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This hook must not 
he taken from the 
Library huildin^. 


m '5 TO 

SEP ^ r i966 



Illustrated Monthly Chronicle. 




Hugh MacLeay, 
9, fleet street, london, e.g. 




Art of H. G. Ibels, The 39 

Art that Christmas brings, The ... ... ... 119 

Awards in "The Poster" Prize Competitions 159 

Belgian Posters ... ... ... ... . 143 

Black Spot in America, The ... ... ... 84 

Cabarets of Montmartre and their Posters ... 122 

Clark (Scotson), Frank A. Nankivell 66 

,, ,, Black Spot in America, The .. 84 
Collecting of Playbills, The— 

I. Some Kemble Bills 79 

II. Some Kean Bills ... .. 135 

Dimensions of Continental Posters 88 

Drawings by R. James Williams 132 

English Magazine Covers ... 99 
Francis (John), Herbert Walmsley's Theatrical 

Posters 52 

French Billposting, Ancient and Modern .. 139 

Future of " The Poster," The iii 

Gentle Art of Cribbing, The 56 

Hebblethwaite (S.) 75 

Hiatt (Charles), Paris Exhibition Notes 3 
Salle Caillebotte at the 

I-uxembourg, The . ... .. 26 

Collecting of Playbills, The — 

I. Some Kemble Bills ... 79 

II. Some Kean Bills ... 135 

,, ,, The Poster and the Pantomime 113 
Hoardings, The .. ... ... 24, 64, 98 

Lettering 14 

Morton (Richard), On the Wall 12 

Nankivell (Frank A.) 66 

New English Art Club, The 90 

New Christmas Cards and Calendars ... .. 150 

Notes on Ancient Advertising 8 

On the Wall 12 

Palette Scrapings ... ... ... 33, 69, 104, 152 

Paris Exhibition Notes ... ... ... ... 3 

Parliamentary Election P.isters ... ... 44 

Poster- Neurosis ... ... ... ... 65 

Poster and the Pantomime, The .. ... 113 

Reviews ... ... ... ... ... 83, 149 

Salle Caillebotte at the Luxembourg .. ... 26 

Sequel Posters ... ... . . ... ... 93 

Sevin (H.), French Billposting, Ancient and 

Modem ... ... ... ... ... 139 

Walmsley's (Herbert), Theatrical Posters ... 52 
Wenlock (Edgar) — 

Some Notes on Ancient Advertising ... 8 

The Art that Christmas brings . . 119 

Some Belgian Posters ... ... ... 1,43 

Woestyn (H. R.)— 

Richard Ranft 17 

The Art of H. G. Ibels 39 

The Gentle Art of Cribbing 56 

Dimensions of Continental Posters ... 88 

Sequel Posters ... ... ... .. 93 

Some English Magazine Covers... .. 99 

Cabarets of Montmartr and their Posters 122 

Young Poster Makers 30 


September Cover ... . ... ... .. ... ... J. f/assaH 

October ,, P. Balcock 

November ,, ... ... .. ... ... ... . ■ ...... ... ... Scotson-Clark 

December ,, • J. H assail 





Don Quixote (Book Cover) 

From Pine to Sand Hill {Book Cover) 

A Unionist Poster 

New York Sunday Journal 

New York Sunday World 
Gray, Dunn & Co. ... 


Harmsworth Magazine Cover ... 

C. I. V. Cover 

Nelson's New Century Library .. 

Cissie Loftus as Yvette Guilbert 
Simon Collat (an old print) 

Mr. Micawber 

A Calendar ... 

An Indian Advertisement 


His Lordship's Leopard (Book Cover) 


The Royal Magazine (Cover) 




Bassin de St. Charles 


An Italian Poster ... 



Autour de la Butte ... 


A Post Card 


1 50 



illposter (a Study) 


Jane Avril 

Les Fredaines de Pierrette 


The Red Letter 


Victor Bicycles 
Prophylactic Tooth Brush... 
Inland Printer 
Show Card ... 
Inland Printer 


Babes in the Wood 



Caricature of Caran d'Ache 


Exposition Russe . . 
Caricature by Capiello 

Italian Poster 





Papier Job ... 

Bal de I'Opera (a Sketch) 


124 The Booki 


Poster Competition, First Prize .. 



Christmas Card 


Aristide Bruant in his Cabaret 
Le Moulin de la Galette ... 






Salon des Cent 

Chicago Herald 

" The Sunday World " 


FAY (GEO.). 

Syndicat Central des Agricultureurs 


Eco de la Moda 


Design for a Poster 



Brasserie Fraikin Courard 


•50 GARIE (F.). 

Cabaret du Pierrot noir . 

123 GAUSSON (Le'o). 


Lcssive Figaro 

GOULD (F. e.). 

A Liberal Poster 


A Design 



" New York Sunday Journal " 

i HASSALL (J.). 


Original Design tor a Poster 
Caricature by J. Thorpe ... 

Shaw's Limerick Bacon Hams 

Nestl(i's Milk 

Robinson Crusoe 

Babes in the Wood 

'3 Dick Whittington 


" The Chap-book" 


Portrait by G. Howell-Baker 
" The Table " 
3^ " The Magazine of Art " ... 


A Unionist Poster 


44 Portrait 

46 Poster Design 


51 A Sketch 



HORTON (W. T.). 

Illustration from "The Grig's Book " 


Portrait of Dudley Heath 


IBELS (H. G.) 


Mounet-Sully as Hamlet 

Les Fouan ... 

Lithog-raphie Satirique 

Coquelin Cadet in " Le Testament de Cesar 



Study by Scotson-Clark ... 






Travels in England 


" New York World " 


A Unionist Poster ... 
Caricature of A. Nankivell 
A Heading ... 

" Lady's Own Novelette," cover 
" Family Novelist," cover 

Girodot " 


A Poster 








Shaw's Limerick Bacon Hams 

.. J. H assail 


Inset .. 

..Huifo Fisher 


Magazine Cover 

... L Linscott 





La Songeuse 

E. Rocher 


Study of Sir Henry Irving... 





Poster Competition, First Prize .. 


A Magazine Cover 

Cabaret des Arts 

Le Balcon 



MANET (E.). 


A Unionist Poster ... 


Salle d'Armes De Be! 


" Illustrated Bits " 

Dick Whittington 


Poster Competition : Second Prize 

MUGHA (A.). 

Bi^res de la Meuse 



" Sunday Journal "... 
" New York Journal " 

" Echo " 

Caricature by E. Kinsella 


Palace of Industrial Arts 

Eiffel Tower... 

Palais de la Metallurgie 

Chiteau d'Eau 



London Hoarding 184 


London Hoarding, 1900 ... 


Theatre Royal, Drurj' Lane 
Covent Garden ... 

Drury Lane 


No. XX. — Caran d'Ache Capiello 

No. XXL— S. H. Sime /. H. Thorpe 

No. XXn.— Frank A. Nankivell E. Kinsella 

PRAILL (R. G ). 

The Forest Sketch Club 

Crystal Palace 

Miller's Pride Irish Oats 


A Show Card 
Le Palais de \i 
A Show Card 
Helm-Cacao .. 
Tail Piece 


A Print 





Tournoi de lutte de Li^ge 


Incandescence par le Gaz 

RICHARDS (Miss E.). 

Poster Competition : First Prize 
,, ,, Second Prize 


The Handy Man 
Tivoli Restaurant 

La Songeuse 

La Vachaleade 



ROGERS (W. S.). 

Automobile Club Show 


Ronalds' Press 



Study of Sir Henry Irving 

SIME (S. H.). 

Caricature by J. H. Thorpe 

Yvette Guilbert 

A Spanish Poster 


SUAL (A.). 



THORPE (J. H.). 

Caricature of S. H. Sime 

Poster Competition : Second Prize 

The Longbow 

57 A Spanish Poster 






Blanche Melrose ... 
Babes in the Wood 


The Forty Thieves 

Dick Whittington 

I 1 


Poster Competition : First Prize 


^ Edward's Soup 


T0UL0U5E-LAUTREe (H. de). 

May Milton 



A Spanish Poster 



Jack and the Bean Stalk 
Red Riding Hood ... 

Dick Whittingtc 

Cabaret du Ciel 


Red Riding- Hood 

A Show Card 
Design for a Poster 
A Christmas Card ... 
The Medway 


Poster Competition : First Prize 


54 Caricature 








page 7 

Boot and Shoe Advertising 



page 4 

Brewers' Advertising ... ... 



page 4 

Catalogues, Booklets, Circulars, &c. ... 



page 6 

Cycle Advertising 



page 4 

Dailies, Weeklies, and Monthlies ... . ... ... No. 27, 


3, and No. 


page 5 

Dairy Advertising 



page 5 

Imitative Tendency, The 



page 5 

Postal Business 



page 6 




page 8 

Show Cards ... ... ... ... ... ... No. 27, 


6, and No. 


page 3 


From an American Publication 



page 5 

From "The Star," London 



page 5 

A Reliable Despatch ... 



page 7 

A Topical Advertisement ... ... ... .. .. 



page 3 

Is this a Puzzle Advertisement? 



page 5 

Attractive and Pleasing, by J. Hassall 



page 7 

An Appetising Show Card 



page 2 

Borax Starch Glaze ... 



page 5 

Keen's Mustard 



page 6 

Ads. Caricatured by Jack B. Yeats 



page 7 

Lea & Perrin's Sauce 



page 8 

September, 1900. 

The Poster. 


S^aris <Elxhibition Eotcs. 


THE Paris Exhibition is the vastest 
org-anisation of advertisement which 
the world has ever seen. It is true 
that a part of it is devoted to the illustra- 
tion of the evolution of the arts and 
manufactures, and to demonstrating- what 
in the arts and inventions is supreme, but 
this is not the real raison-d' etre of the 
great Paris fair. It is, primarily, a colossal 

wares adequately conspicuous, and in thus 
failing we find ourselves, if not positively 
insignificant, at least relatively unimportant. 
To commence with there is the British 
Pavilion. It is so unaggressive that it 
takes a great deal of finding. It has no 
existence beside the flaunting orgies of 
decoration which stand for Germany, Italy, 
and that vastly important state, the Princi- 




contest of advertisement, a contest in 
which not only individuals, but nations 
and governments, take part. The major 
rivalry is between nation and nation ; the 
minor between manufacturer and manufac- 
turer or craftsman and craftsman. We 
Englishmen may be a nation of shop- 
keepers, but in this instance we have shown 
a most amazing lack of business instinct. 
We have failed to make ourselves and our 

pality of Monaco. It is doubtless a great 
deal saner : by almost universal admission 
it is much better built. But sanity and 
good building count for nothing in a 
summer " Street of Nations." It is an 
affair of screaming, and he is most successful 
who screams loudest. The interior is fur- 
nished in a most discreet and gentlemanly 
style. The pictures on the walls are master- 
pieces of English art in the best period : 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 

the period of Reynolds and Gainsboroug-h, 
of Crome and Constable. They represent 
several very tolerable fortunes, but precisely 
because they are works of the highest class 
they are unsuited to their temporary environ- 
ment. They are too good for lath and 
plaster walls and an atmosphere of three- 
penny "bocks" and dancing booths. We 
have failed here because we have done a 

clamour of their neighbours is a matter 01 
no small difficulty. In many cases not even 
a decent show of bunting marks the entrance 
to the British sections of the various classes. 
Other countries take care to leave you in no 
doubt as to the limits of their territory. 
Sometimes the fuss with which a little group 
of German exhibits is heralded is positively 
absurd. There is such profusion of heraldry 


little far too well — elsewhere we have failed 
because we have not done well enough in 
either quantity or quality. 

The British trade exhibitor seems to have 
taken his note from the officials who are 
responsible for the Pavilion. His wares are 
no doubt excellent, but they are displayed 
for the most part in so deprecatory a manner 
that to find them out amongst the plangent 

as would supply a score or more Munich 
beer gardens. But in spite of all its efforts 
Germany cuts no considerable figure. For 
this is emphatically a French Exhibition : 
France is cock-of-the-walk, and crows 
proudly to the confusion of all lesser birds. 
The French are by courtesy termed the 
hosts, but, truth to tell, their hospitality is 
of the innkeeper's kind and consists in 

^September, 1900. 

The Poster. 


receiving the money. They go further than 
the innkeeper, however, for they most care- 
fully take all the best seats at the table. I 
am far from blaming them. In their place, 
we should have done precisely the same 
thing. I merely state a fact without the 
least suggestion of ill nature. 

If the British sections as a whole are, 
so to speak, badlv stage-managed, so also 

effects and to rely on often-used methods. 
Of all the English exhibits, I should imagine 
that not a dozen have been arranged by 
artists of acknowledged repute. The most 
brilliant exception to the pervading common- 
place is the really delightful and thoroughly 
artistic Pavilion of the Peninsular and 
Oriental Company. The decorations of this 
little building by Messrs. Moira & Jenkins 


are the individual exhibits which together 
constitute the sections. A few firms have, 
it is true, arranged their goods with great 
taste, but the taste is not of the right kind. 
Parade, and not reticence, is that for which 
the occasion called, and in the matter of 
parade the British exhibitors have for the 
most part failed. They have seemed afraid 
of novelty, being content to repeat old 

are most appropriate and produce just the 
monumental and architectural effect neces- 
sary. The thing is not nearly so big and is 
much less ambitious than its foreign neigh- 
bours, but it is at once more dignified and 
impressive. One does not often associate 
art with the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion — the atmosphere of Exeter Hall can 
scarcely be called aesthetic — but at the 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 

Exhibition Mr. Charles Ffoulkes has pro- 
vided the Association with one of ihe most 
tasteful stands in the show. The open bible 
and the plaster cast, needless to say, do not 
enter into Mr. Ffoulkes's decorative scheme. 
They are a touch in the true Y.M.C.A. 
manner, of which the Association, and not 
the artist, must have the credit. 

Passings from thing-s British to thinijs 
international, let us consider for an instant 
the huge collection of temporary theatres 
and the like which are dotted about the 
Exhibition grounds. One may be dis- 

of times. Of one or two, however, 1 may 
be excused for saying a few words. 

The little theatre occupied by Loie 
Fuller is assuredly one of the most fantastic 
things in the whole exhibition. Of the 
building of it, we will let iM. Ars6ne 
Alexandre speak : "La construction qui 
devait durer six mois, au dire des gens 
experts, a dure six semaines. Pendant ce 
temps, Miss F'uller a ^te architecte, peintre, 
decorateur, machiniste, ^iectricien, manager 

et le reste Ce theatre a kX.t 

conc^u par elle et realist par des artistes 


appointed with them from the point of view 
of art, but on the ground of ingenuity one is 
simply amazed. That the brain of man can 
have conceived suc'i prodigies of grotesque 
dexterity is almost incredible. There are 
bits more wildly fantastic than any vision 
which ever floated across the brain of an 
opium eater. At night, when the buildings 
are illuminated and their absurdities cease 
to be obvious, they are grandiose, one might 
even say grand. To describe them were a 
vain task : it has already been done as well 
as it can be done with pen and pencil a score 

enthousiastes d'eile comme Pierre Roche, 
Theodore Riviere, Barbin, Carabin, etc., 
mais qui tons out mis leur talent k I'inspirer 
d'eile et des impressions in^dites qu' elle 
leur avait naguere procur^es." M. Arsfene 
Alexandre described the theatre thus con- 
structed in so original a fashion as being a 
drapery outside and a kaleidoscope inside 
The theatre obviously is inspired by the 
dance which is performed inside it, and for 
this reason it is appropriate and amusing if 
nothing more. At night it is ingeniously 
illuminated so that it becomes semi-trans- 

September, 1900. 

The Poster. 


parent. The effect is then very strange, 
very fascinating. 

Opposite to the Loi'e Fuller theatre is a 
structure which bears the imposing name of 
Le Palais de la Danse in which second-rate 
ballets are performed by second-rate 
dancers. M. Rene Maizeroy has conse- 
crated to the doings of this shrine of 
Terpsichore pages of impassioned descrip- 
tion. The theatre itself is, to me at all 
events, a good deal more interesting than the 
performance. M. Maizeroy describes it as 
"un pavilion blanc comme une jupe de 
ballerine, et ou des groupes de platre 
all^gorisent les galantes r6v6rences de la 
Pavane et du Menuet, un joli theatre de Cour 
comme en avaient au temps ou Stendhal 
peregrinait k travers I'ltalie, les petites 
Altesses Serdnissimes et qui semble avoir 
ete construit et pare pour encardrer des 
fetes galantes, pour evoquer la douceur 
insoucieuse du Pass6." The description is 
felicitous and Orazi — the well-known poster 
designer — and his assistants may fairly be 
congratulated on their work. Two other 

theatres in the Rue de Paris are likewise 
the work of poster men. Guillaume, for 
his wonderful marionette show, has con- 
structed a theatre which is adorned by a 
frieze in his most characteristic manner, 
and a similar building has a frieze of the 
most eccentric kind by Metivet. 

A word in conclusion as to the hoardings. 
The hoardings of Paris at this moment, 
without being exceptionally good, are 
incomparably gayer and more attractive 
than those of London. Amongst the most 
notable of the placards are the following : 
" Loi'e Fuller," by Orazi ; " Le Petit Sou " 
and " Motocycles," by Steinlen ; " Amieux 
Freres," by Jossot ; " Le Trepot-Mers," by 
H. Gray ; " Laur^nol," by Verneuil ; 
" Mar^orama," by Hugo d'Al^si; Meunier's 
" Moutard-Bizourd" ; and Cheret's "Benzo- 
Moteur." Paris, if it does not improve on 
its own record, keeps steadily ahead of 
London. The Parisian hoardings are seldom 
without posters either charming or amusing. 
Would that we could say as much for those 
of our own metropolis. 

Printed by Messrs. David Allen and[^Sons, Ltd., London. 

the Poster. 

September, 1900. 

^omc 'Rotes on Ancient ^Advertising. 



A PERIOD or comparative uncertainty in 
the history of advertisement elapses 
between the fail of the Roman Empire and 
the invention of printing. The fashions in 
advertising when Saxons ruled and Danes 
marauded is lost to us. I have not seen it 
remarked before, but it is surely obvious, 
that heraldry is largely in the nature of an 
advertisement. The fashion of using coats- 
of-arms was doubtless introduced into Eng- 
land by the earliest Crusaders, and grew 
slowly until it became a general practice, but 
of heraldry, in the strict and scientific sense 
of the word, there was practically none until 
the latter years of the reign of King John. 
Of course the germ of heraldry is to be 
found in an age long previous to that of 
the Plantagenet king, for the Sultans of 
Egypt had shields of arms in the ninth cen- 
tury, but it was in the reigns of John and of 
his son Henry III. that the principles and 
system of armorial bearings were definitely 
established. The very ancient shields to be 
found at Westminster Abbey are the earliest 
examples of perfected heraldry to be found 
in this country. Concerning these shields 
Mr. Loftie, in his book on Westminster 
Abbey, tells us : "It has sometimes, rather 
conjecturally, been asserted that each coat of 
this ancient series in the Abbey represents a 
benefactor of the church, or some one who 
had contributed to the building fund. Four- 
teen only remain, but there are several more 
of a very slightly later date, not so large, 
and painted only, not carved. They are 
attached to little heads of men or birds by 
loops, and these heads may possibly offer us 
the first idea of supporters ; but as yet 

neither crests nor supporters have come 
into use. The heraldic proportions, so much 
insisted upon, had not been clearly laid down, 
and the ' bordure bezantee ' of the arms of the 
Earl of Cornwall is so narrow that there is 
hardly room for the coins. The birds in the 
arms, assigned to Edward the Confessor, 
have their feet. Later, heraldry prescribed 
that a ' martlet ' had no feet. The eagle 
displayed, representing the empire, had only 
one head, and the arms of St. Louis are 
' semee ' de fleur-de-lis. It is easily seen 
that these are the early experiments in the 
science, and were made before the fixing of 
hard-and-fast rules for the guidance of the 
artist." These shields are so interesting 
that, at the risk of being somewhat dis- 
cursive, I venture to give a list of them 
In south aisle of the nave, beginning at the 
transept, we have the shields of arms of 
Edward the Confessor; Henry III.; Ray- 
mond, Count of Provence ; Roger Quincey, 
Earl of Winchester ; a shield ascribed to 
Henry Lacey, Earl of Lincoln; Richard, Earl 
of Cornwall (King of the Romans) ; and a 
shield ascribed to the Earl of Rothesay. 
In the north aisle of the nave there are the 
shields of the Emperor Frederick ; Louis IX., 
King of France ; Richard Clare, Earl of 
Gloucester ; Roger Bigod, Earl of Norfolk ; 
Simon Montfort, Earl of Leicester ; John, 
Earl of Warwick ; and William [de Foriibus), 
Earl of Albermarle. 

Heraldry, roughly speaking, was, in the 
middle ages, a sort of symbolic personal 
advertisement. The coat-of-arms was not, 
however, merely the bald and arbitrary 
symbol : in a large measure it was definitely 

September, 1900. 

The Poster. 

descriptive. The science of heraldry has 
fallen on evil days. Now every Tom, Dick 
and Harry sports a crest, with the result that 
many gentlemen properly entitled to use one 
carefully abstain from doing so. The carriage 
door of the prosperous retail shopkeeper 
boasts a coat-of-arms which one could 
barely cover with a soup-plate, while his 
Grace of Norfolk and my Lord Salisbury 
are content with armorial bearings which 
one could cover with a sixpenny piece. 

It is time that we returned from this 
curious by-way of our subject to the main 
road. It is obvious that in an age in which 
few men were literate, pictorial advertise- 
ments had a great advantage over written 
ones. The shopkeeper of the timfe when 
the art of reading was held effeminate and 
the most illustrious knight openly boasted 
of his inability to sign his name had recourse 
to the sign either painted or carved. The 
sign is now almost exclusively employed by 
the publican, but formerly it was used by 
all sorts and conditions of merchants. A 
curious survival of the shop sign remains to 
us in the wooden figures of Highlanders 
which are found at some of the older 
tobacconists in London. Another old sign 
— a face in a crescent of the moon carved in 
wood and gilded — is still to be seen over 
one of the shop windows in fast-vanishing 
Holywell Street. The pictorial advertise- 
ments which represented the wonders to be 
seen in the booths at the fairs in the six- 
teenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
were the forerunners of our modern picture 
posters. The Miracle Plays of York, Chester 
and Coventry were announced by means of 
great pieces of canvas with representations 
of scenes from the dramas painted on them. 
When the Miracle Play declined, the show- 
man produced versions of Susanna and the 
Elders, or the Siege of Troy, or plays in 
which " Magicians took the place of Saints, 
and the Devil held his ground in company 
with Punchinellos, comic Serving-men, and 
country Shallows." All these were adver- 

tised in the same way as the ancient legiti- 
mate Miracles and Mysteries. 

From the days of Charles II. to those of 
Queen Anne, all classes of society in Eng- 
land showed an amazing interest in what 
were called monsters. In his " Memoirs of 
Bartholomew Fair," Professor Henry Mor- 
iey tells us : " The Kings and Queens of 
Europe in the years before and after 1700 
siiared in the taste of all classes, for men 
who could dance without legs, dwarfs, 
giants, hermaphrodites, or scaly boys. . . 
. . . The taste for monsters became a 
disease ; of which the nation has, in our own 
day, recovered with a wonderful rapidity in 
presence of events which force on the 
development of all its powers." The mon- 
ster was usually advertised by means of a 
handbill. The following is an exact copy 
of an early example issued in Bartholomew 
Fair : 


Or, A Miracle of Nature. 
Being that much-admired Gyant-like Young 
Man, Aged Twenty-Three Years last June ; 
Born in Ireland, of such a Prodigious Height 
and Bigness, and every way proportionable, 
that the like hath not been seen in England \n 
the memory of Man. He was shown to His 
Late and Present Majesty, and Several of the 
Nobility at Court, Five Years ago ; and his 
Late Majesty was pleased to walk under his 
Arm, and he is grown very much since. And it 
is generally thought, that if he lives Three 
Years more, and Grows as he has done, he will 
be much bigger than any of those Gyants we 
read of in Story : For he now reaches with his 
Hand three Yards and a-half ; Spans Fifteen 
Inches : And is the Admiration of all that sees 

He 2s to be seen at Cow- Lane-End in Bar- 
tholomeiv Fair, whe'e his picture hatigs out. 

ViVET Rex. 

The phrase, "his picture hangs out," 
shows that this " Miracle of Nature" had 
what was practically an illustrated poster. 
"His late Majesty" was Charles II. Amongst 
other handbills, some of them illustrated, 
we find those which announce " two girls 
joined together by the Crowns of their 


Heads"; a "Painted Prince in whom the 
whole mystery of Painting or Staining upon 
Human Bodies seem to be comprised in one 
stately piece. The forepart of him shown 
in engravings, are not half his charm " ; 
a " Man with one Head Two Bodies, the 
Miracle of the Whole World"; and " A 
Monster that lately died at Moncreff's Coffee 
House, in Threadneedle Street, being 
Humane upwards, and Bruit downwards, 
wonderful to behold." To these may be 
added the "Bold Grimace Spaniard" ; "A 
Living Fairy, a hundred and fifty years 
old " ; a " Mail Child born with a Bear 
growing on his Back alive" ; "A Woman 
with three breasts, an Admirable Work of 
Nature " ; and many others equally dis- 
gusting, if accurately discribed. 

But I must not close these disconnected 
and fragmentary notes without alluding 
briefly to a form of advertisement which is 
of high antiquity and still flourishes in the 
quiet country towns of England. I allude 
to the public crier. The town criers, or 
public criers, were found all over western 
Europe as early as the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries. Mr. Sampson, in his "History 
of Advertising," tells us that " by a charter 
of Louis VH., granted in the year 1141 to 
the inhabitants of the province of Berry, the 
old custom of the country was confirmed, 
according to which there were to be only 
twelve criers, five of whom should go about 
the taverns, crying with their usual cry, 
and carrying with them samples of the wine 
they cried, in order that people might taste. 
For the first time they blew the horn they 
were entitled to a penny, and the same for 
every time after according to custom. . . . 
These wine-criers are mentioned by John 
de Garlando, a Norman writer, who was 
probably contemporary with William the 
Conqueror." We have frequent mention of 
the wine-crier in early French ballads. 
Here is an instance : 

Si crie Ton en plusors leurs 

Si boil vin a trente deux 

A seize, a doiize, a six, a liuiet. 

September, igoo. 

The crier was likewise an early institution 
in England, for, in a document dated 1299, 
we find one Edmund le Criour mentioned. 
At that time handbills were known, but they 
were of course written or illuminated. As 
soon, however, as Caxton introduced the 
newly-discovered art of printing they were 
produced by that method. Perhaps the 
earliest English printed bill is that by which 
Caxton, about the year 1480, announced the 
publication of the " Pyes of Salisbury Use," 
at the Red Pole in the Almonry at West- 
minster. The size of this broad sheet is five 
inches by seven, and the text runs as follows : 
"If it please any man spiriluel or temporel 
to bye our pyes of two or three comemoracio's 
of Salisburi use, emprunted after the form ot 
this pres't lettre, which ben wel and truly 
correct, late hymn come to Westmonster, 
into the almonestrye at the reed pole ane he 
shall have them good and chepe. Supplico 
stet cedula." ... It should be remarked 
that the "pyes" in question were a series 
of diocesan rules. 

l'>om Caxton's time onwards the poster 
gradually became a familiar institution. 
Rude wood-cuts were afterwards added to 
letterpress, and thus began the vast series of 
picture posters for the study and discussion 
of which this magazine was established. 

"Pastel or Crayon Drawing" is the 
title of the latest issued book in the Useful 
Arts and Handicrafts Series, published by 
Messrs. Dawbarn & Ward, Ltd., of 6, Far- 
ringdon Avenue, E.C., at the low price of 
6d. net per copy, each of the twenty-five 
numbers now on sale treating of subjects 
coming under the series heading. The in- 
structions in the " Pastel " book seem clear 
and concise enough to appeal to the 
beginner, whilst practised hands may glean 
bits of good advice here and there. The 
book is nicely illustrated with good speci- 
mens of pastel work, and the get-up is 
above the ordinary. 

The Poster. 


Published by Mr. Grant Richards: 

Published ly Messrs. Pearson. 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 

On the Wall. 


Scene : A hoarding, anywhere in London 
or the Provinces. • 

Dramatis Personce : A Beggarstaft" Man. 

A Dudley Hardy Girl 

Time : Daybreak. 

Beggarstaff Man : Good morning, sweetheart ! 
Dudley Hardy Girl (yawning) ; Morning, old 

Man : There you are, gay, frivolous, and irr 

sponsible as usual. 
Girl : You talk just as grimly as you look. 
Man ; And you, my dear, kick just as skittishly 

as you speak. 
Girl: 1 don't believe you like my kick. Not that 

I really blame you, for it is a little angular, 

and liable to put my knee out of joint. 
Man : There's a kicking sister of yours down 

the street, opposite the lamp-post. 
Girl : Ah, she tried to put my ftose out of joint 

She's a Hassall girl. 
Man : Any relation ? 

Girl: Not even a distant connection. But, I 
say, you haven't told me how I look this 

Man : You know my opinion. I think you look 
just as bright and gay and lively and brilliant 
as ever. 

Girl : Four adjectives, and before breakfast, too ! 
A/an : My breakfast is always with me. 
Girl : Always that eternal cocoa ? 
Man : Always. You know I'm such a Puritan. 
Otherwise I should feel inclined to find you 

John Hassall. 


a fifth adjective and say, as is usual with 

you and your sisters, you look — 
Girl: What? 
Man : Wicked. 

Girl : I'm sure I don't look anything of the 
kind. I may look tempting. 

A/an : It's the same thing, dear. 

Girl : Really, now, if you did not look such a 
pralse-God-barebones kind of individual, I 
should say you were a hoary old hypocrite, 
regretting the lost opportunities of a wasted 

Afan : Then I should plead not guilty. I never 
had any opportunities to neglect. 

Girl f aside ) : What are you doing now, you 
solemn old fossil ? (To the man J : Oh ! 
dear, this is an awfully tight skirt to kick in ! 

Alan : I have often fancied that your frock some- 
what limited your actions. 

Gi?-1 : Papa always dresses us too tightly for 
anything ; a lot of flounce and a fleece of 
lace, but such a tightness round the limbs. 

Man : I can't make any such complaint. 

Girl : No, you are all collar. 

A/an : And cocoa, dear ; put that in. 

Girl : And hat. 

A/an : And white. There's plenty of white about 

Gi7-1 : Too much blank altogether. 

A/an : Pray allow me to correct you. That is 
one of my greatest recommendations. The 
blank space is my special beauty. 

Girl : You conceited old scarecrow. Well, I 
never ! 

Man : No, I don't think you ever did. 

Girl : That's a most inconsequent observation 

A/an ; I feel inconsequent this morning. 

Girl : In consequence of what ! — if I may make 

such an awful musical-comedy joke. 
Man : I have never recovered properly from the 

shock your cousin gave me. 
Girl : You mean Miss Price ? 

September, 1900. The I 

Man : Yes, that is the lady. The one with the 

palette in front of her. 
Girl : Ah, poor girl, that is all she has to wear. 

It must be very trying to her complexion. 
Man : It was more trying to mine, when she 

stood by my side in the public highway. 

She hasn't been out much lately, I think ? 
Gir/ : Very little, poor dear. Anyway she's 

much better at home. 
Man : I had a violent attack of palpitation of 

the heart the morning she first appeared in 

our society. Our Quaker acquaintance — 
Gtrl : The gentleman with the porridge ? 

Man : Yes. He fainted away solidly, and came 

quite unstuck. 
Gtrl ( with a sudden shriek ) : Oh ! you horrid 

brute ! 

A billposter has commenced to spread paste ovei 




Man : Leave the young lady alone. How dare 
you ? Oh ! dear, dear, these brutal human 
beings have no feelings at all. I wish I 
could make them understand. 

Girl: Help ! Help ! 

Man : The fiends ! If they could hear me I 
would use language totally unbefitting a 
Puritan and a Beggarstafif. Oh, dear, dear ! 

Girl sneezes violently as the billposter spreads a 
yellow " mustai'd " bill across her. 

Man: Be brave, my precious. You have not 
lived in vain. 

Girl : But to die thus — choked by a yellow 
abomination ! Good — 

Her face is finally covered, duritig a paroxysm of 
sneezing hysterics. 

Man : Good-bye, my sweet comrade. But yet a 
little while and such a horrible death will 
not be possible. Ugh ! f shudders. J Choked 
to death by a mustard bill ! It is worse than 
a "Belle of New York" Yankee atrocity. 
Let me sink to sleep under some of Rhead's 
swirls, or a Baumer bicyclist, and then my 
end will be peace ! 

Breaks out in hectic spots and dies in violent C07i- 
vulsions as the billposter smears over him a 
monstrosity in the shape of an impossible 
athlete stretching a .Sandow Chain. 




M. Feliu. 

Richard Morton. 

The Poster. September, 1900. 


jVIR. K. F. STRANGE read a paper 
i i recently before the Royal Society of 
Arts dealing with "The Practice of 
Lettering." Mr. Walter Crane presided. 
The lecturer considered tnat his subject was 
the one, next to the faculty of intelligible 
speech, most intimately bound up with the 
life of every person of elementary education. 
There was hardly a • street in which might 
not be seen bad letters displayed with all the 
frankness in the world; hardly a publication 
in which would not be found type or drawn 
letters calmly devoid of any pretensions to 
beauty. The whole object of his paper was 
to try and point out how easily these things 
might have been better done, and how 
greatly a little thought, a little modesty, a 
little good taste would have assisted the 
makers of these bad letters in the objects 
they had in view when they produced them. 
Proceeding, Mr. Strange said: "Now, the 
first element of a cure is to ascertain the 
origin of the disease ; in this case, I am 
thoroughly convinced that much of the 
trouble arises from an idea that students and 
craftsmen seem to be continually getting 
into their heads that they have to design the 
letters of the inscriptions on their works. 
Now that is precisely what they must be 
warned against. You cannot design a letter ; 
you may burlesque it ; you may mutilate it 
by breaking its back in unexpected places ; 
you may complicate it with weird growths 
of a more or less fungoid nature, but 3'ou 
cannot design it, for design implies inven- 
tion, and no one can be said to invent what 
already exists ; while any attempt to give 
new forms to the letters in current use can 
only be compared for audacit)- with deliberate 
experiments in the making of new words ; 
I would even go so far as to say, new lan- 

" For, let us consider shortly what the 
letter really is. It is the accepted medium of 
intellectual exchange— the current coin of 
educated civilisation. It bears its value 
on its face — the form agreed on by the 
millions who use it. No man may measure 
the process of imperceptible refinement by 
which these twenty-six s3'mbols have arrived 
at their present state of almost world-wide 
acceptance. Wherever the Latin races have 
gone these letters are the daily tools of 
written intercourse. Wherever the Anglo- 
Saxon sets his foot, he carries with him this 
great bond that unites him to his fellows. 

" Now, if a craftsman lays himself out to 
give a letter a new shape, he is paying him- 
self the compliment of asking several hun- 
dred millions of persons to accept his image 
and superscription, instead of that which 
many generations of themselves have already 
agreed upon. It would be sublime if it 
succeeded ; but in practice it is simply 

"I must guard against being misunder- 
stood on this subject. I have said that you 
cannot design a letter — the form stands ; 
but it must be made absolutely clear that this 
stateinent applies only to essential structure. 
It is impossible for anyone who possesses 
any individuality whatever to express him- 
self in any medium without endowing it with 
character. That may be seen in handwriting, 
slipshod and utterly bad as most of cur 
."^crawls are ; if we want to be understood, 
there is always a point bej ond which we inay 
not go. But as to character. This means, 
for us, a certain personal singularity in the 
making of letters which gives distinction — 
individuality, anyway — to the accepted and 
still easily understood letter. I would in- 
stance to you the types made by William 
Morris, and especially the Roman type on 

September, 1900. The Poster. i- 

Caran d'Ache. 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 

the basis of that of Jenson. There is 
nothing- to prevent a craftsman from getting 
his character into his lettering— if he has 
any — and takes pains enough to develop 


"The influence of material on the form of 
the letter is a matter that the craftsman can 
only work out for himself. It is impossible 
to give him rules to teach him his limita- 
tions. Yet it is necessary— with so incon- 
siderate and light a heart does a man often 
set about a serious operation— it is necessary 
to point out one danger. He must not take 
a style of lettering which is good in one 
material, and for one purpose, and try to 
adapt it by brute force to other circum- 
stances. His method of study must be a 
genuine one, and, it goes without saying, 
somewhat laborious. I can give it no better 
words than those used by William Morris 
in describing the means by which he arrived 
at the first of the Kelmscott types. Having 
decided on Jenson's type as his model, he 
set to work to learn it, ' Drawing it over 
many times,' said he, 'before I began 
designing my own letter, so that though I 
think I mastered the essence of it, I did not 
copy it servilely.' That, indeed, is the crux 
of the whole matter of learning to make 
good letters. The essential form of a good 
model must be acquired till it can be pro- 
duced without conscious effort, and, as it 
were, automatically. The personality of the 
craftsman, and the materials with which he 
is working, will then re-act on this, giving it 
interest, beauty, or character, according to 
his talent It should be un- 
necessary, even ridiculous, to remind crafts- 
men that the purpose of making letters is to 
convey information and not to advertise 
their own deterity ; but the examples of 
every-day life seem to show the former to 
be too often the last consideration. The 
modern poster depends, as a rule, on a 

design of weird tints, which may or may not 
be capable of suggesting anything to the 
beholder, save a pardonable desire for 
colour-blindness. The lettering, very often 
tied in an inextricable knot, dances 
drunkenly across a portion of the design ; 
or in great mis-shapen masses makes it top- 
heavy. No one seems to dare to try the 
experiment of extreme simplicity ; a good, 
bold, well-chosen letter, spaced with regard 
to the relative value of the diff"erent portions 
of the announcement, and free from any 
complications of pattern of any kind whatso- 
ever. Vet surely it is one of the highest 
canons of fine art that beauty and force are 
dependent upon simplicity rather than 
elaboration. The fact is that too much 
attention is given to the letter as a unit. It 
must be considered in relation to its fellows 
— the whole alphabet as a whole — for it is 
only after you have settled the shapes of 
your letters that your designing begins, 
when the question arises as to what you 
will do with them. 

"The makers of letter, whether in the 
arts or books, must take themselves more 
seriously. They must first realise the 
greatness of the audience to which their 
works may appeal, and divest themselves of 
little personal eccentricities accordingly. 
And how great and splendid that audience 
may be if the lettering only rises above the 
petty fashions in ornament that live but for 
a day or two, may be suggested to you by a 
remembrance of that inscription from the 
base of the Trajan Column. Millions of 
passers-by have been able to read those 
words as easily during eighteen hundred 
years as if they had been carved yesterday. 
And no single designer, nor the aggregate 
influence of all the generations since, has 
been able to alter the character, add to the 
legibility, or improve the proportion of any 
single letter therein." 

September, 1900. 

The Poster. 


Richard Slanft« 


IT is a curious fact, which in some measure 
emphasises the law of contrast, that 
Switzerland, for all its Calvinistic aus- 
terity, should have produced two such 
artists as Steinlen and Richard Ranft, both 
fully impregnated with the fin-de-siecle 
modernity of Paris. And with Ranft, the 
case is even more remarkable, for he comes 
from Geneva, the home of dour Calvinism, 
whose only artistic products are the horrible 
coloured tourists' souvenirs with erlowing 
views of Lake Leman and the Castle of 
Chillon, which adorn the shop windows 
of the stationers and booksellers of the 
town. Amid such surroundings, with such 
vile things ever before the eyes, it appears 
almost incredible that any artist of a real 
and uncontested talent should have survived. 
However, Ranft somehow managed to do so. 

Richard Ranft was born at Geneva in 
1862, and is able to boast that the great 
French painter Courbet attentively watched 
his first steps in art, and often helped him 
with advice. 

The story goes that in reality it was 
Courbet who decided on the young man's 
vocation. The old painter of Ornans 
escaped to Geneva after the downfall of the 
Communist movement in May, 187 1 ; a few 

years after, Ranft, then only a lad, 
occasionally met him at the house of a 
mutual friend. Courbet was full of his 
art, but was very rough and abrupt in his 
manners ; in fact he always remained the 
simple hearty peasant that he was when he 
left his native village to tempt fortune in 
Paris. Ranft one day unbosomed himself 
to the old master, and confided to him 
that his greatest ambition was to be a 

"Ah! you want to paint, my lad? Well, 
just watch me, it is not very difficult, as 
you'll see." And with a hearty laugh, 
Courbet took a few tubes of paint, which he 
emptied on a canvas, and proceeded to 
spread the whole mass with a palette knife. 

" That's the way to learn how to paint, 
my young friend. Take all these half-empty 
tubes home and try your hand at it." 

JiCHARD Ranft.- 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 

In spite of this advice, however, the 
young man became a pupil of two drawing 
masters. One of them was a very old man, 
who all his life had been an unsuccessful 
artist, while the other had a grand taste for 
skating, and if an artist in any sense, was 
more so with his skates than with his 
brushes. In one way Ranft was fortunate 
in having such extraordinary teachers, as he 
was not influenced by any style or any 
school. He was thus able to be himself and 
treat his conceptions as he liked. His brain 
being free from any schooling, he was able 
to work at ease, and abandon himself 
entirely to his own creative impulse. 

means of livelihcod. One can hardly 
imagine the eyes of a delicate artist, an 
exquisite poet, continuously running over 
a monotonous array of figures and details 
of cash belonging to other people. His 
spare time, after the day's work, was, 
however, consecrated to artistic studies. 
He contributed to several Paris magazines 
and newspapers, and even wrote, illustrated 
and published a novel, " Mile. d'Orchair," 
which was received favourably by the public. 
After nearly ten years the struggle for 
daily bread as a clerk came to an end. One 
day the bank failed, Ranft returned to his 
artistic studies and fortune seemed to bestow 

Ranft was eighteen years old when he 
left his native land for Paris, the metropolis 
of all the arts. He naturally joined the 
group of young men who in literature and 
art have surprised Paris by the individuality 
and audacity of their works. These early 
Parisian days were hard and trying for the 
young man, who gradually taught himself 
his art by continuous and laborious study. 
His luggage was little and his purse ill- 
lined when he arrived from Geneva full of 
hope if nothing else, and he was obliged 
to accept the post of clerk in a bank as a 

its first smiles upon him. He opened an 
exhibition of his works at the "Salon de 
la Bodiniere," which was a success well 
noticed by the public as well as the press. 

Since then Ranft has worked hard and 
won his rank amongst modern artists. His 
subjects have been ot all kinds, and with 
each one he has proved himself a poet. 
But his favourite subjects are scenes in 
the suburbs of Paris, with their misty day- 
light of silvery tint, or dreamy sunsets; and 
scenes from the life of the French capital 
itself. His principal wo: ks are: "The 

September, 1900. 

The Poster. 


Richard Ranft. 


September, igoo. 

The Poster. 


Circus," "Snow," "Night Fete," "Sum- 
mer," " The Nymphs of the Seine River- 
side," "The Italian Comedy," " The Mas- 
querade Ball," "Cherries," " By the River- 
side," "Masks," "Venetian Fete," "The 
Marne River at Night," " Regattas," and 
"The Folies-Berg6res." These coloured 
etchings have been printed by the artist 
himself by a new process, or rather, by an 
old process employed by the engravers of 
the i8th century, and which has, for un- 
known reasons, long remained forgotten. 

Ranft's coloured etchings have been ex- 
hibited at Vienna, Budapesth, Berlin, 
Leipzig and Munich, and several galleries 
and art schools have secured copies for the 
benefit of art students. Of posters, Ranft 
has only designed three, one for " La 
Plume," another to advertise a liqueur, 
and a third for Marguerite Deval, at the 
"Theatre des Mathurins." Richard Ranft 
is now busily engaged illustrating Lucien's 
" Dialogue of Courtisanes," and it will be 
interesting to see how this essentially 

Richard Ranft. 

until it was revived some five years ago 
by Ranft and two of his friends. For 
although when Ranft, five years ago, 
brought out his first attempts at this 
revived art of etching, the engravers, used 
to the old school of reproduction, simply 
howled with disgust, and through their 
efforts coloured etchings were disgracefully 
banished from the " Champs-Elys^es Salon," 
the neighbouring " Champ-de-Mars Salon" 
accepted them at once as clever novel- 
ties. It should be said that most of 

modern Parisian painter will succeed in 
depicting the women of ancient Greece. 

I HOPE to make some important 
announcements in the next number relative 
to matters of special interest to foreign 
readers of The Poster, which it is my 
intention to deal with in future issues. 
Readers at home and abroad should 
note that this number commences a new 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 



Posterdom Caricatures. 

No. AA.— Caran D'^che. 

(Fiom Le Journal, Paris.) 

Drawn by Cafpiello. 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 

^he Moardings. 

THE hoardings are brightening- up, and 
the immense hoarding erected on the 
site of the Strand improvement — which 
is probably the finest advertising site in the 
world, and stands, appropriately enough, 
opposite The Poster Office — is what the 
average newspaper-man would inevitably 

Fleet Street — and which has been com- 
mandeered by Quaker Oats, neither does it 
show the latest development of the bordering 
plan, and of which something more typical 
are those portions of the hoarding devoted 
to the Hippodrome and Quaker Oats. 

It will also be seen that the plans of 

,v!jrc London;, hoarding, 1900 

describe as a galaxy of colour. The display 
does not irritate the visitor as it did when 
first erected, as, immediately following the 
publication of the advice contained in the 
July issue of The Poster, the authorities, 
contractors, or their clients adopted the 
poster bordering plan I recommended. To 
which belongs the credit of adopting the 
idea I do not know, but all must feel 
more than gratified at the result. 

The photo reproduced herewith does not 
show the best position — the corner facing 

"blocking" a number of the same posters 
together is also fruitful of a good display. 
This plan is being extensively followed in 
the poster advertising of Quaker Oats, 
Remington Typewriter, and the Trocadero. 
Such a scheme dominates the immediate 

The new Quaker Oats poster is a 
striking design, although the old Quaker 
is more subsidiary than heretofore. The 
words "Quaker Oats Free Cooker" first 
strike the eye, and a step or two nearer 

September, 1900. 

The Poster. 


the poster discloses the additional words 
"details in packets." This poster should 
prove profitable advertising. 

One of the recent advertised brands of 
cigarettes — Richmond Gem — has adopted a 
unique plan of poster display on the Strand 
hoarding. Occupying a good position close 
to Quaker Oats' corner position, a large 
poster of the old time Virginian gentleman 
forms the centre of smaller posters arranged 

have yet had posted on our hoardings. 
Those of our readers with good eyesight 
may be able to trace three in the photo- 
graphic reproduction of the Strand hoarding. 
Two advertise the Paris and Switzerland 
trips, whilst the other seeks to induce 
travellers to visit Tunbridge Wells, Has- 
tings, etc. The Great Western have posted 
a small poster, depicting some Cornish 
coast scenery, whilst the more artistic (?) 


{By courtesy oj Messrs. A. & S. Gatti 

one at top, bottom, and each side, the whole 
forming another centre to a generously 
large blue background, occupying a com- 
plete section of the hoarding. 

The railways are much behind other 
branches of enterprise in advertising. 
Inspired no doubt by the thought of extra 
business in connection with the Paris 
Exhibition, it has remained for the South- 
Eastern and Chatham and Dover Co. to 
issue the most striking railway posters we 

of the other Companies' posters are floridly 
and inharmoniously brilliant concoctions 
purporting to represent various beauty 
spots. The great bulk of English railway 
poster advertising, however, comprises the 
flourishes and hideous ornament beloved of 
the railway poster lithographers. Yet what 
an opportunity there is for really artistic 
railway posters ! — I do not mean posters 
more artistic than realistic, but having 
realism artistically rendered. 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 

^he ^alle Caillebotte at the 


EVERYBODY is familiar with the 
intolerable fatigue which comes of 
prolonged visits to such vast picture 
galleries as the Louvre, the Vatican, and 
the Uffizi. The unwise revellers at the 
Spring orgy at Burlington House know 
only too well how distressing a thing is 
"Academy Headache." The state of the 
body, painful as it is, after an over-dose of 
pictures, is perhaps more endurable than 
that of the mind. The more genuine the 
interest felt by the spectator in the pictures, 
the more aggravated is the ill. In viewing a 
gallery containing the works of a number of 
painters of different schools and epochs, one 
has perpetually to change one's point of 
view ; the mind has continually to., suffer 
the shock of new impressions, till at length 
a state of tense nervous irritation is set up. 
It is a curious thing that innumerable 
persons, who care absolutely nothing for 
great painting, persons to whom the 
pictures of great artists are indeed actively 
unpleasant, should voluntarily endure the 
weariness begotten of visits to galleries 
of such pictures. One may ascribe it to 
that honourable intellectual hypocrisy which 
induces people to listen to classical music 
which they detest, and to attend scientific 
lectures at which they are inordinately 

The little Salle Caillebotte is a quiet 
oasis in the unrestful labyrinth of the Lux- 
embourg. It is possible that the works 
which adorn it are caviare to the multitude, 
but the general impression of the room is one 
of quietude and refreshment. The pictures 

accord with one another. They are beauti- 
ful decorations which present no literary 
problems to be solved, no mysteries from 
which one must pluck the heart, no symbols 
of subtle and remote significance. Almost 
without exception the pictures deal with 
familiar places and common-place incidents. 
The scenery of well-known waterways, the 
ordinary pleasures and employment of man- 
kind are here painted solely for the sake of 
their inherent beauty. The artists repre- 
sented are Paul Cezanne, Renoir, Manet, 
Monet, Pissarro, Sisley, Degas, Jean- 
Francois Raffaeli, Mile. Berthe Morizot, and 
one or two others, all of whom, for want of 
a better name, have been labelled " Impres- 
sionists." The majority of the canvases 
were bequeathed to France by Gustave 
Caillebotte, himself a painter of distinction, 
two of whose works, " Les Raboteurs de 
parquet," and a fine snow scene, hang in 
the room. 

The examples of Manet, whose influence 
on modern painting has been enormous, will 
at once attract attention. The nude figure 
in "Olympia" is a marvellous representa- 
tion of the human form, with its severe in- 
evitable line. Although Manet was born in 
1833 and died seventeen years ago, the 
picture has those qualities of reticence, 
that sober dignity, which we associate with 
the old masters. Next in importance to 
"Olympia," is " Le Balcon," an extra- 
ordinarily vivid and original portrait group. 
The treatment of the ironwork of the 
balcony in the foreground is Japanese in 
its decorative felicity. Claude Monet, 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 

the greatest of living landscape painters, 
is well seen by eight examples which give 
one an adequate idea of the genius of 
this singularly original artist. The " Gare 
Saint-Lazare " and " Le Dejeuner" are 
subjects somewhat unlike those with 
which Monet usually deals. In " Les 
Rochers de Belle-Isle," " Les Regates 
k Argenteuil," " L'Eglise de V6theuil," 
and " Les Tuileries," are studies of land- 
scape extremely characteristic of their 

less than seven examples or the art of 
Camille Pissario, another master of atmos- 
phere. Of these, " Les Toits Rouges," 
" Potager ; — arbres en fleurs," and "La 
Moisson" are perhaps the most successful. 
Auguste Renoir is represented by six 
examples, the most ambitious of which is 
" Le Moulin de la galette." Renoir here 
gives us a masterly study of one of the balls 
given at the famous dancing place of 
Montmartre. Two landscapes, " Le Pont 

"OLYMPIA." Mankt, 
Miisee tlu Lttxembonri:. 

author. Never before Monet has the de chemin de fer a Chatou," and " Les 

painting of light been so triumphantly Bords de la Seine i Champrosay " prove the 

achieved, never before him was the sense artist's great ability as a landscape painter, 

of atmosphere so perfectly rendered. The A singularly beautiful view of Notre-Dame, 

inspiration of Alfred Sisley — an Englishman and a powerful picture called "The Old 

born at Paris — is similar to that of Monet. Convalescents," gives one some idea of the 

The luminosity of his " Bords de la Seine," talent of Jean-Franqois Raffaeli. Renoir 

" Lisi6re de foret au printemps," and " Les and Raffaeli, like Gainsborough in the last 

Regates de Moulsey, pr^s de Londres," is century and Whistler in our own day, are 

so great that it comes near to producing masters equally of landscape and figure 

illusion. The Salle Caillebotte contains no painting. 

September, ^ i goo. 



The lower part of a whole wall of the 
Salle Caillebotte room is devoted to seven 
pastels by Deg^as, who, with the exception 
of Rodin the sculptor, is perhaps the greatest 
of living- French artists. It is at least certain 
that Degas is supreme as a pastellist. 

draughtsmen of any country and any period. 
Degas is never more happily inspired than 
when dealing with the ballet, as is proved 
by the " Danseuse sur la scene," " Dan- 
seuse nouant son brodequin," and " Les 
Figurants" in this collection. His other 

" LE BALCON." Musie du Luxembourg.] Manet. 

Nobody can rival him in the exquisitely fine subjects are a Montmartre Caf^, a Music 

colour effects which he obtains in this Hall singer, and two studies ot the nude 

medium, and in the matter of searching and entitled " Famme au bain," and " Famme 

beautiful line, he is the equal of the greatest nue accroupie, vue de dos." 


The Poster. 

September, 1900 

Jfoung S^ostcr iVlakers. 

Draian by G. Howell-Baker. 


IT would have been a strange thing if Mr. 
Dudley Heath had not adopted art as a 
profession, for more than one of his 
ancestors made their mark in artistic pur- 
suits. His great-grandfather, James Heath, 
A.R.A., was Historical Engraver to George 
HI., George IV. and William IV. ; and his 
grandfather, Charles Heath, was the origina- 
tor of Heath's " Books of Beauty," "The 
Keepsake," etc., and the engraver of the 
" Liber Studiorum," and many of Turner's 
masterpieces, and also of Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds' works. His father, Henry Charles 
Heath, was Miniature Painter by Special 
Appointment to Her Majesty the Queen, 
and painted about fifty portraits of her. 

The posters that Mr Dudley Heath has 
done are few in number, but good in qualit}'. 
The first was a double-crown to advertise 
the cookery paper called " The Table," pub- 
lished by Marshall, of Marshall's School of 
Cookery. By this design he won an open 
competition in which there were about 200 
competitors. It was exhibited at the first 
Poster Exhibition held at the Aquarium, 
under the management of Mr. Edward 

Mr. Heath also gained the first prize in 
competitions organised by the "Quiver" 
and the "Magazine of Art." Both of his 
designs were adopted by Messrs. Cassell, 
and met with much success on the hoard- 
ings. Looking to these successes, it is 
not wonderful that several leading ad- 
vertising firms have availed themselves 
of Mr. Dudley Heath's services and 
that new posters signed by him are con- 
stantly appearing. It should be added that 
Mr. Heath is a constant exhibitor at the 
Royal Academy and other leading exhi- 
bitions. Though he is an enthusiastic 
designer of posters, he has by no means 
deserted other branches of art. 

Dudley Heath. 
(By pennission'oj " The Table.") 

September, 1900. 

The Poster. 


Duni.F.Y Heath. 
{Bx ptr.nisiwn o) Mess'S. Cassell & Co.) 

nr. K. 0. PKAILL. 

(HAVE also pleasure in reproducing 
some examples of the work of Mr. 
Reginald Geo. Praill, who, although 
serving for many years as an assistant to 
prominent lithographic firms, only recently 
commenced the designing of posters. In 
the course of his experience, he has handled 
designs by Dudley Hardy, Aubrey Beardsley, 
Henry Ryland, and other well-known poster 
makers. Mr. Praill's first accepted poster 
was that for the Big Wheel at Earl's Court, 
published last year. This was followed by 
the "San Toy" poster, which I reproduced 
on page 198 of the July issue of this maga- 
zine. Mr. Praill was also successful in 
having a second poster accepted for the Big 
Wheel, and this my readers will remember 
having seen upon the hoardings during the 
last few months. It indicates very strongly 
the money paid away by the owners of the 
Gigantic Wheel as the result of their scheme 
for securing patrons by rewarding such 
pleasure-seekers as may be fortunate to be 

upon the wheel at the time of the now 
frequent stoppages. When this scheme 
was first inaugurated, it served its purpose 
admirably, but I fear it does not now prove 
such a means of attraction. (By the way 
illuminated advertisements are displayed 
upon the Big Wheel, and at night these can 
be read from a considerable distance around 
the favourite West-end pleasure resort.) 

Returning to the productions of Mr. 
Praill, I have had an opportunity of viewing 
several original designs which give promise 
of greater success in the future. He has the 
ability to turn out some good practical 
advertising designs, and while he is wise 
not to forsake the lithographic work for the 
— to many — somewhat uncertain calling of 
a poster designer, he would do well to 
prosecute his studies in black and white as 
well as colour work. 

R. G. Praill. 

September, igoo. 

The Poster. 


The " Northern Whig " protests against 
slavish imitation of artistic "type styles," 
as will be seen by the following copy of a 
recently published leading article : — " Some 
very severe criticisms are being made of the 
Exhibition of students' work in the national 
competition now going on at South Kensing- 
ton, and containing, by the way, many pro- 
ductions of merit by Belfast students. 
Ignorance of the ordinary elements of draw- 
ing is, we are told, painfully general— a fact 
which does not speak too well for the work 
of the schools and the methods of instruction 
now in vogue — and mere tyros in art are to 
be seen straining after results entirely 
beyond them, with little regard either to 
their technical acquirements or their natural 
parts. That such conditions should prevail 
to any extent is most regrettable, but one 
would imagine that it lay within the power 
of the Examiners to check them severely by 
raising the standard for prize awards and 
maintaining it with greater consistency from 
year to year. 

" In many instances, however, if we 
have heard aright, the masters are much to 
blame for the poor quality and insincerity 
of the work sent up, since, instead of dis- 
couraging the students from efforts after the 
clever, but in their nature ephemeral, effects 

which are the characteristics of a few popular 
eccentricities, they permit the impressionable 
youths to waste themselves in grotesque 
imitations of men who have been found to 
the taste of the day. Accordingly we are 
sated with posters of the Beggarstaflf and 
H assail type, as once we were with the yellow 
girls of Dudley Hardy, and the corpse-touch 
of Aubrey Beardsley and the line-economy 
of Phil May have had more than an ordinary 
influence upon numerous drawings. The 
consequence of this sort of thing may be 
seen by anyone who glances through the 
pages of a magazine, or wanders about a 
provincial exhibition of pictures. Imitation, 
and scarcely anything but imitation, is there, 
as though the young students had taken to 
heart in a too literal sense the dictum of 
Aristotle that ' all art is imitation.' Unfor- 
tunately, the very worst type of models is 
usually chosen, and immediate effectiveness 
is a more common aim than simplicity of 
treatment and thoroughness of detail. 

" So much at least we may infer from 
the remarks of the Examiners on the designs 
for posters, in which they express their 
regret that ' the increased attention paid to 
this class of work has led to vulgarity of 
sentiment, violence of colour, and eccentricity 
of design.' We cannot apply these strictures 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 


in full force to work in such things as 
damask and embroidery. But even here 
complaints and their causes are not far to 
seek. Quotations, without anything to cor- 
respond to the inverted commas of letter- 
press, are permitted to pass, and to pass 

" Efforts to touch the Examiner upon 
his weak point and to humour his special 
tastes meet with more frequent success than 
is to be desired, and there is far too much 
playing down to the level of trade require- 
ments. Thus, instead of art finding a 
guiding force in this particular, we find her 
in the veriest leading strings to the day-to- 
day demands of commerce. We may expect 
a better system of things some day, but not 
until the student of design has been taught 
in a technical college the whole process of 
the manufacture of the article upon which 
he employs his artistic faculties. Even then 
the ideals of John Ruskin and William 
Morris will be needed to lead the draughts- 
man to see something more in his work than 

the mere necessity to supply the trade with 
something taking and in the latest fashion." 

Jimmy Pryde, the elder of the Beggar- 
staff Brothers, has, according to " So- 
ciety," just undergone a very serious 
operation, and all his many friends are 
delighted to see him well and about again. 
Jimmy Pryde is a very big man, with a 
strong face that suggests a giant Napoleon. 
He has a very strong, striking personality 
that is hard to associate with broken 
health. The Brothers Beggarstaff — Pryde 
and William Nicholson— are no longer 
partners in poster art. But true amateurs 
of the poster will always remember their 
productions with admiration and affection. 
They made an admirably assorted pair of 
workers — Pryde, imagination, full of beau- 
tiful ideas, a typical product of the best 
modern Glasgow school ; Nicholson, also 
artistic to the core, but painstaking and 
hard working. Between them they had 
the very best of brains, and the result was 
admirable. They are brothers-in-law, for 
Nicholson, when still a young student at 
Herkomer's school at Bushey, married 
Pryde's sister, who was a girl student there. 


September, 1900. 

The Poster, 


Nicholson has lived in many places. From 
the picturesque village of Denham, near 
Uxbridge, he went to Bedford Park, and 
then, after a time at Earl's Court, to 
Mitcham, vi^here he had a charming little 
old-world house on the green. There was 
a big coach-house there, very useful, because 
of its size, as a studio for the poster work. 
The Beggarstaffs mapped out their posters 
as they would appear on the hoardings, 
using pieces of coloured paper for the 
process. So a large wall was necessary. 
At present Nicholson has the house at 
Woodstock, which, according to legend, 
once belonged to Chaucer, a house that 
should satisfy the most exacting of artistic 

The exhibition of Rodin's works in 
Paris, which was opened in June, will close 
in November. Without using the language 
of exaggeration, it is not too much to say 
that this show is in itself a sufficient reason 
for a pilgrimage to Paris. To most artists 
this quiet and well-arranged gallery will 
be more attractive than the vast artistic 

J. Thorpe. 

Drawn bv Himself. 

chaos, the interminable orgy, of the Inter- 
national Exhibition. Here one can appre- 
ciate the greatest living sculptor in the 
various phases of his evolution, and the 
different aspects of his development. It 
may be that Rodin is not so great as the 
greatest of the Greeks, but the greatest 
of the Greeks excepted, he has no superiors. 
At his best, he is so monumental, so grand, 
and withal so original, so modern. In the 
midst of his masterpieces stands the titanic 
Balzac, over which a wordy war has been 
waged. This terrific piece of plastic 
criticism makes the ordinary portrait statue 
seem trivial and absurd. Whether the 
artist has not gone a thought too far is a 
question upon which it is not necessary to 
enter here. The Balzac could only have 
been produced by one living man, and that 


The Poster. 

September, 1900. 

man is Rodin. The exhibition is adver- 
tised by a poster designed by Cari^re. It 
is a beautiful thing, and a small number 
have been printed for collectors without 

In the French Textile Section of the Paris 
Exhibition very interesting use is made of 
the posters of Ch^ret and Grasset. Tlic 

posters— or course without lettering — are 
the motives of the decoration of two halls 
in which silks and other fabrics are shown. 
The Ch^ret room is wonderfully gay and 
luminous, and resembles a cascade of flowers. 
The Grasset hall is more sober and restrained 
in colour. The posters of these artists have 
certainly never been seen before under cir- 
cumstances so appropriate. 

— T" 

■ *■«. 


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I NOTICE a somewhat novel thing in Paris 
in the way of advertisement. Instead of 
each exhibiting a separate placard, several 
firms combine their announcements on one 
huge sheet. This shows a hoarding, at 
which the passers-by are gazing. On it are 
represented the pictorial advertisements of 
the contributing firms. The bills are 
sufficiently large to be conspicuous, so the 
size of the whole bill may be imagined The 
thing is effective, and seems to attract a 
good deal of attention. 

As a supplementary note to his article, 
"The Salle Caillebotte at the Luxembourg," 
Mr. Hiatt writes as follows : — " Not very 
long ago the artists discussed in my article, 
when not openly reviled, were held in 
the slightest esteem. The French Govern- 
ment, prodigal of awards and decorations, 
was careful to bestow none of its ribbon on 
them, while it delighted ostentatiously to 
honour M. Bouguereau for his naked ladies 
modelled in soap. The State has now 
acquired examples of the work of Impres- 
sionists, not by its own initiative and 
purchase, but by the bequest of a private 
individual. No public collection in Eng- 
land contains a single example of the 
work of these men whose influence on 
modern art has been so great. To acquire 
such examples would now be compara- 
tively easy ; in the future it will be ex- 
tremely expensive, if not impossible. The 
pictures of Monet, Degas and the rest 
are already no uncertain speculation, but a 
safe and profitable security." 

R montblp Journal for flduertism. 

No. 4. Edited by Hugh MacLeay as a Supplement to "The Poster." 

olfactory nerves, either independently, or conjointly 
with appeals to one or more other senses, is a form 
of advertising. Who has not felt the potent power of 
smell advertising in various ways. The flower girls 
know this power, and add to the sight of their flowers 
a smell of their scent by the simple act of placing the 
flowers within one's range of smell. Almost every 
busines-s h,?s it?, peculiar and more or less attractive 
or repellent smell. The latter should be made as 
least repellent as possible. Further, the senses of 
hearing, feeling and tasting are slow factors in adver- 
tis'ing, and the wise advertiser will, as far as possible, 
s-3e that the maximum co-operation of all is employed 
in the service. 

In the new (^)uaker Oats poster it will be noticed 
that nothing commendatory of the article is mentioned. 
Quaker Oats are now too well known to require such 
introduction. It is now merely a question of booming 
continuously, and the plan whereby the purchaser of 
so many packets gets the cooker free is one well calcu- 
lated to appeal to thrifty housewives. 

At the same time it must be pointed out that Pro- 
vost Oats were the first to carry out this idea. Provost 
Oats, however, made the mistake of trying to get a 
mortgage on sales in the face of a better advertised 
ri\al. The people knew more about the latter, and 
were not to be beguiled with the given-away-with-a- 
pcund-of-tea idea. It makes a big difference now that 
the more popular article adopts the same idea. 

No extra charge is made for " Modern Advertising," which is 

included in the jearly subscription of 7/6 to The Poster 
Special terms can be obtained by publishers desirous of sending 

copies to their advertising patrons. 
Contributions are invited, and must be accompanied by the name 

and address of the writer. Address all literary matter to the 


Business communications and enquiries regarding advertising 
space should be addressed to the Manager of The Poster, 
I, Arundel Street, Strand, London. 

The Editor's Ideas and Ideals. 

I CAN give It no other name than childish, the 
advertising of which Messrs. Aspinall's new tin tablet 
is a typical specimen. In this a soldier is represented 
rifle in hand, apparently facing the fire of the enemy, 
and in front of a barricade of many-times-actual-size 
Aspinall's enamel tins. Aspinall's enamel has no con- 
nection with such a scene, and the proportions and 
conception of the design are all wrong. The adver- 
tisement might have shown the soldiers painting their 
accoutrements, artillery, etc., khaki colour with As- 
pinall's enamel, and so realistic an idea would have 
fixed the article and its use in the minds of many. 

Seeing a sign outside a generously redolent cheap 
restaurant which informed me that " the smell you 
smell is that of our famous sausages," suggested to me 
the fact that advertising may be made to appeal to 
more than one perceptive faculty. The sense of smell, 
for instance, is keenly alive to the perception of food 
flavours, and anything pleasingly appealing to the 


Supplement to THE POSTER. September, 1900. 

Apropos of I'rovost Oats, I have seen no adver- 
tising for this brand for some time. Is it another case 
of non-continuous advertising? Advertising of this 
kind rarely, if ever, pays. To succeed, the advcrti^-er 
must keep everlastingly at it. 


ever seen a 



You have never harl a really "OLD" Snuce 
unless you have used "THE WHiTE LABEL," 
which being an " OLD " (Worcestershire) 
SAUCE fully matured, is superior to ALL 
OTHERS. All Grocers sell it. 

Free Sample sent on receipt of i^d. for postage. 

J. A. SHARWOOD and Co., Ltd., St. George's 
House, London, B.C. 

I HAVE cut this advertisement from a recent copy 
of the " Daily Mail." Now, does any sane individual 
think that the connection of dead donkey vf\th an 
article intended as an appetiser is other than repellent 
or disgusting? Yet no doubt the originator thereof is 
e.xpecting an increase of salary as a reward for the 
brilliancy of the idea. If the actual proprietor is the 
perpetrator, it is pretty safe to assume that he expects 
sales to boom enormously as the result of this adver- 
tisement. Is it not a pity that the " Daily Mail " and 
other papers which may be inserting this advertisement 
do not maintain an advertisement censor, who would 
see that people's appetites are not spoiled just at the 
moment when one is beginning the day with a good 
breakfast and the best of intentions. If this sort of 
thing gets worse it will certainly be necessary to wait 
until after breakfast before opening the morning paper, 
and until after dinner before perusing the evening 

Lyons' Restaurar.ts are carrying out a neat little 
advertising scheme. Customers are handed a sample 
of Lyons' Maharajah Tea in a packet on which the 
piice is quoted at Is. 6d. (presumably per lb., but 
weight not mentioned). The packet also bears in- 
structions for making tea. Sample advertising is good 
advertising, and done in this way it is more than 
merely good. 

It would be difficult to discover a sufficiently good 
reason why the Blackpool municipal authorities should 
not subscribe to the funds of the local Football Club 
for advertising purposes. The home matches with 
visiting teams ensures' an influx of visitors to the town 
in ihe dull season. The number depends on the stand- 
in-:; of the club, and the standing in these day; 
of professionalism being a matter of funds, the 

authorities' Subscription would prove a great help. 
Imagine the visit of 12,000 or 20,000 or even more 
football spectators to a place like Blackpool in the 
winter season. Remembering the open-armed recep- 
tio.i which awaits one from the average Blackpool 
landlady and tradesman even in the height of the 
season, the possibilities attending the advent of thou- 
sands of visitors in the winter of their discontent 
makes one wonder why Blackpool does not aspire to 
the maintenance of two teams equal, between them, to 
carrying off both the English Cup and the League 
Championship, with Scotch and Irish Cups as well. 
The Blackpool landlady can never have too much of 
the good thing that is the root of all evil. 

We are constantly being reminded in artfully ar- 
ranged warnings of the dangers attendant on the con- 
sumption or use of cheap brands of almost everything. 
A medical officer has recently issued a report which 
has been copied more or less exhaustively in nearly 
every paper in the country as to the defective nutritive 
properties of low-priced brands of condensed milk. 
This' may be quite correct, but it nevertheless creates 
a fine opportunity for the higher-priced brands. 
Again, it suggests to the shrewd advertisers a line of 
method for the conservation of his particular field. 

" As advertised," the phrase now appearing m 
many shop %\'indows, notably house furnishers, both 
advertisers and non-advertisers, strikes me as being 
n ir altogether good policy. Does it not suggest an 
exception to a rule in which deception or something 
njt above board is more or less practised? 

Another phrase, peculiar to the public-house, but 
of late making its way into other branches of trade, 
is Under entirely new management." Doesn't this 
also defeat its purpose by suggesting that things have 
n )t been what they ought to have been in the past, 
whilst being no guarantee that " carryings on," as 
Mrs. Gamp would term them, were not still being 

The new advertising may be described as the 
throwing of bouquets disguised as bricks, and is 
affected by the leading lights of the literary, dramatic, 
and pugilistic professions. Marie CorelH and Hall 
Caine seem to be a little more practised than Sydney 
Grundy and Mrs. W. K. Clifford, but Corbett has 
appeared on the scene, and, like the good fighter he 
is, is slashing right and left at Jeffries and Fitzsim- 
mcns, and may yet take a hand in the Marie Corelli v. 
Hall Caine and Sydney Grundy v. Mrs. Clifford 
" Aunt Sallies," when the three professions will be 
truly united in the noble cause of artful advertising. 
There is an advertising paper in Chicago called " Ad- 
vertising Experience," and contributed to by most of 
the leading professional advertisers— I say most ad- 
visedly, as I am unable to used the word " all " until 

September, 1900. 

Supplement to THE POSTER. 


1 see contributions therein from Marie Corelli, Hall 
Caine, Sydney Grundy, Mrs. Clifford, and J. Corbett. 
Speaking as one experienced in advertising matters, I 
quite expect to see that Marie Corelli favours adver- 
tising at the moment when goods are ready for sale, 
whilst Hall Caine and J. Corbett prefer to prepare 
beforehand the shadows of their coming events. 

Advertising Notes. 

A MAP of Chelsea district is given to all applicants 
for houses by Messrs. Andrews, Holland & Hitch, 
auctioneers. King's Road, Chelsea, S.W. The various 
properties for sale or to let are also marked thereon. 

In a letter to the " Glasgow Evening News," I 
see that a Mr. H. Bracewell, of Glasgow, has protested 
against the paper's remarks on the subject of closed 
doors at the local Bill-Posters' Conference, which, he 
pointed out, was a purely private affair. Incidentally, 
Mr. Bracewell challenged the paper to find a poster 
in the city of Glasgow that any reasonable person 
could cavil at on the ground of a demoralising ten- 
dency, because, he added, they had a Poster Censor- 
ship Committee. 

Quite a stir was recently created at Rhyl in con- 
nection with a sand advertisement design competition. 
A local wine and spirit merchant (who is also a J. P.) 
followed an example set by Bovril, and arranged prize 
competitions for juveniles, for the purpo.-e of adver- 
tising a certain brand of whisky for which he is agent. 
It was scarcely to be expected that careful parents 
would countenance their children engaging in any 
plan for whisky advertising, and the more extreme 
temperance section sent a strongly-worded resolution 
to the Rhyl Council. 

In an interview, Mr. Harris, of Messrs. Bovril's 
advertising department, said the sand method of ad- 
vertising had been a huge success. Competitions had 
been conducted in 35 towns, as compared with half-a- 
dozen last year. Professional sand artists prompted 
the idea. The children either draw the designs with a 
pointed stick, or build them up with sand. The Mayor 
is generally prevailed upon to distribute the prizes, 
and the competitions are sometimes watched by as 
many as 2,000 or 3,000 people. " It is one of the 
finest advertisements we have ever had," said Mr. 
Harris. " The children talk about Bovril for weeks. 
No, we have had no difficulty whatever with the 
authorities. In fact, they consider the competitions 
bring visitors, and they encourage us in every way." 

The Poster, of London, in its June issue, pub- 
lishes a large number of reproductions, mostly half- 
tones, showing artistic poster creations from that side 
of the water as displayed at the recent poster exhibi- 
tion. A~s samples of British billboard publicity, a few 
are given herewith. These samples of politer crea- 
tions are representative of the general run of posters 
given in the magazine, and speak well for the art 
quality of the work of poster makers of England and 
the continent. The practical advertiser wants a poster 

that, above every other element, possesses the qua'ity 
of selling goods. A writer in this same issue of The 
Poster" classifies poster artists in four groups: 
" Those who achieve art and advertisement ; those 
who achieve art and not advertisement ; those who 
achieve advertisement without art, and those who 
achieve neither the one nor the other. To the first 
class belong a few, to the second more, to the third 
many, and the number of the fourth is legion." 

Wherever posters are used, the man who pays tor 
the work wants that which is practical. The one who 
creates and puts his signature on a design, strives tor 
that which is artistic, and the artist who can har- 
monize his own and his patron's ideas will please and 
sell goods at the same time. 

Some billboards of the country show the result of 
combining the practical and the artistic. It cannot 
be expected, however, that all billposters will use the 
same judgment in placing the posters on the boards. 
When the eye is kept open to the colour effect, the 
advertising value will be increased. It is better lo 
have a billboard arranged with taste and judgment than 
to put up with any arrangement that may " happen." 
The country over, there is more or less opposition to 
billboard publicity. Much of this opposition is caused 
from carelessness in arranging of colour schemes. Fre- 
quently there are such colours jumbled together on a 
large board as to curdle all the milk in the neighbour- 
hood and leave a bad taste in the mouth of the one 
who beholds it. Much of the objection could be over- 
come if the same taste could be displayed in the post- 
ing as is frequently given to the creating of the poster. 
— The Advertising World (Columbus-, U.S.). 


An Oxrord Street draper has adopted a novel 
method of attracting American custom. Outside 
his establishment are si uck up notices which read as 
follows :—" American ladies are informed that pur- 
chasers at this store can obtain from the assistants 
a simple mont-y table giving the value of the doUar 
compared with English money." The table gives 
the various values from id. up to ten guineas. 
What it does not state, however, is the American 
equivalent of rs. ii|d. 


The " Petit Journal," of Paris, is usually referred 
teas having the largest circulation of any peric dical 
publication, says the Brooklyn "Times." But in 
this case, as in some other respects, the Chinese 
can give points and a beating to i ivilised mankind. 
There is no other publication in the world of which 
so many copies are printed as of the " Chinese 
Almanac." The number is estimated at several 
iTiillions, and it circulates among all classes of the 
population, from the proudest vii eroy or mandarin 
to the poorest peasant. T his almanac is printed at 
Pekin, and is a monopoly of the Emperor, It not 
only pred'cts the weather, but notes the days that 
are reckoned lucky or unlucky for beginning any 
undertaking, for taking any meoicine, for marrying 
and for burying. I should like to know what the 
" Daily Mail " and " Daily Telegraph " have got to 
say regarding the claims of the Chinese print. 


Supplement to THE POSTER. Sepiembur, igoo 

IBoot and ^hoe ^Advertising. 

People are nowadays very critical a; to footwear. 
People now require smart appearance as well as dura- 
bility, and the o!d-tirr,e " Bluchers " are consigned to 
the most out-o.f-sight location in the shop, boot and 
shoe retailers generally being thoroughly alive to put- 
ting their best foot(wear) foremost. 

The advance has been mostly in one direction — a 
window display frontal attack. Leaders in business 
strategy are few. Some are born business strategists, 
whilst others have acquired their knowledge as the 
result of practical experience. The great majority fail 
to make an all-round advance because they do not 
realise or appreciate the possibilities of the advertising 
flank movement. 

The window display is beyond all question a most 
powerful aid to sales, but the adverti=ing flank move- 
ment will turn buyers in the direction of the window, 
where the display should create the final frontal attack. 

To rely on window display alone means the merely 
passive policy of waiting behind the counter, where 
only the automaton's work of handing over " the pair 
like those in the window " and receiving the money is 
gone through. The business strategist is not content 
with such a passive and mechanical policy. Be his 
turnover what it will, he keeps ever before him his 
object of an ever-increasing turnover. To wait is to 
keep at a standstill both himself and his busines- — 
and when a business is at a standstill its next mo\e- 
mtnt is as likely to be backward as forward. 

To become a successful business strategist one must 
have one's heart and soul in the business. This will 
make the aspiring boot and shoe trader eager for 
opportunities in advertising as well as in buying. The 
clever the buyer the greater the opportunity for suc- 
ce;-sful salesmanship. 

Advertising is the finest aid to salesmanship. Clever 
advertising will predispose buyers in favour of the 
advertiser's goods. Clever advertising is not the mere 
mention of name, address, and business. Clever ad- 
vertising is the advertising that conveys a clear idc, 
of a special boot or shoe to those to whom such foot- 
wea: will most strongly appeal. 

Some boot and shoe traders make the mistake of 
mistaken strategy. Under this heading are those who 
have words only for their special " Defiance '" or 
" Featherweight ' boots._ The first are suitable only 
for a navvy or rough labourer, whilst the latter err in 
the other direction. The continual and exclusive ad- 
vertising of either line will tend to draw just the one 
class of trade. 

The boot and shoe trader who is really anxious to 
secure an ever-increasing turnover and profit must first 
sit down and do some serious thinking. He must 
endeavour to understand the possibilities of his neigh- 
bourhood, and the best means of advertising to sniit 
local circumstances. 

The trader in a small town, and whose shop is 
central, will find the local newspapers the best medium 
for advertising. If his shop, service and stock war- 
rant it, he should be able to do an all-round class 
trade. To do this thoroughly, however, needs careful 
advertising. Let us consider the newspaper adver- 
tising first. We must determine the class of people which each paper circulates. One may have 

wealthier readers than the others, and in this paper 
should appear advertisements of boots and shoes likely 
to appeal to those to whom price is not so much a 
consideration as fine quality. The advertisements must 
suggest something of Regent Street and Bond Street 
styles, but the stock must be of a character to back 
up the claim, otherwise the advertising certainly will 
not pay. The other local paper, or papers, may have 
a working class clientele, and the advertisements 
should be drafted accordingly. For the more stylish 
section the claims of a " Business Boot " will be 
attiactive, whilst for those who care nothing for style, 
the " Defiance Boot " will more strongly appeal. AH 
advertisements should be illustrated if possible, and 
onlv one of each men's and lady's styles should be dea't 
with in each advertisement, buyers being more strongly 
appealed to by one article than by several. The illus- 
tration should be the best obtainable. There are some 
newspapers well enough printed on paper which will 
allow of lialf-tone blocks, but they are very rare, and 
it will be found that a not too closely drawn line block 
suits best. Accompanying the illustration should be 
a chatty description of the boots advertised. Use no 
technical terms not understood of the people, but talie 
care to make the good points as clear and convincing 
as possible. Finally invite the people to ca'l and 
inspect the boots as well as your other stock, and give 
them to understand that a view of the inside of your 
shop renders it no more obligatory to buy than a view 
of your window — (so many people are deterred from 
buying because they are afraid of being expected to 
buv something'). Another word to the small town boot 
and shoe trader, seeing that it is mostly in the small 
towns that the old-fashioned custom still exists of not 
pricing goods for people to see : Price every pair and 
every article you place in your window. Prices are 
always interesting, from Consols downwards to pota- 
toes. Do not make the mistake of pricing only tire 
cheaper qualities and leaving the better class goo'ds 
without prices. This plan savours of baiting, and will 
frighten away suspicious people who wouM otherwise 
buy a good class pair of boots or shoes. 

In the large town only the trader centrally or con- 
veniently located, and with big stock and goo.l service, 
can expect to make extensive newspaper advertising 
{)ay. The suburban trader cannot expect to draw trade 
to' an inconvenient location from all or many other 
suburbs. He had better lay plans to secure as much 
local custom as possible, and it would not pay to ad- 
veitise to the whole community so as to secure only 
a comparatively small portion of the community's 
trade. So circumstanced, the trader must make the 
best of the suburban paper or papers (if any, and then 
only when satisfied that circulation of not less than 
5,000 does really exist). Papers or no papers, a 
monthly circular printed on good paper, with good 
ink, and not omitting the best possible illustrations of 
the actual goods, will be found beneficial. 

If capital allows, the monthly publication of a 
tin-e-table sheet or book, or little magazine — of coifrsc 
incorporating advertisements — would be even better. 
This should be distributed per sealed envelope, if 
possible personally addressed to head of each house 
in the district. 

September, 1900. Supplement to THE POSTER. 


'SLhc Imitative tendency. 

There is* someone who possesses the imitative 
faculty to a degree which would shame the c'everest 
of all our Darwinian ancestors. I reproduce the 
original and the imitation advertisements side by side, 
and defy any of my readers to deny the truth of my 
statement. I might make assurance doubly sure by 
also reproducing two other examples, the imitation 
advertisement in this case being that of the famous 
Captain Kettle in the Tortoise Tobacco, some months 
age a common object of the advertisement side of our 
magazines. Both originals were originated bv Charles 
Austin Bates, and I cannot refrain from quoting his 
characteristically naive reply to a reported case of 
similar plagiarism. Said the inimitable " Charles 
Austin " : " Well, now, don't you think that shows the 
man's sense. He knows a good thing when he sees 
it, and accepts no other." My friends along the Strand 
may have alsO' read this before they discovered the 
hat advertisement here reproduced. 

A very striking advertisement has been appearing 
in the illustrated press to help the sales of Ogden's 
Cigarettes, and I think it will do so to a much greater 
degree than the average advertisement issued by this 

firm. But, why don't Ogden's tell something about 
the method of manufacture, or the quality which would 
assure smokers it is superior to other brands. They 
have led us to believe that their cigarettes were much 
in evidence at the front and popular amongst both 
Brtish and Boer forces, and I have no doubt hut tiiis 
form of advertising has brought good results. I should 
like, however, to tell the smoker a few stern facts 
which would induce him to say when offered another 
brand, " No, I prefer Ogden's, and if you haven't got 
it I'll go elsewhere." 

A little argument tersely stated in an advertisement 
attractively displayed can always be judiciously em- 
ployed in pushing an article with many rivals. 




h»»a revolutionised the Trads. 
They are a revelation in quality, 
fra^rnCDce. ajad ar<}iBa. Leave no 
nnpJea-sant taste in the mouth,aD<l 
are the most w&ole«ome cigars to 
smoke, 3d. each. Sold everjwhaw 
or dirsc* from 

Sole lapofters. 49, Strang W.C. 




Supplement to THE POSTER. September, 1900 

Catalogues, Sooklets, Circulars, etc. 

til^E do not think it will be found expedient in 
TT practice to buy your drawings from one 
source, your engravings from a second, and 
your printing from a third. Why? Because these 
three producers do not, in general, co-operate to give 
a completely artistic result. Neither of them know- 
how the other will treat the work, there being very 
rarely any opportunity of co-operation between them. 
So i* happens thai if you chance to get a good and 
original drawing which may possibly sell your goods, 
it is too often sjjoilcci ;n ihe engraving or printing. 
Then, not seldom, the artis't, engraver, and printer 
blame each other : you, as a matter of course, being 
the victim. Ycu have known this to happen probably ; 
we advise you not to risk it happening again. A good 
drawing, well engraved, but printed on bad paper, with 
poor ink, is poor recompense for trouble and expense 
A bad drawing badly engraved, but finely printed on 
art paper, is mere waste of money." 

I quote the foregoing from " Practical Suggestions 
to Advertisers and Others," a book got out by Messrs. 
Beiiirose & Sons, Ltd., of Derby, London, and Hanley. 
The statement is a good one, and is well backed up 
by the get-up of the book in question. Heavy card 
paper, smooth finish, is used throughout, covers to 
match being heavier. The cover design of a girl sit- 
ting on the sea-shore, with stretches of sea and shore 
as picture fill-up, is' bright and attractive in the flat- 
wash effect, first introduced, I believe, in ttie 
'■ Graphic " Xmas Nos. One little realistic touch, 
however, is missing. The chair leg visible does not 
appear to have buried itself as chair legs have a way 
of doing at the seaside when one sits upon them. 
Messrs. Bemrose's ability to produce artistic and effec- 
tive work is amply evidenced by the fine press-work, 
half-tone, collotype, and chromotype printing being 
■introduced to emphasise the printers' claims as to their 
af)ility to do good work. This little book should tie 
seen by all who can appreciate good work. 

A catalogue reaches me from Messrs. John Spencer, 
I,td., who are manufacturers of iron and steel tubes. 
This is a neater list than ordinary, but is otherwise 
conventional, with the exception that included in the 
book are some weight and other tables, which I imagine 
shculd prove extremely useful to buyers of tubes. The 
front cover is a splodge of type, with very little ''white" 
relief. It might have been made more artistic and 
impressive by the introduction of medals and honours 
o\er the words " Tubes. John Spencer, Ltd.," and 
date. The latter does not appear — only " 20th Edi- 
tion." The back cover of the catalogue is devoted to 
illustrations and particulars of riveted iron and steel 
work. This .•■-hould have been left blank, or used only 
for medals or trade-mark centre-piece. There is no 
index, the existence of which would prove useful to 
the busy buyer of the firm's goods. 

One of the best newspaper advertising books I have 
ever seen is that issued by the proprietors of the " Dun- 
dee Courier " series of publications. The book is 
entitled "The Progress and Development of W. & 
D. C. Thomson's Publications." The cover outsides 
are handsomely litho'd in several colcuts, a picminent 
feature"of the design liemg the Scotch thistle. 1 he 
book contains a large sprinkling of contemporary 

opinions of :h.; firm's publications and business, front 
covers of tlie publications are leproduced — the periodi- 
cals in their respective colours. Area of circulation is 
detailed and illustrated by map. Iheie is a photo 
picture of the firm's London office at 109, 1' leet Street. 
Actual orders from some of the newsagents in the 
principal centres are reproduced in facsimile. There 
is a list of " Courier Enterprises," a list of the general 
ad\ertisers, an illustration of one of the Goss P'our- 
Deck Straight l.ine Presses ^capacity, 50,000 copies 
of eight pages an hour), with particulars of plant, 
etc A list of prospectuses which have been adver- 
tised in the " Courier," and representing a capital of 
^250,000,000, is also included. Altogether the book 
is sure to enhance the standing of the firm and its 
different publications, and the proprietors deserve 
more than an ordinary meed of praise for thus proving 
their own faith in advertising. 

Mr. F. A. Latarche, printer, stationer, and libra- 
rian, of 63, Lime Street, Liverpool, s'ends a bird's eye 
view map of Liverpool and neighbourhood and copy 
of a circular advertising his circulating library, etc. 
The map is an especially clear-outlined one, and is 
bound to secure the attention of visitors and others 
unacquainted with Liverpool and district. The cir- 
cular gives a list each of English and French books 
on hand, whilst elsewhere is a special list of the most 
remarkable works, etc. Properly distributed, the map 
and- circular should prove profitable advertising. 

" Your Corner of the Empire " is the title of a 
booklet issued by Messrs. Mather & Crowther, Ltd., 
advertising agents, New Bridge Street, f.udgate Circus, 
E.G., for the purpose of drawing attention to^ the 
opening for trade advertising in the various British 
possessions, which are coloured in an aggressive British 
rod on a marginal map on every page. The booklet is 
bound in khaki covers, the top right hand corner of 
which bears the title on a red triangle. The booklet 
is bound with tricolour ribbon, and the inside paper is 
a rough surfaced paper. The reading of the booklet 
does not make clear any of the special fitness for 
arranging for Colonial advertising that I believe 
Messrs. Mather & Crowther to possess. Allusions are 
made - to " names of numbers of the world's greatest 
advertisers," who, " under our direction, have been 
made to earn the significance they bear." A list of 
such names would be better proof. It is in this most 
particular matter that the booklet falls short of being 
really good. 

" Interesting to Sketchers " appears in art green 
inic on white panel on cover bearing a conventionalised 
rtoral ornament, the book containing a selection of 
Messrs. Reeves & Sons' artists' requirements, more 
particularly sketch holders and easels, shown open and 
in use and closed. Well known artists' testimonials 
add to the effectiveness of the book, which contains 
the following neat introduction : " This booklet con- 
tains a few of Peeves' Novelties fo.r artists and ama- 
teuis sketching out of doors; they are not all new 
this season, but represent the inventions and improve- 
ments of the last three or four years. They were 
designed for Reeves' by various artists and others 
who know." The little booklet ought to pay hand- 

September, 1900. 

Supplement to THE POSTER 

Abuses of Sdvcrtising. 

Mt. Richardson Evan?, the hon. secretary Oif the 
National Society for Checking the Abuse; of Public 
Advertising, in his last appeal, says : " Those, per- 
haps, have most cause to lament who take up their 
abode in some gracious place and see in the encroach- 
ment of the defacer a foretaste of the ruin which a few- 
years will bring. I have never heard anyone excuse 
these outrages. They are a stock subject of execra- 
tion at table d'hotes. But there protest ends. Those 
who maledict the advertising cocoamaker meekly drink 
hi< cocoa, and resign themselves in despair to the 
mis'eries of our lopsided civilization. May I through 
your columns address these sufferers scattered over 
countless inns and hotels, cottages and villas? Their 
fate is in their own hands. If individually they render 
it clear, by talk and conduct, that they abominate 
these things, a beginning will have been made. Let 
them frankly tell their landlords and their hosts what 
they think of the surroundings in this important par- 
ticular of freedom from eye ores or servitude to the 
pitiless advertiser. They will touch the sensitive point. 
Ii will dawn at last upon people who live by the 
tourist traffic that their craft is in danger at the hands 
of the vendors of soap and pills." 

The following letters have also been publi hed 
recently on the same subject: — 

" Sir, — I have just returned from a visit to the 
Kyles of Bute, and can testify that perhaps the greatest 
shock in the way of the abuse of advertising is to be 
experienced when passing near Dunoon. The hill has 
been cut into at some period for quarrying purposes, 

but evidently abandoned, save that one side has been 
artificially smoothed, and gigantic lettering, horribly 
visible to all steamers passing, announces the name 
of a local butcher, and the words : " Try our far- 
fair.ed sausages." Anythmg more calculated to extm- 
guish romance or poetry in the breast of the visitor 
cannot Surely be imagined. One wonders what our 
Scottish friends can be made of to tolerate such a 
hideous disfigurement of their beloved hillside. O, 
shade of Sir Walter Scott ! — Yours truly, 

" Henry Skeen. 

"Croydon, August 16." 

" Sir, — I was reading your excellent leader on the 
abuses of public advertising while sailing up South- 
ampton Water this morning. The scenery of this 
haven, beloved of yachtsmen and the admiration of 
strangers approaching our shore; through its wood- 
girt waters, has lately been marred by a gross example 
of what you describe as ' a crude and shouting bill 
that bullies the whole landscape.' Just above the 
mcuth of the Hamble River, and beneath the woods 
which so lovingly shelter Netley Hospital from the 
east, is erected a colossal and glaring hoarding, ad- 
vertising a certain article. Is there no way of bring- 
ing the force of public opinion to bear on the perpe- 
trators of this wanton outrage? The article adver- 
tised is, I believe, excellent, but ' as good wine needs 
no bush,' surely its merits can be appreciated without 
destroying the beauties of Netley Wood. — I am, yours 

"August 13." "Yachtsman. 



Supplement to THE POSTER. September, 1900. 


Sir, — I admire the independent manner in which 
you treat all matters afTecting advertising. I have 
bee,^ looking around lately and have noticed quite a 
number of new advertisements, but they mostly come 
ui'der the category of " others." Take, for instance, 
Crosse & Blackwell's charmingly designed " Soup 
Tablet " block. It appeals at once to the artistic 
teniperament. I should think it was engraved on a 
dea! board by a tombstone artist with a hatchet that 
he hadn't been used to. It is one of those attempts 
at advertising that must be seen to be fully realised. 
How such a firm as Crosse & Blackwell can allow 
their name to appear in such a form as that of this 
so-called advertisement is a mystery which I shall not 
pretend to solve. 

About the only really striking advertisements that 
have appeared during the past month are those issued 
.by the " Daily Mail " to boom the reprint of the 
" Encyclopaedia Britannica." I suppose everyone 
knows by this time that the " Mail " has, in conjunc- 
tion with the astute gentlemen who brought the idea 
over from America, made a big success Oif this modern 
development of bookselling on the easy payment plan. 
I am told that the sales of the Encyclopjedia already 
rei>iesent a turnover of something like half a million 
sterling. And I am not surprised ; for surely better 
ad\ertisements were never written. Whoever is res'pon- 
sible for the scheme which can sell ;^500,000 worth of 
book? in a few weeks is to be congratulated upon his 
very exceptional ability. Real money makers are these 
advertisements. There is no sitting on the fence or 
indulging in generalities about the " Daily Mail " 
people. Each advertisement is perfect and complete 
in itself. If you do not possess a copy of the " Bri- 
tannica " and can afford to pay a few shillings a month 
for the satisfaction of owning the " greatest work on 
earth," the " Daily Mail " advertisements will make 
you a buyer if ever any advertisement on this earth 
will. As models of good, straight talking advertise- 
ments, the double-columns and full pages that have 
been appearing in the " Mail " and other papers are 
well worth perusal. 

Among the new things on the walls are a couple of 
real high-grade money-wasters. Firstly, Singer's big 
bill about their Sewing Machines. It is about the 
most ludicrous thing I have seen for a long time. Such 
a collectioin of out-of-dnte fashion plate figures is not 
likely to s'ell many sewing machines, anyway. Sec- 
ondly, a neat and well-printed poster intended, I sup- 
pose, to advertise Chancerelle Sardines. But it does 
nothing of the kind. The name of the brand is in 

quite small letters, and the word " Sardines " is in 
the boldest of bold type. Of course, no reason or ex- 
cuse is advanced why yo.u should buy one particular 
brand of Sardines more than another. There is a 
splendid opening at the present time for a good brand 
of Sardines to be brought to the front, but I'm afraid 
that the Chancerelle people will not achieve very big 
results if they continue on their present lines. 


A.P.S. (Battersea). — Your advertising matter is 
above the average. You make strong claims for your 
goods, and the idea of sampling is likely to clinch 
your arguments if the quality is as stated. It is the 
greatest mistake in the world to overstate things in 
advertising, particularly so where permanent trade is 
desired, and where customers can make or mar your 
chances of increased business amongst their neighbours. 
The great thing in your class of business is to secure 
the goodwill of every customer with a view to their 
recommendation of your goods to others. 


The band of sensible advertising men are slowly 
but surely impressing commercial England with the 
fact that there is a publicity that pays. Even the very 
publishers — the ultra conservatives of the advertising 
field — are at last waking up to the knowledge that 
originality and common sense are just as valuable as 
aids to bookselling as they are in any other branch of 
con merce. One of the best things of the season is 
the little slip pasted by Messrs. Hutchinson on the 
front cover of their sixpenny " In the Day of Battle." 
On the slip is printed an extract from a favourable 
review of the book. You can't help reading the ex- 
tract, and the natural consequence is that you buy the 
book. One need lay no claim to supernatural instinct 
to predict that Messrs. Hutchinson's very simple but 
ingenious device will sell more copies of that book than 
a dozen advertisements in the ordinary " Publishers' 
Columns " of the daily papers. 

Traders interested in the pictorial side of adver- 
tising will find useful hints and valuable criticism of 
designs in a publication called " The Poster," issued 
monthly from 1, Arundel Street, Strand, W.C. A 
specimen received is extremely creditable to both editor 
and printer, the illustrations, some of which are in 
colours, being particularly good. — The Geocee. 

Ask your Groce r for 

SHAW!S» Bacon 

October, 1900. 

The Poster. 


«Che ffrt of H. e. Ibcls. 


jVTOW that everyone — the merest boy fresh 
* 1 from school, hardly knowing how to 
handle pen, brush or pencil, but larg-ely 
endowed with that sense of far niente which 
borders on laziness —considers himself a born 
artist, and wants the whole world to worship 

to render them as true to reality as he has 
seen and felt them. One may say that he is 
a keen observer of life, of outside life, 
always anxious to find fresh impressions to 
depict with that strong sense of realism 
which is the essence itself of his art. Before 

him as such, it is quite a relief to hear of a 
real artist who modestly claims not to be 
one, and this is the case with H. G. Ibels, 
whose works the readers of this magazine 
have already been able to appreciate in 
previous numbers. 

He is a devotee of the art of expression ; 
his only presumption is to observe and 
analyse these impressions of life, and then 

becoming an artist, Henri Gabriel Ibels, 
who was born in Paris in 1867, studied for 
the stage and also produced several literary 
works, and by this he was only following 
up his intense tendency towards the art of 
expressing one's feelings and impressions of 
exterior life. After literature and the stage, 
the direct consequence was painting. How- 
ever, this side of art only began to tempt 


The Poster. 

October, 1900. 

him, while, as a conscript, he was serving 
his time with the French colours. 

Ibels confessed to the writer that during 
all that period he was not the particularly 
good recruit an officer would like to give as 
an example, and the absurd routine of 
French barrack discipline intensified in him 
a strong dislike and contempt towards 
officers as a whole. This strong feeling is 
very often noticeable amongst the intel- 
lectual men who, like everybody else, have 
to serve their time as conscripts in a French 
regiment, and in most cases this dislike 
subsists for ever. 

However, Ibels' contempt toward his 
superiors brought him to daily observe their 
evils or ridicules, and we owe to it many a 
biting satire by the artist. 

A curious fact is that Ibels' cute sense of 
scrutinising made him follow a certain line 
of observations, a special ordonnan-cetneiit 



de sensations, where the divers impressions 
are grouped in series. If in his army studies 
he has taken the officer as a target, he loves 
his fellow soldiers, amongst whom he finds 
all grades of society, for in the ranks rich 
and poor have to obey the same orders. 
This meeting of men from various stations 
in life forms a vast field of observation to 
the artist, and as a consequence brought him 
to study : — 

First — The Peasant, in his illustration or 
Zola's " La Terre," soon followed by series 
of paintings, pastels, and etchings, all re- 
lating to peasant's life ; 

Second — The Working Man, of whom we 
have splendid studies in his poster for a 
periodical called " L'Escarmouche," two for 
plays at the Theatre Libre, and in his book 
cover for the " Chansons Color^es ;" 

Third — The Vagabond, the poor victim 
of a special state of society, we see carefully 
observed in his street singers, which is one 
of Ibels' best works. 

Leaving these human types, the artist was 
naturally brought to the study of the theatre, 
the real joy of the people, and in the book 
series entitled " Demi-Cabots" we have "The 
Music Hall," "The Circus," and "The 

This was followed by a treatise on political 
life, depicted in a scathing manner in over 
300 drawings favouring Captain Dreyfus 
against his tormentors, all published in 
" Le Sifflet," " Le Si^cle " and " Le Cri de 

While we mention his works in aid of 
this cause celebre, it must be noted that 
Ibels is not a caricaturist in the sense 
generally given to this word : comic 
sketches with funny legends do not tempt 
him. He thinks that if a humorous joke 
does not require a sketch to explain it, a 
humorous sketch must be understood at 
once without the help of a jocular legend. 

Among the many friends he counts in 
theatrical circles, a special mention must be 
made of Antoine, the creator of the famous 


The Poster. 


An Illustration for M. Zola's "La 7 cue." 

H. G. Ibels, 


The Poster. 

October, 1900. 

L ' ■ " 


Theatre Libre, for which Ibels has done 
series of programmes. 

The art of the street has also called his 
attention, without being entirely devoted to 
it. We have by him several posters, of 
which the best known were executed for the 
actor Mevisto, Yvette Guilbert, Ir^ne Henry, 
Antoine, Arlequin-Concert, and Pierrefort, 
the noted Paris poster dealer. 

Before closing this short notice on the 
artist's work, we must also mention that 
Ibels is a clever lecturer, and his only regret 
is not to be able to speak English and give 
some lectures on art in this country. 

Two pharmaceutical stores in Regent 
Street are at present using a mode of adver- 
tising, which, although no innovation, is 
very attractive, and ought to be followed 
by other firms. To advertise some of their 
goods, they display in their windows 
original show cards in water colours. 
They are quite different to the stencil 
designs for " sale cards " employed some- 
time ago by several other firms, and most 
of the designs are of a very effective decora- 
tive pattern. We said the idea was not a 
new one, as our readers will remember the 

window bills executed by W. H. Walker 
for Mr. Fuller, the well-known sweet 
merchant. However, we are assured that 
"there is nothing new under the sun," 
and the two Regent Street chemists must 
he congratulated for this renewal of a quaint 
and useful mode of advertising. 



The Poster. 

October, igoo. 

S^arliamcntarij €llection S^ostcrs- 

NEVER have posters been used to such 
an extent in a Parliamentary Election 
in this country as in the contest just 
brought to a close. Both parties have 
adopted this means of assisting their candi- 
dates, and in London particularly the 
election posters were much in evidence. 

Through the courtesy of the editor of 
"The King," which was the only illustrated 
journal in London to seize upon these inter- 
esting phases of the election, and the first 

party are certainly wanting in hum.our when 
compared with those of the latter, but 
greatly excel in variety and mural effect. 

Most of the posters have been produced 
in colour, and circulated amongst the 
various constituencies by the chief orga- 
nising associations of the parties. Several 
candidates, particularly in London, had, in 
addition to those used in the general party 
fight, their own selection of posters, the 
chief features of which were only of local 




to reproduce the posters which attracted so 
much attention, I am enabled to present 
reduced facsimiles of the posters largely 
used by both parties. 

The Unionists have chiefly relied upon 
the efforts of Harry Furniss and Tom Merry, 
several of whose posters are reproduced, 
while the Liberals have had their cause 
greatly assisted by the cartoons of Mr. 
Carruthers Gould, first published in "The 
Westminster Gazette." Those of the former 

Harry Furniss. 

interest. These placards appeared fre- 
quently, and many were clever and convin- 
cing. Numerous Unionist candidates, and 
in some instances their opponents, gave 
great prominence in their posters to the 
" Union Jack," " Royal Standard " and the 
'* Royal Crown," and the lithographers who 
had a stock of these found a ready sale for 

Handbills were also largely used, but 
not to the same extent as in previous years. 

OCTODER, 1900. 

The Poster. 



F. C. Gould. 


The Poster. 

October, igoo. 

The methods adopted by the parties in 
certain quarters to secure the full advantage 
of their bills is shown by the following 
paragraph, taken from the columns of " The 
Daily Chronicle": — " Political organisers 
are agreed that election posters, taking 
them all round, are smarter, more effective 

it appears, what is called ' fly posting ' and 
what is known as ' protection posting.' The 
first method means that a billposter fixes 
his sheet on to any likely place — an old gate 
doing no better service, or the parish pump 
if that were possible. But there is no 
security of tenure in this ; the bills may be 



than they were say ten years ago. More 
aitention is now given to them, and the only 
regret is that no test is possible which 
would show the effect they have upon 
voting in a constituency. Posters have to 
be stuck displayed on trust, but even so 
there are two ways of doing it. There is, 

covered by others in a few hours. On the 
other hand, the regular hoardings, where 
space is rented out, give bills possession for 
a specified time. Yet some old election 
agents think ' fly posting,' with its uncer- 
tainties, to be the most effective." 

To those unfamiliar with the political 

The Poster. 

October, 1900 



■I liiaiiji;'' 

Before the last General Election— when it was a question of getting 
Lord Salisbury expressed "'full approval of Mr. Chamberlains social Programme. 
Now when the votes have been obtained. Lord Salisbury leers at the Social 
Bishops to give TEMPERANCE REFORM, he replies 
of •■ FREE INDULGENCE." Asked to consent to 
SHOPS, he savs. Ihr.t the ■■ CONSUMER" must bo 
d night if he wants to ! Next it will be the turn of OLD 

Programme. Asked bv t 
by insisting on the righ 
allowed to shop all day i 

After this, who can expect Social Roform from 
Lord Salisbury's Covernment? 

•.Brodrick.h.P.dheTory C 

Fng the Inqulry'whlch has been promised Into the conduct of the 
the benefit of Lord Roberts's strategy and Tommy Atkins's valour. 
Umbton (with the best reasons for knowing) complains of ' 
Mr. Brodrick says " Hush ! ; 

For cool impertinence ima t.uuiu ...... - --- - „ , , , 

given a further term of office and then to have their fitness for that office Inquired 

when Captain 
oys" of guns, 
going to be inquired Into." 
be hard to beat. MInlsl 
to have their fitness for 



F. C, Gould. 

October, igoo. 



Tom Merry 


The Poster. 

October, igoo. 


questions of this countr)' the accompan} ii 
posters will require some explanation 
order to appreciate their purpose. T 
wording on several, particularly those 
by Mr. Gould, is such as to clearly 
indicate the aims of the artist. 

The first Unionist poster forcibly 
illustrate the policy of the party whose 
motto is " Defence, not Defiance." 
The next poster, in favour of the 
Government, shows several Radical 
members of the late Parliament en- 
couraging Kruger and followers 
against the British forces. 

The poster entitled " What next ? " 
by Mr. P'urniss, endeavours to demon- 
strate the dilemma of the Opposition 
parly, while Mr. Kingsella's, which is 
also directed against the latter, first 
appeared in " Pick -Me- Up." Mr. 
Gould's humorous poster parody of the 
well-known nursery rhyme must be 
reckoned one of the best of the cam- 
paign. It refers to the shelving of the 
"Old Age Pension" scheme, which 
was so much discussed at the pre- 
vious election. 

The Unionist football poster, 
naturally enough, became very popular 
in the northern counties and other 
places where the game finds favour. 

Mr. Merry's design entitled "Enemies at 
home and abroad " illustrates the Unionist 
view of the attitude of several members of 
the Liberal party, while his poster against 
faddists depicts Sir Wilfred Lawson declaim- 
ing " pump" oratory. Those who disagree 
with the " Little Englander" party will ap- 
preciate the last poster, by Mr. Furniss, 
here reproduced. 

Most of Mr. F"urniss' posters were 
printed and published by the Studio of 
Design, Ltd., while the others reproduced 
were printed by, amongst others, Messrs. 
David Allen & Sons, London, Belfast and 
Manchester, and Messrs. Knight & Foster, 
London and Leeds. 

'•'ianiijdrlain Hubbard 
M ['} i-he cupboard 
,':] get \)x poor dog a bone. 

As she was aware. 
The cupboard was bare. 
And so the poor dog was done 


F C. Gould 


The Poster. 

October, 1900. 

Herbert Walmsleg's 

theatrical S^osters. 


H. Walmsley. 

]V|R. Herbert Walmsley's posters are 
1 ■ probably more familiar to the public 
than his name. During the last three 
years examples of his work have appeared 
on the hoardings of most English towns, in 
the form of pantomime and other theatrical 
advertisements. One of the best-known of 
these in the metropolis was the quaint nig- 
ger's head which served for some time to call 
the attention of the public to the Moore 
and Burgess Minstrels' entertainment. 

There is nothing sensational in Mr. 
Walmsley's artistic life. Still a young man, 
the work he has already done is of a character 
that gives promise for his future. It is sane 
and wholesome, original without being 
eccentric or morbid, and usually appropriate 

to its purpose, whether theatrical or com- 
mercial. Trained as a lithographer, when 
his "seven long years were out," Mr. 
Walmsley cast aside the small colour work 
he had been brought up on, and decided 
that he would design posters. Tentative 
sketches proving attractive to the firm 
of printers he approached, he has been a 
designer, with slight intervals for refresh- 
ment, ever since. 

Posters, though the principal, have not 
been the sole object of his attention. Pro- 

H. Walm.ley. 

October, 1900. 

The Poster. 



The Poster. 

October, 1900 


The Big Wolf 


A POSTER. H, Walmslkv. 

grammes, window bills, show cards, "throw- 
aways," have also engaged his brush ; and 
several striking Christmas cards, together 
with an occasional book plate, owe their 
existence to his energy, supplemented by 
that of the lithographic press. Readers of 
The Poster had an opportunity of appre- 
ciating the bit of Mr. Walmsley's colour-work 
which adorned the front of the magazine for 
last May, and the critic must admit the 
good quality of his colour. London artists 
loudly praised also the originality of its 
design. Back numbers of the organ of 
Posterdom contain other of his designs, 
mostly unsigned The veil of anonymity is 
raised for a moment in the number for 
March, 1899, where an ingenious Christmas 
card is shown bearing not only his name but 
a life-like back view of the artist at work, 
with a long vista of his own posters stretch- 
ing away to his left hand. 

Mr. Walmsley does not endorse the 
sentiment that the hoardings are the poor 
man's picture gallery, any more than that 
the advertisement columns of a newspaper 
are his library. The object of a poster is not 

to uplift the artistic taste of the man in the 
street, but to inform that much-considered 
gentleman, in as direct a manner as possible, 
that Toiler's Navy Cut is grateful and com- 
forting, or that Bohn's Meat Extract braces 
the system. If the designer is clever enough 
to convey that information by the medium 
of a masterly work of art, so much the 
better ; but the message must come first. 
It is not enough to paint a beautiful woman 
— the posterman must make it obvious that 
her loveliness is the direct outcome of the 
use of Eggplum's Soap, or Magnum Bonum's 
Hair Wash. Her pouting scarlet lips must 
whisper of Damson's Cold Cream, or her 
teeth be a sparkling testimony to Rasp- 
berry's Tooth Powder. It is only fair to me 
to explain that these allegorical remarks are 
not Walmsley's own. He simply threw his 
arms about, gesticulated in a highly des- 
criptive manner, and, handing me the 
cigarettes, observed, " You see what I 
mean ? " 

He will find his answer in this column. 

Many of the illustrations to this article 
are reductions from posters printed by 
Messrs. Stafford & Co., Colour Printers, 
London and Nottingham, and are excellent 
specimens of the lithographic art. 


October, igoo. 

The Poster. 


Posterdom Caricatures. 

No. AAL— C H. 5ime. 



The Poster. 

October, 1900. 

^hc Gentle art of Cribbing. 


[salon dls eENT-51 IV ^--p-';^ 

5INCE the article on " Imitative Ten- 
dency" appeared in the columns of 
Modern Advertising supplement to 
the September issue of The Poster, we have 
heard many artists complaining- ag^ainst the 
unscrupulousness of some advertisers, who 
have not only "cribbed," but in some 
instances retraced, some of their works line 
for line, and published them without the 
slightest consideration for the original de- 
sign, unblushingly returned with thanks. 
Our magazine being the organ of the poster 
artists, we will expose some of the shameful 
thefts — for such they are — committed by the 

We are well aware that sometimes an 
advertiser will go to a printing firm, and 
insist on having a special design done, 
following closely the lines of another poster, 
on the ground that it is just the thing that 
will suit his purpose. We could mention many 
such instances. In such a case the blame 
is not attached to the artist who is retained 
by a printing firm, and who is commandeered 
to execute the work required, but to the 
advertiser who gives the order, or the 
printing firm who do not refuse such an 

But if we consider imitations, they are 
of three different kinds, and equally distinct. 


October, 1900. 

The Poster. 


We have, in the first instance, the imitation 
pure and simple, where an artist follows a 
certain school, and when he occasionally 
proves to be almost as good as his master, 
and some have witnessed such cases with 
clever pupils or followers of Cheret, Beards- 
ley, the Beg-g-arstaffs, and Hassall. Then 
we have the "cribbers," whose ideal of art 
is to follow up very closely the lines of 

iz Boulevard Monimarire^ 


different artists, "prigging" details here 
and there, and finishing by producing a 
composition that is familiar to us, as it is an 
ensemble of divers items we have already 
seen in several other posters or designs. 

However, these artists, imitators, or 
copyists only prove their lack of the neces- 
sary amount of brains to conceive any work 
of their own ; and either through over- 
studying the productions of one man, or by 
mere adaptation of details gathered out of 
other works, they insinuate themselves into 
the manner of their model. It is with them 
a deficiency of conception. 

But such is not the case with the"dabber" 
who, without the slightest shame, takes up 
a successful design done by arother artist, 

The Poster. 

October, 1900, 



reduces, enlarges, or alters it slightly, and 
brings it out as a work of his own, having 
even sometimes the impudence to put his 
own signature to it. Nothing could better 
illustrate the piracies of the "dabber" than 
an example which recently came beneath our 
notice, and which is well worth mentioning. 
It was not a poster which the promising 
young man chose for the occasion, but 
book illustrations. The editor of a London 
literary magazine was offered a certain 
number of pen and ink drawings of a 
very high class. He secured tliem at once, 
and reproduced them in the next issue 
of his magazine, together with an interview 
with the promising young wonder, who, 
according to the editor's prophecy, would 
undoubtedly some day become a great artist. 

Unfortunately, to his great amazement, 
the editor of the magazine was soon after- 
wards shown a series of drawings by an 

R.A., which had appeared at different times 
in " Harper's Magazine," and copied by the 
budding genius, line for line as regards the 
drawing, with the exception of some very 
slight alterations. 

Properly speaking of posters only, our 
Yankee cousins are very clever hands at 
that sort of game, as can easily be seen in 
some of the piracies herewith reproduced: 
the " Lessive Figaro," by Leo Gausson ; 
De Feurd's "Salon des Cent," adapted by 
a New York newspaper (the last named copy 
even signed) ; the " Incandescence par le 
Gaz," altered to suit the purpose of another 
New York journal, are good examples of 
" prigging" across the "herring pond," and 
well worth exposing as cases of daring 

These adaptations of drawings to suit 
the taste of New York periodical readers are 
not by any means to be accounted for as 
accidents, for in another announcement 
above the same signature for one New York 

J. Ch£ket. 


Will H. Bradley. 

paper we have a replica of Chdret's "Papier 
Job," the figure having simply been turned 
on the reverse side, and adorned with a hat. 
The writer of the signature would, however, 
have done well to keep Chdret's girl's face 
instead of the one he used as an improvement 
on the great poster artist's work. 

Another instance of American copying 
power concerns the BeggarstafT " Hamlet " 
stencil in four colours, executed for Wilson 
Barrett, and which made the name of the 
Beggarstaffs immediately famous in art 
circles. But we must admit that in the 
American adaptation its author, Wilbur 
Macey Stone, had the decency to acknow- 
ledge that his tracing was after the work of 
the Beggarstaffs. We must not leave the 
subject of American posters or handbills 
without mentioning one in the characteristic 
style of Will H. Bradley for a bicycle firm, 
and done afterwards to advertise a type- 
writer firm, or vice versa, as we are not 
quite certain which of the two designs 

October, 1900. 

appeared the first. In the Bar-lock Type- 
writer print there are only two female 
figures instead of the three in the bicycle 

It seems a great pity that good specimens 
of artistic work should in such a way be 
used to satisfy the advertising requirements 
of totally different firms, andif thissystem was 
to be patronised by the advertiser as well as 
by the printing firm, we should simply come 
back to stock posters, which, thanks to the 
artistic tendencies of designers, are now 
vanishing by degrees. 

Now that we have dealt with the Stripes 
and Star masters of the "Cribbing" fra- 
ternity, it would be unfair to them to pass 
their European brothers in silence. It 
is quite possible that Cissie Loftus, for her 
impersonation of the world-known diva, 
Yvette Guilbert, insisted on having an almost 
identical reproduction of Steinlen's panel for 
the famous diseuse fin-de-siecle, but it 
shocks the collector who is familiar with 

'R0NALD5 PRE55- 




The Poster. 

October, igoo. The Poster. 6i 




Adroissiop tr 

LxCC.PT : 

\7Vn .1,1! 


W. S. Rogers. 


The Poster. 

October, 1900. 


~:^'lrejne Parloi/l . 

this, one of Steinlen's best works, to see the 
face of Yvette simply cut out and replaced 
b)' that of Cissie Loftus ! 

For Sandow's athletic developers Lucien 
Faure did a \'ery amusing design, represent- 
ing an undersized, round-shouldered, con- 
sumptive French masher, bearing a certain 
resemblance to an adolescent millionaire, a 
spendthrift, whose money-spending and gay 
life prowess interested immensely a few 
years back the scandalmongcring high life. 
The lad was admiringly glancing at a poster 
showing a figure of the athlete. 

Before closing, we must make a special 
mention of the dishonourable action of a 
French firm, well known by its advertise- 
ments on the continent, as well as in 
England. An English artist sent them a 
design for a poster ; the drawing was kept 
for a long time, months we believe, and 
returned with thanks. A close examination 
of it allowed the artist to notice signs lelt 

of tracing all over the sides of the cardboard, 
and during a visit he paid to Paris a little 
while after, he was greatly surprised to see 
his work reproduced in a slightly altered 

We think it is only right that all piracies 
should be brought prominently before the 
artistic public ; we feel that it would put a 
stop to such practices, and the editor of 
The Poster would be greatly obliged if any 
of his readers would communicate with him 
regarding such "cribs" as may have escaped 
our notice. 

Theillustrationsaccompanying this article 
scarcely indicate the extent to which plagiar- 
ism and piracy are practised in connection 
with advertising designs in various countries, 
and it is our intention to reproduce a further 
selection in the next and succeeding num- 
bers of The Poster. 

U Great 




lixr so tZff , . \€ 16'-. I 

500 COLUMNS 500r 



\4j notify your NEWSOEAUBft 


lyou wewT at abi.£ to oej. it. 


The Poster. 

October, 1900. 

®hc Hoardings 

No strikingly original or beautiful poster 
has made its appearance on the hoard- 
ings since I wrote last month's notes. 
Election posters seem to dominate every- 
thing ! Perhaps the most striking- -if not the 
most beautiful — is the one designed by Alick 
P. F. Ritchie to advertise "The Handy Man" 
ballet at the London Alhambra. A ship's 
foretop, a "handy man," and a perspective 
view of sea and land are the component 

The Bovril people now seem to be 
depending on mammoth presentations of 
the name-word, but I think a brief phrase 
beneath, or interwoven with, the large letters 
would add value to a style of advertising 
which is not incorrect for a well-known 
article. At this time of the year such 
phrases as ' ' Keeps you warm " and ' ' Wards 
ofl" colds" would suggest a more direct 

Tin and iron signs have a fault which 
exists in their merit of durability. Those 
who use them having put them up, straight- 
way leave and deliberately forget them, 

believing their durability to render unneces- 
sary any further thought regarding them — 
for a year or so at any rate. The almost 
inevitable result is that the signs do not 
receive further consideration, but remain up 
long after the wear and tear of the elements 
have rendered them useless. There are 
probably tens of thousands for which an 
annual rent is being paid that are more or 
less valueless. I was on a railway station 
platform the other day and just managed 
to descry a large and expensive plate, as 
well as many others, hidden by the too 
flourishing development of the station mas- 
ter's love for shrubs. Another way in 
which advertising value is lost is in not 
replacing faded or otherwise valueless signs. 

Colman's, of mustard, etc., fame, are 
very busy just now taking down old signs 
and putting up most attractive oblong panel 
signs, in which the wording appears with 
sharply-drawn landscapes, done in the style 
of their well-known Hassall poster repre- 
senting the tramp warming himself before 
a tin of mustard. 

October, 1900. 

The Poster. 


FRANCE is said to be the home of the 
artistic poster, as we know it. Jules 
Cheret first perpetrated the atrocity. 
How many atrocities have resulted from it 
the g'ods alone know. 

Formerly, if a man had a diseased mind 
he became a poet ; now, however, he can win 
greater admiration by depicting his depravity 
in colours. 

Just as in modern verse you read not of 
the nightingale, but of the nightjar, so in 
modern poster art you see, not a buxom, 
rosy-cheeked milkmaid, but an attenuated 
female with an art green complexion and 
heliotrope lips : the poster girl, in fact, for, 
thank heaven, she does not occur in the 

In France the Republicans, the " Social- 
istes-revolutionaires," the clericals, and all 
the rest of them, are gradually becoming' 
merged into one entity under the influence 
of the poster mania. The Liberty and 
Equality fiction is beginning to lose its 

Are green teeth permissible for poster 
purposes ? How far is the tendency toler- 
able to widen the distance between the eyes? 
Is there any obligation slavishly to adhere to 
the old idea of placing the calf at the back 
of the leg? Will Mucha oust Grasset ? 
What brand of tobacco does he eff"ect ? 
— These are the vexed questions of the 

During a recent railway joun.ey in 
France, I was very much puzzled by the 
tactics of a Frenchman who occasionally 
sat opposite me. He glared out of the 
windows the whole time ; first at one side 
of the compartment, then, with a wild rush, 
to the other. In the usual way I began to 
size him up. He was, I opined, either an 
ardent admirer of Nature or an authority 
on crops. But he wasn't. He confided in 
me that he was a poster-collector — an " affi- 

chophile"he called himself— on the look-out 
for hoardings. 

I was admiring the architecture of the 
"Palais des Beaux-Arts " at Lille. " C'est 
magnifique ! " said I involuntarily. " C'est 
magnifique ! " repeated a Frenchman at my 
side. I found that he was gazing at a cycle 
poster outside an adjacent shop. He was 
an " affichophile !" 

I attended — quite voluntarily — a police 
court. A young man with long hair and a 
velvet coat, a " blase" air, and an art green 
cravat, stepped into the dock. He was 
evidently a decadent; had been doing some- 
thing distinctly "outre," no doubt. And so 
he had, but in another way. This young 
man had so far strayed from the paths of 
rectitude and respectability as to get up "in 
the dead of night," and, with sponge in 
hand, to proceed to remove from its hoarding 
a coveted poster. He appeared, however, 
to have the full sympathy of the court ; 
everyone seemed to realise the strength of 
the temptation to which he had succumbed. 

The time is near when it will be the 
correct thing for tourists to "do " the hoard- 
ings and not the so-called art galleries of our 
towns. It will soon be your lot to see Mr. 
Cook's flocks ignoring the Louvre and the 
Madeleine in their feverish haste to see the 
latest pictorial advertisement of Moonshine 
Soap. \'ou will no longer talk of Titians 
and Raphaels, and will cease to be interested 
in the Madonna as a subject for artistic 
representation. Mucha's decorative ladies 
and Cheret's circus girls will command your 
attention and admiration. 

In France and Belgium they have had 
their annual exhibitions of posters for long 
enough, and even we have recently followed 
suit. It is now seriously proposed to estab- 
lish a poster academy. And everyone in 
England knows the immense stimulus to art 
given by an " Academy ! " — Sunday Sun. 


The Poster. 

October, 1900. 

Frank S. ISankivelL 

NEW YORK opened its eyes rather when, 
in the winter of 1894, "The Echo," of 
Chicago, introduced to it the name and 
work of Frank Nankivell. But farther 
west it was already known as that of a 
coming man ; a man who had not perhaps 
quite formed his style, but. who undoubtedly 
would ere long. 

But can this be altogether wondered at, 
considering the numerous places he had been 
in and the many different influences under 
which he must have come ? 

work. One would think this, in such a 
place, would be rather a hopeless task. 
But he had struck an untilled field, waiting 
only for the husbandman. 

Orders flowed in, from the heading of 
the daily newspaper to menus for regimental 
dinners — drawing lessons and what not 
added to the income, till at last Nankivell 
had enough money saved to take him on to 
Japan. Here he lived for two years, still 
working, and we have heard some curious 
stories connected with Japanese customs 

. ,- 'fe- 

• - . j 

: ' " ■ " \ i 

/ / ■ \ 
/ ■ i 

\ \ 1- 1 

An Australian by birth and up-bringing, 
he determined to visit America and try his 
fortune. With enough money in hand to 
take him to San Francisco he started, but 
evidently thinking he would be a bit lonely, 
thought ere leaving that he'd get married. 
This he did, but found that then, with two 
fares to pay, his store of gold would only 
take them as far as Hong Kong. 

Most men would have let this weigh 
very heavily in the balance before going to 
a strange country. Not so Nankivell. He 
landed in Hong Kong, and looked out for 

Frank A. Nanki\'Ell. 

from him, not the least interesting of which 
is that for the first year of your residence in 
the country it is unnecessary to pay cash for 
anything, but when the reckoning comes, or 
when you prepare to leave the country, if 
the year is not completed. Heaven help you 
if you are unable to meet your liabilities ! 

At the end of the two years Nankivell 
again packed his household gods and sailed 
for San Francisco. Here he joined the 
" Call," a paper which goes in largely for 
illustrations. His drawings of politicians 
and other public men who were interviewed 

OCTODER, 1900. 

The PoAter. 


in its columns became quite a feature, and 
at the Golden Gate the name of Nankivell 
became known. Popular in himself, he was 
surrounded by a remarkably bright set ot 
young men at the well-known Bohemian 
Club, men some of whom have achieved 
position and fame in the more Eastern cities, 
and even in Europe — Gillette Burgen, 
Piexotto, Bruc^ Porter, not to mention the 
older man, W. C. Morrow. 

Time slipped by, and at last yielding to 
the entreaties of Percival Pollard, who had 
just started " The Echo " in Chicago, 
Nankivell again shifted his quarters, this 
time to the City of Pork. 

Pulitzer raised their salaries ; Hearst outbid 
him ; Pulitzeragain raised the "anti." Hearst 
bid again, and it ended in the entire staff of 
the " Sunday World," and many of the 
daily paper, going over to the "Journal." 
Artists and journalists all over the country — 
well known, and those who showed promise — 
were engaged at large salaries. Wiseacres 
said Hearst was mad, that he never could 
make a paper pay on these lines. He merely 
replied that he had already sunk a million in 
it, and was ready to sink four more. The 
success of the paper has proved the wise- 
acres wrong again. 

Amongst the artists engaged for the new 

poui^ Sections II) BEAUTiFuu colors. 


And then one of the red-letter days in 
American journalism happened. Senator 
Hearst's son bought the " New York 
Journal." "The Recorder" had failed, the 
"Mercury" had not yet been bought by 
Blakely Hall, and Pulitzer's paper, "The 
World," had no rival— for the "Herald" 
had an entirely different clientele. "The 
Journal " had been gradually sinking, and, 
to cut a long story short, Hearst bought it. 

But the running of it was another matter. 
The new proprietor made an offer to the 
entire staff of " The World " to join him ; 

Frank A. Nankivell. 

paper was Nankivell, and his salary was 
large — very large. But his work was heavy, 
his hours long. But he has survived both. 
He combines with artistic merit that plod- 
ding ability which is sure to tell in the end. 

"The Sunday Journal" was always full 
of charming girls with large eyes and tricky 
curls, all with a certain spice of naughti- 
ness, but of the baby order of naughtiness. 
None of Nankivell's ladies are wicked, nor 
do they seem to have that knowledge of the 
world and its way as have the Dudley 
Hardy or Ch6ret variety. 


The Poster. 

October, 1900. 

Nankivell's posters are few. He did 
two for "The Echo," one of which, the 
first, done in the early days of the poster 
fever, we reproduce. We also give two 
that he has done, amongst others, for the 
" New York Journal." But the best by a 
long way is the poster he did for Miss 
Marie Halton when she appeared at Koster 
& Bial's. Striking in colour, full of action, 
it knocked a hole in the bill-boards. 

One must take into consideration when 
speaking of the posters for the American 
daily press, the poor printing. These posters 
are generally turned out on the presses in 
the printing room of the paper ; and these 
presses, admirable though they be for the 
coloured supplement, are scarcely the thing 
for a good poster. It is marvellous to see 
them at work, turning out letterpress, half- 
tones, and colour pictures all at the same 
time, the paper going in on a roll at one 
end of the machine and coming out folded, 
gummed, and cut ready for delivery at ihc 

These pictures are some of them very 
good, and Nankivell, who knows the possi- 
bilities and limitations of these presses, 
scores heavily in the pages of the papers, 
and though he may have rivals and perhaps 
equals, he certainly has no peers at this class 
of work. 

But to see him at his best it is necessary 
to look at " Puck," and for preference one of 
the special numbers, the Christmas, say. 
Charmingly drawn, delicately coloured, and 
beautifully printed, each picture is in itself a 
thorough work of art ; and what is more, 
his work and style are original. Conse- 
quently, is it to be wondered at that he has 
many imitators ? We have heard more than 
one American so-called artist avow that he 
drew " chic girls like Nankivell," and they 
do not care to realise that to slavishly 
imitate a man's style is morally, if not 
legally, tantamount to forgery — or at all 
events larceny. 

Westward the course of Empire wends its 

way, but Nankivell prefers apparently to 
work towards the East. Consequently it is 
possible that one of these days he'll journey 
as far east as London, and when he does 
he will be welcome, because the press here 
sadly needs brightening up. This, however, 
will not be until the rate of pay for art con- 
tributions is considerably increased. In 
black and white work the scale is quite a 
shilling to the dollar as compared to Ameri- 
can prices, and therefore, can a manbeblamed 
for stopping where he is well paid ? 

Nevertheless, were he to come here, we 
think Nankivell would find a good market 
and a warm welcome. S. C. 

[In future numbers of The Poster I will 
reproduce a larger number of American 
posters than those appearing in the issues 
already published. I also intend giving 
more attention generally to this branch of 
posterdom. — Ed. J 

Frank A. Nankivell. 

October, 1900. 

The Poster. 


Palette 3cra{>ings. 

The grand prize of the Paris Exposition 
for poster printing has been awarded to the 
W. J. Morgan Litho Co., of Cleveland, Ohio, 
over all competitors. Two specimens were 
shown : one a full size reproduction of Rosa 
Bonheur's "Horse P'air " ; the other, a 
picture of President McKinley. 

We notice in one of the October numbers 
of the Hungarian weekly review, " Magyar 
Geniusz," a mo^t interesting study of Walter 
Crane's works, and illustrated with one of 
the latest portraits of the artist. 

It may be of some interest to poster 
artists to know that a Brussels periodical, 
"La Libre Critique" has opened a prize 
competition of original designs for post 
cards. Let us hope that English artists will 
soon find it worth their while to draw original 
and artistic designs for post cards, as so 
many of their confiercs are doing on the 
continent. The very same thing happened 
years ago with posters, for it was only when 
the poster "craze" (as it has been wrong- 
fully called) was in full swing, that English 
artists decided to work in this special branch 
of art. Will they wait until they are out- 
/ done by Continental artists ? 

I AM able this month to present to my 
readers a reduced facsimile of a poster about 
to be issued by Messrs. W. J. Shaw & 
Sons, the famous bacon curers, for their 
" Limerick" hams and bacon. I must con- 
gratulate the artist, the lithographer and 
the advertiser upon the result attained. 
John Hassall has undoubtedly succeeded in 
producing a poster, the excellence of which 
is shown in its conception, colouring and 
general effect. The characteristic features 

of the Irish scenery are emphasised by the 
introduction of an Irish colleen tending the 
pigs. The treatment is certainly up to 
Hassall's high standard, and the associa- 
tion of a rural scene artistically treated with 
the source of the article advertised is both 
striking and pleasing. Better praise of the 
lithographer's work could not be desired 
than the specimen given as a frontispiece. 
It demonstrates clearly that Messrs. James 
Walker & Co., Dublin, who, as already 
pointed out, have been appointed colour 
printers to Her Majesty in Ireland, possess 
the ability and facilities for turning out 
work of the very highest class. I have also 
observed that many of the most effective 
posters have been produced across the Irish 
Channel, and I think that the advertisers 
responsible for this have not been disap- 
pointed. We have so long been accustomed 
to the American production that it is a 
pleasure to note there is every prospect of 
our having a plentiful supply of Irish bacon 
in the near future. Our delight at such 
prospect is brought about by the knowledge 
that Ireland can produce, and does produce, 
bacon which cannot be excelled by our 
American cousins. 

Our Chicago confrei-e, "Brush and 
Pencil," recently published its views on the 
opportunity of creating an American Salon ; 
an article from which we give a few extracts 
which will prove of some interest to 
American art students staying in this 

The project of establishing an American Salon, 
comparable with the great exhibitions of Europe, is 
one that should meet the approval and command the 
support of all who take pride in American work. A 
national art presupposes a national art centre. Eng- 
land has its Royal Academy and France its Pans 
Salon. America has no such institution, and its art, 
while robust and progressive, is more the exponent of 


The Poster. 

October, 1900. 

foreign influences and ideals than an embodiment of 
national aspiration. 

Conditions were never more favourable than at 
the present time for the establishment of such a salon, 
never was popular interest in art so marked, and never 
was there a more promising corps of enthusiastic art 
workers in America. There are, moreover, just aS 
competent and conscientious critics to serve as jurors 
here as abroad. It needs but an initial step, backed 
by judicious enterprise, to insure the realisation of 
the project. 

The ambitions of rival claimants for the salon 
should be subordmated to the national purpose. All 
things considered, Washington is the ideal location. 

For about ten years a Belgian Art 
Society, " De Scalden," has tried hard to 
give a fresh impulse towards the success 
of works of industrial art as recognised 
works of art. In its last exhibition, held 
at Antwerp this year, we were able to notice 
splendid specimens sent by over thirty 
different artists. It was the third exhibition 
since the formation of the " De Scalden" 
Society, and proved to be a great and legiti- 
mate success. 



The artistic talent that is being developed all over 
the land would find its most natural representation at 
the national capital, where in a sense painters, sculp- 
tors, architects, draughtsmen, illustrators, and de- 
signers would meet on equal ground. Washington, as 
has been well contended, is the city of all cities where 
national interests are dominant, where local preten- 
tions are held in subordination, where neither cliques 
nor societies nor schooJs can exercise any controlling 
interest in the conduct of national affairs. 

The location of the American Salon, however, may 
safely be left to future determination — its influence 
would be virtually the same whatever city were 
selected. The essential thing is to inaugurate a move- 
ment that will give to America a national art centre 
and a great representative salon. 

A CURIOUS illustrated little magazine is 
being published now in Paris, " Le 
Fureteur." The striking feature with it is 
that the paper is not sold but delivered 
gratis to anyone who desires to have 
a copy. At that rate " Le Fureteur" is 
sure to secure a good number of subscribers. 
Its editor, Mr. Louis Dourliac, claims 
the little sheet to be the organ of curiosity, 
an official medium to amateurs, collectors 
and artists. All communications should 
be addressed 72, Cours de Vincennes, 


motitblp Journal for flducrtlsers. 


Edited by Hugh MacLeay as a Supplement to "The Poster. 

No extra charge is made or " Modern Advertising," which is 

included in the yearly subscription of 7/6 to The Poster, 
Special terms can be obtained by publishers desirous of sending 

copies to their advertising pafrons. 
Contributions are invited, and must be accompanied by the name 

and address of the writer. Address all literary matter to the 


nmunications and enquiries regarding advertising 
space should be addressed to the Manager of The Poster, 
I, Arundel Street, Strand, London. 

The Editor's Ideas and Ideals. 

A COMMON mistake of the beginner in advertising 
is the placing of his advertisements in almost every 
medium offered. Even large advertisers make the 
same mistake. I have seen a common household 
soap using up big space in a publication like " PicK- 
mc-up " — a medium the proprietors of which would 
be the first to repudiate an assertion that it circulated 
laigely among the class of women who are concerned 
with any other than a beauty soap. 

If an advertising beginner has several articles to 
offer, he should consider whether they will all appeal 
to one class, or to several different classes. If one 
class, only media directly appealing to it should be 
used. If several classes, the advertising must be al- 
lotted to the different class media. 

Adveriising to be completely successful should be 
thcioughly backed up in every way. Good quality, 
good service, good premises, and other good features 
are Oifttimes discounted by poor stationery and printed 
matter. It is surely a case of spoiling the ship for 

the sake of the proverbial ha'po'th o' tar. I suppose 
the difference in cost between a poor and a good 
letterhead, etc. , would work out at a fraction of a farth- 
ing per sheet. Fo.r a really good firm to be niggardly 
in this matter gives rise to the suspicion that it is also 
niggardly in the quality or quantity of the goods it 
sells. I purpose illustrating specimens of good letter- 
heads, billheads, envelopes, receipts, etc., from time 
to time, and I shall be pleased if printers (who will 
be acknowledged) and other firms will send me 

I OFTEN wonder why newspaper managers are so 
slow in developing what is a most promising field of 
advertising. I allude to the " wants " section. Take 
up any big city or small town paper — the latter es- 
pecially — and note the paucity of a department which 
can be made as interesting to local readers as the 
local news itself. As the result of a co^nversation 
with a newspaper friend of mine, he, a few years ago, 
decided on my recommendation to try these and 
employ convassing. A recent copy of the paper to 
hand contains a solid page and a half, as well as a 
greatly increased showing of display advertisements. 

I WROTE my friend congratulating him, and askmg 
for his experiences in the matter, and he replied that 
he had found that the more " wanteds " they secured, 
the easier it was to get still more of them ; also that 
people actuu lly bought the paper for the advertise- 
ments, and that many of the early " wanted " adver- 
tisers were now display advertisers. This incident 
forms an example which can be followed by any paper. 


Supplement to THE POSTER. 

October, 1900. 

I believe the New York pppers which, in their Siineiav 
editions, run as many as five or six solid pages of 
" wanteds," developed the business in the same way, 
whilst at home we are all aware how the " Daily 
Telegraph " is bought by tens of thousands solely for 
its " wanted " advertisements. Up to the present, 
however, the London evening papers have never had 
anything- but a poor show of small advertisements, 
though it would be easy to secure a page, or even 
two pages. This, of course, would mean a couple of 
pages extra, but Glasgow and other places already 
lead London in this respect, whilst I understand that 
the London " Evening News " has plant equipment 
readv to meet any opposition in the direction of a six- 
page evening paper. But why, Messrs. " Evening 
News," Ltd., wait for others to lead in something 
which is bound to come, and which will include a 
vastly bigger showing of display advertisements than 
at present appearing in any l/ondon evening paper? 

t STRONGLY recommend all manufacturers, whole- 
salers, and retailers to enclose self-addressed (printed) 
envelopes and order forms with goods and advertising 
rr alter. Ofttimes a customer is thereby induced to 
at C'Hce re-order more goods. Anyway, try a thou- 
sand each of s-ilf-address'ed envelopes and order forms, 
the latter having a of vour goods with blank 
coium.ns at sides for quantities or lengths, ai:(l m case 
of mail order business for cash. 

Retailers may secure a lot of advertising fiee with 
the exception of a little trouble. I allude to the cir- 
culars which iiianulacturers of most lines are willing 
to supply, carriage paid, on receiving an assurance 
tha; they wib be carefully distributed. Some manu- 
facturers will print the retailer's name and address as 
agent, but when not done a half-hour's work by a 
bov with a rubber stamp will answer the requirement. 
Then see that one, or one of each circular you have, 
is enclo'sed with every parcel, receipt, or credit note. 
If a large variety of circulars on hand, it is best to 
either staple (a stapling machine can be bought from 
aln;ost any stationer") them together or give each a 
turn, say three one week, and another three the next 
week. If this does not suffice, you might have 
your boy fill up time distributing them to houses of 
likely customers, and it is best to take the further 
ticuble of enclosing them in sealed envelopes with a 
view to contents reaching responsible hands. 

Advertising Motes. 

The London Billposters Protection Association's 
a.inual dinner took place at the Holbcrn Restaurant 
on the 17th inst., with Mr. Walter Hill as chairman. 


It is said that the I ondon Gaiety Theatre spends 
;^3,000 a year in advertising. Anyway, it pays a divi- 
dend of 20 per cent. 

The " Dailv Mail " bids fair to become the paper 
w ith " the largest circulation in the world." The latest 

certificate showing an increase to over a million a day 
points that way. 

Rowntree's are re-starting the advertising of their 
Elect Cocoa. It means a lot of backing to once again 
secure a momentum— a backing which would, no doubt, 
have proved ample' for continuous and successful ad- 

Another American cereal food called Grape Nuts 
is now being advertised through an American adver- 
tising firm who have opened a branch in London. 
They are at present using reading matter style explain- 
ing the food. In America the article is more strikingly 
advertised by use of a brief phrase in heavy script, but 
occupying next reading matter positions. 

Many English manufacturers have a stupid custom 
of charging their trade customers for electros. This 
may be all right when a number are supplied, but is 
annoying in the case of one or two. The manufac- 
turer should be only too pleased to have his goods 
illustrated in catalogues and other advertising matter, 
provided, of course, it is clearly stated that the article 
illustrated is of his manufacture. 

Now and again in the London papers are published 
single insertion advertisements of American medicines, 
etc. These are the result of the keen speculativeness of 
the Yankee, who thus throws out a feeler. To the 
a\ erage Yankee, London is the El Dorado of wealth. 

American publications just now have a lot of ad- 
vertisements offering to impart occult powers, magnetic 
attractions, will power, beauty, and a host of other 
frauds. The same class of advertisement is on the 
increase in England, and " Truth " has pilloried one 
f)r two examples. 

The " St. James's Gazette " has adopted a very 
good plan of jirinting the number of the edition in red 
underneath the wording on the contents bills. 

The London " Evening News " and " Star " run 
each other close in the matter of well-worded contents 
bills. The " Morning Advertiser " believes in allitera- 
tion such as " Boers Baffle Buller." The best morning 
paper contents bills are those of the " Daily Mail " 
and " Daily Express." 

Ihh should ccrliuulv cn'ice people to WALK up SHAKl'LY 

October, 1900. 

Supplement to THE POSTER. 


S)ailies, Weeklies and iVLonthlies. 

The " Daily Mail " advertisements of its Encyclo- 
patdia are models of convincing argument. Many of 
them also possess the peculiar feature of inducing the 
rtader to carefully read the whole — a fu'l double 
column of rather solid setting. The only fault in these 
advertisements is that they might be made still more 
attractive and interesting by the introduction of illus- 
trations shpvving binding, a specimen page, the book in 
use by different classes of men and women. So lit up 
by illustration, the advertisements would be worthy to 
take rank with the best. One more point in regard 
to the " Daily Mail " Encyclopaedia advertising is that 
I have not yet seen how many five shillings, or how 
much in all, has to be paid. Can it be true that others 
have not wondered about the same thing, and would it 
not be satisfying a legitimate curiosity to say how 
much in all has to be paid? The present plan savours 
of the old policy of withholding price for fear of fright- 
ening people who might enquire, but which theory is 
now known to be wrong, as it is recognised that more 
people buy because they know a price than because 
tlicy don't. 

I recently had a look through a copy of " Lloyd's 
Weekly," and was struck by the opportunity before its 
proprietors of even vastly increasing its already un- 
rivalled English circulation. There may be difficulties 
in the way, but they should not be such as need daunt 
a firm which makes so much paper for itself and other 
publishers. I refer to the quality of the paper (the 
presses may aggravate the fault), which, while heavy 
and strong, is so rough as to do positive injustice to 
the most open line advertisement and matter blocks. 
Many illustrated advertisements in the paper I saw 
wert^ almost undecipherable. Now as to how "I^loyd's" 
might achieve a bigger circulation, I would simply 
recommend the use of a different class (I am not sure 
whether it would be much more expensive) paper, 
which would permit of better printing. Paper more 
of the class used by the " Penny Illustrated Paper," 
and as well printed, would help to make a " Lloyd's " 
which would rival the Yankey Sunday editions with 
their coloured and half-tone illustrations. 

Trade readers of The Poster and Modern Ad- 
vertising who are deterred from making a start in 
newspaper advertising should try the " wanted " col- 
umns. Specific and reasonably tempting offers will be 
found to well repay the cost. 

The average country newspaperman — and big town 
brother, too — does not make enough of local news 
items. There is endless material, and, properly dished 
up, a mass of strictly local news is vastly interesting to 
the readers. In the average town of 12,000 inhabitants, 
the mention of the knocking down of a lamp-post, 
the erection of one, local statistics of .all kinds, reso- 
lutions of semi-private societies, clubs, etc., uncommon 
happenings of all kinds, tradesmen's shows of goods 
new to district, etc., forms interesting reading. I.ocal 
manufactures and prosperity should be warmly cham* 
pioned, whilst grievances should be aired and schemes 
likely to meet with favour propounded. Births, mar- 
riages, deaths, accidents, etc., should al o appear. I 
ki;0.w an American paper in a town of only 2,000 — 

and, of course, serving a district as well — which men- 
tioned the names of 4,000 different people in one 
issue, and in connection with matters grave and gay of 
all kinds ; and I am not surprised that it has a circu- 
lation of 4,000. To a district resident such' a paper 
must prove an indispensable chronicle of local men 
and things. 

The General Election considerably discounts the 
value of advertising done during the electioneering 
period. This should surprise no one who stops to 
consider how a very large section of the community 
allows electioneering matters to absorb nearly the 
whole of their attention. " A genuine English silver 
lever watch as usually sold for 50s., now offered for 
25s.," fails to find its way to the pocket of the man 
who, if he were in a condition to appreciate the offer, 
would hesitate about risking its ownership through a 
course of election meetings. What the average paper 
may have lost in advertising revenue has probably 
been counterbalanced by increased circulation receipts, 
and, maybe, the printing of addresses, circulars, etc. 



Supplement to THE POSTER. 

October, igdo. 

Brcujcrs' Sdvcrtising. 

Brewers' advertising is, with very few exceptions, 
of the indirect kind associnted with imposing archi- 
tecture and showy decoration. Brewers, no douT)t, 
appreciate the fact that the consumption of their 
picduct is largely a matter of opportunity for the 
consumer. One man meets another, and the one who 
wants a favour, or to do a favour, will at once pro- 
posf, " a drink." The two parties to an agreement 
which needs no preliminary deliberations, are at once 
attracted to the nearest — or the one which dominates 
the visual focus — brewers' dispensary. It is here 
where the aggressive architecture and show sign and 
windows score — as they are intended to do. 

The newer houses, and those in process of con- 
struction or contemplated, are necessarily more im- 
posing and showy than ever, and where the buildings 
are extensive, it is evident that billiard-rooms, smoke- 
rooms, dining-rooms, concert and dancing halls, etc., 
are to add to the advertising attractions. 

In view of the present strong man craze, I know 
one hotel keeper — somewhat of a strong man himself 
— who is fitting up a kind of gymnasium, where ath- 
letii. competitions of all kinds will be conducted. 
Ihis should prove a great " draw," whilst it should 
also ensure a certain amount of free newspaper ad- 
vertising. Bowls and skittles are other attractions. 

Quite a number of " houses " have " drawing 
cards," such as stuflfed abortions of nature — six-legged 
cats, Siamese-twin cats, dogs with two tails, etc., etc. 
Others display fixed and working models of all kinds. 
Polvphons, gr.imophones, phonographs, strength, 
lung, weight, and height testing machines ; in fact, 
every kind of inanimate object of interest. 

Not only inanimate objects, however, giants and 
dwarfs, good-looking barmaids, well-known foot- 
ballers, cricketers, boxers, and other athletes are en- 
gaged to attract and serve those attracted. 

Functions of all kinds are inspired, organised, and 
carried on in connection with public-houses and 
hotels. Clubs, societies, and associations make them 
their headquarters, and serve to attract some who 
would not otherwise feel attracted. 

Really, the brewers aie the best advertisers of all, 
as everything they do is based on a more than skm- 
dcep knowledge of human nature — which is more than 
can be said for that of many other advertisers. 

Still, I think, all brewers might employ printers' 
ink advertising to afdvantage. No one can say that 
Bass' and other well-known ales, wines, and spirits 
would have achieved their present popularity but for 
the use of printers' ink. 

Much might be done in the direction of supplying 
bottled and casked ales and wines for home consump- 
tion, and such demand can be created by a good 
article properly advertised in the newspapers and by 
pesters and circulars. The stereotyped trade card 
style of advertising, however, is next to useless. I 

do not know of a good English example of beer ad- 
vertising. In America, however, beers, etc., are as 
well advertised as other articles of commerce. The 
Schlitz Breweiy tell the public how their beers are 
manufactured, how perfect cleanliness and high quality 
is assured, and altogether go a long way towards 
making even the most rabid teetotaller at least a 
moderate and appreciative consumer of Schlitz's beer. 

Breweries, again, are regarded as mysterious places, 
and if they will stand inspection, as in the case of 
some English and American brewery advertisers, why 
not invite the people to pay a visit of inspection — 
any time, or on certam days, as convenient? Such 
open invitation would inspire a lot of confidence in 
the beer so advertised. 

Illustrated booklets explaining the methods of 
making a particular beer would also assist in the same 
direction. Testimonials from analysts and local medi- 
cal men and leading local residents could also be ad- 
vertised with great advantage. 


Worthington's Pale Ale is advertised above 
the Gaiety in the Strand by means of bold lettering 
on the Union Jack. I have already expressed niy 
opinion as to the propriety of such advertising, and 
am entirely in sympathy with " Imperial Yeoman 
who vrites to a contemporary as follows ; — 

Referring to the paragraph published in your paper some ten 
days ago respecting the slurring of the Union Jack exhibited in 
the Strand by somebody's beer being advertised upon it, may I 
inquire through your valuable columns if there is no law or 
authority to at once stop this scandal and prevent its repetition 
in the future? 

After your mild and very proper remonstrance I should have 
thought that the brewers referred to would have had the common 
decency to remove what is absolutely an insult to the tiag and 
the thousands that pass by it daily ; but unfortunately the noble 
flag is still waving with its besmeared advertisement. 

My object in endeavouring, through your kind aid, to draw 
public attention to this insult to the flag, is that I fear if it is not 
at once resented, so many competitive firms may take the hint 
and do likewise ; and what a galling spectacle it would be, say, to 
every officer and man on a man-of-war to be saluted on passing 
by boats flying the Union Jack bearing advertisements of some- 
body's pills or soap. 

It is generally supposed that a large portion of our troops 
returning from the front will be marched down the Strand. 
Think for a moment what their feelings will be when they come 
face to face with their glorious flag besmeared all over with this 
wretched beer advertisement — this grand old Union Jack that 
250,000 of us have been giving up our homes, businesses, and lives 
to uphold and keep free from degradation of every description. 
I tay our, having recently been invalided home from the front 
myself; and, having some knowledge of a soldier's value for the 
flag, I believe it will be positively dangerous to the occupants of 
the restaurant where this flag is exposed should it catch the eye 
of the returning troops in its present condition. 

Far from this advertisement benefiting the firm in question, I 
believe it is having quite the reverse effect— certainly the loyal 
populace are speaking strongly respectinp the incident. 

October, igoo. 

Supplement to THE POSTER. 

S)airg Sdvcrtising. 

If there is one thing more than others that people 
are particular about it is dairy produce, and in this 
I include eggs, cream, and milk, etc., etc. 

Yet there are few things so well adapted for force- 
ful — fo'r who is not susceptible to argument by way of 
the palate? — and remunerative advertising. The house- 
keeper will readily go a mile or more out of her way 
for good quality butter and eggs. 

One may spend thousands in advocacy of a house- 
hold soap, but one must despair of inducing the con- 
sumer to go a mile ouv of her way to get it. There- 
fore, why not, assuming you can offer really good 
butter, eggs, etc., tell the people so? 

If centrally and conveniently located for the major- 
ity of local residents, I would take space in the largest 
circulated local paper or papers to advertise the fact. 

In the first place, I would constantly advertise an 
invitation to taste my butter and cheese. I would 
display it in the window, but instead of offering a 
lady enquirer a sample portion on the end of a huge 
counter knife, would arrange some manner of serving 
the sample in a way which would emphasise the 
quality of the sample. A spotlessly clean chased- 
silver or silver-plated salver, knife and biscuit-box, 
with a good quality cheese plate, would do this to 
perfection, and if the butter or cheese were of the 
right quality, I should feel pretty confident of the 
custom of any enquirer so treated. And, what is of 
gieat importance, I should feel sure that my new 
eustomer would recommend my goods and service to 
her friends. 

Having made arrangements for regular stocking 
of the best butter, cheese, eggs, milk, etc., I would 
advertise the fact in the local newspapers, if my loca- 
tion, premises, etc., warranted my seeking the trade of 
the whole district rather than that of a restricted area. 
I would tell something fresh about my goods in every 
issue of my advertising media. I would say where 
my butter, etc., came from, what made it especially 
good in flavour, what quantity I sold the previous 
week — if I could show that I was selling more 
every week. Customers' testimonials I would try to 
get, and publish in my advertisements; my contracts 
with public institutions I would also mention. Occa- 
sionally I would publish a coupon entitling holder to 
one only half or whole pound of Is. 4d. butter for 
7d. or Is. 2d. ; another week fifteen of thirteen a 
shilling eggs for Is. Od. ; a whole cheese selling at 
7d. per lb., and weighing so many lbs., for 6d. per 
lb. Combination offers of so much butter, cheese, 
cream, and eggs at a reduction from usual price for 
taking the lot would also help in the direction of an 
ever-increasing turnover. In all such offers I would 
include a coupon, only on presentation of which could 
goods be had at special price. This would give a 
clue as to value of different advertising media. If 
doing a restricted area business, I would make such 
offers per delivered circular, enveloped and addressed, 
if possible. If a large number of coupons from news- 
papers were presented, the papers might be induced 
to say something about the scheme (they, of course, 

allowing themselves to state what they like about 
there being no doubt of their such proved advertising 
value), which would be further advertising. 

In every way possible keep hammering away with 
the news that your dairy supplies are the finest to 
be had, and quoting prices, addmg that they are the 
lowest at which such quality can be obtained. 


The records show that 68 per cent, of all the 
newspapers published in the world are in the English 
language. Of the more than fii'ty thousand news- 
papers published, the United States and Canada issue 
21,000; Great Britain, 8,000; Germany, 6,000; 
France, 4,200; Japan, 2,000; Italy, 1,500; Austro- 
Hungary, 1,200 ; Spam, 1,000 ; Austria, 800 ; Russia, 
800; Greece, 600; Switzerland, 450; Holland, 300; 
Belgium, 300, and other countries about 2,000.— 
" Newspaper Maker." 



Supplement to THE POSTER. October, 1900. 

/ invite Show Cards jor review , and will 
?v prod lice such as possess sufficient mei it. 

It seems to me that printers do not encourage the 
use of show cards. The reason for this is that com- 
paratively few firms in this country are equipped to 
deal with the whole of the various processes of show 
card production. To be asked to design, p'rint, mount, 
varnish, and string a show card staggers many printers 
who might turn them out creditably enough. A 
straightforward job is more in their line — it is easier to 
get out a price for such work than for the more com- 
plex handlmg of a show card. 

It is such printers who fall behind in the race for 
business. The printer who is anxious for business 
should never refuse any job which he can do himself 
or get done for him. A printer should be in a posi- 
tion to help any firm whose ordinary straightforward 
work is desired. If difficulties in the way of uncom- 
mon work are suggested, another and more accommo- 
dating printer is more than likely to get the ordinary 
as well as the easy jobs. 

The printer who desires to. avoid this contingency 
should not be satisfied with the ordinary work of his 
own average-waged lithographic artist. By all means 
lei the latter *et out a design or two. His style, how- 
ever, may not suit your customer, and it is best to get 
a selection O'f difterent artists' work, such as can be 
obtained on approval from the office of The Poster 
AND Modern Advertising. I am compelled to 
recommend this self-interested course for the reason 
that no simpler, convenient, and rapid alternative 
exists, as far as I am aware. I can send a selection 
on approval immediately on receipt of request, and he 
must be a strangely-constituted customer who fails to 
find something which shall be acceptable. I am also 
prompted to my recommendation because I believe 
that its adoption will encourage the demand for, and 
supply of, more show cards. 

For the less ambitious and cheaper show card I 
would recommend the introduction of a photo engrav- 
ing of the article done in one colour, with wording in 
another, and, maybe, bordering in still another colour. 
Good and striking effects may be obtained in this way. 
Many articles are themselves good substitutes for their 
pictures, and by reason oi being somewhat uncommon, 
show cards so made up rarely fail to secure a good 

The enterprising shop-keejier may back up his other 
advertising in a most forcible manner in this way. 
Take a special boot, for instance. Cut a hole to take 
heel portion of boot in a piece of white or suitably 
coloured cardboard. Into this dro]) one of the boots, 
the front portion of which will hang down the fro^nt. 
Put lettering on card round the boot. Another boot 

oi same pattern may have sole only showing through 
space cut in another card, while still another might 
stand half through antither card. The wording might 
be varied to suit, but it should be bright and chatty. 

The foregoing should suggest ways of dealing with 
other articles of trade, and it will be seen that such 
advertising is easily got up, needing only cardboard, 
black and coloured inks and brushes, a sharp knife, 
ann a little interested intelligence. 

The abO've having relation to shop windows sug- 
gests another recommendation, viz., to vary the style 
of window dressing at least once a week. A uniform 
banking up of goods is nearly always flat and unattrac- 
tive. Try the effect of bringing one or more articles 
close to the glass, with the others forming a semi- 
circular background. The combinations _of window 
display are simply endless, and with the introduction 
of new articles every day the endlessness of the thing 
becomes more and more apparent. As a rule, put the 
latest things to the front, as it is the new goods that 
will attract attention. 

I believe the time is rapidly approaching when the 
windows of the most enterprising traders will be 
dressed every day, the changing being done before 
op.ening in the morning, or after closing at night. A 
les's number of different articles will be shown to- 
gether, and where more than one window is available, 
each will be occupied by a display of one thing only. 

Nobody will deliberately throw away a handsome 
thing, not right away, whether he thinks he really 
v.ants it or not. Thus it is that the successful booklet 
misses the waste basket and scores its first point. 
Pretty soon, if the booklet deserves it, somebody is 
showing it to somebody else, somebody gets inter- 
ested in the subject the booklet presents, somebody 
sends an order, and the booklet has fulfilled its mis- 
sion — so speaks an American. 

The theory of a strong black advertisement being 
more noticeatale than a lighter one is not necessarily 
true. An advertiser should study the publication in 
which he intends to advertise, and if the fad for the 
moment is to use strong black advertisements he had 
better shift his course anil adopt some other method. 
No man ever made a success by following the crowd, 
and it is noticeable that advertising runs in fads. — 
" Advertising Experience." 

October, 1900. 

Supplement to THE POSTER 


It has become a recognised fact in business to-day 
(says a writer in " Printers' Ink ") that honesty pays 
a larger dividend than anything else, and it is for 
this reason that a great many persons who are really 
not honest are assuming that virtue for the benefit 
which it may give them in the eye; of the public. 

Honesty is a principle which does not lie in simply 
a claim or a boast of its possession. Claiming to be 
honest may just as well be left unsaid, as people 
hardlv ever believe any one who makes too much 
profession of their honest intentions. It is really 
Ijeing honest that holds business. Dishonesty may 
in many cases draw more business at the outset, but 
in the long run honesty retains what it has gained 
by slow process, and amount to more than dishonesty. 

In advertising it is well not to say too much about 
how honest you are, even though you may really be 
perfectly so. As I have just said, people have very 
little confidence in tho;e who are continually boasting 
of their O'Wn perfections. The whole force of an 
honest advertisement lies simply in being honest, in 
saying things that are true, and not in claiming or 
bragging about how honest your statements are. It 
is much better to be honest and let people find it out 
for themselves than to talk too much about it. If 
you are thoroughly honest and thoroughly in sympathy 
with honesty, go right ahead in your advertising on 
the assumption that everybody knows you are honest, 
and do not need to be told about it. Simply say 
those things which are true, and people will very soon 
find out that you are telling the truth, and they will 
be much more likely to believe all your statements 
than they will the statements of those persons who 
are continually filling their advertisements with head- 
lines which appear to say: "This is the truth and 
the great and only truth." 

The way to impress people with your honesty is 
to try to avoid all exaggerations and every kind of 
statement which would be at all misconstructed. Tell 
people the straight of things, even if it is to your 
detriment, and they will very soon believe all that 
you tell them. 


The " Indian Mirror " is the oldest established 
purely Indian daily newspaper conducted in English 
in all India. Next in point of age comes the 
" Hindu," of Madras, and the " Hindu " is the oldest 
Indian daily paper of Madras. Bombay has no such 
daily paper yet, though it was Mr. Malabari's fond 
dieam at one time, and is one of the large reserved 
projects of Mr. Tata. For many years the " Indian 
Mirror " was the only purely Indian daily newspaper 
in Calcutta, and it was thought there was little room 
for another such venture. But the Age of Consent 
Bil' came, Hindus Vvere divided among themselves, 
and the opportunity to minister to a certain ceciion 

of the local Hindu community was sooglit and found, 
when the " Amrita Bazar Patrika " was also' co;i- 
vcrted into a daily. The " Hindu Patriot," too, was 
nex, converted from a weekly to a daily journal. 
Next came the turn of the " Power " and the " Nn- 
ticnal Guardian," once two weeklies, to be united 
into the daily " Power and Guardian." Lastly, the 
weekly " Bengalee " became a daily a few months 
ago. It is not our purpose to compare the merits of 
these five purely Indian dailies, conducted in English. 
Their existence shows that there is more intellectual 
life and a larger circle of Indian readers of news- 
papers in Bengal than in the sister presidencies. 





rr WAS 4 

.TIKACTIVIj: axu pleasi.xg 

8 Supplement to THE POSTER. October, 1900. 

The Pcan Engraving Co., 


Manager. • • 

Dean street, 
Fetter Lane, 





(High Holborn 

Telephone : — 
565 (Holborn). 

Hugo Fisher. 

November, igoo. 

The Poster. 


Sidney Mebblethu/aite. 

THOSE who have followed the pages of 
" Pick-Me-Up " during the last two 
years are familiar with the work of 
this brilliant young artist, whose precision 
in drawing, and freedom and facility of 
design and idea, promise him in the future 
a place among the great black and white 
artists of the day. 

Those art critics who have seen Mr. 
Hebblethwaite's work say that it is more in 
the nature of promise than actual perform- 
ance, but as he is only in his twenty-fifth 
year, it is easy to believe that his best work 
lies before him. 

He was born in North London, and 
during his boyhood his ambition was divided 
— to use his own words — between the 
thoughts of becoming an artist and the 
more attractive and fascinating career of a 

At the age of twelve he had shown un- 
mistakable evidence of the artistic tendency 
within him, and his grandfather, Mr. Edwin 
J. Brett, at that time proprietor of the 
" Boys of England," set him to illustrate 
some of the many serials which ran through 
the columns of his then famous paper. It 
was a tradition of the office that the hero 
— usually a schoolboy of sixteen — must, 
under all circumstances, be habited in a blue 
pilot coat and vest, immaculate white duck 
trousers, and faultless peaked cap. It 
mattered not under what circumstances he 
appeared — whether in a drawing-room, in a 
dormitory thrashing the school bully, or 
even after a shipwreck treading the desert 
isle on his way to attack, single-handed, 
the pirates' lair — the dress was precisely the 
same : no wrinkles or creases were allowed 
to suggest wear or rough usage. Young 
Hebblethwaite's inborn love of originality 
made it difficult for him to conform to these 
regulations. Some of the more juvenile 
readers of the "Boys of England" even 

went so far as to complain that their erst- 
while manly hero had been converted into a 
muff, and that his illustration of a pirate 
was a more correct portrait of a milksop. 
In consequence of these complaints, the 
young artist sacrificed his own inclinations, 
reverted to the prescribed pattern of pirate 
and hero, and thus succeeded in appeasing 
the wrath of his youthful critics. 

Having reached his twenty-first year, 
Mr. Hebblethwaite went to Paris in order to 
study in the famous Julian atelier in the rue 
de Dragon, and, under the tuition of MM. 
Baschet, P'errier, and Bouquereau, he made 
great progress M. Ferrier, an able artist, 
and a yet more able teacher, was struck with 
the boldness and freedom of Mr. Hebble- 
thwaite's work. 

The present writer was, on one occasion, 
witness to a joke played by the pupil upon 
his teacher — one which might have had 
serious results. The subject of the weekly 
competition had been announced, " The 
Finding of Moses." Hebblethwaite listened 
to his fellow students discussing the theme, 
and their intentions regarding its treatment, 
after which he calmly told them that he 
purposed doing a charcoal sketch which 
should receive more favourable attention 
than their best efforts in oils. For three 
days before the final day of the competition 
Hebblethwaite's sketch was the constant 
and engrossing subject of conversation, and 
the excitement gave rise to sundry wagers 
as to the result of his experiment, and on 
the Saturday, when he placed his work on 
the easel for inspection, a buzz of admiration 
denoted the students' appreciation of his 
audacity. For, in contrast to the others, he 
had treated the subject humorously. The 
Egyptian Princess resembled a fat Jewish 
milliner, her mother, unspeakably ugly, was 
groping her way through the water to bring 
ashore the cradle in which lay the infant 


The Poster. 

November, 1900. 

PORTKAir SKEI'Lil. Sidney Hebblethwaite. 

Moses, sipping milk from the familiar bottle, 
another woman grabbed her by the long 
hair, apparently as a precaution against her 
slipping, and, as if to crown the whole thing, 
a photographer was depicted taking a snap- 
shot of the proceedings ! Of course the 
sketch gained much in humour by reason of 
its solemn surroundings, and, as M. Ferrier 
had not arrived, the wagers were doubled 
and re-doubled against its being noticed by 
the master. When the latter arrived he 
passed rapidly down the line of sketches 
and stopped abruptly before the charcoal 
drawing. "Whose work is this?" he asked. 
The pupils, fearing that he had taken of- 
fence at the mere placing of this sketch 
amongst the others, made no answer. 
" Who did this exquisse'^ " again demanded 
M. Ferrier. Hebblethwaite stepped forward 
and acknowledged his work. The teacher 
nodded curtly, passed on, but presently 
returned to the now famous drawing. " I 
cannot place this in its order of merit," he 

said. "The subject was to have been 
treated seriously — but your drawing stands 
apart." He criticised it extensively, and 
warmly commended the young artist 
for his originality. Acting on this encourage- 
ment, the following week Hebblethwaite 
submitted another humorous drawing to M. 
Baschet for the concours. Baschet eyed 
it, and said coldly " Crt c est pour rire ! 
Nevertheless, the name of Hebblethwaite 
remains in Julian's atelier as that of the 
only student who ever played a joke on 
his teacher successfuU}'. 

Whatever success he enjoys to-day he 
owes to the industry he displayed when in 
Paris. His efforts were not confined to the 
schools. In the cafes, at the theatres, in 
the streets, he was ever on the look-out for 
likely subjects for his pencil. 

At such time as the hot weather 
prevented work in the schools, he employed 
his days on sketching tours in France, 
Germany, Italy, Holland, and Btlgium, and 

POSTER DESIGN. Sidney Hebblethwaite. 

November, igoo. 

The Poster. 


as his love of adventure led him into many 
strange places, his work became at once 
curious and interesting. 

In the autumn of 1898 Mr. Hebblethwaite 
quitted Paris for London. He went to the 
offices of " Pick-Me-Up," and the then editor, 
known under his literary nom-de-guerre of 
John Le Breton, as a keen judge of good 
work, commissioned him to fill the centre 
page every week. 

At first Hebblethwaite confined himself 
to irreverent parodies of well-known subjects. 
Then his originality manifested itself in an 
extended series of drawings — there were 
over thirty, I think — illustrating the ad- 
ventures of a terrestrial artist on the planet 
Mars. This series did not meet with 
universal approbation among artists, some 
maintaining that the drawings were credit- 
ably bold, humorous and original, while 
others regarded them as topsy-turvy, and 
unworthy of publication in such a well- 
known humorous paper. But none denied 


him extraordinary power and ability as a 
draughtsman. The Martian drawings were 
followed by others showing the trials and 
troubles of "a father in search of Japhet," 
an obvious parody on Captain Marryat's 
well-known book. 

But Mr. Hebblethwaite is, above all, a 
portrait painter, and is especially clever at 
portraying little children. Some time ago 
he contributed various sketches to "Judy," 
in which he displayed his knowledge of the 
humorous side of child-life, and his sketches 
were faithful to the love of mischief, the 
fearless indifference, and the attractive wist- 
fulness, which characterises most children 
in the golden age. 

But his portraits are certainly the truest 
evidence of his talent. He has the faculty 
of seizing on all those distinctive points 
which mark character — the gleam of an eye, 
the curve of a lip, a mere wrinkle, often 
adding to his picture the one thing necessarv 
to its becomiiig a true likeness. It is the 
possession of this gift which has secured 
for its owner much well deserved praise. 

Sidney Hekbllthwaite 


The Poster. 

November, 1900. 

Theatre Royal, Drury-Lane. 

This prelent TUESDAY, Otlober 7, 1794. 

His Majeflv's icrvants will perform Shakspe are's | 

M A" C B E T H. 

Wi'h the Original Mufic of MATTHEW LOCK, 
and Accompaniniciits by Dr. ARiSiE and Ivlr. LINLEY 
Duncan, Kmg of Scotland, Afr. BENS L E Y, 
iMalcolm, Mr,C. KEMBLE, Donalbaln, Marter DE CAMP^ 
Macbeth, Mr. K E M B L E„, 
Banquo, Mr. W R O U G H TO K, 
Macduff, Mr. PALME R, 
Lenox% Mr. WHITFIELD, Roffe, Mr. BARRYMORE, 
Flcance, Mafter GREGSON, Shvard, Mr. AICKIN, 
Seyton, Mr. BENSON, Phyfician, Mr. PACKER, 
Oiiicer, Mr. BANKS, Serjeant, Mr. CAULFIELD. 
L?idv Macbeth, Mrs. S I D D O N S, 
GcntlevvoiToan, Mils T I D S W ELL. 
Hecate, Mr. BANNISTER, 
jWrtcb, Mr. MOODY, c Witch MrDODD, sWitchMr SUETT 

Mr. Kflty, Mafler U elfli, Mr. Sedg-vick, Mr. Dignum, Mr. Cooke, &c. 
Mrs. Crouch, Mrs Bland, Mils Leak, Mil's- Menage, Mils Redhead, &c. &-C. 
1 o which will be added a new Muilcal Entertainment, called - 


Sir Matthew Medlcv, Mr. M A D D O C K S, 
Vapur, Mr. BANNISTER, Jun. 
, WoodK% >.Ir. S E D Q WICK, 
Goffip, Mr. SUETT, ■ Soufra.oce, Mr. BENSON^ 
Charlotte, x\Iifs D E C A M P, 
FJorelln, Ivliis L E A K, . 

8oxcs6s Second Triceps. Pit 3s. c-d. S^coiui Pri>.c is Gallery 2s. S'.-cond Price is. : 
■ . Ujijx r CJallci'v is. Second Price 6d. 

Places for tlie Boxes to he mken of Mr. Po/brook, at the Oifcj. i-i R-nil'el Street 

»»• Tht I'HHitk is rfihi'fu'h u-qwfitd to Obli rvf. th.a no Pla, Sil'i cm Jt,\-nJcJ ut"* 

Jjr tins 'Ik-une Mctpt. thif<,(^,;i»cd by C. Lo-v<l.s. ■ ^ _ 

Printed by C. Lo'.vni>i.s, next the btage-ivoo! • V.-x arti Rt:\ l-! -''^^.^ '"IL'.— 

On Thurrday, the Coimedy of T he Jew. 
with the i^th. Ni'glu of the lafl new Opera uf Lodoifk.i. 
And on Saturday, the Tragedy of Ifabella: or, ihc FatalA'arnagc 
Sigaora STORAGE is engaged at\his Tlicaire, and will i; ake her Fir;! Ap^ e.uan 
■this beafon in the cci;rle of next Week. 


November, tgoo. 

The Poster. 


^hc Collecting of Playbills. 

Part I.— Some Kemble Bills. 

OLD playbills have something of that 
fine and faint perfume which we asso- 
ciate with an antique fan or a piece of 
old brocade. Some author, such as Austin 
Dobson, who has caught the spirit of the 
near past when " men were dressed, yes, 
and women ladies first of all," should be 
the chronicler of these old memorials of the 
theatre. How dead is the dead actor Mr. 
Henley tells us in his " Ballade of Dead 
Actors," which runs : 

Where are the passions they essayed, 

And where the tears they made to flow ? 
Where the wild humours they portrayed 
For laughing- worlds to see and know, 
Othello's wrath and Juliet's woe ; 

Sir Peter's whims and Timon's gall? 
And Millament and Romeo? 

Into the night go one and all. 
Where are the braveries fresh or frayed ? 

The plumes, the armours — friend and foe? 
The cloth of gold, the rare brocade. 
The mantles glittering to and fro? 
The pomp, the pride, the royal show ? 

The cries of war and festival ? 
The youth, the grace, the charm, the glow? 

Into the night go one and all. 
The curtain falls, the play is played : 
The beggar packs beside the beau : 
The monarch troops, and troops the maid ; 

The thunder huddles with the snow. 
Where are the revellers high and low ? 

The clashing swords ? The lover's call ? 
The dancers gleaming row on row ? 
Into the night go one and all. 

Envoy : 

Prince in one common overthrow 

The hero tumbles with the thrall 
As dust that drives, as straws that blow. 

Into the night go one and all. 
Thus, in one of the finest ballades in 
the language our greatest English master 

of the ballade tell us of the pathetic final 
extinction of the actor. But, mark you, 
not of the great actor, nor of the actor in- 
teresting by accidental circumstances, as 
was, for example, Nell Gwyn. We still 
remember, more or less vividly, Richard 
Burbage, Thomas Killigrew, Thomas Bet- 
terton, Mrs. Anne Bracegirdle, Colly Cibber, 
John Rich, Mrs. Porter, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Barry, Mrs. Oldfield, Charles Macklin, Jas. 
Quin, Lavinia Fenton (" Polly Peachum," 
who died as Duchess of Bolton), Mrs. 
Cibber, Mrs. Ciive, Mrs. Pritchard, " the 
supreme David Garrick," Samuel Foote, 
Robert Baddeley of cake fame, Mrs. Yates, 
Charles Dibdin, John Henderson, John 
Quin, Mrs. Hartley, Miss Linley, George 
Frederick Cooke, John Philip Kemble, and 
Mrs. Siddons. 

Two of the bills produced here are con- 
secrated to the genius of the great Sarah, 
who was then supreme, and is, if tradition 
be not the most egregious of liars, incom- 
parably the most sublime of the actresses 
who have trod the boards of an English 
theatre. As to her genius there is a strange 
concensus of theatrical opinion. Critics of 
the most widely diff"erent character seem to 
think that Sarah was a divinity apart. 

It is true that she had rivals in certain 
parts, but they served to emphasise her gen- 
eral grandeur as a whole. For instance, we 
find Byron saying, "Of actors Cooke was 
the most natural, Kemble the most super- 
natural, Kean the medium between the two, 
but Mrs. Siddons was worth them all put 
together." Again, Mrs. Trench wrote : 
" Mrs. Siddons, who has lent to the very 


The Poster. 

November, 1900. 

November, 1900. 

The Poster. 

I ' The LAST ^ . (V.r " 

" , For the .'c 

S ! ~r - ■ - ^. .;DF.K. 

I ( HEa : , ..^^ 

I ( This preiciit !■ Hi iJ.H..,. I J'' _ O t''^ 'l > 



ish: TAYLOR, 

A Ar.. G,..rl B>a^ura., Mil. PERON, 

L<>nnim n the De 

The > CAPE 

0, 7-,» t/^-rafi CMRlEIt. 

' (\;rx i^"r■^<^ bv Mr, SINCLAIR, , , 

With the cdebraie/. ^r.^z - ' '^''^ 7,W/?A? 0 c - 

{>*<,?,i-:. Mdl.T..: .... 
■»M^€\h bv Mr. f*Av'. ( I, • , 

Confcmu by Mils Bt,:. : - ' ; . .• ;i 

Bear ' 


The Poater. 

November, 1900. 

Theatre Royal, Covetit-Oardeii* 

This present SATURDAY, OCTOISKJ} 6, 1,S>37. /, 

Will be a clcd. llif ConlPil) of 

'lie Wonder* 

Don Felix, Mr. < , KEMBI.E, /^^, 
Bon Lopez, Mr. BLA^CHAKD, Don Pedro, Mr. MEAIWWS, '^^ 
Col. Briton' Mr. 8ERLE, Frederick, Mr. BAKEH, A!<rnazil, .Mr- ATKIX.S, 
fiil)by, Mr. BARTLEY, Li^ard.K .Mr FA^\ Ci;'!'!', 
Sancho, Mr, HEATH, Va<:quez, Mr. .MEARS, Soldi^-, .Mr. AUSTIN, 
Donna Violante, Mis'; JAR MAN, 
I..«be!la, Mi.w HENRY, Flora, Mrs. (.IR15S. 
Inis, Mrs. J. HUGHES, f Lnle Misn JOXES.J 


Terrv O'Ro.irke. Mr. I'OWICH. 

Mr. Tillwell, Mr. <:"lAKe'm()Nt'. ' < li'arles. Mr RAKr>R, 
Dr., Mr, 1?LAN< MAKD. 
Rosy, Miss J. SCOTT. .M;n v, ■S\v- DA I.V 

IVWme raFnrmerJ Mr. IXIRUSET. 
Marcel (a Vonnlni ImiI. his Senmn/ ) Mr KEiEI.RV, 
Blayorof theVillayf, Mi lA \Nv Fn., (l,!. Mi iUhNOUR 
Marchioness de Merrev >1. >rr. ^WISOV Ini mi ,< Mi. .T irCGHPij 
Georgette Clainille, her Coiixm. in Di'lnrmcn cmplwi^ .VIiss G()W.'VrtD, 
Madame Mag fa prtfimr old Mniil offke VU/nucJ Mrs. DAVENPORT 

TO<^-ff«. &c. »lw!<. Ashion, (.i,iich,-ird. .Miller. Mar. Mieiros. I..S.&C. Telt, Tinnsy. 
Mesdaraes Applclon, Brown. Gnmaldi. Smith \\ ilsoa, 
I-LACKS for the BOXES to be had at the BoT-Officc. Ra«-street, fitira Tea till Fi'Ur : vUtn Pmale TSmu» 
cm also be liad for the sea.<:on. or Nitrhtly- 
Eoici: 7n. Second Price 8». Cd.— Pit*. TmI. Second Pncf 2f.— GalL-rv 2«. Second Price la.— Upper Galletyli 
'■he SOORS to be opened el Half-past Sii o'clo, k, and the Play tobepn einctly «t Seren. VivsH Rajl. 

The Public iR most reapcctfullv informcil lliat 

' Mr. K X: 4L £9' 

liavirig: detormlnfld to teavG the Stag-e at the cent iii^ion ot the present Season, has eatercd into sn 
EnffQgemenl nt this TheatJ-e for a limited nnmlifr nf m::;-hts.L'i: shortlv make his farstapijearance. 

c. V , ; ■„ ■ HUGHES, . , , . , . 

01 the V ocal depnrtment, will, in the course ot a Iimv (ia\ s. make her flebtit in LonttOD. m a faTorttft 
Opera :-an<l 

BS^dame VESTaiS,, 

will resume her situation luiincdials-ly after the close of tlie Haymarltcl Theatre. 

On Morulay. Shaksi>eare's Tragedy of HAMLE'l'. 

Hamlet. - - Mr, YOUNG. 
After which. PETER WILKINS, 
ihiTuesdn„. Sli.-ikspeare's Coinedvof MUCH ADO ABOUT NOTHING. 

Il«i,irdi.:k, Mr. C. KEMril.K nf,atrice, .Muss .lAHMAN. 

After which. WrBKR .scclel.mied Opera of DER FREISCHUTZ, 
V. ilhelm, .Mr. S,\P/0, (H.s fir^l appearann in thai chnraettr^ 

On Wednes hn/ firw iv s 1 1 .,.tlv ol \ EMCE fRrSERVFD 

Jaflier. Mr, C. KE.MUlE, ("nrr.-. Mr. VOl'MJ. DUvidira. Mi«* JAItMAV. 

After which. PETKR WILKINS. 
On Thnrsdaii. the Conicdv of Wl LD . OATS. 

Kcver. Mr. WUKNCH. (f/ii sirmd appmnarr m t/,i.~ Ularr] 

After which. 6rst timo at this Theatre, (bv permission of b.j.Amold. KsM,),m Operatic Drunid,.cailei3 
Alovis. - Miss K E L h \ 

OnFrida/, the Tragedy of The REVEN€E. 

After which. PETER VVM.i:!\^- 
Tho favourite melo-Drama of The SERGEAiNT'a WH- f, , , s J.Ainoid, Ean,) in 

Pfintod by w. Reynold's, " Dci,niai\-court, snai,,). 

November, 1900. 

The Poster. 


syllables of her name an elevation and a 
charm so strong that no effort of mine could 
now effect their separation — so strong, that 
none who saw her in the splendour of her 
meridian ever pronounced that name without 
a tone and a manner more softened and 
raised than their habitual discourse." 

Tate Wilkinson put the truth epigram- 
matically by saying " if you ask me, what is 
a queen? I should say, 'Mrs. Siddons.'" Lord 
Tristram described her performance as a 
school for oratory. But it is from Hazlitt, a 
somewhat restrained critic, that we get the 
most glowing, and perhaps the finest tribute. 
He tells us "we can conceivenothing grander. 
She introduced to our imagination the fables 
of Mythology, of the heroic and deified 
mortals of older time. She was not less 
than a goddess or a prophetess inspired by 
the Gods. Fame was seated on her brow. 
Praises radiated from her breast as from a 
shrine ; she was tragedy personified." It is 
strange to read after this terrific eulogy that 
the great lady was born at the "Shoulder 
of Mutton " public house, in the town of 

When we come to Mrs. Siddons' famous 
brother, John Philip Kemble, we pass to 
another great genius, but to one less undis- 
puted and less variously praised. John 
Philip certainly had a serious rival in G. F. 
Cooke, but the eccentricity of the latter 
gave Kemble an enormous advantage in 
the race for the leadership of the stage. 
Kemble appears to have been what in those 
days was rare— a scholar and a gentleman. 
It might be said of him as it was said of 
Macready, that he was moral, grave, sub- 
lime. Too often, his gravity degenerated 
into an enormous pomposity, which even a 
pompous age was apt to ridicule, but still 
by reason of his Hamlet and his Alexander, 
he lives in the theatrical firmament, if not 
a twin star beside his sister, at least a 
lesser one of no inconsiderable magnitude. 
The playbill which we reproduce here is one 
in which he played Hamlet, and is exces- 

sively rare. The other bills relating to the 
lesser lights referring to the Kemble family, 
would be interesting only to those who care 
sufficiently for theatrical history to know 
who they were and what they did. So 
much for the Kembles. In our next number 
we hope to deal exclusively with the 
meteoric Kean, and his son Charles. 
( To be contained. ) 


A CHILD'S LONDON.— By Hamish Hen- 
dry. With fourteen illustrations by 
Carton Moore Park. London : Sands 
and Co. 

Mr. Hendry and Mr. Carton Moore Park 
may be congratulated heartily on the pro- 
duction of a very delightful volume. Most 
people will regard "A Child's London" as 
a picture book rather than a book of verse, 
but Mr. Hamish Hendry's rhymes are very 
well worth reading. The illustrations by Mr. 
Moore Park are, however, the most impor- 
tant feature of the volume, because they 
prove the versatility of a young artist who 
has been hitherto most widely known by his 
fine decorative studies of animal life. For 
the moment Mr. Moore Park forsakes the 
world of birds and beasts and shows us 
various aspects of what, exactly four cen- 
turies ago, William Dunbar described as the 
F/our of Cities all." He depicts in most 
original fashion the river at night with its 
slowly gliding barges, the Sphinx at the 
base of Cleopatra's Needle, the Lions in 
Trafalgar Square, the Row when "a 
thousand horses beneath the trees go past," 
as well as persons so characteristic of our 
town, as the Cat's Meat Man and the 
Omnibus Driver. The cover of the book is 
the only bad thing about it, but this is 
obviously a clumsy device of the publishers, 
of which the artist must be held entirely 
innocent. In every other respect "A Child's 
London " is very creditable to Messrs. Sands 
and Co. 


The Poster. 

November, 1900 

^he Slack ^pot in America. 


UNTIL the winter of 1894, the artistic 
poster was practically unknown in the 
United States. The only things of the kind, 
and they were very excellent and very 
original, were the "Harper's Magrizine" 


window bills by Edward Penfield. But 
during the latter part of 1893, and the early 
half of 1S94, the name and work of Aubrey 
Beardsley had become known, and popular 
as was his success amongst a large class in 
England, his fame was tenfold in America. 
Every twopenny-halfpenny town had its 
" Beardsley Artist," and the large cities 
simply teemed with them. Some borrowed 
his ideas and adapted them to their own 
uses ; others imitated, till one asked one- 
self : " Is this done by the English or 
American B. " ? 

Until the introduction of the Beardsley 
work, all the posters seen were of the good 
old lithographic-printer order, where every- 
thing was stippled until all life had been 
taken out of it, and which at best was but 
the enlargement in colour of a photograph. 

The first step, and a great one, was 
made by "The Century Magazine," who 
covered the walls of New York with what, 
in my humble opinion, was the best poster 
Grasset ever did, z.e., "The Sun of Auster- 
litz," being Napoleon on a white horse, with 
a flaming background of fiery clouds. To 
this poster, in a great measure, was due the 
Napoleonic craze of the time. Next in order 
was Dudley Hardy's delightful "Gaiety 
Girl " — the dancing red girl. Napoleon 
looked a bit shocked when he saw her, and 
grieved to think that she attracted even 
more attention than he did, though she was 
turned out on two stones, while fourteen 
(so I was assured by the printer) were 
employed in his production. 

Advertisers now began to see that, given 

VViLi, Bkaoley. 

November, igcxa. 

The Poster. 


an effective design, by using- a few flat 
colours, a better result and a cheaper ad- 
vertisement could be obtained. Conse- 
quently the Beardsley artist set to work. 

In this line Bradley was certainly first 
favourite, and his output was enormous. 
As far as I know, he only did one large 
poster, an American 24-sheet Stand (28 
English Double Crowns) for Frohman's 
production of " The Masqueraders." But 
he did a one-sheet for " Hood's Sarsa- 
parilla," which was not at all bad from an 
advertising point of view. Then he did 
several for the Chicago " Chap Book," and 
also for the " Inland Printer." The latter 
were for covers, but were also, I believe, 
used for posters. F"or mercantile houses he 
did several, also for his own publication, 
"Bradley, his Book." Clever though he 
undoubtedly is, I do not think he would 
ever have adopted the class of work in 
which he has become known had not 
Beardsley set the example. Until the 
latter had introduced it, people did not 

Den SLOW. 

Will Bradley. 

understand the use of the " black blot " as 
an element in composition. Although it had 
been used years before in England in the 
famous " Woman in White," by Fred 
Walker, no one seemed to realize that the 
solid black mass could be utilized in a 
decorative way. 

Certainly Chicago contained the most 
adaptable set of men ; for, starting in the 
new way, using only two printings, they 
introduced humour into their designs. Head 
and foremost of them was Denslow, whose 
"Newsboy selling a paper to a Hauti Lady" 
and his "Haughty Sist^s " were both ex- 
cellent. Denslow has, of course, been con- 
nected with journalistic art for a good many 
years, and though he has done some posters 
for the western shows whose headquarters 
are in Chicago, his theatrical work did not 
often, as far as I know, travel east. 

Bird has done some good woik for 
m agazines and so forth. His " Red Letter" 
window bill is, perhaps, the besi known of 
his, but not altogether the best. 


The Poster. 

November, 1900 

Hazenplug", unless he has done a great 
deal lately, is not a prolific man, but what 
he has done is distinctly good. " The Chap 
Book " poster reproduced here is excellent, 
and it also has the merit of having a breadth 
that is not discernible in some of his work. 

Claude Bragdon also did a very good 
poster for the "Chap Book," but it was, if I 
remember rightly, almost entirely in outline, 
and the solid black was very sparingly used. 

bill by the firm of Macmillan. Although it 
is undated, it probably appeared after his 
death, and I do not remember to have seen 
it used in England. 

To see that his work had a considerable 
influence in America, it is only necessary to 
look at the cheapest form of poster work, 
that for the daily press. Unless I am very 
much mistaken, a drawing of my own, re- 
produced by the "New York Recorder" 

In the Far West the solid colour was 
employed to a fair extent. Miss Florence 
Lundberg, who did one or two excellent 
posters for " The Lark," deserves all praise, 
for she cut her own designs on the wood 

The first poster for "The Lark," the 
delightful Faun by Bruce Porter, was sten- 
cilled, and very excellent it was. 

It is interesting to reproduce a design 
by Aubrey Beardsley, published as a window 

which appeared on June 6th, 1895, was the 
first poster used for a daily paper. The 
"Chicago Times - Herald " followed two 
weeks afterward, having first made a bid to 
the "Recorder" for the use of the same 
drawing. This drawing was done in sup- 
posedly Beardsleyesque style. I had pre- 
viously offered it to " The World," but was 
turned from its doors with the answer that 
it was " not necessary for ' The World ' to 
use posters." Three weeks after "The 

November, igoo. 

The Poster. 


Recorder" poster was published, "The 
World " had one, a poodle, printed in 
red, by De Lipmann. He did a second 
for the same paper and I did the third. 
All these weekly posters were heavily 
plastered in solid black. We reproduce 
one or two by King and Outcault to give 
an idea as to the style of work, and to 
what stretches of imagination a man will 
allow himself to go. The poster by Mr. 
King is not at all representative of his work. 
His line work, bearing in mind that it is 
done for cylindrical printing, is excellent. 
Mr. Outcault, too, is better known as the 
inventor of "The Yellow Kid," from which 
series of drawings, which were started in 
" The World" and afterwards continued in 
" The Journal," gave to those two papers 
the title of the Yellow Press. 

Amongst the Americans, the application 
of solid colour in a picture or a poster is 


looked upon as the invention of Beardsley. 
A publisher in speaking to me one day of 
Dudley Hardy, the Beggarstaffs, and 
Hassall, classed them all together ;is 
" Beardsley Artists," and when asked to 
explain why, the reason he gave was that 
they all used flat colour. 

It is a regrettable fact, but nevertheless 
a fact, that Beardsley unwittingly did a 
lot of harm. His style was easy to cop}', 
and a great many men who had little or 
no knowledge of drawing were thus enabled 
by imitating his work to make a living, 
and therefore men who would otherwise 
have been earning an honest wage at mud- 
shovelling or mending the roads, were 
allowed to plunge into a "vortex of artistry," 
to cheat themselves into the belief that they 
were artists, and to bamboozle the man 
blessed with more money than taste out of 
his dollars. 


The Poster. 

November, 1900. 

dimensions of Continental Posters. 

IVI AMES and dimensions of foreign posters 
1 1 have often worried English collectors, 
and we have received enquiries about 
such by some of our readers. 

Since the pafier a la foniic has ceased 
circulating amongst Continental printing 
firms, papers have no fixed dimensions, and 

Maurice Biais. 

therefore the old descriptions as to dimen- 
sions have hardly any reason to exist now. 

In accordance with this, the authorities 
of the British Museum have for years aban- 
doned the old appellations in-folio, in-quarto, 
in-octavo and so forth, used for the classifi- 

cation of books, and have replaced them by 
figures, carefully indicating the dimension 
of books, an innovation which has of late 
years been generally accepted and currently 
employed by all bibliographers. The same 
way of indicating dimensions is also in use 
amongst poster collectors. Most of the 
dealers, however, persist in utilising the old 

For the benefit of our readers we now 
give approximately the dimensions of some 
recognised sizes : 

Raisin ... ... about 26 in. x 20 in. 

Colombier ... mostly 34 in. x 24 in. 

, ^ r '54 in- X 2^ in. 

but sometimes \ . 

y. 36 m. X 26 in. 

Double Colombier about 50 in. x 36 in. 

Grand Colombier ... 60 in. x 44 in. 

The Quadruple Colombier is formed by 

two sheet Double Colombier joined together. 

These measures cannot be taken as 
exact, for they often vary with each paper 
mill or press, sometimes to the extent of an 
inch or two, sometimes more. This was 
very annoying to the collector, but even 
more so the fact that in divers instances 
some Continental posters have been printed 
on papers the dimensions of which are quite 
apart from any of the above-named 

Therefore, figures are always preferable 
to unreliable appellations, and poster dealers 
ought to adopt this great improvement, as 
bibliographers have already done. 

Most of the French printing firms would 
also find it to their benefit to act likewise, for 
many a would-be foreign advertiser, puzzled 
by such vague descriptions, has refrained 
from placing an order with Continental 
printing firms on account of these puzzling 

November, 1900. 

The Poster. 


Po5terdom Caricatures 

No. AAII.— Prank 3- Nankivell. 


The Poster. 

November, 1900. 

^hc Kcuf €lnglish Krt Club- 

THE annual exhibition of this club is now 
open, and it is one which nobody who 
seriously cares for the progress of art 
in England can aflFord to neglect. It is an 
association of artists who, whatever their 
limitations, are generally devoted to their 
craft, and hold sincerity to their ideals 

Maurice Biais. 

higher than popular applause. There is, how- 
ever, a danger which is of the essence of 
such an association as the New English Art 
Club. Painters are human to the core, and 
are therefore not above that tendency to 
mutual admiration to which the flesh is heir. 
With the present show before us we are 
inclined to ask ourselves whether there Is 
quite so much originality on the walls of the 

Dudley Gallery as some people would have 
us believe. Most of the members of the 
Club appear to us distinctly to have had 
models upon which they have more or less 
deliberately based their style and technique. 
We do not for a moment suggest that they 
are deliberate and unintelligent copyists. 
Intelligence Is everywhere obvious. Eccen- 
tricity is by no means lacking, but as it Is 
amusing eccentricity, and not vulgar eccen- 
tricity, It may be easily forgiven. The 
difference between the little Club show and 
the great Academy exhibition is this : one 
comes from the former stimulated If un- 
satisfied, whereas one leaves the latter 
saddened and depressed. 

The honours of the present show lie with 
Mr. Charles H. Furse, whose grave and 
dignified art is well seen In the " Sketch for 
Portrait ot Lord Roberts," and the eques- 
trian portrait of " Philip Crossley." The 
versatility of Mr. Wilson Steer is proved by 
the landscape " Vidderdale," in the manner 
of Turner, and In the work entitled the 
" Embankment," in a manner utterly dlff'er- 
ent. Mr. Conder sends a " Screen," which 
reminds one of the days of Watteau and 
Pater. His other contributions are all dis- 
tinguished by the delicacy and charm of 
which he is master. Mr. A. S. Hartrick has 
several ambitious paintings, all of which are 
worthy of careful attention, and a wholly 
delightful little pastel which we like best of 
all. The art of Mr. Will Rothenstein is well 
seen in a curious picture entitled " The 
Browning Readers," and a less happily 
Inspired " Portrait of a Young Man." 
Amongst the other works which should be 
noticed are those by Mr. David Muirhead, 
Mr. R. E. Fry, Mr. C. H. Shannon, Mr. 
P^rancls James, Mr. Brabazon, Mr. Simon 
Bassy and Mr. D. S. MacColl. 



Louis Linscott. 

November, 1900. 

The Poster. 


^cquel Posters. 


" I> OTHER it!" says the man in the 
street, " the same posters every- 
where, month after month, always 
the same. Wherever you go, from Brixton 
to Finchley, or from Stratford to Earl's 
Court; however you travel, by 'bus, train, 
tram or even cab ; whatever you are doing" 
-—writing, reading, thinking or dreaming — 
there they are before your eyes. 

" Of course, we all know that so-and- 
so's condensed milk, or the desiccated soup 
of some other firm, are the best ; but these 
wretched posters, so persistently forcing 
themselves on our notice, have begun to 
haunt us." 

" Granted," reply the firms which adver- 
tise, " we are quite aware that our posters 
are an obsession to you, we are prepared to 
hear them described as public nuisances, 
but have you considered the main object and 
purpose with which we exhibited them ? 
Has this persistency succeeded in impressing 
the nature and quality of our goods upon 
you ? If so, we are satisfied ; our object has 
been accomplished. Probably when our 
advertisement first appeared you hardly 
noticed it, presently you favoured it with a 
glance, then you found yourself compelled to 
regard it more closely, and finally you had to 
buythearticleadvertised. Even then, possibly, 

you were sceptical regarding the merits of 
the goods, but it did not take you long to 
realise that the advertisement was justified. 
So that the poster you objected to, the same 
which you at one time regarded as an 
obsession and a nuisance, has at last proved 
a blessing and benefit to you. And if it has 
profited you, how much more has it been or 
service to us ? Therefore, we continue in 
our policy of monotonous advertisement, 
exhibiting the same mural picture for 
months, if need be. But since you seem to be 
really tired of our poster, we shall be pleased 
to off"er you something by way of a change. 
You will admit that the design was success- 
ful, suppose we suggest a sequel to it? " 

Now, are the firms who make use or 
poster sequels quite right in doing so ? 
The artist, for obvious reasons, thinks not. 
Keeping to a particular design which has 
caught the eye of the public, they are limit- 
ing themselves, and virtually rejecting any 
new compositions, suggestions and ideas, 
many of which would possibly prove to be 
as happy or happier than the others. 

Certainly the question here presented is 
a very serious one, and difficult of solution. 
Who is right ? who is wrong ? The man 
in the street who lias the money to buy the 
article ; or the firm that has the money with 

Lcuis Weierter. 

NoVEMBBk, 1906. 

The PosteC. 


which to boom its goods ; or the artist 
who is paid that he may puff anything 
whatever by way of a new design ? 

Omitting any further discussion on these 
questions, we would point out that of late 
sequel posters (among them some very 
good examples) seem to have grown in 

The idea, however, is by no means a new 
one, that is to say, we are able to trace it 
as far back as ten years, when Sir George 
Newnes brought out a coloured Christmas 
plate for " Tit-Bits," followed the next year 
by a sequel to it. Although the two plates 
were not, strictly speaking, advertisements, 
they helped considerably the circulation of 
the periodical. 

Everyone remembers the picture —the 
little fishmonger's boy in the midst of an 
errand, resting on a doorstep to read 
" Tit-Bits," whilst his basket, full of fish, 
lay neglected near him. In the second 
plate the boy is depicted as so amused with 
the jokes and stories that a cunning fox 




terrier, unobserved, makes a comfortable 
meal of the contents of the basket. 

These pictures were, we believe, the 
first successful ones of the "Before and 
After" style, and were in great favour with 
the general public. 

, Almost to the same period belong the 
Pears' Soap couple: "He won't be happy 
till he gets it," and " He's happy now he's 
got it " ; these proved to be amusing as 
well as effective advertisements. 

For some reason or other, until recently 
sequel posters seemed to have been aban- 
doned, but two years ago the hoardings 
were profusely covered with the silhouette 
of an archer, clearly detailed in white on a 
vermilion background, without any lettering 
whatever — a puzzle solved a little while 
afterwards by a sequel poster representing 
the detailed figure of an archer, covering in 
black the white silhouette on the same red 


The Poster. 

November, 1900. 

background. It was the work of Townsend, 
and advertised a weekly periodical, "The 

But now to come to commercial sequel 

Messrs. Nestle were fortunate enough to 

An impetus was given to sequel posters secure last year a humorous design by M. 
by the " DailyChronicle's" national cartoons, Mallet — (Will True) — one of the most amus- 

It did me good-my coats like silk; 
And now I'm sound in limb and brain, 
ril never drink skim milk again!" 


representing, firstly, the mighty British ing posters ever produced, that of the two 
Lion struggling hard with two South African cats on the wall — the lean and the fat cat, 
boars ; and secondly, the final victory of which was reproduced here in No. VI. 
the lion over its foes. Its success with the public has been so great 

November, 1900. 

The Poster. 


that Messrs. Nestl6 have been induced to 
bring- out a sequel, in which the thin pussy 
is shown to have given up skim milk for the 
more nutritious Nestlt^'s milk — the two cats, 
in a fit state, plump and fat, sitting con- 
tentedly on the wall. 

Although this sequel was not executed 
by M. Mallet, but by Mr. Hassall, the lines 
of the first composition have been closely 
and happily followed by the second artist. 

old lady, who evidently feeds on it, is none 
the worse for it, but very much the contrary. 

The " suite " of posters executed by 
Albert Morrow for the serial story published 
in "Answers" must also be mentioned as 
a very good example. It is work creditable 
to both artist and printer. 

Examples of sequel posters in Engfland 
might be multiplied, but the above are the 
most interesting. In some future issue we 

\ \ 

Alick p. F. Ritchi 

As regards Edwards' Desiccated Soup, 
the same designer, Louis Weierter, has 
produced the original poster and its sequel. 
In the latter, the fat old cook, whom we 
previously saw carrying a hot fuming tureen 
of the appetising soup— her pet cat by her 
side — is still in her kitchen, and she assures 
us that it is really " so nice, my dear," a 
fact we cannot doubt for a moment, and 
which is borne out by the certainty that the 

hope to deal with this subject in its applica- 
tion to foreign countries. 

With reference to our article on "Crib- 
bing " in the last number of The Poster, 
we are informed by Mr. Will True that he 
executed the Blanche Melrose poster under 
instructions from the printer, who in turn 
was commanded by the advertiser. 


The Poster. 

November, 1900. 

^he Moardings. 

THE hoardings are brighter now than 
they have been for some time, and the 
brightness is very welcome at this 
dull time of year, and for this reason they 
no doubt attract attention from some who 
otherwise would not be attracted. 

Some of the posters on the hoardings 
are really too good to be at the mercy of 
rain and wind. A heavy storm of rain and 
wind will ofttimes strip a most expensive 
poster from the walls, sometimes within 
a few minutes of being put up This 


Alick p. F. Ritchie. 

should be prevented if possible, and it 
seems to me that a waterproofing treatment, 
either at time of printing or before, or at 
time of putting up, should be possible at a 
low enough extra cost. 

This treatment woidd not be necessary 
with short period posters, or even those ot 
the cheaper class, as it would be intended 
to reduce the wear and tear of an expensive 
bill showing for a long period. 

Very few new posters have appeared 
during the month, although we were led to 
expect great things from the lithographic 
printer in view of the Christmas trade. 
Perhaps by the time our next number goes 
to press our hopes may be realised. 

November, 1900. 

The Poster. 


»ome €lnglish iVLagazine Covers* 

Happily, there is evidence that the photo- 
cover is likely to become a thing of the 
past. Editors are realizing that photos, 
while suitable for the pages of a magazine, 
are neither effective nor artistic on its cover. 

We have seen many covers where decora- 
tive designs of an interesting character, 
drawn by D. Whitelaw and other artists, 
have simply been spoiled by superimposed 
photos of either the " darling babe " or the 
common-place type of female beauty. 

However, we must be all the more 
thankful to the magazines which prefer to 
use for their covers original designs pur- 
posely drawn by an artist, and before 
leaving the subject of Christmas numbers, 
we may mention two interesting covers done 

Alber Morrow. 

fITH the end of November comes the 
Christmas Number season, when all 
at home, young and old, are looking 

forward to the interesting or amusing magazines which, 
by the fireside, will help to shorten the long cold and dreary 
winter evenings. 

Few of these Christmas numbers have, as yet, been pub- 
lished for 1900, and we shall have to give them a further 
and longer notice in a future number, but amongst the few 
which are already out, undoubtedly one of the most attractive 
is that for "Illustrated Bits," with its artistic design by 
Albert Morrow. The night scene, with the Venetian lanterns 
reflected in the water, is very effective, and the lovely g'lr 
harlequin drawn by the artist is a great improvement on the 
usual photo which most magazines think fit to stick over their 
clever cover designs, on which decoration only is the chief feature. 


The Poster. 

November, 1900. 

November, 1900. 

The Poster. 



The Poster. 

November, 1900. 

by Kinsella, one for "The Lady's Own 
Novelette," and the other for the " Family 
Novelist," the last one especially being 
an agreeable little composition, where the 
figure of Master Cupid calls to mind some 
of Willette's graceful but cheeky cherubs. 
We venture to make only one criticism ; 
Kinsella is perhaps a little too fond of the 
red sun vanishing in a country scene used as 
a back-ground effect. We have already seen 

the dying red sun in a " Favorite Magazine " 
cover, and there is no reason why this 
artist, who, we know, has spent several 
years in Coonland, " where the moon shines 
brightly," and was born in the fatherland 
of the moonlighters, should be so partial to 
the sun. 

For the November number of the " Royal 
Magazine " Cecil Aldin has given us one of 
his clever compositions — a cover to be kept 

by amateurs in their magazine cover port- 
folio, for our readers are well aware that 
cover collecting is one of the latest " fads," 
as Mr. Astley Williams pointed out to them 
in the columns of a recent issue of this 
magazine. Their comparatively small size 
and the moderate price will allow any col- 
lector to secure them and mount them in an 

For this same November number the 
"English Illustrated Magazine" h:is pro- 
duced a good cover, which, although not 
signed, bears a great resemblance to the 
work of Eckhardt, and we should be sur- 
prised if this design is not due to this artist. 
However, the above-named cover loses a 
great deal of its attractiveness, as it must 
be examined at close quarters, and is en- 
tirely lost if one sees it from a distance on 
the bookstall or in the bookseller's window, 
for we insist on the fact, already discussed 
in The Poster, that artists must bear in 
mind that to attract the attention of the 
general public the ideal book or magazine 
cover design embodies many of the essentials 
of a good poster or show card, and that the 
effect must be broad and capable of attrac- 
ting attention at some distance. 

A proof of this we have in the cover of the 
September number of "The Harmsworth 
Magazine." Although the design of the 
two female faces is slightly weak seen from 
a distance, the decorative work forming the 
chief item of the page is very strong, and 
reminds one of Hohenstein's or Mataloni's 
compositions for Messrs. Ricordi, of Milan. 
Considered only as an artistic production, it 
was decidedly the best cover that "The 
Harmsworth Magazine" has ever brought 

Of other publications which keep up the 
old-fashioned custom of appearing always in 
the same cover, we may name the " Weekly 
Telegraph" cover by W. Edward Wigfull, 
"Madame," and "The Traveller" by R. 
Sauber, which gives one at last a rest from 
his usual Empire dress and picture hat girls. 

November, igoo. 

The Poster. 

The Poster. November, 1900 

Palette 3crat>ings« 


The School of Art Wood Carving, 
Imperial Institute, South Kensington, has 
been re-opened after the usual summer 
vacation, and we are requested to state that 
some of the free studentships maintained by 
means of funds granted to the school by the 
Drapers' and the Cloth-Workers' Company 
are vacant. The evening class is for the 
present closed, but to meet the requirements 
of those professionally engaged during the 
week, a special Saturday afternoon class is 
held. Forms of application for the free 
studentships, and any further particulars 
relating to the school, may be obtained from 
the manager. 

William Nicholson, who has been 
awarded the Gold Medal at the Paris Ex- 
hibition for his world-known series of Por- 
traits of Celebrities, gives us this year a 

superb work of art, a portfolio of 16 drawings 
reproduced in colours, entitled " Characters 
from Romance," and the publisher, Mr. W. 
Heinemann, must be highly congratulated 
on the careful way Nicholson's new work is 
reproduced. This publication marks a 
new departure in the development of Nic- 
holson's art, and differs altogether from 
the stern and stately wood engravings 
with which his name has been associated. 
His characters of romance show the same 
strength of design, but their draughts- 
manship is of the daintiest and lightest, 
their colouring of the most brilliant, and 
their general conception as fantastic and 
fascinating as are the works of the best 
French masters. He has hit off with 
extraordinary neatness the characteristics 
of each personage. In this gallery are 
seen the grotesque Don Quixote, Cervantes' 
hero, on his white charger ; Miss Fotherin- 
gay and poor old drunkard Captain Costi- 
gan (Thackeray's " Pendennis ") ; Commo- 
dore Trunnion (" Peregrine Pickle," by 
Tobias Smollett), the living three-decker ; 
Madge Wildfire (Walter Scott's " Heart of 
Midlothian ") ; Mr. Rochester (Charlotte 
Bronte's "Jane Eyre") ; Chicot, the prince 
of wits and courtiers, and the mighty 
Porthos, both made famous by Alexandre 
Dumas in " Les Quarante-Cinq " and " Les 
Trois Mousquetaires " ; Mr. Vanslyperken 
with his dog (Captain Marryat's "The Dog 
Fiend") ; Rabelais' gross Gargantua 
dainty and fair Sophia Western (Field- 
ing's "Tom Jones"); the unctuous, 
villainous John Silver (Robert Louis 
Stevenson's " Treasure Island") ; dis- 
sipated Mulvaney, weird and magnificent 
in his impersonation of Krishna (Rud- 
yard Kipling's " Soldiers Three") ; 
John Jorrocks, redolent of tea and the 
stables (Surtees' " Handley Cross"); the 
shadowy Miss Havisham in her faded bridal 

November, 1900. 

The Poster. 



gfown, and Mr. Tony Weller handling the 
ribbons deftly and surely (Dickens' " Great 
Expectations" and "Pickwick Papers"); 
and last but far from least— the greatest of 
all noble liars, Baron Munchausen. We 
feel sure that Nicholson's "Characters from 
Romance" will meet with a success equal, 
if not surpassing, his previous albums. 

" The Architectural Review" published 
recently an interesting article on the 
"Stained Glass as shown at the Paris 
Exhibition," in which the writer criticised 
rather severely the designs executed by 
painters for stained glass. For instance, we 
are told that " M. Ed. Grassetis an excellent 
designer for lithography, and can also 
design some other things well, but he does 
not show to advantage in this collection." 
This seems strange when one remembers 
that this famous artist has, for years, 
devoted a great deal of his talent and his 
time to designs for stained glass, which 

have been universally admired. Further, the 
writer asserts that "The Joan of Arc 
windows for the Cathedral of Orleans show 
the mistake usually made by painters 
of designing the subject to fill the whole 
space without consideration of the mullions, 
which cut the figures unpleasantly in conse- 
quence. Even the delicate talent of M. 
Olivier Merson fails to realise the necessi- 
ties of treatment as we understand them." 
The same criticism is attached to the German 
glass, which, although much praised, 
appears to be the work of painters 
who do not understand the material for the 
most part, and err either in the direction of 
putting too much work upon it or in the 
recoil go to the opposite extreme. The 
writer concludes by saying that " the deter- 
mination to have something new at all 
costs, to carry out preconceived theories of 
design without proper consideration of the 


Twice DAiLY^aft^. 



The Poster. 

November, 1906. 

material in which the idea is to be embodied, 
coupled with a disdain for traditional modes 
of work, is responsible for the want of suc- 
cess which is nearly universal." These 
criticisms are, perhaps, a little too severe, 
for we must remember that the stained glass 
at the Paris Exhibition formed one of the 
most interesting attractions and curiosities, 
and was generally admired. 

An Exhibition of Arts and Crafts will 
be held in Leeds from November 19th to 

December 1st. The announcement is heard 
with pleasure, for picture shows, even in 
the provinces, have been overdone of late 
years. It will be held in the City Art 
Galleries, under the direction of the York- 
shire Ladies' Council of Education. Prizes 
are offered for wood-carving, repouss^ 
metal work, embossed or incised leather 
work, modelling, hammered iron, pillow 
lace, church embroidery, art needlework, 
bookbinding ; also two prizes, value three 
guineas and two guineas respectively, for 
the best design for cover of catalogue. 

AISS i /\LLE. 

OSSIE Yyette 


Printed by Mcssis. Wcincr, Ltd., London. 

November, 1900. 

The Poster. 

the design to be suitable for a poster as 
well. For these two prizes, no doubt, 
there will be more competitors than the 
Judging Committee will know how to deal 

The eighth of a series of International 
Art Exhibitions will be held at Munich in 
1901, and will be promoted by the Munich 
Artists' Club, and the Plastic Art Union of 
Munich. It will be conducted for the most 
part on the same principles as the last 
Exhibition (the seventh), which was held in 
1897. Special efforts will be made to secure 
success in view of the eightieth birthday of 
the Prince Regent of Bavaria. The co- 


M. Fraikin. 

operation of British artists is cordially 
invited. The Exhibition of 1897 comprised 
painting, sculpture, etching and engraving, 
and design, both as illustrated by drawings 
and as carried out in materials. Further 
information can be obtained upon appliqa- 
tion to the Secretary of the Artists' Cliib, 
Kiinstler, Genossenschaft, Munich. 

An American contemporary has the 
following interesting account of how a well- 


The Poster. 

November, igoo. 

known artist advertised for and secured 
success : — " Frank Millet, the artist and 
war correspondent, had no success at all 
with the critics who passed upon his early 
work. He regularly sent pictures to the 
exhibition — and they were good pictures — 
but no one paid particular attention to them. 
One day he hit upon a new way of going 
to work. He painted a picture of a lady in 
black sitting on a bright red sofa standing 
against a vivid yellow background. The 
effect was startling. Friends who saw it 
expostulated with him and asked what he 
was going to do with it. They were 
astounded when he announced that he was 
going to send it to the exhibition. In vain 
they told him that the critics would ' wipe 
the floor' with him. 'They can't do that 
without mentioning me,' said Frank, 'and 
they've never done that yet.' To the exhi- 
bition the picture went. It killed everything 
within twenty feet on either side of it. 
People couldn't help looking at it ; it 
simply caught and held them. The critics 
got into a towering passion. They wrote 
whole columns about it. They exhausted 
the English language in abusing it. They 
ridiculed the committee that permitted it to 
be hung. They had squibs and gibes about 

it, but every time they spoke of it they 
mentioned Frank Millet. He suddenly 
became the best known artist in town. 
Somebody, because of the stir that it had 
made, bought the picture at a good price. 
At the next exhibition Millet displayed 
another picture — of a quieter sort, but no 
better than his rejected canvases had been. 
The critics had much to say about it and 
' noted with pleasure the marked improve- 
ment ' that Mr. Millet had made, ' an 
evidence,' as they modestly put it, 'of the 
value of criticism to a young artist.' The 
majority of them never saw that Frank had 
simply compelled their attention by a clever 
trick and by this means advertised himself." 

An error occurred in the article on 
" Parliamentary Election Posters," which 
appeared in our last number. The Unionist 
poster by E. Kinsella was parodied by the 
artist from a painting by Stanley Berkeley, 
entitled " A Disgrace to the Family," and 
appeared originally on the front of " Illus- 
trated Bits," and not in " Pick-Me-Up " as 
originally stated. The Unionist party used 
it largely as a poster, altering the face of 
Mr. Chamberlain to that of Sir Henry 
Campbell- Ban nerman. 



J{ montMp Journal for flduertiscrs. 

No. 6. 

Edited by Hugh MacLeay as a Supplement to "The Poster." 

Contributions are invited, and must be accompanied by the name 
and address of the writer. Address all literary matter to the 

Business communications and enquiries regarding advertising 
space should be addressed to the Manager of The Posteh, 
I, Arundel Street, Strand, London. 

The Editor's Ideas and Ideals. 

I SEE that the agents for advertising on the Under- 
g:Ound Railway are now providing borders for the 
newspaper " contents " and theatre bills. It is a 
wonderful improvement, and Messrs. Partington de- 
serve thanks for removing one contrilmtory cause of 
the astigmatism which besets Londoners. 

The advertising on the " Twopenny Tube " is 
glowing day by day. The advertisements in the huge 
lifts seem to attract most attention. Advertisements 
appear on one side only of each "tube," and the pas en- 
gers on the platform can scarcely escape the obtrusive- 
ness which is theirs by reason of the circumscribed 
range of vision. 

I see that an American writer is prophesying that 
we shall soon have no need to purchase matches, see- 
ing that we in this country wall soon be following the 
lead of his country, where prominent advertisers give 
away small boxes of matches bearing their advertise- 
ments, the distribution being made through the hands 
of tobacconists, hotel and public-house bars, smoke- 
rooms, restaurants, etc. 

Something akin to the story of the Yankee whose 
business was the making of wooden nutmegs is the 
actual fact that the United States Circuit Court at 
Hartford, Conn., U.S., has refused to. uphold a patent 
process for producing specks on tobacco leaves, which 
specks were supposed to constitute a distinguishing 
mark of superior tobacco. The spots were produced 
fiy sprinkling potash o.n the growing leaves. 

It is at this time of year that the true merit of 
colour is seen and appreciated. When leaden skies 
contend with an equally depressing hue below is the 
psychical moment when even the S.C.A.P.A. secre- 
taiy's* face would brighten up at sight of a cheerful 
yellow or red, an inspiring blue, or a philosophically 
comforting green placard of file merits of a No-Sham 
Pill or Little Giant I iver Pilules. 


The " Daily Express " Cycles at 5|d. a day 
scheme is withdrawn in deference to the unveiled 
opposition of the cycle trade. Probably booksellers 
will think it is nov. high time for them to agitate 
against the withdraw d of the Encyclopasdia at less 
than 6d. a week scheme. All the same, how many 
sets of Encycloiiredia would the ordinary bookseller 
sell ? 

One feature of many of the American paper Sun- 
day editions is the enormous number of " wanted " 
advertisements, running sometimes into seven solid 
pages. When will our English friends recognise the 
value of this section of advertisements? There is an 
undoubted opportunity for distinctive enterprise in the 
ranks of the weekly press just as surely as the " Daily 
Telegraph " and the " Chronicle " found it amidst 
the dailies. 


Supplement to THE POSTER. 

November, igoo. 

Now and again a man may be seen parading the 
Gcswell Road with sandwich boards bearing Scri])- 
tural quotations. The lettering is painted on the 
boards, and looks much the worse for wear, and to 
complete some of the sentences would require quite 
an effort of memory even by scripture-quoting Kruger. 

The huge Sunday editions of the American press 
is a puzzle-find-the-reading-matter, what with page- 
size illustrations of life in all its phases and the equally 
startling patent medicine advertisements, some repre- 
senting Dantesque human figures writhing in torment 
of body with one of many listed ailments which only 
" Dr." Deliverum's No. 57 Pellets will cure— the 
cured party being represented clothed and in his right 
mind at the foot of the advertisement. 

The temperance party are quite up to date in 
advertising by poster the appeals from Lords Wolseley 
and Roberts to abstain from over-treating with drink 
soldiers returning from the war. It should certainly 
have some effect. 

Bold black and white designs are now the popular 
thing with American advertisers. Another trans- 
atlantic fashion is the employment of an old style of 
type lettering — not old English text, but plain Roman 
with broken edges and irregular edge^. 

Advertising Notes. 

Messrs. Sasche & Co., manufacturers oi fancv 
articles, recently sued Mr. S. H. Benson, of Tudor 
St., for non-acceptance of patriotic brooches designed 
to advertise " Bovril." Plaintiffs had contracted on 
2nd May to deliver 250,000 of these articles, at the 
rate of 50,000 per week, June 20th being fixed as the 
last date on which delivery could be made. Bv ist 
June, defendant had received only 27,000, and on the 
ground that the stipulations originally agreed to as to 
time had been disregarded, he declined to accept an\ 
further delivery. The plaintiffs contended that llu' 
bulk could have been delivered by 20th June; 1ml 
the Common Sergeant, who heard the case without a 
jury, held that the defendant had been perfectly jus- 
tified in refusing the goods. He therefore entered 
judgment accordingly, with costs. 

The " Liverpool Mercury " has opened its columns 
to certain correspondents on the subject of advertise- 
ments on tram tickets. The general impression seems 
to be that the management, in their anxiety regarding 
this source of revenue, are not sufficiently attentnc 
to the convenience of intending passengers in the 
matter of guidance to various routes and destinations. 

The Crystal Palace Company have adoplcd, as 
their latest method of making the public ;i( d 
with the attractions of their well-known pleasuir ic (Hi, 
the issue of a monthly magazine under the tilildidiip 
of Mr. Austin Fryers. Well-printed, the reading 
matter is good, and the half-tone illustrations are de- 
voted principally to portraits of those artists associated 
with the entertainments given at the Palace. The 
advertisements are confined to the two covers, wnth the 
e-xeption of railway time-tables and insurance coupon. 

To advertise " Moonshine," a novel competition 
will lie open till 17th November, headed " The Plea- 
sure of Your Company is requested." Readers are in- 
vited to submit the names of twelve persons whom, 
were they about to give a dinner-party, they would 
invite as the most interesting. A guinea prize will be 
given to the sender of the list that most nearly corres- 
pfi.ds with the twelve that hesA the poll. 


At the eighth annual meeting of Messrs. A. & F. 
Pears, Ltd., it transpired that " Pears Annual " — the 
Cl'ristmas publication of the company — had, by its 
enormous circulation (450,000 copies have been sold 
during the current year), completely paid its way. 
An offer of purchase by a large publishing hou=e had 
been made and declined. 

An agitation is being heartily supported by Mr. 
Richardson Evans, the hon. secretary of the Society 
for Checking the Abuses of Public Advertisement, 
against the enterprise of a certain American food com- 
pany, who have erected two immense advertisement 
l.ioards high up on the cliffs at Dover. In a letter to 
the " Times " he refers to the " noble panorama " of 
the Bay of Dover, and then characterises the innova- 
tion as a " cofossal disfigurement," towards which he 
would invite the resentment of " all who love Dover " 
and " are jealous for the honour of the ancient town." 


November, 1900. Supplement to THE POSTER. 

I invite Slunv Cards jor review, and will 
reproduce such as possess sufficient inetit. 

In my previous articles on show cards (see June, 
July, and August numbers) I have touched on many 
varieties of this form of advertisement ; but none can, 
perlia]);, be considered a more effective kind of show 
card lhan that \vith bronze lettering. Owing, no 
doubt, to ill great effectiveness, it is rapidly growing 
ill favour, and I think it worlh while, therefore, to 
give our readers a few hints concerning it. 

A great deal, of course, depends upon the manner 
of using the bronze, but before speaking of the appli- 
cation, a word or two about its composition might be 
useful. It is of the greatest importance that the size 
to hf used with the bronze should be suitably coloured, 
othtrwi e the designer would fail to do justice to the 
very best material. Thus, if aluminium or silver bronze 
is required, the size should be coloured with white 
ler.d ; and if copper or gold, the colouring shou'd be 
chrome yellow. 

There are two ways of applying the bronze ; as to 
which is the better, opinions seem to differ. It is 
generally agreed, though, that for neat and careful 
work, pouncing is [ireferable ; while for large surfaces,- 
the preparation should be applied with a brush. 

In pouncing, the designs and letters should be first 
drawn with the size brush. Allowing time for it to 
become almost dry, spread a little chalk over the sur- 
face to prevent the bronze clotting on the outsides of 
the letters. Make a satchet-shaped pocket of cotton 
or wool, and fill it with bronze ; then, having tied the 
neck of the pocket, pounce thoroughly every part of 
the nearly-dried surface. Afterwards burnish the 
bronze with some soft material, cotton rag, if possible. 
V.'hen vour w^ork is drv, the chalk can be easily rubbed 
off. ' ' ^ 

While on the subject of bronze lettering, my readers 
may be glad of the following remarks as to the use 
of stencils. 

Obviously, the more easily made is that which 
produces a solid face, though the other result, that of 
obtaining clear places in the letters (made by holding 
the parti by fastenings) is not really difficult to obtain. 

Get your letters and designs exactly alike by mak- 
in;; a double tracing ; place one on the' other, and with 
suitable knife cut through both sheets, each bar of 
the letter in the middle. Then separate the sheets 
and cut out the upper half of each letter from one, 
and the lower halves from the other. Each half must 
then be stencil'cd as cut, and the result should be an 
uid,r()ken and apparently solid letter. 

TRADESifEN who are not adept in the use o( the 

brush and ticket-writer's ink can secuio very attractive 
show cards by the use of their ordinary brown, etc., 
wiapping pap3rs and different coloured chalks. Fur- 
ther, the user of this method need not trouble to 
" print " the lettering, as a round but easily decipher- 
ably schoolboy handwriting seems to suit the thing 
adiiiirably. It should be remembered that white is 
the strongest colour, and this should be used for the 
main outline, shading, if any, to be done in another 
colour. Borders help to set off the whole, and I giye 
be!ow some suggestions for bordering which can be 
done with a continuous run of the hand. The straight 
lines can, of course, be done with the aid of a yard 
measure, or broom stick even: — 

N'o I. ! No. 2. 

\v \v \v ^v Aj^^j^ ^^4^1^ *''^^l4^l4^l4i; 

'✓Iv"*^Iv"<Iv"?I> VIv /Iv VI\ <I>'?Iv'<i^ '^I'v <iV 

No. -!. 

/i\ <Iv ^i-v 

No. 5. 

No. 4. 
► 'IV 7l\ yjv ^iVVl^ 

No. 7. 

No. 9. 



No. 10. 

No. II. 



The above is only suggestive of almost 
mbinations, and each should suggest others, 
also great scope for variation in colours. 



Supplement to THE POSTER. 

November, 1900. 

fi!ijcle Advertising. 

This seems hardly a tit season for talking about the 
advertising of cycles, but it is about the time of the 
cycle shows that cycle manufacturers and dealers find 
it necessary to consider what advertising shall be dofle 
for the ens'uing season. 

The manufacturer may feel encouraged to do so 
by reason of good orders taken at the show, or he may 
feol impelled to do the same thing for want of orders, 
but business in either case can be improved by adver- 

The cycle trade now seems to have settled down 
ini.o two classes — the manufacturers who sell whole- 
sale, and those who sell retail or direct to customers. 

The advertising for the ooe must necessarily differ 
from that of the other. The double-barrelled problem 
that confronts the wholesale manufacturer is to get 
the agents to buy in expectation of a public demand. 
Therefore, it is necessary to advertise to both agents 
aad agents' customers. 

Some manufacturers make the mistake of adver- 
tising to one and not the other, and of the two it is 
questionable whether it is better to advertise to the 
agent or to the agent's customer. The problem really 
resolves itself into a governing question of the amount 
of advertising. A huge amount of general advertising 
would force a demand which the agent would have to 
satisfy, but an amount of advertising which would be 
but as a drop in the ocean could be scarcely expected 
to influence a demand strong enough to make the 
agent buy. 

I think that the manufacturer who advertises as 
much as any rival, can expect to influence both buyer 
and agent with general advertising. But the com- 
moner case is that of the manufacturer whose 
capita! is barely sufficient for manufacturing alone, 
and who would do better to advertise to both 
agent and buyer. The Rudge-Whitworth Company 
seem to have adopted this course, and with great suc- 
cess. They advertised to the public and agent their 
manufacture of a medium price cycle, and the public 
dem.anded the article, whilst the agent w'as also im- 
pressed with the possibility of sales. The Rudge- 
Whitworth people brought about this happy dual 
result by a system of general and local advertising. 
Advertisements of Rudge Whitworth Cycles appear 
regularly in the general cycling press. So do those of 
other makers. Where the Rudge-Whit'worth people 
really scored was in advertising in the press published 
in their agents' districts — which very, very few other 
makers seem to have done. The latter, no doubt, 
expected their agents to do this themselves, but it is 
a cardinal principle of good advertising of any manu- 
facture or speciality that the maker or proprietor, 
having the most interest in the goodwill of the article, 
should take the most active steps to build up a repu- 
tation and a demand. 

I will now detail a plan of advertising for the 
manufacturers who sell through agents, and who are 
not able to outshine others with their general adver- 
tising. I would recommend using a half page in the 
leading cycling paper. An elaborate and bulky, and 
necessarily expensive, catalogue I would forego in 
favour of spending the advertising appropriation in a 
more direct and widespread manner. I would recom- 
mend 100,000 8-page folders or booklets in preference 

to 10,000 48-page so-called fine art albums or cata- 
logues, which are generally so highly treasured that 
they fail to get distributed judiciously. Indeed, I 
have known them to be so highly treasured as to be 
kept on hand until too late to be of service. What- 
ever quantity of folders or booklets are printed, they 
sluuld be apportioned for distribution. There should 
be an immediate distribution of half the lot to agents, 
whose several quantities should be according to orders 
placed or expected. The remaining half should be 
held for s-pecial requirements, such as agents' require- 
ments and enclosure to private applicants or enquirers. 

A great aid to the securing of new, as well as repeat, 
orders is the offering of a special " edition " or " re- 
print " of so many of the folders, with customer's own 
name, address, and advertisement on back cover, tor 
instance, the traveller might say to a new or old cus- 
tomer, " If you will give me an order for a dozen 
machines, I will give you 2,000 of our catalogue with 
youi name, address, and advertisement thereon, free 
of charge." This offer will not always succeed, but it 
wii' succeed often enough to be worth doing. 

The remainder of the advertising appropriation I 
would set aside for local newspaper advertising, and I 
would do it on a co-operative basis after the style of 
the special edition of the catalogue. An order for 
half-a-dozen machines wo^uld entitle the agent to the 
spending of a certain percentage in his district. An 
order for a dozen would secure a slightly better ad- 
vertising percentage, and still larger orders still better 

This would put a premium on good orders, and 
would enable the makers to increase the advertising 
appropriation on a strictly business basis. Thus, a 
firm of makers might start out on an estimated output 
of 5,000 machines, and for this quantity might allot 
^5,000 advertising appropriation. If business proves 
better than expected, and later in the season it is 
decided to make 7,500, the advertising appropriation 
could be increased to ;^7,500. 

Dealing in greater detail with the newspaper ad- 
vertising, an illustration of the machine stocked by 
the local agent should generally appear, together with 
a description in not too technical terms, and with the 
addition of any local testimonials which can be secured. 
The agent's name and address and an invitation to 
ca'l and inspect the machine should also be included 
in the advertisements, which should be changed as 
often as possible. 

The 25-feet hoarding, which at present serves a 
useful purpo-'e, hiding the backs of the Holywell St. 
houses, is likely to remain there for at least two years. 
It is to be hoped that artistic posters will soon replace 
the unsightly advertisements which at present occupy 
this enormous space. 


At a meeting of Spratt's Patent (America), Ltd., 
held on Wednesday, 24th October, the chairman 
stated that a larger sum than usual had been spent 
on advertising, and that the increase in sales which 
had taken place had shown that the money had been 
well spent. 

November, 1900. Supplement to THE POSTER. 

S)ailies, Weeklies and iVLonthlies. 

This is the time of harvest for magazines in 
particular. Christmas' advertising certainly does not 
benefit the weekly and daily to anything like the same 
degree as the magazine. There are many reasons for 
this. In the first place, the Christmas numbers of 
the magazines generally attain a circulation far in 
e:.cess of ordinary issues. Again, the readers in quest 
of Christmas gifts have lately developed the habit of 
consulting the magazine advertising pages for appro- 
priate articles. They are not sO' likely to refer for 
the same purpose to advertisements in the weekly and 
daily media, for the simp'e reason that the adverti^e- 
raents therein do not offer so suitable a selection, 
v.hilst at the same time falling a long way short of the 
magazine advertisements in regard to being good ad- 
vertising, whether considered from the point of view 
ot composition or design, or the printing alone. An 
advertisement in the magazine secures' the best pos- 
sible showing, and it would be strange if advertisers 
— who are without doubt the keenest of business men 
— failed to appreciate the fact. 

What has struck me as strange is that the pub- 
lishers of the weekly and daily press have not en- 
deavoured to take advantage of advertisers' require- 
ments more than they do. Many of them no doubt 
wonder why they fail to secure a proportionate share 
of Christmas advertising. Mere circulation will not 
do it, even when the circulation of the weekly or daily 
medium is bumped up by a short or complete long 
story by the famous Mr. Paper-Spoiler, or an ai- 
n'anac, which is produced, as far as the compositors 
and machinemen are concerned, for the purpose of 
justifying their belief in themselves as " fine art 
printers " — an opinio^n not always corroborated bv 
other people. No, Mr. Publifher, what the adver- 
tiser wants is the proper printing of his advertisements, 
and the expense which you advertise you are under- 
taking to produce your Christmas number should be 
directed in a way to bring direct returns from adver- 
tisers as well as increased circulation. Surely, if you 
can secure fifty or a hundred pounds' worth of Christ- 
mas advertising for your Christmas number, you can 
well afford to sjiend a halfpenny or a penny a pound 
more for better paper, and from 25% to 50% more tor 
better ink. Armed with a dummy copy on the better 
paper printed with the better ink, your canvasser 
should be able to induce nearly every permanent ad- 
vertiser to take increased space,' whilst new advertisers 
would be tempted as they could never be by your 
ordinary paper and printing. I think advertisers will 
agree with the foregoing. 

I note a great decline in the number of inset ad- 
vertisements in the magazines, which should be one 
reason why this plan of advertising would be more 
successful than heretofore. The Ceramic Art Co. 
have a very nice inset In Harmsworth's Magazine, 
representing a tea and coffee service (for 10s. 6d.), laid 
out as if ready for use on a table-clothed round table. 
The letterpress is in a green-blue, on a pale lemon 
tint, with gold where gold actually appears on the 
seivice. On the reverse side of the sheet is a dinner 
service for 25s. printed in green blue. A free gifi 
goes with each set, "if ordered this month." This 
advertiser evidently believes that now is the accepted 
time for resultful advertising — and he is not far wrong. 

I hear that " Grape Nuts," the new cereal food, is 
advertised in newspapers exclusively. I think who- 
ever is responsible for this is making a mistake. Eng- 
lishwomen are not anything like as much addicted to 
newspaper reading as their American cousins, and 
Englishmen rarely interfere in the matter of food 
selection. Unlike the American man, he is not faddy 
in his feeding. The Yankee drinks iced water with 
practically everything, and his repentance takes the 
form of seeking a cure for his dyspepsia by changing 
one or more articles of his diet (but never the one 
that is the most Iruitful of the malady) just as often 
as new ones are offered or suggested. In view of 
these facts', I dare bet that Grape Nuts can scarcely 
be described as " booming." 

The most up-to-date of all modern newspapers is 
thi " Stereo-Revue," [mblished at Paris. This extra- 
ordinary newspaper gives the news of the day (or, 
rather, week) not in type, but in instantaneous photo- 
graphs on a film, like that of a cinematograph. A 
bobbin of this film is the journal, and the subscriber 
puts it through a ])ortable stereoscope like a field 
glass and looks at the pictures, thereby reading the 



Supplement to THE POSTER. Nove cer, i 

ff^ostal Business. 

The business — cir mail order business as it 
is' called in America — is rajiidly increasing in this 
country. A glance at the '' Articles for Sale " in the 
" Daily Mail " and other leading newspapers will 
prove this. 

There i? llie r)eginner who thinks the words " A 
Bargain " prefixed to the advertisement will gO' a long 
way towards securing results. There is the more 
artful advertiser of the " rolled gold walcli, as usually 
sob! for one guinea, must sell and will lake lis. 6d.," 
and who affixes to name and address some such 
description of hmiself as " Trustee," " Executor," 
" Receiver," or " Accountant." 

In nearly every such case it is inferred that there 
is only o^ne of the article advertised, but should orders 
for six reach the advertiser, he is then only regretful 
that the number of orders did not total 36 or a gross, 
as he cOiuld, and would have been happy to, supply 
the lot. The fact is that if only one order results', the 
ad.\ertiser probably fails to recover the cost of the 

To be suc( c^sful, a ])nslal business should have'as 
basis a cataln^^nr nl ihmhv articles. Thus every first 
order is mercl\ an iniimlurtion to further business. 

Where unable to issue a catalogue of practicaMy 
everything, such a; the lists issued by the various 
London stores, it is best to confine the catalogue to 
one clas'3 of goods. The reason for this is that the 
introductory and follow-up advertising may be con- 
' centrated in one direction. Thus, the proprietor of a 
co;:tume catalogue business needs to advertise to women 
only. He can still further concentrate his adver- 
tising by advertising only to the section that is lilveiy 
to furnish the most buyers of readv-made costumes. 
He would select the m'iddle class ladic,' papers, in- 
stead of the high-class " (hicrn," " ( "iml lew ( nnaii, 
etc., and whose readers (.ml, I nni l,c lApcicd ti' 
patronise other tlian (ourt and to-ineasure dres-iiiakers. 

The secret of a good mail order business is to tje 
able to make a customer always a customer. 'Ihe 
cost of the advertising necessary to secure each cus- 
tomer probably works out in excess of the profit on 
the first transaction, and it is only future order; from 
the same customer that make; the initial advertising 
l)ay. This rule a|)plie3 with all the greater force 
where the percentage of jirofit is small. 

Small and light weight articles are the best for a 
postal business. Postage o.r carriage has to be paid 
by the buyer or seller — if the latter it cuts into his 
profits, whilst if the former it means a difference above 
cost which might render the buying of it through the 
post a more expensive method than buying the article 

A good speciality on which there is a good profit 
makes a fine nucleus for a post order business. It 
;hould also be an article which is' not easily obtainable than frcnn the advertiser. If the advertiser has 
Iho- s,,U- sa'e of a ].alcnlcd arlnle lir is in llie best 
p.ssible po^ilmn, as tin- ,o,,l,nncd ,nUcilis,n^ will 
I Mi.g a gr<Mlrr ,nn, pound inlnr-i ilw ad\<M-lis,ng 
goes on, II Ihr :,rli. !<• or siilir'.rs olTrr.'.l :ir.- oblain- 
abk- iillirr lli:in fidiu llir ;m I \ i i I i -ci , it is sdii-n'iinies 
iKcessaiy to do prirc-nii 1 1 n;; as an inducement to the 
buyer to buy. 

The "premium" plan has jjroved very succe ;stul 

in America. This is now being taken up in this 
country, notably by Thonii)sons, the London tailors, 
who gi\c a shirt or fancy vest with every suit. The 
llnng is simply a variation of the given-aw\ay-with-a- 
pound-of-tea idea, and catches much the same class 
of people. Other firms are offering a bangle in ca-e 
fiee with every skirt. The latter is not illustrated, 
but the bangle in the case is, and this fact furnishes a 
strange sidelight on a weak point in the armour of 
human nature. 

[Further articles on Post Order business will ap- 
pear from time to time. — The Ed.] 



NoviiMB 'i^ 19 )j. Supplc.'iicnt 10 IHE POST12R. 

3cl5. caricatured by Jack B. /eats 


For the Hair, 


A Bottle. 




Exerci^i s the entire muscles of the body from the 
crown of the head to the sole of the foot. Makes yon 
healthier, wealthier and wiser; and the whole thing may 
be folded up and carried in a sovereign purse. 

a'o be contimicd). 


Supplement to THE POSTER. 

November, 1900 


" Oh! my darling Clementine," is the title of an 
attractive booklet founded on the words of the popular 
ballad. Published at one shilling by Messrs. Sand", 
& Co., it is illustrated by the well-known poster artist, 
John Hassall, in his characteristic style. He has done 
full justice to the humour and grotesque absurdity of 
the song, and from the design on the cover, which, 
printed in three colours, portrays the heroine, to the 
last page giving us a sketch of her little sister, the 
book will be found both entertaining and amusing. 
The printers, Messrs. Brumby & Clarke, Ltd., have 
done their work well. 

" Adornment of the Home," being the twenty- 
seventh number of the " Useful Arts " series, edited 
by H. Snowden Ward, and issued from the oflfices of 
Messrs. Dawbarn & Ward, Ltd., is as full of useful 
information as its predecessors. It is written in n 
bright and practical style by C. Godfrey Leland, and 
illustrated with excellent descriptive woodcuts. To 
those o.f an inventive turn of mind, it should prove 
interesting and profitable reading, and as the price, 
sixpence net, has placed it within the reach of all, 
■t cannot but secure due appreciation. 


I have just received from Messrs. Moffatt & Paige, 
Ltd., a specimen copy of the " Grigs' Book," with 
coloured illustrations by William T. Horton (the sub- 
ject of an article by Charles Hiatt in our August 
number). The drawings are characteristically quaint, 
and juvenile readers will, no doubt, find them both 
entertaining and amusing. The price is one shilling, 
and the booklet is well printed In' Messrs. J. AI. 
Kronheim & Co. 

Much interest has been excited recently in jour- 
nalistic circles by the publication of certain corres- 
pondence between the " Sheffield Daily Telegraph " 
and the " Sheffield Independent." For many years 
the two journals have fallen foul of each other; but, 
in all probability, their antagonism will soon assume 
a more definitely hostile form. The facts, briefly 
stated, are as follow: The "Telegraph," of which 
Sir William Christopher Leng (Unionist) is proprietor, 
thought fit to quote the subjoined paragraph, which, 
it alleged, appeared in the " London Daily Chron- 
icle." " The Hon. Eustace Fiennes was a pro-Boer 
before the war ; when it broke out, he went to Africa 
and fought for the Boers as an Englishman. Now he 
is contesting North Oxfordshire as a Radical." The 
London paper subsequently inserted an explanation, 
stating that an unfortunate printing error had been 
responsible for the word " for " after " fought," and 
this explanation was duly noted by the "Telegraph." 
In an article dealing wath the matter, the " Sheffield 
Independent " severely criticised the manner in which 
the paragraph and the explanation had appeared in 
the columns of their contemporary, and characterised 
the whole as about " as foul a libel as could be per- 
petrated for party purposes." In support of their in- 
dictment, they pointed out that the word " pro-Boer " 
had been substituted for " Radical," and that the 
paragraph which in the London paper — the " Daily 
Express " (Unionist) and not the " Daily Chronicle " 
— had occupied an obscure position at the bottom of a 
column, and in small type, had been given a most 
prominent position under the heading, in large capital 
letters, " Deserves Cordua's Fate." For this article 
the " Telegraph " instructed their solicitors to demand 
an apology or commence proceedings for libel, and 
the " Independent " have expressed their willingness 
to accept the suit. The trial of the action, which, if 
it be proceeded with, will doubtless be heard in the 
High Court, will secure the keen attention of London 

VLhe Future o£ "^he Poster." 

WITH the first month of the new century 
I propose to make many changes in 
this magazine and to enlarge its 
scope. The time has now come, it seems 
to me, when The Poster and Modern 
Advertising should sever their connection 
and appear as separate publications. Hence- 
forth The Poster will be conducted on 
artistic lines, the purely commercial wants 
of advertisers being fully dealt with in 
Modern Advertising. It is not, however, 
intended to banish from the pages of this 
magazine such practical features as have 
secured for it a wide constituency amongst 
those who recognise that their wares may 
be profitably advertised in a tasteful fashion. 
The Poster will still continue to be the 
leading organ of artistic advertisement. 
But I feel that, with greatly-increased space, 
this magazine may properly enlarge its 
appeal so as to include all those who collect 
objects of art and bric-i-brac. It will, 
therefore, become a general magazine 
written by experts for collectors. Amongst 
the other subjects which will be dealt with as 
occasion arises are the following : — Rare 
and curious books, bookplates, menus and 
programmes, playbills, lithographs and 
other prints, autographs, coins and medals, 
bookbindings and book-covers, samplers, 
chap-books, old playing cards, pictorial 
post-cards, and many other things which, 
being either curious or artistic, are the sub- 
ject of collections. The stamp-collector will 
find in the pages of The Poster a record of 
new issues and other matters of interest to 

him written by qualified authorities and 
profusely illustrated. Great sales of works 
of art, books and curiosities will be regularly 
noticed. Coloured and other supplements 
will be given in each issue, and the cover, 
as heretofore, will be especially designed 
each month by an artist of distinction. 
The full title of the magazine will be The 
Poster and Art Collector, and it will 
be regularly published on the 15th of 
each month. In view of the great increase 
in the number of illustrations and in the 
quantity of letterpress, the price will be one 
shilling per month, or fifteen shillings per an- 
num, post free. I have relinquished the sole 
editorship of the magazine to Mr. Charles 
Hiatt, who has been so long and so inii- 
mately connected with its fortunes. By 
taking this step I shall be enabled to devote 
more time and attention to Modern Adver- 
tising, which will be published on the first 
of each month, commencing with the new 
year, price threepence, or four shillings 
per annum, post free. In conclusion, I wish 
to make it clearly understood that the criti- 
cisms of The Poster will be of a perfectly 
free and independent nature, and that its 
editor and contributors will be untrammelled 
by commercial or other like considerations. 
The present number concludes the fifth 
volume, and the first issue of the new series 
will mark the commencement of a new one. 
The address of the editorial and publishing 
offices of both publications is now No. 9, 
Fleet Street, E.C. 

Hugh M.xcLeay. 


The Poster. 

December, 1900. 

J. Hassall. 

Printed by David Allen and Sons, Ltd. 

December, igoo. 

The Poster. 


'SLhc Poster and the S^antomime. 


IN the first volume of Dr. Doran's 
delightful work, "Their Majesty's 
Servants," we come across the phrase — 
"the folly of pantomimes." He states 
•that Colley Gibber "leluctantly produced 
.a pantomime at Drury Lane, but 'only as 
crutches to the plays.' " A few pages 
further on our author tells us concisely 
■what was the origin of modern pantomime. 
"The managers (of Drury Lane) found it 
■necessary to support their stock-pieces by a 
novelty — a ballet-pantomime, ' The Necro- 
mancer' (more probably 'Harlequin Doctor 
Faustus '), by the younger Thurmond, a 
dancing-master. Rich, at Lincoln's Inn, 
-where ' Edwin ' could not have drawn a 
shilling ; where ' Belisarius ' (Boheme) 
begged an obolus in vain ; and Hurst's 
■'Roman Maid' (Paulina, Mrs Moffat), 
represented a hermit as dwelling in a lone 
cave, near the Mount Aventine — a hermit 
-would be as likely to be found on a wood 
.on Snow Hill. Rich, I say, improved on 
Thurmond's idea, by producing on the 20th 
December, 1723, ' The Necromancer ; or. The 
■History of Dr. Faustus,' and thereby 
founded pantomime, as it has been estab- 
.lished amongst us, at least during the 
Christmas-tide, for now a hundred and 
forty years. Rich, with his 'Necromancer,' 
conjured all the town within the ring of his 
little theatre. The splendour of the scenes, 
the vastness.of the machinery, and the grace 
and ability of Rich himself, raised harle- 
quinade aboMe Shakespeare, and all other 
poets ; and Quin and Ryan were accounted 
little of in corn,parison with the motley 

This, then, is the origin of the enter- 
tainment which we mis-name pantomime. 
True pantomime is a story without words, a 
story told in dumb show. Rich caused the 
disappearance from the English stage of a 
delightful art, an art which happily still 
lives on in France and elsewhere. Garrick, 
alluding to Rich's innovation, wrote : 

When Lun appeared, with matchless art and whim, 
He gave the power of speech to every limb ; 
Tho' mask'd and mute convey'd his quick intent, 
And I old in frolic gestures what he meant : 
But now the motley coat and sword of wood 
Require a tongue to make them understood. 

It was, however, a long time before 
managers ventured to devote a whole even- 
ing to the so-called pantomime : for years, 
even decades, it was regarded, to adapt 
Gibber's simile, as a crutch for the legitimate. 
During the ever memorable managements of 
Macready and Gharles Kean, Shakespeare 
usually preceded the pantomime. During 
the Kean direction at the Princess's Theatre 
Miss Ellen Terry, then a very little giri, 
played Puck in "A Midsummer Night's 
Dream," and The Fairy Golden Star in the 
pantomime nearly every evening. A year or 
two later, a young actor called Henry Irving 
was seen at Edinburgh as " Scruncher, 
Gaptain of the Wolves," in the pantomime 
of " Little Bo-Beep." 

The evolution of English pantomime 
must be traced a step further before I come 
to the question of the pantomime poster. 
The pantomime of Rich corresponded to the 
modern harlequinade. There was little or 
no "opening": at the present day the 
opening has swallowed the harlequinade so 


The Poster. 

December, 1900- 




i . 

h . j 

Will True. 

Printed by David Allen and Sons, Ltd 


Printed by David Allen and iions, Ltd. 

December, 1900. 

The Poster. 


that the appearance of clown and columbine 
and "the old man" is the signal for a 
general exit. At length the actor was 
banished from the stage and the music hall 
artiste took his place. The actor, indeed, 
•was superfluous : there was nothing for him 
to act. Plot vvas nothing ; character was 
nothing. The pantomime was given over to 
■crude foolery, to comic singing and skirt 
dancing. I am the last person in the world 
to discount the immense ability displayed 
in modern pantomime by such performers 

before all things it is necessary that he should 
please the manager. Now the manager is 
uncommonly wise, at ail events, in his own 
eyes. He is perfectly determined to have 
nothing of what Mr. Henley expressively 
calls "the high art fake" about his show. 
If he calls on Mr. Hassall or Mr. Dudley 
Hardy for a poster he expects them to give 
him realism, in fact a colossal coloured 
illustration. If it is Crusoe's raft you must 
be able to read the lettering on the bales 
and packages, and to trace the stitching in 

J. Hassall. 

Printed by David Allen and Sons, Ltd. 

as Dan Leno, Ada Reeve, Vesta Tilley, 
and many others. But their authors and 
managers do not want them to act ; they 
want them, if I may be allowed to coin a 
verb, to "music hall." And they do "music 
hall " to their own great pecuniary gain and 
to the delight of innumerable inoffensive 

The performers being engaged, the 
thousands being duly expended on spectacle, 
the show must be advertised. The poster 
designer does his best or his worst, but 

the mended sail ; ii Cinderella's coach it 
must be drawn as if it were a coach-builder's 
diagram. The superior person shrugs his 
shoulders and sneers at " the art of the 
hoarding." He thinks of Paris, of Ch^ret, 
of Orazi, and he is perfectly convinced that 
Englishmen cannot design posters, or at all 
events theatrical posters. Suppose, how- 
ever, that you were to impose on Cheret and 
the rest conditions identical with those under 
which the Englishman works? Would they 
do any better? It seems to me that they 


The Poster. 

December, iqoo. 

Will True. 
Printed by David Allen and Sons. Ltd. 

could not do better, that inevitably they 
»vould do precisely the same thing. 

We have, then, transferred the blame of 
the bad pantomime poster from the designer 
to the theatrical manager. I do not think 
that it is fair to leave it there. Is the 
manager very much mistaken in his concep- 
tion of what the great British public really 
wants in the way of theatrical advertise- 
ment? I am bound to confess that I do not 
think he is. It is easy to accuse him of 
playing to the gallery, but in this matter I 
venture to believe that, in playing to the 
gallery, he pleases the stalls. Even the 
Englishman, whose walls are covered with 
Morris papers, whose grates are decorated 
with De Morgan tiles, likes a picture poster 
to tell him a story directly and with as much 
detail as possible. He tolerates "the house 

beautiful" because it is the fashion to do so, 
but he will not have his Christmas panto- 
mime announced by means of decorative 
symbols. Of the writing of art criticism 
there is no end, but of the art education of 
the English public there is at present only a 
very small outward and visible sign. 

Looking to the rigid limits within which 
English designers of pantomime posters 
have to work, I think that, so far from being 
dissatisfied with the results which they pro- 
duce, we should be thankful that they reach 
the standard which they so often achieve. 
So far as I am able to judge by such 
examples of this year's work as I have seen, 
the hoardings at Christmas will be pretty 
much as they were last year and the year 
before last. The Beggarstaflfs seem defi- 
nitelv to have abandoned the designing of 

December, igoo. 

The Poster. 


posters, and Mr. Dudley Hardy appears to 
be giving himself a rest from the making of 
them. Mr. Cecil Aldin has not yet turned 
his attention to theatrical bills. Amongst 
the pantomime poster designers this year, 
Mr. Hassall once more takes the first place. 
He seems to possess the secret of pleasing 
the man in the street without seriously com- 
promising his artistic ideals. His work is 
unequal as, indeed, is the work of almost 
every artist whose output is large, but it is 
very seldom that he descends to mere 
commonplace, and he is wholly innocent of 
vulgarity. He gives constant proof of his 
skill in arranging contrasts of colour which, 
though sufficiently vehement to be effective, 
just miss the rawness and crudity in which 
some artists seem to think the whole art of 
poster designing consists. His lettering is 
decorative without being fantastic, which is 
a thing to be thankful for now that mis- 
shapen and illegible letters appear to be the 
deliberate object of not a few draughtsmen. 
The hoardings of London and of many pro- 
vincial towns will be once more brighter by 
reason of the presence on them of good 
examples of Mr True's work. Like Mr. 
Hassall, Mr. True makes his lettering part 
of his design, and displays it in such a way 
that he who runs may read. It is to be 
hoped that by the time this issue of The 
Poster is in the hands of the reader, new 
bills by Mr. Morrow and other old favourites 
will add to the cheerfulness of our dull 

It would be a happy Christmas indeed 
which should give us a beautiful pantomime 
beautifully and appropriately advertised. 
It is a strange thing that while audiences 
can be found liberally to patronise plays 
so variously excellent as "Herod," "Mr. 
and Mrs. Daventry," and " Mrs. Dane's 
Defence," there is no audience at Christmas 
time for a fairy tale told in literary English, 
interpreted by capable actors, and put 
oh the stage in artistic fashion. It is 
disagreeable to reflect that we have delib- 

erately invented a form of entertainment in 
which much of the humour consists in men 
appearing in women's clothes, in affectionate 
allusions to gin, and rancid abuse of 

K. J»Mts Williams. 

mothers-in-law. Surely a Christmas enter- 
tainment might be devised which, instead 
of squalid vulgarity, would appreciably add 
to the gaiety, charm and merriment of our 
long and sombre winter nights. 

I'nnted by David Allen and Sons, Lid. 

g^ ubscrit>tiQn Borm Sonpot i. 

To Hugh n^cLcAy, 

9, ricct street, London, E.C. 
Please fo>-Wal-c| Hxe 

^^TKe Poster aKcl AK Collector" 

i-cgulai-ly . for . ONE . YCAl^ . Qomm^Kcing . Witl\ . -tkc 
.issue for WKicK I eKclose Postal Orcjcr 

With M.B.— If receiVe4 before tKe 15tK of Jatxuafy, l<i01, 


Plates i^j^^ yi. PREC OP CHARdC. 

December, igoo. 

The Poster. 


^hc art that Christmas Brings. 


CERTAIN countries in Europe annually 
observe what is called a day of fasting 
and humiliation. It is almost needless 
to say that the proper description of the 
anni^rersary would be the exact opposite of 
that which is implied by the phrase. On 
such an occasion no work is done ; the 
caf^s and restaurants do a roaring trade ; 
beggars reap a golden harvest ; indulgence, 
if not excess, is the order of the day. With 
our characteristic British superiority, we 
are inclined to smile contemptuously at this 
hollow pretence of self mortification, but 
before doing so it would be well for us to 
■enquire exactly how we observe Christmas. 
To put it mildly our manner of celebration 
can hardly be deemed appropriate. Some 
of us, it is true, go to church before we 
-commence to be festive, but the vast majority 
are content to fall to and gorge without 
previously declaring that they are miserable 
-sinners. In my opinion there is nothing 
very terrible in our manner of keeping 
■Christmas : we are a people of few 
national holidays and we can hardly be 
expected to keep the greatest of all by the 
exhibition of a high degree of moderation 
in the matter of meat and drink. The few 
aesthetic philosophers among us may 
deplore our vulgarity, but in spite of them 
the essential features of the old fashioned 
Christmas will die hard. 

Christmas has long been made the excuse 
■of an epidemic of what publishers and 
lithographers yive us to understand is Art 
— with a very large A. And indeed if it be 
•true that Christmas is the excuse for so 
much actively offensive, and indeed utterly 

unspeakable, colour printing, it really 
does call into existence many charming 
and artistic things. The Christmas book 
for children, which a generation ago was a 
fearsome affair, is now frequently so delight- 
ful that one is sorry to see what havoc little 
fingers make of it. Old time children's 
books have a charm of their own. They 
are eagerly collected and are sometimes 
worth their weight in gold, but it is not for 
their artistic qualities that we would fain 
possess them. It is their naivete, their 
quaintness, their unambitious simplicity 
which appeal to us in this hot, hard, sophis- 
ticated age of ours. And indeed the Chap- 
books of the i8th century dealing with such 
themes as " Robinson Crusoe," "The True 
Tale of Robin Hood," " Sir Richard Whit- 
tington," "Guy, Earl of Warwick," "Sir 
Bevis of Southampton," and "Valentine 
and Orson," still remain perpetual sources 
of refreshment. When we come to Crowder 
and Bewick we find in their illustrations to 
"The Walls of Babylon," " Select Fables, 
and "The Looking-glass of the Mind," a 
touch of artistry which is sought in vain 
in the work of their predecessors. In the 
early part of this century we have George 
Cruikshank among the illustrators of child- 
ren's books ; between 1840 and 1880, A. 
Crowquill, Harrison Weir, Charles Keene, 
and J. C. Horsley, R.A., were similarly 
engaged ; the seventies give us the names 
of Arthur Hughes, George du Maurier, Sir 
Noel Paton, Stacy Marks and many others 
only less distinguished. In 1863, Edward 
Lear published the " Book of Nonsense " 
which is to this day the classic among its 

1 20 

The Poster. 

December, igoo. 

kind. Good as all these things were, what 
was to come was even better. No country 
possesses more delightful children's books 
than those of Randolph Caldecott, Kate 
Greenaway, and Walter Crane. It is alto- 
gether pleasant that Miss Greenaway is 
amongst those who are using their taste 

J. Hassall. 

Frinted by David Allen & Sons, Lid. 

and skill to delight the little ones this 
Christmas. We may be sure that "The 
April Baby's Book of Tunes," written by 
the author of " Elizabeth and her German 
Garden," and illustrated by Miss Greenaway, 
will be warmly welcomed. The same may 
be said of this season's children's books 
with illustrations by Mrs. Deamer, Mrs. 
Farmiloe, Mr. Gordon Craig, and Mr. 
Carton Moore Park. All these artists have 

taken the trouble to understand the child s 
point of view, hence the success with which 
they appeal to their constituency. 

We have, then, little reason to complain 
on artistic grounds of the illustrated Christ- 
mas books. When, however, we turn to 
the annuals and the Christmas numbers of 
the illustrated monthlies and weeklies we 
are by no means tempted to enthusiastic 
praise. Truth to tell, the design of most 
of the covers and presentation plates is 
feebly conceived and sadly lacking in 
originality. To reproduce a picture by a 
popular painter in colour — even when the 
reproduction is well done— cannot be 
described as an ambitious effort on the part 
of a wealthy newspaper or magazine. It is, 
however, a system which has long obtained 
and, it is to be feared, will long continue to 
obtain, in this country. It would seem to 
be a safe card to play. The enormous, and 
in seme degree justifiable, popularity of the 
reproduction of Millais' "Cherry Ripe" 
and other works by that great though sadly 
imequal master, unfortunately led to the 
reproduction of pictures by men who were 
not artists at all, works of the "Kiss Papa" 
and "Soldier's Farewell to his Mama" 
schools, whose sole excuse is their weak 
and too obvious sentimentality. We turn 
from the "presentation plates" to the 
covers. It is the policy of this magazine to 
have a new cover specially designed and 
signed by an artist each month. The policy 
in question has amply justified itself, and it 
is assuredly one which might be followed by 
other journals of older standing. The illus- 
trated cover is, of course, by no means 
suitable to all sorts and conditions of 
magazines. Nobody wishes to see a change 
made in the covers of the " Quarterly 
Review," the " Nineteenth Century," or 
similar publications, but in the case of the 
lighter magazines, and especially of their 
Christmas issues, there is ample scope for 
artistic novelty. Leastways, it is childish 
to get a second-rate artist to design a frame 

December, igoo. 

The Poster. 


tor the photograph of a soubrette — however 
fair she be — and to call the thint^ an original 
artistic cover. Such a production is as 
innocent of originality as it is of art. 

As special articles in the present issue 
are devoted to Christmas cards and posters, 

the compliments of the seasons by means ot^ 
cards which are informed neither with art 
nor humour, men will be found to design 
and to publish them. To judge by the shop 
windows a popular form of greeting will be 
a caricature of the fallen president of the 

Fnnted by Hill, Sijfkcn & Co. 

it is no part of my^task to discuss them here 
in detail. The hoardings are more gaudy 
and more vulgar than usual in the days 
when the old year is dying and the new one 
being born. So long as it pleases presum- 
ably cultured people to wish one another 

South African Republic, It would be diffi- 
cult, it seems to me, to find a more 
exquisitely inappropriate manner of com- 
memorating a season of which the dominant 
note is supposed to be Peace on Earth, and 
Goodwill towards Men. 


The Poster. 

December, 1900 

^he Cabarets of iVLontmartrc and 
their Posters. 


IT has been said of large cities that, in 
modern times, their aspect rapidly 
changes every twenty-five years. We 
are ourselves witnessing alterations and 


improvements at the present moment, for 
the London of to-day differs as much from 
the London of the eighties, as England's 
capital of that period differed from the 
London immortally described by Dickens. 
Paris, of all big cities, is, perhaps, one of the 
oest examples of rapid change, for its aspects 
seem to vary every twenty years, and the 
perpetual transformations call to mind the 
changes of scenery on a huge stage. What 
is said of street " decors,'^ is also appro- 
priate to the customs and habits of the 
citizens, and the English tourists lucky 
enough — I was going to say old enough — to 
remember, for instance, the Parisian pleasure 
haunts of the sixties or seventies must he 
quite surprised at the evolution of such 
establishments. True, th^ " Bal Bullier" is 
still in existence in the Latin Quarter, the 
great resort of the student and the grisette, 
but Miirger's Bohemian couples have no 
longer "La Grande Chaumi^re" or "La 
Closerie des Lilas,"and with the bicycle and 
motor car craze, " Robinson " is dying 
away fast. 

The evolution in Parisian amusement 
resorts has been even greater in the cafes, 
where the citizens like to spend the weary 
hours of their out-of-door life. Such places 
frequented by politicians, literary men and 
artists have always existed in Paris. Before 
and during the Revolution, the " Caf^ 
Procope " was the resort of such men as 
Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, Danton, Marat 
and Robespierre. The ' ' Caf6 de la Regence " 
was, at the time of the Restoration of the 
Bourbons, the rendezvous of half-pay officers 

December, igoo. 

The Poster. 


of Napoleon, while, under the Second 
Empire, all adversaries of the government, 
literary men, republicans and radicals, 
frequented the Caf^s "de Madrid" and "de 
Suede," on the boulevards. The "Procope," 
again, whose tables the future tribune of the 
people, Gambetta used as a platform for his 
political speeches ; and, ascending the steep 

and literary Bohemia, but the ascent to 
the summit of the Sacred Hill(as Montmartre 
is now called) stopped for a while after the 
Franco-German war, and it is only about the 
year 1880 that young artistic Paris definitely 
anchored on the hill. 

About that time a shrewd man, blessed 
with artistic sense, but gifted more 

(By kind pen 

I of Messrs. Chatto and Windtis, see page 149.) 

slope of Montmartre, the " Brasserie Fon- 
taine" "Brasserie des Martyrs" were the 
rendezvous of revolutionary cenacles, chiefly 
composed of artists, counting amongst their 
members such men as Gustave Courbet 
and Andrd Gill, the mordant caricaturist. 
This step was decidedly the first towards 
making Montmartre the home of artistic 

especially with an eye to business — - 
Rodolphe Salis — struck on a promising 
idea, viz., to open an artistic tavern or 
"cabaret," fitted up in an eccentric up-to- 
date style, where he could gather round 
him a Bohemian company consisting of all 
the illustrious Unknown of the Sacred Hill,, 
who contrived to make a hit or a name, in. 


The Poster. 

December, igoo. 

spite ot pecuniary difficulties, either in where the elite of Parisian fashionable 

poetry or art, music or literature, and who society soon gathered, and continued to do 

were glad to accept either a meal, drinks, or so for over ten years, welcomed to the place 

pocket money, as friendly gifts in return for by the genial host, saluted by a hall porter 


CKansens <ta Mentmartfe «.t d-'aiireuifS 

rnticad YnmCUILBlRT 



as Rue d'Hauteviile faris 

work executed for the above-named " Lord 
of the Manor," Rodolphe Salis. 

Shortly afterwards the famous "Chat 
Noir,"or Black Cat Tavern, was established, 

dressed up in the gorgeous livery of a con- 
tinental Roman Catholic Church beadle, 
who announced the guests' arrival by strik- 
ing the floor three times with his silver- 

December, 1900. 

The Poster. 


headed staff. They were then served with 
drinks by waiters conspicuously dressed up 
in the garb of the Members of the French 

We find in Phil May's "The Parson 
and the Painter," a very interesting 
description which well illustrates the 
"Chat Noir " : — "The rooms are all in 
the thirteenth century style. On the 
walls are the most extraordinary and 
weird pictures imaginable. In the majority 
of them the black cat takes a prominent 
place. We have pictures of a terrorising 
character, descriptive of war, famine, 
and the allurements of drink and women. 
Villon, the robber-poet, is the presiding 
genius of the place, and in the inner 
room on the front floor there is his 
full-length portrait. The theatre, which 
is upstairs, is the quaintest in the world. 
The effects are produced on a sheet by 
silhouettes and a magic-lantern. M. Salis 
makes a witty, semi-satirical, and political 
comment during the performance. Then 
there were interspersed with the dramatic 
perfor?nance songs and recitations as at 
the Savage Club on a Saturday night." 
The pictures referred to in this paragraph 
were the works of such men as Steinlen, 
Willette, Caran d'Ache, Henri Pille, 
while the late Paul Verlaine wrote there, 
between two sips of absinthe, some of 
his best work. The literary and artistic 
patrons of the tavern included men so 
distinguished as Alphonse Daudet, Riche- 
pin, Zola, Henner, Meissonier, G. Clairin, 
Vollon, Bonnat, J. P. Laurens, and Puvis 
de Chavannes. 

Rodolphe Salis, the gentilhomme caba- 
retier, as he styled himself, was wont 
to address his occasional guests as 
Messeigneurs, or " My Lords," and his 
gentle hints to the company that "the 
time had come for self-respecting gentle- 
men to ask for a fresh supply of beer," 
are not to be forgotten by anyone who 
frequented his tavern. 

However, despite the shrewdness of the 
gentiLhomme cabarelier" in puffing his 
establishment by combining art and busi- 
ness, it is an incontestable fact that he 
largely contributed to bring to light scores 
of poets, musicians and artists, who would 
be perhaps even now struggling for fame, if 
not for life. 

The growing success of the " Chat 
Noir" induced at once other enterprising 
gentlemen of the publican fraternit)' to open 
opposition shows of a striking style, and 
unfortunately at present Montmartre is 
overcrowded with these side-show cafes or 

However, a special mention must be 
made of the first one that followed in the 
footsteps of the Black Cat, notably Aristide 
Bruant's tavern. Its owner, the poet of 
the gutter, hit on a bigger idea and affected 
to turn his "cabaret" into a den of the 
lowest type. The songs he wrote, com- 
posed and recited himself, dealt only with 
the lowest classes of Parisian life, and 
proved to be a novelty, acting as Cayenne 
pepper on the palate of blase Paris. 
Bruant established his den with the help of 
some artistic friends, among whom were 
Steinlen and Toulouse-Lautrec, the pre- 
cursor of the Beggarstaffs. This artist did 
several posters for Bruant, all of them 
masterpieces, while Steinlen, the very genius 
of the streets of Montmartre, cleverly illus- 
trated Bruanl's books of songs and music, 
entitled, " Dans la Rue." 

These studies of low life proved to be 
such a success that Bruant found several 
understudies : indeed, even female music 
hall singers sought a passing fame in the 
rendering of some of these ultra low-class 
songs. Prominent amongst the last-named 
was Mile. Eugenie Buffet, who was re- 
warded with an ephemeral notoriety by 
making a new departure as a street singer, 
in aid of the fund for the wounded soldiers 
of the Madagascar campaign. Lucien 
Metivet designed for her two posters used 


The Poster. 

December, 1900. 

by a small Montmartre music hall, "La 
Cigale," where she appeared made up as the 
female street rambler of the outskirts of 
Paris, true to life, paint and rags, with 

The trace of the last-named artist, Uf one 
enters most of the taverns on the Sacred 
Hill is to be found almost everywhere : at 
the " Ane Rouge," the Red Ass, where, 

no/ Me 

{By hmd t 

and murder in 

oaths in her mouth and murder in her 
smile and e\'es. 

I have closely associated Steinlen and 
Willette with Montmartre, for this " fau- 
Lourg" of Paris is their special province. 

uUtu^ind II indi,^, icc fa-c 119,^ 

after a "tiff" with Rodolphe Salis(whowas 
a ginger-headed nobleman), Willette painted 
the figure of a red donkey, bearing a strong 
resemblance to the lord and master of 
the " Chat Noir." 

December, 1900. 

The Poster. 


But the strongest criticism Willette ever 
made on the crafty art and trade power of 
Salis was a painting which still adorns 
the walls of another artistic haunt, called 
" L'Auberge du Clou" (literally uncle's inn). 
It shows Salis busily engaged in cutting the 
throat of Montmartre's young poets, whose 
blood pours forth freely, while from the 

tomers are served with drinks by unshaven 
seraphim of the waiter type, dressed in white 
robes, their shoulder-blades adorned with 
heavenly wings and their fairy wigs crowned 
by saintly brass halos. Of the many poster 
artists who have contributed to the 
success of these Montmartre halls I will 
mention a few names with whom my readers 

streamlet comes out the red rose of poetry. 
This cruel allegory leads us to understand 
that not only poets but even artists must 
have been " bled " by the genial host of the 
" Chat Noir." 

However, Willette is not always a satiri- 
cal artist, as is proved by his poster for the 
quaint tavern of "Heaven," where cus- 

are well acquainted, viz., Grun, Roedel, 
Ibels and Redon. For the "Champ de 
Foire " the two last-named designed some 
eccentric show cards, two of which are very 
clever scenes of fair life. 

A curious thing happened to Roedel, 
Willette's follower. Some Montmartre 
artists sent drawings to be sold by auction 

The Poster. 

December, 1900. 

at the " Hotel Drouot," the Christie's of 
Paris. Roedel, knowing the keen interest 
amateurs and collectors took in posters, 
suggested advertising the sale of the draw- 
ings by a poster. The idea was considered 
great by his brothers of the brush, and the 
poster was duly brought out : a characteristic 
femme (V artiste,'' a portfolio full of draw- 
ings under each arm, cheerfully climbing 
down the Sacred Hill of Montmartre to go 
and battle with the cruel world, blessed by 




the black wings of the " Moulin de la 
Galette " profiled in the background. 

The officials of the auction rooms flatly 
refused to use such a work of art to adver- 
tise their sale, leading Roedel to understand 
that until then letterpress posters had always 
been considered quite sufficient to advertise 
their sales The poor little femme d' artiste " 
surely without a 'bus fare in her pocket, had 
to climb up the Sacred Hill again, and the 
enterprising manager of the " Moulin de la 

Galette," having pity on her, asked her, 
from an artistic point of view, to be so good 
as to advertise his terpsichorean show — an 
offer to which she agreed with the consent 
of her master, Roedel. 

As the names of Willette, Steinlen, and 
Ibels are characteristic of Montmartre, so 
also are those of Roedel and Griin charac- 
teristic of Bohemia. For if Steinlen's works 
adorn most of the artistic tavern walls, 
the same must be said of Roedel's, a 
most prolific artist. His invitation cards 
for the balls of the "Moulin Rouge" 
are very amusing, although sometimes of a 
very decollete type. 

A few years back, for the "Vachalcade" 
Roedel produced a clever poster which will 
count amongst his best works. The idea 
of the "Vachalcade" was very quaint, 
and quite worthy of the Montmartre 
Bohemian tribe.' Let us first explain that 
the corresponding French sentence to being 
"hard-up," or "broke," is that the victim is 
feeding on the flesh of the mad cow. And 
as, unfortunately, this kind of unsavoury 
food is the daily meal of the future literary, 
artistic, theatrical or musical genius, the 
said genius shows a great abhorrence to it. 

The "Vachalcade," or procession of 
the cow, was got up by the Montmartre 
artists to succour their poorer brothers, 
and the funds collected were to help them 
to pay the arrears of their studio rents or 
settle-up the few little things they may 
have left behind them in the midnight 
sport known as "shooting the moon." 

Every Montmartre artist contributed his 
best work, for they all, at some time or 
another, went through these hardships. 
Roedel composed a fine work, in which 
a gentle grisette, the joyous companion of 
the poor fellow in his struggles, treads 
upon the head of the dreaded mad cow, 
carefully wiping her sword on her apron, 
after destroying the horrid monster. 

Much more could be said about the 
Montmartre, which, from time to time, has 

December, igoo. 

The Poster. 

drawn to it all fashionable Paris, but which, 
unfortunately, nowadays, has begun to 
loose most of its eccentricity, for, as 
a writer says in a recent number of the 
" Universal Magazine," these resorts of 
arriusement "are now scarcely more than 
show places to which tourists are taken, and 
from which they come away under the im- 
pression that they have seen Bohemia — that 
under-current of Parisian life which only 
bubbles to the surface in least expected 
places, and is almost as exclusive as the 
inner circle of society itself." 

However, before closing this already 
over-long article, I must record an amusing 
item, which will give the key note of the 
bacchanalian humour of the Sacred Hill, 
and to do so, I have to go back to the old 
days of the "Chat Noir." One day, 

Rodolphe Salis, a master of the art ot 
"puffing," underwent the ordeal of being 
crowned King of Montmartre ! The 
^' geiitiLhomme cabaretier,^' magnificently 
attired in gilt robes, sceptre in hand, 
his guests kneeling before him, left his 
tavern, followed by artists and poets 
dressed in mediaeval costumes and armed 
with swords and halberds to take possession 
of the famous " Moulin de la Galette." 
Through the crowded streets they climbed 
up the steep hill on which stands the famous 
Mill, now a dancing establishment, while 
Salis' followers hoarsely shouted : " Vive 
le Roi ! " 

Oddly enough the ever-interfering Paris 
policeman did not object, but then, of course, 
it happened at Montmartre which makes all 
the difference in the world. 



The Poster. 

December, 1900. 

^ome Drawings bg SI. 3Fames W^illiams. 

K. James Williams. 

WE are indebted to Mr. F. G. Jackson 
for the materials from which the 
following notes are compiled. Mr. 
Jackson informs us that Mr. Williams 
began his art education at the Cardiff 
School, where he won a gold medal. He 
subsequently became a student in the 
Birmingham Municipal School of Art, where 
he prosecuted his studies for some few years 
with a rare devotion, and succeeded in gain- 
ing several scholarships. He wisely sub- 
jected himself to a severe course of training, 
drawing from nature, from the living model 
and the antique, and applying the knowledge 
so obtained to the purposes of decorative 

design. Unremitting in his activities, his 
progress was commensurate with his 
industry. The writer (Mr. Jackson) had 
the pleasure of watching his artistic develop- 
ment while in the Birmingham school 
and, from what he saw, formed the opinion 
that Mr. Williams would attain a high 
position in the world of art and earn dis- 
tinction in those branches he had chosen 
for himself. The classes of work to which 
he principally devotes his attention may be 
roughly classified under three heads — book 
illustration and decoration ; circulars, show 
cards ; posters, in line, tone and colour. Of 
the book illustrations some examples are 

R. James Williams. 

December, 1900. 

The Poster. 


here shown, which will demonstrate his 
capabilities as a pen-draughtsman. The 
view of Rochester from the Medway, with 
its noble castle and the tower of its vener- 
able cathedral, is a sound and workmanlike 
drawing which shows the influence of Mr- 
E. H. New. For Messrs. Bell's beautiful 
volume, "The Art of William Morris," 
Mr. Williams did a careful and agreeably 
decorative drawing of Kelmscott, the home 
of the distinguished craftsman whose 
methods and ideals have impressed them- 
selves so deeply on the minds of the members 
of the Birmingham school. The Vincent 
Press have brought out an edition of John- 
son's " Rasselas " with borders and other 
ornaments by Mr. Williams. This ambitious 
effort proves that he has rightly appreciated 
the essential principles of book decoration. 

We reproduce one of Mr. Williams' 
poster designs here, and another in our 
special article "The Poster and the Panto- 
mime." It would be unfair to criticise 
these, as we have only photographs of the 
originals before us, but at least they indicate 
that Mr. Williams can adapt his work to the 
conditions under which it will be seen. 
His treatment of smaller advertisements, 
such as show cards and catalogue covers, 
is as appropriately dainty as his poster work 
is rightly bold. In conclusion, Mr. Jackson 
tells us : 

" It will be seen that he (Mr. Williams) 
does not commit the error of some designers, 
who force a chosen style or method to the 
purposes of any and everything they have 
to do, but preserves an open mind so as to 
be able fitly to apply his art to all sorts and 
conditions of subjects. 

"Although Mr. Williams mostly confines 
himself to the range of work we have 
illustrated, he is not always content to limit 
his activities to it. He has been successfully 
engaged in designing tor metal work and 
for stained and painted glass for windows, 
the technicalities of which he thoroughly 
understands, so that he may be calltd an 

all-round designer, and we may venture the 
opinion that he will be a decided acquisition 
to the artistic brotherhood, to which he has 
already proved his right to be admitted." 

We have received from Mr. Williams 
some designs for Christmas cards which 
have, unfortunately, reached us too late for 
reproduction in our present issue. They 
deal with children in the picturesque cos- 
tumes of the Dutch peasantry and are 
amongst the best designs with which we 
have met this season. They emphasise the 
advantage to publishers of employing a 
properly trained draughtsman, instead of a 
commercial hack, for the production of 
Christmas cards, and, as they are pleasant 
in pattern and lively and agreeable in colour, 
we have very little doubt that they will 
command a wide sale. 

R. James Williams 


The Poster. 

December, 1900. 

Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. 

Third Time of the Apfcarance together of 

mt, MAW A, Mr. WACMADV. 

~ ~ KOXDAT, ~ 

I'kair Miu*^*>^' Sottwu will parfgnn ShakapMr**! Tmredy of 


TME moos or Venice. ^ 

Tbe of Venice, K r. THO^PSOIV, 

BrakMit|o. Mr. YOVMCE, eratlano, Mr. FEIVTON, 
liS^Tlco. Mr. MATimwS, Montano, Mr. BRIMDAE., 

OtheUo, ... Mr. 1LEAM» 
lago. . - - Mr. MACREADY, 

CaMto, Mr. COOPER, Rodertgo. Mr. BALI^R, 

ABtonIo, Mr. CATHIE, JaUo, Mr. EATOM. 

Ctovannl* Mr. BARTL.ETr, l.iica, Mr. BISHOP, 
Mareo. Mr. HATTOM, Paolo. Mr. S. JOMES. 
Deedemona* - MIm PHITililPS, 
EmIUa. Mrs. F A U C I T. 

A(k«r which will h« ieTur«d, the iplendid %i>& populat Melo-Druu of 


Timour. Mr. MATHEWS, 

Oglou, Mr. C O O P E R, 

Afib. • • Miss JANE M O R D A U N T. [her firtt Appearance o» any Stafr,), 
Benneddm. Mr. F. COOKE. Abdalec. Mr. HATTON, 

Octar. Mr. HONNER. Orasmin. Mr. FENTON, 
Kwim Mid Sanballat. {Riml dueftains) Mr. HOWELL and Mr. BARTLETT. 
Tartar QMcfrs— Messrs. Eaton, Bisheu. J. Baker, Wieland. 
OeorgioH 0/jS*«*»— Messrs. Cowin, Breedon, Darling and Brace. 
Amaxoiu--Slet<dame* Hunt, Gear, Perry. Webster. Valancy, Froud, Claire, BartletL 
Georgian!, Tartart. Slaves, Sft. 
« ZoriWa, {PrinceuofMingrelid) Mrs. NESBITT^ 
Selim*. Mi«CAWs £ Liska, Mrs. H U M B Y 






Mr. KEAN and Mr. MACREAD7 

Eavlng, on their Seoend Appearanoe togather In Shakspeare'a Tragedy 
of OTHCLLO, attracted one of the snoot crowded audlonoea ever In the 
Theatre, and their performanoo having been hailed with the loudeal 
aoolamatlonB, thoy will repeat the parts of OTHEUiO and lAGO, 
thit Bvenlng ; and will shortly alternate t hetrreipeotlve Oharaetera. 

JVb/ an Order vtill be issued, and the Free List (except the Puilic 
Press) it sufpended on this oeetuitn. 

December, 1900. 

The Poster. 


^hc Collecting o£ Playbills. 


Part II.— Some Kean Bills. 

IN the entire history of the English stage 
there is no figure more fascinating, none 
stranger, none more pathetic than the 
elder and greater Kean, and it follows that 
playbills bearing his name are much sought 
after by collectors and are consequently 
expensive. In spite of this I have picked up 
several, even in London shops, for a few 
pence. It should, however, be added that 
bargains of this kind are not to be made 
with regular dealers in playbills, nor with 
large West End booksellers. They who 
would make them must hunt the by-ways, 
and it may be said at once that if the fun of 
the chase is not its own reward, it were 
wiser not to enter upon it at all, for the 
chances of booty are remote. To the true 
enthusiast, however, the pursuit of the play- 
bill is excellent sport in itself. It leads one 
into all kinds of curious places and fre- 
quently, even when one fails to secure a play- 
bill worth having, one comes across some- 
thing else which one has long wanted in 
vain. Those who are only commencing to 
collect should be warned against what are 
described as "speculative parcels" of play- 
bills. It is wonderful that, in this sophisti- 
cated age, anybody should be tempted by 
such a description. There is nothing specu- 
lative about these parcels. The dealer has 
been through them and has carefully seen to 
it that they contain nothmg but the most 
utter rubbish. I remember that a guileless 
friend of mine once invested a few shillings 
in such a parcel and on opening it found 
that he was the proud possessor of over 
seventy copies of the bill of a comparatively 
recent provincial pantomime ! Decidedly no 
playbills bearing the name of Edmund 
Kean will be found in a "speculative parcel." 

I need hardly say that the rarest Kean 
bills are those which relate to the earlier 

part of his career, and those of plays in 
which he seldom appeared. Kean figured 
on the stage for the first time, when only 
three years old, as Cupid in one of Noverre's 
ballets at the Opera House. When four or 
five he played one of the imps attendant on 
the witches in " Macbeth." Then came a 
long and humiliating period during which 
he "danced and tumbled at fairs and 
taverns, performed wonderful feats, was 
kicked and starved, thrived nevertheless — 
and conceived that there was something 
within him which should set him above his 
fellows in hard work and lean fare." At 
nineteen we find him acting with the majestic 
Siddons, who declared that he played 
" well, very well ; but there was too little of 
him wherewith to make a great actor." 
For years this meteoric genius remained un- 
appreciated in spite of his enormous efforts 
to win approval. On the 26th of January, 
1814, he played Shylock at Drury Lane, and 
"the house," to use the words of Dr. 
Doran, " burst forth into a very whirlwind 
of approbation." Kean had established 
himself for once and for all as a. tragedian 
of the first rank. 

Of the two Edmund Kean bills which I 
reproduce in illustration of these rough 
notes, the earlier one is dated Monday, 
February 4th, 1822. On this occasion Kean 
played Richard III., a part in which he was 
then quite unrivalled. Of his performance 
Hazlitt says : " It is impossible to form a 
higher conception of Richard III. than that 
given by Kean : Never was character repre- 
sented by greater distinctness and precision, 
and perfectly articulated in every part. If 
Kean did not succeed in concentrating all 
the lines of the character, he gave a vigour 
and relief to the part which we have never 
seen surpassed. He was more refined than 


The Poster. 

December, 1900. 


This Evening, MONDAY- February 4, 1822, //l 

His Majcttj'j ScttbbU wiH pCTform Sliaks|K.iic'a Tragedy ot ' 

Kins Richard tlie Third 

KinjHenrv, Mr. POPE, 
■ Prine« of Wales, Miss G. Cirr, " Duke of York, MaHer R, Cm, 

Dukeof Glo'ster, Mr. li E A N, 

D«ke of Buckingham. Mr PENLEY, Duke of Norfolk, Mr. BROMUOY. 

Earl of RichiBon<l. Mr. COOPER, 
Earl of Oxford. Mr WEBSTER, Lord Stanley, Mr POWELL, 
Lord Vajor, Mr. MEREDITH, Sir Rob«it Bnickenbury. Mr. FOOTE, 
Sir William Cateihy. Mr. VIMNG, Sir Richard RaUliffe, Mr. WILLMOTT. 

TresBel, Mr BARNARD. Tyrrell. Mr DOUBS, 
DifhIoB. Mr Tamonr, Blnnt, Mr. Read, Forest, Mr. HoweB. 
Elizabeth, Queen of Edvrard the Fourth, Mrs fiCERTON. 
LadjAnne Mr«. W.VVEST, DachcM of Yorit, Mrs KNIGHT. 


Will be represMited Ihh Evenings and 00 fVednrt^a^ next. 

Mr. K h: \ N 

Will appcftr this ETCnrng, in Richard the Third; «■ Wednesday, in Othello; and 
oa Friday, in Macbeth 

Aftei Um Tngcdjr, (ffth limt) lie RETITED UbboI 


Paul, Madame V E S T R I «, 
Alambra, Miss COPELAND. 
Dominique, Mr ' K N 1 G H T, 

CtTrtaia Tropic, Mr G ATTIE, Don Antonio, Mr PENLEY, 

Diego, Mr. WILLMOTT, SebasUan, Mr. HUGHES, 

Sailor, Mr. HoweH, Captain of ibe Guard, Mr. Gibbon, OflUer. .Mr. WeBster. 
Virginia. Miss TOVEY; 
,Jarintha, Mi.s CU^ITT, 
In which the wHt itttritduce ifle Jhvourite Song 
Mary, Mrs BLAND. 
In Act U. A DANCE by Mi$» TRES. 

The Dom-s vMl he opened at Half-patt Six o'Clock. 
tmd the Performances on each Evening commence at Seven. 

Bo<c« 7«. Second Price 3t. *d.— PK 3s. fid. Second Pnci- 2a. 
Lower GaUery 2s. Sccend Price U.— Upper Gallery Is. Stconii I'rice Sil. 
tT Plac«1o he a]xn of Mr. Ronwei-L, i" the Bomnrfa of tlit Saloon o( the Theatre. 
pMVATB B«x£s can be obtained for the Evening, of Mr RoowixL, at the Bm Office. 
«r The Public is TtspKlJullv mformtd. Ih^l Mr HOOKHAM of Bond S/rfW, i. oppomUd kU Atent 
^Ji^'lhi.Tbt^tJ'" ^"^'f" •<'S>^y dispotni ef ihc PalTiTE Bcm, biUngim^ to Ike 
^ >!•> MM„^lober,h,r^jl. J, J-M), r rinler, Thtflr, R«<,,1, Drur, Lant. 

J'lwnoiTiia!, (9(A (,W) The PIRATE. ' TViU. the LUir ' 
And {lOSrrf time) rtie CORONATION. 
OTHELLO. OthrlKMr KEA.N, I.,., Mr. COOPER. Desdemona, Mn.W.WEST 

«• nur,doy,00lh lime) The PIRATE. AHer »l,irh be moduccd a Pbt.t Cohebt, called 


Mr. ELLISTON, Mr' K\IGH-r*"*''"iS,d " MiB S. BOOia 

And rl04M W) the COKON \TION. 
On /Hrfoy, MACBETH. Madwih, Mr KEAN, WacdulC Mr • 

^ „ i.a.lj' Maebilh, Mis^Pri" — 

On Salurdcy will be pcrfornif* , /or the l" ' 

A J\e» 

Decemueu, 19OJ 

The Poster. 


Cooke ; bolder and more original than 

Kemhle Kean's attitude 

in leaning against the pillow was one of the 
most graceful and striking positions ever 


The second of the playbills is of peculiar 
interest, for by consulting it we find that 
the parts of Othello and lago were sus- 
tained by Kean and Macready respectively. 
Here we have Edmund Kean and the greatest 
of his successors playing together. If we 
may judge from the account given by Mr. 
William Archer in his monograph on 
Macready, the two great lights of the stage 
were on anything but good terms with one 
another. " Kean, whose race was now almost 
run," says Mr. Archer, " appeared early in 
November, and on the 26th (1832) he and 
Macready acted together for the first time, 
as Othello and lago. Greatly to Macready's 
disgust, Kean resorted to the old trick of 
always standing a pace or two further up 
the stage than his interlocutor, who was 
thus forced to appear in profile to the 
audience. At the close of the performance, 
says Bunn, who was Polhill's stage-mana- 
ger, Macready 'bounced into my room,' 
and vowed that he would play no more with 
so unfair an actor. He finally wound up 
by saying, ' And pray what is the— next 
p — lay you ex — pect me to appear in — with 
that low — man ? ' I replied that I would 
send him word. I went up into Kean's 
dressing-room, where I found him scraping 
the colour off his face, and sustaining the 
operation by copious draughts of cold 
brandy and water. On my asking him 
what play he would appear in next with 
Macready, he ejaculated, ' How the — should 
I know what the — plays in ' " Mr. Archer 
adds that "Othello" was in fact the only 
drama in which these great actors were 
seen together. 

The third playbill reproduced here is 
that used on the second appearance of 
Charles Kean on Thursday, the 4th of 
October, 1827, in the part of Young Norval 

in the tragedy of " Douglas," the piece in 
which he made his first appearance on any 
stage. Unlike his infinitely greater father, 
Charles Kean served no tedious apprentice- 
ship, but commenced his career as a star at 
Drury Lane. In spite of the rhodomontade 
on the playbill, Charles Kean's first appear- 
ance was a failure. His father — then a 
mental and physical wreck — was full of 
senseless rage that his son, educated at 
Eton, became an actor at ail, instead of 
accepting a commission in the army which 
he struggled to obtain for him. The father 
accordingly cast the son off, and the son 
strove with unconquerable constancy to pro- 
vide comforts for his deserted and almost 
penniless mother by the practice of a pro- 
fession for which he had only the smallest 
share of his father's genius. But fate or- 
dained that they should come together 
again. On the 25th of March, 1833, Ed- 
mund Kean made what proved to be his 
last appearance on the stage as Othello, 
lago was played by his son, Charles. The 
story of this tragic and unforseen farewell 
may be told in the words of Dr. Doran : 
"Kean was so shattered in frame, that he 
had scarcely strength to pass over him the 
dress of the Moor ; so shattered in nerve 
that he dreaded some disaster. Brandy 
gave some little heart to the greatly fallen 
actor, but he anxiously enjoined his son to 
be ever near him, in case of some mischance, 
and he went through the part, dying as he 
went, till after giving sweet utterance, as of 
old, to the celebrated ' Farewell,' ending 
with ' Othello's occupation's gone !' he at- 
tempted to utter the next speech, and in the 
attempt fell on his son's shoulder, with a 
whispered moan, ' I am dying, — speak to 
them for me !' The curtain here descended 
on him for ever, and the rest was only slow 
death, with intervals of hope." Kean passed 
away on the 15th of the following May after 
the tag of Octavian " Farewell, Flo — , 
Floranthe !" had been unconsciously uttered 
by him. 

The Poster. 

December, igoo. 

Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 

This Evening, THURSDAY. October 4, 1»27. 

Will be acted b; Hii Uaiest>'s %rvui's (be Tugcd; of 


Lord KandoJph. Mr. MUDE, Old Norral, Mr COOPER. 

Glenalvon, Mr. W A L I. A C K, ' 

Young Normal Mr. K E A N, Jm- 

( Hh ind Appearance on any Stagt.) 
Serv-anlB. .. .Messrs. C Jonee, Hop?, and BrnwB 
Officrrs. ... Messrs. Fcnton, Brady, Greg-ory, Foster, aod Scikh. 
Lady Randolph, Mrs. W. WEST, Anna, Mrt K.SIGHT. 

£!(cr wliich will acted, Jor the Firit Time, (Uken from a popular FreucQ Drama, a I' ji:cdf '^aroe, 
in Two AcU. cal'cd The 

Ilhisfrious Scrisjififer; 

Or, Married and Buried ! 

The Mb»ic by Mr. Nathak 
Abaulifar, King <rf the Iibmd, Mr. IHOMHsON, 
Arian. Mr. BLAND. Alib..jou, Mr. J. R U •■> S E L L, 

Gimbo, Mr II A R L E V, 
Bo.beM, Mr L I > ■ O .V, 

High Piickt, Mr. FENTON. Officers Me-srs. C JON E3 and HO.NNOR. 

Priests, Mandarins, Sla-jes, ■^ c. ^9. 
Irza Mrs. G E E S I N, 

Fatiraa. Miss LOVE. 

Slagc-Manager .... .... .... Mr. WALLACK, 

Mr. K E A N. Jun. 
Ha^iiif; been greetc^J on his first ap[)earance with the most brilliant and unanlmoDa approLstioi^ wlU 
liave ll*. Lortoui of repealing the character of Yoiaig Norral, lUt Ezcmng, Salmilay, and Uauhf ncMt. 

T.>-mt)rroK-,H;ob Roy. Bailie Nicol J|uvie, Mr. Listoo, Rob Roy, Mk Wallack. 
Diana Vernon, Miss Grant, (Aer Is/ ajipearanu M any Sia^e). 
, With other ENTERTAINMENT^. 
Cn Sitorrfoy, the Tragedy of DoOglaS. 

Young Norral, Mr. Kein, Jun C kit Zri appearante *a aitjf itagt) 

With other E.-l rtRTAIN MEN fS. 

Ou Monday, the Tragedy of DoUglaS. And other ENTERTAINMENTS. 
Oh Tuesday. The Comedy of £^ Cure for the Heart SuCHSb, 

Voting Rapid, Mr. Joties, AeiR^ his 2nd appearance on this stage. 
Old Ua'pia, Mr. tislon With other E.NTEIITAINME.TTS. 

Boxes 7.. Second Price 3a. 6d. PK 3s. 6d. Second Price '2s. 
I . »fr t^uliriy a*. Srccodd Price Is. Upper Gallery la. .Setond Price 6d. 
l'i>.\>!-, l'i*ci>. nnd TicKiiis. uW<' IVivaTi and Fahut Bexn to be taken of 
Mr. >l'l»iNO, Box B(,uk-kcepei . ul the Rotunda of the Theatre, from Tea till Fonr. 

ti- Ao> Ptrutii wUUni: Co ili. 8JLLS of Ui. PUT dcl.VrreJ u U..iti. ra.y U «o.oia«<Utri .0 tfflfaim (!» Lrtar, 
l'o<>.t»>°; >d<lnu>4 10 Mr. THOMAS COOPES. at llx 9t.«..D.o. s» tki. Ttalr.. 

n t'JI HEX. /.o Monty to be rel.mcrf. J. ToU^, friiKcr, r»«lr« I>r^rf U^i. 

Decemder, iqoo. 

The Poster. 


Brench Sill{>osting — Sncicnt and iVIodcrn. 

By M. 

THE fact that artists of past generations, 
who have studied the divers street 
types of their time, should have 
frequently sketched the billposter is a sure 
guarantee that the placards stuck on walls 

Simon^ ColLw. 

{From an Old Pnnt.) 

or hoardings by that humble propagator ot 
publicity seem to have, at all times, attracted 
the curiosity or the interest either of busy 
men, passers-by or idlers. For otherwise 
the type of the billposter of distant periods 


would have perished, like so many other 
street characters whose originality of 
costume has been neglected by the designers 
of past centuries. 

We must, in the study of posted placards, 
go back as far as the epoch of the Emperor 
Charlemagne, to which date is assigned the 
origin of posters in France. Their usefulness 
was soon a recognised fact, and at length 
every corps de metier ^ every tradesman's 
guild employed the poster as a form of 
advertisement. As far back as 1534 we find 
in the diary of a Paris citizen that town 
criers were ordered by the Court to go 
publicly crying the following words: "Any- 
one who knows any person or persons who 
have posted placards and will divulge their 
name or names to the officers of the Court, 
will be paid a sum of cent 4cus (a little over 
;^i2 of our money) ; further, anyone know- 
ing any such person or persons who does 
not report such information, or keeps such 
person or persons in hiding, will be burnt in 
a public place in the town." Early bill- 
posting was mostly clandestine, to evade 
the strictness of the regulations. To stop 
the ever growing manifestations fomented by 
the civil war known by the name ot " La 
Fronde," an edict of Parliament, dated 5th 
February, 1652, enjoins all police officers to 
condemn to chastisement of the whip and 
the " carcan " anyone found printing, post- 
ing, crying, or selling placards against the 
authority of the king. However, this 
severe treatment did not seem to be very 
efficacious, for in January of the following 
year, a new edict of Parliament forbade 
printers to " print placards which might be 
posted without previous permission, and 
any persons posting such was under the 
penalty of death." It must be admitted 


The Poster. 

December, igoo. 

J. Belon, 

that the billposting fraternity was, 
then, working under grave difficulties 
and that their hardships were undeniably 

But the afficheur has always been a 
daring character, and the forefathers of our 
modern billposter, by many tricks, managed 
to evade the vigilant eye of the policeman 
of the period, and to post, for instance, in 
a clandestine fashion the famous mandements 
of that odd personage, the soul of "La 
Fronde," namely, the famous Cardinal de 

A writer of the time, Mercier, gives an 

amusing instance of one of the billposters' 
dodges : — 

"A man was seen carrying a huge 
wicker basket on his back, assuming a very 
fatigued attitude. He leaned against a wall, 
but took good care not to remove the 
basket from his back. Should nobody be in 
sight, a young boy, who had been in hiding 
inside the basket, posted the bill with his out- 
stretched arms on the wall, and the work 
done, resumed his stooping position in the 

Another trick was to post the seditious 
placard, and then to cover it over with an 
innocent bill, which would not arouse any 
suspicion whatever on the part of the police. 
This " covering " bill would only be stuck 
by its four corners : as soon as the work 
was over a confederate would pass by and 
tear up the screening sheet, leaving the one 
underneath exposed to view. 

Various edicts of the French Parliament 
dealt in following years with posters or 
persons posting such, but it is only in 1721 
that a new decree regulated the billposting, 
or rather the " Stickers' Corporation" as it 
was then called ("Corporation des 
Colleurs "), fixing the number of them at 
forty for the City of Paris. 

However, compulsory education did not 
exist in those days, and the authorities com- 
plained that ofttimes the vagrant bill-sticker 
was an illiterate man who could not even 
read the placard he was posting. A new 
edict, issued by the king in 1722, obliged 
each afficheur to know how to read and 
write, and further, forced him to have over 
his door a board mentioning his business, 
and to wear in an apparent manner a brass 
badge with his" name on. In the same edict 
we find the first mention of " a specimen 
copy to be delivered by bill posters every 
Tuesday and Friday of all placards they have 
to post for their clients. " This regulation 
was altered in 1740 to two specimen copies of 
each poster to be deposited at the " King's 
Library." This is a very important item in 

Decembkr, 1900. 

The Poster. 


the history of the billposter, for the same 
custom is still in existence — the billposter 
or the printing firm being obliged to make a 
legal deposit of such specimen copies with 
the authorities before they can post them. 

Towards the middle of last century the 
pay of billposters, according to a note in 
the Archives of the Bibliotheque Nationale, 
was as follows : " Afficheurs are paid by 
their employers 30 francs per hundred pla- 
cards posted. Printers, however, only pay 
them at the rate of 25, 20, and even 15 
francs per hundred copies. A man cannot 
post more than one hundred and fifty bills of 
the same kind per day. If posters are of a 
very large size the man is paid at the rate of 
40 francs per 100. To advertise efifectively 
in Paris 400 posters of one kind are re- 

Further, the same note makes a special 
mention of two sorts of paste then used by 
the bill-stickers : " One is made of a certain 
substance they procure from the cellars of 
wholesale wine merchants; this paste resists 
the effect of sun but not of rain; flour paste, 
only, is used in damp weather, but the heat 
affects it badly." 

At the present day, each Paris bill- 
poster is supplied daily with from 250 to 
300 placards, on which is duly affixed the 
Government duty stamp, and his work is 
divided into two categories : first — posting 
on reserved places, and second — ordinary- 
posting. In the first case he encounters no 
difficulties, but his task is more arduous in 
the second one, for the sites he chooses to 
place his bills being free of any charge, he 
has to keep a keen eye on his rivals, who 
will watch him, let him finish his work, and 
immediately after he has left cover up with 
their own bills the placards just affixed. 
These sharp practices are more especially 
noticeable at election periods, the busiest 
time for the bill-stickers. 

My space is exhausted or I could tell not 
a few curious tales of the way in which bill- 
posters have at various times and for various 

reasons defrauded their employers. For 
some of the frauds the enthusiasm of col- 
lectors is indirectly responsible. The fine 
placards of Ch^ret, Mucha, Grasset, and 
others, which were assigned to the billposters 
to be placed on the hoardings, as often as 
not found their way into the hands of private 
collectors or of dealers. Rigorous prosecu- 
tion has, however, done much to check 
this illicit trade. In the i8th century, accor- 
ding to Richelet, bill-stickers sold " posters 
to grocers, proprietors of ham and beef 
shops and dairies, to wrap parcels in." 
Now that paper has become cheap, the in- 
ducement to this form of petty theft has 
ceased to exist. 

J. Belon. 

December, 1900. The Poster. i43 

^ome Selgian Boosters. 


THE posters reproduced as illustra- flashes across the mind of an Enfjlishman 

tions to these notes have been is an idea that such designs would stJind 

chosen, not because they are exem- only the scantiest chance of acceptance 

plary, but because they are typical of at the hands of a native firm. In the 

the better class advertisements which first place they look expensive, and in 



adorn the hoardings of the chief cities 
of Belgium. In every one of them art 
has been obviously and definitely attempted, 
even if — in the eyes of some people — it 
has not been felicitously achieved. In 
looking at them, the first thing which 


the second, they are utterly unlike the 
work-a-day performances of the colour- 
printer to which the British public has 
so long been accustomed. A careful 
examination of the posters themselves 
shows that the expense of reproduction 


The Poster. 

December, 1900. 

is inuch less than at the first blush would 
seem to be the case. The men who 
designed these bills are practical litho- 
graphers who know how to obtain a 
maximum of effect at a minimum outlay. 
To say that they are unlike the average 
English commercial bills is merely to 
say that primarily they are decorations 
and not painted anecdotes. They attract 
attention by splendour of colour, and 
not by any half-hidden literary meaning •. 
in a word they are not pictured 

I am no thick-and-thin admirer ot the 
work ot Privat-Livemont, nor ot that ot 
Mucha upon whom he has very obviouslv 
tounded his style. Both of these artists have 
invented very beautiful tiungs, but it seems 



to me that internal decoration, rather than- 
street advertisement, is the field in which 
their talent would have its fullest scope. As 
an advertiser, Privat-Livemont is to be pre- 
ferred to Mucha. Less exquisite, less 
ingenious than the Hungarian designer, his 
work is bolder and his colour contrasts 
more effective. On no hoarding could his 
huge poster for " Rajah Teas & Coffees " 
be overlooked. The whole forms a glowing 
and insistent mass of colour, although the 
effect is obtained without the crude juxta- 
position of antagonistic primaries. The 
figure of the girl in the Rajah bill is terra-^ 

Decembetk, 1900. 

Ths Poster. 


cotta and the background a deep blue. The 
irises and other decorative accessories are 
of a lighter metalHc blue. The panels above 
and below the figure are deep mauve, and 
the ornaments worn by the girl are in gold. 
The reproduction of this fine design by De 
Rycker & Mendel, of Brussels, is excellent. 
In his bill for the " Palais de la Famine " — 
one of the catch-penny side-shows at the 
Paris Exhibition — Privat-Livemont uses a 
contrast of faint lemon and dull red as the 
motive of his scheme. The sprays of wild- 
roses and the clusters of tea-roses are 
beautifuUv drawn, and do their business of 
decoration very well. The " Helm Cacao " 
is a brilliant arrangement in crimson, dull 
green, and faint cream-colour. The window 
bill reproduced here without lettering was 
designed for Tropon. It is very decorative 
and agreeable, but the drawing of the 
children, and of the woman's hands leaves 


AU., BiiNAKI). 

something to be desired. It must be 
counted to Privat-Livemont for righteous- 
ness that, while he often overlooks that 
simplicity which is the secret of true 
felicity, he never descends to the banal or 
the vulgar. A number of his designs seen 
together recall a banquet of sweets, or a 
heavily-scented boudoir. 

My readers are already tamiliar with the 
excellent work of Cassiers. One of the 
best of his steamship posters is reproduced in 
colour in the present issue, and it is there- 
fore needless for me to enlarge on the vic- 
torious scheme which the artist has devised. 
The window bill for " Margarine van den 
Bergh " proves that Cassiers possesses 
versatility. The sense of distance is 
admirably conveyed in the landscape, and 
the town on the horizon, with its belfry and 
windmill, is just sufficiently suggested. 
The idealized Flemish peasant and her 
little girl, despite their somewhat Batavian 
proportions, are really quaint and cliarming. 
This is another example of the excellent 
lithography of Messrs. De Rycker 8c Mendel 


The Posted. 

December, 1900. 

The trade mark in the left-hand corner at 
the top of the picture is probably an ugly 
necessity which the artist doubtless deplores 
as much as we do. 

I need say very little of the work of 
Victor Mignot, for it was exhaustively 
discussed by Mr. H. R. Woestyn in our 
issue of .August last. Mignot was born in 
1872 and is therefore still under thirty years 
of age. Young though he is, he may fairly 
be counted among the maitres de i affichc. 
The " Salle d'Armes " and the " Kermesse 
de Bruxelles" are further proofs ot his 
ability as an artistic advertiser. 

I cannot close these notes without 
giving expression to a feeling of dis- 
couragement that in the production of 
posters England lags behind so small a 
country as Belgium. But in the cup of 
disappointment there is one drop of 

consolation. Speaking roughly, the poster 
art of Belgium is an echo of the poster 
art of France. Art, it is sometimes 
plausibly said, has no frontiers. There 
is an atom of truth and a mountain of 
falsehood in this glib phrase. The art 
which is really valuable is racy of the 
soil of its place of production. The 
greatest artists or England are those 
who saw life with English eyes and 
reproduced it in P2nglish fashion. Now 
the English poster, vulgar and stupid 
though it too frequently is, has not paid 
to F"rance that homage of imitation 
which is so plainly conspicuous in Belgian 
work. Blind blundering in old and ugly 
methods is only a little worse than ape- 
like agility in the imitation of that which, 
while it may be ingeniously burlesqued, 
cannot be honestly reproduced. 


December, igoo. 

The Poster. 



Written by W. C. Morrow from Notes by 
Edouard Cucuel. Illustrated by Edouard 
Cucuel. London : Chatto and Windus. 
To Mr. Morrow and M. Cucuel we owe 
the best book in English on Bohemian 
Paris. The authors are no mere Cooks' 
touristswho, after avisit totheMoulin Rouge 
and the Cabaret du Ciel, rush into print and 
pose as the explorers of a hitherto undis- 
covered country. They write of French 
Bohemia with the insight and sympathy 
which come of intimate knowledge. It is 
entirely to their credit that they do not 
mince matters — they are first of all chron- 
iclers of the actual, and afterwards of the 
picturesque. If tiie denizens of their Bo- 
hemia are in the main a kindly race of men, 
as indeed they are, nevertheless they are 
capable of much vulgarity and some brutality. 
And with them Bohemianism is no mere 
cloak to hide the lack of social qualities. 
They do not sin against conventions merely 
because it is peculiar to do so : the idea of 
observing conventions never seems to have 
entered their heads. Their sincerity is their 

Mr. Morrow and M. Cucuel take us to 
some strange places and introduce us to 
many curious people. They are admirable 
guides and wear their mantle of out-of-the- 
way knowledge as lightly and gaily as may 
be. It must be counted to them for righteous- 
ness that they can be grave without being 
dull. The figures of Sarah Brown and Bi-Bi- 
dans-la-Puree lose notiiing in attractiveness 
because the essential tragedy of their lives 
is insisted on. The chapter entitled '■ Le 
Moulin de la Galette" forms quite an exciting 
short story. Both with pen and pencil the 
authors have done their work very well. By 
the kindness of Messrs. Chatto & Windus 
we are enabled to reproduce two of the 
illustrations. They will be found on pages 
123 and 126. 

De Rycker and Mendel. London : 
Hart and Leclercq. 
The book under consideration is a trade 
catalogue, but it is, nevertheless, a work ot 
art. It is certain that no such production 
has ever been attempted by any British firm 
of colour-printers, and we can call to mind 
no foreign publication which rivals it. The 
coloured illustrations of posters by Cassiers 
and Henri Meunier are absolutely the best 
which we have seen hitherto, while the pro- 
cess reproductions printed in various tints 
after Gaudy, Privat-Livemont, and other 
well-known artists are perfect. The type 
used for the letterpress is excellent, and the 
paper of the finest quality. The letterpross 
itself consists of appropriate extracts from 
"The Advertising World," The Postei?, 
and other journals. One would as soon 
think of throwing a rare pamphlet into the 
waste-paper basket as of destroying this 
beautiful booklet, for if it is an excellent ad- 
vertisement for Messrs. De Rycker and 
Mendel, it is at the same time worthy of 
careful preservation by collectors and 

Teague. No. 28 of the "Useful Arts 
and Handicrafts Series." Edited by 
H. Snowden Ward. London : Dawbarn 
and Ward, Ltd. Price, Sixpence. 
We confess that this little volume o.i 
" home-made jewellery and trinkets " seems 
to us distinctly unsatisfactory. The designs 
which are given in illustration are of the 
most commonplace kind, and we cannot see 
any conceivable advantage in "making 
them" at home or elsewhere. The present 
booklet is an unfavourable specimen of a 
series which has included some useful 
issues. In the others art, as well as mere 
amusement, has been aimed at : the manu- 
facture of the jewellery illustrated here may 
be a pastime, but it is nothing more. 

The Poster. 

December, 1900. 

^ome ISeuj Christmas Cards and 

WE have received from Messrs. Raphael 
Tuck and Sons a very large selection 
of new designs in cards and illustrated 
books specially prepared by them for the 
present season. For the most part the pro- 


(By pennission oj Mcssts. Raphael 1 iick & Sons.) 

ductions of this firm are admirabl}- got up. 
Some of the more expensive cards and book- 
lets indeed, are reproduced in colour vi'ith 
wonderful skill. It is pleasant to be able to 
add that the cheaper cards are by no means 
the nastiest ; indeed, some of those in which 
the decoration is least profuse are among the 
most effective. Messrs. Tuck have taken 
occasion by the hand and issued a large 

number of patriotic cards. Acting in the 
spirit of Scott's lines : 

Sound, sound ihe clarion, fill the fife ! 

To all the sensual world proclaim, 

One crowded hour of glorious life 

Is worth an age without a name, 
they have sought to quicken the military 
instincts of the inhabitants of nursery-land 
by depicting in the manner beloved of 
youngsters the pomp and glory of war. The 
military nursery books may not deserve 
much consideration as works of art, but the 
youngster who is worth his salt will doubt- 
less find them very much to his taste. We 
are glad to notice that good verse by writers 
of repute seems now to be taking the place 
of the sickly twaddle by maudlin poetasters 
which has hitherto done duty as a Christmas 
greeting. By the kindness of Messrs. Tuck 
we are enabled to reproduce two of their 
designs in half-tone. 


(By pel mission of Messrs. Raphael Tuck & Sons.) 

December, 1900. 

The Poster. 

(By permission of Mr. Einest Nister.) 

Mr. Ernest Nister sends us a selection 
of his new calendars and illustrated books. 
The " Nature's Gems" Calendars, with six 
illustrations by Mr. Wilfrid Ball, beautifully 
reproduced in colour, take a very high 
place amongst this season's productions. 
We regret to notice that this excellent piece 
of work was " printed in Bavaria." The 
"Art Calendar," with twelve coloured 
designs by Mr. G. H. Edwards, though less 
artistic than that of Mr. Wilfrid Ball, is 
equally well printed. Lines appropriate to 
each month have been chosen from the 
poems of Chaucer, Swinburne, Moore, 
Whittier, Shelley, William Morris and 
others. Much praise is due to the high 
standard of production maintained by Mr. 
Nister in nearly all his Christmas publica- 
tions. He has kindly allowed us to repro- 
duce two of his designs. 

We are sorry to find that a very large 
percentage of the cards do not bear the 
signatures of the artists who have drawn 
them. It would seem to us that publishers 
who want to get good work from a designer 
should insist on his signing everything he 
does. By thus forcing him in some measure 
to stake his credit, publishers have a 
guarantee that they will obtain the best that 
is in him to do. 

Before we conclude we should like to 
draw attention to a novel and delightful 

form of Christmas greeting which is really 
of an artistic nature. The Kensington 
Fine Art Society have on view a selection 
of what they describe as Japanese Christ- 
mas cards. Whether or not they have 
been specially designed for the purpose 
for which they are intended, it Is impossible 
for us to say. But they are, some of them, 
very beautiful, and their beauty fully excuses 
any lack of appropriateness which we may 
feel In sending such very un-English designs 
to speed a very English message. The 
Japanese cards have the additional merit of 
being very reasonable in price. 

It is, however, a pity that Englishmen 
should be under the necessity of greeting 
one another by means of cards which are 
foreign in design or In manufacture. We 
cannot really congratulate ourselves that 
the Christmas card has made substantial 
progress during the last five years of the 
nineteenth century. In the seventies, the 
Christmas card frequently bore the names 
of illustrious designs, and very seldom In- 
deed was it printed abroad. A very Inter- 
esting book might be written on the 
evolution of the Christmas card. The sub- 
ject was handled some years ago in a 
characteristically light and graceful fashion 
by the late Mr. Gleeson White. 

{By permission of Mr. Ernest Nister.) 


The Poster. 

December, 1900. 

Palette 3crat>ings* 

We reproduce here two curious designs 
kindly sent to us by an Indian correspondent. 
Under that which represents two figures 
beneaih a tree he has written " Krislina 
and Rudha," and under the other the words 
" Ram attacking the monkeys of Ceylon." 
If these lines meet his eye, he may be so 
good as to send us further inforn-.ation as 
to the designs reproduced. We shall be at 
all times glad to hear from our Oriental 
readers of facts relating to advertising in 
the Far East. We know very little of 
Asiatic advertisement, although our infor- 
mation as to Japan has lately been increased 
by an able essaj' by Mr. Tadamasa Hayashi 

Ram atlacking the Monkeys of Ceylon 

Krishna an.l RuJha. 

On page 105 of our last issue we 
reproduced two Hippodrome posters. We 
should explain that the one in the left 
hand top corner was a design submitted 
by Mr. Charles Ffoulkes and rejected by 
the directors in favour of the other poster 
reproduced on the same page. While the 
process block fails to do justice to the 
design by Mr. Ffoulkes, it will at once 
be seen that it is a far more artistic thing 
than that which was preferred to it, while 
as an advertisement it was at least equally 

Jones, C. R. Ashbee, Anning BelL Walter were opened to the general public. The 
Crane, Frances Mac Nair, J. H. Mac Nair, catalogue, if a trifle eccentric in shape, is an 
Margaret Macdonald-Mackintosh, Charles excellent example of good printing and 



December, 1900. 


A. Morrow. 
Miss WINIFRED HARE as Dick W hitttnston. 
(By permission of the Managtr of llie Coronet Theatre). 

decoration, and possesses a very dainty 
cover of specially designed and printed 

A VERY strange inscription is mentioned 
by the "Aberdeen Evening Press": — A 
cyclist, says our contemporary, went to see 
a church in Cheshire, and found above the 
door the not uncommon inscription, "This 
is the gate of Heaven." Just below was 
another notice : "This door will be closed 
during the winter months." 

A VERY interesting series of Byroniana 
came up for sale at Sotheby's on the 8th 
instant. It included the poetical works 
published in eight volumes by Murray in 
1839, Medwin's "Journal," Leigh Hunt's 
"Lord Byron," Moore's "Letters and 
Journals of Lord Byron," etc., in fifteen 
quarto volumes, extra illustrated by the 
insertion of about 900 portraits, views, 
scenes, autograph letters, proof-sheets, a 
portrait of Byron by Westall, in pencil, and 
a great variety of other rare " ana" relating 
to Byron. This fine series realised ;^66. 
Judging from the prices of this and other 
remarkable lots whicli have lately come into 
the market, the work of "extra-illustrating" 
books seems to be hardly worth the candle. 
The 900 portraits, etc., must have cost a 
great deal more than they fetched at 

Under the title of " Poster Pillows " the 
following note has recently appeared in the 

Will Trui 
Printed by David Allen and Sons, Limited 

December, 1900 

The Poster. 


"Daily Express": — " The ' poster pillow' is 
the latest and most charming form of sofa or 
easy chair cushion. Choose two or three of 
the most effective, artistic designs displayed 
everywhere on our street hoardings. It is 
best to select a striking poster in two or 
three colours. Cover a cushion with silk, 
linen, or any impatterned material, trace on 
the design, and outline it in a coarse bold 
stitch. Many quaint, old-fashioned poster 
designs are specrally suited to drawing 
rooms, while something decorative and illus- 
trative of food and cookery may be chosen 
for the dining room. A man's sanctum can 
be very suitably fitted with some cushions 
designed from the many dainty posters ad- 
vertising the virtues of certain pipes, cigar- 
ettes and tobaccos. A stroll through a street 
picture gallery will suggest a dozen or more 
pretty ideas for nursery and bedroom. Out- 
door subjects should always be chosen for 
garden chairs and summer houses. Many 
ladies who have taken up the poster pillow 


TAILPIECE. Privat-Livemont 

idea with enthusiasm have made some of 
their rooms a standing show of the most 
delightful among the adveriisements of the 
hoarding. All tastes may be pleased by the 
poster pillow. There are plenty of doggyand 
sporting designs for outdoor and hunting 
men. The golfer may have his den made 
beautiful forever by pillows showing putting 
greens and golf sticks. A poster pillow with 
a design to suit individual hobbies is a 
capital wrinkle for a Christmas present." 
We have heard of poster designs being put 
to many strange and even ludicrous decora- 
tive uses, but we imagine the " Poster 
Pillow " will be hard to beat. 

The Brussels municipality takes a keen 
interest in street decoration. Last spring it 
organised a competition and granted prizes 
to the windows most handsomely adorned 
with flowers. The idea, a new one, was 
successfully carried out in a manner pleasing 
to the public, and the municipality has now 
decided to close the year 1900 with a com- 
petition somewhat of the same kind, off"ering 
prizes to the best decorated shop windows 
in Brussels. This novelty is calculated to 
encourage shopkeepers to contribute towards 
the beauty, as well as the gaiety of the 
town, and might be advantageously followed 
in other countries. 

The Board of Education has decided to 
open the Exhibition of Modern Illustration 
on Monday, January 7th next, in the galleries 
of the Indian section of the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, South Kensington. A 


The Poster. 

December, 1900. 

private view will be held on Saturday, 
January 5th. This will undoubtedly be the 
most important show of its kind ever 
organised in England. Its scope will be far 

We extract the following quotation from 
an interesting article entitled the " Alien 
Element in American Art," by Mr. Ellis T. 
Clarke : — " Of the painters, etchers, and 

cI'fite&drHiver- s 



Billels dWerdt fletour Collectif^.defsmille 
a Prix Redtiils 

wider than that of the Exhibition of Litho- 
graphy held some time ago under the same 

sculptors upon whom the present (Paris) 
exposition has conferred medals, eight are 
self-confessed exiles — Sargeant, Whistler, 

December, 1900. 

The Poster. 


Abbey, Alexander, Pennell, Saint Gaudens, ment and brought daily under the influence 

MacMonnies, and Brooks. Of the "gross of foreign models and masters, it is not a 

number of artists exhibiting in the American matter of wonderment that their art should 

section, seventy-fivehave taken upa P-uropean gradually acquire a foreign impress and 


residence and for indefinite periods or ror drift rapidly away trom national standards 
good have become alien to home and home and national subjects, that American art 
'nspiration. Dropped into a foreign environ- should become little more than French art 

The Poster. 

December, igcx). 

with American trimmings. A national art 
is not the mere vague vapouring of country- 
bred enthusiasm. Be it in figure painting 
or in landscape, it is the pre-requisite of the 
highest attainments. It has been said, and 
with truth, that the Alps and the Rhine 
never made a great painter. They have 
furnished striking pictures : pictures that 
have captivated the multitudes, but the 
multitude have seen in the pictures, not 
high art, but mere bits of wonderful 
scenery, that have pleased by their unique- 
ness or their association. French landscape 
painters have admittedly reached the highest 
degree of perfection, but they have done so 
not by ransacking the world for striking 
subjects on which to display their technical 
ability, but by getting into the closest com- 
munion with their native districts and 
seeking to interpret them by the medium of 
pigments. The same is true of geyire 
painting. Corot's rank as a landscape 

painter is admitted, but Corot got the 
material for all his paintings within a league 
of Paris. Foreign artists have repeatedly 
undertaken to paint French peasants, but 
all have fallen lamentably below Breton and 
Millet. Many have essayed to paint Holland 
dykes and windmills and Holland peasants, 
but the best pictures of Holland types and 
scenes have been by Dutch artists. These 
facts of common observation contain a 
lesson for the American artist — that the 
man who undertakes to interpret the world 
has too great a subject for his abilities, that 
a few home scenes correctly interpreted 
and depicted in a masterly manner will 
confer a more enduring fame than a multi- 
tude of alien subjects treated falsely or 
indifferently." Mr. Clarke rightly insists 
on the incontrovertible fact that the highest 
art is that which proclaims its place of 
origin, that which is racy of the soil of its 
native place. 


R. James Williams 

December, 1900. 

The Poster. 


Sujards in '"SLhc Poster'' Prize 
Cotnl^etiti ons« 

THE judges in the first four competitions 
established by the proprietor of this 
magazine were Mr. Cecil Aldin, Mr. 
George G. Hait^, Mr. John Hassall, Mr. 
Charles Hiatt, Mr. Hugh MacLeay, and 
Mr. Starr Wood. The names of the 
competitors were unknown to them until 
their award, which was practically unani- 
mous, had been made. 

The result in the first competition for a 
" Poster Design which will be deemed best 
to serve as an advertisement for the article 
advertised " was as follows : 

'Thomas J. Cliff, 123, Cambridge 
Rd., Mile End, 13s. 6d. 
Prise I. \ Miss Eugenie Richards, 3, 
Heskey St., Nottingham^ 
£2, 13s. 6d. 
Prize III. — Hugh Lawton, 27, Caversham 
Road, N.VV., Complete Set of Bound 
Volumes of The Poster. 
Prize IV. — J. A. Derbyshire, Deyne Av- 
enue, Prestwich, Complete Set of 
Bound Volumes of The Poster. 
The judges advised the proprietor ot 
The Poster to divide the amount of the 
first and second prizes combined equally 
between Mr. Thomas J. Cliff and Miss 
Eugenie Richards. They will, accordingly, 
receive three-and-a-half guineas each. As 
this competition was disappointing alike in 
the quality and quantity of entries, the fifth 
prize was not awarded. The total number 
of entries was forty-one. Of these, only a 
few combined artistic merit with the qualities 
necessary to an effective advertisement. 

In the competition for an "Illustrated 
Advertisement best suited for a Magazine or 
Newspaper," the following are the awards : — 

Prize I. — Fred. B. Wright, 8, Frances 
Terrace, N., £1 is. od., and Com- 
plete Set of Bound Volumes of The 

Prize II. — F. J. Mortimer, 10, Ordnance 

Row, Portsea, Complete Set of Bound 

Volumes of The Poster. 
Prize III. — Sidney Consterdine, 46, Rose- 

ville Terrace, Leeds, Complete Set of 

Bound Volumes of The Poster. 
In this class there were only sixteen 
entries, but the average attained was higher 
than in the previous class. 

Prize /.—Hugh Lawton, 27, Caversham 

Road, N.W., £<^ 5s. od. 
Prize II. — Miss Eugenie Richards, 3, 

Heskey Street, Nottingham, ;^2 2s. od. 
Prize III. — F. J. Mortimer, 10, Ordnance 

Row, Portsea, Complete Set of Bound 

Volumes of The Poster. 
The following received Honourable Men- 
tion : — 

Edwin J. Harris, 33, Rathbone 

Vincent S. Daniel, 14, Avenue Road, 
In this class the twenty-seven entries 
reached a much higher standard than those 
in either cf the preceding competitions. 
This was a competition "best adapted 
as a Poster for a Meat Extract, or similar 

Prize I. — Miss Marie P. Webb, 22, Avenue 
Road, South Hampstead, N.W., 
^5 5s. od. 

Prize II. — J. H. Thorpe, 4, Eraser Road, 
Walthamstow, £2 2s. od. 

Prize III. — John G. Borland, Queen's 
Hotel, Kirn, N.B., Complete Set of 
Bound Volumes of The Poster. 


The Poster. 

December, iqro. 

Althoug'h Mr. Thorpe's design has an 
inscription relating to an advertisement for 
Whisky, he indicated how it could be 
adapted for a Meat Extract, and so came 
within the conditions governing- the Class. 
The entries in this Class were very satis- 

While the judges did not deem it 
necessary to draw up a formal report, they 
were unanimously of opinion in rejecting 
meritorious designs in which the artist had 
entirely lost sight of the expense of repro- 
duction. Others were put aside by reason 
of superfluity of meaningless detail. In many 
cases insufficient attention was paid to the 
lettering which was often either fantastic or 

ill-drawn. We reproduce the first and second 
prize designs in all the four classes. The 
results of Competitions five and six will be 
announced shortly in Modern Advertising. 

We regard the competitions, looking to 
the fact that they are the first which have 
been organised in connection with this 
magazine, as satisfactory on the whole. 
Future issues of The Poster will contain 
particulars of further competitions which 
will, we hope, attract a greater number of 
designers and a higher standard of work. 
Artists are earnestly requested to consider 
the question of the suitability of their work 
for reproduction. 

The Foster. — Advertisements. 


50 MANY 3RTI5T5 having written asking to delay 
the closing of the COMPETITIONS, owing to 
the Holidays, we have decided to extend the 
period for receiving Entries until 31st October next. 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 

The Poster Design \ The Illustrated Advt. 





4th - 
5th - 

£5 5 0 
2 2 0 
Complete Set of . . 
Bound Volumes of 
"The Poster." 
Do., do. 
Do., do. 

Best suited for a Magazii 
spective of subject. 

or Newspaper, irre- 

PRIZES :-1st - 



£1 1 O & Complete 
Set of Bound Vols, 
of " The Poster." 

Complete Set of . . 
Bound Volumes of 
"The Poster." 

Do., do. 

and Coupon for Nos. 1 and 2 will be found in the June issue, 7Jd., post free. 

The Design 

Best adapted as a Poster 

for CofTee, Cocoa, or 

PRIZES :-ist 


£5 5 0 
2 2 0 

Complete Set of . . 
Bound Volumes of 
"The Poster." 

The Design 

PRIZES :-1st - £5 5 0 
2nd- 2 2 0 
3rd - Complete Set of . . 

Bound Volumes of 
"The Poster." 

The Conditions and Coupon for Nos. 3 and 4 will be found in the July Issue, 7id., post free. 

No. 5. 

The Scheme 

Not already adopted, considered most effective as 
a means of Advertising any new article. Detailed 
estimate of cost essential. 

PRIZES :-1st - £1 1 0 & Complete 
Set of Bound Vols, 
of "The Poster." 

2nd - Complete Set of . . 

Bound Volumes of 
" The Poster." 

3rd - Do., do. 

The Best Advt. 

(Unillustrated), for Magazine or Newspaper, irre- 
spective of subject. Sound argument, good display, 
and striking effect will be specially considered. 

PRIZES :-1st - £1 1 0 &, Complete 
Set of Bound Vols, 
of " The Poster." 

2nd - Complete Set of . . 

Bound Volumes of 
"The Poster." 

3rd - Do., do. 

The Conditions and Coupon for Nos. 3 and 4 

will be found in the June Issue 7id., post free. 


The Poster. — AdvertisemenU. 


5acl< Numbers 


"The Poster" 

Contain nearly 2,000 Illustrations, and are 
still to be obtained at the published price, 
with the exception of the first Six num- 
bers, which, on account of the great 
demand and scarcity of copies, are advan^ 
ced to 1/' each for Nos. 2, 4, 5, and 6 ; 
2/6 for No. I ; and 5/6 for No. 3. 

The back numbers are also bound in green, 
gold'lettered volumes, and are sold at 15/6 
for Vol. I., and 8/6 each for Vols. II. and 
III. On and after 29th September next, 
these prices will, for the reason above 
stated, be advanced. 

Those desirous of completing their Sets, or 
wishing to secure Copies or Volumes, 
should apply at once to the 


1, Arundel Street, 

Strand, London, W.C. 

The PosUr.—Advertiaemeats. 

CONTENTS, September, 1900. 

She S^ostcr- 


... Five Illustrations 
Part II. 

... Four Illustrations 
... Four Illustrations 

Paris Exhibition Notes 

Some Notes on Ancient Advertising 

Some B*ok Covers 

On the Wall 


Some French Posters Three Illustrations 

Richard Ranft Six Illustrations 

Posterdom Caricatures: No. XX.— Caran D'Ache Drawn bj' Cappiello 

The Hoardings Two Illustrations 

The Salle Caillebotte at the Luxembourg Four Illustrations 

Young Poster Makers Six Illustrations 

Palette Scrapings Five Illustrations 

Charles Hiatt 
Edgar Wenlock 

Richard Morton 

Charles Hiatt 



NLodcrn .Advertising. 


The Editor's Ideas and Ideals 

One Illustration ... i 

Advertising Notes 3 

To Attract Americans 3 

Largest Circulation in the World 3 

Boot and Shoe Advertising 4 

The Imitative Tendency Two Illustrations 
Catalogues, Booklets, Circulars, &c. 

Abuses of Advertising 

Beecham's Latest Advertisement ... 
Correspondence ... One Illustration 
A Publisher's Advertising Idea 

BOUND VOLUMES in green cloth, and artistically lettered in gold, Vol. I. (advanced price) 15s. 6d. ; 
Vol. II., 8s. 6d. ; Vol. III., 8s. 6d. Covers and Indices for Binding, 1/6. 

BACK NUMBBBS can still be obtained at published price, except No. i, 2s. 6d. per copy; Nos. 2, 
4, 5 and 6, Is. per copy ; and No. 3, 5s. 6d. Postage l^d. extra. As there are only a few 
copies left those desirous of completing sets should apply immediately. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION to The Poster is 7s. 6d., post free. 

PUBLISHED on the 15th of each month, at the Offices of the Proprietor, Hugh MacLeay, i, Arundel St., 
Strand, London, W.C. 

CONTINENTAL AGENTS. Nilsson & Co, 7, Rue de Lille, Paris ; Branches at Leipzig, Amsterdam, 

Barcelona, Milan, Athens, and Salonica. London : i6 and i8, Wardour Street, W. 
ADVERTISEMENTS for The Poster should reach the Office on or before the 6th of each month in 

order to ensure insertion in the following issue. 
ARTISTS are invited to send Drawings, Posters, Illustrated Advertisements, Designs, etc., as we possess 

unique facilities for the disposal of same. 
PRINTERS, LITHOGRAPHERS, &c., should forward Specimens of their latest works, with the view 

to reproduction and review in The Poster. 
ADVERTISERS are desired to submit samples of Advertisements for criticism. 

LITHOGRAPHERS, PRINTERS, AND ADVERTISERS in quest of designs should note that a 
large stock is always kept in hand at the Offices of The Poster. 

"THE POSTER," 1, Arundel Street, Strand, LONDON, W.C. 


The Poster. — AdverHsemeats. 

Telephone: No. 22, Walthamstow. 
Telegrams: "Era Press, Leyton." 

General, ConMEf^ciAL 


Printers, Publishers, etc. 

Price Lists, Circulars, Show Cards 

of every description. 

The Printers of this Journal. 

First-Class Work. 
Personal Supervision. 


The ERA Press, High Kd., Leyton, N.E 


Publishers and Dealers in 


18, Cranbourn Street, W.C. 

POSTERS Bought, Sold, or Exchanged. 

Also a large Selection cf Japanese Prints. 


The Improved Air Brush for Distributing 
Liquid Colours. Effects a great saving 
in time and a greater excellence 
in work produced 
send for 

to the Artist 
for Black & White 
& Water Colour Drawings, 
Photographic Finishing.producing 
Pictures for Process Engraving, 
Lithographic Work on Stone, etc 

30, Memorial Hall, FARRINGDON ST., 


South African Publications. 

Transvaal Constitution &. Conventions 

Third Edition, 1/- 

Prlnsloo of Prinsloosdorp. 

A Tale of Transvaal Offlcialdom, 1 - ; Cloth 8/ 

" It is enough to commend it to the reading 
public as a first-rate work of art, which 
deserves a permanent place amid the litera- 
ture of social and political satire." — Spectator. 

A South African Souvenir. 

English Edition, Cloth, 1,300 Illustrations, 5/- 

" A more elaborate volume . . . has never 
been issued by a South African printing 
house." — Johannesburg Star. 

Hugh MacLeay, 

1, Arundel Street, Strand. W.C. 

The Poster. — Advertisements. 









The Poster— Advertisetaettts. 


To know the many excellent Advertising Specialities manufactured by us. We 
produce everything required by the Up-to-Date Advertiser in the way of 

Enamelled Iron 
and Copper 


These are best adapted to advertise your wares at Railway Stations Docks, and 
other public places, and for Tram Cars, 'Buses, Door Plates, etc. 

The fullest Information and Terms on application to 

writI" The PERMANENT Enamel Co., Plaistow, E. 

I m\)l Writing 


I write and Illustrate 
Advertisements, Book- 
> lets. Catalogues, etc. Tell me 
! what you require, and I will make 
' suggestions and give Estimates 
as to Cost. When 
^ writing send specimen 

of Advertisements, etc. ^ 

1, ilrundel St., Strand, Eotidoti, 





_ w ^ Of News- 

^}lC^\^^^^ paper References 
j* • to yourself, or to any 

• ' Subject in which you may 
be Privately, Professionally or Com- 
mercially interested. 

VvSJ E read the Press of the whole 
VaJ World, and our charges for 
service are so low as to be well 
worth your while applying for same. 
You will also receive a booklet contain- 
ing some interesting facts in regard to 
Press Cuttings. 

Harwood's ''Tureau!'"'' 

1, Arundel St., Strand, w.c. 


The Poster. — Advertisewents. 

Directory of Leading Bill Posters 


ABERDEEN (N.B.) 130,000 

Aberdeen Free Press, Bill- Posting- Dept. 


Bangor and District Billposting Co., 
Lorne House, 258, High Street. 


Barrow and Furness District Billpost- 
ing- Co., 80, Duke Street. 


Irish Billposting Co., 22, William Street 


Sheffields, Ltd., BarwickStreet, Birming- 
ham, and 62, Chancery Lane, London. 


Blackburn and District Billposting- and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., Dandy Walk, 
Darwen Street. 

BOLTON (LANGS.) 160,000 

(District Population, 250,000.) 

Bolton and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., Silverwell St. 

Greenhalgh and Bleakley, 113, Black- 
horse Street. 

BRADFORD (YORKS.) 262,325 

Sheldons, Limited, Union St. Est. 1840. 

DUNDEE (FORFARSHIRE, N.B.) .. 166,272 

McArth ur, Son, & Co., 44, High Street. 

GLASMT^ ~. ~. ... 564,968 

D. Adamson & Son, 12, Waterloo St. 

Robert Beith, 25 Hope Street. 

John Macdonald & Son, 93, Bothwell St. 


Matthew McMillan, 21 & 23, Cathcart 
St reet . Established 1872. 


W. H. Breare, "Herald" Office, 

HULL (YORKS.) ... T.. ... 225,715 

Hull and Grimsby Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 12, Bowlalley 



Robert Purcer, 3, 

Wilder Road (Estab- 

lished 1850). 



Sheldons, Ltd., 

8, Cookridge Street. 



City Billposting C 

0., 122, Belgrave Gate 

LIMERICK 37,155 

Guy and Co., Ltd., 114, George St. 


Sheldons, Ltd., 4, West Street. 

NORWICH (NORFOlIo ~. ... 100,978 

Robert Jeary and Sons, 9, St. Peter's 
Street, Market Place. 

NOTTINGHAM V.. 7.. ... 250io 

Rockleys, Limited, Talbot Street. 
City Billposting Co., 8, Shakespeare 


... 74,200 

(District Population, 1 


G. and A. Woolley, 2, Old Smithhills. 


... 100,000 

(In the three towns, 1 


West of England Billposti 

ng Co., Ltd., 

149, Union Street. 


... 165,000 

Portsmouth and District Bi 

Iposting and 

Advertising Co., Ltd., 64 




... 111,696 

Corporation Billposting and Advertising 
Department, 11, Market Street. 

SKIPTON (YORKS)... ^ ... 10,376 

Thomas Cork, Sheep Street. 


(Population of the Company's 

District, 30,000 ) 
South Petherton and District Billpost- 
ing and Advertising Co. Manager : 
W. G. Gavl eard. 


Southport Corporation and Southport 
and District Billposting Co., Ltd., 
Shaftesbury Buildings, Eastbank 
Street. Thos. Blaylock, Sec. 


Stockport and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 12a, Church- 
gate. Manager : J. Eyres. 

TORQUAY mm)7. 7. ... 25,534 

Torquay Directory Co., Ltd., Fleet 


Wolverhampton and District Billposting 
and Advertising Co., Ltd., St. 
George's Parade. 

YARMOUTH"(No17oLIO ^7^49^8 

John High, 16 2, Middlegate Street. 

YORK ^ 66,984 

Baines Bros., 8, Little Shambles. 


Southern Publishing Co., Ltd., 130, 
North Street, and West Pier 
Entrance, Brighton, and 62, Fleet 
Street, London, E.C. 


Billing, Jarrett, Read and Co., Ltd., 
The Red House, Colston Avenue. 

BURNLEY (LANCv ).T^ ~ .. 100,000 

Burnley Billposting Co., Ltd., 4, Bull St. 


Glamorgan Billposting Co., Ltd., 8, 
_Park Street, Cardiff. 


(District Population, 12,000.) 
Cinderford and Forest of Dean Bill- 
posting and Advertising Co., Ltd., 
Victoria Street. 

CORK 7. ~ ... ... 80,125 

Guy and Co , Ltd., 70, Patrick Street. 


Mills and Co., 21, Spon Street^ 


Crewkerne and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co. 


New Liverpool Billposting Co., Ltd., 
. 48. Tithebarn Street. 

LONDON 4,764,312 

Walter Hill & Co., Ltd., 67, 69 & 71, 
Southampton Row, W.C. 

Pascalls, Ltd., 46, Bridge Road, Ham- 
mersmith, W. Telephone: 38 Ham- 

Trinder & Co., High Street, Ealing, W. 
I Established 1857. Proprietors of 
250 Private Stations. 

Christopher Wilton and Co., 18, Eagle 
Wharf Road, N. 

Mutual Posting Co., 125, Endlesham 
Road, Balham, S.W. 

Soulh-West Billposting Co., 40a, St. 
John's Hill, Clapham Junction, S.W. 


Manchester Billposting- Co., Ltd., 8i, 
Lever Street, Piccadilly. 


Henry Roberts, 6i, Albert Road. 

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE ... ... 186,324 

Newcastle and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 22, Percy 

Full Particulars as to terms for insertion can be obtained on application to the Manager, 
" The Poster" Office, i, Arundel Street, Strand, W.C. 

Wf LONDON, ll ■ | 1^ 

Billposting Contractors & Experts 

67, 69, &, 71, Southampton Row. 

WALTER HILL & 00. have established a SPECIAL DEPARTMENT for 

Posting ^r"?!;; Provinces 

Upon an improved System, and claim for it that it is 
the ONLY Organisation by which . . 

Positions are Selected Systematicallii and 
Tliorougiily and Periodicaliy Inspected. 


The Extensive Contracts placed by the following influential Firms are 
among the many entrusted to Walter Hill & Co. ; 

Pears* soap Bass's ales Wills's tobacco 

answers bovril barnum &, bailey 

cadburys cocoa carter's liver pills hansons' coffee 

horniman's tea neave's food sanitas 

harmsworth's publications keating's insect powder 



W. H. & eo. are prepared to submit Estimates for Billposting in the UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA, and throughout the BRITISH COLONIES. 

Printed by E. R. Alexander & Sons, at their Works, The Era Press, High Road, Leyton, N.E., in the County of Essex-; and Published 
by the Proprietor, Hugh MacLeay, i, Arundel Street, Stvand, London, W.C., in the County of Middlesex. 

Supplement Modern S.dvcrtisini 

The Poster. — Advertisements. 


50 riAINY 3RTI5T5 having written asking to delay 
the closing of the COMPETITIONS, owing to 
the Holidays, we have decided to extend the 
period for receiving Entries until 31st October next. 

No. 1. 

The Poster Design 

PRIZES :-1st -£550 

2nd- 2 2 0 

3rd - Complete Set of . . 

Bound Volumes of 
"The Poster." 

4th - Do., do. 

5th - Do., do. 

No. 2. 

The Illustrated Advt. 

Best suited for a Maga 
spective of subject. 

or Newspaper, irre- 

PRIZES :-ist 



£1 1 O <Sb Complete 
Set of Bound Vols, 
of " The Poster." 

Complete Set of . . 
Bound Volumes of 
"The Poster." 

Do., do. 

The Conditions and Coupon for Nos. 1 and 2 will be found in the June issue, 7id., post free. 

The Design 

PRIZES :-1st - £5 5 0 

2nd- 2 2 0 

3rd - Complete Set of . . 

Bound Volumes of 
"The Poster." 

The Conditions and Coupon for Nos. 3 and 4 

The Design 

PRIZES :-1st - £5 5 0 
2nd- 2 2 0 
3rd - Complete Set of . . 

Bound Volumes of 
"The Poster." 

be found in the July Issue, 7|d., post free. 

No. 5. 

The Scheme 

Not already adopted, considered most effective as 
a means of Advertising any new article. Detailed 
estimate of cost essential. 

PRIZES :-1st - £1 1 O & Complete 
Set of Bound Vols, 
of " The Poster." 

2nd - Complete Set of . . 

Bound Volumes of 
" The Poster." 

3rd - Do., do. 

The Conditions and Coupon for Nos. 3 and 

The Best Advt. 

(Unillustrated), for Magazine or Newspaper, irre- 
spective of subject. Sound argument, good display, 
and striking effect will be specially considered. 

PRIZES :-ist - 


3rd - 

will be found 

£110 4, Complete 
Set of Bound Vols, 
of " The Poster." 

Complete Set of . . 
Bound Volumes of 
"The Poster." 

Do., do. 

Issue 7.\d., post free. 


The Poster — Advertisements. 

Those Readers who send 
their Subscriptions for 1901 
before 15th Nov. will receive 
the next Two issues (including 
the Shilling Christmas Num- 
ber, with Presentation Plate), 
Free of Charge. 

The Christmas Number 
will be a Record one. A Por- 
trait Sl<etch of SIR HENRY 
IRVING, in Scotson Clark's 
masterful style, will form one 
of its unique features. 

An Announcement 
of Qreat Importance 
to all Readers will be 
made in NOVEMBER 

Several Numbers of "The 
Poster" are Out of Print. By 
Subscribing NOW you will 
make sure of securing the 
Christmas Number with all its 
special insets and plates. 

Back Numbers of "The 
Poster" are becoming rare. 
Is your Set complete? If not, 
write at once. Binding Case 
and Index for Vol. IV. Now 
Ready. Bound Volumes also 
on sale. 

The Poster.— AdrertiMemeats. 

CONTENTS, October, 1900. 

She foster. 


The Art of H. G. Ibels Eight Illustrations ... H. R. Woestyn 

Parliamentary Election Posters Thirteen Illustrations ... 

Herbert Walmsley's Theatrical Posters... Seven Illustrations ... John Francis . 
Posterdom Caricatures: No. XXI.— C. H. Sime Drawn hy J. H. Thorpe . 

The Gentle Art of "Cribbing" Sixteen Illustrations ... James Hall 

The Hoardings 

Poster Neurosis 

Frank A. Nanklvell Three Illustrations ... S. C 

Palette Scrapings One Illustration 

iVLodern Advertising. 

The Editor's Ideas and Ideals 

One Illustration ... i 
Dailies, Weeklies, and Monthlies. 

One Illustration ... 3 
Brewers' Advertising 4 

Advertising on the Union Jack 
Dairy Advertising. One Illustration ... 

Show Cards 

Honesty in Advertising. One Illustration 
Daily Newspapers for Natives in India 



... 4 

BOUND VOIiUMES in green cloth, and artistically lettered in gold, Vol. I. (advanced price) 15s. 6d. ; 
Vol. II., 8s. 6d. ; Vol. III., 8s. 6d. Covers and Indices for Binding, 1/6. 

BACK NUMBERS can still be obtained at published price, except No. i, 2s. 6d. per copy ; Nos. 2, 
4, 5 and 6, Is. per copy ; and No. 3, 5s. 6d. Postage l^d. extra. As there are only a few 
copies left those desirous of completing sets should apply immediately. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION to The Poster is 7s. 6d., post free. 

PUBIjISHBD on the 15th of each month, at the Offices of the Proprietor, Hugh MacLeay, i, Arundel St., 
Strand, London, W.C. 

CONTINENTAL AGENTS. Nilsson & Co, 7, Rue de Lille, Paris ; Branches at Leipzig, Amsterdam, 
Barcelona, Milan, Athens, and Salonica. London : 16 and 18, Wardour Street, W. 

ADVERTISEMENTS for The Poster should reach the Office on or before the 6th of each month in 
order to ensure insertion in the following issue. 

ARTISTS are invited to send Drawings, Posters, Illustrated Advertisements, Designs, etc., as we possess 
unique facilities for the disposal of same. 

PRINTERS, LiITHOGRAPHERS, &C., should forward Specimens of their latest works, with the view 
to reproduction and review in The Poster. 

ADVERTISERS are desired to submit samples of Advertisements for criticism. 

LITHOGRAPHERS, PRINTERS, AND ADVERTISERS in quest of designs should note that a 
large stock is always kept in hand at the Offices of The Poster. 

"THE P05TER," 1, Arundel Street, strand, LONDON, W.C. 


The Poster. — Adrertiaemeats. 

Telephone: No. 22, Walthamstow. 
Telegrams: " Era Press, Leyton." 

General, Commercial 


Printers, Publishers, etc. 

Price Lists, Circulars, Show Cards 

of every description. 

The Printers of this Journal. 

First-Class Work. 
Personal Supervision. 

The ERA Press, High Kd., Leyton, N.E 

?. S. taM J> Co., 

Publishers and Dealers in 

^ ESTAMPES, &c., 

18, Cranbourn Street, W.C. 

POSTERS Bought, Sold, or Exchanged. 

Also a large Selection of Japanese Prints. 

The J»» 


The Improved Air Brush for Distributing 
Liquid Colours. Effects a great saving 
in time and a greater excellence 
in work produced, 
send for 

for Black & White 
Water Colour Drawings, 
Photographic Finishing, producing 
for Process Engraving, 
Lithographic Work on Stone, etc. 

30, Memorial Hall, FARRINGDON ST. 

^ — LONDON, E.G. 


South African Publications. 

Transvaal Constitution &. Conventions 

Third Edition, 1/- 

Prinsloo of Prinsloosdorp. 

A Tale of Transvaal Officialdom, 1/- ; Cloth 3/6 

" It is enough to commend it to the reading 
public as a first-rate work of art, which 
deserves a permanent place amid the litera- 
ture of social and political satire." — Spectator. 

A South African Souvenir. 

English Edition, Cloth, 1,300 Illustrations, 5/- 

" A more elaborate volume . . . has never 
been issued by a South African printing 
\\ow%e.." — Johannesburg Star. 

Hugh MacLeay, 

1, Arundel Street, Strand. W.C. 

The Poster. — Advertisements. 










The Poster. — Advertiaemeats. 



To know the many excellent Advertising Specialities manufactured by us. We 
produce everything required by the Up-to-Date Advertiser in the way of 

c „ . , ( SIGNS 

Enamelled Iron \ tablets 
and Copper ^1:^1^5 

i-i— ( LETTERS 

These are best adapted to advertise your wares at Railway Stations, Docks, and 
other public places, and for Tram Cars, 'Buses, Door Plates, etc. 

The fullest Information and Terms on application to 



CALL OR -r|,g PERMANENT Enamel Co., Plaistow, E. 

Or, if not Yourself, 
YOUR Profession— or 
YOUR Business-or 
YOUR Investments— or 
YOUR Family-or 

Profession, Business, 

or Family— or 
ANYTHING in which 
YOU may be interested. 

We can send you anything 
that appears in print. 
We examine the Press of the whole world, and shall 
be pleased to send Press Cuttings, day by day, or as 
often as desired, or we will enter in Scrap Books 
and submit latter periodically for your inspection. 
May we send you Booklet explain- 
ing the service we offer you ? 


1, Arundel St., Strand, W.C. 


1 Tkat's Oriainal, 


I can give you the above 
at prices no higher than 
you would have to pay 
for advertising that isn't 
original — that fails to 
hold attention— and that 
falls to bringyou business 
enough to repay its cost. 

I make a charge for 
seeing that you get adver- 
tising that's original, and 
that will hold attention 
and bringyou business. 

5 Hugh MacLeay. \ 

^ 1, Arundel St., Strand, W.C. \ 


The Poster. — Advertisements. 

Directory of Leading Bill Posters 


ABERDEEN (N.B.) 130,000 

Aberdeen Free Press, Bill-Posting Dept. 


Bangor and District Billposting Co., 
Lome House, 258, High Street. 


Barrow and Furness District Billpost- 
ing Co., So, Duke Street. 


Irish Billposting Co., 22, William Street 


Sheffields, Ltd. , BarwickStreet, Birming- 
ham, and 62, ChanceryJ^jine, London. 

BLACKBURN (LANGS.) ••■ 120,064 

Blackburn and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., Dandy Walk, 
Darwen Street. 

BOLTON (LANGS.) 160,000 

(District Population, 250,000.) 

Bolton and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., Silverwell St. 

Greenhalgh and Bleakley, 113, Black- 
horse Street. 

. BRADFORD (YORKS.) 262,325 

Sheldons, Limited, Union St. Est. 1840. 


Southern Publishing Co., Ltd., 130, 
North Street, and West Pier 
Entrance, Brighton, and 62, Fleet 
Str eet, London, E.C. 

BRISTOL (GLOUCESTER) ... ... 285,611 

Billing, Jarrett, Read and Co., Ltd., 
The Red House, Colston Avenue. 

BURNLEY (LANCi.)... ~. ^OpOO 

Burnley Billposting Co., Ltd., 4, Bull St. 

CARDIFF (GLAMORGAN) ... ... 132,163 

Glamorgan Billposting Co., Ltd., 8, 
Park Stree t , Cardiff. 


(District Population, 12,000.) 
Cinderford and Forest of Dean Bill- 
posting and Advertising Co., Ltd., 
Victoria Street. 

CORK ~ ^- ~- ... 80,125 

Guy and Co., Ltd., 70, Patrick Street. 


Mills and Co., 21, S pon Street. 

grTwkerne (sImerset) 

Crewkerne and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co. 

DUNDEE (FORFARSHIRE, N.B.) .. 166,272 

McArthur, Son, & Co., 44, High Street. 

GLASGOW ... ~ ~ ... 564,968 

D. Adamson & Son, 12, Waterloo St. 

Robert Beith, 25 Hope Street. 

John Macdonald & Son, 93, Bothwell St. 


Matthew McMillan, 21 & 23, Cathcart 
Street. Established 1872. 

HARROGATE (YORkIT ~I ... 22,000 

W. H. Breare, "Herald" Office, 

HULL (YORKS.) 225,715 

Hull and Grimsby Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 12, Bowlalley 


Robert Purcer, 3, Wilder Road (Estab- 
lished 1850). 

LEEDS (YORKS.) 412,000 

Sheldons, Ltd., i8, Cookridge Street. 

LEICESTER^ v.. 7^. r 200,000 

City B illposting Co., i22,Belgrave Gate 

LIMIrTcK 37,155 

Guy and Co., Ltd., 1 14, George St. 

LIVERPOOL (LAllCSy ... - 548,471 

New Liverpool Billposting Co., Ltd., 
48, Titliebarn Street. 

LONDON 4,764,312 

Walter Hill & Co., Ltd., 67, 69 & 71, 
Southampton Row, W.C. 

Pascalls, Ltd., 46, Bridge Road, Ham- 
mersmith, W. Telephone: 38 Ham- 

Trinder & Co., High Street, Ealing, W. 
Established 1857. Proprietors of 
250 Private Stations. 

Christopher Wilton and Co., 18, Eagle 
Wharf Road, N. 

Mutual Posting Co., 125, Endlesham 
Road, Balham, S.W. 

South-West Billposting Co., 40a, St. 
John's Hill, Clapham Junction, S.W. 

MANCHESTER ^. ~ ^05,343 

Manchester Billposting Co., Ltd., 8i, 
Lever Street, Piccadilly. 

MIDDLESBORO' (YORKS.) ... .. 84,016 

Henry Roberts, 6i, Albert Road. 

:jewcastle-on-tyne 186,324 

J^ewcastle and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 22, Percy 


Sheldons, Ltd., 4, West Street. 


Robert Jeary and Sons, 9, St. Peter's 
Street, Market Place. 


Rockleys, Limited, Talbot Street. 
City Billposting Co., 8, Shakespeare 


(District Population, 160,000.) 
G. and A. WooUey, 2, Old Smithhills. 


(In the three towns, 181,000.) 
West of England Billposting Co., Ltd., 
149, Union Street. 

pIrTSMOUTH (HANTS.) ... .• 165,000 

Portsmouth and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co. , Ltd., 64, Commercial 

PRESTON (LANGS.) 111,696 

Corporation Billposting and Advertising 
Department, ii. Market Street. 

SKIPTON (YORKS) ... ... 10,376 

Thomas Cork, Sheep Street. 


(Population of the Company's 

District, 30,000 ) 
South Petherton and District Billpost- 
ing and Advertising Co. Manager : 
W. G. Gayleard. 


Southport Corporation and Southport 
and District Billposting Co., Ltd., 
Shaftesbury Buildings, Eastbank 
Street. Thos. Blaylock, Sec. 


Stockport and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 12a, Church- 
gate. Mana ger : J. Eyres. 

TORgUAY (DIvoIJ) 25,534 

Torquay Directory Co., Ltd., Fleet 


Wolverhampton and District Billposting 
and Advertising Co., Ltd., St. 
George's Parade. 

YARMOUTH (NORFOLK) ^ ■• 49,318 

John High, 162, Middlegate Street. 

YORK ~- ••• 66,984 

Baines Bros., 8, Little Shambles. 

Full Particulars as to terms for insertion can be obtained on application to the Manager^ 
" The Poster'' Office, i, Arundel Street, Strand, W.C. 

ALTERnl Lis* 

Billposting Contractors & Experts, 

67, 69, & 71, Southampton Row. 

WALTER HILL & CO. have established a SPECIAL DEPARTMENT for 

Posting 'out"?h; Provinces 

Upon an improved System, and claim for it that it is 
the ONLY Organisation by which . . 

Positions are Selected Systematically anil 
Theronylily anil Perleillcally Inspected. 


The Extensive Contracts placed by the following influential Firms are 
among the many entrusted to Walter Hill & Co. : 

Pears* soap Bass s ales Wiuls's Tobacco 







W. H. « eo. are prepared to submit Estimates for Billposting in the UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA, and throughout the BRITISH COLONIES. 

^ut>t>lement . * . . * - • ' . NLodcrn flidvcrtising. 

The Poster. — Advertisements. 

The Prize Competitions. 

I HAVE received large entries in most of the Classes. Some of the 
work entered is strikingly original, and proves the existence of much 
hitherto undiscovered talent. 

The prize-winners' names, together with the prize- 
w inning entries will be published in the GRAND 

The Grand Ama5 No. 
of " The Poster/' 

IN addition to Results of Prize Competition, will be a DOUBLE 
NUMBER, with many new features which are being introduced 
because I know they will be appreciated. It would be impolitic 
for me to detail fully all I have in store for readers of the Xmas 
Number, more especially as I want you to be agreeably surprised. 
I will venture to assert, however, that one plate of several will 
alone be considered worth more than the price of all the rest, 
with magazine and its scores of illustrations and exceptionally 
interesting reading matter. 

Further, the Xmas Number will also contain the announce- 
ment of a new departure in connection with "our" magazine. 
It is a departure the particulars of which 1 would like every 
occasional, as well as regular, reader to see. I trust you will at 
once ask your bookseller to secure you a copy. 

The Xmas No. will be published on 15th December next. 

Hugh MacLeay. 

The Pottw.—AdrertiBetaeata. 


CONTENTS, November, 1900. 

She Poster. 


Sidney Hebblethwaite 

The Collecting of Playbills. Part I, 

Some Kemble Bills 


The Black Spot in America 

Dimensions of Continental Posters 
Posterdom Caricatures: No. XXII.- 

The New English Art Club 

Sequel Posters 

The Hoardings 

Some English Magazine Covers 
Palette Scrapings 

... Four Illustrations 

... Four Illustrations 

... Seven Illustrations 
One Illustration 
Frank A. Nankivell 
One Illustration 
... Six Illustrations 
T1V0 Illustrations 
. . . Eight Illustrations 
... Eight Illustrations 

iVLodern Advertising. 

The Editor's Ideas and Ideals 

One Illustratitn ... i 

Advertising Notes. One Illustration 2 

Show Cards. Two Illustrations 3 

Cycle Advertising 4 

Dailies, Weeklies, and Monthlies. 

One Illustration ... s 

Charles Hiatt 


Drawn by E, KiNSEI.LA 
... C. H 

... H. R. WOESTYN 

Postal Business. One Illustration 

Ads. Caricatured by Jack B. Yeats. 

Four Illustratio 


Rival Newspapers 

A Pleasing Show Card. One Illustratt 





... 6 

BOUND VOIiUMES in green cloth, and artistically lettered in gold, Vol. I. (advanced price) 15s. 6d. 
Vol. II., 8s. 6d. ; Vol. III., 8s. 6d. Covers and Indices for Binding, 1/6. 

BACK NUMBBRS can still be obtained at published price, except No. i, 2s. 6d. per copy ; Nos. 2, 
4, 5 and 6, Is. per copy ; and No. 3, 6s. 6d. Postage l^d. extra. As there are only a few 
copies left those desirous of completing sets should apply immediately. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION to The Poster is 7s. 6d., post free. 

PUBLISHED on the 15th of each month, at the Offices of the Proprietor, Hugh MacLeay, i, Arundel St., 
Strand, London, W.C. 

CONTINENTAL AGENTS. Nilsson & Co, 7, Rue de Lille, Paris ; Branches at Leipzig, Amsterdam, 

Barcelona, Milan, Athens, and Salonica. London : 16 and 18, Wardour Street, W. 
ADVERTISEMENTS for The Poster should reach the Office on or before the 6th of each month in 

order to ensure insertion in the following issue. 
ARTISTS are invited to send Drawings, Posters, Illustrated Advertisements, Designs, etc., as we possess 

unique facilities for the disposal of same. 
PRINTERS, LITHOGRAPHERS, &c., should forward Specimens of their latest works, with the view 

to reproduction and review in The Poster. 
ADVERTISERS are desired to submit samples of Advertisements for criticism. 

LITHOGRAPHERS, PRINTERS, AND ADVERTISERS in quest of designs should note that a 
large stock is always kept in hand at the Offices of The Poster. 

"THE P05TER," 1, Arundel Street, Strand, LONDON, W.C. 


The Poatet.—Adrertiaem^ts. 

Lend me your ears . . I could a tale unfold 

THIS Is the 
Trade Card 
of One of 
The Best 
and Poster 
Producing Firms 

Designs by the 
Leading Artists. 


Give Them a 

t §i\QVc/^L>D^6l/l!i[~L5 
-= >A bPt-Cl/lLlTY 



18, Cranbourn Street, London, 



Les Operas (Set of lo) 

La Danse (Set of lo) 

W. BLY. 

London Views— a Series of 12 | 
Coloured Wood Blocks (Set of 12)) 

s. d. 
2 0 
2 0 

2 6 


The Four Flowers as\ Each ... 10 
Calendars for 190 1 ... j Post Free 1 4 



South African Publications. 

Transvaal Constitution & Conventions 

Third Edition, 1/- 

Prinsloo of Prinsloosdorp. 

A Tale of Transvaal Officialdom, 1/-; Cloth 8/6 

" It is enough to commend it to the reading 
public as a first-rate work of art, which 
deserves a permanent place amid the litera- 
ture of social and political satire." — Spectator. 

A South African Souvenir. 

English Bdltlon, Cloth, 1,300 Illustrations, 5/- 

" A more elaborate volume . . . has never 
been issued by a South African printing 
house."— Johannesburg Star. 

Hugh MacLeay, 

1, Arundel Street, Strand. W.C. 

The Poster — Advertisements. 

The AVENUE PRE55, Ltd. 



OR CALL AT . . . 

Telephone (Hoiborn) feudgatc Orcus. feONDON, B.C. 



The Poster. — Advertisements. 








The Poster. — Advertisements. 


The S)catt CngraVtnd Co., 




Dean 5trcet, 
Fetter Lane, 



Bankers :— 


(High Holborn 

Telephone : — 
565 (Holborn). 

[From Photo by W. Downey & Son, Ebury St., S.W 



The Poster. — AdvertiseaiMtts. 

Directory of Leading Bill Posters 


ABERDEEN (N.B.) 130,000 

Aberdeen Free Press, Bill-Posting- Dept. 

BANGOR (CARNARVON) ~. ... 10,892 

Bangor and District Billposting Co., 
Lorne House, 258, High Street. 


Barrow and Furness District Billpost- 
ing- Co., 80, Duke Street. 


Irish Billposting Co., 22, William Street 

BIRMINGHAM (WARWICK) ... ... 478,117 

Sheflfields, Ltd. , BarwickStreet, Birming- 
ham, and 62, Chancery Lane, London. 


BlacJ<burn and District Billposting- and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., Dandy Walk, 
Darwen Street. 

BOLTON (LANGS.) 160,000 

(District Population, 250,000.) 

Bolton and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., Silverwell St. 

Greenhalgh and Bleakley, 113, Black- 
horse Street. 

BRADFORD (YORKS.) 262,325 

Sheldons, Limited, Union St. Est. 1840. 

BRIGHTON (SUSSEX) ~ ... 142,000 

Southern Publishing Co., Ltd., 130, 
North Street, and West Pier 
Entrance, Brighton, and 62, Fleet 
Street, London, E.C. 


Billing, Jarrett, Read and Co., Ltd., 
The Red House, Colston Avenue. 

BURNLEY (LANDS. ).^^ ~- ^TOpOl 

Burnley Billposting Co., Ltd., 4, Bull St. 


Glamorgan Billposting Co., Ltd., 8, 
Park Street, Cardiff. 


(District Population, 1 2,000.) 
Cinderford and Forest of Dean Bill- 
posting and Advertising Co., Ltd., 
Victoria Street. 

CORK I ~. ^- ^ 80,12"5 

Guy and Co., Ltd., 70, Patrick Street. 


Mills and Co., 21, S pon Street. 


Crewkerneand District Billposting and 
Advertising Co. 

DUNDEE (FORFARSHIRE, N.B.) .. 166,272 

McArthur, Son, & Co., 44, High Street. 

GLASGGW~ I ~. ... 564,968 

D. Adamson & Son, 12, Waterloo St. 

Robert Beith, 25 Hope Street. 

John Macdonald & Son, 93, Both-well St. 

GREENOCK (RENFREW)"! ... 75,000 

Matthew McMillan, 21 & 23, Cathcart 
Street. Establish ed 1872. 

HARROGATE (YORKS.) ~ 22,000 

W. H. Breare, "Herald" Office, 

HULL (YORKS.) ... ~ ... 225,715 

Hull and Grimsby Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 12, Bowlalley 


Robert Purcer, 3, Wilder Road (Estab- 
lished 1850). 

LEEDS (YORKS.) 412,000 

Sheldons, Ltd. , i8, Cookridge Street. 

LEICESTER^ ... 200,000 

City Billposting Co., i22,Belgrave Gate 

LIMERICK ... ~. Z ... 37,155 

Guy and Co., Ltd., 114, George St. 

UVERPOOL TlANCS^) ~ ... 548.471 

New Liverpool Billposting Co., Ltd., 
48, Tithebarn Street. 

LONDON ... ~ ~ 4,764,312 

Walter Hill & Co., Ltd., 67, 69 & 71, 
Southampton Row, W.C. 

Pascalls, Ltd., 46, Bridge Road, Ham- 
mersmith, W. Telephone: 38 Ham- 

Trinder 8c Co., High Street, Ealing, W. 
Established 1857. Proprietors of 
250 Private Stations. 

Christopher Wilton and Co., 18, Eagle 
Wharf Road, N. 

Mutual Posting Co., 125, Endlesham 
Road, Balham, S.W. 

South-West Billposting Co., 40a, St. 
John's Hill, Clapham Junction, S.W. 


Manchester Billposting Co., Ltd., 8i, 
Lever Street, Piccadilly. 

MIDDLE8B0R0' (YORKS.) 84,016 

Henry Roberts, 6i, Albert Road. 

NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE ... ... 186,324 

Newcastle and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 22, Percy 


Sheldons, Ltd., 4, West Street. 

NORWICH (NORFOLkT^". 1711778 

Robert Jeary and Sons, 9, St. Peter's 
Street, Market Place. 

NOTTINGHAM 7 7. ... 250^0 

Rockleys, Limited, Talbot Street. 
City Billposting Co., 8, Shakespeare 


(District Population, 160,000.) 
G. and A. Woolley, 2, Old Smithhills. 

PLYMOUTH (DEVON) 7 ... 1D0,000 

(In the three towns, 181,000.) 
West of England Billposting Co., Ltd., 
149, Union Street. 

PORTSMOUTH (HANTS.) ... ... 165,000 

Portsmouth and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co. , Ltd., 64, Commercial 
Road . 

PRESTON (LANCS.) 111,696 

Corporation Billposting and Advertising 
Department, ii, Market Street. 

SKIPTON (YORKS)... ~ ... 10,376 

Thomas Cork, Sheep Street. 


(Population of the Company's 

District, 30,000 ) 
South Petherton and District Billpost- 
ing and Advertising Co. Manager : 
W. G. Gayleard. 


Southport Corporation and Southport 
and District Billposting Co., Ltd., 
Shaftesbury Buildings, Eastbank 
Street. Thos. Blaylock, Sec. 


Stockport and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 12a, Church- 
gate. Manager : J. Eyres. 

folieUAY^WON).^^ Z. ~ 36,000 

Torquay Directory Co., Ltd., Fleet 
Street. Manager : Wm. Winget. 


Wolverhampton and District Billposting 
and Advertising Co., Ltd., St. 
George's Parade. 

YARMOUTH (NORFOLK) ... '■■ 49,3'l8 

John High, 162, Middlegate Street . 

YORK ... ~. 66,984 

Baines Bros., 8, Little Shambles. 

Full Particulars as to terms for insertion can be obtained on application to the Manager, 
" The Poster" Office, i, Arundel Street, S trand, 

Printed by E. R. Alexander & Sons, at their Works, The Era Press, High Road, Leyton, N.E., in the County of Essex ; and Published 
by the Proprietor, Hugh MacLeay, i, Arundel Street, Stnand, London, W.C, in the County of Middlesex. 

WALTER HILL & CO. have established a SPECIAL DEPARTMENT for 

Posting throughout the Provinces 

Upon an Improved System, and claim for it that It is 
the ONLY Organisation by which . . 




W. H. & CO. are prepared to submit Estimates for Billposting in the UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA, and throughout the BRITISH COLONIES. 

THE AVENUE PRESS, Ltd., 32, New Bridge Street, London, E.C. 

Vol. v., Mo. XXIX. Double Bumbcr, 1/-. 

(bristwas IJuwtcr 1900 


Published by HUQM n^cLE^Y, at 9, Tleet Street, London, E.C. 

The Pester. — Advertisements. 

As announced elsewhere, the next number of The POSTER wil l 
commence the First Volume of the New Series, in which the 
scope of the Magazine will be widened in a marked degree. Its 
pages will be increased in size and number, whilst the price will 
be advanced to 1/- and the Yearly Subscription to 15/- (post free). 

^ ^ ^ 

During the year a number of Subscribers' Plates will be published, and 
these will be presented TREE to all who have previously 
become Annual Subscribers. 

The Index and Binding Case for Vol. VI. will be sent (Post Free) 

to all Readers who forward their Subscriptions by 15th January, igoi. 

Concerning ''jyiodcrn Advertising." 

"jV^ODERN ADVERTISING," as stated on another 
page, will appear as a separate publication 
ON JANUARY 7th, 1901. It will be enlarged and in 
every way improved, so as to become the leading 
organ in the advertising world. The price will be 3d. 
per copy, or 4/- per annum (post free), and can only be 
obtained by direct application to the Publishing Office. 

^ ^ ^ 

S11BSCRIPT10IN5 sent by January 7th, 1901, will entitle the sender to the 
Special Subscribers' Plates, which will be issued 
from time to time. 

Editorial and Publishing Offices : 

9, Fleet Street, London, E.C. 

PRIZE COMPETITIONS— Results will be found on page 159 of this number. 

The Poster.— Advertisemeats. 



I Christmas No, 

Ernest N"BIe 

She Poster. — December, 1900. 



The Future of "The Poster" 



1 1 1 

The Poster and the Pantomime— Eleven Illustrations ... 

Charles Hiatt 

I 12 

The Art that Christmas Brings— Two Illustrations 




The Cabarets of Montmartre & their Posters— S^r^ew Illustrations 

H. R. 



Some Drawings by R. James Williams— T'Ar^^ Illustrations 


The Collecting of Playbills. Part II. 

Some Kean Bills— Three Illustrations 

Charles Hiatt 


French Billposting— Ancient and Modern— Three Illustrations 

H. Sei 



Some Belgian Posters— Seven Illustrations 






Some New Christmas Cards and Calendars— /"o/^r Illustrations 


Palette Scrapings— 7>ra Illustrations 


Awards in "The Poster" Prize Competitions — Nine Illustrations 


gold, Vol. I. (advanced 
Covers and Indices for 

BOUND VOLUMES in green cloth, and artistically lettered in 
price) £1 Is. Vol. II., III., IV., and V., 8s. 6d. each. 
Binding, 1/6. 

BACK NUMBERS can still be obtained at published price, except No. i (2s. 6d. per copy) ; 

Nos. 2, 4, 5 and 6, Is. per copy ; postage l^d. extra. No. 3 is absolutely out of 
print. As there are only a few copies of the others left, those desirous of completing 
sets should apply immediately. 
ANNUAIi SUBSCRIPTION to The Poster will in ruture be 15s., post rree, which includes special 

extra subscribers' plates, not obtainable otherwise. 
PUBLISHED on the 15th of each month, at the Offices of the Proprietor, Hugh MacLeay, 9, Fleet Street, 

London, E.C., and obtainable through all Booksellers, Newsagents, etc. 
CONTINENTAL AGENTS. Nilsson & Co, 7, Rue de Lille, Paris ; Branches at Leipzig, Amsterdam, 

Barcelona, Milan, Athens, and Salonica. London : 16 and 18, Wardour Street, W. 
ADVERTISEMENTS for The Poster should reach the Office on or before the 6th of each month in 

order to ensure insertion in the following issue. 
ARTISTS are invited to submit Drawings, Posters, Illustrated Advertisements, Designs, etc. 
PRINTERS, LITHOGRAPHERS, &o., should forward Specimens of their latest works, with the view 

to reproduction and review. 
ADVERTISERS are desired to submit samples of artistic Advertisements for criticism. 



The Poeter.— Advertisements, 

Lend me your ears . . I could a tale unfold 

THIS is the 
Trade Card 
of One of 
The Best 
and Poster 
Producing Firms 

Designs by the 
Leading Artists. 


Give Them a 



18, Cranbourn Street, London, 



Les Operas (Set ot lo) 

La Danse (Set of lo) 

W. BLY. 

London Views— a Series of 12 | 
Coloured Wood Blocks (Set of 12)] 


The Four Flowers as\ Each ... 1 0 
Calendars for 1 901 ... / Post Free 1 4 

s. d. 
2 0 
2 0 

2 6 



South African Publications. 

Transvaal Constitution &. Conventions 

Third Edition, 1/- 

Prinsloo of Prinsloosdorp. 

A Tale of Transvaal Officialdom, 1/-; Cloth 3/6 

" It is enough to commend it to the reading 
public as a first-rate work of art, which 
deserves a permanent place amid the litera- 
ture of social and political satire." — Spectator. 

A South African Souvenir. 

English Edition, Cloth, 1,300 Illustrations, 5/- 

" A more elaborate volume . . . has never 
been issued by a South African printing 
house." — Johannesburg Star. 

Hugh MacLeay, 

9, Fleet Street, LONDON, E.C. 

The Poster — Advertisements, v. 


A great deal depends on the Poster. 
A good design is only half the battle, 
it must be properly treated by the 
printer to become 



Our new booklet, with Reproductions 
in Colour of a few of our successful 
Posters will give you our idea of it. 
Sent free to Advertisers upon applica- 

Mart & Leclercq, 

Sole Agents for the United Kingdom, 

54, Fleet Street, E.G. 

The Postw.—A^vertlsemeata. 

Telephone.565 Holborn 

The Poster.— Advertiaemeats. 

Directory of Leading Bill Posters 


ABERDEEN (N.B.) 130,000 

Aberdeen Free Press, Bill- Posting- Dept. 

BANGOR (CARNARVON) ~ ... 10,892 

Bangor and District Billposting- Co.) 
Lome House, 258, High Street. 


Barrow and Furness District Billpost- 
ing Co., 80, Duke Street. 


Irish Billposting Co., 22, William Street 

BIRMINGHAM (WARWICK) ... ... 478,117 

Sheffields, Ltd. , BarwickStreet, Birming- 
ham, and 62, Chancery Lane, London. 


Blackburn and District Billposting- and 
Advertising- Co., Ltd., Dandy Walk, 
Darwen Street. 

BOLTON (LANCS.) 160,000 

(District Population, 250,000.) 

Bolton and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., Silver well St. 

Greenhalgh and Bleakley, 113, Black- 
horse Street. 

BRADFORO (WrKS^T ~ ^162,325 

Sheldons, Limited, Union St. Est. 1840. 

BRIGHTON (SUSSEX) ~. ... 142,000 

Southern Publishing Co., Ltd., 130, 
North Street, and West Pier 
Entrance, Brig-hton, and 62, Fleet 
Street, London, E.C. 


Billing, Jarrett, Read and Co., Ltd., 
The Red House, Colston Avenue. 

BURNLEY (LANCS.)T.: ~. ... 100,000 

Burnley Billposting- Co., Ltd., 4, Bull St. 


Glamorgan Billposting Co., Ltd., 8, 
Park Street, Cardiff. 


(District Population, 12,000.) 
Cinderford and Forest of Dean Bill- 
posting and Advertising Co., Ltd., 
Victoria Street. 

CORK Z ~ ^. ... 80,125 

Gu y and Co.^ Ltd., 70, Patrick Street. 


Mills and Co., 21, Spon Street. 


Crewkerne and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co. 

DUNDEE (FORFARSHIRE, N.B.) ... 166,272 

McArthur, Son, & Co., 44, High Street. 

GLASGOW ... Z Z ... 564,968 

D. Adamson & Son, 12, Waterloo St. 

Robert Beith, 25 Hope Street. 

John Macdonald & Son, 93, Bothwell St. 

GREENOCK (RENF^W) Z. ... 75,000 

Matthew McMillan, 21 & 23, Cathcart 
Street. Established 1872. 

HARROGATE (Y0RK8.) Z. ... 22,000 

W. H. Breare, "Herald" Office, 

ffULL (YORKS.) 225,715 

Hull and Grimsby Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 12, Bowlalley 


Robert Purcer, 3, Wilder Road (Estab- 
lished 1850). 

LEEDS (YORKS.) 412,000 

Sheldons, Ltd., 18, Cookridge Street. 

LEICESTER... Z'. Z. ... 200,000 

City Billposting Co., i22,Belgrave Gate 

LIMERICK ... Z. Z. ... 37,155 

Guy and Co,, Ltd., 114, George St. 

LIVERPOOL (LANCS.) Z. ... 548,471 

New Liverpool Billposting Co., Ltd., 
48, Tithebarn Street. 

LONDON 4,764,312 

Walter Hill & Co., Ltd., 67, 69 & 71, 
Southampton Row, W.C. 

Pascalls, Ltd., 46, Bridge Road, Ham- 
mersmith, W. Telephone : 38 Ham- 

Trinder & Co., High Street, Ealing, W. 
Established 1857. Proprietors of 
250 Private Stations. 

Christopher Wilton and Co., 18, Eagle 
Wharf Road, N. 

Mutual Posting Co., 125, Endlesham 
Road, Balham, S.W. 

South-West Billposting Co., 40a, St. 
John's Hill, Clapham Junction, S.W. 


Manchester Billposting Co., Ltd., 8i, 
Lever Street, Piccadilly. 


Henry Roberts, 6i, Albert Road. 


Newcastle and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 22, Percy 


Sheldons, Ltd., 4, West Street. 


Robert Jeary and Sons, 9, St. Peter's 
Street, Market Place. 


Rockleys, Limited, Talbot Street. 
City Billposting Co., 8, Shakespeare 


(District Population, 160,000.) 
G. and A. Woolley, 2, Old SmithhiUs. 

PLYMOUTH (DEVON) Z. ... 100,000 

(In the three towns, 181,000.) 
West of England Billposting Co., Ltd., 
149, Union Street. 

PORTSMOUTH (HANTS.) ... ... 165,000 

Portsmouth and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 64, Commercial 

PRESTON (LANCS.) 111,696 

Corporation Billposting and Advertising 
Department, ii, Market Street. 

SKIPTON (YORKS)... ... 10,376 

Thomas Cork, Sheep Street. 


(Population of the Company's 

District, 30,000.) 
South Petherton and District Billpost- 
ing and Advertising Co. Manager : 
W. G. Gayleard. 

80UTHP0RT (LANCS.) 60,000 

Southport Corporation and Southport 
and District Billposting Co., Ltd., 
Shaftesbury Buildings, Eastbank 
Street. Thos. Blaylock, Sec. 

STOCKPORT (CHESHIRE) ... ... 90,000 

Stockport and District Billposting and 
Advertising Co., Ltd., 12a, Church- 
gate. Manager : J. Eyres. 

TORQUAY (DEVON). "7 Z. ... 36,000 

Torquay Directory Co., Ltd., Fleet 
Street. Manager : Wm. Winget. 


Wolverhampton and District Billposting 
and Advertising Co., Ltd., St. 
George's Parade. 

YARMOUTH (NORFOLK) ... ... 49,318 

John High, 162, Mi ddlegate Street. 

YORK Z. ZZ 66,984 

Baines Bros., 8, Little Shambles. 

Full Particulars as to terms for insertion can be obtained oti application to the Manager, 
" The Poster" Office, 9, Fleet Street, London, E.C, 

LONDON. /f^f. m 11 1^ 

ALTERrll LL.' 

BiLLPOSTiNG Contractors 



WALTER HILL & CO. have established a SPECIAL DEPARTMENT for 

Posting throughout the Provinces 

Upon an improved System, and claim for it that it is 
the ONLY Organisation by which. 



W. H. & CO. are prepared to submit Estimates for Billposting in the UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA, and throughout the BRITISH COLONIES. 

Printed by E R Alexander & Sons, at their Works, The Era Press, High Road, Leyton, N.E., in the County of Essex ; and Published 
by the Proprietor, Hugh MacLeay, 9, Fleet Street, London, E.G., in the County of Mi-^-*Ie.'