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POPULATION & ECONOMY 
EDENT ON, NORTH CAROL! N A 




http://www.archive.org/details/populationeconomOOeden 



TOWN COUNCIL 



John A. Mitchener - Mayor 
Leo Katkaveck David G. White 

Henry G. Quinn Luther C. Parks 

Edwin Buff lap Thomas H. Shepard 

W. B. Gardner, Town Administrator 



PLANNING AND ZONING COMMISSION 



E. L. Ho Howe 11 - Chairman 
Larry Dowd N. J. George 

William M. Cozart F. A. Jordan 

Charlie W. Swanner Rev. Fred Summers 

R. Graham White, Jr. Robert L. Bunch, Jr. 

C. Yates Parrish, Jr 

George I. Woodall, Jr. - Planning Consultant 



POPULATION AND ECONOMY 
EDENTON, NORTH CAROLINA 



TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA 
DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT 
DIVISION OF COMMUNITY PLANNING 
George J. Monaghan - Administrator 

COASTAL AREA OFFICE 
WASHINGTON, NORTH CAROLINA 
James R. Hinkley - Director 



PROJECT STAFF 

George I. Woodall, Jr., Project Planner 

J. Paul Combs, Economist 

Douglas L. Wiggins, Chief Draftsman 

Mitchel R. Woolard, Draftsman 

Wade C. Elliott, Jr., Draftsman 

Mary E. Noe, Secretary 

Gay Brantley, Cover Design 



May 1967 



Price $1.00 



£P/a<nn,€n,<j and 'faning ^onwnibbtcti 

Town of Edenton, N. C. 

May 30, 1967 



Mr. W. B. Gardner 
Town Administrator 
Town of Edenton 
Edenton, North Carolina 

Dear Mr. Gardner: 

I am pleased to present to you for transmission to the Town Council 
the Edenton Planning and Zoning Commission study of the population and 
economy of Edenton, North Carolina. This study is the first of two 
studies leading to the future development of a land use plan for the 
Town. As such, it represents an analysis of past, present, and future 
trends of the Town's population and economy, and outlines certain 
recommendations pertaining to future development. 

It is hoped that this and future studies of the Commission will not 
only be of value to the Town Council, but to all citizens of Edenton and 
Chowan County. 



Respectfully yours, 



E. L. Holloweli 
Chairman 





LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL 




LIST OF MAPS, TABLES, AND CHARTS 


I 


INTRODUCTION 




Regional Setting 




Transportation 


II 


POPULATION 




PAST TRENDS 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ix 

1 

2 

5 

7 

7 

Migration 8 

Natural Increase 13 

Geographical Distribution 15 

CURRENT POPULATION DATA 18 

Age, Sex, and Race 19 

Education 22 

Housing Conditions 25 

Current Population 27 

PROJECTED POPULATION 30 

:il INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT 33 

INTRODUCTION 33 

INCOME 34 

EMPLOYMENT 38 

Labor Force 39 

Occupation 42 

Unemployment 44 

Seasonal Employment 47 

Worker Mobility 49 

Labor Market Area 50 

Potential Labor Supply 50 

IV ECONOMIC ACTIVITY 55 

INTRODUCTION 55 

AGRICULTURE 56 

FORESTRY AND FISHING 61 

MANUFACTURING 64 

Projected Manufacturing Employment 66 

TOURIST TRADE 67 

COMMERCE 71 

Retail Trade Area 72 

Retail Sales 72 

V SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 79 

POPULATION SUMMARY 79 

POPULATION RECOMMENDATIONS 83 

ECONOMIC SUMMARY 86 

ECONOMIC RECOMMENDATIONS 89 

VI APPENDICES 94 



LIST OF MAPS, CHARTS, AND TABLES 



Page 



MAPS 1. Regional Setting 3 

2. Retail Trade Area 73 

CHARTS 1. Net Migration, Chowan County 10 

2. Net Migration, Edenton 11 

3. Natural Increase and Out-Migration 14 

4. Chowan County Population 16 

5. Rural Population 18 

6. Population Distribution. . . 20 

7. Nonwhite Population Distribution 21 

8. Substandard Housing 26 

9. Income Distribution 35 

10. Occupation of Employed Workers 42 

11. Ratio of Insured Unemployment 46 

12. Effect of Small Peanut Crop 56 

13. Index of Retail Sales 75 

TABLES 1. Children Under Five Years Old 15 

2 . Med ian Age 22 

3. Median School Years Completed 23 

4. Comparative Characteristics. . 24 

5. Past Population of Edenton 29 

6. Insured Employment 31 

7. Projected Population 32 

8. Median Nonwhite Farm Income 37 

9. Income Distribution 38 

10. Civilian Labor Force 40 

11. Work Force Estimates, Chowan County 41 

12. Rate of Unemployment 45 

13. Work Force Estimates, Edenton 48 

14. Commuting Pattern, Chowan County 49 

15. Recruitable Labor For Industry 52 

16. Farm Acreage and Value 57 

17. Farm Operators and Workers 58 

18. Value of Farm Products Sold 59 

19. Forest Statistics 62 

20. Average Manufacturing Employment 65 

21. Travel in North Carolina 68 

22. North Carolina Travel and Transport Industry.. 69 

23 . Retai 1 Trade Trends 76 

24. Gross Retail Sales 77 



LX 



INTRODUCTION 



I INTRODUCTION 

Early in 1966, Edenton's first planning board was appoin- 
ted by the town council. This board is charged with the respon- 
sibility of planning for the orderly growth and development of 
the Town of Edenton. Specifically, the planning board's duty 
is to make careful study of the resources, possibilities, and 
needs of the town, particularly with respect to conditions which 
may be injurious to the public welfare or otherwise injurious, 
and to make plans for the development of the town. 

Soon after its members were appointed, the planning board 
began a comprehensive planning program leading toward the pro- 
duction of a master plan for the development of the town. Pro- 
fessional assistance in the collection and analysis of data is 
provided by the North Carolina Department of Conservation and 
Development, Division of Community Planning. 

Necessarily, one of the first steps in the comprehensive 
planning process is the collection and analysis of pertinent 
data. A population and economy study such as this should serve 
two purposes. Its primary purpose is to provide data which will 
be useful in formulating a plan for the orderly physical growth 



1 North Carolina General Statutes, 160-22. 



and development of the subject area. This study provides an 
inventory of the population and economic resources of Edenton 
and the surrounding area. Based on an analysis of past trends 
and present conditions the population and economic growth are 
projected into the future. This information combined with a 
survey and analysis of land use in Edenton will form the basis 
of a land development plan for the town. 

The secondary purpose of this study is to provide informa- 
tion which will aid those people who are concerned with the 
continued economic growth and development of Edenton and Chowan 
County. The information contained herein should be as useful 
to people concerned with economic planning as it is to those 
people concerned with physical planning. It is hoped that this 
study will be useful in identifying sectors of the economy with 
underdeveloped potential which may be exploited in the future. 

Regional Setting 

With the increasing mobility being enjoyed today, the 
small community is becoming more related to larger areas known 
as regions, and it is becoming more directly affected by the 
forces at work in these regions. Therefore, a portion of this 
report has been devoted to a brief analysis of the region in 
which Edenton is located. 



The word "region" is primarily used to describe a group 
of geographically contiguous areas which possess certain 
common or complementary characteristics or which are linked by 
extensive interareal activity or flows. The region as defined 
here consists of the shaded area on Map One. 

Edenton is located in Chowan County in the northeastern 
section of North Carolina. This is primarily an agricultural 
area, and until recently, industrialization had progressed 
very slowly. However, many small towns in this part of North 
Carolina are beginning to attract new industries and are 
awakening to a realization of the area's industrial potential. 

From the Regional Setting Map, it is apparent that Edenton 
is geographically closer to the Norfolk, Virginia area than to 
the large urban areas in North Carolina. The most populous 
town within a 50 mile radius of Edenton is Elizabeth City 
which serves as a sub-regional wholesale distribution center. 
The core area for this region is the Norfolk Metropolitan Area 
which exerts a great influence on Northeastern North Carolina. 



Harvey S. Perloff, and others, Regions, Resources and 
Economic Growth , Lincoln, 1960, p. 4. 



This is true due to the geographical location of the area in 
relation to Norfolk and because of rail and highway connections 
between Norfolk and Northeastern North Carolina. 

Transportation 

Edenton is easily accessible from the surrounding area by 
highway or railroad transportation. U. S. Highway 17, a major 
north-south traffic artery, connects Edenton with Norfolk and 
with Wilmington, North Carolina, and North Carolina Highway 32 
connects the town with Gates and Tyrrell Counties. Edenton 1 s 
rail transportation is handled by the Norfolk and Southern 
Railroad which serves the town and connects to other major lines, 
giving Edenton railroad connections with many parts of the 
country. 

In addition to overland transportation, Edenton is access- 
ible by water or air transportation. A 12 ft. deep channel 
(150 ft. wide) is maintained in the Albemarle Sound and the 
Chowan River at Edenton. The channel is not deep enough for a 
major shipping channel, but it can handle barges and tugboats 
as well as large fishing and pleasure craft. The nearest 
commercial airport is at Elizabeth City, 30 miles from Edenton. 
However, if necessary, commercial airplanes can land at the 
Edenton Municipal Airport which is equipped to accommodate large 



commercial craft. The airport, the remnants of a Marine Corps 
air base, is not used commercially, although a 5,000 ft. run- 
way is maintained for local use. 



POPULATION 



II POPULATION 

When a planning board begins to undertake the task of 
planning for its community's future physical and economic growth, 
one of the first steps in the process is the collection and 
analysis of pertinent data. The Board must necessarily become 
familiar with the social and economic trends within its province. 
Therefore, the purpose of this report is to provide for the 
Planning Board and interested citizens of Edenton the necessary 
background information on the local population. In this chapter 
growth trends and race, age, and sex characteristics of the 
population are analyzed and the population is projected into the 
future. 

PAST TRENDS 

Since 1910 the population of Chowan County, Edenton Town- 
ship, and the Town of Edenton have increased in every decade 
except two. The first decrease recorded was during the decade 
from 1910-1920 and the second was from 1950-1960, During the 
remainder of the 1910-1960 period, each area experienced an 
almost constant rate of growth. However, the growth rate was 
much lower than the rate of natural increase. Because of loss 



Natural increase is the amount by which the total number 
of births exceeds the total number of deaths. 



of agricultural employment opportunities and the slow expansion 
of industrial activity in Chowan County, a high rate of out- 
migration has persisted. 

Migration 

From 1920-1950 Chowan County experienced a fairly constant 
rate of out-migration, but in the ten year period from 1950-1960, 
the amount of out-migration more than doubled that of the previ- 
ous decade. Out-migration from 1940-1950 totaled 1,341 persons, 
yet the out-migration from 1950-1960 rose to 3,016 persons, over 
24 percent of the 1950 population. 

The trends must be analyzed to determine why out-migration 
increased by such a great amount. Analysis of the trends show 
whether the increase was due to unusual circumstances which are 
not expected to recur or whether it indicates a trend toward a 
higher level of out-migration in the future. As farm technology 
has increased over the past few decades, there has been a rapid 
decrease in the demand for agricultural workers. This has 
caused rural people to turn to the cities and towns in search of 
employment. Until recently, the majority of these people in 
Eastern North Carolina have been unable to find employment in 
the local towns. Therefore, for economic reasons, they have been 



Out-migration is the movement of people out of an area. 



forced to move out of the area. In Chowan County from 1950- 
1960 the town of Edenton was not only unable to provide employ- 
ment for local displaced farm workers, but it was also unable 
to provide employment for all of the would-be workers residing 
in the town. The town population, therefore, decreased by 10 
persons during the decade. However, if an area containing 464 
people had not been annexed by the town during the decade, the 
town population would have decreased by 474 persons or 10.6 
percent. This indicates a declining local economy during the 
1950-1960 decade. 

Charts One and Two show the out-migration of people from 
Chowan County and Edenton by race, sex, and age group as a per- 
cent of the 1950 population. These charts are distorted to a 
certain degree since deaths are included in the out-migration. 
However, for age groups below 45, deaths do not occur in a suf- 
ficient quantity to create a strong bias in the chart. The 
bulk of out-migration occurs among young adults. These are the 
people which a town or county can least afford to lose. The 
local people have invested a large amount of money for the 
education of this group, and for every young adult that migrates 
from the town or county, a portion of that investment is lost. 



L Young adults are defined for this report as people who 
are from 20 to 35 years old during at least part of the 10 year 
census period under consideration. 



CHART 1 

NET MIGRATION 
PERCENTAGE OF 1950 POPULATION 

CHOWAN COUNTY. N. C 







19 50 - 19 60 
AGE GROUPS 












45-54 


1 






rz 




i 


1 






35-44 


i ' 


1 


i 


1 




1 


25-34 


i 




i 


' 1 




1 


20-24 


1 


1 


1 


1 




1 1 




15-19 


l 




1 




1 1 


1 1 


10-14 


r~ 




] 


L~ 


1 






MALES 






FEMALES 


5-9 


i 


' 1 


i 








0-4 




1 


m 







•70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 

DESIGNATES OUT- MIGRATION 



NON WHITE 
I 1 WHITE 



SOURCE U S BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



CHART 2 

NET MIGRATION 

AS 

PERCENTAGE OF 1950 POPULATION 

EDE N TON. N. C. 

1 9 SO - 19 6 

AGE GROUPS 




NONWHITE 
WHITE 



SOURCE U S BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



These people are the ones upon whom the community must depend 
for leadership in the near future. They are also the people 
who would normally be expected to earn the bulk of the personal 
income of the community. 

Another interesting trend which is evident in Chowan 
County and Edenton, but is contrary to the pattern throughout 
North Carolina, is that the white population is leaving at a 
faster rate than the nonwhite population. Although nonwhites 
accounted for 55 percent of the natural population increase in 
Chowan County during the decade 1950-1960, only 42 percent of 
the total number of people leaving the county were nonwhites. 
During the same 10 year period, 63 percent of the people leaving 
the state were nonwhites. This excessive out-migration of whites 
from Chowan County is further indication of the low level of 
economic activity in the county during the decade from 1950-1960. 

When the local migration figures are compared to state 
migration figures there is evidence that the out-migration from 
Chowan County may be decreasing. In the decade from 1950-1960 
the net out-migration from North Carolina was 358,000 people. 
This is an average of 35,800 out-migrants per year. During the 
same period, Chowan County experienced an average of 302 net 
out-migrants per year. Using school statistics, vital statistics, 
and data on Armed Forces, the U. S. Bureau of the Census has 
estimated that between 1960 and 1963 the net out-migration from 



12 



North Carolina was only 9,000 people. 1 This is an average of 
only 3,000 out-migrants per year, which represents a decrease of 
over 90 percent in yearly out-migration. If Chowan County has 
experienced the same decrease, then out-migration from the county 
is now less than 30 people per year. At the present time, this 
is merely speculation, but one can safely say that the out-migra- 
tion from Edenton and Chowan County is probably decreasing. New 
industries and increased employment have helped to check the 
flow of out-migrants. The decrease in out-migration from North 
Carolina is, to a great extent, a result of the rapid industrial 
expansion in the state during the last six years. The amount of 
decrease in out-migration from Edenton is closely related to the 
extent to which the local area has participated in the state's 
industrial expansion. 

Natural Increase 

With such a high rate of out-migration, one might wonder 
why Edenton and Chowan County did not have an even greater loss 
in population during the past decade. A quick glance at Chart 
Three will show that the amount of natural increase had exceeded 



Statistical Abstract of The United States, 1965 , p. 10. 



13 



§ 1940-50 



1930-40 



NATURAL INCREASE 

AND 

OUT -MIGRATION 

CHOWAN COUNTY. N. C. 
1920-1S60 



LZZD 



IZZI 



OUT- MIGRATION 
NATURAL INCREASE 



1000 2000 

POPULATION 



3000 



SOURCE US BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



out-migration in the county until the decade 1950-1960. Natural 
increase is the amount by which the number of births exceeds the 
number of deaths in a given period. If the natural increase in 
population during the past decade had been added to the 1950 
population, the county would have experienced a 17.5 percent 
gain in population, instead of a loss, because the natural increase 
amounted to 2,205 people. The chart shows that the rate of 
natural increase in the county has been high over the entire period 
since 1920. The high rate of natural increase can be attributed 
to the high fertility ratio in the county. 

TABLE ONE 

CHILDREN UNDER 5 YEARS OLD PER 1,000 FEMALES 
15 to 49 YEARS OLD 

Area 

North Carolina 
Chowan County 
Edenton 

SOURCE: 1960 Census Data 

Geographical Distribution 

In 1960, Chowan County had a population of 11,729 pedple, 
and Edenton had 4,458 people. Chart Four shows how Edenton 
and the various townships have shared in the population growth 
of the county since 1910. The county population increased only 
slightly from 1910 to 1960. Three townships in the county 



15 



Total 


Nonwhite 


448 


525 


550 


704 


493 


569 







CHART 4 

CHOWAN COUNTY POPULATION 

AND 

MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS 

1910 -1960 




14,000 
12,000 
10,000 

z 8,000 
o 

< 

0. 

° 6,000 
4,000 
2,000 






+*£■ 


^ 


t* 


100.0% 
93.6% 

81.2% 
62.2 % 

38.0% 


\ 






























































19 


1920 1930 1940 1950 19 
YEAR 

1 1 TOWNSHIP 4, YEOPIM 

1 1 TOWNSHIP 3, UPPER 

1 1 TOWNSHIP 2, MIDDLE 

1 1 REMAINDER OF EDENTON TOWNSHIP 

1 1 EDENTON 

SOURCE^ U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 


60 



actually lost population. These are all rural townships which 
have no urbanized areas. During the same period, Edenton Town- 
ship grew by an amount greater than the loss in the other three 
townships. The 1960 distribution of population between Edenton 
and the remainder of Edenton Township is somewhat misleading. 
It shows that, although Edenton has gained almost 1,700 people, 
the remainder of the township has lost population, but one must 
realize that parts of the township were annexed to the town in 
1945, in 1949, and during the 1950's. As a result, the town has 
absorbed part of the population growth of the township. 

Another trend worth noting is the change in the rural popu- 
lation of the county. Chart Five shows that, although the total 
rural population decreased only slightly from 1930-1960, the 
rural farm population 1 suffered a tremendous loss. 

In 1960, the rural nonfarm population was almost equal to 
the rural farm population. Many rural people in the county who 
cease farming are finding employment in Edenton and towns in 
surrounding counties, where they can commute to work without 
changing their place of residence. 



^he rural farm population consists of people living on 
farms of ten acres or less with annual agricultural sales of 
at least $250 and people living on farms of over ten acres 
with agricultural sales of at least $50 per year. 



CHART 5 



RURAL POPULATION 

CHOWAN COUNTY N. C. 

1930-1960 



10,000 
8,000 














z 







POPULATI 

o c 
o c 






***\ 






^^* 


2,000 









YEAR 

TOTAL RURAL POPULATION 
RURAL FARM POPULATION 
RURAL NONFARM POPULATION 



SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



CURRENT POPULATION DATA 



This section of the report includes a discussion on age, 
sex, and race distribution; education; housing; and an estimate 
of the 1966 population. These characteristics of the population 
have been taken from 1960 census data, which is the latest 
accurate data available. 



Age, Sex, and Race 

The 1960 age distribution of the population of Edenton 
reflects the extensive out-migration of young adults during the 
1950-1960 decade. The pyramids illustrated on the following page 
show that the 15-34 year old age groups are small in relation to 
the age groups bordering them. The major loss occurred among 
the males between the ages of 15 and 35 years. Almost 40 percent 
of the 1960 population of Edenton was below 20 years old and 
almost 10 percent was 65 or more years old. If this is true 
today, this means that about half of Edenton 1 s population is 
dependent upon the other half for support. Table Two compares 
the median age of the Edenton population with that of urban 
North Carolina and Chowan County. The table shows that Edenton 
has an older population than the average for urban areas in 
North Carolina. The age distribution of the population will 
influence planning for schools, recreation facilities, etc. 

The town population in 1960 included 2,088 males and 2,370 
females. There were 2,861 white people and 1,697 nonwhites. 



half. In other words, half of the population is equal to or 
younger than the median age, and the other half is equal to or 
older than the median age. 





CHART 6 

POPULATION DISTRIBUTION 
AGE AND SEX 

EDENTON. N. C 
I9 6 






AGE GROUPS 














i 


75& OVER 


' 1 












70-74 








65-69 


1 


r 


60-64 




i 


55-59 


1, 


r 


50-54 




i 


45-49 


1 




40-44 






i 


35-39 


1 




30-34 


I 




i 


25-29 








20-24 


_1 




15-19 


1 


1 


10-14 




I 


5-9 


1 




UNDER 5 YEARS 




3! 


250 150 50 50 150 250 3. 
POPULATION 

1 1 MALES 
1 1 FEMALES 
SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 


)0 



CHART 7 

NONWHITE POPULATION DISTRIBUTION 



AGE AND SEX 

EDENTON. N. C 
1968 



AGE GROUPS 




POPULATION 

JBBgH MALES 
■^B FEMALES 

SOURCE U S BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



TABLE TWO 
MEDIAN AGE OF POPULATION, 1960 





MEDIAN AGE (Years) 


Area 


Total Population 


Nonwhite 
Population 


Male 


Fema le 


Male ! Female 


Edenton 
Chowan County 
Urban N. C. 


27.8 
23.3 
26.3 


31,4 
26,2 
28.6 


22.8 
17,4 
21.7 


29.5 
19.5 
25.4 



SOURCE; U.S. Bureau of the Census - 1960 Census 



Education 

Possibly the most important asset which any community can 
have is a well educated population. The space age is here and 
we are experiencing technological advances which were only 
dreamed of in science fiction books of 20 years ago. The mini- 
mum requirement for a position with any degree of job security 
is a high school education. If a community does not have a 
relatively well educated population, it will have an increas- 
ingly difficult task attracting industry s especially high calibre 
industry. 

Following is a comparison of the educational attainment of 
the population of Edenton with other selected areas. The towns 



of Ahoskie and Wadesboro fall within the same population range 
as Edenton. Ahoskie is in Hertford County near Edenton and 
Wadesboro is in Anson County abutting the Industrial Piedmont 
Cresent. Chowan County is a rural area and is not expected to 
compare favorably with the other areas in the table because a 
better educated population is usually concentrated in urban areas. 
However, any industry which locates at Edenton will expect many 
of its employees to be from the rural areas of the county. 

The median school years completed by persons 25 years old 
and over in Edenton is much lower than the medians for the other 
urban areas in Table Three. The nonwhite median for Edenton 
ranks much more favorably than the total population median. 

TABLE THREE 

MEDIAN SCHOOL YEARS COMPLETED BY PERSONS 

25 YEARS OLD AND OVER 

FOR SELECTED AREAS IN 1960 



Area 


Edenton 


Chowan 
County 


Urban 
N. C. 


Ahoskie 


Wadesboro 


Median 












Years 


9.4 


8.0 


10.4 


10.4 


11.6 


(Total) 












Median 












Years 


7.0 


6.5 


7.6 


6.4 


6.6 


( Nonwhite) 














SOURCE: U. S. 


Census 


Data 







23 



In 1960, Edenton had a lower median school years completed 
by persons 25 years old and over than Ahoskie or Wadesboro, but 
the town compares favorably by other measures. In the compari- 
sons made below, Edenton ranks on the bottom in only one area, 
and that area is population growth. While Ahoskie and Wadesboro 
gained population from 1950 to 1960, Edenton lost population. 
However, the population loss was not due to the lower median 
school years completed; the low median school years completed 
was probably due to the population loss because of the out- 
migration of the better educated young adults. The low median 
school years attained may merely be a reflection of the high 
rate of out-migration of young adults from* Edenton during the 
1950's. 

TABLE FOUR 

COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF 
WADESBORO, AHOSKIE, AND EDENTON 





Population 
Change 


1960 
Median 
Family 
Income 

Non- 
Total White 


1960 Substan- 
dard Housing 


1960 
Manufacturing 




Percent 
Percent of Non- 
of Total white 


as a percent 
of total 
Employment 




1950 1960 
Pop. Pop. 


Wadesboro 

Ahoskie 

Edenton 


3,408 3,744 $4,366 $1,535 
3,579 4,583 ' 3,846 2,095 
4,468 4,458*| 3,918 2,181 


40.4 
35.7 
36.3 


83.6 
85.1 
75.7 


21.6 
20.0 
24.6 



SOURCE: U.S. Census Data 

* Town of Edenton annexed an area containing 464 persons during the 1950's. 



24 



Whatever the situation is at present, the Town of Edenton 
should continually strive to increase the quality and quantity 
of education for its population. The educational level in the 
entire county should be raised. 

Housing Conditions 

Housing conditions can be a good indication of the social 
and economic affluence of a community. One can be reasonably 
sure that persons living in dilapidated houses are not enjoying 
a high standard of living. Housing conditions can also be a 
key to future residential construction needs. A large number of 
dilapidated houses is an indication that some type of standard 
housing should be provided for low income people in the future. 

In this report standard housing includes all dwelling 
units which are structurally sound and with all plumbing facili- 
ties. All other dwelling units are classified as substandard. 

Chart Eight shows that Edenton has a much higher percentage 
of substandard housing than either urban United States or urban 
North Carolina; although the town does compare favorably with 
Ahoskie and Wadesboro. However, a town with Edenton' s historical 
significance should not be content with over one-third of its 
houses classified as substandard. Edenton has many beautiful 
historic houses, but a substandard building nearby detracts from 
the beauty of any structure. Edenton 1 s reputation as a clean 



25 



CHART 8 

SUBSTANDARD HOUSING 

AS A 

PERCENT OF TOTAL DWELLING UNITS 

I960 



^fir^rHfif-WVS' 



r-^fflf-^rS^r'Hr-r 



r^rifi^r^r^rt 



r^rSrftf^rVVVSrt" 



WADESBORO 



r^Hf^HrVSrSr-'t 



EDENTON TWP 



f-Wlrirflr^r-Vift 



CHOWAN CO 



rir^f-V%r^r^rH* 



EDENTON 
NONWHITE 



f-^nrSrir^r-fl^rV^ 



EDENTON TWP. 



fWlrV^rV-^r'T- 



CHOWAN CO 
NONWHITE 



nr^f^r^^^^rf]^ 



10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 

L_J SUBSTANDARD HOUSING 

* EACH HOUSE REPRESENTS 10% 



town and its historic homes are among the town's most valuable 
social and economic assets, and great care should be taken to 
protect them. 

In 1960 Edenton had 158 homes classified by the U.S. Bureau 
of the Census as dilapidated. These houses are beyond repair. 
Such housing usually is occupied by people who cannot afford to 
pay for available adequate housing. This indicates that there 
is a definite need for low rent housing, either public or 
private, which will accommodate families with low incomes. 

Edenton Township, which includes the town and its one mile 
planning area, had 311 dilapidated housing units in 1960. The 
percentage of substandard dwelling units in the township is 
greater than the percentage inside the city limits. 

Current Population 

The present population of Edenton and the extraterritorial 
planning area was estimated by finding the number of occupied 
dwelling units and multiplying it by the average population per 
household in 1960. The 1960 population in group quarters was 



Survey , Planni ng Board Special Study Number One, by the 
Edenton Planning Board and Zoning Commission. 



then added to the total. This procedure is based on the 
assumption that the average number of persons per household and 
the population in group quarters have not changed significantly 
since 1960. In Edenton the average number of persons per house- 
hold in 1960 was 3.39, and in Edenton Township (including the 
extraterritorial planning area) there were 3.79 persons per 
household. All persons occupying a single dwelling unit are 
classified as one household. Based on these assumptions, the 
present population of Edenton is estimated to be approximately 
4,550 people and the present population of the one mile extra- 
territorial planning area is approximately 1,180 people. There- 
fore, the total population of Edenton and an area extending one 
mile beyond the city limits in all directions is estimated to be 
approximately 5,730 people. 

The population of Edenton in 1960 was 4,458 people. There- 
fore, the town has gained approximately 92 people since 1960, an 
increase of 2.1 percent. However, most of the current population 
growth in the planning area is taking place in areas outside the 
city limits around the town. Therefore, the population within 



Group quarters are living arrangements for persons who do 
not live in housing units. Examples of group quarters are: a 
house with at least five lodgers, an institution, a college 
dormitory, or a military barracks. 



Edenton's extraterritorial planning area probably includes a 
greater percentage increase than occurred within the city limits. 
An increase of 92 persons represents an increase of approximately 
25 families in Edenton since the 1960 census of population. 

The figures below show that the population growth in the 
Edenton area since 1960 is contrary to the population growth 
trends of the previous decade. 



TABLE FIVE 

PAST POPULATION OF EDENTON, 

EDENTON TOWNSHIP, AND CHOWAN COUNTY 



Area 


POPULATION 


1910 


7. 
Change 


1920 


7. 
Change 


1930 


7. 
Change 


1940 


7. 
Change 


1950 


% 
Change 


1960 


Chowan 
:ounty 


11,303 


- 5.8 


10,549 


5.9 


11,282 


2.6 


11,572 


8.4 


12,540 


-6.9 


11,729 


•denton 
Township 


5,948 


-15.3 


5,040 


18.9 


5,994 


6.5 


6,386 


17.6 


7,508 


-2.9 


7,294 


Jdenton 


2,789 


-.04 


2,777 


28.3 


3,563 


7.6 


3,835 


16.5 


4,468 


-.02 


4,458* 



♦Includes an area annexed from Edenton Township containing 464 people. 
SOURCE: U.S. Census Data 



PROJECTED POPULATION 

Because the past trends have been so erratic, and because 
the town and county did lose population during the 1950' s, past 
population growth cannot be used as a basis for projecting the 
increasing population into the future. A population projection 
based solely on trends prior to 1960 would give both Edenton and 
Chowan County a population decreasing at a rate of about nine 
percent per decade. However, several factors point toward a 
reversal of past trends and provide a basis for projecting an 
increasing population for Edenton and the surrounding area. 
Some of the factors listed below do not necessarily point toward 
an increasing population, but they do illustrate a decrease in 
population loss. 

1. The first and most important consideration is that 
the population of Edenton has already increased 
since 1960. Based on this six year trend, one can 
assume that the population will continue to increase. 

2. Part of the population loss during the 1950' s occurred 
as a result of the closing of a U.S. Marine air base 
in Chowan County. This fact indicates that at least 
part of the population loss was a result of unusual 
circumstances, and probably will not be repeated. 

3. The major population loss in the area in past years 
has been associated with out-migration of displaced 
agricultural workers who could not find other 
satisfactory employment locally. The rural farm 
population in the county has decreased steadily. 
Chart Five shows that the rural farm population is 
becoming a smaller portion of the total county 
population. Although the rural 



farm population in the county is expected to 
continue to decrease, the rate of decrease will 
decline. Within the next 20 years, the farm 
population in Chowan County will probably stabi- 
lize at an optimum size. When this happens, much 
of the out-migration from the county will cease. 

The population growth of an area is closely asso- 
ciated with employment opportunities in the area, 
If employment opportunities in the area increase, 
then the population will probably increase. With 
an anticipated decrease in the rate of decline in 
agricultural employment in Chowan County , the 
increase in non-agricultural employment opportun- 
ities is expected to exceed the decrease in agri- 
cultural employment. The table below shows that 
annual average insured employment covered by the 
Employment Security Commission has increased sub- 
stantially since 1962 



TABLE SIX 

ANNUAL AVERAGE INSURED EMPLOYMENT 
IN CHOWAN COUNTY SINCE 1962 



Year 


No, of 
Covered 

Units 


Annual Average Insured 


Employment 


Manufacturing 
Employment 


1962 


90 


1,287 


579 


1963 


86 


1,300 


586 


1964 


88 


1,382 


648 


1965 


92 


1,596 


829 


1st Quarter 
1966 


90 

_ — 


1,682 


901 



SOURCE: Employment Security Commission of N.C. 



31 



In addition to the data in Table Six, another manufacturing 
plant under construction in Edenton Township is expected to 
employ approximately 200 people. 

Based on the observations made above, the population of 
Chowan County, Edenton, and the extraterritorial planning area 
should increase in approximately the following amounts. 

TABLE SEVEN 

PROJECTED POPULATION CHANGE FOR CHOWAN COUNTY, 
EDENTON, AND EXTRATERRITORIAL PLANNING AREA 



Year 


Chowan County 


Edent 




Extraterritorial Area 


Total For Edenton and 
Extraterritorial Area 


Projected 
Population 


% 
Change 


Projected 
Population 


% 


Projected 


% 


Projected 
Population 


7. 
Change 


1966 


1 1 , 504 




4,550 




1,180 




5,730 




1976 


11,626 +1.1 


4,730 


+4.0 


1,274 


+3.0 


6,004 


4.8 


1986 


12,162 +4.6 

1 


5,010 


+6.0 


1,388 


+9.0 


6,398 


6.6 



The population of the extraterritorial planning area is expected 
to increase faster than the population of Edenton, primarily 
because of economic and social reasons. Cheaper land and larger 
lot size outside the city limits and no city taxes, coupled 
with almost the same advantages that one would have inside the 
city, serve as an inducement for people to locate outside the 
city limits. The reader should realize that annexation of any 
area by the town will change the projected population distribu- 
tion. 



32 



INCOME & 
EMPLOYMENT 



Ill INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT 

INTRODUCTION 

The economy of an area is dependent upon the total resources 
in the area, including natural, social, and cultural resources. 
The economy of many towns is only indirectly related to the 
natural resources in the surrounding area. However, the economy 
of Edenton is closely tied to the natural resources of Chowan 
County and the surrounding area. The three principal natural 
resources of the area are the excellent farmland, commercial 
forests, and surrounding water bodies. A large portion of the 
local industries is engaged in processing agricultural products, 
such as peanuts, and forestry products. The area has excellent 
hunting and fishing which, along with the historic homes in 
Edenton, attracts many tourists each year. 

This section of the report analyzes the strong and weak 
points of the local economy and points out areas which should be 
improved. Since a large amount of economic data, available on a 
county level, is not available for a town the size of Edenton, and 
since Edenton's economy is closely tied to Chowan County's, much 
of the data in this section is on a county basis. 



Commercial fishing was once an important source of income 
in Chowan County, but at the present time, it contributes very 
little to the local economy. 



33 



However, the county is small and over half its population is 
located in and around Edenton. Anything happening in the 
county's economy has a direct effect on Edenton. 

INCOME 

Family and personal income measures give an indication of 
the affluence of the local economy. The measures are taken from 
the 1960 Census, and are indicators of income earned in 1959. 
However, it must be realized that since 1959 when income infor- 
mation was collected, the income levels throughout the country 
have increased by large amounts. For example, the median family 
income for families in the United States in 1959 was $5,660, 
compared to a 1963 estimate of $6,265. However, only the 1959 
income measures can be used to compare Edenton with other com- 
parable areas. 

Chart Nine compares Edenton to other selected areas in terms 
of mean family income, median family income, and per capita 
income. The chart shows that Edenton, like most other small 



Mean family income is obtained by dividing the total family 
income by the total number of families. Half of the total number 
of families have income equal to or higher than the median family 
income and half of the families have incomes equal to or lower 
than the median. Per capita income is obtained by dividing the 
total personal income by the total number of people. 



34 



CHART 9 

INCOME DISTRIBUTION 
EDENTON AND SELECTED AREAS 

1959 



$ 7,000 



$6,000 



$5,000 



$4,000 



$3,000 



$2,000 



$ 1,000 





$6,636 

\ 
\ 




\ 
$5,660 

I 
\ 

-V 


\ / 
\ / 

$4,838, 

\ 


1 

\ 
$4,843 H 

/ ( 




V 


$4,824 
/ 


$4,790 




\ / 

— 1$3956 h 


\ 
— -1 


t 

\ 

H 

\ $.3,589/ 


$4,072/ 


$3,918 

/ 


. 63.846 


$2,168 






\ 
$2,714 ,' 


/ 
$3,044 - 






L 


\ 
\ $1-260 / 


$1,639. 

/ \ 


\ 




>2ML- 


. $..*» 


mil 


II 



MEAN 

FAMILY INCOME 



MEDIAN 
FAMILY INCOME 



PER CAPITA 
INCOME 



us NC . URBAN CHOWAN EDENTON EDENTON AHOSKIE 

NX COUNTY TWP 



SOURCE: U S BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



towns in North Carolina, ranks far below the nation and total 
urban areas of the State of North Carolina in each of the three 
income measures. The fact that the income measures for Edenton 
and Ahoskie are almost equal reflects a consistent distribution 
of income throughout the local area. Each of the income measures 
for Chowan County is smaller than the same measures for Edenton 
and Edenton Township. Since over half of the county population 
lives in and around Edenton, it is safe to assume that most of 
the income-earning power in the county is concentrated in and 
around the town. This fact becomes more evident when the mean 
family income for Edenton is compared to the mean family income 
for the remainder of the county. The mean family income for 
Edenton was $4,824, compared to $2,726 for the remainder of the 
county, a difference of almost $2,100. 

The median family income for nonwhltes in Edenton in 1959 
was lower than the same measure for Urban North Carolina but 
somewhat higher than the state median. The comparison shows that 
Edenton is about on par with the rest of the state. However, 
another comparison which should be made here is to compare 
Edenton nonwhite income with that of the total population of 
Edenton. Table Eight shows the economic plight of nonwhites in 
the Edenton area. 



TABLE EIGHT 
MEDIAN NONWHITE FAMILY INCOME IN 1959 



Place Median 



North Carolina $1,992 

North Carolina (Urban) 2,559 

Chowan County 1,793 

Edenton Township 1,942 

Edenton 2,181 



SOURCE: 1960 U.S. Census Data 

The majority of nonwhites in each of the areas listed in 
Table Nine is living in a condition of poverty. The fact that 
the same situation exists throughout North Carolina does not 
make it any more acceptable. These people could make a much 
greater contribution to the local economy, if their median income 
and educational attainment could be raised to the same level as 
that of the local white people. The very poor people of the town, 
whites and nonwhites, occupy the dilapidated houses which exert 
a blighting influence on the community. Improving their economic 
situation will help to promote a better social atmosphere for 
them. In Appendix A, a detailed breakdown of the income distri- 
bution in Edenton and Chowan County is given. 



3 7 



TABLE NINE 
1959 INCOME DISTRIBUTION 



Area 


Mean 
Family 
Income 


Median 
Family 
Income 


Per 
Capita 
Income 


Total 


Non- 
white 


Total 


Non- 
white 


Total 


Non- 
white 


Chowan 
County 


$3,589 


$2,073 


$2,714 


$1,793 


$ 851 


$427 


Edenton 
Township 


4,072 


2,230 


3,044 


1,942 


987 


438 


Edenton 


4,824 


2,486 


3,918 


2,181 


1,238 


548 



SOURCE: Unpublished U.S. Census Data, 1960 



EMPLOYMENT 

A majority of the people earns its income through some 
type of employment, and the income level can best be raised by 
providing more and better job opportunities. Employment is one 
of the most important factors affecting the well-being of an 
individual and a community. This section of the study analyzes 
the labor force and employment for Edenton and Chowan County. 
The data presented is on a county basis, but most of the employ- 
ment is concentrated in and around the town of Edenton. Therefore, 
it can be assumed that county data is practically equivalent to 
information on the town itself. 



Labor Force 

A logical place for any study of employment to begin is 
with the civilian labor force. In Table Ten, the total civilian 
labor force and the civilian labor force as a percent of the 
population 14 years old and over are presented. Edenton has a 
higher total labor force participation rate than either North 
Carolina or the United States. The 1960 civilian labor force 
for Edenton was 1,842 and for Chowan County was 4,244 persons. 

The Employment Security Commission of North Carolina has 
provided more current data on the civilian work force for Chowan 
County. In Table 11 estimates of the civilian work force, 
employment, and unemployment prepared by the N.C. Bureau of 



The civilian work force includes all persons 14 years old 
or older who are not in the armed forces and are either employed 
or who are able and available for work and looking for work. 



The Employment Security Commission data should not be 
compared to Census data on the labor force. Census data is 
counted by "place of residence" while the Employment Security 
Commission estimates are based on "place of work." 



39 



TABLE TEN 
CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE - 1960 





Edenton 


Chowan 
County 


North 
Carolina 


United 
States 


Males, 14 and over 


1,394 


3,684 








Civilian Labor Force 


1,087 


2,851 


---- 


.... 


Participation Rate 


78.0 


77.4 


76. 1 


79.7 


Females, 14 and over 


1,713 


4,035 


.... 


.... 


Civilian Labor Force 


755 


1,393 


.... 


.... 


Participation Rate 


44. 1 


34.5 


37.5 


36.1 


Total, 14 years and older 


3,107 


7,719 


.... 


.... 


Civilian Labor Force 


1,842 


4,244 


.... 


.... 


Participation Rate 1 


59.3 


55.0 


56.3 


57.4 


N0NWH1TE 


448 


1,490 






Males, 14 and over 


Civilian Labor Force 


349 


1,144 


.... 


.... 


Participation Rate 


77.9 


76.8 


69.4 








SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1960 Census Data 



The civilian labor force participation rate is the percent- 
age of people 14 years old or over, who are in the civilian 
labor force. 



40 



TABLE 11 

WORK FORCE ESTIMATES FOR CHOWAN COUNTY 
ANNUAL AVERAGE 1962-1965 



1962 


1963 


1964 


1965 


Civilian Work Force . 4,080 


4,170 


4,190 


4,320 


Unemployment, Total .... 310 


270 


240 


260 


Rate of Unemployment. . . 7.6 


6.5 


5.7 


6.0 


Employment, Total ..... 3,770 


3,900 


3,950 


4,060 


Manufacturing 580 


590 


650 


830 


All Other 3,190 


3,310 


3,300 


3,230 


SOURCE: N.C. Bureau of Employment Security Resea 


rch, Ral 


eigh, 


North Carolina. 









The estimates in Table 11 show that the county work force 
and employment are both increasing. The increasing employment 
substantiates an earlier statement that the out-migration from 
the county and town is probably decreasing. New employment oppor- 
tunities will keep many people from leaving the area and may in- 
duce other people to make their homes in Edenton. Since 1963, 
the increase in manufacturing employment has exceeded the increase 
in total employment in the county. 



Occupation 

The occupation structure of the civilian work force is 
sensitive to shifts in demand for various occupations. As an 
occupation begins to become obsolete, workers either switch to 
another occupation or join the ranks of the unemployed. Chart 
10 shows the change in the occupational distributions of employed 



CHART 10 

CHOWAN COUNTY 
OCCUPATION OF EMPLOYED WORKERS 



1940 . 1950 . I960 





„., 


S s— IP- 


12.0 


- - SQUEAL Q.NNQT .REPORTED 
LABORERS, EXCEPT FARM 


3 




8 1 


80- 


23 8 




12 8 


FARM LABORERS AND 
FARM FOREMEN 

--~J7cE ~*OR*ERS 


109 




5.8 




/'" 


4.4 


"prTvATE HOUSEHOLD 

WORKERS 


7.1 




57 




3 1 


16.0 


OPERATIVE AND 
KINDRED WORKERS 


17 3 


60- 


7.9 




9.9 




__---"' 


8.1 


CRAFTSMEN, FOREMEN , a 
KINDRED WORKERS 


9 3 


40- 


4 7 






5.7 


--__ 


5.1 


SALES WORKERS 


6.7 




4.9 




CL -5?^ L a "NDRED WORKER^ 

FARMERS AND 
FARM MANAGERS 


5.6 






5.8 




228 


^^^^^^ 




7.6 


20- 




18.6 




12 .4 




53 




5.1 


PROFESSIONAL , TECHNICAL , 
AND KINDRED WORKERS 


6.3 



* 1940 GROUP INCLUDES SALES WORKERS 
SOURCE: U.S. BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



workers in Chowan County since 1940. In 1940 laborers, farm 
laborers and farm foremen, and farmers and farm managers consti- 
tuted 57.7 percent of the employed workers in Chowan County, 
but in 1960 they made up only 31.4 percent of the employed work- 
ers. These occupations will continue to decline and if the 
income level of the people is to be raised and the population of 
the area is to be retained, jobs lost in these declining occupa- 
tions must be replaced by new jobs in occupations which are 
increasing in importance to the local economy. Operatives and 
kindred workers now make yip the largest percentage of the Chowan 
County employment. 

Another interesting point concerning the occupational com- 
position of the county labor force is the large number of non- 
whites remaining in the declining occupations. Of the 1,071 
employed nonwhite males in 1960, a total of 505 were employed as 
laborers, farm laborers, or farm foremen. In other words, over 
50 percent of the employed nonwhite males were in declining 
occupations, but only 31 percent of the total number of employed 
people were in declining occupations. 



43 



Unemployment 

Where employment in certain occupations is decreasing 
rapidly and other employment is not provided to replace the jobs 
that are lost, an area will either have an excessive amount of 
out-migration, a high rate of unemployment, or both. It has 
been shown in an earlier section of this study that Edenton and 
Chowan County have had an excessive amount of out migration. 

In Table 12 it is shown that the rate of unemployment in 
the county has remained higher than the rate of unemployment for 
the state. This is a further indication that the local economy 
is not providing sufficient jobs to replace the positions lost in 
agriculture. The rate of unemployment for the state has been 
decreasing constantly since 1962, compared to the Chowan County 
rate of unemployment which decreased from 1962 to 1964 and then 
increased between 1964 and 1965. 



The unemployed are all persons who are not working at all 
are able and available for work, and are looking for work. 



TABLE 12 
RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT 



Annual Average 
1962 
1963 
1964 
1965 
Quarterly, 1965 
1st Quarter 
2nd Quarter 
3rd Quarter 
4th Quarter 

Quarterly, 1966 
1st Quarter 
2nd Quarter 



Chowan Co. 


No 


-th Carolina 


% Unemployed 


% 


Unemployed 


7.6 




5.3 


7.6 




5.3 


6.5 




5.1 


5.7 




4.8 


6.0 




4.2 


7.3 




4.5 


7.4 




4.6 


5.7 




4.1 


4.0 




3.5 


5.8 




3.7 



3.8 



SOURCE: Employment Security Commission of North Carolina 

Although the county rate of unemployment is higher than the 
state rate of unemployment, a general assumption which may be 
made here is that the county rate will usually change in the 
same direction that the state and national rates change. In 
Chart 11 it is shown that, over a ten-year period, the annual 
average ratio of insured unemployment for Chowan County has 
usually increased when the state and national ratios have increased. 



^5 



RATIO OF INSURED UNEMPLOYMENT 



FOR 
CHOWAN COUNTY. 
NORTH CAROLINA. 
AND THE UNITED STATES 













/ 


\ 


A 






/ 




A 






y / 


V 


/\ 












■■••■■», ^ 


\\ 













1956 1957 1958 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 
YEAR 



CHOWAN CO. 



N.C. 



SOURCE: EMPLOYMENT SECURITY COMMISSION OF 

N.C, BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY RESEARCH 



and the county ratio has usually decreased when the state and 
national ratios have decreased. From this comparison, it may 
be assumed that the total rate of unemployment for the county is 
sensitive to national economic conditions. In 1958 and 1961, 
periods of mild national recession, the ratio of insured unem- 
ployment in the couryty increased sharply. 

Seasonal Employment 

In addition to the annual average employment and unemploy- 
ment, Chowan County is faced with seasonal fluctuations in employ- 
ment. Areas of heavy seasonal employment include agriculture 
and fishing. 3 In Table 13 it is shown that a large amount of 
seasonal employment occurred in the third quarter of 1965. 
Practically all of the third quarter increase in employment occur- 
red in the class of "all other employment" which includes agri- 
cultural and nonagricultural self-employed, unpaid family, and 
domestic workers. 



•'-The ratio of insured unemployment should not be confused 
with the rate of unemployment. The rate of unemployment is the 
total number of unemployed expressed as a percentage of the civi- 
lian labor force, but the ratio of insured unemployment only com- 
pares the number of unemployed persons covered by the Unemployment 
Insurance Law to the number of employed persons covered by the 
Unemployment Insurance Law. 

2 Seasonal employment occurs only during a specific part of 
each year . 

3 Fishing is much less significant to the local economy now 
than it has been in past years. 



47 



WORK FORCE ESTIMATES - EDENTON 
(Chowan County) 1965 





F 

Qu. 


irst 


Second 
Quarter 


Third 
Quarter 


Foi 

Qu, 


jrth 


Annual 


Civilian Work Force 


3 


,820 


4 


,310 


4 


,940 




,220 


4,320 


Unemployment, Total 




280 




320 




280 




170 


260 


Rate of Unemployment 




7.3 




7.4 




5.7 




4.0 


6.0 


Employment, Total 


3 


,540 


3 


,990 


4 


,660 


4 


,050 


4,060 


Manufacturing 




740 




840 




830 




910 


830 


Construction 




80 




90 




90 




90 


90 


Transportation, Com- 
munication, and 
Public Utilities 




80 




80 




70 




70 


80 


Trade 




570 




510 




520 




610 


550 


Finance, Insurance, 
and Real Estate 




60 




70 




70 




60 


60 



Gov 



Other Manufacturing 
All Other Employment* 

ral and 



270 


270 




280 




270 




270 


390 


390 




380 




400 




390 


10 


10 




10 




10 




10 


,340 


1,730 




2,410 




1,630 




1,780 


Cultural 


Self- 


tap 


loyed, 


Unpa: 


Ld Fami 


iy 


and 



SOURCE: Employment Security Commission of North Carolina 

Many of the people who worked only during the third quarter of 
L965 entered the labor force during the same quarter and did not 
remain in the labor force after the third quarter ended. Many of 
these people are unpaid family workers, but a great number of 
them may be potential job seekers who would remain in the labor 
force and would seek more permanent employment if year-around 
work were available to them. 



48 



Worker Mobility 

Out-migration of workers and high rates of unerapLoyment 
have indicated that Chowan County has not been providing suffi- 
cient job opportunities for its residents. Perhaps another indi- 
cation that an insufficient number of local jobs has been provided 
in the past is the number of residents that commute ta jobs out- 
side the county. In Table 14 it is shown that in 1960 Chowan 

TABLE 14 
CHOWAN COUNTY COMMUTING PATTERN 



Counties In 
Mobility Pattern 



Went Out Of Came Into 

Chowan County Chowan County 

To Work To Work 



Bertie County 


24 


Gates County 


23 


Hertford County 


8 


Norfolk County, Virginia 


5 


Norfolk-Portsmouth Cities, Virginia 


46 


Pasquotank County 


48 


Perquimans County 


54 


Suffolk City, Virginia 


16 


Tyrrell County 


"- 


Washington County 


16 


Elsewhere 


100 



Subtotals Cc 



Net Loss: 166 Workers 



Chowan County 

(reside and work) 



Place of work not reported 



3,457 
109 
3,906 



residents 
Total employed in Chowan County, 1960 3,740 



SOURCE: Commuting Patterns in N.C., Terry Ramsey, North Carolina Department 

of Conservation and Development, Division of Community Planning, 1960. 



County had a net commuter loss of 166 workers. Some of the 
commuting workers traveled approximately 75 miles to Norfolk, 
Virginia to their jobs. One can expect a certain amount of 
commuting between neighboring counties, but sufficient job oppor- 
tunities with adequate pay will induce most people who travel 
long distances to accept work near their homes. 

Labor Market Area 

The pattern of worker mobility helps to identify the area 
from which Chowan County and Edenton may logically expect to 
attract new labor. Most of the in- commuting workers for Chowan 
County in 1960 came from Bertie, Gates, Perquimans, Tyrrell, and 
Washington Counties. Potential labor in these counties would be 
available for employment in Chowan County. 

Potential Labor Supply 

The Employment Security Commission provides quarterly esti- 
mates of the recruitable and referable labor supply in each county 
in North Carolina. The labor supply estimates include only those 
residents who already possess production job skills and those, 
usually under 45 years of age, who are considered to be adaptable, 
trainable, and referable for manufacturing jobs. The recruitable 
and referable labor supply includes the following two groups: 



50 



Persons currently seeking work. 

(a) the unemployed; 

(b) persons with less than full-time employment; 

(c) individuals holding jobs which do not utilize 

their highest skills; and 

(d) certain others, such as school drop-outs, 

returnees from military service, etc. 

Potential Job Seekers. 

(a) housewives who would join the labor force if 

more suitable work or better job opportunities 
were made available; 

(b) workers who are now commuting to jobs in other 

areas but who prefer local employment; 

(c) young people who expect to find jobs upon com- 

pletion of their schooling; and 

(d) agricultural workers who are interested in 

industrial jobs. 



Table 15 gives the recruitable labor estimates for the 
third quarter of 1966. In this table it i$ shown that the 
majority of potential workers have no manufacturing experience, 
and the number of males with manufacturing experience is very low. 



of Employment Security Research. 



51 



ESTIMATED RECRUITABLE LABOR FOR 
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, SEPTEMBER 15, 







Type of Worker 






High 


School 


Experienced 


All Other 


Inexpe 


-ienced 


Graduates 


County 


Total 


Manufacturing 


Experienced 


But Referable 


Entering Labor 






Workers 


Workers 


And Trainable 


Force Annually 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE FEMALE 


CHOWAN 


725 


5 


120 


135 


165 


75 


225 


30 | 17 


Bertie 


1,450 


170 


160 


298 345 


232 


245 


48 53 


Gates 


485 


55 


130 


120 


70 


45 


65 


28 36 


Perquimans 


470 


10 


45 


145 


170 


20 


80 


56 


38 


Tyrrell 


460 


10 70 


130 


50 


120 


80 


16 


18 


Washington 


950 


205 160 


195 


150 


100 


140 


52 


57 



SOURCE: Employment Security Commission of North Carolina 

In June of 1966, the Employment Security Commission conducted 
a survey of the potential labor supply within a 30 mile radius 
of Edenton. The following is a summary of the major findings of 
the survey: 

MAJOR SURVEY HIGHLIGHTS l 



Over 4,750 individuals completed survey forms. Of the total 
respondents, 37 percent (1,781) were male and 63 percent (2,978) 
were female. 

Nearly one-half (2,271) of the respondents were under 35 years 
of age, and three-fourths (3,553) were under 45 years of age. 

Almost 93 percent (4,416) of all respondents indicated either 
current or previous work experience. Of these experienced workers, 
about 42 percent (1,862) were not working at the time the survey 
was conducted. 



Employment Security Commission of N.C., Summary Report of 
Labor Supply Survey Conducted For the Edenton, North Carolina 
Area , p. 2, June 1966. 



52 



Over one-half (1,455) of the female respondents having work 
experience were unemployed at the time the survey was made. 

Fifty-five percent (2,663) of the respondents reside within 15 
miles of Edenton, and about two-thirds of this group, (1,794) 
reside within 10 miles of Edenton. 

Over 73 percent (3,507) of all respondents had more than a gram- 
mar school education, and half (1,713) of this group had com- 
pleted high school. 

About 55 percent (1,984) of all respondents who had higher than 
a grammar school education were under 35 years of age, 

Nearly 70 percent (1,660) of thei current ly employed respondents 
were employed in nonmanufacturing occupations. Many of these 
workers would be available for better paying production jobs. 

Of the experienced respondents, 540 have experience in the 
lumber and wood industry, 470 have food processing experience, 
344 have textile experience, 294 have experience in the apparel 
industry, 217 have metal or machinery experience and 88 have 
experience in electrical assembly. 

Over 75 percent (1,422) of the experienced but not currently 
working respondents were less than 45 years of age. Of these, 
over 83 percent (1,187) had higher than a grammar school education, 
and 40 percent were high school graduates. 

Only 7 percent (343) of all respondents indicated no previous 
work experience. Over half (191) of these respondents were less 
than 25 years of age. 



Overall, the Edenton area has an adequate supply of labor 
available for industrial development. However, the number of 
experienced manufacturing workers is relatively small and only 
about 36 percent of the available workers have finished high 
school. The largest number of experienced respondents to the 
labor supply survey were experienced in agriculture, the second 
largest group were experienced in trade, and the third largest 
group had experience in domestic service, 

53 



The employment situation in Edenton has improved substan- 
tially since 1959 because the local people have been quite 
successful in attracting industry into the area. If the employ- 
ment trends of the last few years continue, Edenton will do much 
more than reverse the population trends of the 1950' s. 



54 



ECONOMIC ACTIVITY 



IV ECONOMIC ACTIVITY 

INTRODUCTION 

In an earlier section, the overall economy of Edenton and 
Chowan County was examined from the standpoint of employment and 
personal income. This section of the study includes a brief look 
at each of the major forms of economic activity in the area. 

The major sectors of the Edenton economy are closely related. 
Much of the local industry is dependent upon agriculture and 
forestry for its raw materials, and the local commerce is depen- 
dent upon income earned in other sectors of the economy. For 
example, Chart 12 is an illustration of the economic impact of an 
unusually small peanut crop on various sectors of the local economy, 
In addition to causing smaller farm incomes, it would affect people 
involved in processing peanuts and in retail trade. 

Of course, many of the local industries are not dependent 
upon local raw materials. The addition of those industries which 
are not agriculturally or forestry based has added a greater degree 
of stability and diversification to the local' economy . Although 
new industries are facilitating Edenton' s economic growth, agri- 
culture remains the dominant sector of the local economy. 



CHART 12 

THE EFFECT OF AN ABNORMALLY SMALL 
PEANUT CROP IN THE EDENTON AREA 



SMALLER 
PEANUT 
CROP 



I 



FEWER 

PEANUTS TO 

PROCESS 



FEWER PEOPLE 

EMPLOYED IN 

PEANUT 

PROCESSING 



SMALLER 

INCOME 

FOR FARMER 



LOWER 
RETAIL 
SALES 



SMALLER 
TOTAL INCOME 
FROM PEANUT 
PROCESSING 



FEWER PEOPLE 
EMPLOYED IN 
RETAIL SALES 



I 



SMALLER TOTAL 
INCOME FROM 
RETAIL SALES 



AGRICULTURE 

Traditionally, agriculture has been the major contributor 
to the economy of Edenton and Chowan County. Although it is 
still an important part of the local economy, it no longer enjoys 
the preeminence which it once had. Due to mechanization of farm- 
ing operations, it has been becoming increasingly less profitable 
to operate a small farm. As a result, many of the farms in 
Chowan County have been combined into larger farms where farm 
machines can be employed economically. In addition to causing the 
number of farms to decrease, this technological advancement in 
farming has caused a decrease in the employment of farm laborers. 
In Tables 16 and 17 the changinging nature of farming operations in 
Chowan County is shown. 



56 



TABLE 16 

FARMS, ACREAGE, AND VALUE; AND FARMS BY 
ECONOMIC CLASS; CHOWAN COUNTY, 1959 and 1964 



SUBJECT 




1964 


1959 


TOTAL FARMS 




448 


644 


ACRES IN FARMS 




57,250 


67,945 


Average Size of Farm (Acres) 




127.8 


105.5 


VALUE OF LAND AND BUILDINGS: 








Average Per Farm 




$31,300 


$19,550 


Average Per Acre 




250.86 


195.29 


COMMERCIAL FARMS 




347 


465 


Class I (Sales of $40,000 or 


More) 


27 


4 


Class II (Sales of $20,000 to $39,999) 


48 


46 


Class III (Sales of $10,000 


to $19,999) 


71 


55 


Class IV (Sales of $5,000 to 


$9,999) 


72 


135 


Class V (Sales of $2,500 to 


?4,999) 


82 


100 


Class VI (Sales of $50 to $2 


,499) 


47 


125 


OTHER FARMS 




101 


195 



SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, "1964 U.S. Census of 
Agriculture." 



57 



TABLE 17 

CHOWAN COUNTY FARM OPERATORS AND 

REGULAR HIRED WORKERS, 1959 and 1964 



Subject 




Numbe 


1964 

r 


Percent 


Numbe 


1959 
r 


Percent 


Farm Operators 




448 




100.0 


644 




100.0 


Full Owners 




187 




41.7 


290 




45.0 


Part Owners 




161 




35.9 


164 




25.0 


Managers 




3 




.7 


2 




.3 


Tenants 




97 




21.7 


188 




29.2 


Regular Hired Workers 














(Employed 150 


days or 














more ) 


Farms 
Workers 


100 
223 






104 
342 







SOURCE- : U.S. Bureau of the Census, "1964 U.S. Census of 
Agriculture. " 



From 1959 to 1964, the total number of farms decreased. Conse- 
quently, the average size of farms and the number of farm operators 
and hired workers decreased. During the same period, farms with 
sales of less than $10,000 annually decreased in number from 555 
to 302, and farms with sales of $10,000 or more increased in 
number from 105 to 146. 



58 



TABLE 18 
VALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS SOLD: 
CHOWAN COUNTY, 1959 and 1964 



Subject 1964 1959 



All Farm Products Sold $5,293,023 $3,879,591 

Average per farm 11,815 5,878 

All Crops Sold 3,936,342 2,850,226 

Vegetables 402,841 346,664 

Fruits and Nuts 2,752 3,455 

Other Field Crops 3,457,960 2,414,312 

Forest products and horti- 
cultural specialty products 72,789 85,795 

All Livestock and Livestock 

Products Sold 1,355,581 1,029,365 

Poultry and poultry products 308,667 165,495 

Dairy products 890 1,060 

Other livestock and 

livestock products 1,046,024 862,810 

SOURCE: U.S. Bureau of the Census, "1964 U.S. Census of 
Agriculture. " 

Although agricultural employment has decreased substantially, 

agriculture is still a major contributor to the local economy. 

An increasing value of farm products sold is shown in Table 18. 

The value of farm products sold increased by over 1.4 million 

dollars from 1959 to 1964. Of this increase, almost 1.1 million 

dollars were contributed by field crops other than vegetables, 



59 



fruits, and nuts. The major field crops produced in the county 
are peanuts, soybeans, and tobacco. 

A trend which should be encouraged in Chowan County is the 
trend toward increased production of livestock and livestock 
products, especially beef cattle, hogs, and poultry and poultry 
products. The Coastal Plain of North Carolina is geographically 
well suited for raising livestock. Farmers in this area can pro- 
duce the major portion of their livestock feed, including corn 
and the vines of peanuts and soybeans. 

In addition to increasing farm income, increased livestock 
production might be sufficient to induce meat packing plants to 
move into the area. In turn, meat packing plants might, logically 
be followed by tanneries or soap factories. 

Although, on the average, farm income in Chowan County has 
increased, many local farmers have not shared in the increased 
prosperity. This is due to the fact that many of the farms are 
operated on too small a scale to yield adequate incomes to the 
operators. Increasing the income of the low- income operators is 
a desirable step toward strengthening the local economy. The 
income level of the low- income farm operators may be raised by 
either: 



Peanuts are classed as a field crop other than vegetables, 
fruits, or nuts. 



60 



1. subsidizing their income and helping them to stay 
on their farms (This has been done for several 
years through various agricultural stabilization 
programs such as government price supports for 
farm products), or 

2. providing them with some type of nonfarm employment. 
In summary, agriculture in Chowan County is decreasing in 

importance as a major employer, but it still remains a vital 
part of the local economy. The trend toward larger and fewer 
farms will probably continue until most small, unprofitable farms 
are eliminated, and the remaining farms will probably be operated 
in a more efficient manner. As the farms become larger and more 
efficient, the production of livestock and livestock products 
will probably continue to increase. 

FORESTRY AND FISHING 

Another sector of the local economy which has declined in 
relative importance in recent years is forestry and fishing. 
Although forestry has declined in importance, it remains more 
significant than fishing as a contributor to the local economy. 
In 1963, approximately 68,600 acres of land, or about 59.5 percent 
of the total land area of Chowan County, was classified as forest 
land . l 



61 



TABLE 19 
CHOWAN COUNTY FORESTRY STATISTICS, 1963 



Subject 



Pine and 
Other Softwoods 



All 
Hardwoods 



Volume of all 
timber by type 



Volume of Sawtimber 



Roundwood pulp 
production 



890,000 Cords 



284. 1 Million 
Board Ft. 



7,931 Cords 



777,000 Cords 



117.8 Million 
Board Ft. 



5,425 Cords 



SOURCE: U.S. Forest Service, 1963 Forest Survey 

The amount of marketable timber in the county's forests is 
shown in Table 19. Although several industries in the county 
process forest products, a large part of their raw materials 
comes from outside Chowan County. For example, one veneer mill 
obtains about 90 percent of its logs from Virginia. It is 
apparent that the local industries related to forestry are depend- 
ent on regional, in addition to county, forest resources. 



More detailed information about forestry in the Chowan 
County area may be found in Forestry in the Albemarle Area , 
North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development, 
Division of Community Planning, Coastal Area Office, Washington, 
North Carolina, February 1967. 



62 



Although many forestry related industries obtain their raw 
materials from outside the county, pulpwood, one of the major 
products of Chowan County forests, is shipped out of the county 
to be processed. 

The decline of fishing has been more pronounced than that of 
forestry. For nearly 200 years, the fisheries on the rivers and 
sound bordering Chowan County netted great harvests of herring. 
Then the fisheries went into a serious decline as an important 
economic activity. Today, fishing provides only a small amount 
of seasonal employment and seafood landings in the county consist 
almost entirely of herring. In 1962, the herring catch in the 
county totaled 7,451,571 pounds and in 1964, a total of 6,088,892 
pounds were landed. 

A small portion of the labor force is employed in forestry 
and fishing. However, in recent years, employment in this sector 
of the economy has increased slightly. According to the 1960 
U.S. Census of Population, 115 people were employed in forestry 
and fishing, and in 1965, the North Carolina Employment Security 
Commission estimated that 235 people were employed in forestry 



N.C. Department of Conservation and Development, Division 
of Commercial Fisheries. 



63 



and fishing activities. Forestry and fishing are a significant 
sector of the local economy, more in terms of providing resources 
for raw materials, than as a major source of employment. 

MANUFACTURING 

Manufacturing is the third type of economic activity in the 
Edenton area. With decreasing agricultural employment, manufact- 
uring is becoming the most important source of employment in the 
county, and as the major source of new basic employment, manufact- 
uring provides the key to continued economic development in the 

2 
Edenton area. In Table 

past four years is shown. 



These two employment figures are not comparable, because 
the Census Bureau reports employment by place of residence, where- 
as, the Employment Security Commission reports employment by 
place of work. Therefore, the ESC estimate is a more valid 
measure of employment within the county. 

2 
A "basic" industry produces goods and services for export to 

other areas. In this way, money is brought into the local area. 

"Nonbasic" industry, on the other hand, produces goods and services 

for local consumption and therefore, re-circulates money that is 

already in the local economy. Many economists believe that if a 

town can attract new basic industry, nonbasic industry will follow 

automatically as a result of increased demand for local services. 



TABLE 20 

ANNUAL AVERAGE MANUFACTURING EMPLOYMENT. 
CHOWAN COUNTY, 1962-1965 



Annual Average 
Year Manufacturing 
Employment 



Percent 
Increase 



1962 580 

1963 590 1.7 

1964 650 10.2 

1965 830 27.7 

SOURCE: Employment Security Commission 
of North Carolina, Bureau of 
Employment Security Research. 

The major increase in manufacturing employment has taken place 
since 1963. For the first quarter of 1966, manufacturing employ- 
ment covered by the employment insurance law totaled 901 persons 
in Chowan County, and during the second quarter of 1966 total 
insured manufacturing employment for the county was 925 persons. 1 
At the present time, the three major manufacturing groups in 
the county are textile products, lumber and wood products, and 
food products. A new plant which will manufacture carbon paper 
and other copying products is nearing completion. This plant will 
increase manufacturing employment substantially, and will lend a 
greater degree of stability and diversification to the local economy, 



Employment Security Commission of North Carolina, 



65 



Projected Manufacturing Employment 

In the future, manufacturing should play an increasingly 
important role in the local economy. For several years, the 
people of Edenton and Chowan County have followed a policy of 
gradually attracting new manufacturing industry into the area. 
This is a desirable trend since it allows time for the local 
people to be more selective in the type of industry which they 
attempt to attract to the area and it allows time for nonbasic 
employment to increase rapidly enough to provide for the increased 
demand for local goods and services. Continuation of this trend 
will help to assure continued growth and stability for the 
Edenton economy. 

Only during the past few years have the people of Edenton 
made an active and determined bid for new industry. Their goal 
has been to attract one new industry every two years, and they 
have been quite successful in doing so. In making manufacturing 
employment projections for Chowan County, the basic assumption 
used is that Edenton will be successful in attracting a new 
industry every two years. Additional assumptions are: 

1. that on the average, each new industry will have 
an initial employment of about 50 people; 

2. that expansion of other local industries will add 
about 15 workers per year; 

3. that national economic conditions will continue to 
be conducive to industrial expansion. 



bb 



If these assumptions hold true, by 1975 manufacturing employ- 
ment in the county should be 1,250 - 1,300 workers. However, 
any deviation from assumed conditions will alter future employ- 
ment. In the event of a national recession, the rate of growth 
would decline and the county might experience a decrease in 
manufacturing employment. 

TOURIST TRADE 

Other than through manufacturing, perhaps Edenton's greatest 
potential for increasing basic employment is through tourist trade, 
Serving the traveling public is a big business in North Carolina 
due to the state's many scenic and recreational attractions and 
its location between the southeastern resort areas and the north- 
eastern population centers. The importance of travelers, espe- 
cially out-of-state tourists, to the economy of North Carolina 
is shown in Tables 21 and 22. Out-of-state tourists contributed 
?115 million to North Carolina personal income, and total travel 
business provided employment for over 93,000 people in the state 
during 1965. 

Expenditures by out-of-state travelers have increased by 
ten percent since 1964 and by 123 percent since 1954. During 
the next few years, Americans will continue to gain disposable 
personal income and leisure time and tourist spending should con- 
tinue to increase. Assuming that the increase in income will 



67 



TABLE 21 
HIGHLIGHTS OF TRAVEL IN NORTH CAROLINA DURING 1965 

Expenditures by Out-of-State Travelers $345 Million 

Increase over 1964: 10 percent Over 1954: 123 percent 

Proportion of United States total, 1.90 percent 
Expenditures of All Travelers In North Carolina $560 Million 

Proportion of retail trade and service receipts, 9 percent 

Proportion of travel business receipts, 48 percent 

Intercity Passenger Miles Traveled by All Modes of 
Transport: In-State and Interstate Traffic 25.5 Billion 

Interstate Traffic: Passenger Miles Traveled by 
Out-of-State Persons in North Carolina 5.6 Billion 

Proportions of all intercity passenger-miles, 21 percent 

Out-of-State Travel Party-Trips to North Carolina 15 Million 

Out-of-State Persons - Trips or Visits to North Carolina .... 30 Million 

Contribution of Out-of-State Tourists to: 

North Carolina personal income $115 Million 

Proportion of tourist expenditures, 33 percent 
North Carolina state government revenue $ 23 Million 

Proportion of tourist expenditures, 7 percent 

Proportion of state revenue collections, 4 percent 

SOURCE: North Carolina Travel Survey , 1965, By Lewis C. Cope land. 



TABLE 22 

THE NORTH CAROLINA TRAVEL SERVICE 

AND TRANSPORT INDUSTRY DURING 1965 



Total Receipts from Travel Service and Transport $1,227 Million 

Receipts from Passenger Transportation $ 52 Million 

Receipts of Businesses at the Service of Travelers $1,175 Million 

Increase over 1964: 9 percent Over 1954: 119 percent 
Proportion sold to: Out-of-State Travelers ... 29 percent 

In-state and out-of-state travelers 48 percent 

Proportion of retail trade and service receipts . 18 percent 

Number of North Carolina Firms Serving and 

Transporting Travelers 20,180 

Proportion of 121,600 total business firms in state, 17 percent 

Number Employed in Serving and Transporting Travelers . . . 93,230 

Proportion of nonfarra workers in state 6 percent 

Personal Income Derived From Travel Service 

and Transport $ 378 Million 

Proportion of income from commerce 11 percent 

Approximate amount attributable to out-of-state tourists. ... $ 115 Million 

Proportion of tourist spending 33 percent 

Contribution of Travel Service and Transport to State Finances: 

Gasoline, sales, and other taxes collected from 

travel service and transport $ 180 Million 

Proportion of state revenue 28 percent 

SOURCE: North Carolina Travel Survey , 1965, By Lewis C. Cope land. 



69 



exceed any increase in living costs, many people will use part of 
their extra income for vacation trips, and any area which has an 
abundance of recreational and scenic resources should strive to 
take advantage of the average American's propensity to travel. 

Edenton, rich in historic and scenic attractions and with an 
abundance of recreational resources, has the potential to be one 
of the most attractive vacation areas in North Carolina. The 
historical homes and sites in the town and the natural beauty of 
the area can be promoted as major tourist attractions. In 
addition, this is an excellent region for sailing, fishing, water 
skiing, and almost any other type of water oriented recreation 
and the surrounding area has an abundance of wildlife which is 
very attractive to hunters. Also, Edenton' s location on U.S. 
Highway 17, a major north-south traffic artery, adds to its 
tourist potential. 

In spite of its great potential, it is evident that Edenton 
has not fully exploited its resources in relation to tourist 
trade. In 1965, total receipts in travel business in Chowan 
County was $2,044,000, only .17 percent of the state total, and 
expenditures by travelers in the county totaled $867,000. 



Source; North Carolina Travel Survey , 1965, by Lewis C. 
Cope land. 



The Edenton area has three major limitations which have 
hindered itjs development as a tourist and recreation area. First, 
facilities for water recreation are not sufficient. More boat 
docking and launching sites are needed and beaches should be 
developed along the banks of the sound. There is a deficiency 
in tackle shops for sport fishermen and boat equipment and 
repair shops for boating enthusiasts. A second limitation is 
the lack of sufficient tourist accommodations. In order to 
serve a large number of tourists, the town needs additional 
motels and restaurants. The third limitation to Edenton' s deve- 
lopment as a recreational and scenic attraction is a lack of 
promotion and advertising. People certainly cannot plan a 
vacation in a town which they do not know about. On the other 
hand, a good advertising campaign would draw many tourists into 
the area. A tourist information center and an organized tour 
of historical buildings and sites would add to the town's attrac- 
tion to the traveling public. 

COMMERCE 

The final sector of the Edenton economy to be analyzed is 
concerned with commercial activity. Generally, this sector in- 
cludes finance, wholesale trade, and retail trade. Since retail 
trade makes up the bulk of local commercial activity and more 
extensive data is available concerning retail trade, the analysis 
is concentrated in this area. 



71 



Retail Trade Area 

The approximate retail trade area for Edenton firms is illus- 
trated in Map 2. In part of this area, established from informa- 
tion provided by the managers of local firms, Edenton merchants 
must compete with firms in other nearby towns for customers. 
However, it is obvious that Edenton serves as a retail trade cen- 
ter for a relatively large area. On the other hand, this area is 
rather sparsely populated with a total population of approximately 
25,000 people. 

Although Edenton has a relatively large retail trade area, 
it is possible for this area to be increased. Extensive promotion 
of Edenton as a good place to shop would attract customers from a 
wider area. Also, conversion of the downtown business district 
into a shopping mall would make Edenton the most attractive 
retail center in Northeastern North Carolina, and would broaden 
the retail trade area and draw more customers from areas which 
are now shared with other towns. 

Retail Sales 

Expanding personal income in Edenton 1 s retail trade area 
has been a factor in increasing retail sales for Edenton. Retail 
sales for Edenton increased from $7,204 million in 1954 to 
$10,773 million in 1963, an increase of approximately 50 percent. 



72 



RETAIL TRADE AREA 



»-;«„ EOENTON, N.C 

3 3 6 9m,les 



ATLANTIC 
OCEAN 




Yet, the number of retail establishments decreased slightly 
between 1954 and 1963. During the period between 1958 and 1963, 
retail sales for the remainder of Chowan County decreased from 
$2,211 million to $1,562 million, a decrease of over 29 percent. 
This is an indication that business establishments in the county 
are becoming concentrated in Edenton. 

In Table 23, it is shown that retail sales activity is 
increasing in Chowan County and, especially in the Town of Edenton. 
In Chart 13 the change in retail sales between 1950 and 1965 for 
Chowan County and North Carolina are compared by expressing the 
retail sales in each fiscal year as a percentage of the retail 
sales in the fiscal year 1956-57. Retail sales for the county 
and the state have increased rapidly during the past ten years, 
and although the county's retail sales have increased less rapidly 
than the state's sales, it is evident that if the same trend 
continues, the county's volume of retail sales will continue to 
increase each year. Since 1960, Chowan County has averaged a 
yearly gain in retail sales of 9.1 percent and because most of 
Chowan County's retail establishments are in Edenton, the town 
has profited much more than the county from increased retail sales. 

In addition to the increase in retail sales, it is interesting 
to note the type of merchandise which accounts for the bulk of 
local sales. 



r. H R R I 13 

INDEX OF RETAIL SALES 

FOR 

CHOWAN COUNTY 



NORTH CAROLINA 

1949-1966 

















































I95J^57_= 100.%. 



































FISCAL YEAR 



SOURCE NC DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE 



RETAIL TRADE TRENDS FOR CHOWAN 
COUNTY AND EDENTON , 1954-1963 



Chowan County 


1954 


1958 


Percent 
Change 


1963 


Percent 
Change 


No. of establishments 


107 


106 


-5.6 


106 


+5.0 


Sales ($000) 


$8,675 


10,176 


+ 17.3 


12,335 


+21.2 


Payroll ($000) 


822 


1,049 


+ 27.6 


1,232 


+ 17.4 


No. of employees 


383 


463 


+ 20.9 


451 


-2.6 


Edenton) 












No. of establishments 


82 


63 


-23.2 


76 


+ 20.6 


Sales ($000) 


7,204 


7,965 


+ 10.6 


10,773 


+35.3 


Payroll 


627 


931 


+48.5 


1,196 


+28.5 


No. of employees 


323 


412 


+27.6 


428 


+3.9 



SOURCE: U.S. Census of Business 

Table 24 is a breakdown of Chowan County's 1965-1966 retail sales 
by business class. The three major classes of retail sales ( food ; 
automotive, and general merchandise) accounted for nearly 2/3 of 
the 1965-1966 retail sales in Chowan County. 



7b 



TABLE 24 
GROSS RETAIL SALES CHOWAN COUNTY, 1965-66 



Class of Sales 


G 


ross Retail 
Sales 


% of 
Total 


1% Retail Sales 1 


$ 


1,478,959 


8.7 


Auto & Planes 




1,363,061 


8.0 


Apparel 




301,360 


1.8 


Automotive 




3,367,896 


19.8 


Food 




4,486,207 


26.4 


Furniture 




844 , 200 


5.0 


General Merchandise 




2,959,050 


17.4 


Building Materials 




907,339 


5.3 


Unclassified Group 




1,292,904 


7.6 



TOTAL $17,000,976 1( 

SOURCE: Gross Retail Sales Figures from N.C. 
Department of Revenue. 



includes farm, mill, and laundry machinery; telephone, 
broadcasting, and freezer- locker equipment; and fuels sold to 
farmers, manufacturers, and laundries. 



77 



In summary, Edenton has a larger concentration of business 
firms than would generally be expected in a town of comparable 
population, and the outlook for increasing retail sales in the 
town is very good. In addition to the fact that the expected 
population growth in the immediate vicinity of Edenton should 
at least offset the expected population decrease in the surround- 
ing rural areas, an increasing median income for the local popu- 
lation should cause retail sales to continue to increase. 
Efforts to enhance the town's shopping environment would also 
yield a return in the form of greater retail sales. 



78 



SUMMARY AND 
RECOMMENDATIONS 



V SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

POPULATION SUMMARY 

During the 1950' s Edenton had a declining economy and a 
decreasing population. However, during the past few years, the 
town has begun to grow again. The following is an outline summary 
of the major trends and characteristics of the Edenton and Chowan 
County populations. 

I. Past Population Trends 

A. The population of Edenton, Edenton Township, 
and Chowan County decreased from 1910-1920 
and from 1950-1960. 

B. The population of Edenton, Edenton Township, 
and Chowan increased from 1920-1950. 

C. Factors influencing growth are natural 
increase and net-migration. 

1. Migration - 

a. 1940-1950 net out-migration from 
Chowan County totaled 1,341 persons. 

b. 1950-1960 net out-migration from 
Chowan County totaled 3,016 persons 
(over 24% of 1950 population). 

c. Principal out-migration from Edenton 
and Chowan County consisted of young 
adults. 



79 



d. Whites have been leaving Edenton 
and Chowan County faster than 
nonwhites. 

e. Out -migration from North Carolina 
from 1950-1960 totaled 358,000 
people (35,800 per year). 

f. From 1960-1963, out-migration from 
North Carolina was approximately 
9,000 people (3,000 per year). 

Natural Increase - 

a. In 1960, Chowan County had 550 

children under five years old per 
1,000 women 15 to 49 years old com- 
pared to 448 for North Carolina. 

b. In 1960, nonwhites in Chowan County 
had 704 children under five years 
old per 1,000 women 15 to 49 years 
old compared to 525 for North 
Carolina. 

c. Edenton had a total of 493 children 
under 5 years old per 1,000 women 
15 to 49 years old in 1960. 

d. Nonwhites in Edenton had 569 children 

under 5 years old per 1,000 women 
15 to 49 years old. 



D. Distribution 

1. The population of Chowan County is 
becoming concentrated in Edenton and 
Edenton Township. 

2. The rural population is changing 
from farm to nonfarm. 

II. Population Characteristics 

A. Age, Sex, and Race 

1. In 1960 Edenton had 2,088 males and 
2,370 females. 

2. In 1960 Edenton had 2,861 white 
people and 1,697 nonwhites. 

3. Edenton has an older population than 
the state urban areas. 

B. Education 

1. In 1960, Edenton had 9.4 median school 
years completed for the total popula- 
tion 25 years old and over, compared 

to urban North Carolina with 10.4 median 
school years completed for the total 
population 25 years old and over. 

2. The Chowan County median was 8.0. 

3. The nonwhite medians were: 

a. Urban North Carolina .... 7.6 

b. Edenton ...,., 7.0 

c. Chowan County ....... 6,5 



C. Housing Conditions 

1. In I960, 36.3% of Edenton's housing 
was classified in a substandard 
category. 

2. In 1960, 75.1% of the nonwhite housing 

in Edenton was classified as substandard. 

3. In 1960, Edenton Township, including 
Edenton, had 311 dilapidated housing 

units. 

Population Estimates and Projections 

A. Current Population 

1. The present population of Edenton is 
approximately 4,550. 

2. The present population in the extra- 
territorial planning area is approxi- 
mately 1,180. 

B. Projections 

1. Projected population for 1976: 

a. Edenton - 4,730 

b. Extraterritorial 

Area 1,274 

c. Chowan County 11,626 

2. Projected population for 1986: 

a. Edenton 5,010 

b. Extraterritorial 

Area 1,388 

c. Chowan County 12,162 



POPULATION RECOMMENDATIONS 

The recommendations contained in this section are based on 
the population study. The recommendations are offered here with 
the hope that they may be helpful in guiding the future develop- 
ment of the area, both physically and economically. 



**** 



The first recommendation, and the major one, is in the area 
of education. The Town of Edenton should continually strive to 
increase the quality and quantity of education for its population. 
The educational level in the entire county should be raised. At 
least the following three steps should be taken toward upgrading 
the educational level in the town and county. 

1. Every effort should be made to keep the young 
people in school as long as possible. Far too 
many of them drop out before finishing high 
school. In 1960, 64.7% of the people 25 years 
old and over had not finished high school and 
47.8% had not gone to school beyond the eighth 
grade. Keeping these people in school longer 
will increase their value to the community and, 
by keeping them out of the labor market, will 
cause the local unemployment rate to be lower. 
2. The next step is very desirable from an economic 

point of view as well as from a quality standpoint. 
Consideration should be given to the possibility 
of consolidating the city and county schools. 



83 



One, or at the most, two high schools could 
serve the entire county. In 1966, the county 
had a total of three high schools with a com- 
bined enrollment of 862 students, an average 
of 287 students per high school. This may 
result in a considerable duplication of teaching 
efforts and higher maintenance costs per pupil. 
A public high school with only two or three 
hundred students cannot offer the many diversi- 
fied courses which should be taught in a modern 
school . 
3. Some industrial education courses have been 

taught at Edenton by instructors from a school 
in Elizabeth City. However, one or two different 
courses are not sufficient for the Edenton area. 
Although Edenton has an unemployment rate which 
is higher than the national average, several local 
industrial leaders have stated that Edenton' s main 
disadvantage in relation to industry is a lack of 
skilled labor. Therefore, either separately, or 
in conjunction with the high school system, Edenton 
and Chowan County should establish an industrial 
education center. Such a center Would constitute 
a major step toward relieving the shortage of 
skilled labor. The local people who do not attend 
college should have an opportunity to learn a 

trade or to develop some type of marketable skill. 
**** 



In order to house a growing population and provide for 
existing deficiencies in low rent housing, Edenton needs a sub- 
stantial increase in new housing units now and in the near future. 
A lack of adequate housing may actually hinder population growth. 
New employees of Edenton 's businesses and manufacturing firms 
may choose to commute up to 25 or 30 miles from their present 
homes rather than accept inadequate housing in Edenton. If this 
situation is allowed to develop, Edenton may lose many of the 
benefits normally derived from increased employment. The town 
might want to consider public housing for those people who now 
live in dilapidated and near-dilapidated structures. Many of 
these people will never be able to provide themselves with any 
type of adequate housing. Therefore, unless the community takes 
action, the dilapidated housing units will continue to exert a 
blighting influence on the surrounding area. 



Edenton has a relatively old population. Therefore, such 
things as recreational and cultural facilities should be designed 
with emphasis on accommodation of a mature population. 



85 



ECONOMIC SUMMARY 

The major economic trend in Chowan County since 1950 has 
been decreasing employment in agriculture. However, in recent 
years, decreasing agricultural employment has been offset by 
increasing employment in manufacturing. The interaction of these 
two factors, in addition to several others, makes up the total 
picture of Edenton's economy. A brief summary of the major points 
of interest in the Edenton economy is outlined below. 

I. Income 

A. In 1959, Edenton's mean family income was 
$4,824 compared to $2,726 for the remainder 
of Chowan County. 

B. Median family income for nonwhites: 

1. Edenton $2,181 

2. Chowan County 1,793 

3. North Carolina 1,992 

4. Urban North Carolina 2,559 

II. Employment 

A. In 1960, over 59% of Edenton's population 14 
years old or older participated in the labor 
force, compared to 57.4% in the United States. 

B. The civilian work force in Chowan County has 
been increasing constantly during the past few 
years. In 1965 it totaled 4,320. 

C. Since 1963, manufacturing employment in the 
county has increased by a greater amount than 
total employment. 



D. Occupation - 

1. The proportion of laborers and all farm 
workers among employed people in Chowan 
County is declining rapidly. (In 1940, 
they constituted 57.7 percent of employed 
workers compared to only 31.4 percent in 
1960). 

2. Operatives and kindred workers now make 
up the largest percentage of the county's 
employed workers. 

3. A large proportion of nonwhites remain in 
the declining occupations. 

E. Unemployment 

1. Chowan County's rate of unemployment has 
been consistently higher than the state 
rate since 1962. 

2. The rate of unemployment in Chowan County 
is sensitive to national economic condi- 
tions. 

F. Chowan County has a substantial amount of seasonal 
agricultural employment. 

G. In I960, Chowan County had a net loss of 168 
workers who commuted to jobs outside the county. 

H. Edenton's labor market area includes all of 
Chowan County and substantial portions of 
Bertie, Gates, Perquimans, Tyrrell and Washington 
Counties. 

I. An adequate supply of potential labor is available 
for expansion of industry in Edenton. However, 
only a small portion of the potential labor has 
experience in manufacturing work. 



87 



Major Sectors of the Economy 

A. Agriculture 

1. In terms of employment, agriculture is 
decreasing in importance in Chowan County. 

2. In terms of production, agriculture still 
makes a major contribution to the local 
economy. 

3. The value of Chowan County farm products 
sold increased from $3,879 million in 
1959 to $5,293 million in 1964. 

4. Small farms are going out of business, but 
many low income farms remain. 

B. Forestry and Fishing 

1. In 1963, standing timber in\ Chowan County 
consisted of 890,000 cords of softwoods 
and 777,000 cords of hardwoods. (59.5% 

of land area was in forests). 

2. In 1965, approximately 235 people were 
employed in forestry and fishing in 
Chowan County. 

3. Fishing is now of very little importance 
to the Chowan County economy. 

4. In 1964, the main seafood landed in the 
county was 6,088,892 pounds of herring. 

C. Manufacturing 

1. Manufacturing employment in Chowan County 
increased from 580 in 1962, to approximately 
925 in the second quarter of 1966. 

2. Manufacturing provides the county's major 
source of basic employment. 

3. Manufacturing employment in the county is 
expected to increase by approximately 30 
to 40 workers per year. 



D. Tourist Trade 

1. In 1965, total receipts in travel business 
in Chowan County was only .17 percent of 
the state tota^l. 

2. Edenton has great potential as a resort 
area. 

3. The lack of advertising and development of 
recreational facilities and tourist accom- 
modations has kept Edenton from capitaliz- 
ing on its potential as a vacation center. 

E. Commerce 

1. Edenton has a large retail trade area for 
a town of its size. 

2. Chowan County retail sales have increased 
by almost 70 percent since 1957. 

3. Edenton has only a small amount of whole- 
sale trade. 



ECONOMIC RECOMMENDATIONS 

The recommendations contained in this section are based upon 
the preceding analysis of the local economy. In making the recom- 
mendations, the following criteria were employed: 

1. The recommendations were considered on the 
basis of whether their implementation would 
strengthen the local economy and add to the 
general well-being of the local population. 

2. An attempt was made to eliminate all recommendations 
which were considered to be impractical. 



Some of the recommendations may not suggest 
specific courses of action for the townlto 
take, but they may only suggest what should 
take place in order for the town to continue 
to strengthen its economy. 



An earlier section of this study showed that part of Edenton's 
economic strength is related to the agriculture in the surround- 
ing area. Therefore, as agriculture in the area becomes more 
profitable the town's economy will be strengthened. The following 
agricultural trends should be encouraged: 

1. Small farms should continue to be consolidated 
into larger, more economical units. 

2. Farmers should be urged to use the best scien- 
tific farming methods and equipment available 
wherever it is feasible to do so. 

3. Increased livestock production should be 
encouraged. 

4. Farmers should be encouraged to improve their 
stands of timber. If managed properly, the 
forest land owned by farmers can provide a good 
source of income in the future. 



In recent years, Edenton has been reasonably successful in 
attracting new industry into the area. More industry will be 
needed in the future to provide employment for young people and 
for displaced agricultural workers. Therefore, the town should 
continue to recruit new industry. However, in evaluating a 



90 



potential new firm, consideration should be given not only to 
the number of new jobs which will be created, but also to the 
effect that the firm will have on the income level of the people. 
A firm with a large number of low-paying positions may not be 
desirable. The persons responsible for Edenton's economic 
development should realize the economic significance of improve- 
ment in levels of income because of the many unfilled economic 
wants and needs of the lower income groups. 

The U.S. Department of Agriculture has a special file of 
industrial location information for use by businessmen. 1 This 
plant location file is an offer of free advertising for small towns 
Edenton should submit prepared industrial development information 
for inclusion in this file. 



Every effort should be made to develop Edenton's potential 

as one of the most attractive vacation spots in North Carolina. 

Improvements should be made in the following areas: 

1. Development of water recreation facilities 
should be encouraged. These facilities 
include beaches on the sound, boat docking 
and launching sites, tackle shops, and boat 
equipment and repair shops. Individuals 
undertaking such projects might be able to 
qualify for low interest loans from any of 
several Federal Agencies. 



Address by John R. Fernstrom, Governor's Conference on 
Economic Development, Baltimore, Maryland, October 1966. 



91 



2. The motel and restaurant accommodations in 
Edenton are not adequate to provide for the 
needs of a large number of people. Therefore, 
this type of development should be encouraged. 

3. Advertising and promotion of Edenton as a 
vacation area should be very extensive and 
well organized, especially in the Northeasterp 
United States. The advertising should emphasize 
Edenton 1 s historical significance and the many 
historical homes and sites in the area, in 
addition , to the local facilities for fishing, 
boating, water skiing, and hunting. Further 
study of Edenton 1 s potential as a vacation 
center might reveal other areas of interest 
which can be promoted as tourist attractions. 

4. Along with extensive advertising and promotion, 
a tourist center and an organized tour of 
"Historic Edenton" should be considered. Many 
ideas might be gained from studying the organ- 
ization of Williamsburg, Virginia. 



The feasibility of converting Edenton 1 s downtown shopping 
district into a mall type shopping center should be studied. 
Edenton's historical heritage could be | used to an advantage in 
the design of such a mall. For example, the store fronts could 
be redesigned in an early Colonial style. A mall incorporating 
Edenton's early history would help to increase retail sales and 
also, increase Edenton's attraction for tourists. 



92 



APPENDIX 



FAMILY INCOME DISTRIBUTION FOR CHOWAN COUNTY 
AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS, 1959 1 



Family Income in 1959 


TOTAL POPULATION 


Edenton 


Twp. 2 
Middle 


Twp. 3 
Upper 


Twp. 4 
Yeoplm 


Edenton 
Town 


Chowan 
County 


All Families 


1711 


479 


331 


171 


1108 


2692 


Under $1,000 


272 


106 


62 


55 


131 


495 


$1,000 to $1,999 


270 


95 


85 


34 


119 


484 


$2,000 to $2,999 


305 


100 


88 


21 


169 


514 


$3,000 to $3,999 


203 


53 


40 


29 


147 


325 


$4,000 to $4,999 


180 


56 


23 


8 


148 


267 


$5,000 to $5,999 


126 


37 


21 




93 


184 


$6,000 to $6,999 


99 


8 


8 


4 


83 


119 


$7,000 to $7,999 


91 


8 




16 


72 


115 


$8,000 to $8,999 


69 


4 






61 


73 


$9,000 to $9,999 


20 


4 






16 


24 


$10,000 to $14,999 


40 


4 


4 


4 


37 


52 


$15,000 to $24,999 


28 


4 






24 


32 


$25,000 and Over 
Total Family Income 


8 








8 


8 


$6,967,500 


$1,394,500 


$ 837,500 


$ 462,500 


$5,344,500 


$9,662,000 


Median Family Income 


3,044 


2,385 


2,210 


1,912 


3,918 


2,714 


Mean Faml ly Income 


4,072 


2,911 


2.530 


2,705 


4,824 


3,589 


Total Personal Income 


$7,196,422 


$1,439,513 


$ 864,132 


$ 476,757 


$5,520,869 


$9,976,824 


Per Capita 


987 


647 


596 


626 


1,238 


851 



NONWHITE POPULATION 

FAMILY INCOME DISTRIBUTION FOR CHOWAN COUNTY 
AND MINOR CIVIL DIVISIONS, 1959 1 



Family Income in 1959 


TOTAL POPULATION 


Twp. 1 
Edenton 


Twp. 2 
Middle 


Twp. 3 1 Twp. 4 
Upper Yeopim 


Edenton 
Town 


Chowan 


AH Families 


664 


159 


72 


92 


362 


987 


Under $1,000 


187 


43 


22 


40 


92 


292 


$1,000 to $1,999 


154 


37 


33 


30 


68 


254 


$2,000 to $2,999 


191 


49 


13 


13 


116 


266 


$3,000 to $3,999 


52 


13 


4 


9 


32 


78 


$4,000 to $4,999 


33 


13 






21 


46 


$5,000 to $5,999 


10 










10 


$6,000 to $6,999 


8 


4 






8 


12 


$7,000 to $7,999 


9 








9 


9 


$8,000 to $8,999 


16 








16 


16 


$9,000 to $9,999 


4 










* 


$10,000 and Over 
Total Family Income 














$1,481,000 


$ 329,500 


$ 107,000 


$ 129,000 


$ 900,000 


$2,046,500 


Median Family Income 


1,942 


1,999 


1 ,424 


1.200 


2,181 


1,793 


Mean Faml ly Income 


2,230 


2,072 


1,486 


1,402 


2,486 


2,073 


Total Personal Income 


$1,529,873 


$ 340,374 


$ 110,531 


$ 133,257 


$ 929,700 


$2,114,035 


Per Capita 


438 


352 


213 


276 


548 


427 



RESPONDENTS 
EX AND AGE GROUP 



of 


Grand 






AGE GROUP BY SEX 








25-94 


35-44 


45-60 


Over 60 j Not Stated 


Male [Female 


Male 


N.I. 


Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 




Female 


Male 


Female | Male 


Female 


Food Processing 


470 


no 


360 


28 


2, 


30 


88 


29 


125 


19 


108 


1 


' l » 




Gar hu"ufaot*rln reI 


2,4 


31 


263 


9 


39 


12 


77 


6 


89 


2 


51 


1 


4 j 1 




rextlL. 


344 


154 


190 


23 


13 


52 


59 


37 


68 


31 


44 


8 




3 | 3 


Lumber and Wood 


540 


505 


35 


61 






13 


158 


13 


138 6 


19 




14 


Electrical Aasembly 


88 


53 


35 


10 


» 




9 


7 


13 


19 3 






1 l " 


Metal or Machinery 






31 


41 




45 


* 


53 


" 


40 , 9 


« 






Tobacco 


10 


6 


« 






2 




2 


•> 










Other Manufacturing 


74 


36 




5 


12 


13 


12 


13 


3 1 ' 


2 






Farm Work 


1,624 




833 


215 


138 


168 


248 


180 


241 


186 ,70 


29 


18 


■3 ,8 


Conatructlon 


472 


462 


10 


104 


2 


107 


2 


128 


2 


101 3 


.4 


' , " 




Trade Pima 


9.4 


353 


561 


117 


92 


84 j 160 


72 


177 


6. 


U, 


6 




' 




Government 


419 


229 


190 


38 


28 


57 


47 


60 


67 


65 


47 


5 




4, 




Domestic 


855 


22 


833 




lie 


6 


242 


5 


256 




189 


1 


14 




14 


Garage 


41 


41 




13 




I 




14 
















Zir™ 


59 


90 


232 


16 2 


55 


8 


3. 


29 


:: 


1, 


46 






1 


k 


Other Manufacturing 


105 


70 


35 


11 


2 


16 


14 


21 


'3 


17 


6 




2 




Industry Not Stated 


286 


70 | 216 


26 


53 


8 58 


13 


61 


14 


34 


7 7 2 3 


SOURCE: Employ. 


•nt Secu 


rlty C 


OU.1..10 


„, "Su. 


mary Rep 


ort of 




ppl, Su 




ucted 


for Eden 


on. N 


C. Area' 


June 


1966. 



94 



APPENDIX C 

A COMMUNITY CHECKLIST FOR ECONOMIC 
DEVELOPMENT 1 

The following "Community Checklist" indicates a number of 
important factors considered by plant location representatives of 
companies. Thorough evaluation of a community's assets and lia- 
bilities has the following two values: it enables development 
groups to assess and publicize the advantages, and it may suggest 
potential industrial or economic expansion which might have been 
overlooked. 

1 . POPULATION 

What is the population of the State? the 
immediate community? the surrounding area? 
What are the forecasts for future population? 
What is the composition of the population and 
labor force by age, sex, languages spoken, 
education levels? 

2. MANPOWER RESOURCES 

How many people are employed, unemployed? 
What specific skills are available? Which 
skills are unavailable but needed? How 
many people are working in agriculture? in 
service occupations? in industry? in 
construction? in all occupations and skills? 

3. OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING RESOURCES 

What facilities and personnel are available 
for establishing multioccupational training 
programs such as those under the Manpower 
Development Act and the Area Redevelopment Act? 



U.S. Department of Labor, Community Organization for Employ - 
ment Development , Washington, D. C, 1964. 



4. NATURAL RESOURCES 

What are the natural resources available in 
the area, e.g., metals, food, forest, minerals? 
What items are imported? exported? 

5. LOCATION 

Where is the community located? What is 
its location in relation to major U. S. 
cities, to the State capital? How near is 
it to local or area markets? the Nation's 
principal markets? 

6. MARKET 

What is the specific trading area? How is 
it related to marketing facilities, including 
wholesalers, storage, and warehousing? 

7. LOCAL INDUSTRY 

How many industrial companies are in the 
community? What are their products? What 
is the type of production? Have there been 
recent additions? recent losses? Are special 
research and scientific facilities available? 
How much local industry (if any) is dependent 
on defense contracts? 

8. INDUSTRIAL SITES 

What land sites are available for industry? 
Are there restrictions? If so, specify. What 
financial aid, if any, is offered? Are indus- 
trial parks planned or already operating? Has 
anyone developed a master plan for the area? 
If so, specify. 

9. LOCAL GOVERNMENT 

What is the tax structure (personal and business)? 
What local laws are advantageous for industrial 
and business expansion? Which are disadvantageous? 
What zoning laws or other pertinent laws or regula- 
tions affect business or industry? 



96 



10. COMMUNITY FACILITIES 

How many hotels or motels are there in town or 
nearby (indicate type or size)? banks? parking 
lots or garages? shopping centers? schools? 
post offices? recreational areas and facilities? 
cultural institutions? restaurants? etc.? Are 
others needed? If so, specify. 

11. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 

List every type of school with its enrollment and 
indicate whether it has grown. What transportation 
is provided? Is it adequate? Have school expan- 
sions been planned? What provisions exist for 
vocational training? adult education? business 
training? higher education? research facilities? 

12. HEALTH FACILITIES 

How many and what kinds of hospitals are available? 
doctors? nurses? health programs? clinics? 
technicians and institutions relating to health? 
How do they compare with the standards set by 
other cities? 

13. HOUSING 

How much and what type of residential housing is 
available in town? in the suburbs? How does 
housing location relate to community facilities? 
to industrial sites? What are general conditions 
in residential areas? Is there special housing 
for aged citizens? If so, describe. 

14. TRANSPORTATION 

What are the available forms of transportation 
in the area? for passengers? for freight? Are 
there airports nearby? Can they handle air freight' 

15. UTILITIES AND POWER 

What utilities and what sources of power are avail- 
able? What industrial fuel? What are the rates? 
How do rates compare with those of other areas? 
What provisions are available for industrial waste, 
for sewage? 



97 



16. WEATHER 

What are the maximum and minimum temperatures 
and how long do they last? Are there other 
climatic factors? (Climatological reports may 
be obtained from the U.S. Weather Bureau). 

17. PRESS, RADIO, TV 

What communications media are available in the 
area? Do they have national affiliations? 
(include TV: radio: press: special publications 
such as trade papers; farm union; and foreign 
language press. List TV and radio programs of 
special characteristics and newspaper columns of 
potential use). 

18. GOALS CONSIDERED? NEEDS EXPRESSED? READY TO ORGANIZE'.? 

The preceding checklist and general consideration 
of goals, priorities, timing, etc., should be 
applied from time to time and reapplied to keep 
the organization activities on the track and to 
change signals when necessary. 



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The preparation of this report was financially aided through a 
Federal grant from the 

Department of Housing and Urban Development under the Urban 
Planning Assistance Program authorized by Section 701 of the 
Housing Act of 1954, as amended. 



STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 

HUM 

3 3091 00747 6898