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HISTORY 

OF THE 

R EAT WAR 



DUN CAN -CLARK 




1 1 



Presented to the 
library of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

by 



PROFESSOR 
H. L. WILLIAMS 



PICTORIAL HISTORY 

of the 

GREAT WAR 



by 

S. J. Duncan-Clark 

War Analyst and Special Correspondent 
(177(1 

W. R. Plewman 

Military Critic, Toronto Star 

Canada in the Great War 

by 
W. S. Wallace, M.A. (Oxon.) 

(Lately Major, Canadian Infantry) 
Lecturer on History, University of Toronto 



Illustrated with Colorgravures 

British, Canadian, American, and French Official 

Photographs and Maps. 



THE J. L. NICHOLS CO. Limited 




ivn 



Copyright, 1919, 
By 

\VM. M. CLARK 

Copyright, 1919, 
By 
).. W. WALTER 

All Photographs Copyrighted by 

Underwood & Underwood 
and others. 




DEDICATION 



To Righteousness, 

The Foundation of Peace; 
To Freedom, 

The Spirit of Peace; 
To Democracy, 

The Dwelling of Peace; 
and to all Brave Men of whatever Clime or Creed, 
Who for these things fought and suffered even unto death. 



FOREWORD 



The need of a popular History of the Great War, which should be at once 
authoritative and free from bias and weak sentimentalism, is felt by all. This vol- 
ume is designed to fill this need. 

It attempts to encompass the causes of the great conflict, the chief happenings 
of military and political importance during the bloodiest fifty-one months of the 
world's history, and their results and their effects upon the nations involved. An 
earnest endeavor has been made to take the reader through the most important 
phases. The limitation of this work to one volume makes the giving of exhaustive 
details of every incident, every battle, every siege, every advance or retreat, an 
impossibility. But in this very limitation lies the book's greatest value. 

To please a tactician, chapters might be devoted to the battles along the Marne, 
the Somme, the Yser, at Cambrai, or to the struggle before Verdun or to the Rus- 
sian campaigns. But for the reader who seeks a straightforward, circumstantial 
narrative of the great war, without its chief events being clouded and obscured by a 
multiplicity of subsidiary details, this book has been written. 

Devotion of time to research by the very best authors and critics has been 
given that its facts may be clearly and accurately presented. It contains no state- 
ments based on rumors, no accounts taken from unauthoritative sources. 

The New World undoubtedly was a great determining factor in the overthrow 
and crushing of junkerism, and for that reason this volume should be of the great 
est interest to the peoples of Canada and the United States. Over two and one- 
half million sons of North America crossed to France. Their concentration and 
transportation was one of the greatest military feats in history. Canada, as a part 
of the British Empire, naturally became involved first. Her record of service will 
fill every patriot with a feeling of pride and inspiration. The active share in the 
war by the United States, though it covered ordy a little over a year and a half, is 
the nation's most glorious achievement. 

With this in mind, painstaking effort has been made to do the fullest justice to 
all in recounting the parts played by these nations during the months of their unself- 
ish crusade against autocracy and militarism. 

Entertaining visualization of the war is best attained through photographs. 
Consequently this book has been profusely illustrated with hundreds of scenes offi- 
cially photographed during the long period of campaigning on all the great fronts. 
These in themselves tell the narrative in a convincing manner. In securing these 
pictures, the most skilled men attached to the fighting forces were emjjloyed. Many 
were taken by men who risked death for a "close-up". 

In preparing this instructive, inspiring and entertaining history, no vital epi- 
sode of the war has been overlooked. The narrative is complete from the demolition 
of Liege to the restoration of Peace. It is hoped that it will do full justice to the 
sacrifice, courage, steadfastness in the face of great difficulties, of the tireless and 
valorous fighting men of f;he British Empire, France, Italy, Belgium, Serbia and 
the United States. 

H. H. H. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Pictorial History 

of 

The Great War 



Chaptek 


I. 


Chapter 


II. 


Chapter 


III. 


Chapter 


IV. 


Chapter 


V. 


Chapter 


VI. 


Chapter 


VII. 


Chapter 


VIII. 


Chapter 


IX 


Chapter 


X 


Chapter 


XI 


Chapter 


XII 


Chapter 


XIII 


Chapter 


XIV. 


Chapter 


XV. 


Chapter XVI. 



PAG! 

-The Red Trail of Prussia 11 

-The Spark in Europe's Powder Magazine 25 

The Armies Are Unleashed 53 

-Prussian Plans Go Astray 63 

-The Era of Gigantic Battels 75 

-hlxdenburg retreats 85 

-Russia's Tragic Story 107 

-Italy and the Little Xations 119 

-The War on the Sea 145 

-America's Long Patience 159 

-The United States Draws the Sword 175 

-The Decisive Campaign ix the Year 1918 183 

-The Aftermath of the Armistice 235 

-The Price of Victory 255 

-How the Central Powers Fell 261 

-Mara*els of the War on Land, Sea and Air 289 



"THE MARINES" 

PAGE 

By Secretary Josephus Daniels 293 

"AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES" 
By Gen. John J. Pershing 307 

"NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR" 
By Admiral Wm. E. Sims 339 



BOOK II. 

CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR. 

Chapter I. — The First Canadian Contingent 3 

Chapter II. — The Growth of the Canadian Corps 11 

Chapter III. — The Canadian Corps, 1917 17 

Chapter IV. — The Canadian Corps, 1918 21 

Chapter V. — The Canadian Cavalry 29 

Chapter VI. — The Work of the Auxiliary Service 3.5 

Chapter VII. — The Story of the Reinforcements 41 

Chapter VIII. — Canadians in the Imperial Forces _ 45 

Chapter IX.— The Civilian War Effort 51 

Chapter X. — Canada's War Government 57 



Pictorial History of The Great War 

The Red Trail of Prussia 

CHAPTER I 

PRUSSIA UNSCRUPULOUS IN EARLY HISTORY — BISMARCK THE EMPIRE 
BUILDER — GERMANY YICTORIOUS OYER FRANCE IN 1870 — HARSHEST 
TERMS IN HISTORY— PRUSSIA PREPARED CAREFULLY FOR ALL WARS- 
MIDDLE EUROPE EMPIRE PRUSSIAN AMBITION 



About two centuries and a half ago the 
Mark of Brandenburg, formerly known 
as the Xordmark, came under the sway of 
Frederick William the Great Elector. 

That was the beginning of Prussia as 
an ambitious, aggressive and unscrupu- 
lous state. 

The first act of Frederick William Mas 
the abolition of the constitution. He 
made himself absolute monarch. His sec- 
ond act was to create a professional army 
to sustain him in absolutism. 

He trained his army, disciplined it rig- 
orously and equipped it as well as was 
possible in those seventeenth century 
days. Then he set forth to conquer bis 
neighbors. 

In this he was measurably successful. 
Other little marks and duchies were 
added to the territory of Brandenburg, 
and Berlin became the center of a con- 
siderable domain. 

So Frederick William the Great Elec- 
tor set the style for all Prussian rulers 
who should come after him. 

The three fundamental principles of 
Prussianism were absolutism, military 
power and conquest. They remained the 
fundamental principles of Prussianism 
thru two centuries and a half, and until 
the allied democracies of the world under- 
took to destroy them in the World War. 

The domain of the Great Elector was 
joined with East Prussia by his successor, 
and in 1701 Frederick III assumed the 
title of King of Prussia, placing the 
crown on his own head with bis own hands 
— that being the nearest approach to 
actual coronation by the Almighty that he 
could devise. 



Meantime the sway of the Prussian 
dynasty extended in all directions. Swed- 
ish Pomerania, Silesia and the Posen and 
West Prussian provinces of Poland were 
added in the period from 1720 to 1795. 
The fortunes of war fluctuated, it is true; 
Prussian arms were not always success- 
ful. Xapoleon played havoc with Prus- 
sian dominions for a time, and the Hohen- 
zollerns were stripped of territories and 
power; but the Napoleonic success was 
meteoric. At the Congress of Vienna, in 
1814, Prussia recovered practically all 
that she had lost, and came into posses- 
sion of several additional states that had 
hitherto escaped her rapacity. 

However, before the yoke of autocracy 
was finally fastened upon the necks of the 
subject peoples of Prussia; before they 
were made the helpless and unthinking 
tools of a madly ambitious imperialism, 
there was a revolt against absolutism. 
The fires of democracy that had swept 
thru the American colonies, France and 
England in the late eighteenth and early 
nineteenth centuries were slow in kindling 
their torches in central Europe. But in 
18-48 and '49 Prussia heard the cry of 
popular defiance in the streets of Berlin, 
and saw the flag of insurrection raised in 
Baden and Saxony. 

With brutal power she crushed the 
revolutionaries of her own domain. 
Those of Baden and Saxony might have 
fared better — the king of Saxony, indeed, 
was forced to hide himself but Prussia 
sent her armies into her neighbor states 
and trampled ruthlessly under foot the 
brave men who sought to win freedom. 

That is typical of Prussia. Always and 
everywhere she has been the enemy of 



12 



THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 




Archduke Franz Ferdinand, his wife wd children. The Archduke and wife 



were assassinated. 



THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 



13 



freedom, the implacable foe of democ- 
racy. She has denied it to all people who 
came under her sway, and she has done 
her best to destroy it in the lands that she 
could not, or did not choose, to conquer. 

The yoke securely fastened upon the 
necks of the people within her own realm 
and those of her neighbors; the revolu- 
tionary leaders exiled, imprisoned or 
slain, Prussia turned her thought and 
energy again toward the plans of aggres- 
sion that were the chief concern of her 
rulers and statesmen. 

Rismarck had come upon the scene — 
Bismarck the empire builder. His vision 
of Prussia dominant was challenged by 
the presence of a powerful rival in central 
Europe. The House of Hapsburg. rul- 



sary preparation for war. When things 
were in readiness to strike a sharp, hard 
blow, he aggravated the dispute to the 
point of ruptured relations. The war he 
wanted followed. Prussia's armies, ready 
for action, were hurled into Bavaria and 
Austria, the former state having elected 
to take Austria's side in the quarrel. 

The struggle was of short duration. In 
seven weeks Austria capitulated at the 
battle of Konnigsgratz, or Sadowa. 
From that day Hapsburg never ventured 
to challenge Hohenzollern, or in any way 
to interfere with Prussian plans. 

Rismarck, having cleared the field, 
went on with his work of building an em- 
pire. He welded the German states into 
a confederation under a constitution that 




Serbian civilians 



ing Austria, had been often the ally of 
the House of Hohenzollern in expeditions 
of conquest and phmder. Rut Bismarck 
wanted no ally of co-equal strength, no 
possible competitor in imperialism. The 
Prussian conception of an ally is a vassal. 
compelled to play the game as Prussia 
pleases. 

Hence it was necessary to eliminate 
Austria as a potential rival in order to as- 
sure for Prussia the place she desired. 

Rismarck had no difficulty in finding a 
cause for friction. There was a dispute 
over Sehleswig-Holstein that he carefully 
fostered. He encouraged the belief that 
all difficulties could be settled amicably 
and, in the meantime, made every neces- 



\\as designed to fasten the Hohenzollern 
dynasty upon it forever, and to give to 
its successive monarchs autocratic control, 
supported by military power. It Mas 
provided in the constitution that it might 
not he amended without the consent of 
Prussia. This was the ultimate and abso- 
lute safeguard. Only Prussia could undo 
Prussia; only Hohenzollern could relax 
the grip of Hohenzollern upon the lives 
of the German people. 

Bavaria, having suffered defeat with 
Austria in the Seven Weeks' war. came 
reluctantly into the confederation. She 
did not love Prussia and the Hohenzol- 
lerns. For years it was against the law 
to display the German flag in Bavaria. 



14 



THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 




THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 



15 



She never became fully reconciled to her 
new status as the subordinate of Prussia 
in the family of Teutonic tribes. 

Hohenzollern ambitions were not satis- 
fied to rest with the consolidation of terri- 
tory under the German empire. The 
King of Prussia had become German 
Emperor, and the new title merely quick- 
ened the inherent appetite for further 
conquest. Envious eyes turned toward 
France. The rich provinces of Alsace- 
Lorraine invited plunder and acquisition. 



A comparatively short struggle re- 
sulted in a complete victory for Germany. 
It was another instance where prepared- 
ness prevailed over courage and devotion. 
Alsace-Lorraine was added to the Ger- 
man empire, and France was compelled 
to pay an indemnity of five billion francs 
in order to get the German army out of 
her territory. 

This sketch of Prussian history is nec- 
essary in order that we may understand 
how wholly in keeping with the character 




Serbian officers watching experiments with liquid fire. 



Moreover France was a possible rival 
whose humbling was advisable in order to 
assure the dominant position of Europe. 
Bismarck deliberately laid the founda- 
tion for war with France by provoking a 
quarrel thru the publication of a garbled 
telegram from the King of Prussia to the 
King of France. The wording of the 
telegram was made to carry an insult to 
the French monarch — and in those days 
there was only one way of dealing with 
insults. 



and aspirations of the rulers and people 
of Prussia was the world war in which 
their ambitions culminated. 

Prussia never blundered into wars un- 
wittingly. She made them with deliber- 
ate purpose; prepared for them long in 
advance, and carried them thru to victory 
with only one intent — to increase her own 
power and territorial sovereignty. 

The forty odd years of peace that fol- 
lowed gave the world time to forget Prus- 
sia's history. Moreover, Prussia, herself, 



16 



THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 




THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 



17 



was camouflaged in the German empire, 
and people who had known the German 
tribes before they became subject to Prus- 
sian rule and guidance found it difficult 
to believe that the industrious, home-lov- 
ing folk of Germany could have in their 
hearts ambitions that menaced the peace 
and happiness of neighbor nations. It is 
probable, indeed, that such ambitions were 
foreign to these tribes or states in their 
earlier history as a confederation, but they 
were never absent from the minds of their 
Prussian over-lords. 

During those forty years Prussia did 
two things — she Prussianized the rest of 
the German people, and she built up a 
great army and a great navy for enter- 
prises of conquest conceived on a vaster 
scale than ever before. 

The story of these four decades of mis- 
education for the German people is one 
that merits a volume to itself. The secu- 
lar and religious instruction given the 
youth of the land was definitely directed 
toward inculcating a vaunting pride of 
race and nation and a contempt for all 
other peoples. They were taught to be- 
lieve that the Germans were the chosen 
of God, with a destiny to subdue the 
world to their own peculiar "kultur." 
The state, embodied in the kaiser and the 
general staff of the German army, be- 
came for them the voice of God. What 
the state decreed Avas right, no matter 
how it might violate individual concep- 
tions of ethics. To live and die for the 
state, unquestioningly obedient to its com- 
mands — this was the supreme morality. 

This education was part of the process 
by which the German people were made 
the docile tools of the Prussian dynasty, 
serviceable for the later execution of its 



maturing plans. 

Such is the general background of the 
World War. 

. As we draw nearer the fateful year in 
which Germany launched her long pre- 
paring thunderbolts against the world, 
one incident after another shows that the 
hour of action was no chance hour. 

Wilhelm II dreamed thru the earlier 
years of his reign of the day when the 
resting German sword would be again 
unsheathed to continue the traditions of 
his dynasty and to carve from Europe 
and the continents beyond a domain 
greater in extent and incomparably richer 
in resources than any autocrat of history 
had ever ruled. 

In accordance with his ambitions there 
developed in Germany an organization 
devoted to the creation of a great middle 
Europe state, including Austria-Hun- 
gary in its scope, and extending its fron- 
tiers thru the Balkans to Asia Minor and 
Mesopotamia. Maps that were printed 
and distributed in Germany twenty years 
before the World War began showed the 
greater empire, and swept within its 
boundaries Belgium and Holland on the 
west, and the Baltic States of Russia, Po- 
land, and the Balkan countries on the east 
and southeast, as well as the dual mon- 
archy. Leaders in this movement spoke 
of acquiring territory in South America, 
notably in the southern Argentine. It 
was boldly predicted that the whole civil- 
ized world would become either part of 
the empire, or subject to it in the relation 
of vassal to master. 

In order to promote the project for a 
middle-Europe empire with an Asiatic 
annex, the Kaiser visited Constantinople. 
Damascus and Jerusalem. He addressed 



IS 



THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 




Wm. Hohenzollern, ex-Kaiser of Germany, in the uniform of a Turkish officer. 
The shriveled left arm is most noticeahle. 




MARSHAL FOCH, COMMANDER IN < HIEF OF THE ENTIRE ALLIED FORCES 



20 



THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 




21 




Lloyd George, Great Britain's foremost Statesman and War Lord 




SIR DOUGLAS HAIG. COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE BRITISH FORCES IN FRANCE AND 

BELGIUM 



THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 



28 



a great audience of Turks in Damascus, 
and declared himself the friend of the 
Ottoman empire and the Mohammedhan 
faith. His immediate reward was a con- 
cession from Turkey allowing Germany 
to construct the Bagdad railroad* and giv- 
ing it a right of way in European Turkey, 
thru what was known as the Sanjat of 
Xovibazar, thus creating the link thru the 
Balkans that has been often referred to 
as the Bagdad corridor. 

Austria- Hungary played her part in 
these plans, doubtless with the knowledge 
and approval of Germany. She seized 
Bosnia and Herzegovina, border Balkan 
states. When her act aroused the anger 
of Europe, the Kaiser appeared as her 
champion, and declared that he supported 
the policy of his Austrian ally. 

The Prussian plans were moving 
smoothly and swiftly toward the achieve- 
ment of Prussian ambitions, when the 
Balkan war broke out. The utter defeat 
of Turkey deprived Germany of her right 
of way thru the Sanjat of Xovibazar. 
which became Serbian territory, and 
closed the Bagdad corridor. 

Bulgaria was prompted to renew the 
struggle in a second war by the intrigues 
of the central empires. They hoped by 
this means to recover the advantage they 
had lost in the Balkans — the necessary 
link of empire by which Hamburg would 
be joined to Bagdad. The plan failed. 
Bulgaria was defeated by her erstwhile 
allies. 

And thus it was that in 1913 Germany 







t f| 9| 




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^ « 










!cd'M 


k^i 




v.l 



The Ex-Crown Prince of Germany whose flight 
showed his weak character. 



found her ambitions checked. Serbia, 
enlarged in territory, lay squarely across 
her path to the east. Serbia was antago- 
nistic to Vienna and Berlin. She looked 
to Petrograd — then St. Petersburg — for 
friendship and support. Germany real- 
ized that diplomatic efforts to open a way 
thru the Balkans could not succeed. 

She knew only one way in which to 
realize her ambitions— and that was force. 
Force, for Prussia, was the normal and 
most desirable method of obtaining any- 
thing she desired. 

Such is the trail of intrigue and blood- 
shed that leads up to the critical day in 
June 1914, when a deed of assassination 
furnished the pretext that Prussia needed 
for the execution of her designs. 



24 



THE RED TRAIL OF PRUSSIA 




The German Ex-Emperor's Palace in TSerlin. 



The Spark in Europe's Powder Magazine 

CHAPTER II 

ASSASSINATION OF AUSTRIAN ARCHDUKE — AUSTRIA CHARGED ANTI-DY- 
NASTIC PLOTS — ASSASSINATION IN FACT PLOTTED BY GERMANY — ULTI- 
MATUMi TO SERBIA — SERBIA MAKES CONCESSIONS TO KEEP PEACE— GER- 
MANY AND AUSTRIA REFUSE TERMS —AUSTRIA DECLARES WAR ON SERBIA, 
GERMANY DECLARES WAR ON RUSSIA, BELGIUM AND FRANCE — AUSTRIA 
DRIVES ON SERBIA AND GERMANY INVADES BELGIUM — GREAT BRITAIN 
SENDS ULTIMATUM TO GERMANY — STATE. OF WAR DECLARED BETWEEN 
GREAT BRITAIN AND GERMANY. 

ences of the business men and the imperial 
chancellor, and the men of finance and in- 
dustry were warned to set their affairs in 
order and to prepare for a great war. 

Then came the spark that exploded the 
powder magazine of Europe. 

The Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir 
to the throne of Austria-Hungary, went 
with his wife, the Duchess of Hohenberg, 
on a visit of state to Serajevo, the capital 
of Bosnia. 

Bosnia had been annexed by Austria- 
Hungary in 1908. There were many 
Bosnians who bitterly resented the Haps- 
burg interference with their national life. 
The state had its secret political organ- 
izations, its intrigues and plots, all con- 
cerned with frustrating Austrian rule and 
promoting Slav interests. 

Serajevo was not a safe city for the 
heir to the Austrian throne to visit, and 
this fact must have been well known to 
the authorities. Yet, in spite of the perils 
that always beset royalty in Europe, and 
that were peculiarly acute in southeastern 
Europe; in spite of the known existence 
of enmities and conspiracies in Bosnia, 
practically no precautions were taken by 
the municipal officials of Serajevo to pro- 
tect the lives of the imperial heir and his 
wife. 

It was on Sunday, June 28, 1914, that 
the Archduke arrived at the Bosnian capi- 
tal. He and his wife at once got into an 
automobile and were driven toward the 
town hall, where they were to be wel- 
comed officially. The crowd that watched 
them pass thru the city streets showed 
little enthusiasm. Their automobile had 
not gone far before a man dashed from 
the throng on the pavement, and hurled a 



The Balkan wars were over, and with 
their settlement Europe heaved a sigh of 
relief. For a time a general conflagration 
had threatened the nations of the old 
world. The European war cloud, famil- 
iar in the headlines of the newspapers, 
had hung upon the horizon with low mut- 
terings of thunder. But the crisis was 
passed safely, and men again began to 
talk as tho a great war were a, thing im- 
possible. 

They pointed to the growing inter- 
course among nations; the spread of 
democratic institutions; the rising intelli- 
gence of the masses of the people; the 
multiplying of international peace trea- 
ties and agreements for arbitration. Had 
not the Hague peace tribunal been estab- 
lished, and were not many of the gi-eat 
powers of the world signatory to its con- 
ventions, in which they pledged them- 
selves to regard international law, and to 
live with one another on a basis of reason- 
ableness and humanity? 

These things were all true. 

And yet from all of these things men 
derived a false sense of security. 

Xations ruled by responsible govern- 
ments, controlled by the enlightened sen- 
timent of their peoples, could not under- 
stand the peril that remained latent in the 
world's autocracies. 

Prussia was rapidly completing her 
plans. We have learned from the dis- 
closures made by Dr. Muehlon, a former 
Krupp director, and others who were in 
a position to know what was transpiring 
within the councils of the empire, that 
conspiracy against the world's peace was 
on foot in Germanv. There were confer- 



26 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




TIIK SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



27 



bomb at tbe car. He missed tbe arch- 
duke. The bomb fell on the road, and 
exploded just as a second car passed over 
it, containing members of the archduke's 
staff. 

The would-be assassin attempted to 
escape in the crowd, but was caught and 
put under arrest. He was a youth — 21 
years of age — named Gabrinovics. 

Archduke Ferdinand was livid with 
fear and indignation when he readied the 
town hall, and, when the burgomaster 



exposed the royal visitor to attack. On 
the way back from tbe town hall the im- 
perial ear passed a youth named Gavrilo 
Prinzip. standing on the curb, who calm- 
ly drew a revolver and fired twice. The 
first shot fatally wounded the duchess, 
the second pierced tbe neck of the arch- 
duke, severing the jugular vein. Both 
died without uttering a word. 

Prinzip was arrested. He denied any 
knowledge of Gabrinovics. and declared 
that the first attempt at assassination was 




German soldiers decorated for exceptio 
These soldiers are being rewarded for making one 

tried to read to him an address of welcome 
be interrupted with the angry exclama- 
tion : 

"Herr Burgomaster, it is perfectly 
scandalous. We have come to Serajevo, 
and a bomb is thrown at us." 

The burgomaster stammered an inco- 
herent apology and went on with his 
address. Rut the archduke's sharp re- 
buke bad no practical effect. Nothing 
was done to remedy the neglect that had 



al bravery during the Battle of Verdun. 

if the many furious attacks on the Verdun front. 

a surprise to him. He said be was a Ser- 
bian student, and had for long entertained 
the idea of killing some eminent person. 

The Austrian authorities immediately 
promulgated the story that they had dis- 
covered an anti-dynastic plot, the source 
of which was in Serbia. 

Tbe circumstances of the assassination 
have led many people to believe that it 
was deliberately planned, not by Bos- 
nians or Serbians, but by Austrians and 



28 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




THE SPARK IN EFROPE'S POWDER .MAGAZINE 



29 



Germans who desired a pretext for at- 
tacking Serbia as the initial step toward 
recovering the Bagdad corridor and open- 
ing the road to world conquest. It is 
assuredly true that the taking off of the 
archduke coincided exactly with the cul- 
mination of Prussia's preparations for 
war. It is, too, rather extraordinary that 
Prinzip, the youth who killed him, was 
sentenced to twenty years imprisonment 
instead of to death. In a country where 
the death penalty was common, twenty 
years imprisonment for the murderer of 



ized that a serious situation had developed 
involving grave possibilities. 

Early in July it was rumored in diplo- 
matic circles that Austria-Hungary was 
planning drastic reprisals for what she 
alleged was a Serbian crime, committed, 
if not with the authority, at least with the 
sympathy of the Serbian government. 

Then Count Tisza, at that time premier 
of Austria, reassured the capitals of Eu- 
rope by a speech in the Austrian parlia- 
ment in which he held out strong hope 
that there woidd be an amicable settle- 




The Arch Conspirators — The Ex-Kaiser, Ferdinand of Bulgaria, the Ex-Sultan of Turkey, and the late 

Franz Josef of Austria. 



the heir to the throne seems strangely 
lenient. 

The world was slow to realize the sig- 
nificance of the Serajevo tragedy. " Peo- 
ple were horrified at the deed, and 
editorials were written denouncing an- 
arch}'; but no one seemed to see — at first 
— the figures of war and famine and pesti- 
lence walking in the funeral procession of 
the dead archduke. 

In the chancelleries of Europe, how- 
ever, there was much anxiety. In Lon- 
don, Paris, Rome and Petrograd men 
conversant with European affairs real- 



ment of the whole matter. Apprehen- 
sions were allayed, and the world thought 
it saw the war cloud passing. 

One week later Austria sent an ulti- 
matum to Serbia, demanding a reply in 
48 hours. 

The ultimatum recited the facts of the 
assassination and alleged that the crime 
was due to Serbia's tolerance of propa- 
ganda and intrigue against the peace and 
territory of the dual monarchy. It de- 
manded that the Serbian government 
should condemn this propaganda and ut- 
terly suppress it. 



30 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 






IMPORTANT TOWN 
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THE SPARK IX EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



31 



^.gpositior - - ■"--- y i.Vs. •- . 

/'taking la^e town _._-- j ^._ ? / ■? £ ., A s 







ai Idea— This diagram does not represent any particular battle or area, but illustrates the principles by which 
iernhardi, who was pooh-poohed for his ideas by the German General Staff at the outbreak of the war 



12 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




Count Von Bernstorff 
The German arch conspirator and ex-ambassador. 



The ultimatum then continued : 

In order to give a formal character to 
this undertaking the royal Servian gov- 
ernment shall publish on the front page 
of its official journal of the 26th June 
(13th July) the following declaration: 

"The royal government of Servia con- 
demns the propaganda directed against 
Austria-Hungary — i. e., the general ten- 
dency of which the final aim is to detach 
from the Austro-Hungarian monarchy 
territories belonging to it, and it sincerely 
deplores the fatal consequences of these 
criminal proceedings. 

"The royal government regrets that 
Servian officers and functionaries partici- 
pated in the above mentioned propaganda 
and thus compromised the good neighbor- 
ly relations to which the royal government 
was solemnly pledged by its declaration of 
the 31st March, 1909. 




Supersubmarine Deutschland which arrived at Baltimore after a trip across the Atlantic. 



THE SPARK IX EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



33 



"The royal government, which disap- 
proves and repudiates all idea of interfer- 
ing or attempting to interfere with the 
destinies of the inhabitants of any part 
whatsoever of Austria-Hungary, consid- 
ers it its duty formally to warn officers 
and functionaries, and the whole popula- 
tion of the kingdom, that henceforward 
it will proceed with the utmost rigor 
against persons who may be guilty of 
such machinations, which it will use all 
its efforts to anticipate and suppress." 

This declaration shall simultaneously 
be communicated to the royal army as an 
order of the day by his majesty the king 
and shall be published in the official bul- 
letin of the army. 

The royal Servian government further 
undertakes : 

1. To suppress any publication which 
incites to hatred and contempt of the 
Austro-IIung'arian monarchy and the 




Alfred Zimmerman, Germany's ex-foreign minister. 




One of the German Sanitary Posts before Laon. 



34 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




Bethman Hollweg. the weak-minded me,mher of the 
Ex-kaiser's War Board. 



general tendency of which is directed 
against its territorial integrity; 

2. To dissolve immediately the society 
styled Xarodna Odhrana, to confiscate all 
its means of propaganda, and to proceed 
in the same manner against other societies 
and their branches in Servia which engage 
in propaganda against the Austro-Hun- 
garian monarch} 7 . The royal government 
shall take the necessary measures to pre- 
vent the societies dissolved from continu- 
ing their activity under another name and 
form ; 

3. To eliminate without delay from 
public instruction in Servia, both as re- 
gards the teaching body and also as 
regards the methods of instruction, every- 
thing that serves, or might serve, to 
foment the propaganda against Austria- 
Hungary; 

4. To remove from the military serv- 
ice, and from the administration in ffen- 




Remarkable Photograph of German Submarine U 65, Terror of the Sea, in Act of Holding up Liner. 
This is probably the only photograph showing a German U-boat actually holding up a liner at sea to arrive 
in America. 



THE SPARK IX ECROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



35 



eral, all officers and functionaries guilty 
of propaganda against the Austro-Hun- 
garian monarchy whose names and deeds 
the Austro-Hungarian government re- 
serves to itself the right of communicating 
to the royal government; 

."). To accept the collaboration in Ser- 
bia of representatives of the Austro-Hun- 
garian government in the suppression of 
the subversive movement directed against 
the territorial integrity of the monarchy; 

G. To take judicial proceedings against 
accessories to the plot of the 28th June 
who are on Servian territory. Delegates 
of the Austro-Hungarian government 
will take part in the investigation relating 
thereto; 

7. To proceed without delay to the ar- 
rest of Major Voija Tankositch and of 
the individual named Milan Ciganovitch, 
a Servian state employe, who have been 
compromised by the results of the magis- 
terial inquiry at Serajevo; 

8. To prevent by effective measures 
the co-operation of the Servian authorities 




General Yon Hindenburg, commander-in-chief, and his 
chief of staff. 




This Photo was taken in 1014. The Crowds were Optimistic 



36 



THE SPARK IX EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




THE SPARK IX EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



37 



in the illicit traffic of arms and explosives 
across the frontier, to dismiss and punish 
severely the officials of the frontier serv- 
ice at Schahatz and Loznica guilty of 
having assisted the perpetrators of the 
Serajevo crime hy facilitating their pass- 
age across the frontier; 

9. To furnish the imperial and royal 
government with explanations regarding 
the unjustifiable utterances of high Ser- 
bian officials, hoth in Servia and abroad, 
who, notwithstanding their official posi- 
tion, did not hesitate after the crime of 
the 28th June to express themselves in in- 
terviews in terms of hostility to the Aus- 
tro-Hungarian government; and, finally. 

10. To notify the imperial and royal 
government without delay of the execu- 
tion of the measures comprised under the 
preceding heads. 

Immediately the terms of the Austrian 
ultimatum became known in diplomatic 




The Late Count George von Hertling, the Ex-Ba- 
varian Prime Minister and Ex-Imperial German 
Chancellor. 















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Ukraine and Germany Signing Peace Pact. Germany and her allies on the one side and the newly 
created Ukrainian state on the other concluding a treaty of peace. 



38 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



circles in Europe there was consternation. 
It was seen that Austria had imposed con- 
ditions no nation could accept without an 
utter humbling. The war cloud gathered 
again, darker and more threatening than 
lit- fore. 

We have since learned, through the 
disclosures made by Dr. Muehlon, the 
former Krupp director to whom I have 
already referred, that the kaiser had a 
hand in drafting this drastic document. 
He was consulted by Austria, and ap- 
proved its form without consulting his 



Meantime the European chancelleries 
were vibrant with nervous agitation. The 
telegraph and cable were carrying coded 
messages from ambassadors to their gov- 
ernments, and apprehension of the most 
serious results was everywhere felt. 

Serbia's reply came within the allotted 
time. It amazed the world by its almost 
complete concession to Austria. Practi- 
cally all of the eleven demands but one 
were accepted without modification. Ser- 
bia declined to permit the agents of Aus- 
tria to prosecute investigations on Serbian 




Royal Family of Germany. 
William II. Ex-Emperor of Germany and Ex-King of Prussia, married the Ex-Princess Victoria of Schles- 
wig-Holstein-Sonderlnircr-Austenhnrg. He has six sons and one daughter. The Ex-Crown Prince Frederick Wil- 
liam, married the Ex-Duchess Cecilie of Mecklenhurg-Schwerin. The Ex-Emperor's sister, Sophia is the wife 
Df Constantine. Ex-King of the Hellenes. Ex-Prince Henry, his hrother. married his cousin. Ex-Princess Irene 
of Hesse, daughter of the late Ex-Princess Alice of England. The Ex-Emperor's mother was Princess Victoria 
of England, daughter of Queen Victoria. 



advisers, according to the story that 
Muehlon had from Chancellor von Beth- 
niann Hollweg. 

The kaiser is said to have told the chan- 
cellor he was determined to go thru with 
his program, and that no one now could 
turn him back from bis purpose. His 
resolution being thus declared he left for 
a trip on his royal yacht, a discreet 
maneuver designed to create the impres- 
sion that he had no part in the matter. 



soil, but agreed to carry out the required 
investigations and to report progress in 
suppressing anti-Austrian propaganda to 
the representatives of the dual monarchy. 
In conclusion she offered, if Austria wire 
not fully satisfied with these concessions, 
to submit the whole matter in dispute to 
The Hague or to any tribunal constituted 
by the Great Powers. 

It was recognized by all impartial ob- 
servers that a more complete acquiescence 



WOODROW WILSON'. PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 



40 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




Pictorial History 

OF 

The World War 




GEN". PERSHING, COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE AMERICAN FORCES ABROAD. 



THE SPARK IX EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



41 



could not be asked in reason. 

The Austrian minister received Ser- 
bia's conciliatory reply at Belgrade on 
July 2.5. 1914, at .5:4.5 in the afternoon. 
He did not even wait to read it. His 
things were all packed and ready for de- 
parture. He put the manuscript in his 
dispatch box, and left Belgrade at once 
for Vienna, thus severing diplomatic rela- 
tions without ceremony. 

It was evident that Austria wanted 
trouble. The ultimatum had been de- 
signed not to obtain a settlement of diffi- 
culties, but to promote war. 

Great Britain immediately took up the 
task of preventing .an outbreak of hostil- 
ities. She proposed to Germany, on July 
27. that the matters at issue between Aus- 
tria and Serbia be submitted to a confer- 
ence of representatives from Germany, 
France. Italy and Great Britain. Italy 
was then a member of the triple alliance, 
of which the two other members were Ger- 
many and Austria-Hungary. 

Germany declined the proposal by 
which peace might have been preserved, 
alleging that the controversy between 
Austria and Serbia involved the honor of 
Austria and could not be submitted to 
adjudication by disinterested parties. 
Russia. Serbia's friend, opened direct ne- 
gotiations with Vienna, and these were 
proceeding more or less encouragingly 
when they suddenly terminated, and 
Vienna refused to negotiate further. 
There is strong foundation for the belief 
that Germany intervened to prevent an 
understanding between Vienna and St. 
Petersburg. 

Meantime Austria mobilized her armies 
and Serbia responded by like action. 
There was some talk of ' localizing the 
trouble, and permitting a punitive expe- 
dition against Serbia, but it ended in talk 
Russia, realizing that her interests in the 
Balkans and in the Dardanelles were 
menaced by the threat of Austria to drive 
down toward the Aegean Sea thru Serbia, 
mobilized five army corps behind the Vis- 
tula. The mobilization was far from the 




The Ex-Kaiser in Austrian Uniform. The Shriveled 
Left Arm Is Quite Noticeable. 

frontiers of the central empires and con- 
stituted no immediate threat. 

On July 28 Austria formally declared 
war against Serbia, and began an imme- 
diate movement of her forces toward the 
Serbian frontiers on the Save and Dan- 
ube. Russia, alarmed by this indication 
that Austria was determined to conquer 
the little Slav monarchy that looked to 
her as protector, and that stood as a bar- 
rier between Germany and the east, at 
once began mobilization in her southwest- 
ern provinces. 

Thus far there had been no direct threat 
to Germany, but the kaiser on the same 
day mobilized bis fleet — an act that car- 
ried with it a very clear menace to Great 
Britain. 

By July 21) the Austrian guns were 
bombarding Belgrade from the north side 



42 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



4:! 



of the Danube, and the world was aroused 
to the fact that the long predicted Euro- 
pean war could be averted only by some 
miracle. 

The semi-official Lokal Anzeiger, of 
Berlin, issued an extra edition about noon 
of July 30. announcing that a decree had 
been issued for the general mobilization 
of the German army. The news was 
flashed at once to St. Petersburg. The 
edition was promptly suppressed by the 
authorities, but it had accomplished its 
purpose. It may never be known whether 
it was originally printed with authority 
and in order to provoke a belligerent re- 
sponse from Russia, and then suppressed 
to complete the case for innocence that 
Germany hoped to lay before the world 
in convincing fashion. 

Its suppression was followed by a per- 
emptory demand from Berlin that Rus- 




Capt. Boy-ed. ex- attache of Germany to l T - S. 





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The German Offensive. The Guard Grenadier Regiment who were taken prisoners by the British. 



44 THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



45 



sia cease mobilization within twenty-four 
hours. But Russia, apprised that Ger- 
many was mobilizing, refused to accede 
to this demand and ordered a general mo- 
bilization. 

The efforts of Great Britain had failed 
either to avert or to localize the war. 
France, alarmed by the swift movements 
of the central empires and their implaca- 
ble spirit, was calling out her troops. She 
held them, however, at a discreet distance 
from the frontier, avoiding as far as pos- 
sible needless provocation. 

Realizing now that a general European 
war was inevitable; that France and Rus- 
sia were certain to be involved with Ger- 
many and Austria, Great Britain made 
one last effort to avert the worst possible 
consequences — she addressed a note to 
Paris and Berlin, asking both govern- 
ments to respect the neutrality of Bel- 
gium. 

A prompt reply was received from 
France, agreeing unconditionally. Ger- 
many made no answer. Her plans were 




Richard von Kuehlmann, ex-member Russian 
Peace Conference. 




jt from a French 305 Battery did this to a German 8SM Gui 
struck it clear amidship. 



The first shot aimed at the gun 



46 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



47 



already laid for the invasion of Belgium. 
It was the most convenient route to Paris, 
and Prussia considers nothing but her 
own interests. 

On August 1 Germany formally de- 
clared war on Russia and made public 
her suppressed mobilization order. 

Great Britain followed this action by 
informing France that her fleet would 
undertake to protect the French north 
coast against German invasion. On the 
same day the first hostilities opened the 
struggle on the west front when a Ger- 
man patrol crossed the French frontier 
at Cirey. The French immediately began 
the movement of their troops toward the 
frontier. Their preparations were made 
to defend the line from Luxembourg 
south to Switzerland, along the Alsace- 
Lorraine border. The invasion of Alsace 
was planned as a counter-stroke to the 




Captain Franz von Papen, Ex-German Military Attache, 




Iritish Capture Line of Luxurious German Dugouts in Sunken Road. 



48 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




Field Marshal Von Mackensen who led the Austro- 
German Forces on the Italian Front. 



German threat. 

They relied upon the neutrality of Bel- 
gium and Luxembourg as protection 
against invasion over an almost unforti- 
fied frontier. 

But on August 3 Germany addressed 
a demand to Belgium for free passage 
across her territory. The little country 
did not hesitate. She returned a prompt 
refusal, and mobilized her small army to 
meet the menace that immediately over- 
shadowed her. Her refusal was at once 
followed by a declaration of war against 
her. A like declaration was simultane- 
ously made against France, and the 
armies of Germany began the attack. 

On the afternoon of August 3 German 
troops entered the little Belgian town of 
Arion, while Chancellor Von Bethmann 
Hollweg explained to the reichstag that 
military necessity compelled Germany to 
commit a wrong against Belgium for 
which reparation would be made. 

Clinging to an eleventh hour hope 



Great Britain addressed to Berlin an ulti- 
matum, allowing twenty-four hours for 
reply, in which she demanded that the 
neutrality of Belgium be respected. 

The ultimatum was delivered by Sir 
W. E. Goschen, British amhassador to 
Berlin, on the afternoon of August 4. 
Herr Von Jagow, the German secretary 
for foreign affairs, received it in person, 
and gave an immediate answer in the 
negative. He said it was impossible for 
Germany to observe the neutrality of Bel- 
gium since her troops had already crossed 
the frontier. He argued that Germany 
had to take this course in order to prevent 
France attacking her thru Belgium. He 
ignored the fact that France had already 
given her word that she would observe the 
obligation of Belgian neutrality, and that 
Great Britain, had France broken her 
word, would have been compelled to deal 
with her as she later dealt with Germany. 

The British ambassador asked if he 
might see the chancellor, unwilling to take 
Von Jagow's reply as final. He was 
granted permission. Von Bethmann 
Hollweg appeared much perturbed. He 
talked for twenty minutes, haranguing 
Great Britain's representative in tones 
pleading and upbraiding. He declared 
it seemed impossible that Great Britain 
was going to make war on a friendly 
neighbor merely for the little word "neu- 
trality" that had been disregarded so 
often in history, merely for a "scrap of 
paper." 

The interview ended unavailingly. Sir 
W. E. Goschen prepared at once to leave 
Berlin. That evening the British em- 
bassy was mobbed. 

At midnight in London a vast throng 
gathered in Trafalgar Square, awaiting 
the issue of the momentous ultimatum. 
As the great clock in the tower of West- 
minster struck the fateful hour it was an- 
nounced that a state of war existed be- 
tween Great Britain and Germany. 

There was a moment's silence. Then a 
great cheer went up, and the multitude 
melted silentlv away. 



THE SPARK IX EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 



49 








CAMOUFLAGE ARTISTS CHANGING A MONSTER GUN INTO A "PIECE OF LANDSCAPE" 



^ar 



^^ 




THE BRILLIANT COLORING WHICH BLENDS COMPLETELY WITH ITS SURROUNDINGS 



52 



THE SPARK IN EUROPE'S POWDER MAGAZINE 




The Armies Are Unleashed 



CHAPTER III 

germany and austria had two million men ready great 

Britain's army weak — france well prepared — Belgium 

and serbia reasonably well equipped germany's drive 

through belgium allied reverses germany's enor- 
mous strength crushes allies. 



Great Britain, Russia, France and Bel- 
gium were now embroiled in war with 
Germany. Austria- Hungary was at war 
with Serbia, and almost immediately be- 
came a belligerent against the other allies. 

Germany had 25 first line army corps 
readj r for action, numbering approxi- 
mately 1,000,000 men; she had twenty- 
five additional reserve corps of like num- 
ber. On the day that hostilities began 
there were at least 2,000,000 German sol- 
diers available, and this number was soon 
increased by another 1,-500,000. 

Austria-Hungary had a first line army 
of about 1,000,000 well trained soldiers, 
with reserves of less number than those 
of Germany, but material that was rapid- 
ly converted which brought her total force 
up to approximately 3,000,000 before 
many weeks had elapsed. 

Turkey, soon to enter the war as an 
ally of the central empires, was a nation 
of soldiers. In later years they had been 
trained by German officers. She is esti- 
mated to have had about 750,000 good 
soldiers subject to mobilization when the 
war began. 

Bulgaria, whose decision to link her 
fortunes with Germany came only after 
much hesitation and a cool and calculated 
bargaining, had probably a little less than 
half a million men fit for the field. 

Great Britain, whose reliance was 
placed upon her navy, was notably weak 
militarily. Her regular army, at home 
and in the colonies, numbered only 156,- 
100 men. She had a territorial or militia 
force numbering 251.000. Her native 
troops in India and her volunteer sqldiers 
of the overseas dominions, including 
cadets and members of rifle clubs, did not 
exceed half a million. 



France, a military country, was in 
much better situation. She began the wai 
with nearly 4,000,000 trained men be- 
tween the ages of 19 and 48, of whom 
2,500,000 belonged to the active army and 
its reserves, the remainder constituting 
the territorial army. 

Accurate figures as to Russia's military 
strength have always been difficult to ob- 
tain. Her available man power was 
enormous. It is estimated that she had 
28,000,000 men between the ages oi 
twenty and forty-three who could be 
drawn upon for military service in Aug- 
ust 1914. It is probable that at least 
twenty-five per cent of this number was 
called to the colors — or 7,000,000 men — 
before the war had continued many weeks. 
Perhaps one-half that number was sent 
to the long fighting front. 

Italy, who came into the war on the 
side of the allies in the spring of 1915, had 
about 1,200,000 fully trained soldiers. 
800,000 partly trained, and a million more 
untrained but available for call. 

Belgium had only 120,000 men with 
which to meet the armies of Germany 
when they crossed her frontier. This 
force was later increased to a quarter of 
a million. 

Serbia mobilized 350,000 to face the 
Austrian invasion. 

Such was the approximate strength of 
the opposing forces at the beginning of 
the great struggle. 

It was recognized that Germany had 
the best organized army in Europe. Its 
equipment was perfect in every detail. 
Xot a necessary thing had been over- 
looked that was within range of human 
foresight. Every officer was provided 
with maps, showing in detail the cities, 



54 



THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED 



towns and villages, the roads and rail- 
roads, the rivers, forests and elevations 
of Belgium and France. 

For years the trucks used for peace 
transport in Germany had heen huilt so 
as to be available for war purposes. 



shells began to fall upon the Belgian de- 
fenses. Then they were a nightmare to 
the world. 

Germany's decision to attack France 
thru Belgium was due to the topograph- 
ical difficulties in the way of a successful 




A German Lookout in a Waterproof Trench. A view of a sandbag-constructed trench 
on the German battlefront in the Western battle zone showing how carefully the 
trench has been water-proofed. 



Never had any nation in arms been pre- 
pared with every type of known fighting 
weapon as Germany was prepared. She 
had guns more powerful than the world 
had dreamed of, until their 42 centimeter 



advance from Alsace-Lorraine. Paris 
lies within a series of natural escarpments 
that run in a north and south direction 
across France to the east of the capital. 
The outermost is that of the Vosges 



THE ARMIES ARK UNLEASHED 



55 



mountains; moving toward Paris the next 
is the heights of the Meuse; then comes 
the eastern edge of the Champagne, and, 
nearest Paris, the hills that extend from 
the region of Laon to the Seine. 

After the war of 1870 France strongly 
fortified the line of the Meuse. The Ver- 
dun-Toul-Epinal-Belfort defensive bar- 
rier is famous. This Germany would 
have been compelled to storm, after cross- 
ing the Vosges, had she observed the neu- 
trality of Belgium, and struck France 
directly from her own territory. 

There are gaps in the line, but they 
were readily defensible and offered only 
narrow entrances for the immense force 
with which Germany planned to over- 
whelm her neighbor. The gap of Stenay 
lies between the Ardennes forest and the 
Meuse heights; the Toul-Epinal gap is 
made by the valley of the Moselle, and 
the Belfort gap lies between the southern 
end of the Meuse escarpment and the 
mountains of Switzerland. 

By sweeping thru Belgium the enemy 
hoped to circumvent the escarpments at 
their northern end, and to reach Paris 





Armorplated flattery on the Flanders Coast 
Back View of the Armorplated Gun Turret. 



Teuton Machine Gun in Action Under Bomh-Proof 
Shelter. 

over ground vastly freer from obstacles. 

Germany had two main foes to con- 
sider when she began her campaigns — 
France and Russia. She anticipated no 
appreciable resistance from Belgium. 
She knew the military weakness of Great 
Britain, and feared chiefly her fleet. Rus- 
sia, she reasoned, would be slow in mobil- 
izing and reaching her frontiers. 

Hence it was her plan to drive France 
to her knees in a swift, smashing blow. 
and then to turn and deal with Russia 
before the Slavic giant mustered his 
strength and became dangerous. 

Of the twenty-six army corps that she 
had available for an immediate use she 
sent twenty against France and six to 
hold Russia in check. 

She began her attack by occupying the 
Duchy of Luxembourg, to the east of Bel- 
gium. It was an easv victory. Luxem- 



5<; 



THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED 



bourg had no army to oppose invasion. 
The Duchess went out to meet the ad- 
vance guard of the enemy and made for- 
mal, hut futile, protest against the outrage 
that was planned. 

The capital of Luxembourg was seized, 
and its railroads taken over by the Ger- 
mans. The latter were, of course, of con- 
siderable value for the transport of troops 
to the French frontier. 

Meantime three German divisions had 



enemy attempted to storm the forts after 
a heavy bombardment. He was driven 
back with heavy losses, and an amazed 
world began to wonder whether little Bel- 
gium would halt the foe on the very 
threshold of his campaign. But the world 
had much to learn of Prussian power. A 
third storming effort was made on Aug- 
ust 7, and the enemy succeeded in enter- 
ing that part of the city lying east of the 
Meuse. General Leman withdrew his 




French Armored Cruisers "Jaureguiberry" and "Bouvet" in Speed Trials 



reached the Belgian frontier opposite the 
Meuse fortress of Liege. On the night of 
August 4th they moved to the attack. 

Liege is surrounded by six large pen- 
tagonal forts, and as many smaller ones. 
General Leman. a brave Belgian officer, 
famous as a mathematician, commanded 
the garrison, and made every possible 
preparation for stubborn resistance. 

On the fifth and again on the sixth the 



troops to the west bank of the river. 

On the seventh a German siege train 
arrived carrying heavier guns, and the 
monster 42 centimeter shells were hurled 
against the remaining forts of the be- 
leaguered city. The bombardment was 
terrific, and the forts crumbled under the 
ponderous impact. 

But it was not until August 15 that the 
last of the Liege forts vielded. Thev had 



THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED 



57 



served a great purpose. Belgium's mag- 
nificent but sacrificial effort had delayed 
the armies of Germany for two weeks, 
giving the French time to prepare their 
defense and the British to mobilize their 
little army and hasten it across the chan- 
nel to the scene of hostilities. 

On August 7, the day that the Germans 
entered Liege, the French began their in- 
vasion of Alsace. It was designed as a 
flank attack on the enemy, and, in theory, 
was wisely planned. But the French 
movement was too long delayed to be suc- 
cessful. The enemy had moved more rap- 
idly and was already on the ground with 
strong forces. Moreover the German 
success at Liege developed at once a se- 
rious threat to the French northern fron- 
tier that made further offensive adventure 
in Alsace imprudent. It was necessary to 
concentrate in order to meet the menace 
of a sweep thru Belgium. 

The British expeditionary force, under 
General Sir John French, and numbering 
only some 80,000 men, landed in France 
on August 8, and immediately moved for- 
ward to join the French who were ad- 
vancing into Belgium. 

Meantime the enemy was sweeping 
across northern Belgium, outraging the 
civilian inhabitants of the little towns and 



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ft. : 


m ■ 




- ■'"■ " ■ ™ *> 
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5JBlBHRBK*Ste"= ; ' lr " 




The three women were found operating machine- 
guns during the American advance. 



Searching skies for the enemy air fleet. Search- 
light in full activity: to the left an officer observing 
the movements of an enemy aeroplane. 

villages, burning and pillaging. Behind 
was a trail of blood and ruin. 

The French armies took up defensive 
positions on a line beginning at Mont- 
medy and extending northwest along the 
Meuse to Mezieres, and thence north to 
Dinant. From Dinant the line ran west 
to Charleroi. The British assumed posi- 
tions to the left of the French, north of 
Mons. The second French army was 
holding positions along the Alsace-Lor- 
raine border, its right wing resting in 
upper Alsace near Mulhouse and its left 
near Nancy. 

The Belgians evacuated Brussels, re- 
tiring on Antwerp. In this way they 
saved one of the most beautiful capitals 
from otherwise inevitable destruction. On 



58 



THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED 



August 20 the Germans occupied Brus- 
sels, taking over the administration of the 
city. 

The dismayed civilians lined the streets 
and watched the endless procession of 
enemy soldiers, clad in their gray uni- 
forms, marching with monotonous rythm 
thru the city. They marched with heads 
erect and the confidence of conquerors. 
They were on their way to Paris, and not 
one of them doubted that he would reach 



that were a few days late in reaching 
Liege, were on time at Namur, and made 
it a heap of ruins in a few hours. 

The battleground was now cleared for 
the first great test of strength between 
the enemy and the allied armies of Great 
Britain and France. Von Kluck com- 
manded the right wing of the advancing 
foe; the left wing was commanded by the 
Duke of Wurtemburg; the center was 
held by troops under Von Bulow and Von 




Great German Battleship "Ersatz Bavern" Among Those Surrendered. 



the great French capital within a few 
days time. 

On August 22 the Germans, after a 
brief assault, captured the Belgian fort- 
ress of Namur, at the junction of the 
Meuse and Sambre rivers. Namur was 
the last stronghold between them and the 
allied armies. Its sudden capitulation 
came with the shock of surprise. It had 
been thought it might hold at least as long 
as did Liege. But the big siege guns, 



Hansen. 

The Crown Prince of Germany, com- 
manding the Fifth army, was advancing 
from Luxembourg. 

The French troops reeled backward 
under the smashing blow of the enemy. 
Along the lint' Mezieres-Dinant-Charleroi 
they retired fighting toward Rethel and 
Hirson. Between Mezieres and Longwy 
they staggered under the attack of the 
Crown Prince, and retreated toward 



THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED 



,7.1 



Chalons, thru the Argonne forest. 

The little British army in front of Mons 
was left without support, and had to face 
the full strength of the enemy First army 
under Von Kluck. It fought a gallant 
battle, outnumbered three to one. The 
enemy attempted to drive the British into 
the entrenched camp of Maubeuge, but 
the masterly tactics of Sir John French 
defeated his purpose. 

There then began one of the most nota- 



Had he succeeded in this disaster might 
have overtaken the armies of France and 
Great Britain, and the victory might have 
been gained by Germany before her oppo- 
nents had time to rally. But Sir John 
French with his 80,000 men managed to 
hold Von Kluck and 240,000 at bay. In 
four days he retreated 04 miles — an aver- 
age of 16 miles a day — righting courage- 
ous rear-guard actions on every mile, and 
occasionallv halting to strike a more than 




A Successful Submarine Torpedo Attack, Cruiser Destroyed by An '-Assassin of the Sea." 

ble retreats in history— the retreat of the usually hard blow against his pitiless pur- 
British army from Mons. It held the suers. 

vital position on the left wing of the allied Effective retreat calls for as high gen- 
forces. It had for its task the supreme eralship as effective attack. It is a much 
duty of preventing an enveloping move- harder test of morale. Giving ground is 
ment. always discouraging to the rank and file 
From the time the retreat began it was and taxing upon the nerve and endurance 
the aim of Von Kluck to outflank the of officers, who must maintain a spirit of 
allies, swing around their left wing and hope and confidence i 
intercept their retirement on Paris. 



As the allied armies retired the world 



60 



THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED 




Palace of Justice, Brussels, Belgium. 



THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED 



61 



watched with keen anxiety. Germany 
was exultant, but nations that loved 
France and admired Paris contemplated 
with alarm and consternation the possi- 
bility that the great capital of light and 
life and youth might suffer as Relgian 
cities had suffered, or that the nation 
whose spirit it embodied might be forced 
to yield to the invading foe. 

For six days, from August 22 to Aug- 
ust 28, the fate of the allied armies hung 
in the balance. The Germans had an- 
other opportunity to win a Sedan. The 
crisis was reached on August 26, when 
the Rritish met the full force of Von 
Kluck's offensive — five army corps 
against two. The British were standing 
on the line of Cambrai-LeCateau-Landre- 
cies, and preparing to retire, when the 
blow fell. It was met with supreme 
courage. 

Re-enforcements had been asked from 
the French, but no help was sent, and 
the British were compelled to fight alone. 
Had they failed Paris would have been 
lost, because Von Kluck would have 
driven between Paris and the French 
right wing, rolling back the French ar- 
mies and compelling them to fight at a 
serious disadvantage for their very exis- 
tence. The capital city would have been 
left without other protection than its 
fortifications and garrison — utterly in- 
sufficient for defense under the new con- 
ditions of warfare. 

But the British repulsed the enemy on- 
slaught, and General French succeeded in 
good order upon St. Quentin. Here he 
obtained the help he had asked, and thus 
supported he again faced the enemy and 
fought a vigorous delaying battle with 
him in which was inflicted heavy losses. 

By September 1 the allied armies had 
fallen back to within 40 miles of Paris, 
and the second line of French defenses 
had been taken by the enemy. There was 
as yet no sign from General Joffre, com- 



manding the French armies, that he had 
any intention of halting and offering a 
stabilized resistance. 

The line as it retreated was pivoting 
on Verdun. Along the Verdun-Toul 
fortifications the enemy was completely 
checked, while at Nancy the French army, 
that had been driven ignominiously from 
Lorraine, was retrieving its honor by a 
magnificent and stubborn defense. 

The left wing of the retreating Anglo- 
French armies came under the protection 
of the guns of the Paris forts on Septem- 
ber 3. It had won the race. Von Kluck's 
efforts to outflank and envelope had 
faded. 

The allied armies were now buttressed 
between the great entrenched camp of 
Paris and the fortified line of Verdun- 
Toul. In the center they bent crescenti- 
cally south of the Marne. 

The supreme moment for which Gen- 
eral Joffre had waited silently and imper- 
turbably was now at hand. He had 
yielded all of northern France to reach 
this position, and here he elected to make 
his stand and risk conclusive battle with 
the enemy. 




Immense Ammunition Dumps Captured by Allies. 



62 



THE ARMIES ARE UNLEASHED 




Prussian Plans Go Astray 



CHAPTER IV 



GERMAN DRIVE WEAKENS JOEERE STOPS GERMAN ADVANCE AT 

VERDUN — FRENCH RESERVES FROM PARIS BOLSTER LINE — BEL- 
GIANS CHECK GERMANS ELSEWHERE — GREAT BRITAIN HOLDS 
LINE AT YPRES. 



The whole carefully elaborated plan of 
campaign for a quick and crushing tri- 
umph of Prussia over her enemies and 
rivals required the occupation of Paris 
and the paralysis of the French and Brit- 
ish armies in not more than six weeks' 
time. 

Every day's delay increased the menace 
on the German eastern front where com- 
paratively few troops had been left to 
watch the Russians. 

General Joffre, of course, realized this 
fact. He also realized that the further 
the German armies pursued him into 
France the longer the distance over which 
they must maintain communications and 
bring transport. 

The region of the Marne was known 
in every topographical detail to Joffre 
and his subordinates. The French army 
had often held maneuvers along the river 
valley and on the heights that border it. 
The opportunities for employing tactics 
and developing strategy had all been care- 
fully studied. 

The battle line from Paris to Verdun 
was some 180 miles in length. Paris had 
ceased to be the French capital, and be- 
come merely a great camp, ready to 
defend itself if need be against siege or 
storming attack. The French govern- 
ment removed to Bordeaux on September 
3, just as General Von Kluck, now only 
25 miles to the north at Senlis, discovered 
that the British had eluded him, and that 
his last chance to turn the exposed left 



flank of the allied armies was gone. 

Von Kluck could not storm Paris 
directly. He could not go around it on 
the west without breaking the continuity 
of the German line and exposing himsel 
and his comrades to certain disaster. 
There was only one thing left for him to 
do — to swing across in front of Paris and 
assume positions in which he could assist 
the German armies to the east of him in 
attacking the allied center. 

Von Kluck violated a Napoleonic 
aphorism in venturing to swing across 
Paris and turn his flank toward his oppo- 
nent, but he was convinced the allies were 
a beaten foe, lacking either the spirit or 
the resourcefulness to accept the opportu- 
nity his movement might offer. 

He reckoned without Joffre. The 
silent, unworried and unhurried French 
strategist had foreseen what Von Kluck 
would be compelled to do at the time when 
the German general saw nothing but the 
possibility of outflanking Joffre and the 
British. 

The longer-visioned Frenchman had 
ambushed an army, under Maunoury, in 
the region of Amiens. This army had 
no part in the retreat. It was a surprise 
prepared for use at the right moment. 

Joffre had another surprise in readiness. 
He had placed the man whom he consid- 
ered the ablest strategist in Europe at the 
head of another army, as yet unused. 
There lias been some mystery about the 
seventh army commanded by General 



64 



PRUSSIAN PLANS GO ASTRAY 




PRUSSIAN PLANS GO ASTRAY 



G5 



Foch at thchattle of the Maine. It was 
three corps strong — 120,000 men. 

I have heard a story — that I am un- 
able to confirm — concerning the part 
,played by Italy at this critical time. Italy 
had declared her neutrality, altho an ally 
of Germany and Austria when the war 
began. But France, never at any time a 
cordial friend of Italy, as a matter of 
wise precaution had to watch the Franco- 
Italian frontier. It is said that two army 
corps were delegated to this duty. 

Then, so the story goes, word came to 
the French government from the Italian 
government that the latter had no inten- 
tion of becoming involved in the hostil- 
ities; that the French frontier was per- 
fectly safe, and that the French were ex- 
ceedingly foolish if they did not withdraw 
their two army corps and use them to 
check the Germans. 

The French acted on this suggestion, 
it is said, and threw into the battle at the 
critical moment two army corps that the 





■»«■» i 




BTt'i 


' 


. ^t \ ^H 




Queen Elizabeth of Belgium cheered her wounded 
soldiers at the front. 



The latest photograph of King Albert, of Belgium. 

enemy calculated were still employed in 
watching Italy. 

Whether the story be true or no, it is 
certain that Joffre met the enemy with 
greater strength and troops fresher and 
more vigorous than he expected to en- 
counter. 

As Yon Kluck swung east, Maunoury, 
who had slipped down nearer Paris on 
the heels of the Germans, struck him on 
his flank. A desperate battle began on 
the Ourcq river. Von Kluck sent for aid 
and obtained re-enforcements. He at- 
tempted to break thru Maunoury's line 
and destroy its menace to the German 
armies, now preparing to attack on the 
allied center. 

But Joffre had a third surprise ready. 
Every taxi-cab and vehicle in Paris had 
been employed to make it possible, and 
the Paris garrison, consisting of a med- 



66 



PRUSSIAN PLANS GO ASTRAY 



ley of fighting material, gendarmes, Re- 
publican guards and others, was rushed 
to the scene of action. The sudden ap- 
pearance of the re-enforcements threw con- 
sternation into the German ranks. Maun- 
oury's first blow had been a surprise; this 
threatened second blow was a greater 
surprise; what might happen if they wait- 
ed for further developments none could 
guess, and no one was too anxious to 
discover by experiment. 
So they decided to retreat. 



lying his forces with indomitable cour- 
age, he struck so heavily that the whole 
enemy line was thrown into confusion 
and a general retreat began. 

The battle had become an allied vic- 
tory by September 10, and the German 
army was hastening toward the Aisne 
with the French and British in close pur- 
suit. 

The retreat of the Germans from the 
Marne was marked by similar tactics to 
those characterizing the retreat of the al- 




Drilling Belgian recruit-, in the bayonet charge. The Belgian soldier's efficiency with the bayonet when 
it came to close quarter lighting was due to incessant drilling-. 



Meantime the British and the French 
Fifth army, under D'Esperey, had come 
into action, smashing a hard blow against 
Von Kluck's front. The combination 
was too much. The retreat became al- 
most a rout. 

Von Kluck exposed to attack his 
neighbor Von Buelow, and General Foch 
now came into action with great dash and 
vigor. He had suffered heavy losses in 
defensive action the day before, but, ral- 



lies from Mons and Charleroi — except 
that they were reversed. General von 
Kluck narrowly escaped the clutches of 
the British, and the crown prince, who 
had driven southward thru the Argonne, 
was in serious peril from the pursuit of 
the French. 

In six days the Germans reached the 
Aisne, where defensive positions had been 
prepared and the terrain afforded advan- 
tage for resistance. Here thev made their 



PRUSSIAN PLAXS GO ASTRAY 



67 



stand. 

The struggle now became an effort on 
the part of the allies to outflank them on 
their right, and the righting moved north 
and east along the Oise, the German line 
slowly extending in a reach for the pro- 
tection of the seacoast, and forcing a simi- 
lar stretching of the enemy's front. The 
French reoccupied Rheims and Amiens. 

Meantime the Belgians were harassing 
the Germans by sorties from Antwerp, 
and the continued advance of the allies 



to aid in the defense. In was quite in- 
adequate for the task, however. On Oct. 
.5 three of the Antwerp forts fell under 
the German bombardment. By this time 
there were skirmishes on the Belgian 
frontier, and two days later there was 
fighting near Ypres. The bombardment 
of the City of Antwerp itself began Oct. 
8. On Oct. 10 it surrendered, the Bel- 
gian army escaping and reaching Os- 
tend by a detour along the coast. Here 
it joined the allies, later evacuating the 




Covered with mud and 
inundated fighting ground. 



rfory. Tired 



northward toward the Belgian frontier 
developed a new danger in the possible 
junction of the Belgian troops with the 
French and British. On Sept. "JO the Ger- 
mans began moving siege guns toward 
Antwerp. By Sept. 29 they were shell- 
ing the outer forts of the city. On Oct. 
2 the allies had reached* Arras, where they 
met a check. Two days later a detach- 
ment of British marines entered Antwerp 



veary Belgians bespattered with the mud from their 

city and falling back toward Xienport 
and Dixmude. 

The race to the coast had been won, 
and a wall of steel was built across the 
corner of Belgium from Xienport to 
Ypres thru which the enemy was never 
able to drive a path of victory in spite of 
the most desperate efforts. 

A battle front now extended from 
Nieuportj on the Belgian coast, thru 



68 



PRUSSIAN PLANS GO ASTRAY 




A stricken city — What was left of Ypres, utterly devastated by Germans. A remarkable panoramic 
view of Ypres at the end of the war. 



Ypres and Arras to the junction of the 
Oise and the Aisne, and thence eastward 
along the Aisne, thru Soissons and 
Rheims, across the Champagne and the 
Argonne to the north of Verdun. From 
the region of Verdun it ran southeasterly 
to Belfort and into Alsace. It was near- 
ly 400 miles in length. 

Since one end rested on the seacoast 
and the other was against the Swiss fron- 
tier, flanking movements had become im- 




possible, and the frontal attack was the 
only means of open warfare, so both 
sides intrenched and prepared for the 
greatest siege in history. 

During the period of the race for the 
coast, however, there had been violent 
fighting along the Aisne, in the Argonne, 
around Verdun and along the Lorraine 
and Alsace borders. The French for- 
tunes in Alsace had fluctuated. Mulhau- 
sen had been taken, lost and retaken and 
lost again. The Germans had crossed the 
Meuse at St. Mihiel and occupied the 
town. They held it as the point of a 
wedge driven into the Verdun-Toul forti- 
fied front. 




Belgians check Uhlans from behind barricaded street- 
Belgians camping in a church at Camptich. A church Firing over barricades in Willebrook Station near 
at Camptich converted into a camping place. Malines. 



PRUSSIAN PLANS GO ASTRAY 



69 







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72 




Von Tirpitz of the German Navy whose ruthless submarine warfare against women and children shocked 

the world. 



PRUSSIAN PLANS GO ASTRAY 



7:) 



To recount all the incidents of the 
trench siege that followed the winning 
of the coast would he an almost endless 
task. The outstanding features of it 
alone need he related. Of these the two 
first were the battle of the Yser and the 
battle of Ypres. The former was an at- 
tempt of the Germans to drive in the left 
wing of the allies where it stretched from 
Dixmude to the sea, and thus to make 
an opening thru which they could pour 
in a flanking movement. It began on 
Oct. 20 with an attack on Nieuport that 
temporarily succeeded. British gunboats, 
however, drove the Germans out of the 
city, and the attack was renewed near 
Dixmude. Here again defeat was met 
thru the cutting of dikes and flooding of 
the canal region. On Oct. 28 the Ger- 
mans evacuated the south bank of the 
Yser, and the battle ended. 

Three days later the battle of Ypres 
began. The British were defending this 
position with an army that had been re- 
duced to about 100,000. Their front was 
some thirty miles in length. They were 
attacked by vastly greater numbers. The 
fighting lasted fifteen days, culminating 
in an assault on the British front by the 
famous Prussian guard, under the eyes 
of the kaiser. The assault failed. Ypres 
itself was destroyed, but the position was 
saved. These two battles of Flanders 
are said to have cost the Germans 150,000 
men. 

From Xov. 16 until April 21 there was 
no fresh drive for Calais on the Ypres 
front. But in the interval there was tre- 
mendous fighting in the Argonne, in 
Champagne, east of the Meuse, and in 
the Yosges. No great gains followed these 
terrific encounters, altho there were ad- 
vances here and there by both sides. The 
most marked were the German advance 
at Soissons in the middle of January, the 



French gains in the Champagne in 
March and the French offensive against 
the St. Mihiel salient in April. 

On April 22 the second battle of Ypres 
began with the German surprise attack in 
which gas was first used. It was in this 
battle that the Canadians saved the day 
after the French line had been driven in. 
After five days' fighting, the German at- 
tack was checked, the allies being com- 
pelled to yield ground and reform their' 
lines on their new positions. Ypres, how- 
ever, remained in possession of the 
British. 

In the early summer there was a not- 
able French offensive on the front north 
of Arras, in which the Germans had 
been slowly driven back toward their po- 
sitions at Lille and Lens. This offensive 
ended leaving Souchez as a German 
salient projecting into the French front. 
Early in July there was a desperate ef- 
fort of the crown prince to advance in 
the Argonne. His first onslaught car- 
ried several French positions, but was 
soon checked. 

But after a year of trench siege the 
front showed little change, and the end 
seemed as far distant as ever. 




Immense Ammunition Dumps Captured by Allies. 



74 



PRUSSIAN PLANS GO ASTRAY 




The Era of Gigantic Battles 

C II APTE R V 

NEW FIGHTING METHODS USED TRENCHES BARBED WIRE 

ENTANGLEMENTS POISONED GAS BATTLE OF VERDUN 

BATTLE OF SOMME ALLIED GAINS. 



When the first eighteen months of the 
war had passed and the entrenched lines 
on the western front showed no signifi- 
cant change, the world began to wonder 
whether the allies and the central powers 
had not reached a state of deadlock from 
which neither could extract a decisive vic- 
tory. 

At first there had been much confident 
talk of breaking the enemy line. Ger- 
many was certain she could reach Paris, 
the channel ports or any other goal upon 
which her heart w 7 as set — until she tried. 
Her failures to go thru to Calais on the 
two occasions when she hurled vast forces 
against the allied front in Flanders must 
have discouraged her, even as it encour- 
aged the allies. 

Men who were on the Yser and at 
Ypres in the allied armies said afterward 
they could not understand why the enemy 
had not simply walked thru their lines 
to the sea. They were outnumbered, ter- 
ribly outgunned, and the Germans had 
twenty shells to their one. 

These enemy failures, and the failures 
of the British at Xeuve Chapelle and the 
French in the Champagne, the St. Mihiel 
salient and the Artois, aroused doubts 
as to the possibility of smashing thru an 
army fortified in trench positions for 
great gains that might lead to victory. 

Military writers began to talk about 
war by attrition — that is by the gradual 
wearing down of the enemy. There was 
much calculating concerning man-power, 



and estimates of natural resources. 
Statesmen and generals got a new vision 
of the war's significance; they saw that 
it was a war of nations, and not of armies 
merely — a war in which the civilian was 
to be as important as the soldier. 

While some men turned their thought 
to plans for increasing the resources and 
stimulating the resourcefulness of their 
countries, in order that they might be fit 
to stand the test of a long struggle, other 
men gave themselves to thinking out 
methods by which the problems of the 
new warfare could be solved, and the de- 
fenses of the trenches overcome. The 
traditional tactics and traditional 
weapons were manifestly inadequate. 

Already the achievements of the 
world's inventive genius for the last fifty 
years had been requisitioned and adapted 
to the service of the armies. The tele- 
phone and the wireless, the automobile, 
the aeroplane and the submarine — all of 
these things were playing undreamed of 
parts in the great conflict and creating 
conditions for which the history of the 
world had no parallel. 

For these conditions, almost wholly un- 
foreseen and certainly in no full sense 
appreciated by strategists and tacticians 
prior to the actual experience of the war, 
new plans of attacks and defense bad to 
be worked out and new weapons invented. 

One of the first marked tendencies was 
to strengthen the artillery. It soon be- 
came clear that attempts to take en- 
trenched lines, protected by barbed wire 



70 



THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES 




Admiral Wemyss, whose appointment as First Sea Lord was considered a wise step, for he was familiar 
with the navy from the ground up, and was classed as an "old sea-dog." 



THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES 



77 



entanglements and the fire of innumer- 
able machine guns, involved a certain and 
terrible expenditure of life, unless the 
charge of the infantry was preceded by a 
most thoro and destructive artillery bom- 
hardment. 

The cutting of the enemy barbed wire 
with nippers proved an enterprise far too 
costly to be continued. The high explo- 
sive shell was substituted as a more effi- 
cient and less costly method. 

It was in the experimental fighting of 
the first year and a half that the "bar- 
rage" was discovered. The barrage is a 
method of directing the combined and 
simultaneous fire of a number of batteries 
so as to create a barrier of shrapnel, high- 
explosive or other shells thru which the 
enemy dare not pass, or, should he ven- 
ture, must suffer a terrible loss. 

In process of time the barrage was de- 
veloped so that there came to be a num- 
ber of ways in which it was used for 
various purposes. There was the creep- 
ing barrage, that moved slowly forward 
hke a curtain of fire in front of the ad- 
vancing infantry, holding the enemy's 
first line trench until the attackers were 
within a few yards of it, and then lifting 
suddenly to fall on his support and re- 
serve trenches. There was the rolling bar- 
rage, by which a certain area of the 
enemy's line was subjected to a systematic 
shelling that moved back and forth, as a 
lawn is rolled, until everything was flat- 
tened out. And there was the box bar- 
rage, laid down so as to form an almost 
impenetrable protection for a threatened 
position, or thrown about the enemy so 
as to prevent his movement laterally as 
well as frontally. 

Another discovery of the experimental 
stage was the impossibility of an unlim- 
ited objective under the new conditions. 
It was no longer safe to say to a mili- 
tary unit "There is the enemy line. Go 
as far as you can." Operations were on 
too big a scale. Single units, that found 




Earl Kitchener, Great Britain's former War Min- 
ister, better known as Kitchener of Khartoum, who 
was drowned on his way to Russia. 

exceptional opportunities for advancing 
on their immediate sector, were in danger 
of getting far ahead of their supporting 
comrades on either side, losing contact, 
with the main body, and so — in the very 
hour of victory — becoming cut off disas- 
trously. This happened more than once. 

Moreover the barrage, and the increas- 
ing use of artillery generally, made it of 
utmost importance that there should be 
the closest cooperation between the guns 
and the infantry. This could only be en- 
sured by giving the infantry definite ob- 
jectives, to be reached at a certain hour 
and beyond which it must not go without 
explicit orders, however promising the op- 
portunities might be. Once the plan of 
the limited objective was adopted, to 
ignore it meant slaughter for those who 
took chances — meant that the venture- 
some unit was certain to come under the 
devastating barrage of its own guns. 



78 



THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES 




THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES 



79 



Hence the fighting of battles became 
a matter of great precision as to the 
division of labor, the assignment of objec- 
tives, the scheduling of attack and ar- 
rival. Battles were frequently planned 
months in advance and rehearsed behind 
the lines on fields where the enemy posi- 
tions and trenches were reproduced as 
nearly as possible. 

Ultimately a battle became an intri- 
cate affair in which the functions of heavy 
and field artillery, mine throwers, trench 
mortars and machine guns had all to be 
carefully weighed and related to the par- 
ticular task to be done. In the same way 
the use of gas. of hand grenades and rifle 
fire had to be skilfully calculated and the 
proportion and manner of each deter- 
mined. Aeroplanes and tanks added two 
further factors of ever increasing import- 
ance. 

The year 1916 brought two great 
battles on the western front that exceed- 
ed anything the world had conceived to 
be possible — the battle of Verdun and the 
battle of the Somme. The former lasted 
from February 21 until July 1, and the 
latter from July 1 until March of the fol- 
lowing year. Each battle — so called — 
was a series of bitterly fought engage- 
ments, any one of which alone woidd have 
been considered a notable event in pre- 
vious wars. 

The battle of Verdun was the first Ger- 
man attempt to put into effective use the 
lessons learned in the year and a half of 
entrenched warfare. 

Two striking features characterized the 
beginning of this battle — First, its sur- 
prise nature; second, the amazing pre- 
liminary bombardment. The French 
knew that something unusual was in 
progress in and behind the lines north of 
Verdun, and they were on their guard 
against attack: but they did not know 
how strong was the force concentrated by 
the enemy under cover of the hills and 
woods. Not less than 500,000 men were 
assembled by the Germans for this mighty 




General B\ 



Hero of Cambrai in Famous Tank 
Charge. 



effort, which, they hoped, would lead to 
the occupation of the great and famous 
fortress of France, and, possibly to the 
reduction of the whole Meuse line of de 
fense, and the opening of the Marne val- 
ley route to Paris. 

Never before had there been seen such 
a massing of artillery. It had never en- 
tered the mind of a military commander 
that so vast a number of guns could be 
used on a comparatively limited front. 
The war correspondent of the Niewe Rot- 
terdamsche Courant, thus described what 
he saw when he visited the German lines 
at Verdun: — 

"Over the roads Leading towards Ver- 
dun artillery and ammunition were 
brought up in such quantities as the his- 
tory of war has never seen on such a lim- 
ited area. The country seemed to be cov 
ered with an incredible number of guns. 
We could hardly believe what we saw 
around Verdun. Long rows of guns, as 



80 



THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES 







Australian Premier and Family: An attempt was made to assassinate William M. Hughes, the 
Australian Premier, at his home in New Victoria, Australia. 



THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES 



81 



in old battle pictures, set up in open fields 
with gunners standing about them, and 
on the hill-tops observation posts with 
their great telescopes uncovered. When 
I shut my eyes I still see before me the 
curved lines, row upon row of guns, 
endless array, with gunners moving about 
tbem in the open battlefield." 

To tell in detail the story of Verdun 
would require a volume of several hun- 
dred pages. It was from its first hour a 
demonstration of German strength and 
French resistance. Never was the spirit 
of France more gloriously displayed than 
in this long and terrible conflict. Two 
thrilling watchwords rang around the 
world from the battlefields of the Meuse 
hills and valleys — "They shall not pass!" 
and "We shall get them!" 

Following the intense and protracted 
bombardment with which the Germans 




Herbert Asquith, famous British Statesman. 




of Heroic Scotch Highlanders. The hardiest of the British trc 
composed of the brawny sons of Scotland, 



i [ighlanders 



82 



THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES 



opened the Verdun campaign, came a 
charge of their infantry on a front of 
twenty miles. The first day they gained 
ground to a depth of two miles, acquiring 
positions of advantage from which to con- 
tinue the attack. 

On the last day of February the Ger- 
mans entered Fort Douaumont. northeast 
of Verdun, and one of the most important 
of the outer ring of fortresses. It had 



attack was repulsed by the French, but, 
inch by inch, they gave ground on both 
sides of the Meuse, drawing ever a nar- 
rower circle around Verdun. In June 
the Germans drove up the valley and the 
hillside leading to Fort Vaux, and, in a 
bitter fight, captured it. Douaumont and 
Vaux were now both in the enemy's 
hands; a few days later Thiaumont fell, 
almost due north of Verdun, and on June 




A German Zeppelin flight over British fleet, which the fleet destroyed with three well placed 



been reduced to a ruin before the enemy 
occupied it. During March they cap- 
tured Forges, on the west bank of the 
Meuse, and occupied Vaux, southwest of 
Douaumont. The long struggle for Dead 
Man's hill began, the bloodiest struggle 
and the ghastliest battlefield on the whole 
Verdun front. 

Thruout April and May the fighting 
continued incessantly. Manv a terrific 



24 the Germans entered Fleury, pene- 
trating the inner circle of Verdun's de- 
fenses. It was a critical hour for France. 
For a week the fate of Verdun hung in 
the balance. 

Then on July 1 — almost without warn- 
ing — the British and Flinch smashed 
hard against the German lines on a front 
of ten miles, north and south of the 
Somme river. 



THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES 



83 



The second great battle of the war was 
beginning — a battle worthy to stand side 
by side with Verdun. 

The success of the allied attack on the 
Somme, altho not measuring up in its ear- 
ly stages to the hopes of the British and 
French commanders, was enough to 
alarm the Germans and to relieve the 
pressure on Verdun. The Meuse city 
was never again in peril. Germany, first 
and last, spent 500,000 men in a futile 
effort. France came out of the great test 
of strength and spirit her confidence for- 
tified, and forever certain of the world's 
admiration. 

The battle of the Somme was. for the 
allies, what Verdun had been for the Ger- 
mans — an attempt to put into effective 
practise the lessons of warfare learned 
during the first year and a half or two 
years of war. The massing of artillery, 
the employment of the barrage, the use 
of the limited objective, and the develop- 
ment of the tactical nibble into the big, 
strategic bite, were all phases of this 
battle. 

When it began the British and French 
believed they could smash thru and break 
the enemy line- and the theory was gen- 
erally held that if the line could be broken 
on a considerable front a decisive victory 
might be gained by pressing the advan- 
tage with u lfaltering vigor. 

On this theory and with this hope heavy 
sacrifices were made in the storming of 
enemy positions. The enemy was made 
to suffer heavy losses, and his tenacious 
defense indicated that he regarded seri- 
ously the possible consequences of the 
Franco- British drive. 

But the Somme battle had been begun 
too late in the summer/ Xo time margin 
had been left for the possible failure of 
the original schedule, and when the 
British were held up for weeks at Thiep- 
val and north of the Ancre, the schedule 
was thrown out of gear. 

Before the lull value of the Somme 
successes could be realized by pressing 




Gen. Vassitch Commanded Serbia Second Army. 

the victory home, the open season for 
lighting ended and the rainy season set 
in. The Somme became an almost im- 
passable mire. Infantry movements were 
exceedingly difficult, and the transport of 
big guns impracticable. Operations had 
to be abandoned, and the enemy, who was 
getting exceedingly uneasy about the 
security of his lines, obtained a respite 
that allowed him to revise his plans and 
prepare for a new program in the spring. 
When the drive halted in November 
!!)](! the British had conquered the ridge 
overlooking Bapaume, and the French 
had pushed forward to the outskirts of 
Peronne. It was estimated the Germans 
had lost 700,000 men. of whom 95,000 had 
been taken prisoner. The allies counted 
among their gains 135 heavy guns, 180 
field pieces and 1,438 machine guns. 
From this standpoint the Somme battle 
had been the most successful battle. 



84 



THE ERA OF GIGANTIC BATTLES 




Hindenburg Retreats 

CHAPTER VI 

LLOYD GEORGE FORMS NEW BRITISH CABINET — GERMAN PEACE. 
PROPOSALS — GERMAN ATROCITIES — GERMANS RETREAT - 
FAMOUS HINDENBURG RETREAT — UNRESTRICTED U-BOAT WAR- 
FARE GEN. BYNG'S TANK DRIVE AT CAMBRA1 BRITISH 

ARTILLERY OVERWHELMING — CANADA AND OTHER BRITISH 
COLONIES TAKE PART. 



Had the British and French resumed 
their drive on the Somme front when 
favorable weather made further opera- 
tions possible in the spring of 1017 great 
and important results might have been 
realized. 

They had driven a wedge into the ene- 
my lines, twenty miles in width and nine 
miles in depth. They had made the 
deepest impression on an entrenched 
front that had been made anywhere or 
by either side since the war began. 

If the wedge had been pushed only a 
few miles further east it would have cut 
lines of petrol and steam communication 
absolutely vital to the security of the 
German line. North of it and south of 
it were German salients, occupied by 
many thousands of troops whose posi- 
tions were menaced by the wedge, and 
would have been seriously endangered by 
its further progress. 

Germany had suffered so heavily to no 
purpose in the battle of Verdun, and had 
been forced to pay so high a price for the 
defense of her Picardy positions on the 
Somme. that she was not in a position to 
launch a big offensive. 

Indeed, during the winter of 191(>, she 
made an attempt to promote negotia- 
tions for peace. She had just finished the 
conquest of the greater part of Rouma- 
nia, and she considered the moment op- 
portune to suggest that a settlement 
might be reached. 



forming a cabinet. He invited represen- 
tatives of all political parties to join him. 
and succeeded in creating a coalition or 
union government in which many of 
Britain's ablest men accepted office. 

The answer of this government to the 
enemy peace proposals was to authorize 
the enlistment of 1,000,000 more men, and 
to ask parliament for a war credit of 
$2,000,000,000. Thru Premier Briand 
France warned the world to beware of 
Germany seeking peace, and General 
Xivelle celebrated his appointment to 
succeed General Joffre. now made a Mar- 
shal of France, by taking 11,000 pris- 
oners and advancing two miles on a 
seven mile front north of Verdun. 

Germany continued her efforts, hut the 
allied governments gave the world to un- 
derstand that they Avere in no humor to 
consider the enemy's proposals, and had 
no faith in the enemy's word. Premier 
Lloyd George declared that allied peace 
terms were, "Reparation, Restoration 
and Security." 

Germany had no 'intention whatever of 
making peace on terms involving repara- 
tion and restoration. 

So. rinding it useless to pursue her 
peace efforts further. Germany turned 
her attention to obtaining a more secure 
position on the western front. 

During the winter months an elaborate 
trench system, fortified as no trench sys- 



Just before her proposals were made tern had ever been fortified before, was 

there had been a change in the British constructed along a front extending 

government. Mr. Asquith, the Liberal roughly -from the region of Douai to the 

party premier, resigned, and David Lloyd Aisne, with Cambrai and St. Quentin 

George accepted the responsibility of marking its main positions. 



86 



HIXDKXBURG RETREATS 




HIXDEMH'RC; RETREATS 



Belgian civilians, deported from Bel- 
gium, and allied prisoners were employed 
in the construction of this trench system 
that became famous thruout the world as 
the Hindenburg line. 

Early in 1917 the British began to fee 
out the enemy lines north of the Ancre 
brook on the Somme front. They found 
an encouraging situation and pushed for- 
ward. Presently they were regaining 
village after village, capturing strategic 
heights, and advancing with unexpected 
rapidity. It became evident that the 
enemy was retreating according to plan, 
and engaging only in such rear guard ac- 
tion as was necessary to protect his re- 
tirement, lie was withdrawing his im- 
perilled salients from their positions 
north and south of the allies' Somme 
wedge. 




The British took Bapaume and the Admiral Sir David Beatty, of the British Navy. 



. 


3* xJjjSMfKi/r 




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im-w. ■■'-- 


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After the fight with the Huns near Rheims. The Black Watch, which contains some of the hest lighters 

in the British \rniv. 



HINDEXBURG RETREATS 




British and Canadian Troops in the Most Sanguir y 



HINDENBURG RETR EATS 



89 




Battle Against the Germans in Ypres Sector. 



90 



HIXDEXBURG RETREATS 



ridge extending south from it toward 
Peronne. Then things moved rapidly. 
The Germans fell hack on a front of 60 
miles, burning, blasting and pillaging as 
they went. In all history there is no 
precedent for the work of wanton de- 
struction the retreating armies wrought. 
Evacuated cities were mined and reduced 
to utter ruins by internal explosions timed 
to take effect after the German troops 
were well away; in some villages build- 
ings were Avrecked by fastening cables to 
their corners, and then attaching the 
cables to steam tractors, that literally 
pulled the buildings to pieces. 

Orchards were chopped down, or valu- 
able trees scarred so as to ensure their 
death. Vines were cut at the roots. 

The civilian population of many a 
small town was driven out and carried 
along with the armies for service behind 







w : mN&^^ 






: : 


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Wl^S^^^^^J^'^fr^^ T\ 



Horses, too, wore gas masks. Both men and horses 
wore gas masks at the front. 




Scottish fighters in a bayonet charge. :.'nd Battalion "London Scottish" is an interesting study, 



HIXDEXBURG RETK EATS 



-tl 



tlie German lines. 

The retreating armies reached the new 
Hindenburg positions late in March, and 
there estahlished themselves none too 
soon for their own safety. The allies were 
close upon their heels. 

It had heen the belief of Von Hinden- 
burg that by making the great retirement 
he would destroy the program of the al- 
lies for a spring offensive. He supposed 
that they had concentrated vast numbers 
of guns, and assembled immense quanti- 
ties of munitions on the Sonime front, 
and that they would not be able to bring 
these supplies up to his new line in time 
to launch a serious drive before certain 
other events occurred upon which he was 
counting. 

One of these events was the success of 
unrestricted U-boat warfare, proclaimed 
by Germany on January 31, 1917; the 
other was Russian surrender or revolu- 




I.i.-Col. William A, Bishop, V. C, D. S. O., M. C, of the British 
Royal Flying Corps, greatest living war aviator 




The British Cavalry. They are seen charging over the top of a rid 






92 



HIXDEXBURG RETREATS 




■>,,yft{C'?'>^?K>&-rit^.\^Ui-..*.i.*;^.. i : M K!.i...,.-. . 



he British Battleship "Iron Duke," Flagship of the Home Fleet, Has Been Present at All Battl 
tween the British and German Armadas. 



Be- 



HINDENBURG RETREATS 



tion. for either of which Germany had 
heen working by every secret and corrupt 
means at her command. 

It happened, however, that General 
Haig and General Xivelle, the British 
and French commanders, were not quite 
so simple as the German general supposed 
them to be. 

General Haig, for example, instead of 
attempting to move all his big- guns and 
stores of munitions across the Ilinden- 
burg wilderness, simply ran them up the 



over the ridge and several miles to the 
east of it, the enemy was manifestly sur- 
prised. The British attack and subse- 
quent progress threatened the security of 
the Hindenburg line at its northern end. 
and there was a frantic effort of the 
enemy to construct new and stronger po- 
sitions covering Douai and protecting 
Cambrai before Haig's men could menace 
these important points. 

In the meantime the French under 
General Xivelle carried out an ambitious 




•idence of the good shootincr of the Canadian Artillery. 
nit this German gun out of commission. 



A direct shot from a Canadian artillery 



line a few miles to the region behind Ar- 
ras and Vimy ridge. In like manner Gen- 
eral Xivelle made his concentrations in 
the Aisne region. From neither of these 
fronts had the enemy retired. 

The quick pursuit, and the vigor with 
which the British and French attacked 
St. Quentin, threw the enemy off his 
guard. Hence when on Easter .Monday. 
April 0. the British stormed Vimy Ridge, 
taking 6,000 prisoners and advancing 



attack along the Aisne front, with the 
Craonne plateau and the Chemin des 
Dames as their primary objective, and the 
St. Gobain plateau and city of Laon as 
their ultimate and chief objectives. 

They gained their primary objectives 
in part, at least: but the price paid was 
so heavy that the political leaders of 
Fiance were panic stricken, and— so the 
story goes — ordered the attack abandoned 
at a time when a greal success impended. 



94 



HIXDEXBURG RETREATS 




IIIXDEXBl'RG RETREATS 



95 



General Nivelle soon thereafter lost 
his command, and was succeeded by Gen- 
eral Petain, a man of strict military mind 
and spirit, who had no ears for the poli- 
ticians, and was inclined to move care- 
fully, rather than spectacularly. For the 
rest of the year there was little offensive 
action on the part of the French. They 
fought a hard and' successful duel with 
the forces of the German Crown Prince 
for possession of the Chemin des Dames, 



positions from Messines to Passchen- 
daele. 

On the Cambrai front General Byng 

made a dramatic attack that came as a 
complete surprise to the enemy. 

Tanks had been first employed by the 
British on the Somme. They had proved 
wonderfully effective in smashing down 
barbed wire, field fortifications and 
trench parapets; they bad dune great 
work in cleaning out machine gun nests. 




I'ritish troops in France captured 657 German guns, including over 150 heavy guns. Macl 
liumber of 5,750 have been counted as have over a thousand trench mortars. 



to the 



and late in the year, by a clever bit of 
tactical work on the part of Petain, they 
ousted the enemy from road and plateau, 
and won positions commanding the ap- 
proaches to Laon. 

The British, having exploited their suc- 
cess on Vimy Ridge as far as seemed pos- 
sible, opened a new campaign in Belgium, 
resulting in the capture of all the ridge 



But on the Somme tanks had been com- 
paratively few in number. An effort had 
been made to use them in Flanders, but 
the ground was so muddy, so horribly 
churned by shell fire, that tbe tank was 
at a disadvantage. 

But General Byng swept the enemy 
temporarily off bis feel by a tank attack 
on an extraordinary scale. Hundreds of 



9<> 



II I r.DENB I FRG H ETR EATS 




II1XDENBURG RETREATS 



97 




Australian troops on parade just before leaving for the front. 



the monsters rolled suddenly down on the 
German trenches behind a screen of 
Mm ike from the British guns, their rumble 
drowned to the hearing of the enemy by 
the roar of the cannon. They smashed 
a wide path thru the enemy lines, open- 
ing the way for the infantry. The suc- 
cess was too big — it was bigger than the 
British expected, bigger than they were 
prepared to support. 

The infantry advanced within three 
miles of Cambrai, occupying Bourlon 
wood on the crest of Bourlon hill. But 
the enemy counter attack caught the 
British insufficiently supported in their 
new positions, and they were forced to 
abandon about two-thirds of the ground 
they had gained. 

The failure of General Byng to hold 
his advance was a great disappointment 
to the allies. However there were greater 
results from the venture than appeared 
on the map. 

It had demonstrated the value of tanks, 
and it had proved that the enemy line 
could be broken — a possibility long doubt- 
ed by many. 

The battles of 191(5 and 1917 were 
amazing demonstrations of destructive 
power. 

The Somme bombardments were the 
most intense known in the history of war- 
fare, up to that time, 



In eighty days of righting the French 
and British troops used on a front of less 
than 2.5 miles 1.5,000,000 artillery shells, 
or an average of between 1.50,000 and 
•200.000 a day— not less than 0,000 an 
hour for every hour of the twenty-four. 
And this is exclusive of trench mortar 
shells and other projectiles, such as hand 
grenades. 

Many of these shells weighed over a 
ton; many more over half a ton. It is 
safe to estimate that .5,000,000 tons of 
metal were hurled against the German 
defenses in little more than ten weeks 
time. 




Royal Horse Artillery going into action at the 
gallop. This remarkable British official photograph 
taken on tlie British Western fronl in I 
the Royal Horse Artillery approaching a 
position at a gallop. The K. II. A. are il 
mobile branch of the artillery. 



98 



HINDEXBURG RETREATS 




^m$k 




iriXDEMH KG RKTKKATS 



99 



This, of course, was only part of the 
blasting work. Unestimated quantities of 

high explosives were used in mining oper- 
ations, and vast craters were created in 
which enemy soldiers and guns were en- 
tomhed. 

It was thus that Thiepval, the Etegina 

redoubt and other powerful German 
works were reduced to ruins, and their 
garrisons driven from the chaotic heaps 
of earth and masonry and molten metal. 



quantity used m the same time on the 
Somme. Instead of 6,000 an hour they 
discharged over 12,000. As a consequence 

the British captured four times as big an 
area as they had in a like period of the 
Somme offensive. 

Along the Aisne the French exceeded 
the British record in quantity of shells 
used. The strong defenses of the Ger- 
mans, in the eaves and tunnels of the 
chalk and limestone cliffs, required a tre- 




Sir Robert Borden, Premier of Canada, making rousing speech to Canadian fighters at front. 



But if the Somme drive ontrivalled all 
previous records, it became a comparative- 
ly moderate affair in the light of what 
took place on the Arras front and along 
the Aisne in 1917. 

It is estimated that the British in the 
first ten days of their fighting on the Ar- 
ras front deluged the enemy with 
4,000,000 shells, or more than double the 



tnendous pounding. The French literally 
shattered the solid rock, and forced the 
enemy to Hee from his quarried shelters 
as men will flee in the day of God's judg- 
ment. 

The part played by the over-seas Do- 
minions of Great Britain in the world wai- 
ls one that will long he remembered to 
the "lory of the Hrilish race and the 



100 



HINDENBURG RETREATS 




HIXDEXBURG RETREATS 



l(H 



praise of those free institutions that were 
cradled in England. 

From Canada, Australia. New Zealand 
and South Africa there was an immediate 
response. -Men of the colonies rallied to 
the call of the empire. It should lie home 
in mind that the people of these self-gov- 
erning dependencies were under no con- 
straint of constitution, law or force to send 
their sons to Europe, or in any other way 



frontier because of the century of friendly 
relations that she had enjoyed with her 
great American neighbor. She had no 
army — only a few militia battalions. 

Hut when the news came that Belgium 
had been invaded and that Great Britain 
was at war with Germany, there flashed 
across the Atlantic the message "Eng- 
land can count on Canada." 

In seven weeks Canada had created a 




of fighting. 



to share in the sacrifices of the great con- 
flict. They were as free to choose as was 
the United Stales, and they chose at once 
to stand with the mother country, with 
France and with Belgium for the cause 
of liberty against the central autocracies. 
The story of Canada's response is 
characteristic of that of the others. Can- 
ada was essentially a non-military coun- 
try, happy in the security of her own long 



magnificent camp at Valcartier, near the 
ancient city of Quebec, and was gather- 
ing the nucleus of as fine and as fit a little 
army as fought on any front in the four 
years of war. 

The government's first call was for 
20,000 men. It got 40.000. and the first 
contingent sailed from the Gaspe Basin 
on October 3, two months after the war 
began, numbering 33,000 picked men. 



I <)■_> 



IIIXDHMUIU; RETREATS 




Collision of this vessel, the S. S. lino, with the S. S. Mont Blanc caused the Great Halifax disaster. 




Indescribable horrors and ruin caused by great Halifax explosion. This most remarkable photo tells the 
story of suffering and misery caused by the great Halifax explosion with graphic realism. 



IIIXDKXHriKr RETREATS 



103 



A period of training was necessary in 
England, but four months from the day 
of departure a Canadian division landed 
in France and was sent to the Flanders 
front. 

From that hour to the end of the war 
Canada always hail a plaee in the line. 
To her credit stands one brilliant victory 
after another and many a stout defense. 

Langemarck and St. Julien are names 
on the Canadian honor roll. It was there 
that the sons of the Maple Leaf saved 
the day when the enemy, in April 1915, 
broke thru the line of the French colonial 
troops by -the use of gas. Canada closed 
the gap. and. at terrific price held the 
enemy at bay for over 7'2 hours until re- 
enforcements could arrive. 

In the battle of the Somme the names 
of Courcelette and the Regina redoubt 
are remembered among the names of 
places that are forever identified with 
Canadian courage. 

The taking of Yimy Ridge will be one 
of the great and often told stories in the 
history of the Dominion. 

It was the Canadians, who, after othei 
troops had tried for weeks to capture 
Passchendaele. northeast of Ypres. did 
the job and came back from victory a 
mere tattered and wounded remnant. 

Canada, by voluntary enlistment and 
conscription, raised an army of about 
.500.000 men. Her population is barely 
more than 8,000,000. An army of like 
proportion in the United States would 
number over 10.000.000. 

Australia did even better in proportion 
to population, and Australian troops were 
abreast of the Canadians in the bravery 
and daring of their efforts for freedom. 
In the early stages of the war they were 
mainly engaged in defending Egypt from 
Turk attack and holding tribesmen of the 
desert in cheek. 

Their campaigns on the Gallipoli 
peninsula, in which the New Zealanders 




Armenians defeated Turks in the siege of Van. 
The Turks were compelled to withdraw after a 
heaw loss inflicted by the Armenians. 



were their comrades, brought them undy- 
ing renown. The world remembers them 
as the men who fought naked to the waist, 
in cotton knee breeches and bare legs, and 
fought with the fury of demons, and the 
courage of young gods. 

On many a western front sector the 
Australians did magnificent service. The 
demoralized retreat of the enemy from 
the Amiens front in the late summer of 
1918 is ascribed to the work of these 
sinewy giants from the antipodes. It is 
said that their habit of raiding the enemy 
trenches in broad daylight, often while 
the German soldiers were eating their 
noon-day meal, completely unnerved the 
foe, and made him yield easily when the 
main counter attack was launched. 

South African troops participated in 
the west front fighting, but the great 
work of South Africa was done in con- 
quering the German colonies in Africa. 

Xo less loyal than the self-governing 
colonies was India — still the domain of 
alien rule. Her turbaned sons took Bag- 
dad and helped to take Jerusalem; they 
redeemed Mesopotamia and Syria; they 
were represented on every front, and 
everywhere with honor to themselves. 




"The mpst daring adventure in naval history": The attack on Zeebrugge. In this picture is visualized the seen! 
history In the foreground is the Vindictive, which had been fitted with prows to land men on the ~reat half-moc 
to block the channel, are seen in the distance. The Thetis came first, steaming into a tornado of shell-fire from th 1 . 
in the mud and blown up The Iphigenia was also beached, according to plan, on the eastern side, her engines beini^ 
the defenders and the flash of the British and German guns made the dark and artificially fog-laden scene specta* 




:hc attack on the Mole on April 22. which Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge describes as the most daring adventure in nava 
Me. the Mersey ferry boats Iris and Dr.ffodil being shown at each end of her. The three cement-laden cruisers, designed 
rman batteries' ashore. The Intrepid, smoking like a volcano, and with all her guns blazing, followed, and was sunk 
)t going to hold her in position till she became bedded well down at the bottom. The searchlights and star shells ot 
to behold. 



106 



HIXDKXHriU; RETREATS 




Man or Beast? Masked Dispatch Riders Pick a Safe Road. English Advance Scouts Con- 
sulting Road Plans. Masked Dispatch Riders on the Salonica Front Well Guarded from the 
Fumes of Bulgar Gas Shells, Examining a Map in Order to Pick Out a Safe Road Back to 
Headquarters. 



Russia's Tragic Story 



C II A PT E H A' I I 

RUSSIA AT FIRST SUCCESSFUL — HINDENBURG STAYS THE 
RUSSIAN ARMIES — RUSSIA RETREATS — VOX MACKENSEN VIC- 
TORIOUS — RUSSIAN' OFFICIALS' TREACHERY — RUSSIAN REVOLU- 
TION TAKES PEACE — KERENSKY BECOMES LEADER — KERENSKY 
DEPOSED — TROTZKY AND LENINE IN POWER — RUSSIA MAKES 
SEPARATE PEACE. 



Russia came into the war as an auto- 
cracy. She left by the wide gateways of 
anarchy, along a road lurid with flame 
and crimson with blood. 

Imperial Russia was actuated by the 
desire to prevent the extension of Im- 
perial Prussia's sway to the Balkans, 
Constantinople and the regions that lie 
beyond. 

Always the eyes of Russia had been 
on Constantinople. She was a mighty 
empire whose coasts in Europe were 
washed by the waters of land-locked seas, 
or, in the north, were barred by the Arctic- 
ice for long months in every year. For 
her developing life she needed better ac- 
cess to the rest of the world. It seemed 
intolerable to her that the Dardanelles 
should be controlled by Turkey, apt at 
any moment to become the tool of some 
unfriendly or rival power, and thus the 
warden who would lock the only door thru 
which her mighty neighbor coidd emerge 
from the Black Sea. 

On the Black Sea was the great Rus- 
sian port of Odessa, the port where the 
vast harvests of southern and south- 
western Russia — the incomparably rich 
black soil country — were gathered for 
shipment thruout the world. Thus the 
freedom of the Dardanelles was vital to 
the life of Russia. Desire to get Constan- 
tinople, or at least to keep it from Ger- 
man control, was more than a mere de- 
sire for empire. It was prompted by the 
fundamental principle of self-preserva- 
tion. 



There were some differences of opinion 
in the military councils of Russia when 
the war began as to whether the armies 
should advance across Poland and attack 
Germany, or whether the Vistula should 
be held as a line of defense, while the at- 
tack was made on East Prussia and 
Galicia, to the north and to the south of 
Poland. 

This latter idea prevailed. It was de- 
cided to hold the Warsaw-Ivangorod for- 
tified line of the Vistula, while an advance 
was made across the Baltic provinces, 
against East Prussia, and thru Bessara- 
bia into Galicia. 

Before the Germans had completed 
their drive thru Belgium the Russians 
were over the East Prussian frontier. As 
they advanced against an insufficient de- 
fending force the people of the invaded 
region sent up a loud cry for help, that 
reached the ears of the conquering armies 
sweeping toward Paris. It became neces- 
sary to send back to the eastern front 
troops that had been intended to cooper- 
ate in the humiliation of France. The 
Russian giant had moved with swifter 
strides than the German general staff had 
believed to be possible, and when it re- 
quired re-enforcements to stay the threat- 
ening disaster on the Marne, they were 
already far distant, hurrying to cheek the 
Slav armies in a remote corner of the 
empire. 

The service of the Russians En the criti- 
cal hour that held victory or defeat for 
the western allies should not be forgotten. 



10* 



RUSSIA'S TRAGIC STORY 



They paid a heavy price for their prompt 
and courageous flank attack on the foe. 

On September 1, General Von Hin- 
denburg met them in East Prussia with 
powerful re-enforcements. It was his 
first dramatic appearance in the role of 
deliverer for the German people. 

The battle took place at Tannenherg. 
The Russians were routed, with a loss of 
80,000 in killed, wounded and prisoners, 
and were compelled to make a hasty re- 



armies were early placed upon the de- 
fensive. On the day of the defeat at Tan- 
nenberg, in East Prussia, the Russians 
won a great victory over the Austrians 
at Lemberg. Thousands of the enemy 
were taken prisoner. 

The Austrian demoralization was so 
great that Berlin became alarmed. At the 
western end of Galicia stood the city of 
Cracow, once capital of Poland. It was 
the gateway into Germany. If the Rus- 
sians reached Cracow the immensely valn- 




Cleaning Up Sackville Street. Dublin. After Rebellion. It Had Been Shelled by Field Artillery. 



treat to their fortified line on the River 
Xiemen. 

The Hindenburg victory was hailed 
with great acclaim in Berlin. It was dis- 
appointing news for the allies, but the 
disappointment was quickly turned to re- 
joicing by the success on the Marne — a 
success to which the Slav reverse had con- 
tributed materially. 

Better fortune attended the Russian 
invasion of Galicia. where the Austrian 



able industrial and mining region of Sile- 
sian Germany would be exposed to inva- 
sion. 

Vienna was urged to strengthen its ar- 
mies and exert a supreme effort to check 
the Slav advance. But the Russians 
could not be held at Lemberg. nor yet at 
the San river, seventy miles further west, 
where the Austrians made a desperate 
stand against them. 

On September 7. as the German arm} 



RUSSIA'S TRAGIC STORY 



IO0 



was falling back to the Aisne in France, 
the Russians routed the Austrians agah. 
at Ravaruska. A little more than a week 
later they invested the great Galieiai. 
f'< rtress of Przemysl. Leaving hesiegea 
by their troops they pressed forward ana 
occupied Jaroslav on September '23. 

With these important strategic points 
either controlled or held, they advanced 
to the Donajec river, that crosses Galieia 
from north to south, and, by the end of 
the mouth, had pushed their vanguards 



Thus, two months after the beginning 
<>f the war. the Russians had conquered 
Galieia, and were menacing Germany and 
Hungary. 

Early in October the Austrians began 
a series of counter attacks. German 
troops had been sent to their aid, and 
with the better trained soldiers of their 
great ally they were able to make appre- 
ciable progress. 

The Russians were driven from the 
Uzsok pass in the Carpathians and com- 




For this "military purpose" the Germans dropped bombs on England. The end of a perfect air raid by 
the German air men on England. The baby victims and women are being buried. 



to within cannon range of Cracow. 

Here they were content to rest for the 
time, while they spread out along the Car- 
pathians, that separate Galieia from 
Hungary, in an attempt to get posses- 
sion of the chief mountain passes de- 
bouching on the Hungarian plains. Here 
and there they actually penetrated the 
barrier range and reached the plains, oc- 
casioning consternation in Hilda Pest. 
capital of Hungary. 



pelled to abandon Przemysl. The cap- 
ture of Jaroslav followed and the Rus- 
sian armies fell back in eastern Galieia 
beyond the San. 

A great battle developed along the San 
in the middle of October. It lasted for 
days in which fortunes varied. Gradual- 
ly the Russians gained the upper hand. 
The Austrians attempted a Hank attack 
thru Bukowina, but before it could 
threaten seriously the Sla\ line the Aus- 



110 



RUSSIA'S TRAGIC STOKY 



trians collapsed on the San, and the Rus- 
sians re-entered Jaroslav. Six days later 
Przemysl was again besieged, and re- 
mained surrounded by the Russian forces 
until its capture in the following March. 
By the middle of November the Rus- 
sians were once more on the outskirts of 
Cracow. 



established a strong line across Galicia, 
protecting the rear of their forces in the 
Carpathians. A long series of operations 
then began in the mountains — battles in 
deep snows and zero temperatures — in 
which the Russians gradually forced their 
way into the passes. On March 22 they 
captured Przemysl, and under the im- 




London air raid. Mother 



i inspecting their home. A mother and her little 
.-isit and this mass of debris greets their eyes. 



jn have returned home 



Hungary was again raided thru the 
mountain passes, and the Austrians were 
driven from Bukowina. 

Germany was forced to send additional 
aid to her ally. With this help the siege 
of Cracow was lifted, and the Russians 
retired to the Donajec river, where they 



pulse of this success swept forward on 
Hungary with Buda Pest as its goal. 

The alarmed Austrians rallied again 
and again to defend their frontier, fight- 
ing stubbornly for every yard of ground, 
and then, with the coming of May ap- 
peared Mackensen on the Donajec. 



RUSSIA'S TRAGIC STORY 



111 



The German offensive against Russia 
was marked by three great efforts to con- 
quer Poland, sieze the Vistula defenses 
and crush the armies of the Czar. 

The first of these began in the opening 
days of October, 1914, with Yon Hinden- 
burg in command, fresh from his victory 
over the Russians at Tannenberg, in East 
Prussia. The German armies, admirably 
equipped, swept across Poland to the 
Vistula. They reached the outskirts of 
Warsaw and Ivangorod by October 17. 
Aviators dropped proclamations in War- 
saw calling for the surrender of the city. 
The big guns began to shell its fortifica- 
tions. Then re-enforcements suddenly 
attacked the left flank of the Teutons, 
driving it back and compelling a retreat 
all along the line. In perfect order Yon 
Hindenburg's armies withdrew, moving 
too swiftly for the pursuing Russians. 
who followed to the German frontier and 
actually crossed into Posen at one point. 

This Russian success was brief. Yon 
Hindenburg struck again. Early in No- 
vember he began a movement against 
both flanks of the Russian army. One 
came down the south bank of the Vistula 
from the East Russian fortress of Thorn; 
the other advanced northeast from Czen- 
stochowa, whither it had retired after its 
failure at Ivangorod. The Russians were 





The Maharaja of Patiala visited the Western front. 

This photo shows the Maharaja of Patiala inspecting 

the big camouflaged Britisl Western 

front. 



First picture of the actual surrender of Jerusalem 
on December 9th. 1917. Tie only photo taken on 
the morning of December 9th. when Jerusalem sur- 
rendered. 

in serious peril of being outflanked and 
cut off from Warsaw and the Vistula. 
They fell back toward Lodz. Here, at 
the moment that threatened their destruc- 
tion, re-enforcements from Warsaw sud- 
denly attacked the flank and rear of Yon 
Hindenburg's encircling movement, and 
the battle of Lodz began. The tables were 
turned. The Germans were in peril of 
extinction. An entire army corps sur- 
rendered. But aid was rushed to them 
and they cut their way out of the Slav net. 
The Russians fell back from Lodz, and 
ultimately took up positions along the 
Bzura river, twenty miles west of War- 
saw. Thus began a long trench siege 
paralleling the Vistula Prom west of War- 
saw to the Galician boundary. 

For months there was bitter fighting 
along the entrenched front in Poland, ami 



112 



RUSSIA'S TRAGIC STORY 



campaign and counter campaign in the 
Baltic provinces and East Prussia. The 
Russians met disaster at the Mazurian 
lakes, but carried out a sweeping offensive 
in Galicia and the Carpathians, already 
described, and it was this success that 
brought ujjon them the third and greatest 
German drive. 

General Von Mackensen came upon 
the scene as the leader of this final attack 



They crossed the San, abandoned Prze- 
mysl, after an effort to rally and hold it. 
and fell back on Lemberg. They lost 
Lemberg on June 22, and a week later 
Mackensen turned his attack north, be- 
hind the fortified line of the Vistula. 
i 
Meantime Von Ilindenburg was press- 
ing the battle hard in the Baltic provinces. 
By the middle of July a tremendous 
struggle was in progress on a 900 mile 




A busy 



road just behind the lines. The company at the right are resting prior to taking up 
their march again. 



upon the armies of the czar. He massed 
the greatest concentration of artillery 
that had been seen up to that time on the 
eastern front against the Russian Donajec 
line. On May 3, 1916, he opened fire with 
all his guns. 

The Russian front was shattered. 
Mackensen captured 30.000 prisoners and 
drove his enemy in hasty retreat eastward. 



front, with Warsaw and Ivangorod as the 
main objectives of the Austro-German 
forces. They fell on August 5 and 6. 
By the end of xVugust the Germans had 
reached Brest Litovsk. 

The czar suddenly came from Petro- 
grad to the battle front, removed the 
Grand Duke Nicholas from command of 
the armies, and placed himself at their 



RUSSIA'S TRAGIC STORY 



113 



head. Rut it did not stay the retreat. In 
the middle of September Von Hinden- 
burg drove the Russians across the Dvina, 
and Von Mackensen occupied Pinsk, on 
the edge of the marshes that bear the same 
name. 

Then only was the Austro-German ad- 
vance halted. It succeeded in gaining 
vast territory, and penetrating far into 
Russia, but it failed to destroy the Rus- 
sian armies. They had escaped thru the 
masterly leadershij) of the Grand Duke. 



the hands of men entrusted with military 
administration. 

Rut worse than graft was the treachery 
of officials, in some cases generals and 
lesser officials, who sold secrets to the foe. 

The knowledge of these things began to 
reach the men in the trenches. They had 
been forced at times to fight with nail- 
studded clubs instead of rifles. When 
they learned that they were being robbed 
and betrayed sedition spread thru their 
ranks. 




Advancing over newly conquered territory held its difficulties. As many as thirty Tommies were needed 

to move this big gun. 



They had escaped the enemy; but they 
had not escaped the corruption, misman- 
agement and betrayal that obtained be- 
hind their lines in the Russian bu- 
reaucracy. 

The Russian rank and file was hungry, 
wearied, and ill-supplied with arms and 
munitions. Graft reeked in Russia. Of- 
ficials enriched themselves at the expense 
of their armies. Supplies often failed to 
reach the soldiers, finding their way into 



Desertions were numerous during the 
winter of 1916-1917. The armies held 
their positions, but chiefly because Ger- 
many did not care to press her advance 
further. She was busy fomenting trouble 
in the Russian empire. Her agents dis- 
covering the increasing dissatisfaction in 
the army, were promoting it. Mutiny 
would serve equally as well as a victory 
won by direct attack. 

A plot to induce Russia to make a sepa- 







w < 
<;> 

on 

Q< 

too 
o 



RUSSIA'S TRAGIC STORY 



115 



rate peace was being engineered from 
Berlin with the aid of disloyal members 
of the government at Petrograd. It is 
said the czarina was not wholly innocent 
of participation in this conspiracy against 
the empire and its allies. 

The winter passed with much suffering 
on the front for the rank and tile of the 
Russian armies. 

There was some activity in eastern 
Galicia. Roumania had been invaded, 
and the Russians were looked upon as her 
natural helpers, but intrigue prevented 
aid coming in effective form until it was 
too late, and the little country went the 
way of others that had felt the crushing 
heel of German militarism. 

With spring there came increasing un- 
rest in Russia. The world heard only 
rumors of it, but persons in Petrograd 
saw signs of a coming storm. 

The first lightning Hash from the gath- 
ering clouds was the killing of the Monk 
Rasputin, a mysterious and notorious in- 
dividual who had for long been a court 
favorite, exercising a strange influence 
over the czarina and, at times, over the 
czar. It was believed that Rasputin was 
intriguing for Prussia, and giving his aid 
to what were known as the "Dark 
Forces," an unscrupulous cabal of court- 
iers and officials whose chief concern was 
to profit at the empire's expense, and to 
keep themselves in advantageous posi- 
tions for the purpose. They represented 
the extreme of reaction, and opposed 
every movement of a liberalizing char- 
acter. 

The news that the body of Rasputin 
had been thrown into the Xeva aroused 
immense enthusiasm among those who 
looked for the day when Russia would 
escape the clutches of its exploiters. It 
seemed to be tire spark in the powder, and 
the explosion followed quickly. 

On March 11, 1917, a revolutionary 
movement started in Petrograd. Soldiers 




v" -y*_ _) ,r,.;tj&>_ _ . -■„ 



■+.l~~ 



r>.t£:.-*te 



First Tommies cros 

constructed bridge i 
tured by the British. 



aver a rougnly 
rich was cap- 



from the Petrograd garrison joined the 
workers. The following day the Duma 
met in defiance of the czar's orders, and 
a message was sent to the czar, who was 
then on the front with his armies, de- 
manding his abdication. 

Meantime the capital city was in tur- 
moil. The workers were fighting the 
police, who, armed with machine guns, 
held positions in houses and on roofs, 
from which they attempted to slay the 
clamoring mob in the streets. Cossacks 
were called in to ride down the people as 
they had in many another such emer- 
gency: but this time the Cossacks refused 
to do the murderous work assigned them, 
and treated the crowd with smiling con- 
sideration. 

The czar is said to have been served 
with the demand for his abdication while 
aboard a train en route for Petrograd, 
whither he was hastening to face the revo- 
lutionary crisis that had arisen so sudden- 
ly. Tie accepted the destiny prescribed 
for him without argument, and asked only 
that he be allowed to go to his palace in 



116 



RUSSIA'S TRAGIC STORY 



the Crimea and spend his days among his 
flowers. This request was denied. He 
was taken to Petrograd and there placed 
in confinement. 

A new cabinet was formed with Prince 
Lvoff, a Russian patriot of democratic 
spirit, as its leader. It was a coalition 
cabinet, including the cadet party, a con- 
servative democratic element, and the 
socialists of the less radical type, repre- 
sented by Kerensky. 

Its life was comparatively brief. It 
made way for a cabinet more thoroly so- 
cialistic under Kerensky. 

For a time the world hoped much from 
this extraordinary little man, who, in a 
puny frame, combined a fiery spirit and 
keen intelligence. But the extreme social- 
ist element was not satisfied with the 
Fabian tactics of Kerensky, who at- 
tempted to hold Russia true to the allies, 
continue the war, and readjust internal 
conditions on a basis of representative 
government similar to that of the United 
States. 

The extremists, known as bolsheviki, a 
word that means simply majority, main- 
tained a constant agitation, harassing 
Kerensky's government at every step. 
Their attitude lent itself most conveni- 
ently to German plans, and Germany 
flooded Russia with agents who joined 
with the bolsheviki in an effort to pull 
down what might have developed into a 
stable and efficient government. 

The peasants and the soldiers were 
urged to demand peace and an immediate 
distribution of the land and other prop- 
erty. Kerensky used all his eloquence to 
impel the armies to maintain the fight 
against Germany, and to encourage the 
people in support of the war; but it 
proved unavailing. 

His effort to convene a constituent as- 
sembly for the purpose of drafting a new 
constitution was defeated by the bolshevik 
agitation. The ignorant peasantry of 
Russia knew nothing of constituent as- 
semblies and constitutional forms of gov- 




Sir John French, former Commander of Victorious 
British Expeditionary Forces in 1914. 



eminent; they did know the soviet, or 
local council, and the shrewd bolsheviki 
appealed to this knowledge with the 
promise of administration thru Soviets. 

A returned expatriate, a Russian Jew, 
who called himself Trotzky, was one of 
the most aggressive and influential bol- 
shevik leaders. He, like Kerensky, pos- 
sessed great powers of eloquence. Asso- 
ciated with him was a man name Lenine, 
a fanatic, whose only aim in life was to 
overthrow the capitalist systems of the 
world. In this effort he was willing to 
take help from any quarter. It is not nec- 
essary to question his mad sincerity. It 
was quite compatible with honesty of con- 
viction that he should accept help from 
Germany in money or men, and there is 
little doubt that he did. It was traitorous 
to Russia and freedom, but it was loyal 
enough to his own lunatic dream. 



RUSSIA'S TRAGIC STORY 



117 



Between these men succeeded in over- 
throwing Kerensky. and seizing the gov- 
ernment. Anarchy followed, marked by 
bloodshed and destruction of property. 
The Russian armies, now reduced to a 
helpless strength by desertions, were or- 
dered demobilized, and the bolshevik 
regime opened negotiations with the 
enemy for peace. 

There followed a series of conferences 



United States, the latter by now a bellig- 
erent, looked with alarm on the situation. 
The possibility of German control in Rus- 
sia constituted a new menace. Already 
German troops released from service on 
the east front were appearing on the west- 
ern front, and Germany was replenishing 
her depleted stores from Russian gran- 
aries. Some day, if the extension of her 
power was not checked, she might even 




— '~^jffr^^^ ' 



.-.,1V 7 -;- f> -r " 



British Torpedo Boat Destroyer "Viking 



at Brest Litovsk between the bolshevik 

representatives and the German, Austrian 
and Bulgarian delegates. They ended by 
the enemy imposing terms upon Russia 
that stripped her of the Baltic provinces. 
Poland, the Ukraine, and the region of 
the Caucasus. 

Russia lav open to German exploita- 
tion, and it was carried on with pitiless 
energy. The western allies and the 



recruit new armies from among the lius- 
sian people. Plans were formulated to 
stay her progress. Commissioners were 
Bent to help the Russian people. They 
were able to do little. Finally it was de- 
termined to send allied forces into Russia, 
and troops representing the western allies. 
Japan and the United Stales landed at 
Vladivostok, while others were landed at 
Archangel and on the Murman coast. 



RUSSIA'S TRAGIC STORY 




Inspection of a destroyed tunnel entrance on the Western Front at Cambrai. 



Italy and The Little Nations 

CHAPTER VIII 

ITALY EXTERS THE WAR — ITALY ENTERS AUSTRIA — ITALIAN SUCCESSES 
— AUSTRIA REINFORCED BY GERMANY CHECKS ITALIAN DRIYE— ITALIAN 
ARMY DEMORALIZED — STAND MADE AT PIAYE RIVER — SERBIA ENTIRELY 
OVER RUN — MOXTEXEGRO CAPITULATES — ROUMANIA SIGNS PEACE 
TERMS — BRITISH FAILURE IN GALL1POLI CAMPAIGN — GENERAL \LLENBY 
SUCCESSFUL IN HOLY LAND — CONST ANTINE OF GREECE FLEES — GREECE 
JOINS ALLIES. 



Before the war began Italy was the 
ally of Germany and Austria-Hungary. 
The alliance was of a defensive kind. 
Each of the three nations was pledged to 
go to the help of either or both of the 
others in the event of an attack. 

Immediately after the declarations of 
war made by Germany against Russia 
and France, Italy declared her neutral- 
ity. She took the ground that the central 
empires had been the aggressors, and that 
she was under no obligation to join them 
in anything but a defensive war. This 
prompt action destroyed the triple alli- 
ance, and in its place there gradually de- 
veloped the quadruple alliance of Ger- 
many, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and 
Bulgaria — the three latter countries be- 
ing, in fact, the vassal allies of Germany, 
executing her will and cooperating in her 
plans for a Pan-German empire of Mid- 
dle Europe with an Asiatic annex in 
Syria, Mesopotamia and the remoter east. 

Italy maintained her neutrality until 
May 191.5. In the interval the country 
was disturbed by continual agitation. A 
strong and popular war party came into 
existence. It was provoked by the fact 
that Italy in earlier wars had been de- 
prived of territory in the Trentino, in the 
region of the Isonzo river, Trieste and 
Istria. This territory, in which a popu- 
lation of Italian birth or ancestry prepon- 
derated, was known as Italia Irredenta, 
or Italy unredeemed, and there was loud 
clamor for its recovery. 



Austria-Hungary, altho for years an 
ally, was not loved. In the days of her 
victory over Italy, when the former Ital- 
ian provinces were seized, she had delim- 
ited a boundary which gave her possession 
of all the advantageous heights and im- 
portant passes thru the Alps. Thus she 
had been a menacing neighbor, and the 
alliance, from Italy's side, had been con- 
summated largely in order to safeguard 
the possibility of another attack and in- 
vasion. 

The demand for war became so insis- 
tent in Italy that the government was 
forced to yield. No doubt existed that 
Italy went to war on the motion of her 
people rather than at the behest of her 
king, or of her military leaders. On May 
22, 1915, she declared war on Austria. 
Her declaration of war on Germany did 
not come until more than a year later, 
August 27, 1916. 

Italy's plan of campaign was to hold 
the mountain frontier along the Trentino 
region and the Carnic Alps, and to make 
her offensive against the Isonzo river 
front of the enemy, with Goritz and 
Trieste as her chief objectives. 

She had vast difficulties to overcome. 
The work of the Italian engineers in mak- 
ing possible a warfare largely conducted 
in snow clad and cloud capped mountains 
is one of the marvels of the great struggle. 

The Isonzo river front presented great 
obstacles to successful campaigning. The 



120 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 








■b* -9 


H 

Ml 


Kg , j 

99fi lis 


7 JL 


am mw;**' ■ H 









Edith Cavell, whose execution by the Germans 
shocked the world. 



Austrians held the commanding positions 
and were strongly fortified. They had 
to divert strength from the Russian front 
in order to meet the new assault, but they 
were able to maintain a defense that de- 
manded supreme efforts on the part of 
Italy. 

The campaign went slowly. Italian 
forces reached Austrian soil on the west 
bank of the Isonzo, and nibbled at the 
edges of the Carso plateau, over which 
lay the road to Trieste. A small advance 
was made into the Trentino, but was soon 
halted. 

Then Austria summoned its strength 
for a counter offensive. A great effort 
was planned to destroy the Italian armies, 
and end the menace that was interfering 
with the operations against Russia. The 
Austrian offensive in the Trentino was a 
well conceived plan to reach the Italian 
plains and cut the rail communications 
with the Isonzo front, thus compelling a 



Latin retirement from the positions that 
threatened Goritz and Trieste. It began 
on May 16, 1916, and was checked by 
June 3. In that short space, however, 
the Austrians pushed through the moun- 
tains, captured the Arsiero region and 
reached the edge of the Italian plains. 
They were within twenty-five miles of 
their objective when the Latins brought 
them to a halt, and began a counter offen- 
sive that gradually reconquered all the 
lost territory. The Italians were aided in 
bringing this serious menace to a sharp 
conclusion by the sudden drive of General 
Brussiloff into Bukowina and Galicia. 
Austrian troops had to be withdrawn from 
the Trentino front to meet the new Rus- 
sian advance. 

There followed a period of more or less 
desultory righting, and then Italy 
launched another great drive on the Ison- 
zo front. It began in early August, 
1916. The Goritz bridgehead and the 
Carso plateau Avere the objectives. 

The attack came as a surprise to the 
Austrians, who had their hands pretty 
well occupied with keeping the Russians 
out of Lemberg. It opened on August 
6, the Latin guns concentrating their fire 
on Sabatino, San Michele and the bridge 
across the Isonzo that was protected by 
these mountain positions. On August 8, 
in a great charge they stormed and 
crossed the bridge, took the mountain for- 
tifications and reached Goritz. The city 
fell the following day, while the Italians 
drove forward routing the Carso posi- 
tions of the enemy. 

Across the Carso plateau, south of Go- 
ritz, lies the road to Trieste. On August 
11. the advance continued along a twelve- 
mile front. The whole Doberdo plateau 
was occupied, and further gains made on 
the Carso. Oppacchiasella was taken the 
next day. The advanced line of the Latin 
army reached positions within thirteen 
miles of Trieste. The offensive rested 
with this for a few weeks, to be resumed 
in September, when more ground was 
gained on the Carso plateau. 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 



121 



In October and November the fighting 

.shifted to the Trentino and other sectors 
of the Italian front, but the wedge bad 

been driven far in toward Trieste, and the 
Italians were well placed for further suc- 
cessful operations. 

They resumed their attacks in May, 
1917, after a winter and spring that was 
marked by no significant events on either 
side. Under the leadership of General 
Cadorna they made amazing progress, 
sweeping over the Bainsizza plateau. 
northeast of Goritz, and taking practical- 
ly the whole of the Carso plateau. 

Trieste and Laibach were both men- 
aced by these victories. Austrian collapse 
seemed a not improbable result of the 
great defeats suffered by the Hapsburg 
armies. 

Then came a sudden reversal of affairs. 
Victory had thrown Cadorna off his 
guard. On the northern end of his Isonzo 
front enemy agents had been surreptiti- 
ously eorruptinganddenioralizinghis troops. 

Like lightning from a sky unclouded 
the bolt fell in the region of Caporetto. 
The enemy struck with large forces and 
important elements of the Italian second 
army, instead of resisting, threw down 
their arms and allowed the foe to advance 
unhindered. 

This disaster threatened to overwhelm 
the Italian forces, whose greater numbers 
and most effective troops were on the east- 
ern front, holding the two plateaus and 
the intervening valley beyond the Isonzo. 
The enemy was on their flank and headed 
with little to check him toward the main 
lines of communication upon which the 
Italian armies were absolutely dependent 
for safe retreat. 

The situation developed into a race be- 
tween the enemy and the Italians for 
T'dine. the main railroad center. The 
Italians won in sufficient numbers to save 
a large part of their great force. But a 
tragic part was lost. The enemy cut off 
and captured some 250,000 prisoners and 




Lieut. H. T. C. Walker, of the British Royal Navy, 
hero of the British naval attack on Zeehrugge. 



enormous numbers of guns and quantities 
of ammunition. Cadorna fell back fight- 
ing delaying actions until he had crossed 
the Piave. Here he made his stand until 
he was disposed of and succeeded by Gen- 
eral Diaz. 

Then followed a long siege and a stub- 
born defense. The allies sent aid to Italy. 
British and French troops left the west- 
ern front, and later some American units 
joined them, and took up positions in the 
Italian line. 

For a long time the situation was peri- 
lous. At places the Austrians crossed the 
Piave. They attempted to drive down 
from the Asiago plateau, and repeat their 
earlier success. German aid was freely 
extended to them. They had indeed been 
helped by the Germans in the original 
drive that compelled Italy's retreat. 

But repeated offensives failed to shake 
the Italian line, and in the summer of 



122 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 




ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 



1*23 




124 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 




German dead in their front line trenches. It may 
be horrible and all that but it was the only way of 
defeating the Kaiser. 



1918 Italy countered. She cleaned the 
western bank of the Piave of all hostile 
forces and regained important positions 
on the northern mountain front. Then 
she halted. 

The great climax came late in October 
and early in November of 1917, when, 
with the Germans in full retreat on the 
western front, Italy struck again. The 
Austrian lines broke; demoralization 
spread thru the ranks; the armies fled be- 
fore the pursuing allied forces, and thus 
routed their commander was forced to 
throw up his hands and ask for an armis- 
tice. 

It was granted. Its drastic terms were 
equivalent to a complete surrender. Italy 
occupied the Trentino, the Isonzo region, 
Trieste, Istria and the Dalmatian coast. 

In the debacle that followed for the 
dual monarchy the emperor abdicated, and 
the patchwork empire of central Europe 
broke up into several parts, each 



claiming the right of independence and 
self-government. The Germans and 
Magyars parted company; the Czecho- 
slovaks and the Jugo-Slavs established 
republics. 

When the full story of the war is writ- 
ten there will be no more brilliant chapter 
in it than that which tells of how Serbia, 
in its early months, routed the Austrian 
forces and drove them from her soil. 
With the Belgians, the Serbs have earned 
title to be considered among the bravest 
of peoples. 

Belgrade was under bombardment by 
August 1, and in the third week in Aug- 
ust an Austrian army that had crossed the 
Drina was routed at the Jedar, and driven 
back to its own territory. Then the tables 
were turned. Serbians and Montenegrins 
swarmed into Bosnia, and approached 
Serajevo. This continued through Sep- 
tember. With the coming of October, the 
Austrians regained the initiative. Their 
army had been re-enforced. They had 
some German aid. Crossing the Drina 
again they moved forward until they had 
reached the Oriental railroad, running 
from Belgrade to Constantinople, through 
Nish and Sofia. Belgrade was caught on 
flank and rear, and the garrison had to 
evacuate it and retreat. 

The Austrians reached Valievo. They 
were on the high road to conquest. Then 
happened one of the most dramatic events 
in the whole war — an event never to be 
forgotten. On December 9, 1911, with 
the shattered forces of the Serbians giv- 
ing way before the enemy, there rode 
upon the field the erect and venerable 
figure of King Peter. The white haired 
monarch rallid his discouraged troops, and 
leading them in person, swept forward 
against the enemy. The astonished Aus- 
trians were beaten, routed, driven back 
from Valievo, from Belgrade — back 
across Drina and Save and Danube, until 
the soil of Serbia was free from the foot 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 



125 



of her foe. It was a scene belonging to 
the warfare of centuries gone — a scene 
we are not likely to see repeated in the 
history of the world. 

Serbia remained free until the Great 
Mackensen drive began in October. 1915. 

Von Mackensen had displayed his 
military talents in the campaign against 
Russia. He was fresh from the scenes of 
victory. With an army of 400,000 men 
he hurled himself against the Serbs. The 
Austrian force that had unsuccessfully at- 
tempted to overrun the little country of 
peasant heroes was greatly strengthened 
by German troops, and the leadership of 
Germany's most brilliant strategist gave 
the new campaign an element of danger 
far exceeding the earlier effort. 

The Serbs fought courageously, but 
they were outnumbered and outgunned. 
Moreover by the middle of the month they 
were treacherously struck on the flank by 
Bulgaria, who entered the war as a Teu- 
ton ally. King Constantine of Greece 
made a scrap of paper of his treaty 
pledging aid to Serbia, and, although the 
allies landed forces at Saloniki, they were 
unable to advance with sufficient strength 
and rapidity to afford the Serbians aid. 

Belgrade fell on October 10. By Oc- 
tober 28 the Bulgars and Teutons had 
effected a junction in northeastern Ser- 





Brittsh outposts ever on watch for enemy attacks. 
This photograph shows an alert outpost in the Ypres 
Salient. 



The British Advance in the West. Trenches captured 
from the Germans during the great British offensive in 
the West. 



bia. Nish was captured on November 7, 
and the Bulgars sweeping west reached 
Monastir by November 19. A month 
later the Anglo-French forces, that had 
attempted to push up the Vardar valley, 
fell back to Saloniki. The conquest of 
Serbia was complete. 

But a large part of the Serbian army 
had escaped in one of the most terrible 
retreats of history, across the snowy 
mountains of Albania. That army, reor- 
ganized, is now back on Serbian soil, 
lighting with a magnificent courage for 
the redemption of its fatherland. Mona- 
stir, that fell into the hands of the Bulgars 
in November, 1915, was once again in pos- 
session of the Serbs in November, 1916. 

Serbia remained, except for a narrow 
fringe in the Monastir region, a con- 
quered land until the late summer of 1918. 
Then began an attack by the allied 
armies, in which the Serbs played a mag- 
nificent part, that routed the Bulgar 
troops, left to hold the Macedonian front, 
and brought the surrender of Bulgaria. 
A few weeks later the Serbs were back at 



126 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 



Belgrade, and when Germany and Aus- 
tria signed armistice terms, they had 
crossed the Danube and stood on Austrian 
soil. 

Roumania's participation in the war 
was a tragic disappointment to herself 
and to her allies. She hesitated a long 
time under pressure from both sides, and 
finally reached decision in August 1916 
to join the entente countries against the 
central empires. Once the decision was 



Russia, but Russia was in the hands of 
traitors and German agents, and the help 
she sent was wholly inadequate. Von 
Mackensen threatened Bucharest from 
the east, and Von Falkenhayn attacked 
the Roumanian armies in Transylvania. 
Between two fires the little country was 
helpless. Its intrepid forces that had 
crossed the Carpathians began a retreat 
before Von Falkenhayn. They fought 
courageously every step of the road, and 




Duke of Connaught, accompanied by General Currie and other Canadian officers, inspecting Canadian 

soldiers. 



reached she acted with more precipitation 
than wisdom. On August 27 she began 
an invasion of Transylvania, throwing 
her armies across the Carpathians and 
making swift advances. 

Then the redoubtable Von Mackensen 
was sent to subdue her. He struck her 
in the flank, using Bulgaria as a base and 
driving north into the Dobrudja, between 
the Danube and the Black Sea. She tried 
to hold him. A distress call was sent to 



gave ground only when defense was no 
longer possible. November was a month 
of repeated disasters, and on December 
6 the enemy entered the capital. 

Russian aid then screened the shattered 
Roumanian army while it retired beyond 
the Sereth, and for months thereafter, 
until the revolution ended Russian re- 
sistance, the Slav. forces held the Danube- 
Sereth front against the foe. 

When Russia entered the peace con- 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 



127 




King of Belgium and Staff. 



ference of Brest Litovsk and thru its bol- 
shevik agents made terms with the enemy, 
Roumania was forced to follow in a like 
humiliating surrender. The Brest 
Litovsk treaty was signed on March 2, 



March 4. Harsh • terms were imposed 
upon Roumania by the enemy. The 
little country could only pray that allied 
victory in the west front would bring her 
deliverance. 



1918, and the armistice of Bucharest on The little nations of Europe were not 



128 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 




The Magnificent Cathedral at Reims, France. 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 



129 



the only ones affected by the war. The 
people of Armenia and Syria and Meso- 
potamia felt its tragic pressure under the 
campaigns of the Turks. 

Turkey, as an ally of the central em- 
pires, served the important end to them 
of keeping the Dardanelles and Constan- 
tinople out of the hands of Russia and 
the allies, and thus preserving the bridge 
from Europe to Asia over which Ger- 
many planned to construct her great 
Hamburg to Bagdad highway. 

Great Britain was vitally interested in 
this phase of the struggle. Her posses- 
sions in India and her suzerainty in 
Egypt were menaced by the Prussian am- 
bition, and by the vassal aid that Turkey 
was giving to Berlin. Hence, early in 
the war, she made two efforts to check 
the Turk and his German master. 

One of these was the Gallipoli cam- 





Madam Poincaire, wife of the President of France. 



Photograph of M. Raymond Poincaire elected 
president of the French Republic, January 17, 1913. 
His term of office is seven years. 



paign, in which France joined her. It 
was a daring but disastrous adventure. It 
had for its object originally the forcing 
of the Dardanelles by a naval attack. 
The British and French warships pene- 
trated the Narrows for some miles, but 
under the fire from the shore batteries, 
and facing the subtle perils of mines and 
submarines, they were compelled to de- 
sist after several great vessels — including 
the Bouvet, the Ocean and the Irresistible 
— had been sunk. 

Then it was decided to land troops on 
the Gallipoli peninsula, constituting the 
northern side of the straits. The plan 
was to take the shore batteries, occupy the 
peninsula, menace Constantinople from 
the land, and. with the straits freed from 
enemy control, to enter the Black Sea 
with the navy. Had the plan succeeded 



130 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 




Left to right,' Marshall Joseph Joffre, one of the 
French Commissioners : Ambassador Jules Jusserand. 



Turkey would have been utterly crushed. 
On April 21, 191.5, troops were landed 
under heavy fire at various points on the 
peninsula. British and French troops 
cooperated. A large element of the Brit- 
ish force was composed of Australians 
and New Zealanders, whose magnificent 



fighting qualities and great daring earned 
for them the admiration of the world. 
These troops — known as the Anzacs — oc- 
cupied positions near Suvla bay. 

The Turks had been allowed time to 
occupy and fortify the peninsula, and 
they made a stubborn resistance. There 
are no better fighters when they are well 
officered than the soldiers of the Sultan, 
and they were organized and under the 
command of Germans in many instances. 
Month after month was marked by a bit- 
ter and costly conflict. Allied gains were 
slow. 

Early in August 191.5 the British had 
a great opportunity to win a decisive vic- 
tory. In the Suvla bay region, where the 
peninsula is narrower than at some other 
points, the Turk had been defeated and 
was in retreat. Had the retreat been fol- 
lowed up by an instant renewal of attack, 
the British might have cut across the 
peninsula, isolating the Turks on its 
western end from their base. But there 




The destruction of Louvain. A view of the famous Cathedral of St. Pierre known the world over for 

its famous chimes. 



132 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 




ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 



133 



was some failure on the part of the com- 
mand, and the opportunity was lost. The 
Turks were given time to rally and obtain 
re-enforcements. As a result of this fail- 
ure General Sir Ian Hamilton was re- 
called, and Major General Munro sent 
to succeed him. 

But the change in command did not 
greatly help the situation. In December 
1915 it was decided to abandon the cam- 
paign, and the British were withdrawn 
from the Sin la bay region. The follow- 
ing January the remainder of the allied 
forces bade farewell to the peninsula, 
leaving behind many a wooden cross to 
mark the graves of heroes who had died 
in vain. 

Concurrently with the Gallipoli cam- 
paign the British had begun a campaign 
in Mesopotamia and had been compelled 
to defend their Egyptian front. 

The Mesopotamian campaign opened 
in November 1914, when Basra was 
seized at the northern end of the Persian 
Gulf. The British were impelled by the 
need of preventing Germany securing 
access to the Gulf, where the establish- 
ment of a naval base would have been a 
direct threat to India. They were also 
intent upon blocking Germany's road 
thru Bagdad to Persia. Already German 
agents were busy in Persia instigating 
revolt. 

By seizing Basra a base was obtained 
from which Great Britain could control 
the Aral) tribes, whom Turkey, as Berlin's 
agent, was attempting to enlist in a "holy 
war." Operations went slowly at first, 
but successfully. In November 191.5 the 
British bad occupied Kut-el-Amara on 
tbe Tigris, about half way north to Bag- 
dad, and General Townsbend was Hearing 
tbe ancient city of tbe caliphs. 

Then came a serious reverse. Within 
eighteen miles of Bagdad the British were 
routed by the Turks, and forced to re- 
treat. They fell back to Kut, and there 
stood. The Turks besieged the city. 





A Zeppelin over Paris. A Zeppelin sighted over 
Paris boulevards. It can be plainly seen in this 



General Aylmer and Sir Percy Lake at- 
tempted to reach the city with re-enforce- 
ments and raise tbe siege, but failed before 
tbe powerful Sannavat position. On 
April 29, 1916, after 117 days. General 
Townsbend surrendered to the Turks. 
His garrison had been starved into sub- 
mission. 



134 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 




ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 



135 




Heavy Gun Supposed to Have Been the Type to Shell Paris, a Distance of 7". Miles. 



It was a humiliating termination to the 
first stage of a promising campaign. But 
the British are not easily daunted. In the 
following December, with a new army 
under the command of General Maude, 
they resumed the campaign. On Feb- 
ruary 24, 1917, they re-entered Kut. The 
Turks were badly demoralized, and the 




Copper hands on the gigantic shell used in the 
bombarding of Paris. This section was found in a 
street of Paris after a shell struck nearby. 



advance against them was continued with- 
out interval. On March 11 he entered 
Bagdad. From that time on the Turk 
was always in retreat. Expeditionary 
forces drove many miles north beyond 
Bagdad, and northwest along the Eu- 
phrates toward Aleppo. 

In the meantime General Allenby was 
conducting his Palestine campaign. The 
Turks had been routed on the Egyptian 
front, and the British had crossed the des- 
ert of Sinai, and entered the Holy Land 
on its southern border. 

On March 27 they met the main forces 
of the enemy near Gaza and defeated 
them with heavy losses. For some months 
thereafter progress was slow. Boads had 
to be constructed and communications 
maintained across the desert with the base 
in Egypt. All the fresh water for the 
British army was brought across the des- 
ert in conduits. 

In the autumn of 1917, however, Gen- 
eral Allenby got his movement under 
way. Beersheba was taken on October 
31. Gaza and Jaffa, the latter the Medi- 
terranean port of Jerusalem, fell in 
November. As Christmas drew near the 
world awaited with expectancy news that 



136 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 




ITALY AXD THE LITTLE NATIONS 



137 



the Holy City itself had returned to 
Christian occupation and control. It was 
thought General Allenhy might time its 
capture for Christmas day, hut being 
more of a soldier than a sentimentalist, he 
took it at the first opportunity and en- 
tered it on foot, in modest recognition of 
its sacred character, on December 11. 

The fall of Jerusalem marked the be- 
ginning of the end for Turkey in Syria. 
During 1918 General Allenhy continued 
his northward progress, slowly overcom- 
ing natural obstacles and enemy opposi- 
tion. Aleppo, the gateway to Asia Minor, 
was his goal. Once at this important 
junction point, where the railroad 
branches to go east toward Bagdad and 
south toward Mecca, be knew the whole 
of Syria and Mesopotamia would be in 
Christian hands. 

Early in October his long journey 
ended. He reached Aleppo, and the 
Turkish armies still left in northern Meso- 
potamia were cut off from Constantinople. 
On the last day of October Turkey sur- 
rendered. Thus the Armenians and 
Syrians were freed from the tyranny of 
the Ottoman empire, but not before un- 
told thousands of them had suffered hor- 
rors that cannot be named, and multitudes 
had perished from starvation and abuse. 

In the indictment of Germany must be 
charged not only the atrocities she per- 
petrated on the people of Belgium and 
France, but the brutal massacres in Ar- 
menia, carried out by her vassal ally 
without a word of protest or a restraining 
finger from Berlin. 

The part that Greece played in the war 
was not understood by many people. 
There were those who charged the allied 
nations with treating Greece as Germany 
had treated Belgium. Here are the facts: 




A diagram of the mammoth shell, probably the or- 
used in the immense gun located in St. Gobain woof' 
which bombarded Paris a distance of seventy-five mile> 
The destruction caused by these gigantic shells wa~ 
very great, and the Parisians were continually in ? 
state of terror until the Allies made a concentrate-: 
attack and drove the German forces beyond the Paris 
range. 



Germany violated a treaty to enter Bel- 
gium. 

The allies entered Greece to keep a 
treaty. 

Germany entered Belgium by violence. 

The allies entered Greece by invitatio ■ 
of the constitutional government, of 
which "Yenizelos was then premier. 



138 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 




ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 



139 



Germany killed Belgians and burned 
their towns. 

The allies respected the lives and prop- 
erty of the Greeks. 

Germany bled Belgium white with 
taxation. 

The allies kept Greece alive with loans. 

Great Britain, France and Russia were 
the three powers that gave Greece its in- 
dependence and placed the father of Con- 
stantine on the throne. They were obli- 
gated by treaty to preserve the dynasty 
and the constitutional government of 
Greece. The treaty further provided 
that they might land troops on Greek soil 
by common agreement among themselves 
in order to fulfill their treaty obligations. 

When Constantine refused to recognize 
the vote of the people that returned the 
Venizelist government after its forced 
resignation he over-threw constitutional 
government. This fact justified the pres- 
ence of the allies in Greece, aside from 
their invitation, and aside from the fact 
that they were there to fulfill for Greece 
her treaty pledge to Serbia, which Con- 
stantine refused to keep. 

When Constantine fled from Greece he 
knew that evidence of his base treachery 
had been discovered. He was the con- 
scious tool of Germany. His plea to be 
permitted to remain neutral was a dis- 
honest plea. He was never neutral. 




Capt. George Guynemer, the leading French avia- 
tor, and Lieut. Vosse, (in oval), a leading German 
aviator, meet death at almost the same time. 



In the last year of the war the Greeks, 
freed from the incubus of a Berlin-con- 
trolled monarch, joined with the Serbs, 
Italians, French and British in driving 
the Bulgar from the soil of Macedonia. 
The spirit of Greece was always with the 
allies. 













:. 



French Troops Going Over the Top and Entering the Enemy's Wire Entanglements. 



140 



ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 




ITALY AND THE LITTLE NATIONS 



141 



4x *v J' ~/A a- 



It & 

" 'A\V\y 





LOOPING TO ESCAPE THE MURDERC 











s 



1 



FIRE FROM THE ENEMY FLAXES 



The War On The Sea 



CHAPTER IX 

BRITISH FLEET MASTER Or SEAS GERMAN SKA RAIDS STOPPED 

U. S. AUGMENTS BRITISH SEA FORCES — BATTLE OFF JUTLAND 
U-BOAT WARFARE LUSITANIA SUNK. 



In no war since the beginning of the 
world has the sea played a part so im- 
portant as in this war. 

Consider a moment the position of the 
central empires, and then the position of 
the allied nations. 

There was no fighting front of decisive 
significance that Germany and Austria- 
Hungary could not reach by land, and 
there was none, except the Mesopotamia]! 
and Syrian fronts, more than 500 miles 
from Berlin. 

The central powers and their vassal al- 
lies had land communication. The trans- 
port of troops and materials could be done 
wholly by rail, and without risk of attack 
by the enemy, or of any enemy interfer- 
ence. 

For example in shifting her armies 
back and forth between the French and 
Russian fronts Germany ran no danger 
of loss thru hostile efforts. She could 
move men and guns to the Macedonian 
and Mesopotamian fronts without consid- 
ering the possibility that her enemies 
would block their road of travel or de- 
stroy them en route. 

But Great Britain could not reach any 
front without crossing seas or channels. 
Every man she sent to war, every ton of 
food and munitions, had to be protected 
against submarine attack. In order to 
keep contact with her Russian ally Great 
Britain had to travel thousands of miles 
around the Xorth Cape of Scandinavia, 



to Archangel. To reach the Macedonian 
front she had to travel the length of the 
most dangerous of all the seven seas — the 
Mediterranean. If the Mediterranean 
had been created for the express purpose 
of making things easy for the U-boats, 
its configuration could not have been im- 
proved upon. In order to reach the Meso- 
potamian front Great Britain had to risk 
these same waters, and continue thru the 
Red Sea to the Persian Gulf — a distance 
of 9,000 miles. 

Half a million soldiers came 3.000 miles 
across the Atlantic to fight with their 
British comrades, and were kept contin- 
ually supplied by transport between Can- 
ada and the front for four years. Half 
a million came round Good Hope or thru 
the Suez from Australia and Xew Zea- 
land, and were in like manner provided. 

France sent troops to the east and risked 
the perils of the sea. Italy, washed by the 
Mediterranean, was dependent upon sea 
transport for food and coal and almost 
every other essential. 

And all these countries relied upon 
America as a source of supply, and upon 
the Atlantic as a line of comnrunication 
with the food, and munitions and raw ma- 
terials of the American market. 

Finally, when the great crisis of the war 
developed, and the life and death struggle 
on the plains of Picardy and the banks of 
the Manic was being watched breathlessly 
by the world, the whole issue depended 



THE WAR ON THE SEA 




THE WAR OX THE SEA 



147 



upon whether America could get l,.iOO,- 
000 men across the sea in time. 

It is evident, therefore, that the sea 
constituted one of the biggest problems 
the allies had to face. They had to make 
the sea safe for transport and serviceable 
as a line of communication. If they failed 
in this the war was lost. 

As obviously the sea presented to Ger- 
many her greatest opportunity. It was 
the most vulnerable point at which to 



the great ocean highways with power and 

promptitude. 

It happened that the British fleet was 
mobilized for maneuvers when the war 
cloud gathered in Europe. Instead of 
demobilizing it slipped quietly up to a 
rendezvous in northern waters, and 
awaited developments. Thus it was ready 
the instant war was declared to meet and 
fight the enemy. 

The enemy, who probably entertained 




French soldiers moving up to the front. This British official photograph shows a detachment of stocky French 
poilus marching up to the front lines to meet the Huns. 



strike her enemies. 

Hence the struggle for the sea became, 
in many respects, the supreme struggle 
of the war. 

In this struggle Great Britain played 
the part that saved the world from a 
triumph of Prussianism. Weak as she 
was numerically and in material equip- 
ment for land warfare at the beginning of 
the war, on sea she was mighty, and she 
moved to the defense of civilization and 



hopes of a swift descent upon the shores 
of Great Britain and a sweeping cam- 
paign by fast cruisers against enemy com- 
merce, modified his plans. He did not 
dare to challenge the British fleet to do 
battle. 

Several enemy cruisers were at large 
when the war began, notably the Emden. 
These engaged in raiding tactics. They 
sank many thousands of tons of allied 
shipping, ignoring wholly the requirement 



148 



THE WAR OX THE SEA 



of international law that their prizes 
should he taken into port to have their 
status determined by a prize court. 

However the commanders of these 
raiders were humane. They made pro- 
vision for the safety of passengers and 
crew, and this consideration entitled them 
to the respect which even the allies felt 
for their daring and courage. Had Ger- 
many confined herself to such operations 
as the Emden conducted she would not 



countered a British squadron of lighter 
armament in the Pacific, off Coronel on 
the coast of Chile. Rear-admiral Crad- 
dock was in command of the British 
squadron. He was maneuvered into an 
unfortunate position. After a courage- 
ous fight against odds in which he went 
down with his flagship, the Good Hope, 
the rest of his squadron, excepting the 
Monmouth, managed to disengage itself. 
The Monmouth followed the Good Hope 




Shell from big German gun kills many in Paris nursery. One of the shells fired by the big German gun 
in the forest of St. Cubans, a distance of about eighty miles from Paris, fell in a nursery and created the 
awful havoc shown above. 



have sunk in the eyes of the world to the 
level of national degradation that now 
marks her. 

But the raiders were pursued and cap- 
tured one after another. An Australian 
cruiser, the Sydney, ran down the Emden 
off Cocos Island in the Indian ocean on 
November 9, 1914. 

Prior to this, however, a German 
squadron, under Admiral von Spee, en- 



to the bottom. 

This was the first important naval en- 
counter in the war, and it naturally gave 
great satisfaction to Germany and her 
friends, of whom, at this time, she had 
not a few in America and thruout the 
world. The von Spee victory was a blow 
at the supremacy of Britain on the sea. 

A month later, on December 8, 1914, 
von Spee was cruising north on the oppo- 



THE WAR OX THE SEA 



149 



site side of the continent. He was look- 
ing for victims in the region of the Falk- 
land Islands — British islands off the coast 
of Patagonia. 

Concealed in one of the deep harbors 
of the Falkland group lay a British 
cruiser squadron under the command of 
Vice-admiral Stnrdee. It was waiting 
for the Germans, and as they steamed 
northward past the islands, it suddenly 
sallied out and attacked. Before the 



on allied commerce was le + 't to the U-boat. 

The story of the U-boat's depredations 
is too long to tell in detail. The history 
of the war, exhaustively related, will need 
a large volume devoted exclusively to the 

U-boat. 

It became, at the climax of its destruc- 
tiveness, the most serious peril the allies 
had to face, and, in the end, it was the 
utter undoing of Germany. 




French warriors on horseback. General Joffre had kept these and nearly all his other mounted men from 
within rifle raree of the Germans. These men. who were photographed while reconnoitering in Sornme 
region, were as tine cavalry as the world ever saw. In their two years of service back of the trenches they 
had time to master the technique of their kind of warfare. 



enemy fully realized what was happening 
he had lost his flagship, the Scharnhorst, 
and the battle cruisers Gneisenau, Leip- 
zig and Xurnberg. 

That incident just about finished the 
surface efforts of the German navy. 
Such activities as were later engaged in 
by German battleships took place in 
waters immediately adjacent to Germany 
or Great Britain. The waging of war 



The U-boats had enjoyed several nota- 
ble successes in the opening months of 
the war. A number of British war ships 
had been sunk, and there was no little un- 
easiness lest Germany should be able to 
nibble down the strength of Britain's 
navy ship by ship. 

On September 5, the light cruiser Path- 
finder was sunk by the U-2 at the en- 
trance to the Firth of Forth; on Septem- 



150 



THE WAR ON THE SEA 







O-S 



S S 






THE WAR ON THE SEA 



151 



ber 22 the U-boats had a field day. They 
caught the armoured cruiser Aboukir in 
the North Sea just after she had parted 
from her sister ships the Hogue and the 
Cressy. The Aboukir was seen to be in 
distress by the other cruisers, and they 
went to her aid. This was exactly what 
the enemy had hoped would happen. As 
they neared the sinking ship each of them 
received in her hull a torpedo from the 
hiding submarine. All three cruisers 
went down with the loss of 1,400 lives. 
The cruisers were old and almost obsolete. 
The loss of life was the most serious phase 
of the incident. Germany was jubilant. 
She saw the destruction of the British 
fleet by "attrition". The U-boat com- 
mander responsible for the coup — Otto 
Weddigen — was decorated and became a 
national hero. 

But the British had learned a lesson. 
Instructions were given that in case of a 
ship being torpedoed other ships must not 
go to the rescue, but must take every pre- 
caution to ensure their own safety. Fur- 
thermore plans were considered and 
agreed upon for protecting the navy from 
the war of attrition without in any 
measure lessening its efficacy as a menace 
and a blockading force against the enemy. 

Losses to battle ships in North Sea and 
Atlantic waters became rare events. The 
enemy's successes were largely confined to 
the Mediterranean, where the problems of 
defense were exceedingly difficult, and the 
treachery of the King of Greece made 
murder easy for the U-boat. 

Germany soon realized that she had a 
long and probably disappointing task 
ahead of her in an effort to pick off the 
great British fleet one ship at a time. Her 
naval experts began to turn their atten- 
tion more definitely to the destruction of 
allied commerce. This was wise policy. 
To attack the allied lines of communica- 
tion and cut off the armies in France, Ma- 
cedonia, Egypt and Mesopotamia from 
their sources of food supply and muni- 
tions meant to compel the capitulation of 
the allied countries. 




Marshal Petain, the Defender of Verdun. 

Germany had scattered mines in the 
waters adjacent to the British Isles. Ger- 
man ships carrying neutral flags had en- 
gaged in this murderous work. It was a 
clear violation of international law. No 
nation had the right to make the common 
highways of the sea unsafe for neutral 
shipping and noncombatant merchant 
vessels of the enemy by the indiscriminate 
placing of mines. 



152 



THE WAR ON THE SEA 




THE WAR ON THE SEA 



153 



As a consequence of this action Great 
Britain in November 1914 announced 
that a safe channel for neutral shipping 
would be maintained in the North Sea 
for all ships entering and leaving it by 
the Straits of Dover. That meant Brit- 
ish ships would sweep up enemy mines 
and guarantee safety in the swept and 
guarded waters. Ships taking the north- 
ern passage did so at their own peril. 



safety of crew and passengers. Neutral 
ships were told that they ran danger in 
entering the zone, as a result of "incidents 
inevitable in sea warfare." 

That was the beginning of Germany's 
great U-boat campaign to starve England 
into submission. Predictions were made 
in Germany that England would be com- 
pelled to yield in a comparatively short 
time. 




Kemmel Hill Before the Germans Attacked. This was the French commander's post on Mount Kemmel 
the battle of April 24, when the Germans stormed and captured part of the hill. 



Von Tirpitz characterized this action of 
Great Britain as the closing of the North 
Sea to neutrals, and hinted at reprisals. 
The reprisals came in the announcement 
of the German government on February 
4, 1915, that the waters surrounding 
Great Britain and Ireland were a war 
region, and that every enemy merchant 
ship found in these waters on and after 
February 18 would be destroyed, without 
guarantee of warning or provision for the 



Further it was the beginning of the 
long controversy betAveen the United 
States and Germany over her attempt to 
make piracy and murder legitimate on 
the high seas. The declaration of U-boat 
warfare was followed almost at once by 
President Wilson's note warning Ger- 
many that America would hold her to 
"strict accountability - ' for offenses against 
the law of nations and humanity. 

To continue the story of the XT-boat 



154 



THE AVAR ON THE SEA 



war in detail would be merely to relate 
sinking after sinking, crime after crime 
against the innocent and the helpless. 
From the torpedoing of merchant ships 
without warning the Germans passed to 
the diabolical practise of shelling open 
life-boats with women and children in 
them. 

No brutality was too terrible, and the 
brutal deeds were met with rejoicing and 
approval by the German people. To this 
hour no voice has been raised in Germany 



"Whoever cannot prevail upon himself 
to approve from the bottom of his heart 
the sinking of the Lusitania — whoever 
cannot conquer his sense of the gigantic 
cruelty to unnumbered perfectly innocent 
victims, and give himself up to honest de- 
light at this victorious exploit of German 
defensive power — him we judge to be no 
true German." 

It was such utterances as these that 
later arose to refute the arguments of men 
who tried to draw distinction between the 




Real dogs of war on duty in the trenches. People often talked of the "dogs of war" but the dogs they 
thought of then were far different from these real dogs in the trenches. 



to condemn the massacres of the seas, or 
to regret such offenses as the torpedoing 
of the Lusitania and the Sussex. 

When the Lusitania was sunk, with a 
loss of 1,154 lives, a medal was struck in 
Germany to commemorate the occasion, 
and Pastor D. Baumgarten, a prominent 
German clergyman, in the course of an 
address on the Sermon on the Mount, de- 
clared : 



German rulers and the German people. 

After the sinking of the Lusitania more 
notes were exchanged between the United 
States and Germany, and America began 
a long season of waiting for an "overt" 
act on the part of the enemy — an act of 
open and deliberate hostility. 

In August the White Star steamer 
Arabic was sunk, struck by a torpedo 
without warning of any kind. There 



THE WAR ON THE SEA 



155 



were ±'2i persons on board of whom 26 
were Americans. While the lives of all 
were endangered only 30 were lost, of 
whom two were Americans. 

Alter some argument Count von Bern- 
storff, on behalf of his government, dis- 
avowed the sinking of the Arabic, and 
assured President Wilson that a recur- 
rence of like incidents was considered "out 
of the question." 

On February 9. 1916, Germany sent 
her last note on the Lnsitania affair, in 
which she declared she was willing to pay 
a full indemnity for the lives of American 
victims — as tho that were possible — and 
repeated the pledge that "unarmed mer- 
chantmen shall not be sunk without warn- 
ing and unless the safety of the passen- 
gers and crew can be assured." 

And a little less than a month later 
came the sinking of the Sussex, with a 
loss of some 80 lives. The Sussex was a 
channel steamer carrying passengers from 
Folkstone to Dieppe. She had 25 Amer- 
icans on board, some of whom were in- 
jured. The U-boat attacked without any 
warning and made no effort to save the 
victims of its torpedo. 

Germany attempted to evade the Sus- 
sex issue. She suggested a mine might 
have caused the disaster; she raised the 
point that the Sussex was armed, or that 
she was a mine-layer or a warship of some 
sort. These assertions and allegations 
were all disjjroved. 

President Wilson on April 26 sent Ger- 
many a note that practically informed 
her she had been caught in repeated lies 
and deceit, and concluded with the omi- 
nous declaration : 

"If the Imperial German Government 
should not now proclaim and make effec- 
tive renunciation of its present methods 
of submarine warfare against passenger 
and cargo ships, the United States Gov- 
ernment can have no other choice than to 
break off completely diplomatic relations 
with the German government." 




This shows the appearance of some of the fragments 
of shell found in a street of Paris. 

To this Germany replied with the an- 
nouncement that the German naval forces 
had received the following orders : 

"In accordance with the general prin- 
ciples of visit and search and destruction 
of merchant vessels recognized by inter- 
national law, such vessels, both within and 
without the area declared as a naval war 
zone, shall not be sunk without warning 
and without saving human lives, unless 
these vessels attempt to escape or offer 
resistance." 

At the same time Germany suggested 
that now the United States should exer- 
cise her influence to make the British gov- 
ernment observe the rules of international 
law. and added that if the British govern- 
ment did not follow the "laws of human- 
ity" the German government would feel 
it was facing a new situation in which it 
must reserve to itself "complete liberty 
of decision." 



156 



THE WAR ON THE SEA 




Camouflaged Big Gun. Mounted on a specially 
constructed railroad carriage, this big French 400 
m/m, gun was ready to bang away at the German 
forces making the drive on the Somme front. It was 
exceedingly well camouflaged to prevent detection 
by Boche aerial forces. 

The British navy had not occasioned 
the loss of a single neutral or non-com- 
batant life. Even in battle with German 
warships it had uniformly done everything 
in its power to rescue enemy sailors. It 
had bombed no open ports and sunk no 
merchantmen. It had most scrupulously 
observed the rules of visit and search, and 
the enemy had been given his day in the 
prize court. Its offense was the effective 
blockade of Germany at a point remote 
from the German coast and beyond the 
reach of the U-boats. 

The impudence of the German reply, 
however, lay in making the fulfillment of 
her pledges to the United States depend 
upon the conduct of a third party who had 



no place in the controversy. 

Matters drifted along under this ar- 
rangement until the beginning of 1917, 
and then, as elsewhere narrated, the crisis 
came and the rupture in diplomatic rela- 
tions as a result of Germany's proclama- 
tion of unrestricted U-boat warfare. 

That proclamation was the beginning 
of a new and serious chapter for the allies. 
The rate of destruction went up at once. 
In March, April, May and June of 1917 
ships were sunk in such numbers that it 
looked as if the enemy's intentions might 
be realized, and the surrender of Great 
Britain and France forced by starvation. 

The United States, entering the war on 
Good Friday, brought the help of her 
genius and industry to the problem. De- 
vices were invented for detecting the 
presence of submarines and for destroy- 
ing them. The depth bomb began to 
prove of great value. When the arming 
of merchantmen failed to lessen the sink- 
ing of ships materially, the convoy system 
was adopted. It proved the most effec- 
tive method of rendering the U-boat 
harmless. 

Gradually the U-boat was mastered. 
Allied ship-building efforts gained upon 
the ship-destroying efforts of the foe. 
America transported 2,000,000 soldiers to 
France with practically no losses. By 
the summer of 1918 the earlier alarm that 
the central empires might win the war 
with the submarine was dissipated. In- 
stead it was felt that the submarine could 
do nothing more than delay the issue. 

During the period of the submarine 
war the British navy had two clashes with 
the enemy on the high seas. Vice-Ad- 
miral Beatty, in command of a British 
patrolling squadron, encountered a Ger- 
man raiding squadron in the North Sea 
on January 24, 1915. There was a sharp 
little fight, in which the enemy battle 
cruiser Blucher was sunk, and two other 
of his big ships badly damaged. The 
British cruisers Lion and Tiger suffered, 
but were able to make port under their 



THE WAR OX THE SEA 



157 



own steam. 

The biggest naval battle of the war oc- 
curred oft' the coast of Denmark on May 
••31, 1916. 

Vice-Admiral Beatty, commanding the 
battle cruiser squadron, discovered the 
enemy's high sea fleet steaming north and 
west in the region of Jutland. It was late 
in the afternoon, and the weather was 
hazy, but Beatty at once closed in and 
gave fight. It was his purpose to engage 
and hold the foe until the British dread- 
nanght fleet coidd arrive on the scene. 

The battle raged mightily until dark- 
ness set in, and the enemy, realizing his 
peril, succeeded in slipping away in night 
and fog and reaching his own sheltered 
waters behind Helgoland. 

The British lost three battle cruisers — 
the Qneen Mary, Indefatigable and In- 
vincible; three armored cruisers — the De- 
fense, Warrior and Black Prince, and 
eight destroyers. The enemy admitted at 
the time the loss of one battleship, the 
Pommern, one battle cruiser, the Lutzow, 
four cruisers and five destroyers. 

When the war ended it developed that 
his losses had been far heavier than he 
had admitted or than the British had 
claimed, and that from May 31, 1916, 
until the hour of final defeat official Ger- 
many knew that its fleet coidd never again 
run the risk of meeting the British. 

In British naval history, however, no 
incidents will live longer or redound more 
loudly to the praise of Britain than the 
intrepid raids on the submarine bases of 
Zeebrugge and Ostend, on the Belgian 
coast. The former took place on the 
night of April 22-23, 1918. Vice Admiral 
Sir Roger Keyes directed the daring ex- 
pedition that undertook to destroy the 
fortified mole of Zeebrugge and block 
the channel by which access was had 
to the canal. Six obsolete British cruisers 
took part in the enterprise — the Brilliant, 
Iphigenia, Sirius, Intrepid, Thetis and 
Vindictive. The last named won great 



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Submersible Torpedo-boat Signalling 
Fleet at Biserta. 



glory. She landed storming parties on 
the mole while being hammered with shells 
from the enemy shore batteries. A noble 
wreck she managed to reach port. A few 
weeks later she ventured forth again, and 
allowed herself to be sunk at the entrance 
to the harbor of Ostend. 

In all the history of the world there has 
been no more wonderful spectacle, nor 
any surrender more utterly humiliating, 
than that which ended the long struggle 
upon and beneath the seas. 

When in late November 1918, the 
pride of the German navy, great dread- 
naughts, battle cruisers, armored cruisers 
and destroyers, steamed sullenly across 
the North Sea and gave themselves up to 
the waiting fleet of Britain with its allied 
squadrons of American and French war- 
ships, there ended the dream of Wilhelm 
Hohenzollern, the dream of a vast world 
empire, mighty on land and sea. 



THE WAR OX THE SEA 




French Submarine T 



'Lavoisier" Help* 




Ureat Austrian Battleship "Herzog Karl" surrendered to Italy. 



America's Long Patience 

CHAPTER X 

AMERICA NEUTRAL — BELGIUM STARVING — GERMAN PLOTS — 
LUSITANIA SUNK — EXCHANGE OF NOTES — RELATIONS WITH 
AUSTRIA BROKEN — AMERICA'S ULTIMATUM. 



America was slow to discover that she 
lived in the world rather than in the west- 
ern hemisphere alone, and that she was 
neighbor to Europe as well as to Mexico. 

When the war began in Europe the 
American people looked upon it as a 
strange and tragic madness of monarchs 
and subject nations, with which they had 
nothing to do, and could have nothing to 
do, except as intermediary in an effort to 
make peace. 

Millions of Americans were shocked 
and outraged by the ruthless treatment 
of Belgium when Germany hurled herself 
across the little country's frontier in a 
frantic effort to get at the throat of 
France. 

Some Americans wanted the United 
States to protest and even to threaten a 
declaration of war if Germany persisted 
in her violation of Belgium's rights and 
liberty. 

No action was taken by the American 
government, however, and it is probable 
the government faithfully reflected the 
sentiment of a majority of the people, at 
that time. There was very general sym- 
pathy for Belgium, and wide-spread in- 
dignation against Germany, but the old 
tradition that America had no lot or part 
in the politics and quarrels of Europe 
obtained thruout the laud, and few would 
have been willing to go beyond sympathy 
and indignation. 

America's sympathy was shown most 



practically and with little delay. All over 
the country funds were raised for the re- 
lief of Belgium, whose people had been 
reduced to misery and starvation in a 
brief space of time by the cruelty of the foe. 
When it became apparent that the 
proper administration of American boun- 
ty depended upon direct American super- 
vision, an American Commission for the 
Belief of Belgium was named, with Her- 
bert Clark Hoover, an Iowa mining 
engineer, as chairman. Mr. Hoover 
proved a wonderful organizer, a man of 
generous heart and great executive abil- 
ity. Under his leadership millions of dol- 
lars were raised for the help of King Al- 
bert's oppressed people, and under his 
personal direction the money was dis- 
bursed for their salvation. For two years 
he labored incessantly, handicapped by 
the frequent refusal of the German ad- 
ministrators of Belgium to cooperate or 
in any way to facilitate his work. 

The ministry for Belgium was Amer- 
ica's main means of contact with the war 
zone during 1914-15-16. There were 
other contacts, but they were all of the 
same sort — relief work for the suffering 
of Serbia, Syria, and Armenia, or ambu- 
lance driving and Bed Cross service in 
France. 

Officially America was neutral. The 
President issued declarations of neutral- 
ity as each new belligerent appeared in 
Europe. Immediately following tlie first 
outbreak of war. in August 1914, he ap- 



AMERICA'S LONG PATIENCE 










AMERICA'S LOXG PATIENCE 



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162 



AMERICA'S LONG PATIEXCE 



pealed to the American people to main- 
tain a strict neutrality in word and act. 

The American people made a loyal ef- 
fort to acquiesce in the President's 
request, and a very large proportion of 
them succeeded admirably; but the Amer- 
ican of German birth or descent proved 
in many instances an exception to the loy- 
alty of the majority. 

The United States did not realize at 
first that its citizens of German blood 



ment, the pride and even the fear of 
German- Americans. Secret, organizations 
were formed; oaths of loyalty to the 
kaiser were taken; reservists were drilled. 

Agents were hired to go into American 
industries and provoke and persuade the 
workers to strike. These efforts were 
directed chiefly to the demoralization of 
the munition factories, or other concerns 
producing goods that were of value to 
the enemies of Germany. 




French Advancing Behind a Barrage Fire. 



were being made the objects of continued 
incitement by German agents in Amer- 
ica; but this was true. Had they been 
left to themselves there is little likelihood 
that any serious trouble would have devel- 
oped. But men on the pay-roll of the 
German Ambassador, Count Bernstorff, 
and in the employ of Dr. Dumba, the 
Austro-Hungarian Ambassador, main- 
tained a ceaseless propaganda thru chan- 
nels and agencies of varied kinds by 
which they played upon the racial senti- 



At the same time agents lobbied in 
Congress, while subsidized or misguided 
newspapers thruout the country sup- 
ported their efforts to obtain an embargo 
on the export of munitions, and even on 
the export of foodstuffs. 

The propaganda of the Bernstorff- 
Dumba organization attempted to make 
the American people helieve it was unjust 
and, indeed, unlawful to sell guns and 
shells and food to the enemies of Germany 



AMERICANS GO TO FRANCE 



i<;.-{ 




164 



AMERICA'S LONG PATIENCE 




Premier Orlando directed Italy's War Committee. 

when Germany was unable to buy them. 
This was, of course, ridiculous. The 
manufacturers and producers of the 
United States had a right to sell to any- 
body who coidd reach their market and 
pay their price. It was not their fault 
that Germany could not come to New 
York or Boston or New Orleans and 
trade. The obstacle in the way was not 
American prejudice so much as the Brit- 
ish fleet — and that was an obstacle that 
Germany would have had to remove for 
herself. 

The refusal of Congress to follow the 
promptings of the kaiser thru Count 
Bernstorff and his agents, provoked these 
gentlemen to more desperate efforts. 

Explosions became frequent in muni- 
tion factories; bridges were blown up; 
trains were wrecked. 

But all of these things, altho vexing the 
American people, did not greatly stir 
them. Many of them simply refused to 
believe that they were anything more 



than accidents, or — at worst — the work 
of irresponsible fanatics. 

Then came a day — May 1, 1915 — when 
there appeared in the New York news- 
paper* an advertisement. It read as follows: 

NOTICE! 

TRAVELLERS intending to embark 
on the Atlantic voyage are reminded that 
a state of war exists between German} 7 
and her allies and Great Britain and her 
allies; that the zone of war includes the 
waters adjacent to the British Isles; that, 
in accordance with formal notice given by 
the Imperial German Government, ves- 
sels flying the flag of Great Britain, or 
of any of her allies, are liable to destruc- 
tion in those waters and that travellers 
sailing in the Avar zone on ships of Great 
Britain or her allies do so at their own 
risk. 

IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY 

Washington, D. C, April 22, 1915. 

Not many people saw this extraor- 
dinary advertisement, in which a foreign 
government ignored the government of 
the United States, and talked directly to 
the American people in threatening words 
and tone. Those who did see it paid 
little attention to it. 

But there were individuals to whom 
came mysterious warnings to avoid sail- 
ing from New York on the Lusitania, 
that was due to steam out of the harbor 
the day after the appearance of the Ger- 
man Embassy's menacing notice. Some 
of them heeded these warnings. Others 
laughed at them. The idea that Germany 
would sink a great passenger liner, with 
American citizens on board, seemed 
absurd. 

It was true that German submarines 
had been very active and had occasioned 
considerable loss, but, aside from the sink- 
ing of several allied battleships — legiti- 



AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE 



165 



mate prey — there had been no appal- 
lingly dramatic happenings such as were 
soon to come. 

In February the German government 
had proclaimed a submarine zone around 
the British Isles, and announced the es- 
tablishment of a U-boat blockade of 
Great Britain. 

President Wilson followed the enemy 
proclamation with a note addressed to 
Berlin, pointing out the perils of Ger- 
many's plan of blockade and its threat to 
the freedom and security of neutrals. 
This note closed with an emphatic decla- 
ration that if Germany violated the rights 
of the United States upon the high seas. 
the United States would hold her to a 
"strict accountability." 

It was with this phrase still clearly in 
mind that American citizens went on 
board the Lusitania, and sailed from New 
York, in spite of insulting advertisements 
and mysterious warnings. 

The Lusitania carried in her hold some 
small arms ammunition — rifle cartridges. 
She had no dangerous cargo. In every re- 
spect her manifest complied with the law. 
She was a British passenger liner. She 
had no troops on board, and altho on the 
naval reserve list, she had not yet been 
called for active service. 

At five minutes after two on the after- 
noon of May 7, 191.5, the Lusitania was 
slipping along rather slowly off the Old 
Head of Kinsale, Ireland. Suddenly the 
U-boat 39 appeared at her side, and dis- 
charged two torpedoes into the utterly 
helpless vessel. 

Xo warning was given, no opportunity 
for the escape of the women and children, 
and of course no effort was made to visit 
and search her, as the law of the sea 
requires. 

The great liner sank quickly, carrying 
to their death l,lo4 persons, many of 
whom were women and children. A score 
of little babies died pitifully. 

Among the 1,154 dead were 102 Amer- 




Major Baracca, Italian Ace. 



The news of this tragic happening 
shocked and horrified the world. It 
stunned Americans. It seemed impossi- 
ble to believe it true. After the first in- 
credulous amazement there came a surge 
of anger, and had President Wilson 
declared war on Germany the day after 
the sinking of the Lusitania he would 
have had a large part of the nation with 
him for vengeance on the cruel and cow- 
ardly foe. 

But President Wilson did not declare 
war. Instead he, made a speech at Phil- 
adelphia in which he said: — "There is 
such a thing as a man being too proud to 
fight; there is such a thing as a nation 
being so right that it does not need to 
convince others by force that it is right." 

The phrase "too proud to fight" was 
the most unfortunate the President had 



166 



AMERICA'S LONG PATIENCE 




AMERICA'S LONG PATIENCE 



167 



ever used. Torn from its context it was 
carried around the world, and wherever 
it was repeated there came back to Amer- 
ica the laughter of mockery and the scorn 
of men. 

President Wilson did not know Ger- 
many then. No man knew her as all 
came to know her later. Had lie known 
her he would never have used the second 
phrase, about a nation being "so right 
that it does not need to convince others 



onstrate the righteousness of the United 
States to the German intelligence. He 
went about his task earnestly, ably and 
patiently. He wrote two notes to Ger- 
many, in the first demanding reparation, 
and. in the second, emphasizing the de- 
mand, and insisting that Germany must 
not sink ships without warning, and must 
not turn passengers adrift in open boats 
at a distance remote from shore. 

After these several interchanges of 




Italians had many anti-aircraft guns mounted on tractors. Italian anti-craft guns and light artillery 
pieces were mounted and hauled into position by tractors. 



by force." President Wilson learned 
that there is only one way to convince the 
Prussian mind of anything, and that is by 
force. You might be as right as God 
Himself, and it would make no impres- 
sion whatever upon the type of mind that 
burned Louvain, sank the Lusitania, 
murdered Nurse Cavell and wantonly 
converted Northern France into a wilder- 
ness of death and desolation. 

President Wilson attempted to dem- 



notes, on September 1 Count Bernstorff 
announced that Germany would sink no 
more passenger liners without warning, 
and would otherwise comply with the con- 
ditions deemed by the United States gov- 
ernment to be essential in the interests of 
humanity, international law and neutral 
rights. 

Public indignation subsided a little. It 
was hoped that the President's concil- 
iatory plan would prove effective. 



168 



AMERICA'S LOXG PATIENCE 




AMERICAS LONG PATIEXCE 



169 



There were other provocations, how- 
ever, that disturbed the peace of mind and 
good temper of the average American 
citizen. The activities of certain agents, 
whose connections had been traced back 
to the vicinity of the Austrian embassy, 
made many people feel that America was 
much too tolerant of some of the repre- 
sentatives of the central empires. This 
impression became so strong that the 
State Department at Washington, early 



made small difference as long as the 
shrewd, unscrupulous little agent of the 
Ilohenzollern autocrat was still free to 
go as he pleased in Washington. 
Dr. Dumba had never been more than a 
tool for Count Bernstorff. Dumba was a 
business man and Bernstorff an aristo- 
crat, hence Dumba was content to he a 
valet in conspiracy for his master, the 
arch-conspirator. 

However the expulsion of Dumba — 




ftaiian Rersaglieri cycle regiment on their way to the Austrian frontier. 



in September 191.5, requested the Aus- 
trian government to recall Dr. Dumba. 
This did not mean severing diplomatic 
relations, but merely a protest against 
the conduct of the particular individual 
then acting for the dual monarchy at 
Washington. 

The Austrian government did as it was 
requested, and Dumba departed. Hut the 
departure of the Hapsburg ambassador 



for such it was in all but technicality 
led to further discoveries and disclosures. 
As a consequence in December the two 
German agents chiefly responsible for 
outrages and plots in America — Boy-Ed 
and Von Papen — were induced to follow 
the former Austrian ambassador. 

It was on September 1 that Count 
Bernstorff gave the sacred word of Ger- 
many that she would not sink another 



170 



AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE 




Austro-Italian Fighting in the Alps. 



AMERICA'S LONG PATIENCE 



171 



passenger ship without full warning. A 
little less than six months later, on March 
25, 1916, the channel packet Sussex was 
torpedoed off the French coast. She sank 
with loss of life among crew and passen- 
gers. Several Americans were on hoard, 
but happily escaped death. The Sussex 
was wantonly sunk. Xo warning was 
given. Xo effort was made to save life. 
It was another instance of cold-blooded 
murder. 

America was on the verge of breaking 
diplomatic relations with Germany. The 
anger of the people was intense. "Strict 
accountability" had been the words a year 
before, and Germany had acted as tho 
they meant nothing of which she need be 
afraid. 

President Wilson sent another note, 
and made a speech to Congress emphasiz- 
ing the serious and perilous nature of the 
situation. In his note he told Germany 
that should she repeat this crime diplo- 
matic relations would be severed. 

In a few weeks Germany answered 
with new promises of good behavior, and 
once again the United States swallowed 
its wrath and gave the Germans a chance. 

Thru the remainder of 1916 Germany 
avoided further provocation. President 
Wilson was re-elected in November on a 
platform summed up in the phrase "He 
kept us out of war." America, evidently, 
was happy to be kept out of war in 'spite 
of all the injury that had been done her, 
and the insults that had been heaped upon 
her. Her anger had flamed up occasion- 
ally, but there was no steady heat. There 
was certainly no heat intense enough to 
repudiate the pacifist slogan of the Demo- 
cratic nominee. 

This was in part due to the fact that 
the people of the great middle-west and 
far west were not yet aware of the real 
perils to tlie nation involved in temporiz- 
ing with a power like Germany. More- 
oxer the offenses committed by U-boats 
did not appeal with the same force to 
them as to the people of the eastern and 



" — ""*"" - — " " . 'W "".* ■ 




Military Men of Southern Europe, Roumanian, 
Servian and Greek. 



sea-board states. They were inclined to 
think that Americans should keep off the 
sea when the sea was dangerous, and not 
risk the provocation of international dis- 
pute and war merely to gratify their de- 
sire for travel. 

Following the victorious campaign of 
the President on his peace platform, 
there came a rather dramatic opportunity 
to act for a moment as a potential peace- 
maker. 

Early in December Berlin proposed 
that the warring countries engage in an 
effort to negotiate peace. Germany had 
just completed the conquest of Roumania 
by occupying Bucharest six days before. 
Russia was hors de combat. The hour 
seemed opportune to the Prussian leaders. 

President Wilson also thought the 
hour opportune for a definite effort to 
end the war. lie addressed an identical 
note to all the belligerents requesting 



172 



AMERICA'S LONG PATIENCE 




AMERICAS LONG PATIENCE 



173 



them to make a clear statement of the 
terms upon which they were willing to 
consider peace. He based this request 
upon the ground of America's interest in 
the restoration of peace. He argued that 
the prolongation of the war was endan- 
gering the security of the United States. 

The President's note was not favorably 
received in the lands opposed to the cen- 
tral empires. Nevertheless they replied 
with definite statements of their war aims. 
From all of them came a declaration that 
they would enter into no discussion of 
peace with Germany until she had defined 
her terms. The British prime minister 
insisted that there could be no peace with- 
out assurance of reparation, restoration 
and security. Finally in a combined re- 
ply, just as the year ended, the allies em- 
phatically rejected the German proposals 
for a conference, and reminded the world 
that Germany looked upon sacred prom- 
ises as "scraps of paper," and approved 
the principle that "necessity knows no 
law." 

However opinions may differ as to the 
wisdom of the course taken by President 
Wilson, it can never be questioned that he 
exerted himself to the extreme limit of 
patience and tact in the effort to keep 
America neutral and peaceful, and to en- 
courage a spirit of conciliation among 
the belligerent nations over-seas. 

More ardent spirits would have entered 
the war when Belgium was invaded, the 
Lusitania sunk or the Sussex torpedoed — 
excuses were abundant. But President 
Wilson was not seeking excuses to fight; 
he was trying to avoid fighting. If 
America had to fight he wanted it to be 
the result of a situation that left no pos- 
sible alternative; he wanted every Amer- 
ican citizen, no matter what his ancestry 
or nativity, to feel that America was en- 
tering the war only after she had ex- 
hausted every means in her power to re- 
main neutral and because national safety 
and self-respect could not be preserved 
in any other way. 



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This photograph, one of the most remarkable made 
in the national army camps, shows a number of the 
soldiers in the trenches wearing their gas masks, fac- 
ing a gas attack of the "enemy." 



When his attempt failed to obtain from 
the belligerent nations an agreement to 
enter upon peace negotiation — failed be- 
cause of Germany's refusal to commit 
herself to any definite proposals — he 
realized that he had gone as far as it was 
possible to go. He had given the central 
empires chance after chance, and they 
had proved shifty, untrustworthy and in- 
different to honorable appeal. Now, 
altho the proposal for negotiation came 
from them, and, at his request, had been 
met by the allies with a clear forthsetting 
of their war aims, the central powers de- 
clined to go on record as to their basis of 
bargaining. President Wilson was satis- 
fied at last that if Germany gave any new 
provocation to the United States there 
could be only one answer to it. Reason, 
persuasion and appeal were no longer of 
any avail. Force — force to the utmost- 
was the only way left. 



174 



AMERICA'S LONG PATIENCE 




The United States Draws The Sword 

CHAPTER XI 

GERMANY RENEWS SUBMARINE WARFARE — NO HOPE FOB 

FRIKXDLY RELATIONS — GERMAN-MEXICO PLOTS UNITED 

STATES DECLARES WAR OX GERMANY GEN. PERSHING ARRIVES 

IN TRANCE — FIRST UNITED STATES EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 

REACH FRANCE FRENCH AND AMERICANS SHOW CORDIAL 

RELATIONS. 



It was on the last day of January in 
the year 1917 that Germany announced 
to the world that she would wage war on 
the sea with unrestricted frightfulness. 
Tims she repudiated her pledges to the 
United States and intimated that she 
would torpedo without warning every 
ship that dared to sail the seas. At this 
time she had lost faith in the efficacy of 
her wonderful military machine and be- 
lieved that the huge fleet of submarines 
she had been building secretly would en- 
able her to starve Britain into submission 
within three months. She argued that 
she could afford to earn the hostility of 
all civilization so long as she won the war. 
The gauntlet thrown down by the Teu- 
ton warlords was taken up quickly, if 
reluctantly, by the great North American 
republic. On February 26th, President 
Wilson went before Congress and asked 
that diplomatic relations with Germany 
be severed. lie knew, then, that the step 
he was taking was irretraceable and that 
only a miracle could keep the United 
States from being involved in the fearful 
European struggle. His last hope, which 
was that the United States would be able 
to maintain armed neutrality, soon van- 
ished. Although the President authorized 
the arming of American merchant ships, 
the desperate German government pro- 
ceeded to carry out its threat and soon a 
whole series of attacks on the trading 
ships of the world, involving the loss of 
American property and of American 
lives. And so on April 2nd, the Presi- 
dent went before Congress again and re- 
quested that a state of war with Germany 
be declared. In this utterance Mr. Wil- 
son took pains to say that "We are but 



one of the champions of the rights of 
mankind." 

Congress did not hesitate as to its 
course. The revelation that the German 
Foreign Minister, while his country was 
at peace with the United States, had 
urged the German Minister in Mexico to 
arrange for a Mexican invasion of the 
United States, promising to Mexico a 
slice of American territory, and that he 
also had sought to improve this plan by 
seeking an anti-American alliance be- 
tween Japan and Mexico, aroused the ire 
of the whole country, and made the 
people ready to plunge into the Old 
World struggle. The Senate passed the 
war declaration on April i by a vote of 
82 to 6 and the House of Representatives 
passed it on April G by .'iT.'J to 50. At the 
same time the President was directed to 
employ the entire naval and military re- 
sources of the country to bring the 
struggle to a successful termination. 

President Wilson immediately after 
signing the war resolution issued a proc- 
lamation concerning the conduct and 
treatment of alien enemies. 

All of these momentous acts that swept 
America from her traditional isolation 
into the maelstrom of European strife 
took place amid profound emotion on the 
part of those participating, and breathless 
interest on the part of the people. 

Beyond a display of flags— flags of all 
the nations at war against the central em- 
pires — there was no great public demon- 
stration. Millions of Americans rejoiced 
that the bonds of neutrality were broken, 
that the obligation to silence and inactiv- 
ity was removed, and that — before it was 
too late America had taken her place 



176 



THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORD 




Commandant Bachkarova, the leader of the 
Women's Death Battalion. 



beside the great democracies of the world 
for the final fight against autocracy and 
the legions of oppression. 

In 1776 America had raised the flag of 
freedom and the right of self-determina- 
tion and self-government. She had been 
true to these ideals that then began to 
revolutionize the world. She had fought 
to free the slave. She had given Cuba 
liberty. She had redeemed the Phil- 
ippines from the bondage of Spain. By 
all that she had held precious, by all that 
made her history glorious she had a right 
to stand with France and England and 
Italy and little Belgium against the Hun. 
Her duty lay upon the frontiers of free- 
dom, and it was with a glad pride, count- 
ing well the cost, that America un- 
sheathed her sword, and sent across the 
seas to the older allies a message of cheer 
and comradeship. 

Generally speaking, the year 1916 had 
been most unfortunate for the Germanic 
combination from a military standpoint. 



Only on the Roumanian front had any 
consolation been offered to the high Ger- 
man command. Russia, although she ex- 
hausted herself terribly by her efforts, 
had carried off the honors on the east, the 
Italians had had a good year on the 
southwest and in the west the Verdun 
offensive had failed and the British and 
French counter-offensive at the Somme 
had made dangerous headway. Early in 
1917, therefore, Germany was dreading 
events on all fronts, particularly on the 
east and the west. Her agents in the 
east were reporting that a revolution 
might occur in Russia but the hopes 
raised by her secret agents in other quar- 
ters had been sadly disappointed and she 
could not be sure that the downfall of the 
Czaristic regime, with its pro-German ele- 
ment, would be a help to Germany. For 
that reason she decided to order a retreat 
from the great Arras-Soissons salient, to 
dodge the attacks the allies were prepar- 
ing and to depend on her submarines to 
gain victory at sea while her armies 
evaded decisive conflict on land. 

That was the general situation in the 
world conflict when the United States be- 
came a belligerent on April 6, 1917- 
Three days later the British forces gained 
a brilliant success at Vimy Ridge, and 
they and the French scored time and 
again during the remainder of the 1917 
fighting season hut they had not sufficient 
strength of themselves to overwhelm the 
enemy and the United States was in no 
position to render appreciable help except 
at sea. American dreadnoughts and de- 
stroyers were not long in finding their 
way to the North Sea and there, and 
around the shores of Ireland, they did 
splendid work in curbing the piratical 
underwater craft of the common enemy. 
The closest possible co-operation pre- 
vailed between the British and American 
admirals, and together they baffled the 
supreme effort of the enemy to accom- 
plish the defeat that the enemy's armies 
had failed to obtain. 

In the meantime the United States set 



THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWOKD 



177 




3 78 



THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORD 



to work determinedly to improvise an 
army and to build transports in the hope 
of aiding the allied nations to gain victory 
in the year 1918. As the months passed 
by and the destruction of Russia's mili- 
tary efficiency by the revolution became 
clear, it was seen that the United States 
would have to prepare to take a much 
larger part in the struggle than had been 
anticipated. Twenty-two days after the 
declaration of war. Congress passed con- 
scription or the law providing for the 
selective draft. In a few weeks, the regu- 
lar army, by volunteering, was brought 
up to a strength of 287,000 and the Na- 
tional Guard up to 02.5,000. On June 5, 
ten million young Americans registered 
and became available, when required, for 
the purposes of the national cause. Two 
Aveeks later, two million men, by drawing 
lots, were chosen for military service. 
This number was greatly increased in 
1918. Among those enlisting were 300,- 
000 colored men, many of whom won 
decorations 'on the field of battle. 

By the end of June General Pershing, 
who was appointed to the chief command 
of the United States expeditionary 
forces, and the first contingent of Amer- 
ican troops were safe on the soil of 
France. Training camps for American 
troops soon were established midway be- 
tween Paris and the Swiss frontier. 
Within six months of the declaration of 
war it became known that American 
troops were righting in the trenches on 
the Nancy front on the banks of the 
Rhine-Marne front. A few weeks later, 
in November, the Germans, in their 
eagerness to gain precise information, 
made an elaborate raid on the American 
front in which they killed three, wounded 
eleven and captured eleven men from the 
United States. Germany did not realize 
then that not a year would pass before 
the allies, with the material aid of a huge 
American army, would have beaten her 
to her knees. 

The flag of America had been on the 
front since the first month of the war — 




A. F. Kerensky, Russia's youthful Minister of 
War, formerly one of the greatest of the nation's 
heroes. 

since August 1914. It had been there as 
a promise and prediction that America 
would follow it. The story of where that 
flag came from and what befell it was told 
in Current History by the Rev. S. N. 
Watson. And this, in part, is the story : 

Under the burning skies of August, 
1914, there was seen in the streets of Paris 
a procession of soldiers of the Foreign 
Legion. Over the heads of one of the 
groups floated the Stars and Stripes. The 
soldiers who formed this American group 
belonged to the Second Regiment of the 
Foreign Legion, and their devotion to 
France and to liberty had impelled them 
to enlist. Their flag was the first Amer- 
ican flag on the French front. Some one 
had offered them this flag here in Paris, 
where the group was formed. They took 
it with them to Rouen, where they had 
their first camp. When Rouen was 
threatened by the enemy this regiment 
was sent to Toulouse. Returning from 
Toulouse to Paris for active service at 



THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORD 



L79 




180 



THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORD 




THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORD 



181 




Foreign Minister Leon Trotsky, of the Bolshevik 
RusMan Government. 



the front, its members draped the starry 
banner over the side of the cattle car in 
which they were riding; and, arrived at 
the front, they always found a place of 
honor for their idolized flag. When they 
slept at night, or when they went "over 
the top" in an assault, one man or another 
always carried it with him. 

At last came the moment when the 
United States took its place in the war. 
The little group of American volunteers 
was dispersed. Three were dead, one 
was grievously wounded, one was a pris- 
oner in Germany. Of one of those now 
dead it is reported that he lay three days 
in his bed without saying a word and that 
suddenly he seized the flag ami waved it, 
crying "I'm an American!" and expired. 

One of the survivors sent the flag to the 
rector of the American Church in Paris, 
asking him to offer it to the French Gov- 



ernment. The rector willingly accepted 
the task. He wrote to the Minister of 
War, telling of the request of his com- 
patriots, and received this cordial reply: 

"I accept with pleasure, in the name of 
the French Army, this glorious emblem, 
for which General Xiox, Governor of the 
Invalides, has reserved a beautiful place 
in the Hall of Honor of the Musee de 
l'Armee. This flag will thus remain a 
striking witness of the devotion to France 
displayed by the American volunteers 
who, from the beginning of the war, came 
to fight in the ranks of our army for right 
and civilization." 

General Pershing was present on the 
occasion when the flag was presented to 
France. It was on July 4. 1917, in the 
Court of Honor of the Hotel des In- 
valides, Paris. The French president was 
there, and the minister of war and Mar- 
shal Joffre. In making the presentation 
the rector of the American church in 
Paris said: 




Gen. Diaz, Italian Victor, Invited to visit America. 



18'2 



THE UNITED STATES DRAWS THE SWORD 



"What a prophet this flag has been, the 
first American flag that has floated over 
the heads of those who were fighting on 
the soil of France for the ideals which the 
banner represents, and which are the life 
and soul of France! It was not permitted 
to our gallant boys of the Foreign Legion 
to carry their flag openly, like the colors 
of a commander when he leads his soldiers 



has come to pass, now that the great Re- 
public beyond the sea is physically taking 
the place which it has always held in 
spirit. We are rendering a service to the 
comrades who died for France when we 
ask you to accept this emblem for which 
they gave their lives. It is also an inspira- 
tion to the living to be worthy of those 
pioneers who preceded them on the road 




"Battalion of Death" Made Up of Russian Women. 



to the charge, but they carried it just the 
same; one after the other, they carried 
this flag wrapped about their bodies as a 
belt — a life-preserver for the soul; one 
after the other, they were wounded — some 
were killed — and it was in this way that 
the American flag received its first bap- 
tism of blood in this conflict where now it 
lias its recognized place. 

"This flag has been the prophet of what 



that leads to eternal liberty and the Te- 
demption of justice." 

So the flag was placed among the treas- 
ured things of France in the heart of 
Paris, where it remains to this day. And 
General Pershing, with his staff about 
him, stood before the tomb of America's 
heroic friend and said: — 

"Lafayette, we are here!" 

W. R. P. 



The Decisive Campaign in the Year 1918 

CHAPTER XII 

GERMAN REVERSES AND (JAINS UNITED STATES SPEEDS UP — ■ 

GERMAN GIGANTIC ATTEMPT AT CHANNEL PORTS ALLIES 

UNITED UNDER FOCH FOCH's STRATEGY WINS GERMAN 

RETREAT ENORMOUS ALLIED GAINS GERMANY ADMITS 

DEFEAT ARMISTICE SIGNED. 



To understand how Victory came to 
the allied and associated powers in 1918 
it is necessary that we shall see the main 
features of the war in the preceding 
years. In 1914 the Germans tried for 
victory in the west and failed. In 191.5 
the Germans tried for victory in the east 
and failed again. In 1916 the Germans 
made their main efforts on the Italian 
and French fronts but their attacks broke 
down and allied offensives at the Somme. 
on the west, in Galicia on the east and 
along the Isonzo on the southwest made 
appreciable headway in spite of the most 
desperate Teutonic resistance. The 1914 
and 191,5 offensives of the Germans, 
while they fell short of complete success, 
carried the battle-fronts from one to 
three hundred miles away from the Ger- 
man border on the west and the east and 
for several years kept the devastation of 
war out of the fatherland. Thus the 
defence of Germany was maintained at a 
safe distance from the towns and cities 
of Germany which actually suffered less 
damage than was experienced by those of 
the various allied countries on the conti- 
nent which were victorious in the great 
struggle. Just so soon as the allies dem- 
onstrated their ability to sweep over the 
fair country of the Germanic peoples, the 
white flag went up and the enemy signi- 
fied that he would submit to any 'terms 
the allies saw fit to impose. 

The year 191 6 was the first one in 
which the honors did not go to the Ger- 
mans. In the two years next preceding, 
the Germans carried on extremely vigor- 
ous offensives, both of which came to 
within an inch of complete victory. Hut 



in 1916 the only consolation Germany 
could get out of the campaign was that 
she improved matters near its close by 
concentrating all her reserve forces 
against Roumania and overrunning the 
larger part of that country. Neverthe- 
less, she averted a disaster on the east in 
that year only by employing many hun- 
dreds of thousands of German troops on 
that front which were urgently needed 
elsewhere. Germany realized that the 
armies of Austria-Hungary were in an 
exhausted condition at mid-summer in 
1917, and that but for the assistance 
given by Germany the weary dual empire 
would have been overwhelmed, carrying 
down to ruin with her Bulgaria and Tur- 
key, and ultimately Germany, herself. 
As we saw in Chapter XI, it was the 
obvious inability of her armies under 
existing conditions to wage victorious 
offensives on either of the main fronts 
that nerved Germany to resort to unre- 
stricted f rightfulness on the sea and incur 
the hostility of the United States. 

Nineteen-seventeen was a peculiar year 
in the war. It opened under the most 
favorable circumstances the allies had en- 
joyed up to that time, yet it was a year 
of terrible disappointment of the most 
unexpected sort. The setback exper- 
ienced was not foreseen by Lloyd George 
in January when he said "We are on the 
verge of the greatest liberation the world 
has seen since the French revolution." 
Nor did the enemy's submarine venture 
accomplish its purpose. Thanks to the 
effective work of the allied navies, the 
conservation of food in America and the 
speeding-up of shipbuilding programs) 



184 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAR 1913 




Russian Armored Cruiser "Ruric." 




Austrian Coast Defense Battleship "Hapsburg" at Sea, Surrendered to Italy. 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



185 



along with the rejection of non-essential 
cargoes, the enemy's plan to starve 
Britain and shut off military supplies 
destined for France, was a miserable fail- 
ure. The year also saw the great North 
American republic, the United States, 
and plucky little Greece under Venizelos, 
enlist with the forces of civilization. The 
upset to the calculations of both the 
Huns and the civilized nations was pro- 
vided by the revolution in March which 
swept away Czarism and crippled still 



near Cambrai and almost simultaneously 
the enemy inflicted a disastrous defeat on 
the Italian armies on the Isonzo, captur- 
ing no less than 300,000 men and 3,000 
guns, representing one-half of the artil- 
lery and one-fourth of the personnel of 
the Italian field armies. 

At the opening of the year 1918 the 
anxiety of the allied nations was in 
marked contrast with the jubilant spirit 
of the German warlords. The enemy's 
highest command was convinced that it 




Provisional government troops guarding the central telephone station in Petri 



am the Bolsheviki 



further the military efficiency of Russia 
which already had suffered from the 
treachery of Germans in high places at 
the court of St. Petersburg. The im- 
potency of the Russian armies from an 
offensive viewpoint enabled the Germans 
and Austrians to move large numbers of 
troops from the east to the western and 
southwestern fronts. Thus reinforced, the 
enemy countered effectively when Brit- 
ish troops under General Byng broke 
through the German front with tanks 



would not be possible for the United 
States to develop an army large and 
efficient enough to be any considerable 
factor in the year's campaign and it was 
equally certain that the armies of France 
and Britain, which had had to send help 
to Italy during the previous Fall, would 
be unable to prevent bhe piercing of the 
allied battle-front by new methods and 
the defeat in detail of the separated allied 
armies. 

Yon Hindenburg, the German gener- 



186 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



alissimo, openly boasted that he would be 
in Paris in April. His chief lieutenant, 
Ludendorff, declared that nothing could 
rob Germany of victory. The Kaiser 
Wilhelm, himself, became so infected by 
the enthusiasm of his military advisers 
that he permitted the attack that was 
being prepared to be referred to as "The 
Kaiser's Offensive." Instead of pussy- 
footing for peace as he had been doing 
throughout 1917 he flaunted his political 
advisers, vetoed the no-indemnity-no- 



strength by the enemy gave him a numer- 
ical superiority in March of but little 
more than one hundred thousand men. 
but he knew that his advantage in unity 
of command, standardization of organi- 
zation and the ability to concentrate 
reserves where they could be of the most 
value, which the allies did not possess, 
was worth several hundred thousand men. 
He also knew that more troops were 
hurrying westward and by the middle of 
May would bring his numerical superior- 




These Russian soldiers were made of the right stuff and when called upon to fight to down the enemies 
of democracy, willingly took up arms and fought a courageous battle. 



annexation policy of the Reichstag and 
imposed an oppressive peace on Russia 
and Roumania, by treaties signed at 
Brest-Litovsk and Bucharest in Febru- 
ary and March. 

By the spring of 1918 the German 
armies in France and Belgium were at 
least half a million stronger than they 
were a year earlier while those of the 
allies, actually fit for the front, were little 
if any more numerous. This accession of 



ity in troops actually available for the 
firing line up to five hundred thousand. 
Consequently, he had little doubt of his 
ability to destroy the allied armies before 
the military power of the United States 
coidd come into play. So great was his 
confidence that he figured that he could 
afford to take chances. 

Perhaps the best plan open to the 
enemy was to concentrate against the 
French. The morale of France was 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



187 



shakier and the army of France was more 
exhausted than were those of Britain. 
In April and May of 1917 the political 
situation in France caused the allies con- 
cern owing to the war-weariness of the 
people. It was possible, therefore, that 
even though the French army were not 
destroyed by a smashing German attack, 
the morale of the nation would not bear 
the tremendous increase in casualties in- 
volved in the French bearing the brunt 
of the German attack. 



against the British and only reluctantly 
did he yield to Petain's request, which 
was backed up by the Supreme Allied 
War Council which had been formed to 
tide the allies over the supreme crisis of 
the war. 

The plan that Hindenburg actually 
did put into operation was to attack the 
British on the .50-mile front extending 
from La Fere on the Oise river to the 
region of Arras on the Scarpe river. The 
enemy's generalissimo knew that the 




A striking glimpse of Russia's army of women. 2.500 in number, drilling behind the trenches at the central 

western front. 



General Petain, the French command- 
er-in-chief, seems to have expected 
Hindenburg to concentrate against the 
French. The most likely point of attack 
against the French was in the Rheims 
region and Petain strongly urged Gen- 
eral Haig. the British commander-in- 
chief, to take over twenty-eight more 
miles of front on both sides of St. Quen- 
tin but mostly south of that city. General 
Haig was not sure that the Germans' 
confidence would not lead to an attack 



southern third of this fiont was weakly 
held, that its rear defences were not com- 
pleted and that the bulk of the British 
reserves were well to the north behind a 
vital portion of the line while the bulk 
of the French reserves were well to the 
east in the region of Rheims where the 
French were awaiting an onslaught. He 
argued that if he could make a huge 
In-each in the allied front at the point 
where the British front ended and the 
French front began, the German armies 



188 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



could push well through, turn, and then 
roll up the lines of the separated allied 
armies, driving the British northwest- 
ward towards the Straits of Dover and 
the French southeastward towards the 
Swiss frontier, in which case Paris woidd 
be gathered in without trouble and the 
allied armies be destroyed at leisure. 

During her last bid for victory, made 
on the western front in 1918, Germany 
used 3,000,000 men. Of these 2,500,000 
were on hand and available when the 
great opening attack was made upon the 
British on March 21st. The British 
armies at that time held a front of 125 
miles stretching northward from the Oise 
river in France, to a point just beyond 
Ypres in Belgium. The order of the 
British armies from south to north Mas 
Fifth, Third, First and Second, their 
commanders, in the same order, being 
Generals Gough, Byng, Home and 
Plumer. Although the British held but- 
little more than one-fourth of the entire 
battle-front between Switzerland and the 
North Sea they really were playing a 
much more important part than the 
length of line indicated for opposed to 
them were two and a half times as many 
Germans to the mile as were to be found 
elsewhere. This was true even before the 
Germans massed their troops for the final 
offensive. 

The methods the Germans would use 
in their attack were known to the allies. 
The British army headquarters frankly 
published a statement in the middle of 
February in which the British officers 
said that the Germans, after training 
their troops for a dash over destroyed 
trenches and for open fighting beyond 
were already bringing their men forward 
towards the line and that after a few 
hours' violent bombardment the assaidt 
troops, which would stealthily enter the 
front trenches during the night after a 
long march, would "go over the top." It 
was expected that powerful tanks, shells 
combining high explosives and gases and 
vast numbers of mobile guns that would 




Premier Nikolai Lenine of the Bolshevik Russian 
Government. 



keep pace with the advancing infantry, 
would feature the German onslaught. 
This whole program was carried out as 
anticipated by the intelligence corps 
of the British army with the exception 
that the German tanks played a very 
unimportant part. 

All through the winter of 1917-18 the 
British army prepared for a defensive 
in the first half of the 1918 fighting sea- 
son or until sufficient troops from Amer- 
ica were ready for offensive operations. 
It was considered quite possible that a 
retirement from St. Quentin to the 
Somme bend at Peronne might be forced, 
and the bridgehead at Peronne was very 
powerfully fortified and the whole line of 
the Somme prepared as a defensive posi- 
tion. It was felt that more ground could 
be yielded safely here than farther north 
and it was in the Arras region that the 
•strongest measures were taken to check 
an enemy advance. Along the whole 
front, the first two or three miles back 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAR 1018 



189 



from No Man's Land constituted an out- 
post line studded with redoubts and 
machine gun nests. It was hoped that 
the Germans, after their preparatory 
bombardment, woidd suffer staggering 
losses in trying to overwhelm the sur- 
vivors of this thinly-held outpost area and 
that when they reached the main battle- 
positions on the far side their assaults 
would collapse. 

All the weather conditions favored the 
German attack. The season was excep- 



through and immediately it became nec- 
essary for the forces on either side to 
retreat in order to avoid being hopelessly 
outflanked. 

To say that the world was astounded 
and thrown into a state of consternation 
by this German success is to state the 
truth mildly. The average person had 
come to believe that siege warfare woidd 
be continued until the end of the war. 
People had been told so many times that 
it was beyond the power of either side to 




Flight of Rus 



The camera caught a handful of the thousands as they fled in disorder from the foe. 



tionally advanced and extraordinarily 
dry but the enemy waited until he was 
sure that a heavy morning mist would 
overhang the battle area. Then after a 
bombardment exceeding in fury anything 
the world ever had known the storm 
troops dashed forward. On the first day 
they broke well into the outpost positions 
but made no alarming progress. The 
next day, seeing signs of weakness in the 
St. Quentin region, the enemy redoubled 
his efforts in that quarter and broke cleat. 



break through and the slow variation of 
the battle-line in other years had so de- 
stroyed their hopes that they looked for 
nothing very spectacular on land and 
certainly not a war of movement. The 
fact that for years the British had not 
lost a gun and that in 1916 and 1917 the 
British had conducted repeated offensives 
against the enemy with ever-increasing 
success, had lulled them into a sense of 
security which even the desertion of Rus- 
sia with one-half of all the allied soldiery 



190 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



and the disastrous defeat of the Italian 
army a few months before had not swept 
awaj . 

The German success in the closing days 
of March were most impressive. Two 
days after the battle began Berlin claimed 
the capture of 16,000 British soldiers and 
200 guns. These figures soon grew to 
70,000 British prisoners and 1,200 guns 
captured. The efforts of General Gough 
to stay his retreat at the So.nme were not 
successful. The fortified British defences 
on a 60 mile front soon were obliterated. 
The dryness of the season enabled the 
Germans to break across at unexpected 
points and fearing that his somewhat dis- 
organized army was in no condition to 
make a stand and that a debacle- might 
result from a rash attempt to hang on, 
General Gough ordered the abandonment 
of the great Peronne bridgehead. 

As the enemy advanced, gap after gap 
opened in the living battle-front the allies 
tried to present to the foe. The British, 
aided by the French, had the utmost dif- 
ficulty preventing the enemy from getting 
far to the rear of their main forces. 
Cavalry had not shown to advantage on 
other occasions but the British command- 
er-in-chief himself bears testimony to the 
fact that on this occasion but for the 
heroic sacrifices made by the cavalry that 
dashed forward to fill the gaps as they 
appeared, it is hard to see how. the tide 
of defeat could have been stayed. Labor 
units under Generals Grant and Carey, 
Canadian and American engineers who 
happened to be in the line of advance, 
and even Chinese coolies were thrown into 
the breaches. These, with the aid of 
troops hurriedly detached from the near- 
est French armies and of Canadian cav- 
alry, and some light tanks, performed 
invaluable services. Without them, 
Amiens could not have been saved. 

Advancing at the rate of seven miles 
a day for six days, the Germans by March 
28th, were 43 miles beyond their starting 
point at St. Quentin and their guns near 
Montdidier were shelling the most im- 




Real head of the Greek government and the com- 
mander of the Allied forces in Greece. Left to right: 
Eleutherius Venizelos, the prime minister of Greece, 
and the real head of the Greek government, with 
Genera! Sarrail, French commander of the Allied 
forces in Greece. 



portant of the allies' lateral lines of com- 
munication, which ran through Amiens. 
At the same time projectiles from a mar- 
vellous cannon were dropping on Paris 
from a point more than 80 miles away in 
the forest of St. Gobain, near Laon. 

It was hoped by the Germans that this 
new form of frightfulness, and the exag- 
gerated stories of panic-stricken civilian 
refugees, would cause the complete col- 
lapse of the morale of France. In this 
the enemy was disappointed. Premier 
Clemenceau rose to the occasion by a dis- 
play of sublime courage. The French 
army never showed to better advantage. 
It quickly put into effect plans for mutual 
co-operation that already existed, and 
took over ten miles of British front which, 
by the determined advance of the enemy 
soon was stretched to a length of fifty 
miles, extending easterly and westerly and 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAH 1918 



191 




Ferdinand, King of Roumania. 

not northerly and .southerly as hefore. 

Innumerable deeds of gallantry per- 
formed by individuals and by units which 
were performed in the path of the Ger- 
man advance never will be chronicled. 
Only a few have been recorded. One of 
these is told by General Haig in his offi- 
cial report. The enemy had swept over 
Roisel, Peronne, Ham, Xesle, Bray, 
Chaulnes and Roye and 100 men of the 
Gist Brigade. 20th division, were told off 
under the command of Captain E. C. 
Combe, M. C, to make a stand at Ques- 
ndy and cover the retreat of their division. 
From early morning until six at night 
this little detachment fought against ter- 
rible odds until finally the order came for 
it to retire. By that time only eleven of 
the gallant one hundred survived. The 
other eighty-nine had sacrificed them- 
selves that their fellows might effect their 
retirement and that the Great Cause for 
which the allies fought might prevail. 

Within ten days the enemy's drive 



south of the Somme river definitely was 
checked, notwithstanding the fact that 
General Gough 's Fifth Army virtually 
had been destroyed, and its commander 
assigned to the task of preparing field de- 
fences. 

On March 26th, the British and French 
government appointed General Foch as 
governments appointed General Foch as 
in the western arena. Two days later 
General (rough was transferred and Gen- 
eral Rawlinson was placed in command 
of the British forces south of the Somme 
river. At this time the Fourth British 
Army, that Rawlinson previously had 
commanded, was in reserve. North of 
the Somme the battle-front stabilized fol- 
lowing the crushing defeat of an attack 
launched against Arras on March 28th. 
Byng's Third Army had come through 
the ordeal with flying colors, although on 
several successive days it was dangerously 
menaced by German troops that kept fil- 
tering through and opening up new gaps. 
At last every hole was plugged up and 
every outflanking movement baffled and 
the enemy was forced to turn elsewhere 
in the hope of gaining a new success. 

It always will be a matter of contro- 
versy how much, if at all, General Gough 
was to blame for the British reverse in 
March. His commander-in-chief empha- 
sizes the fact that while Byng with his 
Third Army held only 27 miles of front, 
with an average of one division to 4,700 
yards, Gough with his Fifth Army held 
a front of 42 miles, with an average oft 
one division to every 6,750 yards of front. 
In other words, relative to its task, the 
Fifth Army was one-third weaker than 
the Third Army. On the opening day 
of the attack the enemy launched 64 divi- 
sions against 29 British divisions, of which 
only 19 actually were on the firing line, 
the others being in reserve. Before this 
first drive spent itself in front of Amiens, 
the enemy had used 73 divisions and the 
British 42 divisions. 

The critical situation facing the allies 
in the first week of April easily can be 



192 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



71 '^XL^^77~] 




Montenegrin Standard Bearer. 

imagined. The Fifth British Army vir- 
tually had been destroyed by the German 
attack. Probably between one-half and 
two-thirds of its numbers had been killed, 
wounded or captured. The remainder 
were in no condition for immediate fight- 
ing and had to be sent to quiet parts of 
the line or to reserve camps for rest and 
reorganization. Even the Third Army 
was in a serious state, from fighting night 
and day without sleep and sometimes for 
days at a stretch without food. Thus one- 
half of the entire British forces in France 
had been destroyed or had its fighting 
efficiency dangerously impaired. At the 
same time the length of battle-front that 
had to be defended, in the open and with- 
out the aid of elaborately fortified sys- 
tems, had increased from fifty to one 
hundred miles. Obviously, the British 
were in no condition to take care of all 
the new front, and the French army un- 
der General Fayolle rapidly extended its 
front westward," and with the aid of other 
French troops concentrated 300,000 men 
on the southern half of the huge salient 
made by the German advance. This 



drain on the French reserves and the 
weakening of the French front along the 
Aisne and elsewhere offered the enemy 
the alternative of making a drive south- 
ward towards Paris against the French 
or westward towards the Channel ports 
against the British. As the British were 
in much the more serious condition, the 
enemy elected to resume his offensive 
operations by a smash westward from the 
Aubers ridge on April 9th. 

Before the German drive in Flanders 
develoj)ed it became clear to most observ- 
ers that the decisive struggle then pro- 
gressing would continue throughout the 
spring and summer and that victory 
woidd depend on the speed with which the 
belligerents put their last reserves into 
the fray. The enemy, having failed to 
gain complete success in March, was sure 
to scour all Central Europe for men. 
The allies, on their part, sent out mes- 
sages for help to the outermost parts of 
the earth. In one of these appeals, the ' 
British premier said to Canada's gov- 
ernor-general "Let no one think that 
what even-die remotest of our Dominions 
can now do can be too late." The allies 
also made the most urgent representations 
to the United States to speed up the 
transportation of troops to Europe. It 
was found that the United States was 
making elaborate preparations for war in 
1919 and 1920 and was far behind in its 
program for providing airplanes, guns 
and munitions in 1918. The American 
army was without adequate divisional or- 
ganization for the troops when they 
landed in France and the training of the 
troops could not be hurriedly completed 
on the continent. The allies, however, 
persuaded the United States to rush for- 
ward troops without their full equipment, 
promising to make up all deficiencies, 
themselves, so far as possible, and to assist 
in the training. General Pershing splen- 
didly co-operated by offering to permit 
trained American troops to be brigaded 
for service with British and French troops 
and President Wilson agreed that if the 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1018 193 




Prof. Thomas G. Masaryk, President of Czecho-Slovakia, Signing the Declaration of Independence 
of Czecho-Slovakia, in Independence Hall, Philadelphia. 



194 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



allies would find sufficient vessels, Amer- 
ican troops would go forward at the rate 
of 250,000 a month. 

By the opening of April the Germans 
already had overrun 1,200 additional 
square miles of French soil and the hearts 
of the French people, who had been hop- 
ing for nearly four years to see the enemy 
expelled, nearly stopped beating. It ap- 
peared to be likely that the second drive 
would be made in the north, and that the 



ports of Calais and Boulogne. By April 
3rd the world knew that trained Amer- 
ican troops were marching down the roads 
of France to share in the great ordeal on 
the German offensive front. The total 
number of American troops ready for 
service at that time was about 200,000. 

A number of circumstances favored the 
German drive in Flanders in April. 
Part of the front to be attacked was 
manned by Portuguese who had been 




Latest photo of Ex-King Constantine, Queen Sophie and their children at their castle in Switzerland. In 
the family group sitting from left to right are Ex-Crown Prince George, Ex-Queen Sophie, Ex-King Con- 
stantine and Princess Helene. Standing are Princess Katherine, Prince Paul and Princess Irene. 



enemy would try to crowd the allies out 
of the 300 square miles of Belgian soil 
that they had managed to hold since the 
beginning of the war. Colonel Reping- 
ton, the London Times' correspondent, 
had expressed the opinion that "grave 
strategic decisions may not be only due 
but overdue", by which he meant that per- 
haps the allies already should have aban- 
doned Ypres and the rest of Belgium and 
northwestern France and the Channel 



long without a rest period, who never had 
experienced a real offensive and who were 
in course of removal from the trenches 
when the attack was launched. Another 
part of the front was held by hard-tried 
veterans who had been put in this sup- 
posedly quiet sector after being terribly 
decimated in the March fighting. Here, 
too, the dryness of the season made pos- 
sible a quick advance over the usually 
muddy lowlands on both sides of the Lys 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 19; 



I 


11 










Tanan honors late American ambassador, provides cruiser to carry body to United States. The first-class 
Japanese cruiser Azuma steaming from Tokio with the body of the late George W. Guthr.e, American 
ambassador to Japan. The body was brought to San Francisco. Solemn ceremon.es marked the sailing of 
the vessel. 



196 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAR 1918 



river. At a point so far north, also, it 
was much harder for the French and 
American troops to render assistance. By 
keeping after the overworked and partly 
exhausted British army, the Germans 
lioped to break the backbone of the allied 
resistance and gain a triumph that woidd 
repay them for all their losses in the 
colossal struggle. 

The fact that the British were antici- 
pating an attack on the Flanders front 
or in the Artois did not save them from a 
second serious setback. The Germans 
smashed forward on a 35-mile front to a 
depth of 13 miles and in the first three 
days of the attack captured more than 
20,000 men and 200 guns. The line op- 
posite the Portuguese was completely 
pierced and only by the most desperate 
gallantry of various British units was the 
gap closed. The fact that the Australian 
troops some weeks before had been moved 
south to the Ancre river region made it 
the more difficult to redeem the situation. 
The enemy drove up the Lys valley and 
turning northward menaced the line of 
retreat of the British forces in the Ypres 
salient. As they moved northward up 
the slopes of the ridge on which Mount 
Kemmel stood out like an island, it be- 
came evident that the British had not the 
power to wage an immediate counter- 
offensive and that it was advisable to re- 
duce the famous Ypres salient so as to 
be in a better position to prevent a break- 
through that would give the enemy the 
Channel ports. Then on April 17th, 
eight days after the enemy's drive began, 
it was announced that Messines, Passch- 
endaele, Zonnebeke, Hill 60 and Ilolle- 
beke, and all the high ground that the 
British, Canadian and Australasian 
troops had taken at the cost of 150,000 
casualties in 1917 had been abandoned to 
the foe. It is known now that this was 
in accordance with plans drawn up some 
time before. These were carried out with 
remarkable success, so that the enemy was 
full of chagrin when he learned that the 
enemy had eluded his grasp even before 




Japanese Officers Representing japan 
at Allied Councils. 



he stretched out his hand. By dodging 
the blow the enemy was preparing in Bel- 
gium. General Plumer threw the enemy 
off his stride and made it necessary for 
him to go several miles over shell-muti- 
lated ground and prepare all over again 
for a great advance. 

At this time General Maurice, the 
director of British military operations, an 
official located in England, was so con- 
cerned about the course of operations and 
possibly so prejudiced against the ap- 
pointment of a generalissimo in the 
person of Foeh, a military officer of a 
foreign nation, that he broke into print 
with the question "Where is Blucher?", 
thereby intimating that the allied com- 
mander-in-chief was not properly and 
promptly supporting the British forces in 
the field. For this extraordinary piece of 
presumption he was removed from office. 
It would have been impossible to retain 
him and preserve sympathetic relations 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



197 



with the sorely-tried French republic. 
The answer to Genera] Maurice's ques- 
tion came in a few days when French 
troops went into the firing line north of 
the Lys river and made vigorous local 
counter-attacks. 

A month after the enemy had begun 
his spring campaign against the British 

the enemy still was going strong-, hut in 
reality he had shot his bolt against the 
British. Although here and there evi- 
dences of demoralization had heen seen, 
on the whole the British army never had 
fought better against terrible odds. 
Small groups of men stood their ground 
stubbornly when hopelessly outnumbered 
and died to the hist man after taking an 
awful toll of the advancing enemy. The 
enemy knew that this year's campaign 
was his last great gamble, with World 
Power or Downfall as the stakes, and 
that having gone into the venture there 
could he no halting betwixt two opinions, 
or counting of the cost. He was con- 
scious of the fact that his own people and 
those of his allies were weary of the strain 
of Avar and that unless a complete 
triumph were secured at once they would 
refuse to go on with the struggle. And 
so the enemy frantically spurred on his 
devoted soldiery. 

The marvellous effectiveness of the 
steps taken by the British government to 
baffle the enemy's offensive campaign 
was evident within thirty days of the ini- 
tial attack. Perhaps the British setback 
would not have been as great if the same 
degree of energy, combined with vision, 
had heen shown earlier in the year. At 
all events, the British were well supplied 
with reserves of young and partly-trained 
troops, and with reserves of ammunition, 
guns and airplanes, all kept in England, 
and by miracles of transportation it was 
possible to say that within a month •_'<><>.- 
000 fresh troops had heen put into France 
and the numbers and equipment of the 
British army brought quite u}' to what 
they were before the German offensive 
campaign began. By that time, also, it 




Roumania's Queen Marie, a staunch supporter of 
the Allied cause. 

hecame known that the Germans had 
used 1,600,000 men in the attacks during 
the month, of whom more than 1,000,000 
had heen used against the British. 300,000 
against the French and another 300,000 
against mixed forces of British and 
French. 

On April "2.5th Mount Keinmel was in 
the hands of the Germans hut their prog- 
ress had become painful and very slow. 
They held positions in a narrow salient 
against which a punishing tire could he 
brought to hear from north, west and 
south, and it seemed likely that their mad 
rush again was restrained and that they 
would be forced elsewhere to obtain a 
spectacular success. During the- seven 
weeks between March 2ls1 and April 
30th. the armies of Britain were harder 
pressed than ever before in their history 
and they came through with Hying colors. 
Not in the days of Wellington or Marl- 
borough had they shown greater tenacity 



198 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAR 1918 



199 



or more conspicuous gallantry. Fifty- 
five British divisions had fought to a 
standstill no less than 109 German divi- 
sions. 

It was about this time — on April 23rd 
— that the British navy essayed to do 
what the British army in 1917 had at- 
tempted, namely, to prevent the enemy 
from using the German submarine bases 
on the Belgian coast at Ostend and Zee- 
brugge. Actually there was but one sub- 
marine base and that was at Bruges, 



at Ostend. Later, the best known of the 
vessels used in the raid at Zeebrugge, the 
Vindictive, which had put the landing 
party on the Mole, was sunk as a block- 
ade vessel off Ostend. These brilliant 
performances by British seamen were 
undertaken because of the evidence that 
for months the British laud forces would 
be in no position to deny the enemy the 
use of his submarine bases. Their suc- 
cess did much to stimulate the resolution 
of the British people to persevere until 





I 

death Mow against Germans. The Roumanian army had been 



Roumaniaij army reorg 



reorganized by the French, and made ready to fight again. 



some miles inland, from which canals ran 
to Zeebrugge and Ostend. The spectacu- 
lar raids made on the canals <at these 
places, in which 150 vessels participated, 
were very successful and for five months 
denied to the enemy the use of the Bel- 
gian coast for the purposes of submarines. 
Three obsolete British cruisers, filled 
with concrete, were sunk in the shifting 
sands at the mouth of the canal at Zee- 
brugge and two at the mouth of the canal 



German militarism was destroyed, no 
matter what the sacrifices. 

When May was reached conflicting 
opinions were expressed by various au- 
thorities as to the war outlook. It was 
reported that Lloyd George was almost 
irritated by the quiet confidence of Gen- 
eral Foch and that turning to the allied 
generalissimo he asked whether Ik- meant 
to he understood as saving that lie would 
be rather in the position of the allies than 



200 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



in the position of the Germans. It is said 
that the allied generalissimo answered in 
the affirmative. That may have been the 
case, but General Foch undoubtedly was 
looking at general conditions, the vast 
reserves that were hurrying towards the 
allies from America and to the final out- 
come of the war rather than to the pros- 
pects for the immediate future. General 
Robertson of the British army was com- 
plimented by the English press at this 
time for warning the British people that 
they must expect a long war, which was 
an unfortunate view to express because it 
was the very one that had prevented the 
United States from being ready for the 
fray in the spring of 1918 and the one, 
which, if acted on, was most likely to 
cause the allies to leave undone those 
extreme things that needed to be done to 
baffle and defeat the enemy once and for 
all during the season's campaign. When 
the middle of May was reached, the view 
of the British headquarters staff, as semi- 
officially uttered through the Associated 
Press was that, "for the whole summer 
the situation must continue to be an anx- 
ious one." 

By the middle of May the world 
learned that General Foch had been 
placed in command of all the allied forces 
between the Adriatic and the North Seas. 
Serious as matters were on the French 
front, there was no certainty that they 
would not become worse because of the 
British and French having to increase 
the aid they had extended to the Italians 
towards the close of 1917. The Italian 
army was so weakened by the Isonzo dis- 
aster that the allies during the trying days 
of the following March, April and May 
had to ever bear in mind that the Italian 
armies, although much improved in 
morale and equipment, might not be able 
to stand alone. It was clear that the 
moves made on the western and south- 
western fronts really would be part of 
one great campaign and that the allied 
cause was almost as much concerned with 
one front as with the other. On that ac- 




Last chapter in the famous Dumba incident. Good- 
bye, Doctor Dumba. Doctor and Madame Constantin 
Dumba aboard the S. S. Nieu Amsterdam, which car- 
ried the for.mer Austrian Ambassador and his wife 
back home on the request to his government by the 
United States that he be recalled. 



count it was desirable that the reserves of 
all the allied nations should be pooled and 
be located and used in the way calculated 
to give the best results. When Foch took 
over supreme command of the Italian 
forces, it was understood that he had 
under his control 1.200,000 British troops, 
1,500,000 French, 250,000 Americans and 
1,000,000 Italians. These figures, par- 
ticularly of Americans and Italians, did 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



201 



not represent all the troops in reserve and 
in training. 

On the 27th of May the German com- 
mander-in-chief turned from the British 
to attack the French. He had been 
amazed to find that the British had 200,- 
000 men whom they speedily could bring 
over from England to the battle-front 
and the fact that the British had made 
good a large proportion of their losses 
and that the Germans had suffered cas- 
ualties estimated at .5.50,000 as against 
the British 360,000 casualties, was quite 



had been weakened appreciably by the 
extension of its front westward and that 
the only place where the French were 
prepared and awaiting attack was east of 
Rheims. They also may have emphasized 
the fact that the numerous spurs running 
from the Aisne ridge down to the river 
would facilitate the German plan of in- 
filtration and permit large forces to pass 
in comparative shelter behind the spurs 
into the valley and the bridgeheads be- 
yond, thus cutting off the allied troops 
remaining on the high around. Another 




'Herzog Karl," Austrian Battleship Surrent: 



disconcerting. There are some indica- 
tions that the Kaiser Wilhelm and Von 
Hindenburg were disposed to continue 
all their efforts against the British but 
that Ludendorff, Von Hindenburg's 
quartermaster-general and chief lieuten- 
ant, sided with the crown prince in 
demanding that a terrific drive be made 
against the French on the Aisne heights. 
In support of their views, the crown 
prince and Ludendorff probably urged 
that the French front north of the Aisne 



consideration was the fact that near the 
point where the battle-front curved away 
from the ridge and passed southward 
across the Aisne, some overworked British 
troops had been put in for a rest. 

Whatever led the German leaders to 
change their plans, the fact is that after 
pounding the British for two months and 
six days they gave the British a much- 
needed rest and turned their attentions to 
the comparatively fresh French armies. 
They were then sixty miles away from 



202 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



Paris and fifty miles from the Channel 
ports. Obviously the allies had much 
more freedom of movement when the 
Germans turned southward than they 
had when the waters of the Channel were 
so close behind them. An advance of 
twenty miles westward at almost any 
point and of ten miles at some points 
probably would have made it advisable 
for the allies to abandon Dunkirk, Bel- 
gium and the Channel ports and take up 
a front along the lower Somme river. 



in March did not indicate that the morale 
of the British troops, which had been 
good throughout four years of war, 
had deteriorated, and whether the gen- 
eralship was not even worse. It may be 
that this feeling was weakened by the 
developments following the German drive 
beginning on May 27. On that day the 
German troops swept across the Ailette 
river, stormed the Aisne heights on the 
far side and sweeping southward reached 
the Aisne river in the rear of many thou- 




On the whole it appears that the Ger- 
mans were guilty of a first-class blunder 
when they gave the British a breathing 
spell that lasted for nearly two months 
or until the allies were able to return to 
the offensive. The best that can be said 
for their tactics is that they hoped by a 
sudden change of front to catch the allies 
off their guard. 

Up to this time there were some people 
in France who were wondering whether 
the great reverse suffered by the British 



sands of allied troops. The British 
troops sandwiched in among the French 
were put in a particularly precarious po- 
sition by the collapse of the French front 
immediately west of them. The troops 
of both nations, however, fought gallant- 
ly. They were attacked by forces out- 
numbering them by at least two to one. 

Four days after the Aisne attack be- 
gan the enemy was in full possession of 
the famous Chemin Des Dames (Ladies' 
Walk) and the territory taken by the 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



203 



French at the cost of well on to two hun- 
dred thousand casualties in the abortive 
Xivelle offensive in April of the previous 
year. Not only so, but the enemy was 
30 miles beyond his starting- point, hav- 
ing driven a mighty wedge into the allied 
front that reached all the way to the 
Marne river. The front of attack was 
more than forty miles wide. During the 
first three days of his advance the victor- 
ious enemy captured more than 400 guns 
and more than 45,000 prisoners, and 



Marne river, sixteen miles apart. The 
check to the enemy administered by the 
Americans came at a critical moment. 
The enemy for the second time in the war 
was across the Marne river and heading 
for Paris. The Americans, with some 
French troops, tackled the enemy at 
Chateau Thierry and at Jaulgonne, on 
the east, and hurled the enemy back to 
the north bank. The enemy was not in 
great strength, fortunately, but his loss 
of the bridgehead held up his advance 




Types of Austrian Troops That Invaded Roumania. 



British papers printed statements to the 
effect that the whole war situation had 
become one of "the utmost gravity." 
During their advance to the Marne the 
enemy crossed two important lateral lines 
of communication, including the railway 
running to Verdun from Paris through 
Kheims. 

June the 4th saw some signs of im- 
provement from the allied viewpoint. On 
that day troops from the United States 
came into action at two points on the 



and made it necessary for him to make 
elaborate preparations for forcing the 
river. The general situation still caused 
uneasiness and Premier Clemenceau, 
whose frequent visits to the front did 
much to inspire confidence on the part of 
both civilians and military, took the pre- 
caution of ordering the creation of a 
Committee for the Defence of Paris. 

It has not been made clear as to what 
extent, if at all, the defeat on the Aisne 
heights was due to the faulty staff work 



'204 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




A United States Soldier Completely Equipped tor 
Service On his back this American fighting man 
carries his blanket roll, small shovel, bag, etc. His 
canteen is at his belt. He is armed with a 30 calibre 
U. S. Army rifle. Minimum weight for maximum 
efficiency is the principle upon which his whole out- 
fit has been designed. 

of the local commander. There are some 
indications that the defensive measures 



were not of the best. The measures put 
into effect two weeks later when the en- 
emy tried to widen his offensive front 
and merge the new Marne salient with 
the Montdidier salient by attacking on 
both sides of the Oise river were extra- 
ordinarily successful and the local coun- 
ter-attacks were much more powerful 
and •effective than on any previous occa- 
sion. American troops near Montdidier 
had some part in delivering these counter 
blows. While the enemy advanced a 
maximum distance of six miles on a front 
of thirty miles he did not gain a spectac- 
ular success, a fact which was not covered 
up by the declaration of the Prussian 
War Minister that as a result of the two 
blows a large part of the French army 
had been defeated. 

The Aisne attack was a most spectac- 
ular victory, bought at a very low price, 
but the attack on the Oise sector un- 
doubtedly cost the enemy more casualties 
than it cost the French and the enemy 
made no appreciable progress towards 
his goal, which was the destruction of the 
British and French armies before the 
power of the United States could be 
made to tell. American troops continued 
to arrive at the rate of a quarter of a mil- 
lion a month and already those that had 
preceded them were rendering aid of 
some consequence. 

The severe check administered to the 
Germans early in June at the Oise gave 
the enemy something to think about. It 
forced him to take time to make more 
careful preparation for his next attack 
which, in view of the advance in the sea- 
son, necessarily had to be much more 
Successful than any that had preceded it. 
This delay was imposed on the enemy 
when it was only too plain to him that 
speed was the essence of victory. The 
situation for the enemy was most exas- 
perating. He was tantalizingly near to 
the Channel ports and tantalizingly near 
to the French capital, possession of either 
of which would have given him a' power- 
ful lever in securing peace. No doubt he 



The Victorious 




Premier Venizelos, the man 
who did most to bring Greece 
in on the side of the allies. 



Crown Prince Alexander of 
King Victor Emmanuel Gen. Diaz, commander in chief Serbia, commander of the 

of Italy. of the Italian armies. Serbian army. 



->Mi 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAR 1018 



also felt he was tantalizingly near to 
overpowering the hard-pressed allied 
armies which, however, always seemed to 
have just enough strength left to haffle 
his efforts to deliver the coup de mort. 

A circumstance that added to the irri- 
tation of the enemy was the tardiness of 
the Austrians in striking on the Italian 
front. The German warlords felt that a 
triumph on the Italian front, where the 
allies held vulnerable positions, would 
help materially their campaign in France. 



Cheered by these developments, Lloyd 
George declared that "there is not the 
slightest doubt in my mind, surveying the 
whole facts, that our victory will be com- 
plete." A few days later, Von Kuehl- 
mann, the German Foreign Minister, was 
dismissed for stating that a military vic- 
tory was beyond the reach of either side, 
a view he probably was put up to express 
in the hope of evoking a favorable 
response from the allied side, and a view 
that the Kaiser and Von Hindenburg are 




The great Teutonic drive into Russia. Austrian troops with arms stacked enjoying a brief rest in the 

mountains. 



In the middle of June the Austrians did 
attack, but after an opening success of 
considerable dimensions, nature opened 
the floodgates of heaven and severed 
communication witli the far bank of the 
Piave river, and the Austrian offensive 
collapsed. Almost simultaneously the 
Germans made a minor attack, with 
40,000 men against the acute salient 
around Rheims, and this, too, was a dis- 
mal failure. 



supposed to have shared. The extremists 
among the warlords were furious at this 
moderate statement, which was not un- 
reasonable considering that the German 
losses of nearly a million men in less than 
four months had not brought a decisive 
success. 

An estimate of the German and allied 
casualties in the four drives of the Ger- 
man offensive campaign taking place 
before the first of July is as follows: 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



207 



German Allied 

Offensive. casualties. casualties. 

March 31 3.50,000 200,000 

April 9 200,000 160,000 

May 27 12.5,000 1.50,000 

June 9 22.5,000 150,000 

Total casualties • — 

Mar. 31-July 1 900,000 060,000 

The fifth and last of the drives' of the 
German offensive campaign in 1918 be- 
gan on July 1.5. The allied battle-front, 
which formerly had stretched in a general 
direction northerly to the North Sea from 
the Aisne, now appeared as a bent and 
twisted thing. It bagged alarmingly in 
three places as a result of the driving 
forward of the German battering-ram. 
These huge salients were west of Lille in 
the Lys valley, between Arras and Sois- 
sons and between Soissons and Rheims, 
the last two being referred to sometimes 
as the Montdidier and Marne salients. 
Retween these two salients in the German 
line the allied line curved sharply away 
from Paris around the forests of Villiers- 
Cotterets and Compiegne. On the south 
end of this salient, between the Marne 
and the Aisne, French and American 
troojis applied persistent pressure during 
June and drove the enemy back two or 
three miles but without reducing the 
Marne salient to a degree dangerous for 
the Germans. 

The enemy, as we have seen, was very 
anxious to merge the Marne and Mont- 
didier salients and acquire a broad front 
opposite Paris from which he could 
maintain a continuous bombardment of 
the city with a multitude of guns capable 
of firing forty miles, but the allied resist- 
ance here was too strong, and he deter- 
mined to wage east of Rheims the offen- 
sive he had prepared earlier in the season, 
attacking southward, at the same time as 
he tried to move southward and south- 
eastward from the east side of the Marne 
salient. He was aware that Foch had 
massed troops between the Marne front 
and Paris and he hoped that by eluding 
these by going round them on the east, 





A United States Naval Militia Bugler Sounding 
Call "To the Colors" 



he could surround Rheims and sweep 
over Epernay and Chalons with ease, and 
three days later be forty miles from his 
starting point and far to the southeast 
of Paris. Such a success would have 
placed the allied armies in a more serious 
position than they were in the opening 
month of the war. 

The last German offensive in the war 
was doomed to failure from the outset. 



208 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1018 



200 



The enemy used half a million men in 
this effort and would have put in more 
had his initial attack obtained success. 
He made the cardinal error of putting 
into the Marne salient, which was 25 
miles deep and only 2.5 miles across, hun- 
dreds of thousands of men with the vast 
supplies of material required for a great 
drive. His lines of communication within 
the salient were vulnerahle to shellfire 
from three directions and his thickly- 
massed troops were sure to encounter a 



better. Under the skilful leadership of 
General Gouraud, they withdrew from 
the heights of Moronvilliers, evaded the 
blow dealt at them and terribly decimated 
the enemy as he advanced across the shat- 
tered outpost positions. The enemy's 
advance here averaged only a mile and a 
half on a 2.5-mile front. The enemy was 
in such apparent difficulty in his isolated 
position south of the Marne and he had 
suffered such heavy losses at all points 
without compensation, that General Foch 




Nation's defense in the hands of these men. The Council of National Defense and the Advisory Com- 
mission and tl directors and secretaries of both bodies in joint session in the office of the Secretary of 

War, Washington, D. C. 



punishing fire. The consequence was 
that the best the enemy could do west of 
Rheims was to advance a maximum dis- 
tance of five miles on a 2.5-mile front, the 
average being only three miles. This 
advance enabled him to gain a precarious 
foothold or bridgehead south of the 
Marne. Here the Americans did excep- 
tionally well and they and the French 
always were masters of the situation. 
East of Rheims the French did even 



concluded that the time bad come for 
snatching the initiative from the enemy. 
And so on July the 18th, three days after 
the opening of the Germans' final offen- 
sive effort, the allied generalissimo let 
loose the allied thunderbolt and French 
and American troops began the first 
allied offensive of the year by attacking 
the 25 miles of German front nearest to 
Paris. In this onslaught the allies used 
200,000 troops. 



210 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAR 



1918 




The Honorable Robert Lansing, Secretary of State by reason of the resignation of Secretary Bryan. 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



211 



The allied attack was successful beyond 
all expectations. As the German storm 
troops facing eastward battered them- 
selves in vain against the allied defences 
on the east side of the Marne salient the 
allied offensive troops, also facing east- 
ward, smashed in the western side of the 
salient on which the Germans were stand- 
ing on the defensive. Thus an attacking 
allied army was moving in the same direc- 
tion, roughly, as the German attacking 
forces on the far side of the salient and at 
a distance of only 2.5 miles in their rear, a 
situation seldom seen in warfare. In the 
first two days of their attack the allies 
advanced eight miles, capturing 17,000 
Germans and 360 guns. Within two 
weeks, notwithstanding the most frantic 
opposition, they had advanced 16 miles, 
the Marne salient had been reduced, 500 
square miles of the soil of France had 
been redeemed, and 30,000 Germans and 
500 cannon had been captured. 

The turning back of the tide of Ger- 
man invasion in 1918 was due to the same 
causes as explain the ebbing of the tide 
of German militarism in 1914. The 
enemy was overconfident and underrated 
the offensive powers of the allied forces, 
and as a result, made inadequate pro- 
vision for the protection of the right flank 
of his advancing armies. And so when 
the allied shock troops attacked on July 
18 under General Mangin they turned 
the flank of Von Boehm's army as Gen- 
eral Manoury four years before, at the 
previous battle of the Marne, had turned 
the flank of Von Kluck's army. On each 
occasion the enemy was taken at a serious 
disadvantage and had to retreat. By 
tremendous effort and at great sacrifice 
immediate disaster was averted, but the 
setback in both battles deprived the Ger- 
mans of their chance of victory and 
doomed them to ultimate defeat. In 1914 
the commander-in-chief of the German 
armies was Von Moltke; in 1918 it was 
Von Hindenbnrg. 

No greater mistake can be made than 
to imagine that General Foch had lured 




Getting Peady to Pay the Bovs at Camp Meade. 
No less than $300,000 is in sight here. 

the Germans on to the Marne by pretend- 
ing weakness and that he was sure of vic- 
tory when he struck back. The whole 
period from March 21 to July 15 was 
one of genuine anxiety for the allied mili- 
tary leaders and statesmen and as late 
as the middle of June the allies were dis- 
cussing whether it would be better to 
evacuate Paris or the Channel ports. 
When the Germans began their last of- 
fensive on July 15, they had a superiority 
of half a million men on the western front 
or three times the numerical superiority 
they had on March 21st. A much larger 
proportion of their men, however, had 
become battle-worn owing to unparal- 
leled exertions. There is not the slightest 
doubt that General Foch was gravely 
concerned about the degree of success the 
enemy might gain in July. He felt that 
the allies could not afford to give more 
ground as any considerable German ad- 
vance would imperil the integrity of the 
allied armies or at least put the enemy in 
a position where he could bring great 
pressure on the allies to make peace. 

General Foch took terrible risks in 
July in preparing to prevent a German 
advance on Paris. He concluded that the 
enemy meant to make an attack in that 
direction and therefore he withdrew 200,- 



212 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAR 1918 




Secretary of the Treasury, William J. McAdoo, Resigned. Mr. McAdoo, the son-in-law of the President, 
U. S. Railroad Administrator, Resigned. 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



213 



000 men from positions north of the 
Somme and held them in readiness in the 
region between Paris and the nearest 
point on the battle-front. Superior Ger- 
man forces under Prince Rupprecht of 
Bavaria still were menacing the vital 
northern .sector and had the German 
strategists learned of the secret move- 
ment southward of allied reserves they 
might have made another dash forward 
towards the month of the Somme and 
imperilled all the allied troops in Flan- 
ders and the Artois. The enemy appears 
to have been ignorant of the secret con- 
centration of allied reserves opposite 
Paris at the expense of the northern allied 
front and when at comparatively low cost 
the allies on the Marne and in the Cham- 
pagne baffled the enemy's blow on July 
15, without employing the bulk of their 
reserves, an obvious opportunity to upset 
his plans and secure the initiative devel- 
oped. 

We have the authority of General Foch 
for the statement that he had in his mind 
no grandiose plan for winning the war 
when he turned to the offensive. In self- 
defence he had to strike back at the 
Marne and later on he found opportu- 
nities for waging a genuine offensive 
campaign. The enemy's stupidity in 
putting his head into the Marne salient 
noose gave Foch his first chance, and 
finding his first drive so successful, Foch 
thought he would try another, and the 
second led to the third, and the offensive 
front gradually widened out until the at- 
tack extended to the whole 200 miles of 
front between Verdun and the North 
Sea. The main idea of General Foch in 
the early weeks of the offensive Mas to 
put the enemy into a new hole just before 
he succeeded in getting out of another 
hole. On each occasion the enemy had 
to engage additional portions of his re- 
serves until finally he lost his offensive 
power and even the ability to defend him- 
self. The factor that contributed most to 
the success of the successive allied drives 
was the extraordinary secrecy of concen- 




Soldiers charge German dummies for Red Cross 
benefit at Fort Hamilton. Besides the event shown 
in this picture, there were artillery and machine 
gun drills by the soldiers 



tration against the sectors to be attacked. 
This, also, was the real explanation of 
the advantages gained by the enemy in 
his four-months' offensive campaign. At 
one time it was thought that the huge 
quantities of war material and the masses 
of men required for an offensive could 
not be brought up to any front without 
being seen by the enemy in time to give 
ample warning. It also was thought that 
weeks of bombardment were necessary to 
reduce the enemy's fortified positions. 
But as the quantities of munitions and 
the number of guns along the entire front 
multiplied, their significance became less 
obvious, as indicating the nearness of an 
offensive, and in time it became apparent 
that a bombardment of but a few hours 
would suffice to obliterate the strongest 
fortified systems. Consequently, all that 
remained to do to obtain the tremendous 
advantage of surprise and bring about a 
war of movement Avas to have hundreds 
of thousands of men ready to hurl 
through the breach before the enemy 
could discover the plan and make a simi- 
lar concentration opposite the breach. It 
was this new element of surprise due to 
the artillery of the offensive mastering 
the fortified systems of the defensive that 
revolutionized warfare on the western 
front and that distinguished the campaign 



214 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




Hon. Newton S. Baker, Secretary of War, 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAR 1918 



21.5 



of 1918 from those that preceded it. 

Foeh's second blow, delivered with a 
view to retaining the much-prized initia- 
tive, was struck by British and French 
troops south of the Somme river on Aug- 
ust 8th. In this attack most of the glory 
went to the Canadian and Australian 
troops, which with the 51st British divi- 



without it being necessary to employ 
them, the Canadians were given a special 
course of training back of Arras. When 
the time came for the attack on the 
Somme front, Foch gave orders for the 
strictest secrecy and for elaborate meas- 
ures for deceiving the Germans. While 
the bulk of the Canadian troops were 




Battleship Pennsylvania, Super-Dreadnaught. 



sion and a few others comprised the best 
assault troops in the British army. The 
Canadian army corps had been on the 
Vimy front in March and then were taken 
out and moved south so as to be ready to 
cope with the enemy in the event of a 
deadly break through. The crisis passing 



smuggled under cover of night to the 
Amiens region, some battalions were 
moved northward to Belgium, where they 
moved down the roads in broad daylight 
with colors flying and bands playing, and 
were put into the Bring line near Mount 
Kemmel. Here telephone conversations 



216 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




The Hon. Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navv 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



217 



were put on for the express benefit of the 
German listeners and enemy spies. A 
few American troops and British shock 
troops also went through movements si in- 
gesting that an attack was about to be 
made. Then when the enemy was taking- 
steps to meet a tremendous attack on the 
Mount Eemmel front, the camouflage 
troops were rushed hack to their own 
units and the mighty drive up the Somn.e 
valley began. 



13 miles on a front of 25 miles taking 
1-1,000 prisoners and hundreds of guns 
during the first day of their advance. 
Many units took more prisoners than the 
total number of their casualties. By the 
end of the first day the main line of com- 
munication and retreat for the enemy 
within the Montdidier salient was gravely 
threatened and the enemy was under the 
necessity of evacuating it at a much faster 
rate than he abandoned tin- apex of the 




Battles 



;r-Dreadnaught, on Speed Trial. 



The second battle of the Somme was 
a splendid victory for the British and 
French. The Fourth Army under Gen- 
eral Rawlinson represented the British. 
The enemy was completely surprised and 
Swept off liis feet. With the aid of tanks 
and thousands of mounted troops, the 
allies advanced a maximum distance of 



Marne salient. By August 12, the enemy 
was retreating on most of the 100-mile 
front between Amiens and Rheims. In- 
stead of being in Paris as he had fondly 
hoped less than a month before when he 
attacked on the Manic the enemy was 
retiring towards the Hindenburg line 
after suffering at least 325,000 casualties 



218 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



— 80,000 of whom were captives in the 
hands of the allies — and losing 1,400 guns 
and 850 square miles of French territory. 
It must not he thought that the world 
by this time had formed the opinion that 
the enemy would lose the war in 1918. 
The public simply felt that the period of 
the most intense anxiety probably was 
past. Some of the highest military au- 
thorities reminded the public that the 



the great American war expert, also inti- 
mated that the enemy retirement to the 
Hindenburg line blight be unfortunate 
for the allies as it had been the year be- 
fore, that the allies would have to slowly 
advance through innumerable fortified 
lines before they reached victory, and that 
the threat to German home territory in 
possible thrusts by the American army 
"will hardly be grave." He even went so 




Pres 



Wilson and Poincare driving- to the house of Prince Murat in Paris, which during the Peace Con- 
ference is to he the White House Overseas. 



Germans had sprung a come-back after 
the Byng tank attack near Cambrai in 
November of 1917 and that the same 
thing might happen again. Colonel Rep- 
ington of the London Times expressed 
the opinion that the Germans might re- 
sume their offensive and he advised Gen- 
eral Foch not to be imprudent and try 
for a knockout in 1918. Frank Simonds, 



far as to say that "our enemy has too 
many reserves and too many prepared 
positions behind his present front to be 
in danger of disaster this year and prob- 
ably next." It is clear that at this time 
some of the experts did not sense the real 
situation. 

On August 19 the French attacked on 
the front east of the Oise river. Their 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAR 1918 



219 



advance here linked up the allied of- 
fensive fronts north of the Marne and 
east of Amiens. At this time the Ger- 
mans still clung to Rove and Chaulnes 
and held positions in the old battle zones 
of 1915-16 west of the upper Somme. 
Two days later the British Third Army 
under General Byng drove forward to 
the south of Arras, advancing five miles 
on a 17-mile front and securing 10,000 



allied attack in the 1918 campaign was 
the first to signify that the German 
armies would be overthrown in the fight- 
ing season of that year. Some mention 
the attack made on October 8, when the 
Hindenburg line was breached between 
Cambrai and St. Quentin. It is more 
likely that the attacks made by the Cana- 
dians and other British troops east of 
Arras in the week beginning August 




ent and Mrs. Wilson in 1 '. r e -. t . France, on Board S. S. George Washington. 



prisoners. Here the British were moving 
at right angles to their battle-front in the 
first battle of the Somme. The ease with 
which they filtered down the Bapaume 
ridge between the numerous fortified lines 
of the previous battle quickly discredited 
the views then in circulation about the im- 
pregnability of the positions they were 
about to attack. 

Opinions differ as to which particular 



27th really determined that the enemy 
would have to submit. In the drives of 
July 18 and August 8 the allies surprised 
an enemy who virtually was out in the 
open, protected by only improvised de- 
fences and occupying ugly salients. On 
August 27th, however, lie was expecting 
an attack and felt confident in the 
strength of the permanent fortified sys- 
tems he had prepared with the utmost 



220 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




Rear Admiral William S. Sims, Who Commanded U. S. Fleet Abroad 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IX THE YEAR 1918 



221 



care during the preceding - two years. 
These included the famous Drocourt- 
Queant switch line, with a section of the 
Hindenburg line in front of it and another 
line behind it. The Canadians, who had 
been taken out of the Somnie front a few 
days after that drive began and by a wide 
detour of more than fifty miles had been 
brought up to the Arras front, were sup- 
posed by the enemy to be taking a rest, 
whereas they were sent hurling through 
the Hindenburg line on August 27 and a 



rest that alone could stave off disaster. 
German officers have admitted that the 
smashing of the lines east of Arras by 
the Canadians dashed any lingering hopes 
they had of averting defeat. 

The grand work of the Canadians had 
appreciable results both north and south. 
It hastened a German retirement from 
the Lys river salient which already had 
begun and it speeded up the retirement 
north of the Somnie. On August 29 
Bapaume and Combles were taken, Mount 




American Artillerymen on the Marne Front. 



few days later through the even more 
powerful Drocourt line. Each of these 
so-called lines consisted of several series 
of entrenchments, with elaborate under- 
ground tunnels and innumerable redoubts 
and machine gun posts. The wonderful 
success of the Canadians, with little or no 
help from tanks, against the positions re- 
lied on by the enemy to check the allied 
advance, convinced the high German com- 
mand that it had do artificial defences 
that could give its overworked armies the 



Kemmel was abandoned to the British 
and the enemy was in retreat on the 70 
miles of front between Ypres and 
Peronne. The general situation made it 
inevitable that the enemy also should 
withdraw on the 80 miles of front between 
Peronne and Rheims. 

By September 12 it was evident that 
the Germans were losing ground much 
faster than they had gained it in the 
spring campaign. That day was made 
famous in history by the army of the 



222 THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




A Depth Bomb need not actually bit a submarine to destroy it. 






THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



•2-2:) 



United States launching its first inde- 
pendent offensive effort. The work as- 
signed to it was the elimination of the St. 
Mihiel salient which had resisted the pres- 
sure brought against it by the French dur- 
ing four years of warfare. The salient 
was in the shape of a foot. It had been 
.there since September, 1914, when Ger- 
man militarism tried to stride across the 
Meuse south of St. Mihiel and trample 
over prostrate France. The foot was ar- 
rested at St. Mihiel when poised for the 
next step. The First American Army 
under General Liggett, acting under the 
supervision of General Pershing, attacked 
this salient from the north and from the 
south, and crushed it in as though it were 
an eggshell, taking well on to 15,000 pris- 
oners and more than 100 guns. The 
French troops co-operating with the 
Americans, took 7,000 prisoners. In 
August as many as 322,000 American 
troops landed in France and the number 
of men available for the front was in the 
neighborhood of half a million. The wip- 
ing out of the St. Mihiel salient per- 
mitted General Foch to go on with plans 
for attacks on the all-important German 
lateral line of communication running 
through Sedan and Montmedy or for an 
attack in Lorraine, south of Metz. 

On the day in which the Americans 
struck first as an independent army, the 
German Vice-Chancellor, Von Payer, an- 
nounced that "Strong and courageous in 
the consciousness of our own invincibility, 
we laugh a! the idea that we Should first 
penitently ask for mercy before we are 
admitted to peace negotiations." This 
speech was made to give the allies an idea 
of the terms the Teutons would want if 
the allies agreed to the request Austria- 
Hungary was making at that moment for 
a peace conference in some neutral coun- 
try while hostilities continued. The main 
provision was that Germany should be 
allowed to retain her conquests in the East 
while abandoning her spoils in the West 
and restoring Belgium. A few days later, 
the Serbians broke the Bulgarian front in 




Gen. Allenby commanded victorious British forces 
in Palestine. General Sir Edmund Henry Hyman 
Allenby who commanded the British forces thai have 
won successes in the campaign against the Turks in 

Palestine. , 



22i THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




£} -O * CO ' O 

E5-E E ~ 
S rt r- E ™ so 





AMERICANS COUNTER ATTACKING A GERMAN TRENCH RAID. THE RESULTS WERE 

FA\ ORABLE 




AMERICANS AT CHATEAU THIERRY. THE ARTILLERY SUPPORTED THE INFANTRY AND 
MADE THE GREAT VICTORY POSSIBLE 



HOAV THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 




Stretcher-Bearers Bringing Wounded Under Fire From the Ene 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAH 1918 



229 



Macedonia and the British overwhelmed 
the Turkish army in Palestine. Before 
Oetoher opened Bulgaria, finding Ger- 
many was unable to give her help, sur- 
rendered unconditionally. 

The closing days of September saw 
allied victories all up and down the 
western front. Within three days the 
American forces west of the Meuse 
smashed forward 10 miles on a 20-mile 
front; the French to the west of them in 
the Champagne advanced 7 miles on a 
20-mile front, taking 10,000 prisoners; 
the British on the Cambrai front ad- 
vanced 7 miles on a 35-mile front, taking 
22,000 prisoners and 300 guns, and reach- 
ing the outskirts of Cambrai, and the 
British and Belgians on both sides of 
Ypres advanced 10 miles on a 20-mile 
front, capturing Dixmude, Passchen- 
daele, Roulers, Menin and Langemarck, 
10,000 prisoners and 100 guns. At that 
time the enemy was retiring on the whole 
front between Verdun and Nieuport with 
the exception of ten miles of front next 
the coast. 

The outlook now became so alarming 
for Germany that on Saturday, October 
.5, Germany intimated to President Wil- 
son that she desired an armistice and a 
peace conference in which the 14 points 
of President Wilson would be the basis 
of discussion. The allies saw that Ger- 
many preferred to talk rather than to 
fight and they insisted on Germany bind- 
ing herself more specifically and also that 
during negotiations she conduct warfare 
according to the laws of nations and 
otherwise give evidence of good faith. In 
the meantime they redoubled their efforts 
to destroy the German armies, and on 
October 8, with the aid of many thou- 
sands of American troops, the British 
crashed through the powerful Hinden- 
burg defences north of St. Quentin and 
in two days advanced into open country 
beyond to a depth of 12 miles on ;i 20 
mile front, taking 200 guns and 20.000 
prisoners. This success precipitated an 
enemv retirement from the Chemin detf 



Dames, the Champagne and the northern 
Argonne. In the north the Canadians 
captured Cambrai. A few days later new 
Belgian and British attacks led to the 
capture of Lille, Ostend, Bruges, Roulers 
and Menin. Retreating on the south, the 
enemy surrendered Laon, La Fere and 
Vouziers. 

On October 22, Germany gave the 
pledges required by the allies and the 
United States agreed to forward Ger- 
many's request for an armistice. Already 
the allies had redeemed 6,000 square miles 
of French soil and 900 square miles of 
Belgian soil. According to one estimate 
the German and allied offensives in 1918 
up to this time, compared as follows : 

German Allied 

Offensive Offensive 

119 days 98 days 

March 21- July 18- 

Jul/j 18 Oct. U 

Ground captured 

in square miles. . 2,770 7,300 

Guns captured 2,200 4,000 

Prisoners taken 200,000 300,000 

Casualties inflicted 

by attacking 

army 700,000 1,000,000 

Casualties suffered 

by attacking 

army 1,000,000 700,000 

According to this estimate the total 
allied casualties from March 21, were 
1,400,000 and those of the Germans 
2.000,000. The allied losses had been 
made good by the increase of the Amer- 
ican forces which now comprised two 
armies, the Second being under General 
Bullard. Including troops in training 
the United States had 2,000,000 men 
across seas. 

The events during the last week of 
October suggested that the war was hur- 
rying to an end. The Italians attacked 
on the Piave front and with British storm- 
troops and a small American force play- 
ing an important role, broke through the 
Austrian army, capturing 100,000 men 
and 600 guns, and placing the remainder 



230 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



2:51 




French entering Village after 

of the Austrian forces, which were handi- 
capped by revolutions in Bohemia and 
Jugo-Slavia, at the mercy of the allies. 
On November 4 the Austrians signed an 
armistice that represented absolute sub- 
mission. When this armistice went into 
effect 1,000,000 Austrians and 6,000 guns 
- — in reality the whole Austrian army — 
were in the possession of Italy. 

During- the first week in November the 



Armistice locating bomb traps 

allies dashed forward 11 miles, south of 
the Dutch frontier, and readied Ghent. 
One hundred miles away on the southeast 
the French and Americans did magnifi- 
cent work. The enemy, in trying to re- 
treat to his own country, had to pass 
through two "funnels," the one running 
eastward through Liege and the other 
southeastward through Sedan and Mont- 
inedy. The Ardennes forest and bills ly- 
ing between these funnels prevented hasty 



232 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 



233 



withdrawal there, and the two funnels 
were quite unequal to the demands made 
upon them. Matters, therefore, were 
made doubly critical for the enemy when 
the Americans advanced 14 miles on a 25- 
mile front west of the Meuse and reached 
points only 10 miles from Montmedy and 
15 miles from Sedan 

Recognizing that the ji<>- was up, Ger- 
many on November 8 applied on the bat- 
tlefield to General Foch for an armistice, 
as directed to do by President Wilson. 
This did not put an immediate end to hos- 
tilities. The British went on and cap- 
tured Maubeuge. From Germany came 



Germany submitted to the humiliating 
conditions by which Germany secured 
exemption from further attack. 

It was on the morning of Monday, 
November 11, that Germany admitted 
herself beaten and placed herself at the 
mercy of the allied and associated pow- 
ers. When the fighting stopped her 
armies had been forced across the frontier 
of France on a front of 120 miles stretch- 
ing southeastward from the North Sea. 
The enemy still was west of the French 
border along a stretch of 160 miles. The 
area he occupied in France then was of 
varying width embracing about 1,500 




Armistice Parlies Meeting — Germans Approaching. 



reports that the fleet, as a last resort, had 
been ordered to give battle to the British 
grand fleet and that the German crews 
had mutinied and joined a revolutionary 
movement that speedily swept over Ger- 
many. The Kaiser and Crown Prince 
had refused t«> si^n documents of abdica- 
tion but on the advice of their generals 
had fled from their army headquarters at 
Spa to Holland where they were in- 
terned. Vet still the allied troops pressed 
on. The French and Americans reached 
Sedan and Mezieres and got astride one 
line of retreat. Italian troops, which ear- 
lier in the summer had fought in the 
Rheims salient, captured Rocroi. During 
the last two days of fighting the allies 
advanced 15 miles on a front of 100 miles. 
And then the delegates of revolutionary 



square miles. He also retained more thai. 
9,000 square miles in Belgium. Had he 
not cried quits, however, his armies would 
have been overwhelmingly defeated with 
in a few weeks, for they were nearly in r 
helpless condition and Foch had a tremen- 
dous offensive in Lorraine south of Met 
ready to launch. Monster British air- 
planes also were under orders to bomb 
Berlin when orders arrived to cancel all 
such undertakings. By a peculiar coinci- 
dence of history, Canadian troops, acting 
with the British army, who had taken 
Denain and Valenciennes, captured Mons 
the morning that the armistice ended hos- 
tilities, thus bringing the British hack to 
the point in Belgium where they began 
fighting more than four years before. 

W. R. P. 



234 



THE DECISIVE CAMPAIGN IN THE YEAR 1918 




The Aftermath of The Armistice 



CHAPTER XIII 

ARMISTICE TERMS NOT SEVERE GERMAN NAVAL SURRENDER 

IMPOSING SPECTACLE OCCUPATION OF GERMANY BEGUN 

EBERT BECOMES GERMAN LEADER — LLOYD GEORGE SUSTAINED 

PRES. WILSON HEARTILY RECEIVED POLISH INVASION OF 

GERMANY LEAGUE OF NATIONS RESOLUTIONS. 



The armistice terms imposed on Ger- 
many by the allied and associated powers 
were severe but not more so than was 
necessary to ensure that Germany should 
not resist any longer the will of the allies. 
The most humilating feature was the 
provision requiring the surrender of the 
best fighting ships of the German navy 
without their firing a shot as a protest 
against the onerous terms of the peace 
settlement. The world never has wit- 
nessed a more pathetic spectacle than that 
afforded on November '21st. ten days 
after the signing of the armistice, when 
fourteen German Dreadnoughts, seven 
acout cruisers and fifty destroyers 
sceamed across the North Sea under the 
direction of their own crews and tamely 
surrendered to the allied fleet fifty miles 
to the east of the Firth of Forth. These 
surface warships later were interned in 
the Scapa Flow, in the Orkney Islands. 
Almost simultaneously scores of German 
submarines were surrendered to the Brit- 
ish off Harwich. In the course of a few 
weeks the number was increased to more 
than 120 and it became known that the 
number of underwater boats that (Ger- 
many would be required to give up would 
exceed the original limit set of 160. I in- 
completed submarines and surface war- 
ships not being surrendered were re- 
quired to dismantle and the crews of the 
latter to be paid off. To see that' the 
terms were thoroughly fulfilled, the Brit- 
ish Dreadnought Hercules, accompanied 
by torpedo boat destroyers, visited the 
German naval strongholds after the Ger- 
mans, themselves, had swept away the 
mine barriers. Of 48 German warships 
capable of entering the line when war 



began, Germany was left with only 13, 
as she had found it necessary to scrap 20 
pre-Dreadnoughts after the Battle of 
Jutland. An additional Dreadnought 
was given up in December. 

'Hie original armistice terms were 
amended from time to time. In most 
cases the changes made with each month- 
ly renewal rendered Germany more help 
less before the allies. The number of 
machine guns the enemy had to surren- 
der, however, was reduced by .5,000 to 
25,000 and the number of airplanes by 
300 to 1,700. The number of motor lor- 
ries was reduced from 10,000 to .5,000. 
The reason for these changes was that 
the Germans had less equipment than had 
been estimated. On the other hand the 
enemy was called upon to turn over 150,- 
000 railway cars or three times the num- 
ber originally fixed. Without these the 
German army could not conduct serious 
military enterprises or the country be fed 
except by grace of the allies. The allies 
also stipulated that they should be free 
to occupy the so-called neutral strip east 
of the Rhine, north of Mainz, if they so 
desired, and a small bridgehead east of 
Strassburg. 

On November 14 American and French 
troops crossed the Lorraine frontier in 
the rear of the evacuating German forces. 
Four days later Belgian troops were in 
Brussels and Antwerp, and French 
troops in Mulhausen and Colmar. Not 
a living German soldier remained on 
French soil with the exception of prison- 
ers. By November 2.5 British troops had 
reached Namur in Belgium and all Al- 
forces. Ten days before Christmas the 
sace-Lorraine had been occupied by allied 



23G 



THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 




W t 


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IT 


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life 


X 5 


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THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 



237 



allied troops were safely entrenched in 
their three great bridgeheads at Cologne, 
Coblenz and Mainz, the British at Co- 
logne, the Americans at Coblenz and the 
French at Mainz. 

By the end of November a consider- 
able number of Canadian prisoners-of- 
war had reached Metz from prison camps 
in the Rhineland. American troops had 
passed beyond Metz in their movement 
eastward and joyfully greeted the Amer- 
ican and Canadian prisoners whom they 



show heartlessness towards hundreds of 
thousands of allied prisoners at the very 
time that their country needed mercy at 
the hands of the allied peoples. The ex- 
planation under the circumstances prob- 
ably was stupidity and distraction rather 
than deliberate cruelty — stupidity be- 
cause for selfish reasons the Germans 
should have made the care of their pris- 
oners their first concern; distraction be- 
cause Germany was in a terrible condition 
and her new rulers were overwhelmed 




Czecho-Slovaks at Vladivostok ready to leave for the Russian Interior. The armies of the Czecho-Slovaks 
that attempted to free Siberia from the Bolsheviki. 



had met tramping wearily towards the 
west. Nearly 18,000 British prisoners had 
reached England. Of these 8,794 arrived 
at Hull from Holland; 8,271 at Dover 
and .500 at London. The British Gov- 
ernment sternly warned Germany that 
she would accept no explanations for the 
ill-treatment or criminal neglect of the 
prisoners while on their way to the Ger- 
man border. One wonders what pos- 
sessed the German rulers that they should 



with the multitude of great tasks requir- 
ing urgent attention. 

A correspondent with the British forces 
states that he was in Huy. 12 miles 
beyond Namur, when the Canadian van- 
guard entered the place. One of our men 
was asked where was the front line and 
answered, "In the centre of the high 
street, sir." The boys IV0111 Canada must 
have looked with greal interest at the 
forts of Namur, perched on precipitous 



238 



THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 




THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 



239 



cliffs, which quickly succumbed to the fire 
of the mighty German 42-centimetre 
howitzers in August of 1914, bringing 
about the fall of a great bastion in the 
allied front. It was at Huy, on the south 
side of the Meuse, that the Germans 
forced a crossing to the north and began 
their surprising advance north-westward 
on Brussels and then south-westward on 
Lille and Minis, where the British, who 
awaited them found themselves hopeless- 
ly outflanked on the left, their right 
exposed by the unannounced retirement 



greeting a released comrade. All were 
footsore and weary and some were very 
bitter over the inhuman treatment of 
which they had been victims, but their 
passage through Belgium was made eas- 
ier by the plaudits and comforts heaped 
on them by the grateful Belgian people. 

The time limit for the evacuation by 
the Germans of Belgium, Luxemburg, 
and Alsace-Lorraine expired on Novem- 
ber , - , 7. All German soldiers not out of 
those regions by that time were liable to 
capture and internment. It was amaz- 



" •■■ -:■- - ■■■<:•■ ~ — ' — 





lanrmgen 



Passing Through Kiel Canal to Surrender. 



of the French from Charleroi and their 
front menaced by forces superior by three 
to one. All the way up the Sambre and 
Meuse valleys from Mons to Liege the 
Canadians met multitudes of allied pris- 
oners pouring homeward from the hateful 
prison camps of the Hun. The majority 
of them were French, English, Italian, 
and Russian soldiers, some of them wear- 
ing parts of uniforms of nations other 
than their own, but here and there, no 
doubt, the Canadians bad the pleasure of 



ing, therefore, that the Dutch Govern- 
ment should have allowed 68,000 German 
troops to pass through the peninsula of 
Dutch territory that prevented their 
quick return to their homeland. The ex- 
cuse that the Belgians wanted to get rid 
of them and that the Germans were de- 
prived of their anus at the border was not 
sufficient. Holland was guilty of an un- 
neutral act in allowing troops of a bel- 
ligerent country to cross her territories 
to escape the consequences of warfare. 



240 



THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 











THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 



241 



As a, consequence she had to agree to 
allow the allies to send supplies across her 
territories to the allied army of occupa- 
tion in Germany. 

In Germany serious political trouble 
developed early in 1919. The Ebert 
government that had displaced the short- 
lived government of Prince Maxmilian 
of Baden, had been composed of three 
Majority Socialists and three Indepen- 



operation their view that the manual 
workers of the country should disenfran- 
chise and despoil all the other citizens of 
the country. Thousands of men and 
women were shot down during the dis- 
orders in Berlin and elsewhere but finally 
the government secured the upper hand 
and the elections were held. In these the 
Majority Socialists made considerable 
gains and, although not having a, major- 




Knights of Columbus Overseas Relief Hut. This hut is a copy of a relief camp close to the lines, con- 
structed of the driftwood of the battle area. The hinges and latch are made of shoe and harness leather. 
In it the secretary gives free to American or ally tobacco, cigarettes, chocolate, first aid, etc. 



dent Socialists. The latter resigned or 
were dismissed from the government and 
a wing of the Independent Socialists 
combined with the Spartacans, or Ger- 
man Bolsheviki, and tried to prevent the 
holding of elections for a National Con- 
stituent Assembly. They knew that the 
vast majority of the people were against 
them and they attempted to put into 



ity of the seats, secured their position as 
the strongest party in the House. 

Premier Ebert set forth his position 
about this time in a striking address to 
soldiers who had returned to the capital 
from the front. This is what he said: 

"Your deeds and sacrifices are unex- 
ampled. No enemy overcame you. Only 
when the preponderance of our opponents 



242 



THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 




THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 



243 



in men and material grew ever heavier 
did we abandon the struggle. You en- 
dured indescribable sufferings, accom- 
plished incomparable deeds and gave, 
vear 'after year, proofs of your unshake- 
able courage. You protected the home- 
land from invasion, sheltered your wives, 
children and parents from flames and 
slaughter and preserved the nation's 
workshops and fields from devastation. 
With deepest emotion the homeland 
thanks you. You can return with heads 
erect. Never have men done or suffered 
more than you. 

"The German people have shaken off 
the old ride. On you, above all others, 
rests the hope of German freedom. The 
hard requirements of the victors are 
heavy upon us but we will not collapse. 
We will build a new Germany. With 
the strength and unshakeable courage you 
have proved a thousand times, see to it 
that Germany remains united and that 
the old misery of a system of small states 
does not overtake us again. The unity 
of the German nation is a work of re- 
ligion, of socialism. We must work with 
all our strength if we are not to sink to 
the state of a beggar people. You are 
laving down the arms which, borne by the 
sons of the people, should never be a 
danger but only a protection for the peo- 
ple whose happiness your industrious 
bands must build up from new founda- 
tions." 

There were few signs of repentance in 
these words. 

Two days before the German general 
elections were held Dr. Liebknecht and 
Rosa Luxemburg, the leaders of the 
Spartacans, were arrested and killed 
under very suspicious circumstances. 
Liebknecht was shot down as he was try- 
ing to escape and Rosa Luxemburg was 
taken from ber guards and beaten to 
death. At least that is the official ex- 
planation. The circumstances strongly 
suggest that the officers of the guards 
connived at their assassination. During 
the weeks following the deaths of these 



two leaders comparative quiet prevailed 
in Germany and the men who had been 
called the Kaiser-Socialists, because they 
had voted for war credits and condoned 
war outrages, remained in power. 

Refore the Peace Conference assem- 
bled general elections also were held in 
the United Kingdom. Here Lloyd 
George was overwhelmingly sustained so 
far as the number of seats was concerned 
although the popular vote showed that 
his Coalition government only received 
5,028,34.5 votes against 4,330,000 secured 
by the anti-Coalition candidates. The 
old Liberal party of H. H. Asquith was 
eliminated in this election and the Labor 
group became strong enough numerically 
to be entitled to rank as the official Oppo- 
sition. The election results were a great 
personal tribute to Lloyd George as the 
man who had led the Rritish people to 
victory. They also seemed to indicate 
that the Rritish people desired that Ger- 
many should be made to pay the penalty 
for her criminal responsibility in begin- 
ning the war and waging it with extraor- 
dinary barbarism. 

In France there were reports that Pre- 
mier Clemenceau would be outvoted but 
when he had explained his attitude to- 
wards the peace settlement and interven- 
tion in Russia he scored a great triumph 
in the House, his budget going through 
with a majority of 246. 

The visit of President Wilson to Eu- 
rope to attend the Peace Conference 
caused controversies both at home and 
abroad as to the wisdom of this unprece- 
dented move but the heartiness of his 
reception in the various capitals before 
the Conference met seemed to indicate 
that the masses largely were in sympathy 
with his dream of establishing peace on a 
permanent basis. Later on bis work in 
behalf of the League of Nations further 
justified his prolonged absence from 
Washington. 

Pending the decisions of the Peace 
Conference, Jugo-Slavia and Czecho- 
slovakia set themselves up as indepen- 



244 



THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 



dent states and the troops of both clashed 
with Italian forces, particular those of 
Jugo-Slavia in Dalmatia which had been 
promised to Italy when she entered the 
Avar on the side of France and Britain 
but which was popidated mainly by Slavs. 
The Czecho-Slovaks also clashed with the 



sian Bolshevik government advanced 
westward for nearly two hundred miles, 
boasting as they came that they would 
overrun all Europe and tear up any peace 
treaty the allies might dictate. The allied 
nations became much perplexed as to the 
course to take towards the Russian Bol- 




Battleship Missouri passing through the Panama Canal. 



Germans on the west and the Poles on 
the north, while Lemberg changed hands 
more than once as Poles fought bitterly 
with the Ruthenians of the surrounding 
country. In German Poland, fighting 
took place between Poles and Germans 
and east of Poland the army of the Rus- 



shevik government as their peoples had 
had enough of war without interfering in 
purely Russian affairs, and so at the sug- 
gestion of Premier Borden of Canada 
they invited the Bolsheviki and all the 
other Russian factions to meet in confer- 
ence on the Princes' Islands near Con- 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



245 





TRAIXED DOGS BRINGING UP AMMUNITION TO THE FRENCH FRONT LINE TRENCHES. 



248 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 




THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 



249 



stantiuople in the sea Marmora. 

A great political figure in the war, one 
better known to Europe than to this con- 
tinent, passed off the scene early in 1919 
in the person of Count Yon Hertling. 
This man was Chancellor of Germany, a 
position equivalent to that of Premier, 
but vested with greater powers, from 
November of 1917 to October of 1918. 
In other words, he controlled Germany's 
destinies from the time the colossal dis- 
aster to the Italian armies took place until 
the counter-offensive of General Foch 
forced Germany to seek an armistice on 



war for selfish jiurposes in which she was 
making a tool of France, and that Ger- 
many in resisting the growing power of 
the United States, was really the cham- 
pion of all Europe. Von Hertling for- 
merly was Premier of Bavaria and was a 
Roman Catholic. He displaced Michaelis 
as Chancellor, Michaelis being a bureau- 
cratic stop-gap. Von Hertling was 
chosen to succeed Michaelis because u 
was hoped he would detach the Centre or 
Clerical party from the Majority Parties 
who were demanding a democratic peace 
and because he was influential with the 




Barbed Wire Entanglements Failed to Stop Our Boys in the Great Drive. 

Going Through German Wire. 



Americans Are Here Seen 



the western front. Before and after he 
became Chancellor he did his best to 
cause dissension between the allies and to 
trap them into peace discussions. He 
professed to favor peace without annexa- 
tions or indemnities but in February of 
1918 he put the screws on Russia 'and 
Rumania, stripped them of territory and 
economic independence and made them 
Germany's vassals. In his day he taught 
the divine right of military officers as well 
as the divine right of kings and absolute 
submission to religious authority. He 
pretended that Britain was waging the 



Vatican and likely to check the tendency 
of Bavaria to break away from Prussia. 
More than once he said that the question 
of Alsace-Lorraine was the only barrier 
to peace. He favored adding Lorraine 
to Prussia and Alsace to Bavaria, but 
was bitterly opposed to returning the 
Provinces to France. He did not give 
up his office as Chancellor until Prince 
Maximilian assumed" power on riehalf or 
the revolution. Prince Maximilian short- 
ly thereafter became Prince Regent and 
left the Chancellorship to Ebert, who was 
termed premier. 



2.50 



THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 




THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 



251 




French general thanking the American soldiers for 
their bravery under lire. 

The death of Colonel Roosevelt syn- 
chronised with that of Von Hertling and 
removed a warm friend of Great Britain 
and one who never ceased to champion 
the justice of the allied cause in 1/ie war. 
It cannot be said that the United States 
would not have intervened without the 
stimulating effect of "Teddy's" propa- 
ganda, for President Wilson secured a 
free hand when he was returned to power 
as the man who had kept his country out 
of the great struggle. Nevertheless, the 
writings and speeches of Colonel Roose- 
velt were a real factor in convincing the 
best elements in the United States that 
their country should throw all her re- 
sources into the scales against Germanic 
barbarism. So far as the military aspect 
of the allied cause is concerned the allies 
had no stouter champion. Perhaps the 
redoubtable colonel was too virile or too 
domineering a character to subscribe to 
the idealistic features of the allied cause. 
He probably believed that mankind 
gained something out of the rivalry and 
strife between nations and that life would 
become too insipid were a League of 
Peace to straighten out all serious inter- 
national disputes without recourse to 
arms. In one sense the Colonel belonged 
to the old school. He was a true friend, 
a formidable foe and a man of honor. He 



represented the best type of statesmen in 
the days when rivalry between nations 
was keenest. It cannot be said that he 
was peculiarly adapted for the work of 
laying a new foundation for the society 
of nations based on co-operation for the 
good of all. 

On Saturday, January 18, the first 
session of the Peace Conference was held 
in Paris. Forty-eight years previously, 
at Versailles, just outside Paris, the Ger- 
man Empire was proclaimed by the vic- 
torious King of Prussia, following the 
war of 1870. The Peace Conference of 
1919 was called to determined the condi- 
tions ending The Great War and to veto 
the treaty of Versailles, restore Alsace- 
Lorraine to its rightful owner and write 
"Finis" across the inglorious history of 
the German Empire. 

The first series of resolutions adopted 
by the Conference were as follows : 
On the League of Nations. 

"That it is essential to the maintenance 
of the world settlement which the Asso- 
ciated Nations are now met to establish 
that a League of Nations be created to 
promote international obligations and 
provide safeguards against war. This 
league should be created as an integral 
part of the general treaty of peace, and 
should be open to every civilized nation 
which can be relied on to promote its 
objects. 

"The members of the league should 
periodically meet in international confer- 
ence, and should have a permanent or- 
ganization and secretaries to carry on the 
business of the league in the intervals be- 
tween the conferences. 

"The Conference, therefore, appoints a 
committee representative of the Asso- 
ciated Governments to work out the 
details of the constitution and the func- 
tions of the league." 
On Responsibility. 

"That a commission composed of two 
representatives apiece from the five Great 
Powers and five representatives to be 
elected by the other powers be appointed 



252 



THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 



to enquire and report upon the following: 

"First — The responsibility of the au- 
thors of the war; 

"Second — The facts as to breaches of 
the laws and customs of war committed 
by the forces of the German Empire and 
their allies on land, on sea, and in the air 
during the present war; 

"Third — The degree of responsibility 
for these offences attaching to particular 
members of the enemy's forces, including 
members of the general staffs and other 
individuals, however highly placid; 



Great Powers and not more than two 
representatives apiece from Belgium, 
Greece, Poland, Roumania and Serbia, 
to examine and report: 

"First, on the amount of reparation 
which the enemy countries ought to pay; 
second, on what they are capable of pay- 
ing, and, third, on the method, the form 
and time within which payment should be 
made." 

On International Legislation. 

"That a commission composed of two 
representatives apiece from the five Great 




Looking at First Sight Like a Group of Antediluvian Monsters Squatting in the Open Before 
Starting on Their Prowl. At a "Tankdrome" on the Cambrai Front. 



"Fourth — The constitution and proce- 
dure of a tribunal appropriate to the trial 
of these offences ; 

"Fifth — Any other matters cognate or 
ancillary to the above which may arise in 
the course of the enquiry, and which the 
commission finds it useful and relevant to 
take into consideration." 
On Reparation. 

"That a commission be appointed which 
shall comprise not more than three repre- 
sentatives apiece from each of the five 



Powers and five representatives to be 
elected by the other powers represented 
at the Peace Conference be appointed to 
enquire into the conditions of employment 
from international aspect and to consider 
the international means necessary to 
secure/ common action on matters affect- 
ing conditions of employment and to rec- 
ommend the form of a permanent agency 
to continue such enquiry and considera- 
tion, in co-operation with and under the 
direction of the League of Nations." 
On International Control. 



THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 



253 



"That a commission composed of two 
representatives apiece from the five Great 
Powers and five representatives to he ap- 
pointed by the other powers enquire 
and report upon the international regime 
for ports, waterways and railways." 

The delegates of the Great Powers on 
the Committee to plan for the League of 
Nations were: For the United States, 
President Wilson and Col. Edward M. 
House; Great Britain, Lord Robert Cecil 
and Gen. Jan Christian Smuts; France, 



tralia, South Africa and India each being 
allowed two representatives. The size of 
the representation of each nation was de- 
cided upon not, as proposed by the 
French plan, in accordance with the part 
played by the nation in the Avar, but fol- 
lowing the American and British plan, 
in proportion to the extent of the interest 
of each nation in the peace settlement, 
Brazil, Belgium and Serbia were given 
three representatives. Greece, Poland, 
Czecho-Slovakia, Roumania and China 




One of the various kinds of machine guns that were used against the Germans on the West- 
ern Front. This gun was invented by an American. 



Leon Bourgeois and Ferdinand Lar- 
naude. dean of the Faculty of Law of 
the University of Paris; for Italy, Pre- 
mier Orlando and Vitterio Scialioa; 
Japan, Viscount Chinda and K. Ochiai. 

France, Britain, the United States, 
Italy and Japan were given five repre- 
sentatives each in the Peace Congress. 
The British dominions were represented 
apart from Great Britain, Canada, Aus- 



were assigned two representatives each. 
Portugal, and the states which did not 
declare war upon Germany but merely 
broke off diplomatic relations with her, 
were given one delegate each. Brazil 
owes her treatment to her historic position 
as a former empire and her population of 
more than twenty millions which worked 
against placing her secondare to nations 
much less peopled, 

W. R. P. 



2.54 



THE AFTERMATH OF THE ARMISTICE 



■ 



I * 




' • ••»■*.■ ^ » ^«iV 



The Price of Victory 

CHAPTER XIV 

A COLOSSAL TOLL — LARGE PERCENTAGE OF LIVES LOST — HALF 
OF ENLISTED NUMBER WOUNDED OR KILLED VALUE OF DE- 
STROYED PROPERTY ENORMOUS TOTAL AVAR DEBT IMMENSE 

LOSSES IN SHIPPING TONNAGE — RUSSIAN PROBLEM — VICTORY 
DUE TO COMBINED AID. 



The terrible price paid by humanity in 
blood and tears and money to save Civ- 
ilization from the Hun cannot be told in 
words. The struggle was of so colossal 
a nature, spread over so wide an area and 
affected human life in such a multitude of 
ways that it is impossible to record with 
any degree of accuracy or in great detail 
the sum total of misery that it entailed. 
Most of the estimates of the number of 
soldiers who died from wounds and dis- 
ease are under rather than over the actual 
figures. It is an extremely conservative 
estimate that eleven million men in uni- 



form lost their lives, that civilians to a 
number almost equally large were mas- 
sacred or died from famine and want, 
and that many other millions of potential 
lives were lost. As to the money cost of 
the war, a rough and ready way of put- 
ting it is to say that it used up more than 
one-third of all the wealth of the world. 

Combining official with semi-official 
and unofficial statements we get the fol- 
lowing estimate of the numbers of men 
enlisted, the lives lost anH the total cas- 
ualties of the principal belligerent coun- 
tries : 



Men 
Enlisted 

United States 3,704,700 

British Empire 10,000,000 

France 7,000,000 

Italy .5,000,000 

Russia 14,000.000 

Belgium 500,000 

Serbia .500,000 

Rumania 600,000 

Total for Allies 41,364,700 

Germany 12,000,000 

Austria-Hungarv 7,-500,000 

Turkey 1,7-50,000 

Bulgaria 1,100,000 

• 22,3.50,000 

Total for all belligerents 63,714,700 

The casualties of the Canadian forces, 
which were included in the above totals 
for the British empire are officially given 
as follows: 

• Other 
Officers Ranks Total 

Killed in action 1,842 33,824 35,666 

Died of wounds-... 614 11,806 12,420 



Lives 


Total 


Lost 


Casualties 


72,738 


262,693 


975,000 


3,049,991 


1,500,000 


4,500,000 


500,000 


1,500,000 


3,000,000 


8,000,000 


100,000 


350,000 


125,000 


375,000 


1.50.000 


400,000 


6,422,738 


18,437,684 


2,750,000 


8,500,000 


1,750,000 


5,000,000 


300,000 


1,000,000 


200,000 


550,000 



.5,000,000 15,050,000 
17,422,738 33,487,684 

Died of disease 220 5,185 5,405 

Wounded 7,130 148,659 155,799 

Prisoners of war 3,575 

Presumed dead 142 4,529 4,671 

Missing 41 384 425 

Deaths in Canada 2,221 



Totals 0,989 204,397 220,182 

The total deaths were 60,383. 



256 



THE PRICE OF VICTORY 



The Australian losses were slightly 
heavier than those of Canada although 
the Commonwealth's population is much 
smaller. 

The casualties for the United States 
are given as follows: 

Killed inaction 28,363 

Died of wounds 12,101 

Died of disease 16,034 

Died from other causes 1,980 

Missing in action 14,260 



Wounded slightly 92,036 

Wounded 43,168 

Wounded severely 54,751 



Total dead for U. S 72,738 



Total U. S. wounded 189,955 

Total U. S. casualties 262,693 

The number of men in the British navy 
who lost their lives was 33,361. The 
number in the British merchant marine 
which were lost totalled 14,661, making a 
grand total of 48,002 British lives lost at 
sea. 

The British casualties in the various 
arenas were made up thus: 



Total 
Arena Casualties 

France and Belgium..... 2,070,000 

Dardanelles 119,000 

Mesopotamia 97,000 

Egvpt and Palestine 58,000 

Macedonia 27,000 

East Africa ., 17,000 

Italv 6,700 





Percentage 




of dead in 


«f o. Dead 


total losses 


560,000 


20 


33,000 


28 


31,000 


30 


16,000 


27 


7,600 


28 


9,100 


51 


1,020 


15 



The above figures for the western arena 
do not include the missing or the dead 
who died from wounds sometime after 
being wounded. 

Bulgaria claimed her losses reached the 
amazing figure of 1,353,000 made up as 
follows : 

Killed 101,000 

Wounded 1,152,000 

Prisoners 100,000 



Italy 15,000,000,000 

Rumania 3,000,000,000 

Serbia 2,000,000,000 



Total Expenditures 

by Allies $200,000,000,000 

Germany $ 52,000,000,000 

Austria-Hungary 30,000,000,000 

Turkey 5,000,000,000 

Bulgaria 3,000,000,000 



Total 1,353,000 

This total was easily double that of 
most estimates. The number of wounded 
also showed an unusually high rate as 
compared with the number of dead. Bul- 
garia's casualties in The Great War prob- 
ably were under 600,000. 

The war expenditures of the various 
belligerents have been estimated as fol- 
lows : 

Britain $ 60,000,000,000 

United States 50.000,000,000 

Russia 30,000,000,000 

France 40,000,000,000 



Total Germanic Ex- 
penditures $110,000,000,000 

Expended by all bellig- 
erents on the war $310,000,000,000 

In nearly every case the war debt of 
the belligerents involves interest charges 
of from two to three times the govern- 
ment revenue before the war. The 1919 
French budget called for an expenditure 
three and a half times greater than the 
pre-war expenditures or for an amount 
supposed to be equal to one-half of all 
the earnings of the French people for the 



THE PRICE OF VICTORY 



257 



year. The billions of dollars Germany 
has to pay in reparation of course should 
be added, properly speaking, to the Ger- 
man cost of the war. 

During the great allied offensive on 

tlie western front in 1918. the allied 
armies captured 362,355 prisoners, in- 
cluding 7.000 officers, as well as 0.217 
cannon. 38.622 machine guns and 3,907 
mine throwers, or more than one-third of 
the enemy's artillery. 

The allies during the month of October 
captured 108,34.'} prisoners, including 2,- 
472 officers, as well as 2,064 cannon, 
13,630 machine guns, and 1,103 mine 
throwers. The American forces in 
Prance during the strenuous campaign of 
1918 captured 44.000 Germans and 1.400 
guns. 

The official British figures of air fight- 
ing upon the British Western front from 
January 1. 1018, to the date of the armis- 
tice show that the number of enemy 
machines destroyed in aerial combats by 
the British totalled 3,060, while enemy 
machines driven down out of control 
numbered 1.174. Germany is known to 
have lost well over six thousand airplanes 
destroyed and surrendered during the 
year. On the other hand, the resources 
of the allies were reinforced by 1,700 Ger- 
man machines of modern type and in 
good serviceable condition. 

Great Britain was pre-eminent in the 
air at the close of the war, when the Brit- 





!»-•■"' "'*-"■. ■ <■■'-< 


'%£ 






E»mSmP' 




m» jk k frflBl 




A 




r^l 




In tli t •= photograph are seen the American Artillery 
before Met-, the capital of Alsace, firing into ' 

man lines. 



American Poles March to the Front in France. — The 
regiment was raised and trained in the United States 
and all the men and officers are citizens of the United 
States. 



ish air force was the largest in the world. 
In August, 1014, the British naval and 
military air services together mustered 
planes. 4.5 seaplanes and 7 airships, while 
at the close of hostilities she had 21,000 
airplanes, 1.300 seaplanes and 103 air- 
ships. Besides this there were 2.5,000 air- 
planes and seaplanes being built and 
55,000 airplane engines under contract. 

In 1014, 4.) bombs were dropped on 
Paris. In 101.). 70 bombs, 62 of them on 
March 20, fell on the city. In 1016, the 
18.5 officers and 1,8.53 men of other ranks. 
In November. 1018, there were 30,000 
officers. 264,000 men. At the outbreak 
of the war Great Britain had 166 air- 
enemy einployed 61 bombs against Paris, 
and in 1917, 11. During the last ten 
months of the war there were 1.211 cas- 
ualties from 396 bombs. Airplanes and 
Zeppelins dropped 228 bombs on August 
(J. killing two persons and injuring ."592. 
The long-range cannon tired 108 shells 
into Paris, killing 10(1 and wounding 417. 
On Good Friday, 1018. more than 100 
persons were killed. 



258 



THE PRICE OF VICTORY 




Trophies Captured by the American? from the Huns 
at the Battle of Leichfrey. Among the other trophies 
in the picture may lie seen a Boche gun, gas mask, 
wire-cutter and canteen. 



British merchant tonnage losses were 
9,031,828 gross tons from the beginning 
of the war to Oct. 81, 1918. New con- 
struction in the United Kingdom in the 
same period was 4,342,290; purchases 
abroad were 530,000 tons and enemy ton- 
nage captured was 710,520. The net loss 
was 3,443,012 tons. In the last seven 
months of the war the output exceeded 
the world's losses by more than 1,000,000 
tons. In the case of Great Britain, al- 
though the output had not overtaken the 
losses, yet if purchases abroad were taken 
into account, the losses of the last five 
months were balanced by the gains. 

The losses in merchant vessels by 
enemy action and marine risk from the 
beginning of the war to the end of Octo- 
ber, 1918, was 15,053,780 gross tons. In 
the same period 10,849,527 tons were con- 
structed and 2,392,075 tons of enemy ves- 
sels captured. This makes the net loss 
of tonnage during the war 1,811,584 tons. 
One hundred and two ocean going steam- 
ships of 330,330 gross tons, were built by 



American shipyards during November. 
In addition (53 smaller vessels of 18,108 
gross tons were constructed during the 
same period. 

The triumphant close of the war waged 
on behalf of civilization by the allies 
provided enough glory to go all around. 
Each of the allied nations could afford to 
show a generous appreciation of the part 
played by the others. The truth is that 
individually all of the five first-class 
powers that fought on the side of the 
allies rendered service that was essential 
to the final success. These five included 
Russia, which made a most valuable con- 
tribution until she broke under the terrific 
strain of war. Several small powers ren- 
dered most valuable service. For in- 
stance, Belgium, whose little army for a 
brief period stayed the advance of the 
German hordes and gave the British and 
French a chance to assemble their forces. 
Rumania and Serbia also interfered so 
seriously with the enemy's plans as to at- 
tract the attention of large Teutonic 
forces which might have been used else- 
where with great effect. Had the British 
Empire, France, Russia, Italy or the 
United States not participated in the 
struggle, had any of them failed to give 
the help they afforded, it is hard to see 
how Germany would have been brought 
to her knees by the fall of 1918. It is by 
no means certain that the non-participa- 
tion of any one of them would not have 
permitted the Central Powers to acquire 
greater prestige as a result of the conflict. 

At present Russia is under a cloud. 
The allied peoples feel that she treacher- 
ously deserted them in a crisis, imperil- 
ling their victory, increasing their sac- 
rifices and prolonging the war. That 
feeling is natural and justifiable. Never- 



THE PRICE OF VICTORY 



259 



theless, it is a fact that the educated and 
business classes in Russia bitterly deplore 
the degradation of their country and are 
the most unfortunate victims of the rule 
of the Bolshevik. The masses of the peo- 
ple, ignorant, easily duped, grief-stricken 
with their losses in the fighting, on the 
verge of starvation, freed from the des- 
potism of Czarism only to pass under the 
hateful despotism of Bolshevikism. are 
bewildered and distracted and groping 
blindly towards the light. What Russia 
has done she did not mean to do. Russia 
will emerge from the bog and the black- 
ness and take a leading place among the 
great democratic nations. To-day she is 
to be pitied much more than she is to be 
condemned. To-morrow, for our own 
sake as well as for hers, we must aid her 
to the full extent of our ability. In the 
meantime, we should recognize that when 
the war began the great military power 
of the allied side was not Britain, France 
or Italy, but Russia, slow-moving but ter- 
rible in her might: that the enemy 
planned to overthrow the French and 
British in 1914 so that he would be able 
to cope in 191.5 with the deadlier peril on 
the east: that Russia struck in East Prus- 





Gen. Planter Review- Hi- Yanks at the 
Gen. I'lumer is seen in this photo reviewing 
"Yanks" who participated in the big British offensive. 



American officers examining captured German 
howitzer. Officers of the 26th Division examining a 
German 210 howitzer captured by the 1 u 2nd Infan- 
try. 26th Division in France. 



sia during August of the first year of 
war and caused the enemy to rail enough 
divisions from the west to permit the 
allies to win the first battle of the Marne 
— the only truly decisive battle in the 
war: that Russia struck again in 1916 
when Italy was hard pressed, won tre- 
mendous victories and brought appreci- 
able relief to the Italians, and that in 
1917, after the revolution, Kerensky suc- 
ceeded in inducing the Russian army to 
undertake an offensive which had mag- 
nificent success until treachery developed 
at one part of the front. Russia quit be- 
cause her morale was broken and because 
her people, having rid themselves of the 
Czar, thought the war in which the Czar 
had taken them should come to an end. 
It is not unreasonable to assume that 
Russia inflicted one-third of the casualties 
suffered by the enemy powers in the war 
and endured as many casualties as the 
total suffered by Britain and France, or 
about eight millions. 

The part played by Italy is much 
underrated, in 1915 the British and 
French were almost helpless before the 
enemy's fortified line in the west and it) 



260 



THE PRICE OF VICTORY 



the east the German army was riding 
roughshod over Russia. The intervention 
of Italy drew half a million of the enemy 
to the south-western arena, and may have 
prevented the loss of the war then and 
there. Italy's casualties are one-third of 
those suffered by all the nations of the 
British Empire. She certainly inflicted 
much heavier casualties on the Central 
Powers. 

There is no occasion to emphasize th^ 
essential part paid by France in the Avar. 
In proportion to population and wealth 
France's sacrifices are much greater than 
those suffered by any other allied power, 
and the damage to her richest industrial 
areas runs up into the billions. 

The aid given by the United States 
was of the utmost value in hastening the 
end of the war. The issue in this year's 
campaign was whether the allies should 
win the war at an early date or suffer 
such a disaster as would protract the war 
for years. The speeding-up of the ship- 
. ment of American troops when the scales 
were in the balance enabled the allies to 
frustrate the enemy's designs and by re- 
leasing veteran French troops from quiet 
sectors and by providing good American 
shock troops in the later stages of the 
campaign, brought Germany to her 
knees. The low casualties suffered by the 
millions of the American armies, but one- 
twelfth of those of the British Empire, do 
not adequately represent the exceedingly 
valuable contribution of the United 
States. In financing the allies when 
Britain's resources were sorely tried and 
in supplying devices for curbing the 
enemy's submarine activities which at 
times were greatly worrying the British 
authorities, the United States gave inval- 
uable help. 

As in the Napoleonic wars a hundred 




Photo showing 'one French solidier in an enemy's 
trench signaling to his comrades. 



years ago Britain was the mainstay of the 
forces of liberty. During the struggle 
her military power caught up with and 
passed well beyond that of France. 
Without the aid of her armies, or the 
work of protection and supply so gal- 
lantly performed by her mighty navy, or 
the self-sacrificing performances of her 
merchant marine, or her loans of billions 
of dollars to weaker allies, the cause of 
humanity would have been defeated 
During the war the United Kingdom 
provided no less than eight million men 
and her Dominions overseas and India 
raised another two millions. 

W. R. P. 



How The Central Powers FeH 



CHAP TEE XV 

GERMANY WEAKENS BULGARIA SURRENDERS TURKEY SUR- 
RENDERS AUSTRIAN ARMISTICE AND SURRENDER FOLLOW - 

GERMANY SIGNS ARMISTICE KAISER ABDICATES AND FLEES 

MILITARY AND NAVAL FORCES SURRENDER — ALLIES OCCUPY 

GERMANY CASUALTIES. 



The iron defense of the Central Powers 
and their allies once pierced, the collapse 
of the coalition came with a swiftness 
which surprised even the most optimistic 
among the councillors and leaders of the 
entente nations and the United States. 
And strangely enough, while the eyes of 
the world were turned toward the great 
struggle in France, where it was helieved 
the issue would he settled, the first breaks 
which brought the end came from all the 
other fronts. Within six weeks after the 
first hint had come that the hour of vic- 
tory was about to strike, the war was 
ended. In the chronological order in 
which they were forced out of the war, the 
Teutonic allies surrendered as follows: 

BULGARIA — Armistice signed just 
before midnight on September 29th. 1918. 

TURKEY — Armistice went into ef- 
fect in the afternoon of October 31st. 

AUSTRIA — Armistice, signed on No- 
vember 3rd, went into effect in the after- 
noon of November 4th. 

GERMANY — Armistice went into ef- 
fect 11 o'clock A. M., November 11th. 

Bulgaria, the little autocracy in the 
Balkans, whose czar had heeded the prom- 
ises made by Germany of a large share in 
the territorial loot of conquest, was the 
first to surrender. Driven back, then 
crushed, the first of the Allied invading 
army on his own soil, Czar Ferdinand was 
quick to sue for peace. His people never 
had favored the war. The Kaiser had 



withdrawn nearly all of the German 
troops which had supported the Bulgar- 
ians. Even the Austrian troops, menaced 
earlier in the summer by the Italian cam- 
paign which had cleaned them out of the 
greater part of Albania, had withdrawn 
from the Macedonian front. Bulgaria 
fought it out alone. 

About the middle of September the Al- 
lies' lines extended from Saloniki on the 
east to southern Albania where they were 
in contact with the Italian forces. Under 
Gen. Franchet d'Esperey, a force of 
French, British, Itahans, Serbs and 
Greeks began the drive northward. To 
the Serbs fell the honor of the first vic- 
tories. They were advancing to hurl the 
enemy from their native land and sup- 
ported by French and Greek units, they 
drove northeast of Monastir. Victory was 
almost immediate. The first day of the 
drive the Serbs advanced several miles 
and freed scores of villages. Within a 
few days they were threatening the chief 
railroads and lines of communication and 
the Bulgar right was nearly cut off. 

On September 24th, Prilep, one of the 
chief bases of the enemy, was taken and 
the Bulgars faced annihilation. So rapid 
. had their retreat been, that Prilep was 
entered by French cavalry operating far 
in advance of the main French and Ser- 
bian forces. In the meantime the British 
and Greek army operating in the Lake 
Doiran region, had advanced and had ef- 
fected a juncture with the French and 



262 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



Serbians and a united attack moved rap- 
idly toward the Bulgarian border itself. 
Within two days more the Bulgarian 
army had been split into several groups 
and each one of these was in flight. The 
government at Sofia admitted they were 
facing disaster. Far in the vanguard — 
fighting their way back home — the Serbs 
pursued the fleeing Bulgars across track- 
less mountain wastes and through the 
once cultivated valleys that had been laid 
waste by war. On September 25th, the 
British reached Bulgarian soil opposite 
Kosturino and the next day Strumnitza 
fell. The Serbs now were well toward 
the great Bulgarian base of Uskub and 
Ferdinand's troops were fleeing in dis- 
order, hopelessly beaten. 

Nothing could save Sofia from possible 
bombardment and the Bulgarian govern- 
ment sought peace. A commission bear- 
ing the white flag of surrender entered 
the allied lines. The Allied commanders 
left Gen. d'Esperey to impose the terms. 
The Bulgarians submitted to uncondi- 
tional surrender. They agreed to evacu- 
ate all territory they still held in Greece 
and Serbia, to completely demobilize their 
army; to give up all their railroads, and, 
what was most important of all. to allow 
the Allied forces a free passage through 
Bulgaria. 

Thus was the first big gap cut into the 
Berlin to Bagdad project. The road to 
A T ienna was open. Austria was in what 
was almost a panic and Vienna signified 
willingness to discuss peaee, though hold- 
ing to the statement that they would stand 
by Germany on terms. The stock market 
iii Berlin felt the effects of the Bulgarian 
disaster and in both Berlin and Vienna 
the socialists began open discussion of 
constitutional reforms. The Teutonic 
Alliance was crumbling. With Bulgaria 
out and the Macedonian region free from 
danger, the Allies could now turn their 
attention to Constantinople from the 
north while the British were advancing 
through the Holy Land on the south. 
Serbia was being evacuated and Austria 
would soon be attacked from across the 




Frank Mayo, Rear Admiral, United States Navy. 

Danube. King Ferdinand of Bulgaria 
had abdicated in favor of his son, Boris, 
and the Allies were in control of the 
Balkans. 

The developments in the Balkans had 
surprised the Allies, but' the victories in 
the Orient and the smashing of the Turks 
came with even greater suddenness. Since 
his occupation of Jerusalem, Gen. Alien- 
by, with a force of British and Indian 
troops, reinforced by French and friendly 
Arab tribesmen, had moved slowly north- 
ward until in the latter part of September 
they occupied a line from the River Jor- 
dan westward to the Mediterranean. The 
great stroke was delivered on September 
18th, 19th, 20th and 21st. Over a front 
of sixteen miles Gen. Allenby struck the 
Turkish forces and in less than a day they 
were fleeing in full rout. They pushed 
through between Rafat and the sea for 
nineteen miles on the first day and took 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



263 



3,000 prisoners. Bodies of cavalry were 
advancing so rapidly that they threatened 
to completely cut off the Turks' retreat. 
Railway communications were cut and the 
Turkish forces were trapped. Huge 
stores of guns and supplies were taken 
and the Turk dead blocked the roadways. 
Caught in the valleys and lowlands, they 
were at the mercy of the British artillery, 
and airplanes, flying at low altitudes, 
raked the fleeing forces with machine gun 
fire. 



By September 25th, British cavalry had 
pressed along the coast for sixty miles and 
taken Haifa and Acre, two important 
ports. Step by step the Allies were rush- 
ing forward along the entire line, practi- 
cally without opposition except from 
straggling bodies of the routed enemy, 
and the prisoners now numbered nearly 
50,000. The Fourth Turkish army also 
had been caught in the trap and sur- 
rounded. The British had advanced to 
the sea of Galilee which region they now 




U. S. Submarines Played an Important Part in the Guarding of American Coasts 



By September 21st, the captured Turks 
numbered 20,000. An entire Turkish 
column, attempting to escape into the 
Jordan valley, was cut off and taken. 
The whole valley was commanded by Al- 
lied artillery and two Turkish armies were 
in the trap. The British cavalry captured 
Nazareth and the plains of Armageddon 
with more stores and guns. The Seventh 
and Eighth Turkish armies were practi- 
cally annihilated. Six miles piled deep 
with their bodies bore testimony to the 
deadly accuracy of the British artillery. 



dominated. Field Marshal Liman von 
Sanders, who had been in command of the 
Turks around Nazareth, had fled to Con- 
stantinople. 

By October 1st, Damascus was sur- 
rounded and taken. French detachments 
were speeding toward Beirut. This port 
they took a few days later. Palestine had 
been completely cleared of the enemy and 
it was officially announced in London that 
Gen. Allenby had bagged 71,000 prison- 
ers. The Allies kept advancing north- 
ward and a Turk column north of Damas- 



264 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 




A German Liquid-Fire Attack Against British Troops. 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



265 




A Scene on a Xo-Man's-Land "Quagmire" on the Western Front. 



266 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 




HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



267 



ens was cut off and taken. British and 
French warships began cooperating along 
the coast. The Aral) chieftain reported 
the capture of 10,000 Turks in their share 
of the campaign and of the Ottoman 
armies involved it was stated that only 
17.000 had escaped to the northward. 

Thenceforth the Allied advance was 
rapid. Mosul, on the road to Constanti- 
nople, was readied by one expedition, and 



dered. The remainder of the Turkish 
forces were demobilized except for enough 
to serve for policing purposes. The few 
vessels of the fleet were dismantled. 
Within a short time British and French 
vessels had sailed through the Dardanelles 
to Constantinople. The thousands of 
British prisoners captured when Gen. 
Townshend was forced to surrender at 
Kut-el-Amara, were liberated. It was 




American Marines took a part in the rout of the Hun. Note the build of these boys 



other columns moved along the coast to 
Smyrna where they cooperated with the 
fleets. Rioting had broken out in the 
capital and the uprising was directed at 
the German officers and leaders of the 
Young Turk party. Turkey was 
crushed. Facing destruction from the 
south, west and north, with open revolu- 
tion threatening, the Porte sued for an 
armistice under terms which meant sur- 
render. The Dardanelles were surren- 



Gen. -Townshend himself who had been 
sent to the Allied commanders with the 
first plea for an armistice. 

In June, her drives in France lagging 
to a halt, Germany goaded Austria- Hun- 
gary into making an attack and on June 
15th, the Teutonic Allies began a greal 
offensive over a front of 100 miles from 
the Asiago plateau to tin- sea and along 
the lines on the Piave river. The first 
force of the drive carried the enemv across 



268 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



the Piave in places and the Italians, who 
had now heeii reinforced by a considerable 
force of British and French and some 
American troops, lost 30,000 prisoners. 
But any initial success was quickly offset 
by a counter offensive. Within three days 
the Austrian drive both in the mountain- 
ous region of the north and in the lowlands 
north of Venice had been brought to a 
complete halt. The Austrians hurled 
division after division into the battle, re- 
gardless of heavy losses. Driven on by 
the German high command, Austria was 
staking all on the final effort. 

Nature had intervened in behalf of the 
Italians. The Austrian and German 
forces had crossed the Piave on pontoons, 
bringing up with them many heavy guns. 
Torrential rains had fallen after their ad- 
vance and Allied airmen had bombed and 
destroyed the bridges behind them. Cut 
off, they were slaughtered in thousands. 
The only means of reaching them with 
food was by airplane and the Allies held 
the superiority in the air. Along the en- 
tire Asiago plateau the Austrians met 
defeat. It was estimated that they had 
thrown half a million men into action and 
of these probably 200,000 were numbered 
among the casualties. 

The Italians followed up with a vic- 
torious advance. Positions along the 
Brenta river were taken and the heights 
in the Mont del Rosso and Di Val Bello 
region were scaled and taken. Fresh 
army corps were rushed to aid the 
Austrians, for the determined advance 
threatened to carry the Italians back to 
their lines held before the disaster of 
months before. But steadily the Italians 
and British and French pressed forward, 
improving their lines and strengthening 
their positions during July and August. 
Height by height the enemy was pushed 
back in the north. 

In October, the Italian effort developed 
into a heavy drive. Every available unit 
was sent in against the Austrians, who 
had been somewhat weakened bv the with- 




General Tasker H. Bliss, former Chief of Staff 
of the United States Army, one of the American 
delegates to the Peace Conference. 



drawal of German forces back to the front 
in France. The influence of the Sepa- 
ratists had begun to be felt seriously and 
revolt was threatening to disrupt the 
Dual Monarchy. Through Holland, 
Emperor Charles had asked for mediation 
to secure the meeting of a peace confer- 
ence. Back across the Asiago plateau the 
Austrians were driven, losing thousands 
in dead and prisoners. Austria was now 
extremely hard pressed, many of her 
troops were unreliable and she pleaded 
with Berlin for reinforcements. Cross- 
ings of the Piave were won by the 
Italians and British and the big push 
northward was rapid. On October 30th. 
American troops under Maj. Gen. Treat, 
operating with the British army, crossed 
the Piave. Vittorio, the great Austrian 
base, was captured and a hundred other 
towns freed along a front of 100 miles. 



HOW TIIK CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



269 



The offensive now had developed until it 
reached all along- the Piave. In the Mont 
Grappa region the enemy was beaten at 
Segusino in a sanguinary battle and Mont 
Gesen was taken. 

Full disaster had overtaken Emperor 
Charles' armies by late in October. Fifty 
thousand prisoners had been taken and 
hundreds of the heaviest guns. The Aus- 
trians were pouring across the mountains 
in rout and the Allies were pushed to their 
utmost even to keep in contact in places. 
The Tagliamento river was crossed by the 
Italians. Other columns reached the 
towns of Azzano. Decimo, Portugrua.ru 
and Concordia. The Italians were now 
within less than eighteen miles of I Mine 
where the Italian headquarters had been 
established when the disaster at Caporetta 
overtook them. Their total advance had 
been thirty miles. 

On November 1st. with nearly 100,000 
of their armies prisoners, 200.000 more 
cut off and surrounded in the Brenta and 
Piave regions, emissaries from the Aus- 
trian commanders entered the Italian 
lines under a white flag, bearing a plea 
for an armistice. The Allied war council 
in Versailles began drawing up the terms. 
In the meantime, with the announcement 
that he would rather drive the Austrians 
out than accept their surrender, Gen. 
Diaz kept up his hammer blows. The 
Austrians were in full rout and their cas- 
ualties were mounting into the hundreds 
of thousands. Their entire army in the 
Trentino district had been cut off. 

On November 3rd, the Allies' terms 
were presented to Austria and the armi- 
stice was signed. Germany's last prop 
had been kicked out from under her. 
Fighting in a death grip on the west 
front, her eastern borders were now ex- 
posed to the enemy's attack. The armi- 
stice terms left Austria powerless. She 
was forced to evacuate all territories un- 
der occupation. Her Heet bad to be given 
up to the Allies. Her army had to be to- 
tally demobilized and all her troops fight- 




Brigadier General Peyton Conwaj March, Commander 
of all United States Artillery in France. 



ing with the Germans in France had to be 
withdrawn. The armistice terms practi- 
cally granted what Italy had fought for, 
the occupation of the Trentino district, 
which she had lost to Austria, as well as 
the peninsula of Istria. The armistice 
provided magistrational powers over this 
territory and troops also began occupa- 
tion to ensure the keeping of the terms in 
good faith. 

Germany made her first direct request 
for an armistice on October 0th, but for 
the purposes of narration the peace nego- 
tiations which resulted in the complete 
dissolution of the Teutonic Allies and the 
surrender of Germany are here reviewed 
in chronological order, along with the in- 
ternal disturbances which accompanied 
the defeats at the front and which have 
resulted in a political upheaval of the 
greater part of Europe: 



270 



how the central powers fell 



As early as September 15th, the Kaiser 
had offered a separate peace to Belgium, 
one that was scorned by the little king- 
dom. This was taken as the first indica- 
tion of a "peace drive", started to weaken 
the Allies and bring discord. The offer 
was vague except in that it asked Bel- 
gium's neutrality until the close of the 
war and guaranteed her political identity. 

On the same day Austria, through the 
Swiss government and the other neutral 



Though the Allies regarded this simply 
as a ruse, President Wilson sent the fol- 
lowing curt reply: 

"The government of the United States 
feels that there is only one reply which 
it can make to the suggestion of the im- 
perial Austro-Hungarian government. 
It has repeatedly and with entire candor 
stated the terms upon which the United 
States would consider peace, and can and 
will entertain no proposal for a confer- 




King George Salutes the Stars and Stripes When United State? Soldiers March Through London. 



nations, sent a proposal for a parley of 
the powers to accomplish peace. It pro 
posed that the hostilities not cease during 
the discussions, which were to be carried 
on by delegates from the belligerents to 
bring out the ideas of eventual terms for 
the ending of the war. The conference 
was to be "nonbinding and confidential 
discussion on the basic principle for the 
conclusion of peace". 



ence upon a matter concerning which it 
has made its position and purpose so 
plain." 

Austria-Hungary was known to be 
facing dissolution. The Czecho-Slavs and 
the Jugo-Slavs were already declaring 
for separate republics and Bohemia was 
threatening a similar step. 

On October 6th, Germany, with the 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



271 




272 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



new chancellor, Prince Maximilian of 
Baden, in power as the representative of 
the coalition government, which had been 
formed to still the threatened disturb- 
ances by adherents of the Social demo- 
crats, sent the first direct appeal for an 
armistice. On that day Prince Maximil- 
ian, through the Swiss government, sent 
the following note to President Wilson: 
"The German Government requests the 
president of the United States to take in 
hand the restoration of peace, acquaint 



quests the immediate conclusion of an 
armistice on land and water and in the air." 

Baron Burian, of Austria, made known 
the similar wish of Austria, and in his sub- 
sequent utterances to the Reichstag, 
Prince Maximilian supplemented his dec- 
laration of the government's position by 
indicating the wish to change the consti- 
tution, to accomplish democratization and 
to form a league of nations to protect the 
peace of the world. 

The message of President Wilson men- 




Boxing contest viewed by 20.000 soldiers. It was one of the ,most picturesque boxing tournaments ever 
held at Camp Upton. The' ring was raised about eight feet from the ground and draped with the flags of 

the Allies. 



all the belligerent states of this request 
and invite them to send plenipotentiaries 
for the purpose of opening negotiations. 

"It accepts the program set forth by the 
president of the United States in his mes- 
sage to congress on January 8 and in his 
later pronouncements, especially his 
speech of September '27. as a basis for 
peace negotiations. 

"With a view to avoiding further 
bloodshed, the German government ra- 



tioned in the German note occupies a 
place in a previous chapter as the basis 
upon which all peace negotiations must 
rest. His liberty loan speech on Septem- 
ber 27th, to which the German chancellor 
also referred, follows: 

"We are all agreed that there can be 
no peace obtained by any kind of bargain 
or compromise with the governments of 
the central empires, because we have dealt 
with them already and have seen them 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



273 



deal with other governments that were 
parties to this struggle, at Brest-Litovsk 
and Bucharest. 

"They have convinced us that they are 
without honor and do not intend justice. 
They observe no covenants, accept no 
principle hut force and their own interest. 

"Get out first — then talk armistice and 
peace," was the sense of the reply sent to 
Germany by President Wilson on Octo- 
ber 8th. He stated that there could be no 
compromise with autocracy and de- 
manded to know in unequivocable lan- 
guage if Germany would accept the un- 
compromising terms laid down by him. 
The Allied nations saw in the German 
note another trap, one by which the Ger- 
man chancellor hoped to involve the 
United States in a long diplomatic dis- 
cussion, which, when peace finally was 
denied, would strengthen the flagging- 
strength of the German people's faith in 
the government by showing them that the 
Allies sought not a just peace but were 
bent upon a war of slaughter and con- 
quest. But every faith was placed in 
President Wilson, and his reply, which 
follows, was ample assurance that he 
would handle the situation: 

"Before making reply to the request of 
the imperial German* government, and in 
order that that reply shall be as candid 
and straightforward as the momentous in- 
terests involved require, the president of 
the United States deems it necessary to 
assure himself of the exact meaning of the 
note of the imperial chancellor. 

"Does the imperial chancellor mean 
that the imperial German government ac- 
cepts the terms laid downby the president 
in his address to the congress of the 
United States on the eighth of January 
last and in subsequent addresses, and that 
its object in entering into discussions 
would be only to agree upon the practical 
details of their application? 

"The president feels bound to say with 




Capt. Raoul Lufbery, premier "ace" of the Lafa- 
yette Escadrille, has brought down his twelfth Ger- 
man plane. He would have madr it thirteen had he 
not run short of ammunition 



274 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



regard to the suggestion of an armistice 
that he would not feel at liberty to pro- 
pose a cessation of arms to the govern- 
ments with which the government of the 
United States is associated against the 
central powers, so long as the armies of 
those powers are upon their soil. The 
good faith of any discussion would mani- 
festly depend upon the consent of the 
central powers immediately to withdraw 
their forces everywhere from invaded ter- 
ritory. 

"The president also feels that he is 
justified in asking whether the imperial 
chancellor is speaking merely for the con- 
stituted authorities of the empire who 
have so far conducted the war. He deems 
the answer to these questions vital from 
every point of view." 

From all over the United States, from 
the people and from Congress came de- 
mands for the unconditional surrender of 
the Central Powers. The Germans were 
being driven back and every day regis- 
tered another defeat for their arms. There 
was scant faith placed in the sincerity of 
their peace aims. On October 14th, Ger- 
many's further expression of acceptance 
of President Wilson's terms came by wire- 
less. The message follows: 

"In reply to the question of the presi- 
dent of the United States of America the 
German government hereby declares: 

"The German government has accepted 
the terms laid down by President Wilson 
in his address of January the eighth, and 
in his subsequent addresses, on the 
foundation of a permanent peace of jus- 
tice. 

"Consequently, its object in entering 
into discussions would be only to agree 
upon practical details of the application 
of those terms. 

"The German government believes 
that the governments of the powers asso- 
ciated with the government of the United 
States also take the position taken by 
President Wilson in his address. The 
German government, in accordance with 




Americans on Aisne Sector. American troops on 
active service in the Aisne sector : boarding motor- 
lorries for a journey. 

the Austro-Hungarian government, for 
the purpose of bringing about an armis- 
tice, declares itself ready to comply with 
the propositions of the president in regard 
to evacuation. 

"The German government suggests 
that the president may occasion the meet- 
ing of a mixed commission for making the 
necessary arrangements concerning the 
evacuation. 

"The present German government, 
which has undertaken the responsibility 
for this step towards peace, has been 
formed by conferences and in agreement 
with the great majority of the reichstag. 

"The chancellor, supported in all of his 
actions by the will of this majority, speaks 
in the name of the German government 
and of the German people." 

This note was signed by Solf, the new 
state secretary of the foreign office, and 
brought forth a new cry for unconditional 
surrender both here and in the allied na- 
tions of Europe. Further evidence of a 
"peace trap" was seen in the suggestion 
for discussion of the terms, and on Octo- 
ber 15th President Wilson sent a reply 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



275 



which Left no doubt as to the uncompro- 
mising attitude of the Allies and the 
United States. lie stated that the terms 
of evacuation and reparation were those 
which must be determined wholly by the 
Allies and in which Germany could have 
no hand. lie called attention to the con- 
tinued activities of submarines and the 
burning of cities during the German re- 
treat and other inhuman acts, all being 
committed while the Germans sought to 
discuss terms for tbe cessation of hostil- 
ities. He left no doubt that the deposing 
of the Kaiser was one of the chief aims of 
the nations fighting against Germany. In 
the following language he told of tbe blow 
aimed at autocracy: 

"It is necessary, also, in order that there 
may be no possibility of misunderstand- 
ing, that tbe president should very sol- 
emnly call tbe attention of the government 
of Germany to the language and plain 
intent of one of the terms of peace which 
the German government has now ac- 
cepted. It is contained in the address of 
tbe president delivered at Mount Vernon 
on the fourth of July last. It is as fol- 
lows : 

' 'The destruction of every arbitrary 
power anywbere that can separately, 
secretly, and of its single choice disturb 
tbe peace of the world; or, if it cannot be 
presently destroyed, at least its reduction 
to virtual impotency.' 

"Tbe power which has hitherto con- 
trolled the German nation is of the sort 
here described. It is within tbe choice of 
the German nation to alter it. Tbe presi- 
dent's words just quoted naturally con- 
stitute a condition precedent to peace, if 
peace is to come by the action of the Ger- 
man people themselves. The president 
feels bound to say that tbe whole process 
of peace will, in his judgment, depend 
upon the definiteness and the satisfactory 
character of the guaranties which can be 
given i:i tin's fundamental matter. It is 
indispensable that the governments asso- 
ciated against Germany should know 
beyond neradvcnture with whom they are 
dealing." 




American and French Soldiers Searching for Con- 
cealed Self-explosive Bombs. 

Affairs in Austria were going from bad 
to worse. The discussion of splitting the 
Dual Monarchy into four states was 
going on. These new nations on the map 
were to be a Germanic Austria, tbe re- 
public of the Czecho-Slavs and the 
Illvrian and Ruthenian republics. On 
October 18th, the Czecho-Slavs revolted 
and raised their own flag. Prague was 
seized and a republic was declared with no 
doubt that its national policies would be 
against Germany and all other forms of 
autocracy. From Berlin came the first 
indications to the world that open rebel- 
lion was threatened. Tbe Socialists 
rioted and a display of force was made to 
quell them. 

Tbe Allies were placing great faith in 
President Wilson's ability to keep out of 
diplomatic tangles with Berlin and 
Vienna and to avoid traps in peace nego- 
tiations. Hut with tbe consent of tbe 



276 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 




Artillery on tl 
Americar 



encli Front Used b> 
Advantage. 



United States, it was agreed that all 
peace proposals should go to the Allied 
war cabinet. The British, with the taste 
of victory, with the end of four years of 
conflict and suffering almost in sight, 
were determined in their demands that 
absolutely no compromise be reached. 

From Austria had come a plea for a 
separate peace, but it was not made pub- 
lic until October 19th, the day on which 
President Wilson sent his reply. Aus- 
tria, like Germany, agreed to the famous 
"fourteen articles", but likewise, sug- 
gested "negotiations of the details". The 
President's curt reply voiced the same un- 
compromising attitude he had adopted 
toward Germany and Vienna was told 
that evacuation must come first, then talk 
of peace. 

Another note was received from Berlin 
on October 21st. This reiterated as- 



surances that the overthrow of autocracy 
would come with peace and that it was 
the voice of the German people speaking 
through the negotiations, not that of the 
Kaiser. It protested against the view 
that atrocities were being committed and 
assured President Wilson that .these acts 
were against the strictest orders and the 
guilty were being punished. But the 
note, like its predecessors, made no sug- 
gestion of quick and absolute surrender 
on the terms the Allies would impose. At 
the same time Great Britain made her 
position plain as regarded evacuation of 
territory. Hints at new demands regard- 
ing the freedom of the seas were made 
and the British press asked for terms 
which would impose tue fullest reparation 
and indemnities for the ravaged countries. 

President Wilson's reply to this latest 
advance was the strongest of his ex- 
changes with Germany and deserves full 
space here. The note closed the doors to 
any further discussion without a guaranty 
of surrender and made it plain that the 
Allied military command would dictate 
the terms of an armistice in the field and 
that Germany must apply directly there. 
It also dealt in unqualified terms with the 
record of pledges broken by Germany 
and stated that the United States and the 
Allies would in no way deal with the 
Hohenzollern dynasty or with a cabinet 
who represented them. The President's 
memorable note follows: 

"Having received the solemn and ex- 
plicit assurance of the German govern- 
ment that it unreservedly accepts the 
terms of peace laid down in his address to 
the congress of the United States on the 
eighth of January, 1918, and the prin- 
ciples of settlement enunciated in his sub- 
sequent addresses, particularly the 
address of the twenty-seventh of Septem- 
ber, and that it desires to discuss the 
details of their application and that this 
wish and purpose emanated, not from 
those who have hitherto dictated German 
policy and conducted the present war on 
Germany's behalf, but from ministers who 
speak for the majority of the reichstag 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



277 



and for an overwhelming majority of the 
German peoples; and having received 
also the explicit promise of the present 
German government that the humane 
rules of civilized warfare will he observed 
both on land and sea by the German 
armed forces, the president of the United 
States feels that he cannot decline to take 
up with the governments with which the 
government of the United States is asso- 
ciated the question of an armistice. 

"He deems it his duty to say again, 
however, that the only armistice he woidd 
feel justified in submitting for considera- 
tion would be one which should leave the 
United States and the powers associated 
with her in a position to enforce any ar- 
rangements that may be entered into and 
to make a renewal of hostilities on the 
part of Germany impossible. 

"The president has, therefore, trans- 
mitted his correspondence with the pres- 
ent German authorities to the govern- 
ments with which the government of the 
United States is associated as a bellig- 
erent, with the suggestion that, if those 
governments are disposed to effect peace 
upon the terms and principles indicated, 
their military advisers and the military 
advisers of the United States be asked to 
submit to the governments associated 
against Germany the necessary terms of 
such an armistice as will fully protect 
the interests of the peoples involved and 
ensure to the associated governments the 
unrestricted power to safeguard and en- 
force the details of the peace to which the 
German government has agreed, provided 
they deem such an armistice possible from 
the military point of view. 

"Should such terms of armistice be 
suggested, their acceptance by Germany 
will afford the best concrete evidence of 
her unequivocal acceptance of the terms 




Three soldiers wearing different types of gas masks. 
At an exhibition they realistically went through then 
drills and maneuvers and won applause from the great 
crowd that gathered to see them. 



and principles of peace from which the 
whole action proceeds. 

"The president would deem himself 
lacking in candor did lie not point out in 
the frankest possible terms the reason 
why extraordinary safeguards must be 
demanded. Significant and important as 
the constitutional changes seem to be 
which are spoken of by the German for- 
eign secretary in his note of the 20th of 
October, it does not appear that the prin- 
ciple of a government responsible to the 
German people has yet been fully worked 
out or that any guarantees either exist or 
are in contemplation that the alterations 
of principle and of practice now partially 
agreed upon will be permanent. 

"Moreover, it does not appear that the 



278 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FEEL 




Minister Whitlock returning to his post in Belgium. 
U. S. Minister Brand Whitlock aboard the S. S. Rot- 
terdam. 

heart of the present difficulty has heen 
reached. It may he that future wars 



have heen brought under the control of 
the German people, hut the present war 
lias not heen; and it is with the present 
war that we are dealing. 

"It is evident that the German people 
have no means of commanding the 
acquiescence of the military authorities of 
the empire in the popular will; that the 
power of the king of Prussia to control 
the policy of the empire is unimpaired; 
that the determining initiative still re- 
mains with those who have hitherto heen 
the masters of Germany. 

"Feeling that the whole peace of the 
world depends now on plain speaking and 
straightforward action, the president 
deems it his duty to say, without any at- 
tempt to soften what may seem harsh 
words, that the nations of the world do 
not and cannot trust the word of those 
who have hitherto heen the masters of 
German policy, and to point out once 
more that, in concluding peace and at- 
tempting to undo the infinite injuries and 
injustices of this war, the government of 
the United States cannot deal with any 
hut veritable representatives of the Ger- 
man people. 

"If it must deal with the military mas- 
ters and the monarchial autocrats of Ger- 
many now, or if it is likely to have to deal 
with them later in regard to the interna- 
tional obligations of the German empire, 
it must demand, not peace negotiations, 
but surrender. Nothing can he gained 
by leaving this essential thing unsaid." 

Events were transpiring in the domains 
of the Central Powers which were having 
a strong influence. The people's party 
and the Social Democrats, openly com- 
mitted to an early peace, were making 
their demands heard in Berlin. The Ger- 
mans were being cleared from Roumania 
and the eastern gates of Austria were 
now threatened by the Allies. Hungarian 
soldiers were openly joining the peace 



HOW THE CENTRAL TOWERS EELL 



279 



mobs in Budapest and other eities in the 
Dual Monarchy. And, most serious of 
all, the militarists, who had committed 
Germany to the great war, had lost then- 
last shreds of power. Ludendorff, who, 
more than Hindenburg, was the embodi- 
ment of the military policy, was forced 
out after a bitter controversy. The first 
quartermaster general, up to the last mo- 
ment, even with the iron military machine 
falling about his ears, is supposed to have 
stood firm against surrender. Hinden- 
burg, with others, had met the Kaiser and 
the new chancellor and his ministry in 



to it. 

Austria again asked for separate peace 
terms and on October 2i)th she made her 
direct plea for an armistice at once, the 
details of which have been recounted 
above. 

The action of the Allies was quick in 
regard to Germany's last plea. The Al- 
lied war cabinet met at Versailles and 
framed the terms of armistice. These 
were transmitted to Gen. Foch and on 
November 5th, President Wilson commu- 
nicated to Berlin the fact that the terms 
might be had by applying to the Allied 




Americans Before St. Millie] Salient. Before opening arti 
these American boys are seen with eas masks on await ins 



lery lire on the Germans in the St. Mihiel salient 
to receive the final word. 



conference. There were rumors that he 
frankly told his sovereign that all was 
lost. And with this news to the outside 
world, came authoritative evidence that 
the German army at the front was dis- 
banding in revolt even as it retreated. 

Berlin, convinced that the Allies and 
the United Stales would countenance 
no more quibbling, on October 27th, made 
a direct request for the terms of an 
armistice. To President Wilson, Berlin 
addressed the information that the gov- 
ernment was now by the people and that 
the military authority had been subjected 



high command on the field of battle. 

Germany, pushed to extreme straits. 
did not delay. Gen. Foch was notified 
by wireless that a German armistice com- 
mission sought to enter the lines and con- 
fer with him at headquarters, and on 
November 7th, firing was stopped at the 
point in the lines where the commission 
was to arrive and they were taken to Gen. 
Foch's headquarters. Gen. E. G. W. von 
Gruenell, Germany's delegate to the 
Hague peace conferences; Gen. H. K. A. 
von Winterfeld, former military attache 
in Paris: Vice Admiral Meurer, and Ad- 



280 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



miral Paul von Hintze made up the 
German commission. 

And even as they were entering the 
lines, great events making for the collapse 
of Germany and Austria were trans- 
piring. Along a front of a hundred miles 
the Allied armies were advancing in an 
assault which in savageness surpassed 
anything that had gone before. Ghent 
had capitulated as Queen Elizabeth of 
Belgium watched; Sedan was in flames 
and the first American troops had ad- 
vanced to its outskirts; the Italians now 
numbered their prisoners at 1,000,000 
men and they had taken 6.000 big guns 
and 200,000 horses. And in Germany 
there remained no doubt that autocracy 
was toppling. German sailors on some 
of the battleships at Kiel bad revolted and 
seized the vessels in the name of the revo- 
lution. The first outburst of the workers 
and soldiers movement came when 20,000 
workers gathered at Stuttgart and waved 
the red flag and shouted the slogan 
"Down with the war and long live the 
social republic". Dispatches which found 
their way out of Austria revealed that a 
state of chaos existed there. Cities were 
flooded by the soldiers returning in dis- 
order. The demoralized troops were 
plundering and rallying to the banners 
of a score of incipient revolts. Of food 
there was little and the returning soldiers 
seized what little of that there was. 

On November 8th, from the German 
commission within the French lines, there 
was sent a courier who bore the terms of 
the Allies to the German council at Spa. 
Germany was given seventy-two hours in 
which to answer, but the request that 
fighting cease until that time was refused 
by Gen. Foch. The wily French com- 
mander refused to be tricked and bis vic- 
torious troops kept on in their rush 
Rhinewards. 

Emperor Wilbelm II, the world's 
greatest autocrat, abdicated the throne 
and renounced the rights of succession for 
the Crown Prince on November 9th and 




Lieut. Eddie Rickenbacher, America's greatest 
"Ace." standing by his machine at an American Avia- 
tion field, France. Lieut. Rickenbacher brougb.1 

down twenty-six enemy planes. 

the overthrow of autocracy and militarism 
was complete. This was followed by the 
announcement a few hours later that the 
first of the German states to announce a 
republic was Bavaria and that the diet of 
that little kingdom had overthrown the 
Wittelsbach dynasty and deposed King 
Ludwig and his heir, Prince Rupprecht. 
The German chancellor's announcement 
of the Kaiser's abdication follows: 

"The German imperial chancellor, 
Prince Max of Baden, has issued the fol- 
lowing decree: 'The kaiser and king has 
decided to renounce the throne. 

' 'The imperial chancellor will remain 
in office until the questions connected with 
the abdication of the kaiser, the renounc- 
ing by the crown prince of the throne of 
the German empire and of Prussia, and 
the setting up of a regency shall have been 
settled. 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



281 



" 'For the regency he intends to ap- 
point Deputy Ebert as imperial chancel- 
lor, and he proposes that a bill shall be 
brought in for the establishment of a law 
providing for the immediate promulga- 
tion of general suffrage and for a eonsti- 



dreams of dominion had plunged the 
world into war. With some of his staff 
and members of his personal household, 
he tied to Holland, where he was interned. 
Early in the year 1919 the conferees of 
the nations will meet and settle the peace 




Henry P. Davison of the Red Cross. 



tutional German national assembly, which 
will settle finally the future form of gov- 
ernment of the German nation and of 
those peoples which might be desirous of 
coming within the empire.' " 

Thus ended the reign of the man whose 



terms. His presence in Holland was a 
great source of embarrassment to that 
country. The people of Holland, influ- 
enced by the wave of democracy — and in 
some instances bolshevism — that was 
sweeping Europe, feared that his pres- 



282 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



ence in their country might he used as an 
excuse to demand the removal of royalty 
and the setting up of a socialistic form of 
government. 

In the meantime the political disturb- 
ances in Germany were growing. The 
strikes of workers extended through all 
the cities of northern Germany. More 
ships had heen seized by the rebels at Kiel 



flying everywhere in Berlin and a republic 
was declared to exist by the social demo- 
crats. Friedrich Ebert, with the resigna- 
tion of Prince Maximilian, had become 
chancellor and head of the provisional 
government. Among his cabinet he num- 
bered Dr. Liebknecht, recently released 
from prison, and Philip Scheidemann, 
both worldwide known leaders of govern- 




RemarkaUe View of 



and there had heen fighting between them 
and the scattered royalists. With tl>e 
abdication of the Kaiser, Berlin had been 
seized by the workmen's and soldiers' 
council. The revolutionists held sway in 
Wurtemburg and Brunswick and the 
monarchs of those principalities stepped 
down from their thrones. 

On November 10th, the red flag was 



he Lines. 



mental reform. A general strike had 
been called and within seven hours, with 
no bloodshed except for a few deaths in 
clashes with German army officers, the 
overthrow of the imperial government 
had been accomplished and another re- 
public added to the free nations of the 
world. 

The world war ended at 11 o'clock 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



283 



A. M. (Paris time) on November 11th, 
1918. The United States received the 
news in a dispatch sent from Washington 
stating that at 2:45 o'clock A. M. the 
state department had announced that the 
armistice terms had been signed and that 
they would become effective at the hour 
given above. Gen. Foch had conveyed 
the news to all his commanders and 



MILITARY SURRENDERS 

The Germans, within fourteen days, 
must evacuate all of Belgium, France, 
Alsace-Lorraine, and Luxemburg. All 
German troops remaining after that time 
will become prisoners of war. 

The Germans must surrender 5,000 
cannon, half heavy and half held artil- 




ii Repl 



ewish Welfare I'manl I hit in [-'ranee on the Fighting Lines 



promptly to the minute firing ceased at 
the time set. 

The terms imposed in the armistice 
left no opportunity for Germany to re- 
sume military operations. With the sign- 
ing of the agreement the new government 
in Berlin, in effect, placed itself absolutely 
in the hands of the Allies. The following 
is a summary of the terms of the armis- 
tice: 



lery; 30,000 machine guns, 3,000 mine 
throwers, and 2,000 airplanes, fighters. 
bombers — firstly I), seventy-threes — and 
night bombing machines. 

The Germans must surrender in good 
condition 5,000 locomotives, 50,000 
wagons, and 10,000 motor lorries. They 
also must turn over all flic railways in 



284 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



Alsace-Lorraine and their coal and metal 
supplies. 

All Germans in East Africa must sur- 
render in one month. 

NAVAL SURRENDERS 

The Germans must surrender 160 sub- 
marines, including all cruiser and mine 
laying submarines. They also must give 



auxiliary vessels (trawlers, motor vessels, 
etc.) are to be disarmed. 

All ports on the Black sea occupied by 
the Germans are to be surrendered, to- 
gether with all the Russian vessels cap 
tured by the Germans. 

All merchant vessels belonging to the 
Allies now in the hands of the Germans 




The Salvation Army Hut and Cooking Station on the Fighting Lines in France. 



up the following naval craft, the individ- 
ual ships to be designated by the allies: 
Fifty destroyers, six battle cruisers, ten 
battleships, eight light cruisers. 

The other submarines and all the other 
surface vessels are to be disarmed and dis- 
manned and concentrated in German 
ports to be designated by the Allies. All 



are to be surrendered without reciprocity. 
OCCUPATIONS 
The allies will occupy all of the country 
on the left (west) bank of the Rhine and 
the principal crossings at Mayence, Cob- 
lenz, and Cologne, together with the 
bridgeheads (twenty miles in radius) on 
the right bank. 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



285 



The Germans must withdraw and cre- 
ate a neutral zone on the right hank forty 
kilometers wide from the Holland border 
to the Swiss border. 

The allies will occupy the German forts 
on the Cattegat to insure freedom of ac- 
cess to the Baltic. 

RESTORATION 

Resides France, Belgium and Alsace, 
the Germans must retire from all terri- 
tory held by Russia, Roumania. and Tur- 
key before the war. 

The treaties of Bucharest and Brest- 
Litovsk are abrogated. 

The allies are to have access to the re- 
stored territories in the east either 
through Dantzig or the River Vistula. 

RESTITUTION 

Full restitution for all damage done by 
the German armies. 

Restitution of the cash taken from the 
National Bank of Belgium. 

Return of all of the gold taken by the 
Germans from Russia and Roumania. this 
gold to be turned over to the allies as 
trustees. 

REPATRIATION 

All allied prisoners in Germany, mili- 
tary, naval or civilian, to be repatriated 
immediately without reciprocal action by 
the allies. 

The territory west of the Rhine which 
the Germans were to evacuate is roughly 
20,000 square miles in extent, with a 
population of about 9,000,000. It in- 
cludes some of the most important mining 
and manufacturing districts of Germany, 
and such great centers as Cologne, Strass- 
burg, Metz, and Coblenz. 

The territory consists of Alsace-Lor 
raine, the Palatinate, the Rhine province, 
Birkenfeld, and about one-third of Hesse. 

The Rhine province is the largest of 
these districts. Its area is 10,42:5 square 
miles and the census of 1010 gave its 
population as 5, 7.59,ooo. It contains 




Two Salvation Army Lasses, Prize Winners in 
Doughnut and Pie Making. 

great coal and metal deposits and some 
of the largest iron and steel manufactur- 
ing centers of Germany. There also are 
textile industries on a vast scale as well 
as extensive farming and wine growing 
regions. 

The most important cities are Cologne, 
Coblenz, Bonn, and Aix-la-Chapelle. 
The Rhine province is the most westerly 
province of Prussia, by which it was 
acquired in 181.5. 

Next in size is Alsace-Lorraine. Torn 
from France after the Franco-Prussian 
Avar, its restoration to the mother country 
has been one of the chief points upon 
which the allies have insisted in outlining 
their terms. Its area is .5,(500 square 
miles, and its population about 1,87-5,000. 

The principal towns are Metz, Strass- 
burg, Muehlhausen, and Kolmar. It con- 
tains the great iron ore district of Briey, 
one of the principal sources of German 
supply, and the extensive Saar coal fields. 
Its textile industries are among the most 
important in Germany. 

The Palatinate is 2, .'{72 square miles in 
extent, and has about 950,000 inhabitants. 
It is chiefly a farming and wine growing 
country, although there arc some large 



280 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



manufacturing industries. The capital is 
Speyer. 

Birkenfeld is a principality belonging 
to, although detached from the grand 
duchy of Oldenburg. It is inclosed in the 
Rhine province. Its area is 194 square 
miles, and its population about 45,000. 

The total area of the grand duchy of 
Hesse, about one-third of which lies west 
of the Rhine, is 2,965 square miles, and its 
total population is 1,300,000. The capital 
of Hesse, which is on the west bank of the 
Rhine, is Mainz, one of the principal fort- 
resses of Germany. 



clined by 45 per cent, while that of the 
allies was as great at the end as at the 
beginning of the campaign, thanks to the 
extraordinarily rapid reinforcement of 
the American army. The British bore 
the brunt of the righting of the final cam- 
paign and their strength was reduced by 
27 per cent, during the season while that 
of the French declined by only 21 per 
cent. When the fighting ceased the re- 
treating German armies, outnumbered by 
the ratio of 25 to 17, terribly exhausted 
and short of munitions, were being split 
in two by the forest of the Ardennes, 




The interned Austrian transport "Damih. 



(1 to carry food to the starving people of Belgium. 



Evacuation of this territory also freed 
from German control the nominally inde- 
pendent grand duchy of Luxemburg, 
which, invaded by Germany at the begin- 
ning of the war, had been completely 
under its control since that time. 

That the Germans gave up the struggle 
on November 11th because the allies were 
about to destroy the German armies is 
beyond peradventure. During the course 
of the sanguinary 1918 campaign the 
strength of the enemy's field armies de- 



which would have prevented mutual sup- 
port being quickly given by the northern 
and southern German armies. Foch 
would have covered himself with glory by 
administering the coup de mort to the 
stricken German armies, but he yielded 
to the view that it would be a crime to 
sacrifice thousands of additional lives on 
the allied side when every essential of 
peace could be secured without such a 
sacrifice. The only regrettable feature 
about that decision is that multitudes of 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 



•287 



German people did not sense the fact that 

their armies were defeated. 

Figures suggesting in detail the changes 
in the relative strength of the combatants 
as the German offensive waned and the 
allied offensive progressed to final victory 
were given by General Maurice, who ap- 
pears to have had access to semi-official 
information. Taking the strength of the 
Belgian army as the unit, which means 
that a unit represents slightly more than 
100,000 men, the following appears to 
have been the standing of the belligerents 
on March 21st. when the supreme Ger- 
man effort to win the war began. 

Strength of Strength of 

Allied Armies German Armies 

British 10l/ 2 

French 12% 

American.... '• | 

Belgian 1 26 



2.5 units 



26 units 



Thus the actual strength of the Ger- 
mans at the front at the beginning of the 
campaign was little more than 100,000 
greater than that of the four allied nations, 
but the Germans had 13 other units, or 
more than 1,300,000 additional troops, on 
the way across Europe, which they could 
use and had available in the west before 
they attacked the French north of the 
Aisne on May 27th. In spite of all his 
losses in attacking the British, the enemy's 
attacking strength in May had increased 
from 2(i to 31 units, giving him an advan- 
tage of more than half a million men. In 
the first weeks of the campaign the allies 
were unable to make the best use of their 
several and distinct armies because of the 
lack of a supreme commander. Had the 
wisest use been made of the pooled re- 
sources of the allies it is doubtful that the 
reverses between March and July ever 
would have been suffered. The enemy 
with undivided control, was able to con- 
centrate such overpowering strength 
against a 50-mile sector of the British 
front as gave him the initiative over all 
the allied armies and gol them "in bad." 



A long and anxious time was spent before 
the allies freed themselves from their 
painful disadvantage. 

The writer has stated his belief that 
Foch had little idea, himself, what would 
be the effect of a counter-thrust on July 
18. The most he counted on, probably, 
was that the enemy's offensive would be 
held up until the reinforcements from the 
United States would permit a genuine of- 
fensive campaign to proceed. This view 
is supported by the fact that in July the 
enemy still retained a great advantage in 
numbers though his troops were more bat- 
tle-worn. The relative strength of the 
combatants when the allies struck back 
was: 

Allied Strength German Strength 

British &/» 

French lli/S 

U. S 3 

Belgian 1 30 



25 30 

It will be noticed that the strength of 
the British and French had fallen off by 
214 units, which were made up by the 
Americans. The German strength, since 
March, had increased by i units. 

The rapidly-increasing American re- 
serves justified Foch in striking and in 
keeping striking. Having snatched away 
the initiative he kept the enemy reserves 
dashing about madly to plug up holes in 
the line and wore them down rapidly. 
And so when the Germans made their 
submission in November the relative 
strength of the opponents was as Follows: 

Allied Strength German Strength 

British 8 

French 10 

Americans.... 6 

Belgians 1 17 

25 17 

In effect, the 1918 campaign ended in 
the allies gaining the greatesl victory ever 
recorded in military history. 

W. K. I>. 



288 



HOW THE CENTRAL POWERS FELL 




Marvels of the War on Land, Sea and Air 

CHAPTER XVI 

I'AXKS GREAT INVENTION — VIRSHIPS IMPROVED GREATLY - 
GERMAN SUBMARINE MOST FORMIDABLE — NAVAL COMPARISONS. 



The most remarkable invention devel- 
oped for military purposes during The 
Great War was the tank. It was an idea 
adapted from the tractor machine and 
various persons in England and in Amer- 
ica were credited with first giving the 
suggestion to the British War Office. It 
was used with considerable success in the 
battle of the Somme in 1916 but later 
the anti-tank guns of the Germans proved 
effective and many officers on both sides 
were disposed to regard the tank as a fail- 
ure. Consequently, a complete surprise 
was sprung by General Byng late in 1917 
when hundreds of tanks rushed forward, 
beating down or carrying away the elabo- 
rate wire entanglements protecting the 
German trenches opposite Cambrai. 
opening the way for an advance of nine 
miles by the British infantry. Had Gen- 
eral Haig been well supplied with re- 
serves to hurl through the breach thus 
made by the perambulating fortresses, a 
different ending to the campaign of that 
year might have been written into history. 
Thereafter the tank was greatly feared 
by the German army but it was too late 
then for the Germans to go into the 
manufacture of them on a large scale. 
They had only a few tanks in their spring 
offensive in 1*918. The British and other 
allied armies, however, had many hun- 
dreds of them and used them as brigades 
in a most spectacular manner. In the 
Somme offensive of August, 1918, the 
tanks did very fine work. 

In the air wonderful progress was 
made in the development of heavier-than- 
air machines which proved to be much 



more effective for army purposes than 
the German dirigibles or Zeppelins. 
These huge flying monsters were used in 
making several raids on England but 
with disastrous results to themselves. 
Finally the Germans confined the opera- 
tions of Zeppelins to scouting for the 
Fleet. When the war began the British 
army had only one hundred airplanes but 
at the end of the war they had tens of 
thousands. On Ostend and Zeebrugge 
alone the British bombing planes dropped 
an average of four tons of bombs daily 
over a period lasting for five months. By 
that time three-decker airplanes capable 
of flying thousands of miles and of car- 
rying as many as forty men had been 
used. The third day after the armistice 
was signed had been set as the date for 
a great raid on Berlin by monster allied 
airplanes. 

The submarine became a much more 
formidable vessel as the war progressed, 
and the radius and power of the torpedo, 
its principal weapon, was much increased. 
Some of the later submarines were of 
2,-500 tons, equipped with six-inch guns 
and capable of submerging safely to a 
depth of 300 feet. The British also de- 
veloped a battle-cruiser capable of cross- 
ing the ocean in three days. 

The British Admiralty permitted to be 
made public the real story of the sub- 
marine cruisers the British successfully 
constructed at the time the Germans were 
boasting of their super-submarine. The 
British craft have two runnels and make 
24 knots an hour on the surface under 
steam power. They carry from eight to 



290 



MARVELS OF THE WAR 



ten torpedo tubes, two or three 4-inch 
guns and also are equipped with internal 
combustion motors for surface cruising. 
The batteries for the undersea power can 
be charged from both the steam and com- 
bustion engines, and an ingenious scheme 
has been devised for quickly dismantling 
the funnels for the purpose of submerg- 
ing. The vessels displace 2,000 tons on 
the surface and 2,700 tons submerged. 
They are 340 feet long, have a beam" of 
26 feet and a cruising radius of 3,000 
miles. They are designed to be even a 
match for torpedo-boat destroyers in sur- 
face fighting. 

It is also known that the British have 
successfully built a submarine carrying 
a 12-inch gun, although the details of 
this craft have not been made public. 
The craft was built with the idea of mak- 
ing it possible to fire this gun, the new 
ideas embraced in the construction includ- 
ing the "cushioning" of the boat to with- 
stand the terrific concussion of the gun. 
This idea is reported unofficially as hav- 
ing been successful. So far as is known 
the new craft was never employed against 
any enemy vessel. 

During the first half of the year 1918 
no less than 100 German submarines were 
trapped in British mine fields off Heligo- 
land. The total number captured or de- 
stroyed during the war is put at 202. As 
at least 122 were surrendered since the 
armistice and 58 were not yet completed, 
it appears that Germany used during the 
war or had in course of construction, a 
total of 382 submarines, whereas she was 
credited with only 3.5 when war began. 
During the course of one month the Brit- 
ish mined zone off the Belgian coast 
caught 17 German submarines. 

Five hundred and seventeen ships were 
added to the British navy during the war. 
The new vessels include seven battleships, 
five battle-cruisers, twenty-six light cruis- 
ers, seventeen monitors, 230 destroyers 
and 232 mine-sVeepers and special craft. 

Secretary Daniels of the U. S., at the 
end of the" war said that Great Britain 
has in operation or building sixty-one 



battleships, 13 battle cruisers, 31 heavy 
cruisers, 111 light cruisers, 216 patrol and 
gunboats, 409 destroyers, 219 submarines, 
98 torpedo boats, 32 flotilla leaders, 220 
airships and 897 miscellaneous ships. 

The United States, with the second 
largest navy in the world, has built or 
projected 39 battleships, six battle cruis- 
ers, eight armored cruisers, forty light 
cruisers, 342 destroyers, 181 submarines, 
15 coast torpedo vessels, 17 torpedo boats 
and 569 other vessels. 

France has 29 battleships, 21 cruisers, 
eight light cruisers, 92 destroyers, 121 
torpedo boats, 70 submarines, 39 airships 
and 183 other craft. 

Italy has 18 battleships, seven cruisers, 
ten light cruisers, five monitors, 15 flotilla 
leaders, 54 destroyers, 83 torpedo boats, 
*5 submarines, 30 airships and 442 mis- 
cellaneous vessels. 

Russia, before quitting the war, had 18 
battleships, four battle cruisers, 12 heavy 
and nine light cruisers, 128 destroyers, 
54 submarines, 13 torpedo boats, 14 air- 
ships and 90 miscellaneous vessels. 

Before the armistice was signed, Ger- 
many had 47 battleships, six battle cruis- 
ers, 51 other cruisers, 223 destroyers, 175 
torpedo boats, 243 submarines, and 564 
miscellaneous vessels. 

During the war 2,475 British ships 
were sunk with their crews beneath them, 
and 3,147 vessels were sunk and their 
crews left adrift. Fishing vessels to the 
number of 670 were lost during the period 
of hostilities. 

According to one story, when the 
kaiser urged upon Admiral Scheer in 
October, 1918, that he sail out to meet 
the British fleet, the admiral consented, 
but only on condition that the kaiser ac- 
company the fleet on the flagship and 
take nominal control of the action with 
the British fleet. In the interview be- 
tween Scheer and the kaiser the latter 
pledged his word to Scheer that he would 
do so. The German fleet was to have 
sailed on a Thursday night, the kaiser 
was to have arrived at Kiel the previous 
Tuesday. But on the Monday preceding 



MARVELS OF THE WAR 



291 



a naval attache arrived at Kiel with a 
despatch for Scheer from the kaiser, in 
which Wilhelni .stated that he could not 
come to Kiel because he believed it to be 
his duty to remain at Potsdam. Admiral 
Scheer then decided not only not to allow 
the fleet to sail, but as a protest against 
the Hohenzollerns to take possession of 
Kiel. Scheer informed Premier Ebert 
that he would hold the great naval base 
until a new government had been formed. 
Prince Henry of Prussia, who was at 
K iel. was held a prisoner for a week. In 
a cablegram to government officials at 
Berlin. Admiral Scheer said. "We pre- 
ferred disgrace to fighting in the cause of 
a coward." 

Describing the German warships which 
surrendered to the British and are now 
interned in Scapa Flow, the correspond- 
ent of The Daily Telegraph says: 

"The German admiral's flag, white 
with a thin black cross and two black 
balls, indicative of his rank, still flew at 
the main topgallant of the Friedrich der 
Grosse, as the German squadron moved 
between the British lines. It hung limp 
and dirty — typical in this state of all the 
German ships and their crews. The ships 
were in such condition that they looked 
like vessels laid by for breaking-up pur- 
poses. They could not have seen paint 
for two years. Their sides, funnels and 
bridges were covered with red rust, and 
the masts were black with soot. The 
•runs even bad not been painted for 
months. 

"The Derfl'linger was in better condi- 
tion than any of the others, and there was 
an appearance on board that discipline 
was still in vogue. On all the other ships 
the crews were lounging about, many on 
the quarter decks, not recognizing their 
officers, (hi the Derfl'linger the officers 
were parading smartly about on their own 
quarter, and the men were clean and or- 
derly. As we passed close to each ship 

tin- men crowded the rail. They looked 
miserable and drenched and cold. Their 



clothing was nondescript. There was an 
air of melancholy and depression every- 
where. 

"It was a pleasure to come from them 
alongside our own great ships, where 
everything was spick and span. Hearty 
sailormen with cheery faces were at every 
porthole, and the quarter decks were 
occupied only by officers, the commander 
marching briskly along in the traditional 
way, telescope under his arm. The Ger- 
man officers have been very polite, and 
no trouble whatever has been experienced 
with them. The British officers have re- 
jected all advances at friendliness, and 
have extended only the necessary cour- 
tesies." 

Captain Persius, the German naval 
critic, chose the moment when the finest 
vessels of the German navy were about 
to be surrendered to the allies to publish 
in the Berlin Tageblatt a sensational ar- 
ticle containing revelations regarding the 
German fleet. Captain Persius said the 
hope that the German fleet would be able 
in a second Skagerrak battle to beat the 
British fleet rested upon the bluff and 
lies of the naval authorities. In August, 
1914, Germany had about one million 
tonnage in warships, while Great Britain 
had more than double that, and thanks to 
the mistakes of Von Tirpitz, the German 
material was quite inferior to the British. 
In the Skaggerak battle, the German 
fleet was saved from destruction partly 
by good leadership and partly by favor- 
able weather conditions. Had the 
weather been clear or Admiral Von 
Scheer's leadership less able the destruc- 
tion of the whole German navy would 
have resulted. The long-range British 
nuns would have completely smashed the 
lighter-armed German ships. As it was. 
the losses of the German fleet were enor- 
mous, and on June 1. Captain Persius 
says, it was clear to every thinking man 
that the Skaggcrrak battle must he the 
only general naval engagement of the 
war. 

On all sides, says Capt. Persius. Ad- 



292 



MARVELS OF THE WAR 



miral Von Tirpitz was advised to con- 
struct only submarines, but he remained 
obstinate. On October 1, 1915, several 
members of the Reichstag made an ear- 
nest appeal to the army command — not 
to the naval staff — with the result that an 
order was issued terminating the con- 
struction of battleships in order that the 
material might be used for the making of 
U-boats. In the meantime so great a 
scarcity of material had arisen that it be- 
came necessary to disarm a number of the 
battleships and take the metal. In this 
manner, at the beginning of 1916 twenty- 
three battleships had been disarmed, as 
well as one newly built cruiser. 

At the beginning of 1918 Captain Per- 
sius states, the German navy consisted 
only of dreadnaughts and battleships of 
the* Heligoland, Kaiser and Markgraf 
types, and some few battle cruisers. All 
the ships which Von Tirpitz had con- 
structed from 1897 to 1906, at a cost of 
innumerable millions, had been destroyed; 
and the U-boats that had been con- 
structed had proved unable to fight 
against British warships. Admiral Von 
Capelle during his period as head of the 
navy constructed very few submarines, 
work being continued only on the con- 
struction of submarines of the large type, 
but in official quarters it was still stated 
that Germany possessed an enormous 
number of U-boats and that the losses 
Mere virtually nil. That was not true, the 
writer admits. In 1917, he states, 83 
submarines were constructed, while 66 
were destroyed. In April, 1917, Ger- 
many had 126 submarines and in October 
146. In February. 1918. she had 136 and 
in June of the same year 113. 

Only a small percentage of these sub- 
marines were actively operating at any 
given time, Captain Persius declares. In 
January, 1917, for instance, when condi- 
tions were favorable for submarine work, 
only twelve percent were active while 
thirty percent were in harbor, thirty-eight 
percent under repairs and twenty per- 
cent "incapacitated". Submarine crews, 
he says, were not sufficiently educated and 



trained and they looked with distrust 
upon the weapon. In the last months, 
he reveals, it was very difficult to get men 
for submarine work, as experienced sea- 
men looked upon the submarine warfare 
as political stupidity. Captain Persius 
tells of the mutiny that broke out at the 
beginning of the month when the Ger- 
man navy was ordered out for attack. 
Had the seamen obeyed, the writer re- 
marks, innumerable lives would have been 
lost, and he declares that "every thinking 
man therefore is of the opinion that the 
seamen on November 5 rendered an in- 
valuable service to their country". 

The surrender of war weapons by the 
enemy represented a higher percentage of 
his strength than had been estimated. A 
Paris despatch reported that the allies 
captured one-third of the German artil- 
lery during their offensive, that one-ninth 
was destroyed in action and that the sur- 
render of 5,000 guns represented at least 
one-half of all the enemy's remaining ar- 
tillery. The enemy was credited with 
having only 2,586 planes, and the surren- 
der of 1,700 machines left him without a 
single bombing or fighting plane, the re- 
mainder being planes designed for other 
work. 

The detailed report of General Haig 
on the British operations between April 
and November showed that General 
Haig agrees with Foch that the defensive 
power of the German army was destroyed 
by the allies' four months' campaign and 
that the armistice saved the German 
armies from a colossal disaster and Ger- 
many from an armed invasion. But for 
the cessation of hostilities the allied of- 
fensive would have been extended still 
farther. During the 1918 campaign the 
British captured more than 200,000 Ger- 
mans and 2,850 cannon out of a total of 
330,000 prisoners and 6,000 cannon taken 
by all the allied armies. General Haig 
says that during the last three months of 
the fighting, the British, using 59 divi- 
sions, met and defeated no less than 99 
different divisions of the Germans. 

W. R. P. 



THE MARINES 



By 



Secretary Josephus Daniels 



No achievement in the entire war 
stands forth more brilliantly than the 
share of American troops in stopping the 
Germans. The Germans were within less 
than fifty miles from Paris. Apparent 1\ 
all that was needed was the final push. 

Because the Marines bore the greater 
share of the fighting at Chateau Thierry 
and Belleau Wood. Secretary of the 
Navy Daniels deals extensively with these 
engagements in his annual report for 



Daniels' report which deals with the 
fighting at Chateau Thierry and Belleau 
Wood, renamed by the French in honoi 
of the U. S. Marine Corps, and which was 
the first detailed and accurate narrative 
made public: 

MARINE CORPS WINS GLORY. 

This efficient fighting, building, and land- 
ing force of the Navy has won imperish- 
able glory in the fulfillment of its latest 
duties upon the battle fields of France, 




Allied Motor Transport Halted on the Western Front. 



1918. Also, a bit of Foch's strategy, not 
before made public, is hinted at in the re- 
port. Secretary Daniels indicates that 
Marshal Foch realized the strength, cour- 
age and efficiency of the Americans before 
the rest of Europe awoke to them, and 
that in his confidence he dangled an ap- 
parently open road to Paris before the 
eyes of the German Crown Prince as a 
bait and that the indomitable Americans 
were the steel jaws of the trap he was to 
spring. 

Following is that portion of Secretary 



where the Marines, fighting for the time 
under Gen. Pershing as a part of the vic- 
torious American Army, have written a 
story of valor and sacrifice that will live in 
the brightest annals of the war. With 
heroism that nothing could daunt the Ma- 
rine Corps played a vital role in steni- 
ming the German rush on Paris, and in lat- 
er days aided in the beginning of the great 
offensive, the freeing of Rheims, and par- 
ticipated in the hard fighting in Cham- 
pagne, which had as its object the throw- 
ing back of the Prussian armies in the vi- 
cinity of Cambrai and St. Quentin. 



294 



THE MARINES 



With only 8,000 men engaged in the 
fiercest battles, the Marine Corps casual- 
ties numbered 69 officers and 1,531 enlisted 
men dead and 78 officers and -!,435 enlisted 
men wounded seriously enough to be offi- 
cially reported by cablegram, to which 
number should be added not a few whose 
wounds did not incapacitate them from 
further fighting. However, with a casual- 
ty list that numbers over half the origi- 
nal 8,000 men who entered battle, the offi- 
cial reports account for only 57 United 
States Marines who have been captured by 
the enemy. This includes those who were 
wounded far in advance of their lines and 
who fell into the hands of the Germans 
while unable to resist. 

STOPPED DRIVE OX PARIS. 

Memorial Day shall henceforth have a 
greater, deeper significance for America, 
for it was on that day. May 30, 1918, that 
our country really received its first call to 
battle- — the battle in which American 




This shell case is now in possession of President 
Wilson because it contained the first shot tired by 
American troops at the enemy. An American offi- 
cer of the forces overseas is shown holding the his- 
toric shell case. 



troops had the honor of stopping the Ger- 
man drive on Paris, throwing back the 
Prussian hordes in attack after attack, and 
beginning the retreat which lasted until 
Imperial Germany was beaten to its knees 
and its emissaries appealing for an armis- 
tice under the flag of truce. And to the 
United States Marines, fighting side by 
side with equally brave and equally cour- 
ageous men in the American Army, to that 
faithful sea and land force of the Navy fell 
the honor of taking over the lines where 
the blow of the Prussian would strike the 
hardest, the line that was nearest Paris 
and where, should a breach occur, all would 
be lost. The world knows today that the 
United States Marines held that line; that 
they blocked the advance that was rolling 
on toward Paris at a rate of six or seven 
miles a day; that they met the attack in 
American fashion and with American hero- 
ism; that Marines and soldiers of the Am- 
erican Army threw back the crack guard. 
divisions of Germany, broke their advance, 
and then, attacking, drove them back in the 
beginning of a retreat that was not to end 
until the "cease firing" signal sounded for 
the end of the world's greatest war. In 
this connection Melville Stone, general 
manager of the Associated Press, said, fol- 
lowing an exhaustive trip of investigation 
in Europe : 

"They (the Marines) had before them 
the best Prussian Guards and shock troops 
— the Germans were perfectly sure they 
could drive the 'amateurs' back. 

"It was a 'dramatic situation, for success 
meant that the Germans could probably 
push for Calais and other channel ports; 
but Foch dangled Paris before their eyes 
by putting raw Americans at a point 
across the direct road to Paris, in the pock- 
et 1 iet ween Rheims and Soissons. Instead 
of driving back the 'amateurs,' the 'ama- 
teurs' drove them and gave them also a 
very sound thrashing. Their losses were 
very heavy, but they did the work, and in 
doing it also did three things : They saved 
Paris ; they seriously injured the morale of 
the best German troops; and they set a 
standard and fixed a reputation for Ameri- 



THE MARINES 



295 



can troops that none other dared tarnish." 
Such is the opinion of the head of a 
great news gathering force regarding the 
achievements of the United States Marines 
at Chateau Thierry, where in the battle 
field of Bois de Belleau, now named the 
Bois de la Brigade de la Marine by official 
order of the French Staff, this branch of 
the Navy met the Germans and blocked 
their drive ou Paris. 

ORDERED TO FRONT ON MEMORIAL DAY. 

It was on the evening of May 30, after a 
day dedicated to the memory of their coni- 
rades who had fallen in the training days 
and in the Verdun sector, that the Fifth 
and Sixth Regiments and the Sixth Ma- 
chine Gun Battalion, United States Ma- 
rines, each received the following orders: 

"Advance information official received 
that this regiment will move at 10 p. m. 30 
May by bus to new area. All trains shall 
be loaded at once and arrangements has- 
tened. Wagons, when loaded, will move to 
Serans to form train." 

All through the night there was fevered 
activity among the Marines. Then, the 
next morning, the long trains of camions, 
busses, and trucks, each carrying its full 
complement of United States Marines, went 
forward on a road which at one place 
wound within less than 10 miles of Paris, 
toward Means aud the fighting line. 

Through the town of Meaux went the 
long line of camions and to the village of 
Montriel-aux-Lions, less than 4 miles from 
the rapidly advancing German line. On this 
trip the camions containing the Americans 
were the only traffic traveling in the direc- 
tion of the Germans; everything else was 
going the other way — refugees, old men 
and women, small children, riding on every 
conceivable conveyance, many trudging 
along the side of the road driving a cow or 
calf before them, all of them covered with 
the white dust which the camion caravan 
was whirling up as it rolled along; along 
that road only one organization was ad- 
vancing, the United States Marines. 

COT INTO LINE ON JUNE 2. 

At last, their destination reached early 
on the morning of .lime 2, they disem- 




The Gas Mask Adopted by the United States. 
Close up view of an American trooper accoutred 
with new stvle gas-mask. He penetrated a gas cloud, 
generated for the occasion, and came out unharmed, 
although it usually takes an experienced hand to put 
on a mask securely. 



barked, stiff and tired after a journey of 
more than 72 miles, but as they formed 
their lines and marched onward in the di- 
rection of the line they were to hold they 
were determined and cheerful. That even- 
ing the first field message from the Fourth 
Brigade to Maj. Gen. Omar Bundy, com- 
manding the Second Division, went for- 
ward : 

"Second Battalion, Sixth Marines, in line 
from Le Thiolet through Clarembauts 
Woods to Triangle to Lucv. Instructed to 



296 



THE MARINES 



hold line. First Battalion, Sixth Marines, 
going into line from Lucy through Hill 
142. Third Battalion in support at La Voie 
du Chatel, which is also the post command 
of the Sixth Marines. Sixth machine-gun 
battalion distributed at line." 

Meanwhile the Fifth Regiment was mov- 
ing into line, machine guns were advancing, 
and the artillery taking its position. That 
night the men and officers of the Marines 
slept in the open, many of them in a field 



vancing in smooth columns. The United 
States Marines, trained to keen observa- 
tion upon the rifle range, nearly every one 
of them wearing marksman's medal or bet- 
ter, that of the sharpshooter or expert 
rifleman, did not wait for those gray-clad 
hordes to advance nearer. Calmly they set 
their sights and aimed with the same pre- 
cision that they had shown upon the rifle 
ranges at Paris Island, Mare Island, and 
Quantico. Incessantly their rifles cracked, 











Funeral of first Americans to die in France. Impressive rituals marked the burial of Corporal James D. 
Gresham. Private Thomas F. Enright and Private Merle D. Hay, of Company F, 16th Infantry. 



that was green with unharvested wheat, 
awaiting the time when they should be sum- 
moned to battle. The next day at 5 o'clock, 
the afternoon of June 2, began the battle of 
Chateau Thierry, with the Americans hold- 
ing the line against the most vicious wedge 
of the German advance. 

BATTLE OF CHATEAU THIERRY. 

The advance of the Germans was across 
a wheat field, driving at Hill 165 and ad- 



and with their tire came the support of the 
artillery. The machine-gun fire, incessant 
also, began to make its inroads upon the ad- 
vancing forces. Closer and closer the 
shrapnel burst to its targets. Caught in a 
seething wave of machine-gun fire, of scat- 
tering shrapnel, of accurate rifle fire, the 
Germans found themselves in a position in 
which further advance could only mean ab- 
solute suicide. The lines hesitated. They 



THE MARINES 



297 



stopped. They broke for cover, while the 
Marines raked the woods and ravines in 
which they had taken refuge with machine 
gun and ritie to prevent them making an- 
other attempt to advance by infiltrating 
through. Above, a French airplane was 
checking up on the artillery fire. Surprised 
by the fact that men should deliberately set 
their sights, adjust their range, and then 
fire deliberately at an advancing foe, each 
man picking his target instead of firing 
merely in the direction of the enemy, the 
aviator signalled below "Bravo!" In the 



to defend the positions they had won with 
all the stubbornness possible. In the black 
recesses of Belleau Wood the Germans had 
established nest after nest of machine 
guns. There in the jungle of matted un- 
derbrush, of vines, of heavy foliage, they 
had placed themselves in positions they be- 
lieved impregnable. And this meant that 
unless they could be routed, unless they 
could be thrown back, the breaking of the 
line would be only a matter of time. 
There would come another drive and an- 
other. The battle of Chateau Thierry was 



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1 Glory on German territory 



rear that word was echoed again and again. 
The German drive on Paris had been 

-lopped. 

FIERCE FIGHTING IN BELLEAU WOOD. 

For the next few days the fighting took 
OH the character of pushing forth outposts 
and determining the strength of the enemy. 
Now, the fighting had changed. The Ger- 
mans, mystified that they should have run 
against a stone wall of defense just when 
they b< lieved that their advance would be 
easiest, had halted, amazed; then prepared 



therefore not won and could not be won 
until Belleau Wood had been cleared of the 
enemy. 

It was dune 6 that the attack of the 
American troops began against that wood 
and its adjacent surroundings, with the 
wood itself and the towns of Torcy and 
Bouresches forming the objectives. At 5 
o'clock the attack came, and there began 
the tremendous sacrifices which the Marine 
Corps gladly suffered that the German 
fighters might be thrown back. 



298 



thp: marines 



FOUGHT IN AMERICAN FASHION. 

The Marines fought strictly according to 
American methods — a rush, a halt, a rush 
again, in four-wave formation, the rear 
waves taking over the work of those who 
had fallen before them, passing over the 
bodies of their dead comrades and plung- 
ing ahead, until they, too, should be torn to 
bits. But behind those waves wore more 
waves, and the attack went on. 

"Men fell like flies"; the expression is 



CHARGING MACHINE-GUN NESTS. 

In Belleau Wood the fighting had been 
literally from tree to tree, stronghold to 
stronghold ; and it was a fight which must 
last for weeks before its accomplishment in 
victory. Belleau Wood was a jungle, its 
every rocky formation forming a German 
machine-gun nest, almost impossible to 
reach by artillery or grenade fire. There 
was only one way to wipe out these nests — 
by the bayonet. And Ity this method were 




Paris gives wonderful reception to American troops. 



that of an officer writing from the field. 
Companies that had entered the battle 250 
strong dwindled to 50 and 60, with a ser- 
geant in command; but the attack did not 
falter. At 9:45 o'clock that night Boures- 
ches was taken by Lieut. James F. Robert- 
son and twenty-odd men of his platoon; 
these soon were joined by two reinforcing 
platoons. Then came the enemy counter 
attacks, but the Marines held. 



they wiiied out, for United States Marines, 
bare chested, shouting their battle cry 
of "E-e-e-e-e y-a-a-h-h-h yip!" charged 
straight into the murderous fire from those 
guns, and won! Out of the number that 
charged, in more than one instance, only 
one would reach the stronghold. There, 
with his bayonet as his only weapon, he 
would either kill or capture the defenders 
of the nest, and then swinging the gun 



THE ^MARINES 



299 



about in its position, turn it against the 
remaining German positions in the forest. 
Such was the character of the fighting in 
Belleau Wood; fighting which continued 
until July 6, when after a short relief the 
invincible Americans finally were taken 
back to the rest billet for recuperation. 
jIELD the line for many weaky days. 
In all the history of the Marine Corps 
there is no such battle as that one in Bel- 
leau Wood. Fighting day and night with- 



ter that they were unable to supply, seeing 
men fight on after they had been wounded 
and until they dropped unconscious; time 
after time officers seeing these things, be- 
lieving that the very limit of human en- 
durance had been reached, would send back 
messages to their post command that their 
men were exhausted. But in answer to 
this would come the word that the lines 
must hold, and if possible those lines must 
attack, and the lines obeyed. Without wa- 




The American Fed Cross workers at this station are feeding the Saloniki refugees, who are sheltered in 

the tents that dot the plain. 



out relief, without sleep, often without 
water, and for days without hot rations, 
the Marines met and defeated the best 
divisions that Germany could throw into 
the line. The heroism and doggedness 
of that battle are unparalleled. Time 
after time officers seeing their lines cut 
to pieces, seeing their men so dog tired 
that they even fell asleep under shell fire, 
hearing their wounded calling for the wa- 



ter, without food, without rest they went 
forward — and forward every time to vic- 
tory. Companies had been so torn and lac- 
era ted by losses that they were hardly 
platoons; but they held their lines and ad- 
vanced them. In more than one case com- 
panies lost every officer, leaving a sergeant 
and sometimes a corporal to command, and 
the advance continued. After 13 days in 
this inferno of fire a captured German of- 



300 



THE MARINES 




Where first American officer was wounded in 
France. Lieut. De Vere H. Harden, of the Signal 
Corps, is the man who was wounded, and his dis- 
tinction is a noteworthy one. 

ticer told with bis dying breath of a fresh 
division of Germans that was about to be 
thrown into the battle to attempt to wrest 
from the Marines that part of the wood 
they had gained. The Marines, who for 
days had been fighting on their sheer 
nerve, who bad been worn out from nights 
of sleeplessness, from lack of rations, from 
terrific shell and machine-gun fire, straight- 
ened their lines and prepared for the at- 
tack. It came — as the dying German officer 
had predicted. 

GERMAN CRACK TROOPS REPULSED AND BEATEN. 

At 2 o'clock on the morning of June 13 
it was launched by the Germans along the 
whole front. Without regard for men, the 
enemy hurled his forces against Bour- 
esehes and the Bois de Belleau, and sought 
to win back what had been taken from Ger- 
many by the Americans. The orders were 
that these positions must be taken at all 
costs; that the utmost losses in men must 
he endured that the Bois de Belleau and 



Bouresches might fall again into German 
hands. But the depleted lines of the Ma- 
rines held; the men who had fought on 
their nerve alone for days once more 
showed the mettle of which they were 
made. With their backs to the trees and 
houlders of the Bois de Belleau, with their 
sole shelter the scattered ruins of Bou- 
resches, the thinning lines of the Marines 
repelled the attack and crashed back the 
new division which had sought to wrest the 
position from them. 

And so it went. Day after day, night 
after night, while time after time messages 
like the following traveled to the post com- 
mand : 

"Losses heavy. Difficult to get run- 
ners through. Some have never returned. 
Morale excellent, but troops about all in. 
Men exhausted." 

Exhausted, but holding on. And they 
continued to hold on in spite of every dif- 
ficulty. Advancing their lines slowly day 
by day, the Marines finally prepared their 
positions to such an extent that the last 
rush for the possession of the wood could 
be made. Then, on June 24, following a 
tremendous barrage, the struggle began. 

The barrage literally tore the woods to 
pieces, but even its immensity could not 
wipe out all the nests that remained; the 
emplacements that were behind almost 
every clump of bushes, every jagged, rough 
group of boulders. But those that re- 







The grave of Lieut. Quentin Roosevelt, aviator. 
and son of ex-President Roosevelt, who was killed 
durine an air raid over enemy lines on July 14 last, 
has heen located in France. 



THE MARINES 



301 



mained were wiped out by the American 
method of the rush and the bayonet, and 
in the days that followed every foot of 
Belleau Wood was cleared of the enemy 
and held by the frayed lines of the Amer- 
icans. 

PRAISE FROM FRENCH STAFF 

It was, therefore, with the feeling of 
work well done that the depleted lines of 
the Marines were relieved in July, that 
they might be rilled with replacements and 
made ready for the grand offensive in the 
vicinity of Soissons. July 18. And in rec- 
ognition of their sacrifice and bravery this 
praise was forthcoming from the French: 

"Army Headquarters, June 30, 1918. 

In view of the brilliant conduct of the 
Fourth Brigade of the Second United 
Status Division, which in a spirited fight 
took Bouresches and the important strong 
point of Bois de Belleau, stubbornly de- 
fended by a large enemy force, the general 
commanding the Sixth Army orders that 
henceforth, in all official papers, the Bois 
de Belleau shall be named 'Bois de la 
Brigade de Marine.' 

"Division General Degoutte, 
"Com man ding Sixth Army." 

GEN. PERSHING PERSONALLY CONGRATULATES 

MARINES 

Gen. Pershing's congratulations also 
were contained in the following order, is- 
sued by the brigade commander, dated 





A member of an American Field Battalion is shown 
Carrying an aged French woman into a cellar while a 
Hun air raid is coins on 



Husky Americans landing at Bordeaux. 

June 9, 1918, to the units of his command: 

"The brigade commander takes pride in 
announcing that, in addition to the com- 
mander in chief's telegram of congratula- 
tion to the Fourth Brigade, published in 
an indorsement from the division com- 
mander, dated June 9, Gen. Pershing has 
today visited division headquarters and 
sent his personal greetings and congratula- 
tions to the Marine Brigade. He also 
added that Gen. Foch, commander in chief 
of the allied armies in France, especially 
charged him this morning to give the Ma- 
rine Brigade his love and congratulations 
on their fine work of the past week. 

"By command of Brig. Gen. Harbord. 

"H. Lay, Major, Adjutant." 

GEN. HARBORD 'S COMMENDATION 

On July 18 the Marines were again called 
into action in the vicinity of Soissons, near 
Tigny and Vierzy. Tn the face of a mur- 
derous fire from concentrated machine 
guns, which contested every foot of their 



302 



THE MARINES 



advance, the United States Marines moved 
forward until the severity of their casual- 
ties necessitated that they dig in and hold 
the positions they had gained. Here, 
again, their valor called forth official 
praise, which came in the following: 

"General Orders, No. 46. 

"It is with keen pride that the divisional 
commander transmits to the command the 
congratulations and affectionate greetings 
of Gen. Pershing, who visited the divisional 
headquarters last night. His praise of the 



11 batteries of artillery, over 100 machine 
guns, minnenwerfers, and supplies. The 
Second Division has sustained the best 
traditions of the Regular Army and the 
Marine Corps. The story of your achieve- 
ments will be told in millions of homes in 
all allied nations tonight. 

"J. G. Harbord, 
"Major General, N. A. 
"France, July 21." 










■ 






* i 









American troops learning how to go "over the top." With veterans of the battlefield as instructors, and 
their native dash, they soon made good soldiers. 



gallant work of the division on the 18th 
and 19th is echoed by the French high 
command, the Third Corps commander, 
American Expeditionary Forces, and in a 
telegram from the former divisional com- 
mander. In spite of two sleepless nights, 
long marches through rain and mud, and 
the discomfort of hunger and thirst, the 
division attacked side by side with the gal- 
lant First Moroccan Division, and main- 
tained itself with credit. You advanced 
over 6 miles, captured over 3,000 prisoners, 



IN BATTLE FOR ST. MIHIEL SALIENT 

Then came the battle for the St. Mihiel 
salient. On the night of September 11 the 
Second Division took over a line running 
from Remenauville to Limey, and on the 
night of September 14 and the morning of 
September 15 attacked, with two days' 
objectives ahead of them. Overcoming the 
enemy resistance, they romped through to 
the Rupt de Mad, a small river, crossed it 
on stone bridges, occupied Thiacourt, the 



THE MARINES 



3<);3 



first day's objective, scaled the heights 
just beyond it, pushed on to a line running 
from the Zammes-Jouiney Ridges to the 
Binvaux Forest, and there rested, with the 
second day's objectives occupied bj 2:50 
o'clock of the first day. The casualties of 
the division were about 1,000, of which 134 
were killed. Of these, about half were 
Marines. The captures in which the Ma- 
rines participated were 80 German officers, 
3,1'UO men, ninety-odd cannon, and vast 



-wept the enemy from the held. 

"John A. Lejetjne, 
"Major General, 
"United States Marine Corps." 

CAPTURE OF BLANC MoNT KIDGE 

But even further honors were to befall, 
the fighting, landing, and building force, 
of which the Navy is justly proud. In the 
early part of October it became necessary 




United States nurses arriving in England on their way to France. The wonderfully humane work done by 
the nurses at the front was the subject of hearty praise by General Pershing. 



stores. In his congratulations, following 

the battle, Gen. Lejeune said: 

""Shi' I K.MBER 17. 1918. 

"General < Irders, No. 54. 

•'I desire to express to the officers and 
men my profound appreciation of their 
brilliant and successful attack in the recent 
engagement 

"Our division maintained the prestige 

and honor of the country proudly and 



for the allies to capture the bald, jagged 
ridge 20 miles due easl of Rheims, known 
as Blanc Mont Ridge. Here the armies of 
Germany and the allies had clashed more 
than once, and attempt after attempt had 

l n made to wrest it from German hands. 

It was a keystone of the German defense, 
the fall of which would have a far-reaching 
effect upon the enemy armies. To the 
glory of the United States Marines, let it 
be said, that they were again a part of that 



304 



THE MARINES 



splendid Second Division which swept for- 
ward in the attack which freed Blanc Mont 
Ridge from German hands, pushed its way 
down the slopes, and occupied the level 
ground just beyond, thus assuring a vic- 
tory, the full import of which can best be 
judged by the order of Gen. Lejeune, fol- 
lowing the battle: 

"France, October 11, 1918. 

"Officers and men of the Second Division: 



selves several German divisions from other 
parts of the front you greatly assisted the 
victorious advance of the allied armies be- 
tween Cambrai and St. Quentin. 

"Your heroism and the heroism of our 
comrades who died on the battle field will 
live in history forever, and will be emu- 
lated by the young men of our country for 
generations to come. 




Americans Going Forward to the first line trenehes- Troops of the 7th Infantry are climbing aboard 
trucks of the Motor Transport Service on the way to the tiring line, relieving those who have already rid- 
den part of the way. 



"It is beyond my power of expression to 
describe fitly my admiration for your hero- 
ism. You attacked magnificently and you 
seized Blanc Mont Ridge, the keystone of 
the arch constituting the enemy's main po- 
sition. You advanced beyond the ridge, 
breaking the enemy's lines, and you held 
the ground gained with a tenacity which is 
unsurpassed in the annals of war. 

"As a direct result of your victory, the 
German armies east and west of Rheims 
are in full retreat, and by drawing on your- 



"To be able to say when this war is fin- 
ished, 'I belonged to the Second Division; 
I fought with it at the Battle of Blanc Mont 
Ridge,' will be the highest honor that can 
come to any man. 

"John A. Lejeune, 

"Major General, 

"United States Marine Corps, 

"Commanding.'' 



THE MARINES 



30.5 



MARKSMANSHIP AMAZES ALLIES 

Thus it is that the United States Marines 
have fulfilled the glorious traditions of 
their corps in this their latest duty as the 
"soldiers who go to sea." Their sharp- 
shooting — and in one regiment 93 per cent 
of the men wear the medal of marksman- 
ship, a sharpshooter, or an expert rifleman 
— has amazed soldiers of European armies, 
accustomed merely to shooting in the gen- 
eral direction of the enemy. Under the 
fiercest fire they have calmly adjusted their 
sights, aimed for their man, and killed him, 
and in bayonet attacks their advance on 
machine gun nests has been irresistible. In 
the official citation lists more than one 
American Marine is credited with taking 
an enemy machine gun single handed, bay- 
oneting its crew and then turning the gun 
against the foe. In one battle alone, that 
of Belleau Wood, the citation lists bear the 
names of fully 500 United States marines 
who so distinguished themselves in battle 
as to call forth the official commendation 
of their superior officers. 

CORPS FULFILLED EVERY GLORIOUS TRADITION 

More than faithful in every emergency, 
accepting hardships with admirable mo- 
rale, proud of the honor of taking their 
place as shock troops for the American 
legions, they have fulfilled every glorious 
tradition of their corps, and they have 
given to the world a list of heroes whose 
names will go down to all history. Let 
one, therefore, stand for the many, one 
name denote all, one act of heroism tel) 
the story of the countless deeds of bravery 
that stand forth brilliantly upon the vie 
torious pages of America's participation 
in this the world's greatest war: 

"First Sergt. Daniel Daly, Seventy- 
third (Machine Gun) Company, twice 
holder of the medal of honor, repeatedly 
performed deeds of valor and great serv- 
ice. On June 5 he extinguished, at risk of 
his life, fire in the ammunition dump at 
Lucy-le-Bocage. On June 7, while sector 
was under one of its heaviest bombard- 
ments, he visited all gun crews of his com- 
pany, then posted over a wide section of 
front, cheering the men. On June 10, sin- 
gle-handed, he attacked enemy machine- 




German Trenches Captured by the Allies. 

gun emplacement and captured it by use 
of hand grenades and his automatic pistol. 
On the same date, during enemy attack on 
Bouresches, he brought in wounded under 
fire. At all times, by his reckless daring, 
constant attention to the wants of his men, 
and his unquenchable optimism, he was a 
tower of strength until wounded by enemy 
shrapnel fire on June 20. A peerless sol- 
dier of the old school, twice decorated for 
gallantry in China and Santo Domingo." 

I must add this citation of a typical deed 
of self-sacrifice, illustrative of the spirit 
of the noble privates in the corps : 

"Pvt. Albert E. Brooks, Company F, 
Sixth Marines : Conspicuous for his heroic 
action in placing his body in front of his 
platoon leader while under heavy machine- 
gun fire in order to dress the latter 's 
wounds, lie was shot twice in the hip 
while performing this act of mercy." 

\V. R. P. 



306 



THE MARINES 










American Expeditionary Forces 



By 



Qfl&A^m^^^ 



A remarkable summary of the opera- 
tions of the American '.Expeditionary 
Force in France from the date of its organ- 
ization, May 26, 1917, to the signing of 
the armistice November 11, 1918, was 
cabled to the Secretary of War by Gener- 
al Pershing on November 20, 1918. His 
account of the active military operations 
was as follows: 

COMBAT OPERATIONS 

During our period of training in the trench- 
es some of our divisions had engaged the 
enemy in local combats, the most important 
of which was Seicheprey by the 26th on April 
20. 1918, in the Toul sector, but none had par- 
ticipated in action as a unit. The 1st Divi- 
sion, which had passed through the prelimi- 
nary stages of training, had gone to the 
trenches for its first period of instruction at 
the end of October, and by March 21, when 
the German offensive in Picardy began, we 
had four divisions with experience in the 
trenches, all of which were equal to any de- 
mands of battle action. The crisis which this 
offensive developed was such that our occu- 
pation of an American sector must be post- 
poned. 

On March 28 I placed at the disposal of 
Marshal Foch, who had been agreed upon as 
Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies, all 
of our forces to be used as he might decide. 
At his request the 1st Division was transferred 
from the Toul sector to a position in reserve at 
Chaumont en Vexin. As German superiority 
in numbers required prompt action, an agree- 
ment was reached at the Abbeville conference 
of the allied premiers and commanders and 
myself on May 2 by which the British ship- 
ping was to transport ten American divisions 
to the British army area, where they were to 
be trained and equipped, and additional Brit- 
ish shipping was to be provided for as many 
divisions as possible for use elsewhere. 



On April 26 the 1st Division had gone into 
the line in the Montdidier salient on the Pic- 
ardy battle front. Tactics had been suddenly 
revolutionized to those of open warfare, and 
our men. confident of the results of their train- 
ing, were eager for the test. On the morning 
of May 28 this division attacked the command- 
ing German position in its front, taking with 
splendid dash the town of Cantigny and all 
ether objectives, which were organized and 
held steadfastly against vicious counterattacks 
and galling artillery fire. Although local, this 
brilliant action had an electrical effect, as it 
demonstrated our fighting qualities under ex- 
treme battle conditions, and also that the en- 
emy's troops were not altogether invincible. 

The German Aisne offensive, which began 
on May 27, had advanced rapidly toward the 
River Marne and Paris, and the Allies faced 
a crisis equally as grave as that of the Picardy 
offensive in March. Again every available 
man was placed at Marshal Foch's disposal, 
and the 3rd Division, which had just come 
from its preliminary training in the trenches, 
was hurried to the Marne. Its motorized ma- 
chine-gun battalion preceded the other units 
and successfully held the bridgehead at the 
Marne, opposite Chateau-Thierry. The 2nd 
Division, in reserve near Montdidier, was sent 
by motor trucks and other available transport 
to check the progress of the enemy toward 
Paris. The division attacked and retook the 
town and railroad station at Bouresches and 
sturdily held its ground against the enemy's 
best guard divisions. In the battle of Belleau 
Wood, which followed, our men proved their 
superiority and gained a strong tactical posi- 
tion, with far greater loss to the enemy than 
to ourselves. On July 1, before the Second 
was relieved, it captured the village of Vaux 
with most splendid precision. 

Meanwhile our 2nd Corps, under Major- 
General George B. Read, had been organized 
for the command of our divisions with the 
British, which were held back in training areas 
or assigned to second-line defenses. Five of 



308 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



the ten divisions were withdrawn from the 
British area in June, three to relieve divisions 
in Lorraine and in the Vosges and two to the 
Paris area to join the group of American di- 
visions which stood between the city and any 
further advance of the enemy in that direc- 
tion. 

BATTLE OF CHATEAU-THIERRY 

The great June, July troop movement from 
the States was well under way, and, although 
these troops were to be given some preliminary 
training before being put into action, their 
very presence warranted the use of all the old- 
er divisions in the confidence that we did not 
lack reserves. Elements of the 42d Division 
were in the line east of Rheims against the 
German offensive of July 15, and held their 
ground unflinchingly. On the right flank of 
this offensive four companies of the 28th Di- 
vision were in position in face of the advanc- 
ing waves of the German infantry. The 3rd 
Division was holding the bank of the Marne 
from the bend east of the mouth of the Surme- 
lin to the west of Mezy, opposite Chateau 
Thierry, where a large force of German in- 
fantry sought to force a passage under support 
of powerful artillery concentrations and under 
cover of smoke screens. A single regiment 
of the 3rd wrote one of the most brilliant 
pages in our military annals on this occasion. 
It prevented the crossing at certain points on 
its front while, on either flank, the Ger 
mans, who had gained a footing, pressed for- 
ward. Our men, firing in three directions, met 
the German attacks with counterattacks at 
critical points and succeeded in throwing two 
German divisions into complete confusion, cap- 
turing 600 prisoners. 

The great force of the German Chateau- 
Thierry offensive established the deep Marne 
salient, but the enemy was taking chances, and 
the vulnerability of this pocket to attack might 
be turned to his disadvantage. Seizing this 
opportunity to support my conviction, every 
division with any sort of training was made 
available for use in a counteroffensive. The 
place of honor in the thrust toward Soissons 
on July 18 was given to our 1st and 2nd Di- 
visions in company with chosen French divi 
sions. Without the usual brief warning of 
a preliminary bombardment, the massed 
French and American artillery, firing by the 
map, laid down its rolling barrage at dawn 
while the infantry began its charge. The tacti- 
cal handling of our troops under these trying 
conditions was excellent throughout the ac- 
tion. The enemy brought up large numbers 
of reserves and made a stubborn defense, both 
with machine guns and artillery, but through 
five days' fighting the 1st Division continued 



to advance until it had gained the heights 
above Soissons and captured the village of 
Berzy-le-Sec. The 2d Division took 'Beau 
Repaire farm and Vierzy in a very rapid ad- 
vance and reached a position in front of Tigny 
at the end of its second day. These two di- 
visions captured 7,000 prisoners and over 100 
pieces of artillery. 

The 26th Division, which, with a French 
division, was under command of our 1st Corps, 
acted as a pivot of the movement toward Sois- 
sons. On the 18th it took the village of Torcy 
while the 3d Division was crossing the Marne 
in pursuit of the retiring enemy. The 26th 
attacked again on the 21st, and the enemy 
withdrew past the Chateau-Thierry-Soissons 
road. The 3d Division, continuing its progress, 
took the heights of Mont St. Pere and the vil- 
lages of Charteves and Jaulgonne in the face 
of both machine gun and artillery fire. 

On the 24th, after the Germans had fallen 
back from Trugny and Epieds, our 42d Di- 
vision, which had been brought over from the 
Champagne, relieved the 26th, and fighting its 
way through the Foret de Fere, overwhelmed 
the nest of machine guns in its path. By the 
27th it had reached the Ourcq, whence the 
3d and 4th Divisions were already advancing, 
while the French divisions with which we 
were co-operating were moving forward at 
other points. 

The 3d Division had made its advance into 
Roncheres Wood on the 29th and was relieved 
for rest by a brigade of the Thirty-second. 
The Forty-second and Thirty-second under- 
took the task of conquering the heights be- 
yond Cicrges, the Forty-second capturing Ser- 
gy and the Thirty-second capturing Hill 230, 
both American divisions joining in the pursuit 
of the enemy to the Vesle, and thus the opera- 
tion of reducing the salient was finished. 
Meanwhile the Forty-second was relieved by 
the Fourth at Chery-Chartreuve, and the Thir- 
ty-second by the Twenty-eighth, while the 
Seventy-seventh Division took up a position 
on the Vesle. The operations of these divi- 
sions on the Vesle were under the 3rd Corps, 
Major-General Robert L. Bullard command- 
ing. 

BATTLE OF ST. MIHIEL 

With the reduction of the Marne salient, we 
could look forward to the concentration of our 
divisions in our own zone. In view of the 
forthcoming operation against the St. Mihiel 
salient, which had long been planned as our 
first offensive action on a large scale, the 
First Army was organized on August 10 under 
my personal command. While American units 
had held different divisional and corps sectors 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



309 



along the western front, there had not been 
up to this time, for obvious reasons, a distinct 
American sector; but, in view of the impor- 
tant parts the American forces were now to 
play, it was necessary to take over a perma- 
nent portion of the line. Accordingly, on Au- 
gust 30, the line beginning at l'ort sur Seille, 
east of the Moselle and extending to the west 
through St. Mihiel, thence north to a point 
opposite Verdun, was placed under my com- 
mand. The American sector was afterward 
extended across the Meuse to the western edge 
of the Argonne Forest, and included the 2d 
Colonial French, which held the point of the 
salient, and the 17th French Corps, which oc- 
cupied the heights above Verdun. 

The preparation for a complicated operation 
against the formidable defenses in front of us 
included the assembling of divisions and of 
corps and army artillery, transport, aircraft, 
tanks, ambulances, the location of hospitals, 
and the molding together of all of the elements 
of a great modern army with its own railroads, 
supplied directly by our own Service of Sup- 
ply. The concentration for this operation, 
which was to be a surprise, involved the move- 
ment, mostly at night, of approximately 600,- 
000 troops, and required for its success the 
most careful attention to every detail. 

The French were generous in giving us as- 
sistance in corps and army artillery, with its 
personnel, and we were confident from the 
start of our superiority over the enemy in 
guns of all calibers. Our heavy guns were 
able to reach Metz and to interfere seriously 
with German rail movements. The French 
Independent Air Force was placed under my 
command which, together with the British 
bombing squadrons and our air forces, gave us 
the largest assembly of aviation that had ever 
been engaged in one operation on the western 
front. 

From Les Eparges around the nose of the 
salient at St. Mihiel to the Moselle River the 
line was roughly forty miles long and situated 
on commanding ground greatly strengthened 
by artificial defenses. Our 1st Corps (82d, 
90th, 5th and 2d Divisions), under the com- 
mand of Major-General Hunter Liggett, re- 
strung its right on Pont-a-Mousson, with its 
left joining our 3rd Corps (the 89th, 42nd and 
1st Divisions), under Major-General Joseph 
T. Dickman, in line to Xivray, were to swing 
toward Vigneulles on the pivot of the Moselle 
River for the initial assault. From Xivray to 
Mouilly the 2d Colonial French Corps was in 
line in the center, and our 5th Corps, under 
command of Major-General George H. Cam- 
eron, with our 26th Division and a French 
division at the western base of the salient, 



were to attack three different hills — Les 
Eparges, Combres and Amaranthe. Our 1st 
Corps had in reserve the 78th Division, our 
4th Corps the 3d Division, and our First Army 
the 35th and 91st Divisions, with the 80th and 
33d available. It should be understood that 
our corps organizations are very elastic, and 
that we have at no time had permanent as- 
signments of divisions to corps. 

After four hours' artillery preparations, the 
seven American divisions in the front line ad- 
vanced at 5 a. m. on September 12, assisted 
by a limited number of tanks manned partly by 
Americans and partly by French. These di- 
visions, accompanied by groups of wire cutters 
and others armed with bangalore torpedoes, 
went through the successive bands of barbed 
wire that protected the enemy's front line and 
support trenches, in irresistible waves on 
schedule time, breaking down all defense of 
an enemy demoralized b> the great volume of 
our artillery fire and our sudden approach out 
of the fog. 

Our 1st Corps advanced to Thiaucourt, while 
our 4th Corps curved back to the southwest 
through Nonsard. The 2d Colonial French 
Corps made the slight advance required of it 
on very difficult ground, and the 5th Corps 
took its three ridges and repulsed a counter- 
attack. A rapid march brought reserve regi- 
ments of a division of the 5th Corps into Vig 
neules in the early morning, where it linked 
up with patrols of our 4th Corps, closing the 
salient and forming a new line west of Thiau- 
court to Vigneulles and beyond Fresnes-en- 
Woevre. At the cost of only 7,000 casualties, 
mostly light, we had taken' 16,000 prisoners 
and 443 guns, a great quantity of material, re- 
leased the inhabitants of many villages from 
enemy domination, and established our lines 
in a position to threaten Metz. This signal 
success of the American F'irst Army in its first 
offensive was of prime importance. The Allies 
found that they had a formidable army to aid 
them, and the enemy learned finally that he 
had one to reckon with. 

MEUSE-ARGONNE OFFENSIVE, FIRST PHASE 

On the day after we had taken the St. Mi- 
hiel salient, much of our corps and army artil- 
lery which had operated at St. Mihiel, and our 
divisions in reserve at other points, were al-* 
ready on the move toward the area back of the 
line between the Meuse River and the western 
edge of the forest of Argonne. With the ex- 
ception of St. Mihiel, the old German front 
line from Switzerland to the east of Rheims 
was still intact. In the general attack all along 
the line, the operation assigned the American 
Army as the hinge of this allied offensive was 
directed toward the important railroad com- 



310 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



munications of the German armies through 
Mezieres and Sedan. The enemy must hold 
fast to this part of his lines or the withdrawal 
of his forces with four years' accumulation of 
plants and material would be dangerously 
imperiled. 

The German Army had as yet shown no 
demoralization, and, while the mass of its 
troops had suffered in morale, its first-class 
divisions, and notably its machine-gun de- 
fense, were exhibiting remarkable tactical effi- 
ciency as well as courage. The German Gen- 
eral Staff was fully aware of the consequences 
of a success on the M euse- Argon ne line. Cer- 



screened by dense thickets, had been gener- 
ally considered impregnable. Our order of 
battle from right to left was the 3d Corps 
from the Meuse to Malancourt, with the 3:3d, 
80th and 4th divisions in line, and the 3d 
Division as corps reserve; the 5th Corps from 
Malancourt to Vauquois, with 79th, 87th and 91st 
Divisions in line, and the 32d in corps reserve, 
and the 1st Corps, from Vauquois to Vienne le 
Chateau, with 35th, 28th and 77th Divisions in 
line, and the 92d in corps reserve. The army 
reserve consisted of the 1st, 29th and 82d 
Divisions. 

On the night of September 25 our troops 




French and Americans Advance to Grenade Attack 
Land somewhere on the front in France. They are 
carrying in the sacks slung over their shoulders. 

tain that he would do everything in his power 
to oppose us, the action was planned with as 
much secrecy as possible and was undertaken 
with the determination to use all our divisions 
in forcing decision. We expected to draw the 
best German divisions to our front and to con- 
sume them while the enemy was held under 
grave apprehension lest our attack should 
break his line, which it was our firm purpose 
to do. 

Our right flank was protected by the Meuse, 
while our left embraced the Argonne Forest 
whose ravines, hills, and elaborate defense, 



These staunch allies are shown crossing No Man's 
moving cautiously, ready to use the grenades they are 

quietly took the place of the French, who 
thinly held the line of this sector, which had 
long been inactive. In the attack which be- 
gan on the 26th we drove through the barbed 
wire entanglements and the sea of shell craters 
across No Man's .Land, mastering all the first- 
line defences. Continuing on the 27th and 
28th, against machine guns and artillery of 
an increasing number of enemy reserve divi- 
sions, we penetrated to a depth of from three 
to seven miles and took the village of Mont- 
faucon and its commanding hill and Exer- 
mont, Gercourt, Cuisy, Septsarges, Malan- 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



311 



court. Ivony. Hpinonville. Charpentry, \ ery 
and other villages. Mast of the Meuse one 
of our divisions, which was with the 2d 
Colonial French Corps, captured Marcheville 
and Rieville, giving further protection to the 
flank of our main body. We had taken 
10,000 prisoners, we had gained our point of 
forcing the battle into the open, ami were 
prepared for the enemy's reaction, which was 
bound to come, as he had good roads and 
ample railroad facilities for bringing up his 
artillery and reserves. 

In the chill rain of dark nights our en- 
gineers had to build new roads across spongy 
shell-torn areas, repair broken roads beyond 
No Man's Land, and build bridges. Our 
gunners, with no thought of sleep, put their 
shoulders to wheels and drag-ropes to bring 
their guns through the mire in support of 
the infantry, now under the increasing fire of 
the enemy's artillery. Our attack had taken 
the enemy by surprise, but quickly recover- 
ing himself, he began to fire counterattacks 
in strong force, supported by heavy bombard- 
ments, with large quantities of gas. From 
September 28 until October 4 we maintained 
the offensive against patches of woods de- 
fended by snipers and continuous lines of 
machine guns, and pushed forward our guns 
and transport, seizing strategical points in 
preparation for further attacks. 

OTHER UXITS WITH ALLIES 

Other divisions attached to the allied armies 
were doing their part. It was the fortune of 
our 2d Corps, composed of the 27th and 30th 
Divisions, which had remained with the Brit- 
ish, to have a place of honor in cooperation 
with the Australian Corps 'on September 29 
and October 1 in the assault on the Hinden- 
burg Line where the St. Quentin Canal passes 
through a tunnel under a ridge. The 30th 
Division speedily broke through the main line 
of defense for all its objectives, while the 
27th pushed on impetuously through the main 
line until some of its elements reached Gouy. 
In the midst of the maze of trenches and 
shell craters and under crossfire from machine 
guns the other elements fought desperately 
against odds. In this and in later actions, 
from October 6 to October 19, our 2d Corps 
captured over 6.000 prisoners and advanced 
over thirteen miles. The spirit and aggres- 
siveness of these divisions have been highly 
praised by the British Army commander un- 
der whom they served. 

On October' 2-9 our 2d and 36th Divisions 
were sent to assist the French in an important 
attack against the old German positions be- 
fore Rheims. The 2d conquered the com- 



plicated defense works on their front against 
a persistent defense worthy of the grimmest 
period of trench warfare and attacked the 
strongly held wooded hill of Blanc Mont, 
which they captured in a second assault, 
sweeping over it with consummate dash and 
skill. This division then repulsed strong 
counterattacks before the village and ceme- 
tery of Ste. Etienne and took the town, forc- 
ing the Germans to fall back from before 
Rheims and yield positions they had held since 
September, 1914. On October 9 the 36th Divi- 
sion relieved the "2d, and in its first experience 
under fire withstood very severe artillery 
bombardment and rapidly took up the pursuit 
of the enemy, now retiring behind the Aisne. 

MEUSE- ARGOXNE OFFEXSIVE, SECOXD PHASE 

The allied progress elsewhere cheered the 
efforts of our men in this crucial contest, as the 
German command threw in more and more 
first-class troops to stop our advance. We 
made steady headway in the almost impen- 
etrable and strongly held Argonne Forest, for, 
despite this reinforcement, it was our army 
that was doing the driving. Our aircraft was 
increasing in skill and numbers and forcing 
the issue, and our infantry and artillery were 
improving rapidly with each new experience. 
The replacements fresh from home were put 
into exhausted divisions with little time for 
training, but they had the advantage of serv- 
ing beside men who knew their business and 
who had almost become veterans overnight. 
The enemy had taken every advantage of the 
terrain, which especially favored the defense 
by a prodigal use of machine guns manned 
by highly trained veterans and by using his 
artillery at short ranges. In the face of such 
strong frontal positions we should have been 
unable to accomplish and progress according 
to previously accepted standards, but I had 
every confidence in our aggressive tactics and 
the courage of our troops. 

On October 4 the attack was renewed all 
along our front. The 3d Corps, tilting to the 
left, followed the Brieulles-Cunel Road ; our 
5th Corps took Gesnes. while the 1st Corps 
advanced for over two miles along the irreg- 
ular valley of the Aire River and in the 
wooded hills of the Argonne that bordered 
the river, used by the enemy with all his art 
and w r eapons of defense. This sort of fight- 
ing continued against an enemy striving to 
hold every foot of ground and whose very 
strong counterattacks challenged us at every 
point. On the 7th the 1st Corps captured 
Chatel-Chenery and continued along the river 
to Cornay. On the east of the Meuse sector 
one of the two divisions cooperating with the 



312 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



French, captured Consenvoye and the Hau- 
mont Woods. On the 9th the 5th Corps, in 
its progress up the Aire, took Fleville, and 
the 3d Corps, which had continuous fighting 
against odds, was working its way through 
Briueulles and Cunel. On the 10th we had 
cleared the Argonne Forest of the enemy. 

It was now necessary to constitute a second 
army, and on October 9 the immediate com- 
mand of the First Army was turned over to 
Lieut.-Gen. Hunter Liggett. The command 
of the Second Army, whose divisions occupied 
a sector in the Woevre, was given to Lieut.- 
Gen. Robert L. Bullard, who had been com- 
mander of the 1st Division and then of the 
3d Corps. Major-Gen. Dickman was trans- 
ferred to the command of the 1st Corps, while 
the 5th Corps was placed under Major-Gen. 
Charles P. Summerall, who had recently com- 
manded the 1st Division. Major-Gen. John L. 
Hines, who had gone rapidly up from regi- 
mental to division commander, was assigned 
to the 3d Corps. These four officers had been 
in France from the early days of the expedi- 
tion and had learned their lessons in the school 
of practical warfare. 

Our constant pressure against the enemy 
brought day by day more prisoners, mostly 
survivors from machine-gun nests captured in 
fighting at close quarters. On October 18 
there was very fierce fighting in the Caures 
Woods east of the Meuse and in the Ormont 
Woods. On the 14th the 1st Corps took St. 
Juvin, and the oth Corps, in hand-to-hand 
encounters, entered the formidable Kriemhilde 
line, where the enemy had hoped to check us 
indefinitely. Later the 5th Corps penetrated 
further the Kriemhilde line, and the 1st Corps 
took Champignuelles and the important town 
of Grandpre. Our dogged offensive was wear- 
ing down the enemy, who continued desperately 
to throw his best troops against us, thus weak- 
ening his line in front of our Allies and making 
their advance less difficult. 

DIVISIONS IN BELGIUM. 

Meanwhile we were not only able to continue 
the battle, but our 37th and 01st Divisions were 
hastily withdrawn from our front and dis- 
patched to help the French Army in Belgium. 
Detraining in the neighborhood of Ypres, these 
divisions advanced by rapid stages to the fight- 
ing line and were assigned to adjacent French 
corps. On October 31, in continuation of the 
Flanders offensive, they attacked and methodic- 
ally broke down all enemy resistance. On Nov. 
3, the 37th had completed its mission in dividing 
the enemy across the Escaut River and firmly 
established itself along the east bank included 
in the division zone of action. By a clever 



Hanking movement troops of the 01st Division 
captured Spitaals Bosschen, a diffcult wood ex- 
tending across the central part of the division 
sector, reached the Escaut, and penetrated into 
the town of Audenarde. These divisions re- 
ceived high commendation from their corps 
commanders for their dash and energy. 

MEUSE-ARGONNE LAST PHASE. 

On the 23d the 3d and 5th Corps pushed 
northward to the level of Bantheville. While 
we 'continued to press forward and throw back 
the enemy's violent counterattacks with great 
loss of morale by the enemy game our men more 
der way for the final assault. Evidences of 
loss of morale by the enemyga ve our men more 
confidence in attack and more fortitude in 
enduring the fatigue of incessant effort and the 
hardships of very inclement weather. 

With comparatively well-rested divisions, the 
final advance in the Meuse-Argonne front was 
begun on November 1. Our increased artillery 
force acquitted itself magnificently in support of 
the advance, and the enemy broke before the 
determined infantry, which, by its persistent 
fighting of the past weeks and the dash of this 
attack, had overcome his will to resist. The 
3d Corps toook Ancreville, Doulcon and Ande- 
vanne, and the 5th Corps took Landres et St. 
Georges and passed through successive lines of 
resistance to Bayonville and Chennery. On the 
2d the 1st Corps joined in the movement, which 
now became an impetuous onslaught that could 
not be stayed. 

On the 3d advance troops surged forward in 
pursuit, some by motor trucks, while the artil- 
lery pressed along the country roads close be- 
hind. The 1st Corps reached Authe and Chatil- 
lon-Sur-Bar„ the 5th Corps, Fosse and Nouart, 
and the 3d Corps, Halles, penetrating the 
enemy's lines to a depth of twelve miles. Our 
large-caliber guns had advanced and were skil- 
fully brought into position to fire upon the 
important lines at Montmedy, Longuyon and 
Conflans. Our 3d Corps crossed the Meuse on 
the 5th and the other corps, in the full confi- 
dence that the day was theirs, eagerly cleared 
t fle way of machine guns as they swept north- 
v ard, maintaining complete coordination 
throughout. On the Gth, a division of the 1st 
Corps reached a point on the Meuse opposite 
Sedan, twenty-five miles from our line of de- 
parture. The strategical goal which was our 
highest hope was gained. We had cut the 
enemy's main line of communications, and 
nothing but surrender or an armistice could save 
his army from complete disaster. 

In all forty enemy divisions had been used 
against us in the Meuse-Argonne battle. Be- 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



313 



.ween September 26 and November 6 we took 
86,059 prisoners and 168 guns on this front. 
Our divisions engaged were the 1st, 3d, 4th, 5th, 
26th, 28th, 29th, 32d, 33d, 35th, 37th, 12d, 77th, 
78th, 79th, 80th, 82d, 89th, 90th and 91st. Many 
of our divisions remained in line for a 
length of time that requires nerves of steel, 
while others were sent in again after only a 
few days of rest. The 1st, 5th, 26th, 77th. 80th, 
89th and 90th were in the line twice. Although 
sinne of the divisions were fighting their first 
battle, they soon became equal to the best. 

OPERATIONS EAST OF THE MEUSE 

On the three days preceding November 10, 
the 3d, the 2d Colonial and the 17th French 
Corps fought a difficult struggle through the 
Meuse Hills south of Stenay and forced the 
enemy into the plain. Meanwhile my plans for 
further use of the American forces contemplated 
an advance between the Meuse and the Moselle 
in the direction of Longwy by the First Army, 
while, at the same time, the Second Army should 
assure the offensive toward the rich coal fields 
of Briey. The operations were to be followed 
by an offensive toward Chateau-Salins east of 
the Moselle, thus isolating Metz. Accordingly, 
attacks on the American front had been ordered, 
and that of the Second Army was in progress 
on the morning of November 11, when instruc- 
tions were received that hostilities should cease 
at 11 o'clock a. m. 

At this moment the line of the American sec- 
tor, from right to left, began at Port-sur-Seille. 
thence across the Moselle to Aandieres and 
through the Woevre Iq Bezonvaux, in the foot- 
hills of the Meuse, thence along to the foothills 
and through the northern edge of the Woevre 
forests to the Mens at Mouzay. thence along the 
Meuse connecting with the French under Sedan. 

RELATIONS WITH THE ALLIES 

Cooperation among the Allies has at all times 
been most cordial. A far greater effort has been 
put forth by the allied armies and staffs to assist 
us than could have been expected. The French 
Government and Army have always stood ready 
to furnish us with supplies, equipment and trans- 
portation and to aid us in every way. In the 
towns and hamlets wherever our troops have 
been stationed or billeted the French people have 
everywhere receivd them more as relatives and 
intimate friends than as soldiers of a foreign 
army. For these things words are quite inade- 
quate to express our gratitude. There can be 
no doubt that the relations growing out of our 
associations here assure a permanent friendship 
between the two peoples. Although we have 
not been so intimately associated with the peo- 
ple of Great Britain, yet their troops and ours 



when thrown together have always warmly fra- 
ternized. The reception of those of our forces 
who have passed through England and of those 
who have been stationed there has always been 
enthusiastic. Altogether it has been deeply im- 
pressed upon us that the ties of language and 
blood bring the British and ourselves together 
completely and inseparably. 



There are in Europe altogether, including a 
regiment and some sanitary units with the 
Italian Army and the organizations at Mur- 
mansk, also including those en route from the 
States, approximately 2,053,347 men. less our 
losses. Of this total there are in France 
1,338,169 combatant troops. Forty divisions 
have arrived of which the infantry personnel 
of ten have been used as replacements, leaving 
thirty divisions now in France organized into 
three armies of three corps each. 

The losses of the Americans up to November 
18 are: Killed and wounded, 36,145; died of 
disease, 14,811: deaths unclassified, 2,204; 
wounded, 179.625: prisoners. 2,163; missing, 
1,160. We have captured about 44.000 prison- 
ers and 1,400 guns, howitzers and trench mor- 
tars. 

[General Pershing then highly praised the 
work of the General Staff, the Service of Sup- 
ply, Medical Corps, Quartermaster Department, 
Ordnance Department, Signal Corps, Engineer 
Corps, and continued:] 

Our aviators have no equals in daring or in 
fighting ability, and have left a record of cour- 
ageous deeds that will ever remain a brilliant 
page in the annals of our army. While the 
Tank Corps has had limited opportunities, its 
personnel has responded gallantly on every pos- 
sible occasion, and has shown courage of the 
highest order. 

The navy in European waters has at all times 
most cordially aided the army, and it is most 
gratifying to report that there has never before 
been such perfect cooperation between these two 
branches of the service. 

Finally, I pay supreme tribute to our officers 
and soldiers of the line. When I think of their 
heroism, their patience under hardships, their 
unflinching spirit of offensve action, I am filled 
wth emotion which I am unable to express. 
Their deeds are immortal, and they have earned 
the eternal gratitude of our country. 

I am. Mr. Secretary, very respectfully, 
JOHN J. PERSHING, 
General, Commander-in-Chief, 
American Expeditionary Forces. 
To the Secretarv of War. 



314 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



The year 1915 may be described as the mitted Germany to send and place mod 
year of "Too late" for the allies, and espe- ern uuns. 



cially for England, so far as land opera- 
tions were concerned. The Gallipoli ad- 
venture is an illustration. During the 
winter a great naval attack upon the Dar- 



Then, on April 26, British, Australian 
and New Zealand forces landed for an at- 
tack on the land side. The campaign, 
which ran through the year, is a tale of 
heroism and blunders too long- to tell here. 




American Officer and Private Win French Decorations. General Gaucher, of the French Army, is 
decorating an American officer and an American soldier for bravery in a recent bombardment. 



danelles was planned and begun. It 
failed, with the loss of several vessels. 
Had it been inaugurated the year before 
it is believed it would have succeeded, as 
the usual Turkish slackness had neglected 
the fortifications. But the delay per- 



Had the landing been a few weeks or even 
a few days earlier it might have succeeded, 
but it was again "too late." Victory is 
now believed to have been in sight at one 
time, but the opportunity was missed. On 
Jan. ( .t, '16 the attempt was finally given up. 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



315 



Again, on March 10, the British drove 
at Neuve Chapelle and took it, but blun- 
ders were made which turned the victory 
into a practical defeat. Four days later, 
however, the Russians took Prz^emysl and 
stood in the Carpathian passes, and Hun- 
gary cried out for help against an immi- 
nent invasion. 

THE FALL OF WARSAW. 

But in May the Huns, under Macken- 
sen, broke the Russian line on the Duna- 
jec, while Hindenburg drove through 
from Courland toward Warsaw. On 
June 23 the Russians were forced out of 



On May 24, 1915, Italy had entered the 
war on the side of the allies. The timid 
statesmen who had been in power had to 
choose between fighting the Hun and revo- 
lution at home. Not for lack of zeal and 
courage, bul because of topographical con- 
ditions Italy was able to accomplish little 
this year. 

In 1866 Italy had obtained Venetia as a 
reward for siding- with Prussia against 
Austria. Berlin took care that its prospec- 
tive ally should get the best of its actual 
ally in the boundary drawing. 

The line was so fixed along the Carnic 
Alps as to be easily defended bv Austria 




)f the la-ter types of British Submersible, The "E 



Leniherg; on Aug. 5 Warsaw fell, and on 
Aug. 25 the Germans took Brest-Litovsk, 
and a few days later drove the Russians 
across the Dwina. Except for occasional 
advances to Galicia, the Russians did lit- 
tle more in the Polish theater. 

After the fall of Warsaw the Grand 
Duke Nicholas was displaced from com- 
mand and sent to the Caucasus, whence 
he was to accomplish something against 
the Turks the next year. But with the re- 
treat beyond the Dwina, the Russian 
armies, though this was not realized at the 
time, ceased to be a possible decisive factor. 



and difficult of attack by Italy. To get at 
Austria the Italians had to fight uphill 
through a very rough mountain region 
whose natural defenses had been carefully 
improved by military art. The slow prog- 
ress of the Italian armies for more than a 
year was mainly due to the difficulties of 
the country over which they had to fight 
their way. 

On May 7, 191 5, occurred an event which 
filled the world with horror, outside of Ger- 
many, where it was the subject of public 
rejoicing. This was the sinking by a Hun 
submarine of the great Cunard liner Lusi- 
tania, without the slightest warning or giv- 
ing the least opportunity for her people to 



316 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 




The Latest Type of U. S. Submarine, the L-l. 



escape. The result was the murder of 1 ,134 
noncombatants, about half of them women 
and children, and more than 100 of them 
Americans. Tn moral effect this "success" 
was a greater loss to Germany than the 
battle of the Marne, for from it the world 
began to understand that there could be 
no safety for any nation until the German 
empire was destroyed. 

THE DISASTER OF SERBIA. 

Little Serbia had beaten off the Austrian 
attack the year before, and for nine months 
had kept her soil clear of the invader. But 




A Captured German Stronghold. 



now came her turn to join Belgium in mar- 
tyrdom. 

Having really disposed of Russia, as the 
event proved, even more by corruption of 
its administration, including some of the 
chief ministers of the czar, than by victories 
in the field, the Huns were now able to 
bring Bulgaria to their side and thus turn 
irresistible forces upon hapless Serbia. An 
Austro-German army swept over the Dan- 
ube; the Bulgars attacked from the oast; 
the pro-German king of Greece, whose wife 
was the kaiser's sister, repudiated his sol- 
emn engagement to aid Serbia if attacked 
by Bulgaria. 

The allies attempted to come to Serbia's 
aid by landing troops at Saloniki, but again 
they were "too late." The Serbian army 
was simply overwhelmed, and its retreat 
with most of the civilian population 
through the mountains of Albania to the 
Adriatic was one of the most tragic events 
in history. The Serbian spirit, however, 
remained unbroken, and Serbian soldiers 
l] did their parts in winning the triumphs 
of 1918. 

Thus in the main theaters of the war the 
year was a bad one for the Allies. In its 
outer fields they made substantial progress. 
Early in the war Australian, New Zealand 
and Japanese forces had seized the German 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



•317 



colonies in the Pacific, and the Japanese 
had taken Kaio-Chao, the Hnn stronghold 
on the Chinese coast. 

Berlin had counted confidently on a Boer 
revolt in South Africa, but the Boers them- 
selves quickly suppressed some attempts 
and on May 12, 1915, the forces of the Union 
of South Africa captured the German mili- 
tary colony of Southwest Africa. Mean- 
while, British and French colonial forces 



This year was also marked by the ap- 
pearance of a new weapon, poison gas, lirst 
used by the Euns in the second battle of 
Ypres in April against French colonial 
troops. The break in the line was closed by 
the valor of the Canadians, who suffered 
horribly, but still held fast. 

"they shall not pass" 

The western front battles of 1916 opened 
on Feb. 21 with the -real German drive 




Defenders of Our Shores. Coast defense :41m crew at Fort Andrews, Boston, 
loading a projectile into a twelve-inch mortar. 



had been cleaning up To^oland, and by the 
end of the yen- East Africa was the only 
colony still held by German forces. 

Turkish attempts to reach the Suez canal 
had also been repulsed and the British had 
made alliances with the Arab tribes seated 
about the Mohammedan holy cities of 
Mecca and Medinah, which were to have 
importanl effects upon the position of the 
Turkish sultan in the eyes of Moslems 
throughout the world. 



against the Verdun position. For weeks 

the issue was doubtful, with the French 
tenaciously holding, hut slowly pushed back 
by the constant hammering of the Huns. 
The spirit of France was voiced in the 
motto, "On ne passe pas" — "They shall 
not pass." And they did not pass, though 
before the Ilun wave reached its crest in 
July it had penetrated the inner fortifica- 
tion^ 0!' Verdun. 

Then at the critical moment, on July 1, 



318 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 







The "America," a great seapla 

the British and French struck hack on the 
Sonnne, driving a wedge twenty miles wide 
and ten miles deep into the German lines, 
and inflicting' losses estimated at 700,000 
men, including 95,000 prisoners, over 300 
cannon and nearly 1,500 machine guns. In 
this allied drive the "tank" first made its 
appearance, a huge armored tractor de- 




T' irst view 
airplane-; for 

1,000. The 

airplanes, ub 



of plant where Uncle Sam built his 
which Congress has appropriated. $640,- 
view shows the work of building the 

ich went on behind guarded walls. 



vised hy the British and built in America 
whose "caterpillar" wheels enabled it to 
waddle over seemingly impassable obstruc- 
tions. 

This battle, it was hoped, would be the 
beginning of the "big push" that would 
end in the expulsion of the Huns from 
France, but it was halted in November by 
the rainy season when its threat seemed 
most dangerous to the enemy. It is also 
reported that certain French politicians, 
tainted with the "defeatist" propaganda 
for which Bolo Pasha later paid with his 
life, intrigued against Gen. Nivelle, com- 
mander of the region of the famous "La- 
dies' road," and procured his supersession 
at the critical moment. 

On the Asiatic front the Russian armies 
under Grand Duke Nicholas made substan- 
tial progress into Armenia, where the year 
before the Turks, with German sanction, 
bad massacred probably 250,000 of that 
hapless race. The Russian fleets dominated 
the Black sea, despite the addition to the 
Turkish navy of German vessels and men, 
but the capture of Trebizond on April 15 
marked the limit of the Russian advance. 

This was offset by the loss two weeks 
later of 10,000 Anglo-Indian troops at Kilt- 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



319 



el-Amara in Mesopotamia. These forces 
for about a year had been slowly working 
up the Tigris and had almost reached Bag- 
dad when they were caught by floods, 
surrounded and starved into surrender. 

THE BETRAYAL OF ROUMANIA 

By August of this year it also began to 
look as if the Italians would finally be able 
to earn- the war into Austria. They had 
taken Gorizia after overcoming the must 
enormous difficulties of terrain. Then on 
Aug. 27 Roumania declared for the allies, 
and added her army to the forces which the 
Huns had to meet on the eastern front. 

Of course Roumania could not have ven- 
tured to come in without definite assurances 
of support and supply of munitions from 
the allies. These promises were kept on 
the part of England and France. The arms 
and munitions were duly delivered at Arch- 
angel and on the Murmau coast. But they 
never reached Roumania. Neither did the 
promised Russian army that was to come 
through Bessarabia ever arrive to join the 
Roumanians and the Russian advance into 
Galicia did not get far enough seriously to 
impede the secondary Austro-German at- 
tack from Transylvania. 

Moreover the Roumanians, instead of 
sending their principal army against Bul- 
garia on the south, made their main effort 
toward Hungary. As a result the Bulgar- 
ians, led by Gen. Mackensen, probably the 





A Captured German Dugout. On a 1>att1efie1<l near 
Lens. The entrance to a thick concrete walled ar.d 
bomb-proof roofed German trench dugout. 



most efficient of the German commanders, 
speedily forced the passage of the Danube, 
and by Dec. 6 Bukharest had fallen, the 
Roumanian government had fled to Jassy, 
and half of Roumania, including the pre- 
cious petroleum fields, was in possession 
of the Huns. 

As it afterward appeared German cor- 
ruption of high Russian officials, extending 
even to Stuermer, then prime minister, had 
brought about the betrayal of Roumania, 
both by failure to deliver indispensable 
munitions and withholding the promised 
aid of troops and by advance communica- 
tion of Roumania 's plan of campaign to the 
German general staff. That is, the un- 
doubted abilities of Mackensen were aided 
at Petrograd by the grossest treachery, 
procured by Berlin's bribes. While Rou- 
mania nominally held out for more than a 
year, her army was not after the end of 
191(1 an important factor in the conflict. 

AMERICA ENTERS THE WAR 

Many Americans had been slow to be- 
lieve the (ales of Hun atrocity in Belgium 
and Prance. But evidence accumulated and 



320 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 




U. S. Mine for Harbor protection. 

the wholesale murder of the Lusitania 
roused such indignation that millions 
would have welcomed an immediate decla- 
ration of war. The government at Wash- 
ington however deemed it wise to wait 
until the cup of Hun iniquity should be 
not only full but running over. 

After full two years of effort on the part 
of President Wilson to recall Germany to 
observance of the laws of civilized warfare, 
and after Berlin's repeated promises had 



proved to be brazen lies the break finally 
came when on Jan. 31 the kaiser's govern- 
ment added open insult to repeated in- 
juries. 

On that day Berlin decreed to itself the 
ownership of about half of the Atlantic 
ocean for its submarines and assumed to 
bar out of this "war zone" not only all 
enemy, but all neutral vessels, under pen- 
alty of destruction. The United States was 
forbidden to send to any British port more 
than one ship weekly, which vessel must 
also be distinguished by a sort of barber- 
pole decoration. 

On Feb. 3 the German ambassador was 
handed his passports. On April 2 Presi- 
dent Wilson" asked congress to make a 
forma] declaration of war, which was 
passed and signed on April 6 — Good Fri- 
day, and in the judgment of the whole na- 
tion a good day for a good deed. 

The first American naval contingent 
sailed immediately. American troops be- 
gan to land in France on June 26 and saw 
their first fighting on Oct. 27, but the re- 
mainder of the year on this side of the 
Atlantic was largely consumed in raising 
and training the army, which finally grew 
to 2,000,000 men in France and as many 
more preparing to follow them when the 
successive surrenders of Bulgaria, Turkey, 
Austria, and Germany led to the ar- 
mistice and ended hostilities. 

THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTIONS 

The year 1917 had opened not unpros- 




Allied Troops Resting After a Battle. 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



321 



perously for the free nations. The French 
and English had improved their positions 
oa the western front. A new British army 
that had heen pushing up the Tigris took 
Bagdad on March 11. At the same time 
the Huns in Flanders retreated about 
twenty miles to what became known as 
"the Hindenburg line." Toward the end 
of May the Italians had crossed the Isonzo 
and were on the Bainsizza plateau, within 
twelve miles of Trieste. The United States, 
though not yet ready with a great army, 
was freely making enormous and sorely 
needed loans to France, England, Italy, 
Belgium and Russia. 

But on March 12 a revolution, led by 
members of the duma and backed by the 
Petrograd garrison, had dethroned the 
czar, declared monarchy abolished and set 
up a Russian republic. It was hailed with 
joy by all friends of democracy, but the 
hopes built upon it were doomed to disap- 
pointment. The provisional government 
went through one crisis after another, until 
finally with the fall of Kerensky on Nov. 8 
the control of Russia fell into the hands of 
the "bolsheviki," a group of radical social- 
ists and doctrinaire pacifists, who demor- 
alized the army and made peace with the 
Huns, ceding to them and the Turks Po- 
land, the Baltic provinces, the Ukraine and 
Trans-Caucasia. 

Even the original Russian revolution is 
suspected to have been more or less "made 





bomb-gun with which the 
is well equipped. 



Private Shelly being decorated by the King of 
England with the Medal of Honor for gallantry in 
advance from Hamel on July 4th. 

in Germany," though the honesty of Keren- 
sky and others of its original leaders is not 
questioned. It has been proved, however, 
that Lenine and Trotzky, the chiefs of the 
bolsheviki, were from the beginning in Ger- 
man pay and it was said of the Bolshe- 
viki that "those who are not crazy are 
crooked and those who are not crooked aro 
crazy," and the epigram appears to be an 
accurate description. 

Even before the fall of Kerensky the 
Germans had been enabled by the growing 
demonstrations of the Russian armies to 
take Riga and engineer the secession of the 
Ukraine from northern Russia, with event- 
ual results of getting temporary possession 
of territories larger than the whole Ger- 
man empire before the war. 

THE ITALIAN DISASTER 

Delivered by the collapse of Russia from 
the need of maintaining more than a bor- 
der guard on the eastern front, with plun- 
dering expeditions into the Baltic provinces 
and the Ukraine, the Huns concentrated for 
a great drive upon Italy. On Oct. 26 the 
Italian line was broken at Caporetto and 
within three weeks the Italian army had 
lost all its hard won gains of nearly thirty 
months, and more. 

Its retreat was marked by enormous 
losses of men and material and ended only 
at the Piave river, where a successful stand 
was made with the aid of French and Brit- 



322 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



ish troops. There is little doubt that ' ' Ger- 
man propaganda" along the lines of the 
Bolshevist idea that the war could be ended 
by the soldiers simply refusing to fight any 
more had undermined the morale of cerfain 
Italian contingents and contributed to this 
German success. 

In other quarters, however, the allies 
fared better. On June 12 the treacherous 
King Constantine of Greece was forced to 
abdicate and Venizelos returned to power. 



with a proclamation of a "holy war." The 
effort had failed, but the British govern- 
ment was not content to rest on the evi- 
dent loyalty of its Moslem subjects. It 
struck back not only with the expedition 
into Mesopotamia, but also by measures 
which detached the Arab tribes about 
Mecca and Medinah from obedience to Con- 
stantinople. 

Then in the latter part of 1917 an expe- 
dition commanded by Gen. Allenby pushed 




Arrival of the First American Troops in Paris. 



Then began a reorganization and purifica- 
tion of the Greek army, which the next 
year sent 400,000 Greeks to aid in putting 
Bulgaria and Turkey out of the war and 
in the reconquest of Serbia. 

There were other steps taken by the 
allies of importance in a political as well 
as a military sense. Early in the war the 
Turkish government had attempted to 
arouse all Mohammedans against the allies 



across the desert from Egypt into Pales- 
tine, defeated the Turks near Joppa, and 
on Dec. 20 captured Jerusalem and later 
pushed eastward across the Jordan and 
seized the railroad to Medinah. 

Christendom was pleased with the Christ- 
mas gift of Jerusalem, and Zionist Jews 
saw their hopes bearing promise of frui- 
tion. But the new alignment which the 
barring of all roads to the Moslem shrines 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



323 



against the Turks of Constantinople gave 
to the Moslem world was even more im- 
portant. 

The Turkish sultan's only claim to the 
title of "Khalif " or successor of Mahomet 
was that he had kept open the pilgrim 
roads to Mecca and Medinah. For the 
practical purposes of assuring to Moslems 
power of compliance with the religious 
duty of pilgrimage, the "khalif" is now 
King George V. 

THE REVIVAL OF A STATION 

On Feb. 12, L918, the Russian bolshoviki 
had accepted the Hun peace terms at Brest 
Litovsk and Russia was nominally as well 
as actually out of the war. On Ma roll 9, 
Roumania had been forced to submit in 
form. Russia was breaking into fragments 
and plunging into ever increasing anar- 
chy. The pro-German elements in the 
Ukraine got the upper hand there and made 
that groat granary virtually a German 
province. Mutinies broke up the Russian 
Black sea fleet, German forces seized the 
Black sea ports, and the Turks pushed over 
into the great Russian oil fields between the 
Black sea and the Caspian. 

Then came one of the most extraordinary 
events of the war, checking the Germaniza- 
tion of Russia, and leading directly to the 
rebirth of a nation long subjugated and op- 
pressed, with its formal recognition by all 
the allied powers as an independent state 
That nation was Bohemia, with the border 
provinces of Moravia and Silesia, which 
their own people prefer to call Slovakia. 





Yanks Bringing in German Prisoners. 



A Protected Battery. The most cleverly concealed 
battery on the Serbian front. 

Among the consequences of the war is the 
winning of the Czech-Slovaks of their fight 
of nearly 500 years to preserve their dis- 
tinct nationality. 

Bohemia, had, of course, been forced to 
furnish her due proportion of troops to 
the Austrian armies. At every opportun- 
ity they went over to the Russians, with 
whom they fought valiantly. "When Russia 
collapsed' these Czech-Slovak regiments 
turned eastward, seeking to make their 
way through Siberia to the sea, hoping in 
time to reach France and fight the Huns 
there. 

Fortunately for the cause of Bohemia 
and of orderly liberty everywhere the mad- 
ness of the Russian bolsheviki refused to 
permit the Czech-Slovaks to depart in 
peace. Their arms were demanded and 
the trains on which they were making their 
way to Vladivostok were attacked. There 
were between 75,000 and 100,000 armed 
men, strung out all the way from the Volga 



824 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 




AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



32; 



region to eastern Siberia. 

The Czech-Slovaks defended themselves 
and did more. Their national council, or- 
ganized at Paris under the leadership of 
Prof. Thomas G. Masaryk, an exiled edu- 
cator, who proved a statesman of the first 
rank, realized that these troops could form 
a most valuable rallying point for such 
elements in Russia as were neither infected 
with bolshevik insanity nor in German pay. 

The Czech-Slovak national council was 
formally recognized, first by England and 
France and later by the other allies, as a 
de facto government, and the Czech-Slovak 
troops in Russia were accorded the rights 
of belligerents. This meant that the Huns 



of great Hun drives opened from the 
Scarpe to the Oise in Flanders. 

On a sixty-mile front more than 1,000,- 
000 men were hurled toward Amiens. The 
German plan was to divide the British 
from the French, roll up the British, drive 
them back to the coast and destroy them. 
Berlin hoped thus to obtain, if not' a com 
plete victory, at least a "negotiated 
peace" that would restore the German 
colonies and permit the Huns to retain 
their Russian plunder. 

Those were extremely perilous days, for 
the Americans had not yet come up in full 
strength, and if the British armies were 




A Night Scene in "No Man's Land." A pyrotechnic display over "\o Man's Land. 
the French front, caused by a barrage of incendiary bombs. 



A night scene on 



could no longer treat Czech-Slovak prison- 
ers as "deserters" without incurring stern 
reprisals. Thanks largely to the Czech- 
Slovaks, aided by Japanese and American 
troops, bolsiievism had been practically 
suppressed in Siberia when the war on the 
western front ended, and European Russia 
about half-way up the Volga was in the 
hands of friends of the allies. 

FOUR ANXIOUS MONTHS 

With the utter collapse of Russia the 
Huns were enabled to turn their full 
strength upon the French and British 
armies on the western front. On March 21 
what was to be the first of the last series 



destroyed the French could hardly stand 
alone. But though the British line bent 
back and back, it did not break, and as it 
shortened the French extended. This bat- 
tle led to the appointment on April 2 of 
Marshal Foch as supreme commander of 
all the allied forces. The allies thereafter 
had absolutely unified direction of all 
their armies. 

Halted in the direct drive for Amiens, 
the Huns struck at Arras and between 
Messines and La Bassee with intent to 
gain the Flanders ridge. The whole 
weight of this drive fell on the British, 
who were literally fighting with "their 
backs to the wall," with no natural line 



326 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 







West Point Cadets 



of defense between them and the channel. 
But the British line held. 

Balked in their direct attempts to divide 
the British and French and reach the 
channel ports, the Huns launched a new 
drive between Soissons and Rheims, with 
Paris as the goal. In six days the Huns 
had hammered across the Aisne and had 
again reached the Marne in the region of 
Chateau Thierry. But an attempt to 
push farther down the Ourcq was de- 
feated by the French and Americans, and 
at Cantigny and Belleau wood the United 
States Marines added new names to a vic- 
tory roll that goes back to the very begin- 
ning of the nation in 1775. 

THE HIGH TIDE OF THE HUN 

The first half of 1.918 was, in fact, a race 
between America and the Huns. It seemed 
a question for weeks whether the Yanks 
could get across the ocean fast enough. 
They were coming at the rate of nearly 
300,000 a month, but could they get into 
the battle line soon enough? By July 1 
the question was really answered, for more 



than 1,000,000 American soldiers were inj 
PVance, and thev were still pouring in, 




Heavy United States Coast Artillery. 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



327 



unchecked by Hun submarine raids on the 
American coast. 

On July 15 the Germans opened what 
proved to be their last great drive. 
Balked in their effort to open roads to 
Paris along the Oise and Oureq valleys 
they tried again from Chateau Thierry to 
Rheims and on eastward across Cham- 
pagne to the edge of the Argonne forest. 
The Champagne attack was held within the 



forest of Villers-Cotterets, southwest of 
Soissons, were hurled against the west 
Hank of the Marne wedge. The enemy en- 
gaged on the eastward side of the wedge, 
was taken by surprise and fell back before 
the Franco-American forces. 

The drive toward Epernay was the high 
tide of the Hun and Chateau Thierry 
marked what proved to be its final break. 
Thereafter the allies kept on the defensive 



■^ 




Caterpillar "Tank" Demonstrated to Officers of Army Meets Disaster. A model "Tank" constructed to be 
demonstrated to officers of the United States Army turned a double somersault while climbing a bank after 
crossing the Los Angeles River, when the soft earth gave way under the 13-ton machine. The demonstra- 
tion, hpwever, was successful, as it showed how easily a machine used in time of war can cross a river and 
climb its banks. The "Tank" is modeled after those in actual service in Europe. 



French battle zone. "West of Rheims the 
Huns got across the Marne and turned 
their drive up its valley toward Epernay. 
Then at Chateau Thierry on July 18 the 
American marines went in. Out of 8,000 
their casualties were 6,000, but they halted 
the Hun advance on Epernay. Marshal 
Foch had, in fact, anticipated the enemy 
plan. Strong reserves gathered in the 



and never again lost that advantage. 

Gradually Foch extended pressure all 
around the Marne pocket. The Hun re- 
sistance was stubborn. By desperate 
effort he held the corners of the pocket and 
its mouth open through a retreat across 
the Vesle. A few days later Foch struck 
again at the nose of the Somme salient. 
British and French troops advanced from 



328 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 




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AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



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Montdidicr to Albert. The Hun was again 
taken by surprise, and by the middle of 
August had been driven back to the lines 
held before the Somme advance of the 
allies in 1916. 

THE YANKS IN" LORRAINE 

By this time nearly 2,000,000 Americans 
were in France. Heretofore they had been 
brigaded with the French and British. 
Xow they were to show what they could 
do wholly by themselves. Pershing had 
1,000,000 men under his personal command 



Followed the "tedious task of fighting 
through the Argonne forest. During Octo- 
ber it was completed and the Americans 
had closed the Stenay gap and were driv- 
ing on to Sedan. That historic town, the 
scene of the great French disaster in 1870, 
they readied in the early days of Novem- 
ber. Its capture cut one of the two great 
German lines of supply and of retreat. 

Meanwhile the French and British, with 
various American contingents, had been 
driving the Hun in a retreat of ever- 




British Hydroplane and Submarine After Sinking a German Submarine by a Depth Bomb. 



along the line from Verdun southeastward 
across Lorraine. 

The great American drive opened on 
Sept. 12, and rapidly smashed in the St. 
Mihiel salient which the Germans had 
held for four years. "Within little more 
than a week the Americans were within 
cannon shot of the outer forts of Metz. 
They did not directly attack that enormous 
fortress. There was a longer but less 
costly way to break the back of the Hun 
armies. 



increasing speed and disorder across 
French Flanders and Belgium. Ostend and 
Zeebrugge, lair of the U-boats, were aban- 
doned. Full 15,000 Huns were caught 
against the Dutch frontier and forced into 
internment in Holland. When the Hun 
envoys came with white flags to Guise on 
Nov. 8 to receive Foch's terms of truce the 
allied line was from east of Ghent and An 
denarde to Maubeuge and the Hun "far- 
thest west" in France was at Chaumont- 
Porcien. 



330 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 




Herbert C. Hoover, Food Dictator, Was Selected by President Wilson as the Most Able Man for the 

Position. 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



331 



Before the armistice was formally ac- 
cepted this salient had been smashed in 
and allied troops were in Rocroi, scene of 
a famous French victory over 200 years 
ago. The French had reached the Belgian 
frontier east of Avesnes, and the Cana- 
dians on the morning of Nov. 11 took Mons, 
a place of a heroic effort of the British to 
halt the Hun in the summer of 1914. Per- 
shing's men on Nov. 10 had attacked on a 
front of seventy-oue miles from the Mouse 
southeastward and were within ten miles 



structed armies of Greece and Serbia. Czar 
Ferdinand the Tricky abdicated in favor of 
his son Boris, who at last account was 
unlikely long to keep his throne. 

After some weeks and much squirming, 
Turkey sent Gen. Townshend, the British 
commander captured at Kut-el-Amara, to 
beg for a truce from the British admiral 
commanding the allied fleets in the Aegean, 
and obtained conditions that foreshadowed 
what the Huns themselves were to expect. 
Meanwhile the British had advanced far up 




A Motor Drawn Cannon with Armor Used to Fight Zeppelins 



Aeroplanes 



of the north side of Metz. Had the Hun 
not submitted it was evidently the plan to 
pocket Metz and push down the Moselle 
valley for a direct invasion of Germany. 

THE SMASH OF EMPIRES 

Preceding the final collapse of the Hun 
on the western front had come the collapse 
of his vassals. Bulgaria was the first to 
go, under the hammering of the allies on 
the Macedonian front, aided by the recon- 



the Euphrates and were approaching Alep- 
po, while Allenby's army had pushed north 
beyond Damascus. 

A few days after the Turkish surrender, 
Austria-Hungary, which had for weeks 
been trying to obtain a parley for peace, 
only to receive an "unconditional sur- 
render" answer, sent a white flag into the 
rtalian lines. Early in October the Ital- 
ians had resumed the offensive and had 



332 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 




AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



333 



been steadily driving the Austrians back, 
and the various nationalities which made 
up the former Hapsburg empire had been 
busily engaged in seceding from one an- 
other. 

The terms imposed on Austria-Hungary 
involved a surrender, not only complete 
but abject. There was, in fact, hardly a 
government left in Vienna to sign truce 
terms, and what Gen. Diaz really did was 
to accept the surrender of the million or 



The abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm and 
his flight to Holland on the night of Nov. 
10 completed the smash up of the Hun em- 
pires, and the apparent end of the last 
autocratic government in Europe. 

XOT A ""GENERALS' WAB" 

The war produced commanders whom 
the military historian will rank among" the 
most accomplished the world has known. 
But it was not a "generals' war" in the 




U. S. Sailors in the Firth of Forth After Surrender of German Fleet. 



so of Austro-Hunsrarian soldiers who were 
starving in front of his forces. 

At last accounts the Bohemians were 
completely masters of their own country, 
the German-Austrians were begging for a 
hearing from the allies, the south Slav- had 
set up an independent government, Hun- 
gary was in the throes of civil war, and 
Kaiser Kail bad fled from Vienna to Switz- 
erland, 



did sense of the word. Its numbers were 
too enormous and its fighting fronts ex- 
tended for hundreds of miles. It afforded 
no opportunity for the general to per- 
form feats like that of Napoleon at the 
bridge of Lodi or of Logan at Atlanta. 
Operations were directed, not by the gen- 
em] in personal contact with his whole 
force — that was physically Impossible — but 



334 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



by the general sitting at the collecting res- 
ervoir of information, with numerous ad- 
visers and assistants of all kinds. 

In a very real sense the war was waged 
by boards of directors, known as "general 
staffs," with chairmen having power of 
final decision. "Great headquarters" was 
like the huge general office of a great indus- 
trial plant or a big governmental depart- 
ment. Elaborate plans had to be made far 



tent to force a compromise peace if they 
could not win a sweeping victory, made it 
largely a "subalterns' war," using the 
term with the due expansion compelled by 
the engagement of such numbers that a 
colonel was of little more relative impor- 
tance than a lieutenant in former wars. 
It was a war which could not be won by 
"maneuvers" or unexpected combinations. 
The Hun had to be "worn down." French 




Vessel Entering Box Smoke Screen. 



in advance for every important movement. 
The monotonous reiteration of the German 
official statements, that this or that move- 
ment was "executed according to plan," 
became a catchword of derision to civilians 
ignorant of the mechanics of modern war. 
Yet it accurately described the condition, 
though sometimes used to disguise re- 
verses. 

The "digging in" of the Huns, with in- 



mental clarity early and correctly de- 
scribed it as "a war of attrition." 

FRANCE PROVIDES GREATER COMMANDERS 

France provided the commander-in-chief 
who ended the war, as was natural. The 
Hun willed that the war must be lost or 
won on the soil of France, and France was 
tlic only one of the western allies which 
had, at the start, an army commensurate 
to the task both in numbers and training. 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



335 




336 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



Britain and the United States had still 
their great armies to make when they en- 
tered the war. Moreover, the training of 
British generals was in leading compact 
forces on distant expeditions rather than 
in management of enormous masses. Brit- 
ish military technic was, perhaps, too indi- 
vidual and too little accustomed to widest 
range co-operation. It is significant that 
most complaints of failure in due co-ordi- 



commanded, and that of his chief subordi- 
nates by the fact that the forces for which 
they were responsible exceeded in numbers 
any army led by Wellington. Nor must 
the services of Kitchener, the great organ- 
izer, nor of Sir John French, unshaken bat- 
tler against well-nigh hopeless odds, be for- 
gotten. 

Minor British commanders, Townshend, 
unfortunate in the field to whom destiny 




...... 'x_*< 




In the German Second Line Before Cambrai, After Its Capture by the British. 
A Tank Stopped in Negotiating a Deep Until After the Action. 



nation of action came from the British 
front in France. 

Great Britain did her full share in pro- 
vision of man power, and more than her 
share in provision of material, both by 
land and sea. In the sea war Britain was 
properly supreme. Yet though he rightly 
gave place to Foch in supreme command, 
Sir Douglas Haig's achievement may be 
measured by the fact that he led to victory 
greater armies than any Briton ever before 



brought the fortune of being his captors' 
envoy to beg peace for them; Maude 
dying for England within a few days after 
he had won her a great victory; Allenby, 
captor of Jerusalem and hamstringer of 
the Turk, and Botha, the Boer, who fought 
bravely against England and loyally for 
England when her cause was freedom's, 
can be merely mentioned. 

THE TURNERS OF THE TIDE 

Of the American commanders, Pershing 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 



337 




338 



AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 




Here are shown American officers and American marines saluting the parade of the Allies in the streets of 

Vladivostock. 



and his associates, it can be said that they 
proved fully equal to their task. No 
American since Grant has commanded so 
great an army as did Pershing. Their 
task was to turn the tide and make certain 
the victory. They were not called upon 
to endure as were their French and Brit 
ish colleagues, though we feel sure they 
would have endured with equal firmness 
had the need come. Nor will the world 
soon forget the word of Bundy at Chateau 
Thierry, "Retreat for Americans is intol- 
erable," for it marked the turning of the 
Hun tide. 

The impression left by the Italian lead- 
ers at this distance is that Cadorna was 
competent but slow and unfortunate, and 
that Diaz was competent, steadfast, 
prompt to press an advantage, and for- 
tunate. 

To Joff re and Foch, one for staying the 
Hun rush at the Marne, and the other 
for dealing the great counter stroke that 
ended the conflict, must be awarded the 
highest honors. Yet of Nivelle and Pe- 



tain, of Mangin and Gouraud, of d'Es- 
perey and Debeny, it must be said that 
they equaled any of Napoleon's marshals, 
and successfully led far greater forces 
and solved far more complex military 
problems. W. R. P. 




British Tommies devised novel ways to carry their 
wounded. Photo shows British carrying their 
wounded on horses in Mesopotamia. 



Naval Battles of The War 

By 
ADMIRAL SIMS 



Admiral Mahan's contention, based on 
history, that sea power rather than land 
power is the decisive factor in wars where 
both can play their part, has received 
striking 1 confirmation both in the progress 
and the events of the world war which the 
German rulers began and which has 
ended in their country's ruin. 

The British navy has naturally played 
the larger part in the sea struggle. When 
the war began it was, nearly two to one, 
the most powerful on the seas. And it 
was ready as only the German war ma- 
chine was ready on land. While its work 
was admirably supplemented by the fleets 
of France and Italy, and in the last two 
years by that of the United States, upon 
it fell the whole of one of the three great 
sea tasks of the war, and the heavier part 
of the other two. 

These tasks were ( 1 ) clearing the 
oceans of the German cruisers; (2) the 
blockade of Germany, including the 
paralysis of the German high seas fleet; 
(3) guarding transport of troops and 
supplies, including the battle with the 
German submarines and mines. 

HUNTING THE HUN FROM THE SEAS. 

Within twenty-four hours after the 
declaration of war Admiral Sir John Jel- 
licoe was at sea with the British grand 
fleet and the blockade lid was set upon the 
German outlets to the oceans. The story 
of that more than fifty months' ceaseless 
watch of the Xorth sea must give first 
place, however, to the tale of the hunting 
of the Hun from all the outer waters of 
the world. 

How deliberate was the German war 
planning is shown by the fact that several 



days before its declaration Admiral 
Spee's cruiser squadron steamed out of 
Iviao Chao to take up the work of com- 
merce destroying. Detaching the Emden 
to raid the Indian ocean Spee sent the 
Leipzig and Xeurenberg to join the Dres- 
den on the South American coast, where 
he later met them with the Scharnhorst 
and Gneisenau after "shooting up" some 
defenseless French and British trading 
towns among the South Pacific islands. 

On Nov. 1, 1914, Admiral Sir Charles 
Craddock, steaming north from Cape 
Horn, met the five German cruisers in a 
gale off Coronel on the Chilean coast with 
the armored cruisers Good Hope and 
Monmouth and the light cruiser Glasgow. 
The battleship Canopus, sent out to re- 
enforce Craddock, was unable to get in 
sight of the action owing to slow speed. 
Craddock was overmatched, and the Good 
Hope and Monmouth went down with all 
hands, the battered Glasgow alone escap- 
ing south to warn the Canopus. 

THE FTGHT OFF THE FALKLANDS. 

The British admiralty calculated cor- 
rectly that Spee would be compelled by 
want of coal and food to attempt a raid 
on the Falkland islands, in the South At- 
lantic, and sent thither Admiral Sir Fred- 
erick Sturdee with the Invincible, Inflex- 
ible. Carnarvon. Kent. Cornwall, Bristol 
and Macedonia. 

The next morning after the British 
squadron arrived Spee steamed into sight. 
The action opened just before 1 p. m. on 
Dec. 8, 1914. At '4:16 the Scharnhorst 
sank, and soon after the Gneisenau, to be 
joined in the depths by the Xuernberg at 
7:20 and by the Leipzig at 9:1.5. Unlike 
the Huns at Coronel, the British seamen 



340 



NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR 




NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR 



341 



did their best to rescue their beaten foes. 

The Dresden escaped for the time and 
fled back into the Pacific, to be overhauled 
by the Kent and the Glasgow at Juan 
Fernandez the next March and to pull 
down her colors after an action of five 
minutes. 

The Emden had met her fate a month 
before the fight off the Falklands, after 
destroying a number of merchant ships. 
On Nov. 10, 1914, the Australian cruiser 



Within the first month of the war, on 
Aug. 30, 1914, the Kaiser Wilhelm der 
Grosse had been sunk by the Highflyer 
off the Cape Verde islands. Two weeks 
later, on Sept. 14, the Carmania, an 
armed merchantman, had settled the Cap 
Trafalgar in the South Atlantic, and the 
Spreewald was captured by the Berwick 
in the North Atlantic. 

HUN FLAG SWEPT FROM OCEANS. 

The Prinz Eitel Friederich was hunted 




Remarkable PhotO'raph 



'Flame-Throwing" or "Rain of Fire' 
Trenches. 



Attack in the First Line French 



Sydney, when about fifty miles east of 
the Cocos-Keeling islands in the Indian 
ocean, picked up a wireless message from 
the Cocos station: "Strange warship off 
entrance." 

Two hours later the Emden was 
sighted coming out from the destruction 
of the wireless station. Two hours more 
and the Emden was a flaming wreck on 
the North Keeling reefs. 



to refuge in an American port on April 
8, 1915. The Geier had interned at 
Honolulu early in the war. The Karls- 
ruhe simply disappeared, and its fate re- 
mains one of the mysteries of the seas. 
The Koenigsberg ran for shelter into an 
African river forest, and perished there 
on July 11, 1915. 

Except for one or two raiders which 
slipped through the blockade disguised as 



342 



NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR 



neutral merchantmen, that was the end 
of the German flag on the oceans. 

The naval war's first and continuing 
problem was the German battle fleet — to 
beat it if it came out from its citadel down 
in the corner of the North sea behind 
Heligoland, or to keep it there impotent. 
That was Admiral Sir John Jellicoe's re- 
sponsibility. How it has been met by the 
British navy under his command, and by 
his successor, Admiral Sir David Beatty, 
may be judged by the fact that only once 
has the German high seas fleet ventured 
out of harbor in force, as distinguished 
from light cruiser raids which achieved 
only baby-killing on bathing beaches. 

The problem was enormous. England 
had fought no great naval war for a cen- 
tury. All the conditions had changed. 
The fleet actions of modern armorclads, 
off Santiago and in the Sea of Japan, had 
settled little, owing to the inferiority of 
the Spanish vessels and the incompetence 
of the Russian commanders. Much had 
been promised for the torpedo, but little 
performed. It had sunk no Russian ves- 
sel at Tsushima not already disabled by 
gunfire. 

THE BLOCKADE AND THE PATROL. 

The first summer of the war proved 
that the torpedo, plus the submarine, must 
be more seriously reckoned with. A Brit- 
ish cruiser squadron made a challenging 
reconnaisance into the Heligoland bight. 
Within half an hour three large though 
old and somewhat slow cruisers, the 
Aboukir, Cressy and Hogue, were sent 
down, the Germans claimed by a single 
submarine. The lesson was promptly 
learned that submarine infested waters 
must be patrolled by small and swift ves- 
sels, and that there could be no humane 
slowing up for rescue. 

No comparable success was again 
achieved by the Hun U-boats against war 
vessels. Some claimed were more prob- 
ably by drifting mines, with which Ger- 
many, in brazen disregard of her Hague 
pledges, sowed the seas at every opportu- 



nity. The "victories of our U-boats" 
which German cities celebrated, were al- 
most wholly over defenseless merchant 
ships, such as the Lusitania. They were, 
in fact, sheer murder of noncombatants. 

The blockade had not only to bar tht 
English channel and keep safe the ferry 
to France, but also to cover the sub 
Arctic waters north of the British islands 
and up to Iceland. How effective it was 
may be judged from the fact that aftei 
the first week of the war the only supplies 
that came into Germany from overseas 
were smuggled through Holland or Italy. 
Denmark or Sweden, the latter of which 
will quite possibly have to reckon with the 
allies in the final settlement for light re- 
gard of neutral duties. The German fleet 
could stand off the Russian in the Baltic 
and keep that traffic open, but that was 
all. 

The French fleets in the Mediterra- 
nean, aided by the Italian after the first 
year, were equally efficient in their work. 
Austria had a considerable naval force of 
modern ships, but it never got out of the 
Adriatic except under the surface. Aus- 
trian and German submarines committed 
their share of atrocities in the Mediter- 
ranean, aided by the treachery of the 
Greek government until King Constan- 
tine was expelled from the throne, but 
the Hun battleships never but once dared 
a standup fight with their foes. 

THE JUTLAND BATTLE. 

This one great fleet action of the war 
was preceded by three swift cruiser raids 
toward the English coast. The first, on 
Nov. 3, 1914, did little damage to Yar- 
mouth. The second, on Dec. 16, 1914, 
killed a large number of women and chil- 
dren at Scarborough, Hartlepool and 
Whitby. The third was intercepted on 
Jan. 24, 1915, on the Dogger bank by 
Sir David Beatty's cruiser squadron. In 
that encounter the British cruisers Lion 
and Tiger sank the German battleship 
Bluecher and sent the Derfflinger home 
badly crippled. 






NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR 



343 



On the morning of May 31, 1916, Sir 
John Jellicoe was between Scotland and 
Denmark with the British grand fleet. 
Sir David Beatty's cruiser squadron had 
completed its sweep to the south and was 
swinging northward. At 2:30 p. m. 
Beatty was signaled by his light cruisers 
that the German fleet was out in force. 
It had apparently steamed north along 
the Danish coast and, when sighted, was 
heading home again, with light cruisers 
leading. 

The choice was Beatty's either to en- 
counter and try to detain the foe or to keep 
on his way to join Jellicoe. He followed 
Nelson's rule: "Engage the enemy in 
sight." The ensuing battle divides itself 
into three stages: (a) Beatty's advance 
until he found he had the whole German 
heavy fleet before him; (b) Beatty's swing 
round in an effort to draw the Germans 
toward Jellicoe, during which Admiral 
Evan Thomas came up with four battle- 
ships and took the first fire of Scheer's 
battleships; (c) the arrival of Jellicoe with 
Admiral Hood's battle cruiser squadron in 
the van. 

The concentration of the British squad- 
rons had been effected, and Jellicoe behind 
Hood was bearing down on Scheer in over- 
whelming force. But it was then 7 p. m. 
and night brought the North sea haze be- 
hind which and his own smoke screens 
Scheer turned and escaped with most of his 
vessels. The British fleet remained on the 
scene until the afternoon of June 1, pick- 
ing up survivors. Not one German ship 
was in sight on a sea strewn with wreck- 



THEY NEVER CAME OUT AGAIN 

The Huns being near home, while the 
British were 400 miles from port, got out 
the first story of the action, claiming "an 
enormous victory." Beatty lost, in fact, 
two battle cruisers, the Indefatigable and 
the Queen Man-, early in the action. Later 
the Invincible, Admiral Hood's flagship, 
went down with her commander, whose 
conduct was worthy of a family so re- 
nowned in naval annals. Some four or five 
German vessels of equal or greater value 
were sunk. Just how great the German 




Boche helmets — mementos of Cambrai. Steef 
helmets were all taken from Boche prisoners cap- 
tured during the memorable advance on Cambrai. 



losses were is yet to be ascertained. 

Victories, however, are tested by their 
results. With all the kaiser's claims to his 
people, he did not claim that the British 
blockade was ended. It continued, and 
more stringent than ever. And, strange to 
relate, immediately after the engagement it 
became "inconvenient" to permit even the 
most patriotic Germans to gaze upon their 
"victorious" fleet. For months afterward 
no civilian was permitted in the great 
naval port of Wilhelmshaven. And the 
German high seas fleet was never again 
seen outside the bight of Heligoland. 

The third great naval task of the war 
was dealing with the submarine. Its in- 
vention is contested between the English- 
man Day and the American Buslmell. Day 
was drowned by his in 1774 and Bushnell 
made unsuccessful attacks with his upon 
British vessels during our war of inde- 
pendence. Holland, an American, first 
made it practical. To the Hun was re- 
served the distinction of making it the 
synonym for wanton murder of the inno- 
cent. For a thousand years at least the 
German, in every land, when he dares to 
boast of "civilization," must expect as a 
blow in the face the word "Lusitania." 

CURBING THE SUBMARINE 

When the war began the submarine was 
unproved as a war weapon. After its first 
successes against the British cruisers al- 
ready mentioned it had none of moment 



344 



HISTORY'S GREATEST WAR 




HISTORY'S GREATEST WAR 




345 



346 



NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR 




NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR 



347 



save those which the eommon consent of 
mankind outside of "kultured" Germany 
has adjudged piratical. It warred with 
success only upon the weak and the de- 
fenseless. Its assigned role in the Hun 
scheme of world conquest was to starve 
out England. It failed and worse than 
failed. 

For military reasons all the measures 
taken in dealing with the submarine have 
not yet heen revealed. As usual, necessity 
quickened invention. It was discovered 
that airplanes flying over the sea could 
locate submarines under the surface. The 
seagull in its search for food betrayed 
them. They were entangled in nets swept 
between two vessels over their suspected 
lurking places. It is said that great steel 
nets barred against them the British chan- 
nel entrance to the Atlantic and drawn 
across the straits of Otranto confined 
them in the Adriatic. 

Apparently helpless freighters with con- 
cealed guns and bombs enticed them to 
destruction. As they could move only 
slowly under water, the American inven- 
tion of the depth bomb aided their de- 
struction. British ship yards built as 
never before to replace the losses they 
caused. "When America entered the war 
she joined in the building race on a scale 
unknown since the world began. It was 
announced the other day that the ship 
yards of the free nations had replaced all 
the losses by submarines since the war 
began and were 500,000 tons ahead. 

THE AMERICAN NAVY IX THE WAR 

Slow in arousing to the truth that the 
Hun must be finally smashed on land in 
Europe, the United States had no great 
army prepared when on Good Friday, 
1917, its government resolved that Hun 
outrages and insults could no longer be 
endured. But its navy was ready. In size 
it stood only fourth or fifth, but in efficiency 
it was second to none. No American will 
soon forget the thrill of pride he felt when 
the word came back from England that the 
first destroyer fleet had arrived, and what 
was the answer given to the inquiry, 
"When can you put to sea?" 




Admiral Sims' answer was "Now." war 



Ex-Emperor Charles of Austria-Hungry and his 
Ex-Empress Zita. 



After threshing through 3,000 miles of sea 
his destroyers were ready to go out and 
fight. They have had little fighting to do, 
and the heavy ships have had none. But 
with the British destroyers they have 
guarded safely to France transports that 
carried more than 2,000,000 men and all 
their supplies, and with practically no loss 
by submarines on the eastward voyage. 
But one troopship, the Tuscania, was sunk 
by a submarine on the way to Europe. 

Had the Hun held out longer it is pos- 
sible that American battleships might have 
had an opportunity to prove their power 
against the German fleet in the North sea. 
But the German navy, disgraced by sub- 
marine murders of noncombatants^ was 
destined to end in the crowning dis- 
grace to all naval discipline, capture by 
mutineers from its own lawful authority. 
Its masters violated every law of civilized 
re, and it is not unnatural that its 



348 



NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR 







NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR 



3J.9 



men should finally be guilty of treason to 
their own criminal government. There is 
no honor among thieves when gripped by 
the law, and the pirate's hand turns 
against his fellow when Execution Dock 
looms in sight. 

THE OTHER ALLIED FLEETS 

France and Italy have done their part on 
the sea, as clearly noted, but it has been 
a part less visible from this side the Atlan- 
tic, and of which the full story is not yet 
known. Only fragments of the record have 
reached us here. We know they have done 
their share in curbing the submarine in the 
Mediterranean and have confined the Aus- 
trian fleet to the Adriatic. We know of 
such daring deeds as the penetration of the 
very harbor of Pola and the sinking of 
Austrian battleships there. But for the 
fuller record we must wait awhile. 

The Russian fleet, before Russia col- 
lapsed under Hunnish corruption and bol- 
shevik craziness, did its part with some 
distinction. Never strong enough in the 
Baltic to contend with the Germans there, 
it mastered the Black sea and aided in the 
Russian army's advance to Trebizond. 

The Japanese fleet has done all that was 
asked of it and done it well. It aided in 
the extinction of German ride on the Chi- 
nese coast, and sent a squadron of de- 
stroyers to the Mediterranean to battle the 
submarine. It has been a reserve force 
which would have come into play had any 
reverse at sea befallen the fleets of the 
European allies. 

Brazil has also contributed vessels to the 
guarding of the Atlantic against the sub- 
marine, and Greek vessels, since Const an 
tine was expelled, have aided in the patrol 
of the eastern Mediterranean. 

From a purely materialistic viewpoint 
the Hun did not unwisely in pinning his 
faith to the submarine. It has taken the 
united sea power of the free nations to put 
down its menace. Where the Hun miscal- 
culated was, first, in believing that victory 
could be won by land power without pre- 
dominating sea power; second, in so using 
his sea power as to make it clear that there 
could be no safety for the rest of the world 
until the Hun was not only swept from the 
seas, but also ground to powder on land. 

The end of the war came with startling 



swiftness. Almost as suddenly as it broke 
upon the world, it collapsed in an abject 
defeat, not only of the German army, but 
much more significant, in the defeat and 
eradication of the German idea. 

On July 15 of last year the German 
armies were threatening Paris. The cap- 
ital of France was under bombardment by 
the seventy-five-mile gun. The troops of 
the United States were just beginning to 
arrive in sufficient numbers to constitute 
a real force. A great German drive started 
on the Maine. There it stopped, and in 
three days it was turned back into one of 
the great defeats of history, and after 
that date the allies enjoyed an unbroken 
procession of victories, while the central 
powers have fallen apart until there is left 
only Germany, with its cowering war lord 
running to take refuge from his people with 
his armies. 

It is a different picture the blustering 
beast of Potsdam now presents from the 
pompous general seeking to conquer the 
continent of Europe and extend his do- 
minions into Asia. Hand in hand with a 
"made in Germany" Gott, he promised his 
people the countries of Europe as their 
reward for making war. Now he is hiding 
while his people, anarchy rent, marching 
under the red flag, have brought about his 
abdication and the destruction of the 
house of Hohenzollern. 

ELABORATE STRUCTURE IN RUINS 

The elaborate structure he had built 
based on blood bonds and lust for power 
has disappeared. First it was Bulgaria, 
the haggling center of the Balkans, seeking 
its price in territory and power, which 
veered first to the allies and then finally 
fell into the German net. Bulgaria found 
itself beaten and rushed to cover. Then 
came the Turk and the great fortresses 
shutting off the Dardanelles and the ports 

Italy, after a debacle at Caporetta, 
caused more by treason and German propa- 
ganda within than the strength of the Aus- 
trian army without, reorganized its shat- 
tered forces and turned upon Austria, over- 
whelmingly defeating Germany's chief aic 
and forcing upon her tlie most abject sur- 
render ever recorded. Then Germany fell. 

W. R."p. 



350 



NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR 




NAVAL BATTLES OF THE WAR 



351 




352 



HISTORY'S GREATEST WAR 







BOOK II 



Canada In The Great War 

By 

W. S. WALLACE, M. A. (Oxon.) 

(Lately Major, Canadian Infantry) 
Lecturer in History, University of Toronto 




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Canada In The Great War 

CHAPTER I 
THE FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 

CANADA IN THE LAP OF PEACE THE OUTBREAK OE WAR THE 

CALL TO ARMS MOBILIZATION VALCARTIER CAMP THE 

FIRST CONTINGENT NAILS — THE WELCOME IN ENGLAND — LIFE 

ON SALISBURY PLAIN THE FIRST DIVISION PROCEEDS TO 

FRANCE THEIR BAPTISM OF FIRE THE CANADIANS SAVE THE 

DAY AT YPRES REORGANIZATION FESTUBERT GIVENCHY. 



When the year 1914 dawned in Can- 
ada, there were few Canadians who 
dreamed that the year was destined to 
usher in the greatest war of modern, or 
indeed of ancient, times — a war in which 
tens of thousands of the flower of Can- 
ada's manhood were to lay down their 
lives. There had been at intervals before 
1914 sundry warnings about "the German 
menace": but many people had regarded 
tbese warnings as the cries of alarmists or 
of imperialistic 'politicians. Most people 
imagined too that if war did break out in 
Europe, it would be short and sharp, and 
would possibly be over before any Can- 
adian troops could reach the theatre of 
operations. 

The outbreak of war between Great 
Britain and Germany on August 4, 1914, 
therefore, found Canada comparatively 
unprepared. Canada had a few thousand 
permanent troops, and a militia system 
so inadequate that it bad roused the scorn' 
of German military writers, who had pro- 
nounced it a negligible factor so far as a 
European war was concerned; but the 
great mass of the Canadian people had 
hardly come to think in terms of war at 
all. Nevertheless, when war was declared, 
the Canadian government promptly 
cabled to England offering the services of 
Canadian troops. The offer was accepted 
with gratitude; and preparations were im- 
mediately begun for the mobilization of a 
division of approximately 20,000 men. 



The story of this division, from its al- 
most impromptu organization at Valcar- 
tier Camp, near Quebec, to its heroic 
stand at the Second Battle of Ypres, 
when it was all but wiped out of existence, 
and when, as Sir John French said, it 
"saved the day" for the allies, is one of 
the most dramatic and amazing episodes 
of the great War. A hastily formed and 
partially trained body of citizen soldiers, 
the First Canadian Contingent won for 
themselves, almost at the moment of their 
arrival in France, a reputation second to 
none on the Western front. 

Valcartier had already been selected as 
a military training ground before the war 
broke out; but little had been done to put 
it in shape to serve as a mobilization cen- 
tre for an expeditionary force of over 
20.000 men. On the day after war was 
declared, however, the engineers were 
already at work at the camp; and in less 
than three weeks there had sprung up like 
magic what is perhaps one of the finest 
military encampments in the world. A 
mile of ride ranges was constructed; a 
waterworks system, a telephone system, 
and an electric light system were in- 
stalled; storehouses, offices, a moving pic- 
ture palace, rose overnight; and ordnance 
stores began to pour in by the C. X. R. 
stub-line that runs past the valley. 

By the middle of August the troops 
bad begun to arrive. By the end of 
August over 30,000 volunteers, from all 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



parts of the Dominion, were in camp. 
Each militia unit had been assigned a def- 
inite quota; but in nearly every case the 
local contingents arrived far over strength. 
Hundreds of men jumped on the troop 
trains and came on their own responsi- 
bility. Several regiments, such as the 
Queen's Own of Toronto and the Royal 
Highlanders of Montreal, sent each a 
whole battalion. The Fort Garry Horse 



a strain which at times neared the break- 
ing-point. 

At first all was confusion. Detach- 
ments were juggled about from battalion 
to battalion, and juggled back again. 
Commanding officers were changed almost 
daily. Brigades were formed, and broken 
up again. But gradually order emerged 
out of chaos. The final reorganization 
was completed; the troops were medically 




Canadian and German wounded receiving first aid 
the hands of the Germans responsible for the scene 
dian official photograph.) 

of Winnipeg chartered two trains them- 
selves, and came down to Valcartier with- 
out authority; and no one had the heart 
to send them back. The arrivals were a 
motley crew. Some wore mufti, softie 
wore khaki, and some wore the black or 
scarlet serges of their militia units. The 
task of equipping them, and even of ac- 
commodating them, threw a tremendous 
strain on the administrative departments. 



in a village which only a few hours before was in 
of ruin and devastation which it presents. (Cana- 



examined, inoculated, and equipped with 
service uniforms; training was begun, and 
the rifle ranges re-echoed with the crack- 
ing fusilade of musketry practice. By the 
middle of September, the camp had 
shaken down into a well-ordered routine. 
It had been originally intended to send 
overseas only one division with the neces- 
sary reinforcements; but at the last min- 
ute the government announced that the 



THE FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 



whole force of 33,000 men would be sent 
at once. Toward the end of September, 
the necessary arrangements having been 
made with tbe Admiralty, the First Con- 
tingent embarked at Quebec in over thirty 
transports. The flotilla was concentrated 
at Gaspe Bay. where it was met by a con- 
voy of British warships; and on October 
3, the entire Armada. — containing the 
largest military force which had ever 
crossed the Atlantic at one time, — set 
sail for the Great- War. In three long 
parallel lines of about a dozen ships each. 



flung dominions of the British Empire. 
The area allotted by the War Office to 
the Canadians was Salisbury Plain. 
This was a group of camps, in the south 
of England, which offered in summer 
weather an almost perfect training 
ground. For a few days the Canadians 
were charmed with their new surround- 
ings. Then the weather broke. There 
followed one of the worst winters on rec- 
ord even in England, that country of 
dreary winters. The rain poured down 
day after day: the roads became impass- 




The massed Canadian pipe bands, playing at field sports of the Expeditionary Force — a sight to de- 
light the eye and stir the blood of every son or descendant of Auld Scotia, whose martial music has 
led the way to victory for the British flag in many a clime. (Canadian official photograph.) 



with flags flying and signals twinkling, it 
niade an imposing sight for the handful 
of people who saw it off. 

Two weeks of glorious October weather 
brought the contingent to England. 
Here it was disembarked at Plymouth, 
the ancient home of so many of those 
Devon sea-dogs who had first turned the 
thoughts of Englishmen to the New 
"World. The landing of the Canadians 
was unheralded; but their welcome by the 
people of Plymouth was a royal one. As 
the troops marched through the town, the 
townspeople mingled in and through the 
ranks: and the arm of many a Canadian 
soldier found its way around the waist of 
a Devon lass. The day was symbolic; it 
was the first tangible evidence in the 
Great War of the solidarity of the far- 



able: the Plain itself soon became a 
morass. Everything grew saturated with 
wet — tents, clothes, even tobacco and 
matches. Training was impossible; and 
sickness grew among the troops until the 
hospitals were filled to overflowing. 

Human nature can stand so much, and 
no more. In Canada the First Contin- 
gent had been extraordinarily well-be- 
haved: and later in France it showed that 
it could face without flinching the terrors 
of the German poison gas. But the mud 
of Salisbury Plain it could not abide. 
Hundreds of men broke camp, and fled in 
search of a few days' dry comfort. Somt 
men went away, not to return until they 
heard that the First Division was leaving 
for France. Absence without leave be- 
came an epidemic, a plague. Punishment 



6 



CANADA IX THE GREAT WAR 



was unavailing to stop it. Men went 
away, lived like lords at London hotels, 
came back, and accepted their punishment 
quietly as the price they were willing to 
pay for a few days' respite from mud and 
misery. 

The first Canadians to go to France, 
apart from a hospital unit, were the Prin- 
cess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. 
This regiment, which was composed main- . 
ly of British reservists and old soldiers, 
had been raised separately from the Cana- 
dian Contingent, through the generosity 
of a Montreal millionaire, who was des- 
tined to play a heroic part as one of its 
officers. Its colours had been worked by 
Princess Patricia herself. Early in De- 
cember, 1914, the Princess Pats, as a 
crack regiment, were ordered to proceed 
to France, and there they joined the 27th 
British Division. Xot until a year later 
did they rejoin the Canadians. 

The First Canadian Division did not 
leave for France until the beginning of 
the following February. Under Lieut. - 
Gen. Alderson, an Imperial officer who 
had been appointed to command the 



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Major-General E. A. H. Alderson, the British Com- 
mander of the First Contingent, Canadian Expe- 
ditionary Force. 



Major-General (now Lieut.-Gen.) Sir R. E. W. 
Turner, V. C, C. 1!., who commanded the 2nd Di- 
vision. 



Canadians, it sailed from Avonmouth, 
and after a most stormy passage through 
the Bay of Biscay, landed at St. Xazaire 
in the south of France. Its first experi- 
ences in France were not remarkable. It 
went through the usual stage of appren- 
ticeship in what was relatively a quiet part 
of the line. The Canadian artillery took 
part in March in the ill-starred battle of 
Xeuve Chapelle, and the infantry were on 
the outskirts of the fighting. If the day 
had gone better, the whole division would 
doubtless have been engaged, but fate did 
not so order it. For three months the 
Canadians had a fairly undisturbed op- 
portunity to initiate themselves into the 
mysteries of modern warfare. 

In the middle of April, the Canadian 
Division took over from the French a 



THE FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 



sector to the north of Ypres. in Belgian 
Flanders. By this time trench warfare 
had reduced the situation on the Western 
front to comparative deadlock. Neither 
side was ahle to advance, and the war 
threatened to become one of exhaustion. 
This did not suit the book of the Germans, 
who had pinned their hopes to a quick 
decision. In an endeavour to break the 



the Canadians. The Turcos and Zouaves, 
troops of reckless courage, but at the same 
time superstitious natives of North Africa, 
were swept back by the poisonous fumes 
in agony of mind and body, and the Ger- 
man masses advanced to the attack. 

The situation of the Canadians was one 
of the most critical which could arise in 
warfare. Their left flank was completely 




General Sir Arthur Currie. commander of the Canadian Corps, unveiling memorial erected by the 
Canadian Artillery in honor of the artillerymen who fell at Yimy Ridge. The cross weighs three and 
one-half tons and Boche shells surround the base. 



deadlock, they brought into use a device 
which they had already planned, but 
which even they had hitherto hesitated to 
employ, the infernal invention of poison 
gas. In the late afternoon of April 22, 
long yellow clouds of asphyxiating gas 
were released against the French colonial 
troops who were on the immediate left of 



in the air, and they were outnumbered at 
least five to one. If they retired, it was 
probable that the whole of the British 
forces in the Ypres salient would be sur- 
rounded and captured, and it was possible 
that the Germans might reach the Chan- 
nel ports. Under the circumstances, the 
only thing to do was to stand fast. Gen- 



s 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



1 



eral Alderson withdrew his left flank, so 
as to meet an attack from the northwest, 
and he shortened the rest of his line; but 
after the first shock of the German attack 
was over, the Canadians' line did not 
budge. The strength of their defense, and 
the success of two brilliant and heroic 
counter-attacks, undertaken in defiance of 
all military precept, gave the Germans the 
impression that they were in greater force 
than they were. The German attack was, 
consequently, never fully pressed home. 
Gradually the British reserves began to 
arrive, cheering their Canadian comrades 
as they came, and by April 25, after three 
days of ceaseless fighting, the sorely- 
tried Canadians were relieved. 

When the Canadian Division came out 
of the trenches that April day it had al- 



most ceased to exist. Many battalions 
ma relied out only one-fifth or one-sixth 
of their original strength. One or two 
battalions could barely muster 100 men. 
But like the immortal Seventh Division 
in the first battle of Ypres, the Canadians 
had been victorious in death. If we are 
to believe the British commander-in-chief, 
they had saved the day at one of the criti- 
cal points of the war. And what makes 
their achievement the more remarkable 
is the fact that, compared with the regu- 
lar troops of the European armies, they 
were, for the most part, untrained and 
amateur soldiers. Neither at Valeartier 
nor on Salisbury Plain had conditions 
been such as to make thorough training 
possible. Nothing but their high and 
dauntless spirit carried them through the 







A divisional headquarters on the British front in France during the progress of a hattle, showi 
troops in reserve, German prisoners, and stretcher-bearers at work. (Australian official photograph, 
British and Colonial Press.) 



by 






THE FIRST CANADIAN CONTINGENT 




German prisoners captured by Canadians during a French raid, with one of their captors. The Cana- 
dians became noted for the success of their raids by day and night and seldom failed to bring back 
prisoners. i Canadian official photograph.) 



furnace of the second battle of Ypres. 

Until the middle of May, the remnants 
of the division remained in rest billets. 
Meanwhile, however, reinforcements were 
coming forward from the reserves left be- 
hind in England; and in a brief space of 
time the division was back at full strength. 
Reorganized and revived, it took part in 
two of the battles of the early summer of 
191.5, Festubert and Givenehy. These 
engagements were on a small scale, and 
produced results measured only in yards; 



but they were bitterly fought, and the 
casualties sustained in them still further 
depleted the nucleus of "original Firsts" 
remaining in France. By the end of the 
summer, the number of men in France 
who wore the colored shoulder straps of 
the First Contingent had become pitifully 
few. The division had become largely a 
new force, ready to be merged in the 
larger formation of the Canadian Corps 
on the arrival in France of the Second 
Division. 



10 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 




The Growth of The Canadian Corps 



CHAPTER II 



THE SECOND DIVISION ARRIVES IN FRANCE — THE FORMATION OF 

THE CANADIAN CORPS PATROLS THE CANADIANS PIONEERS 

IN TRENCH-RAIDING — THE CREATION OF THE THIRD DIVISION 
ST. ELOI SANCTUARY WOOD — THE CANADIANS COME BACK 

THE ARRIVAL OF THE FOURTH DIVISION ON THE SOMME 

COURCELETTE REGINA TRENCH THE CANADIAN CORPS AS 

AN INSTRUMENT OF WARFARE. 



Hardly had the First Canadian Con- 
tingent left the shores of Canada when 
the Canadian government proceeded to 
authorize the recruiting of a second con- 
tingent. During the winter of 1914-1915 
the units composing this new force were 
mobilized and trained at various centres 
throughout the Dominion; and in the 
spring of 1915 they sailed, not in one Ar- 
mada like the First Contingent, but in 
separate transports, for England. The 
summer of 1915 was spent in training at 
Shorncliffe, on the Kentish coast, which 
now became a great Canadian military 
centre in England; and in September, 
1915, the Second Division left Shorncliffe 
for the front, under the command of 
Major-Gen. R. E. W. Turner, a Cana- 
dian soldier, who had won the Victoria 
Cross in the South African War. 

The landing of the Second Division in 
France had one dramatic feature. There 
had been in the First Division French 
Canadians scattered through the various 
units; but in the Second Division there 
was a whole battalion, the 22nd, composed 
entirely of French Canadians. The arri- 
val of this battalion on French soil, from 
which its ancestors had emigrated over 
three centuries before, and which it had 
now come to defend, was an incident full 
of dramatic quality. 

The Second Division joined the First 
in the southern portion of the Ypres sali- 
ent, which was for so long a Canadian 



sector. As soon as the junction was com- 
pleted, the Canadian Corps came into ex- 
istence. An army corps is an indefinite 
number of divisions, placed under a corps 
commander. The two Canadian divisions 
were noAV placed under the command of 
General Alderson, who relinquished the 
command of the First Division to Major- 
General Currie; and the Corps thus em- 
barked on the career which, after its 
growth from two to four divisions, was to 
make it one of the most efficient and 
famous fighting forces on the Western 
front. 

From the first the men of the Canadian 
Corps proved themselves adepts in the 
new features of the stationary trench war- 
fare which had taken the place of the old 
war of movement. One of the develop- 
ments of 1915 was the science of bombing. 
Bombing was an ancient mode of war- 
fare, and it had played a part in the 
Russo-Japanese War; but the British had 
not foreseen the part that it would come 
to play in the Great War, and they were 
ill-equipped with bombs. Under these 
circumstances, the men in the field in- 
vented such home-made grenades as the 
jam-tin bomb and the hair-brush. In the 
use of these crude missiles the Canadians 
showed themselves past-masters. Their 
proficiency at games like baseball and la- 
crosse gave them a steadiness of hand and 
eye which stood them in good stead in 
bombing, and made them unpleasant op- 



12 



CAXADA IX THE GREAT WAR 



ponents. Another development of trench 
warfare was patrol-fighting in No Man's 
Land. Here too the Canadians proved 
themselves no mean adversaries. The 
woodcraft which most Canadians had in 
their blood, inherited from fathers and 
grandfathers who had been mighty hunt- 
ers before the Lord, gave them an advan- 
tage from the first in the midnight en- 
counters between the trendies. Save for 
a period when an adventurous Saxon 



that strong parties of determined troops, 
working on carefully rehearsed lines, 
could enter the enemy trenches, inflict 
damage and casualties out of all propor- 
tion to their own losses, make prisoners, 
and get away. The event fully justified 
this belief. A raid was planned against 
the German positions at La Petite Douve; 
and on a dark night a raiding party from 
the 7th Battalion crossed the Douve 
River, entered the German trenches, 




A Canadian Genera] of Division explaining the use of a machine sun against enemy aircraft to Hon. 
J. D. Hazen, the Canadian Minister of Marine and Fisheries, during his visit to the" battlefront. (Ca- 
nadian official photograph.) 



corps strove to dispute with them the 
supremacy of Xo Man's Land, the Cana- 
dian patrols ranged almost at will along 
the German wire. 

It is difficult to say just when trench- 
raiding by night began on the Western 
front. Rut in the development of the art 
of raiding enemy trenches the Canadians 
have a good claim to be regarded as pio- 
neers. Early in November, 1915, the 
Canadian staff came to the conclusion 



killed at least fifty "of the enemy, wrought 
untold damage on dug-outs and machine- 
gun emplacements, and brought back 
twelve prisoners, with the total loss to 
themselves of one killed and one wounded. 
Xot all raids, of course, were so successful 
as this. During the winter of 1915-1916 
several Canadian raids were repulsed with 
heavy losses. But gradually experience 
brought greater surety of success. On 
January 30. 1916, a most successful raid 



THE GROWTH OF THE CANADIAN CORPS 



13 



was carried out by parties from the 28th 
and 29th Battalions, who blackened their 
faces in order to avoid detection from the 
German flares. It was a Canadian offi- 
cer, too, who hit upon the happy idea of 
attiring a raiding party, when the ground 
was covered with snow, in white cotton 
nightgowns purchased in a shop in a little 
French town behind the lines. And in 
the .summer of 1916 the 19th Battalion 
went a step further, when they carried out 
in broad daylight a dash into the enemy 
lines which may fairly be described as the 
first daylight raid on the Western front. 

Just after New Year's Day, 1916, the 
Canadian Corps was strengthened by the 
addition of the Third Division, the forma- 
tion of which had been authorized the pre- 
ceding December. In this division were 
included the Princess Pats, who had 
joined the Canadians shortly before, after 
a year of the severest fighting with the 
British, and the Canadian Mounted Ri- 
fles, who were now transformed into 
infantry. The command of the division 
was placed in the hands of Major-Gen. 
Mercer, an officer greatly loved by his 
men who was destined to lay down his life 
on the battlefield the following summer. 

The fighting of the year 1916 was 
among the bitterest and least spectacular 
of the whole war. The first heavy fight- 
ing in which the Canadians were engaged 
was that about the craters at St. Eloi, at 
the southern end of the Vpres salient, in 
the month of April. This sector had been 
much fought over. Mine and counter- 
mine had been sprung; the ground had 
been churned up by shell-fire; and the 
rains had made it a veritable quagmire. 
On April 2 the Third British Division 
had established themselves on a line well 
within the former German defences. The 
next day they were relieved by the Sec- 
ond Canadian Division. The position 
which the Canadians took up was not con- 
solidated: and before any consolidation 
could be carried out, the German counter- 
attack developed in strength. The Cana- 
dian advance posts were overwhelmed, 
and nearly all the gains of the British 




H. M. King George V. 

were surrendered. The Canadians were 
not accustomed to accept defeat; and for 
two weeks they strove repeatedly to re- 
cover the lost ground. In the end they 
had to give up the attempt as impossible, 
and to dig in on the line from which the 
British had set out. 

The battle of St. Eloi was the only 
occasion in the Great War when the 
Canadian Corps had to admit defeat. 
Whether the failure was due to bad staff 
work, or to the inability of regimental of- 
ficers to read their maps properly, or to 
the impossible conditions under which the 
fighting was carried on, is difficult to de- 
termine. Certainly it was not due to any 
deficiency on the part of the Canadian 
soldier. The rank and file of the Cana- 
dian arhiy fought at St. Eloi with a cour- 
age, a determination, a doggedness which 
could not have been surpassed: they did 
all that it was possible for human beings 
to do, amid mud and rain and darkness, 
and the withering play of machine-guns, 
and the obliterating crash of the most in- 



14 



CANADA IX THE GREAT WAR 



tense shell-fire they had yet encountered. 
Two months later, at Sanctuary Wood, 
directly east of Ypres, the Third Cana- 
dian Division had an experience which 
threatened at first to be a repetition of 
the reverse at St. Eloi. On the morning 
of June 2, 1916, there broke on the 
trenches occupied by the Mounted Rifles 
and the Princess Pats a tornado of shell- 
fire such as had not before that time been 
seen on the Western front. To such a 
point had the Germans brought the 
science of massed artillery preparation 
that no troops in the world could with- 
stand it. It destroyed not only a line of 
trenches but a whole area, and almost 
every living thing within the area. When, 
therefore, the German attacking wave 
came over in the early afternoon of June 
2, they met with little opposition. A few 



knots of dazed survivors surrendered, or 
died fighting; and the Germans swept on 
to their final objective. 

As so often happened, however, the 
Germans did not press their advantage 
to the full; and the arrival of reserves 
made it possible for the Canadians to hold 
up a further advance. Rut a counter- 
attack undertaken the following day 
failed; and on June 6 the Canadians lost 
the village of Hooge to the north. It be- 
gan to look as though the Canadians had 
once more been worsted. They had lost 
Major-Gen. Mercer, who had been killed, 
and Rrig.-Gen. Williams, who had been 
severely wounded and taken prisoner; and 
whole battalions had been virtually wiped 
out of existence. No doubt the Germans 
thought that they could rest on their 
laurels. 




Canadian artillery strafing the Hun near Angres. The work of the big guns in Canadian hands was 
remarkably effective, and they were kept busy when the infantry lay inactive in the trenches. (Canadian 
official photograph.) 



THE GROWTH OF THE CANADIAN CORPS 



15 




General Sir Arthur Currie. K. C. I!.. D. S. O.. 
Commander of the Canadian Army at the front when 
the war ended. 



But Sir Julian Byng, who had suc- 
ceeded General Alderson as the Corps 
Commander, had not shot his last bolt. He 
resolved to teach the Germans the lesson 
that two could play at the same game of 
intensive artillery preparation; and he 
assembled on the Canadian front a con- 
course of guns of overwhelming propor- 
tions. On June 12 these guns blew the 
Germans out of their trenches, just as the 
Canadians had been blown out of them £ 
few days before; and a dashing attack 
by the First Division, under Major-Gen. 
Currie, completely re-established the lost 
positions. The "Byng Boys", as the 
Canadians now came to be known, had 
demonstrated the fact that, under any but 



hopeless conditions, they could turn de- 
feat into victory. 

In August, 1910, the Canadian Corps 
was brought up to what was henceforth 
to be its full strength by the arrival in 
France of the Fourth Division. At this 
date the first battle of the Somnie was in 
full blast. In the earlier stages of this 
terrible and prolonged struggle the Cana- 
dians had no part. It was not, indeed, 
until the beginning of September that the 
Canadian Corps was moved down to the 
battle area; and not until the middle of 
September was the Corps engaged in any 
serious action. 

From the middle of September, how- 
ever, to the middle of November the 
Corps bore its full share of the Somme 
fighting. The first important action in 
which the Canadians were engaged was 
the capture of the sugar refiner}' at Cour- 
celette on September 1.5, an incident ren- 
dered more notable by the fact that on 
this occasion the Tanks for the first time 
cooperated with the Canadian infantry. 
The following day the Canadians swept 
on and captured the village of Courcelette 
itself, in one of the neatest and most 
clean-cut operations of the Somme fight- 
ing. Of this success a memorable feature 
was the dashing attack of the 22nd 
French-Canadian Battalion, who proved 
themselves on this occasion true cousins 
of the wonderful infantry of France. 
For many days the Germans strove stub- 
bornly to retake Courcelette; but their 
efforts resulted only in further loss of 
ground and further punishment. 

At a later stage of the fighting the 
Canadians suffered heavy losses in the 
taking of Regina Trench. This was a line 
of German defences beyond Courcelette 
which it took the Corps a full month to 
capture. As the autumn had advanced. 



li; 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 




A tramway track, used to supply the Canadian Corps, running through the ruins of a French village 
destroyed by German shell-lire. Narrow-gauge roads like this, operated by motors,' proved invaluable 
in bringing up supplies and moving the wounded to the rear. (Canadian official photograph.) 



the weather had broken, and the heavy 
glutinous Somme mud had made the 
problem of the attacking troops heart- 
breakingly difficult. Nevertheless, in the 
end success crowned their efforts; and 
with the capture of Desire Trench, which 
was the German support line, the Cana- 
dians were able, in the latter part of No- 
vember, to leave the Somme with a record 
of unbroken victory. 

The end of 1916 found the Canadian 



Corps finally fashioned into the instru- 
ment of warfare which during 1917 and 
1918 was to be the spear-head of many 
an attack. It had now attained the 
strength of four divisions; and in the 
fighting about Courcelette and Regina 
and Desire Trenches these four divisions 
had been welded into a coherent and effi- 
cient unit. The growth and development 
of the Canadian Corps was complete. 



The Canadian Corps, 1917 



CHAPTER III 



BEFORE VIMY RIDGE — WINTER IN THE TRENCHES — DAYLIGHT 

RAIDS THE ASSAULT ON VLMY ARLEUX AND FRESNOY THE 

ATTACK ON LENS HILL 70 — THE TAKING OF PASSCHENDAELE 

RIDGE — BELLEVUE SPUR — BACK BEFORE LENS. 



When the Canadians left the Somrae in 
the autumn of 191G, they did not return 
to their old hunting-grounds in the Ypres 
salient, but were assigned a new front on 
the sector facing the long upland known 
as Vimy Ridge. This was ground which 
had been much fought over by the French, 
who had the previous year actually cap- 
tured a large part of the ridge, but had 
subsequently been driven from it. The 
ground was a maze of trenches, known 
most appropriately as the Labyrinth, and 
it was completely overlooked by the Ger- 
man observation posts on the ridge. 

The sector had, since the murderous 
righting between the French and the Ger- 
mans the previous year, been fairly quiet. 
The British troops from whom the Cana- 
dians took over had been content merely 
to hold their ground; and the Germans, 
from their advantageous position on the 
ridge, had been content to take daily toll 
of their opponents in the low-lying 
trenches before them. The arrival of the 
Canadians, however, marked the begin- 
ning of a more lively period. Canadian 
Snipers, silent men from the bush or the 
prairies with many a notch on the butts 
of their rifles, taught the Hun the value 
of cover; Canadian scouts nightly pa- 
trolled the shell-holes and craters of No 
Man's Land, practically driving the Huns 
from it; and Canadian raiding parties 
made frequent unwelcome visits to the 
German trenches. It was not long before 
the Germans adopted the policy of hold- 
ing their front line very lightly, especially 
at night. 



An interesting feature of this winter 
warfare was the development by the Can- 
adians of daylight trench-raiding. Day- 
light raids had been practised by the 
Canadians as early as the summer of 
1916; but these had been cut-and-run af- 
fairs. Just before Christmas, 1916, the 
1st C. M. R.'s carried out the first day- 
light raid on a large scale. A body of 
picked men, numbering about 400, re- 
hearsed the raid for a week beforehand on 
imaginary trenches taped out behind the 
lines; and then, after a whirlwind bom- 
bardment of the German trenches, walked 
over, in broad daylight, spent two hours 
in the German front and support lines, 
captured over 100 prisoners, and returned 
with comparatively slight casualties. 

Not all such raids proved uniformly 
successful. One raid in particular, under- 
taken by the 75th Battalion against the 
German lines in front of Vimy Ridge, 
was very costly. Instead of artillery 
preparation, a gas attack was used to pave 
the way for the operation; but atmos- 
pheric conditions nullified the effect of 
the gas, and when the raiders went over 
the top, they were greeted by a hot fire 
from the opposing trenches. The com- 
manding officer, the second in command, 
and many men were killed. Yet even on 
this occasion the raid was pushed home, 
and the chief objectives were attained. 

With the advent of spring came the 
long-awaited British offensive. The Brit- 
ish First and Third Armies attacked on 
a wide front before Arras; and the Cana- 
dian Corps was assigned the task of tak- 



18 



CANADA IX THE GREAT WAR 




Brig.-Gen. A. C. MacDonnell (now Major-General), 
who commanded the 7th Brigade. 



ing Vimy Ridge. The German defences 
were subjected to a three days' bombard- 
ment by a colossal assemblage of artillery, 
and this was followed by an intense bar- 
rage of shrapnel preceding the assault. 
Then, in the early morning of April 9, 
the attack was launched. Except at Hill 



14.5, at the northern end of the ridge, 
where a temporary check was sustained, 
the Canadians advanced through the three 
German lines of defence on a time-table. 
By the end of the first day they were well 
up to the crest of the ridge, and had taken 
thousands of prisoners at slight cost to 
themselves. The following day the ad- 
vance was continued; and the Canadians 
swept over the crest of the ridge. By 
April 13 the reverse slope of the ridge 
had been cleared of the Germans, and a 
number of villages well within the Ger- 
man lines, including Givenchy-en-Go- 
helle, Vimy, Petit Vimy, Willerval, and 
Bailleul, were firmly in Canadian hands. 
The whole operation was perhaps the 
most successful and spectacular which had 
been carried out on the British front. 
The Germans had believed their defences 
on Vimy Ridge impregnable; and the 
planner in which the Canadians had taken 
them in their stride firmly established the 
Canadian Corps in their reputation as 
storm-troops. 

On April 28 the Canadians entered the 
second phase of the battle of Arras with 
the capture of Arleux-en-Gohelle and the 
German trench system known as the Ar- 
leux Loop. This was followed, in the 
beginning of May, by the capture by the 
Canadians of Fresnoy. In both of these 
operations bitter opposition was encoun- 
tered; and Fresnoy, which was the apex 
of the British advance, had to be evacu- 
ated on May 8 by the British troops who 
relieved the Canadians. 

After the battle of Arras the Canadian 
Corps was moved north to the sector op- 
posite Lens. This town, with its sur- 
rounding mining suburbs and slag-heaps, 
was a hard nut to crack by frontal attack; 
and when the Canadians laid siege to it, 
they applied the pincers to it by means of 
flanking assaults. First they drove in to. 
the south of it by the capture of La Cou- 
lotte village, with its electric power sta- 
tion, on June 26, and the subsequent 
capture of Avion and Eleu dit Leau- 
vette. Next, thev attacked on August 
15 Hill 70, to the north of Lens. Hill 






THE CANADIAN CORPS, 1917 



19 



70 had been readied, but not held, by the 
British in the battle of Loos in Septem- 
ber, 191.5. Since then it had been further 
strengthened, and was a formidable ob- 
stacle. It ^as captured, however, after 
a bitter struggle : and with it fell three of 
the north-western suburbs of Lens. 
Without doubt Lens itself, half encircled 
as it was. would in due course have fallen 
at the blast of the Canadian trumpets, 
had not circumstances at another part of 
the battle-line called for the presence of 



recovered. But with the coming of the 
autumn rains the attack stuck fast. It 
was highly desirable that the Germans 
should be ejected from the higher ground 
about Passchendaele before the arrival of 
the winter; and for this purpose it was 
decided to bring in fresher troops. The 
troops selected were the Canadians; and 
in October," therefore, the Corps was 
moved north from Lens to its old fight- 
ing-ground in the Ypres salient. 

After some preliminary work in im- 




A Canadian 60-pounder in action on a French road; also showing boxes of shells lieing unloaded 
from ammunition lorries while the gun hurls its defiant messages into the German lines. (Canadian offi- 
cial photograph.) 



the Canadian Corps elsewhere. 

In the autumn of 1917 the British had 
begun a series of operations in the Ypres 
salient designed to widen the salient and 
to wrest from the Germans the command 
of the high ground from which they had 
for three years made life in the British 
trenches in that sector a perpetual night- 
mare. The attack was at first most suc- 
cessful, and the ground lost by the British 
in the second battle of Ypres was fully 



proving the advanced communications, in 
which admirable service was rendered by 
Canadian labour and pioneer battalions, 
the Canadians attacked toward the 
.Passchendaele Ridge in conjunction with 
British troops on October 2(>. By night- 
fall the Canadians were in possession of 
practically all their objectives, and were 
within striking distance of Passchendaele 
itself. An attack on October .'JO carried 
them to the outskirts of Passchendaele; 



20 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 




The late Lieut-Col. McCrae, author of "In Flan- 
ders Fields," the war poem so widely quoted in 
recent years. 

and on November G they captured the vil- 
lage, together with the high ground to the 
north and north-west of it. A final as- 
sault on November 10 placed in their 
hands the last remaining spurs of the 
ridge. 

The fighting at Passchendaele was of 
unexampled stubbornness. The German 
defences were strengthened by numerous 
concrete "pill-boxes", which were invul- 
nerable except under the heaviest shell- 
fire. In the attack on Bellevue Spur on 
October 26, for instance, the troops ad- 
vancing against these pill-boxes were at 
times hip-deep in the liquid mud of the 
battle-field; and so hot was the machine- 
gun fire from the pill-boxes that it was 
found necessary to order a temporary 
retirement, and to reorganize the attack. 



At every stage of the operations the Ger- 
mans counter-attacked with the utmost 
determination; and it was often only by 
superhuman efforts that the Canadian ad- 
vance parties were able to hold their 
ground. The final result, however, was 
that the Canadians accomplished the task 
which they set out to accomplish. "For 
the second time within the year," as Sir 
Douglas Haig reported, "Canadian 
troops achieved a record of uninterrupted 
success." 

After the capture of Passchendaele the 
Canadian Corps returned to the Lens sec- 
tor, where they spent the winter either in 
rest or holding the line. No further at- 
tempt was made at this juncture to cap- 
ture Lens, for the collapse of Russia had 
altered the general situation, and the ar- 
rival of German reinforcements from the 
Eastern front gave the Germans a hold 
upon Lens which it would have been rash 
to dispute. The Canadians, moreover, 
had done their full share of fighting dur- 
ing 1917, and after their strenuous efforts 
at Passchendaele they required a period 
for rest and recuperation. 

The year 1917 was notable for a signifi- 
cant change in the command of the Cana- 
dian Corps. Up to and including the 
battle of Vimy Ridge the command of 
the Corps had been in the hands of an Im- 
perial officer. In the summer of 1917, 
however, Sir Julian Byng was promoted 
to the command of the Third Army; and 
the success of the Canadians was recog- 
nized by the appointment as Corps Com- 
mander of Major-Gen. (now Lieut. -Gen. 
Sir) A. W. Currie, the commander of the 
First Division. General Currie was an 
officer who had risen from the ranks in 
the Canadian militia, and he was in pri- 
vate life a Vancouver business man inter- 
ested in real estate and insurance; he 
therefore fittingly typified the civilian 
character of Canada's army. Under him 
the Canadian Corps was to achieve its 
crowning successes of the year 1918, 



The Canadian Corps, 1918 



CHAPTER IV 



THE CORPS AS SHOCK TROOPS — IN REST — THE GREAT GERMAN 
OFFENSIVE — CANADIAN RAILWAY TROOPS BEFORE AMIENS — 

THE SECOND BATTLE OF THE SOMME THE CANADIAN CORPS 

BREAKS A RECORD — IT RE-APPEARS BEFORE ARRAS — BREACHING 
THE DROCOURT-QUEANT SWITCH — CAMBRAI — MONS ONCE 
MORE — THE CANADIAN CORPS ON GERMAN SOIL. 



By 1918 the Canadian Corps had come 
to be regarded by the Higher Command 
as shock troops. Specialization in war 
had reached the point where some troops 
were trained chiefly for holding the line, 
and some troops chiefly for assault pur- 
poses. The reputation which the Cana- 
dians had achieved pointed them out as 
pre-eminently suited for attack. With a 
view, therefore, to giving them time for 
specialized training and to giving them 
that rest which is essential if the spirit of 
troops is to be kept at the highest pitch, 
various divisions of the Canadian Corps 
were placed in rest for considerable pe- 
riods of time during the first few months 
of 1918. 

This time was used by Sir Arthur Cur- 
rie to perfect the Corps as an instrument 
of offensive warfare. Xo pains were 
spared to bring the Corps to a high degree 
of efficiency in the handling of bayonets 
and machine guns, in clearing trenches 
and in cooperating with the tanks and 
with the artillery. The results of this 
period of training were fully revealed 
later. 

At the end of March, 1918, the storm 
of the great German offensive broke 
along the front occupied by the British 
Fifth and Third Armies: and in a few 
days the British were falling back over 
the old Somme battlefield, and were fight- 
ing a desperate action before the very 
gates of Amiens itself. In stemming the 
tide of the German advance, the Canadian 



Cavalry Brigade, which was attached to 
the British Third Army, played a gallant 
part ; and in the miscellaneous force which 
was thrown into the breach under General 
Carey opposite Amiens was an Ontario 
county battalion, which had been turned 
into a railway unit. This battalion now 
took full advantage of the opportunity to 
exact their revenge for the long months 
when they had been compelled to build 
railways under German shell-fire, without 
the chance of retorting in kind. 

But the Canadian Corps took no part 
in this fighting. Both the great German 
drive toward Amiens, and the later drive 
toward the Channel ports in the Armen- 
tieres sector, left it untouched. The only 
occasion on which the fighting came near 
the Canadians was when the Germans at- 
tacked opposite Arras, and were held up 
by the Guards; and on this occasion the 
.Canadians were only on the remote out- 
skirts of the battle. Though doubtless 
the facts belied the appearance of things, 
it almost seemed as though the Germans 
deliberately avoided attacking along the 
front held by the Canadians. 

Throughout the period of the German 
offensive, however, the Canadian Corps 
expected daily, indeed almost hourly, to 
become engaged in the struggle. Under 
such an expectation. Sir Arthur Currie 
issued on March 27 a charge to his troops 
which is worthy of being ranked With 
Napoleon's famous manifesto to the army 
of Italy, and which breathed in every line 



22 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



the spirit that had come to actuate the mand you and I trust you to fight as you 

Canadian Corps. This special order ran have ever fought, with all your strength, 

in part as follows: with all your determination, with all your 

"Looking hack with pride on the un- tranquil courage. On many a hard- 

hroken record of your glorious achieve- fought field of hattle you have overcome 

ments, asking you to realise that to-day this enemy. With God's help you shall 

the fate of the' British Empire hangs in achieve victory once more." 

the balance, 1 place my trust in the Cana- It was not until the latter part of the 






dian Corps, knowing that where Cana- 
dians are engaged there can be no giving 
way. 

"Under the orders of your devoted of- 



summer, however, that the Canadian 
Corps was called into action. Then, in- 
deed, they showed that the Corps Com- 
mander's confidence in them had not been 




Canadian troops resting in a trench on the hard- won Wotan line of the Germans, which was captured 
on the previous day after a desperate struggle that resulted in the rout of the enemy. (Canadian official 
photograph. ) 



fleers in the coming battle yon will 
advance or fall where yon stand facing 
the enemy. 

"To those who will fall I say, 'You will 
not die, but step into immortality. Your 
mothers will not lament your fate, but 
will be proud to have borne such sons. 
Your names will be revered for ever and 
ever by your grateful country, and God 
will take you unto Himself.' 

"Canadians, in this fateful hour, I com- 



misplaced. In the meantime the German 
offensive had failed to obtain decisive 
results. After striking initial successes 
it had been held up in turn opposite 
Amiens, opposite Calais, and along the 
Marne, where a second battle of critical 
importance for the future of the world 
had been fought. Around Rheims a 
fresh German offensive had been crushed 
by the invincible troops of France before 
it developed; and Marshal Foch, now the 



THE CANADIAN CORPS. 1918 



23 



Generalissimo of all the allied forces on 
the Western front, had chosen this 
psychological moment to launch his long- 
expected counter-offensive. French and 
American troops, attacking from 
Chateau-Thierry to Soissons, along the 
west side of the salient created by the 
German drive toward the Marne, had 
smashed deeply into the new German de- 
fences, and had forced the Germans to 
evacuate a large part of the territory they 
had overrun a few weeks before. The 



launched on August 8 in the sector im- 
mediately north of Montdidier. Fresh 
from their months of training and rest, 
the Canadians swept over the German de- 
fences with irresistible dash. The results 
obtained were brilliant. The number of 
prisoners captured by the Canadians 
actually exceeded the total number of 
their casualties; a long list of villages fell 
into their hands; and their advance on 
August 8 reached at one point a distance 
of eleven miles — perhaps a record on the 




Canadians advancing into a wood, past an abandoned German field-gun, on the heels of the Huns' 
retreat. 



threat to Paris having been thus disposed 
of, Foch now turned his attention to the 
northern portion of the line; and before 
the enemy had time to recover his breath, 
Foch struck at him another body-blow 
opposite Amiens. 

In this fresh counter-offensive, which 
was under the direction of Sir Douglas 
Haig, the Canadians and the Australians 
were given the post of honor as the spear- 
head of the assault. The attack was 



western front for an infantry advance 
during the first day of an attack. The 
later stages of the offensive were less re- 
markable, owing to the rapid recovery 
made by the Germans; but even so the 
Canadians had penetrated the German 
lines, before they were relieved, to an 
average depth of fifteen miles. In the 
whole operation the Canadian Corps cap- 
tured over 12,000 prisoners, besides vast 
numbers of guns of all kinds and huge 



24 



CANADA IX THE GREAT WAR 




truth of this view. During the later 
phase of the battle, when hidden and un- 
expected German machine-gun fire was 
making the Canadian advance slow and 
difficult, a certain company of an infantry 
battalion was resting overnight, prepara- 
tory to an attack the following morning. 
The officers were snatching a few hours 
of well-earned sleep. A group of N. C. 
O.'s and men, however, stayed awake to 
discuss the problem of how best to rush a 
hostile machine-gun post. Having agreed 
upon what seemed to them the best pro- 
cedure, they too turned in to sleep; and 
the next morning they put their plan into 
effect with brilliant success. As Sir 
Frederick Maurice said, such troops were 
unbeata de. 

In the middle of August the Canadians 
were withdrawn from the Somme sector, 
and in a few days they reappeared unex- 



Brig.-Gen. V. W. Odium decorated by H. M. 
King with C. B.. C. M. G. and D. S. O. 

quantities of war material. The effect of 
the operation was to remove from Amiens 
and the British lines of communication 
the threat which had been imminent ever 
since March, and to reduce the salient 
created by the German offensive of the 
early spring. Both in strategic results 
and in spectacular effect the stroke was 
the most considerable the Canadians had 
yet delivered. 

The credit for the Canadian success in 
the second battle of the Somme was due 
not only to the thoroughness of the staff 
work, or to the leadership of the regi- 
mental officers, but in a very special sense 
to the individual initiative of the private 
soldier. Major-Gen. Sir F. Maurice, the 
military correspondent of the Daily 
Chronicle, who was in France at this time, 
told, in his impressions of the battle, an 
anecdote which admirably illustrates the 




Brig.-Gen. G. E. McQuaig 



THE CANADIAN CORPS, 1918 



25 



pectedly in a new offensive opposite Ar- 
ras. The feat of transferring a whole 
army corps from one sector to another far 
removed, in the course of little over a 
week, and amid the confusion of an ac- 
tive battle-front, was one that reflected 
the utmost credit on the Canadian trans- 
port arrangements. Certainly the Ger- 
man intelligence staff must have been 
surprised when, on August 26, Canadian 
troops attacked to the south of their old 
battle-ground at Vimy Ridge, and en- 
tered the much-fought-over ruins of 
Monchy. 

At Monchy the main Hindenburg line 
was breached. The Germans, however, 
placed their reliance not in the battered 
defences of this line, but in a reserve sys- 
tem known by them as the Wotan line, 
and by the British as the Drocourt- 
Queant switch. The Drocourt-Queant 
switch was the last word in military en- 
gineering. Perfected by the Germans 
during the course of eighteen months, it 



was a vast system of fortresses, connected 
by a series of trench lines behind deep 
belts of thick wire, and by tunnels of the 
size and depth of the London "tubes". 
The Germans had reinforced their de- 
fences here to such an extent that on a 
front of 8,000 yards no fewer than eleven 
divisions were identified. Undeterred, 
however, by the strength of this defensive 
organization, the Canadians advanced 
from Monchy astride the Arras-Cambrai 
road, and admirably assisted by English 
troops on their right and left, stormed the 
German positions on a front of six miles. 
As Sir Douglas Haig reported, they "car- 
ried all before them". They captured no 
less than ten thousand prisoners, together 
with numerous guns, machine-guns, and 
war material of all sorts; and before the 
day was over they were advancing in the 
open country beyond the German battle- 
zone. 

The breaching of the Drocourt-Queant 
line must have been a bitter blow for the 




A Boche concrete gunpk used by the Canadians. Many of these strongholds were constructed so 
massively that the enemy could not destroy them even when they retired. 



26 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



German High Command. Not only did 
it lay bare the northern portion of their 
line, but it served notice on them that 
their most carefully prepared defences 
were not proof against the skill and 
valour of the troops of the British Em- 
pire. It opened up before them a vista 
of endless retirements, and quenched their 
hopes of being able to maintain a stone- 
wall defence. 

Events now began to move more swift- 
ly. In spite of a stubborn rear-guard 



shoulder to shoulder, were not to be gain- 
said; and in the darkness of the early 
morning of October 9, the Canadian ad- 
vance troops entered Cambrai and Le 
Cateau, the first British troops to occupy 
these towns since the "Old Contempti- 
bles" had left them behind in 1914 in the 
retreat from Mons. 

After the fall of Cambrai the Cana- 
dians were moved north toward Douai, 
and commenced an advance in the direc- 
tion of Valenciennes. After a number of 




General Sir Arthur Currie, commanding the Canadian Corps, entering Mons on the morning the armis- 
tice was signed. The town had been occupied by tne Germans for four years. The general is in tne 
left foreground, returning the salutes of the overjoyed populace. (Canadian official photograph, from 
Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.) 



defence by the Germans, the Canadians 
advanced steadily on Cambrai. On one 
or two occasions, as when a smoke bar- 
rage under which the Canadians were 
attacking was blown back by a changing 
wind, they suffered heavy casualties; and 
as they approached Cambrai, the fighting 
reached a pitch of unprecedented ferocity. 
The enemy fought indeed with the cour- 
age of despair. But the Canadians, as 
well as the British with whom they fought 



preliminary successes, they captured on 
October 20 the large mining town of De- 
nain; and on November 1 the Fourth 
Division, in conjunction with British 
troops, stormed Valenciennes. In com- 
memoration of this event, the grateful 
people of Valenciennes, with Gallic po- 
liteness, have renamed their Place 
d' Amies Place du Canada. From Valen- 
ciennes onward the march of the Cana- 
dian Corps was a triumphal progress. In 



THE CANADIAN CORPS, 1918 



27 




Lt.-Col. (now Brig. Gen.) W. A. Griesbach (on 
right), who commanded the 49th Battalion (Ed- 
monton). 



nine days the Corps advanced fully thirty 
miles. On November 7 the Belgian bor- 
der was crossed; and at 4 o'clock in the 
morning of November 11, just before the 
armistice which ended the Great War 
came into effect, the Princess Pats, the 
42nd Battalion, and a few men of the 
Royal Canadian Regiment entered the 
city of Mons. The wheel had come full 
circle. British troops were back in the 
position they had left nearly four and a 
half years before; and the world had 
been given a wonderful demonstration of 
the ability of the Anglo-Saxon race to 
"come back". 

The capture of Mons was not without 
its dramatic features. The last troops to 
leave Mons on August 23, 1914, had been 
the 42nd Highlanders, the famous Black 
Watch; the first troops to enter Mons on 
November 11, 1918, were the 42nd Royal 
Highlanders of Canada, who were affil- 



iated, through the parent regiment, the 
5th Roval Highlanders of Montreal, with 
the Black Watch. The bodyguard of Sir 
Arthur Currie, when he made a triumphal 
entry into Mons on the afternoon of No- 
vember 11, was a section of the 5th 
Lancers, troopers of the old army who 
all wore the Mons ribbon. To the city 
of Mons Sir Arthur Currie presented a 
Canadian flag tied to a lance; and this 
flag now reposes in a conspicuous place in 
the council chamber of the City Hall. 

In June, 1918, Sir Arthur Currie had 
made the statement that "the spirit of 
the Canadian soldiers is such that there 
is no position they are asked to take which 
they will not take". The remark may 
have appeared to some to smack of brag- 
gadocio; but the event has shown it to be 
a sober statement of fact. The record of 
the Canadian Corps between August 8 




Gunners of a Canadian 9.2 Howitzer having 
midday meal. 



their 



28 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



and November 11, 1918, was one of un- 
broken and spectacular success. During 
this time they engaged and defeated no 
less than fifty-seven German divisions; 
they captured a grand total of nearly 35,- 
000 prisoners, with 750 guns of all 
calibres, 3,500 machine-guns, and other 
war material too vast to reckon; they ad- 
vanced in depth over 100 miles, captured 
over 150 cities, towns, and villages, and 
released over 300,000 French and Belgian 
civilians from the domination of the Hun. 
And in doing this they did not have to 
admit a single failure. 

The Canadian people may well be 
proud of the achievements of their citizen 
army. In the Great War the Canadian 
Corps proved itself to be the equal of the 
best troops of the British or French 
armies. To say more than this would be 



to state the impossible. Many a British 
and French unit had a record no less bril- 
liant and glorious than that of the Cana- 
dians; and if little stress has been laid 
here on this fact, it is merely because the 
object of this sketch has been to follow 
the adventures of the Canadians alone. 

With the signing of the armistice, the 
fighting was over. The terms of the 
armistice called, however, for the occupa- 
tion by the allies of the left bank of the 
Rhine, as well as very large bridge-heads 
on the right bank; and the Canadian 
Corps was chosen as part of the army of 
occupation. From Mons it advanced 
through Belgium, and into Germany. 
Corps headquarters was established at the 
German University centre of Bonn; and 
the end of the year 1918 found the Cana- 
dians keeping their watch on the Rhine. 




Canadian officers inspecting a depot_ of hundreds of machine guns and rapid-firers captured from the 
enemy in the final engagements of the war. 



The Canadian Cavalry 



( IIAl'TER V 



THE WORK OF THE CANADIAN CAVALRY THE CANADIAN 

MOUNTED RIFLES — THE ROYAL CANADIAN DRAGOONS AND THE 

STRATHCONA HORSE CAVALRYMEN IN THE TRENCHES THE 

MOUNTED RIFLES TURNED INTO INFANTRY — THE CANADIAN 

CAVALRY BRIGADE — STANDING BY^ THE DASH AT CAMBRA1 — 

BEFORE AMIENS THE GREAT OFFENSIVE CANADIAN TROOP- 
ERS RIDE INTO GERMANY. 



Little has been known in Canada about 
the work of the Canadian Cavalry. This 
has been largely due to the fact that the 
cavalry have been a comparatively small 
body of troops, only occasionally called 
into action; and their achievements have 
been overshadowed by those of the Cana- 
dian Corps. The fact, too, that, except 
at one or two short periods, the cavalry 
have acted separately from the Corps — 
they have belonged indeed to a separate 
British Army — has tempted people to for- 
get about them. Yet the story of the 
Canadian cavalry contains passages as 
thrilling as any chapter of the war; and 
the Canadian Cavalry Brigade has con- 
tributed no less than the Canadian Corps, 
to make the name of Canada respected on 
the battlefield. 

When the war broke out, it was ex- 
pected that cavalry would play an im- 
portant part in the struggle. It was not 
foreseen that the evolution of trench war- 
fare, the reign of the machine gun. and 
the development of aircraft would seri- 
ously diminish the sphere of usefulness of 
mounted troops. Canadian mounted 
troops had played a distinguished part in 
the South African War; and at an early 
date the Canadian government made ar- 
rangements to send similar troops to 
France. The usual quota of cavalry went 
with the First Contingent; and in the 
Second Contingent there were included a 
number of regiments of Canadian 
Mounted Rifles — a cross between cavalry 



and infantry. During 1915, too, the 
Royal Canadian Dragoons and the 
Strathcona Horse, two cavalry regiments 
belonging to Canada's permanent force, 
were sent overseas. These troops were 
all horsemen born and bred, such as Can- 
ada was well able to supply. On arrival 
in France, all these units were placed, to- 
gether with the Royal Canadian Horse 
Artillery and some British cavalry regi- 
ments, under the command of Brig.-Gen. 
Seely, once the Minister of War in the 
Asquith government; and they formed an 
independent cavalry force, ready to be 
used when the opportunity should arise. 

By 1915 the struggle on the Western 
front had settled down to stationary war- 
fare; and the opportunity to use cavalry 
on the battlefield did not come until two 
or three years later, with the gradual 
return of a more open style of fighting. 
In the meantime, so great was the need 
for men on the British front, owing to 
the fact that the new British armies were 
not yet ready to be placed in the field, 
that it was found necessary to employ 
General Seely's force in the trenches. 
During many months of 191.5 the Cana- 
dian troopers did duty as dismounted 
troops in the front line. The arrangement 
was naturally not an ideal one. The cav- 
alrymen, with their carbines and riding- 
breeches, were ill-equipped for trench 
warfare; and their training had not been 
along the lines required for infantry 
work. Nevertheless, they gave from the 



30 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



first a good account of themselves. At 
P^estubert, where the Royal Canadian 
Dragoons and Strathcona's Horse were 
first engaged, Canadian cavalrymen did 
deeds of prowess no less remarkable than 
those already wrought by the Canadian 
infantry. If no Victoria Crosses were 
won, it was not because no one deserved 
the honour. An incident illustrative of 
many similar deeds that are unrecorded, 
was the performance of Corporal Pym 
of the Royal Canadian Dragoons. Ilea in- 



trenches, speak volumes for their dash 
and gallantry. 

As the year 191o wore on, it became 
apparent that there was in the immediate 
future little likelihood of an opportunity 
arising for the use of such a cavalry force 
as had been gathered under General 
Seely's command. The Canadian author- 
ities, moreover, were at this time en- 
deavouring to collect a third division. It 
was therefore decided to break up Gen- 
eral Seely's command, and to convert the 





1 ... / ' t" t ,11 1^ 


', 


















r^|!^^p|r 


i <;■<''• ■ ' sfr n - . 







Canadian soldier examining the rifle and kit of a German killed by Canadian cavalry a few minutes be- 
fore, while projecting the rear of the German retreat. (Canadian official photgraph.) 



ing cries for help from No Man's Land, 
which was at this place only sixty yards 
wide, Corporal Pym went out twice, in 
broad daylight, and under a withering 
machine-gun and rifle fire, and brought in 
a severely wounded man who had been 
lying in the open for three days. Ser- 
geant Hollowed of the R. C. D.'s, who 
went to his assistance, was shot down at 
his side. Deeds such as this, performed 
by troops during their first tour in the 



six regiments of Canadian Mounted 
Rifles which had formed part of his force 
into four battalions of infantry. These 
four battalions, which were known as the 
1st, 2nd, 4th, and 5th Canadian Mounted 
Rifles, formed the Eighth Rrigade of the 
Third Division; and as such they played 
a distinguished part in the history of the 
Canadian Corps. Rut their reinforce- 
ments were drawn mainly from infantry 
depots, and they soon lost the character of 



THE CANADIAN CAVALRY 



31 



mounted rifles in everything but name. 

The fate of the Canadian Mounted 
Rifles, however, did not overtake the 
Royal Canadian Dragoons and Strath- 
cona's Horse. These units remained cav- 
alry regiments; and when the Fort Garry 
Horse arrived in Franee in February, 
1916, tlie three units were formed into 
the Canadian Cavalry Rrigade — a force 
quite distinct from the Canadian Corps, 
and found only on rare occasions acting 
in conjunction with it. 

The year 1910 was a period of com- 
parative inaction for the Canadian Cav- 
alry Rrigade. The bitter trench battles 
of this year gave no scope for cavalry 
operations: and there seemed to be grave 
danger that the once proud squadrons of 
the Canadian cavalry would degenerate 
into works companies. Many cavalry of- 
ficers, despairing of seeing service again 
in the front line, transferred to the in- 
fantry or the artillery. Rut toward the 
end of the year the hopes of the cavalry 
brightened. During the long and bitter 
struggle on the Somme in the autumn of 
1916 there seemed on several occasions 
to be a prospect that, if things went well, 
the cavalry might get orders to ride for- 
ward. During several attacks the horses 
were kept bitted and bridled, ready to 
advance at a moment's notice. The move 
orders never came; but there was always 
the chance that there might be better luck 
next time. And it became clear, as the 
year closed, that the Higher Command 
was looking forward in the near future to 
a much greater need for mounted troops. 
Transfers from the cavalry to other 
branches of the service were stopped ; and 
the Canadian Cavalry Depot at Shorn- 
cliffe, in England, was enlarged into a 
Canadian Cavalry Reserve Rrigade, in 
which each of the regiments at the front 
had a reserve regiment to supply it witli 
reinforcements. 

In the great French offensive in Cham- 
pagne in the spring of 1917 cavalry was 
used, though only with indifferent suc- 
cess; but it was not until very near the 
end of the vear that the Canadian Cav- 




General Watson. 

airy Rrigade had the chance for which 
they hail been waiting so long and so pa- 
tiently. On Xovember 20, 1917, Sir 
Julian Ryng, now in command of the 
Third Army, launched in the direction of 
Cambrai a surprise attack which prom- 
ised at first to be one of the most suc- 
cessful and brilliant operations on the 
Western front. The troops which he had 
at his command were limited in number, 
owing to the demands recently made on 
the Rritish for reinforcements for the 
Italian front; but he planned to make up 
for this deficiency by the use of a large 
force of tanks, and he had in reserve a 
powerful body of Rritish and French 
cavalry with which to drive the attack 
home. The honour of constituting the 
spear-head of this cavalry mass went to 
the Canadian Cavalry Rrigade. The at- 
tack of the infantry and the tanks proved 
brilliantly successful. The Germans, 



32 



CANADA IX THE GREAT WAR 



taken by surprise, were completely over- 
whelmed; and the road to Cambrai was 
laid open. At this juncture the cavalry 
advanced, the Canadians leading. All 
seemed propitious. The spires of Cam- 
brai could be seen gleaming ahead, and 
nothing appeared to intervene. Then 
occurred one of those mischances so com- 
mon in war. An important bridge over 
the Canal du Nord was found to have 
been broken down by a British tank which 
had attempted to cross it. A report to 
this effect was sent back to cavalry head- 
quarters; and in consequence orders came 
forward countermanding the whole ad- 
vance. 

But before these orders reached the 
Canadians, a squadron of the Fort Garry 
Horse had crossed the canal in single file, 




Brig-Gen. F. O. W Loomis, C. M. G., D. C O. 



and had dashed forward into the enemy 
country. The adventures of this squad- 
ron of the Fort Garrys read like a 
chapter from a boy's book of wonders. 
They charged a battery of German guns, 
and cut down all the gunners; they scat- 
tered some stray German infantry de- 
tachments like sheep; and they swept 
almost to the gates of Cambrai itself. 
There they discarded their horses, and 
fought their way back on foot to the Brit- 
ish lines a good two miles away. Of the 
whole squadron only forty-three returned, 
and the officer who led them back was 
awarded the Victoria Cross. The charge 
of the Fort Garrys at Cambrai left no 
doubt in the minds of those who read 
about it as to what the Canadian Cavalry 
could do, if once they got half a chance. 

There were those among the officers of 
the Canadian Cavalry Brigade who held 
that if the cavalry advance had not been 
countermanded, they would have swept 
all before them, and brought about the 
fall of Cambrai and perhaps even more 
far-reaching results. It was natural that 
the brigade should have felt aggrieved at 
being cheated of what seemed to be their 
one great opportunity of the war. But 
the success with which the Germans re- 
acted a few days later against the new 
British line, retrieving a large part of the 
ground they had lost, suggests that pos- 
sibly the Higher Command was in re- 
ceipt of other and more important infor- 
mation than that of the breaking down of 
a bridge when they decided to hold up the 
cavalry attack. 

In any case, the brigade did not have 
many months to wait before they saw ac- 
tion again — the action beside which the 
fighting at Cambrai was child's play. 
The great German offensive of March, 



THE CANADIAN CAVALRY 



:;:; 



1918, broke on the British Third and 
Fifth Armies. The Canadian Cavalry 
Brigade was part of the Third Army. It 
did not indeed have to bear the brunt of 
the initial attack, for that fell on the in- 
fantry. But as the wave of the German 
advance neared Amiens, it became neces- 
sary to throw into the line every available 
unit; and the Canadian cavalry was 
thrown in with the rest. Fighting now 
as mounted troops, now as dismounted, 
counter-attacking in the face of machine- 
gun fire at one time, fighting a stubborn 
rearguard action at another, they played 
their part in stemming the tide of the 
German rush. Their casualties alone tes- 
tified to the character of their work: 
these were comparable only with the 
losses of the First Division at the Second 
Battle of Ypres. 

In the later stages of the fighting in 
1918 the Canadian Cavalry Brigade 
played a somewhat subsidiary part. 
During the British advance they were al- 
ways booted and spurred, ready to dash 
in when the opportunity offered; but the 
stubborn character of the fighting did not 
favour the intervention of mounted 





Men of the Newfoundland Regiment who saved 
Monchy at a critical moment. 



Sketch of Brig. -Gen. G. S. Tuxford. who com- 
manded the 3rd Brigade. 



troops. On the rare occasions when they 
did appear in the forward area, they were 
soon withdrawn. 

But after the signing of the armistice 
between Germany and the Allies on Nov- 
ember 11, the cavalry came once more to 
the fore. In the occupation of Belgium 
and the Rhine valley, the cavalry screen 
led the way. Canadian troopers, together 
with British troopers, rode into the vil- 
lages of Belgium as the German Uhlans 
had ridden into them over four years be- 
fore, but on a different mission and in a 
different mood. And before the year was 
out, the inhabitants of sleepy German 
villages in the Rhineland, peeping out 
through their windows, saw Canadian 
cavalry patrols riding through the village 
street. It is a far cry from the Red River 
to the Rhine; but many a lad who kit the 
banks of the one in 1914 reached (lie 
banks of the other in 1918. 



34 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 




The Work of the Auxiliary Services 



CHAPTER VI 



THE CANADIAN ARMY MEDICAL CORPS ITS ORGANIZATION AND 

WORK A CANADIAN HOSPITAL* AT SALONIKA THE DENTAL 

CORPS — THE RAILWAY TROOPS — THE FORESTRY CORPS — THE 
SALVAGE CORPS — THE Y. M. C. A. — THE KHAKI UNIVERSITY — 
THE AVAR RECORDS. 



In every army there are a host of auxil- 
iary services which contribute, in a great 
variety of ways, to the upkeep and wel- 
fare of the fighting troops. It has been 
estimated that, in modern warfare, four 
men are required behind the hues to keep 
one man in the firing line. Xo account of 
Canada's military effort, therefore, would 
be complete which ignored the work of 
these auxiliary troops, without which, in- 
deed, the achievements of the fighting 
men would have been impossible. 

Foremost among these subsidiary serv- 
ices is the Medical Corps. The work of 
the Medical Corps pervades the whole of 
army life. It meets the soldier on enlist- 
ment; it meets him again on discharge; 
and it watches over him during the inter- 
val. Its work is not only with the sick 
and the wounded; it lies even more with 
the well and strong. Sanitation, vaccina- 
tion and inoculation, quarantine — such 
preventive measures as these fall within 
its scope just as much as war surgery and 
the sick parade. 

Its detachments are to be found all the 
way from the front line back to Canada. 
At the front, with the infantry battalion 
or the artillery brigade, there is the medi- 
cal officer, with his orderlies and stretcher- 
bearers. Just behind the line is the 
dressing-station and the field ambulance. 
At railhead there is generally found a 
casualty clearing station, where prelimi- 
nary operations are as a rule performed. 
Behind that, on the coast of France or in 
England, are the great base hospitals and 



general hospitals, where the patient re- 
ceives final treatment. In England, the 
Canadian Army Medical Corps has also 
some excellent special hospitals, such as 
the Westcliffe Eye, Ear, Xose and 
'Throat Hospital, the only military hos- 
pital of its kind in England. Finally, in 
Canada there are hospitals equipped for 
dealing with the soldier who is perma- 
nently unfit for active service, but who 
must be made fit, so far as is possible, to 
resume civilian life. 

The Canadian Army Medical Corps 
did not, however, minister to Canadians 
alone. Many Imperial soldiers were 
looked after in Canadian hospitals; and a 
number of Canadian medical units, 
notably casualty clearing stations, were 
situated in areas where Canadian troops 
were rarely found. One Canadian gen- 
eral hospital, that furnished by the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, was for two years at 
Salonika, on the shores of the Aegean 
Sea. 

The story of the work of the Canadian 
Army Medical Corps is marked by inci- 
dents of heroism and devotion to duty no 
less splendid than those which have 
marked the work of any other branch of 
the service. One of the first Victoria 
Crosses won by a Canadian in the war 
was won by Captain Scrimger, the medi- 
cal officer of the 14th Battalion at the 
Second Battle of Ypres. The work done 
by the doctors at the advanced dressing 
stations, often under the heaviest shell- 
fire, and by the surgeons at the casualty 
clearing stations, where operations had to 



36 



CANADA IX THE GREAT WAR 



be performed often under a joint bom- 
bardment from the land and the air, was 
work for which no tribute could be too 
great. And as for the heroism of the 
nursing sisters, no words are adequate to 
describe it. Under air-raids by brutal 
German flying men by night and by day 
they went about their duties in the wards 
with a tranquil courage which put to 
shame the trepidation of many a hard- 
ened soldier. In an air-raid on a Cana- 



Beside the Canadian Army Medical 
Corps, there was another branch of the 
army which presided over the health of 
the soldiers — the Canadian Dental Corps. 
When the war broke out, little provision 
was made for the care of the teeth of the 
Canadian soldier; but as hostilities 
dragged on, it became apparent that, if 
the Canadian forces were to be kept in a 
state of efficiency, the teeth of the army 
must be better attended to. A large num- 




Canadian and Imperial troops helping themselves to free coffee supplied by the Canadian Y. M. C. A. 
at a roadside stand made of biscuit boxes. The Helpful work of the "Y" was highly appreciated by the 
troops in France and Flanders. (Canadian official photograph.) 



dian general hospital at Etaples in the 
spring of 1918, some of the nursing sis- 
ters made the supreme sacrifice, and 
others were maimed for life. Nor did the 
dastardly German torpedo spare Cana- 
dian nurses on the high seas. In the sink- 
ing of the Canadian hospital ship Han- 
dover 7/ Castle in the summer of 1!)18. a 
number of these devoted women went 
down to a watery, but glorious, grave. 



her of dental officers was therefore re- 
cruited; and before long each infantry 
and cavalry brigade, each large medical 
unit, and numerous other formations, had 
a dental laboratory, with a full working 
equipment. The number of patients who 
passed through these laboratories or 
clinics, literally hundreds at a time, amply 
demonstrated the need which the Cana- 
dian Dental Corps filled. 



THE WORK OF THE AUXILIARY SERVICES 



37 



An interesting auxiliary service of the 
Canadian army during the later stages of 
the war was the Canadian Railway 
Troops. [Modern warfare has become to 
a remarkable degree a matter of railway 
strategy. The superiority of the German 
railway communications forced on the 
British authorities at an early date the 
necessity of improving the railway situa- 
tion in the north of France, which was 
quite inadequate to cope with the prob- 
lem of supplying and moving the vast 
masses of troops concentrated in that nar- 
row triangle of territory. In addition to 
this there was need of trained technical 
troops to build the light railways which 
were found to be the best means of carry- 
ing supplies up to the front line. The 
assistance of the Canadian government 
was requested by the British in meeting 
this problem; and as a result the Cana- 
dian Railway Troops came into existence. 
Xot only were a number of infantry bat- 
talions turned into railway construction 
units, but railway men were recruited In 
Canada specifically for railway operation. 
and rolling stock and rails were sent over- 
seas as well. Nearly 500 miles of Cana- 
dian rails were torn up and shipped direct 
to France; and it was not an uncommon 
occurrence for Canadian soldiers coming 
back to railhead to go on leave to meet a 
C. P. R. locomotive, manned by a C. P. 
R. crew. The work of the railway troops, 
both those who built and those who oper- 
ated the roads, was at times extremely 
hazardous. Especially during an ad- 
vance, when they had to push the rail- 
ways on after the troops as quickly as 
possible, they came often under the sever- 
est shell-fire, without any means of retal- 
iating on the enemy. So successful was 
their work that they were in demand in 
other theatres of war besides the Western 
front; and Canadian railway troops ac- 
tually played a part in the advance of 
the British in Palestine, and in the cap- 
ture of the Holy Places at Jerusalem. 

Another novel Canadian service which 
played a crucial part in the war was the 



Canadian Forestry Corps. Before 1914- 
few people thought of lumbering as an 
essential feature of modern warfare; but 
the dawn of trench fighting soon brought 
home to the authorities the necessity of 
an extensive forestry program. Lumber 
was needed for the construction of dug- 
outs, for the making of the trench-mats 
without which life in the trenches became 
a slough of despond, and for the manu- 
facture of railway ties. In addition, it 
was required for the building of the multi- 
tude of huts that sprang up behind the 
lines and in the reserve camps — hospitals, 
aerodromes, Y. M. C. A. canteens, offices, 
store-rooms, rest-huts, bath-houses. The 
problem of coping with this unprece- 
dented demand for lumber was indeed a 
serious one. War conditions had cut off 
a large part of even the normal lumber 
supply of France and Great Britain; and 
it became necessary to make inroads on 
the wonderful timber resources of the an- 
cient parks and forests of these countries. 
It was known that there were in the 
Canadian army thousands of lumbermen; 
and Canada was asked to furnish troops 
to carry out lumbering and milling oper- 
ations. A number of later battalions, 
recruited almost wholly in lumbering dis- 
tricts, were selected, and these were 
formed into the Canadian Forestry 
Corps. Detachments of the corps com- 
menced operations in the south of France, 
in England, and in the north of Scotland. 
One detachment set to work in the royal 
park of Windsor: and age-old trees, be- 
neath which the kings and queens of Eng- 
land had walked or hunted, resounded 
under the axes of Canadian lumberjacks. 
The work of the Forestry Corps did not 
perhaps lend itself to deeds of daring and 
renown: but there is no doubt thai the 
steady stroke of its axes and the hum- 
drum buzz of its saw-mills contributed In 
real measure to the winning of the war. 

Another interesting unit was the Sal- 
vage Corps. This too was a development 
of the later stages of the war. In the ear- 
lier stages little attention was paid to the 
conservation of materials. Every battle- 



38 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



field was a litter of discarded rifles, equip- 
ment, gun-carriages, and what not. As 
materials ran short, however, the Salvage 
Corps was formed. Its personnel was 
composed entirely of men who were unfit 
to carry on in the front line; hut with a 
thoroughness which was an example to 
the fighting troops the Corps ranged over 
the whole battlefront, collecting every 
scrap of material which could be in any 
way turned to use. Their dumps would 
have been the envy of the rags-bones-and- 
bottles men of civilian life; and the 
amount of money they saved the people 
of Canada can only be reckoned in terms 
of millions of dollars. 

A branch of the army which should not 
be forgotten is the military department 
of the Canadian Y. M. C. A. In the 
British and American armies, the Y. M. 
C. A. is merely a civilian adjunct to the 
military forces; but with the Canadians 
the Y. M. C. A. is part of the armv itself. 
The Y. M. C. A. officers hold honorary 
commissions, and are under army disci- 
pline? consequently the cooperation be- 
tween the Y. M. C. A. and the combat- 
ant forces is closer than would perhaps 
otherwise be the case. For the work of 
the Canadian Y. M. C. A. in the war no 
praise can be too high. Its huts were to 
be found in every training camp, in every 
base camp, and in every forward area 
where Canadian troops were quartered; 
and these huts, with their warm fires, 
their tables and writing materials, their 
papers and magazines, their canteens and 
their indoor games, were often the one 
bright spot in the life of the men. In 
every advance the Y. M. C. A. officers 
were well forward, handing out hot cof- 
fee and milk chocolate to the walking 
wounded; and not infrequently they were 
found in the front line on their errands 
of kindliness. When the men were in rest 
in the back areas, they were indefatigable 
in organizing games of sport for them — 
games which proved so beneficial in their 
results that the idea was taken up by the 
General Staff, and became part of the 
recognized system of training in the 



Canadian army. Concert parties, com- 
posed often of famous artists, were 
brought out to the front; and Canadian 
soldiers just out of the line were often 
able to enjoy entertainments in the Y. 
M. C. A. huts no worse, and sometimes 
better, than they could have seen in the 
music-halls of London. And wherever 
they were, the Y. M. C. A. officers ad- 
mirably seconded the work of the Chap- 
lains' Service in looking after the spiritual 
welfare of the men. Taken all in all, 
there were few branches of the army that 
stood the test of the Great War better 
than the Canadian Y. M. C. A. 

Connected with the Y. M. C. A., and 
yet distinct from it, was the Khaki Uni- 
versity of Canada — or, to give it its full 
official designation, the Educational Serv- 
ice of the Overseas Military Forces of 
Canada, The Canadians were pioneers 
in several different lines during the war, 
but in nothing more pronouncedly than 
in their attempt, during the actual prog- 
ress of hostilities, to give to the citizen 
soldier a training, if he desired it, in the 
arts and sciences of peace. The Khaki 
University came into existence in the 
camp where the ill-fated Fifth Canadian 
Division was waiting for orders to go to 
France — orders which never came. The 
idea became immediately popular; and 
soon teaching centres had been established 
in practically all the Canadian centres in 
England, and the "University of Vimy 
Ridge" had been organized in France. 
In the Khaki University everything was 
taught for which a class and a teacher 
could be found, from Greek prose to com- 
mercial arithmetic. In France the diffi- 
culties to be overcome were great. The 
task of teaching, let us say, the Spanish 
verb to a class of weary soldiers in a leaky 
tent within sound of the German guns, 
was one to try the patience of a more pa- 
tient man than Job. But the Khaki 
University filled a much-felt need. Es- 
pecially when demobilization began, it 
offered to the Canadian soldier a chance 
to refit himself for picking up again the 
threads of civilian life on his return to 
Canada. 



THE WORK OF THE AUXILIARY SERVICES 



:$!> 



Last of all, a word should he said about 
the work of the Canadian War Records 
Office. This office sprang out of the ap- 
pointment of Sir Max Aitken (now Lord 
Reaverbrook) as the Canadian official 
eye-witness at the front. It was organ- 
ized by him for the purpose of collecting 
and preserving all possible information 
regarding the part played by Canada's 
troops in the Great War. Officers were 



Canada has to-day a collection of origi- 
nal materials relating to the part played 
by her troops in the war that is not infe- 
rior to that of any other country on either 
side. The first-fruits of this collection 
are to be seen in the first three volumes of 
the official record known as Canada in 
Flanders — a record that is unique at least 
in this, that no other country but Canada 
has attempted, while the fighting was still 




Wounded Canadians being carried to the rear by German prisoners taken in the pursuit of the re- 
treating Boche army in the fall of 1918. (Canadian official photograph.) 



sent to the front to take down from the 
lips of survivors the story of every en- 
gagement in which Canadian troops took 
part; war diaries, operation orders, aero- 
plane photographs, trench maps, were 
collected; and artists of international 
fame were sent out to make sketches and 
paintings. Movie films were even taken 
of the troops in action. The result is that 



in progress, to issue an authorized narra- 
tive of the battles in which its troops have 
been engaged. The importance of prop- 
aganda in the war is something which can 
hardly be overestimated; and there was 
no form of propaganda which could have 
been more effective than the plain un- 
varnished story of what Canada's soldiers 
did and suffered. 



40 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 




The Storv of The Reinforcements 



CHAPTER VII 



the first, second, and third contingents later units — 

the county battalions fancy formations the situa- 
tion in quebec the volunteer system fails the fifth 

division — the military service act — the draftees — 
Canada's ach ievemen t. 



When the fighting ended on the West- 
ern front in November, 1918, the Cana- 
dian Corps was practically the only large 
formation in the British army which was 
still at full strength. The Canadian cas- 
ualties had not been less than those of 
most other troops; but the supply of rein- 
forcements had been constantly kept up. 
What this had meant to the Corps, in 
maintaining its morale and efficiency, may 
well be imagined. The encouragement of 
full ranks no doubt had much to do with 
the success which attended the Corps in 
all that it undertook; and from this point 
of view alone, the story of how Canada 
kept up her reinforcements is worth while 
telling. 

When the First Contingent was called 
for, the difficulty was not to get recruits, 
but to wged out those that offered. Thou- 
sands were rejected all over Canada for 
slight physical defects; and in the end 
there sailed from Canada, not 20,000, the 
number originally aimed at, but 33,000. 
Nor was there any difficulty in filling the 
ranks of the Second and Third Contin- 
gents. Many of the units in these con- 
tingents were recruited in a day. It 
seemed as though Canada's military re- 
sources were inexhaustible. 

But by the middle of 1915, however, en- 
listments had begun to thin out. The 
units that were authorized immediately 
after what was known as the Third Con- 
tingent was raised, all reached full 
strength; but in some cases recruiting to 
full strength was a struggle. Battalions 
were no longer raised in a day, nor yet in 



a week. To get recruits it became neces 
sary to appeal for them, in the press, on 
the platform, and in the street. A re- 
cruiting campaign, i* was found, cost 
money; and it became necessary too for 
battalions to solicit financial support from 
the public. 

It was at this juncture that the demand 
was first heard for compulsory military 
service, or conscription. Among the re- 
cruits who were coining forward were 
many married men with families, who 
were certain to cost the country heavily 
in separation allowances, patriotic fund 
grants, and pensions: whereas many un- 
married men were holding back from en- 
listing. If only from the standpoint of 
finance, it was contended that a system of 
recruiting which gave rise to such a con- 
dition of affairs was wrong; and it was 
urged that the state itself should say who 
should go. In the opinion of the govern- 
ment, however, the country was not ripe 
for conscription: and the Militia Depart- 
ment continued to try to secure recruits 
by means of the voluntary system. 

With a view to galvanizing the volun- 
tary system into renewed life, the Militia 
Department hit upon the device of trying 
to raise county battalions by appealing to 
the local patriotism of the countryside. 
County and municipal councils made 
grants For the purpose of aiding recruit- 
ing; and recruiting officers scoured the 
country in every direction. The results 
obtained were hardly commensurate with 
the efforts put forth. Many battalions 
found that the cost of recruiting a single 



42 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



soldier ranged anywhere from $10 to $.50. 
So great was the anxiety of commanding 
officers to fill up their battalions that 
many men were enlisted who were totally 
unfit for active service, and who had to be 
discharged later, after having cost the 
government large sums of money for their 
upkeep and training. And in the end the 
great majority of these county battalions 
went overseas far below strength. The 
process of their recruitment was one of 



was raised, a bantams' battalion, and a 
pals' battalion. Certain units made a 
specialty of recruiting companies of bank 
clerks, of North American Indians, or of 
Russians. Every inducement was held 
out to get men to enlist together. The 
idea underlying the formation of all these 
units Mas that men of the same type 
would be able to go to the front together 
— an idea which the authorities must have 
known was impossible of fulfilment. 




Canadians using a British tank for transport purposes. The tanks fully proved their value as ad- 
juncts to infantry soon after their first appearance on the Somme in 1916, where they spread terror 
among the Germans. (Canadian official photograph.) 



the most expensive and extra vagal it 
which could well be imagined. 

At the same time other expedients were 
resorted to. Highland battalions were 
raised in Scottish districts, Irish-Cana- 
dian battalions in Irish districts. Uni- 
versity battalions were authorized in uni- 
versity centres; and an attempt was even 
made to recruit a battalion of High 
School boys. A sportsmen's battalion 



With rare exceptions, these units were 
later broken up on arrival in England, 
and the men composing them scattered 
as reinforcements. 

The recruiting problem among the 
French Canadians of the province of 
Quebec was especially difficult. A sec- 
tion of the French-Canadian people, led 
by the Nationalist leaders, Bourassa and 
Lavergne, were definitely opposed to the 



THE STORY OF THE REINFORCEMENTS 



43 



participation of Canada in the war; and 
in spite of the efforts of the more patri- 
otic among the French Canadians, such 
as Captain Talbot Papineau, the grand- 
son of the rebel of 1837, who had been 
one of the original officers of the Princess 
Pats, and who later died on the battle- 
field, the number of French-Canadian re- 
cruits that offered was small indeed. Out 
of five French-Canadian units authorized 
at this time only two partially filled bat- 
talions were obtained. It was perhaps 
unnatural to expect from the province 
of Quebec the same number of recruits 
as from Ontario or from the West, since 
the French Canadians had never been 
educated up to their Imperial responsibil 
ities, and the custom of early marriages 
and large families among them had re- 
duced the number of eligible young men; 
but even when allowance was made for 
these facts, the response from the prov- 
ince of Quebec was disappointing. 

By the beginning of 1917 enlistments 
in Canada had fallen off until they were 
far exceeded by the casualties at the front. 
It became clear that Canada's military 
effort was waning rather than waxing. 
In 1910 Great Britain had been forced 
to discard the voluntary system of recruit- 
ing for a system of conscription or com- 
pulsion; and the United States, upon its 
entrance into the war in the early part of 
1917, had immediately adopted the prin- 
ciple of a selective draft. Xew Zealand 
had reverted to compulsion; and, al- 
though Australia had rejected conscrip- 
tion, it had placed in the field five divi- 
sions as against Canada's four divisions, 
despite the fact that its population was 
less than that of Canada. Under these 
circumstances, the demand in Canada for 
a system of compulsory military service 
increased in strength and insistence; and 
during 1917 Sir Robert Borden and the 
leading members of his Cabinet gradually 
came to the conclusion that the voluntary 
system had failed, and that the principle 
of compulsion would have to be adopted. 

A striking commentary on the failure 
of the voluntary system was afforded by 



1 , V:. V 




mr3h<"'^^. 






German prisoner, badly wounded in the head, 
waiting for stretcher-bearers to carry him to the 
Canadian rear. (Canadian official photograph.) 

the fate of the Fifth Canadian Division. 
This division had been organized at Wit- 
lev Camp in England in the beginning of 
1917, as the result of a natural desire on 
the part of the Canadian authorities not 
to be outdone by the Australians. 
Throughout the year the division waited 
patiently for orders to proceed to France 
— and waited in vain. Especially after 
the adoption of the principle of compul- 
sion by the Canadian government in the 
summer of 1917 their hopes rose high. 
But by the end of 1917 the immediate 
need for reinforcements at the front was 
such that it was found necessary to break 
up the division, and send it to the front 
in drafts. After nearly a year of forced 
inaction and deferred hopes, the Fifth 
Division passed out of existence. 

Sir Robert Borden introduced the Mili- 
tary Service Act into parliament on June 



44 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



11, 1917, and in spite of opposition from 
a wing of the Liberal party, it passed 
both houses by substantial majorities. 
Later in the year, when the coalition 
formed between the Conservatives and 
the conscriptionist wing of the Liberal 
party went to the polls, the Act was em- 
phatically endorsed by the electors, out- 
side of the province of Quebec. In 
operation the Act was not an unqualified 
success. It yielded at first a disappoint- 
ing number of recruits ; and in some parts 
of the country, notably in the province of 
Quebec, the exemptions granted w r ere out 
of all proportion to those granted in parts 
of the country which had already done 
their full share in the war. But the Act 
served the purpose of keeping up a suf- 
ficient flow of reinforcements for the 
troops already at the front; and from 
that point of view it was amply justified. 
The draftees called up under it proved 
to be a fine upstanding class of men, for 
the most part amenable to discipline and 
training. During 1918 tens of thousands 
of them went to France as reinforce- 
ments; and the part they played in the 



final successes of the Canadian Corps 
showed them to be capable of achieving 
results scarcely less splendid than the 
volunteers who had preceded them. 

The total number of enlistments in 
Canada during the Great War was well 
over 530,000, or about one in twelve of 
the population. Of these over 100,000 
were obtained under the Military Service 
Act. The total number who proceeded 
overseas was well over 400,000. This ef- 
fort pales into insignificance beside the 
war effort of Great Britain or France; 
and it is inferior to the effort made by 
Australia and New Zealand. But in 
comparison with the record of the United 
States, it is at least creditable, especially 
when the large proportion of French 
Canadians in Canada is taken into ac- 
count. And although the Canadian sol- 
diers enlisted in the war may not have 
been as many as they might have been, 
they were all of the best stamp; and if 
Canada's contribution to the war was a 
little deficient in quantity, it was not de- 
ficient in quality. 




Canadians In The Imperial Forces 



CHAPTER VIII 



SCARCITY OF OFFICERS IN THE BRITISH ARMY — CANADIANS 
TAKE OUT COMMISSIONS — CANADIANS IN THE ROYAL A1B FORCE 

— CANADIAN ACES CANADIANS SECONDED TO THE IMPERIALS 

— ON THE LINE OF COMMUNICATIONS — SPECIAL POSITIONS — 
THE NEWFOUNDLAND REGIMENT — CANADIANS IN THE BRITISH 
NAVY. 



Canada's war effort has not been lim- 
ited to the troops that wear the maple 
leaf badge. She has contributed in addi- 
tion thousands of the best and bravest of 
her sons to the military, naval, and air 
forces of Great Britain. Complete fig- 
ures with regard to Canadian enlistments 
in the British forces will probably never 
be available. But the fact that at one- 
time approximately one-third of the Brit- 
ish airmen were Canadian born, serves as 
an index to the considerable numbers of 
Canadians who fought with the Impe- 
rials. 

As early as 1915, owing to the way in 
which the British War Office had used up 
much of its best material in the first bat- 
tles of the war, there was already a need 
for suitable candidates for commissions in 
the British army. The need was partly 
supplied by numbers of Canadians. Not 
only were many young Canadian officers, 
mostly university undergraduates, sent 
over to England; but many Canadians 
who had enlisted in the ranks, both in the 
British Army and in the Canadian Con- 
tingents, were able to obtain commissions 
with the Imperials. 

From an early date, a remarkable num- 
ber of these expressed a preference for 
the aerial side of warfare. There were at 
this period two air services in England, 
the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal 
Naval Air Service; and into both of these 
the Canadians flocked. Their dash, their 
self-reliance, their willingness to take 
chances, rendered them as a rule excellent 



air-fighters. It was not long before they 
had won a reputation in the air, and fur- 
ther Canadian enlistments were frankly 
welcomed by Adastral House. From 
1915 to the end of the war a constant 
stream of Canadians, therefore, poured 
into the air service of the Empire. Some 
si I u;i( Irons in France, indeed, came to be 
composed almost wholly of Canadians. 

The achievements of the Canadian air- 
men were indeed brilliant. It is only nec- 
essary to mention the names of Bishop, 
Collishaw. Barker, and a host of other 
Canadian "aces" to bring home the part 
that Canadian airmen played in the war. 
Bishop held the record for the number 
of machines brought down on the British 
front, having destroyed more than seven- 
ty enemy machines, apart from many 
driven down out of control. So far as is 
known, only one French airman and one 
German airman exceeded his record. He 
won nearly every military honour which 
it was possible for a flying officer to win. 
including the Victoria Cross. The Lon- 
don Gazette notice of the award of the 
Victoria Cross to him contains such a 
thrilling story that it is worth reprinting 
in full: 

"V. C. August 10, 1917: Capt. Wm. 
Avery Bishop. 

"For most conspicuous bravery, deter- 
mination, and skill. Captain Bishop, who 
had been sent out to work independently, 
flew first of all to an enemy aerodrome; 
finding no machine about, he flew to an- 



46 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



other aerodrome about three miles south- 
east, which was at least twelve miles the 
other side of the line. Seven machines, 
some with their engines running, were on 
the ground. He attacked these from 
about fifty feet, and a mechanic, who was 
starting one of the engines, was seen to 
fall. One of the machines got off the 
ground, but at a height of sixty feet Cap- 
tain Bishop fired fifteen rounds into it 
at very close range, and it crashed to the 
ground. A second machine got off the 
ground, into which he fired thirty rounds 
at 150 yards range, and it fell into a tree. 



for one of the deeds of derring-do per- 
formed by a paladin of the Crusades. 
Nor did mediaeval knight ever encounter 
adventures half so many or half so thrill- 
ing as this modern knight errant of the 
air. During his first five months' fighting 
in the air, Bishop fought no less than one 
hundred and ten single combats with the 
enemy, with a total of no less than seventy 
machines destroyed or driven down out 
of control. On one occasion he fell 4,000 
feet with his machine in flames, and es- 
caped unhurt. 

Scarcelv less remarkable than the rec- 




A row of the Aeroplanes operated by Canadian officers of a R. A. F. squadron in France. Many 
Canadian flyers made a special record in the Imperial air forces, their skill and daring winning the 
admiration of the army and aiding materially in driving the Hun from the air at critical stages of the 
war. 



Two more machines then rose from the 
aerodrome. One of these lie engaged at 
the height of 1,000 feet, emptying the rest 
of his drum of ammunition. This ma- 
chine crashed 300 yards from the aero- 
drome, after which Captain Bishop 
emptied a whole drum into the fourth 
hostile machine, and then flew back to his 
station. Four hostile scouts were about 
1000 feet above him for about a mile of 
his return journey, but they would not 
attack. His machine was very badly shot 
about by machine-gun fire from the 
ground." 

If the necessary substitutions were 
made — if the desert were substituted for 
the air, and the battle-horse for the battle- 
plane— this adventure might well stand 



ord of Bishop was that of Collishaw on 
the Western front and Barker on the 
Italian front. Collishaw, who was 
awarded the D. S. O. for "great gallantry 
and skill in all his combats", had a total 
of machines to his credit only a few less 
than that of Bishop: and the decorations 
won by Barker in his air-fighting actually 
exceeded in number and variety those won 
by Bishop. Nor should mention be omit- 
ted of the marvellous achievements of 
many less famous Canadian airmen. 
Hervey, a Canadian in the Royal Naval 
Air Service, won the D. S. C. "for tack- 
ling ten Gothas single-handed in a Ger- 
man raid and bringing down two of 
them". Hobbs. another Canadian in the 
Royal Naval Air Service, won the D. S. 



CANADIANS IX THE IMPERIAL FORCES 



47 



O. and the D. S. C. for bringing down a 
Zeppelin and for demolishing three sub- 
marines. And so one might go on with 
an enumeration of Canadian exploits in 
the air. Nowhere did Canadian pluck 
and valour shine more brilliantly than in 
the achievements of the hoys from Can- 
ada who fought in both branches of the 
Royal Air Force. 

In addition to the thousands of Cana- 
dians who enlisted with the Imperials. 
there were many Canadian officers who 



training school for cadets in the Royal 
Air Force. Major-Gen. Lipsett, who 
commanded for a long time the Third 
Canadian Division at the front, was se- 
lected for a higher position on the staff 
of one of the British armies. Canadian 
officers who had a knowledge of French 
and German wee seconded to the Impe- 
rials as intelligence officers; and Cana- 
dian officers unfit for service in the front 
line were employed in such formations as 
the Salvage Corps. In other cases the 




Hidden my-teries of the famous "Q" ship of the British Navy. H. M. S. Suffolk Coast, used as a decoy 
to capture or destroy submarines. View of the dummy deckhouse, showing the gun which was concealed 
until the iron doors fell at a signal from the bridge. 



were seconded from the Canadian Expe- 
ditionary Force to the Imperial army. 
In some cases these officers were asked for 
by the War Office on account of special 
qualifications. Many Canadians with a 
knowledge of chemistry Avere told off for 
duty with the Ministry of Munitions. 
The commandant of the Canadian Train- 
ing School for officers and cadets at Bex- 
hill-on-Sea was so successful that he was 
borrowed by the British to command the 



Imperials made places for Canadians who 
were surplus to the establishment of the 
Overseas Military Forces of Canada. 
( )wing to the method of recruiting in Can- 
ada, under which battalions were for long 
recruited instead of drafts, many battal- 
ions had to be broken up on arrival in 
England: and many senior officers in the 
Canadian forces consequently became 
surplus. Numbers of these officers re- 
verted to the rank of lieutenant, and went 



48 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



to the front as reinforcements. Others 
were not able or were not willing to do 
this; and for many of these places were 
found by the War Office on the lines of 
communication. The variety of work 
performed by these officers had in it 
something of the amusing. Some became 
town majors or area commandants; others 
became burial officers or railway transport 
officers. Some commanded laundries or 
bath-houses behind the lines; others coin- 



One of the most remarkable romances of 
the war was the career of a Canadian 
financier, Sir Max Aitken, afterwards 
Lord Beaverbrook. From being first the 
Canadian eye-witness at the front, and 
then Canadian War Records officer, he 
became a member of the British Cabinet, 
and head of the Ministry of Information; 
and the propaganda conducted in the last 
year of the war by his department had, in 
the opinion of shrewd observers, no in- 




Lieut.-Com. Harold Autor, V. C, D. S. C, captain of the "Q" ship, Suffolk Coast, appearing up the hidden 
hatchway to the bridge, on board the famous submarine decoy ship. 



manded Chinese labour battalions or 
English works companies. One Cana- 
dian officer, who was in peace time a pro- 
fessor of botany at an American univer- 
sity, did such good work in promoting 
agricultural production behind the lines 
that he was given oversight of all agri- 
cultural operations on the British front. 
The part that some Canadians came to 
play in the prosecution of the war had in 
it, indeed, elements of the spectacular. 



considerable influence in weakening the 
morale of the enemy peoples. Another 
Canadian, who went overseas as the adju- 
tant of a Montreal battalion, became sec- 
retary of the British War Mission to the 
United States, and was knighted by the 
king. A Canadian contractor from To- 
ronto rose to have charge of road con- 
struction behind the British lines in 
France. Canadian scientific men did 
splendid work on the Inventions Board 



CANADIANS IN THE IMPERIAL FORCES 



49 



appointed by the British government, es- 
pecially in developing devices used in the 
anti-submarine warfare. In the wider 
sphere of Imperial war effort, many indi- 
vidual Canadians were not found wanting 
when weighed in the balance. 

Something should be said also about 
Canada's part in the Great War on its 
naval side. Unfortunately, when the war 
broke out, Canada had a navy composed 
of only two training ships, one of which 
was dismantled. Immediately on the out- 
break of war. the Canadian government 
purchased two submarines, for the pur- 
pose of defending the coast of British 
Columbia from the attack of German 
raiders, which seemed imminent at that 
time. And at a later stage of the war, 
the Canadian government organized a 
fleet of small coastal patrol vessels of the 
trawler and drifter type, for the purpose 
of defending the Atlantic seaboard from 
submarine attack. But at no period was 
Canada able to play tiie glorious part in 
the war on the high seas played, for in- 
stance, by the naval forces of Australia. 
Her chief contribution to the naval side 
of the war was in the recruits she fur- 
nished to the British navy. The fact that 
Canada had no navy of her own worthy 
of the name, meant that those Canadians 
who preferred sea-fighting to land-fight- 
ing had to take service with the Royal 
Navy or the Royal Naval Volunteer Re- 
serve. In all nearly 2,000 Canadians 
were enrolled in the naval services of the 
Empire. A large number of these had 
commissions in the British Auxiliary Pa- 
trol Service: and scores of the little motor 
launches or "scooters" which did such 
yeoman service in coping with the Ger- 
man submarine menace were commanded 
by young Canadian naval officers. In the 
operations off Zeebrugge and Ostend in 
the spring of 191 is. in which the old Vin- 
dictive figured so gloriously, some of the 
most hazardous details were in the hands 
of these motor launch commanders. 
Other Canadians were found on sub- 
marines, torpedo-boat destroyers, and — 
to a less extent — on larger warships, all 



over the Seven Seas. And in the mer-" 
chant marine, that splendid body of fear- 
less civilian sailors who daily braved the 
nerve-racking menace of the German sub- 
marine torpedo, Canadian sailormen did 
their bit with no less of fortitude and 
heroism than the sailors of any other part 
of the British Empire. Canada's naval 
effort was, it is true, small and inade- 
quate; but what there was of it was 
splendid and worthy. 

Lastly, mention should be made of the 
part played by Newfoundland in the war. 
Newfoundland is not a partner in the 
Canadian Confederation, but it is so close- 
ly connected with Canada both historically 
and actually that a reference to its war 
effort may fittingly be included here. On 
the outbreak of war. Newfoundland, 
which is England's oldest colony, prompt- 
ly offered a regiment for service at the 
front. The Royal Newfoundland Regi- 
ment, as it was named, joined the First 
Canadian contingent on its way across 
the Atlantic in October, 1914. It was not, 
however, included in the Canadian forces, 
but was made part of a British division 
which went to Gallipoli. At Gallipoli it 
won for itself a high reputation; it 
reached a point nearer Constantinople 
than any other, and it had the honour of 
being the last unit to leave the peninsula. 
From Gallipoli the Newfoundlanders 
were sent to France, and in the Battle of 
the Somme, both during the first assault 
and during the later stages, they fought 
with a gallantry that called forth univer- 
sal comment. The following year they 
did good work at Monchy, near Arras, 
and in the third battle of Vpres; and in 
1918 they played their part in repelling 
the German offensive, and in driving 
home the allied counter-offensive. Each 
year their casualties were pathetic; yet in 
comparison with their numbers, no troops 
gained a more justly famous reputation 
than the Royal Newfoundland Regiment. 



50 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 




The Civilian War Effort 



CHAPTER IX 

MUNITION-MAKING — FOOD PRODUCTION AND FOOD ECONOMY — 

THE CANADIAN RED CROSS THE PATRIOTIC FUND — TAG DAYS 

THE SPIRIT OF THE PRESS THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE 

CHURCHES — THE WORK OF THE WOMEN — THE SLACKERS AND 
THE PROFITEERS THE CASUALTY LISTS "IF YE BREAK 

faith". 



There was a home front as well as a 
front in France and Flanders; and the 
one was hardly less important than the 
other. If the efforts of the Canadian sol- 
diers overseas had not been loyally sec- 
onded by the civilian war effort at home, 
the story of Canada's part in the war 
might be very different from what it is. 
Nor were there lacking elements of self- 
sacrifice and devotion in the story of most 
of the men and women who stayed at 
home, any more than in the story of the 
men and women who went overseas. 

The phase of civilian war effort in Can- 
ada most closely connected with the win- 
ning of the war was probably the making 
of munitions. Vast contracts were let in 
Canada not only for the manufacture of 
munitions for the Canadian army, but for 
the British and the American armies as 
well. It is estimated that there were in 
Canada in 1918 no less than 2.50,000 
workers, men and women, engaged in the 
making of war munitions of all kinds; 
and there were perhaps another .50,000 
engaged in handling these munitions in 
transportation and in other collateral or- 
ganizations. To take only one item, 
Canadian plants had turned out by the 
end of 1918, at a moderate estimate, no 
less than 7-5 million shells, of all grades 
from the 18-pounder to the 9.2". In the 
case of the 18-pounder it is a remarkable 
fact that in the last six months of r.>17 
no less than .5.5 per cent of the total Brit- 
ish output of shrapnel shells of this type 



came from Canada. In the manufacture 
of munitions for the British government 
alone, over a billion and a half of dollars 
have been expended. 

But shells are only one item in Canada's 
war output. Included in the general term 
of munitions there have been turned out 
in Canada explosives, aeroplanes, wooden 
ships, steel ships, military uniforms, boots, 
maple leaf badges, rifles, haversacks, 
tents, and a hundred other items, the total 
value of which staggers comprehension. 

Hardly less important than the making 
of munitions was increased food produc- 
tion in Canada during the war, by means 
of which the food deficiencies of the coun- 
tries of Europe were partially made up. 
In spite of the great scarcity of labour in 
Canada, caused by the hundreds of thou- 
sands of enlistments in the army, Cana- 
dian farmers and ranchers succeeded in 
materially increasing their output be- 
tween 1914. and 1918. At the same time, 
the general public, by careful economy 
and self-sacrifice, reduced the consump- 
tion of food in Canada. The result was 
that Canada was able to export to the 
war-ridden countries of Furope food- 
stuffs out of all proportion to what it had 
exported before the war. Where the an- 
nual export of eggs before 1914 was only 
1.58.217 doz. it had jumped by 1918 to 
4.H!)K,7!>.'5 doz. The annual export of 
wheat flour jumped from 434,969 barrels 
to 9,931,148 barrels; and the export of 
beef from 5,217,652 lbs. to 8fi..5G.5,104 



52 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



lbs. These figures are perhaps the most 
striking, and other exports did not show 
such a stupendous increase; but taken all 
in all, Canadian food exports during the 
war more than quadrupled themselves. 
This fact alone is a sufficient commentary 
on the patriotic efforts of the Canadian 
producer and the self-sacrifice of the 
Canadian consumer. 

Nor did the Canadian public forget 
Rudyard Kipling's injunction to "pay, 



the Red Cross Society. This society 
exists for the purpose of supplementing 
the work of the Army Medical Corps ?n 
furnishing hospital supplies and comforts 
for the sick and wounded. An important 
and admirable feature of its work has 
been the care of Canadian prisoners of 
war in Germany and elsewhere; had it 
not been for the parcels of food and cloth- 
ing sent by the Red Cross to the Canadian 
inmates of the enemy prison camps, many 




Canadian girls making aeroplane wings at the Leaside Barracks of the Royal Air Force, near Toron- 
to. They became adepts at the work and realized its importance to the flyers who braved the dangers 
of the air. 



pay, pay". Dominion, provincial, and 
municipal taxation went up by leaps and 
bounds to meet the expenses of the war; 
and vast sums of money were borrowed 
by the government from the people. Rut 
over and above the financial effort of the 
Canadian people in these directions, pri- 
vate purse-strings were opened with al- 
most incredible generosity for the support 
of a number of voluntary war organiza- 
tions. Among these, for instance, was 



of these unfortunate men might never 
have seen again their Canadian homes. 
Contributions to the Canadian Red Cross 
during the war totalled, in cash and sup- 
plies/ approximately $20,000,000. In 
addition to these contributions, more than 
$6,000,000 went to the British Red Cross; 
and to the French Red Cross, the Polish 
Relief Fund, and the Belgian Relief 
Fund, millions more. The number of 
voluntary war organizations that ap- 



THE CIVILIAN WAR EFFORT 



53 



pealed, and appealed successfully, to the 
Canadian public were indeed legion. To 
the military work of the V. M. C. A. 
alone no less than 8.5.000,000 was contrib- 
uted. 

Tbe most extraordinary financial con- 
tribution of Canada, however, outside the 
ordinary channels of taxation, was the 
Canadian Patriotic Fund, which was es- 
tablished for looking after the dependents 
of Canadian soldiers overseas. The 
Canadian army was at the beginning of 
the war one of the best paid in the world; 
but the Canadian people had a laudable 
desire that the dependents of the men who 
were righting should not want for any- 
thing while their bread-winners were 
away. The Patriotic Fund was therefore 
formed, and a scale of allowances, over 
and above the allowances of the army, 
was granted to needy dependents of pri- 
vate soldiers and non-commissioned offi- 
cers. Including the Manitoba Patriotic 
Fund, which was a separate organization. 
the total of Canadian contributions to the 
Fund was between .$40,000,000 and 
$.50,000,000 — an amazing sum when it is 
remembered that it was composed wholly 
of free gifts. 

Taken all together, it is probable that 
voluntary contributions in Canada for all 
kinds of war purposes reached the sum of 
over $ 100.000,000. The means by which 
this money was raised would make a story 
in itself. Special appeals, whirlwind 
campaigns, special collections in the 
churches, tag-days, — all were employed. 
Tag-days proved to be among the most 
successful devices for getting money for 
patriotic purposes; and the man on tbe 
street delved down into his pockets with 
extraordinary patience as one tag-day 
succeeded another. 

In maintaining the home front in Can- 
ada, much of the credit must go to the 
Canadian newspapers. The spirit of the 
press was never better in Canada than 
during the war. With rare exceptions, 
newspapers of every political stripe 
preached the paramount duty of winning 
the war. If there was criticism of the 




A British woman veterinary administering a 
"blueball" to a horse on "His Majesty's service.' 
(British official photograph. > 



government, it was generally criticism 
that was intended to lie helpful rather 
than obstructive. Every worthy object 
of public support was heartily com- 
mended to newspaper readers. The 
Canadian Associated Press, during the 
later stages of the fighting, kept a corre- 
spondent continuously with the Canadian 
troops in France, so that the people of 
Canada would be able to yet news of their 
own soldiers through Canadian sources; 
and many newspapers had special corre- 
spondents of their own in England and 
France. The work of these correspon- 
dents, in keeping up the morale of Cana- 
da's civilian population, was no small 
factor in aiding Canada's civilian war 
effort. 

Good work in the same direction was 
done by the churches. Although the sym- 
pathy of the churches was naturally with 
peace rather than war, they realized at 



54 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



the outset that peace was only to be at- 
tained through the winning of the war; 
and with one accord they bent their efforts 
toward this end. In encouraging enlist- 
ments, in asking for contributions for Red 
Cross and other benevolent objects, in 
commending to the people the Victory 
Loans of the Dominion government, they 
were not backward. Nor did their efforts 
stop short of action, apart from words. 
Many congregations made great sacri- 



doubt as to where the great churches of 
Canada stood on the vital question of the 
prosecution of the war. 

It is fitting, too, that a tribute should 
be paid here to the work of the women. 
The years of the war saw a remarkable 
spread, in Canada as well as in other parts 
of the English-speaking world, of female 
suffrage; and rightly so, for the women 
of Canada showed themselves during the 
war deserving of the franchise in many 




A British factory with women workers busily engaged in making fuse plugs for large shells. This 
factory in pre-war times made cotton-spinning machinery. The women here as elsewhere proved them- 
selves skillful and speed}' mechanics. (British official photograph.) 

different ways. Statistics, however com- 
plete, can give only an imperfect idea of 
the services which they rendered; but the 
following are a few facts bearing on the 
subject. Fully 2,000 women, enlisted as 
nursing sisters in the Canadian Expedi- 
tionary Force; and thousands more 
served as V. A. D.'s either in Canada, 
England, or France. Over 1,000 were 
employed by the Royal Air Force in Can- 



fices in order to enable their pastors to go 
to the front as chaplains; and not a few 
clergymen proved their quality by enlist- 
ing in the ranks as private soldiers. Con- 
spicuous among these were many French 
priests of the province of Quebec, exiles 
from the land of their birth, who neverthe- 
less went back to France, and won as poi- 
lus in the French army death or glory on 
the battlefield. There never was any 



THE CIVILIAN WAR EFFORT 



55 



ada on a wide range of duties, including 
motor transport work; and numbers went 
overseas as ambulance drivers or on other 
war work. The number of women em- 
ployed in munition factories at one time 
exceeded 30,000. Between 5,000 and 
6,000 were employed in the civil service, 
on work created for the most part by the 
war; and no less than 7-5,000 gave their 
services free to assist in the compilation 
of the national register in June, 1918. 
Figures are not available to show the ex- 
tent to which women in commercial and 
industrial life replaced men who had been 
called to the colours, or the extent to 
which they took a share in agricultural 
work. But there were many thousands 
of women in banks, offices, and factories 
which before the war had almost exclu- 
sively a male staff; and by the end of the 
war women were working on the farms in 
all parts of the country. Even among 
women who were not able to take a more 
direct part in the civilian war effort of the 
country, there was few who were not per- 
petually knitting socks for the soldiers at 
the front. 

Canada had of course its slackers, — 
men who through cowardice or love of 
ease or of money refused to bear the 
white man's burden, and women who 
through selfishness refused to make the 
sacrifices t'lat patriotism demanded. Can- 
ada had too its profiteers, men who saw in 
the world's agony nothing but an oppor- 
tunity for the amassing of money. But 
these people existed in other countries as 
well; and the hope may be expressed that 
they were not more numerous in Canada 
thah elsewhere. 

For those who saw the path of duty 
and followed it, the war was a time of 
trial and testing that bore fruit in a 
clearer vision and a firmer faith. As the 



casualty lists poured in, with their tale of 
death and wounds, many a mother and 
many a wife learnt the solace of pride and 
the courage of faith. In many a Cana- 
dian home there went on a spiritual strug- 
gle no less profound than the physical 
struggle on the battlefield; and victory 
crowned the one no less often than it 
crowned the other. The part of those 
who stayed at home was sometimes harder 
than that of those who left home; and the 
glory of the latter sometimes transcended 
the glory of the former. 

Some of the most beautiful lines in- 
spired by the war, lines written by a 
Canadian soldier-poet who afterwards 
died in France, set the standard for the 
Canadian people to live up to in the Great 
Conflict : 

In Flanders fields the poppies blow 
Between the crosses, row on row, 

That mark our place; and in the sky 
The larks, still bravely singing, fly, 
Scarce heard amid the guns below. 

We are the dead. Short days ago 
We loved, felt dawn and sunset glow, 
Loved and were loved; and now we lie 
In Flanders fields. 

Take up our quarrel with the foe, 
To you from failing hands we throw 

The torch, be yours to hold it high. 

If ye break faith with us who die, 
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow 
In Flanders fields. 

Thank God, the torch was caught and 
held. The Canadian people did not 
break faith with those who died. 



56 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 




Canada's War Government 



CHAPTER X 



THE BORDEN GOVERNMENT OF 1914-1917 — THE PARTY TRUCE 

THE UNION GOVERNMENT WAR FINANCE MUNITIONS — 

THE ROSS RIFLE — SHIPBUILDING — THE WAR TRADE BOARD — 

THE FOOD BOARD FUEL AND TRANSPORTATION THE WAR 

MEASURES ACT SOLDIERS' CIVIL RE-ESTABLISHMENT CAN- 
ADA AND THE EMPIRE. 



Party politics and the racial question 
have unfortunately become mixed up in 
Canada with the conduct of the war. 
Happily, however, it does not fall within 
the scope of this chronicle of Canada's 
1 art in the Great War to dwell on these 
factors in detail. To mention them is suf- 
ficient. But no account of Canada's war 
effort Avould be complete which did not 
attempt to sketch the work of Canada's 
war government, both before and after 
the formation of the Union Government 
in 1917. 

When war broke out, the Conservative 
administration of Sir Robert Borden was 
in power at Ottawa. The first war meas- 
ures adopted by the Borden government 
met with the approval of the vast major- 
ity of the Canadian people. Both the 
great parties in parliament stood behind 
the Canadian government's offer of men 
and supplies for the defence of the Em- 
pire. Both Sir Robert Borden and Sir 
Wilfrid I aurier and their supporters 
took the view that it was Canada's duty 
to strain every effort to help to defeat the 
Germans, and that the only thing that 
mattered was the winning of the war. 
The only discordant note was struck by 
Henri Bourassa and a small group of 
Quebec Nationalists. But this group was 
without influence in parliament. So far 
as Liberals and Conservatives were con- 
cerned, a party truce was declared; and 
to all intents and purposes Canada pre- 
sented a united front to the enemy. 

In time, however, the party truce broke 



down. It broke down, not over the ques- 
tion of fighting the war to a finish, but 
over the question of method. By 1917 
Sir Robert Borden had come to the con- 
clusion that, if Canada's reinforcements 
were to be kept up, compulsory military 
service would have to be introduced. A 
part of the Liberal party failed to agree 
with him, holding that the volunteer sys- 
tem had not had a fair trial. The remain- 
der of the Liberal party, however, joined 
hands with the government; and a Union 
Government of both Liberals and Con- 
servatives was formed, under the leader- 
ship of Sir Robert Borden. 

In the Union Government, out of a 
total of twenty-three ministers, no less 
than ten were prominent Liberals; and 
presumably the infusion of this new blood 
gave the government greater vigour and 
stability. But in view of the fact that 
both in this government and in that 
which preceded it the guiding hand was 
that of Sir Robert Borden, the work of 
both administrations may be dealt with 
together. 

First and foremost in importance 
comes the work of the Department of 
Finance under Sir Thomas White, for in 
the winning of the war the "silver bullet" 
played a part hardly less decisive than 
the leaden bullet. The problem con- 
fronting the Department of Finance at 
the outbreak of the war was indeed seri- 
ous. Canada was a borrowing country; 
but, aside from the United States during 
the first two or three years of the war, the 



58 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 



countries she had borrowed from were 
after 1914 not able to lend. The cost of 
the war promised to be stupendous; it 
has actually been so stupendous that the 
national debt of Canada, which before the 
war stood at about $336,000,000, quad- 
rupled in size by the end of 1918. To 
raise the money to pay for Canada's war 
expenditures, the Department of Finance 
appealed to the people of Canada, with 
the result that, especially in the Victory 
Loans of 1917 and 1918, more was ob- 



jewelry, were taxed with especial stiff- 
ness. A popular tax was the excess busi- 
ness profits tax, by which war profiteers 
were compelled to disgorge a part at 
least of their ill-gotten gains; and a new 
feature was the Dominion income tax 
inaugurated in 1918, the first instance of 
direct taxation in the federal sphere since 
the formation of the Dominion over half 
a century before. 

The problem of financing Canada's 
part in the war was greatly facilitated by 




Captain the Honorable Frederick Shaughnessy, 
clearing- the bad air from his dugout with the 
purpose. 

tained than was asked for. In order to 
pay the interest on the debts thus con- 
tracted, and to meet also certain current 
war expenditures, increased taxation was 
necessarily imposed. The form which 
this taxation took met with general ap- 
proval. In addition to increased customs 
duties and higher rates of excise, a special 
war tax was placed on railway tickets, 
telegrams, cheques, letters, telegrams, 
patent medicines, and amusements. Lux- 
uries, such as tobacco, motor-cars, and 



son of the well-known Canadian railroad magnate, 
aid of a captured German machine made for this 



the very large orders for war munitions 
placed by the British government in Can- 
ada, orders which the Canadian govern- 
ment was largely instrumental in secur- 
ing. The total credits established in Can- 
ada on behalf of the British government 
amounted to considerably over half a bil- 
lion dollars, a large part of which went to 
carry on the operations of the Imperial 
Munitions Board in Canada. At the same 
time, Great Britain made very large ad- 
vances to Canada, chiefly for the mainte- 



CANADA'S WAK GOVERNMENT 



59 



nance of Canadian troops overseas. These 
credits, as it happened, very nearly can- 
celled each other; and a great simplifica- 
tion of the war finance of hoth Canada 
and Great Britain was the result. 

The munitions manufactured in Can- 
ada reached as a rule a high standard. 
Over one item, however, the Ross rifle, — 
the Canadian service arm in which the 
government, through a contract with the 
manufacturers dating from long before 
the war, were especially interested, — an 



the evidence as to lack of confidence 
which the men at the front had in the 
weapon became too strong to be doubted, 
Sir Robert Borden and the Cabinet can- 
celled the Canadian contract with the 
Ross rifle factory, and armed the Cana- 
dians in England and France with the 
Lee-Enfield. The truth was that the 
Canadian Department of Militia was 
without sufficient experience of the type 
of weapons and equipment required at the 
front; and much Canadian equipment, 






mm 





Canadians at the front taking ;ulvantage of a period of rest to do a link- mending on the shirts that 

i Susie sewed for soldiers. 



unhappy controversy arose. It is unnec- 
essary here to attempt to discuss the con- 
troversy in detail. On all hands it was 
admitted that the Ross rifle was an excel- 
lent target weapon; but the fact was in- 
disputable that the men at the front lost 
confidence in it. and discarded it for the 
Lee-Enfield, the British arm, whenever 
the opportunity arose. Sir Sam Hughes, 
the Minister of Militia, was committed to, 
the support of the Ross rifle: but when 



over and above the Ross rifle, had to be 
scrapped in England, including a won- 
derful combination shield and entrench- 
ing tool, popularly known as "Sam 
Hughes' shovel." 

A little known feature of the Canadian 
government's work was its shipbuilding 
program. During the year 1918 there 
were launched in Canada no less than 112 
vessels, 59 of them steel and .V.i wooden, 
with an approximate deadweight tonnage 



60 



CANADA IX THE GREAT WAR 



of 440,000 tons; and these figures do not 
include a large number of small craft of 
less than 1,000 tons, such as trawlers and 
drifters, of which a large number have 
been built for the British government. In 
addition, contracts have been placed in 
Canada by the Department of the Naval 
Service, on behalf of the allied govern- 
ments, for a number of submarines and 
for about 000 motor submarine chasers. 
Good work was done by a number of 
boards or commissions established by the 



condition in exchange affecting Canadian 
finance and trade, it prohibited the im- 
port into Canada of non-essential articles 
such as motor-cars, perfumes, marble, 
gold and silver manufactures, pleasure 
boats, and billiard tables. The Canada 
Food Board, which was organized at the 
same time, and which succeeded to the 
duties of the former Food Controller, 
was entrusted with the double task of in- 
creasing production and promoting food 
conservation. In increasing production, 




A party of German prisoners being searched after their captnre by Canadians at Arleux and brought 
back to a trench behind the firing line. 



government. The AVar Trade Board, 
which was organized in February, 1918, 
had the threefold object of controlling the 
export from Canada of articles essential 
to war industry, the supply of which was 
limited, controlling the import into Can- 
ada of non-essential articles, and supervis- 
ing the raw materials of the country with 
a view to the most effective use of them 
in the prosecution of the war. In June, 
1918, in order to relieve an unfavorable 



it arranged for emergency agricultural 
labour on the farms during the harvest 
season, notably the labour of many thou- 
sands of schoolboys during the long vaca- 
tion; it purchased and sold at cost to the 
farmers over 1,100 tractors; and by a pub- 
licity campaign it brought home to all the 
necessity for sending vast supplies over- 
seas to the warring countries of Europe. 
In promoting food conservation, it issued 
a multitude of food regulations restrict- 



CANADA'S WAR GOVERNMENT 



61 



ing the home consumption of certain arti- 
cles of diet, ordering the use of substi- 
tutes, prohibiting waste under seven' pen- 
alties, and curbing speculation and exces- 
sive prices. It did not fix prices, as was 
done in Great Britain and to a less extent 
in the United States, with the result that 
the cost of living in Canada rose to un- 
precedented heights; but in so far as its 
work pertained to the successful prosecu- 
tion of the war, the Food Board did most 
valuable service. 

In the matter of fuel and transporta- 
tion, splendid work was done by the Fuel 
Controller and the Canadian Railway 
War Board. On nothing in Canada per- 
haps did the war place a greater strain 
than on the supply of fuel and the rail- 
way system. The Fuel Controller did 
much to stimulate the production of coal 
in Canada, to secure for Canada its fair 
allotment of coal from the United States. 
and ensure an equitable distribution 
throughout the country. Equally bene- 
ficial was the work of the Railway War 
Board. In order to meet the congestion 
of traffic on the railways produced by the 
war, and especially by the entrance of the 
United States into the war, the War 
Board brought about a co-ordination of 
the various Canadian railway lines, so 
that, as regards actual transportation, 
these were treated as a unit, and ship- 
ments were "re-routed" over whatever 
line afforded the quickest means of trans- 
port. Thanks largely to the efforts of 
the Board, Canada escaped a block of 
railway traffic such as that which the 
United States experienced in the winter 
of 1917-18. 

Long before the war ended, the gov- 
ernment took measures to prepare for the 
period of demobilization ami reconstruc- 
tion after the war. Demobilization com- 
mittees were appointed and a branch of 
the government was set up, known as the 
Department of Soldiers" Civil Re-estab- 
lishment, which was charged with looking 
after the re-absorption of the army in the 
social and economic fabric of the country. 
Under this department were placed both 
the Board of Pensions Commissioners 



and the Invalided Soldiers' Commission, 
the latter of which had already gained an 
international reputation for the success 
of its methods in refitting disabled men 
for civilian life. To cope with the gen- 
eral problem of reconstruction a special 
committee of the Cabinet was formed, 
just as a special committee of the Cabinet, 
the War Committee, had been appointed 
to supervise Canada's prosecution of the 
war. 

Throughout the course of the Great 
War the Canadian government acted in 
the closest harmony and co-operation 
with the government of Great Britain. If 
there were before the war any tendencies 
in Canada toward the dissolution of the 
bonds of Empire, those tendencies were 
obliterated as the struggle went on. In a 
very real sense, the war knit closer the 
ties that linked Canada to the mother 
country. Repeatedly the prime minister 
of Canada was called into consultation by 
the British War Cabinet; the resident 
ministers of the overseas Dominions in 
London were admitted to the sessions of 
the Imperial War Cabinet; the prime 
ministers of the Dominions were given the 
right of direct access to the prime minis- 
ter of Great Britain on matters of cabi- 
net importance. War is the great politi- 
cal solvent. The experience of common 
effort and common action which the com- 
ponent parts of the British Empire 
gained in the war will not easily pass 
away; and it may well leave after it a leg- 
acy of closer union in the future. What 
form this union may take, it will be for 
the future to decide. But that the Em- 
pire whose soldiers fought shoulder to 
shoulder on many a stricken field of bat- 
tle in the Great War. and whose peoples 
with spontaneous unanimity leapt to the 
defence of human liberty, should after 
the struggle supinely fall away and dis- 
integrate, is something which it is diffi- 
cult to believe. Much rather would one 
think that the trials and travails of the 
war will bear fruit in a purer imperialism 
and a larger patriotism; and that the 
glory that was the British Empire will 
be less than the glory that will be. 



32 



CANADA IN THE GREAT WAR 




CANADA'S WAR GOVERNMENT 



63 



so 6 «» 




r,l 



CANADA IX THE GREAT WAR 




PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY 



D Duncan-Clark, Samuel John 
?' Pictorial history of the 

uo great war 
1919b