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SB241 

.B7 



Brown, William Henry 

Philippine fiber plants 



Philippine Fiber Plants 



By William H. Brown, Ph. D, 

Chief, Division of Investigation, Bureau of Forestry; Professor of Botany, 

University of the Philippines; and Plant Physiologist, 

Bureau of Science 




Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources 
Bureau of Forestry 

Bulletin No. 19 

Arthur F. Fischer , Director of Forestry 



166677 



MANILA 
BUREAU OF PRINTING 

1919 



Philippine Fiber Plants 



By William H, Brown, Ph. D, 

Chief, Division of Investigation, Bureau of Forestry; Professor of Botany, 

University of the Philippines; and Plant Physiologist, 

Bureau of Science 




Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources 
Bureau of Forestry 

Bulletin No. 19 

Arthur F. Fischer, Director of Forestry 



MANILA 
BUREAU OF PRINTING 
1919 
166677 



CONTENTS 

Page. 

Illustrations '^ 

Preface ^ 

Introduction 11 

Descriptions of Species 15 

Family Polypodiaceae 15 

Dryopteris - - 15 

Nephrolepis 15 

Stenochlaena 15 

Family Gleicheniaceae 18 

Gleichenia 1^ 

Family Schizaeaceae 18 

Lygodium 18 

Family Gnetaceae 20 

Gnetum 20 

Family Typhaceae 22 

Typha 22 

Family Pandanaceae 24 

Pandanus 24 

Family Gramineae ^^ 

Andropogon ^^ 

Apluda ^1 

Coix ^1 

Eleusine - ^2 

Imperata ^2 

Ischaemum ^2 

Miscanthus ^^ 

Oryza ^^ 

Phragmites 34 

Saccharum ^^ 

Sporobolus 36 

Thysanolaena 38 

Family Cyperaceae 38 

Cyperus 38 

Fimbristylis ■- 40 

Rhynchospora 44 

Scirpiodendron 44 

Scirpus 45 



4 CONTENTS 

Descriptions of Species — Continued. Page. 

Family Araceae 

Epipremnum 

Pothoidium 

Pothos 

Raphidophora 

Scindapsus 

Family Flagellariaceae 

Flagellaria 

Family Bromeliaceae 

Ananas 

Family Juncaceae 

Juncus 

Family Liliaceae 

Sansevieria 

Family Amaryllidaceae 

Agave 

Curculigo 

Family Musaceae 

Musa : 

Family Zingiberaceae 

Amomum 

Family Marantaceae 

Donax 

Family Orchidaceae 

Dendrobium 

Vanilla 

Family Ulmaceae 

Trema 

Family Moraceae 

Allaeanthus 

Antiaris 

Artocarpus 

Ficus 

Malaisia 

Family Urticaceae 

Boehmeria 

Leucosyke 

Family Menispermaceae 

Anamirta 

'. Pericampylus 



CONTENTS 5 

Descriptions of Species — Continued. Page. 

Family Annonaceae 67 

Goniothalamus 67 

Phaeanthus 68 

Polyalthia 68 

Family Connaraceae 68 

Agelaea '. 68 

Rourea 70 

Family Leguminosae 70 

Abrus 70 

Bauhinia 71 

Pongamia 71 

Family Vitaceae 71 

Cissus 71 

Family Sapindaceae 72 

Sapindus 72 

Family Rhamnaceae 72 

Alphitonia 72 

Family Elaeocarpaceae 73 

Elaeocarpus 73 

Family Tiliaceae 73 

Columbia '73 

Corchorus 74 

Diplodiscus 75 

Grewia 76 

Muntingia 77 

Triumfetta 78 

Family Malvaceae 78 

Abelmoschus -- 78 

Bombycidendron 78 

Hibiscus 79 

Malachra 79 

Malvastrum 80 

Sida 82 

Thespesia 83 

Urena 83 

Family Bombacaceae 84 

Bombax 84 

Ceiba 86 

Family Sterculiaceae 87 

Abroma 87 

Commersonia 88 



g CONTENTS 

Descriptions of Species — Continued. Page. 

Family Sterculiaceae — Continued. 

Helicteres - ^^ 

Kleinhovia 89 

Melochia 89 

Pterocymbium 90 

Pterospermum 90 

Sterculia 92 

Family Thymelaeaceae 95 

Aquilaria 95 

Phaleria 95 

Wikstroemia 95 

Family Myrsinaceae 98 

Maesa 98 

Family Loganiaceae 98 

Strychnos 98 

Family Apocynaceae 98 

Ichnocarpus 98 

Parameria 99 

Urceola 99 

Family Asclepiadaceae 99 

Asclepias 99 

Streptocaulon 100 

Family Convolvulaceae 100 

Merremia 100 

Operculina 100 

Family Boraginaceae 101 

Cordia 101 

Family Caprifoliaceae 101 

Lonicera 101 

List of Species Used for Various Purposes 102 

Index 105 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate I 

Page. 

Stenochlaena pahisty^s (diliman) 16 

Plate II 
Gleichenia linearis (kilob) 17 

Plate III 
Gleichenia linearis (kilob) 19 

Plate IV 
Lygodiwm circinnatum (nito) 21 

Plate V 
Typha angustifolia (cat-tail) 23 

Plate VI 
Pandamis sabotan (sabutan) 25 

Plate VII 

Fig. 1. Pandamis simplex (karagomoi) 27 

2. Pandamis tectorins (common pandan) 27 

3. Pandanus simplex (karagomoi) 27 

Plate VIII 
Pandamis fectorius (common pandan) 29 

Plate IX 
Ischaeinum angiistifoUum (kobboot) 33 

Plate X 
Phragmites vulga7'is (tambo) 35 

Plate XI 
Phraginites vulgaris (tambo) -- 37 

Plate XII 
Thysanolaena maxima (lasa or tiger grass) - 39 

Plate XIII 
Cyperus malaccensis (balanggot) 41 

Plate XIV 
Cyperus malaccensis (balanggot) 42 

Plate XV 
Fimhristylis globulosa {iitilis) (tikug) 43 

7 



8 ILLUSTRATIONS 

Plate XVI 

Page. 
PotJios niinphii . 47 

Plate XVII 
Raphidophora merriUii (amlong) 49 

Plate XVIII 
Raphidophora merriUu (amlong) 50 

Plate XIX 
FlageUaria indica (baling-uai) 51 

Plate XX 
Juncus effusus (pinggot) 53 

Plate XXI 
Musa textilis (Manila hemp or abaka) 55 

Plate XXII 

Fig. 1. Dendrobium crumenatum (irau) 59 

2. Donax cannaeforinis (bamban) 59 

Plate XXIII 
Artocarpus communis (antipole) 63 

Plate XXIV 
Pericampylus glaucus (pamago) 69 

Plate XXV 
Hibiscus filiaceus (malubago) 81 

Plate XXVI 
Urena lobata (kollokoUot) 85 

Plate XXVII 
Pterocymbium tinctorium (taluto) 91 

Plate XXVIII 
Wikstroemia meyeniana (large-leaf salago) 97 



PREFACE 

This bulletin is intended to give a catalogue and a short 
account of the fiber plants, other than bamboos and palms, 
which are found in the Philippine forests. The bamboos and 
palms have been treated in previous bulletins. As no sharp 
line can be drav^n betv^een plants of the forest and other wild 
plants, it has seemed desirable to include in this discussion all 
wild fiber plants. This is particularly so since a large part 
of the waste land in the Philippines is under the administration 
of the Bureau of Forestry. The number of cultivated fiber 
plants is very small as compared with the number of wild ones. 
In view of this fact the more important cultivated ones are 
briefly discussed for the sake of completeness. 

The list of fiber plants is probably far from complete, but 
is much more nearly so than any list that has previously 
appeared. 

Local names and descriptions are given for the various 
species. The local names may be of great assistance, but are 
far from being infallible guides to the identification of the 
species, as the local names vary in different localities, and even 
in single localities may be applied to different species or groups 
of species. The descriptions are intended to give an idea of 
the kind of plant and to enable one to check a determination 
made from local names. With the help of the local names and 
the descriptions it is believed that in most cases it will be fairly 
easy to identify the species correctly. 

The spelling of the local names has been corrected by 
Mr. E. E. Schneider, Wood Expert of the Bureau of Forestry, 
who is very familiar with a number of the local languages and 
who has taken interest in the proper spelling of Philippine words. 
Plates II to XXIII and Plate XXV were borrowed from the 
Bureau of Education and are from bulletins dealing with fiber 
plants used in industrial work in schools. The writer is greatly 
indebted to Mr. E. D. Merrill of the Bureau of Science for 
valuable assistance in the preparation of this bulletin. For all 
of the above assistance the writer desires here to express his 
grateful appreciation. 

William H. Brown. 



\ 

PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

By William H. Brown 
INTRODUCTION 

With the great variety of plants occurring in the Philippines 
it is not surprising to find a large number which produce useful 
fibers. Most of the fibers derived from the wild plants are, 
however, of little economic value and are used very locally for 
making inferior grades of ropes or for other minor purposes. 
However, some of them, as in the case of the buri, pandan, 
rattans, and bamboos, are the bases of considerable industries; 
while abaka (Manila hemp), which produces the premier cord- 
age of the world, is a native of the Philippines. The use of 
Philippine fibers in the manufacture of hats has been extensively 
discussed by Miller * and Robinson.t Muller J has written a 
very good account of the various Philippine fibers used in the 
industrial work of the schools. A short account of some plants 
producing bast used in making ropes is given by Mendiola § ; 
while King has written a very extensive and detailed discussion 
of the mechanical properties of a large number of bast fibers 
used in rope manufacture. 

Some of the most useful fibers which can be considered as 
forest products are derived from palms and bamboos, and have 
been discussed in bulletins dealing with these plants. They 
are used in the manufacture of hats, baskets, mats, furniture, 
ropes, thatching, etc. 

* Miller, H. H,, Philippine hats. Bureau of Education Bulletin Number 
33 (1910). 

t Robinson, C. B., Philippine hats. Philippine Journal of Science, 
Volume VI (1911), pages 93 to 131. 

t Muller, T., Industrial fiber plants of the Philippines. Bureau of Edu- 
cation Bulletin Number 49 (1913). 

§ Mendiola, N. B., A study of Philippine bast fibers. Philippine Agri- 
culturist and Forester, Volume VI (1917), pages 6 to 39. 

li King, A. E. W., Mechanical properties of Philippine bast fiber rope. 
Philippine Journal of Science, Volume XIV (1919). 

11 



12 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Philippine bast fibers are derived from plants ranging in 
size from small shrubs to large trees and belonging chiefly to 
the families Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae, Malvaceae, and Moraceae. 
As yet none of these fibers have entered into the external 
commerce of the Islands, but their manufacture into ropes is 
an important local industry. Mendiola has made a microscopic 
study of a number of these fibers and has given some data on 
the cost of production and the tensile strength of ropes made 
from them. The fibers studied by Mendiola were the basts of 
Ahroma fastuosa, Kleinhovia hospita, Melochia umbellata, Urena 
lobata, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Malachra capitata, Triumfetta bar- 
tramia, Grewia multiflora, Pipturus arborescens, Sesbania 
grandiflora, Columbia serratifolia, Malachra fasciata, and Wiks- 
troemia ovata. From the figures given by Mendiola it v^ould 
appear that, with labor at 80 centavos a day, the cost of manu- 
facture (not including the collection) of these fibers into rope 
would be greater than the present selling price; from which 
it would appear that there is little prospect of any considerable 
industry in the manufacture of such rope. However, as a local 
industry between seasons, it does afford a man an opportunity 
to utilize his spare time profitably. Some of these bast fibers, 
notably Abroma fastuosa and Urena lobata, have been considered 
as having great commercial possibilities. This subject has been 
extensively dealt with by King. 

In Table I, taken from King, is shown the relative strength 
of various bast fibers both dry and wet, as compared with abaka 
and other standard fibers. Except where noted, the ropes were 
made by the plane-stripping process and so the strands con- 
tained considerable extraneous tissue in addition to the bast. 
Data from King are given in discussions of the various fibers 
studied by him. 

Table II gives the dimensions of the various fibers studied 
by Mendiola. 



INTRODUCTION 



13 



Table I. — Rope made of Philippine fibers arranged in the order of mean 
dry tensile strength, beginning with the strongest and ending with- 
the weakest. 

[Data from King.] 



Species. 



Mean tensile strength. 



Dry. 



Per 

square 
centi- 
meter. 



Per 
square 
inch. 



Wet. 



Per 
square 
centi- 
meter. 



Per 
square 
inch. 



ROPE MADE OF BAST FIBERS. 

Gnetuni sp. .- 

Ficus palawanensis 

Abroma fastuosa (retted) 

Malachra fasciata 

Bomhycideyidron vidalianum 

Abroma fastuosa (crude strips) 

Cor chorus olitorius 

Urena lobata 

Ficus benjamina 

Sida acuta 

Ficus pachyphylla 

Helicteres hirsiita 

Bombax ceiba 

Sterculia oblongata 

Sterculia crassiramea 

Grewia eriocarpa 

Commersonia bartramia 

Cordia cumingiana 

Pterocymbium tinctorium 

Grewia multiftora 

Artocarpus communis (old bast) 

Artocarpus com.munis (young bast) 

Goniothalamus am,uyon 

Cordia myxa 

Grewia bilamellata 

Kleinhovia hospita 

Columbia blancoi 

Sterculia stipularis ._. 

Thespesia lampas 

Pterospermum diver sifolium, 

Allaeanthus glaber 

Sterculia foetida 

Ficus forstenii 

Trema orientalis 



Kilos. 
773 
752 
643 
637 
630 
545 
503 
482 
480 
475 
464 
438 
405 



Average 



394 
392 
388 
381 
376 
367 
356 
345 
324 
320 
309 
302 



231 
200 
154 
134 

406 



Pounds. 

11,100 
10,700 
9,100 
9,030 
8,940 
7,760 
7,130 
6,850 
6,830 
6.740 
6,600 
6.230 
5,720 
5,650 
5,660 
5.630 
5,580 
5,500 
5,420 
5,360 
5,220 
5,070 
4,940 
4,610 
4,570 
4,370 
4,270 
3,800 
3,800 
3.740 
3,290 
2,840 
2.200 
1.920 

5.770 



Kilos. 

1.000 
766 



543 
468 
319 
360 
366 
471 
502 
544 
396 
351 
291 
308 
381 
266 
364 
435 
332 



Pounds. 

14,500 
10.900 



340 
293 
263 
180 
286 
306 
366 
291 
261 
253 
200 
222 
262 

375 



7.700 
6,670 
4.530 
5.100 
5.200 
6.700 
7.190 
7.760 
5.620 
4.960 
4.130 
4,380 
5,450 
3,780 
5,160 
6,180 
4,730 



4,830 
4.180 
3.730 
2.570 
4.070 
4,340 
5,200 
4,130 
3,690 
3,590 
2,840 
3,160 
3,720 



24 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Table I. — Rope made of Philippine fibers arranged, etc. — Continued 







Mean tensile strength. 


Dry. 


Wet. 




Species. 












Per 
square 
centi- 
meter. 


Per 
square 
inch. 


Per 
square 
centi- 
meter. 


Per 
square 
inch. 

i 




ROPE MADE OF MISCELLANEOUS FIBERS. 


Kilos. 


Pounds. 


Kilos. 


Pounds. 


1 ' Musa textilis (grade '*G" abaka rope 16 mm in cir- 












cumference) . - ...._---- 


1,110 


15,700 


1,180 


16.700 


2 


Musa textilis (grade "F" abaka rope 15 mm in cir- 










3 


cumference) --- 


974 


13,800 


923 


13,100 


Musa textilis (grade "F" abaka rope 31 mm in cir- 






943 


13, 400 


946 


13.500 


4 


Musa textilis (grade "G" abaka rope 26 mm in cir- 






744 


10,600 


759 


10,800 






739 


10,400 


651 


9.220 i 


6 




237 


3,380 


179 


2.540 


7 


Corypha elata (leaf of palm) 


232 


3,300 




! 


8 


Coryphaelata ("buntal;" vascular fibers in petioles). 


222 


3,150 


257 


3,650 1 


9 


Cocos nucifera (rope 50 mm in circumference) 


185 


2,640 


136 


1.940 


10 


Cocos nucifera (rope 24 mm in circumference) 


176 


2,490 


148 


2.100 


11 


Cocos nucifera (rope 44 mm in circumference) 


170 


2,420 


146 


2,070 


12 


Anamirta cocculus (rope made from entire stems) .. 


149 


2,120 


110 


1,570 


13 


A motitum sj), - - 






325 


4,600 


Average - 


1 


490 


6.950 


480 


6.816 





Table II. — Dimensions of some Philippine bast fibers. 

[Data from Mendiola.] 







Length. 




Diameter. 


















1 


Fibers. 










Total. 






Lumen. 




Maxi- 


Aver- 


Mini- 


Maxi- 


Aver- 


Mini- 


Maxi- 


Aver- 


Mini- 




mum, 


age. 


mum. 


mum. 


age. 


mum. 


mum. 


age. 


mum. 




mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


1 
mm. 


Abrotna fastuosa 


4.240 


2.213 


L360 


0.039 


0.017 


0.006 


0.001 


0.005 


0.002 ' 


Kleinhovia hospita 


2.400 


L518 


.933 


.031 


.015 


.008 


.007 


.005 


.001 


Melochia umbellata 


3.067 


2.045 


L107 


.027 


.016 


.011 


.012 


.007 


.003 




2.547 
4.493 


1.442 
2.758 


.973 
1.560 


.027 
.029 


.013 
.015 


.009 
.007 


.005 
.011 


.003 
.007 


.002 i 
.002 


Malachra capitata 


Triumfetta bartramia . 


2.827 


2.027 


1.133 


.027 


.016 


.009 


.006 


.004 


.001 


Grewia multifiora 


2.707 


1.843 


1.067 


.024 


.015 


.006 


.005 


.003 


.001 


Pipturus arborescens .. 


6.000 


5.054 


3.773 


.100 


.069 


.042 


.078 


.044 


.017 


Sesbania grandiflora .. 


3.760 


2.737 


1.800 


.037 


.022 


.008 


.023 


.010 


.001 


Columbia serratifolia.. 


2.533 


1.593 


.960 


.027 


.014 


.005 


.001 


.004 


.008 


Malachra fasciata 


5.067 


2.014 


1.200 


.042 


.016 


.006 


.015 


.007 


.003 


Wikstroemia ovata 


4.240 


2.972 


L653 


.021 


.012 


.003 


.004 


.002 


.001 



DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES 
Family POLYPODIACEAE 

Genus DRYOPTERIS 
DRYOPTERIS PTEROIDES O. Kuntze. LoKDO. 

Local name: Lokdo (Samar). 

In some parts of the Philippines the stems of this fern are 
crushed and the cord-like vascular bundles extracted for use 
as decorative weaves in baskets. The fibers, however, are of 
inferior quality. 

This species is common and widely distributed, usually grow- 
ing in thickets on hillsides and in valleys at low and medium 
altitudes. The fronds are tufted, pinnate, and usually about 1 
meter in height. 

Genus NEPHROLEPIS 

NEPHROLEPIS HIRSUTULA Presl. Alolokdo. 

Local names: Alolokdo, lokdo, pako-pako (Bisaya) ; bayangbdng (Ba- 
tanes Islands) ; hagndya (Tayabas) ; korokalasdg (Bikol) ; lagunton 
(Abra) ; pako (Polillo). 

The fibro-vascular bundles of the stems of this plant are some- 
times extracted and used to a very limited extent in the 
manufacture of hats, mats, and baskets. 

Nephrolepis hirsutula is a coarse fern with creeping root- 
stocks. The narrow pinnate fronds are from 0.3 to 1.2 meters 
in length and 8 to 15 centimeters wide. The plant grows 
both in the ground and as an epiphyte, and is commonly cul- 
tivated for ornamental purposes. It is widely distributed at 
low and medium altitudes in the Philippines. 

Genus STENOCHLAENA 

STENOCHLAENA PALUSTRIS (Burm.) Bedd. (Plate I). DiLIMAN. 

Local names: Agndya, hagndya (Laguna, Tayabas, Marinduque, Leyte, 
Camarines, Capiz, Hollo, Palawan, Agusan) ; dilimdn (Pangasinan, Pam- 
panga, Bataan, Bulacan, Laguna, Iloilo, Occidental Negros) ; gilimdn (Pam- 
panga) ; lanas (Apayao). 

The stems of this fern are noted for their durability when 
submerged in salt water, and for this reason are in great de- 
mand for tying together the bamboo frames of which fish 
traps are made. The stems are usually from 2 to 4 meters 

15 



16 



PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 




PLATE I. STENOCHLAENA PALUSTRIS (DILIMAN). 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



17 




PLATE II. GLEICHENIA LINEARIS (KIL6B), 



166677 2 



Ig PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

in length. They are gathered, dried, tied into bundles, and in 
this form are brought to Manila in considerable quantities. 
From a commercial standpoint Stenochlaena palustris is un- 
doubtedly the most important of the ferns in the Philippines, 
as the stems supply by far the best local material for the 
special purpose mentioned above. As fishing with traps is a 
very important local industry, Stenochlaena enters into the 
economic life of the Filipinos to a considerable extent. During 
the year 1918, forest charges were paid on 156,456 kilos of dili- 
man. This fern is also used for making ropes and occasionally 
baskets, but it is inferior for the latter purpose. 

The young shoots are eaten either raw as a salad or cooked. 

Stenochlaena palustris is a coarse, climbing fern of indefinite 
length. The stems are brown, smooth, somewhat less than 1 
centimeter in diameter and sparingly branched. The sterile 
fronds are up to 80 centimeters in length and pinnate, with 
pinnae 10 to 12 centimeters long and about 8.5 centimeters wide. 
The fertile fronds are somewhat shorter than the sterile ones and 
about 3 millimeters wide. This fern is widely distributed in 
thickets, usually in swampy places near the sea. 

Family GLEICHENIACEAE 

Genus GLEICHENIA 

GLEICHENIA LINEARIS (Burm.) Clarke. (Plates II, III). KiLOB. 

Local names: Gapingoi (Benguet) ; kilog, kilob and tilub (Tagalog). 

Splints are prepared by cracking the outer covering of the 
very long leaf-stalks and pulling out the ribbon-like vascular 
bundles. The splints are excellent weavers for coiled baskets 
and are also used in making belts. 

Gleichenia linearis is characterized by very large leaves which 
fork repeatedly and have a bud-like structure in the forks. 
This fern is common and widely distributed in the Philippines 
and frequently forms dense tangles in open places on mountains. 

Family SCHIZAEACEAE 

Genus LYGODIUM 
LYGODIUM spp. (Plate IV). NiTO. 

Local names : The name nito, for the different species of Lygo- 
dium, is reported from the following provinces: — Ilocos Norte 
and Sur, Cagayan, Isabela, Union, Zambales, Pangasinan, Ca- 
vite, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Sorsogon, Samar, 
Occidental and Oriental Negros, Cebu, Capiz, Antique, Iloilo, 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



19 




20 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Bohol, Surigao, and Misamis. LygocUum circinnatum is also 
known as agsdm in Albay, nitong-puti in Tayabas and Cama- 
rines, and ndid in parts of Mindanao; LygocUum flexuosum as 
katdk in Cagayan, nitong-puti in Rizal, nito a dadakkel (Iloko) 
in Benguet, nitu and kalulung (Ibanak) and sasitang (Iloko) 
in Isabela; LygocUum japonicum as agsdm in Camarines and 
karekai (Ibanak) in Isabela, kidot in Cavite, and nitong-puti in 
Rizal, Cavite and Batangas; LygocUum scanclens as agsdm in 
Camarines, nito-nitoan in Laguna and nitong-pdrang in Rizal; 
and LygocUum semihastatum as anton in Albay, The com- 
monest and most widely known and used species is LygocUum 
circinnatum. 

Splints prepared from LygocUum are used in the manufacture 
of baskets, hats, and fancy boxes. In several provinces nito 
splints are combined with buri or some other fiber to make 
various fancy articles such as cigarette cases or pocketbooks. 
The effect is very pleasing, particularly when the nito is black. 

The species of LygocUum are slender, climbing ferns. The 
climbing portion is the leaf, which is of indefinite growth and 
length. The genus LygocUuyn is distinguished from all other 
Philippine ferns by these characteristics of the leaves. 

Family GNETACEAE 

Genus GNETUM 
GNETUM GNEMON L. BaGO. 

Local names: Bdgo, magatungdl (Lanao, Cotabato) ; ktigitas (Butuan) ; 
hdgo or bdgu (Bataan, Tayabas, Camarines); bandgo (Bisaya) ; human 
(Davao) . 

The bark of this tree is made into rope. The fruits are edible 
when cooked, while the young leaves are cooked and eaten as a 
vegetable. 

Gnetum gnemon is a tree reaching a height of about 10 meters. 
The leaves are opposite, oval, 10 to 20 centimeters in length, 
and usually pointed at both ends. The fruits are red, ovoid or 
ellipsoid, and about 2 centimeters long. 

GNETUM INDiCUM (Lour.) Merr. (G. latifolium BL). 

Local names: Edging (Butuan); bids (Rizal); kalidt (Benguet); knlidd 
(Cagayan); kulidt (Pampanga, Bataan, Rizal, Lanao). 

The bark is used for tying purposes and for making rope. 
The vine is also utilized as a source of drinking water in the 
forest. The fruits are edible when cooked. 

Gnetum incUcum is a coarse vine. The leaves are large, 
pointed at the apex, usually rounded at the base, and from 10 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



21 




PLATE IV. LYGODIUM CiRCINNATUM (NfTO). 



22 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

to 22 centimeters in length. The fruits are red, oval in shape, 
and about 3 centimeters in length. This species is common and 
widely distributed in the Philippines. 

GNETUM sp. Kaliat. 

Local names: Kadiat (Itneg) ; kaliat (Iloko). 

This species is a small tree with thin, glossy, elongated, pointed 
leaves. Rope made from the bark had the greatest tensile 
strength of all the bast ropes tested by King. It was, more- 
over, exceptionally pliable. In both the dry and wet conditions 
this bast stood first both as regards tensile strength and break- 
ing length. The bast strips have a rich, brown color, are free 
from irregularities, and have a rather waxy appearance. 

Rope made from Gnetum is held in high esteem on account of 
its great strength, pliability, and lightness, and is considered by 
the Igorots and Ilocanos to be superior to that made of any 
other local fiber. King found the rope to have a tensile strength 
of 773 kilos per square centimeter. Concerning its strength 
King says: 

Gnetum sp. rope is stronger than machine-laid maguey rope made of 
government grade Cebu No. 2 fiber and in tenacity approaches closely 
cordage made of the most superior grade of abaca fiber. When wetted 
for twenty-four hours this bast rope increases 31 per cent in strength 
and is actually stronger than machine-laid abaca rope made of "F" grade 
fiber. 

Several other species of Gnetum are used in making ropes. 
Family TYPHACEAE 

Genus TYPHA 
TYPHA ANGUSTIFOLIA L. (Plate V). Cat-tail. 

Local names: Anibong (Bontok) ; balanggot (Tagalog) ; buhai-buhai (Ne- 
gros Occidental); lampakariai (Bisaya) ; tubol-tubol (Bikol, Bisaya). 

The stems and leaves of the cat-tail are used for tying pur- 
poses, while the entire or split culms are utilized for making 
coarse bags and baskets. The straw is well adapted for making 
slippers. The stems and leaves are occasionally twisted into 
coarse ropes which, however, have little tensile strength. The 
floss from the protruding heads is sometimes used for stuffing 
pillows. 

This species reaches a height of 2 meters. The leaves are 
long and from 10 to 12 millimeters wide. The spikes are 
cylindrical, the female ones when mature are brown, 12 to 20 
centimeters long, and up to 2 centimeters in diameter. This 
plant is locally very abundant in low, wet places and shallow, 
stagnant, fresh water. It is widely distributed in the Phil- 
ippines. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



23 




PLATE V. TYPHA ANGUSTIFOLIA (CAT-TAIL), 



24 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Family PANDANACEAE 

Genus PAN DAN US 
PAN DAN US spp. The Pandans. 

The pandans, or screw-pines, are characteristically tropical 
trees or shrubs, although they may be found in sub-tropical 
countries. In the Philippines there are over forty known 
species. A few are generally distributed in the various islands 
and are likewise widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan region. 
Most of the species are, however, of decidedly local occurrence. 
The Philippine species vary in size from small shrubs less than 
a meter high to trees 15 or more meters in height, and are always 
erect and never climbing. They are characterized by a peculiar 
spiral arrangement of the elongated, spiny leaves. The common 
English name, screw-pine, refers to the spiral arrangement of 
the leaves and the pineapple-like fruits of the more common 
and widely distributed species. The leaves can be readily dis- 
tinguished from those of the pineapple or maguey by the presence 
of a middle row of spines in the pandan leaves. The leaves are 
never thick like those of maguey. Most of the Philippine species 
have prominent prop roots, and the trunks almost invariably bear 
small, short, and scattered spines. Pandans occur in such 
widely separated habitats as along sandy beaches and in virgin 
forests. 

The fresh wood of the pandan is hard; that of some species 
is durable. The larger stems are used as temporary posts. 
Pandans are moreover frequently cultivated for ornamental 
purposes. Their chief value, however, lies in the leaves, which 
are used for making coarse and fine baskets, bags, coarse and 
fine hats, mats, etc. 

All of the species having long leaves are potential sources of 
strips that may be used in weaving baskets, mats, and other 
articles, but there is a great deal of difl^erence in the texture 
of prepared strips, due to the difference in the thickness and 
other characteristics of the leaves. Some forms have been found 
by the Filipinos to be superior for special purposes and thus only 
a few of the numerous Philippine species are at present utilized. 

PANDANUS COPELANDII Merr. Bariu. 

Local names: Alasds (Tayabas) ; baleau (Occidental Negros) ; baled, 
balewe, baliu (Capiz, Romblon, Bohol, Surig-ao) ; baliku (Surigao) ; baloi, 
baroi (Agusan, Surigao) ; bareu (Samar) ; bariu, bareu, buruiii (Albay, 
Sorsogon) ; lagutlut (Laguna) ; pandan (Cagayan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija) ; 
pangddn (Benguet, Pangasinan) ; pataga (Ibanag, Apayao subprovince) ; 
sere (Cagayan). 

This species is widely distributed at low and medium altitudes 
from northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. It reaches a height 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



25 




PLATE VI. PANDANUS SABOTAN (SABUTaN). 



25 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

of from 3 to 9 meters. The leaves are about 2 or 3 meters long 
and about 5 to 8 centimeters wide. It is claimed that the fibers 
from this species are tougher than those from Pandanus radi- 
cans. The leaves are used for making coarse mats and baskets. 

PANDANUS DUBIUS Spreng. Taboan. 

Local names: Bdkong (Bohol) ; tahodn (Surigao). 

This is a large pandan found in the southern Philippines. 
It is used locally for making coarse mats. 

PANDANUS LUZON ENSIS Merr. Alasas. 

Local names: Alasas (Zambales, Rizal,) ; dasa (Rizal) ; pandan de China 
(Bulacan). 

This species is widely distributed in central Luzon. It reaches 
a height of about 7 meters. It is economically of little value, 
but the leaves are used for weaving baskets and mats. 

PANDANUS RADICANS Blanco. Oyango. 

Local names: Olango (Leyte) ; owango (Surigao); oyango (Albay) ; 
uyaiigo (Sorsogon) ; ivango (Bohol). 

This species is apparently widely distributed in the Philip- 
pines. It reaches a height of 8 meters, and has long, wide 
leaves and dark, brick-red fruits. It is used for making coarse 
mats, bags, and sometimes hats. According to Delgado, in the 
year 1750, fibers were extracted from the long prop roots and 
used for weaving a fine cloth; but Blanco, writing in 1837, 
states that these fibers were no longer utilized. In Mindanao 
the wood has been found to be excellent for the manufacture 
of splints used in making baskets; in fact, they are reported 
to be superior to rattans for this purpose. 

PANDANUS SABOTAN Blanco. (Plate VI). Sabutan. 

Local name: Sabutan (Laguna, Rizal, Tayabas). 

According to Mr. E. D. Merrill, the botanical status of this spe- 
cies is doubtful. It seems probable that it is a cultivated form 
or variety of the common and widely distributed Pandaniis 
tectorius. This plant, from which the sabutan fiber is obtained, 
is well known and has been cultivated in Laguna province for 
at least two centuries. It greatly resembles the common Pan- 
danvs tectorius in appearance, but the fruits have never been 
collected. The plant is from 2 to 4 meters in height. The 
leaves resemble those of Pandanus tectorius, but are of finer 
texture. Sabutan is cultivated in and about towns along the 
eastern and northern shores of Laguna de Bay, in parts of 
Tayabas province, and on the island of Polillo; but has never 
been found wild, although it not infrequently occurs where 
cultivation has been abandoned. It is easily propagated by 
axillary suckers which grow from the lower parts of the stems. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



27 



^ 


M 


^H 






SUKhI^^^ 



= s 

03 "O 





28 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

The chief use of this plant is in the production of the fiber 
used in manufacturing sabutan hats. Hats made of sabutan 
are strong and durable, and in texture more nearly resemble 
the Panama hat than any other kind manufactured in the Phil- 
ippines. The unbleached hats are a light green color, and the 
chief objection to them is that they do not bleach readily. Good 
sabutan hats, however, command high prices in the Philippines. 

Sleeping mats of excellent quality are made from sabutan 
fibers either in natural or dyed shades. 

PAN DAN us SIMPLEX Merr. (Plate VII). Karagomoi. 

Local names: Kalagimai (Tayabas) ; karagomoi (Tayabas, Camarines, 
Albay, Catanduanes, Sorsogon, Lej^e, Cebu) ; panddn or panddn-totoo (La- 
gnna) ; Luisiana pandan, Cavinti pandan, Majayjay pandan (from towns 
in Laguna where it is much used) ; bangkodng (Laguna, Tayabas, hat trade 
in Manila, mat trade in Camarines and Albay). 

This species is found in the provinces of Nueva Vizcaya, Rizal, 
Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Leyte, Cebu, 
and on the islands of Polillo and Catanduanes. It is usually 
planted in the Banahao region, where it is of great economic 
importance, and is frequently cultivated in Camarines. The 
Karagomoi variety, of the Bikol provinces, has leaves 6 to 10 
centimeters wide and up to 3.5 meters long; the variety cul- 
tivated in the Banahao region, the ''Majayjay pandan," has 
leaves up to 20 centimeters wide and 5 meters long.* 

The prepared strips of the leaves are very extensively used for 
making coarse and fine mats, hats, bags, and telescope baskets. 
They are also used extensively for making fancy articles such as 
picture frames, wall pockets, hand bags, and fancy slippers. 

In preparing the fiber, the spiny margins and the midribs 
of the leaves are removed and the leaves cut into strips of 
desired width. The strips are then dried in the sun and allowed 
to wilt. To make them pliable they are rolled under one end 
of a heavy log. They are further dried in the sun and are then 
ready for use. 

PAN DAN us TECTORIUS Soland. (Plates VII, VIII). COMMON OR Beach 

PANDAN. 

Local names: Baroi (Sorsogon); panddn (Pampanga, Tarlac, Rizal, 
Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Mindoro, Iloilo, Antique, Oriental 
Negros, Leyte, Cebu, Surigao, Davao, Zamboanga) ; pangddn (Abra, Pan- 
gasinan, Camiguin Island) ; pangldn (Iloko and Sambali in Zambales) ; 
sabutan (Rizal); nhango (Batanes Islands). 

This species is the most common and widely distributed pan- 
dan in the Islands. It is abundant along the seashore and 

* The "pandan of Majayjay" is described by Muller and Robinson as 
Pandanus utilissimus Elmer : this is a synonym of P. simplex. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



29 




30 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

usually forms a stand immediately back of the beach. It is 
never found very far inland. Under favorable conditions it 
reaches a height of 5 to 6 meters. The size and length of the 
leaves vary greatly. 

This pandan is of comparatively little economic value. The 
leaves are split into strips and this material is used, to a limited 
extent, for making mats or, when bleached, for weaving hats. 
The longer leaves are sometimes utilized for weaving coarse, 
temporary baskets. Material from a form of this species is 
extensively used in Formosa and Liukiu for making imitation 
Panama hats. 

The lower part of the mature fruit is covered by a yellowish- 
red pulp. This is rarely eaten, although its flavor is excellent. 

Family GRAMINEAE 

Genus ANDROPOGON 

ANDROPOGON HALEPENSIS var. PROPINQUUS (Kunth) Merr. Batad- 

BATARAN. 

Local names: Aroro (Camarines) ; batdd (Bukidnon) ; batdd-batdran 
(Tagalog) ; uginai (Bukidnon). 

The stalks of this grass are split into strips and occasionally 
utilized in making hats. 

Andropogon halepeTisis is a coarse, perennial grass reaching 
a height of 3 meters. It has stout, cylindrical, solid stems, 
broad leaves, and open panicles. 

This species is found in thickets and open, damp places, and 
is common and widely distributed in the Philippines. 

ANDROPOGON ZIZANIOIDES (L.) Urb. MoRAS or Vetiver. 

Local names: Amoi^a (Cebu) ; amoras (Ilocos Norte); anias or anias 
de moras (Pampanga) ; anis de moro (Ilocos Sur, Abra, Pangasinan) ; 
geron, giron (Iloilo) ; ilib (Pampanga) ; mora or moras (Pampanga, Tar- 
lac, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Antique, Cebu, 
Occidental Negros) ; rhnodas (Capiz) ; rimora (Zambales) ; limoras (Ca- 
marines) ; tres moras (Capiz). 

The roots are used for weaving fans which are prized on 
account of their agreeable odor. For this purpose the roots 
are prepared by dipping them in water for about 20 minutes 
and then pounding them with a light, wooden club to remove 
the outer portion. They are then pressed and woven into fans. 
These are sometimes sold in oriental curio shops in America as 
"sandal-root" fans. 

The stalks are used in making hats. For this purpose flower 
stalks of suitable size are selected, and the inflorescence and 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 31 

outer covering removed. They are then put in boiling water 
for about twenty minutes, after which they are dried in the sun 
for two or three days. The stalks are then scraped with a 
sharp knife until smooth and clean. Brooms are also occa- 
sionally made from the stalks. The leaves are sometimes used 
for thatching. 

Vetiver oil is obtained from this grass. 

Andropogon zizanioides is a coarse, tufted grass 1 to 2 meters 
in height. It is commonly planted on the dikes of rice fields 
and is frequently abundant in uncultivated rice lands, especially 
in low, damp soil. It is sometimes planted on river banks to 
prevent erosion. 

This species is widely distributed in the settled areas of the 
Archipelago. 

Genus APLUDA 
APLUDA MUTICA L. KURUKAUAYAN. 

Local names: Kauakaudyan (Rizal) ; kolokaudyan (Laguna) ; kumka- 
udyan (Camarines) ; magkaudyan (Bohol) ; maykaudyan (Samar). 

The stalks of this grass are occasionally utilized for making 
hats, but such hats never or seldom enter even the local trade. 

Aphid a mittica is a tall, erect or half climbing, somewhat 
slender grass 1 to 2 meters in height. The stems are smooth, 
branched, and solid. The leaves are 10 to 30 centimeters long, 
5 to 10 centimeters wide, pointed at the apex and with a narrow 
base. The spikes are about 8 millimeters long and green or 
purplish. 

This grass is widely distributed in the Philippines in thickets. 

Genus CO IX 
COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI L. TiGBi OR Job's Tears. 

Local names: Abukai (Palaui Island); adldi (Bikol) ; agagai (Batanes 
Islands) ; agldi (Misamis) ; apagi (Lepanto) ; attakai (Bontoc) ; balantakan 
(Pampanga) ; bintikdi, burubayoko (Bikol) ; dumaii (Cebu) ; kalabugau 
(Bukidnon) ; kambot (Abra) ; katigbi (Bohol) ; kolddsan (Bikol) ; kudldsan 
(Polillo, Balabac Island) ; palids (Mindoro) ; puyds, lamudids or alimudids 
(Negros Occidental) ; pintakd (Bikol, Bisaya) ; tigbi (Samar, Bukidnon, 
Camarines, Laguna, Manila, Rizal, Batangas, Bontoc) ; tigbikai (Bikol). 

The chief value of this coarse grass is in the hard fruits. 
These are gathered and strung as beads, sometimes used as 
rosaries, sometimes in making bead curtains, or on various 
kinds of ornamental baskets, trays, etc. 

This species is widely distributed in the settled areas of the 
Philippines. It is probably not a native of the Archipelago, but 
of prehistoric introduction. 



32 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Genus ELEUSINE 

ELEUSINE INDICA Gaertn. Palagtiki or Yard grass. 

Local names: Balili (Bontoc) ; bardngan (Camarines) ; bilabila (La- 
guna) ; damo (Cagayan) ; gagabutan (Tagalog) ; kabit-kabit (Bataan) ; 
palagtiki (Bisaya) ; parangis-sabilngan (Pampanga) ; sabung-sabungan 
(Pampanga). 

This grass is apparently introduced in the Philippines, but is 
widely distributed, and especially abundant in and about towns 
and along roads and trails throughout the settled areas. The 
culms are sometimes used in making hats, but this industry 
is very local and irregular. 

Eleusine indica is a rather stout, tufted, erect, smooth, an- 
nual grass 10 centimeters to 1 meter in height. The leaves 
are 10 to 30 centimeters long and 3 to 7 millimeters wide. The 
flowering stalk has three to six spikes, 2.5 to 10 centimeters 
long, 3 to 5 millimeters thick, and all occurring in a terminal 
whorl, or one or two somewhat lower down on the stem. 

This species is distributed throughout the Philippines and is 
very common in waste places, along roads, etc. 

Genus I M PER ATA 
IMPERATA EXALTATA Brongn. KOGON. 

A description of this species is given in the bulletin on 
paper pulp. 

The leaves of this grass are extensively used for thatching 
in all of the interior parts of the Archipelago, where it is dif- 
ficult to transport nipa shingles. 

The tender shoots of kogon are used for grazing, and kogon 
areas are frequently burned over so that the young shoots may 
be utilized for this purpose. 

Kogon stems are used locally to a limited extent in the ma- 
nufacture of hats, while some of the industrial schools have 
utilized the plant for making round, braided mats suitable for 
bathroom use. 

Genus ISCHAEMUM 

ISCHAEMUM ANGUSTI FOLIUM Hack. (Plate IX). Kobboot. 

Local names: Danu, pueng, puenig (Bontoc) ; kobboot (Hoko). 

In the parts of Luzon where this grass grows it is utilized for 
making rope, on account of its tensile strength. Owing to its 
durable qualities it is also used for making both the soles and 
uppers of grass slippers. The straw is prepared by simply 
drying it in the sun. 

This grass varies in height from 0.6 to 1 meter. It is tufted 
and the swollen bases of the stems are densely woolly. Ischae- 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



33 




PLATE IX. ISCHAEMUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM (K0BB60T). 



166677 3 



34 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

mum angustifoUum is widely distributed in northern Luzon, 
growing on open slopes, but it is not known from other parts of 
the Philippines. 

Genus MISCANTHUS 
MISCANTHUS SINENSIS Anders, BiGAO. 

Local names: Biau (Batanes Islands) ; bigdo, bigdho, gdho, gisa (Bikol) ; 
hi-idu (Benguet) ; rihio (Igorot) ; talnhib (Zambales). 

This coarse grass is used for thatching houses. The stems 
are used like wattles for making side walls of houses and some- 
times even for covering the floors. In Sorsogon, splints made 
from the stems are used in making screens and window shades. 
The stems are sometimes employed for making shafts of arrows. 

Miscanthus sinensis is a coarse, erect, gregarious grass 1 to 3 
meters in height. It occurs in abundance at medium and high 
altitudes, especially in the Mountain Province of Luzon. When 
repeated fires have occurred this grass frequently occupies an 
area to the almost entire exclusion of other vegetation, just as 
Imperata exaltata (kogon) and Saccharum spontaneum (tala- 
hib) do at lower elevations. 

Genus ORYZA 
ORYZA SATIVA L. RiCE. 

Rice straw is used in Ilocano districts for making hats for 
home use, and in schools in Ilocos Norte for the upper soles of 
slippers. Sometimes rice straws are tied into bundles and are 
used as brooms for rough housework. 

Genus PHRAGMITES 
PH RAG MITES KARKA (Retz) Trin. LuPI. 

Local names: Lupi (Camarines) ; sabunog (Negros Occidental); tajiu- 
bong (Bontoe Subprovince) . 

This species is larger and rarer than Phragmites vulgaris and 
apparently is used for the same purposes. 

PHRAGMITES VULGARIS Trin. (Plates X, XI). Tambo. 

Local names: Bagang, tabunak, tangbo (Bisaya) ; luj)i (Bikol) ; tambo 
(Tagalog, Bisaya, Bikol) ; tagisi (Ibanag) ; taynbu (Bulacan, Rizal, Manila 
vicinity, Batangas) ; tanobong (Pangasinan) . 

The chief use of this grass appears to be in the manufacture 
of a peculiar type of dustbroom used for sweeping highly 
polished floors. The panicles arranged in a fan-like manner 
form the broom, while the culms tightly bound to a central 
strengthening piece of bamboo form the handle. These brooms 
are of great utility and are extensively used in the Philippines. 
The best grade of Phragmites broom is manufactured from the 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



35 



^, 




PLATE X. PHRAGMITES VULGARIS (TAMBo). 



35 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

very young panicles, gathered before the flowering glumes have 
developed. Better grades are made from TJvjsanolaena panicles. 

In some of the islands the stems are used in manufacturing 
coarse hats. 

Phragmites vulgaris is a coarse, erect grass attaining a height 
of at least 3 meters. The stems are cylindrical and hollov^. 
It is locally very abundant in shallow swamps and along muddy 
streams; and is often gregarious, occupying considerable areas 
to the exclusion of other vegetation. It is widely distributed 
in the Philippines at low and medium altitudes. 

Genus SACCHARUM 
SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM L. SUGAR CANE. 

The flowering stalks of the sugar cane are sometimes used for 
making picture frames. 

SACCHARUM SPONTANEUM L. Talahie. 

Local names: Buydng, tigbdo (Bisaya) ; sikdl (Isabela) ; sidda (Iloko) ; 
taldhib (Tagalog, Bikol). 

From an economic standpoint this plant ranks very low. The 
very young shoots are grazed by domestic animals, but the 
mature plant is too hard and harsh for forage. In some regions 
the culms are used for shafts of arrows, while they are very 
frequently utilized for making temporary fences, and for wings 
or runs to fish weirs. In some provinces they are used as 
wattles for making house walls. The stalks, entire or split, 
have been utilized by some schools in industrial work for making 
brooms, hats, screens, picture frames, and wall pockets. The 
panicles are occasionally utilized for stuflfing pillows. As sup- 
erior material for all the above purposes is usually to be had 
in the Philippines, most of the uses for this coarse grass here 
indicated are apparently very limited and very local. 

A description of this plant is given in the bulletin on paper 
pulp. 

Genus SPOROBOLUS 
SPOROBOLUS ELONGATUS R. Br. Bakuit. 

Local names: Bakuit, hangkuit (Iloilo) ; sangsangitan (Bontoc). 

A fairly fine straw of medium length is obtained from the 
flower stalks and utilized at times in Iloilo as a hat material. 

Sporobohis elongatiis is a grass with slender stems, numer- 
ous, rather long and narrow leaves, and long narrow panicles. 
It reaches a height of 1 meter, but is usually shorter. This 
species is distributed from northern Luzon to southern Minda- 
nao, but is most abundant in the Mountain Province. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



37 









"'"^■tn 



-N« ^ 



*% I 

U.'^ ^ 










PLATE XI. PHRAGMITES VULGARIS (TAMB6). 



38 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

SPOROBOLUS INDICUS R. Br. 

The tough culms of this grass are used in Panay for the 
manufacture of hats. 

Sporobolu.'^ hidicus is usually a rather densely tufted, peren- 
nial, slender, wiry grass with erect, branched stems, 1 meter or 
less in height. The leaves are 10 to 20 centimeters long, and 
flat; when dry, rolled up lengthwise. The panicles are slender, 
erect or somewhat nodding, and 10 to 35 centimeters in length. 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines in waste 
places, along roadsides, etc. 

Genus THYSANOLAENA 
THYSANOLAENA MAXIMA Kuntze. (Plate XII). Lasa or TiGER GRASS. 
Local names: Buguhi, bugubiii (Pampanga) ; buibiii (Iloko, Bontoc) ; 
gatbo (Camarines) ; Idsa (Tagalog) ; tagddeu (Bontoc) ; tagisa (Misamis) ; 
tambu (Bulacan, Rizal, Mindoro). 

In the Philippines a very characteristic, light dustbroom is 
made of the panicles of several of the coarser grasses, notably 
Thijsanolaena and Phragmites. These brooms are extensively 
used for sweeping the highly-polished hardwood floors so 
characteristic of the better houses in the Philippines. Thijsa- 
nolaena panicles make the best grade of these brooms, and for 
this purpose they are gathered extensively in some parts of the 
Islands. The handles of the brooms are made of the flowering 
stems variously interwoven or bound together, the panicles being 
arranged in a fan-like fashion to form the broom itself. The 
brooms are decidedly pretty and very effective for their special 
purpose. Thysanolaena brooms are more durable than those 
made from Phragmites and command a higher price. 

Thysanolaena maxima is widely distributed in Luzon, but is 
of local occurrence, especially at low and medium altitudes. At 
higher altitudes it is much more abundant, and in the pine region 
of the Mountain Province it is one of the characteristic, coarse 
grasses of ravines. It is distinguished by its ample, open panicle 
and its very numerous, minute spikelets. 

Family CYPERACEAE 

Genus CYPERUS 

CYPERUS MALACCENSIS Lam. (Plates XIII, XIV). Balanggot. 

Local names: Bagd-as (Bisaya) ; balanggot (Tagalog, Bisaya) ; balonggdt 
(Pampanga); banniggot (Camarines); tikog (Agusan). 

The stems of this sedge are used for tying purposes, for 
making coarse hats, slippers, mats, and perhaps for baskets. 
For coarse work the entire stem is employed, but for the finer 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



39 




PLATE XII. THYSANOLAENA MAXIMA (LASA OR TIGER GRASS). 



40 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

grades the stems are split. The splitting is done when the 
stems are fresh or, at least, before they become dry. Mats made 
from balanggot are very attractive. The manufacture of slip- 
pers of this material is carried on to a considerable extent in 
some towns of Bulacan Province, Luzon. 

Cyperus malaccensis is a rather coarse, usually gregarious, 
perennial sedge reaching a height of from 0.5 to 1.5 meters. 
The stems are leafless and sharply three-angled, almost three- 
winged near the top. This sedge occurs in brackish swamps, 
along tidal streams, bordering nipa areas, and is often abundant 
back of the mangrove swamps when this area is not wooded. 
In some regions it is very plentiful. 

CYPERUS RADIATUS VahL Alinang. 

Local names: Almang (Bikol, Bisaya) ; halahalanggutan (Tagalog) ; 
bal-Iaayang (Union); dagko, obod-obod (Bisaya); iipopi (Cagayan). 

In some parts of the Philippines the outer portions of the 
stems are stripped, dried in the shade, and used for weaving 
mats, mattings, and screens. This utilization is apparently 
local. 

Cyperus radiatus is a coarse sedge 0.2 to 1 meter in height. 
The leaves are one-half to two-thirds as long as the stems and 
7 millimeters or less in width. The inflorescence is subtended 
by long, leaf-like bracts. It is widely distributed in the settled 
areas of the Philippines at low altitudes, and occurs in shallow 
swamps and open wet places. 

Genus Fl M BRISTYLIS 

FIMBRISTYLIS DIPHYLLA VahL Tabtabin. 

Local names: Muthd (Manila); panai (Benguet) ; tabtabin (Zambales) ; 
tayok-tayok (Zambales, Panay, Occidental Negros). 

The stems of this species are used for much the same pur- 
poses as those of Fimhristylis fjlobulosa, but are inferior to 
them. The material is prepared by drying in the sun. 

Fimhristylis diphylla is a small, slender sedge growing in 
wet situations. The leaves are slender and grow in considerable 
numbers from the base of the stem. 

This species is found throughout the settled areas of the 
Philippines and is the commonest representative of the genus. 

FIMBRISTYLIS GLOBULOSA Kunth (Plate XV). TfKUG. 

Local names: Anahiuan, tdyok-tdyok, tikog, tikug, jnlokong (Bisaya); 
badang-baddng (Ilocos Norte) ; mutd (Pampanga) ; pakupakuan (Bulacan) ; 
sud-sud (Moro). 

This is apparently the most important matting sedge in the 
Philippines. It is extensively utilized in the Bisaya Islands 



DESCRIPTION OP SPECIES 



41 




PLATE Xlil. CYPERUS MALACCENSIS (BALANGG6T). 



42 



PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 




DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



43 




PLATE XV. FIMBRISTYLIS GLOBULOSA (TiKUG), 



44 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

for the manufacture of sleeping-mats, floor mats, and to a less 
extent for hats, slippers, tobacco cases, cushions, etc. The 
stems are used either whole or split. After being gathered 
they are bleached for several days by spreading in the sun. 
They cannot be woven when too dry as they are then brittle. 

Fimbristj/Us glohulosa is widely distributed in the Philippines 
and although of somewhat local occurrence, is frequently found 
in great abundance. It occurs at low altitudes in the settled 
areas, and grows in low, wet, sw^ampy places and in rice lands. 

In favorable habitats it is said to attain sometimes a height 
of 3 meters, but is usually less than half this height. This 
species is much more common in the central and southern 
Philippines than in Luzon. It is claimed that when once 
established in rice lands, it is difficult to eradicate; but in spite 
of this it would seem that, in some places, its cultivation would 
be justified as a source of material for mats. 

Genus RHYNCHOSPORA 

RHYNCHOSPORA CORYMBOSA (L.) Britt. RaGIU. 

Local names: Agds (Bisaya, Bikol) ; bdrm-bdriu, ragiii-diu, ragiu, 
rakido, piso-piso (Bikol). 

In the provinces of southern Luzon this sedge is utilized to 
some extent in the manufacture of mats, sandals, baskets, and 
screens. The stems are used either whole or split. From an 
economic standpoint this plant is probably of little value. 

Rhynchospora cor^ymbosa is a coarse sedge, about 1 meter in 
height. The stems are distinctly triangular and the leaves broad 
and long. This species is widely distributed in open, wet places 
at low and medium altitudes. 

Genus SCIRPIODENDRON 

SCIRPIODENDRON GHAERI (Gaertn.) Merr. Gaas. 

Local name: Gdas (Bisaya). 

In Leyte the leaves of this sedge are used to some extent in 
making hats, but the material is apparently of inferior quality. 

Scirpiodendron ghaeri is the largest and coarsest sedge in the 
Philippines, greatly resembling a narrow-leaved pandan in ap- 
pearance. The leaves are from 1 to 4 meters in length and 
very numerous. The edges are armed with numerous short 
spines. The fruits are distinctly ridged, over a centimeter in 
length, and borne in compact clusters subtended by large leaf- 
like bracts. The plant is gregarious and often found in large 
quantities in open ravines, along small streams, in swamps at 
low altitudes, and sometimes around the borders of lakes. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 45 

Genus SCIRPUS 
SCIRPUS GROSSUS L. f. TiKIU. 

Local names: Agds, hangkudng (Bikol) ; baga-ds, bdki-bdki (Bisaya) ; 
ragiudhi (Camarines) ; tikiig (Agusan) ; tikiii, titiu (Tagalog). 

The whole stems of this sedge are used to a slight extent in 
making thick sleeping-mats, and the split stems for making 
fine mats. The stems are also used for making special types of 
bags or baskets. 

Scirpus grossus is one of the coarsest sedges found in the 
Philippines. It has triangular stems up to 2 meters in height. 
The large inflorescences are subtended by broad leaf-like bracts 
up to 60 centimeters in length. This species is abundant in 
open swamps at low altitudes, and is widely distributed in the 
Philippines. 

SCIRPUS LACUSTRIS Linn. TiKER. 

Local name: Tiker (Iloko), 

This species occurs in northern Luzon, where it is utilized 
for weaving mats. In Formosa it is said to be cultivated for 
this purpose. 

Scirpus lacustris grows in swamps, and in the shallow ponds 
of the Ilocos provinces and Cagayan. The rounded stems are 
a meter or more in height. 

This species has been reported only from northern Luzon. 

Family ARACEAE 

In the Philippines, as in other tropical countries, there are 
many monocotyledonous vines which climb up in the trees and 
send down aerial roots, which may stretch from the tops of tall 
trees to the ground. These air roots are frequently very stout 
and in their natural state are used for tying purposes, or are 
variously prepared and used industrially. In the Philippines, 
the air roots used are chiefly those of aroids. Woodsmen have 
undoubtedly used air roots for tying purposes for ages, but it 
has remained for the public schools to show that they are useful 
for industrial purposes. They are employed chiefly in the man- 
ufacture of baskets. They were first tried for baskets in the 
schools of the Bikol peninsula, and the Bikol name ''amlong" 
has come into general school use. 

The only part of the roots used in making baskets is the inner 
part or central cylinder. This cylinder should be removed from 
the surrounding tissue immediately after collection, as it is then 
easier to pull out. This moreover obviates the necessity of 
carrying superfluous tissue. The central cylinder furnishes a 
strong, round, pliable material with a uniform diameter. It is 



45 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

used either entire or split. Amlong is white, brown, or black, 
depending on the species from which it is obtained. Brown 
and black amlong can be bleached by treating with a solution 
of sodium peroxide. 

Genus EPIPREM N UM 
EPIPREMNUM spp. 

This genus is very similar to Raphidophora in appearance and 
in the situations in which it grows. Material secured from 
the air-roots is used for weaving baskets. It is apparently 
mostly white. 

Epipremnum is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao. 

Genus POTHOIDIUM 

POTHOIDIUM LOBBIANUM Schott. Balongkahinai. 

Local names: Ariman (Cagayan) ; balongkahinai (Negros Occidental); 
baralta (Cavite, Rizal, Batangas) ; magutapilak (Butuan) ; nialagaydmav 
(Zambales). 

TMs- species is used as tying material for fish corrals. It is 
collected in considerable quantities in Negros and some of it 
reaches the Iloilo market. 

Pothoklium lobbiciniim is very similar in appearance to Pothos, 
and grows in similar situations. It can be distinguished from 
Pothos by the fact that the inflorescences are compound, while 
those of Pothos are simple. 

This species is apparently common and widely distributed in 
the Philippines. 

Genus POTHOS 

POTHOS spp. (Plate XVI). 

Local names: Bagi, malagaydman (Tayabas) ; bagii-baldnak (Samar) ; 
mala-ang lako lakop (Samar) ; palipe (Camarines) ; tibdtib (Bulacan) ; 
uarat-uarat (Camarines). 

The different species of Pothos are vines which climb up the 
trunks of trees and produce numerous, long, tough, aerial roots 
which are uniform in diameter and frequently straight. The 
central cylinders of these aerial roots are extensively used in the 
Philippines in making coiled baskets. The color varies from 
white to brown or even black, depending on the species. 

This genus is characterized by its peculiar leaves ; the petioles 
being, for the most part, leaf-like. In some species they are 
broader and longer than the blades and in others smaller than 
the blades. The joint between the blade and petiole is, however, 
always very evident. 

Pothos is distributed in forests throughout the Philippines. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



47 




PLATE XVI. POTHOS RUMPHII. 



48 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Genus RAPHIDOPHORA 
RAPHIDOPHORA spp. (Plates XVII, XVIII). 

The central cylinders of the long aerial roots of Raphirlophom 
are used in making coiled baskets. They are also utilized in 
some places for making hammocks, cradles, and for tying 
purposes. 

The species of the genus Raphklophora are stout, fleshy vines, 
which climb by means of numerous aerial roots. The leaves of 
old plants are very large and pinnately lobed. The inflorescence 
is a stout, club-shaped structure. 

Genus SCINDAPSUS 
SCINDAPSUS spp. 

Local names: Loomoi (Tayabas) ; maragaydman (Pangasinan) ; puto- 
jmtohan (Laguna). 

These plants produce air-roots like those of Raphidophora 
and Pathos. They are used in making baskets. 

Family FLAGELLARIACEAE 

Genus FLAGELLARIA 
FLAGELLARIA INDICA Linn. (Plate XIX). Baling-UAI. 

Local names: Annuad (Union); auai (Batanes Islands); audi si ga- 
ydng (Isinai in Nueva Vizcaya) ; halingiidi (Laguna, Pampanga, Bataan, 
Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Tayabas, Polillo, Batangas, Mindoro, Basilan) ; bobo- 
dya (Agusan); bulakdui (Mindoro, Cebu) ; hodg (Camarines, Albay, Sor- 
sogon, Iloilo, Capiz, Antique, Cebu, Agusan) ; hoag-udi (Sorsogon) ; 
inudd, inudl (Pangasinan) ; kaliuduai, tewung (Ibanag in Isabela) ; 
kahwdiuai (Cagayan) ; udi ti udk (Iloko in Isabela) ; paua, taud (Negros 
Occidental) ; sagakap (Capiz) ; ve nn gaydng, anuad (Iloko in Nueva 
Vizcaya); udg (Camarines, Butuan, Zamboanga) ; uog (Culion). 

The split stems of this vine are used for tying purposes, 
as in sewing nipa shingles and tying them in place, or for 
tying fences. They are also used for baskets where better mate- 
rial is not available. 

Flagellaria indica is a slender vine with alternate leaves, 
the bases of which surround the stem. The leaves are slender 
and terminate in a curled tendril. The flowers are borne in 
rather large clusters at the ends of branches. The fruits are 
rounded, white, and about 5 millimeters in diameter. 

This species is very common and widely distributed in the 
Philippines. 

Family BROMELIACEAE 

Genus ANANAS 
ANANAS COM OS US (Linn.) Merr. PINEAPPLE. 

The pineapple was introduced into the Philippines by the 
Spaniards at an early date, and is now widely cultivated 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



49 




1666"; 



PLATE XVII. RAPHIDOPHORA MERRILLII. 



50 



PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 




DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



51 





PLATE XIX. FLAGELLARIA INDiCA (BALlNfe-UAl) . 



52 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

throughout the Archipelago. In some islands, particularly in 
parts of Palawan, it has become thoroughly naturalized. In 
the Philippines a very fine and highly prized cloth, known as 
piiia, is made from the fibers of the pineapple leaves. The 
production of the fiber and the manufacture of the cloth is 
chiefly confined to the island of Panay, the center of the in- 
dustry being the towns in the vicinity of Iloilo. When grown 
for fibers, pineapples are closely crowded in planting, the ob- 
ject being the production of long leaves. Piiia cloth, either 
plain or embroidered, is exported in considerable quantities. 

Family JUNCACEAE 
Genus J UNCUS 
JUNCUS EFFUSUS L. (Plate XX). PiNGGOT or MATTING RUSH. 

Local name: Ping got (Bon toe). 

According to Muller *, experiments conducted at Baguio 
showed that a fine straw could be prepared from the coarse 
stalks. This is done by splitting them, removing the pulp, and 
drying the straws quickly in the sun so as to make them curl 
up. Flat straws can be prepared by removing the pulp, flat- 
tening the stalks, and drawing them between the thumb and 
a piece of wood. 

Juncus effusus has round stalks a meter or more in length. 
The base of the stalk is surrounded by short sheathing leaves. 
The seeds are small and yellow and occur in brownish capsules, 
which ultimately divide into three parts. 

This species is found growing in marshes on the mountains 
from Luzon to Mindanao. 

Family LILIACE^ 

Genus SANSEVIERIA 
SANSEVIERIA ZEYLANICA (L.) Willd. SiNAWA. 

Local names: Aspe-dspe (Pampanga) ; hanydt, kaliot, sigre (Nueva 
Vizcaya) ; buntut-palos (Tayabas) ; kakarohai, pakarohai, tigi (Isabela) ; 
lengua de leon (Sorsogon) ; rabo de leon (Ilocos Norte, Union) ; 7^abo de 
tigre (Antique) ; sabild (Iloilo) ; sinawd (Nueva Ecija) ; tigre (Laguna, 
Bohol) . 

The fiber of this plant is used only occasionally in the Philip- 
pines. It is sometimes mixed with pina in weaving fabrics. 
The fiber is very strong and, according to Dodge t, is used by 

* Muller, T., Industrial fiber plants of the Philippines. Bureau of 
Education Bulletin Number 49 (1913), page 60. 

t Dodge, C. R., A descriptive catalogue of useful fiber plants of the 
world. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Fiber investigations. Report 
No. 9 (1897), page 290. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



53 




PLATE XX. JUNCUS EFFUSUS (PINGG6T). 



54 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

the Singhalese for making string, rope, mats, and a coarse kind 
of cloth. It is generally prepared by retting, or by simply beat- 
ing and washing. 

Saiisevieria zeijlanica is an herb with erect, fleshy, flat, 
pointed leaves which are mottled with gray, and are .4 to 1.5 
meters in height. The flowering shoot is up to 80 centimeters 
in height. It bears numerous, pale, straw-colored flowers 
which are usually tinged with green, and are from 2.5 to 3 
centimeters in length. 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines. It is 
frequently cultivated for ornamental purposes, and is occasionally 
half wild. 

Family AMARYLLIDACEAE 

Genus AGAVE 
AGAVE CANTALA Roxb. MAGUEY. 

This species was introduced into the Philippines by the 
Spaniards at an early date. In the Philippines, maguey is most 
extensively grown in the Ilocano provinces, Luzon, and the is- 
land of Cebu. Most of the plantations are on a small scale, 
and modern methods of cultivation are scarcely used. The 
fiber is, for the most part, extracted by retting the leaves, 
usually in salt water, which unfortunately detracts from its 
value. A considerable amount is, however, exported. The 
chief use of the fiber is in the manufacture of binder twine, 
rope, etc. In the Philippines it is used locally for textiles, 
cordage, for making fish nets, hammocks, slippers, and some 
types of baskets. 

AGAVE S ISA LAN A Perrine. SiSAL. 

This species is very similar to the maguey plant and in the 
Philippines is usually confused with it. It was not introduced 
into the Philippines until about 1905, but is now widely dis- 
tributed. Its culture, treatment, and fiber are generally similar 
to Agave cantala. The fiber is, however, much more valuable 
than that of Agave cantala. 

Genus CURCULIGO 
CURCULIGO RECUR VAT A Dryand. Abang-ABANG. 

The hill people of Camarines use the fiber of this species 
for making false hair. According to Heyne ■' several species 
of this genus are reported to give a tough fiber which is used 
by Dyaks for cordage, and in Borneo for sacking and clothing. 

* Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 1, 
page 187. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



55 




PLATE XXI. MUSA TEXTILIS (MANILA HEMP OR ABAKa), 



55 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Curculigo recurvata is an herb with a few, rather narrow, 
long, longitudinally folded, boat-shaped leaves growing from the 
base of the plant. The flowers are yellow and in dense heads. 

This species is distributed from the Batanes Islands to Min- 
danao. It is common in the Mountain Province of Luzon. 

Family MUSACEAE 

Genus MUSA 
MUSA PARADISIACA L. BANANA. 

Fibers from the sheathing leaf-stalks of the banana are em- 
ployed in the manufacture of a light, transparent cloth known 
locally as sinamay. In a few regions, this is the principal 
material from which are made the waists of the native dress 
of the Filipino women. It is also used extensively in making 
shirts for men. But wherever abaka is abundant it takes 
the place of banana fiber for the above purposes, the finer and 
coarser fibers being sorted by hand into as many as five grades 
for different textiles. 

MUSA TEXTILIS Nee. (Plate XXI). Manila hemp or Abaka. 

Musa textilis is probably the most important cultivated plant 
endemic in the Philippines. It produces the premier cordage 
fiber of the world. In appearance it is almost identical with 
the banana, to which it is closely related. The fiber was known 
to the Filipinos long before the Spanish occupation. When 
Magellan arrived at Cebu the weaving of the fiber was wide- 
spread in the Islands, and the plant is reported to have been 
wild in much the same places as those in which it is now cul- 
tivated. At the present time, cultivation is carried on to such 
an extent that it is questionable as to whether there are any 
wild plants. Miller * has given a concise history of the abaka 
industry. 

The commercial fibers are the fibro-vascular strands of the 
sheathing leaf-stalks that make up the so-called trunk of the 
abaka plant. In stripping the fiber the trunk is cut down, the 
leaves removed, and the fiber-producing portion slit into strips. 
These are pulled under a knife applied to a piece of smooth 
hard wood. The extracted fibers are then hung up and dried. 
The chief uses of abaka are for the manufacture of ropes, 
binder twines, the so-called tagal braids, and textiles. Locally 
abaka is used for manufacturing textiles, baskets, hats, trays, 
bags, laces, lamp shades, belts, matting, and furniture. The 



* Miller, H. H., Abaca. Philippine Craftsman, Volume 1 (1912), pages 
120 to 140. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 57 

waste left after the fiber is stripped is a promising source of 
paper pulp. 

Abaka has been introduced into other tropical countries, but 
up to the present time practically the entire supply of the 
fiber has come from the Philippine Islands. In 1918 the 
exports amounted to 169,260,377 kilos, valued at 116,383,100 
pesos. 

Family ZINGIBERACEAE 

Genus AMOMUM 
AMOMUM sp. 

The leaf stalks of this plant are split and made into a light 
rope. King found this rope, when wet, to have a tensile 
strength of 325 kilos per square centimeter. 

Family MARANTACEAE 
Genus DONAX 
DONAX CANNAE FORMIS (Forst.) K. Sch. (Plate XXII). BamBAN. 

Local names: Aratan (Gaddanes in Nueva Vizcaya) ; hamhdn or banbdn 
(Cagayan, Pampanga, Bataan. Tarlac, Cavite, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro, 
Camarines, Sorsogon, Albay, Iloilo, Capiz, Antique, Cebu, Occidental Ne- 
gros. Oriental Negros, Bohol, Palawan) ; barasbardsan (Iloko in Tarlac) ; 
bonbon, (Cavite, Mindoro) ; dariunaka (Union, Iloko in Nueva Vizcaya, 
Zambales, Tarlac, Camiguin Island) ; garomaka (Union, Pangasinan) ; lang- 
kuds (Iloko) ; manban (Tayabas, Leyte) ; matalbdk (Bataan, Bulacan) ; 
mattapal (Isinai in Nueva Vizcaya) ; mini (Benguet), 

The split stems of this herb are used to weave baskets, 
usually in combination with other materials. The stems are 
occasionally used to make fish traps, hats, and for sewing nipa 
shingles. 

Donax cannaeformis is a half-woody herb reaching a height 
of 1 to 3 meters. The bases of the branches are somewhat 
swollen. The leaves are usually rounded at the base and 
pointed at the tip. The leaf bases are very long and sheathe 
the stem. The flowers are white. The fruits are rounded and 
about a centimeter in diameter. This plant is common and 
widely distributed in the Philippines and also occurs in Java, 
Celebes, and New Guinea. 

Family ORCHIDACEAE 

Genus DENDROBIUM 

DENDROBIUM CRUM ENATU M Sw. (Plate XXII). Irau. 

Local names: Ddpo (Tayabas) ; irdu (Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon) ; 
karamosi (Ilocos Norte) ; karaiisi (Cagayan) ; karulai (Isabela) ; magimpdl, 
magimapau (Bohol); manau (Leyte); sanggumai (Laguna). 

Fibers from the stems of this orchid are used as decorative 
material on baskets and other articles. This use is very an- 



5g PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

cient; Fray Marcos de Lisboa, author of ''Vocabulario de la 
Lengua Bicol" written about 1590-1620, says: '*YRAO. A 
plant that grows on trees and sends out a sort of cord, which 
is yellow and is used for tying and for making straw hats." 
The stalks are cut when they are very old and partially yellow. 

The stalk of Dendrobium crumenatum is 60 centimeters or 
more in length and, for a distance of about 20 centimeters from 
the base, is bulbous and fluted. The flowers are white with 
yellow markings and are very fragrant. 

This orchid is common and widely distributed in the Philip- 
pines, and is frequently cultivated for ornamental purposes. 

Genus VANILLA 
VANILLA OVALIS Blanco. 

Vanilla ovalis is a vine reaching a great height, and is locally 
abundant in some parts of central Luzon. The stems give some 
promise of yielding fibrous products of value in making baskets 
and similar articles. 

Family ULMACEAE 

Genus TREMA 

TREMA ORIENTALIS Blume. Anabiong. 

Local names: Agandung (Cagayan) ; alijidagon (More); anabiong (Ta- 
galog and Bisaya) ; anagdung , hanagdiing, tatagtdg (Guimaras Island) ; 
anagum (Bikol); anariong (Batanes Islands); anarong (Zambales) ; 
arandon, lainai (Abra) ; balibdgo, lagod, dalmiot, hanadiong (Tagalog) ; 
dalunit, malasikongdoron, hinlaldong (Pampanga) ; hagod (Laguna, Ta- 
yabas) ; hmiadgong (Samar, Camarines) ; hanagdong (Tayabas) ; hinagdung 
(Bisaya) ; hnbulos (Bontoc) ; inangdon (Mindoro) ; indai luging (Lanao) ; 
malarurnng (Igorot and Tagalog) ; nagdon (Occidental Negros) ; mala- 
nirang (Bataan) ; paiigarandongen (Benguet, Pangasinan). 

The dry rope made from the bast of Trema orientalis was 
the weakest of all the ropes tested by King. However, when 
wet its resistance was nearly doubled. The tensile strength 
of dry rope was only 134 kilos per square centimeter. Owing 
to its poor qualities it is seldom used. This species furnishes 
a soft, light-colored wood, in great demand for the manufacture 
of wooden shoes (zuecos). 

Trema orientalis is a small tree, b to 8 meters in height, with 
a very open crown. The leaves are 5 to 8 centimeters long, 
alternate, hairy, the base heart-shaped, the apex rounded, the 
margins toothed. The flowers are numerous in the axils of 
the leaves, white, and about .3 millimeters long. The fruits 
are ovoid drupes about 3. .5 millimeters long. 

This tree is a very frequent invader of open ground and in 
some places, where the virgin forest has been removed, forms 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



59 





5Q PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

almost pure stands over large areas. It is a common second- 
growth tree at low altitudes throughout the Philippines. 

Family MORACEAE 

Genus ALLAEANTHUS 

ALLAEANTHUS GLABER Warb. MalambingAN. 

Local names: Alokon, biingon (Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra) ; 
alibabdg (Cagayan, Itneg) ; alibabdi (Cagayan) ; alitagtdg, balitagtdg 
(Camarines) ; alokon, baeg, bongon (Pangasinan) ; babayan, imkabao 
(Nueva Ecija) ; kabdg (Mindoro, Misamis) ; karud (Misamis) ; liba (Da- 
vao); malakadios (Masbate) ; malambingan (Basilan). 

The crude bast of this tree shows great variations in color 
and size. Rope made from it is very weak. King found it to 
have a tensile strength of 231 kilos per square centimeter. 
Wetting increased the strength 10 per cent. This rope is said 
to be more durable than the average during the wet season. 

Young leaves and flowers of this species are cooked for food. 

Allaeanthus glaber is a medium-sized tree reaching a height 
of 30 meters and a diameter of 60 centimeters. The leaves 
are alternate, 5 to 15 centimeters long, the apex pointed, the 
base somewhat rounded. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to Basilan. 

Genus ANTIARIS 

ANTIARIS TOXICARIA Lesch. Lata or Upas-TREE. 

Local names: Dalit (Tagalog in Mindoro); ditd (Cagayan, Apayao) ; 
laid (Cagayan); salogon (Bisaya in Mindoro). 

Concerning the fiber Watt * says : 

The natives strip the bark of this tree into large pieces, soak them 
in water, and beat them well, when a good white fibre is obtained — a 
natural cloth worn by the natives. It is in Western India well known 
as the sacking tree, on acount of the tough, inner, fibrous, felted bark, 
being removed entire, thus forming natural sacks. Small branches are 
made into legs of trousers and arms of coats, the larger ones forming 
the bodies of the garments. In this way felt costumes are made which 
require no more sewing than is necessary to connect the parts together. 
If passed through rollers, and at the same time dyed and tanned, these 
natural cloths or felts are very interesting. The samples exhibited at 
the late Calcutta International Exhibition (contributed by the Bombay 
Committee) were very much admired, and proved very attractive. In 
making sacks sometimes a disk of the wood is left attached to the fibre 
so as to form the bottom of the sack. At other times a vertical incision 
is made on the tree and a transverse cut around the stem at the top and 
bottom of this vertical one. The bark is then peeled off, and after being 
beaten in water and dried, the top and bottom are sewed up (forming 
the sides of the sack) . These sacks are extensively used for storing rice. 

* Watt, Dictionary of the economic products of India, Volume I, page 268. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 61 

In Ceylon ropes are made of the bark, "The bark yields strong fibre 
suited for cordage, matting, and sacking. In making sacks a branch or 
trunk is cut to the required length, soaked in water, and beaten till the 
fibre separates from the wood. It is then turned inside out and the 
wood sawn off, except a small piece at the bottom." (Bombay Gazetteer, 
XV, Part I., 62, Konkan District.) There seems every likelihood that 
the bark of this tree may come into use as a paper fibre. 

The sap of this tree is used as an arrow poison. 

Antiaris toxicaria is a tree reaching a height of about 15 
meters and a diameter of 30 centimeters or more. The leaves 
are opposite, pointed at the tip, rounded or heart-shaped at the 
base, and from 8 to 15 centimeters in length. 

This species is apparently widely distributed in the Philip- 
pines, but is not common. 

Genus ARTOCARPUS 

ARTOCARPUS COMMUNIS Forst. (Plate XXIII). Antipolo. 

Local names: Antipolo (Bataan, Manila, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro, Ba- 
silan, Palawan) ; antipolong laldki (Rizal) ; chipiihu (Batanes) ; pakdk 
(Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Union, Zambales) ; kaynansi (Leyte) ; tipolo 
(Camarines, Negros). 

A rather weak rope is made from the bast of this tree. Rope 
made from the bast of old trees is stiff ; from the bast of young 
trees much more pliable. King found rope made of the bast 
of old trees to have a tensile strength of 367 kilos per square 
centimeter; and rope made from young trees, 356 kilos per 
square centimeter. Wetting decreased the strength only 2 per 
cent. Rope made of the bast of old trees is said to be very 
durable. It stands long wetting or alternate wetting and dry- 
ing. It is used in the form of traces, to yoke carabaos for 
field work. The Ilokos of Sappar, according to King, believe 
it to be more durable than rawhide. 

Artocarpus communis is a tree reaching a diameter of 90 
centimeters. It has an abundant milky juice. The leaves are 
very large and pinnately lobed. The fruits are rounded and 
very rough. The wood is soft to moderately hard. 

This species is common and widely distributed both cultivated 
and wild in the Philippines. 

ARTOCARPUS ELASTICA Reinw. GuMIHAN. 

Local names: Antipolo (Tayabas, Samar) ; gumihan (Camarines, Albay, 
Sorsogon) ; tngiip (Surigao, Davao). 

Heyne * gives quite a discussion of the bast of this species, 
which has been exported from Java to Europe. In 1902 it was 

* Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 2, 
page 48. 



g2 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

^vorth 60 to 70 cents per kilo in Holland; in 1904 a lot of a 
thousand kilos was sold in Rotterdam. Heyne says that old 
bast is much harder than young bast. 

Artocarpus elaxtica is a stately tree with a trunk 60 to 90 
centimeters in diameter. The leaves are alternate, crowded, 
obtuse at both ends, occasionally lobed towards the apex, the 
larger ones 20 to 30 centimeters wide, and 60 to 90 centimeters 
long. The male spikes are cylindrical, oblong, soft or spongy, 
and yellowish. The female heads are somewhat rounded or 
elliptical. The fruit is heavy, at least 10 centimeters long, and 
covered with brownish, hairy appendages. The seeds are em- 
bedded in a whitish, more or less gummy pulp of a delicious, 
tart flavor. They are about the size of peanuts, are eaten 
roasted, and in flavor also resemble peanuts. 

ARTOCARPUS INTEGRA (Thb.) Meir. NanGKA. 

Local names: Langkd (Bontoc, Bataan, Mindoro, Hollo, Leyte) ; nangkci 
(Cagayan, Bontoc, Laguna, Pampanga, Tayabas, Mindoro, Surigao). 

Heyne t reports that the bast of this species is used for the 
same purposes as that of other species of Artocarpus ; that is, 
for rope, bark clothing, etc. 

Artocarpus integra is a tree reaching a height of from 8 to 
15 meters. The leaves are alternate, leathery, broadest near the 
tip, with a pointed base, entire or sometimes three-lobed, shiny, 
and 7 to 15 centimeters long. The fruits are green, fleshy, 
edible, 25 to 60 centimeters long, covered with pyramidal pro- 
jections, and grow on the trunk or large branches. 

This species is distributed throughout the Philippines both 
cultivated and wild. 

ARTOCARPUS RUBROVENIA Warb. Kalulot. 

Local names: Anabling (Camarines) ; anublng (Laguna, Bataan, Taya- 
bas) ; anubling (Rizal) ; hayuko (Negros) ; hungd (Cagayan) ; hamugi, ka- 
lulot (Mindoro) ; kili-kili (Samar) ; kuhi (Tayabas, Mindoro, Sorsogon, Sa- 
mar) ; tagap (Baler) ; tumoluho (Isabela) ; ubien (Benguet, Pangasinan). 

The bark of this tree was formerly used in making cloth. 

Artocarpus rubrovenia is a tree reaching a height of about 30 
meters and a diameter of about 40 centimeters. The leaves are 
alternate, smooth, oval, pointed at the apex, and rounded or 
pointed at the base. 

This species is distributed from the northern to the southern 
limits of the Archipelago. 

t Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 2, 
page 53. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



63 




J.V.lan Jel 






PLATE XXIII. ARTOCARPUS COMMUNIS (ANTIP6L0). 



54 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Genus FICUS 
FICUS BENJAMINA Linn. Balete.* 

Local names: Anunga (Isabela) ; balete (Ilocos Norte, Abra, Pangasinan, 
Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bataan, Manila, Cavite, Laguna Camarines) ; 
baleteon (Nueva Vizcaya) ; balete-jmld (Tagalog) ; haliting-ihon (Batan- 
gas) ; gisi (Ibanag and Sub-province of Apayao) ; kolis (Bataan) ; kidimyiot 
(Negrito, Bataan) ; salisi (Nueva Vizcaya) ; tibi (Camarines) ; sirisin 
(Cagayan). 

The strips of bast of this species are salmon-buff; some are 
soft and pliable, others hard and stiff. Rope made from the 
bast possesses a fair degree of tenacity. King found it to have 
a tensile strength of 480 kilos per square centimeter. Wetting 
reduced the strength only 2 per cent. 

Ficus benjamhui is a strangling fig with smooth, leathery 
leaves. The leaves are alternate, somewhat oval, 8 to 15 centi- 
meters long, pointed at the tip, and rounded at the base. The figs 
occur singly in the axils of the leaves, are dark purple, and about 
1 to 2 centimeters in diameter. 

This species is common and widely distibuted at low altitudes, 
from northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

FICUS FORSTENII Miq. BaletE. 

Local names: Balete (Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, Mindoro, Moro) ; basakld 
(Iloko, Abra) ; daldkit (Negros) ; langaban (Moro, Cotabato) ; puos (Itneg) 
puspus (Iloko, Abra). 

The bast is ochraceous salmon. A very weak rope is made 
from it. King found the rope to have a tensile strength of only 
154 kilos per square centimeter. Immersion in water for 
twenty-four hours increased the strength 44 per cent. 

Ficus forstenii is a strangling fig with leathery leaves. It 
reaches a height of about 30 meters. The leaves are alternate, 
smooth, pointed at the apex, rounded at the base, wider near the 
apex than near the base, and from 7 to 17 centimeters in length. 
The figs are yellow and about 2 centimeters in diameter. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to southern 
Mindanao. 

FICUS PACHYPHYLLA Merr. Balete. 

Local names: Balite (Laguna); lunug (Occidental Negros); pasakld 
(Abra, Itneg). 

Strips of bast of this fig are colored a uniform pecan brown. 
Rope made from it is said to be very durable and is fairly strong. 

* Balete or baliti is a broadly generic term used in a number of the 
Philippine languages for all the "strangling figs" of the genus Ficus and 
very rarely, if ever, used for any other epiphytic or climbing plants. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES g5 

King found it to have a tensile strength of 464 kilos per square 
centimeter. Immersion in water for twenty-four hours increased 
the strength 17 per cent. 

FicKS pachi/phylla is a strangling fig with alternate, very 
leathery, smooth, somewhat elliptical leaves, which are 9 to 15 
centimeters in length. The figs are red with yellow scales at the 
base, and are about 1.5 centimeters in diameter. 

This species is widely distributed at low altitudes from 
northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

FICUS PALAWAN ENSIS Merr. Balete. 

Local names: Agamid (Itneg) ; againit (Abra) ; balete (Cavite, Laguna, 
Tayabas, Lanao). 

The bast from this species is stronger than that of any of 
the other species of Ficus tested by King. The rope made from 
it is very strong. On account of its great strength, toughness, 
and durability the fiber is used for making wild-hog traps. 
King found the rope to have a tensile strength of 752 kilos per 
square centimeter. Wetting increased the strength. 

Ficus iMlciwanensis is a large, strangling fig with alternate, 
smooth, leathery, elliptical leaves, pointed at the apex, usually 
rounded at the base, and 15 to 22 centimeters in length. The 
fig is red, oval, and about 1.5 centimeters in diameter. 

This species is found throughout the Philippines at low 
altitudes. 

Genus MALAISIA 

MALAISIA SCAN DENS (Lour.) Planch. MALAlsfs. 

Local names: Hin.ggm (Mindoro) ; sddak (Abra); sigid (Negros) ; ma- 
1 a is is (Tagalog). 

This vine is used for tying purposes, as in the construction 
of fish corrals. 

The leaves of Malaisia scandens are alternate, smooth, some- 
what oval, pointed at the tip, and from 5 to 12 centimeters in 
length. The flowers are small and greenish white. The fruits 
are oval, red, and about 7 millimeters long. 

This species is common and widely distributed in the Phil- 
ippine forests. 

Family URTICACEAE 

Genus BOEHMERIA 

BOEHMERIA NIVEA Gaudich. Ramie OR China grass. 

Local name: Lipang-dso (Manila). 

Ramie is a well-known fiber. It is extensively cultivated in 
China, and has also been grown in other countries. The fiber 



55 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

is white, lustrous, and very strong and durable. It is woven 
into very fine and beautiful fabrics. The fiber lacks the elasti- 
city of wool and silk and the flexibility of cotton. Cloth made 
from it is therefore rather harsh. The chief objections to a 
more extensive use of ramie are that it is very difficult to separate 
the fiber from the tissue in which it is embedded, and that the 
process requires considerable manual labor. In the Philippines 
the fiber is used in making strings, blankets, and cloth. 

Watt * gives an extensive account of ramie. He says that 
Boehmeria demands the best soil, and that the fields have to 
be manured and carefully tended. 

Ramie has been the subject of very extensive investigations, 
and the literature concerning it is voluminous. The yield of 
fiber is apparently very much greater in temperate and sub- 
tropical countries than in tropical ones. Owing to this fact 
and to the greater cost of labor in the Philippines than in 
China, it would appear that the growing of ramie on a com- 
mercial scale in the Philippines is impracticable. 

Boehmeria nivea is a hairy shrub reaching a height of about 
2 meters. The leaves are alternate, pointed at the tip, abruptly 
pointed at the base, have toothed margins, and are from 7 to 16 
centimeters in length. The flowers are small. 

This species is quite extensively cultivated in the mountain 
region of northern Luzon, particularly by the non-christian 
tribes. In Ifugao and neighboring subprovinces nearly every 
family cultivates a small amount. It is occasionally cultivated 
in central Luzon, where its value as a fiber plant is not appre- 
ciated, and it also occurs in the Batanes Islands. 

Genus LEUCOSYKE 

LEUCOSYKE CAPITELLATA (Poir.) Wedd. AlagaSI. 

Local names: Alagdsi, hanlagcisi, hilagdsi (Mindoro) ; alaiigdsi, isis- 
mdya (Rizal) ; anagdsi, hinagdsi, laydsin, li-d-sin (Tayabas) ; anugau (Sor- 
sogon) ; aragdsi, tinagdsi (Camarines) ; isis-ngi'pin (Lag^una) ; kaynkasin 
(Nueva Ecija) ; lagdsi (Laguna, Mindoro). 

This species produces strong bast fibers. 

Leucosyke capitellata is a tree reaching a height of 8 to 10 
meters. The leaves are alternate, pointed at the apex, abruptly 
pointed at the base, hairy, the lower surface whitish, the margins 
toothed. The flowers are small and whitish, and borne in com- 
pact heads. 

This species is distributed from Luzon to Palawan. 

* Watt, CommerGial products of India. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 67 

Family MENISPERMACEAE 

Genus ANAMIRTA 

ANAMIRTA COCCULUS W. & A. LiGTANG. 

Local names: Bay-yating (Abra) ; labtdng (Abra, Ilocos Sur) ; lagtdng 
(Masbate) ; ligtdng (Tagalog). 

The bark of this vine is made into rope used for tying animals 
and for hauling. It is used particularly during the rainy 
season. The entire stems are also twisted into rope. The fruit 
is used as a fish poison and is also poisonous to other animals. 

Anamirta cocculus is a vine with smooth, alternate, heart- 
shaped leaves which are from 12 to 24 centimeters in length. 
The flowers are small, yellowish white, very fragrant, and borne 
on compound inflorescences. The fruits are round, and about 1 
centimeter in diameter. 

This species is common and widely distributed in the Phil- 
ippines. 

Genus PERICAMPYLUS 
PERICAMPYLUS GLAUCUS Merr. (Plate XXIV). Pamago. 

Local names: Hahini (Basilan) ; pamago (Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon) ; 
silong-piigo (Batangas) ; tugi-tugian (Mindoro). 

The central cylinders of the stems of this vine are used for 
weavers of baskets. According to Heyne f this species is used 
for rope in Java. 

Pericampijlus glaucus is a vine occurring in thickets, waste 
places, or along the banks of streams throughout the Philippines. 
The leaves and young stems are very hairy. The leaves are 
heart-shaped and 5 to 10 centimeters in length. The flowers are 
small, greenish, and occur in small, compound, axillary inflores- 
cences. The fruits are flattened and about 5 millimeters in 
diameter. 

Family ANNONACEAE 

Genus GONIOTHALAM US 
GONIOTHALAMUS AMU YON (Blco.) Merr. Amuyong. 

Local names: Amiiyong (Batangas); lamitan (Negros) ; sagidt (Iloko, 
Union) . 

The bast of this tree has an attractive apricot-buff color. 
Rope made from it is weak. King found the rope to have a 
tensile strength of 345 kilos per square centimeter. Wetting 
reduced the tensile strength 15 per cent. 

Goniothalamus amuyon is a tree reaching a height of 15 meters 



t Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 2, 
page 1. 



QS PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

and a diameter of 20 centimeters. The leaves are alternate, 
smooth, rather narrow, pointed at both ends, and from 18 to 25 
centimeters in length. The flowers are greenish yellow, about 5 
centimeters long, and have long narrow petals. The fruits are 
cylindrical, aromatic, and about 3 centimeters in length. They 
contain 1 to 3 seeds. 

This species is of local occurrence and widely distributed at 
low altitudes in the Philippines. 

Genus PHAEANTHUS 

PHAEANTHUS E BRACTEOLATUS (Presl) Merr. KalimataS. 

Local names: Amiiyong (Polillo Island); dalinas (Bataan) ; kalimatds 
(Lag'una, Bataan) ; langlangds (Ilocos Norte) ; lanutan (Bataan, Mindoro, 
Cotabato) ; manggasinoro (Tayabas); puropagai (Nueva Ecija) ; takidau 
(Ilocos Norte); yamhdn (Zambales). 

The bark of this vine is used for tying purposes and also 
medicinally. 

The leaves of Phaecuithus ebracteolatus are alternate, oval, 
pointed at both ends, and 10 to 15 centimeters in length. The 
flowers are yellow and about 2 centimeters long. The fruits are 
oval, red, and are borne in rounded clusters. 

This species is common and widely distributed in the Phil- 
ippines. 

Genus POLYALTHIA 

POLYALTHIA FLAVA Merr. YELLOW Lanutan. 

Local name: Lanutan (Tayabas, Bataan). 

The bast fiber of this tree is used for making rope. 

Pohjalthia flava is a tree which reaches a height of about 20 
meters and a diameter of about 40 centimeters. The leaves are 
alternate, smooth, pointed at both ends, and from 6 to 16 centi- 
meters long. The flowers are yellowish green with petals about 
2.5 centimeters long. The fruits are oval and occur in rounded 
clusters. 

This species is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao. 

Family CONNARACEAE 

Genus AGELAEA 

AGELAEA EVERETTII Merr. Ongall 

Local names: Ongdli (Negros) ; kamagsd (Polillo); kamaksd (Laguna). 

This vine is used for tying purposes. 

Agelaea everettii is a woody vine. The leaves are alternate, 
pinnate, and have three leaflets, which are 2.5 to 15 centimeters 
long. The flowers are white and fragrant, the petals about 
5 millimeters long. The flowers occur in short racemes. The 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



69 




PLATE XXIV. PERICAMPYLUS GLAUCUS (PAMAGO). 



70 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

fruits are very rough and 1.5 to 2 centimeters long; the seeds 
about 1 centimeter long. 

This species is fairly common in the forests, and is distributed 
from northern Luzon to Basilan. 

Genus ROUREA 

ROUREA VOLUBILIS (Blanco) Merr. Kamaksa. 

Local names: Baralang (Cagayan) ; hitog (Benguet) ; kamaksa (Rizal, 
La^na) ; pdlosdnto (Pangasinan) . 

This vine is used for tying fish corrals. The fruits are also 
used for poisoning dogs. 

Rourea volubiUs is a vine common and widely distributed 
in the Philippine forests. The leaves are alternate, smooth, 
somewhat oval in shape, rounded at the base, and have pro- 
minent projections at the tips. The flowers are small, white, 
fragrant, and occur in large numbers on compound inflorescences. 

Family LEGUMINOSAE 

Genus ABRUS 
A BR US PRECATORIUS L. Kansasaga or Prayer-BEAN. 

Local names: Agunandng, agunyanydng (Zamboanga) ; hdhai (Ticao) ; 
hugayong or bugayung (Camiguin Is., Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Tarlac, 
Pangasinan, Zambales) ; hughugayong (Union) ; kansasdga (Pampanga, 
Tarlac, Camarines) ; kasasdga (Pampanga, Bataan) ; lago (Culion Is.); 
Idsa (Batanes Islands) ; matang-uldyig (Pampanga) ; sdga (Laguna, Ba- 
tangas, Tayabas) ; sagambdging (Polillo Is.); sagasdga (Bulacan, Bataan, 
Rizal, Manila, Batangas, Tayabas) ; ulangid (Cuyo Islands). 

According to Watt,'^ this plant yields beautiful bast fibers. 
These fibers are said to be suitable for cordage. 

Abrns precatorius is a slender, branched, annual vine which 
reaches a length of 9 meters or less. The leaves are alternate, 
5 to 10 centimeters in length, and compound with twenty to 
forty leaflets, which are 1 to 3 centimeters long. The flowers 
are borne in axillary racemes which are usually shorter than 
the leaves. The flowers are numerous, often crowded, pink 
to pale purple or salmon, and about 1 centimeter long. The 
pod is oblong, 2.5 to 5 centimeters long, about 1.5 centimeters 
broad, and contains three to five seeds which are shiny, 6 
millimeters long, and partly black and partly scarlet. 

This species is common and widely distributed in Philippine 
thickets. 



Watt, Commercial products of India. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 71 

Genus BAUHINIA 

BAUHINIA CUMINGIANA (Benth) F. Vill. Agpoi. 

Local names: Agkui (Pampanga) ; agpoi (Bataan, Camarines) ; agpor, 
ugpoi (Bataan) ; banot or bamit (Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas) ; impid, impig 
(Camarines) ; lihang-hdng (Masbate) ; lupig (Nueva Ecija) ; niogniogan 
(Cotabato) ; oplig (Abra) ; salibanghdng (Negros, Leyte) ; umpig, umpik 
(Cagayan) ; upling (Union). 

This vine is used for tying purposes, especially for hanging 
tobacco sticks and hauling logs. It is very durable. The bast 
is very strong and is used by the Negritos of Bataan Province 
for making bowstrings. It is also used for making rope. 

Bauhinia ciimmgiana is a huge, woody vine growing in virgin 
forests. The leaves are alternate, smooth, heart-shaped, divided 
at the apex, and 8 to 12 centimeters in length. It has brownish- 
yellow flowers in large clusters and large, flat seed pods. 

This species is widely distributed from northern Luzon to 
southern Mindanao. 

Genus PONGAMIA 

PONGAMIA PINNATA (L.) Merr. Bani. 

Local names: Balikbalik (Tagalog) ; balobalo (Zamboanga, Basilan) ; 
balukbaluk, balutbahif, magit (Cotabato) ; baobao (Agusan) ; bdni (Pan- 
gasinan, Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan, Cotabato) ; kadel (Tayabas) ; 
marokbarok (Camarines); salingkugi (Zamboanga). 

The bark of this tree is used for making strings and ropes. 

Pongamia pimiata is a tree reaching a height of 15 meters and 
a diameter of about 45 centimeters. The leaves are alternate 
and compound with three to seven leaflets, which are smooth, 
pointed at the apex, usually rounded at the base, and 7 to 10 
centimeters in length. The flowers are purplish, about 1.5 cen- 
timeters in length, and borne in racemes. The pods are some- 
what flattened, somewhat oval in outline, and with a single 
seed. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to southern 
Mindanao. 

Family VITACEAE 

Genus CISSUS 
CISSUS REPENS Lam. Kalitkalit. 

Local names: Ayo (Batangas) ; kalitkalit (Rizal, Balabac Island); 
rigini (Ticao Island). 

This species is used for tying carabaos. 

Cissiis rep ens is a smooth vine reaching a length of 10 meters 
or less. The leaves are 7 to 12 centimeters long, the apex 
pointed, the base frequently heart-shaped. The flowers are 



72 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

small and greenish, and borne on inflorescences which are 
opposite the leaves or terminate the branches. The fruit is 
fleshy, purple, about 6 millimeters long, and with a single seed. 
This species is distributed from the Mountain Province of 
Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

Family SAPINDACEAE 

Genus SAPINDUS 
SARIN DUS SAPONARIA L. TiKASTlKAS. 

Local names: Amugduen (Union) ; kasibai, kasiboen (Ilocos Norte) ; 
katikis (Bataan) ; teka-teka (Pangasinan, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas) ; 
tekistekis (Rizal) ; tikas-tikas (Laguna) ; kusibeng (Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, 
Abra, Union) ; mamaUs (Pampanga) ; malahito (Nueva Ecija) ; palikpik- 
hito (Nueva Ecija, Pampanga), 

According to Dodge :^' *'The bast of this species yields a 
coarse fiber, suitable for native cordage." 

The bark is used for washing the hair. Tobacco workers in 
Abra use the crushed leaves for removing the stain of tobacco 
leaves from their hands. 

Sapindus saponaria is a tree reaching a height of about 20 
meters and a diameter of about 60 centimeters. The leaves 
are alternate, smooth, and compound, the main stalk is expanded 
and leaf-like. The flowers are small, white, and are borne in 
considerable numbers on compound inflorescences. The fruits 
are rounded and about 1.5 centimeters in length. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to Mindanao. 

Family RHAMNACEAE 

Genus ALPHITONIA 

ALPHITONIA EXCELSA Reiss. 

Local names: Anildu (Guimaras Island); dunglu (Mindoro) ; tangguldi 
(Mindoro) ; tulo (Samar) ; uakdtan (Surigao). 

The bark of this tree is used for making rope. 

Alphitonia excelsa is a tree which reaches a height of 20 
meters. It has alternate, hairy, narrow leaves which are pointed 
at the apex, rounded at the base, about 9 centimeters long, and 
5 centimeters broad. The flowers are small and borne on com- 
pound, axillary or terminal inflorescences. The fruits are 
somev/hat rounded, black, and over a centimeter in diameter. 

This species is distributed in forests from northern Luzon 
to Mindanao. 



* Dodge, C. R., A descriptive catalogue of useful fiber plants of the 
world. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Fiber investigations. Report 
No. 9, page 290. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 73 

Family ELAEOCARPACEAE 

Genus ELAEOCARPUS 

ELAEOCARPUS CALOMALA (Blanco) Merr. Kalomala. 

Local names: Bunsilak, maglumboi (Mindoro) ; huiigo, ungo (Tayabas, 
Mindoro) ; kundkun (Surigao) ; malanopit (Rizal) ; kalomala (Batangas, 
fide Blanco) . 

The inner bark is used for making rope. The fruit is edible. 

Elaeocarpus calomala is a tree reaching a height of about 
25 meters and a diameter of about 60 centimeters. The leaves 
are alternate, smooth, oval, pointed at both ends, 6 to 15 cen- 
timeters in length, and with toothed margins. The flowers are 
white, fragrant, about a centimeter in diameter, and borne in 
axillary racemes. The fruit is red, oval, and contains a single, 
rough, hard stone. 

This species is distributed from the Mountain Province, Luzon, 
to southern Mindanao. 

Family TILIACEAE 

Genus COLUMBIA 

COLUMBIA BLANCO I Rolfe. Mamaued. 

Local names: Anildii, mamadling, mamaued, mamued (Rizal) ; keddeng 
(Iloko, Beng-uet) . 

A weak rope is made from the bast of this tree. It is a 
good rope during the rainy season on account of its durability 
when wet. King found it to have a tensile strength of 302 
kilos per square centimeter. Wetting increased the strength 
about 1 per cent. 

Columbia blancoi is a small tree attaining a height of about 
10 meters. The leaves are hairy, pointed at the apex, rounded 
or heart-shaped at the base, from 12 to 30 centimeters long, 
and with toothed margins. The flowers are pink or yellow 
and are in large terminal panicles. The fruits are ovoid cap- 
sules about 1 centimeter long and with two to four wings. 

This species has been reported only from Luzon. 

COLUMBIA LANCEOLATA Warb. Kadiix. 

Local names: Anildii (Zambales); haliudn (Pangasinan) ; kadiin, lapnit 
(Pangasinan) . 

The bark of this tree is used for making rope. 

Cohimhia lanceolata is a tree reaching a height of 25 meters 
and a diameter of 40 centimeters. The leaves have toothed 
margins, a conspicuous pointed tip, and an oblique base. They 



74 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

are hairy, and from 8 to 15 centimeters in length. The fruits 
have five wings. 

This species is found in second-growth forests in Luzon. 

COLUMBIA MOLLIS Warb. Keddeng. 

Local name: Keddeng (Ilocos Sur, Abra, Nueva Vizcaya). 

The bark of this tree is used for making rope. 

Columbia mollis is a tree reaching a height of about 18 meters 
and a diameter of about 40 centimeters. The leaves are alter- 
nate, hairy, rounded and somewhat oblique at the base, pro- 
minently pointed at the tip, from 8 to 20 centimeters in length, 
and with toothed margins. The fruits have two or three wings. 

This species occurs in Luzon. 

COLUMBIA SERRATI FOLIA (Cav.) Pers. Anilau. 

Local names: Alindu (Camarines) ; anilau (Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas, 
Camarines, Sorsogon, Mindoro, Masbate, Iloilo, Leyte, Surigao, Butuan, 
Cotabato, Zamboanga) ; bagarildu (Bataan); banilad (Laguna) ; banlot 
(Iloilo) ; hainiid (Mindoro) ; hanagdong (Palawan) ; Idho (Cagayan) ; 
laidsin (Marinduque) ; mamaued (Rizal). 

Judging from Mendiola's figures, the bast is very weak. A 
red dye is obtained from the bark. 

Colu7nbia serratifolia is a small tree, 3 to 10 meters high. 
The branches and leaves are hairy. The leaves are 10 to 20 
centimeters in length, pointed, with a very oblique base, and 
toothed margins. The flowers are 6 to 7 millimeters long, with 
pink and yellowish or reddish petals, and borne in panicles. 
The fruits are about 1 centimeter long and with three or four 
wings. 

This species is common in second-growth forests throughout 
the Philippines. 

Genus CORCHORUS 
CORCHORUS CAPSULARIS L. PaSAU NA BILOG. 

Local names: Panigbin, sumpa (Samar) ; pdsau na bilog (Tag.). 

For a discussion of the fiber of this plant see Corchorus 
olitorius. 

Corchorus capsidaris is an erect, branched, annual herb 1 
to 2 meters in height. The stems are usually purplish. The 
leaves are alternate, the apex pointed, the base rounded with 
a tail-like projection on each side of the midrib, the margins 
toothed. The flowers occur in small groups in the axils of 
the leaves and are about 4 millimeters long. The petals are 
yellow and the sepals often purphsh. The fruit is a somewhat 
rounded capsule, about a centimeter in diameter and with longi- 
tudinal ridges. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 75 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines in open, 
low grasslands and waste places. 

CORCHORUS OLITORIUS L. Pasau or JuTE. 

Local names: Pdsau (Zambales, Tagalog) ; salnyot, saluyut or saloyot 
(Ilocos Sur, Union, Pangasinan) ; tagabang (Manila, Bisaya) ; taka magin- 
ddnau, yaka (Cotabato). 

Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis are grown in 
India on a large scale to furnish most of the jute of commerce. 
Corchorus olitorius is found in all tropical countries, but it is 
only in India that the fibers are extracted in commercial quan- 
tities. King tested rope made from the crude bast of wild 
Philippine plants and found it to have a tensile strength of 503 
kilos per square centimeter. Wetting decreased the strength 
28 per cent. 

In the Philippines the plant is better known as a vegetable, 
the leaves being edible, than on account of its fibers. 

Corchorus olitorius is a smooth, erect, half-woody shrub, 1 to 
1.5 meters in height. The leaves are pointed at the tip and have 
tail-like projections at the base. The flowers are small and 
yellow. The fruit is a rather slender pod about 3 to 3.5 centi- 
meters long. 

Corchorus olitorius is a weed found in wet places in the 
settled areas of the Philippines. 

Genus DIPLODISCUS 
Dl PLOD ISC US PANICULATUS Turcz. Balobo. 

Local names: Balobo (Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines, 
Agusan, Cotabato, Basilan, Zamboanga) ; barobo (Camarines) ; barubo, ki- 
deng (Cagayan) ; bulugai (Cotabato) ; biwu, bukad (Lanao) ; maobo (Ce- 
bu) ; maramani, manaring (Isabela) ; mariibo (Samar, Leyte, Albay, 
Ticao Island, Masbate, Iling Island) ; mayubo (Antique) ; muling -muling 
(Tayabas); puyus (Laguna); talu-talu, mangalri, tagpdn, dupdupan 
(Zamboanga). 

The bast of this species is sometimes used for making rope. 
The bast is, however, small in amount and difficult to extract, 
and so is seldom employed. 

Diplodiscus paniculatus is a tree reaching a height of about 20 
meters and a diameter of about 80 centimeters. The leaves are 
alternate, smooth, pointed at both ends, and from about 12 to 25 
centimeters in length. The flowers are rather small, whitish or 
yellowish, and borne on large compound inflorescences. The 
fruit is edible. 

This species is very common and widely distributed in the 
forests from northern Luzon to southern Mindanao. In some 
places it is the most numerous under-story tree in the forest. 
It is not cultivated except at the Lamao Experiment Station. 



76 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Genus GREWIA 
GREWIA ACUMINATA Juss. Amboi-UAN. 

Local names: AIM gat, alinau (Union) ; alagosi (Negros) ; bagun, halagan 
(Palawan); balongo dilang-dhas (Zamboanga) ; amhoi-ucin (Union). 

Bast fibers are extracted from the bark of this tree and made 
into ropes and strings. 

Greicia acuminata is a tree reaching a height of about 10 
meters and a diameter of about 15 centimeters. The leaves are 
alternate, somewhat hairy, pointed at the apex, rounded at the 
base, with toothed margins, and 8 to 15 centimeters long. The 
flowers have whitish petals and prominent yellow stamens, and 
are borne on compound inflorescences. The fruit is green, about 
2 centimeters in diameter, frequently somewhat four-lobed, four- 
seeded, and very hairy. 

This species is distributed from La Union Province in Luzon 
to southern Mindanao. 

GREWIA BILAMELLATA Gagnep. Benglareng. 

Local names: Benglareng (Iloko, Itneg) ; dongrareng (Iloko) ; durareng 
(Abra). 

The bark is used for making a rope of slight strength. King 
found the tensile strength to be 320 kilos per square centimeter ; 
wetting decreasing it 44 per cent. The rope is said to be durable 
during the dry season, but to deteriorate rapidly during wet 
weather. 

GREWIA ERIOCARPA Juss. (G. negrosensh) . Bariu-an. 

Local names: Anildu (Cebu) ; balibdgo, kanas-kands (Batangas) ; bali- 

liuaii (Zambales) ; balitnong (Ilocos Norte, Capiz) ; baria-an (Union) ; 

bariu-dn (Iloko, Itneg, Abra, Union, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija) ; baruan 

(Lepanto) ; danli (Tayabas); dirdn (Union); durdn (Pangasinan); ked- 
deng (Ilocos Sur, Abra, Union) ; lapi, lapni, lapnit (Cagayan) ; tnasapldk 

(Pampanga). 

A rope of average strength is made from the bark of this tree. 
The fiber is extracted from the bark as soon as it is removed from 
the tree. The rope is used for hauling, tying cattle, and binding 
rice bundles. In Abra the fiber is used to some extent in making 
hat braids. King found rope made from the bast to have a 
tensile strength of 394 kilos per square centimeter. Wetting 
weakened it about 3 per cent. 

Grewia eriocarpa is a shrub or small tree. The leaves are 
alternate, densely hairy, pointed at the tip, oblique at the base, 
from 5 to 15 centimeters in length, and with the lower surface 
white or nearly so. The flowers are small and yellow. The 
fruit is small, round, bluish, and edible. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 77 

GREWIA MULTI FLORA Juss. Danglin. 

Local names: Al-alinau (Union) ; aJinau (Amburayan, Ilocos Sur, Pan- 
gasinan, Union, Zambales, Laguna, Sorsogon) ; anihiu (Benguet, Ilocos 
Norte, Ilocos Sur, Union, Abra, Pangasinan) ; apUt (Pampanga) ; hagohon 
(Mindoro, Guimaras Island) ; benglaUng (Abra) ; huluhukhon (Guimaras 
Island) ; dalldg (Gaddan in Nueva Vizcaya) ; dangli, kalit-kalit (Laguna, 
Tayabas) ; danglin (Pangasinan, Tagalog, Guimaras, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, 
Rizal, Pampanga) ; danglog (Cagayan) ; durarong (Ilocos Sur) ; imhu- 
buiukan (Palawan) ; kanaroset (Palawan) ; langosig (Bohol) ; Idnut (Ne- 
grito in Pampanga) ; lapnis (Batangas, Cavite) ; Ugad (Mindoro) ; siapo 
(Mindoro); taroi (Camarines, Albay) . 

The bast is pale yellow-orange and is a non-staining fiber. 
Rope made from it is rather weak, but is said to be very durable 
for dry-weather use. It is a very commonly used rope. King 
found it to have a tensile strength of 376 kilos per square cen- 
timeter. Immersion in water for twenty-four hours caused 
a decrease in strength of 12 per cent. 

Grewia multiflora is a shrub or small tree. The leaves and 
branches are nearly smooth. The leaves are alternate, 4 to 14 
centimeters in length, pointed at the tip, rounded or pointed at 
the base, and with toothed margins. The flowers are yellowish 
green and about a centimeter in diameter. The fruits are ovoid 
and about 6 millimeters long. 

This species is common and widely distributed throughout the 
Philippines. 

Genus MUNTINGIA 

MUNTINGIA CALABURA L. Datiles. 

Local names: Cereza (Spanish, "cherry," in Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pam- 
panga, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Zambales, Cuyo Islands) ; datiles (Spanish, 
''dates," in Tarlac, Pangasinan, Camarines, Albay, Capiz) ; Idtris (La- 
guna) ; manzanitas (dim. of Spanish manzana, "apple," in Ilocos Norte 
and Sur, Abra, Cagayan, Union) ; rdtiles (Bataan, Manila, Rizal, Batangas, 
Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Marinduque, Zamboanga, Cuyo Islands). 

The bark of this tree is used for making rope. 
Concerning the fiber Dodge * says : 

Its bast is very soft and pliable, twists easily, and if used in this 
manner, without attempting to separate or clean the fibers, is possessed 
of ordinary strength. The fibrils are exceedingly fine and silky, so much 
so that the bast, when broken, exhibits at the point of rupture the 
flossy appearance always seen at the raw ends of skein or embroidery 
silk. Separating the fiber would undoubtedly diminish its strength. It is 
employed slightly in Santo Domingo for cordage. 



* Dodge, C. R., A descriptive catalogue of useful fiber plants of the 
world. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Fiber investigations. Report 
No. 9, page 244. 



78 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Muntingia calahura is a tree from 5 to 10 meters in height. 
The leaves are 8 to 13 centimeters long, hairy, sticky, the base 
oblique, the apex pointed, and the margins toothed. The flowers 
are white and about 2 centimeters in diameter. The fruit is a 
rounded, red, smooth, fleshy, sweet, edible berry about 1.5 cen- 
timeters in diameter and contains numerous small seeds. 

This species is a native of tropical America, but is naturalized 
in the Philippines. 

Genus TRIUMFETTA 

TRIUMFETTA BARTRAMIA L. KULOT-KULOTAN. 

Local names: Balanggot (Camarines) ; bulagun (Basilan) ; kolo-kolot 
(Ilocos Norte, Bataan) ; kulot-kulotan (Bataan, Palawan) ; moropofo 
(Leyte) ; pallopaUot (Itneg, Iloko) ; sauag-cabaUo (Mindoro). 

The bast of this species is fairly strong. 

Triumfetta bartramia is an erect, more or less hairy annual, 
which reaches a height of from 0.5 to 1.5 meters. The leaves 
are alternate, hairy, entire or three-lobed, and with toothed 
margins. The flowers are yellow and about 6 millimeters long. 
The fruits are small, rounded, and covered with smooth, hooked 
spines. 

This species is not a native of the Philippines, but it is tho- 
roughly naturalized and is widely distributed in the Archipelago. 
It is found in tropical Asia, Africa, and Malaya. 

Family MALVACEAE 

Genus ABELMOSCHUS 

ABELMOSCHUS MULTILOBATUS Merr. 

Local name: Annabo d dadakkel (Union). 

White fibers used for making rope are extracted from the bark 
of this plant. 

Abelmoschus multilohatus is a shrub reaching a height of 2 to 
3 meters. It is usually covered with long, stiff, irritating hairs. 
The leaves are alternate, about 8 to 12 centimeters long, and 
divided into five or seven lobes which are in turn divided into a 
number of lobes. The flowers are very large and yellow. 

This species has been reported from Ilocos Norte, La Union, 
and Bataan. 

Genus BOM BYCIDEN DRON 

BOMBYCIDENDRON VIDALI AN I UM Merr. and Rolfe. Lanutan. 

Local names: Lanutan (northern Luzon to Bulacan and Bataan); losu- 
ban (Iloko, Itneg, Abra) ; pangardisen (Cagayan, Ilocos Sur) ; tdkulau 
bianco (Ilocos Norte). 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 79 

Rope made from the bast possesses considerable strength and 
is considered as pliable, durable, and fitted for service throughout 
the year. King found it to possess a tensile strength of 630 
kilos per square centimeter. Immersion in water reduced the 
strength by about 26 per cent. 

The bark is also woven into hats. 

Bomhycidendron vidalianiim is a medium-sized tree reaching 
a diameter of 50 centimeters or more. The leaves are alternate, 
somewhat oval, pointed at the tip and rounded at the base, and 
8 to 15 centimeters long. The flowers are white and about 
8 centimeters in length. The fruits are oval, pointed, red, and 
about 4 centimeters long. The trunk is short and often crooked. 
The wood is rarely sawn. Its chief uses are for vehicle shafts 
and musical instruments. 

This species has been reported from Luzon, Mindoro, and Pa- 
lawan, and is common and widely distributed in Luzon. 

Genus HIBISCUS 

HIBISCUS TILIACEUS Linn. (Plate XXV). Malubago. 

Local names: Alum (Zambales) ; bdgo (Ilocos Norte, Abra) ; balibdgo 
(Bontoc, Zambales, Tarlac, Bulacan, Manila, Tayabas, Polillo, Tarlac, Ley- 
te) ; balobdgo (Leyte) ; dangliiv (Bulacan) ; danglog (Balabac Island) ; 
hdnot (Batanes Islands) ; malabdgo (Pangasinan, Sorsogon, Masbate, Ca- 
marines, Albay, Iloilo, Capiz, Mindoro, Lanao) ; malibdgo (Marinduque, 
Bataan, Tayabas, Davao) ; malubago (Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon) ; ma- 
pold (Batangas) ; may ainbd go (Camarines, Surigao) ; midabdgo (Cotabato). 

The bast fibers make a fairly strong rope. The fiber is used 
for string, for tying cattle, and for making hog traps. 

Hibiscus tiliaceus is a much-branched tree 4 to 12 meters in 
height. The leaves are 10 to 15 centimeters long, alternate, 
hairy, somewhat rounded, the apex pointed, the base heart- 
shaped. The flowers are yellow with a purple center. The 
petals are about 5 centimeters long and wide. 

This species is common throughout the Philippines. It is very 
easily propagated by means of cuttings. 

Genus MALACHRA 

MALACHRA CAPITATA Jacq. Bakembakes. 

Local names: Anyiabo (Union); bakembdkes (Abra, Ilocos Sur, Union); 

bidbulin (Pampanga) ; bidiihan, bulubiduhan (Cavite) ; labug-labug (Iloilo, 

Occidental Negros) ; sipit-uldng (Bulacan); pdang-baliivis (Manila, Rizal). 

The bast is strong and is used in the manufacture of rope. 
Watt ^ says that the fiber is excellent, 8 to 9 feet long, and that 
experts have declared it little, if at all, inferior to jute. 



Watt, G., Commercial products of India. 



go PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Malachra capitata is a coarse, erect annual 0.5 to 2 meters 
in height and is covered with very coarse hair. The leaves 
are alternate, from 5 to 15 centimeters in diameter, somewhat 
rounded, and slightly lobed. The base is heart-shaped. The 
petals are yellow and about 1 centimeter long. 

This species is common in waste places throughout the 
Philippines. It is a native of tropical America. 

MALACHRA FASCIATA Turcz. Paang-BALIWIS. 

Local names: Annctbo (Union); bakembdkes (Itneg, Ilocano) ; malabitis- 
pdpa (Bataan) ; pdang-balhvis (Tagalog). 

The bast of this species is colored olive buff. A strong rope 
used for clotheslines and general purposes is made from it. 
The bast is prepared by retting. The entire plant is cut and 
kept in fresh water for about ten days, after which the bast 
is easily stripped and the fiber largely freed from extraneous 
matter by washing. King found the rope to have a tensile 
strength of 637 kilos per square centimeter, which wetting 
decreased 15 per cent. 

Malachra fasciata is a coarse, half-woody herb reaching a 
height of 0.5 to 1 meter. The leaves are 10 to 15 centimeters 
long, very hairy, have a rounded base, and are cut nearly to the 
base into five narrow lobes which have toothed margins. The 
corolla is pink and about 1 centimeter long. 

The species is a native of tropical America, but is now tho- 
roughly naturalized and widely distributed in the Philippines 
at low altitudes, and is locally very abundant in wet places. 

Genus MALVASTRUM 

MALVASTRUM COROMANDELINUM Garke. Salsaluyut. 

Local names: Babara (Pangasinan) ; gagabiiten (Union); salsaluyut 
(Union); tachin-kabayo (Batanes Islands); tdkim-bdka (Ilocos Norte). 

The stems of this plant are used in making brooms. 

Malvastrum coromandelinum is an erect, somewhat hairy, 
branched, half-woody perennial, 1 meter or less in height. The 
leaves are 2 to 5 centimeters long, the apex pointed, the base 
usually rounded, the margins irregularly toothed. The flowers 
are yellow with petals about 8 millimeters long. The fruit 
consists of eight to twelve kidney-shaped divisions, 2 to 3 milli- 
meters long, and has three short, straight projections. 

This species is a native of tropical America, but is now widely 
distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. It is common 
in waste places throughout the Philippines. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



81 




PLATE XXV. HIBISCUS TILIACEUS (MALUBaGO). 



166C77 6 



g2 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Genus SI DA 
SI DA ACUTA Burm. f. Takling-BAKA. 

Local names: Attdi-na-bdka (Ibanak) ; basbdsot (Bontoc) ; escobilla 
(Laguna, Bisaya) ; herbara (Ilocos Sur) ; kashile (Bulacan) ; maratakUm- 
bdka (Iloko in Tarlac) ; salik (Basilan) ; surusighid (Camarines) ; takkim- 
bdka (Ilocos Norte, Abra, Isabela, Pangasinan, Union) ; taking-bdka 
(Tarlac) ; takling-bdka (Pangasinan) ; ucmalisin (Bulacan) ; ualis-ualisan 
(Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan). 

The fiber of Sid a acuta is very pretty; its color marguerite 
yellow. It is fine, filamentous, soft, and very lustrous, having 
an appearance like silk. It possesses only medium strength, 
but makes a handsome rope. Ilokos consider this rope a superior 
product on account of its durability, its pleasing color, and its 
gloss. It is used for general purposes and particularly where 
nonstaining fiber is desired. King tested rope made from fiber 
which had been retted about ten days in fresh water and sub- 
sequently cleaned. He found it to have a tensile strength of 
475 kilos per square centimeter, which wetting increased about 
6 per cent. 

The stems are used for making brooms and baskets. 

Sicla acuta is a slender shrub reaching a meter in height. It 
has elongated, slender branches. The leaves are alternate, 3 to 
5 centimeters long, and with toothed margins. The flowers are 
yellow and about 1.3 centimeters in diameter. 

This species is abundant in wet places throughout the Phil- 
ippines. V 

SIDA CORDIFOLIA L. 

Local name: Albahdca (Spanish in Surigao). 

According to Watt,* this plant yields a fine, white fiber. 

Sida cordifolia is an erect, half-woody shrub, 0.4 to 1 meter 
in height. It is covered with soft, velvety hairs mixed with 
which are numerous longer hairs. The leaves are alternate, 
heart-shaped at the base, somewhat rounded at the apex, with 
toothed margins, and from 1.5 to 4.5 centimeters in length. The 
flowers are yellow and occur in the axils of the leaves. 

This species occurs in open waste places and is common and 
widely distributed in the Philippines. 

SIDA MYSORENSIS W. & A. Lagkitan. 

Local names: D among -mabdho, lagkitan, mdy^bas (Rizal) ; mdrabas (Ba- 
taan) ; the last two corruptions of Span, "malvas". 

The bast fiber from this species is used for making rope. 
Sida mysorensis is a hairy shrub about a meter in height. 



Watt, Commercial products of India. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 83 

The leaves are alternate, 5 to 8 centimeters long, somewhat 
heart-shaped, and with notched margins. The flowers are yellow 
and about 1 centimeter in diameter. 

SI DA RHOMB I FOLIA L. Ualis-UALISAN. 

Local names: Basbdsot (Bontoc) ; shigitan, takkit-vcica, nangnangisit 
(Union); sinutan (Cag-ayan) ; takim-vdca (Pangasinan) ; taklhig-vdca 
(Pangasinan, Batanes Islands); uaUs-ualisan (Bataan). 

This species yields a good fiber to which considerable attention 
has been paid in India and other countries. It is claimed that 
the fiber is too good to be used as a substitute for jute. For the 
literature on this subject see Watt's '^Commercial products of 
India" and the bulletins of the Imperial Institute. 

Sida rhombifolia is an erect, branched shrub 0.5 to 1.3 meters 
in height. The leaves are alternate, 1 to 4 centimeters long, the 
apex pointed or rounded, the lower surface covered with very 
short, pale hairs, the margins toothed. The fiowers occur singly 
in the axils of the leaves; the corolla is yellow and 1.5 to 1.8 
centimeters in diameter. 

This species is common in open waste places throughout the 
Philippines. 

Genus THESPESIA 

THESPESIA LAM PAS Cav. Marakapas. 

Local names: Amagong (Nueva Ecija) ; bulak-buldkan (Tagalog); dal- 
dallupang, maratarong (Iloko, Abra, Itneg) ; kapas-kdpas (Union) ; kastule 
(Tag-alog) ; inarakdpas (Amburayan, Abra, Zambales). 

Rope made from the bast of this species is very weak. King 
says that it moulds readily. He found it to have a tensile 
strength of 268 kilos per square centimeter, which wetting 
increased about 8 per cent. 

Thespesia lampas is an erect, slightly branched shrub, 2 or 3 
meters in height. The leaves are alternate, somewhat three- 
lobed or nearly entire, 10 to 20 centimeters long, and somewhat 
hairy. The flowers are large, 6 to 8 centimeters long, and yellow 
with a purple center. The fruit is an ovoid capsule about 3 
centimeters long. 

This species is widely distributed in Luzon and the Visayan 
Islands. 

Genus URENA 

URENA LOB AT A Linn. (Plate XXVI). Kollokollot. 

Local names: Afulut (Gaddan in Nueva Vizcaya) ; anonongkot, barang- 
got (Bikol) ; daliipan, kalut-kalutan, kolot-kolotan, kulutkulutan (Bataan, 
Tagalog, Bisaya, Culion Island) ; kollokollot (Amburayan, Ilocos Sur, Pan- 
gasinan, Nueva Vizcaya, Tarlac) ; kollolot (Abra) ; kuldt, kulet (Panga- 
sinan) ; kullukulluk (Iloko in Isabela) ; mangkit (Tayabas) ; poot-si-nuang 
(Isinai in Nueva Vizcaya) ; puriket (Abra). 



g4 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

The bast fiber of Urena lobata is of the jute type and is said 
to be more easily extracted than the latter. It has been re- 
peatedly recommended as a substitute and has been sold in 
London at prices equal to those paid for jute. A large mill for 
the treatment of this fiber was put up in Brazil. In this case 
the wild supply proved to be wholly insufficient, and it is said 
that under cultivation the plant lost a great part of its fibrous 
nature. 

In India considerable attention has been paid to the fiber of 
Urena lobata, and various writers have expressed the opinion 
that when as much care has been spent on it as on jute, Urena 
may be equally as valuable or more valuable than jute. 

References to the literature on this subject are given by King.* 
The bulletins of the Imperial Institute should also be consulted. 

Rope made from the fibers of Urena lobata is fairly strong. 
In India and other countries the product is used as a cordage 
material. In the manufacture of coffee bags it is said to be an 
excellent substitute for jute, because the fiber has no influence 
on the aroma of the coffee. Urena lobata fibers can be made 
into exceedingly strong paper, said to be almost twice as strong as 
Bank of England note pulp. 

Urena lobata is an erect, branched, somewhat hairy shrub 0.6 
to 2.5 meters in height. The leaves are alternate, pale beneath, 
3 to 9 centimeters long, heart-shaped at the base, usually lobed, 
and with toothed margins. The flowers are pink or purplish 
and about 1.7 centimeters in diameter. The fruits are about 
7 millimeters in diam.eter and are covered with short, barbed 
spines. 

This species is common in waste places throughout the Phil- 
ippines, and thrives under adverse conditions. 

Family BOMBACACEAE 

Genus BOMBAX 
BOMBAX CEIBA Linn. MalabulaK. 

Local names: Bobor, taroktok (Iloko) ; babui-gubat (Rizal, Mindoro) ; 
malabulak (Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Manila, Rizal, Laguna). 

The bast of this tree is colored orange buff and is used for 
making ropes. It has a fair degree of tenacity, but is too scarce 
to be commonly used for rope making. Ropes made from it are 
said to be suitable for use in the dry season. King found the 
rope to have a tensile strength of 405 kilos per square centi- 
meter, which was decreased 13 per cent by wetting. 



'' King, A. E, W., Mechanical properties of Philippine bast fiber rope. 
Philippine Journal of Science, Volume XIV (1919). 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



85 



^B 




C Samaniefi,o & G Vicencio 
Del 



PLATE XXVI. URENA LOBATA ( K0LL0K0LL6T). 



gg PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

The seeds are surrounded by silky hairs which are similar 
to kapok from Ceiba pentandra, but whiter. The fiber is often 
confused with kapok and has been shipped from Indo-China to 
France under that name. A very detailed account of this 
fiber is given by Crevost and Lemarie.* They say that it 
is less waxy than that of Ceiba peyitandra and so does not 
behave in the same way in the presence of water. 

Dodge t also mentions the use of the hairs for stuffing pillows. 

Bombax Ceiba is a very large tree, leafless in the dry season. 
The trunk is covered with large pyramidal spines. The leaves 
are palmately compound with five to seven leaflets, which are 
smooth, oval, pointed at both ends, and from 10 to 20 centimeters 
in length. The flowers are 8 to 10 centimeters long, red, and 
appear while the tree is leafless. The capsules are about 15 
centimeters long. 

This species is found at low altitudes throughout the Philip- 
pines. 

Genus CEIBA 

CEIBA PENTANDRA (L.) Gaertn. Kapok OR SiLK COTTON TREE. 

Local names: Balios (Bulacan) ; hasangldi (Ilocos Sur, Abra) ; bohoi, 
bubiii (Bulacan, Bataan, Cavite, Batangas, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Min- 
doro) ; boiboi (Capiz) ; biUak (Abra, Zambales, Pampanga, Bulacan, Cavite, 
Batangas, Rizal, Manila, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro) ; bulak-dondol (Cebu) ; 
bidak-kastila (Pampanga) ; bfdak-sino (Bulacan, Bataan, Cavite, Batan- 
gas, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Mindoro) ; dogdol (Cebu) ; dolclol (Leyte, Sa- 
mar, Iloilo, Antique, Capiz, Bohol, Cebu, Cuyo Islands) ; dondol (Cebu) ; 
gdpas (Misamis) ; kdpah (Zambales) ; kdpak (Bulacan, Rizal, Bohol) ; 
kdpas (Ilocos Norte and Sur, Zambales) ; kdpcis-scmgldi (Ilocos Norte and 
Sur, Abra) ; kapok or kapok (Tarlac, Sorsogon, Masbate, Davao and other 
parts of Mindanao, Basilan, Sulu group) ; kapos, kasangldi (Pangasinan) ; 
kayo (Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Samar, Leyte, Capiz, Antique, Iloilo, 
Cebu, Bohol) ; sangldi (Abra). 

The fibers from the seed pod of this tree are very extensively 
used for stuffing pillows and mattresses, and are excellent for 
these purposes. They are also employed in making life pre- 
servers. During the past three years, 56,632 kilos of this ma- 
terial, valued at 20,194 pesos, have been exported from the 
Philippines. 

Ceiba pentandra is a slender, erect tree, 15 meters or less in 
height. The trunk is usually armed with scattered, large spines. 



* Crevost, Ch. and Lemarie, Ch,, Plantes et Produits filamentaux et 
textiles de L'Indochine. Bulletin Economique de L'Indochine, No. 137, 
New Series, July-August, 1919. 

t Dodge, C. R., A descriptive catalogue of useful fiber plants of the 
world. U. S. Department of Agriculture. Fiber investigations. Report 
No. 9. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 87 

The branches are in distinct whorls and spread out horizontally. 
The leaves are compound with five to eight leaflets which are 
borne at the end of the petiole. The leaflets are 6 to 15 centi- 
meters long and pointed at both ends. The flowers are numerous, 
whitish, and about 3 centimeters long. The capsule is pendant, 
about 15 centimeters long, 5 centimeters thick, and contains very 
abundant fiber surrounding the seeds. 

This species is distributed at low altitudes throughout the 
settled areas of the Philippines. It is probably a native of 
tropical America. 

Family STERCULIACEAE 

Genus A B ROM A 

ABROMA FASTUOSA Jacq. (A. augusia L.) Anabo. 

Common names: Ahroma, devil's cotton (English); ahrome (French); 
kakaomalve, ahrome (German). 

Local names: An-nabo, anabo (Apayao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Benguet, 
Abra, Union, Tarlac, Zambales, Bataan, Manila, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, 
Negros) ; anabu (Pampanga) ; anafu (Nueva Vizcaya) ; anabong (Rizal, 
Oriental Negros, Bohol) ; labo7i (Oriental Negros, Bohol) ; sayapo (Cota- 
bato) ; ambong (Bulacan, Batangas, Cavite, Bataan, Laguna, Rizal, Ta- 
yabas) ; bdgo (Sorsogon) ; bodobodo (Ilocos Norte) ; nabo (Cagayan, Ne- 
gros, Bohol) ; negegan (Batanes Islands) ; pakalkdl (Pampanga) ; sayapu 
(Moro). 

The bast fiber of Abroma fastuosa is silky and very strong. 
It is used in the Philippines for making rope, twine, fish lines, 
pouches, etc. The rope is valued on account of its strength, and 
is used for clotheslines because it does not stain. 

King tested rope made from crude strips of bast and also 
from fibers that had been retted in water for about 10 days. 
In the first case the tensile strength was 545 kilos per square 
centimeter and in the second, 643 kilos. Wetting lowered the 
strength of the rope made from crude strips nearly 50 per cent. 

A number of writers have believed that this plant offers con- 
siderable possibilities in agricultural and industrial enter- 
prises."^ It grows vigorously under adverse conditions. Men- 
diola found that a plant one year old yielded 67 grams of fiber. 
He believed that Abroma should be planted as close as 2 meters 
and that on this basis one hectare should produce 115 kilos of 
fiber. The fiber is sold in considerable quantities in Cotabato, 
Mindanao, at from three to ten pesos a picul. In Cebu it is 
quoted at from 6.50 to 10.00 pesos a picul. However, extensive 

* See Watt, G., The commercial products of India. John Murray, Lon- 
don, 1908. 



88 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

attempts in India to make this fiber a commercial success have 
not succeeded. 

Ahroma fastuosa is a shrub or small tree. The leaves and 
stems are covered with stiff, irritating hairs. The leaves are 
alternate, heart-shaped, 10 to 30 centimeters in length, and v^ith 
toothed margins. The flowers are yellow and about 5 centi- 
meters in diameter. The fruits are thin-walled, five-angled 
capsules. 

This species is widely distributed at low and medium altitudes 
in the settled areas and brush lands of the PhiHppines. It is 
sometimes cultivated. 

Genus COM M ERSONIA 

COMMERSONIA BARTRAMIA (L.) Merr. Kakaag. 

Local names: Anitap (Itneg) ; kakaag (Iloko). 

The crude bast strips examined by King 'Varied from light 
ochraceous salmon to a warm buff.'' Rope made from this plant 
is said to be used considerably for general purposes. King 
found the dry rope to have a mean tensile strength of 392 kilos 
per square centimeter. Wetting the rope decreased its strength 
32 per cent. However, King says that the residents of Benguet 
state that this rope is more durable during the rainy season than 
any of the other bast ropes which are commonly used. 

Commersonia bartramia is a small tree. The leaves are alter- 
nate, hairy, heart-shaped at the base, pointed at the tip, 12 to 18 
centimeters long, and with toothed margins. The flowers are 
small, white, and are borne on compound inflorescences. The 
fruits are rounded capsules which are densely covered with 
slender, soft, hairy processes. 

This species occurs at low altitudes throughout the Philippines. 

Genus HELICTERES 
HELICTERES HIRSUTA Lour. ToNGTONGKfNG. 

Local names: Balihdgo, bulbuUn (Pampanga) ; buntot-usd (Rizal) ; 
danglin-dso (Bisaya) ; danglin-kalahdu (Abra, Nueva Ecija) ; kakadh, 
kakadg (Union, Abra, Pangasinan) ; kollokollot ti bad (Benguet) ; lailai- 
ginan (Rizal) ; vialamayisanita (Ilocos Norte, Tagalog) ; malatakon 
(Abra) ; pakin-bdkir (Iloko) ; sagingsagingan (Tagalog) ; sarnugdr d da- 
dakkel (Ilocos Sur) ; talakau (Negrito in Pampanga) ; talosan (Tayabas) ; 
tolosan (Iloko); tongtongking (Amburayan). 

The crude strips of this fiber are light buff, and harsh and stiff. 
King found that the tensile strength of rope made from them 
averaged 438 kilos per square centimeter. Immersion in water 
for twenty-four hours decreased the strength about 10 per cent. 
The rope appears to be durable during the rainy season. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 89 

Helicteres hirsuta is a shrub with alternate, pointed, hairy 
leaves, 10 to 15 centimeters in length, the bases of which are 
obliquely heart-shaped and the margins toothed. The flowers 
are pink or purplish, slender, and about 2 centimeters long. 
The fruits are cylindrical, pointed, 3 to 4 centimeters long, and 
covered with numerous hairy protuberances. 

This species occurs at low altitudes throughout the Philippines 
and is locally very abundant. 

Genus KLEINHOVIA 

KLEINHOVIA HOSPITA L. Tan-AG. 

Local names: Apung-dpung (Basilan) ; hafe nga hunsung (Nueva Viz- 
caya) ; hiknong (Union, Zambales) ; biludng (Negros) ; bi'nong (Nueva 
Ecija, Abra, Pangasinan) ; bifaiidg (Agusan, Surigao, Basilan) ; hitnong 
(Cagayan, Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Nueva Vizcaya, Tarlac) ; 
hitonog (Lanao) ; hutnong (Ilocos Norte) ; hamitandgo (Albay, Samar, 
Leyte, Cebu, Iloilo, Antique, Capiz, Occ. and Or. Negros, Bohol) ; hiuiung 
(Cagayan) ; malibdgo (Palawan) ; malobdgo, lapnis (Negros) ; marakdpas 
(Ilocos Sur) ; jmlong-manok (Culion) ; pampdr, panampdt (Pampanga) ; 
tadg, tang-dg (Rizal) ; tagndg (Zamboanga) ; tamandg (Cotabato, Davao) ; 
taloktok (Ilocos Norte) ; tan'dg or tcm-dg (Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Bataan, 
Tarlac, Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Capiz, Iloilo) ; 
tandk (Tayabas). 

The bast fiber is widely used for tying bundles. It is also 
made into rope which is used for tethering carabaos and horses, 
and for making halters. King found it to have a tensile strength 
of only 309 kilos per square centimeter. However, immersion 
in water for twenty-four hours decreased the strength only 7 
per cent. The rope is said to be durable during rainy weather. 

Kleinhovia hospita is a small or medium-sized tree with large, 
alternate, heart-shaped leaves which have toothed margins. The 
flowers are small, pink, and are borne in panicles terminating 
the branches. The fruit is a thin-walled, inflated capsule about 
2 centimeters long. The young leaves are eaten as greens. 

This species is found at low altitudes throughout the Philip- 
pines and is locally very abundant. 

Genus MELOCHIA 

MELOCHIA UMBELLATA (Houtt) Stapf. Labayo. 

Local names: Anabiong (Rizal); anabo (Nueva Ecija); baliknong, 
bunot-biinot , siapo (Mindoro) ; bignon (Pangasinan) ; biminga (Cagayan, 
Negros Occidental) ; biyigdbing, lapnis (Laguna) ; labdyo (Laguna) ; malaa- 
chuete (Bataan) . 

The bark of this tree is used for making string or rope. 
Melochia umbellata is a small tree, and is one of the most 
rapidly-growing species in the Archipelago. The leaves are 12 



90 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

to 20 centimeters long, heart-shaped, and have toothed margins. 
The flowers and fruits occur in dense clusters. 

This species is very abundant in second-growth forests 
throughout the Philippines. 

Genus PTEROCYM Bl UM 

PTEROCYMBIUM TINCTORIUM (Blanco) Merr. (Plate XXVII). Taluto. 
Local names: Abigon, taoto, tautu (Bataan, Leyte) ; bangdt (Zambales) ; 
bayad^ takung (Surigao) ; balulau (Agusan) ; duidui (Tayabas) ; huligdno 
(Nueva Ecija) ; libtuk (Cagayan) ; malasapsdp (Pampanga) ; marakdpas 
(Calayan Island, Ilocos Sur, Benguet) ; mayiio (Manobo) ; taloto or taluto 
(Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Laguna, Tayabas, Camarines, Mindoro, Negros, 
Palawan, Cotabato) ; tagungtungan (Cebu) ; takung (Surigao). 

The bast of this tree is pale orange-yellow. King found that 
rope made from it had a tensile strength of 381 kilos per square 
centimeter. Immersion in water for twenty-four hours increased 
the strength about 7 per cent. 

Fterocymhium tmctorium is a tall tree reaching a height of 
from 45 to 50 meters and a diameter of 90 centimeters. It has 
a straight, regular trunk from 25 to 30 meters in length. It 
occurs in the virgin forests and usually on the dryer soils. For 
a short period during the dry season it is leafless. Typical 
leaves are heart-shaped. The fruits are oval, over a centimeter 
long, and with prominent wings 7 to 10 centimeters in length. 
The wood is white, light, and very soft. 

Genus PTEROSPERMUM 

PTEROSPERMUM Dl VERSI FOLI U M Bl. BayOK. 

Local names: Bdloi, bdroi (Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Benguet, Itneg) ; 
bayog, bayok or bayuk (Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Zambales, Bataan, Rizal, 
Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Tayabas, Camarines, Catanduanes Island, Min- 
doro, Masbate, Ticao, Negros, Cotabato, Zamboanga, Palawan) ; bayog- 
bayog (Zamboanga) ; bayong, biyug (Tayabas) ; dibudl (Basilan) ; kabisldk 
(Davao) ; talingd'an (Ilocos Norte). 

The bast of this species has very little tensile strength and is 
not commonly used for rope making. The color of the bast is 
pinkish cinnamon. King found rope made from it to have a 
tensile strength of 263 kilos per square centimeter, which wetting 
did not affect. The bark is also used for dyeing purposes. 

Pterospermum diver sifoliiim is a tree reaching a diameter of 
50 centimeters. The leaves are alternate, hairy, oblong, heart- 
shaped at the base, abruptly pointed at the tip, and 11 to 25 
centimeters in length. The flowers are white, 12 to 14 centi- 
meters long, and occur either singly or in pairs in the axils of 
the leaves. The fruit is a woody, five-angled capsule about 15 
centimeters long. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



91 




PLATE XXVII. PTEROCYMBIUM TINCTORIUM (TALuTO), 



92 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

This species is common and widely distributed in the Phil- 
ippines. 

PTEROSPERMUM NIVEUM Vid. BayOK-BAYOKAN. 

Local names: Bdroi (Abra, Pangasinan, Tarlac) ; bayog (Zambales, Ba- 
taan, Rizal, Laguna, Camarines, Mindoro) ; bayok (Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, 
Bataan, Laguna) ; hayok-hayokan (Camarines) ; bayugtin (Tayabas) ; 
kantingan (Mindoro); tamok (Bataan); tingantingan (Tayabas). 

The bark of this species is used for making rope and for tying 
purposes. 

Pterospermum niveiim is a tree reaching a diameter of 60 
centimeters. The leaves are alternate, hairy, oblique at the 
base, pointed at the tip, and 7 to 17 centimeters in length. The 
flowers are large, white, and fragrant. The fruit is oval, 
pointed, 6 to 8 centimeters long, splits into four or five segments, 
and contains winged seeds. 

This species is widely distributed in the forests of the Phil- 
ippines. 

Genus STERCULIA 

STERCULIA CRASSIRAMEA Merr. Tapinag. 

Local names: Adupong (Benguet) ; balinad (Ticao, Palawan); banlkad 
(Mindoro) ; banilad (Rizal, Mindoro, Guim.aras Island) ; bcniiakalau or 
baiinakalau (Benguet, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Abra) ; kalukalum- 
pdngan (Rizal) ; palak-pdlak (Bulacan) ; malakapdi, malapapdya, tajnndg 
(Bataan) . 

Rope made from the bast of this tree is fairly strong. King 
found the tensile strength to be 398 kilos per square centimeter. 
Wetting decreased it about 23 per cent. 

Sterculia crassiramea is a large tree reaching a diameter of 
60 centimeters. The smallest branches are much thickened. 
The leaves are very large, usually more than 35 centimeters long, 
heart-shaped at the base, and very hairy. The flowers are 
yellow and 4 millimeters long. The fruits are large, red, and 
inflated. 

This species is widely distributed in forest areas of Luzon. 

STERCULIA CUNEATA R. Br. Malabonot. 

Local names: Balinad (Palawan); baydyat, tambobonot (Isabela) ; bu- 
Idkan, malakakdo (Laguna) ; kakao-kakdo, sulimbubu (Mindoro) ; kaluka- 
lumjjdngan (Rizal) ; kalumpdng, upak (Pampanga) ; vialabonot (Nueva 
Ecija, Rizal, Manila) ; maratarong (Ilocos Sur) ; opong-opong (Camarines). 

The bark of this tree is used for making rope. 

Sterculia cuneata is a tree reaching a height of 15 meters and 
a diameter of 35 centimeters. The leaves are alternate, very 
hairy, heart-shaped at the base, pointed at the tip, and from 12 
to 28 centimeters long. 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 93 

STERCULIA FOETIDA Linn. Kalumpang. 

Local names: Bangdr (Iloko and Itneg) ; bobo, bobog, bo-bog, biibog 
(Panay, Balabac Island, Palawan, Negros) ; bobor, bubur (Ilocos Sur) ; 
bongog (Cagayan) ; kalumpang (Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Manila, 
Rizal, Laguna, Tayabas, Polillo, Camarines, Mindoro, Iloilo, Palawan, 
Cotabato, Apo Island); kurumpdng (Davao). 

The bast of this species is made into a weak rope which King 
found to have a tensile strength of only 200 kilos per square 
centimeter. Immersion in water for twenty-four hours did not 
affect the strength. The bast is light salmon-orange. 

The seeds are edible, but are purgative if eaten raw. They 
yield an oil used locally for illuminating, and which could be 
used for culinary purposes. 

Sterculia foetida is a large tree reaching a diameter of 100 
centimeters. The leaves are palmately compound with seven to 
nine leaflets, which are smooth, sharply pointed at the apex, and 
12 to 18 centimeters long. The flowers are dull yellowish or 
purplish, 2 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter, and have a very fetid 
odor. The seeds are borne in very large, red capsules. They 
are edible and yield a valuable oil for which the tree is some- 
times cultivated. The wood is gray, soft, and little used. 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines. 

STERCULIA LUZON ICA Warb. Malakalumpang. 

Local names: Anagds (Masbate) ; balinad, kadlihan (Ticao Island) ; 
boboi-giibaf (Mindoro) ; kahipdng (Negros) ; lapnit (Cagayan) ; malaka- 
lumpdng (Camarines); tahito (Guimaras Island) ; lontong (Zamboanga). 

The inner bark of this species is used for making rope. 

Sterculia luzonica is a tree reaching a diameter of 60 centi- 
meters and a height of about 30 meters. Its leaves are some- 
what heart-shaped at the base, pointed at the apex, and 10 to 
20 centimeters in length. The flowers are small, greenish, and 
are borne on compound inflorescences. The fruits are red and 
usually occur in groups of from three to five. 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines. 

STERCULIA OBLONGATA R. Br. MalaboHO. 

Local names: Bakdn (Mindoro); balinad (Camarines); bayiilad (Rizal, 
Mindoro) ; biinga, malabunga (Tayabas) ; hantdk (Batanes Islands) ; ma- 
lakakdo (Bataan, Laguna); malabanilad (Samar) ; lapnit (Calayan Island, 
Babuyanes Islands) ; malaboho (Bataan) ; saripongpong (Camarines) ; sina- 
ligan (Benguet, Abra) ; 60s or uos (Camarines). 

Most of the strips of bast of Sterculia oblongata are salmon- 
buff in color, some are tawny and others are light salmon orange. 
Rope made from this fiber is of medium strength. King found 
it to have a tensile strength of 398 kilos per square centimeter. 



94 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Wetting decreased the strength 27 per cent. However, accord- 
ing to King, the residents of Disdis, Benguet state that the rope 
is preferably used during the rainy season. 

Stercidia oblongata is a small or medium-sized tree reaching 
a diameter of 70 centimeters. The leaves are alternate, smooth, 
oval, 12 to 30 centimeters long, rounded at the base, and pointed 
at the tip. The flowers are yellowish white, 5 to 6 millimeters 
long, and are borne on compound inflorescences. The fruits are 
inflated, hairy, about 5 centimeters long, 3.5 centimeters wide, 
with a leathery covering, and contain four to six seeds which 
are about 1.5 centimeters long. 

This species is widely distributed at low altitudes in the 
Philippines. 

STERCULIA PHILIPPINENSIS Merr. Bani'lad. 

Local names: Bannakdlaii (Ilocos Sur) ; banilad, hanikad, (Mindoro, 
Guimaras) ; malagasdha (Laguna), 

The bark of this tree is used for making rope. 

Sterculia philippinensis is a tree reaching a height of 30 meters 
and a diameter of 65 centimeters. It has very large, heart- 
shaped leaves up to 35 centimeters in length. The flowers are 
small, pink or red, and are borne in considerable numbers on 
compound inflorescences. The fruits are large and red. 

This species is widely distributed in Luzon and the Bisaya 
Islands. 

STERCULIA STIPULARIS R. Br. BONOTAN. 

Local names: Bisong (Nueva Vizcaya) ; bonotan, rapok (Ilocos Norte); 
bungdt (Cagayan) ; labndi (Itneg, Abra) ; malagasdha (Tayabas). 

The strips of bast of this species are perforated with small 
holes so that they have a sieve-like appearance. The color is 
uniform ochraceous-buflf. Rope made from it has very little 
strength, but is used considerably. It is said to be durable 
during the wet season and is employed particularly for making 
hog traps. King found the rope to have a tensile strength of 
268 kilos per square centimeter, increased 37 per cent by wetting. 

Stercidia stipidaris is a medium-sized tree. The leaves are 
alternate, hairy, pointed at the tip, rounded at the base, wider 
near the apex than near the base, and 10 to 30 centimeters 
long. The flowers are white and purple, and are borne on com- 
pound inflorescences. The fruit capsules are large, red, and 
inflated. 

This species is widely distributed at low altitudes in the Phil- 
ippines. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 95 

Family THYMELAEACEAE 

Genus AQUILARIA 
AQUILARIA MALACCENSIS Lam. 

According to Heyne * this tree furnishes a beautiful, silvery 
bast used for making rope and cloth. The bast is highly prized 
for its strength and durability. 

Aquilaria malaccensis has been collected once, and then in 
Camarines. 

Genus PHALERIA 

PHALERIA CUMINGII F.-Vill. Salagong-GUBAT. 

Local names: Ba7'i (Mindoro) ; butigan (Masbate) ; malakakdo, sald- 

gong-hahde, saldgong-guhat (Rizal) ; saldgo (Camarines); tuka (Cagayan). 

The bark of this tree is very strong, and is used as twine or 
for making rope. 

Phaleria cumingii is a tree reaching a height of 8 meters. 
The leaves are opposite, smooth, pointed at the tip, rounded 
or pointed at the base, and 8 to 25 centimeters long. The 
flowers are white, about 3.5 to 4.5 centimeters long, and occur 
in small clusters. The fruits are red. 

This species is widely distributed in Luzon and the Bisaya 
Islands. 

PHALERIA PERROTTETIANA F.-Vill. TuKA. 

Local names: Aligpagi (Davao) ; hdgo (Bataan) ; tuka (Cagayan). 

The bark is used as a tying material. 

Phaleria perrottetiana is a small tree usually about 2 or 3 
meters in height. The leaves are opposite, smooth, oval, 
pointed at the tip, rounded or pointed at the base, and from 
10 to 24 centimeters in length. The fruits are bright red and 
about 1.5 centimeters long. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to southern 
Mindanao. 

Genus WIKSTROEMIA 
WIKSTROEMIA spp. Salago. 

The different species of Wikstroemia are shrubs which are 
found scattered in thickets throughout the Philippines. The 
common species are Wikstroemia indica, W. lanceola.ta, W. meye- 
niana, and W. ovata. 

The bark is collected in considerable quantities and exported 
to Japan, where it is said to be used in the manufacture of 

* Heyne, K., De Nuttige Planten van Nederlandsch-Indie, Volume 3, 
page 332. 



96 PHILIPPINE PLANTS 

bank notes and other strong paper. Most of the bark collected 
comes from the vicinity of Mount Mayon and from Mindanao. 
The bast is light colored and has a somewhat silky appearance. 
The bark is used for tying purposes and for making rope. 

WIKSTROEMIA INDICA (L.) C. E. Mey. Small-LEAF Salago. 

Local names: Baleo (Ilocos Norte); salago or idlo (Albay) ; titipuho or 
palupo (Batanes Islands) . 

Wikstroemia indica is a shrub 1 to 3 meters in height. The 
leaves are opposite, somewhat leathery, oddest near the middle, 
somewhat rounded at the tip, pointed at the base, and 1.5 to 
7 centimeters long. The flowers are small and yellow; the 
fruits small and red. 

This species is distributed from northern Luzon to southern 
Mindanao. 

WIKSTROEMIA LANCEOLATA Merr. Lance-LEAf Salago. 

Local names: Salagip (Batangas) ; salago (Abra, Tayabas) ; tuka (Ilocos 
Sur). 

Wikstroemia lanceolata is a shrub 1 to 2 meters in height. 
The leaves are opposite, smooth, pointed at both ends, and 4 
to 8 centimeters in length. The flowers are small, light colored, 
and borne in small clusters. The fruits are red and less than 
a centimeter long. 

This species is found in northern and central Luzon. 

WIKSTROEMIA M EVEN I AN A Warb. (Plate XXVIII). Large-LEAF 

Salago. 
Local names: Sdgu (Laguna) ; salago (Albay). 

Wikstroemia meyeniana is a shrub 1 to 2 meters in height. 
The leaves are opposite, pointed at the tip, rounded at the base, 
and 6 to 12 centimeters in length. The flowers are greenish 
yellow, about 1.5 to 2 centimeters in length, and borne in small 
clusters. The fruits are red and about a centimeter in length. 

This species is common and widely distributed from northern 
Luzon to southern Mindanao. 

WIKSTROEMIA OVATA C. E. Mey. RoUND-LEAF Salago. 

Local names: Daptnit (Iloko, Bontoc) ; salago (Bulacan, Laguna). 

Wikstroemia ovata is a shrub 1 to 3 meters in height. The 
leaves are opposite, smooth, rounded at the base, pointed at 
the apex, and from 5 to 10 centimeters long. The flowers are 
yellow, about 1.5 centimeters long, and borne in small clusters. 
The fruits are red and about 1 centimeter long. 

This species is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 



97 




C.Samante^o 
Del. 



PLATE XXVIII. WIKSTROEMIA MEYENIANA (LARGE-LEAF SALaGO), 
677 7 



98 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

Family MYRSINACEAE 

Genus MAESA 
MAESA CUM IN Gil Mez. Katiput. 

Local names: Hanopol (Tayabas) ; katiput (Rizal) ; jnalalapi (Zamba- 
les) ; sulimaii (Bulacan). 

This vine is used for tying purposes. 

The leaves of Maesa cumingii are alternate, smooth, rounded 
at the base, pointed at the tip, and from 6 to 12 centimeters 
long. The flowers occur in considerable numbers on long flower- 
ing shoots. The fruits are small and rounded. 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines. 

Family LOGANIACEAE 

Genus STRYCHNOS 

STRYCHNOS MULTI FLORA Benth. BuKUAN. 

Local names: Abukobuko (Apayao) ; bukuan (Cagayan) ; tibangldn 
(Laguna). 

This vine is used for tying purposes. 

The leaves of Strychnos multiflora are opposite, smooth, 
rounded at the base, pointed at the tip, and from 10 to 18 centi- 
meters long. The flowers are small, white, and borne on com- 
pound inflorescences. The fruit is round, bright orange-red, 
and contains one flat seed. 

This species is distributed from Luzon to Mindanao. 

Family APOCYNACEAE 

Genus ICHNOCARPUS 

ICHNOCARPUS OVATIFOLIUS A. DC. SiGlD. 

Local names: Hinggiu (Cavite, Pangasinan, Rizal, Laguna, Mindoro) ; 
saddk (Pangasinan, Ilocos Sur) ; sig-id (Zambales, Mindoro) ; uakdk (Ca- 
gayan). 

This species is used for tying purposes, especially in making 
fences, and also for ropes. 

Ichnocarpus ovatifoliics is a woody vine, 4 meters or more in 
length. The leaves are opposite, smooth, rounded or pointed at 
the base, pointed at the tip, and from 5 to 14 centimeters long. 
The flowers are white, fragrant, about 6 millimeters long, and 
borne on compound inflorescences. The fruits are cylindrical, 
5 to 18 centimeters long, about 3 millimeters in diameter, and 
densely covered with brown hairs when young. 

This species is common and widely distributed in the Phil- 
ippines. 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 99 

Genus PARAMERIA 

PARAMERIA PH ILI PPI N ENSIS Radlk. DuGTONG-AHAS. 

Local names: Dugtong-dhas (Rizal) ; ikding-nga-purdu (Igorot) ; inggui- 
na-piiti (Bataan) ; karkarsdng (Benguet) ; kuni-na-puti (Pampanga) ; lupi- 
it (Ilocos Sur) ; parugtong-dhas (Bulacan, Zambales, Rizal) ; partian (Ilocos 
Sur) ; pidang-pulang (Zambales); saddk (Benguet) ; tagulduai (Rizal). 

The bark of this vine is used for making rope and for tying 
rice bundles. 

Parameria philippinensis is a large, woody vine. The leaves 
are from 7 to 10 centimeters in length, somewhat oval in outline, 
and pointed at both ends. The flowers are fairly small, white, 
and occur in clusters. The fruits are very long and slender ; the 
parts containing the seeds are swollen, while the parts between 
the seeds are very narrow. The seeds are crowned with long, 
hair-like projections. 

This species is common and widely distributed in the Phil- 
ippines, and is one of the rubber-producing plants in the 
Archipelago. 

Genus URCEOLA 

URCEOLA IMBERBIS (Elm.) Merr. HinGGIU-KALABAU. 

Local name: Hinggiu-kalabdu (Laguna). 

This vine is used for tying purposes. 

Urceola imberbis is a woody vine. The leaves are opposite, 
smooth, rounded at the base, pointed at the tip, and 8 to 14 
centimeters long. The flowers are pale, yellowish green and 
borne in considerable numbers on compound inflorescences. The 
fruits are cylindrical, long, and slender. 

This species is found in Luzon. 

Family ASCLEPIADACEAE 

Genus ASCLEPIAS 

ASCLEPIAS CURASSAVICA L. BULAK-DAMO. 

Local names: Anihong, jjasangldi (Bontoc) ; hu-hiiyan, bidak-damo (Ta- 
yabas) ; bulak-kastila, kalalaudn (Bataan) ; chile-manuk (Bataan) ; coro- 
nitas (Span., Camarines) ; dalddl (Batanes Islands) ; kamantiging-lindu 
(Batangas) ; kdpas de Francia (Pangasinan) ; maismaisan (Rizal). 

The silky hairs of the seed are sometimes used for stuffing 
pillows. 

Asclepias curassavica is an erect, simple or slightly branched, 
smooth, perennial herb 40 to 60 centimeters in height. The 
leaves are opposite, narrow, pointed at both ends, and 7 to 13 
centimeters in length. The inflorescences are umbrella-shaped, 
and occur in the axils of the leaves or terminate the branches. 



100 PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 

The flowers are red and j^ellow, 1.2 to 1.4 centimeters in length. 
The fruits are somewhat pointed at both ends, 6 to 8 centimeters 
in length, and 1 to 1.3 centimeters in diameter at the middle. 
Thej^ contain numerous, flat seeds to which are attached nu- 
merous, long, silky hairs. 

This species is very common and widely distributed in open 
places in the Philippines. It is a native of tropical America, but 
is now a weed in most tropical countries. 

Genus STREPTOCAULON 
STREPTOCAULON BAUMII Decne. HiNGGfu-NA-PUTl. 

Local names: Duktung-dhas (Rizal) ; hing yiu-kalabdu (Bulaean) ; hing- 
gm-na-puti (Manila); mara-ipus (Union); sibut-sibutan (Rizal). 

This vine is used for tying purposes. 

Streptocaulon baumii is a woody vine. The leaves are oppo- 
site, round or heart-shaped at the base, pointed at the tip, and 
from 7 to 13 centimeters long. The flowers are numerous and 
very small. The fruit is about 6 centimeters long and 5 milli- 
meters in diameter, cylindrical, and pointed at the tip. It 
contains numerous black seeds crowned with silky hairs. 

This species is widely distributed in the Philippines. 

Family CONVOLVULACEAE 

Genus M ERR EM I A 
MERREMIA NYMPHAEI FOLIA Hall. f. BULAKAN. 

Local names: Bulak-buldkan (Camarines) ; buldkan (Tayabas, Laguna, 
Mindoro) ; burdkan (Camarines); tampinita (Misamis). 

This vine is sometimes used for tying purposes. 

Merremia mjmphaeifolia has alternate, heart-shaped leaves, 
which are from 8 to 25 centimeters in length. The flowers are 
large and yellow. 

This species is distributed throughout the Philippines. 

Genus OPERCULINA 

OPERCULINA TURPETHUM (L.) Manso. 

Local names: Burdkan (Ticao) ; kmnokarnofehan (Rizal). 

This vine is used for tying purposes. 

Operculina turpethum is a pubescent vine reaching a length of 
5 meters or more. The stems are often purplish, prominently 2- 
to 4-angled, and narrowly winged. The leaves are alternate, 
5 to 15 centimeters long, the apex pointed, the base somewhat 
heart-shaped or straight. The corolla is white and 4 centimeters 
long and wide. The capsule is rounded and 1 to 1.5 centimeters 
in diameter. 

This species is found throughout the Philippine Islands. 



I 



DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 101 

Family BORAGINACEAE 

Genus CORDIA 

CORDIA CUMINGIANA Vid. Anonang-LALAKI. 

Local names: Anonang-laldki (Mindoro) ; maratarong (Iloko). 

The strands of bast fibers vary considerably in size and color. 
Rope made from it possesses only a medium degree of tenacity. 

Cordia cumingiaym is a small tree reaching a height of about 
7 meters. The leaves are alternate, hairy, heart-shaped, and 8 
to 16 centimeters long. The flowers are white, about 4 milli- 
meters long, and borne on compound inflorescences. The fruits 
are about 1 centimeter long. 

This species is of local occurrence at low altitudes in Luzon. 

CORDIA MYXA Linn. Anonang. 

Local names: Anonang, amhiang, anunong (Ilocos Sur, Benguet, Union, 
Pangasinan, Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan, Manila, Rizal, Laguna, Nueva 
Ecija, Cavite, Tayabas, Batangas, Camarines, Albay, Sorsogon, Mindoro, 
Masbate, Leyte, Guimaras Island, Palawan, Surigao, Cotabato, Misamis) ; 
anoyiang-bdkir, siyialigan (Ilocos Sur) ; giima (Balabac Island) ; sahiyong 
(Tagalog). 

Rope is made from the bast of this tree. This rope is rela- 
tively weak and is said to be unsuited for use in a wet condition. 
The bast is brown. King found the tensile strength of the rope 
to be 324 kilos per square centimeter. Wetting decreased the 
strength 19 per cent. 

A white, gelatinous substance obtained from the fruits is used 
as glue. 

Cordia myxa is a tree usually 5 to 10 meters in height. The 
leaves are alternate, smooth or nearly so, pointed at both ends, 
and 6 to 15 centimeters long. The flowers are white or yellowish 
white, about 7 millimeters long, and borne on compound inflores- 
cences. The fruits are yellowish white, 10 to 13 millimeters 
long, and soft, with a hard stone in the center. 

This species is very common and widely distributed in second- 
growth forests and open places at low altitudes in the Philippines. 

Family CAPRIFOLIACEAE 

Genus LONICERA 

LONICERA PHILIPPINENSIS Merr. Bualti'k. 

Local name: Bualtik (Benguet). 

This vine is used entire in Benguet for tying fences. 
The leaves are opposite, pointed at the tip, rounded at the 
base, and from 3.5 to 5 centimeters in length. The flowers are 



102 



PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 



white, occur in axillary or terminal clusters, and are about 2 
centimeters in length. The fruit is a small, black, fleshy berry. 
This species has been reported only from Benguet. 

LIST OF SPECIES USED FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES 

The following list gives the principal wild species which are 
employed in making different articles. No attempt has been 
made to include ordinary uses of the cultivated species. The 
bulletins on bamboos and palms should also be consulted, as 
fibers from these plants are not included in the present bulletin. 



BAGS 
Musa text ills 
Pandanns radicans 
Pandamis simplex 
Scirpus grossuB 
Typh a a ng us tifo Ha 

BASKETS 

Agave cantala 
Dendrohium crumenatiim 
Donax cannaeformis 
Dryopteris ptey^oides 
Epipremnum spp. 
Flagellaria indica 
Gleichenia linearis 
Lyg odium spp. 
Musa textilis 
Neph rolepis hirsutula 
Pandanus copelandii 
Pandamis luzonensis 
Pandanus radicans 
Pandanus simplex 
Pandanus tectorius 
Pericampylus glaucus 
Path OS spp. 
Raphidophora spp. 
Rhynchospora corymhosa 
Scirpus grossus 
Stenochlaena pahistris 
Typha angustifolia 

BELTS 

Gleichenia linearis 
Musa textilis 

BOXES 



L 



'ium spp. 



BROOMS 



Andropogon zizanioides 
Malvastrum coromandelinum 



Oryza sativa 
Phragmites karka 
Phragmites vulgaris 
Saccharum spontaneum 
Thysanolaena maxima 

CORDAGE 

Ab7'oma fastuosu 
Ahrus precatorius 
Agelaea everettii 
Allaeanthus glaber 
Alphitonia excelsa 
Aniomum sp. 
Anamirta cocculus 
Artocarpus communis 
Artoca7'pus Integra 
Artocarpus rubrovenia 
Bauhinia cumingiana 
Boehmeria nivea 
Bombax ceiba 

Bom bycidendron vidalianum 
Columbia blancoi 
Columbia lanceolata 
Columbia mollis 
Commcrsonia bartr^amia 
Cor chorus capsulayns 
Cor chorus olitorius 
Cordia cumingiana 
Cordia myxa 
Cyperus malaccensis 
Donax cannaef ortnis 
Elaeocarpus calomala 
Ficus benjamina 
Ficus forstenii 
Ficus pachyphylla 
Ficus palawanensis 
Flagellaria indica 
Gnetum gneynon 
Gnetum indicum 
Gnetum sp. 



USES OF SPECIES 



103 



Goniothalavius amuyon 
Grewia acuminata 
Grewia bilamellata 
Grewia eriocarpa 
Grewia multiflora 
Helicteres hi^^suta 
Hibiscus tiliaceus 
Ichnocayyus ovatifolius 
Ischaemuin angustifolium 
Kleinhovia hospita 
Lonicera johilippinensis 
Maesa cumingii 
Malachra capitata 
Malachra fasciata 
Malaisia scandens 
Melochia umbellata 
Muntingia calabura 
Parameria philippinensis 
Phaeanthus ebracteolatus 
Phaleria cumingii 
Phaley^ia perrottetiana 
Polyalthia flava 
Pongamia pinnata 
Pterocymbium tinctorium 
Pterosp>ermum diversifoliuTn 
Pterospermum niveum 
RaphidopJiora spp. 
Rourea volubilis 
Sapindiis saponaria 
Sida acuta 
Sida cordifolia 
Sida mysorensis 
Sida rhombifolia 
Stenochlaena pahistris 
Sterculia crassiramea 
Sterculia cuneata 
Sterculia foetida 
Sterculia luzonica 
Sterculia oblongata 
Sterculia philippinensis 
Sterculia stipularis 
Streptocaulon baumii 
Strychnos multiflora 
Thespesia lampas 
Trema orientalis 
Triumfetta bartramia 
Typha angustifolia 
Urceola imberbis 
Urena lobata 
Wikstroemia spp. 

CRADLES 

Rhaphidophora spp. 



FABRICS 

Agave cantala 
Ananas comosus 
Boehmeria nivea 
Cor chorus capsularis 
Corchoyms olitorius 
Malachra capitata 
Musa textilis 
Musa sp. (a wild banana) 
Sida rh om b ifo lia 
Urena lobata 

FANS 

Andropogon zizanioides 

FANCY ARTICLES 

Abroma fastuosa 
Fim b ris tylis d iph ylla 
Fimbristylis globulosa 
Lyg odium spp. 
Musa textilis 
Pandanus simplex 
Saccharum spontaneum 

HAMMOCKS 

Rhaphidophora spp. 

HATS 

Andropogon halepensis 
Andropogon zizanioides 
Cyperus malaccensis 
Donax cannaeformis 
Fimbristylis globulosa 
Imperata exaltata 
Lygodium spp. 
Musa textilis 
Nephrolepis hirsutula 
Oryza sativa 
Pandanus radicans 
Pandanus sabotan 
Pandanus simplex 
Pandanus tectorius 
Phragmites vulgaris 
Saccharum spontaneum 
Scirpiodendron ghaeri 
Sporobolus elongatus 

MATS 

Cyperus malaccensis 
Cyperus radiatus 
Imperata exaltata 
Musa textilis 
Nephrolepis hirsutula 
Pandanus copelandii 



104 



PHILIPPINE FIBER PLANTS 



Pandanus dub his 
Pandanus luzonensis 
Pandanus radicans 
Pandanus sabotan 
Pandamis simplex 
Pandaiius tectorhis 
Rhynchospora corymbosa 
Scirpus grossus 
Scirpus lacustris 

PAPER PULP 

Imperata exalt ata 
Saccharum spontaneum 
Wikstroemia spp. 

PICTURE FRAMES 

Saccharum officinarum 
Saccharum spontaneum 

PILLOWS 

Asclepias curassavica 
Bombax ceiba 
Ceiba pentaiidra 
Typha angusti folia 

SCREENS 

Cyperus radiatus 



Miscanthus sinensis 
Rhynchospora corymbosa 
Saccharum spontaneum 

SLIPPERS 

Agave cantala 
Cyperus malaccensis 
Fimbristylis diphylla 
Fimbristylis globulosa 
Ischaemum angu^tifolium 
Oryza sativa 
Pandanus simplex 
Rhynchospora corymbosa 
Typha angustifolia 

THATCHING 

Andropogon zizanioides 
Imperata exaltata 

TYING FISH TRAPS 

Malaisia scandens 
Pothoidium lobbianum 
Rourea volubilis 
Stenochlaena palustris 

WINDOW SHADES 

Miscanthus sinensis 



INDEX 



A 

Page. 

Abaka 8,11,55,56,57 

Abang-abang 54 

Abelmoschus multilobatus 78 

Abigon 90 

Abroma --. 87 

Abroma augusta 87 

Abroma fastuosa 12, 13, 14, 87, 88 

102, 103 

Abrome 87 

Abrus precatorius 70, 102 

Abukai 31 

Abukobuko 98 

Adlai 31 

Adupong 92 

Afulut 83 

Agagai 31 

Agamid 65 

Agamit 65 

Agandung 58 

Agas 44, 45 

Agave cantala.... 14, 54, 102, 103, 104 

Agave sisalana 54 

Agelaea everettii 68, 102 

Agkui 71 

Aglai 31 

Agnaya 15 

Agpoi 71 

Agpor 71 

Agsam 20 

Agunanang 70 

Agunyanyang 70 

Alagasi 66 

Alagosi 76 

Al-alinau 77 

AlaiTgasi 66 

Alasas 24,26 

Albahaca 82 

Alibabag 60 

Alibabai 60 

Aligpagi 95 

Alimudias 31 

Alinang 40 

Alinau 74, 76, 77 



Page. 

Alindagon 58 

Alitagtag 60 

Allaeanthus glaber 13, 60, 102 

Allagat 76 

Alokon 60 

Alolokdo 15 

Alphitonia excelsa 72, 102 

Alum 79 

Amagong 83 

Amboi-uan 76 

Ambong 87 

Amomum sp 14, 57, 102 

Amora 30 

Amoras 30 

Amugauen 72 

Amuyong 67, 68 

Anabiong 58, 89 

Anabling 62 

Anabo 87,89 

Anabong 87 

Anafu 87 

Anagas 93 

Anagasi 66 

Anagdung 58 

Anagum 58 

Anahiuan 40 

Anamirta cocculus 14, 67, 102 

Ananas comosus 48, 103 

Anariong 58 

Anarong 58 

Andropogon halepensis 103 

Andropogon halepensis var. 

propinquus 30 

Andropogon zizanioldes.... 30, 31, 102, 

103, 104 

Anias 30 

Anias de moras 30 

Anibong 22, 99 

Anilau 72, 73, 74, 76, 77 

Anis de more 30 

Anitap 88 

Annabo 79,80,87 

Annabo a dadakkel 78 

105 



106 



INDEX 



Page. 

Annuad 48 

Anonang 101 

Anonang-bakir 101 

Anonang-lalaki 101 

Anonongkot 83 

Antiaris toxicaria 60, 61 

Antipolo 8, 61, 63 

Antipolong lalaki 61 

Anton 20 

Anubling 62 

Anugau 66 

Anunang 101 

Anunga 64 

Anunong 101 

Apagi 31 

Aplit 77 

Apluda mutica 31 

Apple 77 

Apung-apung 89 

Aquilaria malaccensis 95 

Aragasi 66 

Arandon 58 

Aratan 57 

Ariman 46 

Aroro 30 

Artocarpus communis 8, 13, 61, 

63, 102 

Artocarpus elastica . 61, 62 

Artocarpus Integra 62, 102 

Artocarpus rubrovenia.. 62, 102 

Asclepias curassavica 99, 104 

Aspe-aspe 52 

Attakai 31 

Attai-na-baka 82 

Auai 48 

Audi si gayang 48 

Ayo 71 

Babara 80 

Babayan 60 

Badang-badang 40 

Baeg 60 

Bafe nga bunsung 89 

Baga-as 38,45 

Bagang 34 

Bagarilau 74 

Bagi 46 

Baging 20 

Bago 20, 79, 87, 95 

Bagohon 77 

Bagu 20 

Bagu-balanak 46 



Page. 

Bagun 76 

Bahai 70 

Bainud 74 

Bakan 93 

Bakembakes 79,80 

Baki-baki 45 

Bakong 26 

Bakuit 36 

Balabalanggutan 40 

Balagan 76 

Balanggot 7, 22, 38, 41, 42, 78 

Balantakan 31 

Baleau 24 

Baleo 24,96 

Balete 64,65 

Baleteon 64 

Balete-pula 64 

Balewe 24 

Balibago 58, 76, 79, 88 

Balikbalik 71 

Baliknong 89 

Baliku 24 

Balili 32 

Baliliuan 76 

Balinad 92,93 

Baling-uai 8, 48, 51 

Balios 86 

Balitagtag 60 

Balite 64 

Baliti 64 

Baliting-ibon . 64 

Balitnong 76 

Baliu 24 

Baliuan 73 

Bal-laayang 40 

Balobago 79 

Balobalo 71 

Balobo 75 

Baloi - 24,90 

Balongkahinai 46 

Balongo dilang-ahas 76 

Balukbaluk 71 

Balulau 90 

Balutbalut 71 

Bamban 8,57,59 

Banago 20 

Banana 56 

Banban 57 

Bangar 93 

Bangat 90 

Bangkoang 28 

Bangkuang -- 45 

Bangkuit 36 



INDEX 



107 



Page. 

Bani 71 

Baniakalau 92 

Banikad 92, 94 

Banilad 74, 92, 93, 94 

Banlot 74 

Bannakalau 92, 94 

Banot 71 

Banut 71 

Banyat 52 

Baobao 71 

Baralang 70 

Baralta 46 

Barang-an 32 

Baranggot 83 

Barasbarasan 57 

Bareu 24 

Bari 95 

Baria-an 76 

Bariu 24 

Bariu-an 76 

Bariu-bariu 44 

Barobo 75 

Baroi 24, 28, 90, 92 

Baruan 76 

Barubo 75 

Basakla 64 

Basang'lai 86 

Basbasot 82, 83 

Batad 30 

Batad-bataran 30 

Bauhinia cumingiana 71, 102 

Bayangbang" 15 

Bayao 90 

Bayayat 92 

Bayog 90, 92 

Bayog-bayog 90 

Bayok 90, 92 

Bayok-bayokan 92 

Bayong 90 

Bayugtin 92 

Bayuk 90 

Bayuko 62 

Bay-yating 67 

Belts 102 

Benglaling 77 

Benglareng 76 

Bias 20 

Biau 34 

Bigaho 34 

Bigao 34 

Bignon 89 

Bi-idu 34 



I Pa^e. 

Biknong 89 

Bilabila 32 

: Biluang 89 

I Bingabing 89 

Bi'nong 89 

Bintikai 31 

Biniinga 89 

Bisong 94 

Bitanag 89 

Bitnong 89 

Bitog 70 

Bitonog 89 

Biyug 90 

Bobo 93 

Boboaya 48 

Bobog 93 

Boboi 86 

Boboi-gubat 93 

Bobor 84, 93 

Bodobodo 87 

Boehmeria nivea 65, 66, 102, 103 

Boiboi 86 

Bombax ceiba 13, 84, 86, 102, 104 

Bombycidendron vidalianum... . 13, 78, 

79, 102 

Bonbon 57 

Bongog 93 

Bong-on 60 

Bonotan 94 

Bualtik 101 

Bubog 93 

Bubui 86 

Biibui-gubat 84 

Bubur 93 

Bu-buyan 99 

Bugang 36 

Bugayong 70 

Bugayung 70 

Bugbugayong 70 

Bugubi 38 

Bugubui 38 

Buhai-buhai 22 

Buibui 38 

Bukad 75 

Bukuan 98 

Bulagun 78 

Bulak 86 

Bulakan 92, 100 

Bulakaui 48 

Bulak-bulakan 83, 100 

Bulak-damo 99 

Bulak-dondol 86 



108 



INDEX 



Page. 

Bulak-kastila 86, 99 

Bulak-sino 86 

Bulbulin 79,88 

Bulubukhon 77 

Bulubuluhan 79 

Bulugai 75 

Buluhan 79 

Bunga 62, 93 

Bungat 94 

Bungon 60 

Bunot-bunot 89 

Buntal - 14 

Bunsilak 73 

Buntot-usa 88 

Buntut-palos 52 

Burakan 100 

Buri 11 

Buru 75 

Burubayoko 31 

Buruiu 24 

Butigan 95 

Butnong 89 

C 

Cat-tail 7, 22, 23 

Ceiba pentandra 86, 104 

Cereza 77 

Cherry 77 

Chile-manuk 99 

China grass 65 

Chipuhu 61 

Cissus repens 71 

Cocos nucifera 14 

Coix lachryma-jobi 31 

Columbia blancoi 13,73,102 

Columbia lanceolata 73, 102 

Columbia mollis 74, 104 

Columbia serratifolia 12, 14, 74 

Commersonia bartramia.... 13, 88, 102 

Common pandan 7 

Corchorus capsularis.. 74, 75, 102, 103 
Corchorus olitorius 13, 74, 75, 102, 103 

Cordia cumingiana 13, 101, 102 

Cordia myxa 13, 101, 102 

Coronitas 99 

Corypha elata 14 

Curculigo recurvata 54, 56 

Cyperus malaccensis 7, 38, 40, 41, 

42, 102, 103, 104 
Cyperus radiatus 40, 103, 104 

D 

Dagko 40 

Dalakit 64 



Page. 

Daldal 99 

Dal-dallupang 83 

Dalinas 68 

Dalit 60 

Dallag 77 

Dalunit 58 

Dalunot 58 

Dalupan 83 

Damo 32 

Damong-mabaho 82 

Dangli 77 

Danglin 77 

Danglin-aso 88 

Danglin-kalabau 88 

Dangliw 79 

Danglog 77, 79 

Danli 76 

Danu 32 

Dapnit 96 

Dapo 57 

Darumaka 57 

Dasa 26 

Dates 77 

Datiles 77 

Dendrobium crumenatum.... 8, 57, 58, 

59, 102 

Dendrocalamus merrillianus.... 14 

Devil's cotton 87 

Dibual 90 

Diliman 7, 15, 16 

Diplodiscus paniculatus 75 

Diran 76 

Dita 60 

Dogdol 86 

Doldol 86 

Donax cannaeformis.... 8, 57, 59, 102, 

103 

Dondol 86 

Dongrareng 76 

Dryopteris pteroides 15, 102 

Dugtong-ahas 99 

Duidui 90 

Duktung-ahas 100 

Dumau 31 

Dunglu 72 

Dupdupan 75 

Duran 76 

Durareng 76 

Durarong 77 

E 

Elaeocarpus calomala 73, 102 

Eleusine indica 32 



INDEX 



109 



Pagre. 

Epipremnum spp 46, 102 

Escobilla 82 



Ficus benjamina 13, 64, 102 

Ficus forstenii 13, 64, 102 

Ficus pachyphylla 13, 64, 65, 102 

Ficus paiawanensis 13, 65, 102 

Fimbristylis diphylla 40, 103, 104 

Fimbristylis globulosa (utilis).. 7,40, 

43, 44, 103, 104 

Flagellaria indica 8, 48, 51, 102 



Page. 

Helicteres hirsuta 13, 88, 89, 103 

Herbara 82 

Hibiscus sabdariffa 12 

Hibiscus tiliaceus 8, 79, 81, 103 

Hilagasi 66 

Hinagdung 58 

Hinggiu 65, 98 

Hinggiu-kalabau 99, 100 

Hinggiu-na-puti 100 



Gaas 

Gagabutan 

Gagabuten 

Gaho 

Gapas 

Gapingoi 

Garomaka 

Gatbo 

Geron 

Giliman 

Giron 

Gisa 

Gisi 

Gleichenia linearis.... 7, 17, 18, 

Gnetum gnemon 

Gnetum indicum 

Gnetum latifolium 

Gnetum sp 13, 

Goniothalamus amuyon.... 13, 

Grewia acuminata 

Grewia bilamellata 13, 

Grewia eriocarpa 13, 

Grewia multiflora.... 12, 13, 14, 

Grewia negrosensis 

Guma 

Gumihan 



44 
32 
80 
34 
86 
18 
57 
38 
30 
15 
30 
34 
64 
19, 102 
20, 102 
20, 102 
20 

22. 102 

67. 103 
76, 103 
76, 103 
76, 103 
77, 103 

76 

101 

61 



Hinlalaong 

Hoag 

Hoag-uai . 

Hubulos 

Huligano . 

Hungo 

Hunung 



58 
48 
48 
58 
90 
73 
89 



H 



I Ichnocarpus ovatifolius 98, 103 

I Ikding-nga-purau 99 

I Hib 30 

i Imbubuiukan 77 

Imkabao 60 

Imperata exaltata 32, 34, 103, 104 

I Impid 71 

i Impig 71 

Inangdon 58 

Indai luging 58 

Inggiu-na-puti — 99 

, Inuad 48 

Inual 48 

Irau 8,57,59 

Ischaemum angustifolium.. 7, 32, 33, 

103, 104 

Isis-maya 66 

Isis-figipin QQ 



Job's tears 31 

Juncus effusus 8, 52, 53 

Jute 75 



Hagnaya .... 

Hagod 

Hahun 

Hamitanago 

Hamugi 

Hanadiong 



15! 

58 Kabag 

67 Kabislak .... 
Kabit-kabit 

! Kadel 

; Kadiat 

Hanadgong 58, 74 \ Kadiin 

' Kadlihan .. 



89 
62 

58 



Hanagdung 
Hanlagasi .. 
Hanopol ... 

Hanot 

Hantak 



58 

66 \ Kakaab 

98 I Kakaag 

79 I Kakao-kakao 
93 Kakaomalve 



60 
90 
32 
71 
22 
73 
93 



92 

87 



no 



INDEX 



Page. 

Kakarohai 52 

Kalabugau 31 

Kalagimai 28 

Kalalauan 99 

Kaliat 20, 22 

Kalimatas 68 

Kaliot 52 

Kalitkalit 71, 77 

Kaliuauai 48 

Kalomala 73 

Kalukalumpangan 92 

Kalulot 62 

Kalulung 20 

Kalumpang 92,93 

Kalupang 93 

Kalut-kalutan 83 

Kaluuaiuai 48 

Kamagsa 68 

Kamaksa 68, 70 

Kamansi 61 

Kamantiging-linau 99 

Kambot 31 

Kamokamotehan 100 

Kanaroset 77 

Kanas-kanas 76 

Kansasaga 70 

KantiiTgan 92 

Kapah 86 

Kapak 86 

Kapas 86 

Kapas de Francia 99 

Kapas-kapas 83 

Kapas-sanglai 86 

Kapok 86 

Kapos 86 

Karagomoi 7, 27, 28 

Karamosi 57 

Karausi 57 

Karekai 20 

Karikasin 66 

Karkarsang 99 

Karud 60 

Karulai 57 

Kasanglai 86 

Kasasaga 70 

Kasibai 72 

Kasiboen 72 

Kastule 82, 83 

Katak 20 

Katigbi 31 

Katikis 72 

Katiput 98 

Kauakauayan 31 



Page. 

Kayo 86 

Keddeng 73, 74, 76 

Kideng 75 

Kili-kili 62 

Kilob 7, 17, 18, 19 

Kilog 18 

Kleinhovia hospita.. 12, 13, 14, 89, 103 

Kobboot 7, 32, 33 

Kogon 32,34 

Koldasan 31 

Kolis 64 

Kollokollot 8,83,85 

Kollokollot ti bao 88 

Kollolot 83 

Kolokauayan 31 

Kolo-kolot 78 

Kolot-kolotan 83 

Korokalasag 15 

Kubi 62 

Kudlasan 31 

Kugitas 20 

Kulat 83 

Kulet 83 

Kuliad 20 

Kuliamot 64 

Kuliat 20 

Kullukulluk 83 

Kulot 20 

Kulot-kulotan 78 

Kulutkulutan 83 

Kuman 20 

Kunakun 73 

Kuni-na-puti 99 

Kurukauayan 31 

Kurumpang 93 

Kusibeng 72 

Labayo 89 

Labnai 94 

Labon 87 

Labtang 67 

Labug-labug 79 

Lagasi 66 

Lagkitan 82 

Lago 70 

Lagod 58 

Lagtang ^'^ 

Lagunton 15 

Lagutlut 24 

Laho '74 

Laiasin '^ 

Lailaiginan 88 



INDEX 



111 



Page. 

Lamai 58 

Lampakanai 22 

Lamudias 31 

Lanas 15 

Langaban 64 

Langka 62 

Langkuas 57 

Langlangas 68 

Langosig 77 

Lanut 77 

Lanutan 67,68,78 

Lanutan, yellow 68 

Lapi 76 

Lapni 76 

Lapnis 77,89 

Lapnit 73,76,93 

Lasa 7, 38, 39, 70 

Lata 60 

Latris 77 

Layasin 66 

Lengua de leon 52 

Leucosyke capitellata 66 

Li-a-sin 66 

Llba 60 

Libang-bang 71 

Libtuk 90 

Ligaa 77 

Ligtang 67 

Lipang-aso 65 

Lokdo 15 

Lonicera philippinensis 101, 103 

Lontong 93 

Loomoi 48 

Losuban 78 

Lunug 64 

Lupi 34 

Lupig 71 

Lupiit 99 

Lygodium circinnatum 7, 20, 21 

Lygodium flexuosum 20 

Lygodium scandens 20 

Lygodium semihastatum 20 

Lygodium spp 18, 102, 103 

M 

Maesa cumingii 98, 103 

Magatungal 20 

Magimapau 57 

Magimpal 57 

Magit 71 

Magkauayan 31 

Maglumboi 73 

Maguey 14, 54 



Page. 

Magutapilak 46 

Maismaisan 99 

Malaachuete 89 

Mala-ang lako lakop 46 

Malabago : 79 

Malabanilad 93 

Malabitis-papa 80 

Malaboho 93 

Malabonot 92 

Malabulak 84 

Malabunga 93 

Malachra capitata.. 12,14,79,80,103 

Malachra fasciata 13,14,80,103 

Malagasaha 94 

Malagayaman 46 

Malahito 72 

Malaisia scandens 65, 103, 104 

Malaisis 65 

Malakadios 60 

Malakakao 92, 93, 95 

Malakalumpang 93 

Malakapai 92 

Malalapi - 98 

Malamansanita 88 

j Malambingan 60 

Malanopit 73 

Malapapaya 92 

Malarurang 58 

Malarurung 58 

Malasapsap 90 

Malasikongdoron 58 

Malatakon 88 

Malibago 79,89 

Malobago 89 

Malubago 8, 79, 81 

Malvas -■ 82 

I Malvastrum coromandelinum 80, 102 

Mamadling 73 

Mamalis 72 

Mamaued 73,74 

Mamued 73 

Manaring 75 

! Manau 57 

Manban 57 

Mangalri 75 

Manggasinoro 68 

I Manila hemp 8, 11, 55, 56 

I Mangkit 83 

! Manzana 77 

j Manzanitas 77 

Maobo 75 

Mapola 79 

Marabas 82 



112 



INDEX 



Page. 

Maragayaman 48 

Mara-ipus 100 

Marakapas 83, 89, 90 

Maramani 75 

Maratakkim-baka 82 

Maratarong 83, 92, 101 

Marbas 82 

Marokbarok 71 

Marubo 75 

Masaplak 76 

Matalbak 57 

Matang-ulang 70 

Mattapal 57 

Matting rush 52 

Mayambago 79 

Maykauayan 31 

Mayubo 75 

Mayuo 90 

Melochia umbellata 12,14,89,103 

Merremia nymphaeifolia 100 

Mini 57 

Miscanthus sinensis 34, 104 

Mora 30 

Moras 30 

Moropoto 78 

Mulabago 79 

Muling-muling 75 

Muntingia calabura 77, 78, 103 

Musa paradisiaca 56 

Musa textilis 8, 14, 55, 56, 102, 103 

Musa sp. (a wild banana) 103 

Muta 40 

Mutha 40 



X 



Nabo 

Nagdon 

Nangka 

Nangnangisit 

Naui 

Negegan 



87 

58 

62 

83 

20 

87 

Nephrolepis hirsutula 15, 102, 103 

Niogniogan 71 

Nito 7,18,21 

Nito a dadakkel 20 

Nito-nitoan 20 

Nitong-parang 20 

Nitong-puti 20 

Nitu 20 

o 

Obod-obod 40 

Olango 26 

Oiigali 68 

Oos 93 



I Page. 

Operculina turpethum 100 

Oplig 71 

. Opong-opong 92 

' Oryza sativa 34, 102, 103, 104 

Oyaiigo 26 

P 

Paang-baliwis 79, 80 

Pakak 61 

: Pakalkal 87 

Pakarohai 52 

Pakin-bakir 88 

Pako 15 

Pako-pako 15 

Pakupakuan 40 

I Palagtiki 32 

Palak-palak 92 

Palias 31 

I Palipe 46 

Palikpik-hito 72 

Pallopallot 78 

Palong-manok 89 

Palosanto 70 

Palupo 96 

■ Pamago 8,67,69 

; Pampar 89 

Panampat 89 

Pandan 11,24,28 

; Pandan, Cavinti 28 

Pandan, Common or beach 28, 29 

Pandan de China 26 

Pandan, Luisiana 28 

J Pandan, Majayjay 28 

I Pandan-totoo 28 

I Pandanus copelandii 24, 102, 103 

Pandanus dubius 26, 104 

Pandanus luzonensis 26, 102, 104 

Pandanus radicans.. 26, 102, 103, 104 
' Pandanus sabotan.. 7, 25, 26, 103, 104 
I Pandanus simplex.. 7, 27, 28, 102, 103, 

104 

Pandanus spp 24 

Pandanus tectorius.. 7,26,27,28,29, 
102, 103, 104 

Pandanus utilissimus 28 

Pangarandongen 58 

Paiigardisen 78 

Pangdan 24, 28 

Panigbin 74 

Panglan 28 

Parameria prilippinensis 99, 103 

Parangis-sabungan 32 

Partian 99 

Parugtong-ahas 99 



INDEX 



113 



Page. 

Pasakla 64 

Pasanglai 99 

Pasau 75 

Pasau na bilog 74 

Pataga 24 

Paua, 48 

Pauai 40 

Pericampylus glaucus.... 8, 67, 69, 102 

Phaeanthus ebracteolatus 68, 103 

Phaleria cumingii 95, 103 

Phaleria perrottetiana 95, 103 

Phragmites karka 34, 102 

Phragmites vulgaris 7, 34, 35, 36, 

37, 102, 103 

Pilokong 40 

Pineapple 48 

Pinggot 8, 52, 53 

Pintaka 31 

Pipturus arborescens 12, 14 i 

Piso-piso 44 ' 

Polyalthia flava 68, 103 

Pongamia pinnata 71 ! 

Poot-si-nuang 83 

Pothoidium lobbianum 46, 104 | 

Pothos rumphii 8, 47 I 

Pothos spp 46, 102 I 

Prayer-bean 70 | 

Pterocjmibium tinctorium.... 8, 13, 90, i 

91,103! 
Pterospermum diversifolium.— 13, 90, 

103: 

Pterospermum niveum 92, 103 

Pueng 32 

Puenig 32 

Pulang-pulang 99 j 

Puos 64 I 

Puriket 83 I 

Puropagai 68 

Puspus 64 

Putoputohan 48 

Puyas 31 

Puyus - 75 ; 

R 

Rabo de leon 52 j 

Rabo de tigre 52 | 

Ragiu 44 j 

Ragiudiu 44, 45 \ 

Rakido 44 

Ramie 65 

Raphidophora merrillii: 8, 49, 50 

166677 8 



Page. 

Raphidophora spp 48, 102, 103 

Rapok 94 

Ratiles 77 

Rhynchospora corymbosa 44, 102, 104 

Rigini 71 

Rimodas 30 

Rimora 30 

Rimoras 30 

Rourea volubilis 70, 103, 104 

Runo -- 34 



Sabila 52 

Sabung-sabuiigan 32 

Sabunog 34 

Sabutan 7, 25, 26, 28 

Saccharum officinarum 36, 104 

Saccharum spontaneum.... 34, 36, 102, 

103, 104 

Sacking tree : 60 

Sadak 65,98,99 

Saga 70 

Sagakap 48 

Sagambaging 70 

Sagasaga 70 

Sagiat 67 

Sagingsagingan 88 

Sagu 96 

Salagip 96 

Salago 95,96 

Salago, Lance-leaf.. : 96 

Salago, Large-leaf 8,96,97 

Salagong-babae 95 

Salagong-gubat 95 

Salago, Round-leaf 96 

Salago, Small-leaf 96 

Salibangbang '71 

Salik 82 

Salingkugi - '71 

Salisi - 64 

Salogon _.. .; 60 

Saloyot .'. '75 

Salsaluyut - 80 

Saluyong 1^1 

Saliiyot '75 

Saluyut l^ 

Sanggumai 57 

Sanglai 86 

Sangsafigitan ^6 

Sansevieria zeylanica 52, 54 

Sapindus saponaria. 72, 103 

Saripongpong 93 



114 



INDEX 



Page. 

Sarnugar a dadakkel 88 

Sasitung 20 

Sauag-caballo 78 

Sayapo 87 

Sayapu 87 

Scindapsus spp 48 

Scirpiodendron ghaeri 44, 103 

Scirpus grossus 45, 102, 104 

Scirpus lacustris 45, 104 

Sere 24 

Sesbania grandiflora 12, 14 

Siapo 77, 89 

Sibut-sibutan 100 

Sida acuta 13,82,103 

Sida cordifolia 82, 103 

Sida mysorensis 82, 103 

Sida rhombifolia 83, 103 

Sidda 36 

Sigid 65, 98 

Sigre 52 

Silk cotton tree 86 

Sirisiu 64 

Sumpa 74 

Sikal 36 

Silong-pugo 67 

Sinaligan 93, 101 

Sinawa 52 

Singitan 83 

Sinutan 83 

Sipit-ulang 79 

Sisal 54 

Sporobolus elongatus 36, 103 

Sporobolus indicus 38 

Stenochlaena palustris.. 7, 15, 16, 18, 
102,103,104 

Sterculia crassiramea 13, 92, 103 

Sterculia cuneata 92, 103 

Sterculia foetida 13, 93, 103 

Sterculia luzonica 93, 103 

Sterculia oblongata 13, 93, 94, 103 

Sterculia philippinensis 94, 103 

Sterculia stipularis 13, 94, 104 

Streptocaulon baumii 100, 103 

Strychnos multiflora 98, 103 

Sud-sud 40 

Sugar cane 36 

Suliman 98 

Sulimbubu 92 

Surusighid 82 

T 

Taag 89 

Taboan 26 



Page. 

Tabunak 34 

Tabtabin 40 

j Tachin-kabayo 80 

' Tagabang 75 

I Tagadeu 38 

; Tagap 62 

; Tagisa 38 

[ Tagisi 34 

, Tagnag 89 

Tagpan 75 

Tagulauai 99 

j Taguntungan 90 

' Taka magindanau 75 

Takim-baka 80,82,83 

' Taking-baka 82 

Takkit-vaca 83 

i Takling-baka 82,83 

' Takulau 68 

Takulau bianco 78 

Takung 90 

Talahib 34,36 

Talakau 88 

Talinga'an 90 

Talo 96 

Taloktok 89 

Talosan 88 

I Taloto 90 

I Talu-talu 75 

i Taluto 8,90,91,93 

I Tamanag 89 

! Tambo 7,34,35,37 

Tambobonot 92 

Tambu 34,38 

Tamok 92 

Tampinita 100 

Tan-ag 89 

Tanak 89 

Tangbo 34 

Tanggulai 72 

Tanobong 34 

Tanubong 34 

Taoto 90 

Tapinag 92 

Taroi 77 

Taroktok 84 

Tatagtag 58 

Taua 48 

Tautu 90 

Tayok-tayok 40 

Teka-teka 72 

Tekistekis 72 

Tewung 48 

Thespesia lampas 13, 83, 103 



INDEX 



IL: 



Page. 

Thysanolaena maxima.. 7, 38, 39, 102 

Tibang-lau 98 

Tibatib 46 

Tibi 64 

Tigbao 36 

Tigbi 31 

Tigbikai 31 

Tiger grass. 7, 38, 39 

Tigi 52 

Tigre 52 

Tikastikas 72 

Tiker 45 

Tikiu 45 

Tikog 38, 40 

Tikug 7,40,43,45 

Tilub 18 

Tinagasi QQ 

Tingantingan 92 

Tipolo 61 

Titipuho 96 

Titiu 45 

Tolosan 88 

Tongtongking 88 

Trema orientalis 13, 58, 103 

Tres moras 30 

Triumfetta bartramia.. 12, 14, 78, 103 

Tubol-tubol 22 

Tugi-tugian 67 

Tugiip 61 

Tuka 95,96 

Tulo 72 

Tumolubo 62 

Typha angustifolia 7, 22, 23, 102, 

103, 104 
U 

Uag 48 

Uai ti uak 48 

Uakak 98 

Uakatan 72 



Page. 

Uaiis-ualisan 82, 83 

Uarat-uarat 46 

Uaualisin 82 

Ubien 62 

Ue na gayang 48 

Uginai 80 

Ugpoi 71 

Uhango 28 

Ulang-ia 70 

Umpig 71 

: Umpik 71 

j Ungo 73 

I Uog 48 

Uos 93 

Upak 92 

I Upas-tree 60 

Upling 71 

Upopi 40 

Urceola imberbis 99, 103 

Urena lobata.. 8,12,13,14,83,84,85, 

103 
Uyango 26 

Vanilla ovalis 58 

Vetiver 30 

Wango 26 

Wikstroemia indica 95, 96 

Wikstroemia lanceolata 95, 96 

Wikstroemia meyeniana.. 8, 95, 96, 97 

Wikstroemia ovata 12, 14, 95, 96 

Wikstroemia spp 95, 103, 104 

Y 

Yaka "75 

Yamban 68 

Yard grass 32 



o 






BUREAU OF FORESTRY 

MANILA, PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 

Bulletin No. 1 (1903). — Report on investigations made in Java in the year 

1902. By Elmer D. Merrill. Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 2 (1906). — The charcoal industry of the Philippine Islands. 

By Wm. M. Maule. Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 3 (1906). — A compilation of notes on india rubber and gutta- 

I)ercha. Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 4 (1906). — I. Mechanical tests, properties, and uses of thirty 

Philippine woods. II. Philippine sawmills, lumber market, and prices. 

By Rolland Gardner. Out of print 
Bulletin No. 5 (1906). — A preliminary working plan for the public forest 

tract of the Insular Lumber Company, Negros Occidental, P. I. By H. 

D, Everett and H. N. Whitford. Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 6 (1906). — A preliminary working plan for the public forest 

tract of the Mindoro Lumber and Logging Company, Bongabon, Mindoro, 

P. I. By M. L. Merritt and H. N. Whitford. Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 7 (1907). — A preliminary check list of the principal commercial 

timbers of the Philippine Islands. By H. N. Whitford. Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 8 (1908).— The forests of Mindoro. By Melvin L. Merritt. 

Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 9 (1909). — A Philippine substitute for lignum-vitae. By W. I. 

Hutchinson. 60 centavos.* 
Bulletin No. 10 (1911). — The forests of the Philippines. I. Forest types and 

products. II. The principal forest trees. By H. N. Whitford. 2.50 pesos. 
Bulletin No. 11 (1912). — The uses of Philippine woods. Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 12 (1912). — Volume tables for round timber. Compiled by 

William Klemme. Out of print. 
Bulletin No. 13 (1915).- — Ipil-ipil. A firewood and reforestation crop. By 

D. M. Matthews. 50 centavos. 
Bulletin No. 14 (1916). — Commercial woods of the Philippines; their prep- 
aration and uses. By E. E. Schneider. 2 pesos. 
Bulletin No. 15 (1918). — Philippine bamboos. By William H. Brown and 

Arthur F. Fischer. 1.50 pesos. 
Bulletin No. 16 (1918). — Philippine forest products as sources of paper 

pulp. By William H. Brown and Arthur F. Fischer. 50 centavos. 
Bulletin No. 17 (1918). — Philippine mangrove swamps. By William H. 

Bro^vn and Arthur F. Fischer. 2 pesos. 
Bulletin No. 18 (1919), — Philippine palms and palm products. By William 

H. Brown and Elmer D. Merrill. 1.50 pesos. 
Bulletin No. 19 (1919).— Philippine fiber plants. By William H. Brown. 

1.50 pesos, 

* Fifty cents U. S, currency equal 1 peso or 100 centavos. 



1