioned under 3) 
(m. & nt.) [Vedic artha from f, arti & rnoti to reach, 
attain or to proceed (to or from), thus originally result 
(or cause), profit, attainment. Cp. semantically Fr. chose, 
Lat. causa] 1. interest, advantage, gain; (moral) good, 
blessing, welfare; profit, prosperity, well-being M i.iii 
(atthassa ninnetar, of the Buddha, bringer of good); S 
IV.94 (id.); S 1.34 (attano a. one's own welfare), 55 (id.) 
86, 102, 126= A 11.46 (atthassa patti); S 1.162 (attano 
ca parassa ca); 11.222 (id.); iv.347 (°r| bhaiijati destroy 
the good or welfare, always with musavadena by lying, 
cp. attha-bhanjanaka); A 161 (°r) anubhoti to fare well, 
to have a (good) result); in. 364 (samparayika a. profit 
in the future life); A v.223 sq. (analtho ca attho ca 
detriment & profit); It 44 (v. 1. atta better); Sn 37, 58 
(= Nd'^ 26, where the six kinds of advantages are cnum^- 
as att° par° ubhay", i. e. advantage, resulting for oneself, 
for others, for both; ditthadhammik" samparayik" param" 
gain for this life, for a future life, and highest gain of 
all, i.e. Arahantship); Sn 331 (ko attho supitena what 
good is it to sleep = na hi sakka supantena koci attho 

papnnitui] SnA 338; cp. ko attho supinena te Pv 11.6'); 
PvA 30 (atthai) sadheti does good, results in good, 69 
(samparayikena atthena). — dat. atthaya lor the good, 
for the benefit of (gen.); to advantage, often eombd- with 
hitaya sukhaya, e.g. D in. 211 sq.; It 79. — Kh vni.i 
(to my benefit); Pv 1.4' (=: upakaraya PvA 18), 11.12' 
(to great advantage). See also below 6. 

Sometimes in a more concrete meaning = riches, wealth, 
e.g. J 1.256 (= vaddhir) C); in. 394 (id.); Pv iv.i* (= 
dhanar) PvA 219). — Often as — °: att", one's own well- 
fare, usually comb<i- with par" and ubhay" (see above) 
S 11.29; V.121; A 1.158, 216; 111.63 sq.; IV.134; Sn 75 
(att-attha, v. 1. attha Nd-i), 284 (atta-d-attha); uttam" the 
highest gain, the very best thing Dh 386 (= arahatta 
DhA IV. 1 42); Sn 324 (= arahatta SnA 332); param" 
id. Nd' 26; sad" one's own weal D 11.141; M 1.4; S 
11.29; v'45; A 1.144; sattha (adj.) connected with ad- 
vantage, beneficial, profitable (of the Dhamma; or should 
we take it as "with the meaning, in spirit"? see sattha) 
D 1.62; S V.352; A n.147; 111.152; Ndi 316. — 2. need, 
want (c. instr.), use (for = instr.) S 1.37 ("jata when 
need has arisen, in need); J 1.254; in. 126, 281; iv.i; 
DhA 1.398 (n' atthi eteh' attho I have no use for them); 
VvA 250; PvA 24 (yavadattha, adj. as much as is needed, 
sufficient r= .inappaka). — 3. sense, meaning, import (of 
a word), denotation, signification. In this application attha 
is always spelt attha in cpds. atth-uppatti and attha-katha 
(see below). On term see also Cpd. 4. — S in.93 (atthaq 
vibhajati explain the sense); A 1.23 (id.), 60 (nit° primary 
meaning, literal meaning; neyy" secondary or inferred 
meaning); 11.189 ("■) aclkkhati to interpret); Sn 126 ("q 
pucchlta asked the (correct) sense, the lit. meaning), 251 
("r| akkhati); Th I, 374; attho paramo the highest sense, 
the ultimate sense or intrinsic meaning It 98, cp. Cpd. 
6, 81, 223; Miln 28 (paramatthato in the absolute sense); 
Miln 18 (atthato according to Its meaning, opp. vyan- 
janato by letter, orthographlcally); DhA 11.82; 111.175; 
KhA 81 (pad" meaning of a word); SnA 91 (id.); PvA 
15 ("ij vadati to explain, interpret), 16, 19 (hltattha- 
dhammata "fitness of the best sense", i. e. practical ap- 
plication), 71. V'ery frequent in Commentary style at the 
conclusion of an explained passage as tl attho "this is 
the meaning", thus it Is meant, this is the sense, e. g. 
DA 1.65; DhA IV.140, 141; PvA 33, etc. — Contrasted 
with dhamma in the comb"- attho ca dhammo ca it 
(attha) refers to the (piimary, natural) meaning of the 
word, while dhamma relates to the (interpreted) meaning 
of the text, to its bearing on the norm and conduct; or 
one might say they represent the theoretical and practical 
side of the text (pall) to be discussed, the "letter" and 
the "spirit''. Thus at A 1.69; v.222, 254; Sn 326 (= 
bhasitatthaii ca paUdhamman ca SnA 333): It 84 (duttho 
althar) na janati dhammai) na pa.ssali: he realises neither 
the meaning nor the importance); Dh 363 (= bhasitatlhaii 
c" eva desanadhammaii ca); J 11.353; vi.368; Nd' 386 
(meaning & proper nature); Pv 111.9" (but expld- by PvA 
211 as hita = benefit, good, thus referring it to above i). 
For the same use see cpds. "dhamma, "patisambhida, esp. 
in adv. use (see under 6) Sn 430 (yen^ atthena for which 
purpose), 508 (kena atthena v. 1. BB for T attana), J 
1.41 1 (atthai] va kSranai] va reason and cause); DhA 
"•95 (+ karana( ; PvA 11 (ayaij h' ettha atlho this is 
the reason why). — 5. (In very wide application, covering 
the same ground as Lat. res & Fr. chose): (a) matter, 
affair, thing, often untranslatable and simply to be given 
as "this" or "that" S 11.36 (ekena-padena sabbo attho 
vutto the whole matter is said with one word); J 1.151 
(tai) atthaq the matter); n.i6o (Imaij a. this); vi.289 
(tai) atthar) pakascnto); PvA 6 (lai) atthaq pucchi asked 
It), II (visajjeti explains it), 29 (vuttai} atthaq what had 
been said), 82 (id.). — (b) affair, cause, case (cp. atta' 
and Lat. causa) Dh 256, 331; Miln 47 (kassa atthaq 
dharesi whose cause do you support, with whom do you 
agree?). See also alamattha. — 6. Adv. use of oblique 
cases in the sense of a prep. : (a) dat. atthaya for the 




sake of, in order to, for J 1.254 dhan' atthaya for wealth, 
kim" what for, why?), 279; 11.133; 111-54; DhA 11.82; 
PvA 55, 75, 78. — (b) ace. attba^ on account of, in 
order to, often instead of an infinitive or with another 
inf. substitute J 1.279 (kim"); 111.53 i"^-)'-! 1-253; n.128; 
Dpvs VI. 79; DhA 1.397; PvA 32 (dassan" in order to 
see), 78, 167, etc. — (c) abl. attha J 111.518 (pitu 
attha = atthaya C). — (d) loc. atthe instead of, for 
VvA 10; PvA 33; etc. 

anattba (m. & nt.) I. unprofitable situation or con- 
dition, mischief, harm, misery, misfortune S 1. 103; 11.196 
(analthaya saqvattati); A iv.96 (°i) adhipajjati) It 84 
(°jaoano doso ill-will brings discomfort); J 1.63, 196; 
Pug 37; Dhs 1060, 1231; Sdhp 87; DA 1.52 (anattha- 
janano kodho, cp. It 83 and Nd^ 420 Q2); DhA 11.73; 
PvA 13, 61, 114, 199. — 2. (= attha 3) incorrect sense, 
false meaning, as adj. senseless (and therefore unprofit- 
able, no good, irrelevant) A v. 222, 254 (adhammo ca); 
Dh 100 (= aniyyanad°Ipaka DhA 11.208); Sn 126 (expH- 
at SnA 180 as ahitaq). 

-akkbayin showing what is profitable D 111-187. -attha 
riches J vi.290 (= atthabhatai) atthai) C). -antara dif- 
ference between the (two) meanings Miln 158. At Th i, 
374, Oldenberg's reading, but the v. 1. (also C. reading) 
atthandhara is much belter =z he who knows the (cor- 
rect) meaning, esp. as it coiTesponds with dhamma-dhara 
(q. v.). -abbisamaya grasp of the proficient S 1.87 (see 
abhisamaya). -uddbara synopsis or abstract of contents 
("matter") of the Vinaya Dpvs v.37. -upaparilckba in- 
vestigation of meaning, (-|- dhamma-savanna) M III. 175; 
A III. 381 sq.; IV.221; V.126. -uppatti (atth") sense, 
meaning, explanation, interpretation J 1.89; DA 1.242; 
KhA 216; VvA 197, 203 (cp. palito) PvA 2, 6, 78; etc. 
-kama (adj.) (a) well-wishing, a well-wisher, friend, one 
who is interested in the welfare of others (cp. Sk. artha- 
kama, e.g. Bhagavadglta 11.5: gurun arthakaman) S 1.140, 
144, 197; A 111.143; D III. 164 (bahuno janassa a., -\- 
hitakamo); J 1.241 ; Pv iv.3" ; Pv A 25 ; SnA 287 (an°). — 
(b) one who is interested in his own gain or good, either 
in good or bad sense (^greedy) S 1.44; PvA 112. — 
-katha (attha") exposition of the sense, explanation, com- 
mentary J V.38, 170; PvA I, 7l, etc. freq. in N. of 
Com. -kara beneficial, useful Vin 111.149; Miln 321. 
-karana the business of trying a case, holding court, 
giving judgment (v. 1. atta°) D 11.20; S 1.74 (judgment 
hall?), -kavi a didactic poet (see kavi) A 11.230. -kamin 
= °kama, well-wishing Sn 986 (devata atthakamin!). 
-karaicia (abl.) for the sake of gain D in. 186. -kusala 
clever in finding out what is good or profitable Sn 143 
(= atthacheka KhA 236). -cara doing good, busy in the 
interest of others, obliging S 1.23 (naranai) =z "working 
out man's salvation"), -caraka (adj.) one who devotes 
himself to being useful to others, doing good, one who 
renders service to others, e. g. an attendant, messenger, 
agent etc. D 1.107 (= hitakSraka DA 1.276); J 11.87; 
III. 326; IV.230; VI.369. -cariya useful conduct or behaviour 
D IU.1S2, 190, 232; A 11.32, 248; IV.219, 364. -nu one 
who knows what is useful or who knows the (plain or 
correct) meaning of something (-|- dhammannu) D 111.252; 
A 111.148; IV.H3 sq. -dassia intent upon the (moral) 
good Sn 385 (= hilSnupassin SnA 373). -dassimant one 
who examines a cause (cp. Sk. arthadarsika) J vi.286 
(but expld- by C. as "sanha-sukhuma-paiina" of deep in- 
sight, one who has a fine and minute knowledge), -desana 
interpretation, exegesis Miln 21 (dhamm"). -dhamma 
"reason and morality", see above n". 3. °anusasaha one 
who advises regarding the meaning and application of the 
Law, a professor of moral philosophy J 11.105; DhAll.71. 
^pada a profitable saying, a word of good sense, text, 
motto A n.189; ni-356; Dh 100. -patUambbida know- 
ledge of the meaning (of words) combd- with dhamma° 
of the text or spirit (see above n". 3) Ps 1.132; 11. 150; 
Vbh 293 sq. -pa^lsagvedin experiencing good D 111.24 1 
(4- dhamma°); A 1.151; 111.21. -baddha expecting some 
good from (c. loc.) Sn 382. -bhanjanaka breaking the 

welfare of, hurting DhA 111.356 (paresai) of others, by 
means of telling lies, musavadena). -majjha of beautiful 
waist J V.170 (= sumajjha C. ; reading must be faulty, 
there is hardly any connection with attha; v. 1. atta). 
•rasa sweetness (or substance, essence) of meaning (-j- 
dhamma°, vimutti°) Nd^ 466; Ps 11.88, 89. -vasa "de- 
pendence on the sense", reasonableness, reason, conse- 
quence, cause D 11.285; ^ '•464; 11.120; 111.150; S 11.202; 
111.93; IV.303; V.224: A i.6i, 77, 98; 11.240; 111.72, 169, 
237; Dh 289 (= karana DhA 111.435); I' ^9; Sn 297; 
Ud 14. -vasika sensible It 89; Miln 406. -vasin bent 
on (one's) aim or purpose Th i, 539. -vadin one who 
speaks good, i. e. whose words are doing good or who 
speaks only useful speech, always in comb"- with kala° 
bhuta" dhamma" D 1.4; 111.175; A 1.204; 11-22, 209; 
Pug 58; DA 1.76 (expld- as "one who speaks for the 
sake of reaping blessings here and hereaiter"). -sat]van- 
nana explanation, exegesis PvA i. -saijbita connected 
with good, bringing good, profitable, useful, salutary D 
1.189; S 11.223; IV.330; V.417; A 111.196 sq., 244; Sn 
722 (= hitena sai)hitar| SnA 500); Pug 58. -sandassana 
determination of meaning, definition Ps 1.105. -siddhi 
profit, advantage, benefit J 1.402; PvA 63. 

Attha^ (nt.) [Vedic asta, of uncertain etym.] home, primarily 
as place of rest & shelter, but in P. phraselogy abstracted 
from the "going home", i. e. setting of the sun, as dis- 
appearance, going out of existence, annihilation, extinction. 
Only in ace. and as ° — in foil phrases: attbangacchati 
to disappear, to go out of existence, to vanish Dh 226 
(= vinasaq natthibhavai) gacchati DhA 111.324), 384 (= 
parikkhayai] gacchati); pp. attbangata gone home, gone 
to rest, gone, disappeared; of the sun (=: set): J 1.175 
(atthangate suriye at sunset); PvA 55 (id.) 216 (anatthan- 
gate s. before sunset) fig. Sn 472 (atthagata). 475 (id.); 
1075 (= niruddha ucchinna vinattha anupadi-sesaya nib- 
bana-dhatuya nibbuta); it 58; Dhs 1038; Vbh 195. 
-attbagatatta (nt. abstr.) disappearance SnA 409. -attban- 
gama (atthagama passim) aunihilatioo , disappearance; 
opposed to samudaya (coming into existence) and syno- 
nymous wiih nirodha (destruction) D 1.34, 37, 183; S 
IV.327; A 111.326; Ps 11.4, 6, 39; Pug 52; Dhs 165, 
265, 501, 579; Vbh 105. -atthagamana (nt.) setting 
(of the sun) J 1. 101 (suriyass' atthagamana at sunset) 
DA 1.95 (=: ogamana). — attba-glmin, in phrase uday^ 
atthagSmin leading to birth and death (of pan&a): see 
udaya. -attbai) paleti = attbangacchati (fig.) Sn 1074 
(== atthangameti nirujjhati Nd^ 28). — Also atthamita 
(pp. of i) set (of the sun) in phrase anattharaite suriye 
before sunset (with anatthangamite as v. 1. at both pass.) 
DhA 1.86; 111.127. — Cp. also abbhaltha. 

Attha^ pres. 2"d pi. of atlhi (q. v.). 

Atthata [pp. of attharati] spread, covered, spread over with 
(— °) Vin 1.265; IV.287; V.I 72 (also °an); A ni.50; 
PvA 141. 

Atthatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. attha'] reason, cause; only in abl. 
atthatia according to the sense, by reason of, on account 
of PvA 189 (— "). 

Atthara [fr. attharati] a rug (for horses, elephants etc.) D 1.7. 

Attharaka [= atthara] a covering J 1.9; DA 1.87. — f. 
°ika a layer J 1.9; v.280. 

Attharaka (nt.) [fr. attharati] a covering, carpet, cover, 
rug Vin 11.291; A 11.56; in.53; Mhvs 3, 20; 15, 40; 
25, 102; ThA 22. 

Attharati [a + Stf] 'o spread, to cover, to spread out; 
stretch, lay out Vin 1.254; V.172; J 1.199; V.II3; VI.428; 
Dh 1.272. — pp. attbata (q.v.). — Caus. attbarapeti to 
caused to be spread J v.lio; Mhvs 3, 20; 29, 7; 34, 69. 




Atthavant (adj.) [cp. Sk. anhavant] full of benefit S 1.30; 
Th I, 740; Miln 172. 

Atthara [cp. Sk. astara, fr. attharati] spreading out Vin v. 172 
(see kathina). attbaraka same ibid.; Vin 11.87 (covering). 

Atthl [Sk. asli, ist sg. asmi; Gr. elfu'-is-Ti , l^t. sum-est; 
Goth, im-ist; Ags. eom-is E. am-is] to be, to exist. — 
Pres. Ind. is> sg. asmi Sn 1120, 1143;] 1.151; m-SS, 
and amhi M 1.429; Sn 694; J 11.153; Pv i.iO''; 11. 8^. — 
2nd sg. asi Sn 420; J n.i6o ("si); 111.278; Vv 32*; 
PvA 4. — 3"i sg. atthi Sn 377, 672, 884; J 1.278. 
Often used for yd pi. (= sanli), e.g. J 1.280; 11.2: 
111.55. — i^' pi. asma [Sk. smah] Sn 594, 595 ; asmase 
Sn 595, and amha Sn 570; J 11.128. 2nd pi. attba 
J 11.128; PvA 39, 74 (agat' attha you /laz't come). — 
yi pi. santi Sn 1077; Nd- 637 (== saijvijjanti atthi 
upalabbhanli); J 11.353; Pv.\ 7, 22. — Imper. atthu Sn 
340; J 1.59; 111.26. — Pot. ist sg. siya [Sk. syam] Pv 
11.88, and assarj [Cond. used as Pot.] Sn 11 20; Pv 1.12' 
(= bhaveyyar) PvA 64). — 2nd sg. siya [Sk. syah] Pv 
U.8'. — 3fd sg. siya [Sk. syat] D n.154; Sn 325, 1092; 
Nd' 105 (=janeyya, nibbatteyya) ; J 1.262; PvA 13, and 
assa D 1.135, 196; n.154; A v.194; Sn 49, 143; Dh 
124, 260; Pv 11.3^^; 9-*. — 1^' pi. assu PvA 27. — 
3rd pi. assu [cp. Sk. syuh] Sn 532; Dh 74; Pv iv.i'6 
(^bhaveyyuq PvA 231). — Aor. is' sg. asii) [Sk. asai)] 
Sn 284; Pv 1.2' (^ ahosii) PvA 10); 11.3' (= ahosiij 
PvA 83). — y^ sg. asi [Sk. asit] Sn 994. — 3rd asur) 
[cp. Sk. Perf. asuh] Pv 11.3^', 13' (ti pi patho for su). — 
Ppr. 'sat only in loc. sati (as loc. abs.) Dh 146; J 1.150, 
263, santa Sn 105; Nd^ 635; J 1.150 (loc. evaq same 
in this case); 111. 26, and samana (q. v.) J 1.266; iv.138. 
-bhava state of being, existence, being J 1.222, 290; 
11.415; DhA 11.5; IV.217 (atthibhava vS natthibhava va 
whether there is or not). 

Atthika (adj.) [cp. Sk. arthika] I. (to attha') profitable, 
good, proper. In this meaning the MSS show a variance 
of spelling either atthika or atthika or atthita; in all 
cases atthika should be preferred D 1.55 (°vada); M 11.212 
(atthita); A 111.219 sq. (idaq atlhikaij this is suitable, of 
good avail; T atthitai), vv. 11. as above); Sn 1058 (atthita; 
Nd* 20 also atthita, which at this pass, shows a confusion 
between attha and a-thita); J v.151 (in def. of atthikatva 
q. v.); Pug 69, 70 (f atthika, atthita SS; expld- by Pug 
A V.4 by kalyanaya). — 2. (to attha' 2) desirous of ( — °), 
wanting, seeking for, in need of (c. instr.) A 11.199 (uday" 
desirous of increase); Sn 333, 460, 487 (punn"), 987 
(dhan" greedy for wealth); J 1.263 ("■^jj" coveting a king- 
dom); v.ig; Pv 11.228 (bhojan" in need of food); IV. l' 
(karan°), l^' (khidd° for play), 1" (puiin°); PvA 95 
(sasena a. wanting a rabbit), 120; DA 1.70 (atthiks those 
who like to), -anattbika one who does not care for, or 
is not satisfied with (c. instr.) J v.460; PvA 20; of no 
good Th 1, 956 ("of little zeal" Mrs. Rh. D.). 

-bhava (a) usefulness, profitableness Pug A v.4. (b) 
state of need, distress PvA 120. 

Atthlkavant (adj.) [atthika + vant] one who wants some- 
thing, one who is on a certain errand D 1.90 (atthikaq 
assa atthi ti DA 1.255). 

Atthita (f.) [f. abstr. fr. atthi cp. atthibhava] state of being, 
existence, being, reality M 1.486; S 11. 1 7 (°aii C cva 
natthitaii ca to be and not to be); 111.135; J v. no (kas- 
saci atthitai] va natthilar) va janahi see if there is any- 
body or not); DhsA 394. — Often in abl. atthitaya by 
reason of, on account of, this being so DhA 111.344 (idam- 
atthitaya under this condition) PvA 94, 97, 143. 

Atthln (adj.) (— °) [Vedic arthin] desirous, wanting anything ; 
see mant°, vad". 

Atthlya (adj.) (— °) [= atthika] having a purpose or end 
S m.189 (kim° for what purpose?); A v.l sq. (id.), 311 

sq.; Th I, 1097 (att° having one's purpose in oneself), 
1274; Sn 354 (yad atthiyaq on account of what). 

Atra (adv.) [Sk. alra] here; atra atra here & there J 1.414 
= IV.5 (in expln- of atriccha). 

Atraja (adj.) [Sk. *atma-ja, corrupted form for attaja (see 
atta) through analogy with Sk. atra "here". This form 
occurs only in J and similar sources, i. e. popular lore] 
born from oneself, one's own, appl. to sons, of which 
there are 4 kinds enumd- , viz. atraja khettaja, dinnaka, 
antevasika p. Nd'^ 448. — J 1. 135; ill. 103 = Nd' 504; 
J III.181; V.465; VI.20; Mhvs 4, 12; 13, 4; 36, 57. 

Atriccha (adj.) [the popular etym. suggested at JA IV.4 is 
atra alra icchamana desiring here & there; but see atriccha] 
very covetous, greedy, wanting too much J 1.414:= IV.4; 

Atriccha (f) [Sk. •atrptya, a -|- trpt + ya, influenced by 
Desid. titrpsati, so that atriccha phonetically rather cor- 
responds to a form *a.-trpsya (cch == psy, cp. P. chSta 
Sk. psata). For the simple Sk. trpti see tilti (from tap- 
patl'). According to Kern, but phonetically hardly justifi- 
able it is Sk. aticcha == ati -f- iccha "too much desire", 
with r in dissolution of geminated tt, like atraja for attaja. 
See also atriccha adj. and cp. y F T S. 1884, 69] great 
desire, greed, excessive longing, insatiability J IV.5, 327. 

AtriCChata (f.) [see atriccha] excessive lust J. 111.222. 

Atha (indecl.) [Sk. atha, cp. atho] copulative & adversative 
part. 1. after positive clauses, in enumerations, in the 
beginning & continuation of a story: and, and also, or; 
and then, now D 11.2; 111.152, 199 (athaparar] etad 
avoca); M 1.435; Sn 1006, 1007, 1017; Sn p. 126 (athS- 
parai] etad avoca: and further, something else); Dh 69, 
i'9i 377; J "'5^; P^ 11.6*; Pv.\ 3, 8 (atha na and not), 
70. — 2. after negative clauses: but M 1.430; Sn 990, 
1047; Dh 85, 136, 387; PvA 68. Often combd. with 
other part., e.g. atba kbo (pos. & neg.) now, and then; 
but, rather, moreover Vin i.i ; D 1. 141, 167, 174; A 
v.195; I'^A 79, 221, 251. na-atha kho na neither-nor 
PvA 28. atha kho pana and yet D 1.139. atha ca pana 
on the other hand J 1.279. atba va or (after prec. ca), 
nor (after prec. na) Sn 134; Dh 140, 271; Pv 1.4'; ll.i*. 
atha va pi Sn 917, 921. 

Athabbaoa [Vedic atharvan ; as regards etym. see Walde, 
Lat. Wtb. under ater] (1) the Atharva Veda DA 1.247 
^ Sn.\ 447 (°veda). — (2) one who is familiar with 
the (magic formulas of the) Atharvaveda J vi.490 (sSt- 
habbana = sahatthivejja,with the elephant-healer or doctor). 
See also Sthabbana. 

Atho (indecl.) [Sk. atho, atha + u] copulative and adver- 
sative part.: and, also, and further, likewise, nay S 1.106; 

Sn 43, 155, 647; Dh 151, 234, 423; J 1-83; "■«85; 
IV.495; It 106; Kh VIII.7; Pv 1V.3'»; PvA 251 (atho ti 
nipatamatlaq avadharan-atthe va). Also combd with other 
part., like atho pi Sn 222, 537, 985; Pvii.3"; KhA 166. 

Ada (adj.) (— °) [to ad, see adeti, cp. °ga, "tha, °da etc.] 
eating S iv.195 (kitthida eating corn); J 11.439 (vantada 
= vantakhadaka C). 

Adaka (adj.) = ada J V.91 (puris&daka man-eater). 

Adana (nt.) [from adeti] eating, food J v.374 (v.l. modana). 

Adasaka (adj.) see dasa. 

Adasa [prob. = adaqsa, from dasati to bite, cp. dathS 
tooth; lit meaning "toothless" or "not biting"] a kind 
of bird J IV.466. 




Adittha [a + dittha, ger. of *dassati] not seeing, without 
seeing J IV.192 (T. adattha, v. 1. BB na dittha, C. adisva); 

Adinna (pp-) [a + dinna] that which is not given, freq. 
in phrase adinn' adana (BSk. adaltadana Divy 302) 
seizing or grasping that whieh is not given to one, 
i. e. stealing, is the 2nd of the ten qualifications of bad 
character or sila (dasasila see sila 11.). Vin 1.83 ^a 
veramanl); D 1.4 (= parassa haranaq theyyai) corika ti 
vuttaq hoti DA 1.71); 111.68 sq., 82, 92, 181 _sq.; M 
1.361; It 63; Kh II., cp. KhA 26. — adinnadayin he 
who takes what is not given, a thief; stealing, thieving 
(cp. BSk. adattadayika Divy 301, 418) Vin 1.85; D 1.138; 
Sdhp 78. 

AdU (or adu) (indecl.) [perhaps identical with adur), nt. 
of pron. asu] part, of affirmation: even, yea, nay; always 
in emphatic exclamations Vv 62'^ (= udahu VvA 258; 
v.l. SS. adu) — Pv IV.3I' (adu) = DhA 1.3 1 (T. adu, 
V. 1. adu); Vv 63' (v.l. adu); J v.330 (T. adu, C. adu; 
expld. on p. 331 fantastically as adun ca adun ca kam- 
mat) karohl ti). See also adu. 

AdUl) nt. of pron. asu. 

Adusaka (adj.) [a + dusaka] innocent J V.143 (= nirapa- 
radha C); vi.84, 552. f. adusika Sn 312. 

AdUSiya ^ adusaka J V.220 (= anaparadha C). 

Adeti [Sk. adayati, Caus. of atti, ad to eat, l^t sg. admi = 
Gr. eSai, Lat. edo; Goth, ilan = Ohg. ezzan ;= E. eat] to 
eat. Pres. ind. ademi etc. J v. 31, 92, 197, 496; vi.106. 
pot. adeyya J v. 107, 392, 493. 

Adda' [cp. Sk. ardraka] ginger J 1.244 (°singivera). 

Adda^ & Adda y^ sg. aor. of *dassati; see ®dassati 2. a. 

Adda' (adj.) [Sk. ardra, from rdali or ardati to mell, cp. 
Gr. 'xfSu to moisten, eipSsc dirt; see also alia] wet, moist, 
slippery J IV.353; VI.309; Miln 346. 

-^valepana "smeared with moisture", i. e. shiny, glit- 
tering S IV. 1 87 (kutagSra); M 1.86 = Nd^ 99'' (upakariyo). 
See also addha^. 

Addakkhl 3"^ sg. aor. of *dassati ; see *dassati I b. 

Addasa 3"* sg. aor. of 'dassati; see *dassati 2 a. 

Adda & Addayana at Vbh 371 in def. of.anadariya is 
either faulty writing, or dial, form or pop. etym. for ada 
and adayana ; see adariya. 

Addayate [v. denom. fr. adda] to be or get wet, fig. to 
Ije attached to j iv.351. See also alllyati. 

Addi [Sk. ardri] a mountain Davs 11.13. 

Addita (pp.) [see attita which is the more correct spelling] 
afflicted, smarted, oppressed] 1. 21 ; 11.407; m.261 ; iv.295 ; 
V.53, 268; Th I, 406; Mhvs 1, 25; PvA 260; Sdhp 
37, 281- 

Addha< (num.) [— addha, q. v.] one half, half (°— ) D 
1. 166 (°masika); A 11.160 (°masa); J 1.59 (,°yojana); ill. 
189 (°masa). 

Addha'^ (adj.) [=adda-'', Sk. ardra] soiled, wet; fig. attached 
to, intoxicated with (cp. sineha) M 11.223 (°a anaddha- 
bhutai) attanaq dukkhena addhabhaveti he dirties the im- 
pure self with ill); S iii.i (addhabhuto kayo impure body); 
J VI. 548 (°nakha with dirty nails, C. pntinakha). 

Addhan (in cpds. addha°) [Vedic adhvan, orig. meaning 
"stretch, length", both of space & time. — Cases: noiii. 
addha, gtn. diit. addhuno, instr. addhuna, ace. addhanaq, 
loc. addhani; //. addha. See also addhana] i. (of space) 

a path, road, also journey (see cpds. & derivations); only 
in out sler. phrase J iv.384^v. 137 (pathaddbuno pan- 
narase va cando, gen. for loc. "addhani, on his course, 
in his orbit; explJ- at iv.384 by akasa-patha-sankhatassa 
adtlhnno majjhe Ihito and at v. 137 by pathaddhagato 
addha-pathe gaganamajjhe thito); Pv ill. 3' (pathaddhani 
pannarase va cando ; loc. same meaning as prec, expld- at 
PvA 1 88 by attano pathabhute addhani gaganatala-magge). 
This phrase (pathaddhan) however is expl^by Kern (Toev. 
s. v. pathaddu) as "gone half-way", i. e. on fuU-moon-day. 
He rejects the expl". of C. — 2. (of time) a stretch of 
time, an interval of lime, a period, also a lifetime (see 
cpds.); only in huo standard applications viz. (a) as mode 
of time (past, present & future) in tayo addha three 
divisions of time (alita, anagata, paccuppanna) D 111.216; 
I' 53i 7°- (l") '° phrase dighat) addhanai] (ace.) a very 
long time A 11. i, 10 (dlghar) addhanar) saijsarai)); Sn 740 
(dighai) addhana saijsara); Dh 207 (dighoq addhana socati); 
J ■•'37- fisu- dighassa addhuno PvA 148 (gatatta because 
a long time has elapsed), instr. dighena addhuna S 1.78; 
A II.118; PvA 28. 

-ayu duration of life A 11.66 (dighaq °i) a long life- 
time, -gata one who has gone the road or traversed the 
space or span of life, an old man [cp. BSk. adhvagata 
M Vastu 11.150], always combd. with vayo anuppatto, 
sometimes in ster. formula with jinna & maballaka Vin 
Il.i88; D 1.48 (cp. DA 1.143); M 1.82; Sn pp. 50, 92; 
PvA 149. -gu [Vedic adhvaga] a wayfarer, traveller, 
journeyman Th 255 = 8 1.212 (but the latter has panthagu, 
v.l. addhagu); J 11195 (*'•'■ patthagu = panthagu); Dh 302. 

Addha (adv.) [Vedic addha, cp. Av. azda certainly] part, 
of affirmation and emphasis: certainly, for sure, really, 
truly D 1. 143; J l.ig (a. ahaij Buddho bhavissarai) 66 
(a. tvar) Buddho bhavissasi), 203, 279: 111.340; v. 307, 
410 (C. expln- differs) Sn 47, 1057; Nd^ 30 = Ps II. 21 
(ekaqsa-vacanaq nissaqsaya-vacanaq etc.) addha hi J IV. 
399; Pv 1V.I52. 

Addhaneyya (adj.) =. adhaniya 2, lasting J v.507 (an"). 

Addhaniya (adj.) [fr. addhan] I. belonging to the road' 
fit for travelling (of the travelling season) Th I, 529. — 
2. belonging to a (long) time, lasting a long geriod, 
lasting, enduring D ill. 211; J 1393 (an°) VI. 71. See also 

Addhariya [Vedic adhvaryu fr. adhvara sacrifice] a sacri- 
ficing priest. N. of a class of Brahmins D 1.237 (brahmana). 

Addhana (nt.) [orig. the ace. of addhan, taken as nt. 
from phrase dfghai) addhanaij. It occurs only in ace. which 
may always be taken as ace. of addhan ; thus the as- 
sumption of a special form addhana would be superfluous, 
were it not for later forms like addhane (loc.) Miln 126; 
PvA 75 V.I. BB, and for cpds.] same meaning as addhan, 
but as simplex only used with reference to time (i. e. a 
long time, cp. Vv.\ 117 addhanaq = cirai)). Usually in 
phrase atltar) (anagataij etc.) addhanai] in the past (future 
etc.), e.g. D 1.200; S 1.140: A v. 32; Miln 126 (anaga- 
tamaddhane for °ar|); Pv.\ 75 (v.l. addhane). dlghag 
addhanai] Pv^. Also in phrase addhanai] apadeti 
to make out the length of time or period, i. e. to live 
out one's lifetime S iv.iio; J 11.293 (= jivitaddhanai) 
apadi ayur) vindi C ). 

•daratba exhaustion from travelling DA 1.287. -magga 
a (proper) road for journeying, a long road between 
two towns, high road D l.l, 73, 79; M 1.276 (kanlar°); 
DA 1.35 (interpreted as "addhayojanaq gacchissami ti 
bhunjitabban ti adi vacanato addha-yojanam pi addhana 
maggo hoti", thus taken to addha "half", from counting 
by A miles); VvA 40, 292. Cp. also antaramagga. -pa- 
rissama "fatigue of the road", i. e. fatigue from travelling 
VvA 305. -vemattata difference of time or period Miln 
285 (-)- ayuvemattata). 




Addhika [fr- addhan] a wanderer, wayfarer, traveller DA 
1.298 (:= patliavin), 270; PvA 78, 127 ("jana people 
travelling). Often combd- with kapana beggar, tramp, as 
kapaiiaddhika (pi.) tramps and travellers (in which con- 
nection also as °iddhika, q. v.), e.g. J 1.6 (v. 1. ""iddhika 
262 ; DhA 11.26. 

Addhita at Pv 11.6- is to be corrected to at^ita (sic v. 1. BB). 

Addhln (adj.) ( — "^) [fr. addhan] belonging to the road or 
travelling, one who is on the road, a traveller, in gataddhin 
one who has performed his journey (= addhagata) Dh 90. 

Addhuva see dhuva. 

Adrubhaka see dubbha. 

Advejjhata see dvejjhata. 

Adha° in cpds. like adhagga see under adho. 

Adhanuna see dhamma. 

Adhama (adj.) [Vedic adhama = Lat. infimus, supcrl. of 
adho, q. v.] the lowest (lit. & fig), the vilest, worst Sn 
12 (naradhama), 135 (vasaladhama) ; Dh 78 (purisa°); 
J HI.151 (miga"); v,394 (uttamddhama), 437 (id.), 397; 
Sdhp 387. 

Adhara (adj.) [Vedic adbara, compar. of adho] the lower 
J 111.26 (adharottha the 1. lip). 

Adhl [Vedic adhi; base of demonstr. pron. a° -f- suffix-dhi, 
corresponding in form to Gr. 'h-ia "on this" = here, cp. 
Bii where, in meaning equal to adv. of direction Gr. Se 
(toward) ^ Ohg. zuo, E. to]. 

A. Prep, and pref. of direction & place: (a) as direction 
denoting a movement towards a definite end or goal = 
up to, over, toward, to, on (see C I a). — (b) as place 
where (prep. c. loc. or abs.) =r on top of above, over, 
in; in addition to. Often simply deictic "here" (e.g.) 
ajjhatta = adhi -|- atman "this self here" (see C i b). 

B. adhi is freq. as modification pref., i. e. in loose 
compn- with n. or v. and as first part of a double prefix- 
cpd., like ajjha° (adhi -)- a), adhippa° (adhi + pra), but 
never occurs as a fixed base, i. e. as 2"d part of a pref.- 
cpd., like a in pacca^ (prati + S), parya° (pari -j- a) or 
ava in paryava'^ (pari + ava) or ud in abhyud" (abhi -(- 
ud), samud" (sam -|- ud). As such (i. e. modification) it 
is usually intensifying, meaning "over above, in addition, 
quite, par excellence, super"-(adhideva a super-god, cp. 
ati-deva), but very often has lost this power & become 
meaningless (like E. up in "shut up, fill up, join up etc ), 
esp. in double pref.-cpds. (ajjhavasati "to dwell here-in" 
= avasati "to dwell in, to inhabit") (see C 2). — In 
the explns of P. Commentators adhi is often (sometimes 
far-fetchedly) interpreted by abhibhii "overpowering" see 
e.g. C. on adhitthati & adhitthila; and by virtue of this 
intens. meaning we find a close relationship between the 
prefixes ati, adhi and abhi, all interchanging dialectically 
so that P. adhi often represents Sk. ati or abhi; thus 
adhi > ali in adhikusala, ''kodhila, "jeguccha, °brahma; 
adhi > abhi in adhippatthita, "pateti, °ppaya, °ppeta, 
"badheti, ^bhu, °vaha. Cp. also ati IV. 

C. The main applications of adhi are the foil.: \.priviary 
meaning (in verbs & verb derivations): either direction 
in which or place where, depending on the meaning of 
the verb determinate, either lit. or fig. — (a) where to: 
adhiyita (adhi -j- fta) "gone on to or into" := studied; 
ajjhesita (adtti -|- esita) "wished for"; °kata "put to" i.e. 
commissioned; °kara commission; "gacchali "to go on to 
& reach it" = obtain ; °gania attainment ; "ganhati to 
overtake = surpass, °peta (adhi -j- pra -|- ita) "gone in 
to" = meant, understood ; °paya sense meaning, intention ; 
°bhasati to speak to := address; °mutta intent upon; 
"vacana "saying in addition" = attribute, metaphor, cp. 
Fr. sur-nom; "vasana assent, °vaseti to dwell in, give 

in = consent. — (b) where: "litlhati ("tthati) to stand 
by =: look after, perform; ^tthana place where; ''vasati 
to inhabit; °sayana "lying in", inhabiting. — 2. secondary 
meaning (as emphatic modification): (a) with nouns or 
adjectives: adhi-jcguccha very detestable; "matta "in an 
extreme measure", °pa supreme lord; "pacca lordship; 
"paiina higher, additional wisdom; "vara the very best; 
"sila thorough character or morality. — (b) with verbs 
(in double pref.-cpds.); adhi + ava : ajjhogaheti plunge 
into; ajjhothapeti to bring down to (its destination); 
°otthata covered completely; "oharati to swallow right 
down, adhi -)- a: ajjhappatta having reached (the end); 
ajjhapilita quite overwhelmed; ''avuttha inhabited; "aruhati 
grown up over; °asaya desire, wish (cp. Ger. n. Anliegen 
& V. daranliegen). adhi -|- upa : ajjhupagacchati to reach, 
obtain; "upeti to receive; °upekkhati "to look all along 
over" =: to superintend adhi -}- pra : adhippattheti to 
long for, to desire. 

Note. The contracted (assimilation-)form of adhi before 
vowels is ajjh- (q. v.). 

Adhlka (adj.) [fr. adhi; cp. Sk. adhika] exceeding, extra- 
ordinary, superior, Pug 35; VvA 80 (= anadhivara, vi- 
sittha); DA 1.141, 222; Dpvs v.32 (an°); DhA 111.238; 
KhA 193 (:=r anuttara); .Sdhp 337, 447. — compar. 
adhikatara DhA 11. 7; m.176; nt. °r) as adv. extra- 
ordinarily PvA 86 (= adhimatlaij). In comb"- with num- 
erals adhika has the meaning of "in addition, with an 
additional, plus" (cp. adi -|- adika, with which itis evidently 
confounded, adhika being constructed in the same way as 
adika, i. e. preceding the noun-determination), e. g. catu- 
nahutidhikani dve yojana-sahassani 2000 + 94 (^= 294000) 
J 1.25 ; sattamasadhikani sattavassani 7 years and 7 months 
J V.319; panriasadhikani panca vassa-satani 500 -(- 50 (=: 
550) PvA 152. See also f adhika. 

Adhlkata (adj.) [adhi + kata; cp. Sk. adhikrta] l. com- 
missioned with, an overseer, Pv I!. 9" (dane adhikata = 
thapita PvA 124). — 2. caused by Miln 67 (kamma"). — 
3. affected by something, i. e. confused, puzzled, in doubt 
Miln 144 (+ vimatijata). 

Adhikarana (nt.) [adhi -f- karana] I. attendance, super- 
vision, management of affairs, administration PvA 209. — 
2. relation, reference, reason, cause, consequence D 11.59 
( — ": in consequence of); S 11.41 ; v.19. Esp. ace. "r) as 
adv. ( — °) in consequence of, for the sake of, because of, 
from M 1.410 (riipadhikaranar)) ; S iv.339 (raga°); Miln 
281 (mudda° for the sake of the royal seal, orig. in 
attendance on the r. s.). Kimadhikaranaq why, on account 
of what J IV.4 (r= kii]karanai]) yatvadhikaranai] (yat + 
adhi") by reason of what, since, because (used as conj.) 
D 1.70= A 1.113^ It. 16 = D III. 225. — 3. case, question, 
cause, subject of discussion, dispute. There are 4 sorts of 
a. enumJ- at var. passages, viz. vivada" anuvada" apatta" 
kicca" "questions of dispute, of censure, of misconduct, 
of duties" Vin 11.88; 111.164; iv.126, 238; M 11.247. — 
Often ref. : Vin 11.74; S iv.63 = v.346 (dhamma° a 
question of the Dh.); A 1.53 (case), 79; 11.239 (vupasanta); 
V.71, 72; Pug 20, 55; DhA iv.2 (°ssa uppamassa vupa- 
sama), adhikaranaq karoti to raise a dispute M 1.122 °i) 
vupasameti to settle a question or difficulty Vin 11.261. 
-karaka one who causes dispute discussions or dissent 
Vin 1V.230 (f. "ika); A III. 252. -samatha the settlings of 
questions that have arisen. There are seven rules for settling 
cases enum<'- at D in.254; M 11.247; A 1.99; iv.144. 

Adhikarai^lka [fr- adhikarana] one who has to do with 
che settling of disputes or questions, a judge A v.164, 167. 

Adhlkarani (f.) [to adhikarana I, orig. meaning "serving, 
that which serves, i. e. instrument"] a smith's anvil J 
111.285; Davs in. 16 sq. ; DhsA 263. 

Adhikara [cp. Sk. adhikara] attendance, service, adminis- 
tration, supervision, management, help Vin 1.55; J 156; 




VI.251; Miln 60, 115, 165; PvA 124 (dana"; cp. Pv 
11.9-'); DhA 11.41. 

Adhikarika (adj.) ( — °) [to adhikara] serving as, referring 
to Vin ni.274 (Bdhgh). 

Adhikuttana (f.) [adhi + kottana or kottana] an executi- 
oner's block Th 2, 58; cp. ThA 65 (v. 1. kuddana, should 
prob. be read kottana); ThA 287. 

AdhJkUSala (adj.) [adhi -)- kusala] in °a dhamma "items 
of higher righteousness" D in. 145. 

Adhikodhlta (adj.) [adhi + kodhita] very angry J v.117. 

AdhigaCChati [adhi 4- gacchati] to get to, to come into 
possession of, to acquire, attain, find; fig. to understand 
D 1.229 (vives.iij) M 1. 140 (anvesar) n' adhigacchanti do 
not find); S 1.22 (Nibb.inar/); 11.27S (id.); A 1. 162 (id.); 
Dh 187, 365; It 82 (santiq); Th 2, 51; Pug 30, 31; 
Pv 1.7* (nibbutii) = labhati PvA 37); iii.7'0 (amataij 
padaq). opt. adhigaccheyya D 1.224 (kusalaq dhammai]); 
M 1. 114 (madhu-pindikaij); Dh 61 and adhigacche Dh 
368. ger. °gantva D 1.224; J i-45 (anisaqse) ; and "gamma 
Pv hi" (== vinditva patilabhitva PvA 60). grd. °gan- 
tabba It 104 (nibbana). cond. '^gacchissar) Sn 446. i^t 
aor. 3 sg. ajjhaga Sn 225 (= vindi patilabhi Kh.\ 180); 
Dh 154; Vv 32'; 3 pi. ajjhagu J 1.256 (vyasanaq) & 
ajjhagamur) S 1.12. 2>"1 aor. 3 sg. adhigacchi Nd' 457. — 
pp. adhigata (q. v.). 

Adhiganhati [adhi + ganhati] to surpass, excel S I.87 = 
DA 1.32; D III. 146; S IV.275; A IH.33; It 19. Ger. 
adhigayha Pv ii.g"^ = Dh.\ in. 219 (v. 1. BB at both 
pass, atikkamma) ; & adhiggahetva It 20. — pp. adhig- ■ 
gahita (q. v.). 

Adhigata [pp. of adhigacchati] got into possession of, con- 
quered, attained, found J 1.374; VvA 135. 

Adhigatavant (adj.-n ) [fr. adhigata] one who has found 
or obtained VvA 296 (Nibbanaq). 

Adhigama [fr. adhigacchati] attainment, acquisition ; also 
fig. knowledge, information, study (the latter mainly in 
Miln) D III. 255; S II. 139; A 11.148; iv.22, 332; v.ig4; 
J 1.406; Nett 91; Miln 133, 215, 358, 362, 388; PvA 207. 

Adhigameti [adhi -j- gameti, Caus. of gacchati] to make 
obtain, to procure PvA 30. 

Adhiggahlta [pp. of adhiganhati] excelled, surpassed; over- 
powered, taken by (instr.), possessed J 111.427 (= anug- 
gahita C); v. 102; vi.525 = 574; It 103; Miln 188, 
189; Sdhp 98. 

Adhicinna only at S II1.I2, where v. 1. is avicinna, which 
is to be preferred. See vicinna. 

Adhicitta (nt.) [adhi -f- citta] "higher thought", meditation, 
contemplation, usually in comb"- with adhisila and ad- 
bipanna Vin 170; D 111. 219; M 1.451; A 1.254, 256; 
N'd' 39 = Nd2 689 ("sikkhs); Dh 185 (= attha-samapatti- 
sankhata adhika-citta DhA 111.238). 

AdhicetO (adj.) [adhi -f ceto] lofty-minded, entranced Th I, 
68 = Ud 43 = Vin iv.54 = DhA 111.384. 

AdhiCCa' [ger. of adhi -J- eti, see adhiyati] learning, studying, 
learning by heart J III. 218, 327 1= iv.301; IV.1S4 (vede 
^ adhiyitva C), 477 (sajjhayitva C); V1.213; Miln 164. 

AdhJCCa'2 ("— ) [Sk. »adhrtya, a -f «dhicca, ger. of dhf, 
cp. dhara, dharana 3, dhareti 4] unsupported, uncaused, 
fortuitous, without cause or reason; in foil, phrases: 
"apattika quilly without intention M 1.443; "uppatti 
spontaneous origin DhsA 238 ; "laddba obtained without 
being asked for, unexpectedly Vv 84*^ ^= J v. 171 = 
VI 315 (expl'l at J V.171 by ahetuna, at VI.316 by aka- 

ranena) "^samuppanna arisen without a cause, spontaneous, 
unconditioned D 1.28 = Ud 69; D 111.33, 138; S 11.223 
(sukhadukkhai)); A m.440 (id.); Ps 1.155; DA 1.118 
(=: akarana"). 

AdhicCa' (adj.) [= adhicca 2 in adj. function, influenced 
by, homonym abhabba] without a cause (for assumption), 
unreasonable, unlikely S v. 457. 

AdhijegUCCha (nt.) [adhi -|- jeguccha] intense scrupulous 
regard (for others) D 1.174, 176- 

Adhitthaka (adj.) (— °) [fr. adhitthati] bent on, given to, 

addicted to J v.427 (sura°). 

Adhltthati (adhitthahati) [Sk. adhitisthati, adhi + stha] 
I. to stand on J 111.278 (ger. °aya); DhA IV.183 (ger. 
°hitva); fig. to insist on Th I, 1 131 (aor. "ahi). — 2. 
to concentrate or fix one's attention on (c. ace), to 
direct one's thoughts to, to make up one's mind, to wish 
Vin I. II 5 (inf. °thatur]), 297 (id.), 125 (grd. °thatabba) 
J 1.80 (aor. °ahi); 111.278; iv.i34 (v. 1. ali° C. expls- 
abhibhavitva titlhati); DhA 1.34; IV.201 (ger. °hitvS); 
PvA 23 (aor. ''thasi) 171 (id.), 75 (ger. "hitva). On ad- 
hittheyya see Cftf. 209, n. 2; 219, n. I. — 3. to under- 
take, practice, perform, look after, to celebrate S 11.17; 
A 1.1 1 5 sq. ; J 1.50; PvA 209 (ger. °thaya). — pp. ad- 
hitthita (q. v.). 

Adhitthana (nt.) [fr. adhi -(- stha] l. decision, resolution, 
self determination, will (cp. on this meaning C/ni. 62) 
D 111.229 (where 4 are enum^-, viu. paiina", sacca" caga° 
upasama°); J 1.23; V.174; Ps 1.108; 11.171 sq., 207; 
DhsA 166 (cp. V/is. its/. 44). — 2. mentioned in bad 
sense with abhinivesa and anusaya, obstinacy, prejudice 
and bias M 1.136; 111.31, 240; S 11.17;, 135, 
194. — As adj. ( — °) applying oneself to, bent on A 
111.363. — 3. looking after, management, direction, power 
Miln 309 ^devanaI)); Pv.\ 141 (so read for adhitatthana). 
[aditthana as PvA 89, used as explanatory for avasa, 
should perhaps be read adhitthana in the sense of fixed, 
permanent, abode], 

Adhitthayaka (adj.) ( — °) superintending, watching, looking 
after, in kamma^ Mhvs 5, 175; 30, 98; kammanta° 
DhA 1.393. 

Adhit^hita (adj.) [pp. of adhitthSti] I. standing on (c. loc), 
esp. with the idea of standing above, towering over Vv 
63-"' (hemaraihe a. =^ sakalaij th.anari abhibhavitva thila 
VvA 269). — (a) looked after, managed, undertaken, 
governed Vin 1.57; S v. 278 (sv'adhitthita); PvA 141 
(kammanta). — (b) undertaking, bent on (c. ace.) Sn 820 

Adhideva [adhi -|- deva] a superior or supreme god, above 
the gods M 11.132; A iv.304; Sn 1148; Nd^ 307'', 422 a. 
Cp. atideva. 

Adhipa [Sk. adhipa, abbrev. of adhipati] ruler, lord, master 
J 11.369; 111.324; V.393; Pv ii.8« (jan° king); Davs 111.52; 
VvA 314. 

Adhlpaka (adj.) (— ") [fr. prec] mastering, ruling or 
governed, influenced by (cp. adhipati) A 1.150 (alta° 
loka" dhamma"). 

Adhipajjati [adhi -|- pajjati] to come to, reach, attain A 
IV. 96 (anatthaij); pp. adbipanna. 

Adhipanna (f) [adhi -(- paiiua] higher wisdom or know- 
ledge, insight (cp. jhana & pafina); usually in comb"' 
with adhicitta & adhisila Vin I.70; D 1.174; IH-219 
("sikkha); A 1240; 11.92 sq., 239; 111.106 sq., 327; 
IV.360; Nd' 39 (id.); Ps 1.20, 25 sq., 45 sq., 169; II.II, 
244; Pug 61. 




Adhipatati [adhi + P^'ati] to fly past, vanish J iv.iil(=: 
aliviya patati sighai) aiikkamati C). — Caus. adhipateti 
(q. V.) in dilT. meaning. Cp also adhipata. 

Adhlpatana (nt.) [fr. adhipatati] attack, pressing ThA 271. 

Adhipati (n.-adj.) [adhi -f pati, cp. adhipa] 1. ruler, master 
J 1V.223; Vv 81'; Miln 388; Dh.\ 1.36 (= settha). — 
2. ruling over, governing, predominant; ruled or governed 
by Vbh 216 sq. (chandaij adhipatii] katva making energy 
predominant); DhsA 125, 126 (atta° autonomous, loka° 
heteronomous, influenced by society). See also Dhs. Irsl. 
20 & Cpd. 60. 

Adhipateyya (nt.) A 1.147; 11133 = 5 IV.275 is probably 
misreading for adhipateyya. 

Adilipatthita [pp. adhi -)- patlheti, cp. Sk. abhi + arthayati] 
desired, wished, begged for D 1. 1 20. 

Adhipanna [cp. Sk. abhipanna, adhi + pad] gone into, 
affected with, seized by ( — °), a victim of (c. loc.) S 1.72, 
Th 2, 345 (kamesu); Sn 1 123 (tanha" = tanhanugata Nd^ 
32); Dh 288; J 111.38, 369; IV.396; V.91, 379(=dosena 
ajjhotthata); vi.27. 

Adtlipatlmoklcha (nt.) [adhi + patimokkha] the higher, 
moral, code Vin v. I (patim° -J-); M 11.245 (+ ajjhajiva). 

Adhipata' [adhipateti] splitting, breaking, only in phrase 
muddba° head-splitting Sn 988 sq., 1004, 1025 (v. 1. 
Nd-i °vipata). 

Adhipata^ [from adhipatati = Sk. atipatati, to fly past, flit] 
a moth Su 964. Expld- at Nd' 484 as "adhipatika ti ta 
uppatitva khadanti taqkarana a. vuccanti"; Ud 72 (expW- 
by C. as salabha). 

Adhipatilca (f.) [fr. adhipata'] a moth, a mosquito Nd' 
484 (see adhipata'). 

Adhipateti [Caus. fr. adhipatati, cp. Sk. abhipatayati & P. 
atipateti] to break, split J iv.337 (= chindati). At Ud 8 
prob. to be read adhibadheti (v. 1. avibadeti. T. adhipateti). 

Adhlppagharati [adhi -f ppa ■\- gharati] to flow, to trickle 
ThA 284. 

Adhippaga 3 sg. aor. of adbippagacchati to go to J v. 59. 

Adhippaya [adhi + ppa-]- i» Sk. abhipraya] I. intention, 
wish desire S 1. 124; v.108; A 11.81; 111.363 (bhoga°); 
V.65 ; J 1.79, 83; Sdhp 62. As adj. (— •") desiring PvA 
226 (hass° in play = khiddalthika). — 2. sense, meaning, 
conclusion, inference (cp. adhigama) Miln 148; PvA 8, 
16, 48, J31 (the moral of a story), -adhippayena (instr.) 
in the way of, like PvA 215 (kil for fun). 

AdhippayOSa [adhi -f- payosa] distinction, difference, pe- 
culiarity, special meaning M 146; S 111.66; iv.208; A 
1.267; IV.158; V.48 sq. 

Adhippeta [Sk. abhipreta, adhi -|- ppa + i, lit. gone into, 
gone for; cp. adhippaya] I. desired, approved of, agree- 
able D 1. 120; 11.236; Vv.\ 312, 315. — 2. meant, under- 
stood, intended as J IH.263; P^A 9, 80, 120, 164. 

Adhippetatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. adhippeta] the fact of being 
meant or understood as, in abl. ^a with reference to, as 
is to be understood of VvA 13; PvA 52. 

Adhibadheti [adhi -f badheti, cp. Sk. abhibadhayati] to 
vex, oppress, gore (to death) Ud 8 (T. adhipateti, v. 1. 

Adhibrahma [adhi -)- Brahma, cp. atibrahma] a superior 
Brahma, higher than Brahma M II. 1 32. 

Adhibhavati [adhi -f- bhavati, cp. Sk. & P. abhibhavati] to 
overcome, overpower, surpass S IV.185 sq. (cp. adhibha); 

A V.248, 282 ("bhoti); J n.336; V.30. — aor. adhibhavi 
J ll.8o. 3. pi. adhibbaijsu S iv.185. See also ajjhabhavi 
& ajjhabhu pp. adhibhuta (q. v.). 

Adhibhasati [adhi -f- bhasati] to address, to speak to; aor. 
ajjhabhasi Vin 11. 195; S 1.103; iv.117; Sn p. 87; PvA 
56, 90. 

Adhibhu (adj.) (— °) [fr. adhi -f bhu, cp. adhibhavati & 
Sk. adhibhu] overpowering, having power over; master, 
conqueror, lord S IV.186 (anadhibhQ not mastering. For 
adhibhuta the v. 1. abhi° is to be preferred as more 
usual in this connection, see abhibhu); Sn 684 (miga" ; 
v. I. abhi"). 

Adhibhuta [cp. adhibhu & adhibhuta] overpowered S iv.186. 

Adhimatta (adj.) [adhi -f matta of mS] extreme, exceeding, 
ext.iaordinary; nt. adv. "i] extremely M 1.152, 243; S i\'. 
160; k 11.150; IV.241; J 1.92; Pug 15; Miln 146, 189, 
274, 290; Pv II. 3» (= adhikatarar) PvA 86); DhA 11.8$; 
cp. PvA 281, 

Adhimattata (nt.) [abslr. fr. prec] preponderance A 11.150; 
DhsA 334 (cp. Dhs. irsl. 200). 

Adhimana (n.-adj.) [adhi -\- mano] (n.) attention, direction 
of mind, concentration Sn 692 (adhimanasa bhavatha). — 
(adj.) directing one's mind upon, intent (on) J iv.433 
(:= pasannacitta); v.29 (an°; v.l. °mana). 

Adhimana [adhi -|- mana] undue estimate of oneself M 
11.252; A V.162 sq. 

Adhimanilta (adj.) [fr. adhimana] having undue confidence 
in oneself, conceited A V 162, 169, 317; DhA mill. 

AdhimuCCati [Pass, of adhi -f muc] I. to be drawn to. 
feel attached to or inclined towards, to indulge in (c. loc.) 
S 111.225; IV. 185 ; A iv,24, 145 sq., 460; v.17; Pug 63. — 

2. to become settled, to make up one's mind as to (with 
loc), to become clear about Vin 1.209 (aor. "raucci); D 
1. 106; S 1. 116 (pot. °mucceyya); It 43; DA 1.275. — 

3. to take courage, to have faith Sn 559; Miln 234; DA 
1. 214, 316; J IV.272; V.103 ; DhH 1.196; 111.258; IV. 1 70. — 

4. of a spirit, to possess, to enter into a body, with loc. 
of the body. A late idiom for the older anvavisati. J 
IV.172; v.103, 429; L*hA 1.196; 111.258; IV. 170. — 
pp. adhimuccita and adhimutta. — Caus. adhimoceti 
to inpline to (trs.); to direct upon (with loc.) S v. 409 
(cittai) devesu a.). 

AdhlmUCCana (nt.) [fr. adhi -)- muc] making up one's mind, 
I confidence I)hs.\ 133, 190. 

Adhimuccita & Adhimucchita (pp.) [cither adhi -f muc 

or murch; it would seem more probable to connect it 
with the former (cp. adhimuccati) and consider all vv. 11. 
°mucchita as spurious; but in view of the credit of several 
passages we have to assume a regular analogy-form "muc- 
chila, cp. mucchati and see also JPTS 1886, 109] 
drawn towards, attached to, infatuated, indulging in (with 
loc.) M 11.223 (an"); S 1.113; Th l, 732 (v.l. "muccita), 
923 (cch), 1175; J 11.437 (cch); 111.242; v.255 (kamesu 
"mucchita, v. 1. '^muccita). Cp. ajjhomucchita. 

AdhimuCCitar [n. ag. of adhimuccati] one who determines 
for something, easily trusting, giving credence A HI. 165 
(v. I. °mucchita). 

Adhimutta (adj.) [pp. of adhimuccati, cp. BSk. adhimukta. 
Av. ^ 1.8, 112; Divy 49, 302 etc.] intent upon ( — " or 
with loc. or ace), applying oneself to, keen on, inclined 
to, given to Vin 1.183; A v.34, 38; Dh 226; Sn 107 1, 
1149 (°cilta); NdJ 33; J 1.370 (dan") Pug 26; PvA 
134 (dan°). 

Adhimutti (f.) [adhi -) niulti] resolve, intention, disposition 
D 1. 174; A V.36; Ps 1.124; Miln 161, 169; Vbh 340, 
341; DA 1.44, 103; Sdhp 378. 




Adhlmuttika (adj.) [= adhimutta] inclined to, attached to, 
bent on S JI.154, 158; It 70; Vbh 339 sq. + ta (f.) 
inclination D 1.2. 

Adhlmokkha [fr. adhi -|- mUC] firm resolve, determination, 
decision M 111.25 sq.; Vbh 165 sq., 425; DhsA 145, 264. 
See Dhs. trsl. 5; Cpd. 17, 40, 95. 

Adhiyita see adUlyati. 

Adhiroha [fr. adhi + ruh] ascent, ascending; in dur" hard 
to ascend Miln 322. 

Adhlvacana (nt.) [adhi -f vacana] designation, term, attri- 
bute, metaphor, metaphorical expression D 11.62; M 1. 113, 
144, 460; A 11.70, 124; m.310; IV.89, 285, 340; It 15, 
114; Sn p. 218; J 1.117; Nd2 34 = Dhs 1306 (= nama 
sankha paniiatti etc.); Vbh 6; PvA 63. See on term 
Dhs. Irs I. 340. 

-patha "process of synonymous nomenclature" (Mrs. 
Rh. D.) D 11.68; S 111.7 1 ; Dhs 1306: DhsA 51. 

Adhivattati [adhi + vattati] to come on, proceed, issue, 
result S l.ioi ; A 11.32. 

Adhivattha (adj.) [pp. of adhivasati] inhabiting, living in 
(c. loc.) Vin 1.28; S 1. 197; J 1.223; "385; 111.327; PvA 
17. The form adhivuttha occurs at J vi.37o. 

Adhlvara (adj.) [adhi -\- vara] superb, excellent, surpassing 
Vv i63 (an° unsurpassed, unrivalled; VvA 80 :^ adhilca, 

Adhlvasa [fr. adhi -f vas] endurance, forbearance, holding 
out; only as adj. in dur° difficult to hold out Th I, iii. 

Adhivasaka (& "ilea) (adj.) [fr. adhlvasa] willing, agree- 
able, enduring, patient Vin iv.130;, 526; An.iiS; 
111.163; V.132; J 111.369 (an''); iv.ii, 77. 

Adhivasana (nt.) [fr. adhi -f- vas] I assent A 111.31; DhA 
1-33- ~- 2. forbearance, endurance M; J 11.237; 
111.263; IV.307; V.174. 

Adhivasanata (f.) [abstr. fr. adhivasana] patience, endurance, 
Dhs 1342; Vbh 360 (an°). 

Adhivaseti [Caus. of adhivasat., cp. BSk. adhivasayati in 
meaning of 3] i. to wait for (c. ace.) J 1.254; 11.352; 
in.277. — 2. to have patience, bear, endure (c. ace.) D 
11.128, 157; J 1.46; H1.2S1 (pahSre); IV.279, 407; V.51, 
200; VvA 336, 337. _ 3. to consent, agree, give in 
Vin 1.17; D 1.109 (cp. DA 1.277); S iv 76; DhA 1.33; 
PvA 17, 20, 75 and freq. passim. — Caus. adhivasapeti 
to cause to wait J 1.254. 

Adhivaha [fr. adhi -f- vah; cp. Sk. abhivahati] a carrier, 
bearer, adj. bringing S iv.70 (dukkha°); A 1.6; Th 1,494. 

Adhlvahana (nt -adj.) [fr. adhi + vah] carrying, bringing, 
bearing Sn 79; f. "i Th I, 519. 

Adhivlmuttatta (nt.) = adhivimokkhatta & adhimulti, i. e. 
propensity, the fact of being inclined or given to J v. 254 
(T. kamadhivimuttita, v. 1. °muttata). 

Adhivimokkhatta (nt.) = adhimokkha ; being inclined to 
DhsA 261. 

Adhlvutti (f.) [adhi -\- vutti, fr. adhi -f- vaC, cp. Sk. abhi- 
vadati] expression, saying, opinion; only in tt. adhivutti- 
pada (v. 1. adhimutti-p. at all passages) D 1.13 (explJ- 
by adhivacana-pada DA 1.103); M 11.228; A v.36. 

Adhivuttha see adhivattha. 

Adhisayana (nt.-adj.) [fr. adhiseti] lying on or in, inhabiting 
PvA 80 (maiicaq). 

Adhisayita [pp. of adhiseti] sat on, addled (of eggs) Vin 
111.3; S 111.153. 

Adhlsila (nt.) [adhi + sila] higher morality, usually in 
threefold set of adbicitta-sikkha, adhipanna° adhisl'la" 
Vin 1.70; D 1.174; 111-219; A 111.133; IV.25; DhA 1.334; 
PvA 207. See also adhicitta, sikkha & slla. 

Adhiseti [adhi + seti] to lie on, sit on, live in, to follow, 
pursue Dh 41 : Sn 671 (= gacchati C.) — pp. adhisayita. 

Adhina (adj.) ( — '^) [cp. Sk. adhlna] subject, dependent 
D 1.72 (atta° & para°); J iv.112; DA 1.217; also writ- 
ten adhlna J v.350. See also under para. 

Adhiyatl & adhiyati [Med. of adhi -j- J, 1st sg. adhiye 
taken as base in Pali] to study, lit. to approach (cp. 
adhigacchati); to learn by heart (the Vedas & other 
Sacred Books) Vin 1.270; S 1.202 (dhamniapadani); J 
IV. 184 (adhiyitva), 496 (adhiyamana) ; vi.458; DhA 111.446 
(adhryassu). — ger. adhiyitva J iv.75 ; adhiyanar) J v.450 
(= sajjhayitva C.) & adhicca : see adhicca 2 ; pp. adhi- 
yita D 1.96. 

Adhuna (adv.) [Vedic adhuna] just now, quite recently 

D 11.208; Vin 11.185 (kalakata); Miln 155; Davs 11.94. 

-agata a new comer M 1.457; J "105. -abbisitta 

newly or just anointed D 11.227. -uppanna just arisen 

D 11.208, 221. 

Adhura (nt.) [a -f- dhura, see dhura 2] irresponsibility, 
indifference to oblihations J IV.241. 

Adho (adv.) [Vedic adhah ; compar. adharah ;= Lat. inferus, 
Goth, undar, E. under, Ind. *ndher-; superl. adhamah = 
Lat. infimus] below, usually combd- or contrasted with 
uddbai] "above" and tiriyarj "across" , describing the 
3 dimensions. — uddhai) and adho above and below, 
marking zenith & nadir. Thus with uddhaq and the 4 
bearings (disa) and intermediate points (anudisa) at S 
1.122; III. 124; A 1V.167; with uddhai) & tiriyar) at Sn 
•50i 537) I055i 1068. Expld- at KhA 248 by heltha and 
in detail (dogmatically & speculatively^ at Nd^ 155. For 
further ref. see uddhaq. The comp"- form of adho before 
vowels is adh°. 

-akkhaka beneath the collar-bone Vin iv.2i3. -agga 
with the points downward (of the upper row of teeth) 
J V.I 56 (-|- uddh° expld. by uparima-danta C). -kata 
tuined down, or upside down J 1.20 ; vi.298. -gata gone 
by, past. Adv. "r^ since (cp. uddhai] adv. later or after) 
J VI. 1 87 (ito masar) adhogataij since one month ago). 
-gala (so read for T. udho°) down the throat PvA 104. 
-mukha head forward, face downward, bent over, upturned 
Vin 11.78; M 1.132, 234: Vv 16' (^ hettha mukha VvA 
78). -bhaga the lower part (of the body) M 1.473; DhA 
1.148. -virecana action of a purgative (opp. uddha° of 
an emetic) D 1.12; DA 1.98 (=: adho dosanaij niharanar)); 
DhsA 404. -sakhai) (-)- uddhamulari) branches down (& 
roots up, i. e. uprooted) DhA 1.75. -sira (adj.) head down- 
ward J IV. 194. -sirai) (adv.) with bowed head (cp. avay- 
sirai]) J VI. 298 (= siraq adhokatv.^ hetthamukho C). -sisa 
(adj.) head first, headlong J 1.233; v.472 ("ka). 

An- form of the neg. prefix a-before vowels. For negatives 
beginning with an' see the positive. 

Ana- negative prefix, contained in anappameyya, (Th i, 
1089), anamatagga & anabhava. See Vinaya Texts. 11. 113. 

Anajjhittha (adj.) [an -j- ajjhittha] uncalled, unbidden, un- 
asked Vin 1. 113; Pv 1.12' (T. anabbhita, v. 1. anijjhiltha; 
J 111.165 has anavhata; Th 2, 129 ayacita; PvA 64 
expK by anavhata). 

Anabhava [ana -f- bhava] the utter cessation of becoming. 
In the oldest Pali only in adj. form anabhavai) kata or 
gata. This again found only in a siring of four adjectives 
together expressing the most utter destruction. They are 
used at Vin 111.3 of had qualities, at S 11.63 of certain 
wrong opinions, at M 1487; S IV. 62 = v.527 of the 
khandas, at M 1.33 1 of the Mental Intoxications (Asavas), 
at A IV.73 of certain tastes, of a bad kamma A 1. 135, of 
evil passions A 1.137, 184, 218; 11.214 of pride A 11.4 1, 




of craving A n.249, of the bonds A IV. 8. In the sup- 
plement to the Digha (D in. 326) and in the Iti-vuttaka 
(p. 115) a later idiom, anabhavar) gameti, cause to perish, 
is used of evil thoughts. Bdhgh (quoted Vin 111.267) reports 
as V. I. anubhava. Cp. Nd 1.90; and Nd* under pahina. 

Anabbhlta (adj.) [an + abbhita] not restored, not to be 
restored Vin iv.242; Pv 1. 12'' (where reading prob. faulty 
& due to a gloss; the id. p. at Th 2, 129 has ayacita 
& at J III. 165 anavhata; PvA 64 expls- by anavhata, 
V. 1. anabbhita). 

Anabhunnatata (f-) [an + abbhunnata -\- la] the state of 
not being erect, i.e. hanging down J v.156. 

Anabhljjha (f-) [an -|- abhijjha] absence of covetousness 
or desire D 111.229, 269; Dhs 32, 35, 277. 

Anabhijjhalu (adj.) [an -f- abhijjhalQ] not greedy or covetous 
D 111.82; Pug 40. 

Anabhijjhita (adj.) [an + abhijjhita] not desired Sn 40 (cp. 
Nd'^ 38); Vv 4?* (= na abhikankhita VvA 201). 

Anabhlnandatl etc. see abhi° etc. 

Anabhirata (adj.) [an -(- abhirata] not taking delight in J 
1.61 (naccadisu). 

Anabhirati (f.) [an -|- abhirati] not delighting in, dissatis- 
faction, discontent D 1. 17 (-|- paritassana); 111.289; J '"• 
395; DA I. III. 

Anabhiraddha (adj.) [an + abhiraddha] in anger Vin IV.236. 

AnabhiraddhI (f) [an -f abhiraddhi] anger, wrath D 1.3 
(= kopass'etai) adhivacanaij DA 1.52). 

Anabhisambhuijaniana (adj.) [ppr. med. of an -)- abhisam- 
bhunati] not obtaining, unable to get or keep up D l.ioi 
(= asampSpunanto avisahamano va DA 1.268). 

Anamatagga (adj.) [ana (= a neg.) -f mata (fr. man) + 
agga (pi.). So Dhammapala (avidit-agga ThA 289); Na- 
nakitti in Tikg on DhsA 11; Trenckner, Notes 64; Olden- 
berg, K;«. Texts 11.114. Childers takes it as an + amata -f 
agga, and Jacobi {Erzdhl. 33 and 89) and Pischel {Gram. 
§ 251) as a -f- namat (fr. nam) -f agga. It is Sanskritired 
at Divy 197 by anavaragra, doubtless by some mistake. 
Weber, /nd. Sir. 111. 150 suggests an -f- amrta, which does 
not suit the context at all]. Ep. of Samsara 'whose be- 
ginning and end are alike unthinkable", i. e., without 
beginning or end. Found in two passages of the Canon : 
S 11.178, 187 sq. = 111.149, •$' = V.226, 441 (quoted 
Kvu 29, called Anamatagga-pariyaya at DhA 11.268) and 
Th 2, 495, 6. Later references are Nd^ 664; PvA 166; 
DhA III; II. 13, 32; Sdhp 505. [Cp. anamata and ama- 
tagga, and cp. the English idiom "world without end". 
The meaning can best be seen, not from the derivation 
(which is uncertain), but from the examples quoted above 
from the Samyulta. According to the Yoga, on the con- 
trary (see e.g., Woods, Yoga-system of Putanjali, 1 19), 
it is a possible, and indeed a necessary quality of the 
Yogi, to understand the beginning and end of Samsara]. 

Anamha (adj.) [according to Morris JPTS 1884, 70 = 
ana-niha "unlaughing" wiih ana = an (cp. anabhava & 
anamatagga) and mha from smi, cp. vimhayati = Sk. 
vismayati] being in consternation or distress, crying J III. 
223 ("kale = arodana-kale C). 

Anaya [a -j- naya] misfortune, distress Miln 277, usually 
combd- with vyasana (as also in BSk, e. g. Jtm 215) 
Vin U.199; S IV. 159; A v.156; Miln 292; VvA 327; 
Sdhp 362. 

Anaiiya (adj.) [an -|- ariya, see also anariya] not Aiyan, 
ignoble, low Vin 1.10 ; D HI. 232 (°vohara, 3 sets of 4; 

the same at Vin v. 125); Sn 664, 782 (°dhamma); Pug 
13. — See ariya. 

Anala (adj.) [an -f- ala] i- not sufficient, not enough; un- 
able, impossible, unmanageable M 1455; J 11326 = IV. 
471. — 2. dissatisfied, insatiate J v. 63 (= atilta C). — 
3. °i) kata dissatisfied, satiated, S 1.15 (kamesu). 

Anavaya (adj.) [derivation doubtful. See Trenckner Pall 
Misc. 65J not lacking, complete in (loc), fulfilling D 1.88 
(_= anuna paripura-karin DA 1.248); A 111.152 (= samatta 
paripunna A A quoted by Tr. on Miln 10). 

AnaVOSita (atlj-) [an + avosita ; or ana -j- avosita = avusita ?] 
unfulfilled, undone Th 1, 101. 

Anasana (nt.) [an -|- asana, cp. Sk. an-asana] not eating, 
fasting, hunger D ni.75 & in same context at Sn 311 
(= khuda SnA 324). 

Anasitvana [ger. of an + asati] without eating, fasting 

Anasuyyag [Sk. anasuyan, ppr. of an + asuyati] not grum- 
bling J 111.27 (v. 1. for anusuyyaq T.). 

Anasuropa [.in -f- asuropa] absence of abruptness Dhs 1341. 

Anasuyaka (adj.) [Sk. anasuyaka, cp. usuya not grumbling, 
not envious J 11.192. 

Anassaka (adj.) either an-assaka or a-nassaka (q. v.). 

AnaSSana (nt.) [a 4- nassana, nas; cp. Sk. nasan.a] im- 
perishableness, freedom from waste J IV.168. 

Anassavin (a^'j-) [an -f assavin; cp. assava -f- asava] not 
intoxicated, not enjoying or finding pleasure in Sn 853 
(satiyesu a. = satavatthusa kamagunesu tanhasanthava- 
virahita SnA 549). 

Anassasika (adj.) [an -f- assSsa -f- ika; cp. Sk. asvasana & 
BSk. anasvSsika Divy 207] not consoling, discouraging, 
not comforting M 1.514; S 11.191. 

AnasSUf) 1^' sq, pret. of anusuyati (= Sk. anvasruvaq) I 
have heard M 1.393. 

Anagata (adj.) [an -f- agata] not come yet, i. e. future. On 
usual comb", with atita: see this. D iii.ioo sq., 134 S'j., 
220, 275; M III.188 sq.; S 1.5; 11.283; A III. 100 sq., 400; 
Sn 3>8, 373,851; 1153; J1V.159; VI.364; Dhs 1039, 1416. 

Anagamana (nt.) [an -f agamana] not coming, not returning 
j I 203, 264. 

Anagamita (f.) [anagamin -|- ta] the state or condition of 
an Anagamin S v. 129, 181, 285; A III. 82 ; v.108, 300 sq. ; 
Sn p. 140= A 111.143; It • sq., 39, 40. 

Anagamin (adj.-n.) [an -j- Sgamin] one who does not return, 
a Never-Returner, as tt. designating one who has attained 
the 3fJ stage out of four in the breaking of the bonds 
(Saqyojanas) which keep a man tack from Arahantship. 
So near is the Anagamin to the goal, that after death 
he will be reborn in one of the highest heaven and there 
obtain Arahantship, never returning to rebirth as a man. 
But in the oldest passages referring to these 4 stages, 
the description of the third does not use the word ana- 
gamin (D 1.156; 11.92; 111.107; M 11.146) and anSgSmin 
does not mean tlie breaking of bonds, but the cultivation 
of certain specified good habits (S III. 168, the 
anatta doctrine; S v. 200-2, the five Indriyas ; A 1.64; 
1.200, cultivation of good qualities, 11163; v. 86, 17I = 
S 149). We have only two cases in the canon of any 
living persons being called anagamin. Those are at S 
v. 177 and 178. The word there means one who has 
broken the lower five of the ten bonds, & the indivi- 
duals named are laymen. At D 11.92 nine others, of 




whom eight are laymen, are declared after their death 
to have reached the third stage (as above) during life, 
but they are not called anagamins. At It 96 there are 
only 3 stages, the worldling, the Anagamin, and the 
Arahant; and the Saqyojanas are not referred to. It is 
probable that already in the Nikaya period the older, 
wider meaning was falling into disuse. The Abhidhamma 
books seem to refer only to the Saijyojaaa explanation ; 
the commentaries, so far as we know them, ignore any 
other. See Ps 11.194; Kv. Tr. 74; Dhs. Tr. 302 n; Cp. 69. 
-phala fruition of the state of an Anagamin ; always 
in comhn- sotapatti° sakadagami" anagami° arahatta" Vin 
1.293; 11-240; IV. 29; D 1.229; "•227, 255; S 111.168; 
V.411; A 1.23, 44; III.272 sq.; IV.204, 276, 372 sq. 
-magga the path of one who does not return (in rebirths) 
Ndi 569b. 

Anagara & Anagarlya sec agara & agariya. 

Anaghata [an -[- aghata] freedom from anger or ill-will 

\'in 11.249. 

AnaCara [an-j-acara] misconduct, immorality J 11.133; m. 
276; adj. anacarin Pug 57. 

Anajaniya (^dj.) [an -|- ajSnlya] of inferior race, not of 
good blood M 1.367. 

Anadara [an + adara] (a) (m) disrespect Pv.\ 257. — (b.) 
(adj.) disrespectful Sn 247 (= adaravirahita SnA 290). 

Anadarata (f) [abstr. fr. anadara] want of consideration, 
in expin- of dovacassata at Dhs l325:^Vbh 359^ Pug 
30 (where reading is anadariyata). 

Anadariya (nt.) [fr. anadara] disregard, disrespect Vin 
1.176; IV.113 (where expW- in extenso); Dhs 1325 r= 
jug 20 = Vbh 359. 

Anada [ger. of an -f- adiyati] without taking up or on to 
oneself Vin 1V.I20 (= anadiyltva C). 

Anadana (adj.) [an -|- adana] free from attachment (opp. 
sadana) A = It 9 = 109 = Nd* 172^; Sn 620, 741, 
1094; Ndi 41 (where as nt. = tanha); Dh 352 (= khan- 
dhadisu niggahana Dh.\ IV. 70), 396, 406, 421. 

Anaditva [ger- of an -)- adiyati] not taking up, not heeding 
J IV.352 (v. 1. for T. anadiyitva). 

Anadiyitva [ger. of an -}- adiyati, Sk. anadaya] without 
assuming or taking up, not heeding Vin IV. 120; J IV.352; 
DhA 1.41. See also adiyati. 

Ananu- represents the metrically lengthened from of ananu- 
(an + anu), as found e. g. in the foil. cpds. : °tappai) 
(ppr.) not regretting J v.492; °puttha questioned Sn 782 
(= apucchita SnA 521); °yayin mt following or not 
defiled by evil Sn 1071 (explJ- at Nd^ 42 by both 
avedhamana(?) avigacchamana & by ar.njjamana adussam- 
ana); °loma not fit or suitable D 11.273 (v- 1- anu°). 

Anapathagata (adj.) [an -\- apatha + gita] not fallen into 
the way of (the hunter), escaped him M 1. 1 74. 

Anapada (adj.) [an + apada] unmarried (of a woman) J 
IV. 178 (apada = apadana C. ; annehi akata-pariggaha). 

Anapuccha see Spucchati. 

Anabadha (adj.) [an -|- abadha] safe and sound VvA 351. 

Anamata (adj.) [an -|- amata the a being due to metrical 
lengthening] not affected by death, immortal J 11.56 (=: 
asusana-tthaua C); DhA 11.99. 

Anatnanta (° — ) [an -(- amanta] without asking or being 
asked; in °kata unasked, unpermitted, uninvited J Vl.226; 
°cara living uninvited Vin v.132; A 111.259. 

Anamaya (adj.) [an -f- amaya] free from illness, not decaying, 
healthy Vv 151" (= aroga VvA 74), 17'. 

Anamasita (adj.) [an -\- amasita, pp. of amassati] not 
touched, virgin- VvA 113 (°khetta). 

Anamassa (adj.) [grd. of an + amassati, Sk. amasya] not 
to be touched J 11 360 (C. anamasitabba). 

Anayatana (nt.) [an 4- ayatana] nonexertion, not exerting 
oneself, sluggishness, indolence J v. 121 (°sila := dussila C). 

Anayasa (adj.) [an -j- aya -f- sa, or should we read anayasar] 
void of means, unluckly, unfortunate Vv 84^ (= natthi 
ettha ayo sukhan ti anayasai] Vv.\ 335). 

Anayasa (adj.) [an -\- ayasa] free from trouble or sorrow, 
peaceful Th 1, 1008. 

Anarambha [an -f arambha] that which is without moil 
and toil Sn 745 (= nibbana SnA 507). 

Anaradhaka (adj.) [an -|- aradhaka] one who fails, unsuc- 
cessful Vin 1.70. 

Anariya (adj.) [doublet of anariya] not Aryan, ignoble, 
Sn 815 (v. 1. SS. anariya). 

Analamba (adj.) [an -(- alamba] without support (from 
above), unsuspended, not held Sn 173 (+ appatittha; 
expld- at SnA 214 by hettha patitth4bhavena upari alam- 
bhavena ca gambhira). 

Analaya [an -f- alaya] aversion, doing away with Vin 

Ana|hiya & Ana|hika (adj.) [an -f alhiya, Sk. adhya, see 
also addha'-] not rich, poor, miserable, destitute, usually 
combd. with dalidda M 1.450; 11. 1 78 (v. 1. BB. analiya); 
A 111.352 sq. (vv. 11. BB. analhika), 384; J v. 96. 

Anavata (" — ) [an -)-avata] not shut; in °dvarata (f.) not 
closing the door against another, accessibility, openhand 
edness D 111.191. 

Anavattin (adj.-n.) [an + avattin] one who does not return, 
almost syn. with anagamin in phrase anavatti-dbamma, 
one who is not destined to shift or return from one birth 
to another, D 1. 1 56 (cp. DA 1.3 1 3) ; in. 132; Pug 1 6 sq., 62. 

Anavasurai) (adv ) [an + ava -f- sura =: suriya, with ava 

lengthened to ava in verse] as long as the sun does not 

set, before sun-down J v. 56 (= anatthangata-suriyai) C.) 
cp. Sk. utsura. 

Anavasa (adj.-n.) [an -)- avasa] uninhabited, an uninhabited 
place Vin 11.22, 33; J 1177. 

Anavikata etc. see ivikata. 

Anavila (adj.) [an -f- avila] undisturbed, unstained, clean, 
pure D 1.84 (= nikkaddama DA 1.226); 111.269, 270; 
Sn 637 (= nikkilesa SnA 469 =: DhA iv.192); Th 2, 369 
(avilacitta +); Dh 82, 413; ThA 251; Sdhp 479. 

AnaVUttha (adj.) [an -)- avuttha, pp. of avasati] not dwelt 
in D .1130. 

Anasaka (adj.) [an -f- asaka] fasting, not taking food S 
IV. 118. f. °a [cp. Sk. anasaka nt.] fasting, abstaining from 
food Dh 141 (=: bhatta-patikkhepa DhA 111.77). 

Anasakatta (nt.) [abstr. of anasaka]' fasting Sn 249 (= 
abhojana Sn.\ 292). 

Anasava (adj.) [an + asava] free from the 4 intoxications 
(see asava) Vin 11.148=1164; D 111.112; Sn 1105, 1133; 
Dh 94, 126, 386; Nd2 44; It 75; Pug 27, Dhs 1 101, 
1451; Vbh 426; Th I, 100; Pv 11.6*5; VvA 9. See 
Ssava and cp. nirSsava. 




Anasasana (adj.) [an -(- Ssasana] not longing after anything I 
Sn 369 (SnA 365 however reads anasayaoa & has anSsa- 1 
Sana as v. 1. Cp. also vv. 11. to asasSna. Expl'' by kaiici 
rup&di-dhammai] nSsiqsati SnA 365. 

Anahara (adj.) [an -j-ShSra] being without food M 1.487; 
Sn 985. 

Anlkka4<jhana (f.) [a -{- nikkaddhana] not throwing out 
or expelling J m.22. 

Anikkasava (adj.) [a -|~ nikkasava, cp. nikasSva] not free 
from impurity, impure, stained Dh 9 = Th 1, 969 = J 
11.198 = v. 50; DhA 1.82 (= ragSdihi kasavehi sakasSva). 

Anikhata (adj.) [a -|- nikhsta, pp. of nikhanati] not dug into, 
not dug down, not deep J vi.109 {°kula; C. agambhira). 

Anigha see Digha< and igha. 

Aniccha (f.) [an -|- icchS] -dispassion S v.6 ; adj. °a without 
desires, not desiring Sn 707. 

Anlnjana(nt.) [an -|- injana] immobility, steadfastness Ps 1.15. 

Anliijlta (adj.) [an + iiijita] immoveable, undisturbed, un- 
shaken Th I, 386. 

Anltthangata see nitthai. 

Anitthita see nitthita. 

Anltthl (f.) [an + itthi] a woman lacking the characteristics 
of womanhood, a woman ceasing to be a woman, "non- 
woman" J 11.126 (compd with anadi a river without water °, 
interpreted by ucchitth-itthi). 

Anindl- [the comp"- form of ninda] in °locana (with) fault- 
less eyes J vi.265. 

Anindlta (adj.) [a -f nindita] blameless, faultless J iv.106 
(°angin of blameless body or limbs). 

Anibbisat) [ppr. of nibbisati, q. v.] not finding Th I, 78;= 
Dh 153 (= taq napai) avindanto DhA 111. 128). 

Animlsa (adj.) [Ved. animesa, cp. nimisati] not winking, 
waking, watchful Davs v.26 (nayana). 

Aniyata (adj.) [a -j- niyata] not settled, uncertain, doubtful 
Vin 1.112; 11.287; D IU.217. 

Anlyamita (adj.) [pp. of a -j- niyameli] indefinite (as tt. g.) 
VvA 231. 

Anlla [from an, cp. Sk. aniti to breathe, cp. Gr. Hveixof 
wind; Lat. animus breath, soul, mind] wind J IV.119 
(°patha air, sky); Mila 181; VvA 237; Sdhp 594. 

Anirakata (adj.) [a -|- nirSkata] see nirankaroti. 

Anissara (adj.) [an -f issara] without a personal creator 
Th I, 713- 

Anlssukin (adj.) [an -f issukin, see also an-ussukin] not 
hard, not greedy, generous D 111.47 ( 4" amaccharin ; v. 1. 
anussukin); SnA 569 (see under nitthurin). 

Anika (nt.) [Ved. anika face, front, army to Idg. 'og;; (see), 
cp. Gr. '6ttna eye, Lat. oculus, see also Sk. pralika and 
P. akkhi] army, array, troops (orig. "front", i.e. of the 
battle-array) Vin iv.107 (where expH- in detail); Sn 623 
(bala° strong in arms, with strong array i. e. of khanti, 
which precedes; cp. SnA 467). 

-agga a splendid army Sn 421 (= balakaya senSmukha 
SnA 384). -\\bA a .sentinel, royal guard 1) 111.64, '48; 
J v.ioo; VI. 15 ("men on horseback", horseguard); Miln 
234, 264. -dassana troop-inspection D 1.6 (anika° at DA 
1.85, q. V. interpretation); Vin IV.107 (senabyuha -{-). 

Anigha see nigha' and cp. igha. 

Aniti (f.) [an -|- Iti] safety, soundness, sound condition, 
health A IV.238; Miln 323 (abl. °ito). 

Anitika (adj.) [fr. aniti] free from injury or harm, healthy, 
secure Vin II. 79 = 124 (-f- anupaddava) ; III.162; S iv.371 ; 
Sn 1 137 (Iti vuccanti kilesa etc. Nd' 48); Miln 304. 

Anitiha (adj.) [an + itiha, the latter a cpd. der. fr. iti + 
ha = saying so and so, cp. itihasa & itihitihaq] not such 
and such, not based 00 hearsay (itiha), not guesswork or 
(mere) talk A 11.26; Th I, 331 (cp. M 1. 520); Sn 1053 
(=Nd» 49, 151); J 1.456; Nett 166 (cp. It 28). 

Anu' (indecl.) [Vedic anu, Av. anu; Gr. Uvu to 'ova 
along, up ; Av. ana, Goth, ana, Ohg. ana, Ags. on, Ger. 
an, Lat. an (in anbelare etc.)] prep. & pref. — A. As 
/AC/, anu is only found occasionally, and here its old 
(vedic) function with au. is superseded by the /ac. — 
Traces of use w. ncc. may be seen in expressions of time 
like anu pancabai] by 5 days, i. e. after (every) 5 days 
(cp. ved. anu dyun day by day) ; a. vassat] for one year 
or yearly ; a. sar)vaccbarar) id. — (b) More freq. w. 
/oc. (= alongside, with, by) a. tire by the bank S iv.177; 
pathe by the way J v. 302; pariveniyai) in every cell 
Vin 1.80; magge along the road J v.201 ; vate with the 
wind J 11.382. 

B. As /re/. : (a) General character, anu is freq. as 
modifying (directional) element with well-defined meaning 
("along"), as such also as 1" component of pref.-cpds., 
e.g. anu -|- a (anva°), anu + pra (anuppa"), -f- pari, + 
vi, -|- saij. — As base, i. e, 2""' part of a pref.-cpd. it is 
rare and only found in comb" sam-anu". The prefix sag 
is its nearest relation as modifying pref. The opp. of anu 
is pati and both are often found in one cpd. (cp. °loma, 
°vata). (b) Meanings. \. With verbs of motion: "along 
towards". — (a) the motion viewed from the front back- 
ward = after, behind ; esp. with verbs denoting to go, 
follow etc. E.g. °aya going after, connexion; °agacch° 
follow, "kkamati follow, °dhavali run after, °patta received, 
"parivattati move about after, "bandhali run after, °bala 
rear-guard, °bhasati speak after, repeat, °v5da speaking 
after, blame, °vicarati roam about °viloketi look round 
after (survey), "saqcarati proceed around etc. — (b) the 
motion viewed from the back forward = for, towards an 
aim, on to, over to, forward. Esp. in double pref.-cpds. 
(esp. with ''pp8°), e. g. anu-adisati design for, dedicate 
"kankhin longing for, °cintana care for, °titlhati look after, 
°padinna given over to, °pavecchati hand over, °pavittha 
entered into, "pasaijkamati go up to, "rodati cry for, "socati 
mourn for. — II. Witb verbs denoting a state or condi- 
tion: (a) literal: along, at, to, combined with. Often 
resembling E. be- or Ger. be-, also Lat. ad- and con-. 
Thus often transitiving or simply emphatic. E. g. °kampS 
fuwi-passion, "kinpa be-set, ''ganhati take pity on, "gSyati 
be-singen, "jagghati laugh at, belaugh, °ddaya pity with, 
°masati touch u/, "yunjati order along, °yoga devotion /«, 
"rakkhati be-guard, °litta be-smeared or jn-ointed, °vitakheti 
reflect over, °sara con-sequential; etc. — (b) applied: ac- 
cording to, in conformity with. E. g. °kiila being to will, 
"chavika befitting, °nata permitted, a/-lowed, "mati con- 
sent, a-greement, °madati ap-precia;e, °rupa = con-form, 
°vattin acting according to, "ssavana by hearsay, "sasati 
ad-vise, com-mand etc. — III. (a) (fig.) following after = 
second to, secondary, supplemenly, inferior minor after-, 
smaller; e.g. "dhamma lesser morality, "pabbaja disciple- 
ship, "pavattaka ruling after, "bhaga after-share, °majjha 
mediocre, °y5gin assisting in sacrifice, "vyanjana smaller 
marks, etc.; cp. pati in same sense. — (b) distributive 
(cp. A. a.) each, every, one by one, (one after one): "disS 
in each direction, "pancfihaij every 5 days, "pubba one 
after the other. — IV. As one of the contrasting (-com- 
parative) prefixes (see remarks on ati & cp. a') anu often 
occurs in reduplicative cpds. after the style of khuddl- 
nukhuddaka "small and still smaller", i. e. all sorts of 





small items or whatever is small or insigDificant. More 
freq. comb"" are the foil. : (q. v. under each heading) 
padSnupadaij, pubbSnupubbaka, ponkhSnuponkhai], buddhS- 
nubuddha, vadinuvada, setthanusetthi. — V. As regards 
dialectical differences in meanings of prefixes, anu is freq. 
found in Pali where the Sk. variant presents apa (for 
ava), abhi or ava. For P. anu = Sk. (Ved.) apa see 
anuddhasta; = Sk. abhi see anu-gijjhati, °bruheti, °san- 
dahati; =: Sk. ava see anu-kantati , "kassati', °kinpa, 
"gahati, °bujjhati "bodha, ''lokin, °vajja. 

Note (a) anu in comp" is always contracted to °anu°, 
never elided like adhi = Mhi or abhi = 'bhi. The rigid 
character of this rule accounts for forms isolated out of 
this sort of epds. (like mahanubhava), like anupubbikalha 
(fr. 'pubbanupubba"), anubhava etc. We find anu also in 
comb", with an- under the influence of metre. — (b) the 
assimilation (contracted) fdrm of anu before vowels is anv". 

Anu'^ (adj.) subtile; freq. spelling for anu, e.g. D 1.223' 
Sdhp 271, 346 (anui) thulai]). See anu. 

Anukankhin (adj.) [fr. anu + kank$] striving after, longing 
for J V.499 (piya°). 

Anukantatl [anu + kantali^] to cut Dh 311 (hatthai) = 
phaleti Dh.\ 111.484). 

Anukampaka & °ika (adj.) [fr. anukampati] kind of heart, 
merciful, compassionate, full of pity ( — ° or c. loc.) D 
111.187; S 1. 105 (loka°), 197; V.157; A IV.265 sq.; It 
66 (sabba-bhata°) ; Pv 1.3' (=: kSrunika PvA 16), $' (= 
atthakama, hitesin PvA 25), 8^; ii.i* (r= anuggaijhataka 
PvA 69), 2'; ThA 174; PvA 196 (sattha sattesu a.). 

Anukampati [anu -\- kampati] to have pity on, to com- 
miserate, to pity, to sympathise with (c. ace.) S 1.82, 206; 
V.189. Imper. anukampa Pv 11. i" (== anuddayaij karohi 
PvA 70) & anukampassu Pv 111.28 (:^ anugganha PvA 
181). Med. ppr. anukampamana Sn 37 (= anupekkha- 
mana anugayhamana Nd- 50): PvA 35 (>ar|), 62 (pitarai)), 
104. — pp. anukampita (q. v.). 

Anukampana (nt.) [fr. last] compassion, pity FvA 16, 88. 

Anukampa (f-) [abstr. fr. anukampati] compassion, X'''>'i 
mercy D 1.204; M 1.161; 11.113; S 1.206; 11.274 (loka°); 
IV.323; V.259 sq.; A 1.64, 92; 11.1^59; III-49: IV.I39; 
Pug 35- — Often in abl. anukampaya out of pity, for 
the sake of D III. 21 1 (loka° ont of compassion for all 
mankind, -f- atthaya hitaya); J 111.280; PvA 47, 147. 

Anukampita (adj.) [pp. of anukampati] compassioned, gra- 
tified, remembered, having done a good deed (of mercy) 
Pv 1II.23». 

Anukampin (adj.) [cp. anukampaka] compassionate, anxious 
for, commiserating. Only in foil, phrases : hita° full of 
solicitude for the welfare of S v. 86 ; Sn 693 ; Pv 1II.7'''. 
sabbapa^a-bhuta-hita" id. S iv.314; A 11.210; 111.92; 
IV.249; Pug 57, 68. sabba-bhata° S 1.25, 110; A 11.9; 
It 102. 

AnukarOtl [anu -f kr] to imitate, "to do after"' A 1.212; 
J 1.491 ; 11.162; DhA IV. 197. — ppr. anukabbai] Vin 
11.201 (mam&°). — Med. anukubbati S 1.19 = J iv.65. — 
See also anukubba. On anvakSsi see anukassati 2. 

AnukaSSatl [anu -|- kassati, kf$] i. [Sk. anukarsati] to draw 
after, to repeat, recite, quote D 11.255 (silokaq). — 2. 
[Sk. ava-karsati] to draw or take of, to remove, throw 
down, Th I, 869 (aor. anvakasl = khipi, chaddesi C). 

Anukama (adj.) [anu -f- kama] responding to love, loving 
in return J II.157. 

Anukdra [cp, anukaroli] imitation Dpvs v.39. 

Annkarin (adj.) imitating Davs v. 32. 

AnuklpQa [pp. of anu + kirati] strewn with, beset with, 
dotted all over Pv iv.12' (bhamara-gaija°). 

Anukubba (adj.) ( — °) \= Sk. anukurvat, ppr. of anu- 
karoti] "doing correspondingly" giving back, retaliating 
J 11.205 (kicca°). 

Anukubbati see anukaroti. 

Anukula freq. spelling for anukula. 

Anukulaka (adj.) = anukula Sdhp 242 (iccha° according 
to wish). 

Anukula (adj.) [anu -f- kula, opp. patikula] favourable, 
agreeable, suitable, pleasant VvA 280; spelt anukula at 
Sdhp 297, 312. 

-bhava complaisance, willingness VvA 71. -yanna a 
propitiative sacrifice D 1.144 (expH- at DA 1.302 as anu- 
kula" = sacrifice for the propagation of the clan). 

AnukkaiJ^hati [an 4- ukkanthati] not to be sorry or not to 

lack anything, in ppr. "^anto J; and pp. °ita without 
regret or in plenty PvA 13. 

Anukkaothana (nt.) [an -\- ukkanthana] having no lack 
anything, being contented or happy J VI.4. 

Anukkama [to anukkamati] t. order, turn, succession, going 
along: only in instr. anukkamena gradually, in due 
course or succession J 1. 157, 262, 290; VvA 157; PvA 
5, 14, 35 etc. — 2. that which keeps an animal in (legular) 
step, i. e. a bridle M 1.446 ; Sn 622 (sandanai) saha°). 

Anukkamati [anu + kram] 1. to follow, go along (a path 
= ace.) A v. 195 ; It 80 (maggaq). — 2. to advance (not 
with Morris J P T S. 1886, III as "abandon") S I.24, 
Th I, 194. 

Anukkhlpatl [anu -|- khipati] to throw out Cp. XI.6 (vattag). 

Anukkhepa [anu -|- khepa, see anukkhipati] compensation 
Vin 1.285. 

Anukha^atl [anu -f- khapati] to dig after or further J v.233. 

Anukhuddaka (adj.) [anu -f khuddaka] in cpd. khudda° 
whatever there is of minor things, all less important items 
Vin 11.287 = D 11.154 := Miln 142; Miln 144. 

Anuga ( — °) (adj.-sufr.) [fr. anu -\- gam] following or fol- 
lowed by, going after, undergoing, being in or under, 
standing under the influence of Sn 332 (vasa° in the 
power of), 791 (eja° ^ abhibhiita Sn 527), 1095 (Mara- 
vasa° = abhibhuyya viharanti Nd- 507); It 91 (eja°); 
J III. 224 (vasa'" = vasavatlin C.) ; Mhvs 7, 3. 

AnUgaCChatl [anu + gacchati] to go after, to follow, to 
go or fall into (w. ace.) KhA 223; PvA 141 ("gacchanto); 
aor. "gamasi Vin n6, & anvaga Mhvs 7, lo; y^ pi. 
anvagu Sn 586 (vasaq = vasaij gata SnA 461). Pass, 
anugammati, ppr. anugammamana accompanied or fol- 
lowed by, surrounded, adorned with J 1.53; v.370. — 
pp. anugata (q. v.). 

Anugata (adj.) [pp. of anugacchati] gone after, accompanied 
by, come to; following; fig. fallen or gone into, affected 
with ( — "), being a victim of, suffering M 1.16; D 111.85, 
173 (parisa); A n.185 (sota°, v. 1. anudhata); J 11.292 
(samudda"); v. 369; Nd* 32 (lanha°); PvA 102 (nSmai) 
mayhaq a. has been given to me), 133 (kammaphala°). 

Anugati (f) (— °) [f^- an" + gam] following, being in 
the train of, falling under, adherence to, dependence on 
S 1.104 (vas° being in the power). Usually in cpd. ditt- 
hanugati a sign (lit. belonging to) of speculation Vin 
11.108; S 11.203; Pug 33; DhA IV. 39. 




AnUgama [fr- anu -f- gam] following after, only as adj. in 
dur" diOkult to be followed J iv.65. 

Anugamika (adj.) going along with, following, accompa- 
nying; resulting I'rom, consequential on Kh vm.S (nidhi, 
a treasure ace. a man to the next world); J I v. 280 
^°nidhi): Miln 159 (parisS); PvA 132, 253 (danatj naina 

°ai) nidanan li). 

Anugamin (adj.j [fr. anugacchati] following, attending on; 
an attendant, follower SnA 453 (=: anuyutta). 

Anugayati [anu -f gayali] to sing after or to, recite (a 
magic formula or hymn) praise, celebrate IJ 1.104, 238; 
Sn I131 ( anugayissaijj; Miln ijo. 

Anugahati [anu -(- gahati] to plunge into, to enter (ace. I 
.'^dhp Oil. 

Anugijjhati [anu 4- gijjhati] to be greedy after, to covet 
Sn 709 (cp. Xd' 12); J 111.207; '^•4 (= giddha gathita 
hutva alliyanti C). pp. '^giddha (q. v.). Cp. al)higiijhati. 

Anugiddha [pp. of anugijjhati] greedy after, hankering after, 
desiring, coveting Sn 86 (ananu°), 144, 952; Th I, 580. 

Anuggaijlha (adj.) [cp. anuggaha] compassionate, ready to 
help PvA 42 "sila. 

Anugganhataka (adj.) [= anugganha] compassionate, com- 
miserating, helping PvA 69 (=r anukampalia). 

Anugganhana (nt.) anuggaha' Dlis.\. 403. 

Anu(g)ganhati [anu + ganhati] to have pity on, to feel 
Sony for. to help, give protection T 1 53 (vacay; cp. DA 
1.160: sarato agai.ihantol; J 11.74; l^d' 50 ( ppr. med. 
°gayhamana = anukampamana); Pug 36; PvA 181 (im- 
per. anugganha = anukampassu). pp. anuggahlta (q. v.). 

Anuggaha [anu + grah] "taking up', compassion, love 
for, kindness, assistance, help, favour, benefit S 11. II; 
III. 109; IV. 104; V.162; A 1,92, 114; 11.145; IV.167; V.70; 
It 12, 98; J 1.151; V.150; Pug 25: PvA 145: ThA 104. 

Anuggaha^ (adj.) [an -j- uggaha] not taking up Sn 912 
(=:na gaiihati Nd' 330). 

Anuggahlta (& °ita) [pp. of anuggauhati] commiserated, 
made happy, satisfied M I.457 ; S 11.274; ll'-gi ', 1^263; 
A 111.172 ; J 111.428. 

Anuggahaka (adj.) [fr. anuggaha] helping as.sisling S 111.5: 
V.162; Miln 354 (nt. = help). 

Anugghateti [an + ugghateti] not to unfasten or open (a 
door; Miln 371 (kavStaij). 

Anugghata [an -f ugghata] not shaking, a steady walk 
J VI. 253. 

Anugghatln (adj.) [fr. last] not shaking, not jerking, J 
VI. 252; Vv 5' (read °I for i); VvA 36. 

Anughayatl [anu + ghSyati'] to smell, snuft', sniff up Miln 
343 (gandhaij). 

Anucankamati [anu -f- cankamati] to follow (along) after, 
to go after D 1.235; M '227; Th i, 481, 1044; Caus. 
'apeti M 1.253, cp. Lai. Viit. 147, 3; M Vastu 1.350. 

Anucankamana (nt.) [fr. anucankamati] sidewalk J 1.7. 

Anucarati [anu + cariti] to more along, to follow; to 
practice; pp. anuclnna & anucarita (q- v.) 

AnUCaiita ( — °) [pp. of anucarati] connected with, ac- 
companied by, pervaded with 1) 1.16, 21 (vlmar)sa° == 
anuvicarita DA 1. 106); M t.68 (id.); Miln 226. 

AnUCi^na (pp.) fpp- of anucarati] I. pursuing, following 
out, practising, doing; having attained or practised Vin 
11.203 = '• S6 (pam.adaij); T 120 (v.126); Th i, 236; 
2, 206; Dpvs 1V.9. — 2. adorned with, accompanied by, 
connected with J iv.286. 

AnUCintana (nt.) [fr. anucintetij lliinkiog, upon, intentioni 
care for Pv.\ 164. 

Anucinteti [anu -f- cinteti) to think upon, to meditate, 
consider S 1.203 (*'.'• for anuvicinteti). 

Anuccangin sec anujjangin. 

AnUCChavika (& "ya) (adj.) [anu + chavi + ka] "according 
to one's skin", befitting, suitable, proper, pleasing, fit 
for, J 1.58, 62, 126, 218; II. 5; IV. 137, 138; Miln 358; 
DhA' 1.203, 390; 11.55, 56; \'vA 68, 78; PvA 13, 26 
(= kappiya). 66, 81, 2S6. anucchavija at \'in 11.7 (an"); 
III. 120 (id. -|- ananulomika) ; Miln 13. 

AnUCChittha (adj.) [see ucchittha] (food) that is not thrown 
away or left over; untouched, clean (food) J 111.257; DhA 
II. 3 (vv. U. anuccittha). 

Anujanati [anu 4- janali] I. to give permission, grant, 
allow Vin IV. 225 ; A II. 197; Pv iv.l"; PvA 55, 79, 
142. — 2. to advise, prescribe Vin 183; 11.301 ; Sn 982. — 
grd. anunneyya that which is allowed A 11. 197; pp. 
anunnata (qv.) Caus. anujanapeti J 1.156. 

Anujagghati [anu -|- jagghatij to laugh at, deride, mock 
D 1.91 ; U.\ 1.258 (cp. sanjagghali ibid 256). 

Anujavati [anu -\- javati] to run after, to hasten after, to 
follow J VI. 452 (= anubandhati). 

Anujata (adj.) [anu + jata] "born after" i.e. after the 
image of, resembling, taking after; esp. said of a son 
(putta), resembling his father, a worthy son It 64 (atijata-f, 
opp. avajata); Th I, 827 (fig. following the example of), 
1279; J VI. 380; DhA 1. 1 29; Uavs 11.66. 

Anujivati [anu -|- jivati] to live after, i. e. like (ace), to live 
for or on, subsist by J IV.271 (= upajivati, tassanubhavena 
jivitaij laddhaij (C). — pp. anujivata (q. v.). 

Anujivita (nt.) [pp. of anujivati] living (after), living, 
livelihood, subsistence, life Sn 836 (= jivitaij SnA 545). 

Anujivln (adj.-n.) [fr. anujivati] living upon, another, 
dependent; a follower, a dependant A 1.152; 111.44;] 
111 4S5 : Davs v.43. 

Anujju (adj.) [an -f ujju] not straight, crooked, bent, in 
cpds. ''angin (anujjangin) with (evenly) bent limbs, i.e. 
with perfect limbs, graceful f. ^i Ep. of a beautiful woman 
J V.40 (= kancana-sannibha-sarira C); vi.500 (T. anucc- 
angi, C. anindita agarahitangi); °gamin going crooked 
i.e. snake j iv.330; °bhufa not upright (fig. of citta) 
J V.293. 

Anujjuka = anujju J 111.318. 

Anujjhana (nt.) [anu + jhana] meditation, reflection, intro- 
spection Miln 352 ("bahula). 

Anunnata (adj.) [pp. of anujanati] permitted, allowed; 
sanctioned, given leave, ordained D 1.88; J 1.92; 11.353, 
416; Pv 1.12' (na. a. ^ ananunnaia at id. p. Th 2, 129 
expld at PvA 64 by ananumata); Pug 28; DA 1.247 
248, 267; PvA 12, 81. 

Anuiinatatta (nt.) [abstr. to anunnata] being permitted, 
permission J 11.353. 

Anutthaka (adj.) [fr. an + utthahali] not rising, not rousing 
oneself, inactive, lazy Th I, 1033, 




Anutthahati [anu + thahati = 'ihali, see "titthali] to earry 
out, look after, practise do J v.121. — pp. anutthita (q. v.). 

Anutthahana (a<lj.) [ppr- of an + utthahati] one who does 
not rouse himself, not gelling up, inactive Dh 280 (== 
anutthahanto avayamanto DhA III. 409). 

Anutthatar ["• ag. to an -f- utthahatij one without energy 
or zeal Sn 96 (niddasilin sabhasilin +) SoA 169 (== 

Anutthana (nt.) [an + ulU'^na] "the not getting up", in- 
activity, want of energy Dh 241 (sarira-patijagganar) akar- 
onto DhA HI. 347). 

Anutthita [pp- of anutthati =anutitthati] practising, effecting 
or effected, come to, experienced, done D 11.103; S iv. 
200; A III. 290 sq.; 1V.300; J II. 61; Miln 198; PvA 132 
(cp. anugata). 

Anutthubhatl [formally Sk. anustobhali, but in meaning = 
'anustivati; anu -(- tlhubhati, the etym. of which see under 
nitthubhati] to lick up with one's saliva DA 1.138. 

Anutthurln v. 1. at SnA 569, see nitthurin. 

Anu<Jasati [anu -f dasati] to bite J VI.192. 

AnU(}ahati [anu -\- dahati] to burn over again, burn tho- 
roughly, fig. to destroy, consume J 11.330; vi.423. Pass, 
"dayhati J v. 426. — Also spelt °dahati, e. g. at S iv. 
I90r=v.53; Th 2, 488. 

AnUlJahana (nt.) [fr. anudahati] conflagration, burning up, 
consumption J v.27t; Th.\ 287 (d). 

Anunnata (adj.) [uppata] not raised, not elated, not haughty, 
humble Sn 702 (care = uddhaccaq napajjeyya SnA 492). 

Anutappati [anu -\- tappati'; Sk. anutapyate, Pass, of 
anuiapati] to be sorry for, to regret, repent, feel remorse 
J I.II3; IV.358; v.492 (ppr. au-anutappaq); Dh 67, 314; 
Pv H.9*^; DhA 11.40. grd. anutappa to be regretted A 
1.22, 77; III. 294, and anufapiya A 111.46 (an"). 

Anutapa [fr. anu -j- tapa] anguish, remorse, conscience 
Vv 40^ (= vippatisara VvA 180); DhsA 384. 

Anutapln (adj.) [fr. anutapa] repenting, regretting Th 2, 
57, 190; VvA 115. 

Anutaplya grd. of anutappati, q. v. 

Anuta]etl [anu -f- taleti] to beat J 11.280. 

Anutltthatl [anu 4- titthali see also anutthahati] to look 
after, to manage, carry on J v. 1 13 (= anugacchati); 
PvA 78. 

Anutire (adv.) [anu -f- tire, loc. of lira] along side or near 
the bank (of a river) Sn 18 (= tira-samlpe SnA 28). 
Cp. anu A b. 

Anuttara (adj.) [an -|- uttara] "nothing higher", without a 
superior, incomparable, second to none, unsurpassed, 
excellent, preeminent Sn 234 (:=adhikassa kassaci abha- 
vato KhA 193), 1003; Dh 23, 55 (= asadisa appatibhaga 
DhA 1.423); Pv IV. 3^- (dhamma); Dhs 1294; DA 1.129; 
PvA 1, 5, 6, i8, etc. 

Anuttariya (nt.) [abstr. fr. anultara] preeminence, superi- 
ority, excellency; highest ideal, greatest good. They are 
mentioned as sets of 3 (viz. dassana", patipada°, vim- 
utti°) at D III. 219, or of 6 (viz. dassana", savana", 
labha°, silckba°, paricariya", anussata^) at D in. 250, 
281; A 1.22; 111.284, 325 sq., 452; Ps 1.5. Cp. M 1.235; 
A V.37. See also anuttariya. 

Anuttana (adj.) [an -f- utlSna] not (lying) open, not exposed; 
fig. unexplained, unclear J VI. 247. 

Anutthuna (f) [fr. anutlhunati] wailing, crying, lamenting 
Nd' 167 (= vacapalapa vippalapa etc.). 

Anutthunati [anu -f thunati (thunati); anu -|- stan] to 
wail, moan, deplore, lament, bewail D III. 86; Sn 827 
(cp. Nd' 167); Dh 156; J III. 115; v.346, 479; DhA 
111.133; PvA 60 (wrongly applied for ghayati, of the fire 
of conscience). 

Anutrasin (adj.) [an -)- ulrasin) not terrified, at ease 
Th I, 864. 

Anuthera [anu -j- theraj an inferior Thera, one who comes 
next to the elder Vin 11.212 (theranuthera Th. & next 
in age). 

Anudadati [anu 4- dadati] to concede, grant, admit, fut. 
anudassati Miln 276, 375. 

Anudayati (to sympathise with) see under annudda. 

AnudaSSita [pp- of anudasseti] manifested Miln 119. 

Anudahati see anudahati. 

Anudittha [pp^ of anudisatij pointed out, appointed, dedi- 
cated, fit. consecration, dedication J v. 393 (anudittha = 
asukassa nama dassati ti C.) ; Pv 1. 10' (= udditlha PvA 50). 

Anuditthi (f) |anu -f dilthi] an "after view", sceptical 
view, speculation, heresy D 1.12; M 11.228; S III. 45 sq.; 
Th I, 754; Miln 325; DA H03. attanuditthi (q. v.) a 


Anudisati [anu -f-disati] to point out, direct, bid, address 
PvA 99 (aor. anudesi -j- anvesi) — pp. anudittha (q.v.). 

Anudisa (f- ) [anu -|- disa] an intermediate point of ihe 
compass, often collectively for the usual 4 intermediate 
points D 1.222; S 1. 122; 111.124. 

Anudipeti [anu -)- dipeti] to explain Miln 227 (dhamma- 

Anuduta [anu 4- duta] a person sent with another, a 
travelling companion Vin U.19, 295; Uh'^ "-76, 78. 

Anudeva see anvadeva. 

Anuddayata (f) [abstr. to anuddaya] sympathy with ( — ") 
compassion, kindness, favour, usually as par° kindness to 
or sympathy with other people S 11. 218; v. 169 (T. anu- 
dayata); A III. 1 84; It 72; Vbh 356. 

Anuddaya (& anudaya) (f.) [anu + daya] compassion, pity, 
mercy, care Vin 11,196; S 1.204; "-'99", iv.323; A u.176; 
111.189; Pug 35 (anukampa); J 1. 147, 186, 214; PvA 70, 
88, 181 (=anukamp.i). In comp" anudaya" e.g. "sam- 
panna full of mercy J 1.151, 262; PvA 66. 

Anudda (f-) [contracted form of anuddaya] = anuddaya 
Dhs 1056, where also the other abstr. formations anud- 
dayana & anuddayitattai) "care, forbearance & consi- 
deration"; DhsA 362 (anudayati ti anudda). 

Anuddhagsetl [anu + dharjseti] to spoil, corrupt, degrade 
Vin IV. 148 (expln- here in slightly diff. meaning = codeti 
va codapeti va to reprove, scold, bring down) ; It 42. 
Usually in ster. phrase rago cittai] a. lust degrades the 
heart Vin III. in; M 1.26; S 1. 186; A 1.266; 11. 126; ill. 
393 sq. — pp. anuddhasta (q. v.). 

Anuddhata (adj.) [an4-uddhata] not puffed up, not proud, 
unconceited calm, subdued Sn 850 (= uddhacca-virahita 
SnA 549, cp. anuuuata); It 30; Dh 363 (= nibbutacitta 
DhA IV.93); Vv 648; Pug 59. 

Anuddharin (adj.) [an + uddharin] not proud Sn 952 (= 
anussukin SnA 569) see nitthurin. 




AnuddhRSta (k'J) [anu + dhasta, pp. of anuddhai)seti, 
cp. Sk. npadhvasta] spoilt, corrupt, degraded M 1462 
(citta); A 11.126 (id.). 

Anudhamma [anu -|- dhamma] 1. in comp"- with dhamma 
as dhamtnanudhamma to be judged as a redupl. cpd. 
after the manner of cpds. mentioned under anu iv. & 
meaning "the Law in all its parts, the dhamma and what 
belongs to it, the Law in its fullness". For instances see 
dhamma C. iv. Freq. in phrase dh°-anudh°-patipanna 
"one who masters the completeness of the Dh.", e. g. S 
11.18; 111.163; It 81; Ps il.lSg. — 2. conformity or ac- 
cordance with the Law, lawfulness, relation, essence, con- 
sistency, truth; in phrase dbammassa (c) anudhammai) 
Vyakarotl to explain the truth of the Dh. Vin 1.234; D 
1.161; M 1.368, 482; S U.33; III. 6; IV. 51; V.7. See 
further M 111.30; Sn 963 (cp. Nd' 481 for exegesis). 
Also in cpd. "^carin living according to the Uhamma, 
living in truth S U.81, 108; A 11.8; Dh 20 (cp. Dh.\ 
1.158); Vv 3r; Sn 69 (see Nd^ 51). 

Anudhamntata (f-) [abstr. to anudhamma) lawfulness, con- 
formity to the Dhamma A 11.46; Ps 135, 36. 

Anudhareti [anu + dhareti] to hold up DA 1. 61 fchattai)), 
cp. J 1.53, dhariyamana. 

Anudhavatl [anu -j- dhavati] to run after, to chase, follow, 
persecute, pursue M 1.474; S 1.9; Dh 85; Th i, 1174; 
Miln 253, 372. 

Anudhavin (adj.-o.) [fr. anudhavati] one who runs after 
S 1.9, 117. 

Anunadt(-tire) along the bank of the river S 1V.177 should 
be read anu naditire (= anu prep. c. loc.; see under anu A). 

Anunamati [anu -f- namati] to incline, bend (intrs.), give 
way Miln 372 (of a bow). 

Antmaya [fr. anuneti] "leading along", friendliness, courtesy, 
falling in with, fawning D 111.254 (°sai]yojana); A iv. 7sq. 
(id.) M 1. 191; Dhi 1059; Mjh 145; Nett 79; comb^- w. 
opp. pattgha (repu_gnance) at Miln 44, 122, 322. 

Airanayana (nt.) [fr. anuneti] fawning DhsA 362. 

Antmasfloi (adj.) [ami -foasa -}- ilea] nasal; as tt, g. the 
sound 5.; in °lopa apocope of lie nasal ij VvA 114, 
253, 275» .333. 

VVnunita (»4i;) [PP- of »nune6] led, induced S iv.71 ; Sn 781. 

Anunetar [b. ag. fr. anuneti] one who reconciles or con- 
ciliates Ps Ha94 (neta vinetii anunetS). 

Anineti [ann-^meti] to conciliate, appease, win over, flatter 
b 1.232 (ppr. anunayanana); )jp. anontta (q. v.). 

Antnia sec anupa. 

Amtftakampati [ 4- pakampaii] to shake, xnove, to be 
•uwleady I'h I, J91 = Ud 41. 

Anupakkama [an -}- upakkama] not attacking, iiistr. °ena 
not I V attack (from exlernal eneaiies) Vin 11.195. 

Anupakhuttha (adj.) [an + upak°] liameless, irreproachahle 
IJ 1.103; \''" iv.l6p; Sn p. 115; DA 1.281. 

Anupakkbandati [ans -|- pa + khan^ti] to push oneself 
forward, 10 encroach 00 D 1. 122 (= anupavisati DA 1.290); 
ger. aoapakhajja pushing oneself in, intruding Vin 
11.88 (;= antopavisati), 213; iv.43 (= anupavisati); M 
1. 151, 469; S III. 113; Vism 18. 

Anupakhajjati [den. fr. anupakhajja, ger. of anupakkhan- 
dati] to encroach, intrude Vin V.163. 

Anupagacchatl [anu + pa + gacchati] to go or return into 
(c. ace.) D 1.55 (anupeti -1-). 

Anupaghata [an + upaghala] not hurting Dh 185 (anupa° 
metri causa; expld- by anupahananan c'eva anupaghalanan 
ca DhA 111.238). 

Anupacita (adj.) [anu + pa -f cita, pp. of anupacinati] 
heaped up, accumulated ThA 56. 

Anupacinati [an -f upacinati] not to obse.rve or notice J 
V.339 (=anoloketi C; v. I. anapavinali). 

Anupajaggtiati [auu + pa -f jagghati] to laugh at, to 
deride, mock over A 1.198 (v. 1. anusaq"). 

Anupajjati [anu -f pad] to follow, accompany J iv.304. — 
pp. anupanna (q. v.). 

Anupancaliag (adv.) [anu + panca -|- ahai)] every five days 
Pv.-\ 139 (-f- anudasahaq). 

Anupaiiiiatti (f.) [anu 4- paiinatti] a supplementary regula- 
tion or order Vin 11.286; v. 2 sq. 

Anupatlpati (f.) [anu + patipaii] succession ; as adv. in 
order, successively D.\ 1. 277 (katha = anupubbikatha); 
DhA III 340 (anupatipatiya = anupubbena); Vism 244. 

Anupatthita (adj.) [anu -f pa -j- thila] setting out after, 
following, attacking J v.452. 

Anupatati [anu + patati] I. to follow, go after, J VI. 555 
anupatiyasi Subj.). • — 2. to fall upon, to befall, attack 
Vin 111.106 = M 1.364; S 1.23 (read °patanti for "patatanti) 
= Dh 221 (dukkha); Th i, 41 = 1167 (of lightning). — 
pp. anupatita (q. v.). Cp. also anupata & anupatin. 

Anupatita [pp. of anupatati] "befallen", affected with, op- 
pressed by ( — °) S 11.173 (dukkha°); 111.69 (id.); Sn 334 

Anupatitatta (nt.) [abstr. of anupatita] the fact of being 
attacked by, being a victim of ( — ") SnA 339. 

Anupatta (anuppatta) [pp. of anupapunSti; cp. Sk. anu- 
piapia] (having) attained, received, got to (c. ace ), reached 
D 1.87 — III; 112; It 38; Sn 027, 635; Dh 386, 403; 
Pv nM^O; PvA 59 (dukkhai)), 242. In phrase addhagata 
vayo-anuppatta having reached old age, e.g. Vin 11.188; 
D 1.48; Sn pp. 50, 92; PvA 149. 

Anupatti (anuppatti) (f.) [anu + patti] attainment, accom- 
plishment, wish, desire (fulfilled), ideal S 1.46, 52. 

Anupathe at J v. 302 should be read as anu pathe by the 
way at the wayside; anu to be taken as prep. c. loc. (see 
anu A). C. explns as janghamagga-mihamagganai) antare. 

Anupada [cp. Sk. anupadar) adv., anu-f pada] i. the "after- 
foot", i. e. second foot a verse, also a mode of reciting, 
where the second foot is recited without the first one 
Vin IV.15 (cp. 355); Miln 340 (anupadena anupadaq ka- 
theti). — 2. (adj.) (following) on foot, at every, step, 
continuous, repeated, in "dhamma-vipas.sana uninter- 
rupted conlemplalion M 111.25; "vannana word-by-word 
CAplanaSiop DhsA 1 58. As nt. adv. '~r) close behind, im- 
mediately after (c. gen.) J 11.230 (tassaaupadai) agamasi); 
V1.422. Esp. freq. in comb"- padinupadai] (adv.) foot 
after foot, i. e. in the footsteps, immediately behind J ill. 
504; VI.555; DhA 1.69; 11.38. 

Anupadatar (anuppadatar) [n. ag. of anupadeti] one who 
gives, or one who sets forth, effects, designs D 1.4 (cp. 
DA 1.74); A 11.209. 

Anupadana (anuppadana) (nt.) [anu -f pa -f dana, cp. anu- 
jiadeli] giving, administering, furnishing, the giving of 
(— °) D 1.12 (cp. DA 1.98; both read anuppadana); J 
111.205; Miln 315. 




Anupadinna (anujipaJinna) [pp. ot anupadeti] given, handed 
over, furnished, dedicated Pv 1.5''. 

Anupadeti (anuppadeli) [ami + P^ + dadati] to give out, 
give as a present, hand over; to design, set forth, under- 
take S 111131 (Pot. anuppadajjuij); M 1. 416 (Tot. anupa- 
dajjeyya. see dadati 1.3); Miln 210 ('deti). fut. ^dassati 
(see dadati i.l); D 111.92; S iv.303 (v. 1. .SS for T. anu- 
sarissati); A in.43; Sn 983. ger. ''datva ."^n.X 35. inf. 
~daturj A 1.117. pp. "dinna (q. v.). 

Anupaddava (adj.) [an + upaddava] free from danger, 
uninjured, safe V'in 11.79=124 (-(- anitika): ill. 162; I>h 
338; DhA IV. 48; PvA 250 (expl" for siv.a). 

Anupadhareti [an -j- upadhar'"] to disregard, to heed not, 
to neglect Uh.\ 1V.197: VvA 2O0. 

Anupadhika (adj.) [an + upadhi -f ka] free from attach- 
ment (see upadhi) Vin 1 36 (anupadhika); D. ill 112 (anu- 
padhika opp. to sa-upadhika); Sn 1057 (anupadhika T., 
but Nd- aaiipadhika. with ii for u metri causa). 

Anupanna, [pp. of anupajjati] gone into, reached, attained 
Sn 764 (maradheyya'"). 

Anupabandhati (anuppa") [anu -[- pa + bandhali] to follow 
immediately, to be incessant, to keep on (without stopp- 
ing), to continue Miln 132. — Caus. "^apeti ibid. 

Anupabandhanata (anupp.i°) (f) [aljstr. to prec] non- 
stopping, not ceasing Aliln 132. 

Anupabandhana (anuppa") (f.) [abstr. fr. anupabandhati] 
continuance, incessance, Pug l8 = Vbh 357 (in exegesis 
of upanaha). 

Anupabbajja (f.) [anu -\- pabbajja, cp. BSk. anupravrajati 
Divy 61] giving up wordly life in imitation of another 
S V.97 =It 107. 

Anupaya (adj.) [an -f- upaya] unattached, "aloof" S 1.181 
(akankha apiha +). 

Anuparigacchatl [anu + pari -|- gacchati] to walk round 
and round, to go round about (c. ace.) Vin 111.119; 
S '-75 (ger- "gamma); Sn 447 (aor. ''parlyaga = parito 
parito agamasi Sn A 393): J IV.267. 

Anuparidhavati [anu -{- pari -f- dhavati] to run up & down 
or to move round & round (cp. anuparivattati) S. 111.150 

Anupariyati [auu -{- pari -f yati] to go round about, to go 
about, to wander or travel all over (c. ace.) Vin ri.iil; 
S 1. 102, 124; Th I, 1235 ("pariyeti), 1250 (id. to search); 
Pv III. 3* (= anuvicarati); Miln 38; PvA 92 C^yayitva, 
ger.) 217. 

Anupariyaya (adj) [adjectivised ger. of anupariyati] going 
round, encircling, in ''patha the path leading or going 
round the city D 11.83 = 5 iv i94r=Av.i95; Aiv.107. 

Anuparivattati [anu ~\- pari -f- vrt] to go or move round, 
viz. I. to deal with, be engaged in, perform, worship 
Vin III. 307 (adiccar)): D 1.240; PvA 97. — 2. to meet 
Miln 204 (Devadatto ca Bodhisatto ca ekato anuparivat- 
tanti). — 3. to move round & round, move on and on, 
keep on rolling (c. ace), evolve S. 111.150 (anupari- 
dhavati -f ) Miln 253 (anudhavati -f- kayan). 

Anuparivatti (f.) (— °) [anu + parivatti] dealing with, oc- 
cupation, connection with S 111.16. 

Anuparivareti [anu -f pari -f- vareti] lo surround, stand by, 
attend on (c. ace.) Vin 1.338; M 1.153; DhA 1.55. 

Anupariveniyaq [anu -f paviveniyaq = loc. of pariveni] 
should be written anu pariveniyaq ("in every cell, cell 
by cell"'), anu here functioning as prep. c. loc. (see anu A) 
\in I. So, 106. 

Anuparisakkati [anu -f pari + sakkati] to move round, to 
be occupied with, t.ike an interest in (c. ace.) S 1V.312 
(v.l. "vattati). 

Anuparisakkana (nt.) [fr. anuparisakkati] dealing with, 
interest in .S IV.312 (v.l. '^vattnna). 

Anupariharati [anu + pari -[- harati] to surround, enfold, 
embrace M 1.306. 

Anupalitta (adj.) [an -f- upalitta] unsmeared, unstained, free 
from taint M 1.319, 386 (in verse): as "upalitta in verse 
of Sn & Dh : Sn 211 (=^ lepanaij abhava Sn.\ 261), 392, 
468, 790, 845: Dh 353. 

Anupavajja (adj.) [grd. of an -: upavadati] blameless, 
without fault Miln 391. 

Anupavattaka (anuppa*") (adj.) to anupavatteti] one who 
succeeds (another) King or Ruler in the ruling of an 
empire (cakkaq) Miln 342, 362 ; Sn.\ 454. See also anu- 

Anupavatteti (anuppa'') [anu -f pa + vatteti, fr. vft] to 
keep moving on after, to continue rolling, with cakkai) 
to wield suppreme power after, i.e. in succession or imi- 
tation of a predecessor S 1191; Miln 362. See also 

Anupavada [an -\- upavada] not blaming or finding fault, 
abstaining from grumbling or abuse Dh 185 (aniipa° in 
nretie; expld at Dh.\ 111.238 as anupavadanaii c'eva anu- 
pavadapanan ca "not scolding as well as not inciting 
others to grumbling"); adj. "vadaka Pug 60, & °vadin 
M 1.360. 

Anupaviftba (anuppa') [pp. of anupavisati] entered, gone 
or got into, fallen into (c. ace.) Miln 270, 318 sq., 409 
(coming for shelter); PvA 97, 152 (Ganganadiq a. nadi: 
flowing into the G.). 

Anupavitthata (f) [abstr. to anupavittha] the fact of having 
entered Miln 257. 

Anupavisati [anu ^ pa -f- visati] to go into, to enter Dh 
1.290: VvA 42 (^ ogahati). — pp. "pavittha (q.v.) — ■ 
Caus. "paveseti (q.v.). 

AnupaveCChati (anuppa^) [see under pavecchati] to give, 
give over to, offer up, present, supply Vin 1.22 1 ("pavac- 
chati); D 1.74 (= pavesati DA 1.218); 11.78; M 1.446; 
111.133; A 11.64; 111.26 (v.l. '^vacch°); J v. 394; Sn 208 
(v.l. °vacch°); SnA 256 (:= anupavesati); PvA 28. 

Anupaveseti [anu -{- pa -{- vis, cp. BSk. anupravesayali 
Divy 238] to make enter, to give over, to supply Sn.\ 
256 (= "pavecchati). 

Anupasankamati' [anu -[- pa -(- saijkamati] to go along up 
to (c. ace.) PvA 179. 

Anupasankamati^ [an + upasank"] not to go to. not to 
approach DhA 11.30 (-f apayirupiisati). 

Anupasaothapana (f-) [an -f upasanthapana] not stopping, 
incessance, continuance Pug 18 (but id. p. at Vbh 357 
has anusansandana instead); cp. anupabandhana. 

Anupassaka (adj.) [fr. anupassati] observing, viewing, 
contemplating Th i, 420. 

Anupassati [anu + passati] to look at, contemplate, observe 
Sn 477; Ps 1.57, 187; Sn A 505. 




AnupaSSanS ((■) [abstr. of anupassati, cf. Sk. anudarsana] 
looking at, viewing, contemplating, consideration, realisa- 
tion S V.178 sq., Sn p. 140; Ps 1. 10, 20, 96; 11.37,41 sq., 
67 sq.; Vbh 194. See anicca°, aDatta°, dukkha°. 

AnupaSSin ( — ") (adj.) [fr. anupassati] viewing, observing, 
realising S 11.84 sq., v.294 sq., 311 sq., 345, Dh 7,253; 
Sn 255, 728; Ps 1. 191 sq.; Vbh 193 sq., 236; Sdhp4ll. 

Anupahata' [anu + pa + hata, pp. of anu + pa + han] 
thrown up, blown up Miln 274. 

Anupahata^ (*dj.) [an + upahata] not destroyed, not spoilt 
Dh.A. 11.33 CJivhapasada). 

Anupata [of anupatati] attack in speech, contest, reproach 
A 1. 161. 

Anupatin (adj.) [fr. anupata] I. following, indulging in 
J 111.523 (khana°). — 2. attacking, hurting J v.39g. 

AnupadaQ (adv.) [anu -f- pada] at the foot Vism 1S2 (opp. 
anusisat] at the head). 

Anupada [ger. of an + upadiyati =: anupadaya] anupada- 
niya, anupadaya, anupadiyana, anupadiyi^va see 

Anupadana & Anupadl see upadana & upadi. 

Anupapita [pp. of anupapeti] having been lead to or made 
to reach, attained, found Miln 252. 

Anupapuiiati (anuppa^) [anu -|- papunati] to reach, attain, 
get to, find S 1.105; S"- anuppatvana Pv 11. 9'* (= 
°papunitva PvA 123). — pp. anupatta (q. v.). — Caus. 
anupapeti (q. v.). 

Anupapeti [Caus. of anupapuiiati] to make reach or attain, 
to lead to, to give or make find J vi.88; Cp. XI. 4 (aor. 
anupapayi); Miln 276. — pp. anupapita (q. v.). 

AnupSya [an + upaya] wrong means J 1.256; SJhp 405. 

Anupayasa see upayasa. 

Anupalaka (adj.) [anu -j- palaka] guarding, preserving 
Sdhp 474. 

Anupalana (nt.) [fr. anupaleti] maintenance, guarding, 
keeping Dpvs 111.2. 

AUupaleti [anu -f paleti] to safeguard, warrant, maintain 
Miln 160 (santatii)). 

Anupahana (adj.) [an + upahana] without shoes J vi.552. 

Anupiya (anuppiya) (adj ) [anu + piya] flattering, plessant, 
nt., flattery, in °bha;iin one who flatters D 
111.185; J 11.390; V.360; and "bhipitar id. Vbh 352. 

Anupl|ag at PvA 161 is to be read anuppijan (q. v.). 

AnupuCChati [anu -|- pucchati] to ask or inquire after (c. 
ace.) Sn 432, 1113. — pp. anuputtba (q. v.). 

Anuputtha [pp. of anupucchali] asked Sn 782 (= pucchita 
Sn.\ 521). 

AnupUbba (adj.) [anu -f pubba] following in one's turn, 
successive, gradual, by and by, regular Vin 11.237 (ma- 
hasamuddo a'-ninno etc.); D 1.184; Sn 511; J v. 155 
(regularly formed, of iiiu). Cases adverbially: anupub- 
bena (instr.) by and by, in course of lime, later, gradually 
Vin 1.83; Dh 239 (= anupatipatiya DhA 111.340); Pug 
41, 64; J II. 2, 105; III. 127; Miln 22; PvA 19. anupub- 
baso (abl. cp. Sk. anupQrvasah) in regular order Sn 1000. — 
In comp". both anupubba° & anupubbi° (q. v.). 

-karana gradual performance, graded practice M 1.446. 
-nirodha successive passing away, fading away in regular 
succession, i. e. in due course. The nine stages of this 

process are the same as those mentioned under "vihEra, 
& are enum^- as such at D III. 266, 29O; A 1V.409, 456; 
Ps 1.35. -vihara a state of gradually ascending stages, 
by means of which the highest aim of meditation & trance 
is attained, viz. complete ce.ssation of all consciousness. 
These are 9 stages, consisting of the 4 jhanos, the 4 
ayatanani & as the crowning phrase "saiiM-vedayita- 
nirodha" (see jhana'). Enumd. as such in var. places, esp. 
at the foil.: D 11.156; 111.265, ^9°; ^ iv.410; Nd' under 
jhana; Ps 1. 5; Miln 176. -sikkha regular instruction or 
study (dhammavinoye) M 1.479; lil.l (-(-"kiriya °patipada). 

Anupubbaka (adj.) = anupubba, in cpd. pubbanupubbaka 
all in succession or in turn, one by one (on nature of 
this kind of cpd. see anu 15 iv.) Vin 1.20 ("anaq kulanaq 
putta the sons of each clan, one by one). 

Anupubbata (nt.) [fr. anupubba] acting in turn, gradation, 
succession Vv 64'* (= anukula kiriya i. e. as it pleases 
VvA 280) cp. anupubbata. 

' Anupubbl-katha (f.) [anupubba + kath^, formation like 
dhammi-katha] a gradiul instruction, graduated sermon, 
regulated exposition of the ever higher values of four 
subjects (dana-katha, sila°, s.igga°, magga^) i. e. charity, 
righteousness, the heavens, and the Path. Bdhgh. explains 
the term as anupubbikatha nama daninantarar) silai] sila- 
nantaro saggo sagganantaro maggo ti etesaq dipana-katha" 
(DA 1.277). Vin 1.15, 18; 11.156, 192; D i.iio; 11.41 ; 
M 1.379; J 1.8; VvA 66, 197, 208; DA 1.308; DhA 1.6; 
j Miln 228. — The spelling is frequently anupubbikatha 
j (as to lengthening of anu see anu Note (a)), e.g. at D 
i.iio; II. 41; M 1.379; J 1.8; Miln 228. 

1 Anupekkhatl ]anu -f pekkhati] I. to concentrate oneself 
on, to look carefully A 111.23. — 2. to consider, to show 
consideration for, Nd- 50 (ppr. °amana = anukampa- 

j mana). — Caus. anupekkbetl to cause some one to con- 
sider carefully Vin 11.73. 

AnupekkhanatS (f) [abstr. fr. anupekkhana, see anupek- 
khatl] concentration (of thought) Dhs 8, 85, 284, 372. 

I Anupetl [ana -f pa + i] to go into D 1.55 (+ anupagac- 
chati) S 111.207; DA 1. 165. 

Anupesetl [anu -f pa -f i§] to send forth after Miln 36. 

AnupOSathikaQ see anvaddbamSsar). 

AnupOSlya (adj.) [grd. of anu -f- pU$] to be nourished or 
fostered Sdhp 318. 

Anuppa° in all comb"s. of anu -f- ppa see under headings 

Anuppadajjuo (S in.i3>) see anupadetl. 

Anuppanna (°uppada, °uppadeti) see uppanna etc. 

Anuppi]a (adj.) [an -)- uppija] not molested, not oppressed 
(by robbers etc.) not ruined, free from harm J 111.443; 
V.378; VvA 351; PvA 161. 

Anupharapa (nt.) [anu -|- pharapa] flashing through, per- 
vading Miln 148. 

AnuphUSlyatI [anu -f- phuslyati, cp. Sk. prusayati, Caus. of 
pru$] to sprinkle, moisten, make wet J v. 242 (himai); 
C. pateyya). 

Anubajjhati at PvA 56 is faulty reading for anubandh- 
ati (q. v.). 

Anubaddha [pp. of anubandhati] following, standing be- 
hind (pitthito) D I.I, 226. 

Anubandha [aim -f bandh] bondage M 1 11. 170; It 91. 

Anubandhati [anu -)- bandhati] to follow, run after, pursue 
J 1. 195; 11.230; VI.452 (:=anujavali); PvA 56 (substitute 




for anubajjhanti!), 103, J55. aor. °bandhl J 11.154, 3535 
111.504; PvA 260 (= anvagacchi). ger. °bandbitva J 1.254. 
grd. °bandhitabba M 1.106. — pp. anubaddha (q. v.). 

Anubandhana (ct.) [fr. anubandhati] that which connects 
or follows, connection, consequence J 71.526 (°dukkha). 

Anubala (nt.) [anu + bala] rear-guard, retinue, suite, in °r) 
bhavati to accompany or follow somebody Miln 125. 

Anubujjhati [anu + bujjhati, Med. of budh, cp. Sk. ava- 
budhyate] to remember, recollect J III.387 (with avabujjhati 
in prcc. verse). 

Anubujjhana (nt.) [fr. anubujjhati] awakening, recognition 
Ps l.l!5 (bujjhana -j-)- 

Anubuddha [pp. of anu -|- bodhati] I. awakened (act. & 
pass.), recognised, conceived, seen, known D II. 1 23 ("a 
ime dhamma); S 1.137 (dhammo vimalen' Snubuddho) 
11.203; IV. 188; A II. I ; 111.14; 'V.105; SnA 431. In phrase 
buddbanubuddba (as to nature of cpd. see anu B iv.) 
either "fully awakened (enlightened)" or "wakened hy 
by the wake" (Mrs. Rh. D.) Th 1, 679 = 1246. — 2. 
a lesser Buddha, inferior than the Buddha DA 1.40. Cp. 

Anubodha [anu -f- budh] awakening, perception, recogni- 
tion, understanding S I.I26(?)^A v. 46 (anubodhiij as 
aor. of anubodhati?); Pug 21; Miln 233. Freq. in comp"' 
ananubodha (adj.) not understanding, not knowing the 
truth S 11.92; 111.261; V.431; A II. I ; IV. 105; Dhs 390, 
1061; VvA 321 (= anavabodha) and duranubodha (adj.) 
hard to understand, difficult to known D 1.12,22; S I.136. 

Anubodhati [anu -)- budh] to wake up, to realise, perceive, 
understand; aor. anubodhiij A v.46 (?) := Si. 126 (anu- 
bodhai)). — Caus. "bodheti to awaken, fig. to make see 
to instruct J vi.i3g Cayamana) — pp. anubuddba (q.v.). 

Anubodhana(nt.)[fr. anubodhati] awakening, understanding, 
recognition Ps 1.18 (bodhana +). 

Anubbajati [anu + vraj] to go along, wander, follow, 
tread (a path) J IV.399 (maggaq = pabbajati C). 

Anubbata (adj.) [Vedic anuvrata, anu -f- vata] subject to 
the will of another, obedient, faithful, devoted J 111.52 1 ; 

Anubbillavitatta see ubbilP. 

Anubyanjana see anuvyaijana. 

Anubruhita [qq. of anubrnheti] strengthened with ( — "), 
full of Ps 1.167. 

Anubruheti [bruheti] to do very much or often, to practice, 
frequent, to be fond of (c. ace), foster S 1.178 (anubru- 
haye); M in. 187 (id., so read for manu°), Th 2, 163 
(°ehi); Cp. 111.1- (saijvegai) anubruhayiq aor.); J ill. 191 
(sunSagaraq). Often in phrase vivekar) anubruheti to 
devote oneself to detachment or solitude, e.g. J 1.9 (inf 
°bruhetui)); III. 31 ("bruhessami), Dh 75 ("brQhaye = 
"bruheyya vaddlieyya DhA 11.103). — PP- anubruhita 
(q.v.) Cp. also bruhana. 

Anubha^ana (f ) [ami -f- bhanana] talking to, admonition, 
scolding Vin 11.88 (anuvadana -f). 

Anubhavatl & Anubhotj [anu + bhavati] to come to or 
by, to undergo, suffer (feel), get, undertake, partake in, 
experience D 1.129; » '2 ("bhonti); M 11.204; A 1.61 
(atthai) "bhoti to have a good result); J vi.97 (°bhoma); 
Pv 1. 10" Cbhomi vipakaij); PvA 52 (°issati = vedissati); 
Sdhf 290. Esp. freq. with dukkhat] to suffer pain, e.g. 
PvA l.lJio (°blionti); PvA 43, 68, 79 etc. (cp. anubha- 
vana). — ppr. med. "bhavamana J 1.50; aor. "bhavi 
PvA 75 (sarapattii]); ger. "bhavitva J iv.i; PvA 4 (sam- 

patliij), 67 (dukkhaij), 73 fsampattiq); grd. "bhaviyana 
(in order to receive) Pv ii.8"(= anubhavitva PvA 109). — 
Pass, anubhuyati & °bhavlyati to be undergone or being 
experienced; ppr. °bbuyainana PvA 8, 159 (maya a. = 
anubhuta), 214 (attana by him) & °bhaviyamana PvA 33 
(dukkhaq). — pp. anubhuta (q.v.). 

Anubhavana (nt.) [fr. anubhavati] experiencing, suffering; 
sensation or physical sensibility (cf Cj>c/. 229, 232') Nett 
28 (itth4nitth-anubhavana-Iakkhana vfcdana "feeling is 
characterised by the experiencing of what is pleasant and 
unpleasant"); Miln 60 (vedayita-lakkhana vedana anubha- 
vana-lakkhana ca); PvA 152 (kamma-vipaka°). Esp. in 
comb", with dukkha° suffering painful sensations, e.g. at 
J IV. 3; Miln 181; DhA iv.75 ; PvA 52. 

Anubhaga [anu -\- bhaga] a secondary or inferior part, 
(after-)share, what is left over Vin 11.167. 

Anubhayati [anu -|- bhSyali] to be afraid of J vi.302 (kissa 
nv' inubhayissai), so read for kissSnu"). 

Anubhava [fr. anubhavati] orig. meaning "experience, con- 
comitance" and found only in cpds. as — °, in meaning 
"experiencing the sensation of or belonging to, experience 
of, accordance with", e. g. mahS° sensation of greatness, 
raja" s. belonging to a king, what is in accordance with 
king<ihip, i. e. majesty. Through preponderance of expres- 
sions of distinction there arises uie meaning of anubhava 
as "power, majesty, greatness, splendour etc." & as such 
it was separated from the I^' component and taken as 
anubhava with a instead of a, since the compositional 
character had obliterated the character of the a. As such 
(anubhava abs.) found only in later language. — (O anu- 
bhava ( — °): mahanubhava (of) great majestat, eminence, 
power S 1.146 sq.; 11.274; 'v.323; Sn p. 93; Pv II. l'^; 
PvA 76. deva° of divine power or majesty D 11. 12; de- 
vata" id. J 1.168; dibba° id. PvA 71, 110. raja" kingly 
splendour, pomp D 1.49; J IV247; Pv.\ 279 etc. -anu- 
bbavena (instr. — '^) in accordance with, by means of J 
11.200 (angavijja"); Pv.\ 53 (iddh°), 77 (kamma°), 148 
(id), 162 (raja"), 184 (dana°), 186 (pufina°). yatbanu- 
bhavat] (adv.) in accordance with (me), as much as (9 
can), after ability, according to power S 1.31; Vv 1^ (= 
yath.^balar) VvA 25). — (2) anubhava majesty power, 
magnificence, glory, splendour J v. 10, 456; Pv 11.8"; 
VvA 14; PvA 43, 122, 272. See also anu". 

Anubhavata (f.) [=r anubhava + ta] majesty, power S I.I 56 


Anubhasati [anu + bhasati] to speak after, to repeat D 
1,104; M'ln 345; DA T.273. 

Anubhuta [pp. of anubhavati] (having or being) experienced, 
suffered, enjoyed PvA II. 1 2". nt. suffering, experience J 
1.254; Miln 78, 80. 

Anubhuyamanatta (nt.) [.ibstr. fr. ppr. Pass, of anubhavati] 
the fact of having to undergo, experiencing PvA 103. 

Anunia (-dassika) see anoma°. 

Anumagge at J v. 201 .should be read anu magge along 
the road, by the way ; anu here used as prep. c. loc. 
(see anu A b). 

Anumajjati [anu + majjati] I. to strike along, to stroke, 
to touch 0.\ 1.276 (= anumasati). — 2. to beat, thresh, 
fig. to thresh ont J vi.548 : Miln 90. — Pass, anumajjiyati 
Miln 275 (cp. p. 428). 

Anumajjana (nt.) [abstr. fr. anum.ijjati] threshing ont, 
pounding up {Dhs. trsl. 11), always used with ref to the 
term vicara (q.v.) Miln 62; DhsA 114; DA 1.63, 122. 

Anumajjha (adj.) [anu 4- majjha] mediocre, without going 
to extremes J 1V.192; v.387. 

Anumaniiatl [anu -\- maniiatl] to assent, approve, give leave 
Th I, 72. — pp. anumata (q.v.). 




Anumata [pp. of anumannati] approved of, given consent 
to, finding approval, given leave D 1.99 (= anuiliiata 
DA 1.267); J V.399 (=muta); Miln 185, 2J2, 231, 275; 
PvA 64 (^ annuunata). 

Anumati (f.) [from anumannati] consent, permission, agree- 
ment, assent, approval Vin 11.294, SO'j 3"6) D. 1. 137, 
143; Dpvs iv.47, Cf. V.18; DA 1.297; VvA 17, PvA 114. 

Anumatta see anu°. 

Anumasati [anu -)- masati] to touch D 1.106 (^ anumajjati 
DA 1.276). 

Anumana [fr. anu |- man] inference Miln 330 (naya +), 
372, 4«3; Sdhp 74. 

Anumitta [anu -f- mitta] a secondary friend, a follower, 
acquaintance J v. 77. 

Anuminati [cf. Sk. anumati, anu -\- minati from ml, Sk. 
minoti, with confusion of roots ma & mi] to observe, 
draw an inference M 1.97; PvA 227 ("anto -f- nayat) 
nento). See also anumlyati. 

Anumiyatl [Sk. anumiyate. Pass, of anu + ma, measure, in 
sense of Med.] to observe, conclude or infer from S 111.36. 
Cp. anuminati. 

Anumodaka (adj.) [fr. anumodati] one who enjoys, one 
who is glad of or thankful for (c. ace.) Vin v.172; PvA 
122; Sdhf 512. 

Anumodati [anu -)- modati] to find satisfaction in (ace), 
to rejoice in, be thankful for (c. ace), appreciate, benefit 
from, to be pleased, to enjoy Vin 11.212 (bhattagge a. to 
say grace after a meal); S 11.54; A III. 50 (°modaniya); 
IV.411 ; Dh 177 (ppr. °modamana); It 78; Pv 11.9" 
(danai) "modamana = enjoying, gladly receiving); 1,5* 
(anumodare :^are pleased; pitisomanassajata honti PvA 
27); J It. 112; PvA 19, 46, 81, 201) imper. modahi); 
Sdhp. 501 sq. — pp. anumodita (q. v.). 

Anumodana (nt.) [fr. anumodati] "according to taste", i.e. 
satisfaction, thanlis, esp. after a meal or after receiving 
gifts = to say grace or benediction, blessing, thanksgiving. 
In latter sense with dadati (give thanks for =: loc), 
karoti (= Lat. gratias agere) or vacati (say or tell thanks) : 
°ij datva PvA 89; "q katva J 1.91 ; DhA 111.170, 172; 
VvA 1 18; PvA 17, 47; °r) vatva VvA 40 (paniyadane 
for the gift of water), 295, 306 etc. °r| karoti also "to 
do a favour" PvA 275. Cp. further DhA 1.198 ("gatha 
verses expressing thanks, benediction); 11.97 (Sattharaq 
°r) yaciqsu asked his blessing); PvA 23 ("atthaij in order 
to thank), 26 (id.), 121, I4I (katabhatla°), 142; Sdhp 
213, 218, 516. 

Anumodita [pp. of anumodati] enjoyed, rejoiced in PvA 77. 

Anummatta (adj.) [an + ummatta] not out of mind, sane, 
of sound mind Miln 122; Sdhp 205. 

Anuyanta at A v.22 is doubtful reading (v.l. anuyutta). 
The meaning is either "inferior to, dependent on, a suIj- 
jeci of, a vassal" or "attending on". The explanation may 
compare Sk. anuyatai] attendance [anu -|- ya, cp. anuyayin] 
or Sk. yantr ruler [yam], in which latter case anu-yantr 
would be "an inferior ruler" and P. yanta would represent 
the n. a.g. yanta as a-siem. The v. 1. is perhaps prefe- 
rable as long as other passages with anuyanta are not 
found (see anuyutta 2). 

Anuyagin (adj ) [fr. anu + yaj] offering after the example 
of another D 1.142. 

Anuyata [pp. of annySti] gone through or after, followed, 
pursued S 11.105 (magga); A v. 236; It 29; Miln 217. 

Anuyati (& anuyayati) [anu -)- ya] t. to go after, to follow 
J VI.49 (fut. °yissati), 499 (yayantaq anuyayati = anu- 
gacchati C). — 2. to go along by, to go over, to visit 
Miln 391 Cyayati). — pp. anuyata (q. v.). See also anu- 

Anuyayin (adj.) [cp. Sk. anuyayin, anu -f ya] going after, 
following, subject to (gen.) Sn 1017 (ananuyayin) ; J VI.309; 
Miln 284. 

Anuyunjana (f.) (& °yuBjana nt.) [abstr. fr. anuyufijati] 
application or devotion to ( — ") Miln 178; VvA 346 
(anuyujjanaij wrong spelling?) 

Anuyuiljati [anu 4- yufijati] l. to practice, give oneself up 
to (ace), attend, pursue S 1.25. 122 ("yuiijan "in loving 
self-devotion" Mrs. Rh. D.); III.154; IV.104, 175; Dh 26 
(pamadari = pavatteti DhA 1.257), 247 (surameraya-pa- 
nai) =: sevati bahulikaroti DhA 111.356); PvA 61 (kam- 
matthaoag). — 2. to ask a question, to call to account, 
take to task Vin 11.79; Vv 33*; ppr. Pass, "yunjiyamana 
PvA 192. — pp. anuyutta (q. v.). — Cans, anuyojeti "to 
put to", to address, admonish, exhort DhA lv.20. 

Anuyutta [pp. of anuyufijati] I. applying oneself to, dealing 
with, practising, given to, intent upon D 1.166, 167; III. 
232 = A II 205 (attaparitapan' anuyogai) a.); S III. 1 53; 
IV. 104; Sn 663 (lobhagune), 814 (methunar) = samayutta 
SnA 536), 972 (jhan°);' Pug 55; PvA 163 (jagariya°), 
206. — 2. following, attending on ; an attendant, inferior, 
vassal, in expression khattiya or raja anuyutta a prince 
royal or a smaller king (see khattiya 3 b) A v.22 (v 1. 
for T. anuyanta, q. v.); Sn 553 (= anugamin, sevaka 
SnA 453). 

AnuyOga [Sk. anuyoga, fr. anu + yuj] l. application, devo- 
tion to ( — '^), execution, practice of ( — °); often combd- 
with anuyutta in phrase "anuyogaq anuyutta = practising, 
e.g. Vin 1.190 (mandan' anuyogai) anuyutta); D 111.II3 
(attakilamath' anuyogai) a.); A 11.205 (attaparitapan' anu- 
yogai) a.). — As adj. ( — °) doing, given to, practising 
(cp. anuyutta). D 1.5; 111.107; M 1.385; S 1.182; 111.239; 
IV.330; V.320; A 1.14; 111.249; IV.460 sq.; V. 17 sq., 
205; J 1.90 (padhan'Snuyogakiccai)); Vv 8438 (dhamma°); 
Miln 348; DA I. 78, 104. — 2. invitation, appeal, ques- 
tion (cp. anuyuiijati 2) Miln 10 (acariyassa °i) datva). 

Anuyogavant (adj.) [anuyoga -f vant] applying oneself to, 
full of application or zeal, devoted PvA 207. 

AnuyOgln (adj.) [fr. anuyoga] applying oneself to, devoted 
to ( — °) Dh 209 (atta° given to oneself, self-concentrated). 

Anurakkhaka (adj.) [fr. anurakkhati, cp. "rakkhin] pre- 
serving, keeping up J iv.192 (var)Sa°); vi.l (id.). 

Anurakkhapa (nt.) & °a (f.) [abstr. fr. anurakkhati] guarding, 
protection preservation D III. 225 sq.; All.l6sq. ; J 1. 1 33; 
Rug 12; Dpvs 1V.24 (adj.); VvA 32 (citta"); Sdhp 449. 

Anurakkhati [anu -f rakkhati] to guard, watch over (ace), 
preserve, protect, shield Sn 149; Dh327; J 1.46; Pug 12. 
— ppr. med.° rakkhamana(ka) as adj. Sdhp 621. 

Anurakkha (f) [= anurakkhanS] guarding, protection, pre- 
servation S IV.323 (anuddaya a. anukampS). 

Anurakkhin (adj.) [fr. anurakkhati] guarding, preserving, 
keeping J v. 24. 

Anurakkhiya (adj.) [f. anurakkhati] in dur° difficult to 
guard Vin III.149. 

Anuranjita [pp. of anu + raiijeti, Caus. of raiij] illumined, 
brightened, beautified Bu 1.45 (bySmapabha" by the shine 
of the halo); VvA 4 (sanihstapa" for sanih5pabha°). 




Anuratta (adj.) pp. of anu + rafij] attached or devoted 
to, fond of, faithful Th a, 446 (bhattarai)); J 1.297; 
Miln 146. 

Anuravati [anu -|- ravati] to resound, to sound after, linger 
(of sound) Miln 63. 

Anuravanfi (f.) [abstr. fr. anuravati] lingering of the sound, 
resounding Miln 63. 

AnurahO (adv.) [anu -{- raho] in secret, face to face, private 
M I. ay. 

Anurujjhatl [Sk. anurudhyate, Pass, of anu -)- rudh] to 
conform oneself to, have a regard for, approve, to be 
pleased A 1V.158; Dhs A 362. — pp. aauruddha (q. v.). 

Anuruddha [pp. of anurujjhati] enggaged in, devoted to; 
compliant or complied with, pleased S IV.71, (ananuruddha). 

Anurupa (adj.) [anu + rupa] suitable, adequate, seeming, 
fit, Worthy; adapted to, corresponding, conform with ( — ") 
I; VI.366 (tad°); PvA 61 (ajjhasaya° according to 
his wish), 128 (id.) 78, 122, 130, 155; etc. Cp. also 
patirGpa in same meaning. 

Anurodati [anu -j- rodati] to cry after, cry for J Hl.l66 = 
Pv 1.12I (dSrako candai) a.). 

Anurodha [fr. anu -|- rudh] compliance, consideration satis- 
faction (opp. virodha) S i.iii; iv.210; Sn 362; Dhs 
1059; Vbh 145 ; DhsA 362. 

Anulapana (f.) [anu 4- lapana, lap] scolding, blame, accusa- 
tion Vin 11.88 (spelt anuUapana; comb^ with anuvadana 
& anubhanana). 

Anulitta (adj.) [cp. Sk. anulipta, pp. of anulimpati] anointed, 
besmeared J 1.266; PvA 21 1. 

Anulimpati [anu -\- limpati] to anoint, besmear, Miln 394 
(°limpilabba). Caus. ''limpeti in same meaning Miln 169, 
and °lepeti Milm 169 (grd. ^lepaniya to be treated with 
ointment). — pp. anulitta (q. v.). 

Anulimpana (nt.) [fr. anulimpati] anointing Miln 353, 394. 

Anulepa [fr. anu-f-Hp] anointing Miln 152. 

AnuiOkin (adj.) [fr. anu + loketi, cp. Sk. & P. avalokin & 
anuviloketi] looking (up) at, seeing ( — °) M 1. 147 (sisa"). 

Anuloma (adj.) [Sk. anu + loma] "with the hair or grain", 
i. e. in natural order, suitable, fit, adapted to, adaptable, 
straight forward D 11.273 (ananuloma, q. v.) S IV.401 ; 
Ps 11.67, 70; DhA 11.208. — nt. direct order, state of 
fitting in, adaptation Miln 148. 

-na?* insight of adaptation (cp. CfJ. 66, 68) DhA 
11.208. -pa^iloma in regular order & reverse^, forward & 
backward (Ep. of p.-iliccasamuppada, also in BSk.) Vin 
1.1 ; A IV.448. 

Anulomiica (& °ya) (adj.) [fr. anuloma] suitable, fit, agree- 
able; in proper order, adapted to ( — °) Vin 11.7 (an°); 
111.120 (an" = ananucchaviya); iv.239; A 1.106; 111.116 
s^.; It 103 (samaiinassa°) ; Sn 385 (pabbajita"); KhA 
243 (ananulomiy.a); DhsA 25; Sdhp 65. 

AnulOtneti [v. denom. fr. anuloma] to conform to, to be 
in accordance with Miln 372. 

Anu]aratta (nt.^ [abstr. fr. an -|- ulara] smallness, littleness, 
insignificance VvA 24. 

Anuvajja (adj.) [grd. of anu + vadati, cp. anuvada & Sk. 
avavadya] to be blamed, censurable, worthy of reproach 
Sn p. 78 (an" = anuvadavimutta SnA 396). 

Anuvattalca (adj.) [fr. anuvatteti] I. = anupavattaka (q. v.) 
Th I, 1014 (cakka°). — 2. following, siding in with 
( — °) Vin lV.2i8 (ukkhittanuvattika f.). 

Anuvattati [Sk. anuvartati, anu -f- vatlati] I. to follow, 
imitate, follow one's example (c. ace), to be obedient 
D 11.244; Vin 11.309 (Bdhgh.); 1V.218; J 1.125, 3°°\ 
DA 1.288; PvA 19. — 2. to practice, execute Pv IV. 
7 '■'. — Caus. "vatteti (q. v.). 

Anuvattana (nt.) [abstr. fr. anuvattati] complying with, 
conformity with ( — °), compliance, observance, obedience 
J 1.367 (dhamma°); v. 78. 

Anuvattin (adj.) [fr. anuvattati] following, acting according 
to or in conformity with ( — °), obedient J 11.348 (f. °ini); 
111.319 (id.); Dh 86 (dhamma°); Vv 155 (vasa" = anu- 
knlabhavena vattana sila VvA 71); DhA 11. 161. 

Anuvatteti [anu + vatteti] = anupavatteti (q. v.) Th i, 

826 (dhammacakkai) : "after his example turn the wheel" 
Mrs. Rh. D.). 

Anuvadati [Sk. ava°; anu -(- vadati] to blame, censure, 
reproach Vin 11.80, 88. — grd. atiuvajja (q. v.). 

Anuvadana (f) [fr. anuvadati] blaming, blame, censure Vin 

11.88 (anuvada -f). 

Anuvasati [anu 4- vasati] to live with somebody, to dwell, 
inhabit J 11.421. Caus. "vasetl to pass, spend (time) J 
VI. 296. — pp. "vuttha (q. v.). 

Anuvassat) (adv.) [anu -f- vassa] for one rainy season; 
every rainy season or year, i. e. annually C. on Th I, 24. 

AnuvaSSiIca (adj.) [fr. anuvassaij] one who has (just) pas- 
sed one rainy season Th I, 24 ("scarce have the rains 
gone by" Mrs. Rh. D.; see frs/. p. 29 n. 2). 

AnUVaceti [anu + Caus. of vac] to say after, to repeat 
(words), to recite or make recite after or again D 1.104 
(= tehi aiiiiesai] vacitaij anuvacentl DA 1.273); Miln 345. 
Cp. anubhaseti. 

Anuvata' [anu + va to blow] a forward wind, the wind 
that blows from behind, a favourable wind; °r) adv. with 
the wind, in the direction of the wind (opp. pativatar)). 
A 1.226 ("pativatar)); Sdhp 425 (pativata°). In anuvate 
(anu -f vate) at J 11.382 "with the wind, facing te w., 
in front of the wind" anu is to be taken as prep. c. loc. 
& to be separated from vate (see anu A b.). 

Anuvata- [anu -f- va to weave (?) in analogy to vata from 
va to blow] only in connection with the making of the 
bhikkhus garment (civara) "weaving on, supplementary 
weaving, or along the seam", i. e. hem, seam, binding 
Vin 1.254, 297; 11.177; 1V.121 (aggala-f); PvA 73 (anu- 
vate appabhonte since the binding was insufficient). 

Anuvada [fr. anuvadati, cp. Sk. anuvada in meaning of 
"repetition"] i. blaming, censure, admonition Vin 11. 5, 
32; A II. 121 (atta°, para°); Vbh 376. — 2. in comb" 
yadanuvada : talk and lesser or additional talk, i. e. 
"small talk" (see anu B IV.) D j.161; M 1.368. 

-adhikarana a question or case of censure Vin 11.88 
sq. ; III. 164 (one of the 4 adhikaranani, q. v.). 

Anuvasana (nt.) [fr. anuvaseti] an oily enema, an injection 
Miln 353. 

Anuvaseti [anu + vaseti, Caus. of vasa' odour, perfume] 
to treat with fragrant oil, i. e. to make an injection or 
give an enema of salubrious oil Miln 169; grd. "vasanlya 
ibid.; pp. °vasita Miln 214. 

Anuvikkhitta (adj.) [anu -|- vi -|- khitta, pp. of anu -f 
vikkhipati] dispersed over S v. 277 sq. (-|- anuvisataj. 

Anuviga^eti [anu -|- vi -f- ganeli] to take care of, regard, 
heed, consider Th I, 109. 




Anuvicarati [.inn -f- vi + carati] to wander about, stroll 
roam through, explore D I.2J5; J 11.128; III. 188; FvA 
1S9 (=-: .Tuupaiivati). — Caus. "vicareti to think over i 
(111. to make one's mind wander over), to meditate, 
ponder (cp. anuvicinteti); always conibJ with anuvitak- 
keti (q. V.) A 1.264 (cetasa), 111.178 (dhammaij cetasa 
a.). — pp. anuvicarita (q. v.). 

Anuvicarita [pp. of anuvicareti] reflected, pondered over, 
thou>;ht out S 111.203 (manasa); D.-\ 1.106 (=: anucarita). 

Anuvicara [anu -|- vicara, cf. anuvicareti] meditation, 
reflexion, thought Uhs 85 (=: vicara). 

Anuvlclnaka [fr. anu -f- vicinati] one who examines, an 
examiner Miln 365. 

Anuvicinteti [anu + vi -|- cintetl] to think or ponder over, 
to meditate II 11.203; S 1203 (yoniso "cintaya, imper. 
"marshall thy thoughts in ordered governance" Mrs. Rh. D.; 
V. 1. anucintaya); Th I, 747: Dh 364; It 82 (dhammaq 
^'ayai)); J 111.396; iv.227; v.223 (dhatnmaij °cintayanto). 

Anuvicca [ger. of anuvijjati, for the regular from anuvijja 
prob. through influence of anu + i (anu-v-icca for anvicca), 
cf. anveti & adhicca; & see anuvijjati] having known or 
found out, knowing well or thoroughly, testing, finding 
out M I 301, 361 (v.l. '^vijja); A 11. 3, 84; v.88; I)h 229 
(= janitva UhA 111.329); Sn 530 (= onuviditva SnA 431); 
j 1.459 (=janitva C); 111.426; Pug. 49. 

-kara a thorough investigation, examination, test Vin 
1.236 (here spelt anuvijja) =: M 1.379 (= "viditva C.) = 
A IV. 1 85. 

Anuvijjaka [fr. anuvijja, ger. of anuvijjati] one who finds 
out, an examiner Vin v. 161. 

Anuvijjati [anu -|- vid, with fusion of Vedic vetti to know, 
and Pass, of vindati to find (= vidyate)] to know 
thoroughly, to find out, to trace, to come to know; inf. 
"vijjitirj J 111.506; ger. ^viditva Sn A 431, also "vijja 
& vicca (see both under anuvicca); grd. anuvejja not to 
be known, unfathomable, unknowable M 1. 140 (Tathagato 
ananuvejjo). — Caus. anuvijjapeti to make some one 
find out J V.162. — pp. anuvidita (q- v.). 

Anuvijjhati [anu -f vyadh] l. to pierce or be pierced, to 
be struck or hurt with (instr.) J vi.439 — 2. to be 
affected with, to fall into, to incur UhA III. 380 (apa- 
radhaq). — pp. anuviddha (q. v.). 

Anuvitakketi [anu + vi + takketi] to reflect, think, ponder 
over, usually comb<t with anuvicareti D 1.119; 111.242 ; 
S V.67 = It 107 (anussarati +); A ni.383. 

Anuvidita [pp. of anuvijjati] found out, recognised; one 
who has found out or knows well Sn 528, 530 (= anu- 
buddha Sn A 431). Same in B.Sk., e.g. M Vastu 111.398. 

Anuviddha (.idj.) [pp. of anuvijjhati] pierced, intertwined 
or set with ( — ") VvA 278. 

Anuvidhiyatl [cf. Sk. anuvidhtyate & adj. anuvidhayin; 
Pass, of anu -|- vi -)- dhfi, cf. vidahali] to act in confor- 
mity with, to follow (instruction) M 11.105 = Th 1, 875; 
S IV.199; J 11.98; III.357. 

Anuvidhtyana (f.) [abslr. fr. anuvidhlyati] acting according 
to, conformity with M 1.43. 

AnUViloketi [anu -f- vi + lokeli; B.Sk. anuvilokayati] to look 
round at, look over, survey, muster M 1.339; Sn p. 140; 
J 1.53; Miln 7 (lakai)), 21 (parisaij), 230. 

Anuvivatta [anu -{- vivatta] an "after-evolution", devolution; 
as part of a bhikkhu^s dress: a sub-vivatta (q. v.) Vin 
1.287 (vivatta -f-). 

Anuvisa^a (anu -\- visata, pp. of anu -f vi -(- Sf] sp'**^ 
over S V.277 sq.; J IV.102. 

Anuvuttha [pp. of anuvasali, cf. Sk. auusita] living with, 
staying, dwelling J 11.42 (cira"); V.445 (id.). 

Anuvejja (adj.) in an' see anuvijjati. 

Anuvyanjana & anubyaRjana (e.g. Vin; J 1.12) 
(nt.) [anu -|- vyanjana] acDompanying (i. e. secondary) 
attribute, minor or inferior characteristic, supplementary 
or additional sign or mark (cf. mahapurisa-lakkhana) Vin 
1.65 (abl. anuvyanjanaso 'in detail"); M ill. 126; S iv.168; 
A IV.279 (abl.); v.73 sq.; Pug 24, 58; Miln 339; VvA 
315 ; Dhs.\ 400. 

-gabin taking up or occupying oneself with details, 
taken up with lesser or inferior marks D 1.70 (cf. MVastu 
III. 52); 111.225; S 1V.104; A 1. 113; 11.16, 152 sq.; Dhs 
1345 (cf. D/is trsl. 351). 

Anusagyayati [anu -f sarj -j- yayati] to traverse; to go up 
to, surround, visit (ace.) M 1.209 (Bhagavantaq °itv5), 
J IV.214 (v.l. anuyayitva). See also anuyatl and anuaaftSati. 

AnUSagvaCChara (adj.; [anu + sai)V°] yearly DhA 1.388 
(nakkhattat)). L'sually nt. "ij as adv. yearly, every year 
J 1.68; V.99. On use of anu in this comb"- see anu A a. 

Anusaiicarati [anu -f saq -f carati] to walk along, to go 
round about, to visit M 1. 279; S v. 53, 301 ; J I.202 ; 
111502; PvA 279 (nagaraij). — pp. anusancarita (q. v.). 

Anusaficarita [pp. of anusaiicarati] frequented, visited, 
resorted to Miln 387. 

AnUSanceteti [anu -\- sai) -\- ceteli] to set ones mind on, 
concentrate, think over, meditate Pug 12. 

Anusanfiati [either anu + sai) + jfiS (janSti) or (preferably) 
^ anusaqyati as short form of anusat)yayati, like anu- 
yati ^ anuyayali of anu -|- sai] + yS, cf- Sk. anusaqyati 
in same meaning] to go to, to visit, inspect, control; 
ppr. med. "sanfiayamana Vin 111.43 (kammante); inf. 
"sannatug A 1.68. (janapade). 

Anusata [Sk. anusrta, pp. of anu -|- Sf] sprinkled with ( — °), 
bestrewn, scattered Vv 5' (paduraa" magga = vippakinna 
VvA 36). 

Anusatthar [n. ag. to anu -f sag, cf. St. anuiSsitr & P. 
satthar] instructor, adviser j IV.178 (Scariya +). Cp. 

Anusatthi (f) [Sk. anusasti, anu -|- sSS, cp. anustsana] 
admonition, rule instruction J 1.241 ; Miln 98, 172, l86 
(dhamma°), 225, 227, 347. 

Anusandati [Vedic anusyandati, anu + syad] to stream 
along after, to follow, to be nonnected with. Thus to be 
read at Miln 63 for anusandahati (anuravaii -|- ; of sound), 
while at A iv.47 the reading is to be corrected to anu- 

Anusandahati [anu + sai) -)- dha, cf. Vedic abhi -f sag -f- 
dha] to direct upon, to apply to A iv.47 sq. (cittaq 
samapattiyS; so to be read with v.l. for anusandati); 
Miln 63 (but here prob. to be read as anuaandall, q.r,), 

Anusandhanata (f.) [= anusandhi] application, adjuiting 
Dhs 8 (cilassa). 

Anusandhi (f) [fr. anu + sag +dhl] connection, (logical) 
conclusion, application DA 1. 122 (where 3 kinds are 
enumd., viz. puccha", ajjhasaya", yath5°); Nett 14 (puc- 
chato; Hard., in Index "complete cessation"?!). Esp. freq. 
in (Jataka) phrase anusandhii) ghatetl "to form the con- 
nection", to draw the conclusion, to show the application 
of the story or point out its maxim J i.io6; 308; DhA 
11.40, 47; etc. 




Anusampavankata (f.) [anu -|- saq + pavankata; is reading 
coriectpj disputing, quarelling (?) Vin n. 88 (under anuvad- 

Aniisaya [anu + si, set! Sk. anusaya has a diff. meaning] 
(see kvu trsl. 234 n. 2 and Cpd. 172 n. 2). Bent, bias, 
proclivity, the persistancc of a dormant or latent dispo- 
sition, predisposition, tendency. Always in bad sense. In 
the oldect texts the word usually occurs absolutely, with- 
out mention of the cause or direction of the bias. So 
Sn. 14 = 369, 545; M. 111.31; S. III. 130, IV. 33, V.28 
236; A. 1.44; 11.157; 111.74, 246, 443. Or in the triplet 
obstinacy, prejudice and bias (adbitthanabhinivesanu- 
saya) S. 11.17;, 135, 161; A. v.iii. Occusionally a 
source of the bias il mentioned. Thns pride at S. 1.188; 
11.252 ff., 275; 111.80, 103, 169, 253; IV.41, 197; A 1. 132, 
IV. 70 doubt at M. 1.483 — ignorance lust and hatred 
at S IV.205, M III. 285. At D III. 254, 282; S V.60; and 
A IV. 9. we have a list of seven anusaya's, the above 
fine and delusion and craving for rebirth. Hence-forward 
these lists govern the connotation of the word; but it 
would be wrong to put that connotation back into the 
earlier passages. Later referenses are Ps 1.26, 70 flf., 123, 
130, 195; 11.36, 84, 94, 158; Pug 21; Vbh 340, 383, 
356; Kvu 405 ff. Dpvs 1.42. 

AnilSaylta [pp. of anuseti, anu + Sf] dormant, only in 
comb"- digharatta° latent so long Th i, 768; Sn 355, 
649. Cp. anusaya & anusayin. 

Anusayin (adj.) [fr. anusaya] D 11.283 (""e digharalta"), 
'for me, so long obsessed (with doubts)". The reading is 

Anusaratl [anu -f sf] to follow, conform oneself to S iv. 
303 (phalai] anusarissati BB, but balar) anupadassati SS 
perhaps to be preferred). — Caus. anusareti to bring 
together with, to send up to or against Miln 36 (afiiiam- 
aiinaij a. anupeseti). 

Anusavatl at S n.54 (asava na a.; v. I. anusayanti) & iv. 
188 (akusala dhamma na a.; v. 1. anusenti) should prefer- 
ably be read anusayati: see anuseti 2. 

Anusahagata (adj.) having a residium, accompanied by a 
minimum of.. S 111.130; Kvu 81, see anu°. 

AnUSayika (adj.) [fr. anusaya] attached to one, i.e. inherent, 
chronic (of disease) M n.7.0 (abadha, v. 1. BB anussayika); 
DhA 1.431 (roga). 

Anusara [fr. anu -|- sf] "going along with", following, 
conformity. Only in obi. eases ( — °) anusarena (instr.) 
in consequence of, in accordance with, according to J 1.8; 
PvA 187 (tad ), 227; and anusarato (abl.) id. Sdhp 91. 

Anusaiin ( — °) (adj.) [fr. anu -)- sarati] following, striving 
after, acting in accordance with, living up to or after. 
Freq. in formula dhammanusarin saddhanusarin living 
in conformity with the Norm & the Faith D 111.254; M 
1.142, 479; S III. 225; V.200 sq.; A 1.74; IV. 10; Pug 
15. — Cp. also S 1.15 (bhavasola"); iv.128 (id.); J vi.444 
(panditassa" ^ veyyavaccakara C); Sdhp 528 (altha"). 

Anusareti see anusarati. 

Anusasaka [fr. anusSsati] adviser, instructor, counsellor J 
11.105; ^'''d 186, 217, 264. Cp. anusatthar. 

>'AnUSasati [Vedic anusasati, anu -f- sSs] I. to advise, ad- 
monish, instruct in or give advice upon (c. ace.) to exhort 
to Vin 1.83; D 1. 135; 11.154; Dh 77, 159 (aiiiiajj); J 
VI. 368; cp.'; Pv 11.68; PvA 148. — grd. anusasiya 
Vin 1.59; and °sasitabba DhA 111.99. — Pass sasiyati 
Vin 11.200; Miln 186. — 2. to rule, govern (ace.) ad- 
minister to (dat.) S 1.236 = Sn 1002 (pathaviq dhammena- 
m-anusasali, of a Cakkavattin) ; J 11.2; VI. 517 (rajjassa = 

rajjar) C, i.e. take care of) DA 1.246 (read '"sasantena) i 
PvA 161 (rajjar)). — pp. anusiftha (q. v.); cp. anusatthar, 
anusalthi & ovadati. 

Anusasana (nt.) [Vedic anusasana, fr. anu -f- sfis] advice, 
instruction, admonitioii D III. 107; A 1.292 ("patihariya, 
cp. anusasani); Miln 359. 

AnUSasani (f.) [fr. anusasati, cp. anusasana] instruction, 
teaching, commandment, order S v. 108; A 11. 147; 111.87; 
V.24 sq., 49, 338; J V.113; Th 2, 172, 180; Pv 111.7O; 
ThA 162; VvA 19, 80, 81. 

-patihariya (anusasani") the miracle of teaching, the 
wonder worked by the commandments (of the Buddha) 
Vin 11.200; D 1. 212, 214; 111.220; A 1.170; v.327;J 
111.323; Ps 11.227 sq. 

Anusikkhatl [Vedic anusiksati ; anu -)- Desid. of sak] to 
learn of somebody (gen.); to follow one's example, to 
imitate Vin 11.201 (ppr. med. "amSna) ; S 1235; A IV. 
282, 286, 323; Sn 294 (vattai], cp. RV 111.59, 2: vratena 
siksati), 934; J 1.89; 11.98; 111.315; V.334; VI.62; Th 1, 
963; Miln 61. — Caus anusikkhapeti to teach [= Sk. 
anusiksayati] Miln 352. 

Anusikkhin (adj.) [fr. anusikhati] studying, learning M i. 
100; Dh 226 (ahoratta" r= diva ca rattin ca tisso sikkha 
sikkhamana DhA 111.324). 

Anusittha (Vedic anusista, pp. of anus.-isati] instructed, ad- 
monished, advised; ordered, commanded M 11.96; J 1.226; 
Pv 11.81'; Miln 284, 349. 

Anusibbati [anu -|- sibbati, siv to sew] to interweave Vin 
111.336 (introd. to Sam. Pas.). 

Anusuoatl [anu + sru] to hear; pret. anassurj [.Sk. an- 
vasruvai)] 1 heard M 1.333. 

Anusumbhatl [anu -|- sumbhati (sobloxti).; subh or (Vetlic,) 
sumbh] to adorn, embellish, prepare J VI.76. 



[cp. Sk. anasuyaq] readimg at J 111.27, toe 

Anusuyyaka (adj.) [an -l-iusuyyaka] not eoviotjj;, not jealous 

Sn 325 (= usuyyaviganiena a. Sn.X 332); J 11.192 (v. I. 
anussuyyaka); V.112. 

AnUSet|U [anu + setthi] u an under-setthi (hanker, mer- 
chant) J V.384 (see anu B ill. a). — 2. in rsSupl. cpd. 
setthanasettbi (see anu B iv) "bankers & lesser \bankers", 
i.e.' all kinds of well-to-do families J VI. 331. 

Anuseti [anu -)- seti. cp. Sk. .tinusayate or° sete, from si] 
to "lie down with", i.e. (l) trs. to dwell on, -barp on 
(an idea) S 11.65 ; 111.36; IV..308. — 2. (of the idea) to 
obsess, to fill tie mind persistently, to lie dormanl & be 
continually cropping up. M 1.40, 108, 433; S 11,54 (so 
read with SS for anusavanti) iv.188; A 1.283; n>-246; 
Pug 32, 48. — pp. anusayita (q. v.). 

AnuSOCati [anu + socatij to mourn for, to bewail .Su S5 1 
(aljtaij na a.; cp. Nd' 222); Pv 1.12'; 11.68; PvA 95. 

AnuSOCana (nt.) [abstr. fr. anusocatjj bewailing, mourning 
PvA 65. 

AnuSOta° [anu + sota, in "r) as adv. or ace. to cxpl"- under 
anu A a.] in anusotai] (adv.) along the stream or cur- 
rent, down-stream A 11. u; J 1.70 (opp. patisotag against 
the stream); PvA 169 (Gangaya a. agacchanto). 

-gamin "one who follows the stream", i. e. giving way 
to ones inclinations, following ones will A 11.5, 6 (opp. 
pati°); Sn. 319 (= sotaq anugacchanto Sn A 33°); Pug 62. 




Anussati (f) [Sk. anusmrti, fr. anu + SHlf, cp. sati] 
remembrance, recollection, thinking of, mindfulness. A 
late list of subjects to be kept in mind comprises six 
anussati-tthanani, viz. Buddha°, Dhamma°, Sangha", 
sila", caga", devata", i. e. proper attention to the Buddha, 
the Doctrines, the Church, to morality, charity, the gods. 
Thus at D 111.250, 280 (cp. A l.2it); A 111.284, 3'2sq., 
452; V.329 sq.; Ps 1.23. Expanded to 10 subjects (the 
above plus anapana-sati, marana-sati, kayagata-sati, 
upasamaoussati) at A 1.30, 42 (cp. Vist 34). I-"or 
other references see D l.8i; S v.67 = It 107 (anussarana 
at latter pass,); A Hi. 284, 325, 452. Ps 1.48, 95, 186; 
Pug 25, 60; Dhs 14, 23, 1350 (anussati here to be corr. 
to asali, see BAs. trsl. 351); Sdhp. 225, 231, 482. See 
also anuttariya (anussat-anultariya). 

AnuSSada (^dj.) [an -|~ ussada without haughtiness Sn 624 
(vv. U. auusaddha & anussuda; Sn A 467 expl"- by tanha 
ussadabhav.i) = Dh 400 (which pass, has anussuta; v.l. 
K.B. anussada; Dh.\iv.i65 expl^ with tanha-ussavabhava, 
vv. 11. "uss.tda") ; It 97 (w. 11. anussata & anussara). 

Anussarana (nt.) [abstr. to anussarati] remembrance, me- 
mory, recollection It 107 (= anussati at id. p. S v.67); 
PvA 25, 29. 

Anussarati [Vedic anusmarati, anu + Smf] to remember^ 
recollect, have memory of (ace), bear in mind; be aware 
of Dll.8, 53, 54 (jatito etc.); S 111.86 sq. (pubbenivasaij); 
v.67 (dhammaij a. anuvitakketi), 303 (kappasahassaq); 
A 1.25, 164 (pubbeuivasari), 207 (Tathagatar), Dhammar) 
etc.); 111.2S5 (id.), 323 (uivasai)), 418; v.34, 38, 132, 
•99i 336 (kalyanamitte); It 82 (dhammnij), 98 (pubbeni- 
vasai)); J 1.167; "-in; Dh 364; Pv !.5»; Pug 60; Sdhp 
580, 587; DA 1.257; KhA 213; DhA 11.84; 'V.95; PvA 
29, 53, 69, 79, 107. — pp. anussarita (see anussaritar). 
— Caus anvissarapeti to remind someone, to call to 
mind J 11.147 

Anussaritar [n. ag. to anussarita, pp. of anussarati] one 
who recollects or remembers S v. 197, 225 (saritar+); 
A V.25, 28. 

Anussava [anu + sava fr. sni, cp. Vedic sravas nt.] hear- 
say, report, tradition M 1520; 11.21 1 ; S 11.115; 'V.138; 
A 1.26; J 1.158 (with rcf. to part, kira = annussav'atthe 
nipato; so also at VvA 322, cf. anussavana); 11.396,430 
(id.); IV. 441 ; instr. "ena from hearsay, by report A11.191 
(cf. itihitihaij). 

Anussavana (nt.) [anu+savana fr. ^ru] = anussava PvA 
103 (kira-saddo anussavane, from hearsay). 

AnilSSavika (adj.) [fr. anussava] "belonging to hearsay", 
traditional ; one who is familiar with tradition or who 
learns from hearsay M 1.520; 11.211. Cp. anussutika. 

AnUSSavaka [fr. anussaveti] one who proclaims or announces, 
a speaker (of a kammavaca) Vin 1.74. 

Anussavana (nt.) & °a (f.) [fr. anussaveti] a proclamation 
Vin 1. 317, 340; V.170, 186, 202 sq. 

AniiSSavita [pp. of anussaveti] proclaimed, announced 
Vin 1.103. 

Anussaveti [anu -)- saveti, Caus. of gru, cp. B.Sk. anusra- 
vayati "to proclaim aloud the guilt of a criminal" AvS. 
1.102; II. 1 82] to cause to be heard or sound; to proclaim, 
utter speak out Vin 1.103 ("ssaviyamana ppr. Pass.); 
11.48 (soddai) a.). — pp. anussavita. 

Anussuka (adj.) [an -|- ussuka] free from greed Dh 199; 
cf. anussukin v. I. D 111.47, s'*" anissukin and apalasin. 

Anussukita [an -f ussuk°] VvA 74 & anussukin Pug 23 
= anussuka. 

Anussuta' (adj.) [an + ussuta, ud + Sf] ^^ree ffo™ lost 
Dh 400 (= ussavabhSvena anussuta C). See also anussada. 

Anussuta^ [anu -\- suta, pp. of sni] heard of; only in cpd. 
ananussuta unheard of S 11.9; Pug 14. 

Anussutika (adj.) [fr. anu -f- sru, cp. anussavika] according 
to liadition or report^ one who goes by or learns from 
hearsay DA 1.106, 107. 

Anussuyyaka see anusuyyaka. 

Anuhasatl [anu -|- hasati] to laugh at, to ridicnle DA 1.256. 

Anuhirati [for ' hariyati, anu -\- hf] to be held up over, 
ppr. anuhirainana D 11. 15 (w. 11. v. 1. anubhiram"; 
glosses B. K. anudhariyam", cp. Trenckner, Notes 79). 

Anuna (adj.) [Vedic anuna, an + ana] not lacking, entire, 
complete, without deficiency J VI273; Dpvs v. 52; Miln 
226; DA 1.248 (+ paripura, expW by anavaya). 

Anunaka = anuna Dpvs iv.34. 

Anunata (f.) [abstr. fr. anuna] completeness Cp. 111.6''. 

Anupa (adj.) [Vedic anupa, anu -|- ap: see apa, orig. along- 
side of water] watery, moist; watery land, lowland J. iv.358 
(anopa T; anupa C. p. 359), 381 (°khetta); Miln 129 

Anupghata [metrically for ,inupa°] not killing, not mur- 
dering. Dh 185 (= anupahananan c^eva anupaghatanan 
ca DhA III. 238). 

Anupadhika for anu° in metre Sn 1057, see upadhi. 

Anupanahln (adj.) [an -f- upanahin. with u metri causa] 
not bearing ill-will, not angry with J iv.463. 

AnQpama at It 122 is metric reading for anupama (see 

Anupalitta (adj.) [an + upalitta, with a in metre] free 
from taint, unstained, unsmeared Sn 211, 392, 468, 790, 
845; Dh 353; cf. Nd' 90 and DhA iv.72. 

Anupavada [an -|- upavada, with metrically lengthened u] 
not grumbling, not finding fault Dh 185 (^= anupavadanaii 
c' eva anupavadapanaii ca DhA 111.238). 

Anuhata (adj.) [pp. of an + uhaniiati, ud -\- han] not 
rooted out, not removed or destroyed Th I, 223 = Nd' 
97* ; Dh 338 (^ asamucchinna DhA iv.48). 

Aneka (adj.) (usually " — ) [an = eka] not one, i. e. many, 
various; countless, numberless It 99 (saqvattakappa count- 
less aeons); Sn 688 (°sakhs); Dh 153 (''jatisara); J IV.2 ; 

-pariyayena (instr.) in many ways Vin 1.16; Sn p. 15. 
-rupa various, manifold Sn 1049, 1079, 1082; Nd' 54 
(= anekavidha). -vidha manifold Nd' 54; D.'V 1.103. 
-vihita various, manifold D 1.12, 13, 178: It 98; Pug 
55; DA 1. 103 (:= anekavidha). 

Anekagsa (f.) [an -f ekaqsa] doubt Nd' 1. 

Anekagsikata (f.) [abstr. fr. anekaijsa + kata] uncertainty, 
doubtfulness Miln 93. 

Aneja (adj.) [an + eja] free from desires or lust D H.157; 
Sn 920, 1043, iioi, IH2; It 91 (opp. ejSnuga Nd' 
353 ^= Nd' 55; Dh 414 (:= tanhaya abhavena DhA IV. 
194), 422; Pv IV. l'" ( nittanha PvA 230). 

Anedha(adj.) [an + edha] without fuel J iv.26 (=anindhana). 

Ane|a (adj.) [an -f e!a = ena, see nela & cp. BSk. eda 
(muka); Vedic ancna] faultless, pure; only in foil. cpds. : 
"gala free from the dripping or oozing of impurity (thus 




expl''- at DA 1.282 , viz. elagalana-virahita), but more 
likely in lit. meaning "having a pure or clear throat' 
or, of vaca speech ; "clearly enunciated" (thus Mrs. Kh. U. 
at Kindred Sayings I.241) Vin 1. 197 = D I.II4 ^ S 
1.189; A 11-51, 97; 111.114, 195. Cp. also M \'aslu 111. 
322. — "miiga same as prec. "having a clear throat', 
i. e. not dumb, fig. clever, skilled D 111.265 '1 ^" 7° (= 
alalamukha SnA 124), cp. Nd- 259. 

Ane|aka (adj.) (cp. BSk. anedaka, e.g. Av. S. 1.187, 243; 
M Vaslu 1.339; 111.322]:= .inela, pure, clear M 11.5 ; J vi.529. 

Anesana (f.) [an -f- esana] impropriety S 11.194; J 11-86; 
IV. 381; Miln 343, 401; DA 1.169; LihA iv.34: Sdlip 
392, 427. 

Ano- is a frequent form of comp»- an-ava, sec ava. 

Anoka (nt.) [an 4- oka] houselessness, a houseless state, 
fig freedom from worldliness or attachment to life, single- 
ness S V.24 ^ A V.232 = Dh 87 (oka anokaij .igamma). — 
adj. homeless, free from attachment S 1.17b; Uh 87 (= 
analaya DhA 11.162); Sn 966 (adj.; expld at Ndi 487 
by abhisankhara-sahagatassa vinfianassa okasaq na karoti, 
& at SqA 573 by abhisankhara-viiinan"' adinar) anokasa- 

-sarin living in a houseless state, fig. being free from 
wordly attachment S 111.10 = Nd' 197: Sn 62S (=: ana- 
laya-carin SnA 468); Ud 32; Dh 404 (v. 1. anokka"); 
DhA 1V.174 (= analaya-carin); Miln 386. 

Anogha in anogha-tinna see ogha. 

Anojaka = anoja Vv 35< (= VvA 161, where classed 
with yodhika bandhujivaka). 

Anojagghati at D 1.91 is v. 1. for anujagghati. 

Anoja (f.) [*Sk. anuja] a kind of shrub or tree with red 
flowers J VI.536 (korandaka +) ; usually in cpd. anoja- 
puppha the a. flower, used for wreaths etc. J 1.9 ('do? la, 
a garland of a flowers); vi.227 (id.); DhA 11. 116 (^can- 

Anottappa (nt.) [an + ottappa] recklessness, hardness D 
111.21 2 ; It 34 (ahirika +); Pug 20; Dhs 365. Cp. anottapin. 

Anottapln & Anottappin (adj.) [fr. anottappa] not afraid I 
of sin, bold, reckless, shameless D 111.252, 282 (pp; ahir- 
ika); Sn 133 (p; ahirika +); It 27, 115 (anatapin anot- | 
tappin, vv. 11. anottapin); Pug .?o, 24'. 1 

Anodaka (adj.) [an -|- udaka] without water, dry J 1.307 ; I 
DhA 1.52 ; Sdhp 443. 

AnodiSSaka (adj.) [an 4- odissa -f- ka] unrestricted, without 
exception, general, universal; only in cpd. "vasena uni- 
versally, thoroughly (with ref. to metta) J 1.81; 11146; : 
VvA 97 (in general; opp. odissaka-vasena). See also I 
Mrs. Rh. D. Psalms of the Brethren p. 5 n. i. ! 

Anonamati [an -p onamati] not to bend, to be inflexible, 1 
in foil, expressions: anonamaka (nt.) not stooping DhA 
11.136; auonaraanto (ppr.) not bending I) 11.17 = 111. 
•43; anonami-danda (for anonamiya°) an inflexible stick 
Miln 238 (anonaini° T, hut anonami° vv. II., see Miln 427). 

Anopa see anupa. 

Anoma (adj.) (only ° — ) [art -}- oma] not inferior, superior, 
perfect, supreme, in foil. cpds. 

-guna supreme virtue dA 1.288. -dassika of superior 
beauty Vv 20', VvA 103 (both as v. 1. ; T. anuma°); Vv 
43'. -dassin one who has supreme knowledge; of un- 
excelled wisdom (Name of a Buddha) J 1.228. -nama of 
perfect name S 1.33 ("by name the Peerless" Mrs. Rh. I).), 
235; Sn 153, 177 (cp. SnA 200). -nikkama of perfect 
energy Vv 64^' (= paripunna-viriyat.iya a. Vv.\ 284). 

-paiina of lofty or supreme wisdom (Kp. of the Buddha) 
Sn 343. 352 (= niahapanna Sn.\ 347); Th 2, 522 (= 
paripunna-panna Th.\ 296), Dh.\ 1. 31. -vanna of excel- 
lent colour Sn 686 J vi.202, -viriya of supreme exertion 
or energy Sn 353. 

Anomajjati [aim -|- ava 4- majjati, mrj] tu rub along over, 
to stroke, only in phrase gattani panina a. to rub over 
one's limbs with the hand .M 1.80, 509; S v. 216. 

Anorapara (adj ) [an -(- ora 4- para] having (a shore) 
neither on this side nor beyond Miln 319. 

Anoramati [an 4- ava ~ ram] not to stop, to continue J 
111.4S7; Dh.\ 111.9 (gsr- ^itva continually). 

Anovassa (nt.) [an -|- ovassa; cp. Sk. auavavar^ana] absence 
uf rain, drought I \'.3I7 (v. 1. BB for anvavassa T. ; ij. v.). 

AnOVaSSaka (adj.) [an -f ovassaka] sheltered from the raiu, 
dry Vin 11.211; IV. 272: J 1.172; 1150; !ll.7i; DhA 11. 
263; ThA 188. 

Anosita (adj.) [an 4- ava 4- sita, pp. of sa] not inhabited 
(by), not accessible (to) Sn 937 (= anajjhositaij Ndi 441; 
jaradihi anajjhavutthai) thanar) SnA 566). 

Anta' [Vedic anta; Goih. audeis ^ Ohg. anti =: E. end; 
cp. also Lat. antiae forehead (; E. anller), and the prep, 
anti opposite, antika near ^ I,at. ante; Gr. ivr/ & 'aaix 
opposite; Goth., Ags. and: Ger. ant-; orig. the opposite 
(i. e. what stands ngainst or faces the starting-point)]. 
I. end, finish, goal S IV. 368 (of Nibliana): Sn 467; J 
11.159. antarj karoti to niaUe an end (of) 6n 283. 512; 
Dh 275, cp. antakara, °kiriya. — loc. ante at the end 
of, immediately after J 1.203 (^''jay°). — 2. limit, border, 
edge Vin 1.47; Dh 305 (van°) ; J 111.188. — 3. side: 
see ekamantai) (on one side, aside). — 4. opposite side, 
opposite, counterpart; pi. parts, contrasts, extremes; thus 
also used as "constituent, prisciple" (in tayo & cattaro 
anta; or does it belong to anta- 2. in this meaning? 
Cp. ekantai] extremely, under anta'): dve anta (two 
extremes) Vin no; S II 17; 111.135. ubho anta (both 
sides) Vin; S 11.17; J 1-8; Nd' 109. eko, dutiyo 
anlo (contrasts) Nd' 52. As tayo anta or principles (?), 
viz. sakkaya, s.-samudaya, s.-nirodha D 111.216, cp. A ill. 
401 ; as cattaro, viz. the 3 mentioned plus s.-nirodha- 
gamini-patipada at S 11H57. Interpreted by Morris as 
"goal" {jf P TS. 1S94, 70). — Often pleonastically, to 
be expld as a "pars pro toto" figure, like kammanta 
(q. V.) the end of the work, i. e. the whole work (cp. E. 
sea-side, coanlry-side); vananta the border of the. wood = 
the woods Dh 305; Pv 11.3'" (expH by vana FvA 86; 
same use in BSk., vananta e.g. at Jtm V1.21; cp. also 
gramanta Av. S. 1.210); suttanta (q.v.), etc. Cp. akasanta 
J VI. 89 &: the pleonastic use of patha. -ananta (n.) no 
end, infinitude; (adj.) endless, corresponds either to Sk. 
anta or antya, see anta-. 

-ananta end & no end, or finite and endless, D 1.22; 
DA 1. 1 1 5. -anantika (holding views of. or talking about) 
finiteness and infinitude D 1.22 (see expl"- at DA 1.115); 
S 111.214, 258 sq.; Ps 1.155. -kara putting an end to, 
(n.) a deliverer, saviour; usually in phrase dukkhass'a. 
(of the Buddha) M 1.48, 53:; A 11.2; 111.400 sq. ; Th i, 
195; It 18; Sn 32, 337. 539; Pug 71. In other comb"- 

A 11.163 (^'iji^y'); Sn II 4S (pafihan"). kiriya putting 

an end to, ending, relief, extirpation; always used with 
ref. to dukkha S iv.93; It 89; Sn 454, 725; DhA iv.45. 
-gata = antagu Nd^ 436 (-|- kotigata). -gabika (f.), viz. 
ditthi, is an attribute of niicchaditthi, i. e. heretical doc- 
trine. The meaning of anta in this comb"- is not quite 
clear: either "holding (wrong) principles (goals, Morris)", 
viz. the 3 as specified above 4 under tayo anta (thus 
Morris j'P TS. 1884, 70), or "taking extreme sides, i. e. 
extremist", or "wrong, opposite (= antya, see anta^y 
(thus Kern, Ton: s. v.) Vin 1.172; D 111.45, 4^ (an°); 
S 1.154; .\ 1.154; 11.240; 111.130; Ps 1.151 sq. -gu one 




who has gone to the end, one who has gone through or 
overcome (dukkha) A IV. 254, 258, 26a; Sn 401 (= vatta- 
dukkhassa antagata); 539. -ruddhi at J vi.8 is doubtful 
reading (antaruci?). -Vat^i rimmed circumference J HI. 159. 
-sahnin being conscious of an end (of the world) D 1.22, 
cp. DA I 115. 

Anta- (adj.) [Vedic antya] I. having an end, belonging to 
the end; only in neg. anaata endless, infinite, boundless 
(opp. antavant); which may be taken as equal to anta' 
(corresp. with Sk. anta (adj.) or antya; also in doublet 
anaiica, see akas'anaiica and viniian'ananca); D 1.23, 34 
= D 111.224, 262 sq.; Sn 468 ("paufia); Dh 179, 180 
('gocara having an unlimited range of mental vision, cp. 
Dh.\ III. 197); J I.I 78. — 2. extreme, last, worst J 11.440 
(C. hloa, lamaka); see also anta' 4. — ace. as adv. in 
ekantai] extremely, very much, "utterly" Dh 22S etc. 
See eka. 

Anta' (nt.) [Vedic antra, conlr. fr. antara inner =z Lat. 
inlerus, Gr. 'f/rifx intestines] the lower intestine, bowels, 
mesentery It 89; J 1.66, 260 (°vaddhi-mar|sa etc.); Vism 
258; DhA 1.80. 

-gan^hi twisting of the bowels, lit. "a knot in the 
intestines" Vin 1.275 (°abadha). -guna [see gu^ia- ^ gula'] 
the intestinal tract, the bowels S 11,270; A IV. 132; Kh 
in. = Miln 26; Vism 42; KhA 57. -mukha the anus 
J IV.402. -vatti = °guna Vism 258. 

Antaka [Vedic antaka] being at the end, or making an 
end, Ep. of Death or Mara Vin 1.21; S 1.72; Th 2, 59 
(expl<i by ThA 65 as lamaka va Mara, thus taken = 
anta'i); Dh 48 (^ marana-sankhato antako DhA 11.366), 
288 {= marana DhA in. 434). 

Antamaso (adv.) [orig. abl. of antama, *Sk. antamasah ; 
cp. BSk. antasah as same formation fr. anta, io same 
meaning ("even") Av. S. 1. 314; Divy 161] even Vin III. 
260; IV.123; D 1.168; M III. 127; A V.195; J 11.129; 
DA 1.170; SnA 35; VvA 155. 

Antara (adj.) [Vedic antara, cp. Gr. '/KTfpa = Sk. antra 
(see anta'), Lat. interus fr. prep, inter. See also ante & 
anlo]. Primary meanings are "inside" and "in between"; 
as adj. "inner"; in prep, u^e & in cpds "inside, in be- 
tween". Further development of meaning is with a view 
of contrasting the (two) sides of the inside relation, i. e. 
having a space between, different from ; thus nt. anta- 
rar) difference. 

I. (^AilJ.-?i) I. (a) inner, having or being inside It 83 
(tayu antara mala three inward stains); esp. as — ° in 
cpds. ami8° with greed inside, greedy, selfish Vin 1.303 ; 
dos° with anger inside, i.e. angry Vin 11.249; D 111.237; 
M 1. 123; TvA 78 (so read for des"). Abl. antarato from 
within It S3, (b) in between, distant; dvadasa yojan' 
antarar) thanar) PvA 139 139. — ■ 2. In noun-funr.ion 
(nt.): (a), spatial: the insiile (of) Vv 36' (pitantara a 
yellow cloak or inside garment = pitavanna uttariya VvA 
I '6); Davs (dtp' antara-vasin living on the island); 
DhA 1.358 (kanna-chidd" the inside of the ear; VvA 50 
(kacch° inner room or apartment). Therefore also "space 
in between", break J v. 352 (= chidda C), & obstacle^ 
hindrance, i. g. what stands in between : see cpds. and 
antara-dhayati (for antaraq dhayati). — (b). leinforal: an 
interval of lime, hence time in general, & also a speci- 
fied time, i. e. occasion. As interval in Buddhantarai] the 
time between the death of one Buddha and the appea- 
rance of another, Pv.\ 10, 14, 21, 47, 191 etc. As !ime: 
It 121 (etasmii) antare in that time or at this occasion); 
Pv 1. 10" (dighai) antaraq = dighaq kalai) PvA 52); 
I'vA 5 (etasraii) antarc at this time, just then). As »ci'(ii»o«: 
J V.287; Pug 55 (elakara-antaraq occasion of getting 
rnin). S 1.20, quoted I).\ 1.34, (man ca tan ca kiq antaraij 
what is there between me and yon ?) C. exi)ls- kit) karana. 
M's Rh. D. in trsl". p. 256 'of me if is and thee (this 
talk) — now why is this"; J Vl.8 (assa antaratj na pass- 
ii)su they did not see a diff. in him). — 3 Phrases : 

antaraq karotl (a) to keep away from or at a distance 

(trs. and intrs.), to hold aloof, lit. "to make a space in 
between" M ill. 14; J. iv.2 (°katva leaving behind); Pug 
A 231 (ummaraq a. katva staying away from a threshold); 
also adverbially: dasa yojanani a. katva at a distance of 
10 y. PvA 139. — (b.) to remove, destroy J VI. 56 (v. 1. 
BB. antarSyaij karoti). 

II. Irt prep, use (" — ) with ace. (direction) or loc. 
(rest): inside (of), in the midst of, between, during (cp. 
HI. use of cases), (a.) w. ace: antaragharaq pavittha 
gone into the house Miln 11. — (b.) w. loc: antara- 
ghaie nisldanti (inside the house) Vin 11.2I3; "dlpake in 
the centre of the island J 1.240; "dvare in the door 
J V.231; °magge on the road (cp, antarSmagge) PvA 109; 
°bhatte in phrase ekasmiq yeva a. during one meal J I ig = 
DhA 1.249; "bhattasmiq id. DhA IV.12; "vithiyan in the 
middle of the road PvA 96. "satthlsu between the thighs 
Vin It. 161 (has antara satthtnai)) = J 1.218. 

III. Adverbial use of eases^ instr. antarena in between 
D 1.56; S 1V.S9, 73; J 1.393; PvA 13 (kaP in a little 
while, na kalantarena ib. 19), Often in comb"- antaran- 
tarena (c. gen.) right in between (lit. in between the space 
of) DhA 1.63, 358. — loc. antare in, inside of, in be- 
tween ( — " or c. gen. KhA 81 (sutt" in the Sutta); DhA 
III. 416 (mama a.); PvA 56, 63 (rukkh°). Also as anta- 
rantare right inside, right in the middle of (c. gen.) 
KhA 57 ; DhA 1.59 (vanasandassa a.). — abl. antara 
(see also sep. article of antara) in comb"- antarantara 
from time to time, occasionally ; successively time after 
time Sn p. 107; DhA 11.86; IV.191 ; PvA 272. 

IV. anantara (adj.) having or leaving nothing in be- 
tween i. e. immediately following, incessant, next, adjoining 
Jiv.i3g; Miln 382 (solid; DhA 1.397; PvA63 (tadantaraq 
immediately hereafter), 92 (immed. preceding), 97 (next in 
caste). See also abbhantara. 

-atita gone past in the meantime J 11.243. -kappa 
an intermediary kappa (q. v.) D I 54. -kSrana a cause 
of impediment, hindrance, obstacle Pug A 231. -cakka 
"the intermediate round", i. e. in astrology all that be- 
longs to the intermediate points of the compass Miln 
178. -cara one who goes in between or inside, i.e. a 
robber S iv,i73. -bahira (adj.) inside & outside J 1.125. 
-bbogika one who has power (wealth, influence) inside 
the kings dominion or under ihe king, a subordinate 
chieftain (cp. antara-rattha) Vin 111.47 -rattha an inter- 
mediate kingdom, rulership of a subordinate prince J v. 135. 
-v3sa an interregnum Dpvs v. 80. -vasaka "inner or inter- 
mediate garment", one of the 3 robes of a Buddhist 
bhikkhu (viz. ihe sanghati, uttarSsanga & a.) Vin 1.94, 
289; 11.272. Cf. next. -sStaka an inner or lower garment 
[cp. Sk, antariya id,], under garment, i. e. the one be- 
tween the outer one & the body VvA 166 (q. v.). 

AntaraQsa [B.Sk. antaraqsa; antara -{- aQsa] "in between 
the shoulders", i.e. the chest J v.173 ::= VI.171 (phrase 
lohitakkho vihat' antaraijso). 

Antaratthaka (adj.) [antara -f atlhaka] only in phrases 
rattisu antaratthakasu and antaratthake hima-pata- 
samaye (in which antara functions as prep. c. loc, ac- 
cording to antara II. b.) i.e. in the nights (& in the time 
of the falling of snow) between the eighths (i. e. the 
eighth day before & after the full moon: see atthaka'). 
First phrase at Vin 1.31, 288; ill 31; second at M 1.79 
(cp. p. 536 where Trenckener divides anta-ratthaka); 
A f.136 (in nom.); J I.390; Miln 396. 

Antaradhana (nt.) [fr. antacadhayati] disappearance A 1.58 
(saddhammassa); n.147; ill. 176 sq.; Miln 133; Dhs 645, 
738, 871. Cp. "dhayana. 

Antaradhayati [antara -\- dhayati] to disappear So 449 
(°dhayatlia 3rd sg. med.); Vv 81" (id.); J 1.119 = DhA 
1.248; DhA 1V.191 (ppr. °dh5yamana & aor. dhayi) PvA 
152, 217, (°dhayi), 245; VvA 48. — ppr. antarabita 
(q. v.). — Cans, antaradhapeti to cause to disappear, to 
destroy J I.147; 11.415; PvA 123. 




Antaradhayana (nt.) [fr. an taradhSyati] disappearance Dh A 
IV. 191. (v. 1. °adhana). 

Antarayatl [cp. denom. fr. antara] to go or step in be- 
tween, ger. antaritva (=: antarayitva) J 1.2 18. 

Antarahlta (adj.) [pp. of antaradhayati] i. disappeared, 
gone, left D 1.222. M 1.487. Miln 18. PvA 245. — 2 in 
phrase anantarahitaya bhumiya (loc) on the bare soil 
(lit. on the ground with nothing put in between it & the 
person lying down, i. e. on an uncovered or unobstructed 
ground) Vin 1.47; 11.209; M 11.57. 

Antara (adv.) [abl. or adv. forruation fr. antara; Vedic 
antara.] prep, (c. gen. ace. or loc), pref. (° — ) and adv. 
"in between" (of space & time), midway, inside; during, 
meanwhile, between. On interpretation of term see DA 
1.34 sq. — ■ (l). (prep.) c. ace. (of the two points com- 
pared as termini; cp. B.Sk. antara ca Divy 94 etc.) Dl.l 
(antara ca Rajagahaij antara ca Nalandai) between R. and 
N.). — c. gen. & loc. Vin 11. 161 (satthinar) between the 
thighs, where id. p. at J 1.2 18 has antara-satthlsu); A 
ir.245 (satthinar). but v. 1. satthimhi). — (2) (adv.) mean- 
while Sn 291, 694; It 85; Dh 237. — occasionally 
Miln 251. — (3). (pref) see cpds. 

-katha "in between talk, talk for pastime, chance con- 
versation, D ii.i, 8, 9; S 1.79; IV. 281; A III. 167; Sn 
p. 115; DA 1.49 and freq. passim, -gattchati to come 
in between, to prevent J VI. 295. -parinibbayin an Ana- 
gamin who passes away in the middle of his term of 
life in some particular heaven D in. 237; A 1.233; ''"g ^^• 
-magge (loc.) on the road, on the way J 1.253; Miln 16; 
DhA 11.21; III. 337; PvA 151,258,269,273 (cp. antara"). 
-marana premature death DhA 1.409; PvA 136. -mut- 
taka one who is released in the meantime Vin 11.167. 

Antarapana (nt.) [antara -j- pana "in between the shopping 
or trading"] place where the trading goes on, bazaar 
J '-55; '^''•52; Miln t, 330; DhA 1. 181. 

Antaraya' [antara 4- aya from i, lit. "coming in between"] 
obstacle, hindrance, impediment to ( — "); prevention, bar; 
danger, accident to ( — ). There are 10 dangers (to or 
from) enumd- at Vin 1.112, 169 etc., viz. raja°, cora°, 
aggi°, udaka°, maaussa°, amanussa°, vala°, sirii]sapa°, 
jivita°, brakmacariya". In B.Sk. 7 at Divy 544, viz. 
raja-caura-manusy-amanusya-vyad-agny-udakaij. — D 1.3, 
25, 26; A 111.243, 3°6; IV.320; Sn 691, 692; Dh 286 
(=jlvit° DhA 111.431); J 1.62, 128; KhA l8i; DhA 
II 52; VvA 1 = PvA I (hat° removing the obstacles) 
-antarayai] karoti to keep away from, hinder, hold back, 
prevent, destroy Vin 1. 15; J vi.171; Vism 120; PvA 20. 
-kara one who causes impediments or bars the way, 
an obstructor D 1.227; S 1.34; A 1. 161; Pv IV.3". 

Antaraya^ (adv.) [dat. of antara cr formation fr. antara -f- 
ger. of V.) in the meantime Sn II20 (cp Nd^ 58) = 
antara Sn A 603. 

AntarSyika (adj.) [fr. antaraya] causing an obstacle, forming 
an impediment Vin 1.94=11.272; M 1. 130; S 11.226; 
ThA 288. 

Antarayikln (adj.-n.) [cp. antarayika] one who meets with 
an obsticle, finding difficulties Viu IV.280 (an° = asati 

Antaraja (nt.) [Sk antarala] interior, interval Davs 1.52; 
III. 53 (nabh°). 

Antarika (adj.) [fr. antara] "being in between", i.e. — 
I. intermediate, next, following: see an°. . — 2. distant, 
lying in between PvA 173 (aneka-yojan° thana). See also 
f. antarika. — 3. inside: see antarika. -anantcirika with 
no interval, succeeding, immediately following, next Vin 
II. 165, 212 (an°); iv.234. 

Antarika (f.) [abstr. fr. antarika] "what lies in between or 
near", i.e. — I. the inside of Vin iv.272 (bhajan°). — 
2. the neighbourhood, region of ( — °), sphere, compass 
Vin III. 39 (ur°, angul°); J 1.265 (yakkhassa sim° inside 
the ys sphere of influence). — 3. interval, interstice Vin 
ll.l 16 (sutt° in lace); A 1.124 (vijj° the interval of lightning). 

Antalikkha (nt.) [Vedic antariksa = antari-ksa (kjOi !''• 
situated in between sky and earth] the atmosphere or air 
D 11.15; A 111.239; IV.I99; Sn 222, 688; Dh 127 = 
Miln 1 50=: PvA 104; Pv 1.3' (:= vehayasa-saiiiiita a. 
PvA 14); KhA 166. 

-ga going through the air A 1.215. -cara walking 
through the air Vin 1.21; D 1.17; S l.Ili; J v.267 ; 
DA 1. 110. 

Antavant (adj.) [anta' -\- °vant] having an end, finite D 1.22, 
31, 187; Ps 1.151 sq.; 157; Dhs 1099, 1117, 1175; 
Miln 145. -anantayant endless, infinite A v.193 (loka). 

See also loka. 

Anti (indecl.) [Vedic anti = Lat ante, Gr. avr/, Goth, and; 
Ags. and-, Ger. ant-, ent-] adv. & prep. c. gen.: opposite, 
near J v. 399 (tav' antir) agata, read z.\ tav' anti-m-agata ; 
C. santikari), 400,404; vi.565 (samikass' anti = antike C). 
— Cp. antika. 

Antika (adj.-n.) — l. [der fr. anti] near KhA 217; nt. 
neighbourhood Khvill.l. (odak°); J vi.565 (antike loc. = 
anti near). — 2. [der fr. anta =: Sk. antya] being at the 
end, final, finished, over S 1.130 (purisa etad-antika, v. 1. 
SS antiya: men are (to me) at the end for that, i.e. men 
do not exist any more for me, for the purpose of beget- 
ting sons. 

Antlma (adj.) [Cp. superl. of anta] last, final (used almost 
exclusively with ref. to the last & final reincarnation ; 
thus in comb"- with deha & sarlra, the last body) D 11.15 ; 
Dh 351; It 50 (antimai) deharj dhareti), 53 (id.);Vv5'2; 
Sn 478 (sariraq antimaij dhareti) 502; Miln 122, 148; 
VvA 106 (sarir^ antima-dharin); Sdhp 278. 

-dehadhara one who wears his last, body It 101 ( dhara 
T, "dhara v. 1.); VvA 163. -dharin = prec. S 1.14, 53 
(-j- khinasava); II. 278; It 32, 40; Sn 471. -vatthu "the 
last thing", i.e. the extreme, final or worst (sin) Vin I. 
121, 135, 167, 320. -sarlra the last body; (adj.) having 
ones last rebirth S 1. 210 (Buddho a°-sariro); A 11.37; 
Sn 624; Dh 352, 400; DhA iv.166 (= kotiyaij thito 

Ante" (pref.) [Sk. antah, with change of -ah to -e, instead 
of the usual -o, prob. through interpreting it as loc. ot 
anta] near, inside, within ; only in foil. cpds. : °pura (nt.) 
"inner town", the king's palace, esp. its inner apartments, 
i. e. harem [Sk. antahpura, cp. also P. antopuraj Vin 
1.75, 269; A V.81; J II. 125; IV.472; Miln i; PvA 23, 
81, 280; "purika harem woman DhsA403; °vasika one 
who lives in, i. e. lodges or lives with his master or 
teacher, a pupil Vin 1.60; 111.25; S 1. 180; iv.136; Jl. 
166; 11278; 111.83, 463; PvA 12; VvA 138; "vasin = 
°vasika Vin III. 66; D l.i, 45, 74, 78, 88, 108, 157; M 
III. 1 16; DA 1.36. 

Anto (indecl.) [Sk. antah; Av ant.ira I,at. inter, Oir. etar 
between, Ohg. untar; Idg. *entar, compar. of *en (in) = 
inner, inside] prep, inside, either c. ace. denoting direc- 
tion = into, or c. loc. denoting place where = in. As 
prefix (° — ) in, within, inside, inner (see cpds.) (i.) prep. 
c. ace. anto nivesanai) gata gone into the house J 1.158; 
anto jalaq pavisati go into the net DhA in. 175; anto 
gamai) pavisati to go into the village DhA 11.273; anto 
nagarai) pavisati DhA 11.89; PvA 47. — (2) c. loe. anto 
gabbhe J 11. 1 82; game DhA 11.52; gehe DhA 11.84; 
nadiyai) J VI.278; nivesane J 11.323; vasse in the rainy 
season J iv.242; vimanasmir) Pv 1.10'; sattahe inside of 
a week PvA 55. 




-kotisantbara "house of the Golden Pavement" J iv. 113. 
-gadba (°gata? Kern Toev.') in phrase "hetu^ by inner 
reason or by reason of its intensity PvA 10; VvA 12, 
-jana "the inside people", i.e. people belonging to the 
house, the family (== Lat. familia) D ill. 61 (opp. to ser- 
vants); A 1. 1 52; J VI. 301; DA 1.300. -jala the inside of 
the net, the net DhA iv.41. -jalikata "in-netted", gone 
into the net D 1.45; DA 1.127. -nijjhana inner confla- 
gration PvA 18. -nimugga altogether immersed D 1.75; 
A III. 26. -parisoka inner grief Ps 1.38. -pura =: antepura 
J 1.262. -mano "turning ones mind inside", thoughtful, 
melancholy Via III. 19. -bhavika being inside Miln 95. 
-rukkhata being among trees J 1.7. -vasatl to inhabit, 
live within S iv.136. -valaiijanaka (parijana) indoov- 
people J V.I 18. -vassa the rainy season (lit. the interval 
of the r. s.) VvA 66. -vihara the inside of the V. DhA 
1.50 ("abhimukhi turning towards etc.), -samorodba bar- 
ricading within Dhs 11 57 (so read for anta°, cp. Dhs. 
trsl. 311). -soka inner grief Ps 1.38. 

AndU [cp. Sk. andu, andu & anduka] a chain, fetter Vin 
1.108 = 111.249 (tin°); L) 1.245; J '21 (°ghara prison- 
house); DhA IV.54 (°bandhana). 

Andha (adj.) [Vedic andha, Lat. andabata (see Walde, Lat. 
Wtb. s. v.), other etym. doubtful] I. (lit.) blind, blinded, 
blindfolded J I.216 (dhum°); Pv iv.i«; PvA 3. — dark, 
dull, blinding M 111.151 (°andhar| adv. dulled); Sn 669 
(Ep. of timisa, like Vedic andhaij tamah); DhA 11.49 
("vana dark forest). — 2. (fig.) mentally blinded, dull of 
mind, foolish, not seeing D 1.191 (-|- acakkhuka), 239 
(°veni, reading & meaning uncertain); A 1. 128; Th 2, 
394 (= bala ThA 258). See cpds. "karana, °k5ra, "bala, 

-akula blinded, foolish Vv 84' {= paiifiacakkhuno abha- 
vena VvA 337). -karana blinding, making blind, causing 
bewilderment (fig.), confusing It 82 (+ acakkhukarana); 
Miln 113 (paiiha, -)- gambhira). -kara blindness (lit. & 
fig), darkness, dullness, bewilderment Vin I.16; D II. 12; 
A 1.56; ir.54; 111.233; J iii.iSS; Th I, 1034; Dh 146; 
Sn 763; Vv 21* (=avijj° VvA io6); Pug 30; Dhs 617; 
DA 1.228; VvA 51, 53, 116, 161; PvA 6; Sdhp 14, 280. 
-tamo deep darkness (lit. & fig.) S v.443; It 84 (v. 1.; 
T. andhar) tamai)); Jvi.247. -bala blinded by folly, foolish, 
dull of mind, silly J I.246, 262; VI. 337; DhA II.43, 89; 
III. 179; VvA 67; PvA 4, 264. -bbuta blinded (fig.), 
mentally blind, not knowing, ignorant S IV.21; A 11.72; 
J VI. 139 (spelled °bata); Dh 59, 174 (=;: paiina-cakkhuno 
abhavena DhA in. 175). -vesa "blind form", disguise 
J IU.418. 

Andhaka [fr. andha] "blind fly", i. e. dark or yellow fly or 
gad-fly Sn 20 (= kana-makhhikanai) adhivacanai) SnA 33). 

Anna (nt.) [Vedic anna, orig. pp. of adali to eat] "eating", 
food, esp. boiled rice, but includes all that is eaten as 
food, viz. odana, kummasa, sattu, maccha, maijsa (rice, 
gruel, flour, fish, meat) Nd' 372 = 495. Anna is spelt 
anna in combn^ apar^ a;>na and pubb' anna. Under dhaiina 
(Nd2 314J are distinguished 2 kinds, viz. raw, natural 
cereals (pubb' annai) : sali, vihi, yava, godhuma, kangu, 
varaka, kuditisaka) and boiled, prepared food (apar° annai] : 
supeyya curry). SnA 378 (on Sn 403) expls- anna by 
yagubhattadi. — D 1.7; A 1.107, '32; ".70, 85, 203; Sn 
82,240, 403, 924; J ITI.190; Pug 51; Sdhp 106, 214. 

-apa food & water Sdhp 100. -da giving food Sn 297. 
-pana food & water, eating & drinking, to eat & to drink 
Sn 485, 487; Pv 1.52, 82; KhA 207, 209; PvA 7, 8, 
30, 31, 43- 

Annaya in dur° see anvaya. 

Anvakasl 3'''' sg. aor. of anukassati 2 : drew out, removed, 
threw down Th I, 869 (= khipi, chaddesi C). 

Anvakkhara (adj.) [anu -|- akkhara] "according to the syl- 
lable", syll. after syll., also a mode of reciting by syllables 
Vin IV. 15, cp. 355. Cp. anupadag. 

Anvaga 3'<^ sg. aor. of anugacchati Mhvs 7, 10. Also in 
assim. form annaga J v.258. 

AnvagU 3'^'' pi. aor. of anugacchati S 1.39; Sn 586. 

AnvacJcJhamasaQ (adv.) [anu -\- addha -f masa] every fort- 
night, twice a month M 11.8; Vin IV.315 (= anuposathikaq) ; 
DhA 1. 162; 11.25. 

Anvattha (adj.) [anu -f- attha] according to the sense, ans- 
wering to the matter, having sense ThA 6 (°san3abhava). 

Anvadeva (adv.) [anva-d-eva with euphonic d.; like samma- 
d-eva corresponding to Sk. anvag-eva] behind, after, later 
D 1. 172; M 111.172; S V.I (spelt anudeva); A; v. 
214; It 34. 

Anvaya (n.-adj.) [Vedic anvaya in diff. meaning; fr. anu -(- li 
see anveti & anvaya] I. (n.) conformity, accordance D 11. 
83 = iii.ioo; M 5, 69 (dhamm° logical conclusion of); 
S 11.58; D 3, 226 (anvaye nanaq); Pv II. Il' (tassa kam- 
massa anvaya, v. 1. BB anvaya & anvaya; accordingly, 
according to = paccaya PvA 147); PvA 228 (anvayato, 
adv. in accordance). — 2. (adj.) following, having the 
same course, behaving according to, consequential, in 
conformity with (— °) D I.46 (tad°); M 1.238 (kayo citt" 
acting in conformity to the mind, obeying the mind); 
Sn 254 (an° inconsistent); It 79 (tass°). — dur° .spelt 
durannaya conforming with diflSculty, hard to manage 
or to find out Dh 92 (gati := na sakka paiiiiiipetuq DhA 
II. 173); Sn 243, 251 (= duviniiapaya SnA 287 dunneyya 
ibid. 293). 

Anvayata (f.) [abstr. to anvaya] conformity, accordance M 
1.500 (kay° giving in to the body). 

AnvahaQ (adv.) [anu -)- aha] every day, daily DSvs iv.8. 

AnvagaCChatl [anu -|- a -|- gacchati] I. to go along after, 
to follow, run after, pursue; aor. anvagaccbi Pv iv.s" 
(=: anubandhi PvA 260). — 2. to come back again J 
1.454 (g^f- °gantvana). — pp. anvagata (q. v.). 

Anvagata [pp. of anvagacchati] having pursued, attained ; 
endowed with Th I, 63 ; J iv.385 ; v.4. 

Anvadlsati [anu -|- a -f- disati] to advise, dedicate, assign ; 
imper. °dlsabl Pv 11.2" {= uddissa dehi PvA 80); lll.2« 
(= adisa PvA 181). 

Anvadhlka (adj.) [derivation uncertain] a tailoring term. 
Only at Vin 1.297. Rendered {^Vinaya Texts 11.232) by 
'half and half ; that is a patchwork, half of new material, 
half of old. Bdhgh's note (see the text, p. 392) adds 
that the new material must be cut up. 

Anvamaddati [anu -j- a -|- maddati] to squeeze, wring J ill. 
481 (galakai) anvamaddi wrung his neck; vv. II. anvanu- 
matti & anvavamaddi; C. glvaq maddi). 

Anvaya [ger. of anveti ; cp. anvaya] undergoing, experiencing, 
attaining; as prep. (c. ace.) in consequence of, through, 
after D 1.13 (atappai} by means of self-sacrifice), 97 (saq- 
vasar) as a result of their cohabitation); J 1.56 (buddhiq), 
127 (piyasar) vasal)), 148 (gabbhaparipSkari). Often in 
phrase vuddhir) anvaya growing up, e.g. J 1.278; in. 
126; DhA 11.87. 

AnvSyika (adj.-n.) [fr. anvSya] following; one who follows, 
a companion D in. 169; Nd^ 59; J 111.348. 

Anvarohati [anu -)- a -|- rohati] to go up to, visit, ascend 
J IV. 465 (aor. anvaruhi). 





Anvavassa at J v.317 should be read with v. I. UB as 
anovassa absence of rain. 

Anvavlttha [pp. of anvavisati] possessed (by evil spirits) 
S 1.114. 

Anvavisati [anu + a + visati] to go into, to take posses- 
sion of, to visit M 1326; S 1.67; Miln 156. — pp. an- 
vavittha (q. v.). Cp. adhimuccati. 

Anvasatta [pp- of anu + a + saiij, cp. anusatta = Sk. 
anusakta] clung on to, befallen by (instr.), attached to 
A 1V.356 (v. 1. anvahata), cp. Ud 35 (anvasanna q. v.). 
See also foil. 

Anvasattata (f.) [abstr. fr. anvasatta] being attacked by, 
falling a prey to (instr.), attachment to DhA 1.287 ('" same 
context as anvasatta A iv.356 & anvasanna Ud 35). 

Anvasanna [pp. of anu + S + sad] endowed with, pos- 
sessed of, attacked by, Ud 35 (doubtfull; v. 1. ajjhapanna), 
= A IV.356 which has anvasatta. 

Anvassavati [anu -f a + savati, srtl] to stream into, to 
attack, befall D 1. 70; A 111.99; Pug 20, 58. 

Anvahata [pp. of anu + a + han] struck, beaten; per- 
plexed Dh 39 C^cetasa). 

Anvahinijati [anu -|- a -|- hindati] to wander to (ace.) A 
'V.374, 376 [BSk. same, e. g. Divy 68 etc.]. 

Anvetl [cp. anu -j- eti, from i] to follow, approach, go with 
Sn 1103 (:= anugacchati anvayiko hoti Nd' 59); Dh I 
(= kayikaq . . . dukkhaij anugacchati DhA 1.24), 2, 71, 
124; perhaps at Pv II.6'^<' (with v. 1. BB at PvA 99)- for 
anvesi (see anvesati; expl<'' by anudesi = was anxious 
for, helped, instructed). 

Anvesa [from next] seeking, searching, investigation, M 
1. 140 ("q n^ adhigacchanti do not find). 

Anvesati [anu -|- esati] to look, for search, seek S 1. 1 12 
(ppr. anvesai] = pariyesamana C); Cp lil.ll' (ppr. an- 
vesanto). — aor. anvesi [Sk. anvesi fr. icchati] Pv 11.6^° 
(? perhaps better with v. 1. PvA 99 as anventi of anveti). 

Anvesin [anu-esin] (adj.) striving after, seeking, wishing 
for Sn 965 (kusala"). 

Anha [Vedic ahan] see pubbauha, majjhanha, sayanha. 
Cp. aha. 

Apa° [Vedic apa; Idg. *apo = Gr. aa-rf, Av. apa, Lat. ab 
from ^'ap (cp. aperio); Goth, af, Ger. ab, Ags. E. of. — 
A compar. form fr. apa is apara "further away"] Well- 
defined directional prefix, meaning "away from, ofT'. 
Usually as base-prefix (except with a), & very seldom in 
comp". with other modifying prefixes (like sam, abhi etc.). — 

1. apa = Vedic apa (Idg. *apo): apeti to go away =r 
Gr. 'aveitii, Lat. abeo, Goth, afiddja; apeta gone away, 
rid ; °kad<lhati to draw away, remove ; "kamati walk away ; 
"gacchati go away ; "nidhati put away (:= xTcriSiiiii, 
abdo); "nudati push away; °neti lead away; "vattati turn 
away (= averto); °sakkati step aside; °harati take away. — 

2. apa = Vedic ava (Idg. *aue; see ava for details). 
There exists a widespread confusion between the two 
preps, apa & ava, favoured both by semantic (apa = 
away, ava = down, cp. E. off) & phonetic affinity (p 
softened to b, esp. in BB Mss., & then to v, as b > v 
is frequent, e. g. bya° > vya° etc.). Thus we find in Pali 
apa where Vedic and later literary Sk. have ava in the 
foil, instances: apakanti, "kassati, "kivati, °gata, °cara, 
"jhayati, "thata, °dana, "dhareti, "nata, "nameti, "nita, 
"lekhana, 'loketi, "vadati. 

Apaka<}(]hati [apa + kaddhati, cp. Sk. apa-karsati] to draw 
away, take off, remove D 1.180; Iir.127; DhA 11.86. — 
Caus. apakaddhapeti J 1.342; iv.415; Miln 34. — Cp. 
apakassati; & see pakattheti. 

Apakata [pp. of apakaroti] put off, done away, in ajivik'' 
apakata being without a living M 1.463 (the usual 
phrase being "apagata); Miln 279 (id.). At It 89 the 
reading of same phrase is sjivika pakata (v. 1. a° vakata). 

ApakataiitiU (adj.) [a + pa -f- katannu] ungrateful Vin 11.199. 

Apakantatl [apa + kantati, Sk. ava -f krntati] to cut off 
Th 2, 217 (gale =: givaq chindati ThA 178; Kern, Tocv. 
corrects to kabale a.). 

Apakaroti [apa + karoti, cp. Sk. apakaroti & apakrta in 
same meaning] to throw away, put off; hurt, offend, 
slight ; possibly in reading T. apakirituna at Th 2, 447 
(q. v.). — pp. apskkata (q. v.). Cp. apakara. 

Apakassati [Sk. apa- & ava-karsati, cp. apakaddhati] to 
throw away, remove Sn 281 (v.l. BB & SnA ava°; expld- 
by niddhamati & nikkaddhati SnA 31 1). -ger. apakassa 
Sn 11.198 = Miln 389. See also apakasati. 

Apakara & °ka [cf. Sk. apakSra & apakaroti] injury, 
mischief; one who injures or offends DhA in.63 ; Sdhp 283. 

Apakasati at Vin 11.204 >^ to t>e read as apakassati and 
interpreted as "draw away, distract, bring about a split 
or dissension (of the Sangha)". The v. 1. on p. 325 justi- 
fies the correction (apakassati) as well as Bdhgh's expl"- 
"parisaq akaddhanti". — Cp. A 111.145 & see avapakasati. 
The reading at the id. p. at A v.74 is avakassati 
(comb'l- w. vav.ikassati, where Vin 11.204 I'as avapakasati), 
which is much to be preferred (see vavakassati). 

Apakirituna at Th 2, 447 T (reading of C. is abhi°) is 
explained Th.\ 271 to mean apakiritva chaddetva throwing 
away, slighting, offending. The correct etym = Sk. ava- 
kirati (ava + kf- to strew, cast out) in sense "to cast 
off, reject", to which also belongs kirata in meaning "cast 
off" i. e. man of a so-called low tribe. See also avakirati 2. 

Apakkamati [cp. Sk. apakramati, apa + kram] to go 
away, depart, go to one side J 111.27; Sdhp 294. — aor. 
apakkanni Pv iv.7'; ger. apakkamitva PvA 43, 124, 
& apakkamma Pv 11.928, 

Apagacchati [apa + gam] to go away, turn aside DhA 
1.401 (°gantva). — pp. apagata (q. v.). 

Apagata [pp. of apagacchati] 1. gone, gone away from 
(c. abl.), removed; deceased, departed It 112; PvA 39, 
63 (= peta), 64 (== gata). — 2. (° — ) freq. as prefix, 
meaning without, lit. liaving lost, removed from ; free 
from Vin 11.129 ^gabbha having lost her foetus, having 
a miscarriage); J 1.61 (°vattha without clothes); PvA 38 
("soka free from grief), 47 (°lajja not shy), 219 ("viiiiiana 
without feeling). — Cp. apakata. 

Apagabbha (adj.) [a -|- pa + gabbha] not entering another 
womb, i. e. not destined to another rebirth Vin 111.3. 

Apagama [Sk. apagama] going away, disappearance Sdhp 508. 

Apanga (apanga) [Sk. apanga] the outer corner of the eye 
J 111.419 (asitapangin black-eyed); IV.219 (bahi°). Spelt 
avanga at Vin 11.267, where the phrase avangaij karoti, 
i. e. expld- by Bdhgh. ibid p. 327 as "avangadese adho- 
mukhar) lekhaq karonti". According to Kern, Torv. 20, 
Bdhgh's expl" is not quite correct, since avanga stands 
here in the meaning of "a coloured mark upon the body" 
(cp. PW. apanga). 

Apacaya [fr. apa + Ci] falling off, diminution (opp. acaya 
gathering, heaping up), unmaking, esp. loss (of wordliness), 
decrease (of possibility of rebirth Vin 11.2 = 111.21 =1V.2I3; 
cp, J 111.342; S 11.95 (kayassa acayo pi apacayo pi); A 
IV.280 = Vin 11.259 (opp. acaya); J 111. 342 (sekho °ena 
na tappati); Vbh 106, 319, 326, 330. 




-gamin goiDg towards decrease, "making for the un- 
doing of rebirth" {Dhs trsl. 82) A v.243, 277; Dhs 277, 
339, 5°5, 1014; Vbh 12, 16 sq.; Nett 87 (cp. Kvu 156). 

Apacayatl [fr. apa — ci, cp. cinati & cayati, with diff. 
meaning in Sic.; better expld- perhaps as denom. fr. 'apa- 
caya in meaning of apacayana, cp. apacita] to honour, 
respect, pay reverence D 1. 91 (pujeti+); J 111.82. — 
Pot. apace (for apaceyya, may be taken to apacinati 2) 
A IV. 245; ThA 72 (here to apacinati i). — pp. apa- 
cita (q. v.). 

Apacayana (nt.) [abstr. rr. apa -[- cay, which is itself a 
der. fr. cl, cinati] honouring, honour, worship, reverence 
J 1.220; V.326; DA 1.256 (°kamma); VvA 24 (°i) karoti 
= a5jalikar| karoti); PvA 104 (°kara, adj.), 128 (-f pari- 

Apacayika (adj.) .[fr. *apacaya, cp. B.Sk. apacayaka MVastu 
1. 1 98; Divy 293] honouring, respecting J iv.94 (vaddha°, 
cp. vaddhapacayin); Pv 11. 7 8 (jettha°); IV.3" (id.). In 
B.Sk. the corresp. phrase is jyesthapacayaka. 

Apacayin (adj.) [fr. *apacaya; cp. apacayika] honouring, 
paying homage, revering Sn 325 (vaddha" =: vaddhanai) 
apaciti karanena SnA 332) = Dh 109; J 1.47, 132, 201; 
11.299; V.325; Miln 206; Sdhp 549. 

Apacara [fr. apa + car, cp. Sk. apa & abhi-carati] falling 
off, fault, wrong doing J vt.375. 

Apacita [pp. of apacayatl or apacinSti] honoured, wors- 
hipped, esteemed Th i, 186; J 11.169; )V.75; Vv 5"! 
(= pQjita VvA 39); 35" (cp. VvA 164); Miln 21. 

Apacltl (f.) [Vedic apaciti in diff. meaning, viz. expiation] 
honour, respect, esteem, reverence Th 1, 589; J 1.220; 
n.435; "1.82; !V.3o8; vi.88; Miln 180, 234 (°r) karoti), 
377 (pujana -f ); SnA 332 (°karana). Cp. apacayana. 

Apacinati [apa -{- cinati] i. [in meaning of Sk. apaclyate 
cp. P. upaciyyati Pass, of upacinati] to get rid of, do 
away with, (cp. apacaya), diminish, make less S 111.89 
(opp. acinati); Th I, 807; J IV.172 (apacineth' eva 
kamani =: viddhaqseyyatha C). Here belong prob. aor. 
y^ pi. apaciyii)su (to be read for upacciijnsu) at J vi. 
187 (akkhini a. "the eyes gave out") and Pot. pres. apace 
ThA 72 (on V.40). — 2. [= apacayatl] to honour, 
esteem; observe, guard Vin 1.264 (apacinayamana civaraq 
(?) V. 1 apacitiyamana; trsl. guarding his claim is, Vin 
Texls)\ M 1.324 (see detail under apavinati) Th I, 186 
(grd. apacineyya to be honoured); J v.339 (anapacinanto 
for T. anupacinanto, v. 1. anapavinati). — pp. apacita (q.v.). 

Apacca [Vedic apatya nt.; der. fr. apa] offspring, child 
D 1.90 (bandhupada" cp. mundaka), 103 (id.); S I.69 
(an°) Sn 991 ; DA 1. 254. 

Apaccakkha (adj.) [a -\- pati -\- akkha] unseen; in instr. f. 
apaccakkbaya as adv. without being seen, not by direct 
evidence Miln 46 sq. 

Apacchapurima (adj.) [a -f- paccha + purima] "neither 
after nor before", i. e. at the same time, simultaneous 

J "'-zgs- 

Apajaha (adj.) [a -j- pajaha] not giving up, greedy, miserly 
A 111.76 (v. I. apanuta; C. expU- (a)vaddhinissita manat- 

Apajita (nt.) [pp. of apa + \\] defeat Dh. 105. 

Apajjhayati [apa f jhayati' ; cp. Sk. abhi-dhyayati] to muse, 
meditate, ponder, consider M 1.334 (nijjhayati +); m.l4(id.). 

Apannaka (adj.) = apaiina, ignorant Dpvs VI. 29. 

Apatthapeti [Cans. fr. apa-tilthati, cp. Sk. apa + sthS to 

stand aloof] to put aside, leave out, neglect J iv.308; v.236. 

Apa^qaka (adj.) [a -f- pannaka; see pannaka; Weber Ind. 
Str. UI.150 & Kuhn, Beitr. p. 53 take it as ^a-prasna-ka] 
certain, true, absolute M 1.401, 411 ; A v.85, 294, 296; 
J 1.104 (where expl"! as elcatjsika aviruddba niyyanika). 

ApanQtjakata (f.) [abstr. of apannaka] certainty, absolu- 
teness S IV.351 sq. 

Apatacchika only in kbarapatacch° (q. v.) a kind of torture. 

Apattha' (adj.) [Sk. apSsta, pp. of apa + as'] thrown 
away Dh 149 (=:chaddita DhA ill. 112). 

Apattha^ 2"'' pi. pret. of papunati (q. v.). 

Apatthaja =: avatthata covered Th i, 759. 

Apatthita & Apatthlya see pattbeti. 

Apadana (nt.) i. [=Sk. apadana] removing, breaking off, 
D 111.88. — 2. [= Sk. avadana cp. ovada] advice, admoni- 
tion, instruction, morals Vin 11.4 (an° not taking advice), 
7 (id.) M 1.96; A V.337 sq. (saddha°) Th i, 47. — 3. 
legend, life history. In the title Mahapadana suttanta it 
refers to the 7 Buddhas. In the title Apadanai), that is 
'the stories', it refers almost exclusively to Arahants. The 
other, (older), connotation seems to have afterwards died 
out. See Dialogues 11. 3. — Cp. also pariyapadana. 

Apadisa [fr. apa -j- dis'] reference, testimony, witness 
DhA 11.39. 

Apadisati [apa -f- disati] to call to witness, to refer to, to 
quote Vin 111.159; J 1215; in.234; IV.203; Miln 270; 
DhA 11.39; Nett 93. 

Apadesa [cp. Sk. apadesa] i. reason, cause, argument M 1.287 
(an°). — 2. statement, designation PvA 8. — 3. pretext J 
111.60; IV.13; PvA 154. Thus also apadesaka J vi.179. 

Apadharetl [Caus. of apa + dllf, cp. Sk. ava-dhSrayati, but 
also BSk. apadharayati Divy 231] to observe, request, 
ask ThA 16. 

Apanata [pp. of apanamati] "bent away", drawn aside, in 
sler. eombn abhinata -\- apanata ("strained forth & strained 
aside" Mrs Rh. D. Kindred S. p. 39) M 1.386; S I.28. 

Apanamati [semantically doubtful] to go away Sn 1102 
(apanamissati, v. 1. apalam° & apagam"; expld at Nd'^ 60 
by vajissati pakkhamissati etc. — pp. apanata (q. v.) — 
Caus. apanameti. 

Apanameti [Caus. fr. apanamati] I. to take away, remove 
M 1.96 = A 1. 198 (kathaij bahiddha a. carry outside); 
Kh V111.4 (= aiinar) thanaq gameti KhA 220). — 2. 
[=Sk. ava-namati] to bend down, lower, put down Vin 
11.208 (chattai)); S 1.226 (id.); J 11.287 (id-, v. 1. apanelva); 
I) I.I 26 (hatthai), for salute). 

Apanidahati (& apanidheti) [apa + ni + dha, cp. Vedic 
apadha hiding-place; Sk. apadadhali = Gr. «tot/&i(j«i = 
Lat. abdo "do away"] to hide, conceal Vin iv.123 ("dheli, 
''dheyya, "dhessali); PvA 215 ("dhaya ger.). — pp. apa- 
nihita. — Caus. apanidbapeti to induce somebody to 
conceal Vin iv.123. 

Apanihita [pp. of apanidahati] concealed, in abstr. "(tat) 
(nt.) hiding, concealing, theft PvA 216. 

Apanita [Sk. apamta, pp. of apa -|- »>, see apaneti & cp. 
also onita = apanita] taken away or off. removed, dis- 
pelled PvA 39. 

Apanudati & Apanudeti [apa + nud, cp. Vedic apanudati 
& Caus. Sk. apanudayati] to push or drive away, remove, 
dispel; pres. apanudeti Miln 38. aor. apanudi Pv 1.8° 
(= apanesi PvA 41); il.3'« (= avahari aggahesi PvA 86); 
Davs i.S. ger. apanujja D ii.2«3. See also der. apanudana. 




Apanudana & Apanudana (nt.) [Sk. apanodana, fr. apa- 
nudati] taking or diiving away, removal Vin 11.148 = 
J 1.94 (dukkha°); Sn 252 (id.); PvA 114 (id.). 

Apanuditar [n- ag. fr. apanudali, Sk. apanoditr] remover, 
dispeller D 111.148. 

Apancti [apa + ni] to lead away, take or put away, 
remove J 1.62, 138; 11.4, 155 (aor. apanayi) 111.26; Miln 
188, 259, 413; PvA 41, 74, 198 (=harati) Sdhp 63. 
Pass, apanlyati S 1.176. — pp. apanita (q. v.). 

Apaplbatl [apa+pibati] to drink from something J 111.126 
(aor. apapasi). 

Apabbuhati & Apabyuhatl [apa + vi + uh] to push off, 

remove, scrape away A 111.187 (apaviyuhitva, vv. 11. °bbn- 
hitva); J 1.265 (pagsur)). — Caus. "byuhapeti to make 
remove or brush J IV. 349 (pagsuq). 

Apabyama see apavyama. 

Apamara] [Sk. apasmara] epilepsy Vin 1.93. Cp. apasmara. 

Apamarika (adj.) [cp. Sk. apasmarin] epileptic Vin iv.8, 
10, II. 

Apayati [Sk. apayati, apa + yg] to go away J vi.j83 
(apayati metri causa; expld- by C. as apagacchati pala- 
yati). — Caus. apayapeti [Sk. apayapayati] to make go, 
drive away, dismiss M 111.176; S II. 1 1 9. 

Apayana (nt.) [Sk. apayana, fr. apayati] going away, retreat 
D 1.9 (opp. upa°); DA 1.95. 

Apara (adj.) [Vedic apara, der. fr. apa with compar. suffix 
-ra = ldg. *aporos "further away, second"; cp. Gr. xTruTifU 
farther, Lat. aprilis the second month (after March, i. e. 
April). Goth, afar r:= after] another, i. e. additional, fol- 
lowing, next, second (with pron. inflexion, i. e. nom. pi. 
apare) D 111.190 ("paja another, i.e. future generation); 
Sn 791, 1089 (n^); J 1.59 (aparaq divasar] on some day 
following); III. 51 (apare tayo sahaya "other friends three", 
i.e. three friends, cp. similarly Fr. nous autres Frangais); 
IV. 3 (dlpa); PvA 81 ("divase on another day), 226; with 
other part, like aparo pi D iii 12S. — nt. apararj what 
follows i. e. future state, consequence; future Vin 1.35 
(nSparaq nothing more); Sn 1092 (much the same as 
punabbhava, cp. Nd^ 61). Cases adverbially; aparai) (ace.) 
further, besides, also J 1.256; 111.278; often with other part, 
like athaparar) & further, moreover Sn 974; and puna 
c^ aparar) It 100; Miln 418 (so read for puna ca paraij) 
and passim ; aparam pi Vism 9. — aparena in future U 
III. 201. — Repeated (reduplicative formation) aparaparai] 
(local) to & fro J 1.265, 278; PvA 198; (temporal) again 
and again, off & on J 11.377; Miln 132 VvA 271; PvA 
176 (= punappunai)). 

-anta (aparanta) = aparai], with anta in same function 
as in cpds, vananta (see anta' 5): (a.) further away, west- 
ward J V.471; Miln 292 (janapada). (b.) future D 1.30 
(°kappika, cp. DA 1.118); M 11.228 (°anuditthi thought 
of the future); S HI. 46 (id.), -apariya (fr. aparapara) 
ever- following , successive, continuou , everlasting; used 
with ref. to kamma J v. 1 26; Miln 108. -bhaga the future, 
lit. a later part of time, only in loc. aparabhage at a 
future date, later on J 1.34, 262; iv.i; VvA 66. 

Aparajju (adv.) [Sk. apare-dyus] on the foil, day Vin II. 167 ; 
S 1.186; Miln 48. 

Aparajjhatl [Sk. aparadhyate, apa -f- radh] to sin or offend 
against (c. loc.) Vin 11.78 = 111.161 ; J v.68; vi.367; Miln 
189; PvA '263. — pp. aparaddha & aparadhita (q. v.). 

Aparaiina (nt.) [apara -f- anna = anna] "the other kind of 
cereal", prepared or cooked cereals, pulse etc. Opp. to 
pubbanna the unprepared or raw corn (= amakadhaiifia 
Vin IV. 265; Vin III.151 (pubb^^-); IV.265, 267; A IV. 
108, 112 (tila-mugga-masa°; opp. sali-yavaka etc.); Nd' 
314 (aparannai) nama supeyyaq); J v. 406 ("jS = harenuka, 
pea); Miln 1 06 (pubbanna"). See also dhanna & harita. 

Aparaddha [pp- of aparajjhati] missed (c. ace), gone 
wrong, failed, sinned (against = loc.) D 1.91, 103, 180; 
S 1. 103 (suddhimaggari); Th I, 78; Sn 891 (suddhir) = 
viraddha khalita Nd' 300); PvA 195. 

Aparapaccaya (adj.) [a + para + paccaya] not dependent 
or relying on others Vin 1. 1 2 (vesarajja-ppatta -f); D 
I.I 10 (id.); M II 41; M 1.491 ; S 111.83; DA 1.278 (— 
nassa paro paccayo). 

Aparajlta (adj.) [Vedic aparajita; a -f parajita] unconquered 
Sn 269; J 1.71, 165. 

Aparadha [fr. apa + radh] sin, fault, offence, guilt J 1.264 
(nir°); 111.394; IV.495; VvA 69; PvA 87, 116. 

Aparadhika (adj.) [fr. aparadha, cp. Sk. aparadhin] guilty, 
offending, criminal J 11.117 (v5ja°); Miln 149 (issara°), 
189 (aparadhikata). 

Aparadhita [pp. of aparadheti, Caus. of apa + radh; cp. 
aparaddha] transgressed, sinned, failing J V.26 (so read 
for aparadh^ ito). 

Aparayin (adj.) [a -f parayin, cp. parayana] having no sup- 
port J 111.386 (f. °I; C. appatittha appatisarana). 

Apalapin see apalasin [Sk. apalapin "denying, concealing" 


Apalajeti [apa -}- laleti] to draw over to Vin 1.85. 

Apalayin (adj.) [a -)- palayin] not running away, steadfast, 
brave, fearless Nd'^ 13 (abhini anutrasin apalayin as 
expln- of acchambhin and vira); J IV.296 ; v.4 (where C. 
gives variant "apalapini ti pi patho", which latter has 
V. !. apalasini & is expld- by C. as palapa-rahite anavajja- 
sarlre p. 5 ). See also apalasin. 

Apalasin (adj.) [apalasin; but spelling altogether uncertain. 
There seems to exist a confusion between the forms apa- 
layin, apalapin & apalasin, owing to freq. miswriting of 
s, y, p in MSS. (cp. Nd- introd. p. XIX.). We should 
be inclined to give apalasin, as the lectio difficilior, the 
preference. The expl"- at Pug 22 as "yassa puggalassa 
ayar) palaso pahino ayaq vuccati puggalo apalasi" does 
not help us to clear up the etym. nor the vv. 11.] either 
"not neglectful, pure, clean" (= apalapin fr. palasa chaff, 
cp. apalayin at J v.4), or "not selfish, not hard, generous" 
(as inferred from comb"- with amakkhin & amaccharin), 
or "brave, fearless, energetic" (= apalayin) D III 47, 
cp. Pug 22. See palasin. 

Apalibuddha & Apalibodha [a + palibuddha, pp. of pari + 
brh, see palibujjhati] unobstructed, unhindered, free J III. 
3S1 (^bodha); Miln 388; DhA m.198. 

Apalekhana (nt.) [apa -f lekhana from Hkh in meaning 
of lih, corresponding to Sk. ava-lehana] licking off, in 
cpd. hatthapalekhana "hand-licking" (i. e. licking one's 
hand after a meal, the practice of certain ascetics) M 
177 (with V. 1. hatthavalekhana M 1.535; Trenckner com- 
pares BSk. hastapralehaka Lai. Vist. 312 & hastdvalehaka 
ibid. 323), 412; Pug 55 (expld- at Pug A 231 as hatthe 
pindamhe nitthite jivhaya hatthaq apalekhati). 

Apalekhati [apa + lekhati in meaning of Sk. avalihati] to 
lick off Pug A 231 (hatthaq). 

Apalepa in "so ^palepa patito jaragharo" at Th 2, 270 is 
to be read as "so palepa°". Morris's interpret, j P T S. 
1886, 126 therefore superfluous. 

Apalokana (nt.) [fr. apaloketi] permission, leave, in '^kamma 
proposal of a resolution, obtaining leave (see kamma 1.3) 
Vin 11.89; 'V.152 

Apalokita [pp. of apaloketi; Sk. avalokita] I. asked per- 
mission, consulted S 111.5. — ^- ("t.) permission, consent, 
M 1.337 (Nagapalokitar) apalokesi). — 3. (nt.) an Ep. of 
Nibbana S iv.370. 




Apalokin Gidj-) [Sk. avalokin] "looking before oneself, 
looking at, cautious Miln 398. 

Apaloketi [BSk. ava-lokayati] I. to look ahead, to look 
before, to be cautious, to look after M 1-557 (v. 1. for 
apacinatl, where J v. 339 C. has avaloketi); Miln 398. — 
2. to look up to, to obtain permission from (ace.), to 
get leave, to give notice of Vin III. 10, II; IV. 226 (ana- 
paloketva := anapuccha), 267 (-f- Spucchitva); M 1.337; 
S III. 95 (bhikkhusanghar) anapaloketva without informing 
the Sangha); J VI.298 (vajanaq); DhA I.67. — pp. apalo- 
kita (q. v.). See also apalokana & "lokin. 

Apavagga [Sk. apavarga] completion, end, final delivery, 
Nibbsna; in phrase saggapavagga Davs 11.62; 111.75. 

Apavattati [apa + Vft, cp. Lat. SvertoJ to turn away or 
aside, to go away J iv.347 (v. 1. apasakkati). 

Apavadati [apa + vadati] tq reproach, reprove, reject, 
despise D 1.122 (= patikkhipati DA 1.290); S v. 118 
(-f- patikkosati). 

Apavahatl [apa -j- vahati] to carry or drive away; Caus. 
apav3hett to remove, give up Miln 324 (kaddamai)). 

Apavlttha at Pv iii 8' is to be read apaviddba (q. v.). 

ApaviQatl is probably misreading for apacinatl (see apac" 2). 
As V. 1. at J V.339 (anapavinanto) for T. anupacinanto 
(expld- by avaloketi C). Other vv. 11. are anuvi" & apavi" ; 
meaning "not paying attention". The positive form we 
find as apavinati *to take care of, to pay attention to" 
(c. ace.) at M 1.324, where Trenckiier unwarrantedly as- 
sumes a special roet ve^J (see Notes p. 78'), but the 
vv. U. to this passage (see M. 1.557) with apavinati and 
apacinatl confirm the reading apacinati, as does the gloss 

Apavlddha [pp. of apavijjhati, Vedic apa + vyadh] thrown 
away, rejected, discarded, removed S I.202; 111.143; Sn 
200 (susanasmir) = chaddita SnA 250); Th i, 635 = 
Dh 292 (= chaddita DhA 111.452); Pv 111.8- (susanas- 
mii); so read for T. apavittha); J 1255; 111.426 ; YI.90 
(= chaddita C). Sdhp 366." 

Apaviyuhati see appabbuhatl. 

Apavlljati see apavinati (= apacinati). 

Apavyama [apa + vyama] disrespect, neglect, in phrase 
apayvamato (apaby°) karoti to treat disrespectfully, to 
insult, defile S 1.226 (v. 1. abyamato; C. expls- apabya- 
inato karitva abyamato katva); Kvu 472 (vv. 11. asabya- 
kato, abyato, apabyato; Kvu trsl. 270 n. I remarks: "B. 
trsl. : abyasakato. The Burmese scholar U. Pandi, suggests 
we should read apabyakato, by which he understands 
blasphemously"; it is here combd. with nitthubhati, as 
at DhA 11.36); DhA 11.36 ("want of forbearance" Ed.; 
doubtful reading; vv. II. appabyayakamma & apasama). 
For further detail see apasavya. 

Apasakkati [apa + sakkati] to go away, to go aside J 
'V.347 (v. I. for apavattati); VvA loi; PvA 265 (aor. 
°sakki ^ apakkami). 

Apasavya (adj.) [apa -f- savya] right (i. e. not left), con- 
trary b'd 50 (T. has nitthubhitva abyamato karitva ; vv. 
11. are apabhyamato, abhyamato & C. apasabySmato), 
where C. expU- apasabyamato karitva by apasabyai) katva, 
"which latter corresponds in form but not in meaning to 
Sk. apasavyai) karoti to go on the right side" (Morris 
yPTS. 1886, 127). — See apavyama. 

Apasada [fr. apa -f sad] putting down, blame, dispara- 
gement M 111.230. 

Apasadlta [pp. of apasadeli] blamed, reproached, disparaged 
S 11.219; SnA 541. 

Apasadetl [Caus. of apa -|- sad] I- to refuse, decline Vin 
IV. 213, 263; J V.417 (= uyyojeti). — 2. to depreciate, 
blame, disparage Vin lll.ioi; M 111.230 (opp. ussadeti); 
DA 1. 160. — pp. apasadlta (q. v.). 

Apasmara [Sk. apasmara, lit. want of memory, apa -f smf] 
epilepsy, convulsion, fit J lv.84. Cp. apamara. 

ApassantO etc. see passati. 

Apassaya [cp. Sk. apasraya, fr. apasseti] I. support, rest 
ThA 258. — 2. bed, bolster, mattress, in kantak° a 
mattress of thorns, a bolster filled with thorns (as cushion 
for ascetics) M 1.78; J 1493; III. 235. -sappassaya with 
a head rest J iv.299. 

-pithaka a chair with a head-rest J 111235. 

Apassaylka (adj.) [fr. apassaya; cp. Sk. apasrayin — °] 
reclining on, in kantaka° one who lies on a bed of 
thorns (see kantaka) M 1.78 ; J IV.299 (v. 1. kandikesa- 
yika); Pug 55. 

Apassita [pp. of apasseti] I. leaning against J 11.69 (tala- 
mular) := nissaya thita C.). — 2. depending on, trusting 
in (c. ace. or loc.) Vv lo' (parSgaraq = nissita VvA 
loi); J 1V.25 (balamhi :=z balanissita). See also avassita. 

Apasseti [Sk. apasrayati, apa + a -f sri] to lean against, 
have a support in (ace), to depend on. — I. (lit.) lean 
against Vin 11.175 (bh'tti apassetabbo the wall to be 
used as a head-rest). — 2. (fig.) mostly in ger. apassaya 
dependent upon, depending on, trusting in (loc. or ace. 
or — °) Vin 111.38; J 1. 214; PvA 189. — pp. apassita 
(q. v.). — See also avasseti. 

Apassena (nt.) [fr. apasseti] a rest, support, dependence 
M 111.127 (°ka); D 111.224 (cattari apassenani); as adj. 
caturSpassena one who has the fourfold support viz. 
sankhay^ ekaq patisevati, adhivaseti, parivajjeti, vinodeti 
A V.30. 

-phalaka (cp. Morris jf P T S. 1884, 71) a bolster- 
slab, head-rest Vin 1.48; 11.175, 209. 

Apahattar [n. ag. to apaharati] one who takes away or 
removes, destroyer M I 447 = Kvu 528. 

Apahara [Sk. apahara, fr. apaharati] taking away, stealing, 
robbing J 11.34. 

ApaharaQa (nt.) = apahara Miln 195. 

Apaharati [apa -|- hf] to take away, remove, captivate, rob 
J 111.315 (aor. apaharayii)); Miln 413; DA I.38. 

Apakatata (f) [a + pakata 4- ta] unfitness Miln 232 (v. 1. 
apakatatta perhaps better). 

Apakatika (adj.) [a -f pakata -f- ika] not in proper or natural 
shape, out of order, disturbed DhA II. 7. Cp. appakara. 

Apacina (adj.) [Vedic apacina; cp. apScah & apaka, western ; 
to Lat. opacus, orig. turned away (from the east or the 
sun) i. e. opposite, dark] westerly, backward, below S 111.84 i 
It 120 (apacfnai) used as adv. and taking here the place 
of adho in comb"- with uddhaij tiriyaij ; the reading is a 
conjecture of Windisch's, the vv. U. are apacinaij ; apacini, 
apaci & apaminai], C. exph by hettha). 

Apafuka (adj.) [a -f piltu -f ka(?), ace. to Morris J P T S. 
1893, 7 der. fr. apatu not sharp, blunt, uncouth. This is 
hardly correct. See pfitur] not open, sly, insidious Th I, 
940 (as v. 1. for T. avatuka, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as 
"unscrupulous", by Neumann as "ohne Redlichkeit"). 
Context suggests a meaning similar to the preceding 
nekatika, i. e. fraudulent. See also next. 

Apatubha (adj.) [a -f patu -f bha (?), at the only passage 
changed by Morris y P T S. 1893, 7 to apfituka but 




without reason] = apatuka, i.e. sly, fraudulent J iv.i84 
(in context with nekatika; C. expl^- apatubhava dhanup- 
pada-virahita, in which latter virahita does not fit in ; the 
pass, seems corrupt). 

Apada (?) [apa + a + da] giving away in marriage J IV. 
179 (in expl"- of anapada unmarried; reading should prob. 
be apada = pariggaha). 

Apadaka (adj.) [a + pada 4- ka] not having feet, footless, 
creeping, Ep. of snakes & fishes Vin II. 1 10^ J 11.146 
(where see expl°-)- Spelt apada(ka) at It 87 (v. 1. apada). 

Apana (nt.) breathing out, respiration (so Ch.; no ref. in 
P. Cauon?) On Prana & Ap5na see G. W. Brown in 
J. Am. Or. See. 39, 1919 PP- 104— 112. See anapana. 

Apanakatta (nt.) [a + panaka + ttaij] "waterless state", 
living without drinking water J v.243. 

Apapaka (adj.) [a + papaka] guiltless, innocent f. ''ika 
Vv 3i<; 326. 

Apapata (adj.) [apa + a + pata] falling down into (c. ace.) 
J IV. 234 (aggio). 

Apapurana (nt.) [fr. apapurati] a key (to a door) Vin 
1.80; III. 119; M IU.127. See also avapurana. 

Apapurati & Apapunati [Sk. apavrnoti , apa + a -f Vf, 
but Vedic oaly apa-vrnoti corresponding to Lat. aperio r= 
*apa-uerio. On form see Trenckner, jK'oh-s 63] to open 
(a door) Vin 1.5 (apapur' etai) Amatassa dvarar) : imper. ; 
where id. p. S 1.137 has avapur°, T., but v. 1. apapur°); 
Vv 64-1 (apapuranto Amatassa dvaraq, expld- at VvA 
284 by vivaranto); It 80 (apavunanti A. dv. as T. conj.; 
with V. 1. apanuinanti, apapurenti & apapuranti). — pp. 
aparuta (q. v.). — Pass, apapuriyati [cp. BSk. apavuri- 
yali M Vastu 11. 158] to be opened M III. 184 (v. 1. ava°): 
J 1.63 (ava"); Th 2, 494 (apapunitva). See also avapurati. 

Apabhata [pp- of apa + a + bhf cp. Vedic apa-bharati, 
but Lat. aufero to ava^j taken away, stolen J III 54. 

Apaya [Sk. apSya, fr. apa -|- I, cp. apeti] "going away" 
viz. — I. separation, loss Dh 211 (piya° = viyoga DhA 
111.276). — 2. loss (of property) D 111.181, 1S2; A H. 
166; IV. 283; J 111.387 (atth°). — 3. leakage, out flow 
(of water) D 1.74; A II. 166; IV.287. — 4. lapse, falling 
away (in conduct) D 1. 100. — 5. a transient state of loss 
and woe after death. Four such states are specified pur- 
gatory (niraya), rebirth as an animal, or as a ghost, or 
as a Titan (Asura). Analogous expressions are vinipata 
& duggati. All combined at D 1.82; in 1 1 1 ; A 1.55; It 
12, 73; Nd^ under kaya; & freq. elsewhere. — apaya- 
duggativinipata as attr. of saqsara S 11.92, 232; IV. 158, 
313; V.342; opp. to khinapaya-duggati-vinipata of an 
Arahant A iv.405; v. 182 sq. — See also foil, pass.: M 
111.25 (anapaya); Sn 231; Th 2, 63; J iv.299; P"g S'j 
VvA 118 (opp. sugati); PvA 103; Sdhp 43, 75 & cp. 
niraya, duggati, vinipata. 

-gamin going te ruin or leading to a state of suffering 
DhA III. 175; cp. °gamaniya id. Ps. 1.94, "gamanlyata 
J IV. 499. -mukha "facing ruin", leading to destruction 
(= vinasa-mukha DA 1.268), usually as nt. „cause ol 
ruin" D I.IOI (cattari apaya mukhani); III. 181, 182 (cha 
bhoganar) a° -mukhani, i. e. causes of the loss of one's 
possessions); A 11.166; iv.283, 287. -samudda the ocean 
of distress DhA III 432. -sahaya a spendthrift compa- 
nion D III. 185. 

ApSylka (adj.) [also as apayika(q. v.); fr. apaya] belonging 
to the apayas or states of misery D 1.103; ill. 6, 9, 12; 
It 42; PvA 60 (dukkha). 

Apayin (adj.) [fr. apaya] going away J 1. 1 63 (addha- 
raltav'apayin = addharatte apayin C). -an° not going 
away, i. e. constantly following (chaya anapayini, the 
shadow) Dh 2; Th 1, 1041 ; Miln 72. 

Apara (nt.) [a -f- para] I. the near bank of a river J 111.230 
(-|- atinnar), C. paratlrai) atinnai)). — 2. (fig.) not the 
further shore (of life), the world here, i.e. (opp. parag ^ 
Nibbana) Sn 1129, 1 130; Nd^ 62; Dh 385 (expld- as 
bahirani cha Syatanani DhA iv.i4i). See para & cp. avara. 

Aparaneyya (adj.) [grd. of paraneti -|- a''] that which 
cannot be achieved, unattainable J vi.36 (= apapetabba). 

Aparuta [Sk. apavrta, pp. of apapurati] open (of a door) 
Vin 1.7 = M 1. 169 (aparuta tesaij Amatassa dvara); D 
1.136 (= vivata-dvara DA 1.297); J 1-264 (°dvara). 

Apalamba ["a Vedic term for the hinder part of a carriage" 
Morris J P T S. 1886, 128; the "Vedic" unidentified] a 
mechanism to stop a chariot, a safe guard "to prevent 
warriors from falling out" (C.) S 1.33 (Mrs Rh. D. trsl. 
"leaning board"); J Vi.252 (v. 1. upa"; Kern trsl. "rem- 
hout", i. e. brake). 

Apahata [pp. of apa -\- hf] driven off or back, refuted, 
refused Sn 826 (°smii) = apasadite vade SnA 54*)- 

Apl (indecl.) [Sk. api & pi; Idg. *epi *pi *opi; cp. Gr. 
6T< on to, ot; (iSx/Sfv behind, hitiircx back ^ close at one's 
heels); Lat. ob. in certain functions; Goth, iftuma. — 
The assimil. form before vorvels is app° (z= Sk. apy°). 
See further details under pi.] both prep. & conj,, orig. 
meaning "close by", then as prep, "towards, to, on to, 
on" and as adv. "later, and, moreover". — I (prep. & 
pref.) (a) prep. c. loc: api ratte later on in the night 
(q. v.) — (b) pref.: apidbana putting on to; apilahati 
bind on to, apihita (=Gr. ixiierii, epithet) put on to, 
(q. v.). — 2. (conj. & part ). (a) in affirmative sentences 
meaning primarily "moreover, further, and then, even" : 
— (a) (single) prothetic: api dibbesu kamesu even in 
heavenly joys Dh 187; ko disva na pasldeyya api kanha- 
bhijatiko even an unfortunate-born Sn 563 api yojanani 
gacchama, even for leagues we go Pv IV. 10'' (=anekani 
yojanani pi g. PvA 270. Epithetic (more freq. in the 
form pi): muhuttam api even a little while Dh 106, 107; 
aham api datthukamo I also wish to see Sn 685. Out of 
prothetic use (= even = even if) develops the conditional 
meaning of "if", as in api sakkunemu (and then we 
may = if we may) J v.24 (c. ^ api nama sakkuneyyama; 
see further under (3 app'eva nama). — api-api in corre- 
lation corresponds to Lat. et-et Sk ca-ca, meaning both 
. . . and, and ... as well as, & is esp. freq. in comb"- 
app' ekacce . . . app' ekacce (and) some . . . and others, 
i. e. some . . . others [not with Kern Toev. s. v. to appa!], 
e.g. at D 1. 1 18; Th 2, 216; VvA 208, etc. -app' ekada 
"morever once" = sometimes Vin iv.178 ; S 1.162 ; iv.i 11 ; 
J 1.67; DhA in. 303, etc. — (j3) (in comb" with other 
emphatic or executive particles) api ca further, and also, 
moreover D 1.96; Miln 25, 47. -api ca kho moreover, 
and yet, still, all the same It 89 (+ pana v. 1.); Miln 
20, 239. -api ca kho pana all the same, never mind, 
nevertheless J 1.253. -ap* ssu so much so Vin 11.76. 
-app' eva nama (with pot.) (either) surely, indeed, yes, 
I reckon, (or) I presume, it is likely that, perhaps Vin 
1. 16 (surely); 11.85 (id.); cp. pi D 1.205 (sve pi upasaq- 
kameyyama tomorrow 1 shall surely come along), 226 
(siya thus shall it be); M 1.46c = It 89 (moreover, indeed); 
J 1. 168 (surely) Vin 11.262 (perhaps) J v.421 (id., piya- 
vacar) labheyyama). — (b) in interrog.-dubit. sentences 
as part, of interrog. (w. indie, or pot.) corresponding to 
Lat. nonn*^, i e. awaiting an affirmative answer ("not, not 
then"): api yasai) kulaputtai) passeyya do you not see . . . 
Vin 1.16; api samafla balivadde addasa have you not 
then seen ... S 1.115 ; api kinci labhSmase shall we then 
not get anything? J ill. 26; api me pitarar) passatha do 
you then not see my father? PvA 38. — Also combd- 
with other interr. part. e.g. api nu J. 11.415. 

Apitika (adj.) [a + pitika] fatherless J v.251. 




Apithiyati [for apidhiyati; api -f- dha] Pass, of apidahatl 
to be obstructed, covered, barred, obscured J 11.158. See 
also pithiyati. 

Apidahati [api + dha, cp. Gr. ixirliniiii] to put on (see 
api I b), to cover up, obstruct, J v. 60 (inf. apidhetui)). 
pp. apihita, Pass, apithiyati, Der. apidhana (q. v.). 

Apidhana (nt.) [Vedic apidhana in same meaning] cover, 
lid Vin 1.203, 204; II. 1 22. See apidahati. 

Apiratte [read api ratle, see api i aj later in the night 
J VI.560. 

Apllapana (nt.) [fr. api -(- lap] counting up, repetition 
[Kern, Toev, s.v. gives der. fr. a + plavana] Nctt 15,28, 
54; Miln 37. 

Apilapanata (f.) in the pass, at Dhs l4 = Nd2 628 is 
evidently meant to be taken as a -f- pilapana + ta (fr. 
pilavati, plu), but whether the der. & interpret, of Dhs A 
is correct, we are unable to say. On general principles 
it looks like popular etym. Mrs. Rh. D. translates (p. 16) 
"opposite of superficiality" (lit "not floating"); see her 
detailed note Dis trsl. 16. 

Apiiapeti [api + lap] "to talk close by", i. e. to count up, 
recite, or: talk idly, boast of Miln 37 (sapatheyyaij). 

Api|andha (adj.) at Vv 36' should be read as apiladdha 
{= Sk. apinaddha) pp. of apilandhati (apilandhati) "adorned 
with", or (vfith v. 1. SS) as apilandhana; VvA 167 expls- 
by analankata, mistaking the a of api for a negation. 

Apilandhana (nt.) [fr. apilandhati, also in shorter (& more 
usual) form pilandhana, q. v.] that which is tied on, i.e. 
band, ornament, apparel, parure Vv 64'", 64'8 (expW. 
inacurately at VvA 279 by; a-karo nipatamattai), piland- 
hanai) ^ abharanari); J VI. 472 (c. pilandhitui] pi ayuttai)?). 

Api|ahatl & Apijandhatl [Sk. apinahyati, on n : ! see note 
on gala, & cp. guna: gula, venu: velu etc. On ndh for 
yh see avanandhati] to tie on, fasten, bind together; to 
adorn oneself with (ace.) J V.400 (ger. apilayha r= pijand- 
hitva C.) — Cp. apilandhana & pp apiladdha. 

Apiha (adj.) [apihalu? a -|- piha, uncertain origin, see next. 
Morris y.P.l.S. 1886 takes it as a + sprha] "unhankering" 
(Mrs Rh. D.) S i 181 (+akankha; v.'l. BB asita). 

Apihalu (adj.) [a -j- pihalu, analysed by Fausbbll Sn. Gloss, 
p. 229 as a-sprhayalu, but Bdligh evidently different 
(see below)] not hankering, free from craving, not greedy 
S 1.187 = Th ', 1218 (akuhako nipako apihalu); Sn 852 
(+ amaccharin, expld- at SnA 549 as apihana-silo, patthana- 
tanhaya rahito ti vultai) hoti, thus perhaps taking it as 
a -|- pi (= api) -|- hana (fr. dha, cp. pidahati & pihita); 
cp. also Nd^ 227). 

Apihita [pp. of apidahati] covered J IV.4. 

ApuCCao4ata (f.) [a + puti + anda -f- ta] "not being a 
rotten egg," i. e. normal state, healthy birth, soundness 
M 1.357. 

ApuCCha (adj.) [a + puccha] "not a question", i.e. not to 
be asked Miln 316. 

Apekkha (adj.) [=apekkha] waiting for, looking for S 1.122 


Apekkhati l. [Sk. aplksate, apa + ik§] to desire, long for, 
look for, expect Sn 435 (kame n^apekkhate cittar)), 773 
(ppr. apekkhamana); J iv.226 (id.); Dhs A 365. ana- 
pekkhamSna paying no attention to (ace.) Sn 59 ! J v. 359- — 
2. [Sk. aviksate, ava + ik§; see avekkhati] to consider, 
refer to, look at, ger. apekkhitva (cp. Sk. aviksya) with 
reference to VvA 13. — pp. apekkhita (q. v.). 

Apelckhavant (adj.) [fr. apekkha] full of longing or desire, 
longing, craving Vin iv.214; S III. 16; Th I, 558; J v.453 
(:=; satanha); Sn A 76. 

Apekkha & Apekha (f.) [Sk. apeksa, fr. apa + ik§. The 

spelling is either kkli or kh, they are both used pro- 
miscuously, a tendency towards kh prevailing, as in 
upekha, sekha] attention, regard, affection for (loc); desire, 
longing for (c. loc.) S 1.77; HI.132; v.409 (mata-pitusu); 
Vin IV.214; Sn 38 (^ vuccati tanha etc. Nd265; = lanha 
sineha SnA 76): J 1.9, 141; Thi,558; Dh 345 (puttesu 
daresu ca ^ tanha DhA IV. 56); Dhs 1059, Il36(=alaya- 
karana-vasena apekkhati ti apekkha Dhs A 365, cp. Dhs 
trsl. 279). Freq. as adj. ( — °or in comb"- with sa° and 
an"), viz. Vin 111.90 (visuddha°); S 1. 1 22 (otara'^); sa° 
A III. 258, 433; iv6o sq.; an° without consideration, 
regardless, indifferent S V.164; A 111.252, 347, 434; Sn 
200 (anapekkha honti nalayo); J 19. Cp. anapekkhin & 
dpekkhavant ; also B.Sk. aveksata. 

Apekkhita [pp. of apekkhati] taken care of, looked after, 
considered J VI. 142, 149 (= olokita C). 

Apekkhln (adj.) [Sk. apeksin, but B.Sk. aveksin, e.g. Jtm 
215; fr apa + iks] considering, regarding, expecting, 
looking for; usually neg. an" indifferent (against) = loc.) 
S 1. 16, 77; II. 281 ; 111.19, 87; Sn 166 (kamesu), 823 
(id), 857; Dh 346. Cp. apekkhavant. 

Apeta (adj.) [pp. of apetl] gone away; (med.) freed of, 
rid of, deprived of (instr., abl. or ° — ) Dh 9 (damasac- 
cena) ; PvA 35 (dukkhato); usually ° — in sense of 
"without, -less", e. g. apeta-kaddama free from mud, 
stainless Dh 95; "valtha without dress J V.l6; "viiiiiaiia 
without feeling, senseless Dh 41 ; Th 2, 468; "vinnanatlai) 
senselessness, lack of feeling PvA 63. 

Apetatta (nt.) [abstr. to apeta] absence (of) PvA 92. 

Apeti [apa -j- I, cp. Gr. '(x-mi)j.i, Lat. abeo, Goth, af-iddja] 
to go away, to disappear D 1. 180 (upeti pi apeti pij; 
J 1.292; Sn 1143 (= n' apagacchanti na vijah.anli Nd* 
66). — pp. apeta (q. v.). 

Apetteyyata (f.) [a + petteyyata, abstr. fr. "paitrya fatherly] 
in combn- with amatteyyata irreverence against father 
and mother D 111.70 (cp. Dh 332 & DhA iv.34). 

Apeyya (adj.) [a + peyya, grd. of pa] not to be drunk, 

not drinkable J VI. 205 (sagara). 

Apeslya (nt.) [? of uncertain origin] a means of barring a 
door Vin 11. 154 (Bdhgh. explns on p. 321: apesi ti digha- 
darumhi khanuke pavesetva kandaka-sakhahi vinandhitva 
katatj dvara-tthakanakai]). 

Apeslyamana (adj.) [ppr. fr. a -f peseti (q. V.)] not being 
in service Vin 11. 177. 

App' in app^ ekacce etc. see api. 

Appa (adj.) [Vedic alpa, cp. Gr. aKxiriX" (AsTa^oi) to 
empty (to make little), iAavecSvit; weak; Lilh. alpnas weak, 
alpstii to faint] small, little, insignificant, often in the 
sense of "very little = (next to) nothing" (so in most 
cpds.); thus expld. at VvA 334 as equivalent to a negative 
part, (see appodaka) D 1.6 1 (opp. mahant, D.\ 1.170^ 
pariltaka); Sn 713, 775, 805, 896 (:= appaka, omaka, 
thoka, lamaka, jatukka, parittaka Nd' 306); Dh 174; J 
1.262; Pug 39. — nt. appar] a little, a small portion, a 
trifle; pi. appani small things, trifles A 11.26 r= It 102: 
A 11.138; Dh 20 (= thokai) eka-vagga-dvi-vagga-mattam 
pi Dh.\ 1. 158), 224 (°smiq yacito asked for little), 259. 
-aggha of little value (opp. mahaggha priceless) J 1.9; 
P"g 33) Dh.\ IV. 184. -asaada [liSk, alpasvada, cp. Divy 
224 = Dh 186; alpa + a -)- svadj of little taste or en- 
joyment, affording little pleasure (always used of kama) 
Vin n.25 = M 1. 130 = A 111.97 = Nd' 71 ; Sn 61 ; Dh 




1 86 {t^ supina-sadisataya paritta-sukha DhA m 240); Th 2, 
358 (:= ThA 244); J 11.313; Vism 124. -atanka little (or no) 
illness, freedom from illness, good health (= appabadha 
with which often conibd) [BSk. alpatanka & alpatankata] 
D 1.204 (+ appabadha); ill. 166; A III. 65, 103; Miln 14. 
-abadba same as appatanka (q.v.) D 1.204; in. 166, 237; 
M 11.125; A. 1.25; n.88; 111.30, 65 sq., 103, 153; Pv 
iv.i**; "abadhata id. [cp. BSk. alpabadhata good health] 
A 1.38. -ayuka short lived D 1. 18; PvA 103, also as 
"ayukin Vv 41". -ahara taking little or no food, fasting 
M 11.5; Sn 165 (= eka.sana-bhojitaya ca parimlta-bhojitaya 
ca SnA 207), also as °aharata M 1.245; i'-5- -odaka 
having little or no water, dry Sn 777 (macche va appodake 
khinasote = parittodake Nd' 50) ; Vv 84' (+ appabhakkha ; 
expld- at VvA 334 as "appa-saddo h' ettha abhavattho 
appiccho appanigghoso ti adisu viya"J; J 1-70; DhA IV. 12. 
-kasira in instr. °kasirena with little or no difficulty D 
1. 251; S V.51; Th I, 16. -kicca having few duties, free 
from obligations, free from care Sn 144 (= appai) -kiccar) 
assa ti KhA 241). -gandba not smelling or having a bad 
smell Miln 252 (opp. sugandha). -ttha "standing in little"; 
i.e. connected with little trouble D 1.143; ^ 1. 169. -tha- 
maka having little or no strength, weak S iv.206. -dassa 
having little knowledge or wisdom Sn 1 1 34 (see Nd^ 69; 
expH- by paritta-paiiiia SnA 605). -nigghosa with little 
sound, quiet, still, soundless (cp. VvA 334, as quoted 
above under ^odaka) A v. 15 (-j- appasadda); Sn338; Nd' 
377; Miln 371. -panna, of little wisdom J 11.166; 111.223, 
263. -punna of little merit M 11. 5. -punnata having little 
merit, unworthiness Pv'. -pbalata bringing little 
fruit PvA 139. -bhakkha having little or nothing to eat 
Vv 84'. -bhoga having little wealth, i. e. poor, indigent 
Sn 114 (:= sannicitanaq ca bhoganai) ayamukhassa ca 
abhavato SnA 173). -mannati to consider as small,' to 
underrate: see separately, -matta little, slight, mean, 
(usually as °ka; not to be confounded with appamatta^) 
A III. 275; J 1.242; also meaning "contented with little" 
(of the bhikkhu) It 103 = A 11.27 ; f- °^ trifle, smallness, 
Insignificance D 1. 91; DA 1.55. -mattaka small, insigni- 
ficant, trifling, nt. a trifle (cp. "matta) Vin I, 213; II. 177 
(°vissajjaka the distributor of little things, cp. A 111.275 
& Vin IV.38, 155); D 1.3 (=appamatta etassa ti appa- 
mattakaq DA 1.55); J 1167; 111.12 (= anu); PvA 262. 
-middha "little slothful", i.e. diligent, alert Miln 412. 
-rajakkha having little or no obtuseness D 11.37; M 1.169; 
Sdhp 519. -ssaka having little of one's own, possessing 
little A 1.261; 11.203. -sattha having few or no com- 
panions, lonely, alone Dh 123. -sadda free from noise, 
quiet M II. 2, 23, 30; A V.15; Sn 925 (= appanigghosa 
Nd' 377); Pug 35; Miln 371. -siddhika bringing little 
success or welfare, dangerous J IV.4 (= mandasiddhi 
vinasabahula C); VI.34 (samuddo a. bahu-antavayiko). 
-SSUta possessing small knowledge, ignorant, uneducated 
D 1.93 (opp. bahussuta); 111.252, 282; S iv.242; It 59; 
Dh 152; Pug 20, 62; Dhs 1327. -harita having little 
or no grass S 1. 169; Sn p. 15 (= pavitta-harita-tina 
SnA 154). 

Appaka (adj.) [appa -f ka] little, small, trifling; pi. few. nt. 
°r) adv. a little D II. 4; A v. 232 sq., 253 sq.; Sn 909 
(opp. bahu); Dh 85 (appaka = thoka na bahu DhA 11. 
160); Pv' (=paritta PvA 48); il.g"; Pug 62; PvA 
6, 60 (:= paritta). f. appika J 1.228. — instr. appakena 
by little, i. e. easily DA 1. 256. -anappaka not little, i. e. 
much, considerable, great; pi. many S IV. 46; Dh 144; 
Pv i.ii' (= bahu PvA 58); PvA 24, 25 (read anappake 
pi for T. ''appakeci; so also KhA 208). 

Appakara (adj.) [a -\- pakara] not of natural form, of bad 
appearance, ugly, deformed J v.69 (= sarlrappakSra-rahita 
dussanthana C). Cp. apakatika. 

Appaki^liia [nppa + kinna, although in formation also = 
a -f" pakinna] little or not crowded, not overheaped A 
V.I 5 (C. anakinna). 

Appagabbha (adj.) [a -(- pagabbha] unobtrusive, free from 
boldness, modest S 11.198^ Miln 389, Sn 144, 852 (cp. 
Nd' 228 & KhA 232); Dh 245. 

AppaCCaya [a + paccaya] I. (n.) discontent, dissatisfaction, 
dejection, sulkiness D 1.3 (== appatlta houti tena atuttha 
asomanassita ti appacayo: domanass' etai] adhivacanai) 
DA 1.52); III. 159; M 1.442; A 1.79, 124, 187; 11203; 
Ill.l8l sq. ; IV.168, 193; J 11.277; Sn p. 92 (kapa -f 
dosa -f- appacaya); Vv 8331 (= domanassaq VvA 343); 
SnA 423 (= appatitai] domanassaij). — 2. (adj.) uncon- 
ditioned Dhs 1084, 1437. 

Appall" [a + pati°] see in general under pati°. 

Appatlkarika(adj.) [a -f patikarika] "not providing against", 
i. e. not making good, not making amends for, destructive 
J V.418 (spelling here & in C. appati"). 

Appatlkopeti [a + patikopeti] not to disturb, shake or 
break (fig.) J v. 173 (uposathaq). 

Appatikkhippa (adj.) [a + patikkhippa, grd. of patikkhi- 
pati] not to be refused J 11.370. 

Appatlgandhlka & °iya (adj.) [a + pati + gandha + ika] 
not smelling disagreeable, i. e. with beautiful smell, scented, 
odorous J V.405 (°ika, but C. °iya; expld- by sugandhena 
udakena samannagata); Vl.518; Pv Il.r-^O; II1.2'"'. 

Appa^lgha (adj.) [a -f- patigha] (a) not forming an obstacle, 
not injuring, unobstructive Sn 42 (see expld- at Nd'^ 239; 
SnA 88 expls. "katthaci satte va sankhare va bhayena 
na patihaniiati ti a."). — (b) psychol. 1. 1. appld. to rupa: 
not reacting or impinging (opp. sappatigha) D HI.217; 
Dhs 660, 756, 1090, 1443. 

Appa^icchavi (adj.) at Pv u.l" is faulty reading for sam- 
patitacchavi (v. 1.). 

Appa^lbhaga (adj.) [a -\- patibhaga] not having a counterpart, 
unequalled, incomparable DhA 1.423 (= anuttara). 

Appa^ibhaQa (adj.) [a + patibhana] not answering back, 
bewildered, cowed down Vin 111.162; A 111.57; °r) karoti 
to intimidate, bewilder J V.238, 369. 

Appa^lina (adj.) [a + patima fr. prep, pati but cp. Vedic 
apratimana fr. prati -f- mi] matchless, incomparable, in- 
valuable Th I, 614; Miln 239. 

Appatlvattiya (adj.) [a -f pati + vattiya = vrtya, grd. 01 
Vft] (a) not to be rolled back Sn 554 (of dhammacakka, 
may however be taken in meaning of I).). — (b) irresist- 
able J 11.245 (sihanada). A'oie. The spelling with t is 
only found as v. 1. at J 11.245 j otherwise as t. 

Appatlvaoa (nt.) [a -|- pativana, for "vrana, the guna-form 
of Vf, cp. Sk. prativarana] non-obstruction, not hindering, 
not opposing or contradicting A 150; III.41 ; V.93 sq. ; 
adj. J 1.326; Th 2, 55. 

AppatlvaQita (f.) [abstr. from ( ap )pativana] not being 
hindered, non-obstruction, free effort; only in phrase 
"asantufthita ca kusalesu dhammesu appativanita ca 
padhaaasmirj" (discontent with good states and the not 
shrinking back in the struggle Dhs trsl. 358) A 1. 50, 
95 = D III. 214 = Dhs 1367. 

AppatlvaQi (f.) [almost identical w. appativanita, only used 
in diff. phrase] non-hindrance, non-restriction, free action, 
inpulsive effort; only in stock phrase cbando vayamo 
ussaho ussolhi appativani S 11.132; v.440; A 11.93, 
195; 111.307 sq. ; IV.320; Nd'i under chanda C. [cp. simi- 
larly Divy 654]. 

Appativaoiya (adj.) [grd. of a + pati + Vf; cp. BSk. 
aprativanih Divy 655; M Vastu 111-343] "o' 'o be ob- 
structed, irresistible S 1.2 1 2 (appld- to Nibbana ; Mrs. Rh. D. 
Kindred S. p. 274 trsls. "that source from whence there 
is no turning back"). 




Appativlddha (adj.) [a + pati -)- viddha] "not shot through" 
i. e. unhurt J vi.446. 

Appativibhatta ("bhogin) (adj.) [a + pati + vibhatta] (not 
eating) without sharing with others (with omission of 
another negative: see Trenckner, Miln p. 429, where also 
Bdhgh's expln) A H1289; Miln 373; cp. Miln trsl. 11.292. 

Appatlvekkhiya [ger. of a -|- pati + avekkhati] not ob- 
serving or noticing J IV.4 (= apaccavekkhitva anavek- 
khitvS C). 

Appafisankha (f.) [a + patisankha] want of judgment Pug 
21 = Dhs 1346. 

AppaHsandhlka (and °iya) (adj.) [a + patisandhi -j- ka 
(ya)j I. what cannot be put together again, unmendable, 
irreparable (°iya) Pv 1.12' (= puna pakatiko na hoti PvA 
66) = J 111.167 (= patipakaliko katug na sakka C). — 
2. incapable of reunion, not subject to reunion, i. e. to 
rebirth J v.ioo (°bhava). 

Appatlsama (adj.) [a -|- pati = sama ; cp. BSk. apratisama 
M Vastu 1. 104] not having it's equal, incomparable J 1.94 

AppaflssavatS (f-) [a + patissavatS] want of deference 
Pug 20 = Dhs 1325. 

Appa^lhita (adj.) [a + panihita] aimless, not bent on 
anything, free from desire, usually as nt. aimlessness, 
comb<i- w. animittat] Vin iu.92, 93 = iv.25; Dhs 351, 
508, 556. See on term Cpd. 67; Dhs trsl. 93, 143 & 
cp. panihita. 

Appatittha (adj.) [a -f patittha] I. not standing still S 
I.I. — 2. without a footing or ground to stand on, bot- 
tomless Sn 173. 

AppatiSSa (& appatissa) (adj.) [a -)- pati -|- sru] not docile, 
rebellious, always in comb"- with agarava A 11.20; 111.7 
sq., 14 sq., 247, 439. Appatissa-vasa an unruly elate, 
anarchy J U.352. See also pa^iSEa. 

Appatita (adj.) [a -f patita, of prati -)- i, Sk. pratita] dis- 
satisfied, displeased, disappointed (cp. appaccaya) J v. 103 
(at this passage preferably to be read with v. 1. as ap- 
patika = without husband, C. ex pis- assamika), 155 (cp. 
C. on p. 156); DA 1.52; SnA 423. 

App^duttha (adj.) [a -f- paduttha] not corrupt, faultless, of 
good behaviour Sn 662 (= pados&bhavena a. SnA 478); 
Dh 137 (= niraparadha DhA in. 70). 

Appadhagsa (adj.) \j=^ appadhaijsiya, Sk. apradhvaqsya] not 
to be destroyed J iv.344 (v. 1. duppadhaqsa)' 

AppadhaQSlka (& °iya) (adj.) [grd. of a + padhaijseti] 
not to be violated or destroyed, inconquerable, indestruct- 
able D ui.175 (°ika, v. 1. °iya); J m.159 (°iya); VvA 
208 ("iyaj; PvA 117 (°iya). Cp. appadbaqsa. 

Appadhaqslta (adj.) [pp. of a + padhagseti] not violated, 
unhurt, not offended Vin IV. 229. 

Appana (f.) [cp. Sk. arpana, abstr. fr. appeti = arpayati 
from of f, to fix, turn, direct one's mind; see appeti] 
application (of mind), ecstasy,fixing of thought on an ob- 
ject, conception (as psychol. 1. 1.) J 11.61 ("patta); Miln 62 
(of vitakka); Dhs 7,21,298; Vism 144 ("samadhi); DhsA 
55, 142 (def. by Bdhg. as "ekaggaq cittar| arammane ap- 
peti"), 214 Cjhana). See on term Cpd. pp. 56 sq., 68, 
129, 215; Dhs trsl. XXVIII, 10, 53, 82, 347. 

Appabhotl (Appahoti) see pahoti. 

Appamanfiatl [appa -|- mannati] to think little of, to under- 
rate, despise Dh 12 1 (=r avajanati DhA ill. 16; v. 1. 

Appamaniifi (f.) [a -f- pamanna, abstr. fr. pamana = Sk. 
*pramanya] boundlessness, infinitude, as psych, t. t. appW- 

in later books to the four varieties of philanthropy, viz. 
metta karu;)a mudita upekkba i. e. love, pity, sympathy, 
desinterestedness, and as such enumd- at D III.223 (q. v. 
for detailed ref. as to var. passages); Ps 1.84; Vbh 272 
sq. ; DhsA 195. By itself at Sn 507 (= mettajjhana- 
sankhata a. SnA 417). See for further expl"- Dhs trsl. 
p. 66 and metta. 

Appamatta' (adj.) [appa + matta] see appa. 

Appamatta^ (adj.) [a -\- pamatta, pp. of pamadati] not 
negligent, i. e. diligent, careful, heedful, vigilant, alert, 
zealous M 1.391 — 92; S 1.4; Sn 223 (cp. KhA 169), 507, 
779 (cp. Nd' 59); Dh 22 (cp. DhA 1.229); Th 2, 338 
= upatthitasati Th A 239). 

Appamada [a -{- pamada] thoughtfulness, carefulness, con- 
scientiousness, watchfulness, vigilance, earnestness, zeal D 
1. 13 (: a. vuccati satiya avippavaso DA 1. 104); HI. 30, 
104 sq., 112, 244, 248, 272; M 1.477 (°phala); S 1.25, 
86, 158, 214; 11.29, 132; IV.78 ("viharin), 97, 125, 252 
sq.; V.30 sq. ("sampada), 41 sq., 91, 135, 240, 250, 308, 
350; A 1. 16, 50. (°adhigata); 111.330, 364, 449; iv.28 
Cgaravata) 120 (°i) garu-karoti) ; V.21, 126 (kusalesu 
dhammesu); Sn 184, 264, 334 (= sati-avippavasa-sankhata 
a. SnA 339); It 16 (°r| pasaijsanti pufinakiriyasu pandita), 
74 ("viharin); Dh 57 (°viharin, cp. DhA 1. 434); 327 
(°rata =: satiya avippavSse abhirata DhA iv.26); Davs 11. 
35; KhA 142. 

Appamaoa (freq. spelled appamana) (adj.) [a + pamana] 
I. "without measure", immeasurable, endless, boundless, 
unlimited, unrestricted all-permeating S IV. 186 (^cetaso); 
A 11.73; ^-63; Sn 507 (raettaq cittaq bhavayaq appama- 
nai) =: anavasesa-pharanena SnA 417; cp. appamaiiua) ; 
It 21 (metta), 78; J 11.61 ; Ps II. 126 sq.; Vbh 16, 24, 
49, 62, 326 sq. ; Dhs 182, 1021, 1024, 1405; DhsA 45, 
196 ("gocara, cp. anantagocara). See also on term Dhs 
trsl. 60. — 2. "without difference", irrelevant, in general 
(in commentary style) J 1. 165; 11.323. 

Appames^a (adj.) [a + pameyya = Sk. aprameya, grd. of 
a -j- pra -|- ma] immeasurable, infinite, boundless M 1.386 ; 
S V.400; A 1.266; Th I, 1089 (an°); Pug 35; Miln 331; 
Sdhp 338. 

Appavatta (f) [a + pavatta] the state of not going on, 
the stop (to all that), the non-continuance (of all that) 
Th I, 767; Miln 326. 

Appasada see pasada. 

Appassada see appa. 

Appahina (adj.) [a -j- pahina, pp. of pahayati] not given 
up, not renounced M 1.386; It 56, 57; Nd^ 70 D'; 
Pug 12, 18. 

AppaQaka (adj.) [a -|- pSna -f ka] breathless, i. e. (l) holding 
one's breath in a form of ecstatic meditation (jhana) M 
1.243; J 1-67 [cp- BSk. asphanaka Lai. V.314, 324; M Vaslu 
11.124; should the Pali form be taken as *a -f pranaka?]. 
(2) not holding anything breathing, i. e. inanimate, life- 
less, not containing life Sn p. 15 (of water). 

Applka (f) of appaka. 

ApplCCha (adj.) [appa -f iccha from Ij, cp. iccha] desiring 
little or nothing, easily satisfied, unassuming, contented, 
unpretentious S 1.63, 65; A 111,432; iv.2, 218 sq., 229; 
V.I 24 sq., 130, 154, 167; Sn 628, 707; Dh 404; Pv 
IV.7'; Pug 70. 

ApplCChati (f.) [abstr. fr. prec] contentment, being satisfied 
with litile, UDOstentatiousness Vin 111.21; D 111.115; M 
1. 13; S II 202, 208 sq.; A I.12, 16 sq. ; 111.219 sq., 448; 
IV.2I8, 280 (opp. mahicchata); Miln 242; SnA 494 
(catubbidha, viz. paccaya-dhutanga-pariyatti-adhigama-va- 
sena); PvA 73. As one of the 5 dhutanga-dhamma at Vism 81. 




Appita (adj.) [pp. of appeti, cp. BSk. arpita, e. g. prityar- 
pitaq caksuh Jtm 316O] i. fixed, applied, concentrated 
(mind) Miln 415 (manasa) Sdhp 233 (citta). — 2. brought 
to, put to, fixed on J VI.78 (maranamukhe) ; visappita 
(an arrow to which) poison (is) applied, so read for 
visap(p)ita at J v.36 & Vism 303. 

Appiya & Applyata see piya etc 

Appekada (adv.) see api 2 a^. 

Appeti [Vedic arpayati, Caus. of f, rnoti _& rcchati (cp. 
icchati''), Idg. *ar (to insert or put together, cp. also 
"er under annava) to which belong Sk. ara spoke of a 
wheel; Gr. ifxfiirxu to put together, apiix chariot, afipo-j 
limb, xferr/i virtue; Lat. arma =: E. arms (i.e. weapon), 
artus fixed, tight, also limb, ars = art. For further con- 
nections see annava] I. (*er) to move forward, rush on, 
run into (of river) Vin 11. 238; Milu 70. — 2. (*ar) to 
fit in, fix, apply, insert, put on to (lit. & fig.) Vin n 136, 
137; J '"•34 (nimba-sulasmii) to impale, C. avunati); 
vi.iy (T. sulasmii) acceti, vv. U. abbeti = appeti & upeti, 
C. avunati); Miln 62 (daruq sandhismir)) ; VvA no 
(saniianari). Cp. Trenckner, Notes 64 n. 19, who defends 
reading abbeti at T. passages. 

Appesakkha (adj.) [ace. to Childers := Sk. *alpa + isa + 
akhya, the latter fr. a -\- khya 'being called lord of 
little"; Trenckner on Miln 65 (see p. 422) says: "appe- 
sakkha & mahesakkha are traditionally expld- appapari- 
vara & mahaparivara, the former, I suppose, from appe 
& sakkha (Sk. sakhya), the latter an imitation of it". 
Thus the etym. would be "having little association or 
friendship" and resemble the term appasattha. The BSk., 
forms are alpesakhya & mahesakhya, e. g. at Av. S II. 
153; Divy 243] of little power, weak, impotent S II. 229; 
Miln 65; Sdhp 89. 

Appoti [the contracted form of apnoti, usually papunati, fr. 
ap] to attain, reach, get Vism 350 (in etym. of apo). 

Appodaka see appa. 

AppoSSUkka (adj.) [appa -f- ussuka, Sk. alpotsuka, e. g. 
Lai. V. 509; Divy 41, 57, 86, 159. It is not necessary 
to assume a hypothetic form of *autsukya as der. fr. 
ussuka] unconcerned, living at ease, careless", not bother- 
ing", keeping still, inactive Vin II. 1 88; M in. 1 75, 176; 
S I 202 (in stock phrase appossukka tunhibhuta san- 
kasaya "living at ease, given to silence, resigned" Mrs. 
Rh. D. nils lisl. 258, see also y T T S. 1909, 22); II. 
177 (id.); IV. 178 (id.); Th 2, 457 (=: nirussukka ThA 
282); Sn 43 (= abyavata anapekkha Nd'^ 72); Dh 330 
(=;= niralaya Dh.\ IV. 31); J 1.197; iv.71; Milu 371 (a. 
titthati to keep still); DA 1.264. 

AppOSSUkkata (f.) [abstr. fr. prec] inaction, reluctance, 
carelessness, indifference Vin 1.5; D n.36; Miln 232; 
DhA 11.15. 

Apphuta (& apphuta) [Sk. *a-sphrta for a-spharlta pp. of 
sphar, cp. phurati ; phuta & also phusati] untouched, un- 
pervaded, not penetrated D 1.74 =: M 1.276 (pitisukhena). 

Apphota (f.) [fr. appoteti to blossom] N. of a kind of 
Jasmine J VI.336. 

Apphotita [pp. of apphoteti] having snapped one's fingers 
or clapped one's hands J 11 311 (°kale). 

ApphO^et! [a + photeti, sphut] to snap the fingers or clap the 
hands (as sign of pleasure) Miln 13, 20, pp. apphothita. 

Aphusa [Sk. *asprsya, a + grd. of phusati to touch] not 
to be touched Miln 157 (trsl. unchangeable by other 
circumstances; Tr. on p. 425 remarks "aphusani kiiiyani 
seems wrong, at any rate it is unintelligible to me"). 

Aphegguka (adj.) [a -f- pheggu -f- ka] not weak, i. e strong 
J 111.318. 

Abaddha [a -\- baddha] not tied, unbound, unfettered Sn 
39 (v. 1. and Nd* abandha; expld- by rajju-bandhan' adisu 
yena kenaci abaddha SnA 83). 

Abandha (n.-adj.) [a -|- bandha] not tied to, not a follower 
or victim of It 56 (marassa; v. 1. abaddha). 

Abandhana (adj.) [a -\- bandhana] without fetters or bonds, 
unfettered, untrammelled Sn 948, cp. Nd' 433. 

Ababa [of uncertain origin, prob. onomatopoetic]. N. of a 
cert. Purgatory, enumd- with many other similar names 
at A V.I 73 = Sn p. 126 (cp. atata, abbuda & also Av. 
S 1.4, 10 & see for further expln- of term SnA 476 sq. 

Abala (adj.) [a -j- bala] not strong, weak, feeble Sn It20 
(= dulbala, appabala, appathama Nd'^ 73); Dh 29 (°assa 
a weak horse ^ dubbalassa DhA 1.262; opp. sighassa 
a quick horse). 

Abbaje T. reading at A 11.39, evidently interpreted by ed. 
as a + vraje, pot. of a + Vraj to go to, come to (cp. 
pabbajati), but is preferably with v. 1. SS to be read 
andaje (corresponding with vihangama in prec. line). 

Abba^a (adj.) [a -|- vana, Sk. avrana] without wounds Dh 124. 

Abbata (n.-adj.) [a + vata, Sk. avrata] (a) (nt.) that which 
is not "vata" i.e. moral obligation, breaking of the moral 
obligation Sn 839 (asllata -f); IXdi 188 (v. 1. SS abhab- 
bata; expl^- again as a-vatta). SnA 545 (^ dhutangavatar) 
vina'. — (b) (adj.) one who offends against the moral 
obligation, lawless Dh 264 (= silavatena ca dhutavatena 
ca virahita DhA 111.391 ; vv. 11. k. adhuta & abhuta; B. 
abbhuta, C. abbuta). 

Abbaya in uday° at Miln 393 stands for avyaya. 

Abbahatl (& abbuhatl) [the first more freq. for pres., the 
second often in aor. forms; Sk. abrhati, a -|- bfh', pp. 
brdha (see abbrdha)] to draw off, pull out (a sting or 
dart); imper. pres. abbaha Th i, 404; J 11.95 (v- '■ ^^ 
appuha = abbuha ; C. expls- by uddharatha). — aor. ab- 
bahi J V.198 (v. 1. BB abbuhi), abbahl (metri causa) J 
111.390 (v. 1. BB dhabbuli = abbulhi) = Pv l.8» (which 
reads T. abbulha, but PvA 41 expls- nihari) = DhA 1.30 
(vv. 11. sabbahi, s.abbamhi; gloss K. B abbulhaq) = Vv 
835 (T. abbulhi; v. 1. BB abbulhaq, SS avyalii ; VvA 327 
expl5- as uddhari), & abbuhi A 111.55 (v- !• abbahi, C. 
abbahl ti nihari), see also vv. 11. under abbahi. — gerl. 
abbuyha Sn 939 (= abbuhitva uddharitva Nd' 419; v. . 
SS abbuyhitva; SnA 567 reads avyuyha & expls- by 
uddharitva); S 1. 121 (tanhar|); III. 26 (id.; but spelt ab- 
bhuyha). — pp. abbulha (q. v.). — Caus. abbaheti [Sk. 
abaihayati] to pull out, drag out J iv.364 (satthai) abba- 
hayanti; v. 1. abbha°); Dh.\ 11249 (asir|)- ger. abbahitva 
[= °hetva) Vin 11 201 (bhisa-mujalai)) with v. 1. BB ag- 
gahetva, -SS abbuhitva, cp. Vin 1. 214 (vv. 11. aggahitva & 
abb.ihitva). pp. abbulhita (q. v.). 

Abbahana (nt.) [abstr. fr. abbahati] pulling out (of a sting) 
DhA ni.404 (sic. T. ; v. 1. abbuhana; Fausbbll aclahana; 
glosses C. atthangeta & atthangika, K. nibbapana). See 
also abbulhatia and abbhabana. 

Abbuda (nt.) [elym. unknown, orig. meaning "swelling", 
the Sk. form arbuda seems to be a trsl. of P. abbuda] 
I. the foetus in the l^t & 2'"i months after conception, 
the 2"J of the five prenatal stages of development, viz. 
kalala, abbuda, pesi, ghana, pasakhaNd' 120; Miln 40; 
Vism 236. — 2. a tumour, canker, sore Vin III. 294, 307 (only 
in Samantapasadika; both times as sasanassa a). — 3, a 
very high numeral, appH- exclusively to the denotation 
of a vast period of suffering in Purgatory ; in this sense 
used as adj. of Niraya (abbudo nirayo the "vast-period" 




hell, cp. nirabbuda). S 1.149 = A II. 3 (chattiijsati pafica 
ca abbudani); S 1.152 = A v.i73 = Sd p. 126 (cp. Sn.\ 
476: abbudo nSnia koci pacceka-nirayo n^ atthi, Avicimhi 
yeva abbuda-gananaya paccanokaso pana abbudo nirayo 
ti vulto; see also KiiKiriJ Sayings p. 190); J III. 360 
(satar) ninnahuta-sahassanaq ekai) abbudai]). — 4. a terra 
used for "hell" in the riddle S 1. 43 (kiijsu lokastnir) abhu- 
daq "who are they who make a hell on earth" Mrs. 
Rh. D. The answer is "thieves"; so we can scarcely take 
it in meaning of 2 or 3. The C. has vinasa-karanaq. 

Abbu|hatl(?) & Abbuhatt see abbahati. 

Abbu|hana (nt.) [fr. abbahati = abbuhati (abbulhati)] the 
pulling out (of a sting), in phrase tanha-sallassa abbul- 
taanarj as one of the 12 acchievements of a Mahesi Nd' 
343 =: Nd2 503 (eds- of Ndi have abbuhana, v. 1. 83 
abbussana ; ed. of Nd^ abbulhana, v. 1. SS abbahana, BB 
abbuhana). Cp. abbahana. 

Abbu|ha (adj.) [Sk. abrdha, pp. of a -)- bfh', see abbahati] 
drawn out, pulled (of a sting or dart), fig. removed, 
destroyed. Most freq. in comb"- ^salla with the sting 
removed, having the sting (of craving thirst, tanha) pulled 
out D 11.283 (v. 1. SS asammulha) ; Sn 593, 779 (=: ab- 
bulhita-salla Ndi 59; ragadi-sallanar| abbulhatta a. SnA 
518); J 111.390 = Vv 83>o = Pv i.8' = DhA 1.30. — In 
other connection: M t 139 = A in. 84 ("esika = tanha 
pahina; see esika); Th i, 321; KhA 153 (°soka). 

Abbulhatta (nt.) [abslr. of abbolha] pulling out, removal, 
destroying SnA 518. 

Abbu|hlta (& abbuhitta at J 111.541) [pp. of abbaheti Cans, 
of abbahati] pulled out, removed, destroyed Ndi 59 (ab- 
bulhita-sallo 4- uddhata° etc. fo.r abbOlha) ; J III. 541 (un- 
certain reading ; v. 1. BB appahita, SS abyahita ; C. expl^ 
pupphakar) thapitar; appaggharakar) katai) ; should we 
explain as a -f- vi + Uh and read abyuhitar). 

Abbetl [Trenckner, Notes 64 n. 19] at J in. 34 & vi.iy is 
probably a mistake in MSS for appeti. 

Abboki^^ I. [= abbhokinna, abhi + ava -j- kinna, cp. 
abhikinna] filled M 1.387 (paripunna -f); DhA iv.182 
(panca jatisatani a.). — 2. [seems to be misunderstood 
for abbocchinna, a -|- vi 4- ava -|- chinna] uninterrupted, 
constant, as "r^ adv. in comb"- with satatat] samitai) A 
IV.I3:=I45; Kvu 401 (v. 1. abbhokinna), cp. also Kvu 
trsl. 231 n. I (abbokinna undiluted?); Vbh 320. — 3. 
doubtful spelling at Vin 111.27 1 (Bdhgh on Paraj. III.I, 3). 

Abbocchinna see abbokinna 2 and abbhochinna. 

Abboharika (adj.) [a -|- vi + ava -f- harika of voharati] not 
of legal or conventional status, i. e. — (a) negligible, not 
to be decided Vin 111.91, 1 12 (see also Kvu trsl. 361 
n. 4). — (b) uncommon, extraordinary J III. 309 (v. 1. BB 
abbho°); v.271, 286 (Kern: ineffective). 

Abbha (nt.) [Vedic abhra nt. & later Sk. abhra m. "dark 
cloud"; Idg. •mbhro, cp. Gr. aiffo; scum, froth, Lat. imber 
rain; also Sk. ambha water, Gr. 'S/ijipoi; rain, Oir ambu 
water]. A (dense & dark) cloud, a cloudy mass A 11.53 = 
Vin 11.295 = Miln 273 in list of to things that obscure 
moon- & sunshine, viz. abbhai) mahika (mahiya A) dhu- 
marajo (megho Miln), Rabu. This list is referred to at 
SnA 487 & VvA 134. S l.ioi (°saina pabbata a mountain 
like a thunder-cloud); J VI.581 (abbhar) rajo acchadesi); 
Pv IV. 39 (nil° = nila-megha PvA 251). As f. abbha at 
Dhs 617 & DhsA 317 (used in sense of adj. "dull": 
DhsA explS' by valabaka); perhaps also in abbbamatta. 
-kuta the point or summit of a storm-cloud Th I, 
1064; J VL249, 250; Vv i' (=: valahaka-sikhara VvA 12). 
-ghana a mass of clouds, a thick cloud It 64; Sn 348 
(cp. SnA 348). -patala a mass of clouds DhsA 239. 
-matta free from clouds Sn 687 (also as abbhamutla Dh 
382). -sac)Tilapa thundering S iv.289. 

Abbhakkhati [abhi + a + khya, cp. Sk. akhyati] to speak 
against to accuse, slander D 1161 = A 1.161 (an-abbhak- 
khatu-kama); 1V.182 (id.); J iv.377. Cp. Intens. abbha- 

Abbhakkhana (nt.) [fr. abbhakkhati] accusation, slander, 
calumny D 111.248, 250; M I.130; 111.207; A 111.290 sq.; 
Dh 139 (cp. DhA III. 70). 

Abbhacchadita [pp. of abhi -|- a -j- chadeti] covered (with) 
Th I, 1068. 

Abbhaiijati [abhi -f- anj] to anoint; to oil, to lubricate M 
1.343 (sappi-telena); S IV.177; Pug 56; DhA 111.311 := 
VvA 68 (sata-paka-telena). Caus. abbbanjeti same J 1.438 
(telena "etva); v. 376 (sata-paka-telena °ayir|su); Caus. II. 
abbbanjapeti to cause to anoint J 111.372. 

Abbhaiijana (nt.) [fr. abbhaiijati] anointing, lubricating, 
oiling; unction, unguent Vin 1205; 111-79; ^^''" 3^7 
(akkhassa a.); Vism 264; VvA 295. 

Abbhatlka (adj.) [a + bhata + ika, bhf] brought (to), 
procured, got, J VI.291. 

Abbhatikkanta [pp. of abhi -f ati -f kram, cp. atikkanta] 
one who has thoroughly, left behind J v.376. 

Abbhatlta [pp. of abhi -|- ati + i, cp. atita & atikkanta] 
emphatic of atita in all meanings, viz. I passed, gone by 
S II. 1 83 (+ atikkanta); nt. "rj what is gone or over, 
the past J III. 169. — 2. passed away, dead M 1.465 ; S 
IV.398; Th I, 242, 1035. — 3. transgressed, overstepped, 
neglected J in. 541 (saijyama). 

Abbhattha (nt.) [abhi -j- attha^ in ace. abhi -f atlharj, abhi 
in function of "towards" = homeward, as under abhi 
I.I a; cp. Vedic abhi sadhastbai) to the seat R. V. ix. 
21. 3] = attha'^, only in phrase abbbattai] gacchati "to 
go towards home", i.e. setting; fig. to disappear, vanish, 
M 1.115, 119; 111.25; A IV.32; Miln 305; pp. abhhat- 
tangata "set", gone, disappeared Dhs 1038 (atlhangata -)-) ; 
Kvu 576. 

Abbhatthata (f.) [abstr. fr. abbhatta] "going towards setting", 
disappearance, death J v.469. 

Abbhanumodati [abhi -{- anu -j- modati] to be much pleased 
at to show great appreciation of Vin 1. 196; D 1.143, '9°) 
S IV. 224; Miln 29, 210; DhA iv.102 (v. 1. °anu°). 

Abbhanumodana (nt.) (& "a f.) [fr. abbhanumodati] being 
pleased, satisfaction, thanksgiving DA 1. 227; VvA 52 
("anu"); Sdhp 218. 

Abbhantara (adj.) [abhi -\- antara; abhi here in directive 
function = towards the inside, in there, with-in, cp. abhi 
I.I a] := antara, i. e. internal, inner, being within or 
between ; nt. °g the inner part, interior, interval (also 
as ° — ) Vin I. Ill (satt" with interval of seven); A iv.16 
(opp. bahira); Dh 394 (id.); Th i, 757 ("ipassaya lying 
inside); J in.395 ("amba the inside of the Mango); Miln 
30 ("e vayo jivo), 262, 281 (bahir-abbhantara dhaua); 
DhA 11.74 (adj. c. gen. being among ; v. 1. abbhantare). — 
Cases used adverbially : instr. abbbantarena in the mean- 
time, in between DhA 11.59. loc. abbhantare in the midst 
of, inside of, within (c. gen. or — ") J 1.262 (raiino), 280 
(tuyhar)); DhA II. 64 (v. 1. antare), 92 (sattavass") ; PvA 
48 (= anto). 

Abbhantarika (adj -n.) [fr. abbhantara, cp. Sk. abhyantara 
in same meaning] intimate friend, confidant, "chum" J 
1.86 (+ ativissasika), 337 ("insider", opp. bahiraka). 

Abbhantarima (adj.) [superl. formation fr. abbhantara in 
contrasting function] internal, inner (opp. babitima) Vin 
ni.149; J v.38. 




Abbhakutika (adj.) [a + bhakuti + ka; Sk. bhrakuti frown] 
not frowning, genial Vin III. 181 (but here spelt bhakutik- 
abhakutika); D i.n6, cp. DA 1.287; DhA IV.8 (as v.l.; 
T. has abbhokutika). 

Abbhagata [abhi + a + gata] having arrived or come ; (m.) 
a guest, stranger Vv i' (= abhi-Sgata, agantuka VvA 24). 

Abbhagamana (nt.) [abhi + a + gamana ; cp. Sk. abhya- 
gama] coming arrival, approach Vin IV. 22 1. 

Abbhaghata [abhi + aghata] slaughtering-place Vin 111.151 


Abbhacikkhatl [Intens. of abbhakkhati] to accuse, slander, 
calumniate D 1.161; in. 248, 250; M 1. 130, 368,482; 
111.207; A 1.161. 

Abbhana (nt.) [abhi -|- ayana of a + yg (i)] coming back, 
rehabilitation of a bhikkhu who has undergone a penance 
for an expiable offence Vin 1.49 (°araha), 53 (id.), 143, 
327; 11.33, 4°) '62; A 1.99. — Cp. abbbeti. 

Abbhamatta (adj.) [abbha -\- matta (?) according to the 
Pali Com.; but more likely = Vedic abhva huge, enorm- 
ous, monstrous, with a metri causa. On abhva (a + bhu 
what is contradictory to anything that is) cp. abbhuta & 
abbhurj, and see Walde, Lat. Wtb. under dubius] mons- 
trous, dreadful, enormous, "of the size of a large cloud" 
(thus C. on S 1.205 & J 111.309) S 1.205 =^ Ti 'i ^S^ 
(v. 1. abbha" Z!'. abbhamutta) = J 111.309 (v. 1. °mutta). 

Abbhahata [abhi -f a + hata, pp. of han] struck, attacked, 
afflicted S 1.40 (raaccuna); Th i, 448; Sn 581; J vi.26, 
440; Vism 31, 232; DA 1.140, 147; DhA IV.25. 

Abbhahana (nt.) [either z= abbShana or Svahana] in udaka° 
the pulling up or drawing up of water Vin 11.318 (Bdhgh. 
on CuUavagga v. 16, 2, corresponding to udaka-vahana 
on p. 122). 

Abbhita [pp. of abbheti] I. come back, rehabilitated, rein- 
stated Vin III. 1 86 = IV. 242 (an''). — 2. uncertain reading 
at Pv 1. 12' in sense of "called" (an° uncalled), where id. 
p. at J 111.165 reads anavhata & at Th 2, 129 ayacita. 

Abbhu [a + bhu most likely = Vedic abhva and P. abbhuq, 
see also abbhamatta] unprofitableness, idleness, nonsense 
J V.295 (= abhuti avaddhi C). 

Abbhut) (inlerj.) [Vedic abhvai), nt. of abhva, see expld. 
under abbhamatta. Not quite correct Morris J P T S. 
1889, 201: abbhui) = a -f- bhuk ; cp also abbhuta] alas! 
terrible, dreadful, awful (excl. of fright & shock) Vin 11. 
115 (Bdhgh. expls- as "utrasa-vacanam-etar)"); M I.448. — 
See also abbhu & abbhuta, 

Abbhukklraoa (nt.) [abhi + ud + kf] drawing out, pulling, 
in danda-satlha" drawing a stick or sword Nd^ 576* (cp. 
abbhokkirana). Or is it abbhuttirana (cp. uttinna outlet). 

Abbhukkirati [abhi + ud -(- kirati] to sprinkle over, to 
rinse (with water) D 11.172 (cakkaratanaq ; neither with 
Morris jf P T S. i886, 131 "give up", nor with trsl. of 
J II. 311 "roll along"); J v.390; PvA 75. Cp. abbhokkirati. 

AbbhUggacChati [abhi -f ud -f gacchati] to go forth, go 
out, rise into D 1. 11 2, 127; A 111.252 (kitti-saddo a.); 
P"g 36. ger. "gantva J 1.88 (akasaq), 202; DhA iv.i98. 
aor. °ganchi M 1.126 (kittisaddo); J 1.93. — pp. ab- 

Abbhuggata [pp. of abbhuggacchati] gone forth, gone out, 
risen D 1.88 (kitti-saddo a., cp. DhA 1. 146 : sadevakaq lokaq 
ajjholtharitva uggato), 107 (saddo); Sn p. 103 (kittisaddo). 

Abbhuggamana (nt.-adj.) [fr. abbhuggacchati] going out 
over, rising over (c. ace.) PvA 65 (candaq nabhaij abbhug- 
gamanai) ; so read for T. abbhuggamanai)). 

Abbhujjalana (nt.) [abhi + ud + jalana, from Jval] breathing 
out fire, i. e. carrying fire in one's month (by means of 
a charm) D (^ mantena mukhato aggi-jala-niharanai) 
DA 1.97). 

Abbhutthati (°tthahati) [abhi -F ud -f sthfi] to get up to, 
proceed to, D 1.105 (cankamar)). 

Abbhuil^Qata [pp. of abbhunnamati] standing up, held up, 
erect J v. 156 (in abbhunnatata state of being erect, stiff- 
ness), 197 (°unnata; v.l. abbhantara, is reading correct?). 

AbbhU^ha (adj.) [ahhi -f unha] (a) very hot DhA 11.87 (^'l- 
accunha). (b) quite hot, still warm (of milk) DhA 11.67. 

Abbhuta' (adj. nt.) [*Sk. adbhuta which appears to be 
constructed from the Pali & offers like its companion 
*ascarya (acchariya abbhuta see below) serious difficulties 
as to etym. The most probable solution is that P. abbhuta 
is a secondary adj .-formation from abbhurj which in itself 
is nt. of abbha =r Vedic abhva (see etym. under abbha- 
matta and cp. abbhu, abbhurj & J P T S. 1889, 201). In 
meaning abbhuta is identical with Vedic abhva contrary 
to what usually happens, i. e. striking, abnormal, gruesome, 
horrible etc. ; & that its significance as a -)- bhU ("un- 
real ?") is felt in the background is also evident from the 
traditional etym. of the Pali Commentators (see below). 
See also acchariya] terrifying, astonishing; strange, ex- 
ceptional, puzzling, extraordinary, marvellous, supernormal. 
Described as a term of surprise & consternation (vimhay' 
avahass' adhivacanai) DA 1.43 & VvA 329) & expld- as 
"something that is not" or "has not been before", viz. 
abhutai] ThA 233; abhula-pubbataya abbhutaq VvA 191, 
329; abhuta-pubbai] DA 1.43. — l. (adj.) wonderful, 
marvellous etc. Sn 681 (kiij °i), comb^- with lomahai]sana) ; 
J 'V.355 (id); Th 2, 316 (abbhutai) vata vacai) bhasasi 
z= acchariyaij ThA 233); Vv 44" (°dassaneyya); Sdhp 
345, 496. — 2. (nt.) the wonderful, a wonder, marvel 
S IV. 37 1, also in "dhamma (see Cpd.). Very freq. in 
comb"- with accbariyai] and a part, of exclamation, viz. 
acchartyai) bho abbbutai) bho wonderful indeed & beyond 
comprehension, strange & stupefying D 1. 206; acch. vata 
bho abbh. Vata bho D 1.60; acch. bhante abbh. A 11.50; 
aho acch. aho abbh. J 1.88 ; acch. vata abbh. vata Vv 
83 '0. — Thus also in phrase acchariya abbhuta dhamma 
wonderful & extraordinary signs or things M III. 118, 125; 
A 11.130; IV.198; Miln 8; and in accbariya-abbhuta- 
citta-jata dumbfounded & surprised J 1.88; Dh.'V iv.52 ; 
PvA 6, 50. 

-dhamma mysterious phenomenon, something wonder- 
ful, supernormal; designation of one of the nine angas 
or divisions of the Buddhist Scriptures (see nava B 2) 
Vin III. 8; M 1.133; A 11. 103; 111.86, 177; Pug 43; Miln 
344; PvA 2, etc. 

Abbhuta'^ (nt.) [= abbhuta' in the sense of invoking strange 
powers in gambling, thus being under direct spell of the 
"unknown"] a bet, a wager, only in phrase abbhutai] 
karoti (sahassena) to make a bet or to bet (a thousand, 
i. e. kahapana's or pieces of money) Vin 111.138; IV.5; J 
1.191; v.427; VI. 192; PvA 151; & in phrase pancahi 
sahassehi abbhutaq hotu J VI. 193 

Abbhudaharati [abhi -f ud + a -f- harati] to bring towards, 
to fetch, to begin or introduce (a conversation) M II.132. 

Abbhudireti [abhi -f ud -f- freti] to raise the voice, to utter 
Th 2, 402; DA 1.6 1 ; Sdhp 514. 

Abbhudeti [abhi -|- ud + eti] to go out over, to rise A 
11.50, 51 (opp. atthaq eti, of the sun). — ppr. abbhud- 
dayar) Vv 64'! (= abhi-uggacchanto VvA 280; abbhu- 
sayar) ti pi patho). 

Abbhuddhunati [abhi -f ud -f- dhunSti] to shake very much 
Vv 64" (=adhikai) uddhunSti VvA 278). 




Abbhunnadita [pp- of abhi -|- ud + nadati] resounding, 
resonant Th i, 1065). 

Abbhunnamatl [abhi + ud + namati] to, spring up, burst 
forth D 11.164. — pp. abbhunnata (& °unnata), q. v. — 
Caus. abbhtinnameti to stiffen, straighten out, hold up, 
erect D 1.120 (kayar) one's body); A 11.245 ('d-); D 1.126 
(patodalatthii) ; opp. apanameti to bend down). 

Abbhuyyata [pp. of abbhuyyati] marched against, attacked 
Vin 1.342; M 11.124. 

Abbhuyyati [abhi + up + ySti of ya] to go against, to 
go against, to march (an army) against, to attack S I.82 
(aor °uyyasi). — pp. abbhuyyata (q. v.). 

Abbhusuyaka (adj.) [abhi + usuya + ka] zealous, showing 
zeal, endeavouring in ( — °) Pgdp 101. 

Abbhussakatl & "usukkati [abhi + ud -f $vask, see sak- 
kati] to go out over, rise above (ace), ascend, freq. in 
phrase adicco nabhai) abbhussakkamano M 1.317=: 
S 111.156 = 11 20. — ^ See also S 1.65; v.44; A 1.242 
(same simile); v.22 (id.). 

Abbhussahanata (f.) [abstr. fr. abhi + *utsahana, cp. 
ussaha] instigation, incitement Vin 11. 8S. 

AbbhuSSetl [abhi + ud -f seti of si] to rise; v. 1. at Vv 
64'^ according to VvA 280: abbhuddayaq (see abbhudeti) 
abbhussayan ti pi patho. 

Abbheti [abhi + 5 + 1] to rehabilitate a bhikkhu who has 
been suspended for breach of rules Vin 11. 7 (abbhento), 
33 (abbheyya); 111.112 (abbheti), 186 ^ IV.242 (abbhe- 
tabba) — pp. abbhita (q. v.). See also abbhana. 

Abbhokasa [abhi + avakasa] the open air, an open & un- 
sheltered space D 1.63 (=r alagganatthena a. viya D.\ 
1.180), 71 (=:acchanna DA 1.210), 89; M 111.132; A 
11.210; 111.92; IV.437, V.65; Sn p. 139 (°e nissinna sitting 
in the open) J 1.29, 215; Pug 57. 

Abbhokaslka (adj.) [fr. abbhokasa] belonging to the open 
air, one who lives in the open, the practice of certain 
ascetics. D 1.167; M 1.282; A 111.220; Vin v. 1 3 1, 193; 
J IV. 8 (+ nesajjika); Pug 69; Miln 20, 342. (One of the 
13 Dhutarjgas). See also Nd' 188; Nd^ 587. 

-anga the practice or system of the "campers-out" Nd' 
558 (so read for abbhokasi-kankha, cp. Nd' 188). 

AbbhoklOO^ [PP- °^ abhhokirati] see abbokinna. 

Abbhoklratl [abhi + ava + kirati] to sprinkle over, to 
cover, bedeck Vv 5' (= abhi-okirati abhippakirati), 35' 
(v. I. abbhuk°). Cp. abbbukkirati & abbhokkirana — 
pp. abbhokinna see under abbokinna. 

Abbhokutika spelling at DhA IV.8 for abbbakutika. 

Abbhokkirana (nt.) [fr. abbhokirati] iiv|natanat) a. "turnings 
of dancers" DA 1,84 in expl"- of sobha-nagarakai) of D 1.6. 

Abbhocchinna (besides abbocch°, q. v. under abbokinna^) 
[a + vi + ava + chinna] not cut off, uninterrupted, con- 
tinuous J 1.470 (v. 1. abbo°); VI. 254, 373; Cp. 1.6^; Miln 72; 
Vism 362 (bb), 391 (lib). 

Abbhohaiika see abbo°. 
Aby° see avy°. 

Abhabba (adj.) [a + bhavya. The Sk. abhavya has a different 
meaning] impossible, not likely, unable I) ill. 13 sip, 19, 
26 sq., 133; It 106, 117; Sn 231 (see KhA 189); Dh 
32; J J 116; Pug 13. 

-tthana a (moral) impossibility of which there are 9 
enum<i- among things that are not likely to be found in 
an Arahant's character: see D 111.133 & ^35 (wl'ce 'he 
five first only are given as a set). 

Abhabbata (f.) [abstr. fr. abhabba] an impossibility, unli- 
kelihood Sn 232, cp. KhA 191. 

Abhaya (adj.) [a + bhaya] free from fear or danger, fearless, 
safe Dh 258. — nt. abhayat) confidence, safety Dhsiy, 
cp. DhA 111.491. For further refs- see bhaya. 

Abhi- [prefix, Vedic abhi, which represents both Idg *iribhi, 
as in Or. iinfii around, Lat. ambi, amb round about, Oir. 
imb. Gall, ambi, Ohg. umbi, Ags. ymb, cp. also Vedic 
(Pali) abhitah on both sides; and Idg. *obhi, as in Lat. 
ob towards, against (cp. obsess, obstruct), Goth, bi, Ohg. 
Ags. bi = E. be-. 

I. Meaning. — I. The primary meaning of abhi is 
that of taking possession and mastering, as contained in 
E. coming by and OT'fr-coming, thus literally having the 
function of (n) facing and aggressing = towards, against, 
on to, at (see II. 1, a); and {b) mastering = over, along 
over, out over, on top of (see II. I, i). 2. Out of this 
is developed the fig. meaning of increasing, i. e., an inten- 
sifying of the action implied in the verb (see III. l). 
Next to saq- it is the most frequent modification prefix 
in the meaning of "very much, greatly' as the first part 
of a double-prefix cpd. (see III. 2), and therefore often 
seemingly superfluous, i. e., weakened in meaning, where 
the second part already denotes intensity as in abhi-vi-ji 
(side by side with vi-ji), abhi-a-kkha (side by side with 
a-kkha), abhi-anu-mud (side by side with anu-mud). In 
these latter cases abhi shows a purely deictic character 
corresponding to Ger. her-bei-kommen (for bei-kommen), 
E. fill up (for fill); e. g., abhhatikkanta (= ati ° C), 
abbhatita ("vorbei gegangen"), abbhantara ("with-in", 
b-innen or "in here"), abbhudaharati, abhipOreti ("fill up"), 
etc. (see also II. i, c). 

II. Lit, Meaning. — I. As single pref. : (a) against, 
to, on to, at-, viz., abbhatthangata gone towards home, 
abhighata striking at, °jjha think at, "mana thinking on, 
"mukha facing, turned towards, "yati at-tack, °ruhati ascend, 
°lasa long for, °vadati ad-dress, "sapati ac-curse, "hata hit 
at. {i) out, over, all around: abbhudeti go out over, 
"kamati exceed, °jati off-spring, °janati know all over, 
"bhavali overcome, °vaddhati increase, °vuttha poured out 
or over, "sandeti make over-flow, "siiicati sprinkle over. 
(<■) abhi has the function of transitivising inlrs. verbs 
after the manner of E. be- (con-) and Ger. er-, thus 
resembling in meaning a simple Caus. formation, like the 
foil.: abhigajjati thunder on, °janati "er-kennen" ''jayati 
be-get, "tthaneti = "gajjali, "nadati "er tdnen", °nandati 
approve of (cp. anerkennen), °passati con-template, "ra- 
mati indulge in, "ropeti honour, ''vuddha increased, °sad- 
dahati believe in. — 2. As base in comp"- (2>i<i part of 
cpd.) abhi occurs only in comb"- sam-abhl (which is, 
however, of late occurrence and a peculiarity of later 
texts, and is still more freq. in BSk. : see under sam-). 

III. Fig. Meaning (intensifying). — I. A single pref.: 
abhikinna strewn all over, "jalati shine forth, "jighacchati 
be very hungry, "tatta much exhausted, "tapa very hot, 
"toseti pleuse greatly , °nava quite fresh , "nipuna very 
clever, °nila of a deep black, ^manapa very pleasant, 
"mangaly very lucky, "yobbana full youth, "rati great 
liking, "ratta deep red, °ruci intense satisfaction, "riipa 
very handsome {= adhika-rUpa C ), "sambuddha wide and 
fully-awake, cp. abbhuddhunati to shake greatly (::= 
adhikaquddh" C.). — As !«' part of a prep.-cpd. (as 
modification-pref.) in foil, combinations: abhi-ud (abbhud-) 
°ati, "anu, °ava, "a, °ni, °ppa, "vi, °sai). See all these 
s. V. and note that the contraction (assimilation before 
vowel) form of abhi is abbh". — On its relation to pari, 
see pari", to ava see ava°. 

IV. Dialectical Variation. — There are dial, variations 
in the use and meanings of abhi. Vedic abhi besides 
corresponding to abhi in P. is represented also by ati^, 
adhi" and anu°, since all are similar in meaning, and 
psychologically easily fused and confused (cp. meanings: 
abhi = on to, towards; ati =r up to and beyond; adhi ^ 
up to, towards, over ; anu = along towards). For all the 




foil, verbs we find in Pali one or other of these three 
prefixes. So atl in "jati, "piHta, °bruheti, °vassati, °vgyali, 
"vetheti; also as vv. 11. with abhi-klrati, °pavassati, "roceti, 
cp. atikkanta-abhi° (Sk. abhikranta); adhi in °patthita, 
°pateti, "ppaya, °ppeta, ''badheti, ''bhu, °vaha (vice versa 
P. abhi-ropeti compared with Sk. adhiropayati) ; anu in 
"gijjhati, "bruheti, 'sandahati. 

Abhikankhatl [abhi -j- kankhati] to desire after, long for, 
wish for S 1.140, 198 (Nibbanai)) ; J 11. 428;, 241; 
VvA 38, 283; ThA 244. — pp. abhikankhita. Cp. BSk. 
abhikanksati, e. g. Jtm. p. 221. 

Abhikankhanata (f.) [abhi + kankhana + ta] wishing, 
longing, desire DA 1.242. 

Abhikankhita [pp. of abhikankhatl] desired, wished, longed 
for Vv.\ 201 (= abhijjhita). 

Abhikankhin (adj.) cp. wishing for, desirous of ( — °) Th 

2. 360 (sitibhava"). 

Abhikinna [pp. of abhikirati] I. strewn over with ( — °), 
adorned, covered filled Pv ll.ll'^ (puppha°). — 2. over- 
whelmed, overcome, crushed by ( — °) It 89 (dukkh° ; 
vv. 11. dukkhatinna & otinna) = A I.147 (which reads 
dukkhotinna). See also avatinna. 

Abhikirati — l. [Sk. abhikirati] to sprinkle or cover over: 
see abhikinna i. — 2. [Sk. avakirati, cp. apakirituna] 
to overwhelm, destroy, put out, throw away, crush S 
1.54; Th I, 598; 2, 447 (ger. "kirituna, reading of C. 
for T. apa", expl<i- by chaddetva); Dh 25 (°k!rati metri 
causa; dlpai) abhikirati ^ viddhaqseti vikirati Dh.\ 1.255; 
v. 1. atikirati); J IV.121 ("kirati; dipai) = viddharjseti C.); 
VI. 541 (nandiyo m' abhikirare = abhikiranti abhikkamanti 
C); DhA 1.255 (inf- °kiritut)). — pp. abhikinna see 
abhikinna 2. 

Abhikl]atl [nbhi -f- kijati] to play (a game), to sport Miln 
359 ('"!!>■))■ 

AbhikQjita [abhi -f kiijila, pp. of kuj] resounding (with 
the song of birds) Pv 11.12' (cakkavaka" ; so read for 
kujita). Cp. abbinikujita. 

Abhikkanta (adj.-n.) [pp. of abhikkamati, in sense of Sk. 
and also P. atikkanta] (a) {adj.') lit. gone forward, gone 
out, gone beyond. According to the traditional expl"- 
preserved by Bdhgh. & Dhp (see e. g. DA 1.227 = KhA 
114 = VvA 52) it is used in 4 applications: abhikkanta- 
saddo khaya (-}- pabbaniya KhA) sundar'-abhiriipa-abbha- 
numodanesu dissati. These are: I. (lit.) gone away, passed, 
gone out, departed (-f- nikkhanta, meaning khaya "wane"), 
in phrase abhikkantaya rattiya at the waning of the night 
Vin 1.26; D 11.220; M 1.142. 2. excellent, supreme (= 
sundara) Sn 1118 (°dassavin having the most exellent 
knowledge = aggadassavin etc. Nd^ 76); usually in compar 
°tara (-|- panitatara) D 1.62, 74, 216; A ll.ioi; III. 350 
sq.; V. 140, 207 sq.; DA I.171 (= atimanapatara). 

3. pleasing, superb, extremely wonderful, as exclamation 
°i) repeated with bho (bhante), showing appreciation (;= 
abbhanumodana) D 1. 85, 110, 234; Sn p. 15, 24, etc. freq. 

4. surpassing, beautiful (always with °vanna = abhirupa) 
Vin 1.26; D 11.220; M 1.142; Pv ll.l'» = Vv 9' (== 
atimanapa abhirupa PvA 71); KhA 115 (== abhirupa- 
chavin). — (*) («/.) abhikkantai] (combd- with and opp. 
to patikkantai)) going forward (and backward), approach 
(and receding) D 1.70 (= gamana + nivattana DA 1.183); 
Vin ni.i8i;_A 11.104, 106 sq. ; VvA 6. 

Abhlkkama going forward, approach, going out Pv IV. 1^ 
(opp. patikkama going back); DhA ni.124 (°patikkama). 

Abhikkamati [Vedic abhikramati, abhi + kamati] to go 
forward, to proceed, approach D 1.50 (:=abhim«kho ka- 
mati, gacchati, pavisati DA 1.151); II. 147, 256 (abhikka- 

mui) aor.); DhA III. 1 24 (evaq "itabbar] evaq patikkami- 
tabbar) thus to approach & thus to withdraw). — pp. 
abhikkanta (q. v.). 

Abhikkhana' (nt.) [fr. abhikkhanati] digging up of the 
ground M 1. 143. 

Abhlkkhaoa^ (nt.) [abhi -|- »ikkhana from ik§, cp. Sk. 
abhiksna of which the contracted form is P. abhinha] 
only as ace. adv. '^q constantly, repeated, often Vv 24''^ 
(= abhinhai) VvA 116); Pv 11. 8' (= abhinhai) bahuso 
PvA 107); Pug 31; DhA 11.91. 

Abhikkhanati [abhi + khanati] to dig up M 1. 142. 

Abhikkhipati [abhi + khipati] to throw Davs III. 60; cp. 
abhinikkhipati ibid. 12. 

Abhigajjati [abhi -\- gajjati from garj, sound-root, cp. P. 
gaggara] (a) to roar, shout, thunder, to shout or roar at 
(c. ace.) Sn 831 (shouting or railing = gajjanto uggajjanto 
Nd' 172); ger. abhigajjiya thunderin. Cp.*. — 
(b) hum, chatler, twitter (of birds); see abhigajjin. 

Abhigajjin (adj.) [fr. abhigajjati] warbling, singing, chat- 
tering Th I, 1 108, H36. 

Abhigamanlya (adj.) [grd. of abhigacchati] to be approached, 
accessible PvA 9. 

Abhigijjhati [abhi -(- gijjhati] I. to be greedy for, to crave 
for, show delight in (c. loc.) Sn 1039 (kamesu, cp. Nd''' 
77). — 2. to envy (ace.) S I.15 (aiiiiam-aiiiiar)). 

Abhiglta [pp. of abhigayati, cp. gita] i. sung for. Only 
in one phrase, gathabhigilai), that which is gained by 
singing or chanting verses (Ger. "ersungen") S 1.173 = 
Sn 81 = Miln 228. See SnA 151. — 2. resounding with, 
filled with song (of birds) J VI. 272 (= abhiruda). 

Abhighata [Sk. abhighata, abhi -f- ghata] (a) striking, 
slaying, killing PvA 58 (danda"), 283 (sakkhara"). — 
(b) impact, contact DhsA 312 (rupa° etc.). 

Abhicetasika (adj.) [abhi + ceto + ika] dependent on the 
clearest consciousness. On the spelling see abhic*^ (of 
jhana) M 1.33, 356; III. 11 ; S 11.278; A 11.23; v.132. 
(Spelt. abhi° at M I.33; A III. 1 14; Vin V.136). See Dial. 

Abhiceteti [abhi -j- ceteti] to intend, devise, have in mind 
J IV. 3 10 (manasa papar)). 

AbhiCChanna (adj.) [abhi -f-chanua] covered with, bedecked 
or adorned with ( — ") J 11.48 (hema-jala°, v. 1. abhisan- 
channa), 370 (id.); Sn 772 (= ucchanna avuta etc. Nd' 
24, cp. Nd2 365). 

AbhiCChita (adj.) [abhi -j- icchita, cp. Sk. abhipsita] desired 
J VI.445 (so read for abhijjhita). 

Abhijacca (adj.) [Sk. abhijatya; abhi -f- jacca] of noble 
birth J V.I 20. 

Abhijaneti occasional spelling for abhijaneti. 

Abhijappati [abhi -\-. jappati] to wish for, strive after, pray 
for S 1.143 (fead asmabhijappanii & cp. Khidrcd Sayings 
p. 180) = J 111.359 (= namati pattheti piheti C); Sn 
923, 1046 (-)- asiqsali thometi ; Nd- 79 = jappati & same 
under icchati). Cp. in meaning abhigijjhati. 

Abhijappana (nt.) [doubtful whether to jappati or to japati 
to mumble, to which belongs jappana in kanqa" DA 1.97] 
in hattha° casting a spell to make the victim throw up 
or wring his hands D i.ii; DA 1.97. 

Abhijappa (f) [abstr. fr. abhijappati, cp. jappa] praying 
for, wishing, desire, longing Dhs 1 059 = Nd^ tanha 11.; 
Dhs 1 136. 




Abhijappin (aJj) [fr- abhijappati] praying for, desiring A 
111.353 (kama-labha"). 

Abhijalati [abhi -|- jalatl] to shine forlli, ppr. °anto res- 
plendent PvA 189. 

Abhijavati [abhi + javati] to be eager, active Sn 668. 

Abhijata (adj.) [abi -)- jata] of noble birth, well-born, S 
1.69; Vv 29^; Miln 359 ("kulakullna belonging to a 
family of high or noble Ijirth). 

Abhijatl (f.) [abhi -|- jati] I. Species. Only as 1. 1. in use 
by certain non-Buddhist teachers. They divided mankind 
into six species, each named after a colour D 1.53, 54: 
A III. 383 fT. (quoted DA 1. 162) gives details of each 
species. Two of them, the black and the white, are in- 
terpreted in a Buddhist sense at D 111.250, M 11.222, 
and Netti 158. This interpretation (but not the theory 
of the six species) has been widely adopted by sub- 
sequent Hindu writers. — 2. Rebirth, descent, Miln 226. 

Abhijatika (adj.) [fr. abhijati] belonging to ones birth or 
race, born of, being by birth: only in cpd. kanhabhijatika 
of dark birth, that is, low in the social scale D 111.251 := 
A in.348; Sn 563 = Th I, 833; cp. JPTS. 1893, 11; 
in sense of "evil disposed or of bad character" at J v.87 
(= kalaka-sabhava C). 

Abhijatita (f.) [abstr. fr. abhijati] the fact of being born, 
descendency VvA 216. 

Abhijana (nt. or m?) [Sk. abhijfiana] recognition, remem- 
brance, recollection Miln 78. See also abhinna. 

AbtlijanatI [abhi -f- jiia, cp. janati & abhinna] to know 
by experience, to know fully or thoroughly, to recognise, 
know of (c. ace), to be conscious or aware of D 1.143; 

s n.58, 105, 219, 278; 111.59, 91; 1V.50, 324, 399; V.52, 

J 76, 282, 299; Sn 1 1 17 (ditthii) Gotamassa na a,); 
J IV. 142; Pv II. 7 10=: II. 10' (n'abhijanami bhuttai) va pitai)); 
Sdhp 550; etc. — Pot. abhijaneyya Nd^ 78^, & abbij- 
anna Sn 917, 1059 (=rjaneyySsi SnA 592); .aor abban- 
iiasi Sn p. i6. — ppr. abhijanai] S iv.i9, 89; Sn 788 
(= "jananto C), 11 14 (= "janants Nd- 78'') abhijanitva 
DhA IV.233; abhinnaya Siv.16; v.392; Sn 534 (sabbad- 
hanimai)), 743 (jatikkhayaij), II15, 1148; Itgi (dhammaq); 
Dh 166 (atta-d-atthaq); freq. in phrase sayat) abhinnaya 
from personal knowledge or self-experience It 97 (v.l. 
abhinna); Dh 353; and abhinna [short form, like ada 
for adaya, cp. upada] in phrase sayai) abhinna D t.31 
(-|- sacchikatva); S 11.217; I' 97 (^■■'' f°^ °abhiiii5aya), in 
abhiiina-vosita perfected by highest knowledge S 1.167^ 
175 = Dh 423 ("master of supernormal lore" Mrs Rh. D. 
in kindred S. p. 208; cp. also Dh.^ iv.233); It 47 = 
61=81, and perhaps also in phrase sabbai] abhinna- 
parinneyya S U'.29. — grd. abhinne^ya S iv.29; Sn 
558 ("ij abhiniiatai) known is the knowable); Nd- .s.v.; 
DhA IV.233. — PP- abhinnata (q. v.). 

Abtlijayatl [abhi -f jayali. Pass, of jan, but in sense of a 
Caus. =r janeti] to beget, produce, effect, attain, in phrase 
akanhax) asukkai) Nibbanai) a. D III. 251; A 111.384 sq. 
At Sn 214 abhijayali means "to behave, to be", cp. 
SnA 265 (ahhijayati = bhavati). 

Abhijigigsati [abhi -f jigiijsati] to wish to overcome, to 
covet J VM93 (=:jinitui] icchati C). Burmese scribes 
spell "jiglsati; Th i, 743 ("cheat"? Mrs Rh. D.; "ver- 
nichtcn" Neumann). Sec also abhijeti, and nijigiqsanata. 

Abhijighacchatl [abhi -1- jighacchati] to be very hungry 
PvA 271. 

Abhijivanika (adj.) [abhi + jivana -f- ika] belonging to ones 
livehood, forming ones living Vin 1.187 (s'Pi'a)' 

Abhijihana (f.) [abhi -|- jihana of jeh to open ones mouth] 
strenuousness, exertion, strong endeavour J VI.373 (viriya- 
karana C). 

Abhijeti [abhi + jayati] to win, acquire, conquer J VI.273 
(abhi° melri causa). 

Abhijotetl [abhi -f joteti] to make clear, explain, illumiaate 

J V.339. 

Abhijjanaka (adj.) [a -)- bhijjana -f- ka, from bhijja, grd. of 
bhld] not to be broken, not to be moved or changed, 
uninfluenced J 11.170; DhA III. 189. 

Abhijjamana (adj.) [ppr. passive of a 4- bhid, see bhindati] 
that which is not being broken up or divided. In the 
stock description of the varieties of the lower Iddhi the 
phrase udake pi abhijjamane gacchati is doubtful. The 
principal passages are D 1.78, 212; III. 112, 281; M 1.34, 
494; II. 18; A 1. 170, 255; III. 17; V.199; S H 121 ; V.264. 
In about half of these passages the reading is abhijja- 
mano. The various readings show that the MSS also are 
equally divided on this point. Bdgh. (Vism 396) reads 
°mane, and explains it, relying on Ps 11.208, as that 
sort of water in which a man does not sink. Pv lli.i' 
has the same idiom. Dhammapala's note on that (PvA 
169) is corrupt. At D 1. 78 the Colombo ed. 1904, reads 
abhejjamane and tr. 'not dividing (the water)'; at D 1.2 12 
it reads abhijjamano and tr. 'not sinking (in the water)'. 

Abhijjha(f) [fr. abhi -f dhyfi (jhayatii),cp. Sk. abhidhyana], 
covetousness, in meaning almost identical with lobha 
(cp. D/is. irsl. 22) D 1.70, 71 ("aya cittai) parisodheti he 
cleanses his heart from coveting; abhijjhaya = abl.; cp. 
DA 1.21 1 = abhijjhato); M 1.347 (''J-); ^ III. 49, 71 sq., 
172, 230, 269; S IV.73, 104, 188, 322 (adj. vigat'abhijjha), 
343 (°ayavipaka); A 1.280; 111.92; v. 251 sq.; It 118; 
Nd' 98 (as one of the 4 kaya-gantha, q. v.); Nd- tanha 
II.'; Pug 20, 59; Dhs 1 136 ("kayagantha) ; Vbh 195.244 
(vigat'abhijjha), 362, 364, 391; Nett 13; DhA 1.23; PvA 
103, 282; Sdhp 56, 69. — Often comb<i with °doma- 
nassa covetousness & discontent, e.g. at D 111.58, 77, 
141, 221, 276; M 1.340; III. 2; A 1.39, 296; 11.16. 152; 
IV. 300 sq.^ 457 sq.; v.348, 351; Vbh 105, 1.93 sq. 
-anabhijjha absence of covetousness Dhs 35, 62. — See 
also anupassin, ganlha, domanassa, sila. 

Abhijjhatar see abhijjhitar. 

Abhijjhatl [cp. abhidyati, abhi + jhayati'; see also abhij- 
jhayati] to wish for (ace), long for, covet S v. 74 (so 
read for abhijjhati): ger. abhijjhaya J VM74 (= patthetva 
C^) — PP- abhijjhita. 

Abhijjhayati [Sk. abhidhyayati, abhi -|- jhayati' ; see also 
abhijjhati] to wish for, covet (c. ace). Sn 301 (aor. 
abhijjhayiijsu = abhipatthayamana jhayiqsu Sn A 320). 

Abhijjhalu (& "u) (adj.) [cp. jhiiyin from jhayati'; abhijj- 
halu with 'alu for "agu which in its turn is for ayin. 
The B.Sk. form is abhidyalu, e. g. Divy 301, a curious 
reconstruction] covetous D 1.139; I'I.82; S 11.168; 111.93; 
A 1.298; 11.30, 59, 220 (an° 4" '"yp*"^'*^'^''"' samma- 
ditthiko at conclusion of sila); v.92 sq., 163, 286 sq.; 
It 90, 91 ; Pug 39, 40. 

Abhijjhitta v. 1. at DhA iv.ioi for ajjhittba. 

Abhijjhita [pp. of abhijjhati] coveted, J. vi.445; usually 
neg. an° not coveted, Vin 1.287; Sn 40 (= anabhipatlhita 
So A 85; cp. Nd^ 38); Vv 47« (= na abhikankhita 
VvA 201). 

Abhijjhitar [n. ag. fr. abhijjhita in med. function] one who 
covets M 1.287 (T. abhijjhatar, v. 1. "itar) = A V.26S 
(T. "itar, V. I. ''aiar). 

Abhiiifia (adj.) (usually — °) [Sk. abhijiia] knowing, pos- 
sessed of knowledge, esp. higher or supernormal know- 
ledge (abhiiiiia), intelligent; thus in cbalabhlnna one 




who possesses the 6 abhinnSs Vin iTt.88; dandh° of slug- 
gish intellect D ill. 106; A 11.149; v.63 (opp. khipp°) ; 
inah° of great insight S 11. 1 39. — Compar. abhiiinatara 
S V.I 59 (read bhiyyo 'bhiSfiataro). 

Abhinnata (f.) [fr. abhiiiBa] in cpd. maha° state or con- 
dition of great intelligence or supernormal knowledge 

5 IV.263; V.I 75, 298 sq. 

Abhinna' (f.) [fr. abhi-f- Jiia, see janati]. Rare in the older 
texts. It appears in two contexts. Firstly, certain conditions 
are said to conduce (inter alia) to serenity, to special 
knowledge (abhinna), to special wisdom, and to Nibbana. 
These conditions precedent are the Path (S V.421 r= Vin = S IV.331), the Path -|- best knowledge and full 
emancipation (A v.238), the Four Applications of Mind- 
fulness (S V.I 79) and the Four Steps to Iddhi (S. v.255). 
The contrary is three times stated ; wrong-doing, priestly 
superstitions, and vain speculation do not conduce to 
abhiSna and the rest (D 111.131 ; A HI 325 sq. and v. 216). 
Secondly, we find a list of what might now be called 
psychic powers. It gives us i, Iddhi (cp. levitation); 2, 
the Heavenly Ear (cp. clairaudience); 3, knowing others' 
thoughts (cp. thought-reading) ; 4, recollecting one's pre- 
vious births; 5, knowing other people's rebirths; 6, cer- 
tainty of emancipation already attained (cp. final assurance). 
This list occurs only at D ni.281 as a list of abhinnas. 
It stands there in a sort of index of principal subjects 
appended at the end of the Digha, and belongs therefore 
to the very close of the Nikaya period. But it is based 
on older material. Descriptions of each of the six, not 
called abhiiina's, and interspersed by expository sentences 
or paragraphs, are found at D 1.89 sq. (^trsl. Dial. 1.89 
sq.); M 1.34 (see Btiddh. 5»//'rtj, 210 sq.); A 1.255, 258 == 
111.17, 28o = iv.42i. At S 1. 191; Vin 11. 16; Pug 14, we 
have the adj. chalabhinna ("endowed with the 6 Apper- 
ceptions"). At S 11.216 we have five, and at S v. 282, 
290 six abhiiina's mentioned in glosses to the text. And 
at S II. 21 7, 222 a bhikkhu claims the 6 powers. See also 
M ll.ii; 111.96. It is from these passages that the list at 
D in. has been made up, and called abhifina's. 

Afterwards the use of the word becomes stereotyped. 
In the Old Commentaries (in the Canon), in the later 
ones (of the 5''' cent. A.D.), and in medieval and modern 
Pali, abhinna, nine times out ten, means just the powers 
given in this list. Here and there we find glimpses of 
the older, wider meaning of special, supernormal power 
of apperception and knowledge to be acquired by long 
training in life aud thought. See Nd' 108, 328 (expl"- of 
nana); Nd'^ s. v. and N». 466; Ps 1.35; 11.156, 189; Vbh 
228, 334; Pug 14; Nett 19, 20; Miln 342; Vism 373; 
Mhvs XIX. 20; DA I.I 75; DhA 11.49; iv.30; Sdhp 228, 
470, 482. See also the discussion in the Cpd. 60 sp., 
224 sq. For the phrase sayarn abhinna sacchikatva and 
abhiSna-vosita see abhijanati. The late phrase yath^ abhin- 
nam means 'as you please, according to liking, as you 
like', J V.365 {= yathadhippayara yatharucira C). For 
abhinna in the use of an adj. (°abhii5na) see abhinna. 

Abhinna'' ger. of abhijanati. 

Abhiiiiiata [pp. of abhijanati] I. known, recognised Sn 588 
(abhiiineyyai] =15). — 2. (well)-known, distinguished D I.89 
("kolanna ^ pakata-kulaja DA 1.252), 235; Sn p. 115. 

Abhiiineyya grd. of abhijanati. 

Abhithana (nt.) [abhi + thana, cp. abhititthati; lit. that 
which stands out above others] a great or deadly crime. 
Only at Sn 231 = Kh (quoted Kvu 109). Six are 
there mentioned, & are explained (KhA 189) as "matricide, 
parricide, killing an Arahant, causing schisms, wounding 
a Buddha, following other teachers". For other relations 

6 suggestions see Dhs trsl. 267. — See also anantarika. 

Abhinhag (adv.) [contracted form of abhikkhanar)] repeat- 
edly, continuous, often M 1.442 ("apattika a habitual 
offender), 446 ("kararia continuous practice); Sn 335 

("sagvasa continuous living together); J 1.190; Pug 32; 
DhA 11.239; Vv.\ 116 (= al)hikkhana), 207, 332; PvA 
107 (= abhikkhanaq). Cp. abhinhaso. 

AbhinhaSO (adv.) [adv. case fr. abhinha; cp. bahuso = Sk. 
bahusah] always, ever S 1.194; Th 1,25; Sn 559,560,998. 

Abhltaklteti [abhi -|- takketi] to search for Davs v.4. 

Abhitatta [pp. of abhi -f-tapati] scorched (by heat), dried 
up, exhausted, in phrases unha" Vin 11.220; Miln 97, and 
ghamma° S ii.lio, 118; Sn 1014; J 11.223; ^^A 40; 
PvA 114. 

Abhltapa [abhi -f- tapa] extreme heat, glow; adj. very hot 
Vin HI. 83 (slsa'^ sunstroke); M 1.507 (maha" very hot); 
Miln 67 (mahabhitapatara much hotter); Pviv.18 (maha°, 
of niraya). 

Abhita]ita [abhi + talita fr. taleti] hammered to pieces, 
beaten, struck Vism 231 (muggara°). 

Abhititthati [abhi -\- titthali] to stand out supreme, to excel, 
surpass D 11.261 ; J vi.474 (abhitthaya = abhibhavitva C). 

Abhitunna (tunna) [not as Morris, jf.P.l'.S. 1886, 135, 
suggested fr. abhi -\- tud, but ace. to Kern, Toiv. p. 4 
fr. abhi -f tiirv. (Cp. turati & tarati' and Ved. turvati). 
Thus the correct spelling is "tunna := Sk. abhiturna. The 
latter occurs as v. 1. under the disguise of (sok-)ahitunda 
for "abhitunna at M. Vastu III. 2]. Overwhelmed, overcome 
overpowered S 11.20; Ps 1.129 (dukkha°), 164; J 1.407 
509 C^tunna); II. 399, 401; III. 23 (soka"); iv.330; v.268 
Sdhp 281." 

AbhitO (indecl.) adv. case fr. prep, abhi etym.]. — I. round 
about, on both sides J VI. 535 (= ubhayapassesu C), 
539. — 2. near, in the presence of Vv 64' (=^ samipe 
VvA 275). 

Abhitosetl [abhi -f toseti] to please thoroughly, to satisfy, 
gratify Sn 709 (= ativa toseti Sn A 496). 

Abhitthaneti [abhi ■{■ thaneti] to roar, to thunder J 1.330, 
332 = Cp.'. 

Abhittharati [abhi -\- tarati^, evidently wrong for abhittarati] 
to make haste Dh u6 (:=: turitaturitai) sighasighai) karoti 
DhA 111.4). 

Abhitthavati [abhi + thavati] to praise J 1.89; III. 531 ; 
Davs III. 23; DhA 1.77; PvA 22; cp. abhltthunati. 

Abhitthavana (nt.) [fr. prec] praise Th A 74. 

Abhitthunati [abhi -f thunati ; cp. abhitthavati] to praise 
J 1. 1 7 (aor abhitthunirjsu); cp. thunati 2. — pp. °tthuta 
DhA 1.88. 

Abhida' (adj.) as attr. of sun & moon at M II.34, 35 is 
doubtful in reading & meaning; vv. 11. abhidosa & abhi- 
desa, Neumann Irsl. "unbeschrankt". The context seems 
to require a meaning like "full, powerful" or unbroken, 
unrestricted (abhijja or abhfta "fearless"?") or does abhida 
represent Vedic abhidyu heavenly ? 

Abhida'^ Only in the difficult old verse D 11.107 (= S 
v.263 = A IV.312 ^ Nd 64 ^ Nett 60 = Divy 203). 
Aorist y^ sg. fr. bhindati he broke. 

Abhidassana (nt.) [abhi + dassana] sight, appearance, 
show J VI. 193. 

Abhideyya in sabba° at Pv.\ 78 is with v. 1. BE to be 
read sabbapatheyyarj. 

Abhidosa (° — ) the evening before, last night; "kalakata 
M 1. 1 70 = J 1. 81; "gala gone last night J vi.386 (= 
hiyyo pathama-yame C). 




Abhidosika belonging to last night (of gruel) Vin 111.15; 
Miln 291. See &bhi°. 

Abhlddavati [abhi + dru, cp. dava»] to rush on, to assail 
Mhvs 6. 5 ; Davs 111.47. 

Abhidhamati [abhi -|- dhamati, cp. Sk. abhi" & api-dhamati] 
blow on or at A 1.257. 

Abhldhamma [abhi -j- dhamma] the "special Dhamma," 
i.e., I. theory- of the doctrine, the doctrine classified, the 
doctrine pure and simple (without any admixture of lite- 
rary grace or of personalities, or of anecdotes, or of 
arguments ad personam), Vin 1.64, 68; 111.144; IV. 344. 
Coupled with abhivinaya, D 111.267; ^' 1. 272. — 2. (only 
in the Chronicles and Commentaries) name of the Third 
Pitaka, the third group of the canonical books. Dpvs 
V.37 ; PvA 140. See the detailed discussion at DA 1. 1 5, 
18 sq. [As the word abhidhamma standing alone is not 
found in Sn or S Qr A, and only once or twice in the 
Dialogues, it probably came into use only towards the 
end of the period in which the 4 great Nikayas grew up.] 
-katba discourse on philosophical or psychological 
matters, M 1.214, 218; A 111.106,392. See dhammakatha. 

Abhidhammlka see abhidhammika. 

AbMdhara (adj.) [abhi + dhara] firm, bold, in °inana firm- 
minded Dh p. 81 (ace. to Morris y.P.T.S. 1886, 135; 
not verified). 

Abhidhayin (adj.) [abhi -f dhayin fr. dhS]" putting on", 
designing, calling, meaning Pgdp 98. 

Abhidhareti [abhi + dhareti] to hold aloft J 1.34 = Bu iv.i. 

Abhldhavatl [abhi -\- dhavati] to run towards, to rush 
about, rush on, hasten Vin 11.195; S 1.209; J n.217; 
111.83; DhA IV.23. 

Abhidhavin (adj.) fr. abhidhSvati] "pouring in", rushing on, 
running J vi.559. 

Abhlnata [pp. of abhi 4- namati] bent, (strained, fig. bent 
on pleasure M 1.386 (+ apanata); S 1.28 (id.; Mrs. Rh. D. 
"strained forth", cp. Kindred S 1.39). See also apaaata. 

Abhinadatl [abhi -|- nadati] to resound, to be full of noise 
J VI. 531. Cp. abhinadita. 

Abhlnandatl [abhi -f nandati] to rejoice at, find pleasure 
in (ace), approve of, be pleased or delighted with (ace.) 
D 1.46 (bhasitaq), 55 (id.), 158, 223; M 1.109, 458; 
S 1.32 (annai)), 57, 14, (cakkhur), rupe etc.); A IV.411; 
Th 1, 1006; Dh 75, 219; Sn 1054, 1057, iili; Nd* 82; 
Miln 25; DA i.i6o; DhA 111.194 (aof- abhinandi, opp. 
patikkosi) VvA 65 (vacanai)). — pp. abhinandlta (q. v.). — 
Often in comb"- with abhlvadatl (q. v.). 

AbUnandana (nt.) & °ai (f.) [fr. abhinandati, cp. nandana], 
pleasure, delight, enjoyment D 1.244; M 1.498; J iv.397. 

Abhinandlta [pp. of abhinandati] only in an° not enjoyed, 
not (being) an object of pleasure Siv^l3 .= It 38; S v. 319. 

Abhinandln (adj.) [fr. abhinandati, cp. nandln] rejoicing 
at, finding pleasure in (loc. or — °), enjoying A 11.54 
(piyarupa); esp. freq. in phrase (tanha) tatratatr'4bhinan- 
dini finding its pleasure in this or that [cp. B.Sk. trsna 
totra-tatr'abhinant'ini M Vastu 111.332] Vin; S v.421; 
Ps 11.147; Nett 72, etc. 

Abhinamati [abhi -f namati] to bend. — pp. abhlnata (q.v.). 

Abhinaya [abhi + naya] a dramatic representation VvA 
209 (sakha°). 

Abhlnava (adj.) [abhi -|- nava] quite young, new or fresh 
Vin iu.337;J 11.143 (devaputta), 435 (so read for accunha 
in expl° of paccaggha; v. v. 11. abbhu^ha & abhi^ha); 
ThA 201 ("yobbana = abhiyobbana) ; PvA 40 ("sapthana), 
87 (= paccaggha) 155. 

Abhinadita [pp- of abhinadeti, Caus. of abhi -|- nad ; see 
nadati] resounding with ( — °), filled with the noise (or 
song) of (birds) J VI. 530 (= abhinadanto C); PvA 157 
(= abhirtida). 

Abhlnlkujlta (adj.) [abhi -f nikujita] resounding with, full 
of the noise of (birds) J v.232 (of the barking of a dog), 
304 (of the cuckoo) ; so read for "kunjita T.). Cp. abhikujita. 

Abhinikkhamatl [abhi -|- nikkhamati] to go forth from 
(abl.), go out, issue Dhs A 91 ; esp. fig. to leave ihe 
household life, to retire from the world Sn 64 (= geha 
abhinikkhamitva kasaya-vattho hutva Sn A 1 1 7). 

Abhinlkkhamana (nt.) [abhi -f- nikkhamana] departure, going 
away, esp. the going out into monastic life, retirement, 
renunciation. Usually as inaba° the great renunciation 
J 1.61; PvA 19. 

Abhinikkhlpati [abhi -|- nikkhipati] to lay down, put down 
Davs IIH2, 60. 

Abhlnlgganhana (f.) [abslr. fr. abhiniggaphati] holding 
back Vin III. 121 (-|- abhinippilana). 

AbhlniggaQhatl [abhi -|- nigganhSti] to hold fcack, restrain, 
prevent, prohibit; always in comb°- with abbinipplleti 
M 1. 1 20; A V.230. — Cp. abhinigganhana. 

Abhlnlndliya [w. 11. at all passages for abinindriya] 
doubtful meaning. The other is expH by Bdhgh at D.\ 
1.120 as paripunn"; and at 222 as avikal-indriya not 
defective, perfect sense-organ. He must have read ahin°. 
Abhi-n-indriya could only be expl"! as "with supersense- 
organs", i. e. with organs of supernormal thought or per- 
ception, thus coming near in meaning to ^abhinnindriya; 
We should read ahin" throughout D 1.34, 77, 186, 195. 
11.13; M II. 18; 111. 121; Nd- under puccha' (only ahln°). 

Abhinlnnameti [abhi -|- ninnameti cp. BSk. abhinirnSmayati 
l,al. V. 439] to bend towards, to turn or direct to D 1.76 
(cittai) iiana-dassanaya) ; M 1.234; Si. 123; iv.178; Pug 60. 

Abhlnipajjati [abhi -\- nipajjati] to lie down on Vin iv.273 
(+ abhinisidati); A IV.188 (in = ace. + abhinisidati); 
Pug 67 (id.). 

Abhinlpatatl [abhi 4- nipatatl] to rush on (to) J II. 8. 

Abhlnlpata (-matta) destroying, hurting (?) at Vbh 321 is 
expl<f by apatha-matta [cp. Divy 125 sastrSbhinipata 
splitting open or cutting with a knife]. 

Abhlnlpatana (nt.) [fr. abhi-ni-pateti] in danda-sattba° 
attacking with stick or knife Nd^ 576*. 

Abhlnlpatin (adj.) [abhi + nipSlin] falling on io (— °) J 11.7. 

Abhinlpuoa (adj.) [abhi + nipupa] very thorough, very 
clever D 111.167. 

Abhinlppajjatl [abhi -|- nippajjati] to be produced, accrue, 
get, come (to) M 1.86 (bhoga abhinipphajjanti: sic) = 
Nd' 99 (has n'abhinippajjanti). — Cp. abbinipphadeti, 

Abhlnippata at J vi.36 is to be read abhinippanna (so 
V. 1. BB.). 

Abhlnlppatta at Dhs 1035, "'S^ '^ '° ^^ '^^<^ abbinibbatta. 

Abhinippanna (& "nlppbanna) [abhi -|- nippanna, pp. of 
"nippajjati] produced, effected, accomplished D 11.223 
(siloka); J vi.36 (so read for abhinippata); Miln 8 (pph.). 





Abhinippllana (f.) [abstr. to abhinipplleti, cp. nippijana] 
pressing, squeezing, taking hold of Vin 111.121 f+ abhi- 

AbhinippHeti [abhi + nippfleti] to squeeze, crush, subdue 
Vism 399; often in comb"- with abbinigganhati M 1. 
120; A V.230. 

Abhinipphatti (f.) [abhi + nipphatti] production, effecting 
D ii.2»3 (v.l. °nibbatti). 

Abhinipphadetl [abhi + nipphadeti] to bring into existence, 
produce, effect, work, perform D 1.78 (bhajana-vikatiq); 
Vin 11.183 (iddhiij); S V.156, 255; Miln 39. 

Abhinibbatta [abhi -|- nibbatta, pp. of abhinibbattati] repro- 
duced, reborn A IV.40, 401 ; Nd'^ 256 (nibbatta abhi° 
patubhnta); Dhs 1035, 1036 (so read for° nippatta); 
VvA 9 (puiiii^anubhava'' by the power of merit). 

Abhinibbattati [abhi + nibbattati] to become, to be repro- 
duced, to result Pug 51. — pp. abhinibbatta. — Cp. 

H.Sk. wrongly abhinivartate]. 

Abhinibbatti (f.) [abhi + nibbatti] becoming, birth, rebirth, 
1) 1.229; 11-283 (v.l- for abhinipphatti) S 11.65 (punab- 
bhava^), loi (id.); IV. 14, 215; A V.121; PvA 35. 

Abhinibbatteti [abhi + nibbatteti, cans, of ''nibbattati] to 
produce, cause, cause to become S 111.152; A v.47; Nd^ 
under janeti. 

Abhinibbijjati [either Med. fr. nibbindati of vid for *nir- 
vidyate (see nibbindati B), or secondary formation- fr. 
ger. nibbijja. Reading however not beyond all doubt] to 
be disgusted with, to avoid, shun, turn away from Sn 281 
(T. abhinibbijjayatha, v. 1. BB° nibbijjiyatha & °nibbajji- 
yatha, SnA expls- by vivajjeyyatha ma bhajeyyatha; v.l. 
BB. abhinippajjiya) = A iv. 172 (T. abhinibbajjaystha, 
vv. 11. °nibbajjeyyatha & "nibbijjayatha); ger. abhinibbijja 
Th 2, 84. 

Abhinibbijjhatl [abhi + nibbijjhati] to break quite through 
(of the chick coming through the shell of the egg) Vin 
UI.3 ; M 1.104 = S ll'-'SS (read° nibbijjheyyun for nibbij- 
jeyyun — Cp. Btiddh. Sultas 233, 234. 

Abhinibblda (f.) [abhi + nibbida; confused with abhinibb- 
hida] disgust with the world, taedium Nett 61 (taken as 
abhinibbhida, according to expl"- as "padalana-paniiatti 
avijfanda-kosanar)"), 98 (so MSS, but C. abhinibbidha). 

Abhinibbuta (adj.) [abhi -|- nibbuta] perfectly cooled, calmed, 
serene, esp. in two phrases, viz. ditlha dhamm' abhi- 
nibbuta A 1.142 = M III. 187; Sn 1087; Nd- 83, and 
abhinibbutatta of cooled mind Sn 343 (= aparidayha- 
"mana-citta SnA 347), 456, 469, 783. Also at Sdhp. 35. 

Abhinibbhida (f.) [this the better, although not correct 
spelling; there exists a confusion with abhinibblda, there- 
fore spelling also abhinibbidha (Vin in. 4, C. on Nett 98). 
To abhinibbijjhati, cp. B.Sk. abhinirbheda M Vastu 1.272, 
which is wrongly referred to bhid instead of vyadh.] 
the successful breaking through (like the chick through 
the shell of the egg), coming into (proper) life Vin iii 4; 
M 1. 104; 357; Nett 98 (C. reading). See also abhinibblda. 

Abhinimantanata (f.) [absti. to abhinimanteti] speaking 
to, adiessing, invitation M 1.331. 

Abhinimanteti [abhi -(- nimanteti] to invite to (c. instr.), 
to offer to D 1.6 1 (asanena). 

Abhinimmadana (nt.) [abhi -\- nimmadana] crushing, sub- 
duing, levelling out M 111.132; A IV.189 sq. 

Abhinintmita [abhi + nimmita, pp. of abhinimminati] created, 
(by magic) Vv 16' (paiica ratha sata; cp. VvA 79). 

Abhinimnilnfiti [abhi -)~ nimminati, cp. BSk. abhinirmati 
Jtm 32; abhinirminoti Divy 251; abliinirmimite Divy l66] 
to create (by magic), produce, shape, make S in. 152 
(riipar)); A 1.279 (olarikaij attabhavai)); Nd'^ under puccha" 
(rupai) manomayaij); VvA 16 (mahantaij hatthi-raja-van- 
oaq). — pp. abhinimmita (q. v.). 

Abhiniropana (nt.) & a (f) [fr. abhiniropeti] fixing one's 
mind upon, application of the mind Ps 1.16, 21, 30, 69, 
75i 90; ^bh 87; Dhs 7, 21, 298 (cp. Dhs trsl. ii.i<)). 
See also abbiropana. 

Abhiniropeti [abhi -|- niropeli] to implant, fix into (one's 
mind), inculcate Nett 33. 

Abhinivajjetl [abhi -\- nivajjeti] to avoid, get rid of D III. 
113; M 1. 119, 364, 402; S V.119, 295, 318; A III. 169 
sq.; It 81. 

Abhinivassati [abhi -f ni + vassati fr. vfj] lit- to pour 
out in abundance, fig. to produce in plenty. Cp 1. 10-' 
(kalyane good deeds). 

Abhinivit^ha (adj.) [abhi -)- nivittha, pp. of abhi-nivisati] 
"settled in", attached to, clinging on Nd'' 152 (gahita 
paramattha a.); PvA 267 (= ajjhasita Pv iv.8*). 

AbhinivisatI [abhi 4- nivlsati] to cling to, adhere to, be 
attached to Nd' 308, 309 (paramasati -[-)• — pp. abhi- 
nivittba; cp. also abbinivesa. 

Abhinivesa [abhi -|- nivesa, see nivesa- & cp. nivesana] 
"settling in", i. e. wishing for, tendency towards ( — -"I, 
inclination, adherence; as adj. liking, loving, being given 
or inclined to D 111.230; M 1.136, 251; S 11.17; HI. 10, 
13, 135, 161, 186 (sar)yojana° iv.50; A in. 363 (pathavi°, 
adj.); Nd- 227 (gaha paramasa-f-); Pug 22; Vbh 145; 
Dhs 381, 1003, 1099; Nett 28; PvA 252 (rniccha"), 267 
(tanha°); Sdhp 71. — Often combd- with adhitthana 
e.g. S 11.17 ; Nd' 176, and in phrase idarj-sacc' abhi- 
nivesa adherence to one's dogmas, as one of the 4 Ties: 
see kayagantha and cp. Cpd. 171 n. 5. 

Abhinisidati [abhi -|- nisidati] to sit down by or on (ace), 
always comtjd. with abhinipajjati Vin 111.29; iv.273; A 
V.I 88; Pug 67. 

AbhiniSSata (pp.) [abhi -f nissata] escaped Th i, io8g. 

Abhinihata (pp-) [abhi -\- nihata] oppressed, crushed, slain 
J IV.4. 

Abhinita (pp.) [pp. of abhi-neti] led to, brought to, obliged 
by (— °) M 1.463 = Miln 32 (raja & cora"); M 1.282; 
S 111.93; Th I, 350 = 435 (vataroga° "foredone with 
cramping pains" Mrs. Rh. D.); Pug 29; Miln 362. 

Abhinila (adj.) [abhi -|- nlla] very black, deep black, only 
with ref. to the eyes, in phrase "netta with deep-black 
eyes D n.i8; ni.144, 167 sq. [cp. Sp. Av. S 1.367 & 
370 abhinila-padma-netra] ; Th 2, 257 (netta ahesui) abbi- 

Abhinlhanati [abhi + nis -f- han, cp. Sk. nirhanti] to drive 
away, put away, destroy, remove, avoid M 1. 119 (in 
phrase anir) a. abhiniharati abhinivajjetl). 

Abhiniharati [abhi -\- niharati] I. to take out, throw out 
M 1. 119 (see abhinlhanati). — 2. to direct to, to apply 
to (orig. to isolate? Is reading correct?) in phrase nana- 
dassanaya cittai] abhiniharati abhininnameti D 1.76 
(= tanninnar) tapponai) karoti DA 1.220, 224; v.l. ab- 
hini") Cp. the latter phrase also in BSk. as abhijMbhinir- 
hara A v. S 11.3 (see ref. & note Index p. 221); and the 
pp. abhinirhrta (rddhih) in Divy 48, 49 to obtain ? Ind.), 
264 (take to burial), 542. 




Abhinihara [abhi -)- mhara, to abhiniharati; cp. BSk. sarir' 
"bhinirhara taking (the body) out to burial, lit. meaniDg, 
see note on abhiniharati] being bent on ("downward 
force" Dhs trsl. 242), i. e. taking oneself out to, way of 
acting, (proper) behaviour, endeavour, resolve, aspiration 
S 111.267 sq. (°kusala); A 11. 189; 111311; iv.34 (°kusala); 
J 1. 14 (Buddhabhavaya a. resolve to become a Buddha), 
15 (Buddhaltaya) ; Ps 1.61 sq.; U.121; Nett 26; Miln 
216; DhA 1.392; 11.82 (kata°). 

Abhipattika (adj.) [fr. abhipatti] one who has attained, 
attaining ( — °), getting possession of S 1.200 (devakanua°). 

Abhipatthita (pp) [fr. abhipattheti] hoped, wished, longed 
for Miln 383; SnA 85. 

Abllipattheti [abhi -f- paltheti] to hope for, long for, wish 
for Kh VIII. 10; SnA 320; DhA 1.30. — pp. abhipat- 
thita (q. v.). 

Abhlpassatl [abhi + passati] to have regard for, look for, 
strive after A 1. 147 (Nibbanaq); 111.75; Sn 896 (khema°), 
1070 (rattamaha") Nd' 308; Nd^ 428; J VI.370. 

Abhlpateti [abhi -|- pateti] to make fall, to bring to fall, 
to throw J 11.91 (kaudaq). 

Abhiparuta (adj.) [abhi + paruta, pp. of abhiparupati] 
dressed Miln 222. 

Abhipaleti [abhi + paleti] to protect Vv 842', cp. VvA 341. 

Abhipi]ita (pp ) [fr- abhiplleti] crushed, squeezed Sdhp 
278, 279. 

Abhipijeti [abhi + P'!eti] to crush, squeeze Miln 166. — • 
pp. abhipilita (q. v.). 

Abhipucchatl [abhi -\- puccbati] Sk. abhiprcchati] to ask 
J IV. 1 8. 

AbhipQreti [abhi + pureli] to fill (up) Miln 238; Davs ill. 
60 (pai}suhi). 

Abhippaki^^a [pp- of abhippakirati] completely strewn 
(with) J 1.62. 

Abhippakirati [abhi -|- pakirali] to sirew over, to cover 
(completely) D 11.137 (pupphani Tathagatassa sarirai] okir- 
anti ajjhokiranli a.); VvA 38 (for abbhokiiali Vv 5"). — 
pp. abbippakinna (q. v.). 

Abhlppainodati [abhi -j- pamodati] to rejoice (iotrs.); to 
please, satisfy (irs, c. ace.) M 1.425; S v. 312, 330; A 
V.112; J III 530; Ps 1.95, 176, 190. 

Abhippalambatl [abhi -)- palambati] to hang down M III. 
164 (olambati ajjholaml)ati a.). 

Abhippavassati [abhi + pavassati] to shed rain upon, to 
pour down; intrs. to rain, to pour, fall. Usually in phrase 
mahamegho abhippavassati a great cloud bursts Miln 8, 
'3i 36, 304; PvA 132 (v. 1. ati"); intrs. Miln 18 (pupp- 
hSni °ii]su poured down). — pp. abhippavuttha. 

Abhippavut^ha (pp.) [fr. abhippavassati] having rained, 
poured, fallen; trs. S v. 51 (bandhanani meghena °ani) = 
A V.I 27; intrs. M 11.117 (mahamegho "o there has been 
a cloudburst). 

Abhippasanna (adj.) [pp. of abhippasidati, cp. BSk. abhi- 
prasannaj finding one's peace in (c. loc), trusting in, 
having faith in, believing in, devoted to (loc.) Vin 111.43; 
D 1.211 (Bhagavati) S 1.134; iv.319; v. 225, 378; A 111. 
237, 270, 326 sq.; Sn p. 104 (brahmaoesu); PvA 54 
(sasand), 142 (id.). Cp. vippasanna in same meaning. 

Abhippasada [abhi -f- pasada, cp. BSk. abhiprasada Av. S 
12 (cittasyu") & vippasada] faith, belief, reliance, trust 
Dhs 12 ("sense of assurance" /«/., + saddha), 25, 96, 
288; PvA 223. 

Abhippasadeti [Caus. of abhippasidati, cp. BSk. abhipra- 
sadayati Uivy 68, 85, pp. abhiprasadita-manah Jtm 213, 
220] to establish one's faith in (loc), to be reconciled 
with, to propitiate Th I, 11 73 ^ Vv 21'' (manai) ara- 
hantamhi ^ cittaij pasadeti VvA 105). 

Abhippasareti [abhi + pasareti, cp. BSk. abhiprasarayati 
Divy 389] to stretch out Vin 1.179 (pade). 

Abhippasidati [abhi -|- pasldati] to have faith in D 1.211 
(fut. "issati). — pp. abhippasanna; Caus. abhippasadeti. 

Abhippaharana (nt.) [abhi + paharapa] attacking, fighting, 
as adj. f. "anl fighting, Ep. of Marassa sena, the army of 
M. Sn 439 (kaphassa" the fighting army of k. = samai.ia- 
brahmananag nippothani antarayakari SnA 390). 

Abhibyapeti [abhi -|- vySpeti, cp. Sk. vyapnoti, vi -\- gp] 
to pervade Miln 251. 

Abhibhakkhayati [abhi 4- bhakkhayati] to eat (of animals) 
Vin 11.201 (bhinko pankai) a.). 

Abhibhava \ix- abhibhavati] defeat, humiliation SnA 436. 

Abhibhavati [abhi + bhavati] to overcome, master, be Lord 
over, vanguisli, conquer S 1. 1 8, 32, 121 (maraiiaij); iv. 
71 (ragadose), 117 (kodhaij), 246, 249 (samikai)); J 1.56, 
280; FvA 94 (= baliyati, vaddhati). — fut. abhihessatl 
see abhihareti 4. — ger. abhibhuyya Vin 1.294; L)h 328; 
It 41 (marar) sasenaij); Sn 45, 72 (°carin), 1097, Nd^ 85 
(= abhibhavitva ajjhottharitva pariyadiyitva); and abhi- 
bhavitva PvA 113 (=pasayha), 136. — grd. abhibhava- 
niya to be overcome PvA 57. — Pass. ppr. abhibhuyamana 
being overcome (by) PvA 80, 103. — pp. abhibhuta (q.v.). 

Abhibhavana(nt.) [fr. abhibhavati] overcoming, vanquishing, 
mastering S 11.210 (v. 1. BB abhipatthana). 

Abhibhavaniyata (f.) [abstr. fr. abhibhavaniya, grd. of abhi- 
bhavati] as an° invincibility PvA II 7. 

Abhibhayatana (nt.) [abhibhu -f" Syalana] position of a 
master or lord, station of mastery. The traditional account 
of these gives 8 stations or stages of mastery over the 
senses (see Dial. Il.il8; Exp. 1.252), detailed identically 
at all the foil, passages, viz. U 11.110; in. 260 (& 287); 
M 11.13; A 1.40; IV.305, 348; V.61. Mentioned only at 
S IV. 77 (6 stations); Ps 1.5; Nd'^ 466 (as an accomplish- 
' ment of the Bhagavant); Dhs 247. 

Abhibhasana (nt ) [abhi + bhSsana fr. bhas] enlightenment 
or delight ("light & delight" trsl.) Th I, 613 (= losana C). 

Abhibhu (n.-adj.) [Vedic abhibhu, fr. abhi + bhii, cj). abhi- 
bhavati] overcoming, conquering, vanquishing, having 
power over, a Lord or Master of ( — °) D ill. 29; S 11. 
284; Sn 211 (sabba°), 545 (Mara", cp. Marasena-pamad- 
dana 561), 642. — Often in phrase abhibhtl anabhibhuta 
aiiiiadatthudasa vasavattin, i. e. unvanquished Lord of all 
D 118; 111.135 = Nd- 276; A 11.24: IV.94; It 122; cp. 
DA i.lll (^abhibhavitva thito jetthako' ham asmiti). 

Abhibhiita [pp of abhibhavati] overpowered, overwhelmed, 
vanquished D 1,121; S 1. 137 (jati-jara°); 11.228 (labha- 
sakkara-silokena); A 1.202 (papakehi dhammehi); J 1.189; 
PvA 14, 41 (= pareta), 60 (^ upagata), 68, 77, 80 (= 
pareta). Often neg. an° unconquered, e.g. Sn 934; Nd' 
400; & see phrase under abhibhu. 

Abhimangala (.idj.) [abhi -1- mangala] (very) fortunate, 
lucky, anspicious, in °sammata (of Visakha) "benedicted ", 
blessed Vin 111.187 = DhA 1 409. 0pp. avamangala. 

Abhimandita (pp. — °) [abhi -|- mapdita] adorned, embel- 
lished, beautified Miln 361; Sdhp 17. 

Abhimata (adj.) [BSk. abhimata, e.g. Jtm 211; pp. of 
abhimanyate] desired, wished for; agreeable, pleasant C. 
on Th I, 91. 




Abhimatthati ("eti) & "mantheti [abhi + math or manth, 

cp. nimmatheti] 1. to cleave, cut; to crush, destroy M 
1.243 (sikharena muddhanaij °mantheti); S 1.127; Dh 161 
(v. 1. °nth°); J IV.457 (matthako sikharena "matthiyamano) ; 
DhA 111.152 (== kantati viddhaqseti). — 2. to rub, to 
produce by friction (esp. fire, aggiq; cp. Vedic agniij 
nimianthati) M 1. 240. 

Abhimaddatl [Sk. abhimardati & "mrdnati ; abhi -\- mfd] 
to crush S 1.102; A 1.198; Sdhp 288. 

Abhlmana (idjO [abhi + mano, BSk. abhimana, e. g. M 
Vastu in.259] having one's mind turned on, thinking of 
or on (c. ace.) Th I, 1 1 22; J vt.45l. 

Abhlmanapa (adj.) [abhi + manSpa] very pleasing VvA 53 
(where id. p. at I'vA 71 has atimanapa). 

Abhimanthetl see abhimatthati. 

Abhimara [cp. Sk. abhimara slaughter] a bandit, bravo, 
robber J 11. 199; DA 1.152. 

Abhimukha (adj.) [abhi -f- mukha] facing, turned towards, 
approaching J 11. 3 ("a ahesui) met each other). Usually 
— " turned to, going to, inclined towards D 1.50 (purattha°); 
J 1.203 (devaloka"), 223 (varana-rukkha°); II. 3 (nagara°), , 
416 (Jetavana"); DhA 1.170 (tad°); 11.89 (nagara"); PvA 3 \ 
(kama°, opp. vimukha), 74 (uyyana°). — nt. °g adv. to, 
towards J 1.263 (matta-varane) ; PvA 4 (5ghatana°, may ; 
here be taken as pred. adj.); DhA 111.310 (uttara"). 

Abhiyacati [abhi -f- yacati] to ask, beg, entreat Sn IIOI, 
cp. Nd'i 86. 

Abhiyatl [Vedic abhiyati in same meaning; abhi -f- yfi] to 
go against (in a hostile manner, to attack (c. ace.) S 
I.216 (aor. abhiyaqsu, v. 1. SS abhijiyiijsu) ; DhA III. 310 
(aor. abhiyasi as v. 1. for T. reading payasi ; the id. p. 
VvA 68 reads payiisi with v. 1. upayasi). 

Abhiyujjhatl [abhi + yujjhati from yudh] to contend, 
quarrel with J 1.342. 

Abhlyunjatl [abhi --|- yuj] to accuse, charge ; intrs. fall to 
one's share Vin III. 50; IV. 304. 

Abhiyoga [cp. abhiyunjati] practice, observance Davs IV.7. 

Abhiyogin (adj.) [fr. abhiyoga] applying oneself to, prac- 
tised, skilled (an augur, sooth sayer) D III. 1 68. 

Abhiyobbana (nt.) [abhi -f- yobbana] much youthfulness, 
early or tender youth Th 2, 258 (= abhinavayobbanakala 
ThA 211). 

Abhlrakkhati [abhi 4- rakkhati] to guard, protect J VI. 589 
(= paleti C). Cp. parirakkhati. 

Abhirakkha (f.) [fr. abhlrakkhati] protection, guard J 1.204 
(= arakkha 203). 

Abhirata (adj.) ( — °) [pp. of abhiramati] fond of, indulging 
in, finding delight in A iv.224 (nekkhamma°); v. 1 75 (id.), 
Sn 86 (nibbana°), 275 (vihesa^), 276 (kalaha°) ; J v.382 
(dana°); PvA 54 (pufinakamma°), 61 (satibhavana"), 105 

Abhlratatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. abhirata] the fact of being fond 
of, delighting in ( — °) J v.254 (kama°). 

Abhirati (f.) [fr. abhi -|- ram] delight or pleasure in (loc. 
or — ") S 1. 1 85; IV.260; A V.I 22; Dh 88. -an° displea- 
sure, discontent, distaste Vin; D 1.17 (-|- paritas- 
sana); S 1.185; '^•132; A III. 259; IV. 50; V.72 sq., 122; 
J III. 395; DA i.ui; PvA 187. 

Abhiratta (adj.) [abhi + ratta] very red J v. 156; fig. very 
much excited or affected with ( — ") Sn 891 (sanditthi- 
ragena a.). 

Abhiraddha (adj.) [pp. of abhi + radh] propitiated, satis- 
fied A IV.185 (-|- attamana). 

Abhiraddhi (f.) [fr. abhiraddha] only in neg. an° displeasure, 
dislike, discontent A 1.79; DA 1.52 (=: kopass' etaij 

Abhiramati [abhi -f ram] to sport, enjoy oneself, find 
pleasure in or with (c. loc), to indulge in love Sn 718, 
1085; J 1.192; III. 189, 393; DhA 1.119; PvA 3, 61, 
145. — ppr. act. abhiranto only as nt. °t) in adv. phrase 
yathabhirantari after one's liking, as much as he pleases, 
after one's heart's content Vin 1.34; M 1.170; Sn 53. — 
ppr. med. abhiramamana J iu.188, PvA 162. — pp. 
abhirata (q. v.). — 2"d Caus. abhiramapeti (q. v.). 

Abhlramana (nt.) [fr. abhiramati] sporting, dallying, amusing 
oneself PvA l6. 

Abhiramapana (nt.) [fr. abhiramapeti, Caus^ of abhiramati] 
causing pleasure to (ace), being a source of pleasure, 
making happy M III. 132 (gamante). 

Abhiramapeti [Caus. II. fr. abhiramati] I. to induce to 
sport, to cause one to take pleasure J 111.393. — 2. to 
delight, amuse, divert J 1. 61. — Cp. abhiramapana. 

Abhiravati [abhi -f- ravati] to shout ont Bu 11.90 = ] 1. 18 

Abhiradhita [pp. of abhiradheti] having succeeded in, fallen 
to one's share, attained Th I, 259. 

Abhiradhin (adj.) ( — °) [fr. abhiradheti] pleasing, giving plea- 
sure, satisfaction J IV.274 (mitta° := aradhento tosento C). 

Abhiradheti [abhi + radheti] to please, satisfy, make happy 
J 1.421 ; DA 1.52. — aor. (prel.) abbiradbayi Vv 31' 
(= abhiradhesi VvA 130); Vv 64" (gloss for abhirocayi 
VvA 282); J 1.42 1 ; 111.386 (::= paritosesi C). — pp. 

Abhiruci (f-) [Sk. abhiruci, fr. abhi -f ruc] delight, longing, 
pleasure, satisfaction PvA 168 (=:: ajjhasaya). 

Abhirucita (adj.) [pp. fr. abhi -f ruc] pleasing, agreeable, 
liked J 1.402; DhA 1.45. 

Abhinida (adj. — ") [Sk. abhiruta] resounding with (the 
cries of animals, esp. the song of birds), full of the sound 
of (birds) Th I, 1062 (kuiijara"), 11 13 (raayura-konca°); 
J IV. 466 (adasakunta°); v.304 (mayura-konca°); vi.172 (id., 
= upaglta C), 272 (sakunta°; = abhiglta C.), 483 (nia- 
yura-konca°), 539; Pv 11.12' (haijca-konca"; ^ abhinadita 
PvA 157). — The form abhiruta occurs at Th 1, 49. 

Abhirupa (adj.) [abhi 4- rupa] of perfect form, (very), 
handsome, beautiful, lovely Sn 410 (=dassaniya^ anga- 
pcccanga SnA 383); J 1.207; l'"g S^'i DA 1.281 (=: 
i aiinehi manussehi adhikarQpa); VvA 53; PvA 61 (:= 
] abhikkanta). Occurs in the idiomatic phrase denoting the 
characteristics of true beauty abhirupa dassaniya pasa- 
dika (-|- paramaya vanna-pokkharatSya samannagata), e.g. 
Vin 1.268; D 1.47, 114, 120; S 11.279; A 11.86, 203; 
Nd2 659; Pug 66; DhA 1.28 1 (compar.); PvA 46. 

AbhirQIha [pp- of abbiruhati] mounted, gone up to, ascended 
J v. 217; DhA 1.103. 

Abhiruhati (abhiruhati) [abhi -|- ruh] to ascend, mount, 
climb; to go on or in to (c. ace.) Dh 321; Th I, 271; 
J 1.259; "-388; III. 220; IV.138 (navai)); VI. 272 (peculiar 
aor. "rucchi with abhi metri causa; = abhiruhi C.); DA 
1.253. — ger. abhiruyha J 111.189; PvA 75, 152 (as v. 1.; 
T. has "ruyhitva), 271 (navaq), & abhiruhitva J 1.50 
(pabbataij) II.128. 

Abhiruhana (nt.) [BSk. °ruhana, e.g. M Vastu II.289] 
climbing, ascending, climb Miln 356. 




Abhiroceti [abhi 4- roceti, Caus. of ruc] •• to like, to find 
delight in (ace), to desire, long for J ill. 192; v. 222 (= 
roceti); Vv 64''' (vataq abhirocayi = abhirocesi ruccitva 
paresi ti attho; abhiradhayi ti pi patho; sadhesi nippha- 
desi ti atlho VvA 282). — 2. to please, satisfy, entertain, 
gladden Vv 64'^* (but VvA 292 : abhibhavitva vijjotali, 
thus to no. 3). — 3. V. 1. for atiroceti (to surpass in 
splendour) at Vv Si'-, cp. also no. 2. 

Abhlropana (nt.) [fr. abhiropeti] concentration of mind, 
attention (seems restricted to Ps 11. only) Ps 11.82 (v. I. 
abhiniropana), 84, 93, 11$ (buddhi°), 142 ("viraga), 145 
("vimutti), 216 ("abhisamaya). See also abhiniropana. 

Abhiropeti [abhi + ropeti, cp. Sk. adhiropayati, Caus.- of 
ruh] to fix one's mind on, to pay attention, to show 
reverence, to honour Vv 37' (aor. °ropayi =: ropesi VvA 
169), 37'" (id.; = pujaq karesi VvA 172), 6o* (:= pujesi 
VvA 253); Davs V.19. 

Ahhilakkhlta (adj.) [Sk. abhilaksita in diff. meaning; pp. 
of abhi -\- Iak$] fixed, designed, inaugurated, marked by 
auspices J iv.i ; DA 1.18. 

Abhilaldchltatta (nt.) [abslr. fr. abhilakkhita] having signs 
or marks, being characterised, characteristics DhsA 62. 

Abhilanghati [abhi -j- langhati] to ascend, rise, travel or pass 
over (of the moon traversing the sky) J 1:1.364; vi.221. 

Abhilambati [abhi-f-lambati] to hang down over (c. ace.) 
M 111.164 ^Nett '79 (+ 3JJ'*o'*™bati); J v. 70 (papatar)), 
269 (Vetaratiii)). — pp. abhilambita (q. v.). 

Abhilambita (adj.) [pp. of abhilambati] hanging down J 
V.407 (niladuma°). 

Abhilapa [fr. abhi -|- lap] talk, phrasing, expression Sn 49 
(vacSbhilSpa making phrases, talking, idle or objectionable 
speech = tiracchanakatha Nd' 561); It 89 (? reading 
abhilapayai} uncertain , vv. 11. abbipayai) abhipapayar), 
abhisapayai), abhisapayag, atisappayai). The corresp. pas- 
sage S 111.93 reads abhisapayaq : curse, and C. on It 89 
expls. abhilapo ti akkoso, see Brethren 376 n. 1); Dhs 
1306 = Nd' 34 (as exegesis or paraphrase of adhivacana, 
comb<l- with vyanjana & trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. as "a dis- 
tinctive mark of discourse"); DA 1.20, 23, 281; DhsA 51. 

Abhllasa [Sk. abhilasa, abhi -f- laf] desire, wish, longing 
Pv.\ 154. 

Abhilelcheti [Caus. of abhi -f likh] to cause to be inscribed 
Davs V.67 (caritta-lekhai) °lekhayi). 

Abhllepana (nt.) [abhi -|- lepana] "smearing over", stain, 
pollution Sn 1032, 1033 = Nett 10, II (see Nd* 88 = 
laggana "sticking to", bandhana, upakkilesa). 

Abhivagga [abhi 4- vagga] great mass (?), superior force (?), 
only in phrase °ena omaddati to crush with sup. force 
or overpower M 1.87 = Nd^ I99°. 

Abhivancana (nt.) [abhi + vaiic] deceit, fraud Davs ui.64. 

Abhiva^ [pp. of abhivassati, see also abhivulthaj rained 
upon Dh 335 (gloss °vuttha ; cp. DhA IV'.45); Miln 176, 
197, 286. — Note. Andersen P. R. prefers reading abhi- 
vaddha at Dh 335 "the abounding Birana grass"). 

AbhivaiJ<Jhati [Vedic abhivardhati , abhi -f Vfdh] I. to 
increase (intrs.) D 1.I13, 195 (opp. hayati); M 11.225; A 
UI.46 (bhoga a.); Dh 24; Miln 374; PvA 8, 133; Sdhp 
288, 523. — 2. to grow over or beyond, to outgrow J 
111.399 (vanaspatir)). — pp. abhivuijdha A ^vuddha (q. v.). 

Abhlva()(jlhana (adj.nt.) [fr. abhivaddhati] increasing (trs.), 
augmenting; f. °I Sdhp 68. 

Abhlva()(}hi (f.) [cp. Sk. abhivrddhi, fr. abhi + Vfdh] in- 
crease, growth Miln 94. — See also abhivu()dbi. 

Abhivaonlta [pp. of abhivanneti] praised Dpvs 1.4. 

Abhlvap^eti [abhi -f- vanneti] to praise Sdhp $88 (°ayi). — 
pp. abhivannita. 

Abhivadati [abhi -|- vadati] I. to speak ont, declare, pro- 
mise J 1.83 = Vin 1.36 ; J VI. 220. — 2. to speak (kindly) 
to, to welcome, salute, greet. In this sense always comb^ 
with abhinandati, e.g. at M 1.109, ^^^i 45^i ^ ui-t4i 
IV.36 sq.; Miln 69. — Caus. abbivadeti. 

Abhivandati [abhi -|- vandati] to salute respectfully, to 
honour, greet; grd. "vandanlya Miln 227. 

AbhivaSSaIca (adj.) [fr. abhivassati] raining, fig. shedding, 
pouring ont, yielding VvA 38 (puppha°). 

Abhivassati [abhi -f vassali from vr§] to rain, shed rain, 
pour; fig. rain down, pour ont, shed D 111.160 (abhi- 
vassai) metri causa); A 111.34; Th I, 985; J 1.18 (v.ioo; 
puppha a. stream down); cp. 111.10'; Miln 132, 411. — 
pp. abhivatta & abhivu^ba (q. v.). — Caus. II. abbi- 
vassapeti to cause (the sky to) rain Miln 132. 

Abtlivassln (adj.) = abbivassaka It 64, 65 (sabbattha°). 

Abhivadana (nt.) [fr. abhivadeti] respectful greeting, salu- 
tation, giving welcome, showing respect or devotion A 
11.180; IV.I30, 276; J 1.81, 82, 218; Dh 109 (°silin of 
devout character, cp. DhA 11.239); VvA 24; Sdhp 549 


Abhivadeti [Caus. of abhivadati] to salute, greet, welcome, 
honour Vin 11.208 sq.; D 1.61 ; A 111.223; 'V.173; Vv l' 
(abhivSdayii) aor. = abhivadanaq karesii) vandir) VvA 24) ; 
Miln 162. Often in comb" with padakkbinat] karoti in 
sense of to bid goodbye, to say adieu, farewell, e. g. D 
1.89, 125, 225; Sn 1010. — Caus. II. abhivadapeti to 
cause some one to salute, to make welcome Vin 11.208 

Abhivayati [abhi 4- vayati ; cp. Sk. abhivati] to blow through, 
to pervade Miln 385. 

Abhivaretl [abhi + vareti, Caus. of Vf] to hold back, refuse, 
deny J v. 325 (= nivareti C). 

Abhivaheti [abhi -f vaheti, Caus. of vah] to remove, to 
put away Bu X.5. 

Abhivijayati (& vijinati) [abhi + vijayati] to overpower, 
to conquer. Of "jayati the ger. °jiya at D 1.89, 134; 
11.16. Of "jinati the pres. y^ pi. °jinanti at Miln 39; 
the ger. °jinit?a at M 1.253 ; Pug 66. 

Abhivinnapeti [abhi -)- vinnapeti] to turn somebody's mind 
on (c. ace), to induce somebody (dat.) to (ace.) Vinlil.i8 
(purapadutiyikaya methunDr) dhammai] abhivinSapesi). 

Abhivitarati [abhi -f vitarati] "to go down to", i. e. give 
in, to pay heed, observe Vin 1.134 and in ster. expl"- of 
sancicca at Vin 11.9I; 111.73, "2; iv.290. 

Abhivinaya [abhi -\- vinaya] higher discipline, the refinements 
of discipline or Vinaya; comb"*- with abhidhamma, e.g. D 
III. 267; M 1.472; also with vinaya Vin v. I sg. 

Abhivindati [abhi -f vindati] In find, get, obtain Sn 460 
(=r lahhati adhigacchati SnA 405). 

Abhivislttha (adj.) [abhi -f visittha] most excellent, very 
distinguished DA 1.99, 313. 

Abhivissajjati [abhi -f vissajjati] to send ont, send forth, 
deal out, give D 111.160. 

Abhivissattha [abhi 4- vissattha, pp. of abhivissasati, Sk. 
abhivisvasta] confided in, taken into confidence M 11.52 
(v.l. °visattha). 




Abhivuttha [pp- of abhivassati, see also abhivatta] poured 
out or over, shed out (of water or rain) Th 1, 1065; 
Dh 335 (gloss); PvA 29. 

Abhivu<jl()ha [pp- of abhivaddhati, see also °vuddha] in- 
creased, enriched PvA 150. 

Abhivuddha [pp. of abhivaddhati, see also °vuddha] grown 
up Milo 361. 

Abhivuddhl (f.) [■'^li. abhivrddhi, see also abhivaddhi] in- 
crease, growth, prosperity Miln J4. 

Abhivetheti : Kern's (Toev. s. v.) proposed reading at J 
V.452 for ati°, which however does not agree with C. 
expln- on p. 454. 

Abhivedeti [abhi -j- Caus. of vid] l. to make known, to 
communicate Davs v.2, II. — 2. to know J VI. 1 75 (= 
jana'.i C). 

AbhivihaCCa [ger. of abhi -\- vihanati] having destroyed, 
removed or expelled; only in one simile of the sun driving 
darkness away at M 1.317 = 8 111156; v.44 ^ It 20. 

Abhivyapeti see abhibyapeti. 

Abhisagvisati [abhi -|- sarjvisati]. Only in abhisaijvisseyya- 
gattai] (or-bhastai) or-santuij) Th 2, 466 a compound of 
doubtful derivation and meaning. Mrs. Rh. D., following 
Dhammapala (p. 283) 'a bag of skin with carrion filled". 

Abhisagsati [Vedic abhisaqsati, abhi + Sat|S] to execrate, 
revile, lay a curse on J v. 174 ("saijsiuha 3rd sg. pret. 
med. = paribhasi C.) — aor. abbisasi J vi.187, 505, 522 
(== akkosi C), 563 (id.). — pp. abbisattba. Cp. also 

AbhisaQSana (f.) [^ abhisatjsati] is doubtful reading at Vv 
64'"; meaning "neighing" (of horses) VvA 272, 279. 

Abhisankhata (adj.) [abhi -|- sankhata, pp. of abhisan- 
kharoli] prepared, fixed, made up, arranged, done M 1.350; 
A 11.43; V.343; J 1.50; Nd' 186 (kappita-f); PvA 7, 8. 

Abhisankharoti (& "kbareti in Pot.) [abhi -\- sankharoti] 
to prepare, do, perform, work, get up V'in i 16 (iddh^ 
abhisankharar) °khareyya); D 1. 184 (id.); S 1140; 111.87, 
92; IV.132, 290; V.449; A 1. 201; Sn 984 (ger. °itva: 
having got up this curse, cp. Sn.\ 582); PvA 56 (iddh' 
abhisaijkharari), 172 (id.), 212 (id.). — pp. abhisan- 
khata fq. v.). 

Abhjsankhara [abhi + sankhara] I. putting forth, perform- 
anee, doing, working, practice: only in two comb"s., viz. 
(a) gamiya" (or gamika") a heathenisch practice Vin 
1.233; A. IV. 180, & (b) iddba° (= iddhi") working of super- 
normal powers Vin 1.16; D 1.106; S ui.92; iv.28g; v.270; 
Sn p. 107; PvA 56, 172, 212. — 2. preparation, store, 
accumulation (of kamma, merit or demerit), substratum, 
state (see for detail sankhara) S 111.58 (an°); Nd' 334, 
442; Nd* s. v.; Vbh 135 (puiina° etc.), 340; Dhs.\ 357 
("vinfiana "storing intellect" Dhs trsl. 262). 

Abhisankharika (adj.) [fr. abhisankhara] what belongs to 
or is done by the sankharas ; accumulated by or accumul- 
ating merit, having special (meritorious) effect (or specially 
prepared?) Vin 11.77 = 111.160; Sdhp 309 (sa °paccaya). 

Abhisankhipatl [abhi + sankhipati] to throw together, 
heap together, concentrate Vbh I sq., 82 sq., 216 sq., 
400; Miln 46. 

Abhlsanga [fr. abhi -f- sanj, cp. abhisajjati & Sk. abhisanga] 
I. sticking to, cleaving to, adherence to J v.6; Nett no, 
112; Dhs A 129 ("hetukari dukkhaq) 249 (°rasa). 

Abhisangin (adj.) [fr. abhisanga] cleaving to ( — ") Sdhp 566. 

Abhisajjati [abhi + saiij ; cp. abhisanga] to be in ill 
temper, to be angry, to curse, imprecate (in meaning of 
abhisanga 2) D 1.91 (^ kodha-vasena laggati DA 1.257); 
III. 1 59; J 111.120 (-f- kuppati); iv.22 (obhisajji kuppi 
vyapajji, cp. BSk. abhisajyate kupyati vyapadyate. Av. S 
1.286); V.175 (= kopeti C): Dh 408 (abhisaje Pot. = 
kujjhapana-vasena laggapeyya DhA iv.l82); Pug 30, 36. — 
See also abhisajjana & abhisajjana. 

Abhisajjana (nt.-adj.) [abstr. fr. abhisajjati in meaning of 
abhisanga 2] only as adv. f. °ni Ep. of vaca scolding, 
abusing, cursing A V.265 (para°). Cp. next. 

Abhisajjana (f) [abstr. fr. abhisajjati, cp. abhisajjana] at 
Sn 49 evidently means "scolding, cursing, being in bad 
temper" (cp. abhisajjati), as its comb"- with vac' abhilapa 
indicates, but is expW- both by Nd^ & Bdhgh. as "sticking 
to, cleaving, craving, desire" (:= tapha), after the meaning 
of abhisanga. See Nd'^ 89 & 107; SnA 98 (sineha-vasena), 
cp. also the compromise-expl" by Bdhgh. of abhisajjati 
as kodha-vasena laggati (DA 1.257). 

Abhisancinati (& 'cayati) [abhi -j- sancinati] to accumulate, 

collect (merit) Vv 47' (Pot. "sanceyyaij ^ "sancineyyai) 
VvA 202). 

Abhisaiicetayita [pp. of abhisaficeteti] raised into consci- 
ousness, thought out, intended, planned M 1.350; S II. 
65; IV.132; A v.343. 

Abhisaficeteti [abhi + sanceteti or °cinteti] to bring to 
consciousness, think out, devise, plan S 11.82. — pp. abbi- 
sancetayita (q. v.). 

Abhisaiina (f-)- Only in the compound abbi-sanna-nlrodha 
D 1.179, 184. The prefix abhi qualifies, not saniia, but 
the whole compound, which means 'trance'. It is an 
expression used, not by Buddhists, but by certain wan- 
derers. See sanna-vedayita-nirodha. 

Abhisaniitihati [abhi + safinuhati, i. e. sar|-ni-uhati] to heap 
up, concentrate Vbh 1, 2, 82 sq.; 216 sq., 400; Miln 46. 
Cp. abhisankbipati. 

Abhisata [pp. of abhisarati, abhi -j- Sf to flow] i. (med.) 
streamed forth, come together J VI.56 (= sannipatita C.). — 
2. (pass.) approached, visited Vin 1.268. 

Abhisatta [pp. of abhisapati, cp. Sk. abhisapta, fr. abhi -j- 
Sap] cursed, accursed, railed at, reviled J 111.460; V.71; 
SnA 364 (=akkuttha); VvA 335. 

Abhisattha [pp- of abhisarisati] cursed, accursed Th I, n8 
"old age falls on her as if it had been cursed upon her" 
(that is, laid upon her by: a curse). Morris J P TS. 1886, 
145 gives the commentator's equivalents, "commanded, 
worked by a charm". This is a curious idiom. Any Euro- 
pean would say that the woman herself, not the old age, 
was accursed. But the whole verse is a riddle and Kern's 
translation {Toev. s. v.) 'hurried up' seems to us impossible. 

Abhisaddahati [abhi -|- saddahati, cp. Sk. abhisraddadhati, 
e.g. Divy 17, 337] to have faith in, believe in (c. ace), 
believe S v.226; Th l, 785 ; Pv iv.!'-', I " (°saddahey ya ^ 
patiiieyya PvA 226) ; Nett 1 1 ; Miln 258 ; PvA 26 ; 
Davs 111.58. 

Abhisantapeti [ahhi + santSpeti, Caus. of santapati] to 
burn out, scorch, destroy M 1.121. 

Abhlsanda [abhi -f sanda of syad, cp. BSk. abhisyanda, 
e. g. M Vastu 11.276] outflow, overflow, yield, issue, result; 
only in foil, phrases: cattaro punn' abbisanda kusal' 
abbisanda (yields in merit) S v.391 sq. ; A 11.54 sq. ; 
111.51, 337; V1.245, ^ kamm' Sbhisanda result of kamma 
Miln 276. — Cp. abbisandana. 

Abhisaadana (nt.) [= abhisanda] result, outcome, con- 
sequence Ps 1.17 (sukhassa). 




Abhisandahati [abhi + sandahati ot saq -f- dhS] to put 
together, to make ready Th I, 151; ger. abhisandhaya 
in sense of a prep. = on account of, because of J 11.386 

(= paticca C). 

Abhlsandeti [abhi -|- sandeti, Caus. of syad] to make over- 
flow, to make full, fill, pervade D 1.73, 74. 

Abhlsanna (adj.) [pp. of abhisandati = abhi + syand, cp. 

Sk. abhisanna] overflowing, filled with ( — °), full Vin I. 
279 (°kaya a body full of humours, cp. 11.119 & M''° 134); 
J 1.17 (v.88; pitiya); Miln 112 (duggandha°). 

Abhisapati [abhi + sapati, of Sap] to execrate, curse, ac- 
curse Vin IV.276; J IV.389; v. 87; DhA 1.42. — pp. 

Abhlsapana (m.) [fr. abhisapati] cursing, curse PvA 144 
(so read for abhisampanna). 

Abhisamaya [abhi + samaya, from sam -j- i, cp. abhisameti 
& sameti; BSk. abhisamaya, e.g. Divy 200, 654] "coming 
by completely", insight into, comprehension, realization, 
clear understanding, grasp, penetration. See on term A'vu 
trsl. 381 sq. — Esp. in full phrases: attha° grasp of 
what is proficient S 1.87 = A 111,49 ^ It 17, cp. A 11.46; 
ariyasaccanai] a. full understanding of the 4 noble truths 

5 V.415, 440, 441 [cp. Divy 654: anabhisamitanar) ca- 
turnaij aryasatyanaij a.]; Sn 758 (sacca° ^ sacc^ avabodha 
SnA 509); Miln 214 (c^tusacc°); Sdhp 467 (catusacc"), 
525 (saccanai)); dbamm^ abhisamaya full grasp of the 
Dhamma, quasi conversion [cp. dharm' Abhisamaya Divy 
200] S II. 134; Miln 20, 350; VvA 219; PvA 9 etc. 
frequent; samma-man' abhisamaya full understanding of 
false pride in ster. phrase" acchecchi (for acchejji) taijhai), 
vivattayi saniiojanar| sammaman&bhisamaya antam akasi 
dukkhassa" at S iv,205, 207, 399; A 111.246, 444; It 47; 
cp. mana° S 1. i88 = Th 2, 20 (tato msn&bhisamaya upa- 
santo carissasi, trsl. by Mrs. Rh. D. in K. S. 239 "hath 
the mind mastered vain imaginings, then mayst thou go 
thy ways calm and serene") ; Sn 342 (expld- by manassa 
abhisamayo khayo vayo pahanaij SnA 344). Also in foil, 
passages: S 11. 5 (pafinaya), 104 (id.), 133 sq. (Abhisa- 
maya Saqyutta); Sn 737 (phassa°, expH ad sensum but 
not at verbum by phassa-nirodha SnA 509); Ps 11.215; 
Pug 41; Vv 161" (== saccapativedha VvA 85); DA 1.32; 
DhA 1.109; VvA 73 (bhavana°), 84 (sacchikiriya°); Dpvs 
1.3 1, -anabhisamaya not grasping correctly, insufficient 
understanding, taken up wrongly S III. 260; Pug 21 ; Dhs 
390, 1061, 1162 (Mrs. Rh. D. trsl^- "lack of coordination"). 

Abhlsamagacchati [abhi -f- sam -|- agacchati, cp. in meaning 
adhigacchati] to come to (understand) completely, to grasp 
fully, to master KhA 236 (for abhisamecca Sn 143). 

Abhlsamacarika (adj.) [abhi 4- samacarika, to samacara] 
belonging to the practice of the lesser ethics; to be 
practiced; belonging to or what is the least to be ex- 
pected of good conduct, proper. Of sikkha Vin v. 181; 
A 11.243 ^q-'i °^ dhamma M 1.469; A 111.14 sq.; 422. 

Abhisamikkhatl (& "ekkhati), [abhi 4- sam + iks, cp. sa- 
mikkhati] to behold, see, regard, notice J. iv.19 (2'^^ sg. 
med. "samekkhase = olokesi C). — ger. °3amikkha & 
'samekkha fB.Sk. "samiksya, e.g. Jtm. p. 28, 30 etc.] 
J V.340 (°samikkha, v. 1. saiicikkha = passitva C); 393, 
394 (=:disva C). 

Abhisameta [pp. of abhisameti, fr. abhi + sam -j- I, taken 
as caus. formation, against the regular form Sk.P. samita 

6 B..Sk. abhisamita] completely grasped or realised, under- 
stood, mastered S v. 128 (dhamma a.), 440 (anabhisame- 
tani cattari ariyasaccani, cp. Divy 654 anabhisamitani c.a.); 
A IV. 384 (appattaq asacchikataij -)-). 

Abhlsametavin (adj.) [possess, adj. -formation, equalling a 
n. ag. form., pp. abhisameta] commanding full under- 
standing or penetration, posessing complete insight (of 
the truth) Vin 111.189; S 11.133; v.458 sq. 

Abhisameti [abhi -f- sameti, sam-|-|; in inflexion base is 
taken partly as ordinary & partly as causative, e. g. aor. 
"samirisu & "samesuij, pp. sameta: Sk. samita. Cp. B.Sk. 
abhisamayati, either caus. or denom. formation, Divy 617: 
caturaryasatyani a.] to come by, to attain, to realise, 
grasp, understand (cp. adhigacchati) Miln 214 (catusaccab- 
hisamayar) abhisameti). Freg. in comb" abbisambujjhati, 
abhisameti ; abhisambujijhitva abhlsametva, e. g. S 11.25 '. 
III. 1 39; Kvu 321. — fut. "samessati S v.441. — aor. 
°samiQSU Miln 350; "samesut) S v.415. — ger. "samecca 
(for "icca under influence of "sametva as caus. form.; 
Trenckner's expl"- Ai'oles 56* is unnecessary & hardly justi- 
fiable) S V.438 (an° by not thoroughly understanding); 
A v.50 (samm'attha° through complete realisation of what 
is proficient); Sn 143 (= abhisamagantva KhA 236); 
and "sametva S 11.25; iii-'39- — pp- abhisameta (qv.). 

Abhisampanna at Pv.\ 144 is wrong reading for v. I. 

abhisapana (curse). 

Abhisamparaya [abhi + samparaya] future lot, fate, state 
after death, future condition of rebirth; usually in foil, 
phrases: ka gati ko abbisamparayo (as hendiadys) 'what 
fate in the world-to-come', D 11.91 i Vin 1.293 ; S iv.59, 
63; V.346, 356, 369; DhA 1.221. — evag-gatika evan- 
abhisamparaya (adj.) "leading to such .& such a revirn, 
such & such a future state" D 1.16, 24, 32, 33 etc. 
(= evaq-vidha paraloka ti DA 1.108). -abhisamparayai] 
(ace. as adv.) in future, after death A 1.48; 11.197; 111.347; 
IV. 104; Pv 111.5'" (= punabbhave PvA 200). — ditthe 
c'eva dhamme abbisamparayan ca "in this world and 
in the world to come" A 11.61; Pug 38; Miln 162; 
PvA 195 etc. (see also dittha). — Used absolutely at 
PvA 122 (= fate). 

Abhisambujjiiati [abhi + sambujjhatij to become wide- 
-awake, to awake to the highest knowledge, to gain the 
highest wisdom (sammlsambodhii)) D in. 135; It 121. 
aor. °sambujjhl S v.433 ; PvA 19. In comb" abhisam- 
bujjhati abhisameti, e.g. S. 11.25; "■•i39- — ppr. med. 
°sambudhana; pp. °sambuddha — Caus. °sambodheti 
to make awake, to awaken, to enlighten ; pp. '^bodhita, 

Abhisambujjhana (at.) = abhisambodhi J 1.59. 

Abhisambuddha [pp. of abhisambujjhati] (a) (pass.) rea- 
lised, perfectly understood D III. 273; S1V.331; It 121. 
an° not understood M 1.71, 92, 114, 163, 240. — (I.) 
(med.) one who has come to the realisation of the highest 
wisdom, fully-awakened, attained Buddhahood, realising, 
enlightened (in or as to =r ace.) Vin i.l ; D 11.4 ; M 1.6 (sam- 
masambodhii)); S 168, 1 38, 139 & passim PvA 94, 99. 

Abhi8ambuddhatta(nt.) [abstr. fr. abhisambuddha] thorough 
realisation, perfect understanding S v.433. 

Abhlsambudhana (adj.) [formation of a ppr. med. fr. pp. 
abhsnm -|- budh instead of abhisam -f bujjh"] awaking, 
realising, knowing, understanding Dh 46 (= bujjbanto 
jananto ti altho DhA I.337). 

Abhisambodhl (f.) [abhi -f- sambodhi] the highest enlight- 
enment J 1.14 (parama°). Cp. abhisambujjhana and 
(samma-) sambodhi. 

Abhisambodhita (adj.) [pp. of abhisambodheti, Caus. of 
abhi -|- sambujjhati] awakened to the highest wisdom 
PvA 137 (Hhagava). 

Abhisambhava [fr. abhisambhavati] only in dur° hard to 
overcome or get over, hard to obtain or reach, trouble- 
some S V.454; A V.202 ; Sn 429, 701 ; J V.269, vi.139, 439. 

Abhisambhavati ("bhoti) [abhi + sambhavati] "to come 
up to", i. e. to be able to (get or stand or overcome) ; 
to attain, reach, to bear A iv.241 ; Th i, 436; Nd'471, 




485; J III. 140; V.I 50, 417; VI.292, 293, 507 (fut. med. 
°sattibhossal) := sahissami adhivSsessami C.); Ps 11.193.— 
ger. "bhutva Tb i, 1057 & "bhavitva Sn 52 (cp. Nd^ 
85). — aor. 'bhosi D 11.232. — grd. °bhavanIyaD u.210; 
Ps II.I93. — See also abhisambbunati. 

Abhlsambhuil^atl [considered to be a bastard form of abhi- 
sambhavati, but probably of diff. origin & etym.; also in 
Bh. Sk. freq.] to be able (to get or reach); only in neg. 
ppr. anabhisambhunanto unable D i.ioi (=: asampapu- 
nanto avisahamano va DA 1.268); Nd' 77, 312. 

Abhsambhu (adj.) [fr. abhi + sam + bhu] getting, attain- 
ing (?) D 11.255 (loinahar|sa°). 

Abhlsambhuta [pp. of abhisambhavati] attained, got 
Sdhp 556. 

Abhlsatnmati [abhi + Sam, Sk. abhisamyati] to cease, stop ; 
trs. (Caus.) to allay, pacify, still J vi.420 (pp. abhisam- 
manto for °sammento i Reading uncertain). 

Abhisara [fr. abhi + sarati, of sf to go] retinue J v.373. 

Abhisallekhika (adj ) [abhi -f- sallekha + ika] austere, stern, 
only in f. ^a (scil. katha) A 111.117 sq.; 1V.352, 357;v.67. 

Abhisavati (better ''ssavati ?) [abhi + savati, of sru] to 
flow towards or into J VI.359 (najjo Gangaq a.). 

Abhisasl aor. of abbisa^jsati (q. v.). 

Abhisadhetl [abhi -)- sadheti] to carry out, arrange ; to 
get; procure, attain J VI.180; Miln 264. 

Abhlsapa [abhisapati] a curse, anathema S 111.93 = U 89 
(which letter reads abhilapa and It A expls by akkosa: 
see vv. 11. under abhilapa & cp. Brethren 376 n. i.); 
Th I, 118. 

Abhlsariya (f.) [Sk. abhisarika, fr. abhi -|- Sf] a woman 
who goes to meet her lover J III. 1 39. 

Abhisareti [abhi + sareti, Caus. of abhisarati] to approach, 
to persecute J vl.377. 

AbhislQSatl [= abhisagsati, abhi -f- iagS- As to Sk. Sags 

> P. SigS cp. asiqsati, as to meaning cp. nature of prayer 
as a solemn rite to the "infemals", cp. im-precare], to 
utter a solemn wish, Vv 81 '8 (aor. °sisi. v. 1. "sisi. VvA 
316 expls- by icchi sampaticchi). 

Abhlsliicatl [abhi + siiincati fr. slC to sprinkle; see also 
asincati & ava°, Vedic only a"] to sprinkle over, 6g. to 
anoint (King), to consecrate A I.107 (Khattiy' abhisekena) 
J 1.399 (fig. °itva ger. 11.409 (id.); VI.161 (id.); Nd' 298; 
Miln 336 (amatena lokaq abhisiiici Bhagavs); PvA 144 
(read abhisiiici cimillik an ca . . .) — Pass, abhisificati 
Miln 359. — pp. abhisitta. — Caus. abhiseceti. 

Abhlsltta [pp. of abhisancati, Sk. °sikta] I. sprinkled over, 
anointed Sn 889 (manasa, cp. N' 298); Miln 336 (ama- 
tena loka a). — 2. consecrated (King), inaugurated (more 
freq. in this conn, is avasitta), Vin III-44; A 1.107 (Khaltiyo 
Khattiyehi Khattiy' abhisekena a.); 11.87 (v-1. for avasitta, 
also an°). 

Abhiseka [fr. abhi + sic, cp. Sk. abhiseka] anointing, 
consecration, inauguration (as king) A 1. 107 (cp. abhisitta); 
11.87 fcad abhisek^ -anabhisitto; J 11.104, 35^; DhA 1.350; 
PvA 74. Gr. abhisekika. 

Abhlsecana (nt.) = abhiseka, viz. (a) ablution, washing off 
Th 2, 239 & 245 (udaka°). — (b) consecration J 11.353. 

Abhiseceti [caus. of abhisiilcati] to cause to be sprinkled 
or inaugurated J V.26. (imper. abhisecayassu). 

AbhisevanS (f-) [abhi -f- sevana fr. sev] pursuit, indulgence 
in ( — °) Sdhp 210 (papakamma°). 

Abhissara (adj.) [abhi -f- issara] only neg. an° in formula 
atSno loko anabhissaro "without a Lord or protector" 
M ii.68 (v.l. °abhisaro); Ps 1.126 (v.l. id.). 

Abhihansatl [abhi + haqsati fr. hf?] I- (trs.) to gladden, 
please, satisfy S IV.190 (abhihatthuq); A v. 350 (id.). — 
2. (intr.) to find delight in (c. ace), to enjoy S v.74 
(rupai) manapai)); A IV.419 sq. (T. reads "hiqsamSna 
jhinai] v.l. °hisamana). 

Abhihafa [pp- of abhiharati] brought, oflTered, presented, 
fetched D 1.166=: Pug 55 (= puretarai) gahetva ahatan 
bhikkhai) Pug A 231); DhA 11.79. 

Abhiha^hut) [ger. of abhiharati]. Only in praise abhihatthui] 
pavareti, to offer having fetched up. M. 1.224; A v.350, 
352; S IV.190; V.53, 300. See note in Vinaya Texts W.^o. 

Abhihata [pp. of abhihanati] hit, struck PvA 55. 

Abhihanati (& °hanti) [abhi + han] l. to strike, hit PvA 
258. — 2. to overpower kill, destroy J v. 174 (inf. °hantu 
for T. hantuq). — pp. abhihata (q. v.). 

Abhiharati [abhi -|- harati, cp. Sk. abhyaharati & Vedic 
aharati & abharatij — I. to bring (to), to offer, fetch 
D 111.170; J 1.54, 157; m.537; 1V.421; Dh 1.272. — 2. 
to curse, revile, abuse [cp. Sk. anuvyaharati & abhivya"] 
A 1. 1 98. — Pass, abhihariyati VvA 172 (for abhiharati 
of Vv 37'"; corresp. with abhata VvA 172). — pp. abhi- 
hata (q.v.). — Caus. abbihareti i. to cause to be brought, 
to gain, to acquire D 11.188 = 192 =: 195 Th I, 637; 
J IV.421 (abhiharayai) with gloss abhibharayin). — 2. to 
betake oneself to, to visit, take to, go to Sn 414 (Pandavaq 
"haresi = aruhi Sn A 383), 708 (vanantar) abhiharaye := 
vanai) gaccheyya SnA 495); Th 2, 146 (aor. "harayiq ; 
uyyanar) = upanesi ThA 138). — 3. to put on (mail), 
only in fut. abhihessati J iv.92 (kavacaq; C. expl^- wrongly 
by °hanissati bhindissati so evidently taking it as abhi- 
bhavissati). — 4. At J VI. 27 kiq yobbanena cinnena yai) 
jara abhihessati the latter is fut of abbibhavati (for 
°bhavissati) as indicated by gloss abhibhuyyati. 

AbhihSra [fr. abhiharati] bringing, offering, gift S I.82 ; 
Sn 710; J 1. 81 (jtsani). 

Abhihlgsati spurious reading at A iv.419 for °hai)3ati (q.v.). 

AbhihiQSana (& °i)) [for abhihesana cp. P. hesa = Sk. 
hresa, & hesilaij] neighing Vv 64'" =VvA 279 (gloss 
abhihesana). See in detail under abhi3ai)san3. 

Abhihita S 1.50. Read atjhiglta with SS. So also for abhihita 
on p. 51. 'So enchanted was I by the Buddha's rune'. 
The godlet abscribes a magic potency to the couplet. 

Abhihesana see abhibirjsana. 

Abhihessati see abhiharetl 3 & 4. 

Abhita (adj.) [a 4- bhila] fearless J VI. 1 93. See also abhida i . 

Abhiruka (adj.) [a + bhiru + ka^ fearless DA 1.250. 

Abhumma (adj.) [a -f bhumma] groundless, unfounded, un- 
substantial, J V.178; VI.495. 

Abhuta (adj.) [a -j- bhuta] not real, false, not true, usually 
as nt. °g falsehood, lie, deceit Sn 387; It 37; instr. 
abhutena falsely D 1.161. 

-vadin one wbo speaks falsely or tells lies Sn 661 ^ 
Dh 306 = It 42; expW- as "ariy^ u'pavada-vasena alika 
-vadin" SnA 478; as "tucchena paraij abhacikkbanto" 
DhA 111.477. 

Abhejja (adj.) [grd. of a -f bhid, cp. Sk. abhedya] not to 
be split or divided, not to be drawn away or caused to 
be dissented, inalienable Sn 255 (mitto abhejjo parehi); 
J 1.263 (varasura. . .) 111.318 (°rupa of strong character = 





abhijja-hadaya) ; Pug 30 (= acchejja Pug A 212); Miln 160 
("parisa); Sdhp 312 (+ appadusiya); Pgdp 97 ("parivara). 

AmaCCa [Vedic amatya (only in meaning "companion"), 
adj. formation fr. amS an adverbial loc.-gen. of pron. I^' 
person, Sk. ahar) = Idg. *emo (cp. Sk. ra-araa), meaning 
"(those) of me or with me", i. e. those who are in my 
house] I. friend, companion, fellow-worker, helper, esp. 
one who gives his advice, a bosom-friend It 73 ; J VI. 
512 (sahajata amacca); Pv u.t'^" (a ° — paricarika well- 
advising friends as company or around him). Freq. in 
comb" with mitta as mitt^ amacca, friends &: colleagues 
D 111.189— 90; S 190 = A 11.67; PvA 29; or with nati 
(nati-salohita intimate friends & near-relations), mitt&macca 
fiatisalohits Vin n.126; Sn p. 104 (^ mitla ca Uamma- 
kara ca SnA 447); mitta va amacca va nati va salohita 
va A 1.222; PvA 28; amacca nati-sangha ca A 1.152. — 
2. Especially a king's intimate friend, king's favourite, 
confidant J 1.262 ; PvA 73 (°kula), 74 (amacca ca puro- 
hito ca), 81 (sabba-kammika amacca), 93; and his special 
adviser or piivy councillor, as such distinguished from the 
official ministers (purohita, mahamatta, parisajja); usually 
combd. with parisajja (pi.) viz. D 1.136 (= piya-sahayaka 
DA 1.297, but cp. the foil, expl"- of parisajja as "sesa 
anatti-kara"); Vin 1.348; D 111.64 (amacca parisajja ganaka- 
mahamatta); A 1.142 (catunnaq maharajanai) a. parisajja). 
See on the question of ministers in general Fick, Sociale 
Gliederung p. 93, 164 & Banerjea, Public Administralion 
in Ancient India pp. 106 — 120. 

Amajja [etym.?] a bud J v.416 (= makula C). 

Amajjapayaka [a + majja + payaka, cp. Sk. amadyapa] 
one who abstains from intoxicants, a teetotaler J 11.192. 

Amata' (nt.) [a -)- mata = mrta pp. of mf, Vedic ararla := 
Gr. a-fi((3)poT-o & iiififoiria ^ Lat. im-mort-a(lis] i. The 
drink of the gods, ambrosia, water of immortality, (cp. 
BSk. amrta-varsa "rain of Ambrosia" Jtm 221). — 2. A 
general conception of a state of durability & non-change, 
a state of security i. e. where there is not any more rebirth 
or re-death. So Bdhgh at Kh.\ 180 (on Sn 225) "na 
jayati na jiyati na miyati ti amatan ti vuccati", or at DhA 
1.228 "ajatatta na jiyyati na miyyati tasma amatan tl 
vuccati". — Vin 1.7 ^ M 1. 169 (aparuta tesar) amatassa 
dvara); Vin 1.39; D 11.39, 217, 241; S 1.32 (= ragado- 
samoha-khayo), 193; 111.2 ("ena abhisitta "sprinkled with 
A."); IV.94 (°assa data), 370; v.402 (°assa patti); A 1.45 
sq.; 111.451; IV.455; V.226 sq., 256 sq. (°assa data); j 
1.4 (V.25); IV.378, 386; V.456 (°maha-nibbana); Sn 204, 
225, 228 (=: nibbana KhA 185); Th 1, 310 (= agada 
antidote); It 46 =: 62 (as dh.itu), 80 (°assa dvara); Dh 
114, 374 (= araata-maha-nibbsna DhA iv.iio); Miln 258 
(°dhura savanupaga), 319 (agado amataij & nibbanar) 
amataq), 336 (amatena lokai) abhisinci Bhagava), 346 
(dhamm' amatai]); DA 1.217 ("nibbana); DhA 1. 87 (°i) 
payeti); Davs 11.34; v.31; Sdhp i, 209, 530, 571. 

-ogadba diving into the ambrosia (of Nibbana) S v. 
41, 54, 181, 220, 232; A 111.79, 3°4; IV.46 sq., 317, 
387; V.105 sq.; Sn 635; Th I, 179, 748, Dh 411 (= 
amatar) nibbanaij ogahetva DhA IV.186); Vv 50'"'. -osadha 
the medicine of Ambrosia, ambrosial medicine Miln 247. 
-gamin going or leading to the ambrosia (of Nibbana) 
S 1. 123; 1V.370; V.8; A 111.329; Th 2, 222. -dasa one 
who sees Amata or Nibbana Th i, 336. -dundubhi the 
drum of the Immortal (Nibbana) M 1.171 =r Vin 1.8 (has 
°dudrabhi). -dvara the door to Nibbana M 1.353; S i. 
137 = Vin 1.5; S 11.43, 45, 58, 80; A V.346. -dhatu 
the element of Ambrosia or Nibbana A III. 356. -patta 
having attained to Ambrosia A IV.455. -pada the region 
or place of Ambrosia S 1.2 1 2 ("Bourne Ambrosial" Irsl"- 
p. 274); 11.280; Dh 21 (= amatassa adhigama-vupayo 
vultai) hoti DhA 1.228). -pbala ambrosial fruit S 1.173 
= Sn 80. -magga the path to Ambrosia DhA 1.94. 

Amata^ (adj.) [see amata'] belonging to Amrta = ambrosial 
Sn 452 = S 1. 1 89 (amata vaca = amata-sadisa sadubhavena 

SnA 399: "ambrosial"), 960 (gacchati amatai) disai) = 
nibbanar), tar| hi amatan ti tathi niddisilabbato disa ca 
ti SnA 572). Perhaps also at It 46 = 62 (amatar) dha- 
tuq =: ambrosial state or Amrta as dhatu). 

Amatabbaka (?) at VvA III, ace. to Hardy (Index) "a 
precious stone of dark blue colour". 

Amattannu (adj.) [a + matta -|- "iiu = Sk. amatrajna] not 
knowing any bounds (in the taking of food), intemperate, 
immoderate It 23 (bhojanamhi); Dh 7 (id.); Pug 21. 

Amattannuta (f) [abstr. to prec] immoderation (in foo4) 
D 111.213; It 23 (bhojane); Pug 21; Dhs 1346 (bhojane) ; 
DhsA 402. 

Amatteyyata (f.) [from matteyyata] irreverence towards 
one's mother D ill. 70, 71. 

AmanuSSa [a -f- manussa] a being which is not human, a 
fairy demon, ghost, god, spirit, yakkha Vin 1.277 ; D 1. 
116; S 1. 9 1, J 1.99; Dhs 617; Miln 207; DhsA 319; DhA 
1.13 ("pariggahlta haunted); PvA 216. — Cp. amanusa. 

AmanUSSika (adj.) [fr. amanussa] belonging to or caused 
by a spirit Vin 1.202, 203 ("abadha being possessed by 
a demon). 

Amama (adj.) [a -|- mama, gen. of ahaq, pron. l^t person, 
lit. "not (saying: this is) of me"] not egotistical, unselfish 
Sn 220 (-|- subbata), 777; J IV. 372 (+ nirasaya); vi.259 
(= mamayana-tanha-rahita C.); Pv iv.i^* (^ mamaqkara- 
virahita PvA 230); Mhvs I, 66, combd- with nirasa (free 
from longing), at Sn 469 = 494; Ud 32; J iv.303; vi.259. 

Amara (adj.) [a -f mara from mf] not mortal, not subject 
to death Th 1, 276; Sn 249 (= amara-bhava-patthanataya 
pavatta-kaya-kilesa SnA 291); J v.8o(= amarana-sabhava), 
218; Davs V.62. 

Amaratta (nt.) [abstr. fr. amara] immortality J v.223 (= 
devatta C). 

Amara (?) a kind of slippery fish, an eel (?) Only in expres- 
sion amara-vikkhepika eel-wobbler, one who practices 
eel-wriggling, fr. "vikkhepa "oscillation like the a. fish". 
In English idiom "a man who sits on the fence" D 1.24; 
M 1.521; Ps 1. 155. The expl"- given by Bdhgh at DA 
1.1 15 is "amara nama maccha-jati, sa ummujjana-nimmuj- 
jan adi vasena . . gahetur) na .sakkoti" etc. This meaning 
is not beyond doubt, but Kern's expl"- Toev. 71 does not 
help to clear it up. 

Amala (adj.) [a -f- mala] without stain or fault J V.4; Sdhp 

246, 59>, 596. 
Amassuka (adj.) [a + massu -f- ka] beardless J 11.175. 

Amajata (adj.) [amS -j- jsta; ama adv. "at home", Vedic 
ama, see under amacca] born in the house, of a slave J 
1.226 (dasa, so read for amajata, an old mistake, expH- 
by C. forcibly as "ama ahaq vo dasi ti"!). See also amaya. 

Amatika (adj.) [a -f matika from mata] without a mother, 
motherless J V.2SI. 

Amanusa (adj.) [Vedic amanusa, usually of demons, but 
also of gods; a + manusa, cp. amanussa] non- or super- 
human, unhuman, demonic, peculiar to a non-human 
(Peta or Yakkha) Pv 11. I2-^ (ksma); iv.i" (as n.); iv.3« 
(gandha, of Petas). — f. °l Dh 373 (rati = dibba rati 
DhA IV. no); Pv lli.7» (ratti, love). 

Amamaka (adj.) [a + mama 4" ka, cp. amama] "not of me" 
i. e. not belonging to my party, not siding with me 
DhA 1.66. 

AmSya (adj.) [a + maya] not deceiving, open, honest Sn 941 
(see Nd' 422: maya vuccati vancanikii cariyS). Cp. next. 




Amayavin (adj.) [a + mayavin, cp. amaya] without guile, 
not deceiving, honest D III. 47 (asatha -j-), 55 (id.), 237; 
DhA 1.69 (asathena a.). 

Amitabha (adj.) [a + mita (pp. of ma) + a + bha] of 

boundless or ininieasuiable splendour Sdhp 255. 

Amitta [Vedic amltra; a + mitta] one who is not friend, 
an enemy D 111.185; It 83; Sn 561 (= paccatthika SnA 
455); Dh66, 207; J VI. 274 Ctapana harassing the enemies). 

Amllatata (f.) [a + milata + ta] the condition of not being 
withered J V.156. 

Amu° base of demonstr. pron. "that", see asu. 

AmuCChita (adj.) [a + mucchita] not infatuated (lit. not 
stupified or bewildered), not greedy ; only in phrase aga- 
thita amucchita anajjhapanna (or anajjhopanna) D IU465 
M 1.369; S II. 194. See ajjhopanna. 

Amutta (adj.) [a -}- mutta] not released, not free from (c. 
abl.) It 93 (marabandhana). 

Amtltra (adv.) [pron. base amu + tra] in that place, there; 
in another state of existence D 1.4, 14, 184; It 99. 

Amujha-vinaya "acquittal on the ground of restored sanity" 

(Cliilderi;) Vin 1.325 (ix.6, 2); 11.81 (1V.5), 99 (iv.14, 27); 
IV.207, 351 ; M 11.248. 

Amoha (adj.) [a 4- moha, cp. Sk. amogha] not dull. As n. 
ab.sence of stupidity or delusion D m.214; Pug 25. — 
The form amogha occurs at J vi.26 in the meaning of 
"efficacious, auspicious" (said of ratya nights). 

Amba [Derivation unknown. Not found in pre-Buddhist 
literature. The Sk. is amra. Probably non-Aryan], the 
Mango tree, Mangifera Indica D 1.46, 53, 235; J 11. 105, 
160; Vv 79IO; Pug 45; Miln 46; PvA 153, 187. 

-atthi the kernel or stone of the m. fruit DhA III. 207, 
208. -arama a garden of mangoes, mango grove Vv 79^; 
VvA 305. -kaiijika mango gruel Vv 33" (= ambila- 
kanjika VvA 147). -pakka a (ripe) mango fruit J 11.104, 
394; DhA 111.207. -panta a border of mango trees VvA 
198. -panaka a drink made from mangoes DhA III. 207. 
-pindi a bunch of mangoes J 111.53; DhA 111.207. -pesika 
the peel, rind, of the m. fruit Vin 11. 109. -potaka a 
mango sprout DhA HI. 206 sq. -pbala a m. fruit PvA 
273, 274. -rukkha a m. tree Dh.A in. 207; VvA 198. 
-vana a m. grove or wood D 11.126; J 1. 139; VvA 305. 
-sincaka one who waters the mangoes, a tender or keeper 
of mangoes Vv 79'. 

Ambaka' (adj.) [=ambaka?] "womanish" (?), inferior, silly, 
stupid, of narrow intellect. Occurs only with reference to 
a woman, in comb"- with bala A HI. 349 (v. 1. amrna") = 
V.139 (where spelt ambhaka with v. I. appaka° and gloss 
andhaka); v. 150 (spelt ambhaka perhaps in diff. meaning). 
-maddarl see next. 

Ambaka- [demin. of amba] a little mango, only in "mad- 
darl a kind of bird [etym. uncertain] A 1.188. 

Ambaka (f ) [Sk. ambiks demin. of ambi mother, wife, see 
P. amma & cp. also Sk. ambalika f.] mother, good wife, 
used as a general endearing term for a woman Vin 1.232 = 
D 11.97 (here in play of words with Ambapali expl^ by 
Bdhgh at Vin 1.385 as ambaka ti itthiyika). 

Ambara' (nt.) [Vedic ambara circumference, horizon] the 
sky, Davs 1.38; IV. 51; V.32. — A'ote. At J v.390 we 
have to read muraja-alambara, and not mura-jala-arabara. 

Ambara^ (m.-nt.) [etym. = ambara' (?) or more likely a 
distortion of kambala; for the latter speaks the comb"- 
rattambara = ratta-kambala. — The woid would thus be 
due to an erroneous syllable division raltak-ambala (^ 

ambara) instead of ralta-kambala] some sort of cloth and 
an (upper) garment made of it (cp. kambala) Vv 53' 
(ratt° == uttariya VvA 236). 

Ambala at J 11.246 ("kotthaka-asana-sala) for ambara' (?) or 
for ambaka'^ (?), or should we read kambala° ?. 

Ambataka the hog-plum, Spondias Mangifera (a kind of 
mango) Vin 11.17 (°vana); DA 1.27 1 Crukkha). 

Ambila (adj.) [Sk. ambla = Lat. amarus] sour, acid ; one 
of the 6 rasas or tastes, viz. a., lavana, tittaka, katuka, 
kasaya, madhura (see under rasa): thus at Miln 56. An- 
other enumeration at Nd^ 540 & Dhs 629. — J 1.242 
("anambila), 505 (lon°); 11.394 (lon°); DA 1.270 ("yagu 
sour gruel) ; DhA 11.85 (ati-ambila, with accunha & atisita). 

Ambu (nt.) [Vedic ambu & ambhas = Gr. dfi(3po?, Lat. 
imber rain ; cp. also Sk. abhra rain-cloud & Gr. a<f>/)^; 
scum : see P. abbha] water J v. 6 ; Nd' 202 (a. vuccati 
udakaq); Davs 11. 16. — Cp. ambha. 

-carin "living in the water", a fish Sn 62 (=: maccha 
Nd'i 91). -sevala a water-plant Th I, 113. 

Ambuja (m. & nt.) [ambu + ja of jan] "water-born", i.e. 

1. (m.) a fish S 1.52. — 2. (nt.) a lotus Sn 845 (=: 
paduma Nd' 202); Davs v.46; .Sdhp 360. 

Ambuda [ambu-}- da fr. dS] "water-giver", a cloud Dav.s 
v.32; Sdhp 270, 275. 

Ambha & Ambho (nt.) [see ambu] water, sea D.ivs iv.54. 

Ambhaka see ambaka. 

Ambho (indecl.) [fr. hai) -f bho, see bho, orig. "hallo you 
there'] part, of exclamation, employed: I. to draw atten- 
tion = look here, hey! hallo! Vin 111.73 (= alapau' 
adhivacana); J 11. 3; PvA 62. — 2. to mark reproach & 
anger = you silly, you rascal D 1.194; It 114; J 1.174 
(v. 1. amho), 254; Miln 48. 

Amma (indecl.) [voc. of amma] endearing term, used (l) by 
children in addressing their mother = mammy, mother 
dear D 1.93; J 11.133; ''^'i ^8' (amma lata utthetha 
daddy mammy, get up!); DhA 11.87; PvA 73, 74, — 
(2) in general when addressing a woman familiarly = 
good woman, my (good) lady, dear, thus to a woman J 
1.292; PvA 63; Dh.\ 11.44; to a girl PvA 6; to a 
daughter DhA 11.48; HI. 172. — Cp. ambaka. 

Ammana (nt.) [of uncertain etym. ; Sk. armaria is Sans- 
kritised Pali. See on form & meaning Childers s. v. and 
Kern, Toev. p. 72] I. a trough J v.297; vi.381 (bhatt°). — 

2. a certain measure of capacity J 1.62; 11.436 (tandul°). — 
As °ka at J 11. 117 (v. 1. anipanaka); DA 1.84. 

Amma (f.) [onomat. from child language; Sk. amba, cp. 
Gr. aiziJ.x( mother, Oisl. amma "granny", Ohg. amma 
"mammy", nurse; also Lat. amita father's sister & amare 
to love] mother J HI. 392 (gen. ammaya). — Voc. amma 
(see Sep.). 

Amha & Amhan (nt.) [Sk. asman, see also asama'] a stone 
Sn 443 (instr. amhana, but SnA 392 reads asmana ^ 

-maya made of stone, hard Dh 161 (= pas5na° DhA 
HI. 151). 

Amha, Amhi see atthi. 

Amha (f.) [etym. uncertain; Morris J P T S. 1889, 201 too 

vague] a cow (?) A 1.229. The C. says nothing. 

Amhakat), Amhe see aharj. 
Amho = ambho J 1.174 (v. 1.). 
Aya' see ayo. 




Aya'^ (fr. i, go) l. income, in aya-potthaka receipt book 
J 1.2. — 2. inlet (for water, aya-mukha) D 1.74; A 11. 
166, IV.287. 

AyaiJ (pron.) [Sk. ayaq etc., pron. base Idg. *i (cp. Sk. 
iba;, f. *i. Cp. Gr. Iv, iiiv; Lat. is (f. ea, nt. id); Goth 
is, nt. ita; Ohg. er (:= he), nt. e^ (= it); Lith. jis (he), 
f. ji (she).] demonstr. pron. "this, he"; f. ayaij ; nt. idaij 
& imai) "this, it" etc. This pron. combines in its inflection 
two stems, viz. as° (ayaij in nom. m. & f.) & im° (id° 
in nom. nt.). 

I. Forms. A. (^sg.) nom. m. ayai) Sn 235; J 1.168. 279; 
f. ayai) [Sk. iyaq] Kh vil.12; J 11.128, 133; nt. idar) Sn 
224; J 111.53; ^ imai) Miln 46. ai-c. m. imai) J ln6o; 
f. imoi) [Sk. Imai)] Sn 545, 1002; J 1.280. gen. dat. va. 
imassa J 1.222, 279 & assa Sn 234, lioo; Kh vii.12 
(dat.); J 11.158; f. imissa J 1.179 & assa [Sk. asyah] J 
1.290; DhA 111.172. instr. m. nt. imina J 1.279; PvA 80 
& (peculiarly or perhaps for amuna) amina Sn 137; f. 
imaya [Sk. anaya] J 1.267. The instr. anena [Sk. anena] 
is not proved in Pali. alil. asma Sn 185; Dh 220; & 
imasma (not proved), loc. m. nt. imasmiij Kh III.; J 11. 
159 & asmir) Sn 634; Dh 242; f. imissa PvA 79 (or 
imissar)?) & imayai) (no ref.). — B. {pi.) nom. m. ime 
J 1.221; Pv 1.8'; f. ima [Sk. imah] Sn 897 & imayo Sn 
1122; nt. imani [^ Sk.] Vin 1.84. ace. m. ime [Sk. iman] 
J 1.266; II. 416; f. ima [Sk. imah] Sn 429; J 11.160. gen. 
imesai) J in 60 & esai) [Sk. esai)] M 11.86, & esanaij M 
11.154; III. 259; f. also asaq J 1.302 (= etasar) C.) & ima- 
saq. instr. m. nt imehi J vi.364; f. imahi. loc. m. nt. 
imesu [Sk. esu] J 1.307. 

II. Meanings (i) ayat) refers to what is immediately 
in front of the speaker (the subject in question) or be- 
fore his eyes or in his present time & situation, thus 
often to be trsl<i. by "before our eyes", "the present", 
"this here", "just this" (& not the other) (opp. para), 
viz. atlhi imasmii) kaye "in this our visible body" Khill.; 
yath' ayai) padipo "like this lamp here" Sn 235 ; ayai) 
dakkhina dinnS "the gift which is just given before our 
eyes" Kh VI1.12; ime pada iraai) sisai) ayai) kayo Pv 1.8-'; 
asmii) loke paramhi ca "in this world & the other" Sn 
634, asma loka parai) lokar) kathai] pecca na socati Sn 
185; cp. also Dh 220, 410; J 1. 168; 111.53. — (2) It 
refers to what immediately precedes the present of the 
speaker, or to what has just been mentioned in the 
sentence; viz. yai) kiiici vittaij ... idam pi Buddhe rata- 
nai) "whatever ... that" Sn 224; ime divase these days 
(just gone) J 11.416; cp. also Vin 1.84; Sn 429; J 11.128, 
160. — (3) It refers to what immediately follows either 
in time or in thought or in connection : dve ime anta 
"these are the two extremes, viz." Vin; ayai) eva 
ariyo maggo "this then is the way" ibid.; cp. J 1.280. — 
(4) With a touch of (often sarcastic) characterisation it 
establishes a closer personal relation between the speaker 
& the object in question & is to be trsl^- by "like that, 
such (like), that there, yonder, yon", e. g. imassa vana- 
rindassa "of that fellow, the monkey" J 1.279; cp J I. 
222, 307; 11160 (imesai) sattanai) "creatures like us"). 
So also repeated as ayaii ca ayaii ca "this and this", "so 
and so" J 11.3; idan c' idan ca "such & such a thing" 
J 11.5. — (5) In comb" with a pron. rel. it expresses 
either a generalisation (whoever, whatever) or a special- 
isation (= that is to say, what there is of, i. e. Ger. und 
zwar), e.g. yjyai) tanha Vin 1. 10; yo ca ayaq . . . yo ca 
ayai) "I mean this ... and I mean" ibid.; ye kec^ ime 
Sn 381; yadidaq "i.e." Miln 25; yatha-y-idaij "in order 
that" (w. pot.) Sn 1092. See also seyyalhidai). — (6) The 
gen. of all genders functions in general as a possessive 
pron. of the 3rd = his, her, its (lit. of him etc.) and 
thus resembles the use of tassa, e. g. asava' ssa na vijjanti 
"his are no intoxications" Sn 1 100; silai) assa bhinda- 
pessami "I shall cause her character to be defamed" J 
1.290; assa bhariyS "his wife" J 11.158 etc. freq. 

Ayana (nt.) [Vedic ayana, fr. J] (a) "going", road. — (b) 
going to, goal S v. 167 (ekayano maggo leading to one 

goal, a direct way), 185 (id.); DA 
See also eka". 

.313; Davs IV.40. — 

Ayasa (nt.) [a -f- yasa, cp. Sk. ayasah] ill repute, disgrace 
Miln J39, 272; Davs 1.8. 

Ayira (& Ayyira) (n.-adj.) [Vedic arya, Metathesis lor ariya 
as diaeretic form of arya, of which the contracted (as- 
similation) form is ayya. See also ariya] (n.) ariyan, 
nobleman, gentleman (opp. servant); (adj.) ariyan, well- 
born, belonging to the ruling race, noble, aristocratic, 
gentlemanly J v. 257; Vv 39'. — f. ayira lady, mistress 
(of a servant) J 11.349 (v. 1. oyyaka); voc. ayire my lady 
J V.I 38 (=ayye C). 

Aylraka = ayira; cp. ariyaka & ayyaka; D 111.190 (v. 1. 
BB yy); J 11.313. 

Ayo & Aya (nt.) [Sk. ayah nt. iron & ore, Idg. ^ajes-, cp. 
Av. ayah, Lat. aes, Goth, aiz, Ohg. er (= Ger. Erz.), 
Ags. ar (= E. ore).] iron. The nom. ayo found only in 
set of 5 metals forming an. alloy of gold (jatarupa), viz. 
ayo, loha (copper), tipu (tin), sTsa (lead), sajjha (silver) 
A 111.16 = S V.92; of obi. cases only the instr. ayasa 
occurs Dh 240 (=ayato DhA III. 344); Pv" (pati- 
kujjita, of Niraya). — Iron is the material used xxT'i^ox'i' 
in the outfit & construction of Purgatory or Niraya (see 
niraya & Avici & cp. Vism 56 sq.). — In comp"- both 
ayo° & aya° occur as bases. 

I. ayo": -kapala an iron pot A iv.70 (v. 1. "guhala); 
Nd^ 304 '" D 2 (of Niraya). -kuta an iron hammer PvA 
284. -kbila an iron stake S v.444; M 111.183 = Nd' 
304 "■ c; Sn.\ 479. -gula an iron ball S v. 283; Dh3o8; 
It 43 =: 90; Th 2, 489; DA 1.84. -ghana an iron club 
Ud 93; VvA 20. -ghara an iron house J iv.492. -patala 
an iron roof or ceiling (of Niraya) PvA 52. -pakara an 
iron fence Pv" = Nd^ 304 '"■ " '. -maya made of 
iron Sn 669 (kuta): J iv.492 (nava); Pv" (bhumi 
of N.); PvA 43, 52. -muggara an iron club PvA 55. 
-sanku an iron spike S IV. 168; Sn 667. 

II. aya°: -kapSla = ayo° DhA 1.148 (v.l. ayo°). -kara 
a worker in iron Miln 331. -kuta = ayo° J 1. 108; DhA 
11.69 (v- '■) -nangala an iron plough DhA 1.223; 111-67. 
-pattaka an iron plate or sheet (cp. loha°) J v.359. 
-pa^havi an iron floor (of Avici) DhA 1.148. -sangbataka 
an iron (door) post DhA IV. 104. -sula an iron stake Sn 
667; DhA 1.148. 

Ayojjha (adj.) [Sk. ayodhya] not to be conquered or sub- 
dued M 11.24. 

Ayya (n.-adj.) [contracted form for the diaeretic ariya (q. v. 
for etym.). See also ayira] (a) (n.) gentleman, sire, lord, 
master J III. 167 ^ PvA 65; DhA 1.8 (ayya pi. the worthy 
gentlemen, the worthies), 13 (amhakaq ayyo our worthy 
Sir); 11.95. — C') (*<^j-) worthy, gentlemanly, honourable 
Vin 11.191; DhA 11.94 sq. — The voc. is used as a polite 
form of address (cp. Ger. "Sie" and E. address "Esq.") 
like E. Sir, milord or simply "you" with the implication 
of a pluralis majestatis; thus voc. proper ayya J 1. 221, 
279, 308; pi. nom. as voc. ayya in addressing several 
J 11.128, 415; nom. sg. as voc. (for all genders & num- 
bers) ayyo Vin 11.215; J 111126, 127. — f. ayya lady, 
mistress M 11.96 (=: mother of a prince); DhA 1.398; 
voc. ayye my lady J v. 138. 

-putta lit. son of an Ariyan, i. e. an aristocratic (young) 
man gentleman (cp. in meaning kulaputta); thus (a) son 
of my master (lit.) said by a servant J in. 167; (b) lord, 
master, "governor" J 1.62 (by a servant); DA 1,257 (= 
sami, opp. dasi-putta); PvA 145 (by a wife to her hus- 
band); DhA II. no; (c) prince (see fV.Z.A'.M. xii., 1898, 
75 sq. & Epigraphia Indica 111.137 sq.) J V1.I46. 

Ayyaka [demin. of ayya] grandfather, (so also BSk , e. g. 

M Vastu 11.426; 111.264) J 111.155; iv.146; vi.196; Pv i.8«; 
Miln 284. ayyaka-payyaka grandfather & great grandfather, 




forefathers, ancestors J 1.2; PvA 107 (=r pitamaha) — f. 
a3ryaka grandmother, granny Vin 11. 169; S 1.97; J 11-349 
(here used for "lady", as v. 1. I!B); & ayyika Th 2, 159; 
Vism 379. 

Ara [Vedic ara fr. \, rnoti; see etym. under appeti & cp. 
more esp. Lat. artus limb, Gr. 'afy.a chariot, also P. 
annava] the spoke of a wheel D II. 1 7 (sahass^ Sra adj. 
with thousand spokes), cp. Miln 285; J IV. 209; vi.261 ; 
Miln 238; DhA 11.142; VvA 106 (in allegorical etym. 
of arahant = saqsara-cakkassa aranai) hatatts "breaker of 
the spokes of the wheel of transmigration") = PvA 7 
(has sarjsara-vattassa) ; VvA 277. 

Arakkhiya (adj.) [a -f- rakkhiya, grd. of rakkhati] not to 
be guarded, viz. (i) impossible to watch (said of women 
folk) J 11.326 (a. nSma itthiyo); ill. 90 (matugamo nama 
a.). — (2) unnecessary to be guarded Vin 11.194 (Tathagala), 

Arakkheyya (adj.) [in form = arakkhiya] only in nt. "that 
which does not need to be guarded against", what one 
does not need to heed, superfluous to beware of A IV. 82 
(catlari Tathagatassa a° ani). — 3 arakkheyyani are enum<i- 
at D 111.217 (but as arakkh", which is also given by 

Aragha^t^ [Sk. araghattaka (so Halayudha, see Aufrecht p. 
138), dialect.] a wheel for raising water from a well ' 
Bdgh. on cakkavattaka at cv v.16, 2 (Vin 11.318). So 
read for T. arahatta-ghati-yanta ace to Morris, J P T S. 
1^85, 30; cp. also Vin. Texts 111.112. — The 2'-d part 
of the cpd. is doubtful; Morris & Aufrecht compare the 
modern Hindi form arhat or rahat "a well-wheel". 

Araja (adj.) [a -|- raja] free from dust or impurity S iv.2l8- 
(of the wind) ; Vv 536 (= apagata-raja VvA 236). 

Aranfia (nt.) [Vedic aranya; from arana, remote, +y'*- '" 
the Rig V. aranya still means remoteness (opp. to ama, 
at home). In the Ath V. it has come to mean wilderness 
or forest. Connected with arad and are, remote, far from], 
forest D 1.71; M 1.16; 111.104; S 1.4, 7, 29, 181, 203 
(maha); A 1.60 (°vanapatthani); 11.252; 111.135, 138; Sn 
39, 53, i'9; Dh 99, 329, 330; It 90; Vv 56'; Ps 1.176. 
[The commentators, give a wider meaning to the word. 
Thus the O. C. (Vin 111.46, quoted Vism 72 & SnA 83) 
says every place, except a village and ihe approach 
thereto, is araiina. See also Vin 111.51; DA 1.209; PvA 
73;_VvA 249; J 1.149, 215; 11-138; V.70]. 

-ayatana a forest haunt Vin 11.201; S 11.269; J 1.173; 
VvA 301; PvA 54, 78, 141. -kutika a hut in the forest, 
a forest lodge S 1.61; 111.116; iv.116, 380; DhA IV.31 
(as V. 1. ; T. has "kuti). -gata gone into the forest (as 
loneliness) M 1.323; A 111.353; v. 109 sq., 207, 323 sq. 
-thana a place in the forest J 1.253. -vasa a dwelling 
in the forest, a hermitage J 1.90. -vihara living in (the) 
loneliness (of the forest) A 111.343 sq. 

Arafinaka (& Aranfiaka) (adj.) [araiina + ka] belonging 
to solitude or to the forest, living in the forest, fond of 
solitude, living as hermits (bhikkha) M 1.214 (5°), 469; 
111.89; S 11.187, 202 (v. 1. a°), 208 sq.; 281; A ni.343, 
391; IV. 291, 344, 435; See also arafinaka. 

Arannakatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. arafinaka] the habit of one 
who lives in the forest, indulgence in solitude & seques- 
tration, a hermit's practice, seclusion S 11.202, 208 sq. 
See also arannakatta. 

Arapa' (adj.-n.) [Vedic arana fr. *ara ]/f, which as abl. 
ara is used as adv. far from, cp. P. araka. Orig. meaning 
"removed from, remote, far". See also aranfia] I. (adj.) 
living in solitude, far from the madding crowd M ill. 237 
(°vibhanga-sutta) ; S 1.44, 45; J 1.340 (tittha" ?). 

Ara^a'^ (nt.) [a-j-rana] quietude, peace Nett 55 (+ tana), 
176 (or as adj. = peaceful) ThA 134 (-|-sarana); Vbh 
19 sq. (opp. sarana). See sarana^. 

-viharin (or arana-viharin) [to be most likely taken 
as arana°, abl. of arana in function of araka, i. e. adv. 
far from, away; the spelling arana would refer it to arana^. 
As regards meaning the P. Commentators expl"- it as 
opp. of rana fight, battle, i. e. peacefuUness, friendliness 
& see in it a syn. of metta. Thus Dhammapala at PvA 
230 expls- it as "raetta-viharin", & in this meaning it is 
found freq. in BSk. e. g. Divy 401 ; Av. ^ 11.131 (q. v. 
for further ref. under note 3); M Vastu 1. 165; 11.292. Cp. 
also the epithet of the Buddhas rananjaha] one who lives 
in seclusion, an anchoret, hermit ; hence a harmless, peace- 
ful person A 1.24; Th 2, 358, 360; Pv IV.I^^ (= PvA 
230); ThA 244. Cp. Dhs trsl. 336. 

Arai^l & °i (f.) [Vedic arani & arani fr. f] wood for kind- 
ling fire by attrition, only in foil. cpds. : °potaka small 
firewood, all that is needed for producing fire, chiefly 
drill sticks Miln 53; "sahita (nt.) same Vin 11.217; J i. 
212 (I); V.46 (1); DhA 11.246; °mathana rubbing of 
firewood J vi.209. — Note. The reading at PvA 211 
araniyehi devehi sadi-savanna is surely a misreading (v. 1. 
BB ariyehi). 

Aratl (f.) [a -j- rati] dislike, discontent, aversion Sn 270, 
436, 642, 938; Dh 418 (=: ukkanthitattaq DhA IV.225); 
Th 2, 339 (= ukkanthi ThA 239); Sdhp 476. 

Aravlnda [ara 4- vinda (?) Halayudha gives as Sk, aravinda 

nt.] a lotus, Nymphaea Nelumbo Davs v.62. 

Araha (adj.) ( — °) [Vedic arha of arh] I. worthy of, de- 
serving, entitled to, worth Dh 195 (puja°); Pv 11.8" 
(dakkhina°); VvA 23 (danda° deserving punishment). 
Freq. in cpd. maharaha [Sk. mahargha] worth much, of 
great value, costly, dear J 1.50, 58; 111.83, etc. (see ma- 
hant). — 2. fit for, apt for, suitable PvA 26 (paribhoga° 
fit for eating). 

Arahati [Vedic arhati, etym. uncertain but cp. agghati] to 
be worthy of, to deserve, to merit (=■ Lat. debeo) Sn 
431, 552 (raja arahasi bhavitui)); J 1.262; Dh 9, 10, 230; 
Pv 111.6". — ppr. arahant (q.v.). Cp. also adj. araha. 

Arahatta' (nt.) [abstr. formation fr. arahat", 2nd base of 
arahant in comp"- : see arahant IV.2] the state or con- 
dition of an Arahant, i. e. perfection in the Buddhist 
sense =: Nibbana (S IV. 151) final & absolute emancipation, 
Arahantship, the attainment of the last & highest stage 
of the Path (see magga & anagamin). This is not restricted 
by age or sex or calling. There is one instance in the 
Canon of a child having attained Arahantship at the age 
of 7. One or two others occur in the ComV ThA 64(Se!a); 
PvA 53 (Sankicca). Many women Arahants are mentioned 
by name in the oldest texts. About 400 men Arahanis 
are known. Most of them were bhikkhus, but A HI. 451 
gives the names of more than a score lay Arahants (cp. 
D 11.93 = S V.360, and the references in Dial. HI. 5 n*). — 
Arahattai] is defined at S iv.252 as raga-kkhaya, dosa", 
moha". Descriptions of this state are to be found in the 
formulae expressing the feelings of an Arahant (see ara- 
hant II.). Vin 11.254; D III. 10, II, 255; A 11L34, 421, 
430; V.209; Pug 73; Nett 15, 82; DA 1.180, 188, 191; 
DhA 1195; IV.193; PvA 14. — Phrases: arahattai) sac- 
chikaroti to experience Arahantship Vin 11.74; D 1.229; 
arahattai) papunati to attain or reach Arahantship (usu- 
ally in aor. papuni) J 11.229 ThA 64; DhA II 49 (saha 
patisambhidahi) 93 (id.); PvA 53, 54, 61, 233 & freq. 
elsewhere; cp. arahattaya patipanna D 111.255; A. 1.120; 
IV. 292 sq., 372 sq. 

-gahana attainment of Arahantship DhA 1.8. -patta 
(& patti) one who has attained Ar. S 1.196; v. 273; A 
II. 157; 111.376; IV. 235. -phala the fruit of Ar. Vin 1.39, 
41, 293; 111.93; D 111.227, 277; S 111.168; v.44; A 1.23, 
45; 111.272; 1V.276; Dhs 1017; Vbh 326. -magga the 
Path of Ar. S 1.78; A 111.391; DA 1.224. -vimokkha 
the emancipation of Ar. Nd2 19. 

Arahatta^ in "ghati see araghatta. 




Arahant (adj.-n.) [Vedic arhant, ppr. of arhati (see arahati), 
meaning deserving , worthy]. Before Buddhism used as 
honorific title of high officials like the English 'His Wor- 
ship'; at the rise of Buddhism applied popularly to all 
ascetics (^Dial. in. 3 — (>). Adopted by the Buddhists as 1. 1. 
for one who has attained the Summum Bonum of reli- 
gious aspiration (Nibbana). 

I. Cases nom. sg. arabai) Vin 1.9; D 1.49; M 1.245, 
280; S 1.169; see also formula C. under 11., & araha 
Vin 1.8, 25, 26; ii.iio, 161; D 111.255; It 95; Kh iv.; 
gen. arahato S iv.i75; Sn 590; instr. arahata S 111.168; 
DA 1.43; ace. arabantar) D 111. 10; Dh 420; Sn 644; 
Loc. arabantamhi Vv 21'-. — nom. pi. arahanto Vic 
1. 19; IV.112; S 1.78, 235; 11.220; IV.123; gen. arahatai) 
Vin iii.i; S 1.214; Sn 186; It 112; Pv 1.11'^. Other 
cases are of rare occurrence 

II. Formulae. Arahantship finds its expression in freq. 
occurring formulae, of which the standard ones are the 
foil. : A. khina jati vusitag brahmacariyai) katarj ka- 
raniyar) napararj itthattaya "destroyed is (re-) birth, 
lived is a chaste life, (of a student) done is what had to 
be done, after this present life there in no beyond". Vin 
I.I4, 35, 183; D 1.84, 177, 203; M 1.139; "-39; S I. 
140; 11.51, 82, 95, 120, 245; 111.21, 45, 55, 68, 71, 90, 
94, 195, 223; IV.2, 20, 35, 45, 86, 107, 151, 383; V.72, 
90, 144, 222; A 1.165; 11-21 1; 111-93; IV.88, 179, 302; 
V.155, 162; Sn p. 16; Pug 61, etc. — B. eko vupa- 
kattho appamatto atapi pahitatto 'alone, secluded, ear- 
nest, zealous, master of himseir D 1. 177;, 11.153 & "^o"" 
tinned with A: S 1.140, 161; 11.21; 111.36, 74; IV.64; 
V.144, 166; A 1.282; 11.249; 111-70, 217, 301-1 376; IV. 
235. — C. arahag khinasavo vusitava katakaraniyo 
ohitabbaro anupatta-sadattbo parikkhina-bhava-san- 
nojano sammad-anna vimutto : D 111.83, 97 j M 1.4, 
236; S 1.71; 111.161, 193; 1V.125; V.145, 205i 273, 302; 
A 1.144; 111.359, 376; IV. 362, 369, 371^ sq.. It 38. — 
D. nanan ca pana me dassanar) udapadi akuppa me 
ceto-vlmutti ayar) antima jati nattbi dani punabbbavo 
"there arose in me insight, the emancipation of my heart 
became unshake able, this is my last birth, there is now 
no rebirth for me: S 11.171; 111.28; iv.8 ; v. 204; A 1.259; 
IV.56, 305, 448. 

III. Other passages (selected) Vin 1.8 (araha sitibhuto 
nibbuto), 9 (arahai) Tathagato Sammasambuddho), 19 
(ekadasa loke arahanto), 20 (ekasatthi id.). 25 sq.; II. 
110, 161; lli.l ; 1V.H2 (te arahanto udake kilanti); D 
1.49 (Bhagava arahaq), 144; 111.10, 255: M 1.245 (*J°' 
tamo na pi kalai) karoti; arahai] samano Gotamo), 280; 
S 1.9, 26, 50 (Tathagato), 78, 140, 161, 169, 175, 178 
(4- sitibhuta), 208, 214, 235 (khinasava arahanto); III. 
160 (araha tissa?), 168; iv.123, 175, 260, 393: v. 159 
sq., 164, 200 sq.; A 1.22 (Sammasambuddho), 27, 109, 
266; 11.134; I1I-376, 39', 439; iv.3_64, 394; v.120; Sn 
186, 590, 644, 1003; It 95 (-|- khinasava), 112; Kh iv. 
(dasahi angehi samannagato araha ti vuccati: see KhA 
88); Vv 2ii; 1.217; Dh 164, 420 (khinasava +); Ps 11.3, 
19, 194, 203 sq.; Pug 37, 73; Vbh 324, 336, 422; 
Pv l.l' (khettupama arahanto), ii''^; iv.i". 

IV. In compi- &, dcr. we find two bases, viz. (l) ara- 
haDta° in °ghata the killing or murder of an Arahant 
(considered as one of the six deadly crimes): see abhi 
thana; °ghataka the murderer of the A.: Vin 1.89, 136, 
168, 320; °magga (arahatta°?) the path of an A.: D I. 
144. — (2) arabat" in (arahad-)dhaja the flag or banner 
of an A.: J 1.65. 

V. See further details & passages under anagamin, 
khina, buddha. On the relationship of Buddha and Ara- 
hant see Dial. 11. 1 — 3; 111.6. For riddles or word-play 
on the form arahant see M 1.280; A iv.145; DA 1.146 
=r VvA 105, 6 = PvA 7; DhA iv.228; DhsA 349. 

ArSti [a + rati, cp. Sk. arati] an enemy DSvs iv.i. 

All [Ved. ari; fr. f] an enemy. — The word is used in 
exegesis & word expl" , thus in etym. of arahant (see 

ref. under arahant v.); of bhuri Ps 11. 197. — Otherwise 
in late language only, e. g. Sdhp 493 ("bhuta). See also 
arindama & aribhaseti. 

ArinCamana [ppr. med. of P. viiicati for ricyati] not leaving 
behind, not giving up, i. e. pursuing earnestly Sn 69 
(jhanai) ^ ajdhamana SnA 123, cp. Nd^ 94). 

Arittha' (adj.) [a + ritt'ia = Vedic arista, pp of a + rl§ to 

hurt or be hurt] unhurt Sdhp 279. 

Arittha- [Sk. arista, N. of a tree] a kind of spiritous 
liquor Vin IV.IIO. 

Aritthaka (adj.) [fr. arittha] (a) unhurt; perfect DA 1,94 
(°i) fianai)). — (b) [fr. arittha in meaning of "soap-berry 
plant"?] in phrase maha aritthako mani S 1.104 "a great 
mass of soap stone" (cp. Rh. D. in y.K.A.S. 1895, 
893 sq-), "a shaped block of steatite" (Mrs. Kh. D. in 
K.S 130). 

Aritta (nt.) [Vedic aritra, Idg. »ere to row (Sk. f to move); 
cf. Gr. ifi<r<ru to row, ifSTni( rudder, Lat. remus, Ohg. 
ruodar = rudder; Ags. rowan = E. row] a rudder. Usually 
in comb"- with piya (phiya) oar, as piyarittai) (phiy'') 
oar & rudder, thus at S 1.103 (T. piya°, v. 1. phiya"); 
A 11.201 (piya°); J IV.164 (T. piya°, v.l. phiya°); t-n32i 
(piya+; SnA 330 phiya ^ dabbi-padara, aritta := veju- 
danda). DhsA 149. 

Arindama [Sk. arindama, arii) -|- dama of dam] a tamer 
of enemies victor, conqueror Pv IV.315 (= arinaq damana- 
sila PvA 251); Sdhp 276. 

Aribhaseti [= ariq bhaseli] to denounce, lit. to call an 
enemy J IV. 285. 

Ariya (adj.-n.) [Vedic arya, of uncertain etym. The other 
Pali forms are ayira & ayya] I. (racial) Aryan D 11.87. — 
2. (social) noble, distinguished, of high birth. — 3. (ethical) 
in accord with the customs and ideals of the Aryan 
clans, held in esteem by Aryans, generally approved. 
Hence: right, good, (ideal. [The early Buddhists had no 
such ideas as we cover with the words Buddhist and Indian. 
Ariya does not exactly mean either. But it often comes 
very near to what they would have considered the best 
in each]. — (adj.): D 1.70 = (°ena silakkhandhena saman- 
nSgata fitted out with our standard morality); 111.64 
(cakkavatti-vatta), 246 (ditthi); M 1. 139 (pannaddhaja); 
11.103 (ariyaya jatiya jato, become of the Aryan lineage); 
S 11.273 (tunhlbhava); iv.250 (vaddhi), 287 (dhamma); 
V.82 (bojjhanga), 166 (satipatthana), 222 (vimutti), 228 
(nana), 255 (iddhipada), 421 (maggo), 435 (saccani), 467 
(panna-cakkhu); A 1.71 (parisa); 11.36 (iiaya); 111.451 (iiatia); 
IV.153 (tunhibhava) ; v.206 (silakkhandha); It 35 (panna), 
47 (bhikkhu sammaddaso); Sn 177 (palha = atthangiko 
maggo SnA 216); Dh 236 (bhumi), 270; Ps 11.212 (iddhi). 
-alamariya fully or thoroughly good D 1.163 = 111.82 = 
A IV. 363; nSlamariya not at all good, object, ignoble 
ibid. — (til.) Vin 1. 197 (na ramati pSpe); D 1.37 =: (yai) 
tai) ariya acikkhanti upekkhako satima etc. : see 3'''. jhSna), 
245; lll.lll ("anaij anupavadaka one who defames the 
noble); M 1.17, 280 (sotliyo ariyo arahaq); S 1.225 (°5nar) 
upavadaka); 11.123 (id.); iv.53 (°assa vinayo), 95 (id.); 
A 1.256 ("anai) upavadaka); 111.19, 252 (id.); iv.145 (dele! 
see arihatatta); v.68, 145 sq., 200, 317; It 21, 108 
Dh 22, 164, 207; J 111.354 = Miln 230; M 1.7, I 
(ariyanar) adassavin: "not recognising the Noble Ones 
PvA 26, 146; DhA 11.99; Sdhp 444 (°Snaq vai)sa). — 
anartya (adj. & «.) not Ariyan, ignoble, undignified, low, 
common, uncultured A 1.81; Sn 664 (= asappurisa SnA 
479; DhsA 353); J 11.281 (= dussila papadbamma C); 
v.48 (°rupa shameless), 87 : DhA IV.3. — See also fiaija, 
magga, sacca, savaka. 

-Svakasa appearing noble J v.87. — uposatha the ideal 
feast day (as one of 3) A 1.205 sq., 212. — kanta loved 
by the Best D 111.227. — ga?* (p'-) tfoops of worthies 




J VI. 50 (:^ brahmapa-gapa, te kira tada ariyacara ahesui), 
tena te evam aha C). — garahin casting blnme on the 
righteous Sn 660. — citta a noble heart. — traja a true 
descendant of the Noblp ones Dpvs v.92. — dasa having 
the ideal (or best) belief It 93 = 94. — dhana sublime 
treasure; always as sattavidha" sevenfold, viz. saddha", 
slla°, hiri°, ottappa°, suta°, caga", paiifia° "faith, a moral 
life, modesty, fear of evil, learning, self-denial, wisdom" 
ThA 240; VvA 113; DA 11.34. — dhamma the national 
customs of the Argans (:= ariyanaq eso dhammo Nd' 71, 
72) M I.I, 7, 135; A 11.69; V.i45sq., 241, 274; Sn 783; 
Dhs 1003. — puggala an (ethically) model person, Ps 
1. 167; Vin V.117; ThA 206. — magga the Aryan Path. 
— var)sa the (fourfold) noble family, i. e. of recluses 
content with the 4 requisites D in. 224 = A 11.27 = Ps 
1.84 = Nd2 141; cp. A 111.146. — vattin leading a noble 
life, of good conduct J 111.443. — vata at Th i, 334 
should be read °vatta (nom. sg. of vattar, vac) "speaking 
noble words". — vasa the most excellent state of mind, 
habitual disposition, constant practice. Ten such at D in. 269, 
291 r= A V.29 (Passage recommended to all Buddhists by 
Asoka in the Bhabra Edict). — vihara the best practice 
S v.326. — vohara noble or honorable practice. There 
are four, abstinence from lying, from slander, from harsh 
language, from frivolous talk. They are otherwise known 
as the 4 vaci-kammanta & represent sila nos. 4 — 7. See 
D 111.232 ; A 11.246; Vin v.125. — satigha the commu- 
nion of the Nobles ones PvA i. — sacca, a standard 
truth, an established fact, D 1. 189, II. 90, 304 sq.; 111^77; 
M 1.62, 184; 111.248; S V.415 sq. = Vin, 230. It 17; 
Sn 229, 230, 267; Dh 190; DhA ill. 246; KhA 81,151, 
185, 187; ThA 178, 282, 291; VvA 73. — savaka a 
disciple of the noble ones (= ariyanar) santike sutatta ^. 
SnA 166). M 1.8, 46, 91, 181, 323; 11,262: III. 134, 228, 
272; It 75; Sn 90; Miln 339; Dh.\ 1.5, (opp. putthuj- 
jana). — sllin of unblemished conduct, practising virtue 
D I.I 1 5 (= sllai) ariyai) uttamaij parisuddhaq DA 1.286); 
M 11.167. 

When the commentators, many centuries afterwards, 
began to write Pali in S. India & Ceylon, far from the ancient 
seat of the Aryan clans, the racial sense of the word 
ariya was scarcely, if at all, present to their minds. 
Dhammapala especially was probably a non-Aryan, and 
certainly lived in a Dravidian environment. The then 
current similar popular etmologies of ariya and arahant 
(cp. next article) also assisted the confusion in their 
minds. They sometimes therefore erroneously identify the 
two words and explain Aryans as meaning Arahants 
(DhA 1.230; SnA 537; PvA 60). In other ways also they 
misrepresented the old texts by ignoring the racial force 
of the word. Thus at J v.48 the text, speaking of a 
hunter belonging to one of the aboriginal tribes, calls 
him anariya-rupa. The C. explains this as "shameless", 
but what the text has, is simply that he looked like a 
non-Aryan, (cp 'frank' in English).. 

Arihatatta in phrase "arihatta ariyo hoti" at A iv.145 's 
wrong reading for arinai] hatatta. The whole phrase is 
inserted by mistake from a gloss explaining araha in the 
foil, sentence "arakatta kilesanar) arlnai) hatatta . . . araha 
hoti", and is to be deleted (omitted also by SS). 

ArU (nt.) [Vedic aruh, unknown etym.] a wound, a sore, 
only in cpds. : °kaya a heap of sores M 11.64 = Dh I47 
= Th 1, 769 (^ navannai) vaijamukhanaq vasena arub- 
huta kaya DhA 111.109 = VvA 77); °gatta (adj.) with 
wounds in the body M 1.506 (-\- pakka-gatta); Miln 357 
(id); °pakka decaying with sores S iv.198 (°ani gattani); 
°bhuta consisting of wounds, a mass of wounds VvA 77 = 
DhA 111.109. 

Aruka=;aru; only in cpd. "lipamacitto (adj.) having a 
heart like a sore (of a man in anger A 1.124 = Pug 3° 
(expld at Pug A 212 as puraria-vana-sadisa-citto "an old 
wound" i. e. continually breaking open). 

Aruoa [Vedic aruija (adj.) of the colour of fire, i. e. ruddy, 
nt. the dawn ; of Idg. *ereu as in Sk. arusa reddish, Av. 
aurusa white, also Sk ravi sun; an enlarged from of Idg. 
^reu as in Sk. rudhira, rohita red (bloody; see etym. 
under rohita), Gr. efvSpd^, Lat. ruber.] the sun Vin 11.68; 
IV.245; J "-154; V.403; VI.330; Dpvs 1.56; DA 1.30.— 
a. uggacchati the sun rises J 1.108; VvA 75, & see cpds. 
-ugga sunrise Vin iv.272; S v.29, 78, loi, 442 (at 
?11 Saqyutta pass, the v.l. SS is aruiiagga); Vism 49. 
-uggamana sunrise (opp. oggamanna). Vin 111.196, 204, 
264; IV.86, 166, 230, 244; DhA 1. 165; 11.6; PvA 109. 
-utu the occasion of the sun (-rise) DhA 1.165. -vanna 
of the colour of the sun, reddish, yellowish, golden Vism 
123; DhA 1 1.3 = PvA 216. -sadisa (vaona) like the sun 
(in colour) PvA 211 (gloss for suriyavaiiria). 

Arubheda the Rigveda Th.\ 206. 

Arupa (adj.) [a -|- rupa] without form or body, incorporeal, 
D 1. 195 sq.; HI. 240; Sn 755; It 62; Sdhp 228, 463, 
480. See details under rtipa. 

-avacara the realm or world of Formlessness, Dhs 
1281 — 1285; Ps 1.83 sq., loi. -kayika belonging to the 
group of formless beings Miln 317 (deva). -thayin standing 
in or being founded on the Formless It 62. -tanha "thirst" 
for the Formless D 111.216. -dhatu the element or sphere 
of the Incoporeal (as one of the 3 dhatus rnpa", arupa°, 
niiodha°; see dhatu) D in. 215, 275; It 45. -bhava 
formless existence D 111.216. -loka the world of the Form- 
less, Sdhp 494. -safinin not having the idea of form 
D ll.lio; III. 260; Exp. 1.252. 

Arupln (adj.) [a -j- rupin] ^ ariipa ; Di.3l (arupi atta hoti: 
see DA 1.119), 195; in. I II, 139; It 87 (rupino va aru- 
pino va satta). 

Are (indecl.) [onomat. Cp. Sk. lalalla, Gr. AaAf'u, Lat. 
lallo = E. lull, Ger. lallen & without redupl. Ags. hola, 
Ger. halloh, E. lo. An abbrev. form of are is re. Cf. also 
alala] exclam. of astonishment & excitement: he! hallo! 
I say!, implying an imprecation: Away with you (with 
voc.) J 1.225 (dasiputta-cetaka); IV.391 (duttha-candala); 
DA 1.265 (=:re); VvA 68 (dubbinl), 217 (^how in the 

Ala' freq. spelling for ala. 

Ala" (adj.) [alai) adv. as adj.] enough, only in neg. anala 

insufficient, impossible M 1455; J 11.326 = IV. 471. 

Alat) (indecl.) [Vedic arar). In meaning I. alar) is the ex- 
panded continuation of Vedic arai), an adv. ace. of ara 
(adj.) suitable; fitly, aptly rightly fr. f Cp. anijava, appeti, 
ara. In meaning 2. alai) is the same as are] emphatic 
particle 1. in affirmative sentences: part, of assurance & 
emphasis = for sure, very much (so), indeed, truly. Note. 
In connection with a dat. or an infin. the latter only 
apparently depend upon alaq, in reality they belong II. 
the syntax of the whole sentence (as dat. or inf. absolute). 
It is customary however (since the practice of the Pali 
grammarians) to regard them as interdependent and inter- 
pret the construction as "fit for, proper" (= yuttaq Pali 
Com.), which meaning easily arises ont of the connotation 
of alai), e.g. alam eva katug to be sure, this is to be 
done ^ this is proper to be done. In this sense (c. dat.) 
it may also be compd- with Vedic araq c. dat. — (a) 
(abs.) only in comb"- with dat. or inf. (see c. & Note 
above). — (b.) (" — ) see cpds. — (c.) with t/ai. or in/in. : 
alai) antarayaya for certain an obstacle M 1.130 (opp. 
nalai) not at all); alaq te vippatisaraya you ought to feel 
sorry for it Vin 11.250; alai) vacanaya one says rightly 
S II. 18; alaq hitaya untold happiness DhA II. 41. — ito 

ce pi so bhavai) Gotamo yojanasate viharati alam eva 

upasankamitui) even if he were 100 miles from here, 
(surely) even so (i.e. it is fit or proper even then) one 
must go to him D 1.117 (expW- at DA 1.288 by yuttam 
eva = it is proper) ; alam eva katuq kalyanaij indeed one 




must do good = it is appropriate to do good Pv 11.9*' 
(=z yuttaq PvA 122); alai) puiinaDi katave "come, let us 
do meritorious works" Vv 44"' (rzr yultar) VvA 191). — 
2. in negative or prohibitive sentences: part, of disap- 
probation reproach & warning; enough! have done with! 
fie! stop! alas! (etc. see are). — (a) (abs.) enough: nalaq 
thutui] it is not enough to praise Sn 217; te pi na honti 
me alaq they are not enough for me Pv l.6\ — (b) with 
voc. : alai) Devadatta ma to rucci sanghabhedo "look out 
D. or take care D. that you do not split up the community" 
Vin II. 1 98 ; alar) Vakkali kin te imina putikayena ditthena . . . 
S 111.120. — (c) enough of (with ins/r.): alai) ettakena 
enough of this, so much of that Miln 18; alam me Bud- 
dhena enough for me of the Buddha r= I am tired of the 
B. DhA 11.34. 

-attba (adj.) "quite the thing", truly good, very pro- 
fitable, useful D U.231 ; M 11.69 (so read for alamatta); 
A 11.180; Th I, 252; J 1.401 (so read for °atta). -ariya 
truly genuine, right noble, honourable indeed, only in 
"uana-dassana [cp. BSk. alamarya-jtiana-darsana Lai v. 309, 
509] Vin 1.9; A 111.64, 430; V.88; J 1.389 (cp. ariya). 
-kammaniya (quite or thoroughly) suitable Vin 111.187. 
-pateyya: see the latter, -vacanlya (f.) a woman who 
has lo be addressed with "alar)" (i. e. "fie"), which 
means that she ceases to be the wife of a man & returus 
into her parental home Vin in. 144, cp. 274 (Bdhgh's. 
expl" ). -samakkhatar one who makes sufficiently clear 
It 107. -sajiva one who is thoroughly fit to associate 
with his fellow A 111.81. -sataka "curse-coat", one who 
curses his waist-coat (alar) sataka!) because of his having 
eaten too much it will not fit; an over-eater; one of the 

5 kinds of gluttons or improper eaters as enum't at DhA 
IV. 16 = DhsA 404. 

Alakkhika (& ika) (adj.) [a 4- lakkhika] unfortunate un- 
happy, of bad luck Vin 111.23; J in-259. 

Alakkhi (f.) [a -f- lakkhi] bad luck, misfortune Th I, 1 123. 

Alagadda [Der. unknown. In late Sk. alagarda is a water- 
snake] a kind of snake M 1. 133 = DA 1.21 ; DhA iv. 
132 (°camma, so read for T. alla-camma, vv. 11. alanda° 

6 alandu"). 

Alagga (adj.) [pp. of laggati] not stuck or attached Nd'^ 
107 (also alaggita); alaggamana (ppr.) id. DhA 111.298. 

Alaggana (nt.) [a + lagg^na] not hanging on anything, 
not being suspended DA 1.180. 

Atagkata [pp. of alankaroti] 1. "made too much", made 
much of, done up, adorned, fitted out Dh 142 (= valt- 
habharana-patimandita DhA 111.83); Pv 11. 3"; Vv l'; J 
111.392; IV.60. — 2. "done enough" (see alaij, use with 
instr.), only neg. analankata in meaning "insatiate" S 
1. 1 5 (kamesu). 

Alagkara^a (nt.) [alaq 4- karana, fr. alankaroti] doing up, 
fitting out, ornamentation J 1.60. 

AlaQkaranaka (adj.) [fr. alankarapa] adorning, erabellishiDg, 
decorating DhA 1.410. 

Alagkaroti [alaq -|- karoti, Vedic araiikaroti] to make much 
of i.e. to adorn, embellish, decorate J 1.60; 111.189; ^''■ 
368. ger. °karitva DhA 1.410; PvA 74. — pp. alan- 
kata. — Caus. alankaiapeti to cause to be adorned J 1.52. 

AlaQkara [fr. alankaroti, cp. Vedic arankfti] "getting up" 
i.e. fining ont, ornament, decoration; esp. trinkets, orna- 
ments D 111.190; A 111.239; 263 sq.; J VI. 368; PvA 23, 
46, 70 ( — ° adj. adorned with), 74; Sdhp 249. 

Alattaka [Sk. alaktaka] lac, a red animal dye J IV. 1 14 
("patala); DhA 11.174; IV.197. 

Alanda & Alandii see alagadda. 

Alamba (adj.) [a -|- lamba] not hanging down, not drooping, 
short J V.302; VI. 3 (°tthaniyo not flabby: of a woman's 
breasts cp. alamb' ordhva-stani Susruta 1.37 1 ). 

Alasa (adj.) [a -f lasa] idle, lazy, slack, slothful, languid S 
1.44, 217; Sn 96 (= jati-alaso SnA 170); J IV. 30; Dh 
280 (= maha-alaso DhA 111. 410). Opp. analasa vigorous, 
energetic S 1.44; D 111.190 (dakka-f); Vin iv.211; Nd-! 
141 (id.). 

Alasata (f.) [abstr. fr. alasa] sloth-, laziness; only in neg. 
analasata zeal, indiistry VvA 229. 

Alassa (nt.) at S 1.43 is spurious spelling for alassa idleness, 
sloth; V. 1. BB alasya. 

Alata (nt.) [Sk. alata, related to Lat. altare altar, adoleo 
to burn] a firebrand A 11.95 (chava° a burning corpse, 
see chava); J 1.68; Pug 36; DhA 111.442. 

1 Alapu (nt.) [= alabu, with p for b : soe Trenckner Notes 
I 62i«] a gourd, pumpkin Dh 149 (=: DhA 111.112; vv. U. 
I alabu & alabbu). 

Alabu [Sk. alabu f.] a long white gourd, Cucurbita Lage- 
naris M 1.80 (titlaka^), 315 (id.); PvA 47 (id.); DhsA 
405. — See also alapu. 

Alabhaka [a + labhaka] not getting, loss, detriment Vin 

Alala (indecl.) [a -\- lala interjection fr. sound root ''lal, 
see etym. under are] "not saying la la" i. e. not babbling, 
not dumb, in °mukha not (deaf &) dumb SnA 124 (= 
anejamuga of Sn 70). 

Allka (adj.) [Sk. alfka] contrary, false, untrue S 1.189; J 
111.198; VI. 361; Miln 26, 99. — nt. °r) a lie, falsehood 
Dh 264. 

-vadin one who tells a lie, a liar Dh 223=1 VvA 69 
(has allka"); J 11.4; SnA 478 (for abhnta-vadin Sn 661). 

Alfnata (f.) [abstr. of alina] open mindedness, prudence, 
sincerity J 1.366. 

Alujita (adj.) [a + lujila, pp. of lul] umoved, undisturbed 
Miln 383. 

AlOOika (adj.) [a -f lonika] not salted J 111.409; VvA 184. 

Aloma (adj.) [a + loma] not hairy (upon the body)J Vl.457. 

Alola (adj.) [a + lola] undisturbed, not distracted (by desires), 
not wavering: of firm resolution, concentrated Sn 65 
(z= nillolupa Nd* 98; = rasavisesesu anakula SnA 118). 

Alia (adj.) (only ° — ) [Vedic ardra, to Gr. ^fiu moisten, 
'ifix dirt] — 1. moist, wet M 111.94 ("mattika-punja a 
heap of moist clay; may be taken in meaning 2). — 2. 
fresh (opp. stale), new; freshly plucked, gathered or 
caught, viz. °kusamuttbi freshly plucked grass A v. 234 = 
249; °gomaya fresh dung A v.234; DhA 1.377; "camma 
living skin Vism 195; "ti^ja fresh grass DA 1.77; PvA 40; 
"daruni green sticks J 1.318; "madhu fresh honey DhA 
11.197; °inar)Sa-sarira a body of living flesh DhA 11.51 = 
1V.166; "rasa fresh-tasting DhA 11.155; "rohita-maccha 
fresh fish J 111.333. — 3. wet == with connotation of clean 
(through being washed), freshly washed, "kesa with clean 
hair PvA 82 (sisaq nahatva allakesa); usually comb'' with 
allavattba with clean clothes (in an ablution ; often as 
a sign of mourning) Ud 14, 91; Dh.\ iv.220; or with 
odata valtha (id.) J 111.425. °pani with clean hand Pv 
11.99 (= dhota-payi PvA 116). [For analla-gatta at S 1.183 
better read, with ibid 169, an-alllna-gatta. For alla- 
camma at Dhp A IV. 132. alagadda -camma, with the v.l., 
is preferable]. 

AUapa [Sk. alapa; 5 4" 'apa] conversation, talk; only in 
cpd. "sallapa conversation (lit. talking to & pro or together) 
J 1.189; Miln 15; VvA 96; PvA 86, 




Allika (0 [eitber from alia = allikar) nt. in meaning defi- 
lement, getting soiled by ( — °), or from alliyati = alliyakai), 
a der. fr. ger. alliya clinging to, sticl<ing to. The whole 
word is doubtful.] only in cpd. (kama-) sukh' allik^anuyoga 
given to the attachment to sensual joys Vin I. lo; D 111.113, 
130; S IV.330; V.421; Nett no. 

Allina [pp. of alliyati ; Sk. altna] (a) sticking to, adhering 
or adhered to, clinging M 1.80; A v. 187; Nd^ under 
nissita (in form asita allina upagata). — (b.) soiled by 
( — °), dirtied A 11. 201. -anallina "to which nothing sticks", 
i. e. pure, undefiled, clean S 1. 169 (id. p. on p. 183 
reads analla: see alia). Cp. alaya. 

Alliyati [a + llyati, li, llyate, layate] to cling to, stick to, 
adhere to (in both senses, good or bad); to covet. — (a) 
lit. kesa sisai) alliyirjsu the hair stuck to the head J 1.64; 
khaggo loniesu alllyi the sword stuck in the hair J 1.273. 
— (b) fig. to covet, desire etc.: in idiomatic phrase 
alliyati (S 111.190 v. 1.; T. alayati) kelayati vanayati 
(S 111.190 V.I.; T. manayati; M 1.260 T. dhanayati, but 
v.l. p. 552 vanayati) mamayali "to caress dearly & be 
extremely jealous of" (c. ace.) at M 1.260 & S III. 190. — 
J IV.5: V.154 (alllyituq, v.l. illiyituri); DhsA 364 (vanati 
bhajati a); pp. allina — Caus. alliyapeti [cp. Sk. ala- 
payati, but B.Sk. allipeti M Vastu 111.144; pp. alllpita 
ibid. 1.311 ; 111.408; pass, alllpiyate 111.127.] to make stick, 
to to bring near to (c. ace. or loc.) J 11.325 (hatthiij maha- 
bhittiyan alliyapetva); I v. 392 (slsena slsaij alliyapetva). 

A|a [etym. unknown] i. the claw of a crab M 1.234; S 1. 123; 
J 1.223, 505 ("chinno kakkatako; T. spells ala°); 11.342; 
111.295; — 2. the nails (of finger or toe) (?) in °chinna 
one whose nails are cut off Vin I.91. 

A)Sra (adj.) [Is it the same as ulara?] only used with ref. 
to the eyelashes, & usually expld- by visala, i.e. extended, 
wide, but also by bahala, i.e. thick. The meaning & 
etym. is as yet uncertain. Kern, (^Toev. s.v.) transit' by 
"bent, crooked, arched", "akkhin with wide eyes (eye- 
lashes?) J 1.306 (= visala-netta C); °painba with thick 
eye-lashes Vv 35' (= bahala-saijyata-pakhuma C; v.l. 
°pamukha); °bhamuka having thick eyebrows or "lashes 
J VI.503 (so read for "pamukha; C. expl' by visal-akkhi- 
gatida). Cp. alara. 

A|haka in udak' alhaka VvA 155 read alhaka. 

Ava° (prefix) I. Relation between ava Of 0. Phonetically the 
difference between ava & o is this, that ava is the older 
form, whereas o represents a later development. Histori- 
cally the case is often reversed — that is, the form in o 
was in use first & the form in ava was built up, some- 
times quite independently, long afterwards. Okaddhati, 
okappati, okappana, okassati, okara, okantatl, okka- 
mati, ogacchat), odata and others may be used as examples. 
The difference in many cases has given rise to a diffe- 
rentiation of meaning, like E. ripe : rife, quash : squash ; 
Ger. Knabe: Knappe etc. (see below B 2). — A. The 
old Pali form Of the prefix is o. In same cases however 
a Vedic form in ava has been preserved by virtue of its 
archaic character. In words forming the 2'"1 part of a 
cpd. we have ava, while the absolute form of the same 
word has o. See e.g. avakasa ( — ") > okasa (° — );avacara 
>ocaraka; avatata; avadata; avabhasa; avasana. — B. 
I. the proportion in the words before us (early and later) 
is that o alone is found in 65°/^ of all cases, ava alone 
in 24%) and ava as well as o in ii"/^. The proportion 
of forms in ava increases as the books or passages be- 
come later. Restricted to the older literature (the 4 NikSyas) 
are the foil, forms with o: okiri, okkanti, okkamali, 
okkhipati, ogacchati, ossajati. — (i) The Pali form (0°) 
shows a differentiation in meaning against the later Sanskrit 
forms (ava°). See the foil. : 

avakappan3 harnessing: okappana confidence; 

avakkanti (not Sk.): okkanti appearance; 

avakkhitta thrown down : okkhitta subdued ; 

avacara sphere of motion : ocaraka spy ; 

avatiuna descended: otiqpa affected with love; 

avaharali to move down, put off: oharati to steal. 
(2) In certain secondary verb-formations, arisen on Pali 
grounds, the form 0° is used almost exclusively pointing 
thus to a clearly marked dialectical development of Pali. 
Among these formations are Deminulives in °ka usually ; the 
Gerund & the Infinitive usually; the Cmisntives throughout. 

II. Ava as prefix .[P. ava = Vedic ava & occasionally o ; 
Av. ava; Lat. au- (aufero = avabharati, aufugio etc.); 
Obg. u- ; Oir. o, ua. See further relations in Walde, Lat. 
Wtb. under au]. — Meaning. (Rest:) lower, low (opp. 
ut°, see e. g. uccSvaca high & low, and below III. c), 
expld- as hettha (DhA iv.54 under avaq) or adho (ibid. 
153; SnA 290). — (Motion:) down, downward, away 
(down), off; e.g. avasura sun-down; adv. avaq (q. v., 
opp. uddhaq). — (a) ///. away from., off: ava-kantati to 
cut off; °gana away from the crowd ; ^chindati cut off; 
"yiyati fall off; °bhasati shine out, elfulge; "muiicati take 
off; °sittha left over. — down., out., over: °kirati pour 
down or out over; °khilta thrown down; "gacchati go 
down; °gaheti dip down; °tarati descend; "patita fallen 
down; °sajjati emit; °siiicati pour out over; "sidati sink 
down. — (b) jig. down in connection with verbs of emo- 
tion (cp. Lat. de- in despico to despise, lit. look down 
on), see ava-janati, "bhata, °manita, "vajja, °hasati. — ■ 
away from., i.e. the opposite of, as equivalent to a nega- 
tion and often taking the place of the neg. prefix a" 
(an°), e. g. in avajaya (= ajaya), "jata, "mangala (= a°), 
°pakkhin, °patta. 

Affinities of ava. — (a) apa. There exists an exceed- 
ingly frequent interchange of forms with apa° and ava°, 
the historical relation of which has not yet been thoroughly 
investigated. For a comparison of the two the BSk. forms 
are indispensable, and often afford a clue as to the nature 
of the word in question. See on this apa a and cp. the 
foil, words under ava: avakata, "karoti, °khalita, °anga, 
ottappa, avattha, °nlta, "dana, °pivati, °rundhati, °lekhati, 
°vadati, "varaka, °sakkati, avassaya, avasseti, "hita, ava- 
puriyati, avekkhati. — (b) abhi. The similarity between 
abhi & ava is seen from a comparison of meaning abhi 
II. b and ava ir. a. The two prefixes are practically syno- 
nymous in the foil, words: °kankhati, °kamati, "kipya, 
°khipati, "maddati, °rata, °lambati, "lekheti, "lepana, 
"sincati. — (c) The contrary of ava is ut (cp. above 11.2). 
Among the freq. contrast-pairs showing the two, like E. 
up & down, are the foil. ukkaqsSvakaqsa, uggaman-ogga- 
mana, uccavaca, uUangheti-olangheti, ullittAvalitta; ogilitui)- 
uggilitui), onaman-unnamana. Two other combns- founded 
on the same principle (of intensifying contrast) are chid- 
dSvacchidda and ava° in contrast with vi° in olamba- 
vilamba, olugga-vilugga. 

AvaQ (adv.) [Vedic avak & avaq] the prep, ava in adv. 
use, down, downward; in C. often expl^' by adho. Rarely 
absolute, the only passage found so far being Sn 685 
(avaij sari he went down, v. 1. avasari, expl^. by otari 
SnA 486). Opp. uddhaq (above, up high). Freq. in cpd. 
avaijsira (adj.) head downward (-}- uddhagpada feet up), 
a position characteristic of beings in Niraya (Purgatory), 
e.g. S 1.48; Sn 248 (patanti satta nirayaij avarjsira := 
adhogata-sisa SnA 290); Vv 52^' (of Revati, -)- uddhoi)- 
pada); Pv iv.i"; J 1.233 (+ uddhapada); IV.103 (nirayaq 
vajanti yatha adhammo patito avaijsiro); Nd' 404 (uddhai)- 
pada -f); DhA iv.153 (gloss adhosira). — On avaij" cp. 
further avakkara, avakaroti, avekkhipati. 

AvakaQSa [fr. ava-karsati; on qs: *rs cp. haijsati: harsati] 
dragging down, detraction, abasement, in cpd. ukkai)- 
savak° lifting up & pulling down, raising and lowering, 
rise & fall D 1.54. 

Avakankhati ( — °) [ava + kankhati ; cp. Sk. anu-kankjati] 
to wish for, strive after S iv.57 (n'); J IV.371 (n'); V 
340 (n'), 348 (n' s= na pattheti C). 




Avaka(}()hati [^va -f- kaddhati, cp. avakassati & apakassati] 
Nett 4 (avakaddhayitva). Pass, avakaddhati J IV.415 
(hadayai) me a. my heart is weighed down = sokena 
avakaddhiyali C ; v.l. avakassati). — pp. avakaddhita. 

Avakai)(}hita [pp- of avakaddhati] pulled down, dragged 
away I)h.\ ill. 195. 

Avakata = apakata, v.l. at It 89. 

Avakanta [for *avakatta, Sk. avakrtta; pp. of avakantati, 
see kanta*] cut, cut open, cut off J IV.251 (galak'avakantai)). 

Avakantati & Okantati (okk°) [cp. Sk. avakrntati, ava -f 
kantati, cp. also apakantati] to cut off, cut out, cut away, 
carve — (ava:) J iv.155. — pp. avakanta & avakantita. 

Avakantlta [pp. of avakantati] cut out PvA 213. 

Avakappana & okappana (f) [ava -f- kappana] prepara- 
tion, fixing up, esp. harnessing J VI. 408. 

Avakaroti [Sk. apakaroti, cp. P. apa"^] „to put down", to 
despise, throw away; only in der, avakara & avakarin. - — 
pp. avakata (q. v.), — See ajso avakaroti & cp. avakirati 2. 

Avakassati & okassatl [cp. Sk. avakarsati, ava + krs; 
see also apakassati c& avakaddhati] to drag down, to draw 
or pull away, distract, remove. — A v.74r=Vin 11.204 
(-|- vavakassati). 

Avakarakai) (adv.) [fr. avakara] throwing away, scattering 
about Vin II. 214. 

Avakarin (adj.) ( — ") [fr. avakara] despising, degrading, 
neglecting Vbh 393 sq. (an°). 

Avakasa & Okasa [ava -|- kai to shine, cp. Sk. nvakasa] 
I. "appearance": akkhuddavakaso dassanaya not little (or 
inferior) to behold (of appearance) D 1. 114; ariyavakasa 
appearing noble or having the app. of an Aryan J 
V.87 ; katavakasa put into appearance Vv 22'. — 2. "op- 
portunity": kata° given leave D 1.276 Sn 1030; anava- 
kasakarin not giving occasion Miln 383. — anavakasa 
not having a chance or opportunity (to happen), impos- 
sible; always in sicr. phrase atthanar) etag Vin 
11.199; A 1.26; V.169; Pug II, 12; PvA 28. 

Avakirati & Okiratl [ava + kirati] I. to pour down on, 
to pour out over; aor. avakiri PvA 86; ger. °kiritva J 
V.144. — 2. to cast out, reject, throw out; aor. avakiri 
Vv 305=48* (v.l. °kari; VvA 126 expis by chaddesi vina- 
sesi). — Pass, avakiriyati Pv iii.i'" (= chaddiyati PvA 
174); grd. °kiriya (see sep.). See also apakirituna. pp. 

Avakiriya [grd of avakirati] to be cast out or thrown 
away; rejectable, low, contemptible J v. 143 (taken by 
C. as ger. = avakiritva). 

Avakujja (adj.) [ava -)- kujjp, cp. B.Sk. avakubja MVastu 
1.29, avakubjaka ibid. 213; 11. 41 2] face downward, head 
first, prone, bent over (opp. ukkujja & uttana) J 1.13 = 
Bu 11.52; J V.295; VI. 40; Pv IV. 108; PvA 178. 

-paniia (adj.) one whose reason is turned upside down 
(like an upturned pot, i.e. empty) A 1130; Pug 31 
(= adhomukha-pafiiia Pug A 214). 

Avakkanta ( — ") [pp. of last] entered by, beset with, over- 
whelmed by (instr.) S 111.69 (dukkha", sukha° and an°). 

Avakkanti (f.) [fr. avakkamati] entry, appearance, coming 
down into, opportunity for rebirth S 11.66 (niimarupassa); 
111.46 (paiicannaq indriyanai)); Pug 13 (^ okkanti nibbatti 
patubhavo Pug A 184); Kvu 142 (namarupassa) ; Miln 
123 (gabbhassa). 

Avakkama [fr. avakkamati] entering, appearance J v.330 

Avakkamati & okkamati [ava -f kamati fr. kram] to ap- 
proach, to enter, go into or near to, to fall into, appear 
in, only in ger. (poetically) avakamma J 111.480 (v.l. apa°). 

Avakkara [Sk. avaskara faeces, fr. avaij -)- karoti] throwiitg 
away, refuse, sweepings; only in cpd. °pati a bowl for 
refuse, slop basin, ash-bin Vin 1.157, 352 ; II.216; M 1.207 ; 
DhA 1.305. 

Avakkhalita [pp. of avakkhal^ti, Caus. of k§al] washed 
off, taken away from, detracted DA 1.66 (v.l. apa"). 

Avakkhitta & okkhitta [pp. of avakkhipati] i. [=:Sk. 

avaksipta] thrown down, flung down, cast down, dropped; 
thrown out, rejected, (ava:) M 1.296 (ujjhita -f); DA 1.281 
(an°), 289 (pinda); PvA 174 (pipda). 2. [= Sk. utksipta ?] 
thrown off, gained, produced, got (cp. uppadita), in phrase 
sed' avakkhitta gained by sweat A 11.67 ; ii>-45- 

Avakkhipati & Okkhipati [ava + khipati; cp. Sk. ava- 
ksipati] to throw down or out, cast down, drop; fig. 
usually appld to the eyes = to cast down, hence trans- 
ferred to the other senses and used in meaning of "to 
keep under, to restrain, to have control over" (cp. also 
avakkhayati), aor. "khipi DA 1.268 (bhusaq, v.l. avakkhasi). 

Avakkhipana (nt.) [fr. avakkhipati] throwing down, putting 
down J 1. 163. 

AvagaCChatl [ava -f gacchati] to come to, approach, visit 
(cp. Vedic avagacchati) PvA 87. 

AvagaQ^a (-karaka) (adj.) [ava -|- gapda°] "making a 
swelling", i. e. puffing out the cheeks, stuffing the cheeks, 
full (when eating); only nt. °n as adv. after the manner 
or in the way of stuffing etc. Vin 11.214; iv.196. 

Avagata [pp. of avagacchati] at PvA 222 is uncertain 
reading; the meaning is „known, understood" (afinata 
Pv iv.l"); perhaps we should read avikata or adhigata 
(so v.l. BE). 

Avagahati & Ogaliati [ava + gahati] to plunge or enter 
into, to be absorbed in (ace. & loc.) Vism 678 ; (vipas- 
sanavidhiq) Sdhp 370, 383. 

Avaguottiana (adj.) (— °) [fr. oguntheti] covering Sdhp 314. 

Avaggaha [Sk. avagraha] hindrance, impediment, used at 
DA 1.95 as syn. for drought (dubutthika). 

Avanga see apanga. 

Avaca (adj.) [der. fr. ava after the analogy of ucca y ul] 
low, only in comb", uccavaca (pi.) high and low, see 
ucca. KvuA 38. 

Avacana (nt.) [a -f vacana] "non-word", i. e. the wrong 
word or expression J 1.410. 

Avacara ( — °) (n. — adj.) [ava -f car, also BSk. avaeara in 
same sense, e.g. antahpuravacara the inmates of the harem 
Jtm 210] (a) (adj.) living in or with, moving in D 1. 206 
(santika" one who stays near, a companion); fig. dealing 
or familiar with, at home in A 11.189 (atakka°); IV.314 
(parisa°); J 1.60 (taja" one conversant with music, a mu- 
sician, see tala'); 11.95 (sangama°); Miln 44 (id. and 
yoga°). — (b) (n.) sphere (of moving or activity), realm, 
plane (of temporal existence); only as t.t. in kamavacara 
rupavacara arupavacara or the 3 realms of sense-desires, 
form and non-form: kama° D 1.34 ("deva); Dhs43l (as 
adj.); rupa" Pug 37; arupa° Pug 38; Ps 1.83, 84, loi; 
Dhs A 387 ; PvA 1 38, 1 63 ; to be omitted in Dhs 1 268, 1 278. 

Avacaraka & OCaraka(adj. — n.) [fr. avacara] I. only in cpd. 
kamivacarika as adj. to kJmdvacara, belonging to the 
sphere of sense expcriencies, Sdhp. 254. — 2. Late form 
of ocaraka, spy, only in C. on Th I, 315 ff. quoted in 
Brethren 189, n 3. Occurs in BSk (Divy 127). 





Avacarana (nt.) [fr. avacaiati l] being familiar with, dealing 
with, occupation J n.95. 

Avacuttha 2nd pret. of vac, in prohib form niS evaij ava- 
cuttha do not speak thus J vi.72; DhA IV.228. 

Avacchidda ( — ") (adj.) [ava -)- chidda] perforated, only 
in redupl. (intensive) cpd. chiddavacchidda perforated 
all over, nothing but holes J 111.491 ; DhA 1.122. 284, 
319. Cp. chidda-vicchidda. 

Avacchedaka ( — ") (adj ) [ava + cheda 4- I'a] cutting off, 
as nt. 'q adv. in phrase kabaldvacchedakat) after the 
manner of cutting off mouthfuls (of food) Vin 11. 214; 
IV. 196; cp. asSvacchedika whose hope or longing has 
been cut off or destroyed Vin i. 259. 

Avajaya [ava -f- jaya, cp. apajita] defeat DhA 11.228 (v.l. 
for r. ajaya). 

Avajata (adj.) [ava-f-jata; cp. B.Sk. avajata in meaning 
misljorn, miscarriage] low-born, of low or base birth, fig. 
of low character (opp. abhijata) Sn 664 (=: buddhassa 
avajataputta SnA 479); It 63; Miln 359. 

Avajanati [ava-f jfig] l. to deny Vin 11.85; A in. 164 — 
Pug 65. — 2. (later) to despise DhA ■:'.l6; PvA 175 (grd. 
"janitabba) — Of short stem-form na are found the foil : 
grd. avanfieyya I'vA 175, and with 0°; grd. onatabba 
PvA 195; pp. avanata, besides avannata. 

AvajiyatI [ava -f- jiyati ; Sk. avajiryate] to be diminished, 
to be lost, be undone J 1.313 (jilai) a; v.l. avaj;jy°); Dh 
179 (jitaij a = dujjitar) hoti DhA 111.197). 

Avajja (adj.) [Sk. avadya, seemigly a -4- vadya, but in realiiy 
a der. fr. ava. According to Childers = Sk. avarjya from 
vraj, thus meaning "not to be shunned, not forbidden". 
This interpret" is justified by context of Dh 318, 319. 
The P. commentator refers it to ava + vad (for *ava-vadya) 
in sense of to blame, cp. apavadati] low, inferior, biamable, 
bad, deprecable Dh 318, 319; Dhs 1160. More fig. in 
neg. form anavajja blameless, faultless D i.7o(= anindita 
DA 1.1S3); A l!.26 = It I02; Sn 47 (°bhojin carrying 
on a blameless mode of livelihood, see Nd- 39), 263 
(= anindita agarahita KhA I40): Ps II. 116, 170; Pug 
30, 41, 58; Sdhp 436. Opp. savajja. 

Avajjata (f.) [abstr. to prec), only neg. an° blamelessnses, 
fauUle.:sness Pug 25, 41 ; Dhs 1349. 

Avajjha (adj.) [grd of a -f vadhati, Sk. vadhya, vadh] not 
to be killed or destroyed, inviolable Sn 288; J v.49; vi. 132. 

Avancana (adj.) [a -|- vancana from Vafic] not (even) tot- 
tering, i.e. unfit for any motion (esp. walking), said of 
crippled feet J 1.214 = Cp m-g'". 

Avaiina (adj.) [to avaiina] despised, despicable Pv ni.l'' 
(= avaufieyya avajanitabba PvA 175). 

Avafiflatti (f.) [ava -f- iiatti = Sk. %vajiiapti, fr. ava + 
jna] only as neg. an" the fact of not being despised, 
inferior or surpassed, egotism, pride, arrogance It 72; 
Vbh 350, 356; °kama (adj.) wishing not to be surpassed, 
uuvilling to be second, wanting to be praised A 11.240; 
IV. I sq. 

Avanna (f.) [Sk. avajB.!, fr. ava -{- jna] contempt, disregard, 
disrespect J 1.257 (°ya). 

Avaiinata (adj.) [pp. of avajSnati] despised, treated with 
contempt PvA 135 (an°); Sdhp 88, go. 

Avatagsaka (= vat") see Vin Tixts 11.347. 

Avatthana (nt.) [Sk. avasthana] position, standing place 
J 1.50S; PvA 286. 

Avatthlta (ad.) [Sk. avasthita, ava -j- thita] "standing down" 
= standing up, firm, fixed, settled, lasting Th i, 1140. 
Usually ueg. an° unsettled, unsteady ; not lasting, chan- 
geable Dh 38 (-citta; cp. DhA 1.308 cittaij ihavaraij 
natthi); PvA 87 (= na sassata not lasting for ever). 

Avatthitata (f.) [abstr. fr. prec] steadiness, only as neg. 
an" unsteadiness, fickleness ThA 259. 

Avatthlti (f.) [Sk. avasthiti] (firm) position, posture, stead- 
fastness S V.22S ; Dhs II, 570. 

Ava(j()hi (f.) [a + vaddhi] "non-growth", decay Dh.\ HI.33S ; 
C on A III. 76 (cp. apajaha). 

Ava^t^ (adj.) [a -|- vaiita] without a stalk J V.155. 

AvaOO^ [a + vaniia] blame, reproach, fault D 1. 1 (= dosa 
ninda DA 1.37); It 67; Pug 48, 59. 

Avannaniya (adj.) [grd. of a -f vanneli] indescribable J V.282. 

Avatagsa see vatar<saka. 

Avatata & otata [ava -|- tata, pp. of tan] stretched over, 
covered, over with Vv 64^ ( — "); Vv.\ 276 (= 

Avatitthati [ava -|- titthati] to abide, linger, stand still. 
D 1. 251 r=: S IV. 322 = A V.299 (tatra"); S I.25 (v.l. 
otitthati); Th. t, 21; J n.62 ; IV.208 (aor. avatthasi). — 
pp. avat^bita (q. v.). 

Avationa & Oti^lja [pp. of starati] fallen into, affected 
with ( — °), as ava" rare late or poetical form of o", e. g. 
J V.98 (issa°). See otinna. 

Avattha' [der. uncertain] aimless (of carika, a bhikkhu's 
wandering, going on tour) A II1.171 (C. avavatthika). 

Avattha'^ [Sk. apasta, apa -f- asta, pp. of as^] thrown away 
J V.302 (= chaddita C). 

AvattharaQa (nt.) [fr. avattharati] setting in array, deploying 
(of an army) J U.104 (of a robber-band), 336. 

Avattharati [ava -j- tharati, stfj to strew, cover over or 
up J 1.74 (°amilna ppr.), 255 (°itvii ger.); IV.84; Davs 
1,38. — pp. otthata Cp. pariy". 

Avatthara^a (nt.) = ayattharana DA 1.274. 

Avatthu (&° ka) (adj.) [a -f- vatthu] groundless, unfounded 
(lig) Vin 11.241; J 1.440 (°kai] vacanaq). For lit meaning 
see vatthu. 

Avadata (^odata) Davs 111.14 (matri causa). 

Avadana sec apadana. 

Avadaniya (adj.) [fr. avadana cutting off; ava -\- da'^ to 

cut] stingy, niggardly Sn 774 (= Nd' 36 which expU. 
as follows: avaq gacchanti ti pi avadaniya; maccharino 
pi vuccanti avadaniya; buddhanai) vacanai) n'adiyanti ti 
avadaniya. Sn A 516 condenses this expl"- into the foil.: 
.avangamanataya maccharitaya buddhadlnaq vacanaq ana- 
diyanalaya ca av.adaniya). 

Avadapana (cleansing): see vodSpana. 

Avadapeti (to deal out) only BSk pary° Divy 202. 

Avadayatl [denom. fr. avada in same meaning as anudda, 
to da' : see dayati-j to have pity on, to feel sorry for 
J IV. 178 (bhutanaij navadiiyissaij, gloss n'Snukampiyaq). 

Avadiyati [Sk. avadlryati, ava -f- <Jr', drnati, see etym. 
under dari] to burst, split open J VI. 183 (;=: bhijjati C.) 
see also uddiyati, 




Avadehaka ( — °) (adj) [ava + deha + ka but more likely 
direct fr. ava -f- dlh] in the idiom udaravadehakat] bhuri- 
jati, to eat ones fill M 1. 102; Th i, 935. Vism 33 has 
udaravadehaka-bhojana, a heavy meal. 

Avadharai]ia (nt.) [Cp. Sk. avadhsrana, fr. ava + dhf] 
calling attention to, affirmation, emphasis; as t.t. used by 
C's in explanation of evai] at DA 1.27; and of kho at 
PvA II, 18. 

AvadhI 3 sg. aor. ofvadhati. — At DhA 11.73 avadhi =z odhi. 

Avanata see avanata. 

Avanati ( — °) (f.) [fr. avanamati] stooping, bending, bowing 
down, humiliation Miln 387 (unnat'avanati). 

Avani (f.) [Vedic avani] bed or course of a river; earth, 
ground Davs IV.5. 

AvapakSsati [ava + pa + kasati = kassali, fr. kf?] is a 
doubtful compd- of kabsati, the combd- ava + pa occurring 
only in this word. In all likelihood it is a distortion of 
Tavakassatl (vi -|- ava -f- kassali), supplementing the ordi- 
nary apakassati. See meaning & further discussion under 
apakasati — Vin II. 204 (apakasati -f- ; v.l. avapakassati; 
Bdhgh. in expl"- on p. 325 has apapakasati which seems, 
to imply (a)vavakassati); A III. 145 sq. (avapakasitui)). 

Avapatta see opatta. 

Avapayin ( — ") (adj.) [cp. avapivati] coming for a drink, 
drinking J 1. 163. 

Avapivati [ava -|- pa, cp. apapibati] to drink from J 1.163. 

Avabujjhati ( — °) [Cp. BSk. avabudhyate] to understand 
A IV. 66 = It 83 (n^avabujjhati); A IV.98 (id.) J 1.378 = 
III. 387 (interchanging with anubujjhati at the latter pass). 

Avabodha [ava -f- bodha] perception, understanding, full 
knowledge Sn A 509 (sacca°). — • Neg. an° not awakened 
to the truth Vv 82'' (=ananubodha VvA 319). 

Avabodhatl ( — °) [cp. Sk. avabodhati] to realise, perceive, 
pay attention to J 111,151 nava°). 

Avabhasa [later form of obhasa] Only in cpd. gambhlra- 
vabhaao D 11.55, looking deep. Same cpd. at A 11.105 = 
I'ug 46 has obhasa. 

Avabhasaka ( — °) (adj.) [fr. avabhasa] shining, shedding 
light on, illuminating Sdhp 14. 

Avabhasita ( — °) [late form of obhasita] shining with, 
resplendent Sdhp 590. 

Avabhuiijati [ava + bhuHjatl] to eat, to eat up J 111.272 
(inf. "bholtui)), 273. 

Avabhuta (adj.) [ava -|- bhata, pp. of ava -f bhu] "come 
down", despised, low, unworthy M 11. 210. 

Avamangala (adj.) [ava 4- mangala, ava here in privative 
function] of bad omen, unlucky, infaustus (opp. abhiman- 
gala); nt. bad luck, ill omen J 1.372, 402; 11.197; VI. lo, 
424; DhA 111.123; PvA 261. Cf. next. 

Avamanfiati [Sk. avamanyate] to slight, to disregard, despise 
DhA 1. 170; PvA 37, 175; Sdhp 271. — pp. Caus. 

Avamangalla (adj.) [fr. avamangala] of bad omen, nt. any- 
thing importune, unlucky J 1.446. 

Avamana & omana [fr. ava -f man, think] disregard, dis- 
respect, contempt J 11.386; 111.423; v. 384. Cp. next. 

Avamanana (nt.) [fr. avamana] = avamana J 1.22. 

Avamaneti [Caus. of avamannati] to despise j v.246. — 
pp. avamanita PvA 36. 

Avaya only in neg. anavaya. 

Avayava [Der" uncertain. Cp. mediaeval Sk. avayava] limb, 
member, constituent, part VvA 53 (sarira° = gatta). 168, 
201, 276; PvA 211 (sanra° = gatta), 251 (mul° the fibres 
of the root). As t. t. g. at Sn.\ 397. In the commentaries 
avayava is often used where arjga would have been 
used in the older texts. 

Avarajjhatl (— ") [ava + rajjhati of radh, cp. Sk. avarad- 
hyate] to neglect, fail, spurn Th 1,167;] iv.428 (v.l. °rujjh°). 

Avaruddha [fr. avarundhati] I. Doubtful reading at Vin 
IV. 181, apparently meaning 'in revolt, out of hand' (of 
slaves) — 2. [late form of oruddha] restrained Sdhp. 592. 

Avaruddhaka [avruddha -|- ka] subdued, expelled, banished 
J VI.575; Dpvs I.21 (Np). 

Avaruddhatl [Sk. aparundhati ; ava -|- ruddhati of rudh] 
to expel, remove, banish J VI. 505 (= niharati C), 515. 
See also avarundhati. 

Avarundhati [ava -f- rundhati. Only referred to by Dhp. in 
his Cy (ThA 271) on oruddha] to put under restraint, 
to put into one's harem as subsidiary wife. 

Avalambatl [^= olambati]. Only in late verse. To hang 
down. Pv ll.l'8; 10^. Ger. avalamba (for °bya) Pv III. 3'; 
cp. olubbha. 

Avalitta ( — °) [Sk. avalipta, pp. of ava-limpati] besmeared; 
in cpd. uUittavalitta "smeared up & down" i.e. plastered 
inside & outside A I.IOI. 

Avalekhati [ava + lekhati, Hkh, Sk. avalikhati] to scrape 
off Vin II. 221 (v.l. apa°). 

Avalekhana' (nt.) [fr. avalekhati] (a) scraping, scraping 
off Vin II. 141 (°pidhara), 221 ("kattha). (b) scratching in, 
writing down J IV.402, (°sattha a chisel for engraving 

Avalekhana- (nt.) v. 1. for apalekhana. 

Avalepana (— °) (nt.) [fr. ava -flip] smearing, daubing, 
plastering M 1.385 (pita°); Sn 194 (kayo taca-maqs' ava- 
lepano the body plastered with skin & flesh). 

Avasa (adj.) [a -|- vasa] powerless Sdhp 290. 

Avasafa & Osata [Sk. apasrta, cp. also samavasrta, pp. 01 
ava -(- srl withdrawn, gone away ; one who has left a 
community & gone over to another sect, a renegade Vin 
IV.216, 217 (== tilthayatanai] saijkata). 

AvasaratI [ava -f Sf] to go down, to go away (to) Sn 685 
(v. 1. BB. T. avaijsari). 

Avasana ( — ") [for osana] (nt.) stopping ceasing; end, 
finish, conclusion J 1.87 (bhattakicc-ivasane at the end 
of the meal); PvA 76 (id.). 

Avasaya [fr. avaseti] stopping, end, finish Th 2, 12 (= 
avasanai) nitthanai) ThA 19). But the id. p. at Dhp 218 
has anakkhate. 

Avaslficanaka (— °) (adj.) [fr. osincati] pouring over (act. 
& med.), overflowing J 1.400 (an°). 

Avaslttha (sic & not osittha) [pp. of avasissati, Sk. avasista] 
left, remaining, over S II. 133; J 1138; v,339; VvA 66, 
pi. avasittha all who are left, the others PvA 165 (jana). 

Avasitthaka (adj.) [fr. avasittha] remaining, left J 111.311. 





Avasltta ( — °) [pp- of osificati] besprinkled, anointed, con- 
secrated, only in phrase raja khattiyo muddha7asitto 
of a properly consecrated king (see also khattiya) D i. 
69; 11.227; 111.64; Pug 56; DA 1. 1 82 (T. muddhavassita, | 
V. 1. "abhisitta); etc. — See also abhisitta. 1 

Avasin (adj.-n.) [a -f- vasin fr. \ai] not having control 
over oneself, D 11.275. 

AvasiSSati [Sk. avasisyate. Pass, of ava -|- SiS ; but expl<^- 
by Kern, Tom. s. v. as fut of avasidati] to be left over, 
to remain, in phrase yaq pamana-katai] kammai] na taij 
tatravasissati D 1.251; A v.299 = S iv.322; J 11.61 (see 
ex pi", on p. 62). Also in the phrases taco ca naharu 
ca atthi ca avasissatu sarire upasussatu mai)sa-lohita;) 
M 1.481; A 1.50; S 11.28, and sarTrani avasissanti S 11. 
83. With the latter phrases cp. avasussati. 

AvaSi metri causa for avasi, a -f vasi, aor. of vas* to stop, 
stay, rest J v.66 (ma avasi). 

Avasussati [Sk. '••ava-susyati of §us] to dry up, to wither; 
in later quotations of the old kamai] taco ca naharu 
ca atthi ca avasussatu (upasussatu sarire maqsalohitai)) 
J 1. 71, no; Sdhp 46. It is a later spelling for the older 
avasissatu see Trenckner (M 1.569). — fut. avasucchati 
(= Sk. S'^soksyati, fut. of Intens.) J vi.550 (v. 1. BB 
"sussati; C. avasucchissati). 

AvaSUra [ava -j- sura; ava here in function of *avai)S see 
ava 11] sundown, sunset, ace. °g as adv. at or with sun- 
down J V.56 (anavasurar) metrically). 

Avasesa' [Sk. avasesa, fr. ava -|- SIS, cp. avasissati] remainder, 
remaining part; only in cpds. an" (adj.) without any re- 
mainder, i. e. fully, completely M 1.220 = A v.347 
(°dohin); A 1.20 sq., 88; Sn 146; Pug 17; Dhs 363, 
553; SnA 417 ("pharana); PvA 71 ("ato, adv. altogether, 
not leaving anything out); & savasesa leaving something 
over, having something left A 1.20 sq., 88; Pv III. 5' 
(jivita" having still a little life left). 

Avasesa^ (adj.) [see prec] remaining, left Sn 694 (ayu 
avaseso); J 111. 19; Vbh 107 (tanhS ca avasesa ca kilesa); 
PvA 19 (avasesa ca iiataka the rest of the relatives), 21 
(avasesa parisa), 201 (atthi-tacamatt' avasesa-sarira with a 
body on which nothing but skin & bones were left), 206 
(atthi-sanghatamatf avasesa-sarira). — nt. (as pred.) °I) 
what is left FvA 52 (app' avasesaq); KhA 245 (n' atthi 
tesaq avasesaq). 

Avasesaka (adj.) [fr. avasesa'^] being left, overflowing, ad- 
ditional, more J 1.400 (an°); Dpvs IV.45. 

Avassa (adj.) [a + va§] against one's will, inevitable J i. 
19 ("bhavin); V.319 ^°gamita). Usually as nt. °r) adv. 
inevitably (cp. BSk. avasyai) Divy 347 ; Av. S 1.209 ^tc.) 
J III. 271; DA 1.263; Sdhp 293. 

Avassakat) (adv.) [see avassa] inevitably Dpvs IX. 1 3. 

Avassajati & ossajati [ava + Sfj, perhaps ud + Sfj = 
Sk. utsrjati, although the usual Vedic form is avasrjati. 
The form ossajati puzzled the BSk. writers in their sans- 
kritisation apotsrjati = apa -f- ut + Sfj Divy 203] to let 
loose, let go, send off, give up, dismiss, release (ava) : 
J IV.425; V.487 (aor. avassaji read for avissaji). 

Avassana (nt.) [a + vassana, Sk. vasana of vSS to bleat] 
not bleating J iv.251. 

Avassaya [Sk. *avasraya for the usual apasraya, see P. 
apassaya'] support, help, protection, refuge J 1.2 n; 11. 
197; IV. 167; Miln 160; DhA 11.267; IV.198; PvA 5, 113. 

AvaSSava [ava -f- sava, Sk. "srava fr. sfU to flow] outflow, 
effect, only neg. anassava no further effect Vin 11.89; 
M 1.93; 11.246; A 111.334 sp. 

Avasseti [ava -f- S -[- Sri, for the usual 'apasrayati; see 
apasseti] to lean against, to depend on, find shelter in 
(loc.) J 11.80 (aor. avassayiq ^ vasaq kappesiq C). — 
pp. avassita. 

AvaSSavana (nt.) [fr. ava -|- Caus. of sru to flow] straining, 
filtering (?) J II.2S8. 

Avassita [for apassila, Sk. apasrita] depending on, dealing 
with J V.375. See apassita. 

AvaSSUta (adj.) [Sk. *avasruta, pp. of ava -)- sru, cp. avas- 
sava] I. (lit.) flowing out or down, oozing, leaking J IV. 
20. — 2. (fig.) (cp. anvassava & asava) filled with desire, 
lustful (opp. anaVassuta, q. v.) Vin 11.236; S iv.70, 184 
(an°); A 1.261, 262 (an°); 11.240; iv.128, 201; Sn 63 
(an"); Pug 27, 36; Dpvs 11.5 (T. reads avassita). — 
Neg. anavassuta: i. not leaking, without a leak J iv.20 
(nava :^ udaka-pavesan' abhavena a. C). — 2. free from 
leakage, i. e. from lust or moral intoxication Dh 39 (°citta) ; 
Sn 63 (see expH- in detail at Nd' 40); SnA 116 (= 

Avaha^a [pp. of avaharati] taken away, stolen Miln 46, 47. 

Avaharaija ( — °) [fr. avaharati in both meanings] taking 
away, removal; theft PvA 47 (sataka°), 92 (soka°). 

Avaharati & oharati [ava + hf] to steal j 1.384; PvA 

47 (avahari vatthaq), 86 (id., = apanudi). — pp. ava- 
hata (q. v.). 

Avatiasati [ava -f- has] to laugh at, deride, mock J V.1 1 1 
(afiiiamaiiiiai)); PvA 178. — aor. avahasi J IV. 41 3. 

Avahara [fr. avaharati] taking, acquiring, acquisition Vin 
v. 1 29 (paiica avahara, viz. theyya°, pasayha°, parikappa°, 
paticchanna", kusa°). 

Avahiyati [for ohiyati] to be left behind, to stay behind 
J V.340. 

Avagata [ava -|- a + gacchati] only in phrase dhamma 
avagat-amha, we are fallen from righteousness, J V.82. 
(C. explains apagata). 

Avakarotl [either ava -j- a -]- karoti or aval) -f- karoti, the 
latter more probable. It is not necessary to take it with 
Kern, Toev. s. v. as Sk. apakrnoti, apa -f- a + kf] I. to 
revoke, undo, rescind, not fulfill, spoil, destroy J 111.339 
(avakayira = avakareyya chindeyya C); v,495, 500; VI. 
280. — 2. to give back, restore J vi.577 (=: deti C). 

Avakirati wrong by Hardy VvA Index for avakirati (q. v.). 

Avatuka see apatuka. 

Avapurana (m.) [same as apapurana] a key S 11H32; A 
IV. 374-" 

AvapuratI [same as apapurati] to open (a door) J 1.63; VI.373. 

Avavata (adj.) [a -f- vavata] unobstructed, unhindered, free. 
Of a woman, not married J V.213 (=: apetavarana, which 
read for ''bharana, apariggahita C). 

Avikampamana (adj.) [a + vi + kampamana, ppr. med. 
of kamp] not hesitating, not wavering, not doubting 
J IV. 3 10 {:= anosakkamana C. ; Kern takes it at this passage 
as a + vikalpamana, see Tpev. s.v., but unnecessarily); 
VI. 176 (^ niiasanka C); J vi.273. 

Avikampin (adj.) [fr. a + vi -f kamp] unmoved, not shaking, 
steady Vv 5022 (— acala VvA 215). 

Avikopin (adj.) [a + vikopin; fr. vi + kup] not agitated, 
not moving, unshaken, undisturbed J vi.226 (acchejja +). 

Avikkhepa [a -f vikkhepa] calmness, balance, equanimity 
D iii.213; A 1.83; Psi.94; "-228; Dhs 11, 15, 570. 




Avicareti [a + vicareti] not to examine VvA 336. 

AvlCCat) at J V.434 read aviviccai) [a + viviccaij] i. e. not 
secretly, openly. 

AvIJanag [a + vijanaq] not knowing, ignorant Dh 38, 60; 
It 103. 

Avijja (f-) [Sl<. avidya; ft. a -f- vid] ignorance; the main 
root of evil and of continual rebirth (see paticca-samup- 
pada, cp. S 11.6,9, '^i Sn p. 141 & many other passages). 
See on term Cpd. 83 n. 3, 187 sq , 262 sq. & for further 
detail vijja. avijja is termed an anusaya (D 111.254,282; 
S 1V.205, 208 sq., 212); it is one of the asava (Vin 
111.4; D 1.84; 111.216; It 49; Dhs iioo, 1109), of the 
ogha (D III. 230, 276; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162), of the nlva- 
ranani (S 11.23; A 1.223; I' ^i Dhs 1162, i486), of the 
sarjyojanani (D 111.254; Dhs H31, 1460). See for various 
characterisatons the foil, passages: Vini.i; 111.3; D IU.212, 
230, 234, 274; M 1.54, 67, 144; S 11.4, 26, 263; 111.47, 
162: iv.256; V.52; A 1.8, 285; 11.132, 158, 247 ; 111.84 sq., 
414; IV. 228; It 34 (ya kac' ima duggatiyo asmii) loke 
paramhi ca avijjamiilaka sabb.^ iccha-lobha-sammussaya), 
57, 81; Sn 199, 277, 729 (jati-marana-sarjiiSrai) ye vajanti 
punapunaq . . . avijjay'eva sa gatl), 730, 1026, 1033 (avij- 
jaya nivuto loko); Dh 243; Nd* 99; Pug 21; Dhs 390, 
1061, 1162; DhA 111.350; IV.161 (°paligha). 

Av)nnai;iaka (aJj.) [a + viiiiiana -(- ka] senseless, without 
feeling or consciousness, unfeeling DhA 1.6 (saviiinanaka -|-). 

Avliinu (adj.) = aviddasu. 

Avltakka (adj.) [a + vitakka] free from thought D 111.219, 
274; Th 2, 75 ("where reasonings cease" trsl.); Dhs i6l 
("free from the working of conception" trsl.), 504 etc. 

Avldura (adj.) [a+vidura] not far, near; usually in loc. 
°e as adv. near Sn. 147. 

AvlddaSU (adj.) [a -\- viddasu] ignorant, foolish Sn 762 
(=bala Sn A 509); Dh 268 = Nd^ 514 (= avifinu DhA 
111.395); PvA 18 (so read for avindasu). 

Avinasaka (°ika) (adj.) [a + vinasa + ka] not causing 
destruction A ui.38 (°ika); J v. 116 (= anasaka C). 

Avinasana (adj.) [a -f- vinasana] imperishable Dpvs IV.16. 

AvlnlCChayannu (adj.) [a + vinicchaya + nu] not knowing 
how to decide J v.367. 

Avlnibbhujag (adj.) [ppr. of a + vinibbhujati] unable to 
distinguish or to know J v.121 (=: atirento C). 

Avlnibbhoga (ad.) [a -|- vinibbhoga] not to be distinguished, 
indistinct J III.428 ("sadda). 

Avlparinama [a + viparinama] absence of change, stead- 
fastness, endurance D1.18; 111.31,33 (°dhamma); DA 1.113 
(=:; jara-vasena viparinamassa abhavato). 

Avippatlsara [a + vippatisara] absence of regret or remorse 
A 111.46. 

Avlppavasa (adj.-n.) [a -\- vippavasa] ihoughtfulness, mind- 
fulness, attention; adj. not neglectful, mindful, attentive, 
eager Vin v.216; Sn 1142 (cp. Nd^ loi : anussatiyfi 
bhavento) ; DA 1.104 (appamado vuccati satiya avippavSso) ; 
Dh.\ IV.26 (appamada = satiya avippavasa). 

Aviruddha (adj.) [a + viruddha] not contrary, unobstructed, 
free, without difficulties Dh 406; Sn 365, 704, 854. 

Avlri)]hl (f.) [a + virulhi] absence or cesssation of growth 
Sn 235; DhA 1.245 (°dhamma). 

Avirodha [a -f virodha] absence of obstruction, gentleness 
M 11.105 =Th I, 875. 

Avirodhana (nt.) = avirodha J 111.320, 412; V.378. 

Avlvada [a -|- vivada] absence of contesting or disputing, 
agreement, harmony D IU.245 ; Sn 896 (°bhuma SnA 557 
or "bhumma Nd' 308, expW- as Nibbana). 

Avisaijvadaka (adj.) [a + visaqvada -f ka] not deceiving, 
not lying D 1.4; III. 170; Pug 57; DA I.73. 

Avlsagvadanata (f) [abstr. fr. a + visaqvada] honesty, 
faithfulness, uprightness D III. 190. 

Avisatjvadeti [a + visaij ■\- Caus. of vad] to keep one's 
word, to be honest, to be true J v. 124. 

Avisaggata (f.) [a + visaggata, v.l. viy'=, thus as a -f- viy- 
agga, Sk. vyagra =3 akula] state of being undisturbed, 
harmony, balance J vi.224 (C. avisaggata). Cp. avyagga. 

Avisare at J v. 117 according to Kern, Tom. s.v. corrupted 
from avisaye, i.e. towards a wrong or unworthy object 
[a + visaya, loc], C. differently: avisare = avisaritva atik- 
kamitvs; v.l. adhisare. 

Avisahata (adj.) [a -|- visahata] imperturbed Dhs 15, 24, 
287, 570. (°manasata). 

AviSSaji at J VI.79 is with Kern, Toev. s. v. better to be 
read avassajl (see avassajati). 

Avlssajjlya (adj.) [grd. of a + vissajjati] not to be given 
away, inalienable (cp. avebhangiya) Vin 1.305 ("ika for 
°iya); 11.170 (five such objects in detail); v.216 (+ avebh°); 
J VI.568. 

AviSSasanlya (adj.) [a + visasana -f^ iya, ika] not to be 
trusted, untrustworthy J 111.474. 

Aviha [of uncertain etym.] the world of the Aviha's, i.e. 
the 1 2th of the 16 Brahma-words, cd. Kindred Sayings 
48 n. 3; cpd. 139. — S 1.35, 60; A 1.279; Tug I7- 

Avlhiqsa (Avlhesa) (f) [a + vihiijsS] absence of cruelty, 
mercy, humanity, friendliness, love D 111.213, 215, 240 
(avihesa); Sn 292 (= sakarunabhava SnA 318); It 82 

Avihefhaka (adj.) [a 4- vihethaka] not harassing, not hurting 
D 111.166 (but cp. SnA 318 avihesaka In same context); 
Miln 219. 

Avf in general see vl°. 

Avici [B.Sk. avici a -f- vici (?) no intermission, or no plea- 
sure (?), unknown, but very likely popular etym.] I.avlci- 
niraya, one of the (great) hells (see niraya), described 
in vivid colours at many passages of the Pali canon, e.g. 
at Vin 11.203 = It 86; Nd' 18, 347, 405 = Nd^ 304 
1110; Fs 1.83; Dhs 1281; J 1.71, 96; 111.182; IV.159; DhA 
1.148; PvA 52; SnA 290; Sdhp 37, 194; Pgdp 5 sq.; 
etc etc. — 2. disintegration, decay Vism 449 (a. jara nSma). 

Avekalla (° — ) adj.) [a -f vekalla] without deficiency, in 
°buddhi complete knowledge J vi.297. 

AvekkhaU [B.Sk. avlksate. The regular Pali form however 
is apekkhati, to which the BSk. av" corresponds], to look 
at, to consider, to see It 33 (v.l. ap°); Dh 28, 50, J IV.6; 
DhA 1.259 (= passati). 

Avekktllpati [avaq + khipati, avar) here in form ave cor- 
resp. to avah, cp. pure for purah etc.] to jump, hop, 
lit. to throw (a foot) down J iv.251 (= pacchimapSde 
khipati C). 

Avecca (adv.) [Uusually taken as ava -f ger. of i (*itya), 
cp. adhicca & abhisamecca, but by P. grammarians as a + 
vecca. The form is not sufficiently cleared semantically ; 
B.Sk. avetya, e.g. Ilm. 210, is a Sanskritisation of the 
P. form] certainly, definitely, absolutely, perfectly, expld. 




by Bdhgh. as acala (on D 11.217), or as pannaya ajjho- 
gahetva (on Sn 229); by Dhp. as apara-paccaya-bhavena 
(on Pv IV. I"). — Usually in phrase Buddhe Dbamme 
Sanghe avecca-pasado perfect faith in the B., the Dhamma 
& the Sangha, e.g. at M 1.45; S 11.69; iv.271 sq., 304; 
V.344, 405; A 1.222; 11.56; III. 212, 332, 451; 1V.406; 
V.183; further at Ps 1.161 ("pasanna); Sn 229 (yo ariya- 
saccani avecca passati); Pv IV. i'*. 

Avedha (adj.) [a + vdha, grd. of vidh (vyadh) to pierce, 
Sk. avedhya] not to be hurt or disturbed, inviolable, 
unshakable, imperturbable Sn 322 ("dhamma = akampana- 
sabhava SnA 331). 

Avebhangika (adj.) [fr. a + vi -|- bhanga] not to be divided 
or distributed Vin 1.305. Cp. next. 

Avebhanglya (nt.) [= avebhangika] that which is not to 
be divided, an inalienable possession; 5 such objects 
enumd- at Vin II. 171, which are the same as under avis- 
sajjiya (q. v.); v. 129. 

Avera (adj.) [a -j- vera] peaceable, mild, friendly Sn 150 
(^ veravirahita KhA 248); Sdhp 338. — °g (nt.) friend- 
liness, kindness D 1.247 (°citta); Dh 5 (^ khantimetta 
DhA 151). 

Averin (adj. — n.) = avera Dh 197, 258. 

Avosita [reading uncertain, cp. avyosita] only in neg. an° 
unfultiUed, undone Th i, loi. 

Avyagga (ad) [a + vyagga, Sc. vyagra] not bewildered, not 
confused S v.66. Cp. avisaggata. 

Avyattata (f.) [abstr. fr. avyatta] state or condition of not 
being manifest or visible, concealment, hiding DhA 11.38. 

Avyatha (adj.) [a + vyatha, cp. Sk. vyatha misfortune] not 
miserable, fortunate J 111.466 (= akilamana C). 

Avyaya [a -f- vyaya] absence of loss or change, safety 
D 1.72 (instr. °ena safely); Miln 393 (as abbaya T.). 

Avyapajjha' (abyabajjha) (nt.) [a -|- vyapajjha or bajjha, a 
confusion between the roots bSdh or pad] (act.) kindness 
of heart; (pass.) freedom from suffering (Ep. of Nibbana) 
Vin 1. 183 (avyapajjh^adhimut)a); It 31 (abyabojjh'arama). 

Avyapajjha^ (abyabajjha) adj.) [either a + *vyapadya or 
more likely a -(- *vyabadhya] free from oppression or injury; 
not hurting, kind D 11.242 (avera +), 276; M 1.90; It 
16^52 (sukhai)); Miln 410 (avera-)-). 

Avyapanna (adj.) [a -f- vyapanna] free from desire to injure, 
free from malice, friendly, benevolent D ni. 82,83 ("citta); 
A 11.220 (id.); Pug 68 (id.). — Same in B.Sk. e.g. Divy 
105, 302. 

Avyapada [a -)- vyapada] absence of desire to injure, free- 
dom from malice D 111.215, 229, 240; It 82 (all MSS. 
have aby°); Dhs 33, 36, 277, 313, 1056. 

Avyayata (adj.) [a -)- vyayata of yam] at random, without 
discrimination, careless J 1.496 (=: avyatta C). 

Avyaylka (adj.) [fr. avyaya] not liable to loss or change, 
imperishable J v. 508 (= avigacchanaka C). 

Avyavata (adj.) [a -|- vySvata = Sk vyaprta] not occupied, 
i.e. careless, neglectful, not worrying Vin III. 136; Nd^ 72 
(abyavata for appossukka Sn 43); J 111.65; vi.188. Miln 
177 (abya"). 

Avyaseka (adj.) [a -}- vy 4- aseka] untouched, unimpaired 
I) 1. 1 82 Csukha = kilesa vyaseka-virahitatta avyaseka 
DA 1.183); Pug 59- 

Avyaharatl [a -[- vy -|- aharati] not to bring or procure J v. 80. 

Avyosita (adj.) [a -)- vyosita, Sk. vyavasita] not having 
reached perfection, imperfect Th 1, 784 (aby°). 

Avhaya [fr. avhayati; cp. Sk. Shvaya "betting"] calling, 
name; adj. ( — °) called, having the name of Sn 684 (isi°), 
686 (Asit"^), 689 (kanhasiri^), 1133 (Sacc°, cp. Nd^ 624). 

Avhayati & Avheti [Sk. ahvayati, a 4- hu or hva] — i. 

to call upon, invoke, appeal to D 1.244 (avhayama imper.); 
PvA 164. — 2. to call, call up, summon M I.i7;jil.l0, 
252 (=: pakkosati); v.220 (avhayesi); vi.iS, 192, 273 
(avhettha pret.); Vv 33' (avheti). — 3. to give a name, 
to call, to address SnA 487 (= amanteti alapati). — pp. 
avbata (q. v.). 

Avhata [pp. of avhayati] called, summoned J 111.165=; 
(an° = anahuta ayactia) := Pv 1.12^, cp. PvA 64. The id. 
p. at Th 2, 129 reads ayacita. 

Avhana (nt.) [fr. avhayati, Sk. ahvana in diff. meaning] — 
I. begging, calling, asking Sn 710; Vism 68 ("anabhi- 
nandana). — 2. addressing, naming SnA 605 (= nama). 

Avhayana (nt ) [cp. Sk. ahvayana] calling to, asking, in- 
vocation, imploration D 1. 11 (Sir-avhayane, v. 1. avhayana; 
expld. at DA 1.97 with reading Sirivhayana as "ehi Siri 
mayhaq sire patitthahi ti evai) sire Siriya avhayanaq"), 
244, 245 (v. 1. avhana). 

Avhayika (adj.) [fr. avhaya] calling, giving a name; (m.) 
one who gives a name J 1.401 ::= III. 234. 

Asa (adj.) [for asaq = asanto, a -j- santo, ppr. ol aS in 
meaning "good"] bad J iv'.435 = vi.235 (sataij va asaq, 
ace. sg. with v. 1. santaq . . ., expH- by sappurisaij va 
asappurisaij va C); V.448 (n. pi. f. asa expl^. by asaliyo 
lamika C; cp. p. 446 V.319). 

Asagvata (adj.) [pp. of 4- saijvunati, cp. saijvuta] unres- 
tricted, open J VI. 306. 

Asagvara [a -\- saqvara] absence of closing or restraint, no 
control Dhs 1345. 

Asagvasa (adj.) [a -|- saqvasa] deprived of co-residence, 
expelled from the community Vin iv.213, 214. 

Asagvindat) [ppr. a -f saqvindati] not finding, not knowing 
Th I, 717. 

Asagvuta (adj.) [pp. of a -j- sagvunati, cp. saqvata] not 
restrained Dhs 1345, 1347. 

Asagsattha (adj.) [a -f saijsattha] not mixed or mixing, 
not associating, not given to society M I.al4; S 1.63; Sn 
628 = Dh 404 (= dassana-savana-samullapa paribhoga- 
kaya-saqsagganai) abhavena SnA 46r = DhA iv.173). 

Asagharima (adj.) = asaijhariya (?) Vin iv.272. 

Asaghariya (adj.) [grd. of a -j- sagharati] not to be destroyed 
or shattered It 77; Th I, 372; Nd'^ no. 

Asaghira (adj.) [= asaqhariya of saq -|- hf] immovable, 
unconquerable, irrefutable Vin 11.96; S 1. 193; A iv.141 ; 
V.71; Sn 1149 (as Ep. of Nibbana, cp. Nd'^ no); J I. 
62; IV. 283 (°cilta unfaltering); Dpvs IV. 12. 

Asakka (adj.) [a -j- sakka; Sk. asakya] impossible J v. 
362 (°rupa). 

Asakkuneyya (adj.) [grd. of a -j- sakkoti] impossible, un- 
able to J 1.55; KhA 185 and passim. 

Asakkhara (adj.) [a -|- sakkhara] not stony, free from gravel 
or stones, smooth J V.168; DhA III.401 (opp. sasakkhara). 

Asakyadhita (f.) [a -f- sakyadhltS] not a true Buddhist nun 
Vin IV. 214. 




AsaggUOa [" + sagguna] bad quality, vice Sdhp 382 (°bh5- 
vin, the a" belongs to the whole cpd.). 

Asankita & "iya (adj.) [a + sankita, pp. of iank] not 
hesilating, not afraid, not anxious, firm, bold J I.334 ("iya); 
V.Z41; Sdhp 435, 541. 

Asankuppa (adj.) [a"+ sankuppa, grd. of kup] not to be 

shaken; immovable, steady, safe (Ep. of Nibbana) Sn II49 
(cp. Ndi 106); Th 1, 649. 

AsankUSaka (adj.) [a -f- sankusaka, which is distorted from 
Sk. sankasuka splitting, crumbling, see Kern, Toev. p. 18] 
not contrary J vi.297 (°vattin, C. appatilomavattin, cp. J 
trsl". VI. 143). 

Asankheyya (adj.) [a -f- sankheyya, grd. of saij-khya] in- 
calculable, innumerable, nt. an immense period A 11.142; 
Miln 232 (cattari a.), 289 DhA 1.5, 83, 104. 

Asanga (adj.) [a -j- sanga] not sticking to anything, free 
from attachment, unattached Th 2, 396 (^manasa, := ana- 
sattacitta ThA 259); Miln 343. Cp. next. 

Asangita (adj.) [fr. asanga, a + sangita, or should we read 
asangika?] not sticking or stuck, unimpeded, free, quick 
J V.409. 

Asacca (adj.) [a -f sacca] not true, false J v. 399. 

Asajjamana (adj.) [ppr. med. of a -f sajjali, safij] not 
clinging, not stuck, unattached Sn 38, 71 (cp. Nd^ 107); 
Dh 221 (namarupasmiq a. = alaggamana DhA ui.298). 

Asajjittho 2"^ sg. pret. med. of sajjati to stick or cling 
to, to hesitate J 1.376. See sajjati. 

Asajjhaya [a + sajjhaya] non-repetition Dh 241 (cp. DhA 

Asanna (adj.) [a + sanSa] .unconscious, "satta unconscious 
beings N. of a class of Devas D 1.28 (cp. DA 1.118 and 
BSk. asaqjnika-sattvah Divy 505). 

Asaniiata (adj.) [a -f saiinata, pp. of saq -f yam] unres- 
trained, intemperate, lacking self-control It 43 ^ 90 = 
Sn 662 = Dh 307. 

Asaniiln (adj.) [a-j-sannin] unconscious D 1.54 ("gabbha, 
cp. DA 1.163);, 140, 263; It 87; Sn 874. 

Asatha (adj.) [a -t- satha] without guile, not fraudulent, 
honest D 111.47, 55, 237; DhA 1.69. 

AsaQthita (adj.) [a \- santhita] not composed, unsettled, 
fickle It 62, 94. 

Asat (Asanto) [a -f sat, ppr. of asti] not being, not being 
good, i.e. bad, not genuine (cp. asa); freq., e.g. Sn 94, 
131, 881, 950; Dh 73, 77, 367; It 69 (asamo nirayao 
nenii). See also asaddhamma. 

•Asati (& Asanati q. v.) [Sk. asnSti, ai to panake of, to 
eat or drink cp. aqsa share, part] to eat; imper. asnatu 
I V376; fut. asissami Th i, 223; Sn 970. — ppr. med. 
asatnana J v.59; Sn 239. ger. asitva Miln 167; & asit- 
vana J iv.371 (an°). pp. asita (q.v.). See also the spurious 
forms asmiye & aiibati (anhamana Sn 240), also Sslta'. 

Asatlyi (adv.) [instr. of a -|- sati] heedlessly, unintentionally 
J 111.486. 

Asatta (adj.) [pp. of a -(- sajjati] not clinging or attached, 
free from attachment Sn 1059; Dh 419; Nd' 107, 108; 
DhA IV.228. 

Asattha Cn. adj.) [a + sattha] absence of a sword or knife, 
without a knife, usually combd- with adai^da in var. phrases : 
see under danda. Also at Th i, 757 (-j- avapa). 

Asadlsa (adj.) [a -|- sadisa] incomparable, not having its 
like DhA 11.89; 111.120 ("dana). 

Asaddha (adj.) [a + saddha] not believing, without faith 
D III. 252, 282. 

Asaddhamma [a -|- sat -|- dhamma, cp. asat & BSk. asad- 
dharma] evil condition, sin, esp. sexual intercourse; usually 
mentioned as a set of several sins, viz. as 3 at It 85; as 4 
at A 11.47; as 7 at D IU.252, 282; as 8 at Vin 11.202. 

Asana' (nt.) [Vedic asan(m)] stone, rock J 11.91 ; V.i3i. 

Asana- (nt.) [cp. Sk. asana of ai, cp. asati] eating, food; 
adj. eating J I.472 (ghatasana Ep. of the fire; v.64 (id.). 
Usually in neg. form anasana fasting, famine, hunger Sn 
311 (= khuda SnA 324); DA 1.139. See also nirasana. 

Asana^ (nt.) [Sk. asana] the tree Pentaptera Tomentosa J 
1.40 (as Bodhi-tree of Gotama); 11.91 ; v.420; VI. 530. 

Asana* (nt.) [cp. Sk. asana, to asyati to hurl, throw] an 
arrow M 1.82 = S 1.62. Cp. asani. 

Asanati [see asati] to eat, to consume (food) J 1.472; v. 
64; VI.14 (Fsb. note; read asnSti; C. paribhunjali). 

Asani (f.) [Vedic asani in same meaning ; with Sk. asri 
corner, caturasra four cornered (see assa), to Lat. acer 
pointed, sharp, Gr. axpo; pointed, Ags. egl sting, Ohg. 
ekka corner, point. Connected with this is Sk. asan (see 
asana'). Cp. olso aqsa & asama-] orig. a sharp stone as 
hurling-weapon thence in mylhol. Indra's thunderbolt, 
thunder-clap, lightning J 1.71, 167; 11.154; III.323; Miln 
277; VvA 83. 

-aggi the fire of thunder, i. e. lightning or fire caused 
by lightning DhA 111.71. -pata the falling of the thunder- 
bolt, thunderclap, lightning DA 1.280 (or should we read 
asannipatar); PvA 45. -vicakka same as °pata(?) S 11. 
229 (= labha-sakkara-silokassa adhivacana); D 111.44, 47. 

Asantasag & "antO (adj.) [ppr. of a + santasati] fearless, 
not afraid Sn 71, 74; j IV.IOI ; VI. 306; Nd^ 109. 

Asantasin (adj.) [a -|- santasin, cp. asantasaq] fearless, not 
trembling, not afraid Sn 850; Dh 351 ; Nd^ 109; DhA iv.70. 

Asantuttha [pp. of a -)- santussati] not contented with, 
greedy, insatiate, unhappy Sn 108. Cp. next. 

Asantutthita (f) [abstr. fr. asantutthita = asantuttha] dis- 
satisfaction, discontentment D in. 2 14 (so read for tutth") 
= A 1.95. 

Asanthava [a -|- santhava] dissociation, separation from 
society, seclusion Sn 207. 

Asandhlta (f.) [a + sandhi -f- la] absence of joints, discon- 
nected state J VI. 16. 

Asannata (adj.) [a -\- sannata] not bent or bending Sdhp 417. 

Asapatta (adj.-n.) [a -f- sapalta = Sk. sapatna] (act.) with- 
out enmity, friendly (med.) having no enemy or foe, secure, 
peaceful D 11.276; Sn 150 (= vigata-paccatlhika, metta- 
viharin KhA 249); Th 2, 512. 

Asapatti (f.) [a -|- sapatti] without co-wife or rival in mar- 
riage S IV.249. 

Asappurisa [a -4- sappurisa, cp. asat] a low, bad or un- 
worthy man M 111.37 ; SnA 479 (= anariya Sn 664). 

Asabala (adj.) [a -f- sabala] unspotted D 11.80 = in. 245. 

Asabbha (adj.) [a -f sabbha, i. e. *sabhya cp. sabha & in 
meaning court: courteous, hof: hoflich etc.] not belonging 
to the assembly-room, not consistent with good manners. 




impolite, vile, low, of base character J m.527 (matu- 
gama); Dh 77= J 111.367= Th I, 994; Miln 221; UhA 
1.256; ThA 246 (akkhi). Cp. next. — Note. Both sabbha 
and sabbhin occur only in the negative form. 

Asabbhin = asabbha J 1.494, more freq. in cpds. as 
asabbhi°, e. g. 

-karana a low or sinful act Miln 280. -rupa low, 
common J VI. 386 (= asadhu-jatika, lamaka), 387 (= asab- 
bhijatika), 414 (== apandita-jatika). Cp. prec. 

'Asabha [Sk. rsabha] see usabha. 

Asama' (adj.) [a -|- sama] unequal, incomparable J 1.40 (+ 
appatipuggala); Sdhp 578 (+ atula). Esp. freq. in cpd. 
°dhura lit. carrying more than an equal burden, of in- 
comparable strength, very steadfast or resolute Sn 694 
(= asama-viriya SnA 489); J I.193; vi.259, 330. 

Asama'^ (nt.) [the diaeretic form of Sk. asman hurling stone, 
of which the contracted form is amha (q. v.); connected 
with Lat. ocris "mons confragosus" ; Gr. ax/iuv anvil; 
Lith. akmu stone, see also asana' (Sk. asan stone for 
throwing) and asani] stone, rock DA 1.270, 271 (°mutt- 
hika having a hammer of stone; v. 1. BB. ayamutthika); 
SnA 392 (instr. asmana). 

Asamaggiya (nt.) [abstr. fr. a -f- samagga] lack of concord, 
disharmony J vr.516 (so read for asamaggiya). 

Asamana at Pug 27 is to be read assamana (q.v.). 

Asamapekkhana (nt.) & °a (f.) [fr. a + sam + apekkhati] 
lack of consideration S HI.261 ; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162. ' 

Asamahita (adj.) [a -f- samahila] not composed, uncontrolled, 
not 6rm It 113 (opp. susamahita); Dh no, in; Pug 35. 

Asatnijjhanaka (adj.) [a + samijjhana + ka] unsuccessful, 
without result, fruitless; f. °ika J 111.252. 

Asamlddhi (f.) [a + samiddhi] misfortune, lack of success 
J VI. 5 84. 

AsaniOSarai]ia (nt.) [a -I- samosarana] not coming together, 
not meeting, separation J v. 233. 

Asampakampiya (adj.) [grd. of a 4- sampakampeti] not to 
be shaken, not to be moved Sn 229 (= kampetuq va 
caletur) va asakkuneyyo KhA 185). 

Asampajanna (nt.) [a 4- sampajaiiiSa] lack of intelligence 
D III. 213; Dhs 390, 1061, 1162, 1351. 

AsampayantO [ppr. of a -|- sampSyati] unable to solve or 
explain Sn p. 92. 

Asatnbadha (adj.) [a -|- sambSdhaj unobstructed Sn 150 
(= sambadha-virahita KhA 248); J 1.80; ThA 293. 

Asammodlya (nt.) [a -f- sammodiya] disagreement, dissension 
J V1.517 (= asamaggiya C). 

Asammosa [a -|~ sammosa cp. B.Sk. asammosadharman Ep. 
of the Buddha; Divy 49 etc] absence of confusion D in. 221 
= Dhs 1366. 

Asayagvasin (adj.) [a -|- sayaq -|- vasiq] not under one's 
own control, i. e. dependent D 11.262 ; J 1.337. 

Asayha (adj.) [a + sayha, grd. of sah = Sk. asahya] im- 
possible, insuperable J vi.337. Usually in cpd. °sahin 
conquering the unconquerable, doing the impossible, ac- 
chieving what has not been achieved before Th i, 536, 
Pv 11.9" (Angirasa): It 32. 

Asahana (nt.-adj.) [a -|- sahana] not enduring, non-endurance, 
inability J 111.20; PvA 17. 

Asahaya (adj.) [a -f- sahaya] one who is without friends; 
who is dependent on himself Miln 225. 

Asa see asa. 

Asata (adj.) [a -|- sata, Sk. asata, Kern's interpretation & 
etymology of asata at Toev. s.v. p. 90 is improbable] 
disagreeable Vin 1.78 (asata vedana, cp. asata vedana 
M Vastu I 5); Sn 867; J 1.288, 410; II. 105; Dhs 152, 1343. 

Asadharai[ia (adj.) [a -]- sadharana cp. asadharana Divy 561] 
not general, not shared, uncommon, unique Vin in. 35 ; 
Kh VIII. 9; J 1.58, 78; Miln 285; DA 1.7 1 ; Sdhp 589, 592. 

Asamapaka (adj.) [a -)- sama + paka] one who does not 
cook (a meal) for himself (a practice of ascetics) DA 1.270. 

Asara (n. adj.) [a-f-sira] that which is not substance, 
worthlessness ; adj. worthless, vain, idle Sn 937 (= asara 
nissara sarapagata Nd' 409); Dh n, I2 (cp. DhA 1. 114 
for interpretation). 

Asaraka (adj.) [a -j- saraka] unessential, worthless, sapless, 
rotten Th I, 260; J 11.163 = DhA '•'44. 

Asaraddha (adj.) [a -j- saraddha] not excited, cool A 1.148 = 
It 119 (passaddho kayo a.; v. 1. assaraddha). 

Asahasa (nt.) [a -|- sahasa] absence of violence, meekness, 
peaceableness D ill. 147 (asahase rata fond of peace) ; ace. 
as adv. asahasaij without violence, not arbitrarily J III. 319; 
instr. asahasena id. J vi.280; Dh 257 (:= amusavadena 
DhA 111.382). 

As! [Vedic asi, Av. aqhu Lat. ensis] a sword, a large knife 
D 1.77 (=DA 1.222); M 11.99; ^ l.48 = (asina sisaq 
chindante); IV. 97 (asina hanti attanag); J IV. 118 (asi 
sunisito), 184; v.45 (here meaning "sickle"), 475 (asiii 
ca me maiinasi, probably faulty for either "asiii ca me" 
or "asificam me"); Vism 201 (iianasi the sword of know- 
ledge); PvA 253 (asina pahata). 

-camma sword & shield Vin 11. 192; A 111.93 ; J vi.449. 
-tharu the hilt of a sword DhA iv.66. -nakha having 
nails like swords Pgdp 29. -patta having sword-like leaves, 
wiih swords (knives) for leaves (of the sword-leaf-wood in 
Niraya, a late feature in the descriptions of Purgatory 
in Indian speculative Theology, see e. g. Mark-andeya- 
purana XII. 24 sq. ; Mhbhatata XII.321 ; Manu iv.90; XII. 
75; Scherman, Vistonslileraiur pp. 23 sq.) J VI. 250 
(°niraya); PvA 221 (°vana); Sdhp 194. -pasa having 
swords for snares (a class of deities) Miln 191. -mala 
"sword-dirt", i.e. rust on a sword, a rusty sword or kuife, 
in °i) karoti or kareti "to do the rusty sword trick", a 
kind of torture J III. 178 (+ slsaq chindapeti); Davs 111.35. 
-lakkhana "sword-sign", i. e. (fortune-telling from) marks 
on a sword D 1.9 ; J 1455. -loma having swords for hair 
S 11.257, cp. Vin III. 106. -suna slaughter-house (so also 
B.Sk. asisQna Divy lo, 15; see further detail under 
"kama"similes) Vin 11.26; M 1.130, 143; A 11197. -sul'a 
a sword-blade Th 2, 488 (expld. at ThA 287 by adhi- 
kuttanatlhena, i. e. with reference to the executioner's block, 
cp. also sattisula). 

Asika (adj.) ( — °) [asi + ka] having a sword, with a sword 
in phrase ukkhitt'asika with drawn sword, M 1.377; J 1.393. 

Asita' [Sk. asita, pp. of *asati, Sk. asnati] having eaten, 
eating; (nt.) that which is eaten or enjoyed, food M 1.57; 
A 111.30, 32 ("pita-khayita etc.); PvA 25 (id.); J vi.555 
°(asana having enjoyed one's food, satisfied). Cp. asita'. 

Asita'^ (*dj.) [a -\- sita pp. of *5rl, Sk. asrita] not clinging 
to, unattached, independent, free (from wrong desires) 
D 11.261 (°atiga); M 1.386; Th I, 38, 1242 (see Mrs 
Rh. D. in Brethren 404 note 2); J 11.247; It 97; Sn 
251, 519, 593, 686 (Asilavhaya, called the Asita i.e. the 
Unattached; cp. SnA 487), 698 (id.), 717, 957, 1065 
(cp. Nd2 III & nissaya). 




Aslta' (adj.) [Sk. asita; Idg. *as, cp. Lat. areo to be dry, 
i.e. burnt up; Gr. U^u to dry; orig. meaning burnt, hence 
of burnt, i. e. black colour (of ashes)] black-blue, black 
M II. 180 ("vyabhangi); A in. 5 (id.); Th 2, 480 (= in- 
danila ThA 286); J 111.419 ("apangin black-eyed); v. 302; 
Davs 1.45. 

Astti (num.) [Sk. asiti] 80 (on symbolical meaning & freq. 
application see attha' B I c, where also most of the rePs. 
In addition we mention the foil.:) J 1.233 ("hallha 80 
hands, i.e. 80 cubits deep); 111174 ("sahassa-varaija-pari- 
vuta); VI. 20 (vassasahassSni); Miln 23 (asitiya bhikkhu- 
sahassehi saddhiq); Vism 46 (satakotiyo) DhA 1. 1 4, 19 
(mahathers); 11.25 (°koti-vibhava). Cp. asitika. 

Asa (pron.) [Sk. asau (m.), adas (nt.); base amu° in oblique 
cases & derivation, e.g. adv. amutra(q.v.)] pron. demonstr. 
'that", that one, usually combrf with yo (yaq), e.g. asu 
yo so puriso M 1.366; yaij adui) khettaq S 1V.315. — 
nom. sg. m. asu S iv.195; Miln 242; f. asu J v.396 
(asu metri causa): nt. adug M 1.364, 483; A 1.250. Of 
oblique cases e. g. amuna (inslr.) A 1.250. Cp. also next. 

Asilka (pron.-adj.) [asn -j- ka] such a one, this or that, a 
certain Vin IU.87; J 1. 148; PvA 29, 30, 35, 109, 122 
(°i) gatio gata). 

ASUCl (adj.) [a -|- suci] not clean, impure, unclean Sn 75 
("manussa, see N'd^ 112); Pug 27, 36; Sdhp 378, 603. 

AsUClka (nt.) [abstr. fr. asuci] impurity, unclean living, 
defilemeDt Sn 243 ("missita = asuci bhava-missita SnA 286. 

Asubha (adj.) [a + subha] impure, unpleasant, bad, ugly, 
nasty ; nt. °r) nastiness, impurity. Cp. on term and the 
Asubha-meditalion, as well as on the 10 asubhas or offen- 
sive objects D/is. trsl. 70 and CpJ. 121 n. 6. — Siv.iii 
(asubhato manasikaroli); v. 320; Sn 341 ; Sdhp 368. -sub- 
hasubba pleasant unpleasant, good & bad Sn 633; J in. 
243; Miln 136. 

-anupassin realising or intuitising the corruptness (of 
the body) It 80, 81; DhA 1.76. -katha talk about im- 
purity Vin 111.68. -kammatthana reflection on impurity 
DhA in. 425. -nimitta sign of the unclean i. e. idea of 
impurity Vism 77. -bhavana contemplation of the impu- 
rity (of the body) Vin 111.68. -sanna idea of impurity 
D in. 253, 283, 289, 291. -safinin having an idea of or 
realising the impurity (of the body) It 93. 

Asura [Vedic asura in more comprehensive meaning; con- 
nected with Av. ahuro Lord, ahuro mazda"; perhaps to 
Av. anhus & Lat. erus master] a fallen angel, a Titan ; 
pi. asura the Titans, a class of mythological beings. Dhpala 
at PvA 272 & the C. on J v. 186 define them as kala- 
kanjaka-bheda asura. The are classed with other similar 
inferior deities, e. g. with garula, naga, yakkha at Miln 
117; with supanna, gandhabba, yakkha at DA 1. 5 1. — 
The fight between Gods & Titans is also reflected in the 
oldest books of the Pali Canon and occurs in identical 
description at the foil, passages under the tittle of deva- 
sura-sangama : D 11.285; S 1.222 (cp. 216 sq.), iv.201 
sq., V.447; M 1.253; A IV.432. — Rebirth as an Asura 
is considered as one of the four umhappy rebirths or evil 
fates after death (apaya; viz. niraya, tiracchana-yoni, peti 
or pettivisaya, asura), e.g. at It 93; J v. 186; Pv IVMI', 
see also apaya. — Other passages in general: S 1,216 sq. 
(fight of Devas & Asuras); iv.203; A 11.91 ; iv.198 sq., 
206; Sn 681; Ndi 89, 92, 448; DhA 1.264 ("kaiifia); 
Sdhp 366, 436. 

-Inda Chief or king of the Titans. Several Asuras are 
accredited with the role of leaders, most commonly Vepa- 
cilti (S 1.222; IV.201 sq.) and kahu (A 1117, 53; 111.243). 
Besides these we find Paharada (gloss Mahabhadda) at 
A IV.197. -kaya the body or assembly of the asuras A 1.143; 
J V.186; Th.\ 285. -parivara a retinue of Asuras A 11. 91. 
-rakkhasa Asuras and Rakkhasas (Raksasas) Sn 310 
(defined by Bdhgh at SnA 323 as pabbata-p5da-nivasino 

Asuropa [probably a haplological contraction of asura-ropa. 
On various suggestions as to etym. & meaning see Morris's 
discussion at J P T S. 1893, 8 sq. The word is found as 
asulopa in the Asoka inscriptions] anger, malice, hatred ; 
abruptness, want of forbearance Pug i8 = Vbh 357; Dhs 
418, io6o, 1115, 1341 (an°); DhsA 396. 

Asussusag [ppr. of a -|- sususati, Desid. of 4ru, cp. Sk. 
susrusati] not wishing to hear or listen, disobedient J v.121. 

Asuyaka see anasuyaka. 

Asura (adj.) [a + sura'] — I. not brave, not valiant, co- 
wardly Sn 439. — 2. uncouth, stupid J vi.292 (cp. Kern. 
Tciv. p. 48). 

Asekha (& Asekkha) (adj. n.) [a + sekha] not requiring 
to be trained, adept, perfect, m. one who is no longer a 
learner, an expert; very often meaning an Arahant (cp. 
B.Sk. asaiksa occurring only in phrase saiksasaiksah those 
in training & the adepts, e.g. Divy 261, 337; Av.S 1.269, 
335; n.144) Vin 1.62 sq.; III. 24; S 1.99; D III. 218, 219; 
It 51 (asekho sllakkhandho ; v. 1. asekkha); Pug 14 
(:= arahant); Dhs 584, 1017, 1401; Kvu 303 sq. 

-muni the perfectly Wise DhA in. 321. -bala the power 
of an Arahant, euumd. in a set of 10 at Ps 11.173, <=P- '76. 

Asecanaka (adj.) [a + secana -f ka, fr. siC to sprinkle, cp. 
B.Sk. asecanaka-darsana in same meaning e g. Divy 23, 
226, 334] unmixed, un adulterated, i. e. with full and 
unimpaired properties, delicious, sublime, lovely M 1. 114; 
S 1.2 13 (a. ojava "that elixir that no infusion needs" 
Mrs Rh. D.) = Th 2, 55 (expH- as anasittakaij pakatiya 
\a mahaiasaq at ThA 6l) = Th 2, 196 (= anasittakat) 
ojavantaq sabhava-madhurai) ThA 168); S v. 321; A III. 
237 sq. Miln 405. 

Asevana (f.) [a 4- sevana] not practising, abstinence from 
Sn 259 (=: abhajana apayirupasana KhA 124). 

Asesa (adj.) [a -f- sesa] not leaving a remnant, without a 
remainder, all, entire, complete Sn 2 sq., 351, 355, 500, 
1037 (=: sabba Nd'^ 113). As ° — (adv.) entirely, fully, 
completely Sn p. 141 (°viraga-nirodha); Miln 212 )''v.'»cana 
inclusive statement). 

Aseslta (adj.) [pp. of a -f- Caus. of 61?, see seseti & sissati] 
leaving nothing over, having nothing left, entire, whole, 
all J 111.153. 

Asoka' (adj.) [a -f soka, cp. Sk. asoka] free from sorrow 
Sn 268 (= nissoka abbulha-soka-salla KhA 153); Dh4l2; 
Th 2, 512. 

Asoka' [Sk. asoka] the Asoka tree, Jonesia Asoka J v. 1 88; 
Vv 35«, 35' (°rukkha); Vism 625 (°ankura); VvA 173 

ASOQiJa (adj.) [a -)- sondia] not being a drunkard, abstaining 
from drink J V.116. — f. aso^di A 111.38. 

Asotata (nt.) [abstr. a -f sola -(- ta, having no ears, being 
earless J VI. 16. 

Asnatl [Sk. asnati to eat, to take food; the regular Pali 
forms are asati (as base) and asanSti] to eat; imper. 
asnatu J v. 376. 

Asman (nt.) [Vedic asraan; the usual P. forms areamhaand 
asama'] stone, rock; only in inslr. asmanS SnA 362. 

Asniasati [spurious form for the usual assasati = Sk. asva- 
sati] to trust, to rely on J v.56 (Pot. asmase). 

Asm! (1 am) see atthi. 

Asmimana [asmi -f- mSna] the pride that says "I am", 
pride of self, egotism (same in B.Sk. e.g. Divy 210, 314) 
Vin 1.3; D 111.273; M "'39, 425; A m.85; Ps 1.26; 
Kvu 212; DhA 1.237. Cp. ahaq asmi. 




Asmiye i sg. ind. pres. med. of a£ to eat, in sense of a 
fut. "I shall eat" J v.397, 405 (C. bhunjissami). The form 
is to be expld- as denom. form" fr. -asa food, ^ aijsiyati 
and with metathesis asmiyati. See also anhati which 
would correspond either to %qsyali or asnati (see asati). 

Assa' [for aijsa', q. v. for etym.] shoulder; in cpd. assaputa 
shoulder-bag, knapsack i. e. a bag containing provisions, 
instr. assuputena with provisions. Later exegesis has in- 
terpreted this as a bag full of ashes, and vv. 11. as well 
as Commentators take assa = bhasma ashes (thus also 
Morrif J P TS. 1893, to without being able to give an 
etymology). The word was already misunderstood by 
Bdhgh. when he explained the Digha passage by bhasma- 
putena, sise charikar) okiritva ti attho D.-\ 1.267. After 
all it is the same as putarjsa (see under ar)sa'). — D 
198, cp. A 11.242 (v. 1. bhasma"); D.\ 1.267 (v-i- bhassa°). 

Assa' [for aqsa'^ r= Sk. asra point, corner, cp. Sk. asri, Gr. 
axfOi & iiui; sharp, Lat. acer] corner, point; occurs only 
in cpd. caturassa four-cornered, quadrangular, regular (of 
symmetrical form, Vin 11.316; J iv.46, 492; Pv II. l'^. 
Perhaps also at Th 2, 229 (see under assa^). Occurs also 
in form caturar)sa under catur). 

Assa' [Vedic asva, cp. Av. aspo; Gr. 7tto;, dial, '/kko?; Lat. 
equus; Oir. ech ; Gall, epo-; Cymr. ep, Goth, aihva; Os. 
ehu; Ags. eoh] a horse; often mentioned alongside of | 
and combJ- with hatthi (elephant) Vin in. 6 fpaficamattehi i 
assa-satehi), 52 (enumd- under catuppada, quadrupeds, 
with hatthi ottha gona gadrabha & pasuka); A 11.207; 
V.271; Sn 769 (gavSssa). At Th II. 229 the commentary 
explains caturassa as 'four in hand' ; but the context 
shows that the more usual sense of caturassa (see assa-) 
was probably what the poet meant; Dh 94, 143, I44 
(bhadra, a good horse), 380 (id.); Vv 20' (+ assatar!); 
VvA 78; DhA 1.392 (hatlhi-assadayo); Sdhp 367 (dutth"). 
-ajaniya [cp. BSk. asvajaneya Divy 509, 51 1] a thorough- 
bred horse, a blood horse A 1.77, 244; II. 113 sq., 250 
sq.; III. 248, 282 sq.; IV. 188, 397; v.166, 323; PvA 216. 
See also ajaniya. -aroha one who climbs on a horse, a 
rider on horseback, N. of an occupation "cavalry" D 1.5 1 
(+ haltharoha; expld- at DA 1. 156 by sabbe pi assacariya- 
assavejja-assabhandadayo). -kanna N. of a tree, Vatica 
Robusta, lit. "horse-ear" (cp. similarly Goth, aihva-tundi 
the thornbush, lit. horse-tooth) J II. 161; IV. 209; VI.528, 
-khalunka an inferior horse ("shaker"), opp. sadassa. A 
1.287 ^= >v.397. -tthara a horse cover, a horse blanket 
Vin 1. 192; D 1.7. -damma a horse to be tamed, a fierce 
horse, a stallion A 11.112; °sarathi a horse trainer A II. 
112, 114; V.323 sq.; DhA IV. 4. -potaka the young of 
a horse, a foal or colt J 11.288. -bandha a groom J II. 
98; V.449; DhA 1.392. -bhanda (for "bandha? or should 
we read °pandaka?) a groom or horse-trainer, a trader in 
horses \'in 1.85 (see on form of word Kern, Toiv. p. 35). 
-bhandaka horse-trappings J 11.113. -mandala circus 
Vism 308, cp. M 1.446. -mandalika exercising-ground 
Vin 111.6. -medha N. of a sacrifice: the horse-sacrifice 
[Vedic asvamedha as Np.] S 1.76 (v. 1. sassa°); It 21 
(+ purisamedha); Sn 303. -yuddha a horse-fight D 1.7. 
-rupaka a figure of a horse, a toy horse DhA 11.69 
(-f- hatthi-rupaka). -lakkbana (earning fees by judging) 
the marks on a horse D 1.9. -landa horse-manure, horse- 
dung DhA IV. 1 56 (hatthi-landa -f-). -vanija a horse- 
dealer Vin 111.6. -sadassa a noble steed of the horse kind 
A 1.289 = tv.397 (in comparison with purisa°). 

AsSa^ is gen. dat. sg. of aya^, this. 

Assa^ 3. sg. Pot. of asmi (see atthi). 

Assaka' ( — °) [assa'-f-ka] with a horse, having a horse; 
an' without a horse J vi.515 (-|- arathaka). 

Assaka- (adj.) [a -f saka; Sk. asvaka] not having one's 
own, poor, destitute M 1.450; 11.68; A 111.352; Ps I 126 
(v. 1. asaka). 

Assatara [Vedic asvatara, asva -\- compar. suffix tara in func- 
tion of "a kind of", thus lit. a kind of horse, cp. Lat. 
matertera a kind of mother, i. e. aunt] a mule Dh 322 = 
DhA 1.2 13; DhA IV.4 (= valavaya gadrahhena jata); J 
IV. 464 (kambojake assatare sudante : imported from Cam- 
bodia); VI.342. — f. aseatari a she-mule Vin 11. 188; S 

1.154; 11.241; A 11.73 

Miln 166. 

assatari-ratha a 

chariot drawn by she-mules Vv 20', 20* (T. assatari rata) 
= 438; Pv I.I I' (= assatariyutta ratha PvA 56); J VI. 355. 

Assattha' [Vedic asvattha, explJ- in K Z 1.467 as asva-ttha 
dial, for asva-stha "standing place for horses, which etym. 
is problematic; it is likely that the Sk. word is borrowed 
from a local dialect.] the holy fig-tree, Ficus Religiosa; 
the tree under which the Buddha attained enlightenment, 
i.e. the Bo tree Vin iv.35; D 11.4 (samma-sambuddho 
assatthassa mule abhisambuddho); S v.96 ; J 1. 16 (v. 75, 
in word-play with assattha* of V.79). 

Assattha'^ [pp. of assasati; cp. BSk. asvasta Av. S 1.210] 
encouraged, comforted A iv.l84(v. 1. as gloss assasaka); 
Ps 1. 13 1 (loka an"; v. 1. assaka); J 1. 1 6 (v.79 cp. assattha'); 
VI.309 (= laddhassasa C), 566. 

Assaddha (adj.) [a -f saddha] without faith, unbelieving, 
Sn 663; Pug 13, 20; Dhs 1327; DhA II. 187. 

Assaddhiya (nt.) [a -j- saddhiya, in form, but not in 
meaning a grd. of saddahati, for which usually saddheyya; 
cp. Sk. asradheyya incredible] disbelief S 1.25; A ill. 421; 
V.U3 sq., 146, 148 sq., 158, l6i; Vbh 371; DA 1.235; 
Sdhp 80. 

Assama [S + Sram] a hermitage (of a brahmin ascetic 
esp. a jatila) Vin 1.24 = iv. 108; 126, 246; III. 147; Sd 
979; Sn p. 104, in; J 1.315 (°pada) v.75 (id.) 321. Vi.76 
(°pada). The word is not found anywhere in the Canon 
in the technical sense of the later Sanskrit law books, 
where "the 4 asramas" is used as a 1. 1. for the four 
stages in the life of a brahmin priest (not of a brahmin 
by birth). See Dial. 1.2 1 1 — 217. 

Assamana [a -|- samana] not a true Samana Vin 1.96 ; Sn 
282; Pug 27 (so read for asamana); Pug A 207. — f. 
assamanl Vin iv.214. 

Assaya [a -\- sayati, srJ] resting place, shelter, refuge, seat 
DA 1.67 (puiiii"). Cp. BSk. rajSsraya Jtm 31"; asraya 
also in meaning "body"; see Av. S. 1. 175 & Index 11.223. 

Assava (adj.) [a + sunati, §ru] D 1.137; Sn 22, 23, 
32; J iv.98; VI.49; Miln 254; an° inattentive, not 
docile DhA 1.7. 

Assavati [a + Srtl] to flow J 11.276 (= paggharali C). 
Cp. also asavati. 

Assavanata (f) [abstr. fr. assavana] not listening to, in- 
attention M 1. 168. 

Assavaniya (adj.) [a -\- savanlya] not pleasant to hear 
Sdhp 82. 

Assasati [a + Svas, on semantical inversion of a & pa 
see under a' 3] I. to breathe, to breathe out, to exhale, 
J I 163; VI. 305 (gloss assasento passasento susu ti saddar) 
karonto); Vism 272. Usually in comb"- with passasati to 
inhale, i. e. to breathe in & out, D 11.291 = M 1.56, cp. 
M 1.425 ; J IT. 53, cp. V.36. — 2. to breathe freely or 
quietly, to feel relieved, to be comforted, to have courage 
S IV.43 ; J IV. 93 assasitvana ger. = vissamitva c); vi.190 
(assasa imper., with ma soci); med. assase J IV. 5 7 (C. 
for asmase T. ; expl^. by vissase). III (°itva). — 3. to 
enter by the breath, to bewitch, enchant, take possession 
J IV. 495 {= assasa-vatena upahanati avisati C). — Cans, 
assasati. — pp. assattha'^. See also assasa-passasa. 

Assad a 



Assada [S + sadiyali, SVad] taste, sweetness, enjoyment, 
satisfaclion D t.22 (vedanaoai) samudaya atthangama assada 
etc.); M 1.85; S 11.84 sq. Canupassin), 170 sq.; 111.27 sq. 
(Uo rupassa assado), 62, 102; iv.8 sq., 220; v. 193, 203 
sq.; A 1.50 Canupassin), 258, 260; II. 10; 111.447 ("ditthi) 
J 1.508; IV.113, Sn 448; Ps 1.139 sq., ("ditthi), 157; 
cp."; Pv 1V.62 (kam°); Vbh 368 ("ditthij- Nett 27 
sq.; Miln 38S ; Vism 76 (paviveka-ras^); Sdhp 37, 51. 
See also appassada under appa. 

Assadana (f) [cp. assada] sweetness, taste, enjoyment S 
I 124: Sn 447 (= sadubhava SnA 393). 

Assadetl [Denom. fr. assada] to taste S U.227 (labha-sakkara- 
silokaij); Vism 73 (paviveka-sukba-rasai)); DhA 1.318. 

Ass&raddha v. l. at It m for asaraddha. 

Assavin (adj.) [a -(- sru] only in an° not enjoying or 
finding pleasure, not intoricated Sn 853 (satiyesu a. = 
sata-vatthusa kSmagunesu tanha-santhava-virahita SnA 549). 
See also asava. 

Assasa [Sk. asvasa, a + ivas] l- (lit.) breathing, esp. 
breathing out (so Vism 272), exhalation, opp. to passasa 
inhalation, with which often combd or contrasted; thus 
as cpd. assasa-passasa meaning breathing (in & out), sign 
of life, process pf breathing, breatli D 11.157 = S 1.159 = 
Th I, 905; D III. 266; M 1.243; S 1.106; IV. 293; V.330, 
336, A IV.409; v.135^ J 11146; VI.82; Miln 31, 85; 
Vism 116, 197. — assasa in contrast with passasa at Ps 
1.95, 164 sq., 182 sq. — 2. (fig.) breathing easily, freely 
or quietly, relief, comfort, consolation, confidence M 1.64; 
S 11.50 (dhanima-vinaye) ; IV.254 (param-assasa-ppatta): A 
1.192; 111.297 sq. (dhamma-vinaye); iv.lSs; J VI. 309 (see 
assaltha*); Miln 354; PvA 104 (°malta only a little 
breathing space); Sdhp 299 (param'), 313. 

Assasaka (adj. n.) [fr. ass.asa] I. (cp. assasa l) having 
breath, breathing, in an° not able to draw breath Vin 
111.84; 'V.I 11. — 2. (cp. assasa'^) (m. & nt.) that which 
gives comfort iV relief, confidence, expectancy J 1.84; VI. 
150. Cp. next. 

ASSasika (adj.) [fr. assasa in meaning of assasa 2, cp. 
asiasaka 2] only in neg. an" not able to afford comfort, 
giving no comfort or security M 1.514; III. 30; J 11.298 
(= aiiilar) assasetur) asamatthataya na assasika). Cp. BSk. 
anasvasika in ster. phrase anitya adhruva anasvasika vi- 
parinamadharman Divy 207; Av. S. 139, 144; whereas 
the corresp. Pali equivalent runs anicca addhuva asassata 
(= appayuka) viparinama-dhamma thus inviting the con- 
jecture that BSk. asvasika is somehow destorted out of 
P. asassata. 

AsSasin (adj.) [Sk. asvasin] reviving, cheering up, consoled, 
happy S IV.43 (an"). 

Assaseti [Caus. of assasati] to console, soothe, calin, com- 
fort, satisfy J VI.190, 512; DhA 1.13. 

Assita (adj.) [Sk. asrita, a + pp. of Sri] dependent on, 
relying, supported by (ace); abiding, living in or on D 
11.255 ('ad°); Vv 50'" (slho va guhai) a.): Th I, 149 
(janai) ev' assito jano); Sdhp 401. 

Asslri (adj.) [a -f sirl] without splendour, having lost its 
brightness, in assiri viya khayati Nett 62 = Ud 79 
(which latter has sassar' iva, cp. C. on passage I.e.). 

ASSU' (nt.) [Vedic asru, Av. asru, Lith aszara, with etym. 
not definitely clear: see Walde, Lat. Wlh. under lacrima] 
a tear Vin 1.87 (assuui pavatleti to shed tears); S 11.282 
(id.); l)h 74; Th 2, 496 (cp. ThA 289): KhA 65; DhA 
1. 12 ("punna-netta with eyes full of tears); 11.98; PvA 125. 
-dhara a shower of tears DhA iv 15 (pavatlcli to shed). 
-mukha (adj.) with tearful face [cp. BSk. airunnikha c. g. 
Jtni 3i'«] D 1.115, 141: Dh 67; Pug 56; DA 1.284; 
PvA 39. -mocana shedding of tears PvA 18. 

Assu' is y^ pi. pot. of atthi. 

Assu' (indecl.) [Sk. sma] expletive part, also used in emphatic 
sense of "surely, yes, indeed" Sn 231 (according to Faus- 
bbll, but preferably with P. T. S. ed. as tayas su for tay' 
assu, cp. KhA 188); Vv 32* (assa v. 1. SS) = VvA 135 
(assu ti nipata-mattaq). Perhaps we ought to take this 
assu' together with the foil, assu* as a modification 01 
ssu (see su'''). Cp. asu. 

Assu* part, for Sk svid (and sma?) see under su'. Ac- 
cording to this view Fausbolls reading ken^ assu at Sn 
1032 is to be emended to kena ssu. 

Assuka (nt.) [assu' + ka] a tear Vin 11.289; Sn 691 ; Pv IV.5'. 

Assutavant (^dj.) [a -f- sutavant] one who has not heard , 
ignorant M I.I, 8, 135; Dhs 1003, 1217, cp. Dhs trsl. 258. 

Aha' (indecl.) [cp. Sk. aha & P. aho; Germ, aha; Lat. 
ehem etc.] exclamation of surprise, consternation, pain etc. 
'oh! alas! woe!"'. Perhaps to be seen in cpd. '^kama 
miserable pleasures lit. "woe to these pleasures!") gloss 
at ThA 292 for T. kamakama of Th 2, 506 (expW- by 
C. as "aha ti lamaka-pariySyo"). See also ahaba. 

Aha- (— °) & Aho (°— ) (nt.) [Vedic ahan & ahas] a day. 
(i) °aha only in foil. cpds. & cases: inslr. ekdhena in 
one day J vi. 366; loc. tadahe on that (same) day PvA 
46; ace. katipahai) (for) some or several days J 1.152 etc. 
(kattpaha); sattahai] seven days, a week Vin 1.1; D 11. 
14 ; J IV. 2, and freq. ; anvahai) daily Davs iv.8. — The 
initial a of ahai) (ace.) is elided after i, which often ap- 
pears lengthened: kati 'haij how many days? S 1.7; 
ekSha-dvi 'haq one or two days J 1.292 ; dviha-ti 'han two 
or three days J 11.103; ^vA 45; ekaha-dvl 'h' accayena 
after the lapse of one or two days J 1.253. — A doublet 
of aha is anha (through metathesis from ahan), which 
only occurs in phrases pubbanho & sayanba (q.v.); an 
adj. der. fr. aha is ''abika: see pancihika (consisting of 

5 days). — (2) aho^ in cpd. ahoratta (m. & nt.) [cp. 
BSk. ahoratrai) Av. S. 1.209] '■'^ aboratti (f.) day & night, 
occurring mostly in oblique cases and adverbially in ace. 
ahorattaij: M 1.417 ('anusikkhin); Dh 226 (id.; expl"*- 
by diva ca rattiii ca tisso sikkha sikkhamana DhA in. 
324); Th 1, 145 (ahoratta accayanti); J lv.io8 ("anai) 
accaye); Pv 11.13' ('■)); ^'"'"^ 82 (ena). — aborattii] Dh 
387; J VI. 313 (v. I. BB for T. aho va rattii)). 

Ahaq (pron.) [Vedic ahar) ^= Av. azsm; Gr. £>-«(»); ego; 
Goth, ik, Ags. ic, Ohg. ih etc.] pron. of I" person "I". — 
noin. sg. ahai) S 111235; A iv.53; Dh 222, 320; Sn 
172, 192, 685, 989, 1054, 1143; J 1.61; 11.159. — In 
pregnant sense (my ego, myself, I as the one & only, 
i. e. egotistically) in foil, phrases: yai) vadanti mama . . 
na te ahar) S 1.116, 123; ahai) .asmi "I am" (cp. ahaq- 
kara below) S 1.129; "l^S, 128 sq.; IV. 203; A 11.212, 
215 sq.; Vism 13; ahai) pure ti "I am the first" Vv 
84«o (^ ahamaharikara ti VvA 351). — gen. dat. maybai) 
Sn 431, 479; J 1.279; "160, mama S 1.115; Sn 22, 23, 
341, 997; J 11.159, & mamar) S 1.116; Sn 253 (= mama 
C), 694, 982. — instr. maya Sn 135, 336, 557, 982; 
J 1.222, 279. — ace. mag Sn 356, 366, 425, 936; J 11. 
159; 111.26, & mamat) J 111.55, 394- — ^°^- "lay' Sn 
559; J III 188. The enclitic form the sg. is me, & func- 
tions in diff. cases, as gen. (Sn 983; J 11.159), ="=<=• (Sn 
982), instr. (J 1.138, 222), & abl. — PI. nom. mayai) 
(we) Sn 31, 91, 167, 999i J "'59; vi.365, ambe J 11. 
129, & vayai) (q.v.). — gen. ambakarj J 1.221; 11.159 

6 asmakag Sn p. 106. — ace. ambe J 1.222; 11.415 & 
asme J 111.359. — instr. amhebi J 1150; 11.417 & as- 
mabhl ThA 153 (Ap. 132). — loc. ambesu J 1.222. — 
The enclitic form for the pi. is no (for ace dat \ gen.): 
see under vayag. 

-kara selfishness, egotism, arrogance (see also mamai)- 
kara) M 111.18, 32; S 11.253; 111.80, 156, 169 sq.; iv.41, 
197, 202; A 1.132 sq.; 111.444; Ud 70; Nett 127, and 
! freq. passim. 




Ahaha [onomat. after exclamation ahaha; see aha'] I. ex- 
clamation of woe J 111.450 (ahaha in metre). — 2. (nt.) 
N. of a certain division of Purgatory (Niraya), lit. oh 
woe! A V.173 =^ Sn p. 126. 

Ahasa [a -f- hSsa, cp. Sk. ahasa & aharsa] absence of exult- 
ancy, modesty J 111.466 (= an-ubbillavitattat) C). 

AhasI y^ sg. aor. of harati (q. v.), 

Ahl [Vedic ahi, with Av. aii perhaps to Lat. anguis etc., 
see Walde Lat. Wtd. s. v.] a snake Vin 11. 109; D 1.77; 
S IV. 198; A 111.306 sq.; IV. 320; V.289; Nd' 484; Vism 
345 (+ kukkura etc.); VvA 100; PvA 144. 

-kunapa the carcase of a snake Vin 111.68 = M 1.73 = 
A IV.377. -gaha a snake catcher or traifler J vi.192. 
-gunthika (? reading uncertain, we find as vv. U. "gun- 
dika, °guntika & "kundika; the BSk. paraphrase is °tun- 
dika Divy 497. In view of this uncertainty we are unable 
to pronounce a safe etymology ; it is in all probability 
a dialectical, may be Non-Aryan, word. See also under 
kundika & gunthika & cp. Morris in J P T S. 1886, 153) 
a snake charmer J 1.370 (°gund°); 11.267; III.348 ("gund"); 
IV.456 (T. °gunt; V. 1. BB "knpd") 308 (T. °kund°, v. 1. 
SS "gunth"), 456 (T. ^gunt"; v. 1. BB °kund°); VI.171 
(T. "gupd"; v. 1. BB °kund'°); Miln 23, 305. -chattaka 
(nt.) "a snake's parasol", a mushroom D 111.87 ; J 11.95 i 
L'd 81 (C. on VIII.5, I), -tundika = "gunthika Vism 304, 
500. -peta a Peta in form of a snake DhA 11.63. -mekhala 
"snake-girdle", i.e. outfit or appearance of a snake DhA 
1. 139. -vataka (-roga) N. of a certain disease ("snake- 
wind-sickness") Vin 1.78; J 11.79; IV.200; DhA 1. 169, 
187, 231; 111.437. -vijja "snake-craft", i.e. fiirtune-telling 
or sorcery by means of snakes D 1.9 {^^ sappa-dattha- 
tikicchana-vijja c' eva sapp' avhayana-vijja ea "the art of 
healing snake bites as well as the invocation of snakes 
(for magic purposes)" DA 1.93). 

Ahiljsaka (adj.) [fr. ahiijsS] not injuring others, harmless, 
humane, S 1. 165; Th i, 879; Dh 225; J iv.447. 

Ahigsi (f.) [a -|- hiqsa] not hurting, humanity, kindness D 
III. 147; A 1.151; Dh 261, 270; J IV.71; Miln 402. 

Ahlta (adj.-n.) [a -\- hita] not good or friendly, harmful, 
bad; unkindliness D 111.246; Dh 163; So 665, 692; Miln 
199 (°kama). 

Ahirika & Ahirika (adj.) [fr. a -|- 'i'"] shameless, unscru- 
pulous D 111.212, 252, 282; A 11.219; Dh 244; Sn 133 
(°ika); It 27 (°ika); Pug 19 (also nt. unscrupulousness) ; 
Dhs 365; Nett 39, 126; DhA 111.352. 

Ahinlndriya see discussed under abhlnindriya. 

Ahuvasig l^' sg. pret. of holi (q. v.) I was Vv 82'' (= 
ahosii] VvA 321). 

Ahuhaliya (nt.) [onomat.] a hoarse & loud laugh J 111.223 
(= danta-vidai)saka-maha-hasita C). 

Ahe (iudecl.) [= aho, cp. aha'] exclamation of surprise or 
bewilderment: alas', woe etc., perhaps in cpd. abevana 
a dense forest (lit. oh! this forest, alas! the forest (i.e. 
how big it is) J v.63 (uttamahevanandaho, if reading is 
correct, which is not beyond doubt. C. on p. 64 expl'- 
as "ahevanar) vuccati vanasando"). 

Aho (indecl.) [Sk. aho, for etym. see aha'] exclamation 
of surprise, astonishment or consternation : yea, indeed, 
well; I say! for sure! VvA 103 (aho ti acchariy' atthena 
nipato); J 1.88 (aho acchariyaij aho abbhutaij), 140. Usu- 
ally combd- with similar emphatic particles, e. g. aho vata 
DhA 11.85; PvA 131 (= sadhu vata); aho vata re D i. 
107; Pv 11.9*5. Cp. ahe. 

Ahosi-kamma (nt.) an act or thought whose kamma has no 
longer any potential force: Cpd. 145. At p. 45 ahosika- 
kamma is said to be a kamma inhibited by a more power- 
ful one. See Buddhaghosa in Vism. Chap. xix. 


p. 15, col. 2, 1. 21 fr. b. read symmetry for summetiy. 
p. 45, c<d. 2, I. 22 fr. t. read anupaghata for anupghSla. 

p. 19, col. 2, I. 9 fr, t. read atidura for atidum. 
p. 54, col. 2, I. 22 fr. t. read vowels for vorvels. 



T. W. RHYS DAVIDS F.B.A. D.Sc. Ph.D. LL.D. D.Litt. 

Part II (A— O) 




First published 






A' (iodecl.) [Vedic a, prep, with ace, loc, abl., meauing 
'to, towards", & also 'from". Grig, an emphatic-deictic 
part. (Idg. »e) = Gr. ? surely, really; Ohg. -a etc., in- 
crement of a (Idg. *e), as in Sk. a-sau ; Gr. ixi7 (cp. a'), 
see Brugmann, A^Mrzc l^erg/. Gr. 464, 465] a frequent 
prefix, used as well-defined simple base-prefix (with root- 
derivations), but not as modification (i. e. first part of a 
double prefix cpd. like sam-a-dhi) except in one case 
a-ni-sai)sa (which is doubtful & of diff. origin, viz. from 
comb". asar)sa-nisai)sa, see below 3b). It denotes either 
/oiu/i (contact) or a personal (close) relation to the ob- 
ject (a ti anussaran' atthe nipato PvA 165), or the aim 
of the action expressed in the verb. — (l.) As/ri'/. c. abl. 
only in J in meaning "up to, until, about, near" J vi.192 
(a sahassehi =: yijva s. C), prob. a late development. 
As pit/, in meaning 'forth, out, to, towards, at, on" in 
foil, applications : — (a) aim in general or iouc/i in par- 
ticular (lit.), e. g. akaddhati pull to, along or up ; °kasa 
shining forth; °koteti knock ar, "gacchati go towards; 
°camati rin?e over; "neti bring towards, aif-dace; "bha 
shining forth; "bhujati bend in; °masati touch at; °yata 
stretched out; "rabhati aC-tempt; °rohana a-scending; °laya 
hanging on; °loketi look at; "vattati ad-vert; °vahati 
bring to; "vasa dwelling at; °sadeti touch; "sidati sit by; 
"hanati strike at. — (b) in reflexive function: close rela- 
tion to subject or person actively concerned, e. g. adati 
take on or up (to oneself); °dasa looking at, mirror; 
°dhara support; "nandati rejoice; "nisarjsa sul>jective gain; 
°badha being affected; "modita pleased; °rakkha guarding; 
°radhita satisfied; °rama (personal) delight in; "lingati 
embrace (to oneself); °hara taking to (oneself). — (c) in 
transitive function : close relation to the object passively 
concerned, e.g. aghalana killing; °carati indulge in; °cik- 
khati point ont, explain; °jiva living on; "napeti give an 
order to somebody ; "disati point out to some one ; °bhin- 
dati cut; °manteti ad-dress; "yacati pray to; "roceti speak 
to; sincati besprinkle; "sevati indulge in. — (d) out of 
meaning (a) develops that of an intensive-frequentative 
prefix in sense of "all-round, completely, very much", 
e.g. akinna strewn all over; "kula mixed up; °dhuta 
moved about; "rava shouting out or very much; "lulati 
move about ; "hindati roam about. — 2. Affinities. Closely 
related in meaning and often interchanging are the foil. 
prep, (prefixes): anu ("bhati), abhi ("saqsati), pa ("lapati), 
pati ("kankhati) in meaning I a — c; and vi (°kirali, 
°ghata, °cameti, °lepa, "lopa), sam (°tapati, °dassati) in 
meaning i d. See also 3''. — 3. Combinations: (a) Inten- 
sifying combns. of other modifying prefixes with a as base: 
anu -f a (anva-gacchati, "disati, "maddali, °rohati, °visati, 
"sanna, "hata), pati -J- a (pacca-janati, "ttharati, °dati, °sa- 
vali), pari + a (pariya-uata. °dati, °pajjati, °harati), sam -(- a 
(sama-disati, "dana, "dhi, °pajjali, "rabhati). — (b) Con- 
trast-combns- with other pref. in a double cpd. of noun, adj. 
or verb (cp. above 2) in meaning of "up & down, in & out, 
to & fro"; a -f- D'. avedhika-nibbedhika, asaqsa-nisarjsa 
(contracted to anisar|sa), aisevita-nisevita; a-(-pa: assasati- 
passasati (where both terms are semantically alike; in 
exegesis however they have been differentiated in a way 
which looks like a distortion of the original meaning, 
viz. assasali is taken as 'breathing ouf\ passasati as 
"breathing ;»" : see Vism 271), assasa-passasa, amodila- 
pamodita, ahuna-pahuna, ahuneyya-pahuneyya ; a + pacca: 
akotita-paccakotita; a -)- pari: akaddhana-parikaddhana, 
asankita-parisankita; a -|-vi: alokila-vilokita, avaha-vivaha, 
avethana-vinivethana; a -(-Sam: allapa-sallapa: a -(- sama: 
acinna-samaciniia. — 4. Before double consonants a is 
shortened to a and words containing a in this form are 
to be found under a°, e. g. akkamaija, akkhilta, acchadeti, 
anfiata, appoteti, allapa, assada. 

A° * guna or increment of a" in connection with such suf- 
fixes as -ya, -iya, -itta. So in ayasakya fr. ayasaka; aruppa 
from arupa; arogya fr, aroga; alasiya fr. alasa; adhipacca 
fr. adhipati; Sbhidosika fr. abbidosa etc. 

A°' of various other origins (guna e. g. of r or lengthening 
of ordinary root a°), rare, as alinda (for alinda), asabha 
(fr. usabha). 

A° * infix in repetition-cpds. denoting accumulation or vaiiety 
(by contrast with the opposite, cp. a' 31)), constitutes a 
guna- or increment-form of neg. pref. a (see a'), as in 
foil.: phaUphala all sorts of fruit (lit. what is fruit & 
not fruit) freq. in Jatakas, e.g. 1. 416; II. 160; 111.127; 
IV. 220, 307, 449; V.313; VI. 520; karanakaranani all 
sorts of duties J VI. 333; DhA 1.385: khandakbanda 
pele-mele J I 114; 111.256; gandaganda a mass of boils 
DhA 111.297; ciracirai) continually Vin iv.261 ; bhava- 
bbava all kinds of existences Su 801, cp. Nd' 109; Nd'^ 
664; Th I, 784 (°esu := mahant-amahantesu bh. C, see 
Brethren 305); ruparupa the whole aggregate ThA 285 ; etc. 

Akankhatl [a -f kank$, cp. kankhati] to wish for, think 
of, desire; intend, plan, design Vin 11.244 (°amana); D 
1.78, 176; S 1.46; Sn 569 (°amana); Sn p. 102 (= icchali 
SnA 436); DhA 1.29; SnA 229; VvA 149; PvA 229. 

Akankha f. [fr. a -|- kank$] longing, wish ; as adj. at Th 
I, 1030. 

Aka(J4hatl [a -|- kaddhati] to pull along, pull to (oneself), 
drag or draw out, pull up Vin 11.325 (Bdhgh. for apa- 
kassati, see under apakasati) ; iv.219; J 1. 172, 192, 417; 
Miln 102, 135; ThA 117 (°eti); VvA 226; PvA 68. — 
Pass, akaddhiyati J 11. 122 ("amana-locana with eyes drawn 
away or attracted); Miln 102; Vism 163; VvA 207 
("aniana-hadaya with torn heart). — pp. akaddbita. 

Aka(j(jlhana (nt.) [fr. akaddhati] drawing away or to, pulling 
out, distraction VvA 212 (°parikaddhana pulling about); 
DhsA 363; Miln 154 (°parikaddhana), 352. — As f. 
Vin III. 121. 

Aka(j(jhita [pp. of akaddheti] pulled out, dragged along; 
upset, overthrown J 111.256 (=: akkhitta^). 

Akantana(0 a possible reading, for the durakantana of 
the text at Th l, 1123, for which we might read dura- 

Akappa [cp. Sk. Skalpa a -|- kappa] I. attire, appearance, 
Vin 1.44 (an°) = 11.213; J 1. 505. — 2. deportment Dhs 
713 (a° gamanadi-akaro DhsA 321). 

-sampanna, suitably attired, well dressed, A 111.78; J 
IV. 542; an° sampanna, ill dressed, J 1.420. 

Akamplta [pp. of akampeti, Caus. of a -(- kamp] shaking, 
trembling Miln 154 (°hadaya). 

Akara [cp. Sk. akara] a mine, usually in cpd. ratan-akara 
a mine of jewels Th i, 1049; J 11. 414; vi. 459; Dpvs 
1. 18. — Cp. also Miln 356; VvA 13. 

Akassatl [a -f- kassati] to draw along, draw after, plough, 
cultivate Nd' 428. 

Akara [a-fkaroli, kf] "the (way of) making", i.e. (i) 
state, condition J 1.237 (avasan° condition of inhabita- 
bilily); II. 154 (patan° state of falling, labile equilibrium), 
cp. pann°. — (2) properly, quality, attribute D 1.76 (ana- 
vila sabb°-sampanna endowed with all good qualities, of 
a jewel); 11. 157 (°varupela); J 11.352 (sabb" paripunna 
altogether perfect in qualities). — (3) sign, appearance, 
form, D 1.17s; J '-266 (chaiak" sign of hunger); Miln 
24 (°ena by the sign of..); VvA 27 (therassa a. form 
of the Th.); PvA 90, 283 (ranSo a. the king's person); 
Sdhp 363. — (4) way, mode, manner, sa-akara in all 
their modes D 1. 13 = 82 = III. in ; J 1.266 (agaman° the 
mode of his coming). Esp. in instr. sg. & pi. with num. 
or pron. (in this way, io two ways etc.): chah'akSrehi in 
a sixfold manner Nd' 680 (cp. kSra^ehi in same sense); 
Nett 73, 74 (dvadasah'Skarehi); Vism 613 (navah'akSrehi 

II— I 





indriyani tikkhani bhavanti); PvA 64 (yen'akarena agato 
ten'akarena gato as he came so he went), 99 (id.). — 
(5) reason, ground, account D 1.138, 139; Nett 4, 8 sq., 
38; DhA 1.14; KhA 100 (in expl""- of evarj). In this 
meaning freq. with daSS (dasseti, dassana, nidassana etc.) 
in commentary style "what is meant by", the (statement 
of) reason why or of, notion, idea PvA 26 (databb°- 
dassana), 27 (thoman^-dassana), 75 (karuan"!) dassesi), 
121 (pucchan'^-nidassanar) what has been asked); SnA 135 

-parivitakka study of conditions, careful consideration, 
examination of reasons S 11.115; IV. 1 38; A n.191 := 
Nd« 151. 

Akaraka (nt.) [akara -(- ka] appearance; reason, manner 
(cp. akara*) J 1.269 (akarakena = karanena C). 

Akaravant (adj.) [fr. akara] having a reason, reasonable, 
founded M 1.401 (saddha). 

Akasa' [Sk. aklsa fr. a + kas, lit. shining forth, i. e. the 
illuminated space] air, sky, atmosphere; space. On the 
concept see Cfi/. 5, 16, 226. On a fanciful etym. of akasa 
(fr. a + kassati of kf^) at DhsA 325 see D/is trsl. 194. — 
D 1.55 (°i) indriyani sankamanti the sense-faculties pass 
into space); III. 224, 253, 262, 265; S 111.207; iv-2i8; 
V.49, 264; J 1.253; '1-353; "I-52. 188; IV.154; VI.126; 
Sn 944, 1065; Nd' 428; Pv ii.l'S; SnA no, 152; PvA 
93 ; Sdhp 42, 464. -akasena gacchati to go through the 
air PvA 75 (agacch°), 103, 105, 162; °ena carati id. J 
11.103; °e gacchati id. PvA 65 (cando). — Formula 
"ananto akaso" freq.; e.g. at D 1.183; A 11.184; iv. 
40, 410 sq.; V.345. 

-anta "the end of the sky", the sky, the air (on °anta 
see anta' 4) J vi.89. -ananca (or ananca) the infinity 
ef space, in cpd. ".lyatana the sphere or plane of the 
infinity of space, the "space-infinity-plane", the sphere of 
unbounded space. The consciousness of this sphere forms 
the first one of the 4 (or 6) higher attainments or re- 
cognitions of the mind, standing beyond the fourth jbana, 
viz. (i) akas°, (2) viriiian'anaiic-ayataDa (3) akincann'', 
(4) n^eva sa5nanSsaB5°, (5) nirodha, (6) phala. — D 1.34, 
183; 11.70, 112, 156; 111.224, 262 sq.; M 1.40, 159; III. 
27, 44; S V.1I9; Ps 1.36; Dhs 205, 501, 579, 1418; 
Nett 26,39; Vism 326, 340, 453; DA 1.120 (see Nd^ under 
akSsa; Dhs 265 sq.; Dhs trsl. 71). As classed with jhSna see 
also Nd2 672 (sadhu-viharin). -kasina one of the kasin'aya- 
tanas (see under kasina) D 111.268; A 1.4 1, -ganga N. of 
the celestial river J 1.95 ; 111.344. -gamana going through 
the air (as a trick of elephants) Miln 201. -carika 
walking through the air J 11.103. -carin = "carika VvA 6. 
-^^ha living in the sky (of devata) Bu 1.29; Miln 181, 
285; KhA 120; SnA 476. -tala upper story, terrace on 
the top of a palace SnA 87. -dbatu the element of space 
D IU.247; M 1423; 111.31; A 1.176; m-34; Dhs 638. 

Akasa^ (°'*) ^ 6*™^, P'^yiig chess 'in the air' {sans voir) 
Vin 11.10 = D 1.6 (= atthapada-dasapadesu viya &kase 
yeva kilanai) DA 1.85). 

Akasaka (adj.) [akasa -|-ka] being in or belonging to the 
air or sky J VI.124. 

Akasati [fr. akasa'] to shine J vi.89. 

Aklncaiifla (nt.) [abstr. fr. akincana] state of having nothing, 
absence of (any) possessions; nothingness (the latter as 
philosophical 1. 1.; cp. below "Syatana & see Dhs trsl. 
74). — Sn 976, 1070, H15 ("sambhava, cp. Nd* I16); 
Th 2, 341 (= akincanabhava ThA 240; trsl. "cherish 
no wordly wishes whatsoeer"); Nd* 115, see akasa; 
Miln 342. 

-ayatana realm or sphere of nothingness (ep. akasa") 
D 1.35, 184; 11.156; m.224, 253, 262 sq.; M 1.41, 165; 

11.254, 263; m.28, 44, S IV.217; A 1.268; IV.40, 401; Ps 
1.36; Nett 26, 39; Vism 333. See also jhana & vimokkha. 

Akipna [pp. of akirali] I. strewn over, beset with, crowded, 
full of, dense, rich in (° — ) Vin 111.130 (°loma with dense 
hair); S 1.204 ("kammanta "in motley tasks engaged"); 
IV.37 (gamanto a. bhikkhuhi etc.); A IU.104 (°viharo); 
IV.4; V.I 5 (an° C. for appakinna); Sn 408 (°varalakkhana 
:= vipula-varalakkh° SnA 383); Pv 11.12* (nana-dijagan° 
:= ayutta PvA 157); Pug 31; PvA 32 {= parikinna); 
Sdhp 595. — Freq. in idiomatic phrase describing a 
flourishing city "iddha phita bahujana akinna-manussa", 
e.g. D 1.211; U.147 ("yakkha for "manussa; full of yak- 
khas, i.e. under their protection); A 111.215; cp. Miln 2 
(°jana-manussa). — • 2. (uncertain whether to be taken as 
above 1 or as equal to avakinna fr. avakirati 2) dejected, 
base, vile, ruthless S 1. 205 = J m.309 = 539 = SnA 383. 
At K.S. 261, Mrs. Rh. D. translates "ruthless" & quotes 
C. as implying twofold exegesis of (a) impure, and (b) 
hard, ruthless. It is interesting to notice that Bdhgh. 
explains the same verse differently at SnA 383, viz. by 
vipula", as above under Sn 408, & takes akinnaludda as 
vipulaludda, i. e. beset with cruelty, very or intensely 
cruel, thus referring it to akinna 1. 

Akiratl [a -|- kirati] to strew over, scatter, sprinkle, disperse, 
fill, heap Sn 665; Dh 313; Pv U.4» (danai) vipulaq akiri = 
vippakirati PvA 92); Miln 175, 238, 323 (imper. akirahi); 
Sn 383. — pp. akinna. 

Aklfitatta (nt) [akirita -f- tta; abstr. fr. akirita, pp. of 
akirati Caus.] the fact or state of being filled or heaped 
with Miln 173 (sakatag dhannassa a). 

Akllayati v. 1. at KhA 66 for agilSyati. 

AkuCCa (or °a ?) [etym. unknown , prob. non-Aryan] an 
iguana J vi.538 (C. godha; gloss amatt'akucca). 

Akuratl [onomat. to sound-root *kur = *kor as in Lat. 
comix, corvus etc. See gala note 2 B and cp. kukkuta 
kokila, khata etc., all words expressing a rasping noise 
in the throat. The attempts at etym. by Trenckner (Miln 
p. 425 as Denom. of akula) & Morris {JPTS. 1886, 
154 as conlr. Denom. of ankura "intumescence", thus 
meaning "to swell") are hardly correct] to be hoarse Miln 
152 (kaptho akurati). 

Aknla (adj.) [a -f- *kal of wTiich Sk.-P. kula, to Idg 
»quel to turn round, cp. also cakka & carati; lit. meaning 
"revolving quickly", & so "confused"] entangled, con- 
fused, upset, twisted, bewildered J 1. 123 (salakaggaq °g 
karoti to upset or disturb); Vv 84" (andha°); PvA 287 
(an° clear). Often reduplicated as akulakula thoroughly 
confused Miln 117, 220; PvA 56; akula-pakula Ud 5 
(so read for akkula-pakkula); akula-samakula J vi.270. — 
On phrase tantakula-jata gula-gunthika-jSta see gu)a. 

Aktilaka (adj.) [fr. akula] entangled D 11.55 (tanf for the 
usual tantakula, as given under gu|a). 

Akulaniya (adj.) [grd. of a -f- •kulayali, Denom. of kula] 
in aa° not to be confounded or upset PvA 118. 

AknU (-puppha) at KhA 60 (milata'') read (according to 
Index p. 870) as milata-bakula-puppha. Vism 260 (id. p.) 
however reads akuli-puppha "tangle-flower" (r), cp. Ud 5, 
gatha 7 bakkula, which is preferably to be read as pakula. 

Akotana' (nt.) [fr. akoteti] beating on, knocking M 1.385; 
Miln 63, 306; DhsA 144. 

Akotana^ (adj.) [= SkoUna'] beating, driving, inciting, 
urging J VI. 253 (f. Bko{anI of panfia, expH- by ''nivara^Ja- 
patoda-lat^hi viya pauni ko{int hot!" p. 254). 




Akotita [pp. of akoteti] — i. beaten, touched, knocked 
against J 1.303; Miln 62 (of a gong). — 2. pressed, 
beaten down (tight), flattened, in phrase akotita- pacca- 
kotita flattened & pressed all round (of the civara) S it. 
281 ; Vh\ 1.37. 

Akoteti [a + kotteti, Sk. kuttayati; BSk. akotayati e.g. Divy 
117 dvarai) trir a°, Cowell "break" (?); Av. 6. Index p. 
222 s. v.] — I. to beat down, pound, stamp J 1.264. — 
2. to beat, knock, thrash Vin 11. 21 7; J 11.274; PvA 55 
(anfiamaiiiiar)); Sdhp 159. — 3. Esp. with ref. to knocking 
at the door, in phrases aggalar) koteti to beat on the 
bolt D 1.89; A IV.359; V.65'; DA "1.252 (cp. aggala); 
dvarai) a. J V.2I7; DhA 11. 145; or simply akoteti Vv 
81" (akotayitvana ;= appotetva VvA 316). — 4. (intrs.) 
to knock against anything J 1. 239. — pp. akotita (q. v.). 
Cans. II. akotapeti J 111.361. 

AkhU [Vedic akhu, fr. a + khan, lit. the digger in, i. e. 
a mole; but given as rat or mouse by Halayudha] a 
mouse or rat Pgdp 10. 

AgaCChatl [a -f gacchati, gam] to come to or towards, 
approach, go back, arive etc. 

I. Forms (same arrangement as under gacchati): (i) 
'j/gacch: prcs. agacchati D 1.161; J 11.153; Pv iv.l'i; 

/lit. agacchissati J III. 53; nor. agacchi Pv 11.13'; PvA 
64. — (2) l/gam : aor. agamasi PvA 8l, agama D1.108; 
J III. 128, and pi. agamiijsu J 1.118; /«/. agamissati VvA 
3; PvA 122; gc-r. agamma (q. v.) & agantva J I.I 51; 
Miln 14; Cans, agameti (q. v.). — (3) V^ga: aor. aga 
Sn 841; Pv 1. 1 2'' (^agacchi PvA 64). — pp. agata(q. v.). 

II. Meanings: (i) to come to, approach, arrive D 1. 108; 
Pv I.ll'; II. 1 3'; Miln 14; to return, to come back (cp. 
agata) I'vA 81, 122. — (2) to come into, to result, deserve 
(cp. agaraa'^) D I.l6l (garayhai) thanag deserve blame, 
come to be blamed); Pv iv.l'i (get to, be a profit to = 
upakappati PvA 241). — (3) to come by, to come out 
to (be understood as), to refer or be referred to, to be 
meant or understood (cp. agata 3 & agama 3) J 1. 1 18 
(tini pitakani agamiijsu); SnA 321; VvA 3. See also 

Agata [pp. of agacchati] (i) come, arrived Miln 18 (°ka- 
rana the reason of his coming); VvA 78 ("tlhana); PvA 
81 (kir| agat'attha why have you come here) come ty, 
got attained (° — ) A li.llo^Pug 48 (°visa); Mhvs XIV. 
28 (°phala = anlganuphala) -agat'agata (pi.) people 
coming & going, passers by, all comers PvA 39, 78, 1 29; 
VvA 190 (Ep. of sangha). -sv'agata "wel-come", greeted, 
hailed; nt. welcome, hail Th 2, 337; Pv IV. 3", opp. 
duragata not liked, unwelcome, A 11.117, 143, 153; in. 
163; Th 2, 337. — (2) come down, handed down (by 
memory, said of texts) D 1.88; DhA 11.35; KhA 229; 
VvA 30; agatagamo, one to whom the agama, or the ag.i- 
mas, have been handed down, Vin 1.127, 337 ; n 8; IV.158 ; 
A 11.147; Miln 19, 21. — (3) anagata not come yet, 
i.e. future; usually in comb"- with atita (past) & pac- 
cuppanna (present): see atlta and anagata. 

Agati (f.) [a + gati] coming, coming back, return S 111.53 ; 
J II. 172. Usually opp. to gati going away. Used in spe- 
cial sense of rebirth and re-death in the course of saqsara. 
Thus in agati gati cuti upapatti D 1. 162; A 111.54 sq., 
60 sq., 74; cp. also S n.67 ; Pv 11.9''^ (gatii) agatiij va). 

Agada(m.) & Agadana (at.) [a + gad to speak] a word; 

talk, speech DA 1.66 (= vacana). 

Agantar [N. ag. fr. agacchati] one who is coming or going 
to come A 1.63; 11.159; It 4, 95 (nom. aganta only one 
MS, all others agantva). an° A 1.64; II. 160. 

Agantu (adj.) [Sk. sgantu] — I. occasional, incidental J 

' VI. 358. — 2. an occasional arrival, a new comer, stranger 
J VI. 529 (=r aganluka-jana C); ThA 16. 

Agantuka (adj.-n.) [agantu + ka; cp. BSk. agantuka in 
same meaning as P. viz. agantuk.l bhiksavah Av. S 1.87, 
286; Divy 50] — I. coming, arriving, new comer, guest, 
stranger, esp. a newly arrived bhikkhu; a visitor (opp. 
gamika one who goes away) Vin 1. 1 32, 167; 11. 170; III. 

I 65, 181; IV.24, A 1. 10; 111.41, 366; J VI.333; Ud 25; 

' DhA 11.54, 74; VvA 24; Pv.\ 54. — 2. adventitions, 
incidental (=: agantu') Miln 304 (of megha & roga). — 

3. accessory, superimposed, added Vism 195. 

-bbatta food given to a guest, meal for' a visitor Vin 
1.292 (opp. gamika°); 11.16. 

Agama [fr. a-J-gam] — l. coming, approach, result, D 
'•53 (agamanai) pavattati ti DA 1. 160; cp. Sdhp 249 
dukkli"). — 2. that which one goes by, resource, refer- 
ence, source of reference, text. Scripture, Canon; thus a 
designation of(?) the Patimokkha, Vin 11.95 = 249, or of 
j the Four Nikayas, DA I.I, 2 (dlgh°). A def. at Vism 
442 runs 'antamaso opamma-vagga-mattassa pi buddha- 
vacanassa pariyapunanai)". See also agata 2, for phrase 
agat'agama, handed down in the Canon, Vin /oc. cit. 
Svagamo, versed in the doctrine, Pv iv.i" (sv° = sutthu 
' agat^agarao, PvA 230); Miln 215. BSk. in same use and 
I meaning, e. g. Divy 17, 333, againani = the Four Ni- 
kayas. — 3. rule practice, discipline, obedience, Sn 834 
(agama parivitakkai)), cp. Davs v.22 (takk°, discipline 
of right thought) Sdhp 224 (agamato, in obedience to). — 

4. meaning, understanding, KhA 107 (vann°). — 5. repay- 
ment (of a debt) J. vi.245. — 6. as gram. tt. "aug- 
ment", a consonant or syllable added or inserted SnA 23 

Agamana (nt.) [fr. agacchati, Sk. same] oncoming, ar- 
rival, approach A 111.172; DA 1.160; PvA 4, 81; Sdhp 
224, 356. an° not coming or jelurning J 1.203, 264. 

Agameti [caus of agacchati] to cause somebody or some- 
thing to come to one, i. e. (1) to wait, to stay Vin II. 
166, 182, 2:2; D 1. 112, 113; S 1V.291; PvA 4, 55. — 
(2) to wait for, to welcome Vin 11.128 (ppr. Sgamaya- 
mana); M 1.161 (id.) j 1.69 (id. -f- kalaq). 

Agamma (adv.) [orJg. ger. of agacchati, q. v. under 1.2 for 
form & under 11. 3 for meaning. BSk. agamya in meaning 
after the Pali form, e.g. Divy 95, 405 (with gen.); Av. 

5 185, 210 etc.; M Vastu 1.243, S'J]. VVith reference to 
(c. ace), owing to, relating to; by means of, thanks to. 
In meaning nearly synonymous with arabbha, sandhaya 

6 paticca (see K. S. 318 s. v.) D 1.229; I' 7'; J '-So; 
VI. 424; Kh VIII. 14 (= nissSya KhA 229); PvA 5, 21 etc. 

Agamita found only in neg. form anagamita. 

Agamin (adj. n.) [a -\- gamin] returning, one who returns, 
esp. one who returns to another form of life in saijsSra 
(cp. agati), one who is liable to rebirth A 1.63; 11.159; 
It 95. See anagamin. 

Agara (— ") see agara. 

Agaraka & °ika (adj.-n.) ( — °) [cp. BSk. agarika Divy 
275, & agarika] belonging to the house, viz. (1) having 
control over the house, keeping, surveying, in cpds. kot^h' 
possessor or keeper of a storehouse Vin 1.209; bandhan" 
prison. keeper A 11.207; bhand° keeper of wares, treasurer 
PvA 2 (see also bhand"). — (2) being in the house, sharing 
(the house), companion S 111.190 (par|sv° playmate). 

Aga|ha (adj.) (a -f gSlha l ; cp. Sk. samSgadhai)] strong, 
hard, harsh, rough (of speech), usually in inslr. as adv. 
agalbena roughly, harshly A 1.283, 295 ; Pug 32 (so to 
be read for agajhena, although Pug A 215 has a", but 
expls- by atigalhena v.-ic.nnena) ; instr. f. agalhaya Vin v. 
122 (ceteyya; Bdhgh. on p. 230 reads agalaya and expU. 




by dalhabhavaya). See also Nett 77 (agalha patipada a 
rough path), 95 (id.: v. 1. agalha). 

Agilayati [a + gilayati; Sk. glayati, cp. gilana] to be 
wearied, exhausted or tired, to ache, to become weak or 
faint Vin n.200; D in. 209; M 1.354; S iv.184; KhA 66 
(hadayai) a ). Cp. ayamati. 

AgU (nt.) [for Vedic agas nt.] guilt, offence, S I.123; A 
111.346; Sn 522 = Nd2 337 (in expl"- of naga as agui] 
na karoti ti nago); Nd> 201. Note. A reconstructed agas 
is found at Sdhp 294 in cpd. akatagasa not having com- 
mitted sin. 

-carin one who does evil, D n.339; M 11.88; in. 163; 
S li.ioo, 128; A n.240; Miln no. 

Aghata [Sk. aghata only in lit. meaning of striking, killing, 
but cp. BSk. aghata in meaning "hurtfulness" at M Vastu 
1.79; Av. S 11.129; cp. ghata & ghateti] anger, ill-will, 
hatred, malice D 1.3, 31; III. 72 sq.; S 1179; J 1.113; 
Dhs 1060, 1231; Vbh 167, 362, 389; Miln 136; Vism 
306; DA 1.52; VvA 67; PvA 178. -anaghata freedom 
from ill will Vin II. 249 ; A v.8o. 

-pativinaya repression of ill-will; the usual enum"- of 
a-° pativinaya comprises «;«f, for which see D 111.262, 
289; Vin V.137; A IV.408; besides this there are sets 
of five at A 111.185 ^^- i ^"^ '°i "i ^^^ °"^ °f '"' '•' 
Vin V.138. -vatthtl occasion of ill-will; closely connected 
with "pativinaya & like that enum^. in sets of nine (Vin 
V.137; A IV.408; Ps 1. 130; J III. 291, 404; V.149; Vbh 
389; Nett 23; SnA 12), and of ten (Vin v.138; A v. 
150; Ps 1.130; Vbh 391). 

Aghatana (nt.) [a -f ghata(na), cp. aghata which has changed 
Its meaning] — i. slaying, striking, destroying, killing 
Th I, 418, 711; death D 1. 31 (^ marana DA 1. 119). — 
2. shambles, slaughter-house Vin 1. 182 (gav°); A iv.138; 
J VI. 113. — 3. place of execution Vin 111.151; J 1.326, 
439; 111.59; Miln no; DhA iv.52; PvA 4, 5. 

Aghateti [Denom. fr. aghata, in form = 5 + ghateti, but 
diff. in meaning] only in phrase cittai) a. (with loc.) to 
incite one's heart to haired against, to obdurate one's 
heart Sdhp, I26=:S 1.151 = A v. 172. 

Acatnati [a -)- cam] to take in water, to resorb, to rinse 
J III. 297 ; Miln 152, 262 (-|- dhamati). — Cans. I. aca- 
mcti (a) to purge, rinse one's mouth Vin II. 142; M II. 
112; A III. 337; Pv IV.I'3 (acamayitva = mukhai) vikkha- 
letva PvA 241); Miln 152 ("ayamana). — (b) to wash 
off, clean oneself after evacuation Vin II. 221. — Caus. 
II. acamapeti to cause somebody to rinse himself J vi.8. 

Acamana (nt.) [a -4- camana of cam] rinsing, washing with 
water, used (a) for the mouth D 1.12 (= udakena mukha- 
siddhi-karana DA 1.98); (b) after evacuation J III 486. 

-kumbhi water-pitcher used for rinsing Vin 1.49, 52; 
11.142, 210, 222. -paduka slippers worn when rinsing 
Vin 1. 190; IM42, 222. -saravaka a saucer for rinsing 
Vin 11.142, 221. 

Acama (f.) [fr. a -\- cam] absorption, resorption Nd' 429 
(on Sn 945, which both in T. and in Sn.\ reads ajava; 
expld- by tanha in Nidd.). Note. Index to SnA (I'j in) 
has acama. 

Acaya [a + caya] heaping up, accumulation, collection, 
mass (opp. apacaya). See on term Dhs trsl. 195 & Cpd. 
251, 252. — S 11.94 (kayassa acayo pi apacayo pi); A 
Iv.28o = Vin 11.259 (opp- apacaya); Dhs 642, 685; Vbh 
3'9,_326, 330; Vism 449; DhA 11.25. 

-gamin making for piling up (of rebirth) A v.243, 
276; Dhs 584, 1013, 1397; Kvu 357. 

Acarati [a-|-aarati] — i. to practice, perform, indulge in 

Vin 1.56; n.ll8; Sn 327 (acare dhamma-sandosa-vadaq), 
401 ; Miln 171, 257 (papaij). Cp. pp. acarita in BSk. 
e. g. Av. S 1. 124, 153, 213 in same meaning. — pp. 
acinna. — 2. to step upon, pass through J v. 153. 

Acarin (adj.-n.) [fr. a -j- car] treaching, f acarini a female 
teacher Vin IV. 227 (in contrast to gana & in same sense 
as acariya m. at Vin iv. 130), 317 (id.). 

Acarlya [fr. a-|-car] a teacher (almost syn. with upajjhaya) 
Vin 1.60, 61, 119 ("upajjhaya); 11.231; iv.130 (gano va 
acariyo a meeting of the bhikkhus or a single teacher, 
cp. f. acarini); D 1.103, "^ (gan'") 238 (sattamacariya- 
mahayuga seventh age of great teachers); 111.189 sq.; M 
lll.ns; S 1.68 (gan°), 177; iv.176 (yogg"); A 1.132 
(pubb°); Sd 595; Nd' 350 (upajjhaya va ac°); J ll.loo, 
411; IV.91; v.501 ; Pv IV. 3^3^ 3^1 (=: acara-samacara-sik- 
khapaka PvA 252); Miln 201, 262 (master goldsmith?); 
Vism 99 sq.; KhA 12, 155; SnA 422; VvA 138. — 
For contracted form of acariya see acera. 

-kula the clan of the teacher A 11. 112. -dhana a 
teacher's fee S 1.177; A v.347. -pacariya teacher upon 
teacher, lit. "teacher & teacher's teacher" (see a' S^) 
D 1.94, 114, 115, 238; S iv.306, 308; DA 1.2S6; SnA 
452 (^ acariyo c'eva acariyaacariyo ca). -bhariya the 
teacher's fee J v.457 ; VI. 178; DhA 1.253. -mutthi "the 
teacher's fist" i. e. close-fistedness in teaching, keeping 
things back, D il.ioo; S v.153; J 11. 221, 250; Miln 144; 
Sn.\ 180, 368. -vaqsa the line of the teachers Miln 148. 
-vafta serving the teacher, service to the t. Dh.\ 1. 92. 
-vada traditional teaching ; later as heterodox teaching, 
sectarian teaching (opp. theravada orthodox doctrine) Miln 
148; Dpvs v.30; Mhbv 96. 

Acariyaka [acariya -\- ka, diff. from Sk. acariyaka nt. art 
of teaching] a teacher Vin 1.249; 'II-25, 41; D 1.88, 
119, 187; 11.112; M 1.514; 11.32; S V.261; A 11.170; IV. 
310. See also sacariyaka. 

Acama [Sk. acama] the scum or foam of boiling rice D 
1.166; M 1.78; A 1.295; J 11-289; Pug 55; VvA 99 sq.; 
DhA 111.325 ("kundaka). 

Acameti [for acameti? cp. Sk. acamayati, Caus. of a + cam] 
at M 11.112 in imper. acamehi be pleased or be thanked (r); 
perhaps the reading is incorrect. 

Acara [a -|- car] way of behaving, condact, practice, csp. 
right conduct, good manners; adj. ( — °) practising, in- 
dulging in, or of such & such a conduct. — Sn 280 
(papa°);J 1.106 (vipassana°); 11.280 (°ariya); VI. 52 (ariya"); 
SnA 157; PvA 12 (srla°), 36, 67, 252; Sdhp 44I. -an" 
bad behaviour Vin 11.118 (°q acarati indulge in bad habits); 
Dh.\ 11.201 (°kiriya). Cp. sain°. 

-kusala versed in good manners Dh 376 (cp. DhA 
IV. Ill), -gocara pasturing in good conduct; i.e. practice 
of right behaviour D 1.63 = It 118; M 1.33; S V.187; 
A 1.63 sq.; 11.14, 39; I"-'I3, «S5, 262; IV.140, 172, 
352; V.71 sq., 89, 133, 198; Vbh 244, 246 (cp. Miln 
368, 370, quot. Vin III. 185); Vism 1.8. -vipatti failure 
of morality, a slip in good conduct Vin 1.171. 

Acarin (adj. n.) [fr. acara] of good conduct, one who be- 
haves well A 1.211 (anacari virata 1. 4 fr. bottom is better 
read as acSrl virato, in accordance with v. 1.). 

Acikkhaka (adj. n.) [a -j- cikkha -|- ka of cikkhati] one 
who tells or shows DhA 1.71. 

Acikkhati [Freq. of a + khya, i. e. akkhati] to tell, relate, 
show, describe, explain D i.lio; A 11 189 (atthaq a to 
interpret); Pug 59; Dh.-V 1. 14; SnA 155; PvA 121, 164 
(describe). — imper. pres. acikkha Sn 1097 (=: bruhi Nd'^ 
119 & 455); Pv 1. 10"; II. 8'; and acikkhahi DhA 11.27. — 
aor. acikkbi PvA 6, 58, 61, 83. — acikkhati often occurs 




in stock phrase acikkhati deseti pannapeti patthapeti vi- j 
varati etc., e.g. Nd' 271; Nd^ 465; Vism 163. — altanai) 
a. to disclose one's identity PvA 89, 100. — pp. acik- ! 
khita (q. v.). — Caus. II. acikkhapefi to cause some- j 
body to tell DhA 11.27. 

Acikkhana (adj.-nt.) [a -|- cikkhana of cikkhati] telliog, 
announcing J 111.444 ; PvA 121. j 

Acikkhita [pp- of acikkhati] shown, described, told PvA j 
154 ("niagga), 203 (an° =3 anakkhata). 

Aclkkhitar [n. ag. fr. acikkhati] one who tells or shows 
DhA II. 1 07 (for pavattar). 

Aci^a [pp. of acinati? or is it distorted from acinna?] ac- 
cumulated; practised, performed Dh 121 (papaq = papaq 
acinanto karonto DhA Iii.i6). It may also be spelt acina. 

Aclp^a [a -|- cinna, pp. of acarati] practiced, performed, 
(habitually) indulged in M 1.372 (kamma, cp. Miln 226 
and the expl"- of acinnaka kamma as "chronic kavma" 
at CpJ. 144); S IV. 419; A V.74 sq.; J 1.81; D.\ 1.91 
(for avicinna at D 1.8), 275; Vism 269; Dh.\ 1.37 ("sa- 
macinna thoroughly fultilled); VvA 108; PvA 54; Sdhp 90. 
-kappa ordinance or rule of right conduct or customary 
practice(r) Vin 1.79; 11.301 ; Upvs iv.47; cp. V.18. 

Acita [pp. of acinati] accumulated, collected, covered, fur- 
nished or endowed with J VI. 250 (= nicita); Vv 41'; 
DhsA 310. See also acina. 

Acinati [a + cinati] to heap up, accumulate S III. 89 (v. 1. 
acinati); iv.73 (ppr. acinato dukkhaq); DhsA 44. — pp. 
acita & acina (acina). — Pass, aciyati (q. v.). 

Aciyati (& Aceyyati) [Pass, of acinati, cp. ciyati] to be 
heaped up, to increase, to grow ; ppr. aceyyamana J v. 6 
(= aciyanto vaddhanto C). 

Acera is the contracted form of acariya; only found in 
the Jatakas^ e. g. J IV.24S ; VI. 563. 

Acela in kaiicanacela-bhusita "adorned with golden clothes" 
Pv II.12' stands for cela°. 

Ajaiina is the contracted form of ajaniya. 

Ajava see acama. 

Ajana (adj.) [a -)- jSna from jng] understandable, only in cpd. 
durajana hard to understand S iv.127; Sn 145, 162; 
J I-29S, 300. 

Ajanana (m.) [a -f- janana, cp. Sk. ajSana] learning, knowing, 
understanding; knowledge J 1. 181 ("sabhava of the cha- 
racter of knowing, fit to learn); PvA 225. 

Ajanati [a -)- janati] to understand, to know, to learn D 
1. 189; Sn 1064 Camana = vijanamana Nd^ 120). As 
aiinati at Vism 200. — pp. annata. Cp. also anapeti. 

Ajaniya (ajaniya) (adj. n.) [cp. BSk. ajaneya & Sk. ajati 
birth, good birth. Instead of its correct derivation from 
a -|- jan (to be born, i. e. well-born) it is by Bdhgh. con- 
nected with a -f- jiia (to learn, i. e. to be trained). See 
for these popular elym. e.g. J I.l8i: saralhissa cittaru- 
citai) karanar) ajanana-sabhavo ajanuo, and Dh.\ \\'.\: yai) 
assadamma-sarathi karanaq kareti khippaq janana- 
samattha ajaniya. — The contracted form of the word 
is ajanna] of good race or breed; almost exclusively used 
to denote a thoroughbred horse (cp. assajaniya under 
assa^). (a) ajaniya (the more common & younger Pali 
form): Sn 462, 528, 532; J 1.178, 194; Dpvs iv.26 ; 
DhA 1.402; UI.49; 1V.4; VvA 78; PvA 216. — (b) aja- 

niya: M 1.445; A V.323; Dh 322 = Nd^ 475. — (c) 
ajanna = (mostly in poetry): Sn 300=: 304: J 1.181 ; 
Pv IV. i'*; purisajarma "a steed of man", i.e. a man 01 
noble race) S 111.91=: Th I, 1084 = Sn 544 ^ VvA 9; 
A v.325. -anajaniya of inferior birth M 1367. 

-SUSU the young of a noble horse, a noble foal M I. 
445 (°upamo dhamma-pariyayo). 

Ajaniyata (f.) [abstr. fr. ajaniya] good breed PvA 214. 

Ajlra[=:ajirawith lengthened initial a]acourtyardMhvs35,3. 

Ajiva [S -|- jiva; Sk. ajiva] livelihood, mode of living, living, 
subsistence, D 1.54; A 111.124 (parisuddha'-) ; Sn 407 (°i) 
^ parisodhayi = micchajivaq hitva sammajivaq eva pavat- 
tayi SnA 382), 617; Pug 51; Vbh 107, 235; Miln 229 
(bhinna"); Vism 306 (id.); DhsA 390; Sdhp 342, 375, 
392. Esp. freq. in the contrast pair samma-ajiva & 
miccha-a" right mode & wrong mode of gaining a living, 
e. g. at S 11.168 sq.; 111.239; v 9; A1.271 ; II 53, 240, 270; 
IV.82 ; Vbh 105, 246. See also magga (ariyatthangika). 

-parisuddhi purity or propriety of livelihood Miln 336; 
Vism 22 sq., 44; Dh.A. iv.iu. -Vipatti failure in method 
of gaining a living A 1.270. -sampada perfection of (right) 
livelihood A 1. 271; DA 1.235. 

AjTvaka (& "ika) [ajiva -|- ka, orig. "one finding his living" 
(scil. in a peculiar way); cp. BSk. ajivika Divy 393, 
427] an ascetic, one of the numerous sects of non-buddhist 
ascetics. On their austerities, practice & way of living 
see esp. DhA 11.55 sq. and on the whole question Barua, 
B. M. The Ajiviias, Univ. of Calcutta 1920. — (a) aji- 
vika: Vin 1. 291; 11.284; i\'-74. 9'; M 1.31, 483; S I. 
217; A 111.276, 384; J 1.81, 257, 390. — (b) ajivika: 
Vin 1.8; Sn 381 (v. 1. BB. °aka). 

-savaka a hearer or lay disciple of the ajivaka ascetics 
Vin II 130, 165 ; A 1. 217. 

Ajivika (nt.) (or ajivika f.?) [fr. ajiva] sustenance of life, 
livelihood, living Vbh 379 (°bhaya) Miln 196 (id.); PvA 
274, and in phrase ajivik'apakata being deprived of a 
livelihood, without a living M 1.463^:5 111.93 (T. reads 
jivika pakata) == It 89 (reads ajivika pakata) =: Miln 279. 

Ajivin (adj.-n.) [fr. ajiva] having one's livelihood, finding 
one's subsistence, living, leading a life of ( — °) D 111.64; 
A V.190 (lakha°). 

Ata [etym.? Cp. Sk. ati Turdus Ginginianus, see Aufrecht, 
Halayudha p. 148] a kind of bird J vi.539 (= dabbi- 
mukha C). 

Ataviya is to be read for ataviyo (q. v.) at J vi.55 [= 
Sk. atavika]. 

Athapana (f.) at Pug i8 & v.l. at Vbh 357 is to be read 
attbapana (so T. at Vbh 357). 

Anatija see anejja. 

AQanya see ananya. 

Anattl (f.) [a -f natti (cp. aniipeli), Caus. of jiia] order, 
command, ordinance, injunction Vin I.62; Kh.\ 29; PvA 
260; Sdhp 59, 354. 

Aoattika (adj.) [anatti -\- ka] belonging to an ordinance or 
command, of the nature of an injunction KhA 29. 

Apa (f) [Sk. ajna, a -f jiia] order, command, authority 
Miln 253; DA 1.289; KhA 179, 180, 194; PvA 217; 
Sdhp 347, 576. raj'ana the king's command or authority 
J '-433; "'•35') P^A 242. anar) deti to give an order 
J 1.398; "9 pavattetl to issue an order Miln 189, cp. 
anapavatti j 111.504; iv. 145. 




Anapaka (adj. n.) [fr. anapeti] I. (adj.) giving an order 
Vism 303. — 2. (n.) one who gives or calls out orders, 
a town-crier, an announcer of the orders (of an authority) 
Miln 147. 

Aoap&na (nt.) [abstr. fr. anapeti] ordering or being, ordered, 
command, order PvA 135. 

Anapeti [a + fiapeli, Caus. of a -|- jansti fr. jna, cp. Sk. 
ajnapayati] to give an order, to enjoin, command (with 
ace. of person) J 111.351; Miln I47; DhA 11.82; VvA 
68 (dasiyo), 69; PvA 4, 39, 81. 

A^Jl (Vedic ani to anu fine, thin, flexible, in formation an 
»-enlargement of Idg. *olena, cp. Ohg. lun, Ger. liinse, 
Ags. lynes = E. linch, further related to Lat. ulna elbow, 
Gr. wAf'vij, Ohg. elina, Ags. eln ;= E. el-bow. See Walde, 
Lat. Wtb. under ulna & lacertus]. — I. the pin of a 
wheel-axle, a linch-pin M 1. 1 19; S 11.266, 267; A 11.32; 
Sn 654; J VI.253, 432; SnA 243; KhA 45, 50. — 2. a 
peg, pin, bolt, stop (at a door) M 1.119; S 11266 (drum 
stick); J IV.30; VI.432, 460; Th I, 744; Dh 1.39. — 
3. (fig.) (° — ) peg-like (or secured by a peg, of a door), 
small, lifle in "colaka a small (piece of) rag Vin 11. 271, 
cp. 1.205 (vanabandhana-colaka); °dvara Th i, 355; C. 
khuddaka-dvara, quoted at Brethren 200, trsl. by Mrs. 
Rh. D. as "the towngate's sallyport" by Neumann as 
"Gestdck" (fastening, enclosure) ani-ganthik^ahato ayopatto 
at Vism 108; DA r.199 is apparently a sort of brush 
made of four or fire small pieces of flexible wood. 

Atanka [etym. uncertain; Sk. atanka] illness, sickness, 
disease M 1.437; S lll.i; Sn 966 ("phassa, cp. Nd' 486). 
Freq. in cpd. appatanka freedom from illness, health 
(cp. appabadha) D 1.204; ni.l66; A III. 65, 103; Miln 
14. — f. abstr. appatankata M 1.124. 

Atankln (adj.) [fr. atanka] sick, ill J v.84 (= gilana C). 

Atata [fr. a -)- tan, pp. tata; lit. stretched, covered over] 
generic name for drums covered with leather on one side 
Dpvs .\1V.I4; VvA 37 (q. v. for enum". of musical in- 
struments), 96. 

Atatta [a -f tatta', pp. of a-tapati] heated, burnt, scorched, 
dry J V.69 (°rupa ^ sukkha-saiira C). 

Atapa [a -j- tapa] — I. sun-heat Sn 52; J 1. 3 36; Dhs 617; 
Dpvs 1.57; VvA 54; PvA 58. — 2. glow, heat (in general) 
Pv 1.7'; Sdhp 396. — 3. (fig.) (cp. tapa^) ardour, zeal, 
exertion PvA 98 (viriya-tapa; perhaps better to be read 
°atapa q. v.). Cp. atappa. 

-varana "warding ofl^ the sun-heat", i. e. a parasol, 
sun-shade Davs 1.28; v.35. 

Atapata (f.) [abstr. of atapa] glowing or burning state, 
heat Sdhp 122. 

Atapatl [a -f tap] to burn J 111.447. 

Atappa (nt.) [Sk. *atapya, fr. atSpa] ardour, zeal, exertion 
D 1.13; 111.30 sq., 104 sq., 238 sq.; M 111.210; S 11.132, 
196 sq.; A 1.153; 111.249; 1V.460 sq. ; V.17 sq.; Sn 1062 
(:= ussaha ussolhi thama etc. Nd^ 122); J 111.447; Nd' 
378; Vbh 194 (=vayama); DA 1.104. 

Atapa [a -f- tapa fr. tap; cp. tSpeti] glow, heat; fig. ardour, 
keen endeavour, or perhaps better "torturing, mortifica- 
tion" Miln 313 (cittassa atapo paritapo); PvA 98 (viriya"). 
Cp. atappa & atapana. 

Atapana (nt.) [a -|- tapana] tormenting, torture, mortifica- 
tion M 1.78; A 1.296 (°paritapana); n.207 (id.); Pug 55 
(id.); Vism 3 (id.). 

Atapin (adj.) [fr. atapa, cp. BSk. atapin Av. S 1.233; "■ 
194 = Divy 37; 618] ardent, zealous, strenuous, active 
D 111.58, 76 sq., 141 (-f sampajana), 221, 276; M 1.22, 
56, 116, 207, 349;; 111.89, 128, 156; S 113, 117 
sq., 140, 165; 11.21, 136 sq.; I1I.73 sq.; IV.37, 48, 54, 
218; V.165, 187, 213; A 11.13 ^l-j '"38, it^'O sq.; IV. 
29, 177 sq., 266 sq., 300, 457 sq.; V.343 sq. ; Sn 926; 
Nd' 378; It 41, 42; Vbh 193 sq.; Miln 34, 366; Vism 
3 (=viriyava); Dh.^ 1.120; Sn.\ 157, 503. — Freq. in 
the formula of Arahantship "eko vupakattho appamatto 
atapl pahitatto" : see arahant II. B. See also satipafthana, . — 
0pp. anatapin S 11.195 5<l-i ^ "-'3; I' 27 (-f anottappin). 

Atapeti [a -f- tapeti] to burn, scorch; fig. to torment, in- 
flict pain, torture M 1.341 (+ paritapeti); S iv.337; Miln 
314, 3"5- 

Atitheyya (nt.) [fr. ati + theyya] great theft (?) A 1.93 ; iv. 
63 sq. (v. 1. ati" which is perhaps to be preferred). 

AtU [dialectical] father M 1.449 (cp. Trenckner's note on 
p. 567 : the text no doubt purports to make the woman 
speak a sort of patois). 

Atutnan [Vedic atman, diaeretic form for the usual con- 
tracted attan ; only found in poetry. Cp. also the shortened 
form tuman] self. nom. sg. atumo Pv iv.52 {^= sabhavo 
PvA 259), atuma Nd' 69 (atuma vuccati atla), 296 (id.), 
& atumano Nd' 351; ace. atumanar) Sn 782 (= attanaij 
SnA 521), 888, 918; loc. atume Pv 11.13" (= attani C). 

Atura (adj.) [Sk. atura, cp. BSk. atura, e.g. Jtm 31^"] ill, 
sick, diseased; miserable, affected S ill. I ("kaya); A I. 
250; Sn 331; Vv 83''* (°rupa = abhitunna-kaya VvA 
328); J 1.197 (^anna "food of the miserable", i.e. last 
meal of one going to be killed; C. expl^- as raarana- 
bhojana), 211 (^cilta); 11.420 (°anna, as above); 111.201; 
V.90, 433; VI. 248; Miln 139, 168; DhA 1. 31 ("rupa); 
PvA 160, 161; VvA 77; Sdhp 507. Used by Commenta- 
tors as syn. of atfo, e.g. at J iv.293; SnA 489 -ana- 
ttira healthy, well, in good condition S lll.i; Dh 198. 

Athabbana (nt.) [= athabbana, q. v.] the Atharva Veda as 
a code of magic working formulas, witchcraft, sorceiy Sn 
927 (v. 1. ath", see interpieted at Nd' 381; expW- as 
athabbanika-manta-ppayoga at SnA 564)' 

Athabbanika (adj. n.) [fr. athabbana] one conversant with 
magic, wonder-worker, medicine-man Nd' 3S1; SnA 564. 

Adapetl [Caus. of adati] to cause one to take, to accept, 
agree to M 11.104; S 1. 132. 

Adara [Sk. adara, prob. a -\- dara, cp. scmantically Ger. 
ehrfurcht awe] consideration of, esteem, regard, lespect, 
reverence, honour J v.493; SnA 290; DA 1.30; DhsA 
61; VvA 36, 61, 101, 321^; PvA 121, 123, 135, 278; 
Sdhp 2, 21, 207, 560. -anadara lack of reverence, dis- 
regard, disrespect; (adj.) disrespectful S 1.96; Vin iv.2l8; 
Sn 247 (:= adara-virahita SnA 290; DA 1.284; VvA 219; 
PvA 3, 5, 54, 67, 257. 

Adarata (f.) [abstr. fr. adara] = adara, in neg. an° want 
of consideration J IV.229; Dhs 1325 = Vbh 359 (in 
expln- of dovacassata). 

Adariya (nt.) [abstr. fr. adara] showing respect of honour; 
neg. an° disregard, disrespect Vin 11.220; A v.146, 148; 
Pug 20; Vbh 371; miln 266. 

Adava [a -f dav.i^?] is gloss at VvA 216 for maddava Vv 
512''; meaning: excitement, adj. exciting. The passage in 
VvA is somewhat corrupt, & therefore unclear. 

Adahati' [a -|- dahati'] to put down, put on, settle, fix 
Vism 289 (samai) a. = samadahati). Cp. sam° and adhiyati. 




Adahati' [a +dabati^] to set fire to, to burn J vi.zoi, 203. 

Ada [ger. of adali from reduced base *da of dadati l^] 
taking up, taking to oneself Vin IV. 1 20 (=: anadiyilva 
C. ; cp. the usual form adaya). 

AdatI (Adadati) [a -f- dadati of dadati base I da] to take 
up, accept, appropriate, grasp, seize; grd. adatabba Vin 
1.50; inf. adaturj Dm 133 (adinnai) theyyasankhaiai) a.). — 
ger. ada & adaya (see sep.); grd. adeyya, Caus. ada- 
peti (q. v.). — See also adiyati & adeti. 

Adana (nt.) [ad + ana, or directly from a + dfi, base I 
of dadati] taking up, getting, grasping, seizing; fig. ap- 
propriating, clinging to the world, seizing on (worldly 
objects), (i) (lit.) takicg (food), pasturing M m.133; J 
V.371 (& °esana). — (2) getting, acquiring, taking, seizing 
S 11.94; A IV.400 (dand°); I'vA 27 (phal"); esp. freq. 
in adinn° seizing what is not given, i.e. theft: see under 
adinna. — (3) (fig) attachment, clinging A v. 233, 253 
(°patinissagga); Dh 89 (id.; cp. DhA 11.163); Sn 1 103 
(°tanha), H04 (°satta); Nd' 98 ("gantha); Nd* 123, 124. 
-an° free from attachment S 1.236 (sadanesu anadano "not 
laying hold mong them that grip" trsl.); A 11. 10; It 
109; J IV. 354; Miln 342; DhA IV.70 (= khandhadisu 
niggahano). Cp. upa°, pari". 

Adaya [ger. of adati, either from base I of dadati (da) or 
base 2 (day). See also adiya] having received or taken, 
taking up, seizing on, receiving; freq. used in the sense 
of a prep, "with" (c. ace.) Sn 120, 247, 452; J V.13; 
Vbh 245; DliA 11.74; SnA 139; PvA 10, 13, 38, 61 
etc. — At Vin 1.70 the form adaya is used as a noun f. 
adaya in meaning of "a casually taken up belief" (lassa 
Sdayassa vanne bhanati). Cp. upa°, pari". 

Adayin (adj.-n.) [fr. a + dadati base 2, cp. adaya] taking 
up, grasping, receiving; one who takes, seizes or appro- 
priates D 1.4 (dinn°); A iu.80; V.137 (sar°); DA 1.72. 

Adasa [Sk. adarsa, a 4- dfi, P. dass, of dassati ' 2] a mir- 
ror Vin II. 107; D 1.7, II (°paiiha mirror-questioning, cp. 
DA 1.97: "adase devatai] otaretva paiiha-pucchanai)"), 80; 
11.93 (dhamna'-adasai] nama dhamma-pariyayai) desessarai) ; 

5 V.357 (id.); A V.92, 97 sq., 103; J 1.504; Dhs 617 
(°mandala); Vism 591 (in simile); KhA 50 (°danda) 237; 
DhA i.226. 

-tala the surface of the mirror, in similes at Vism 450, 
456, 489. 

Adasaka = adasa Th 2, 411. 

Adl [Sk. adi, etym. uncertain] — i. (m.) slarling-point be- 
ginning Sn 358 (ace. adiq = karanaq SnA 351); Dh 375 
(nom. adi); Miln 10 (adimhi); J vi.567 (abl. adito from 
the beginning). For use as nt. see below 2 b. — 2. (adj. 

6 adv.) (a) C — ) beginning, initially, first, principal, 
chief: see cpds. — (b) (° — ) beginning with, being the 
first (of a series which either is supposed to be familiar 
in its constituents to the reader or hearer or is immedi- 
ately intelligible from the context), i. e. and so on, so 
forth (cp. adhika); c. g. rukkha-gumb-adayo (ace. pi.) 
trees, jungle etc. J 1.150; ambapanas^ adihi rukkehi sam- 
panno (and similar kinds of fruit) J 1.278; amba-labuj'adi- 
nai) phalanai] anto J 11.159; asi-satti-dhamiadini avudhani 
(weapous, such as sword, knife, bow & the like) J 1.150; 
kasi-gorakkh^ adini karonte manusse J 11.128; . . . ti adina 
nayena in this and similar ways J 1.81 ; PvA 30. Abso- 
lute as nt. pi. adini with ti (evai)) (adini), closing a 
quotation, meaning "this and such like", e. g. at J 11.128, 
416 (ti adini viravitvl). — In phrase adiq katva meaning 
"putting (him, her, it) first", i.e. beginning with, from . . . 
on, from . . . down (c. ace.) e. g. DhA 1.393 (rajanai) adii) 
K. from the king down); PvA 20 (viharai) adikatva), 21 
(pancavaggiye adiq K.). 

-kammika [cp. BSk. adikaimaka Divy 544] a beginner Vin 

111.116; iv.ioo; Miln 59; Vism 241; DhsA 187. -kalyana 
in phrase adikalyS^a tnajjhe-kalyana pariyosana-kalyana of 
the Dhamma, "beautiful in the beginning, the middle & 
the end" see references under dbamma C. 3 and cp. DA 
I.I 75 (= adimhi kalyana etc.); SnA 444; abstr. "kalya- 
nata Vism 4. -pubbatigama original Dpvs iv.26. -brah- 
macariyaka belonging to the principles or fundaments 
of moral life D 1.189; 111.284; M '^SM ll-'25, 211; HI. 
192; S 11.75, 223; IV.91; V.417, 438; f. °iia Vin 1.64, 
68; A 1. 231 sq. -majjbapariyosana beginning, middle 
& end Miln 10; cp. above adikalyana. 

Adika(adj.)[adi -|- ka] from the beginning, initial (see adhika); 
instr. adikena in the beginning, at once, at the same time 
M 1.395, 479; "-213; S 11.224; J VI.567. Cp. adiya'. 

AdiCCa [Vedic aditya] the sun S 1. 15, 47; 11.284; UI156; 
v.44, 101; A 1.242; V.22, 263, 266 sq.; It 85; Sn 550, 
569, 1097 ("adicco vuccati suriyo" Nd'^ 125); DhA iv. 
143; Sdhp 14, 17, 40. 

-upattbana sun-worship D i.u (^ jivikatthgya adicca- 
paricariya DA 1.97); J 11.72 (°jalaka; adiccai) upatitthati 
p. 73 = suriyai) namassamano titthati C). -patha the 
path of the sun, i.e. the sky, the heavens Dh 175 (= 
akasa Dh.\ III. 177). -bandhu "kinsman of the sun", Ep. 
of the Buddha Vin 11.296; S 1.186, 192; A 11.54; Sn 54, 
915, 1128; Nd' 341; Nd2 i25l>; Vv 42', 78'"; VvA 116. 

AdIOOa [3k. adirna, pp. of a + df, see adiyati^] broken, 
split open S IV. 193 (:= sipatika with burst pod); cp. 
M 1.306. 

Adlooata (nt.) [abstr. fr. adinna] state of being broken or 
split Ps I 49. 

Aditta [a + ditta', Sk. adipta, pp. of a -f- dip] set on fire, 
blazing, burning Vin 1.34; Kv 209 (sabbar) adittarj); S 
111.71; 1V.19, 108; A IV.320 (°cela); Sn 591; J iv.391 ; 
Pv l.8» (=paditta jalita PvA 41); Kvu 209; DA I.264; 
PvA 149; Sdhp 599. 

-pariyaya the discourse or sermon on the fire (lit. being 
in fllames) S iv.168 sq. ; Vin 1.34; DhA 1.88. 

Adina only at D I 115 (T. reading adina, but v. 1. S id. 
adina, B p. abhinna) in phrase adina-khattiya-kula prim- 
ordial. See note in Dia/. 1.148. 

Adiya' (adj.) grd. of admi, ad, Sk. adya] edible, eatable 
A 111.45 (bhojanani). 

Adiya'^ in °mukha is uncertain reading at A in. 164 sq. 
(vv. 11. adeyya" & adheyya), meaning perhaps "grasp- 
month", i. e. gossip ; thus equal to ger. of adiyati'. Per- 
haps to be taken to adiyati*. The same phrase occurs at 
Pug 65 (T. adheyya", C. has v. 1. adheyya") where Pug 
A 248 expl"s. "adito dheyyamukho, pathama-vacanasmiq 
yeva thapita-mukho ti attho" (sticking to one's word?). 
See adheyya. 

Adiya' = adika, instr. adiyena in the beginning J vi.567 
(= adikena C). 

Adiya* ger. of adiyati. 

Adiyati [a + diyati, med. pass, base of dadati<, viz. di° & 
di° ; see also adati & adeti] to take up: take to oneself, 
seize on, grasp, appropriate, fig. take notice of, take to 
heart, heed. — pres. adiyati A iij.46; Sn 119, 156, 633, 
785, Nd' 67; Nd» 123, 124;) 111.296: V.367. — pot. 
adiye Sn 400; imper. adiya M 111.133 (so read for 
adissa?). — aor. adiyi D 111.65; A 111.209, idiySsi Pv 
iv.i<8 (sayaq daijdai) a. = acchinditva ganhasi PvA 241), 
& adapayi (Caus. formation fr. adati?) to take heed S 
1. 1 32 (v. 1. adiyi, trsl. "put this into thy mind"). — ger. 
adiyitva Vin iv.120 (=5da); J 11.224 (C. for adiya T.); 
111.104; >v.352 (an° not heeding; v. 1. anaditva, cp. ana- 
diyanto not attending J 111.196); Dh.\ III. 32 (id.); PvA 


Adiyati [S + diyati, Sk. adiryate, Pass, of df to split : see 
etym. under darl] to split, go asunder, break Ps 1.49. — 
pp. adinna. See also avadiyati, Cp. also upadinna. 

Adlyanata (f.) [abstr. formation adiyana (fr. adiya ger. of 
adiyati) + ta] in an" the fact of not taking up or heeding 
SnA 516. 

Adlsati [a + disati] (a) to announce, tell, point out, refer 
to. — (b) to dedicate (a gift, dakkhinai) or danaq). — 
pres. ind. adisati D 1.213^ A 1.170 (tell or read one's 
character); Sn 1 1 12 (atitaq); Nd' 382 (nakkhattaq set 
the horoscope); Miln 294 (danaq); pot. adiseyya Th 2, 
307 (dakkhinaq); Pv iv.i^" (id. = uddiseyya PvA 228}, 
& adise Vin 1.229 = D 11.88 (dakkhinarj) ; imper. adisa 
PvA 49. — fut. adissati Th 2, 308 (dakkhinaq) Pv.\ 
88 (id.). — aor. adisi Pv 11.28; PvA 46 (dakkhinari); pi. 
adisii]su ibid. 53 (id.) & adisuq Pv 1. 10" (id.). — ger. 
adissa Vin ni.127; Sn 1018; Pv ii.i''(danar|), & adisitvana 
Th 2, 311. — grd. adissa (adj.) to be told or shown M 1.12. 

Adiso (adv.) [orig. abl. of adi, formed with °sah] from the 
beginning, i.e. thoroughly, absolutely D 1. 180; M 111.208. 

Adissa at M III.133 is an imper. pres. meaning "take", & 
should probably better be read adiya (in corresponsion 
with adana). It is not grd. of adisati, which its form 
might suggest. 

Adina at D 1.115 ^ S v. 74 (w. 11. adina, & abhinna) see 
adina. See dlpna. 

Adinava [a + dina -j- va (nt.), a substantivised adj., orig. 
meaning "full of wretchedness", cp. BSk. adinava M Vastu 
III.297 (misery); Divy 329] disadvantage, danger (in or 
through = loc.^ D 1.38 (vedananaq assadan ca adinavaii 
ca etc.), 213 (iddhi-patihariye M 1. 318; S 1.9 (etlha bhiyo); 
11.170 sq. (dhatunar)); 111.27, 62, 102 (rupassa etc.); IV.7, 
168; A 1.57 (akaraniye kayiramane) 258 (ko loke assado); 
111.250 sq. ; 267 sq. (duccarite), 270 (puggala-ppasade); 
IV. 439 sq.; V.81; J 1.146; IV.2; It 9 = A 11.10 = Nd- 
172a; Sn 36, 50 (cp. Nd-! 127), 69, 424, 732; Th 2, 17 
(kaye a. = dosa ThA 23), 485 (kamesu a. = dosa ThA 
287); Pv'' (= dosa PvA 214); iv.ei (^ dosa PvA 
263); Ps 1. 192 sq.; 11.9, 10; PvA 12, 208. — There are 
several sets of sources of evil or danger, viz. five dussi- 
lassa slla-vipattiya a. at D 11.85 = I'l-^SS = A 111.252; 
five akkhantiya a. at Vbh 378; si.\ of six each at D 
111.182 sq. — In phrase kamanar) a. okaro sankileso D 
I. no, 148; M 1. 115; Nett 42; DhA 16. 

-Snupassin realising the danger or evil of S 11.85 ("P^' 
daniyesu dhammesu) abstr. "anupassana Vism 647 sq., 695. 
-dassavin same as °&nupassin D 1.245 (^"'')i A v. 178 
(id.); D 111.46; S 11.194, 269; A 111.146; v.181 sq.; Nd^ 
141. -pariyesana search for danger in ( — °) S 11. 171; 
111.29; IV.8 sq. -sanna consciousness of danger D 1.79; 
111.253, 283; A 111.79. 

Adipaniya (adj.) [grd. of S + dipeti] to be explained Miln 270. 

Adipita [pp. of Sdipeli, a -f- caus. of dip, cp. dipeti] ablaze, 
in flames S 1.31 (loka; v. 1. adittaka) 108; J v.366; DhA 
III 32 (v. 1. aditta). 

AdU (indecl.) [see also adu] emphatic (adversative) part. 
(l) of affirmation & emphasis: but, indeed, rather J ill. 
499 = ^1.443; V.180; VI.552. — (2) as 2nd component 
of a disjunctive question, mostly in corresponsion udahu 
. . . adu (= kir) . . . udahu SnA 350), viz. is it so . . . or" 
Th I, 1274 = Sn 354; Pv iv.3ii = DhA 1.31; J v.384; 
VI.382; without udahu at J v.460 (adu). The close con- 

100 Adhipacca 

nection with udahu suggesto an expl"- of adu as a some- 
how distorted abbreviation of udahu. 

Adetl [a + deti, base^ of dadati (day' & de°), cp. also 
adiyati] to take, receive, get Sn 121 (== ganhati SnA 
'79)1 954 (= upadiyati ganhati Nd' 444); cp. 1.4'; J III. 
103, 296; v.366 (= ganhati C. ; cp. adiyati on p. 367); 
Miln 336. 

Ade)^a (adj.) [grd. of adati (q. v.)] to be taken up, accept- 
able, pleasant, welcome, only in phrase °vacana welcome 
or acceptable speech, glad words Vin n.158; j'vi.243; 
Miln no; ThA 42. 

Adeva, Adevana [a + div. devati] lamenting, deploring, 
crying etc. in ster. phrase (explaining parideva or parid- 
dava) adevo paridevo adevana pari" adevitattar) pari" 

Ndi 370 = Nd2 416 = Ps 1.38. 

Adesa [fr. adisati, cp. Sk. iidesa] information, pointing out; 
as tt. g. characteristic, determination, substitute, e. g. kuto- 
nidana is at SnA 303 said to equal kiq-nidana, the to 
of kuto (abl.) equalling or being substituted for the ace. 
case: paccatta-vacanassa to-adeso veditabbo. 

Adesana (f-) [a + desana] pointing out, guessing, prophesy; 
only in phrase "patihariya trick or marvellous ability of 
mind-reading or guessing other peoples character Vin II. 
200; D 1.212, 213; III. 220; A 1. 170, 292; v,327; Ps 11. 
227. For patihariya is subsiituted °vidha (lit. variety of, 
i. e. act or performance etc.) at D 111.103. 

Adhana (nt.) [a -f- dhana] — I. putting up, putting down, 
placing, laying A IV. 41 (aggissa adhanaq, v. 1. of 6 MSS 
adanaq). — 2. receptacle M I 414 (udak°), cp. adheyya. — 
3. enclosure, hedge Miln 220 (kantak° thorny brake, see 
under kantaka). 

-gahin holding one's own place, i. e. obstinate (?), 
reading uncertain & interchanging with adana, only in 
one ster. phrase, viz. sanditthi-paramSsin adhana-gahin 
duppatinissaggin Vin 11.89; M 1.43, 96; A III. 335 (v. 1. 
adana", C. expl^ by dalhagahin); D III.247 (adhana"). 

Adhara [a + dhara] — 1. a container, receptacle, basin, 
lit. holder A 111.27; J VI. 257. — 2. ^holding up", i.e. 
support, basis, prop. esp. a (round) stool or stand for 
the alms-bowl (patta) Vin 11. 113 (an" patto); M in.95 ; 
S V.21; J V.202. — fig. S V.20 (an° without a support, 
cittat)); Vism 8, 444. — 3. (tt. g.) name for the loc. case 
("resting on") Sq 211. 

Adharaka (m. & nt.) [a + dharaka, or simply adhara + 
ka] — 1. a stool or stand (as adhara') (always m., except 
at J 1.33 where "ani pi. nt.) J 1.33; DhA 111.290= VvA 
220; DhA 111.120= 186 (one of the four priceless things 
of a Talhagata, viz.: setacchattai), nisldanapallanko, adha- 
rako padaplthai]). — 2. a reading desk, pulpit J 111.235; 

Adhara^ata (f.) [a + dharanatS] concentration, attention, 
mindfulness Sn.\ 290 (-f- dalhikarana), 398 (id.). 

Adharlta [pp. of a + dhareti, cp. dhareti'] supported, held 
up Miln 68. 

Adhavatl [a -|- dhavati'] to run towards a goal, to run 
after M 1.265 (where id. p. S 11.26 has upadh"); DA I. 
39. Freq. in comb"- adhavati paridbara)! to run about, 
e.g. J 1.127, 134, 158; 11.68. 

Adhavana(nt.)[fr. adhavati] onrush, violent motion Miln 135. 

Adhipacca (& Adhlpateyya) (nt.) [fr. adhi -f pati + ya 

"being over-lord"; see also adhipateyya] supreme rule, 
lordship, sovereignty, power S v.342 (issariy"); A 1.62 
(id.), 147, 212; 11.205 (id); 111.33, 76; iv.252 sg.; Pv 
11.9'" (one of the thanas, cp. thana 11. 2b; see also D 111. 




146, wbere spelt adhipateyya; expld. by issariya at PvA 
137); J 1.57; Davs V.17; VvA 126 (gehe a = issariya). 
The three (att°, lok", dhamm") at Vism 14. 

Adhuta [a -\- dhuta'] shaken, moved (by the wind, i.e. 
fanned Vv 39* (v. 1. adhuta which is perhaps to be 
preferred, i. e. not shaken, cp. vatadhutar) Davs v. 49; 
VvA 178 expls- by sanikaq vidhupayamana, i.e. gently 

Adheyya (adj.) [grd. of a + dadhati cp. adhana^] to be 
deposited (in one's head & heart Pug A), to be heeded, 
to be appropriated [in latter meaning easily mixed with 
adheyya, cp. w. 11, under adiya^]; nt. depository (=: 
adhalabliata thapetabbala Pug A 217) Pug 34 (°i) gacchati 
is deposited); Miln 359 (sabbe lass' adheyya^ honti they 
all become deposited in him, i. e. his deposits or his 

-mukha see adiya^. 

Anaka [Sk. anaka, cp. Morris J P T S. 1893, 10] a kind 
of kettledrum, beaten only at one end S 11.266; J 11. 
344; Dpvs XVI. 14. 

Anaiica see akasa" and vinnana". 

Ananja see anejja. 

AnaQya (nt.) [Sk. anrnya, so also RSk. e. g. Jtm 3 1 '8; 
from a + FO^i -f- 'P'' ^"' *'^° ^0^ '" composition, thus 
an-nna as base of ananya] freedom from debt D 1.73; 
A 111-354 (Ep. of Nibbana, cp. anana) ; Nd' 160; Vism 
44; DA 1.3. 

AnadatI [a + nadali] to trumpet (of elephants) J IV. 233. 

Anana (nt.) [Vedic ana, later Sk. anana from an to breathe] 
the mouth; adj. ( — °) having a mouth Sdhp 103; Pgdp 
63 (vikat"). 

Anantarika (& °ya) [fr. an -f- antara -)- ika] without an 
interval, immediately following, successive Vin 1. 321; II. 
JI2 ; Pug 13; Dhs 1291. 

-kamma "conduct that finds retribution without delay" 
(Az/jj Irsl. 275 n. 2) Vin II. 193; J 1-45; Kvu 480; Miln 
25 (cp. Dhs Irsl. 267); Vism 177 (as prohibiting practice 
of kammattbana). 

Ananda [Vedic aoanda, fr. a -\- nand, cp. BSk. anandl joy 
Divy 37] joy, pleasure, bliss, delight D 1.3; Sn 679, 687; 
J 1.207 (°maccha Leviathan); VI. 589 (°bheri festive drum); 
DA I 53 (= pitiya etaq adhivacanaq). 

Anandatl [a + nandati] to be pleased or delighted J vi. 
589 (aor. anandi in T. reading anandi vitta, expld. by 
C. as nandittha was pleased ; we should however read 
aaandi-citta with gladdened heart). See also anandiya. 

Anandin (adj.) [fr. a -f nand] joyful, friendly Th I, 555; 
J IV. 226. 

Anandiya (adj.-.) [grd. of anandati] enjoyable, nt. joy, feast 
J VI. 5 89 (°q acarati to celebrate the feast =: ananda- 
cbana C.). 

Anandi (f.) [a + nandl, cp. ananda] joy, happiness in cpd. 
anandi-citta J vi.589 (so read probably for anandi vitta: 
see anandati). 

Anaya (adj-) [a 4- naya] to be brought, in suvanaya easy 
to bring S 1.124= J t-8o. 

Anayatl see aneti. 

Anapana (nt.) [ana -f apana, cpds. of an to breathe] in- 
haled & exhaled breath, inspiration & respiration S v. 1 32, 
311 sq.; J 1.58; Ps 1. 162 (°katha); usually in cpd. °sati 
concentration by in-breathing & out-breathing (cp. Man. 
of Mystic 70) M 1.425 (cp. D U.291); lll.S^; Vin 111.70; 

A 1.30; It 80; Ps I.J66, 172, 185 ("samadhi); Nd^ 466 B 
(id.); Miln 332; Vism III, 197, 266 sq.; SnA 165. See 
detail under sati. 

Anapetl see aneti. 

Anameti [a + nameti. Cans, of namati, which is usually 
spelt nameti] to make bend, to bend, to bring toward or 
under J V.154 (doubtful reading fut anamayissasi. v. 1. 
anayissati, C. anessasi = lead to). 

AnisaiJSa [a 4- "> + saqsa, BSk. distorted to anusarjsa] 
praise i. e. that which is commendable, profit, merit, ad- 
vantage, good result, blessing in or from (c. loc). — 
There are five anisar|sa sllavato sila-sampadaya or bles- 
sings which accrue to the virtuous enum<i at D 11.86, 
viz. bhogakkhandha great wealth, kittisadda good report, 
visarada self-confidence, asammulho kalar) karoti an 
untroubled death, saggar) lokarj uppajjati a happy state 
after death. — D i.iio, 143; 111.132 (four), 236 (five); 
M 1.204; S 1.46, 52; III. 8, 93 (maha"); v.69 (seven), 
73, 129, 133, 237 (seven), 267, 276; A 1.58 (karanlye 
kariyamane); 11.26, 185, 239, 243 (sikkha°); IH.41 (dane), 
248 (dhammasavane), 250 (yaguya), 251 (upatthita-satissa), 
253 sq. (silavato silasampadaya etc., as above), 267 (su- 
carite), 441 ; IV. 150 (mettaya ceto-vimuttiya), 361 (dhamma- 
savane), 439 sq. (nekkhamme avilakke nippltike), 442, 
443 sq. (akas'anaiicayatane); v.i, 106 (maha°), 311; It 
28, 29, 40 (sikkha°); Sn 256 (phala°), 784, 952; J I.9, 
94; V.491 (v, 1. anu°); Nd' 73, 104, 441; Kvu 400; 
Miln 198; VvA 6, 113; PvA 9 (dana°) 12, 64 (=; phala), 
208, 221 (= guna); Sdhp 263. — Eleven anisai}sas of 
metia (cp. Ps 11. 130) are given in detail at Vism 31 1 — 
314; on another light see pp. 644 sq. 

Anisada (nt.) [a -|- sad] "sit down", bottom, behind M I. 
80 = 245; J 111.435 (gloss asata) Vism 251 = KhA 45 
(°ltaca), 252 (°maijsa). 

Anuttariya (nt.) [see also anuttariya which as — ° probably 
represents anulf] incomparableness, excellency, supreme 
ideal D III. 102 sq.; A v.37. 

Anita [pp. of aneti] fetched, brought (here), brought back 
adduced J 1.291; in. 127; iv.i. 

Anuputtha metri causa for aauptittha (q. v.). 

Anupubba (nt.) [abslr. fr. anupubba] rule, regularity, order 
Th I, 727 (cp. M Vastu 11.224 anupubba). 

Anupubbata (f.) (or °ta nt.?) [fr. last] succession; only 
in tt. g. padanu-pubbata word sequence, in expln- of iti 
Ndi 140; Nd' 137 (v. 1. "ka). 

Anupubbikatha [for anupubbi' representing its isolated 
composition form, cp. anubhava & see also anupubbi°] 
regulated exposition, gr?duated sermon D i.uo; 11.4I sq. ; 
M 1-379; J '-8; Miln 228; DA 1.277, 308; DhA iv.199. 

Anubhava [the dissociated composition form of anubhava, 
q. V. for details. Only in later language] greatness, mag- 
nificence, majesty, splendour J I.69 (mahanto); 11.102 (of 
a jewel) v.491; DhA 11.58. 

Anejja and Ananja [abstr. fr. an -|- 'aiija or *ejja = *ijja. 
The Sanskrilised equivalent would be *iujya or *ingya 
of jng to stir, move, with a peculiar substitution of *ang 
in Pali, referring it to a base with r (probably Sk. fj, 
fnjati) in analogy to a form like Sk. rna = Pali ana & 
ina, both a & i representing Sk. r. The form anja would 
thus correspond to a Sk. •anjya ('angya). The third P. 
form an-enja is a direct (later, and probably re-instituted) 
formation from Sk. iujya, which in an interesting way 
became in BSk. re-sanskrilised to anijya (which on the 
oiher hand may represent anejja & thus give the latter 
the feature of a later, but more specifically Pali form). 


1 02 


The editions of P. Texts show a great variince of spel- 
ling, based on MSS. vacillation, in part also due to con- 
fusion of derivation] immovability, imperturbability, im- 
passibility. The word is n. but occurs as adj. at Vin ill. 
109 (anarija samadhi, with which cp. BSk. anijya santih 
at Av. § I.I99- — ^"he term usually occurs in cpd. 
anejja ppatta (adj.) immovable lit. having attained im- 
passibility, expld- by Bdhgh. at Vin ill. 267 (on Par. 1.1,6) 
as acala, niccala, i. e. motionless. This cpd. is indicated 
below by (p.) after the reference. — The various spel- 
lings of the word are as follows: — I. anejja D 1.76 
(v. 1. ananja-p.) A 11.184 (p.); 111.93 (p.), 100 (p.), 377 
sq. (p.); Ndi 471 (v. 1. aneja, ananja) = Vbh 137 (anefija); 
Nd' 569" (v. 1. ananjaj, 601 (v. 1. anejja & anenja); Pug 
60 (p.); DA 1. 219 (v. 1. BB anenja). — 2. ananja Vin 
111.4 (P-) (v- 1- anaiica", ananja°, anaiija°; Bdhgh. anejja° 
p. 267), log; Ud 27 (samadhi, adj. v. 1. ananca); DhA 
IV.46. See also below cpd. ''karana, — A peculiarity of 
Trenckner's spelling is ananja at M n.229 (v. 1. anaiija, 
anefija, anenja), 253, 254. — 3. anenja S ir.82 (v. 1. 
anaiije, or is it anenja?); D HI.217 (°abhisankhara of 
imperturbable character, remaining static, cp. Kvu trsl. 
358); Nd' 90 (id.), 206, 442; Ps 11.206; Vbh 135, 340; 
Vism 377 (p.), 386 (sixteen" fold), 571; Nett 87, 99. — 
See also iujati. 

-karana trick of immovability, i. e. pretending to be 
dead (done by an elephant, but see differently Morris 
J P T S. 1886, 154) J 1. 415; 11.325 (v. 1. anaiija, anenca, 
ananca); IV.308 ; v.273, 310. 

Anenjata (f.) [fr- anenja] steadfastness Vism 330, 386. 

Aneti [a + "S''] '° bring, to bring towards, to fetch, pro- 
cure, convey, bring back Sn no; PvA 54, 92. pot. I?' 
pi. anema (or imper. 2nd pi. anetha M 1.371. fut. ana- 
yissati S 1.124; Pv >■ 6»; J in. 173; v.154 (v.J.), & 
anessati J v.154. inf. anayitui) Pv 11611, ger. anetva 
PvA 42, 74. aor. 'anesi PvA 3, & anayi Pv 1.7' (sapa- 
tii)). — pp. anita (q. v.). — Med. pass, anlyati & aniy- 
yati D 11.245 (aniyyataq imper. shall be brought); M I. 
371 (ppr. aniyamana). — Caus. II. anapeti to cause to 
be fetched J 111.391; v.225. 

Apa & ApO (nt.) [Vedic ap & ap, f. sg. apa, pi. apah, 
later Sk. also apah nt. — Idg. *ap & "-'ab, primarily to 
Lith. upe water. Old Prussian ape river, Gr. 'AT/a N. of 
the Peloponnesus; further (as *ab) to Lat. amnis river, 
Sk. abda cloud, & perhaps ambu water] water; philoso- 
phically 1. 1. for cohesion, representative of one of the 4 
great elements (cp. mahabhuta), viz. pathavl, apo, tejo, 
vayo : see Cpd. 268 & Dhs Irsl. 201, also below "dhatu. — 
D 11.259; M 1.327; S 11.103; 111.54, 207; A IV.312, 375; 
Kn 307, 391 (°i]), 392 (loc. ape), 437 (id.); J iv.8 
(pathavi-apa-teja"); Dhs 652; Miln 363 (gen. apassa, with 
pathavl etc.); Sdhp 100. 

-kasina the water-device, i.e. meditation by (the element 
of) water (cp. Mystic 75 n.) D 111.268 ; J 1.313 ; Dhs 203; 
Vism 170; DhA I 312; 111.214. -dhatu the flind element, 
the essential element in water, i. e element of cohesion 
(see Cpd. 155 n. 2; Mystic 9 n. 2; Dhs trsl. 201, 242) 
D 111.228, 247; M 1.187, 422: Dhs 652; Nett 74. See 
also dtiatu. -rasa the taste of water A 1.32 ; SnA 6. 
-sama resembling water M 1.423. 

Apaka (f.) [= apaga] river J v.452; VI. 518. 

Apaga (f.) [apa + ga of gam] a river Th I, 309; Sn 319; 
J V.454; Davs 1.52; VvA 41. 

Apajjatl [Sk. apadyate, a + pad] to get into, to meet 
with (ace); to undergo; to make, produce, exhibit Vin 
11.126 (satjvaraq); D 1.222 (pariyetthii)) ; It 113 (vuddhiq); 
J 1.73; Pug 20, 33 (ditth'anugatii)) ; PvA 29 (ppr. apaj- 
janto); DhA 11.71 — pot. apajjeyya D 1.119 (musa- 
vadaq). — aor. apajji J v.349: PvA 124 (sankocai)) & 
apadi S 1.37 ; A 11.34 ; It 85 ; J 11.293 i V^ pl- apadu 

D 11.273. — g"- apajjitva PvA 22 (saqvegaq), 151. — 
pp. apanna (q. v.). — Caus. apadeti (q. v.). — Note. The 
reading apajja in apajja naq It 86 is uncertain (vv. 11. 
asajja & alajja). The id. p. at Vin 11.203 (CV. VII.4, 8) 
has asajjanaq, for which Bdhgh, on p. 325 has apajjanag. 
Cp. pariyapajjati. 

Apapa [Sk. apana, a paijl] a bazaar, shop Vin 1.140; J 
1.55; V.445; Pv 11.3^^; Miln 2, 341; SnA 440; DhA I. 
317; 11,89; VvA 157; PvA 88, 333 (phal-'' fruit shop), 215. 

Apanika [fr. apana] a shopkeeper, tradesman J 1. 1 24; Miln 
344; VvA 157; DhA 11.89. 

ApataCChika at J vi.17 is C. reading for apatacchika in 
kharapat" (q. v.). 

Apatati [a -)- patati] to fall on to, to rush on to J v.349 
(= upadhavati C); vi.45i (=: agacchati C); Miln 371. 

Apattl (f) [Sk. apatti, fr. a -)- pad, cp. apajjati & BSk. 
apatti, e. g, Divy 330] an ecclesiastical offence (cp. Kvu 
trsl. 362 n. l), Vin 1.103 ("khandha), 164 ("q patikaroti), 
322 (°r) passati), 354 (avasesa & anavasesa); 11.2 sq. (°g 
ropeti), 59, 60 (°pariyanta), 88 ("adhikarana), 259 (°i) 
patikaroti); IV.344; D IU.212 ("kusalala); A 1.84 (id.), 
87; 11.2.10 (°bhaya); Dhs 1330 sq. (cp. Dhs trsl. 346). — 
anapatti Vin 111.35. 

Apattika (adj.) [apatti -|- ka, cp. BSk. apaltika Divy 303] 
guilty of an offence M 1.443; Vin IV. 224. an° Vin 1.127. 

Apatha in micchapatha, dvedhapatha as classified in Vbh 
Ind. p. 441 should be grouped under patha as iniccha", 

Apathaka in °jjhayin Nd^ 342^ is read apadaka° at Nd' 

226, and apataka° at Vism 26. 

Apada (f) [Sk. apad, fr. a -j- pad, cp. apajjati & BSk. 
apad, e. g. in apadgata Jtm 3I''''] accident, misfortune, 
distress, D 111.190; A 11.68 (loc. pi. apadasu), 187; 111. 
45; IV.31; Th I, 371; J 1V.I63 (apadattha, a difficult 
form; vv. II. T. aparatta, apadatva, C. aparattha; expH- 
by apadaya); v.340 (loc. apade), 368; PvA 130 (quot.); 
Sdhp 312, 554. Note. For the contracted form in loc. pi. 
apasu {= *apatsu) see *apa. 

Apanna [pp. of apajjati] — I. entered upon, fallen into, 
possessed of, having done Vin 1.164 (apattii] a.); 111.90; 
D 1.4 (dayapanna merciful); Nd'^ 32 (tanhaya). — 2. un- 
fortunate, miserable J 1. 1 9 (v.124). Cp. pari". 

*Apa (& *Ava) (f.) [for apada, q. v.] misery, misfortune J 
11.317 (loc. pi. apasu, v. 1. avasu, C. apadasu); in. 12 (BB 
aviisu); v.82 (avagata gone into misery, v. 1. apagata, C. 
apagata parihina), 445 (loc. avasu, v. 1. avasu, C. apadasu), 
448 (avasu kiccesu; v. 1. apassu, read apasu). Note. Since 
*apa only occurs in loc. pi., the form apasu is to be 
regarded as a direct contraction of Sk. apatsu. 

Apa^a [S -\- pana] life, lit. breathing, only in cpd. °koti 
the end of life Miln 397; Davs I11.93 ; adj. -kotlka M 
11.120; Vism lo. 

Apadaka (adj.-n.) [fr. a -f pad] — i. (adj.) producing, 
leading to ( — °) VvA 4 (abhinfi" catutlha-jjhana). — 2. 
(n.) one who takes care of a child, a protector, guardian 
A 1.62 = 132 =: It no (-|- posaka). — f. apadika a 
nurse, foster-mother Vin 11.289 (-|- posika). 

Apada (f) [short for apadika] a nursing woman, in an° 
not nursing, unmarried J iv.178. 

Apadi aor. of apajjatt (q. v.). 

Apadeti [Caus. of apajjati] to produce, make out, bring, 
bring into M 1.78; 111.248; S IV. 1 10 (addhanaq to live 




one's life, cp. addhanar) Spadi J 11.293 = jivil'addhanai) 
apadi ayui) vindi C); SnA 466. — Cp. pari". 

Apatha [elym.? Trenckner, Miln p. 428 says: "I suspect a. 
to be corrupted from apata (cp. apatati), under an impres- 
sion that it is allied to patha; but it is scarcely ever written 
so"] sphere, range, focus, field (of consciousness or per- 
ception ; cp. Dhs Irsl. 199), appearance A 11.67; J '-336; 
Vbh 321; Miln 298; Vism 21, 548; DA 1.228; DhsA 308, 
333; VvA 2}2 (°kala); DhA iv.85; Sdhp 356. L'sually 
in phrase apathar] gacchati to come into focus, to become 
clear, to appear M 1.190; S 1V.160, or °r) agacchati Vin 
1. 184; A 111.377 sq.; IV.404; Vism 125. Cp. °gata below. 
-gata come into the sphere of, appearing, visible M 1.174 
^= Nd2 jhana (an° unapproached); PvA 23 (apathaq gata). 
-gatatta abstr. fr. last: appearance Vism 617. 

Apathaka (adj.) [fr. apatha] belonging to the (perceptual) 
sphere of, visible, in "nisadin lying down visible D 
111.44, 47. Cp. apathaka. 

Apana (nt.) [fr. a + pa] drinking ; drinking party, banquet ; 
banqueting-hall, drinking-hall J 1. 52 C^mandala); v.292 
(°bhumi); Vism 399 (id.); DhA 1.213 (id., raiiiio). 

Apanaka (adj.) [apana + ka] drinking, one who is in the 
habit of drinking U 1. 1 67. 

Apaniya (adj.) [fr. apana, a + pa] drinkable, fit for drinking 
or drinking with, in °kar)sa drinking-bowl, goblet M 1. 
316; S II. no. 

Apayika (adj.-n.) [fr. apaya] one suffering in an apaya or 
state of misery after death Vin 11.202 ^= It 85 (v. 1. ap") ; 
Vin 11.205; D 1. 103; A 1.265; It 42; Vism 16; PvA 60. 

Apiyati [fr. r, cp. appayati & appeti] to be in motion (in 
etym. of apo) Vism 364. 

ApUCChati [5 + pucchati] to enquire after, look for, ask, 
esp. to ask permission or leave; aor. apucchi J 1. 140; 
PvA no; grd. apucchitabba DhA 1.6; ger. apucchitva 
Vin IV.267 (apaloketva -f-); Miln 29; PvA iii;apucchi- 
tuna (cp. Geiger § 211) Th 2, 426; apuccha Th 2, 416, 
& apuccha [=r aprcchya, cp. Vedic acya for acya], only in 
neg. form an° without asking Vin ii.2li, 219; 1V.165, 226 
(= anapaloketva) ; DhA 1.81. — pp. apucchita Vin iv.272. 

Apuratl [a + purati] to be filled, to become full, to increase 
J 111.154 (cando a. := purati C); IV.26, 99, 100. 

Apeti [Cans, of ap, see appoti & papunati] to cause to 
reach or obtain J vi.46. Cp. vy". 

AphUSati [a + phusati] to feel, realise, attain to, reach ; 
aor. aphusi Vv l69 (^ adhigacchi VvA 84). 

Abaddha [pp. of abandhati] tied, bound, bound up DA I. 
127; fig. bound to, attached to, in love with DhA 1.88; 
PvA 82 (Tissaya °sineha); Sdhp 372 (sineh, °hadaya). 

Abandhaka (adj.) [a + bandh, cp. Sk. abandha tie, bond] 
(being) tied to (loc.) PvA 169 (sise). 

Abandhati (a -f bandhati, Sk. abadhnaii, bandh] to bind 
to, tie, fasten on to, hold fast; fig. to tie to, to attach 
to, J 1V.132, 289; V.319, 338, 359. — pp. abaddha. 

Abandhana (nt.) [fr. a + bandh] — i. tie, bond DA i. 

181 = Pug A 236 ("althena fiati yeva nati-parivatto). — 

2. tying, binding Vism 351 (°lakkhana, of apodhatu). — 

3. reins (?) or harness (on a chariot) J V.319 (but cp. C. 
expln- "hatthi-assa-rathesu abandhitabbani bhandakSni", 
thus taking it as a -f- bhanda + na, i.e. wares, loads etc.). 
With this cp. Sk. abandha, according to Halayudha 2, 
420 a thong of leather which fastens the oxen to the 
yoke of a plough. 

Abadha [a 4- badh to oppress, Vedic abadha oppression] 
afiliction, illness, disease Vin IV. 261; D 1.72; 11.13; A. 
1.121; iit.94, 143; IV.333, 415 sq., 440; Dhi38; Pug 28 ; 
Vism 41 (udara-vata°) 95; VvA 351 (an° safe & sound); 
SnA 476; Sdhp 85. — A list of abadhas or illnesses, as 
classified on grounds of aetiology, runs as follows: pitta- 
sarautthana, semha", vata°, sannipatika, utu-parinamaja, 
visama-pariharaja, opakkainika, kammavipakaja (after Nd'^ 
304'c, recurring with slight variations at S iv.23o; A 
11.87; i".i3i; v.iio; Nd' 17, 47; Miln 112, cp. 135). — 
Another list of illnesses mentioned in tha Vinaya is given 
in Index to Vin 11., p. 351. — Five abaJhas at Vin i. 
71, viz. kutthai) gando kilaso soso apamaro said to be 
raging in Magadha cp. p. 93. — Three abadhas at D 
111.75, v'^- iccha anasanaq jara, cp. Sn 311. — See also 
cpd. appabadha (health) under appa. 

Abadhika (adj.-n.) [fr. abadha] affected with illness, a sick 
person A 111.189, 238; Nd' l6o; Miln 302; DA 212; 
DhA 1.31; PvA 271. — f. abadhikini a sick woman 
A 11.144. 

Abadhita [pp. of abadheti, Caus. of a + badh] afflicted, 
oppressed, molested Th I, 185. 

Abadheti [a + Caus. of badh, cp. abadha] to oppress, 
vex, annoy, harass S iv.329. 

Abila (adj.) [Sk. avila; see also P. avila] turbid, disturbed, 
soiled J v.go. 

Abhata [pp. of a + bharati from bhf] brought (there or 
here), carried, conveyed, taken D 1. 142; S 1.65; A 11.83 
(for yathabhutai)?); Pv 111.5* (''^tt" = rattiyaq a. PvA 
199); DhA 11.57, 81; IV.89; VvA 65. 

Abhataka (adj.) = abhata ; DA 1.205 (v-'- abhata). 

Abharaoa (nt.) [Sk. abharana, a + bhf] that which is taken 
up or put on, viz. ornament, decoration, trinkets D I. 
104; Vv 8o2; J iii.ii, 31; DhA 111.83; VvA 187. 

Abharati [a + bhf] to bring, to carry; ger. abhatva J iv.351. 

Abhassara (adj.-n) [etym. uncertain; one suggested in Cpd. 
138 D. 4 is a 4- *bha + 'sar, i.e. from whose bodies 
are emitted rays like lightning, more probably a combo- 
of abha -|- svar (to shine, be bright), i. e. shining in 
splendour] shining, brilliant, radiant, N. of a class of gods 
in the Brahma heavens "the radiant gods", usually referrad 
to as the representatives of supreme love (piti & metta); 
thus at D 1.17; Dh 200; It 15; DhA 111.258 (°loka). In 
another context at Vism 414 sq. 

Abha (f.) [Sk. abha, fr. a -f bhS, see abhati] shine, splendour, 
lustre, light D 11.12; M 111.147 (adj. —'); S 11.150 ("dhatu); 
A 11.130, 139; 111.34; Mhvs XI. 11; VvA 234 (of a Vi- 
mana, v. 1. pabha); DhA iv.191; Sdhp 286. 

Abhati [a + bha] to shine, shine forth, radiate Dh 387 
(= virocati DhA IV.144); J V.204. See also abbeti. 

Abhavetl [a + bhaveti] to cultivate, pursue Pv 11.13'" (met- 
taciltaij; gloss & v. I. abhavetva; expl''- as vaddhetva 
bruhetva PvA 168). 

Abhasa [Sk. abhasa, fr. a + bhas] splendour, light, appear- 
ance M 11.215; 111.215. 

Abhicetaslka (adj.) See abhicetasika. This spelling, with 
guna of the first syllable, is probably more correct; but 
the short a is the more frequent. 

Abhidosika (adj.) [abhidos -f- 'ka] belonging to the evening 
before, of last night Vin 111.15 (of food; stale); M 1.170 
(°kalakata died last night); Miln 291. 




Abhidhammika (adj.) [abhidhamma + ika] belonging to 
the specialised Dhamma, versed in or studying the Abhi- 
dhamma Miln 17, 341; Vism 93. As abhi'' atKhA 151; 
J IV. 219. 

Abhindati [a + bhindati] to split, cut, strike (with an axe) 
S IV.160 (v. 1. a^). 

Abhisekika (adj.) [fr. abhiseka] belonging to the conse- 
cration (of a king) Via v. 129. 

Abhujati [a -{- bhujati, bhuj'] to bend, bend towards or 
in, contract; usually in phrase pallankarj a° "to bend 
in the round lap" or "bend in hookwise", to sit cross- 
legged (as a devotee with straightened back), e. g. at 
Vin 1.24; D 1.71 ; M 1.56 (v. 1. abhunjitva), 219; A in. 
320; Pug 68; Ps 1.176; J 1.71, 213; Miln 289; DA i. 
58, 210. In other connection J 1.18 (v.ioi; of the ocean 
"to recede"); Miln 253 (kayaij). 

Abhujana (nt.) [fr. abhujati] crouching, bending, turning 
in, io phrase pallank'abhujana sitting cross-legged J i 17 
(v.91); PvA 219. 

Abhuji (f.) [lit. the one that bends, prob. a poetic meta- 
phor] N. of a tree, the Bhuija or Bhojpatr J v. 195 (= 
bhujapatta-vana C), 405 (= bhujapatta C). 

Abhitiijati [a -f- bhuj^ Sk. bhunakti] to enjoy, partake of, 
take in, feel, experience J IV.456 (bhoge; Rh. D. "hold 
in its hood"?); DhsA 333. 

Abhufijana (nt.) [fr. abhunjati] partaking of, enjoying, ex- 
periencing DhsA 333. 

Abhetl ['■ abhayati = abhati, q. v.] to shine Pv 11. 12'' (ppr. 
°enti); Vv 8- (°anti, v. 1. "enti; = obhasenti VvA 50). 

Abhoga [fr. abhuiijati, bhuj^ to enjoy etc. The translators 
of Kvu derive it from bhuj' to bend etc. (A't'« irsl. 221 
n. 4) which however is hardly correct, cp. the similar 
meaning of gocara "pasturing", fig. perception etc.] idea- 
tion, idea, thought D 1.37 (^ manasikaro samannaharo 
DA 1. 122; cp. semantically ahara = abhoga, food); Vbh 
320; Miln 97; Vism 164, 325, 354; Davs 62; KhA 42 
("paccavekkhana), 43 (id.) 68. 

Ama' (indecl.) [a specific Pali formation representing either 
amma (q. v.) or a gradation of pron. base amu" "that" 
(see asu), thus deictic-emphatic exclam"- Cp. also BSk. 
ama e. g. Av. b 1.36] affirmative part, "yes, indeed, cer- 
tainly" D 1. 1 92 sq. (as v. 1. BB. ; T. has amo); J 1. 1 15, 
226 (in C. expl". of T. ama-jata which is to be read for 
amajata); 11.92; V.448; Miln 11, 19, 253; DhA, 34; 
"'•39, 44; VvA 69; PvA 12, 22, 56, 61, 75, 93 etc. 

Ama^ (adj.) [Vedic ama = Gr. wfio'?, connected with Lat. 
amarus. The more common P. form is amaka (q v.)] 
raw, viz. (a) unbaked (of an earthen vessel), unfinished 
Sn 443; (b) uncooked (of flesh), nt. raw flesh, only in 
foil, cpds.; "gandha "smell of raw flesh", verminous odour, 
a smell attributed in particular to rotting corpses (cp. 
similarly BSk. amagandha M Vastu 111.214) D 11.242 sq.; 
A 1.280; Sn 241, 242 (= vissagandha kunapagandha 
SnA 286), 248, 251; Dhs 625; and "giddha greedy after 
flesh (used as bait) J VI. 416 (:= amasankhata amisa C). 

Amaka (adj.) [= ama^] raw, uncooked D 1.5 =: Pug 58 
(^maqsa r.iw flesh); M 1.80 (titta-kalabu amaka-cchinno). 
-dhanna "raw" grain, corn in its natural, unprepared 
state D 1.5 =: Pug 58 (see DA 1.78 for definition); Vin 
IV. 264; V.135. -saka raw vegetables Vism 70. -susana 
"cemetery of raw flesh" charnelgrove (cp. amagandha under 
ama'^), i. e. fetid smelling cremation ground J 1.264, 489 ; 
IV.45 sq.; VI. 10; DhA 1. 176; VvA 76; PvA 196. 

Amattha [Sk. amrsta, pp. of amasati; cp. amasita] touched, 
handled J 1.98 (an°); DA 1. 107 (= paramattha); Sdhp 333. 

Atnandaliya [a + mandala -(- iya] a formation resembling 
a circle, in phrase °r) karoti to form a ring (of people) 
or a circle, to stand closely together M I 225 (cp. Sk. 

Amata in anamata at J 11,56 is metric for amata. 

Amattika (f.) [a -j- mattika] earthenware, crockery; in "apana 
a crockery shop, chandler's shop Vin IV. 243. 

Amaddana (nt.) [a + maddana of mrd] crushing VvA 311. 

Amanta (adj. -adv.) [either ger. of amanteti (q. v.) or root 
der. fr. a -j- mant, cp. araantana] asking or asked, in- 
vited, only as an" without being asked, unasked, unin- 
vited Vin 1.254 (°cara); A III. 259 (id.). 

Amantana (nt.) & "na (f., also "na) [from amanteti] ad- 
dressing, calling; invitation, greeting Sn 40 (ep. Nd- 128); 
"vacana the address-form of speech i. e. the vocative case 
(cp. Sk. amantritai] id.) SnA 435; KhA 167. 

Atnantanaka (adj.-n.) [fr. amanlaria] addressing, speaking 
to, conversing; f. °ika interlocutor, companion, favourite 
queen Vv 188 (^ allapa-sallapa-yogga kilanakale va tena 
(i. e. Sakkena) amantetabba VvA 96). 

Amantaniya(adj.) [grd. of amanteti] to be addressed J IV.371. 

Amantita [pp. of amanteti] addressed, called, invited Pv 
11.3'! (= nimantita PvA 86). 

Amanteti [denom. of a 4- *mantra] to call, address, speak 
to, invite, consult J Vi.265; DA 1.297; SnA 487 (= 
alapati & avhayati); PvA 75, 80, 127. — aor. amantesi 
D 11.16; Sn p. 78 (= alapi SnA 394) & in poetry aman- 
tayi Sn 997; Pv 11.2'; 3' (perhaps better with v. 1. SS 
samantayi). — ger. amanta (^ Sk. ■■■amantrya) J in. 209, 
315 (^= Smantayitva C), 329; iv.iM; v.233; V1.511. — 
pp. amantita (q. v.). — Caus. II. amantapeti to invite 
to come, to cause to be called, to send for D 1. 134 (v. 1. 
amanteti); Miln 149. 

Amaya [etym? cp. Sk. amaya] affliction, illness, misery; 
only as an° (adj ) not afllicted, not decaying, healthy, 
well (cp. BSk. niramaya Asvaghosa 11. 9) Vin 1.294; Vv 
1510 (= aroga VvA 74); 17''; 36'; J 111.260, 528; IV. 
427; vi.23. Positive only very late, e.g. Sdhp 397. 

Amalaka [cp. Sk. amalaka] emblic myrobalan, Phyllanthus 
Emblica Vin 1.201, 278; 11. 149 ("vantika pithu); S 1.150; 
A V.170; Sn p. 125 (°matti); J IV. 363; v. 380 (as v. 1. 
for T. amala); Miln 11; Dh.\ 1.319; VvA 7. 

AmalakI (f.) amalaka Vin 1.30; M 1.456 ("vana). 

Amasati [a + masati fr. mfS] to touch (upon), to handle, 
to lay hold on Vin 11. 221; 111.48 (kumbhii)); J ill. 319 
(id.); A V.263, 266; J iv.67; Ps 11.209; Mi'" 30^; SnA 
400; Dhs.\ 302; VvA 17. — aor. amasi J 11.360; ger. 
amasitva Vin 111.140 (udakapattaij) J 11.330; grd. amassa 
J 11.360 (an") and amasitabba id. (C). — pp. amattha 
& amasita (q. v.). 

Amasana (nt.) [fr. amasati] touching, handling; touch Vin 
IV. 214. Cp. III. 118; Miln 127, 306; DA 1.78. 

Amasita [pp. of amasati] touched, taken hold of, occupied 
VvA 113 (an° khetta virgin land). 

Amaya (adj.) [to be considered either a der. from amS 
(see amajata in same meaning) or to be spelt amaya which 
metri causa may be written a°] "born in the house" (cp. 
semantically Gr. j^aytvij; > indigenous), inborn, being by 
birth, in cpd. °dasa (dasi) a born slave, a slave by birth 
J VI. 117 (= gehadasiya kucchismir) jatadasi C), 285 (= 
dasassa dasiya kucchimhi jatadasa). 




Amasaya [Sma^ 4- asaya, cp. Sk. amasaya & amasraya] 
receptacle of undigested food, i.e. llie stomach Visin 260; 
Kh.\ 59. Opp. pakkasaya. 

Atnilaka (nt. ?) [etym. ?] a woollen cover into which a floral 
pattern is woven DA 1. 87. 

Amisa (nt.) [der. fr. ania raw, q. v. for etym. — Vedic amis 
(m.); later Sk. Smisa (nt.), both in lit. & fig. meaning] — 

1. originally raw meat; hence prevailing notion of "raw, 
unprepared, uncultivated" ; thus "khara raw lye Vin i. 
206. — 2. "fleshy, of the flesh" (as opposed to mind or 
spirit), hence material, physical; generally in opposition 
to dhamma (see dhamma 15 i. a. and also next no.), 
thus at M 1. 12 ("dayada); It loi (id.); A 1.91 = It 98 
("dana material gifis opp. to spiiitual ones); Dhs 1 344 
('patisanthara hospitality towards bodily needs, cp. Dhs 
Irs/. 350). — 3. food, esp. palatable food (cp. E. sweet- 
meat); food for enjoyment, dainties Vin 11.269 sq.; J II. 6; 
Miln 413 (lok°); D.-V 1.83 (°sannidhi), — 4. bait S I.67; 
IV. 158; J IV.57, 219; VI. 416; DA 1.270. — 5. gain, 
reward, money, douceur, gratuity, "tip" Pv.\ 36, 46; esp. 
in phrase "kincikkha-hetu for ihe sake of some (little) 
gain S 11.234; A 1.128; v.265, 2S3 sq., 293 sq.; Pug 
29; Pv II. 8^ (= kinci amisatj palthento PvA 107); Miln 
53; V'vA 241 (== bhogahetu). — 6. enjoyment Pv 11.82 
(= kamamise-laggacitto PvA 107). — 7. greed, desire, 
lust Vin 1.303 ('antara out of greed, selfish, opp. metta- 
cilto); A 111.144 (id.), 184 (id.); 1.73 (°garu parisa); J v. 91 
(°cakkhu); Ps 11.238 (mar°). See also cpds. with nir° and sa°. 

AmuncatI [a + muc] to put on, take up; to be attached 
to, cling to DhsA 305. — pp. amutta (q. v.). 

Amutla [Sk. amukta, pp. of a + mUC, cp. also BSk. Smukta 
jewel Divy 2, 3 ^'c-i a meaning which might also be seen 
in the later Pali passages, e.g. at PvA 134. Semantically 
cp. abharana] having put on, clothed in, dressed with, 
adorned with (always ° — ) D 1.104 ("malabharana); Vin 
11.156 = Vv 208 (°mani-kundala); S 1. 211; J iv.460; v. 
155; VI.492; Vv 72I (= patimukka); 80^ ("hatlhabha- 
rana); Pv ll.g'" ("manikundala) J iv.183; VvA 182. 

Ame^ijita (or Ametjtta) [Sk. amredita fiam a -f mrec), 

dialectical] — i. (nt.) sympathy in °r) karoti to show 
sympathy (? so Morris J P T S. 1887, 106) DA 1.228 = 
SuA 155 (v. 1. at DA amedita). 

AraO = ama D 1.192, 3. 

Amoda [Sk. amoda, fr. a + mud] that which pleases; 
fragrance, perfume Davs v. 51. 

Atnodana (f) [fr. a -\- mud] rejoicing Dhs 86, 285. 

Amodatnana (adj.) [ppr. med. of amodeti] rejoicing, glad 
S 1. 100 (v. 1. anu°) =r It 66; Vv 648 (=: pamodamana 
VvA 278); J V.45. 

Amodita [pp. fr- amodeti] pleased, satisfied, glad J 1. 1 7 
(v. 80); v.45 (°pamodita highly pleased); Miln 346. 

Amodeti [Sk. amodayati, Caus. of a -j* mud] to please, 
gladden, satisfy Th I, 649 (cittai)); J v. 34. — pp. amo- 
dita (q. v.). 

Aya [Sk. aya; a -j- |] i. coming in, entrance M ill 93. — 

2. tax J V.I 13. — 3. income, earning, profit, gain (opp. 
vaya loss) A iv.282 ^ 323 ; Sn 978; J 1.228; KhA 38 
(in expl"- of kaya), 82 (in etym. of ayatana); PvA 130. — 
4. (aya f. ■) a lucky dice ("the incomer") J VI.2S1. 

-kammika a treasurer DhA 1.184. -kusala clever in 
earnings Nett 20. -kosalla proficiency in money making 
D 111.220 (one of the three kosallas); Vbh 325. -paric- 
caga expediture of one's income PvA 8. -mukha (lit.) 
entrance, inflow, going in D 1. 74 (:= agamana-magga DA 

1.78); M 11.15; A 11.166; (fig.) revenue income, money 
Sn.\ 173. 

Ayata [Sk. ayata, pp. of 5 + yam, cp. ayamati] — I. (adj.) 
outstretched, extended, long, in length (with numeral) D 
111.73 (iiaiikkhaya, prolonged or heavy?); M 1.178 (dighato 
a° ; tiriyaii ca vitthata); J 1.77, 273 (tetlir|s'-angurayato 
khaggo); 111.43S; Vv 84" C^aqsa; cp. expl"- at VvA 339); 
SnA 447; Dhs.\ 48; Pv.\ 152 (datha fangs; loma hair), 
185 (°vatta); Sdhp 257. — 2. (n.) a bow J ill. 438. 

-agga having its point (end) stretched forward, i. e. in 
the future (see ayati) It 15, 52. -paijhin having long 
eye-lashes (one of the signs of a Mahapurisa) D 11.17 =^ 
111.143. -pamha a long eye-lash Th 2, 384 (=r digha- 
pakhuma Th.\ 250). 

Ayataka (adj.) [= ayata] — I. long, extended, prolonged, 
kept up, lasting Vin 11.108 (gitassara); A 111.251 (id.); 
J 1.362. — 2. sudden, abrupt, instr. °ena abruptly Vin 

Ayatana (nt.) [Sk. ayatana, not found in the Vedas; but 
freq. in BSk. From a -|- yam, cp. ayata. The pi. is aya- 
tana at S IV. 70. — For full definition of term as seen 
by the PiiU Commentators see Bdhgh's expl" at D.\ 1. 
124, 125, with which cp. the popular etym. at KhA 82: 
"ayassa va tananalo ayatassa va saijsaradukkhassa naya- 
nato ayatanSni" and at Vism 527 "aye tanoti ayatan 
ca nayati ti a."] — I. stretch, extent, reach, compass, 
region ; sphere, locus, place, spot ; position, occasion (cor- 
responding to Bdhgh's definition at DA 1.124 ^5 "samo- 
saraija") D IH.241, 279 (vimutti°); S 11.41, 269; IV.217; 
V.119 sq., 318 sq. ; A ill. 141 (ariya°); V.61 (abhibh°, 
q. v.) Sn 406 (rajass° "haunt of passion" = ragadi-rajassa 
uppatli-deso SnA 381); J 1.80 (raj°). Freq. in phrase 
arann' a lonely spot, a spot in the forest j 1.173; VvA 
301; PvA 42, 54. — 2. exertion, doing, working, practice, 
performance (comprising Bdhgh's definition at DA 1. 124 
as pannatti), usually — °, viz. kamm° Nd' 505; Vbh 324, 
353; kas:n° A v.46 sq., 60; Ps 1.28; titth" A 1. 173, 
175; Vbh 145, 367; sipp' (art, craft) D 1.51; Nd= 505; 
Vbh 324, 353; cp. an'' non-exertion, indolence, sluggish- 
ness J v. 1 21. — 3. sphere of perception or sense in 
general, object of thought, sense-organ & object; relation, 
order. — Cpil. p. 183 says rightly: "ayatana cannot 
be rendered by a single English word to cover both 
sense-organs (the mind being regarded as 6>f' sense) and 

sense objects". These ayatanani (relations, functions, 

reciprocalitics) are thus divided into two groups, inner 
(ajjhattikani) and outer (bahirani), and comprise the 
foil.: (a) ajjhatt'': 1. cakkhu eye, 2. sota ear, 3. ghana 
nose, 4. jivha tongue, 5. kaya body, 6. raano mind; 
(b) bah": 1. rupa visible object, 2. sadda sound, 3. 
gandha odour, 4. rasa taste, 5. photthabba tangible 
object, 6. dhamma cognizable object. — ■ For details as 
regards connotation & application see Dhs trsl. introduc- 
tion li sq. Cpd. 90 n. 2; 254 sq. — Approximately 
covering this meaning (3) is Bdhgh's definition of ayatana 
at DA 1.124 ''s saiijali and as karana (origin & cause, 
i. e. mutually occasioning & conditioning relations or 
adaptations). See also Nd* under rupa for further classi- 
fications. — For the above mentioned 12 ayatanani see 
the foil, passages: D 11.302 sq.; ill. 102, 243; A ill. 400; 
V.52; Sn 373 (cp. SnA 366); Ps 1.7, 22, loi, 137; 11. 
181, 225, 230; Dhs 1335; Vbh 401 sq. ; Nett 57, 82; 
Vism 481; Th.A. 49, 285. Of these 6 are mentioned at S 
1. 113, II. 3; iv.ioo, 174 .sq.; It 114; Vbh 135 sq., 294; 
Nett 13, 28, 30; Vism 565 sq. Other sets of 10 at Nett 
69; of ii at I) II. 1 1 2, 156; of 5 at D 11.69. — Here also 
belongs akas^ anaiic^ ayatana, akincauii'' etc. (see under 
akasa etc. and s. v.), e.g. at D 1.34 sq., 183; A iv.451 
sq.; Vbh 172, 189, 262 sq. ; Vism 324 sq. —Unclassified 
passages: M 1.61; 11.233; H'-S^, 216, 273; S 1.196; 11.6, 
8, 24, 72 sq. ; 111.228; IV. 98; v.426; A 1.113, 163, 225; 
111.17, 27, 82, 426; IV.146, 426; V.30, 321, 351, 359; 


1 06 


Nd> 109, 133, 171, 340; J 1.381 (paripunna°); Vbh 
412 sq. (id.). 

-uppada birth of the ayatanas (see above 3) Vin 1.185. 
-kusala skilled in the a. M in. 63. -kusalata skill in 
the spheres (of sense) D III. 212; Dhs 1335. -ttha founded 
in the sense-organs Ps 1.132: II. 121. 

Ayatanika (adj.) [fr. ayatana] belonging to the sphere of 
(some special sense, see ayatana 3) S IV.126 (phass° 
niraya & sagga). 

Ayatl (f.) [fr. a + yam, cp. Sk. gyati] "stretching forth", 
extension, length (of time), future. Only (?) in ace. aya- 
tii] (adv.) in future Vin 11.89, '85; "1-3; Sn 49; It 115 
(T. reads ayati but cp. p. 94 where T. ayatir), v. 1. ayati); 
J 189; V.43I; DA 1236. 

Ayatika (adj.) [fr. last] future S 1.142. 

Ayatika (f.) [of ayataka] a tube, waterpipe Vin II. 123. 

Ayatta [Sk. ayatta, pp. of 3 -f- yat]. — 1. striving, active, 
ready, exerted J v. 395 ("mana = ussukkamana C). — 
2. striven after, pursued J 1. 341. — 3. dependent on 
Vism 310 (assasa-passasa°); Nett 194; Sdhp 477, 605. 

Ayana (f.) [?] at DhsA 259 and Vism 26 is a grammarian's 
construction, abstracted from f. abstr. words ending in 
°ayana, e. g. kankha > kankhayana, of which the correct 
expl"- is a derivation fr. caus.-formation kankhayati > 
kankhay -|- a -)- na. What the idea of Bdhgh. was in 
propounding his expl". is hard to say, perhaps he related 
it to i and understood it to be the same as ayana. 

Ayamati [a 4- yam] to stretch, extend, stretch out, draw 
out Miln 176, usually in ster. phrase pitthi me agilayati 
tarn aharj ayamissami "my back feels weak, I will stretch 
it" Vin 11.200; D III. 209; M 1.354; S IV. 184; J 1.491. — 
Besides this in commentaries e. g. J 111.489 (mukhai) 

Ayasa (adj.) [Sk. ayasa, of ayas iron] made of iron S 11. 
182; A 111.58; Dh 345; J IV.416; V.81; Vv 845 (an°? 
cp. the rather strange expl"- at VvA 335). 

Ayasakya (nt.) dishonour, disgrace, bad repute A IV.96 ; 
J V.17; VvA no; usually in phrase °IJ papunati to fall 
into disgrace Th i, 292; J 11,33 = 271; III. 514. [Bdhgh. 
on A IV.96 explains it as ayasaka + ya with guna of the 
initial, cp. arogya]. 

Ayasmant (adj.) [Sk. ayusmant, the P. form showing as- 
similation of u to a] lit. old, i. e. venerable ; used, either 
as adj. or absolute as a respectful appellation of a bhikkhu 
of some standing (cp. the semantically identical thera). It 
occurs usually in nom. ayasma and is expld- in Nd by 
typical formula "piya-vacanaq garu°, sagarava-sappatiss- 
adhivacanar)", e. .g. Nd' 140, 445; Nd'^ 130 on var. Sn 
loci (e.g. 814, 1032, 1040, 1061, 1096). — Freq. in all 
texts, of later passages see SnA 158; PvA 53, 54, 63, 
78. — See also ayuso. 

Ayaga [a -\- yaga of yaj] sacrificial fee, gift ; (m.) recipient 
of a sacrifice or gift (deyyadhamma) Sn 486 (=: deyya- 
dhammanar) adhitthana-bhuta SnA 412); Th i, 566; J VI. 
205 (°vatthu worthy objact of sacrificial fees). 

AyaCaka (adj.-n.) [fr. a + yac] one who begs or prays, 
petitioner Miln 129. 

Ayacati [S + yac, cp. Buddh. Sk. ayacate Divy I.] — I. to 
request, beg, implore, pray to (ace.) Vin 111.127; D 1.240; 
PvA 160. — 2. to make a vow, to vow, promise A I. 
88; J 1. 169 = V.472; 1.260; 11.1x7. — PP- ayacita (q. v.). 

Ayacana (nt.) [fr. ayacati] — I. asking, adhortation, ad- 
dressing (t. t. g. in expln- of imperative) SnA 43, 176, 
412. — 2. a vow, prayer A 1.88; 111.47; J 1.169 = v.472. 

Ayacita [pp. of ayacati] vowed, promised J 1.169 ("bhatta- 
jataka, N.). 

Ayata [pp. of ayat. ; cp. BSk. ayata in same meaning at 
Jtm 210] gone to, undertaken Sdhp 407. 

Ayati [a -f yati of ya] to come on or here, to come near, 
approach, get into .S 1.240; Sn 669; Sn p. 116 (= gac- 
chati SnA 463); J iv.410; Pv 11.12'^ (= agacchati Pv.\ 
158); Dh.A. 1.93 (imper. ayama let us go). — pp. ayata. 

Ayana (nt.) [fr. a -f- ya to go] coming, arrival: see ayana. 

Ayama [fr. a + yam, see ayamati] — I. (lit.) stretching, 
stretching out, extension Vin 1.349 = ) 111.488 (mukh°). — 
2. (appl.) usually as linear measure: extension, length 
(often comb<J- with and contrasted to vitthara breadth or 
width & ubbedha height), as n. (esp. in abl. ayamato & 
instr. ayamena in length) or as adj. ( — °) : J 1.7, 49 ("ato 
tini yojanasatani, vittharato addhatiyani); ill. 389; Miln 17 
(ratanaq solasahatthar) ayamena atthahatthai) vittharena), 
282 (ratanai) catuhatth'ayamari) ; Vism 205 (-f- vitth"); 
Khb 133 (4- vitthara & parikkhepa); VvA 188 (solasa- 
yojan°), 199 (°vittharehi), 221 (°ato + vitth"'); PvA 77 
(-f- vitlh"), 113 (id. -f ubbedha); DhA 1.17 (satthi-yojan"). 

Ayasa [cp. Sk. ayasa, etym. ?] trouble, sorrow, only neg. 
an° (adj.) peaceful, free from trouble A iv.98; Th i, 1008. 

Ayu (nt.) [Vedic ayus; Av. ayu, gradation form of same 
root as Gr. xim "aeon", a;Vv always; Lat. aevum, Goth, 
aiws. Ohg. ewa, io always ; Ger. ewig eternal ; Ags. ae 
eternity, a always (cp. ever and aye)] life, vitality, dura- 
tion of life, longevity D 111.6S, 69, 73, 77; S III. 143 
(usma ca); iv.294; A 1.155; n.63, 66 (addh°); 111.47; 
iv.76, 139; Sn 694, 1019; It 89; J 1.197 (digh"); Vv 
555 (cp. VvA 247 with its definition of divine life as 
comprising 30600000 years); Vism 229 (length of man's 
ayu = 100 years); Dhs 19, 82, 295, 644, 716; Sdhp 
234, 239, 258. — Long or divine life, dibbar) ayu is one 
of the 10 attributes of adhipateyya or majesty (see thana), 
thus at Vin 1.294: D III. 146; S iv.275 sq.; A 1.115; III. 
33; IV. 242, 396; Pv II. 9" (=jlvitai) PvA 136). 

-uha see ayQha. -kappa duration of life Miln 141; 
Dh.\ 1.250. -khaya decay of life (cp. jivita-kkhaya) D 
1. 1 7 (cp. DA 1. 1 10); III. 29. -pamana span or measure 
of life time D 11.3; A 1.213, 267; 11. 126 sq.; IV. 138, 
252 sq., 261; V.172; Pug 16; Vbh 422 sq.; SnA 476. 
-pariyanta end of life It 99; Vism 422. -sankhaya ex- 
haustion of life or lifetime Dpvs v.102. -sankhara (usually 
pi. °a) constituent of life, conditions or properties resulting 
in life, vital principle D 11.106; M 1.295 ^q.; S 11.266; 
A IV. 31 1 sq.; Ud 64; J IV.215; Miln 285; Vism 292; 
DhA 1. 129; PvA 210. Cp. BSk. ayuh-saijskara Divy 203. 

Ayuka (— °) (adj.) [fr. ayu] — I. being of life; having a 
life or age A IV. 396 (niyat°); VvA 196 (yavatayuka dib- 
basampatti divine bliss lasting for a lifetime). Esp. freq. 
in comb"- with digha (long) and appa (short) as dlgha- 
yuka A IV.240; PvA 27; appayuka A iv.247 ; PvA 103; 
both at Vism 422. In phrase visati-vassasahass'ayukesu 
manussesu at the lime when men lived 20 000 years D 
11.5—12 (see Table at DiaL 11.6); DhA II. 9; PvA 135; 
dasa-vassasahass'ayukesu manussesu (10 000 years) PvA 
73; cattalisa" Dh.\ 1.103; catusatthi-kapp'ayuka subha' 
kinha Vism 422. 

Ayukin (adj.) [fr. ayu] = ayuka; in appayukin short lived 
Vv 4i«. 

Ayuta (adj.) [Sk. ayuta, pp. of a -f- yu, yuvati] — I. con- 
nected with, endowed, furnished with Th I, 753 (dve 
pannaras'ayuta due to twice fifteen); Sn 301 (narivara- 
gan° = °sai)yutta Sn.\ 320); Pv II.I2< (nana-saragan" = 
°yutta PvA 157). — 2. seized, conquered, in dur° hard to 
conquer, invincible J VI. 27 1 (:= paccatthikehi durasada C). 




Ayutta [Sk. ayukta; pp. of a -f- yuj] — I. yoked, to con- 
nected with, full of Pv'* (tejas'ayuta T., but PvA 52 
reads "ayutta and explns. as samayutta); PvA 157 (= 
akinna of Pv 11. 1 2*). — 2. intent upon, devoted to S 1.67. 

Ayuttaka (adj.-n.) [ayutta + ka] one who is devoted to or 
entrusted with, a trustee, agent, superintendent, overseer 
J 1.230 (°vesa); iv.492; DhA i.ioi, 103, 180. 

Ayudha is the Vedic form of the common Pali form avudha 
weapon, and occurs oiily spuriously at D 1.9 (v. 1. avudha). 

Ayuvant (adj.) [fr. ayu] advanced in years, old, of age 
Th I, 234. 

Ayusmant (adj.) [Sk. Syusmant; see also the regular P. 
form ayasmant] having life or vitality PvA 63 (ayusma- 
vinnana feeling or sense of Vitality; is reading correct?). 

AyUSSa (adj.) [Sk. *ayusya] connected with life, bringing 
(long) life A III. 145 dhamma). 

Ayuhaka (adj.) [fr. aySihati] keen, eager, active Miln 207 
(-j- viriyava). 

Ayuhati [a + y + Ohati with euphonic y, fr. Vedic uhati, 
uh', a gradation of vah (see elym. under vahati). Kern's 
etym. on Toev. 99 = ayodhati is to be doubted, more 
acceptable is Morris' expl". at J P T S. 1885, 58 sq , 
alihough contradictory in part.] lit. to push on or for- 
ward, aim at, go for, i.e. (i) to endeavour, strain, exert 
oneself S l.i (ppr. anayuhai) unstriving), 48; J vi.35 {= 
viriyai) karoti C.), 283 (= vayamati C). — (2) to be 
keen on (w. ace), to cultivate, pursue, do Sn 210 (= 
karoti SnA 258); Miln 108 (kammar) uyuhitva), 214 (kam- 
mar) ayuhi), 326 (maggaq). — pp. ayiihita (q. v.). 

Ayuhana (adj.-nt.) [fr. ayahati] — I. endeavouring, striving, 
Ps 1. 10 sq., 32, 52; 11.218; Vism 103, 212., 462, 579. 
f. ayuhani Dhs 1059 ("she who toils" trsl.)= Vbh 361 ^ 
Nd* tanha I. (has ayuhana). — 2. furtherance, pursuit DA 
1.64 (bhavassa). 

Ayuha f. [ayu -f nha] life, lifetime, only in °pariyosana 
at the end of (his) life Pv.\ 136, 162; VvA 319. 

Ayuhapeti [Cans. II. fr. ayuhati] to cause somebody to 
toil 01 strive after DhsA 364. 

Ayuhita [*Sk. a -f- uhila, pp. of uh] busy, eager, active 
MUn 181. 

AyOga [Sk. ayoga, of a-f-JTUJ! cp. ayutta] — I. binding, 
bandage Vin 11.135; Vv 33«'; VvA 142 (°patta). — 2. 
yoke Dhs 1061 (avijj°), 1162. — 3. ornament, decoration 
Nd' 226; J 111.447 (°vatta, for v. 1. °vanta?). — 4. oc- 
cupation, devotion to, pursuit, exertion D 1. 187; Dh 185 
{=^ payoga-karana DhA 111.238). — 5. (t.t.) obligation, 
guarantee (?) SnA 179. — Cp. sam°. 

Arakatta (nt.) ['arakat + tvaq] warding off, keeping away, 
holding aloof, beihg far from (c. gen.); occurring only 
in pop. etym. of arahant at A IV.145; DhA iv.228; DA 
1.146^ VvA 105, 106 = PvA 7; cp. DhsA 349. 

Araka (adv.) [Sk. arat & arakat, abl. form. fr. *araka, see 
ara'] far off, far from, away from, also used as prep. c. 
abl. and as adj. pi. keeping away from, removed, far 
Vin 11.239 := A IV.202 (sanghamha); D 1.99, 102 (adj.) 
167; M 1.280 (adj.) S 11.99; IV.43 sq.; A 1.281 ; it 91; 
J 1.272J 111.525; V.451; Miln 243; VvA 72, 73 (adj. 
-|- virata). 

Arakkha [a + rakkha] watch, guard, protection, care D 
11.59; 111.289; S 1V.97, 175, 195; A 11.120; 111.38; IV. 
266, 270, 281 (°sampada), 322 (id.), 400; v. 29 sq.; J 
1.203; 11.326; IV.29 (°purisa); v. 212 ("Ithana, i.e. harem), 
374 ("parivara); Pug 21 (an"), 24; Miln 154: Vism 19 

(°gocara preventive behaviour, cautiousness); SnA 476 
("devata); KhA 120 (id.), 169; DhA 11.146; PvA 195; 
Sdhp 357, 365. 

Arakkhlka [fr. arakkha] a guard, watchman J iv.29. 

Arakkheyya see arakkheyya. 

Aragga (nt.) [ara -\- agga; Sk. arSgra ol ara an awl, a 
prick] the point of an awl, the head of certain arrows, 
having the shape of an awl, or an arrow of that kind 
(see Halayudha p. 151) A 1.65; Sn 625, 631; Dh 401, 
407; Vism 306; DhA 11.51; IV. 181. 

Aracayaracaya [a -j- racaya a ger. or abl. form. fr. a -}- 
*rac, in usual Sk. meaning "to produce", but here as a 
sound-root for slashing noise, in reduplication for sake 
of intensification. Altogether problematic] by means of 
hammering, slashing or beating (like beating a hide) Sn 
673 (gloss arajayarajaya fr. a -f- *ranj or *raj). — SnA 
481 expl"s. the passage as follows: arajayarajaya; i.e. 
yatha manussa allacammaq bhumiyai] patlharitva khilehi 
akotenti, evaq akotetva pharasuhi phaletva ekam ekaq 
kotir) chinditva vihananti, chinnachinnakoti punappuna 
sarautthati; aracayaracaya ti pi patho, avinjitva (v.l. BB. 
avijjhitva) avinjitva ti atthp. — Cp. aranjita. 

Araiinaka (adj.) [fr. arafina -|- ka] belonging to solitude 
or the forest, sequestered; living in the forest, fond of 
seclusion, living as hermits (bhikkhn). Freq. spelt araii- 
naka (q.v.). — Vin 1.92 (bhikkhQ); 11.32, 197, 217 (bh.), 
265 (bh.); M 1. 214; A in. 100 sq., 219; iv.21; v.66; J 
III. 174 (v.l. BB. a°); Miln 342; DhA 11.94 (vihSra). 

Arannakatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. araiinaka, see also araniia- 
katla] the habit of sequestration or living in solitude M 
1.214; 111.40; A 1.38. 

Arannlka (adj.) = arannaka Vin 111.15; A 1.24; Pug 69; 
Vism 61, 71 (where defined); Miln 341. 

Aranjita [in form = Sk. *aranjitq, a -f- pp. of ranjayati, 
Caus. of rafiij or raj, but in meaning different. Perhaps 
to rac (as *racita) to furnish with, prepare, or better 
still to be regarded as an idiomatic Pali form of sound- 
root *rac (see aracaya") mixed with rafij, of which we 
find another example in the double spelling of aracaya 
(& arajaya) q- v.] furrowed, cut open, dug up. slashed, 
torn (perhaps also "beaten") M 1. 178 (hatthipadar) dan- 
tehi aranjitai) an elephant-track bearing the marks of 
tusks, i. e. occasional slashes or furrows). 

Arata [Sk. arata, pp. of a -|- ram, cp. arati] leaving off, 
keeping away from, abstaining J iv.372 (= virata); Nd' 
591 (-|- virata pativirata). 

Aratl (f.) [Sk. arati, a -|- ram] leaving off, abstinence Vv 
63' (= pativirati VvA 263); in exegetical style occurring 
in typ. comb"- with virati pativirati veramani, e. g. at 
Nd> 462; Dhs 299. 

Aratta (nt. ?) [Sk. cp. arakta, pp. of a -f raj] time, period 
(orig. affected, tinted with), only in cpd. vassaratta the 
rainy season, lent J iv.444; Davs 11.74. 

Araddha (adj.) [pp. of a -|- rabh] begun, started, bent on, 
undertaking, holding on to, resolved, firm A 1. 148 (arad- 
dharj me viriyaij It 30; PvA 73 (thapetun began to place), 
212 (gantui]). Cp. aradbaka i. 

-cltta concentrated of mind, decided, settled D 1.176; 
M 1.414; S 11.21; Sn p. 102; SnA 436. Cp. aradheti I. 
-viriya (adj.) strenuous, energetic, resolute Vin 1.182; 
D 111.252, 268, 282, 285; A 1.24; Sn 68, 344; It 71 
(opp. hina-viriya); Nd« 131; Ps 1. 171; ThA 95. Cp. 
yiriyarambha; f. abstr. °viriyata M 1.19. 

Arabbha (indecl.) [ger. of arabhati' in abs. function ; cp. 
Sk. arabhya meaning since, from] — i. beginning, under- 


1 08 


taking etc., in cpd. °vatthu occasion for making an effort, 
concern, duty, obligation D 111.256 = A iv.334 (eight 
such occasions enuni^ ). — 2. (prep, with ace.) lit. be- 
ginning with, taking (into consideration), referring to, 
concerning, with reference to, about D t.lSo; A 11.27 =^ 
It 103 (senasanaq a.); Sn 972 (upekhaij ; v. 1. arambha; 
C. uppadetva); Pv 1.4' (pubbe pete a.); DhA 13; 11.37; 
PvA 3 (setthiputta-petar) a.), 16, and passim. 

Arabhati' [not with Morris J P T S. 1889, 202 fr. rabh 
and identical with arabhati^, but wilh Kern, Toev. s. v. 
identical with Sk. alabhale, a + labh meaning to seize 
the sacrificial animal in order to kill it; cp. nirarambha] 
to kill, destroy M 1.371 (panaij). 

Arabhati- & Arabbhati [a + rabhati, Sk. Srabhati & 

arambhati, a -f rabb] to begin, start, underjake, attempt 
S I.I 56 (arabbhatha "bestir yourselves") = iVIiln 245 = 
Th I, 256 (bh.); Pug 64 (bh.); viriyai) arabhati to make 
an effort, to exert oneself (cp. arambha) A IV.334. — 
aor. arabhi DhA 11.38 & arabbhi PvA 35. — ger. 
arabbha, see sep. — pp. araddha (q. v.). 

Arambha [Sk. arambha in meaning "beginning", f r a -j- 
rabh (rambh) cp. arabhati] — • i. attempt, effort, in- 
ception of energy (cp. Dhs trsl. 15 & A'. 5. p. 318 giving 
C. def as kicca, karaniya, attha, i.e. I. undertaking & 
duty, 2. object) S 1.76 (mah°); v. 66, 104 sq. (°dhatu); 
111.338 (id.), 166 Cja; T. arabbhaja, v. 1. arambhaja to 
be preferred) = Pug 64; Miln 244; Net 41; DhsA 145. 
-viriyarambha (cp. araddha-viriya) zeal, resolution, energy 
Vin 11.197; S IV.175; A I.12, 16. — 2. support, ground, 
object, thing Nett 70 sq., 107; an° unsupported, inde- 
pendent Sn 743 {= nibbana SnA 507). Cp. also nirambha, 
uparambha, sarambha. 

ArammaQa (nt.) [cp. Sk. alambana, lamb, but in meaning 
confounded with rambh (see rabhati)] primary meaning 
"foundation", from this applied in the foil, senses: (i) 
support, help, footing, expedient, anything to be depended 
upon as a means of achieving what is desired, i. e. basis 
of operation, chance Sn 1069 (= alambana, nissaya, upa- 
nissaya Nd' 132); Pv 1.4' (yaq kiiic^ arammanar) katva); 
arammanai) labhati (-}- otarai) labhati) to get the chance 
S 11.268; IV.185. — (2) condition, ground, cause, means, 
esp. a cause of desire or clinging to life, pi. ''a causes 
of rebirth (interpreted by tanha at Nd' 429), lust Sn 474 
(;:= paccaya Sn.\ 410), 945 (=zNd' 429); KhA 23; DhA 
1.288 (sappay"); PvA 279. — (3) a basis for the working 
of the mind & intellect; i.e. sense-object, object of thought 
or consciousness, the outward constituent in the relation 
of subject & object, object in general. In this meaning 
of "relation" it is closely connected with ayatana (see 
ayatana'), so that it sometimes takes its place, it is also 
similar to visaya. Cfd. 3 distinguishes a 5 fold object, 
viz. citta, cetasika, pasada- & sukhuma-rupa, paniiatti, 
nibbana. See on term especially Cpd. 3, 14; Dhs lisl. 
XU. & 209. — A 1.82 sq.; IV.385; Sn 506; Ps 1. 57 sq., 
84 (four a); 11.97, u^i '43; Uhs I (dhamm° object of 
ideation), 180, 584, 1 186 et passim; Vbh 12, 79, 92, 
319, 332 (four); Nett 191 (six); VisA 87 sq., 375 (°san- 
kantika), 430 sq. (in var. sets with ref. to var. objects), 
533; DhsA 48, 127; VvA II, 38. — ruparammana lit. 
dependence on form, i. e. object of sight, visible form, 
especially striking appearance, visibility, sight D III. 228; 
S 111.53; A ■•82; J 1.304; 'l^Sg, 442; PvA 265. — 
arammanai) karoti to make it an object (of intellection or 
intention), to make it one's concern (cp. Pvl.4', above 1). 
— arammana-kusala clever in the objects (of meditation) 
S 111.266; a°-paccayata relation of presentation (i.e. of 
subj. & obj.) Nett 80. — (4) ( — ") (adj.) being supported 
by, depending on, centred in, concentrated upon PvA 8 
(nissay°), 98 (ek"); VvA 119 (buddh" piti rapture centred 
in the Buddha). 

Araha (adj.) melri causa for araha deserving J vi.164. 

Ara' (f.) [Sk. ara; *el "pointed", as in Ohg. ala = Ger. 
ahle, Ags. ael ^= E awl ; Oicel. air] an awl ; see cp. 
aragga. Perhaps a der. of ara is alaka (q. v.). 

Ara- (indecl.) [Vedic arad, abl. as adv.; orig. a root der. 
fr. *ara remoteness, as in Sk. arana foreign & aranya 
solitude q. v. under arana' and aranna] far from, remote 
(from) (adv. as well as prep, with abl.) Sn 156 (pama- 
damhS), 736; Dh 253 (asavakkhaya; DhA 111.377 expls. 
by diiragala); J 11.449 (jhanabhumiya; = dure thita C); 
V.78 (saijyame; = duralo C). See also araka. 

-cara [in this comb"- by Kern, Toev. s. v. unecessarily 
explJ- as ara = arya; cp. similar phrases under araka] a 
life remote (from evil) A iv.389. -carin living far from 
evil leading a virtuous life D 1.4; M 1. 179; HI. 33; A HI, 
216, 348; IV.249; V.138, 205; DA 1.72 (=: abrahmaca- 
riyato dilra-carin). 

Aradhaka (adj.-n.) [fr. a-j-radh] i. [perhaps for *araddhaka 
because of analogy to araddha of a -f- rabh] successful, 
accomplishing or accomplished, undertaking, eager Vin 
1.70 (an" one who fails); M 1. 491; II. 197 ^= A 1.69 =: 
Miln 243; S V.19; A V.329 (in correlation with araddha- 
viriya). — 2. pleasing, propitiating Miln 227; VvA 220 
(°ika f.). 

Aradhana (nt.) & °a (f) (either fr. a-fradh or a-|- rabh, 

cp. aradhaka] satisfying, accomplishing; satisfaction, ac- 
complishment D 11.287 (opp. viradhana failure); M I.479; 
n.199; A V.211 sq.; J IV. 427. 

Aradhaniya (adj.) [grd. fr. aradheti] to be attained, to be 
won; successful Vin 1.70 (an"); J 11.233 (dur°). 

Aradhita [pp. of aradheti; Sk. aradhita, but BSk. aragita, 
e.g. Divy 131, 233] pleased Sdhp 510. 

Aradheti [Caus. of a -|- radh, in meaning 2 confused with 
arabhati. In BSk. strangely distorted to aragayati; freq. 
in Divy as well as A v. S] — i. to please, win favour, 
propitiate, convince J 1.337 (darake), 421, 452; II.72 
(manusse); IV.274 (for abhiradheti T.); Vism 73 (aradha- 
yanto Nathassa vana-vasena manasai]); DhA II. 71; Davs 
III. 93 (ariidhayi sabbajanaij); Miln 352. In older literature 
only in phrase cit(ar) aradheti to please one's heart, to 
gladden, win over, propitiate D 1. 1 18 sq., 175 (but cp. 
araddha-citta to arabhati); M 1.85, 341; S II. 107; V.109; 
J 11.372; Miln 25. — 2. to attain, accomplish, fulfill, 
succeed S v. 23 (maggaij), 82, 180, 294; It ill. (v. 1. 
5ram°); Sn 488 = 509. Cp. aradhaka I. — pp. atadhita 
(q. v.). — See also parabhetva. 

Arama [Sk. arama, a + ram] — i- pleasure, fondness of 
( — °), delight, always as adj. ( — °) delighting in, enjoying, 
finding pleasure in (usually combd- with rata, e. g. dham- 
marama dhammarata finding delight in the Dh.) S 1.235; 
IV. 389 sq. (bhav°, upadan"); A 1.35, 37, 130; 11.28 (bha- 
van'); It 82 (dhamm°); Sn 327 (id.; expld- by SnA 333 
as rati and "dhanime aramo assa ti"); Pug 53 (samagg°); 
Vbh 351. — 2. a pleasure-ground, park, garden (lit. 
sport, sporting); classified at Vin III. 49 as pupph" and 
phal° a park with flowers or with fruit (i. e. orchard), 
def. at DhA III. 246 as Vejuvana-Jivak' ambavan^ adayo, 
i. e. the park of Veluvana, or the park belonging to 
Jivaka or mango-groves in general. Therefore : (a) (in 
general) ■ park, resort for pastime etc. Vin 11.109; D 1. 
106; Dh 188; Vv 79'' (amb" garden of mangoes); VvA 
305 (id.); Pv 11.78 (pi. aramani = aram' ilpavanani PvA 
102). — (b) (in special) a private park, given to the 
Buddha or the Sangha for the benefit of the bhikkhus, 
where they meet & hold discussions about sacred & 
secular matters; a place of recreation and meditation, a 
meeting place for religious gatherings. Amongst the many 
aramas given to the bhikkhus the most renowned is that 
of Anathapindika (Jetavana; see J 1.92 — 94) D 1.178; 
Vin IV.69 ; others more frequently mentioned are e. g. 




the park of Ambapall (Vin I.233); of Mallika (D 1.178), 
etc. — Vin 1.39, 140, 283, 291; 11.170; 111.6, 45, 162; 
IV.85 ; A 11.176; Dpvs V.18. 

-pala keeper of a park or orchard, gardener Vin II. 
109; VVA288. -ropa, -ropana planter, planting of pleasure- 
groves S 1.33; PvA 151. -vatthu the site of an Arama Vin 
1.140; II. 170; 111.50, 90. 

Aramaklni (f-) see aramika. 

Aramata (f.) [abstr. fr. arama 1] pleasure, satisfaction A 
n.28; III. 116; Vbh 381; Miln 233. 

Aramika (adj.) [fr. arSma] I. (to arama i) finding delight 
in, fond of (c. gen.) (or servant in general?) Miln 6 
(sangbassa trsl. at the service of the order). — 2. (to 
arSma 2) belonging to an Arama, one who shares the 
congregation, an attendant of the Arama Vin 1.207 sq.; 
11.177 (& °pesaka), 211; 111.24; iv.40; v.204 ; A 11.78 
(°samanuddesa); 111.109 (id.), 275 (°pesaka); J i.38(°kicca) 
Vism 74 (°samanuddesa). — f. aramakinl a female attendant 
or visitor of an Arama Vin 1.208. 

Arava [cp. Sk. arava, fr. a -|- ru] cry, sound, noise Davs iv.46. 

Araha (nt) only in pi. giblaai) arahani, things proper to 
laymen, D in. 163. 

Ariya in anSriya at Su 815 is metric for anariya (q. v.). 

Arup^a (nt.) [orig. pp of a -f rud] weeping, crying, lam- 
enting Miln 357. 

Aruppa (adj.) [fr. arapa as a (= a'^) — *rapya] formless, 
incorporeal; nt. formless existence D in.275; M 1.410, 
cp. 472; 111.163; S 1. 131 ("tthayin); 11.123; A iv.316; 
It 61; Sn 754; J 1.406; Dhs 1385 (cp. trsl. 57); Vism 
338; DA 1.224; SnA 488, 508; Sdhp 5, 10; the four: 
Vism III, 326 sq. 

AruhatI [a -f- ruh] to climb, ascend, go up or on to Sn 
1014 (aor. aruhar)); Sdhp 188; ger. aruhitvS Sn 321 & 
aruyha J VI. 452; Sn 139 (v. 1. abhiruyha); It 71. — 
Caus. aropeti (q. v.). 

Arngya see arogya. 

Aru|ha [pp. of aruhati] — I. ascended, mounted, gone up- 
gone on to IV.137; J VI. 452 (T. arulha); Vism 135 (nek, 
khamma-patipadai) an°); VvA 64 (magga°;; PvA 47 
(°nava), 56 (hatthi°). — 2. come about, effected, made, 
done PvA 2, 144 (cp. BSk. pratijfiam arudha having 
taken a vow Divy 26). — 3. (of an ornament) put on 
(to), arrayed J VI. 1 53, 488. 

Aruha see aroba. 

ArogatS (f.) [abstr. fr. a -J- roga + ta] freedom from illness, 
health Miln 341. 

Arogya (nt.) [abstr. fr. aroga, i. e. a (^ a') -f roga -\- ya] 
absence of illness, health D l.ii; 111.220 ("mada), 235 
(°sampada); M 1.45 1 (T. arOgya, v. 1. arogya), 508, 509; 
S 11.109; A I.146 (°mada); 11.143; "'-TZ; v. 135 sq. ; Sn 
749) 257 = Dh 204 = J III. 196; Nd' 160; Vism 77 
("mada pride of health); PvA 129, 198; Sdhp 234. 

Arocapana (nt.) [fr. Srocapeti, Caus. of aroceti] announ- 
cement DhA 11.167. 

Arocapeti (Caus. II. of aroceti] to make some one announce, 
to let somebody know, usually in phrase kalaQ a. Sn p. 
Ill; J 1.115, 125; DhA 11.89; PvA 141. 

ArOClta [pp. of Iroceti] announced, called Vin 11.213 (kSla). 

Aroceti [5 -f- roceli, Caus. of rUC ; cp. BSk. Srocayati Sp. 
Av. b 1.9 etc.] to relate, to tell, announce, speak to, 
address D 1.109, 224; Pv 11.8" (aor, arocayi); PvA 4, 13 

(aniiamannai) anSrocetva not speaking to each other), 81, 
274 & freq. passim. — pp. arocita; Caus. II. arocapeti (q. v.). 

Arodana (nt.) [fr. a -f- rud, cp. arunna] crying, lamenting 
A IU.268 sq. ; J 1.34; DhA 1.184; 11. 100. 

Aropana (nt.) [fr. aropeti] "putting on to", impaling Miln 
197 (sul°), 290 (id.). 

Aroplta [pp. of aropeti] — I. produced, come forward, 
set up PvA 2. — 2. effected, made S 111.12; PvA 92, 
257. — 3. put on (to a stake), impaled PvA 220 (= avuta). 

Aropeti [Caus. of aruhati]. — i. to make ascend, to lead 
up to (w. ace.) PvA 76 (pasadaq), 160 (id.) — 2 to put 
on, take up to (w. ace. or loc.) Pv 11.9^ (yakkhaq yanag 
aropayitvana); PvA 62 (sarlrai) citakaq a.), 100 (bhandaq 
sakatesu a.). — 3. to put on, commit to the care of, 
entrust, give over to (w. loc.) J 1.227; PvA 154 (rajjaq 
amaccesu a.). — 4. to bring about, get ready, make PvA 
73i 257 (sangahaq a. make a collection); SnA 51, 142. — 
5. to exhibit, tell, show, give S 1.160 (ovadaq); Miln 
176 (dosai)); DhA 11.75 ("d.) — 6. vadaq aropeti to refute 
a person, to get the better of (gen.) Vin 1.60; M 11.122; 
S 1.160. — pp. aropita (q. v.). 

Aroha ( — ") [fr. a + ruh] — i. climbing up, growth, in- 
crease, extent, in cpd. °parinaba length & circumference 
S 11.206; A 1.288; 11.250; IV.397; v. 19; J 111.192; v. 
299; VI. 20; Vbh 345 (°mana + parinaha-mSna); SnA 
382. — 2. one who has climbed up, mounted on, a rider, 
usually in cpd. ass° & hatth° horse-rider & elephant- 
rider S IV.310; A 11.166 = 111.162 (T. aruha); iv.107; 
DhsA 305. — 3. outfit, possession (or increase, as i ?) 
Sn 420 (vann°). 

Arohaoa (nt.) [fr. a -f ruh] climbing, ascending; ascent J 
1.70; VI. 488; Miln 352; Vism 244; PvA 74. 

Alaka-manda [alaya°?] at Vin 11.152 is of uncertain reading 
and meaning ("open to view"? or "not having pegs" = 
alaka?) vv. 11. alakamanta & alakamandara ; Bdhgh on 
p. 321 expl°^ alakamanda ti ekangana manussabhikiniiia, 
i. e. full of a crowd of people, Ch. quotes alakamanda as 
"the city of Kuvera" (cp. Sk. alaka). 

Alaggetl [a + Caus. of lag] to (make) hang on to (loc.), 
to stick on, fasten to Vin II.1 10 (pattaij velagge Slaggetva). 

Afapati [a + lapali] to address S 1.177, 212; J v.201 ; 
SnA 42, 347, 383, 394 (= amantayi of Sn 997), 487 (— 
avhayati); PvA II, 13, 33, 69. 

Alapana (nt.) & "a (f.) [fr. a + lap] talking to, addressing, 
conversation Vin iu.73 (with ref. to exclam. "ambho"); 
J V.253 ("a); Vism 23 ("a); SnA 396; PvA 131 (re ti a.). 

Alapanata (f.) [abstr. fr. Slapana] speaking to, conversing 
with, conversation M 1.33 1 ) (an"). 

Alamba [Sk. alamba, S. -f lamb] anything to hang on, 
support S 1.53 (an° without support); Sn 173 (id. + ap- 
patittha); J 111.396: Miln 343; Sdhp 245, 463. 

Alarabati [a + lamb] to hang on to or up, to take hold 
of, to fasjen to Vin 1.28, J 1.57; vi.192; Vv 84*8; ThA 
34. — alambeti id. VvA 32. 

Alambanfl (adj.-nt.) [fr. S + lamb, cp. Slamba] (adj.) 
hanging down from, hanging up J III. 396; iv.457; SnA 
214. — (nt.) support, balustrade (or screen?) Vin 11.117, 
152 (°baha) Miln 126. 

Alambara & A|ambara (nt.) [Sk. adambara] a drum Vin 
1.15 (1); J 11.344 (1); V.390 (1); Vv 54'e (i). 





Alaya (m. & nt.) [cp. Sk. alaya, a + lii liyate, cp. allina 
& allfyati, also niralaya] — 1. orig. roosting place, perch, 
i.e. abode settling place, house J MO (geh°); Miln 213; 
DhA 11.162 (an° = anoka), 170 (= oka). — 2. "hanging 
on", attachment, desire, clinging, lust S 1.136 = Vin 1.4 
(°rama "devoted to the things to which it clings" K. S.); 
Vin III. 20, III; S IV.372 (an°); v.421 sq. (id.); A II. 
34, 131 (°rama); 111.35; It 88; Sn 177 (kam° := kamesu 
lanha-ditthi-vasena duvidho alayo SnA 216), 535 (-J- asa- 
vani), 635; Nett 121, 123 ("samugghata); Vism 293 (id.), 
497; Miln 203 (Buddh °ri akasi?); DhA 1. 121; iv.i86(=; 
tanha); SnA 468 (=r anoka of Sn 366). — 3. pretence, 
pretext, feint [cp. BSk. alaya MVastu 111.314]) 1.157 (gilan°), 
438; 111.533 (m^'°); '^-37 (gabbhinl); vi 20, 262 (gilan°). 

Alayati see alliyati. 

Alassa (nt.) [Der. fr. alasa] sloth, idleness, laziness S 1.43 ; 
D 111.182; A IV. 59; V.136; Sdhp 567. Spelling also 
alasya S 1.43 (v. 1. BB); Vbh 352; Miln 289, and ala- 
siya J 1.427; DA 1.310; DhA 1.299; ^'^A. 43. 

Alana & A|ana (nt.^ [for anahana with substitution of 1 
for n (cp. apilandhana for apinandh" and contraction of 
"ahana to °Sna originally meaning "tying to" then the 
thing to which anything is tied] a peg, slake, post, esp. 
one to which an elephant is tied J 1.415; IV.308; DhA 
1.126 (!) where all MSS. have alahana, perhaps correctly. 

AH' (m. or f. ? [Sk. ali] a certain kind of fish J v.405. 

Air^ & A|i (f.) [Sk. all] a dike, embankment Vin 11.256,; 
M 111.96; A 11.166 (°pabbheda); 111.28; J 1.336; 111.533, 334- 

Alika in saccalika at S IV.306 is sacc^alika distortion of 
truth, falsehood S iv.306. 

Alikhatl [a -)- likhati] to draw, delineate, copy in writing 
or drawing J 1.7 1; Miln 51. 

Alinga [a -)- ling] a small drum J v.156 (suvann''-tala). 

Alingatl [fi + ling] to embrace, enfold D 1.230; 111.73; J 
1.281; IV.21, 316,438; v.S; Mihi 7; DhAl.loi : VvA 260. 

Alitta [pp. of alimpati; Sk. alipta] besmeared, stained 
Th I, 737- 

Alinda (& Ajinda) [Sk. alinda] a terrace or verandah be- 
fore the house-door Vin 1.248; 11.153; D 1.89; M 11.119; 
S.IV.290 (!); A V.65 (!); J VI.429; DA 1.252; DhA I. 
26; IV. 196; SnA 55 ("ka-vasin; v. 1. alindaka); Mhvs 
35, 3. As alindaka at J 111.283. 

Alippatl Pass, of alimpeti (q. v.). 

Allmpana (nt.) [for alimp° = Sk. adipana, see alimpeti^] 
conflagration, burning, fiame Miln 43. 

Allmpita [pp. of ?llmpeti2] ignited, lit. A iv.102 (v. 1. alepita). 

AUmpeti' [Sk. alimpayati or alepayati. a -f Up or limp] 

to smear, anoint Vin 11.107; S iv.177 (vanar)). — Caus. 
11. alimpapeti Vin iv.316. — Pass, alimplyati Miln 74 
&alippatiDhA iv.166 (v.l. for lippati). — pp. alitta (q. v.). 

Alimpeti' [for Sk. Idlpayati, with change of d to 1 over 
1 and substitution of limp for lip after analogy of roots 
in °mp, like lup > lump, lip > limp] to kindle, ignite, 
set fire to Vin 11.138 (dayo alimpetabbo); 111.58; Dn.163 
(citakarj); A 1.257; DhA 1.177 (avasaq read avapai)), 225; 
PvA 62 (katthani). — pp. alimpita (q. v.). 

AlU (nt.) [Sk. alu & °ka; cognate with Lat. alum & alium, 
see Walde Lat. Wtb. under alium] a bulbous plant. Radix 

Globosa Esculenta or Amorphophallus (Kern), Arum Cam- 
panulatum (Hardy) J IV.371 = vi.578 ; iv.373. 

Aluka' = alu J IV. 46 (C. for alupa). 

Aluka'^ (*<^j-) [etym. r] susceptible of, longing for, affected 
with (— ") Vin 1.288 (sit°); DA 1.198 (id.); J 11.278 
(tanh° greedy). 

Alupa (nt.) [etym. ? Kern, Toev. s, v. suggests alu-a > alu- 
va > alupa] =: aluka the edible root of Amorphophallus 
Campanulatus J IV. 46 (:= aluka-kanda C). 

Alumpakara [reading not sure, to alumpati or alopa] breaking 
off, falling olT(?) or forming into bits (?) DhA 11.55 (°gutha). 

Alumpati [a + lup or lump, cp. alopa] to pull out, break 
off M 1.324. 

Alu|a (adj. [fr. a + lul] being in motion, confusion or 
agitation, disturbed, agitated J Vi.431. 

Alu|ati [a -|- lul; Sk. alolati, cp. also P. aloleti] to move 
here & there, ppr. med. alujamana agitated, whirling 
about DhA iv.47 (T. alul°; v.l. alul°) confuse DhsA 375. 
Caus. aluleti to set in motion, agitate, confound J 11.9, 
33. — pp. alulita (q. v.). 

Alu|ita [pp. of aluleti] agitated, confused J ii.ioi; Miln 

397 (+ khalita). 

Alepa [cp. Sk. alepa, of a + lip] ointment, salve, lioiment 
Vin 1.274; M'l° 74; DhsA 249. 

Alepana (nt.) [fr. a -f lip] anointing, application of salve 
D 1.7 (mukkh"). 

Aloka [a -|- lok, Sk. aloka] seeing, sight (obj. & subj.), 
i. e. — • I. sight, view, look S iv.128 = Sn 763; A 111. 
236 (aloke nikkhilta laid before one's eye), analoka with- 
out sight, blind Miln 296 (andha -f-). — 2. light A 1. 
164 (tamo vigato a. uppanno) = It 100 (vihato); A 11. 
139 (four lights, i.e. canda^, suriya°, agg°, pann", of the 
moon, sun, fire & wisdom); J 1134; Dhs 617 (opp. an- 
dhakara); VvA 51 (dip°). — 3. (clear) sight, power of 
observation, intuition, in comb"- with vijja knowledge D 
11.33 = S 11.7 = 105, cp. Ps II. 1 50 sq. (obhasatthena, S A. 
on 11.7). — 4. splendour VvA 53; DvA 71. 

-kara making light, bringing light, n. light-bringer It 
108. -karana making light, illumining It 108. -da giving 
light or insight Th i, 3. -dassana seeing light, i. e. 
perceiving Th 1, 422. -pharana diffusing light or dif- 
fusion of light Vbh 334; Nett 89. -bahula good in sight, 
fig. full of foresight A 111.432. -bbuta light J vi 459. 
-sanfia conscicmsness or faculty of sight or perception 
D 111.223; A 11.45; '"-93 -sannin conscious of sight, 
i.e. susceptible to sight or insight D 111.49; M "1-3; A 
11 211; 111.92, 323; 1V.437; V.207; Pug 69. -sandhi 
"break for the light", a slit to look through, an opening, 
a crack or casement Vin 1.48 = II. 209 ^ 218; 11.172: 
111.65; IV.47; J IV. 310; PvA 24. 

Alokana (nt.) [fr. a -f lok] looking at, regarding DA 1.194. 

AlOkita (nt.) [pp. of aloketi] looking before, looking at, 
looking forward (opp. vilokitar) looking behind or back- 
ward), always in comb"- alokita-vilokita in ster. phrase 
at D 1.70 = e. g. A 11.104, 106, 210; Pug 44, 45, 50; 
Vism 19; VvA 6; DA 1.193 (alokitai] purato pekkhanaq 
vil° anudisa p.). 

Aloketar [n. ag. to aloketi] one who looks forward or be- 
fore, a beholder DA 1. 194 (opp. viloketar). 

Aloketi [Sk. alokayali, 3 -|- lok] to look before, look at, 
regard, see DA 1.193, 194. — pp. 31okita (q.v.). 


1 1 1 


Alopa [a + lup, cp. alumpati; BSk. alopa, e.g. A v. S I. 
173, 341; Divy 290, 481] a piece (cut off), a bit (of 
food) morsel, esp. bits of food gathered by bhikkhus D 
1.5 ^ A V.206; III. 176; A 11209; III. 304; IV.318; Th I, 
1055; It 18; Pv ii.i'; Pug 58; Miln 231, 406; Vism 
106; DA 1.80 (= vilopa-karanarj). 

Alopatl [alopeti? a + lopeti, Caus. of alumpali] to break 
Id, plunder, violate Th 1, 743. 

Aloplka (adj.) [alopa -f- 'l^a] getting or having, or con- 
sisting of pieces (of food) A 1295; 11.206; Pug 55. 

Alo|a [fr. a + Inl, cp. alulati & aloleti] confusion, uproar, 
agitation DhA 1.38. 

Alo|i (f) [a + lull that which is stirred up, mud, in cpd. 
sitaloli mud or loam from the furrow adhering to the 
plough Vin 1.206. 

AIo]etl [Caus. of alulati, cp. aluleti] to confuse, mix, shake 
together, jumble S 1.175; J 11272, 363; iv.333; vi.331; 
Vism 105. 

A|aka (or '^ f.) [Dimin of z\a (?) or of ara i (?). See Mor- 
ris J P T S. 1886, 158] — I. a thorn, sting, dart, spike, 
used either as arrow-straightener Miln 418; DhA 1.288; 
or (perhaps also for piece of bone, fishbone) in making 
up a comb VvA 349 (°»andhapana ^ comb; how Hardy 
got the meaning of "alum" in Ind. to VvA is incompreh- 
ensible). — 2 a peg, spike, slake or post (to tie an ele- 
phant to, cp. alana). Cp. 11, i'. 

A|amba = alambara Vv 18^ = 50". See alambara, 

A|avaka (& °ika) (adj.-n.) [= atavika] dwelling in forests, 
a forest-dweller S n.235. As Np. at Vism 208. 

A|&dvaraka (adj.) at J v.8i, 82 is corrupt & should with 
v. I. perhaps better be read advaraka without doors. Cp. 
Kern, Totv. 29 (alaraka?). J v. 8 1 has alaraka only. 

A|Sra (adj.) [= alara or ujSra or = Sk. arala?] thick, mas- 
sed, dense or crooked, arched (?), only in cpd. °pamha 
with thick eyelashes Vv 64" (=r gopakhuma VvA 279); 
Pv 111.3' (=: vellita-digha-nila-pamukha). Cp. alara. 

A|&lika & °lya (adj.-n.) [Sk. aralika, of uncertain etym.] 
a cook D 1. 51 (= bhattakaraka DA 1.157); J v.296 (== 
bhattakiraka C); 307; VI. 276 ("iya, C. °ika = supika); 
Miln 331. 

Al&hana (nt.i [fr. a + «Jah or dah, see dahati] a place 
of cremation, cemetery D 1-55; J 1.287 (here meaning 
the funereal fire) 402; in. 505 ; Pv 11. 12*; Vism 76; Miln 
350; DA 1. 166; DhA 1.26; III. 276; PvA 92, 161, 163 
(== sarirassa daddha-tthaca). — Note. For ilahana in 
meaning "peg, stake" see alana. 

A|ika at A III. 352, 384 (an°) is preferably to be read 
alhika, see alhaka. 

A|ha (nt.) =: albaka; only at A in. 5 2 (udak°), where 
perhaps better with v. I. to be read as alhaka. The id. 
p. at A 11.55 has alhaka only. 

A|haka (m. & nt.) [Sk. adhaka, fr. *adba probably meaning 
"grain"] a certain measure of capacity , originally for 
grain ; in older texts usually applied to a liquid measure 
(udaka°;. Its siie is given by Bdhgh. at SnA 476 as fol- 
lows: "cattaro pattha ajhakani donai] etc." — udakajhaka 
\r S V.400: A 11.55 = 111.337; VvA 155. — In other con- 

nections at J 1. 419 (addh°); 111.541 (mitar) alhakena =: 
dhanna-mapaka-kammar) katai) C); Miln 2Z9(patt°); DhA 
III. 367 (addh"). 

-tbalika a bowl of the capacity of an alhaka Vin i. 
240; A 111.369; Dh.\ 111.370 (v. 1. bhatta-thalika). 

A|h]ya (& alhika) (adj.) [fr. ^alha, Sk. adhya, orig. pos- 
sessing grain, rich in grain, i.e. wealth; semanlically cp. 
dhaiiiia-] rich, happy, fortunate; only in neg. analhiya 
poor, unlucky, miserable M 1.450; 11.178 (+ dalidda); 
A III. 352 sq. (so read with v. 1. BB. ''ajhika for T. 
"alika ; combd- with dalidda ; v. 1. SS. anaddhika) ; J v. 
96, 97 ("l-daUdda; C. na alhika). 

Avajatl [a + vajati, vraj] — I. to go into, to or towards 
J 111.434; IV.49, 107. — 2. to return, comeback J V.24, 479. 

AvajjaH [not with Senart M Vastu 377 = ava + dhyi, 
but = Sk. avrnakli a -j- Vfj, with pres. act. avajjeti ^= 
Sk. avarjayati] — I. to letlect upon, notice, take in, 
advert to, catch (a sound), listen J 1. 8 1: n.423; v.3; Miln 
106. — 2. to remove, upset (a vessel), pour out Vin 
1.286 (kumbhii)); J II. 102 (gloss asiucati;. — Caus avaj- 
jeti (q. v.). 

Avajjana (nt.) [fr. avajjati, cp. BSk. avarjana in diff. meaning] 
turning to, paying attention, apprehending, advening the 
mind. — See discussion of term at Cpd. 85, 227 (the 
C. derive avajjana fr. avatteti to turn towards, this con- 
fusion being due to close resemblance of jj and tt in 
writing); also Kvu Irsl. 221 n. 4 (on Kvu 380 which 
has avattana), 282 n. 2 (un Kvu 491 avattana). — Ps 
11.5, 120; J 11.243; Vbh 320; Miln 102 sq. ; Vism 432; 
DA 1. 271. 

Avajjita [pp. of avajjeti cp. BSk. avarjita, e.g. Divy 171; 
Itm 221] bent, turned to, inclined; noticed, observed 
Miln 297; Vism 432 (citta); Sdhp 433. 

Avajjitatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. avajjita] inclination of mind, 
observation, paying attention Ps II.27 sq. 

Avajjeti [Caus. of avajjati] I. to turn over, incline, bend M 
111.96; J IV. 56 (so read for avijjhanto); DA I.IO (kayaq). — 
2. to incline (the mind); observe, reflect, muse, think, 
heed, listen for. According to Cpd. 227 often paraphrased 
in C. by parinameti. — J 1.69, 74, 81, 89, 108, 200; 
Miln 297; DhA 11.96; PvA 181 (= manasikaroti). — 3. 
to cause to yield A iit.27 (perhaps better avatt°). — 
pp. avajjita (q. v.). 

Avata [Sk. avrta, pp. of a -f- Vf] covered, veiled, shut 
off against, prohibited D 1.97, 246; M 1.38 1 (°dvara); J 
VI. 267. -anavata uncovered, unveiled, exposed, open L) 
1.137 ("dvara); III. 191 ("dvarata); S 1.55; J v. 213; Pv 
III.6*; Miln 283. Cp. avuta^ & vy°. 

Avatt^ (adj.-n.) [Sk. avarta, a -f- Vft] — I. turning round, 
winding, twisting M 1.382; S 1.32 (dvi-r-a° turning twice) 
J 11.217; SnA 439 (°ganga). — 2. turned, brought round 
changed, enticed M 1.381; DhA 11153. — 3- an eddy' 
whirlpool, vortex M 1.460 =; A 11.123 (°bhaya); Miln 1221 
196, 377. — 4. circumference J v. 337; Davs v.24; DhA 
III 184. 

Ava^t^^tl [:= avattati] in phrase a. vivattati to turn forward 
&: [backward Vism 504. 

Avattana (nt.) [fr. a + vj^, cp. avatta 2 and avattanin] 
turning, twisting; enticement, snare, temptation J 111.494; 
DhA 11.153. 

Avattana (f) [most likely for avajjana. q. v. & see also 
Kvu trsl. 221, 282] turning to (of the mind), adverting, 
apprehending Kvu 380, 491. 

Avattanin (adj.) [fr. avattana] turning (away or towards), 
changing, tempting, enticing M 1375, 381 ; A 11.190; J 
11.330 = IV. 471; DA 1.250. — Cp. etymologically the 
same, but semanlically diff. avattanin. 




Avatftl (adj.-n.) [fr. avatta instead of avattana] only at 
M 1.9 1 in neg. an° not enticed by (loc), i.e. kamesu. — 
Cp. avattin. 

Avattetl [a + vatteti, Caus. of Vft, cp. BSk. avaitayati to 
employ spells Divy 438] to turn round, entice, change, 
convert, bring or win over M I.375, 381, 383, 505; A 
111.27; DA 1.272. 

Avatta' (adj.) [pp. of Svattati] gone away to, fallen back 
to, in phrase hlnay'avatta (see same phrase under avattati) 
M 1.460; S 11.50; J 1.206. 

Avatta'^ (nt.) [.Sk. avarta, of a -}- Vft, cp. 5vatta[ winding, 
turn, bent J 1.70 (in a river); Nett 81 (v.l. avatta ?), 105 

Avattaka (adj.) [avatta + ka] turning, in dakkhin° turning 
to the right, dextrorsal U II. 18; cp. dakkhinavatta at 
DA 1.259. 

Avattati [a -|- vattati, of vft] to turn round, come to, go 
back, go away to, turn to ; only in phrase hinaya avattati 
to turn to "the low", i. e. to give up orders & return 
to the world Vin 1. 17; M 1.460; S 11.231; iv.191; Sn p. 
92 (= osakkati SnA 423); Ud 21; Pug 66; Miln 246. — 
pp. avatta (q. v.). Cp. avattati. 

Avattana (adj.-nt.) [Sk. avartana] turning; turn, return 
Nett 113; Miln 251. 

Avattanin (adj.) [fr. avattana] turning round or back Th 
I, 16 (cp. avattanin). 

Avattin (adj.-n.) [fr. avatta, cp. avattin in diff. meaning] 
returning, coming back, one who returns, in spec, mean- 
ing of one who comes back in transmigration, syn. with 
agamin (an°), only in neg. anavattin not returning, a 
non-returner, with °dhamma not liable to return at D I. 
156; III. 132; S V.346, 357, 376, 406; M 1.91; DA I.313. 

Avattllilta (adj.) [a -|- vatthika] befitting, original, inherent 
(one of the 4 kinds of nomenclature) Vism 210 = KhA 107. 

Avapati [a -f vap] to give away to offer, to deposit as a 
pledge Miln 279. 

Avapana (nt.) [tr. avapati] sowing, dispersing, offering de- 
positing, scattering J 1. 321. 

Avara (adj.) [fr. a -f- vp] obstructing, keeping off from J 
V.325 (so to be read in ariya-magg-&vara). 

Avaraija (adj.-n.) [fr. a -f Vf, cp. avarati; BSk. avarana 
in pane' .ivaranaoi Divy 378] shutting off, barring out, 
withstanding; nt. hindrance, obstruction, bar Vin 1.84 
(°r) karoti to prohibit, hinder); 11.262 (id.); D 1.246 
(syn. of pafica nivaranani); S v. 93 sq.; A 111.63 ; J 1.78 
(an°); v. 41 2 (nadiq °ena bandhapeti to obstruct or dam 
off the river); Sn 66 (pahaya paiic' avaranani cetaso, cp. 
Nd' 379), 1005 (an°-dassavin); Ps 1.131 sq.; 11.158 (an°); 
Pug 13; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vbh 341, 342; .Miln 21 (dur° 
hard to withstand or oppose). — dant° "screen of the 
teeth", lip J IV.188; VI. 590. 

Avaranata (f) [abstr. fr. avarana] keeping away from, 
withholding from A III 436. 

Avaraniya (adj.) [grd. fr. avarati], only neg. an° not to 
be obstructed, impossible to obstruct M 111.3; Mi'" 157- 

Avarati [a + Vf, cp, avunati] to shut out from (abl.), hold 
back from, refuse, withhold, obstruct M 1.380 (dvaraij) ; 
Sn 922 (pot. °aye, cp. Nd' 368); DA 1.235 (dvarai)); 
Dpvs 1.38. — pp. avata and avuta' {q. v.). 

Avail (f.) [cp. Sk. avail & see vali] a row, range J v.69 ; 
DA 1.140. 

Avasati [a -j- vas] to live at or in, to inhabit, reside, stay 
M 11.72; S 1.42; Sn 43, 805, 1134; Nd' 123, 127; Nd* 
133; J vi-3«7. — pp. avuttha (q. v.). 

Avasatha [Sk Svasatha, fr. a -|- vas] dwelling-place, lia- 
bitation; abode, house, dwelling Vin I 226 ("agara resting- 
house); iv.304 (= kavatabaddha); S 1.94, 229; iv.329; 
Sn 287, 672; J iv.396; VI.425: Pug 51; Miln 279. 

Avaha (adj.) (— ") [fr. a -f vah] bringing, going, causing 
Pv 11.9^4 (sukh°); Vv 22" (id); Davs 11.37; TvA 86 
(upakar°), 116 (anatth"); Sdhp 15, 98, 206. 

Avahatl [a -|- vahati] to bring, cause, entail, give S 1.42 = 
Sn 181, 182 (avahati sukhaij metri causa); J III. 169; v. 
80; Sn 823; N'd' 302; PvA 6. — Pass, avuyhati VvA 
237 (ppr. °amana). 

Avahana (adj ) ( — °) [= avalia] bringing, causing Th I , 
519; Sn 256. 

Avahanaka (adj.-nt ) [= avahana] one who brings VvA 
114 (sukbassa), 

Ava (misery, misfortune) see ava. 

Avata [etym.?] a hole dug in the ground, a pit, a well 
D 1. 142 (yaiin°); J 1.99, 264; II 406; 111.286; IV 46 (ca- 
turassa);; Dh.\ 1.223; ^vA 63; PvA 225. 

Avapa [if correct, fr. a -|- va- to blow with caus. p. — Cp. 
J Ji A S. 1898, 750 sp.] a potter's furnace DhA 1.177 
(read for avasa?), 178. 

Avara [Sk. avara, fr. a -f- vf] warding off, protection, guard 
J VI 432 (yanta-yutta°, does it mean "cover, shield"?). — 
For cpd. khandh'avara see khandba. 

Avaretl [Sk. avarayati, a + Caus. of Vf] to ward off, hold 
back, bar, S IV 298 ; Nett 99. 

Avasa [Sk. avasa; a -f- vas] sojourn, stay, dwelling, living; 
dwelling-place, residence Vin 1.92; D 111.234; S IV.91 ; 
A II 68, 168; 111.46, 262; Sn 406; Dh 73 (cp. DhA 
11.77); Nd' 128; J VL105; Dhs 1122; Pug, 15, 19, 57; 
KhA 40; DhA 1.177 (avasai) alimpeti: read avapai]); PvA 
13, 14, 36; VvA 113; Sdhp 247. -anavasa (n. & adj.) 
uninhabited, without a home; an uninhabited place A 
IV.345; J 11.77; Pv II. 3''; PvA 80 (=anagara); VvA 46. 
-kappa the practice of (holding I'posatha in different) 
residence (within the same boundary) Vin 11.294,300,306; 
Dpvs IV.47, cp. V.l 8. -palibodha the obstruction of 
having a home (in set of 10 Palibodhas) KhA 39; cp. 
Vism 90 sq. -sappayata suitability of residence Vism 127. 

Avasika (adj.) [avasa -|- ika] living in, residing at home, 
being in (constant or fixed) residence, usually appl"*- to 
bhikkhus (opp. iigantuka) Vin 7.128 sq. ; 11.15, '7o; ill. 
65; V.203 sq.; M 1.473; A 1-236; 111.261 sq., 366; J 
IV.310; Pv IV. 8* (= nibaddha-vasanaka PvA 267). 

Avaha [a + vah] taking in marriage, lit. carrying away to 
oneself, marriage D 1.99 ; J VI. 363 ; SnA 273, 448 ; DhA IV.7. 
Often in cpd. a° vivaha(ka) lit. leading to (one's home) 
& leading away (from the bride's home), wedding feast 
D 111.183 (°ka); J 1.452; VvA 109, 157 (v.l. "ka). 

Avahana (nt.) [a + vshana, of vah] — l. = avaha, i.e. 
marriage, taking a wife D 1. 11 (:= aviiha-karana DA I. 
96). — 2. "getting up, bringing together", i. e. a mass, a 
group or formation, in sena" a contingent of an army J IV.91. 

Avi (adv.) [Sk. avih, to Gr. ilu to hear, Lat. audio (fr. 
"anizdio) to hear] clear, manifest, evident ; openly, before 
one's eyes, in full view. Only in phrase avi va rabo 
openly or secret A v.350, 353; Pv 11.710 = DhA iv.21 



(avi V. 1.), expH- at PvA 103 by pakasanai] paresai) pa- 
katavasana. Ocherwise in foil. cpds. (with kar & bhu): 
°kamma making clear, evidence, explanation Vin 11.88 ; 
111.24; Pug 19, 23; °karoti to make clear, show, explain 
D lii.:2i; Sn 84, 85, 349; J v.457; Pug 57; VvA 79, 
150; °bhavati ("bhoti) to become visible or evident, to 
be explained, to get clear J 1. 136; Vism 2S7 (fnt. Svibha- 
vissati); UhA 11.51, 82; bhava appearance, manifestation 
D 1.78; A III. 17; J 11.50, III; Vism 390 sq. (revelation, 
opp. tirobhava). Cp. patur. 

Avtjjhatl (avinjati, a7inchati) [a + vijjhati of vyadh to 
pierce; thus recognised by Morris y P T S. 1884, 72, 
against Trenckner, Nctis 59 (to pinj) & Hardy Nett. 
///(/. z= vicchay] — encircle, encompass, comprise, go 
round, usually in ger. avijjhitva (w. ace.) used as prep, 
round about, near J 1. 153 (khettaij), 170 (pokkharaniij); 
DA 1.245 (nagarar) bahi avijjhitva round the outer circle 
of the town). Ordinarily = go round (ace.) at J IV.59 
(charika-punjai)). — 2. [a-s in lit. Sk.] to swing round, 
brandish, twirl, whirl round Vin ill. 127 (dandaq avinji); 
M III. 141 (matthena avinjati to churn); J 1. 313; v. 291 
(cakkari, of a potter's wheel); SnA 481 (T. avinj°, v. 1. 
avijjh'^; see aracaya"); DhA 11.277 (aviuchamana T. ; v. 1. 
asiiiciy", avajiy", agaiich"). — 3. to resort to, go to, ap- 
proach, incline to S IV. 199 (T. avinch"; v. 1. avicch" & 
avinj"); Nett 13. — 4. to arrange, set in order J 11.406. — 
5. to pull (?) A IV.86 (kannasotani avijjeyyasi, v.l. avijj', 
avii)j°, avicc", avinch" ; cp. Trenckner, Notes 59 avinjati 
"to pull"). — pp. aviddha (q. v.). 

Avijjhana (so for aviiichana & Sviiijana) (adj.-n.) [fr. avijj- 
hati, lit. piercing through, i. e. revolving axis] — I. (= 
avijjhali 2) swinging round, hanging loose, spinning in 
avijjhana-rajju a loose, rope, esp. in mythology the 
swinging or whirling rope by which Sakka holds the 
world's wheel or axis, in the latter sense at Dh.\ 11.X43 
(T. Sviiich" (v. 1. avijj") = 111.97, 9^ (where aviujana- 
tthana for °rajju). Otherwise a rope used in connection 
with the opening & shutting of a door (pulling rope?) 
Vin 11.120, 148; J V.29S, 299 (T. aviiij', v.l. avicch" & 
avij°). — 2. (cp. avijjhati 3) going to, approach, contact 
with DhsA 312 ("rasa, T. aviiSj", v.l. aviiich° ; or is it 
"encompassing"? = avijjhati l ?): Vism 444 (avii5jana- 
rasa). — 3. (cp. avijjhati 5) pulling, drawing along Vin 
III. 121 (= akaddhana nama). 

Avijjhanaka (nt ) [fr. avijjhati in meaning 2] whirling 
round, (hat which spins round, the whirling-round wheel 
(or pole) of the world (cp. the potter's wheel), the world- 
axis Dh.\ 11.146 (T. avinch"). 

Aviddha [pp. of avijjhati 2, cp. BSk. aviddha in meaning 
curved, crooked Av. S 1.87 Lai. V. 207] whirling or spin- 
ning round, revolving; swung round, set into whirling 
motion J iv 6 (cakkaij = kumbhakara-cakkam iva bhamali 
C); V.291. What does an-aviddha at PvA 135 mean? 

Avila (adj.) [is it a haplological contraction from a -f vi -f- 
lul to roll about?] stirred up, agitaied, disturbed, stained, 
soiled, dirty A 1. 9; 111.233; J v.i6, 90 (abila); Nd" 488 
(+ lujita), 489; ThA 251; DA 1.226. More frequent as 
anavila undisturbed, clean, pure, serene D 1.76; S ill. 
83; IV.118; A 1.9; III. 236; Sn 160; Dh 82, 413; J III. 
157; Miln 34; VvA 29, 30; ThA 251. 

Avllati [fr. avila or is it a direct contraction of a -|- vi -|- 
lulati ?] to whirl round, to be agitated, to be in motion 
Miln 259 (-f lulati). 

Avllatta (nl.) [abstr. fr. avila] confusion, disturbance, agita- 
tion Sn 967; Nd< 488. 

Avisati [a -f- vis] to approach, to enter Vin 1V.334 ; Sn 

936 (aor. avisi); J 1V.4I0, 496; Vism 42. 

Avunatl [in form = »avrnoti, a -f Vf, cp. avarati, but in 
meaning :=r *avayati, a -|- va t" weave, thus a confusion 
of the two roots, the latter being merged into the former] 
to string upon, to fix on to (c. loc), to impale J 1.430; 
111.35; V.145; ^'1105. — Caus. II. avunapeti J 111.218 
(sale). — pp. avuta' (q. v.), whereas the other pp. avata 
is the true derivative of a -f- Vf. 

Avuta [pp. of avunati in meaning of Sk. avayati, the cor- 
responding Sk. form being a -[- uta ::=: ota] — I. strung 
upon, tied on, fixed on to D 1.76 (suttaq); 11.13 (''J)) 
A 1.286 (tantavuiaq web); J 111.52 (valliya); vi.346 (sut- 
takena); b.\ 1.94 C^sutta). — 2. impaled, stuck on (sule 
on the pale) J 1.430; III. 35 ; v.497 ; vi.105; l'vA2i7, 220. 

Avuta'^ = Avafa (see avunati & avuta') covered, obstructed, 
hindered It 8 (mohena); also in phrase avuta nivuta 
ophuta etc. Nd' 24 (t) = Nd- 365 = DA 1.59. 

Avuttha [pp. of avasati] inhabited D 11.50 (an°); S 1.33. 

Avudha (nt.) [Vedic ayudha, fr. a 4 yudh to fight] an 
instrument to fight with, a weapon, stick etc. D III 219; 
M 11.100; A IV. 107, no; Sn 1008; J 1.150; 11. no; in. 
467; IV. 160, 283, 437; Nd- on Sn 72; Miln 8, 339; 
DhA II. 2; IV.207; Sn.\ 225, 466 (°jivika := issattha). See 
also ayudba. 

Avuyhamana ppr. of avuyhati (Pass, of avahati), being 
conveyed or brought VvA 237 (reading uncertain). 

AVUSO (voc. pi. m.) [a contracted form of ayusmanto pi. 
of ayusman, of which the regular Pali form is ayasmant, 
with v for y as frequently in Pali, e. g. avudha for 
ayudha] friend, a form of polite address "friend, brother, 
Sir", usually in conversation between bhikkhus. The 
grammatical construction is with the pi. of the verb, like 
bhavai) and bhavanto. — Vin 11.302; D H51, 157; 118; 
SnA 227; DhA 1.9; 11.93; PvA 12, 13, 38, 208. 

Avethana (nt.) [a -J- vethana, ve$t] rolling up, winding 
up or round, fig. explanation Miln 28 (-(- nibbethana, lit. 
rolling up and rolling down, ravelling & unravelling), 
231 ("vinivethana). 

Avefhlta [pp. of avelheti, a -f ve§t, cp. avedhika] turned 
round, slung round or over J iv.383 sq. (v. 1. avedhita 
& avelita, C. expU- by parivattita). 

Avepl (adj ) ( — °) [according to Trenckner, Kotes 75 fr. 
a -f" vina "Sine qua non", but very doubtful] special, 
peculiar, separate Vin 11.204 ("uposatha etc.); J 1490 

Avenika (adj) [fr. aveni; cp. BSk. avenika Av. S 1. 14, 
108; Divy 2, 182, 268, 302] special, extraordinary, ex- 
ceptional S IV. 239; A v.74 sq.; Vism 268; VvA 1 12 
("bhava peculiarity, specialty), KhA 23, 35. 

Ave^ilya (adj.) = avenika Vin 1.7 1; J iv.358; vi.128. 

Avedha [cp. Sk. aviddha, a -|- pp. of vyadh] piercing, hole, 
wound J 11.276 (v.l. aveddha; C. = viddha-tthane vana), 

Avedhika (adj. f. sell, paiiiia) [a 4- vedhaka of avedha, 
vyadh, but confused with aveth° of a -)- ve§t, cp. avethana 
4i nibbedhaka] piercing, penetrating; or ravelling, turning, 
rolling up or round (cp. Svijjhati which is derived from 
5 + vyadh, but takes its meaning from avetheti), dis- 
crimination, thinking over J 11.9 (-|- nibbedhika, v.l. for 
both th). 

Ave]a (adj. & "a f.) [not with Miiller P.Gr. 10, 30, 37 = 
Sk. apida, but fr. a -}- ve^th to wind or turn round, 
which in P. is represented by avetheti as well as avijjhati; 
! then standing for either dh (ih) or dh (avedha, q. v.). 
There may have been an analogy influence through vCll 
to move to and fro, cp. avejita. MiiUcr refers to avcla 




rightly the late dial. (Prk.) amela] — i. turning round, 
swinging round; diffusion, radiation; protuberance, with 
reference to the rays of the Buddha at J 1. 12, 95, 501. — 
2. (f.) a garland or other ornament slung round & worn 
over the head Vv 36'^ (kancan°; = avela-pilandhana VuA 
167). See avelin. 

Avelita (!?) [pp. of a + veil, cp. avela & BSk. aviddha 
curved, crooked Av. S 1.87, Lai. V. 207] turned round, 
■wound, curved J VI. 354 ("singika with curved horns, 
v. 1. avellita). 

Ave|ll1 (adj.) [fr. avela] wearing garlands or other head- 
ornaments, usually in f. °inl J v.409 (=: kannalankarehi 
yutta C); Vv 30' (voc. avelini, but at id. p. 48'^ aveline), 
32'; VvA 125 (on Vv 30- expls- as ratana-maya-pupph'- 

Avesana (nt.) [fr. a'isati] entrance; workshop; living-place, 
house Vin 11 117 ("vitthaka, meaning?); M II 53; Pv 11.9". 

Asa' contr.-form of aijsa in cpd. kotthasa part., portion etc.: 
see aijsa'. Can we compare BSk. asapStrl (see next). 

Asa-^ [Sk, asa] food, only in cpd. patarasa morning food, 
breakfast Sn 387 (pato asitabbo li patar-aso pindapatass' 
etai) namaq Sn.A 374^; DhA iv.211; see further ref. 
under patar; and paccba-asa aftermath S 1.74. Can we 
compare BSk. asa-patrl (vessel) Divy 246? Der. fr. asa 
is asaka with .abstr. ending asakattaij "eating", food, in 
nana° various food or na -|- anasak°) Sn 249. See also 
nirasa, which may be taken either as nir -)- *asa or 
nir -f- 'asa. 

Asa''' the adj. form of asS (f.), wish, hope. See under asa. 

Asa^ archaic 3rd sg. perf. of atthi to be, only in cpd. 
itibasa =: iti ha asa "thus it has been". 

AsaQSa (adj.) [of "'asarisa, see next] hoping, expecting 
something, longing for A 1. 108 = Pug 27 (expli^- by Pug 
A 208 as "so hi arahattai] asaqsati patthetl li asaqso"); 
SnA 321, 336. Cp. nir°. 

AsaQSati [for the usual asiqsali, a -f- SaQS] to expect, hope 
for, wish Pug A 208 (= pattheti). See also asamana. 

Asat)Sa (f.) [from a + saijs] wish, desire, expectation, hope 
J IV. 92. — Cp. nirasarjsa. 

Asagsuka (adj.) [fr. asaijsS] full of expectation, longing, 
hankerin" after, Th 2, 273 (= asiqsanaka Th.A 217; 
trsl. "cadging"). 

Asaka (adj.) [of asa-] belonging to food, having food, only 
in neg. an" fasting S IV.118; Dh 141 (f. a fasting = 
bhafa-patikkhepa UhA 111.77); J v.17; vi.63. 

Asakatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. asaka] having food, feeding, in 
an' fasting Sn 249 (== abhojana SnA 292). 

Asankati [i -f sank] to be doubtful or afraid, to suspect, 
distrust, J 1. 151 (pret. .nsankittha), 163 (aor. asanki); 11. 
203; SnA 298. — pp. asankita (q v.), 

Asanka (f) [Sk. asanka fr. a -|- sank] fear, apprehension, 
doubt, suspicion J 1.338: 11.383 ;iii-533 ; vi.350, 370; 
Dh.\ 111.485; VvA no. — Cp. sasanka & nirasanka. 

Asankita (adj.) [pp. of asankati] suspected, in fear, afraid, 
apprehensive, doubtful (obj. & subj.) Miln 173, 372 (°pari- 
sankita full of apprehension and suspicion); DhA 1.223; 
VvA no. — Cp. ussankita & parisankita. 

Asankin ( — °) (adj ) [fr. asank.a] fearing, anxious, appre- 
hensive Sn 255 (bheda°); J in. 192 (id.). 

Asanga [a -f- sanga fr. saiij to hang on, cp. Sk. asangi & 

asakti] — I. adhering, clinging to, attachment, pursuit 
J IV. 1 1. — 2. thai which hangs on (the body), clothing, 
garment, dress; adj. dressed or clothed in ( — °); usually 
in cpd. uttarasanga a loose (hanging) "outer robe e. g. 
Vin 1.289; S lv.2go; PvA 73; VvA 33 (suddh"), 51 (id.), 

Asangin (adj.) [fr. astjnga] hanging on, attached to J IV 11. 

Asajja (indecl.) [ger. of asadeti. Cans, of asfdati, a + sad; 
Sk. asadya] — i. sitting on, going to, approaching; al- 
located, belonging to; sometimes merely as prep. ace. 
"near" (cp. asanna) Sn 4:8 (asajja naq upavisi he came 
up near to him), 448 (kako va selari a. nibbijjapema 
Gotamaq); J 11.95; vi.194; Miln 271. — 2. put on to 
(lit. silting or sticking on), hitting, striking S 1. 127 
(khanur) va urasa a. nibbijjapetha Gotama "ye've ihrust 
as 't were your breast against a slake. Disgusted, come 
ye hence from Gotama" trs/. p. 159; C. expl^- by paha- 
ritva, which comes near the usual paraphrase ghattetva) — 
3. knocking against or "giving one a seltingto", insulting, 
offending, assailing D 1. 107 (a. a. avocasi = ghattetva 
DA 1.276); A III. 373 (tadisai) bhikkhui] a.); J v. 267 (isiq 
a. Gotamai) ; C. p. 272 asadetva); Pv IV.7I'' (isiq a. = 
asadetva PvA 266). — 4. "sitting on", i. e. attending 
constantly to, persevering, energetically, with energy or 
emphasis, willingly, spontaneously M 1.250; D 111.258 = 
A IV. 236 (danaq deli); Vv 10' (danai) adasiq; cp. VvA 
55 samagantva). See asada, asadeti, asideti, asajjana. 

Asajjana (nt.) [fr. asajja in meaning of no. 3] "knocking 
against", setting on, insult, offence Vin 11.203 (°^ Tatha- 
galai) an insult to the T. ; quoted as such at VvA 55, 
where two meanings of a. are given, corresponding to 
asajja I & 3, viz. samagama & ghattana, the latter in 
this quot.) = It 86 (so to be read with v. 1. ; T. has 
apajja nay); S 1.114 (apunnai) pasavi Maro asajjanar) Ta- 
thagatai] ; trsl. "in seeking the T. to assail"); J v.208. 

Asati [from as] to sit DA 1.208; h. sg. asi S 1. 1 30. — 
pp. asina (q. v.). 

Asatta' [pp. of a -f saiij] (a) lit. hanging on, in phrase 
kanthe asatto kuriapo a corpse hanging round one's neck 
M I.I 20; J 1.5. — (b) fig. attached to, clinging to J I. 
377 (-{- satta lagga); ThA 259 (an°). 

Asatta- [pp. of a -f- lap] accursed, cursed J V.446 (an°). 

Asatti (f.) [a + saiij] attachment, hanging on (w. loc), 
dependence, clinging Vin 11.156= A 1138; S 1. 212; Sn 
777 (bhavesu); Nd' 51, 221; Nett 12, 128. — Cp. 

Asada [a -|- sad; cp. asajja & asadeti] — I. approach, 
dealing with, business with (ace), concern, affair, means 
of acting or getting Vin 11.195 ^= J v.336 (ma kuiijara 
nagam asado); M 1.326 (metaq asado = ma etaij asado 
do not meddle with this, lit., be not this any affair); J 
1 414 (cakkai) asado you have to do with the wheel; 
interpreted as adj, in meaning patto ^ finding, getting); 
VI. 5 28 (interpreted as ankusa a hook, i. e. means of get- 
ting something). — 2. (as adj.) in phrase durasada hard 
to sit on, i.e. hard to get at, unapproachable, difficult 
to attack or manage or conquer Sn p. I07 (cp. SnA 
451): J VI. 272 ; Vv 50"* (= anupagamaniyato kenaci pi 
anasadaniyato ca durasado VvA 213); Miln 21; Dpvs 
V.21 ; VI. 38; Sdhp 384. 

Asana (nt.) [from asati] sitting, sitting down; a seat, throne 
M 1.469; Vin 1.272 (= pallankassa okasa); S 1.46 (ek° 
sitting alone, a solitary seat); A III. 389 (an° without a 
seat); Sn 338, 718, 8:0, 981; Nd' 131; J iv.435 (dsan' 
udaka-dayin giving seat & drink); V.403 (id.); vi.413; 




DhA 11.31 (dhamm° the preacher's seat or throne); SnA 
401 ; PvA i6, 23, 141. 

-abhibara gift or distinction of the seat J 1.81. -tlpa- 
gata endowed with a seat, sitting down Sn 708 (= ni- 
sinna SnA 495). -pannapaka one who appoints seats Vin 
11.305. -patikkhitta one who rejects all seats, or objects 
to sitting down D 1.167; A 1.296; 11,206; Pug 55. -sala 
a hall with seating accommodation Vism 69; DhA 11. 
65; IV.46. 

Asanaka (nt.) [asana -|- ka] a small seat Vv i'. 

Asanika (adj.) [fr. asana] having a seat; in ek° sitting by 
oneself Vism 69. 

Asandi (f.) [fr. a -)- sad] an extra long chair, a deck-chair 
Vin 1.192; 11.142, 163, 169, 170; D 1.7 (:= pamanatik- 
kant' asanai] DA 1.86), 55 =r M 1.515 = S 111.307 (used 
as a bier) A 1.181; J 1. 108. See note at Dia/, l.ll. 

Asandlka (f.) fr. Slsandi] a small chair or tabouret Vin 11. 
149; KhA 44. 

Asanna (adj.) [pp. of a + sad, see asldati] near (cp. asajja'), 
opp. dura J II. 154; DhA 11 91; PvA 42, 243. 

Asappana (fr.) [fr. + srp] !''• "creeping on to", doubt, 
mistrust, always coinbd- with parisappana Nd^ i ; Dhs 
1004 (trsl. "evasion", cp. £>/is irsl. p 116), 1 1 18, 1235; 
DA 1.69. 

Asabha [the guna- and compn form of usabha, corresponding 
to Sk. arsabha > rsabha, see usabha] (in comp") a bull, 
peculiar to a bull, bull-like, fig. a man of strong & eminent 
qualities, a hero or great man, a leader, thus in tar° Sn 
687; nar° Sn 6S4, 696; asabha-camma bull's hide J vi. 
453 (v. 1. usabha'). 

-tthana (as asabhanthana) "bull's place", first place, 
distinguished position, leadership M 1.69; S 11.27; A 11. 8 
(C. settha-Uhana uttama-tthana); ill. 9; v.33 sq. ; DA r. 
31 ; KhA 104. 

Asabhin (adj ) [fr. asabha] bull-like, becoming to a bull, 
lordly, majestic, imposing, bold; only in phrase °r] vacaij 
bhasati "speak the lordly word" D 11.15, 82; M 111.123J 
J 1.53! DA 1. 91; cp. Davs 1.28 (niccharayi vacar) asabhiij). 

Asamana (adj.) [ppr. of asaqsati or asiqsati, for the usual 
earlier asasana] wishing, desiring, hoping, expecting Vv 
84' (kiq a = kiq paccasiq santo VvA 336); Pv IV. i^* 
(== asir|samana patlhayamana PvA 226). 

Asaya [a + 4i, cp. in similar meaning & derivation anusaya. 
The semantically related Sk. asraya from a + ill is in 
P. represented by assaya. Cp. also BSk. asayatah intention- 
ally, in earnest Divy 281; Av. S II 161] — I. abode, 
haunt, receptacle; dependence on, refuge, support, con- 
dition S 1.38; Vin III. 151; J 11.99; ^'''d 257; VvA 60; 
PvA 210; jal" river VvA 47; Pgdp 80; adj. depending 
on, living in ( — ") Miln 317; Ndi 362 (bil°, dak° etc.). 
See also amasaya, pakkasaya. — 2. (fig.) inclination, in- 
tention, will, hope; often combd- & compared with anu- 
saya (inclination, hankering, disposition), e. g. at Ps i. 
133; II. 158; Vbh 340; Vism 140 (°posana); PvA 197. — 
Sn.\ 182 (°vipatli), 314 (°suddhi), KhA 103 ("sampatti). 
Cp. nirasaya. — 3. outflow, excretion Pv III. 5' (gabbh" 
= gabbha-mala PvA 198); Vism 344. 

Asayati [a -f gi; lit. "lie on", cp. Ger. anliegen & Sk. 
asaya ^ Ger. Angelegenheit] to wish, desire, hope, intend 
J 1V.291 (grd. asayana, gloss esamana). See asaya. 

Asava [fr. a -|- sni, would corresp. to a Sk. *asrava, cp. 
Sk. asrava. The BSk. asrava is a (wrong) sankrilisation 
of the Pali asava, cp. Divy 391 & ksloasrava] that which 

flows (out or on to) outflow & influx, i. spirit, the in- 
toxicating extract or secretion of a tree or flower. O. C. 
in Vin iv.iio (four kinds); B. on D III. 182 (five kinds) 
DhsA 48; KhA 26; J ;v.222; VI.9. — 2. discharge from 
a sore, A 1.124, 127 = Pug 30. — 3. in psychology, 
t.t. for certain specified ideas which intoxicate the mind 
(bemuddle it, befoozle it, so that it cannot rise to 
higher things). Freedom from the "Asavas" constitutes 
Arahantship, & the fight for the extinction of these asavas 
forms one of the main duties of man. On the difficulty 
of translating the terra see CfJ. 227. See also discussion 
of term asava (= asavanti ti asava) at DhsA 48 (cp. 
Expositor pp. 63 sq.). See also Cfd. 227 sq., & especially 
Dhs Irsl. 291 sq. — The 4 asavas are kam°, bhav°, 
ditth°, avijj°, i. e. sensualily, rebirth (lust of life), spe- 
culation and ignorance. — They are mentioned as such 
at D 11.81, 84, 91, 94, 98, 123, 126; A 1. 165 sq., 196; 
11.211; 111.93, 414; IV.79; Ps 1.94, 117; Dhs 1099, 1448; 
Nd2 134; Nett 31, 114 sq. — The set of 3, which is 
probably older (kama°, bhava°, avijja") occurs at M 155; 
A 1.165; m.4i4; S IV.256; V.56, 189; It 49; Vbh 364. 
For other connections see Vin 1. 14 (.inupadaya asavehi 
cittSni viinuccirjsu), 17, 20, 182; 11.202; in. 5 ("samudaya, 
°nirodha etc.); D 1.83, 167; 111.78, 108, 130, 220, 223, 
230, 240, 283; M 1.7 sq., 23, 35, 76, 219, 279, 445 
("thaniya); 11.22; 111.72, 277; S 11.187 sq. (°ehi cittai) 
vimucci); 111.45 (id); iv.107 (id.), 20; v.8, 28, 410; A 
1.85 sq. (vaddhanti), 98, 165 (°samudaya, °nirodha etc.), 
187; II. 154 (°ehi ciltai] vimuttaq), 196; 111.21, 93 (°samu- 
daya, "nirodha etc.), 245, 387 sq., 410, 414; iv.13, 146 
(°pariyadana end of the a.), 161 (°vighata-pari|aha); v.70, 
237; Th 2, 4, 99, loi (pahasi asave sabbe); Sn 162, 
374, 535 (pl- asavani), 546, 749, 915, iioo; Dh 93, 
253, 292; Nd' 331 (pubb°); Vbh 42, 64, 426; Pug 11, 
13, 27, 30 sq.; Miln 419; DhsA 48; ThA 94, 173; KhA 
26; DA 1224; Sdhp 1 ; Pgdp 65 (piyasava-sura, meaning?). 
Referring specially to the cxiinclion (kbaya) of the 
asavas & 10 Arahanlship following as a result are the 
foil, passages: (1) asavanar; khaya D 1.156; S 1129, 
214; 11157, 96 sq, 152 sq ; IV.105, 175; V.92, 203, 
220, 271, 284; A 1.107 sq., 123 sq., 232 sq., 273, 291; 
II.6, 36, 44 sq., 149 sq., 214; HI 69, 114, 131, 202, 306, 
319 sq.; IV 83 sq., 119, 140sq, 3I4sq.; v.lo sq, 36, 69, 94 
sq, 105, 132. 174 sq, 343 sq.; It 49; Pug 27, 62; Voh 
334, 344; Vism 9; DA 1.224; cp. "parikkhaya A v 343 
sq. See also arahalta formula C. — (2) kbinasava (adj.) 
one whose Asavas are destroyed (see khina) S 1.13, 48, 
53, 146; 1183, 239; 111.199, '28, 178; IV.217; A 177, 
109, 241, 266; IV.120, 224, 370 sq.; V.40, 253 sq ; Ps 
II 173; cp. parikkhina asava A IV. 418, 434, 451 sq.; 
asavakhina Sn 370. — (3) anasava (adj.) one who is 
free from the asavas, an Arahant Vin II 148 = 164; D 
III.112; S 1130; II 214, 222; 111.83; IV.128; A 1.81, 107 
sq, 123 sq., 273, 291; 11.6, 36, 87, 146; III 19, 29, 114, 
166; IV.98, 140 sq., 314 sq., 400; A sq . 36, 242, 
340; Sn 1105, 1133; Dh 94, 126, 386; Th l.ioo; It 
75; Ndi 44; Pv 11.6"; Pug 27; Vbh 426; Dhs 11 01, 1451 ; 
VvA 9. Cp. nirasava ThA 148. — Opp. sasava S 11147; 
V.232; A 1.81; V242; Dhs 990; Nett 10; Vism 13, 438. 

Asavati [a + sru, cp. Sk. asravali ; its doublet is assavati] 
to flow towards, come to, occur, happen Nett 1 16. 

Asasana [either grd. for "iisaysana or contracted form of 
ppr, med. of asaqsati (= asiijsali) for *asar)samana] hoping, 
wishing, desiring, longing for Sn 369 (an"; SnA 365 how- 
ever reads asaySna), 1090; Th 2, 528; J iv.18 (= asiij- 
santo C), 381; V.391 (= asiijsanto C). See anasasana, 
asagsati, asamana & asayana. 

Asa (f.) [cp. Sk, asah f,] expectation, hope, wish, longing, 
desire ; adj. asa ( — °) longing for, anticipating, desirous 
of Vin 1255 ("avacchedika hope-destroying), 259; D 11. 
206; 111.88; M 111.138 (asaq karoti); A 1 86 (dve asa), 
107 (vigat-aso one whose longings have gone); Sn 474, 



634, 794, 864; J 1.267, 285; V.401; VI.452 ("chinna = 
chinnasa C); Nd' 99, 261, 213 sq ; Vv 37" (perhaps 
belter to be read with v. 1. SS ahai], cp. VvA 172); Pug 
27 (vigat° = arahatlasaya vigatatta vigalaso Pug A 208); 
Dhs 1059 (+ asiqsana etc.), 1 136; PvA 22 (chinn° dis- 
appointed), 29 ("abhibhuta), 105; Davs V13; Sdhp 78, 
III, 498, 609. 

Asatika (f.) [cp. Marathi asadi] a fly's egg, a nit M 1.220 
sq.; A V.347 sq., ss'l, 359'; Nett 59; J 111.176. 

AsSdeti [Caus. of asidati, 5 -|- sad ; cp. Ssajja & asauna] — 
I. to lay hand on, to touch, strike; fig. the offend, assail, 
insult M 1. 371; J 1.48 1 ; v. 197; aor. asadesi Th i, 280 
(ma a. Tathagate); ger. asadetva J v.272; Miln 100, 205 
(''ayitva); PvA 266 (isiq), asadiya J v. 154 (asadiya metri 
causa; isiij, cp. asajja'), & asajja (q. v.); infin. asadurj 
J V.I 54 & asadituri ibid.; grd. asadanlya Miln 205; 
VvA 213 (an"). — 2. to come near to (c. ace), approach, 
get J 111.206 (Ivhuracakkar)). 

Asajha & Asa|hi (f.) [Sk. asadha] N. of a month (June- 
July) and of a Nakkhatta; only in comp"- as Asalha" & 
Asalhi", viz. °nakkhatta J 1.50; SnA 208; °punnama 
J 1.63; DhA 1.87; SnA 199; VvA 66; PvA I37;'°masa 
SnA 378 (= vassupanayikaya purimabhage A.); VvA 307 
(= gimhanai) pacchirao maso). 

Asavati (f.) N. of a creeper (growing at the celestial grove 
Cittalata) J ill. 250, 251. 

Asasati [cp. Sk. asasati & asasti, a -f Sas] to pray for, 
expect, hope; confounded with ^ags in asaqsati & asiij- 
sati (q. V.) & their derivations. — pp. asittha (q. v.). 

As! & Asll) 3^'' & IS' sg. aor. of atthi (q. v.). 

AsilJSaka (adj.) [fr. a -|- siqsati, cp. asagsa] wishing, aspiring 
after, praying for Miln 342. 

Aslgsatl [Sk. asagsati, a -f Sags, cp. also SaS & asSsati, 
further abhisaqsati, abhisiqsati & asaqsati] to hope for, 
wish, pray for (lit. praise for the sake of gain), desire, 
(w. ace.) S 1.34, 62; Sn 779, 1044, 1046 (see Nd' 135); 
J 1.267; Ill.25l;iv.i8; V.435; VI.43; Nd' 60; Mhvs 30, 100; 
VvA 337 ; PvA 226 (ppr. asiqsamana for Ssamana, q. v.). 

Asiljsanaka (adj.) [fr. asiqsana] hoping for something, lit. 
praising somebody for the sake of gain, cadging ThA 
217 (for asaqsuka Th 2, 273). 

Aslgsana (f.) [abstr. fr. a -\- §aQS, cp. asiqsati] desire, wish, 
craving J v. 28; Dhs 1059, 1136 (+ asiqsitatta). As asi- 
sana at Nttt 53. 

Aslgsanlya (adj.) [grd. of asiqsati] to be wished for, desir- 
able Miln 2 (°ratana). 

Asikkhita [pp. of I -f Hks, Sk. asiksita] schooled, in- 
structed PvA 67, 68. 

Aslficatl [5 H- sic, cp. abhisiScati & avasincati] to sprinkle, 
besprinkle Vin 1.44; 11.208; J iv.376; Vv 796 (= siiicati 
VvA 307); PvA 41 (udakena), 104, 213 (ger. °itva). — 
pp. asitta (q. v.). Cp. vy°. 

Asittha [pp. of asasati, Sk. asista] wished or longed for 
PvA 104. 

*A8ita' [= asita' ?] "having eaten", but probably masita 
(pp. of nirS to touch, cp. Sk. mrsita, which is ordinarily 
in massita), since it only occurs in comb"^. where m 
precedes, viz. J 11.446 (dumapakkani-m-asita, where C. 
reading is masita & expl"- khaditvS asita (v. 1. asita) dhata); 
Miln 302 (visam-Ssita affected with poison = visamasita). 

Cp. also the form inasi(n) touching, eating at J vi.354 
(tina°, expld- by C. as khadaka). — asita at J V.70 is 
very doubtful, v. 1. asina & asita ; C. expls- by dhata 
suhita p. 73. 

*Asita^ [registered as such with meaning "performed" by 
Hardy in Index] at VvA 276 is better read with v.l. SS 
bhasita (-vadana etc.). 

Asitta [pp. of asiiicati, Sk. asikta] sprinkled, poured out, 
anointed J v.87 ; Pug 31; Miln 286; DhsA 307; DhA 
1. 10; VvA 69. 

Asittaka (adj.) [asilta -)- ka] mixed, mingled, adulterated 
Vin 11.123 C'upadhana "decorated divan"?); ThA 61, i68 
(an" for asecanaka, q. v.). 

Asitika (adj.) [fr. asita] 80 years old M 11.124; J 111.395; 
SnA 172. 

Asitiki (f.) [etym.? Cp. BSk. asltaki Lai. V. 319] a certain 
plant M 180 = 245 (°pabba). 

Asidati [cp. Sk. asidati, a -f sad] — I. to come together, 
lit. to sit by D 1.248 (v.l. BB adisitva for aslditva, to 
be preferred?). — 2. to come or go near, to approach 
(w. ace), to get (to) A 111.69 (asivisaq), 373 (na sadhu- 
rupaq aside, should perhaps be read without the na); J 
IV.56. — 3. to knock against, insult, offend attack J v. 
267 (Pot. Sside = pharusa-vacanehe kayakammena va 
gbattento upagaccheyya C). — pp. asanna (q. v.). See 
also asajja, asajjana, asada & Caus. 3sadeti, 

Asina (adj.) [pp. of as, see asati] sitting S 1.195 =^ Nd'^ 
136; Sn 1105, 1 136; Dh 227, 386; J 1.390; 111.9s; V. 
340; VI. 297 ; Davs 11.17. 

Asiyati [etym. doubtful; Trenckner Miln p. 422 r= a + iya 
to freeze or dry up, but taken by him in meaning to 
thaw, to warm oneself; Miiller, F. Gr. 40 same with 
meaning "cool oneself"; Morris' J P T S. 1884, 72 as 
a + Sra or Sri to become ripe, come to perfection, evi- 
dently at fault because of §ra etc. not found in Sk. More 
likely as a Pass, formation to be referred to a -f- Si as 
in asaya, i. e. to abide etc.] to have one's home, one's 
abode or support in (loc), to live in, thrive by means 
of, to depend on Miln 75 (kaddame jayati udake asiyati 
i. e. the lotus is born in the mud and is supported or 
thrives by means of the water). 

Asivisa Derivation uncertain. The BSk. aslvisa (c. g. Jtm 
31''') is a Sanskritisation of the Pali. To suppose this to 
come from ahi -\- visa (snake's poison) would give a 
wrong meaning, and leave unexplained the change from 
ahi to asi] a snake Vin 1V.108; S IV.172; A u.iio; ill. 
69; J 1.245; "■274; 1V.30, 496; V.82, 267; Pug 48; Vism 
470 (in comp.); DhA 1.139; 11.8, 38; SnA 334,458,465; 
VvA 30S. 

Asisana see aslijsana. 

ASU expletive particles assu^ J V.241 (v.l. assu; nipaita- 
mattaq Cp. 243). 

Asui) 3'''' pl- aor. of atthi. 

Asumbhati (& AsumliatI) [a -f Sumbh to glide] to bring 

to fall, throw down or round, sling round Vin lv.263, 
265 ; Vv 50" (°itvana); J UI.435 (aor. asumhi, gloss khipi). 

Asevatl [a + sev] to frequent, visit; to practise, pursue, 
indulge, enjoy A; Sn 73 (cp. Nd' 94); Ps U.93 
(maggaq). — pp. asevita. 

Asevana (nt.) & asevana (f.) [fr. asevati] — 1. practice, 
pursuit, indulgence in Vin Hi 17; PvA 45. — 2. succession, 
repetition Dhs 1 367 ; Kvu 510 (cp. trsL 294, 362); Vism 538. 




Asevita [pp. of asevati] frequented, indulged, practised, en- 
joyed J 1. 21 (V.141 ; asevila-nisevita); 11.60: Sdhp 93, 237. 

Aha [Vedic aha, orig. perfect of ah to speak, meaning "he 
began to speak", thus in meaning of pres. "he says"] a 
perfect in meaning of pret. & pres. "he says or he said", 
he spoke, also spoke to somebody (w. ace), as at J 1. 197 
(cullalohitai) aha). Usually in 3rd person, very rarely used 
of 2"^ person, as at Sn 839, 840 (= kathesi bhanasi Nd 
188, 191). — 3rd sg. aha Vin 11. 191; Sn 790 (^ bhanati 
Nd' 87), 888; J 1.280; 111.53 and freq. passim; 3'd pi. 
ahu Sn 87, 181; Dh 345; J 1.59; SnA 377, and abaijsu 
J 1.222; III. 278 and freq. 

Ahacca' ger. of abanati. 

AhaCCa^ (adj.) [grd. of aharati, corresponding to a Sk. 
"ahrtya] I. (cp. aharati') to be removed, removable, in 
°padaka-pi(ha & "manca a collapsible bed or chair, i e. 
whose legs or feet can be put on & taken away at pleasure 
(by drawing out a pin) Vin 11.149 (cp- ^'" Tfxis IU.164 
D. 5); IV. 40, 46 (def. as 'ange vijjhitva thito hoti" it 
stands by means of a perforated limb), 168, 169. — 2. 
(cp. aharati^) reciting, repeating, or to be quoted, reci- 
tation (of the Scriptures); by authority or by tradition 
M III. 1 39; DhsA 9, & in cpds. °pada a text quoted 
from Scripture), tradition Miln 148 (°ena by reference 
to the text of the Scriptures); "^vacana a saying of the 
Scriptures, a traditional or proverbial saying Nett 21 (in 
def. of suttai]). 

Ahafa [pp. of aharati] brought, carried, obtained Vin 1. 121; 
111.53; D 11.180 (spelt ahata); J III. 512 (gloss anita); 
Davs 1.58. 

Ahata [pp. of ahanati] struck, beaten, stamped ; adllcted, 
affected with ( — °) Vin iv.236 = D III. 238 (kupito anat- 
tamano ahata-citto); Vin 1.75, 76; S 1. 170 (tilak", so read 
for tilaka-hata, affected with freckles, C. kala-setadi vannehi 
tilakehi ahatagatta, A'. S p. 318); J in 456; Sdhp 187, 401. 

Ahataka [fr. ahata] "one who is beaten", a slave, a worker 
(of low grade) Vin iv.224 (in def. of karamakara, as 
bhataka -|- a ). 

Ahanatl [a -|- han] to beat, strike, press against, touch 
ppr. ahananto Miln 21 (dhamma-bherir)); Davs iy.50. — 
ger. abacca touching M l 493 ; J 1.330; vi 2, 200; Sn 716 
= uppiletva SnA 498; Vism 420. — pp. ahata (q.v.). 

Ahanana (nt.) [fr. a -f han] beatipg, striking, coming into 
touch, "impinging" Vism 142 (4- pariyahanana, in def. 
of vitakka) = UhsA 114 (cp. Expos. 151); Vism 515 (id.). 

Aharaija (adj.-n.) [fr. aharati] to be taken ; taking away ; 
only in phrase acoraharatjo nidhi a treasure not to be taken 
by thieves Miln 320; Kh VIH.9; KhA 224; Sdhp 589. 

Aharaoaka [aharana + ka] one who has to take or bring, 
a messenger J 11. 199; 111328. 

Aharati [a + hf] — l. to take, take up, take hold of, 
take out, take away M 1.429 (sallaq); S 1 121 ; 111.123; 
J 1.40 (ger. aharitva "with"), 293 (te hattaq) ; Nd^ 540<^ 
(puttamai)sai],read ahareyya?); Pvll.3"'; DA 1. 186, 188. — 

2. to bring, bring down, fetch D 11.245; J l^' '59 (navaq; 
v. 1. ahahilva); v. 466; Vv.A. 63 (bhattaij); PvA 75. — 

3. to get, acquire, bring upon oneself J v. 433 (padosaij); 
DhA 11.89. — 4. to bring on to, put into (w. loc); fig. 
& intrs. to hold on to, put oneself to, touch, resort to 
M 1.395 (ka5halai3 mukhe a.; also inf. ahattuq); Th i, 
1156 (papacitte a.; Mrs. Rh. D. Brethren ver. 115O, not 
as "accost" p. 419,/;.). — 5. to assault, strike, offend (for 
pahari?)Th I, 1 1 73. — 6. (fig ) to take up, fall or go back on 

(w. ace.), recite, quote, repeat (usually with desanaq & 
dasseti of an instructive story or sermon or homily) J 
HI 383 (desanaq), 401 ; V 462 (vatlhuij aharitva dassesi 
told a story for example); SnA 376; PvA 38, 39 (atltar)), 
42, 66, 99 (dhamma-desanai)). See also payirudabarati. — 
pp. ahata (q. v.). — Caus. II abarapeti to cause to be 
brought or fetched ; to wish to take, to call or ask for 
J 111.88, 342; V.466 ; Pv.A 215. 

Aharima (adj.) [fr. aharoti] "fetching", fascinating, captiv- 
ating, charming Vin iv.299; Th 2, 299; ThA 227; VvA 
"4, 15, 77- 

Ahariya [grd. of aharati] one who is to bring something 
J ni.328. 

Ahavana & Ahavaniya see under ahuneyya. 

Ahara [fr. a -(- hf, lit. taking up or on to oneself] feeding, 
support, food, nutriment (lit & fig.). The term is used 
comprehensively and the usual enum". comprises four 
kinds of nutriment, viz (i) kabajinkara aharo (bodily 
nutriment, either olariko gross, solid, or sukhumo fine), 
(2) phassaharo n. of contact, (3) manosaucetana° n. of 
volition (= cetana S. A. on ii.iif.), (4) viniian" of con- 
sciousness. Thus at M 1.261; D 111.228, 276; Dhs7i — 73; 
Vism 341. Another definition of Dhainmapala's refejs it to 
the fourfold tasting as asita (eaten), pita (drunk), khayita 
(chewed), sayita (tasted) food PvA 25. A synonym with 
mula, hetu, etc. for cause, Yamaka, 1.3; Yam. A {/I'TS.., 
1910 — 12) 54. See on term also Dhs Irsl. 30. — Vin 
1.84; D 1.166; S 1. 172; il.ll, 13, 98 sq. (the 4 kinds, 
in detail); III 54 (sa°); v.64, 391; A 111.51 (sukhass"), 
79, 142 sq., 192 sq.; IV.49, 108; V.52 (the four), 
108, 113 (avijjaya etc.), 116 (bhavatanhaya), 269 sq. 
(nerayikanar) etc.); Sn 78, 165, 707, 747; Nd' 25; 
Ps 1.22 (the four) 122 (id.), 55, 76 sq ; Kvu 508; Pug 
21, 55; Vbh 2, 13, 72, 89, 320, 383, 401 sq. (the four); 
Dhs 58, 121, 35S, 646; Nett 31, 114, 124; DhsA 153, 
401; DhA 1. 1 83 (°r| pacchindati to bring up food, to 
vomit); 1187; VvA 118; PvA 14, 35, 112, 148 (utu° 
physical nutriment); Sdhp 100, 395, 406; A v. 136 gives 
ten ahara opposed to ten paripantha. -an° without food, 
unfed M 1.487 (aggi); S in. 126; v. 105; Sn 985 

-Cpahara consumption of food, feeding, eating Vin in. 
136. -thitika subsisting or living on food D 111. 211, 273; 
A V.50, 55; Ps 1.5, 122. -pariggaha taking up or ac- 
quirement of food Miln 244 or is il "restraint or abstinence 
in food"? Same coinb"- at Miln 313. -maya "food-like", 
feeding stuff, food J 111.523. -lolata greed after food SnA 
35. -samudaya origin of nutriment S 111.59. 

AharatthaQ [ahara -|- tta] the state of being food. In the 
idiom aharatlan pharati; Vin 1.199, of medicine, 'to pene- 
trate into food-ness', to come under the category of food; 
Miln 152, of poison, to turn into food. [.According to 
Oldenberg (Vin I.381) his MSS read about equally "attaq 
and "althaq. Trenckner prints '"atthaq, and records no 
variant (see p. 425)]. 

Ahareti [Denom. fr. ahara] to take food, eat, feed on S 
11.13; 111.240; IV.104; A 1.114, 295; 11.40, 145, 206; IV. 
167; Nd^ 540<: (aharai) & puttamaqsai) cp. S 11.98). 

Ahika ( — °) (adj.) [der. fr. aha-] only in pancahika every 
five days (cp. paiicahaij & sattahaij) M III. 1 57. 

AhlOlJati [a -f hincj, cp. BSk. ahiijdate Divy 165 etc.] to 
wander about, to roam, to be on an errand, to be en- 
gaged in (w. ace.) Vin 1203 (sen.asana-carikay), 217; 11. 
132 (na sakkoti vina daijdena ahindituy); iv.62; J 1.48, 
108, 239; Nd' 540"; Pv 111.22" (= vicarali Pv.\ 185); 
Vism 38, 284 (ataviij); VvA 238 (tattha tattha);PvA 143. 

Ahita [pp. of a -f dha] put up, heaped; provided with 
fuel (of a fire), blazing Sn 18 (gini = abhato jalito v5 
SnA 28). See sam". 




Ahu 3'''' pl- of aha (q. v.). 

Ahutl (f-) [Vedic ahuti, a + hu] oblation, sacrifice; vener- 
ation, adoration M ill 167; S 1. 141; Th 1, 566 ("inaij 
patiggaho recipient of sacrificial gifts); J 1. 15; v.70 (id.); 
Vv 64''' (paramahutiq gato deserving the highest ador- 
ation); Sn 249, 458; Kvu 530; SnA 175; VvA 285. 

Ahuna = ahuti , in ahuna-pahuna giving oblations and 
sacrificing VvA 155; by itself at Vism 219. 

Ahuneyya (adj.) [a grd. form. fr. a -|- hu, cp. ahuti] sacrificial-, 
worthy of offerings or of sacrifice, venerable, adorable, v^or- 
shipful D III. 5, 217 (aggi); A n.56, 70 (sahuneyyaka), 145 
sq. (id.); IV.13, 41 (aggi); It 88 (+pahuneyya); Vv 64" 
(cp. VvA 285). See def. at Vism 219 where expl<i- by "aha- 
vanlya" and "ahavanar) arahati"' deserving of offerings. 

Ahundarika (adj.) [doubtful or ahund°r] according to Morris 
y P T S. 1884, 73 "crowded up, blocked up, impassable" 
Vin 1.79; IV. 297 ; V'ism 413 ("13 andha-tamaij). 

I in i-kara the letter or sound i SnA 12 (°lopa), 508 (id.). 

Ikka [Sk. rksa, of which the regular representation is P. 
accha^] a bear J vi.538 [= accha C). 

lkkasa(?) [uncertain as regard mcacing & etym.] at Vin 
11.151 (-p- kasava) is trsl. by "slime of trees", according 
to Bdhgh's expl"- on p. 321 (to C. V. V1.3, i), who how- 
ever reads nikkasa. 

Ikkha^a (nt.) [fr. ik§] seeing Vism 16. 

Ikkhaoika [fr. iks to look or sec, cp. akkhi] a fortune- 
teller Vin III. 107; S 11.260; J 1.456, 457; VI. 504. 

Ikkhati [fr- iks] to look J v 153; ThA 147; DhsA 172. 

Ingita (nt.) [pp. of ingati = iiijati] movement, gesture, sign 
J 11.195, 408; VI.368, 459. 

Ingha (indecl.) [Sk. anga prob. after P. ingha (or aiija, 
q. v.); fr. iBjati, cp. J P T S. 1883, 84] pait. of exhort- 
ation, lit. "get a move on", come on, go on, look here, 
Sn 83, 189, 862, 875 = 1052; J V.148; Pv IV.5'; Vv 
53' (= codan'atthe nipato VvA 237); VvA 47 ; DhA iv.62. 

lngha|a [according to Morris J P T S. 1884, 74 =: angara, 
cp. Marathi ingala live coal] coal, embers, in inghajakhu 
Th 2, 386 a pit of glowing embers (= angara-kasu ThA 
256). The whole cpd. is doubtful. 

Ice' see iti. 

Iccha ( — °) (adj.) [the adj. form of iccha] wishing, longing, 

having desires, only in pap° having evil desires S 1.50; 

11.156; an° without desires S 1.61, 204; Sn 707; app° 
id. Sn 628, 707. 

ICChaka ( — °) (adj.) [fr. iccha] wishing, desirous, only in 
nt. adv. yad-icchikag (and yen") after one's wish or 
liking M 111.97; A 111.28. 

Icchatl' [Sk. icchati, Js, cp. A v. isaiti, Obulg. iskati, Ohg. 
eiscoo, Ags. ascian = E. ask ; all of same meaning "seek, 
wish"] to wish, desire, ask for (c. ace), expect S 1.210 
(dhammai) sotuij i.); Sn 127, 345, 512, 813, 836; Dh 
162, 291; Nd' 3," 138, 164; Nd^s. v.; Pv 11.6^; Pug 19; 
Miln 269, 327; SnA i6, 23, 321; Kli.-V 17; PvA 20, 
71, 74; Pot. icche Dh 84; Sn 835 Pv 11.66 & iccheyya 
D II. 2, 10; Sn 35; Dh 73, 88; ppr. icchar) Sn 826, 
83"i 937; Clh 334 (phalaq) aor. icchi Pv.\ 31. — grd. 
icchitabba PvA 8. — pp. i{tha & icchita (q. v.), — 
Note. In prep.-cpds. ihe root i§2 (icchati) is confused 
with root is' (isati, esali) with pp. both "ittha and "isita. 
Thus ajjhesati, pp. ajjhiltha & ajjhesiia; anvesati (Sk. an- 
vicchati); pariyesati (Sk. parlcchati), pp. pariyittha & 

Icchati- [Sk. rcchati of r, concerning which see appeti] see 
aticchati & cp. icchata. 

Icchata ( — °) (f.) [abslr. fr. iccha] wishfulness, wishing : 
only in aticchata too great wish for, covetousness, greed 
Vbh 350 (cp. aticchati, which is probably the primary 
basis of the word); mah° & pap° \'bh 351, 370. 

Icchana (nt.) [fr. i§^, cp. Sk. Ipsana] desiring, wish J IV. 
5; V1.244. 

ICChS (f.) [fr. icchati, ij-] wish, longing, desire D 11.243; 
111.75; S 1.40 ("dhupayito loko), 44 (narar) parikassati) ; 
A 11.143; lV-293 sq.; 325 sq.; V.40, 42 sq.; Sn 773, 
872; Dh 74, 264 (°lobha-samapanna); Nd' 29, 30; Pug 
19; Dhs 1059, 1136; Vbh loi, 357, 361, 370; Nelt 18, 
23, 24; Asl. 363; DhsA 250 (read iccha for issa? See 
Dhs trsl. 100); SnA 108; PvA 65, 155; Sdhp 242, 320. 
-avacara moving in desires M 1.27 (papaka); Nett 27. 
-avatinna affected with desire, overcome by covetousness 
Sn 306. -pakata same Vin 1.97; A 111.119, 191, 219 sq.; 
Pug 69; Miln 357; Vism 24 (where Bdhgh however takes 
it as "icchaya apakata" and puts apakata = upadduta). 
-vinaya discipline of one's wishes D III. 252, A iv.15; 
V.165 sq. 

Icchita [pp. of icchati] wished, desired, longed for J 1.208; 
DhsA 364; PvA 3, 53, 64 (read anicchita for anijjhittha, 
which may be a contamination of icchita & ittha), 113, 
127 (twice). 

Ijjhati [Vedic rdhyate & rdhnoti; Gr. aX'ioy.xt to thrive, 
Lat. alo to nourish, also Vedic ids refreshment & P. iddhi 
power] to have a good result, turn out a blessing, suc- 
ceed, prosper, be successful S 1.175 ("work effeclively" 
trsl.; = samijjhati mahapphalaq hoti C); lv.303 ; Sn 461, 
485; J V.393; Pv li.lii; 11.9'^ (= samijjhati PvA 120); 
Pot. ijjhe Sn 458, 459; pret. ijjhittha (= Sk. rdhyistha) 
Vv zo" (= nippajjitlha mahapphalo ahuvattha VvA 103). — 
pp. iddha. See also addha- & addhaka. Cp. sam°. 

Ijjhana (nt.) & "a (f.) [fr. ijjhati] success, carrying out suc- 
cessfully Ps 1.17 sq., 74, 181; 11.125, '43 sq-, 161, 174; 
Vbh 217 sq.; Vism 266, 383 ("althena iddhi); Dhs.\ 91, 
118, 237. 

Injana (f.) & "ag (nt.) [fr. igj, see iiijati] shaking, movement, 
motion Sn 193 (= calana phandana SnA 245); Nett 88 
(= phandana C). an" immobility, steadfastness Ps 1. 15; 

liijita [pp. of iiijati] shaken, moved Th I, 386 (an°). Usually 
as nt. injitag shaking, turning about, movement, vacil- 
lation M 1.454; S 1. 109; 1V.202; A 11.45; Sn 750, 1O40 

Ifijati [Vedic rnjati (cp. P. ajjati). Also found as ingati (so 
Veda), and as ang in Sk. anga =^ P. aiija & ingha & 
Vedic pali-angati to turn about. See also anejja & an- 
jati'] to shake, move, turn about, stir D 1.56; S 1.107, 
132, 181 (aniBjamana ppr. raed. "impassive"); ill. 211; 
Th I, 42; 2, 231; Nd'^ s. V. (+calati vedhati); Vism 377; 
DA 1.167. — PP- ifijita (q- v.). 




(pi. injita), 1048 (see Nd' 140); Dh 255; Vbh 390. — 
On the 7 injitas see jf P T S. 1884, 58. 

Injitatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. injita nt.] state of %'aclllation, 
wavering, motion S v.315 (kayassa). 

It^ha (adj.) [pp. of icchati] pleasing, welcome, agreeable, 
pleasant, often in the idiomatic group ittha kanta ma- 
napa (of objects pleasing to the senses) D 1.245; i''92; 
M 185; S IV.60, 158, 235 sq.; v. 22, 60, 147; A 11.66 
sq.; V.135 (dasa, dhamma etc., ten objects affording 
pleasure); Sn 759; It 15; Vbh 2, 100, 337. — Alone 
as nt. meaning welfare, good state, pleasure, happiness 
at Sn 154 (4- anittha); Nelt 28 (-f- anittha); Vism 167 
(id.); PvA 116 (= bhadrai)), 140. -anittha unpleasant, 
disagreeable Pv.\ 32, 52, 60, 116. — See also pariy°, 
in which ittha stands for ettha. 

Itthaka (Itthaka) (f.) [BSk. istaka, e.g. Divy 221; from 
the hig. root *idh ^ °aldh to burn, cp. Sk. idhma fire- 
wood, inddhe to kindle (Idh or Indh), edhah fuel; Gr. 
aiitu burn, ciiioti fire-brand; Lat. aedes, aestas & aeslus; 
more especially Av. istya tile, brick] — i. a burnt brick, 
a tile Vin II 121 ("pakara a brick wall, distinguished fr. 
silapakara & daru"); J 111.435, 44^ (pakar itthika read 
"atthaka); V.213 (rattitthika); Vism 355 ("darugomaya); 
PvA 4 (°cunna-makkhita-sisa the head rubbed with brick- 
powder, i.e. plaster; a ceremony performed on one to be 
executed, cp. Mrcchakatika x.5 pisla-curn'avakirnasca pu- 
ruso 'haij pasukrtah with striking equation istaka > pista). — 
2. pi. (as savanna") gold or gilt tiles used for covering a 
cetiya or tope DhA 111.29, 61; VvA 157. 

Itthi° if °khagga-dhara at J vi.223 should be read iddha. 

I^a (nt.) [Sk. rna, see also P. an-ana] debt D 1.71, 73; A 
111.352; V.324 (enumd- with baddha, jani & kali); Sn 120; 
J 1.307; 11.388, 423; 111.66; IV. 184 (inagga for nagga?); 
256; V.253 (where enum<i- as one of the 4 paribhogas, 
viz. theyya", ina", daya°, sami°); vi.69, 193; Miln 375; 
PvA 273, 276, inai) ganhali to borrow money or take 
up a loan Vism 556; SnA 289; PvA 3. — inai) muncati 
to discharge a debt J iv.280; v.238 ; °r) sodheti same 
Pv.\ 276; labhati same PvA 3. 

-apagama absence of debt ThA 245. -gabaka a bor- 
rower Miln 364. -ghata stricken by debt Sn 246 (= 
inai) gahetva tassa appadanena inaghata). -ttha (with 
inatta as v. 1. at all passages , see atta) fallen into or 
being in debt M 1.463 == S 111.93 = it 89 := Miln 279. 
-panna promissory nole J 1.230; iv.256. -mokkba release 
from debt J iv.280; v. 239. -sadbaka negotiator of a 
loan Miln 365. 

Inayika [fr. ina] one connected with a debt, viz. (1) a 
creditor S 1.170; J IV. 159, 256; V1.178; ThA 271 see 
also dhanika); PvA 3. — (2) a debtor Vin 1.76; Nd 160. 

Ita [pp. of eli, i] gone, only in cpd. dur-ita gone badly, 
as nt. evil, wrong Davs 1.61 ; otherwise in comp". with 
prep., as peta, vita etc. 

Itara' (adj.) [Ved. itara := Lat. iterum a second lime; 
compar. of pron. base *i, as in ayai), etai], iti etc.] other, 
second, next; different Uh 85, 104, 222; J 11.3; 111.26; 
IV.4; PvA 13, 14, 42, 83, 117. In repetition cpd. itart- 
lara one or the other, whatsoever, any Sn 42 ; J v.425; 
Nd2 141; Miln 395; KhA 145, 147; ace. itaritarai] & 
instr. itaritarena used as adv. of one kind or another, 
in every way, anyhow [cp. BSk. itaretara M Vastu in. 
348 and see Wackernagel AltinJ. Gram. II. § 121 c] J 
VI 448 ("!)); Dh 331 (°ena); Vv 84' (text reads itritarcna, 
v. 1. itaritarena, expH- by itaritarai) VvA 333). 

Itara' (adj.) freq. spelling for ittara (q. v.). 

Iti (ti) (indecl.) [Vedic ill, of pron. base *i, cp. Sk. itthai) 
thus, ittha here, there; Av. ipa so; Lat. ita & item thus. 
Cp. also P. ettha; lit. "here, there (now), then"] emphatic- 

deictic particle "thus". Occurs in both forms iti & ti, the 
former in higher style (poetry), the latter more familiar 
in conversational prose. The function of "iti" is expH- 
by the old Pali C. in a conventional phrase, looking 
upon it more as a "filling" particle ihan trying to define 
its meaning viz. "it; ti padasandhi padasai)saggo padapa- 
ripuri akkharasamavSyo etc." Nd' 123 = Nd^ 137. The 
same expl" also for iti' hai) (see below iv.) — I. As 
dcutic aiiv. "thus, in this way" (Vism 423 iti ^ evai)) 
pointing to something either just mentioned or about to 
be mentioned; (a) referring to what precedes Sn 253 
(n'eso maman ti ili nai) vijaiina), 805; It 123 (ito deva... 
tai) namassanti); Dh 74 (iti balassa sankappo thus think 
the foolish), 286 (iti balo vicinteti); Vv 79'" (= evaq 
VvA 307); \'vA 5. — (b) referring to what follows D 1.63 
(iti palisaiicikkhati); A 1.205 ('d) — II. As eniphalic 
pari, pointing out or marking off a statement either as 
not one's own (reported) or as the definite contents of 
(one's own or other's) thoughts. On the whole untrans- 
latable (unless written as quotation marks), often only 
setting off a statement as emphatic, where we would either 
underline the word or phrase in question, or print it in 
italics, or put it in quot. marks (e. g. balo ti vuccati 
Dh 63 == balo vuccati). — i. in direct speech (as given 
by writer or narrator), e. g. sadhu bhante Kassapa l.ib- 
hatai) esa Janata dassanaya ti. Tena hi Siha tvar) yeva 
Bhagavato arocehi ti. Evai) bhante ti kho Siho . . . . D 
1.15 1. — 2. in indirect speech: (a) as statement of a fact 
"so it is that" (cp. E. "viz.", Ger. "und zwar"), mostly 
untranslated Kh iv. (araha ti pavuccali); J 1253 (tasma 
pesanaka-cora t' eva vuccanti); ill. 51 (tayo sahaya ahesuq 
makkato sigalo uddo ti); Pv.\ II2 (ankuro paiica-.sakata- 
satehi . . . aiinataro pi brahmano pauca-sakatasatehi ti dve 
jana sakata-sahassehi . . . patipanna). — (b) as statement 
of a thought "like this", "I think", so, thus Sn 61 
("sango eso" iti iiatva knowing "this is defilement"), 253 
("neso maman" ti iti nai) vijanna), 783 ("iti' han" ti), 
1094 (etai) dipai) aniiparai) Nibbanar) iti nai) brilmi I 
call this N.), 1130 (apara parai) gaccheyya tasma "Para- 
yanaq" iti). — III. Peculiarities of spelling, (i) in comb"- 
with other part, iti is elided & contracted as follows; 
ice' eva, t' eva, etc. — (2) final a, i, u preceding ti are 
lengthened to a, 1, ii, e.g. ma evai) akattba ti Dh.\ 1.7; 
kati dhurani ti ibid; dve yeva dhurani bhikkhu ti ibid — 
IV. Combinations with other emphatic particles; -\- eva 
thus indeed, in truth, really; as ice' eva Pv III' (=r 
evam eva PvA 59); t' eva J 1.253; Mi'n 114; tv' eva 
J 1.203; 'l^. -iti kira thus now, perhaps, 1 should say 
D 1.228, 229, 240. -iti kho thus, therefore D 1.98, 103; 
111.135. iti va and so on(?), thus and such (similar cases) 
Nd' 13 = Nd2 420 A', -iti ha thus surely, indeed Sn 
934, 1084 (see below under ilihllihai) ; cp. SnA Index 
669: itiha? and ilikira); It 76; DA 1247, as iti hoi) at 
Sn 783 (same expl"- at Ndi 71 as for iti). -kin ti how 

J "-jsg- 

-kira (f.) [a substantivised ili kira] hearsay, lit. "so I 
guess" or "I have heard" A 1.189 = 11.191 sq. = Nd'^ 
151. Cp. iliha. -bhava becoming so & so (opp. abhava 
not becoming) \'in it. 184 ("abhava); D 1.8 (ip = iti bhavo 
iti abhavo DA 1.91); A 11.248; It 109 (id.); syn. with 
itthabhava (q. v.). -vada "speaking so & so", talk, gos- 
sip M 1.133; S v.73; A 11.26; It 111.35. -vuttaka (nl.) 
[a noun formation fr. iti vuttai)] "so it has been said', 
(book of) quotations, "I.ogia", N. of the fouith book 
of the Khuddakanikaya, named thus because every sutta 
begins with vuttai) h' etai) Bhagavata "thus has the 
Buddha said" (see khuddaka and navanga) Vin III. 8; M 
1.133; A 11.7, 103; 111.86, 177, 361 sq.; Pug 43, 62; 
Kh.\ 12. Kern, Toev. s. v. compares the interesting 
BSk. distortion itivrttaq. -basa [= iti ha asa, preserving 
the Vedic form asa, 3rd sg. perf. of atthi] "thus indeed 
it has been", legendary love, oral tradition, history; 
usually mentioned as a branch of brahmanic learning, in 
phrase ilihasa-panca-manai] padako veyyakarano etc. D 
188 = (see D.'\ 1.247); A 1.163; 111.223; Sn 447, 1020. 


1 20 


Cp. also M Vastu 1.556. -hltiha [itiha -f- itiha] "so & 
so" talk, gossip, oral tradition belief by hearsay etc. (cp. 
itikira & anitiha. Nd- spells itihitiha) M I 520; S I.154; 
Sn 1084; Nd- 151. 

ItO (indecl.) [V'edic itah, abl.-advl formation fr. pron. base 
*i cp. iti, ayar) etc.] adv. of succession or motion in 
space & lime "from here", "^from now", (i) with ref. to 
space: (a) from here, from this, often implying the present 
existence (in opp. to the "other" world) It 77; Sn 271 
(°ja. °nidana caused or founded in or by this existence := 
attabhavaij sandhay' aha SnA 303}, 774 (cutase), 870 
("nidana), 1062 (from this source, i.e. from me), IIOI; 
Vv 1.5' (ito dinnai) wliat is given in this world); l.b- 
(i. e. manussalokato PvA 33); 1. 1 2' (=: idhalokato PvA 
64); Nett 93 (ito bahiddh.i); PvA 46 (ito dukkhato 
mutti). — (b) here (with implication of movement), in 
phrases ito c' ito here and there PvA 4. 6; and ito va 
etto va here & there DhA n.So. — (2) with ref. to time: 
from here, from now, hence (in chronological records 
with num. ord. or card., with ref. either to past or future), 
(a) referring to the fast, since D 11.2 (ito so ekanavuto 
kappo 91 kappas ago): Sn 570 (ito atthame, scil. divase 
& days ago SnA 457; T. reads atthami); VvA 319 (ito 
kira tiijsa-kappa-sahassej ; PvA 19 (dva navuti kappe 92 
kappas ago), 21 (id.), 78 (paiicamaya jatiya in the fifth 
previous re-birth). — (b) referring to the future^ 1. e. hence- 
forth, in future, from now e. g. ito sattanie divase in a 
week VvA 138; ito paraq further, after this SnA 160, 
178, 412, 549; PvA 83; ito patthaya from now on, hence- 
forward J 1.63 (ito dani p.); PvA 41. 

Ittara (sometimes spelt itara) (adj.) [Vedic itvara in meaning 
"going", going along, hence developed meaning "passing"; 
fr. i] — I. passing, changeable, short, temporary, brief, 
unstable M 1. 318 (opp. dlgharattai]); A 11.187; J 1393; 
111.83 ("dassana = khanika" C), iv.112 ("vasa temporary 
abode); Pv iii" (= na cira-kala-tthayin anicca vipari- 
nama-dhamma PvA 60); DA 1.195; P^'^ ^° (=^ paritta 
khanika). — 2. small, inferior, poor, unreliable, mean M 
11,47 (°jacca of inferior birth); A 11.34; Sn 757 (= paritta 
paccupatthana SnA 509); Miln 93, 114 ("panila of small 
wisdom). This meaning (2) also in BSk. itvara, e. g. Divy 
317 (dana). 

Ittarata (f.) [fr. ittara] changeableness Miln 93 (of a woman). 

Ittha (indecl.) [the regular representative of Vedic ittha here, 
there, but preserved only in cpds. while the Pali form 
is ettha] here, in this world (or "thus, in such a way), 
only in cpd. "bhav' anfiatha-bhava such an (i. e. earthly) 
existence and one of another kind, or existence here (in 
this life) and in another form" (cp. itibhava & itthatta) 
Sn 729, 740 = 752; It 9 (v. 1. itthi'' for iti°) = A 11.10 
= Nd- 172^; It 94 (v. 1. ittha"). There is likely to have 
been a confusion between ittha := Sk. ittha & itthaq = 
Sk. itthar] (see next). 

Itthag (indecl.) [adv. fr. pron. base °i, as also iti in same 
meaning] thus, in this way D 1.53,213; Davsiv.35; V.18. 
-nama (itthan°) having such as name, called thus, so- 
called Vin 1.56; IV. 136; J 1.297; Miln 115; DhA 11.98. 
-bhUta being thus, of this kind, modal, only in cpd. °liilt- 
kliana or ''akhyana the sign or case of modality, i. e. the 
ablative ease SnA 441; VvA 162, 174; PvA 150. 

Itthatta' (nt.) [ittha + ®tvar), abstr. fr. ittha. The curious 
BSk. distortion of this word is icchatta M Vastu 417] 
being here (in this world), in the present state of 
becoming, this (earthly) state (not "ihusness" or "life as 
we conceive it", as Mrs. Rh. D. in K.S. 1. 1 77; although 
a confusion between ittha & ilthar) seems to exist, see 
ittha); "life in these conditions" K.S. 11.17; expl<i. by 
itthabhava C. on S 1.140 (see K. S. 318). — See also freq. 
formula A of arahatta. — D 1.18, 84; A 1.63; 11.82, 159, 
203; Sn 158; Dhs 633; Pug 70, 71; DA 1.112. 

Itthatta- fnt.) [itthi -f- *tvai) abstr. fr. itthi] stale or con- 
dition of femininity, womanhood, mtiliebrity Dhs 633 (z:^ 
itthi-sabhava Dhs.\ 321). 

Itthi & Itthi (f.) [Vedic stri, Av. stri woman, perhaps with 
Sk. satuh uterus fr. Idg. ''si to sow or produce, Lat. sero, 
Goth, saian, Ohg. srten, Ags. sawan etc., cp. also Cymr. 
hil progeny, Oir. sil seed; see J. Schmidt, /.'. Z. xxv.29. 
The regular representative of Vedic stri is P. thi, which 
only occurs rarely (in poetry & comp".) see thi] woman, 
female ; also (usually as — '^) wife. Opp. purisa man (see 
e.g. for contrast of itthi and purisa J v. 72, 398; Nett 93; 
DhA 1.390; PvA 153). — S 1.33 (nibbanass' eva sanlike), 
42, 125 (majjhim°, mah°l, 185; A 1.28, 138; 11.115, 209; 
111.68, 90, 156; IV. 196 (purisaq bandhati); Sn 112, 769 
(nom. pi. thiyo ^ ilthi-saiiuika thiyo SnA 5'3)i J '.286 
(itthi doso), 300 (gen. pi. illhinai)); 11.415 (nom. pi. thiyo); 
V.397 (thi-ghataka), 398 (gen. dat. itthiya), v.425 (nom 
pi. itthiyo); Vbh 336, 337; DA 1.147; PvA 5, 44, 46, 
67, 154 (amanuss° of petis); Sdhp 64, 79. — anitthi a 
woman lacking the characteristics of womanhood, an un- 
faithful wife J II. 1 26 (= ucchitth" C); kul'-itlhi a wife 
of good descent Vin 11. 10; A 111.76; iv.i6, 19; dahar° 
a young wife J 1.291; dur° a poor woman J iv.38. — 
Some general characterisations of womanhood: 10 kinds 
of women enumd. at Vin 111.139 = ^ v. 264 = VvA 72, 
viz. matu-rakkhita, pitu°, matapitu", bhatu°, bhagini", 
iiati°, gotta", dhamma", sarakkh.a, saparidanda; see Vin 
III. 1 39 for expl". — S 1.38 (malai) brahmacariyassa), 43 
(id.); J 1.287 (itthiyo nama asa lamika pacchimika); iv. 
222 (itthiyo papato akkhato ; pamattaq pamathenli); v. 
425 (siho yatha . . . tath' itthiyo); women as goods for 
sale S 1.43 (bhandanaq uttamaq); DhA 1.390 (itthiyo 
vikkiniya bhandai)). 

-agara (-agara) as itthagara women's apartment, seraglio 
Vin 1.72; IV.158; S 1.58, 89; J 1.90; also coll. for women- 
folk, women (cp. Ger. frauenzimmer) D 11.249; J v. 188. 
-indriya the female principle or sex, femininity (opp. puris' 
indriya)S V.204; A iv.57 sq.; Vism 447, 492 ; Dhs 585,633, 
653 et passim, -katha talk about women D 1.7 (cp. DA 
1.90). -kama the craving for a woman S iv.343. -kutta a 
woman's behaviour, woman's wiles, charming behaviour, 
coquetry A iv.57 = Dhs 633; J 1.296, 433; 11.127, 3^9; 
IV.219, 472; DhA 1V.197. -ghataka a woman-killer J v. 
398. -dhana wife's treasure, dowry Vin ill. 16. -dhutta 
a rogue in the matter of women, one who indulges in 
women Sn 106; J 111.260; Pv.\ 5. -nimitta characteristic 
of a woman Dhs 633, 713, 836. -pariggaha a woman's 
company, a woman Nd' ii. -bhava existence as woman, 
womanhood S 1.129; Th 2, 216 (referring to a yakkhini, 
cp. ThA 178; Dhs 633; PvA 168. -riipa womanly beauty 
A i.i; 111.68; Th 2, 294. -lakkhana fortune-telling re- 
garding a woman D 1.9 (cp. DhA 1.94, -|- purisa"); J vi. 
135. -linga "sign of a woman", feminine quality, female 
sex Vism 184; Dhs 633, 713, 836; Dhs.\ 321 sq. -sadda 
the sound (or word) "woman" DhA 1.15. -sondl a woman 
addicted to drink So 112. 

Itthlka (f.) [fr. itthi] a woman Vin 111.16; D 11.14; J '• 
336; Vv 18'; Sdhp 79. As adj. itthika in bahuttbika 
having many women, plentiful in women Vin 11.256 (ku- 
lani bahuttikani appapurisakani rich in women & lacking 
in men); S 11.264 ('d. and appitthikani). 

Ida & Idag (indecl.) [nt. of ayar) (idaij) in function of a 
deictic part.] emphatic deraonslr. adv. in local, temporal 
& modal function, as (i) in this, here: idappaccayata 
having its foundation in this. i.e. causally connected, by 
way of cause Vin 1.5 = S 1.136; D 1.185; Dhs 1004, 
1061; Vbh 340, 362,365; Vism 518; etc. — (2) now, then 
which idha is more freq.) D 11.267, 270, almost syn. (for 
w ith kira. — (3) just (this), even so, only : idam-atthika 
just sufficient, proper, right Th I, 984 (civara); Pug 69 
(read so for °matthika, see Pug A 250); as idam-atthita 
"being satisfied with what is sufficient" at Vism 81; 




expl<l' as attbika-bbava at Pug A 250. idaijsaccabhini- 
vesa inclination to say : only this is the truth, i. e. in- 
clination to dogmatise, one of the four kaya-gantha, viz. 
abhijjha, byapada, silabbata-paramasa, idar)° (see Dhs 1135 
& Dhs trsl. 304); D 111.230; Sv.S9; Nd'98; NettilSsq. 

IdSni (indecl.) [Vedic idanli]] now Dh 235, 237; KhA 247. 

Iddha' [pp. of iddhe to idh or indh, cp. indhana & idhuma] 
in flames, burning, 'flaming bright, clear J VI.223 (°khagga- 
dhara balT; so read for T. itthi-khagga") ; Dpvs VI. 42. 

Iddha' [pp. of ijjhati ; cp. Sk. rddha] (a) prosperous, opulent, 
wealthy D 1.21 1 (in idiomatic phrase iddha phita bahu- 
jana, of a prosperous town); A 111.215 (id.); J vi.227, 
361 (= issara C), 517; Davs i.ii. — (b) successful, 
satisfactory, suflicieut Vin 1.2 1 2 (bhattaq); IV.313 (ovado). 

Iddhl [Vedic rddhi from ardh, to prosper; Pali ijjhati]. 
There is no single word in English for Iddhi, as the idea 
is unknown in Europe. The main sense seems tj be 
'potency'. — i. I're-Uuddhistic; the Iddhi of a layman. 
The four Iddhis of a king are personal beauty, long life, 
good health, and popularity (D 11.177; M 111.176, cp. J 
111.454 for a later set). The Iddhi of a rich young noble is 
I. The use of a beautiful garden, 2. of soft and pleasant 
clothing. 3. of different houses for Ihe different seasons, 
4. of good food, A 1.145. At M 1.152 the Iddhi of a hunter, 
is the craft and skill with which he captures game; but 
at p. 155 other game have an Iddhi of their own by 
which they outwit the hunter. The Iddhi, the power of 
a confederation of clans, is referred to at D u.72. It is 
by the Iddhi they possess that birds are able to fly 
(Dhp 175). — 2. Psychic powers, including most of those 
claimed for modern mediums (see under Abhinna). Ten 
such are given in a slock paragraph. They are the power 
to project mind-made images of oneself; to become in- 
visible; to pass through solid things, such as a wall; to 
penetrate solid ground as if it were water; to walk on 
water; to fly through the air; to touch sun and moon; to 
ascend into the highest heavens (D 177, 212; 11.87, ^'Si 
Ut.ll2, 281; S 11.121; V.264, 303; A I 170, 255; 111.17, 
28, 82, 425; V.199; Ps I mi; n.207; Visni 378 sq., 384; 
DA 1.122). For other such powers see S 1.144; lv.290; 
V.263; A 111.340. — 3. The Buddhist theory of Iddhi. At 
D 1.213 the Buddha is represented as saying: 'It is be- 
cause 1 see danger in the practice of these mystic wonders 
that I loathe and abhor and am ashamed thereof. The 
mystic wonder that he himself believed in and advocated 
(p. 214) was the wonder of education. What education 
was meant in the case of Iddhi, we learn from M 1.33; 
A 111.425, and from the four bases of Iddhi, the Iddhi- 
pada. They are the making determination in respect of 
concentration on purpose, on will, on thoughts & on in- 
vestigation (D 11.212; M 1.103; A. 1.39, 297; 11.256; III. 
82; Ps l.lll; It 154, 164, 205; Vbh 216). It was an 
offence against the regulations of the Sarigha for a Bhikkhu 
to display before the laity these psychic powers beyond 
the capacity of ordinary men (Vin 11. 112). And falsely 
to claim the possession of such powers involved expulsion 
from the Order (Vin 111.91). The psychic powers of Iddhi 
were looked upon as inferior (as the Iddhi of an uncon- 
verted man seeking his own profit), compared to the 
higher Iddhi, the Ariyan Iddhi (D 111.112; A 1.93; Vin 
11.183). There is no valid evidence that any one of the 
ten Iddhis in the above list actually took place. A few 
instances are given, but all are in texts more than a 
century later than the recorded wonder. And now for 
nearly two thousand years we have no further instances. 
Various points on Iddhi discussed at Dial. 1.272, 3; Cpd. 
60 ff. ; Expositor 121. Also at Kvu 55; Ps 11.150; Vism 
XII ; DhA 1.91 ; J 1.47, 360. 

-Snubbava (iddhanu°) power or majesty of thaumaturgy 

C Vin 31, 209. 240; in.67; S I 147; IV.290; PvA 53. 

-4bhisankbara (iddhabhi") exercise of any of the psychic 

powers Vin 1.16, 17,25; D 1.106; S 111.92; iv.289; V.270; 

Sn p. 107; PvA 57, 172 212. -patihariya a wonder of 
psychic power Vin 1.25, 28, 180, 209; 11.76, 112, 200; 
D 1.211, 212; 111.3, 4i 9i '2 sq., 27; S IV.290; A 1.170, 
292 ; Ps 11.227. -pada constituent or basis of psychic 
power Vin 11.240; D 11.J03, 115 sq., 120; 111.77, 102, 
127, 221; M 11.11; 111.296; S 1. 116, 132; 111.96, 153; 
IV.360; V.254, 255, ^59 sq., 264 sq., 269 sq., 275, 285; 
A 1V.I28 sq., 203, 463; V.t75; Nd' 14. 45 (°dhira), 340 
("puccha); Nd' s. v.; I's 1.17, 21, 84; n.56, 85 sq., 120, 
166, 174; Ud 62; Dhs 358, 528, 552; Nett 16, 31, 83; 
DhsA237; DhA 111.177; iv.32. -bala the power of working 
wonders VvA 4; PvA 171. -yana the carriage (fig) of 
psychic faculties Miln 276. -vikubbana the practice of 
psychic powers Vism 373 sq. -vidha kinds of iddhi D 
1.77, 212; 11.213; 1II.1I2, 281: S II. 121 ; v.264 sq 1 303; 
A 1.170 sq.; 255; 111.17, 28, 82 sq., 425 sq. ; V.199; Ps 
Mil; 11.207; Vism 384; DA 1.222. -visaya range or 
extent of psychic power Vin 111.67 ; Nett 23. 

Iddhika' ( — ") (adj.) the compn- form of addhika in cpd. 
kapan-iddbika tramps & wayfarers (see kapana), e. g. at 
J 1.6;' 1V.15; PvA 78. 

Iddhika' ( — ") (adj.) [iddhi -|- ka] possessed of power, only 
in cpd. mah-iddhika of great power, always comVW- with 
mah-anubhava, e.g. at Vin 1.31; 11.193; m.ioi; S 11. 
155; M 134; Th I, 429. As mahiddhiya at J v. 149. 
See mahiddhika. 

Iddhimant (adj.) [fr. iddhi] — 1. (lit.) successful, proficient, 
only in neg. an° unfortunate, miserable, poor J vi.361. — 
2. (fig.) possessing psychic powers Vin 111.67; IV.108; 
A 1.23, 25; 11.185; m-340; IV.312; Sn 179; Nett 23; 
Sdhp 32, 472. 

Idha (indecl.) [Sk. iha, adv. of space fr. pron. base ~\ (cp. 
ayar), iti etc.), cp. Lat. ihi, Gr. iSa-yfvi)?, Av. ida] here, 
in this place, in this connection, now; esp. in this world 
or present existence Sn 1038, 1056, 1065; It 99 (idh' 
lipapanna reborn in this existence); Uh 5, 15, 267, 343, 
392; N'd' 40, 109, 156; Nd2 145, 146; SnA 147; PvA 
45, 60, 71. -idhaloka this world, the world of men Sn 
1043 (= manussaloka Nd- 552<:); PvA 64; in this religion, 
Vbh 245. On difT. meanings of idha see UhsA 348. 

Idhuma [Sk. idhma, see elym. under itthaka] fire-wood — 
Tela-katahagatha, p. 53, J P T S. 1884. 

Inda [Vedic indra, most likely to same root as indu moon, 
viz. *Idg. *eid to shine, cp. Lat. idQs middle of month 
(after the full moon), Oir. esce moon. Jacobi in A'. Z. 
XXXI 316 sq. connects Indra with Lat. neriosus strong & 
Nero). — I. The Vedic god Indra D 1.244; 11261, 274; 
Sn 310, 316, 679, 1024; Nd 1.177. — -2. lord, chief, king. 
Sakko devanar) indo D 1.216, 217; 11.221, 275; S 1.219. 
Vepacitti asuriudo S 1 221 ff. maniissinda, S 1.69, manuj- 
inda, Sn 553, narinda, Sn 863, all of the Buddha, 'chief 
of men'; cp. Vism 491. [Europeans have found a strange 
difficulty in understanding the real relation of Sakka to 
Indra. The few references to Indra in the Nikayas should be 
classed with the other fragments of Vedic mythology to be 
found in them. Sakka belongs only to the Buddhist mytho- 
logy then being built up. He is not only quite different from 
Indra, but is the direct contrary of that blustering, drunken, 
god of war. See the passages collected in Via/. 11.294 — 
298. The idiom sa-Inda deva, U 11.261, 274; A v. 325, 
means 'the gods about Indra, Indras retinue', this being 
a Vedic story. But Deva Tavatii]sa sahindaka means 
the T. gods together with their leader (D 11.208—212; S 
111.90; cp. Vv 30') this being a Buddhist story]. 

-aggi (ind' aggi) Indra's fire, i. e. lightning Pv.\ 56. 
-gajjita (nt.) Indra's thunder Miln 22. -jala deception 
DA 1.85. -jalika a juggler, conjurer Miln 331. -dbanu 
the rainbow DA 1.40. -bhavana the realm of Indra Nd' 
448 (cp. Tavatirjsa-bhavana). -linga the characteristic of 
Indra Vism 491. -sala N. of tree J iv.92. 




Indaka [dimin. fr. inda] — I. Np. (see Diet, of names), 
e.g. at Pv 11.9"; PvA 136 sq. — 2. ( — °) see inda 2. 

Indakhlla [inda + khlla, cp. BSk. indrakila Divy 250, 365, 
544; Av. b 1.109, 223]. "lodra's post"; the post, stake 
or column of Indra, at or before the city gate; also a large 
slab of stone let into the ground at the entrance of a 
house D It. 254 (°r| uhacca, cp. DhA 11. 181); Vin iv.160 
(expld- ibid, as sayani-gharassa ummaro, i.e. threshold); 
S V.444 (ayokhilo -f); Dh 95 ("upama, cp. DhA 11. 181); 
Th 1, 663; J 1.89; Miln 364; Vism 72, 466; SnA 201; 
DA 1.209 (nikkhamitva bahi °a); Dh.^ 11. 180 ("sadisai) 
Sariputtassa cittaijj, 181 (nagara-dvare nikhatar) °i)). 

Indagu see hitidagu. 

Indagopaka [inda -(- gopaka, cp. Vedic indragopa having 
Indra as protector] a sort of insect ("cochineal, a red 
beetle", Bohtlingk), observed to come out of the ground 
after rain Th I, 13 ; Vin 111.42 ; J iv.258; v. 168; DhA 1.20; 
Brethren p. 18, n. 

Indanila [inda -(- nila "Indra's blue"] a sapphire J 1.80; 
Miln 118; VvA III (4- mahfinila). 

IndavarUQI (f.) [inda + vSruna] the Coloquintida plant J 
IV.8 (°ka-rukkha). 

Indivara (nt.) [etym. ?] the blue water lily, Nymphaea Stel- 
lata or Cassia Fistula J v.92 (°rsama ratti); VI. 536; Vv 
45' (= uddslaka-puppha VvA 197). 

Indriya (nt.) [Vedic indriya adj. only in meaning "belonging 
to Indra"; nt. strength, might (cp. inda), but in specific 
Pali sense "belonging to the ruler", i e. governing, ruling 
nt. governing, ruling or controlling principle] A. On term: 
Indfiya is one of the most comprehensive & important 
categories of liuddhist psychological philosophy & ethics, 
meaning "controlling principle, directive force, elan, Jyva/zi?", 
in the foil, applications: (a) with reference to sense-per- 
ceptibility "faculty, function", often wrongly interpreted as 
"organ" ; (b) w. ref. to objective aspects of form and 
matter "kind, characteristic, determinating principle, sign, 
mark" (cp. woman-hood, hood = Goth, haidus "kind, 
form"); (e) w. ref. to moods of sensation and (d) to moral 
powers or motives controlling action, "principle, control- 
ling" force; (e) vv. ref. to cognition & insight "category". — 
Definitions of indriya among others at DhsA 119; cp. 
Expositor 157; Dhs trsl. i.vil; Cpii. 228, 229. 

B. Classifications and groups of indriyani. An exhaustive 
list comprises the indriyani enumd under A a — e, thus 
establishing a canonical scheme of 22 Controlling Powers 
(bavisati indriyani), running thus at Vbh 122 sq. (see trsl. at 
Cpd. 175, 176); and discussed in detail at Vism 491 sq. 
(a. sensorial) (i) cakkh-undriya ("the eye which is a 
power", Cpd. 228) the eye or (personal potentiality of) 
vision, (2) sot-indriya the ear or hearing, (3) ghan° nose 
or smell, (4) jivh° tongue or taste, (5) kay° body-sen- 
sibiliiy, (6) man") mind; (/'. maleri,tl) (7) itth" female 
sex or femininity, (8) pufis" male sex or masculinity, 
(9) ji»it° life or vitality; (<•. sensational) (10) sukh° 
pleasure, (11) dukkh° pain, (12) somanass° joy, (13) 
domanass" gf'ef, (14) upekh" hedonic indifference [d. 
moral) (15) saddh" faith, (16) viriy° energy, (17) sat" 
mindfulness, (18) samadh° concentration, (19) pann° 
reason; (e. cognitional) (20) anannata-nas^mit° the 
thought "I shall come to know the unknown", (21) ann° 
(:= anna) gnosis, (22) annata-v° one who knows. — Jivilin- 
driya (no. 9) is in some redactions placed before ilth" 
(no. 7), e.g. at Ps 1.7, 137. — From this list are detached 
several groups, mentioned frequently and in various con- 
nections, no. 6 manas (mano, man-indriya) wavering in 
its function, being either included under (a) or (more 
frequently) omitted, so that the first set (a) is marked 
off as pane' indriyani , the 6'*> being silently included 
(see below). This uncertainty regarding manas deserves 
to be noted. The foil, groups may be mentioned here 
viz. 19 (nos, 1 — 19) at Ps 1. 137; 10 (pafica rOpIni & 

paiica arupini) at Nett 69 ; three groups of five (nos. 
I — 5, 10 — 14, 15 — 19) at D 111.239, "^p. 278; four (group 
d without paiiiia, i.e. nos. 15 — 18) at A 11.14! ; three 
(saddh°, samadh'', paru"!", i.e. nos. 15, 18, 19) at A I. 
118 sq. Under atthavidhaij indriya-rupaq {Cpd. 159) or 
rupar) as indriyaq "form which is faculty" Dhs 661 (cp. 
trsl. p. 204) are understood the 5 sensitives (nos. I — 5), 
the 2 sex-states (nos. 7, 8) and the vital force (no. 9), 
i. e. groups a & b of enum"- ; discussed & defined in 
detail at Dhs 709 — 717, 971 — 973. — It is often to he 
guessed from the context only, which of the sets of 5 
indriyani (usually either group a or d) is meant. These 
detached groups are classed as below under C. f. — Note. 
This system of 22 indriyani reflects a revised & more 
elaborate form of the 25 (or 23) categories of the Sankhya 
philosophy, with its 10 elements, 10 indriyani & the 
isolated position of manas. 

C. Material in detail (grouped according to A a — e) 
(a) sensorial: (mentioned or referred to as set of 5 vii 
B. nos. I — 5): M 1.295: S m.46 (paricannai) "anarj avak 
kanti), 225; IV. 168; A n.151 (js set of 6, viz. B. nos. 
I — 6): M 1.9; S IV. 176; V.74, 205, 230; A I.ii3;ii.i6, 
39, 152; 111.99, 163, 387 sq.; V.348. Specially referring 
to restraint & control of the senses in foil, phrases: in 
driyani saqvutani S II 231, 271 ; iv.ii2; pancasu °esu 
saqvuto Sn 340 (= lakkhanato pana chatthai) pi vuttai) 
yeva hoti, i.e. the 6'h as manas included, SnA 343); 
"esu susaijvuta Th 2, 196 (= mana-chatthesu i° sutthu 
sarjvuta ThA 168) indriyesu guttadvara & guttadvarala 
D in. 107; S Ii.2i8; iv.io3, 112, 175; A 1.25, 94, 113; 
11.39; 111-70, 138, 173, 199, 449 sq.; iv.^5, 166; v.134; 
It 23, 24; Nd' 14; Vbh 248, 360; DA 1.182 (:= mana- 
chattesu indriyesu pihita-dvSro hoti), i. vippasannani S II. 
275; 111.2, 235; IV. 294; V.301; A 1.181 ; 111.380. °anar| 
samata (v. 1. samatha) A III. 375 sq. (see also f. below) 
°ani bhaviiani Sn 516 (= cakkh' adini cha i. SnA 426); 
Nd'^ 475 B6. — Various: S 1.26 (rakkhati), 48 ("lipasame 
rato); iv.40, 140 (°sampanna); v. 216, 217 sq. (independent 
in function, mano as referee); Ps 1.190 (man°); Vbh 13 
(rupa), 341 (mud" & tikkh°) 384 (akAn°'). — {h) physical: 
(above B 7 — 9) all three: S v.204; Vism 447; itthi° & pu- 
risa" A iv.57; Vbh 122, 415 sq. ; puris° A 111.404; jivit" 
Vbh 123, 137; Vism 230 (^'upaccheda =: marana). See also 
-under itthi, jivita & purisa. — (c) sensational (above B 

10—14): S V.207 sq. (see Cpd. ill & cp. p. 15), 211 
sq.; Vbh 15, 71; Nett 88. — (d) moral (above B 15 — 
19): S m.96, 153; IV.36, 365 sq.; V.193 sq., 202, 219 
(corresponding to pancabalSni), 220 sq. (and amata), 223 
sq. (their culture brings assurance of no rebirth), 227 sq. 
(paiiii.a the chief one), 235, 237 (sevenfold fruit of), A 
IV.125 sq., 203, 225; v.56, 175; Ps 11.49, 51 sq., 86; 
Nd' 14; Nd2 628 (sat" + satibala); Kvu 589; Vbh 341; 
Nett 15, 28, 47, 54. Often in standard comb", with sati- 
patthana, sammappadhana. iddhipada, indriya, bala, bojj- 
hanga, magga (see Nd- s. v. p. 263) D ir.120; Vin 111. 
93; Ps 11.166 & passim. As set of 4 indriyani (nos. 16 — 
19) at Nett 83. — (e) cognitional (above B 20 — 22) D 
111.219 ^ S v.204 (iis peculiar to Arahantship); It 53; 
Ps 1.115; 11.30. — (f) collectively., either two or more 
of groups a — e, also var. peculiar uses: personal; esp. 
physical faculties S 1. 61 (pakat°), 204 (id.); HI. 207 (aka- 
saq °ani sankamanti); iv.294 (vipari-bhinnani); A III. 441 
(°annr| avekallata). magic power A iv.264 sq. (okkhipati 
°ani). indriyanai) paripako (moral or physical) over-ripeness 
of faculties S 11.2, 42; A v.203 ; Nd- 252 (in def. of 
jara): Vbh 137. moral forces Vin 1. 183 ("anaq samata, 
-\- viriyanaq s. as sign of Arahant); 11.240 (pane"), prin- 
ciple of life ekindriyai) jivar) Vin iii.156; Miln 259 heart 
or seat of feeling in phrase °ani paricareti to satisfy one's 
heart PvA 16, 58, 77. obligation, duty, vow in phrase 
°ani bhinditva breaking one's vow J 11.274; iv. 190. 

D. Unclassified material D 177 (ahln°); in 239 (dom- 
anass° & somanass") M 1.437 (vemattata), 453 (id.); 11. 
II, 106; III. 296; S III. 225; V.209 (dukkh°, domanass'); 
A 1.39, 42 sq., 297; 11.38 (sant"), 149 sq.; in.277, 282; 




Ps 1.16, 21, 88, 180; U.I sq , 13, 84, 119, 132, 143, 
145, no, 223; Nd" 45 (°dhira), 171 (^kusala), 341 (puc- 
cha); Dhs 58, 121, 528, 556 (dukkh°), 560, 6t'4. 736; 
Netl 18 (sotSpaanassa), 28 ("vavatthana), 162 (lok'uttara); 
Vism 350 (°vekallala);Sdhp 280, 342, 364, 371,449.473- 

E. .-/j adj. ( — °) having one's senses, mind or heart 
as such & such S 1. 138 (iikkh° & mud°); in. 93 (pakat°); 
V.269 (id.); A 1.70 (id) & passim (id.); A 1.70 (saqvul") 
266 (id.), 236 (gutt°); :i 6 (samahit^); 8n 214 (susam- 
ahit° his senses well-composed); I'vA 70 (pinit° joyful or 
gladdened of heart). 

F. Sonti compounds : -gutta one who restrains & watches 
his senses S 1.154; Dh 375. -gutti keeping watch over 
the senses, self-restraint Dh.\ iv.iii. a paropariya, l" pa- 
ropariyatta & <: paropariyatti (°iSana) (knowledge of) 
what goes on in the senses and intentions of others ^ J 
1.78; b A V34, 38; b Ps I.I2I sq., 133 sq.; 11. 158, 175; 
b Vbh 340, 342; c S V.205; c Nelt loi. See remark 
under paropariya. -bhavana cultivation of the (five, see 
above C^) moral qualities Via 1.294 (-{- balabhavana); 
M III. 298. -sarjvara restraint or subjugation of the senses 
D 11.281; M 1.269, 346; S 1.54; A III. 360; IV.99; V.113 
sq., 136, 206; Nd' 483; Nett 27, 121 sq : Vism 20 sq. 

Indhana (nt.) [Vedic indhana, uf idh or indh <o kindle, 
cp. iddha'] firewood, fuel J iv.27 (adj. an° without fuel, 
aggi); V.447 ; ThA 256; VvA 335 ; Sdhp 608. Cp. idhuma. 

Ibbha (adj.) [Ved. ibhya belonging to the servants] menial; 
a retainer, in the phrase mundaka samanaka ibbha 
kanba (kinha) bandbupadapacca D 1.90 (v. 1. SS imbha; 
T. kinha, v. 1. kanha), 91, 103, M 1.334 (kinha, v. 1. 
kanha). Also at J VI.214. Expld by Bdhgh. as gahapa- 
tika at DA 1.254, (also at J VI. 215). 

Iri^a (nt.) [Vedic irina, on etym. see Walde, Lat. Wtb. 
under rarus] barren soil, desert J vi.560 (= niroja C). 
Cp. iri^ia. 

Iriyatl [fr. ir to set in motion, to stir, Sk. irte, but pres. 
formation influenced by iriya & also by Sk. iyarti of f 
(see acchati & icchati^); cp. Caus. irayati (= P. ireti), 
pp. irpa & irita. See also issa] to move, to wander about, 
stir; fig. to move, behave, show a certain way of deport- 
ment M 1.74, 75; S 1.53 (dukkhaq aticca iriyati); IV. 71; 
A 111.451; V.41 ; Sn 947, 1063, 1097; Th 1.276; J 111.498 
(:= viharati); Nd'431; Nd-* 147 (= carati etc.); Vism 16; 
DA 1.70. 

Iriyana (f.) [fr. iriyati] way of moving on, progress, Dhs 
19, 82, 295, 380, 441, 716. 

Iriya (f.) [cp. from iriyati, BSk. Irya Divy 485] movement, 
posture, deportment M 1.81; Sn 1038 (= cariya valti 
viharo Nd' 148); It 31 ; Vism 145 (-f- vutti palana yapana). 
-patha way of deportment ; mode of movement ; good 
behaviour. There are 4 iriyapathas or postures, viz. walk- 
ing, standing, sitting, lying down (see Ps 11.225 ^ ^A 
1.183). Cp. BSk. iryapatha Divy 37. -- Vin 1.39; II. 146 
(°sampanna); M 1. 71 (chinn° a cripple); S v.78 (cattaro 
i.); Sn 385; Nd' 225, 226; Nd^ s. v.; J 1.22 (of a lion), 
66, 506; Miln 17; Vism 104, 128, 290, 396; DhA 1.9; 
IV.17; VvA 6; PvA 141; Sdhp 604. 

Irtlbbeda the Rig-veda Dpvs v.62 (iruveda); Miln 17S; 
DA 1.247; SnA 447. 

llUya (f.) [fr. illl, cp. Sk. »tlika] = illi J v.259; vi.50. 

UII (f.) [cp. Vedic illbian Np. of a demon] -a sort of weapon, 
a short one-edged sword J v.259. 

nUyltUQ v. 1. for alllyitUQ at J v.154. 

Iva (indecl.) [Vedic iva & va] part, of comparison: like, 
as Dh I, 2, 7, 8, 287, 334; J 1.295; SnA 12 (= 
opamma-vacanai)'). Elided to 'va, diaeretic-melathetic form 
Tiy« (q. v.). 

Isi [Vedic rsi fr. fs. — Voc. ise Sn 1025; pi. npm. isayo, gen. 
isinai] S 11.280 & isinaq S 1.192; etc. inst. isibhi Th i, 1065] 
— I. a holy man, one gifted with special powers of insight 
& inspiration, an anchoret, a Seer, Sage, Saint, "Master" 
D 1.96 (kanho isi ahosi); S 1.33, 35, 65, 128, 191, 192, 
226 sq , 236 (acaro isinai)); 11.280 (dhammo isinai] dhajo); 
A 11.24, 5'; Vin iv.i5 = 22 (°bhasito dhammo); It 123; 
Sn 284, 458, 979, 689, 691, 1008, 1025, 1043, 1044, 
1 116 (dev" divine Seer), 11 26, Nd' 149 (isi-namaka ye 
keci isi-pabbajjai) pabbajita ajivika nigantha jatila tapasa); 
Dh 281 ; J 1. 1 7 (v. go: isayo n' atthi me sama of Buddha); 
J v. 140 (°gana), 266, 267 (isi Gotamo); Pv 11.6K (=: 
yama-niyam' adinai] esanatthena isayo PvA 98); II. 13' 
(=:jhan' adinar) gunanai} esanatthena isi PvA 163); iv,73 
(^ asckkhanai) silakkhandh' adinoi] esanatthena isiq PvA 
265); Miln 19 (°vata) 248 ("bhattika); DA 1.266 (gen 
isino); Sdhp 200, 384. See also mahesi. — 2. (in brah- 
iiianic tradition) the ten (divinely) inspired singers or 
composers of the Vedic hymns (brahmananai) pubbaka 
isayo mant&nai] kattaro pavattaro), whose names are given 
at D 1. 104 = 238 = A III. 224 = IV. 61 as follows: Atthaka, 
Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Vamataggi (Yamadaggi), 
Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, Bhagu. 

-nisabha the first (lit. "bull") among Saints, Ep. of the 
Buddha Sn 698; Vv 16' (cp. VvA 82). -pabbajja the 
(holy) life of an anchoret Vism 123; DhA 1. 105; IV. 55; 
PvA 162. -vata the wind of a Saint Miln 19; Vism 18. 
-sattama the 7'b of the great Sages (i.e. Gotama Buddha, 
as 7'h in the sequence of Vipassin, Sikhin, Vessabhu, 
Kakusandha, Konagamana & Kassapa Buddhas) M 1.386; 
S 1.192; .Sn 356; Th I, 1240 (^ Bhagava isi ca sattamo 
ca uttamatthena SnA 351); Vv 21' (= buddha-isinai) Vi- 
passi-adinaq sattamo VvA 105). 

a reed D 1.77, cp. DA 1.222; 

Isika (isika) (f.) [Sk. isika] 

J vt.67 (isika). 

Isltta (nt.) [abstr. fr. isi] rishi-ship D 1.104 (= isi-bhSva 
DA 1.274). 

Issati [denom. fr. issa. Av. arasye'ti to be jealous, Gr. 
'epxrai lo desire ; connected also with Sk. arsati fr. f§ to 
flow, Lat. erro; & Sk. irasyati lo be angry = Gr. Afiit 
God of war, Hfii ; Ags. eorsian to be angry] to bear ill- 
will, to be angry, to envy J 111.7 ! PP""- med. issamanaka 
Sdhp 89, f. °ika A 11.203. — PP- issita (q. v.). 

Issattha (nt. m.) [cp. Sk. isvastra nt. bow, fr. isu (= P. 
usu) an arrow + aS to throw. Cp. P. issasa, — Bdhgh. 
in a strange way dissects it as "usuii ca satthan ca ti 
vuttai) holi" (i. e. isu arrow -{• sattha sword, knife) SnA 
466] — I. (nt.) archery (as means of livelihood & oc- 
cupation) M 1.85; lll.i; S 1. 100 (so read with v. 1.; T. 
has issatta, C. expl"s. by usu-sippai) A". 5. p. 318); Sn 
617 (°i) upajlvati = avudha jivikai] SnA 466); J vi.81; 
Sdhp 390. — 2. (m.) an archer Miln 250, 305, 352, 418. 

ISSatthaka [issattha -f ka] an archer Miln 419. 

Issara [Vedic isvara, from H to have power, cp. also P. 
isa] lord, ruler, master, chief A iv.go; So 552; J 1.89 
(°jana), 100, 283 (°bheri); IV.132 (°jana); Pv iv.6' (°mada); 
Miln 253 (an° without a ruler); DhsA 141; DA i.ili; 
PvA 31 (gehassa issara); Sdhp 348, 431. — 2. creative 
deity, Brahma, D 111.28; M 11.222 = A 1.173; Vism 598. 

issariya [fr. issara] rulership, mastership, supremacy, domi- 
nion (Syn. adhipacca) D 111.190; S 1.43, 100 (°mada); 
v. 342 (issariy-adhipacca); A 1.62 ("adhipacca); ".205, 
249; 111.38; IV.263; Sn 112; Dh 73; Ud i8; Ps 11.171, 
176; J 1.156; V.443; DhA 11.73; VvA 126 (for adhipacca) 
PvA 42, 117, 137 (for adhipacca); Sdhp 418, 583. 

Issariyata (f.) [fr. issariya] mastership, lordship Sdhp 422. 

Issa' (f.) [Sk. Irsya to Sk. irin forceful, irasyati to be angry, 

Lat. Ira anger, Gr. "Af)){ God of war; Ags. eorsian to 

e angry. See also issati] jealousy, anger, envy, ill-will 




D n.277 (°macchariya) ; 111.44 (id.); M 1.15; S n.260: 
A 1.95, 105 (°mala), 299; II 203; IV.8 ("sanfiojana), 148, 
349, 465; V.42 sq., 156, 310; Sn no; J v.9o(°avatinna); 
Pv 11.37; Vv 155; Pug 19, 23; Vbh 380, 391; Dhsll2l, 
1 131, 1460; Vism 470 (def.): I'vA 24, 46, 87 ; DhA 11.76 ; 
Miln 155; Sdhp 313. 510. 

-pakata overcome by envy, of an envious nature S 11.260 ; 
Miln 155; PvA 31. See remarks under apakata & pakata. 

Issa'^ (f.) [cp. Sk. rsya-mrga] in issammiga (= issamiga) 
J V.410, & issamiga f v.431, a species of antelope, cp. 
J V.425 issasinga tiie antlers of this antelope. 

Issayana (& Issayitatta) [abstr. formations fr. issa] = issa 
Pug 19, 23; Dhs 1121; Vism 470. 

Issasa [Sk. isvasa, see issattha] an archer Vin IV. 124; M 

lll.i; A IV.423 (issaso va issas' antevasi va); J U.87 ; 
IV.494; Miln 232; DA 1. 1 56. 

ISSasin [Sk. isvasa in meaning "bow" -)- in] an archer, lit. 
one l)aving a bow J iv.494 (r= issasa C). 

Issita [pp. of Irs (see issati); Sk. irsita] being envied or 
scolded, giving offence or causing anger J v. 44. 

ISSttkkl (adj.) [fr. issa, Sk. irsyu4-k*+ •"] envious, jealous 
Vin 11.89 (+ maccharin); D 11145, 246; M 1.43, 96; S 
IV.241; A III. 140, 335; IV.2; Dh 262; J 111.259; Pv.ii.3«; 
Pug 19, 23; DhA III. 389; PvA 174. See also an°. 

Iha (indecl.) [Sk. iha; form iha is rare in Pali, the usual 
form is idha (q. v.)] adv. of place "here" Sn 460. 


Tgha (?) [doubtful as to origin & etym. since only found 
in cpd. anigha & abs. only in exegetical literature. If 
genuine, it should belong to fgh Sk. rghayati to tremble, 
rage etc. See discussed under nigha'] confusion, rage, 
badness SnA 590 (in expl" of anigha). Usually as an° 
(or anigha), e.g. J 111.343 (= niddukkha C); v.343. 

Iti & Iti (f.) [Sk. Ill, of doubtful origin] ill, calamity, plague, 
distress, often comb''- with & substituted for upaddava, 
cp. BSk. itay' opadrava (attack of plague) Divy iig. — 
Sn 51; J 1.27 (v.189); V.401 = upaddava; Nd' 381; 
Nd2 48, 636 (+ upaddava = santapa); Miln 152, 247, 
418. -aniti sound condition, health, safety A iv.238; 
Miln 323. 

Itika (adj.) [fr. Hi] connected or affected with ill or harm, 
only in neg. an°. 

Itlha a doublet of itiha, only found in neg. an°. 

Idisa (adj.) [Sk. Idrs, I -|- dfi, lit. so-looking] such like, 
such DhsA 400 (f. °i); PvA 50, (id.) 51. 

Iri^a (nt.) [== iriija, q. v. & cp. Sk. irina] barren soil, 
desert D 1.248; A V.156 sq.; J v.70 (= sukkha-kantara 
C); V1.560; VvA 334. 

Irita [pp- of Ireti, Caus. of jf, see iriyati] — I. set in 
motion, stirred, moved, shaken Vv 39* (vat'erita moved by 
the wind); J 1.32 (id.); Vv 64-0 (haday'erita); Pv 11.12' 
(malut'erita); PvA 156 (has erita for 1°); VvA 177 (=: 
calita). — • 2. uttered, proclaimed, said Davs v. 12. 

Isa [fr. is to have power, perf. ise = Goth, aih ; cp. Sk. 
jsvara ;= P. issara, & BSk. Isa, e. g. Jtm 31"] lord, owner, 
ruler J iv.209 (of a black lion = kala-siha C); VvA 168. 
f. isl see mahesi a chief queen. Cp. also mahesakkha. 

Isaka [dimin. of isa] a pole J 11.152; vi.456 (°agga the 
top of a pole). 

Isakat) (adv.) [nt. of isaka] a little, slightly, easily M I. 
450; J 1-77; VI.456; DA 1.252, 310; VvA 36; Vism 136, 
I37i 231, Isakam pi even a little Vism 106; Sdhp 586. 

Isa (f.) [Vedic isa] the pole of a plough or of a carriage 
S 1.104 (nangal' Isa read with v. 1. for nangala-sisa T.), 
172, 224 (°mukha): A iv. 191 (rath°); Sn 77; J 1.203 
("mukha); lv.209; Ud 42; Miln 27; SnA 146; VvA 269 
("miliar) = rathassa uro). 

-danta having teeth (tusks) as long as a plough-pole 
(of an elephant) Vin 1.352; M 1. 414; Vv 20'' = 43" (= 
ratha-isa-sadisa-danto); J V1.490 = 515. 

Isaka (adj.) [fr. Isa] having a pole (said of a carriage) 
J VI.252. 

Ihati [Vedic ih, cp. \v. 125 .irdour, eagerness, azis greed] 
to endeavour, attempt, strive after Vin ill. 268 (Bdhgh.) 
J VI. 518 (cp. Kern, Toev. p. 112); DA 1. 139; VvA 35. 

Iha (f.) [fr. ih] exertion, endeavour, activity, only in adj-. 
nir-iha void of activity Miln 413. 


U the sound or syllable u, expH- by Bdhgh at Vism 495 
as expressing origin (= ud). 

Ukkaqsa [fr. ud + kfj see ukkassati] exaltation, excellence, 
superiority (opp. avakkarjsa) D 1. 54 (ukkaqs-avakkaqsa =r 
hayana-vaddhana DA 1. 165); M 1.518; Vism 563 (id.); 
VvA 146 ("gata excellent), 335 (instr. ukkaijsena par excel- 
lence, exceedingly) PvA 228 (°vasena, with ref. to deva- 
tas; v. 1. SS okk°). 

Ukkagsaka (adj.) [fr. ukkaqsa] raising, exalting (oneself), 
extolling M 1. 19 (att"; opp. para-vambhin) ; J 11.152. Cp. 

Ukkagsati [ud -f- kf5, karsati, lit draw or up, raise] to 
exalt, praise M 1.498; J iv.108. — pp. ukkattha. — uk- 
ka;]seti in same meaning M 1.402 sq. (attanaq u. parai] 
vambheti); A II.27 ; Fd' 141. 

UkkalJSana (f) [abstr. of ukkaqsati] raising, extolling, 
exaltation, in att" self-exaltation, self-praise M 1.402 (opp. 
para-vambhana) ; Nd'' 5°5 ('d-)- 

Ukkattha (adj.) [pp. of ukkassati] — I. exalted, high, 
prominent, glorious, excellent, most freq. opp. to bina, 
in phrase hina-m-ukkattha-majjhime Vin 1V.7; J 1.20 
(v. 129), 22 (v. 143); III. 218 (== uttama C). In other 
comb"- at Vism 64 (u. majjhima mudu referring to the 
3 grades of the Dhutangas); SnA 160 (dvipada sabba 
sattanar) ukkattha); VvA 105 (superl. ukkattliatama with 
ref. to Gotama as the most exalted of the 7 Rishis); 
Sdhp 506 (opp. lamaka). — 2. large, comprehensive, 
great, in ukkattho patto a bowl of great capacity (as 
diff. from majjhima & omaka p.) Vin IV. 243 (=r uk. nama 
patto addhslhak' odanai] ga^hati catu-bhagar) khadanai] 
va tadupiyaq va byaiijanaij). — 3. detailed, exhaustive, 




specialised Vism 37 (ati-ukkattha-desana); also in phrase 
"vasena in detail SnA. 181. — 4. arrogant, insolent J v. 
16. — 5. used as nom at J 1.387 in meaning jjbattle, 
conflict". — an° Vism 64 ("civara). 

-niddesa exhaustive exposition, special designation, term 
par excellence DhsA 70; VvA 231; PvA 7. -pariccheda 
comprehensive connotation SnA 229, 231, 376. 

Ukkatthata (f.) [abstr. fr. ukkattha] superiority, eminence, 
exalted state J iv.303 (opp. hinata). 

Ukkatthlta [for ukkathita, ud + PP- of kvath, see kathati 
& kuthati] lioiled up, boiling, seething A llt.231 & 234 
(udapatto aggina santatto ukkatthito, v. 1. ukkuUhilo); J 
IV.118 (v. 1. pakkudhita = pakkuthita, as gloss). 

Ukkaothati [d- ua-|-kaoth in secondary meaning of kantha 
neck, lit. to stretch one's neck for anything; i.e. long 
for, be hungry after etc.] to long for, to be dissatisfied, 
to fret J 1.386 (°mana); III. 143 (°itva); IV. 3, 160; 
(anukkhanthanio); DhsA 407; PvA 162 (ma ukkanthi, 
V. 1. ukkanhi, so read for T. m5 khundali). — pp. uk- 
kanthita (q. v.). Cp. pari". 

UkkaQthana(f.)[fr. ukkanthati] emotion, commotion D 11.239. 

Ukkaotha (f.) [fr. ukkanth"] longing, desire; distress, regret 
Nett 88; PvA 55 (spelt kkh), 60, 145, 152. 

Ukkaothl (f-) [fr- nkkanth"] longing, dissatisfaction ThA 
239 (= arati). 

Ukkaothlka (f.) [abstr. fr. ukkanthita] = ukkaythi, i. e. 
longing, slate of distress, pain J III. 643. 

Ukkaothita [pp. of ukkanthati] dissatisfied, repretting, 
longing, fretting J 1. 196; 11.92, 115; 111.185; Miln 281; 
DhA 1V.66, 225; PvA 13 (an°), 55, 187. 

UkkaQQa (adj.) [ud -f- kanna] having the ears erect (?) 
J VI.559. 

UkkaOQaka (ad.) [ut -f- kanna + ka lit. "with ears out" 
or is it ukkandaka?] a certain disease (? mange) of jackals, 
S 11.230, 271 ; S. A. 'the fur falls off from the whole body'. 

Ukkantatl [ud + kantati] to cut out, tear out, skin Vin 
1.217 ("itva); J 1. 164; IV. 210 (v. 1. for okk°)j v. 10 (ger. 
ukkacca); Pv 111.9^ (ukkantva, v. 1. BB ukkacca); PvA 
210 (v. 1. SS ni°), 211 (= chinditva). 

Ukkaplll^tjaka [etymology unknown] only in pi.; vermin, 
Vin 12111=239. See comment at Vin. Texts 11.70. 

Ukkantlkat) (nt. adv.), in jhan" & kasin", after the method 
of stepping away from or skipping Vism 374. 

Ukkamati (or okk° which is V. 1. at all passages quoted) 
[ud -j- kamati from kram] to step aside, step out from 
(w. abl.), depart from K 111.301 (maggS): J 111.531; IV. 
loi (magga); Ud 13 (id.); DA 1.185 ('^O- Caus. ukka- 
meti; Caus. 11. ukkamapeti J 11.3. 

Ukkamana (nt.) [fr. ukkamati] stepping away from Vism 374. 

Ukkala in phrase ukkala-vassa-bhanna S 111.73 = A 11.31 
= Kvu 141 is trsld. as "the folk of Ukkala, Lenten 
speakers of old" (see Kvu trsl. 95 with n. 2). Another 
interpretation is ukkalavassa" , i. e. ukkala -\- avassa° 
[*avasya°], one who speaks of, or like, a porter (ukkala 
= Sk utkala porter, one who carries a load) and bonds- 
man M III. 78 reads Okkala (v. 1. Ukkala)- Vassa-Bhannii, 
all as N. pr. 

UkkalSpa see ukI3pa. 

Ukkalissatl [= ukkilissatl? ud -|- kilissati] to become 
depraved, to revoke (?) Miln 143. 

Ukka (f.) [Vedic ulkS & ulkusi, cp. Gr. '<ir>M\ (= fMnirfSi; 
torch Hesychius), re^xi^H (= Volcanus) ; Lat. Volcanus, 

Oir. Olcan, Idg. 'ulq to be fiery] I. firebrand, glow of 
fire, torch D 1.49, 108; S 11.264; Th 2, 488 (°upama); 
T 1.34 (dhamm-okka); II. 401 ; IV. 291 ; v. 322; Vism 428; 
ThA 287; DA 1.148; DhA 1.42, 205; PvA 154. Esp. 
as tin° firebrand of dry grass M 1.128, 365; Nd* 40!'; 
DhA 1.126; Sdhp 573. — 2. a furnace or forge of a 
smith A 1. 310, 257; J vi.437; see also below "mukha. — 
3. a meteor: see below "pata. 

-dhara a torch-bearer Sn 335; It 108; Miln I. -pata 
"falling of a firebrand", a meteor D (= akasato 
ukkanaq patanai) DA 1.95); J 1374; vi.476; Miln 178. 
-mukba the opening or receiver of a furnace, a gold- 
smith's smelting pot A 1.257; J VI. 217 (= kammar'ud- 
dhana C), 574; Sn 686; DhA 11.250. 

Ukkacana (f.) [fr. ukkSceti, ud -f- *kac, see ukkacita] en- 
lightening, clearing up, instruction Vbh 352 (in def. of 
lapana, v. 1. "kgpana). A'ote Kern, Ton/, s. v. compares 
Vism p. 115 & Sk. uddlpana in same sense. Def. at Vism 
27 (== uddipana). 

Ukkacita [pp. either to *kaC to shine or to kaceti denom. 
fr. kaca'] enlightened, made bright (fig.) or cleaned, cleared 
up A 1.72, 286 (°vinrta parisa enlightened c& trained). 

UkkSceti [according to Morris JPTS. 1884, 112 a denom. 
fr. kaca^ a carrying pole, although the idea of a bucket 
is somewhat removed from that of a pole] to bale out 
water, to empty by means of buckets J 11.70 (v. 1. ussiiScati). 

Ukkametl [Caus. of ukkamati] to cause to step aside J vi.i i. 

Ukkara [fr. ud + kf "do out"] dung, excrement J iv.485, 
otherwise only in cpd. ukkara-bhumi dung-hill J 1.5, 146 
(so read for ukkar^), 11.40; HI. 16, 75, 377; iv.72, 305; 
Vism 196 ('upama kunapa); DhA 111.208. Cp. uccara. 

Ukkasika (f?) [doubtful] at Vin 11.106 is not clear. Vin 
Texts 111.68 leave it untranslated. Bdhgh's expl" is valta- 
vatti (patta": a leaf? Cp. S HI.141), prob. = valti (Sk. 
varti a kind of pad). See details given by Morris y P TS. 
1887, 113, who trsl*. "rubber, a kind of pad or roll of 
cotton with which the delicate bather could rub himself 
without too much friction". 

Ukkasati [ud + kasati of kas to cough] to "ahem"! to 
cough, to clear one's throat Vin 11.222; iv.16; M 11.4; 
A v.65; aor. ukkasi J 1.161, 217. — pp. ukkasita. 

Ukkaslta [pp. of ukkasati] coughed, clearing one's throat, 
coughed out, hawking D 1.89; Bu 1.52 (+ khipita) — 
"sadda the noise of clearing the throat D 1.50; J 1.119; 
DhA 1.250 (-f khipita"). 

Ukkiopa [pp. of ud -f kf digS] dug up or out D 1.105; 
J IV. 106; Miln 330; DA 1.274 (= khata). 

Ukkiledeti [Caus. of ud 4- klid, see kilijjati] to take the 
dirt out, to clean out DA 1.255 (dosaij); SnA 274(ragaq; 
v. 1. BB. uggileti). 

Ukkujja (adj.) [ud + kujja] set up, upright, opp. either 
nikkujja or avakujja A 1. 131; S V.89 (ukkujj'Svakujja); 
Pug 32 (= uparimukho thapito C. 214). 

Ukkujjati ("eti) [Denom. fr. ukkujja] to bend up, turn up, 
set upright Vin 1.181; 11.126 (pattai)), 269 (bhikkhur)); 
mostly in phrase nikkujjitaij ukkujjeyya "(like) one might 
raise up one who has fallen" D 1.85, 110; 11.132, 152; 
Sn p. 15 (^ uparimukhar) karoli DA 1.228:= SnA 155). 

Ukkujjana (nt.) [fr. ukkujjati] raising up, setting up again 
Vin 11.126 (patt"). 

Ukkutika [fr. ud -j- 'kut = *kuiiC, as in kujila & kuncila; 
lit. "bending up". The BSk. form is ukkutuka, e.g. Av. 
S 1.3 1 5] ^ special manner of squatting. The soles of the 
feet are firmly on the ground, the man sinks down, the 





heels slightly rising as he does so, until the thighs rest 
on the calves, and the hams are about six inches or more 
from the ground. Then with elbows on knees he balances 
himself. Few Europeans can adopt this posture, & none (save 
miners) can maintain it with comfort, as the calf muscles up- 
set the balance. Indians find it easy, & when the palms of 
the hands are also held together upwards, it indicates 
submission. See Dial. 1.23 1 n. 4. — Vin 1.45 ("i) nisi- 
dati); UI.228; A 1.296; 11.206; Pug 55; Vism 62, 104, 
105 (quot. fr. Papanca Sudani) 426; DhA I.20I, 217; 
11.61 (as posture of humility); III. 195; iv.223. 

-padhana [in BSk. distorted to utkutuka-prahana Divy 
339 = Dh 141] exertion when squatting (an ascetic habit) 
D 1167; M 1.78, 515; A 1.296; 11.206; J 1.493; '"•235; 
IV. 299; Dh 141 (=: ukkutika-bhavena araddha-viriyo 
DhA 111.78). 

Ukkutthi (f) [fr- ud + kruS, cp. "krufiC as ih P. kunca 
& Sk. krosati] shouting out, acclamation J 11.367; VI. 41; 
Bu 1.35: Miln 21; Vism 245; DhA 11.43; ^^^ 132 (°sadda). 

Ukkusa [see ukkutjhi & cp. BSk. utkrosa watchman (?) 
Divy 453] an osprey J IV.291 (°r5ja), 392. 

Ukkula (adj.) [ud + kula] sloping up, steep, high (opp. 
vikkula) A 1.35 sq.; Vism 153 (nadi); SnA 42. Cp. utkula- 
nikula-sama Lai. V. 340. 

Ukkotana (nt.) [fr. ud -\- *kut to be crooked or to deceive, 
cp. kujja c& kutila crooked] crookedness, perverting justice, 
taking bribes to get people into unlawful possessions 
(Bdhgh.) D 1.5; III. 176; S V.473; A 11.209, v. 206; DA 
1.79 r= Pug A 240 ("assamike samike katui] lancagahanar)"-). 

Ukkofanaka (adj.) [fr. ukkotana] belonging to the perversion 
of justice Vin 11.94. 

UkkOfeti [denom. fr. *ukkot-ana] to disturb what is settled, 
to open up again a legal question that has been adjudged, 
Vin 11.94, 303; IV.126; J 11.387; DA 1.5. 

UkkhaH (°li) (f.) [der. fr. Vedic ukha & ukha pot, boiler; 
related to Lat. auUa (fr. *auxla); Goth, auhns oven] a 
pot in which to boil rice (& other food) J I.6S, 235; v. 
389, 471; Pug 33; Vism 346 (°mukhavatti), 356 ("kapala, 
in comp.); DhA 1. 136; 11.5; ill. 371; IV.130; Pug A 231; 
VvA 100. Cp. next. 

Ukkhalika (f.) = ukkhali. Th 2, 23 (=: bhatta-pacana- 
bhajanai] ThA 29); DhA IV.98 (°kala); DhsA 376. 

Ukkha (?) [can it be compared with Vedic uksan ?] in ukkha- 
satai) danar), given at various times of the day (meaning = 
SKXTififiif ?) S 11.264 (.''• 1- ukka). Or is it to be read 
ukhasatai] d. i. e. consisting of 100 pots (of rice ^ maha- 
danar)?). SA: paflitabhojana-bharitanai) maha-ukkhalrnai] 
satai) danai). Cp. ukha cooking vessel ThA 71 (Ap. V.38). 
Kern, Ton/, under ukkha trsl. "zeker muntstuck", i. e. 
kind of gift. 

Ukkhita [pp. of uk§ sprinkle] besmeared, besprinkled 
J IV. 331 (ruhir», so read for °rakkhita). Cp. okkhita. 

Ukkhitta [pp. of ukkhipati] taken up, lifted up, t.t. of 
the canon law '.--uspended" Vin iv.218; J 111.487. 

-°asika with d^awn sword M 1.377; S iv.173; J 1.393; 
DhsA 329; Vism 230 (vadhaka), 479. -paligba having 
the obstacles removed M 1.139; A 111.S4; Dh 398 = Sn 
622 (= ayijja-palighassa ukkhittataya u. SnA 467 = 
DhA IV. 161). — sira with uplifted head Vism 162. 

Ukkhittaka (adj.-n.) [fr. ukkhitta] a bhikkhu who has been 
suspended Vin 1.97, 121 ; II.61, 173, 213. 

Ukkhipati [ut + khipati, k§ip]. To hold up, to take up 
J 1.213; IV.391: VI.350; Vism 4 (satthari); PvA 265. At 
t. t. of canon law, to suspend (a bhikkhu for breach of 
rules) Vin lv.3oy; I'ug 33. -ukkhipiyati to be suspended 

Vin II. 61. Caus. II. ukkhipapeti to cause to be supported 
J 1.52; 11.15, 38; III. 285, 436.^ — pp. ukkhitta, ger. ukk- 
hipitva as adv. "upright" Vism 126. 

Ukkhipana (nt.) [fr. ud -|- k$ip] l. pushing upwards J 
1. 163. — 2. throwing up, sneering Vism 29 (vacaya). 

Ukkhetlta [pp. of ud + kliet or *khe|, see kheja] spit out, 
thrown off, in phrase moho (rago etc ) catto vanto multo 
pahino patinissattho u. Vin III. 97 = iv.27. 

Ukkhepa (adj.-n.) [fr. ud + k$lp] (adj.) throwing away 
UhA iv.59 (°daya a throw-away donation, tip). — (m.) 
lifting up raising J 1.394 (eel"); vi.508; DA 1.273; **ir° 
hard to lift or raise Sdhp 347. 

Ukkhepaka (adj.) [fr. ukkhepa] throwing (up); °q (ace.) 
in the manner of throwing Vin 11.214 = iV-'95 (P''j4°)' 

Ukkhepana (nt.) [fr. ud -|- k?ip] suspension J 111.487. 

Ukkhepana (l.) [= last] throwing up, provocation, sneering 
Vbh 352 = Vism 23, expW- at p. 29. 

Ukkhepaniya (adj ) [ukkhepana -f- iya, cp. BSk. utksepa- 
niyarj karma Divy 329] referring to the suspension (of a 
bhikkhu), °kainma act or resolution of suspension Vin 
1-49, 53, 98, 143. 168; 11.27, 226, 2 JO, 298: A 1.99. 

UklSpa (ukkalapa) (adj.) [cp. Sk. ut-kalapayati to let go] — 
I. deserted J 11.275 (ukkalapa T. ; vv. 11. uklapa & 
uUapa). — 2. dirtied, soiled Vin 11.154, 208, 222; Vism 
128; DhA III. 1 68 (ukkalapa). 

Ugga' (adj.) [Vedic ugra, from uksati, weak base of vak$ 
as in vaksana, vaksayati r= Gr. irs^u, Goth, wahsjan "to 
wax", also Lat. augeo & P. oja] mighty, huge, strong, 
fierce, grave, m. a mighty or great person, noble lord 
D I 103; S 1.51 = VvA 116 (uggateja "the fiery heat"); 
J iv.496; V.452 (°teja); vi.490 (+ rajaputta, expld- with 
etymologising effort as uggata paiinata by C); Miln 331; 
DhA 11.57 (°tapa); Sdhp 286 (°danda), 304 (id.). — 
Cp. sam". As Np. at Vism 233 & J 1.94. 

-putta a nobleman, mighty lord S 1. 1 85 ("high born 
wariior" trsl.); J VI. 353 (^ amacca-putta C.) ; Th I, 1210. 

Ugga^ = uggamana, in arun-ugga sunrise Vin IT.272. 

UggaCChati [ud + gam] to rise, get up out of (lit. & fig.) 
Th I, 181; arune uggacchante at sunrise VvA 75; Pv 
IV.8; Vism 43, ger. uf^ancbitvaoa Miln 376. — pp. 
uggata (q. v.). 

Uggajjati [ud -|- gajjati] to shout out Nd' 17a. 

Ugga^hatl [ud -|- gfh, see gauhati] to take up, acquire, 
learn [cp. BSk. udgrhnati in same sense, e. g. Divy 18, 
77 etc.] Sn 912 (uggahananta = uggahapanti ^ uggan- 
hanti SnA 561); imper. ugga^ha J 11.30 (sippaij) & 
ugganbahi Miln 10 (mantani); ger, uggayba Sn 832, 
845; Nd' 173. — Caus. uggabeti in same meaning Sdhp 
520; aor. uggahesi Pv 111.5* (nakkhatta-yogan = akari 
PvA 198); ger. uggabetva J v. 282, VvA 98 (vipassana- 
kammatthanai)); infin. uggabetui) VvA 138 (sippai) to 
study a craft). — Caus. II. ugganbapeti to instruct J v. 
217; VI.353. — PP- uggabita (q. v.). See also uggaha- 
yati. — A peculiar ppr. med. is uggahamana going or 
wanting to learn DA I 32 (cp. uggahaka). 

Uggata [pp. of uggacchati] come out, risen ; high, lofty, 
exalted J iv.213 (suriya), 296 Catta), 490; v.244; Pv 
IV. I* ("atta one who has risen = uggata-sabhava samiddha 
PvA 220); VvA 217 (^manasa); DA 1.248; PvA 68 
(°phasuka with ribs come out or showing, i. e. emaciated, 
for upphasulika). Cp. acc°. 

Uggatta in all Pv. readings is to be read uttatta", thus 
at Pv 111.32; PvA 10, 188, 




Uggatthana at J vi 590 means a kind of ornament or 
trinket, it should prob. be read ugghattana [fr. gliatteli] 
lit. "tinkling", i. e. a bangle. 

Uggama [fr. ud-fgam; Sk. udgama] rising up Sdhp 594. 

Uggamana ("na) (nt.) [fr. ud + gam] going up, rising; 
rise (of sun & stars) D, 240; S 11.268 (suriy°); J 
IV.321 (an°), 38S; Pv 119^1 (suriy"); DA 1.95 (= uda- 
yana); UhA 1.165 (arun"); 11.6 (id.); VvA 326 (oggaman°); 
VvA 109 farun"). Cp. ugga'^ & uggama. 

Uggaha (adj) (— °) [fr. ud + gfh, see ganhati] — i. 
taking up, acquiring, learning Vism 96 (acariy°), 99 (°pari- 
puccha); 277 (kananalthanassa). — 2. noticing, taking 
notice, perception (as opp. to manasikara) Vism 125, 241 sq. 
neg. an° Sn 912 (^ganhati Nd' 330). Cp. dhanuggaha. 

Uggahaoa (nt.) [fr. ugganhati] learning, taking up, studying 
fvA 3 (sipp°). As ugganhana at Vism 277. 

Uggahayati [poetic form of uggahcti (see ugganhSti), but 
according to Kern, Tmv. s. v. representing Ved. « dgrbha- 
yati] to take hold of, to take up Sn 791 (= ganhati 
Nd' 91). — ger. uggahaya Sn 837. 

Uggahlta [pp. of ugganhati] taken up, taken, acquired Viu 
1.212; J III.I6S ("sippa, adj.), 325; iv.220; V176; Vism 
241. The metric form is uggahlta at Sn 795, 833, 1098; 
Nd' r75 = Nd2 152 (^ gahita paramattha). 

Uggahetar [n. ag. to ugganhati, Caus. uggaheti] one who 
takes up, acquires or learns A IV. 196. 

Uggara [ud + gr or *gl to swallow, see gala & gilati; 
lit. to swallow up] spitting out, vomiting, ejection Vism 
54; UA 1.41 ; KhA 61. 

Uggahaka (adj.-n.) [fr. ud + gfh, see ugganhati] one who 
is eager to learn J v.148 [cp. M Vastu III. 373 ograhaka 
in same context]. 

Uggahamana see ugganhati. 

Uggirati' [Sk. udgirati, ud -|- gr-; but BSk. udgirati in 
meaning to sing, chant, utter, formation fr. gr'^ instead 
of gf , pres. grnati; in gir.ii] udgirati Jtm 31'^''. — The 
by-form uggirati is uggilati with interchange of 1 and r, 
roots 'gr & '^gl, see gala & gilati] to vomit up ("swallow 
up") to spit out Ud 14 (uggiritvana); DA 1,41 (uggarai) 
uggiranto). Cp. BSk. prodglrna cast out Divy 589. 

Uggirati- [cp. Sk. udgurate, ud -|- gur] to lift up, carry 
Vin IV. 147 = DhA III 50 (talasattikai) e.vplJ- by uccareti); 
J 1. 150 (avudhani); vi.460, 472. Cp. sam°. 

Uggilati ^ uggirati', i. e. to spit out (opp. ogilati) M 1.393 ; 
S IV. 323; J III 529: Miln 5; PvA 283. 

Uggiva (nt.) [ud -(- g'va] a neckband to hold a basket 
hanging down J VI. 562 (uggivaii c^api aijsato = ai]sakute 
pacchi-lagganakai) C). 

Ugghaqseti [ud -f- ghfS, see ghaqsati'] to rub Vin 11.106. — 
pp. uggbattha (q. v.). 

Ugghatita (adj.) [pp. of ud -f- ghatati; cp. BSk. udghataka 
skilled Divy 3, 26 and phrase at M Vastu 111.260 udgha- 
titajfia] striving, exerting oneself; keen, eager in cpd 
"nnu of quick understanding A II.135; Pug 41; Nett 
7 — 9, 125; DA 1. 291. 

Ugghafetl [ud + ghatati] to open, reveal (? so Hardy in 
Index to Nett) Nett 9; ugghatiyafi & ugghatana ibid. 

Ugghatta (Ugghattha?) [should be pp. of ugghaijsati = 
Sk. udghrsta, see ghaijsati', but taken by Bdhgh. either 
as pp. of or an adj. der. fj. ghatt, sec ghatlcti] knocked, 
crushed, rubbed against, only in phrase ughatta-pada 

foot-sore Sn 980 (^maggakkamanena ghatla-padatala etc. 
SnA 582); J IV.20 (tth; expl't- by unha-valukaya ghatta- 
pada); v. 69 (^ raj'okinna-pada C. not to the point). 

Uggharati [«d + ksar] to ooze Th i, 394 = DhA 111.117. 

Ugghatana (nt. ?) [fr. ugghatcti] that which cxjn be removed, 
in °kitika a curtain to be drawn aside Viu II. 153 (cp. Vin 
Tests 111.174, 176). Ch s. V. gives "rope & bucket of a 
well" as meaning (kavataij anugghateti). Cp. ugghatana. 

Ugghatita [pp. of ugghateti] opened Miln 55; DhA 1.134. 

Ugghafeti [for ugghalteti, ud 4" gl"-att but BSk. udghatayati 
Divy 130] to remove, take away, unfasten, abolish, put 
an end to Vin 11.148 (lalani), 208 (ghatikai)); IV. 37 ; J 
11.31; VI. 68; Miln 140 (bhava-palisandhiq), 371; Vism 
374. — Caus. II. ugghatapeti to have opened J v.381. 

Ugghata [ud -)- ghata] shaking, jolting; jolt, jerk Vin 11. 
276 (yan°); J vi.253 (an°); DhA III.283 (yan°). 

Ugghati (f.) [fr. ud 4- ghata] — i. shaking, shock VvA 
36. — 2. striking, conquering; victory, combd with nighati 
Sn 82S ; Nd' 167 ; SnA 541 ; Nett no (T. reads ugghata"). 

Ugghatita [pp. of ugghateti, denom. fr. udghata] struck, 
killed A 111.68.. 

UgghOSana (f.) [abstr. fr. ugghoseti, cp. ghosanii] procla- 
mation DA 1. 310. 

Ugghoseti [ud + ghoseti] to shout out, announce, proclaim 
j 1.75; Dh.A 11.94; PvA 127. 

UCCa (adj.) [For udya, adj. formation from prep, ud above, 
up] high (opp. avaca low) D 1. 194; M II. 213; A V.82 
(°thaniyai) nice thane thapeti puts on a low place which 
ought to be placed high); Pv IV.7* (uccai) paggayha 
lifting high up = uccataraq katva Pv.\ 265); Pug 52, 
58; D.^ 1.135; PvA 176. 

-avaca high and low, various, manifold Vin 1.70, 203 ; 
J IV. 1 15, 363 (= mahaggha-samaggha C. p. 366); Sn 
703, 714, 792, 959; Dh 83; Nd'_93, 467; Vv 12' (=r 
vividha VvA 60); 31'. -kullnata high birth A 111.48 
(cp. ucca"). 

Uccaka (adj.) [fr. ucca] high Vin 11.149 (asandika a kind 
of high chair). 

Uccatta (nt.) [fr. ucca =; Sk. uccatvai)] height J 111.318. 

UCCaya [fr. ud -\- ci, see cinati ; Sk. uecaya] heaping up, 
heap, pile, accumulation Dh 115, 191, 192; Vv 47"; 
82' (= cetiya \'v.\ 321); EhA III. 5, 9; DhsA 41 (pa- 
passa). -siluccaya a mountain Th i, 692; J 1.29 (v.209); 
VI. 272, 278; Davs T.63. 

Ucca (° — ) (adv.) [cp. Sk. ucca, iiistr. sg. of uccaq, cp. 
pasca behind, as well as uccaih instr. pi. — In BSk. we 
find ucca° (uccakullna A v. S ill. 117) as well as uccai] 
(uccaqgama Divy 476). It is in all cases restricted to 
cpds.] high (lit. & fig.), raised, in foil. cpds. 

-kaneruka a tall female elephant M 1.178. -kalarika 
id. M 1.178 (v. 1. "kalarika to be preferred), -kula a high, 
noble family Pv lU.i'" (= ucca khattiya-kul-adino l'v.\ 
176). -kulinata birth in a high-class family, high rank 
M 111.37; VvA 32. -sadda a loud noise D 1.143, 178; 
A 111.30. -sayana a high bed (-f- mahasayana) Via I. 
192; D 1.5, 7; cp. DA 1.78. 

UCCSra [LM 4- car] discharge, excrement, faeces Vin ill. 36 
Cq gacchati to go to stool); iv.265, 266 (uccaro nama 
gutho vuccati); DhA 11.56 (°karana defecation); uccara- 
passava faeces & urine D 1.70; M 1.83; J 1.5; 11.19. 

Uccarana (f.) [fr. uccareti] lifting up, raising Vin III. 121. 

Uccarita [pp. of uccareti] — I. uttered, let out PvA 280 
(akkharani). — 2. lifted, raised ThA 255. 


Uccareti [ud + careti, Caus. of car] to lift up, raise aloft 
Vin 111.81; iv.i47 = DliA 111.50; M 1.135. — PP- ucca- 
rita (q. v.). 

Uccalinga [etym.?] a maw-worm Vin 111.38, 112; J H.146. 

Uccinati [ud 4- cinati] to select, choose, search, gather, 
pick out or up Vin 1.73; 11.285 i<^°'- uccini); J IV.9; 
Pv III. 2 * (nantake = gavesana-vasena gahetvana PvA 
185); Dpvs IV. 2. 

Ucchanga [Sk. utsanga, ts > cch like Sk. utsahate > BSk. 
ucchaliate see ussahati] the hip, the lap Vin I.225 ; M I. 
366; A 1. 1 30 (°paiiiia); J 1.5, 308; 11.412; 111.22; IV.38, 
151; r'ug 31; Vism 279; DhA 11.72. 

Ucchadana (at.) [ut + sad, Caus. of sad, sidati, cp. ussada] 
rubbing the limbs, anointing the body with perfumes 
shampooing D 1.7, 76; at the latter passage in comb"- 
anicc^-dhamma, of the body, meaning "erosion, decay", 
and comb<i- with parimaddana abrasion (see about detail 
of meaning Dhi/. 1.87); thus in same formula at M I. 
500; S IV. 83; J 1. 146 & passim; A 1.62; 11.70 (-(- naha- 
pana); IV. 54, 3S6; It III; Tli 2, 89 (nahapan°); Miln 
241 (°paiima(idana) 315 (+ nahapana); DA 1.S8. 

UCChadeti [fr. ut -|- sad, see ucchadana] to rub the body 
with perfumes J VI.29S; Miln 241 (+ parimaddati naha- 
peli): DA 1.88. 

Ucchittha [pp. of ud -f sis] left, left over, rejected, thrown 
out; impure, vile Vin 11.115 ("odakai]); iv.266 (id.); J 
11.83 (bhattai] ucchitthar) akatva), 126 (°nadi impure; also 
itthi outcast), 363; iv.386 ("ij pindaij), 388; vi.508; Miln 
315; DhA 1.52; 11.85; ni.2o8; PvA 80 (= chaddita), {73 
("bhattar)). At J iv.433 read ucch° for uccittha. -an° 
not touched or thrown away (of food) J 111.257; Dh..\ 
II. 3. — See also uttittha & uccbepaka. 

Ucchitthaka (fr. ucchittha) = ucchittha J IV.386; vi.63, 509. 

UCChindati [ud -f- chid, see chindati] to break up, destroy, 
annihilate S v. 432 (bhavatanhai]); A IV. 17 (fut ucche- 
cchami to be read with v. 1. for T. ucchejjissami); Sn 2 
(pret. udacchida), 208 (ger. ucchijja); J v.383; Dh 285. — 
Pass, ucchijjafi to be destroyed or annihilated, to cease 
to exist S IV. 309; J V.242, 467; Miln 192; PvA 63, 130 
(= na pavattati), 253 (= natthi). — pp. ucchinna (q. v.). 

Ucchinna [pp. of ucchindati] broken up, destroyed S III. 

10; A V.32; Sn 746. Cp. sam". 

Ucchu [Sk. cp. Vedic Np. Iksvaku fr. iksu] sugar-cane Vin 
IV.35; A III. 76; IV. 279; Miln 46; DhA iv.199 ("unaq 
yanta sugar-cane mill), PvA 257, 260; VvA 124. 

-agga (ucch°) top of s. c. Vism 172. -khapdika a 
bit of sugar-cane Vv 33-I'. -khadana eating s.c. Vism 70. 
-khetta sugar-cane field J 1.339; \'v.\ 256. -ganthika a 
kind of sugar-cane. Batatas Paniculata J 1.339; vi.114 (so 
read for "ghatika). -pala watchman of s.-c. VvA 256. 
-pilana, cane-pressing, Asl. 274. -puta sugar-cane basket 
J IV. 363. -bija seed of s.-c. A 1.32; v.213. -yanfra a 
sugar-mill J 1.339. -rasa s.-c. juice Vin 1.246; Vism 489; 
VvA 180. -vata, Asl. 274. -sala, Asl. 274. 

Uccheda [fr. ud + chid, chind, see ucchindati & cp. cheda] 
breaking up, disintegration, perishing (of the soul) Vin 
111.2 (either after this life, or after kamadeva life, or after 
brahmadeva life) D 1.34, 55; S iv.323; Nd' 324; Miln 
413; Nett 95, 112, 160; DA 1.120. 

-ditthi the doctrine of the annihilation (of the soul), 
as opp. to sassata- or atta-ditthi ([the continuance of the 
soul after death) S 11.20; 111.99, no sq ; Ps 1. 150, 158; 
Ndi 248 (opp. sassati^); Dhs 1317: N'ett 40, 127; SnA 
523 (opp. atta°). -vada (adj.) one who professes the 
doctrine of annihilation (ucchedaditthi) Vin 1.235; '"-Z; 
I' 1-34, 55; S n.i8; iv.401; A iv.174, 182 sq.; Nd' 
282; Pug 38. -vadin = °vada Nett ni; J v.244. 

128 Ujjava 

Ucchedana (adj.) [fr. ud -f chid] cutting off, destroying ; 
f. ^ani J V. 16 (sura). 

UCChedin (adj.) an adherent of the ucchedavada J v.241. 

Ucchepaka (nt.) [= ucchitthaka in sense of ucchittha- 
bhatta] leavings of food M 11.7 (v. 1. uccepaka with cc 
for cch as uccittha: ucchittha). The passage is to be 
read ucchepake va te rata. A diff. connotation would be 
implied by taking ucchepaka = uiicha, as Neumann does 
(Majjhima trsl.^ 11.682). 

UJU & UjjU (adj.) [Vedic rju, also rjyati, irajyate to stretch 
out: cp. Gr. opc-yio to stretch; Lat. rego to govern; Goth. 
ufrakjan to straighten up; Ohg. recchen =3 Ger. recken = 
E. reach; Oir. ren span. See also P. ajjava] straight, 
direct; straightforward, honest, upright D III. 150 [T. ujja), 
352 (do.) 422, 550; VP 18^ (= sabba-jimha-vanka-kutila- 
bhav^apagama-hetutaya u. Vv.A 96); Pug 59; Vbh 244 
(ujuij kayai) panidhaya); Vism 219 (uju avanka akutila); 
D.\ 1. 210 (id.); KhA 236; DhA 1.288 (ciltai] ujuij aku- 
tilaq nibbisevanaq karoti); VvA 281 (°koti-vanka); PvA 
123 (an°). 

-angin ^ujjangin) having straight limbs, neg. an° not 
having .straight limbs, i. e. pliable, skilful, nimble, grace- 
ful J V.40 (= kaiicana-sannibha-sarira C); vi.500 (T. 
anuccangin = anindita-agarahiiangin C). -gata walking 
straight, of upright life M 1.46; A 111.285 sq. ("citta); 
V.290 sq.; Sn 350 (ujju°), 477 (id.); Dh 108 (ujju°, see 
DhA 11.234 for interpretation), -gamin, neg. an° going 
crooked, a snake J iv.330. -cittata straightness, unwield- 
iness of heart Vbh 350. -ditthita the fact of having a 
straightforward view or theory (of life) Miln 257. -pati- 
panna living uprightly D 1. 192: Siv.304; v.343; Vism 219. 
-magga the straight road D 1.235 ; Vin v. 149; It 104; J 1.344; 
YI.252; DhA 11.192. -bhava straightness, uprightness Sn.'V 
292, 317; PvA 51. -bhuta straight, upright S i.ioo, 170; 
11.279; V.384, 404; A 11.57; 1V.292; J 1.94; V.293 (a°°); 
Vv 34'^3 (see VvA 155); Pv''' (= citta-jimha-vanka- 
kutila-bhava-karanai] kilesanaij abhavena ujubhavappatta 
PvA 51). -var)sa straight lineage, direct descendency J 
V.251. -vata a soft wind Miln 283. -vipaccanlka in direct 
opposition D i.i; M 1.402; DA 1.38. 

Ujuka & Ujjuka (adj.) [uju + ka] straight, direct, upright 
M 1. 1 24; S 1.33 (ujuko so maggo, the road to Nibbana), 
260 (citta); IV. 298; V.l43i '65; J 1. 163; v. 297 (opp. 
khujja); DhA 1. 18 (°magga); Sdhp 321. -anujjuka crooked, 
not straight S iv.299; J 111.3 18. 

Ujukata (f.) [abstr. fr. ujuka] straightness, rectitude Dhs 
50, 51 (kayassa, cittassa); Vism 436 sq. 

Ujuta (f.) [abstr. of uju] straight(forward)ness , rectitude 
Dhs 50, 51. 

Ujjagghati [ud -f- jagghati] to laugh at, deride, mock, make 
fun of Vin 111.128; Th 2, 74 (spelt jjh = hasati ThA 
78); A III. 91 (ujjh°, V. 1. ujj") = Pug 67 (= paniq paha- 
ritva mahahasitai} hasati Pug A 249). 

Ujjangala [ud -j- jangala] hard, barren soil ; a very sandy 
and deserted place D 11.146 (°nagaraka, Irsl. "town in 
the midst of a jungle", cp. Dial. 11.161); J 1. 391; Vv 
855 (= ukkarjsena jangala i.e. exceedingly dusty or sandy, 
dry); Pv II. 9"' (spelt ujjhangala, expld- by ativiya-thaddha- 
bhumibhaga at PvA 139); Vism 107. Also in BSk. ujjan- 
gala, e.g. M Vastu 11.207. 

Ujjala (adj.) [ud + jval, see jalati] blazing, flashing; bright, 
beautiful J 1.220; Davs 11.63. 

Ujjalati [ud -f jalati, jval] to blaze up, shine forth Vin 
1.31; VvA 161 (f jotati). — Caus. ujjaleti to make 
shine, to kindle Vin 1.31 ; Miln 259; Vism 428; ThA 
69 (Ap. V.14, read dipan ujjalayiq); VvA 51 (padipaq). 

Ujjava (adj.) [ud -f Java] "running up", in cpd. ujjav-ujjava 
a certain term in the art of spinning or weaving Vin IV. 




300, expl<i- by "yattakaq patthena (patthana?) ancitai) 
hoti tasmi takkamhi vedhite". 

Ujjavati [ud -f javati] to go up-stream Vin II. 301. 

Ujjavanlkaya instr. fem. of ujjavanaka used as adv. [ud -f- 
javanaka, q. v.] up-stream, lit "running up" Vin 11.290; 
IV.65 (in expl"- of uddhaqgamin, opp. ojavanikaya). 

Ujjahati [ud -|- jahati] to give up, let go ; imper. ujjaha 
S 1.188; Th 2, 19; Sn 342. 

Ujju & Ujjuka see uju & ujuka. 

UjjOta [ud + *jot of jotati, Sk. u dyotate] light, lustre J 
1.183 (°kara); Miln 321. 

Ujjotita [pp. of ujjoteti, ud -\- joteti] illumined Davs v. 53. 

l^jjhaggatl see ujjagghati. 

Ujjhaggika (f-) [fr- ujjagghati, spelling varies] loud laughter 
Vin 11.213, cp. IV.187. 

Ujjhati [Sk. ujjhati, ujjh] — 1. to forsake, leave, give up 
J VI. 138; Davs ir.86. — 2. to sweep or brush away J 
VI.296. — pp. ujjhita (q. v.). 

Ujjhattl (f.) [fr. ud + jhayati' , corresponding to a Sk. 
*ud-dhySti] irritation, discontent A iv.223, 467 (v. 1. ujj°); 
cp. ujjhana. 

UjjhSna (nt.) [ud + jhana' or jhana'''?] — I. taking offence, 
captiousness Dh 253 (= paresar) randha-gavesitaya DhA 
•"•377); Milti 352 (an°-bahula). — 2. complaining, wailing 
J IV.287. 

-saiiBin, -saiinika irritable .S 1.23; Th i, 958; Vin 11.214, 
cp. IV. 194; Dpvs II. 6; DhA 111.376 ('saiinita irritability). 

Ujjhapana (nt.) [fr. ud 4- jhayati' or jhayati^ to burn, to 
which jhapeti to bring to ruin etc.? cp. ujjhana] stirring 
up, provoking J v. 91 (devat"), 94 (°kamma). 

Ujjhapanaka (adj.) [fr. ujjhapana] one who stirs up an- 
other to discontent Vin iv.38. 

UJjhapeti [Caus. of ujjhSyati] to harass, vex, irritate M i. 
126; S 1.209 ("give occasion for offence"); Vin IV. 38 
(cp. p. 356); J v. 286; Pv.\ 266. 

UjjhSyati [ud -{- jhayati' or perhaps more likely jhayati* 
to burn, fig. to be consumed. According to Miiller P. G. 
pp. 12 & 42 = Sk. ava-dhya, but that is doubtful 
phonetically as well as semantically] to be irritated, to 
be annoyed or offended, to get angry, grumble; often in 
phrase ujjbayati khiyati vipaceti expressing great an- 
noyance Vin 1.53, 62, 73; 11.207; IV.226; S 1232 ^c 
passim. — S 1.232 (ma ujjhayiltha); J 11.15; DhA I1.20; 
aor. ujjhayi J 1.475; DhA 11.88, inf. ujjhatui) J 11.355. — 
Caus. ujjbapeti (q. v.). 

Ujjhita [pp. of ujjhati] destitute , forsaken ; thrown out, 
cist away M 1.296 (-j- avakkhitta); Th I, 315 (itthi); 2, 
386 (cp. ThA 256 vatakkhitto viya yo koci dahano); 
Dh 58 (= chaddita of sweepings DhA 1.445); J '"•499 j 
V.302; VI. 51. 

UfiCha & Uiicha (f.) [Sk. uficha & unchana, to uiich Neu- 
mann's elym. uficha = E. ounce, Ger. unze (Majjhima 
trsl.' U.682) is incorrect, see Walde La/. IVtb. under 
uncia] anything gathered for sustenance, gleaning S II. 
281; A 1.36; 111.66 sq., 104; Vin 111.87; Sn 977; Th 2, 
329, 349; J "1389; ■V.23, 28, 434, 471 (°ya, dat. = 
phalJphaPatthaya C); Th.\ 235, 242. Cp. samunchaka. 

-cariya wandering for, or on search foz gleaning, J 
11.272; 111.37, 515; V.3; DA 1.270; VvA 103; ThA 208. 
-carika (adj.) going about after gleanings, one of 8 kinds 
of tapasa SnA 295 (cp. DA 1.270, 271). -patta the 
gleaning-bowl , in phrase unchapattSgate rato "fond of 

that which has come into the gl. b." Th I, 155 = Pv 
IV.7-' (= urichena bhikkhacarena laddhe pattagate ihare 
rato PvA 265 ; trsl^. in Psalms of Hrethren "contented 
with whatever fills the bowl"), aiinal" , marked off as 
discarded (goods) S 11. 281, so S A. 

Unchati [fr. unch] to gather for sustenance, seek (alms), 
glean Vism 60 (= gavesati). 


Utlria (f ) [= avanna (?) from ava + jiia, or after 
tabba?] contempt Vin iv.241 ; Vbh 353 sq. (att"). 

Ufinatabba (adj.) [grd. fr. ava -f jfig (?)] to be despised, 
contemptible, only in stock-phrase "daharo na unnatabbo 
na paribhotabbo" S 1.69; Sn p. 93; SnA 424 (== na 
avajanitabbo, na nlcaij katva janitabbo ti). In same con- 
nection at J v. 63 ma nai) dahaio [ti] unflSsi (v. 1. maii- 
fiasi) apucchitvana (v. 1. a°). 

Uttitva at Vin 11.131 is doubtful reading (see p. 318, v. 1. 
uddhetva), and should perhaps be read uddetva (= 
oddetva, see uddeti), meaning ^putting into a sling, tying 
or binding up". 

Uttcpaka one who scares away (or catches?) crows (kak") 
Vin 1.79 (vv. 11. utthe", udde°, ude°). See remarks on 

Uttepeti in phrase kake u. "to scare crows away" (or to 
catch them in snares?) at Vin 1.79. Reading doubtful & 
should probably be read uddepeti (? Caus. of uddeti =: 
oddeti, or of uddeti to make fly away). The vv. 11. given 
to this passage are utteceti, upatthapeti, uddoyeti. See 
also uttepaka. 

Utthapana see vo°. 

Utthahati & Ufthati [ud -f stha see titthati & uttitthati] 

to rise, stand up, get up, to arise, to be produced, to 
rouse or exert oneself, to be active, pres. utthahati Pug 
51. — pot. utthaheyya S 1.217; ^'^ imper, uttitthe Dh 
168 (expld- by uttitthitva paresaq gharadvSre thatva DhA 
III. 165, cp. Vin Texts 1. 152). — imper. 2"^ pi. uttha- 
halha Sn 331; 2nd sg. utthehi Pv 11.6'; J IV.433. — ppr. 
utthabanto M 1.86; S 1.217; J 1-476. — aor. utthahi 
j'1.117; PvA 75. — ger. utthabitva PvA 4, 43, 55, 
152, & utthaya Sn 401. — inf. utthatuq J 1.187. — 
Nolf. When utth" follows a word ending in a vowel, 
and without a pause in the sense, a V is generally pre- 
fixed for euphony, e. g. gabbho vutthasi an embryo was 
produced or arose Vin II. 278; asana vutthaya arising from 
his seat, Vism 126. See also under vutthahati. — pp. 
ut^hita; Caus. utthapeti. — Cp. pariyutthati. 

Utthahana [ppr- of utthahati] exerting oneself, rousing one- 
self; an" sluggish, lazy Dh 280 (= aySyamanto DhA III. 
409); cp. anutthahai) S 1.217. 

Utthatar [u. ag. of ut -|- §thBi ^"^^ utthahati] one who gets 
up or rouses himself, one who shows energy S 1.214; A 
IV.285, 288, 322; Sn 187; J VI. 297. -an° one who is 
without energy S 1.217; Sn 96. 

Utthana (nt.) [fr. ut + §tha] — l- rising, rise, getting 
up, standing (opp. sayana & nisidana lying or sitting 
down) D 11.134 (siha-seyyaq kappesi utthana-safinai] ma- 
nasikaritva); Dh 280 (°kala); J 1. 392 (an°-seyya a bed 
from which one cannot get up); Vism 73 (arun-utthana- 
vela time of sunrise) DhA 1. 17. — 2. rise, origin, occasion 
or opportunity for; as adj. ( — °) producing J i.47(kapp°); 
VI.459; Miln 326 (dhanii° khettar) atthi). — 3. "rousing", 
exertion, energy, zeal, activity, manly vigour, industry, 
often syn. with viriya M 1.86; A 1.94; 11.135 (°phala); 
111.45 ("viriya), 311 ; IV. 281 (°sampada); It 66 ("adhigatay 
dhanaq earned by industry); Pv IV. 32*; Pug 51 (°phala); 
Miln 344, 416; ThA 267 ("viriya); PvA 129 (+ viriya). 
-an° want of energy, sluggishness A iv.195; Dh 241. — 
Noll. The form vutthana appears for utth" after a vowel 




under the same condilions as vutthahati for utthahali 
(q. V.) gabbha-vutthanay J 1. 114. See also vutth", and 
cp. pariy". 

Utthanaka (— ") (adj.) [fr. utthana] — I. giving rise to 
yielding (revenue), producing J 1.377, 420 (satasahass°): III. 
229 (id.); V.44 (ii). Cp. utthayika. — 2. energetic J vi.246. 

UtthSnavant (adj.) [utthana -\- vant] strenuous, active Dh 24. 

Utthapeti [Cans. II. of utthahati] — I. to make rise only 
in phrase arunar] (suriyaij) u. to let the sun rise, i. e. 
wait for sunrise or to go on till sunrise J 13 tS; vi.330; 
Vism 71, 73 (arunci)). — 2. to raise J vi.32 (pathavii]). — 
3. to fit up J VI. 445 (navai)). — 4. to exalt, praise DA 
1.256. — 5. to turn a person out DhA iv.69. — See 
also vut^hapeti. 

Utthayaka (adj.) [adj. formation fr. ulthaya, gcr. of uttha- 
hati] "getting-up-ish", i. e. ready to get up, quick, alert, 
active, industrious; f. °ika Th 2, 413 (=^ utthana-viriya- 
sampanna ThA 267 ; v. 1. utthahika). 

Utthayika (adj.) [=; utthanaka] yielding, producing J 11.403 

Utthayin (adj.) [adj. form. fr. utthaya, cp. utthayaka] get- 
ting up D 1.60 (pubb° -)- paccha-nipatin rising early & 
lying down late). 

Utthahaka (adj.) [for utthayaka after analogy of gahaka 
etc.] = utthayaka J v.448; f. °ika A in. 38 (v. 1. °ayika); 
IV.266 sq. 

Utthita [pp. of utthahati] — I. risen, got up Pv IL<)*' 
(kal°); Vism 73. — 2. arisen, produced J 136; Miln 
155. — 3. striving, exerting oneself, active J 11.61; Dh 
168; Miln 213. -an° S 11.264; 1*5 1.172. — Cp. pariy". — 
Noie. The form is vutthita when following upon a vowel 
see yutthita & utthahati, e. g. patisallana vutthito arisen 
from the seclusion D 11.9: pato vutthito risen eaily 
PvA 128. 

U(}ljlayhana (nt.) [fr. uddayhati, see uJdahati] burning up, 
conflagration Pug 13 (°vela = jhsyana-kalo Pug A 187); 
KhA 181 (T. uddahanavela v. 1. preferable uddayh"). 

U(J()ahatl [ud -|- dahati] to burn up (intrs.) Kh.\ 181 
(uddaheyya with v. 1. uddayheyya, the latter preferable). 
Usually in Pass, uddayhati to be burnt, to burn up 
(intrs.) S 111.149, '5° {v-i- for dayhati); J 111.22 (uday- 
hate); v. 194. fut. uddayhissati J 1.48. 

U441tA [PP- °f uddeti'^] ensnared (?), bound, tied up S 1.40 (= 
tanhaya ullanghita C. ; trsld- "the world is all strung up"). 

U(J<jeti' [ud -f deti to fly. The etym. is doubtful, Muller 
P. Gr. 99 identifies uddeti' & uddeti^ both as causatives 
to (Ji. Of uddeti^ two forms exist, udd° & odd°, the lat- 
ter of which may be a variant of the former, but with 
specialisation of meaning ("lay snares"), it may be a cpd. 
with ava" instead of ud°. It is extremely doubtful whether 
uddeti- belongs here, we should rather separate it & refer 
it to another root, probably li, layate (as in alllna, nili- 
yati etc.), to stick to, adhere, fasten etc. The change 
1 > d is a freq. Pali phenomenon. Another Cans. II. of 
the same root (4l?) is uttepeti] to fly up M 1.364 (kako 
mar]sapesir| adaya uddayeyya; vv. 11. ubbadaheyya, uyya, 
dayeyya); J v.256, 368, 417. 

U(jl(jeti' [see discussion under uddeti'] (a) to bind up, tie 
up to, siring up Vin 11.13 1 (so read for uttitva, v. 1. 
uddhetva). — (b) to throw away, reject PvA 256 (-f- 
chaddayami gloss). — pp. uddita. 

U(J4ha ( — ') (num. ord.) [the apocope form of catuttha = 
uttha, dialectically reduced to uddha under the influence 
of the preceding addha] the fourth, only in cpd. addh- 
uddha "half of the fourth unit", i. e. three & a half'(cp. 

diyaddha i| and addha-teyya 2J) J V.417 sq. ("ani itthi- 
sahassani); Mhvs X11.53. 

Unna (nt.) i: Uona (f.) [Sk. urna & urna; Sat. lana wool; 
tioth. wuUa; Ohg. woUa = E. wool; Lilh. vilna; Cymr. 
gwlan (:= E. flannel); Gr. Ai)»oc, also 0SA05 = Lat. vellus 
(fleece) = Ags. wil-mod] — i. wool A 111.37 =: iv.265 
(-)- kappasa cotton); J U.147; SnA 263 (patl'). — 2. hair 
between the eyebrows Sn 1022, & in stock phrase, des- 
cribing one of the 32 signs of a Mahapurisa, bhamuk'an- 
tare jata unna ocata etc. D 11.18 =: 111.144 ^ 170 = SnA 
285. Also at Vism 552 in jati-unnaya. 

-ja in unnaja mukha J VI. 218, meaning "rounded, 
swelling"? (C. expls. by kaficah'adaso viya paripunnar| 
mukhai]). -nabhi (either unna° or unna, cp. Vedic urna- 
vabhi, urna -j- vabhi from Idg. 'ucbh to weave as in 
Lat. vespa = wasp, of which shorter root in Sk. va) a 
spider, lit. "wool- i. e.", only in comb°- 
with sarabu & musika at Vin 11.110=: A 11.73=) "-'47 
(=r makkataka C). 

Unnata (adj.) [pp. of unnamati, Sk. unnata] raised, high, 
fig. haughty (opp. onata) A 11.86; Sn 702 (an° care = 
uddhaccaij n'apajjeyya SnA 492); Pug 52 (= ucca uggata 
Pug A 229). Cp. unnata. 

U^qatl (f.) [fr. unnamati] haughtiness Sn 830; Md' 158, 
17*0; Dhs II 16, 1233. Cp. unnati. 

U^nama [fr. unnamati] loftiness, height, haughtiness Dhs 
1 116, 1233. Cp. unnama. 

Urinatnati [ud -j- nam] to rise up, to be raised, to straighten 
up, to be haughty or conceited Sn 366, 829, 92S ; Nd' 
169; J VI. 346 inf. unnametave Sn 206. Cp. unnamati, 

Unili (f) [Sk. aurni fr. aurna woollen, der. of iirna] a 
woollen dress Vin 11.108. 

U^a (adj.-n.) [adj. usna f. to osati to burn, pp. usta burnt, 
Sk. usna = Lat. ustus; cp. Gr. iba, Lat. uro to burn, 
Ags. ysla glowing cinders, Lith. usnis nettle] hot, as adj. 
only in phrase unharj lohitaq chaddeti to spill hot 
blood, i.e. to kill oneself DhA 195; otherwise in cpds. ; 
abs. only as nt. "heat" & always in contrast to sltaq 
"cold" Vin 11.117 (sltena pi unhena pi); D 11.15 (opp- 
sita); M 1.85; A 1.145^ I70 = J v.417 (sitaq va unhaij 
va tiijai] va rajo va uss.avo va); Sn 52, 966 (acc.°); Nd' 
486 = Nd2 677 (same as under sita); J 1.17 (V93); Miln 
410 (megho unhai] nibbapeti); PvA 37 (ati^). 

-akara appearance of heat, often in phrase (Sakkassa) 
pandu-kambala-siPasanari unhakarar) dassesi , of Sakka's 
throne showing an appearance of heat as a sign of some 
extraordinary event happening in the world, e. g. J.1.330; 
V.92; Dh.A. 1.17, and passim, -odaka hot water VvA 68. 
-kalla glowing-hot embers or ashes J 11.94 (so read for 
^kalala); IV. 389 ("vassa, rain of hot ashes, v. 1. °kukkula- 
vassa). -kala hot weather Vin 11.209. 

U^atta (nt.) [abstr. fr. unha] hot state, heat Vism 171. 

U^hisa [Sk. usnisa] a turban D 1.7; 11.19= in.l45 (°slsa 
cp. Via/. 11.16)"; J 11.88; Miln 330; UA 1.89; DhsA 198. 

Ut(t)aq4a see uddanda. 

Utu (m. & nt.) [Vedic rtu special or proper time, with adj. 
rta straight, right, rite, rti manner to Lat. ars "art", Gr. 
Jajtf«p(T), further Lat. ritus (rite), Ags. rim number; of 
*ar to fit in, adjust etc. q. v. under appeti] — I. (lit.) 
(a) (good or proper) time, season : aruna-utu occasion or 
time of the sun(-rise) DhA 1. 165; utui) ganhati to watch 
for the right time (in hoioscopic practice), to prognosticate 
ibid, sarlrai] utur) ganhapeti "to cause the body to take 
season", i. e. to refresh the body by cool, sleep, washing 
etc. J 111.527; DA 1.252. — (b) yearly change, time of the 
year, season Vism 128. There are usually three seasons men- 




tioned, viz. the hot, rainy and wintry season or gimba, 
vassa & hemanta A iv.138; SnA 317. Six seasons (in 
connection with nakkhatta) at J v.330 & VI. 524. Often 
utu is to be understood, as in bemantikena (scil. utuna) 
in the wintry season S v. 51. — (c) the menses SnA 
317; J v.330 (utusinataya read utusi nhataya; utusi loc, 
as expH- by C. pupphe uppanne utumhi nahataya). — 2. 
(applied in a philosophical sense: one of the five fold 
cosmic order, physical change, physical law of causation 
(opp. kamma), physical order: see Asl. 272 f.; Dialogues, 
II, 8, n. ; Kvu trsl" 207 ; cp. Mrs. Rh. D. Buddhism, 
p. Iigf., Cpd. 161, Dhs trsl"- introd. XVII ; & cp. cpds. 
So in connection with kamma at Vism 451, 614; J VJ.105 
(kamma-paccayena utuna samutthita Verarani) ; perhaps 
also at Miln 410 (megha ututo samutthahitva). 

-ahara physical nutriment (cp. Dhs trsl"- 174) PvA 
148. -Opasevana seasonable activity, pursuit (of activities) 
according to the seasons, observance of the seasons Sn 249 
(= gimhe atapa-tthana-sevana vasse rukkha-mula-sevana 
hemante jalappavesa-sevana SnA 291). -kala seasonable, 
favourable time (of the year) Vin 1.299; "ITS- "j* produced 
by the seasons or by physical change Miln 268 (kamma", 
hetu°, utu°); Vism 451. -nibbatta coming to existence 
through physical causes Miln 268. -pamana measure of the 
season, i. e. the exact season Vin 1.95. -parinama change 
(adversity) of the season (as cause of disease) S IV. 230; A 
11.87; iii.<3i; v.iio; Miln 112, 304; Vism 31. -paris- 
saya danger or risk of the seasons A III. 388. -pubba 
festival on the eve of each of the (6) seasons J va.524. 
-vara time of the season, "^varena °varena according to 
the turn of the season J 1.58. -vikara change of season 
Vism 262. -yeramanl abstinence during the time of 
menstruation Sn 291 (cp. SnA 317). -satjvacchara the 
year or cycle of the sea.sons, pi. °a the seasons D iu.85 ^ 
A 11-75; S v. 442. The phrase ulusaijvaccharani at Pv 
Il.g's is by Dhammapala taken as a bahuviihi cpd., viz. 
cycles of seasons & of years, i. e. vasanta-gimh'adike bahu 
utu ca citta-saijvacchar'adi bahQni saqvaccharani ca PvA 
135. Similarly at J v.330 (with Cy). -sappaya suitable 
to the season, seasonable DhA 327. -samaya time of 
the menses SnA 317. 

Utuka ( — °) (adj.) [utu -f ka] seasonable, only in cpd. sabb- 
otuka belonging to all seasons, perennial D II. 179; Pv IV. 
12' (= pupphupaga-rukkhadihi sabbesu utusu sukkhavaha 
PvA 27s); Sdhp 248. 

UtUIU (f) [formed fr. utu like bhikkhuni fr. bhikkhu] a 
menstruating woman Vin 111.18; iv.303 ; S iv.239; A ill. 
221, 229; Miln 127. an° A in. 221, 226. 

Utta [pp. of vac, Sk. ukta; for which the usual form is 
vutta only as dur° speaking badly or spoken of badly, 
i. e. of bad repute A 11.117, 143; in. 163; Kh V111.2; 
KhA 218. 

Uttaq(Jata (adj.) [ud 4- tandula] "grainy", i. e. having too 
many rice grains (of rice gruel), too thick or solid (opp. 
atikilinna too thin or liquid) J 1.340; 111.383 (id.); 
iv.44 (id.). 

Uttatta [ud -(- tatta", pp. ol ud + tap, Sk, uttapta] heated; 
of metals: molten, refined; shining, splendid, pure J vi. 
574 (hemar) uttattar) aggina); Vv 84"; Pv 111.3' (°nipa, 
so read for uggata", reading correct at PvA 188 'singi); 
PvA 10 ("kanaka, T. uggatta°); Mhbv 25 (id.). 

Uttanta [= utrasta, is reading correct? frightened, faint 
Vin 111.84. See uttasta & utrasta. 

Uttama (adj.) [superl. of ud°, to which compar. is uttara. 
See etym. under ud°] "ut-most", highest, greatest, best 
Sn 1054 (dhammai) utlamai) the highest ideal = Nibbana, 
for which setthaq Sn 1064; cp. Nd» 317); Dh 56; Nd' 
211; Nd* 502 (in paraphrase of mahS comb''- with pavara); 

KbA 124; DhA 1.430: PvA I, 50. — dum-uttama a 
splendid tree Vv 39'; nar° the best of men Su 1021 (= 
narasabha of 996); pur° the most magnificent town Sn 
1012; puris° the noblest man Th i, 629, 1084; nt. utta- 
mag the highest ideal, i. e. Arahantship J 1.96. 

-anga the best or most important limb or part of the 
body, viz. (a) the head Vin 11 256 = M 1.32 = A iv.278 
(in phrase uttamange sirasmiq); J 11.163; also in cpd. 
"bhtila the hair of the head Th 2, 253 (= kesa-kalapa 
ThA 209, 210) & °ruha id. J I.i38 = vi.96 (= kesa C); 
(b) the eye J iv.403; (c) the penis J v. 197. -attba the 
highest gain or good (i.e. Arahantship SnA 332) Sn324; 
Dh 386, 403; DhA IV. 142; ThA 160. -adbama most 
contemptible J v. 394, 437. -guna (pi.) loftiest virtues J 
1.96. -purisa It 97 & -porisa the greatest man (= ma- 
hapurisa) Dh 97 (see DhA 11-188)- -bbava the highest 
condition, state or place DhA II. 1 88 (°r) patto := puris'- 

Uttamata (f.) [abstr. fr. uttama] highest amount, climax, 
limit DA 1.169 (ff"' paramata). 

Uttara' (adj.) compar. of ud", q. v. for etym. ; the superl. 
is uttama] — i. higher, high, superior, upper, only in 
cpds., J 11.420 (musal° with the club on top of him? Cy 
not clear, perhaps to uttara*); see also below. — 2. 
northern (with diss region or point of compass) D 1.153; 
M 1.123; S 1.224; P^A 75- uttaramukha (for uttarai)- 
mukha) turning north, facing north Sn loio. — 3. subse- 
quent, following, second (° — ) J I-63 (°asalha-nakkhatta). — 
4. over, beyond ( — °): atth'utara-sata eight over a hundred, 
i. e. 108; DhA 1.388. — sa-uttara having something 
above or higher, having a superior i. e. inferior D 1. 80 
(citta), 11.299; M 1.59; S V.265; Vbh 324 (padna); Dhs 
1292, 1596; DhsA 50. — anuttara without a superior, 
unrivalled, unparalleled D 1.40; S 1.124; 11.278; IU.84; 
Sn 179. See also under annuttara. 

-attharana upper cover J vi.253. -abbimukba facing 
North D 11.15. -asanga an upper robe Vin 1.289; U' 
126; S 1.81; IV. 290; A 1.67, 145; 11.146; DhA 1.218; 
PvA 73; VvA 33 = 51. -itara something higher, superior 
D 1.45, 156, 174; S 1.81; J 1.364; DhA 11.60; IV.4. 
-ot^ha the upper lip (opp. adhar") J 11.420; 111.26; iv. 
184. -chada a cover, coverlet, awning (sa° a carpet with 
awnings or canopy above it) D 1.7; A 1.181; III. 50. 
•chadana = °chada D 11.187; DhA 1.87. -dvara the 
northern gate J VI. 364. -dhamma the higher norm of 
the world (lok°), higher righteousness D 11.188 (pati- 
viddha-lok'utlara-dhammataya uttama-bhavai] patta). -pa- 
saka the (upper) lintel (of a door) Vin 11.120 = 148. 
-pubba north-eastern J vi,5i8. -sse (v. 1. "suve) on the 
day after tomorrow A 1.240. 

Uttara' (adj.) [fr. uttarati] crossing over, to be crossed, in 
dur° difficult to cross or to get out of S 1.197 ("o' durut- 
tamo); Miln 158; and in cpd. °setu one who is going 
to cross a bridge Miln 194 (cp. uttara-setu). 

UttaraQa (nt.) [fr. uttarati] bringing or moving out, saving, 
delivery Th 1, 418; J 1.195. '° BSk. uttaraijia only in 
sense of crossing, overcoming, e. g. Jtm 31 * (°setu). — 
Cp. uttara. 

Uttarati [ud -(- tarati'] — 1. to come out of (water) Via 
11.221 (opp. otarati); J 1.108 (id.). — 2. to go over, to 
(low over (of water), to boil over Miln 117, 118, 132, 
260, 277. — 3. to cross over, to go beyond M 1.135; 
aor. udatari Sn 471 (oghaij). — 4. to go over, to over- 
spread J v. 204 (ger. uttariyana = avattharitva C). — pp. 
oti^^a (q. v.). — Cans, uttareti (q. v.). 

Uttari (° — ) & Uttarifl (adv.) [comp"- form of uttara, cp. 
angi-bhnta uttani-karoti etc.] out, over, beyond; additional, 
moreover, further, besides. — (1) uttarir) : D 1.71; M1.83; 
III. 148; S IV.15; Sn 796 (uttarii) kurule = uttariq karoti 
Nd* 102, i. e. to do more than anything, to do best, to 
esteem especially); J 11.23; '"■324; Miln 10 (ito utlariij 




anythiog beyond this, any more) DhA IV. 109 (bhaveti to 
cultivate especially; see vutlari); VvA 152. — uttariij ap- 
pativijjhanto not going further in comprehension, i. e. 
reaching the highest degree of comprehension, Vism 314, 
referring to Ps 11.131, which is quoted at Miln 198, as 
the last of the 11 blessings of metta. — (2) uttari° in 
foil. cpds. 

-karapiya an additional duty, higher obligation S n. 
99; III. 168; A v.i57 = i64. It 118. -bhanga an extra 
portion, tit-bit, dainties, additional or after-meal bits Vin 
11.214; 111.160; IV. 259; J 11.419; DhA 1. 214 sa-uttari- 
bhanga together with dainty bits J 1. 186, cp. 196 (vagu). 
-bhangika serving as dainties J 1.196. -manussa beyond 
the power of men, superhuman, in cpd. 'dhamtna an 
order which is above man, extraordinary condition, tran- 
scendental norm, adj. of a transcendental character, mira- 
culous, overwhelming Vin 1.209; Ii.ii2; 111.105; iv.24; 
D I 211; III. 3, 12, 18; M 1.68; 11.200, S 1V.290, 300, 
337; A 111.430; V.88; DhA 111.480. -sataka a further, 
i.e. upper or outer garment, cloak, mantle J 11.246; DhA 
IV.200; PvA 48, 49 (= uttarlyaq). 

Uttarika (adj.) [fr. uttara] transcending, superior, super- 
human Nett 50. 

Uttariya (nt.) [abstr. fr. uttara ; uttara -f- ya = Sk. *ut- 
tarya] — I. state of being higher. Cp. 111.3^ ; neg. an° 
state of being unsurpassed (lit. with nothing higher), pre- 
eminence; see annuttariya. — 2. an answer, rejoinder 
DhA 1.44 (karan'-karaija). 

Uttariya (nt.) [fr. uttara] an outer garment, cloak Pv lo' 
(= uparivasanaq upariharaij uttarisatakaij PvA 49); Davs 
111.30; ThA 253. 

Uttasatl' [identical in form with next] only in Caus. utta- 
seti to impale, q. v. 

Uttasatl'^ [ut 4- tasati^] — I. to frighten J 1.47 (v.267). — 
to be alarmed or terrified Vin 1.74 (ubbijjati u. palayati); 
111.145 (id.); J 11-384; VI. 79; ppr. uttasaq Th I, 86; & 
uttasanto Pv II. 2-'. — See utrasati. Caus. uttaseti(q. v.). — 
pp. uttasta & utrasta (q. v.). Cp. also uttanta. 

Uttasana (adj.-nt.) [fr. ud + tras, cp. uttasana] frightening, 
fear J 1.414 (v. 1. for uttasta). 

Uttasta [pp. of uttasati'; usual form utrasta (q. v.)] frightened, 
terrified, faint-hearted J 1.414 (°bhikkhu; v. 1. uttasana"). 

Uttana (adj.) [fr. ut -|- tan, see tanoti & tanta] — I. streched 
out (flat), lying on one's back, supine Vin 1.271 (mancake 
uttanai) nipajjapetva making her lie back on the couch) ; 
II. 215; J 1.205; P* IV.108 (opp. avakujja); PvA 178 (id.), 
265. — 2. clear, manifest, open, evident [cp. BSk. uttana 
in same sense at Av. S II. 106] D 1. 116; S II. 28 (dhammo 
uttano vivato pakasito); J n.i68 (=pakata); V.460; PvA 
66, 89, 140, i58. — anuttaoa unclear, not explained J 
VI. 247. — The cpd. form (° — ) of ultsna in comb"- with 
kf & bhu is uttani" (q. v.). — 3. superficial, "flat", shal- 
low A 1.70 (parisa); Pug 46. 

-mukha "clear mouthed", speaking plainly, easily under- 
stood D 1. 116 (see DA 1. 287); DhA iv.8. -seyyaka 
"lying on one's back", i.e. an infant M 1.432; A 111. 6; 
Th I, 935; Miln 40; Vism 97 (°daraka). 

Uttanaka (adj.) [fr. utlana] — l. (= uttana') lying on 
one's back J VI.38 (°i) pStetva); DhA I.184. — 2. {— 
uttana^) clear, open D 1155: M 1.340 = DhA 1.173. 

Uttani _(° — ) [the compn- form of uttana in cpds. with kf 
& bhu cp BSk. uttanl-karoti M Vastu III. 408 ; uttani-krta 
Av. S 1.287; "15'] open, manifest etc., in °kamma 
(uttani") declaration, exposition, manifestation S v.443 ; 
Pug 19; Vbh 259, 358; Nett 5, 8, 9, 38. — "kara^a id. 
SnA 445. — °karoti to make clear or open, to declare, 
show up, confess (a sin) Vin 1.103; S 11.25, ^54; ni.132, 
139; IV.166; V.261; A 1.286; UI.361 sq. 

Uttapeti [Caus. of uttapati] to heat, to cause pain, torment 
J VI. 161. 

Uttara [fr. ud -f- tj" as in uttarati] crossing, passing over, 
°3etu a bridge for crossing (a river) S IV.174 = M 1.134; 
cp. uttara^. 

Uttarita [pp. of uttareli] pulled outj brought or moved 
out J 1.194. 

Uttaritatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. uttarita] the fact of having or 
being brought or moved out J 1.195. 

Uttaretl [Caus. cf uttarati] to make come out, to move or 
pull out J 1.194; SnA 349. — pp. uttarita (q. v.). 

Uttasa [Sk. uttrasa, fr. ud -|- tras] terror, fear, fright D 
in.148; S V.386; Miln 170; PvA 180. 

Uttasana (nt.) [fr. uttSseti^] impalement J n.444; SnA 
61 (sQle). 

Uttasavant (adj.) [uttasa -f- vant] showing fear or fright, 
fearful S III. 16 sq. 

Uttaslta [pp. of uttaseti'^] impaled Pv iv.iO (= avuta 
aropita VvA 220); J I.499; IV.29. 

Uttasetl' [Caus of uttasati, ud -f traS, of which tags is utta- 
seti^ is a variant] tu frighten, terrify J 1. 230, 385; II. 117. 

Uttasetl' [cp. Sk. uttaijsayati in meaning to adorn with a 
wreath ud -(- taQS to shake, a variation of tarS to shake, 
tremble] to impale A 1.48; J 1.230, 326; 11.443; ■"•34; 
IV. 29. — pp. uttasita (q. v.). Cp. uttasana. 

Uttittha [= ucchittha ? Cp. ucchepaka. By Pali Cys. referred 
to utthahati "alms which one stands up for, or expects"] 
left over, thrown out Vin 1.44 (°patta); Th 1, 1057 
Cpinda); 2, 348 (°pinda ^ vivatadvare ghare ghare pa- 
titthitva labhanaka-pinda ThA 242); J IV.380 ("pinda; C. 
similarly as at ThA; not to the point); 386 ("pinda = 
ucchitthaka pinda C); Miln 213, 214. 

Uttitthe see utthahati. 

Uttiqa (adj.) [ud + tina] in iittinai) karoti to take the 
straw off, lit. to make off-straw; to deprive of the roof 
M 11.53. Cp. next. 

Uttiljqa [pp. of uttarati] drawn out, pulled out, nt. outlet, 
passage J 11.72 (pannasalaya uttinnani karoti make en- 
trances in the hut). Or should it be utti;^a? 

Utrasta [pp. of uttasati, also cp. uttasta] frightened, ter- 
rified, alarmed Vin II. 184; S 1.53, 54 (an"); Sn 986; 
Miln 23; DhA II.6 ("manasa); PvA 243 (°citla), 250 

Utrasa [= uttasa] terror J 11.8 (citt°). 

UtrSsln (adj.) [fr. *Sk. uttrasa = P. uttasa] terrified, fright- 
ened, fearful, anxious S 1.99, 219. — Usually neg. an" 
in phrase abhiru anutrasin apalayin without fear, stead- 
fast & not running away S 1.99; Th I, 864; Nd^ 13; J 
IV.296; V.4; Miln 339. See also apalayin. 

Ud- [Vedic ud-; Goth, ut = Ohg. uz = E. out, Oir. ud-; 
cp. Lat. usque "from-unto" & Gr. iirrtpot = Sk. uttara] 
prefix in verbal & nominal comb". One half of all the 
words beginning with u° are combn^. with ud", which in 
comp°. appears modified according to the rules of assim- 
ilation as prevailing in Pali. — I. Original meaning "out 
in an upward direction", out of, forth; like ummujjati to 
rise up out of (water), ujjalati to blaze up high; udeti 
to come out of & go up; ukka^tha stretching one's neck 
out high (cp. Ger. "erapor"); uggilati to "swallow up", 
i. e. spit out. — The opposites of ud- are represented by 
either ava or 0° (see under II. & IV. & cp. ucc-avaca; 




uddharabhagiya : orambhsgiya), ni (see below) or vi (as 
udaya: vi-aya or vaya). — II. Hence develop 2 clearly 
defined meanings, viz. (i) out, out of, away from — : 
°anha ("day-out"); °agga ("top-out"); °agacchati; "ikkhati 
look out for, expect; °kantati tear out; "khitta thrown 
off; "khipati pick out; "gacchati come out; °gamana rising 
(opp. 0°); °gajjati shout out; "gilati (opp. 0°); "ghoseti 
shout out; °cinati pick out; "chittha thrown out; "jagghati 
laugh at, cp. Ger. aus-lachen "tatta smelted out ; °tsna 
stretched out; °daleti tear out; "dhata lifted out, drawn 
out; °disati point out to; "drlyati pull out; °pajjati to 
be produced; °patti & °pada coming out, origin, biith; 
°patipatiya out of reach; "pajaseti sound out; "phasulika 
"ribs out"; etc. etc. — (2) up (high) or high up, up- 
wards, on to (cp. ucca high, uttara higher) — : "kujja 
erect (opp. ava°); "kula sloping up (opp. vi°j; "khipati 
throw-up, "ganhati take up; °chindati cut up; "javati go 
up-stream, "javana id. (opp. 0°); uiina pride; °thana 
"standing up"; "thita got up; °tarati come out, go up 
(opp. 0°) ; °nata raised up, high (opp. 0°) ; "nama e-levation ; 
°namin raised (opp. ni°); "patati fly up; etc. etc. — III. 
More specialised meanings (from elliptical or figurative 
use) are: (l) ud° = without, "ex-", e.g. unuangala "out- 
plough" = without a plough; uppabbajita an ex-bhikkhu. — 
(2) ud° = off, i. e. out of the way, wrong, e. g. uppatha 
a wrong road, ummagga id. — (3) ud° =1 out of the 
ordinary, i.e. exceedingly, e.g. ujjangala extremely dusty; 
uppanduka very pale; uppotheti to beat hard. — IV. 
Dialectical variations & combinations. — (i) Owing to 
semantic affinity we often find an interchange between 
ud° and ava° (cp. E. break up = break down, grind up 
or down, lie up or down), according to different points 
of view. This wavering between the two prefixes was 
favoured by the fact that o always had shown an unstable 
tendency & had often been substituted for or replaced 
by u, which in its place was reduced to u before a double 
consonant, thus doing away with the diff. between u & u 
or o & u. For comparison see the foil. : ukkamati & okk° ; 
uiin3: avanna; uddiyati : odd"; uddeyya: odd"; uppileti: 
opil°; etc., & cp. abbhokirati > abbhukkirati. — (2) the 
most freq. combos, ihat ud° enters into are those with 
the intensifying prefixes abbi° and sam° ; see e. g. abhi -\- 
ud (= abbhud") -)- gacchati, °jalati; °thati; "namati etc.; 
sam -)- ud -|- eti; "kamali; °chindati ; °tejeti; "pajjati etc. 

Uda' (indecl.) [Sk. uta & u, with Lat. aut (or), Gr. avri 
(again), alraf (but, or), Goth, auk = Ger. auch to pron. 
base ava° yonder, cp. ava 11.] disjunctive part, "or"; 
either singly, as at Sn 455, 955, 1090; J v.478 (v. 1. 
udahu); Nd' 445 (expld- as "padasandhi" with same 
formula as iti, qv.); Pv II. 12"" (kayena uda cetasa); or 
comb'', with other synonymous particles, as uda va at 
Sn 193, 842, 1075; It 82 = 117 (caraij va yadi va 
titthat] nisinno uda va sayar) walking or standing, sitting 
or lying down); KhA 191. — See also udahu. 

Uda^ (°— ) [Vedic udan (nt.), also later uda (but only °— ), 
commonly udaka, t). v.] water, wave. In cpds. sometimes 
the older form udan° is preserved (like udaiijala, udaiina- 
vant), but generally it has been substituted by the later 
uda° (see under udakaccha, udakanti, udakumbha, uda- 
patta, udapana, udabindu). 

Udaka (nt.) [Vedic udaka, uda + ka (see uda^), of Idg. 
*ued, 'ud, fuller form 'eyed (as in Sk. odatL odman flood, 
odana gruel, q. v.); cp. Sk. unatti, undati to water, udra 
:= Av. udra = Ags. otor = E. otter ("water-animal"); 
Gr. ^iuf water ("hydro"), liifa hydra ("water-animal"); 
Lat. unda wave; Goth. wato = Ohg. waszar = E. water: 
Obulg. voda water, vydra otter] water Vin II. 120, 213; 
D II. 1 5 (°assa dharS gushes or showers of w.); Dh 80, 
I4S; J 1.212; Pv 1.5'; Pug 31, 32: Miln 318; VvA 20 
(udake temanai) aggimhe tapanai)); DhA 1.289; DhA in. 
176, 256; PvA 39, 70. — Syn. ambu, ela, jala etc. — 
The compn- form ( — °) is either fidaka (asanCidaka-dayin 

J IV.435) or °odaka (padodaka water for the feet PvA 78). 
odaka occors also in abs. form (q. v.), cp. also oka. 
Bdgh.'s kai) = udakar), tena daritan: kandaran ti is a 
false etymology; DA 1.209. 

-annava water-flood M 1. 134. -ayatika a water-pipe 
Vin II. 123. -alhaka a certain measure of water, an alhaka 
of w. S V.400; A 11.55 = "i-SS?; ^'v'^ '55- -vipama 
resembling water, like water A iv.ii (puggala). -ogabana 
plunging into water J 111.235. -ogha a water flood VvA 
48. -orohaka descending into water, bathing; N. of a 
class of ascetics, lit. "bather" M 1.281 ; S IV.312; A v. 
263. -orohana plunging into water, taking a bath, bathing 
D 1. 167; S 1. 182; A 1.296; 11.206; J IV. 299; Pug 55. 
-kalaha the "water dispute" DhA 111.256. -kaka a water 
crow J II. 441. -kicca lil)ation of water, lit. water-per- 
formance; cleansing, washing D 11.15. -klla sporting in 
the w. J VI.420. -gahanasataka bathing-gown J v.477. 
-ghata a water pitcher PvA 66. -cati a water jar Dh.A 
1.52. -tthana a stand for water Vin 11. 120. -tumba a 
water vessel J n.441 : DA 1.202; DhA 11193. -telaka 
an oily preparation mixed with water Vin 11.107. -danta- 
pona water for rinsing the mouth & tooth-cleaner Vin 
III.51; IV.90, 92, 233; J IV. 69. -daha a lake (of water) 
D 1.45. -donika a water-tub or trough Vin 11.220. -dhara 
a shower of water I's 1.125 ; J iv.351. -niddhamana a 
water spout or drain Vin 11. 120, 123; Dh.\ 1137. -nib- 
bahana an aquaduct Miln 295. -patiggaha receiving or 
accepting water Vin 11.213. -patta a waterbowl Vin 11. 
107; D 1.80; S III. 105. -puiichani a towel Vin 11.122. 
-posita fed or nourished by water VvA 173. -phusita a 
drop of water S 11.135. -bindu a drop of w. It 84 (v. 1. 
for udabindu); PvA 99. -bubbula a w. bubble A 1V.137; 
Vism 109, 479 (in comp). -bhasta devoid of water ThA 
212 (for anodaka Th 2, 265). -manika a water-pot Vin 
1.227; M 1-354; A 111.27; Miln 28; DhA 1.79. -mallaka 
a cup for w. A 1.250. -rakkhasa a water-sprite DhA 111.74. 
-rahada a lake (of w.) D 1.74, 84; A 1.9; n.105; ni 25; 
Sn 467; Pug 47. -Tuha a water plant Vv 35". -lekha 
writing on w. A 1.283 = P"g 3^ (in simile "iipama like 
writing on w.; cp. Pug A 215). -vara "waterturn", i.e. 
fetshing water DhA 1.49. -varaka bucket S 11. 118. 
-vaha a flow of water, flowing w. J vi.162. -vahaka 
rise or swelling (lit. carrying or pulling along (of water), 
overflowing, flood A 1. 178. -vahana pulling up water 
Vin 11.122 (°rajju). -sadda sound of water Dhs 621. 
-saravaka a saucer for w. Vin 11. 120. -sataka = satika 
J II 13. -satika "water-cloak", a bathing-mantle Vin 1. 
74 = 11.272; IV.279 (=r yaya nivattha nhayati C); DhA 
11.61 (T. "sataka). -suddhika ablution with water (after 
passing urine) Vin IV.262 (== mutta-karapassa dhovana C), 

Udakaccha [uda -|- kaccha] watery soil, swamp J v. 137. 

Udakanti [uda + kanti] descent into the water S II. 1 79 = 1 87. 

Udakumbha [uda -|- kumbha] a water jug J I 20; Dh 121, 
122; Pv 1. 12'. 

Udagga (adj.) [ud -|- agga, lit. "out-top", cp. Sk. udagra] top- 
most, high, lofty Th 1, no; fig. elated, exalted, exultant, 
joyful, Kappy D l.lio ("citia); Sn 689 (-[- sumana), 1028 
(id.); Pv iv.l" (attamana -|-); IV.58 (ha(tha -|-); Miln 
248; Dh.A 11.42 (hattha-pahat(ha udagg-udagga in high 
glee & (jubilant), Vism 346 (id.); Sdhp 323. See also 
der. odagya. 

Udaggata (f.) [abstr. fr. udagga] exaltation, jubilation, glee 
Sdhp 298. 

Udaggi° in udaggihuttar] [= ud -|- aggi -|- hutta, cp. Vedic 
agnihotra] the fire prepared (for sacrifice) J V 396 (= 
uda-aggihuttai) C. wrongly), lit. "the sacrifice (being) out" 

Udangapa (nt.) [ud -|- angaria' ; Kern unnecessarily changes 
it to uttankana "a place for digging for water" see Torn. 
p. 96] an open place J 1.109. 




Udacchida 3'''' sg. piaet of ucchindati to break up Sn 2, 
3 (°a metri causa). 

Udaiicana (nt.) [fr. ud -|- anC, see anchati] a bucket for 
drawing water out of a well DhA 1.94. 

Udancanin (adj.-n.) [ud + aucanin to afic see anchati] 
draining, pulling up water f. °i a bucket or pail J i. 
417 (f. ^i). 

Udanjala [udan -f- jala see uda-] in °r) kilati a water-game : 
playing with drops of water (?) Vin 111.118 (Bdhgh. : 
udaiijalan ti udaka-cikkhallo vuccati p. 274). 

Udannavant (adj.) [udan = uda(ka) 4- vant] rich in water, 
well-watered J v. 405 (= udaka-sampanna C). 

Uda^ha [ud-f-^nha] day-break, dawn, sunrise J v.155. 

Udatarl 3'''1 sg aor. of uttarati to cross over Sn 471 (oghaq). 

Udatta (adj.) [Sk. udatta] elevated, high, lofty, clever Nett 
7, 118, 123 (:= ul.arapanna C). 

Udadhi [uda + dhl, lit. water-container] the sea, ocean S 
1.67; It 86; Sn 720; J v.326; VI. 526; ThA 289; VvA 155 
("udakar) ettha dhiyati ti udadhi"); Sdhp 322, 577. 

Udapatta' [uda for ud, and patta, pp. of pat, for patita? 
Kern, Tocv. s. v. takes it as *udak-prapta, risen, flying up, 
sprung up J 111.484 (= uppatita C); V.71 (^ utthita C). 

Udapatta- [uda -)- patta ; Sk. udapatra] a bowl of water, 
a water-jug, ewer M 1. 100; S v. 121; A in. 230 sq., 236; 
V-92, 94, 97 sq- 

Udapadl 3'''^ sg. aor. of uppajjati to arise, originate,- be- 
come D I.I 10, 180, 185; S 11.273; I' 52,99; SnA 346,462. 

Udapana [uda -|- pana lit. "(place for) drinking water"; 
cp. opana, which in the incorrect opinion of Pali Com- 
mentators represents a contracted udapana] a well, a 
cistern Vin 1. 139; 11122; M 1.80; A iv.171 ; J in. 216; 
Ud 78; Pv II. 7'; 11.9"; Miln 411; Vism 244 (in simile); 
DA 1.298; VvA 40; PvA 78. 

Udappatta see udapatta. 

Udablndu [uda -)- bindu] a drop of water M I 78; Sn 812; 
Dh 121, 122, 336; It 84 (v. 1. udaka°); Nd' 135; SnA 
114; DhA 11.51. 

Udabbhadhl aor. ■y^ sg. of ubbadhati [ud + vadh] to 

destroy, kill Sn 4 (= ucchindanto vadhati SnA 18). 

Udabbahe 3'^'* sg. Pot. of ubbahati [ud -f bfh', see also 
abbahati] to draw out, tear out, remove Th i, 158; Sn 
583 (:= ubbaheyya dh5reyya(?) SnA 460); J 11.223 (= 
udabbaheyya C); VI. 587 (= hareyya C); aor. udabbahi 
Vin IV. 5. 

Udaya [fr. ud -|- 1, cp. udeti] rise, growth ; increment, in- 
crease; income, revenue, interest A 11.199; Ps 1.34; Vv 
84' (dhan'atlhika uddayaq patthaySna r= anisarjsaq atire- 
kalabhai) VvA 336); 845^; DhA 11.270; PvA 146 (ular° 
vipaka), 273 ("bhutani panca kahapana-satani labhitva, 
with interest); Sdhp 40, 230, 258. — See also uddaya. 
-attha rise and fall, birth & death (to attha^) M 1.356; 
S V.197 sq., 395; A 111.152 sq.; iv.ui, 289, 352; V.15, 
25. -atthika desirous of increase, interest or wealth (cp. 
above Vv 84'' dhan'atthika) A 11.199. -bbaya (ud-aya -\- 
vyaya) increase & decrease, rise & fall, birth & death, 
up & down D 111.223; S i^^ = 52 (lokassa); ill. 130; 
A 11.90; 111.32; IV.32; It 120; Vism 287; Ps 1.54; Th.\ 90. 
-vyaya = °bbaya S iv.140; A 11.15 (khandhSnai)) ; Dh 
113, 374 (khandhanan, see DhA iv.iio). 

Udayai) & Udayanto ppr. of udeti (q. v.). 

Udayana (nt.) [fr. ud -f i] going up, rise DA 1.95. 

Udara (nt.) [Vedic udara; Av. udara belly; Gr. tVrfpo^ = 
I^at. uterus belly, womb; Lith. vedaras stomach, See also 
Walde, Lilt. Wtli. nnder vensica] — 1. the belly, stomach 
D 11.266; Sn 78, 604, 609, 716; J 1. 146, 164, 265; Miln 
213; PvA 283; KhA 57, 58; DhA 1.47 (pregnant); Sdhp 
102. — 2. cavity, interior, inside Davs 1.56 (niandir-odare). 
-unudara with empty belly Th i, 982; Miln 406, 407; 
cp. una. 

-aggi the fire of the belly or stomach (i. e. of digestion) 
KhA 59; SnA 462; PvA 33; -avadehakar) (adv.) bhun- 
jati to eat to fill the stomach, eat to satiety, to be glut- 
tonous M 1.102; A V.18; Th I, 935; Vism 33. -patala 
the mucous membrane of the stomach Vism 359(1= sarir'- 
abbhantara 261); SnA 248; KhA 55, 61. -pura stomach- 
filling Vism 108. -vatti "belly-sack", belly Vin 111.39, 
117; Vism 262 where KhA reads ud. patala). -vata the 
wind of the belly, stomach-ache 9J 1.33, 433; Vism 41 
(°abadha); DhA iv.129. 

Udariya (nt.) [fr. udara] the stomach Kh III. (cp. KhA 57) ; 
Vism 258, 358. Cp. sodariya. 

Udassaye 2"^ sg. pot. of ud -|- assayati [.a -|- ^rJ, cp. 
assaya] J V.26 (meaning to instal, raise?), expld- by C. as 
ussayapesi (?) Reading may be faulty for udasase ('). 

Udaharaka [uda -\- haraka] a water-carrier J 11.80. 

Udahariya (adj.) [fr. udah.ara fetching of water, uda -|- hf] 
going for water Vv 50'. 

Udagacchati [ud -|- a -j- gacchati] to eome to completion 
DA 1.288. Cp. sam°. 

Udana (nt.) [fr. ud -j- an to breathe] — I. "breathing 
out", exulting cry, i. e. an utterance, mostly in metrical 
form, inspired by a particularly intense emotion, whether 
it be joyful or sorrowful (cp. K. S. p. 29 n. 2) D 150, 
92; S 1.20, 27, 82, 160; A 1.67; J 1.76; Pug 43, 62; 
Nett 174; PvA 67; Sdhp 514. — The utterance ol such 
an inspired thought is usually introduced with the standing 
phrase "imar) udanai} udanesi" i. e. breathed forth this 
solemn utterance [Cp. BSk. udanaij udanayati Divy 99 
etc.], e. g. at Vin 1.2 sq., 12, 230, 353; D 1.47; 11.107 
(udana of triumph); S 111-55; Mhvs xix.29; DA I.140; 
Ud. I passim; SnA 354 ("the familiar quotation about the 
sakyas"). Occasionally (later) we find other phrases, as e.g. 
ud.anar) pavatti J 1. 61; abhasi Vin iv.54; kathesi J vi. 
38. — 2. one of the angas or categories of the Buddhist 
Scriptures : see under nava & anga. — Cp. vodaoa. 

Udanita [pp. of udaneti] uttered, breathed forth, said 
DhA IV.55. 

Udaneti [denom. f. udana, cp. BSk. udanayati] to breathe 
out or forth, usually in phrase udanai) udanesi: see under 
udana'. Absolutely only at J 111.218. 

Udapatva at J v.255 '^ uncertain reading (v. 1. udapatvS, 
C. expl"s. reading udapatva by uppatitva = flying up), 
perhaps we should read udapatta flew up, pret. of ud -f- 
pat = Sk. *udapaptat (so Kern, Toev. s. v.). 

UdayatI at da 1.266 (udayissati fut.) is hardly correct; 
D 1.96 has here udriyissati (q. v.), which belongs to darati 
to break, tear etc., udayati could only belong to dayati 
meaning to cut. mow, reap, but not to split etc. DA 1.266 
expl"S' udayissati with bhijjhissali. The difficulty is removed 
by reading udriyissati. To v. 1. undriyati cp. "undriya 
for °uddaya (dukkh° for dukkhudraya see udraya). We 
find udayati once more at Vism 156 in expl"- of ekodi 
where it is evidently meant for udeti (Caus. = utthapeli) 

Udara (adj.) [Sk. udara, of which the usual P. form is 
ulata (q. v.). Cp. BSk. audara & audarika.] raised, sublime, 
noble, excellent Davs UI.4 (samussit-odara-sitatapattaij) ; 
DA 1.50 ("issariya); Sdhp 429, 591. 




Udavatta [pp- of udavattate, ud -(- a vallati] retired, de- 
sisting J V.158 (= udavattitva nivattitva C ). 

Udasina (adj.) [ud + aslna, pp. of aS to sit; lit. sit apart, 
be iodifferent] indifferent, passive, neutral DhsA 129. 

Udahata [pp. of udaharati] uttered, spoken; called, quoted 
Pug 41. 

Udahara^a (nt.) [fr. udaharati] example, instance J 111.401 
('i) aharitvS dassento), 510; Miln 345 ; SnA 445; VvA 297. 

Udaharati [ud + S -|- hf] to utter, recite, speak. Sn 389; 
J 111.289; t>A 1.140 (see udahara). — pp. udahata (q. v.). 
Cp. pariy°. 

Udahara [fr. udaharati] utterance, speech DA 1.140 Cq 
udahari ^ udanarj udanesi); Pug A 223, 

Udahu (indecl.) [ula -|- 5ho, cp. P. uda & aho und Sk. 
ularo] disjunctive-adversative particle "or", in direct ques- 
tions D I 157; ii.S; Sn 599, 875, SS5; J [.20, 83; VvA 
258 (= adu); PvA 33, 51; Miln 10. — The first part 
of the question is often introduced with kig, while udahu 
follows in the second (disjunctive) part, e. g. kin nakk- 
haltar) kijissasi udahu bhatiq karissasi VvA 63; kiq am- 
hehi saddhiij agamissasi udahu paccha will you come 
with us or later? DhA 11.96: See under kii). — Often 
combil- with other expletive particles, e. g. udahu ve Sn 
1075, 1077; udahu no Sn 347; eva . . . no udahu (so... 
or not) D1.152; (ayaq) nu kho — udahu (ayaq) is it 
(this) — (this) Vism 313. 

Udi (or udl) is artificial adj. formo- fr. udeti, meaning 
"rising, excelling", in expl"- of ekodi at Vism 156 (udayali 
li udi utthapelf ti attho). 

Udlkkhatl [ud + iks, Sk. udlksate] — 1. to look at, to 
survey, to perceive Vin 1.25 (udiccare, 3=^. pi. pres. med.); 
J V.71, 296; Vv 8i2i (aor. udikkhisai] = uUokesii) VvA 
316); Davs II 109; Sdhp 308. — 2. to look out for, to 
expect J 1.344; VvA 118. — 3. to envy Milu 338. 

Udikkhltar [n. ag. of udikkhati] one who looks for or 
after U III 167. 

Udlcca (adj.) [apparently an adjectivised ger. of udeti but 
distorted from & in meaning = Sk. udanc, f. udici northern, 
the north] "rising", used in a geographical sense of the 
N. W. country, i. e. north-westerly, of north-western origin 
(cp. Bnthren 79, Miln trsl"- 11 45 n. 1) J 1.140, 324, 
343) 373) ViWti 236. — See also uddiya. 

Udiccare 3'^''- pi- pres. nied. of udikkhati (q.v.). 

Udita' [pp. of ud — i, see udeti] risen, high, elevated 
Miln 222; (°odita); Davs iv.42; Sdhp 14 (of the sun) 
442 (°odita). 

Udita- [pp. of vad, see vadati] spoken, proclaimed, uttered 
Vutlodaya 2 (quoted by Childers in Khuddaka-patha ed. 
1869, p. 22). 

Udiraija (nt.) [fr. udSreti] utterance, saying J v. 237 ; Dhs 
637, 720; Miln 145. 

Udlrita [pp. of udireti] uttered J 111.339; v.394 = 407. 

Udireti [ud -)- Ireti, cp. in meaning Trita] — I. to set in 
motion, stir up, cause J II1.441 (dukkhaij udlraye Pot. = 
udireyya C.) ; v. 395 (kalahar) to begin a quarrel). — 2. to 
utter, proclaim, speak, say S 1. 190; Sn 632 (pot. °raye^ 
bhaseyya SnA 468); Dh 408 (giraij udiraye = bhaseyya 
DhA IV.182); J V.78 (vakyar)); Pass, udiyati (uddiyyati 
= Sk. udiryate) Th I, 1232 (nigghoso). 

UdU (adj.) \_z=z »rtu? cp. utu & uju] straight, upright, in 
"mano straight-minded D 111.167, 168 (= uju° in v. 1. 
and expln- by C). 

Udulckhala (m. & nt.) [Sk. ulnkhala] a mortar Vin 1.202 (+ 
musala pestle); J 1.502; 11.428; v.49; II. 161, 335; Ud 
69 (m; -f- musala); Dh.\ II. 131 ("sala); Vism 354 (in 
comp.). The relation between udukkhala and musala is 
seen best from the description of eating at Vism 344 and 
DA 1.200, where the lower teeth play the role of ud., 
the upper teeth act as m., while the tongue takes the 
part of a hand. On this passage & other connections as 
well as etym. see Morris J I' T S. 1893, 37. 

Udukkhalika (f.) [fr. udukkhala] part of a door (threshold r) 
Vin II. 148 (-f- uttara-pasaka lintel of a door). 

Udumbara [Sk. udumbara] the glomerous fig tree, Ficus 
(ilomerata D II. 4 ; Vin IV35; A iv 2S3 ("khadika), 283 
(id.), 324 (id.); Sn 5; Dh.\ 1.284; SnA 19; KhA 46, 56; 
VvA 213. Cp. odumbara. 

Udeti (ud -j- eli of i to go] to go out or up, to rise (of 
the sun), to come out, to increase Asl. 169; Vism 156 
(eko udeti ti ekodi); J 11.33; '"•324; ppr. udayaq It 85 
(adicco), & udayanto PvA 154 (udayante suriye = sole 
surgente). — pp. udita (see udita'). Cp. udicca & udi. 

Udda' [Vedlc udra, to uda^ water, lit. living in water; Cp. 
Gr. Mfo; "hydra"; Ohg. ottar = .Ags. otor ^ E. otter; 
Lith. udra = Obulg. vydra otter] an aquatic animal, the 
otter (?) Childers s. v. doubts the identity of this creature 
with the regular otter, since it lives in the jungle. Is it 
a beaver? — Vin I.l86 ("camma otter-skin, used for 
sandals); Cp. I.IO^ ("pota); J ill 51 sq., 335. The names 
of two otters at J 111.333 are Gambhira-carin and Anu- 

Udda'' [for uda^?] water, in passage amakkhito iiddena, 
amakkhito semhena, a. ruhirena i. e. not stained by any 
kind of (dirty) fluid D 11.14; ^ 111.122. 

Uddanda [uJ -|- danda] a kind of building (or hut), in 
which the sticks stand out (?) Nd' 226 = Nd- g7i"'(utanda) 
= Vism 25 (v. 1. BB uttanda). 

Uddaya' [a (metric?) variant of udaya] gain, advantage, 
profit Vv 84^ (see udaya); J v. 39 (satt°-mahapaduma of 
profit to beings?). 

Uddaya'^ in compounds dukkh° and sukh°. see udraya. 

Uddalomi [= udda -|- lomin beaver-hair-y r] a woollen 
coverlet with a fringe at each end D 1.7 (= ubhato dasag 
unna-raay^ attharanaij ; keci ubhato uggata-pupphaq ti va- 
danti DA 1.87); A 1. 181. See however uddha-lomin under 

Uddasseti [ud -f dasseti, Caus. of dassati'] Lo show, reveal, 
point out, order, inform, instruct D 11.321 sq.; M 1.480 
(read uddassessami for conjectured reading uddisissami ?) ; 
11.60 (v. 1. uddiset") A iv.66. 

Uddana (nt.) [fr. ud -\- da, dayati to bind: see under dama] 
a group of Suttas, used throughout the Vinaya Pitaka, 
with ref. to each Khandhaka, in the Saqyutta, the An- 
guttara and other books (cp. Miln 407) for each group 
of about ten Suttas (cp. Dhs.\ 27). The Uddana gives, 
in a sort of doggerel verse, at the end of each group, 
the titles of the Suttas in the group. It may then be 
roughly rendered "summary". If all the Uddanas were 
collected together, they would form a table of contents 
to the whole work. — Otherwise the word has only been 
found used of fishes "macchuddana" (so J 11.425; DhA 
II. 1 32). It then means a group of fish placed apart for 
for sale in one lot. Perhaps a scl or a batch would meet 
the case. 

Uddapa [*udvapa] foundation of a wall, in stock phrase 
dalh° etc. D iii.ioi ; S v.i94 = also at J vi.276 (= pa- 
kara-vatthu C). Kern, Tocv. s. v, refers it to Sk. ud-vapati 
to dig out, and translates "moat, ditch". The meaning 




"wall" or "mound" however harmonises quite well with 
the der. fr. "digging", cp. E. dike > Ger. Teich. See 
also uddama 2. 

Uddapavant (adj.) [fr. uddapa] having a wall or embank- 
ment S 11.106 (v. I. uddha°); C. expls- as apato uggatatta 
J IV.536 (so read with v. 1. for T. uddha pavatta; C. 
expls- as tiia-mariyada-baudhana). 

Uddama [fr. ud -{- da as in uddana, see dama] i. (adj.) 
"out of bounds", unrestrained, restless Davs v. 56 (°sa- 
gara). — 2. (n.) wall, enclosure (either as "binding in", 
protecting or as equivalent of uddapa fr. ud -\- vam "to 
throw up" in sense of to throw up earth, to dig a mound 
= udvapati) in phrase attala-uddama-parikhadini watch- 
towers, enceintes, moats etc. DhA III. 488. 

Uddaraka [?] some wild animal J v. 416 (reading uncertain, 
expln- ditto). 

Uddala = uddalaka, only as Np. J iv.298 sq. 

Uddalaka [fr. ud -f dal, see dalati] the Uddala tree. 
Cassia Fistula (also known as indlvara), or Cordia Myxa, 
lit. "uprooter" Vv 6' (= vataghatako yo rajarukkho ti 
pi vuccati VvA 43); J IV. 301 (°rukkha), 440; v. 199 (= 
vataghataka C), 405; vi.530 (so read for uddh"); VvA 
197 (^puppha = indivara); PvA 169. 

Uddalanaka (adj.) [fr. uddalana > ud -j- daleti] referring 
to destruction or vandalism, tearing out Vin IV. 169. 

Uddaleti [»d -|- daleti, Caus. of dal, see dalati] to tear 
out or off Vin iv.170; S IV.178. 

Uddittha [pp. of uddisati] — I. pointed out, appointed, 
set out, put forth, proposed, put down, codified M 1.480 
(panha); Sn p. 91 (id. ^=: uddesa-matten^ eva vutta, na 
vibhangena Sn.\ 422); SnA 372. — 2. appointed, dedic- 
ated J V.393 (an ''i} pupphaq = asukassa nama dassami 
ti); PvA 50; KhA 138. 

Uddiya (adj.) [Sk. udlcya?] northern, northwestern (i.e. 
Nepalese) J iv.352 ("kambala) in expl"- of uddiyana [Sk. 
udicina?]. See udicca & cp. Morris in /F TS. 1889, 
202. and last not least Liiders in A'. Z. 1920 (vol. 49), 
233 sq. The word is not sufficiently cleared up yet. 

Uddisati [ud -f- disati] — I. to propose, point out, ap- 
point, allot Dh 353, cp. DhA IV. 72; Miln 94 (satiharatj); 
fut. uddisissati M 1.480 (ex conj., is probably to be 
changed to uddassessati, q. v.). — 2. to specify PvA 22 
(aor. uddisi), 25 (=^ nlyadeli, dadati), 27. — Pass, uddis- 
sati to show oneself, to be seen Pv lii.2'2, and uddissi- 
yati PvA 46. — pp. uddittha (q. v.). — Caus. II. uddi- 
sapeti (q. v.). — ger. uddissa (q. v.). 

Uddisapetl [Caus. II. of uddisati] — I. to make recite 
Vin 1.47 = 11.224; IV.290. — 2. to dedicate PvA 35 
(v. 1. adisati). 

Udlssa (indecl.) [orig. ger. of uddisati] — I. indicating, 
with signs or indications J 111.354 = Miln 230. — 2. prep 
w. ace: (a) (lit.) pointing to, tending towards, towards, 
to PvA 250 Surattha-visayaq). — (b) (appl<i ) with refer- 
ence to, on account of, for, concerning PvA 8 (pete), 17 
(= arabbha), 49 (ratanattayai}), 70 (maij), 146. 

-kata allotted to, specified as, meant for (cp. odissa 
& odissaka) Vin 1.237 (maqsa); II. 163; D 1.166 ^ A I. 
295 = Pug 55 (viz. bhikkha); M 1.77; KhA 222; J II. 
262, 263 (bhatla). 

UddiSSana (nt.) [fr. uddissa] dedication PvA 27, 80. 

Uddipana (f.) [fr- ud -j- dlpeti] explanation, reasoning, 
argument Vism 27 (for ukkacana). 

Uddiyatl, Uddiyana ete. see udrl°. 

Uddeka [Sk. udreka, ud -|- ric] vomit, spouting out, erup- 
tion Vism 261 (where id. p. at KhA 61 reads uggara); 
"'r) dadati to vomit Vin 1.277. 

Uddekanlka (adj.) [uddeka + ana -f- >ka] spouting, ejecting 
M 11.39 (manika; perhaps better to be read with v. 1. as 
udaujanika =^ udaiicanika fit for drawing up water). 

Uddesa [fr. uddisati] — • I. pointing out, setting forth, 
proposition, exposition, indication, programme M 111.223 
(u. uddittha), 239; S IV.299; SnA 422. — 2. explanation 
S v.iio sq.; sa-uddesa (adj.) with (the necessary) expl"-, 
point by point, in detail, D 1.13, 81;; A 111.418; 
It 99; Nd-i 617'. — 3. samanuddesa one marked as a 
Samana, a novice (cp. samanera) D 1.151; M ui. 128; A 
IV. 343; uddesa-bhatta special or specified food Vin 1.58 
^= 96, cp. 11.175, propounding, recitation, repetition Vin 
1.50 ^ 11.228 (uddesena paripucchaya ovadena by recita- 
tion, questioning & advice); 11.219 ("q dadati to hold a 
recitation -f- paripucchaq d); A IV.114 (-f- paripuccha); 
V.50 sq. (paiiho, u. veyyakaranaq); Nd^ 385'^ (-[-pari- 
puccha); J 1. 116; Miln 257 (-|- paripuccha). ek'udesa a 
single repetition Vin III. 47; A 111.67, 180; Miln lo, 18. 

Uddesaka (adj.) [fr. uddesa] assigning, defining, determining, 

in bhatt^ one who sorts out the food VvA 92. 

Uddesika (adj. nt.) [fr. uddesa] — i. indicating, referring 
to, respecting, defining; (nt.) indication, definition D II. 
lOO (mam "bhikkhusangho); Miln 159 (id); KhA 29. — 
Esp. as — ° in phrase attha-vass' uddesika-kala the time 
referring to (or indicating) the 8''' year, i. e. at the age 
of 8 PvA 67; solasa-vass° M 1.88; J 1.456; VvA 259. 
In the same application padesika (q. v.). — 2. memorial 
J IV. 228 (cetiya). 

Uddehaka (adj.) [fr. ud -f dill, see deha] "bubbling up", 
only adv. "q in cpd. phen" (paccamana) boiling) under 
production of scum (foam) M in.167; A 1. 141; J 111.46; 
Miln 357. 

UddOSita [Derivation uncertain. Cp. MitUcr P. Gr. 42] shed, 
stable (?) Vin 1.140; 11.278; 111.200; IV. 223. 

Uddha (adj.) [possibly a comb" of addha- & uddhaij ; or 
should we read addh" or vuddh"?] in phrase uddhehi 
vatthehi in rich, lofty clothes J iv.154 (of a devala; 
passage may be corrupt). 

Uddhag (& Uddha") (mdecl.) [nt. of adj. ^uddha ~ Sk. 
urdhva high; to Idg. *ared(h) as in Lat. arduus steep, 
or *ijred as in Sk. vardhate to raise, Gr. opSrf^ straight] 
high up, on top, above (adv. & prep.). — On uddhaq 
in spatial, temporal, ethical & psychological application 
see in detail Nd^ 155. — I. (adv.). — A. (of space) up, 
aloft, on top, above (opp. adho) Vin 111. 121; KhA 248 
{z= upari). — In contrast with adho (above > below) 
D 1.23, 153, 251; Vism 176 (u. adho liriyaq expld); 
DA I 98 (see also adho). — Esp. with ref. to the points 
of the compass as "in zenith" (opp. adho "in nadir"), 
e. g. at D 1.222 ("straight up"); It 120; J 1.20. — 
B. (of time) in future, ahead, hence Sn 894; Nd' 303 (u. 
vuccati anagataq). — II. {prep, with abl. & instr.). — 
A. (of space) in phrase uddhaq padatala adho kesa- 
matthaka (above the soles & below the scalp) D 11. 
293, 294; 111.104; A 111.323; V.109. — B. (of lime) 
after, hence Pv'^ (u. catuhi masehi after 4 months =: 
catunnar) masSnaq upari PvA 52); PvA 147 (sattahi 
vassa satebi u., meaning here 700 years ago, cp. ito in 
similar application, meaning both past & future), 148 
(sattahato u. after a week; uttari v. 1. BB.). — In cpds. 
uddha" & uddhai)" (see below). The reading udhogalai} 
at PvA 104 is to corrected to adho°. — III. Note (cp. 
Trenckner, Notes 60). In certain cases we find ubbbai) 
for uddhaq. Notice the foil. : ubbhaq yojanaq uggato J 
V.269; ubbhatthako hoti "standing erect" D 1. 167; M 
1.78; ubbhamukhu "mouth (face) upwards", turned up- 
wards S 111.238; Miln 122. 




(i) uddha° in: -gamin going upwards S v.370 sq. 
ccbiddaka (-vatapana) (windows) having openings above 
DhA 1. 21 1, -pada heels upwards either with aJhosira 
(head down) A iv.133, or avansira Vv 521^ (v-1); J I- 
233. -mukha turned upwards, adv. °a upwards or back- 
wards (of a river) Miln 295 (Ganga u. sandati; in same 
context ubbha° Miln 122). -lomin "having hair on the 
upper side", a kind of couch or bed (or rug on a couch) 
Vin I.192 = 11.163, '69. So is prob. to be read for ud- 
dalomi (q. v.). -virecana action of an emetic (lit. throwing 
up) (opp. adho-virecana of a purgative) D 1.12 (= uddhaij 
dosanai) niharanarj DA 198); DhA 111.126; SoA 86. 
-suddha clean on top Vin 11. 152. — (2) uddhar)° in: 
-agbatanika an after-deather, a teacher who maintains 
that the soul exists after death D 1.31, cp. DA 1.119. 
-pada feet up (& head down) Vv 52'^5 (y. 1. uddha°). 
-bhagiya belonging to the upper part (opp. oram°): see 
sai)yojana. -virecana v. 1. B13. at Sn.\ 86 for uddha". 
-sara(r)) (adv.) with raised or lofty voice, lit. "sounding 
high" Sn 901, see Nd' 315. -sota (adj.) one who is 
going upwards in the stream of life [cp. BSk. iirdhva- 
srolah Mahavy § 46] D in. 237; S v.69, 201, 205, 237, 
285, 314, 378; A 1.233; 11.134; IV.14 sq., 73 sq., 146, 
380; V.120; Dh 218; Th 11.12; Pug 17; Nett 190; DhA 
1112S9; lit. up-slream at J in. 371. 

Uddhagsati [ud -f dhaijsati, in lit. meaning of dhvatJS, 
sec dharjsati] to fly out or up (of dust) Vv 78' na tatth' 
uddhaijsati lajo; expld- by uggacchati VvA 304. — pp. 
uddbasta (q. v.). 

Uddhagga (adj.) [uddha -j- agga] — I. standing on end 
(lit. with raised point), bristling, of the hair of a Mahapu- 
risa D 11.18 = 111.144, 154. — 2. prominent, conspicuous 
J IV. 345 (°rajin having prominent stripes, of a lion). — 

3. pointing upwards (of the lower teeth, opp. adhagga 
point-doivnwards) J v. 156 (= hetthima-danta C). — 

4. lofty, beneficial (of gifts) A n.68 (dakkhina); ni.46 
(id.) see also uddbaggika. 

Uddhagglka (adj.) [cp. uddhagga) aiming at or resulting 
in a lofty end, promoting spiritual welfare, beneficial (of 
gifts) D 1. 51 ^111.66: S 1.90; A III. 259; DA 1. 158. 

UddhaCCa (nt.) [substantivised ger. of ud-dharati, ud -)- dhf, 
cp. uddhata & uddhata. The BSk. auddhalya shows a 
strange distortion. BSk. udihava seems to be also a sub- 
stitute for uddhacca] over-balancing, agitation, excitement, 
distraction, flurry (see on meaning Dialogues 1.82; Dhs 
Irsl"- 119; CfJ. 18, 45, 83). A 1.256, 282; 111.375, 421, 
449; IV.87; V.142, 145, "48; D 111.234; S V.277 sq.; 
DhSA 260; SnA 492 (in sense of "haughtiness"? for 
Sn 702 unnata); Nd' 220, 501; Ps 1.81, 83; 11.9, 97 sq.; 
119, 142,' 145, 169, 176; Pug 18, 59; Dhs 427, 429 
(cittassa), . 1159, 1229, 1426, 1482; Vbh 168, 369, 372, 
377; Visni 137, 469 (= uddhata- bhava); Sdhp 459. To- 
gether with kukkucca "flurry or worry" u. is enumd- as 
the 4ih of the 5th nivarana's and as the g'h of the 10 
sariyojana's (q. v.), e.g. at D I.71, 246; III 49, 234, 269, 
278; S 1.99; A 1.3; III. 16; V.30; Nd' 379; Dhs i486. 

Uddhaja (adj.) [uddhaq -f ja] upright, honest M 1.386 
(v. 1. for pannadhaja). 

Uddhata [pp. of uddharati'^; see also uddhata, uddhita & 
uddhacca] — i. pulled out J 11.26. — 2. pulled out, 
destroyed, extirpated, in phrase" datha with its fangs 
removed (of a snake) J 1.505; H.259; vi.6. — 3. cut off 
or out Miln 231 (uddhat-uddhate Slope whenever a piece 
is cut off). — 4. drawn out, lifted out, raised J 1.143; 
sass°kale at the time of lifting the corn ; v. 49 Cpaqsu). 
Cp. uddhata-bija castrated J 11. 237. 

Uddhata [pp. of uddharati'; as to its relation to uddhata 
see remarks under uddhacca]. — I. lifted up, raised, 
risen, high (of the sun, only In this special phrase u. 
aruno) Vin 11.236 ; Ud 27 (vv. 11. uggata & uddhasta). — 

2. unbalanced, disturbed, agitated, shaken S I.61 (+ un- 
nala "muddled in mind & puffed up" Irsl.), 204 (id.) 
V.II2 (linar) cittai) uddhataq c), 114 = Vism 133, 269; 
A 11.23; 111- 39'; V.93 sq., 142, '63; It 72; Th 2, 77 (so 
read with v. 1., T. has uddhata; ThA 80 explns. as nan' 
arammane vikkhitta-citta asamShita); Nd^ 433 (-)- avupa- 
santa-citto); Pug 35 (= uddhaccena samannSgata Pug A 
217). -an" well balanced, not shaken, calm, subdued 
M 1.470; A 11.21 1 ; V.93 sq., 104; Sn 850 (= uddhacca- 
virahita 5nA 549); Dh 363 (= nibbutacitto DhA iv.93) ; 
J V.203 ; Vv 64'. — See also ubbhata. 

Uddhana (nt.) ['ud-dhvana, fr. ud + dhvan instead of 
dhma, for uddhamona ("uddhmana Sk.), see dhamati] an 
oven J 1.33, 68, 71, 346; 11.133, 277; 111.178, 425; 
^■385, 471; 11.218 (kammar°), 574; Sn p. 105; Miln 118, 
257; Vism 171, 254; DhA 1.52, 224; 11.3; 111.219 
(°panti); IV.176. 

Uddhamma [ud + dhamma] false doctrine Dpos V.19. 

Uddharana (nt) [abstr. fr. uddharati] — I. taking up, 
lifting, raising Miln 307 (sass°-samaya the time of gathering 
the corn; to uddharati i. but cp. in same meaning ud- 
dhata from uddharati 2). DA 1.192. — 2. pulling or drawing 
out (cp. uddharati 2) Vin ill. 29. See also ubbahati-. 

Uddharati [ud -f dharate of dhf] — I- (in 'his meaning 
confused with ubbharati from bfh, cp. interchange of 
ddh & bbh in uddha: ubbha, possibly also with bfh: 
see abbahati and cp. ubbahatii). (a) to raise, rise, lift up; 
hence: to raise too much, overbalance, shake etc.: see pp. 
uddhata (*udbhrta) & cp. uddhacca & uddharana. — (b) to 
take up, lift, to remove, take away D 1.135 (ballq uddhareyya 
raise a tax); M 1.306 (hiyaij); J 1.193 (aor. poet, udaddhari 
= uddharitva kaddhilvii pavattesi C); VvA 157. — Caus. 
uddharapeti Vin M.180, iSi; J VI.9S. — 2. to pull out, 
draw out (syn. with abbahati, q. v. for comparison) D I. 
77 (ahii) karanda uddhareyya, further on ahi k. ubbhato) 
PvA 115 (= abbahati); imper. uddharatha J 11.95 (fof 
abbaha); Dh 327 (atlanar) dugga); aor. uddhari J 111.190 
(ankena);cond. uddhare Th 1, 756; ger. uddharitva D 1.234; 
Ndi 419; SnA 567; DhA IV. 26; PvA 139, & (poet.) uddhatva 
J IV.406 (cakkhuni. so read for T. laddhatvaii cakkhuni =: 
akkhini uddharitva C). — pp. uddbata & ubbhata. 

Uddharln in an° Sn 952 see under nitthurin. 

Uddhaseta see uddhasta. 

Uddhasta [pp- of uddhaijseli, see dhaijsati & cp. anuddhaq 
seti] attacked, perhaps "spoilt" (smothered!) In comb"- 
with pariyonaddha (covered) at A 1.202 (T. uddhaseta, 
expl"*- by uparl dhaqsita C); 11.2II (vv. 11. uddhasota for 
"eta & uddhaqso). — Registered with an" as anuddhasta 
in Index vol. to A, should however be read as anu- 
ddhasta (q. v.). Cp. also viddhasta. 

Uddhara (& ubbhara In Vin.; e.g. 11.255, <=p. 256 where 
ubbhata unterchanges with uddhara) [fr. uddharati'] — 
I. taking away, withdrawal, suspension, in kathin° (q. v.) 
Vin 1.255 sq.; 111. 262; IV.287; v. 177 sq. — 2. a tax, 
levy, debt, in phrase °ij sodheti (so read for sadheti loc. 
cit.) to clear up a debt J U.341; 111.106; iv.45, 247. 
uddhara-sodhana (v. 1. sadh") the clearance of a debt 
J 11.341. — 3- synopsis or abstract Dpvs v. 37 (atth" of 
the meaning of the Vin.); SnA 237 (atth° -f pad"). 

Uddhalaka at J vi.530 is to be read udd31aka. 

Uddhita [a by-form of uddhata] pulled out, destroyed, 
extirpated, removed J vi.237 (°pphala = uddhata-bija C). 

Uddhunati [ud -|- dhunSti] to shake VvA 279. 

Uddhumata (adj.) [pp. of uddhumayatl] swollen, bloated, 
risen (of flour) A 1.140; Sn 200 (of a corpse); SnA 100 
sq., 171; DA 1.114. Cp. next. 




Uddhumataka (adj.) [prec. + ka] swollen, bloated, puffed 
up M 1.88 (of a corpse; + vinilaka); Vism 178, 193 (id.); 
J 1.164 (udarar) "q katva), 420 ("nimitta appearance of 
being blown up); Miln 332; DhA 1.307. See also subha 
& asubha. 

-sanna the idea of a bloated corpse A 11.17; Dhs 263; 
Miln 331; cp. Dhs Irsl"- 69. 

Uddhumatatta (nt.) [abstr. fr. uddhumata] swollen con- 
dition \'ism 178. 

Uddhumayati [ud -|- dhma, see dhamati & remarks on 
uddhacca] to be blown up, to swell up, rise; aor. "ayi J 
111.26; VvA 76; ger. "ajitva J H.18; Dh.\ 1. 126. — pp. 
uddhumata & ''ayita (q. v.). 

Uddhumayana (nt.) [fr. uddhumayati] puffing, blowing or 
swelling up J IV. 37. 

Uddhumayika (adj.) [cp. uddhumSyita] like blowing or 
swelling up, of blown-up appearance M 1.142 sq. 

Uddhumayita [pp. of uddhumayati] swollen, bloated, pnfied 
up VvA 218. 

Udrabhati [? doubtful in form & etym.] to eat M 1.306 
(upacika bijaq na udrabheyyur) ; vv. 11. on p. 555: udrah", 
udah°, udah", uddhah", utthah" ; udraheyyun ti khadeyyuq 
C. (udrabhasane dhatuni)). — AWc. The Dhatupatha, 
212, and the Dhatu-maujusa, 311, explain udrabha by 
adane, eating. 

Udraya (& Uddaya) ( — °) [perhaps a bastard form of 
uddaya = udaya yielding etc. The BSk. usually renders 
P. dd by dr. If so, then equal to adaya & uddaya*] 
coming forth, result, consequence. Usually in foil, two 
phrases; dukkh" (yielding pain) & sukh" (giving pleasure); 
e.g. as dukkh" at M 1415; J iv.398; v. 119 (v. 1. °in- 
driya); Pv i.iiio (so read for T. "andriya, cp. undriyati 
as V. 1. for udayati); Ps 11.79 (kammaij); as sukh" at J 
V.389 (v. 1. "indriya); DhA 11.47 ("uddaya). Both dukkh" 
& sukh° at Ps I 80. Besides these in foil, comfans.; katuk° 
causing bitterness J v.241; sa° with (good or evilj con- 
sequences S 11.29; M 1.27 1. 

Udriyati (& Uddiyati) [cp. Sk. ud drryate. Pass of ud + 
df, drnoli, and P. darati & dalali; see also avadiyati 
which may be a Sanskritised oddiyati for uddiyati] to 
burst, split open, break, fall to pieces Vin 1.148 (viharo 
udriyati); II 174 (id); iv.254 (i): D 1.96 ("iyissati ^ 
bhijjhissati D.\ 1.96, so read for udayati); S I 113, 119. 

Udriyana & Uddiyana (nt.) [fr. udriyati] breaking or 
splitting open, bursting J 1.72 ; DhA 11. 7 (°sadda), 100 
(pathavi-uddiyana-sadda; vv. 11. uddri°, udri°). 

Undura [etym ?] a rat Vin 1.209; 11.148, 152; 111.151; J 
1. 120; Miln 23, 363. Spelt undura at Vism 62. 

Unna [pp. of ud, unatti & undati, see udaka] in phrase 
piti-vegen'unna "bubbling up with the excitement of joy", 
overflowing with joy Mhvs 19, 29 (expld by uggatacitta 
i. e. lofty, exalted C). — It may however be better & 
more in keeping with Pali word-formation as well as with 
meaning & interpretation to explain the word as ud -\- 
na, taking °na as abs. (base)-form of nam, thus lit. "bent 
up", i. e. raised, high, in meaning of unnata. Cp. the 
exactly similar formation, use & meaning of ninna = 
ninnata. Thus unna > ninna would correspond to un- 
nata > ninnata. 

Unnaka [etym.?] a species of perfume J vi 537 (gloss 

Unnangala (adj.) [ud 4- nangala, on meaning of ud in this 
case see ud] in phrase °g karoti, according to Morris, 
y F TS. 1887, I20 "to make an up-ploughing, to turn 
up etc.", but more aptly with C. on J vi.328 to make 

"out-plough" {not "up-plough") in sense of out-of-work, 
i. e. to make the people put their ploughs (or work in 
general) away and prepare for a festival; to take a holi- 
day. A typical "Jataka"-phrase ; J 1.228; n.296, 367; ill. 
129, 414; IV.355; VI.328; DhA III. 10. 

Unnata [pp. of unnamati. Besides this form we find unnata 

in fig. special meaning, q. v.] raised, high, lufiy, in high 
situation (opp. onata) Pv iv.6" (= sarain PvA 262); J 
1. 71; II 369; VI 487; Miln 146, 387; DA 1.45 See also 

Unnati (f) [fr. unnamati; cp. uiinati] rising, lifting up, 
elevation Miln 387 (^avnnati). 

Unnadati [ud -)- nadati] to resound, shout out, roar J i.ilo; 
II 90; 111.271, 325; Miln 18; aor. unnadi J 174; Miln 
13. — Caus. unnadeti (q. v ). 

Unnama [fr ud-)-nam; cp. also unnama in fig. meaning] 
rising ground, elevation, plateau Kh VII.7 = Pv 1.5' (= 
thala unnata-padesa PvA 29); Miln 349; DA 1.154. 

Unnamati [ud -f- namati, see unnamati in fig. meaning] to 
rise up, ascend Miln 117 (onamati -|-); Vism 306. — Caus. 
unnameti (q. v.). — pp. unnara & unnata (q. v.). 

Unnala & Unnala (adj.) [Bdhgh. has ud + nala; but it is 
either a dissimilated form for ■■'uUala (n > 1 change freq., 
cp. P. nangala > langala; nalata > lalata) from ud -)- lal 
to sport, thus meaning "sporting, sporty, wild" etc. ; or 
(still more likely) with Kern, Toev. s. v. a dial, form of 
unnata P. unnata, although the P. Commentators never 
thought of that. Cp. with this the BSk. unnata in same 
stock phrase uddhata unnata capala M Vastu 1.305, and 
the Maralhic Prk. mula =: Sk. mrta, Pischel, Gr. § 244. 
To these may be added P. celakedu > cetakedu J 
VI. 538] showing off, insolent, arrogant, proud, haughty, 
in phrase uddbata unnala capala M 1.32; S 1.61 = 204 
(trsld- as "muddled in mind, puffed up, vain", expl<^- as 
uggala-nala uddhata-tuccha-mana K. S. 318); A 1.70, 266; 
n.26; III 199, 355, 391; It 113 (+ asamahita); Dh 292 
(•j- pamalta; explJ. as "mana-nalai) ukkhipitva caranena 
unnala" DhA 111.452); Th i, 634; Pug 35 (^ uggata- 
nalo tuccha-manar) ukkhipitv.i ti attho PugA 217). 

Unnahana (f.) [ud -f nah, see nayhati] flattering, tying 
or pushing oneself on to somebody, begging Vism 27. 

Unnada [fr. ud + nad] shout, shouting J 11 405. 

Unnadin (adj.) [fr. ud -f nad] shouting out; resounding, 
noisy, loud, tumultuous Vin 111.336; D 1.95, 143, J 78; 
J 11.216. 

Unnadeti [Caus. of unnadati] to make resound J 1.408 
(pathaviq); 11.34. 

Unnamin (adj ) [ud -f- nam in Caus. form] raisjng or rising; 
in comb" with ninnamin raised & bent, high & low A 

IV. 237 (of cultivated land). 

Unnameti (unn°) [Caus. of unnamati] to raise DhsA 5; 
written unnameti (with a for a before mutes & liquids) 
at Sn 206 (inf. uijnametave). 

Upa — [Vedic upa; Av. upa on, up; Gr. iito under, t/a-ep 
over; Lat. sub fr. *(e)ks-upo; Goth, uf under & on; Ohg. 
uf := Ags. up ^ E. up; Oir. fo under. See also upari] 
prefix denoting nearness or close touch (cp. similarly a), 
usually with the idea of approach from below or rest on 
top , on, upon, up, by. — In compn- a upa is always 
contracted to flpa, e. g. devOpatthana, lokupaga, puiiiiu- 
palthambhita. — Meanings: (1) (Rest): on upon, up — : 
■^kinna covered over; "jivati live on (cp. anu°); °ttham- 
bhita propped up, sup-ported; °cita heaped up, ac-cumulated; 
"dhareti hold or take up; °nata bent on; "nissaya foun- 
dation; °nissita depending on etc. — (2) (Aim): (out) 





up to (the speaker or hearer); cp. the meaniogs developed 
out of this as 'higher, above" in upara, upari, upama := 
Lat. superus, supremus E. g. °kaddhati drag on to ; °kap- 
pati come to, accrue; "kappana ad-ministering; 'kara ser- 
vice to; "kkhata administered; "gacchati go to, ap-proach 
(cp. upatigacchati) ; "disati ad-vise: "dhavati run up to: 
''nadati to sound out; "nikkhamati come out up to; "nise- 
vita gone on to or after; "neti bring on to; etc. — (3) 
(Nearness): close by, close to, near, "ad-"; e.g. °kannaka 
close to the ear; ^cSra ap-plication; "tthana at-tending; 
tthita ap-proached; "titthati stand by, look after; °dduta 
urged; "nameti place close to; "^nibandhati tie close to; 
°nisidati sit close to or down by. — (4) (Intensive use): 
<iuite, altogether, "up"; e.g. "antika quite near; "chindati 
cut up. — (5) (Diminutive use as in Lat. subabsurdus; 
Gr. i/T^Ao/xo; whitish; Oir. fo-dord; Cymr. go-durdd 
murmur): nearly, about, somewhat, a little, secondary, 
by — , miniature, made after the style of, e. g. °addha 
about half; "'kacchaka like a little hollow; "kandakin 
(= "pandukin? whitish); "deva a minor god; °nibha some- 
what similar to; ''nila bluish; upapurohita minor priest; 
uparajja viceroyalty; upalohitaka, uparopa; °vana a little 
forest, etc. Au/i". The nearest semantic affinity of upa is a". 

Upaka ( — °) [for °upaga] found only in comli"- kultlpaka 
where second k stands for g. through assimilation with 
first k. Only with ref. to a bhikkhu = one who frequents 
a certain family (for the purpose of getting alms), a family 
friend, associate Vin 1.192, 208; III. 84; S 11.200 sq. ; A 
111.258 sq.; Nd-: 385'; Pv lli.8»; PvA 266. — f kulti- 
pika (bhikkhuni) Vin 11.268; iv.66. — Sporadic in gayh- 
upaka (for °upaga) at J IV. 219. 

UpakaCCha (° — ) [upa + kaccha'] only in comb"- with 
''antare lit. "in between the hips or loins or arm-pits", 
in 3 phrases (cp. Kern, Toev. 11.140 s. v.), viz. upakac- 
chantare katva taking (it) between the legs J 1.63, 425, 
khipitva throwing (it) into the armpits J v. 21 1 & tha- 
petva id. J v.46. 

UpakaCChaka [upa -f kaccha -)- ka, cp. Sk. upakaksa in 
diff. meaning] (l) [= upa + kaccha' + ^^ ''l^^ "" enclo- 
sure, adj. in the form of a hollow or a shelter J 1.158. 
(2) [= upa -|- kaccha'^ -|- ^^ '"'^'^ 'he armpit, a hollow, 
usually the armpit, but occasionally it seems to be applied 
to the hip or waist Vin 111.39; iv.260 (pudendum mulie- 
bre); Miln 293; J v.437 (= kaccha'^). 

Upakattha (adj.) [pp. of upa 4- karS to draw up or near 
to] approaching, near J iv.213 (yava upakattha-majjhantika 
till nearly noon). Usually in foil, two phrases: upakatthe 
kale when the time was near, i. e. at the approach of 
mealtime Vin iv.175; VvA 6, 294; and upakatthaya 
vassdpanayikaya as Lent was approaching Vin 1.253; 
PvA 42; VvA 44. Cp. vupakattha. — loc. upakatthe as 
adv. or prep, 'near, in the neighbourhood oT' Nd^ 639 
(=santike); Davs v.41 (so read for upakanthe). 

Upaka(}(Jhat] [upa -j- kaddhati, cp. upakattha] to drag or 
pull on to (w. dat.), or down to D 1.180 (+ apakadd- 
hati); 111.127 (id.); M 1.365; S 1.49; 11.99; Dh 311 
(nirayaya = niraye nibbattapeti DhA III.484). 

Upakai^^tha at Davs V.41 is to be corrected to upakattha. 

Upakao(}akin (Pv It.i") see under uppai^dukin. 

Upakaooa (°— ) [upa + kanpa] lit. (spot) near the ear, only 
in oblique cases or in der. °ka (q. v.) Th I, 200 (upa- 
kaijnamhi close to the ear, under the ear). 

UpakaOQaka (adj.) [upa + kappa + ka) by the ear, being 
at or on the ear of somebody, only in loc. as adv. upa- 
kapnake secretly Vin 1.237; "-99; 'v.20, 271; S 1.86; 
A 111.57; SnA 186; and in cpd. 'jappin one who whis- 
pers into the ear (of another), spreader of reports A III. 
136. Cp. kappajappaka & kanpajappana. 

Upakappatl [upa -\- kappati] intrs.) to be beneficial to (w. 
dat.), to serve, to accrue S 1.85; Pv 1.4* (== nippajjati 
Pv.\ 19); 1.5' (petanaq);* (^ viniyujjati PvA 49); 
J ^-35°; VtK 8, 29 (petanar)), 27 (id.), 241; Sdhp 
501, 504. 

Upakappana (m.) [fr. upakappatl] profit PvA 29 (dan"), 

49 (an°). 

upakappana] profitable J 1.398 ; 

Upakappanaka (adj.) [fr. 

DhA 11.133. 

Upakaraoa (nt.) [fr. upa -f kf] help, service, support; 
means of existence, livelihood D 11.340; A 11.86; J 1.7; 
PvA 60 (commodities), 133 (°manussa, adj. suitable, fit); 
Sdhp 69. In general any instrument or means of achieving 
a pui'pose, viz. apparatus of a ship J IV. 165 ; tunnavaya° 
a weaver's outfit J 11.364; dabb° fit to be used as wood 
Vism 120; dan° materials for a gift PvA 105 (so read 
& cp. upakkhata); nahan° bathing requisites VvA 248; 
Vitt° luxuries A v.264 sq., 283, 290 sq.; PvA 71. 

Upakaroti [upa \- karoti] to do a service, serve, help, sup- 
port Th 2, 89 (aor. upakasiij =r anuganhirj santappesii) 
ThA 88). — pp. upakkhata (q. v.). 

Upakara [fr. upa -)- kf, cp. upakarana] service, help, be- 
nefit, obligation, favour D 111.187 sq.; VaA 68; PvA 8, 
18 (°aya hoti is good for); Sdhp 283, 447, 530. — 
bahi^pakara (adj.) of great help, very serviceable or 
helpful S IV. 295; PvA 114. upakaraij karoti to do a 
favour, to oblige PvA 42, 88, 159 (kata); katupakara 
one to whom a service has been rendered PvA 116. 
-avaha useful, serviceable, doing good PvA 86. 

Upakaraka (adj.) [fr. upakara] serviceable, helping, effec- 
tive J v.99; Vism 534. — f. upakarika i. [benefactress, 
helper J in. 437. — 2. fortification (strengthening of the 
defence) on a city wall D 1. 105, see DA 1.274 & cp. 
parikkhara. — 3. (philosophy) = cause (that which is an 
aid in the persistence or happening of any given thing) 
Tikapatthana i.ii. 

Upakarin (adj.-n.) [fr. upakara; cp. ASk. upakarin Jtm. 
31'^] a benefactor M 1.86; J ill. 11; DA 1. 187; Sdhp 
540, 546. 

Upaki^lja [pp. of upakirati] strewn over with ( — °), covered 
Vv 35' (rucak°, so read for rajak°; expl"! by okinna 
VvA 160). 

Upakiriya (f) [fr. upa -j- kr] implement, ornament J v.408. 

Upakujatl [upa -\- kSjati] to sing to (of birds) J IV.296 
(knjantai] u. = replies w. song to the singing). — pp. 
upakujita (q. v.). 

Upakujita ( — ") [pp. of upakajati] resounding, filled with 
the hum or song of (birds) J iv.359; PvA 154. 

Upakula [upa -|- kSla] embankment, a river's bank, river- 
side J VI.26 (rukkh'ilpakulaje the trees sprung up at 
its bank). 

Upakulita [derivation uncertain] used of the nose in old 
age Th 2, 258 (jaraya pa^isedhika viya says the com- 
mentary. Morris J P TS. 1884, 74 trsl«- obstructed; Mrs. 
Kh. D. in "Sis/ers" takes it for upakDlita and trsU- seared 
and shrivelled. So also Ed. MUller j K A S. 1919. 538. 
This is probably right; but Oldenberg, Pischel and Hardy 
all read upakUlita. 

Upakulita [pp. of ku<J, a variant of kuth, kvathati] singed, 
boiled, roasted J 1.405 ("half-roasled" := addhajjhamaka C). 
See also upakusita. 

Upakusita at J 11.134 is perhaps faulty for "kulita, which 
is suggested by C. expl"' "kukkule jhamo" and also by 
V. 1. °kujhita (for ka(thita boiled, sweltering, hot). The 




variant (gloss) "knjita mny have the same origin, viz. 
"kulita, was however interpreted (v. 1. BB.) by "kupita 
(meaning "shaken, disturbed by fire"). 

Upakka see uppakka. 

Upakkanta [pp. of upakkamati] I. attacked by ( — °) Miln 
112. — 2. attacking, intriguing or plotting against (loc.) 
DA 1. 1 40. 

Upakkama [fr. upa + kratn] (l) lit. (a) going to, nearing, 
approach ( — °) VvA 72. — (b) attack Vin II. 195; Miln 
157; DA 1.69, 71. — (2) applied (a) in general: doing, 
acting, undertaking, act S 1. 152 = Sn p. 126. — (b) in 
special: ways, means, i.e. either good of helpful means, 
expedient, remedy Sn 575; Miln 151, 152; or bad or 
unfair means, treachery, plotting Th I, 143; J IV. 115 
(punishment); Miln 135, 176. 

Upakkamati [upa + kamati of kram] to go on to, i. e. 

(I) to attack M 1.86 ;= Ud 71. — (2) to undertake Vin 
lll.lio. III. — (3) to begin Vin IV.316; DA 1.318. 

Upakkamana (nt.) [fr. upa 4- kram] going near to, attacking 
J IV. 1 2. 

Upakkitaka [fr. upa -f kri to buy] a buyer, hawker, dealer 
comb''- with bliataka DhA 1. 119 = I'd 23 (C. expl^ by 
"yo kahapanadlhi kinci kinati so upakkitako ti vuccali"); 
Ps 11.196 (? T. upakkhittaka). 

Upakkilittha [pp. of upa -|- kHd or klis, cp. kilesa & next] 
soiled, stained, depraved, impure S 1.179; A 1.207 (citta); 
Vism 13. 

Upakkilesa [fr. upa -{■ kliS] anything that spoils or obstructs, 
a minor stain, impurity, defilement, depravity, Vin 11.295 
(cp. SnA 487 & VvA 134 & see abbha); M 1.36, 91; D 
111.42 sq., 49 sq., 201; S V.92 sq. (panca cittassa upak- 
kilesa), 108, 115; A I.IO (agantuka), 207 (cittassa), 253 
(olarika etc.); n.53 (candima-suriyanar) samana-brahma- 
nanari), 67: 111.16 (jatartipassa, cittassa), 3S6 sq.; IV.177 
(vigata); v. 195; Ps 1.164 (eighteen); Pug 60; Dhs 1059, 
1 1 36; Nett 86 sq., 94, 114 sq.; Sdhp 216, 225 (as 
upaklesa). Ten stains at Vism 633. 

Upakkuttha [pp. of upakkosati] blamed, reproached, cen- 
sured, faulty D 1. 113 (an°); Sn p. 115 (id.); J 111.523; 
DA 1.2 1 1. 

UpakkOSa [fr. upa -|- kru§] censure, reproach J vi.489. 

Upakkosati [upa -|- kosati] to scold, reprove, l)Iame D I. 
161; J 111.436, 523; iv.8i, 317, 409. 

Upakkhata & "ta [pp. of upakaroti] done as a favour or 
service, given, prepared, administered D 1.1^7 (= sajjita 
DA 1.294); Pv ir.8«(= sajjita PvA 107); J VI. 139; Miln 156. 

Upakkhalati [upa -f- khalati] to stumble, hip I) 11.250; 
M 11209; A iii.ioi; J 111.433. 

Upakkhalana (ut.) [fr. prec] stumbling, tripping Vism 500. 

Upakkhittaka at Ps 11. 196 see upakk°. 

Upakhandha [upa -\- khandha] lit. upper (side of the) 
trunk, back, shoulder J iv.210 (= khandha C). 

Upaga (always as °upaga) (adj.) [upa -f- ga] — I. going to, 
getting to, reaching, in phrases kay°,S 11.24; akas'anaiic'aya- 
tan° et