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Ramsey, William 

Joumal of a missionary 

in India 






Author : 


Ramsey, William, 1803-1858 

Journal of a missionary tour in India : performed by the Rev. 
Messrs Read and Ramsey / by William Ramsey. 
Published: Philadelphia : J. Whetham, 1836. 
Description: 367 p. : ill., port. ; 19 cm. 
Subjects (Library of Congress) : 

Missions — India. 




on behalf of 
American Theological Library Association and 

Yale Divinity School Library 

A Joint Preservation Project of the 

Anfierican Theological Library Association and 

Yale Divinity School Library, funded in part by the 

Pew Charitable Trusts 


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MAIN ENTRY: Ramsey. William 

Journal of a missionary tour in India 

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" Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature.'' 









yaje Divinity Ubran 

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The first Protestant Missionaries designed for the 
Mahratta people, were sent out by the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. They 
arrived at Bombay early in the year 1813, and im- 
mediately began to prepare for usefulness among the 
benighted Hindoos. The Island of Bombay was the 
only station they occupied, until the year 1831; 
when a new station was formed at Ahmednuggur, on 
the continent, and about a hundred and seventy-five 
miles north east of Bombay. Schools, in the mean- 
time, had been established on the Island of Salsette, 
and on the continent south of Bombay; the most of 
which are still in existence. Some of them have been 
given up, and others formed in their place. The 
number of schools and scholars is subject to con- 
tinual changes. The annual number of scholars 
may be about twelve hundred. 

Since the commencement of the Mahratta Mission, 
till the present time, the following named persons 
have been sent out from the American churches, to 
labour for the salvation of this people. Some of this 
number sleep in Jesus ; some have returned to Ame- 
rica in ill health ; and others are still in the field. 



American Missionaries at Bombay. 

Hall, Rev. Gordon. Arrived, 13lh Feb. 1813. 
Died, 20th March 1826, at Dhoorlee-Dapoor, of cho- 
lera, while on a missionary tour. Aged 41. 

Nott, Rev. Samuel. Arrived, 13th Feb. 1813. 
Returned to America, in ill health, in 1816. 

Nott, Mrs R. Arrived, 13lh Feb. 1813. Returned 
to America, in ill health, in 1816, 

Newell, Rev. Samuel. Arrived, 7th March 1814. 
Died, 30th May 1821, of cholera. Aged 37. 

Newell, Mrs Harriet. Died, 30th Nov. 1812, at 
the Isle of France. Aged 19, 

Bardvvell, Rev. Horatio and wife, MrsR. F. Bard- 
well. Arrived, 1st Nov. 1816. Left Bombay for 
America in ill health, 22d Jan. 1821. 

Lewis, Miss Margaret (Eng.). Married to Rev. 
G. Hall, 1816. Embarked for America, 30th July 
1825. ■■ ^"• 

Nichols, Rev. John. Arrived, 25th Feb. 1818. 
Died, of a fever, 9th Dec. 1824. 

Nichols, Mrs E. Arrived, 25th Feb. 1818. Mar- 
ried to Rev. Mr Knight, of the Church Mission at 
Nellore, Jaffna, 19th Oct. 1826. 

Graves, Rev. Allen. Arrived, 25th Feb. 1818. 

Graves, Mrs Mary. do. do. 

Thurston, Miss P. Arrived, 25th Feb. 1818. 
Married to Rev. S. Newell, 26th March 1819, and 
to Mr Garret in 1822 ; and left Bombay for America 
in ill health, 29th Oct. 1831. . 

Garret, Mr James (printer). Arrived, 9th May 
1821. Died, 16th July 1831. Aged 34. 


American Missionaries at Bombay. '-; 

Frost, Rev. Edmund. Arrived, 28th June 1824. 
Died, of consumption, 13th Oct. 1825. Aged 34. 

Frost, Mrs C. E. Arrived, 28th June 1824. Mar- 
ried to Rev. Mr Woodward, of Jaflfha, 1826. 

Allen, Rev. D. O. Arrived, 27th Nov. 1828. 

Allen, Mrs Myra W. Arrived, 27th Nov. 1828. 
Died, 5th Feb. 1831. Aged 30. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - 

Stone, Rev. Cyrus. Arrived, 27th Nov. 1828. 

Stone, Mrs Atossa F. Arrived, 27th Nov. 1828. 
Died, 7th Aug. 1833. ^ 

Farrar, Miss Cynthia. Arrived, 27th Nov. 1828. 

Hervey, Rev. William. Arrived, 7th March 1831. 
Died, of cholera, at Ahmednuggur, 13th May 1832. 
... Aged 34. \:\p-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 

Hervey, Mrs Elizabeth. Arrived, 7th March 
f 1831. Died, 3d May 1831. 

Read, Rev. Hollis. Arrived, 7th March 1831. 

V Left India for America, in ill health, 18th March 

:;v 1835. ■ .. ■-/■^,:.-;r::::^;;^;:-.;v:--:^::::^- ;■;:■•■:;.: , 

- Read, Mrs Caroline. Arrived, 7th March 1831. 

Left India for America, in ill health, 18lh March 

t 1835.--^-:-.--"-^" ■-^■■^■---■'■^-"^ 

Ramsey, Rev. William. Arrived, 7ih March 1831. 
Left India, in ill health, 6th July 1834. 

Ramsey, Mrs Mar3^ Arrived, 7th March 1831. 
Died, of cholera, lllh June 1834. 

Boggs, Rev. G. W. Arrived, 14lh Sept. 1832. 

Boggs, Mrs I. E. do. do. 

Sampson, Mr William C. (printer). Arrived, Nov. 


Missionary Societies and Stations. 

Sampson, Mrs Mary. Arrived, Nov. 1833. 
Munger, Rev. S. B. Arrived, 10th Sept. 1834. 
Munger, Mrs. do. do. 

Hubbard, Mr G. W. do. do. 

Hubbard, Mrs. do. do. 


Abbott, Mr Amos. do. do. 

Abbott, Mrs. - do. do. 

Graves, Miss Orpah. do. do. 

Kimball, Miss A. H. do. do. and 

married to Rev. C. Stone, 23d Oct. 1834. 

Ballantine, Rev. Henry. Sailed for Bombay, 16th 
May 1835. 

Ballantine, Mrs. do. do. 

Webster, Mr E. A. (printer). do. do. 

Webster, Mrs. do. do. 

Besides the American Missionaries, there are also 
others under the care of the London, Church, and 
Scottish Missionary Societies, who are labouring for 
the salvation of the Hindoos within the Bombay 
Presidency. The Scottish Missionaries have two 
stations : one at Bombay, and the other at Poonah. 
They have been compelled to relinquish their sta- 
tions at Hurnee and Bankote, for the want of labour- 
ers. Sickness, death and other causes, have left 
only two of these brethren in the field. Mr Wilson 
labours alone in Bombay, and Mr Mitchell in Poo- 
nah. The Lord has removed their companions from 
their labours and sufferings here, to their rest on 
high. MrNesbit has returned to Europe in ill health; 


Missionary Societies and Stations. 

and Mr Stevenson is now employed as chaplain in 
the Scottish kirk in Bombay. 

The Church Missionaries, viz., Mr Dixon with Mr 
Farrar and lady, are stationed at Nassik, a large 
village, about seventy miles north east of Bombay. 
This place is the seat of Brahminical learning in 
the west of India. It is esteemed a holy place, and 
upon the return of the great Yatra, held at this 
place, thousands upon thousands of deluded pilgrims, 
from all parts of the country, resort to it. It was 
while returning from a festival held at Nassik, that 
the Rev. Gordon Hall lost his life. The Rev. Mr 
Mitchell, formerly in connexion with this mission, 
has returned to Europe with his lady, on medical 
certificate : it is not likely that he will ever return. 

The London Missionaries are stationed at Surat, 
about one hundred and fifty miles north of Bom- 
bay. The labourers here are the Rev. A. and W. 
Fyvie. They have, during their residence in the coun- 
try, been able to translate the whole of the Scriptures 
into the Goojurattee language ; two editions of w^hich 
have been published, besides several tracts in the 
language. They have received into the communion 
of the church eight or ten converts. 

All of these stations have suffered more or less 
from the sickness and death of the missionaries con- 
nected with them. Many schools have been given, 
up, and many bright and cheering hopes in reference 
to the success of the gospel among this heathen 



Extent of the Field. 

people have been blasted. But these things are 
needful to try the faith and the patience of the mis- 
sionary, as well as of the churches at home. While 
the churches of Christ continue to send so few 
labourers into the wide wastes, where so much is to 
be done, they cannot reasonably expect any great 
results. The Hindoo people in the Bombay Presi- 
dency have been estimated at twelve millions, and for 
this great population there are only sixteen ordained 
and lay missionaries, and fourteen ladies ; that is, thirty 
persons in all, as representatives df the European and 
American churches, in this extensive and interesting 
field. Can it be that the churches suppose that this 
feeble band is strong enough to carry on the great 
work of evangelizing the millions of benighted hea- 
thens for whose salvation they labour ] Would that 
their number was increased a hundred fold ; and 
even then the field would be great, and the labourers 
few. It is pleasing to know that the missionary 
spirit is increasing in America, notwithstanding the 
spirit of controversy which is at present distracting a 
portion of the churches. The hope is that all the 
stations will this year receive a reinforcement. More 
than one hundred are necessary ; but — where are 
theyl Reader, why cannot you join the few who 
have already determined, if the Lord will, to go this 
year and carry the Gospel of Christ to the Gentiles? 
The Wesleyan Missionary Society bad two Mis- 
sionaries for a short time at Bombay, but they have 

^^ ... 


Modes of Missionary Labour. Itinerating important. 

" ■ - - - - — ....:..._.■ ■ . _ - ■ I ■ 

long ago left the field in ill health. The society has 
not sent out any others in their place. 

The Missionaries employ their time in the study 
of the languages of the people among whom they 
labour — in translating, or revising the translations of 
the Sacred Scriptures — in preparing tracts and school 
books — in superintending schools, and in preaching 
the gospel daily in the streets, and on the sabbaths 
in their respective chapels. The labours of the Mis- 
sionaries, so far as their personal exertions are con- 
cerned, are necessarily confined to their several sta- 
tions during the greater part of the year, owing to 
the rains and the intense heat of the climate. The 
months of December, January and February, how- 
ever, are so cool, that Missionaries may travel with 
safety into the interior for the purpose of pleaching 
the gospel and distributing the word of God ; and a 
considerable portion of that time is now occupied in 
itinerating. Whatever former Missionaries may have 
thought of this mode of missionary labour, the pre- 
sent labourers are decidedly in favour of it, and think 
it a highly important part of their evangelical opera- 
tions. The two plans must be united. 

For several years past the Missionaries at the dif- 
ferent stations have made pretty extensive tours into 
the interior of the country, and have, in this way, 
preached the gospel to many thousands who must 
otherwise have died without having heard of the only 
Saviour of lost men. In performing these tours, the 
Missionaries travel in a manner which is peculiar to 



Mode of Travelling. The Success of Missions in India. 

the country. There are no inns where they can 
stop and find every thing ready to make them com- 
fortable. On the contrary, if the Missionary would 
be comfortable on his journey, he must take his bed, 
table, chairs, cooking utensils, &c. with him. A 
tefiit is often necessary. Without this he will be 
compelled to sleep in an open chowdy, in a native 
house, or out of doors, which, at times, is far from 
pleasant. To carry these things, besides the books 
and tracts the Missionary may have with him, a 
number of servants are necessar}^ The heavier 
articles may be transported on bullocks, while the 
lighter burdens are borne on the heads or shoulders 
of men called coolies, or bamboo-iDallas. This mode 
of travelling is necessarily slow, and is frequently 
attended with a good deal of perplexity. 

The following Journal of a tour performed by Mr 
Read and myself, was written as we had time after 
the labours of the day, and will afford a specimen of 
this kind of missionary labour in India. In many 
instances, for the sake of reporting more correctly 
the different conversations we had with the natives, 
one of us was employed in taking down notes, while 
the other was engaged in speaking to the people. 
This has enabled us to retain, in a good degree, not 
only the spirit of the conversations, but also the 
words used on the occasion. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ . k . 

The success of the gospel throughout the Bombay 
Presidency has been considerable. All the Mission- 
aries are encouraged to continue their labours among 


The amount of Iqibour performed. The influence of pious Laymen. 

the people, and to spread the knowledge of Christ 
by means of the press, free schools, and the preach- 
ing of the gospel as widely as possible. We must 
not, however, judge of the success of the gospel 
among this people merely fiom the number of actual 
conversions, though this affords ground for encour- 
agement, but, from the whole aspect of things in the 
country. When the Missionaries came into the 
country twenty-two years ago, nearly every thing 
had to be done. Since that time, the whole of the 
Bible has been translated into the Goojurattee lan- 
guage by the London Missionaries at Surat. The 
New Testament in the Mahratta language has pass- 
ed through two complete editions by the American 
Missionaries. A third edition, revised by the Bombay 
Bible Society, is now in the press. Parts of the Old 
Testament have also been published. About one 
hundred different tracts for the benefit of the people 
have been published in the Mahratta, Goojurattee, 
Hindoosthanee and Persian languages, including 
doctrinal, practical and controversial tracts, and ele- 
mentary works designed for schools. The number 
of these tracts is increasing yearly. 

The Missionaries do not labour alone in the great 
work of evangelizing these heathen people. Cap- 
tains Molesvvorth and Candy have rendered the cause 
of missions and of education essential service by the 
preparation of their Mahratta and English Dictiona- 
ry. They are now busily employed in preparing the 
second volume, containing the English and Mah- 


The aid from the English Government. 

ratta. The labours of these pious and laborious of- 
ficers are of very great benefit to the Missionary, 
and also (o otb.ers in the country who are studying 
the Mahratta language. The Honourable East In- 
dia Compan}^, with their usual liberality, rendered 
these gentlemen all the aid ihey needed in preparing 
and in printing this work. There are other pious 
and intelligent officers and civilians who are aiding 
the cause of missions in India by I heir liberal con- 
tributions, christian example, and unremitted la- 
bours in preparing tracts and books for the benefit of 
the people. 

The aid which the Government gives to the cause, 
in encouraging missionary operations, and in the es- 
tablishment of schools, ought not to be over looked. 
Although they have, for prudential reasons, refused 
to have Christianity taught in the schools under their 
care Avhich are designed for the natives alone; still 
the effect of the whole system of education as there 
practised, is to break down Hindooism. The systems 
of natural and moral philosophy, and geography, 
&c., as taught by the Hindoos, are held sacred. 
They make a part of their sacied books, and it so 
happens that all these systems are /aZse. The earth, 
with the Hindoos, for example, is the centre of the 
system. It is a plane surface, and the sun revolves 
around it. The Hindoo says it must be true, be- 
cause his Shaslru (Bible) says so. When he learns 
from an European teacher, in one of these govern- 
ment schools, that the earth is not the centre of the 


Science alone will destroy Hindooism. 

system, and that the eclipses are not occasioned by 
the efforts of a Dytyu (daemon) to swallow the sun or 
moon, but that it is by the intervention of one of 
these bodies between the other and the sun that these 
natural phenomena are produced, he sees that his 
system is false, and of course his faith in his Bible is 
shaken, if not wholly destroyed. Christian ethics and 
christian jurisprudence are based upon principles of 
truth and justice drawn from, or in accordance with 
the word of God, and these are at variance with the 
Hindoo systems. The truth on any subject cannot 
but commend itself to every mind v/ hen fairly pre- 
sented to it. The enlightened mind of a Hindoo can 
no more resist the force of truth, than the enlighten- 
ed mind of a Christian. ' ■ ; ■ 
" Veritas magna est, et pre valebit." 

Let the truth, then, on every subject which comes 
before the Hindoo miod be taught, and Hindooism 
must inevitably fall. It cannot possibly stand. The 
truth must triumph. 

There is this much, however, to be said in refer- 
ence to giving the Hindoos true knowledge on na- 
tural subjects unconnected with religion, that it will, 
very probably, make the people infidels. After the 
light which they. must receive, it is impossible that 
they should remain believers in their system of reli- 
gion, which is a system of falsehood and absurdity 
from the beginning to the end. But without the 
introduction of a better system they will inevitably 
run into infidelity, or something worse. Christianity 


The Grospel must triumph. ^ Labourers needed. 

is the only thing that can save the people. And 
while the christian should rdjoice in every thing 
which tends to loosen the hold of the people on Hin- 
dooisra, his efforts and prayers should be made to 
lead them into the truth as it is in Jesus. ^ 

The Hindoo system, like all others which have 
their foundation in error, must fall before the blaze 
of gospel truth. The progress of this work must, of 
necessity, be slow at first, but the result is certain. 
A mighty fabric of superstition and folly is to be de- 
molished — the rubbish is to be removed — the good 
seed must be sown and nurtured with care — and if 
God grant His Spirit's aid, which He has promised, 
success must attend the efforts made to enlighten 
and evangelize the people. 

The field is a wide and important one, and de- 
mands many more labourers than it has ever yet 
received. The success which has already attended 
the labours of the various Missionaries — the encour- 
agement given at present by the English Govern- 
ment to the prudent efforts of Christian Missionaries 
— the desire of the rich and respectable among the 
Hindoos to increase in knowledge and to be instruct- 
ed by foreigners — the growing disregard which the 
people exhibit towards their own religion, and the 
willingness with which they receive and peruse 
christian tracts, as well as the weighty obligations 
resting upon christians, arising out of the express 
commands of Christ to preach the gospel to them, 
and from their spiritual" condition, call loudly upon 


Labourers needed. 

the Christian Church to arise and possess that land 
in the name of Christ, and to dehver it from the gall- 
ing yoke of superstition and sin under which it has 
for centuries groaned. May the sons and daughters 
of India ere long become the freed sons and daugh- 
ters of the Lord Almighty — her idol temples with all 
the abominable rites of heathenism be abolished — 
the pure and holy worship of the one God be estab- 
lished in all the land, so that all may know their 
Creator from the least unto the greatest, and thus 
become a holy and a happy people. 



Philadelphia, Jan. 1836. 





December 25th 1833. Having sent off our boxes 
of books, chairs, tables, &c., by coolies* to Tannah 
last evening, we left Bombayf this morning for the 
purpose of preaching the Gospel and distributing the 

* Coolies are Hindoos who carry burdens on their heads. 
Those who carry burdens on their shoulders by means of a bam- 
boo pole, are called bamboo-wallas. 

t Bombay, or as the natives call it Moom-ba-e, is an island 
on the western coast of Hindoosthan, in north lat. 18' 56'. It is 
about eight miles in length, and twenty in circumference. It 
came into the possession of the English by the marriage of Charles 
the Second with Catharine of Portugal. It contains a strong for- 
tress, a dockyard, and naval arsenal. The harbour is one of the 
best in the world. The island was formerly esteemed very un- 
healthy,; but by draining and other methods, the healthiness of 
the place has been much improved. It is said that forty different 
languages are spoken here. The whole population exceeds 
;^^00,000. The European population, including the soldiers sta- 
tioned on the island at Colaba, (which is separated from Bombay 
l\y a narrow channel that is dry at ebb tide) is about 2000. The 
native town is about a mile from the fort, a large portion of 
which is shaded by a cocoa-nut grove. The Esplanade, which 
lies between the fort and the native town, is covered, in part, 
during the dry season, with the tents of European gentlemen. 


Departure from Bombay. Salsette. Parsees. Roostumjee. 

Scriptures and tracts on the continent. We crossed 
over to the Island of Salsette* by a causeway, and 
came to the village of Veergaum, about fifteen miles 
from Bombay. When we arrived, we found the 
public bungalow occupied by two gentlemerf who 
had come for the purpose of hunting in the neigh- 
bourhood. We were, however, kindly accommodated 
for the time being, with a room in the house of 
Roostumjee, a wealthy Parsee. We had not the 
pleasure of seeing him to-day, he being absent at 
Bombay. On a former occasion, when the Rev. 
Mr Wilson and I called on him, we had considerable 
conversation with him. We found him quite con- 
versable. He has, like many of his Parsee brethren, 
but little faith in the religion of his people. He did 
not hesitate to say that he believed their sacred books 
were written by their Padres, (priests) and that God 
had nothing to do in their formation. In speaking 
on the subject of prayer, he said he could not per- 
ceive the necessity of a man's praying so frequently 

In the evenings, after the hours of business, hundreds of people, 
including Europeans, Parsees, Hindoos, Mussulmen, &c., may- 
be seen walking or riding to and fro for the benefit of the cool 
and refreshing sea breeze. All is life and activity : the sight is 
truly pleasing. . 

* The Island of Salsette is about fifteen miles square. It was 
fi>rmerly separated from the Island of Bombay by a channel half a 
mile in width, which was fordable at low tide. It was taken from 
the Mahrattas in the year 1773 by the English, who have con- 
nected the two islands by a causeway, which is of immense 
advantage to the inhabitants of both islands. 

IN INDIA. " n 

Parsee mode of prayer. The Schoolmaster. 

ilrrough the day, namely, morning and evening, and 
asking the blessing of God upon their meals, as the 
practice of Fome is. "For my part," said he, " when 
I arise in the morning, I say, *0 God, just be as 
good to me lo-dny as thou wast yesterday : that is 
enough 1'" Roostumjee is a benevolent man, and 
has the good opinion of both Europeans and natives. 

Prayer conducted in the Parsee mode, is both te- 
dious and heartless y and it is no wonder that such 
a man as Roostumjee should think it of no use. It 
consists in a lengthened form of prayer, interspersed 
wiih a variety of genuflections and salams to the 
water and the sun. Very often, while engaged at 
their prayers, the Parsees may be seen gazing about 
at the passing crowd, and not unfrequenlly stopping 
to speak with their acquaintances. There is much 
reason to fear that they pray to be seen of men. 
They are, however, a respectable class of people. 

After breakfast, while I was engaged in the house, 
Mr Read went into the bazar and found a number of 
people, to whom he preached the gospel. After some 
time, while engaged in addressing the people who 
were seated nearhim, and listening with attention, the 
village schoolmaster, a young Bmhmun, came up to 
the people, and in an indignant and authoritative lone 
addressing them, said, " What are you doing here ? 
You cannot read. What do you know about books 
or religion 1 You are like bullocks. Up — begone !" 
Some of the people rose up, made rio reply, and were 
about to depart, as the person who* gave the com- 



Conversation with the Natives. 

mand was a Brahmun, and his rebuke may have 
been considered by them, as it is by many, as the re- 
buke of God.* Mr R. told them to stop, as it was to 
them he had come to preach (he gospel of Christ ; 
and if they could not read, and were ignorant, there 
was the greater necessity for their hearing. Ad- 
dressing the Brahmun, he said, 

J)iis$. Why do you order these people away ] 

Brah. They are like bullocks : they cannot un- 
derstand any thing. 

Miss. Have they the word of God 1 . 

Brah, No : of what use would it be to them ? 

Miss. Can they read ? 

Brah. No. 

Miss. Who are their teachers and priests? 

Brah. We ai*e [meaning the Brahmuns]. 

Miss. If you will not give them the word of God, 
nor teach them, nor permit them to have it, how 
shall they know what God requires of them, or how 
shall they obtain salvation] 

Brah. Chuch ! they cannot understand these 

The Gospel was then preached to him, after he 
had been rebuked for his pride and priestcraft. But 
he soon became offended and went awav, while the 
people seemed pleased, and willingly remained to 
hear. A few tracts were given to those who could 

* Nana Shastree, a Brahmnn in the employ of the mission, 
once told me that his great toe is the Shoodroo's god, and that it 
should be worshipped by them as such. 


Tlie Caves on Salsette. 

read; but the majority of the people present were 
so busily employed in buying and selling, that they 
did not feel disposed to attend to the subject brought 
to their notice. - " 


After dinner we turned aside to see the Kennery 
Caves, those extensive and far famed excavations. 
A Portuguese man was our guide. The path to 
these caves leads through a mountainous jungle, 
and, from its present appearance, we should judge 
that it is seldom travelled. They are about three 
miles from the great road. They are all chiselled 
out of the mountain, and must have been done at 
immense expense and labour. They surpass the 
caves of Elephanta, both as to their numbers and 
grandeur. The principal cave is about seventy feet 
long ; its height from the floor to the top of the arch 
is about twenty feet. On each side are fourteen 
pillars of the same rock, surmounted by the figures 
of elephants. The entrance is by an enormous gate- 
way, and on either side of the passage are twotiu- 
man figures of gigantic stature ; they are about 
twenty feet high : each foot is three feet in length. 
The rooms, cells, tanks of water, &c., all of which 
are cot out of the solid rock, are numerous, and 
would require a day instead of an hour or two to in- 
spect them. As they have been described by others, 
who had more time to examine them than we had, 


-■■ ■ ■ ■ ' — ■ - i. . ■ — ' 1 ■' ' - . ■ ■ — • — — — — ■ — — - 

Hindoo Idea of their Origin. Caves neglected. Scripture fulfilled. 

. we must refer the reader to these authors for a de- 
scription of them in full. ' ,1 

The Hindoos have preserved no records I hat have 
come to the eye of Europeans concerning the origin 
of these caves. The vague account given hy ihe 
natives is, Pandowand Kdid, the Pandows* made 
them ; but when, or by whom they have been exca- 
vated must, in all probabiHty, remairi for ever un- 
known. That they were made through religious 
zeal, and devoted to rehgious purposes, there can be 
no doubt. While the lover of antiquities cannot but 
regret that these caves are left without any one to 
ta-ke care of them, or prevent the images from being 
still further mutilated and defaced by every ruthless 
hand that may assail them, the Christian can see, 
in their present state, and the indifference of natives 
and Fiuro[>eans concerning keeping them in repair, 
either as objects of reverence or of curiosity, a strik- 
ing fulfilment of prophecy, and an unanswerable 
argument for the truth of the sacred Scriptures. 
«' Ifl that day," says the prophet Isniah, referring 
to the Gospel times, " a man shall cast away 
(or forsake) his idols to the moles and the bats." 
This text of Scripture is literally Ailfilled as re- 
gards these idols and many others. As these caves 
have for ages past been deserted by the idola- 
trous worshippers, and as the stillness which reigns 

* These Pandows are the sons of Pundoo. They are five demi- 
gods, to whose power the ex?;avating of these caves and other 
great works in the country are ascribed . Their names are Dhurm , 
Bheem, Urjoon, Nukool, and Suhudeve. 


Scripture Illustrated and Fulfilled. Popish Customs in India. 

is seldom disturbed by ihe 9ound of the human voice, 
the bats and the owls find here a safe abode. The 
Hebrew word l&cMpporpdroth rendered to the moles m 
the verse quoted above, occurs but once in the Bible. 
The root of the word signifies to dig, and may be 
applied to any other animal which partakes of the 
nature of the mole, viz., a fondness for dark places 
and for digging in the earth, as well as to the mole. 
That there are porcupines in abundance in these 
caves, is evident from their tracks and quills, which 
are to be seen in abundance in different places ; and 
as it is not decided with certainty what animal the 
word designates, may not the word porcupines be the 
proper rendering of the term used. At all events, it 
would agree with the fact that these caves, with their 
idols, are deserted to the bats and to ihe poreupmes. 
Part of the prophecies in reference to idols have been 
fulfilled, and w^e may rest assured that the interest- 
ing one in Zech. xiii. 2, viz., " I will cut off the 
names of the idols out of the land, and they shall no 
more be remembered," will not fail of being in like 
manner accomplished. May the happy time soon 
come when holiness shall so universally prevail, that 
not only the idols themselves shall be destroyed, but 
even their very names shall be forgotten. 


Our Portuguese guide was quite an interesting 
man, and fond of conversation. After he had con- 
ducted us back to the road, we paid him for his ser- 


Penance. Crosses worshipped. 

vices and dismissed him. During our conversation, 
he informed us that he regularly confessed his sins 
to his priest once a year, and that for the spiritual 
instruction which he might receiv.e on the occasion, 
he paid half a rupee. The priest, said he, some- 
times punishes us by giving us a dozen lashes. The 
women are dealt with sometimes in the same man- 
ner. Thus, 

" Proving the doctrine orthodox , 
By apostolic blows and knocks." 

This is not the first time that we have heard of 
this mode of punishment a» practised by some of 
these Roman Catholic priests towards their people. 
He also informed us, that he worships the cross and 
the images of saints which he keeps in his house, 
and that he does so at the command of his priest. 
Crosses may be seen in almost every village on this 
island and also in Bombay, where the Roman Ca- 
tholics are to be found, which have been set up as 
objects of worship. However much some may deny 
that the simple wood is worshipped, the fact is just the 
contrary, and the people acknowledge it. A few of 
those who can read the PorLoguese language have 
been furnished with the Scriptures, but by far llie 
greatest portion of them understand only the Mah- 
ratfa and Hindooslhanee, and are unable to read the 
Scriptures if they had them. Many of the priests still 
oppose the circulation of the Scriptures among their 
people, but what their reasons are for so doing, we 
pretend not to say. The people, as a general thing, 


Roman Catholics iii India ignorant. Preaching in the streets. 

are exceedingly ignorant, and are but one remove 
from Hindooism. They need instruction, and with- 
out it,^ they must remain envelopped in their super- 
stition and gross ignorance. There is as great need 
for faithful Missionaries among these catholic con- 
verts from Hindooism, as there is for those who still 
hold to the absurdities and abominations of the Hin- 
doo system. 


We reached Tannah at 8 o'clock in the evening, 
and were accommodated with lodgings in the house 
known now among the natives by the name of the 
Billiard-room. A lad informed us that the Rev. Mr 
Nichols formerly occupied the same house. We 
could not but feel sad to think of the changes which 
have taken place here. The Missionary is dead ; 
the Mission schools have been discontinued, and the 
voice of prayer and praise is no more heard within 
these walls; but it shall not always be so, for the 
earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord, 
and all lands shall be vocal with his praise. 

December 26th. After breakfast we went out 
among the people, carrying with us a quantity of 
tracts. As we were walking through the bazar seek- 
ing a good place to sit down, a shopkeeper, observ- 
ing us, invited us to take a seat with him and a few 
others who were seated in the verandah of his house. 
We accepted his invitation, and immediately began 


Conversations with the Natives. Their cavils and objections. 

to talk with them about the books we had, and the 
Christian religion, and to urge upon them the neces- 
sity of repentance towards God, and of faith towards 
our Lord Jesus Christ. A number of people soon 
collected together to hear us. The shopkeeper be- 
coming annoyed, told us to come at four o'clock, and 
then we would be able to have a greater assemblage 
of people to converse with. His object, we suspect- 
ed, was to get rid of us and the subject brought be- 
fore him, Felix-like, for the present. We therefore 
told him that we would talk to those then assembled, 
as there were enough for our purpose, and would, 
perhaps, call again in the evening. We felt better 
satisfied with our present number of hearers than 
with the promised multitudes in the evening. Two 
of the hearers, aged men, attempted the defence of 
Hindooism. We knew the difficulty of keeping or- 
der, and at the beginning requested them to speak 
alternately, and lo be silent while we should speak. 
This seemed fair enough, and they agreed to it. One 
began. We listened attentively till he had finished, 
and then began to reply. But while urging /Upon 
them the necessity of worshipping God, who isk Spi- 
rit, in spirit and in truth, one and another interrupt- 
ed us with a string of questions and objections like 
the following : — ■*' Where is God 1 — what is God likel 
— How can we worship an immaterial and invisible 
being 1 — Every thing is God. — A stone becomes God, 
if a man heive faith to believe so. — God gave to men"* 
different colours, different religions and different sa- 

fN INDIA. . 25 

Objections to the Gospel. 


cred books, and every man can be saved by follow- 
ing his owji religion. God commands the Hindoos 
to worship idols. Christians [meaning the Roman ' 
Catholics, who are called Christian loke (people),] 
worship idols too." These, and many other objec- 
tions, were started in such quick succession, that Ve 
had no time to give an answer to any of them, nor did 
the objectors desire an answer. Their object, evi-V 
dently, was not to have their difiiculties or objections 
solved, but to prevent us from explaining one point 
fully, and perhaps too, to show their ingenuity in de- 
fending themselves. ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^" - 

While thus engaged, a Brahmun spoke loud 
enough to silence the others, and fix the attention of 
ail on himself. Addressing us, he says, 

Brahmun. Do you not take away life? 

Missionary. Yes : and so do you. 

Brah. Do you not believe that God is every 
■ w here 1 ;;v^v ■ ;■;. r:; - y-\::-. , 

Aliss. Yes: certainly. 

Brah. Do you not eat meat and fish ] 

Miss. Yes, sometimes. 

Brah. Then you eat God, for he is every where 
and in every thing. You Sahibs'^ Sire very wicked, 
because you take away life. 

Miss. Do you not believe thai God is everywhere, 
and in that piece of wood 1 (pointing to a piece.) 

* The ward^ahib corresponds to sir, mister , fyc.f and is used 
freely by all the natives to designate Europeans. 



The mildness and cruelty of Hindoo laws. 

Brah. Yes. 

Miss. Then you iniist do violence to God, who 
dwells, as you say, in the wood, for 3'OU cut and saw 
it in pieces. 

Brah. No, no: that is a different thing. 
^ J\Iiss. But do not the Hindoos take away life \ 

Brah. Chuch ! chuch ! 

Miss. Did they never kill any Sahibs? What do 
you say? 

The Brahmun remained silent, and presently got 
np and went off. In the mean time several voice? 
responded, " Yes, yes ;" thus acknowledging that 
they themselves are guilty of the crime they wished 
to fix on us, viz. of taking away life. Their own 
laws, however, justify the civil power for depriving 
men of Ufe, while they condemn any one for taking 
away the life of an animal, especially a cotp. Their 
laws are strangely mild towards the brute creation, 
and cruel, in many instances, towards human be- 
ings. But error is always inconsistent, and the Hin- 
doo in his practice strikingly exemplifies this. He 
professes to reverence the ox, and once a year does 
worship him, but during the remainder of the year 
he is driven or goaded on to his work in a most cruel 
and unfeeling manner. 

Being left without any one to interrupt us, we 
endeavoured to make known to them the plan of 
salvation through the Lord Jesus. We gave away 
but few tracts, as the people did not appear anxious 
to receive them. . ^ 


Hindoo school. Roman Catholic chapel. 

After leaving this company of liearers, we visited a 
small Goojurattee school, antl addressed the teacher 
and the cliiidren on the subject of the Christian 
religion. The teacher had not a book in the school.* 
With his permission, we supplied all the readers in 
the school with primed books in the Goojurattee lan- 
guage, a gift which they seemed to prize highly, 
and requested the teacher to call for more if he 
should need them. He did not call for any. 


■ Leaving this school, w^e visited the Roman Catho- 
lic chapel. The priest who resides, as is their cus- 

* The mode of conducting schools in India is peculiar to the 
country. Part of the system has been brought to Europe by Dr 
Bell of the Madras army. It is known in America by the name 
of the Lancasterian system, it ought to be, Hindoo system. The 
scholars sit on the ground facing the centre of the room. The 
school is divided into four classes. The best scholar in each clas^ 
is appointed monitor of the class. If the teacher is called out of 
school on any business, he gives his rod into the hand of one of 
the scholars, who acts as master for the time being. All the others 
obey him, and are as much afraid of offending him by their dis- 
obedience as their proper teacher. The children, who are learn- 
ing their letters, write on sand boards, making use of a small 
stick. In this way they not only learn the names of the letters, 
but also how to write at the same time. Arithmetic is studied in 
the same way. Some use boards painted black, and make use of 
a.reed and chalk water in writing. This is more neat and clean- 
ly. In writing on paper, the teacher at first forms the letters, 
and the pupil draws his pen over them, and in this way learns to 
form them correctly. I doubt not that many a boy has learned to 
write well in a Hindoo school without using half a quire of paper. 


Images in the chapel. Similarity of Hindoo and Popish usages. 

tom, in a house adjoining the chapel, seeing us en- 
ter it, very kindly came and offered to explain to us 
any thing we might wish to know concerning the 
chapel. He pointed out to us the images of several 
saints, which are arranged in their proper places in 
the chapel. Our attention was directed to one saint 
and then to another, among whom we found St 
Peter, St John the Baptist, St Anthony, &c. &c. 
St Anthony holds a conspicuous place in a niche in 
one side of the chapel. There is another image of 
this saint placed near the cross at the end of the 
chapel. Our attention was particularly attracted by 
a group of images near the door. We asked, " What 
is this?' The padre replied, "The representation of 
the manger in which our Saviour was born." 

Upon close examination we found representations 
of cows, horses, pigs, fowls, <J*c. arranged among some 
hay. In the midst of these lay wooden representa- 
tions of the infant Saviour and of his mother, while 
over head hung, by wires or threads, little images of 
wood to represent angels. Ohservm g bangles (rings) 
on the ancles of the babe, we asked what they were 
for, expressing at the same time our doubts whether 
the infant Saviour had any thing of the kind on his 
ancles, as he was born of a Jewish mother, and these 
made him look like a Hindoo child.* He replied, 

When books are found in the schools, they are manuscripts, and 
even these are exceedingly rare. 

* The Hindoos are exceedingly fond of ornaments and espe- 
cially of loading their children with them. A similar feeling is 


Conversation with the Priest. 

with a smile, that they were put on only for the sake 

A hst of the fast-days, festivals and holy-days, 
which we presume are observed by the people, was 
hung up to view in tlie church. These days amount 
to about fihy in the year, not including the sabbaths. 

After satisfying our curiosity in looking at the 
images and ornaments in the chapel, we were con- 
ducted by the priest into his house. At our request 
he shewed us a part of his library. The books we 
saw were in Latin. We observed among them the 
Vulgate, History of the Council of Trent, Decrees 
of the Popes, &c. We asked him if he had a copy 
of the Greek Testament. He replied, " Greek I 
what is that!" We told him that the Scriptures 
were first written in Hebrew and Greek, and after- 
wards translated into t!ie Latin. He seemed to hav€ 
no acquaintance^ with the Hebrew or Greek, but 
quotes the Latin Scriptures with great fluency and 
accuracy. He told us that he read the Latin in the 
chapel to the people, and explained the meaning of 
what he read to them in the Mahratta. It seems to 
us an additional and useless burden imposed on these 

exhibited by many mothers in a Christian land, in decorating 
their children with rings, and beads, and ribbons. 1 have now 
lying by me, an image of the god Ram, in the shape of a child, 
perfectly naked. Around the ancles and wrists, and above the 
elbows are rings (silver or glass are generally used). A silver 
chain is fastened round the loins and another around tJie neck, 
while rings are suspended from the ears. This is the usual mode 
of decorating children, taking care to shave the heads of the boys. 


■ i ^ ' — ■ — — — — — — -^ 

Popery on the decline in India. Mohammedan converts. 

priests in making them read the Latin service to a 
people who know nothing about ir, and then be 
compelled to explain it to them. Why not speak 
intelligibly at first ? 

To our inquiry, whether he attempted Jo make 
any converts from among the Heathen, he replied, 
" No : if you speak to them on the subject of the 
Christian religion, the first thing they say is, * True, 
Sakiby' and the next thing is * What support will you 
give t«s.' " He thinks that the conversion of the Hea- 
then is a hopeless case, and so does not attempt ir, 
confining his labours to his own people. The Abbe 
Du Bois thought so too, and after a residence of 
about thirty years in the country, gave up the work 
in despair and returned to Europe, and although he 
had made between 200 and 300 converts, yet he did 
not believe that one of the number had embraced 
the doctrines of Popery from conviction of the truth 
<rf the system. We are not surprised at this state- 
ment ; for the Heathen had sense enough to per- 
ceive the striking similarity between Popery as ex- 
hibited in India and Hindooism, and that there could 
be but little inducement for them to change the 
worship of one set of idols for another, unless there 
was something of a pecuniary kind added. When 
converts are made from among the Hindoos to Moham- 
medanism, the followers of the Prophet, after circum- 
cising them, usually pay their debts, and thus release 
them from the oppression of their creditors, who, 
under such circumstances, seldom show any mercy. 


Conversations with the priest. Objections to marriage. 

This may have induced them to say, that not only 
the Roman Catholic, but also the Protestant Mis- 
sionaries, pay their converts for renouncing Hindoo^ 

In turning over the leaves of one of the books the 
priest handed us, we observed some rules on the 
subject of marriage, and reasons why the priests 
should not marry. We remarked to him that he 
seemed to live very comfortably in his house, but he 
wanted one thing to make him still more so, viz. a 
loife. At the mention of the word loi/e, he laughed 
heartily, and said that would never do. 
, Miss. But there certainly can be no good objec- 
tion to your being married as other ministers are. 

Priest. If I were married, I should have but lit- 
tle time for the work of the ministry. 

Miss. But Peter had a wife, and he found time 
for his work. 

Priest. Yes: that is true, but I should not be 
able to support a wife if I had one. 

-Miss. Do you think it wrong for ministers to be 
married ] 

Priest. Not for you ;* but it is not our custom — - 
we have promised not to get married— this custom 
is established in our church — the pope and the 

bishops are great men, and I am a poor man — what 

can I do? ■■/•■■:■/: ^:.:;";;--,:..-^-->..^^^-::v:'>:- ..;,;.-::'■ r:::;,,.;:.,.; 

Miss. You consider it wrong for you to marry, 
merely because ycu have promised not to do so. 
Priest, Yes. . 


A stone wall deified. 

'Miss. But it cannot be wrong to break a bad 
promise; the error consiyls iii making il, not in break- 
ing \i. ^ ' ' --■■"'■'' 

He smiled, and lite subject of our conversation was 
changed. Afier som« further conversation on the 
present state of the Roman Cathohc church in India 
we parted, much gratified with our visit and with 
the priest, who showed much pohteness on tlie oc- 
casion. The priest was educated at Goa, and speaks 
the Latin, Portuguese, and Mahratta languages. 
He lives in seeming comfort, and that too, upon air 
allowance which is shamefully small. 

In our walks to day we went into the fort. As 
we entered it, we were astonished to see an ugly 
idol placed in the gateway. A company of lazy idol- 
worshippers were assembled together near it. In 
addition to the rude stone which they have set up for 
their god, and daubed with red paint, they have also 
deified, in their estimation, one corner of the stone 
wall, by daubing it in like manner with paint. Eight 
or ten poles, with rags on the tops of them, to serve 
for flags, are set up near the idol to give it an ap- 
pearance o. grandeur, or to attract the attention of 
the passer-by. Several seapoys* are stationed here 
to guard the entrance into the fort. We spoke to 
them about the impropriety and sin of worshipping 
such a vile thing. They said it was their god, and 

* This word is' written she-pa-e, and means a native soldier. 
It is, however, usually spelled as above. 


Seapoys encouraged in their idolatry. Silk making. 

I hat the Government did not forbid their placing it 
there. Because the Government have not forbidden 
the introduction of the idol, nor ordered its removal, 
the seapoys consider it as a tacit acknowledgement, 
that even in the estimation of a Christian peo[^le, 
their filthy stone is of importance. 

We are commanded not to worship idols ourselves, 
and also "not to be partakers of other men's sins in 
this matter." It is a subject not unworthy the con- 
sideration of a Christian people, how far, and in what 
way, they should aid in the destruction of idolatry 
in a land over which the Lord hath made them 
rulers. Sin is a reproach to any people, and it is 
the reproach of the Christian church, that idolatry 
has not been banished out of the world long ago. 

Oil our return to our lodgings, we sent the Portu- 
guese priest a copy of the New Testament in the 
Mahratta language which he was desirous tp obtain. 


December 21th. We visited this morning the silk 
factory, which belongs to a Portuguese in Tannah. 
The establishment consists of several small houses in 
which the families of the workmen dwell. A part 
of each house is occupied by their reels and looms. 
In some houses we found but one, and in others five 
looms. The process of making silk as conducted by 
tliese people, certainly appears very simple. They 
have the art of manufacturing silks and cloths with 
the aid of very little machinery, and as they can live 


'{,':■- Idolatry of the Papists. Worship of saints, and of images. 

upon liiLle compared with Europeans, they can afford 
to sell silks at a cheap rale. ^ 

We entered several of the houses, and among the 
first things which attracted our notice on entering, 
were the household gods of these Portuguese Chris- 
tians arranged in order in small cases prepared for 
them, and which face the door. These cases are 
about two feet high, and a foot and a half wide. 
They are made of plain wood and ornamented with 
gold or silver tinsel. In the middle of each case 
stands a cross with a wooden representation of the 
Saviour fastened to it. On either side weie arranged 
various other images, such as the Virgin Mary, St 
Peter, and St Anthony. The people told us that 
every evening they light the candles which stand 
before these images, and then, upon their knees, with 
their eyes fixed on these objects, perform their evening 
devotions. "But do you worship these," we asked. 
Some replied that they did; and others said that 
they only worshipped those whom the images repre- 
sented. We replied, " In either case you do wrong, 
for the Lord commands you not to make unto your- 
selves any graven image, nor the likeness of any 
thing in heaven above, or on the earth beneath, and 
that you should not bow down to them nor serve 
ihem ; and further, that God is a Spirit and requires 
all persons to worship Him in Spirit and in truth, 
and not through the medium of images or saints." 
The only excuse they had for so doing was, that 
all their people do so. But few of those with whom 
we conversed could read. 


Popery a hindrance to the conversion of India. 

It is much to be regretted that ihose, who are 
sound in the faith in some points of Christian doctrine, 
should mingle with the truth so much that is so 
glaringly false. It tends to brings the whole Chris- 
tian system into disrepute among the heathen, and 
only hinders their convei^ion to God. The Roman 
Catholics condemn the heathen for worshipping 
idols, and yet do not consider that by adoring the 
cross and the images of saints, or saints themselves, 
the}^ are guilty of doing the same things for which 
they condemn their idolatrous neighbours. The 
Hindoo can see no great difference between his wor- 
shipping the image of Krishnoo, and his Portuguese 
neighbour's worshipping the image of Christ. They 
both invoke the aid of their departed saints. 


I have often been innpressed with the striking - 
similarity between Hindooism and Popery, as exhi- 
bited in India. To my mind, it is very evident that 
Popery has borrowed largely from the Hindoos in 
building up her temple of superstition. Let the reader 
look at the following facts, and then judge for himself. 

The Hindoos acknowledge not only one, but many 
gods, which ought to be worshipped by them. In 
addition they hold that the Brahmuns are the repre- 
sentatives of God on the earth, and ought also to 
be worshipped. They do this by bowing down be- 
fore the Brahmun and kissing his great toe. They 
are supposed to have the keys of life and death, 


Heathenism of Popery. 

heaven and hell. The Pope, in like mariner, consi- 
ders himself the vicar of Christ: he too holds the keys 
of heaven and hell in his hands, and his toe has also 
been favoured with many a kiss. 

The Hindoos have four sacred books called Vedes, 
and eighteen commentators upon these, which are 
esteemed of equal importance with the Vedes. None 
but those of lh€ priestly order are, by their laws, per- 
mitted to read these sacred books, under the penalty 
of having their tongues cut out. Since the Brah- 
muns have lost their temporal power in the country, 
these laws are not regarded. The Romish priests in 
India also endeavour to keep the Scriptures from their 
people. Many of them do not obey their priests in 
this matter. I had a young man named Manoel in 
my employ, to whom I gave a Portuguese Bible, 
translated by a Portuguese priest. He took it with 
him to Goa, and while there, one of the priests took 
it from him, and forbade him to read it. 

The Hindoo priests endeavour to keep their people 
in ignorance of their Scriptures, and, to keep up their 
own superiority, have opposed the education of the 
people. The Romish priests have done the same. 
Notwithstanding the multitudes of priests which 
havlb been, and are in the western part of India, they 
have never yet given the Scriptures to the people in 
a language that they can understand. 

The Hindoos have a multitude of idols, which 
they daily worship. Some of them consider the idol 
as the representative of God, and others worship the 
thing itself, and go no farther. Besides temple dei- 


Heathenism of Popery. 

ties, they have household gods, which are daily wor- 
shipped by them. The Romanists in India have 
also images of saints in their chapels and in their 
houses, and to these they daily bow down. In the 
streets crosses are set up ; and in the evenings, lamps 
are placed at the feet of them, after the Hindoo mode 
of placing lights before their idols. I have often 
seen the Romanists, as they pass these crosses, take 
off their hats and bow to them; and others, who 
have more time to spend, approach them and pros- 
trate themselves before them. 

The Hindoos have many millions of Dewus, or in- 
ferior deities, corresponding to which, the Romanists 
have multitudes of angels. 

The Hindoos have their Gooroos to intercede for 
them with the god whose favour they wish to pro- 
cure. The Romanists have their saints. In the 
church at Tannah, I saw several of the images of 
saints, which the priest told ine at times interceded 
for them.* 

* That the Romanists do worship images there cannot be the 
least doubt. Many of them do not pretend to deny it. Chris- 
tians and Hindoos daily witness the idolatry of their Portuguese 
neighbours. The church in India authorizes it, and so does 
the second council of Nice. One of the decisions is in these 
words : " The honour paid to the image pdsses to its prototype ; 
and he who adore$ the image, adores in it the person of him whom 
it represents." Con. Nic. 2d Act, vol. 7, p. 556. And again: 
"To those who diligently teach not the whole Christ-loving 
people to adore and salute the venerable and holy and pre- 
cious images of all the saints, let them be anathema." " We 
adore," say the Nicene fathers, " the unpolluted image of our 


Heathenism of Popery. 

The Hindoos hold that a man may obtain poonyu 
(righteousness) by his own works, and that he may 
obtain in this way more than he needs for himself; 
the surplus he may sell to those who are more needy. 
There are many men in India who go about the 
country selling righteousness, as they say, to those 
who need it, for which they charge one or two ru- 
pees ! It is dear enough even at that price, for it is 
worth nothing. Whether there is any thing like this 
to be found in the practice of selling indulgences, 
the reader may judge from the following extract. 
We have resolved," says Pope Leo, A.D. 18243 
by virtue of the authority given to us from heaven, 
fully to unlock the sacred treasure composed of the 
merits, sufferings and virtues of Christ our Lord, and 
of his virgin mother, and of all the saints, which the 
author of human salvation has entrusted to our dis- 
pensation. To you, therefore, venerable brethren, pa- 
triarchs, primates, archbishops and bishops, it belongs 
to explain with perspicuity the power of indulgences, 
what is their efficacy in the remission, not only of 
the canonical penance, but also of the temporal pun- 
ishment due to the Divine Justice for past sin." &c.* 
The Hindoos observe shrad, a ceremony in which 
they offer up prayers ; feed and fee Brahmuns, so^s 
to procure righteousness for the souls of their de- 
ceased friends ; and, in this way, to procure for them 

Lord Jesus Christ, our true God ; and when we adore the image, 
we adore in it the person of him whom it represents." 
* Bull for the observance of the Jubilee, A.D. 1825. 


Heathenism of Popery. 

a speedier admittance to final happiness. The Ro- 
manists fee the priests to say mass for the benefit of 
the souls of their deceased relatives, and to get them 
out of purgatory the quicker. 

The Hindoos have many ways of obtaining right- 
eousness. One is by the performance of jup, which 
consists in the mere repetition of a prayer, or the 
name of one of their gods so many times. If it be a 
prayer, they keep count by dropping one of the beads 
of the rosary they hold in their hands : or if it be the 
name of one of their gods, it is repeated so many 
ghutkas. (A ghutka is twenty-four minutes.) By 
the performance of jup, barren women hope to obtaiii 
children ; and all of them, the forgiveness of sin. 
The Romanists hold to jup in like manner^ as is 
evident from the following extract. "To all them 
that before this image of pity shall devoutly say five 
Pater Fosters,* ancl five *Ave •MariaSy'f and a Credo, ^ 
piteously beholding those arms of Christ's passion, 
are granted 32,755 years of pardon. And Sixtus 
the fourth, pope of Rome, hath made the fourth and 
fifth prayer, and hath doubled his aforesaid pardon." 
See the book of the Hours of the Virgin, Paris ed. 
1526 ; and Bishop Burnet's Hist, of the Reform., vol. 
2, p. 138. 

Tup is another mode by which the Hindoos ex- 
pect to obtain righteousaess. This consists in the 
various ways they have of doing penance, as, for, 

* Pater Noster, " Our Father," iSkc. 
t Ave Maria, " Hail Mary," &c. 
t Credo, « I believe," &c. 


Heathenism of Popery. 

example, whipping themselves ; standing on one foot ; 
remaining silent for years; lying upon the ground or 
on a bed of spikes ; maiming themselves by cutting 
off the toes or fingers; swinging, &c. The Roman- 
ists also have their various modes of penance, which 
are practised at the present day. 

The Hindoos have their oopas (fastings), of which 
they enumerate twelve kinds ; none of these exceeds 
fifteen days. In keeping some of these fasts, they 
are allowed to eat only one kind of food, and in all 
of them they abstain from meat. The twelfth mode 
of fasting continues one week : the following is the 
regimen prescribed. First day, milk ; second, milk- 
curds ; third, ghee, (clarified butter) ; fourth, cow's 
urine ; fifth, cowdung ; sixth, water ; seventh, noth- 
ing. The Romanists also have their fasts, which 
are observed by all of those who pretend to any 
thing like strictness in their religion, and in these 
fasts they use no meat 

The Hindoos have a great many festivals during 
the year in honour of their dewus (saints). They 
number more than fifty such days. The Romanists 
have saints' days in abundance, as St Ambrose's 
day, St Andrew's, St Ann's, St John's, &c. 

The Hindoos have their Teerth (holy places), to 
which they make Yafrus (pilgrimages), whereby 
they hope to obtain the pardon of sin ; as, for exam- 
ple, to the Ganges, Ramishwur, Juggumath, Wuzu- 
rabae, &,c. Many of the pilgrims beg their way to 
these reputed holy places, and vainly imagine that 


Heathenism of Popery. 

they obtain much righteousness by so doing. The 
Romanists have also their sacred places, and pil- 
grimages to them. Witness the number who go on 
a pilgrimage to *^Our Lady of Loretto ;" who make 
stations at Loch Derg, in the north, and at the Holy 
Wells, in the south of Ireland. 

The Hindoos have two kinds of holif water, which 
they use in sprinkling on their bodies, and for occa- 
sional drinking, viz. cow^s urine, and water in which 
a Brahmun has dipped his toe or washed his foot. 
The Romanists have their holy water, which the 
priests make by throwing a little salt in it, and by 
blessing it. 

The Hindoos divide all sins into two classes, in- 
ward and outward. Of the first there are seven 
degrees, and of the last twelve. The Romanists 
have also classified sins, making them- venial and 

The Hindoos have their Dan Dhum, that is, the 
giving of presents to the Brahmuns. As each Brah- 
mun is looked upon as the vicar of Bruhm the crea- 
tor, whatever is given to the Brahmun is put down 
by Bruhm to the credit of the donor as so much righ- 
teousness obtained. And it is much in the same 
way that the Romanist expects his gifts (beneficia), 
to his holiness the pope, or his authorised agents, 
will be put down in hi&fevour. 

The Hindoos have their Veiragees and Sumy' 
asees, who give up the world, retire into the deserts 
or into a temple, and live upon the alms of the peo- 


Heathenism of Popery. 

pie. These are the monks and the hermits of the 
'Romanists. ■■■"• -■-- '"*-' -^'" 

The Hindoos have their ^to^, that is, Brahmuns 
who go either naked or meanly clad, and live by beg- 
ging from place to place. These correspond to the 
begging friars of the Romanists. ^ . 

The Hindoos have their VasMoiS^ females who are 
dedicated to the service of some god. The marriage 
service is performed by a Brahraun, by which the 
girl is married to an idol. She can never be mar- 
ried to a man after this. They are usually devoted 
to idols by their parents. Corresponding to this, we 
find JVwns in the Romish church. 

A custom prevails among the Hindoos of carrying 
out their gods in solemn procession on the days es- 
pecially devoted to them. On these occasions there 
is much display, and not a little shouting, accom- 
panied with music. The Romanists also carry out 
an image of the virgin Mary, preceded by priests 
bearing large wax candles, and little boys dressed up 
in a fantastic manner to represent angels. On many 
of these occasions, the display is increased by music 
and the firing of cannon. 

In almost all the temples of the Hindoos there are 
bells, which are rung by the worshipper as he enters 
the temple. A small one is kept by the priest, 
which he jingles to keep up the attention of the god, 
as they tell the worshippers. The Romanists, dur- 
ing the time of mass, have a small bell to tinkle, and 
in some of the churches, the church bell is rung. 


Hindoos fond of marvellous stories. 

The custom of using rosaries, and of carrying 
images about their persons, is common to both. 

These are some of the things in which there is a 
striking similarity. Others might be mentioned, as 
for example, the multiplication of rites and ceremo- 
nies not prescribed by their respective sacred books, 
but these are sufficient. The Hindoos most assur- 
edly have not borrowed from the Romanists any of 
the rites now found in use among them. The con- 
clusion must be, that Popery has borrowed from 
Heathenism. If not, how can we account for the 
striking similarity which we see does exist? The 
reader may judge.^ 


On our way from the factory we saw a number of 
Hindoos assembled by the road side. Two of them 
were engaged in work while the others sat idly by. 
We asked. What are you doing here? Making a 
trough, said one. This tree is aRackshus (daemon )^ 
said another. 

Miss. How can that be t 

Hindoo. Once there was a wicked daemon, and 
he tormented the people in this world so much that 
God, to punish him, turned him into a cocoa-nut 
tree, and from him all other cocoa-nut trees have 

Miss. This story cannot be true. The devil is 
still alive, and if you do not leave off lying and your 
idolatry, we fear he will get you ere long. 


A Mussulman youth. Certificates to servants. 

Hind, I am not afraid of that. - ■ 

After exhorting them all to forsake their idolatry 
and worship the living God, we made our salaam 
and came away. Such ridiculous stories do these 
poor creatures readily believe, or at least say they 
do, but withhold their assent to the declarations of 
the God of truth. But such is the effect of sin. The 
god of this world has, indeed, blinded their minds, so 
that now, as a people, the Hindoos are far more ready 
to believe a lie than the truth. 

Having returned to our lodgings, we found a 
young man, a Mussulman, who had come to seek 
employment. He exhibited two certificates of his 
good character. These, however, did not recom- 
mend him, though he supposed they did.* We asked 

* When a servant leaves the employ of a gentleman in India, 
it is customary for the employer to give him a written testimony 
of his faithfulness, &.c. As these are written in English, the ser- 
vant seldom knows the real meaning of the character given. 
They may be good, or bad, or doubtful, and the bearer still keeps 
and shows them when anxious to be employed. The recom- 
mendations usually run thus : " The bearer, A. B., has been in 
my employ (so many months or years) and I have found him faith- 
ful, honest, &c. &c., and have dismissed him, having no more 
need of him, or at his request." (Signed C. D.) 

Some time ago, a gentleman dismissed a servant who had been 
in the habit of staying away very frequently from his work. His 
regular excuse was, that his father, mother, or some of his rela- 
tions were dead, and that he, according to their custom, had to 
attend the funeral. His employer gave him a written character 
in something like the following language : — " The bearer (A. B.) 
has been in my employ for a number of months, and is now dis- 
missed at his own request. While in my employ, hia father has 


Servants. A mission school scholar. 

him, " Are you a good boy 1" He replied, " Yes, I 
never lie, nor st^al, I never cheat my master. Some 
boys go in the bazar and pay half a rupee for an arti- 
cle and then charge their masters one rupee for it. I 
never do so. I always tell the true price. I never 
smoke, nor drink brandy, nor keep any bad company. 
I am a very good boy. If master will try me, then 
he will know." 

This youth had not learned to obey the advice of 
Solomon, "Let another man praise thee, and not 
thine Own mouth." His self praise was no recom- 
mendation to him. After he had left us, we made 
farther inquiry concerning him, and found out that 
his character was just the reverse of what he had 
told us. It is astonishing how devoid of truth this 
class of persons are. With them it would seem that 
truth, and every other moral trait, mustfbend or give 
way for the sake of money. The natives need the 
Gospel, if it were for no other purpose than to make 
them quit lying. ; - 

A Hindoo youth called io-day for a book. He in- 
formed us that he was formerly a scholar in one of 
the Mission schools under the care of Mr Nichols, 
and used to meet with others, on the Sabbath, in the 
house we then occupied, to receive religious instruc- 

died four times j his mother, thrice; and all his relations, to the 
third or fourth generation, three or four times: so that now he 
will have no inducement to leave his service, and will, without 
doubt, prove a faithful and attentive servant." The poor fellow 
thought it a good character, and exhibited it accordingly. 


Directions of a Hindoo to Christianity. , ;;/. 

tion. He said he did not believe in the idols of his 
people, nor did he worship them"; that he had learn- 
ed from Mr Nichols that it was sinful to do so, and 
that he believed Jesus Christ to be the only Saviour 
of sinners. He remembered that there are ten com- 
mandments, but had nearly forgotten them, and 
wished to have another catechism or spelling book 
which contains the commandments. We gave him 
cheerfully such books as he wanted. This youth 
holds the memory of the deceased missionary in high 
estimation, but so far as we can judge, has not yet 
believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, to the saving of 
his soul. .^ -;■;;/. '.. 

This evening a number of young Hindoo gentle- 
men called on us, with whom we had considerable 
conversation on the subject of the Christian religion. 
They brought forward a number of objections against 
Christianity, which showed that they had either read 
these objections in some infidel works, or had heard 
them from those who are no friends to Christianity. 
One of them objected to Christ as the Saviour, in 
these words : — " Did not your Jesus Christ get him- 
self into difficulty, when He cried out, * Eloi, Eloi, 
lama sabachthani.' If he could not save himself, 
how can he save us ]" We replied, that Christ 
could have saved himself from death, if he had 
wished it ; but he chose to die for sinners. -If a 
man should be put into prison for a crime, and was 
sentenced to receive so many stripes every day, 
would he not get them 1 Now, if you should become 


Kindness of Christian friends. 

his budul (substitute), would you not receive the 
stripes he should have received? In like manner, 
Christ is our budul. He suffered for us, and all the 
anguish he felt, was in his body and soul. He is 
man, as well as God. Kfis divinity did not suffer. 
He then replied, that he only wanted information on 
the subject, as he did not understand the Christian 
religion. He did not wish to advert to the fact, if 
he knew it, that the death qf Christ was absolutely 
necessary for the salvation of sinners. Some of these 
young men have been educated in the government- 
school in Tannah, from which Christianity is, for 
prudential reasons, excluded. Many of these young, 
men have discriminating minds. The education 
which they have received, has convinced them of 
the absurdity of Hindooism, and not having been 
instructed in Christianity, they are thrown into 
infidelity. We are fully convinced, that for the 
salvation of India, education and Christianity must 
go together. 


2Sth. We left Tannah this morning for Bhewndy, 
which we reached at eight o'clock. Dr Edwards and 
his lady received us cordially under their hospitable 
roof, and have laid us under many obligations for 
their attention and Christian kindness shown us. 
They are both members of the Church of. England, 
and are endeavouring to extend the knowledge of 


The Fakeers. Conversation with them. 

Christ among the natives around (hem. There is a 
regrment of seapoys stationed here. The European 
officers, and others in connection with the regiment, 
form a small, but interesting society of Christian peo- 
ple ; many of whom, by their Christian example and 
efforts, do mucli to extend the knowledge of Christ 
among these benightened heathen. Much moremight 
be done, by the few people of God stationed there than 
is done, in the way of instructing the natives, through 
the medium of tracts and schools, did they meet with 
proper encouragement. Very much, depends upon 
the commanding officer at an out station like this. 
If he be a man of God, and deeply interested in the 
spiritual welfare of the native soldiers and their fa- 
milies, much can be done ; but, if the contrary, he 
has the power of preventing the accomplishment of 
m:uch good. 

In the evening, accompanied by a pious young 
officer, Mr Reynolds, we went into the bazar to con- 
verse with the natives. On our way we were met 
by three Fakeers,* returning from the bazar. We 
made our salaam to them, which was returned, and 

Miss. Who are you ] 

Fakeer. We are Fakeers, Sahib. 
: \Miss. What are you doing here 1 1 

F. We are begging. 

Miss. You are not sick, n(^r blind, nor lame. You 

* A Fakeer is a Mussulman mendicant. ^ 


Preaching in the bazar. 

are strong men; and God has given you hands to 

work, why then do you beg 1 
F. This is our work. God has commanded us 

to beg. 
Miss. Did God ever command you to beg 1 
F, No; not us : but he commanded our fathers 

to beg, and ordered that their children should do so 

Miss, How much money have you got to-day 1 

F, See. [Holding his gourd-shell, which con- 
tained his money, towards us.] 

We looked in and found only /our pice (about 
three cents) and a few toe^. 

While engaged in talking with them, a Mussul- 
man came up, and giving them another pice, went 
on. One of the Fakeers then observed, "See, 
Sahib, God has sent us another pice." 

Miss, l^ut if you would work, you could get 
every day, more money than you now have, and you 
would not then be taking money from the poor, who 
cannot afford to give it. 

F. No, no; Sahib. We must not work. It would 
be a sin for us to leave this employment. This is 
otvr work, and we must follow it. 

They were then exhorted to forsake their sinful 
course, and work for an honest living, being assured 
that the course they were pursuing, would procure 
for them the displeasure of God here and hereafter, 
and not his approbation, as they vainly imagine. 

After leaving these Fakeers, we went into the 


Hindoo religious beggars. 

bazar of the native town, which is some distance 
from the cantonments, and commenced our work of 
preaching the gospel to the people. We were soon 
interrupted in our work by a company of sturdy 
Hindoo beggars^ who make a living by going from 
place to place, fiddling and dancing for the amuse- 
ment of the people. We exhorted them to forsake 
their vagabond life and turn to some sober and 
rational employment for a living. But they, like 
the Fakeers, plead divine authority for their work. 
" God," said they, " commanded us to make a living 
by dancing for the amusement of the people, and 
' we wiwsi obey." 

Whether these different classes of beggars really 
believe, or only pretend that they are obeying the 
will of God, by following their respective employ- 
ments, we presume not to say. Certain it is, how- 
ever, that the people admit their claims for a sup- 
port, and are not less prompt in giving their mites, 
than the others are diligent in asking. It is some* 
V what strange, that such hordes of vagrants, consist- 
ing of men, women and children, should have been 
kept in countenance under the Native government, 
seeing that, so far from being a benefit to the commu- 
nity, they are only a nuisance, and a scourge to the 
poor. Considering these people now, as British sub- 
jects, and under a Christian government, we think 
it would be an act of kindness towards them, for the 
proper authorities to treat them as vagrants, and to 
compel them to engage in some honest employment 


English service. Christians in India united. 

for a livelihood. At present, they are of no manner 
of use to the community, so far as we can see. 
Their increase, is only an increase of beggars, who 
help to consume the revenue of the country, with- 
out adding to it, and to increase the wretchedness 
and poverty of the poor, without alleviating, in the 
smallest degree, any of their sufferings. 


Dr Edwards spread the information in the camp 
last evening, tliat two Missionaries had arrived, and 
that his house would be open for divine service this 
morning. At the hour appointed, a number of 
gentlemen and ladies assembled, among whom was 
the commandant of the station, Captain F. At the 
request of Mr Read, I preached to this interesting 
assemblage of people from John v. 40. " And ye will 
not come unto me, that ye might have life." The 
people here have not the benefit of the regular min- 
istrations of the gospel among them. They hope, 
however, to be supplied by one of the chaplains in 
Bombay."* There is, 1 believe, only one family at 
this station in connection with the Presbyterian 
church ; the others are connected with the Church 
of England. The christian people in India, though 
divided in sentiment, as to church order, yet seem 
more united in christian feeling and effort, than 

* They have since been supplied. 


Seapoys ask for tracts. Bazar-preaching. 

christians generally are. The number of christians 
in India are few indeed, but their piety is of a high 
order. The increase of pious and faithful chaplains, 
and of pious officers, civilians, and others in India, is 
an immense blessing to the country. May their 
number be greatly increased, and their holy influ- 
ence be felt by the whole heathen population 
throughout the land. 

While on our way this evening to the ba2:ar, w^e 
were stopped by some seapoys, who were exceeding- 
ly anxious to receive tracts. Many of them asked 
for English and Mahratta tracts, saying that they 
wished to learn the English language. We sup- 
plied those who could read the Mahratta with tracts 
at their own request. While conversing with them, 
they listened attentively, and seemed desirous to 
hear of Christ. Their orderly and respectful beha- 
viour pleased us much, and showed the good effect 
of the discipline under which they live. No one 
shewed any disposition to cavil, or make any dis- 

In the bazar, we did not find the people so willing 
to hear the truth as yesterday. There is generally 
some wrathful spirit or other to excite the minds of 
the people against us and the truth, on these occa- 
sions. How far such individuals may, at the time 
being, be under the special influence of the Devil, 
is hard to say; but that he does .work in these 
" children of disobedience" to oppose the gospel, we 
doubt not. They may not be sensible of it, but this 


Girls from the mission school. 

does not render the fact less certain. The opposi- 
tion was of such a kind, that we were able to say 
but little, and were compelled to return. 

On our way returning, we were saluted by several 
little girls with, "Salaam Sahib; salaam Sahib." 
" Who are you ?' we asked. 

Crirls, We are school girls, and live here. 

Miss, Can you read? 

Crirls. Yes, yes [responded several voices]. 

Miss, Where did you learn to read 1 

Girls. In Bombay ; in Miss Farrar's school. 

Miss, Do you go to school now ? 

CHrls. No, Sahib; there is no school here. 
- Miss. Is there no one to teach you now ! 

Girls. [Several of them raised their hands, and 
giving them the usual significant shake, replied] 
Nobody teaches us. 

Miss. We fear that you will forget to read, un- 
less you have a school. 

Girls, What can we dol 

At our request, they repeated the ten command- 
ments and portions of the Scriptures, in the hearing 
of a number of seapoys, who had assemWd to 
hear the conversation. Their parents and others, 
heard these little Hindoo girls declare that, in their 
estimation, the idols of the heathen are vain, and 
that Jesus Christ is the only Saviour of sinners. We 
supplied them all with tracts, and invited them to 
call on us at Dr E.'s in the morning. They seemed 
truly glad to see us ; and their parents were no less 



Importance of schools. More schools for children needed. 

rejoiced, at even that small exhibition of their chil- 
dren's knowledge. 

Dec. SOth. Monday. This morning a number of 
the girls we saw yesterday, called on us. We as- 
sembled them and others in the verandah of Dr E.'s 
house, and after hearing them read a portion of one 
of the gospels, we exhorted them to love the Savi- 
our — supplied them with books, and dismissed them. 
We hope that the instructions which these little 
heathen children have received in one of our mission 
schools may not be wholly lost; though circum- 
stanced as they are now, there is great danger that 
they will- forget much of what they have learned. 
If schools were established in all the regiments of 
native soldiers, in which the precepts of the gospel 
should be taught, it would do more than any thing 
else to make them faithful and obedient soldiers, and 
their wives and children orderly and peaceable. We 
hope that all rulers will, ere long, see that the way 
to make good soldiers and good subjects, is to bring 
them under the influence of the good and wholesome 
laws of the gospel of Christ. 

There is a school in this regiment for boys, but 
none for girls. Besides this one, there are no others 
in Bhewndy, where the youth can hear any thing 
about the christian religion. A large and flourishing 
school might be had in this place, if there were any 
to take the oversight of it. Some of the pious ladies 
at the station, are doing something for the benefit of 
the Hindoo girls, but they meet with opposition from 


Lonar. ;> iTravelling. 

a source which cannot well be resisted. They hope 
that circumstances may so be changed, as to enable 
them to do something of importance for the cause. 
If all the christians scattered abroad throughout this 
extensive country, did but exert themselves for the 
salvation of the heathen as they might, India would 
soon be compelled to submit to the sceptre of right- 
eousness, and own Christ as her Redeemer. 

We visited some of the European famiUes to-day. 
They all lament the absence of the gospel privileges 
they once enjoyed. Some of them prize highly the 
few means of grace which they now enjoy. We 
were earnestly requested lo visit the station again, 
and share their unfeigned hospitality. 


Tuesday^ Dec. Slst. Our duty to the heathen, 
caused us to break away this morning from our kind 
friends, Dr E. and his lady, and others, with whom 
we have become acquainted. We can only say, the 
Lord reward them for all their kindness to us. We 
reached Lonar, a small village about seven miles 
distant, at 7 o'clock, where we remained during the 
heat of the day. The road to this place is rough 
and billy, *and lies through a continued JMw^/e, with 
only here and there a cleared spot. Gardees (native 
carts) cannot pass on this road. The mode of con- 
veying merchandise into the interior, is on the backs 
of bullocks or tattoos (native ponies). The people 


Houses. Hindoo worship and snperstition. 

usually travel on foot. We stopped at the house of 
the Patel, the head man of the village. The house, 
like most of the Hindoo houses in this part of the 
country, is constructed so as to accommodate the 
cows and calves a.nd fowls, as well as the family. We 
occupied that part of the house which is appro- 
priated to the cows during the night, they being 
turned out in the day time. We had an opportunity 
this morning of seeing some of the domestic arrange- 
ments of this house, and the family at their devo- 
tions. The females, whose business it is to cook, 
having prepared their frugal meal, informed the men 
that it was ready. They immediately arose from 
the floor, which is of earth beaten hard and cleansed 
with a wash of cow-dung and water, which also 
prevents it from cracking, and after w^ashirrg them- 
selves, (for unless they wash oft they eat not) 
assembled in the corner of the house the farthest 
from us, for their morning worship. This consisted 
in the mere repetition of the word Ram, Ram, the 
name of one of their ihree hundred and thirty-three 
millions of gods, connected with beating, for about 
five minutes, a rude family drum. This being 
finished, they daubed a little moist powdered sandal- 
wood and red paint on their foreheads, breasts and 
arms, and then sat down to eat. On going near 
them, they all said, " Go away, go away — don't 
come here — you will pollute our food.* It was 

* The Hindoos are exceedingly averse to having jany one 
approach them while engaged in preparing or eating their food. 



The gods of a poor Hindoo family. Domestic arrangements. 

asked, " Why do you beat the tom-tom'^ before eat^ 
ingl" They rephed, "This is our god." "But 
have you no other god than this 1" They then exhi- 
bited a little box containing sandal-wood dust, and 
said, " These are all the gods we have." A small 
hoop with a piece of sheep skin stretched.over it, and 
a box of sandal-wood dust, are all the gods of this 
poor family ! Truly darkness covereth them. They 
sit in the region and shadow of death. 

Before leaving them we told them of the only true 
God, even our Saviour Jesus Christ, and urged them 
to throw away their idols and pray to the true Grod 
alone. After they had finished their breakfast, we 
asked, "How often do you eat every day." They 
said, "T?cice; onceatll o'clock and once at night; we 
are poor people and cannot afford to eat oftener thaa 
twice a day." There are some who cannot afford to 
eat more than once a day. They also told us that 
it was their regular practice to worship their god 
before eating. While the christian cannot but pity 
the ignorance of these benighted people, he is con- 
strained to admire in them the disposition to ac- 

While in Calcutta, one of the Missionaries, Mr Hodson, looked 
into the house of the Darwan, while he was in the act of prepar- 
ing his rice. He immediately picked up his vessel and threw 
out the whole of the rice, and raged furiously for a short time 
against Mr Hodson for the loss he had occasioned him. In 
Bombay, they are not so stiff in their notions of things as in 
Calcutta. A Mahratta is not quite so willing to part with his 
dinner as this Bengalee. 
* A native drum, made after different models. 


Reproof to Christians. Ongia of worshipping the monkey. 

knowledge God (would that they knew (he true 
God !) as the author of all their mercies. The con- 
duct of this heathen family reproves many a profess- 
ing christian in a christian land. How many are 
there who have been baptized into the name of the 
Tri-une God, and have sat down at the table of their 
Lord, who still habitually neglect to worship God in 
their families, or even to ask the blessing of God upon 
the food they daily receive from his hand. Will not 
the heathen in judgment rise up and condemn such 
professors for their glaring neglect of duty % 

We had a few of the villagers assembled in the 
verandah of the Patel's house, to whom we made 
known the gospel of Christ. We distributed but few 
tracts among them, not being able to find many 
readers. There is no school in the village. There 
is one temple dedicated to the monkey god Hunoo- 
man.* The people appear to be poor. 

* The Hindoo account of Hunooman is this. Two or three 
millions of years ago, the world was desolated by a fierce giant 
named Rawun, who dwelt in Lunca (Ceylon). To rescue man 
from this scourge, Vishnoo, the preservative form of the Deity, 
and second person of the Hindoo triad, assumes the appearance 
of a human being, under the name of Rama, and proceeding to 
Lunca, wages a bloody war with Rawun. Rama calls to his aid 
Mahadeo the third person of the Hindoo trinity, whose attribute 
is destruction. He becomes incarnate under the form of the 
monkey Hunooman, and from his abode in. Himalaya, the land of 
snow, springs at one leap to Lunca. With the assistance of the 
monkey commander and his host of monkeys, Vishnoo at length 
subdues Rawun ; but by some contrivance of the latter fire is set 
to Hunooman's tail. To extinguish this conflagration, which 


Temples and tanks neglected. 


After dinner we rode six miles through the jungle 
to the village of Teetwaila which is situated on the 
south banis of the river Baloo. The village is small, 
and has the appearance of decay, there being only 
two or three good houses in it. There is a small 
temple of Hunooman here which stands on the edge 
of a tank about eighty yards square. The temple 
and tank are both much neglected. We are not 
surprised that the temple should suffer for want of 
zeal among the people ; but ihat the tank, which 
contains the supply of water for the inhabitants for 
the year, should be left to fill up gradually and thus 
diminish the necessary quantity, is a matter of sur- 
prise. The wall is broken down and the cattle have 

threatened destruction to the world, he puts his tail to his mouth 
for the purpose of blowing out the fire. In doing this he burnt 
his face black. Full of shame, at one leap he reaches Bundnr 
Poonch, one of the highesf^eaks of the Himalaya mountains, 
where the fire is put out in the snow ; but his face remains per- 
fectly black. Hunooman now presents a petition to Vishnoo, 
that having lost his beauty in his service he begs his honour may 
be preserved by rendering the visages of all his companions black 
in like manner. The request was instantly granted, and in ad- 
dition it was ordered that he should be worshipped for overcom- 
ing Rawun and delivering out of his hands Seeta, the wife of 
Ram^Who had been stolen from him. This is one version of the 
origin of worshipping the monkey, but there are others which are 
somewhat different. In this part of the country the monkey is 
universally worshipped.. 


Bats. Village school. Kindness of tbe Patel. Preaching. 

free access to it. Nearly the whole surface of the 
tank is covered with water-lilies. A number of wild 
ducks were sporting themselves in the water and 
seem not to be alarmed at the approach of any one.. 
On two of the trees near the temple hundreds of large 
bats were hanging from the branches by their feet, 
and kept up a continual squeaking noise and quar- 
rel among themselves. To say the least of them, 
they form a noisy and quarrelsome society. Like 
the smaller species of bats they seek their food by 
night. They are at times rather anoying to the 

This village contains only one school, which, ac- 
cording to the teacher's account, numbers but fif- 
teen boys. The boys to-day were at a wedding when 
we called at the school. We supphed tlie teacher 
with tracts for himself and his scholars, and gave 
away a few more to those who could read. The 
mord, or written character is better understood by the 
people, than tiie balbad or printed letter. 

When we arrived in the village, we found the Pa- 
tel, who is an aged and respectable man, unwell, 
and occupying a small house not sufficient to ac- 
commodate us. He procured for us a lodging place 
in the verandah (porch) of a neighbouring house. 
By hanging up a curtain to hide us from the gaze of 
the passing people, and to defend us from the winds 
at night, we had a comfortable place. # ^^^ 

We collected a number of people before the door 
and in the verandah this evening, and preached to 


The sick man. Mistake our road. 

them the gospel of Jesus Christ, and supplied them 
with tracts. 

January \st, 1 834. This morning we went through 
the village and conversed with all whom we found 
w^illing to hear us, and supplied the readers with tracts. 
On our return, we found a man lying before the door 
in the sun, waiting for us. He was poor, si€k, and 
lame. He had heard that two Sahibs were in the 
village, and after learning where we stopped, called 
on us to solicit alms. We gave the poor man some 
money to relieve his temporal distress, and directed 
him to the Saviour of sinners for pardon and salva- 
tion. He seemed glad to receive the money, but 
was indifferent about the advice. Poor man ! he has 
none of the comforts of this life, and cares not for 
-the only way of obtaining life and salvation in the 
world to come. After receiving the money, he crept 
into the shade and laid down on the ground to sleep. 


In the evening we rode about twelve miles to the 
village of Shendooroon. The road was a mere 
path, exceedingly rough, crooked and hilly, and led 
through a thick jungle. As this village was farther 
off than we had anticipated, night came on us before 
we reached it. When about a mile from the village, 
we rAet some travellers at the forks of the road, and 
inquired the way to Shendooroon. One said, " Go 
this way;" another said, '^Go that way;" but none of 




Lodge in fhe Patel's house. Vague directiuos. Hindoo character. 

them stopped to give us the particular information 
we needed. Being left to choose for ourselves, we 
took the wrong road. After wandering about for 
some time, we descried a fire at a distance, where 
some bullock drivers were encamped for the night. 
On making known our situation to them, they kind- 
ly directed us to the village. We came to the Pa- 
tel's house, who furnished us a place in his dwell- 
ing, by turning out the cows for our accommodation, 
though Xh^ calves weie kept in. 

It is exceedingly annoying, while riding on a 
strange road, and night approaching, to be lold by 
one that your stopping place is near at hand, though 
it may be liiiles off; or when you do ask, to get no 
answer, or such a vague one, that you would rather 
not have had it. We have often, when meeting a 
person, asked, " How far is it to such a village T 
naming it; the person, without stopping, has replied 
^^J^uzeel^^ (near). "Very well: but how many 
kos?^^* the answer may be, "Four or five." Or if the 
person does not wish to speak, he will hold up as 
many fingers as there are kos, and that is about all 
the information you can get. If the person met be 
a female, she seldom, if ever, will give any reply. 
Why they act so, we know not. Perhaps the men 
think we do know and need not ask, and the females 
are afraid or ashamed to speak to a person with a 
white face. ^^ 

* A kos varies from two to four miles. 


An uncomfortable night. Plan of the native houses. 

Some of our coolies were overtaken by the night, 
and were afraid, they said, to come on lest they 
should fall in wiih the ligers. In consequence of 
this, only a part of our bedding, &c. was brought to 
the village. The Patel furnished Mr Read with a 
native cot, about three feet by four, an uncomforta- 
ble thing to lie on, but it kept him from the ground. 
The calves in the night, finding themselves separat- 
ed from the rest of the herd, began to bawl. Their 
noise awoke the children, who, in turn, began to 
scream ; and this excited the talkative powers of the 
older members of the family: so that between the 
talking of the parents, the crying of the children, 
and the incessant bawling of the calves, not ten feet 
from us, the night was rendered a sleepless one to us. 

The plan of the houses in this part of the country 
is somewhat different from that found in many 
places. They are generally square, and are made 
to cover a large space of ground. A small part of it 
is for the exclusive use of_^the family, the other part 
is used during the night for a cow stable, and being 
cleansed in the morning, affords a large sitting or 
lounging room for the family during the day. The 
floors are made of clay beaten solid. In the morn- 
ing, all the cow dung is carefully collected by some 
of the females of the family, and carried out of doors, 
Avhere it is piled up for future use. In this work, 
the females u?e their hands, and we have seen them 
carry out the dung in the same large shallow cop- 
per dish, out of which, in two or three hours after- 



Fuel of the poor in the East. The houses of the poor. 

wards, the fomily eat their breakfast, having scour- 
ed and washed the vessel clean. A portion of the 
dung is left on the floor, which being diluted with 
water, is rubbed by the hand all over it. When this 
dries, it prevents the surface of the earthen floor 
from cracking, and the clay from being brushed up 
during the process of sweeping. The rest of the 
dung is mixed with rice chafl" or straw, and being 
formed into small cakes, is dried in the sun, and used 
for fuel. The heat produced by this kind of fuel, is 
said to be very powerful. It is more safe than wood, 
and not so easily put out. In the jungle there can 
be no diflSculty in procuring wood, yet still the peo- 
ple seemed to prefer to it to wood. The preparing of 
fuel seems to be the peculiar work of the females of 
the family. The mere babbling of the females in 
this filth has, we think, a powerful effect to debase 
their minds. In cases where the men and women 
are alike ignorant of letters, the females appear more 
debased than the men, from the fact that they are 
kept at more grovelling works, above which their 
minds seldom rise. Both men and women must be 
educated, or they will for ever remain in their pres- 
ent low and degraded state. 

The houses are generally only one story high. 
The floor over head, if such it may be called, is sel- 
dom above five and a half feet high, and is formed by 
placing a number of loose poles across the beams or 
joists. The space above serves for the double pur- 
pose of a granary and a hen roost. The tramping 



Cradiesof the Hindoos. Household furBiture. Asnola. 

of ihese bipeds over head during the day, not iinfre- 
quently sends down a shower of dust, which is truly 
annoying to a stranger, but does not seem to be re- 
garded by the family. The doors of many of these 
country houses are not more than five feet high, and 
some of them less. The people do not consider this 
an inconvenience, but are content to have them low, 
because it is their custom. 

The cradles or swings for the children which are 
to be met with here, are convenient and cheap 
things. They consist of mere baskets made of twigs, 
and suspended by ropes from the cross beams of the 
house, and can be kept in motion with very little 
trouble. The whole expense of a swing of this de- 
scription doe^ not cost more than two or three annas,* 
The natives certainly have the art of making. them- 
selves comforlable, according to their ideas of com- 
fort^ at a very cheap rate. The whole of their 
household furniture need not cost a family ten dollars. 

Jan. 2d, This morning we had a number of the 
villagers assembled at the Pat el's house, to whom 
we preached the Gospel of our Saviour, and gave 
tracts to as many as could read. After breakfast we 
left Shendooroon for the village of Oomra. During 
the heat of the day, we stopped at Asnola. This is 
a small village. The people are very poor, and 
scarcely any can read. We of course, distributed 

* i^rupeee is equal to one shilling and ten pence, or two 
shillings sterling, according to the rate of exchange. An ^nna^ 
is the one-sixteenth part of g, rupee, 



Tbe gods of the Tillage. The gospel first preached at Oomra. 

but few tracts. They are also extremely ignorant, 
and have but little knowledge even of Hindooism. 
There is no school in the village, and none seem to 
feel the need of one. There is one small temple of 
Hunooman. The people of the village worship Hun- 
ooman, Bhiiwanee, and Sheve ; but appear to have 
no correct idea of their characters, as mentioned by 
tlie Hindoos themselves. We know not that we 
ever saw any people so sunken in ignorance and 
stupidity, as the poor people of this village. 


We arrived at Oomra in the evening, and stopped 
at the Patel's house. A number of people were im- 
mediately assembled, to whom we preached. The 
subject of the Christian religion being new to thenfi, 
they all listened with apparent interest. So far as 
we could learn, no Missionary has ever travelled 
over this ground: and now, for the first time, the 
people heard from our lips, the news of salvation 
through the Lord Jesus Christ. We endeavoured 
to explain the way of salvation to the people in as 
plain and intelligible a manner as we could. They 
appeared convinced, that what we told them was 
true, and showed no disposition to cavil or oppose. 
The Gospel evidently was strange news to them; 
but whether they were disposed to consider it good 
news, we cannot say. After we had finished speak- 
ing to them, we gave tracts to those who could read, 


Tbe Patel shows a bad spirit. 

and one a-piece to all who could not, hoping that 
they might find sonne one who could, and would 
read them for them. The Patel look the tracts from 
the men, notwithstanding we had given him a suf- 
ficiency. We re-supplied the men, and these again 
were taken from them. This caused a serious dis- 
turbance between the Patel and the villagers, so 
that we were compelled to interfere. We took the 
tracts from the Patel, and distributing them among 
the people again, dismissed them. The w^hole of 
the diflSculty arose out of the churlish disposition of 
the Patel. As he was dressed in a " little brief au- 
thorit)V he seemed determined to make his Neigh- 
bours acknowledge it, and wished to lay them under 
obhgatious to him, by causing them to receive' the 
tracts from his hands. He knew the tracts were 
designed for their spiritual good, but thatjnust yield 
'to the promotion of his little self. 

y " Man, hard of heart to man ! Of horrid things^ 

Most horrid ! 

Pride brandishes the favours he confers, 

And contumeUous his humanity ; 
r Wh?it then his vengeance ?" 

Jan. Sd. We had the people assembled again 
early this morning, and spoke to them the word of 
life, to which they listened attentively. In this 
village there is no school. There are four temples, 
dedicated to Hunooman, Bhuwanee, Sheve and 
Waga-deve.* In making inquiry concerning this 

* Wagf a tiger, and deve god j hence the name Waga-deoe. 


The tiger worshipped. Deplorable condition of the heathen. 

last named god, we learned that a wag (tiger) had 
some years ago eaten one of the people. To appease 
the wrath of the tlgersy and to prevent a h'ke occur- 
rence, they, in their ignorance, set up an image in 
the likeness of a tiger, and to this, as well as to the 
image of Hunooman (the monkey god), the people 
daily present their offerings. It is the opinion of 
some pundits* whom we have consulted, that if 
the people of any village worship the tigers, they 
will not be injured by them. How strikingly ap- 
plicable are the words of the apostle to the state of 
the heathen at the present day. 

The passage according to Professor Stuart's trans- 
lation reads thus. "They knew God indeed, but 
they honoured him not as the most high God, and 
were not thankful to him as such ; but they became 
fools in their speculations, and their dull apprehen- 
sion was deluded. They became fools because they 
pretended to be wise ; and substituted in the place of 
the glory of the imperishable God, the image of the 
form of perishable man, of birds, of fourrfooted beasts, 
and of creeping things. Therefore God also on his 
part hath given them up through the lust of their 
sense to impurity ; — they have changed the true 
nature of God for a false one, and have honoured and 
worshipped the creature more than the Creator, to 
whom be glory for ever. Amen." Rom. i. 21-25. 

Before leaving Oomra this morning, we asked the 
Patel whether any of their Brahmun priests ever 

* Teachers of the Brahmun caste. - 



Holy water of the Hindoos. Leave Oomni. 

called on them or not. He replied that one came 
about once a month, and told them concerning the 
lucky and unlucky days, about the stars, &c., and after 
receiving his pice departed. Some of the people on 
these occasions give one pice; some an ^ anna; and 
others half a rupee. Every one according to his 
ability. " But do the Brahmuns," we asked, " ever 
tell you, how you can be saved from sin and helH" 
" No", said he, " they repeat the muntras (incanta- 
tions) and give us foot water (churunteerth) to drink, 
but we do not know what they say." This foot water 
corresponds to the holy water of the Romanists and 
is made in the following manner. A little vessel 
containing a quantity of water is brought to the 
priest who dips his great toe or washes Ais /oof in it. 
It is now considered holy, and the individual for 
whom it is designed drinks a portion of it and fant^es 
that by this means his sins may be forgiven. The 
person gives the officiating Brahmun money accor- 
ding to his ability. Each party being satisfied with 
what they have obtained, separate for the present. 
May these poor deluded heathen be delivered from 
the yoke of bondage under which they now groan, 
and have grace given them to apply to the blood of 
Christ which in truth cleanses from all sin. 


Having addressed the people of Oomra, we set off 
for the village of Toongau. We stopped in this vil- 
lage long enough to speak to all we could find con- 


Influence of the Brahmuns and custom. 

cerning the Saviour of Sinners. They had never 
heard of Christ before to-day. Not one in this village 
could read. We saw here a government order nailed 
to one of the trees in the village upside down. The 
ignorance of the person to whose care" this paper was 
intrusted was such that he did not know how to 
place the paper. Notwithstanding the poverty and 
ignorance of these villagers, they have their tem- 
ple erected to Hunooman, and do not fail to present 
to their favourite idol their stated offerings. ^ 

Leaving this village, we came to Kurdah where 

we spent the day. This village contains only twelve 

houses. To those who could read we gave tracts, 

and preached Christ and him crucified to all we could 

find. The gospel was new to these people and they 

V^iftened attentively; but after all our endeavours to 

I Jaform them, some of ihen\ replied, "We must cleave 

Id the religion of our fathers— we don't understand 

the rites of our religion, nor the reasons why we 

should follow it, except that it is our custom and the 

Brahmuns say we must follow it." Being weary 

■ with reading and speaking to the people, we laid 

ourselves down upon tlie earthen floor and slept, and 

awoke refreshed and prepared for the remaining la- 

^ bours of the day. 


At 3 o'clock we left Kurdah for Doolkam. On 
our way we passed through a small village called 
•Mazur. Near this village, by the road side, we saw 

IN INblA. 71 

Burning a dead body r The afflicted Hasband. 

a few persons assembled for the purpose of burning 
the dead body of an aged woman. A pile of wood 
had been built up and the body laid naked in the 
midst of it before our arrival. The husband of the 
deceased, an old and gray -headed man, sat on the 
ground, at a short distance from the pile, with claspr 
ed hands, and looked in silence at the wood which 
was soon to consume the body of the wife of his 
youth and of his old age, while the tears flowed 
abundantly down his funowed cheeks. We ad- 
dressed him in particular concerning his affliction, 
and told him that he too must soon die — that though 
the body may be consumed by fire, according (o their 
custom, still the soul must live and be happy or 
miserable for ever — and that the Lord Jesus Christ is 
the only Saviour of sinners and the only one who ca# 
give him comfort under all his sorrows. He listened 
attentively while we, sitting on our horses, spake to 
him the words of life, and then giving vent to a flood 
of tears called up his god with the vain repetition of 
Ram, Ram, Ram. As we rode away we could not 
but feel sad at the thought, that so many of our fel- 
low men are still enveloped in such gross darkness 
concerning all that lies beyond the grave. They 
believe not that these bodies shall be raised again by 
the power of God from corruption, and that being 
united to their spirits shall live for ever. The com- 
plete annihilation of the body, and the absorption of 
the soul into the essence of the Deity is with them 
the height of bliss! What a dark and dreary pros* 


Conversation with a Fakeer. 

pect for the immortal mind of man to contemplate ! 
Life and immortality, blessed be God, are brought to 
light by the gospel of the son of God. May the 
Holy Spirit (for only he can do it) enlighten- their 
minds to see the beauty of holiness, and to feel their 
need of the same. 

We reached Doolkam in the evening. This village 
is situated at the foot of the Ghauts (mountains), and 
is inhabited principally by Mussulmen. There is 
but one Brahmun in the place, and he has the care 
of a little and dirty temple dedicated to Hunooman. 
There are about twenty dwelling houses, besides 
two •Musjids (Mussu\mB.n praying places) in the vil- 
lage. In sight of this village are three others which 
contain in all about fifty houses. There is no school 
in any of these villages. A Fakeer (a, Mussulman 
mendicant), who had the occupancy of one of the 
Musjids, offered us a place-in it for the night. We 
accepted his offer and took possession of it. 

We immediately entered into conversation with 
him and began by inquiring, 

tMiss, Who are you ? /, 

Fakeer. Hum padre hein. I am a padre (minis- 
ter). -.-:>.--.^-, . ■ -v;..: v;,:,-:, ::^:--. - 

: 3L Whose padre are you ] 
jP. The Mussulmen's padre, ^ 

M, And what do you do for the people] 
F. When any Mussulman wishes to be married 
in this place, or if any one dies, then I must attend 
and perform the ceremonies. They cannot get mar- 
ried or be buried without me. 


Conversation continued. 

M, And (do the people give you any thing for 

F, Yes : one rupee for burying a man, and one 
rupee for marrying a couple, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^v^^^^-^^^^^^^^^^^^^ : ^^^ -^ 

M. I am sure that is cheap enough, only a rupee 
(half a dollar) for getting married : but have you 
nothing else to do ? 

F. Yes: I read the Koran to the people. 

M. Do they understand it? 

F. Not much. I explain it to them. 

•M. Do you understand it yourself? 

F, How could I explain it if I did not? 

M. But why do you read the Koran? You ought 
to read the word of God and not the word of man. 

F, God has given to men four Kitaubs (sacred 
books) : viz. the Toureit (Law) to Moses ; Zuboor (the 
Psalms) to David ; the t^n/ccZ (Gospels) to Esa 
(Jesus) ; and the Koran to Mah'mood.* 

He then spoke at some length in praise of the 
Koran and his Prophet, and concluded by saying that 
as God has given to different people different sacred 
books, they should follow the precepts of their re^ 
spective books. To this we replied at some length, 
and endeavoured to convince him that God gave 
to man only one sacred book, and that all people 
were bound to follow its precepts. 

During this conversation, a number of people bad. 
assembled in the Musjid and before the door, and 

The name is pronounced and spelled MaWmoodf not Mo- 


An important question.- 

' : T' 

listened with apparent attention. Perceiving this, 
we turned to the Fakeer and asked him to tell the 
people present bow sin could be pardoned^ for all 
men are sinners and have need of pardon. Here, it 
was observed, is an old man (pointing to one) who 
has sinned against God for many years, and he 
knows it, and now in distress of mind, suppose he 
should come to you, his priest and should say to 
you, "Baba!* I am an old man, and a great sin- 
ner; I must soon die and be judged for all my sins, 
1 feel I am not prepared to die, tell me how 1 can 
obtain the pardon of my sins and be admitted into 
heaven." What would you tell him? The poor 
old man felt the force of the question, and saw no 
doubt its applicability to his case for he was evidently 
agitated by it. The Fakeer, however, only gave his 
head the significant, native toss to the one side and 
replied, " It is an important question," but made no at- 
tempt to answer it. After a short pause to afford the 
people time to think of it, we made known to them 
fully, the only way by which a man may obtain the 
pardon of his sins^ through the merits of the Lord 
Jesus Christ. The people listened attentively. 

As some of our remarks bore heavily against Hin- 
dooism, a young Brahmun took up the defence of his 
faith. He^granted to us that God is AoZy, jt^si and 
true, and that deception, theft and the like are sins, and 
that the true God cannot and never did commit sin.. 

* A term of respect ixsed among the natives, whenaddressingf 
an aged and honourable person. 


Vileness of the Hindoo gods. 

We then asked him if his own books did not teach 
that Bruhma their creator committed incest with 
his daughter, and that it was considered such a 
grievous sin, that Sheve (the third person in the 
Hindoo triad) pronounced him accursed; cut off one 
of his heads, and forbade the Hindoos to worship 
him or to erect any temples to his honour? As to 
Vishnoo, did he not abuse a milk maid ; steal her 
milk from her, and then deny the facts when they 
were charged upon him? And did not Sheve dance 
among a host of female cowherds in perfect nudity 
to their no small confusion and his own disgrace; 
and for this outrage upon all dbcency did not a 
Rishi, by his curse, despise him of all power to offend 
again in like manner; yea more, and did not^heve, 
to take vengeance on the Rishi and upon the gods 
and men, torment them in such a way that they were 
glad to submit tea greater outrage upon all modesty 
by establishing the worship of the Linguml Can 
such a vile being as either of these be God; and are 
such actions becoming a pure and holy Being? 
What do you think? The people said," Sahib speaks 
the truth; they are no Gods," but the Brahmun 
remained silent. The people were shortly after 

dismissed. ::;;::;-h^'v.:: >Vv;::^iV .- :■■- .. :v;:::r.-: 

After tea we walked out to see the place and to 
converse with the people we might happen to find. 
In our walks we came to th« temple of Hiinooroan, 
were we found the young Brahmun with whom we 
had the above conversation. A number of people 


Conversatioii with a Brabmun. 

were near the temple, some of whom had come to 
present their offerings and to engage in the evening 
worship of their lifeless god, and others to spend the 
evening, as is usual, in conversation at the temple. 
We recognized the Brahmun, and coming up to the 
door of the temple, pointed to the stone image of 
Hunooman within, and asked. 

Missionary. What is that] \ . 

Brahmun, It is God. - 

Miss, Is it not a stone with red paint on iti 

Brah, It seems so to you ; but God is in it. 

Miss, But it is certainly a stone. I perceive no- 
thing like God about it. You might as well wor- 
ship any stone with red paint on it as this. 

Brah, Where is your God ; I don't see him? 

Miss. The true God is invisible. He is a spirit 
and is every where present. 

Brah, Then he is in the idol and should be wor- 
shipped, but you can't see him. 

Miss, You should worship God who is a spirit, 
but not this stone — it has no life, it cannot hear 
when you speak to it. Suppose you should pray 
aloud to him and say, " Hear me, Hunooman, Hun- 
ooman!" Can he hear] He cannot hear, and all 
the people present know it. : 

,Brah. Is not your Jesus Christ dead? I h^ar so. 
Oh ! Jesus Christ ! Jesus Christ ! can you hear ] He 
can't he&r. He don't answer me. ? 

Miss. True, Jesus Christ died in the place of 
sinners to save them from going to hell, but he rose 


Conversation continued. 

again and is now in heaven arid hears all our pray- 
ers, if we pray to him aright. He knows all we do 
and hears all we say. He is the only Saviour of sin- 
ners and he can and will save all who truly repent 
of their sins and forsake them, if you forsake your 
idolatry and believe in him, He will save you, but if 
not you must perish forever. He has made all men 
and he wishes ^11 men to be happy. 

Brah. He did not make me. This is my Maker 
(pointing to the idol). 

Miss. What a lie! you know that stone did not 
make you, for you or somebody else had U> pay a 
man eight or ten rupees for iL Ood is your Maker, 
and he too made all things. 

Brah' No ; my father made me. 

Miss. And who made your father 1 , 

Brah. His father made him. 

Miss. And who made his father 1 

Brah. His father to be sure. 

Miss. And who made the first man, the father ot 
all meni , 

Brah. How should I know 1 

Miss. I will tell you. God made the first man 
and woman, and from them have sprung all the peo- 
ple in the world. God made them holy and at first 
they worshipped him aright. Afterwards they broke 
his commandment, and thus became sinful. Their 
posterity forsook the true worship of God and began 
to worship idols as the Hindoos now do. And you 

G* ■ "^ 




kaow that your books say, " if a man will fix his 
mind upon a vile object, his mind will become vile ;" 
and if he will worship a stone, his heart will become 
unfeeling as a stone : but if he worship God — 

Brah, But our God is alive and can feel (referring 
to the image of Hunooman). 

Miss, If this be true he can take care of himself 
and we cannot hurt him. I then picked up a large 


Trial of an idol. Brahmun ofiieiided. 

stone, and stepping towards the door of the temple, 
said. Shall I try whether Hunooman can feel or not? 

Brah, The Brahmun ran and stood in the door, 
and said, Don't throw. Sahib, you'll break it. 

I persisted in the pretence of throwing the stone, 
and while the people laughed at the fears of the 
Brahmun, he raised both his hands and exclaimedj^ 
Nuko, nuko. Sahib ; don't, don't, sir. , f 

Miss. (Addressing the people) what do you think 
of this god now 1 The Brahmun is afraid that I, a 
man, can break his god ! 

Hindoo. One of the company replied. It is only a 
stone — that is the reason he is afraid. 

Brah. Holding a tract in his hand which he had 
received at the Musjid and quite offended at what had 
happened, he asked " Shall I tear this book," at the 
same time pretending that he would tear it. 

Miss. I replied. Certainly, if you choose ; we gave 
it to you and it is yours ; but we have plenty more 
and you cannot destroy the truth it contains. 

When he saw that it would not make me angry 
by tearing the tract, and that ha had permission to 
do so, he refused to tear it. The people, who were 
witnesses to all that was said, seeiped to be pleased 
that one of their spiritual oppressors was silenced for 
the time being, and while the gospel of Christ was 
made known to them and they were urged to forsake 
their idols, they listened attentively. 

From the conversations held wi4h tfeis Brahmun 
and the knowledge he had about the chi-istian reli- 


Remarks. The Fakeer^s enployment. 

gion, we were struck with the importance of preach- 
ing in the streets and of distributing tracts to all we 
can find. He was at Bombay some time ago, and 
while there heard a missionary preach in the street, 
and although he refused at that time to receive any 
tracts, yet he remembered, from what he heard, a 
number of particulars of the christian -faith. He- 
remembered that Jesus had died for sinners, but 
whether he was wilfully ignorant of the fact that he 
rose again or not we cannot say. We hope that 
from what he has heard to day and the tracts he has 
now in his possession he will learn the true w^ay to be 

We returned to the Musjid to be annoyed by our 
noisy inmate, the Fakeer. This poor creature does 
nothing but lounge about all the day, eat and sleep 
and chew opium, and perhaps, as he says, attend 
the few funerals or marriages that may be in his 
district. A part of his employment consists in 
daubing pieces of paper with ink in such a way that 
wjien two of them are put together and held between 
yOu and the light the blots on the one supply the 
defects of the other — the shadow of both thus joined 
together gives the appearance of a horse or of some 
other animal. As he could read, we gave him a copy 
of the Psalms in Persian for himself, and another 
copy for a Mussulman in the village who wished 
to obtain one. The Mohammedans here seemed 
willing to hear us preach. They are a poor, but in- 
dustrious people in this qeighbourhood. 


Difficulty of procuring Bullocks. 


Saturday, January 4th. This morning we had 
considerable difficulty to procure coolies. The Pa- 
tel of the village was dispatched to the neighbouring 
villages to bring men for us. He returned after a 
short absence with six or seven men, and said he 
could get no more. We felt the difficulty of leaving 
our things behind us without having previously ob- 
tained bearers. They all told us if we would remain 
till the next morning we could procure men enough. 
We however were anxious to ascend the Ghauts so 
as to spend the Sabbath on the top of the mountain, 
and felt disposed, if possible, to go on. We were 
relieved from our difficulty at this time by the arri- 
val of a drove of bullocks from Bhewndy. As many 
of the bullocks were without burdens we offered to 
hire as many as we needed to carry our baggage to 
Rajoora and dismiss our bearers. The drivers refu- 
sed, saying that the owners of the bullocks had sent 
them unladen from Bhewndy and they must go so. 
They even refused to assist us in ascending the 
Ghauts, though we promised to give more than the 
regular pay. Finding all persuasion, and promises 
of pay utterly vain, we told the drivers that we must 
have three whether they were willing or not. Our 
servants, at our order, caught three of the unladen 
bullocks and with the help of the drivers had them 
laden with our baggage. When the drivers saw 



Ascending the Ghauts by a narrow pass. 

their oxen laden with our boxes, and that some 
of our servants were to be left with them, they 
agreed to carry them to^the lop of the Ghauts* for a 
stipulated sum. At ten o'clock we left Doolkam,t 
having sent our servants ahead. The great delay 
in leaving Doolkam was exceedingly unpleasant, as 
it compelled us to ascend the Ghauts in the heat of 
the day. Over the Ghauts at this place there is no 
made road. Bullocks and tattoos (native ponies) 
pass and repass with considerable difficulty. The 
roughness and the steepness of the way compelled 
us to walk all the way up the mountain. We were 
rejoiced, at times, to find the refreshing shade of a 
large tree under which to sit down and refresh our 
weary limbs, but as this was not always to be ob- 
tained when we felt disposed to stop, our umbrellas 
then served us in its stead. Near the top of the 
Ghauts we had to ascend by a flight of natural steps 
at an angle of about forty degrees. This passage in 
the mountain, it would seem, was formed by some 
mighty commotion in ages past. Perhaps when 
the fountains of the great deep were broken up, the 
rains which then fell and have fallen since have 
torn their way down the mountains and have formed 
this passage for the wild beasts, and the occasional 
travellers as they may pass and repass from the 
Dekun to the Konkun. When we reached the top 

* Ghauts, mountains. 

t The word is sometimes spelled, Deolgaon; perhaps more 
properly Daoolgau the temple village. 

K . 


A pool of water on the top of the Ghauts. 

of the mountain, the first thing that mfel our eye 
was a temple erected to Hunooman. Tired and 
thirsty, we threw ourselves down under the shade of 
a tree, and despatched one of our servants in search 
of water. He soon returned and informed us that 
he had found a pool of water. Thither we hastened, 
and with our horses slaked our thirst fiom the pool 
which has quenched the thirst of many a weary 
traveller before us. A drink of cool water and a 
piece of bread strengthened and refreshed us after 
our tiresome walk. Returning to the shade near 
the temple we sat down upon the ground and talked 
of the joys, while we rested ourselves from the fa- 
tigues of a missionary life. We have tasted of what ■ 
the world calls luxuries, but they fall infinitely below 
the luxury of inhaling the cool and invigorating 
mountain air of the Dekhun after we had spent days 
and nights in the jungle and scorching heat of 
the Konkun, a luxury which we this day enjoyed. 
We regretted that we had not many of our breth- 
ren from the different seminaries in America to 
share our joys. The pleasure w6 experienced was 
heightened by the sublime scenery around us. As 
we turned^ our eyes to the East, the rrvountains 
and hills of the Dekhun were before us ; turning west 
in the direction we came, the mighty Ghauts, with 
their naked rocks, like "mountains on mountains 
piled," the deep ravines where naught save the foot 
of the wild beasts have ever trod, and where the rays 
of the sun have perhaps never penetrated, and the: 


Sublime scenery of the Giiauts. Kindness of the Fatel's wife. 

more extended jungle, in all their barrenness, rough- 
ness and wilderness, lay before us, and all conspired 
to awaken feelings of admiration and adoration of 
Hina who nnade them all. One would think, that the 
sublime and grand sights, which must meet the eye 
of a native in this part of India, would tend to raise 
his mind above the grovelling objects which en- 
gaged it ; but no, his God is a stone — his supreme 
enjoyment upon earth is fulness of bread and idleness, 
and the height of bliss which he hopes to obtain in 
the world to come is annihilation. He looks not 
through nature up to nature's God. 

GHAUTGAU. ' [ .: .]-':^\0.'::^:;^ 

After being sufficiently rested, we set off for 
Ghautgau, a small village about a kos distant. We 
were directed to the Patel's* house, where we took 
up our lodgings till Monday. We arrived about two 
o'clock. Shortly after we had left our servants at 
the foot of the Ghauts, the bullock drivers very 
unceremoniously threw off our boxes, &c. and passed 
on, leaving our servants to find coolies where they 
could.. This occasioned a great delay, so much so, 
that they did not arrive at Ghautgau till nearly five 
o'clock. Before this time, we felt quite sensibly the 
want of our dinners, and at our request the Patel's 
wife boiled for us a dish of rice, and prepared some 

* Potej, the chief offitter of a village. 


A simple meal. Accommodations. A sabbatb on the Ghauts. 

bajaree* bread. The meal was not very palatable to 
our tastes^ but it was '^ Hobsou's choice" with us, 
we must take it or wait. A little satisfied us for 
the time, and spreading a kumleelf upon the ground, 
we laid ourselves down and slept. Sleep to the 
labouring man is sweet ; and to us who wei'e weary, 
we found it so, though it was in a stable and on the 
ground. After we awoke, the PateK's wife, who 
seemed to have the whole management of affairs in 
her hand, informed us that the part of the house we 
then occupied, was the part appropriated to the cows, 
and we could not remain in if, " For what will the 
cows do," said she, " if you stay there." We replied, 
" Let them sleep out of doors." " No, no : then the 
tigers will catch them." She assigned us another 
part of the house, and We resigned our place to the 
cows, being separated from them by a single bam^ 
boo pole. The accommodations we had here, were 
not as good as the princes of this world enjoy; but, 
they, doubtless, were as good as those once enjoyed 
by the Prince of life and the Lord of glory. It is 
enough for the disciplcj that he be as his Lord. 

Sabbath, January 6th. This day we kept as a 
day of rest for the body as well as the soul. Oh ! 
how sweet is the sabbath, even in a heathen land ! 

Bajaree is a small grain used by the poorer class of peo^ 
pie for bread, it is also given to cows, goats, &c. (Holcus epi- 
catus.) "^ , 

t Kumlee is a coarse garment of wool mach used by the 



Poverty of the peopte. Their ignorance. 

The day we spent principally in studying the Pro- 
phecies, To the Christian Missionary, this is a most 
interesting subject of study. It not only tends to 
increase his own joy and faith in God, but cheers 
him amidst all the discouragements and trials he 
may meet in his missionary labours. Although the 
heathen rage and scoff at the doctrine of the cross, 
the word of prophecy assures him, that the king- 
doms of this world shall become the kingdoms of 
our Lord and of his Anointed. 

Ghautgau is a small village, and contains only 
ten or twelve houses. The people are exceedingly 
poor. It is with difficulty they raise enough from 
the rocky land they possess, to support them. They 
surely need more clothing, (especially the females) 
both for the sake of warmth and decency. The air 
here is much colder, being the top of the Ghauts, 
than below, or at the distance of ten or twenty miles 
farther east, and -yet, they arfe much worse clad than 
those who breathe a milder atmosphere. They, 
however, seemed perfectly contented, and so far as 
we could judge, happy in their poverty and igno- 
rance. During the day, the men of the village were 
in the fields gathering in their crops, while the 
females were at home engaged in different employ- 
ments, some in winnowing and some in grinding the 
ftcyarce for bread. We talked to all the people we 
could find collectively and individually, and endea- 
voured to make known to them the gospel of the 
Lord Jesus Christ. At first, we found it difficult to 


Preaching. Hyenas. Jackals. 

iriake them understand the subject, as their pronun- 
ciation <liffers very much from what we have been 
accustomed to hear; and as we made use of words 
of which they h^d no knowledge, the difficulty was 
increased not a little. We hope we succeeded in 
making known to them, in language a<3apted to 
their comprehensions, the only way of escape from 
the wrath to come. They are, without exception, 
the most ignorant class of people we have yet met. 
Not one of them can read, and their knowledge 
seems only to extend to the little matters with which 
they are daily conversant. The great work of 
getting something to eat, is the grand subject which 
seems to absorb their thoughts. The little grain 
they raise they keep safely, but the hyaenas and jocAd- 
sds make sad work at times, among their calves 
and poultry. They live in continual dread of them. 
While conversing with the peopk to da}^ before the 
door, on the subject of their salvation, a jackal came 
up to the house, seized a hen aad ra« off. The 
signal for a turn out was given. Women, children 
and dogs set up the shout, and after the thief, but 
he escaped with his prey, and we, of course, were left 
without hearers. Shortly after, a hyena came to 
another house, and was about to seize a calf, when 
a timely alarm deprived him of his expected booty. 
As this was about tlie middle of the day, we at once 
saw the necessity of the villagers shutting up their 
cattle at night, and that the fears of our hostess on 
this subject were not groundless. As the peopl^^ 


Gross ignorance of the Patel. 

have no guns and no weapons to defend themselves 
against the wild beasts of the jungle, they become 
exceedingly bold, and can scarcely, at times, be 
driven away by the shouts of the people. 

Alx)ut ten o'clock this morning, the bullock driver 
who had left our trunks yesterday in the jungle, 
called for the money we promised him. He ap- 
proached ; put off his shoes, and making his salaam 
informed us of his errand. He was asked, " Are you 
the man who agreed to bring our trunks up the 
Ghauts, but threw them off in the jungle?' He 
replied, " Yes." The ghorawalla (the horse keeper) 
was told to bring the whip, and give the man his 
pay. There was no need to bring it ; the driver 
hastily slipped on his shoes, and hasted away with- 
out returning his salaam. 

In conversing with the Patel to day, he was asked 
if he knew who made him. He replied in the nega- 
tive. When we told him, and further informed him 
that he must die, and be judged by his Creator ac- 
cording to his works, he replied, that he knew of no 
gods but Hunooman* and Bhuwanee;t and that 

* Hunooman is the motley fabled to have leaped from the 
Himalaya mountains to Lunka (Ceylon) ; to have killed Rawun, 
king of Lunka, and to have brought back Seeta, and delivered 
her to her husband Ram, a god, from whom she had beet) 
stolen. This god, in the form of a monkey, is worshipped more 
than any other in this part of the Dekhun, and in the part of the 
Konkun through which we have passed. 

t This latter deity is the same as Parwuttee, or Doorga, the 
wife of Sheve, in .her most pacific form. In the cluuracter of 


The go(Ui#ai Bootgf. 

after death, nobody kuows what will happen. The 
iiews of salvation through the Lord Jesus Christ, was 

Bhuwaaee she nmy he worshipped as other gods; but in her 
character of Doorga, human victims, or the blood of slain beasts 
are necessary to appease her wrath. 

An image of this goddess lies before me. She is represented 
with a frowning countenance and naked breasts. Her right foot 
{reads on a lion. She has four hands, in one of which she holds an 
^fantby the hiiir^ of t]» head-, wiiileits body is pierced dtrough 
with a.trident she holdsdn the second haiuL In the third, she 
holds a dmwBi aword^ lua^ in the fourth ihe>chuc^era^ a weiqtoti 
often seen in the haads^of the EQndoo; gods. Ornaments coyer 
her arms, legs and body, while a garland of human skulls eneir- 


■'"^i^— ^■— "■ .»— ^—1 ^— ^^ 

The heathen need the gospel. 

Strange news to him; but he exhibited no desire to 
inquire about it, being content to die as he has lived, 
the worshipper of dumb idols. Some may be dis- 
posed to say, that this is a happy state of igno- 
rance and unconcern about the future ; but alas I it 
is the stupor of death. 

There is in this village one temple to Hunooman, 
who is considered the guardian deity of the place. 
What a poor defence! He cannot save even the 
chickens of the poor villagers from the hungry jack- 
als, how then can he preserve them? But idolatry 
is always inconsistent. Strange it is, that the peo- 
ple perceive it not! ■ V . : 


Monday, January Gth. We left Ghautgau this 
morning for Rajoora, a large village about eighteen 
miles distant. The road is exceedingly stony, hilly 
and crooked. We were unable to go fast, and were 
glad, at times, to alight and walk. On our way, 
we stopped at two villages, the only ones which 
were in our way, and spoke to the people the words 
of eternal life. The village of Samrad, where we 
first stopped, is situated on the brow of a hill which 

eles her neck ! ! Such is the frightful appearance of this god- 
dess, in whose temple the blood of many a human victim has 
flowed. There seems to be an effort to make this class of idols 
as horrid in appearance as possible, so as to excite terror in the 
minds of the worshippers. ' . 


The gospel hindered in India by nominal christians. 

rises abruptly and overlooks the road on the right. 
A small stream winds its way among, the rocks and 
bushes on the left. . We sat down upon a rock out- 
side of the village, and invited the people to come to 
us. At first, many felt afraid to approach us, but 
afterwards came near enough to hear. To these we 
explained the Gospel plan of salvation, and the nature 
of sin, and told them of the consequences, if they 
did not repent of it. We urged them to forsake ail 
their evil ways, and to embiace the Gospel of Christ, 
which we then made known to them. After we 
had finished, our discourse, one of the people, who 
seemed to have authority in the village, asked us if 
the Sahibs (i.e. Europeans) did not commit sin, and 
if they too would not go to hell. He specified, par- 
ticularly their breaches of the third and seventh 
commandments. He told us to teach our own peo- 
ple, and then when they ceased to do such things to 
come to them. We could only reply that if some 
Sahibs acted, as he said they did, all did not do so ; 
but, whoever did so, and died impenitent would cer- 
tainly go there, and if he did not cease to worship 
idols and did not forsake his sins, he would go there 
too* We exhorted him not to strengthen himself in 
sinning against God from the example of some nomi- 
nal Christians. Oh ! when shall this foul blot which 
attaches itself to the name of Christian in many a 
Hindoo's mind, be wiped away? When shall this 
stumbling-block in the way of the salvation of the 
heathen, viz. the ungodly lives of many professing 


Importance of Christian example to the heathen. 

the Cliristian religion, be removed, and the poor delu- 
ded heathen, through their example, no more harden 
themselves in sin and strengthen themselves against 
Gotl] Would that all who boast in the name of 
Christian did but feel the importance both for them- 
selves and others of leading a moral if not a religious 
life. This is one among the many great and mighty 
obstacles in the way of the Gospel's spreading in 
India. When truth and righteousness begin to be 
more loved and revered by those who call themselves 
Christians, not only in India, but throughout the 
world, then shall the Gospel of Christ have free 
course— run and be glorified. Then shall a nation 
be born in a day — Ethiopia shall stretch out her 
hands unto God — the islands of the seas shall rejoice 
in their Saviour, and the whole world shall soon be 
filled with the glory of God 

In the village of Samrad there is no school ; nor 
can any one read. There is one temple of Hunoo- 
man. The number of inhabitants is about one hun- 
dred and thirty. They are poor, though better clad 
than the people of Ghautgau, 

At the foot of the hill upon which the village of 
Samrad stands, there is a small bridge over which 
all the bullocks, which pass and repass, must go. At 
one end are seated three men, who are the publicans 
or tax-gatherers of the district. Their business is to 
collect the tax or toll from all the bullock drivers who 
may pass. From one rupee, to one and a half, is paid! 
for a hundred bullock loads of salt or grain. Why 


Publicans. Their character now. 

this tax is levied we did not learn. These tax- 
-gatherers, at the present time, are in no better repute 
for honesty than the tax-gatherers of Jiidea in the 
time of Christ. They not only have it in their power 
to defraud the drivers of the bullocks, but also to de- 
fraud the government, and, from good authority, we 
learned that they are not slow to do so. Such was 
the employment of Matilievv the Evangelist, and also 
of Zaccheus. They were not famed for honesty in 
those days any more thaii now. The grace of God 
however can make as humble disciples of Christ out 
of the modern, as of the ancient publicans. 


— " ■• " - ' ,' -' 

From Samrad we came to Bun-dhur-gau, or Bun- 
dhur-dur-ra, a small village on the right about two 
or three kos from Samrad. Here we stopped for 
dinner, which consisted of a cold fowl, rice cakes and 
boiled milk, and which was spread out before us under 
the shade of a large tree, which overhangs a small 
temple of Hunooman. Before and after dinner we 
had considerable conversation with the natives, and 
were pleased to find them disposed to listen to us. 
The people, evidently, were astonished to hear us 
speak so lightly of their gods, and to declare that they 
were useless, false and vain. When we had ex- 
plained to them the Christian system and the need 
we all had of a Saviour, they acknowledged that it 
was better than theirs. But this they did, perhaps, 


Conversation with the natives. Offer to buy idols. 

through compliment to us, rather than from the 
conviction that it is a fact. One man, on being asked 
how many gods (i.e. idols) he had, replied, Ten or 
twelve. We offered to purchase them from him at a 
fair price. But he refused, saying, "No, no, if 1 
should do so they would punish me." We assured 
him that there was no danger, that the gods had no 
life and no power to hurt them, and if they were 
willing we would try their power. They all laughed. 
The man then replied, "True, sahib; but it is our 
custom to worship idols, our fathers did so and so do 

This village was once in a better condition than 
it is now^ as is evident from the broken idols slrewed 
about; but, at present all is in an unflourishing state. 
When about to leave the village, we found that 
other coolies could not be obtained to carry our bag- 
gage. Some had hid themselves, and others had 
run off, so that we were compelled to take the same 
coolies on to the next village. To this measure they 
raised many objections. Some of them said that 
they should die if they went on any further; others 
said it was against their custom for coolies to carry 
any baggage further than from one village to the 
next; others said that they would not go, without 
assigning any reason for their refusal. We told 
them that we could get no money changed in the 
village, and that if they did not go on we could not 
pay them. Some, however, were willing to go back 
without tbeir pay. After offering them more pay 

IN INDIA. 915 

Coolies. Their eustoma and pay. 

and urging them forward, they finally proceeded. 
There is an old and established custom in this part of 
India for the coolies to carry their burdens only from 
village to village, and for this they only receive a 
pice for every kos, i.e. not one cent for two miles ; 
and even this small sum is often withheld from them 
by the servants of the individual who may happen to 
pass along. Having been deceived in this way, no 
doubt, by some persons, when we arrived at the vil- 
lage of Bundhurdurra, the coolies all hid or escaped 
out of the way. Knowing that this is the case, we 
were careful either to pay them ourselves, or to see 
it done, so that, in no instance, did the weary cooly 
return to his home without his full pay. The neg- 
lect of some Europeans, in not seeing that their coo- 
lies are paid, is one, among the many things which 
tend to excite the feelings of the natives against 
Europeans : and once hating <Aem it is quite natural 
that they should hate the religion which they pro- 
fess. We are not always aware how much we may 
injure the cause of Christ by a little negligence in 
little things. V ; 


After having conversed with the villagers, until 
we were weary, we set off for Rajoora, which we 
reached about three o'clock. We have travelled 
about eighteen miles to-day, which is as much as 
we ehrn do, with ease to ourselves and the bearers. 


The village of Bajoora. A fair. 

and preach the gospel to the people we may meet 
in small villages on the way. 

On our arrival at Rajoora we found the streets 
literally crammed with people, so that it was with 
difficulty we could make our way through the 
crowd. It was a fair-day ; and many of the people 
of the neighbouring villages had assembled to buy 
and sell. These fairs are common here, and rather 
desirable than otherwise, as they adbrd the people a 
good opportunity to dispose of their own produce, and 
to purchase what they may wish for themselves and 
families. The people to-day, so far as we could see, 
conducted themsel ves orderly. There was no drink- 
ing among them and consequently no fighting, and 
before night the people had nearly all returned to 
their homes. 

Our hearts were cheered to see so many people 
assembled together, as it gave us an opportunity of 
making the gospel of Christ more extensively known, 
through preaching and the distribution of tracts than 
it would otherwise have been. We pressed our way 
through the crowd to a temple of Hunooman, which 
stands, in a conspicuous place, near the middle of the 
town and the bazar. Here we took up our lodg- 
ings during our stay in the place. The people made 
no objections to our stopping in the temple, nor did 
they seem to fear that we would pollute the place 
by our presence. 

While our servants were preparing the temple for 
our reception and arranging our boxes, we ascended 


Rajoora. The surrounding country. 

the hill on the north side of the town, which gave us 
a commanding view of the town and the surround- 
ing country. The location of Rajoora reminds one of 
Bellefonte, situated in a hollow, and completely shut 
out from the view of the traveller by high hills, till he 
is nearly at it. The town contains about two hun- 
dred, or two hundred and fifty dwelling houses, and is 
the largest town we have seen since leaving Bhewndy. 
Many of the houses are well built and look well, but 
the most of them have rather a mean appearance. 
The only neat temple in the place is Vithoba's ; that 
of Hunooman, in which we have stopped, can lay no 
claim to either beauty or cleanliness. The country 
around the town, nearly as far as the eye can see 
is waste. Scarcely a spot is under culture, and not 
a tree, except a few here and there in clusters around 
some idol temple, is to be seen through the whole ex- 
tent. Indeed, there is scarcely a tree to be seen in 
this part of this country, which is not consecrated to 
idolatry ; yea, and every high hill also. The Israel- 
ites were reproved by the Prophet Jeremiah (ii. 20) 
for sacrificing under every green tree and upon the 
high hills, in conformity to the custom of the hea- 
then. How long before his day, this practice existed 
among the heathen we know not. It, however, 
exists at the present time in lodia. 

On the top of the hill, which we ascended, stands 
a small building, erected over the body of some Mus- 
sulman peer (3. e. saint). The grave is esteemed a 
sacred spot. Here, the Mussulmen occasionally come 


Conversation with a Hindoo youth. 

to offer up their prayers and bow down upon the 
grave. The Hindoos also, through a strange feeling 
of idolatrous accommodation, unite with theMussul- 
men in worshipping at these tombs. While we 
were there a Hindoo youth approached, and without 
paying any regard to us, went to the tomb — bowed 
down upon it — rubbed his hand in the dust over the 
grave and then applied the dust to his forehead. 
After a few prostrations and a few salaams, he 
turned to go away. We then asked him, What have 
you been doing 1 

Hindoo. Worshipping. 

JMiss. How can that be? This (pointing to 
the grave) is but a heap of stones and chunam 

H. True ; but God stays there. 
{: M. Where? 

H. Underneath. 

M. A dead man's bones are underneaiii ; and 
besides, it is a Mussulman's grave and not a Hin- 
■ H. I know it; but we worship here. 

M. God has commanded you not to do so. To 
worship no idol and at no graves ; but to worship 
God who madb you. — Here he turned away and 
walked off to join his companions, whom he had left, 
for a moment, to pay his adorations to a heap of 
stones and mortar. How degraded are these poor 
Hindoos ! Truly, they worship they know not what, 
and one might add, they care not what. Mate and 


Union of Idolaters in their worship. 

Herod could make friends when Christ was the ob- 
ject of their mutual hatred, and so the Hindoo and 
the Mussuhnan can unite when idolatry, in a certain 
shape is the object of their affections. So far as we 
have observed, the Hindoo is the more pliable of the 
two in conforming to some of their respective modes 
of worship. Idolaters are grossly inconsistetit with 
themselves. The Mussulman despises the Hindoo 
because he acknowledges and worships more gods 
than one, and idols of various kinds, but justifies 
himself in worshipping a dead man, or the tomb of 
some imaginary saint. The Hindoo also, ia turn, 
despises or hates the Mussulman, because he slays 
and eats the object of his veneration, the cow ; but 
allows him the privilege of worshipping what god, 
or as many as he pleases. Each is agreed, that all 
persons should follow the religion of their ancestors, 
whatever it may be ; and that one is as good as ano- 
ther, provided it be followed strictly and continually. 
But, to forsake the religion of one's fathers is, with 
them, the height of iniquity, and a sin not to be for- 
given. The Mussulman will, however, receive a 
Hindoo upon condition that he be circumcised. The 
Hindoos admit of no adoption, and of no proselytes. 
We retur^ied from our walk on the hill to the 
temple, and were soon surrounded by a crowd of 
people, who seemed desirous to learn from our 
lips who and what we were. One inquired if we 
had anymore luggage than what he saw in the 
temple belonging to us. Another asked, how many 
seapoys we had, and where they were. A third^ 


Inquiries of the natives concerning us. 

having learned from our servants, interrupted the 
inquirer by saying, " They are Padres."* A travel- 
ler in India finds his rank, in the view of the natives, 
to rise or fall according to the quantity of luggage 
he may have with him, and the number of servants 
and seapoys who attend him. The Europeans, who 
travel in this country, and especially the officers of 
government have, usually, a large number of ser- 
vants, and also seapoys to guard them at night. 
This may be necessary for their own comfort, and to 
command respect, as well as for defence. We, how- 
ever, chose to proceed in a different manner, and as 
yet, have met with no difficulty arising from the 
want of seapoys except, at times, a little delay in 
prociiring coolies. We soon satisfied the inquiries 
of the people, by telling them that we were Mission- 
aries; that we had come to tell them of the only true 
God, of the true Shastru, and of the only way to 
escape from hell through the Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Saviour of sinners. We urged them to consider the 
subject we brought to their notice, and to examine 
for themselves, and not to take the word of man as 
the rule of their conduct, nor to trust the concerns 
of their souls and of another world to the notions of 
men. They assented to what we had said as being 
true. By this time, the crowd was so great that we 
deemed it proper for us to separate, so as to be able 

* Padre is the Portuguese word for a Minister, but is in gen- 
eral use among the Hindoos who mingle with Europeans. 

IN INDIA. 101 

Mode of conversing with the natives. 

to address as many people as possible, before they 
should separate. 

One of us went, and sal down under the shade of 
a large tree,* before the temple, arid soon had a 
crowd around him with whom^e talked and reasoned 
for nearly two hours. The other kept his seat at 
the temple, and continued the conversation with 
those who assembled around him. After having 
spoken till we were weary, we distributed tracts 
among our respective audiences, and then dismissed 
them. In our conversations with the people there 
is of necessity a great sameness. As the objections 
are tnuch the same, the answers must be so too, for 
the Gospel which we made known to them is the 
same. The following is a specimen of the objections 
and our answers to them. When a crowd of this 
kind is assembled, a Brahmun, or some other person 
of respectability among the people, takes a conspicu- 
ous place and acts as the mouth of the multitude. 
The conversation is carried on between the Missionary 
and that individual, while all the rest remain silent 
and testify their assent to the remarks made, by 
a significant toss of the head to one side, or by a, 
smile. Occasionally a rude person may interrupt the 
speakers by an untimely, or it may be, an improper 
question, but he is generally silenced by the others. 

* The Pimpul (ficus religiosa) or holy fig tree, is held sacred 
by the Hindoos. Small idols are generally erected under its 
shade ; and walking around it is deemed meritorious. 


Hindoo mode of obtaining pardon. 

Before one of us, to day, sat a respectable-looking 
Brahraun. He was addressed as a Brahmun, a priest 
and teacher of the people, and was asked, how and 
what we (including himself) as ministers, should 
teach the people concdfl'ning sin, its removal and the 
way of obtaining the favour of God. 

Brahmun. I am not a teacher of the people, but a 
servant of the government. 

Missionary. But you are a Brahmun, and accor- 
ding to your Shastru, (sacred books) you are set 
apart for the purpose of instructing the other castes 
in the nature of divine things. 

B. That is true; but I have other business to do, 
and shall not teach the people religion? 

M. If you do not, who will 1 

B. You may do so, if you choose. 

M. But suppose this man (pointing to one) should 
come to you and say, " I am a great sinner — I know 
God will punish sinners after death — my sins dis- 
tress my mind much — how shall I escape from 
them," &c., what would you tell him ? 

B. There are many ways to obtain the pardon 
of sin spoken of in our Shastru. 

JM. Mention them if you please. Vc 

B. To perform jup ;* tup;f go on a pilgrimage; 
feed the Brahmuns and many more." - 

* Jup is an act of worship among the Hindoos which consists 
in repeating, in a muttering manner, passages out of the Vedus, 
or the names of the Deity, or of any god, or in counting silently 
the beads of a rosary. 

t Tup means penance, and includes every mode in which » 
Hindoo may choose to torment himself. 

IN INDIA. 103 

Mode of preaching to the Hiudoos. 

M. These are all vain, for a man may do all 
these things and be a bad man still. As the man's 
mind is, so is he. ' ""■'^^; -^ .;;;;. v-X^v/^: v^:;^^ 

People. True, Sahib. 

JBrahmun. Then do you tell. 

Miss. Give ear and I will tell you, what you and 
all the Hindoos must do to be saved. — The plan of sal- 
vation through the Saviour was then made known to 
the people and also a summary view of the doctrines 
of the Bible. To all this the people listened atten- 
tively for the space of twenty minutes or more. It 
seems to us important, in speaking to those who 
have no knowledge of Christianity, to give them, as 
it were, a system of divinity in miniature. Though 
the time may be short, still the grand doctrines of 
the Bible should, if possible, be mentioned to them. 
As for example, that God is holy, just, and true — that 
man is totally depraved, that he needs a divine Saviour, 
that t hrough His atonement alone sin can be pardoned 
— that there is to be a resurrection of the body — that 
there is a heaven for the righteous and a hell of end- 
less wo for the wicked. This was done in the hearing 
of the natives this evening. And the Christian sys- 
tem was then contrasted with that of the Hindoos. 
Besides the attributes of God already mentioned, it 
was added, God is omnipresent and omnipotent: this 
image (pointing to Hunooman's) which you call 
god has none of the attributes mentioned. It is nei- 
ther holy, just nor good ; it is not almighty, nor is it 
omnipresent. It remains just where you place it. 


Hindoo atonement for sin. 

It has no power to move itself, it cannot walk, speak, 
see, nor hear ; and can do you neither good nor evil. 
It is a stone, and a stone it must remain. You daily 
give it water, flowers, red lead, turmeric,* sandal- 
wood, &c., and what do you get in return ] 

Nothing, nothing — responded several voices. 

J^gain, sin is a great evil, and a great atonement 
is necessary to procure its pardon, and such the 
Christian Scriptures inform us Jesus Christ hath 
made. But judging from the atonements which the 
Hindoo Shastrus and Brahmuns prescribe, we should 
suppose sin was a little thing. You think that sin 
can be pardoned if you feed the Brahmuns, give them 
presents, wash your body, and eat a little cow-dung.f 

At this some laughed, some frowned, and others 
said; "Sahib speaks the truth." ^ 

At this point of time the Deshmookh^ came to pay 
us his Salaam. § After a few words of complimen- 

* Turmeric, the plant or the root Curcuma longa. . 

t Pun-chu-gu-vyu, or atonement pills among the Hindoos are 
composed of the milk, curds, clarified butter, urine, and dung of 
the cow. The person who has committed certain offences and 
thereby lost his caste, must swallow one or more of these pills, pay 
a fine to the Punchayut or assembly of arbitrators for the benefit 
of the Brahmuns, bathe, &c. &c. before he can be restored and 
his sin be pardoned ! ! iv 

t The Deshmookh (from Desk a country and Mookh the chief) 
was a revenue officer under the Native government, and gener- 
ally a hereditary land-holder in the district in which he ofiiciated, 
and was highly respected. Under the English government they 
fitill retain the name and part of the honour, but I believe, little 
of the profits they formerly enjoyed. 

§ The word Salaam, peace, is derived from the Hebrew word 

IN INDIA. 105 

Conversation with the Deshmookh. 

tary address, he was informed of wliat had been told 
the people. He said, It is very well. 

tMws. (To the Deshmookh) Yoa are now an aged 
man, and nearly ripe for the grave, do you know 
what will happen to ns after death. 

DesL No : I know nothing about that; and 
there is no one who knows any tiling about such 
matters. ■ 

This led to further conversation wiih him on the 
subject of death, the judgment, and the necessity of 
being prepared for it. To which they all gave at- 
tention, and some nodded their assent to the propriety 
of what was said. Notwithstanding all that the Hin- 
doos say abaut transmigration^ and the positive man- 
ner in which they tell you, that the soul must pass, 
under certain circumstances, into (8,400,000) eight 
millions four hundred thousand different animal 
bodies after it leaves the human, still they are wholly 
in the dark as regards the future. When they speak 
their real feelings on this subject, they will tell you, 
that they know nothing, and can know nothing 
about it. Beyond the present life all is impenetrable 
darktiess to the Hindoos; nor do their voluminous 
scriptures throw one ray of light upon the gloomy 
hereafter. Blessed be God, the gospel light dispels 
the darkness, and reveals to the believer a joyful and 
glorious existence beyond the grave. . 

Shaulam, he has peace. The sentence, if fully spoken, would be 
Salamun alaikoom, Peace be to thee. It is the usual mode of 
salutation in India. To each other, the Hindoos say, Ram, Ram. 


A Hindoo's idea of Providence. 

The PateP next came to pay his Salaam. He 
was asked if the village belonged to him. 

Patel. I am the Patel of the village, but it is 
yours ; the country is yours — and we are all yours. 
(This is a complimentary mode of expression and is 
about equivalent to "I am your most humble ser- 
vant.") ; ' : \- -■.;.-:/ .v- :^ -:-/ '^^^^^ ^ :^ / 

Miss. How does it happen that the Hindoos have 
lost their country, and are now gover^led by foreign- 
ers ? - ■' ' * ,.:;-,; 

Pa. It is our yaie. V r 

tMiss. But who gave your country into the hands 
of the Europeans ? 

Pa, They fought for it, and took it.. 

JMiss. Are nations at the disposal of soldiers and 
the sword 1 Is there no higher power to dispose of 
them 1 ^ 

Pa. Yes : the people are in the hands of God. 

JMiss. Why then is your country given into the 

hands of strangers. The wise and good God does 

nothing without a good cause. Can you tell 1 

Pa, \ cannot. 
J Miss. The reason, very likely, is this. You have 

forsaken the worship and service of the true God, 

and in consequence of this, God has cast you off! He 

has dealt so with other people besides the Hindoos. 

* The Paid under the native government, was the hereditary 
local manager of a village. His duty was to see that the gov- 
ernment dues were realized. In small villages, he has now the 
principal authority. 

IN INDIA. ' 107 

Idolatry the scourge of India. 

Pa. What are we tp do then 1 
Miss, You must cast away all your false gods, 
and love and serve the true God in spirit and in 

truth. . :,-■ :;v\.::^ -;;;;...:-:;/.. ,,;;.,/ 

Pa. Shall we then regain the government of 
our country? ''-^'■'''':'\.^\----^'.:'r- 

Miss. God will then bless you, and you will be- 
come a holy and. a happy people, which is not the 
case now. 

Pa. Will you promise us, that if we serve the 
invisible God and do as you say, we shall regain the 
government of our country ? 

Miss. 1 will assure you, that if you forsake idolatry, 
and serve the Lord, He will bless and prosper you, 
and order all things concerning you, so as to make 
you a happy and a prosperous people. And that is 
what you are not now. 

This view of the subject seemed rather new to 
them, and from their looks, gestures and remarks, 
it was evident that they were at a loss to know what 
to think of it. Some very gravely assented to the 
remarks made, and thought the reasons were proper ; 
but they have no disposition to forsake their idols 
and return to the Lord, and thus secure to them- 
selves great temporal and spiritual blessings. 

In the course of conversation, an aged Brahmun, 
a Pantheist, was thus addressed — ■ 

Miss. You are now an aged man, and will soon 
die, )^our beard is now ripe,* (that is, gray). 

* The expression (toodja kase pi-kula aha) your hair is ripe, 
is used among the Hindoos to denote old age. 


Conversation with a Pantheist. 

Brah. True, my beard is ripe, but 1» shall never 
die. I am God. I will throw off this body, but I 
shall live for ever. 

Miss, You speak some truth. You will throw 
aside for a while, the body you now have, and your 
spirit will live for ever. But still, you are mortal ; 
you are not God. 

Brah. I am. God is every where, and in every 
thing; and I am God, and every thing is God. 

Miss, If so, then I am God; and a Muhar (a 
man of low caste, and despised by the Brahmuns) 
also is God. 

Brah, Yes. Every thing is God. 

Miss. How is it then that you say, that the Mu- 
hars should worship yon, the Brahmuns; and to 
purify their souls from sin, should drink the water in 
which a Brahmun's great toe has been dipped. 
Should one god worship another god ; or rather, 
should God worship Himselfl You ought then to 
worship the Muhar. 

Brah, No matter : every thing is God. 

Mi^s, (Pointing to a stone) What is this? Is 
not this God? 

J^eZoo. It is a stone. 

Miss, le it not God? - 

-"■ Hin. No. ■ 

Miss, But this Brahmun says it is God, and if it 
were true, it would be right to worship it. But 
this he says because he loves not the truth. God 
forbids you and all persons to worship idols ; and 
those who do so offend Him. 



The propriety of " two and two" on Missionary tours. 

As it was upw growing late, arid many of the 
people becoming restless, tracts were given them, 
and they were dismissed for the night. Having dis- 
missed our congregations, we retired into the temple, 
and dropping the curtain which we had hung up 
before the door, were shut out from the view of 
the people. After some refreshment, and having 
taken a walk through the town, we spent the even- 
ing in reading and writing. Thus ended the labours 
of the day; and may it appear at last, that the words 
spoken for our Lord have been blessed, to the good 
of many. 

Tuesday, 7th. This morning before breakfast, a 
number of people assembled before the door of the 
temple where we were, evidently waiting to receive 
tracts and to converse with us. We spoke in turns, 
for nearly an hour, and gave tracts to all who could 
read. We found, this morning particularly, the 
great advantage of going out "/too and two,^ after the 
plan which our Saviour adopted, in sending out the 
seventy disciples, on their preaching tours. One 
would soon become weary in talking to the people 
day after day, and would be compelled to send them 
away empty ; but if there be two, they can vary the 
conversation, and by relieving one another, may 
continue it for hours, without feeliiig much inconve- 
nience to themsel ves. The word of God, also, comes 
to the people with more authority,- for out of the 
mouths of two w^itnesses, the truth is established. 
Where there are two persons, they command more 


Importance of more labourers. 

respect from the natives, than if the Missionary were 
alone. But for the sake of the Missionary's bodily 
and spiritual comfort, there ought to be two, if pos- 
sible, upon every tour of this description. I wish 
the Christian Church to think of this in sending out 
Missionaries to the heathen. And this also is a pow- 
erful argument, why there should be a good supply 
of Missionaries at every Mission-station in India. So 
that, when tours are made for the more widely dif- 
fusing the knowledge of the Lord, there may be 
enough of Missionaries left at the station to carry on 
the operations there. If this be not the case, the 
operations of that mission must necessarily be limit- 
ed, and the health, if not the lives of the Mission- 
aries be endangered. As in a temporal, so in a 
spiritual warfare, it is always better to send alarge 
army than a small one into the field. There will 
not only be more certainty of success, but also more 
comfort to those engaged in it. The wisdom of our 
Saviour in this, as in all other things, is very mani- 
fest ; and before the world can be converted to the 
faith of the Gospel, the Christian Church, acting in 
the name of their Lord, must send out their seventies 
of Missionaries by two and two into the wide waste, 
while the twelves, not less faithful, are confined to a 
difierent sphere of labour. 

After breakfast, having taken each of us a quantity 
of trapts, we went forth in the name of the Lord to 
contend with the idolaters of the land. We came 

*IK INDIA. Blfl 

Conversations at the temple of Vit,hoba. 

to the temple of Vit,hoba,*^ which stand? but a short 
distance from the temple of Hunooman.'f This tem- 
ple is the neatest building in the village. Near the 
door were several Hindoos seated cross-legged, with 
whom a conversation was begun. 

J\Iiss, Whose temple is this 1 

Hindoo. The temple of Vit,hoba. 

*Miss. And who is Vitjhoba ? 

Hind. He is the true god. 
cMiss. Where is he 1 We wish to see him. 

Hind. Within. (Pointing at the same time to a 
door which led into a small room at the farther end 
of the temple). 

Miss. The door is locked. Why is this ? 

Hind. We do so, lest the people should steal the 
jewels and other ornaments which are around his 

Miss. What ! is he not able to protect himself! 

Hind. (No reply.) 

Miss. How is this ] You say he is the true god 
—you worship him daily — place food before him that 
he may eat-^you place flowers around his neck that 
his nose may be regaled with their smell — you give 
him water every day — you bathe him — ^you brush 

* Vitjhoha or Vithul is the name of a god much worshipped in 
the Dekhan, and especially at Pun-dhur-poor. He is said to be 
Krishnti himself, the eighth incarnation of Vishnoo, who is be- 
lieved to4iave visited the city. He is much worshipped by the 
pooT and despised Hindoos of all descriptions. ♦ 

+ Hvmooman is fabled to be the son of th^ witid. He is a 
monkey, and under that fotm vA worshipped by the Hindoos. 


The folly of idolatry. The cause of the silence of the idols. 

away the flies from off him — you place the Gundhf* 
upon his forehead : and for all these services he 
makes you no return, and cannot even protect him- 
self; he must have a guard, and be locked up! How 
then can he protect you] ^^ ^^^ ^ n^^^^ 

Hind. You cannot understand these things, but 
we do. They are all made very plain in our Shas- 
trus. ^--- ■■■ 

Miss. But why cannot we understand these 
things'? We have good eyes and ears; and if y^fur 
god could eat, drink, speak, or walk, we could hear 
and see him, could we not] :. , 

Hind. Your religion is different. God gave yours 
to you, and ours to us. 

JWiss. Do yoxi perceive that your god acts? 

Hind. No, (said he rather angrily) not since your 
people took our country from us. Before that, our 
gods spoke — had understanding and walked about, 
but now they are silent. 

Another Hindoo, perhaps thinking it not wise to 
attribute their silence to this cause, said, " We now 
live in the Ku-le-yoog,f and in the ninth incarna- 

* Gundh is a paint for the body or forehead, made of sandal- 
wood, turmeric, aloe-wood, saffron, ^c. The Hindoos apply this 
paint to their faces, arms, forehead, &c., and to their idols for 

t The Ku-le-yoog is, according to Hindoo reckoning, the 
fourth age of the world. It is the iron age, or the age of vice. 
It commenced, according to some, three hundred, according to 
others thirteen hundred and seventy years before the Christian 
cera. It is to continue four hundred and thirty -two thousand 



Hindoo incarnations. 

don* of Vishnoo, (viz. Boudd-hu), and now every- 
thing is in a degenerated state." 

years; at the expiration of which period the world is to be de- 
stroyed. My Pundit, a Brahmun, has often assured me, from 
the authority of their writings, that in the first age of the world 
the men were as tall as the tallest trees in the land, and that 
they lived many thousands of years ; but as every age became 
worse and worse, the people were diminished in stature, and 
their lives were shortened. That even the Brahmuns them- 
selves, the gods of the people, have lost their holiness, and are 
now filled with covetousness, and addicted to many vices. In 
those days all the animals, as cows, horses, &c., spoke intelligi- 
bly, and that even the gods of stone, wood, brass, silver and 
gold not only spoke, but w^alked about. 

According to the Hindoo chronologers, there are four ages of 
the world, which are as follows, viz. 

The first age called Sutyn-yoog, or golden age, of 1,728,000 
years duration. n ! 

The second, Trata-yoog, or silver age, of 1,296,000 years. 

The third, X>wajpar-i/oo^, or brazen age, of 864,000 years. 

The fourth, Kule-yopg, or iron age, of 432,000 years. 

According to this, the world has existed three millions eight 
hundred and ninety thousand years ; and there yet remain four 
hundred and twenty-nine thousand eight hundred and sixty-six 
years before it will be destroyed. In such calculations the mind 
is lost. A Hindoo, however, finds no difficulty in believing 
these accounts. He makes no more of thousands of years than 
another man would oitens. ; ^ 

* According to the Hindoo Shastru, the second person a^ the 
Hindoo triad, viz. Vishnoo, is to take ten different incarnations. 
Eight are past. They are as follows : 

1. The fish incarnation, to bring up one of the four Vedes firom 
the sea. y .■.;•. ■ , ,; - \ ' ■ 

2. The tortoise, to support the Mount Mundur. Ot±ters say 

■vthe world. '^- :■■■■} I/-:--- .yi--^ y^-':':^:^^ : ^[^/-/i:-^^ 

3. The boar, to raise the earth with his tusk out of the sea. 


The character of the Hindoo gods. 

•Miss. Do you not acknowledge that He who is 
the true jGrod is holy 1 

Hind. Yes. God is holy. 
'Miss. What is the character of your god Vit,hoba 
as given in your Shastrus 1 

-Hind. He is holy. 

Miss. How many wives had he 1 

Hind. Sixteen thousand ! 

Miss. What ! Sixteen thousand wives ! ! and 
was he satisfied with these 1 

Hind. Why not? 

Miss. What was his conduct among the^gopies 
(the female cow-herds) ] 

Hind. What does he say 1 (addressing another 
Hindoo) Come away — he knows our Shastru — 
don't talk with him — he reproaches us all. 

This individual and some others retired to another 
part of the temple and after some conversation they 
returned again, and while we were engaged in ad- 
dressing others, he interrupts us by asking " Who is 
yourGodr A 

Miss. He is your Creator, Preserver and Benefac- 

' 4. The lion-man, to punish Pruhrard, a giant. 
S^The dwarf, to torment the daemon Burla. 

6. Purush-Ram, to punish the tribe of Kshutriyues. 

7. Ram, to kill the giant Rawun, king of Ceylon. 

8. Krishnoo, to destroy giants and his uncle Kouns. 

9. Boudd, to destroy giants. (The present incarnation.) 

10. Kulunkee, or destroyer ; this is future. In this character 
he is to destroy the world. 

IN INDIA. . 115 

The absurdity of a Hindoo's faitli. 

tor; the holy, ahTiighty, invisible and omnipresent 


; Hind. Does God pervade every thing ] 

Miss. God is every where present. 

Hind. Then God is in our images and they shall 
be worshipped. 

JMlss. According to that, God is in these stones on 
which we sit, and he is in our shoes, and they should 
be worsliipped 1 Will you worship this shoel You 
say God is in it^-' 'v--- %::■.-■■■ y -:^ -^ y; ■■-v ;:v.v:i-:;:v^-^: v;;- 
' Hind. God is every where and in every thing, and 
every thing is God. Whatever a man believes to be 
God, that is God, and he may worship it. 

Mss. So say the Brahmuns, but can you change 
the nature of things by. believing them to be chang- 
ed ] ,: :..,:,,■:,.,-... vv,;.,-.;,/;,^ ^:,,:,:,y 

■;■..- Hind. Yes. 

Miss. If you believe this stone (pointing to one) 
to be God, will it be so I 
-},-. Hind. Yes. 

Miss. If you believe this stone to be gold, will it 
become gold ] 

Hind. It may be so. 

Miss. If you believe this pi^e to be a rupee, will it 
become a rupee.* 

Hind. So the people say. 

* A pice is the sixty-fourth part of a rupee, and the rupee 
varies in value from one shilling and nine pence to two shillings ; 
about forty-six cents. 


The Hindoos coRdemned by their own scriptures. 

Miss. If a man believes you, who area Brahmun, 
to be a Muhar, will you become a Muharl''^ 

Hind. Chuch ! chuch ! No, no, never (shaking 
his head). 

Miss. You will not become a Muhar by faith, but 
a stone may become a god by the faith of any one 
who wishes it ; so you believe. 

Hind. Yes, certainly ; so it is. 

Miss. It is well said in your Shastru that this is 
the Kuleyoog, and during that lime all the Brah- 
mun^will be filled with covetousness, and for the sake 
of money will deceive the people. A Brahmun once 
informed us that if he did not tell lies he could not get 
enough to eat. It appears to be the case with you. 

On hearing this he became enraged, and told the 
people not to hear us, but to go away. 

Miss. But why are you angry at hearing the 
truth? Your Shastrus say that the Brahmuns are to 
be covetous and wicked in this age, and that is true, 
and you know it. It is your sin now to be angry. 
Are not these six, viz. Kam, Krodh, Lobh, Mohu, 
MudUf Mutsurf — lust, wrath, covetousness, spiritual 
ignorance, or pride, ignorance, drunkeness, and envy, 
condemned in your Shastru, and those who commit 

* A Muhar is a Hindoo of low caste. Many of these people 
not only eat the flesh of cows^ held sacred by the Brahmuns, but 
often eat it when in a putrid state. No wonder, then, that they 
are despised by the others. 

t The person who is guilty of any of these crimes is, by the 
Hindoo scriptures, accounted a sinner, and deserves punish- 
ment. All plead guilty. They are as above. 

IN INDIA. 117 

A Brahmun offended. 

these things shall be cast into hell ? You are con- 
demned by your own belief. (The people said " 'Tis 
true.") ^ ■■■■■' -■-';■■ : :--': ■ - } :^^^^-^ ■:-:-■■-- ^v: V- ■ ^:::■ . ■: 

Hind. We will walk in our own way, and you 
may walk in yours. 

Miss. There can be only one right way. People 
who walk in opposite directions cannot arrive at the 
same place ; but let me ask you a question. 

Hind. Speak. 

Miss. What is sin 1 

Hind. Our people are not sinful. 

Miss. You have just acknowledged that the Hin- 
doos are sinful ; but, what do you mean by sin? 

Hind. Omitting to bathe — not worshipping our 
gods, and forsaking a man's religion. 

Miss. But do none of the Hindoos lie, cheat, steal 
nor use bad language ? 

Hind. We don't go about the country telling the 
people that they are sinners as you do. Your people 
are sinful like yourself. ^ -: 

Miss. As all people are sinners, can you tell us 
how sin is to be pardoned 1 

Hind. Why should I tell you? 

The people now saw that their priest was not only 
angry, but was unable to answer the question pro- 
posed to.him. Their curiosity, however, was excited 
on the subject, and they wished to hear an answer to 
the question, which their priest was not able to give. 

Miss. If you will pay attention, you shall hear 
how your sins may be pardoned, and how you may 
be saved from hell. 


Opposition of the Brahmuna. Preaching. 

Hind. (Addressing some of the Hindoos who had 
begun to talk) Be still. "Speak on," said ano- 

The state of man by nature was then mentioned 
to them, and the nature of sin briefly explained, but 
when the name of Jesus Christ, as the only Saviour 
of sinners, was mentioned, the Brahmun, who had 
taken the lead in thexontroversy, abruptly demanded 
"Who is your Jesus Christ?" 

Miss. Have patience, and you shall hear. The 
subject was then resumed, but the Brahmuns present 
were determined that the people should not hear the 
truth. One and another kept continually interrupt- 
ing the speaker by such questions as " Who is your 
God r "What is your Jesus Christ like ]" "Where 
is your God ?" &c. 

After reproving them for their improper conduct 
and groundless anger, we left them. Some followed 
us and seemed quite pleased that the Brahmuns had 
been exposed. They seemed willing to hear the 
words of life, and as we walked together to our lodg- 
ings, in the temple of:Hunooman, they heard of the 
way of salvation more fully. 

After dinner we again went out among the peo- 
ple, and conversed with them for the space of two 
hours and more. During this time much that had 
been said in the morning was repeated, and the ob- 
jections and cavils of the natives were much the 
same. We visited also two native schools to-day, 
and examined the boys ; and after addressing them 

IN INDIA. 119 

Conversations with school teachers. 

and their teachers upon the subject of the Christian 
rehgion, we supplied them with tracts. As there were 
no printed books in the school, the boys were glad to 
get them. We left also a number of tracts in the 
charge of the teachers, for those in the school who 
were learning to read. One of the teachers received 
the books gladly, but the other seemed to care but 
little for them. In both the schoolhouses a number 
of people assembled to hear what we had to say. 
Our audiences here were more attentive than those 
in the streets, or at the temples. 

The chief speakers in both these schools were the 
teachers, who are Brahmuns. One of them is so 
deeply rooted in error that we could agree upon only 
two points, viz. that God is holy, and man is sinful. 
But he would not agree to any inferences drawn from 
these premises. As all men are sinners, it was ob- 
served, then the Brahmuns are sinners, and it is 
wrong for one sinful man to worship another. He 
replied, " I cannot agree with that. God commands 
the Shoodroo to worship the Brahmuns, who are th& 
people's god." He then branched out at considerable 
length in favour of the claims of the Brahmuns. 
Finding it to be of no use to spend much time with 
him, we a4dressed the people and the children, and 
after supplying them witli trae ts, came away. While 
in the other school, one of the hearers said, " The 
Sahibs are great sinners." 

Miss. Why do you say so ? 

Hind, Because they kill cows and «at them. 


Hindoos object to taking away life. 

Miss. We don't kill them, the Mussulmen do 

Hind. No matter ; you e«f them. 

Miss. What is the difference'? we eat the flesh, but 
you drink the milk, and the urine occasionally — eat 
the butter and the dung sometimes, and trample the 
skin urfder your feet. You must be a very bad man 
to tread on the skin of your god. 

Hind. But we do not kill cows. 
' Miss. Do not your people kill goats and sheep and 
chickens, and do you not sell your coics to the Mus- 
sulmen when you know that they will kill them] 

Hind. We do not eat them.* , - 

Miss. You do what is worse, you offer them in 
sacrifice to the devil, and thus you worship the 
devil. Surely you must be very bad to do so. We 
do not do so; we hate the devil and his works, and 
try to persuade you to be better, but you will not. 
(At this the rest laughed at him. He then kept 
silent during the remainder of our stay in the school 

* The Hindoos are very fond of objecting against the Christians 
that they take away life and eat the flesh of different animals, but 
they forget that they kill goats and chickens, and offer them in 
sacrifice, to appease the anger of some malignant daemon. When 
told that in every mouthful of water they take, they destroy the 
lives of many thousands of animalculee, they reply : " But we do 
not see them, and it is no matter." It matters not, we reply, if you 
know they are there j and besides, you kill, in walking, hundreds 
of pismires ; and according to your faith the spirit of your father 
may be in some of them. "What can we do.?" they answer, 
" we can't see them, and are not to be blamed." 

IN INDIA. * 121 

Hindoo cavilling at the truth. 

Hind. (Another Hindoo speaks) And whom do 
you worship] 

Miss. We worship the true God, who is a spirit. 

Hind, Who is God's father % 

Miss. What a foolish man you must be to ask 
such a question ! (the others laughed at him and he 
said no more). 

Hind. A Goojurattee man, a grain-dealer, took 
up the subject, and in a very stern, frowning manner 
said, the Sahibs are great sinners, for they eat cows, 
and -*, 

* The people of Goojurat are scattered in all directions 
throughout the Mahratta country. They are engaged in all kinds 
of traflfic. The grain dealers, especially, have the -opportunity of 
imposing on the poor who deal with them, and they are, gene- 
rally, not slow to take the advantage of the people. Many of them 
acknowledge that they lie and cheat all they can, and plead in 
defence, that other people do so, and if they do not, they cannot 
make a living. The fact is, there is scarcely a man among them, 
so far as our knowledge of them has extended, who does not make 
it a practice to tell lies, if he can make any money by it ; and so 
far from being ashamed of it, they justify themselves in the act 
from the example of others. During the great scarcity of 
grain in Bombay last year, several grain merchants, who had an 
immense quantity of grain in their store houses, raised the price 
of it in proportion as the wants of the people increased : and so 
fearful were they that they should not get enough for their grain, 
they hired their priests, by giving them presents of money, grain 
and clothes, to pray that the rain might not fall on the earth, 
and that the high price of grain might continue. For this pur- 
pose, several of these merchants, with their priests^ went to Mala- 
bar point, on the island of Bombay, and began their operations. 
The priests had each a small wheel made of dead men's bones; by 
turning these towards the East the rain would, they said, be driyen 


Sentiments of an intelligent Biabmiin. 

Miss, (Interrupting him) Who are youl " 

Hin. I am a merchant (vyaparee). 

Miss. Are you not covetous 1 (This produced a 
smile from some of them, and the merchant feeling 
the force of the question made no reply). 

As none felt disposed to express any more of their 
cavils, we had an opportunity of speaking to them on 
the necessity of a change of heart without any inter- 
ruption. Several of them now listened with apparent 
attention to what was said. ^ 

After visiting these schools, we took our seat in the 
verandah of a Brahmun's house, a short distance from 
one of the schools, where a number of persons had 
assembled to lounge away their time in idle chat. 
The owner of the house was the Karkoon* of the 
village, whom we had before met. v 

After the usual salutations, the following conver- 
sation ensued. It is mentioned here, to show the 
feelings and sentiments of an intelligent Brahmun, 
in reference to the propagation of Christianity in the 

Miss. Who is the god of this village 1 

Brah. Hunooman. 

away many miles for every revolution. The longer the rains 
hold back from falling in the proper season, the greater is the 
probability that the crops will fail, and of coarse, those, who have 
grain to sell, will be able to get a high price for it. In this case, 
the good providence of God digfappointed the avaricious hopes of 
these merchants, by sending, shortly after, plentiful showers of 
rain.', ".;■•■■■■ ' ''' ' ■ v " - » . 

* The Kukoon is the town clerk. 



A Hindoo's reason for worshipping i^ols. 

\Miss. How many gods besides Hunooman are 
there in this village? 

Brah. Perhaps ten or five* in the temples, and a 
great many in the people's houses. 

Miss, How many temples ate there here % 

Brah. Two ; Hunooman's and Vit,hoba's. 

Miss, Is there any temple erected to the Supreme 
God in this village ! 

Brah, No. 

Miss, How is this 1 You build temples to Hu- 
nooman, Vit,hoba, Ram, Sheve, &c., and none to the 
Supreme God who made you ! 

Brah, It is not our custom to do so ; that is your 
;.reUgion. ■ ^v;;-:..,:.- .:^vv:.,:V..,:^v,^^,^ 

Miss, Do you not acknowledge Jehovahf to be 
tlie Supreme God, who is overall; and why then 
do you not worship him ? 

Brah, He is the Supreme God, it is true ; but He 
is invisible. We can neither see Him nor feel Him, 
and how then can we worship Him? The mind" 
must have something tangible to fix its attention, 
therefore we make representations of God, and wor- 
ship Him through these. 

* In English we woolt^say " five or six, eight or ten," &c. ; 
but the Usual mode among Hindoos is to reverse the order. 
They say « ten five," instead of ten or Jive, for Jive or ten. They 
also express the ideas of much or little, by measuring off a portion 
of one of the fingers by the thumb of the same hand, or finger of 
the other. 

t The word pur-ma-shwur, the Supreme Being, correspond 
to our word Jehovah ; for some Hindoos acknowledge that there it 
an eternal and self-existing Being, the first cause of all things- 


Tbe employments of the inferior gods. 

Mss. But as God is a spirit, and a spirit has no 
form, how is it that you make your god to look hke 
man, and sometimes like a monkey 1 

Brah, The Shastrus make this plain to us. 
You can't understand it.; 

•Miss, But do you find any difficulty in fixing 
your mind upon an absent friend, and loving him, 
without having his form before you ? 

Brah. That is different ; but idols are necessary 
for the ignorant people. They do not understand 
how to worship the nir-a-kar, the Spiritual Being. 

Miss, If you loved the true God, and delighted in 
His commands, you would not need any forms, or 
images, to assist you ; nor would the ignorant peo- 
ple need them. 

Brah, That is your belief, but Hindoos need them. 

Miss. How many gods do your people acknow- 
ledge 1 

Brah. Thirty-three Kote. (A kote is ten mil- 

•Miss. Where are all these gods 1 

Brah. How should I know 1 

•Miss. Do you know their names 1 

Brah. The Shastru makes that known. 

•Miss. What is the use of -so many gods. One 
good one is quite enough, we should think. 

Brah. They are the great God's scopoys*. (That 

* The word Shipaee, or seapoy, as it is usually written, is a 
soldier. It is applied also to police men, and attendants on men 
in office. They wear helts as marks of their office, and oftesi 
parry arms. 


TliB ohBre^er vi QoA. 

is, the servants of God in the goveriiment of the 
world). ■■■■■^■^ :■:■":■'■ '<v 

Miss, Do Dot the seapoys, and servants of gov- 
ernment among you, wear some badge of their office, 
that you may know wha and what they are; and do 
they not act before you, so that all can know that 
they are the servants of government % 

Brah. Yes, and so do our gods. 

J\liss. Very well ; there is Gun^puttee* with his 
elephant's head, what part does he take in the gov- 
ernment of the world, or in any thing which belongs 
to the great God 1 

Brah. He does a great deal. 

Miss. Tell us what he does; and what does 
Hunooman do? 

(The Brahmun equivocated, and although much 
pressed did not answer the question). 

Miss. You say there are a great many gods. 
What are the distinguishing attributes of God 1 

Any thing, replies one of the crowd, is god which 
a man believes to be so. 

Miss. Have you no regard to his character 1 If 
so, tell us what character God should possess. 

Hind. You may answer that* 

* Gun-Puttee or Gunesh, is the fabled son of Sheve and Par- 
wuttee. He is the God of wisdom, and the remover of obstacles. 
He is invoked at the commencement of all journeys, writings, &c. 
He is represented as a shprt, fat man, with a huge belly, and 
with an elephant's head. Sometimes he is painted sitting on a 
ratf a metamorphosed demon, which he fides. 


-',,,,„ I I - , -- ^^^— — ^— ^-^^^—^ ^— — - 

The law written on the heart. ' 

Miss. Very well, I will answer. The true God 
cannot commit sin — He is not visible to the human 
eye — He is every where present, &c. 

Hind. Well said ; God does not commit sin. 

Miss. What do you mean by sin T 

Hind. Not walking according to the Shastrus. 

Miss. Rather, not walking according to the word 
^f the Supreme God. 

Hind. Yes : that is true. '■ 

Miss. Does not the true God forbid lying, steal- 
ing, fornication, &c., besides all evil thoughts and 
desires 1 

Hind. Where is it so written 1 

Miss. In your hearts, if not in your Shastrus. 

Hind. How should we know what is written 
there 1 (raeaningt)n the heart). 

Miss. When you commit any evil thing, do you 
not feel that you have done wrong, and that you 
ought not to have done so 1 y 

Hind. Yes : sometimes. 

Miss. Are not all these things which I have 
named sins? v v 

Hind. You say so 1 

Miss. Yes : and you know they are. Say ; what 
is it said that Bruhma, Vishnoo, Sheve and Erishnoo 
did 1 (No answer — some smiled, and others tossed 
their heads to one side, but said nothing). 

Miss. You know very well that your gods com- 
mitted all these crimes. Bruhma lost one of his 
heads for committing incest with his daughter. And 

IN INDIA. 127 

Inquiries and answers. 

if, as^ you allow, that the true God cannot commit 
sin, and yours do, it is evident that Bruhma, Vish- 
noo, &C;, are fialse gods, they are not true. 

Hind, Who dare say they are not godsl We 
will not own this. 

J\^iss. If you are too wicked to acknowledge the 
truth, others will do it. 

Hind. What is the form ^f your God 1 

Miss, The God we worship is (nirakar) without 

Hind, But your books say He speaks, and how 
can He speak without a mouth 1 

Miss. Does the wind ever speak 1 

Hind. Yes. ' , , . - 

Miss. And has the wind got a mouth 1 

Hind. Yes. 

Miss. Did you ever see the wind's mouth 1 

(Here a burst of Jaughter from the crowd silenced 
the speaker, so that he made no reply). After some 
remarks on the way in which God speaks to mortals, 
and makes himself known to them, a Brahmun in- 
terrupted us by asking, " Why have you and olher 
Padres come to this country 1" 

Miss. To teach the Hindoos the true way of sal- 
vation through the Lord Jesus Christ. 

Brah. Who taught you our language 1 

Miss. Your learned Brahmuns. 

Brah. Why should they do so ? It is against our 


Explain to the natives our work. 

•Miss. They taught us for money, and we learned 
for the purpose of teaching you the way to be saved. 
Brah. Why did the government send you here 1 
Miss. We have no connection with the govern- 

Srah. Does not the government pay you 1 
Miss. We receive nothing but protection from the 

Brah. How then are your bellies filled ?* 
Miss. Hear, and you will know. We belong to 
a country many thousand miles from this, and also 
from England, called America. The people there 
have heard a great deal about the Hindoos. They 
have heard that the Hindoos have forsaken the wor- 
ship of the true God : that they make gods for them- 
selves out of clay, wood, stone, brass, silver and gold, 
and bow down to them and worship them, while Grod 
commands them not to do so. That they also wor- 
ship cows and snakes ; that the poor people worship 
the Brahmuns ; that the Brahmuns are proud, and 
keep the poor in ignorance and oppress them ; that 
they expect to be saved by performing jwp, tup, ^c; 
and that they are all ignorant of the true Shastni 
of the only true God, their Creator, ^nd of the only 
Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ. Hearing all these 
things, they have felt great compassion for them, and 
have collected money for the purpose of establishing 

* The expression pote Chu-ru-na, to fill the belly, is in com- 
mon use among the natives, and means to satisfy one with food. 

IN INDIA. 129 

The pecple interested. 

schools among the poor, and of giving the people books 
gratuitously ; and when they asked the question who 
will go and teach them, we said w^e will go and endea- 
vour to teach them the w^ay of the Lord. The Lord 
Jesus Christ commanded his disciples to go into all 
the world, and to preach the gospel to the people, 
declaring that he who believes and is baptized, shall 
be saved ; but he that believes not shall be damned. 
It is to obey our Lord, and to do you good that w^e 
have come here. 

This was evidently something new to these peo- 
ple. They looked the one at the other, and after a 
few remarks among themselves, one of the company 
asked, " Do not your people die very soon in this 
country 1" , 

Miss, Yes : some of them do : but we would die 
in our own country, as well as here, and death is a 
great blessijjg to all who are prepared for it. 

^raL [A Brahmun perceiving that the people's 
attention had been arrested, and fearing lest they 
should be impressed with what was said, interrupted 
the discourse by saying,] "You have come into the 
country to destroy the Brahmuns, so it appears to 
me." '.'■■■■-::-:■<'■;■::- i- ■■M- ---^^ ;.v ::■;.:.,/■ ^■iV^'^.v-.v : ■; ■:/.,: .^v-; 

•Miss. We have not come to destroy the Brah- 
muns, but to teach the people the true way to be 
saved. Because the Brahmuns have become cove- 
tous and proud in this age, and leave the people with- 
out instruction, we have come to do their work. The 
Brahmuns are now engaged in worldly business, 
while the Shastru says they should teach the peo- 


A Brahmun's idea of the various religions. 

■^MBMII II ■ I II I I I. I I ,1 - , 

pie. If you will turn to God, forsake all your idols, 
and teach the people the true way, then the disciples 
of Jesus Christ need not come here to teach the peo- 
ple. ,:.-::• ■■::^. . ' :■■.■- -V' .•'.:-■■::-■ r/,.-/;/':- ;:.■,-:. . 

Brah, We believe that God gave to different peo- 
ple, different religions. He gave the <ope« wallas* 
(the hat fellows,) their Jesus Christ ; and to us. Ram, 
and Hunooman, &c. Let every one follow his own 

•Miss. What is a man's own religion ? Is it not 
that religion which God has established for the good 
of the whole family of man ] 

Brah. Yes : and by neglecting to perform the 
duties of our religion strictly, we have lost our coun- 

Mss. It is true that you have lost your country 
in consequence of your sins ; but you mistake in ) 
thinking that God gave you stones to worship, 
while he commanded us to worship Himself. The 
religion which God established for all men in the 
world, is the spiritual worship of Himself. By forsak- 
ing the spiritual worship of the true God, the displea- 
sure of God is now upon all the Hindoo people ; and 
we doubt not that this is one reason why the topee wal- 
las, as you call them, have taken your conntry. €rod 
has given it to them to punish you for your sins, and 
to bring you back to the truth. 

* Topee Walla, a hat fellow, or one who wears a hat, is rather 
a term of contempt, applied to all Europeans and foreigners who 
^o not wear the Hindoo head dress, viz. the pe^gota, or pugree. 

IN INDIA. ^ 131 

One ofi^M to wonbip Christ for meaey. 

Brah, But did not our forefathers do as we now 

Miss. No doubt they worshipped idols as you do, 
but God punished them for this. The Moguls, the 
Mohamraedans, the Feringees (Portuguese), and 
now the English have your country ; and what is 
this for, if it be not because you have forsaken Grod.- 
When one of your wives (runs off and leaves you, 
what do you do to her ? ^ 

Hind. (One of the company spoke out) Sahib un- 
derstands it; (giving at the same time that toss of the 
head which is so significant in a Hindoo's discourse.) 

Brah. But what shall we do ? 

Miss. You must cast away all your false gods, 
forsake all your sins, and love and serve the Lord 
Jesus Christ, and then God will bless you. 

Brah. Can you promise us that if we do so we 
shall regain our country? 

J^s. No : but I can assure you that if you do, 
God will bless you and the land in which you dwell, 
so that people will not be dying as they were last 
year by the famine. 

Brah. (Seeing a man coming, he says,) There 
is a man who will worship Jesus Christ if you will 
give him a thousand jupees. 

Miss. (Addressing the individual referred to). 
Will you become a Christian aVid worship Jesus 
Christ for a thousand rupees ? ^ 

Hind. (Laughing) Yes, I will then get a good 


Labours in Rajoora ended. 

Mss, Will you worship tbe devil ior the same 
money ? i,;. 

Hind. Yes, I will worship any body who will 
give me a thousand rupees, and will fill ray belly. 

J\Iiss. You worship the devil now for nothing, 
and if you should worship Jesus Christ for money, 
you would only be a hypocrite, and not worth hav- 
ing ; Jesus Christ would not have you. Here the 
people began to laugh and talk, and as it was evi- 
dent that there would be no hopes of getting their 
attention again, we gave them some tracts, made 
our salaam, which they as politely returned, and 
came away. 

Thus ended our labours in this city, wholly given 
to idolatry. We retired to our lodgings followed by 
a crowd of boys, some asking for books, and those 
who had received them endeavouring to entertain 
us by their talking. Although we felt exceedingly 
tired, yet we sat up late to write down the conversa- 
tions we had with the people, while fresh in our 

Never, in all probability, since the flood, were 
there any witnesses for the truth in this town till 
our arrival. We have, through the help of the 
Lord, produced some inquiry among the people : they 
have heard the truth of their own religion called in 
question, and have had a better one made known to 
them ; and our fervent prayer is, that the word spoken, 
and the tracts distributed, may continue to trouble 
their spirits, and through grace constrain some of 

IN INDIA. 133 

Muhars dare not enter the temples. 

Ithem at least, to forsake all their idolatry, and fly to 
Jesus, their Saviour, for peace and salvation. 


Wednesday, 8th. We left Rajoora this morning 
early for Ankola, a village about sixteen miles dis- 
tant. Having sent the most of our things to An- 
kola, we turned aside from the direct road, for the 
purpose of visiting three villages to the left, which 
are not a mile apart. We stopped at Indooree, it 
being the largest. Here we dined in a chowdey,* 
or open bungalow, and conversed with about fifty 
people, who had assembled together, some in the 
building and others outside. Observing that many 
of the people staid out, and not knowing the reason, 
we asked, "Why do not these people come in, and sit 
down with the rest, to hear God's word ?" 

Hind. (One of the company replies), They are 

* These Chowdies are to be found in almost every viiracre in 
the Dekhun. They are generally divided into two compart- 
ments. An idol is set up in the inner one, which is called the tem- 
ple. It is considered a holy place. In the front apartment the 
officers of the village frequently meet to transact business in the 
day-time. Travellers, who-- may pass through the village, also 
stop there to eat and to sleep. The buildings are open in front; 
the other sides being closed : the roofs are generally flat. In some 
of them the idol stands in a niche in the wall; in others the 
priest and the. idol occupy the whole of the inner apartment. 
They are generally very dirty places. 


Which is the best caste ? 

MuharSf and dare not come into this place while we 
are here. ^- "■-- - ";■ :^\" --^--"v.' \-:, r ■-•.--:-■:-■"- ^-^t:-: 

J)Iiss, Why not 1 God has made them, and they 
have need of instruction as well as you. They are 
Hindoos, and worship your gods : do they not 1 

Hind. Yes: but it is not our custom for them to 
come into our temples. They are of low caste, and 
would defile the place. 

Miss, This cannot, therefore, be the temple of the 
true God, for He is good and merciful to all classes 
of people ; to the poor and the ignorant as well as to 
the rich and learned. He commands all people, of 
all nations and castes to worship Him in spirit and in 
truth, and He will dwell with none but those who 
are of a pure heart. 

Hind. Who made the different castes 1 (asks one 
of the company). ^ 

Miss. God made the people, but wicked and 
ambitious men, perhaps Brahmuns, made the castes. 

Hind. No, no ; God made the different castes. 

Miss. Which caste do you think is the best before 
God?-^:" ■- ■ :^ ;---:.-; ■..■:'^:-::\ 

Hind. The Brahmuns' caste is better than all 
the others. 

Miss. Suppose a Brahmun to be a liar, a deceiver 
of the people, as many of them are, and a fornicator; 
and one of these Muhars, avoiding all these sins, should 
worship the holy and invisible God according to the 
best of his knowledge ; which do you think would 
be most highly esteemed in the sight of God ? 

IN INDIA. 135 

A difficult question for a Brabmun. 

Hind. He that worships God, (answers some one 
of the people). 

Mss. Why then do the people say that the Brab- 
mun caste is the best, and that caste is the work of 

God], -:,rr~-:.y-:^:.^^ 

There being none to answer, we occupied the time 
till near the hour of dinner, in making known tathem 
the true way of salvation through the Lord Jesus 
Christ. Some of the people listened attentively. 
The poor and despised Muhars were glad to find that 
God does not despise them, although the rest of their 
people do. So it was in the days of old. The 
Scribes and the Pharisees were offended at the doc- 
trine of Christ, while the multitudes, the poor and 
the ignorant, heard Him gladly. It is true, in the 
present day, that to the poor the Gospel is preached, 
and " that not many wise men after the flesb, not 
many mighty, not many noble are called ; but God 
hath chosen the foolish things of the world to con- 
found the wise ; and things which are not, to bring 
to naught things that are." 

' The few Brahmuns present felt their dignity hurt, 
because we placed them on a level with their de- 
spised neighbours, the Muhars. They went away 
offended, but not till they had received tracts and 
portions of the word of God. 


After some refreshment and a little rest, we visited 


Visit Mandooree. Influence of caste. 

the village of Mandooree, which stands on a hill on 
the opposite bank of a small stream, which separates 
it from Indooree. This stream, like the deceitful 
brook of Job, is filled only during the rainy season. 
At present the water stands only here and there in 
pools. We found but few people in the village. 
These we invited to the temple, which is constructed 
upon the same plan with the one in Indooree, al- 
ready described, (page 133, note). As there are no 
seats in the temple, we asked one of the men who 
came with us, to give us his comley* to sit on. He 
hesitated to give it to us, a thing rather unusual, 
and which we could not help remarking. 

JMiss, Are you afraid to give us your comley for 
a moment ? 

Hind. I am a Muhar, and how can I put my old 
cloth in the temple so near the god? 

jyiiss. What nonsense ! Would you have the 
Sahibs to sit down in the dirt ? If you are afraid to 
bring it, throw it to us. 

Hind. (Looking round at the people to see what 
might be their feelings) he said, " Take it," and threw 
it to us. We then spread it on the earthen floor 
near the idol, and sat down to talk to the people. 
We had not met with an instance of this kind be- 
fore, where a Muhar seemed to feel his degradation so 

* A Comley is a coarse garment made of wool, and used by 
the poorer class of natives to sleep on at ,night or in the day ; and 
in the rainy season is used for a covering for the body. They, 
generally, carry them with them. 

IN INDIA. 137 

Roomoondee. Food of the poor. 

great that even his garment would defile the filthy 
stone which he worships as a god. 

In the temple we foimd an old man, who officiated 
as priest of the temple. He was rather surly, and 
was not at all pleased at our intrusion. The prin- 
cipal reason may have been, that he was then in the 
act of preparing his meal. None of the people in 
this village could read. The priest refused to take 
any of our tracts. After talking to, the people for a 
short time upon the importance of loving and serv- 
ing the true God, we left a few tracts in a niche in 
the wall, made for holding a lamp, and returned to 



In the afternoon we visited the village of Roo^ 
moondee. We sat down on a small platform before a 
shopkeeper's door, where we saw several people assem- 
bled, and engaged in cleaning some grain. This 
grain, called juwara,* resembles the millet, and 
is common in this part of the country. It is used 
for food, principally by the lower class of people. 
While the people were assembling, we made some 
inquiries as to the quantity and quality of the food 
of the poor. They told us that the grain before us 
was sold for one rupee per maund,t and that a 

* Holcus Sorghum. Indian maize. 

t Tiie Maundy equal to forty seers, varies from thirty-six; to 
forty-one lbs. avoirdupois. 



Expense of living and diet of the natives. 

maund is enough for cue man for a month. Those 
who are very poor eat nothing but this kind of 
grain, ground into a coarse flour upon their hand- 
mills,* and made into unleavened cakes, together 
with a sauce consisting of chillies (red peppers) and 
other hot ingredients. This latter preparation would 
not cost them more than four or five annasj^ per 
month. At this rate the whole expense of one man 
would not exceed three shillings per month. We 
could hardly think it possible for a man to subsist 
upon so small an allowance, but they say that many 
do. Those who are richer, atid are able to purchase 
what they wish, generally act upon the principle 
that good living is a good thing. After all, their 
living is plain, when compared wnth that of other 
nations. Few ever taste coffee or tea, nor can they 
always afford to drink milk. Clear water from the 
bi'ook, rice and curry ji[. fruit and vegetables, include 

* The mill of the natives of India consists of two round, flat 
stones, of about a foot in diameter. The under stone is made 
fast, and the upper one is turned round by the hand. The women 
do the grinding. This illustrates Matt. 24, 41. 

t An Anna, is the one-sixteenth part of a rupee. 

t Rice and curry is a dish in universal use in India. It con- 
sists of a quantity of clean rice, boiled and eaten with a sauce of 
meat, fowl or fish, stewed with a quantity of black and red pep- 
per, ginger, safiron, cummin and aniseed, onions, cocoanut, 
butter, &c. The quantity and variety of the spices depend upon 
the taste of the parties concerned. Some curry is made so hot 
that it is difficult for any but a native to eat it. It is accounted 
a healthy dish, and much used by Europeans, though made with 
a moderate proportion of spices and peppers. In eating, the 

IN INDIA. 139 

The poverty of the people. 

nearly all the luxuries of their table. The shop- 
keeper assured us that there were twenty families in 
that village who did not realize more than one ru- 
pee to each individual per mensem. It is not at all 
unlikely, that there are thousands in India, who are 
not able to obtain more than the above amount. 
Some have told us that they are so poor, they cannot 
afford to eat more tiian once a day. The words of 
the prophet Amos are not inapplicable to many of 
the people in India now, as well as to the people of 
Israel in his day, viz., " I have given you cleanness 
of teeth in all your cities, and want of bread. I have 
also wiihholden the rain from you. I have smitten 
you with blasting and mildew, yet have ye not re- 
turned unto me, saith the Lord.'V^^^r^^^^^^^ V 
I After the people had collected, we preached to 
them the Gospel of Christ, and gave away several 
tracts. The people said they had never heard of 
Jesus Christ before to-day. They exhibited a wil- 
lingness to hear, and none seemed disposed to cavil 
at the truth. Some said it was good. This is 
generally the case where there are not some selfish 
Brahmuns to oppose. The truth, as it is set forth 
in the Gospel, is so beautiful, that it never fails to 
commend itself to the understandings and the con- 
sciences of the people generally ; but the fear of in- 
curring the displeasure of the Brahmuns, in some 

natives make no use of knives, or forks, or spoons. The right 
hand is invariably used, as the left one, for certain reasons, is 
esteemed wncZean. ' :A 


Hindrances to the Gospel. A Dekhunee village. 

instances, and of losing the favour of tiieir more 
superstitious friends in others, leads many, who are 
half convinced of the truth, to keep silence, and to 
prosecute their inquiries on the subject no further. 
May the spell of Brahminical priestcraft soon be 
broken, and the people go free ! 

We returned to Indooree. This village, like 
many in the Dekhun, is surrounded by a mud wall, 
which is now in such a dilapidated state as to be of 
no use. These walls are built of mud, or of bricks, 
dried in the sun, and seldom stand the rains of more 
than three or four years, without much repairing. 
Where the walls are standing, and in good repair, 
the people bring all their herds of cattle, goats and 
sheep, within the walls of the village, and shut them 
up for the night. They may have formed a good 
defence from enemies without, when the weapons of 
their warfare were only arrows and match-lock guns. 
They offer but a poor resistance to guns of a heavier 
character. - - 

There are no schools in Indooree, Mandooree or 
Roomoondee, and only three or four Brahmun houses. 
The temples are those of Hunooman and Bhuwanee. 
The people are poor. 

. ■ ANKOLA. -.. 

In the evening we rode to Ankola. This village 
contains about five thousand inhabitants, and is 
beautifully situated on the bank of the river Para, 

IN INDIA. 141 

Appearance of the country. 

and between two ranges of mountains, which branch 
oflf at right angles, from the grand range, which runs 
in a northerly direction, and forms the dividing-line 
between the Dekhun and the Konkun. These 
ranges of mountains extend nearly sixty miles to the 
eastward, and are from five, to, perhaps, fifteen miles 
apart. Between these mountains are extensive val- 
lies. The land is not rich, and but a small portion 
ofit is under cultivation. No groves of stately oak 
meet the eye of the traveller here, and the few trees 
that are to be seen^ are generally in clusters around 
some decayed or decaying temple, and consecrated 
to idolatry. For two or three miles before you reach 
Ankola, the road is good, and hedged on either side 
with the thorn and milk bush. The entrance to the 
town is rather beautiful than otherwise. We reached 
Ankola about sunset ; passed through it, and took 
up our abode in a temple on the east of the town. 
This temple is on the bank of the river Para, whose 
dry channel w^e have frequently crossed and recrossed 
to-day, but here the water has the appearance of 
a small, though beautiful lake. The accommoda- 
tions of the temple, and the refreshing shade of the 
many large trees which surround it, made it a 
truly pleasant -place to us wear}?^ Missionaries. We 
were glad to throw ourselves down upon our couches 
and wait patiently till our cook prepared us some- 
thing to eat. 

On our arrival we found the Magistrate, of the 


The privations of many. Death of Mr Dent. ;^ 

Sungumnere district, W. Dent, Esq.,* in his tent, a 
short distance from us. H * is the first man with a 
white face we have met since leaving Bhewndy. 
After supper we called upon him, and spent an hour 
very agreeably in conversation. His residence is at 
Sungumnere, about fifty miles from any Europeans. 
The privations he is thus subjected to are not few. 
He is deprived of all social intercourse with his breth-I? 
ren in the country, and also of all medical assistance,^ 
in case it should be needed. He has his bread & 
brought to him from Ahmednuggur by post, a dis- 
tance of sixty miles. This he must do, or be at the > 
extra expense of supporting a baker expressly for: 
himself. His tailor, washer-man, f &c., &c., are 
-with him, besides many more equally necessary per- 
sons. When a Missionary travels, he generally does 

* Mr Dent was taken ill with a fever shortly after we left 
Sungumnere, and was brought to Ahmednuggur in a palankeen, ^ 
a distance of sixty miles, for medical aid. He died immediately ' 
after his arrival, and only fifteen days after we had left him in 
perfect health. He was much respected, and has left many re- 
latives in England to lament his early death. Had he been near 
a medical gentleman, his life might have been spared; but as 
he was not, it was forfeited. This shows the great desirableness / 
of being near a physician, or of having a friend at hand. Mr 
Hall died a few years ago on his way from Nasseek to this, or 
some one of the neighbouring villages. He too was alone. It 
is running a great risk thus to travel alone j but at times it cannot 
be avoided. We should not think it prudent for a Missionary, 
and much less so for a family, to be located among the heathen 
beyond the reach of medical advice. Physicians are needed. 

t In India the wen wash all the clothes of Europeans, and this ;; 
they do by beating them on stones, and spreading them out to ; 
the sun to bleach. 


IN INDIA. 143 

An instance of deception. 

without bakers' bread, and depends upon getting rice 
or wheat flour in the villages through which he 
may pass. Wheal flour cannot always be obtained. * 
In conversing with Mr Dent this evening concern- 
ing the native character, he gave ug no favourable 
idea of their honesty. He acts in the double capa- 
city of magistrate and assistant collector in the dis- 
trict. He is now engaged in collecting the rents 
&c., from the land-holders. The native officer, 
whose business it is to collect monthly or quarterly, 
the rents from the people, and give them proper re- 
ceipts for the same, often reports to the collector of 
the district, that such and such persons are dead. 
These persons' names are then stricken off the col- 
lector's list, and the native collector receives and 
pockets the money. Mr Dent said he had found out 
during his present tour, that several persons, who 
had been in the habit of paying from twenty to sixty 
rupees tax to government every year, had been re- 
ported as dead to the former collector; their names 
were struck off from the collector's list, and the whole 
of the amount was lost to the government, while 
the individuals were still alive, and were paying to 
the native collector their regular taxes, and were re- 
ceiving the proper receipts for the same. In other 
cases the native collector reported that the ryots 
(land-holders) had paid only a part of their yearly 
lax to him, pleading their poverty, or the hardness of 
the times, as an excuse for not paying the whole of 
it, and promising, at the same time, soon to pay the 
remainder; while these ryots themselves were present 



Native Character. Lying a common sin. 

and had iheir receipts to show that they had paid 
their regular government dues, but were afraid to 
i, speak or exhibit them, lest they should oflfend the 
native collector. Mr Dent's opinion is, that the 
Hindoos have very little honesty among them ; and 
seem to be almost wholly devoid of truth. If an ad- 
vantage is to be gained by telling a lie, they are sure 
to do it. He spoke merely in reference to those in 
his coUectorate. It is a lamentable fact, that lying 
is so common among the natives, that, so far from 
being ashamed of it, they readily acknowledge it, 
and many plead for the propriety of it. How im- 
portant it is, that this people, who so much resemble 
the Corinthians of old in their sins, should, like them, 
be washed, and sanctified, and justified in the name 
of the Lord Jesus, and by the spirit of our God. 

Thursday, 9th. This morning, after bieakfast, we 
went into the town with a few tracts, intending to 
address the people in seveial places, and to give 
away tracts enough to show them who and what 
our intentions were, and to invite them to call upon 
us at the temple for more. We found no lack of 
readers, or of people desirous to get books gratui- 
tously. After stopping in three or four places, and 
addressing the people on the common theme of our 
daily instiuctions, and contending with the Brah- 
muns, who are sure to oppose, if the distinguishing 
doctrines of the Gospel are brought to their view, 
and disposing of nearly all the tracts we had brought 
with us, we went to the government school. A few 

IN INDIA. 145 

■ ! ...^ ' •".■, I ■ ■ 

Exttoikm of Christianity from schools. 

little boys, of whom we, generally, have m«re than 
we desire running before and after as in^ the village, 
acted as our guides. This school is under ihe pi^ 
tronage of the Bonabay Native Education Sociel^ 
and is also in such a way connected with the gov- 
ernment as to give it the character of a government 
school. It is so called by the natives. The Collector 
of the district has all the schools established by the 
Society within his bounds, under his care. He occa- 
sionally examines them, and gives to the boys such 
books as rewards of their industry, as he may judge 
suitable. In this school there were about sixty boys. 
We found in the school a number of books published 
by the Society, among which were DuflPs History of 
the Mahrattas, and iGsop's Fables, accommodated to 
the Hindoo Mythology, by inserting the names of the 
Hindoo gods in the place of the Roman ones, and 
adapting the moral of the fables to Hindoo customs. 
As the Principal of the school was absent, we ap- 
proached his Usher, intending to ask permission to 
address the boys on the subject of their studies, and 
their duty to God and man. The Usher had learned 
who we were, and, no doubt, suspecting what would 
be our wishes, took the precaution to show us the 
regulations of the school before we had time to 
speak to him. He directed our attention to that 
rule, which forbids the use of any Christian book of 
any kind in the school, or any religious instruction 
to be given. Nothing but man's wisdom is to be 
taught. In giving us the regulations^ he observed, 


^ I 11 ■-■ ■ ■■..— ^ ™ --... ■ 11 - . . ■ - .1 — ■ " • . - . _^ , 

Exclusion of Christianity from schools. 

" These are the Government orders." A fter reading 
them, we told him that as the regulations of the 
school prevented us from speaking to the boys, we 
•did not feel disposed to transgress them, by speaking 
to them on the subject of the Christian religion. 
The boys in the school, of course, heard the conver- 
sation which passed between us and the Usher. We 
then told them that we had some tracts and books, 
which we would give to them as presents, if they 
would call at the temple for them. They promised to 
do so, and this, as the result proved, turned out for 
the furtherance of the Gospel. We left the school away a single tract. We could not, 
however, but remark upon the inconsistency, as we 
think, of those who are concerned in the manage- 
ment of this Society: they are baptized in the name 
of the Lord Jesus; profess to worship Him as the 
only Saviour of men; believe that the Heathen are 
all out of the way of truth, and enveloped in igno- 
rance and gross superstition, and yet, for prudential 
reasons, agree that the Christian religion, yea, and 
every thing belonging to the name of Christ, shall 
be excluded from the schools under their care. If 
the boys in the several schools were not taught Hin- 
dooism to the exclusion of Christianity, there would 
appear to be some plausible excuse for this strange 
mode of procedure; but, so far from this, Hindoo- 
ism is taught in all the schools, and taught too, in 
books whicii have the sanction of the Society. Some 
of the books published by the Society, as for example, 


IN INDIA» 147 

Remarka on the system of excluding Christianity. 

iBsop's fables, leach Hindooism. And the first 
lesson, every boy is taught to write in the schools, is a 
lesson of Hindooism, it being no other than the mys- 
terious word *Aom which stands for the names 6f 
Bruhma, Vishnoo and Sheve.'^ As the teacher, or 
assistant is a Hindoo, and Christianity is expressly 
excluded, what can we expect but that Hindooism 
will be taught. If the teachers bring in their Hin- 
dooism into those schools, where none but Christian 
books are used, aff they often do in our Mission 
schools in Bombay and on the Continent, much 
more may we suppose, they will bring it in where 
Christianity is expressly forbidden. These schools 
are the only ones, in which we may not distribute 
books and speak for our Lord. In all the native 
schools, which have no connection with the Educa* 
lion Society, which we have visited, we have had full 
liberty to speak to the boys concerning their duty to 
God, and to distribute tracts among them. The 
teachers, so far from opposing the distribution of 
books, have gladly received them, and have, gene- 
rally, taken a supply for those in the school who had 
not yet learned to read. We are happy to find that 

* This is formed of a, a name of Vishnoo, of /> a ^ame of 
Sheve, and m a name of Bruhma, making Aom. No Christian 
desires to have Hindooism taught in the various schools under 
the care of the Bombay Education, or any of the Missionary So- 
cieties, but from the fact of excluding Christianity from some of 
these schools, for the purpose of conciliating the favour and en- 
listing the aid of many of the wealthy Hindoos, the native 
teachers take advantage of this, and do teach Hindooism, 


Superb temple of Sheve. The Lingum. 

some of the supporters of this Society see the impro- 
priety of this regulation, and are using their efforts 
to have it altered. We wish them God speed in all 
their efforts to extend the krjowledge of Christ in 
India. -c ■-:;-v^::.v:^: "^^ v-.;- .:\/:;<-y, ; -, •:. ■.■-,. 

On leaving the Government school room our at- 
tention was arrested by a temple of Sheve, which we 
entered. This temple is built principally of granite, 
and surpasses any thing of the kind that we have 
yet seen. The carving and the polishing of the 
stones, and the whole superstructure, standing to 
appearance upon twelve huge elephants, convinces 
the beholder that the Hindoos, formerly, were not de- 
ficient in taste, nor skill in the planing and construc- 
tion of their temples. The whole building is made of 
hewn stone. No wood enters into the construction 
of it. Even the roof and the doors are of stone. 
The temple is now of nearly eighty years standing, 
and the only injury it has sustained is, that some 
rude hand has disfigured the elephants' heads, by 
breaking off their probosces. 

After viewing the temple, and making all the in* 
quiries concerning it that we thought necessary, we 
addressed the people who had followed us into the 
temple, and urged them to turn from the filthy ser- 
vice of their dumb idols, to the service of the pure 
and living God. The lingum, which stands in the 
inner apartment of the temple, and in view of those 
who may face the door, is the usual form under 
which Sheve is worshipped by men and women. 

m INDIA. 140 

Ceremony of reading the Poorans. 

We endeavoured to convince the people of the sin of 
worshipping a stone, and especially such as the one 
before us. Some of thenv seemed to be ashamed 
when we spoke on this subject ; but it was their cus- 
tom, and that was reason enough with them for sq 
doing.' ■■.;^^ -;:.:■■■ v*:\:y--v::'::;v;>^^ 

At a short distance from this temple we had an 
opportunity of witnessing some of the ceremonies 
and empty parade of the Hindoos in reading their 
sacred books. The people were assembled in the 

^ outer apartment of the temple of Ramchundra. 
Several persons were seated on a platform near the 
door beating the tom-torjis, perhaps for the purpose of 

; informing the people, or for calling their attention. 
Within the door four men were stationed with brar 

i zen horns, which produced a grating and most disa- 
greeable noise, which was kept up all the time the 
Pooranic*^ was not engaged in reading. The reader, 
who is a Brahmun, was seated cross-legged (the 
native custom) upon a seat raised about two feet 

* The Hindoos acknowledge four sacred books called Vedes, 
said to be revealed by Bruhma himself. These are the, Rig 
VedCj Yujoos, Samvede, Uihurwun. The first and second treat of 
the rites of the Hindoo religion, of sacrifices, &c. : the third 
contain? prayers and hymns to the gods, &c. : the fourth treats 
of incantations, &c. The Poorans are sacred works and may be 
considered as a fifth V^de. Of these Poorans there are eighteen, 
and comprise the whole body of Hindoo Theology. They treat, 
of the creation, destruction and renovation of the world — the 
genealogies of the gods and heroes, the reigias of the Munoos, &c. 
A Pooranic is a public expounder of the Poorans. 



Severity of the Hindoo laws. 

from the floor. He was dressed in his usual white 
dress, with the addition of a garland of flowers around 
his neck. Before him was a small box, on the top 
of which lay the sacred book, which he read and 
expounded to the people, who wete seated all around 
him. All these were of the Brahmun cast^ as no 
others are holy enough to hear th6 sacred books 
read, much less to touch them. The laws of Munoo 
ordain, that "if a Shoodroo (a man of low cast) 
read the Vede or Pooran to a Brahmun, then the 
magistrate shall heat some bitter oil and pour it into 
the aforesaid Shoodroo's mouth ; if a Shoodroo listen 
to the Shastru, the oil, heated as before, shall be 
poured into his ears, and tin and wax shall be melted 
together, and the orifice of his ears shall be stopped 
therewith." Gentoo Laws, chap. 21, § 7.* 

We approached the door and looked in. No one 
forbade us to listen. This surprised us the more, as 
a Brahmun, a short time previous to this, stopped 
reading and expounding to the people, merely be- 
cause we were within hearing distance of him. After 
the Pooranic had read. and expounded a few sen- 
tences, the trumpeters sounded their trumpetsf with 

* The Bralimuns dare not nowput these laws into force against 
their Shoodroo brethren, and the time is rapidly approaching 
when the Hindoos will despise their sacred books as universally 
and as heartily, as they have been accustomed heretofore to rev- 
erence them. 

t These trumpets were not like the common bugle, but 
straight and wide at the extreme end, like the common speaking 
trumpet; they were, I should judge, about five feet in length. 


Ceremony ended. Returning the Fooran from, the temple. 

a long and leud blast. .This being ended, the people 
arose, and made their offerings to the Pooranic. 
Borne gave a few pice, and others laid down rupees 
upon the table. The Pooranic gave thera in return 
two. or three guavas,* Some of these gnavas, we 
observed, were given to a Brahmun who sat near 
the Pooranic, and by him were again placed upon 
the table, to be given again to other offerers. After 
the reading was finished, the book was carefully 
rolled up J placed upon the small table or box, and 
taken, probably, to the house of the priest. In re- 
turning from the temple, the trumpeters went be- 
fore ; the bearer of the book followed ; next the Poo- 
ranic, and after him a number of those who had 
been listening to him in the temple. Many of these, 
as they moved along at a slow rate, threw parched 
rice as an offering, on the book and on the person 
who carried it. This is a general custom, but what 
the real intent of it is, is rather doubtful. Thus it 
is that these deceivers impose upon the people, who 
are captivated by the show and noise of their empty 
ceremonies. They vainly imagine that the book 
must be very holy, when the priests take such care 
to keep it from the people. It reminds one of the 
conduct of the priests of the Romish Church, in for- 
merly chaining the Bible in the chapel, and even 
now, withholding it from the peo[^e. Hindooism, 
like Popery, flourishes best amidst ignorance and 

* Pa-roo, (psidium pyrifenim), the guava. 


Distributing books. Curiosity of the natives. 

siipei-stition ; but the Gospel advances in proportion 
as it is known and believed. 

On our return to our lodgings, we found a num- 
ber of people waiting for books, besides a multitude 
of boys, among whom we recognised many of those 
whom we saw in the school-room. For nearly 
three hours, we alternately addressed the people and 
distributed books to those who could read. We then 
dismissed the people, telling them to come after din- 
ner, as it was then our dinner-time, and we felt 
fatigued. We dropped the curtain which we had 
suspended before the door of the temple, and re- 
treating behind it, were hid from the gaze of the 
people without. Many of the people remained near 
the temple till five o'clock, when we again began 
to address them and to distribute books. :; 

While at dinner, many of the boys and young 
men endeavoured to satisfy their curiosity to see a 
white man eat his dinner. Some peeped in under 
the curtain, and others over it. The idea of seeing 
a white man sitting on a chair, and eating with a 
knife and fork off a plate, did not exeite their aston- 
ishment more, than their mode of sitting cross-legged 
and helping themselves out of a brass platter with 
their hands did ours, when we first saw the fisher- 
men in their boats on the Hoogley, eating their 
hunible meal. In some instances we feel disposed 
to gratify their curiosity in this matter, but at other 
times it would be rather annoying. 

Dinner being ended, and being rested from the 

IN INDIA* ^ , !#$ 

Ejcpounding tbe Scriptures to the people. 

labours of the morning, we took our seats again in 
the verandah of the temple. As soon as the people 
saw the curtain raised, and that we were seated, - 
they collected around us. After speaking for a 
short time, we adopted the plan of expounding the 
Scriptures to them. The same plan we adopted in 
reading a tract, or part of it, to the people. One of 
us read, and -the other explained the portion read. 
This we found tended very much to fix the atten- 
tion of the people, while it proved to be much easier 
for us. Here again, we found the benefit of two 
being together. During the conversations this after- 
noon, some cavilled, and some joined in controversy, 
but they were, for the most part, civil and attentive. 
When we attempted to give them books, they be- 
came boisterous. Although we frequently assured 
them, that we would give tracts to all who could 
read, and that they must exercise patience till their 
turn came, yet they crowded upon us, and like 
so many children, stretched out their hands, ex- 
claiming, "Here Sahib, here Sahib — give me a 
book." " Give me a big book," says one — " a red 
book," says another ; each kept pushing his neigh-* 
hour just as if there was but one book, and all were 
striving to get it. We continued distributing tracts, 
and conversing with the people till eight o'clock at 
night, when we were compelled to dismiss many 
without tracts, and thus close our Missionary labours 
in Ankola. 
While we were at tea, the Principal of the Gov- 


I " ■ ' ■ -^ — 

Visit from the Government school teacher. 

ernment School, a respectable Brahmun, came to pay 
his salaarUy and apologise for the rude treatment we had 
received from his usher in the morning, and to obtain 
some books. He particularly desired to see the tract 
called " Poonah Discussions," as he had heard that 
the Missionaries at Poonah and some of the Brah- 
muns had had a long discussion on the subject of the 
Christian religion. We gave him a copy of the Dis- . 
cussions, and also a copy of the New Testament, be- 
sides several other tracts, all of which he was glad to 
receive, and promised to read them. Thus we have 
, supplied the boys of the Government School, and the 
teacher with books and tracts, and have spoken the 
words of life to them in such a way, as cannot be 
found fault with. We indulge the hope, that the 
word of God, which this teacher has heard and re- 
ceived, will not be lost upon him and his pupils. 

Among the numerous applicants for books to-day, 
was one class which deserves more particular notice. 
These are the Phurboos (writers) and others employed 
in the Collector's office ; and are principally Brahmuns. 
They called upon us as they were returning from 
theii: office. Their design evidently was to contend 
with us, and to show their skill in the defence of 
Hindooism. They resorted to the usual. modes of 
defence among them. But when the character of 
some of their gods were exposed, they only laughed 
at it. They were quite civil, and behaved with pro- 
priety. They wished to obtain some of our books, 
but their pride or prejudice would not permit them to 

IN INDIA. 155 

Phurboos receive the ScripturiBs. ^ ** Jesus-Christ- men." 

take them from us. Some of the boys present took 
the books from us and gave them la them. After 
satisfying their curiosity in seeing and hearing us, 
and receiving books, they politely made their salaam 
and retired. ■^■v<'-:^::;:^;■■■^■V:-:^■-■;-^^-.■:v^■:::_:;^>^^^^^^ 

We have, to-day conversed, we should judge, with 
nearly five hundred persons at the temple, besides 
those we met with in the town. 

The town of Ankola contains from nine hundred 
to one thousand houses, about one-fourth part of 
which are Brahmuns'. Some of the people, we 
found, had heard something of Christianity, but we 
could not learn that any Missionaries had been here 
before us. Among the people to-day we recognised 
some of those to whom we had given books in Ra- 
joora. And some of the people in Ankola had re- 
ceived tracts from us at Rajoora, having been at the 
fair. "'■ : --' ^--^ ■■."■:>- ''■■-''■\ 

The people in Ankola, as well as in Rajoora, call 
us " Jesus- Christ-men," no doubt from the fact, that 
they hear us make use of the name so frequently. 
In passing along through the stjeets to-day, the 
boys would frequently call out in our hearing, "Jesus 
Christ." The name is yet an offence to many, but 
it shall be the glory of all the earth. 

In coming out of one of the temples to-day into 
the sun, we put on our spectacles. One of the na- 
tives observing it, said in our hearing, "Has not 
God given each of them two eyes ; why then do they 
put on spectacles *?" We made no reply, but mount- 


Encouragement to distribute tracts. 

ed our horses and rode off. As we passed along, 
we saw some reading the tracts we had given them, 
and conversing together about their contents. This 
we have frequently observed in other places. A per- 
son who reads well, generally takes the tract und 
reads, while the others seated around him listen. 
The tract is, as a general thing, read carefully, and 
the reader explains it to the people, according to his 
idea of the meaning of it. If any sentence does not 
appear clear to the hearers or reader, they stop, and 
not unfrequently, have a long conversation about it. 
We were much pleased to find that they are dispos- 
ed even to read the word placed in their hands. Our 
prayer is, that through the reading and preaching of ' 
the word, they may become wise unto salvation. 


Friday, lOth, This morning early we left Ankola 
for Sungumnere, and on our way addressed the peo- 
ple in the villages of Thugau, Kullus, Dhandhu? 
phul, and Cheekulee. Thugau is a small village, con- 
taining only twelve or fifteen houses. Here we 
sat upon our horses and spoke to the few people we 
saw, and after leaving tracts for those who could 
read went on. 

At Kullus we saw a concourse of people at a 
short distance off our road, assembled apparently for 
some religious purpose. On approaching them, we 
found that we had been mistaken in our conjecture. 

IN INDIA. 157 

Indian jugglers at KuUas. 

The fact was, a company of strolling players or jug- 
glers had come to the village, and having assembled 
nearly all the men, women and children in the place, 
were busily engaged in showing them their tricks. 
As we approached the crowd, the women and many 
of the childrea ran off. We told them not to fear, 
as we would not injure them. At our request, the 
horrid and deafening noise of the jugglers' drums 
ceased, and the women returned within hearing dis- 
tance. The following conversation then ensued be- 
tween us and the company. 

Miss. What are you doing here ] ^ 

Hindoo, We are worshipping our gods, (answered 
one of the people). : 

MisSi Who are these 1 (pointing to the jugglers). 

Hind. They are holy men. ^ ^ - 

Miss. What do they do '? 

Hind. They take the name of God, and do his 

work.*- -...■'■;/:■':--■■-■:...; -. ;.:-■. •■...-:. 

Miss. In what way do they^ serve God? ; ■ 

Hind. They go from village to village, to play^ 

dance, sing, ^c. ^ 

Miss. But this is not the work of God, nor the 

way to serve Him. Doing the work of God is to 

obey His commands, and not to play tricks as these 

men do. 

* Devache nam ghana, to take the name of God, is the same 
as invoicing the name of God, and is the usual expression for say- 
ing that a man is worshipping God. 



Conversation with the jugglers. 

Hind, Triie, (said another) but this is the custom. 
They do it to fill their bellies, (i. e. for a support). 

Miss. Have they not hands to work, and are they 
not able to work? God has given them also feet, 
and eyes, and strong bodies, and they are able to 
get a living in some other way. ^ ^ ^^ 

Hind. Yes, that is true ; but God has commanded 
them to fill their bellies in this vtety. Their fate is 
good, and what shall we say*?* ^ 

•Miss. Do you give them any pice? 

Hind. Yes ; they have no other way to get their 

JMiss. How is this, that you (addressing them in- 
dividually) a grey headed old man ; and you too, 
who work hard all day for four or five pice ; and you 
who are naked, and half-starved, take the money 
with which you ought to pay your debts, and give 
to these lazy fellows, who go about deceiving the 
people 1 (The people laughed heartily, which seem- 
ed to displease the jugglers not a little). 

Miss. What have you here? (addressing the jug- 
glers, and pointing to a couple of boxes, made in the 
form of a temple, in which were idols). / : 

* The Hindoos as well as the Mohammedans attribute all 
their situations in life and all their employments to fate, called 
dive by the Hindoos and nasib by the Mohamn^edans. This doc- 
trine of fate, as held by them, is most pernicious in its conse- 
quences, as it prevents them from exerting themselves usefully? 
and is an excuse for their laziness and wickedness. 

IN INDIA. 159 

The Gospel preached to the jugglers and others. 

Jugglers, These are our gods which we carry with 

Miss. Who are ihey 1 ' '. 

Jug. This is Bhuvvanee, and that is Lukshu-^ 
mee,* (pointing to them). 

The characters of these deities were then exposed, 
and the people directed to the Lamb of God, who 
taketh away the sin of the world. They listened 
attentively to all we had to say, and many of them 
approved of the trulh, so far as the mere words of a 
Hindoo in favour of it can be called an approval. 
We also exhorted the tumasha-wallas (show-men) to 
forsake their present evil manner of life, and serve 
the Lord, and then they would obtain happiness 
here and hereafter. They listened to our words, but 
made no reply. Having made known the Gospel to 
these benighted villagers, and having supplied the 
readers with tracts, we went on. 

The show-men kept silence till we Were at a good 
distance from them, when they again began their 
amusements and tricks. These show-men, like 
most of their caste, are from the upper countries of 
Hindoosthan. They travel throughout the length 
and breadth of the land, practising their arts, and 
thus gaining a scanty living from the poor and 
others. It must be dbnfessed, that they are very 
clever in their business, and have been famed all 
over the world for their skill in it. All their tricks 

* Lukshumee is the wife of Vishijoo, q,nd the ffod4e9s of 


•^^ ' '' ■ -■■II ■ -■■■■■ ■ ■■ . . ■ -.!■ ■ . I- — ^MM II I m 111^^^-^— I ■ I ti;, 

- The emplojrments of the jugglers. 

are performed in day light, and open to the view of 
all the people. Their legerdemain tricks are so 
cleverly done, that few, if any, are able to tell how 
they have been deceived. When a company of 
these tumasha-w alias comes into a village, (for they 
always go in companies), one or two commence beat- 
ing a tom-tom in some public place, which is the 
signal for the people to collect. When a few have 
assembled, they begin (heir tricks, hiaving taken the 
precaution to throw down a few pice on the ground, 
as an intimation to the people of what they expect 
from them. Should not this plan succeed, they are 
not slow to solicit something from the people. Those 
of them who carry idols about with them, do so for 
the double purpose of praying to them, and of work- 
ing the more effectually upon the superstitious feel- 
ings of the people. These fellows to-day, had Bhu- 
wanee, the wife of Sheve, in her pacific form, which 
they worship as their protectress ; and Lukshumee, 
the goddess of wealth, which they worship for the 
sake of gain. The people, generally, turn out to see 
what is going on, and as they all agree, that these 
men are following the. work to which God has ap- 
pointed them, they feel disposed to cast in their mite 
lowards their support. Many of those who give, are 
by no means able to do so ; but custom is every thing 
with them. 

IN INDIA. 161 

An impostor from Benares. 


At Dlian-dhu-phuLwe stopped during the heat of 
the day, and for dinner. Here we had an exempli- 
fication of another mode of deceiving and robbing the 
people. This was in the person of a religious men- 
dicant from Benares. He w^as the most impudent 
one of the kind, without exception, that we have 
yet met. He had been going about among the peo- 
ple for days before our arrival, telling them marvel- 
lous and lying tales of what he had seen and done, 
and could do. As he had been at the river Ganges, 
and had bathed in its streams, and had a bottle of 
the water then .with him, he, like Simon Magus of 
old, " gave out that he himself was some great one, 
to whom they all gave heed, from the least to the 
greatest, saying. This man is the great power of 
God." This deceiver of souls made the people be- 
lieve that he was now perfectly holy; that he had 
power to forgive them all their sins, if they would 
but take him for their gooroo, (spiritual guide), and 
feed and pay him for his trouble ; and that they need 
give themselves no concern about their final salva- 
tion, if they would but leave that matter with him. 
The cheapness and the ease of obtaining final hap- 
piness, in the way this deceiver proposed, did not 
fail to get him some followers to fill his belly, if not 
his jmrse.^ We told the people, in his presence, that 

The tkaUee (a purse tied round the waist) of the Hindoos- 
O* ' 


The poor cripple. Want of proper feeling towards the poor. 

he was a liar and a deceiver of the people, and that 
80 far from being able to save others, he would, 
if he did not repent of his evil ways, go down to hell 
himself. We warned the people and him of their 
danger, and pointed out to them the only way of 
salvation through the Lord Jesus Christ. The peo- 
ple were glad to hear us condemn the impostor, but 
he, of course, was not well pleased. He went away 
in a rage, and fearful, no doubt, that our influence 
might hurt his craft among the people. 

After this impostor had gone from the temple 
where we stopped, a poor crazed and maimed crea- 
ture, who could only drag himself about on his hands 
and knees, approached us in a state of perfect nu- 
dity. He had heard that two Sahibs had arrived in 
the village, and with much exertion, called to soli- 
cit charity. He was truly a deserving object, and 
to him we gave some money, of which he no doubt 
stood in great need. The parents of this poor man 
are dead, and he has no relatives to look after him, or 
who take any care of him. What is worse, there are 
none who afford him a shelter, and none who give 

thanee people, and the pishwee of the Mahrattas are similar to the 
(Za»y*) zona, of the Greeks. It is merely one of their garments, 
•which consists of several yards of cloth, and which is wrapped 
round their loins to support them in travelling, and to cover them 
when they lie down. The money, any person may carry about 
him, is wrapped up in one end of this cloth, either the inner end 
for security, or the outer end for the sake of convenience. This 
custom illustrates the word Zav«t, Matthew x. 9 : " Provide 
neither gold, nor silver nor brass in your purses.'* 

IN INDIA. 163 

Doctrine of fate, and its influence. 

him even a refuse garment to cover him. He seeks 
a shelter from the rain and the cold where he can 
find it, and crawls about from door to door to solicit a 
morsel from the ungrateful villagers ; and even this 
they give grudgingly. But let one of these sturdy 
beggars arrive in the village, with his face smeared 
over with gundhy* his hair long and dishevelled, in 
his hand a tri'shool,-f or a dzoleeX over his shoul- 
der, and let him go from door to door crying out 
Ram^ Ram, or Bruhm-a-devy (that is, the name of 
their god Ram or Bruhm) and no doubt he will soon 
get his wallet filled with rice and vegetables, which 
even the pooiest seldom fail to bestow. The cir- 
cumstances of these two persons are wholly different, 
but with the Hindoos, the difference is in favour of 
the latter. This poor man is deprived of reason and 
tlie means of support by the righteous, and mysteri- 
ous dispensations of Providence, which the Hindoos 
construe into the displeasure of God, for the sins 
committed by that person in a former state of exist- 
ence. It is then his fate to be so, and as there can 
be but little, if any merit, in their view, in giving to 
such a person, they give but sparingly, and even that 
little grudgingly. The other comes to them in full 
health, and for righteousness' sake, as he says, hav- 

* A sacred ointment made of sandal wood, tunneric, safl5x>n, 

i The tri-shool is the three pointed spear or trident of 
Sheve, and is carried by beggars of a certain caste. 

X The dzolee is a wallet, used by beggars for the reception of 
such offerings as the people may present to them. 


The doctrine of merit among the Hindoos. 

ing left all worldly business, and having turned 
beggar, (or, to use the language of the people, hav- 
ing become a holy man, whose business now is to 
repeat the name of some imaginary god, and live 

^ upon alms) he demands from the people a support. 
The people give, and give willingly, through the 
double motive of fear and interest. If any should 
refuse to give, this holy man (falsel}^ so called) pro- 
nounces such a volley of curses upon t.hem as to 
make them quake with fear. To escape the im- 
pending storm, they are glad to give something, and 
get rid of their annoyer. When they do give, the 
amount is put down to their credit, and they hope to 

* receive a quantum of merit in proportion to the 
amount of rice or money given.* 

Itisfi'omthisfeeling, principally, that many wealthy 
Hindoos have given their money for the purpose of 
erecting temples^ digging tanks, «J*c. The idea of ob- 
taining merit by making good roads, seenis never 
to have entered their heads, and hence it is, that the 

* Some of these beggars carry with them a piece of iron, made 
in the shape of a pair of tongs. When they present themselves 
before the door of any Hindoo's house, they throw their wallets 
down on the ground, and having called^ the attention of the people 
within to their being present, commence beating themselves 
with their tongs. If those within should refuse to give them 
any thing, they depart, venting their curses upon them, and de- 
claring that God will inflict on them as many strokes as they 
have upon their own bodies. 

Another class of beggars go about playing on various instru- 
ments of music, whick they accompany with their voices. They 
generally play until they get something ; never any longer. 

IN INDIA. 165 

Conversation with a Grooroo. 

Hindoos never make any good ones. As they them- 
selves never bestow their money, or do any thing 
without the hope of reward, so they think no one 
else does. We have frequency been told, that we 
have left our country and friends to travel about 
among the people for the sake of poonya, religious 
merit. To assert the contrary is of little use, as 
they cannot conceive how it is, that a man should 
do so, through benevolence towards them, and love 
to the Saviour. "The love of Christ constraineth 
us," said Paul, but of such a motive the Hindoos are 
as yet perfectly ignorant. May we and others feel 
more and more of this love of Christ constraining us, 
to do good unto all men, as opportunity may be 
afforded us. 


Before leaving Dhanduphul, we had a conversa- 
tion with a Brahmun, whom the people introduced 
to us as the gooroo*" of the village. The following is 
the substance of our conversation. 

Miss. (Addressing the Gooioo) Are you the Goo- 
roo of this village 1 * 

Gooroo. Yes. 

M. What is the character of a Gooroo, or what 
qualifications should he have according to your 
Shastrul " ^ 

* The Gooroo is a religious teacher; one who instructs in the 
ShastrUj &c. 


Conversation with the Gooroo continued. 

G. One who bathes, takes the name of God, reads 
the Shastru, &c., &c. 

•/Jf* Is it not written that he, to whom the people 
should flee for refuge and dehverance from sin, must 
be sinless^* 

G, That is true. 

•M. Are you then sinless? 

G. Yes. 

M. What is sin. v 

G. (Made no answer). 

•M. Is not sin a transgression of the law of God 1 

G Yes. - . . 

M, Have you not transgressed that law 1 
} G. No. - 

J\I. Then either you or your Shastru is wrong in 
this thing, and perhaps both. 

O. What is God's law ? 

•M"._The rule for the regulation of our conduct 
towards Him, and all people, which He hath given 
us. Do you know what God's law requires of you 1 

G, Yes : to bathe, read the Shastru, &c., &c. 

M. Has God given to man no other commands 1 

G. No; 

M. If a drunkard, a liar, a thief, a slanderer, a 

* It is an interesting fact, that the Hindoo Shastru admits 
that Bijugud-gooroo, that is, a teacher for the whole world, is ne- 
cessary, and that this teacher must be absolutely sinless. On 
this point the Christian Missionary is able to confound the Hin- 
doo, from his own books, and to direct him to the true Teacher, 
who indeed taketh away the sins of the world. 

IN INDIA. 167 

The Grooroo silenced. 

fornicator, or any evil man, should bathe every day, 
would he be holy ? • 

G. No ; he would be a sinner. 

M. Well said. Then all these things are sins, 
and have you never been guilty of any of thena 1 

G. I now do a great many good works. 

M. Have you never told lies ; cheated your neigh- 
bour; been covetous, or 1 

G, I am now holy, and have made an atonement 
fo^r all that I have done amiss. 

tM No matter : did you never commit these sinsT 
Speak; or the people will think you have. 

G. (He here laughed and said) Yes, many times. 

M. That is enough. The people now under- 
stand from your own lips that you have told lies, 
cheated your neighbour, are covetous, and have done 
many evil things, and of course you can be no true 
Gooroo. You need a Gooroo to pardon your own 
sins, and to teach you the true way, and how, then, 
can you pardon the sins of others, or direct them in 
the way you know not 1 

The people, as well as the Gooroo, felt the force 
of the remarks we made, and saw that man could not 
save them. We then gave them an account of the 
creation of man ; the fall ; and the only way of sal- 
vation through the Lord Jesus Christ. They all lis- 
tened attentively, and there was not one found to 
cavil, or oppose any more what w^e said. They 
truly listened with interest, and we would hope that 
the truth will not be wholly lost upon them. May 


A comfortable lodging. Mr Dent's residence. 

:-''■'-:-. ■■ ■■ — ' — > — ■ 

the word of God, sown here in much weakness, be 
raised in power. We distributed tracts to all who 
could read. In the evening we rode to Sungumnere. 
The village of Cheekulee, through which we 
passed, is small. We stopped a few minutes, and 
addressed the people, and gave away a few tracts. 
Tliere are no schools in the villages of Toogau, KuU 
lus or Cheekulee. 


Saturday, Wth. We reached this place last night ; 
and through the kindness of Mr Dent, whom we saw 
at Ankola, took possession of his bungalow, where 
we are now comfortably situated, and shall remain 
till Monday morning. This bungalow is located in 
a retired spot, about half a mile south of the town, 
and over the Sungumnere river. It is surrounded by 
a grove of large trees, which affords a pleasant shade. 
It is truly pleasant, once more to be in a house which 
affords accommodations such as we have been ac- 
customed to, instead of having to lie down in houses 
kept hot by the breath of cows ; or in chowdies, ren- 
dered filthy by the stock of bugs left in them by the 
different natives who stop in them. A Missionary, 
compelled to travel from village to village for the sake 
of these wanderers from God, and to take up with such 
accommodations as he mayfind in a native hut, under 
a tree, or on an open boat, exposed to the damps and 
dews of the night, knows well how to prize such ac- 

IN INDIA. 169 

Visiting in Sungumnere. 

commodations as we now enjoy, where he can 
read and meditate, and serve God in the more pri- 
vate acts of devotion, without molestation, and 
without exposure to the gaze of those who fear not 
God, nor reverence his Sabbaths. 

This morning, after breakfast, we took some books 
with us, and went into the town with the hope of 
addressing the people, and of distributing books 
among them. Having fixed upon an ehgible place, 
we sat down in the bazar, and beckoned to the peo- 
ple to come to us. At first they seemed somewhat 
backward, not knowing what to think of two Sahibs 
sitting down in the verandah of a native house, in 
the bazar, unattended by a lot of servants. It was 
not long, however, till we had enough, and more 
than enough, around us. Those who were near us, 
pretended to hear, and to be interested in knowing 
what we had to say ; but their hypocrisy was too 
glaring to be concealed. Those at a distance said 
they wished to hear, and began to push those before 
them, so that we were likely to fare the worst in the 
fray. To prevent being crushed, we arose and placed 
ourselves in the attitude of defence. We should 
have been glad to see some of the leaders in this 
business well caned for their insolence, for they 
richly deserved it; but prudence, and the good of 
the cause, prevented us from returning evil for evil. 
We endeavoured to reason with the people, and to 
show them the impropriety of acting so rudely. As 
we could not do any good by talking with them upon 


A scene of confusion in Sungumnera. A happy escape. 

the subject of religion, we hoped to do some good by 
distributing tracts among them, and told them that 
if they would be quiet, we would distribute the tracts 
we had with us among them. Some answered 
"Very well, give, give." As soon as we reached 
out our hands to give one away, there was a general 
rush upon us, and a shout of " Give, Sahib ; give, 
Sahib." We found use now for our canes to thin 
the crowd around us, and to give us room to retreat. 
We then told them that we would not give a single 
tract to any body, at present, but if they would come 
to the house of Mr Dent, we would give to all who 
could read. After some delay and pushing through 
the crowd, we reached our horses, which we mounted 
and rode off. As soon as we started, men and boys 
set up a shouting, and hissing, and clapping of 
hands, which was any thing but pleasant to our 
ears, or honourable to them. We made the best use 
of our time in getting away from the mob, and re- 
turning to our lodgings, resolved to go out no more 
among the people. Those in this village whom we 
encountered to-day are, without exception, the most 
impudent, ill-bred and uncivil, of any Hindoos we have 
yet met with. What they would have done to us is 
hard to say, if we had stayed any longer ; but when 
we saw the storm arise, prudence dictated to us that 
we needed a shelter, and that no time should be lost 
in seeking it. 

There had been no Missionary in Sungumnera 
before our arrival ; but the people had heard of the 

IN INDIA. 171 

Opposition to the truth. An insolent Hindoo. The vain boy. 

Missionaries from individuals, who had seen them 
at Ahmednuggur, and Poonah, and Nassick; and 
had learned something about Christ from a few tracts 
they had received from these places. They had not 
heard or learned enough about Christianity to un- 
derstand it, but had learned enough about it to cause 
them to hate it. --v v.- -■■:;■■,■■■■■;; ■•- ■: ;.:.:v-^...;V ;■ :, 

This evening, about four o'clock, a number of 
men and boys called upon us to get books, as they 
said ; but from the behaviour of some of them, we 
perceived that their object was to make a disturb- 
ance. The chief speaker was a most ill-bred, vile 
fellow. As soon as we discovered his character, we 
ordered him to be silent, as he was disgracing him- 
self and his companions. He attempted to speak 
several times afterwards, while we were engaged in 
conversing with others, but he was forced to keep 
silence. He exhibited no shame for his improper 

While conversing with the people, a little boy 
about twelve years of age raised his voice, and with 
a grave countenance, said, " It is right to worship 
idols, it is so commanded in the BhaguwuV^^ When 
we came to give away tracts to the people, we found 
that this boy could not even read. When we asked 
him how it happened that he could know what is 
contained in the Bhaguwut, when he could not 

* The Bhagutout, is one of the eighteen Foorans in use among 
the Hindoos. 


An argument for idolatry. The need of the. Spirit. 

even read, he retired ashamed, while the rest laughed 
at him not a httle. 

An aged Brahmun was asked to day, " How is it 
that the Brahmuns of Sungumnere, who profess to 
be wise and knowing men, can bow down to a stone, 
which they call God 1" ^ 

Brah. The idol is only used as a help to worship the 
true God. The poor people are so ignorant that 
they cannot worship the true God, except by the help 
of idols. 

This answer led to other remarks, and a conversa- 
tion of nearly an hour's length ensued, which ended 
as it began, the Brahmun not being convinced of 
his error, nor we made the wiser by his statements 
in favour of idolatry. We often feel, when convers- 
ing with the Hindoos, the truth of a remark made 
by one Jew, who opposed Christianity, when con- 
versing wnth another, who attempted to convince 
him of its truth. " You can't convert me ; none but 
God Almighty can convert a Jew." So it is ; none 
but God can bring these idolaters to see the beauty 
and excellency of the Christian religion, and con- 
strain them to embrace it from the heart. Paul may 
plant, and ApoUos may water in vain, unless the Lord 
give the increase ; but if Paul plant not, and Apol- 
los water not, it cannot be expected that God will 
give any increase. 

Sabbath, llth. During the whole of this day the 
people were coming to us for books. At nine o'clock 
we called together, as our practice is, all those in our 

IN INDIA. 173 

Family prayer in the presence of the natives. 

service for prayers ; the people without were invited 
to Gome into the house ; many of them did so. A 
portion of Scripture was read and expounded in their 
hearing, and afterwards prayer was offered up to God 
for his blessing upon us and upon the Hindoos gene- 
rally. Many of the people, and indeed the most of 
them, looked on with astonishment at our simple mode 
of worshipping God, so different fiom the noisy, and 
sometimes, pompous way in which they worship their 
idols. As they were in the house of an European, 
they did not act uncivilly. Many of them had an 
opportunity to-day, for the first time, of seeing the 
mode in which a Christian worships God. We hope 
the impression made upon them will have a happy 
influence. After talking to the people till about 
twelve o'clock, we distributed tracts among them 
and dismissed them, telling them to come again after 
dinner. In distributing the tracts, we found consi- 
derable difficulty from the great and childish impa- 
tience of the people to get tracts. When a book was 
handed out to one, there were often twenty hands 
stretched out to receive it. On all sides we heard the 
words " Give me one;" "Here, Sahib, give me one; 
not that one, a red one ;" "Give me a yellow one," 
alluding to the colour of the paper cover of the tracts. 
We endeavoured to satisfy them with just such 
colours as they desired. Some of them, on open- 
ing the tracts they received, found that some of 
the leaves had been turned down when the edges 
were cut, and considering this a great defect, they 


— " ^ 

Desire of the people for tracts. ConverBation with a Brahmun. 

returned them, and demanded others. Sometimes 
the colour of the cover was a little defaced, these too 
were returned and given to others who were less parti- 
cular about the appearance of the tract. Some of them 
wished to have a large book, others wished to have 
two or three more, saying that their friends, who were 
absent, would be glad to have them; others, who 
could not read themselves, said that some of the fa- 
mily could. Little boys, who could read the J[Iord, 
or the written character, but not the Balbad^ or 
printed character, wished tracts, promising to learn 
to read ; there were so many pleas made to get tracts, 
that it was difficult to know how to act so as to make 
the best use of the tracts we had with us. We sup- 
plied them with tracts of the colours they vvished, 
and as often as we could, of the size also, hoping that 
they may be disposed to read what is contained in 
the books they were so anxious to receive. As there 
could be no harm in complying with the whims of 
the people in this thing, we did so. 

While answering some of the objections of the 
Hindoos, after dinner to-day, and especially their 
favourite one, that all religions are equally good for 
the persons who follow them, and that God has given 
these different religions to different people, an aged 
Brahmun, who sat by, spoke out aloud, saying, 
" You are deceiving the people ; we do not do so." 

* The Ballad is the Sungskrit character, and the one in which 
most of the Mahratta books are written ; the 7Hord is the common 
business character, and wholly different from the other. 

IN INDIA. 175 

A serious charge against us answered. 

Miss. What do you say] speak again. 

Brah. You are deceiving the people. 

Miss. What is the proof of that 1 v 

Bmh. You declare that the Hindoo religion is 
false — you go about from place to place giving books 
to the people for nothing — and you endeavour to 
turn the people from the religion of their fathers. 
You are deceivers. ' 

Miss. Do we force the people to hear us, or to 
take our books? Do they not come of their own ac- 
cord, as you have done, to hear us, and to ask for 
books, and should we refuse to give them? 

JBrah. No; but you say our religion is false. 

Miss. Do we travel at your expense— do we eat 
your bread — 1 ■i/'-^-^'^'r-:^^:^::?:^::^'-^ 

Brah. No matter, the government pays you. 

Miss. No, no; you are wrong. The government 
gives us no pay, nor do we deceive the people ; but 
you and all the Brahmuns do deceive the poor. — 
Hear and we shall tell you. (What does he say 1 
says one). . 

Miss. We say that the Brahmuns deceive the peo- 
ple, and they do it this way. They say that they 
are wise people, and all the other Hindoos are fool- 
ish and ignorant; that these ignorant people can 
not serve the spiritual God, and therefore idols are 
necesssary for them. The poor people believe them 
and buy idols. The Brahmuns tell them that they 
are of no use unless a Brahmun says a muntru (an 
incantation) and thus calls the god into the idol.. 


■I . ' ^ * " ■». 

Conversation continued. ; i,: - 

The poor people must pay the Brahmun for his 
muntru, that is, for muttering a few words, which 
no body understands, over a stone or bit of clay. 
The Brahmuns tell the people that they (the Brah- 
muns) are sprung from the mouth of Bruhma, 
and the others from his body or his feet, and that 
the Brahmuns are of coursemore excellent than any 
of the others. They also tell the people that they 
must not read the Shastrus, but must believe just 
what they tell them, and thus, they say there are 
many things in the Shastrus which are not there. 
They tell them that the Brahmuns are gods, and 
that the poor should worship them — that the Brah- 
muns can forgive sins, and can save the people, if 
they will pay them for it, but will not instruct the 
people or do any thing without mone5^ This proves 
that they are covetous, and you all know what your 
Shastru says about covetousness. This is what the 
Brahmuns do. On the contrary, we, having heard 
that the covetous Brahmuns deceive the people, have 
left our country and our friends, and have come into 
this hot climate, and travel about to instruct the peo- 
ple and to give them books, and to tell them of the 
only Saviour of sinners, and ask nothing from them 
for all we do. We injure no one, and take no man's 
money, and eat no man's food without paying him 
for it. Does this look like deceiving the people? 

The Brahmun kept silent, and engaged no more 
in his angry and boisterous talk, while the people 
approved of what we said. This seemed to incline 

IN INDIA. 117 

Subterfuges of Idolaters. 

the people to be a little more attentive, and then the 
plan of salvation was fully made known to them. 

The Biahmuns here contended more earnestly, 
and sometimes angrily, for the religion of their 
fathers, than any we had yet encountered. 

After listening to the account we gave of the 
mode in which the Brahmuns deceived the people, 
one and another constantly interrupted us by ques- 
tions which had no bearing upon the points discuss- 
ed ; as for example, when speaking of the character 
of God as being holy, just, &c. "How do you 
know," says one ; " did you ever see God*?" " Where 
does God live ?" " What form has He T &c. 

When pressed on the absurdity of worshipping a 
stone, one of the company replied, " We do not wor- 
ship the stone^ but the god which is in the stone." 

Miss. How is it, we asked, that God is in one 
stone, and not in another ? And how is it that some- 
times you say that God is every where and in every 
thing, and in every stone, of course, but still you do 
not worship every stone 1 You do not go round every 
stone, bow down before it, and kiss it, as you do some. 
V How is this? 

Brah. God is brought into the stone by means of 
the muntru.'.'^"- '•■'■■'■' ■^ ''-r'-'- ■}-^'''^-\''^-':-- ^<^ ^ %-■■<- ::/^- 

Miss. Is God, then, subject to the muntru 1* 

Brah. Yes. 

Miss. To whom is the muntru subject] 

* The mtintru is an incantation, a chaTm or spell. 


Gods subject to the Brahmuns. A shlok to prove the Brahmun's power. 

Brah. The Brahmuns. 

Miss, And is Grod subject to the Brahmuns 1 

BraL Yes. 

Miss. Will the Brahmuns say the muntru with- 
out being paid for it 1 ^^^ ^^^ 

. Brah. No. (This he said not seeing the point of 
the questions proposed.) 

Miss. Then it appears that your god cannot be 
brought into the stone without money. Your god 
appears to be subject to money 1 

Brah. You cannot understand these things — but 
the Brahmuns do. 

Miss. The Brahmuns understand well how to de- 
ceive the people, and to get their pice for muttering 
muntrus which are of no use to them. 

There is a shlok* (a verse) in Sungskrit, which is 
often quoted by the Brahmuns on this subject, and 
upon this our questions were founded. The shlok 
is this: 

Devadheen jugut surwum, 
Muntradhenuch divatum ; 
Tun muntro Brahmunadhenum, 
Brahmuno mum-u-divatum. 

The world is subject to God, 
God is subject to the Muntru, 
: ; The Muntru is subject to the Brahmuna, 
Therefore the Brahmun is my God, 

* A Brahmun quotes the Sungskrit shloks as authority for his 
opinions, just as a Christian would quote a verse firom the Bible, 
m support of the doctrine he may advance. 

IN INDIA. 179 

Conrersations with the people. 

When this is quoted by a Brabmun in the hearing 
of others, they all submit to it as being of divine au- 
thority, and acknowledge the Brahmun's power. 
We generally push this mode of reasoning in a cir- 
cle one step further, viz. the Brahmuns are influ- 
enced by money (subject to it) therefore the world is 
subject to pice. This shows the people the absurd- 
ity of the Brahmun's claims, and the discourse on 
this point generally ends in a hearty laugh from the 
people, and in the rage of the Brahmun. 

After this, one of the company said that their goo- 
roos can take away sin. He was answered, " That 
cannot be ; your gooroos are sinful men, like your- 
selves, and how can they pardon sin?" 

Hind. They obtain great merit by the performance 
of good works? ■ -- 

J^Iiss. What good works do they perform ? We 
have seen a great many of these pretended saviours, 
but have never seen them engaged in any good 
works. They only eat, drink, smoke, cover them- 
selves with ashes, and sleep as other men. We 
can't see what good works they perform. 

Hind. (Another replies) A gooroo's work is known^ 
to his disciples : how then should you know it ? 

JUiss. But the tree is known by its fruits. If a 
gooroo does good works, all the people can see them. 

Hind. They call upon God, beg, &c. 

JUiss. They beg because they are too lazy to work. 
There is no merit in being lazy. (Here the poor 
people expressed their approbation of what we said 


Preaching. Reflections. 

by a laugh, which silenced our opponent for the 
time.) This man being now silenced, we went on 
to make known to them the Gospel, until interrupted 
again by some one. v v 

Before distributing books among them, this after- 
noon, we separated the people ; one of us taking 
the men and the other the boys : and after address- 
ing them separately, we supplied them all with 
tracts, and portions of the Scriptures, and dismissed 
them. The people refused to go away while they 
saw us at the door, so we retired. After many fruit- 
less attempts to get us out again, they dispersed. 

After the people had gone away, we took a walk 
in the fields adjoining the house, for the purpose of 
retirement from the crowd, with which we had been 
surrounded nearly all day, and for the sake of rest. 
We walked to a considerable distance from the 
house, and sat down upon the ground to admire the 
works of God, which are all good and beautiful, and 
to talk over the scenes of the day. The setting sun 
reminded us of our duty, and of our end, and we 
could not but breathe forth the prayer, that when the 
work of our day on earth should be ended, our sun 
might set in smiles, and that our rest might be in the 
eternal employment of all our powers in the service 
of God on high. The sun sets here, as in our na- 
tive land, glorious indeed ; and our thoughts ascend 
to God as soon, for He is ever nigh unto those who 
fear Him. For a moment we seemed to forget that 
we were in a heathen land, but soon the weary 

IN INDIA. 181 

Description of Sungumnere. 

shepherd, driving his flock of black sheep before him, 
and the grating sound of the horns and drums of a 
small party, who were proceeding to a neighbouring 
temple, awoke us from our reverie, and told us that 
we are still far, far from the land of our fathers — the 
temples of Jehovah, and amid a people of a strange 
tongue, who worship and serve the creature more 
than the Creator. ' 

On our way back we called at the temple, and 
there again made known to these deluded idolaters, 
the most of wliom were women, the only way of 
access to God the Father, and the only way of ob- 
taining happiness beyond the grave. May the Lord 
bless the labours of this day, and the word spoken, 
and the books distributed among the people, and to 
His name be all the praise. 

Sungumnere is a large town, containing six thou- 
sand houses, of which two thousand are Brahmun 
dwellings. It is situated on the bank of the river 
Poira, which at this season of the year contains but 
little water. The market seemed to be well stocked, 
and many of the houses look well. There are sere- 
ral native schools in this place, besides the one under 
the auspices of the Bombay Education Society. A 
large proportion of the people are taught to read. 
The temples here are numerous, the precise nunaber 
we could not learn. Like all the villages where the 
influence of the Brahmuns is much felt, the people, 
and even the lads feel their fancied superiority over 
others, and are wholly given to idolatry. As yet we 


Mr Dixon robbed. 

have not been molested by any of the people, though 
we feared they would have injured us yesterday. 

Mr Dixon, of the Church Mission, stationed at 
Nassick, and who is on a tour at present, has met 
with a worse reception than we have. At a village 
about forty miles to thehorth of us, two ruffians entered 
the room while he was asleep, plundered him of his 
money and part of his clothing, and used violence to 
his person. He was compelled to return to Nassick. 
Mr Dent informed us that forty men are now out in 
search of the robbers, but it is doubtful whether they 
will overtake them or not. 

These are some of the people whom a certain 
preacher, in his great zeal for Missionaries going as 
the apostles of Christ, without purse, &c., among 
the heathen, represented as being so kind and tender- 
hearted that a Missionary should go forth among 
them destitute of nearly every thing, and depend upon 
them for all he might need. We believe the day will 
come when the Hindoos, too, will rejoice to see the 
ministers of Christ coming among them, and will 
also feel a delight in aiding the cause of the Re- 
deemer ; but at present, with only a few exceptions, 
they are the enemies of the cross of Christ, and un- 
til a great change shall take place among them, it 
will be needful to follow the command of Christ, as 
recorded by Luke, rather than the fancies of man : 
** And he said unto them (his disciples). When I sent 
you without jwr^c, and scrip, and shoes, lacked ye 
any thing*? And they said. Nothing. Then said he 

IN INDIA. 183 

Leave Sungumnere for Tamberee. 

unto them, But now he that hath a. purse, let him 
take it, and likewise his scrip, and he that hath no 
sword, let him sell his garment and buy one." 


Monday, \Sth. We left Sungumnere early this 
morning, for the village of Tamberee. On our way 
we stopped at the village of Jowur.* Leaving Jo- 
wur, we came to the village of Aswee. The temple 
in this place, where we stopped, was kept by a poor 

* This is a small village, and contains bat few inhabitants. 
Finding a pleasant shade near a temple by the road side, we stop- 
ped there, and invited the people to come to us. About ten or 
twelve men drew near. With these we had a short, but inter- 
esting conversation on the subject of Christianity. The men 
had never heard of Christ before, and the whole subject was 
strange news to them. They listened with great attention, and 
apparent reverence, while we told them of Jesus ._ It did our 
hearts good to find in this small village so many who seemed glad 
to bear of a better way of being saved than by trusting to idols, 
after having met with so much opposition the day before. Al- 
though we cannot say that those who hear us without cavilling, 
are any more inclined to embrace the gospel than those who op- 
pose it bitterly, still we are cheered to obtain their attention to the 
word of the Lord, although their affections may still be on their 
idols. After days of opposition from the heathen, we feel that 
we need something to cheer us, and the Lord grants us what 
is needful to keep us from desponding. And while we endea- 
vour to " cry aloud and spare not," and to lift up our voices like 
trumpets, and to show the people their transgressions, still, with 
the prophet, we are constrained to ask the saddening questions, 
" Who hath believed our report .'' and to whom is the arm of the 
Lord revealed ?" 


The heathen sell their gods. An interesting case. 

widow. When we were about coming away, she 
asked alms of us. We felt unwilling to give her any 
money, as a mere matter of charily, lest the people 
should say that we had given it to her in conse- 
quence of her being the attendant upon the temple, 
and should say that we honoured the idols. Observ- 
ing that she had a number of idols of stone, of one 
kind, we bargained with her for some of these, which 
we obtained without difficulty. We explained to 
lier the reasons of our doing so, and the use we wish- 
ed to make of the idols ; and after exhorting her to 
seek the favour of God in the way appointed, and to 
renounce idolatry, we left her. In this village we 
met with but few people. To these we made known 
the- Gospel of Christ, and gave tracts to all who 
could read. Before leaving the village of Aswee, a 
man from the village of Jowur called upon us for 
books. He had been absent while we stopped in 
Jowur, but coming home immediately after our de- 
parture, and learning from his neighbours that we 
had been there, and had given them books, he lost 
'no time in following us to the next village, where 
he supposed he would find us. We gave him a sup- 
ply for himself, and about a dozen of tracts and por- 
tions of the Scriptures for his acquaintances in the 
country, who, he said, could read. The man seem- 
ed quite rejoiced in having overtaken us, and having 
obtained the tracts ; and we were not less rejoiced in 
the opportunity of giving the word of God to one 
who was rejoiced to receive it. 

IN INDIA. 185 

A Hindoo who worships the invisible Grod. 


Leaving Aswee, we came to Tamberee, and put 
up in a dirty chowdey. We observed the bugs in 
the chinks of the wall, and some on the floor. 
These tormentors are always to be found in a chow- 
dey, where the native travellers lodge at night. On 
our arrival, we found a Brahmun had possession. 
He, however, soon left the place, and took up his 
lodgings for the night in the house of a Brahmun in 
the village, thus leaving us the whole of the chow- 
dey, which was none too large. Tamberee contains 
about forty houses. It has been a walled town* 
The wall now is quite broken down, and forms a 
heap of rubbish around the village. An old man in 
this village came to us for books : he said he had 
cast off his idols many years ago, and would worship 
them no more. "What, then, do you worship," 
w« asked, " since you have cast off your idols 1" 
« I worship," he said, " the J^erakar,^^ that is, the 
immaterial, or spiritual being, " and wish a book 
which will tell me about the invisible God." What 
the real feelings of this man were, we know not, but 
we were glad to tell him of the true God, and the 
way of salvation through Him, and also to supply 
him with books. There is no school in this village : 
we found but few readers. 


Mode of worshipping the idols., 


Tuesday, \4th. After breakfast, rode to Chin- 
choora, about five or six miles, through a hot sun. 
We stopped during the heat of the day in a chow- 
dey, which is occupied by a few men, who carry the 
mail part of the way on the route from Ahmednug-j 
gur to Nassick. In one corner of the building stands 
au idol of Hunooman, very much defaced, but still 
worshipped. Here we saw one of the men go 
through the whole ceremony of worshipping his 
monkey god. He first made the gundh, then washed 
his body. This being ended, he poured water over 
the idol of Hunooman, and over the lingum, and the 
stone ox, which stood by. He then stood erect be- 
fore the idol, with his hands clasped, for two or three 
minutes, repeating some prayers, the words of which 
we could not hear. He next bowed down before it 
— then circumambulated it three or four times-— 
kissed the idol — anointed its head, and that of the 
ox and the lingum, with the gundh already prepared. 
This being ended, he bowed again before it, and after 
applying gundh to his forehead, ears, breast and arms, 
he retired, to give place to another of the company, 
who was preparing to go through the same useless 

After witnessing the whole of the service, we asked 
them questions on the subject. To all of these they 
gave ready answers. Having got from their own 

m INDIA. 187 

Interview with the priest of the Tillage. 

lips a Statement of their belief, we endeavoured to 
show them the folly of idolatry, and especially of 
worshipping such an ugly idol as the one before us, 
which was nothing more than a rude stone covered 
with clay, in such a way as to give it the appearance 
of a monkey. Part of the clay had fallen off, and 
now only the upper part of the animal, with a bit of 
the tail, appears. Still it was considered a very good 
god by these poor deluded beings; and as such they 
worshipped it. After endeavouring to convince them 
that the gods they were worshipping were lifeless 
and useless, we told them of the way of salvation 
through the Lord Jesus Christ. 

A number of people assembled before the door to 
see and to hear us. Being weary, one of us sat 
down upon the ox, and addressed the people. Some 
of them smiled, but one with a serious countenance 
said, '* Sahib reproaches our gods." The majority 
of the people seemed to have but little regard for the 
idols in this place. 

Directly opposite this chowdey, lives the priest of 
the village. We called to see him. Ajs he had just 
finished cleansing his house, he would not allow us 
to enter it, but/ politely made a seat for us in the 
verandah. We sat down, and asked him to show us 
his gods. After some hesitation, he complied with 
our request. ^ He threw off his shoes, washed his 
feet and hands, and, while repeating a prayer, brought 
out of their apartments the idols of Ramchundru, (the 
seventh incarnation of Vishnoo) and his wife. These 


Mode of carrying idols. Tbe mendicant priestess. 

he said had been brought from Pundurpoor, a dis- 
tance of about two hundred and thirty miles, upon 
the shoulders of men, the people considering them 
too holy to be placed in any cart, or fearing they 
might be broken. They were made of a black stone 
found near Pundurpoor, and were neatly carved and 
polished. We offered him twenty rupees for one of 
them; but, as he asked a thousand, we could not 
agree about the price. He then informed us that 
the idols belonged to the village, and were under the 
care of the Patel. He believed that the presence of 
these idols kept off diseases from the people ; and if 
one of them were to be sold, the ruin of the village 
would be the consequence. 

While in the verandah of the priest's house, an 
aged woman opened the gate of the compound (en- 
closure) and walked in. The priest, though he had 
not seen her before, soon acknowledged her as one 
of the sisterhood, and gave her something to eat. 
This poor woman, having lost her husband, turned 
beggar, and now travels about the country in the 
character of a female religious mendicant. She had 
travelled ten miles to-day, and was quite exhausted. 
She has come, she said, nearly six hundred miles, 
and intends to travel from place to place as long as 
she may be able to walk. We could not but pity 
this poor, deluded woman, who is led astray by the 
deceitfulness of sin. We pointed out to her and the 
priest the true way of obtaining the pardon of their 
sins, and tlie favour of God, and urged them both to 


IN INDIA. 189 

Rahoree. Islampoor. Arriral at Ahmednuggur. 

accept of the Saviour of sinners as their only hope.^ 
As neither of them could read, our only hope of do- 
ing them good was to state the truth to them as 
plainly as possible. They had never heard of Christ 
till to-day, and it is likely they will never hear of 
Him again, till they stand in judgment before Him, 
to receive the reward of their deeds. 

Came to Rahoree in the evening, and stopped in 
a chowdey, which^was neither clean nor comfortable. 
We distributed a few tracts after pur arrival. We 
had, however, but little conversation with the peo- 
ple. Rahoree contains about two hundred houses. 

Wednesday , 1 5th. Left Rahoree this morning, 
about five o'clock, and rode to Islampoor, about 
twelve miles, for breakfast. Here we found a good 
shelter and resting place in the government bun- 
galow. In the evening we reached Ahmednuggur. 
Here we intend stopping to rest, and to obtain a new 
supply of tracts for the continuation of our tour. 
Since leaving Bombay, we have visited more than 
thirty villages, not one of which, from Bhewndy, 
till we came near Ahmednuggur, had ever been 
visited by a Missionary. The people in many of the 
villages had never heard of Christ ; some of those in 
the large villages had. This knowledge, however, 
was extremely vague, and imperfect, and not one, 
so far as we could learn, had in his possession a sin- 
gle tract to give them any information on the subject 
of the Christian religion. From Bhewndy to the 
foot of the Ghauts, there is nothing but one conti- 


Gr«neral remarks on the country and people. 

nued range of jungle, or low underwood, with here 
and there a small spot of cleared land. The people 
are poor, and only a small portion of the males can 
read ; perhaps not more than one out of twenty. The 
towns have generally a dirty appearance. The 
temples are all old, and the most of them have but 
little care taken of them, and are fast going to ruin. 
The few tanks that we saw are also neglected, and 
are fast filling up. After you ascend the Ghauts, 
and enter the Dekhun, things assume a different as- 
pect. With the exception of a few villages near the 
top of the Ghauts, where the land is poor and stony, 
the people are better clad, and are better educated. 
Readers are more numerous, and the people gene- 
rally appear to be more comfortable. The country, 
in many places, is much broken with hills ; but these, 
and the small rivers which wind about among them, 
the high mountains on the right and left, and the 
extensive plains before you, strewed with flocks of 
sheep, with here and there herds of deer feeding se- 
curely, together with a few green trees, encircling 
some ancient idol, temple or mouldering village, 
rendered the scenery truly beautiful. The rising 
or the setting sun rendered it still more so, and led 
us to adore Him who hath made all things for His 
own glory — -and all things well. The beauty of the 
works of God seem not to attract the attention of the 
multitudes of Hindoos who behold them ; and the 
few who seem to admire his works, do so only with 
idolatrous and superstitious feelings. The heavens 

IN INDIA. 191 

Remarks continued. 

truly declare the glory of God, and the firmament 
showeth his handy work — and there is no speech, 
nor language where their voice is not heard ; but 
superstition hath stopped the ears, and idolatry hath 
blinded the eyes of this people, so that they hear not 
His voice, nor perceive the operations of His hand. 



The city of Ahmednuggur stands on a plain of 
several miles in extent, and contains about fifty 
thousand inhabitants. It is surrounded by a wall of 
stones, and bricks dried in the sun. The houses 
generally have flat roofs, and differ in this particular 
from those in Btmibay. It is said, that after the dis- 
solution of the Bhamenee empire of the Dekhun, 
Ahmed Nizam Bhah established the independent 
state of Ahmednuggur, about the year 1489, and 
in the year 1493 laid the foundations of this city, 
and made it his capital. Shortly after the death of 
Aurungzebe, which happened in 1707, it fell into 
the hands of the Mahrattas, and continued to form 
a part of the Paishwa's dominions till 1797, when 
Dowlut Row Sindia compelled the Paishwa to cede 
this important fortress and the surrounding district, 
by which cession he obtained the command of Poo- 
nah. In 1803, it was taken by general Wellesley, 

* The city of Ahmed. 


Ahmednuggur. Fort. Commencement of the mission. 

and ceded to the British by Dowlut Row Sindia, at 
the treaty of peace concluded December 30th, 1803. 

The fort stands about a mile from the city. It is 
built of stone, is of an oval shape, and about one 
mile in circumference, with many round towers. It 
is one of the few forts in India, of native construction, 
that has a glacis to cover the base of the wall. It 
has no natural advantage, such as a great elevation, 
to recommend it. The walls of the fort, between 
the towers, are not thick, and the distance from the 
one to the other is about eighty-five yards. The 
ditch around the fort is deep and broad. (See 
Hamilton's Hindoosthan). ; 

The numerous mosques, tombs, aqueducts, and 
the ruins of ancient palaces and deserted gardens, 
afford abundant proof of the former splendour of 
this city. Many of these tombs though built, for 
aught I know, several hundred years ago, are still 
standing. Some of them have been fitted up neatly, 
and are occupied as dwellings by Europeans, in con- 
nexion with the European army stationed here. 
The fact that tombs were, and are yet occupied as 
dwellings, may illustrate the following passages of 
Scripture : Matt. viii. 28; Luke viii. 27. 

There is a church in the fort, and a chaplain, so 
that the Europeans at this station have an opportu- 
nity of attending divine service nearly every Sabbath. 

In December 1831, the Mission at Ahmednuggur 
was commenced by Messrs Graves, Hervey and 
Read. The death of Mr Hervey, and the return of 
Mr Graves to America, left Mr Read alone^ till the 

IN INDIA. 195 

Prospects of the mission. Chapel. Female schools. 

arrival of Mr Boggs, in December 1832. Mr Allen 
will, on his return, make this the centre of his ope- 

The prospects of this Mission are encouraging, 
A church has been organized upon the Presbyterian 
plan, which now numbers nine converts. Babujee, 
who was appointed elder, rests from his labours. 
He was an active and devoted servant of Christ. 
This branch of the Mission sustained a heavy loss 
in his death : but the Lord has called him from his 
labours on earth to his crown, and it becomes us to 
acquiesce in the dealings of our God, who loves the 
church more than we possibly can. 

A small building has been erected, which answers 
very well, at present, for a chapel, until a more con- 
venient one shall be erected. The Missionaries find 
considerable difficulty in establishing and keeping 
up schools, especially for females. This arises more 
from the opposition of the Brahmuns, and from the 
want of fidelity on the part of the teachers, than 
from any objections which the parents of the chil- 
dren make to the subject. When we consider that 
the Gospel has been preached in this place to the 
natives only since the winter of 1831, the encour- 
agement to persevere is great There is a public 
service daily in the chapel, at which the inmates of 
the poorhouse and others attend. The usual at- 
tendance may be about fifty persons. It is an inter- 
esting sight to see the people assembled in this house 
of God, in the heart of a heathen city, for His wor- 



Letters from Bombay. Religious meetings in India. 

ship. After the daily service, tracts are usually 
given to the strangers present. 

Wednesday, 22d. This morning I received letters 
from Bombay, informing me that, in the good pro- 
vidence of God, my family still live, and are as well 
as when I left them. Mr Allen, who has returned 
to Bombay from America, informs us by letter that 
he will endeavour to meet us on our tour, somewhere 
between Aurungabad and Nassick. We purpose, 
God willing, to leave this in the morning for Jaulna, 
and return by the way of Aurungabad. 

I spent this day in writing, and in preparing for 
our tour. In the evening I addressed a few Chris- 
tian friends from a part of Malachi, chap, iii, who 
usually attend the weekly meeting held at the house 
of Mr Boggs. The public and social meetings for 
hearing the Word of God and for prayer, which 
Christians in India enjoy, are few, compared with 
what Christians enjoy in a Christian land, and 
which they themselves once enjoyed. These are, 
however, highly prized, and blessed means in the 
hand of God, of encouraging the hearts of the little 
company of Christian soldiers, while surrounded by 
the hosts of idolatrous heathens. The presence of 
eight or ten Christian people in a prayer meeting in 
India, is more cheering to us here, than the presence 
pf multitudes, under similar circumstances, would be 
in America. One true convert here, will also make 
a deeper impression upon the minds of the impeni- 
tent heathen around us, than a hundred in a Chris- 


IN INDIA. 197 

Dajeba. Emampoor. 

tian land would upon tbe impenitent around them. 
And one true convert to the cause of Christ, from 
among the heathen, excites the joy and gratitude of 
the weary Missionary more than the report that a 
multitude, in a Christian land, has turned to the 
Lord. They rejoice to hear of the prosperity of Zion 
in any part of the wide world, but to see the work of 
the Lord prospering in their hands, among the hea- 
then, gives a joy peculiar to the Missionary, and 
which none but he can feel. May this joy be abun- 
dantly increased, " 

; Arrangements were made to-day to take Da- 
jeba, one of the native converts, with us on our 
tour. Our presence will be of advantage to him in 
declaring the word of God to his countrymen, and 
will shield him from the abuse and violence to which 
he would inevitably be exposed, if alone. He has, 
poor fellow, been beaten once for Christ's sake, and 
was left by his unmerciful persecutors lying on the 
ground, bruised and bleeding, and unable to return 
to his home ; but we shall take care that, while un- 
der our protection, he shall not experience, in his 
own person, a similar evidence of the enmity of the 
heathen against the Gospel of Christ, and some, at 
least, of his followers. 


Thursday, 2Sd, We arose early this morning, and 
after taking a cup of coffee at Mr Boggs's, rode to 


A Tomb used for a bungalow. 

the village of E-mam-poor, a distance of about 
twelve miles, for breakfast. Our cook, whom we 
had sent on last evening, had every thing in readi- 
ness for us, in a building which was formerly a 
Mussulman's tomb, but is now used for a traveller's 

Shortly after our arrival, letters came to us from 
Bombay. To answer these, and to wait for Dajeba, 
- we agreed to remain here till the morning. 

The bungalow which we now occupy was once 
the tomb of some wealthy Mussulman. The build- 
ing is about forty feet square, and is built of hewn 
stone, and neatly plastered in the inside. It origin- 
ally contained but one room ; but for the accommo- 
dation of travellers, the English government have 
divided it into three equal parts. The middle apart- 
ment forms a convenient sitting and dining room, 
and the others are divided so as to make, in all, four 
good sleeping rooms. Near this building is a grove 
of mango trees,* which forms a delightful and 
refreshing shade for weary men, and a covert for the 
numerous parrots which here, at liberty, fill the air 
with their notes. These and other large trees have 
been planted in regular order, and extend for more 
than a quarter of a mile to the northeast and south 
of the bungalow. The whole space, for half a mile 
in extent, may have formed the large and beautiful 
garden of some wealthy Mussulman, whose remains 
repose beneath the building we now occupy. The 

* Mangifera Indica. 

IN INDIA. 199 

Coolies. ^ Jeoor-ghaut. The country. Roads in India. 

glory of the place has long since departed; the trees 
and the once beautiful garden remain neglected, but 
the tomb has been converted to better purposes than 
merely to honour the dead, viz., to accommodate the 

After dinner we sent off the most of the coolies* 
with our luggage to Chandah, a village about 
twelve miles distant, where we expect to go in the 
morning. ^ 

In the evening we walked to the top of the Jeoor- 
ghauti'f only a short distance from the bungalow. 
Here we had a beautiful view of the valley which 
lay beneath us. Here and there are to be seen the 
humble dwellings of the benighted Hindoos, shaded 
by a few lofty trees, which are held in high esteem 
by the natives, and many of which are the objects 
of -their worship. This ghaut was formerly almost 
impassable to bullocks laden with merchandize. An 
excellent road has lately been made at the expense 
of the English government, and which is of great 
benefit to the inhabitants on both sides of this range 
of mountains. It seems never to have occurred to a 
Hindoo's mind, that righteousness^ might be obtained 
by making roads for the benefit of the people, as well 

* Natives who carry burdens on their heads. 

t A mountain or pass. 

t Hindoos expect to be saved by their own works; anything, 
therefore, which they may do for the public good is esteemed a 
work of merit, and they suppose that the individual obtains as 
much righteousness as the work cost him rupees. 


Reflections. The Missionary's trials and joys. 

as by building temples and digging tanks; and hence 
it is that they made none. AH the good roads in the 
country have been made by Europeans. 

While standing on the top of the ghaut, and admir- 
ing the scenery around us, we talked. of the benight- 
ed heathen, and of our friends and companions 
whom we have left for a season, to make known the 
grace of God to this degraded people. And in look- 
ing back from this dark land to our beloved, native 
country, and in thinking on the days past, of our 
situation and prospects here, we had feelings of sor- 
row, mingled with joy and hope. Here we are 
amidst a strange people, who fear not the true God 
fior strive to keep His commandments ; but mind 
earthly things, and worship and serve the creature 
more than they do their Creator. From these we 
can expect no sympathizing feeling, and but little 
encouragement or aid in the great work in which we 
are engaged. The Church of Christ can, and does 
feel and pray for us ; but our joy and comfort must 
be found in God alone, and in the fulfilment of the 
great work He has committed to us, to aid in preach- 
ing the Gospel to every creature. The Lord help us 
to be faithful, that we may receive a crown of life. 
It affords us joy to think that God is honoured by 
multitudes under heaven ; and we hope that India, 
too, with all her millions, will ere long unite to swell 
the anthem of praise to God and the Lamb for ever. 

IN INDIA. 201 

Chandah. -^ : ; Appearance of the country. 


Friday, 24th. We left E-mam-poor at an early 
hour this morning, and rode to Chandaht about six 
kos,* for breakfast. The distance down the moun- 
tain is only three quarters of a mile. A spring of 
excellent water issues from a place near the top of 
the mountain called the Cow^s mouthy and flows in a 
beautiful and gentle stream through the valley be- 
low. The spot is esteemed sacred, and a vile idol is 
to be seen near fit hand, to call the attention of the 
superstitious Hindoo traveller to it. The land over 
which we passed this morning is poor, the soil thin, 
and only a small portion of it under culture. If it 
were better tilled, it would, no doubt, be more produc- 
tive ; but a Hindoo does not like the idea of bestow- 
ing much labour on any thing ; his object is to obtain 
a living at as little an expense of labour and money 
as possible. Time, however, with him seems to have 
but little value. 

The village of Chandah is surrounded by a mud 
wall, which is much out of repair, and seems to be 
rapidly going to decay. The houses are about two 
hundred in number, and are generally made of brick 
dried in the sun. Some are two stories high, with 
flat roofs ; the majority of them are of only one story. 
Many of them are deserted, and not a few of those that 

* A Tkos varies from two to four miles. 


> Conversation with the natives. ;:' > 

are iohabited will, no doubt, from their present ap- 
pearance, be also without occupants ere long. The 
streets are narrow and dusty, but this is not consi- 
dered an inconvenience to the inhabitants. 

After breakfast, Mr Reed and Dajeba conversed 
with a number of natives who had assembled before 
the door of the house we occupied for the time being, 
while I was employed in writing within. The 
people listened with attention to what was said, and 
none of them seemed disposed to cavil, except one 
person. Tracts and portions of Scripture were given 
to all present, who could read. Many of the people 
seemed glad to get them. r >; 

There is at present in this village no school* for 
the instruction of the youth. There are, however, 
three temples, tenanted by filthy idols, which receive 
the daily homage of this deluded people.f 

After dinner I spent about two hours in conversing 
with those who came to us, it being too hot to ven- 
ture out. More tracts were distributed among the 
people. These villagers, I believe, have not been 
visited by any Missionary of the cross before to-day. 

* Under date of August 1st, 1834, Mr Allen, who visited this 
village, says: "There is only one school in the place, and but 
few children attending it." Perhaps our visit and preaching in- 
duced the people to establish this. 

t The money which the people pay to the support of idolatry 
is more than sufficient to establish schools, and to educate all the 
children in the country ; yet the people complain that they are 
too poor to support schools, whil^ they support hordes of idle 
priests and beggars. 


Arrival at Dard-gau. Stop in a chowdey. 

Tbey have now had an opportunity of hearing from 
the mouths of three witnesses, of the only way of 
life and salvation for sinful men. Dajeba's conver- 
sation appeared to interest the people much. When 
he spoke, every one seemed to pay attention. At 
our suggestion he gave an account of his conversion, 
and of the reasons which induced him to renounce 
Hindooism, and embrace the Gospel of Christ. It 
was evidently something new for them to hear, and 
we hope that the wjords of life they have heard, may 
not be without effect upon their hearts. 


We left Chandah at four o'clock, and came to 
Dard-gau, a distance of four kos. Here we put up in 
a chowdey,* which is also used as a temple, one part 

* A chowdey is a house in or near a village for the reception 
of travellers. They are generally square or oblong rooms, open 
only on one side, and have much the appearance of a country 
shed in many parts of America. The roof is flat, and is support- 
ed by pillars of wood or stone. In the walls are small excava- 
tions for lamps. As the native travellers cook in these places, 
they are generally exceedingly dirty, and the walls are blaxik- 
ened by the smoke and stained by the oil of the lamps. In 
many of these buildings an idol is set up, and that portion of 
the building is afterwards esteemed sacred by the natives, and 
used by them only for religious purposes. They are, notwith- 
standing their dirtiness, of great use to travellers. A little atten- 
tion on the part of the Patel of the village to these houses, would 
render Jhem very desirable places for stopping in ; but the vil- 
lage officers have houses for themselves^ and do not trouble them- 
selves about consulting the comfort of the traveller. 


Visit to the temple of Ba-al-jee. 

of it being appropriated to an idol, the filthy appear- 
ance of which, one would think, might induce the 
Hindoos to cease to worship it. But there is no ac-; 
counting for the tastes of people in these matters. 

Immediately after our arrival the people began to 
collect around us to see us, and to inquire who, and 
what we were. After satisfying their curiosity as to 
these matters, we made some inquiry about the tem- 
ples in the village, the schools, &c. One person spoke ^ 
of the temple of Ba-al-jee. The name of this god, 
Ba-al, excited our attention, and we agreed to visit his 
temple. When our intention was made known to 
them, they seemed to doubt whether we meant to do as 
we said or not, but when they saw us rise, the crowd 
was immediately in motion. Some went before us 
and others followed after. We conversed on the 
subject of Christianity with those near us, till we 
reached the temple. Our presence attracted a mul- 
titude of people to the place. It was the time of 
their evening worship, and we found the large outer 
room of the temple, as well as the small room in 
which the idol alone remains, lit up, and a number 
of people assembled to paj" their evening offerings 
to, and to worship the lifeless thing. Our presence, 
and the crowd accompanying us, interrupted the 
worship of those we found present, and all gave way 
to us that we might see the god Ba-al. The small 
lamp before the idol did not suflficiently light the 
place to afford us a distinct view of it. We saw 
sufficient, however, to inform us that the idol is made 

IN INDIA. 205 

Preaching in the temple of Ba-al-jee. 

of Stone, with eyes of glass, or polished silver, and 
dressed after the Hindoo style, in white flowing 
robes. And this lifeless stone is the great god J?a-ai- - 
jee of this deluded people. ^^ / ; 

Having now, in a place devoted to idolatry, a large 
audience, who seemed wiUing to hear what we had 
to say, we preached to them the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ, and exhorted them to forsake the worship of 
the senseless thing before them. Many of these 
idolaters never heard of the name of Jesus, till 
this evening; nor of any other way to obtain eternal 
life, than that which their own false religion pre- 
scribes. This heathen temple, for once, was de- 
voted to the service of the true God. May the 
time soon come when its idols shall be wholly de- 
stroyed. The people were exceedingly attentive to 
all that was said, and expressed their approbation of 
the truths they heard to one another. They made 
no excuse for the worship of idols other than this, 
^* It is our custom," and not one spoke in its defence. 
Their understandings seemed convinced that the 
words we spoke were the words of truth, and that 
the offerings they make to their idols cannot save 
them ; but without the influence of the Holy Spirit 
their hearts will not feel, nor their prejudices permit 
them to renounce their false gods, and embrace the 
truth, as it is in Jesus. 

While we were conversing with the people in the 
temple, an individual came in, and pressing his way 
through the crowd, presented himself before the idol. 


A Hindoo prevented from worshipping ua, 

holding a cocoa nut in his hand, which he intended 
offering to the idol. Before he began his worship, 
we told him not to make an offering to the idol ; if 
he did so, his sins would be increased, and not dimin- 
ished; and gave him our reasons for believing so. 
The man was astonished at the remarks made to 
him, and approaching nearer to us, said he would 
present it as an offering to us, and was about to do 
us homage. We forbade him, saying, *'We are sin- 
ners like yourself ; we are men, not gods ; and it would 
be just as sinful to worship us as to worship the idol 
before you." This seemed to astonish him still more. 
After exhorting him, personally, to forsake his idols, 
and worship the true God from the heart, we told 
him, if he would present the cocoa nut to us as a gift, 
we would take and eat it ; and if he felt disposed to 
do so, he might give it to one of our men who stood by 
us. But this he refused to do. After conversing with 
the people till we were weary, we distributed tracts 
among them, and leaving some in the temple, re- 
turned to the chowdey. Here the people followed us, 
and appeared unwilling to go away. We told them 
to sit down on the ground, which they did. Dajeba 
then spoke to them for nearly an hour, and answer- 
ed such questions concerning the Christian religion, 
as were proposed to him. Tracts were afterwards 
given to all who could read, and to those who had not 
already been supplied. 

In passing a door this evening, I saw an old blind 
man with a string of beads in his hand, counting 

IN INDIA. 207 

Origin of the god Ba-al-jee. 

them and repeating his prayers. Poor man, he is 
blind, spiritually as well as bodily. We told him of 
Jesus, but he seemed not to comprehend what was 
said. ■ - -^^i^:-/ ■■^--■:-5>^.'v.- ^". ■ 

The people here could give us no information who 
this god Ba-al'jee is; (the wovdjee, is a mere suffix 
to the names of persons, and corresponds to sir, your 
honour, &c). We find a god of this name was wor- 
shipped by the Moabites, Phenicians, Assyrians and 
Chaldeans; nor were the Hebrews themselves, in 
the days of Moses, fieed from this sin of idolatry. 
They, too, had among them idols, among which 
Baal holds a conspicuous place, as appears from 
Num. xxii. 41, and Psalm cvi. 28. The word Baal 
signifies lord, ruler, or husband; and in the early 
ages of the world may have designated the true 
God, but now the name is given to a stone, and the 
true God is forgotten. Whether these nations re- 
ceived the name and worship of Baal from the Hin- 
doos, or the Hindoos from them, it would be difficult 
to say. As regards the Baal of the Moabites and 
the Midianites, some have thought that it is the 
same as the Osiris of the Egyptians, and the Pna- 
pus of the Greeks, as the filthiest rites were used in 
its worship. If this were the case once, as regards 
the Ba-al of the Hindoos, we know not, but the wor- 
ship now is of a different character. The abomina- 
ble and indecent rites of Hindoo worship, are princi- 
pally confined to the worship of Ma-ha-dev, under 
the emblem of the Lingum. The similarity of the 


Need of schools. Temples numerous. Arrival at Shevapoor. 

name, however, to the god so much worshipped by 
those ancient people, struck us forcibly, and tended 
to convince us more and more that idolatry, how- 
ever modified and diversified among the nations of 
the earth, has had one common origin. It is, how- 
ever, of more importance to all to get it rooted out 
of the world, than to know its origin, or to be able to 
mark its desolating and souF-destroying progress till 
the present time. 

In this village there is no school for any class of 
the natives. The readers among the youth of the 
place w^e found to be but few. The people complain 
that they are too poor to support a school, but they 
do not consider the heavy taxes which idol worship 
lays on them. There are three other temples in 
this village besides the one dedicated to Ba-al-jee, all 
of which are supported by the contributions of the 
people, and yet they complain that they cannot 
afford to send their children to a school because of 
their poverty. How blind they are to their own in- 
terests and that of their children, considered only in 
a temporal point of view\ 


Saturday, 25th. We left Dard-gau this morning 
about sunrise, and came to Shevapoor, The same, 
perhaps, as Shew-gau, as maiked on the map. On 
our way we passed through the villages of Koo-ra- 
gaUf Kur-gau, and Jo-har-poor. These villages are 

IN INDIA. 209 

Addressing the people. Conversation with the Mohammedans. 

small, and conlain but few inhabitants. The 
houses are old and rapidly decaying. We stopped 
but a short time in these villages; long enough, 
however, to tell the people of the way of salvation 
through Jesus, and to distribute a few tracts. We 
left also a few in the hands of the Patei, to be distri- 
buted by him, at his discretion, among those who 
could read. 

We reached Shevapoor about nine o'clock, and 
stopped at the public chowdey, where we remained 
till five o'clock in the evening. During the whole 
of this time, with only a short intermission, we had 
the people around us. There being now three of us 
to talk, we took it in turns, and so kept up the at- 
tention of the people by a variety of addresses and 
a change of speakers. The people were principally 
Mussulmen ; and although we have generally found 
them exceedingly averse to hear much about Jesus 
Christ, yet to-day they were attentive, and not one 
of them seemed disposed to cavil or find fault with 
any thing we said. We told them that they sinned 
against God by worshipping a peer, (a saint, or de- 
parted holy man among the Mohammedans) as 
much as a Hindoo did by worshipping his idols; 
and that unless they lepented of this sin, as well as 
of others, and believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, 
they could not be saved. They assented to the 
truth of what was said, and exhibited no disposition 
to oppose or to be offended. We supplied all, who 
could read the Balbad character, with portions of 


Demand for the Scriptures. 

the Scriptures, and with tracts. But there were 
many who could read the Mord,* and not the Bcdbad^ 
We regretted exceedingly that we had not with us 
a supply of the Word of God, and tracts in the Mord 
chaiacter. As to those who read only the Hin- 
doosthanee, we are less able to supply them than 
the others. There has, as yet, no portion of the 
Scriptures been published in Bombay, in the Hin- 
doosthanee language, and only a few tracts. All 
our Scriptures for the Mussulmen have been printed 
in Calcutta or England, and the supply, at no time, 
has been equal to the demand. It is greatly to be 
desired, that a press should be employed in Bombay, 
in printing the word of God in the Hindoosthanee, 
and that there should also be Missionaries, especially 
for this class of people. The harvest truly is great, 
but, oh ! how few are the labourers. Here are him- 
dreds of villages where the Word of God has never been 
proclaimed, and there are none to publish it ; while, it 
may be, in England and America, there are many 
young men living at their ease, and waiting for a 
call, or some vacancy, where they may go and 
preach to a people who have heard the Gospel again 
and again, and it may be, only to harden under the 
truth. Can it be, that such persons fully believe 
the command of the risen Redeemer, — " Go ye into 

* A mere glance at the difference of the characters used will 
convince any one, unacquainted with the language, that a man 
may read his own language in the one character, and not in the 

IN INDIA. 211 

Temples. School supplied with books. Gotun. 

all the world, and preach the Gospel to every creature,^^ 
while they neglect to obey it 1 Let us pray the 
Lord of the harvest that He would send forth labour- 
ers into His harvest. 

There are in the village of Shevapoor three Hindoo 
temples, erected to the gods Hunooman, Sheve, and 
Ramchundra. There are also several Musjids, that 
is, Mussulman places of worship. There are no 
schools for the Mussulmen children, and only one 
for the Hindoos, in which a few Brahmun boys are 
collected. These had no printed books till we sup- 
plied them. 

About five o'clock in the evening we left Sheva- 
poor for Pyiun, a. large village on the banks of the 
sacred river Grodavery. We passed through the vil- 
lage of Tulnee, which is small and decaying. We 
made no delay here, but came on to Gotun. We 
stopped outside of the gate of the village, under the 
shade of a large tree, which^ spread its branches over 
the temple of Hunooman. A number of people 
soon collected around us, to whom we preached the 
Gospel of the Son of God. The gate of the city, or 
village, is still the place of concourse in the East. 
It is in fact their " exchange," or " coffee-house," 
where the news and business of the day is talked 
over by the people; and there the Missionary may, 
almost always, find hearers. 

After talking a few minutes to the people, one 
man spoke out aloud, " Yes, yes ! I know who you 


Conversations with the natives. A panther caught and exhibited. 

are ; you go about the country telling the people 
about Jesus Christ." . . , 

Miss. Yes ; we go about telling the idolaters of the 
land about the Saviour of sinners ; and do you not 
wish to hear about Him ] ^ ^ 

Hind. I have heard of this Jesus three years 
ago, at the Mahabulishwur hills, and at Poonah,* 
and do not care about hearing any thing more con- 
cerning Him. 

Our conversation was then addressed to others, 
who had never before heard of the SavioUr of sinners. 
They listened with a good deal of attention and ap- 
parent interest, while we made known to them the 
plan of salvation through Jesus Christ. We distri- 
buted tracts among the people, which were gladly 
received by all, except the individual spoken of, who 
refused to touch one of them. Having accomplished 
our work among these people, we said, — "Now, we 
leave you, to go to another village, to proclaim the 
word of God to them also, — Salaam." Some replied, 
"Salaam," but our surly hearer replied, (Burrajow) 
"Well, go." ' ^ ^ 

Just as we were about to go, two Hindoos, who 
had caught a few'days ago, a large c/iccHa, (panther,) 
came to us, leading the animal blindfolded and 
muzzled. It was somewhat restless, and made 
several unsuccessful attempts to break away from 
its keepers. We gave them a few pice for their 

* Poonah is about one hundred miles, and the Mahahulishwur 
hills two hundred miles from this village. 

IN INDIA. 213 

Gotim. Soil good, and but little of it cultivated. 

trouble, and a tract apiece, which we hope some 
one may read to them, as they cannot read them- 
selves. These men informed us that there are a 
great many panthers and tigers in this neighbour- 
hood. The news at first made us feel somewhat 
unpleasant, as it was then sun-down, and we had 
several miles to travel before reaching Pytun. We, 
however, passed on securely, and reached Pytun 
at nine o'clock, having had the moon to light us on 
our way. 

The number of dweUinghouses in Gotun is about 
three hundred ; and a large proportion of the families 
belong to the Brahmun caste. The number of tem- 
ples and schools, if any, in the village, we did not 
learn. No Missionary, it seems, has preceded us in 
telling these villagers of the Saviour of sinners. 
Still, some of them were not wholly ignorant of the 
name of Jesus, for one of the number,while more than 
two hundred miles from home, heard of Him, and no 
doubt has talked with his neighbours on the subject. 
It is to be lamented that he, poor man, heard of the 
Saviour with so little profit to his own soul. But 
what if some do not believe 1 their unbelief will 
not make the faith of God without effect; for His 
word shall not return unto Him void. 

The country over which we passed to-day was 
good looking, and the soil better than that we saw 
yesterday. The different crops, too, are evidently 
much better. Not more than one-fifth of the land 
here is under cultivation. The rest lies idle, and 


The face of the country. " A sacred river. Pytun. 

yields nothing, save a small supply of grass for the 
strolling herds of antelopes and cattle, and flocks of 
goats and dark coloured sheep, which are to be seen 
in abundance, scattered over the widely extended 
plains.* Only a few trees are to be seen in all the 
extent, to relieve the eye from the dazzling glare of 
a tropical sun. The river Godavery, which flows 
on the west side of the village of Pytun, is a large 
and noble stream, and in the j-ainy season must pre- 
sent a grand appearance. When we think of the 
inestimable value of a living stream of w^ater in this 
dry and parched land, we need not be surprised, that 
the superstitious and idolatrous natives should honour 
it as a god, and pay to it their daily devotions. 
Truly, they have " gods many." 


Sabbath, 26th. Our servants succeeded in procur- 
ing for us a lodging in a convenient chowdey outside 
of the town, where we enjoyed a good night's repose, 
free from the noise and confusion and dust of a native 
village. This morning we rose early and walked down 
to the side of the sacred stream. It was the season of 

* The Hindoos here have great herds of cattle, and large 
flocks of sheep. The milk of the former, and the wool of the 
latter, only are used, I have been informed that they will not 
sell their oxen to be used by the English government, unless on 
the express condition that they shall not be killed and eaten. 
The sheep are black, and the wool is a coarse kind of hair. 

IN INDIA. 215 

Hindoo devotions at the river. Disgusting practices of many. 

their morning devotions. Here we saw multitudes 
of men, and women, and children, the youthful, and 
the decrepid old man, leaning upon his staff, descend- 
ing the ghauts,* to bathje their bodies in the stream, 
with the vain hope, that the sins of their souls may 
thereby be washed away. Some appeared devout, 
but others made it a matter of sport, and amused 
themselves by splashing the water upon their neigh- 
bours, when their devotions were over. Others, we 
observed, came for the purpose merely of washing 
their clothes, as this seemed to occupy (he whole of 
their attention ; while others near them were dipping 
up the water of the river in their vessels for drinking, 
and for culinary purposes. Many of the Hindoos 
think, that we can lay no just claim to cleanliness, 
because we do not daily bathe our whole persons in 
w^ater, after their example ; and we, in turn, do not 

* Ghauts are flights of steps, made of hewn stone, which lead 
from the bank down into the river, upon which the people may 
descend into the stream, bathe, wash their garments, and return 
with safety. The making of these ghauts is considered an act of 
merit, and many a wealthy, deluded Hindoo thinks he secures 
his admission into heaven by building such a flight of steps for 
his own accommodation and that of his neighbours. These steps 
are of great benefit to the people in many places, and especially 
when the streams are high, during the rainy season. 

Drinking river water, and the rain water caught in tanks, 19 
to the people not a matter of choice, but of necessity. It is to be 
regretted that some of the people are so filthy as to wash their 
clothes and bodies in the tanks from which they draw water for 
drinking. Some of the people complain' loudly against the dirty 
practice, but their voice is, in most instances, not regarded. 


The preaching of Dajeba interests the people. 

think highly of them in this respect, for making use 
of the water for the purposes of drinking and cook- 
ing, in which they have washed their vessels, and bo- 
dies, and dirty clothes. Having witnessed the morn- 
ing devotion of the people, we ascended the hill on 
which the town stands, by one of the numerous 
ghauts which lead down from the top of the hill into 
the river, and passing through the town returned to 
our lodgings. 

After breakfast, we took Dajeba with us, and 
taking a good supply of tracts, entered the town by 
a gate on the north side. Finding a government 
chowdey, where a number of people were assembled, 
we entered it and sat down by them. We imme- 
diately began to converse with them- on the subject 
of the Christian religion. Many collected in and 
around the chowdey. At first, some did not seem 
disposed to attend to what was said, and by talking 
and making a noise endeavoured to prevent those 
from hearing who seemed desirous to do so. After 
some time, the attention of the whole assembly was 
obtained, and then we gave place to Dajeba, who 
made known to them the way of salvation through 
the Lord Jesus Christ. The people listened for half 
an hour with profound attention to all he said, and 
only broke their silence by expressions of their ap- 
probation, as "It is good," "It is true," &c. 

A Brahmun present, not seeming to like the at- 
tention that was paid, interrupted the speaker, and 
began to extol the Hindoo gods. The moral charac- 

IN INDIA. 217 

A Brafamun silenced. Tracts vsefU. 

ters of some of them were held up by us to the view 
of the people, and portions of the tract "In whom 
shall toe trust," where the vile character of these gods 
is described according to the Hindoo books, were 
read in their hearing. When the people heard this, 
they laughed, and said it was true ; but the Brah- 
mun, being ashamed, kept silent. 

A young man present said he had heard of Jesus 
Christ, a year ago, from two Missionaries* who had 
visited Pytun ; distributed tracts among the people, 
and told them that Jesus was the Saviour of the 
world. They had not given him any tracts, but he 
had heard them preach, and had seen the tracts 
which were given to others. We were rejoiced to 
find that the word of God, spoken a year ago by 
these . brethren, had not been forgotten. May the 
words spoken and the tracts distributed by them and 
us, be abundantly blessed to the good of this people- 

We spent about two hours in this place, in con- 
versing with the people, and in distributing tracts to 
those who could read, and then returned to our 
chowdey, as the day was hot, and we wished to rest 
and prepare to visit the town in the afternoon. 

Shortly after we had returned, a Hindoo (a gdd- 
smith) came to us, and solicited a. book. He told us 
that he had heard of Jesus Christ about a year ago, 

* These were the Reverend Messrs Mitchell and Wilson, of 
the Scottish Mission, who, I presume, were the first Christian 
Missionaries that ever visited this place. 



Application for tracts from a goldsmitb. Worship in a chowdey./ 

in a village about twelve kos (twenty-four miles) on 
this side of Poonah ; that two men were there, and 
had given his son a book, which told him more about 
Christ, and now he wanted another book. We made 
many inquiries of him, and among others we asked 
him, as he was a goldsmith, if he made idols for the 
people? He replied, "No; other people make and 
worship them ; I worship the one God." We cheer- 
fully supplied him with tracts, and dismissed him. 

After this man, others came for books, and they, 
too, were supplied. The people seemed so desirous 
to talk with us, that we found it necessary to retire 
for a season to rest, and let Dajeba talk to them, and 
distribute tracts, as he had strength so to do. 

After dinner w^e assembled all the persons in our 
employ, as cook, coolies, &c., in the chowdey, for 
worship. A few others were present. We were 
particular in informing them that it is our duty and 
practice, especially on the Sabbath, to meet together 
for the worship of God. A portion of Scripture was 
then read to them, and explained and enforced. 
After prayer they were dismissed. Some of them 
were quite surprised to see us conduct the worship 
of God in so quiet a manner, and with closed eyes 
addressing our prayers to God for His blessing, and 
not to ah idol. They went off, and began to talk 
about the exercises among themselves. May they 
be led to see a beauty in holiness, and in the simple 
rites of the Christian worship, and be led to reject 



The worship of the Pimpul tree- 

the unmeaning ceremonies and heartless fornKilities 
of their own idolatrous system. :; ^ ^ 
^ About three o'clock we took some tracts and went 
into ihe village again, accompanied by Dajeba. We 
inq^iired for t)n« of the large temples, and on being 
conducted to one, we took om^ seat in the verandah, 
where we conversed with the people for some time. 
But finding it too warm and confined, we requested 
^he people to follow us to a neighbouring pimpul tree,* 

* The pimpul tree (ficus religiosa, iioly fig tree) is esteemed 
sacred by the Hindoos. These trees, when^ound in or near a 
village or temple, generally have a mound of earth and stone raised 
Tip around the trunk, to the heiglit of three or four feet. The 
top of this mound, which is about ten or twelve feet in diameter, 
is covered with hew;a stone ; ,a small idol of Hunooman, or some 
other god, is placed at the foot of the tree. In some instances, 
there is no idol, and then a part of the tree is marked with red 
paint, to show the particular spot in the tree where the god es- 
pecially resides. From what I have seen, I should judge that 
this tree is worshipped more by the females than by the males. 
The worshipping of this tree is considered^ by the women, to be 
a great helper to their fruitfulness, and especially assists them to 
have m,ale children. While in the village of Allabag, some time 
ago, we observed a good looking woman engaged in the act of 
worship called pru-du-kshu-na, that is, circumambulating a tree. 
She walked around the tree g-t a rapid pace. At every revolu- 
tion she dropped a bead of the rosary she held in her hand — 
raised her hands in adoration to the tree, and pronounced a short 
prayer. When we saw her, she had been engaged in that man- 
ner for the space of three hours. As the worshipper has to walk 
around the tree with the right side towards it, it is surprising that 
the individual does not fall down, through giddiness. The hus- 
band of this woman was sitting at his ease, in the verandah of a 
*ipy?e in sight, watching, with apparent interest, the conduct of 


Preaching. A Hindoo defends his idolatry. 

.. ^m ^^ y — n - .1. ■,-,- — . ,. , ■ ■ — . I , . — '■- ■■■' ' -■■■' " — 

which afForded a cool and refreshing shade, and there 
we would preach to them the word of God. Being 
seated, with a number of people around us, we 
endeavoured to impress upon their minds the truth, 
that there is but one true and living God; that He is 
the maker of all men; that He is invisible and im- 
material, a pure and holy Spirit; and that the idols, 
which the Hindoos worship, are the work of men's 
hands, and ought not td be worshipped, for they are 
false gods. While making these remarks, a number 
more collected around us, and listened with atten- 
tion. The remarks made about the idols stirred up 
the spirit of one man, a Brahmun, to speak in the 
defence of idolatry. He remarked : 

Brah. These (referring to the idols) are our gods, 
and we ought to worship them. 

Miss. Not so. God commands you and all men 
to worship Him, and not idols, saying, " Thou 
shalt not make unto thyself any graven image, 
&;c. ;" and if you do continue to worship them you 
will be destroyed. And so speaks the Shastru^* 

his wife. We asked the man who the woman was, and tohat she 
was doing, ajidwhy she did so. He replied, She is my wife; 
we have been married for years, and having no children, we are ex- 
ceedingly anxious to have a son. To obtain this object, we have 
visited many of the sacred places, far and near, and are here 
now ; and my wife is now performing pru-du-kshu-na. And do you 
think, we asked, that your wife will bear you a son now, after 
she shall have travelled for hours or days around these trees? 
He replied. There is no doubt of it ; we shall have a son now. 
* The Hindoo sacred books are, as we might expect, wonder* 

IN INDIA, 221 

Conversations with the natives. 

Brah. But God commanded us to worship idols. 
He commanded our fathers to do so, and as they 
have done so will we. 

Miss. This is not the fact. God did not command 
ns not to worship idols, and you to worship them. He 
commands all nrJen, everywhere, to worship Him in 
spirit and in truth, and not through the medium of 
idols, nor the idols themselves. But the people, not 
willing to observe the pure worship of God, which 
requires the whole heart, threw it off, and began to 
worship idols. The Hindoo religion was establish- 
ed, and is kept up, by the Brahrauns, to keep the 
people in ignorance, so that they may retain their 
authority over the poor, and take their money from 
;.them. :" -^'^^-^^-^r-'-- ■^-■^■;^:-^-- '-^ :•;"-'■■'■■• ^ 

This excited his indignation, which he was not 
backward to express; and then, leaving the subject 
of idols, he began to defend the Hindoo religion, by 
holding up the works of their gods, and especially 
those of KrishnooJ^ When we had heard him 
through, we asked him : 

Miss. Do you not believe that God is holy ? 

ftdly inconsistent with themselves. In some passages they ad- 
vocate the worship of idols, and in others they condemn it. In 
some places they assert that a man may, by works of merit, save 
himself J and in others they deny it, and teach that a sinless 
gooroo (or a Saviour) is necessary, and without him a man can- 
not be saved. A knowledge of these facts is necessary for the 
Missionary in arguing with the people. 

* Krishnoo is the eighth incarnation of VishnoOj the second 
person of the Hindoo triad. 


Character of the Hindoo deities. 

JBrah, Yes ; God is holy. 

Miss, Can God commit sin 1 ^ : 

.., Brah, No. ' -■-:.;■ v ,:■: -..-., o.A--'v;- 

Miss, What is sin] Is it not sinful to UeySUaly 
deceive, Sic'i 

Brah. Yes. One of the company, a Brahmun, 
replied: "Sin, is to go about the country as you do, 
teaching the people, and giving them little books." 
(What a definition of sin !) 

Miss. Hear, then, the story of Bruhma. Thecha- 
racter of Bruhma was then taken up, and it wa» 
shown to the people from their own sacred books, 
that he was guilty of such gross sins that the god 
Shevecut off one of his heads, and pronounced him 
accursed, and forbade the people to worship him. 
In consequence of which, no Hindoo now worships 
him, and none think of erecting a temple to his 
honour. The vile conduct of Vishnoo and Sheve 
was also mentioned. The disgraceful conduct of 
Krishnoo among the gopees, (female cow-herds) 
was also exposed ; from which the conclusion was 
drawn, that none of these could be God, themselves 
being judges, for they all are vile. ' 

Brah. All you say is true. Krishnoo did as you 
say; but he made an atonement for these things. He 
swallowed^the rain of fire, which was poured down 
from heaven upon the gopeesy and which had flowed 
over twelve villages.* While speaking, another 

* There are other versions of this wonderfdl deliverance of 
the gopees, but they are all equally foolish. 

IN INDIA. 223 

Hindoo mode of otrtaining pardon. 

Brahmun interrupts him, by jsaying, " Krishooo did 
no^ commit sin." 

Miss, Be silent ; yoii are an ignorant man. You 
do not- know your own Shastru, He was then si- 
lent, and the other was permitted to proceed and 
finish his defence of Krishnoo, though much excited^ 
Halving finished his defence, we replied, — "No mat- 
ter ^^hsii atonement Krishnoo may have made for 
his sins of lyings theft, and adultery, still you acknow- 
ledge that these things are sins, and that Krishnoo 
did commit them, and of course, as you say God 
cannot sin, Krishnoo is not God." ^ 

This seemed to confound them for a while ; and 
after a short pause, we remarked : — All men are 
sinners. How, then, can our sins be pardoned 1 
This is the great concern. 

Brah. Our sins may be pardoned in many ways, 
viz: by worshipping, bathing, by gifts to the Brah- 
muns, &;c. 

- Miss. But if you attempt to worship Grod, and 
offer gifts, while your mind is sinful, will God accept 
your worship! ^ 

Hind, (A Hindoo replies) True, Sahib ; he will 
not. (The Brahmun was silent). 

Miss, How, then, can the mind be purified 1 If 
you wash your body in the Gfoi;?aocry,* still the fiU 

* The Godavery is esteemed a sacred river by the Hindoos, 
and to bathe in it is one of the many ways they have to obtain 
the pardon of sin. 


J 1 II ■*■ ■— ■■' ■ — — ^ 

The true goeroo, Jesus Christ. 

thiness of the mind will not be removed. Sin does 
not cleave to the body, but to the soul. 

HM. (One of the crowd replies) Yes, k does. 

Miss, (Holding up the hand) Does sin attach it* 
self to this hand 1 Is it sinful 1 ^ 

Hind. "Yes, yes," said some. "No, no," said 
others; "sin belongs to* the mind." 

One of the crowd called out to a person who was 
coming towards us, — " Come here ; this fellow says 
that Bruhma, Vishnoo, Sheve and Krislmoo, are no 
' gods." 

Miss. It is your own account* of them ; you say 
they have committed sin, and if so, how can they 
be gods'? they cannot take away our sins. The 
great question is, how can sin be pardoned ? Your 
own Shastru says a gooroo* is necessary to take 

* The gooroo is a spiritual guide. Most of the Hindoos have 
a gooroo, to whom they look for instruction, in reference to their 
future state. Their Shastrus say that the gooroos must be free 
from sin, aijd they pretend that they are j but it is only to deceive 
tjie people, and to obtain their money. 1 saw one man in Bom-> 
bay, who said that at that time, there were more than two hun- 
dred persons depending on him alone for salvation from sin. 
This individual told the people that if they would give him ont 
rtfpee apiece, he would take upon himself the whole responsibility 
pf thejr sins, and would secure to them a perfect release fropj future 
punishment; and they njigbt give themselves no mojre concern 
about the matter. Two hundred of them were foolish enough to 
believe this deceiver ; and how many more are deceived in like 
manner by others, it would be impossible to telK It becomes the 
Christian to pray that these benighted Hindoos may find the true 
Gooroo, even the Lord Jesus Christ, who alonie is able to take 
away the sin of the wojrld, 

IN INDIA. 225 

A deceiver of the people. 

away sin; p-nd must not this gooroo be sinless 1 
Where can such an one be found 1 Surely, not in 
this world. - , 

Hind. Yes ; he who shows us the way to be 
saved, and expounds to us the Shastru, is our goO' 
roo. There are many gooroos. f ^ ^^ 

Miss. But who is able to take away your sins 1 
Surely, not your gooroos, for they are sinners, and 
need gooroos for themselves. 

Hind. But if a man believes that he himself is a 
gooroo, then he will be one. 

Miss. What! what ! a sinful man believe that he 
is able to guide and instruct himself, and be his own 
gooroo 1 You know that a sirdess person is, even 
according to your Shastru, necessary to take away 
the sins of sinful men ; there is a sinless gooroo, the 
Jugud'gooroo, (Saviour of the world) and besides him 
there is no other. Pay attention, while we tell you 
of this gooroa ^ . 

Hmd. Hear, .hear. ''::]:^.:'y^y-i-^^ 

We then began to tell the people of their sinfulness ; 
the need they had of a Saviour, whose character was 
described, and that the name of this true and only 
Jugud'gooroo (Saviour of the world) is Jesus Christ. 

The name of Jesus being mentioned, immediately 
one of the crowd, for the sake of drawing off the 
attention of the people from the subject, which seem- 
ed to interest some of them, cries out, "Give me a 
book ; " another said, " Who is this Jesus Christ ?" 
and another said, "Come to-morrow, and we will 


Christ, an oifence to the heathen. ' Opposition to the Gospel. 

hear you on this subject." In the midst of this con- 
fusion, it was useless to attempt to give them any 
further instruction. We told them that we must 
leave them, as their conduct was disorderly. We 
gave a few tracts to some near us, and the others 
were snatched from us*, and the men had a perfect 
scuffle for them, among themselves. While they 
were contending for the tracts, we pushed our way 
through the crowd, and walked off, followed by 
many, who shouted after us, " Yct-shu nu-ko, yd-shu 
nu-ko, Krishnoo ddve cihd.'^^ Away with Jesus, away 
with Jesus ; Krislmoo is God. Others cried out, 
" Ram is God, Ram is God ; " and others followed 
after us, shouting, hallooing, and clapping their 
hands. Never in my life had I such feelings as 
then. Here we had come, in the exercise of love 
for the souls of these perishing thousands, to tell 
them of Jesus, and of the way of salvation through 
Him ; but like the rebellious and hard-hearted JeAvs 
of old, they cried out against the Lord of life, say- 
ing, " Awa}?^ with Jesus ; away with Jesus ! " Oh, 
that this sin may not be laid to their charge ! May 
they yet hear, believe, repent and live. 

As we walked away from these enraged idolaters, 
one man, an aged Brahmun, came alongside of us, 
and making his salaain, spoke in an apparently kind 
manner. Pointing to Dajeba, he asks, "Who is 
he?" We told him, that he was once an idolater, 
but that he had thrown away all his idols, and now 
worships Jesus Christ. "And what does he eat 

IK ind!a. 227 

All attempt to injure us. A false report* 

now ?" The same kind of food that he iised to 
eat,* we replied. We then told him, that the peo- 
ple had acted very insolently.; that it was a shame 
to them ; and should they come to Bombay, or to 
our country, we would not treat them so. As it 
was then near night, and not knowing the way out 
of this walled town, he offered to show us the w^ay, 
saying, "Follow me, and 1 will show )^ou the way 
out." We did so, and this wily deceiver led us to 
the brow of the hill, where the wall had been broken 
down, and stepping aside, stopped suddenly, and 
said, "That is the way ; go on." We, at once, saw 
our danger, and drew back. A few steps more 
would have tumbled us down the hill, (which, at 
that place, is exceedingly steep), and the fall would 
inevitably have broken our limbs, if not cost us our 
lives. We were not prepared for the exhibition of 
such consummate depravity, (for the man most evi- 
dently designed to maim or kill us) and for a mo- 

* The above question has a point in it which is not perceived 
by every one. The cow is held sacred by the Hindoos. They 
know that all Europeans in the country eat meat df various 
kinds, and that \he flesh of their favourite deity is eaten by them. 
In consequence of this, the prejudices of many of the heathen, 
especially the Brahmuns, are excited against all foreigners. The 
Brahmuns report that Christian people meet together, at times, 
to eat bread and drink brandy (referring to the sacrament), and 
that those who become converts to Christianity, become so, not 
from a sense of duty, but for the purpose of getting brandy and 
beef to use ; and moreover, that the Missionaries pay these con- 
verts a large sum of money to induce them to renounce Hindoo- 
ism 1 ! Hence the question, " What does he eat noiof* 


A providential escape. The kind boys. 

ment were confounded. The crowd behind us stood 
in silent amazement; and if God bad not restrained 
ihem at the time, and witiiheld them from pressing 
onward, they would, most assuredly, have pushed 
us over. To the restraining grace of God, and His 
kind and providential care, do we ascribe our deliver-^ 
ance, at this moment, from the danger that threat- 
ened us. Having collected our thoughts, we spoke 
to the people, and asked them what they thought of 
the conduct of that Brahmun towards us, (who, in 
the meantime, had made his exit) and, after some 
remarks upon the wickedness of liis conduct, asked,^ 
if there was any one present whom we could trust, 
to show us the way out of the town 1 Two httlei 
boys said they would show us the way, and bade us 
follow them. We did so, and they conducted us 
safely to our place of lodging. ■ ■ 

One of these boys told us, that the design of the 
Brahmun was, to have us tumble down the hill, with ?^ 
the view of injuring us. They thought it a wicked 
thing in him to do so. We told these lads, of the 
way of life through Jesus Christ ; and that, as they 
had been kind to us, we would reward tliem each 
with a bound copy of the New Testament. We wrote 
their names and our own in two copies, and present- 
ed the same to them, in the hope that, through the 
blessing of God upon the Word, they may be led to 
the Saviour. ~ 

While conversing with these lads at the chowdey, 
a Hindoo approached, and asked us for a book. 

IN INDIA. * 229 

The village of Pytuu. 

"What kind of a book do you want ?" we asked. He 
replied,— "The story of Ru-ku-me-nee, (one of 
the Hindoo goddesses)." We do not keep such 
useless and vile books, but if you will receive it, we 
will give you a book about Jesus Christ. He re- 
ceived the tract frona us, and making his salaam, re- 
tired. Many others called for books, till it was quite 
late, and we refused to give any more away till the 
next morning. > 

From what we have seen to-day, of the spirit of 
this people, we are authorised to say that the distri- 
bution of the word of God in this village, may be 
attended with some danger, and, no doubt, a large 
share of reproach. The people were exceedingly 
opposed to the Gospel, and were determined to show 
it. The tracts distributed will, we hope, open their 
eyes, in some degree, to see, and to acknowledge 
the truth. We have done our work in this village 
for the present, and leave the result with God, who 
has promised that His Word shall not return unto 
Him void. 

The village of Pytun belongs to the Governmefat 
of Hydrabad, or, as it is called, the J^zanCs Terri- 
tories,* and contains, according to the most approved 

* In the year 1713, Mzam-ool-Moolk, the founder of the pre- 
sent dynasty, was deputed firom Delhi to the Dekhun as Viceroy ; 
in 1723, he assumed sovereignty oyer all the Moghul possessions, 
south of the-Nurbudda river. He died in 1748. The territory 
has been much extended since that time, by his children, and his 
successors to the throne. The king on the throne at Hydrabad 
is cidled the Mzanif by Europeans only, and the whole country, 


The era of Shalewahan. 

■ ., . . ' I ■ ■ I I 11 ■ ' ■ j ■ — 

estimate, twenty thousand inhabitants. The prin* 
cipal part of these are Brahmuns. This being the 
fact, and the circumstance also that we are not in 
the country over which the Hon. East India Com- 
pany exercise their authority, may have induced the 
people to show, to-day, so much opposition to the 
truth. It is very easy to perceive where native au- 
thority is uppermost ; more especially, perhaps, when 
that authority can be exercised against the Gospel. 
It is, to the Christian, a pleasing thought that the 
kingdoms of this world shall become the kingdoms 
of our Lord, and of His Christ. 

In the first century of the Christian era, Pytun was 
the capital of Shale wEihun, a powerful sovereign of 
India, whose dominions included the greater part of 
the Dekhun. The site of his palace is still pointed 
out by the people ; and several large pillars of hewn 
stone, still standing, are said to have been erected 
by him. He is the founder of the era which bears 
his name, and according to which the Mahratta 
people reckon time. He arose about the year 78, 
A. D. From the signification of his name. Shale 
(wood), and loahun (a vehicle), he being represented 
as borne upon a cross of that wood, (Shorea robusta) 
and the circumstances of his birth, he is identified 
by colonel Wilford with Christ. 

subject to the Massulraan power at Hydrabad, is called "the 
Nizam'' s Territory.'' 

IN INDIA. 231 

Akul-wa-ree. Zeal of Hindoos in erecting temi^es. 


27th. We left Pytim early this morning, for Hur- 
see-Purseef a snfiall village, containing about twenty 
houses, and about twelve miles distant. On our 
way, we passed through the village of Akul-wa-ree, 
Sol-na-poor, and Dao-wardee. Akul-wa-ree is a 
small village, containing only twelve houses which 
are inhabited. Before reaching the village, we saw 
three Brahmuns engaged in their religious ablu- 
tions, in a small stream. Having gained their at-r 
tention, we told them of the plan of salvation, to 
which they listened with considerable attention, and 
then passed on to the village. Here we stopped be- 
fore the door of one of the temples, and preached to 
the few who assembled to hear us. None of them 
seenied disposed to. make any reply. We gave 
tracts to all who could read, and to the Brahmuns 
whom we saw at the stream, and who, having 
finished their ablutions, had come to hear what we 
had to say further about Christ. We have been 
struck, during the whole of onr tour, with this fact, 
that however poor the people in any village may be, 
and however small that village may be, still we 
have not found one village in which there was not 
at least one temple, and in many cases, four. A 
village without a temple is a very rare thing among 
the Hindoos, so far as my observation has extended ; 
and to these the people, however poor, resort with 

232 MissiaNAAr journal 

A reproof to Christians. Stdnapoor. 

ti- ■ — ^ — • 

offerings of some kind or other, to present them to 
their helpless and lifeless gods. Would that Chris- 
tian people, in a Christian land, were as zealous in 
erecting churches to Jehovah, as these heathen are 
in erecting temples to their gods.* Here are only 
twelve dwellinghouses, and the thirteenth is a tem- 
ple, but they have no school: yea, and they are 
without God. 


Came to Sol-na-poor. This village contains from 
fifty to sixty houses, built of brick baked in the sun. 
They all look old, and are in a state of decay. The 
village is in the midst of an extensive plain, and is 
shaded by a few trees. Near the village, the col- 
lector of the government taxes, who at this time is 
travelling through the district on this business, had 
pitched his tent. A train of servants and a company 
of sea-poys (soldiers),f some of whom were on guard, 
were with him. We passed his tent, and went up 
to the gate of the village, where we conversed with 
a number of idlers, and distributed a few tracts. 
Leaving our horses in the charge of our ghora-wallas,1i. 
we approached the tent of the collector; carrying 

* I think it would be impossible to find a temple in India, 
which has not been paid for. They are out of debt. 

t This word, if pronounced as written, would be she-pa-ey 
and not sea-poy. - 

t Ghora-waUa, a horse-keeper. 

IN INDIA. 233 

Interview with the Nizam's collector.. The hookah. 

with us a copy of the New Testament and a few 
tracts. We made our Salaam, and the guard per- 
mitted us to pass on. Coming to the collector, we 
made our Salaam, which was returned by many of 
those who sat around him. We found the collector, 
a good looking Hindoo, and of a more fair com- 
plexion than the most of them, sitting on a mat, in 
the midst of his numerous attendants, before the 
door of his tent. His under garment was of silk, 
and around him was wrapped a long piece of fine 
woollen cloth, dyed red. On a mat in his tent, lay 
his gold watch ; behind him was his hookahy* with 

* The liookah is the Indian smoking-pipe. It consists of a large 
bowl, or bottle, with a long neck, made of brass, glass, silver or 
clay, to suit the purse of the purchaser, which is filled with water 
nearly up to the top. Through the neck of this bottle, which is 
made air tight, two hollow tubes pass. The one, which is made 
to hold the mixture of tobacco, opium, sugar, &c. which is used, 
passes down into the water : the other passes into the bottle, but 
not into the water. To the outer end of this t^be is attached a. 
long flexible tube, with a silver mouth-piece affixed to it. .This 
tube may be as long as the person chooses, generally &om ten to 
twenty feet. By drawing this tube, a yacuum is formed in the 
bowl, which is filled by the smoke forced through the other tube 
by the weight of the atmosphere on the top, and the smoke is 
thus extracted, cooled, and purified by passing through the water. 
The person using the hookah has a man to carry it for him, pre- 
pare it, ^c. Many Europeans have become attached to this in- 
strument of }uxury/and po attached, that tjiey ofle9 smoke while 
lying in bed. When a man rides in a palankeen, and chooses to 
smoke in the meantime, his hookah-bearer holds the bowl of the 
hookah, and runs alongside of the palankeen. To a Mussulman, 
or a wealthy Hindoo, it is ranked among the indi^pensables. 


Interview with the collector. 

which he had been regaling himself; his fingers, 
adorned with large gold rings, were employed the 
most of the time in stroking into its proper position 
the long hair on his upper lip. His countenance 
was stern, and his heavy eyebrows and piercing 
look seemed to say that caution must be used in ap- 
proaching him. We asked several questions, which 
were readily answered by a Mussulman attendant. 
On their inquiring who we were, we told them, and 
proceeded to tell them also our business. "We go," 
we said, " from place to place, distributing the word 
of God and preaching to the people, and all those 
who wish to have books concerning the Christian 
religion, we give them to them gratuitously.- We 
believe there is only one true and living God, who 
should be worshipped by all men, in spirit and in 
truth ; that all men are sinners, and that there is 
only one Saviour for ail men, viz., Jesus Christ, and 
that all who believe in Him will be saved ; and that 
besides Him there is no other Saviour, and no other 
way of salvation. 

When this was mentioned, the collector, who had 
kept silent, spoke, and said ; — " The Hindoo people 
have their own teachers, the Brahmuns, who can 
instruct them, and as they teach, so will they walk. 
You are the teachers of your own people. Go, and 
teach them. You have no authority in this coun- 

Miss* True, we have no authority in the Nizam's 
territory ; but we read the Shastrus and the Koran, 

IN INDIA. 235 

Tbe eoUector refuses the Scriptures. 

and having examined the true way, we may con^ 
verse about these things with others. When two 
stones are struck together, then sparks are elicited ; 
so when two minds are brought into contact, then ^ 
may the truth be brought out. 

At this he held down his head, and endeavoured 
to conceal the smile which it produced. Some of 
the company gave their heads the toss of approba- 
tion, and smiled. Others said, — "True; well said, 
Sabib." As we had come into his presence un- 
called, and although his sternness was now changed 
into a suppressed smile, we judged it prudent to retire 
as politely and quickly as possible. We presented him 
a copy of the Scriptures and a few tracts, and begged 
he would accept of them ; but he refused to take 
them, saying, — " I have been at Calcutta, and at Be- 
nares, and have enough of books ; but if he (pointing 
to an attendant near him) wishes them, he can take 
them." The Hindoo referred to took them, and read 
a portion in the New Testament. A Mussulman 
began to read one of the Hindoosthanee tracts. 
While they were thus employed, we made our Sa- 
laam and came away. Before we had mounted our 
horses, to proceed to the next village, the book and 
tracts were returned to us by the hand of a servant, 
with the message that the books were not needed. 
The person who brought them could read; we gave 
them to him, desiring him to keep them, or give 
them away to whomsoever he pleased. We left the 
place rejoiced that we had disposed of even om copy 


Daowaree. • Decrease of population. 

of the New Testament; God may, and we hope will, 
bless it to the good of many, and make even the 
collector feel that, although he has many books, yet 
one more is necessary. ^ v h^ 

It seemed proper to us not to say any thing or do 
any thing that might tend to excite the anger of 
the collector against us, as it might tend to preju- 
dice his mind against future Missionaries. And as 
we had no passes from the English Government, the 
most prudent plan for us seemed to be, to get away 
as gently as possible, 


We rode to Dao-waree, a village about four miles 
from Sal-na-poor. This village, a few years ago, 
contained seventy-five houses, but there is scarcely 
half that number now, and the most of these houses 
are like those in many of the villages through which 
we have passed, in a decaying state. What has 
become of the people who once filled these villages, 
we know not. It would seem as if the population 
in this part of the country is on the decrease. Per- 
haps the oppression which many of them experience 
from the native rulers, drives them to those places 
where they can enjoy more freedom from oppression, 
and be more likely to obtain a livelihood. 

We stopped in this village about an hour and a 
half, and during that time talked with nearly all the 
men in the village, and gave away a number of 

IN INDIA. 237 

Hursee-Pursee. Singing beggars. 

tracts. Nothing special occurred here. There is 
no school in this village, yet we found many of the 
adults who could read. Hunooman has one temple, 
but no one seems to have religious zeal enough to 
keep it clean, or in repair. In many places, the peo- 
ple appear to be tired of idolatry, and groan under 
the burden which it imposes on them. It is indeed 
a grievous yoke of bondage under which they 
groan. The Lord send them deliverance speedily. 


Leaving Dao-waree, we came on about three and 
a half miles, to the small village of Hursee-Pursee. 
Here we found a good chowdey, and stopped for the 
night. In our walk this evening, we found ,a com- 
pany of singing beggars,^ and invited them to come 
to the chowdey. They did so, and at our own re- 
quest sang and played a few minutes, and then 
began to tell us the story of one Gopel-chund, an an- 
cient king of Bengal, who, in his distress of mind 
in consequence of the death of his relations, was ad- 
vised to apply to gooroos and gosavees for comfort, 

* There are a great many of this class of people:, who travel 
about the country, singing songs, and playing on their rude in- 
struments, and telling stories. They depend upon the contribu- 
tions of their hearers. They only get a scanty support ; but 
such is their fondness for tl^a vagrant life, that they cannot be 
induced to give it up. When we found this little company y 
they were seated by a tank, eating their scanty meal, which con- 
sisted only of rice cakes, and the water drawn from the tank. 


Preaching to the singing beggars. 

J ^ . ■■-- . ■ , ■■ ■ , . __ _ — '■ ■ ■ 

Sic. On asking the narrator how long the story 
was, he replied,- — " It would take me three days to 
tell it." We concluded we had enough of it, and 
caUing in all our coolies, and others, we told Dajeba 
to tell the people of a better gooroo than those to 
whom Gopel-chund made application for comfort. 
Dajeba then told them of Jesus Christ ; read a por- 
tion of Luke, chap, xiii., and after expounding it and 
praying with them, they were dismissed. As the 
singers expected to be paid, we told them that they 
went about telling the Hindoos stories about kings, 
and singing songs, and received pice from them; 
but we went about telling them of the only true 
God, the King of Kings, and asked nothing from 
them, and so could not give them any money. If 
they would take tracts, we would supply them. 
They took a few from us. Before they left us, we 
talked to them about the impropriety of healthy and 
strong men travelling through the country to tell 
stories, and exhorted them to leave off their present 
work. "But how can we do so," they replied. 
"How, then, would our bellies be filled .?" We hope 
the word of God which they will have with them, 
may be blessed to them and others. If these men, 
inured to hardships as they are, had but the spirit of 
Christ, and the Jove of God in their hearts, what 
immense good they might do, by going from place 
. to place preaching the Gospel of the kingdom. 
But now, their only object is to obtain enough to eat 

IN INDIA. 239 

Ctainchkur. The temple of Khundoba. 

and drink, and be at ease in this world : the future 
state gives them but little or no concern. 

The country over which we passed to-day, looked 
pretty well. A large portion, however, of the land, 
remains uncultivated. 

Tuesday, 28th. Left Hursee-Pursee early in the 
morning, and came to Chinch-kur, about ten miles, 
where we stopped during the day. We passed 
through the villages of Neem-gau, Pan-chor, and 
Kur-de-gau. In all these villages, which contain 
about seventy houses, we stopped but a short time ; 
sufficient, however, to tell the people something 
about the Saviour, and to distribute tracts to all the 
readers we could find. 

At Chinch'kur we stopped in an old and forsaken 
temple of Khundoba. This building is handsome 
yet, though the rude hand of time has defaced it 
much. It is built of hewn stone. A small door 
leads into a wide and spacious room of about twenty- 
five feet square. The roof is supported by large 
stone pillars, which are beautifully carved and highly 
polished. The floor of this room is of polished stone. 
It was once the ornament of the village, and the 
pride of the surrounding country. And to this tem- 
ple in days gone by, thousands upon thousands of 
people resorted, to pay their adorations to the stupid 
image, which still occupies its place in the adytum 
of the temple. But it is now deserted. The whole 
place is looked upon, by the natives, as defiled, and 
the temple unfit to worship in. It was for once. 


Conversations with the people. Gospel needed. 

turned to good account, , viz. affording, as it did, two 
weary Missionaries a resting place, and sheltering 
them from the heat of the day, while they made 
known to many of fhe idolaters of the land, the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ. After telling the people 
present of the way of salvation, we spent the re- 
mainder of the time in asking and answering ques- 
tions. The Patel* of the village being present, we 

Miss. Whose temple is this 1 

Patel. Khun-dO'hcHs temple. 

Miss. And who is Khun-do-ba ? 

Patel. Whether he is a god or a devil, how should 
I know? -.-v; 

Miss. And do you and your people worship him, 
without knowing who or what he is 1 

Patel, Yes; as our fathers have done, so will we 

How true it is, that they worship they know not 
what ; and how can they know the true God, and be 
saved, if Christian people do not furnish them with 
the Gospel. 

We requested a man present to bring us a secrf of 
milk, as we were thirsty, and the water was not 
good. He replied, that " All the cows were dead, 
and no milk could be had in the village." " But 
why," we replied, " do you thus tell us a falsehood 1 

* The Patel is the hereditary local manager of a village, and 
frequently the chief man in the place. 

\ A seer is nearly a quart of our measure. 

IN INDIA. 341 

Incivility of a native. 

We saw more than fifty cows on the plain before we 
entered the village, and surely milk can be had." 
" No, no," he added, " they are all dry." Shortly 
after, one of our servants came in with a seer of 
milk for us, thus proving the falseness of the Hin- 
doo's assertion. This is mentioned, to give a speci- 
men of Hindoo laziness, and indifference, as exhi- 
bited by many of them, to what may be called the 
civilities even of heathenism. 

During our stay in this temple, a number of peo- 
ple called to see us, and to converse with us. We 
found only one man who felt disposed to advocate 
the worship of idols, and he was a young and con- 
ceited Brahmun, who had been at Bombay about 
eight years ago, according to his own account, and 
had heard of Jesus Christ at that time. 

Miss. And who told you about Jesus Christ? 
Brahmun. Just such men as you are. 
Miss. Did you get any tracts from them 1 
(His answer we forget; but our impression is that 
he did not get any). 

Miss. What was the name of the gentleman who 
told you of Jiesua Christ? 

Brah. How should I know? I did not ask his 
name, nor have I asked yours, and how then should 
I know 1 

The haughty manner of speaking used by this 
Brahmun, led us to drop the conversation with him. 
Another man approached us, and being more polite. 


The knowledge of Christ received from a tract. 

we conversed with him. After telling him about 
Jesus, and the way of salvation, we asked, "Did 
you ever hear of Jesus Christ before to-day?" He 
replied, that he had. That he had been at Jam- 
kair, a village about five kos (ten miles) from us on 
the other road, which leads from Ahmednuggur to 
Jaulna, and had seen some tracts in the house of a 
Brahmun, which had been left by two Padres a 
year ago. These tracts he had read, and in this 
way had obtained considerable knowledge of the 
Christian religion, though he had not seen the Mis- 
sionaries. This infoiination rejoiced us much, and 
cheered us in the work of distributing the word of 
God among the people. These tracts, it appears, 
were preserved by the Brahmun, in whose possession 
they were, and his friends and others were not de- 
barred from reading them. Would that there were 
hundreds of men engaged in the blessed work of 
distributing tracts throughout this extensive country. 
Here is work for the thousands of young men in 
Christian lands to do. May many be inclined to 
come and do it. 

After conversing a while with this man, another 
came. --• ■ - " 

Miss. Who are you? we asked. 

Brahmun, I am a Brahmun. (This he spoke with 
much self complacency). 

Miss, Sit down. Who are Brahmuns? 

Brah, They belong to the high caste. 

xMiss, Before God there are only two castes, viz. 


IN INDIA. 243 

The Muhar. Tbe Brahmun's high claim. 

the holy and the unholy caste. If a Muhar* should 
fc^sake all his sins, and should worship God, then he 
would belong to the holy or high caste ; and if a 
Brahmun should continue in his idolatry and sin, he 
would belong to theiow? diViA unholy caste before God. 
Is not this the truth? ^^^^^^ ^ : 

Brah. Not so ; Brahmuns are dev-a-cha aunsh, 
a part of God. '^ ; - 

JMiss. If you lake a piece of gold, and cut off a 
portion of it, will not both pieces be alike pure ] 

Brah, Yes. ., , ,; , ■,^.,.:,, 

JWiss. If then the Brahmuns are a part of God, 
will they not be pure and holy like God 1 But are 
not the Brahmuns sinful] Do 1 hoy not deceive the 
people, and falsify, as well as others? Do they not 

* In the opinion of a Brahmun, a Muhar is the lowest of 
the low, in the scale of human degradation. The shadow of a 
Muhar falling on a Brahmun pollutes him. If a Muhar should 
enter any Hindoo temple, it would be polluted. If he should 
draw water from a well, or tank, the water would be polluted, 
and unfit for the use of other castes. If a Muhar listens to 
the reading of the Shastru, (Hindoo sacred book) he is by 
Hindoo law, condemned to the punishment of having hot lead 
and tin poured into his ears; and if he should speak a sentence 
of this sacred book, he is, by the same law, condemned to have 
his tongue cut out. This is the spirit of Hindooism which many, 
in a Christian land assert, is sufficient to guide the Hindoo to 
heaven without the aid of the Christian's Bible and the Holy 
Spirit. Ah ! it is the spirit of the Evil One. And without the 
Gospel, the people must perish. Such are the severe laws, as 
recorded in the statutes of Munoo ; but now, they cannot be put 
in force, at least in those places where the Honourable East In- 
dia Company e:xercise their power. ' ' 


Conversation with a Priestess. 

dip their feet or toes in water, and give it to the peo- 
ple to drink, telling them it is holy water, and if they 
will only drink it, and give them money for it, their 
sins will all be forgiven T v 

Several Hindoos smiled, and said, "It is true. 
Sahib. The Brahmuns, and all men are sin^s." 
(The Brahmun kept silent). 

J\Iiss. As this is the fact, we ask you again, how 
can sin be pardoned 1 

One Hindoo replies, "How should 1 know?" 
another says, " Do you tell us." 

We then, having gained their attention, told them 
at length, of the only way of salvation through the 
Lord Jesus Christ. The readers were supplied with 

After conversing with the people who came to 
see us, we walked out into the village to see the 
place and to converse with others. We found but 
few to speak to. There is a large temple of Khun- 
dO'ba in the village, which is not forsaken. We 
entered this temple and conversed with an aged man 
and woman. They officiated in the capacity of priest 
and priestess, but are ignorant, and cannot read. 
These are the persons to instruct the worshippers 
and counsel those who may come to them as to their 
duty, &c. Their ignorance of letters, forms no dif- 
ficulty in their way, for the command " the priests* 
lips should keep knowledge," finds no place in the 
Hindoo sacred book. Ignorance among them forms 
uo barrier to the priesthood. Seeing a number of 

IN INDIA. 245 

A Priestess married to an idol. 

idols of the same kind in the temple, we offered to 
purchase some of them; but they refused. In some 
instances We have bought idols from the people. If 
a good offer be made for an idol, the man's covetous 
feeling often prevails over his prejudices, and he 
will sell his gods formoney, knowing that he can sup- 
ply their place at a much cheaper rate than what he 
has made us pay for those he has sold us. 

Pointing to some cushions lying on the floor, we 
asked, "What are these?' The priestess replies, 
:« God's bed." :^-r:::].-^^:-^^ 

Miss, And does your god go to sleep? 

Priestess. When I wash him, then I lay him down 
on the bed till I prepare the clothes, &c. for him. 

Miss. But can he not take care of himself? 

Priestess. Humph. (No other answer to this ques- 
tion), 'l--:: :::^y.:y}r- }:y :■■:■'::. ■) -_:::■■-:■::::: 

Miss. And who is this aged mani Is he your 
husband? ^.\--::'^'.''-:--:'r:::\::r\\^-:^^ 

Priestess. No ; I am married to God, (meaning the 
idol). He is my husband. 

Miss. Have you any children ] 

Priestess. No. Wonh you give me somejwce? 

Miss. I will purchase one of the idols, if you 
choose, but cannot give you any money. 

This she refused to do, and after telling these 
aged idolaters, who are on the verge of the grave, 
for the first time, of the only way by which a sinner 
can be saved, we left them to go and bear the same 
news to others. 


Umbur. Hindoo zeal decieasing. 

■■ ^ '■■■ " ■ !■ ■ ■■ - - I I ■ ■ ■- !■.. ■ , I ■ _ ■■■I. I ,■ ■- ■ ■ ■ ■ . - I ■ .1 .^i. - ,^ 

This village contains about one hundred houses, 
and is, so far as we could learn, without a school. 
Thepeople complain of their poverty, and thehardness 
of the times, but all their temporal distresses do not 
lead them to see that the hand of God is upon them 
for their iniquities. Truly, " They are estranged from 
God through their idols, and the land is defiled under 
the inhabitants thereof, and therefore God scattereth 
abroad the inhabitants. He maketh it waste, and tum- 
eth it upside doirn." 


Leaving Chinch-kur, we came to Um-bur, a large 
village, containing about two thousand houses, a 
distance of six miles, where we stopped in a large 
chowdey, built by the native government for the ac- 
commodation of travellers. One part of it is reserv- 
ed as a praying place for the Mussulmen. 

To-day we have travelled about eighteen miles, 
and passed through a portion of the country which 
has once been thickly settled. Only a small por- 
tion of the land is now under cultivation, and all 
the towns, and' houses, and temples, and tanksj and 
musjids show that the religious zeal of the people is 
broken^ and the spirit of public benevolence is gone. 
The land looks like desolation personified. Unless 
something takes place ere long to arouse the people 
ftom their lethargic state, they will, in many places, 
inevitably be brought to starvation. Poverty and 

IN INDIA. 247 

The state of the country and people. The temple of Khimdoba. 

— ■ ■ ■■■-■■■-■■ — J 

wretchedness abound. The Gospel of Jesus Christ 
can save them temporally and spiritually, and with- 
out it, they are undone. The proverb, " the wealth 
of India " has ceased to be true; it should now be, 
" the poverty of India." It does appear that this, too, 
is one grand means which God is using to prepare 
this people to receive the Gospel. The oppressive 
measures of these petty princes, and the avaricious- 
ness of the Brahmuns, the priests of the people, have 
so weighed down the spirits of the cultivators, that 
many of them have given up in despair; have left 
their lands, and have gone off to seek a scanty sup- 
port by other means. A large proportion of the 
revenue of the country is in this way cut off. The 
rich and the poor feel sensibly, that it is not with 
them now as formerly, and the pride and haughti- 
ness of all is brought down. But they must be 
brought lower still ; and God will do it. He will 
make their poverty aid in converting them to the faith 
of the Gospel. , " 

Wednesday, 29th. We walked out early this 
morning to visit the temple of Khundoba, which 
stands on a high hill, to the southeast of the vil- 
lage. The ascent to the gateway of the temple is 
by a flight of steps of hewn st<}ne. They are eleven 
paces wide, and about sixty feet in a perpendicular 
height. The ascent is easy. As there was no per- 
son present, and the door not being locked, we en- 
tered it, and saw the filthy stone which the deluded 
multitudes adore. There is nothing about the tem- 


Illustration of Ezekiel, vi. 13. Converaation with a Fakeer. 

,1,1, ^- I 

pie differing from others that requires any special 
notice, except that a flight of steps leads up to the 
top of the temple, and affords those who wish to as- 
cend by them, a fine view of the country which lies 
beneath. From the roof of this temple, we passed to 
the top of the hill, in whose side this temple stands, 
and here we found an old and foisaken musjidy (a 
Mussulman praying place). It is still true as regards 
India, that on every high hill, and under every green 
tree, idols are set up. The high places of the land 
are, with few, if any exceptions, consecrated to idola- 
try. This fact illustraXes Ezek. vi. 13. ^ 

We returned for breakfast, much refreshed by our 
morning walk. On entering the chowdey, we found 
it filled with a variety of people. The farther end 
was occupied by a self-righteous Fa-keer,'^ (a Mus- 
sulman religious beggar). He had spread down his 
mat on the stone floor of the chowdey, on which he 
sat, and would not permit any one to come within a 
prescribed distance, while he, in his self-sufiiciency, 
lectured the people (the Mussulmen) on the duties 
of their religion. We had considerable conversation 
with this man, but could make no impression on his 
mind in favour of Christianity. We gave him a few 
tracts in Hindoosthanee, which, we hope, will benefit 
him spiritually. . 

About the centre of this building, are a few steps 
of stone raised up against the wall, which is hollowed 
out, so as to make a small recess. This part is sa- 

* Fa-&eer, a beggar, dervise. 

IN INDIA. 249 

Conversations in the chowdey continued. 

cred, and none, but Mussulmen, can approach it. 
Here, several had come, having left their shoes out- 
side*, and were repeating their prayers in Arabic, 
(which, it is highly probable, they did not under- 
stand), with their faces turned towards the wall, 
and in their opinion, towards Mecca. 

After breakfast, we walked inio the town, with a 
few tracts in our hands, with the view, principally, 
of drawing the attention of the people to the fact 
that we had come to preach to them, and to distri- 
bute tracts, and to invite them to call on us. Find- 
ing a convenient seat on the steps of a shopkeeper's 
house, we sat down. Dajeba was between us, and, 
on this occasion, was chief speaker. We, in turn, 
were supported by a Brahmun and by a Mussulman. 
After explaining to them the nature of our errand, 
and giving them a concise view of the Gospel 
scheme, Dajeba exhorted them to embrace the Sa- 
viour, and forsake all their vain and idolatrous ser- 
vices. We gave away all the tracts we brought 
with us, and invited the people to come to the 
chowdey, and we would converse more with them. 
We returned, followed by a great crowd of men and 
boys, to the chowdey, and here, from ten o'clock till 
three, we were almost constantly employed in con- 
versing with the people who gathered around us ; 

* No Hindoo or Mussulman will come into a temple or mus- 
jid, without putting off their shoes. The place is, to them, Jioly 
ground. On entering a house, they also put off their shoes ; we 
put off our hats. 


The Talookdar and his politeness. 

in answering their questions, and in placing the 
truths of the Gospel plainly before them. We ex- 
perienced, to-day, the great advantage of having 
such a helper as Dajeba, and saw, more and more, 
the wisdom of the Saviour's plan in sending out his 
disciples, "iwo and two" to preach the Gospel in the 
villages and cities of Judea. The people were ex- 
ceedingly attentive to all that was said. The doc- 
trine of salvation through Jesus Christ, was new to 
them. They had not heard of Him before, and 
were disposed to hear without caviUing or objecting. 
Immediately after our arrival in Umbur, the Ta- 
lookdar'^ sent his salaam to us, saying that the 
town was ours, and that if we stood in need of any 
thing, we should have it. We returned our salaam, 
accompanied with a copy of the New Testament, 
and of each of the tracts we had in our possession. 
While preparing to leave Umbur, another message 
came from the Talookdar, calling us to him, as he 
desired to see us. About half a dozen sea-poys, 
armed, were sent to escort us to the Kutcheree, (au- 
dience-chamber) of the Talookdar, where he was 
seated, in the midst of the officers of Government, 
and waiting to receive us. We did not know the 

* A talook, or pergunnah, formerly comprised all the villa- 
ges and lands protected by a fort. A Talook-dar is the possessor 
of this district. What particular powers this officer now has 
under the Nizam, I know not. His situation is much the same 
I should judge, as that of a governor in America, over one state, 
with this difference, that he is appointed by the prince to that 
station, and not chosen by the people. 

4N INDIA. - 251 

A visit to the Talookdar. A kind reception. 

object he had in sending for us, i)ut supposed his 
feelings were friendly, and therefore hastened to 
wait on him. When we arrived, we found a body 
of sea-poys, armed, before the door; through these 
we passed into the Kutcheree, and here we found the 
Talookdar, seated amidst his various officers of 
Government, more than thirty in number, who were 
hkewise seated around him, on mats, and all armed 
with swords and pistols. The Talookdar, was seated 
upon a platform, which was raised about a foot above 
the floor. A rich carpet was under him ; his back 
supported by a cushion covered with rich damask 
silk. His sword, mounted with silver, his watch, 
hookah, and silver snuff-box, lay on the mat beside 
him. When we came near him, he and all his officers 
arose and made their salaam, which" we as politely 
returned. The Talookdar sat down on one end of 
his carpet, and offered us a seat by him. Here we 
sat in honourable state, with our legs doubled up 
under us, for nearly an hour, asking and answering 

The Talookdar began by asking us whence we 
came, and where we were going. We told him ; 
and also told him our business, and then gave him 
a summary of the doctrines we taught the people. 
The command of Christ (Mark, xvi. 15) was then 
read, which explained to him the reason why we 
thus went about from place to place, and preached 
to the people. He then made particular inquiries 
as to our mode of sitHng'-^what we eat — wheny and 


Interview with the Talookdar and officers. 

how^ and h)Vi muck. To these inquiries, we an- 
swered, that we sat upon chairs, because sitting 
after their mode was rather painful to us ; that we 
eat from off a table, about three feet high ; that we 
used knives and forks ; that we eat three times a 
day; that in the morning we took coffee and bread; 
at noon, rice, meat, &c., and at night tea. "And do 
you only take tea at night ?" We replied, — "Yes ; 
a little brea;d also." Among the books sent him 
this morning, was a copy of the geography used by 
the boys in our schools ; this, with all the others, 
lay before him. We took the map, and pointed out 
to him the country of India, and then directed his 
eye to America, and told him that that is our 

Talook. I have heard of England, but I have 
never before heard of America. But are you not 

Miss. No; we are Americans. 

Talook. But you speak their language. 

Miss. True ; but our country is different, and our 
laws are somewhat different. 

Talook. What is the difference 1 

Miss. One thing is, we have no king. 

Talook. What ! no king ! How can you live with- 
out a king? (When they heard this, there was an 
universal expression of astonishment, which set all 
the company to talking. As soon as this subsided, 
we replied.) r 

Miss. The people of America meet in different 

IN INDIA. 253 

Our mode of govemmeBt astonishes them. 

places, once in four years, to choose a President, 
who remains in office for four years. If the majority 
of the people do not like him, they then put another 
man in his place. (At this, the Talookdar and his 
officers smiled). In this country, the people are the 
servants of the Raja, and they do as he commands 
them ; but in our country, it is different. Here the 
Raja can begin a war, and make the people fight for 
him ; but in our country, the President cannot begin 
a war unless the people are also willing. Here the 
Raja rides upon an elephant, and has a great many 
men with swords, and pistols, and spears, to defend 
him ; but in our country, the officers of government 
do not carry swords, and the President rides out 
alone, like another man, and never has a crowd 
about him, to protect him. Here, a Raja may have 
eight or ten, or twenty lacks of rupees as his income 
every year ; but our President has only half a lack. 
The people make their own laws, and try to keep 
them ; but you know it is different here. (After 
some further remarks on our part, the company 
broke out in expressions of astonishment, and in a 
general conversation on the subject. After a short 
time, the Talookdar again began his catechising). 

Talook. Are you not paid by the government 1 
(meaning the English Government.) 

Miss. The government protects us, but does not 

support us. The followers of Christ, in America, 

having heard of the ignorance of the most of the 

people in this country, and that they worshipped 



■^ ,, ■■—■■. ■■■■■% II ■ . I ■ . ,■ , - - I I r I I I, 

The Talookdar^s politeness 

. , . ■■ ■ ; ' 

idols, have sent us and others to tell them of a bet- 
ter way, and they support us, (This led him to ex- 
press his astonishment to his attendants). 

Talook. And do the Sahib loke hear your instruc- 
tions'? (meaning the Europeans and other Chris- 
tians in the country). 

Miss. We preach in English to them, and to the 
Hindoos in Mahratta. 

Talook. How long have you heen in this country 1 

Miss. Three years. 

Talook, And did you never study the Mahratta 
language till you came into this country 1 
? Miss. Never. 

Talook. Perhaps you would have something to 
eat; if so, I will order it. 

Miss. We have dined ; but if it be your pleasure 
to give us any fruit, we will accept it at your hands. 

He ordered a seapoy to go and bring some sweet- 
meats and fruit. The seapoy soon returned, having 
a quantity of sweetmeats and pomegranates. He 
took them, and politely cut the fruit for us with a 
silver knife, and on presenting them to us, said, 
*' These (the sweetmeats), were made in my house, 
and the pomegranates are from my garden, and are 
very fine.'* He then gave them to a seapoy to carry 
them to the chowdey for us, it being considered a 
breach of politeness to burden us with them. 

"V^hile the seapoy was gone after the fruit, we 
asked, - ^ /^r:' -^^-'■:"^■"^-■^^: -"-■::■--■'./• --v^^ 

Miss, Have you any schools in this village for 

IN INDIA. 255 

JScbools. Tfae Talookdar's person and appearance. 

your daughters? We perceive you have some for 
youv sons.* 

Talook. We have none, 

*Miss. There are schools for females in Calcutta 
and Bombay, and many are instructed in them to 
i*ead the word of God and to write. 

One of the officers replied, " True, but there were 
none till you (meaning Christian people) came into 
the counUy. It is not our custom to teach females." 

•Miss. But if your wives and daughters could read 
and write, it would be well. When absent from 
them, you could inform them by letter how you are. 
They could read God's word, &c. &c. Ours can do 

Officer. It may be so. (That is, it might be well 
for them to learn to read). 

We then gave them a more particular account of 
our Missionary operations, which were wholly free 
of expense to the Hindoos, and expressed our hope 
that, ere long, knowledge would be universal among 
all the different castes, and that tjie Hindoo people 
would become virtuous and holy. They all seemed 
to be highly gratified with our statements, and on 
coming away, they all arose, and gave us repeated 
salaams, expressive of their kind feelings to us, 
which we, as cordially returned. 

The Talookdar is a young man only twenfy-eight 

* There are in Umbur, five schools for boys ; three for Hin- 
doo youth, aad two for Mussulman children. 


, _ _ *■ I I I ■■! ■ I I II J, 

Lack of knowledge among the Hindoos. 

years of age, of a mild and expressive countenance, 
of a low stature, and exceedingly fat. His name is 
Govind Beesa, and he is of the Khutree caste, i. e. of 
those who work in silk. His native place is near 
Hydrabad. We were rather surprised that he Was 
so ignorant of European manners and customs. But 
it is probable, that he has never seen many Euro- 
peans, and as there are but few among them, who 
feel disposed to make any inquiry about the manners 
and customs of those of a different religion, whether 
in their own, or in a foreign country, we need not 
be surprised at the ignorance of the Talookdar in 
this instance. We have seen in Bombay, Brahmuns, 
who stood high among their own people for intelli- 
gence, and who, when questioned concerning the 
political and religious history and faith of their Mo- 
hammedan neighbours, would answer, "How should 
we know; we never made any inquiry; and it 
would not fill our bellies, (i. e. add any thing to our 
temporal enjoyment), if we did know all about them." 
To provide for the daily wants of the perishing body, 
seems to absorb the whole soul of the Hindoo. His 
immortal mind, is permitted to remain enveloped in 
all its ignorance, without making any proper efforts 
for its illumination. The great mass of the people, 
are content to do as their fathers did, and to wor- 
ship what their fathers worshipped, and whether 
that object be a god. or a devil, it matters not, pro- 
vided it be the custom of the people to do so. Cus- 

IN INDIA. 257 

Encouragement in our work. An interesting circumstance. 

torn with them, is a law, to which reason and con- 
science must submissively bow. ~ " > 

The treatment we received to-day from this truly 
polite Talookdar, and his equally polite assembly of 
ofiicers, was so perfectly the opposite of what we 
have lately experienced from the high and the low 
in authority, and the manner in which our message 
was received was so cordial and friendly, that it 
cheered our souls, and made ample amends for all 
the reproach and contumely which, for days past, 
we have had heaped upon us. It gives us new 
strength, and courage, and zeal in our work, to find, 
at times, the ears of this heathen people open to 
hear the words of life, although they may not cor- 
dially embrace, at this timie, the Gospel of the Son 
of God. \ 

A number of teapoys* coiiducted us back to the 
chowdey, and seemed to take a pleasure in waiting 
on us and in showing their kind feelings towards 
us. On entering the chowdey, we found a number 
of persons waiting for books. We gave away all we 
had with us, (our servants and boxes ai books hav- 
ing been sent on to the next village), except a few 
in our pockets, which we kept for those readers we 
might happen to meet on i he road. One man, how- 
ever, was not to be put off. He caught hold of Mr 
Read's horse, and refused to let him go, till he should 
give him a book. He gave him one, which he re- 
ceived with joy, and then permitted us to proceed, 

Native soldiers. 



Encouragement. Joyful hopes. 

giving lis at the same time^ his hearty salaam alai- 
koom.* (Peace be to you). 

We hope well for the work of this day. The fa- 
vour shown us by the Talookdar, brought us into fa- 
vour with all the people ; which must have a happy 
effect in making them prize the instructions, and the 
books they received from us. We hope that, from 
the kind manner in which he received us, our mes- 
sage, and our books, he may be induced to read the 
blessed word of God, which now, for the first time, 
has been brought within his reach. And who knows 
but that God designs, that this day's interview with 
this man and his officers of slate, shall be but the 
precursor of glorious things to him and to his people. 
The word of the kingdom of Christ, spread abroad 
among this people to-day, may be like the " leaven 
which a woman hid in three measures of meal, till the 
whole was leavened," powerful though silent, and 
certain in its operations, in bringing down into the 
dust, the idols of the land, and in constraining the 
people, with one heart and with one soul, to accept 
of Jehovah as their Lord and their God. For this 
we labour and pray, and may all the dear people of 
God unite with us in praying. Lord let thy kingdom 
come, and let thy will be done on earth, (and speedily 
among this heathen people), as it is done in heaven. 

* Salaam alaikoom corresponds to the Hebrew mode of salu- 
tation, from which it is taken, and which is still in use among all 
the Jews in this country, viz. shalom al lauchem, Peace be to 


IN INDIA. 259 

Parnair. Fimpuree. The blind boy. 


The first village we came to after leaving Umbur, 
was Parnair. Here we stopped a short time, and 
conversed with a number of people in and about the 
temple, which stands on the road side. They listen- 
ed attentively to all that was said, and were anxi- 
ous to obtain books ; but as all our books had been 
senton ahead, we were not able to comply with their 
request. We told them to come to Pimpulgau, where 
we hoped to stop for the night, and they could be 
supplied. They seemed disposed to do so. This 
village formerly contained seventy-five houses, but 
the number is now much reduced. 


Leaving Parnair, we came to Pimpuree. Outside 
of the wall, stands a temple of Hunooman, (the mon- 
key god). It is built of stone, and neatly chunamed 
(plastered), and adorned with a multitude of figures 
of men and gods on the outside, which are made of 
chunam. A few persons were assembled here, to 
whom the Gospel was preached. Seeing a poor 
blind boy sitting by the way side begging, and his 
aged father by him, I turned aside to speak with 
them, while Mr Read continued to speak to those 
at the temple. The father told me, that his son 
had become blind while a child, from the small pox; 


A proper object of charity. 

that he himself was aged, and unable to work; and 
that his son could not afford him any help ; and the 
only resourse left him, was to beg. The most of the 
beggars in India, are sturdy beggars, who could work, 
but are too lazy to do it. They are not objects of 
charity, nor are (hey to be pitied, if they should at 
times feel the pinching of hunger. But they sel- 
dom suffer. The superstition of the Hindoo? con- 
strains them to give, and to give liberally, to these 
religious beggars, fearing their curses, if they should 
withhold; but those who are in reality objects of 
charity, and have claims upon their sympathy, are 
frequently passed by unheeded and unregarded. I 
talked to this afflicted father and son for a few mi- 
nutes, and endeavoured to direct them to Jesus, 
who can enlighten the darkened understanding, and 
will give spiritual sight to all who come to him. 
While I talked to them of Jesus, I saw the big tear 
start from the sightless eyes of this poor boy. The 
father also wept ; nor could I refrain to shed the tear 
of sympathy for them. Oh ! how wretched, and how 
dreary must be the lives of this benighted father and 
son. The Gospel, if embraced, would cheer them 
in their journey of life; but of this, they have never 
heard till to-day, and perhaps, may never hear again. 
I gave them some money, and then bidding them a 
sorrowful "Peace be with yon," left them, not to 
meet again, till the heavens and earth shall be no 

I could not look upon the pitted face and sightless 

IN INDIA. 261 

Hindoo superstition concerning the smali pox. 

eyes of this Hindoo youth, without feeling distressed 
that the fooHsh superstition and prejudice of the peo- 
ple should leave their children exposed to the rava- 
ges of this 'disease (the small pox), which every year 
blinds many, deforms more, and sweeps multitudes 
of children fiom the earth. 

The small pox, is considered by the HindooSj as a 
ptinishment inflicted on them by the goddess Doorga, 
the wife of Sheve. They say, she takes possession 
of the bodies of individuals, and after tormenting 
them internally, makes her external appearance in 
the shape of the small pox. To propitiate the favour 
of the offended goddess, flowers of a particular kind 
are collected, and being strung together, are hung 
in festoons around the bed on >vhich the sick per- 
son is laid. Silence is also observed in the house 
for some time, and every thing is done by the friends 
of the afflicted one, to satisfy tlie goddess, that their 
superstitious rites prescribe. The consequence is, 
that multitudes of the children and youth die. When 
this happens, the friends endeavour to reconcile 
themselves to their fate (for they are all fatalists), 
in this matter, by saying, that Doorga would not 
accept their offerings. , 

The Honourable Company haver for years past 
employed physicians to vaccinate gratuitously all the 
native children and others that they can. They 
have succeeded in overcoming the prejudices of 
some of the natives in regard to vaccination, but 
still the prejudices of most of the people exist in all 


Prejudice against vaccination. Pimpulgau. Jaulna. 

their force against it. Dr J. A. Maxwell once told 
me, that in conversing with a wealthy and intelli- 
gent Hindoo on the subject of vaccination, he asked 
him, why he and many of the influential Hindoos 
opposed it, as he must believe that it was beneficial 
in guarding the person vaccinated against all the ill 
effects of the small pox. The man very candidly 
replied, that he was opposed to it, because he feared 
there was something in the matter which would in 
some way, he knew not how, intioduce Christianity 
into the system, and thus convert the Hindoos into 
Christians ! What an idea ! Whoever would have 
thought of converting sinners to the faith of the 
Gospel by inoculation, but a Hindoo ! How difficult 
to break down the prejudices of a superstitious and 
idolatrous people ! The work, however, is the 
Lord's, and He will do it. 

Leaving this village, we rode to PimpwZ-gaw, \v here 
we lodged for the night. Truly, we have here no 
abiding place. May we find rest, at last, in the 
presence of our Lord, 

/ * Jaulna. 

Thursday, SOth. This morning we sent off our 
luggage and tracts to Jaulna, reserving only a few 
for distribution in this village. The forenoon of the 
day we spent in conversing with the natives and in 
writing, and in the afternoon rode to Jaulna. 

Not knowing which road our servants and coolies 

IN INDIA. 263 

Lodging in a chowdey. 

had taken, we went first into Old Jaulna, but not 
finding them, we went to Jfew Jaulna, about one and 
a half miles distant, where the Honourable East In- 
dia Company have a subsidized force under the con- 
trol of the Madras Piesidency. The government 
is in th€ hands of the Nizam of Hydrabad. Since 
the establishment of a regiment of soldiers in this 
place, a large native village, containing many thou- 
sands of inhabitants, has sprung up.* Here we found 
our servants had pitched upon a dirty chowdey, in 
the Fulton Bazaar, for our lodgings. It was, how- 
ever, the best w^e could find. Having thrown a few 
handies1[ full of water upon the floor, to keep down 
the dust, and having hung up a curtain along the 
open front of the chowdey, to hide us from the gaze 
of the passing crowds, but not to free us from the noise 
without, we threw ourselves down upon our couches, 
to obtain some rest after our wearisome ride through 
the sun, and to be invigorated for our work among 
the people. It being such an unusual thing for any 
man, with awhite face, to put up in this filthy place, 
while so many Europeans lived so near at hand, and 
occupied such comfortable and spacious houses, that 
it drew the attention of the natives to us. They 

* The native population is between seventy -five and eighty 
thousand : the military force is about five thousand. 

t Handles are lat^e copper vessels, in universal use in India, 
for carrying water. They answer the place of our buckets. 
They are made with a large and bulging body, and narrow neck, 
and expanded mouth, and without a handle. They are carried 
on the heads of the people. 


Visits from the natives. ' Note to the Commandant. 

inquired of our servants who we were, and why we 
had come hither. Not satisfied with the answers 
they received, many of them made the same in- 
quiries of us. We told them our object in coming to 
Jaulna, was to preach to the Hindoos the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ, and to distribute tracts among them, 
and if they would retire now, and call in the morn- 
ing, we would converse more with them. We were 
(hen left alone. 

Having learned, on our arrival, that the only 
European known to either of us, Captain W., of 
this regiment, had, in consequence of ill health, left 
the station a few days ago, and knowing that it was 
our duty to report ourselves to the commanding offi- 
cer of the station, that we had arrived, and were 
within the cantonments, a note was sent to him by 
the hand of Dajeba, informing him of our arrival; 
that we were ministers of the Gospel; and where we 
then were stopping. - 

A seapoy accompanied Dajeba, who gave the 
Commandant our note. After perusing it, he inquired 
whether we wanted any thing to eat or drink. Da- 
jeba replied, that we had enough. Then, said he, 
^'Salaam holoj^ {give them my salaam). We were as- 
tounded at the question, and while we could not but 
smile at it, we indulged the idea that there must be 
some mistake about the matter, and that the morn- 
ing would throw light on it. ^ ^- 

Friday^ ^\st. We enjoyed a tolerable night's rest, 
notwithstanding the noise and the heat of the place. 


A Jainist priest — his idea of killing. 

After breakfast, we went out among the natives, 
with the view of conversing with them. At first 
none of them felt disposed to attend to us. Finding 
a school room, we stopped before the door, and con-, 
versed with the teacher, and gave away a few tracts. 
Shortly after, a crowd collected, and to these Dajeba 
spoke at length, and urged them to forsake idolatry, 
and turn to the Lord. After spending about two 
hours in the village, Mr Reed returned to the 
chowdey, followed by a crowd, to whom he preached 
and distributed tracts ; and I, accompanied by Da- 
jeba, turned aside to talk to others. 

In our walk, we came across an aged priest of the 
Jain sect. He was seated in a small room, attached 
to a shop kept by a Marwadee, and held in his hand a 
portion of the Bha-ga-wut Gee-ta, which he had been 
reading. He had a piece of muslin tied over his 
mouth, to prevent the saliva from falling on the sa- 
cred book, while in the act of reading, but especially 
to prevent anj'^ insects, as flies, gnats, musquitoes, ^c, 
from being killed by entering into his mouth : for, 
according to Jainist doctrine, "to abstain from 
slaughter is the highest perfection ; and to kill any 
living creature is sin." After a few cursory remarks, 
he told me that the religion of the Jains is the only 
* true religion in the world^that there is but one Grod 
— that this world is eternal, and so is matter of all 
kinds — that idols ought not to be worshipped — that 
it is by our own power we are born and die — that as 
there are many suns, many moons, and many stars. 


The Jainist prie'st— his sentiments. 

SO there are many ways by which to obtain happi- 
ness hereafter, but that the happiness which anyone 
enjoys here, or may hereafter enjoy, is, and must be, 
the purchase of his own good deeds. 

Having told me what he believed, I then told him 
that he was in an error, and made known to him the 
plan of salvation. I appealed to the people, who 
had collected together to hear us, for the truth of 
what I had said, and was gratified to find that their 
consciences were constrained to acknowledge, that 
they could not be saved by their own works of right- 
eousness, notwithstanding their efforts to believe the 
contrary. After directing him, and others, to the 
Saviour of sinnei^s, I gave them some tracts, and 
returned to the chowdej'^, where I found a crowd 
listening to Mr Read. 

The Jainas in India are not numerous. They 
assert that they have the true faith, and that the 
Brahmuns corrupted the true faith, and invented the 
four Vedes, and eighteen Purans, and all their absurd 
stories; the worship of the Lingum, the cow, and 
other sensible objects, all of which the Jainas reject. 
The Jainas opposed all these innovations, but with- 
out effect. The Brahmuns finally introduced sacri- 
fices. This was so repugnant to the feelings of the 
Jainas, that, although before this time they w^ere but 
one body, now they became completely separated. 
They formed a distinct body, composed of faithful 
Brahmuns, Kshutryus, or soldiers, Vaisya, or mer- 
chants, and Shoodroos, or cultivators. These 

IN INDIA. 267 

The Jainas and their doctrines. 

classes compose the posterity of all the ancient 
Hindoos who united to oppose the innovations of 
the Biahmuns. 

The rupture between these two sects, on points of 
faith, ended in a war, in which the Jainas were con^ 
quered. Their temples were broken down ; they 
were deprived of all civil and religious liberty, and 
were reduced to great distress. The spirit of en- 
mity which existed at the commencement of their 
separation, exists between them yet. The Brah- 
muns are now predominant, and the Jainas no where 
possess the land, or even confidential employments. 

The Jainas are now divided into two sects. They 
are called Basru and Swetambari. This latter sect 
is the largest. The distinguishing feature in their 
systerh is, that there is no Mokshu, or supreme bliss 
for mankindj other than the enjoyment of the sexes. 

They acknowledge one God, whom they call Pu- 
rum-atma, and who is possessed of infinite wisdom, 
knowledge, power, and happiness. They say, that 
he is wholly absorbed in the contemplations of his 
own perfections, and gives himself no concern about 
the affairs of men or this world, and that good and 
evil are alike indifferent to him. That matter is 
eternal and independent of God, they also believe. 
Those who do good in this world, will be rewarded 
by a happy birth in another body, or be taken into 
heaven; the wicked shall be punished,^ by taking 
Aiiother shape in some vile body, or be turned into 
hell to expiate tbejr crimes. The punishment in no 


The Jainas and their doctrines. 

case is eternal, as it never exceeds thirty-three thou- 
sand years, and never less than one thousand. 

The souls of women, not being considered equal 
to those of the men, are never doomed to experience 
in J^uruk, (hell) the sufferings of thirty-three thou- 
sand years. No woman, as such, can ever l>e quali- 
fied to enter heaven. 

After millions of transmigrations from body to 
body, all men will' be re-united to the Deity. 

In many particulars they agree with the Hindoos 
in their absurd notion of things ; but throughout 
their whole system, we find no acknowledgement of 
any thing like the grand and distinguishing feature 
of the Christian system, viz. that men are wholly de- 
praved, and cannot be saved without the help of an 
Almighty and perfectly holy Saviour. Truly, the 
millions of India, are still dtting in gross darkness. 
How can they be saved without the Bible, and the 
knowledge of Jesus, as the only Saviour 1 It is im- 
possible; "for as many as have sinned without law 
shall also perish without law." ^ ^ 

We took a walk this evening, after the labours of 
the day, to see the cantonment. The whole is beau- 
tifully laid out. The neat dwelling houses, and 
gardens, hedged in with the cactus, and well made 
roads, form a striking contrast with the adjoining 
Hindoo dwellings, gardens and walks; and show 
clearly, that the barren and waste places in a hea- 
then land, may be made to assume a beautiful ap- 
pearance, under the direction of a Christian people. 

IN INDIA. 269 

Teayoral good of Christianity. Labours among the people. 

„ — — — : .-*«>^ ■ 

If Christianity should be of no other benefit to the 
heathen, than to teach them to live more comforta- 
bly, and in less filth than many of them do, it would 
be of immense advantage to them. 

This evening, after tea, Mr Hamilton called to 
see us. He said he had seen two strangers walking 
in the evening, and upon inquiry, learned that they 
were stopping in a chowdey, in the bazaar. His 
object was to find out who we were, and to invite us 
to his dwellings He expressed his regret that we 
w^ere no better accommodated in Jaulna. At his 
request, we went to his house, and spent about two 
hours in Christian conversation \V^ith him and his in- 
teresting family, and after joining with them in their 
family worship, we returned to our chowdey. 

During the whole of this day, we have been 
busily employed in preaching to the people, and in 
distributing tracts, of which we have put in circula- 
tion several hundreds. Arabic, Cingalese, Marwadee 
and English tracts, were called for to-day, besides 
the Mabratta, Goo^iurattee ana"- Hindoosthanee. 
We were not able to gratify the applicants, as all 
our tracts now are in the three languages last 
named. ■, ' ;:;x^ -^"vvv^ •-^■.■'-;^■v:■-.■ 

Many respectable natives called on us to-day, and 
spent considerable time with us in conversation. 
They told us, that two Missionaries had been here 
a year ago, and had distributed a number of tracts 
among the people, and that many of the tracts had 
been taken from the seapoys,by one of the European 

X* . 


Tracts. Native Christians. Parsees in Jattlna. 

•^m^m^ mM I I ■ m ■■■■^M^^i^^M^^^^^M I I -■■-■ ■■■■■—■■»■■■ I.I I 1^— ^*»^iM^— ■ ■ II II I I ■■ ■ ^-^^B^^^^ 

oflScers at the station. They could not tell why 
these tracts should have been taken from them, as 
they thought they were good. Those who were 
deprived of their tracts last year, felt exceedingly 
desirous to obtain others, and assured us that they 
would take good care that these should not be taken 
from them. What the motives were, which should 
induce an European officer to take away Christian 
tracts from the heathen, over whom he had autho- 
rity, we do not presume to say. As to the fact that 
they jvere taken from them, there can be no doubt. 

A number of native Christians called on us to- 
day, and wished us to attend at their house of wor- 
ship, and baptize their children. Arrangements 
were made to meet them at 11 o'clock in the morn- 

In our walks to-day, we found a number of Par- 
sees, the most of whom liad come from Bombay to 
Jaulna, for the hope of gain. To these we gave a 
number of tracts,=and portions of the Scriptures, in the 
Goozurattee language, which they seemed glad to 
get. While they remained in Bombay, where 
tracts can be had without any difficulty, they ne- 
glected to obtain any, and indeed did not care much 
about them ; but here, removed to a great distance 
from their people, they seemed not only willing, but 
glad to obtain them. How wonderful are the ways 
of God, in bringing men into contact with the truth, 
in ways which they thought not of ! 

Saturday, February 1st. While at breakfast this 

IN INDIA. 271 

Baptism of a child. ^ r Privations in a beathen land. 

morning, Mr Hamilton and Mr King called on us, 
and afterwards, Mr Gordon. We had considerable 
conversation with them, as to the state of the hea- 
then here, and their willingness to receive tracts. 
From what we could learn, there will be no opposi- 
tion to the distribution of tracts and the Scriptures 
among the people. This is encouraging, and we 
may hope that those already distributed will be 
preserved and read. 

From early in the morning till ten o'clock, we 
were busily employed in conversing with the natives 
who came to the chowdey, and in distributing tracts 
among them. ? 

At 11 o'clock we went to Mr Hamilton's, where 
a few friends were assembled together to attend the 
baptism of his little daughter, Helen Bishop. After 
the baptism, we had an interesting conversation^ 
with the family and those present. We were all 
pleased and profited by meeting together in this hea- 
then land, and parted in the exercise of kind- and 
Christian feelings towards each, and with the hope of 
a joyful meeting hereafter. 

We were much pleased with the interest which 
the children of this family seemed to take in us and 
in all we said. When we called last night, one of 
them, Mary Ann, had retired to rest ; this morning, 
when she awoke, her sister told her that two Mis- 
sionaries had been there, and would return this 
morning. She was all impatience to see us, "For," 
said she, " I have never seen a minister or Mission- 


•^ ■ 'I ' ■ » iM ■ I ■ ■ . ■ — ■■■■- I — - I . I ■ ■■ Mil 1^ III I I I II ^^i^w«^W^^^ 

Privations in a heathen land. 

ary, and know not what they are like." The dear 
child was gratified in obtaining her wish, and we 
hope she will not forget the instructions given her. 
How differently situated are the children of Christian 
parents in a heathen land, from those at home. 
Here many of them seldom, if ever, see a minister of 
the Gospel, and receive from them only an occasional 
advice. Here they enjoy not the blessings of public 
ordinances, or of the Sabbath and infant schools, and 
have not that variety of useful books to instruct and 
improve their youthful minds, which the children in 
a Christian land have. In addition to these priva- 
tions, they have to witness the evil example of the 
heathen around them. To *Hrain up a child in the 
way it should go," is, in a heathen land, a truly diffi- 
cult task ; but at home the work is easier, and the 
visits of Ministers and Missionaries^ I should judge, 
cannot be bo highly prized as here by a Christian 

Leaving Mr Hamilton's, we rode to the native 
Christian meeting house, where we found a number 
of people assembled and wailing for us. The num- 
ber of adults was nine, their children were also^re- 
sent^ and all of them were dressed in clean and neat 
clothes. The building is about fourteen feet square, 
the roof is chuppured (thatched), the walls are white- 
washed, and mats are spread on th^ floor, which an- 
swer the purpose of seats. The whole appearance 
of the house, and the interesting collection of people, 
made us, for a season, almost lose sight of the fact 

IN INDIA. 273 

A native Christian Church. 

that we were surrounded by a healhen people. 
Seven of those present were converts from Popery, 
and the other two from Hindooism. From their 
own account, it appears that the seven had em- 
braced the Protestant faith in Madras, and that 
they had come to Jaulna in connexion with the 
European ojfficers, and the native regiment sta- 
tioned here. They brought with them their Eng- 
lish Bibles, and tracts in the native language. 
Not finding here any chaplain, or any of the means 
of grace they once enjoyed, they resolved not to for- 
sake the assembling of themselves together, and, if 
possible, to bujld f6r themselves a house for prayer. 
Their case becoming known to Captain Wahab, a 
pious European officer, he assisted them to put up 
the house they now occupy, and where they meet 
on the Sabbath and through the week to read the 
Scriptures; to sing the praises of Jehovah, and to 
unite in prayer to Him. Their meetings in this house 
were at first opposed by the Hindoos and a few Ro- 
man Catholics, who endeavoured, by interrupting 
their worship, and in other ways, to destroy this 
vine of the Lord's planting. Notwithstanding the 
opposition they met with, they still trusted in God, 
and pursued their humble course. The Lord heard 
their prayers in giving them peace, and in adding fo 
their numbers. After conversing with them, and 
being fully satisfied as to the knowledge and piety 
of the adult candidates for baptism, they were bap- 
tised in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and 


Baptism and marriage of converts. A good example. 

of the Holy Ghost. Afterwards, two children were 
baptised, and one couple united in the bonds of 
holy matrimony. During the whole of the services, 
the house was surrounded by natives (Hindoos and 
others), who had assembled to witness the services. 
We exhorted them all to faithfulness in duty; to put 
on the whole armour of God, and to let their light 
shine around them, so that others might see their 
good works, and be led to glory God. The heathen 
spectators were also addressed, and urged to forsake 
their idols, and turn to the service of the living God. 
They listened with attention, and we hope that what 
they have seen and heard to day may not be wholly 
lost upon them. 

Our hearts were cheered in meeting with this 
little flock of our Redeemer in a heathen land. 
They are surrounded by multitudes of those who 
kno\^ not God, nor regard his Sabbaths, and are 
shedding the gentle yet powerful influence of divine 
truth, and of a Christian example upon the minds of 
their ignorant, superstitious and idolatrous neigh- 
bours. We felt more than compensated, by this 
day's spiritual feast, for all the contumely and toil 
we have endured in this heathen land. Truly our 
God is good in thus cheering our hearts, and in the 
midst of trials to make us sing aloud for joy. If there 
be a congregation under heaven which angels look 
upon with peculiar delight, and to which they re-p 
joice to minister, it must be, we think, such a con- 
gregation as this. The whole population is sur^k in 


IN INDIA. 275 

Light in tbe midst oi' darkness. Natives baptised and married. 

deep degradation — God's name is dishonoured by 
them, and the only advocates for truth and holiness, 
and the purity of religion from among them, are nine 
humble individuals, who, though in the capacity of 
servants to others; without any earthly spiritual 
guide; opposed and scoffed at by their heathen neigh- 
bours, and possessed of only a scanty subsistence, 
still stand up, firm and unshaken, for the'gloiy of 
God, and for the honour of his name. Our presence 
encouraged their hearts, and our counsel and prayers 
gave them new zeal and new jo5rin the service of 
our common Lord and Saviour. We gave them all 
the right hand of fellowship, and, after exhorting 
them again to be strong in the Lord, and praying 
that God might speedily send them others to break 
to them the bread of life, we parted, to meet, it may 
be, the next time, in the kingdom of our Father 
above. , ■■';;;■■■ '.^'■ 

The names of the persons baptised and united by 
us in marriage to-day, are as follows : 

^aul and Sugreyr, adults ; Moses, adopted child 
of Sugreyr ; Samuel, infant of Nigum Dickreuse and 
Frances Dickreuse, baptised by Rev. H. Read. 

Helen Bishop, daughter of Mr Johnson Hamilton 
and Mrs Margaret Hamilton, baptised : Sugreyr and 
Charlotte Bell, united in marriage by Rev. W. Ram- 
sey. ". )<:m 

Returning from this interesting congregation to 
our chowdey, we found a number of Hindoos wait- 


Notes from Captain Alexander. 

ing for us, to these we also preached the Gospel, and 
gave tracts to all who could read them. 

We found lying on our table the following polite 
note from Capt. Alexander, Tiddressed to Mr Read. 

" My dear sir, — I have this moment heard of your 
arrival in Jauina, and beg leave to tender my ser- 
vices, if I can in any way be useful, or add to your 
comfort. I have no spare rooms in my house, but 
shall be delighted if you will allow me to pitch my 
tents in my compound, (enclosure) for you and your 
companion during your intended sojourn at this sta- 
tion. " Yours, very obediently, 

^ "R.Alexander.'' 

To this note we replied, that as we intended going 
to Budnapoor after dinner, we should not be able to 
accept of his kind invitation, and begged him to ac- 
cept our thanks for his kind offer. 

To this the following note from Captains White 
and Alexander was received. 

" My dear sirs, — We have much to regret having 
missed the opportunity of receiving and hearing the 
ministers of our Lord. We beg you to accept of 
our best Christian wishes that you may go on your 
way rejoicing, and find many ears opened to hear, 
and many hearts softened to receive the glad tidings 
of the gospel. 

" I have desired some natives connected with me to 
call upon you, and trust that they may be profited. 
Should you pass through here again, I hope you will 
remember that you are expected and desired at our 

IN INDIA. 277 

Departure from Jaulna. Interview with captains A. and W. 

house. If you would take up your abode with us 
here, or if we meet elsewhere, it will be a favour and 

■ ^ "Yours, very faithfully, 

"R. Alexander." 
Through the kindness of Mr Hamilton, we procured 
bullocks to take our books and luggage to Arunga- 
bad, and also a few coolies. These were all sent on, 
while we remained behind till the cool of the eve- 
ning, to converse more with the natives. Several of 
the more wealthy and respectable natives called oh 
us this afternoon and seemed to take a pleasure in 
conversing with us on the subject of Christianity. 
While engaged in conversing with them, our friends, 
captains Alexander and White called. Their pre- 
sence, we think, gave weight to what we had pre- 
viously said to the people, and the countenance 
which these gentlemen showed us and our la- 
bours, though the visit was short, will have a 
happy effect upon the people around. The same 
feeling which dictated the question " Have any of 
the rulers or of the Pharisees believed on him," (John 
vii, 48,) is most strikingly exemplified among the 
Hindoos. If a Missionary be countenanced in his 
labours by the Christian people in the coimtry, who 
have influence among the natives, he will have much 
more influence among them, and his words will be 
much more attended to. When we tell the Hindoos 
that many of their people have embraced Chris- 
tianity, they are apt to inquire whether any of the 



Tk^ opinion of a wealthy Br^toWB, 

Bcahmun3 have believed or not; and if so, v^hat was 
the standing of these Brahmuns, in their own caste, 
before they believed. When we can lell them that 
their standing was good among their own people, 
the effect upon their minds is powerful, and forces 
them to grant that the Christian religion may b$ as 
good, yea, and better for them than their own. 

A Bruhmun once told me, that if such and such 
wealthy natives, naming them, should embrace the 
Christian religion, lie would then believe that there 
was truth in it ; but while the converts were gene- 
rally from among the poor, or those in only mode* 
rate woi Idly circumstances, he could not think that 
they had embraced the faith of the Gospel from any 
Other than motives of gain, and that Clnistianity 
itself was not designed for the Hindoo people. This 
deling, no doubt, prevails among them to a great 
extent ; and if a few of the wealthy ones from among 
the Hindoos should embrace the Gospel, there is 
ev^ry reason to believe that multitudes would follow 
their example, and seek to crowd into the Christian 
ohurch. But to the poor the Gospel is preached, and 
from among them, with very few exceptions, con- 
verts have been made. God is in this way using 
/*lhe weak things of the world to confound the 
mighty, and things that are not to bring to naught 
4hings that are." Christian people, however, may 
do much to advance the cause of Christ in India by 
countenancing the Missionaries in their labours, a$ 

Iff INDIA. 299 

The deificatioti of a nmrdeter. 

well as by t heir own example, and direct eflbrts^ for 
the conversion of the people. 

Having parted with our Christian friends, and the 
natives of Jaulna, we set off for Budnapoor, a walled 
village, about twelve miles distant, coiitaiuing.up^ 
wards of four hundred houses. 


The first thing that drew our attention after leav- 
ing the town, was the gallows upon which a Hin- 
doo was hung a short time ago, for the murder of his 
mother ; and whose putrid body was afterwards 
worshipped by multitudes of the ignoraut and su- 
perstitious natives. The account of this horrid 
murder, and the abominable deification of the vile 
murderer, as published in the^ Bombay Durpun, is as 
follows : 

" Some time ago, a person residing in the lines of 
the 28ih regiment, Madras Native Inrantr}^ com- 
mitted the atrocious murder of his own mother. He 
was tried and condemned by a court martial, ai^d 
sentenced to be hanged." 

The following is an extract of the sentence. 

"Mootooswani)'^, camp-follower, placed in con- 
finement by order of colonel John Wolfe, commanding 
the light field division of the Hydrabad subsidiary 
force. \ 

" Charge. For wilful murder, in having at Jaulna, 
on the 24th day of August 1832, wilfully, and of 


Deification of a murderer. 

his malice aforethought, made an assault upon Gun- 
gama, camp-follower, mother of the said Mootoos- 
vvamy, and then and there, violently struck with a 
chapper, the said Gungama, on the right side of the 
head, and thereby inflicted a mortal wound, whereof 
the said Gungama died, at the same place, imme- 
diately afterwards." 

The prisoner was found guilty, and, by the order 
of the Commander-in-chief, was hung in chains, in 
sight of the principal bazaar of Jaulna, on the 29th 
of October following. ._ - 

"Can it be imagined," the writer adds, "that 
such a monster of iniquity as this, could be deified ? 
Yet true it is, that he was raised to the honour. 
Shortly after his execution and suspension in chains, 
it was confidently affirmed by some interested Brah- 
muns, that a lame person was restored to the use of 
his limbs; that a blind person was restored to sight ; 
and that various other marvels were performed, 
through the putrified droppings from his body. 
This rumour getting abroad, immense numbers flock- 
ed to 'the gibbet to perform puja (worship), many of 
them in hope of obtaining cures from divers diseases. 
I was from curiosity led to the spot one evening, 
when I saw several persons collected around the 
place. The dead body was decorated with flowers, 
and a half naked Brahmun was ringing a bell, and 
vociferating. These circumstances were brought, 
at length, to the notice of the officer commanding 
the division, who, perceiving that the object of- the 

IN INDIA. ^ |8Si 

Remarks of a Hindoo on the subject. 

public exposure of the corpse was defeated, lock 
measures to prevent ihe recurrence of such absur- 
dities. The godship of the deceased seems to have 
vanished by his Jiaty and, what is still more wonder- 
ful, none of the cures are now forth-coming. 
"I am, sir, your obedient servant, 


** December 24th, 1832." 

Upon this letter, the editor of the Durpun, a native 
of Bombay, remarks: 

"The letter of our correspondent * Miles* brings 
to notice an instance of superstitious credulity, 
which, although it may have occurred among the 
lowest and most ignorant of the people, cannot fail 
to excite feelings of abhorrence and disgust. It is 
impossible not to commiserate the moral condition of 
those who could be, for a moment, persuaded to be- 
lieve, that such a monster as the murderer of his 
own mother, had obtained the favour of the Deity^ 
and that his putrid carcass had been endowed with 
the power of working miraculous cures. As to those 
who could frame the impious thought; industriously 
circulate it among the ignorant multitude, and de-' 
ceive them into the belief, with tales fabricated for 
the purpose, we know no terms which can express 
the detestation in which they ought to be held. 

"Whether the wretch who lent himself to uphold 
the 'damning lie,' was a Brahmun or a Muhar^ 
his act is^ so repugnant to every sentiment and feel- 
ing Vith which men should regard the holioess of 



Awful delusion. A deserted fort. 

the Almighty, that we can scarcely believe he will 
be acknowledged by any caste or community. 
Every good man, we are sure, will reprobate his 

It would be difficult to describe our feelings on see- 
ing the gallows, and the bleached bones of this 
murderer, which still hang from the top of the gal- 
lows, enclosed in irons. One would scarcely believe 
that any persons could be so lost to all sense of right 
and wrong, as to adore the corrupted body of this 
vile matricide; but when men are given up of God 
to believe a lie, there is nothing too absurd for their 
faith to compass. We asked the Hindoos who ac- 
companied us, if they believed in the wonders said 
to have been wrought here. They said they did 
not, but many did. If it were not that the arm of 
authority deters the people from crowding here to 
worship these bones, it would, no doubt, become a 
place of general resort for the blind, the lame, and 
the diseased. A temple may yet be erected in this 
place, and the name of Mootooswamy may be as fa- 
mous for wonder working among the Hindoos, as 
those of St Antony, Euphemia, and a host of others 
were in the churches in the fifth and sixth centuries. 

Leaving the gallows, we visited the fort, where 
we found a few seapoys, whom we supplied with 
tracts. They at first refused to admit us, but, on 
telUng them who we were, they told us to walk in. 
The fort is not used now as a means or place of de- 
fence. It is rapidly going to ruins. Only a ^few 

IN INDIA. 283 

A disagreeable lodging. Budnapoor. 

seapoy^ are stationed there, with the design, we 
suppose, of preventing any of the natives from en- 
tering it, or of making any use of it. 

As the evening was far advanced, we made no 
stay in Old Jaulna, but rode on to Budnapoor. We 
passed through several small villages on our way, 
and only delayed long enough to distribute a few 
tracts among the people. We reached Budnapoor 
late in the evening, and found a lodging place in a 
small and pent up room, immediately within the 
gate. This is decidedly the worst plac&we have 
yet had to stop in ; but we can afford to have a Utile 
sttrplnsag^ of bodily inconvenience after the spiri- 
tual feast we have had. What renders this place 
so exceedingly unpleasant is, that this gate is the 
great thoroughfare of the village. All the flocks of 
sheep and goats, and herds of cattle belonging to 
the villagers, come in and go out at thi^ gate. The 
clouds of dust which they raise in going to and fro, 
are almost enough to blind and suffocate those whose 
lot it may be to be exposed to them. We sought in 
vain for a better place, but were compelled to remain 
in our dusty abode till Monday. 


Sabbath, 2d. The dust, the noisy dogs, and sliil 
more noisy people, prevented us from enjoying any 
thing like a refreshing sleep last night. We arose 
early, and walked out of the village to breathe, if pos- 


Preaching to the people. 

sible, a little pure air, though it should be hot, for 
we were literally covered with dust in the house. 
We returned somewhat refreshed. After breakfast 
we assembled a number of people together near the 
gate, and made known to them the Gospel of Christ. 
The most of the people were Mussulmen. They 
were civil and polite. We gave them a few tracts. 
The Hindoos also were civil, and listened attentively 
to what we said. Several of the Hindoos, the kar- 
koon* of the village, and others came into the bouse 
we occupied, and spent a considerable time in con- 
versing with us about the Christian rehgion. They 
were quite inquisitive, but this may be accounted 
for from the fact that they had not heard of Jesus 
till we came and addressed them. And so it must 
be in every village through which the Missionary 
may pass on his tours. Many may not hear the 
Missionary speak, and those who do may not inform 
the others. 

Feeling desirous, if possible, to find a place in the 
village where we could remain in quietness, for at 
least a part of the day, we went to the temple of 
jRaw and SeetUy at the other end of the village. We 
found a very comfortable place near the temple, and 
told the people present that we wished to remain 
there for the remainder of the day. The priest who 
officiated in the temple, told us we could not stay in 
the place we had chosen, though it was not a sacred 

* £ari^<m, the town clerk. 

IN INDIA. 285 

Visit the temple of Ram and Seeta. 

place. It was in vain that we told him we were 
weary, and, after remaining for a few hours, we 
would return to our stopping place, and leave him. 
Some of the people present seemed willing that we 
should stay, but the angry priest still refused to give 
his consent. As the apartment we were in was not 
devoted to any religious purposes, we told hintv that 
his anger was useless, for we were determined to 
remain for some hours. The priest then left us in a 
rage. Mr Read, after conversing with a few natives 
present, and supplying them with tracts, laid himself 
down on an earthen bench to rest, and spent the 
remainder of the day in that part of the village. I 
returned to our lodgings, and, finding a small room 
over the gateway which was occupied by a seapoy, 
and was in neat order, I asked his permission to 
stay in it, which he Yery cheerfully granted. Here 
I spent the remainder of this Sabbath in reading the 
Scriptures and studying the prophecies. 

Before returning from the temple of Ram and 
Seetttf (that is, of the god Ram and his wife) I asked 
permission to see the temple. The priest opened the 
door of the temple, and, after washing his feet, went 
in, but would not permit me even to touch the door, 
or the door posts. I sat down upon the steps, and, 
after having put him to the trouble of exhibiting to 
me the idols I wished to see,- and of telling me his 
ideas of their respective virtues, I made known to 
him a better way of salvation, and the only way 
through the Lord Jesus Christ. 


■ ■ -■■■I.— . ■■ — — ..■,■ ^ .1- ■ ■ ■ IM , ■■ » l.l ,— ,IM,_ I ,|,--M,. — ■— I— ,- ■ — 

A temple fall of gods. • Shalegrams. 

In this small temple I counted more than seventy 
brass gods, of differentkinds,and more than a hundred 
stones taken from the river Nurbudda, called sha-lt^ 
grams. Stones of a similar description are found in 
a river in the country of Napal, in the north of India. 
The sha-le-grams are esteemed the most sacred 
stones in India. They are black and smooth. Those 
in this temple were ovate, and the lower surface 
flattened. They were all perforated by worms or by 
the hand of man. The Hindoos say the perfora- 
tions are the work of God, In these perforations 
spiral curves arise, which reach from the lower in- 
ternal surface to the top of the cavil y. In many of 
them, spires arise from both the upper and lower 
surface, and meet in the middle. They are of this 


According to the number of spiral curves in each, 
the stone is supposed to contain Vishnoo, in various 
characters. For example, such a stone perforated in 
one place only, with /our spiral curves in the perfo- 
ration, and with marks resembling a cow's foot, con- 
tains LukshumCy JsTarayun, that is, the god VishnoQ 
and his wife, Lukshume. Some of the stones are 

IN INDIA. 287 

Sacred stones. Indifference to the subject of religion. 

said to contain the Lingum, and then they are con- 
gidered as emblenas of S/ieve, the third person of the 
Hindoo triad. 


In vain did I attempt to reason with the priest 
about the folly of worshipping stones. He saw that 
they could not move without his assistance, and 
that they had not even the appearance of eyes to see, 
or of ears to hear. This he acknowledged, but still 
maintained that God dwelt in them, and that they 
ought to be worshipped. L gave him some tracts 
and left him. As I was not permitted to touch these 
stones, I could not tell of what they are composed. 
It is said that they are not cakareous — that they 
strike fire with steel, and do not effervesce with 
acids. ■■^'■'■■■■^^ ?■■-:■;,;: ■-:-■;^\:-:^;.•^^;^■..:-F^ 

In the evening we conversed with some more of 
the natives. They were civil and quite respectful 
in their conduct towards us ; but none of them 
seemed to be much interested in the subject of 
Christianity. They did not seem to regard it of so 
much importance as to demand their opposition to it. 
The inquiries they made seemed rather through cu- 
riosity, or for talk's sake, than any thing else^ 


A Sabbath among the heathen. 

Externally, this day showed no marks of its being 
the Sabbath of the Lord. The Hindoos have no 
Sabbath. All days are alike to them, except such 
as are devoted to the service of some imaginary god. 
Of these days, that are esteemed holy, there are 
about a hundred and fifty in the year, but no one of 
them is observed by all the Hindoos, unless it be 
such as the first day of their year. Certain castes 
and classes of Hindoos keep one day sacred, and 
others keep another. So that, to the mere observer, 
every day seems alike. The Mussulmen esteem, as 
we do, the one-seventh of the time sacred. Friday 
is their Sabbath. They, however, seldom if ever 
relinquish their work on this day. They may, on 
this da}?^, be a little more particular in saying their 
prayers, and in bathing themselves, and may go to 
the mosques or musjids, if near, but return to re- 
sume their daily avocations. 

In Budnapoor all was confusion to-day, and, no 
doubt, it is so every day. Somebody appeared to 
be the great Narud Moonee (exciter of quarrels) 
among the people, for nearly the whole day some 
were engaged in quarreling; and, so far as we 
could learn, the quarrels were about pice.^ There is 
one thing to be said about these Hindoo quarrels, 
they seldom, if ever, end in the injury of the bodies 
of the persons concerned. When two men or wo- 
men among the Hindoos fall out, they express their 

* PicCf a small copper coin, nearly the value of a cent. 


The Sabbath abolished by the Hindoos. 

rage in words, and not by blows. At first one speaks 
and then the other answers; but soon this mode is drop- 
ped, and each one speaks as loud and as fast as he 
can, till he has exhausted his vocabulary of wrathful 
words. When this is done, they voluntarily separate, 
and walk away, muttering something "against each 
other, without knowing the replies which are made. 
A crowd almost always collects around the combat- 
ants, who hear the dispute, and laugh at the folly 
of the persons, but seldom interfere to separate them, 
or to calm their angry spirits. 

In this heathen land, there is no day of rest for 
man or beast, and the ill effects of it are seen in both. 
The adversary of their souls, by abohshing the Sab^ 
bath of the Lord from among them, has deprived 
them of one of their greatest blessings, and has 
taken the most effectual way to keep them under 
his oppressive and galling yoke. "I thought upon 
my .ways," says David, " and turned my feet to thy 
testimonies," but Satan has so devised it, that by 
keeping them continually on the go, they seem to 
require what little leisure time they have for the 
refreshment of their bodies, and have none left for 
reflection. The Hindoos are characteristically a 
thoughtless people. " Our fathers have done so," or 
"it is our custom," is with the Hindoos a suflScient 
reason, why they should act as they do. The fact, 
that there is no day set apart by them for reflection, 
renders it more difficult to get them to think about 
eternal things, and of course, renders their conver- 


Argument for schools and missionaries. Kurmar. 

sion the more difficult. Until a change takes place, 
this defect ought to be remedied, as far as possible, 
by causing the truth to be brought more frequently 
in contact with their minds, by the living preacher. 
And this forms another strong argument, why 
schools, and especially Christian Missionaries, 
should be multiplied in the land. The truth must 
be made to meet the Hindoos upon all occasions, 
and thus compel them to think; otherwise, how can 
we expect them to turn unto the Lord ? The har- 
vest here truly is great, but where are the labourers] 
Who is there to say, "Lord, here am I; send mel" 
Where there is one to use this language, there are 
multitudes who say, practically, " Lord, I pray thee, 
have me excused." 


Monday, Sd. We left Budnapoor this morning, 
at four o'clock, and came to Kurmar, a distance of 
about thirteen miles. Here we stopped during the 
day. The only chowdey we could find at first, was 
a small one, near the gate, and exceedingly dirty. 
After having had it swept out, and a few handles of 
water thrown on the floor, to keep down the dust^ it 
seemed more comfortable. Here we had all our 
things placed, but not content with our place of 
abode, we searched for another. The people told us 
there was no other chowxiey in the village, but we 
placed no faith in their declarations, and continued 

IN INDIA. 2§1 

An account of the Gosavees. Their vileness. 

our search. Near the chovvdey we had taken, we 
saw a small gate, not more than two feet wide, 
which led into an enclosure, which was surrounded 
by a high mud wall. Through this we entered, and, 
to our astonishment, we found a large and neat 
chowdey, which was occupied by a Gosavee, who 
had most unjustly appropriated the whole place for 
his own private use. The chowdey is about fifty 
feet long and about fifteen wide. At one end, the 
Gosavee^ had a small room partitioned off, where he 

* Gosavee or Go-swamee, the lord of the cow — protector of 
cattle. The Gosavees are worshippers of Maha-deve (Sheve), 
whom they represent as seated on a white bull. They are called 
holy beggars, and act as the spiritual guides of many. Their 
practice, however, does not deserve the name holy which is 
given them. They are forbidden to marry, but this only serves 
as a cloak for their licentiousness, as it is notorious that they are, 
(or have been) guilty of stealing children, of both sexes, and of 
carrying off with them, through the force of their delusions, 
other men's wives. These Gosavees are occasionally soldiers, 
traders, or mendicants. In the latter capacity they travel in 
large bodies through the country, and compel the villagers on 
their route to support them. Violent contests sometimes take 
place, when the mendicant troop is large, and the village too 
poor to bear their exorbitant demands, but it always ends in the 
severe castigation of the villagers. This violence is not author- 
ized by British law, but these sturdy beggars never fail in ob- 
taining a supply equal to their wants, by working on. the preju- 
dices of the people, where they cannot use violence. In many 
places, the native government has shown such a reverence for 
these deceivers, that a regular tax has been assessed for their 
support. It is done by laying one per cent upon the land reve- 
nue, which is paid into the public treasury for their use. 

It is said that they make good soldiers . Bajee Rao , the Ex-Fash- 


A comfortable lodging. ; ; - 

kept all his vessels, and where he slept; the other 
part was wholly unoccupied. Here this Hindoo 
monk lived alone, and by his pretensions to superior 
sanctity, led many of the people to think that the 
place was too holy for them even to enter it, and 
thus was left to the undisturbed possession of the 
chowdey. Knowing that the chowdey was pubHc 
property, we told the Gosavee that we wished to oc- 
cupy it for the day and night. To this he most ob- 
stinately objected, declaring that it was his place, 
and that we would defile it, by coming into it, and 
therefore could not have it. We then reminded him 
that the chowdey is the property of the government, 
and that we would occupy it, whether he was will- 
ing or not. Our beds, trunks, &c., were brought 
into the chowdey, while the Gosavee, muttering out 
his anger against us, retired into his hermitage. 


On our way to Kurmar, we stopped at the villages 
of Julgaura and Sultana, and distributed a few tracts 

wa, had about seven thousand of them in his armj , when the 
war broke out between the Mahrattas and the English, in the 
year 1817, and some hundreds of them fell in the battles of 
Kirkee, Poona, and Koraigaon. Among the Gosavees, there are 
different sects, who are distinguished by their dress, and appear- 
ance. One of these sects go about in puris naturalibus, and 
covered with ashes. They keep up the succession to their pro- 
perty by disciples, who originally belonged to other castes of 
Hindoos, purchased or procured when children. 

IN INDIA. 293 

No service from Hindoos witliout pay. 

among the people. These villages, we presume, do 
hot contain more than fifty or sixty dwelling houses, 
though the walls of perhaps more than double that 
number are standing there, as monuments of the 
decaying state of these places. Where the people 
have gone, who lalely inliabited these villages, we 
know not. Their poverty, and the rigour of the 
laws under which they lived, may have induced 
them to seek another and a better abode, within the 
territory of the Hon. East India Company. 

When we reached Kurmar, we told the Vaskur* 
of the village to procuVe us some milk, &c., but he 
refused, like another one, on a former occasion, to do 
any thing for us. He said, that all the cows were 
in the jungles, and that they would not return till 
evening; and as for getting the things^we wanted, 
it was out of the question. The promise of pay for 
his services soon answered all his objections. The 
custom of the Hindoos is to boil all the milk pro- 
cured in the morning, which they may not have 
used at the time, and in this way it is kept sweet, 
in this hot climate, till nights To procure boiled 
milk, at any time of the day, there is seldom any dif- 
ficulty in the country. To procure/res/i milk would 
have been a difficult thing, but to procure the other 
was easy; The Vaskiir, however, did not know 
whether we would not act as some travellers have 

* The Vaskur is the person appointed to keep the gate of a 
village, and is usually a Muhar, a man of low caste. 


Preaching to the lame and the blind. Hindoo subtlety. 

done, viz., make use of his services, and not pay 
him. This being settled, all was well. In all our 
journey, we have taken special care not to employ 
any one to do any thing for us, without rewarding 
him for his services. We deem it a Christian duty, 
as well as good policy so to do. : " 

When it was known that two sahibs had arrived 
in the village, all the blind persons, and cripples, 
who could come, were brought to us, hoping that 
we would give them some money. We had them 
all seated on the ground around us, and after telling 
them of the Saviour ; of His compassion to the poor, 
the blind, the lame, &c., while on earth, and urging 
them to accept of Him as their Saviour, we gave 
them some^ice, and dismissed them. The appear- 
ance of these blind persons was truly affecting. 
While we were telling them of the Saviour, they 
could not refrain from expressing aloud their joy, 
and turned their sightless eyeballs toward hea^ven, 
as if to express their thankfulness to God for the 
good news. Their friends may tell them, when we 
are gone, that Christ is only the name we give to 
their god Krishnoo, and that it is Krishnoo who has 
done so much, and felt so much for them. That 
the more cunning of the Hindoos do, in some cases, 
pursue this course, to undo all that we have done, 
and to rivet the chains of ignorance and superstition 
upon themselves and others more firmly, facts abun- 
dantly testify. They do not pretend to deny the 
facts which we state, but say that all these things 

IN INDIA. 295 

Preaching to Gosavees. 

vVere done by their own gods, who are called, by us, 
by a different name. They try to impress upon 
others the idea that we and they, in many things, 
believe alike ; and that their religion and ours is 
very little different, the one from the other, and, of 
course, there can be no use of a change. The ad- 
versary of souls understands fully how to accomplish 
the^ great work he has undertaken, viz., to destroy 
the souls of men. ■ 

Having dismissed this company of the blind, some 
GosaveeSf encouraged by their success in obtaining 
alms from us, came and preferred their claim also, 
but with different success. We sent them away, 
after having told them of the Saviour, without any 
money. One of the Gosavees appeared among the 
others, shamefully naked. He said he had come 
from Benares on foot, and in his present naked con- 
dition, and that he was on his way to Poona and 
Bombay, where he expected to be shortly. We re- 
proved them all, and him in particular, for their sloth 
an*d sinfulness, and lack of decency, and sent them 
away. These wretches are a great nuisance, and, 
we may add, a great curse to the people. We saw 
them frequently through the day, going about among 
the people to beg from them what they needed. 
They pretend that they are holy men, and have, 
through the greatness of their holiness, and deadness 
to the things of this world, arrived at such a state of 
mind that objects of sense can not affect them in the least, 
and garments of decency are therefore useless. Such 


The character of the Grosavees. Aurungabad. 

is their profession, but their practice loudly declares 
that they still are men, and that they are affected 
quite as much by the objects of sense, as others ; yea, 
more, that they are the slaves of their own corrupt 
passions. Let a man but refuse to give to one of 
these beggars the thing he demands, and at once he 
is in a rage. Not only so, he will imprecate the 
vengeance of the gods upon the refuser, and thus, 
if possible, terrify him into a compliance with his 
wishes. These holy men are as far from holiness as 
the East is from the West, and the people know it ; 
but, strange as it may appear, no one of the people 
has independence of spiritsufficient to oppose, publicly, 
the pride and hypocrisy of these men, though they 
speak of it frequently among themselves, and groan 
under the oppressive burden of being beggar-ridden. 
Custom, with them, passes for law. It is ihe cus- 
tom of the Gosavees to beg, and the custom of the 
people to give, and this gives the quietus to any spirit 
of exertion in this matter. 


Tuesday, 4th. We left Kurmar at an early hour 
this morning, and, after a short delay in the village 
of Chicultana, came to Aurungabad. We re- 
mained about two hours in a musjid, with the ex- 
pectation that our servants -would find us. But as 
they entered the city by a different gate from the 
one we entered, they missed us. It was vain to 

IN INDIA, 297 

Stay at Mr Roper'a. ' American books. 

search for them in a city so large as that of AiiruQ- 
gabad, and after many fruitless inquiries for them, 
we went to the Cantonments, where the Europeans 
reside, and, finding Mr Roper, we were most cordi- 
dially received by him into his house. He imme- 
diately sent a seapoy in search of our serviints and 
luggage, who returned in half an hour informing us 
that he had found them. At the kind and pressing 
invitation of Mr Roper, we agreed to remain with 
him for the week ; and, after resting ourselves, to 
visit with him the celebrated eaves of Ellora, which 
are about fifteen miles from Aurungabad. 

We received letters from Bombay which inform 
us of the arrival of Mr Allen, and that he intends 
coming to Ahmednuggur by the way of Poona. 
This information induced us to change our plan of 
going to Nassik at the present. We concluded to 
return to Ahmednuggur by the way of Toka, a 
Brahminical village on the banks of the sacred river 

In looking over Mr Roper's library to-day, I was 
gratified to find the "Memoirs of Harriet Newell,' 
and " Visits of Mercy." These little American works 
have found their way into the heart of India, and 
may we not hope that they may be the means, in 
the hand of God, of exciting some in India to feel, 
and to do much for the poor and benighted children 
of men, as they have awakened the sympathies of 
many in America and in Europe. I was the more 
rejoiced to see these works, as good hooks, and such 


Tomb of Aurungzebe's daughter. 

as the children of Europeans would be inclined to 
read, are rather scarce in the interior of the country. 
Let us rejoice, however, that the number is on the 
increase. - 

Wednesday, 5th. A portion of this day I spent in 
reading and writing. In the afternoon Mr Roper 
kindly took us out in his gardee,'^ to see the city, and 
especially the mausoleum of Aurungzebe's daughter, 
which was erected about one hundred and sixty 
years ago, at an expense of nine lacks of rupees, or 
four hundred thousand dollars. This splendid edi- 
fice stands within an enclosure, containing about 
thirty acres of ground, which was once in a high 
state of cultivation. It was laid put in gardens. 
All the walks are beautifully paved. The numerous 
fountains of water, the water courses, the large and 
shady trees, together with the more humble shrub- 
bery which line the walls and are scattered through- 
out the enclosure, make it a truly beautiful place. 
On the right and the left, as you enter the splendid 
gateway which leads to the tomb, stand two mus- 
jids, (houses for prayer). Here, in days past, the 
Koran was read, and the royal family unitedjn their 
worship, but they are now forsaken, and no one en- 
ters them in honour of the false prophet. The walls 
around the tomb and gardens are thick, and contain 
a multitude of cells. It is said that here, hordes of 
religious mendicants, and others supported by the 
benevolence of the emperor, found an abode. 

* A small zt-ao-orij in general use amon^ the people. 

IN INDIA. 299 

The tomb and its enclosures. 

The foundation of the building is about one hun* 
died feet square. From the four corners of this 
foundation, or platform, minarets arise to the height 
of eighty or ninety feet. The platform is about 
twelve feet high. From the centre of the main 
building rises a large and beautiful dome, beneath 
which, in a small enclosure, lie the remains of the 
princess. We descended by a flight of narrow steps, 
and saw the spot beneath which the sacred deposit 
is laid. A frame\voik of wood now^ surrounds the 
place, which was not always the case. There is 
no marble slab with an inscription on it, to tell the 
stranger whose remains sleep beneath the elevated 
mound of chunam. A thin garment covered the 
grave, and on it were strewed a few flowers, and a 
few shreds of cotton and silken cords of different co- 
lours. The neat workmanship and good taste dis- 
played in this building, in the large brazen doors — 
the immense slabs of white marble, highly polished 
and most beautifully executed in filagree work, and 
the highly polished chunamed apartments, all com- 
bined to show that the Moghuls once carried the arts 
of masonry and sculpture to a degree of perfection 
that has not been excelled by modern artists. 

We ascended to the top of one of the minarets by 
a flight of winding stairs of stone in the inside, and 
from this eminence had a beautiful view of the city, 
and of the adjacent country. The interior of the 
city presents the usual appearances of a deserted 
capital, viz. only half peopled, and a large portion 


A view of the city. 

of it in ruins. The number of mosques and musjids 
within the walls is still great, though many of them 
are deserted, and were we to judge from this cir- 
cumstance, we must conclude that the spiritual as 
well as the temporal glory of Mohammedan power, 
has gone down in India. Aqueducts are to be seen 
in every part of the city. The water which supplies 
a large portion of the city, is brought under ground 
from a distance of some miles, but* when, or by 
whom these works were constructed, w^e could 
not learn from any one of whom we sought infor- 

- Aurungabad* was originally called Gurka. The 
Moghuls got possession of it in the year 1634. It 
rapidly increased in size, and becoming the favourite 
residence of Aurungzebe, it received from him its 
-present name. It continued for some time the me- 
tropolis of the Dekhun, after the modern Nizams be- 
came independent of Delhi, imtil they quitted it for 
Hydrabad. It is within the Nizam's territories, but 
its glory has departed. It stands amid an extensive 
plain, about two hundred and eighty miles in a north- 
east direction from Bombay, and its distance from 
Hydrabad, the present capital of the Nizam, is 
about, two hundred and ninety miles. Its present 
population is about one hundred thousand— formerly 
six hundred thousand. 

* The word is compounded of aurung the throne, and abad 
the hou^e OT abode, medLJimg the abode of the throne. 

IN INDIA. 301 

Visit to a Parsee's dwelling and gardens. 

After leaving the mausoleum, we visited the gar- 
dens of a rich Parsee, who resides a short distance 
from the cantonments. His gardens are in a high 
state of cultivation. Thev are well watered from a 
fountain in the garden near his dwelling. Every 
thing looked fresh, and the grapes which he raises 
are of the first quality. He kindly treated us to as 
many as we chose. The beauty of these gardens, 
the neatness of his dwellinghouse, and the comfort 
in which he lived, and especially his hospitality to 
us, made us for a moment forget that we are still in 
a heathen land, and that the religious system of this 
individual leads him to reverence the sun, the ocean, 
fire, the dog, &c., as well as to reject the salvatiott 
of the Gospel of Christ. 

Thursddy, 6th. This day we spent in the house, 
occupied pri'icipall^ in readingand in writing. In the 
evening we walked out, and conversed with a few 
natives. Those with whom we conversed, seemed 
disposed to listen. The subject, however, was new 
to them, and very few of those with whom we con- 
versed had ever heard of or seen a Missionary. The 
people here generally use the Hindoosthanee lan- 
guage, and tracts in that .language might have been 
distributed in abundance, but our supply is exhausted. 
The Brahmuns use the Mahratta language, but, if a 
Missionary should be located here, it would be of 
more importance to him to study the Hindoosthanee 
and Persian languages than the Mahratta. Aurun- 
gabad presents a fine field for Missionary labour, and 
2 a 


Missionaries for the Mobammedanflneeded. 

ought to be occupied just as soon as a labourer can 
be found to enter it. Although it is under the Ni- 
zam of Hydrabad, still he might labour without 
any molestation from that government. It is much 
to be regretted that so little is doing to reclaim the 
followers of Mohammed from their delusions through- 
out India. The Missionaries on this side of India 
confine, in a very great degree, their labours to the 
Hindoos. There ought to be some Missionaries 
especially for the Mussulman population. If syste- 
matic and well directed Missionary operations could 
be carried on among this people in Aurungabad, 
who can tell but that this independent government 
would, ere long, become a Christian government. 
As a people, they may be more bitterly opposed to 
the Gospel than the Hindoos are, but they are more 
enlightened, nor are they so grovelling in their feel- 
ings as the Hindoos, though in haughtiness they 
far surpass them. The probability is, that they 
would, if they were instructed, embrace the Gospel 
as soon as the Hindoos, if not sooner. This field is 
ripe, fully ripe for the harvest, but where are the 
reapers 1 Is there one to be found whose heart in- 
clines him to live and labour for the salvation of 
this respectable and high minded people 1 Would 
that many from the various seminaries in America 
and Europe might enter this important field. 


Caves of Ellora. 


Friday, 1th. This morning about three o'clock we 
left Aurungabad, in company with Mr Roper and 
his son, to visit the Caves of Ellora, which we reached 
before the heat of the day. The distance is about 
fifteen miles, and the road, in many places, rough 
and hilly. On our way, we passed the famous city 
of Dovvlulabad, which is about seven miles north- 
west of Aurungabad. This is supposed to be the 
Tagara of Arian, a populous city two thousand years 

The name signifies the Iwuse of wealth. The indi- 
vidual who has charge of the fort permits no one to 
enter unless he have a permit from the Nizam of 
Hydrabad. As we had no permit, we were denied 
the privilege of examining the place for ourselves. 
The following description is taken from " Hamilton's 
Hindoosthan," and is, we doubt not, correct, as far 
as it goes. ' ^ ■ ■■-: '-■-■-':'"■-' 

Dowlutabad* orDeoghurf is a town and a fortress, 
seven miles northwest of Aurungabad. The fortress 
is formed of an insulated mass of granite, about three 
thousand yards from the range of hills on the north- 
ward and westward, and presents to the eye a shape 
not unlike a compressed bee hive, except that the 

* Dowlut, wealth, and abad, the house, 
t DeoghuTf from deo, god, aud ghuVf house. 


Dowlutabad. : - ' Description of the fort^ 

•- ^ — 

lower part, for nearly one third of the way up, is 
scarped like a wall, and presents, all round, a per- 
pendicular cliff. It has never been accurately mea- 
sured, but appears to be about five hundred feet to 
the summit, which is almost a point. The scarp of 
the rock, down to the counter scarp, may be about 
a hundred and fifty feet ; and the scarp below the 
glacis from thirty to forty feet, which, added to one 
hundred and fifty, will give about one hundred and 
eighty for nearly the whole height of the scarped 
cliff. An outer wall of no strength surrounds the 
pettah, (village) above which towers the hill which 
forms the citadel, but up to the ditch three other 
lines of walls and gates are passed. The causeway 
across the ditch does not admit of more than two 
persons at once, and a building with battlements de- 
fends it on the opposite side. 

After passing the ditch, the ascent is through an 
excavation into the heart of the rock, at first so low 
that a person is obliged to stoop nearly double, but, 
after a few paces, it opens into a high vault, lighted 
by torches, out of which the ascent is by a winding 
passage, gradually sloping, cut through the interior 
of the body of the hill. This passage is about twelve 
feet high, and the same in breadth, with a regular 
rise. At certain distances from this gallery are trap 
doors, with flights of steps to the ditch below, only 
wide enough to admit a man to pass, also cut 
through the solid rock to the water's edge, and not 
exposed to the fire of the assailants, unless they gain 

IN INDIA. 305 

Descriptioa of the fort. < 

the very crest of the glacis. There are, likewise, 
other passages and recesses for depositing stores. Af- 
ter ascending the main passage for some distance, it 
opens into a hollow in the rock about twenty feet 
square. On one side, leaning against the cliff, a 
large iron plate is seen, wHlh an immense iron poker. 
This plate is intended to be laid over the outlet, and 
a fire pla<;ed on it, should the besiegers make them- 
selves masters of the subterraneous passages, and 
there is a hole three feet in diameter, which is in- 
tended to convey a strong current of air to the fire. 
On the road to the summit, which is very steep, 
and, in some places, covered with brushwood, there 
are same houses, towers and gates. The governor's 
house is an excellent one, surrounded by a verandah 
with twelve arches, and through this house passes 
the only road to the top. Towards the summit the 
ridge becomes very narrow, and, on the (>eak, where 
the Nizam's flag flies, strands a large brass twenty- 
four pounder ; but, besides this, there are only a few 
two or three pounders. As the hill contains reser- 
voirs of water, if properly defended, it could be cap- 
tured only by famine. 

When the Mohammedans under Allah Ud Deen 
carried their arms into this part of the Dekhun, 
about A. D. 1293, Deoghur was the residence of a 
powerful Hindoo Raja, who was defeated, and his 
capital taken and plundered of immense riches. In 
1306, the fortress, and the surrounding district, were 
reduced to permanent subjection by Mallik Naib, of 
* 2 a* 


History of Dowlutabad. 

Delhi. In the eaily part of the fourteenth century, 
the emperor Mohammed made an attempt to transfer 
the seat of government from Delhi to Deoghur, the 
name of which he changed to Dowlutabad. To 
effect this purpose, he almost ruined Delhi, in order 
to drive the inhabitants to his new capital, seven hun- 
dred and fifty miles from theirold habitations, but his 
endeavours were without avail, so that he was oblig- 
ed to desist, after having done much mischief. 

About the year 1595, Dowlutabad surrendered to 
Ahmed Nizam Shah of Ahmednuggur, and on the 
fall of that dynasty, was taken possession of by Mal- 
lik Amber, an Abyssinian slave, who was reckoned 
the ablest general, politician and financier of his age. 
His successors reigned until 1634, when the city»and 
fortress were taken by the Moghuls, during the reign 
of Shah Jehan, and the seat of government transfer- 
red to the neighbouring town-of Gurka, since called 
Aurungabad. Along with the rest of the Moghul 
Dekhun it^fell into the possession of Nizam Ul Mulk, 
and has continued with his descendants, theNizams 
of Hydrabad, ever since, with the exception of the 
year 1758, during which it was held by M. Bussy, 
but he was obliged to abandon it, when ordered to 
withdraw with his army to the Carnatic, by his su- 
perior officer, M. Lally. 

In passing from Dowlutabad, the first thing that 
strikes the attention of the traveller, as worthy of 
special notice, is a paved road, made over a hill, near 
the village of Roza. It was made at the sole ex- 

IN INDIA. 307 

The village of Roza. Paper manufactory. Aurungzebe's grave. 

pense of a woman, who raised the whole amount, 
equal to many thousand dollars, from the sale of 
cow-dung, formed into cakes, and sold for fuel; and 
this was done to procure for herself an admission 
into heaven. The ruins of the little house in which 
she lived and prosecuted her self-denying work, are 
still to be seen. The natives speak of her work as 
highly meritorious, and doubt not but that she was 
admitted into happiness for her work. 

In the village of Roza we stopped a short time, 
and distributed a few tracts, and conversed with a 
cluster of idle men, who were seated in the veran- 
dah of a house close by the road side. Roza is 
noted for its paper manufactories. The paper made 
here, exceeds any thing of the kind that we have 
seen, for durability, in this country. The rains do 
not affect this paper in the way they do that which 
is brought from Europe, and especially from Ame- 
rica. It is adapted to the climate, and will remain 
good for ages, as many of their books sufficiently 
testify. • ■ -'--■'■■ ■ - -;■;: v : ■■ '^ :" '.y^.,:^- ^-cv 

The most interesting circumstance in connection 
with the village of Roza is, that here lie the remains 
of Aurungzebe. He died at Aurungabad, but his 
body was brought here for interment. Although 
he erected splendid mausoleums to the memory of 
his wife and daughter, and reigned for half a cen- 
tury, with a degree of pomp and splendour seldom, 
if ever, equalled, yet he requested that nothing 
should be erected over his grave, to show to all the 


Caves of EUora. 

people the vanity of human glory. This has given 
a degree of sanctity to the place, in the eyes of the 
Mohammedans, and has become a kind of burying 
place for kings. The place is esteemed healthy. 
Having arrived at ttie village near the caves, we 
put up our horses, and procuring a guide, who led 
us by a narrow and winding path down the moun- 
tain, we were brought suddenly before the large and 
magnificent temple of Kylas. We were struck 
with astonishment in beholding these mighty works 
of art, and were compelled, for awhile, to stand 
still, and gaze upon them with amazement. To be^ 
able to give a minute and adequate description of 
all of these excavations, it would be necessary to 
spend a week in the examination of them. All we 
could do, during the few hours we remained, was to 
pass hastily from one excavation to another, to get a 
glimpse of them all. To inspect I hem minutely 
was out of the question. The hill where these ex- 
cavations are made is crescent shaped, and the slope 
is generally easy, but in many places, the rock pre- 
sents a perpendicular face of from twenty to a hun- 
dred feet high, or more. To truncate the hill in 
this manner must have cost immense labour, how 
much more, then, must it have taken to excavate 
these caves for a mile in length? The external and 
internal appearance of the caves are much alike. 
They are three stories high. The rooms are, in 
general, about sixty feet long, and from thirty to 
fifty feet wide, including their respective verandahs. 


Caves of Ellora. v - The temple of Kylas. : 

The ceilings are supported by massy pillars, about 
ten or twelve feet high. Every room contains a 
number of gigantic images. The largest are in a 
sitting posture. In some of them, the /mgwwi, or an 
idol, which was the object of special worship, is en- 
closed in a small room, which stands out from the 
wall, so as to permit a person to walk around it. 
Here and there small rooms, for some secret pur- 
poses, are cut deep into the rock which forms the 
back wall of the rooms, but having no light, we 
preferred not to enter them. Steps lead from the 
lower to the upper stories of the caves; but in every 
case, each cave, with its three stories, stands sepa- 
rate from the others, at least, we could discover no 
medium of communication. The figures in these 
rooms are all, more or less, mutilated or defaced, 
but show clearly that they have been formed with 
much good taste and skill. There is a beauty of 
symmetry running*through the whole of the figures, 
whether they be small or large (as those on the out- 
side, which are thirty feet and more), or grouped to- 
gether, which cannot but excite the admiration of 
the beholder, and convince him that the art of sculp- 
ture had reached its acme when thege caves were 

The most wonderful thing to be seen here, is the 
temple of Kylas or Paradise. In front of it stands 
a very spacious and fine gateway. On each side of 
the gateway, there is a projection reaching to the 
first story, with much sculpture, and handsome bat- 


The temple of Kylas. 

tlements. Over the gote is a balcony. On the 
outside of the upper story of the gateway, are pillars 
that have much the appearance of a' Grecian order. 
From the gateway you enter a vast area, cut down 
through the solid rock of the mountain, to make 
room for an immense temple, of the complex form, 
whose wonderful structure, variety, profusion, and 
minuteness of ornament, beggar all description. - 
This temple, which is excavated from the upper 
region of the rock, and appears like a grand build- 
ing, is connected with the gateway by a bridge, left 
out of the rock, as the mass of the mountain was 
excavated. Beneath this bridge, at the end opposite 
the entrance^ there is a figure of Bhuwanee, sitting 
on a lotus, with two elephants with their trunks 
joined over her head, as if fighting. On each side 
of the passage under the bridge is an elephant. 
Behind tliese elephants, are ranges of apartments 
on each side, handsomely decorated with figures. 
Advanced in the area, are two obelisks, of a square 
form, handsomely graduated to the commencement 
of the capitals, which seem to have. been crowned 
with ornaments^ probably a single elephant stood on 
each, as the remains of one are yet visible. 

Passing through the gateway you enter the area, 
and proceeding under a small bridge, pass a solid 
square mass of rock, which supports the bull JVun- 
dee (sacred to Sheve), stationed above. The sides 
of this recess are profusely sculptured with pillars 
and figures of various forms ; having passed it, you 

IN INDIA. 311 

The temple of Kylas. 

come to the passage under another small bridge, be- 
neatli which there is, on one side, a gigantic figure 
of Raja Bhoj, in a sitting posture, surrounded by a 
group of other figures. Opposite to the figure of 
Raja Bhoj, is another of equal dimensions, with ten 
hands. At the end of this short passage commences 
the body of the grand temple, the excavation of 
which is in the upper story, which is here ascended 
by a flight of steps on each side. 

Having ascended a few steps, you enter into a 
handsome open portico, supported by two pillars to- 
wards the bridge, and two pilasters that join it to 
the body of the temple; the grand apartment of 
which you enter from the portico by four handsome 
steps and a doorway twelve feet high by six broad ; 
on each side of which are gigantic figures, holding 
in their hands weapons for defence, or as badges of 
their authority. They are represented to be the 
door keepers. Advancing a few paces into the tem- 
ple, which is supported by two rows of pillars, be- 
sides the walls, which are decorated with pilasters, 
there is an intermission of one pillar on each side, 
leading to the right and to the left, to an open por- 
tico projecting from the body of the temple. Oppo- 
site the door, and at the end of this saloon, is the 
recess of the Ling and of Mahadev, to which there 
is an ascent of five steps, and which forms the ter- 
mination of this fine saloon. On each side of the 
door of this recess there is a profusion of sculpture. 
The whole of the ceiling has been chunamed and 


The temple of Kylas. 

painted. The width of the inner part of the temple 
is sixty-one feet ; the height of the ceiling is nearly 
eighteen feet ; the length from the portico entering 
the temple to the back wall of the temple, is one hun- 
dred and three feet six inches ; including the raised 
platform behind the temple, it will be .one hundred 
and forty-two feet six inches ; the two side por- 
ticos each, length thirty-four feet ten inches, breadth 
fifteen feet four inches ; the height of the temple is 
one hundred feet. The area in which the temple 
stands is in length, from the gateway to the oppo- 
site scarp, two hundred and forty-seven feet, and in 
breadth one hundred and fifty feet. 

Besides the grand saloon und the porticos adjoin- 
ing it, there are five or six other rooms, or small tem- 
ples, on the platform back of the main body of the 
temple. These are full of figures of men and wo- 
men fantastically, and in many instances, lascivi- 
ously grouped together. The outside of the whole 
temple is covered with figures of men, and gods, and 
demons, engaged in combat or sport, or placed there 
as mere matters of ornament, and all of them in 
alto-relievo. What increases the astonishment of 
the beholder is, that the whole of the temple, with 
its figures, porticos, pillars, obelisks, elephants, 
bridges, &c., is but one piece of rock. To design 
and execute such a work, speaks highly in favour of 
those who were concerned in it. When or by whom 
these caves were made, no one knows. The Hin- 
doos have preserved no records which can throw any 

IN INDIA. 313 

Origin of these caves unknown. 

light on this subject. All is conjecture, or uncertain 
tradition, and the inquirer seeks in vain for correct 

The Mohammedans say that they were excavated 
by Raja Eel, about one thousand years ago. The 
Brahrnuns, on the other hand, sfeiy that they were 
made about seven thousand nine hundred years ago 
(which of course cannot be true), by a Raja Eeloo ; 
but of this there is no certainty. There can be but 
little doubt that they owe their origin to the religious 
and superstitious zeal of some wealthy Raja in ages 
past ; but how long ago, it is impossible to tell. 

The temple is no longer considered sacred; still a 
few Hindoos come occasionally to pay their adora- 
tions to the Lingum in the temple of Kylas. A Fo- 
gee * occupies a portion of the saloon, having built for 
himself a small mound of stones and clay near the 
door, on which he sits, and where he receives the 
Contributions of the few Hindoos who may come to 
visit the temple. <^ 

Considered as mere works of art, it is painful to 
see the whole of this noble and grand display of 
genius and talent going to ruins ; but the doom of 
these works is fixed. They have been consecrated 
to that which God hates; and they must and will 
be destroyed. The present condition of these caves, 
and the total indifference of the natives generally to 
them, are strong proofs of the truth of the Bible and 

* A Yogee is a Hindoo devotee. 


Dining under a tree. Healthiness of the place. 

of the Christian system, which must continue to in- 
crease until all the idolatrous nations of the earth 
shall forsake their idols, and until the high and lofty 
looks of man shall be broftght down, and God alone 
be exalted. That that happy time may soon come, 
when all the kindreds, and nations, and tongues un- 
der heaven, shall know and serve the Lord, is, no 
doubt, the sincere desire and prayer of every reflect- 
ing Christian. 

Having finished our examination of these caves, 
we dined under the shade of a large pimpul tree 
which stands at a short distance in front of the 
temple of Kylas. The once sacred stones of a de- 
molished temple served us for a table, and also for 
chairs. We left the caves a little before sunset, 
and reached Arungabad by torchlight at ten o'clock. 

On the top of the hill near the caves, there are 
many beautiful places for pitching tents ;, there are 
also some mosques, which may be occupied by the 
Europeans who may visit the place. The situation 
is esteemed more healthy than that of Arungabad, 
and many go there for the benefit of their health, 
and for an agreeable change of air. We found se- 
veral European gentlemen and ladies, who intend 
to remain there for a few weeks. As the sacredness 
of the caves is gone, in the estimation of the Hin- 
doos, it is not made a place of general resort; and 
were it not for the Europeans, who occasionally visit 
the place, the number of native visitors would, no 


Employment of time. Distribution of tracts. 

doubt, be much diminished. Still the caves must 
reraaia as monuments of the genius, the enterprise 
and industry, as well as of the superstitious folly of 
a people who are now characterised by their lack of 
energy and general inactivity. 

Saturday, 8th, We spent the day in reading and 
in studying. As we have our Mahratta and Hin- 
doosthanee dictionaries with us, we can prosecute 
the study of these languages on our tour, with ad- 
vantages which we cannot enjoy at home. In the 
evening we rode into the native Bazar and spent 
some time in conversing with the natives and in dis- 
tributing tracts. The people were particularly at- 
tentive to every" thing that Dajeba said; owing, in 
part, to the fact that they had never before heard a 
Hindoo speak in favour of Christianity, and in oppo- 
sition to the superstitions and follies of 'the people. 
Our business was principally to give the conversa- 
tion a proper direction. Dajeba was the chief speak- 
er, though not the only one on the present occasion. 
A person to labour with advantage in this place, 
ought to speak the Hindoosthanee language fluently, 
and be well supplied with the Scriptures and tracts 
in the language. We found the people attentive, 
and not at all disposed to object or cavil. As to the 
distribution of tracts among the people, we can only 
eay, the people are prepared to receive them, and a 
Missionary might do a great deal of good in this 
way, even before he shall have learned to speak, it 
may be, a sentence of the language. 


Sabbath in Aurungabad. Application to have a child bs^itised. 

Sabbathy9th. A few persons were assembled in 
Mr Roper's parlour, to whom Mr Read preached. 
A young man, an Indo-Briton, called this morning 
and wished to get his child baptised. As he seemed 
entirely ignorant of the design of the ordinance, it 
was explained to him at considerable length. When 
he was told that it was his duty to pray mf/i and /or 
his child, and that he was about to come under ob- 
ligations, in a public manner, to train up his child ^ 
for God, which it became him to consider, he said he 
would not have his child baptised by us, but should 
go to the Commandant of the station, who would do 
it without requiring any promises of the kind from 
him. We learned from a gentleman present, that ^ 
it is the usual practice for one of the officers at this 
station (there being no Chaplain) to marry all the i 
persons connected with the regiment, if proper ap- 
plication be made, and to baptise the children of 
those Europeans and Indo-Britons who may ask 
to have the rite administered. As to permitting 
officers to baptise children, Bishop Hooker would not 
object, as, under certain circumstances, he allows 
women to baptise them ; but to us it does not seem 

; _ *See Hooker's Ecc. Polity, 1.5, § 62. 

IN INDIA. 317 

A sacrifice of two Iambs. 


Mr Read went out this evening to converse with 
the natives, while I remained behind to converse 
with the children and members of Mr Roper's fa- 
mily. About sunset, while standing in the door, I 
saw a crowd of people going towards a small tem- 
ple which was in sight, and near at hand. On learn- 
ing that they were about to offer two lambs in sacri- 
fice, I immediately followed them to the temple, be- 
ing accompanied by Mr Roper and another gea- 
tleman. There were about forty persons in all, in- 
cluding the children. It was a family sacrifice, and 
was offered in the fulfilment of a vow. A few per- 
sons playing on rude instruments of music, led the 
procession: then followed two men, bringing the 
lambs for sacrifice. The one was carried on the 
shoulders of one of the men, and the other was led. 
Both of them were decorated with garlands of flow- 
ers. After these followed a person carrying the sa- 
cred fire, and then the families concerned. When 
they arrived at the temple, which is a small mud 
building of about ten feet square, the people rnade 
iheir obeisance to the idol within, and circumambu- 
lated the temple twice. A lamp was then lit from 
the fire above mentioned, and placed in the temple 
immediately before the idol. The person who ofll- 
ciated on this occasion was a priestess, old and dirty, 
with a wild look and dishevelled hair. She was as- 
2 b* 


■■I *i I ap^*^— I - ■ I III- I ■ ■■ ■■ . — — ■ ■ ■ ■■■IIMI-MIBI.IlB^ H »l|fc 

The sacrifice. 

*!>-~ — — . — .: 

sisted by a man the counterpart of herself. Her 
dress was the usual Hindoo dress of the women, 
yiz : a choice^ and loogurda. On the left sleeve of 
her cholee small patches of red flannel were sewed. 
This was designed to represent the smallpox. The 
priestess marked the foreheads of the people with 
red^aint, such as was on the idol. Having washed 
her hands in clean water, she took a handful of the 
small branches of the kurdoo-nimb-iveey containing the 
leaves, which are exceedingly bitter, and tied them 
together in the form of a brush, or broom. This she 
held in her hand, while her assistant poured upon it 
a handy full of water. While engaged in washing 
these branches, she continued to mutter something 
in a low and rapid tone, which no one present could 
understand, and to which no one appeared to pay any 
attention. This being over, she ordered her assist- 
ant to wash the head and forelegs of one of the lambs 
with water, in which she had thrown some salt and 
some bitter herbs. The head of the lamb was then 
marked with red paint. Bitter herbs and salt were 
given to it to eat, which it refused. Its mouth was 
then opened, and some of the salt and water and 
another fluid (but what I could not learn) were forced 
down its throat. This seemed to stupify the animal, 
so that being let loose it staggered about among the 

* The cholee is the body dress of the women; a kind of spen- 
cer, the sleeves only reaching to the elbows. The loogurda is a 
cloth of six or eight yards long and a yard wide, which is wrap- 
ped around the middle, and answers the purpose of a petticoat. 

IN INDIA. - S19 

The priestess possessed. 

people. After stopping for a few minutes, a person 
gave it a gentle tap on the side of the head, which 
made it turn its face towards the door of the temple. 
As soon as this was done, the sacrificer seized it, 
threw it with force on its left side, the head being 
towards the door, and immediately cut off iti head 
and the right foreleg by the knee. These were held 
up before the idol, and then placed before the door 
of the temple. When the lamb had ceased to move 
it was dragged to one side, where it was left. The 
priestess, being all this time engaged in muttering 
something to herself, now stepped forward to the 
blood, holding the little brush in her hand, and while 
the sacrificer poured water on it, she sopped it in the 
blood and water, and proceeded to sprinkle all the 
people present with it, having first sprinkled some 
on the idol and on the door posts of the temple. 
When she came to us she stopped and frowned, as 
if considering whether to sprinkle us or not. After 
this she placed herself before the door of the temple, 
and after muttering a few words to (he idol, started 
back, and in a frantic maimer began to jump, and 
scream, and pull her hair. On a sudden she stopped 
and was seized with trembling — her arms were ex- 
tended — her mouth was open, and her eyes rolled 
from side to side. Then she jumped, and groaned, 
and raved, and screamed, and finally fell back, as 
it were, lifeless to the ground. Her fall was broken 
by two of the women present, who sprang forward 
and caught her, which, if they had not done, the jar 


Similarity of Jewish and Hindoo sacrifices. 

of falling would either have brought her to her 
senses, or made her rave in earnest. After lying on 
the ground for some minutes, she arose slowly, and 
gradually resumed her natural appearance. She 
then told the persons concerned, that their offering 
was accepted by ihe god to whom it had been 
presented ; and proceeded to sacrifice the other 
lamb. In this case the ceremony was the same as 
in the other, with the exception that she did not 
rave nor fall to the ground. All being ended, the 
company paid her a few pice and returned to their 
homes, preceded by the musicians, in the manner in 
which they came. 

Finding the old priestess pretty calm in mind, and 
looking intently at the money she had received, I 
approached her, and began to make some inquiries 
about the sacrifice and the meaning of certain things 
which I had, witnessed. But whether she thought 
that our intention was to injure her, or expose the 
fallacy of her craft, I know not. She remained si- 
lent, and when urged to answer, began to whine, 
and pretended to be afraid of us. We left her with- 
out gaining any more information about the mode 
of sacrificing, or the reasons why such and such 
things are done, other than what we saw. - 

I need not say that the whole of this ceremony 
interested me exceedingly. There certainly is a 
striking similarity in some things between this sim- 
ple mode of sacrificing among th6 Hindoos, and that 
practised by the Jews, as recorded in the book of Le- 

IN INDIA. 3^1 

Similarity of Jewish and Hindoo sacrifices. 

viticus. Xhe fact of the sacrifices being lambs with- 
out blemish — that they were brought to the door of 
the temple (their tabernacle) — that salt was used—? 
that the head and foreleg were waved before the idol 
— 'that the people, and idol, and door posts were 
sprinkled with the blood of the sacrifice — that bitter 
herbs or leaves were used with which to sprinkle the 
people — and that the lambs were left to be con- 
sumed or eaten by the sacrificer and the priestess: 
all these things show that sacrifices, as existing 
among the Hindoos, and as they were among the 
Jews, must have had one common origin. There 
is no rational way of accounting for the existence 
of sacrifices among the different heathen nations, 
other than that these nations have received them 
from the Jews. For, to suppose a Hindoo should 
imagine that sin could be pardoned by the shedding 
of blood, is to suppose that sin could be pardoned, 
according to his system, by the very means in which 
the greatest sins are committed. Sacrificing in the 
Hindoo system is an innovation. Its introduction 
by the Brahmuns, centuries ago, was the very thing 
which led to war and bloodshed, and finally termi- 
nated in the division of : the people into two sects, 
which exist yet throughout India ; that is, the sa- 
crificing Hindoos, and their bitter enemies the Jainas^ 
who reject every thing like sacrificing, and utterly 
detest the idea of shedding blood. Not only does 
this rite, but others also among the Hindoos, show 
that ihey have drawn largely from the Jewish Scrip- 


Demoniacal possessions. 

tures, though in many cases they are so obscured by 
the addition of many other foolish ceremonies, that 
it is at first difficult to trace the resemblance. Not 
liking to retain the pure worship of the invisible God, 
they substituted fables in its place, and began to 
worship the creature instead of their Creator. The 
Hindoo acknowledges that the shedding of blood, in 
some cases, is necessary to obtain the favour of their 
gods. May they soon be led by the Spirit to see and 
to acknowledge that the blood of Christ, and it alone, 
can cleanse them. from all sin. 

In reference to the raving of the priestess, I 
would add, that the opinion of the people is, that 
it was wholly involuntary, on her part. They say 
that the god, who resides in the idol, and to whom 
the sacrifice is presented, leaves the idol, and 
takes possession of the body of the woman, and, 
through her, speaks to the people, giving them the 
information that they need. The Hindoos fully be- 
lieve, that the god, which is sometimes a demon, 
does possess individuals. What they do in this state 
of madness, is considered the work of the god, not 
of the person thus possessed. That the devil does 
possess people now, as well as in the days of Christ, 
the Hindoos and Mussulmen fully believe. They 
have their own rules, by which they determine 
whether the case in question be a real devil-posses- 
sion or not ; and if it be so, according to their judg- 
ment, the person thus possessed is worshipped, 'for 
the time being, as the god himself. 1 can only say, 

IN INDIA. 323 

Parting from Mr Roper. 

if the woman I saw was not possessed by the devil, 
when she was thrown into such convulsions, it 
comes nearer to it than any thing my imagination 
has ever formed on the subject. The)^ worship the 
devil in many cases — pray to him, and ask him to 
take possession of their bodies at the time, (as he 
will of their souls at last, unless they repent), and 
who can say that God does not permit their prayers 
to be answered in this way, as we know He can 1 
For one, I should be afraid to give utterance to such 
a prayer, lest it should be answered. It is better to 
pray, "From sin, from the crafts and assaults of the 
devil — good Lord, deliver us." And may we also 
pray, "Lord deliver the heathen from the bondage of 
Satan." --^"" ■■■^:Y'-^' ■- ■'. "^ -^'■-;.^;-- "^'-: •■''-:v ■■■';:■ 

Monday, \Oth. This afternoon we parted from Mr 
Roper and his kind family. The few days we re- 
mained under their hospitable roof, endeared them 
much to us, and our grateful hearts lead us to pray, 
" The Lord reward them for the kindness they have 
shown us." A Missionary, who has been for weeks 
tossed about among a heathen people, and has met 
With no sympathy from them, while engaged in his 
wearisome labours for their good, knows well, and, 
perhaps, no one knows better, how to prize the kind- 
ness and the sympathies of Christian friends, with 
which he may be favoured. It becomes him not to 
forget the Author of all his comforts, nor those by 
whose hands they may be dispensed. Mr Roper 
kindly accompanied us as far as the village of Wa- 



loonjee, about ten miles from Aurungabad, where 
we parted. 


This village contains about four hundred houses, 
according to " Clure's Itinerary," but as we had sent 
our luggage and books ahead, and it was near night, 
we did not enter it. For aught we know, none of 
the people have ever heard of the name of Jesus, 
as the Saviour for sinners. 

As we passed the village, we observed that the 
people were engaged in celebrating the memory, 
perhaps, of somp man, or, more likely, of some one 
of their numerous gods. It was done by the firing 
of guns, and by making a noise in other ways. 
The similarity between this mode of "keeping the 
day" and that practised by some Christian people in 
celebrating the birth of some great man, or the me- 
mory of some great event, struck us with peculiar 
force. It is difficult to imagine how the burning of 
gunpowder, or the noise, whether of the cracking 
of the humble squibs, or the majestic roaring of the 
mighty cannon, can deepen the impression in the 
mind of a nation, of the worth of an individual, or 
of the value of any great and praiseworthy achieve- 
ment. Yet such are the means made use of, in 
many cases, by a Christian people, as well as by the 
heathen, in their celebrations. The Roman Catho- 
lics in Bombay celebrate the birth of our Saviour by 


IN INDIA. 325 

Similarity of heathen and Christian customs. 

the firing of cannon. And the people of the United 
States of America celebrate the day of their Inde- 
pendence in a similar manner. As Americans, we 
can say that we have heathen example, at least, 
though we may lack Scripture authority for such a 


Leaving Wa-loon-jee, we came to the village of 
Du-hee-gaon. A Hindoo, carrying a lantern, show- 
ed us the way. Here we stopped all night, in an 
old and forsaken chowdey, not half as good as a 
common stable. By wrapping ourselves up, head 
and all, in our blankets, we made out to escape the 
ill effects of being exposed to the night air. By a 
little attention on the part of thePatel of the village, 
these chowdeys might be made very comfortable for 
travellers, but no one seems to think of such a thing, 
unless he should be paid for it, and no one has pub- 
lic spirit enough to repair them without pecuniary 
compensation. It is astonishing to see how far the 
present generation of Hindoos have sunk below 
their fathers in this respect. Their chowdeys, their 
temples, and their tanks, all share a like neglect. 
The wall of a tank is broken down, for instance, 
and every year the rains wash into it a large amount 
of clay, thus diminishing its capacity to hold the 
usual amount of w^ter, and, of course, lessening the 
supply of the people for the year to come. The ill 


Lack of public spirit among the Hiadoos. Toka. 

effects of this are seen in the dead and dying cat- 
tle; in the parched gardens, and in the starving peo- 
ple, in many cases; and yet, foreseeing all these 
things, no one stands forth to repair these breaches, 
merely because he may not receive a pecuniary re- 
ward for his labours, though he would thereby be 
adding to his own future comfort, and that of his 
family and neighbours. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ; i^ 

TOKA. ; '': -1 ; v,,:;:;-:'.;,^ 

Tuesday, l\th. We left Du-he-gaon this morn- 
ing, at four o'clock, and came to Toka. We made 
our stopping place in the small village of Singum, at 
the junction of the Para and Godavery rivers. By 
crossing the river Godavery, you enter the village of 
Ga'e-gaon ; Toka stands on the opposite side of the 

We visited these villages to-day, and distributed 
one box of books and tracts among the people. The 
people here were very civil, and seemed glad to receive 
the books we gave them. During the forenoon, the 
people came over the rivers in crowds to us, with 
whom we conversed till we were all weary with 
talking, but still they did not seem to be satisfied. 
After dinner, we visited the villages, to converse 
with those who are of high standing among their 
people, in a more private manner, and also, to pro- 
claim the name and religion of Jesus to I be people 
in their own temples. — ^ 

IN INDIA. 337 

Preaching in the temfde of Sheve. 

We entered the temple of Sheve, in Toka, where 
we soon had a crowd around us. The body of the 
temple and the verandahs were filled with people, 
who seemed to be all eagerness to receive tracts, and 
to hear us converse about this new religioriy as some 
of them called it. Nothing of any special interest 
took place during the time we were with them. 
One man, however, seemed to be a little annoyed at 
our conversing so much about Jesus Christ, and urg- 
ing the people to forsake their idolatrous worship, 
with so much earnestness. He was asked, "What 
is sin?" He replied, "Sin is to forsake the religion 
in which a man has been educated." 

A larger proportion,, of the people here can read 
than in most of the villages through which we have 
passed. Ther« are several schools for boys, but none, 
of course, for females. 

The temple of Sheve is a fine specimen of Hin- 
doo architecture. The figures and carvings in this 
temple are, in many respects, similar to what we 
saw in the caves of Ellora. The temple is some- 
thing in the gothic style ; the resemblance, hawever, 
is not very striking. The Hindoo order of architec- 
ture is sui generk. The pillars in the temples are, 
generally speaking, light, and full of minute figures. 

The village of Toka is considered by the Hindoos 
a sacred place. It not only stands upon the bank 
of the sacred river Godavery, but it also stands at 
the junction of this river with the Para, which in- 
creases the sacredness and soul-cleansing virtue of 


Peculiar sacredness of the Godaveiy at Toka. 

the waters to such a degree, that the sin of comtnit- 
ting the two greatest crimes among the Hindoos, 
viz., killing a cow and a Brahmun, may be atoned 
for, by performing certain ceremonies, accompanied 
with bathing at the junction of these sacred streams. 
In consequence of the sacredness of this place, the 
Brahmuns have collected here, and form, by far, the 
largest proportion of the inhabitants. They love to 
be near what are called holy places, but as to real 
holiness, they know nothing about it. We hope 
that thfe word spoken to them to-day, and the many 
tracts distributed, may convince them, that the waters 
of the Godavery and the Para cannot take away sin. 

"No bleeding bird, nor bleeding beast, 
No hyssop branch, nor sprinkling priest, 
No running brook, nor flood, nor sea 
. Can take the dismal stain away. 
Jesus, my God, thy blood afowe 
Has power sufficient to atone : 
Thy blood can make me white as snow, 
No Hindoo rite can cleanse me so." 

Just before the chowdey we occupied, a company 
of travelling gypsies had encamped for the day. 
The business of this company is to make little clay 
ornaments, consisting of the representations of birds, 
dogs, &c. Having fashioned them according to their 
fancies, they are placed in the sun to dry. They 
are afterwards painted and sold. This company 
had two jack asses with them, which carried their 

IN INDIA. 329 

Gypsies. Their mode of living. 

house, household furniture, all the tools, &c., neces- 
sary to carr}'^ on their trade, and their children be- 
sides. Their house consisted of a few pieces of 
matting, which were, with the aid of a few light 
poles, so managed as to make a pretty good shelter 
from the sun. A mat, spread on the ground, served 
them for a bed. Each person had a thin cloth 
wrapped around the body, which answers the double 
purpose of a dress by day, and a coverlet by night. 
The children, being naked through the dav, come 
in for a share of their parents' covering at nfp. A 
vessel to cook in, one to eat out of, and a third used 
for a drinking cup, answered their purposes. The 
ground was their table, and their hands and fingers 
served them for knives and forks. In travelling, the 
adults walk, and the children, placed in a wallet, are 
hung over the back of the ass, while a third one, at 
times, is placed between them, on the back of the 
animal. They all appeared, to-day, quite cheerful. 
The men were engaged in working, and in selling their 
wares; the females in cooking, and the children in 
playing and tumbling about in the dirt. 

I never was so much convinced as to-day of the 
-advantage of having but little of this world's goods; 
and that the real necessaries of life are, indeed, ex- 
ceedingly few. Three vessels for a whole family ! 
Neither knife, fork, spoon, chair, stool, table, bed, 
nor any such cumbersome things as cups, and sau- 
cers, and plates, are to be found in this family. If 
2 c* 


The real wants of life are few. Hewra. 

this be not simplicity in living and in dress, I know 
not what is. True it is, that 

" Man wants but little, nor that little long." 

One of the greatest comforts in travelling in India» 
(and, I may add, also, through life) is to have but 
little to carry with you. It will free you from a world 
of care and anxiety. The people of Hindoosthan, 
generally, and these gypsies especially, seem to un- 
derstand this to perfection. As there was no one of 
this coi(|)any able to read, we could only tell them 
of a better way than the one they have chosen, and 
left them. Poor creatures ! their whole lives are 
spent in going from place to place, merely to procure 
for themselves and their children enough to eat — 
then die and be forgotten. 

"Like brutes they live, like brutes they die." " 

"""'i' HEWRA. ..-^ ^..>■:^;: ■-: y^^ 

Wednesday, I2th. We left Toka this morning be- 
fore sunrise, and came to Hewra for breakfast, about 
ten miles. The town has been much reduced of 
late years. A fort stands near the town, but it is 
fast going to ruin. We spent the day in this place, 
and had considerable conversation with some of the 
people. A number of people assembled in the 
chowdey where we put up, to converse with us. 
All these paid good attention to what we said, ex- 
cepting two persons; the one of these laid himself down 

IN INDIA. 331 


on the ground, as if in contempt of, or at least, to 
show his indifference to the subject on which we 
were speaking. The other attempted to interrupt 
us by abruptly proposing unmeaning and imperti- 
nent questions. We distributed a few tracts among 
them. Tracts in the Balbad character were the 
only kind we had left, and these the most of the 
readers could not understand. All who applied to 
us and could read, we supplied. A large proportion 
of the inhabitants are Mohammedans. 

In the evening we came to the village orKhu- 
rown-da, about seven and a half miles distant from 
Hewra. When we came to the chowdey, we found 
it occupied by a number of native travellers, who 
had their fires made, and their pots of rice on the 
fire boiling. The Patel of the village provided them 
with another place, and thus gave us the sole pos- 
session of the chowdey for the night, without being 
incommoded by a lot of noisy travellers. 

While our cook was preparing tea for us, we took 
a short walk out of the village, and, sitting down upoQ 
a rock, we conversed together on the state of the 
heathen, and our work. Though weary in body, 
we were cheered by the promises that this world 
shall yet be redeemed, and also with the fact that 
God has been pleased to use us as instruments in His 
hand of advancing His cause among Xhis benighted 

people. ':'-'■'-::-/■' >,-:^ ^ ■- >:.-'-,:,- "^" .:■. 

On our return, we found a number of people in 
and about the chowdey, waiting to converse with 

■tt fc 


J-' r - . - — -*! — : — - -- - I I ... 

Interesting interview with a native. 

■ :^ ' ■ 

US. While Mr Read was engaged in conversing 
with those without, I was engaged with those in the 
chowdey. Two of those with whom I conversed 
were the most seriously disposed Hindoos that I have 
met with on this tour. They were both about 
thirty-five years of age, respectable in their appear- 
ance, and very polite in their whole deportment. 
After explaining to them distinctly the plan of sal- 
vation through our Lord Jesus Christ, and contrast- 
ing it with the Hindoo system, I asked one of them, 

•Miss. What do you think of the plan of salvation 
by Jesus Christ? 

Hindoo I think it is good. - 

•Miss. How long have you worshipped idols] > 

Hind. From my childhood. 

\Miss. And have you derived any benefit from the 
worship of idols ] 

Hind. (Shaking his head and with a solemn coun- 
tenance) No: nothing. 

Miss. What, then, is the use of continuing to wor- 
ship them 7 

Hind. None at all. 

Miss. Is it not time, then, to try something bet- 
ter-^even the religion of Christ? 

Hind. It would be well, for idols are vain. 

I was rather surprised to find this man so very 
candid, and, withal, so honest in the matter. The 
subject most evidently was new to him, and the 
truth of the Gospel commended itself to his con- 
science. After some further conversation with him, 

IN INDIA. 333 

Testament left for a village. An unaccommodating Jageerdar. 

the last copy of the New Testament which we had 
with us, was put into his hands. We told him and 
all present that the book contains a revelation of 
the will of God — that it makes known the on|^ true 
way to obtain the favour of God and eternal happi- 
ness, and that we entrusted the book in his hands 
for the benefit of himself and the people of the vil- 
lage. He received it with gladness, and promised 
that he would not only read it himself, privately, but 
would also read it publicly to others. From the 
man's whole conduct we have strong hopes to think 
that he w^ill do as he has promised. May the bless- 
ing of God attend the reading of this copy of His 
word, so that many of those villagers may be brought 
to a saving knowledge of the truth. 


Thursday J ISth- We left Khu-rown-da this morn- 
ing early for Wambooree, which we reached at nine 
o'clock. After some deh\y in searching for a place, 
we found a chowdey occupied by a Jageerdar.* He 
refused to let us have the use of it. After searching 
in vain for another place, we told him that we must 
have it, and proceeded infimediately to occupy it. 
He loudly opposed, and finally went away angry. 

* A Jageer is a division of country, or a certain number of 
villages, granted by the government to an individual, for the 
raising and maintaining a quota of troops. A Jageerdar is the 
person who holds this grant. 


Temple of Bhiroba. ^ 

Shortly afier this, his brother came, and made an 
apology for him, and told us we were at liberty to 
occupy the house during our stay in the village. 

Wa spent the day in this village, and distributed 
among the people the remainder of our tracts. Se- 
veral boys showed us tracts, which they had received 
about a year ago, from the Missionaries who visited 
this place. One boy -was asked, "What does the 
tract speak of 1 " He replied, •■* About Jesus Christ,"* 
He answered many questions which were proposed 
to him, with considerable accuracy, which showed 
that he had read the tract with attention. We sup- 
plied him with more, and left a number in the chow- 
dey, for the benefit of those who might see proper 
to read them. 

We visited the temple in this village dedicated to 
Pashun-nath and Bhiroba. It contains several im- 
ages of white marble, very neatly sculptured. The 
images are in a sitting posture. Their long ears 
hanging down upon their shoulders, and their fin- 
gers all of equal length, show that they are images 
of the Boodd,hist order. But that is a matter of no 
consequence to these Hindoos, as they are well 

* It is pleasing to know that boys in India, as a general thing, 
take good care of the books that may be given them. I have 
found tracts in the hands of many of those who were formerly 
in connection with the Mission schools, which had been preserv- 
ed carefully for fifteen years. It is an encouraging thing to 
know that the tracts you distribute will, generally , be preserved, 
and not destroyed. 

IN INDIA. 335 


Conversations with the natives. 

made, and to worship these will save the expense of 
procuring others, which are made after the Hindoo 
order. The temple is a neat and strongly built 
building, and is adorned with many paintings, re- 
presenting the exploits of their gods. Among these 
paintings, we discovered Krishnoo among the Go- 
pees, and Hunooman with his army of monkeys, 
contending against Rawun, and his host of demons. 

Having preached the Gospel to the people in this 
temple, we went to another. The object of worship 
in this temple, was nothing but a large stone, taper- 
ed to a point. A conversation was begun wiih a 
by-stander, in reference to the idol. 

Miss. What is this 1 (pointing to the stone.) 

Hindoo. The god Bhiroba.* 

Miss. No; it is a stone. 

Hind. (Pointing to a stone) That is a stone; but 
this is god (pointing to the idol). 

Miss. They are both jitones. The one has red 
paint on it, and the other has not. That is the only 
difference we can perceive. Does that stone (point- 
ing to the idol) drink water and eat rice? 

Hind. Yes; every day.f 

* Bhiroba is a particular form of the god Sheve. 

t The priests place rice and water before the idol every day, 
and make the people believe that the idol consumes all that is 
given it. The history of Bel and of the Dragon, aflfords us another 
instance of the same mode of deceiving the people. There is 
no lie too absurd for a Hindoo'sTaith ; indeed, it would seem, 
that the more absurd the thing is, the easier they can believe it. 


Trial of the power of the god. 

J\lis$. You know you do not tell the truth ; and 
you know very well that it cannot eat, drink, see, 
hear, or move. It is a lifeless stone. - 

Hind. Not so. Sahib; it is alive: it is god. 

Miss. Very well. If it be God, we cannot injure 
it ; but if it be a stone, it may be broken. Is it not 
sol . - 

No one answered any thing. I then took a pretty 
large stone, which I found near at hand, and ap- 
proaching the idol, asked the man if it would break 
his god to strike it with the stone I held in my hand] 
He made no reply. I then raised it up under pre- 
tence of throwing it at the idol, and the nian imme- 
diately exclaimed, "Don't throw it. Sahib ; it is only 
a stone ; it will break." The people immediately 
burst out into a loud laugh. I then threw down the 
stone, and asked him, why he had told me a false- 
hood, and if he was not afraid that the true God 
would punish him for the sin of lying, and of deceiv- 
ing the people. He remained silent, and wilh the 
others, listened while we exposed the folly of wor- 
shipping a stone, and made known to them the only 
way of salvation, through the Lord Jesus Christ. 

Friday, I4lh. We left Wambooree this morning, 
for Ahmednuggur, which we reached at eight 
o'clock, and were rejoiced to meet our brethren 
Messrs Allen and Boggs, the former of whom has 
just returned from America, after an absence of about 
one year. 

Mr Read will probably remain here for a few days, 

IN INDIA. 337 

Native conv<^ts. 

and then go to Pundurpoor with Mr Allen, before 
the rains commence. 


Sabbath, I6th. The ordinance of the Lord's Sup- 
per was administered to-day, in tlie house of Mr 
Boggs, in the native language. One man was re- 
ceived into the church, upon profession of his faith. 
After being baptized, he sat down with us at the 
Lord's table, in company with several other native 
converts. . ':' ■■;.-■:;.; ./^ ■;;;■;::;■;:;■/■;; ,;/:;;^.\:;;^:;,. ~j . .■,;:- { '..rV^-^:^'- : . 

Three females applied to be received at the same 
time; but it was judged best to<lefer their baptism 
until the Mission should have more time to test their 
Christian experience. We cannot expect from these 
converts from paganism, the same degree of know- 
ledge that we should from a person in a Christian 
land, before admitting them into the Christian 
church. It is sufficient that they give evidence of a 
change of heart, and understand the first principles 
of the Christian religion. There is, no doubt, dan- 
ger of being too strict, as well as too lax, in the ad- 
mission of members into the church, from among a 
people so deplorably ignorant of Oospel truth as the 
Hindoos are. In this matter much wisdom is ne- 
cessary to direct the Missionary in his duty. 

•Monday, I7th, I left Ahmednuggur this morning 
for Bombay. As the villages on the way have been 
visited frequently by Missionaries, and my object 


A devotee perfbnning tup. ■■'/.\^\-'-y^:/:,-r::::^..:--: 

now was to reach Bombay as soon as possible, I did 
not delay to converse with the people on the way. I 
reached Ranjangaon late in the evening, and lodged 
in the public bungalow. 

Tuesday f ISth. Came to Seroor, this evening. 
On my way to this village, I saw a man performing 
tup, of a pretty tiresome kind. The poor deluded 
creature held a stick in his hand, of about a foot in 
length. Starting from his own door, he threw him- 
self prostrate on the ground, and reaching out his 
hand, made a mark on the ground. Having risen 
up, he placed his toes at this mark, and measured 
his length again ; and so he intended to do, till he 
should reach the temple before him, which was about 
a mile and a half distant. When I came up to him, 
I pointed out to him the folly of his undertaking, 
and directed him to the Lord Jesus Christ, who was 
able to take away all his sins. While I was talking 
to him, he knocked the dust off his clothes, and sat 
down on the ground, and listened to me with atten- 
tion. Having passed on about a quarter of a mile, 
I looked back, and found him preparing to engage 
anew, in his useless work of measuring, by repeated 
prostrations, the distance from his house to the tem- 
ple, for the sake of saving his soul ! ! 

Wednesday, I9th. Came to Koon-da-poor, a small, 
and half-deserted village, for breakfast. The Bun- 
galow is in the care of a Mussulman from Bengal, a 
kind and attentive man. 1 supplied him with Hin- 
doosthanee tracts, for which he expressed his thank- 

IN INDIA. 339 

Foonah. - : -> ^ . -r- Scottish missionaries. 

fulness, and left some tracts with him, for the benefit 
of others in the village who could read. 

Carae to Lonee in the evening, and conversed with 
a few individuals, and disposed of some more of my 
tracts. - 

Thursday y 19th. Reached Poonah this morning 
and spent the day in the Bungalow. Here our 
brethren of the Scottish Mission, Messrs Nesbit* and 
Stevenson, are located. They here have had some 
success ainong the natives. They began their Mis- 
sionary operations in this place about six years ago. 
There is at present an interesting state of feeling 
among the European soldiers stationed here. Many 
of them have become, in the judgment of Christian 
charity, true converts. Mr Stevenson holds a week- 
ly meeting in his own house, for the benefit of those 
who may attend. There were about thirty of them 
present this evening. Mr Stevenson preached on 
the subject of Christ's exaltation ; which, I doubt 
not, was interesting to all, as it was to me. 

Some persons have thought that a Missionary 
should devote himself exclusively to the native popu- 
lation : but this is, in our opinion, a mistaken idea. 
He is bound to do good unto all men as he has op- 
portunity. The natives, no doubt, demand the 
greater portion of his time ; but the others are^ by 

* Mr Nesbit has since been compelled to leave the Missionary 
.field, in ill health. Mr Stevenson has accepted the appointment 
of Chaplain of the Scottish kirk in Bombay, in conjunction with 
the Reverend Mr La urie. 


Returning to Bombay. 

DO means, to be neglected. The example of all 
those who bear the name of Christian, is not with- 
out its effect upon the heathen population. If it be 
evil, it will tend to hinder the conversion of the peo- 
ple to God ; and if it be holy, it will aid greatly in 
promoting it, * 

Poonah contains now about one hundred thousand 
inhabitants. The European population may be es- 
timated at two thousand. 

Friday, 21st. Left Poonah this morning before 
day, intending to stop at Poonoola ; but missing the 
bungalow, I came on to Wurgaon. When the tat- 
too-wallas'^ came up, they agrfeed, for extra pay, to go 
on to Karlee, a few miles farther. I distributed a 
few tracts in both of these villages. At a short dis- 
tance from the village of Karlee are the Karlee caves. 
I had not time to visit them, nor did I feel much 
curiosity, having seen those of Elephanta, Salsette 
and Ellora. 

Saturday, 22d. Leaving Karlee at an early hour 
this morning, I descended the ghauts (mountains) 
before the heat of the sun became great. At the 
foot of the ghauts I stopped in a small house occu- 
pied by a Mussulman. At my request his wife 
made me some imleavened bread. In the meantime 
he procured for me a seerjf of goat^ milk, while his 

* Literally, pony-fellows, i. e. men who have the charge of 
a pony or horse, and are engaged in transporting burdens firom 
one place to another. ^ 

t A seer is about a pint and a half. 

IN INDIA. 341 

Panwell. Remarks. 

son fed my horse. I made but a short delay here, 
and came to Chowke, where I remained till the 
evening, and then came to Panwell. 

Sabbath, 2Sd, I spent this day in reading, and 
as my strength would permit, in conversing with the 
natives. The Gospel is not a new thing in Panwell ; 
yet still the people seem willing to hear. The Mis- 
sion have one school in this village. To the scho- 
lars and the people I gave away all the tracts I had 

Monday, 24th, Reached Bombay this morning, 
having taken the Bundur boat at one o'clock, and 
was cheered to find that God had preserved my 
family from death, though not from sickness, during 
my absence from them. The Lord's name be 
praised. Thus, in the good providence of God, am I 
permitted, after an absence of two months, in which 
I was privileged to travel about five hundred and 
fifty miles, and preach the Gospel to multitudes who 
never before heard of Jesus, to return to my family, 
and to unite with my brethren at this station, in ad- 
vancing the cause of our Redeemer among this 



In the present state of things among the Hindoos, 
it is highly important that Missionaries should itine- 
rate as much as possible during the cold season of 
the year. They should go out on these tours after 


Weapons not necessary for the missionary. 

the Apostolic style, " two and two," or should be ac- 
companied by a native preacher. Unless extensive 
tours are made, multitudes of immortal beings, scat- 
tered about in small villages, and among the hills, 
and on the plains of this extended country, must re- 
main, for ages to come, in the darkness which now 
envelopes them. 

; Wherever the Missionaries go among this people, 
they should go as the messengers of peace. They 
should speak peaceably to them ; should carry no 
weapons of defence with them ; but should show to 
all that they seek their good, and that alone. The 
fact that Mr Read and myself travelled for two 
months among the people, and out of the jurisdiction 
of the English government, without any weapons of 
defence, and without even any passports, shows that 
the former are by no means necessary in this field, 
although the other might be. Witness, for exam- 
ple, the conduct of the wily Brahmun towards us at 
Pytun. He dared not openly to hurt us, and when 
he was found out, his conscious guilt forced him 

The Missionary should endeavour constantly to 
feel that the people for whose benefit he is labouring, 
are not only enveloped in gross mental darkness, but 
that they are also immortal beings, who cannot be 
saved without the Gospel of Jesus Christ. He 
should reprove with affection, and so exhibit the Gos- 
pel as to make them feel, if possible, that it is for 
their good alone he labours among them. This, 

IN INDIA. 343 

Scriptures and schools needed. 

however, will be a difficult work at first; for the 
Hindoos think that the Missionary labours only from 
selfish motives, as they do. They know not, nor 
will they believe, that the love of Christ constrains 
him to labour as he does for the salvation of oth'ers. 
They work, as they say, for righteousness, (i. e., 
somethingby which to purchase happiness hereafter) 
and say that the Missionary does so too ; and, of 
course, do not thank him for his labours of love 
among them. 

The Scriptures and tracts ought to be multiplied 
a hundred fold among the people. Those who can 
read are not half ^supplied. Here is a wide field for 
the distribution of tracts and the Sci'iptures ; but 
where are the labourers 1 :■'-■::/ ^::'^''.^/:r' 

Schools are of great advantage to the cause, and 
ought to be encouraged, from the simple fact, that, 
if the children learn to read, we can operate upon 
their minds through the medium of tracts. Schools 
for girls are highly important. They are, perhaps, 
the only means by which we can, at present, expect 
to do them much good. As a general thing, the 
females are inaccessible to the Missionary. If they 
could read, they might be taught through these si- 
lent messengers, without the living preacher ; but 
as it is, their case is most deplorable. Ladies can 
have access to them, and this presents a wide field 
for such as can enter it. 

A change is gradually working in the minds of 
the people. The confidence of many in their own 


The advantage of the press. The English language. 

faith is shalien ; but unless they adopt the Christian 
system, infidelity must prevail. Now is the time to 
multiply the Scriptures among the people, for they 
not only need them, but are willing to receive them. 

The press in India should be made more efficient. 
Tracts of all kinds, doctrinal, practical and contro- 
versial*, should be issued in abundance; and also 
proper school books, and works to improve the morals 
and elevate the standard of right feeling among the 
people. The native schools are exceedingly defi- 
cient as to proper books. All the books which they 
have among them, that are really useful, have been 
furnished them by Christian people, or Missionaries 
in the country. Whenever it can be done, the na- 
tives' schools, should be furnished with Christian 
books, gratuitously. . 

A wide field for usefulness is now opened, through 
the medium of the English language. It ought to 
be improved. The English language is, no doubt, 
destined to be a powerful instrument in the hand of 
God in saving India. If good men, and men of 
general knowledge, should go to India, they could, 
I doubt not, support themselves by leaching the 
English language. They might, in this way, be- 
come most efficient helpers in the work of saving 
men. Who will go 1 . r 

There ought to be many more labourers in the 

* By controversial tracts, I mean such as tend to expose the 
absurdities of Hindooism, and to show the superiority of the Chris- 
tian scriptures, over the Vedes and Poorans. 

IN INDIA. 345 

Missionaries needed. The claims of the heathen. 

field, SO that the great work could be divided among 
them, and thus enable them to labour with more 
ease, and with more success. It is high time that 
other stations should be occupied, and that there 
should be Missionaries at this station, especially for 
the Mohammedan population. Through them the 
Gospel might be preached throughout all Hindoos- 
than, and Persia, and Arabia ; for there are persons 
here, who travel to and fro into all parts of these 
countries. There ought to be many more Missiona- 
ries in this field. Do twelve millions of people de- 
mand no more tlian about twelve or fifteen Mission- 
aries ] Is not the command left with the church to 
preach the Gospel, or cause it to be preached to 
every creature under heaven ; and ought not this com- 
mand to be obeyed ? Is there a young man, who 
is preparing to preach the unsearchable riches of 
Christ to a dying world, who can shut his eyes upon 
the largest portion of the world, (the heathen part) 
and say, God does not call me there ] If the salva- 
tion of souls be what we seek, does not that- field 
which contains the greatest amount of people; who 
are the rtiost needy, the most wretched, and the 
most pitiable; who have the least light, and the 
least knowledge of the Saviour who died for them, 
demand our attention more than those parts which 
are not so needy, nor so wretched ? Shall we be the 
depositories of God's blessing to the world, and not 
pour it forth ] Shall we rejoice in the grace of God 
and in the salvation of the Gospel, and yet withhold 


Christians bound to spread the gospel. 

it from six hundred millions of our fellow-men, for 
whom it was designed as well as for us 1 God for- 
bid. Rather let every one say, H^re Lord am I, 
use me in thy cause, as shall most advance thy 
glory — and send me if it be thy will, to the ends of 
the earth, that some of the heathen, through my 
instrumentality, may be saved. Christian reader, 
has God nothing for you to do among the heathen] 
Search and see ; and may the Lord help us all to 
know, and cheerfully to do his will, so that the 
whole family of men may be saved from the power 
and dominion of the adversary, and be made the 
freed sons and daughters of the Lord Almighty, 

There are many, no doubt, who ought to devote 
themselves to the work of Missions, and who, if they 
did but follow the convictions of their own hearts, 
and did not consult with flesh and blood, would, ere 
long, be in the Missionary field. They know that 
the heathen are perishing, and cannot be saved 
without the Gospel of Christ ; they know that the 
command, " Go ye," is imperious, and that a tre- 
mendous weight of obligation rests on them to carry 
the Gospel to the heathen : they know that there is 
not half the need of their^^abours in a Christian land, , 
where every one may possess a Bible, if he chooses, 
and where the Sabbath of the Lord is observed, and 
where there are thousands upon thousands of Chris- 
tian people to carry on the work of the Lord, that 
there is in aland where there are no Sabbaths and no 
bibleSf and where the people have no knowledge of 


IN INDIA. 347 

Excuses for not going to the heathen. 

the only way of salvation ; and yet they say, Send, 
Lord, by the hand of whom thou wilt, send the Gos- 
pel to the heathen ; but we pray thee, have us ex^. 
cused ! And what are the grounds upon which 
they pray to be excused 1 One says, he has not 
piety enough to be a Missionary. It may be the fact; 
and yet he imagines he has piety enough to preach 
the Gospel in a Christian land. A man should blush 
before God to offer such an excuse. 

Another says, he has no talent for learning a fo- 
reign language. Has he ever thrown himself among 
the heathen, with a heart burning with love for 
their salvation, and in humble and prayerful depen- 
dence on God, made the attempt? We venture to 
affirm that there is no man, who is esteemed fit to 
be in the ministry, who, if he have health to apply 
himself, may not, in due time, be able to tell the 
heathen, in their own language, of the way of salva- 
tion through the Lord Jepus Christ. 

Another says, I can be more useful in a Christian, 
than in a heathen land. This is taking for granted, 
what should be proved by actual experiment. No 
minister can say that he may not, and cannot be 
very useful in a heathen ^nnd, until he shall have 
made the experiment; anti for aught he knows, 
God might make him much more useful in extend- 
ing the Redeemer's kingdom, by labouring among 
the heathen than elsewhere. Suppose Paul, the 
apostle, had made such an objection, what would 
have become of the church? 


Excuses atad answers. 

I would go to the heathen, says another, but all 
my friends are opposed to it. What ! all your friends 
opposed ! Is Jesus opposed to hi Is not His 
friendship worth more than that all of our earthly 
friends, and does He not say, "Go ye into all the 
world, and preach the Gospel to every creature ?' 
Shall we grieve this best, this heavenly friend, by 
seeking to please earthly ones? Paul said, "If I 
yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of 
God." And shall we yield to the wishes of a few 
earthly friends to stay at home, while six hundred 
millions of our fellow-men are perishing in their 
sins, and calling to us to come and teach themi 
What do duty and conscience say? 

Another says, I would go and preach the Gospel 
to the heathen, if it were not for my children. I 
would ask, has not (hat person now a sufficiency of 
this world's goods to support them ; or if he have 
not and be really desirous of going, are there not 
hundreds in the Christian church, who would most 
gladly support them, and thus relieve his mind of 
that burden? But would such an objector think it 
a sufficient excuse for a returned Missionary, and in 
good health, to say, I would go back to the heathen 
if it were not for my children ? Would he not re- 
quire him to leave the children of his love, and go, 
in obedience to the command of Christ? No doubt 
of it. And why should he bind on the shoulders of 
another a burden which he himself is unwilling to 
bear? The same reason that operates on his mind 

IN INDIA. 349 

Excuse, Heathen at borne. - 

to urge the Missionary back, amid all the desola- 
tions and abominations of heathenism, ou^ht to 
urge him also away from a Christian land, to take 
his share of the toil of enlightening the dark parts 
of the earth. The obligation to send the Gospel to 
the heathen rests upon all, and unless excused by 
the Great Head of the church, by sickness or other 
causes from enduring the heat, and the burden of 
the day in a heathen land, no man, who has the 
love of God in his heart, has a right to excuse hira- 

'self^ ..,:c.:::::■^.v:.c:.;:^,^-::oyx.;;■.^^ ::--r.:.m. 

Others object, that we have heathen at home, 
and that they should stay and attempt their conver- 
sion, and not go into a foreign field. Is it a fact 
that we have heathen at home ? If so; then vigor- 
ous efforts should be made to evangelize them. But 
are not the claims of twelve millions of heathen peo- 
ple (I speak now merely of the Mahratta people), 
who are without God, without hope, without a Sa- 
viour, without the Sabbath, and nearly without the 
Bible, and with only twelve or fourteen Missionaries, 
infinitely stronger than the claims of fifteen millions 
of Christian people, with their ten thousand minis- 
ters, nearly one million of communicants, and all 
their multiplied means of grace? The fact is, those, 
as a general thing, who plead for the heathen at 
home, as an excuse for not aiding those abroad, are 
seldom found among those who do, in a vigorous 
and self-denying manner, labour for the salvation of 
those they call heathen at home. But I deny that 


The Christian a;Bd beathen contrasted. 

those in a Christian land, upon whom the light of 
the Gospel shines, and who enjoy the Christian 
Sabbath, are heathen ; nor should they be called 
such. If they neglect the salvation of the Gospel, 
they will, undoubtedly, suffer a greater punishment 
than the heathen : but still they are not heathen 
people. The heathen are those who acknowledge 
not the One, only true, and living God, but three 
hundred and thirty-three millions of imaginary gods; 
who wnrgi-.ipnot Him who is a Spirit, in spirit and in 
truth, but worship dumb idols, of which they enume- 
rate thirly-three millions, besides metii cows, mon- 
keys, tigers, serpents, trees, stones, rivers, yea, and even 
Satan, and a host of evil spirits besides ; who deny their 
need of the righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ, but 
trust to their own, by ^hich to obtain future happi- 
ness ; who know not that Jesus Christ is the only 
mediator between God and man, but call upon Ram, 
and Krishnoo, <J*c., in their distress ; who acknow- 
ledge not the only book which contains the revealed 
will of God to man, but believe in the Vedes, those 
cunningly devised fables of crafty Brahmuns ; who 
believe not in an overruling Providence, which di- 
rects the affairs of men in righteousness, but in a blind 
fatality ; who trust not to the atoning blood of the 
Saviour, and the operation of the Holy Spirit for the 
pardon of their sins, and the sanctificalion of their 
souls, but to vain ablutions, and to the vile practice 
of eating cow-dung pills, and drinking the water into 
which a Brahmun has dipped his foot ; who maintain 

IN INDIA. 351 

The contrast continued. ^' Wlutt is beatbenismi 

■ ' ■ ' ■ ■ ■■■■■.---■ I ■ ■ I ^^ I .1 ■ r ^- — I ■ 

not truth between man and man, but publicly ad- 
vocate that, in secular business, lying is absolutely 
necessary ; wiio, finally, believe not in an eternal 
state of rewards, but that the highest degree of hap- 
piness consists in the destruction of the body, and 
the final absorption of the soul into the Deity; or in 
other words, its complete annihilation. Such is but 
a mere sketch of heathenism ; and are there any in 
a Christian land, I ask, who are in such a condition? 
4. think not. But, to know heathenism as it is, a 
person must first see the heathen — must learn their 
language — must wade through the filth of their four 
Vedes and eighteen Poorans — must read and hear 
the modern popular songs, stories and poems — ^must 
follow them* through their midnight revels — must 
see them hastening the death of aged parents by chok- 
ing them with the mud and water of the Ganges^ 
must see the abominable sights constantly presented 
at the Yatrtis (festivals)-^must see the mother de- 
stroy her infant daughter by refusing it proper nour- 
ishment, or by giving it for food to the monsters of 
the deep, or to the beasts of the field*— must wit- 
ness the private murders, the impurity, the lying, 
the deceit and covetousness which are continually 
exhibited among the people. When he shall have 
seen all this, he will have reached the verandah of 
this temple of abomination, and will have some idea 

* " In the talook (district) of Drafa, out of a reputed number 
of four hundred families, there is not one female child in exist- 
ence." — Hindoo Ii^anticide, p. 87, 1829, 


I ■ VHI ■ 1 ■ III!— — ■ ' : ' . - - ■ ■--...■ i - . .^ .. *l . .„ 

People in Christian lands not heathen. - 

of the awful iniquity which is within, and will be 
convinced that, to know Hindooism, with all its soul- 
polluting and soul-destroying influence, he must be 
born a Hindoo, and be initiated into all the myste- 
ries of those polluting rites which characterize the 
system, and which none but such can know. 
"Suffice it to say," says one, who had seen much of 
Hindooism, " that a few scattered passages excepted, 
in works never read or heard of by the great bulk of 
the community, that there is not a vestige of real 
morality in the whole. of the Hindoo system; but in 
its operation upon the minds of millions, it adds an 
overwhelming force to the evil influences to which 
men are exposed, and raises into a horrid flame all 
the impure and diabolical passions which rage in 
the human heart." After this view of the subject, 
will any one still say, that we have at home, in a 
Christian land, people equally vile and equally de- 
graded — yea, that we have heathen at home ! Be- 
lieve it ye who can ; I cannot. 

There is another objection, which I would not 
mention, were it not that it has received too much 
countenance from Christian people, notwithstanding 
its supreme wickedness. It is simply this : "I would 
go to the heathen, but my talents are too good — they 
would be wasted on a people who knotv not how to esti- 
mate them.^^ Permit me to draw a picture from life, 
and, in the language of another, to say " qui capit 
ille fadVy 

A young man, when he entered one of our theo- 

IN INDIA. 353 

Excuse, My talents are too good. 

logical seminaries, and for some time afterwards, 
spoke much in favour of Foreign Missions, and gave 
his brethren to understand that he purposed to tread 
in the footsteps of the great Apostle to the Gentiles, 
and not to build upon another man's foundation. 
At that time he supposed that his talents were only 
fitted for such a field. But he had not fully learned 
the meaning of Solon's wise saying, ivecBt a-tAvroy, 
("Know thyself)." By the time he purposed to 
leave that school of the prophets, he found, to the 
no small amazement of his compeers and himself, 
that the heathen world did not afford ample scope 
for the display of the gigantic powers of his expanded 
and expanding mind. He concluded to stay at home, 
and illumine the world by his brilliancy of know- 
ledge. Here, where many lamps shone with mid- 
day splendour, he hoped bis would add much to the 
dazzling glare, and, by its superior lustre, would at- 
tract the admiration of many ; but there, where the 
midnight gloom of eighteen hundred years had set- 
tled down upon the people, he feared that they, who 
loved darkness more than light, could not or would 
not award him the proper meed of praise. He 
feared that the damps of that moral death which 
covered the land would wholly extinguish his light, 
and that when death had wrapped him in his man- 
tle of night, there would be none to arise and say 
" Behold, a mighty me^n has fallen !" Fe^riag this, 
he resolved to stay at home. 

We may imagine him, just before the close of his 

2 E* 


Talents too good for the heathen, a mark ofignorance. 

theological course, sitting alone, and musing thus 
with himself: "What ! shall 1 who have my mind 
treasured with knowledge, and its every power in- 
creased to an amazing extent, waste its rich trea- 
sures upon the dark minds of six hundred miUions 
of people, who know not what knowledge js, nor 
how to prize it if they did know. My literary stores, 
my philological skill, my metaphysical acuteness, 
my oratorical powers, my vast stores of scholastic, 
polemic and didactic theology, shall all these be 
exhausted and poured out on skulls so slow to learn 
or value what is good ! No : it would be burying my 
Lord's talents in the earth. I must seek another 
field. Let those who have fewer talents labour 
there. I will find a field worthy of my talents at 
home." Such, we have supposed, were the musings 
of this young man. The term closed, and he has 
been ushered into the world. He has found one 
mind, which he is destined to illumine, till death shall 
release him from this duty, but others are not so 
easily obtained as he had imagined. 

The man who thinks that his talents are too good 
for a heathen land, betrays great ignorance of the 
work of Missions, and not a little pride of heart. 
Does it require less talents to convey ideas of the 
whole Gospel plan of salvation to an unenlightened 
mind than it does to an enlightened one? Does it 
require less talents and industry to form the Chris- 
tian character of a people — to instruct them in reli- 
gion and science— to learn with accuracy a foreign 

IN INDIA. ^ 355 

The excuse answered. 

language, so as lo translate the word of God into it, 
and to preach in it with accuracy and fluency, than it 
does to preach in a man's mother tongue, to a people 
who have minds to comprehend with ease what he 
* jnay say? Let the man who thinks so, make the 
experiment. Were the Mayhews, and Elliot, and 
Brainerd, and Swartz, and Martyn, and Hall, and 
Carey, and Ward, and Morrison, and a host of others, 
sent to the heathen because their talents were not 
, good enough to stay at home, and be useful there! 
Was Paul sent to the Gentiles because he was " a 
good man — of not much intellect-— of slender attain- 
ments, and would do very well for a Missionary, to 
preach to the heathen?" Was Jesus Christ sent 
upon a mission to earth, to preach to a set of igno- 
rant, bigoted, superstitious, and depraved mortals, be- 
cause His talents and general intelligence were of 
such an inferior order that He could be very well 
spared from heaven? That intelligent archangel, 
who stands near the throne of God, and the extent 
of whose wisdom, and knowledge, and power, no 
mortal mind can know, why was not he sent to save 
this ruined world 1 Was it because his talents were 
too good, and he could not be spared from more im- 
portant work ? Let those whose talents are too good 
to go to the heathen, answer, if they can. But — 
such an excuse ! The man who makes it slanders 
his Saviour, and arraigns the wisdom of his God. 
God the Father knew that the talent of an arch- 
angel fell infinitely short of what was required to 


The excuse anawered. 

save a world. The talents, the wisdom, and the 
power of the son of God, were necessary for this 
work. The apostles were men chosen by Christ for 
this special work- — brought up at the feet of their 
Master, and being plentifully endued with the spirit 
of wisdom, of knowledge and of grace, were sent 
forth to preach the unsearchable riches of Christ to 
the heathen. Did Christ mistake the character of 
the people, and the kind of men who ought to go forth 
to the heathen] And can we teach Him wisdom? 
We regret to find that this absurd and wicked sen- 
timent has found a place in the bosom of many in 
the church, and if God should permit them, they 
would act out their feelings upon this subject. 
When Israel became proud, and worldly-minded, 
they thought that nothing was too good for them, 
and any thing was good enough for the Lord. 
Hence, if there was a blind, or lame, or torn animal 
in the flock, they gave it to God, while they reserved 
the good for themselves. Their own houses were 
ceiled, while the Lord's house was permitted to lie 
waste] But did they prosper] No, verily. What 
saith the Lord to proud and wicked Israel, for this 
and their other sins 1 " Ye are cursed with a curse, 
for ye have robbed me, even this whole nation." 
And wherein did they rob God] It was by with- 
holding from Him the best of the flock, and the best 
of all they had. And if God cursed the Jews, for 
withholding from Him the best of the flock, may 
we not expect that he will curse our Zion, if she 

IN INDIA. 357 

A plan to procure more missionaries. 

withhold from the heathen the best of her sons? 
Yea, has not God done it] See what a waste of 
talents, and tinne, and energy, is now carried on. 
Men, whose praise might be in all the churches, and 
\vho might be pointing the millions of heathen in 
our world to the Lamb of God, are wasting their 
energies in contending against one another. They 
are "doting about (that is, having an excessive and 
vicious fondness for,) questions and strifes of words, 
whereof cometh envy, strife, railings, evil sur- 
misings." "Foolish and unlearned questions avoid," 
saith the Apostle, "knowing that they do gender 
strifes." But is this done ] The displeasure of God 
is upon the churches because she has not done her 
duty to the heathen. She has, I fear, by her erro- 
neous views of Missions, and by her lack of the pro- 
per spirit, kept many from the work of the Lord in 
the foreign field. Let the Church arise to the work, 
and send to the heathen many of her best men, and 
the Lord will reward her. 

Oh, ye champions of the truth ! ye contenders for 
the faith ! a population of six hundred millions of liea- 
f/icncallsfor your aid. Arise, and contend. Victory 
is sure, and the reward glorious. 

ki carrying on the great work of Missions, there 
is something, it appears to me, defective. The con- 
tinual call is for men, but tl^ie men are not to be 
found. How the defeat may be remedied, has oc- 
cupied the thoughts and prayers of many. Plans, 
too, and suggestions have been made, but still the 


A plan for obtaining misMnaries. 

great defect remains. The defect I allude to, is 
the want of some plan by which to obtain men-^- 
suitable men for the work. If money be wanted 
for a particular cause, it can be got. Howl By 
sending forth proper men, as agents, to tell the 
churches of their duly to give to that cause; and 
the people will give. But how are these agents to 
be obtained] The societies or ecclesiastical bodies, 
which have the conducting of the various Missions 
under their care, do not wait till suitable men pro- 
pose themselves for the work. No; they select the 
men, and invite them to engage in the work, pro- 
mising them all suitable aid and encouragement, 
and support in their work. There are, no doubt, 
many now engaged as efficient and faithful agents 
for different societies, who never thought of being 
thus employed, until they were officially called to 
the work. And even if they had thought of it, their 
good sense and modesty would not have permitted 
them to give up the labours they might be engaged 
in, to propose themselves as agents for this, or that 
society. ^ 

Again, if a college Or a theological seminary be in 
need of a professor, do the trustees of the institution 
wait till some man, who may be qualified, shall pro- 
pose himself for the vacancy? No, verily; they 
select a man whom they judge will answer, and in- 
vite him to accept the professorship. The fact that 
he is invited to that work, brings it fully before his 
mind and leads him to decide. If they did not pur- 

IN INDIA. 359 

^e subject continued. 

sue such a course, what would be the condition of 
our institutions? So it is wi(h a congregation. 
They invite some man to become their pastor, and 
he accepts their invitation. Do we blame that 
congregation for doing so ? Certainly not ; but we 
should blame them for not inviting some one, as 
soon as practicable, to become their pastor. In this, 
as in other things, congregations and societies have 
hit upon the proper course to be pursued. Now, it 
is marvellously strange, that while the church 
shows so much wisdom in many of her plans, that 
she should fail in this one, of procuring men for ihe 
work of Missions. The church may educate young 
men, and introduce them by scores into the minis- 
try, and yet if these should be left afterwards to 
choose their field of labour, the heathen, I fear, will 
still be left destitute. She must do something more 
than merely educate men for the work of the Lord — 
In Christian and heathen lands, she must call them 
to it. The plan, then, we would have the church 
adopt, for procuring th& number of Missionaries she 
needs, is the same that sh,e adopts in carrying on 
her other operations, viz. to call men to the work. 
Let the American, the Western, the Baptist, the 
Dutch Reformed, or any other Board for conducting 
Missions, select the men they believe would answer — 
let them call these men, whether married, settled 
or not — let them request the individuals thus called 
to decide in the fear of God, whether they will ac- 
cept the invitation or not. What would be the 

'■•J*---'--'-'' ■"■' ■.'■' i' ,';.-"; „■-.^^^^y 


The subject continued. 

effect of such a course 1 It would be glorious for 
the church and for the world. 

It wouW, no doubt, bring many into the Mission- 
ary field, who think now that they have no special 
call to the work. As the duty of carrying or send- 
ing the Gospel to the heathen devolves on the church 
as a body, we can easily shift off our duty on to the 
shoulders of others. Some plan is needed, which 
will bring the duty home to each one personally, 
and this, we think, would do it. Moreover, men of 
experience and knowledge, as well as piety, are 
needed in the Missionary field ; and why should not 
the church select some of her best men — men who 
have been tried, and who "have hazarded their 
lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ" at home, 
and send them abroad to the heathen. If this plan 
were adopted, our Missionary ranks would soon be 
filled; and the church at home could, if we judge 
from speeches made on anniversary occasions, easily 
spare some of her ministers. The thought is thrown 
out with the hope that it may lead the church to 
think of the plan. 

What other excuses may be offered for not engag- 
ing personally in the work of evangelizing the hea- 
then world, each one may know, by asking himself, 
why do not / go ? It is the purpose of God to con- 
vert the world, and that, too, through the instrumen- 
tality of His church. He has given the command, 
"Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations." Go; tell 
them of the only Mediator, and of the only way to 

IN INDIA'. 361 

The duty of the church. 

escape from the wrath to ccme. Carry to them the 
bread of life, of which you have an abundance, and 
to spare — of which they are destitute, and without 
which, they must for ever perish. The obligation to 
give the heathen the Gospel, resls upon the church,- 
yea, upon every member of it, and God will not ex- 
cuse any man from doing his part in the great 
.work. What that work is, I pretend not to say. 
Let each one inquire for himself, "Am I doing all that 
God requires of me, for the salvation of the world*? 
Ought I not to pray more, to give more, to labour 
more than I do : yea, ought I not to go myself? Is 
there any difficulty in the way of my telling the 
heathen, personally, of the Saviour, that might not 
be overcome, if I only had the disposition and the 
desire to go?" Ye people of God, look at this sub- 
ject. Has Jesus entrusted in your hands the lamp 
of hfe for the nations of the earth, and do you rejoice 
in that light, and yet permit the heathen world to 
wander on in the dark, and finally sink td wo, be- 
cause it may cost you some pains to give it to them 1 
Ye ministers of Jesus, who are placed as watchmen 
on the walls of Zion, do you feel assured that you 
occupy the place that God designs you should 1 Do 
you bring the truth of God's word to bear upon as 
many different minds as you might, and urge upon 
them their duty to accept the Gospel, and to give it 
to others *? Are you acting the part of a Missionary 
to those around you 1 Are you sure you ought not 
to be among the heathen? If so, might not the 
. 2p - . 


A word to ministers and Christians. Persecution may be necessary. 

people of )^our respeciive charges dispense wiih your 
services for many weeks in the year, while you 
should go and do the work of an evangelist among 
the more destitute, and those who have but little 
disposition to wait upon God in His house ] Private 
Christians in the Apostles' days, did not think that 
the great work of the Aposfles was lo feed them. 
When the church of Jerusalem was scattered abroad, 
" they w^ent everywhere, preaching the word." 
Christians may neglect their duty to their fellow- 
men at home, and the heathen abroad, so long, that 
God may find it necessary, by the arm of persecu- 
tion, to scatter them abroad, so that they may fulfil 
their duty in this respect. They may then be glad 
to escape with their lives to the heathen, and tell 
them of Jesus. Persecution sent the Gospel from 
Jerusalem to the ends of the earth. Persecution 
brought the Gospel to America — and if Christian 
people neglect their duty to the heathen much 
longer, have we not reason to fear that God will 
compel them, by the persecutor's and oppressor's arm, 
to dowhat the love of Christ alone should constrain 
them to do. One year's persecution would then do 
more to furnish the world with the light of the Gos- 
pel, than can be done now in ten years, according to 
the present standard of Christian benevolence. Min- 
isters and Christians should think of this. What 
has been, may be. - 

Ye commissioned heralds of the cross, who sit still 
with your commissions ii^ your hands, waiting for a 

IN INDIA. 363 

To candidates for the ministry. 

congregation ; and ye who have turned to merchan- 
dize, or to farming, or to teaching the rudiments of 
science, hear the call of six hundred millions, who 
say. Come over and help us. Arise! go, thrust in 
your sickles, for the fields are already ripe unto the 
harvest. The command is, "go" to them, and not 
"wait till they come to youl" " ■ - 

Candidates for the Gospel ministry, lift up your 
eyes, and look at the field — the world. See how 
much of it yet lies waste. Nearly all the labourers 
have crowded into a corner of this field.. Each hav- 
ing chosen for himself some little spot, which he 
calls his own, has walled it round, like some Dek- 
hunee village, to secure it from the touch of those 
without, and to keep it for himself; and while his 
eye is fixed upon that little spot, he seems to lose 
sight of the wide-spread desolation.beyond his little 
circle, or is satisfied that that field must be cultivated 
by other hands. We blame them not for pursuing 
such a course, but would ask, is it the best plan for 
Ministers to spread (he Gospel over the world, by di- 
recting their united labours so much to the cultiva- 
tion of one portion of the field ] Many of them are 
usefully employed, and canriot leave their fields of 
labour for any othei-. There are others who might, 
but do not choose to do so. If the heathen, then, 
are to be supplied with the Gospel, you must bear it 
to them. You have now no attachments, and no 
connections arising from the relation of pastors to 
people, to break up ; but, on the contrary, are free 



' — ~ — ' . — «-• ... -' 


to select a field where you can live and labour for 
God. Look, then, at the heathen world ; and while 
you fully believe that they must perish, unless they 
have the Gospel, and that you can carry it to them, 
will you not do it] * ^ ;; 

In conclusion, 1 would remark, that the time has 
come when the people of the Lord should arise and 
take possession of the whole earth, in the name of 
their Divine Master, and for Him alone. Ethiopia 
is stretching forth her hands for help — the gates of 
China are gradually opening — the islands of the sea 
are turning to the Lord — the great river Euphrates 
is drying up — India and Burraah have received some 
rays of divine light, and ask for more — Persia and 
Arabia, if not now, will soon be ready to welcome 
the Gospel. Thibet and Tartary — who will go and 
. see whether they will receive the Gospel or not ? 
Thus the world is ripe for the harvest. But oh ! 
where are the labourers 1 Pray ye the Lord of the 
harvest, that He would send forth labourers into His 
harvest, so that the world may*be gathered into 
the granary of the Lord. 


IN INDIA. 365 

A call from the beathen. 



The voice of millions ! hear the cry — 
Haste ! haste, to help us, or we die ; 
For more than eighteen centuries past 
We've called — and must our misery last ? 

Our light is out — the deepest gloom 
Obscures our passage to the tomb ; 
And none among us now can show 
The way of peace — the way from wo. 

Our priests are blind, and we, as they. 
Wandering from God, have lost our way ; , 
These guides we've followed long — but all 
Who follow them, must with them fall. 

To gods of wood, and stone, and clay. 
We've bowed and prayed by night and day; 
We've fasted long, and journeyed far, 
To fall beneath Sooboodra's* car. 

How cheerfully our flesh we've torn ! 
And oh ! what cruel tortures borne ; 
What Suttees, too, we've burned with fire ! 
What thousands, yearly, chose the pyre ! 

To desperation agonized, 
Our little babes we've sacrificed ! 
But seas of blood poured forth, we find, 
_ Calm not the anguish of the mind. 

* Sooboodra is the sister of Juggumaut, and is generally placed on the 
same car with him. 


A call from the heatben. 

Nature's dim light and reason fail — 
A Gooroo's* wisdom can't avail 
To guide or tell us where to go 
To 'scape from inwards — endless wo. 

Behind, before, above, below, 
The darkness does but darker grow; 
Perplexed — distressed — despairing too, 
Dying, we cry, " What shall we do?" 

Upon life's utmost verge we stand ; 
" Go on" — How dreadful the command ! 
We go — but whither, none can tell — 
To Swurgji perhaps — perhaps to hell I 

For light we supplicate — we cry ! 
Have mercy on us, or we die ; 
Show us the way, if known to you — 
Is there a Saviour ? — Tell us, who I 



People that sit in darkness, we of light 

Do humbly Christendom's neglect confess 
Of her dear Lord's last message, and we bless 
Jesus, who spares, nor frowns us into night, 
For this our sin, as righteously he might. 

* A Gooroo is a spiritual guide. Every Hindoo has one . " 
t Swurg is the heaven or paradise of Indru. It is one of the places in 
which mortals receive the reward of their virtuous actions. 

IN INDIA. 367 

An answer to the call. 

We hear, at length, your lamentable cry. 

And the Church rises to your help. She arms 

Her young men. — Look ! the kindling eye 

That brightens at the note of war's alarms — 

The sinewy souls for whom stern toil hath charms — 

The eager tread of those that go to die — 

Tell of the men, who, counting earth but dross, 

For you, will gladly yield their latest sigh. 
So God have glory — Hell have utter loss. 








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Jotirnal of a missionary totir in 

TITLE India.: ;•:.,:,:;;,:■::■:,::;::;;.:,-;.:, ;^^^ 


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Weitbrecht, John James 


Missionen in Indien 





Author : 



Weitbrecht, J. J. (John James), 1802-1852. 

Die protestantischen Missionen in Indien : mit besonderer 
R ucksicht auf Bengalen in einer Reihe von Vortr agen / von 
J. J. Weitbrecht. 
Heidelberg : Universit ats - Buchhandlung von Karl Winter, 
Description: viii, 295 p. : ill. ; 17 cm. 
Subjects (Library of Congress) : 

Missions — India . 
Protestant churches — Missions — India. 




on behalf of 
American Theological Library Association and 

Yale Divinity School Library 

A Joint Preservation Project of the 

American Theological Library Association and 

Yale Divinity School Library, funded in part by the 

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MAIN ENTRY: Weitbrecht. John James 

Pie protestantischen Missionen in Indien 

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3Rit aSer^nugen fomme i^ bem 3QBuufd)c 
metncS t^euern gteunDe^, t)e§ ^erm ^Serfafferg 
ber folgenben 55ogcn nac^, feinem 2Berfe c'lni^e 
einteitenbe SBortc i>oranjufenbm. 6^ gcrck^t p 
'metiter eignen greube, ben 33eifal[ laut aus^ufpre- 
^en, ben ic^ 6eim ^^n^dren feiner ®ot(efnngen 
im 3Binter 1843 im Ȥerjen ttng unb ben ^anf 
bamtt ju ijerBinben, toel^en ble beutfcbe unb 
fc^toeijerifc^e eijangelifc^e ,^ir(^e, bem tourbigen 
aSerfaffet fiiv bie frdftigc ^^tnregung be^ Sinned fur 
bie ^^eiltge a)?iffiongfad^e fc^utbig ift, iDie fte t»on fei^ 
nen aSorlefungen in SJafel, 3^^^<^/ (BtntU 



gart, ^cii^xonn, fo \mt i^on feinen fur§emt 
SDUttl&etfungen an \>idtn Drten 3)eutfc^(ani)§ unD 
ber @(^\Det^ au^gegangeit ift. (Snblid) fann e^ 
bcm 35ovfte^cr ber 2)^tffion§anftaIt , in ml^tx 
ber 2?erfaffer einft feine aSorfetlbnng er^ielt, nnr 
ii30^It:^nenb fe^n, i^n anf btefem literari[d;en 
(Sange frenbig jn tegleiten, 
■' (§§ Ifi ba^ ^orltegenbe SEerf ber erfteft ei- 
ne^ in ber bentf(^en !^iteratur, bie .ft(^ mit bent 
jie|igen religiofen nnb ftttli^en S^f^^i^^^ 3^^= 
bien§, biefe§ fiir nns na^ feiner 35ergangen^eit 
nnb ftd^erltc^ au^ feiner 3it'fiii^ft/ \^ 'vox^ti^cn 
Sanbe0, in ber SBeife iefd)dftigen, toie e§ hk 
nnBefangene @efd;i(^te Bebarf, 3)?an^e^ Sreff= 
U(^e !^a6en nn^ \)k ^ox]^n in inbifc^er 0te^ 
ligion nnb inbifd^em ^iitntf)nm axi^ ben £lnel= 
Ten ber nen anfge[d)ioffenen (Ban^txit-^iUxainx' 
gegeben, e§ ^aten $^i(ofo:p^ie nnb C^t^nogra* 
p^t getDetteifert , nn^ in einem ber llri)dlfer 
ber je^igen 2BeIt \)k ^ro:t)t;Iden jn cffhen §nm 
nralten S!em))el, au§ ti^elci^em noc^^ ^eilige S!one 
au§ bem Sngenbalter ber SBelt nn^ entgegen* 
tonen, tDir ^aten gelernt ben golbenen ^aUn 
fn^en, ber and) im ^eibent^nm no(^ bnrc^Idnft, 


bet gaben t>e^ un§cift£>rli^en @etjie^beiuuptfe^n§ 
l)cr 9J^enfd)^eit, hit fx^ an @ott ^efcimben toei^- 
^Bet c0 i]l 3^i^/ ba^ ttjiv gema^nt ti^erben an 
bie ©(fatten t)k b^t unb bi'ijlet in bie 5Bir!* 
Iid)feit bet l^eibnlfi^en 3S5Ifer fatten, ha^ icit auc^ 
bie .X^atfac^en ing 5luge faffen, bie in ber ©egen^^ 
mart nnb anf bet je^tgen SeBen^finfe ber ^eibnifc^en 
^atiorxm bent imtiefangenen ^ef^auer entgegentre* 
ten. (^g mu| ber 3Kand)em fo freunbli^ biinfenbe 
SCBa^^nbnr* bie gefc^i^tlit^eSBa^^ri^eit ^erftort t»er=^ 
ben, unb i»ir bi'irfen nid^t f enter in SSegeifterung fur 
Ht i^erf^tDunbenen ^^■^ttaufenbe Snbieng fc^todr- 
men unb bariiBer un^'gegen t)k, ^on unferm 
IBerfaffer fo ftar! au^gefprcx^ene Ueberjeugung 
ijerfc^lie^en , t)a^ jenc atteh l^i^tfunfen j[e^t in 
einer S^uttmaffe Begraben finb, bie bent ^af^c^ 
fte^enben faum moglii^ ma^t, i^x Safe^n no(^ 
ju erfennen. 3a, e§ mup au§ fotc^en 3)Htt^eitun:= 
gen, tDte t>ic: Dorliegenbe ^ert>orgel^en, ba^ bie allge* 
meine Oleligionggef(^i(^te iiber i^r getpoiinte^ }^a^^ 
\mxf l^inauSfc^reiten unb e^ ntit in il^ren S3erei(^ 
^tei^en fott, \)a^ t§eraBfinfen anfdngUc^ reinerer 
9[teligionen be^ ,§eibent|>umg ^um graffen @d^en= 
t:^um, ja §um ro^en getifc^i^mu^ barjuftetten. 


2Ber un^ f)iqn tie Xf)at\a^tn tkfcxt, ben miif= 
fen toir ipiQfommen ^et^en, toenn er un6 aud^ 
t>a uttb bort eine fc^one Xduf^ung tmm^ttt 
unb bk ©efc^ic^te be^ menfc^lic^en @et|ieg in ein 
fur bie ^ergeerBte S3etrac^tung^meife uniequeme^ 
2x^t jieltt SBir luerben e^ benn au(^ bem ^tin* 
get biefer, ber tgumauitdt fc^ner^lid^en .^unben 
ntc^t i)erargen biirfen, twenn er in ben ijerjerrten 
^ineamenten hit leifen Olucfbeutungen auf i^tx^ 
^ogene S(^dni^eit^^:^inien t)erlennt unb ft(^ an§ 
teblidjer £)Bjiectit>ltdt felBfi be§ (Su^en0 na(^ ben 
enben, ber mit ber 2Bal^r^elt ber 3ieIigion ben 
i^fetgen Siiji^^^ ^^^ ^ii^^ t)er!nu))fenben gdben 
nntertdft* Urn fo ac^tungStourbiger mu^ unS 
hit, an^ fitr nnfere d^etift^e Slnfc^auung et== 
tDa§ in§ ©rette malenbe ©(^ilberung fe^n, tuelt 
bem SDJtfjtondr ba§ JDunfle nur re^t f(^t»arj 
erfdjeint, inbem er e§ mit bem reinen unb f)ti^ 
ligen 2i^tt beg (§t>angelium§ ijergleic^t Ueber^ 
tit^ f)ai ber SSerfaffer ha^ Sit^t p forbern, 
bap an il^n feine anbere 5(nf:pru(^e gemadfet 
tDerben, at^ bie er felbfl: burc^ hit 3(ufgabe Be= 
gri'tnbet, ineld^e er ftdfe ^tUt Selt^ftgefe^eneiS 
ju erjdl^tcn, ift fein SBunfc^. Sen .^inbu'f^en 

^v-i-WSr:^-/- '■,::'-■■■:-' ■■■ 'y^.r^WHr 

OteltgiottSfteig in bet S3ef(^rdn!uttg auf fein 
SltBeitSfetb in IB engage it batjuflcttctt oinb baju 
nut t>it bem^rebiger be0 (Sijangeliutn^ am ®n* 
brucEIid^flett jtc^ aufbtittgenbcn Si^S^ ^crau^SU^^ 
^eBeit, ifi fern Oled^t. 6r tottb ballet Oitcmanbeit 
9icbe ju jicl^en l^aBen, bet i^tt naS) einem anbetn 
aWaa^jiak ju Beutt^eiten, fi(^ ^etau^mmmt 

®ine anbcte ti)i(^ttge ©eite beg ijotliegenbett 
S5u(^eg ifl bte bet eigentli^en aWifjiongfac^e. 
Snbiett batf man ujo^t alg t)a9 Sanb tettad^^ 
ten, an toelc^em bit iRtaft bet d^tifiti(3^en Rix^t 
fi^ mejfen mag* ©o alt xmb in @ei{i unb 
0iatut beg Dtientg tiefgetoutjelt ifl faum dm 
bet ajtatifd;en Oteligionen aU hit felnige;. ttint 
getot^ l^at fo fe^t atle 3tbetn beg SSoIfgleJeng 
ijettoanbelnb butd^btungen , fo ba^ hex ^mt>n 
mel^t alg itgenb dn ^eibe in feinem ©e'^n unb. 
2tbm, ^Ptobuft feinet [Religion i% Untet ben 
jiegigen natutlid^en Oleligionen auf bem ©tbfcatt 
ift feine, bic, i)on gemeinfamet ©tunbtage aug ge- 
toad^fen, in fo ijiele i?etfcjiebenattige 3^«g^ ^^^^^ 
einanbetginge, feine, in toeld^et fo ijieic unb fo 
geloaftige Umfeilbungen in i^xtn SGBitfungen^ 
toie in bet (Stbtinbe bie ©^id^ten i^etf^iebe* 
nen 2tltetg noS) gefc^aut toetben Knnten* .§ier 

nm^ "T-v 


tx\^dnt un§ ba^ ♦§eibentl)um no(^ al^ cine 
Tla^tf t)ie Stationen unt) S^^^^^^im^^^ 9^9^^:= 
iiBet frdfttg genug mar, um ftc^ fettft im Se^ 
fcntlic6en gleic^ §u Bleiten* Raum dm Stufe 
t)ei* mdgli(^ett O^eHgion^^iltuncjen fe^t, fein cin- 
jclhet 3^9 tnt d^arafteri^oGen ©emdfte etne^ 
eigeiitttc^en O^etli^ton^fpflem^ tDitb i^ermi^t* 5(tt 
biefer Oiiefengeflalt l^at bag ©i^angelium feine 
^raft i)erfu(^t unb fiegreic^ ertoiefen, tDte e§ no(^ 
f}mU jieber auc^ felfcnfcji urf^)rungti^en Ma^t 
bet Untoa^t^eit getoad^fen ijl. ® ^at ntlt fet== 
nem [(^atfen unb tnttben Sic^tc ben gCud; ent=: 
becft, bet ba§ ^erj jebeg ©d^enbiener^ bru(ft 
unb grieben getrgc^t in bie Unfetigfeit, \)k auf 
Xaufenben taftete, 3^^^ Befa^t fi(^ bet aSet* 
faffet nut mit SSengalen, aiet toag b0tt gilt, 
t)a§ gilt im SBefentti^en , iei bet @tei(^attig= 
feit bet t^inbug im G^ataftet unb J^e^en, ijom 
^imala^a Big 6a^ gomotin^ ©iegt g^tifti 
SBott unb @eiji an t)m 2ftiinbungen be§ @an* 
geg, fo BleiBt et au^ ©ieget am ©fc^umna 
unb an ben 3Munbungen beg ^tifd^na unb 6ai)ett)» 
Unb bai)on ^t ung Ui SSetfaffet t)it f^lagenb= 
ften aSemeife gegeten, ba^ (St ftegt 



5(uc^ ubtx bag 2Bie? bcr Mmpfn unb 
©icger, tDoruBet bie Sleimmgen iit ber .§eimat^ 
no^ fo unjlcit fc^toanfen, tritt un0 ^ier ®e^ 
itimmteg unb \Ktoeg entgegen, 3n bicfet ^m== 
fic^t toitb fein S5ud; mit anbereti d:^nli^ett 
bet engUf^en ^iUxaiux betetn^l eine Sucfe in ber 
^ird^emjef(^ic^te Snbieng fatten, tk in ber ^ir^ 
(^engefc^ic^te Suro))a'g ^nx l^tn gorfc^ct na^ 
ben 5lnfdngen beg K^riftent^umS uo^ fo toe^* 
t^nenb offen iie^t 0lod; einige 3«^^^nnberte 
unb eine morgentdnbifc^e gt)tiftenfit(^e fte^t 
iDieber ba /grd^er unb md^tigetV flB |e eine 
bejianb, abtx getoi^ mit eigent^umUcI;er $^9* 
fiognomie, t»ie fie feine ijot il^r ge^aBt. Hub 
nic^t li?enig t>on biefer ^^^fiognomie toirb fte Un 
erjlen unb frdftigften (Stiftern i^erbanft ^aBen, 
unter bie fitr bie ©egenben am untetn ©angeg 
au(^ ber t^^euere 3Serfaffer ge^drt aSon toie im:= 
fie=^ern unb fc^ma^en 3(nfdngen jte augging, 
tuirb man benn an^ an§ biefen SSogen ertennen 
unb \)k @nabe ©ottel mit ber um6i(benben 
SBunbermai^t beg (Si?angeliumg ^xd\m. 

S)ie f(^5nfte QCufgate aier, \)k ]xd) ber SSer^ 
fajfer mit feinem SBerfe fe§t, x]t, t)it Sieie unb 





S)xiftli^c SSarm^erjigleit bet alteti Rix^t be§ 
^t>angclium§ aufjutoccfen obet ju jidrfen butci^ 
ben 3iuf, ml^m bet 3^1^^^^ ^^^ inbtfc^en 
^^eibenmelt unb bte ©(5^toa(^^eit \>n neuge^^Pans^ 
ten (Semelnbe in i^ret 3Kitte an biefelBe erge^en 

^ 3Koge et au0 ben 3^^^^^ ^tefer (BSfxift 
nidd^tig unb etfolgtet^ fd^atten! 

a3afel, ben 20* 3tuguft 1844. 





^wetted ^apiui. 
Pnttes llapttel. 
Vtttus §iap\Ui. 
/unftee $iapxUi. 


®a^ 2anb unb bcr (S^aracter ber 

^inbu^ 1» 

®ie ©otter ber ^inbu^ .... 40. 

Ueber ben @o$enbienjl ber ^inbu^ 83. 

Ueber bie gniffton^=2rrbeit in 3nbien 128. 

5Serbreitnn3 ber ^ettigen ©c^rift 

unb ©c^ulunterric^t 169» 

®ie ©c^wtertgfeiten ber 5D?iffton^= 

3lrbeit in 3nbien 214. 

®er (Erfotg ber TOffton^^OIrbeiten 

in ^nbien unb bie 5lw^ft(^ten . . 255. 





3n&icn in alter unb neuer S^^^ nterfiDiirbig. ~ 3)cr ojlms 
bifc^en (Jompagnic uttterroorfen. — :Die 3n&ier. — 3ln= 
ftcfot unb (^raeugniffe be^ £attbe^. — 3al)re^seiten. — 
©orfer unb 2Sol)nun9en. — ©ewerbe unb Jpanbel. 
©d)mucf . — Ulnjug ber s))?annet unb ^rauen. — 9ta5= 
rung, j^au^scratl^ , Sekn^art. — ©efellige^ £ebctt. — 
(gitttic^er (§,l)axactet bc^ I>inbu. — etnft, wflrbig, fein, 
, — aber ol)ne fftttic^en ^fllt. — Unterbrficfung be^ ^emin= 
^ bar^. — g^cil^eit be^ eingebornen SSeamtcn. — 33efle= 
d)ung. — ^eine 93aterlrtnb3liebe. — @orglo{tdveit. — - 
Salter ber Unreinl)eit. — SJetrac^tungen. 

®ie !E6ortn ft)«f^en »« »?>rtni •S)erjen; ©« tfl fein ©ott. ©ie fan<)en ni^it 
unt ftnb tin ©rauel gewjortiien in i6rem 6*fen SBefen. ®a ijl f<in«t ter ©ut<:» 
tbut. @ytt fc^auet ooni ■^inimel auf bet oiWeufd^en Winter, baf ei fifee, cb 
Sematib flug fe^, bet nad^ @oU frage. Stber fte flnb aEe abgefollen unb aRe> 
fainnit untuci^ti3. S)a ifi Uiact, ber @ute£ t6ue> aud^ nic^t einct. 

' ?Jfalm 53, 1—3. 

3nbien, \)a^ gro^e unb bi^t le^olferte 3^eid^, im 
fublic^en Wen, welc^e^ im SScften i)on brm 3nbu6 
unb im Often t)Ott bem SBuram^uter begranjt ^i?irb, 
ijl eineS ber merfwurbigfteu Scinber ber dxU , unb 
I)at in alter ^eit fo wie auc^ befonber^ in unfern 
3^agen bie 5(ufmer!famf eit be^ cbilifulen (iuro))a mif 
itc^ ^ingeaogen. : " > 

6^on »or (S^rifti (^cburt unternal^m Slleranber 
ber ©ro^e, bem bie (Sroberung t>on ganj S^orberaften 

23<tt%r((^t 9D7ifft»n in Sntien. j[ 


nid^t geiu'igte, mit feinem geuMen |)eere eiuen gelb^ 
gug nad^ Snbten, wnb brang im norbti^eftnc^ett Zf^dk 
te^ ^anbfc^ab^ ein, tt>nrbe aber burd) einen 5(ufru^r 

, i)er in feiner 5(rmee entftaub, jum Dtucf^uge gesmm^ 

0en, o!)ne ba6 dgentltc^e 3nbien, am (^ange§J)in, 

erreic^t ju l^aben. , v v 

.. ^a^ ^^rtfti (^eburt trat ter n?i(be SBelteroberer 

JDfc^irtgl^ie d^an auf unt) nal^m mit feineu ^artaren- 

/^orben S3eftfe t)om norbli^en il^etl t)oit |)inbofil)an. 

SJlo^ameb ber ^rfte Urn am @nbe be^ 10. 3a^r^ 

^ l^unberte mit feinen 5Q?ongo(eu t^on ber SBergt^epe 
^l^ipi l^erunter, unb gog im folgenben 3«^re/ mit 
9lei(^t^umern belaben, uneber l^eim. 55on mm an 
folgte ein 9flaiib§ng auf ben anbern , bi^ enbli^ bie 
mongoUfc^e 2)^naftie ft(^ in 2)eU)i feft fegte. (§ine 
9ieil)e t)on 3al£)v]^unberten feufjte 3ubien unter bem 
6cepter ber SJlol^amebaner. ^^^^^^ -v ^^ ^^ 

3ni 3al^re 1498 entbccfie ber ^ortugiefe QSa^co 
be (^ama, ben ©eeweg um \)a^ <^np ber guten ^op 
nnng nacf; 3nbien, unb lanbete im €)i\^en aw ber 
tnalabarifc^en £iifte. ^efaben mit tm (Sc^cifeen 3u* 
bienS fe^rte nun eine ^ortugiefifcbe glotte uac^ ber 

:^ ;^anbern »on bem reld^en i^anbe nad) bem "^aieu ^on 
JBiffabon jnrM. - 

- 2)ie^ wax ta^ 3^^talter ber (^ntbetfungeu ; Mt 
SBolfer \)on duro^^a eri\)acf)ten vote axi^ eiuem langen 
.(5^lafe. "hunger uac^ SBiffenfitaft unb (S^olbburft 
erregten einen ftarfen S^Betteifer, bcfouber^ unter beu 
feefabrenben SD^ldc^teu, |)ottanb folgte bem ^eifpiele ber 
^ortugiefen nac^ : and) il)xmi gelang e0 eine reic^e ^u^- 


hmtt ju madden; unb felt ber SBeltumfeglcr gratis 
2)rafe feine gal^rt i)ottcnbet l^atte, , bad^ten bie ^auf* 
leute 'con Sonbon mtt @rnfi an bie Slueful^rung, be6 
t>iel r>crft)re^enben Unterne^men6, * ^^ 

3m Sa^r 1599 erfjielt eine (^efetlft^aft toon ^anf^ 
leuten toon ber ^onigin (Slifabetl) befonbcre ^rbile^ 
%kn in Dftinbien ^anbel an treiben, nnb im folgen* 
ben Sal^re fal^e man bie erfte englif^e ^anbel^flottc 
ben Ufern toon Snbien jufegeln* 

!Da^ ttoar ber Urfi)rnng ber fo berii^mt nnb md^* 
tig gettoorbenen ojlinbifd^en ^om^agnie. 2)iefe ^onb^ 
tooll ^aufleute bante einige gactoreien an ber inbifc^en 
^iifte. 53ei etnem gifc^er s2)orfl[ein, gmau^ig SJleiien 
fiber bie SJiiinbnng be^ ®ange6 Ijinanf, an einem 
feiner §(n^fluffe, wefc^er |)ugh; ijei^t, bilbete ftd^ toom 
Sal^re 1750 eine fol(f)e gactorei. <5k ftanb nal)e bei einem 
bmifjmten (5^o§entem)3vt, ^alig^ant genannt^ feitbem 
ift au6 bem gif$er^2)orflein tk ^anptftaH i§:alctttta, 
ber 6i^ be^g (general* (^outoernenr^ »on Snbi'en ge^ 
ttoorben. 3)er (^o^eutempel ber |)inbu^^pttin Salt 
l^at ber 6tabt ibren Xiamen gegeben, nnb biefe (5om^ 
^agnic ^ ber Saufleute ift e0 , bie bem 9HongoIifc^ctt 
Saifer ta^ Scepter an6 ben .^dnben gewunben l^at, 
nnb fie ift ^e!)ervfd;erin eine^ iRnd^c^ toon 135 WiiU 
Uonen ^imtoof)nern gettoorben; — in ber Zl}ai cine 
ber merhtoiirbigften (grfd^einnngen in ber 2Beltge<^ 
gefc^ic^te. 2)a§ biefe oftinbifcf)e (§om^agnie bie ing€l 
ber 9legiernng mit fcfter |)anb ^alt, bejeugt bie (^e* 
fc^icbte 3«bien^ in nnfern ^agen. 'Doft ^oljameb, 
ba6 .^au^t ber f)alb^i(bett ^orben in 3(fg]^aniftan, 


4 ^aB Sanb unb ter ^l;aracter 

Wgt jt(!^ burd^ S5crft)re(J^utt9cn in ba$ Snterejfc cmet 
ncrbifd^en SJ^ac^t jie^en ; unb bicfe fiel^t tm SSegrif e, 
i\)X€n ^oUtifc^^en ^influ^ bi^ an ben 3nbu6 ^in au^* 
3ufcel^ncn. Umfonft jtnb hie SSarnungen ber Dflinbt* 
f(^ett fRegicrung 5 ftc fc^trft eine 3nbobrittifc^e ?(rmef 
iiber ben Snbu^^ — unb ba§ 9^efuUat ifi, ba^ tE 
brci fur^en SD^onaten t)k \xix unubcminblic^ gel^altenc 
SSergtjefte (3f)iinx erfturmt, ^anba]f)ar unb bie ^auif^u 
ftabt (5abul eingenommen , unb ha^ Sanb erobert 

9^a(^ etner fursen SfJieberlage , tt)elc^e bie englifci^c 
9)?ad^t mel^r burc^ lofe S8errdt{)erei , al^ burd; bie 
3^a^fer!eit ber ^tfgl^anen erlitt, erobern fte \)k S^Pung 
W)i^n\ unb ^abul bie ^au:ptftabt be^ ^anbe^, pm 
j\t)eitenma(e, unb ^tel)en fic^ jegt ale ©ieger fiber bie 
uaturlic^e ©ranje, ben Snbn^ a«vucf. 

fBon t>ielen (Seiten I)er I)orte man tm Saufe be^ 
5)origen Sa^re^ ben ^ebanfen au^f^rec^en „bie eng* 
lifc^e 9tegterung in Snbien neige ft^ i^rem (Snbe 
entgegen, unb ber ^ex^aU be6 gro^en £ramerrei^e6 
l^abe begonnen. SJland^e freuten fie^ baruber , unb 
Slnbere erbUdten barin eine gerec^te ^Bergeltung fur 
bie Ungerec^tigfeiten, w>el(^e fx^ hie 3flegierung gegen 
i^re inbifc^e Untertl^anen I;at p 6c|ulben fommen 
iaffen* 2)er griebe »on 9?an!ing unb ber ^miU ^in- 
jug ber engUf^en §(rmee in ^abut l^aben aKe eiefc 
fUlutT^ma^ungen in ben fBinh aerftreut, Db hie oftiu* 
^bifc^e 9flegierung hie 2Bol)Ifal>rt biefee gro^en 3fiei^e^ 
bes^ede unb barauf l^inwirf e , ift.eine grage, beren 
S3ebanMung unb 53eantn?ortung ni$t in meinem ^lanc 

_^4eL. _*.,'^y_ -„.__ ^'M^ 

ber .^mt>u0. 5 

Uegt. 3tt mand^er SB^^iel^ttng getraue ic^ mir mit i« 
jtt antwcrtfu. ^eine anter« curovaifd^e SJiad^t wiirbe 
ttjol^l nad^ Uberalcren (^runbfa^en regieren. Sntejfeit 
tft nid^t ju laugnen, bag ©roPrittannien tie fittri(^^ 
relic^iofc 2Bo!|lfa{)rt fcincr inbifd^eit Untert^ancn bi^* 
l^er nid^t gel^orig bead^tet, unb in biefer |)mitd)t tt)c* 
nig fur t)a^ ^ni beffelben ^cYoixtt J^at @rpt feit ci* 
nigen Sai^ren flnb fraftigeSO^aagregeln-getroffcn mor* 
ben, burd^ ^r^iel^ung in \)cn @tdbten ben \)b\)cxn 
Slaffcn be6 SSoIfeS au^ feiner ntoralifd^en «nb intel* 
UctmUen Scrruttung auftul^elfen. 9Bie bent aber aud^ 
fet)n mag , bie oftinbif^e Oiegierung f)at il^re D^offc 
nod^ nid^t an^gef^ielt, jte tft i?on ber gottlidljen SSor^ 
fe^nng ju ettt)a6 |)o{)erem befiimmt, 

Snbien ift aber ni^t n«r in :|3o(itif(^er ^inft^t 
cin merfwurbige^ Sanb: ber moralifd^^religiofe 
3uftanb feiner (Sinwoftner f)ai fur ben 
S&lenfd^ettfreunb unb ^efd^id^t6forfd^er cin 
befonberee ^)of)e6 Sntereffe. ^ier ftnbet er 
fine "Nation t)on 1 35 ^J^illionen @inwol)nern, i)ie bur(6 
(R i n religiofee 6t)ftem , burd^ ba6 tajientt)efen unb 
a\)nU^e gefettfc^aftUcf)e SSer^aitniffe itnb ©ebrauc^c 
mit einanber t?erbunben ftnbj ein Dfleligion^f^ftem ba6 
uber 2000 Sal^re alt ift, 3Son ber 3nfel ^ev^Ion im 6uben 
bie in bem |>imalava * ©ebirge im S^orben, »om 3n*^ 
bu6 hi^ na^ bem $lffam-^bale tjinnhex, l)a^ l^er 
grojie 53uram^uter burd^ftromt, ^ulbigt ber^inbu 

bi^m alten ^iyjenf^rtem be^ S3ramani6mu6 ! 

, 9(bcr t)ie 3eiten anbern ftc^ aud^ bort : (Snglanb 
i>er^flanst feine ©ol^ne, feinc 6^ra^e, feiiie^iinffe, 

2)a6 ^ant) mt) tier ^^aracter 

feme SSiffefifd^aften unb feine ^Religion , in ciUe feine 
^olomen, iinb ba6 S^efultat jeigt ficfj" mit jcbem 3«T^re 
auffattenber in Snbien: baS taiifentja^rige (^c^enge^^ 
l>dube er§ittert in fetnen ©runbt)eflen» SlUeo, tt)a^ eu^ 
TO"pdifc^ ift; W)irft^ mit SOiac^t bal)in , biefe ^rife {)er^ 
»orpbringen, l^au:ptfdd^(ic^ ift e0 jebod} bie (^viftlid^e 
Sleligion, bie ^rebigt be^ (5»angelium6 , bie SSerbret:? 
tung ber ^eiligen @^nft, wa3 ba6 furc^tbare @o^ 
^enfvftem crfc^itttert, ixnb :^m fein (SJrab bereitet 

3c^ l^abe 11 Sa^re in ber 5f?acf)barf(^aft be0 5oer* 
gotterten (^ange6firome6 al^ SOlifftonair gearbeitet, 
llnb t)a mcin 33eruf mic^ tciQli(i) in Umgang mit hen 
§inbu6 brac^te, fo ^atte i^ Tfjdufige ©elegenl^eit, biefed 
mertwurbige Sanb nnb SSolf in alien feinen 9Ser!)dlt* 
tiiffen, nac^ feinem (iljaracter, feinen bitten unb (^e* 
fjrduc^en, fennen s« lernen. ^ 

ii^ ifi mir !ur^li^ »on mel^reren gef^dfeten ^reun^ 
ben ber 3}orf*lag gemac^t morben, ba^ S^iefultat 
meiner ^rfal^rungen einem d^riftlii^en ^nblicum niit^ 

3n ber Ueberjeugung , bag dn folc^e6 Unternelj* 
men manc^en Sefern m(f>t nnr eine angeneljme Un* 
terl)altnng gevvdl^ren, fonbern aiic^ eine lebenbige 
^il^eitnaljme an bem ©(^icffale biefe6 !2anbe6, in feiner 
jie^igen folgereic^en Uebergang6^^eriobe, ijon bem itn^ 
ftern fctatJif^en ®6^entl)um gn ben 6egnungen M 
^l)riftentl)um$ erwecfen moc^te, l)abe id) mi^ ent* 
fdblcffen, biefem SSorfc^lage jn entfpred^en, unb eine 
einfac^e; treue 2)arftellung jene^ intereffanten 58olfed 
gn geben. 



• 3c^ befc^ranfe mic^ babei ^au^tf^^Ucf auf %^aU 
\a^eix , bie \^ unb einise meiner ^mitarkiter fdber 
gefeljen, unb 9ilci(^ric^ten; welc^e W)ir >on bett.^>mbnd 
Qefammeft Ijaben. 

3c^. barf Jeboc^ nic^t ^ergeffen ju bemerlcn, ba^ 
id) in meiner !DarfteminG befonbere bie «prot?inj Sen* 
galen im $(uge ^abe; i)on ten ®ntt)o!)nern berfelben 
fann x^ m^ ^erf6nlid)er ©rfa^ruug reben. Cbcjlei^ 
ba6 ©vfiem M |)inbniemne nad) feinen ©runb^ugen 
in aUen ^!)eikn.X)on Snbien ba6 namU4e ift fo ftnl> 
bo^ \ik dinttol^ner ber »erf^iebenen ^roDin^en, in 
man^en ©ekau^en^ fowie in ber 5Crt unb SSeifc 
itjree 0o§enbien^ee , tvefentUc^ t>on einanber t>er* 

f^ieben* - ■^■^■;-';v■"■.■.^■.;:;v. ■- -^ -:■..■•- ^^---v ;;;;-■ - 

^l^e ic^ auf ben erflten ^Ijeil meiner ^rbett ein*' 
gel^e, ()abe ic^ folgenbe SBemerfung t)orau6jufenben, 
@twa ein S^'^ntljjeil ^on ben ^inmol^nern t)cn Sen^ 
ga(en fmb 5D^ol^ameban^r. @in ^l)eil t)on biefen unb 
befonber^ Vxt %'6^txn (Sfaffen fmb bie 9'^adbfommeii 
ber SD'^ongoIen, Vxt m §tt)olften Sci^tl^unbert ba6 Sanb 
eroberten, bie anbern, ju tvelc^en befonbev6 bie 2)orf* 
benjo^ner ge^oren, ftammen t)ongamilien a^, bie »on 
ben (§roberen jur 5lnnal)me be^ 3^1<^ttti^mu6 geno* 
t^igt v^urben, ober au0 seitlid^em Sntereffe ju bem^ 
felben ubergingen. !Die eriieren flnb in il^ren @e^ 
fte^t^jugen erfennbar, unb t)on ben |)inbu6 n>efent(i# 
tterfc^ieben. 2)ie ^errfc^aft ber !0lufelmdnner ift in 
Uvi (Staub gefunfen, aber bemungead^ter ift il)r Stolj 
nodb nic^t gebengt; fte fjaffen bie @nglanber unb i^re 
9leUgion, unb ftnb be^^alb fur Un SD^ifpon^r v>Ul 


8 3)a6 Sanb unb bcr ^^aractcr 

wcnigcr awQ^ngtic^, aB bie $mbu0. Man^c ber 
alteit 9}lo]^amebanifc6ett gurftenfamUien fel^nen jlc^ 
— a0er tt>o^l t)crgebUc6 — tiac^ bcr 3«t, ba bie 
gal^nc fB^lo^mebe wieber auf ben SSergijeften »ott ^in* 
bofitjati tt)el)en wirb. * 

9Jlanc^e Seute benfen fld^ bie ^inbu6 at6 cine 
n)i(bc in 33arbam i>erfnn!cnc Nation, ct)x>a toic bie 
5f?orbamcrifamfci)ett Snbiancr; ober \)ie Zaxtaxen in 
t)m @tc^^en \>on |)oc^aften, mt^e jid^ ron bcr 3agb 
unb bcm gif^f^ng ndl^rcn, unb ol^nc gcttjijfe 3BoI)n^ 
fi^e unii)cr treibcn, 2)ie^ ift abcr !cinc6tt)cg6 ber 
%aU, Tlan barf bcm ^inbu o!)ne 5(nftanb cine ©tclTc 
nntcr bcm ci^ilijtrtcn ^tjcilc bcr ^Ulcnfd^l^it cinrdu^ 
men; biefc SSe^auiptung ift in j[ebcm gatte auf bie 
(5tdbte antt)cnbbar, tt)o |)anbel unb (^emcrbe Don 
allcrlci 5trt getricben tt5crbcn» 

^inc 5(u6nal^me nia(^cn frcili(5 bie 55ew>o^ner bcr 
(^cbirg6gcgcnbcn t)on (5cntra(^3nbicn, unb bicjenigen, 
it)c({^c gcgen t)xe norbltdbcn (^cbirge l^in tt)o^nen, ndmlid^ 
\)xc ©l^onb6 an ben DncKcn bc0 S^lcrbubba, tic doM 
in 9flamgf)ur, etwa^ oftU^cr, hie ilfd^anbal^ unb an* 
bere, bie Sltte ntel^r ober tveniger im to^cn S'latur^ 
pftanbe (cben^ bod^ bicfe Stdmmc gei)orcn cigcntli^- 
aud^ ni^t ju hen ^inbn^j benn i^r ^or))crbau, il^rc 
(5prac^e, i^re ©cbrdudbe unb aud^ il^re ^Religion, 
untcrfc^eiben flc gdnjlid^ )>on hen .^inbu^ im S^^icber^ 
lanbc. SJ^an ift jc^t in Snbien attgemcin bamit cin* 
i>erfianben, ba^ jene S3ctt?ol^ncr ber SBalbgcbirgc bie 
eigentlid^cn Urcinttjo^ner jtnb. SSon ben @roberern 
be^ ^anhe^, ben ^inbne, xoel^e hie niebcrcn fruc^t*? 

Bareu ^f)ciU ben)o!)nen, wurbcn fte hoxif)xn »cr^ 
brdngt. ; 

2)ie ^inbu0 fmb ein fd^5ner SKtnfcfeenfc^Iag, frt 
l^aben em tjerpcinbige^, auebrud^yolleg (^cftdftt, einen 
fc?^lan!ett ^orpetbau, man fagt fte foHen ju ber !au^ 
faftfd^en ^ia^e ^e^oren, ju ber auc^ tt)ir Deutfd^e unS 
aaf)ktt» 3^te |)autfarbe ift braun; ea gibt aber »ie(€ 
Sd^attirungen, je nac^bem fid^ ber !0lenf(^ tnel^r obet 
weniger ber ©onnenl^t^c ober ber SBitterung au6fe|t. 
3d) ^cibc rei^e, im Suru^ ^jerfunf^ne, ^inbu6 9efe!)en, 
beren ^aut tiic^t brauner ift , al^ W ber ©garner, 
unb wieber anbere i)on ben niebereti ^(ajfen, bemal^c 
fo ^voax^ aU t)u S^leger. 3Son 5Ratur iji ber ^inbu 
ttt Sengalen f{^Ianf unb ehM0 f^tt)a^U(^, in ben 
norbwefiUc^en 5prot)injen t)on ^inboftijan, 53enarea 
unb tt>eiter tjinauf, fanb i^ i\)n t)iel frcif tiger nnb 
inu6!uIofer im ^bxpnhan. 9lur biefe ttjerben \>on 
ber 9legierung jum 9JliIitarbienft angeworben. 2)icfc 
eingeborne 3^ru:p:pett, n)el(^c man @ea^o^6 l^ei^t, jiel^en 
unfern curopaifc^cn in p!)^ftfi$er ^raft gar wenig 
ober gar nici^t nad^, unb ^ben fid^ im le^ten afg^a^ 
nifd^en unb (^inefifc^en £rieg ebenfo ta^fer^ treu unb 
au^bauernb ala bie englifc^en ermicfen. 

55ei ttjeitem bie SDlel^r^al^l ber ^inwjoI)ner 'om 
8enga(en unb ttjol^ »on ganj Snbien treiben gelbs 
ban. 3n 53engalen n)irb t)orjug!i(^ ber fftd^ gebaut, 
er ^ma^xt in ber 9legel eine reidblic^e drnbte, auger 
tt)enn e0 an 9legen Qchxi^t, ober voenn, W)a0 nid^t 
felten gefd^ieljt, ha^ Sanb »ott Ueberfc^tt)emmungctt 
l^cimgefttd^t vvirb. STuger 3fieia, wa^ bie ^au^tnal^ 

tung ber ^inbu6 au6ma(^t, :|)fl[anien fie auc^ 3iitfer^ 
ro()r, befouber^ im niebern 33eiu3alen. '^k (Staubc 
ift bem ?Df?ai^, ober 3Belfd)forn d^nli^; im gebruar, 
tt)enn jxe reif ift, n)irb jie abgefc^nitten, iinb mit ^wei 
ci^Unberfonnigen <BtMm .^olj au^gepre^t, geloc^t nub 
al0 gelber ro^er 3^^^^^^ ^wf ben ^X^larft gefuljrt unb 
\3erfauft. Snbeffen tterftefjen fd^ bie |)inbu^ au^ 
mif t)a^ 9iaf(tniren be^ 3^<^^i^^ > ber reinfte wei^e 
Surfer ivirb in ^nxt}\x>an hexcitet unb fommt bem 
tt)ei§ett 3ucfer bei itn^ gan^ gUic^. 
. 0lad^ ber 9lei6 - (§rnbte , bie im October unb 9^o^ 
member eingefammelt tt)irb, fden hk ^inbu^ an man* 
<i)m Drten 9Bai§en, 3Si(!en, (Srbfen unb anbere ^nU 
fenfrii^te. 993enn jte mit bem 5©dffern flei^ig jtnb, 
ober im ^ejember 9^egen er!jalten, burfen jte fi^ cU 
net jweiten ^rnbte erfreuen unb i(| I)abe im gebruar, 
befonber^ in bem 2)iftrict t5on ^ife^nagore fc^one 
SBaijenfelber in mUex S^eife gefel^en. 

Snbigo tt)irb i)on euro:|3aifc§en ^Pflfanjern in 53cn^ 
galen unb ^ol^er an ben Ufern be^ @ange^ I)inauf, 
gebaut. !I)ie 58ereitung be^ Snbigo gef(^ief)t auf foU 
genbe 2Beife: ^ine ^anje bie bem l^ol^en ^(ee 
jiemlic^ d^nlic^ ift, ipirb in ber S^ad^barfd^aft ber 
gluffe, befonber6 in ber fetten @(^(ammcrbe be^ ®an^ 
ge^ gebaut. JBSenn fie iJoKig au^gewad^fen ift, er^ 
reidbt fte eine ^o^e ijon 4 gug , n)irb bann abge^ 
fc^nitten unb auf barren nad^ ber gactorei gefu{)rt» 
^ier wirft man fie in einen »on 53acffteinen gebauten 
S3el>d(ter, unb fu«t i^n mit Staffer, 3n ticn fc^wiV 
Un ©ommerndc^ten be^ ^9)^onat^ ^ugufl gerdtl) bie 

^Pflanjc in m\)xmQ, \x>d^t m^ 10 oter 12 6tun* 
ben bie ge!)6n(je 9ieife erl)alten l^at !l)a6 SBaffer, tocU 
(^e6 dne grime ?^arbe annimmt , njirb nun in einen 
iwdtm 8e{)after abgelaffen, nnb bie ^flanje auf ten 
!I)un(j!)anfen geworfen, dine ^fn^aftf |)»nbu ^agto^^^ 
ner begeben fic6> in ba6 Staffer unb peitfd^en eo jtvei 
6tnnben tang mit einer ?(rt ^c^anfelj burd^ biefc 
Operation n>ivb bem S33affer eine Eluantitdt (Baxm^ 
ftoffgae mitgctl)ei(t, wa6 bie golge Ijatfta^ \)a^ 
Staffer attma^lig etne f(^6ne blauegarbe ex^lt*, \)k^ 
fen ^rocep l^ei^t man tk (Granulation, unb fobalb 
man in bem S3$affer einen hiaum (5taub erblicft , iff 
berfelbe t)ottenbet, nad^ einigen <5tunben fe^t jtc^ ber# 
felbe, ba^ Staffer wirb abgelaffen; unb auf bem 80* 
ben beflnbet fic^ ein blauer 53rei , ber forgfaltig })cvf 
au^genommen un\> in einen !u:|)fernen ^effel geworfen 
unb gefod^t vrirb, um aBfe animalifc^e <Subftan§en ju 
tobten. 5{u0 bem ^effd fommt ber braue 8rei unter 
bie ^reffe, unb tic foHbe 5D?affc tt)irb nun in ^iex* 
edigte 6tucfe gefd)nitten, mit bem Seamen be^ Sigen^ 
t!)umer0 geftemipelt, unb pm 5!rD(!nen auf 53retter 
getegt. 3wei 5Dlonaten nac^^er W)erben fte in ^iften 
gepacft unb ^um 33er!auf unb SSerfc^iffung nad> ^aU 
cutta gef(^i(ft, ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - , 

2)ie $(u6fuf)r ^on biefem n^ic^tigen .^anbe(6artifef, 
belauft ftc^ ja^rlic^ auf ungefd^r 125,000 ^iften *) ; 
be,r gro^erc Z^di bai)on gel^t nad^ englanb. 5(u^er 
ben genannten ^rtifeln njirb in mand^en 3!f^ei(en »ie( 

*^ OS: 

) 3eb€ ^ifle ent^alt etm 150 qjfiinb Snbigo. 


IBaumwoKe unb ^abaf gebaut, auci^ tie ^cibcnjud^t 
tt)irb mel^r unb mt\)x eingeful)rt, , 

SSont !Dungen ber gelber wijfen W |)inbu6 ni$t 
t»iel ; meiftetie njirl) ber !Dunger jum feuertt gebraucS^t; 
ber S3obett Ijat e^ auc^ nid^t ijiel notl^ig, ba bie (5be^ 
nen be6 ©ange^ au6 etner reic^en angef(^tt)emtnten 
6(S^wammerbe beftef>eu, bie fel)r ergiebig ifi, 3t5 
moc^te nicfet tt)agen su bef)au!|5ten, ba^ ber .^inbu af6 
Sanbmanti fo flei^tg unb arbeitfam fe^, a(^ unfere 
SKiirtemberger Stcfer^feute unb SSeingdrtner; ba0 Idgt 
fid^ aber au(^ in einem tro:pif(6en (5(ima nidbt er^ 
warten, unb ift nic^t fo not]^tt)enbig, \}a hie @rbe ol)ne 
^iel Slrbeit beina^e 5(tte6 »on fld^ felbft ]^ert)orbringt. 
^itt frumme6 ©tucf |)oIs mit einem fpi&igen (Sifen 
am Snbe/ ift iljr ^flug ; ein SSSerfjeug, fialb @:|3aten, 
I)alb $arfe, mit einem nur 14 3j>tt langen 6tiel 
btent it)nen ^um ©raben, gelgen, unb uberl)au^t l^aben 
fte auger etner einfac^en (Sgge, an beren Statt.nid^t felten 
ein S3unbel 2)ornen gebrauc^t n?irb, feine anbere 
SSerfjeuge pm 5((ferbau» 2)er einfa(^e ^flug, an 
bem \x>o^ feit 2000 3«^ren ni^t^ i)erdnbert ttjorben 
ift; tt>irb t)on ein ^aar mageren Deafen ober ^ul^en 
gejogen. 2)ie (Srbe tt)irb jvtjei ober brei 3«>tt tief auf- 
geri^t, tiefer unten tt)irb ber iungfraulic^e 33oben nir* 
genbS beritfjrt unb boc^ xt>a^ft dn 3al^r nad^ bem 
anbern aUe^ )x>a^ ber Sanbmann J^ineinftreut in^uHe 
unb gutte auf, unb reift jur (^rnbte l^eran. • 

2)ie 3flegierung bejiel)t it)re ©nhmftc ]^au^tfa^li(^ 
t>on ber 53oben* ober^runbfteuer; biefe nimmt bem 
:2anbmann in ber Sflegel \)k ^al^k unb in ergiebigen 

ber ^inbu^. 1^ 

^egenben oft jwei ^xiiiljtil M ^rtragd fitnweg, 
gf{eid^e $ad^ter ober Semmbar^, weld^c ganje 2)ifirict« 
»ott bcr 9iegteruTig ipac^^ten, jie^en bicfc 8tcuer tin 
«nb madden babci i^rcn guten ^Profit; bicfc3 ^pac^^t* 
fpPem ^a(tc id^ fur bae UnglM be^ Sanbe^ , tnbem 
bae arme Sanb^jolf t)on ben "^S^^^i^^^^^^ unbarm^ersia 
unterbrucft unb au6gefbgen W?irb. 

S5on 8aumfruc^ten flnb bie^almen, ^^amarinben, 
3J?angoe0, (Soco0'9?ug, @ranat^5(e^3fer, pantanen, 
Drangen , l^imonen , £luat?e6 , !^oquerte , ^it\^i^ xmb 
anbere 511 bemerfen. 2)ie 5inana6 tt)a($ft im Ueber^* 
flu^. Stti fDifirict t)Ott (S^Ifiet im norboftlic^en ^l^eit 
»ou 53engalen/ gibt6 ganje 3Gdlber t?on ben beften 
Drangen, ganje S5oot^§abungen bringt man bav^on 
nad^ Calcutta Ijerunter, e^ ift eine foftlid)e erfrifc^enbe 
grud^t ^a^ 5[RineraIreid^ ift in Snbien beindl)e nodt^ 
nnberu!)rt. ©teinfo()len gibt3 im S3urbtt)an * 2)tftrict 
im Ueberflug. (Sifenjiein in anberen Z\)dUn »on 
55engalen. 3tt me^reren gliiffen tpafc^en bie @inge^ 
bornen ®oIb au6 bem (Sanbe. 

3n ber $rot>inj »on 53engalen nnb im norblic^en 
2:()eil ^on ^inboftl^an gtbt e§ mir bret ^al)x^icx* 
ten 5 ndmli^ i)om SJlonat SDJdrs bi6 gum Sunt ift 
bie l^eipe 3^it3 i)on ber 3eit ber 6onnenn)cnbc bia 
October: t)k fJtegenjett; nnb i)om 5^oi)ember bi^ ge^ 
brnar : bie fitl^le 3eit ober ber bengalifdbe SKtnter. 
SKdl^renb ber Ib^i^'-'n 3cit ift eg febr trorfen; ba^ 
©rbreic^ voirb bitrre nnb ite]E)t ijerbrannt an6,nur mo 
M Staffer in ber 9?df)e beftnbet, ftel^t man cttoa^ 
^rime^, t}k Sanbftraf en fxnb mit 6taub bebecft, «ni 

fecr glu^enbe SBinb treibt i^n im SBirbel burd^ He 
?uft. 2)a0 ^l^ermometer fteigt im ©fatten auf 95 
I)i6 105^rabe . gat)rett!)eit , in ber Sonne obex ni^t 
ferten auf 20—30 ^rabe i)o^er. S3iewei(en tt)irb tie 
ubermd^ige |)il3e burc^ (^etxiitter abgeful^ft, njel^en 
cin fnrc^tbarer @turmtt)inb ^orangel^t, ber oft S3dume 
enttt?ur5e(t unb tk |)utten ber |)tnbu0 jerftort Ttan 
nennt biefe (^evoitter in 55engalen ^S'^orbioefter'', weit 
jte t>on ieuer ®egenb l^erfommen. 2)er (Sturm fii{)rt 
fci^te 3)laffen »on 6taubwo(fen balC)cr, ber ^ag t^er^^ 
ttjaubelt ftc^ in wenigen 5D^inuten in bun!(e ^Jla(i)t, 
\mx mu^ten oft be^ 5^ad^mittagg im |)aufe i^ic^ter 
anjunbenj biefe grauentjolte , un^eitige !l)uu!e{^ett , ift 
bur(^ ftarfe SSUje erleu^tet, unb ein 2)onnerfd;(acj 
folgt auf ben anbern. 53or einigen SaT^ren fd)Iug ber 
SBli^ in ba0 $au6 einer englifc^en gamilie, nai)c bet meiner 
SKol^nung unb jerri^ \)k WlaiKx oben t)om 2)act), biiS 
auf ben ^runb, ©in 2)iener im |)aufe tt)urbe ^u 
S5oben geftur^t, fam aber nac^ einiger 3^it vt)ieber 
jur 33eftnnung. 3Sor einigen Barren itjurben nai^e bei 
bem ^aufe eine^ greunbe^ in Calcutta, bei bem vt>ir 
imS befanben, brei |)iubu6 ^om 53li|e erfc^fagen, 
3m Sa^re 1842 ritten gtoei (Sngldnber in ^engalen 
i)ur(^ dn gelb, unb cin furc^tbare^ Ungeioitter fam 
ii)nm auf ben |)al6. (lin Sli^ftra^t fd)o§ i)or il)ren 
S(ugen l^erunter, ba6 imx graueniJoK, rief bet eine 
au^j er^ielt aber feine 5(nttoort, wic ex nci^ feinem 
greunb fic§ umfal;e, fanb er, t)ci^ er auf bem ^ferbe 
»om 331i6e gelroffen unb getobtet n?ar, WUn fann 
ftc^ in einem norblic|>en (ilima faum eiiie ^Sorftettung 

I)er |)intiu6/ 15 

i?ott bet 5Biit^ ber ^tementc in itop\\(!i}m ©egenbeti 

9ia^bem ber @turm eine SBeile gebrau^t ^at, 
cntfaben ftc^ tk ^olfen in f(^weren StegcnQuffen/ 
unb ber 3!ag geigt jtc^ n)ieber. 33t6ttjei(cn ge^t aber 
t)er 6turm auc^ ol^ne SfJegen yoruben^^^^^^^^:^^^^^^^^^^- . . 

3n ber !!D^Ute ober gegen ba^ (Sube 3um6 fiefft 
fic^ bie ia^rUcbe ^tegen^eit ein , ttjelc^e im ^dtfang 
ge^Doljulicf) t)on biefen furc^tbaren 6turmeu becjleitet 

9Sor btefem llebergang glul^enber ^i&e sur 9te^ 
gen^SSittenmg , tt>irb e^ meift mel^rere Xac^e ivinbftitt 
unb banti ift \)k ^i^c unertrdgtic^, bie (Sreatur feuftt 
unb fc!^mac[)tet im dc^ten 6inttc bee SSorte ncic^ (Fr- 
frifci^ung unb ^iil^(e. 3n Calcutta werben bie ^e^ 
trdufe mit Qi^ 9e!ii{)lt, aber im Snuern be^ Sanbe0 
muffen wir biefe Srfrifc^ung eutbel)ren. greilic^ ge* 
friert e6 and) in ber f alien 3eit nie, unb nur in 
norbtidjeren Sreite-^raten gegen Senare^ unb $(gra 
Ibin ftel()t man in menigen falten 3Jtorgen be^Sanuar 
S^eifen auf tern gelbe. 9Jleine Sefer t\)erben baf)er 
begievig fe^n gu n)iffen, )x>t> bie ^imii>oI)nev ber 6tabt 
ber g5aldfte biefen ertpimfc^ten iBimi^artifel ba^ ®^ 
I^erbefommen, -. 

2)arauf bient jur 5(ntmort/ ba^ jd^rlic^ mel^rere 
@d}iff^iabungen ^on 53ofton in 9?orbamerifa nac^ 
Sa(cntta gebra^t \t)erben. 3tr>ifc^en \)\c ^i^blodfe 
^)adt iBrnber Sonat^an auc^ eine Ouantitdt Slepfel, 
bie immer guten §lbfa$ finben, ba in^engalen feine 
unferer Obftarten fortfommt, S3on SBenare^ weitcr 


16 2)ae ^an\} utib ber (S^aracter 

nad^ 9?orbett gerdt^ jeboci^ ber SBeinjIorf, unb unfc« 
greunbe bort ^aben in ber fjetgen 3al^t6aeit f^5nc 
ilrauben in il^ren ©arten, Slnf bem SJlarftc in (Sal- 
ctttta tJerffluft man ben 5lnierifanif(t)en 5(pfel fur 12 
bi0 20 ^reu^er, bagegen fann man eine f(^5ne ?lnana^; 
bie l^ter einige ©ulben foj^en ttjurbe, fiir 3 ober 4 
^reujer l^aben. 

S3engalen ifl, mie ic^ i)orI)tn ex)x>a^nte , i?on ben 
SWimbun^en be^ ©ange^ bt^. auf l^unbert 6tunben 
^iuauf eine «nu6erfet)bare ©bene, bie nur bur^ ein* 
gelne (^ruj3i)en t>on ^almen, ^amarinben unb 9)lan* 
goebdumen itnterbro^en ivtrb; ^wifc^en biefen ragen 
bie |)utteu ber |)inbu6 l^er^or; bie Ttamx berfelben 
ift »on (§rbe, an manc^en Drten auc^ nur »on SJlatten 
^erfertigt 2)ie reic^ern ©laffen bauen t)on S3acffteinen.» 
Ueber ber !2eimen ^ SD^^auer erric^ten fte ein 2)a^ t)on 
^ambue unb bebetfen e^ mit 6trol^» 3ebe l^albc 
(Stunbe fto^t man auf ein ^^orf^ ber bex)olfertfte 
S^l^eil t)on 2)eutfc^Ianb ent{;d(t too^ nic^t me!f)r ©in*' 
iDoljner a($ biefe6 fruc^tbare gldc^en * Sanb. 2)orfer 
mit 5 bi^ 10,000 ©invvo^ner fmb gar nic^t^ Unge^ 
i»o^nli^€0, ^JDlit »iel gleij unb Wln^c twrben bie 
(Stellen, tx>o ein 2)orf angelegt ift, crl^o^t, !Die Ur* 
jac^e ba\)on ifi leic^t §u erratljen. 
■ 3n ber ^tegenjeit fmb biefe (Sbenen t?om Staffer 
bebecft, SBol^l regnet eg in 33engalen in tm »ifr 
naffen ^D^onaten fo\)ieI , a(0 bei uu§ in ^ier Safjren, 
3m 3]^onat 3uni unb ^uguft firomt ee in g(ut{)en 
l^erunter, 5)er |)inbu pflugt im SBaffer, unb tvenn 
ber ©c^lamm tuc^tig burc^ einanber geruJ)rt i|l, fe^t 

er bie ^Rei^pflanse/ Me et 'oox^^n fo Mcf, tt?ie Ibei un^ 
bcr ©drtner ein 6a(atbeet, gefdet bat, in t)k mi^c 
SJlajfe {)mem, Me ixuit im Staffer auftx)dc^ft 
, 3m ©eptember laffen bie 9legen tixoa^ nad^ nnb 
tt)ie fid^- t)ie[e im Sunt eingefteKt i)aben, fo ate^en im 
£)ctober bie (e^ten SKolfeit gewol^nlic^ unter furcbt* 
baren @turmen baijon, 2)iefe Dctoberfturme fmb cU 
tt)a6 ^raiten\)oC[e6, bauern oft mel^rere Za^c uub 
ric^ten fc^retflid^e SBerl^eerungen an. 

2)ie gluffe fteigen wdf)renb berStegenjeit^u einer 
augerorbentlic^en $ol^e» 3Bo ba$ Sanb niebrig ip, 
jtt»b jte mit 2)dmmm ijerwal^rt^ bie »ou ber S^egie*^ 
rung mit »ielen ^ofien untertalten tt?erben» (^ar 
pufig aber burc^bric^t bei au^erorbentlic^er SBaffer^ 
I)6^e ber (Strom feinen 2)amm , unb Uc tt)ilbe Slutl^ 
fturjt auf tie unbefc^u^ten @beuen herein. Slugen^euge 
etner folcften SBaffer^notl^ toax i^ im Sa^r 1834 auf 
unferer 3Jliffion6ftation in SBurbwam Der eine 'oiextd 
6tunbe breite, 2)amuter;^glug burc^brac^ um ^ittex^ 
nad^t feinen ^amm , unb fd^og woie ein SSalbftront 
auf unfere gelber ^mxxt, 9Som flaxen !Dac^e be^ 
2)?ifrton^]&aufe^ , wo^in icb mi(i^ pc^tete, fal^e i^ im 
3)lonbfdbein, W)ie t}k n)utl)enbe glut!) ein |)inbuborf 
naci^ bem anbern tt>egfcf>tt)emmte, 

fDer m^iev be^ fDifirict^, ein menft^enfreunbHd^er 
SD^^ann, unternal^m auf einem gro^en (Slept^anten ben 
gefa^rtJolTen 3Beg, unb fam eineJ^olbe @tunbe tveit 
burci^e Staffer um mic^ ^u tetten, t)a er ge^ort J^atte, 
ba^ mein ^au^ i?or bem ^inftura ni^t fic^er xoax. 
3* fonnte mnm^int)u^(3mm\}e, t)k um mid^ ^er 

^titbu^t IKifjivri in Subieu, 2 ■ 

t8 T>aS Sanb unb ter ^^aracter 

^crfammelt wctr, nCe^t yjerlaffert, unb faum ^aiU M 
Hebe greunb auf ber 9iu(ffe()r tie fbxMc eined an* 
bcrn Slwff^^f Wel^e in bie Station ful^rt unb bie 
unter bent ^ritte bee Qkp^anien gitterte, uberfc^ritten, 
aid tiom 5)range bed SBajferg jwei Soyen berfelben 
cinjiuraten. allele (Sinn^ol^ner t)erloren in biefer SBaf:? 
fet6notl^ il)r Seben, anbete il^re gan^e ^abfeligfcit* 
SfJid^t felten toerl^eert ber @ttom bie gelber, unb Be^ 
becft fte me^rere gu^ l^od^ mlt burrem €5anb, fo ba§. 
ha^ Sanb Sa^re lang tt)ufte liegen mu$, bid enblic^ 
bie u^jptge Vegetation tt)ieber einen urbaren 53oben 
bilbet. --:-^- :>■--■-. 

- 3t^ fcinb bie tro(fene |)ite im flUiai no^ crtrdg* 
lic^er, ale^ bie bdm^jftge @d^tt>ule im September, ttjo 
ba0 burd^nd^te Sanb in ber ©onnenglut au0* 
trorfnet, ta^ Saxib unb t^a^ np^ig aufgefc^offene 
^flan^enrei^ ijerfault unb auf biefe SSeife ein fc^db^ 
li^e^ Miasma, eine giftige ^uft erjeugt tt)irb. iDann 
ati^met ber arme grembling in bem tie ©eijie^^ unb 
Seibedfrdfte nieberbrucfenben ^lima mil jebem Slftl^em^ 
jug eine Duantitdt »on ©^olera unb gieberjioff ein, 
ber frii!)er ober fpdter bie gefurcJ^tete SBirfung f}ex* 
toorbringt. ^benbejwegen ift^bad (Snbe ber SJegenjeif 
Id tveitem bie ungefunbefte ^eriobe im Sa^fe. |)ier 
ift bie Urfac^e, \)a^ wad) einer ric^tigen S8ere(^nung 
ber SJ^ifftonar in ^engalen im !l)urd^fdfnitt nur 5 — 

mtled fe^nt ft^ nun m^ ber fu^len Sal^r^seit, 
bie an 5lnfang 9^ot)ember0 eintritt, unb jejt ijl ce gut 
fe^tt in biefem Sanbe ; ber ^uro))der lebt n>ieber auf, 

unb fann M f«i ^"^^^^ bcwegcti, @in 2)escmbef^ 
SKorgctt in S3engalen ijl vok .unfcrc fOlaimorQen in 
2)eutf^(anb. 3n unfern Garten wa^fcti nun attc 
$(rten »on curo^aif(J)en ^u^cii9ett>a^fen, 5lu(^ bie 
6ommerflora t)er norbif(^en (^egenben blu^t unD wit 
fu^len unS einc !ur^e 3eit einigerma^en in m euro^ 
paifd^cg eiima t)erfcfet. 3m Sanuar wirb ^e6 gcttjol^n^ 
lid^ etwae ful^ler, weit ber S^lorbttjinb t)on ben ^o^cn 
beg befc^neiten ^imala^a ^erunterbldet ; aber fct)Ort 
im gebruar fommt bie fteigenbe SBdrme wieber, unb 
ill be6 SRacS^mittage ber unferg ^b^^en @ommer0 

^eic^, . 

Slu^er bem 5(cferBau unb ber SSiel^juc^t, befc^&f^ 
tigt ftd6 ber |)inbu mit ^anbet unb allerlei ®ett)er^ 
ben; aber biefe ftnben jtc^ au^fcfilie^lid^ nur in 
@tdbten ober grogen Dorfern* 2)ie 9ett>o]^nlid^ften 
|)anbw)er!er jtnb ber 2Beber, S^mmermann, @(^mibt, 
S3ar6ier, S93af(^er unb £orbfi[ec3^ter. 3n SBaumwotten^, 
Spinn^ unb SBebereien l^aben e6 tie ^inbu6 in 
alien S^^i^w fc^on gu einer grofen SSottfommenl^eit 
gebrac^t. 2)ie feine SS^ffu6 fott jur 3^it ber ^tolo^^ 
mder unb Slomer tjon 3nbien gebrac^t worben fe^^n. 
2)ie 6tabt 2)acea tt)ar t)or Sal^rl^unberten fc^on we^* 
gen it^rer ttjunberfcbonen 5Dflou6(ine beruf)mt. Qin 
fleineg 6tucf wurbe oft fur 50 m 80 3^upien »er^ 
fauft. 6o au^erorbentlic^ fein ttjaren biefe ^m^t, 
ta^, ttjenn auf bem (^rafe jur SBleic^e au^gebreitet 
ber Z^au auf fte ftel, fte ni(^t mel^r gefef^en werben 
Tonnten. Seiber })at jefet bie ^inful^r i)on englifd^em 
C^arn unb ^aumtt>ollenu>aaren , mit Denen t)a^ gan^e 


' ^*»Hi^ ^ 

^ 2)a6 Sanb unb ber (if)axactet 

2ant> gtetc^fam uberfrfyttjemntt tt)irb, ten |)inbutt)eber« 
»ielett 6(^abeu gebrat^t unb , wte bie bebauern^tt^er- 
t^en Seute mir oft flatten, tanfenbe »on gamitien 
in t)k S(rmutl) unb in^ (Slenb gepuqt. v ^^^-^^^^^^^ :>^ 

3n @tdbten ^ibt e6 gef^icfte (^olb^ unb €Uber* 
5(rbeiterj benn t)u 23ornel)men be6 ^o\U unb ba^ 
^inb ufraueri5immer befonber^ \)at etne gro^e greube 
an 3terrat]^enj bie armen, unwiffenben (^efc^opfe 
tt)i)7en ni(^t^ »cn ]^o()eren ^Sergnugen. 35einal)e alle 
tie »erfc^iebenen ^u^ =^ 5(rtifel, \vd(^e ber ^rop!)et 
Sefata^ an tm iubifci)en 2)amcn auf^d^lte ((5a:p. 3, 

; 16— 23.) trerben t)on ben |)inbubamen getragen; fie 
l)aben |)al6gefc^meibe, (Stirnbdnber, Db/teuringe unb 
Swinge an ben ^nc;^eln; Slrmfpangen oft »on ber 

^^anb bt0 jum (SUenbcgen l)inauf, unb voa^ mix inu 
iner am meipen aufftel, aud^ S^afenringe. SSenn ber 

^inbu einige ©ulben erfpart, »erfd)n)enbet er fte ge* 
wcl^nlid^ in fold^em <8ci)mucf fur feinegrau unb feine 

.^inber, unb tie erftere berec^net feine 3ui^<^i9iiii9 Sii 

: i^r nac^ ber SJ^enge unb bein S93ertl;e i)on 3i^i*^^flt^^n, 
mit benen er fte bel)dngt. 

©inb bie Seute nic^t im 6tanbe, golbene unb fil* 
berne ju faufen, fo begnugen fte ftc^ mit tool)!* 
feileren oon 9}lef|tng, ^u:pfer, S3ein unb gefdrbtem 

' S(nbererfeit6 aber befaffen fte ft(^ mii inelen (Sad^n 
nic^t, bie nad^ unferer ^^nftc^t jur Seibe^nal^rung unb 
9Zotl)burft gei^orenj ib^cile barum, toeil ber SJienfc^, 
toelc^er in einem l^eigen ^lima ^u ^aufe ift, oiel 
loeniger uaturli^e ^cburfniffe l;at, al0 toir in 

unfercr fartercn ^eimat!^. €o wiirfce inm Seifpiel 
ttx ©trum^fweber bei ten |)inbue einen fc^Iec^tcit 
3Jlarft madden, ba fie ba6 ganjeSal^r feme ©trumpfe 
anjiel^en, tt)eil fK feine brauc^cn, unb bie reic^en unb 
englifd^ gebUbeten |)mbu6, welc^e je^t in (Calcutta in 
tt>eigen (5trumj)fen einl)erget)en, ^at getvi^ nnr eitle 
9la(^al)mung6fu(?^t ^ur ^^(nnal^mc biefer neuen meibet 
bewogen. 2)er 6d^ufter wurbe auc^ nic^t »iel lofen, 
benn nur bie I)o^eren ^(affen tragen @^u^e; ©an^ 
talen \)on ^ol§ ober Seber gemac^t, ftnb etttja^ ge^ 
tt)oI)nli(^er, aber bie SJle^qal^l ber (Sinwol^ner ge^t 
baarfug. 2)ie ^leibuug ber ^inbu^ iji nngemein ein^ 
fa$, jte bepel^t au6 einem Taugen baumwottenen @tuc! 
3eug, entweber gebkicfit ober gefdrbt, \)a^ urn ben 
Unterleib befeftigt vr>irb, gerabe wit e6 »om 3Bebftnl^l 
fommt; hd feftUc^en ^eCegenl^eiten pifen fie hen 
-obern ^^ei( in cm ^\t>dte^ dl^nli^eS ©ewanb, 
Urn 9leifen gurten jie biefe^ nm tk Senben, an^ 
Mm Jirbeiten ift biefer Z\)di bea Seibe^ unbebecft. 
JDie grauen f (eiben ftc^ nur in dn ^tM ^niQ , ba6 
fte auf eine artige SBeife um jic^ winben, fo ba^ eS 
in sier(i(^en galten ten ^orper bebecft. ^inber gel^en 
hi^ jum fed^eten unb ad^ten Sal^re o!)ne atte 35e? 

5)er ^inbu am ®ange^ gebraud^t ben 5Reie al^ 
^auptna^rung^ er tt)irb auf mand^erlei SBeife ju* 
bereitet aber gewo^nlid^ im Staffer gefod^t, bo^ fo, 
ba^ bie Corner ftd^ nid^t auflofem @ie bereiten ta* 
ju ein 3u{jcwiufe ba0 i)on ©emiifartett , gif^en, ober 
au(i) gleif^ mit Del unb alferlei ©ett>iiraen bereitet 

wtrb. Dd^fcn^ uttlj ^albfleifd^ iji il^ncn ein ©rducl, 
Weil bte ^1^ M il^nen Qottlie^e SSerel^rung Qcnic^t; 
aber S^i{bi)ret, 3i^9Ctt, 6d6aafe unb anbere^ Sleifd^ 
tt)trb t)Ott i^ncn ]()duftg gefi)ei6t. 2)a§ biefed nici^t 
aKgemeitt gef^iel^t, iji weniger religiofem SSorurtl^eilc 
Su§ufc^rciben a(6 ber einfad^en ^^atfac^e, ba^ bel 
VDeitem t)\e gro^te ^njaljl ber Sanbteute lu arm ift, 
fi(5 gleffc^fpeifen anjufi^affen. Soffel, @abel unb 
SD'leffer ^at ber ^inbu gar ni(^t ti6t!)ig5 ebenfowenig 
etnen ^ifd^ ober ©tul^I; benn ber Oleid^e rnib 5lnnc 
ft^t mit uberfd^Iagenen S5einen auf feiner ^atte. 

Qm reict)er |)mbu, S3ruber be6 ^Rajal^ ^on S5urb^ 
tt>an, fagtc mir einmal, ,f^^x ^uro^aer mift nid^t 
n>a6 gut ip, fonii tt)urbet i^r nic^t raft bem Soffel 
cffen." (Sr wottte mir bamit gu »erftel)en geben, cS 
fei^ t)iel beffer unb fdbmacf Rafter, tt)enn man benSlei^ 
unb ba6 Surrie erft mit bett gingern tud^tig t>er* 
menge, unt) gufammen fnete, tt)ie bie (Singebornen ju 
tf)un gettJol^nt ftnb. din ?Pfunb Otei^ fauft man um 
weniger aU mm ^reuger^ alte 5lrten »on ©emiifeni 
finb \)er]^a(tmgmd^ig cUn fo wo^lfeil unb ein ^inbu* 
S(rbeiter fann <t(^ mit SKeib unb ^inbern fiir i^ier 
^ulben be6 SJ^onat^ ol^ne ©(^wierigfeit erna^ren^ 
2)a0 6al5 ift ein SJionopol ber ^Regierung / imb »er* 
|)aftmtma^ig tl^euer^ ba fte e0 fur einen firen ^reid 
^erfauft, unb tt)dl)renb e0 ber Dftinbifd^en ^om^aguic 
8tt)ei SWiffionen ^fb. Sterling ial^rli(^ in il^re ©d^a^ 
fammer bnngt, iji ber «rme ^nbu genot^igt, e6 gar 
fparlid^ mit fefnem 9id^ ^u genie^en unb wdl^renb 
Zan^en\>c t>ott reid^en €ng(dnbern biefe Mittionen an 

ter njol^I6efe§ten S^ofel »erf(^tt)ergcn, 1tef)t man in 
ten bengalifdben 5)orfertt ^untert taufenbe ber armen 
©efd^opfe mii \6)\x>a(i)\i^em ^orper einfjergefien, be* 
tien bic Selbftfuc^t filter fremben ^errf^er ba6 @afj 
biefe notfitge SBurjc ber 6^3eifen, ioorentt^altcn obet 
bee l^o^en ^reife^ l^alber nur fparlic^ gugetneffeti ^at. 
Dft wunberte id^ mic^ fiber bie graue garbe beS 
5^o(f)faraee in jenem Sanbe; bie bo^^aften bengalifd^en 
S^aufleute, tt)el(^e e6 »on ber S^egierung faufen, i)er* 
mifdben e6 uitt 5lfc^e, unb fo wirb ber $lrme aiif^ 
bo^^elte betrogen. Unb tt>d^renb etn SJionoipol ben 
^unbert SD^^iHionen .^tnbu6 einen ^au^t{)et( ber menfd)* 
(id^en Sf^al^rung ent§iei)t, ift ba6 anbere ttjo nidbt 
geflijfentUc^, bod^ in feinen [c^rerflic^en gofgen barauf 
berec^net, eine feme Sf^aticn »on 300 SKitlionen git 
t>ergiften. 3c^ meine bie IBereitung beg D^ium6, weU 
c^e0 au6fdbneg(t(5 in ben |)dnben ber oftinbifc^en Olegie^ 
rung iff, unb il^r jd^rlic^ einen r einen ©ewinn »on 
t)ritti)alb SJlittionen $funb Sterling einbringt, unb 
tie §Beran(a(fung gu bem le^ten t^inejtfc^en ^riege war, 
bejfen Un!often bie d^inefen je^t mit 21 ^JJittionen 
Z^aUxn gu bejal^len l)aben, 

MDie Meng^5(rt ber .^inbu^ Ijat ettt)a6 ^atriar^ 
{^alifcbeg, unb ift ungemein cinfac^j oiif einem flei* 
nen 9taume, ber mit einer SKauer umgeben, ober mit 
eincr-^ede eingejaunt ift, fiel^t man 5 big 6 ^litten 
neben einanber gebaut^ ^ier woI>nt ber ®roft)ater 
mit 66^nen unb dnfelfo^nen, unb t}a^ Sanb wjirb 
Knter ber Seitung m Sllten gemeinfd^aftlic^ gebaut. 
3n ber |)fitte bee ^anbmannee bejiel^t ber gan^c 


-^Sf-^* ' ' , -^ ^- 


, *$au6rat]^ an^ cimgen trbenen ^opfen jum ^i^c^en, 
imb einigen fldtern i)on ?0^cfftng ^um (Sffen. 53ei 
armeren Seuten mu^ (jar oft ein ^(antanenblatt bic 
(5teC[e t)e0 ^elter6 crfe^cn. 2)a5U fommt noc^ ein 
^ota ober runbee ^efa§ »on ^)JJefftng, mit engem^al0 
gum SSaffer )^cUn, eine SD^^atte, bic be6 ^a^t^ jum 
©c^Iafen unb be6 Xa^c^ jum 2!if(5tu(?6 btenen mu& ; 
ein Tloxa ober 6(^emef, au6 gefc^lititen JBambu^ 
gufamnten geflod^ten, unb ein ^orb »on a^nlic^em 
(Stoffe sum $(ufbe\va^ren ber ^leiber unb anber^r 
^abfeligfeiten; i)ieUei(^t ftel^t auc^ in eiuer ^de ein 
mit bem S5eil grob gcarbciteter 6tu!)l, hd t>ermog* 
lic^ern |)inbu0 tt)irb ber geringe 33ambu6forb burd^ 
eine gefd)Iofj'ene ^ifte. t)on !)artem ^olge erfe^t. 2)0* 
mit ift aber audft ba6 gauge 3nt>entarium gu @nbe. 
^at ft^ ber |)inbu einige Sf^upie^ erfpart, unb feine 
gran ift fcr)on mit t)en not^igen ^icxxatl^m an |)dnb* 
unb gupen ^erfel^en, fo fauft er fid) avai) ein S3ett 
gu bem fparfamen ^au6ratl^. !Daran Ijat aber bie 
^Q^obefuc^t feit gtveitaufenb Sa^ren n)o]^l uic^t^ t>cu 
anbert; benn e0 befte{)t au6 t>ier gufammengcnagerteit 
(Stucfen $oIg mit furgen gu§en. (Sinige grobe (5tri(fe 
njerben in \}k Sange unb Duere baruber ^ergegogenj 
tie yon bem S5(atte be0 $almbaume6 (Palma lunei- 
foiia) geffoc^tene WlaiU ttjirb buauf l^ingelegt, ciu 
^iffen tt)irb mit grober S3aumwotte ober ben gafern 
ber (5oco§nu§ au6geftopft unb je^t ift ba6 ^ett fertig. 
^ 5)a§ e6 aber nic^t allein hn S^la^t benitfet ttjirb, 
faun ic^ aB 5lugengeuge t)etftd^ern; benn ber |)inbu 
mac^t ftd& fein ^emiffen barau6, au(^ einige ^^aje^* 

tier |)mbu6. 25 

fiunberi ju »crf(^rafenj i>om lOcfftt nnt (Stiibiren ifl 
.er mit 5(u6na]^me • hex SBraminen , feiti grower 
greunb. ■■ >:::in. ■;-:,, ^■■^:«.v;,:. /. •■ •, .. 

2)0^ gefcHf^aftlidje utib gantilienleben ^at bur<^ 
ba6 9ftengion^'69ftem, feinen eigeut^umUcf^eti ^^arac* 
ter er^alten. 2)er ^am ift|)err im.|)aufe im i^rcng-r 
ften finite; \}k ©o^ne unt) (^ro5fol)ne ikhcn ben 
Sllten gemi^ immer ju Oiatt); ba^ SKeib gitt nid^t^ 
iinb wirb tt)o nid^t »erddbtlt(5^ , toc^ gleic^gultig be^ 
{)anbelt 2)cr junge ^nabe fc^on trirb • mit mc^r 
fRudftc^t unb 5(d^titng be^anbe(t aB bie SJlutter, hie 
x^n geboren l^at Unter ben f)o()ern SlajTen lebt jte 
abgefc^ieben, im einfamen (^emacf). 3^r JDafe^n ftat 
eigentltc^ nt(^t^ mit bem gefettfc^aftUc^en Seben gu 
tt)un; au6 bem einfac^en ^runbe, Weil nac^ ben re^ 
ligiofen 55ucbern ha^ 5Beib eine geringere 5lrt »oii 
SBefen unb »on ^ebnrt an tt>dt unter bem SJlannr 
5U fiefeen bepimmt ift. !Diefe0 I)eittofe <B))ftem Ijat 
[eine natiirlid^e SBirfung J^ert)orgebrad&t. 2)a6 SU^ab* 
(f>en erplt feine dxik^nn^, 2)ie 9)?utter !)at feinm 
i^influ^ auf i^re eigenen ^inber. 2)er |)inbu wei§ 
nic^te i)om @blen, 6cf)onen, »on bem ©lucf be^ ga* 
miUen(eben6.^^^^^^^^^ - H 

<Sonfi jtnb bie Seutc gefettf(^aft(ic?^ 5 be6 9J?orgen6 
unb 5lbenb0 fiel^t man jle gru^^penmife jufammen 
it^en unb au6 ber ^oco^nng * ^feife 3^abaf xaii^en, 
3tt ber Mine be^ 2)orfe«, auf einem offenen ^lafte, 
unter fc^attigten 53dumen unb i)or ben ^ogentempeln 
»erfammeltt fie ftd^ |)dufig unb »ertreiben ft(ib bie 
Sangweile burcS^ gegenfeitige Unterl^altung. ^aujig 


16 $^ Sanb untfWr ^^aracter 

fei}t motive hnm SKurfelfpiel tjcrfommelt. 5lu(]^ 
l^abtii He niebrigcu (Slajfen ber @ut)ra0 i^re 3^rinf* 
gelage unb 2Birt^^t)aufer, unb 53erauf(^uncj iji etwa^ 
(Setvo^nli^e^ uuter ^alanfin^^^rdgern unb anbern btc 
urn Sot)n arbeiten, 6ie trinfen ben @aft be^ ^alm*? . 
Imume6, ber angenel^m fu^ fc^mecft, aber nac^ ber 
©a^rung beraufc^enb tvirb. 5Cu(^ bereiten jte auS 
geroftetem 9iei^ einen dt)nUd^en ^ranf, unb au0 
iffialbbeeren eine 5lrt »on SSrcmntwein. 

3n ben 6tdbten genie^en man(^e ^inbu5 l^eimli^ ober 
djfentUc^ S3ranntwein, ^trfc^ennjaffer unb anbere geiftigc 
^etrdnfe^ euro^difc^e ^it>i(ifation \)at au^ europdift^e 
Safter unter ben .^inbu^ einf)eimi[(^ gemac^t 

2)ie ^au^tgekgen^eiten jur ®efellig!eit finb bie 
®5§enfefte. |)ier fte{)t man jte bei ^aufenben »cr* 
fammert. 5luger il^rer reiigiofen S3ebeutung, fann 
man biefe eigentlic^ il^re SSolf^fefte nennen. 2)er ju* 
fammenftrbmenben SJlenfd^enmaffe ij^ e^ taM Ijaupt- 
fdd^lic^ urn Seluftigung ^u tijun. 3Bae bie ^inbu^ 
i^re @otte^i)ere]^rung unb 5lnba(^t nennen, t?ertrdgt 
M 9<it gut mit ©aufgetagen unb '^ai)lieikn, |)un* 
bcrte »on 53outi!en \i?erben bei fol^en ^b^enfeften 
aufgef(^lagen, unb allerlei ©pielwaaren unb (S^bare^* 
jum SSerf aufe -au^geboten. 2)ie toKe SJ^^enge ft^t ba 
beim (g^ielj mufifalif^e Snftrumente, befonber^ ilrom* 
mefn, $aufen unb ^rom^jeten begleiten \)k fd^dnbli* 
<^en Sieber, t)k fte i^ren @b§en ju @()ren au0 »ottem 
C)alfe flngen, .^ier x\t ber ?pio^, wo ffc fu^lett unb 
e6 fut)len laffen, baf fte alCe ^inbu6 jinb. — SBon 
^atrii?ti^mu0, »on (SJemeiufmn wiffen fie ni(i)i^: in 

tern gittsen 9leid^e ifl au^ uirgenb^ tin Drt, »d 
an ein gemcinfamc^ 3^f«»i«i^«w^^^^^ fw^ wo^ltl^dtigc 
3tt>e(!e ober ba^ alTgemeine 53ejtc gcba(?^t wirb. 2)a0 
So* ber 59lo!)amebaner , untcr ttjel^em bic S^lation 
taufenb Saljre lang feuftte, l^at bie lefetcn @!|Miren 
DOtt «Patrioti0mud erftidfU S^lur ttJenn fur ba6 gcfl 
beS 2)urga ober be6 6cftiH)a ein (^o^cnbilb ju t>eT^ 
fcrtigen iji, unb ^ungrige Sraminen au fpeifcn finb, 
mu^ bie ganjc dinwol^nerfd^aft be§ 2)orfe$ i^rcn 
3:^eil aur SBeftreitung ber toften beitragen. 9(lid&t^ 
anbereg M eine I^ol^ere 53ilb«ng be6 ^cifte^ unb 
^erjen6, mir bie ^it)ilifatiou, weld^e qu6 ber SBere^* 
rung be0 tt)a!)ren ©otteS jtc^ :j)ra!tifc]^ in einem 58oI!e 
enttt)i(felt, fann ein 9lational ^^ ©efu^I unter ben 
^inbu^ erttjeifenj ba^ ®o^entt)efen l^at bie tjerfd^ie* 
bene ^ajien in 5(tome §erri(fen, c^ muj untergefKn/ 
cf)c fic!^ Htioa^ beffere^ »on i^nen emaxtcn (ft^t 
- 3(^ ^offe, e0 ill mir einigermagen gelungen, burc^. 
bie gegebcne S3ef(^reibung uidnen d^riftlid^cn Sefern 
ein anf<]^auric^e0 iBilb »on ber au§ern Srfd^einung 
unb bem ^cUn be^ .^inbu gu verfd^afen. 3^ l)flbc 
nun nod^ in einigen ^u^tn feinen ntoralifc^en 
€^aracter im S^eciellen an fcS^ilbern* 3>er 
^inbu ijl unfireitig »on milber, fanfter ^atut, ^er 
grembling, welder an ben Ufern t>on Snbien lanbet, 
credit Ui feinem ^intritte tn$ Sanb einen ti^blic^cn 
€inbru(f t)on t>em t^o^id^en, feinen ^enef^mm ber 
^ingebornen gcgcn ben (Suro^)der. 233o <ic bemfelben 
auf ber ©trafe begegnen, madden fie, befonber^ a«f 
^em Sanbe eine tiefe SSerbeugung, betfil^ren mit ber 

28 ' 3)a6 Sanb unb ter ^axader ^^^^^^ t : 

!Red^ten bie 6tirne unb fagen: „(Balam (Ba^ehf 
(griebe* mein "^err.) S^?gar ber ijornelfjme ^abu, ttjel* 
d^er in feinem ^alanfin ba^er getragen tt)trb, fteigt 
.<iu6 unb gru§t ben (Suro^dcr ftel^enb, befonber^ tvtcnn 
biefer ein 53eamter ifl. !Die^ ift Sanbe^fttte unter bem 
SSoIfe felber, unb ber (^eringere begegnet bem.^6I)ern 
immer auf biefelbe SBeife. SBenn ber ^inbu ben 
^uropaer befu(^t, fo Idgt er gwar ben Durban auf 
bem ^opfe, jiel^t aber bafur feine Sd^u^e au5, unb 
Iritt baarfug in^ 3t«tmer, jeboc^ gett)ig nie o!)ne iic^ 
»orl^er anntelben ^u laffen. (Seine Sthrebe ift I)pflid^ 
unb fein ganged 35enel)nien dugerft el^rfurc^t^iJoU unb 
polirt. dr gebrauc^t tabd feine orientalifd^e S3i(ber^ 
f^rac^e, „|)eute ift mir \)u ©onne mit Iieb(i(^en 
(5tra!)len aufgegangen, t)a^ ic^ 3l)r Slngeftd^t fe^en 
Mrf.'' — gragt man il)n nac^ feinem ^eftnben, fo 
antwortet er : „3)ur(^ ®otte6 ®unft unb 3^r freunb^ 
Iid^e6 2Bol^ltt)otten erfreue id^ mic^ einer guten @e* 
funb^eit." fbittet man i^n nieber^ufigen, fo t)erbeugt 
er \x^ er(l unb Uxu^xt mit feiner $anb \)m 33oben 
al0 ^di^cn feiner S^liebrigfeit unb 5(nerfennung ber 
@unji bie i^m W)ieberfdl)rt. ... 

fatten bie |)inbu6 bie SSortl^eile, w^eld^e ber@ng* 
(dnber unb !Deutfc^e burcSb feine l^ol^ere SSilbung ge* 
niegt, fo tt)urben fie unftreitig Balb unter bie artigfien 
unb ci»i(ifirteften 9f?ationen gered^net iverben. ^lit bie* 
fern ^^aractergug t>erbinben bie l^ofjeren Slaffen eineu 
(Srnft unb, eine tt)urbet>ol(e ^altung^. bie beim erften 
51nbU(f 5((5tung unb 9lejpect einflo^en mu§. ^ahd 
ift ber .^inbu»t>on S^atur nit^tern, rul^ig^ »on con* 

- -at*- 

^ ber |)uibu6. 29 

tem^latber 5(rt. 6eine afteligion^gruntfage !)abm 
i^m biefe JRic^tung t)ee ©emut^eg gegeben, ter reli* 
giofe |)inbu wirb m(^t leic^t t)ergeffen, ba^ bie 53e^ 
gaf)mung imb drtoblung ber !2eibenfc^aften befonber^ 
be6 3orne, i^n jur @ottl)eit erl^ebt, unb in ber nac^^ 
[ten Seelcntvanberung feme 6eele in m eblere6 S33e* 
fen ijerwanbelt. v - 

3^ n?unf^te biefe lieblic^e ^eiten M $inbu45^a^ 
ractere njurben nid^t burd^ bunfle , ja fc^tDarje Suge 
ent^etlt, 5(ber leiber fel^It ee bei i^nt bur(^* 
an 6 an einem moralifc^en ®runb unb S3 o ben. 
SKit feiner ^oflic^feit ift Sc^meic^clei unb frie^enbc^ 
S93efen gepaart j Ijinter feinem an9enel)men Sleu^crn 
liegt nur ^u oft galf(^!)eit unb 53etrug t)erborgen. 
!5)er- |)inbu ift ein Sugner uber alle Wlaa^en, (§^ 
ift i{)m nntegreiflic^, ba^ e6 ^h^nfctjen geben foil, tk 
immer bie S©al)rt)eit fprec^en. Sties ic^ fte bi^u>eilen 
fragte, ob e6 nid^t »iel beffer tt)dre, n^enn fte fi(^ im |)an^ 
i>el unb SKanbel aufric^tig benel^men JDurben, er^ielt 
. ic^ \ik sum ^pxi<S)Xooxi genjorbene 5(ntn)ort ; „xo^x ni^t 
lugt; fommt in ber SKelt nidbt fort!" Sugen unb 
@te]t)len gel^en immer ^anb in |)anb» > 

' Seber (Suropder, ber mit S5cngalefen ju t^un \)at, 
erfd{)rt ba6 ju feinem eigenen (Sc^aben. 9li(^t6 ifl 
»or ben !I)ienftboten ftc^erj jebe^ Meibung^ftucf unb 
derail), SJ^unbiJorratl^ u, f. tp,, ta^ il^nen ni^t \)or* 
gejdi^tt unb in t)k |)dnbe gegeben, ober t)or i^ren 
*4ugen t)erfc^(offen ttjirb , ift in ©efal^r unfi^tbar gu 
tt)erben. 3n biefer ^unji I)aben ee bie 2)ienilboten 
5u einer au^erorbentlic^en gertigfeit .gebract)t3 chm^ 

2)ad Sanb \in\i ber ^^aracter 

begwegen ftnb biefc fftt bic ^uropdcr cine ber grof^ 
ten ^lagen, unb ba6 itm fo mcl^r, ttjeil man bat)Oii 
me^rere l^aben mug, ttjeil jeber nur biejemgc 5(rbeit 
^ernc^ten barf, bie feiner (5afte eigen ift, 

SSott 3Jlit(ciben, giebe, X>an!bar!eit ^t ber ^inbu 
feinen ric^tigen Segriff, fur bie lefetere (ieblid^e @igen* 
fd^aft beft^t ber SSengale nic^t einmal ein 2Bort in 
feiner 9)lutter[^pra(^e ^ ber ftc^erfie 53ewei^, t)a^ er 
nid)t^ 'oon JDanfbarfeit tt)ei^. ^riueift manbem|)inbu 
eine SBol^U^ at, fo barf man gett^ig fe^n, ba§ er balb 
ttjieber fommt, itnb urn eine gro^ere bittet 3Beil @ic 
mir neulid^ burc^geljolfen J)aben, fo muffen @ie mir 
je^t wieber l^elfen; bie^ iji tk practifc^e 5lntt)enbung, 
tt)etc^e cr tjon unferm 2BoI)(tt)otten mac^t, (Siner bfr 
befien ©dbriftftetter uber Uc ©itten unb ^ebraud^e 
ber |)inbu6 bef^reibt fte alfo : „@ie finb tbcitig unb 
lenffam, ^abcn x>ul ©c^arfjtnn, Heben Unterl^altung, 
gebraud^en blumenreic^e S(u6briicfe unt) birberreic^ 
5p^rafen. ©ie fii^ren nie etwa^ ou6, ot^ne e$ »ors 
^cx reiflic^ uberlegt ju Ijabenj fte fmb t)ortt>i^ig xmb 
fpa^en aKe§ au6; jte t)aben einen unbeftanbigen unb 
it>an!elmut^igeti ©inn; fie fmb fel^r fertig im SSer* 
fprec^en, aber langfam im .^alten* <Bk jinb pbring* 
Itc^ in i^xen SBitten, unb unbanfbar, wjenn jte iljre 
Slbftc^t erreic^t Ib^iben. 6ie uberlaffen fid^ ber frie* 
c^enbjiett <B^me\^cUi, tt>enn fte ftc^ i)or Semanb 
furc^ten, unb geigen ftc^ ubermutlfjig unb unt>erfc3^ Amt, 
tok fte \)k Dber^anb erljalten. 6ie bene^men ftd^ 
ru^ig unb gefa^t, tt)entt it)nen fur eriittene SSeleibiguu* 
gen feine (^enugt^uung tt)irb; ftnb aber gel^afjtg unb 

untoerfo^nlid^ , fobalb ftc^ cine ©elegen^cft jur 9lacbc 
barbietet. 3d^ fanntc »ielc gamiUeit, weld^e ftc^ bur(& 
?Projcjfc in0 SSerberbcn ftitratctt, wcil jle ben ®enu§ 
ber 9la(^e jeber SSorftd^temaagregel t)orso9en." 

(ixmxi S3egriff t>on i^rer moralif(^en 9Serfun!en!)eit 
gibt bie 5:^atfacie, ba§ jeber ^anbler in feinem ^auf^ 
laben avveierlei ^ewi^t unb maa% YoXi, ^a^ leic^terc 
unb fleinere (jebrauc^t er sum SSerfanfen imb bad 
Qrogere unb fd^njerere ^um ^infaufen ber 3Baaren mit 
benen er ^anbet treibt, @iner berfelben jeigte mir 
felbft im 8ajar »on iBurbwan biefe t)erfc^iebenen ®e^ 
tt)i(^te. — 8(i(fen tt)ir unter bem SSolfe auf ba^ SSer* 
^(tni^ be0 9lei(^en §um 51 rm en, unb be^ ^oijern 
sum 5^iebern ^in, fo jeigt e^ ftc^ immer a(0 ba^ te^ 
Unterbrudere ^nm Unter briicf ten, !Dai>on fonnte i(^ 
aal^lreid^e ^eifpiele anfu^ren : ]{)iernur @ine0, ba^ {tc^ 
in iebem 2)orfc wieberl^olt. 2)er 3ci«iiit><i^ ^^^^ ^ac^* 
ter erpregt xn>n bem armen Sanbmann ba^ ^acJ^tgelb 
auf bie ungere^tefte SBeife. SBenn jur ^Sejal^Iung^^ 
jeit ettt)a6 rucfftanbig lUxhi, ttoerben il^m 3^^f^ J^ 
50 ?Procent angerec^net; im jttjeiten ^oi^x tx)iebet 
3infe t)on biefer (gumme; !ann ber armc fSflann t>or 
ber ©rnbteseit ni^t Izyx^tn, fo fd^icft ber ^d(^tet 
Seute unb ^d^t feine ©rnbte abfc^neiben. 3^ J&abe 
felber i!)ren Sammer mit an9efef)en ale folc^e l^immel* 
fd^reienbe Ungered^tigfeiten tjeriibt njurben. 3ft bie 
^rnbte mi§ratf|en fo nimmt biefer 8(utfauger bemUn* 
glurflid^en W ein^ige ^ul^, Wel^e er im @tatte ^oX, 
toeg, ober menu biefe fc^on fort ift, greift er in bie ^Mt 
unb rafft feine ioenigc mefjtngenen ©erdtl^^fc^aften unb 

32 2)a0 Sant) iml) i)er ^^aracter 


dribere ^a'Bfeligfeiten ttjeg. Dft aiic^ jagt ber 3e* 
mintar ben elenben |)au6i)ater tnit feiner gamilie t>on 
ttx ^utte ti^eg, uiib er mu^ it(^ in ber gerne eine 
heue |)elmat^ auffudjcn, gragt man ob er jt(^ ntc^t 
bei t>er DM%Uit beflagen fann, fo mu§ ic^ antwor^ 
ttn, auc?^ ba iji tx^enig |)ofnung tjor^nben, t)a^ xl)m 
@ere(J)Hgfeit wiberfaferen mirb. 3n ben ©erid^t^ljo^ 
fen finb eingeborne Unterbeamte angefteKt, hd benen 
SSefterfjung an ber ^age^orbnung i^t 2Ber unter ben 
5tt)ei ftreiienben ^arteien biefen tk gro^ten <5ummen 
@elbe0 ^erfprid^t, gen?innt 9etx)'o{)nUc^ tm $roje^. 
2)er arme 9J?ann \)at ^idkidcjt 10 bi6 15 ©tunben 
nac^ ber ^Sejirfsftabt gu ge^en, er bxau^i 3fteifegelb 
unb l)at feine0; fommt er bort an, fo finbet er nir* 
genb^ eine offene ^^ure, ivenn er fie nicbt i)or-^er 
Durd^ eine fleine ©umme jn offnen tjermag j er ttjeig, 
ta^ ber 3fiei(^ere atte §BortI)eile auf feiner ©cite \)at, 
nni) fo §ie{)t er »or, bie Unterbrucfung §n ertra* 
gen, wdi bod^ alle feine ^emul)ungen, ?ftc^t ^n er^ 
langen, mi^lingen unb if)n tt)al^rfc^einli(^ mtt fein hi^^ 
(!&en @igentt)um bringen tt)urben, 

2)ett englifd^en 53eamten ift e6 atterbing6 barum 
ju tl^un, biefem furc^tbaren Uebel gu fteuern, abn? 
bie t)er^dltnifmdgig Heine 5lnjal^t berfelben mad^t 
cine bur^greifenbe Olec^t^pfJege rein nnmoglid^. 2)er 
2)ijirict »on S5urbwan, einer ber fruc^tbarfteu in 
SBengalen, entplt anbertl)alb DJiittionen dinmol^ner. 
3n biefem beftnbet fic^ ein englif^er SSeamter, ber in 
©inlfac^en unb 3^ec^t^ftreiten entfd^eibet, ein s^eiter 
ift^riminalric^ter, dn britter ©teuereinnel^mer, uub 

ter |)mt)u6, 33 

t>ott biefen !)at jcjoer einen 5(fftftantert, Me fagt ftd^ 
erwarten, bag ein (§riminalric6ter unter etner fold^en 
^Jienf^entnaffc fein 5(tnt ge^orig t?emalten fonne* 
5lti biefen (^en(^tepfen sie]E)t ftc^ ein ^eer lofer ^mU 
5ufammen, tie immer bereit finb, iim eine geringeSe^^ 
lo^nunQ in ©treitfac^en al^ 3^119^^ aufjutreten unb 
ber DJleineib tft etwa^ fo ®emo^nlic^e6 , bag ein ha^ 
felbft angefteHter 55eamter mic^ tJerft^erte, bag er nie 
eine @a(Se nac!& ben ^(ngaben ber beeibigten ^cu^en 
l^abe entfc!^eiben fonnen, fonbern \)a^ ex fein llrt^eit 
immer na^ ber S33al^rfc^einUc^feit ber 2Ba{)r^eit be^ 
ftimmte, bie au6 ben fic^ n^iberfprec^enben 3cJ19"MT^^ 
I)ert)orIeu({)tete. ■ v^ ■ .-■-.^^-: 

3n biefer «^inft^t betrac^tet, iftS^bien tton einem 
@nbe sum anbern ein xinglitcflic^e^ Sanb gu nennen; 
bie Tlc^x'sai)\ ber @intt)oI)ner feuf^t nnter ber S3e^ 
britcfung be6 9lei^en unb ^D^^dc^tigen be^ Sanbe^. 

3^on 5(nftalten jur llnterftit^ung ber 5lrmen, ber 
^ranfen, unb uberl^aupt ber (eibenben 9J?enfc^beit, 
miffen bie |)inbu^ nic^t^. (56 foK gwar ein ^ofpital 
in Combat) fld) beftnben, aber biefe6 ift fur ^u^e, 
5(ffen unb anbere ^^iere beftimmt, benen fonft gottU^e 
@l)re ent?iefen tt?irb. «^ingegen Idgt man (5{)olera^ unb 
gieberfraufe , bie auf Der Strage angefatlen t^erben, 
l^ulflo0 umfommen, tx>enn ein mitleibiger @uropder 
\x^ ni^t uber fte erbarmt 

SSon t)m ^unberttaufenben »on ^i(grimen, bie 
nac^ SuggernautV «ttb anberen Drten njattfaT^rten/ 
fterben |)unberte im @(enb auf bem 2Bege, o{)ne bag 
i^nen in ber ^obe^ftunbe m Zroffmovt ober ^itlfe 

5C3fit6reff!t OTifftiMi in Snbien. 3 

43 3)a0 Sanb nub ber (^Ijaxaciex 

2u Z^di tt)irb. ©oil ic^ biefe6 traurtge moralifc^e 
^emdlbe no6) wetter t)erfoIgen uub bie im ^c^mange 
gel^enben Safter, wel^e ta^ (^iM M |)inbu im 
l^du^lic^en ^reife ^erjioren, beru^ren? ^eiratl^en wer^^ 
ben ixoax bitr^ religiofe ^eremouien gefnii^ft, abet 
gerabe ^k Sleltgion ^errei^t \)a^ ^anb tvieber. (Sia 
glaubmurbiger S3ram{ne erja^lte inir, fein einaiger 
SJlann bleibt feinem (§f)e»erl6bmp txcu; ber ^inbu 
ift ein (S^ebred^er. ©unben ber Unjuc^t unb anbere 
imnaturli(f)e (^rduel finb SKgemem. 

@o ftedt fi(!^ ber moraltfc^e ^^aracter be6 ^inbu 
bem ruf)tgen SBeobac^ter t>ox 5(ugen; er ift tief 
t)erfuu!en, er ift \)eru>uftet» 2Ba6 ^t biefen traurigett 
3uftanb ^ert?orgebrac^t ? 3wei Urfac^en fteUen ftc^ 
bem ^emutt)e M ru^igen gorfc^er^ bar, ^lan barf 
fi^ ni(^t it)unbern, bie eblen (S^aracter^uge t)on 9leb* 
li^feit, SKal)r]^aftig!eit unb ^reue unter einem Q^olfe 
ju »ermiffen, \}a^ Sal^rBunberte lang unter 
frcmber ^errfd^aft feufjte. (Sine ^meite unb 
gwar bie t)orl^errf^enbe Urfa(^e ift ba6 SleHgion^- 
ft)ftem be6 S5ramini^mu6* 2)er arge geinb 
ber !)Jlenfc^V^^ ^dtte feine^ erfinben fon^ 
nen, ba^ fo grunblic^ wie biefe^ bae (^eful^l 
fiir'^ 6(^one unb ^iitc im ^er^en jerftorte 
unb alien ^inn fiir ^ittlidjtcit au^* 

rottete, -.-,;-v .„--.. , • '^.:■.:-.-v■■-:.•;v..::\■ 

S93er nur-ein WJenig mit bem6i;ftem be^^inbui^^ 
nm0 befannt tt)irb, fann al^balb erfenuen, i)a^ c$ 
H^ ^Jla^mxt ber ^riefterfafte ber ^raminen ift. 6toIa, 

(Setbftfud^t uttb53o6!)eit ^aben e6 jufammen gen^oben, 
unb mit einem <S(^Ieier ber ^eiltgfeit uml^uttt. 

3ebe0 falfc^e Sfleligion^fi^ftem ift au^ einer felbft* 
fu^tigen 9fli(?^tuttg entfprungen; bie .g)au^tnc^tun3 
ber |)mbii'3'^eU9ion ift bie (Srl)ol^uitg unb ^Sere^tung 
be6 SBraminen. 2Benn ein 8ramine geboren W)irb, 
fo fageu bie Seute, bie 9f{eligion l^abe eine neue Sn- 
carnattott eriebt. Oft ^at e6 mi(^ im Snnerften em^ 
iport, a(6 t(^ auf ber ©tra^e ben niebrigen ©libra »or 
bem ^raminen nieberfatten, mit fetner 6ttrtt breimat 
bie @rbe beru'^ren iinb mit bemut!)ig bittenber Wliene 
ju i^m aufblidfen fal) , mat)renb er mit ber rec^ten 
$anb ben gu^ be6 .^eiHgen beriil^rte: 9)lit ftoljer, 
I)errfd^fit(^tiger ^D^liene fc^reitet biefer t^ergotterte ^rie^ 
fter ein^er, unb Tegt e^ burc^ fein gan§e^ 53enel^men 
barauf an, t}cm SSoIf einen @inbru^ von feiner ^o^ 
\)dt ^u geben. : 

3^ VDerbe bet meiner 35efd)reibung be6 ^afien* 
tt)efen6 no(^ fpecietter in ben ^l^aracter M S3rami^ 
nen eingel)en^ fu{)Ie aber tic 9lot{)n[>enbig!eit Ijier 
dnen furjen Umrt^ feiner dugeren (Srfc^einung bem 
X)Oxl)cx ^efagten beijufugen; ba6 ^emdlbe n)dre fonft 
unt)oKfommen. SBo ber grembling in cin .^inbuborf 
eintritt, fte!)t er al^balb, bap ber 35ramine barin einc 
|)au^troHe f^ielt; ta^ gan^e 9Solf6leben bewegt ft(<^ 
urn il)n l^er, cr ift ber ^err be6 Sanbe6, er ift gar 
l^duftg ber ^dc^ter be^ S)iDrf6, er gibt ©egen bber 
ght(^, offnet ben |)immel ober i)ertt)unfd^t jur ^olle. 
2)er QSerftanb, ba0 ^et\)iffen be6 SBo(f6 ift in feinen 
^dnben, CSr berrfc^t xiber 5(tte0. @o n>ar e^ frii^er 

3 * 

36 ; 2)a6 Sanb unb ter d^aracter 

attgemein in Snbien, ®ott fet) !Dan!, e0 ift {e^t nir^t 
mel^r itberaH fo, ttjir {jaben bie ^offnung, vxnr l^aben 
bie Slueftc^t , ba^ ee balb anber^ , bejfer n?erben 

" 3c^ befc^Ue^e biefen erften Zf)di meiner 3)arftel* 
lungmiteimgenipraftifc^ettSemerfungen. SBelcf)* 
eine intereffante ^rfd&emung ftellt ftd^ I)ier bem ®e* 
tniitl)c bar! (Sine Station ijoii I)unbert imb brei^ig 
SJiiKionen @intt)o]£)nern, bte auc^ n>te wir §u ber gro* 
^en gamilie auf bem (Srbenrunbe gel^oren. Uufer 
^ott ift i^x ^ott, unfer SSater ift ii)r SSater! 5lber 
fte fennen i^ti ni^t — S3egabt tnit gxtten (^eifte^* 
5Inlagen, im S3ejt^e eine^ ber fruc^tbarften unb 
fc^onften Sdnber auf (^otte^ wjeiter (§rbe , fonnten (te 
eine ber gludlic^ften 9lationen ber SBelt fei;n. 5lber 
jte jtnb e6 nic^t, jte finb unglucfHc^, benn e^ fel^lt 
bem ^inbu an einem moralifc^en ^runb imb S3oben* 
SSal^re Oteligion ift \)k alleinige OueKe ber ^itU 
lic^feit, ber SfationaIn>o]^{faf;rt unb be6 inbit)ibuetten 
^chcn^o^\M% SBo einem SBolfe bte reine (Srfenntni^ 
be^ ettjigen ©otte^ mangelt, trdgt ee ben tetm feiner 
moralifc&en 3erftorung in ftd^ felbft. 5(u$ l^ierin be^ 
njal^ren ficf) bie SSorte be^ gottlic^en (Srlofer^: 2)a0 
ift ta^ ettJige Seben, ba6 tt)al^re Men, ta^ fie bid^ 
unb ten tu gefanbt l^aft Sefum ^^riftum erfennen. 

(§^ gibt awar eine Slrt Don (5ii)ilifation, bie x>on 
wa^rer gfleligion unabl^angig ift unb nic^t^ mit il^r 
3u t^un ^at , eine fol^e beftgt ber (S^inefe unb ber 
§inbu; obfc^cn biefe (Ii»ilifation feinen ^Berftanb unb 
(gc^arffmn einigermagen enttxndfelt, beru^rt fte feinen 

(^etft uub fein ^crj and) nic^t tm genngficn* 2)er 
(i^inefe fabricirt fcibene 6toffe, wel(^e Me (Suropdi^ 
fc^eix betnaf)e ubertreffeit , unb ter ^inbu t>erfertigt 
xs\\i feiner bilbfamen |)anb feine 9Jlou6lmwaaren, bie 
ben englifc^eit gleid) fommen» Sn ^l)af(^emir berei^ 
teten bie 3Beber einen wottenen (Sf)at»( fo feirt, \i(x^ 
tie ©atttn be6 ^aifcra Sluruttg^eb i^n bur^ i^reii 
gingerring ^tetjen fonnte, aber biefer tl}ei(tt)eifeii SBil^ 
bung ungea^tet, fegen W ^()inefen taufenbe t?ott 
l^ulflofen (Sduglingen m,^, anbern ^inbern ftec6en ite 
W S(ugen au6, um ^io^^ ^Diitleiben ber Seute %Vi erregen, 
unb ieben 9)?orgen ge:^t ein barren burd^ W ^au^t^ 
\\(x\ii Reefing, ber bie getobteten Meinen fortjufc^affen 
beftimmt \% 6eine ^bilifation l^at ben ^inbu au(?^ 
nicf?t gelel^rt, \i(x^ waMx^t ^efc^lec^t al^ feine6 gteU 
^vn an^ufel^en: netn e^ wtrb ^erad^tet unb @c(at)en 
gleic^ be^anbelt. 3)er arttge ^inbu, fo ^oflic^ unb 
poltrt er auc^ erfd)eiut, fann fetnen 6ubra^^ruber 
im hunger i)erfd^mac^ten, im gluffe ertrinfen ober 
unter einem S3aume an ber ^^olera ]f)ulfl[o6 fterben, 
fe{)en, of)ne feine ^anb nac^ il^m au^surecfen. 

(^ott bewal^re nn6 t)or einet aftatifcj^en (iitjili* 
fation! . . , SD^eine c^riftlid^en Sefer, tvem »er^ 
banfen unr nnfern l^o^ern moralifc^en (5inn, unfer 
naturlic^e^ SSal}rl)eit0 * unb 3^e(^t^gefu§l 5 unfere 
©(^ulen unb anbere nu^lic^e Slnftalten ^ur Unter^ 
ftu^ung ber 5(nnen, ^ranfen unb Seibenben? 

SSem unfere freie ^Serfaffungen , bie burci^ gute 
©efe^e unb »dterlid)e Diegierungen befc^u^t ftnb, went 
unfere obrigfeitli^e ^[^erwaltungen , W yt'titm fein 

2)a0 Sanb unb t)er ^^aracter 

(I(gent!)um ftd^ern unb tvobuvc^ ber ^Stirger i>ox ^e^ 
Jt?alt unb Unrec!^t bef(f)it§t unrb ? (^rf ennen \t>ix ^ierin 
ni(^t bie IieMid^en grue^te, tt^elc^e au6 ber reinen be^ 
feligenben Oleligion, in ber n?ir erjogeu mib gebilbet 
n>urben, ^ert>orgevt)ac^fen ftnb unb \)it tt>ir ^eutfc^e 
im (^lucfe be0 grieben^ in gefetffc^aftlic^er greube 
genie^en bitrfen — ia, nur ju oft gebaufenlo^ ge* 
uiegen, cf)ne bag n>ir bem ®eber bafur banferf. 

6inb hie |)inbu6 unfere 53ruber, fo Derbienen fie 
unfer 93lit(eiben, f)at ber aK^utige (S^6:pfer fte ^u 
tent (S^enuffe ber nemlic^en (Segnungen beftimmt, be^ 
ten n)ir fo reic^lic^ t^eill^afttg tverben, fo laffet un^ 
be{)ersigen, bap (Sr in unfetn 5^agen in jenem grofjen 
^eibenfelbe einen njeiten 3Birfung6!rei6 fur unfere 
!0^enfc^enliebe geoffnet ^a\. 5lu(^ ber ^inbu ift ber 
S3efferung nic^t unfal^ig, unb^aufenbe ftnb burdb tic 
^rebigt ber ^riftli^en 5[Ba]^rf)ett grunblif^ gebeffert 
tinb §ur DueKe be6 warren gvieben6 gefu^rt n?orben. 

fRur bann ^ahm tt)ir ben 3^^^ unfere^ $I)afei;n0 
ricf)tig aufgefapt, wenn mir bem allgutigen (S(f)o:pfer 
na(^a^menb, unfere 5(ufgabe bavin erblicfen, Slnbern 
ba6 ^liicf niitjntt)ei(en, \\>c\<^e^ wix geniepen. !Die 
©elbftfuc^t , tt>elc^e bie 5(upenvvett t)on ftc^ abfc^liegt, 
nic^t fiir ha^ SKol^I anberer lebt, ift vjon ber ginfter- 
nig unb fu^rt gur ginpernip. 

^in grower ^^eil ber 9J?enfd)^eit, iiber 700 mu 

lionen |)eiben, feufsen na^ ©riofung, fte fel^nen ftd^ 

alle — obglei^ oft unbeunipt, nac^ ber greif^eit ber 

^inber (^otte^, nac^ S3efreiung »on ben @etat?enfep 

feln bea ^ogentljum^j i^r @tenb ruft un^ ju, bOfg 

ber ^intu^, 39 

\m il^nen {jetfen fotten , wenn fie an^ nic^t felber 
fc^reien. !Dcr Slttmad^ttcje felber ^at e^ au^gefpro* 
$eii , t>a^ iie fret werbeu follen , unb bap ta^ Sic^t 
gottlid^er 2Baf)r]^eit in alter SSelt leud^ten foU, iinb 
cjewip f)at ienet !Did;ter, eiu tapferer ©eneral, im 
S^orcjefitl)! biefe^ bcfferit 3"f^^ii^^^ ^^^ SSorte ge* 
fproc^en : 

©e^cn enbli* itinf;, »ergel)ett, 

©ogent^iim imb 5)}?of)attte& ; 

Oiduc^cn luerbeu it)re ftriimmer, 

SSenn bie ^reil)eit noc^ be|lel)t. 
^elft un^ greunbe in biefem gotte^tt)urbigen @e^ 
fc^afte! 3)er Skater ber 3)ienfd^()eit 'coiU, i)a^ berje^ 
nige ^^eil feiner gvopen gamilie auf @rt)ett, welc^er 
nod& of)ne (^ott unb |)offnuncj bal)in lebt, burc^ nn^, 
ben anbern ^I)ei(, nut biefen Segnungen ber 28al;r^ 
J^eit befannt tt)erben folT, ^^^^^^ , 



40 2)ie (hotter 

Die &otUt ttt Qin^m, 

2)ie banbereid^en (gcf^ajler^. — ®pra*e. — ©andcdt, Me 
3Bursel aller fibrigen. — (Eintl)eiium w"^ filter bet 
©c^ajter*^. — 9Serel)run9 berfelben* — 9Seba^» — 2au= 
fci)ung in SBejug auf beren 2el)re. — S)ie ^dligensSSflc&er 
fll^ S&?ittel ber weltUcben unb rcU«i6fen Untertic^t^ — 
3)I)Uofopl)ifc^e unb m^tapftpftfcfee ©cbriften I)eilig 9el)altcn. 

— Sett ber QSeba^. — Mnt ber ©c&afler^. — :^ie ®otU 
f)dt anerfannt. — 3)ie ^ajte, U)r Urfprung, Unterfdjieb 
wnb 93ermifd)un9 berfelben. — ©efeje. — 5Berel)run9 wnb 
£5pfer ber ^rtefter. — 9Sielroetberei. — Unftttlicbfett ber 

- 33raminen» — ©otter unb ©ottinnen ber ^inbu^. — 
S)rei S^anptQOttljciten* — 33ra^ma. — SSifitnu. — ©c^itua. 

— ^tifdfm Sncarnatton. — (B<biwa6 2Beib. — 3I)re SIRa- 
men : ©urga , ^arbatti unb Mali — Xlmm^* — 2lIIge- 
tneine SBetrac^tungen. 

Unb fal^et tjire ©rauel unb t'^re ©o^en , •S)d[j unb ©teirt, ©ilBcr unb*®o[b 
tie bei i^ntn tcaten. 5. 3Kof. 29, 17 

3tt bem »orf)er9ef)enben Slbfc^nitt Qob iC^ eine 
!Darftel(ung 'oon bem Sanbe ber ^inbu^ unb bem 
^^aracter iene6 merfttjtoigen 9So(f6; tit btefem tt)tll 
t(^ e0 sjerfuc^en, tnetnen geneigten Sefern einen ge* 
brdngten UeberbHc! ijon ben reltgiofen ©c^riften ber 
|)tnbue unb i^rer (^ctterlel)re gu ^chm. 

SSenn ber SJ^ifftonar ftd^ mtt bem 53ramitten fiber 
feme S^eligion untex^alt, fo ttjei^t biefer tmmer auf 
fetne ©c^ajier^ l^in unb citirt 6tetteit au^ benfelben* 

ter |)inbu6. . 41 

Dft ba^tc id) , mnn wnfere (^riftli(^ett ^^U\opl)en 
unt) Zl)eo\o^en i\)xe SBibel mit ber ^orf)ac^tung be=^ 
I>anbelten unb bie SSorte Se^otja^ fur bie le^te @nt* 
fd^eibung anne^men tt^urben, iiber bie ber fursft^tige 
SD^enfc^ ni^t l^inaug gel^eu barf, tt)ie ber SBramine 
tnit ben ^ermeintlic^en Dffenbarungen feiner ©otter 
tl^ut, fo ttjurbe eg mit unferem j)raftifc^en ^^riften^ 
t^um beffer peften. 

Wlan mu§ aber ja nid^t benfen, ta^ jeber Sra^^ 
mine mit feinen (Sc^after^ ebenfo t>ertraut fe^, a\^ 
feer ^rebiger mit feiner S3ibe(; ba6 @egentl)eil ift 
beina^e immer ber gatT* 8ei weitem tic meiften ^a* 
ben nur Heinle 5lug§uge burcb :^dufige6 SKieber^olen 
au0tt)enbig gelernt unb eine gewiffe Slnja'^t i)on SSer^ 
fen unb @^ruc^VDi>rt€rn ift 5llleg, ttja§ fte bat)on 
iijiffen, — !Die 9)?affe biefer ©c^riften ifi unge^^euer 
gro^ unb ein gauged SJ^enfc^enleben ware erforberiic^, 
um nur einen ^l^eil berfelben mit |[ufmerffam!eit 5U 
lefen, 3^ fragte einft meinen ^unbit ober ©engalifd^en 
6)3ra(^(et)rer, n)ie t)iele iBud^er ober S3anbe i^rc 
@c6afterg au6mad|en. „2Ber fann ba^ berec^nen/' 
%ah er gur 5(nttt)ort, „!ein 5Dlenfc^ ift im (Stanbe, 
fte su sdl^Ien, ber gro^e ^allaft be6 Olaja^ t>on Surb- 
tt?an tt>urbe fie Ui xocikm nicfit fafen, @ie finb ein 
unergrunbtic^eg 9Jieer, o^ne ©rdn^en unb ol^ne 

2)er beru^mte gorf^er ber .^inbu^3Ki^t!)oIogi€, (Sir 
SEilliam 3one^, ftimmte gan§ mit biefer ^nfi^t uberein, 
aU er in grower SSertt^unberung au6rief: „9la<^ tocU 
d)cx 6eite biefer Siteratur l^in tt?ir unfere Slufmerf* 

42 Die ©otter 

famfeit wcnben mov^en, uberatt brangt fi(^. iin6 bet 
^ebmife an6 UuenbUc^e auf. ^cmer^ S^abe ^al)U 
24 taitfenb 33erfe, aber bie ?iJlo!)ab!)orot ber ^tnbu^ 
400,000, unb bie ^uranuaS, tt)el^e mir eiuett fleinen 
^^eil i^rer retigiofeit (5cf)nften au6mac!^en, bel)neu 
flrf) auf jtvei 5D^ittioneu 3]er|e au6.^ 

SBa0 bie (^^wierigfeit fur baS (Stubium ber |)inbu:? 
9}i^tl^oU>gie bebeutenb vcnnef)xt, ift, bag biefe 53udjer^ 
9}?affen in einer (Sprad^e »erfvt{jt fmb, bie, tt>ie bie 
lateinifdie, nic^t meljr gefpro^en wirb, beren Qxkv^ 
nung eine 9iei!)e »on 3til)ren erforbert, 6ie ijl bent 
33<inianen*^um aijniid) , ber »on i^arfen 5(eflen {)er^ 
unter neuc S©ur§etn in bk ^rbe fenbet; junge frdf^^ 
tige 55aume wac^fen in tveiten ^reifen um'^er auf, 
tral^renb ber 5iJlutterftamm abftirbt unb yerfault. Set 
tt>eitem bie ineiften leknben @:pra(^en t)on Snbien 
fmb Jloc^ter be6 6an6crit, aber bie <Stamin* 
mutter l)at aufgelbort, fic^ unter ten ^ebenbigen §u 
bett)egen. ^in iBramtne, ber biefe frdftige unb uber* 
au6 reic^!)a(tige 6:praC^e aue bent ©runbe t)erfte!)t 
unb fertig f^ri^t, ift eine feltene (^rfd^einung. 3u 
!8enare6 unb an anbern Drten, )x>o tjon alten 3eiten 
^er (Seminarien fur bie (5r§ief)ung junger Srantinen 
ft^ beftnben, tt>erben i}ie ge(et)rteften SJldnner gefun^ 
t)en, ^k unb \}a geben reid^e ©utebeft&er unb Sflajap 
benfelben eine Slnj^elfung. 

3)ie $)inbug t^^eilen hie gro§e 5Q?affe il^rer gelel^r* 
ten 33}erfe in ac^t^elin ^auptt^eife ein unb bebaupten, 
fie cnt^alten ac^tjefjn verfd^ieb^ne 5lrten ^on SKiffen^ 
fe^aften. 3u bie erfte ^(affegeWren tie »ier Seba^. 

ber |)iubn^. 43 

6te ftnb nid&t niit bie alteften, fonbern auc^ tie heU 
Hgften (Sc^nften in ber Sanscrit * ?iteratur. 3)er 
S3ramme gfaubt, fie fei^en fo alt, d6 bie dtvigfeit 
unb nic^t Dur^ 3Sermitthing eiue^ (Sterblicben, fonbevn 
birect au^ 33rama0 !0lunbe ber ?i)Jenf^l)eit mitge^ 
t^eilt. glu^ imb 53ann broljen beni 53ramineTi, 
ber ^enk von niebriger ^afte barin «nterrtd)tet; 
feinem (5Je(e!)rten ift e6 bi^ auf biefen ^ag gelungen, 
biefe 33uc^er fciufli^ an firf) ju brtngen. (16 ift jle- 
bod^ |)offmmg »orl)anben, ba§ biefelben in fur^em tm 
^rucf erjcfjeincn werben. 

2)ie 3^eba6 bcftc{)en au6 einer 3wf<Ji^"i^ttp^Knng 
von (^eSeten ober ^Jlnntrue, biefen ift fVHiter eine 
grojje 6ammlnng oon !2ebren unb 33orfd)viften bei# 
gefngt tvorben, tvel(^e ^ rami) an a 6 l^ei^en, jte 
ent{)alten eine enblofe ^(n^al)! oon (Seremonien, wcldje 
ber ^riefter, ber 5(6cetifer unb ber ^ermite, hn bein 
^o^enbienft gu verric^ten Ijaben. 

Qinex ber 'cilteften befannten Q^eU^xten be6 ^int)u^ 
5l(tert^um0 fammelte bie 53raml^ana6 ober religiofen 
©tatute au6 ben ^^\}a^ in befonbere tractate, weld^e 
ben ^itel Upanifcf)ab6 fit^ren; bie ganje (Sammlung 
ift eine 5(rt (§om^cnbium von ^inbu^S^ljeologie, unter 
bem ^itel^ebanta befannt. 

^amit meine Sefer \x^ eine 5SorfteKnng von ben 
9)luntru0 ober ©ebeten ber l)eiligen ^et)a^ ma^en 
fonnen, f)abe tcb I)ier einige a«fge^ei(^net» - 

„£) Ugni, ©ott be0 geuer^, laffe \>i(^ nieber auf 
biefen 6tu]^I von ^ufu*@ra^5 id^ labe \)X^ ein, t)k 
jerlaffene 33ntter gn foften^ bu f)aft beine SSo^nwng 

^ \,'''i 

# 2)ie ©otter 

in bem ©emiitl)e unb an alien Drten, ma(J)e mein 
S^erlangen .©ott befannt , t)a6 mein Dpfer angene^m 
fev) unb \^a^ id) d^xc eriangen moge unter 9)^enf(^en. 

SSer feem Ugni beim D^fer feine®aben barbringt, 
tt)d^renb bie mit ffiau^ t)ermifd^te glamme t)elle mif- 
bbert unb ben $lltar umgibt, l)at feine geinbe.'' 

(5in anbere^ ®ebet : „0 6urt)o — 6onnengott, 
gleicf)tt}ie ber Sanbmann fein gelb ba6 ganje 3ci^t 
I)inbur^ baut, um gruc^t ^u erljhlten, fo he^abe bu 
mid), ben Dpferer, mit bem (Safte be6 Dpfer^, iDcil^' 
renb be6 grul^Iinge unb ber iibrigen 3al)rgs^tten, 

D 3nbra! @ieb un6 9lei(^t!)um o^)ne 9Jiaa§en, 
ber au6 ©o(b , Deafen, 9Ja^rung unb (angem Men 
bcfte^e. S[Bir fu^en me!)r 9lei(^tf)um t)on 3nbra, bu 
magft i^n tjon fOlenfc^en erl)a(ten, ober t)on ben 53e^ 
tt)ci)nern be^ .^immet^, ober »on ben niebern Olegio* 
nen, voo bu e^ immer auftreiben magft, mac^e un^ 
nur rei^." — 3n tt>ie fern ^cMc biefer 5(rt ba6 
<55emutl) be^ ^inbu mit l^eiUgen ©ebanfen erfuKen 
x)ber t>on ber SBelt p ©ott er^eben fonnen, uberlaffe 
ic^ bem Urt{)dt meiner Sefer. 

^ie S3eba§ entl^alten sitjar reinere 3been t)on Die- 
ligton al6 bie f^citeren @(i)riften ber |)inbu6, aber 
i)on ben obigen Slu^^ugen iji lei^t ju erfel^en, bag 
ber ©o^enbienft barin empfoI)Ien tt)irb , benn tk 
(Sonne, baa geuer, 3nbra unb anbere erbi^tete 
ober erf(^affene SKefen tt)erben a(6 ©egenftanbe gott* 
li(f)er 5Sere{)rung betrac^tet. 

|)ier no(!& ein fleiner Slu^aug »on ben S r a m l; a n a 6 

unb ^mar cine 3Sorf<^rift tt)ie ber ^inbu beten mup, 
SSor Slirem foil er fi^ ben ^Jlamen, bie ©eftalt 
unb @igenfc!^a|ten be^ ju t?ere^renben ®otte§ »or^ 
ftellen, ^ ^ ^•'':^--- ;■■■:■ -^--.v; .;..--:. .. 

^ine einfame @te(le am Ufer be6 ghtffee ober 
t?or einem ^o^entcmpel fott er ftc^ au6n?a!)(eu ein 
gelb, tvo £ul)e miten, ober bei einem SKafferfatt tft 
e6 ebenfaHa Gunftig. 2)er recite gu^ fott mit ber 
linfen unb ber Iiu!e gu^ mit ber rec^ten «^anb ^e^aU 
ten tverben. ^un benfe er ftc^ \)u @ottl)eit aU auf 
einem Qldn^enben ^^rone fi|enb, ftetle ftd) alle ©e- 
fii^le ber Siebe, greube unb 3^^^^^d^f^^t x>ov, bie beim 
^nUid berfelben feine 6ee(e erfutten tt)urben. gerner 
niu§ er ftc^ alfe (5{emente toorfteHen; au6 benen fein 
Seib 5ufammengefel3t ift, aU geuer, @rbe, Suft, 9Baf* 
fer, $(et^er, unb nun foil er au^rufen: 2Bie ic^ cjibt 
e6 fein bofeg SKefen auf ^rben, unb wne bu gibt e^ 
feinen 53efreier3 o gottli^e^ SBefen, ba bem alfo tft, 
erwarte \^ bie SSollbringung beine^ 3BiEen6. 511^*^ 
bann foil er ein blutige^ D:|3fer brittgen unb fagen, 
„alle meine SKerfe, bofe unb gute, bringe i^ im geuer 
beiner ©unft bir al^ ein ^ranbo^fer bar." ^ - 

2)ie jweite (5(affe t)on-l^eiUgen (54riften Ijanbelt 
t)on ^eilfunbe, ^ufif, trieggfunft, ^aufunft unb 64 
^erfc^iebenen me^anifc^en Mnften. (£ie Iel)ren alfo 
nid^t nur 9^eltgtofe^, nein alle 5lrt t?on iffiiffenf^aft. 
!Der SSerfaffer ber le^teren 33ud^er ivar 2Bifdbmu 
^arma, ber beru^mte tunftler ber (hotter. Db biefer 
5Dhc^anifu$ ettt>a^ »on 2)am:pfmafcbinen gelel)rt l)at, 
ift fel)r ju besnjetfeln, benn aud^ t)k gelel^rten 33raminen 

46 #!t)k mticr 

■■."*■-■■"- ' 

' - .'■'■' ■." ' ..'■ ■ ■> " ' 

warcn 6ema!)e nufjer ftc^ i?or Srfiaimen nub SSuuber, 
nl^ ba6 ert^e englifcfje 2)am^fboot o!)ne Sint) nut) 
(Eegel ben (^ange^ l^inauffu^r, aber bafur \)ai ex ba^ 
grduUc^e (S^o^enbilb be^ SuQQ^rnat^^ fabrictrt 
i;; 58et tveitem bie jal^lreic^fie (Slaffe i)ou (5d)ajler0 
ttmfafit bie ipo^tifr^en SKerfe ber^urmma^, iiber bie 
(g^opfiing ber SKelt, bie Wcidbt unb (gigenf^afteri 
ber (Spotter, SSifcfjnu^ Sncarnationeit imb anbere. ^n 
ben intevejfauteften i^on biefen get)oren bie SiJla^a* 
b^arat nnb ^()a9at)at ^ita, ivelc^e kgtere eine Se^ 
ben0befd)reibung ^rifc^na*^ ent{)d(t. T^ie 9flamai}un/ 
ein epifc^e^ (^eM)t, befd)reibt bie ©ef^i^te ^am^, 
einer Sncarnaticn ^on SBifc^nu, unb gibt in ben ge* 
fc^icfctUi^en ^r5dl)hmgen merftvurbige 5(uffd^(itffe 
uber bie alte ^ef^ic^te 'con |)inboft^an. 3n ber 
3Sorrebe gu ber D^ama^un ■l)ei^t e^ : „3[Ber biefe^ 
(^ebic^t beftdnbig !)ort nnb ftngt, eriangt bie if)6(^fte 
^eligfeit, nnb w^irb am (^nbe ben (SJottern gleicfi," 

^ann gibt e6 eine unuberfebbare Sfnjal^l tjon 
Iieilig geljaltenen 6cbriften, (§, 33. bie '^hjai 6c^a* 
fkre, bie ©mritie, \)k ^J^imang^a,) »on )3f;i(ofo:p-^if(^er 
unb meta^^vftf^er ^enben^. §D^enu ift ber SSerfaffer 
bee berul)mteften, unb tt)irb be^I)alb and) -ber (S^efe^^ 
geber ber |)inbu6 genannt. (Sector ijon biefen t)ei^en 
bie !Dura^un0, jiebe^ ba\)on {)at feinen eigenen 3Ser^ 
faffer unb feine eigene ^enbenj, fte ftnb aber fo be* 
rit^mt unter ten gelel)rten ^raminen, al^ \)k 6c^u* 
kn t)on^(ato, 3^tto, 5(riftotef e6 , unb anbere unter 
ben (Bxud^cn M 5{Itert(;um6 ttjaren. ^in $l)i(o^ 
fop{)e ftreitet mit bem aubern iiber bie S^^atur unb 

ber $iiibu6, 47 

\)k (Sigenfc^afteu ber ©ottl^eit, fiber ®eift unb ^>}?aterie, 
fa)n imb nic^t fev;n. ^i^ aiif biefcn Za^ fe^It e6 
nic^t an gele^rtea ^opfen unter ben SBraminen, tvelc^e 
bie roftigen SSaffeu ber ^(ten wieber au^ ber fiin\U 
fammer ^ert>ort)olen nnb ben ^am))f ernenenu 51ber 
e^ Ki^t ftcf) ^ofen, t}a^ \)a^ l}eKere ^ic^t gottlic^ ge* 
offenbarter S©a^rl)eit biefe Srrlicbter ter l^eibnifc^en 
:p^ilofo:pI)tfd)en (S^fteme i)on ben fd^Iammic^ten llferu 
be^ ^ange0 hal\) t)erf^euc?^en werbe, 

Ueber ta^ %{kx ber ^ct)a^ ift man nic^t im ^(a* 
tettv (Sinige entt)uftafttf(^e 33en)unberer fe^en biefe 
merfwurbigen iSc^riften weit fiber i)\e Sunbflutl) ^tu* 
anf. 2)er grunbU^fte gorfcber, Sir 293. 3one^, glaubt 
nac^ inneren unb dugeren ^runben fc^Ue^en §u fonuen, 
t)a^ fie bie dlteften aKer 6ah0fritfcf)riften fmb. ^t 
i)ermutl^et, einige berfelben fe^en gegen breitaufenb 
Sal^re alt unb ftel)en alfo im ^lUxt^um ben S3fi^ern 
SJ^ofi^ am nd^ften, 

Sf^ac^ biefem pc!^ttgen ITeberblicf uber ba^ un* 
burd^bringli^e (^^ao^ i)on ©(^after^ treten tt)ir nun 

, ber Sac^e ttwa^ nd^er, unb fteUen bie grage jur 
SSeantTOortung auf, tt?a^ benn ber IBramine im @runb 

, fur eine Slnfic^bron bem gottlic^en SKefen ^at Unb 
})icx ift ba^ ©pric^wort tt)a)^r: SBiele ^o:pfe, t)iele^ute. 
S[JieIe Sc^after^, »iele M)xm. ^ ^ ^ ' - 

2Die ein bengalifcber uorbwcftlid&er Drfan nac^ eu 
nem glut)enb l^ei^en ^age, 6taub, |)oIa, !Baub unb 
Srbe, $(Ue$ in feinem ttjilben Strom mit fi^ fort^ 
vei^t, fo ftnben tt)ir in bem wilben ©cmifc^e ber 

48 2)te ©otter 

6c^after^ alTe ebleren @otte6 ^ ©ebanfen unb rei< 
nere ^Sorfteltungen t>on feinem majeftdtif^en 3Kefen 
mit bem abfurbefien Unfinn toerwoben. 2)a tft au(^ 
nic^t ein Se{)rfa§ 511 ftnben, ber nicfct »on einein an^ 
1)ern (g^ftem befcim^ft inib weggddugnet tvurbe, bie 
grunblic^fte SBiberleguncj be6 .^inbut6mu6 fiubet beg* 
J^alb ber SJ^ifftoncir in beit fo t)duftgen SBiberfpru^eti 
beffelben, unb iibernjeift er ben SBrarainett au6 beffeii 
eigenen 6(^nften, fo »erf)itKt berfelbe fein (^efic^t in 
fein £(eib unb gel)t bef(^dmt tr>eg. v 

' fDer |)inbu er!ennt iebocf) ein l)o^fte6 2Befen 
a(0 ©runbibee feiner D^eligion. Ek Brumh 
ditya nasthi — ein ©ott tft unb auger 3^m feiner 
— btefer 6a^ ift at6 (5:pric^tt)ort im SJlunbe jebe^ 
S3raminen. ^iefc6 \)b(S){te unb ewige SBefen bejeid^- 
nen feine 6(^riften mit bem 9?amen ^ral^m, 
tt>e((^e0 man forgfdittg ^u unterfc^eiben l^at x>on 
Crania einer Slu^geburt i5om erften, nac^^er aB 
erfte ^erfon in ber ^inbutria^ bargefteKt» 2)iefen 
53ra!)m bef(^rieben tie €c^after6 al^ ol^ne 5(nfang, 
o^ne @nbe, attmdc^tig, un\)erdnberlic^, allwiffenb, 
fur§ aI6 im 53eft^e aller gottU(^en digenfc^aften, 
tt)ie bie er^abenften ^tellen ber l)eiligen 6c^rift 3e* 
I^omI) bejeic^nen. - ^ 

• Stber iegt fommt ein unertt^arteter @:prung in ber 
(^otter(e!)re be^ |>inbu: 2)iefe6 S^^efen gan^ ©eift, 
ol^ne atte ©eftalt, ift olE)ne ^igeuf^aftenj ha^ 
Mit, fobalb n)ir 5(ttribute annel)men, X)eri)ie(ffi(- 
tigt e6 ft(^. 

2)arum tviO ber ^ramine auc^ ben (^ott ber 

ter |)inbu^. 49 

55ibel nic^t gettcn laffen, mil ee i^m unmoglie^, j« 
wntjernfinftig fd^eint, tia^ ein blofer @eift, tvirfm 
!5nne, ol)ne mit 3Jlaterie in ^Serbinbung 511 treten, 
ober gar eiu^ ju ttjerben. 

- ©0 fommt e6, ba^ iBrabm a(6 o^e 9}erftanb, 
o!)nc SS^itten, ol^ne 8ett?u§tfe^n feiner (5riften§ bargee 
ftettt itnb fingirt tt)irb, 3ft e^ ein SBunber, ba§ ntand^e 
^inbue au^rnfen : Der |>6(^fte ift ni(^t, @in ©eift 
o^ne ^raft unb SBirfung ift aKerbing^ nid)t6. Unb 
boc^ bel^aupten fte anberfeit^ , t^a^ er bie {joc^fte ©e^* 
ligfeit genie^e, d^ ift bie ©eligfeit eine^ tiefe^ mu 
gejtorten (5(^(af6; > 

2)enno(^ mu§ 55ral)m einmal tjon feinem tanfenb- 
idt)rigen (5cf)(afe aufgettjac^t fei^n, ober in anbern 
Shorten, bag ^^egati^e mn^ ficb in ein ^ofititje^ »er* 
wmibelt ^aben. 9Bie fonnte fonft bie 3Kelt in6 2)a^ 
fe^n gerufen tx^orben fe^n? Unb tk^ ift gerabe bcr 
tt)ic^tige ^unft, uber ben t)k ipljilofop^ifdjen ©t^fteme 
wnter i^xcn refpectitjen §(nfu^rern in einen ett>igen 
xStreit geratt)en finb. 

SSra^m/ fagen bie 3Seba6, erwac^te, fu^Ite einen 
SKitten iinb fagte: „Sap mic^ 33iele werben." — 
dx na^m al^balb eine materieKe gorm an, unb t>«>n 
nun an fpinnt er ftc^ fein SSeltgen^ebe au^ beni dm^^ 
trum feineg 3^^^/ iti unaufljorlic^en gaben in t)a^ 
unenblic^e SSacuum ^inaug» 

|)ier offnet ft^ alfo Uc ^C^aaU beg.^inbui6mu65 bie 
^rfc^affung ber 3Se(t ift nac^ feiner M)re nid)t0 anber^, 
al$ eine (Srfc^einung 8raF)m^ in ber 6ic^tbarfeit, e^ 
ift bie ^oKfommenfte Se^re M ^autl^el^mu^. 

iP !t)ie ® otter 

SIKe 6aamen!6rner einer \vex\)m folfenben SKelt 
^ereinigten ftc^ , fo eqa^lt bie 6d)o))fung^Ie^re ber 
(S^aftev^, in ber ©eftalt eiuee (Sie^j e^ njar ba^ 
2Bclt^^i unb t>er .^o^fte nal)m nun in ber gorm 
»on ^rama ^eftg i)Ott bemfelbeu, ^in ^^opfunge* 
3al)v, ba^ l)ei^t 1000 Sug^ ober nac^ uuferer JRec^^ 
nung Dier taufenb brei f)unbert 5i}iiC(ionen gemeine 
3al)re floffen bal^in, bi^ ba^ (§i auegebriitet toaw 
2Bdf)renb biefer ^eriobe [(^wamm e^ uue eine 2Baf^ 
ferblafe auf ber ^iefe ober bem (i^ao^j fein ©(anj 
ttjar l)eUer ale ber ^on taufenb ©onnen. (5nblid^ 
gerbrac^ ta^ di unb 33rama fprang l;erau0; feine 
^eftalt \X)ax fur(i)terUc^, er l^atte taufenb ^opfe, tau^ 
fen 5lugen, taufenb 5lnnej eine ftattU(i)e ^lueruftung 
um ta^ 2Berf ber 6c^o:pfung p unternel^men. @in 
i^m Sl^nHc^er ^efdl^rte f^luipfte niit i^m ^erau^, 
augenfc^einlid^ beutet biefer bie rol)en ^toffe an, 
au^ benen bie groge SBeltmafcbine bereitet tr^erben 
foKte. 2)ie .^aare biefe^ Ungel)euer^ tvaren bie 
S3dume unb ^flanjen ber 293dlber, fein |)au^t bie 
SBolfen, fein 8art ber SBIi^, fein5(tl^em ber Suftfrei^, 
feine ©timme ber 2)onner, feine 5(ugen bie Sonne 
unb ber ?IJ^onD, feine 91dgel bie gelfen, feine Q)eheint 
bie Urgebirge ber ^rbe» 

Dft nennen bie S^after^ \)a^ due SBefen^uruf^, 
ba^ anbere ^rafriti, ndmli(^ bie mdnnlict)en unb bie 
weiblid^en Urfrdfte ber 9^atur» ^ • - . ■ 

©obalb biefe^ (Ei fabricirt war, trat 53ral)m al0 
Sc^opfer t>om @c^au))Ia^e ab unb befa^te fid) nic^t 
inel)r mit ber fici^tbaren SSelt. Qx trdumt unb fc^Idft 

nan in ftmerfiigen 9ittl£)e fort, 6i^ bte §(uflofung be6 
ge^enwdrtigen SKeltf^ftem^ il^n ju erneuerter ^^dtig* 

- ^ein 5^em^el in Snbien ift tiefem unbefannten 
tIJott gen)eil)t; jvie jener alte ilem^el in 5{t^cn, bet 
tern burc^reifenben Stpoftel einen tvifffommenen 5tn^ 
fnupfnngepunft fur bie SSerfunbiguncj ber reineit 
^otU^U^xe barbot. ^o^ t>k Urfac^e ift flar^ ber 
^inbu erwartet nicfct^, ^o^t ni(^i^, furc^tet nic^t^ 
»on einem gottUc^en 9Befen, ta^ f^I^ft «tib feine 
3J^a^t benen mitgetl^eilt f)atf n^el^e al^ ©otter t)ie 
SSelt regieren. ;■.: ■:r:,. ■^^-.^,:::lK■■v ;:;■-■ :v ■.,,.: ■■■■.;■;. :;:,.^v;:-;-: 

SSie ba^ gro^e (Si ftc!^ offnete, gab e0 brct 
SKelten, bie X)bere , welc^e »on ben (^ottern bewo^nt 
wirb, bie ^ittlere ^um SKo^nft^ ber !Olenfc^en beftimmt 
wnb bie Untere al^ SKo^nung fur 2)dmonen unb alle 5lr^ 
ten abf(^eulic^er SSefen beftimmt. 2)ie drbe ift naci) ber 
8efc^reibung ber ©d^after^ eine runbe gldd^e, bee 
SKafferlilie d^nlic^ unb |at 2000 SJ^ilTiotten (5tunbe« 
im Umfrei^. 

^er bewol^nbare ^eil berfelben befiel^t au0 fteberi 
3ir!e(runben Snfeln, beren iebe »on einem eigenen 
Dcean umgeben ift. ^ie innerfte Snfel \jom erfteit 
Dcean- tion 6al5tt)affer umfloffen, l^eijt Samba <£)n)ip, 
bie jtveite umfliegt ein ^ccx, \)a^ au0 bem 6aft be^ 
3ncferroI)r^ beftel)t, ba6 britte ^Oteer ent^dlt geiftigc 
©etrdnfe, etwa 9^um, ta^ »ierte SReer ift au0 ge^ 
fc^molsener 33utter, t)a^ funfte beftel^t au6 faurec 
3Kil(^, ba^ fe(^^te au0 fufer Wtil^ f ber fiebentc 
Dcean enblic^ entf^dlt )u^e6 SSajfer, Ueber iim leften 


1^ !Die ©ottttt 

Dcean ]()inau6 tft ein Sanb au6 reinem ^olb, aber fiir bie 
iOlenf^en nnexxd^hax, unb uber biefe^ I)inau0 be{)nt jtc^ 
ba6 9lei^ ber ginfterni^ imb ^olTe. — Die ^rbfc^eibf 
rul^t auf einer ungefjeuren 6c^Iange, mit iJielen ^opfcn 
wnbbiefeauf einerSc^Ubfrate; fobalb ble 6^(ange einen 
i^rer ^o^fe fc^uttelt, gefd^iel^t em ©rbbefren» 

3)er bigotte 55ramme glaubt fteif unb fejl, toa^ 
auc^ nic^t bejweifelt ttjerben fann, bag bie euro:pat* 
fc^en SGeltumfegler noc^ nie uber bie erfte, nemli^ 
bie ©a(§fee Ijinau^gefommen pnb unb ti!)enn bie (Ing* 
lanber e^ in i^xcx 6(^ipfunft and) no^ fo ttjeit 
treiben, tt)erben fie eben am 3fianbe inner{)alb be^ 
eri^en 3^^^^^^ ^erumfege^n muffen. 

IDie innere 3nfel ^at me!)rere 100,000 6tunben 
im 2)ur(^mejfer unb ber fie umgebenbe ^aljocean ijl 
eben fo breit. 3^ bem SD'^tttelpunft biefer unge^eureu 
gla(^e erl^ebt ftc^ ber ^oc^fte aUey 33erge 6umertt 
gu einer ^ol^e i)on mel^r al^ Ijunbert taufenb iJJ^cilen. 
'(Sr l^at brei golbene (^i:pfel, biefe finb bie Siebling^* 
Steftben^en t)on ^raml^a, S[Bifrf)nu unb 6c^itt)a. ^k 
pc^ften SSolfen trreic&en ungefd^r cin !Dritt{)eil ber 
^o^e be6 ^erge^. Unten an feinem guge ftnb t)iet 
fleinere |)uge( gleicf)fam vi^ie S^ilbtt)ac^en aufge^ 
pflanstj auf jebem berfelbenn)d(^ft ein 3)^angobaum 
uber taufenb 6tunben ^o(^. 
.. (5ie tragen eine grud^t fo foftli^ al0 9?ectar; 
iebe biefer gruc^te l^at mel^rere l^unbert gug im !I)ur(^* 
meffer. S35enn bk gruc^t fdEt , flie^ x>on ihv ein 
eaft, beffen gettjur^ige !Dufte bie i^uft crfiiaen unb 
tikf welc^e batjon effen, t)erbreiten einen lieblic^en 

ber .^inbu^, 53 

©erud^ me^rere SDleilen ttjeit urn jtcS' l^er. Dort 
tt)ild)ft auc^ ber 9lofena^fe(baitm, feme gru^t ift fa 
grog, aU ein (Sle^^^ant unb fo reit^ an @aft, bag 
berfelbe jur 3^it ber 9fieife in einem ©trome taljer^ 
fliegt , in feinem !2aufe \)emanbelt er ben SBoben iinb 
ba6 ^eftein, Mod^e^ er htm^xt, in t)a6 reinfte ^o\K 
^kx ift eine ^rbbef^reibung, bie unfere furafic^tigen 
^egriffe mit uberjieigt. ^^ > - r 

3c^ H^^ oben erttjal^nt, bag ber ©c^o^fung^** 
(^efc^i^ten in ber 9J?^t!)oIogte ber ^inbu6 ^ i)iele 
fmb. (Sine berfelben, welc^e jtd^ burc!^ il^re $o)3ula* 
vMt au^aeic^net, t>erbient noc^ angefu^rt gu tt?erben. 
3)er ^ott Stf^nu fc^Uef in ber 3:iefe be0 ^Jleeree. 
8on feinem ^dU ttjuc^e eine SBafferlilie auf unb 
f-c^wamm auf ber Dberpc^e unb t)on biefer entf))rang 
^rama. 3^m itbergaben \)k ©otter ba^ ©efd^dft 
ber @(^o^3fung. Um feinen ^md ju erreid^en, ful^rte 
cr [ange ein a^cetifc^e^ Sebfn, aber e^ ge(ang nic^t. 
^ie 993utl^ unb S3etriibnig trieb i^m bie X\)tanen an^ 
ben 5lngen. Slu6 biefen erftanben riefen!)afte SSefen 
i)on fcf)rec!nd}en ©eftalten. ©ner feiner tiefftfn 
6euf5er brad^te ben (^ott 9flobru (Sid^t unb SQSdrme) 
))cxx>ox, 5(uf feine 53itte unternaT^m biefer bie ^axU 
5(rbeit, nun aber geriet^ la^ 2Ber! gdnjlic^ in^ 6to^ 
den, 53rama mugte tt)ieber ^anb anlegen unb nacft 
langem SfJa^benfen unb 8ruten famen »erfc^iebene 
5Befen au^ feinen gingern, O^ren unb anbern @(ie€ 
bern Jjertjor. 3e^t ging e^ etwae leic^ter, geuer 
?rbe , Sinb , 533affer , (Sine nad^ bem 5(nbern fam 
jum 33orfct)ein. ?)arau^ entftanben eine SiJ^enge potter; 

54 2)ie ©otter 

Sefet jcrtl^etlte fx^ Sranta in gwet mcnfc^Iicfte 
SSefen itnb fd^uf 5l}lenf(^cn; balb ftemanbelte er jtd^ 
in dnen D(3^fen, bann in cin $ferb nnfc erscugte bie 
tJerf^iebencn (§(affen »on ^ierfu^igen ^^iercn, QSogeln 
«. f. tt), (So cntftanb na^ unb nac^ bie ttnjal)lt9c 
Wten^e 'om bclebten SBefen, tt>e((^e tik (§rbe unb bie 
Mrigen SBelt^n U'oolUvn, 

2)ie 3bee be6 ^ant^ei^mu^ sielyt jl^ bur^ bae 
•gan^e ©ewebe biefer l^Oi^^ anfto^tgen (5c^o!pfung6* 
©efc^icHe i^inburc^. 2)a6 6d^affen ift eigentlic^ cine 
^rfc^einung S3rama^ in neuen C^eftalten unb %ox^ 
men, ^xama njivb ein (§(epl)ant, ein 33erg, eingluj, 
:i»f[anjt bie ^erfd^iebenen §lrten fort nnt) offenbart fein 
Tfge6 SQSefen ini SKerben be6 gan§en lXnii)erfum0» 

<So befc^reiben if)n bie 3Seba0 : ;,33rama ift m^i 
)?on ber <S^opfung getrennt: dx iji ba6 Si(^t bed 
fl^lonbe^, ber ©onne unb be6 g^uerd^ bie 2Bfba ift 
b^r ^ti)€xa feiner ^^afej bie Urelemente jinb feine 
Sfugen, bie erfc^utternbe S3ett>egung ber SKehbegeben«* 
l^eiten ift fein ^a^en , fein S(S^(af ift bie 3^yf^^nmg 
t€X SBelt. 3n t)erfci^iebenen gormen belebt er bad 
^ef(^6^)f; in ber ©ejlalt bed geuerd i>erbaut er il^re 
fial^rung (ber |)inbu glaubt nemlid^ bie SSerbauung 
int SRagen vverbe burc!^ geuer bemirft) burci^ bie 
gorm ber €uft erl^alt er fie am iSeben; aid Staffer 
ftiUft ^r il^ren 2)urft , al^ 6onne reift er t}U gruc^te 
^eran, aid Tlont) gibt er il^nen fanften 6(3^Iaf; ber 
gortf^ritt ber'Seit ift feined guged ^ritt* 55rama 
|ort unb ftel^t OTed, er bant ha^ gelb, tt)irb einc 
SBolfe unb befeuc^tet ed , tt>irb torn unb fattigt bit 

tier .fMnt)u6. .55 

®efc^o))fe. 60 lancje cr im !(!ett>e mo^ut, er^lt er 
feine !2ebcn^*5Kdrme; ste!)t ct fic^ jurM, fo tt)irb bee 
J^eib fa(t unl) ftirbt. ^r jerftort He ©unbe in bem 
5(nbdc^ticjen/ tt>ie ta$ geuer ben bauimt)oIlenen gabeii 
\>erfengt; ex ift bie DneKe aUex 2Ba^rf)eit unb Sucje; 
tver 5u il)m feine 3wff"^t nimmt, wirb feeilig, vuet 
fein 5Ingefid^t »on if)m fe^rt^ mirb cin Sviflerer. 

2)ie^ iji etner ber erl^abenbften (^efdnge, ben bic 
^defter ibrem (Sd^o^fer jn df^ren ftngen. 

2)cr ^aftenunterfd?ieb fcfireibt jtc^ )?cn bet 
Sd^opfung f)er. ' 2)urc^ eine aufeinanber folt^enbt 
(Emanation au^ ^rainad ^nbe gab ber ®ctt 'om 
»erfc^iebenen (§laffen t)on ^Jlenf^en if)r IDafevn. 

3«^rft entfdilupfte feinem ^J^iunbe ber 53ramine, 
ta^ ^o^fte unb erfjabenfte §Befen unb ber 9teprdfen* 
tant feiner (3ott\)di, in menfc^Iidber gorm. 

Sc^on bie ^rt feiner ©eburt ^d^t, ba^ er jum 
Setter unb S3crmitt(er ^mifc^en ben ©ottern unb?[Ren^ 
fc^en beflimmt mar. — IB^n S3rama^^rm, bcr6d^u^* 
ttje^r be6 ^orper^, entf^rang ber ^ettri)o obet tic 
^rieger^dafte. 3)ie 5?atur il^rer ^eburt beutete auf 
i^ren i^xm funftigen 55cruf; fic foUten mitSQBe^r itnb 
SBaffen bie S3e|c^it§er M QSotfee fe^n. — S3on 
S3rania^ ^ruft, bem 6i(^e be6 Seben6 lam ber 2Saifi;a^ 
ober bie ^afte ber ^aufleute unb ©emerbe, urn 3((fe6 
n>d^ 8ur !2eibe6nai^rung unb 9lotl^burft bient, f)erbei* 
gufd^affen. Unb ^cn bem niebrigften ®ik\>e, 55rama6 
gu§, Urn ber 6ubra ober bic bienenbc ^afte. %lle 
SCrten »on niebriger Slrbeit ju |)aufc obcr auf bem 
gclbe, foTften (}c fur il^re ebter gebornen ^rfiber i>€X* 

< . 

56 . 5)ie (Spotter 

rtc^teu, (Sie mac^en M \micm tie Wle^x^a^ ter 
^mn)of)ner t)on ^engalen unb n)ol)I auc& anbeni 
X\)dUn 'con Snbien aue. Die Unglucflid^en l}ahm 
feit 3alf)rtaufent)en unter ben »on bem ftoljen 33ra* 
minen it)nen auferlegten glud^e gefeufjt unb gebulbig 
i^re 8urbe getracjen. . v , > 

3Ba0 ©ott i^erorbnet l)at, fagen fie, fonnen tt>ir 
nic^t dnbcrn. (So ^eilig unb imabduberlid^ ift btefe 
dinri^tung be^ ^aften4Interf(^iebe6, unb fo feft ift 
ber ©laube ber ^inbu6 an bie (^ottlic^feit berfelben, 
ia^ ein Uebergang t?cn eincr ^afte" in bie anbere ah^ 
folut unmoglidb ift. (§itt Surft fonnte ftc^ nic^t mit 
!Oiittionen hie 53raminen*(S^nur crfaufen, melc^e bie 
^u^jeicbnung biefer SBurbe ift. 80 tt?enig eine ^ai^e 
ft6) in einen (Flep!)anteu ober ber Dornftrauct) in 
cinen Drangenbaum ^emanbeln !ann, ebenfolt>enig 
fmm au^ einem Subra cin Sramine merben. (Sin- 
fen fann ber 33ramine; \x>enn er feine ^afte t)erle|t/ 
^xel)t ft(^ i)ie ^eiligfeit 'oon xl}m ^uxM, er i)erliert 
feinen S(be( unb vvirb begrabirt. SSerlfeeirattjet er fic^ 
gar an bie ^oc^tcr eineS (Subra, fo entftef^t eine 5(rt 
3iXHtter!afte. 60 fommt e6, bag man I)eut ju ^agc 
33raminen erfter, jweiter, britter unb ioierter (5(affc 
antrifft; — bie reinften unb gee^rteften finb natiirlic^ 
He, u>e(^e ttdterUcficr unb miitterlid)er @eit0 >oon 
eblem &cb{iiie abfiammen. 

■ Snbeffen finb in nenerer 3^it t)ie (Slaffen fe^r mit 
einanber »ermi|'c^t. Die ^riegerfafte U">urbe beinal^e 
au6gerottet, el^e ba6 ?anb yon ben 9}la^omebanent ' 
erobert wurbe^ well Ttc ber 8raminen''.f)errfd)aft fic^ 

bet ^int>u6; 57 

VDtberfe^ten. 2)ie SSo^ei^ae otier ^aufmann6!afie fin^ 
bet ftc^ nirgent)^ me!)r in ^Sengalen, ^t^al^rfc^cinlic^ 
I)aben (te ftd^ tnit ben 6ubra6 toermifcf^t unb ttefc 
flnb befonber6 im fiiblic^ett Snbieu beina^ejum^^ief 

2)ie (^efe^e ter ^mbu0 fmb ganj mif bic (Sr!)al^ 
tnng ber 93^a^t unb be^ ^(nfel^en^ ber ^riefter U^ 
rec^)net. 3«^. ^liit^e^eit be^ |)inbm0mu^ burfte ber 
Gramme nie angetaftet tt)erben. 2)er Sanbe6furjl 
burfte i^n nidbt l^inrid^ten laffen, wenn er auc^ aUt 
ttiogtidfee UebeU][)aten ijerubt {)atte, 2Bie einerfeit^ 
gleifd^ unb 53Iut an i^m "oon befonberer (SJottUd^fett 
bur<^brungen ift, fo mu^ fein moralifcber (§^racter 
na(^ einem gan^ anbern SD^laa^ftabe beurt^eilt wer^ 
ben, al^ ber be6 6ubra. (Sine gute |)anblung l}ai 
bei il)m einen VDcit I)ol^ern 2Bertl^ unb ba6 grdulic^fte 
5Serbre^en t)erliert t>ie(e^ t>on feiner 33ern?erj!ic^!ett, 
SSenn ber 33ramine einen @ubra beftal)(, fo wurbf 
er urn ®e(b beftraft, aber tt)enn ein (Subra jtd^ alfo 
gecjen ben 33raminen tjerfeI)Ue, fo wurbe er auf bem 
^c^eitcrl^aufen ^erbranntj n?enn cr einen 53ramincn 
beim SBart ergriff, fo mu^ten \\)m nac^ ben (^efe^en 
beibe |)dnbe abget)auen werben. 3a tie 9la(^e biefe^ 
lf)eiC[ofen ^rtefter^ fterfolgt ben Uncjliicf lichen nod^ in 
bie anbere 9BeIt» ^enn, tt)enn ein Subra bemfelben 
imel^rerbictig begegnet, fo tt>irb er nad^ bem^obe dn 
53aum tt)erben unb n^irft er einen jornigen ^M auf 
jenen, fo wirb g)ama (ber @ott ber |)oKe) il&m feint 
^ugen au^rei^en, ober fc()(dgt er ben 33raminen au(^ 
nur mit einem ^trol^^alm, fo foil er in awan^ig 

58 t)k ©otter 

©eefenttjanberungcn ^on unreinen Z^mn gcboreit 

Snbien ift, wie Stalien, ein $arabie6 fur ?Prieften 
Sllc ®aben, we^e ber |)tnbu feinen ©ottern bringt, 
uttb bcrcn jtnb nic^t njenige, faUen naturlic^ bem 
Sramincu ju. 2Ber einer ^fn^al^l berfelben ein guted 
9J?ai)I bereitet, l)at tie S^erl^eigung aKer Seligfeiten 
be6 ^immel6. Senn ber ^terbenbe bemfclben . ein 
5^ermddbtnt^ t)on ©utern ober Dd^feti ^uxMia^t, fi> 
gel^t er frei i)on Siinben gletd^ in (5cf)itt>a^ |>tmmel 
fin. 5Ber feiite^ul^ tjerfauft, gel^t jur |)oKe, iijer jte 
aber einem 8raminen fd)enft, gel^t in ben |)imme(. 
55ier i{)m einen Sfiegenfc^irm t)ere!)rt, ber tt)irb »or 
bem bofen ^influg ber ^onnenftraf^ten bef(^«|t, wer 
i^m ein ^jaar 6c^ul^e jum ©efc^enf nia(^t, befommt 
auf ber 9?eifc feine 55Iafen, unb f(^en!t i!)m Semanb 
wol^lriectjenbe ®en?urje, fo W)irb er frei »on alien bo- 
jen ©erucfeen unb Stu^bunftungen!! 

2)er Sanbmcinn fann fein gelb nic^t bauen unb 
barf jur ^rnbte^eit bie 8ic^el nic^t anfc^lagen, e^e 
bem 55raminen feine (^ebul)r entridbtet ift. @r ift ber 
rrfte am ^ofe M ^onig^ ; ba6 fc^onfle |)au0 im 
2)crfe, bie beflen Selber unb (Garten ge!)6reit in ber 
Siegel il^m. 3tt ben fruci^tbarjien Z\)e\Un hc^ ^ariM, 
in 6tdbtett unb X>6rfen, njo bie (^imvo^ner etn?a6' 
v^oMl^abenber finb, finbet man fte am ^duftgften. 3m 
weftUcben ^beile t5on 53engalen, tDO e6 t>iel SKaf* 
bungen gibt, unb ta^ gelb tt)eniger ergiebig \% ftnb 
fte t?iel feltener; jte lieben ba^ S^tte M 2anM unb 
l^aben bafiir geforgt, t>a^ eci i^^nm ju ^beil wurbe. 

ber .^tiibu#. 59 

SBenn t^ auf mcmett 9Jeifen hie 53efi$affen]^eit 
einc6 2)orff^ unb tie Umftdnbe bcr ©inmo^ner erfa^ 
ten woHtc, fo fr«9te id^ in ber SRegcl na(^ bcr 5(n* 
Sa]()l ber S3ramtnen. @r^ielt itb jur 5lttttt>ort, f)iet 
wol^neii 40 ober 50 Sraminett^gamilien, fo \t)u§te 
ic^ jum 9Sorau6, ba§ bic ^inwol^ner »ermoc|U^c 
!2eute waren unb bie SJiittei befafen, fo »iele faule 
^defter p er!)alten. 3tt unbebeutenben Drtfc^aften 
ftnbet man blefe SSlutfauger be^ ^anM gar felten. 
3u 15 (Subra6 barf man in ^engalen eincn ^vamU 
nen rec^nen. ^ol^gamie ift hd ber I)6d^ften (Slaffe 
berfelben \e^x gebrau(^U(^. @^ gibt mand^e bie 20— 
50 5Keiber l)aben. 3<^ traf einmat mit einem folcijen 
abelid^en ^riefter auf ber S^eife pfammen, er fagte 
ic^ \)<ibe nur 3, aber mein 53ruber ^ai 10 SSeiber. 
3)iefe fd^anbli^e @itte ^at bie §[Renf(^^eit in Snbien 
ungemeitt Dertt)uftet unb erniebrigt 8^aam unb 
^l^rgcfu^t i)erbietet mir ben ©(^le^er biefe§ furc^tba^ 
ren ©emalbe^ auf^ubecfen. S(ber fo sjiel fann i^ 
fx^exli^ fagen, ba^ in ntoralifd^er ^in|tc^t ber Bras 
mine wal^rfc^einlic^ unter 3nbien6 ijerfunfenen ^in** 
tt>o!)nern ber am tiefften ^efunfene. ift. din ^i^ter, 
^exx ^olwell, fagt t?on if)nen: SBdl^renb ber 5 
3a^re, ba i^ im ^riminal^^eri^t in Calcutta ba$ 
^rdflbium ful^rte, fam nie ein ^orb ^^ber ein anbe* 
te6 3Serbre(Jen jur Unterfuc^ung in meine ^dnbe^ 
m ein 35ramine nici^t ber (Sc^ulbige ober ©etl^eiligtc 

3ebe ©unbc rd(]^t ^^ fc^on in biefem Men an 
bem ^JJienf^en, ber i^r ftt& in bie 3(rme tt?trft. 3)ur^ 

60 ^^^^ : u ^te hotter 

i^re fc^dnblic^en Rafter l^at tie S3raminen^^afte ft(^ 
i^r @rab bereitet; ta^ ganji ®ett)ebe »on 55oeil)eit 
I66t ftc^ altmd^Ug auf unb eilt mit raf^eti ©d^ritten 
feinem (Snbe entgegen. 

3^ i)abe tie S3ef(^reibung ber Sraminen^^afte ber 
<Sci)5:pfuttg0*^ef(^i(^ie beigefugt unb ben (^ottern 
i^orangeftettt, unb ^xtyax aii^ bent einfa^en (^runbe, 
tt)eil ber c^riftHdbe Sefer au6 bem ^^aracter beei S5ra* 
minen ben ©c^Iu^ madden faun, 'coa^ fur eine 9ic* 
ligiontjon folc^en Seuten ^u erwarten ift. 2)a^,biefe 
nicbt Don ^ott, fonbern i)on ben ^raminen l^erftammt, 
ifl fonnenf(ar, fte })ahm \)a^ SSerbienft btefe hotter 
erfunben ober au6 ben trabitionelten ^Ba^m M grauen 
5(ltert:^umg baS gan^e m^t!)ol 6^ftem gufantmenge^ 
fe^t ju l)aben. SBenn ber ^ramine fetne §(rmee »on 
©ottern in att i{)rer SJiajeftdt unb |)errlid^{eit i)or 
bem ftaunenben 58olf aufmarfc^iren Icigt, fo ift e0 if)ni 
babei bo^ immer urn jtc^ felber ju tl^un. dr ^at 
mit btefem @i)ftem tjon 8o61^eit eine gro^e S^lation 
ubcr brittl^alb taufenb Sal^re lang in ben ^taub gc^ 
beugt unb ftd) aum .^errfc^er ber unterbrucften SJlenge 
aufgefteUt. 2Ber ba!)er ben |)inbui6inu0 fennen (er^ 
nen mU , mu^ »or 5lUem mit bem SBraminen befannt 
iberben, n>ie er an ben ITfern M ^angeg fein l^eil- 
Iofe6 SSefen treibt, 2Bir n)erben il^m balder in mei* 
nen nd^fien SSorlefungen ncd^ melfjrere ^afe auf 
bem SSege begegnen. : . ; 

^OJac^en tt)ir un6 nun etn^a^ ud^er mit 
ben ^ottern unb^ottinnen ber |)inbu.^ 
feefanut, wjie ber Snbier in feiner feurigen 3tnagi*. 

uatmx ubcratt ing ^vi^cxox\}cnitii3l)c mb XieUxtxkUM 
gerdt| , fo ^at ex in bcr ^otterlel^'re befonber^ fciner 
f:i:trat>aganten ^^antajie frden 9lauin gclaffen. @c 
^at fciii ^ant^eon mit ni^t ttjcniaer ale 330 SJ^ittto^ 
nen ^ottertt au^geftattct, Db cr fur bicfc 5lUc i^rc 
eigenen 9lamcn erbic^tet eber jiebeni fein befonbcreS 
® efd^aft angett)iefen i^at, f onnte ici^ nfe mit ^efiimmt^ 
^eit erfa!)ren. 5lber \)a^ tt)ei^ icfe gewjif, ba^ ber 
S3ramine ganj im (Srnft btefe ungel)eure 3<iW «J^9^^^/ 
ol^ne ben SOf^unb bariiber ju i)erbre]^en. 

2)te 3bee be6 ^ant^^ei^mu^ befeitigt jebcc^ biefe 
6(^tt)terigfeit; al(e6 Sid^tbare ift ein ^l^eil ber @ott^ 
^eit; an gettjiffen ^agen betet er ben ^ci^ an, wtU 
^en er genie^t, ber ©c^reiner feinen |)obeI, ber 3"^ 
mennann feine 5(rt unb ber Gramme bie 2)mte unb 
W geber, xoomit er feinen religiofen Unftnn nieber* 
gef^rieben \^at. Snbeffen i)at ber ^riefter biefe MiU 
lionen mit feinem magifc^en @tab anf brei (^runb* 
ttjefen jurucfgeful^rt , ol^ne 3^^^if^^ ftammen biefe 
bur(^ ^rabition au6 bem granen 5((ter »on ber 
biblif^en 2)reieinig!eit§ ^ Se^re ah, S)iefe SBefen 
Ijeigt er 53rama, Sifc^nu nnb <Qclii'oa] jte 
l^abeit mit i^ren ©emal^Unnen (Sara^wati, !I)urga 
unb Sacff^mi eine fei^r sal)(rei^e 9la^!ommen^ 
fci^aft J)inter(a(fen. SBie biefe i)on bem erften 
Urwefen entftanben fe^n foKen, ^abe ic^ bereit^ an* 
gebeutet, 8rama tt)irb gett>ol^nli^ in ^eftalt eine^ 
2}lanne0 mit 4 (^efic^tern bargepellt^ unb reitet anf 
einer ©an6» dx tt)irb, tt)ie (Saturn, oft ber ©ro^ 
tjater ber ©otter genannt; aber in anbern Drten 

I)ic ®5ttet 

ftcUcn \f)n tit (S(^aflerg au^ a\^ ben ^ain bcr 86* 
gen bar. Ueberf)au:|Jt l)aben bie .^inbue feinen gro* 
Jen 9ie|>ect x>or biefem (^ro^tjater, benn nirgenb^ im 
Sanbe fie^t man einen ^em^el be^ S3rama; nur bet 
cinem gewiffen gefltag ma^en fte ein S3itb tjon bem* 
felben. ^ie Urfad^e, ba§ er fo tt)emg in @^ren gc* 
l)alten wirb , ift folgenbe : 55a(b nad^ fetner dnU 
fteljnng riiljmte er fld^ , ber (^ro^te ber ©ottet ju 
fe^m 6d^ut)a fagte: ,,t(5 raume \)ix benSSor^ng ein, 
ttjenn bn meine Sduge meffen fannft" :t)iefer ftanb 
mit feinen giigen anf bem 5D'leere6:^^rnnbe , unb fein 
4)CLVipt retd^te hi^ an ben oberften |)immel. iBrama 
fletterte ^ergeblic^ an bem ^Riefen ^inaiif, be^an:|3ktc 
aber bei feiner 9flM!unft, er ^aht feine (Stirne be* 
xu^xt : ber Sugner n>urbe iiberfuf)rt, (B^ivoa xi^ i^m 
im 3*>rn einen fetner 4 ^oipfe ab , nnb §nr Strafe 
burfte er feine gottlic^e 3Serel&rung genie^en* SKegen 
feiner 5(uef^n)eifungen vxmrbe 33rama ein (^egenftanb 
M Sibfc^euea unb (Bpottd unter ben ©ottern. ilrun* 
Un\)nt n)ar pr ^dt berfelben etn)a6 ,5lKgemcine6, 
nnb gait auc^ noc^ nid^t fiir ein Safter. S3ei eiueni 
fol^en ^rinfgelage benal)m ftc^ S3rama gegen feine 
eigefie ^od^ter anf eine ijoc^ft anfto^ige 2Beife» ^a^ 
SSerbred^en rei^te \)k fS^iit^ ber ©otter, imb S3l)rigo 
fern ©d^ttjiegerfol^n, ber erfte S3ramine flud^te i^m» 
^nc^ fott er t)on einer ^eerbe, weldbe ber ^irten* 
(^ctt ^rifd^na n^eibete, einige Oiinber geftol^len t)aben. 
JDkine Sefer tt)erben fic6 au6 biefen furjen 5(n* 
teutungen eine giemlidb rid^tige SSorfteUung t>on ben 
^inbU'^ottern ma^m fonnen. 2)ie ©ef^ic^te bet 

erften ifl ein ©emifc^e »on Sajierit atter 2lrt. 3Bcntt 
i)er ®ro^i)ater t>er hotter f^aamlo^ lugt unb mit 
feinen ©enoffen in (gtreit uni) ^rieg anebridbt, wad 
Idgt ftc^ »on ben Sungcn ertt>arten! @r l^at cineii 
^immd, ben ein alter 2Beifer ^^laraba befc^rieb; bei 
alien moglicben (5c^ont)eiten , weldbe er in benfel- 
hm ^ineinbicljtete , ftnb 6cenen »on SSoKerei nnb 
SBoKup ctwa^ gewol^nlic^eg, ^^^^^^^^^^^-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ V 

2)er smeite ®ott ber ^inbn^ ijl 2Bff(^ttu. (Sr 
tt)irt) al^ ein fc^n)ar3er SJ^ann mit 4 Slrmen barge* 
fteKt, (Sr reitet auf einem ©efc^o^jf, l^alb 9)?ann/ 
l^alb SSogel, ba6 ©nruru l^eigt. ^k dx^altnnQ bed 
!S5eItall^ tpirb \l)m pgefc^rieben. ©eine ©eftalt jlel^t 
man oft an ^em^^eln in 6culipturen , aber Qottlid^e 
SSerel)rung geniegt er nur al^ Sncarnation, ober al0 ' 
ein in ber 6i(^tbar!eit erf(i)ienene0 SSefen. Sf^eunmal 
foil er auf biefe 2Beife auf ber @rbe erft^ienen fe^n. 
Slber meine Sefer tdufd^en jtd&, mnn fte l^offen l&iec 
eine reinere 9{eltgion6*3bee ju entberfen ober ctwa^ 
bem ^Qlenfc^ gemorbenen @rIofer ber SSelt ^el^nlic^ed 
gu finben. ^ier ift au^ nid^t ber entferntefte ^e* 
banfe an eine gottlid^e SD'lenfc^werbung gum |)eile ber 
gefaUenen ^tufc^I)eit. |)ie unb t)a flreifen biefe 
m\)tlbologifc^en ®efd}i^ten an bie ditere 8ibelge^ 
f(i}ic()te unb ^ro:p^ejei^ungen an 5 aber alle^ift bunfel, 
ver^errt unb jum Sllbernen enttt)urbigt. 

(Einmal aB bei einer grogen gfutl^ bie ^eiUgen 
SBii^er »erloven gingen, baten bie S3raminen urn 
SBieberl^erftellung berfelben, aiif ba^ bie 9leligion 
nic^t ju ®runbe gel^eu moc^te, 2i3i|^nu wirb m 

m 2)ie hotter 

gifc^ uttb ^olt au6 berS^iefe t>e6 !D^ecrc6 Mc S3eba« 
J^erauf ; ciu anber^mal erfc^eint er al0 eine Sc^ilb- 
frote, um tie (§rbe, we((^e in bie 3!iefe ju finfen ®e^ 
fa^r lief, ju unterfiii^en) ba^er glaukn audi) bie 
^iubue Me auf biefen ^ag, bic ^rbe ru^c auf einer 
gro^en @c!^ilb!rote, 

V SQSieberum ale bie ©rbe in 6c^lamm unb SKajfet 
t)erfanf, erfc^eint SBifc^nu in (^eflalt einea furd^ter^^ 
lichen vvilben ©c^weinee, wnb jiel^t fie mit feinen 
gangjd^nen mieber aue bem SBaffer l)eri)on 

V din anbermal fprang ber ®ott in ^ejialt einee 
Ungel^euere, l)alh SiKenfc^, l)alb Sotve, aue einer fic^ 
in jttJei ^T^eife ft)artenben ©dxile ^er^or, unb serri^ 
einen mdc^tigen ^^i^^^^^tt, ber bie @rbe t)erwuftete» 

. 3n al)nlid)er Slbftc^t erf^ien er in ber ©eftalt 
einee 3^^^9^^^ ^^^ ^^i ^inem ^onige bettette. 'l)a^ 
Sllmofen, weld^ee er ^d) au^hat, war brei S^ritte 
breit :2anbe6 i?on feinem ^onigreic?^. 53alu ber ^onig 
gelobte e6 il^m, $lle 3eic^eu be6 (Sibee go^ er aii^ 
einer ^anne ^angee^2Baffer auf bie .^dnbe be6 53ett* 
lere. ma^ gefc^al) I SSd^renb \)a^ l)eilige 2Baffer 
flo^, wucbe ber ^mx^ p ber ^ol^e einee 3ftiefen, 
unb W)urbe enblic^ fo gri>5, bap fein ^o^f bie in 
ben britten .g)immel emiporragte. Se^t fc^ritt ber 
9Wd(^tige mit einem ^ritt uber ^U ganje @rbe l)in, 

mit bem gweiten uber ba6 9J?eer, unb mit bem britten 
nal)m er 53eft| t)on \)m l)immlif(^en (^efilben. 60 

, tt>arb ^onig S3alu ^onSSifc^nu burd; Sift feinee l?5^ 
nigrei(^e beraubt, aber aul ^nabe »ergonnte il)m ber 
SBunbermann, \)a^ er ^onig in ber Untervuelt fe^n 

ber .|)inbui6» 65 

turfte; bortl^iti 'ccxharmU x^n ber (^ott ofyneOSer^ 
weilen, gab il^m aber eincn ©eteit^bnef auf ben SKeg, 
ba§ bie !Ddmonen il)m fur feine Uebeltl)aten fein Seib 
Sufiigen burften. 

^in vinber^mal erf^ien S93if(^nu auf (Srben a(6 
ein Sliefe, urn ben ^v^^annen Urjun t)on ber ^rieger* 
fafte aue bem 2Bege ju rdumen, 2)iefer quartirte ftd^ 
auf einem feiner ^iaubjuge hd bem dinjtebler ^ama^ 
bagni ein. (Seine 5(rmee beftanb au0 900,000 SJlann. 
2)er ^eilige bett?trtl)ete ta^ flange ^eer tt)od)en(ang 
auf !6nig(ic^e SJ^eife. Urpn fanb e^ unbegreiflic^, 
tt)o ber (Sremite im einfamen SKalbe all ben Ueber* 
flu^ auftrieb. S)a6 ®el)eimnig Urn enblic^ .l^erau^; 
er bcfa^ eine ^uf^ 9f?amen0 £amobl)ena, bie i^m 53rama 
gefc&enft l)atte» ©obalb er ju melfen anftng, gab 
biefe aHe 5lrten t)on foftbaren Speifen, auc!^ ®olb 
unb (5ilber mit ben fd^onften £leibern» (^0 Id^t <td^ 
lei^t benfen, ba^ ber gemaltige @aji bie ^u^ gernc 
an ftc^ bringen tt)ollte,* niand^er $otentat tt>urbe dl^n^ 
li^e ©elufte l)aben. 5116 nun ber Eremite feineit 
(Bdoai^ ni(^t ]^erau6geben tiooUte , erfdblug il^n ber bofe 
Urjunj aber eS l)alf il)n nic^t6 , benn e^ wuc^fen 
g'ligel auf bent S^utfen ber ^ul^,- iinb fobalb bie 
9J?orbtl)at t>erubt wax, flog fte in il^re ^eimatl^, 35ra* 
ma^ |)immel, jurucf. 3Stf(^nu nal^m barauf bie ^e^ 
ftalt eineei 9fliefen (^ara^turam) an unb })xeb ben Zt)'' 
rannen in 6tucfe, ^ 

S^ocf) itnb 5tt)ei Sticcirnationen ubrig, bie befonber^ 
angeful^rt p ttjerben t)erbienen, roeil bie ^erfonen, 
t)ie barin it)re 9^olle fpielen, bur^ gan^ |)inbcft]&an 

ffieitbfcd^t SRiffton in Snbien. ^ 5 

m 2)ic (hotter 

uub 8engalett attgcmcm ^ere^rt mxbtn. 2)ic dne 
ift t)ie Sncarnation t)e0 91 am, tie ant ere tie te^ 
^rifc]^na» 2)ie ©efc^ic^te i)e6 Srfteren tt)iri) in bent 
tpii^cn ^ebid^t be6 9fiama^un umilanblid^ erad^lt. 
Dbgleidb feiner leiblicBen Slbfiammnng nad^ »on fonig* 
lic^em ^eblut, (ebte fHam bo(^ mit feiner (^attin 
<Bxia mel^rere Sal^re lang OI0 ^infiebler in einem 
S93albe» 3)ort raubte il)m Slabun, ber ^onig t)on 
)2anfa ober ^e^(on, feine geliebte ^atiin. 2)ie^ »er* 
anla^te einen langmierigen ^rieg, in weld^em (Su* 
grit)a, ein ma^tiger ^cnig ber Slffen, nnter benen 
VDal^rfd^einlic^ bie S3erg\)olfer be^ fublicften Snbien^ 
genteint fmb, il^n fraftig unterftu^te» 9Son bem (^e* 
neral ^onnuman, ber immer in 5lffengefta(t abgebilbet 
n)irb, erjdl^ft tit ^efc^ic^te nnglaublid^e |)elbentl)a# 
ten/ 511^ man eine ^riicfe uber bie SD^leerenge, ml^c 
(Se^Ion i)on Snbien trennt, gn haucn befc^loffen l^atte, 
urn bie 5(rmee l)inuber jn ful^ren, ri^ ^onnnman 
grofe ^erge au^ nnb warf jte in t)a^ 9)?eer, fo 
tvnrbe hit fbxMt in fur^er 3^dt fertig. 

S3ei ber S3etagerung ber ^au^tftabt t)on Sanfa*) 
mac^te ber jvt)ansig!o:pfige £onig $Rabnn einen §(n0* 
faH mit feinem fur^tbaren |)eer »on ^iganten. 
©ein 55rnber ^umb:^afarna xoax xihex 3000 gu^ l)0(^ 
unb 2000 im Umfang, 2)iefer begann bie ©c^lad^t 
tamii, ba§ et feine geinbe bu^enbnjeife ^erfd^lang 
nnb onffraf, 2)od^ retteten t)ie(e babnrd^ i!)r Seben, 

*) 2>ie^ ift ber «lte 9?ame ber ^nfel (2eplo«. 

ba§ lie au0 feincn O^ren unb iRafefoc^ern ^erauS^ 
f^rangen. - _ 

S3ei cinem anbern 5Cu^fal(e njurbe fJtama §lrmee 
beinal^e gan^ nieber Qtma^t, unb ie^t fragte e^ ftc^, 
n?a^ man t{)un fottte. (Sin alter 9)lann er^ob fl(j^ 
unb erfldrte, auf eiuer ^pi§e be^ ^imalav^a'C^ebirgS 
ttjac^fe eitt tt)unberbare6 ^rautlein , menu man t)on 
btefem einen ^ranf bereiten wurbe, fo fonnte bk 
Slrmee , (ebenbig ober tobt , gel^eift unb tt)ieber auf 
bie S3eine gebrac^t werbenj aber biefe^ mu^te n>a!)renb 
ber S'lac^t unb t)or Sonnen-^lufgang gefcfeel^en. SSec 
foUte nun ein folc^e^ €tu(f ^xUit unternel^men ? 
58on (Se^lon nac^ ben |)iniala^a'(^ebir9en ^Inb e^ 
uber 1400 ©tunben. General ^onnuman erbot feine 
2)ienfte. Wt einem @^rung war er in ben SSolfen, 
mit bem jtijeiten iiber bemSUieer imb mit bent tritten 
auf be^ SBergess @pt§e, @r fuc^t^ ftunbenlang, fonnte 
aber ^a^ ^rciutlein nid^t ftnben* 3n biefer SSertegen* 
I)eit \}a^k er, e^ tt?are tt)o!)(am beften, n)enn er ben 
S3erg felber mitnel^me, fa^te ii^n alfo mit M\)m 
^anben unb riittelie mit foid^er 9)?ad^t, bag er Jn 
feinen (^runbfeften erbebte. ^J^it furc^tbarem ^rad^en 
rtg er ifen lo^ , nal}m i^n auf bie 6d^ulter unb eilte 
ba^on. 511^ er uber bem ^onigreid^ Cube ba^in flog, 
fc^og i^n ein Sager mit einem ^feil ^erunterj ha 
biefer jebod^ ben ^md fciner ©enbung i)ernal^m, n^ar 
e0 il)m leib unb er fd^lug »or, ifjn auf ber (Spige 
fine0 jttjeiten $fei(6 nad) (5et;Ion ^u fenben. $onnu^ 
man ^erbot fic^ biefe 5(rt x>on ©c^netlpoft nnb jog 
e^ t>ox auf feine gewoftnte SfCcife ju reifen, ^er 

5 * 

_!Dte (hotter : ■ 

Sflger f)atk it)n tjerfpatet, tie 9Za(^t gm<5 §u dnbc 
iinb im Dften fal) er Me 9J^orgenrotf)e auffteigen. 3n 
taft&em Sauf eilte er l^tnuber jur Sonne, mad)te eine 
tiefe SSerbeugnng unb hai fte , ba. 9flam6 Seben felber 
in ^efa^r fe^,.bod^ ein tt)enig ftille ^u l^alten. 2)er 
^.onnen-^ott antn?ortete, mi^ barf nic^t6 anf()aUen, 
i^ gel^e in metnem gettJo^nten Saufe fort, tf)onnu^ 
man fagte, tt)enn bitten nic^tg l)ilft, mn^ icfe eben 
(^cxc(\li brau^en, ftieg am SBagen ^inanf, jog t)ie 
^onne am ^aav ]^erunter,'na]^m fte unter feinen 
!Dlantel unb eilte bat>on. @ine fc^one SabnngI ^it 
bem ^imala^a auf ber Slcl)fel unb ber Sonne nnter 
bem ?lrme fam er gludli^ im Sager an. !Da6 £rdut^ 
c^en fanb fid), unb mit bemfelben vt)urbe bie ganje 
Slrmce »on SSerivunbeten, Sterbenben unb ^obten ge^^ 
I)eilt unb in6 Scben gurucf gerufen. 

!Da6 ^nbe biefer 3ncarnation6^(53efc6ic6te ifi, \)a^ 
fftam \)k $au))tftabt »on (^colon erobert, ben ^^ran^ 
tien 3fiabun erfc^Idgt unb feine ^attin befreit. 3tn 
weftli^en ^inboftl^an tx)irb er allgemein ^erel^rt. 3n 
%en ©efdngen ipreifen \)k |)inbu0 feine .^elbcnt^a* 
ten. Sie iiberfteigen nad) i!)ren S3egriffen 
mIU 2B u n b e r , bie (i ^ r i ft u 6 t) e r r i c^ t e t e. 
5£)ie 5Iffen tt)etben al0 9lam6 ^egleiter unb Sieblinge 
noc^ inimer in I)of)en (Sl)reu geljalten, unb ein rei^^ 
(^er |)inbu ber in ^enareg ftarb, l)interlie^ eine 
grogc ©umrne aU ^Bermd^tni^, »on tt)el$er in 
tmm (Garten 1500 5(ffen gend^rt unb unterljalten 
trerben. §H5al^rfc^einli^ l)offte er ftc^ burc^ biefe t>er^ 
tienftlic^e ^anMung ben dingang in S35ifc^nu6 ^im^' 

met ju crwerben. !I)ie $inbu6 begrugen ftd^ auf t)er 
!Reife gewol^nlid^ mit beit SBorten : „9flam, 9lam." — 

2)ie Sncatttatiott beg ^rif^na ift fd^oii 
be§{)alb bemer!cn6tt)ert§ , W)eil biefer beru^mtc ®ott 
»on einem gro^en ^l^eit be6 .^inbu*3Sol!6 al^ ©^u^^ 
patron tjere^rt tt)irb. 28ifc!^uu, fageu jte, I)at bur^ 
i^it feine '^a^t unb |)errlic^!eit geofenbart , njie iit 
feiner anbern (Srfc^einung auf @rben, 5lnbere 6ec* 
ten ber $mbu0 l^etgen ^nfdftna einen gottlofen SBic^t/ 
dnen graufamen^ttrannen, ia eincii eingefleifc^teii 
^eufeL 53i6 auf biefen Za^ befdmpft eine 6ecte hie 
anbere, jebe fud^t i^rem @ott hk erlj^abenfte Steffe 
auf ^ojien ber Slnbern ^u ^erfc^affen. 2)arf un^ ba6 
njunbern, W)enn toix lefen, bag bic (hotter felber fic^ 
in il^ren |)immeln oft U^ aufe S3(ut um ben 33or^ 
rang rauften? c ^ 

trifd^naS ®ef(^idbte I)at bag SKerfwurbige , bag 
feine ©eburt mit ber unfereg^errn in 55etl^lelfeem etwag 
a!)nn^eg ^at. @ie gefc^a^ ju 9)?atl^ura im weftlfc^en 
^inboftl^an, €ein Dnfel, ber mdd^tige ^onig ^angfa, 
fud^te if)n umjubringen, aug ^ux^t er mod)tc nac^ 
ciner gegebenen SKeigagung feinen ^ftron befteigen, 
<Bexn $f(egt?ater flol^ mit i^m uber ben ^fcf^umna* 
glug unb rettete auf munberbare SSeife fein Seben. 
!Der ^onig tvurbe tt)utf)enb unb lieg atte ©duglinge 
in ber Itmgegenb ern)iirgen» dm anbergmal fanbtc 
ber ^onig, aU er ben Stufenfeatt beg 5tinbeg erful^r, 
m Widh mit tjergifteter ^ruji, um eg ^^i faugen» 

<5obatb ber ^nabe jum 53ewugtfe)^n fommt unb 
feine eigene SJoKe fpielt, ^ort alTe ^le^nlic^feit mit 

70 2)ie (hotter 

bet fd^onen ^efd^id^te t)e6 ^naUn 3efu^ auf. Strtfc^^ 
na'0 3ugenbgef(J>i(^te ij^ ein ^emifc^ ^i>n SBunbcr^ 
tl^aten unb lubern(^en ©treid^cn. (Sr aerftorte einc 
iinge!)eure ©(flange, ttjelc^e ben glu^ ^fc^umna »er=^ 
giftct, n)e^!)a(b er auf ©emdlben im £anH)f mit bem 
Uttget)euer ober ql6 ©teger mit bem recf)ten gu^c 
auf bem ^opfe ber ©d^Iange bargeftelTt toixt* ^a^ 
Mefc 2)arPeKung »on einer bunfeln ^rabition {)er^ 
ru^rt, bie au6 ber erften mef|tamf(^en SSeiffaguug 
entfprungen ift (1. SJlof. 2.). „5)e6 miU^ Saame 
W)trb ber(Sd^range ben^o^)f ^ertreten," ift feljr "coaler- 
fc^einlic^. — (Sinft erblirfte ^rif(^na'6 SSSarterin in 
bem ?Dluttbe be6 fd)(afenben ^naben bie brei 2Be(ten 
unb 53rama, S5^ifc^nu unb6d)in)a fa^en auf golbenen 
3;i^ronen. (Sin anbermal »erfammelten ftc^ me!)rerc 
taufenb muntere .^irtenmabdien beim fro^c^en OJei- 
gen , urn \)k |)eraMunft biefe^ ^otte6 auf @rben p 
feiern ^rifd^na erfcf)ien felbft unter ben freubetrun* 
fenen 3ungfrauen unb bo e0 an ^anjern fel)(te, fo 
t^eilte er ftc^ in ebenfo »ie(e taufenb gormen unb 
trieb me'^rere ^age unb ^a^te fein tolled SBefen mit 
ber ermi\nf(^ten ©efeKfc^aft. 3n un5ud)tigen ^iebe6* 
liebern befmgen bie ^inbu6 an gewiffen gefttagen 
bie nnlben 5luefc^iDeifungen Oiefe^ fd^cinblid^en ^ottee^, 
uub werfen einanber \)aM einen rotl^en 6taub in^ 

$ln anbcrn Drten wjerben ^fjeater errid^tet unb 
feine (Sdbanbtl^aten in !pantomimifd^en SSorftellungen 
aufgefu^rt. ^inmal »erfu^te £rif(^na einen religion 
fen 5Q?ann, 3utift]f>ir eine :2uge ju fagen, urn ml^n 


\o\lien biefer feinen 2Beg na(^ bem $fmmel turd^ tie 
^olTe ne]()mcn mu^te. ■ 

§((6 ^rifc^na befc^Ioffen l^attc, bcti obgenanntctt 
3!i)rannen ^angfa, a\x^ t>em 5Kegc 311 rdumen, enU 
tiedte ex auf bem 2Sege tia^ ber |)au:ptfiabt, ba^ feme 
^leiber p Swm\)en gett)orben ttjaren. @r fagte |u 
feinem ^ruber 33alaram, in biefen Jefeen buvfen tt)ir 
ttid^t in bic ©tabt einsieften, (Sie gingen ba^er in 
ba^ |)au6 eme6 Sdfc^er^ unb forberten ^(eiber; 
biefer tt)oUte fte nid^t gebert, tt)ei( jte ttm ^onig gc* 
l^orten. ^rifcS^na erfc^fug xi)n unb nal^m bie i?er^ 
fangten geierfleiber mit ji^ fort. 

3n einem !2aben ftal^Ien fie barauf ^mi $al0bin^ 
ben. (!in alte0 frumm gebuifte^ SBeib beraubte er 
be^ foftbaren @anbell^olae6, \)a^ fte nac^ \)cm Wlaxfte 
trug. XTm fte nic^t ol^ne Selo^nung njegjufc^itfen, 
ma6)k er fte gerabe nnb gab i^r eine engelfd^one 

2)ie fdblane 2)trne fagtc nun, ba bu tni(^ fo Keb* 
rid) umgeftaitet f)a\t, fo moc^te i^ and) tt)if[en, tver 
mid^ l^eiratl^en tt)irb. ^rifd^na antnjortete: „593en 
mod^teft bu gerne !)aben? ^iiS} felbft/' ijerfe^te fie, 
unb ber ^ott gettjdl)rte if)re ^itte ol^ne 53eben!en» 

^rif(^na bracfete t)or feinem ^obe alTe feine ^in* 
ber urn, @ein (Snbe tt)ar feinem ^^Un^ n)urbig. @r 
fa^ in (^eftalt eine6 grogen SSogele auf einem 53aum, 
ein Sdger fc^o^ i&n mit einem ^fei( burc^^ ^erj 
unb er ftel tobt ^n 53oben. 

2)ie le^te Sncarnation iji bie i>on SSubl^a; wirb 
aber in S3enga(en nic^t aid eine fold^e anerfannt. 

P \ H^^ JUie ©otter 

SKa^renb in Snbicn bie sReligioneiel^re biefe6 sp!)«o^ 
fopf)en beina^e auegeftorben ift, tt)urt)e jte in (§ftina 
^e^Ion unb bem Mrmanifc^en 9^eic^e bie {)errfd^enbe. 
S3ub^a trug e6 barauf an, 9Jienf(^en unb ^^ieropfer 
abjiifc^affen unb eine reinere 9fleligion6 *^^itofo^3l)ie 
cinjuful)ren. ' ^k Sf^ein^eit berfelben fd^eint^ l)aupt^ 
fdc^lic^ barin ^u befte^en, ha^ fte tt)ie mand^e moberne 
<b\)iUme unferer ^dt ju einer abfoluten Sl^erldugnung 
hex (3ott^dt ful)rt» " ; 

4i)k §el)nte . Sncarnation W)irb t)on ben |>inbu^ 
no^ emartet. SKifc^nu foil auf eirtem weigen ^pferb 
crfd^einen; fein ^au^)t mit fteben kronen ge^ieret, 
im Jriumip^ reitet er ein^er unb ubertvinbet feine 
geinbc. 3ti jencr ^tit foil bann bie gegentodrtige 
5Serfaffung ber SBelt eine aHgemeine Ummdijung er^ 
leiben; eine merftourbige $lnfpielung einiger 2Beiffa* 
gungen be6 5llten unb S'leuen 3!eftameteg in SBejie* 
]^ung auf bte SBieberfunft (S^rijti jum ©ericfet. ^ 

^c^ i\i tk britte ^erfon 8(^itt)a gu befc^rei^ 
ben ubrig. 6eine ©eftalt unb fein S3eruf bejeic^nen 
il)n al0 eine fc^rerfUd^e ©ottl)eit» 3n ber rec^ten 
^anb l)dlt er einen 2)rei5acf5 fein 5lngefic^t ift bro^ 
|)enb. (Sr ift ber ^exftoxex t)on 5lllem; ira^ Seben 
unb Dtl^em l^at. @ein .^al^gefc^meibe beftel^t au6 
^obenfopfen, feine 5(rmfpangen, D^renringe unb an* 
bere ^kxxatf)cn ftnb eine groge ^njal^l ^on 33rillen* 
f(^langen» @eine ^leibung ift ein 5^iegerfe"ll, unb 
3al)rl()unberte jog er in biefer ^rad^t um^er mit ^aa^ 
xcn, bie bi0 auf bk f nod^el ]^erunter]()ingen. dx ritt 

fluf bcm l^eiTtcjen £)^\tn, wjel^er befl(jal!) wit et 
felbp, gottU(]^e SSeret)rung genie^t. - :^ 

(Seine Slugen ttjaren feuerrotl), wtil er, me bie 
^ftinefen neuerer 3^^^ ^^^ ^^f^ (^etx>i>^n^rit l^atte^ 
Ttarfotif^e ^rciuter p fauen. Dft war er fo beraufc^t^ 
J)a§ feine ungludftid^e ®attm nidc^tig an ii^m ju 
f^utteltt l^atte, U^ er tvieber aufwac^te. >- 

Sei feiner |)e{rat]() mit ^arbatti (l)ie tjon (SJe- 
bir^ig]^ ^erftammenbe) riefeti iljxe "Ra^hmnmn au^^ 
trie (B^atc ift e^/ bag Me (Sc^onl^eit ber bmSBelten 
cinem fol^en £er( pfcifit^ ber feinen 3«^w in^ SD^unbe 
unb brei 5litgen l)at; bit mit ©d^lan^en umgebcn 
ift unb ein |)al6banb mit ^^^^enfi^enfcS^dbeln trdgt unb 
wie ein 2Ba!)nflnniger einl)er9e^t. 

53ei einem gefie ber hotter tranf 6(^iwa eine 
groge portion ® ift; biefe^ befam i^m fo ubel, t)a^ 
er in eine D\^nma^t fiel unb e^ f^ien, a(^ tt)olIte 
er ben ®eift aufgeben. (Seine ©el^ulftn ^urqa fprad^ 
einige 3«uberforme(n liber il^n au^ unb fein 5^et^ugt^ 
fe^n h^xte prurf. $Da^ (SJift Iie§ aUt an feinem ^alfe 
ein bldue^ 3)kl inxM , baf)er erl^ielt er ben 9tamen 
9?il!ont]^o. ober 5>er ^(au^alftge. StU er mit 5Brama 
in Streit gerietf), fcbnitt er biefem einen feiner funf 
^opfe ab unb mad^te fi^ eine Sd^uffel barau^, tx)c* 
mit er auf feinen 3^eifen kttelte unb $(lmofen ein- 
fammelte, ■' ^m. ■-/::: m^^^^^ 

9}lan wurbe ftd^ irreu, tt>enn man bdd^te, bie 
Sdbafier^ ful^ren ben ^runb^aracter einer jeben i|rer 
@ottt)eiten auf eine confequente 2Bei^ burdb. @o 
erfd^eint Sc^iwa nic^t nur ai^ ^exiimx , fonberu 

74 ' 3)ie ©otter 

then fo oft oie 6c^opfer. !Der Sramine erflart biefe 
5lbweid^ung auf folgenbe SBeife: @r fagt, fo langc 
tic 2Belt tval^rt, gibt ee eigentUc^ in ber 2Be(t !etnc 
9anjUd[)e 3^i^ftorung ; e6 iji nur Stuflofung unb bie^ 
felben (Sletnente fe'^reti in tjerwanbelter ©ejialt al6* 
balb W)ieber in if^x IDafe^n snritcf. 3^i^f*^nmg ift 
ba!)er na^ feiner :|3ant]^eiftif(S^en ^t)i(ofop!)ie eigcntlid^ 
nic^t^ anbcr6, al6 SBiebererneuerung ; eine §(rt S^e^* 
i^robnction, unb fo ift <B^\wa ber ^anfenbfunftfer, 
wcl^cv mit einent @d^(ag tobtet unb belebt, unb trifft 
fein (Bta^l ha^ menfd^lic^e Seben, fo ftellt er baffelbe 
in einer transmigration unb neuen ©eburt wieber 

Dbglei^ 6(^iwa bem |)inbu in eincm fo furc^t^ 
baren (it)aracter erfcJ^eint, fo l^at er in53engalen bo^ 
unter alien ©ottern hd weitem \)k meiften SSerel^rer. 
2)ie §lrt unb SSeife biefer SSerel^rung werbe x(b in 
bem ndd^ften 5lbfc^nitt au6ful)rltd^ mittl)ei(en. 

2)ie (^attin ^ii)iwa^ erfc^eint in ber .^inbu^^D^^^ 
tl^ologie in brei toerf^iebenen 9lamen ober 3nbi»ibua^ 
litdten. 2)ur9a, ^arbatti unb ^ali, 3n 2)urga er^ 
fennen bie |)inbu6 olle g6ttlicl)en ^igenfd^aften, barnm 
finb aucf) bie gefte, vvelc^e il)r ju @l>ren ge^alten 
toerben, bie gefeiertften in ganj Snbien. @in ©ott 
^ah il)r feinen 2)reijac!, ein anberer ben ^oc^er mit 
^feilen , ein britter tjerebrte il)r ein ©d^ladbtbeil unb 
ein \)ierter 33li$ unb !I)onner. .. v . v.. . 

60 au6geru|iet erfc^lug jte einen furd^tbaren X^- 
rannen, ber bie ^rbe unterjo^te. IDiefer ^erwanbelte 
flc^ in einen meilenftol^en (Sle))l^anten , bie ©ottin 

ft$og i^n mit einem ^fclf burc^ btc IBrufl. SKcgeit 
biefer |)erbent^at tt>irb i'tr im 9Jlonat <BepUmbcx tin 
geft gcfeiert, ba6 jwd SBodbcn lan^ baii^rt, wclc^e^ 
iiMfteng etwa^ n<il^er befc^rieben ttjerben fott. 

^ali ift in bem ganjen ipant!)eon bc6 |)tnb«i0mu$ 
bie furd^tbarfte ©ottl^eit uub if)re ^Bere^rung bie un* 
.ftttlidbfte. <5ietvan!ba0 SBfutil^rer %ein\)e, voel^t jte er* 
fd^Iug. (Sie ftel^t mit bem einen %n^ auf ber 33ru^ 
@cbitt)a0, t^re mit ^Slut gefdrbtc S^H^ ^(^H^ pnt 
SJlunbe Ijerau^j jte ift mit ben 6cfeabeln unb ^anben 
i^r^r erfd^Iageneit geinbe gejiert. 

3n bem 35wd^ ber ^ali ^urannaS fte^t gefd^rie* 
I)«n: ba0 53ltit eine^ ^iecjetS ergo^te fie 5e!)n 3cit)re, 
abfr ba6 ^lut eine^ !Dlenf^en taufenb 3a^re. SBenti 
einer il^rer 5lnbeter \)a^ ^hxt i)on feinem eigcneit 
£orper I)erau6(a^t wnb i{)r jum Dpfer bringt, wirb 
fie t)or S^eube ganj ent^itrft. ©ctyneibet er jtc^ aber 
ein 6tucf gleifd^ au6 feinem eigenen Seibe ^exau^ 
unb bringt c6 if)r al^ ein 33ranbo)3fer bar, fo uber^ 
fteigt i^r 28onnegefu]^( aCfe ^fc^reibung." 2)cr 
opfernbe \pvi^t haUi folgenbe SSorte: „^eit bir 
taufc^enbe (^ottin, Jtc^c auf unb t)erjel^re bie ®aU, 
2)u fiaft meine Mt befriebigt, em^fange mein ^(ut 
unb erweife mir beine ^unji. 

^a(i ift eine befonbere greuubin t)Ott Ziehen, 
9iaubern unb l^orbern. 3ebe 'Dieb^banbe tragt il^^ 
rem iBilbe il^re 53itte urn ha^ ^elingen if)re6 gefa!>r«^ 
lichen Unternel^mene ijor, unb bringt i{)r guerft b(u* 
tige Dipfer. 3n il)rem iRamen beten fte aucfe bad 
fffierfjeug an, rnit b^m fte in ein ^aud einbrecben 
wolfen, golgenbe gormel wirb babei ijon il^nen ge^ 

76 . 3)ie hotter 

brauc^t: „D Snftruntent t)on t)er (S^ottin tjerfertigt^ 
^a(i beftel^ft t>k eine Deffnung in ba^ $au0 ^u nta* 
^en, ju l^auen burc^ 6tetn unb ^ein, burc^ |)o(3 
itnb @rbe xtnb su macfeen, bag ber 6tau!^ »om SBinbe 
entfuf^rt wirb.'' - 

Sn tjotter ©wartung ber gottlic^en 53en?a^run3 
f(^rettett [jte nun 3u ber 5(u^fu^rung ifjre^ !)eittofm 

9Sor mel^reren Sal^ren l^at bie S^egierung in 3n* 
bien eine SJiorberbanbe entbecft, beren eng gefcfeloffene 
SSerbrfiberung burei^ ba6 gan^e 9leic^ tjerjmeigt war, 
®ie ftnb unter bent ^Ramen ^l^uggS tt)o^I befannt 
(Sie ftnb treue ©center unb S^lac^^folger ^ali*^, Unter 
i^rem Scbufee l^aben fie »ie(e 3a!)re fc^i>n mii ber 
grogten 35erf(^n>iegen]^eit i^^r 9)lorberl^anbtt>erf ge^ 
trieben unb obgleic^ |)uttberte toon t]()nen aufgepngt 
njurben, beftel^t biefe SSerbruberung bennod^ bt^ auf 
biefen ^ag fort Sange 3^^^ war il)re |>auvtnicber# 
lage in ber S'Jad^barfG^aft von 55enareg>. 3^x S^ecf 
ift ^iaub, unb urn benfelben p erreii^rn, fc^^nuren fie 
i^rcn D:pfern ben ^al^ ju. 9Kan ^ei^te mir hd 
9Kirsa:pore einen ^alitem:pel , in bem fte jtc^ toerfam* 
melten, efte bie !0l6rberbanbe auf 9laub auSging unb 
fie urn if)ren iBeiftanb onflel^ten; aiid^ toerf^jred^en jte 
ber ^oWin einen ^^eil be6 geraubten ®ute0, 3e brei 
ober t>ier ber (^efc^wornen reifen in ©efettfd^aft. Un* 
temeg^ fc^liegen fie ftd^ an 9ieifenbe on, unterl^alten 
fi^ mit i^nen unb fud^en i^re 33erl)dUniffe unb ta^ 
*@igent|um, ta^ fte Ui ftd^ |aben, augjuf^a{)en. Hn* 
ter einem fc^attigen 53aume; am einfamen Ba^ ober 

ber |)inbu6, 77 

Winter bem <^ebuf(^ ru^cn ftc in ber Xa^c^^i^e mit 
i^ren Sleifegefdijrten au^. 5(uf ein gegeben^d 3^^^^^ 
fatten jte lUer tie <Sd)lafenben ^er, werfen i^nen mit 
unglaubli^er ^et)enbf9feit eine (S^linge, bie au0 
einem banmn^cKenen ^urtel gema(S^t ift, um ben |)al0 
unb in wenigen 9)iinuten liegen biefe erbroffelt ta. 3^r 
®elb nnb ©elb^tt^ertl^ tt)irb nun etngepacft unb tk Seic^^ 
name tverben unter bie (Srbe ober im @anb »er* 
fc^arrt ^ine fold^e gertigfett ^aben biefe ^fjuggS 
in i()rem SD^orbgefc^dfte eriangt, ba^ in einer SSiertel^ 
ftunbe atte6 fertig ift. <5ie erbrojfetn cinen !Reifen* 
ben, wenn er gwei (^ulben SKertl^^ bei ft(i^ ^at 

MBerben einige eingefangen unb sum ^algen t)er* 
urt^eilt, fo geben fie ni(^t ^ali, fonbern fi(^ felber 
bie ^c^ulb* ©ie fagen, jte l^aben fxCi) ntc^t ftrenge 
genug an \)k gorm i^rer Sfteligion g'e^lten, fonft 
l^atte t)k ©ottin fte' unfel^Ibar befd^fijt 2)iefe^^ugg0 
l^aben gewiffe ^d^tn, an welc^en jte einanber burd& 
ganj |)inboft]^an erfennen. 

^oren jte »on irgenb einer 6eite })ex, bag man 
il^nen nac^fpurt, fo jerftreuen fte ftd^ einjeln auf 
mefjrere SBod^en unb fommen an cntfernten Drten 
t)erabrebetermaagen wieber gufammen. 

3<3^ benfe meine t)eret)rten S^^^tx !)aben genug 
»on ben (^ottern ber ^inbu0 geljort , um jtci^ einc 
jiemlic!^ ric^tige ©orftellung t>on il^rem ^l^aractet 
mac^en ju fonnen, 

3^ lonnte nod^ bie 6c^anbt]^aten eine0 3nbra 
beru{)ren, i(^ fonnte ergdl^Ien, tt)ie einer. ber ©otter* 
foI)ne ©anefd^ im ^ampf feinen ^opf t>er(or unb aW 

78 2)te ©otter 

fein ^attx if)n nic^t fanb , i^m ben ^cpf eine6 ®e^ 
pl^anten an feine @teUe fefete, unb tt)ie Mefer ®ancf# 
eine ber Beliebteften unb anktung^ttjurbi^iien ®ott* 
l^eiten geworben ifl. 5lber e6 fu{)rt ju feinem be- 
fnebfgenben (irgebni^. Ile^nlici^e alberne ©efc^idbten 
tiDteber^oren ftc^ burc^ \)a^ ganje Sugengewebe l}in^ 
bnrc^ unb wed^feln mit alfen moglid^en ©raudn ab. 
60 moralifdb [(^leci^t unb X)erfunfen 'i)at noc^ fein 
^^tann auf ©rben gelebt, tt)ie bie ^inbu^ ii^re tjor- 
nel^mften ©otter fd^Ubern, 

SJJerfmurbig ift e^ au(^, ba^ hie 3^^^ i^^^'^ ®^^* 
ter i^nen je^t noc^ ni^t geniigt unb in unfern^agen 
nod^ neue »on ben S3raminen fabricirt tt^orben fmb, 
60 liejen fte erft feit 20 3al)ren im fublic^en SSen^ 
galen gegen ben 5ln6flu§ be6 ©ange^ l)\n eine toeib- 
lid^e ©ottin erfc^einen, hk DUa^^ibi genannt ivirb 
unb t)k if)re 5lnbeter t)or ber (5()oIera [(^u^en foU. 
2)ie gigur n^irb i)om ^o^fer t)erfertigt, r>om iBrami* 
uen etngeweil5)t unb fiel^t einem 9}lenf^enfo:pf etnjae 
al)nlic^, ^ric^t bie (i^olera au^, fo bringen t)k 
Seute in ber 5(ngft biefem 53ilbe if)reD:pfer t)on9fiei^, 
S3Iumen unb anbere (Sac^en bar." 3Sor ungefa^r 
300 Sa^ren lie^ ein SBramine in S'lubbea M m\^^ 
nagore in einem ipoetif^en SBerfe eine neueSncarna^ 
tion SBif(l)nu6, 9lamen6 ^boitun^o erf^einen, unb 
je^t finb l^unberttaufenbe t>on |)inbu^ 3Sere|)rer bef* 

-felben.^r-V'-^yv.;. ;•■:;:■■- -• ■ ■ 
> £ieber Sefer! ijl biefe arme 3^ation i?on©b§en^ 
bienern nid^t ju bebauern? 3it folcben fc^auerlicf^en 
©eftalten fteKen W ^inbu^ t^a^ gottlid}e 3Kefen bar 

fccr ^inbtt^. 79 

unb in fofc^eti alberncn ®cf(^ic^to \u^cn fit hie 
Smma^t t^rer (hotter m Bemeifcn. |)ier ifi tin SSolf, 
bag Dcrgibt, cine ^Religion §u bcpleti, cine 5lrmce 
)?on ?Priejicrtt l^at eg , tt)cl^e jebc @tunbc bcrcit ftnb, 
jur SJcrt^eibigung il^rc^ rcligiofen ^uUuei jlc^ in 
2)i§putationen ein^ulaffen; aber tt)em ift nic^t au^ 
bem fc^ott (^e^orteu bie l^etUofe ^^enbenj i^rer ^^eo* 
. logic aufgefallen. 6ie confuubirt ben ©t^opfcr mit 
bem (^ef(^o))f : bcr Unterfc^tcb 5W)ifc^cn bcibcn ift »er* 
loren unb ioernid^tet. dntwcber (ft $(ttcg @d^o:|)fcr 
obcr el iji OTel ^reatur. 

S93er, nteine Sefer, wjurbe folc^e !Dogmen mit fei^ 
nem (S^riften^^Ianben ^ertaufc^en? SBenn bie (§rca* 
tur um ixn6 T^er ein Z^cH ber ^otf^eit ift unb tvenn 
wir in bem ]^o(^ften 2Befen mit bem brmninifc^en 
^P^ilofop^en mikx ni^t6 all bie aCfcl burd^bringenbe 
2BeItfeeIe erfennen, it)e((^en S^lu^en l^dttcn n?ir »ou 
einer fold^en fpeculatit)en ^SorftelTung ; benn ^fauben 
fann man jene ..^irngef^infte bod^ nic^tJ&ei^en, o^nc 
t)a^ f(^one SKort in feiner tiefen 8cbeutung su ^ro^ 

SSir (eben mit greube in einer untjonfommenen 
SBelt; ter mm\i^ ift jeben ^ag SSerfuc^ungen, ^ti^ 
ben, ©efa^ren aulgefe^t. @r brauc^t |)u(fe, er ^ai 
Zxoft, (Srmunterung , 5(ufnc^tung notl^ig. @r feufjt 
untei* ber Saft ber 6ijnbe/ unb bebarf einel (Srloferl, 
So fott er biefel finben, n)cnn er fcinen ©lauben an 
cinen reetten (^ott l)at ? 2Bie fott er fic^ feinee ^a* 
fe^nl freuen, wenn ber Zxo\t ber SSergebung, wenn 
^tiie froT^e 5(u0ftc^t in ein bcfferel ^chen i^m abge* 


.BD.;-;:'f :.-■!. ::Svr 2)ie ©otter 

fcf)uitten ift? 2)er ^ant^etji ^at feinen ©fauben, 
feine .^offnung : ^Saffet i:n6 effcn unb trin!en, benii 
morgen fint) wir tobt," iji fein SKa^Ifpru^. 

€taimen mugte ic^, aU i^ l)bxk, bag ein^^ftem 
^on ^eibnifc^em Urfprung feine 33e\t>unt)erer unt) 5(n^ 
Wnger im ^riftfi^en :l)eutfc?^Iant) gefunben Ifat 3Ber 
ten ^\}axactex beffelben f^mu(f(o0 unb «nt)erblumt, 
tr>ie e^ ift, befd^auen tt>iH, wer feine moralifc^e ^en* 
tenj ber 3Ka]^rbeit getreu fennen Ternen moc^te, foUte 
nad^ SBengalen gel)en unb ein ^aax 3a!)re fic^ am 
^ange^ unter ben S3raminen nieberlaffen, unb ber 
Slnblicf i!)re0 fd^auberl^aften (Sultu^ vrurbe fein gan^ 
8e6 SBefen erf(^uttern» 3<^ bin gett)i^, er wurbe ^on 
alien ^antl^eifiif^en Sbeen furirt jurucff ebren , unb 
mit ber ^anb auf ber SSibel au6rufen: „^ier ift 
,f^a\)xl)cxt, ^nUn, taQ ben ®eift befriebrigt unb ha^ 
„|)era erfreut, — bort ift Suge, ^ob, SSerwefung." 

ginben tt)ir audb l^ie unb ba in ben ^^\)a^ ein 
©olbfornlein gefunber SO^oral, fo liegt e6 unter einem 
6anb{)aufen unnu^er ©^)eculation , einem 2Buft 'oon 
Srrtl^umern begraben. ©tojen xoix ptx)eilen auf 
bunfle 5(nfpielungen biblif(^er (^efc^id^te unb SSeif^ 
'fagnngen, fo jtnb fie burc^ alberne drsdl^lungen l)in 
t)crtr>oben unb entnourbigt. 3ft ber S[Renfcb ni(J)t mit 
fdbauberljafter 53linbl)eit gef(^Iagen, vt>eld&er alU befferc 
@efuf)Ie t)er]^o]^uenb , ^rama einen Deafen, einen 
Sieger, einen SBattftfc^ wjerben unb auf biefe tT^ierifc^e 
3Beife \iic Qxhe, \)a^ !0?eer unb anbere SlBelten be»ol* 
fern la^t. 2ga^ mug ha^ fur ein 5Qlenf^ fe^n, votU 
d^er (hotter, woie S3rama unb 6c^iwa erbicfetet, 


W>etc5er ben erpen alter ©otter al^ Sfigner, ZxnnUn^ 
bolb unb dl^ebrec^er barjieUt, unb au^ bem ^immel 
tin ©aufgelage mac^t, tt)a <5unt)en ^erubt tterben, 
tt)ie man jte nnr in ^dufern x>on bofem $Rufe erttjar^ 
ten Darf. ' ''■■"^'' : '-■■^■■- --^- "'■■ 

2Ber wenbet ba nic^t gerne fein^nge mn [olc^em 
©rduel nnb Unfmn l^inweg nnb lie^t mit fcanfbarem 
|)erjen feine S3ibe(, unb erfennt in ber fd^onen wur^^ 
begotten (§infac^lf)eit , mit wjelc^er fte i)U (^efc^id^te 
ber (5d)opfung befd^reibt, gottlid^ geoffenbarte 
2Bal)r^eit, , , 

3a mein (ieber Sefer, ber arme nngelet)rte Sanb^ 
niann in fciner geringen §utte im beutf^en SSater* 
ianbe lernt au6 bem erften 55erfe M 53ibelbn(^'0 : 
„3m 5lnfang f(^uf ®ott t^inimel nnb ^rbe" mel^r 
2^1^eologie unb erl^cilt ric^tigere unb feine^ 6(^opfer^ 
n)urbigere Slnfic^ten, aI6 t)ie groften ©eifter aKer 
3eiten in il^ren tiefften @^ftemen je l^erau6gearbeitet 

(Sben bie eble ungefc^^mucfte (^infad^^eit ber l^eili^' 
gen @^rift, in tijel^er He l^errli^ften SBa^r^eiten 
bem SKeufc^en bargelegt n^erben, benrfunbet i^ren 
gottUd^en Urfprung. @o I}at no$ f ein 93lenfc^ ge^ 
Ul)xt, ©otf rnft bie ^elt au^ il)rem 9flic^t6 f)erau0. 
„©r fpri(^t, fo gef(^ie:^et c0. ^r gebietet, fo ftef^et 
e3 ba/' |)ier ift fein^ 3iif<iiii»i^iitt)erfen be^ 6^opfer^ 
unb ber @c^opfung. Unabl^dngig, l^errlic^, allmdc^^ 
tig erf^eint er al^ ©ott unb bepel;It — t^k SBSelten 
iletjen ta in xf)xex @d^6nl^eit unb^ Drbnung. 

;,3^ mug frei gefiel^en, fagt ber bem dvi^mt^nm 

82 !Die (Spotter ber |>inbug. 

nid)t geneigte Slouffcau, ter majeftatifd^e (Si)atacUt 
tex ^xM ex\xxUt mi^ mit eben fo grower 2^emunt>e* 
rung al6 t)ic 3fleinl)eit be6 @»angeUum6 mein |)crs 
anf^rid^t, Sie0 tie SSerfe unferer $l^ilofo^)l)cn mit 
aW il^ren er^abenen 3^^^n wnb :pom:pofen $Reben^- 
artcn, it)ie gering, tvie ijerdc^tli^ erfc^einen jie tm 
5Sergleid) mit ber Ijeirigen ©c^rift ! 3ft e^ moglic^, 
bag ein 33uc^ / fo einfad^ unb boc^ fo er!)aben ta^ 
Serf eine6 3J?enf{^enfe^nfann? 9?ein, e^ ift gottlic^." 

|lrittc0 ^aptta. 

S)ic ^cmpcl \iit ^ini>u'^. — :©ie ©o^enbilber. — 2)ic 3ltt= 
betuttfl ber ®o|en. — 2)ie ^riejlcr* — 2)te ®o$enopfer. — 
SBaben im ©ange^. -— ©ottin ©urga. — 9Seref)run9 be^ 
©ange^. — @terben am ©anges^. — SSerbrennen ber 
^obten. — ©elbft: unb ^inbermorb im ©an^e^. — .^(t 
liefe|>. — ©c^iDingfeft. — ^fcboggonat^, — S)ie Ol^cetifer 
ober @remtten. — ©elbjTpeinigimgen. — 3)tc @c^rabl)a 
obet Stobtenfeier. — 2)er ^immel ber ^inbu'^. — 3)ie 
^olle ber ^inbu'^. — S)ie ©eeleniuanberung. — S)ai^ ®es 
ric^t. — gatali^mu^* — (Jintge SBetrac^tungen. — c 

S)ie ©S^enmod^er finb aHsumal etttl nnb i^r f5|Ht(l^e« i|l fetn nii^e. 6«« 
ftnb ifete 3cuqen unb fel^en nid^ts, merfen au(^ nid^t«, fcarum muffen fte |tt 
Sd^anbeii werben. gefata^ 44, 0. 

. 3n bem Ie|tett 5lbf(^nftt J)albe ic^ metne 35efd^ret* 
bung ber VDtc^tigften (hotter ber |)inbn6 ^u ^nbe ge^ 
brac^t ^iJleine 5lbftd^t trt ber gegenmdrtigen tft bent 
geneigten liefer etn anfd}aul{c^e6 8ilb bai)on ju ge* 
ben, n)ie e^ mit ber SSeretjrung berfelben unter bent 
3SoI!e gel)alten tt)irb; auf wjelc^e 3Beife ber «^inbu 
]^offt, bag .^eil feiner ©eele ^u beforbern. 

@ine ^emerfung mng idb biefer 5lbl^anblung t)or* 
mi6fenben. !5)er in feinen re(tgiofen (5c^riften bewan^? 
berte 53ramine erblirft in feinen l^otterbic^tungeit 
einen tiefern <Sinn unb erfldrt bie gretten T>arftettun^ 
gen berfelben in ben t)erfc^iebenen ^o^enbilbern al6 
@ttmboIe Qciftiger trdfte unb ^igenf(^aften» 2)iefe 
fogenannte geifireid^e $(uffaffung Ifiat mand^e tief 

6 * 

84 Ueber ben ©o^enbtenfl 

benfenbe gorfc^er ber ^inW ^ ^i)if)oioQic gar fcl^tr 
befc^afttgt unb fie glaubten in berfelbeit ein 8iib- 
ftratum (Unterlacje) \5on reiner Skrnunftreligicn tnU 
berft^gu ^ahm, wel^e ber 3!{)eolo9ie ber 53ibe( jttjar 
tii^t gleii^su^alten fe^, aber bo(3^ wenrg nadbMc 
3a einigc fogar gtaubten in biefem ^o^en * (§^aoe 
tie retne llrreligion ju entbecfen. ^efe^t aud^ ber 
t)ierfo^ftge SBrama, ober ber @tetn (B^iwa^ ^hc 
cineit tiefern, al^ ben gefd&ic^tHc^en @inn, fo toerjie^t 
©ber at)nt tl^n unter §el)ntaufenben t)on |>inbue fanm 
^tner. Time ^ufgabe ift, ba^ (^o^enwefen, gerabe 
tt)te e^ bem Sdige be^ ^O^iiffionare fic^ barbietet, bar* 
pjiellen; — bie traurigen SBir!ungen beffelben licgett 
am ^age unb ber (^ebanfe, ba^ »ieKeicbt bie erjlen 
^rftnber biefer Tl\^i^cn ^ie unb \^a eine^ il)rer ^()U 
lofopl^eme nur in eine grote6fe gorm gebrac^t l^aben, 
faun un^ nic^t bariiber troften, ta^ WiUionm \)on 
!Dlenfc^en, \)k atte jene gabefn m fraffeften 6innt 
gfauben, inbejfen bur(^ \)kk [c^auerlic^e 3fle(igion be^ 
geifili^eu 3^obe6 jierbem 

^uex^t ein 9Bort liber \)k Xempcl ber |)inbu^, 
!Dlan uiu^ ^^ im Sltrgemeinen nic^t folc^e ftattlidbe, 
^rac^t^cKe ^ebaube unter benfelben Dorftetten, n)ie 
unfere ^ird^en finb. <S(^iwae ^empel ift ein regel* 
iuapige6 Duabrat; ba^ (Pentad), in ti)e(^em t)a^ 
©c^enbilb fte^t, ^at gett)o]^nltc| nt^t me^r aU a^t 
bi^ S^^ gu^ im ^e^ierte. 3tt tm 2)orferu ftel^en 
bie ^em:pel meiften^ auf bem WUxtte, bie ^iubuS 
^flansen gerue einige Wlon^oe^ ober ^amariuben^ 
S3aum.e i.n if^rer 3{a§e. 6ie tjcrfararaeln fx^ be$ 

let «&tnt)u^. 85 

WloxQcn^ unb 3(knb6 im ©c^atten berfelbeit, rau*en 
unb unterl^aftcn fld^ mit einanber. 3n grofern^tdb* 
ten unb befonber^ in S5enare6 ftnbet man ?[}ieifter^ 
ftiicfe tjon S3au!unft. . 3<^ bettjunbcrte befonbere bic 
gef^macft)otte ©cul^tnr ; SB(umen unb gcfc^icJ^tUc^e 
53ilber an^ ber t^inbu-SJli^tl^oIogie ftnb du^erft fc^on 
^ollenbet "^i^t^ ift t) erbtenftt) otter , aB ber S3au 
eine6 folc^en ^empe(6, bie ^eli^fett be^ $immel6 ift 
bafur ijerijetfen, befonber^ vvenn e^ an bem @ange^ 
gef(^iel)t, 3n SBenare^ ftnbet man mel^r aU 900 
©c^iwatempel. Sn ber 3la<^barfd^aft »on 33urbii>an 
baute i)cr 50 3aT()ren ein reid^er ^dd^ter 120 ber^ 
felben, vod^t tin gro^e^ SSterec! mit einem weiten 
^ofraum bilben. 3n atten ^ciim tt)urben fie "oon 
ben gurften unb IRaidi)^ mit (intern rei^lid^ botirt, 
wd(i)e ben 2)icnji t^uenben SSraminen ein gute^^in* 
fommen gewdi^ren. - * 

V (So foUen Ue fitter, wel^e ju ben ^em^eln 
Suggernautl^^ in Drtffa ge^oren, ein jdl^rlid^e^ (Sin* 
fommen i)on I)unberttaufenb 9lu^3ie6 abwerfen. - 
" 2)er ©o^enbilber, tt)el(^e t>on ben |)inbu0 
angebetet wjerben, gibt e^ atterlei ^attungen, fie n)er* 
ben aber t?on ben 33raminen in jwei ^anptflaffen 
abget{)ei(t3 ndmlic^ folc^e, bie auf bie 2)auer gemac^t 
ftttb unb in ben ^em^eln aufgefteUt werben, uub 
anbere, voel^e man nur fur bie feierlic^e ©elegenl&eit 
be^ ©o^enfefteS gubereitet. 2)ie erfteren beftel^en au6 
foliben 93lateriaUen, al6 8tein, ^u^fer, ^olb, 8i(ber, 
bie 3tt)eite (5{affe aue .^ols unb Sel^m ober (^ange6^ 

86 Ueber ben (^o^eubienft 

3" t)^n erfteren ^e^bxi t)cr ^inga/ vvelc^er ben- 
6(^itt)a i)orjiellen foil; e^ ift ein fc^warjer 6tem, in 
ter gorm eine6 3w<J^i^^iii^- SKottte man Me ©c^vinti* 
lic^feit biefe6 ^o^entienfte^ in feiner W)a!)ren ^eftalt 
tarftellen unb benfelben bem 5tbf(^eu eine^ ^riftli^en 
unb moralifc^en $ublifnm6 ?Prei0 geben, fo mu^te 
man eigentlic^ hie mi^ere (^efc^ic^te feine^ Urfpning^ 
erja^Ien, aber ba^ ift unmoglid^j ie^ moc^te ba^ 
<5(^aamgefu^( meiner Sefer nic^t etnmal bnr^ eine 
Slnbentung beleibigen. @c^itt)a, in feiner (Sigenfc^aft 
al^ @rnenrer ber belebten ^rbe, ift einSBuftling uber 
alle Ttaa^en. fDiefe Singa6, 8i?mbole feiner Sc^anbe, 
tt)erben in tanfenben »on ^empeln a(0 hotter t)er* 
e^rt nnb nirf)t felten fie!)t man ^culipturen an ben* 
felben, tvelc^e jiene ^plic^en, gef(i)ic^tli^en ^rabitionen 
erldntern nnb t)a^_ gemeinfte moralifc^e ©efnl^l em* 
^oren. ^ogen i)on 6tein nnb ^O^etaffen werben in 
grc^ereE (5tdbten nnb auf dMxtten ^erfauft. 3)ie 
^aufleute in S3irmingl)am mac^ten t)or einigen 3al^- 
ren dne. gnte @)3eculation , inbem fie tanfenbe t)on 
meffingenen ®ogen t)erfertigten nnb nac^ Calcutta 
t)erfanbten, tt)o fte eine gnte ^lbnal)me fanben 3<^ 
][)orte e0 016 eine tranrige Zha\\a^c in ^nglanb er* 
^cif)kn, ba^ an 53orb eine^ unb beffelben ©c^iffe^ 
gttjei S!)^ifftonare nnb mel)rere groge ^iften \>oE »ott 
folc^en ®oi)en nad^ Calcutta abgingen. 
, (S^ofeen »on Z^on nnb ^0(5 tt)erben in jebem 
^inbnborfe »erfertigt. (5ie tt)erben nac^ bem (^o^en* 
fefte §erbrpd^en ober in^ Staffer gemorfen. (S^ ift 
biefe^ (^c^enmac^en m eben fo e^renwertl^e^ |)anb- 

tt?erf , aX^ \ia^ eme6 Sc^reiner6 ober 3tmmermami0. - 
2)er 9J?eifter befeftigt an ein (5tit(f SBrett einige 53am^ 
&u6ftocfe, urn biefe btnDet er 6tro^ unb gibt il^nen 
eiiie gorm. !Dann fnetet er ^u![)mtil mit ^l)on, 
(Bpreu ober Speljen t)ermtfct)t, ju einem^aig jufam^ 
men nnb uberjiel^t ben 6tro^mann bamit. ^^ foftet 
i^n nic^t tventg 9}Ju{)e, bi6 er \)k Sfugen unb feinere 
il!{)eile fertig l^at» ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ -^^^ v - 

2)iefe ^o^enmac^er ^aben if)r ^anbtverf su eu 
nem jiemlic^ f)o]^en @rab »on Jertigfeit gebrac^t 
(§tn fc^on gearbeitete^ 35ilb foftet nic^t n^eniger a(0 
5efjn ^ulben, garbe nnb Wa^ mit eingered^net. 3ft 
ba6.S3i(b ^ollenbet, fo fommt ?Dlorgen6 ber ^riefter 
unb beginnt bie (ionfecration beffelben. ?[Jlit ben §n?ei 
3Sorberftngern ber |)anb beru^rt er bie ^riift, bie 
STugen unb 6tirne unb fprid^t jebe^mal W SSorte 
aw&, „ber ®eift ©c^iwa'^ ober !Durga^ fteige l^erab 
unb ne^me S3eft^ i)on biefem IBilbe," !Dur(^ W\t 
unb anbere ^itaitonen, tvelc^e SJluntru^ genannt 
iDerbcn, gfaubt ber ^inbu unjweifelliaft ben (^eift 
ber ©ottin in \)a^ ^ilb l£)inein §u bringen» SSon \iCL 
dn wirb biefe6 al^ eiue SBo^^nung ber ©ott^eit unb 
ganj ijon berfelben belebt unb burci^brungen ange* 
fel)en. 3a »ie(e S3raminen belf^au^ten, e}ne Slrt »ort 
^ranefubftantiation unb fagen, W SJlaterie be^ 
€tro!j^ unb %])m^ ober 8tdn6 l^abe ft^ in \)<x^ 
SSefen ber @otti)eit t)ern)anbe(t. 
- @ine fold^e 50f^a(^t bejl^t ber SSramine nad^ bem 
aft tt)ieberl)oUen @^ru(^e ber ec^oftere : „2)ie 2][klt 
ift nnter ber 2Wad|t ber (hotter, bie ©otter ftnb unter 

88 Ueber ben ©56ciibicnjl 

ber '^Ci6!)i ber ^Dluittrua uub tie 9Jluntru$ ftnb m* 
Ux ber gWac^t ber 53raminen ) folglic^ ftnb eigentU^ 
W S3raminen bie hotter. 

^e^ei^t man bem ^inbu feitt SSefremben batukr, 
ba^ au^ einem StroI)wifc^ unb etuem ^lumipcn "I^on 
eitt ^ott tt)erben fonne, fo antwertet cr, marum folltc 
bie^ nic^t moglic^ fe^n? ^ott fann atte6 ma(^em SSenn 
aber eiti |)unb, ober ein 2Beib ober dw ^uro^jcier 
ba6 53i(b beruijrt, fo tvirb c0 itnreiti iinb W @ott* 
l^eit fd]f)rt E)erait^. 3ft e6 i>on flt^on, fo tnufj e§ 
tt?egcjen)orfen werben, twenn e^ aber t>on ^tein ift, fo 
nimmt ber S5ramine bie (Eonfecratton beffelben jum 
Stt)eiten ?0'?al t)cr. . , 

3^) begiug einmal bie Unyorjtc^tigfeit , init mtu 
mm 8torf ben ©teiu be6 (Ec^iwa in eincm ^empct 
ju berul)rett nnb 3emanb foK e^ »on ber gerne ge^ 
fel)en l)aben. !Den folgenben %ao^ fam einc (Sdjaar 
ber !Dorfben)o]f)ner t)or mein |)ang unb erfldrten, ber 
(55o0e l^abe ftc^ beffagt nnb brobe feine SBobnnng gu 
serkffen. ©ie baten mid) baiter, tc^ ntoc^te ii^nen 
boc^ aufrid^tig fagen, ob ic^ iljn beru^rt \}Oilt ober 
nicbt. ^att€ i(^ ja gefagt, fo n)urben ftc?b bie 33ra* 
minen ate^batb jur jweiten (§inix)eil)nng unb einem 
!0littaggma^( \)erfammelt l^aben unb bie ^Rec^nung 
ttjdre auf nti^ gefaKen. 3c^ antwortete, i(^ fage ed 
eud^ nid)t. 3ft ber ©tein ein (^ott, fo fann meine 
^erii^rnng x^vx nid)t0 fc^aben, ift er'^ aber nic!^t/ fo 
betruget i^r cud^ felbft unb je t\)tx x^x it)n wegwerft 
unb ben ttja^ren @ott anbetet, befto bejfer t)}irb ee 
fiir en^ fevn» v ^ ^ 

_-^>. *T,^ 

ter $tnt>u0. 89 

3)ie ^erenionif ber^lnbetung beftel^t barin, ha^ 
%cr ^defter be6 ^Sflorcjcu^ i)cr tern Singa nieberfdllt, 
a(6bann waf^t er benfelben mit ^angeewaffer , rcibt 
i^n mit S(^md§ tin — fpric^t barauf in einer i^m 
ttnbefannten ^pxa^c etnige (^ebet6formeln mi^, n?dt)^ 
renb er SBIumen ftreut imb Oiei^ tnit 3^cfemaaven unb 
gru(^ten i]f)m ^um @fferi ^orlegt 2)ie 6ulJra6 !om^ 
men in ©c^aaren, mac^cn eine tiefe ^Jerbeugung unb 
ge^en weg. 2)e6 5(benb^ tt^irb biefe 5(rt »on STnbc^ 
tung tt)iebert)olt. <So befjorgt i|l ber ^rteft-er fur bie 
fftu\)c unb S3equemlicf)fcit be^ @6^en, ba^ er in ber 
;.I)ei§en geit ein ^e& uber i^n au^breitet, bamit bie 
SJlu^quito^ xi)n nic^t fte^en fonnen, @ben fo ^kl)tn 
<ie biefem fteinernen (^ott in ber falien 3eit ein^aar 
SBeinfleiber an, bamit eiS i^n tiic^t friere, au<i^ Icgen 
fu benfelben ^um @c?^(afen nieber, tt>enn er nic^t ju 
gro^ ift. SSi^weikn gefc^iel^t e^ aber, ta^ hie flatten 
in bie (^o^eu i)on Zf)on unb ^tvo^ ^od^er freffen 
unb ibre ^i^efter barin b^uen, 2)ie ©^waaren unb 
gritc^te, tt)e(tf)^ ben ©ottern Qeopfext werben, t>er5el}rt 
natiirlic^ ber 53ramine felber. \ , 

MUe S3raminen ftnb md)t ^riefler, 3n neuerer 
3eit finb viele i^rem 53erufe untreu geworbem SBenu 
ber SSater me^rere (Eobne ^at, fo fallt ^ewol^nlic^ 
bcm dlteften btefe^ (^efd)vift §u , bie xibrigen muffeu 
fld^ einen anbern MenMlnterljalt' fud)en, 

S3jon feiner ^eburt an ift er ^war fd^on ein 53ra* 

. mine , aber eine unge{)eure Slnjal)! x>on (Seremonien 

mu^ er tterric^ten, el^e gleid^fam ein ^eweibter an^ 

i^m wirb. Sin neunten ober sei^nteu 3al)re n>irb bem 

90 }^^ Ueber t)en (^o§eiit)ienji 

^naben mit grofer geierlic^feit bie 55raminenfd^mir 
aim ben ^al^ ge^ngtj biefe (Seremonie l)ei^en fie bie 
^weite (3$eburt uub nun ift feine ^r^ie^ung ju (§nbe, 
2)ie moralifc^en @igenf^aften, tt)el(J)e t)on einem jum 
^Priefteramte (^ett)eil^ten geforbert werben, finb \oU 
genbe: ■.■■-^■-■^ ^'^^''--■:'": •;'■■- >r-'^ 

^r mu^ im @tanbe fei^n, feine Seibenfc^aften im 
3ciume p l^alten, ntu^ angene^m im Umgang fe^n, 
tvol^I belefen in ben 6c^after6, »on guter gamilie, 
treu in S5eobac^tung be^ ^aftenfv;ftem6, unb 3Jleifier 
in feinem .^aufe. 

@in Sramine, ber feinem ^eiU ®el)orfam (eiftet, 
ber mcl^x ober weniger al^ se!)n ginger iinb 3^^^^ 
f^at , ber feine S^i^ge nid)t im 3^^^^^ ^Iten fann, 
blinb ober au^fdjig ift unb p ml i^t, barf ni^t 
^riejier fe^n. 

SSeutt ber $riefter in feiner 3fie(igion eirt wenig 
ortI)obox fet)n WiE, fo brauc^t er tt)enigften6 t)ier 
©tunben be^ ^age^ §u feinem ©otte^bienft 5lber 
bie 3)?el)r5a]^l nimmt e,^ in unfern 3^iten ni(^t fo ge^ 
nau, @(eic^tt>ie bie ^oxal M |)inbu nic^t6 3fleine6 
l)at , fo ift auc^ in feinen ^eremonien ni^t6 SSer* 
nunftigeg, fie ermangein gdnjlic^ ber l)er§erl^ebenben 
Slnbac^t, tt)e(c^e ein d^riftlic^er (^otte^bienft bem @e^ 
mutl^e einflopt. 3)ie 33raminen=^^riefter erinnerten 
mic^ oft an tk Tlon^e, weld^e i^utfjer in ber ^eter6^ 
!irc6e ju 5Rom fo leidjtftnnig il^re 3)?effe lefen fal). 
(^ebanfenfo6 murmelt ber 33ramine feine (^ebete i)cx, 
unb blicft baneben oft (ac^enb auf jeben 3SorfalI, ber 
ftc^ brau^en auf ber 6trape ereignet. Mat l^at mic^ 

•: bix .f)tnt)u6. 91 

»crfid^ert, ta^ fie nid^t felten mit ben &b^m aderlei 
^Poffen treiben, i^nen ©c^im^fnamen geben unb fte 
tt)ie 6))ierseug feerumwerfen. 
^ 3ebe gamilie ern)dt)lt jtc^ unter beri SSraminen 
ihxm ^eiftlic^en Se^rer, i)on bem jte rcgelmd^ig be* 
fuc^t wirb. (Sr gibt ben dltern ^(iebem ber gamilic 
einen SKatjlfpruc^ M O^x , gett)o^nltc& ift ee ber 
9iame eme6 ®o^en, tt)elc^er »on bem ^age an ale 
ibr (5(^u|patron betrac^tet unD in U)xex ©prad^e 3^tI)o 
bebota genannt unrb. Dl^ne reic^Iii^e ^efd^enfe unb 
em. Wla\)l^dt tpirb ber ^riefter ni^t letc^t ein fol* 
t^e6 S(mt t)erric^ten,^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^.^, ^^ , . 

<56 ifl ein alter ^ebrauc^, ba§ bei fold^en ^efu-- 
^en ber ^uru feine ftaubigen gu^c uber einem ba§a 
au^gebreiteten Zu^e abfc^uttelt, unb biefer (Staub 
tt)irb t)on feinen ©c^iilern nad)]^er giertg tjerfc^Iucft 
Dft enbigte eine Wa^^eit , xvel^c x^m bereitet wor* 
ben ift, bamit, ta^ tk armen Seute t)a^ f(^mu|ige 
SKaffer trinfen, in tvelc^em ber (^uru feine gu^e ge* 
tt)af^en f)at, unb ti)a6 feine |)eiliijfeit t)om ^ffen auf 
bem better ubrig Ici^t, wirb t)on i^nen ebeufall^ 
gierig aufgejeljrt^um ftc^ bamit ettt)a6 ^on feiner |)ei^ 
ligfeit jujueignen. V ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ v -^ 

2)urc^ ben (^ebrau^ biefe6 l^eiligen 3Sdffer6 \oU 
len au(b njunberbare (iuren »erric()tet worben fe^n, 
SJiein ^unbit, ein 53ramine au0 ber S^la^barfc^aft 
»on 53urbn)an; er5dI)Ue mir folgenbe ©efd^ic^te. (5in 
reicf)er 3eminbar, ber ^aiai) t)on 53urbtvan, )x>ax eine 
lange 3eit am gieber franf, Mc miM, ml^c tic 
SJer^te^anwanbten, n^aren o^ne (Srfolg, unb ber 

9^ Ueber ben (^$|enbienjl 

^ranfe n^urte baruber t^o^tt S^wcrmut^. Sein ®uni 
fam unb fagte, fr follte boc^ eintnal t)a^ hmal^xxc 
tlnberfa(^9)?ittel v^erfud^en. fl'^a^bem feine 55eben!* 
Uc^feit xxbct bie ^ojien biefer (iur befdttgt vrarett^ 
gab er ben 53efel)l i!)m biefeg !0^tttel p ^erfi^affen. 
^an f(^i(!te SBoten na^ alien ^!)eilen ber Umgegenb, 
nnb in einigen ^agen tvnrben ineljrere taufeub Sra^ 
minen jufammen gebra(J)t. §(B biefe !)eilicje S^aar 
»om 6tanb beberft nnb t)om (Sc^mei^e trtefenb an^ 
fam, mn^te einer na($ bein anbern fetnen red^ten 
gu^ in eine 6<^aa(e SBaffer tanc^en nnb abwaf^en, 
nnb nadb SBeenbigung ber (Eerentonie tt?nrbe bie SDlix- 
tnr bem ^mnftn bargelboten. 3eber t?on il^nen er^ 
Ijklt ein gnte^ ^iJlittageffen nnb ein (^elbftnc!, tx)a6 
bie 5(r§nei ^i^mlid^ foftfpielig ntac^te ; aber ber ^unbit 
»erftd>erte nii<^, fte \)aU gel^olfen nnb ber Sflajal^ fe^ 
balb baranf l>on feiuem gieber genefen. - 

SSon ber C^t'bnrt an bi^ ^nm S^obe be^ |)inbu, 
bei alTen nioglictjen (?^elegen{)eiten ift biefer ^flage* 
geift antvefenb nnb Id^t ftc^ fiir fein blinbe6 ^eremo* 
nienvvefen be^al^len. dim SSraminen-^are folgt anf 
bie anberf 5 5 9J^onate »or ber ©ebnrt tt)irb er gc* 
!)olt, ebenfo nacf)I)er nm gettjijfe gormeln jn fprec^en; 
be^gkic^en bei ber 3Ser^eiratiC)ung nnb n)enn jemanb 
i>on ^ranf{)eit genefen ift. 2Benn bem .^inbn eine 
§tu\) fiixU, mnp er bem ^riefler ein 6ul^noj)fer bar* 
bringen. SKenn \i(^ ein ©e^er anf bem |)aufe nie* 
berla§t, mn§ er biefe^ reinigem 3Birb ein ^inb nn- 
ttx geir>iffcn nngnnftigen .^immel^jeid^en geboren, fo 

i^ W und)eli^ uub ter 33ramtne ^at feine 6(5^mac^ 

tpteber e]f>e(t(^» > 

5(ller(ei SBunt>ergef(^i(]^tett tverkn tiuti i^ncu ir^ 
jabttj ber 53ramine ^a);>xla t)emant)e(te bur^ feincK 
gluc^ tk 60,000 6o]^ne be^ tonigd 6a^ara in 5lf*e. 
^in anberer S^ameng ^(gap^a tran! ba^ 3J?eer au0 
imb t?erfc^Iu(fte uoc^ oBenbrein aUe gtfc^e unb anberc 
8eett)iere, bie barm warm, @tn anberer finite bem 
C^ott (Scf)itt>a nnb entmannte xf)n, \mi er in ber @e* 
ftalt eine^ 6umajt ober a^cetifcben ^eiligen i!)m fein^ 
(^attin »erfuf)rt !)atte, ^/...-.■^:..,^ 

^ie ^inbn6 opfern i'^ren ©ottern aUerlei 
gute <Ba^en, a(0 3flei6, 33utter, Del, 3ucfer, Sfla^m, 
g}iil^, gfeif^ , grud^te alter mt 3u ber ^Bliit^ejeli 
be^ |)inbut6nni^ n^aren $ferbe^ unb 9Jlenfc6eno:|)fer 
uid^t6 Ungetvo^nU(^e^. 3m©et)eimen n^crben le^tece 
no(^ imnier tjeriibt. 3n ber 9?ac^barfc^aft t>on S5urb^ 
wjan ift ein ^cm^el ber ^ali in einem bitten (3e^ 
bufc^ \)on Wlangoe^ unb ^ambu^bdumen; bie |)inbu0 
(elber )x>a^m e^ nic^t ber tterrufenen (5tette na!)e ju 
fommen. SQiein bengalifc^er Se^rer !am eiue^ Xa^c^ 
ju mir unb ersdt)ae, bag pei ^age p^or um WliU 
terna{^»t t)on einem reic^en 5iJlanne , ber in grower 
9lot]^ )tX)ax, ein SJJenfc^ M Jenem ^em:|>el geo^fert 
ivorben fe^j er bat mic^ e6 ber Dbrigfeit anjujeigen, 
unb fagte mir ber to^f bee ©etobteten fonne an beu 
2^re:ppen bee ^em})eie tterf^arrt gefunben tt)erben. 
Die Unterfu(^ung ivurbe i)orgenommen, aber au fpa^ 
fcer Seic^nam war fd6on auf Wfe ©eite gefd^afft. 


94. i&-^^^^^^^ UeUx ben ^o^enbtenjl 

?ln mibern Drten l&at man be6 ilD'lorgen^ bei ben 
S^em^eln ber ^ali i^eic^name ermorbeter 5D'lenfd)en 
gefuuben, oI)ne ba^ bie ^^ter entbedt tt^erben fonn^ 
ten. din 5Ser6 an6 ben 6d)after6 lantet alfo: gur* 
[ten, ©taat^minifter, IRcit^e unb 55rannttt>einff2Sirt!)e 
foUen ^Dlenfc^en-D^jfer bringen, fo n^erben fte mac^tig . 
imb rei(^. 

Unter alfen (^6§en gtbt e6 feinen, ber mc^v hhu 
tige C))fer eri^aft, aI6 bie (SJottin ^ali. 3nr 3eit 
be^ gefte6, tjon welcbem ic^ ettva^ er^dl^Ien iverbe, 
folTen bet bem bernl)mten ^em)3el ^alig'^ant eine gro^e 
STn^al^I 33uffeI*Dc^fen unb meljrere tanfenb 3t^9fitboc!e 
sum D^)fer gebrac^t n^erben, an ben gefttagen fliejjt 
bort ba6 Q3(nt in ©tromen, 5lber biefe ^t)iero:pfer 
betra^tet ber |)inbn !eine6tt)egg aU eine @uf)ne ^nr 
^ilgung feiner (Biinben, er {)offt nur babnrc^ bie 
@unft ber ^ottin in tt)eltli(^en 5(ngelegent)eiten ^u 
erlangen. 3n ^ran!f)eiten , »or ber (^eburt eineS 
^inbe^ nnb tt^enn jte fonft in 9lot^ nnb (^ebrcinge 
ftnb, madden tie bet^orten !2eute ein (^eliibbe be6 
Dpfere. 5lle ^ei^m beffelben laffen fic^ !Diele ben 
9lagel ant Heinen ginger vva^fenj oft tvirb biefer 
einen ober gar gtvei ^oU lang. 

Si^enn ber Offerer ben (Singang M ^em^eI6 
betritt, blicft er ba^ ^o^enbilb an unb fagt: D ®6t« 
tin t)on furc^tbarer ©eftaft, frig unb »erf(^linge ben, 
ber niein geinb ift. D donfort be6 geuer^, groge 
SBitrgerin (Mahamari) ^eftore unb frig i^n. 2)er ^opf 
ber D:pfert!)iere^ tt>irb nun jtvifc^en jwei borisontalc 
^foften geftecft , §tt)et 2)iener ftel^en \)a , einer jieJjt 

bet ^inbu^. „,^ 95 

on ben ^ornern, ber anberc an ben |)tnterfu^en ober 
bem ^i$)Voani*, ber ^ramine fd^eibet t}a^ ^aax am 
|)al6 t)on einanber, giejt ^ange0n?affer taraxtf nnD 
mit einem Streid^ fcJ^neibet er i>en £ovf ab, ber mit 
bem 8(nt in einer Sc^aale »or bem @o^en ^ingelegt 
tt)irb. SKenn ber ^o:pf ni^t mit einem 6trei(^ ab- 
gel)anen wirb, tan^t bos Dpfer nic^t 

^U i^ einmal biefer fc^auber^aften (ieremonie 
Snfal^, fagte ber ^riefter ^u mir: SBoIIen 6ie ber 
fD^ntter ^dli nic^t onc^ ein (^ef($cnf madden! fte tjl 
gro^ nnb mcic^tig, fte l^at SJlac^t uber Seben nnb ^ob/' 
„SBie fo, bev\)eife e6 mir," antmortete ic^. w<5el)en 
fie e0 ni(^t, entgegnete ber ^ramine, inbem er auf 
t)a^ bluttriefenbe 6(J)(acbtopfer Ijinbeutete." 3^ • 
„fann fte ba^ 8Int trinfen?" ,3a." „tann fte an* 
fprec^en?" „D freilid^." „^un fo Bitte (te einigc 
9Jiinnten t)on i{)rem ^l^ron I)erunter p fteigen, id6 
nninf(f)e eine Heine Unterrebung mit i^x jn l^alten; 
t^t fte e0, fo wiU id^ glanben ba^ i^r tie fS^a^x^dt 
fagt." 2)er S3ramine (ac^te uber meine fRebe unb 
erwieberte, fo !)erab(affenb ift fte nic^t; tt)er nic^t an 
fie gtanbt, ^u bem bemu^t ite ^c^ ni(?^t. „(5urc 
(hotter," fagte ic^, „l)aben S(ngen nnb fe^en nid^t." 

gragt man ben ^inbn, vok er 3[^ergebung ber 
6unben nnb bie €elig!eit erlangen woUe, fo tvei^t 
er immer anf ben (^ange6 l^in. |)ier fnd^t er fein 
^a^tmittel ^nr Seligfeit. 2)iefer »ergotterte g(n§ 
l^eilt nnb reinigt Me^ tt)a6 am 5D^enfct)en moralifc^ 
bofe nnb Joerborben ift. f^k ^ntftel^nng beffelben 
wirb anf manc^erlei SSeife er^cil^U. din ^eiligcr 

96 - ji^- Uebcr ben (^ogeubieuii 

filament ^^a^ixut^ betete eine langc 3^^^ h^ ^^ 
®5ttertt uttb fiii^rte ein a^cetifc^e^ Mm. §tuf fcin 
®ebet fiel bcr Ranged "ooin^immd, b. ]^. t)om |)i- 
malaf)ci fcerunter. 2)ie ©otter bort wotlten ba^ nic^t 
jugeben, benn, fagten fie, jte l^dtteu aii^ »iele 6uii^ 
ben abjuW)afc^en ; 53rama tjerf^rad^ i^nen jeboc^, ba§ 
(^urga, (fo wirb ber glug al^ ©ottin genannt) auf 
ber ^rbe erfc^einen unb beunod^ aud^ im |)immel 
bleiben mottte* SSifc^mt gab bem SBl^agirutlf) tm 
9Jliif(^el unb jebe^mal, tvenn er biefe bUef , folgte 
tl)m ber ©ange^ na(^, wo^in er ft^ wanbte. Sin 
einem Drte rip ber glug ben belter unb bie Slumen 
eine6 ^eiligen, welc^e tiefer bem €d)iwa (ireuen 
ttJoUte, mit fic^ fort, in ber SBut!) i?erf(^lan9 ba^er 
ber 5l6ceti!er ben gluf, mupte i!)n aber auf bie SBitte 
M ^^a^ixnth it)ieber I)erau6laffen. ^ad) langer 
9fleife faub (^urga enblid^ i^vcn ^rautigam ^agor 
ober ben. Dcean, unb t)k ^oc^jettfeierUc^feiten; tt)urben 

^Ine anbere 2Bunbergef^icf)te fiber bie @nt|iel)ung 
M (^ange^ ift folgenbe: (£(^in)a^ @eraal)tin be* 
Tu^rte fein rec^te^ Sluge; ba biefe6 5(uge i)U ©onne 
ift, fo entftanb in ber Sd^opfung eine ginfternift. Um-^ 
ber aUgemeinen 3Sertvirrung tjorjubeugen, liep (5cf)in)a 
fic& ein britte^ S(uge ]&er^ortt?ac^fen, tt)efl^alb er ^u- 
ftg ber breiciugige genannt n)irb. ^a^ un\)oritc^tigc 
2Beib fa^ itjren QSorwi§ ein, aber aU fie il^ren ginger 
cntfernte, blieb eine ^l^rdne baran l^angen, unb tvie 
biefe ju 53oben flel, entftanb ber ^ange^ barau^. 

3)avum ijl ta^ Saffcr fo ^eitig, ba$ i)€r 55at)ent)e 
«lle fcinc (Sunben barin abwafd^en fann. 

mt ber e^aracter ber ®6ttin (^imga, fo ift aud^ 
^tiie 33ere^ruug berfelben ^o(^ft unrein nnb emporenb 
fur iebe6 moralifc^e ®eful)(. 5lCe6ecten ber |)inbn0, 
nnb i^re 3^'*'^^ ^f^ Region, jtnb barin ein6, ba^ bet 
@ange^ jnr 6eHgfeit be^ ^JJ^enfc^en gar 
fe^r bel^ulflic^ fe^j ^ter fommen fie ^ufammennnb 
l^oren auf ju ftreiten, 60 f)eilig ift ba6 Staffer, bag 
ber «^inbn lieber bei bem S^^amen eine^ jeben anbern 
^otteg f^tt)oren ttjilf , al^ bei biefem. 3n ben @e^ 
rt(i^tg!)ofen tverben ba^er W 3^119^^ immer mit einer 
^6)aak (^ange^maffer, tie mm i^nen in bie ^au\) 

gibt, beeibigt. -:.^;:;^■.,/■■v^■■^■^- ■:■ "'^ 

3w gewiffen Sa^jr^jeiten nnb bei gunftigen (Son:* 
ftettattonen ber 6terne, bie ber 35rantine nac^ feinen 
l^eiligen SBu^ern hexe^mt , iji \i(k^ SSaben anperor* 
tentlid? tjerbienfttjott. IBer bann m ^eiUgen <Strome 
nntertanc^tj befreit ^^ felbft nnb jngleid^ brei SD^Jilfio^ 
nen feincr SSorf^{)ren t>an ben ^ottenftrafen. JDie 
€imben feiner ^nt>erW)anbten, ja W 5D^iffetf)aten t)on 
taufenb fru^ern ^ebnrten tverben bann au^getilgt 

nnb t)erfo^nt. - ^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^-^^^^ ^ 

3u fotcf)en geftseiten fte!jt man anf b'en 6tragen 
grofe 6^aaren \)on |)inbu0, bie bem t)eiligen %\\\^t 
Sn:pi(gern. 33ei ^anfenben (agerten ^e fi(^ eine^ 
5lbenb0 nnter ben 53anmen in ^Surbivan^ »iele fcmmen 
uber l^unbert ©tnnben tt)eit l^er. 53ei i^rer $Rucffe!yt 
ne^men fie einen grogen irbenen Zo'p\ i)oll ®ange^^ 
Staffer na^ ^anfe mit, nm benSegen beffelben aucj 

SBtit6rt<^t SKifitcn in Snbicn. 7 


,08 UeberJ)en ^o^eubieuil 

if)ren greutiben mitjutljeilen. §(n feeiligen Drten, tt?ic 
^enare^ fmb oft 100,000 ^DfleufcJjen am Ufer »er^ 
fammelt, befouberei jur ^i\\ eiiier (5onnen* ober 
3)?onbefiuftenu^. (Sobalb ber (Ed)atten ber (Srbe ben 
SDionb benil)rt, ftur§t biefe ^J^enfc^eunuiffe auf ein ge^ 
gebeiie^ 3^^^^^'^^ ^^ ^^ii 8troin, ^oni iplo^Ud^en 
1)range be^ 2Baffcre getrieben, roKt eine l)ol)e SSeUe 
gegeu ba^ jenfeitige Ufer I)tnuber, ivelc^e mc^t felteix 
bie mit 3)^eiifc^eu gefutlten ^oote umfd^ld^t. >,. 

X>eir ^ramiue ftellt ftc^ bei feiner SJlorgennnbattt 
bie urn bie WWii bee Seibee ine 2Baffer unb mac^t 
aKerlei SSerbeugungeu uub ^rimaffeu^ er fc^opft eiiie 
$anbt)oll Staffer unb l^dlt e6 gegen W 6onne l^in- 
auf, bann befc^teibt er mit feinem Seigeflnger mi^ftifcfce 
^reife im 2Baffer unb rcibt feine Stirne mit ber naffen 
|)anb, tt)d^renb er feine %t\>tit I)ermurmelt, , 2)ort 
ftef)t man 5JMnner unb SKeiber mit 6c^(amm in ber 
^anb im Staffer ftef)en, fte mac^en einen Singa unb 
fietten ftc^ in it)rem ©emut^e Sc^iwa in alien mog^ 
lichen ^eftalten feiner SBolluft t)or. ; ^lumenMnje 
unb gru^te werben al6 Dpfergaben ine Staffer ge^ 
tt)orfen» SOSenn attee i)oruber ift, fteigen fte au^ bem 
gluffe unb §ie^en na^ |)aufe mit bem i?ermeintU^en 
Srofte, \i(x^ fte engelrein fe^en: bie 6iinben, tt)elcl^e 
fte t)on nun an bege^en, laufen auf eine neue D^iecl}* 
nung, "^xt beim ndc^ften ^efuc^e abgetragen wirb. 

|)ier ift au(^ nic^t ber entferntefte ©ebanfe art 
eine tiefere geiftU^e 8ebeutung; \)\t ©(^aftere fpielen 
auf feine an, t>er bet^orte |)etbe beuft an nic^te bee 
^\x\ — nein, ^^^x^ SBaffer ift'e, n?elc^e0 reinigt, l|et^ 

" ber ^inbua. 99 

ligt , in ben |)immcl bringt DeS |)iubu 3Scrflanb 
unb (^eift ift in ber 6innlic^feit n)ie »erfteinert. 

2)er ^angeei ift ba6 ©terbebctte unb (^rab be0 
|)inbu, (F0 ift iE)m fef)r baran gelegen, an ben Uferii 
beffelben feine (Seek au^jufjauc^en, bamit feine lejten 
6unben burc^ ben 5(nbli(f M SBaffer^ an^getilgt 
ttoerben mogen. 

SBenn ber ^ran!e pel) bem 2^obe ndf)t, tt>ixh er 
au0 ber WlitU feiner greunbe ttjeggenommen unb 
fortgetragen, d^ mag nod& fo l^ei^ ober fait fe^n, 
man fe|t ben ©terbenben ane lifer ^in, oft ftnb hk 
Slermerenfaummit einem ge^en ^leibe^ bebecft. 3^\af) 
met fofd^en r^anblung mel)rere TlaU p. 3wei 6ol6ne 
bereitetcn i^xm altenSSater auf ben Xoh §u. (50 tt)at 
an einem S^xnuar^^J^iorgen j menn ber falte 5^orbtx)inb 
empftnbUc^ gefu^It ii?irb. @ie goffen am Ufer einc 
6cbaa(e (^ange^maffer nad^ ber anbern fiber il)n 
l)inunter, fe|ten ii)n bann in^ 393affer unb rieben ben 
obern Z^cii be^ ^or^er^ mit Sc^Iamm, iDcii^renb U)m 
bie 9?amen (^unga, ?ftam, 9^ara^un in6 Dljx gefagt 
wurben. 2)er 5tnblicf be^ fterbenben §8ater0 ging 
mir burc^6 |)ers, SKer fo ftirbt, ber ftirbt wo!)l, tie 
Si^after^ »erfprecf)en it^m alte^ (^ute, er tt>irb in 
@c^itoa0 ober SKift^nu^ |)immcl wo^en unb taufenb 
SRal l)errli(^er gldn^en, aid bie 6onne. 3}li(lioneii 
Sungfrauen fte^en bort ju feinem !Dtenft bereit, auc^ 
^utft^en unb ^alanfind in SJlerige, 

(Sinft, fo erjvi^lt Uc ©efc^i^te, jiarb dn gottio:? 
fer SBramine unb ber (^ott ber Unterwelt, Zji^ama 
na^m i^n mit fic^ in bie ^olle, @ein Seic^nam 


-160 Ueber ben ^o^enbienft 

i»urbe, ttjie gettjo^nli^ tjerbrannt unb cin ^aU flog 
niit einem feiner ^ebeine bat)Oti, He^ e0 aber in ben 
©ange^ faKen. taum !)atte ber ^no^en ba^ SSajfer 
berft^rt;. fo fu'^r feine ©eele au0 ber ^otte auf einem 
^rd^tigen SBagen in ben InmmeU^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - ^ 

2)er f(^neibenbe ^egenfa§ gwif^en bem lebenbigen 
^^riftenglauben unb t)en aUe^ sarte 9}?enf(^en9efu^l 
ertobtenben ^ojenceremcnien fiettt fid) in folgenber 
gefc^if^^tlic^en Xf)at\ai^e ganj auffaKenb bar. 

/ §rnf einer 9Jlifjtcn6reife erblirfte ic^ eine6 ^age^ 
am lifer be0 ©ange^ einen (^rabftein, icH) arbeitete 
mid^ burcb ba6 I)o]^e ^xa^ , hi^ an bie 6tette I)in* 
bnr(^ nub entbedte ba6 ®rab eine6 ©dugUng^; t)k 
(SItern i»aren ©ngldnber unb famen auf einem SSoot 
ben g(u§ Ijerunter, auf biefer 9^etfe wurbe ta^ liebe 
^inb i1)nen burd^ ben ^ob entriffen; bie trauernben 
^Itern begruben t)k fterblid^e |)iit(e am Ufer M 
ijergotterten ghtffe^. 2)ie rul()renbe ^rabfc^rift ift 
ein f(^one6 S^iiQ^^^ be6^(auben6, ber ^kU unb ber 
.^offnung unb fam mir "oox, wie eine Ijell brennenbe 
Samipe, aufgeftellt an biefem Ufer, um bie l^eibnifc^e 
ginfternig umtjer ju er(eu(^ten. golgenbed ift eine 
freie Ueberfe^ung: 

3)u luM ^inbkin fc^ldfjt aun Wt, 

€ntjlo^en ift ber ©eifl;^ 
MIttb bittre ai^ronen weineti roir^ 

3nbem bu 3ef"t» prei^'t. 
■ ®od? ^reube Unbert unjern »Sc^met5, 

^ ^ S5Jir foU'n btc^ wieberfe^n, 

9?a(^ iencn jjimmele^o^'n. 

3)ort ^arrt aud> unfrcr nac^ bem ©treit 

2)ie ^rone bet ©erec^tigfeit. 

!Den 2!ag barauf fal^c id^ nafje !)ci bcrfclbea 
StetCe gwei jiunge ^inbu^ ben Seid^nam bc6 SSater^ 
ober nal^en SSemanbteit nac^ htm llf«r l^intragem 
6ie legteu i^n auf bem 6anbe nieber, QiH^Tii einigc* 
mal im ^reife urn bcnfel6en l^er, hexnf^xkn xf)n an 
ivcrf^iebenen ^^l^eilen unb mad^ten aUcxki jtnnlofe 
deremonien; barauf ergriffeu fie i^n am ^o!j)f unb 
an ben gii^en unb f(^le!|3^tett if^n langfam in ben 
glu^. 5r(S ba6 SBaffer i^nen m an bie 53ruft rei(3^te, 
warfen fie ben ^or!|)er in ben 6trom, jogen ben 
ge^en ^feibe^, in ten bet ^obe eingettjicfelt war, 
^intt)eg, n?uf(^en i^re ^dnbe unb gingen gle^gftltig 
oi)ne ein 3^i^^i^ ^^i^ Xxanex, batjon. 

^rogere^ ^(enb f)aben ttjenige 5^^rannen nber bk 
9]^enfc^l)eit gebrad^t, aU bie religiofen @efe|geber, 
ttjeld^e au6 bem ©ange^ einen ^ott marten. ^iU 
(ionen jiel^en auf SBallfal^rt au6 il^rer ^eimatl^ nac^ 
biefem glug; fc^anblic^e Unjust tt)irb tjon ben(5^aa^ 
r^ auf ber fJleife getrieben unb ^unberttaufenbe 
tt)erben »on einem fanften trodenen 6terbebette njeg* 
gefcfyle^pt, um in einem naffen ^xaU il^r Seben au^^ 

Dft ftel^t ber ©terbenbe bereitd ben ^oljfio^ auf* 
Qtxx^tei, auf bem fein Sei^nam tterbrannt tt)irb; 
gerabe \ok man in ^nglanb binter bem SSerurt^eiU 
ten, ber aum ©algen gel^t, feine ^af)xt tragt '':Slan 

J02 llebtr tert ©o^enbienft 

ta^i bem Seic^nam ni^i ^dt, fait ju tt)erben, faum 
^at er au69eat!)met, fo wirb er auf ben- ^olapo^ ge^ 
legt unb ^erbrannt. 2)ie 55eifpie(e fmb nici^t fetten, 
bag ber ©d^eintobte fi(^ aufri^tete, alg bie glamme 
urn il^tt fd^lugj bie |)inbu0 glauben, ein bofer @etjl 
fe^ in i^tt gefal^ren imb f(^lagen mit 33ambu6* 
ftorfen auf if)n Io6. 3)er <B^aMf vvelc^er i)om geuer 
nic^t x>ex^e^vt tt>irb, mug i?on bent ndd^ften QSertt^anb'? 
ten jerfc^mettert n)erben, bamit bie @eele barauiS be* 
freit n)erbe, oft tt)erben i)on bem ^el^irne beffelben 
feine ^(eiber bcf^^rufet. 

2)ie drmern (Slaffen ttjcrfen il^re ^oben nacft in 
ben glug. (^ar oft bleiben fte am Ufer pngen unb 
ie^ l)aU gefel)en, tt)ie .^unbe, ®e^er unb ©cS^afale jtc^ 
urn biefelbe rauften^ unb tok bie $Raben auf ben 
fc^wimmenben Seicifenamen fagen unb t)a^ gleif(^ ^er* 
unter gerrten» 3n ^dkn, toenn gieber unb (5!)ofera 
n)utl)en, tt?erben in tjolfreid^en ©tdbten, W)ie (ialcutta, 
Jvoc^entlid^ l^unberte t)on Seic^namen in ben glug ge^ 
lt)orfen> unb tk %emx gur 3Serje^rung berfelben fte^t 
man ^ag unb S^lad^t auf(obern; bann fmb bie Ufer 
te^ ®ange6 einem @c^Iac^t!)aufe dl^nlid^. 
- ©elbftmorb voirb an biefem gluffe fur befonber^ 
i)erbienftt)oll geljalten 5 ba0 SSSeib gefiort au^ nac^ 
bem ^obe il^rem fOlanne an unb l)eilig ifi jte, menn 
fie i^m nac^ feinem Slbleben al^balb in \)k anbere 
S33elt nac^fofgt. ^al^cr bie 6utti^, ober t)a^ 3Ser* 
brennen ber SSittwen mit ben Seic^namen i^rer ®at* 
ten. 33e!anntli(^ ift aber biefe fc^auberl^afte ^mo^n^ 
i)ext »on ber englif^en 9iegierung abgefd^aft worben. 

ter |)infcu6, 103 

^6 ftnb, fo fageit bic 6cfinften ter \&mbu0, 35 
?a?itltonen |)aare an bm tor^er ^e6?D^enfc6e^; eben 
fo i)iele 3a{)re tvtrb ba6 SSetb, welc^e ftd^ ^erbreui' 
nen (agt, mit il)rem Tlann im |)immel tt>o^tien. 3n 
ben meiften gcitten folten bte armen (^cfc^c^fe hain 
<ien6tt)fgt ttjorben fcvn; mk fprcingen t)om (Sx^eiter- 
l)aufen ^erunter, aI6 ba6 geiter fte beru{)rte, truvbeu 
aber mit ©etralt wieber in bte glammen gemorfen.; 

2)te (Etellen, vt>o jwei {)etrtge gluffe ftdE) tjereinigen, 
iiMe bei 9(Haftabab, vvo ber (^ange^ unb bte ^fd^umua 
gufammenfltegen , ttjerben befonber^ Ijeilig ge^alten 
itnb l^ier ift ba0 ^aben felbr ^erbienfiftc!^ ; nod^ mel^r 
<iber ber <5elbftmorb. / "Die Seute ge^en mit ^xt^ci 
runben ^o^jfen U^ in bie 95litte be0 (Strome^; fxe 
fi^wimmen auf benfelben, W)ic bei un0 bie ^naben 
auf Dc^fenblafenj allmdliHg fiitteu fte bie ^opfe m't 
einem i^offel t)on (5oco6?(5tbaaIe unb it>enn fte »ol( 
ftnb, ftufen fte unter. STiiefd^fge (affen jxd^ biaweilen 
ein ©rab am lifer mac^en, eingeuer n)irb barin an^ 
gejunbet unb ber Unglucflid)e roKt t)on freien <Stu^ 
(fen l^inetn. (5r glaubt auf biefe 5Beife werbe er ba6 
SSerbienft eriangen, bei feiner ndd^ften Seelenwjanbe^ 
rung in einen gefitnben Mh uberjuge^en. ^ r 

Unb mx fann bie ©dbaar tton ©duglingen 
wnb^inbern aufjdMen, welc^e fru^er, e!)e bie 5Re^ 
gterung t)a^ 53erbrecften ^einli(^ bel^anbelte, ber @ct* 
tin ®unga geo^)fert tt^urben! 53ei einem gro^en 
gefie/ ta^ idl^rliA auf ber Snfel (^unga 6agor, ait 
ber SJ^imbung be6 ®ange6 gel^aften tt)irb, brac^ten 
J^unberte »on SRiittern, bie \)a^ graufame ©elubbe 

104 Ucber ten ^o^enbicnft 

gct^an l^atkn, i^re Winter axC^ Ufer unb ivarfen fic iu^ 
SBaffer. SBcnn bann,n>a6 gen)oI)n(tc^ 9cfc^<i^/ fin 5liriga* 
tor ober §aiflfd^ ba6 plflcfe ^inb »or iijr^n Slugea 
t)«rfc^lang, \o Qlaubtcn fie b<i$ D^jfer fe^e ber (^ottin 
befoubers angenel^m, imb ginQen bcftiebi^t na<^ 

i ^in€6 ift gevvig, bie SfJegierung mag ein 58erbot 

nac^ tern <inbern erge(}en laffen, — fo lange bet 

-$inbuf6mu0 eriftirt, ttjerben SJlcnfc^^no^fer in Snbien 

nie ganj unterbriirft. ^DiancS^e fuPofc 5Dlntter tt)irft 

no£^ je^t il^ren neugeborenen ©angling be^ ^a^i^ ben 

(Sd^afal^n i?or, befbnber^ tt)enn e^ ein 5Kabc^en ^t,j< 

3^ bin genot{)igt, nm meinen Sefern ein etwa^ 

toollftdnbige^ ©emdibe t)on ber Sleligion ber |)inbn6 

gu gfben, bie ©ojenfejie bc6 <S(^itt)a, ber ^ali 

unb be^ Suggernautl^g in furjen tlmrijfen jn be*, 

fd^reiben. . . 

:, 2)ie 5n)ei erftern iverben im Wtonat ^pril jnfam* 
men gefeiert. !Die n^ilbe, jinbelnbe 9)leng€ jie!)t in 
Calcutta be^ !0?orgen0 in gro^en €^aaren gn bem. 
gro^en ilempel ^aligijmit am Ufer be6 glnffe^. 
2llle6 fmgt nnb jau^^t; benn bie§ ift ber |)au\)tfeil:^ 
tag, 3)ie ^JOf^nfifanten fpielen mit ilrommeln, (5(6aU; 
me^en unb ^rom^eten auf. 

3)ort tanjt eine <B6^aax mit ?8(umen!rdnjen am 

^alfe ein^ex, i\)x !)albnarfter ^or^jer ift mit Del ein* 

gerieben unb mit Sanbell^olg ^ 5(fc^e beftreut. 2)ic 

5lugen fmb rot^ angelaufen, benn fie I)aben ficb mit 

^ranntivein ober bem ^auen narfotif(^er £rdutet 

t^r^ufd^t. $ltrc5 ^erlongt biefc ^enic a« W^" / ^^^ 
9J?eiigc tritt einanfeer kinnfye ^u Soben. (5k ^abeti 
ein ® elubi)c getf^JH , «nb Slrm in §trm nal^f rn pe 
ftc^ bem 5:em^elt)of. .^ier fkl^en jwei 8<f^mieb!ne(^tc, 
t^nen fte fi^ n-a^cnj einer offnet ben 5Runb unb \}n 
6d^mibt er^reift feine 3«n^^/ i^^t fte f)er-au^ unb 
fc&neibet fte mit einem ^eff^r burd^, bann entUi^t er 
ben SSemunbeten. ©anj tjergnugt ftel^t bie ^J^enge 
bi-efem J^oUifc^en ^reiben gu; ber Sc^mibt niramt 
fein ^rinfgelb sjon ietem ber armen SJJenfd^en nub 

3c^ We dnen jener ItngtMKc^en mU einem ei^ 
fernen etwa brei gu^ kngen 2)ra]^t in feincr bur^* 
b4)I)rten ^nnc^e, einem Slafenben gleit!^, in ben ©tra* 
fen »on ^alcntta nm!)ertanjen. $(nbere jiel^en leben^ 
bige S^langen, grofe ZahaUxb^vm ober 33ambu^* 
pMe bnr(^ bie Defnung, 

9Sor 20 3^^ ten (Vi^e man jweC fblc^e SBa^iifin* 
tiige, jcber I;atte feinen ginger in ber burd^bojrten 
3iinge be^ anbern ftecfen. 3^t ^ottentanj wirb ge* 
tt>cl)nlid^ mit unjuc^tigen ^eberben unb SSerbengnngen 
begleitet, unb al6 bie gaftna^t einbrad), crbtidte 
man anbere, tt?el^e ftcb einen (Sifenbral^t bur(^ bi€ 
©tirnbaut jicl)en liegen, an biefem befeftigtcn fte eine 
Sam:pe, tt>el*e bie ganje ^a^i burc^ brannte* 

2)er 5tt)eite €(^mibt burc^bol^rt einigen bie flei* 
fd>igen ^^eife ber Senben mit einer langen bi(fen 
9?abel. ©ewofjnlid^ jiel^t man ein fpanifc^ee 9lo^r 
in ber !I)iefe eine6 ginger6 , ober \)ie fpi^igen |)anb* 
l^aben einer eifernen ©c^aufel, weld^e mit glfif)enben 

1G6 UeBer ben (^ol^nbienft 

5toJ)Ien angefiittt ift l^iutitrcf), in btefe (Sdjaufel wer^ 
fen ite eine %xt inbifcfce^ ^ec6, ba6 in taucfjenber 
fftamme auflobert. 2)a^ ganje iji eine fc^auedic^e 
Ridden ^ 6cene. 5*^0$ anbere ftitrjen ftdf) ^on einem 
©eriifte auf eiferne 6pi|en I)erunter; bicfe (S^i^en 
jlnbaber tt>o!)Itt)ei^Iic^ fo frf)ief ()ingeftettt, ba§ jtc 
burt^ bie Saft auf bie Beite gebrucft t^erben unb btc 
iBufenben nid^t t)iel befcbcibigen fonnen/U ^ 

S(m jweiten 3^age finbet ba6 ©c!^n)ingfeji jiatt. 
2)teiemgen, tt)el^e jtc^ biefer ^einignng unterjiel^en, 
nu'tffen meljrere S'ldc^te ju^cr alTerlei (Seremonien mit 
fic^ ttcrne{)men (affen. ^in 35aum/ ettwa 25 bi^ 30 
gu§ l^oc^ tt)irb erri(^tet. 5(n ber 6pi^e beffelben be* 
fmbet itc^ ein SSirbel, in ttjetc^em ein illuerbalfen 
tnit geringer ^u^e um^ergetrieben ttjerben fann. 
!Der SJlann/ ^t)e(c^er fic^ fc^wingen Icif[en tt)il( , tt>irft 
ftc^ juerft auf bem 53oben nieber. 5fu(^ f)ier 1:)at ber 
Sc^mibt bie Diperation ^u t^erric^teiu 3^^t [^^6^9^ 
^acfeji an einem (Seii befeftigt, l^dngen »om,Duer* 
bclfen l^erunter. !l)er (Sc^mibt jiel}t auf einer vom 
S3raminen bejeic^neten (Stetle bie fleif(^i^te ^aut, 
i;ai)e am 9fturfrat^ mit bem X)aumen unb Sftaf^S^'t' 
auf unb fiogt beibe |)afen in entgegengefe^ter 3^i(^* 
tung burdf). din ftarfer 50flann nimmt al^bann ben 
^dbwingenben auf bie 5(^fe( , bie !^eute jic^en ben 
jQuerbalfen auf, man fte!)t il^n in bie i^uft em^or* 
ftcigen unb bie 3J?af(t)ine tt)irb mit S^neHigfeit urn* 
bergetrieben. din Zn^, tt)e((^e6 ber |>afen mit fa§t, 
n)irb i^m gewo^nlic^ urn ben ^eib gebunben, bamit 
ber dlenbe, n)enn ba^ gleif^ rei^en fottte, uic^t 

ttx ^tuDu6. 107 

l^eruntcr jiurse unb $al0 unb 55ein bre(^e> 3n ^aU 
cutta fa!) i(^ jeboc^ einen, ber mit ben ^afen im 
gleifc^e fret ba ^ing. ®^emo()nlic^ na^men biefe Seute 
aircr(ei <Bpiel\a(i}en, Jjfuc^tf ober SBlumen mit ^inauf, 
bte fte vvd^renb bed 6cfett)tngen6^ auf tie 3ufc^auer 
I)erabtt>arfen, 3^ faT^e einen, ber fetne S^iirje t)ott 
junger Slaben l^atte, tie er einen nac^ bem anbern 
I)erunterfi[attern (ieg. ^in anberer 509 einen ^amm 
unb (S^Jiegel l^eraud unb ^ufete fic^ fein ^aax auf. 
@d ttjcire urn getioiffer Urfac^en wilfen §u wimf^en, 
ha^ bie |)inbu6 bad le^tre flei^iger ju ^aufe tpten. 
95i6wei(en foU ed gefc^el)en, ba^ bie |)acfen bad 
gleifc^ burd^rei^en , ed Id^t ftc^ benfen, t)a^ ber arme 
5}lenfd^ bei ber (Sc^neKigfeit ber 53ewegung mit 
furd^tbarer ©ett>a(t ftinunter gefc^leubert Vfirb; benn 
er burd^fliegt in einfr ^JJ^inute 5 bid 6 mal einen 
^reid, ber uber I)unbert gu§ im Hmfang l^at. 3n 
einem 2)orfe bei Calcutta fte( einfi ein 9J?ann auf ein 
alted SBeib l^erab, tt>e(c^e auf ber 6tette tobt blieb/ 
dr felbft ^arb ben folgenben ^ag. 

3n einem anbern 2)orfe ftel ber 55aum wm, an 
tt>elc^em ein !0lann ge^ngen !)atte, fobalb biefer led 
voax , f^)rang er ju einem anbern 35aume t)in, unb 
lieg fi6) baran fjinauf^ie^en , aid ob nic^td gefd^e^en 
vrdrc. ^at einer ha^ Ungtucf auf biefe SBeife |)atd 
unb 33ein ju bred^en, fo bemitleibet i^n 9f?iemanb} 
nein ber @6§enbiener ift au6) gegen 6terbenbe gran* 
fam. SSelci^ ein S56fen?id^t! rnfen bie Umberfteifjeu:' 
ten audj gewtg {)at er in einer frul^ern ^ehnxt ein 
fd^recftic^ed ^Serbred^en begangen, bejtvegen fiirbt er 


^^8 Ueber ten @i)&ent>icull 

btefe^ gett)altfame6 ^ot)€$. ^ewoljnUc^ bauert ba6 
Srf>tt)ingen bei etncm S9lanne eine SSiertelftunbe, e^ 
Qibt aud^ 53ei|>iele ta M f<^^<^^ Unftnnige eine l^albe 
Stunbe krumbre^en laffen. 3^ ^<i^^ no(^ nk ^e^ 
I)6rt , ba^ ft^ bie S3raininen biefer ^einigun^ nnter? 
jogen pttenj fo f)ei(ig nnb tjerbien'tttott au^ btc 
^anblnng ifl, fo fc^onen fte boc^ it)r gfeif^ unb 
^(ut aU au fe^r. ©le (affen ba6 ©ef^aft ben 6nbra 
uber. <50 fint) bie niebrigften ^(affen, Jlaglofjncr, 
^alanfintrciger nnb bgl. Sente, bie ftd^ fd^w^ingen 
laffen. ain-^ gnte0 ^dnfgelb t)on bem 3f»i^n^^^ 
($d^ter) ober ben 2)orfeinn>oI)nern, nnb bie .^of nnng 
in(S(^itt)a'0 |)immel gu fommen, ift ein l^inldnglid^er 
Sett^eQ^rnnb fur fie, fidb fo martern ju laffen. 3^ 
fal)e einmal einen |)inbu in bem WjeftUc^en 3^f)eil t)on 
SBengalen, tt>elc6er 15 3af)re nac^einanber gefd^wun* 
gen it?orben \X)ax , i^ fonnte auf feinem 9lMen bie 
!J?arben jdl^len, ml^e ber |)arfen ijernrfac^t l^atte. 
^nx^ bie S3emn]f)ungen be0 (^riftlid^en ^ublifum^ 
in 3nbien ift eg bal)in gebra^t tt)orben, ba^ in ber 
6tabt Calcutta fein 33amn ^um 6(^tt)ingen me^x er? 
ri(f)tet ttjerben barf. SiJlan I)at fi^ aitc^ mit Sitt^ 
fc^riften an bie 9iegiernng gevvenbet, um biefe gran* 
fame (^eremonie, ttjelc^e f^on fo mel Unglucf loerur* 
fac^t ^aif gdnjli^ ab jnfc^affen. 2)ie Slegierung ^at 
eg aber nodb nid^t Qm%tf ta^ Sc^wingen ju »er^ 

!Der berii^mte (^5§e Snggernantl^ (^fcfioggonat^), 
ber^ivar eine berniebrigeren©ott]^eitenber^inbu6ift;l^at 

tennod^ burd^ ganj Snbien einc uncjemeine ^Papula^ 
ritdt erlangt SSer Bat nid^t »ou ten ^unberttau* 
fenten Qf^ort, \)k au^ alien 3:'^eilen Snbien^ nac^ 
feinem S^em^el im Driffa-Santc wallfal^rten* 2)ie 
©efc^id^te t)iefe0 ^o^enbl^rfe ift folgente. ^in from* 
met ^onig Stibra^am erl)klt t)on SKifc^nii ten 55e# 
fe^l; tie ©ebeine ^dfc^na'^a , m^cn em Sag^r er* 
fd^offen l)atte, in ein wurtigeS ®efvi^ p famm^ln, 
SBifd^nufarma, ter Siwiin^i^n^^Jtttt ber ^ottin, unter* 
naljm tie 5lrbeit, erfldrte aber jum 3}oran6, wenn 
i^n Semant barin unterbrec^e, fo t^erte er ta6 S3ilb 
tint? client et liegen laffen iint t)a)>m ge^en. dx fing 
nnn an jn simmern unt baute in einer 9^a(!)t einen 
ilempel auf tern blauen 53erge in Driffa. ©otann 
begann er tie SSerfertignng eine6 imgeljenern ®6§en;* 
bilte^, ^a^ 15 ^agen begab ftc^ ter ^onig, ter nic^t 
Idnger tvarten fonnte , auf ten S©erf:|)Ia|. 5ll6balt 
lieg 2Gifc^nu!aruKi fein 53eil fatten nnt ma^te jtc^ 
ta»on. 60 blieb ter ^o^e oline |)dnte unt giife 
Hegen. 2Ber ivar in ^ro^erer SSerlegenl)eit al^ ter 
^onig? er njantte fic^ in feiner S^ot^ an ^rama, 
unt tiefer »erfprad^ il)m/ta^ tern (^o^en and) in fei^ 
uer ie^igen (^efialt allgemeine g^ttlid^e ^^re erwjiefen 
^ n)erben follte. 53ei ter (^innjei^ung :pra(tbirte 8rama 
felbft ale ^priefter, gab tern (^o^enblocf 5lugen unt 
einc ©eele, nnt fo mart ber ^xxfym unt tie |)ol^eit 
tejfelben t)on feiner (Sntftel^ung an begruntet, ?iQexm 
^xama felber erfldrt, ein mod fe^ ein (3ott, fo muft 
tnan e^ glauben unt i^n anbften^ fo fagt ter |)intU;. 


110 ^ ,. Ueber ben ©o&enbienfi 

unb ^aufenbe fc^%tt ftc^ glMici^, wenrt fie beit 

aiuQej^alten ^(um^en §u ©eft^te befommen. 

•- . Suggeruaut!^ bebeutet: |)err ber SBelt! biefen 

t^ " gropeu ^itel tna^t ftc^ ber gro^e 5Dloloc^ be6Drient6 

an. ^in ?Ql{fftondr, ber t)or 2 Sa^ren im SJlonat 

t; 3uni bem gefte beiwol^nte, befc^reibt e0 auf folgenbc 

tfSSBeife. 2)e^ S'^ac^mittag^ njurbe ber,®c§e mit feU 

^ nem 53ruber unb feiner (Sc^ttJefttr aw0 bem ^empel 

auf ben gro^en barren gebrad^t» 2)te bidbte SQlcijfe 

feiner ^Berel^rer belief fx^ auf 200,000 kenf(^eu, 

Xk^an\ex nnb9)?auern waren mit33Iumen, ^rcin^en 

unb 3tt>^tgen gejiert, 5lEer 5lugen ri(^teten jtc^ auf 

Suggernautt) , j[ebe6 ©eftcftt Idc^elte »or greuben. 

2)ie meiften englifd^en S3eamten t>on ber benac^barten 

-€tabt ^uri ritten auf Veic^gejierten, mit bunten ^ep* 

piemen bebecften ^Iep{)anten etuf)er, um ben |)errn 

ber SBelt gu befc^auen. SBeli^ eine (Sd^anbe! bie 

^^ ^inbu^ glauben gan^ beftimmt, bie ben c^riftlic^en 

5Ramen tragenben 53ritten fe^^en, gfeic^ ben ^ingebor^ 

nen, gefommen, um jic^ an feinem Sinblicf ju er^ 

go^en. SBer in ber erften Stuube feiner anftcf^tig 

wirb, bem werben aEe (Sunbenftrafeh toon ^eljntau*' 

fenb (^eburten erlaffen, <Bo entsiicft ift ber ®ott uber 

bie 5(ubetung, bie it)m su Zi)d{ wirb, H^ feine §lu* 

gen t)or |)u(b unb 2Bonne fnaf)len. §ln langen <5ei* 

leu n)irb ber ®o&enfarren mit feinen 249ftdbern fort* 

^■^^■^^ge^ogem ■;:.>-.■-.,.•,■■■: .,-. ^^^.v■■^v,,:.,...■v,^ -,:^,- ;,■■■.,, - 

^ier mo^te man erftaunt au^rufen, tca^ boc^ 

ber 5lbergiaube ni(^t toermag! 9)lac^en nic^t biefe 

9J?af|en »on n?armen SSereI)rern Suggernautt; bie 

, ber >&iul)u6, .ill 

laltc ^^rifien^eit ju 8*anben? ^at man and) iu 
geubmo eine Q^erfammlung t)on 200,000 ^nbetcrn t)c0 
lebenbigen (5^otte6 beifammen gefe^en ? 

Slber, fal^rt ber ^Jiiffiondr fprt, welc^e Dualfcene 
fteUte ft(^ meinen ^Ucfen bar, al^ it^ mic^ umfafel 
3ln bem Ufer bee gluffee ^a\)iU ic^ mel)r aI6 40 
Sdc^name unb 6felette in cerfcftiebenen ^raben ber 
SSemefung; SSogel unb ^feiere ©erjel^rten fie.- Xie 
pigrime brad^ten, U)ie gen?ol)nlic^ , bie (§^olera mii; 
beibe |)of:pitaIer waren mit ^ranfen augcfitUt 3eben 
SD^lcrgen wurben bie ^obten auf bie 6^dbelfitdtte 
l)in9ett)orfen» , ; 

Suijgernautl^ l)at ^wax feinen ^au^tft^ in 
Diiffaj aKein in jebem bebeutenben Drte.Sengalen0 
befinbet fic^ ein folc^er ^ojenfarren, ber am gefttage 
»or ber jubelnben SQ^enge m ^riumplfe ^iuau^gejogen 
n)irb. 3n ber S^lac^bari'^aft »on S3urbtt)an wo^nte 
ic^ im 3af)re 1832 einer folc^en ipro^efiton hei, mib 
»ertl)etlte @t)angeUen unb ^^ractate. 2)rei ^erfonen 
murben om 9)tovgen, ale ber barren l^eraueful^r, »on 
ben 9ldbern erbnicft. ^a lagen bie Seid^name t)OC 
mir , bie SBittwen fa^en neben i^nen. !Da^ ber frei* 
tt)ittige Xoh unter bem ©o^eufarren §u ber ^oc^ften 
6eUgfeit fii^rt, ift bem i^inbu eine auegemac^te 
6ac^e, 2Bie X)ie(e D^fer f)aben ji^ fc^on unter bie* 
jen barren gett)orfen unb ftnb ^ermalmt worbtn. 
^unberte t)on ^iigrimen , wjelc^e »on grower gerne 
l?er ba3 geft befuc^en, fterben auf bem 2i>ege unb 
fe^en i^re .^eimat^ nidbt ttjieber, 3c^ \a^ ^^olero* 

112 Ucber ben ©o^entienjl 

^xanU biefer 5(rt auf bcr 6trage baliegen unb fi^icffr 
fie hi eitt |)oft3itaI. : 

(Sin anbere^ a^nlic^e^ ^o^enfeft ttjirb ber 
njeibtid^en ^ott^eit "Dnrga ^u (E^ren gefeiert. 3n 
6tdbten tt)ie (Calcutta laft fic^ jeber reic^e |)mbtt 
feme eigene T)urga ^erfertigen, fie trirb in einem 
ba^u eingerie^teten offenen @aal ober .^ofraum auf^ 
gefteKt. ^e^ 9'?a(J)t0 tt)irb berfelbe mit ^ronleucfttern 
ittumtnirt, unb Me^ im ^anfe ift in orientalifc^ent 
<5tvle unb ^om^ au6gefd^mu{ft, Slle offentlic^en 
unb $rtt)atgef(^afte jinb in biefen jn)olf gefttagen 
eingefteKtj fogar \}\e ©eric^tepfe ber Oiegierung unb 
SSerwjaltungen ber^eamten n?erben gefc^toffen. S^iei^e 
unb 5lrme ge^en in i^ren gefiffeibern ninl^er, ^rofe 
!lU?a!)ljeiten unb ^anjipart^ien gibt man bem (^o§en 
ju ^l^ren. 5(uc^ engtifc^e gamilien laben bie 53abu0 
(»ornel()nte ^inbu6) ju ben Snftbarfeiten, unb manege 
jiuben ftc^ (eiber in biefen 33aal6tempeln ein. Za% 
unb ^ai^t tcnen bie fra^jenben 3]Tufi^3nftrumente 
ber 35engalefenj eine^anbe ^k\)i na^ ber anbern mit 
einem ^urga'(^66enbilbe, ta^ fie auf bretternen @e* 
Tuften tragen , larmenb burd^ bie @tabt. !I)ie .^in=^ 
bu6 tteripraffen an biefem (^o^cnfefle unge^eure Sum^ 
mm 5 manc^^er ^abu gibt in biefem 50^onat 10 hi^ 
20,000 ^ulben tt>at)renb ber gefttage au0 *, aud^ tk 
armeren 0affen ^erpugen i(}ren ffeinen §8erbienjl, 
ben fie im 6c^weipe if}re0 ^ngefid^t fi^ erworben 
l^aben, '''--■''■■■''■■: •'■' v ■■• 

©tt befe^rter Sramine f^rieb in einem SBriefe, 
bag \)k |)inbue in Calcutta bei bem !l)urgafefl bee 

" , Ux ^inbue. 113 

U%Un 3a{)re^ tDenigftene 600,000 ©ulben »erfc^tt>en* 

t)d ^abm, unb welin man ba^jenige, tt?a6 fte bei 

anbern ^e(egenl)eiteii im ^o^entwefcn toergeuben, nocf) 

baju rec^ne, fo fe^ e^ lt)0(^ft wal^rfd^einlid^ , ba^ ber 

giirft ber ginfterni^ in ber 6tabt Calcutta aUein ein 

groj^ere^ ial)rlic^e6 ^inforamen be§iel£)e, ale alle 5[Jlif* 

fton^gefellf^aften in (Snglanb tt)d!)renb einem 3al)re 

erl^alten. Diefe^ beldnft fic^ aber n?enigjien6 aiif 4 

SKiaionen ©ulben.^^^^^^^^^-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^ -^ 

Mm (e^ten 5(benbe be^ geft'0 ^k^t tik 5D?enge 

imter SQlufif unb ®efang jum S^uffe, nnb ttJtrft t)a^ 

^ot;enbiib in^SBaffer. ^urj barauf ift ba^ geft ber 

£ali^ ein ^l^eil beffelben mrb »or bem ^intritt be^ 

!)f?eumonbe6 in finfterer S'la^t gefeiert. !I)ie S^erel^rer 

tanjen nm eine nacfte SBeibeiperfon l)erum, bie ^ere* 

monie ift iiber alle 5D^agen f^dnblit^. ^k bofen 

(^eifter ber ^oKe f)attm fein drger^^ Ttittel erftnben 

fonnen, wm bie 9Jlenf(^l^eit 5ur ^l^ierl^eit p ernie* 
brigen. , :-:;■■.■■ ;r.:,^>^^^.:v;v^^;v-.fe:^ 

Sf^oc^ mug ic^ genjiffer Slrten religiofer Uebungen 
ermd^nen, welc^e ebenfa((6 »erbienftU^ ftnb unb bie 
6elig!eit beforbern foKenj fie tt)erben »orsug^tt?eife t)on 
|)inbu*5{^cetifertt, bie man ga!ir6, Suniafie, 
SB^rafi^ ober §)ogie l^eigt, getrieben» (Sineba^on. 
ift ba0 5(u0fpre(S^en ber S'lamen il)rer 6c!^u§gotter. 
Die 3fleligion ber niebern ^laffen beftef)t ^auptfdc^Iic^ 
in biefem gebanfenlofen ^erpla^Jipern, 2Bie uufer 
^eilanb »on ben .^eiben fagt, „fte glauben/ t)a^ ife 
geprt n?erben, itenn fie x^kk SBortc ma^enJ' 2)ie 
SSere^rer be^ SBifd^nu gebraud^en baju eine hem 

a'eit6rc(^t 3K«f|ton in Sntieti, 8 

114 UeBer ben ©otenbtcnfl 

9lofen!rattj d^nli^e @$mir, bic jte urn ben ^ali 
tragen; bi^tt^eilen ftjrec^en fte bie Xiamen laut, gc^ 
ttjo^nli* aber jie!)t man nut wU fx^ bie Si^:pen be-^ 
ttjegen, 5)ie genannten ©uniap ober ^ettelmonc^e, 
befd^dftigen ftc^ mit biefer Uebung , ben gangen Zoq 
unb ba6 ganje 3a-^r» 

3ji e6 einem gelungen ben S^lamen SRab^a ^nf(^na 
Dber ?fiam in einem SJ^onat Ijunbert taufenbmal au63u* 
fprec^en, fo fann er feiner 6eUgfeit gewig fein, SSi^* 
tt)ei(en ft|en biefe geiftig tjerfteinerte 2Befen in @e^ 
banfen toertieft, mit l^alb gefdbloffenen 3(ngen »or 
einem ^empel ober unter einem Ijeiligen S3aum. 

Um bie Uebungen nocS^ t)erbienjit)otter ^u ma^en, 
untemerfen fi(^ biefe 5(ecetifer tterfc^iebenen 5lrten 
toon ^^ortnren nnb ©elbftpeinigungen. 3^ 
(Salcntta fal^ man im 3a]^r 1833 einen folc^en, bet 
toorgab feine 6peife p genie^en unb toon ber Suft 
5U Ieben» 9}lorgen0 fe^te man it^n auf ein fla^ee 
2)ad^ gur SSerwunberung ber ftaunenben SJlenge j ba^ 
SSaffer, mit weld^em man i^n mifc^, ttourbe ubet 
biefelbe au^gegoffen unb t)k Seute fingen eS gierig 

2)iefe .^eiligen legen e6 barauf an, f(^on Ui 
2eibe6leben in bie ^otttjeit aufgenommen ju werben ; 
unb H gleifc^ unb ^(ut nic^t bamit eintoerftanben 
flnb, fo mftffen biefelben ertobtet, abgeftitmpft 
Vtoerben; ber ^)^^ftfc^e SJlenfd^ mu§ ftd^ in einen tob^ 
ten ^lo^ toeritoanbeln, ift biefer $unft erreic^t, fo ttoirb 
ber (^eift frei unb @in^ mit SSral^m, 2)ie |)inbu6 
](>aben bafur ein <5pric^it>ort ; „S^ie bie Suft in einer 

SBouteiffe, tioenn bi>fe gerbroc^en wirb, fi(^ mit ber jte 
umgebertben iD'iaterie ^ereinigt, fo fel^rt bie^^eele be0 
Sogi hti ber 5(ufl6fung beS ^eibee in bie gottUd^c 
SKeltfeele aururf, unb ^erliert jtt^ bann, wjte eiit 
Jlropfcn Staffer im Dcean,'' 

Urn eine foIC^e geiftige SSerni^tung ju crlangen, 
t'^ut @iner ba^ ®elu6be, ben 2Beg nac^S3enare^ init 
feinem ^or^)er 5u meffen. @in 5(nberer fi^t ^ag fut 
3^ag 3tt)ifd^en brei geuern unb (dft jt^ f)alh xbftm. 
3d^ fal^ etnen ©uniafi^, b^ffen felt Sal^ten aitfgej&c* 
Umx ^rm ganj X)erborrt tt)ar. SD'lifltondr ^l)eniu^ 
fal; etnen fulc^en ^tilxQm, bur(^ beffen SBangen ein 
^xaif) gejogen tt)ar, ttjelc^er an beiben ^nben breit 
gefcf^fagen toax, fo bag er nid^t l^eraue gejogen wcr^ 
ben fonntej an tm @nben wjar eine £ette befeftigt, 
unb unten eine mefjingenie SBudbfc angebrac^t, mittelft 
ttjel^er ber 5(rme 5((mofen einfamnielte3 auf feiner 
§(ci)fel trug er 2 fci^were eiferne ^etten^^elenfe. ^m 
^orper ttjar mit §lfc3^e befc^miert; tt)enn er Idi^elte, 
fo ijernrfac^te ilfem ber Dratl^ groge ©c^merjen* SD^lif* 
fiondr Senpolb fa^ einen anbern, ber me^rere ^age 
wnb 9ld(^te an bem 5lft cine6 SSaume^ mit ben gugen 
aufgel^dngt war, 3n neuerer 3^it fc^eint biefe 6u(^t, 
ba^gleifi^ gu frensigen, jiemli^ abgcnommen ^\x ^ol^ 
ben, unb bie, tt)el$e il)re .^eimat^ t)er(affen imb tia^ 
ilrenge ^Df^onc^^Ieben tt)d^Ien, begnugen jlc^ gettJol^nlia^ 
bamit, nacft uml^er au jiel^en, eine ^igerl)aut auf 
bem aiiicfen ju tragen, baa ^aar nnb il^re S^idgel 
toad^fen $u faffen, fid^ atte ^orgen mit ber 5lf^e 
»on ^ufjmift einjureiben, nnb fo ale SSettelmon^e 


116 Ueber ben ®o^ent)ienfi 

»on einem SKal^lfa^rt^ort gum anbern gu jiefjen. 3^te 
5lnja][)l iji wngemem gro^, man begegnet il^nen auf 
alien 5^anbftrafen» SKo. fie l)infommen, ttjerben fie 
freigel^alten unb gefpei^t. SSiele i>on tl)nen fmb 
Dpium'(Sffer , ot>er rauc^en, wie i^r ©(^uj^atron 
©c^iwa, narfotif^e ^ranterj il^r ^luefeljen ift fc^auer^ 
lid^, gen)c§nlid^ l^alb beraufc^t l)aben |ie feuerrot^e 
Slugen, (Btatt i^xe Seit)enfd^aften unter^rutft gu l^a* 
ben, jtnb fte oft an^gelaffene 2Bolluft(inge, eine mora^^ 
lifc^e ^efl, tt)o jie @ingang ju ftnben mijfen. ^ v 
2)ie ©rabl^a ober ^obtenfeier ift hei ben 
^tnbu0 eine ber wid^tigften religiofen (Seremonien, 
nnb !ein gettjiffen^after |)inbu )x>ixt) fie unterlaffen. 
3m SSorgefii'^l be6 5!obe6 troftet er fic^ gemeiniglic^ 
bamit , ta^ er einen <5ol)n })at , ber tie (Srabl)a fur 
il)n feiert» @ie tt)irb am tt)ir!famften in ®ai;a, einem 
berul)mten 2Ballfal^rt0^Drte; i?errid^tet. 3)er 6c^n 
mac^t fic^ furje 3eit nac^ bem ^obe be^ QSater^ an 
M^ (^efc^dft, bamit \)k (Beck jur !Rul)e fommt, 
^ann e^ nic^t in (^a'^a gefc^el)en, fo eriauben e^ bie 
S3raminen auc^ gu |)aufe, nnter ber 8ebingung, t)a^ 
eine gute 5lngaT^l berfelben gu einem rei^Hc^en Ttak 
eingelaben \uerben, 3e mel^r 53raminen gefpei^t unb 
bef(5^en!t tver-ben , befto gett)iffer unb iJoHiger ift \)k 
^rlofung ber ^erbammten ©eele, 2)er (§eremonien 
fmb X)kk*, 3Bift^nu, ber ®ange6 unb Ue 6onne, 
befonber^ aber t)k 6cl)u§gotter ber gamilie tt)erben 
babei angebetet. 2)ie D:pfer finb in gapofer SD^enge. 
5)a0 3)lotto , n)el(^e6 an ZqeU (lielbbuc^fe ftanb, 4l^ 

ft ^u M^ex^ 3eit in 3)eutfd^rant) Slblag exfijeiUe, 
gilt mi(^ l^ier: 

" ^ „@o wie b«^ ®elb im jtajlcn flmgt, 

' i)ie ct^ 9le(jierutig :6at pc^ bie U^^ 

rfi^mten S5?a{(fal^rt6*£)rte aud^ ^u ^ui^m gemac^t, unb 
na^ bent 33eifpiele ber 53rammen, 6efonber6 in Der 
S^obtenfeier^n ®a^a, eine reid^fid^e Duefle fur i^re^in^ 
fimfte geoffnct. 99?a!)rli^ ein f^tvar^er %Uden in 
i!)rer'®ef(^i(^te, ben ite nic^t im Stanbe fe^n looixt), 
tt)ieber au^autvifd^en. Seber ^ifgrim, ber Suggernaut^ 
befii^fe, ' mu|te bei feinem ^intritt 18 S3a$en 5:are 
bejai^len. SBer in (^a^a \)k ^rabf)a ober ^obtenfcier 
feiner ^Sorfa'^ren beging, lyaik \ik bo:p:pelte oft brei* 
fa^e (gumme ju entric^fen. ^(u^erbem forgten bie 
gelbl;ungrigen SBraminen nod^ fwr i^xen 35ortl)eil, t)a^ 
ber 5(nf6mmling tventg genng gur ^^eimreife bel^ielt. 
9)lan t)at bered^net, t)a^ t)k Dftinbifd^e SfJegierung 
jdfjrlid^ fiber eine ^alhe ^IJ^ittion ^ulben ^inhmfte 
rom (^c^enbienfte 6e§og. Sveili^ befd^enften <te ba* 
fitr Suggernautl^ jebee 2a\)x rait mel)rerett |)unbert 
^tten fc^onem troUenem Xu6^ , . bamit er am gro§en 
geftt<ige prcid^tig geHetbet erfd^einen !onnt«» 3n (§ng* 
lanb fd^rie man 3<i^ve tang uber biefe Ungercd^tigfeit, 
unb immer gaben bie |)errfc^er bie alte 5(nttt>ort: 
„«ffiir fonnen bie ^a(6e SKiKion nid^t entbe^ren," !Da« 
^arlament wurbe mit SBittfc^riften befturmt, nnb na^' 
(angem 3«ubern unb elenben 5Iu6flud&ten wurbe tic 
Sf^egierung enbli^ genot^igt, \)k ^itgertare abju* 

118 Ueber ben ®6^enbicnft 

@ord^er 5rrt, mcin liebcr Scfer, finb tie 3Rittct 
«nb 53emul)un9en, burc^ vtjelc^e fic^ bcr ortt)obore |)m* 
bu na(^ biefem Seben ein befferc6 2)afe^n, ober bic 
l^o^fle @elig!eit ju erwerben ^^offt. d^ Udht un0 
nun bie grage ju beantworten ubrig, wel^e 2lit 
»cn (Seligfeit er ju erringen fuc^t, nnb tt>ie bet 
.^immel befcJ^affcn ift, ijon tern er jt^ cilTe 
greube unb SKonne ^erf:pric^t SIber tt?a6 fott i^ fa^ 
gen uber biefen^unft? 2l>o ber (hotter fo »iele 
jtnb, ba ftnb au^ bie |)immel beinalje o{)ne 3«^f» 
. Seber in tm 2^a\Ux^ ein tioenig bettjanberte 
SBramine {)at feine eigene 3bee fiber |)immel unb Se* 
Hgfeit 3n einigen 6(ftriften wirb bebmilptet: e6 gebc 
uber^an^t leine (itmgfeit; X)a6 (^(uc! nnb UnglndE 
tet SJlenfcben befdjrdnfe jtc^ at(ein auf ba6 gegen^ 
tt>drtige Seben. (Bc^redli^er (SJebanfe! 6(6on bie ent* 
ferute SSorftellung ba»on erfuKt t)cn naCi) ^eben nnb 
Unfterblic^feit burftenben ^D^enfc^engeifi mit Unru^e 
nnb 2(ngfi, 2)ie Sl^erfaffer ber 5Seba0 muffen (Stwa^ 
bai)on em^funben baben, tarnm I)aben jie il^ren Un* 
tergebenen »erf(^iebene 5(rten i)on |)intmel ttorgemalt, 
in ttje^en ben SKurbigen gett)iffe (^rabe t)on ©elig* 
feit ^er^ei^en finb. 

. !l)ie SSe^c^reibnng berfelben i(i ganj int orientally 
fd^en @t^L 5ltte6 barin, fogar bie Sdblafgemac^er 
nnb ^ctien ber ©otter finb t)on ©olb nnb (^belgeftein* 
Sltte grenben nnb 3Sergniigungen bort fi^meicbeln bem 
ftnnli^en 2J?enfd^en. 2)em ^parabiee 9)^a{)omeb6 a{)n* 
li^, ftubet man SKoI^nungen ber JBoKuft nnb 9|lefter 
ber Unsnc^t, \tatt einer ^tatk, n?o bie (^erec^ten 

bet ^inbu^, 119 

unb btc reme6 ^erjen^ fmb, ben Sol^n be^ (^laubenS 
empfan^en. SlKe Safter unb tuilbe Seibenfd^aften fefjen 
tt)ir ^ier :|3erfomftcirt unb tjergottert. 2)ie (Streitig:* 
feiten unb Sntriguen ber ©otter erfuUen biefe ©tat:* 
ten mit Sarm unb 5(ufru^r. t^ier gibt^ ?iJlufifantcn, 
^Anjet unb Sanger mit ^ferbefo^jfenj Suftbarfeiteu 
unb ©aufgelage, aber aud^ ^tieg, S3(utt)ergie^eii 
unb ^lorbt^aten. 3c^ mu^ meinen Sefern einen tk^ 
fer |)tmme( in furjen Shorten befd^reiben. 

(Sin alter ©c^riftftetter fagt, ber ^immel M 
S3rama fe^ fo fiber aOe ^)J^agen fc^on unb l^errlt^, 
\>a^ e^ if)n me!)r a(6 200 Sal^re foften vvurbe , eine 
orbentlid^e 58efd^reibung ba»on in geben. ^6 ift in 
ber ^!)at dn mM, bag er fic^ in feiner I)arfteaun9 
ffirjer fagte. 5(ffe ^attdfte jtnb »on reinem ©olb, 
bie ^txa^cn »om l^eUften ^r^flatt, mit golbenen 8t4rei* 
fen. ^0 gibt bort SBalDer unb ©drten 'ooU ber ebel^ 
ften griic^te; il)r Duft erfiiUt t)k U^k. SBogel fingen 
auf ben ^aumen unb in ben Saubl^utten tk lieblidb* 
ften ^Jielobien, 5(uf ben 6een ftefjt man SBajfer^ 
lilien »on blauer, rotifer unb tt)eiger garbe. 3m 
SBinter ift6 n)arm unb IkUki) ful^l im 6ommer. 
SSolfen gibt^, aber feine (^ewitter, SBinbe we^en, 
aber fte ftnb erfrifc^enb; »ort bructenber ^i|e wei§ 
man nid^t6. ©op^ae unb ^f^rone fte^en t^a, fte 
glanjen kvie ber S3!i§. 2)er ^immel S^ifc^nu^ unb 
3nbra6 jtub tvenig \?erfc^icben. JDer lejtere mug 
na(^ 5Crt eine6 Salons gebaut fe^n, feine ©dufen 
fmb pon^iamanten. @r ifi mit ©drten unb fcbonen 
iBdIbern umgeben. Ueber t)k ^efd^dftigung ber 

120 Ueber ben (^o^enbienfi / ' i 

(Spotter \)\ex noc^ eine Heine 5(nefbote: 55d einer gro* 
^en ^onferenj berfelben f)atte Snbra eine 55fume in 
ber |)anb , an beren ^erut^ er ftc^ lahie, baranf 
prAfentirte er jte einem 53raminen. 2)ie ganje @e* 
fettfc^aft Ia(f)te i^n an6 , benn biefe |)eilicjen empfan* 
gen nur 53lumen, bie frifc^ gepfliicft jtnb. 2)er 53ra^ 
mine ftanb auf unb t^erbammte im 3[Beggel)en ben 
3nbra, in bem |)aufe eine6 ^}3lanne6 niebriger ^aj^e 
eine ^a^e jn n>erben. (5o ftel ber ^ott t)om |)im=^ 
mel unb »emanbe(te fic^ in eine ^a^e im |)aufe 
eine6 Sacjer^. 5{fle (hotter fragten erftaunt, u^o ij^ 
Snbra, aber nirgenb^ voav er ju fefjen. 6eine ^at* 
tin (5ut)f(^i fanb i!)n nac!^ langem ^uc^en, 2)e6 
3ager6 3Beib em^fa^I i^r eine gewiffe 3^w^^^f«>i'J^^^ 
§u gebraud)en. ^ubfc^i tl^at e^ unb bie ^a|e tter^ 
ttjaubelteitcfe wieberin biegoymbe^ (^otte^, beralebalb in 
feine Sftefiben^ §urucffe{)rte. 3nbra tt)irb fic^tt)ol)l nac^^ 
J^er ge{)utet I)aben; tt)ieDer einen §8raminen ^u be(eibigen. 
3)ie ^oiU ift »on ben SSerfaffern ber 6c^after6 
fc^tt)ar§ genug gefc^ilbert worben, unb tt)enn bie ^in^ 
bu0 5{lle^ auf^ SSort ^in glauben, fo ^aben ftf bie 
troftlofe 2(n6ftc^t, \}a^ bie gan§e Station bort fur i()re 
(Simbeuqual lei^en tt)irb. (§6 gibt nic^t nur €XM 
^oUe , fonbern taufenbe. (Sinige fmb finfter, anbere 
t?on glu^enbem (Sifen, in einer britten merben 55er* 
breeder mit 3)ornen ge§uc^tigt; »on biefer fu!)rt ber 
SBeg in eine, tt?elc^e t)ott t»on frierf)enben 5^^ieren unb 
©ett?urm ift; banu gibt^ wieber eine mit ftinfenben 
Sumpfen, bur(^ biefe fliegt ein 6trom mit grdulictem 
llnfiatl;. |)ier tt)erben 6unber mit glu^enben ^an^ 

ter ^tntu0» 121 

gen ^erriffen, Dort ftnt mitere, beren glcif(^ t?oit 
(^anibalen »er§el^rt wirb» gur jebe befonbere <Bm^ 
benart ift eine eigene |)one iinb et^ene (^trafe au^- 
<\efe|t. 2)er Unmagige, ti>e{tl)er toiel gleif^fpeife ge* 
noffen f)at, wirb in t)ie |)oKe t>on ftebenbem Del ge- 
worfen. SBer bie 53raminen Derac^tet i^at, tioirb 
i?iert^alb SSftiiiioncn 3a^ve an ctnen Drt t»erbommt, 
ter mit (jlul)enbem '^HaU utngeben ift, !Die Un* 
barmt^ersigen merben i)on 2Beft>en; gUegen unb atfer* 
lei Unge3iefer ge4)Iagt. 2)en ^raminert unb gurften, 
tvfl^^r geifttge #etranfe liebt, wirft man in einen 
^effel »on fliepenbem getter (Wal^rfc^einli^ SBeingeijl). 
SSer einen McetiUx t?erfpottet , wirb . mit bent Mcpf 
bt^ an tie ^nie im ^ot!) ftecfen. galfcfje 3^«9^tt 
fiurjt man t)on einem 300 ©tunben '^ol)en gelfen 
^erunkr. SBoHftftlinge unb ^^ebrec^er t^erbrennen in 
ben g(itf)enben 5(rmen eine^ eifi^rnen S3ilbe0. 

SSon etinger ^elig!<?it ober en)iger ^oflenftrafe 
tt)et^ bie ^inbu*3^I)eologie nic^t^. 9J?ag hie eine ober 
bie anbere auc^ ^Dliffionen 3cilf>re bauern, fo ifi im- 
mert)in ein 3^^tpun!t befttmmt , wo ber IBerbammte 
ber |)otte entrinnt unb ber <Se(ige it^ieber !)inau6 
mu§ , um auf ^rben in irgenb einer neuen gotm 
fcin !Dafei)n no(^ma(^ ju beginnen. (5o lautet tie 
6eelenn)anberung6le^re ber |)iitbu^. ®ie ift 
aud^ tinter ben niebrigften ©affen befonnt uiib ^o* 
Vuldr gewcrben. 3n meinen ^duflgen Unter^altungen 
liber 9fleligion^fac^en fragte id) tie ^inbu^ bi^weilen. 
,,3Ba6 wirb au6 eurer ^eele werben , n)enn i^r ge* 
ftorben fei;b?'' „5Bae an^ if)x wexten wirb, — (te 

122 Ueber ben ©o^enbienjl -^ 

gel^t in Z\ii}ama'^ ^an^J' 3)iefer Z]^ama ift Ux 
@ott t>er Untemelt unb l^at feine Steftben^ am du^er* 
fien (fube ber @rbe. !Dortfttn unrb ber 3Serftorbene 
gebrac^t. 2)ie (^uten empfdngt er ld(^elnb itnb rebet 
fie folgenber ^aa^m an: „3^r fe^b gut, burc^ bie 
^raft curer SSerbienfte er^ebt il)x euc& in einen ^erv=^ 
Hc^en |)imme(." 

3)16 33ofen 9el)en burd^ ein bunfle^ @ en? 61b e, man 
jie^t fte mit Piemen an ten ^aaren hevM, anbere 
n>erben an ^etten l£)ergefcl}le:p:pt, l)unbert unb funfjig 
(Stunten Ijo^ fte^t ^fc^ama ba unb fdngt fein ^ar^ 
teei ® eric^t an. „3Biffet iT^r/' rebet er bie 3ittern* 
ben an, „\)a^ icft f)ier ba6 5(mt lyabe, ^IM ben ^u^ 
t€n unb (gtrafen ben ^ofen au^^ufpenben. |)abt ii^r 
niemal^ uber Sleligion 9ebacf)t, l^abt i^r nie an eine 
|)6lle , geglaubt ?" bann ruft er feinem (Secretdr 
5Ifc^itro (^npto unb fd^rt fort : „t)er^ore biefe Uebel- 
tpter^ rufe hk S^^n^^n l^erein/ 

6un)0 (bie Sonne), ^fc^anbra (ber SJlonb), 5fgad 
(baojirmament) , 2)in (ber ^ag), 9latri (bie 9lac^t), 
^ratafal (ber ^IJlorgen), Suntjafal (ber §lbenb) treten 
nun a\^ ^en^tn auf, 

Sobalb ba6 SSerl^or t»oritber ifl, f(J^(dgt Jlfd^ama 
mit feinem ^rugel auf jie lo6 , bag fte »or £lual 
fd^reien unb treibt fie in bie t^erfd^iebenen ^oKen. 

Se" nac^ ben ^Serbrec^en bleiben bie SSerbammten 
fiir^er ober Idnger in ber ^6Ue. 2)urd^ bie Strafe 
tDirb tie 6unbe au^gefofjut unb ein befferer 3iift«nb 
erlangt. 5(uc^ bie barauf folgeube Seelentt>anberung 
l)at ben 3^^^ ^^^^^ ^iigung fiir ta^ ^ergan^ene. 

ber |)inbu6, 123 

60 ftel^t c^ in ben (5(^after6 aufgejeid^net, welc^e 
firt »on (Srijiens einc {ebe €)unbe nad^ jt^ jif^t 
2Ber s. 53. ^Reie ftte^It , gel^t juerft in tie ^otte, 
tann n?irb er hd feiner ndc^ften ©eburt 18 Sa^te 
ein ^ahe, barauf 12 Sa^re ein ^ranic^ unb nac^ 
biefem ein frdnflic^er SO^iann. SSer ein S^^icr um* 
bringt ober beim Sefen ber $uranna6 lad^t, leibet 
juerft .^ottenqual, n^irb {)ierauf aU 6c^(ange c^eboren, 
fobann al6 Sieger, in ber britten @eeIentt>auberHn9 
al6 ^ul^ , bann al6 ein n)ei§er ^ranic^ unb enblid) 
al^ ein fngbruftiger ^enfc&. 5[Ber wcl^r Icbt, o&ne 
ben 5(rnten mitsutl^eifen, gel)t n«d^ feinem ^obe 30000 
Sol^re in bie |)otte, tt)irb barauf al6 eine 9}lofc^u6^ 
9latte geboren, bann a(6 ein fftd) unb jule^t al^ eiu 
Tltn\^, bejfen Seib einen unau^ftef^lic^en ®eruc^ 
au^bunftet. 5(ud^ wirb er merhufirbiger SSeife fc^Iec^te 
9?a]^rung guter ^)(idk x>ox^ie^m, 3c6 fragte hi^vod^^ 
len Seute, n?el(f)e mir hk 2d)xe t)on ber <Seelenrt>rtn* 
berung au6einanber fe|ten, in ioelc^er (^e^alt fie in 
i^rer fru^ern ®ebnrt auf ber @rbc gefebt l^aben^ 
aber Reiner war im 6tanbe, biefe Srage ju beant* 

2)iefe Sel^re, ttjelc^e mit bem gatali^mu^ un* 
jertrennlid^ ijerbunben i% ^at, wie ic§ in einem funf* 
tigen SCbfci^nitt ^eigen tt>crbe, einen ^erberblic^en mo*' 
ralift^en einflu^ auf ba$ gan^e 55oll. 2)er 5Kenfc6 
flelbt M fln ^itt eiferne^, unabanberli^eg ®efe^i(f 
gebunben, unb t>erHert bie freie ^^tigfeit M ©ei^^ 
ftee. „3Bie e6 beftimrat ift, fo ge^t c^/' biefen 5(u^* 
fpru^ ^ort man aue bem SD^unbe M ©elc^rten 

124 llekr ben ^o^eutienft 

m\\} be6 iJ!aglobner^ in 35enga(cn. SBenn Semanb 
€xm§> imnatuvUcfcen ^obe6 fttrbt, fo f^reibt man bae 
Ungluef ekem 3Serbrec^en ju, ba^ er in einer frul^ern 
(^eburt begangen l^aben muffe. 2Birb einer reidj nnb 
e^ getingt i^m OTe0 na^ feinen SBunf^en, fo fagen 
bie ?eute: „533ie tt)unberbar! er mug in einer friu 
^ern <^eburt ungemein Derbieiiftlic^e ^l^aten t)errid^tet 
^aben, fonfi ware eg il^m nic^t fo gegUirft." (5ie^t 
ber .|)inbu , bap eine ^u!) ober ein Odbfe ober ein 
anbereg Zl)kx Ijaxt be^anbelt tvirb, fo rnft er an^t 
^f^\&), n)i'e t)iek €unben mug ba6 arme (^efc^o^f in 
feinem friiljern 2)afe^n begangen i^aben." 

€o, mein {^ri(tHc!^er Sefer, ftelTt jt^ ber |)inbui6^ 
mu6 in fdnem practifc^en (^{jaracter bem 5(uge bee 
18eoba^ter6 bar. @ott mi^ e6, ic^ l^abe nic^tg 
iibertrieben;— \vk ubertrieben! im (^egent^eil, id) l)abe 
tie fc^wdr^eften ^f)f ile M ^emaCbeg in if)rem finfteren 
^intergrunbe nnberu{)rt gelaffen. ^eine St^n^t barf fte 
an^fprecJ^en , feine geber barf (ie befdjreiben. ®ott 
gebe, bap ba6 !2ic^t t)e6 (S^angeUum^ balb biefe l)eib* 
nijcbe ginPernip t>ertreiben moge! 

SSem ftetgt bdm S'la^Denfen uber ba6 ®o§entl)nm 
be6 |)inbui6mu6 nic^t aueJ »on 5)^itfeib beHommenem 
^er^en ber @eufser auf: „%^ , mein ^ott! n>enn 
eine 9?ation fold^e ©otter anbetet unb eine folcbe 
^Religion l^at, wae mup am (5nbe au6 il)r tt>erben!" 

|)ier id and) im geringften nic^tS §u ftnben, ba6 
ben geiftigcn 33eburfniffen be6 SD'lenfc^en entfprdc^e; 
feine Stnleitung §um ©nten, fein Sic^tlein, t}a^ i^m 
auf ber Seiben^ba^n burc^ t)k !DnnfclI)eiten biefeg 


Der |)tnl)ue. 125 

Grbenleben^ »oran Uu^UU, fein ©tral^l tier ^off< 
mmg auf ein beffere^ ewi^e^ ^ebm* 

Siegt ein Sanb nid^t unter fcem gfud^e be6 51(1* 
mdd^tigen, i)a0 ^defter tvie bie SBraminen §u Sel^rern 
unb Seitern bee SSolf^ l^at ! ^ae ift bie gruc^t bee 
^antl^eiemue in feiner unt)erl)uUten (^eftalt. ^Ibge* 
riffen i)on gcttlic^em dinfln^ nnb fx^ felbft uberlaf- 
fen, Dergottert ber 9J?enfc^ fein eigenee 3(^. £ein 
Unftnn ift ^n abgefc^macft, fein Rafter ^u abfc^enU(^ 
er fdttt it)m anl)eim. 2)a fie fic^ fur ^eife l^ielten, 
ftnb fte |u 9larren getvorben , unb l^abcn ijermanbeU 
bie |)errli(^feit bee untJercjdnglic^^en (^otte6 in ein^ilb 
gleic^ bem ttergdnglid^en 9^^enfcben unb ber QSogel 
unb ber t)ierfu^igen unb ber Iriec^enben ^^iere. 

3n feinem 2Bal)ne bef^reibt ber ^inbu ^ott aW 
^\6)t unb ginfternig, im p^^fifi^n unb moralif^en 
6inne, ale SBal^rljeit unb ^itge , aB ben Url)eber 
adee (^uten unb aKee 33ofen. 

SSae ^at une uber jenee gefunfene SSoIf ber 
.^inbue fo !)oc^ er^oben? SKo fommt ee l^er, \)a^ 
roit reinere unb tt)urbigere 53egriffe »on einem gott* 
lid)en SBefen l^aben? SKcm ()aben tijir ee ju ijer* 
banfen, ba^ unfere :pl)i(ofo:p^if(^en , t^eologifc^en unb 
anbere SKiffenfc^aften, auf beffern ^runblagen rul)en, 
ale t)ie ber .^inbue unb t)a^ M all ben ©unben, bie 
unter ben SBolfern bee Slbenblanbee im 6c^n?ange 
ge^en, boc^ ein l)6^eree , moralifc^ce ^efu^l »orl)err^ 
fc^enb ift, ale hd ben yerflnfterten 9f?ationen bee 
Oftene? 2Bir t>erbanfen aW biefe 6egnungen ber 
c^riplid^en Sieliaion, ^a^ Sid^t ber in ber l^eiligen. 

126 Ueber ben (^o^entienfi 

6cfcrift geofenbarten SBa^rl^eit l^at auf mittelbflre obct 
iiumittelbare 2Beife feme ^txai)Un uber unfere 2Biffen* 
f^aften, unfere ©efeje unt) unfer gefettfd^aftli^e^ Sebett 
Derbreitet. 3e mel)r biefelben biejea !2ic^t6 tl)ei(l)aftig ge* 
worbenfmb, befto ri^tiger ift unfer 293iffen, befto reinet 
t»a6 Seben, befto beffer unb ijerftdnbiger ivirb ber 9)lenf^» 

?JiMt man biefe6 Sic^t, „ba^ atte !!}ienf(^en er- 
leui^tet," au6 bem SSege, t)erminbert man feinen 
^influ^, fteKt man <Sd§e unb @i)fteme auf, bie m(^t6 
ober nur ttjenig mit ber l)eiHgen <S(^rift gemein i)a* 
ben, ober tf)r gar nnberfprec^en , fo jtnft ber 9Jlenf(]^ 
fben bamit in ha^ ftnftere, unfelige ©ettJirre be6 ^ei* 
bentl^um6 ^urud, 6te^t in biefer «^inft(^t ber |)in* 
bui6mu6 nic^t alg ein 3^^<^^tt ^^^ 2Barnung fur un^ 
fere gete^rten ^l^ilofopften \}a, rufen feine @^jleme 
ni^t mit mdc^tiger 6timme itjnen ^u: |)utet eud^ 
i>ox bem 5(bgrunb be^ SSerberben6, an beffen 3flanbe 
einige t)on euc^ blinbling^ !)erumnettern! 

2)ie ^inbu ^ 9fteligion ^at aHe '^oxal ^erftort, jte 
l^at bie glammen ber ^oKe unter ber SJienfc^^eit an* 
ge^unbet! l)at alk unreinen teufelif^en Seibenfd^aften 
in ben $erjen aufgeru()rt! 

3Ber n)itt biefen (Strom »on Unl^eil befc^woren, 
tt)ie fann eine fold)e Elation x)om SSerberben errettet 
tt?erben? (Sinjig unb aKein bur^ \)a^ 2Bort bc^ 
lebenbigen ^ottee, bur^ bie 33otfd^aft Don 
einem $ei(anb unb ^rlofer, ber t)om ^im* 
mel gefommen ift, 6unber fret unb felig ju 

Senn ftc^ ber (Shrift in S^rubfal beftnbet, l^at er 

0ffB&^^^^ ber ^inbu^. --127 

ein TliiUl Ui ber |)anb, bae ii)m Zxoft, ^rmunte^ 
rung unb Jriebcn 9ett?d{)rt, (Sr offnet bie SBibel unb 
Ite^t t)on einem Sanb, wo feine ^l)rdne me^r gettjeint 
ttnrb, tt)o*6 fein Seib unb fern !Beiben me^r gibt, tt)o 
ba6 |)au^t nid^t mube unb ta^ ^cx^ ni^t befc{)tt)ert 
VDtrb. dx benft an bie SJiac^t unb an bie Siebe feineg 
aUgegenwdrtigen .^e.Ifer^ unb flnbet Sf^u^e fur feine 
(5ee(e. 53eunru^igt il^n fein ©etvnffen, fo faun er au 
feinem briefer feine 3wP^w(^^ ne^men^ fein 53(ut rei^ 
nigt t)on affer Simbe; ha^ |)eil burc^ 3^n erwDorben 
tt)irb fme |)ofnung unb feine greube. 

5(ber W)a6 fann ber |)eibe tbun? @r fuMt auc^ 
unb leibet, er iji oft in grower 5Rotlf)5 ic^ Ijahc feinen 
Sammer unb fein SfiSe^eflagen ge^ort, befonber^ 
tvenn ber ^ob mit feinen @(^rerfen fommt, aber er 
^at ta^ ein^ige ^u(f6mittcl, ben ^roft ben linbernben 
S3alfam, bie greube be6 (5»angelium6 ni^t 

^onnen n)ir, meine Jreunbe, bie ©egnungen bed 
6t>angelium3 geniegen unb fo ruf)ig fur un6 he\)aU 
ten, o^ne ^u tounfd^en, o{)ne barauf anjutragen, ba^ 
biefelben einer unter bem gluc^ ber @unbe feufjenben 
S'lation mitget!)ei(t toerben? S^lein, wir toolten itjnen 
ba^ $eil t>on 3efu ^rfunbigen. 3c^ bin feft uber* 
jeugt, wer biefe^ $eil ju feiner eigenen ©enefung 
erfat)ren ^at, voirb t?on 3)anfgefut)l ergriffen, ben 
I^erjUc^en SSunfc^ mit ber innigen 53itte ju ^ott i)er^ 
einigen, ta^ ba^ ^i^t ber geoffenbarten 2Ba!)r]^eit 
balb \)k ginfternifl bed ^eibentl^umd Dertreiben unb 
mit feinen lieblic^en ©tral^Ien \)k SSolfer bed Dftend 
erleuc^ten moge. 

Uifrtes |lapttet. 

• Itebec bie 33tifiion^s5lrbeit in gnfeiett. 

Dificebticf. — Qinfiu^ be^ ©o^enbiertjle^ auf QSerflanb tinb 
<5i>arafter ber ^inbueic — 9Serbojbenl)ett. — ©emiflTenes 
angjl. — 3)ie tierfd)iebenen ^^veige ber sj)?iffion0arbeit. — 
^apeCfen suftt ^rebtgen. — SBefcbrethmg ber ^wborer. — 
2)i»putation mit ben 33raminen. — Oieifen ber g)?ifftondr0 
in ber fatten ^abre^jeit. — ®efal)r t)or wilben Stbteren. 

— (Einbrutf ber^rebigt. — feftere sDJi§I)anblun9. — Olrt 
ju ^rebigen. — ^^iniDeifung auf t)k ^Jatnt. — ©leicbniffe 
unb ^arabeln. — ?DiebUimfcfe« ^enntnijfe wiinfcbeni^mertl), 

— (^intges xxhet bie QBirfung ber ^rebigt. — g5etrac|tun= 
gen unb ^Inwenbung. — 

:' '-^- ®enn wer ben SUamen beg ^errn tpirb anrufeu, foil ftlig recrbeii. DBu 
foUeii jTe aber anrufen, an ben |T< nic^t glaubcn? ZBte fotlen fie aber gIou» 
ben won bem fie iifcfjt gefcoret 6abeu? 22ie folten fie abet boren obnc 5pre» 
/ biger? 2i3ie jcHen Jl« nbet prebigeii, roeno jte nid^t gefanbt roerben? 

3?ljni. 10, 13—15. 

3n bem lel^ten ^apitel l^abe iCi) eine fur^e S)ar* 
ftellung ber Dleli^ton unb ^eremonien ber |)mbu^ 
gegebenj mx 9e{)en je^t ju einem anbern tvic^tigeu 
5:^ei(e liber, unb fe{)en auf n)dd}e SBeife ber !!J?iffio«^ 
nar biefem 3Solf t)k (§r!enutui^ bc6 n)al)ren (ebeubigen 
@otte^ mitjutl)eileu t)erfu^t t)at» !I)amit jic^ aber nieine 
!2efer eineu jiemlic^ ric^tigen ^egriff »on biefer tt)id^* 
tigen uub fcfjvx^eren 5(uf(jabe macf)en fonnen, jrtrb c& 
\vo^ nic^t of)ne S^ugen fei^n, wenn i^ t)erfuc^e ben 
moralifc^ geiftigen 3uftanb be^ .^inbu in 
einigen 3wgen noc^ma(6 l^erau^^u^eben. 
2Ba0 anber^ fann eine Oteligion mit folc^en l^erafofen 

XXcUt W Sniffione-^rrbcit in 3nMem 129 

^ermonien l^er^orbringcn , aU moralifd^e SRi^Qebur- 
tenj einen 3«ft«tt^ ^ottiger ®cifteg*@rf(^loffun9, einc 
©leid^fifiltigfeit gegen OTe^ <B^bm unb ®utc; ein 
©cmfitl^ fo fupc6 irnb abgefium^ft , ba^ jebc 9J?aV 
nung jur S3effenmg , jeber SSomurf bee ® etviffen^, 
jeber 9luf ju SKerfen ber Siebe unb ^Sarml^erjigfeit 
baran aurutfpraUt, tt>ie ber ^feit t?on bem l^arten 
gelfenblod* SBenn eine Oleligion U^xt, ^a^ be^ 
fUJenf^en moralifdber 3wf*««b, bag. fein ganged Men 
unb ^reiben auf (Srben tjorl^er befttmmt nnb abge* 
tneffen, mit unan6(ofc5^(ic^en 35ud^jiaben in feinen 
^irnfc^abel eingegraben fe^, fo bag jtd^ dliCi)i^ i)axan 
anbern Idgt, fo ftet)t i)er |)ulf(ofe aB ein in \\^ 
felbfl abgefd^loffene6, felbftfii^tige^ SKefen \}a, fein 
SBal^lj^ruc^ ift, f^Iaffet un6 effen unb trinfen, tenn 
morgen jtnb mx tobt!" 

2)er |)mbu ^at begl^alb feine 2khe jum Mc^s 
ften, feinen $atnoti6niu6 , feine tt)o]^Itf)dtige $(nftal^ 
ten. Ungel^orfam gegen @(tern unb SSorgefe^te ift 
ganjpm (5^ric^tt)ort gen>orben; benn bie Stinberjud^t 
ftel^t auf bem nieberften (^rabe, SSon e^Iic^er Siebe 
unb ^reue meig er nici)t6. 2Bie Idgt ftc^ fo ettioa6 
erwarten, n?enn man nur einen Stugenblid an ba6 
S3eifpiel i^rer ©otter benft. ^JJein «Punbit , ein ge* 
a^UUx Sramine, Joerjtdberte mi^, jeber SSerf)eira* 
tl^ete SD^lann in 8urbtt)an fe^ ein (il^ebre(^er. (§in 
SJJifitondr fprad) mit einem. anbern S3raminen iiber 
ben sugettofen (§f)arafter be6 (^otte^ ^rifc^na , biefer 
crnjieberte in jebem ^au6 in Calcutta iji dn^xi\^my 
tin treuee unb fc^auber^afte^ 53ilb von ber UnfUtlid^* 

feit ber @intt)o]^ner, @6 ift bcm $inbu toerBotctt, eiti 
^I)ier iim jubringen , urn ba6 gleif(^ ju effea, well 
bk @eele etue6 Sraminen barinnen tvo!)nen fonnte, 
xmb fo eine ^onfujton in ber 6d66ipfung t)erurfa^ 
wurbe, (Sr nimmt fi(^ in 3l(^t feine 5lmeife mit fei* 
nem gu^ §u erbriirfen^ obex ttjal^rltcfe nt(^t au6 3<itt* 
9eful()(, foni>ern au^ tl^ond^ter aberglaubifc^er gurd^t; 
tenn anberfeit^ bringt er unel^Iic^e ^iuber in SJ^enge 
nm*, ein gele^rter 35ramtne, ber 53eamte an einem 
^ertd^tei&ofe tt)ar, gtaiibte, bag in SSengafen ia!)r(id^ 
10,000 tinber im SD^utterleib getobtet werben. ©rauel^ 
gef^id^ten au6 meiner Sflac^barfc^aft , bie mi^ mit 
^^ntfe^en erfuKten, ftnb mir bat)on gu Dl^ren gefom^^ 
men. !)}lorbt^aten burc^ (^ift unb anbere ^ittel 
^tnb uic^t^ ungett>oI)nli^eg, 3c^ fa^e t>ox einigen 
S^T^ten tk Seid^en i)on brei fc^ledbten grauen »or ei* 
nem .^aufe (iegen; jeber mar ber ^M abgefc^nitten* 
JDieg gefc^ai) in einer 9^ac^t ni^t meit tion bem 
^aufe be6 ^oH^ei^^Seamten, unb boc^ tt^ar bieDbrig* 
U\t nid^t im ©tanbe He SO^orber §u entbecfen.* 

9Son 9J?itletben unb dxhaxmm f)aben bie |)inbu6 
wberl()au:pt feine red^ten 8egriffe» ^^xe giipofigfeit 
^egen 5(rme, ^ranfe nnb 6terbenbe emport bi6 |)er^ 
be^ (Suro^der0. ^d^Idgt g, S3, ein mit ^JOlenf^en 
angefiiKte6 SBoot im ^ange6 itm, fo bemitl^t itci^9?ie;^ 
tnanb um ta^ 5(ngftgef(^rei ber ^rtrinlenben. ^dn, 
t)k 55ootaleute, welcb^j 20 6c^ritte nal^e ftnb, Udhm 
gemut^lic^ 1t|en , effen ober raucfeen fort, unb fagen: 
5,Tswarer itscha, ®ott l^at e6 fo beftimmt, fie. itnb 

in SnMctt. ^: 131 

•^^ t!Bo (Selbfifiid^t tie Siriebfeber aKer ^atiMungm 
ift, ba tDtrt) aKe^ Qegenfeitigc 3utrauen j.frftort @i^ 
ner fc^miebet feine S^Vdnc Qegen ben anbern; einc 
gamilie UU mit ber anbern in Streit unb 3^^i^wiff* 
ni^. Oft fommt e^ junt 5lu0brud^, bann beljanbein 
fte einanber mit ux^vod^dUx 2Butl^. SKenn aber 
t)a^ aud^ nid^t tciglid^ ber gall ift, fo fe^en fie einan^ 
ber bo(^ mit ©roff unb ge^d^igem ^er^en an. ^du* 
H f^9ten mir ble @inn>o^ner ber Dcrfer, He i^ be* 
fuc^te, ba^ e0 feine brei gamilien hd xf)nm gebe, 
bie bem .^er^en nac^ @tn0 fe^en. 35ruber unb fSex^ 
Jvanbte geratl^en in (gtreit tt)egen ©rbfd^aften unb 
SSerrndd^tniffeU; tt>eil einer ben anbern ju uberftorff^ei* 
len fud^t , unb ju biefem ^xocd falfd^e !Documente unb 
Uuterf(^riften t)erfertigt, 

(5ie l^afl'en einanber feben6ldnglt(3^, unb hk QxUU 
terung erbt fi* auf bie ^^ad^fommen fort, 2)ie SKeiber 
legen jtd^ naturlic^ in ben(5treit, mit fliegenben ^aa^ 
ren fteEen fie ft(f> ^in unb ubergie^en fi^ gegenfeitig 
in (autem 3^tier - ^efc^rei mit einem (Strom »ott 
ft^dnblic^en, fc^mu^igen 6c^im^freben , t>a^ man 
benfen fodte , t}ie gurien unb 2)dmonen fei^en in 
^rieg mit einanber gerat^en. 2)a gilt e0 w>ortlid^, 
n)a6 bie l)eilige @d^rift fagt : „!Die ftnfteren Drte ber 
^rbe ftnb t>oll »on SKol^nungen ber (^raufamfeit." 

5(lle^ beffen U4tgea(^tet fiil^lt ber ^inbu 
noc^ etwa^ »on ber @timmc ber 2Bal)r^eit 
i n f e i n e m 3 n n e r n ; er fpiirl ein bnnfle^ @el)nen 
nai^ 9lul)e, ol)ne bag er fic^ t>ollig bettjugt ift, m^ 
biefe innere^timme dgentlid^ bebeute. ^'in ^evr^iffeuy 

9 * 

132 lleber bie 35liffiond^5lr6ctt 

©bglei(^ mit eincm <E>6}Vitic \Jon ©unben unb Sttt^uot 
t)crn)uftct, wac^ftt auf unb ^)Iagt il^n. 2)ic jel^n ®e* 
bote jtnb mit un\)ertilgBaren 53ud^ftaben in baS ^crj 
ter ijemorfenftm ^eiben gefc^ricben , id^ tann fiir bie 
SBat)rl^cit bicfer 53emerfung au6 eigcncr ©rfat^rnng 
1)urgctt, unb ber ©^rud^ be^ 5CV<>ft^t^ bejiatigt ftd^ 
au(^ unter ben tief gefnnfenen |)inbu6: „2)ie ^eiben/ 
trelc^e ba^ @efe^ nid^t l^aben, ftnb il^nen felbjl ein 
t^efefe, bamtt \>a^ fie ben)eifen, beg (^efe^eg SBerf 
fctt befd^rieben in il^ren ^^erjen, jtntemal il)X ^mi^m 
pe bejeuget, baju aud^ bie ^ebanfen, t)k fx^ unter 
einanber tjerflagen ober entfc^ulbfgen." Q^ gtbt ^in* 
bu6 bie, na(^ i^rerSSetfe, anbdcbtig ftnb unb in bent 
©efu^l eineg geiftli(^en SSeburfniffeg i^ren 3^^9f^^'>tf 
VJor ^ali'g ^empel o:pfern unb in ben @ange6 unter^ 
tauci^enj aber gerabe tt)eil fcine ttefere (^runblage in 
Mm tobten fromnten SKefen bee ©ogenbienfteg ju fin- 
ben ift, ^kU berfelbe bie <^emut{)er intmer weiter t)on 
ber 9Sal^rl)eit ab. gur ben hunger be6 unfterblid^en 
■^eifieg bietet er einen (5tdn bar, fur ben !Durft ber 
na(^ ewigem iSeben feuftenben 6eele l)at er fein er* 
frifdjenbeg SBaffer bereitet, fonbern ftinfenbe ecfel^afte 
^fu^en, 2)ie leibenbe SJ^enfc^beit , ttjelc^e batjon 
trinft, n)irb no(!^ clenbet; o^nnidcbtig liegen bie Un* 
glucflic^^en in bief|m ^obe^-^d^atten^Sanbe ta, unb 
fd^Iummern bem ettjigen SSerberben eutgegen. 

Seuten, tie ein fd^Ied^teg J^eben geffl^rt ^aben, 
tt)irb e6 bi^weilen bange, fie fuc^en ben furc^tbaren 
|)oKenPrafen burd^ ©ft^o^fer unb ^erbienftlid^e |)anb* 
lungen ju entgel^em 3c^ ^^^ ^inbue gefannt, bie 


in SnbUn. 133 

me^rerc 3a^te auf SSallfa'^rten oing^n, urn tiefer gurc^t 
lo^ ju werten. 5ft einer reici^ wnb beid^tet feinen 
?Prieftcrn, fo mu^ a groge ©ummen beja!)len, ifl er 
arm, fo wdfc^t cr feine ©ewijfeneanQJl einigemal 
mef)r al0 gmo^nli^ im ^ange^ ab. 3^ bet ©tunbc 
M ZoM gettjdl^rt i^m Me S(u6|ic^t bet ©eelenwau* 
berung einen elenben ^roft, Qin SD'iifitondr befi^reibt 
ta6 SSe^agen eineei fterbenben |)itibu auf folgenbe 
SBeife: ,,^^1 in n?eId^e^otte mug i^ ge^eu! welcpc 
^offuung ^aU i^ in ben ^immef ju fommen ! ivelc^e 
tjerbienftlic^e t^anblungen Jf^abe i^ »erri^tet ^iec 
^abe ic^ fur bie 6unben einer frftl^ern ©eburt Qcbxi^t, 
unb i^fet fangen meine Seiben. auf^ neue an. 2Bic 
Dicle ©eburten mug ic^ noc^ bur^ma^en, wo tt)irb 
ba6 3iel meiner Seiben fe^nl'' Der fterbenbe ^inbu 
ift tt)ie ein SJiann auf bem ungepumcn SD'ieere; tvenit 
bag ^erfd^metterte Sal^r^eug bem 9^uber ni^t mel^r 
folgeu tt>itt, er ftel^t, er fii^lt eg mug untergetjen, er 
tt?eig nid^tg ^on ber ^offnung M (5l)rifteug(aubeng, 
weld^e al6 ein fefter 5(nfer ben ©Idubigen pit; in 
bumpfer ^^ergweiflung liegt er !)in unb gibt pd^ ben 
SBeUen preig. 

5luf ienen ungel)euren ©efilben Snbieng, untet 
ben l^unbert 3JiiUicnen©uwopern; »on benen tdglid^ 
uber 3000 aug ber ^dt in bie Swigfeit ge^en, ift 
cine fleine (Sd^aar t)on 59iif<tondren jerftreut , weld^e 
benfelben ta^ (§»angelium t)on bem |)eil in 3efu 
^^rifto t)erfftubigen, ^g mug jiebem, meine Sefer, 
nad^ bem (^eprten flar geworben fe^n, bag ainter 
einem foremen SSolfe bi^^^^^'tt bee SD^ifitondrg eine 


13^ J mux tie miifxon^-^xUit 

j^iexi^e 3(uf^6e tfi, unt baju cin ®rab ijon ?0?en* 
fc^cnfenntni^, ^ifer, 3Sorft(|t imb Selfjarrlid^fcit erfor* 
&ert tt)irt) , ttJte e0 xitikr cinem barbarif<^€n untviffen* 
ten 93olfe nic^t fterlattgt wirt>. Dft ift feit mdiier 
SlucffHttft t)on Sntieiv Me grage an mi(^ geflettt tt)or* 
ten, fi)tc e6 t)er 5Df^iffindr mit ber S[^er!iinbis 
gwng be^ @i)angeniim0 angreife? 3<^ vi?iK 
»€rfu(^en , biefelbe fo einfa(^ unb fa^^ema^ ^jractifd^ 
oB moglid^ 511 bcantmorteit; > o 

2)te !S^{f(tDne-5(irbett in Snbien gerfdm in brei 
3tt>etge: 1) bie eigeniUc^e ^rebigt be6 ©^an* 
getium^; 2) bie tleberfe^ung Kub 33erbrei* 
tung ber leiligen 6(^rift unb anbrer'nu^* 
Uc^er SBitc^erj 3) enblic^ bie ^rjie^ung 
ber Swgenb* 3n btefer ^bi)anb(ung f^rec^en xoit 
fiber bie ofenttic^e ^rebigt be6 (^t>ange(ium6 , S3ibel* 
fterbreitung, unb ba6 ^r^teljungen^efen tt?irb in t)€m 
m^fim §(bf(?^nitte bel^anbelt werben. "^ v - 

M^ t>ox etwa 40 3al)ren tk erjien fflfJifftondre 
il^re ^xMi in 55enga(en anjtngen, fanben fie e6 un* 
genteiu~ fc^mierig, M ben ^ingebornen ^ing^ing ju 
getvinnen. ^ie |)inbu0 t)erna^men mit ^rftaunen, 
bag eine |)anb»ol( gremblinge fic^ unterflel)en fonnten, 
eine neue S^eligion ju t>er!unbigen , unb manege 53ra* 
minen marten fic^ baruber luftig , \)a^ wjeige Seute 
baran tauten, eirt @i)fiem anjugreifen, \)a^ ttjie bie 
(^ebirge M ^imataija I)unbert taufenbe x>on 3al}ren 
beftanben Wtte. ^Sie liegen jt(^ jebod^ burd^ ben 
6pott ber ^riefter ni^t irre madden , unb fud)ten auf 
aUe moglic^e Seife \)m Seuten bie S3?al)rl)eit mlje ju 

in 3ut)ien> 135 

briiigen. 3ti unfern Zci^i^n ift bie 5(rBeit i)ie( leid^ter 
gemoroeit. 2)a6 Sad^eln be6 55raminen l)at jtc^ in 
gurci^t t)ertt)ant>elt wnt> ber t!)ei(meife (Srfo% !)at bie 
|)offnxtng be^ 9JJifffonar6 geftdrft. 
^ 3tt ^tdbten, wie j. S3. Calcutta, 55enare6 unb 
SBurbwon l^aben tt)ir an geeigneten ©tetten ^a:peU 
len mit einem gerdumigerx Socal crbaut 2)iefe (^e^ 
bdube finb i)on ben eiufac^fteu SKaterialien mi^icU 
T>k Tlauex x\t »on ^arfftein, bi^weilen au^ nur i)Oit 
Matten t)erfertigt unb barauf rul^t ein ©trol^bad^ mit 
^am6u6ftc(fen unterftu^t. 2)ie 9)lorgenftunbeu gleid^' 
na^ ^Sonnenaufgang unb ber 5lbenb werben gemo^n^ 
lid) ^um ^rebigen beftimmt, 3n ber ©onnenl^i^e 
jwifc^en 9 unb 5 Ufer ift e§ unmogli^ eine S^ittang 
offentlic^ ju fprec^en. !Der 9J^ifftondr ftettt fi* »er 
bem^ingang an ber Strafe l^in, er ^at einen (Sate^ 
^iften bci fic^, biefer fdngt an, einen Slbfc^nitt an^ 
ber I)eiligen <S(^rift ju lefen. Sdl^renb bem t>evfam^ 
melt ft^ eine Si^aar ^inbuS urn ibn l^er, n>M)c 
gerne wiffen mod^te, n)a0 fiir eine neue Se^re ber 
SD^ann fterliinbigt. !l)ie !in})oxex beftel)en au§ t)er* 
fcfeicbenen SSolf^claffen, ba jief^t man ben unt\)ijfenbeu 
©ubra, ^aglol^ner, ^alanfiutrdger, Sauer^Ieute unb 
|)anbtt)erfer mit bem fniffigen, gelel^rt fe^n woUenben 
SSraminen ^ermifc^t bafte^cn. 

(^iner ber erften 9}iiffiondre ftanb unb iprebigte 
eine0 5!age6 (tjor 28 3^|)ren) in einer 6trafe t)on 
Calcutta, din ^abu ober ^ornetjmer ^inbu fa!)e 
l)o^ni|(^ auf i\)n t)in, unb rebete i^n fo(genber '^aa^ 
fen an : ,,5Sa0 ma^ft tin \)kv ? 3(;r ^pabri^ {m 

t36 llcber \)it mi^iow^^^tUH 

|)ortu9tefifd^e^ 2Bort bebeutet „3Satct/' mit wel^em 
bie |)mbu6 in ganj Snbien bie 5Df?ifjtondre bejeic^^ 
nen) fe^b gerabe tt)ie bie ^eudbler, t>on benen cucr 
3efu6 fagtc : ftc fte^en gerne imb beten in ben ^^xt^ 
Ictt iinb an ben ^c!en anf ben ©affen , auf bag ftc 
tjon ben J^enten gefe^en n)erben." „3a Heber greunb'' 
entgegnete ber 9Jlifjionar, nur mit bem tlnterfd^ieb/ 
bag \)k ^^arifder t)on ben J^euten gej)negen wurben, 
toix aber Don il^nen »er|pottet tt^erben. @6 ift in ber 
Z^at etxt>a^ gana anber§, t)or ^eiben gu ^jrebigen, 
al^ in einer georbneten ©emeinbe auf t}k ^an^el ^u 
treten^ e^ gef)ort eine geftigfeit unb nngemetne ®e* 
bulb ba^u, 9J?enf(i)en bie SKa!)r6eit ju »erfunbigen, 
bei benen SSorurtfeeil mit Unwiffen^eit ge^aart ift, 
unb bem 6^ottgeld(^ter be^ SBraminen ftd^ au^ju* 
fe^en, ber \)en ^rebiger al6 einen unberufenen ge^ 
fdl)rlic^en dinbringling anftel^t , bem man fein .^anb* 
werf nieberlegen foKte. 3c^ erinnere mi^ noc^ leb* 
l^aft, wie ml ^ampf unb ©elbftubeminbnng e6 mid^ 
in ben §vt>ei erften Sa^ren meine6 ^Qliffion^beruf^ 
foftete, bi^ icb mit getroftem ^D^iutl^, auf meinen ®ott 
t)ertrauenb, t)or ber ungeorbneten 9Jlenge auftreten 

fonnte. :.:,■,;■:■■-;■■ ---. ■:-■>■ -;^.^■■:■^^:'-:•:'^:.:^^■-^^^r^^^^^^^ 

SBenn eine jiemlic^e ^Inja^^I Seute in ber ©trage 
i>or ber (^aipellc toerfammelt x% werben fte eingelaben 
in ben 6aal einsutreten unb auf ben 55dnfen fx6) ju 
fe^en. 2)te 3^^^^ ^^^ ^ixl^bxcx ift naturli^ fe^r un* 
gleic^ ; bi6tt)ei(en fann tie (5a^>ctte xxxCi)t bie |)dlftc 
faffen unb ^iele fteben braugen, §u anbern ^ciUn ijl 
^a^ Socal nid^t l^alb i>oil^ ■:■.[■ :-^f^'-''---:i:^^^^^ 

in Sntten. 137 

Set SJliffiondr flcUt ildb auf em« ctnjn^ er^o^te 
tpiattform unb rid^tet fdntn SSortrag an tie anwe^ 
fenbe WUn%^. 2)a ift aber felten an bic gcorbneU 
ftiUe SScrfammluncj ju benfen, n?ie bet unfern offent:^ 
li<^en ®otte6bknjien in ber tird^e. 3)ie 3Jlciften bet 
3u^orer fommen b(o§ au0 S^J^ugierbc unb ^el^en na(^ 
einer SSiertelftunbe tt)ieber weg, 2Bir burfen c6 un^ 
m6)t (eib fev;n laffen, tt)enn fte, el^e btc ^rebigt »or* 
ubcr ift, mit larmcnbem ^eraiifd^e, mit SJiurren obct 
^a^en fort ge^en. ^e !)at ben SSortl^eil, t>a^ fit 
Slnbern ^pia^ mac^en, — oft fulTt ftd^ ber @aal in 
wenigen fUitnuten tt)ieber unb je^t l^at ber 9)?iffionar 
t)tetteid^t gar aufmerffame 3ii^orer, SSiel fommt e$ l^ier* 
bet auf \)xe 5lrt unb SKeife be^ SSortrag6 an; ift berfelbe 
leb^aft, an5iet)enb unb ergreifenb, fo feffelt ber ^rebigcr 
in ber ^legeC bk 5(ufmerffamfeit, !ann er aber in ber 
^pxa^c ni^t gut fort fommen ober ift feine Sf^ebe 
trocfen unb eintonig, ober tit (Stimme fd^tt^ac^, fo 
VDerben Uc Seute balb mube unb laffen i^n atteinc 
Pe^en. ■ ;.■:;;■ o--..:^-.-^ 

. v5te(Ien Ycxx unS unter 100 Sw^^rern einen53ra* 
minen i>ox, tv>al)renb ber ^Jiiffiondr f^rid)t, fte^t 
berfelbe auf; — man faun e6 i^m in feiner <SteUung, 
in feiner 1D?iene anfel)en, ba^ er ju ber Piaffe gel^ort/ 
tt)el(^e bie ^inbu6 al6 .^albgotter tjere^ren. 6eitt 
)jerac^tUc^er 531itf ^eigt beutli^, n)a0 in feinem 3n* 
nern t)orge]^t. (5r l^at mit bem (angen Dbergettjanbe 
fcin 5(ngefi(!^t »ert>Mt, bamit ernic^t burc^ ben^tljem 
beg 3)iifftonar0 ijerunreinigt werbe. ^nx feine $(ugen 
unb \)it ^fJafe ftefjen l)er»or. ^r ))cxt i?on bem eini^ 

138 J |i Heber t>ic m\\Tion^^nxMt 

gen ^ott unb benft, biefen ^rebiger wiCl i^ jum 
^c^weigen bringen: „iB3er ift ^ott?" fragt er, — 
,,fannft bu mir il)n seigen ?'' ^Sfleiii," — ,,3^^ ^^^ 
@ott!" fagt er. — „5Ber fpricbt, n)er benft, tt>er 
^anbelt burc^ mid)? (S^ ift (^ott." — 2)er SJltffio^ 
ndr antttjortet: „^u bift ein Sugner, fann ©ott 
lugen?" — „5!Ba6 ift Sfige?" entgegnet ber 53ramine, 
„ober tx>tt^ ift 6imbe uberi^aupt? e6 ift nid^t^ — e6 
beftel^t nur in beiuer SBorfteKung/' — !Der ?Olifftondr 
anttx)ortct: „S©er (eibet fur tk 6unbe, U)er get)t 
jitr t^olTe? unb wer ftraft ben <Bm\)exV' S(uf biefe 
grage l^atten Tlaix^c inne, unb geftel^en, rap ^ott 
nid^t funbigen fann. 5(nbere fagen fret I^eran6, „er 
t^ut al(e6, er ftraft unb (eibet @c^merjen." !Da0 
iBefte ift bann, einem 9?arren na^ feiner S'iarrljeit 
gu antworten unb ein (3iei^ni^ Yok ta^ folgenbe ift 
fur ben Xi^putirenben fc^Iagenber, a(6 alle 55ewei^^ 
grunbe. din ?fii^tex fing einen 1)kh unb fragte i^n 
beim SSerl^or, „tt)arum ()aft bu geftol&Ien?" 5)er iTiieb 
antwortete: „|)err, ic^ l^abe nic^t gefto{)Ien, ic§ fann 
nic^t^ bafur, ®ott in mir l^at e^ getfjan." ^er 
9li(^ter Hep bm ^kb an ben ^foften binben unb 
tiid^tig burc^:priigeln. 3n feinen 6(^mer§en fc^rie ber 
^3J^e*:fc^ : „0 ^m, f^lagt mic^ nic^t fo." 2)er ^Ric^ter 
trat ju i^m ^in unb fagte: „Sreunb, id) fc^Iage bic^ 
nic^t, tt>ir finb ganj gut mit einanber, id} f^lage 
ben ©ott in bir." .. -^.^ ,,:,,, ,.,,^.^^^ 

(iin 9)?if(tondr in Q5enare^ er^dl^It folgenbe^ ® e* 
fprd(^ mit einem pl)i(ofovI}ifc^en S3raminen. 
Qv fragte mic^ : „2Ba6 ^rebigft bu l;ier V „mx 

in 3ni)iem 139 

tjerfmrbtgcn ten warren (^ott." „9Ser ift btefer wo^re 
®ott? ic^ bin e^: er (ebt in mir/' 3c^ ba^te, alB 
i^ e0 jum erften '^aie l)orte, e0 fe^e eine kiddie 
@ad^e ben SD^lann jmn (5(^weigen §u bringen, ic^ 
fanb aber balb^ bap ic3^ bie afJec^nung o^ne ben 3Birt!) 
gema^t l^atte. „^aa ift bo(^ font)erbar/' fagte ic^, 
„bift bu benn alTmac^tig ?" ,,9?ein, wenn ic^ bie 
Sonne erfc^affen '()dtte, ware ic^ affmacf)ticj , aber id) 
hin e6 nic^t/' — 3c^. „3i3ie fannft bn benn fagen, 
bu fev;eft ®ott, fo bu bod^ nic^t aKmci^tig bift?" 
^^aS fommt t)on beiner llnwiffenl^eit l^er," enlgeij* 
nete ber SQ^ann; „wa6 fie^ft bu bort/' er beutete auf 
ben (^ange0 l^in. 3^ vtJcHte nic^t fagen , e^ ift ber 
®ange^, benn ic^ befurcf^tete, er moc^te antworten, ber 
ift ein ^ott^ fagte bepl)alb/ „e0 ift 2Baffer!'' ®nt, 
\mt> itjag ^obe i^ in btefem ®efdp ^mV unb bamit 
go§ er einige ^ro^)fen bat^on au^. — 3^ fagte, ba5 
ift Staffer." @r. „«ffiae ift ber Unterf^ieb smifc^en 
biefem Saffer, unb bem be^ ^ange^?'' „m ift fei* 
iier." „0 ia/' ervvieberte ber ^ramine; „icl^ fe^e 
einen grofen Unterfd)ieb; jene^ 3[Baffer trdgt Sc^iffe, 
unb biefe^ ni(f)t. ®ott ift atlmdc^ttg, i(f> bin nur 
ein fteiner !I^eil ber ©ott^eit unb be|!^alb nid^t att^ 
mdc^tig unb bo^ bin i^ toixUi^ ein ®ott, tt)ie biefer 
3:roi?fen wirHic^ee 5Q3affer ift." ^er 3)lifftondr t)a^te, 
waxU, ic^ ^abt bi^ boc^ in meinem 5*le§ unb entgegnete : 
,^^0 tt>dre ®ott nac^ beiner 5lnftc^t in t)iele Stucfe 
jertl)eilt, ein StMc^en »on i^m ift in bir, ein anbe- 
re6 in mir?'' „D," fagte ber SBramine, „t)a^ fommt 
tpieber von beiner Unn?iffenl)eit l^ier^ tt>ie »iele Sonnen 

-•J i^fH 

140 mux t»ie m^xon^^mu^ 

fie^ft bu am ^immel?" „(Sme." — „5(ber tvcnn bu 
eaufenb (^efage mit SBaffer auf ben SBoben jieaft 
wae fiei^ft bu in jebem berfelben?" ^^T^aS 55ilb ber 
(Sonne," „5lber tt)enn bu in tanfenb 6d^aalen ba^ 
53tib t>on tanfenb (Sonnen itefjft/ folgt batau^, t)a^ 
tanfenb ©onnen am |)immel fmb?" „^m, e$ ift 
nur eine <5onne, aber jle reflectirt {\^ tanfenb 9J?ale 
unb fo ift ebenfaU^ nnr ein ©ott, aber bod^ erfd^eint 
fein 53ilb ober ©lan^ in iebem menfd^lid^en SSSefen." 
greilid^ iji e^ eine leic^te (5aCi)c , ben 2)ifputanten ju 
jei^en, bagba^ 8ilb im Staffer jiemlid^ t)erf(^ieben »on 
ber ©onne felber ift. 3d^ bad^te iebod^ , i^ wolle er* 
fnc^en, fein (^ew?iffen ju beriil^ren. „5(ber/' fagte id), 
,,<^ott ift ^eilig: ^ift bn ^eilig?" ^ein, id^ bin 
e^ nict^t, i(^ tl)ue ^iele 2)inge, bie nid^t red^t ftnb, ic^ 
vod^, ba^ fie nid^t red^t jinb." — „^k fannft t)Vi 
benn ein @ott fe^n?" „D/' antmortete ber SBramine, 
„id^ fel^e, bir foHte man ctwa^ me^x QSerftanb mit* 
tl)eilen, el^e bn mit un6 bifpntiren fannft. ®ott ift 
gencr; gener ift ha^ reinfte Element in ber 6(^0* 
^fung; aber wenn bn ^ot!) anf ba^ gener ^inwirfft, 
fo fteicjt ein bofer ©eruc^ anfj \)a^ gener ift nid^t 
<Ed^ulb baran, fonbern ber £otI), tx>eld^en bu !)inge^ 
tporfen ^aft. (So ift ©ott t)ollfommen rein, aber er 
ifi in SJ^aterie einge!)uirt, unb xomu e^ je Simbe 
^ibt, fo fommt jte nic^t »on ©ott, er will jte nid^t, 
fte fommt »on ber SJlaterie." 2)er 9J?if|tondr entgeg^ 
nete, „nid^t \x>a^x , bie Suft ift auerji, bann folgt bic 
iSfiiibe, ia, mtn benn, fteljft bn, ta^ Uebel ft^t tiefer 
fll^ im gleifd^ — unb er mugte anerfennen, ba^ bie 

In SnWcm 141 

flBottc SBal^rl^cit finfe. 5lu6 tern ^erjcn fommcn \ 

^rt)or arge ^cbanfen. — S(uf biefe SBeife ging 

i^ mit i^m »on ciner (Sigenfc^ft ju t)cr an^crn unlit 
fanb cnWi^ nat^ langem 3)ifputiren, ba§ i^ mit bem 
S3raminen nid^t eincn @^titt ttjeitcr gcfommcn war. 
Stn^cr l>en jum ^rebigen errid^tetcn ^a^ellen obcr 
(SiBulen muffen wit jebe ©elegenl^eit tt^a^rnel^inen, 
urn ber ijerfammelten SSolBmengc bie SBal)r!)eit na^c 
ju bringen. SBir befuc^en xi^xc jal^lreic^en ©o^cn^^ 
fefte, tt)ir gel^en in tie 2)orfer l^inau^ xinb fud^en 
i)te @inwo!)ner in ben ^drften nnb 53a^ar0 auf. 
lleberatt mu§ ber SQiifftoncir barauf antragen, ben 
Seuten na'^e ^u fommen Hnb bieSBafjrl^ett M cwjtgen 
(^otte6 it^nen befsubringen. ^e6 Slbenb6 , tt?enn <lt 
i)or it)ren (^ogentennjeln pfammenfiMnmen, hi^ ?0?or* 
geu^, wenn fie am g(nffe baben, unter fc^attigen 
S3dumen, »or il^ren ^utten, voo fte gar gerne jtfien 
unb 3^abaf rauc^cn, fefeen voir nn6 ^n il^nen l^in nnb 
leiten bie Unterf)a(tung auf reltgiofe ©egenftdube l^in. 
SBiele |)inbu6 njerben nntvtttig, wenn b^r ^ifjtondr 
€6 Wagt, im 5lngeftd^t biefe6 f)et(tgen (^ange6 * <5tro* 
me6 ba6 (St)attgelinm gn »er!unbtgen ; am tt)enigftcn 
follte er e6 §u einer 3eit »erfn^en, wemx jte mit i^:? 
ren religtofen (Seremonien kfc^dftigt jtnb. ^iner mei^ 
ner 9)litarbeiter er^dl)(te mir, er fev; iek 9So^e jwei* 
mal an iien glnp l)inau6gegangen^ tt>eil jt(^ bort b^ 
3J?orgen6 grope SBerfammlnngea einfanben. !I)ie ^ra* 
minen tt)aven nngemein ecbittert uber i^n nnb fagten, 
,M^ bu nic^t genng $ra§ in ber ©tabt, mnpt bu 
,aud^ nnfere l^eiligjien Drte mit beinem ^rebigen ent* 

142 Ueber bk m\fion^MxUit 

tt>ei{)en ; Mr fottte man gefd^moljene^ Slei in ten 
^10 l^immtergie^en ober MeSunge ]^erau6fd^«eiben,'' 
Urn unnotljige^ Slergerni^ ju tjermeiben, ^rebigte er 
nid^t mej^r am (^ange^ , w?dl)renb bie bigotten i8ra* 
minen mit ber SSerel^rung beffelben bef(^dftigt xoaxm. 
(§ine dt)nUc^e 33el)anbluug erful)r i(^ in einem 
2)orfe, wo W |)inbu6 ba6 geft ber fDurga feierten* 
(Sin alter 53ramiue l)orte mir eiue SSeile ju, unter* 
brad^ meine jRebe einmal i'tber ^<x^ anbere: „SS^a^ 
Ml un^ fagft, l^abe id^ alle^ Q^wu^t, (auge el)e bu 
geboren morben bift Xein: 53ibel ift dxi etenbeg 
S3ud^ unb nid^t ^n t)erglei^en mit unfern (Sc^after^; 
bn brand^ft bie Seute l^ier nid^t jn beleljren, fte vviffen 
me^r al6 bu." 3c^ anttt>ortete: „^a0 mag fe^n, 
Slb^er in ber ^au))tfa(^e fommt e^ met)r auf^ ^^un 
al6 auf6 Stiffen an. 3d^ bebauere eu^, ^a^ it)r ben 
einigen ttja^ren ©ott nid^t t)ere{)ret nnb t)or einem 
!I)urgabilbe nieberfniet." — 2)er ^ramine: „^e!)alte 
beinen ^ott fur bid^, mir tt)oHen ben >unfern betjalten, 
bn fommft mit fanften Shorten, aber bift ein 3Ser* 
fuf)rer ber Seute." 3d^» //^n rebeft im ^oxxi nnb 
fagft nic^t, tt>a6 red^t nnb gut ift. 3d^ fnd^e, xoit 
bn wo^l tveijt, feine 93ortl^ei(e »on eud^ , wa^ benfft 
bU; warum !omm id^ ttjo^l in ber grogen .^i^e \\\ 
euer fI)orf nnb :preblge; tt)a6 mag n)o!)( bie Urfac^e 
fe^n, ^a^ xoxx m:t betrdc^tlid^en Soften enre ^iuber 
in ber @(^u(e unterri(^ten ; glanbft bn nic^t, ^ia^ e^ 
fiir mein ©efiif^I angenel)mer ware, rul^ig ju .f)aufe 
gn bleiben, x^k anbere (^uro^der t{)un, bie ftc^ ni^t6 
iHn eud^ befummern?" „^«^ ift beine S'iatnr/' er^ 

in Sn^ien, 143 

it)teberte ber Examine, gerotc tt^ie e6 Me 9?atut he6 
@c^afa(6 ifi, beg 9f^ac6t6 l^enimjugel^en , urn .^ul^ner 
unb (^dufe gu /l^afd^en." !I)a ba(^te i^, „ad^ , ba6 ber 
liebe ^ott eu(^ eine fold^e 9^atur fc^enfen moc^te, in 
bem 5^e^e be6 @t)angenum0 euc^ fangen ju laffeii, 
bamit etwa6 9?eue0 bei eud^ tt)erben mo(^te." 

S3ei (^o^enfeften unb dl^nti^en @elegett]^eiten, tt)o 
groge 5J^enfd^enwaffen pfammenftromen, ift e^ nic^t 
angemejfen, ba, )x>o ber |)aufe am bid^tefien tft, auf* 
gutreten» 2)ag ©eldrrn ift fo grof , ba^ aud^ He 
frdftigfte ^imme nid^t burd^jiibringen t)ermag. 3d^ 
ipflegte mid^ be^l^alb auf erne abgelegeue ©telTe ^urud 
gu jiel^en , ett»a unter einen SBaum , ein 6tro6ba(^, 
tt;eilte bann eintgen mein SSor^aben mit unb fa'^e 
ini(^ gewc!)ii(ic^ in fuqer 3^^^ t)on einer .<£d^aar 
njittigcr 3it^«^t:er umgeben. 

SBd^renb ber fatten Sa^r^^eit, ^om 5'?ot>ember bid 
au (Snbe gebruard, madden bie 9J?iffiondre 9ft ei* 
fen in entferntere ©egenben unb tjcrfunbigen t}a$ 
(5i?angeliuni tton einem 2)orf jum anbern. 5(af hm 
^benen t)on S3engalen ifi al6bann ta^ SSaffer and- 
getrodfnet unb man fann ol^ne ©efaljr fid^ im greien 
bewegen j bie flemiperatur ber Suft ift angene^m unb 
miibe, \)a^ ^(ima gefunb unb lleblic^. 3d^ V^dfte 
meinen SSorrat^ t)on S3ud^ern unb Seben6mitte(n auf 
einen ^weirdbrigen barren, ber t)on Dd^fen gejogen 
iDurbe^ baju ein fleine6 3ett, ein gelbbett, einen S^ifd^ 
lint) einen (Btnf)l 6o reiete i(^ tdglid^ 4 bid B 
6tunben, um in ben ja!)Ireid&en !Dcrfern ju prebigen, 
^ie 3^eife wirb am f ii^Ien SJtorgen r;duftg a« S#/ 

144 Ucber bic W\fxim^^nxMt 

Jbi^meilen aud6 3u ?Pferbc gemad^t. SBcnit i(& !0?U^ 
rcifenbe l^atte, erl&iclt i<ij ofter6 jwcl ©le^l^antcn t)on 
tern diaia\) toon SSurbwan ju meiner SSerfugung, tjon 
benen eincr ba^ 3^It unb (S^eratl^c trug, ber anberc 
bicntc uttS gum rciten. ^ie ^Jewcgung biefe0 gto^en 
5;^iere ift cttva^ fc^werfdlltg unb fur \}k SBruji an* 
grcifenb, man wjirb aber in t^enigen ^agen baran gc^ 
ttjol^nt, unb nie ful^lte id^ ijon biefcr intereffanten Slrt 
ju reifen, ben geringften ^a^t^eiL 51tuf biefe SBeifc 
mad^tc id^ manege SJJifiion^reife in bie entfernteren 
^egenben t)on 35engalen nnb ftreute ben 6aamen be0 
SBorte^ unter ben ^im\)oI)nern be6 Sanbe^ au6. (5i* 
nige 5D^al toerhmbtgte ic^ ber toerfammelten !!Jiengc 
t>a^ ^toangetimn toon bem (S(e^f)anten !)erunter. 

55ei ber Slnfunft bee ?Qlifftondr6 in einem !Dorfe 
be^eugen jtd) tie !Dorfeimtool^ner gett)6f)nlid^ freunblid^ 
gegen i]^n» 2)er SJ^unbul ober Sd6u(t|)ei^ fommt unb 
frdgt, ob er nic^t in civoa^ bel&ulflic^ fe^n fonne, 
^olj gum ^od^en unb anbere (Sadden, ttoeld^e ju ^a* 
ben ftnb, ttoerben al^balb I)erbeigefd^aft , ein Zl)a^au* 
titax ober S'Jad^twdc^ter bringt Staffer unb n>a6 fonfi 
tocrlangt itoirb, unb beitoad^t ha^ ^dt unb Sleifege* 
rat!)e. 3d^ erinnere mid^ nid^t , ha^ mix auf ber 
Steife ettt)a6 entwenbet Vtoorben Vtodre. SSom <Bte\)Un 
f^alt aber ben SBengalen mel)r bie gurd^t, d^ bic 
gfteblid^feit ab. 

3n \)m norbttoeftttd^en ^protoinjen ftnb 2)iebe unb 
Slauber eben fo toern^egen aU aal^lreidb. dinem mei* 
ner greunbc ber nad^ 5(gra rei^te, tt>urben 
in ber ^a^t feinc tleiber au^ bm 3elte gefto^len^ 

in 3ntiem 145 

o^ne ba^ er tm geringften etttja^ gemerft f)atte, 2)er 
^olijeibeamte tx>ugte fie aber balb wieber gu be!om* 
men. @r lieg ben S^Jai^twdc^ter an einen S3aum 
binben xinb nacfcbem b<?r SD^ann eine ^Irac^t <S(^ldgc 
crl)a(ten t)atte;. flufttrte er einem 53eifte!)enben eivoa^ 
iu^ £)l;r, uub in tventgen 9)linuten brac^te biefer bic 
gefto^lenen (Sac^en tt)ieber ^uruc!. @ine gro^ere 53e* 
f^tverbe fur ben Dicifenben fmb in ben tt)albigen 
(^egenben t)on SBengalen tt)tlbe ^i^iere, befonber^ 
Sieger unb Seoparben, 

Sn ber S^lad^barfd^aft ber 6tabt ^ifc^na^ore fd^Iu^ 
gen* tt>ix eine^ 5lbeub^ bei einem fleinen 2)orpein 
unfer 3^it auf. Der 9?ac^tx)dc^ter fagte un§, tt)ir 
werben tt)a^rf(^einli(^ einen SSefuc^ toon ^iegern be* 
fommen, aber fte burfen \id) ni^t furcfeten, x^ fenne 
einen 3ciuberfpru(^, burc^ beffen ^raft i(^ fc^on mandben 
Sieger tt)eggetrieben Ijabe/' SSir empfablen iin6 in^ 
beffen bem 6<^u^e be^ |)errn, fagten i^m aber, wenn 
ber Sieger fomme, fo folle er un0 fogleic^ rufen, 5tt)ei 
gelabene glinten n)urben jn fnnem (Sm^fange bereit 
gel)alten. ^ix fcfctiefen inbeffen ru^ig bi^ 5um^agc6^ 
S(nbruc^, al^ mein greunb ^. au^rtef: ,f^adi)ixoa^^ 
iex, l^abt i{)r ben Sieger gefe!)en?" — „0 ja ^cxx, 
aber fobalb i^ meinen ^pruc^ cinfing, mac^te er fl(5 
ba»on unb i<S) bac^te, e^ xoixxe Sc^abe, WJenn i^ (5ie 
im ©c^tafe ftorte." 2Bir Idc^elten uber bie 5lu6fage 
be§ 2Bdc^ter6, fanben aber balb na^l^er, ta^ ex ^k 
Sal)rljeit gefagt ^aiU, benn tt)ir entberften \)k gu^* 
ta^)fen be^ Jlieger^ nai)e bei unferem S'^Jte. 
- (§in anbere SJ^al rei^te id^ burd^ einen SBalb in 

«k«t6Kd&t SRiffion in Snbicn. 10 

146 Ueber Me 3y?t|rton6*5lrkit 

cincm ?paran!itt, i^ ^orte bie 3;rdger ju manbcc 
fagen: „fot(en tt)ir xl}n nieberfe^n ?" „^a\" war Mc 
Slntwort — „unb tann laufen tt)ir ba^on;" id^ off=^ 
nete tic Z^xixc unb fragte, vt)a6 e6 gebe? „D ^err, 
ein n)i(be6 ^l^ier," war bie 5lntwort; tinrfli^ fal^e 
ic^ im 9Jlonblic^t einen53dren I)inter un6 fjerfommen, 
3c^ feuerte meine gtinte auf i§n ab unb ber Sar 
mac^te fic^ in ben SBafb prM. 

SSenn ta^ Heine 3^^t w^^er cinem fd^attigcn 
55aume anfgefc^lagen x\t, fo ftnben ficfj balb bie (Sin^ 
tt>oI)ner ^a^Ireic^ ein 5 bann wirb mit einer freunb* 
lichen Unterl)a(tung bie @inleitung p ber IBerfuubi^ 
gung ber 3Saf)rI)eit gemac^t. 

!Die Sanbleute jtnb in 53enga(en fur bie S93al)rl^eit 
jugdnglic^er al6 bie ®tabtbett)o!)ner, wel(^e t)iel mit 
(Suro^dern in 8eriit)rung fommen, unb oft wurbe icb 
t>urd^ bie 5(ufmerffamfeit, init tioelc^er tie ^rfteren 
mir juljorten, fel^r ermuntert. S^aufenbe gibt e6 un^ 
ter il^nen, welc^e al^balb gum ^l)riftentl)um fx^ be* 
fennen wtirben, wenn fxe jtc^ nic^t »or ber llngnabc 
hex ^ut^beft^er unb S3raminen §u fur^ten Ijdtten. 

3c^ §1^9 eine^ 5(benb6 mit jwei SJlifjtonaren in 
ein gro^eS 2)orf ein; Wir f(^(ugen unfer 3^^^ unter 
tem fc^onen S3anianbaume auf; ben folgenben Ttox^ 
gen mac^ten wir un^ jum ^rebigen fertig. d^ voax 
ber 2^ag,be6 ^exxn, obex bie ^inbu6 l^aben feinen 
6onntag» ^af)e bei unferem 3^Ite war ber 53a3aar; 
urn 10 Itl^r wimmeite e0 »on ^aufenben, tie fauften 
unb tterfauften. !0?eine ^ate(f)iften ©c^unbor unb 
S*?obabfci^unb ftellten fic^ auf bentarren, auf welc^em 

in Snbiett, ^^^1^^ 

ttttfer ^di geful^rt tt)irb unb fprad^eti etne 6tiinbe 
tang, ©ine <S(^aar nat6 ber anbern fam, ba6 SBort 
@otte6 ju l)OHn. 3c^ :t)rebigte breimal, W gutmu^ 
t^igen Sanbleute f)6rten mit grower SSemimberung, 
e^ toax bie erfle ^otfd^aft i)on ber Siebe ®otte6 in 
Sl^rifto an i^re ^^erjen. SQSir t)€rt]^ei(ten ^unbcrte 
»on Jlractaten unb @t)angelien, tk jte aKe mit gro* 
^er greube emipftngen. 

9}lube ^on M ^age^ 5lrbeit ging id6 bei @on^ 
nfnutttergang t)or ba6 2)orf ]^inau6 ftjajiren, 2)ie 
fieute gingen tjon bem SJlarfte l^eim. ^n meiner 
greube I)orte i^ xf)xa Unter^altung gn. ^iner fagte 
„ber ^fl^lifjlonar I)at e0 itn^ rec^t gefagt, wir muffcit 
bie SB^ge ber (Sunbe tjerlaffen 5 '' — ,fia/' fagte etn 
3tt)eiter, ,,er l^at un0 au(^ gcfif<jgt, tt^er t>on eud^f 
toitt ben 51[nfang ma(^en unb gu biefem SSater gel^en, 
ia wir fottten feinem Oiatl^ folgen," 6old^e §(euf erungen 
jtnb 3^t^)en, t)a^ ber €aame aufgel^t unb tk @rnbte 
l^eranhal^t. ■ : v- ■;■':'-; -"■-■■■.-■■^-^^ 

%l)atli^e SJliJ^anbCungen l^aben tt)ir bei ber 
SSerfunbigung be6 @t?attgelium6 felten p erleiben, 
obgleid^ bie grobe Un»erfc^dmt!)eit, uiit welder bie 
55raminen unb Sew^^^bare un^ I)ie unb ba be^anbeln, 
unb au(^ bef(^im:pfen, eine fc^were ®ebulb^:prufung 
ift. ®n dn^ige^ SJlal wurbe uiir, ale i^ auf beu 
@tufen eine6 ®o$entempel6 »or einer gro^en SBer^^ 
fantmlung prebigte, »on einem bo^^aften Sungen ein 
3iege(ftein an ben ^opf gett)orfen, ber aber glurfli(^er 
SBeife an ben 6^(dfen tjorbeiftreifte. Gin anber^ 
^<ii warfen rair mutl^wittige ^naben in einem 2)orfe 


148 Ueber bie mi^wnmxheii 

M^ na(^/ wal^rfc^einltc^ mirbeit ftc tton fibclgejinn* 
ten 53raminen baju aufgeret§t, 2)er ^a^ biefer lofcn 
^riefier ift atterbing^ fel)r grop gegen t}k, n)elc^c ba^ 
^tjangelium t>er!unbigen ; ber ^IRifjlonar fonnte oi)nc 
ben 6c^u§ ber ^ngldnber.nici^t^ t^un;'Ol^ne 3wetfel 
njurbe ber ^a^ ber 53raminen in cffentlid^er 3SerfoU 
gung au^brecben, mnn ta^ Sanb ntc^t unter engli* 
fc^er S3ct^magtg!ett ftimbe unb ber SJiifjtonar nid^t 
ben 6(^u§ ber Dbrigfett genome, ^leine 5(u0bruc^e 
biefer Strt ftnb nid^t^ feltene^, unb geigen beutlid^, 
wa^ t)on ben geinben get{)an n>erben wiirbe, tt)enn 
jte nic^t t)on einer frdftigen .^anb im 3«ume ge^aU 
ten tt?dren» '■■■--■■;-■- 

?[Jlifitondr ^am^bett in Calcutta t)erfud^te einen 
|)inbu beim @(^t»ingfefte ^u uberreben, ta^ er fi^ 
bie eifernen ^afen nt^t in ben Otucfen ftogen laffen 
foKte. SSietteid^t brucfte er ftd^ auf eine un»orftc^tige 
SKeife au6* ^ic ^o^enbiener i^?urben aufgereijt unb 
t\)arfen i^n ^u Soben. <Bk voaxm gerabe im S3egrife, 
i^n tobt 3u fc^lagen, aU ein be^erjter (Sngldnber xf)m 
8U .^ulfe eilte unb if)n au^ ber |)anb ber ttjutl^enben 
5Wenge errettete» 

9Sor einigen Sa'^ren tt)urbe ein W)ol&(be!annter 
9J^ifftcndr, ttjd^renb er in feiner (§apette :|)rebigte, t)on 
einem fiarfen !0lanne angegrifen, ber im ^egrife 
wax, xf)m mit einem ^rugel ben ^o))f einjufd^lagen ; 
ber @trei(^ traf aber glucfltc^er SBeife bk ©c^ulten 
3!)er SSofewid^t tt)urbe ergriffen unb bem SJlifitondt 
ju feiner SSerfugung ubergetjen. §11^ er tk 3u^6rer 
fragte, wja^ er mit il^m ma^m fottte, riefen fte au^; 

in 3nt)ictt, 149 

r,53rmge il^n gum !Ri^ter, fo mu^ cr att)ei ^a^xe in 
^ettcn auf ber 6trage arbciten." ^S^lein /' fagte er, 
„t>a0 fann td^ ni^t tl^un, tiicine Sleligion gcbietet 
mir, meinen gefnten 8« ^erjeil^en," 9lmi cntliej er 
i^n mit ben Shorten : „3c^ toergebc bit beinc Uebet^ 
tl^at t)on ^ergen, aber t)ergi^ mct)t, ba§ bu beinc 
greil^eit bem 3efu6 »etbanfft, um melc^eS witten 
bu mid^ erfd&lagen ttJoKteji. ^ieg macS^te einen tiefen 
^inbrucf auf bie ^Berfammlung, laut ipriegen fte ben 
(^ott ber (5{)riften, ber t)m geinben ^u rerjeifjen ge# 
boten ^at • 

9Kifjton6reifen, auf wjelc^en ber SD'lifitondr tjon 
3)orf gu 2)orf bae SQSort (^ottee ijerfunbiQt, l^aben 
ben 3Sort{)eil, baj ber gute ©aame auf bem cjro^en 
^eibenfelbe tt)eit l^in au^geftreut voixb. 3^ tjertl^eiltc 
auf benfelben un3af)lige tractate unb @»angelien ; 
biefe ftillen 3^«9^n ber 9©al)rbeit wanbern in t)k 
entfernteften ©egenben ^in, burci^ t)a^ Sefen berfelbeu 
tt)irb bie Slufmerffamf eit ber ©ingebornen angeregt 
unb eine <Bci)n\n(i)t na* dwa^ S3ejferem in ben 
^erjen erwedt. <Bo gefc^iel^t nac^ unb nadi) eine 
Slnbal^nung fur ba^ ^ommen be$ 9teic^e$ Settee. 
3n abgelegenen fDorfern »on SSengalen fanb i(^ |)in^ 
bu0 im S3efi^e foltber ^Suc^lein, bie fte »on 9Jlifiio* 
ndren auf il^ren ^ilgerreifen in entfernte ©egenben 
em))fan9en l^atten. 9Sunfc^en6tt)ertf) ift e^, fold^c 
Sieifen jebe^ 3al)r ^u tt)ieber]^olen, bamit bie @r!ennt^ 
nig t)er SBa^r^eit attgemeiner unb ber ^inbrucf tiefer 
»erOe» 5(ber um biefe 5lrt »on SO^i|fton0arbeit fraf* 

150 ; Ueber Me mi\{ioti6Mxhdt ^ ?^^ ^ 

tiger betreibeti su fonneii; fottten toix auf utifem 
©tationen mel^r SJlifjtonare J^aben. 

M laffen jic^ in ber 5lrt unb 2Beife be^ 
^rebigen^ feine feften Siegein aufjietten. 2Ba0 ft(^ 
mir al6 befcnber^ tt)i(^tig aufgebrungen I)at, ift, bag 
ber ^rebiger eine grunblic^e ^eiintm§ »ott bem ^^a* 
rafter unb ber 1)cnU unb ^anb(ung6tt)eife ber «^eiben 
eriange, nnb na^ biefer feine ^rebigten einric^te. 
3)a0 5Bett)u5tfe^n i^re6 S^P^^i^^^^ ^w& ^^^^ bie^re^? 
bigt in i^nen erwecft, unb ber S^roft, weld^en 
i}a^ ^^angelium barbietet, fo wie t)k .^ofnung einer 
Dottigen (Srrettung mu^ i^nen flax bargeftettt tt?erben» 

2)a^ jte bofe 9J?enfc^en jinb, mug il^nen ge^eigt 
werben, bag ber (^o^enbienft -ju iljxex gdnjlicben moxa^ 
lifcfeen SSerfunfenl)eit gel^olfen ^at, barf nid^t t>er* 
f^tr>iegen njerben, unb bag ®ott burc^ feine ©nabe 
fie felig macS^en voiU, mug immer ber |)auptftu&^3unft 
unferer ^frebigt fe^n unb in ben SSorbergrunb treten, 
Die SBur^et allee Uebel^ au(^ im ^ei< 
bentl^um, ift nic^t ber ©ofeenbienft, fonbern 
bie bofe, hi^ gum (5atani^mu6 gefallene 
9latur be^ ^J^enfd^en, weld^e biefen ^eufel^* 
bienji ergeugt f) at JDiefe 3Serborben^eit erf en* 
nen bie rebli^eren on, unb mand^e |)iubu6 gefte^en, 
Don ber (Btimme M ©evoiffen^ uberjeugt, bag ©ott 
nid^t ber tlr^eber be$ S36fen ift , tt>ie U)xe ©d^riften 
lel^ren, fonbern, bag \)a^ 33ofe au6 ber ^ergifteten 
JQuette b^6 menfd^lic^en |)eraen6 fommt, !Der apofto^ 
lifd^e SJliffioncir 6d^war& :prebigte gar oft »on ber 
2kU (Sotted t>k in feinem 6o^ne 3efu Q^rifto t^n 

■ ■ in Snbiem 151 

50lenf(^en geoffcnbaret worbcu \% ^ieS ift t>a6 xe^te 
Zl^ma, t>ae |)ers be$ ^erworfcnften |)eiben ju emei^ 
(^en ; o^ne Sweif el ift I)ier eine |)au^turfa(^e , ba^ 
feine 5lrbeit im fubU(f)en Snbien fo rei^lic^ Qefegnet 
njurbe; t)iele taufenb .^inbue ttjurben \)ux^ i^n sum 
(5^njient{)um be!e{)rt 

2)a ber ^inbu and^ beim 5(nl^oren ber ^rebi^t 
be6 38orte^ bod^ immer mit SSorurtl^eilen befajt ift, 
imb ben»9Jliffionar al^ eitten 9Jlenf^en anfie^t, ber 
i()m eine neue Sleligion aufburben, unb bie feinige 
abfprec^en xoiU, fo ^at er in feincm 5(mte met 3Sor^ 
fic^t unb SKei^^eit not^ig- 

3c3^ mod^te 9liemanb ratten einen SSortrag bamit 
gu beginnen, ba^ er i^m ot)ne 5Beitcre6 feinen fc!^dnb^ 
Ud^en (^o^enbienft au^einanber fe^te, taburd^ tvurbc 
er nur feine ^e^nf)U aufrei^en unb iljn fur eine reb^ 
lid^e gorfd^ung nac^ 3Bal^rlf)eit unjugdnglid^ mac^en. 
gul)rt er i^n aber auf bie tiefe SSerborbenl^eit feine6 
gansen SBefen^ ^uriicf, unb ^eigt i^m au6 ber f)dL 
©c^rift, bag ©ott in feinem unenblid^en ^rbarmen 
\l)m einen (Srlofer gegeben l)atj fo Idgt er iid^'6 na^*: 
l)ex aud^ gefatten, wenn ber ^rcbiger burd^ beftimmtc 
unb flare S3ett)ei$^rimbe fein (^o^enf^ftem aU ein 
SK-erf menfc^Uc^er 53o6]^eit unb 6elbftfuc^t barftettt 

(Sben fo njenig ijl e^ ratl^fam, tjor einer SSer- 
fammlung »on SKenfc^en, t)k uoc^ nid^te Dom (5{)ri* 
ftentl;um gel;6it ^aben, ot)ne weitere ©inteitung et^ 
tt>a bie 3Serfo^nung6le]^re burc^ ben Dpfertob 3e\n 
tarauftetten. 2Berben fte aUx im ^egentl^^eil »on bem 

152 Ueber bic !0iiirton6^'5rrbeit 

traurigen SSerpItniffe iiberjeugt, in tt?e((?^em hex ge* 
faUene 9}^enfc3^ ju feinem 6(^opfer ftel)t, fo tt)irb 
nad^l^er bie tf)eure 5Serfof)nungMef)re mit 5(ufmerffam-' 
hit gel^ort, unb oft fal^ i^ bie SQ^enge ernji unb 
nac^benfenb au6einanber gel^eu. 
• §8efonber6 aber mii^ f[(^ ber SJltfftouSr cineS 
fanften, freunblirfjen 2Befen6 befleigtgen, ba- 
mit rid^tet er mel)r au^ , aU mit ^en fcf^onflcn !rdf^ 
tigften ^rebigten. 3)ie |)inbu^ jtnb befonber^ f(^arfe 
SSeobad^ter M (^Ijaxafta^ ber (Suroipder. Sie gfau^^ 
ben, melleic^t mit S^ec^t, ein 9}?ann, ber feine M^ 
benf^aften nic^t im 3^^wii^e !)alten faun, tange nic^t 
lu mem SD^lifftondr ; jte meinen ein folc^er glanbe 
.felber nic&t, voa^ er prebige. 3c^ bebaure ben^rebi^ 
ger , ber in feinem temperament ettt?a6 |)i^tge6 unb 
5(ufbrau{'enbe6 })at] ein foIdBer tangt geung nic^t nac^ 
Snbien. 2)a6 furd&tbar l^et^e ^Iima erregt o^ebiej 
ta^ 9?ert)enfv;ftem, fo tci^ e6 fur jeben ^oten be^ 
@t?angelium6 eine tdglid}e unb fdm^ere $(ufgabe ift, 
mit ^leic!)mutl) unb diiilje bc0 (S5emiU!)6 feinen :pru^ 
fung^t)o((en Sernf ju erfMen. Dft baci)te id) tahei 
an bie 3[Borte be6 ?I^ofte(6 3acobu6: 2Ber in feinem 
SKorte fe^lt, ber ift ein t)ollfommener 3J^ann. 
"' 2)abei forgen bie bo6l)aften unb t?erfc^mi^ten 53ra* 
minen bafiir, bag ber ?DRif(tondr befonber^ beim ^re* 
bigen in ben ^^ugenben ber ©ebnlb unb ©anftmut!^ 
rei^lid) geubt tverbe. SBe^e t^m, noenn erficb burc^ 
i^r jubringlid^e^ 5Sefen unb ibre oft gottc^Idfterlid^en 
^inmenbungen au6 ber Saffuug bringen Id§t; mit 
6of)nifc^em 53licfe fagen fte i^m: „2)u n^illji un$ 

in Snbien. 153 

\^€\ix% madden unt befelbren, unb Mjl fclber no(]^ ni(^t 

2)er felige S3if(^of ^orric t)on !Dkbrae tt?ar t)ielc 
Sa'^re 5lrd^ibiaconu6 in Calcutta, unb einer ber (\)eU 
(ten wnb treueften 5trbeiter am 9leid)e ^ottee in 3n* 
bten. 6etn Seifpiel fte{)t in biefer .^inftcf t ale ein 
SJluj^er )jor mctnem ^emiit^e. D^ne befonbere ^re^ 
biger-Xalente , \y>ax er etn ^ann tjon fanftem liebe^ 
i)oUem ®eift S33ol^(tt)otren nnb ^i(be gldit^ten au6 
fetnen 5fugen. @r fiarb t)cr inel^reren 3abt*en, aber 
no{f) ie^t fpre(^en bie S3raminen iu 55urbn>an, bie M 
feinen 53efu(^en mit il^m in 33erul)rnng famen , niit 
ber grogten |)od^a$tun(j \)on feincm fanften lentfeli^ 
ligen ^{)ara!ter. Sm S^bruar 1831 fa!) ic^ i^n in 
55nrbtt)an bei einer ©c^aar »on |)inbu6 ft^en, ntein 
^nnbit ((5:pra(f)lebrer) , ein bigotter SBramine, wax 
nuter ifjnen. „^cvx, fagte er ju mir nac^l^er, ta^ 
ift ein l)eiliger ^ann/' 

'^idiji^ ifi gen)oI)nIi(5er , \t)al^renb ber ?0^ifftonar 
^rebigt , al^ ta^ ein »orvioi^tger Sramine ftd) bnr(^ 
bie Umftel^enben l)ere{nbrdiigt unb mit frec^em (^cftc^t 
Srag^n aufnnrft, \)k gan^ nnb gar ni(^t6 mit bem 
Sn^alt bee 5Sortrage ^u t^un ^ben, 9Jlit folc^en 
Seuten }:)at ftdb ber TOfftondr fe^r in 5(c^t ju neb^ 
men, nnb ee ge!)ort ein gewijfer ^act baju, nm fte 
sum 6(^tt)cigen ju bringen, benn jle laffen jt(^ niti^t 
fcgleic^ jnrec^t weifen. (^ar oft ip il^re ein^ige Sib? 
fl^t , bie Umftel)enben anf Soften ber ^Religion jnm 
Sadden jn bringen nnb il)ren 393i^ feil §u bieten. 
Ober fie (egen ee bardnf an, burd^ ftnnlofee ®e.» 

^- V'LS.'i*^ 

ibi Ueber tie m\fxontMxhdt 

f(^tt)d§c bic 5lufmerffamfeit gu ftoren unb fo tm^xe'^ 
tiger cincn ^offcn ju fpielen. „®(anbft bu an bie 
2Bortc beinee 3efu6?" fragte micfe eincr biefer aber* 
ttjt^tgen SSraminen. „3a/' fagte ^, „5f?im er J)at 
bcfoi^len; wenn bir Scmanb beinen ffiod nimmt, fo 
gib il)m aud^ ben SD^Jautet ; bu l)afi mc^r al6 cinen, 
unb i(J) bin l^db nacft, wiClft bu mix eiuen fcftenfen? 
^ud^ J)at cr gefagt , wenn bic^ S^manb auf beu 
rec^ten S3a(fen fc^Iagt, fo btete i^m ben (infen and) 
bar} gefe^t ic^ gebe bir cineu 6treic^ auf ben ^o^f, 
ttjurbeft bu bie anbere 6eite rul)ig \)cxf)altcnV' 2)ic 
golge biefer Dfiebe war aKgemeine 6torung unb fd^aU 
lenbe^ ^eldc^ter, 

■ 2Ser ift 3efu6, tt)er ift feine ^IJlutter, tine »iele 
5lrme ^at er ge^bt, — 2Bte fiel^t euer ®ott au0, 
fannfi bu mir il^n jeigen ? 2Ber {)at bie 6imbe er^ 
f(^affen? <Sold^e unb dl^nlid^e gragen ^aben bieSeute 

ftm bereit :--:-■ ..'•;.. - ; .-v- .-:/-:.;- O^-- :-•.-■. M:- 

2Benn id^ einen SJ^ann biefer Slrt gett)al)r murbe, ber 
um^er gaffte, urn bie 5(ufmerffamfeit $(nberer auf fi^ 
gu ricf)ten, l^ier feinem ^Rac^bar (Ittt)a6 in'^ Dl^rmif:* 
perte , bort einem 5(nbern l)ol)nifd^ juttjinfte, fo rebete 
id) ibn ettva folgenberma^en an, — „3Sir reben 
l^ier uber l^eilige 6ac^en , jeber el^rbare 5Dflenfd^ fuf)(t 
eine 5ld^tung fur Sfteligion, id^ xail^e eud^ ba^er ent* 
n?eber ftille ju ft&en, ober bie SSerfammlung ju »er* 
laffen, auf ba^ il^r nic^t ©d^anbe fur euren ©pott 
einernbtet/' 3)ie§ tl^at gett)6l^nlid^ bie erwfinfd^te 
SSirfung, unb ber Whinn fc^Iic^ fi^ bat)on. 3db bat 
bie gragenben ftd^ hi^ ^um^nbe meine^ S3ortraga ju 

in Snbieit. 155 

* ;* 

gebirlben. (SJroBe 9tu!)eft6rer muffen obex juttjeilen 
aud^ mit (^ejvaft ]^inau6gefdbafft tt)crben. X>ie |>ia* 
bu6 jtttt) in il)rem 53enel)men nngegogencn ^nabeit 
dl^nli^, bencn ber SJlifitondr ^vvar freunblid^ abet 
mit. ^raft unb S3eftimmt]^eit entgegentrcten mu^. 
^ibt er ben »omi^igen graven ®el)or, fo enbigt ji^ 
feine ^rebigt mit (drmenbem SKortftreit, unb wa^ 
anber^ fann er emarten, aU ba§ ber @inbru(! »on bem 
wa^ bie Seute t^or^er gel^ort l^aben, t)erloren gel^t. 
> 53i^tt)eilen ifi e6 abfolut unmoglic^ bem Sdrmen 
(Sint)alt su tl^un; ein ^JWifftondr rief ber tobenben 
iDhnge gu — „2^x f^aU gefiegt, Ja i^r fe^b bie@ie* 
ger, i^ gebe e0 §u, wenigften^ im ©c^reien. SKenn 
i(^ wieber fomme, bringe i^ eine gro^e 9Jlu[c^el unb 
bla^e brauf M, bann trage ic^ ben @ieg bavon/' 
vDiefe Sronie ^atic bie gewunfc^te SQSirfungj tk 
^eute fc^dmten jic^ unb wurben ftiHe, 35ei eincm 
53efuc^ inS5enare6 ging i^ an ba^ bengalifd^e Stabt*^ 
i)iertel, unb fing in einer (5trage ^u ^rebigen an. 
^l^balb erf^ien auf einem ^olfon eine ^ufifbanbe 
unb fipielte auf, id} mu^te weiter jietjen, — in einer 
onbern 6traf e gefang e^ mir unb id) l^atte aufmer!* 
fame 3u^orer, 

2Benn t)\c SSerfammlung bi6 sum @nbe be^SSor* 
trag6 aufmerffam ju^orte, fo gingen bie 3u^^rer in 
ber <BtiUc baioon; man fonnte e^ SSielen in ben ®e» 
fici^t6jugen ablefen, bag t>a^ SKort in ben ^erjen^ln^ 
flang gefnnben l^atte, unb ni^t^ war mir erfreuli(^er,, 
ala wenn id) bemerfen burfte, bag fte unter folc^en- 
dinbrucfen nad^ |)aufe gingen. 3Bir burfen e^ b^m 

t56 IXeUx tk 9)^iifion6.5lr6eit 

|)errn auf feinc 58er!)eigung l)in glauben^ tag ta6 
SBort ni^t leer jurucffommen, fontem t)a§ au^ric^ten 
iDirb, njoju er e6 gefdnbt l^at 

^rebigteu uber !0^ora(, Wla^rim^en ium beffer 
n>ert)en , ^um (^(auben an ^inen ^ctt unt) 5{u6ubimg 
^on geg^ttfeiticjen ^flid^ten finben wenig ^ingang unb 
fd^affen feine gruc^t 2)er |)inbu fagt bem ^rebiger 
fret ^erait^, „ta^ ^^be ic^ atte^ ijorljer gewugtj ta^ 
nur (5in ®ott ift, fagen unfere 6cf)after0 auc!^ , itnb 
bag 2!ugenb beffer ift aU Safler, t)erftel^t ftct) »cn fel- 
ber , aber beibe jtnb einmat in ber 2Selt , unb baraft 
Id§t ftd^ ni(^t0 dnbern." 

2)ie bet un^ fo gett)o!)nIi(?^e ^rebigtttjeife au^_ 
cinem gegebenen Zcxte , bie barin ent^altene Se^re in 
abftraften SBegriffen gu enttDirfeln unb am @nbe mit 
einigen ^ractifd^en 5(nwenbungen §u fc^Iiegen , wurbc 
bei bem ^tnbu gar feinen Slnffang ftnben; neim 
3eif)nttl)eile fonnten ni^t »erfte^en wa6 ber ^rebiger 
meint, feine fDenf- unb 5Sorftetlung6tt)eife ift ganj 
anber6; eine6t()ei[6 ift er ein grobftnnlic^er SDf^enfc^, 
ber am 5(eugern f)dngt unb nic^t^ »on einer 3been* 
Selt tt>eig , anberntl)ei(6 ift ber in ben ^c^after^ be^ 
lefene 33ramine an metap^tofifdbe ©peculationen liber 
ta6 SSefen ^otte6 etwa6 me!)r gen>6^t, unb ful)rt 
feine 55ewetfe, W)ic tt)ir au6 oben angefft^rten SBei- 
^fpielen gefe^en l^aben, in bilblicjer 9lebe. 

5Sir miiffen unfere SKaffen au^ bem ^ager ber 
?pi)iHfter \)oien, unb »on biefen ^raminen bie bem 
2}oI!e t?erftdiibli(f)e unb angenel^me ^rebtgtvt)eife ler* 
»«i, V ^n J5 1 of f lu bllblid^erJRebe, fowie an 

in Snbiett, 1^7 

dmpfangltc^f eit bafiir fann cs ni^t fe^len in cinem 
trcpifc^en <§.\ima, too Me u:ppige ^atm o^m 5lufl^o^ 
ten Yoixtt unb gu atten Sal^re^seiten in neuem Sleije 
bajie^t, n?o maieftdtifc^e 6tr6me sum ?(Jleere l^inab* 
roUen, wo Me er!)abenen f(^neebeberften< ®ipfel be^ 
^imala^a allentl^alben im |)inter9runbe l^er^jorragcn, 
wo bie wucbernbe ^ppan^en* unb^^ierwelt ifere 2Bun* 
ber entfaltet unb unn)illfurlic^ bie ^^antafie be6 2Jlen* 
fc^en erregen» 

3c^ :prebtgte etnc^ 5(benb0 in ber ©tabt 35urb* 
tt>an , gu einer ^dt ai^ bie SfJei^felber t)or 9Ji*angel 
an IRegen vertrodaet warcn, imb bie lOanbleute 9JJi§* 
W)ac^0 nub ^^euning i?or^erfagten ; benn an man* 
^en Drten tx)ar ber 55oben fammt ber gruc^t t)Ott 
ber ^onnenl^i^e au^gebrannt. SJlein^ert war \)a^ S33ort 
unferg |)errn, 3oI). 7, 37. ,3er ba biirftet, bet 
fomme su mir unb trinfe/' 3br wdjfert eure 
9lei6fe(ber , fagte ic^ , wei( (^ott ben SKolfen geboten 
})at, ni^t 5u regnen; aber bie 3:'eic^e ftnb beinal)c 
leer, unb wenn er nid^t S^iegen fc^ieft , fo itnb eure 
S3emu{)ungen frud^tlo^, unb tik ^rnbte wirb fe^len, 
^ier fetjet i^r ein treue^ 8ilb eure^ geiftli(^en 3^^ 
ftanbe^; il^r fuc^et Seben6waffer fur eure unfterblic^e 
6ee(e, i^r plagt euc!^ unaufl)6rlic^ in eurem ©o^en^^ 
bienfte, aber ftelje ba, ftatt bem gefunben SKajfet 
gottlid^er ^rfenntni^ unb Sat)rt)eit, ift wie in euren 
^eic^eu; nic^te ale ©c^lamm ubrig. 3^ weig eine 
rei$e frifc^e £luette M Seben^ , (agt mid^ eud^ ju 
berfelben l^inful^ren , \)kx ift ©rquidfung unb griebe. 
©0 befc^rieb i^ ben 3w^orern t}U 6egnungen be^ 

158 Ueber bie gj^ifftone^-flrbeit 

^^fijknt^uma, tt?et$€ w>ie bie S93oI!en \)a^ burrc ^rbreic^ 
befeu(^ten, gleic^er ^aa^en bie geifili^en SBeburfniffc 
be6 SJJenfd^en befriebtgen." SJ^it gefpannter^ufmerf* 
famfeit l^orten bie Seute ju, mct)rere bejeugtcn i^ren 
53eifatt, iinb gingen mit jtcJ^tbarer 9fiu^rung ba»on. 

^tn gef^a^ter 50'liffiondr, ber t)on S5afel au^ging, 
bcfd^reibt eine femer-le^ten ^rebigten, bie er i)or ben 
^inbu6 in 55enare0 I)ieh auf folgenbe SKeife : 3c^ 
fprac^ uber tie 2Borte /,get)et ein §ur engen ^forte»" 
Die (5apelle tt?ar ganj t>ott unb groge 5lufmerffam* 
feit I)ertfdbte unter ben ^uljbxexn. 3c^ jeigte il^nen, 
tt)a6 bie enge ^forte bebeute nnb wa^ fie tl^un mu^ 
ten; um Ijinburc^ ju fommen. 3«^i^ft fc^ilberte ic^ 
na^ ^inbu 2Beife, einen tt)eltU^ geftnnten 3J?enfd^en, 
ber fx^ um Sfleligion m^t6 befummert unb boc^ l^offt 
am Qnbe in ben ^immel ^u fommen. 2)a, fagte i(j^, 
!6mmt einer mit @rep^anten unb ^ameelen bal^erge^ 
ritten, er frdgt ni$t6 nad^ @ott unb ber ©njigfeit, 
er xt>xU e6 gut l^aben in ber SBelt, unb boc^ benft er 
am (Snbe felig ^u tt)erben. 80 reitet er gegen bie 
enge ^forte ^ex unb bilbet ft(^ ein, er werbe fd^on 
l^inburc^ !ommem 2Bie ic^ fo fprad^, rief einer mei^ 
tier ^xH^bxex au6: „Qx mu^ ^om ^lepf)anten l^er* 
unter, fonft fommt er fein Sebtage nic^t burc^/' „2)tt 
^aft gang re^t/' erwieberte id^, „er mup feinenSSelt* 
^nn unb feinen Sei^tjtnn bal;inten laffen unb ttjenn 
er nidbt i)on feiner ^ol^e Ijerunterfteigt, fo fann er 
ni(^t I)inburdb gel^en," — 2)ann fd^ilberte i^ einen 
anbern (5()aracter, ju benen gel^orig, t)on tvelc^en un* 
fer |)err fagte, „i]^r fount nic^t @ott unb bem 9Jlam^ 

in SnMctt. ^ 159 

men sugtei^ bieneru" w^ter, meinc %xenn\)e, fommt 
cin ?D'?ann, bent e§ urn ba§ ^immelreid^ ju tl^un if!, 
cr f)at bie ^forte im ^ugc unb ge^t barauf ^n, aber 
auf feinem Olurfen trdgt er eincn grogen 53unbe(, ber 
mit atterld (Sac^en »ol( ge^jadt ift. ©el^et, tioie cr 
barauf lo6 Iduft unb feucfit; tx>irb e$ i!)m Qelingen? 
„^dn/' rief ein 5(nberer au6, „ber mu^ feinen 53un* 
bel balC)inten laffen, fonft fommt er niemal^ burc^.'' — 
„®anj ric^tig, tt)enn tt)ir burd) bie enge ^forte in 
ben |)immel gel^en ttJolTen, fo mu^ \)a^ ^er^ unge^ 
tl^eilt fe^n, ein l)albe6 o^erj nimmt ®ott nic^t an, — 
enttt)eber treibt er bie 6unbe au^ bem ^cx^en M 
5Q?enfcben au0, ober bie €imbe treibt il}n au6*" ^k 
!2eute begriffen eg fe^r gut unb (dd^elten 55eifall; bie 
britte ^(affe, welc^e id^ f^ilberte, waren bie (Stoljen unb 
6elbftgere(^ten. |)ier I)atte i(^ nid^t6 ju tl^un,. al§ 
auf eine^faffe t>on ?D^enfc^en an^ufpielen, weld^e man 
in S3enareg aUe Za^e fel^en !ann, ndmlid^ bie \)o^^ 
mfttt^igen ^Dflal^omebaner. Ol^ne aber einen S^^amen 
au^juf^rec^en, fu^r ic^ fort: „^kx fteigt noc^ einer 
balder; i^x fel^et^ er gibt jldb \)a^ 5lnfe!)en eine§ 
^eiligen unb grogen ^D'lanneg. (Sr fagt', x^ tl)ue 
9liemanb Unreci^t, i^ fage meine ®eMc })cx, i^ fafic 
oft unb bejatile Sebem, tt>a6 i!)m Qchu^xif fo ttjan* 
belte er im ^Seiou^tfe^n feiner 9lec^tf^affen'^eit, majic* 
. f^dtifc^ unb feften S^ritte^ nac^ ber engen ipforte ^in^ 
^a rief ein britter 3ul^orer au^: „(Sr mu^ flc^^ bu* 
(fen, fonft jerftogt er feinen ^opf." 3c^ ertt?ieberte: 
„5Serftef)et i^r auc^ toae i^r fagt?'' — ^Sa/' war 
^ie ^ntmort. „2)er 9Jlqnn mu^ feinen ^oc^mutl^ bo^ 
l^inten laffen uno al^ ein armer (Simber fommen; 

160 ' Uebcr tie m\^\or\^^mf\t 

t>a& fdMcn bebeutet, bag er ft(^ bemutl^igen mug un& 
tt)enn er jtd) tti(!^t beugt, tt)irb er nie jur engen 
^^Jforte eingel)en/' „3^r ^abt ganj re^t/' ~ ertt)ie* 
berte id^, ^tl^ut ba6, fo werbet x\^x felig werben." 

|)ierau0 erfenut man , \)a^ bie «^inbu^ un6 tjer* 
ftetjen unb bag ba6 SBort in il^re ^erjen einbringt. 

2)ie ©leid^niffe unfer^ i errn jtnb au0 obge:^ 
nannten Urfad^en - tie yoKfommenften Tlu\Ux ber 
§Prebigt fur i^eute t)on orientalifc^er SSorftellungg* 
weife. 2)ie ^lei(^niffe i)on bem ©demann, »on bem 
x>er(ornen ^o^nc, »on ben 5el)n Sungfrauen bregreift 
ieber |)inbu ai^balb; ba^ (efetere befonberig bef^reibt 
feine (^ebrdu($e, vok fte bei |)ocfe§eiten ge»cl()nlic^ jtnb. 
3cf) wo'^nte einmal eiuer folc^en geierlic^feit Uu 2)er 
33rdutigam ge^t be^ S^lac^t^ mit 9Jluft! i:)on .^aufc 
weg na(^ ber 3[Bol)nung feine^ 6(^tt)iegert>ater^ ; fo^ 
balb bie gveuube ben 3ug »on feme erblicfen, ent* 
fteljt ein ^efc^rei: „2)cr ^rdutigam fommt" 5Run 
iDerben bie gacfeln ange^uubet uub Del barauf ge* 
goffen, fie gel)en il^m mit ^efaug entgegen unb ge^ 
leiten il^n in ta^ |)au6, tt)o bie ^rauung unb ba^ 
®aiimal)I get)aUen tt)irb» 

3n gefellfc^aftlic^er Unterl£)altung fanb i^ Ui 
.^o^en unb 5fliebern in ^engalen gar i)duftg (^ele* 
genl^eit, ben ^ingebornen bie ^al^rljeit na^e ^u brin- 
gen. Wlam^c ©tunoe fag i^ mit i^nen t)or ber 
^uttc ober unter einem S3aum unb fucbte fte auf 
bed 9Jlenfc^en ]f)o^ere 53eftimmung aufmerffam ^u 
mac^en unb oft fanb i^ fie gar offen unb empfdng^ 
li^ fiir tie aBal^r^eit. ^ugerbem fenne icj feine 

in Sntiteit, i61 

befferc ©elegenl^eit jiir grunbli^en dvUxnunQ bcx 
(S^rac^c wnb (^ebrdu^e ber ^inbu, aid fold^e freunb:? 
licj^e Unterl)altun9en. 3c^ Heg mid^ in aUe i^re 
Slngelegen^eiten ein, macf)te allerlei graven ubcr 
i^re gamilien, il^re Winter, uber ben gelbban unb bie 
SSie^Snd^t, ^orte i()re ^lagen unb bejeugte meinen 
^ntl^eil an i^ren iBeiben unb S^tvierigfeiten, (Sin 
SBort M Crofted, ber @rma]^nung unb Suxt6:jtweU 
fnng tt)irb »on if^nen gerne angenommen , ^aufenbe 
l^aben bie tleber^eugung gemonnen, ta^ ber SJlifftondr 
ed gut mit i^nen meint unb ibr defied fuc^t; fie 
njerben jutraulic^ wnb offnen i^re t^erjen. 

SD^lebicinifc^e ^enntniffe (tub fur ben SKif* 
fiondr in Snbien »on fel^r grower 9Q3ic^tig!eit. 5lu(^ 
f)ier fann ic^ »on eigener (Srfa^rung fprec^en. $luf 
meinen 50fliffiond ? DfJeifen natjm ic^ bie attgemeinften 
SKebicamente mit mir. (Sinmal bradbten in eiufm 
2)orfe jttJei €o^ne i^ren alten, franfen QSater. ,,3Benn 
6ie ettt)ad tl)un fonnen," fagten jte, ,,fo erbarmen 6ie 
ftc^ liber und." 3^ gab i^nen ju t)erfter)en, bag ic^ 
jwar t)ie not{)ige 5lrsnei nirf)t bei juir ^aU, aber ju 
|)aufe tr>dre fie p finben. 2)er jungere ^ruber ex^ 
bot fic^ al^balb na^ SBurbwan ju laufen, — ic^ mar 
16 6tunben t?on «^aufe entfernt , fc^rieb ein 53ittet 
unb er eilte bavon. !l)en folgenben 3^ag fam er 
tvieber jurud unb brac^te bie S(rjnei mit, tie ten 
franfen htrirte. 3e^t brad^teu fie !0ienfd^en, tie mit 
alTerlei Seiben be^aftet ttjarenj ein alted blinbed Wi^eih hat 
mi^, i^ moci^te xf)x bod& il^r ©ejic^t tvieber l^erftel* 
len. JDae ging nun freUic^ uber mein SBermogen, 

.^cUBrtt^t ORiflTcn in Snbifil, 11 ♦ 

m Ueber tic !!JJIffion6.5frbeit 

aber gerne benu^te id) fold^e 5(«ftntte, t)ie armett 
Seute gu tern gro^en ^eelenarjte I)inpiteifen, tt>elc^er 
ten ©runb^<8(^abenju ^eileu toermag, is>ott tvelc^em 
iille ^ranfi)eiten unb Sciben be6 Seibe,^ entfprungen 
^nb. 5tuc^ ber ^inbu ift in ^agcn ber ^ranf^eit 
cmpfcinglic^er fur0 ©ute, aB tvenn e6 x^m gut gel)t 
: ^6 ifi nic^t rtc^ttg, wenn man glaubt, ber SJJif? 
<tondr fjabe feinen Sugang in ben ^dufern unb ga* 
milien ber ding^bornen. din angefel^ener 53raminc 
rief mi^ eine6 5lbenb6 in ta^ Simmer feiner franfen 
gran unb hat mic^ urn fRat^ unb ^ulfe. 3c^ ^abc 
»iele^inbu^ befuc^t unb mnrbe toon benfelben freunb* 
li^ aufgenommen; ja fie lie^en mir einigemale auf 
fReifen ein ?Olittageffen na^ iljrer 3[Beife bereiten. 
greilid) iji biefe6 noc^ ni^t allgemein ber gatl, — 
ber 6tol5 unb t)k eifernen ^anbe be6 ^afiemrefen^ 
ftnb ein gro§e6 ^inberni^ gegen freunbfd&aftlic^en 
S^erfel)r, 5(ber an^ biefe 3Sorurtf)eile fd^tpinben ad* 
mdl)lig unb benu^en wir bie fic^ barbietenben @e? 
Icgcnl)eiten , fo ftnben wtr an mancJ^en Drten einc 
offene Xi)VLve, , > ^ 

3(^ befuc^te eine6 Jl^age^ ben reid^en ^aiai) »on 
55urbwan, er war ein Sungling t)on 18 3al)ren, Set 
meinem ^intritte in^ ^inimer w^aren gerabe einigc 
33raminen gegenwdrtig, bie mit I)ei(igen 53rumen feinc 
6tirne berui^rten unb il)m ben :|)riefierlidben ^egen 
ftt^eilten. Sie fte aur ^{)ure l^inau^ waren, fragte 
i(^ "ibn : „Wlota ^aia^, glauben jte biefen geuten V* 
„D netn/' anttt)ortete er, „e^ ift lauter ndrrifc^e^ 
3eug." „5lber wenn fie fo benfen, warum t>ertt)en* 

:^-- in'Shbieit: ^ ' 163 

ben fie fo groge (Sumnten ^elbeg auf ten ®o^en^ 
tienft V dn „3Ba6 f ann ic^ mac^en , metne 5Bor^ 
fal^ren l^aben ef fo %ei^an/' 3c^. „5Bare e^ nicfct 
t)iel beffer, menu (Ste ta^ ®elb auf tie ^rjicfjung tcr 
Sugcnt im 2)iftrtct t)on 33urbwatt ^cmeubcn Mr* 
tenV „^a^ werbe id^ ju feiner ^eit i})un, jcftt ift 
e0 nod& ^u fru!)e/' ^r gab mix gn t^erftel^en, ttjenn 
feine alten etuflu^reidften SSemanbten gejiorben fe^en, 
ttjerbe er cin€ 3fieformation tjornel^men, 

lleber ben @rfo(g in bicfcm Z%eil ber Mtflton^^ 
5trbeit f^ret^en w?ir in einem funftigen ^apitcL (So 
ijiel aber barf ic^ §um 9Sorau6 bemerfen, uaferc 
Slrbeit ift ni(^t t)ergeblid6 in bem i^errn. 
!Rein, meine tjerel^rte greunbe, bie ^Rifjlon^facJ^c ge^t 
»ortt)art6» 2)ie 9Ba!)rl)eiten nnferer ^riftlt(^en $ReIi* 
gion [(^lagen jebe^ 3^1^^ tiefere SKurjeIn auf biefem 
fc intereffanten S^l^eil M gro^en S(cfer6 ber SBelt 
1)a6 ^t)ange(ium beiveist feine (SJotte^fraft an ben 
|)erjen, unb ^aufenbe pnb bereit0 fur ben ^loubeit 
an baffelbe gewonnen tt)orben. 

Unfere fleine »on ben ^eiben gefammdten ^e* 
meinben, jtnb un6 cin freubige6 togelb, t>a$ bad 
€t?ange(iuni gu feiner ^di ben t?otten <5ie^ er^aUeu tt)irb* 

S^or neun SKonaten fam ein (^niojt ober53ettel< 
mbn<i) nac^ SSurbwan. gr^^er f)aiH tx in ein^t 
6tatton ber norbtt>eiiU<!^en tproi)injen einen ^ractot 
er{)alten, ber fein ©en^ifen beunrul^igte. 3m ^a^at 
^on S5urbt»an l^ort er einei^ W>t0^ unfern fromm^ 
datec^iflen be !Rojorto ipr^tgcn. 2)ett #tgent>en Za^ 
hmmt er in6 ^Kifpion^fjau^ unt> forfd&t wetter nac^ 

..- :-..■:.....--,...;.:...:.■,■.: 11*.:-.. 

164 ^ IteBer tie «S»ifftott0--5(rbeit 

2Ba!)r]^eit5 feine ©tuntie war gefommcn, er betete Se- 
fum al^ fcinen |)eUanl> an xmb wurbe ball) tarauf 
in feinem 5Ramen getauft. : r:-^^^^^-^'- 

3)a6, meinc greunbe, jinb tie greuben unb (§r* 
quicfurtQ^ftunben be6 SD'lifjtonar^. ^in foI(^er S^rium^^ 
i)er gottlii^en ^ai)x\)e\t i|i un6 ein rei^Uci^er @rfaft 
fur atte Seiben unb ^priifungen unfere^ S5eruf0. 
^^ grettid^, njenn tt)ir auf bie 130 fOliirionen ®6feen^ 
biener l^inblicfen unb bie Heine Slnja^l berer bamit 
ijergleic^en, \X)e\^e na^ brei^icj unb tjier^igidfiriger 
Slrbeit ^um ^^riftentl^um befel^rt it)orben ftnb, fo 
uiod^te man ben SJiutl^ jtnfen laffen unb au^rufen, 
n)te manege Unglaubi^e t^nn, „3nbien fann nie 
ctsangeliitrt werben," Slber tt>er fo urtl^eilt , ift mtt 
bem Qegenwdrtigen 3^1^^^^ ^^^ (Sintt)o!)ner nid^t be^ 
lannt, unb fennt wjeber tie SBal^rl^eit ber SSerl^ei^un- 
gen, nod^ t)k ^raft M SBorte^ @otte^. 3^ fann 
nieine dbriftlid^en Sefer ijtrjtc^ern, berfelbe ift ganj an^ 
ber0; al6 »or tJier^e^jn Sa^^ren, a(6 i^ \)a^ gelb be- 
trat, unb dltere SJlifftondre, bie 20 SaT^re QtaxhciUt 
l^aben, feljen eine werfwfirbige Umdnberung in bem 
moralifd^en 3«ft^ttbe ber ^inbu6» 

S'liemanb jeboc^ jtel)t unb fut)(t bie ^c^wierigfei* 
ten fo tief alS ber SDf^ifitondr, welc^er im finftern 
i^eibentl^ume ftelj^enb, bee ^age^ Saji unb ^i$e trdgt, 
Unb tt^enn ba^ Heine |)dupein »on 5{rbeitern, tvelc^e 
brau^en gegen bie 9J?ad^t M geinbc^ fdmpfen , ben 
lUlutl^ nic^t aufgeben unb auf ben ijerl^ei^enen ©ieg 
l^offenb, au0]()arren unb rfijiig »ortt>drt6 bringen, bann 
foWten n?al^rlic^ \)k ^^riften in ber (iebUi^en .^eimatl^ 

in 3nbicit. 165 

ben IDlut^ auc^ ni^t fmfcn faffen, nod^ neinmutl^fg 
iverten, ttjenn bad 2Ber! (angfam i)ortt)att6 fd^reitet 
uttb unferc ^offnung nid^t aldbalb nad& unfern 
SBunfd^en erfutCt mirb, 

„5tuf bem ^eimwege i>Ott einer ^rei)!^!/' fo cr^ 
gS^It etn warferer SKitftreitcr in ©ubcn ^on Snbicn, 
ifihcxhMk id6 einc 9ld^e »on ©o^entem^eln , «ttb 
ber (^eban!c burd^brang meinc @eele, ift c0 tt>af)x, 
ta^ biefe SJlaffen i)on ©ebauben, bie affe etn ®egen* 
ftanb \)eT S3erel)rung pnb burd^ tk einfaci^e ^rebigt 
t>om ^reujc itber ben ^aufen geworfen werben fon- 
nen? !I)em Unglaubigen mnf e6 unmoglid^ ijorfom^ 
men, nnb ber SSerfud^ Id^erlid^ erfd^einen» SBenn 
man mitten nnter einem abgottifd^en SSolfe bajiel^t, 
fo gel^crt in ber Jlljat eine i>oUc SSerjldjerung »on 
ber SKatjr^eit M @»angeUumd unb ein fefter^laubc 
an bie S^erljei^ungen baju, urn aii^ nnr bk WloQ^ 
li(^feit ba»ott feft ju l^alten. ®ott fe^ 2)anfy id^ lann 
nnter alien anfc^einenben Unmoglidbfeiten in tern fSex* 
tranen fort arbeiten, t)a^ vok bie iO^auren ^jonSerid^o 
»or bem ©c^all ber ^ofaunen einjtelen, fo jn feiner 
3eit aud^ biefe ©o^entempel nnt S3ilber x>ox bem 
SGBorte bed^errn fallen muffcn. 

^O'leine grennbe, la§t itnd gufammenjieljcn aU dn 
5Jtann unb jur S3ef6rberung biefer l^eiligen <5a(^c 
Tuit ^anb anlegen. ®ibt ed einen ebleren, bed 
9J?enfd)en Mrbigeren S3eruf, aid ben, toelc^er barauf 
^intvirft, bad ^ni, bie (Srlofung einer unter ber 
SJlac^t ber ginfternig unb t)e^ 5lberglaubend feuften^ 
ben SWenfc^^eit jn beforbern? 3)er ©ol^n ©otted 

166 Ueber tic Wli^xon^^^xMi 

flieg »0m trimmer I)erab unb be^a^lte eitt 
enjig gultige^ Sofegeli) fitr bie ganje 2Belt. 
-^ 2)ie ^ir^e, weic^e ben Segen bat)on genic^t unb 
feine6 ^eilS fic?^ freut, ^at bie wic^tige Slufgabe \)k>' 
fc6 .^eil bemieuigen ^'^eil ber grogen ^Jienfc^enfamilie 
gu i)er!unbigcn, ber noc^ nic^t^ bat)on wei^, 2)ie 
©ad^e ift fo natudid^, tk W^^^/ rt)e(c^e un6 alien 
obliegt, iji fo einleu^tenb; t)ai e^ in ber Z\)at ju 
t)erwnnbern ift, wie manege noc^ surucfbleiben fonnen. 
SBal)rlie^, n)tr l)a6en un^ an unferem armen |)eiben' 
bruber in Snbien f(^tt)er »erfunbigt, ba§ bie ^a^^ 
fo lange, bi6 ^nm 19, 3al^t^unbertanfgefct)obenmirbe, 
ba boc^ feit ber 9ieformation ha^ Sic^t be^ tl)enren 
^tjangelimnd. unter un0 fetne (Stral)len t)erbreitet, 
unb bie reine geof enbarte 3Bal)rl)eit in nnferem bent* 
f(^en (unb 6c!^tt?ei5er) SSaterlanbe »erfnnbigt worben 

' ®otte6 SDinnb l)at e^ auegefproc^cn, ba^ 
tie ^dtjcn befel^rt merben follen, nnb tt?enn 
ine ^irc^e feinen Sinf bel^ergigt, unb, tt>ie bort in t)m 
5lagen ber ^^poftel, feinen 3BiHen jn tl^un bereit i% 
fo tt)erben, fo mnffen fie befeljrt tperben. 38enn fie 
im ©eifte ber erften Qi)x\\tm, bem l^errlic^en ^erufe 
fic^ ttjci^t, tpenn flc aufl)ort, fxd) burd^ <Streitfragen 
5U jerfplittern, welc^e bie Siebe franfen, unb bo^ ju 
feincm genugenben 3flefultat fttl)ren; wenn fie burc^ 
SBort unb SBanbel; al0 m 3cuge t}tx SSal^r^eit 
(SJotte6 »or ber 2Belt erfd^eint; — bann tvirb, mie 
einft »on tern .6anme be6 £leibe6 3efn, eine ^raft 
»on ber ^ird^e au^gekn, tpelcfe^ iiber alle ?anbe ficj^ 

CTQie§en unt unter ten fernften SS6(fcrn ber ^dten 
tjerfpurt werben wirt). !I)antt wiri) eine gro^e ^ettc 
toon lebcntfgcn (gtimmen tie ^rbe umgeben unb man 
tt)irb in aKen Sanben bte (Siulabung ju ben ©egnun^ 
gen be6 ^immeie f)orcn; unb bann wirb bie (Srbe 
tt>ibert6nen tooii ben Sobgefangen berer, bie ber ^rlo^ 
fung il)re6 ®otte6 {i(i6 freuen. 

Det berii^mte ^onfimftler |)anbel gab eme6 
Slbenb6 in bonbon eine mufifalifd^e Unter^aftung. lln* 
ter bem Drc^efter befanb ftd) ein beutfd^er ^rompeter. 
^dnbet ttjanbte ftc^ ju i^m unb fagte, „b(afe lauter/' 
unb er blieg lauter; nac^ einigen !!Jiinuten tpieber^ 
l^olte er feine ^rmal^nung unb ber SJlann blieg au0 
aller ^raft, — jum brittenmale rief er i^m ^u, „lau' 
ter," ta na\)m ber 9)iann im Unwitten bie 5!rompetc 
uom ^D^Junbe unb fd&rie (aut an^, „|)err jie rufen 
lauter, aber wo fott id} ben SSinb ^erbefommen." 

<5o, meine greunbe, rufen unfere 55ruber au6 
ben ^eibenlanbern ju un^ l^eriiber, „fc6i(ft un^ mel)r 
5lrbeiter, t)a^ boc^ tie ^ofaune be6 @t)angelium6 
lauter, ja in atten Ctdbten unb !t)orfertt »on Snbien 
erfc^affeu moge;" unfere 3^^l ift/ tt?ie ©ibeon6 
<5t^aar, ju flein, urn t)ie geinbe ju bejwingen, unfere 
6timme ifi ju fcibwac^, urn »on ben SDfiittionen urn 
«n0 l^er gel^ort ju werben. Sauter! fc^reit t)a^ 
geiftn^e (ilenb, bie oft unbet^ugte Se^nfuc^t ber 
armen ©o^enbiener, nac^ ®ott, na^ grieben, nac^ 
ettjigem Seben. 

|)ier I)6rt man »on manc^en (Seiten bie ©mt^iirfe, 
^tt)o fotten bie -SJ^dntter, bie 3)iifjtondre ^erfommen 

imb wo foffeit wir tie Wiitci fur tie llnterl^artitng 
unferer SOflifftoncn auftreiben ?'' 3c^ antwortc: „M\}c 
vt)erben fommen «nb im Ueberfluffe fid; jeigen, fobalb 
bte SBorte ber SOSeiffagung in unfercm d^riftlic^en 
SSaterlanbe ft* crfuKen: (Ste!)e auf Sflorbwinb 
iinb fommc€ubn)tnb unb we^e Durc^meinen 
Garten, t)a^ fetne 2Burse triefen. (5o f^ric&t 
ber ^err, ^err: SBinb !omm l^erju au6 ben 
»ter SBinben, unb btafe biefe (^etobteteu 
an, ba§ fte wteber Lebenbig we.rbcn! 

Urn biefen 6egen lagt unS bitten unb ttjenn ber 
^eift bee (ebenbigen (^otte6 feine ^ird)e befeelt, bann 
tt)irb e0 nicbt an ^OJitteln unb SJldnnern fel^len, um 
bie frol^e IBotfcbaft alien SSolfern ju tjerlunbtgeu ; 
bann \t>erben bie ^obtengebetne auf bem gro^en |)ci* 
benfclbe ftc^ regen unb bie SBorte aU eine in (Srfullung 
gegangene Z^atfad)c fic^ barftellen : 'Da fam Dbem 
in fie, unb fte njurben n?ieber lebenbig unb rid^teten 
fic^ auf t^re gu§e, unb itjrer war tin grogee ^e^r. 

i» -T^M 

fQtvhttitunQ bet ^tili^tn ^<|rift unb ^^ttluntets 

SBibelflberfei^ttngen. — Dr. ^arep. — SBibelgcfcUfcfeaft in (5ttt 
cutta. — ^Serbreititng ber l)eil. @c&rifren unb anbeter nn^- 
li(i)et 93iicbcr. — grjie^ung. — ©ctiulen fur bie (ginger 
borenen eingeffifjrt. — ^6r)ere^ @eminar fftr ^inbuiftng^ 

, linge. — aBenige ftnb in 6(biilen befeljrt ; abcr ber ®runb 
ift gelegt. — @rri(^tung englifcber ©c^ulen. — @(^ulen 

; ber 9legiernng. — 2)ie ^eil. ©cbrift in benfelben nic^t am 
gelaffen; — ^olgen bavon, ^reibenfer, Slt&eiflen. — 35e= 
fel)rung einiger berfelben. — er5iel)ung be^ meiblic^en 
©efc^Iecbt^. — SSerac^tung unb 5!Wi§banblung bejfelben.— 
Unterric^t ber ^inbumabc^en, bnrd) s»?ip 255ilfon — 2Bairen= 
fc|>ulen. — 5D?«ngel an geeigneten gjiiffion^reu. — ^fllfcruf. 

&il)t ti ging «n ©5«niann aut ju foen u. f. SRat*. 13 > 3 — 8. 

' 3n bem le^ten ^apitel bel^anbelte i<i) ben erjleit 
unb wic^tigften ^l^etl ber SJliffione-Slrbeit in Snbien^ 
ndmlic^ t)k ^Prebigt be6 ©ijangeliuma^ 993ir 9el)ett 
je§t gum 8tt>eiten unb britten ^l&eile berfelben iiber, 
unb fel^en waS bi6 jejt bur(^ bie SSerbreitung ber 
^eil. @dbrift unb burt^ UnterricJ^t in ©(^ulen tton 
ben 3}liffionarett geleiftet tt)orben ift S^lac^ ber $re* 
bigt be6 S33orte6 ift bie Ucberfe^ung ber f^eil. 6c^rift 
o^ne 3weifel »on ber l^oc^ften SQSic^tigfeit fiir unfern 
3tt>e(!. 2)ic @tinime be§ ^Prebiger^ fann bet weitem 
nit^tijou alien ben ^^aufenben geliortwerben, abertt>enn 
ta^ gefc^riebenc SBort bem |)inbu in feiner TintUu 


170 SSerbreitung Iyer l^eitigen ^c^rift 

fprad)e fn bie |)dnbe gegeben n?erben fann, fo la^t 
{id^ f)offen , ba^ er e^ in fc-iner |)utte mit 6egen le^ 
fen wirb. 2)er 33ote be6 (Evan^elium^ mu§ in einer 
fc^wierigen ©tellung ftc^ befinben, welder jnerft in 
einem .^eibenlanbe auftritt, o^ne tixo(x^ t>on ber 6:pra:* 
^c ber (Sintt?of)ner ju tjerfte^en, wo fein SSorterbuc^ 
feine ©rammatif, feine Ueberfe^ung ber 53ibel t>erfer*^ 
tigt wcrben ifi. 

Wi\^ W erften SD'liffionare ben inbif^en 55obett 
betraten, fanben lie W ^erfc^iebenen 8prad^en 3n^ 
bien0 in einem ro^en uuenttt)icfelten 3uftanb, WXt 
SBijfenfc^aft unb ® elel^rfamf eit war al6 !!Jlono:pol \xi 
ben |)dnben ber S3raminen, unb wurbe »on biefeu 
in bie ge^eimni^^otte |)une ber San^crit^6^rac!^e t)er^ 
fc^loffen. ^inige wenige ^(u^juge an^ ipoetifc^en SSer^ 
fen waren in Vk (ebenbigen (5pra^en uberfe^t, unb 
}>n bcm SSolfe be!annt. 

2)er erfie SJ^iffiondr in SSengalen , Dr* ^ a r e V 
ein 2Jiann t)cn grojen ^aienten unb apoftolifc^em 
@ifer, wel(^er nac^ 30id{)riger 5lrbeit im ^eifen 3n* 
bien, t)or wenigen 3al^ren in W 9ftul^e feine^ |)errn 
cinging; unternaljm im Slnfang biefe6 3al)rl)unbert^ 
bie ^erfulifc^e Slrbeit, W ^eil. Sd^rift in otten^^ra* 
c6en 3nbien6 ju uberfe^enj unb jum ©rftaunen atter^ 
W tixoa^ mit biefem fc^wierigen (^efc^dfie befannt 
ftnb, fnl^rte er fein S3or^aben grogtentl^eiie au6. 2)er 
eble SKilberforce fagt von biefem wunberbaren SJiann : 
„(§m erf)abenerer ©ebanfe Id^t fid) wo^l nici^t faffen, 
al6 ba§ ein armer 6d^ufter ju bem ^utfc^lug fam, 
b^n 3J?ittionen |)tnbu^ bie 55ibel in iljjrer 6^)rat^e in 

fcie .^dnbe ju geben, amt fie jum ^^riftent^um ju 
tefe^ren." 3n jener 3^^^ nmr ea Ui ber oftinbifc^eu 
^Regierung noc^ 6itte , attcn 3R ffton^'^^Serfuc^en in 
ben SKeg ju treten, unb aI6 Sare^ in (Salcutta feine 
Arbeit anftng unb' am ^angeg prebigte, wurbe jie 
i^m al^balb niebergetegt , audi) gab man i^m nnb 
feinen SJ^itarbeitern lu »erfteben, ta^ im Salle (le 
fi(^ in biefe SBerorbnung nicl>t ffigten, il^r Ungel)or^ 
fam Sanbe^»erweifung na^ ft^ jiel^en wiirbe. ^ixU 
lic^ ttjurben jwei 9J?iffionare , bie in Calcutta lanbe^ 
ten, mit bem ndmlid&en <5$ifF naii) (^nxopa priicf* 
gefci^irft, auf bem jie angefommen waren^ anbere 
tvaren gen6t!)igt, jt(^ me^rere 2Boc3&en lang in ^aU 
cutta su s>erbergen; nnb fcbifften ficJ) fpdter nacb bem 
birmanejtfc^en 9flei^e ein; untcr biefen befanb fx^ ber 
berul)mte amedfanifd^e SD^ifftondr Dr. Subfon. ^are^ 
mu^te not^gebrungen feinen ^ofien t>erlaffen unb jog 
fic^ na^ ber bdnifc^en ^olonie (Serampore ^urucf, unb 
bcrt bfu^te bie erfte ^Df^iffton in 53engalen auf. 3^ 
lann t)ic ^ai)\ feiner ^ibel4Xeberfe$ungen nid^t genatt 
angeben3 aber ic^ erinnere mic^ ge^ort gu ^ben, bafj 
er ben grogern ^^eil t>on etlic^ unb jwanjig t>erfd^ie^ 
benen !Dialecten, bie in Snbien gefproci^en werben, 
erlernte, unb tl^eiB bie ganje 33ibel, t^eild eingelnc 
Jl^eile in jene 3biome uberfe^te* 3)a ^anecrit bie 
SJlutter t?on beinal^e alien inbif(^en !I)ialecten ift, fo 
Id^t e6 f\^ erfldren, bag einer, ber mit biefer S^rac^e 
gut befannt ift, bae (Stubium ber abgeleiteten a^unb^* 
arten »erpltni^mdgig Iei(^t ftnbet. 3nbeffen ftnb 
Wf If^^eren me^r t>on einanber »frf(^ieben, ol^ j. S3, 

172 SBerbreitung t»er l^ciKgen Sc^rift 

bic loom Sateimft^en abgcleiteten moterneh <5pra^ettj 
t»a6 granjolxfd^e, Stalienifc^e tmt> <Spanifc^e. 3<^ 
l)6rte einft, aB i^ langft mit ber bengalifi^ett (B'^xa(i^€ 
tjertraut vtjar, gttjei ^Df^ifftondre tamuUfc^ unb canare* 
jtf(6 fprec^en, t)erftanb aber nur einselne SSorte, He 
tnit bem ^Sengalifc^en etn)a6 gemein I)aben. 

MDie brci ^auptfprad^en , ml^e in 53engalcn unb 
ben norbttjeplic^en ^rot)injen i?on .^inboft!)an gefpro^ 
ci)en ttjerben, jtnb bie ^Bengalifc^e , |)mburi unb bie 
^inboftl^anif^e ober Urbu^Spracfje. !l)ie jVDei erfie* 
ten ftnb einanber jtemlic^ d^nUc^ unb brei QStert^eile 
ber Shorter finb reine6 (5an6fnt. 2)a6 |)mboftl^a^ 
nif$e ftammt t>on bem ^erjtfd^en ab unb i^ burc^ 
bie ?[Jlu!)amebaner ein^ehnif(^ gett^orben. ^iefe fuf)r^ 
ten namlic^ an ben (^eric^t^l^ofen unb in ber 5(rntee 
bag ^erftfd^ ein, welc^e^ im QSerlauf ber 3eit ft^ 
ttiit ber Sanbegf^)rad^e , bem ^inburi t)ermifd^te , unb 
[0 bilbete fid^ eine jufammengefe^te ©prad^e, ml^e 
ta^ $inboftl^anif(3^e ober Urbu genannt njirb, unb 
t)on ben 9Jlal^omebanern* unb |)inbu*^aufleuten burc^ 
ganj Snbien geft)rod^en tt)irb. , 

Dr. ^are^'g erfte SSerfudbe "oon SSibeWTeberfefeun^ 
gen in bie inbifc^en <5:pra^en, waren, wie ftd) er^ 
warten ld§t , gar un\)oUf ommen. (Sr tt)urbe hei biefer 
Sfrbeit tton ^unbiten ober gele^rten S3raminen unter* 
ftu§t, btefe Seute tt)ol(ten ober fonnten, aI6 bigotte 
©o^enbiener ben ric^tigen 6inn ber l^eiligen ©(^rift 
nic^t, auffaffen, unb er felbft war mit bem ^eift ber 
^pracften nic^t genug befannt, um eine ric^tige Ueber* 
(e§ung an liefern. 33ebenft man uberbieg, ba^ biefe 

unt) 6$u(unternd^t 173 

^iaUctc , xok i^ bereite bcmerfte , ju t)cr 3^ it in 
i^rem xo^m wncultbirten S^ftatite toaxm, unb bag, 
obglcic^ feit 40 Sal^reti t>iel bartn gefc^rieben unb 
uberfe^t tDurbe , bi^ auf biefen ^a^ feiner berfclben 
ge!)ori9 ftxirt ifi unb eine J^inlanglic^e $Reife erl^alten 
hat, fo bi^rfen tt)ir un^ uber bie gef^lerljaftiafeit bie^ 
fer erften Utberfe^ungen nid^t wunbern. Smmerfjin 
aber tt)ar biefe 5(rbelt fur (5arei/^ 9*?a(^fo(ger »on bet 
grogten SBic^tigfeit. 

3n ttjelc^em rol^en unenttvicfelten 3w|^<inbe war 
iinferc beutfc^c (5pra^e nocfe t)or ber ^Reformation? 
Sutl^er'6 (^eniu6 jog fie burd^ feine Ueb^rfegung ber 
^eilicjen (S(^rift *au^ bem ^l)ao^ !^ert?or, unb ^ah 
berfelben ben eblen ^^aracter, welc^er jtc^ inbeffen 
ftufenweife ju immer ^o^erer SSodfommen^eit \)cxan^^ 
gebilbet I>at 6o muffen aud^ bie inbifd^en (Spraci^en 
burc^ 35ibeI4Xeberfe|ungen unb anbere tt)iffenfd^aftli* 
dbe §(rbeiten attmdl)lig an^^^biltitt unb t)er»ol(fommnet 
njerben; eine 5(ufgabe, tt)e((^e no(^ i)iele Sal^re unb 
Sa^rje^nte erforbern W)irb. @rft menu Snbien ein* 
mai tl^eih\)eife ^\\m (S^riftentl^um befe!)rt ift, tt?enn 
ta^ SSol! t)on ben S3anben ber £afte unb ber bru* 
(fenben (^o^en^CSeremonien befreit,-jt(!^ freier entttjidelt, 
toenn einft banner unter i^m auffte'^en, bie mit 
W)if[enfc^aftli^er SBilbung ben ^oben ^^riftenfmn un^^ 
ferer 9teformatoren t)erbint)en, bann werben fie 35ibel^ 
Ueberfejungen in i^rer SJ^utterfprad^e Uefern, wcl^e 
mit unfern europdif(^en t)er9Udben merben fonnen. 
2)er 3Jiiffiondr fann SSiele^ baju beitragen, unb 
burd^ feine ^emul^ungen bem geiftigen §(uff(^rvung 

174 SSerbrettuttg ber fteiligen t^c^rift 

M QSolfed lint) i^rcr ©pra(^c unb Sijfenfc^aft nac^^ 
^elfeii, aber ^ingeborne muffen boc^ am (5nbe bte 
2Btebcr(jeburt berfelben bewirfen, unb burc^ <i€ mu^ 
ba6 gan^e ?anb et>angelijirt njetben. :^- ¥ v -^4 

eeit Dr ^are^ ben ^Infang mit 53ibe(4Ieber^ 
fe^xingen mad)te, l^aben mand^e ^JOf^ifjtondre e0 ft^ 
gur 5lufgabe gemac^t, einjelne berfelben s^ bertdBti^ 
gen uub neue Ueberfe^ungen jn tiefern. ^er be* 
rubmte nnb fromme ^enr^ §(Jlart^n uberfe^te ba^ 
neue 5^eftament tn^ |)inboftI)amf(!)e j e^ voax ein WtU 
fierftitcf jn fetner 3^1^/ obglcidb ber 6ti^l etn)a6 ^3o^u^ 
larer fe^n bfirfte, unb weniger frembarttge SBorte 
eingerucft fei^n foKten. 5D^ifftondr 53ott)le^ in (5l)unar 
uberfe^te bie gan^e 53ibe( in ba^ ^inburi. 2)a6 je|t 
gebrduc^Iid^e bengalif^e neue 5^eftament ift t>on !Dlif* 
ftondr ^ate^ t)or einigen S^^ren neu uberfe^t tvor* 
ten, ebenfo au(^ bie ?Pfa(men; tt>ir ^aben Urfacibc 
un6 bariiber ju freuen, jie gel^oren gu ben gelungen^ 
ften Slrbeiten in biefem gad^e. !l)ie iibrigen ^^eife 
be6 alten ^eftament^ I)aben 2)ate6 unb SBenger (bet 
le^tere ifi ein 55erner) je^t unter berSlrbeit, unb man 
^offt ^'otxfx6)tl\^ , \)a^ fie eine »ie( bejfere Ueberfe^ 
feung Hefern njerben, al6 bie fru^ern. 2)ie SBic^tig*: 
f eit biefer 5lrbeit Idjt fi(^ fc^on barau6 abne^men, ba^ 
tie bengalift^e (S^ra^e X)on 35—40 9)?iIlionen ^in^ 
bu6 gefproci^en tt)irb. 

2>ie brittif(^e S5ibeI*®efeUf(^aft ^ot in meinem 
greunb Dr. ^^dberlin, au5 5^uttlingen geburtig, einen 
Warfern unb treuen Slgenten in Calcutta. Unter fei* 
ner Stuffiest werben bie beric^tigten lleberfe|ungen 

itnb (S(^uluntern<^. 175 

iier ?Preffe ubergebcu unb bit Miiftoncn t»urc^ ta& 
Qanje Sanb l^in rait bem 52Bort (^ott^0 t>erfel^en. 5luf 
^erfd^iebenen <8tationen flnb unter bcr Seitung tjon 
SKtfftonaren unb ^rifilicS^en greunben 8ibelbe:pot$ 
gebilbet worben, burc^ ttjclc^e ba6 2Bort be0 Seben^ 
5lnberen pgefenbet, ober au(6 einjcln ^ertfeeilt tt)irb> 
53uc^er ber l)ei(igen 6(i^nft votxten entweber fammt* 
licft ober in einjelnen ^l)eilen gebunben, tl^eiB urn 
be6 8(^ulunterri(^t0 tt>itten , tl^eil^ au^ jura 33cr* 
t^eilen. 55etra ^rebigcn auf ben 53a3aar^ unb auf 
!9liffion6 ? !Rdfen nirarat jjeber ?Df?if(toiiar eine IJnjabl 
t>on (?t)angeliett unb ^ractaten mit jtc!^ unb iJertlbeilt 
folt^e unter bie 3u^orir , tvelc^e (efen fonnen. ^uf 
einer fold^en Sleife t)ert]^eilten n)ir uber 5,000 (§rem*, 
plare unter ben @inttJof)nern ber <5tdbte unb 2)6rfer 
ira tt)eftlidben ^engalen. 2>ie ^inbu^ jtnb ungeraein 
begierig, unfere religiofen 6£!^riften p erf^alten, 3it 
etnem grogen ^orf fam eiu junger Mann breiraal, 
unb t)erfleibete ft^ fo, tai^ man i^n ntc^t erfemien 
moc!^te, ba^ Mite Mai vomte er entbecft unb gejianb 
ta^ er alfo get^an A)ahe , urn raeljr 53uc^Iein ju er* 
Saltern 2)er bigotte 53raraine weigcrt jtt^ jebo^, 
biefeCben au6 ber |)anb be6 !@^iffionar6 anjunel^men, 
jenttt)eber_ raujfen fie burd^ eine jweitc il^m ubergebeit 
tt)erben, ober ber SJlifftondr mu^ ben ^ractat in feine 
|>anbe faKen lajfen, bamit er ni^t bur<i^ gleic^* 
Beitige 53eru^rung ber UnreinigWt bei8 ^uroJ|)aer0 
tfteil^aftig merbe. !l)iefc aufgeblafenen |)eittgfn erl)iel? 
ten aber gmo]()nUd^ nic6tl, wenn fte ftc^ weigerten, 
bie 33uc^(ein au0 unferer ^anb an^une^mert. 


176 "* SBer6re{tun9 ter ^eiligen <S(]^rift ^ 

Sine gutc Siteratur ifi fur ten gortgang be6 ^Jlif- 
flon6*SBerfe$ »on grower SBi^tigleit. ,, 

@oU ein reblid^ee SSerlangen naci^ 2Cat)rl^eit nnb 
ein ^efct)macf fur l)a6 ®ute unter ben .^inbu^ erwecft 
werben, unb tt)unfc^en mx, bie unter bem SSolfe tjerbrei* 
teten unjui^tigen ©efdnge unb ®otter*®efc^{c^ten p 
i?erbrdngen, w>el^e, \ok im ijjl^^fifcfien ber Ranged* 
6(^(amm, fo in ber moralif^en 2SeU eine erfc!^laf* 
fenbe ^eftluft er^eugen, fo mujfen toix bemfelben ba* 
fiir ettt)a^ befferee in bie .^anbe geben. ' 

in biefem St'^tdc ift eine giemlic^ gro^e 5(nja^l 
i)cn Heinen S3u(^ern t)erfd)iebenen 3n^ci(t6 gefc^rieben 
unb fterbreitet worben. SJlan l^at bie ^arabeln unb 
SSunbert^aten Sefu, wie au^ bie 35erg^rebigt im 
Sormat t)on fleinen ^ractaten gebrucft. $lnbere ent^ 
f)aUen tie 3Serfof)nung6:^SeI)re, tk ge!)n ©ebote mit 
Vractifd^en S5emerfungen , ta^ Men 3efu, unb ^io? 
gra^I)ien t)on befe^rten ^inbu^. 5(uc^ f)aben bie 
SJlifftondre ntan^e Heine 6d)riften gefd^rieben, in 
ttjefc^en ber ^oran mit ben ^e^xm ber ^riftlic^en9le* 
ligion, unb bie Sncarnationen 3Bif(i&nu^ mit ber Tlen^^^ 
W)erbung (S^rifti aufammengeftettt unb »ergli(^en ftnb« 
Slu(^ fmb im S5engalif(^en \)iele nufelid^e (Sc^uM^ 
^er »erfertigt worben. SBir l^aben c^riftli^e (Sate* 
d^i^men, fleine Sieberfammlungen, eine 53ibelgef(^ic^te, 
eine ®eograpl)ie t)on SSengden; eine ©efc^td^te t)on 
@ng(anb, unb 9^aturgef(^id^te, 5(nbere niifelicfye 
9Berfe werben je^t uberfe|t. S93ir biirfen un$ freuen, 
bag 3u einer 3eit tvie bk gegenwdrtige, ba ftc^ un* 
ter ben ^inbu^ m mn aufwad^fenbe^ ©efd^U^t 

m^ bem ftnpern ^eibentfjum ju erl|eben anfdngt, 
unb etnen hunger nac^ SBijfenfcfjaft du^ert, bicSO^Jit^ 
id t)erbeigefc^afft jtnb, benfetben emigermaa^en gu 
befriebtgen, Snbeffen gibt un6 ha^ SBenige, ba^ in 
biefem gac^e g^Ieiftet tDorbea, emeu f$tt>a(^en 35e^ 
griff, \vk t)iet noc^ 5x1 tl)un ubrig i(i. 

S'Joc^ ift un^ ein britter^^eir t)on fOliffton^arbeit 
pr 55etrac!^tung ubrig 3 uemli^ ber Uuterri(^t ber 
Sugenb in ^c^uleu. 50'iaud^e (§ngl dub er inSnbien 
^alten nic^t t)ie( t)Ojt bem Jfrebigen v>ox gemif^ten 
^aufenj fie benfen, e6 fe^ unmog^id), \>a^ ein alter 
|)inbu ftc^ befe^re, unb bejfjafb rufen fie un0 gu: 
gebt ber 3ugenb nM gut« @rjie|ung , fo wirb fie 
»on felbft t^ren ©c^enbienft abkgen unb ^riftU^ 
it)erben. 2)a0 fmb bie v>ernunftigen igeute, wjelc^e 
felbft ni^t "i^iel »on ber l^eiligen (Sc^rift tioiffen unb 
nod^ ttjeniger t)on bent (Sinflu^ be^ geprebigten 2Bor=^ 
tee auf bae |)ers bee SOflenfi^en. - 

^ieber anbere gibt ee, tt^elc^e U^anptm, ber 
9Jlifftcndr ^ahe nic^te mit bem 6c!bul«nterric^t p 
t'!)un, er fotte na(J) bem ^efei)i bee ^errn bae (S»an- 
gelium Snngen unb ^iUn »erfunbigen unb tm dx^ 
folg bem |)errn uberlaffen, 

2)ie 2Ba^r:^eit (iegt auc^ ^i^r in ber ^itte, benn 
unfer SBeruf bringt ee mit fi(^, t)a^ mx aufjebemog- 
li(^e SBeife un^ bemul)en, ben jungen ^d\)m unb t)m 
alien ©ojenbien^r p ber @rfenntni§ ©ottee unb 
feinee 6ee(ent)eiie gu bringen* 

2)a§ ftc^ ein ato 53aum fc^Wfrer biegen la^t, 
fliie dn iunger, tel^rt t>H ^rfa^rnng. iBei einem |)^i^ 

SBi-itticc^t SKifjtcii in 3»bun. 12 

178 SSerbreituttQ ber ^eiligeu €c^rift 

hm, bcr im (^ofecubieufte unb feinen ©rauein grau 
gettorben ift, l^dlt eg fc^tt>er feine (^ebanfen auf eU 
wa6 beffereg ijinsulenf en ; ob e6 glei^ au^ nic^t an 
53eif))ie(en »on 55efe^rung unter biefen fet>lt. Smmer* 
^in aber ifi bie|)offunng be6 5(r6eiter6 befonber6 auf 
bie Sugenb geric^tet. 

(Sc^ulunterric^t wurbe, tt)ie t^ gel^ort l^abe, bei 
ben erften ^(nfdnQen ber !!)lifftonen in Dftinbien ne^ 
ben ber offentltd^en ^rebigt getrieben. 2)iefe 5(rt "oon 
Strbeit legt jl^ bem ^ifjtondr t)on felbft in bie.^dnbe; 
wi^egierige ^inbufnaben fommen §u i^m ing |)au6, 
5)erlangen ettt)a6 ju !)oren nnb ftnb frol), wenn er jte 
in irgenb einent %a^e unterric^tet. 

SSor ungefd^r 20 Sa^ren wurbe ber @(^u(unter^ 
ric^t in 5BengaIen ttcn ben SJlifftondren auf ben mei^ 
ften 6tationen attgemein eingefiil^rt unb eifrig be^ 
txiehen. 2)ie ©(tern voaxen 3tt>ar eivoa^ miftrauifd^; 
jie furc^teten, man moc^te xf)xc ^iuber auf biefe SQSeifc 
gu (5{)rifien mac^en. 6treng bigotte |)inbug ttjurben 
fie bamalg um feinen ^rei6 l^ergegeben fjaben^ aUx 
attmdl^lig wurbe il^re gurc&t befeitigt. |)eibnifd;c 
Sel^rer t^urben angeftettt^ fc^Iaue 53raminen, bie auf 
beiben 5(c^fe(n Staffer trugen, tierfprac^en einerfeit^ 
ben (§(tern ber ^naben, jte W)o(Iten bafiir forge.n, \)a^ 
uic^tg t>om ^^riftenf^um in bie <5t^u(en, ober tvenig^^ 
fteng in fdnem gall in t)k ^er^en ber ^inber fomme* 
2)em SJlifftondr fagten fte, je^t l^aben fte eine offene 
^l)iire 3ur 33er!unbigung il)rer Oleligion, balb n?irb 
ba6 Si(^t berfelben bie 9?ebel ber Unn>iffenl)eit 'oqx- 
treiben. — (^ro^e €;ummen tx^urben bamalg ijon ben 

" " unt) 6^ulimten:i^t 179 


SD^ifftone^^efeirfci^aften fur bie, dtsie^ung ber Sugenb 
t)ertDent»et unb me!)rere Saftre (ang leiteten meinc 
SSorganger in S3urbwan in 10 bia 14 2)orffcJ)u(en 
ben Unterrtd^t »t)n fteben bi^ ac^tl^unbert |)inbu^ 
_^nabcn,''^'^^^'' ■■^■' ^'^ ■-:■ ;..v/v-^-; ^■■■:.■-:v';; ... ;■..-: ;:,„■■ 

3itt Slnfang b^gnugte man fi^ bamit, bag bie 
^naben ni^t^ aI6 Sefen, (St^reiben unb S^ec^nen 
krnten, 1)tx ^eibntfdfee Sel^rer befolgte babei feineit 
eigenen ^(an, tt)ie ba^ @d^u(wefen t)on ben ^inbu^ 
in ben 2)orfern getrieben tt)irb, Snbeffen tt)urben 
fleine SSud^ftabier :? unb Sefebuc^er t)orbereitet , aud^ 
einjelne @-cem^(are bcr ^^angfUen fur bie 6d^uleii 
gebrucft unb einer meiner SSorgdnger erjdl^lte mir, 
tt)ie grog feine greube voax, al^ er juerft bie @t)an- 
gflien bei t)en lefenben (Slaffen einfu^ren fonnte, 
(Sine fur ^k ^inbu^Swg^nb geeignete 33ibelgefci^id^te 
unb anbere nu^licfee S3u(^er tt)urben t)erferiigt unf) 
o'^ne SBiberftanb in ben ©c^ulen eingefu^rt 

9Jlan l)egt« tamaU tk ^ofnung, t)a^ biefcr ein* 
fac^^e 6c]^ulunterri^t ttjic^tige 3flefultate {)€r»orbringett 
unb su ber 55efe]^rung t)on |)unberten ful^ren iDurbe, 
fobaib einmal ber |)inbu*3ungHng im 6tanbe ware, 
t)k 9leligion fiiner SSdter mit bem (Sttangelium 5U 
Dergleid^en, aber man t>erga5 babei bie ungemeinen 
©c^wierigfclten in 5lnf(^lag ju bringen, tt)e^e jic^ 
bem Uebertritt eine0 jungen |)inbu in ben SBeg jieU 
len^ auc^ njenn tx einmal t)on ber SSal^rl^eit beffelben 
ftber^eugt ift. 3m 3S<?rflug »on funf 3al^ren wurbeu 
ieboc^ einige |)inbu =^ gamilien getauft, in SSurbwan 
bilbeten bie SJJifjiondre einige S5efel()rte su Se^rern 

12 * 

180 SSer6reihing ber l^eiligen 6c^nft 

})exan unb ber 6(!^u(untern^t erl)ie(t im gortgang 
ber 3^it etne c^riftlic^e ©runbtage. 2)em Ijeibnifc^en 
Sel)rer wurbe ber (5lem«ntar*Unterric^t u^ergeben, 
tt?a|)renb ber c^riftUfte bie ^naben im 2Bort ®otte6 
unterric^^tete, S8ei ben (S^ulbefuc^en frrac^ ber SQJt* 
ftondr ein ^ort ber ©rmal^nung an jte, \)k IDorfbe^^ 
wo^ner famen aufammen unb l^orten an ber 3^^ure 
3u, Iter ^atte ex cine toiUtommene ^elegenl^eit, au(^ 
Hn Mien etwae uber hie ^af)x^eit ber ^riftlid^en 
S^eligion mitptl^eilen. 

Um biefe ^eit erric^teten bie eifrigeti Slrbeiter iti 
8urbtt>an an^ no<^ ein (Seminar fur t)ie {)6bere53iU 
bung begabter ^inbujungUnge au^ ben angefel)enen 
^aften. @ine SSol^nung wurbe fur jte erbaut — ein 
5loc^ t?on guter ^afte bereitetf il^nen i^xe ©peife, 
^leiber, S^^a^rung unb Unterrid^t erl^ielten jie um* 
fonft Me^ i»ar fo eingerid^tet, t)a^ i^xe religofen 
SSorurt^eile nic^t angetaftet wurben, SO^an gab il^nen 
llnterri^t in if)xex eigenen 6:pra(^e, im ^ngtifd^en 
unb ^erjtfc^en, fte erl)^ielten auf biefe SKeife eine gute 
IBilbung, ml^e barauf berec^net mar , ba^ bie ^na* 
ben fur \)en ^c^ulbienft unb aU ^atec^iften brauc^'^ 
bar werben moc^ten, 2)ie meiften t)on il^nen^ mtrben 
fpdter »on ber 9legierung al6 Unterbeamte angeftettt» 
fflux einer 9flamen6 (5t)unber Wlof^un befannte flc^ gum 
(S^riftent^um unb tvurbe im 3ai)x 1820 al6 ©rftling 
ber 3)^ifrton in Surbwan getauft. 33a(b barauf folgte 
ber SSater unb s^ei ^ruber feinem S5eif^)iel, dx ax^ 
beitete mit ^reue al6 Sel^rer in unfern (Sc^uleU; hi^ 

unb 6d^uluttterri(5t 181 

^u feirtem'friSl^ett Zo\) im Sal^r 1838, ha er f(^rte9 
^on bcr (S^olera ttjeggerafft tt)urbe, 

Uebrigen6 fttib bie gro^eit |)offnungett , tt>el<^e 
man tjon biefen ga^lrei^en (Sc^ulen !)atte, nic^t er* 
fuKt tt)otben. 9lur bet VDemgen ift ber gute Saatnc, 
welc^er in ben jugenblti^en |)er5en niebergelegt tr>urbe, 
Sur @rnbte l^erangereift. 2)ie mi^trauifd^en ^(tern 
i^erwal^ren il^re ^tnber gegen ben (SinfluJ be6 S^ri^ 
ftentl^ume, 2Benn ber (^nru ober- ?Pnefter ine |)au3 
tommt, fb tvarnt er t)k ^ttern »or ber gefal^rltd^en 
^cck, unb nicgt felten xaif) er i^nen, bie (^rifilic^en 
53uc^er, ml^c i)k ^naben in ber 6^ule lefen, in^ 
geuer ju tt)erfen» @r fpri^t tierai^tUc^ »om ^f)rtftett* 
t^um, wo fid^ eine (^elegenlieit barbietet, unb Idc^elt 
iiber bie ^l)orl^eit, an einen am ^reuje geftorbenen 
®ott 5u glauben, ber ft(^ felber au6 ber |)anb feiner 
getube ni^t retten fonnie. S3ei ben f)aujtgen ©o^en* 
feften muffen t)k ^naben jngegen fe^n wnb ^^eil 
baran nel)men, tamit ia ta^ ©emutl^ auf ben ^(o^, 
weld^en fte anbeten, ge!)eftet werbe, nnb fo fommen 
an6 biefer unb anbern Urfad^en l^duftge <5(^uber^ 
faumniffe t)or. ^':: -■::■-"• y^--;'>- 

6oba(b tJottenb^ bei einem ^naben 3^^^^^ ber 
tleberjeugung unb eine6 $inneigen6 jum ^^rifien* 
i^um sum QSorfc^ein fommen, n^irb er t)on ber^d^ule 
toeggenommen, unb tt)o^l audf) in eine entlegene @e* 
genb gefcl^icft, M^ er t)a^ (^el^orte W)ieber t>ergefferi 
^at; 3w>^ii^^^ tvurbe m junger iBramine auf biefe 
SBeife »on felnem Dnfel t)on ^urbwan ttjeggef^icft, 
al6 er \)a^ erfteSJlal tt)ieberfam, bereitete x^ i^n auf 

182 SSerbVdtun^ ter l^eiligen €c^rift 

Me ZavL^e t>ox, 51(6 ic^ i()n t»a6 le^te ^al faf) , M 
ex mid^ mit einer gett)iffen ^lengftlidjfeit , fiir il^n ju 
Betem @r ^ing, imb ic^ fa^e i()n nicftt me!)r, t>er* 
italjm aber nacbT£)er, ba§, wie feine greunbe i)on feinem 
(Fntf(^(u^ l^crtett; jie il^n gewaltfamer SSeife con 
53urbn>att entfernten. 

3m 2)iftnfte »on 55urbtt?an jtnb feit 1820 uber 
4000 |)int)u^£na6en in uufern bengalifd^en €c^ulen 
QeUlhet njorbcn. 2)er ©aante ift nid^t tjerlorcnj e6 
ift eine ttefe Ueber^eugung »on t>er 2Ba!^r()eit in bie^ 
fen jungen Seuten, tuelc^e ber |)inbn anber^wo ni^t 
})at*, getvi^ ift burc^ biefe (Ecf)ulen eine fraftige $(n* 
bal^nnng fur ta^ ^l)riften!!)nm gefc^e^en; bie fom* 
menben St'iten werben e6 tiax niac^en, ba§ an^ biefc 
Slrbeit in bem |)errn nic^t »ergeblic^ gettjefen ift. 

3Sor etn?a 12 Sci^ren erl^ielt t)a^ @r5ie()ung6we* 
fen in 8enga(en einen nenen 5(uffc^n)nng. (Englifc^c 
6cJ)uIen wurben auf alien 9J?if|ton6ftationen ber^erfc^ie* 
benen ^efeKfc^aften erri^tet uub an6 ©nmben, bie 
i^ nac^^er bejeid^nen w>erbe, entnnrfelte fid^ unter ben 
l^bljexn (Slaffen ber |)tnbu6 ein tt)a(^fenbe6 SSerlangen 
nac^ englifc^er Silbung, unb in aKen Z'i^dUn 'oon 
Snbien gewann man bie Ueberjcugung, ba^ cermit^ 
te(ft be0 englifc^en (5^^rac^unterri^t6 »iel fiir bie 
^a^e be6 $)errn getl^an ttjerben f onnte. ^er talenttjoffe 
fc^ottifc&e ^Dlifftondr Dr. !Duff ^at ft^ mit fcinen 
^ottegen in ber (Sr^iel^jungearbeit ruf)mU(^jl au^ge* 
jeic^net. @ein Sebrf^ftem tjerbinbet SSiffenf^aft unb 
^(jriftent^um unb bejwecft ]^auptfd(^li'^ bie intellect 
tuette (Sntnjicfelung ber ©^uler. 6ie fotten burc^ i!)r 

unb 6(^uluntern^t. - 183 

eigenecJ llrt^eil au^ unn^iberlegbaren ^ewei^grunbert 
i)on ber 3Sortrefflicbfeit ber (?^riftli^en SfteHgion uOer* 
geugt werben. 3^ wol)nte einmal einem ^xamen 
biefer 6c^u(e in Calcutta M, e6 war ein l^evgerlje^ 
benbcr Slnblirf, 800£naben, meiften^ »on ben l)ol)ern 
(Stdnben unb ber 55ramineu!afte unter einem T)a^c 
t)erfamme(t ju fe!)en. 5Jiit groger gertigfeit lo^ten 
bie erfte (Slajfe mattjematif^e ^robleme, beantworteten 
gragen iiber t)ie ^ottMjhit ber c^riftlic^en ^ieligion 
unb anbcre wiflenfc^aftlid^e gdc^er. 

2Ber jene^ Seminar gefel)en ^at, gel)t mit ber 
Ueberjcugung tt>eg, ba§ e$ bem 9JJifftondr 2)ujf in 
ber 53ilbung beS 33erftanbe6 feiner Sc^uler in ^c^em 
©rabe getungen ift. 3nbe[fen ift bie ^a^ ber 3wng^ 
linge, bie in !Duff'^ @(|ule pm ^^riftentt)um be^ 
lel^rt tvorben fiub, unbebeutenb, aber tie wenigen 
tvelc^e l^erau^traten, fmb wacfere brauc^bare SJ^dnncr 

3ii ben englifc^en Sc^ulen ber t)erfc^iebenen Mi]- 
fion6'©efettfc^aften erfjalten t)ic ^naben Unterric^t in 
^lementar^^^enntniffen ; bie l^ofjeren ^(affen lefen^eo^ 
gra:p^ie, lernen ben ®ebrauc^ be^ @lobu0, treibeu 
9^aturgef^i^te, 35ibel* unb allgemeine 3Keltgefc^tc^te; 
bie erften ^laffen er^alten and) Unterridjt in 5D'?atl)e* 
maiif, ©eometrie, 5Q?e^anif unb anberen SGijfenfc^af^ 
ten, aber c^riftlic^er Unterri^t wirb al6 bie ®runb* 
lage alier ^rjiel^nng betracfetet. 3" biefem dnht 
Jverben bie (5t)angelien unb na^\)ex ettt?a ber 53ricf 
$auli an bie 3^6mer unb ber ^ro^f>et (5faiae gelefcn 
unb erfldrt 3)ie ©ottlidbfvit ber c^riftn^en S^cligicn 

184 SBerbreitun^ ter J^eiii^eti 6^rift 

- .p ^ 

it>irb au6 l^iftorifc^ett ^^atfad^en, avt^ bem (l^eifte il)^ 
rer ^e^xen unb aue ber 6c^rift felbft bett>ieferi uub 
ber fc^ncioenbe (Sontraft be6 ^{)riftentf)utn6 unb be$ 
^mbm6mu6 cffen bargelegt. 3ti 53urb^t)an nmrbe 
furjlic^ t)or ber Sc^ule \)a^ (^cbet emgefu^rt unb tic 
^naben fte^en el)revbietig auf. ^Jierfwurbicj ift e^, 
ba^ eine Stnjal^l ^naben au6 ben oberen (Slaffen ben 
Set)rer barum baten3 ee fcf)ien une frul)er nic^t xatl)^ 
fam, in einer (5c6u(e t)a^ ^ebet einsufiiljren , bie mit 
^etbenfnaben angefuttt wax, aber al6 mel)rere ^na^ 
ben ein QSertangen ba§u ciu^erten, pelen biefe 3^^^^f^^ 
auf etnmal tt>eg. 

(5^ ift eine in Stibien aKgemein anerfannte Zl)aU 
fad)e, tci^ ?!Jliffiondre e^ \Mren, welc^e burcfi \\)xe 
^I^atigfeit in @r§ie'^ung ber Sugenb \}k Oiegterumj 
t)eran(agten unb gleicf^jam not{)igten, bem guten ^cU 
fpiel nacf)§ufommen unb ettt)a6 2)urc^greifenbe^ fur 
bie ^ilbung einer 9?ation ^u tl)un, t?on n)e(cf)er fie 
ja^rltd} 24 SJ^illionen ^funb ©terling ©infunfte be^ 
§ie^t. Unter ber Sftegierung M ®eneralgou»erneur6 
Sorb 35illiam 33entincf mirbe ein !X)ecret eriaffen, 
ta^ einen gro^en Zl)dl ber|)inbu6 in 53engalen au6 
bem ^laumel ber Unwiffenbeit aufwedte. 9?ac^ bem^ 
felben fottten gebilbete |)inbu^ unb 5Jla!)omebaner ^u 
oUerlei offentUc!^en 5(emtern unb 5CnftelIungen guge^ 
laffen merben. T)iejenigen, welc^e neben il^rer 3}lutter* 
fprac^e aii^ t>ic (inglifc^e »erftanben, genoffen be^^ 
fonbere S3egfmftigwitgen. (5o erwad^te unter ben 
]^ol)ern (Slaffen, befonber^ in Calcutta unb anbern be* 
beutenben ^tattm ein allgemeiner Sunfd), bie cnglifc^c 


nnti 6d^ulunterrid^t - 1^ 

€pradBe ^u lenien unb biefe 5(nglo^!0?anie i)at feit* 
l^er e{)er ju, al6 abgenommen. 9ftdc^e |)inbu6; fi>9ar 
Mgotte S3rammen fc^icfen i^re (56^ne in bie (Sc^uleit 
bcr Mifftondre , ob^lei^ fie bie 53efel)rung berfclben 
sum (5()riftent!>um ri^firen; wie einft ein folder mix 
fagte: @obalb unfere ^naben bei eu^ lefen unb 
fc^reiben gelernt l^aben, ftnb fie (§()riften im |)erjen. 

6eit »telen 3al)ren beftel^t eine ^Serorbnung ber 
englifc^en Dfiegterung, ba^ id()r(i(^ eine Sac 9lupie^, 
nacfc unferem @elbe 120,000 ©ulben auf bie 55e^ 
forberung ber SBiffenfcfjaften unb ber ^rgiefjung in 
Snbien »ern)enbet njerben fottten. S3i^ pm 3a{)r 
1835 n^urbe biefe ©umme fur hie Unterftu^ung eini* 
ger (5eminare tjerwenbet, m Avelc^en braminifc&e 
^unbiten unb niaf)omebanifc^e ?|}lona^0 bie ^c^a^^ 
fter6 erfldrten, unb ben ^oran au6legten; anbern* 
tl^eilg tt)urben englifc^e ©(^riften in6 ^rabifd^e unb 
<San^frit uberfe^t 2)a§ ft(^ biefe nid^t fur eine 
SSolf^literatur eigneten, ift kid^t ^u begreifen. 2)iefe 
SKerfe liegen rul)ig in cinigen ^ibliotljefen M San^ 
be6, unb au6 ben junqen Seuten, melc^e fo auf Soften 
ber D^egierung il^re ©r^iefjung er^ielten, (inb maf)o^ 
mebanifc^e ganatifer unb eifrige 33erfec6ter be6 |>in* 
bui^mu^ gctvorben. 

^ 1)ex ®eneralgout)erneur befc^Io^ bur(^ ein Decret 
x>om 7. m&x^ 1835, ta^ fortan biefe 120,000 S^iupieg 
fur \)ie ^r^ieljung ber (Eingebornen in ber engUfc^en 
unb in if)rer Sanbe^fprac^e i?erwenbet tt?erben foUten. 

Sm ndmlic^en 3al)re vx>urbe bie oftinbifd^e Oiegie^ 
rung i>om englifc^en gJarlament genotI)igt, jwei ftatt 


186 "' ^Scvbrettung ber ^eiligeu e^rift 

ein .^unberttaufenb 9iu^ie^ fur biefen 3we(i au^ju* 
fe^en. !l)er (Srfolg biefcr 5!Jlaa5regeln ift nic^t ju be* 
rec^nen. STamit wurbe bie Slrt an bie SBur^el M 
©o^ent^ume gefegt, unb ein <E^Iag nac^ bem an* 
bern l)at feitl^er bie taufenbjd^rige t?eraltete Wa\d)inc 
erfc^uttert. 3^^^f englifc^e S^ulen wurben auf ein* 
mal t?cn ber S^egierung im ^anbe errid^tet, unb mit 
53il)Iiotl)efen au^geftattet , tt)eld>e fur atte 6ubfcriben* 
ten ofen waren. 2)ie ^afte tDurbe babei ni^t in 55e* 
trad^t genommen, — .^inb^£J; ^Df^aftomebaner unb 
(Sl)riften (afen in berfelben Piaffe; in furjer 3^^* W-'^^i* 
ren 6000 6c^uler im Unterric^t. greilid^ fann mit 
240,000 ©ulben in einem fol(i)en Sfleidfee fiir drgie* 
I)uug gar tx>enig an^ger d)tet vrerben. ^Jlan bad)te 
ba^er auf anbere Tia^xc^dn, urn bvi6 gute 5Kerf fo 
tveit al0 moglic^ au65ubcl)nen. ^uf tie (5mpfe{)(ung 
ber Sfiegierung l)i\\ , unb n?a6 t)ic D^egierung em^fie^It 
gilt bem 5(fiaten fo gut al6 33efc^I, erricf)teten reid^e 
(Eingeborne, 9(laja!)0 unb $ad)ter englifc^e Sdbulen 
auf i^re eigene Soften, unb eine unter ber Seitung 
gett)iffer 3legierung0*9Jlitglieber beftel)enbe (^efe(lfd)aft 
Ki^t fur biefen 3^^^ nufelic^e 33uc^er uberfegen unb 
brucfen, um bie 6dbu(en bamit ju i)erfel^en. 3nt 3a^r 
1836 wurbe in |)ng^I^, oberfealb (Sakutta ein (5e* 
mijiar i^on ber Stegierung eroffnet, unb inner^alb 
brei 3^agen melbeten M 1200^naben jur 5(ufna{)me, 

(Sine »on ber 9lcgierung ernannte Somite leitet 
biefe (Sfbulen unb fteKt bie ^el^rer in benfelben an. 

Ob biefe ^exvn in bem Somite bem ^^riften* 
tl)um abgeueigt fmb, ober ob bie 9legierung eine 9le* 


unb 6d^u(uttternd^t. 187 

i>cIutton imter ben ^inbue; ttittert, im galle bie 
S8i6el in ben Sc^nlen angetroffen wiirbe, faun tc^ 
ixi^t beftimmt fagen , aber fo X)id ift gewtg, ba^ t)ie 
(^riftlic^e Religion ui*t6 mit iI)rer^r§iel)ung6met]^obc 
gu tl)un !)at j fte ift rein tt)iffenf(^aftli^. SQSeber bie 
I)eiL (Sc^rift noc^ irgeub ein religiofee ^ud) barf in 
ben S3ibliotI)efen ber (Sc^ulen gefeljen merben. 

35or einigen S^^r^n. fc^tcfte t}k 5^ractat*(^efel(fc5aft 
in Sonbon eine £ifte X)oU nii^lic^er ^uc^er aUex&aU 
tung bem Seminar jn «^ugl)l9 al^ ©efdyenf, bie 
(Somite fanbte iie af^balb mit ber 53emerfnng gurinf, 
ba^ fie fur bie 3^^^^^ ^^^ 6eminar6 nic^t geeignet 
fe^en. 5lnbrerfeit6 tt>erben beiftifc^e 2Berfe t>cn |)ume, 
S3otting6rofe unb anberen greibenfern wittig in ben 
S3ibliot()efen aufgenommen unb gelefen. 1)a^ auc^ 
cine blo§ n?ijfenfct)aftli(^e (^rjie^iung t?on tt?i^tigen 
golgen fe^n mu^, ift uuftreitig. SBenn auf biefe 
SBeife bem |)inbu bie Sc^a^e ber englifd^en Siteratur 
aufgefd&loffen njerben, fo !ann er fein ^inbu nac^ 
t>aterlicfter SSeife bleiben unb jtc^ fernerl^in nic^t niel)r 
unter ba6 Sclatjenjoc^ be6 33raminen beugen, X^ic 
€d^after§, tvelc^e feine 9teIigion (el^ren, ent^aUen 
l^iftorif^e Unn)a{)rf)eiten , ^ronologifc^e Uebertreibun* 
gen unb abentl^euerli^e 6^fteme t)on (^eogra^{)ie, 
Slftronomie unb QSolferfunbe. 583enn ber wipegierigc 
Sungling auc^ nur in bie SSortjatten gefunber 3Siffen* 
fdfaft eintritt, fo i)erad6tet er balb bie alten. gabeln, 
ta^ bie (Srbe auf einer (5c^ilbfr6te n\f)e, unb biefe 
rtuf einer ^unbertfo^figeu 8(^(ange, \)a^ n>enn oie^e 
einen i^rer ^oipfe f^itttelt, ein ^rbbeben eni]U\)t, 


188 SSerBreitung ter fieiligen ©^rift 

unb eine (Sonnen- unb !0?onb6finfierm^ babur^ »erV 
urfac^t nnrb, ba§ ein fur(^tbare6 llngefjeuer biefelben 
in il)rem Sauf einl^o^le unb mit feinem 3fiac^en er^ 

2)er Unterri(f)t in ber englif(^en (5^3rad)e , ob re^ 
liQice ober blog wiffenfc^aftlic^er 5(rt, ift jebenfaM 
gedgnet , ben ©d^enbienft gu nntergraben, 5lber e6 
fragt fic^, ob ettt)a^ baburd^ gett?onnen tt?irb, vt)enn 
auf bicfe SKeife bem .^inbu'3itngling fein (^ojeut^nm 
eutfrcmbet, aber bafiir m(3^t6 53effere6 angeboten tt)irb, 
(5g fragt fid^, ob fiir fein tt>a^reg SBo^l etwag er* 
swerft n)irb, ttjenn man au6 bem gebanfenlofen 
(^ol^enbiener einen Ijer^lofen greibenfer madftt, ber 
liber at(e6 (^dttlic^e itnb DietigBfe fpcttet, 3n dak 
cutta ift ein berul)mte6 €;eminar, in welcf)em biefe 
freie ober unreligiofe ©rjiel^ungcJ^fO^etl^obe befcnber6 
betrieben tt>irb (the Hindoo College). SSor einigen 
3al)ren verbot ein »^inbu feinem 6ol)n biefe6 ^oHeg 
ju befuc^en, unb gab al^ Urfa^e an, bie (5(f)uler 
werben; fobafb fte in tk erften ^laffen fommen, 5Ra6* 
tife, b. \). m\)exiun, ^^,^.^^^^^^^^^ ■ : ^ 

(5ine ^fJation fold^er S'laetif^ wirb allerbinge au.$ 
biefen <5cJ)u(en ber Sfiegierung ]^en>ortr>a(?^fen , tt>enn 
fte ferner ein dr^ie'^ung^fVftem ijerfolgt, burd^ n>elcbe6 
§tt)ar ber ^inbui^mu^ au6gerottet, aber ber ©laubc 
an t}ic gottli(^e ^af^x^cii nid^t in fein ^erj gepflan^t 
tt?irb, wenn man bem 6olbne M ^eiben feine freunb* 
Mje |)anb bietet, bie i^n jur ^rfenntni^ be6 iDa!)rett 
©otte6 fit()rt. llnbegreifli^ ifte0 nur, bag bieC^Ue^* 
ber M (Erjie^ung^ratl)^ biefen 2)?i§griff nict)t einfe^ 

unl) Sc^uhmterrid^t 189 

i^euj fie fiird^teii tinx^ ben Slnblid ber ^ibd ober 
eine6 religiofen 53u(^6 bie jarten (^eful^le unb 93or^ 
urt{)cife ber |)inbu6 ju beleibigen, bebenfen aber ni^t, 
baj fte SJlanaer t)eran btlben , bie einft \)a^ Sanb 
ret>o(utioniren unb jum 5(ufftanb gegen bie Sflegierung 
reijen ttjerben. S3ereit^ l)alten btefe iungen ^inbu* 
^l£)i(ofop^en ofentlid^e 35erfamm!ungen , in welc^eii 
fte (i$ fret fiber tie Sflegierung au6fpre(^en, fie a(^ 
eine t^rannifc^e barfteKen, iiber grei^eit unb ^atrio* 
ti^mu^ bedamiren; unb \)k |)ofnung au0fpre(^en, 
t)ai bie Qdt nic^t met)r feme ift, n>enn fte i^u ?fie^tc 
giltig ma^eti werben. 

3n 12 offentli^en 55(dttern mli^e n)6^entli(^ ijon 
jungen |)inbii0 in (Sakiitta f)erau6gegeben tverben, 
fann ber !2efer erfennen, \)a^ ber ausgeftreute Saame 
be6 3(t]^ei^mu^ unb ber greibenFerei bereit^ feimt 
unb aufvt?a^6t. 9^ur eine6 i)on biefen ift im dc^t 
ortl)oboxen bigotten ^St^I be^ |)inbui^mu6 t)erfa^t, 
bie anbern ftnb mefjr ober tt)eniger nac^ ber neuen 
^^ilofo^J^ie gefiebert, unb hk jugenblid^en SSerfaffet 
freuen fic^, iDie bie Sungen tvelc^e bem S^lefte entflo^ 
l^ett ftnb, M neuen Si(^t6 ber SSernunft ba0 ifjnen 
in ben S(^u(en ber 3fiegierung aufgegangen ift. 

2)a5 Snbien einft t>on englifc^er $errf(^aft fret 
n^erben tt>irb, ift !eine6weg6 §u bejttjeifetn, aberwefje 
ber JRegierung wenn biefe^ 3o(^ tok e§ in gran!^ 
rei(i^ gefdba^, burd^ ^l)ilofo:p^ifc!^e greibenfer abge^ 
fc^iittelt unb §frbroc^en n^erben foilte. 

St^a^bem t>ox brei Sa^ren bie englifi^e Slrmec 
bie ^au^tftabt »pn ^(fgl^aniWan (Sabul erobert l^aite, 

190 ^erbreituncj ber l)eiH3en 6c^rift 

Derfuc^ten einige fromme Cfftjiere ten @iiin)o^nent 
tie 5Ba^rI)eiten ber ct^riftlic^en Sftellgion mitaut^eilm, 
unb fanben hd t?ielen offeue ^ex^ew, 6te fc^riebcii 
ba^cr an tie 55ibel^®cfet(fc^aft in Calcutta urn einfcje 
taufenb neue^eftamente^ unb il)rerS3itte gemd^ wuv^ 
ben mel)rere ^iften t)ott na^ ^Ifg^anift^an abgefanbt. 
Sin ber ©renje beim 3nbu6fluffc wurbe bie ganje Senbnng 
Don ber dte^kninQ in 53efd^(ag genomnten, welc^e bie dx^ 
fldrung ^ah, tap ee ein gefa^rltc^e^ ITnterne^men anire 
tie ^riftUc^e SfJeligion in einem nen eroberten mal)o- 
metanifcfeen iBante jn t?erbreiten, unt tap ein fold^er 
SBerfu^ nnter fanatifd^en 9J?at)ometanern tva^rfdjein^ 
lic^ eine 9ie»olntion t)erbeifu^ren tDiirte. ^anm tt)a* 
ren neun ^Qf^onate t)on jener 3^^^ ^^ »erfloffen, fo 
trac^ ter befannte 5(ufftant in (5abnl an^, nnt> tie 
Solge bat)on tioax., bap tie ganse ^rmee nietergemac^t 
w>urbe. .■:■■;.>■. ■.■-::.'-- ■ .. /■■-::/: ;;/-■--;-; -^■^^-:-- :;:■■■ v^■. 

^atte bie 9fJegiernng bie (Einfu^r iener ^iften mit 
9?euen ^eftamenten erlaubt, fo ift e^ nic^t unwa^r* 
f^ibeinlid^ , bap einige Don ben na^ SBal^r^eit for* 
fc^enben @inn)ol)nern in <^abul §um <5t;riftent^nm 
befe^rt n>orben wdren. 3n biefem gatte t»dre ter 
6turm enttecft tt>orten, e^e er jum 5(n6bru(^e Urn, 
benn tie (Singebornon wiffen am beften, xoa^ ibre 
|>duptlinge im (Stillen treiben, unt fo l^dtte tie 35ibel 
ba6 SDerf^eug jur 9ftettung einer Wrmee werten 

2)ap tie |)intu0 gegen tie Slegierung ni(^t fr* 
bittert , fontern fte nur urn fo me^r refpecttren wur^^ 
ten, tvenn tiefe tie ^ufric^tigfeit i()re$ ^t)riftenglau- 

- •■ JV. 


unb 8(6ii!unternc6t 191 

t>ene burd^ ^infu^rung ber ^eil. <S{^nft, wenicjPen^ 
in ben 53ibHotl^e!en ber €^iilen funb t!)ate/ ip fc^ott 
barau6 abjune^men, bap bie 5D^iffion6fd^ufen , weld^ 
unter tudftiger Seitung fte^en, mit (St^ulern ange* 
fullt ftnb, i}k alte6 ju lernen bereit fmb, wa6 man 
i^nen aufgibt. ^a6 ©eminar ber [c^ottifc^en ^ifjxo^ 
nen in Calcutta ^al^li jefet fiber taufenb. <56 ift wa^r, 
wenn ein Bungling jum ^()rtftent{)nm befel^rt wirb, 
fo nef)men manege 93dter i^re 'So^ne n>eg, aber in 
ber 9legel fommen fte nad; eintgen iSJ^onciten tt)ieber 

^6 ifi eine erfreuUc^e Z^at\a^e, bag in neuerer 
3eit t?iefe jnnge |)inbn6 bie bnrdB il)re wijfenfe^aft* 
lic^e S3ilbung in ben 5)ei6mu^ ^ineingerat^en, nac^* 
^er mit ber l^eiligen (Sc^rift befannt unb t>on ber 
Sfi>at)rl)eit berfelben iiber^eugt wnrben. 

^in inerfwiirbigeS ^etfl)iet ^on biefer 5(rt (iefert 
folgenbe ®ef(^ic^te. 3m 3a^r 1832 taufte SJ^ifftonar 
2)uf in ^alfutta einen (§ooIin*53raminen, 9?amen3 
^rifc^na ^JJo^ana 33aneriea. Diefer talentt^otte 3ung^ 
ling er^iett feine ^rjie'^ung in bem |)inbu*@ottegium, 
befu^te aber, obwol^l ein entfc^iebener geinb be^ 
€^riftenti)um6 , tie Tli\[xomxe , \m fid^ auf Soften 
ber Sa^rl)eit luftig ivl maci^en; bem |)inbui6mu6 
^atte er entfagt, er war ein aufgeblafener ^eift, feinc 
religiofen 6v)f^^me ^atte er ftd^ au0 ber p^ilofop^i* 
fc^en (Scfeule eine6 3Soltaire unb ^ume gebilbet; — 
aber bie 2BaI)r^eit tt)arb il^m ju ftarf; fiatt uber biefc 
5u jtegeu; wurbe er t>on i^r uberttjunben unb balb 
barauf legte er in einer ber gropten ^ird^en in SaU 



192 S^erbreftun^ ber l^eiligen 6c^rift 

cutta t)or ber ^aufe m feierlic^e6 ^e!enntm§ a¥, 
t?on feinem ©lauben an 3efum (S^rtftum, al^ ben 
(Srlofer ber 2Belt !U?e^rere 3ci^re lang gab er eine 
tvoc^entU^e S^^tfc^^if^ unter bem ZM, ber gorfd^er 
l)erau0, tt)elc^e unter feinen jungen 3^itgenoffen sa^U 
reicf)e Sefer fanb. 6^dter ma^ie er ftc^ an H^ 
©tubium ber l^ebrdifd^en unb griec^ifd^en (Spradbe 
unb it>urbe barauf t>on bem beriil)mten S3ifc^of SSil* 
fon sum ^rebigtamte orbmirt. 3^ berfelben ^dt 
baute man eine ^irc^e fiir il^n in eincm ^^eil ber 
©tabt, n)elc6er meiften^ »on |)inbu6 bemoI)nt noirb, 
unb ^ier prebigt er feinen Sanb6leuten tk 2Baf)r^eit, 
tt)elc^e er einft Joerfolgte, @rft »or tt)enigen 5Q?onaten 
taufte er jtvei berfelben, einer tt)ar ein 53ramine, ber 
unter grower 5Serfolgung unb t)ielen SSerfuc^ungen im 
d^lauben an feinen |)ei{anb feft bei&arrte. 3n einem 
5lrtifet feiner 3^itf<^nft fiber tiie ^leligion feiner 33d^ 
tcr gab ^rifd^na folgenbe ©rfldrung: QBenn e^ et* 
W)a^ unter ber ©onne gibt, ta^ tcft unb meine greunb^ 
mtt Slbfc^eu anfel^en, fo ift e^ ber ^inbui6mu0? 
5D^ufffn tvir etwa0 ale ba^ n?ir!famfte SJlittel 3u al^ 
lem Unf^eil betrac^ten, ba0 bie 9*?ation betroffen ^at, 
fo ift e0 ber |)inbui6mu0. SBill man miffen, n?a6 
tia^ gro^e gorberung6mitte( ju aKen Saftern ift, bie 
Ui un6 im Sc^wange ge!)en, fo antworte id^, ber 
|)inbuiemu6. gragt man, toaei ben grieben, ta^ 
SKo^lfe^n unb @Iuc! ber menfc^lic^en / (^effOfc^aft 
j^ouptfdd^lic^ untergr dbt unb serreift, fo fage id^, e^ 
tji bie 9le(igion ber ^\i^vi^,-^:'-^y.-''---:--r-^--'''^^-:^ 
: S3or jleben SD'^onatjen melbete fic^ ein jlunger ge- 

mb 6^u(untern(Jjt - 193 

l)ilbeter ^inbu M einem ^frebiger in Calcutta xim 
t)ie S^aufe. @r ^atte feine ^r^iel^ung in beiit .^intu^^ 
^ottegium bafetbft erl)alten unb tt>ar ein ^dft 3^- 
fdUig Urn ein flractat in feine |)anbe , ber il^n mit 
ber SBibel 6e!annt mac^te. (5r la^ aufmerffam mel^^ 
rere^age barin unb entbecfte ^kx eine Oteligion, t>on 
tt)elcf)ervr>ie er (ic^ na(^I)er au6brucfte, fein ^erj, 
SSerftaub unb (^en^iffen il)n uberjeugten, i)a§ e6 bte 
einjig tt)al)re imb gottli^e fe^. dx ivar ber einjige 
(5olf)n eine6 reic^en @ut6befi§er6,* feine greunbe wen^ 
beten aKe6 SJloglid^e an, urn il)n i?on feinem §8or^ 
f)abm abjubringen, aber e^ war t)ergeben6/ er t?er(or 
I)unbert taufenbe, freute jtc^ aber, bie unf(^d§bare 
^erle gefunben ju l^aben, unb W)urbe im gebruar bie* 
fe6 3a^r6 in ber 50fli|fion6fir(^e in Calcutta getauft. 
gitr biefe feierlic^e ®elegen!)ett Derfertigte er in eng* 
lifc^er (Sprac^e ein Sieb, ba6 Don ber ©emeinbe ge* 
fungen wurbe. goIgenbe6 ift eine Ueberfe^ung ba^on 
e5 ift ber frete @rgu^ eine6 ^er^en^, ta^ t)on ber 
!B:ebe M ^eilanb^ burd^brungen ift. 

2:ief in be^ Slberglauben^ 9tac^t , 
' 3tt @unb unb @atan^ ^etten. 
93erlau9t i^ nit^t nac^ ienem £ic^t, 
3)4^ un^ allein fanu retten. 

3(^ fa§ in bunfl^r Jinfternif , 
sD?ein Sluge war gcfc^loffen, 
3cb cilte fort sur eivigfeit 
3m 3rrtl)um unverbrolfen. 

194 SSerbreitung ber ]f)ei(tgen €d^rift 

©a fc^ien mir ©einer ®nabe ©lanj^ 
rUnb 9llle^ tt>arb fo OcUe, 
3* ttanf bein ffl^e^ tlmmi SSort, • 

(Enitjroei ift iebe£^ irb'fcl}e 33anb. 
3* mu^ ^Berfolgimg leiben, 
'^cil)x fnn, 9BeIt unb (Jrbeittanb, 
3n 3:fu nur ifl ^reubc. 

Dlu!)renb fc^on ift bie ^Sef^reibung , tvelcte eiti 
|)mbu ^ Sungling , ber t)or einigen 3a^ren al^ ^ate^ 
^ift im 2)ienfte ber firc^lid^en 3Ktffion0gefel(fc^aft 
ftarb, t?on fetner 55ef e!)rung gab : SSor einem 3cil)re 
n>ar itf) ein 5tt!)eift, n<i(^!)er ein 9Katerialift, t(^ \t)ar un^ 
(jliicfli^ iiber alle ^egrtffe, unb tt?a6 bin idE) je^t, 
ein (5()rift, auf 3efum getauft, unb unbef^reibli^ 
glucfltd^. SBelc^ eine 3Serdnberung ! Die drinnerung 
an bie 3[^ergangenf)eit erfuttr mid) mit (Staunen, 3c^ 
fegte micb in meineu pl^iIofop{)ifd6en ^unbfd^en mit 
bem dntfcfyluffe feft, feinen gu^ breit ju njeic^en. 3(^ 
f)a9te bie cfiriftlicfje Migion unb fonnte ben (S^eban^ 
ten an bie ?Olcg(ic^!eit , i?cn ber 3Ba!)r^eit berfelben 
tiberjeugt gu n^erben, nic^t au6fte^en. Unb boc^ ^er- 
ino(^te ic^ laic^t ftilte ju fe^n. ^egen al(e meine 
feften SSorfd^e, ben SBitnfd^en meine^ eigenen |)er* 
§en6 gutviber wurbe ic^ einen <B^x\U nac^ beni an^ 
tern ber SSal)rl)eit be^ ^(jriftent^um6 ndl)er gefu()rt» 
3^ fonnte feinen 5)3en?eifen nic^t n)iberftei)en. 5((§ 
i(^ i^re 53ef^reibung t^on ber 9'^atur ber 6unbe, be* 
fonber6 'oon ben <Sunben be6 ^^erjen^ l^orte, brac^ 

uttb Sd^ulunterrid^t : ^^ 

mein ®e\t)i(feu (06, me ein feuerf:peiettber 8erg, meine 
6ee(e war tt)ie auf ber goiter, i)on ©d^recfen uni) 
Unru^e iiberwciltigt. SKenn id^ an einige SKorte ber 
SBibel bac^te, fanb ic^ etn)a6 Sftul^e. 2)ie Sel^ren ber 
j^eitigen ©d^rift, tvetd^e mir frul)er ale reiner Unjtntt 
erfc^ienen, erfannte ic^ nun ale gottlic^e 2Beiel)eit ; wae 
i(^ fruber »on |)er^en l^agte, tiourbe mir iiber ^lle6 
lieb. SBte foil tc^ mir biefe 5lenberung in meinem 
getftigen SBefen erfldren? Unmoglic^ nad^ natitrlid^en 
^rinjipien! 5llle6 ging gegen meine 3Bunfd^e, gegen 
meinen t)orgefa^ten dntfc^lup, mir felbft gum Zvoi^e 
tt)urbe id^ ein ^Ijrift! S3al)rlid^ eine unjic^tbare ^raft 
l)at midb geleitet dftt^a^ t)on ber 5lrt, tca^ t}k ^ibct 
freie ^nabe nennt, mu6 l)ier wirffam gewefen fe^n 
unb wenn je ein ©unber bur^ bie freie ®nabe (^oU 
tee befe^rt vvorben iji, fo bin i<i) ee." 

60, meine greunbe, befd^reibt ein :p^ilofb:p]^tf(^ ge* 
bilbeter ^rainine feine S3efel)rnngj er fprad^ t>on 
|)er5euegrunbe, wie ein red^ter Sfraelite, in bem fein 

3d^ barf meine SDlittl^eilung uber bae Srjiel^unge^ 
SSefen in Snbien nid^t fc^lie^en, ol^ne aud^ ettoa^ 
tiber bie erften 3Serfuc^e gu fagen, Mod^c fur bie (Sr^ 
aie^ung unb S3ilbung bee ttjeiblid^en ^e^ 
f (^ I e d^ t e in Snbien gemad^t ttjorben ihib. 2)er 3"" 
ftanb bee ^dU^ ift bebauernewjurbig unb erfutfte 
oft mein ^erj mit tiefer 2Bel)mut^. 2)ie 9f{eligion 
le^rt ben |)inbu, bae SBeib gel^ore eigentlic^ nid^t 
^um mcnfd^lid^en (^efd^lec^t unb fomme nur infofern 
in 55etra(^t , ale fie bem WianiK beigefeUt 1% ^le 


196 SBerbreitung ber l^eiligctt Sd^rift 

fo ^erborben unb bo6arttg mfrben bie grauett in beit 
(5c^after6 gefcfilbert, ta^ nur ber 3uft«nb ber (5f(a- 
rerei ein angemeffene^ SSer^ciltnig fur fie fei)n !ann. 
©0 ftel)t gefc^rieben, „in ber ^inb!)eit foK ber 3Sater 
fte ben?ac^en, in ber Sugetib ber Wlann, unb im 5((ter 
i^r eigener @oftn." 6te fann unb barf fi6} alfo nie 
al6 ein freie6 t>ernunftige6 ©efc^cpf auf (SJotte^ ©rbe 
tetrad^ten. ^a^ btefen (^runbfd^en be6 @c(at)en^ 
tf)um6 f)at ber |)inbu bem SSeibe feine (§nften§ im 
2J^enf^en(eben ^ugemeffen. SSie t?erdcf)t(i(^ fte be§* 
l^alb be^anbelt n?irb, j^igt ba6 6prlc^tt)ort, in n?el^ 
^em ba0 n^eibltc^e mit bem mdnnlic^en ^efc^lec^t 
t?ergli^en W)irb. S33ie barf man \)m fc^mar^en rufi* 
gen Sfiet^to^f ju ber golbenen ^etr>ur§labe !)inftellen, 
itnb ein anbere6: ^ann audb au6 bem bittern Jl^^im^ 
baum bie fu^e SJlangoefruc^t I)er»orwacj)fen ? — 
''■y 2)ie tvenige ^enntni^, tt)elc^e ber Sungling burc^ 
ilnterric^t ex^lt, toixh ber ^oc^ter t)orent{)a(ten, t)on 
ben 6^aftere barf fte nid^te I)oren, fte l^at nic^tg 
mit Sleligion p t^un, grauen gel^oren au ben un* 
reinen 2)ingen, hie burc^ ifcre DZd^e al(e6 |)ei(ige ijer- 
le^enj fo fagt ein (Spric^Wort: „(iin ^unb, ein 
6ubra unD ein Seib follen ba6 ©ofeenbilb nic^t be^ 
ru^ren, fonjlt fa^rt bie (^ottl^eit ]^erau6/ : 

f 3m funften cber fec^aten 3a^r tt)irb bae !0?abd^en 
an einen tnaben t)er^eiratl)et, 5(10 Urfac^e biefer 
fruljen SSerbinbung tt)irb angegeben, ta^ hie^ ha^ 
cinjige SSerwa^rungemittet gegen (Sunbe fei). fOlit 
ber 2Bal)l ^at bae ^inb ni^t6 gu t^un, auf feine 
S^eigitng n?irb feine ^utfftc^t gencmmen , e0 ^at ja 

nod^ feinen 59SiKen» greilic^ UeiU \)ann ba6 fo fru^e 
sum SKeibe gett?ori)ene !)Jldt)c^eii nac^ t)er ^rmiung 
bi6 etvoa jiim gw5lften 3a^r im »ater(i(^ert |)aufe; 
aber ite ift imabdnberlid^ an i^ren iUlann gebunben, 
er mag i^x Ikh fe^n cber nic^t, 2)ic ^cirat^ ift auf 
etr>ig, fie geprt il^m au^ naii) bem ^obe an. Stirbt 
er, fo mu^ fie tc^^aih geitleben^ eine SBitttt^e bleiben, 
Kioenn fie aud^ il^ren S5rdutigam t)Ott bem ^ag bee 
|)oc^5eit an nie gefeT^en ^at <Sie mu§ im elterlic^eu 
^aufe »erl)arren unb fommt nac^ be0 95ater0 Zo\) 
unter bie ^ctoa^un^ i^xe^ dlteften Sruber^, 

5(uf @etten be6 5Dlattne6 ift e0 ganj anber6, er 
fann, tvenn feine grau ftirbt, immer tt>ieber {)eirat]^ett 
unb l)at er nac^ breiid^rigem .^au^ftanb fein ^inb, 
fo erlaubt ifem ta^ ©efe^, eine jweite grau ju ^ei^ 
rati) em ^ol^gamie ift ubert)au^t nic^t unerlaubt unb 
wirb nur burc^ bie Mitid ber Unterl^dltung beftimmt; 
ein armer .^inbu J^at nur tin Wl^cih, Weil er jwei 
nic^t er^alten unb futtern fann, 

3ft bie grau »on ]f)ol)em 8tanbe , fo bleibt fte 
nac^ ber SSerbinbung im 5Cnta!l&ar, tm |)arem be^ 
|)inbu, ^erf(^loffen, gel^ort fie p einer gemeinen^afte, 
fo mug fte ^k niebrigften !Dienfte fur il)ren .^errn 
t)erfe^en. ^k burfte fte e6 wagen, gemeinfdbaftlic^ 
mit il^m ba6 ^J}littageffen ^u x>tx^c^xm. 3)er ©ol^n 
ftl^t neben bem 33ater, aber fte ftettt ben gefod^ten 
9iei6 unb ba6 ^emufe el^rerbietig t)or i^m nieber unb 
wartet an ber ^^ure, ober braufen beim geuer^eerb, 
hi^ er fcrtig ift; tx>a^ er iibrig la^t, barf fte nac^^er 
»er§e^ren. 3}iit grower ^c^wierigfeit fonnte id) t}ic 


grauen unferer .^tnbu * ^atec^iften , bie '\6:^on 3a^tc 
lan^ jum dfjriflcntl^um befe^rt jinb, bewegen, mit 
il)ren ^Df^dnnern unb ^inbern jum ^ffen l^in§uji§en. 
2)rderlei ©efc^dfte foH fte tjern(^ten, ba^ ^ffen fo* 
<^en, ba^ |)au6 reimgeu unb i^rem ^O'ianne j^ ge* 
fallen fu^en, — tt>enn fie \)c^^ tl)ut, fo l)at fte il^re 
!^eben6bejitmmung erfuKt. 

' 60 tjerad^tlid^ ift ba6 arme ©efd^opf in ben 5(u^ 
Qen i]^re6 l^eibnifc^en fatten, bag er, tt)enn t)on il^r 
bfe Cfiebe ift, nie iftren S^Jamen au^fpri^t, fonbern 
immer nur \}Ci^ gumort „fie" gebrauc^t 2)er 
|)inbu tt)itrbe e^ bem ^uro)?der ubel ne:f)men, nac^ 
bem 53efinben feiner gran fi(^ ^u erfunbigen. 3t^ 
t^at e0 einmal in bem |)anfe be6 Slajat) t>on S5urb=^ 
tt?an, er fd)utteUe ben ^o:pf, Idc^elte unb fagte, ba^ 
f^itft jtc^ ntd^t, tt)ir burfen nid^t fagen, tt)ie fic^ bic 
gran beftnbet. 

• 9?ur bann tt)irb fte anerfannt, vtjenn fie i^rem 
!!J?anne untemurftg ift} ol)ne il)n ift fie nic^t6, ^^e^ 
mal6 genog fie (5f)re , unb bnrfte auf ein beffere^ 
Seben I)offen * wenn jte il^rer 5(nf)dng(ic^feit an il^ren 
5D^ann baburd^ ^<x^ 6iege( aufbrucfte, \)a^ fte ftc^ mit 
feinem Sei(^nam lebenbig »erbrennen lieg. 5(ber feit^ 
bem bie Sftegierung biefe graufame (Sitte abgefc^aft 
l^at, ^ai au^ biefer tduf(^enbe 5Iranm fitnfttgen 
®(u(fe6 aufgef)ort. D bag balb ein liebltd^erer ©traljt 
ber 2Ba^rl)eit unb ^offnnng il^ren buftern ^fab burc^^ 
Seben beleucbten moc^te ! - -- 

S93ie fann jtd^ ein 3SoIf au6 bem 8d^Iamm mora^ 
Ufd^er S^Utung unb geiftlic^en (ilenb^ erl^eben, bef:» 

fen miq^on Me |)alfte ber i^eufc^^eit ^ur (Bdamd 
enitebrigt, unb b^mia^e hex Xljkxtodt betgefettt Ijatl 
2)te bringenbe Sfioti^vvenbigf eit, bag ba6 wetblid^e ©e^ 
fc!^(ec6t au6 bem <5taube eri)obett werben mug , ♦-wenu 
etwa^ 2)urc6greifenbe6 fur bie Dflatio^j gefcbe^en foK, 
l^at jeber SJ^ifjtondry jeber SJlenfti^enfreunb in 3nbien 
tief gefu()lt unb anerfannt 

3u Calcutta ntac^te i)or 20 Sa^ren erne ttjarfere 
^ngldiiberin grau SKilfon ben erften SSerfud^, mit 
6c^ulen fur ben Unterrictjt i)on ^tnbumdbd&en, dine 
Slnja!)! armer ^inber ber niebrigften ^aften wurbe 
burcfe befonber6 ta^u beftettte !2eute sufamraengebrac^t 
unb einige ©tunben De6 ^ag6 in einer @d^ule unter^ 
ric^tet 3ti tt)enigen Sa^ren t)ergrogerte jic^ bie 6c^aar 
unb ftieg U^ auf 200 ^Qldbc^en. ^\in wurbe eiit 
$au^ erbaut, bie dentralfc^ule genannt, in n)eld)em 
ber (^riftli(^e Unterric^t bi^ auf biefen ZaQ fcrtgefegt 
n)irb. 9lur wjenige t>on biefen ^inbern wurben sunt 
^l)riftent^um befel)rt, grau SBilfon bereitete ftc^ abe.r 
im gortgang ber ^eit einen noc^ n>i(^tigern 3Bir!ung6* 
!rei0. SO'lel)rere 2Baifen:^9)idbc6en tDurben il^r gur ^r- 
Siel^ung angeboten, unb t^ittig tjon i^r aufgenommen. 
2)k^ erregte in i^r ben SBunfc^, eine Siettung^anftalt 
fur »ern)a{)riope |)inbumabc^en ^u erricbten. Q\)x\\U 
lic^e greunbe unterftu&ten fte frdftig in it)rem 3Sor^ 
i^aben^ in furjer 3eit ftanb \3a^ neue 5{fv( su §lgro^ 
^ara, am oftlic^en Ufer bee ©ange6, ober!)aIb Cal- 
cutta fertig ba, unb balb war e^ mit 100 !!J^dbcben 
angefuirt, wel^e mc einfad^e c^riftlic^e Crjie^ung er- 


200 SSerBrcitung ter l^eiligen 8^nft 

din ettgUfc^er 53eamter fc^icfte t()r i)or eimgett 
Sa^ren 20 Winter t)oin (Buben kraitf. 3ni @omfur^ 
lanbe witrben jie t>on ben ttjtiben 55ergftdmmen bei 
\f)xen <Slu6fdiren gefto^Ien. <Sie tijurben xok \}a^ 3Sie^ 
gemdftet, um nac^^er am ©ogentem^el gefc^^Iad^tet git 
tt)erben ; al^ ein engltfc^er Dffi§ier mit feinen ^rup^ 
pen fie au^ ben |)dnben ber (EannibaUn errettete. 

53ei meiner 5(n!imft in 55urbtt)an fanb ic^ t)iet 
fleine SJ^dbc^enfc^i^Ien in einigen na!)eliegenben !I)or* 
fern; fie §d{)(ten etwa 100 ^inber, tt?e(d)e unter ber 
5(uffic^t eine0 trenen Sf^ationaU ^e^iilfen llnterric^t 
im !2efen ber einfa(^ften 2Sal^rl)eitett ber c^riftlicfien 
9ieIigion er^te(ten. S^ac^l^er tviirben fie in einem ge:= 
eigneten Socal in eine (5(^ule concentrirt. 3c^ be* 
fuc^te fie ein !!}lal tt?ocf)entUc^ unb (eitete ben llnter^ 
ricbt. 3it nieiner greube bemerfte ic^, bag bie 5D^db^ 
c^en, me(($e fertig (efen fcnnten, t)ie (Soangelien unb 
53ibe(gefc^i(^te im S3enga(if^en jiemlic^ rid)ttg ijer* 
ftanbeu unb 5(ntn?ort geben fonnten. '^an^t fc^ienen 
etwa^ t>on ber SSal)r()eit gu ful)len unb geftanben 
frei, M^ tie c^riftli(^e 9leligion i)ie( beffer fe^, al$ 
tt?a6 fie Don bem ^o^enttjefen tt?u§ten. 
^ 5iud) in einer peiten (Station, ^ancoora, tt)eft(id^ 
Don 35urbwan, erric^teten wir eine SlJldb^en-Sc^ule, 
iDelc^e Don 40 ^inbern befucbt tDurbe. 2)ie englifc^en 
2)amen unterftu^ten un6 gerne in biefer Sfrbeit ber 
^iehe, unb tDelc^c 9Jlutter, tDenn fie il^re lieben ^(ei^ 
nen anblicft, tt.nrb ntd)t gerne i()r ©c^erflein geben, 
bamit bie armen |)inbumdbcben an bem 6egen be6 
dDangelium^ auc^ i^ren 5(nt^ei[ er()a(ten mogen? 

unb @d^u(uuterrid^t ^ , 2^ 

Siber hd aUen 53emu^ungeii tooUie e6 mit ber 
(Sr^ie^ung bicfer |)inbumdc^en b0(?^ nic^t red^t t)or^ 
tt)drt^ gel)en, ^6 ftel)cn biefer 5(rbeit iegt nocf) un* 
iiberfteiglid&e .^mberttiffe im SBege, tie nur allmd^Hg 
weggerdumt tt)erbm fonnen. 2)ie ^inbet; welc^e in 
bie ©c^iilen fommen, geJ)orett p ben niebrigften 
^laffen; i^re @Itern lichen fte tk <B^uU nur in ber 
.^offnung befuc^en, ba^ fte ttjoc^entlic^ ein Heine^ 
^ef^en! er^ielten. SKenn e6 Sfrbeit in ber |)utte 
ober auf bem gelbe Qah , wurben pe ju |)aufe bel^al^ 
ten, bei ben ^ogenfeften blieben fte ebenfatt6 an^; — 
ta ging ber gute @inbrurf, tt^el^en fte im Unterricl^te 
eri)a(ten fatten, tt>ieber »er{oren; nnter bem bofen 
S3eifpiele ber 5llten, tt)urbe ber gute 6aame be6 
2Bort6 im ^eime erfticft, — Seute »on ^o^erer ^afte 
tr>eigern ftc^, if)re ^od^ter in bie <Sd^ule ^u fc^icfem 
3f)re 9ieUgion6=^35egriffe , il&re gefeKfc^aftlic^en 3Ser* 
l)dUniffe, il^re frul^en ^eirat!)en unb bie tjerdc^tlid^ 
SKeife, mit voel^ex fte ba6 tveibUc^e ^efc^lec^t be* 
l^anbeln , 5(ffe6 fte^t ber dr^iel^ung beffelben im SBege. 

Oft war ic^ bemii{)t ten SSorne!)men im SSolfe gu 
bemeifen, tioie tt)unfd^en6tt)ert!) bie 33ilbung il)rer ^o(^* 
ter tvdre, unb vx>ie6 babei auf ba6 S5ei|>iel ber @u* 
ropder l^in, aber geit)of)nlid^ erl^ielt i^ jur 5lntwort: 
5Ba6 t)ilft^, unfere ^Oidbc^en burfen \a feine @(^rei* 
ber ober 5lmtteute tt>erben, fie brauc^en nic^t^ 5u 
nnffen. SBei euc?^ @ngldnber ift e0 ettt)a6 gan^ Sin- 
bere6 ; unfere grauen ftnb eine ganj anbere ^Jlenfc^en* 
race; tie unfrigen wjurben atte6 mi^brauc^en wa^ fte 
lernen unb sum S3ofen anwenben» 

SSerbreitung t>er Ijeil. ©d^ift u. (Sd^ulutiterric^t. 203 

<So ^etgte un6 hie mel^rid{)nge ^rfaljrung; t»a§ 
in ben SJiorgcnfc^ulen ntd)t6 Heibcnb ®utc§ fur biefe 
armen ^inber getl^an tocxhen fonnte^ fo halt) fie ein 
wcntg lefen fonnten, tt)urben jte »on i{)ren 5lnoer^ 
wanbten weggeuommen. SBir famen nun mit anbern 
3Jlifftondren 3U beui @ntf(^luffe, bajj me^r au^geric^^ 
tet \t)urbe, ipenn n)ir aurf) nur eine Heine ^Inja^l 
t)on ^inbern unter unfere beftdnbige 5(ufpd^t befdmen. 

3c^ mac^te mi^ an6 SKer! unb baute ein ^cii^ 
fenlE)au6 3 aber wo wir ^inber tjerbefommen foKten, 
voax eine Jrage \)u i^ nicf)t ju beantworten t^er^ 
ntoc^tej benn bie drmjie |)inbu^9J?uttt:r wirb faum je 
i^r Stinb an etnen ^Ijriften abgeben, wenn jie auc^ 
i^r 53rob fur (te bettein mu§. 2)od) lommen auct| 
bi^weilen SSittwen, tcel^e im ^lenb finb, unb bieten 
un^ i^re ^inber ^um 3Serfauf an. (Sine fo(c6e fatn 
t>or einigen 3af)ren unb rebete meine ^aitin folgen^ 
ber 50ia^en an : 3c^ bringe i()nen mein ^inb — e^ 
njar ein 9J?db(^en eivoai 3a^r alt — unb tt)enn fte e6 nic^t 
nel)men, ttjerfe icb eg biefe 9la(^t ben 6c^a!alen ftin, 

£aum war ta^ 5)a(^ anf bem neueti SBaifen* 
I)aufe, al6 eine groge %h\tf) ba6 ?anb uberfc^wemmte; 
mele Seute t)erloren it)r Seben, unb auf bie glutl^ 
folgte eine ^^euerung unb .^unger^s^flot^. 3u biefer 
3eit be6 aKgemeinen (Slenbg fammelten wir eine ^lu 
^al)l l^albt)er^ungerter ^inber, unb fo wurbe t}a^ neu* 
erridbtete SSaifenl^au^ auf eine unerwartete 2Beifc 
gefuttt. «0leine ^attin l^at feit 9 3a!)ren ctwa 80 
tinber in biefe Heine Jfnftalt aufgenommen, unb ber 
6egen ^otte§ ^at i^re ^emul)ungen begleitet 

204 SBerBreitung ber l^eitigen ^(^rift 

^a^ unter t>emat)rro6teii .g)eiben s ^intern tJtetc 
tni§rat{)en, barf im6 ni^t befrembea, e0 gibt fold^e 
bie fo ^erborben flnb, tia^ aUe fUiittel ju i!)rer tBef^ 
ferung fel)Ifc6Iagen, eintge entliefen unb jogen ein 
t)eibmfc5e^ Sifterleben bem (^riftlid;*ftttten SSanbel t>or, 
^Dagegen ^beit W)ir aber au(^ mel^rere, bie Utt6 t)iele 
greube maefjeit, bie grunblid^ befe^^rt jtnb unb ta^ 
©ute liebenj einige berfelben jtnb an d^riftli(^e Sung* 
linge t?er{)eiratl)et unb gute, treue, flei^ige|)au6muttei: 
g^morben^ einige finb a(6 Se!)rerinnen befc^dftigt unl) 
mac^en fic^ unter if)rem ©efc^lec^te nii^li^. dine 
9?amen6 ^eari, bie an einen frommen ^atec^iften i)er^ 
I)eirat{)et ift, ibat burd^ i^ren treuen eifrigen (^l)xU 
ftenfiun fo fet)r unfer 3utrauen getx>onnen, t)a^ t)or 
unferer 5tbreife t?on Q3urbwan meine ©attin (le aB 
erfte Sef)rerin in ber SBaifen * (Sd^ule anftellen fonnte. 

^el^nlid^e 3f{ettung0 * ^nftalteu fur t?ertt?a^rIo6te 
^inbufnaben unb Mat)^m, fmb je^t beinal)e in alien 
^iffton6ftationen i)cn 55enga(en unb in t)m norbU)eft* 
lichen ^ro»in;^en erric^tet wjcrben. Wlein greunb 
SJiiffiondr Seu^olt, \)at uber I)unbert ^naben in fei* 
ner ^nftalt, unter biefen fmb 16 bie i^x .^erj bem 
>^eilaub sum (Sigent^um Ijingegeben !)aben, unb be* 
gabt fmb, er bilbet fie §u Se^rern I)eran unb l^at bie 
lieb{i(^e |)offnung , t>a^ jte im SBerfe be6 |)errn fic^ 
nii^Iic^ ma^en werben. 35on ben aubern ^nabeu 
lerut jeber ein ^anbtverf, einige tt)erben (Partner, an* 
bere 6d?neiber, unb eine gro^e ^njal^l berfelben, ift 
niit 5^eppi^'2Beberei bef^dftigt, tt?eld)e bereitg einen 
guten drlo^ einbringt. :I)ie w>el(^e jum ©^uU unb 

unb (ScBurunterrid^t 205 

$rebigt^5lmt »orbereitet n?erbeu, begleiten ben Tli]^ 
fiondr na^ ber €tabt, njo er in ben (^apellen ta^ 
^yancjelium prebigt unb lernen fo ben :practif(^en Zljdi 
beffen, tt)a6 i^nen irn tdglic^en Unterric^t beigebrac^t 
wirb. Sluf biefe SKeife bilbete ber reicfjgefegnete apo* 
ftoUf^e @c^n)ar5 im fiibU(^en Snbien feine @e^ulfen 
am (§oange(ium, t?on benen @iner, ber e^rwurbige 
^o]f)I^off je^t no(^ am Men ift, *) 5(uc^ eine 2Bai* 
fenmdbc^en^S^ule xtnter ber Seitung ber (^attin be^ 
»ortrefflid)en SJlifftondr 2B. (Bm\t\) falje id^ in 8e^ 
nare6, unb in 33urbtt?an leitet mein DJ^itarbeiter 3J?if^ 
ftondr Sin!e eine 2Baifen!naben ^ (Sc^ule , in weld^er 
auc^ tie 6ol^ne ber .^inbu ^^riften Unterric^t ge^ 
niejjen. ; ;^^'^-v' ^:\./:.- .-■■'-.; 

3n 5lgra Ijaben unfere beutf^en SBriiber eine 
gro^e SSaifen 5lnftalt mit 164 £naben, nnb eine an^ 
bere mit 9)?dbc^en. ^nx ^eii einer fc^recf(ic^en .^un^ 
ger^notf) im 3a!)r 1838, tt?urben ^iele I)unberte ]oU 
d)er ^inber »on mitleibigen 9)lenfc^enfreunben gefam^ 
melt nnb ben SU^ifftondren ^ngefd^icft. 3Son 500 blie^ 
ben in Senpoltg (Sc^ule nnr 200 am l^eben. (Einmal 
I;atte er 260 Iran! am gieber, in einem Monat ftar^ 
ben if)m 35 an ber (Sijolera unb 9flert>enfiebern. 3n 
iener (2^rerfen6§eit fa^ man bei SlHa^abab unb (^awn- 
:pore tdgli^ l^unberte »on Sei^namen i?erl)ungerter 
$inbu0 in ben ^ange^ njerfen, ^n einem Crte 
fammelte ftc^ eine fo(d)e SOfJenge, ta^ fte ing 6toc!en 

*) g}?ifrtonar ^or)I^of ift im smarj biefe^ 3al)re^ (1S44) in 
SD?«Drae^, 3u ber Oiul)e feinee Joertn ein»e9anden; er war 
82 3al)re air. 

206 SBerbreitunQ ter l^eiligen <Sc&rift 

geriet!)en, unb urn eine attgemeine 3Ser:pefturg ber 
^uft 5u t)er]^uten, voax bie 9fiegterung *genot^igt, eine 
^Injaf)! 9J?anner am Ufer aufjufteKeu, tpelcbe mit 
langcn Stangen bie ^eic^uame ben Strom l)tnunter^ 
ftojen mu^ten. ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ i V ^ v 

S(uf ben t)erfd^iebenen Stationen t)on 53engalen 
unb ben norbw^eftlic^en ^ro»tn§en, ex^aiten in biefen 
(Sd^ulen ungefa()r 1100 ^naben unb Wldb^m eine 
c^)nftUc^e (Sr3ief)ung. 2)a^ biefe 5(rfftalten \)k hop 
nung^i)otten $fIan3fcJ)ulen fur ein neuaufwac^fenbeS 
(Sef^Iec^t jtnb, wirb in Snbien altgemein anerfannt. 
(5o ttef (tub bie (^uroipcier bort t>on ber 2Bid)ttg!eit 
biefer 5(rt S)on ^D^^iffton^ * $(rbeit uber^eugt, ba^ jeber* 
(Ingldnber ber ^lugenjeucje ba^on ift, t)en |)er5en 
gerne baju beifteucrt, unb e6 ift eine erfreulidhe Z^aU 
fa(^e, ba§ biefe SBaifen - <S(^uIen unfere TOjftone- 
^efeKfc^aften an(^ feinen |)eUer foften unb bie Un- 
terfjaltung berfelben mit tvenigen 5lu^na^men x>on ben 
^aben c^riftli^er ^DZenfci^en ^^ greunbe beftritten mirb. 

2)ie ^inber ftnb »or bem »erberblic^en ^influ^ 
be^ |)eibentt)um6 t)ertt>a!)rt; unter ber t>dterlic^en M" 
tung ber SOf^ifftondre tt)erben fie ^u nu|lic^en ©Uebern 
ber menfc^lic^en ®efel(f(^aft fyeranwac^fen, unb i)iele 
>?on i^nen aU 5trbeiter am ^t>an9eliut)t braud^bar 

greilid^ muffen tt)ir un6 begnugen, bei bem furc^t* 
hav niebergebrurften moralifcj^eu unb geiftigen 3wft«nb 
be^ tt)eiblid^en ©efc^Ied^te, mit feiner 33erbefferung 
ciuf ber nieberften @tufe anjufangen, unb bie ©attin 
te0 9JJiffiondr^ \)ai i^x 3^agewerf treulid^ erfiittt, 

m\) Sc^ulunternc^t .207 

ttjenn e6 i^r gelungcn ift , eine Heine Sc^aar t)er^ 
tt)al)r(o6ter |)mbu * 5Dldbc^eii jit flei^tgen, reiiilid^en, 
frommeii |)au6muttertt l^eranjubilben , tie nac^ 5(rt 
einer treuen ^JDf^utter xm c^riftlic^ett SSaterlanbe 
ii^rer |)au6!)a(tuug gut t)orfte]^en, i^ren ^inbern in 
fru{)er Sugenb fd;on Sinn unb ^kbe fur ba6 (^ute 
einpfian^en, unb tpenn ein§elne »on i^ren S^S^it^en 
tauglic^ unb treu erfunben n^erben, aI6 Se^rerinnen 
il)ren braunen Sanb^Ieuteu bie SBal&r^eiten be6 gott^ 
lid)en SBorte6 mitt{)etlen. 

5(ber ttnr fel)en auc^ in biefer |)tnjtc^t einer fro^ 
t)cxcn 3^it entgegen» '^er gebilbete |)inbu fuftlt 
ben ^[Jlangel einer gebilbeten ©attinj „D tvie glucf- 
lid) toaxew mx, \x>mn voix folc^e t)erftdubige grauen 
I)dtten tt?ie il)x (Suropder , " fagte einer berfelben ^u 
mir. — 9J^anc^e ^ahm ben SBuufd) gedu^ert, if)xe 
Zb^tcx unterric^ten ju laffen» QSon menigen trirb 
e^ im ftiKen get{)an. !Der SSunf^ wirb aur 2Sirf^ 
Iid)feit tt)erben, unb tt)enn einmd bie Sod^ter ber 1)6* 
I)ern ^lajfen eine Silbung erl)alten unb ba^ ^emupt* 
jev)n in il)nen ern^a^t, ba^ fte au^ ^u ber menfc^^ 
lid)en^e)"ellfc^aft gel)oren, — j[a §u ber gro^en ga* 
milie hk ein gutiger ^ater im |)immel erfol)ren l^at, 
feine ^inber §u werbenj bann tx>irb bi^ SJliffion^fad^e 
in Snbien tiefe SBur^eln fc^Iagen, unb ber 53aum mit 
Sebenefruc^ten, beffen SBldtter |ur (^efunb^eit ber ^eit)en 
bieuen, U^ burre Smib befc^atten. 

3eber SJliffiondr ift tief bat)on uberjeugt, xoic 
not^wenbig Sf^ationaUC^e^ulfen fur @c^u(en unb 
l^efonber© aum ^rebigen finb, (Sr mag immer fi> 

208 QSerbreitung t>er f)ei(igen 6(^rift 

liebreid^ unb Ijerablaffenb fein, er mag fld^ imnier fo 
tJoUfommen mit ben ®ebrdud)en unb (Bitten ber (Sin* 
VDo^ner befannt macJ^en, er mag i^re 6pra(^e auc^ 
»6ttig in feiner ^ettjalt f)aben; nie tt)irb e0 i^m ge* 
lingen, bemfelben fo na!)e §u treten, mit ifenen fo Der* 
traut ju tt)erben, tt)ie ber ^ate^ift, xi)x !2anbmann e6 
i|t, Ueberbieg ift e^ immoglic^, ba§ ben f^^iHionen 
i)on (^o^enbienern ba6 (S^angelium t>on europdif^en 
fRifftondren ijerfimbigt werben fann, dx mug im 
!8auf ber ^eit , bei weiterer ^ntmirflung be^ (§^riften^ 
t!)um6 ber 5luffel)er isTrlaxoTcog) fein, bem tt)ie eU 
nem ^imot'^eu^ unb 3^itu6 bie Seitung ber unterge^ 
orbneten eiugebornen ^D^liffiondre an^ertraut {% 2)eg^ 
fcalb ^nb anc^ bie t?erfc^iebenen 9Jliffton6^®efeUf(^aften 
barum bemul)t, t}a^ eine 5(n^al)l tuc^tiger be!el)rter 
.^inbu6 fur tk\e iDic^tige @ac^e Dorbereitet tr>erbe. 
3ebe Stettung^ ;^ ^nftalt fott na^ bem $(an unferer 
firc^L ^ifftona ^ (SJefeUfc^aft eine SSorfc^ule iverben. 
3n (Calcutta ift ein (Seminar im SKerben, in \vd(^cm 
bie ^u(f)tigeren na^^ex eine l)of)ere 35ilbung erl)alten 
fotten! 5lber noc^ immer ift bie 3^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 9^- 
eigneten |)inbu*3iinglinge gar flein; unb ni^t 2Be* 
nige »on biefen (affen fic^ burci^ ben 9fJeiJ einer ^o^ 
I)eren Sefolbung weglocfen, unter ber Sftegierung eine 
53ebienftung ansnnefjmen, !I)a6 barf un^ aber nid^t 
befremben, ift e^ bo^ in ber ^fjriften^eit au^ fo, 
unb tk'fUQai)! tt)urbe einem au^ reblici^en, c^riftli^en 
Sungling in ber .^eimatl^ ni^t lange m^e t^un, 
n)enn e^ fic^ barum l)anbelte, ob er eine mii^e»oUe 
eteUe al6 (gd^ulmeifter mit 300 ©ulben, ober hk 

unti <B(i)ulmUxxi^t 209 

emc$ Slmt6f^mber6 mit 600, otier 800 anncf)mm 
\oU, !Rur eitt 'g)ers fcae fur ^ottee 6a(^e 'ooUiQ 
entfci^ieben ift/ wdp Me i?erlau9nung0x)otte aber 
gefegnete S3a^n, fur 3^tt unb m ^eil ber 9Mmen^ 
' fc^^en p Jcbeti/ ju letben unb 'p flerben, 

6old^e Seute brau^en mr, unb ba ttjir fte in 
Snbien untcr unfern befel^rten^inbu^ nur f^drlid^ 
finben, tt)erben europdifd^e SKifjtondre nod^ lange , 
notf)ig fein, 2Bir l^aben jwar eintge itadfere, treuc 
5lrbeiter unter unfern fated^iften, ^mi tjon btefen 
fmb erii fursU^ im SDflonat SJJai in tie @tt)igf eit 
abgerufen tvorben. 95or einigen SJlonaten er^ielt 
ia bie fur mic^ fc^nteralid^e S^^ad^rid^t »on i^rem.&in* 
fc^eibenj fte tt)nrben t>on ben iBlattern n)eggerafft 
2)er dltere 9?amene ^eter, wurbe im 3a^r 1821, 
ber ^VDeite ©d^unbor int 3al^r 1824 getanft, heit)c 
\)a\>cn mit treuer ^ingebung i^r ^agewerf iJoUenbet/ 
(§ilf 3al)re ^alfen fie mir in ©d^ulen unb ^rebigten. 
SD'^ein TOtarbeiter fd^reibt, „ein feierlid^er drnft unb 
unb eine ^raft t)on 6albung begleitete befonber^ in 
ben (efeten 5D^onaten, il)re 5lnf^rad^en, oft l^orte i^ 
mit tiefer Oluf^rung ^n, unb ^an!te @ott uber ber 
^nabe tit er iijnen mitget^eilt ^atk,^' 

$eter Ue^ ai^ er fein @nbe na^e ful)lte, feinc 
S3ruber aufcimmenrufen unb bat fte im ^iienfte be6 
|)errn treu ju »er^arren, ba ber ^ol^n ber (^ered^ten 
im |)immel boc^ t)iet l^errlid^er fe^, al^ alTe eitle 
SSergnugungen biefe6 Sebene, turj barauf entfc^>Iief 
er felig im (^lauben an feinen briefer, din anberer 
unferer tatec^iften »on gleic^er ©efmnung unb (Blan^ 

210 0cxhxcitm^ hn A)dixQen 6c^np 

^ ben^trcue ftarb ijor 4 Sa^ren, fc^nett an ber (S^olcraj 
biefem SWann Ujurbe fruiter eine Sebienjiuttg angc* 
^ , boten, tt)el^e. il^m mermal meljr eingebrad^t ptte, 
' al6 ba^ geringe <5alair »oii 16 d^ulben beg 9Ronat0, 
Weld^e6 er »on utiferer ©efeUfd^aft . erl)klt, aber cr 
fc^lug e0 ab unb gog x>ox^ ber Sad^e ®otte0 jtd^ fjin* 
pgeben, — 2)ag, mein ^djlfic^er ^efer, ift ber dd^tc 

^^ 9Jiifjtott6|tnn , unb au6 bem JBrange meine^ ^erjen^ 
' rufe id) an^i D, ta^ fic^ berfelbe in unferer (§i^xU 
fUn^eitf hei unferer lieben Sugenb me^r unb mei^r 
entn)i(!eln moc^te* 2Btr fottten mei^r Tlanna ^ahm, 
tju i^re ^raft unb Zakntt btefem gropen unb tt)ur* 
bigen 55erufe ju tt?ei{)en bereit tt)dren, SD^idnner, n?ie 
6(^tt)ars in ^anjore, ^enr^* ^Qlartin im S^lorben am 
^auge0, unb ^are^ in <5erampore, hie i^re ^aben, 
S^eic^tl^um , ®ele{)rfamfeit, mit greuben auf bem UU 
tare ber ^iehe, ii)xem (iriofer a(6 etn tt)iC[ige^ Danf^ 
opfer barbrdc^ten, mit bem ^ingebenben 6inn: ^ier 
bin id) ^exx, fenbe mic^ wo^xi bu wittft, 3^ l^offe 
i)ie ZaQc finb je^t balb t)oruber, in benen man t)ic 
irrige 5lnfi(^t ^^Qte, \)a^ eine einfad^ d^riftlid^e SSiU 
bung fur tie SOlifjion^ - 5lrbeit gan^ l^inlduglid^ fe^* 
(§^ mag fo fein M ben 9?egern unb |)ottentotten, 
aber fte ift ni(^t l^inldnglic^ f^*^ Q^wiffe Zl)dk t)on 
SJ^ifftong ' Slrbeit unter ben |)inbug. 3c^ ^offe, ber 
^al)n wirb balb »ollenb0 »erfc^mnben, \)a^ jungc 
:iJeute fur \}m ^iffionebienft nur unter ben mittleren 
\u\0 untern ^(affen gefuc^t unb gefunben werben 
fonnen. |) at ber @ol^n ®otte0 nid^t aud^ fur unferc 
rei^en begabten Simglinge fein tl^euree 33lut t)ergoffen, 

itnb ©d^utunterti^t* 211 

unt) ftm 3efue, t>a6 SJlufler unb 3t)eal cine^ SJ^if^ 
ftonare, fic^ ni^t aud^ i^nen jur '^a6)al)xnunQ bar, 
tt)emt er feinen Sungern auruft : @ef)«t l^tn in atte 
2BeU unb prebiget bag @»angelium aHer ^reatur; — 
ober ift bie 5(npnglid^feit an bie^eimatl^, unb ba6 
Sanb ber ^inbe6#, SSruber^ unb S(^tt)efterliebe obet 
ber @enug fo »ieler gefelCfd^aftlid^en S^ergniigungen, 
tit man eben b.rau^en im ^etbenlanbe nid^t finbet, 
eine l)intdngli(^e Urfai^e ju ber Stntttoort: 3^ fanJi 
tiid&t gel)en, meine SBerl^dltniffe erlauben mix e^ nic^t 
SKeine greunbe! tt)ir muffen eine Siteratur fiir t)ie: 
^inbu0 ^ahcn, wix braud^en (Sommentare ber l^eiligen 
€dbrift, ^irdt^en * ®ef<^i^ten, @(^ulbiid^er> gute S3io:* 
grapf)ien, cine ^oncorbanj, religiofe, poetifc&e SSJerfe 
unbSBerfe atterlei 5(rt, urn ben ©eift, \)a^ S^ex^, \)m 
SSerftanb beg ^olU ju bilben unb t)ic l^eibnifc^en 
fdn^ex XfoU ^eibnifd^en @rdnelg unb 5tberglaubeng 
aug bem getbe ju treiben, ^ier ift eine 5lufgabe ju 
lofen, W)elc^e talentiJoHen SJldnnern t)on ber Dielfeitig* 
ften 8ilbung SSefc^dftigung fiir Sal^re »erfd^affen 
wiirbe, ^onnten unfere gebilbeten Sunglinge einen 
ebleren, wurbigern S3eruf ern?d^(en fiir ta^ SKol^l 
ber 9Kenfc^]^eit ju wirfen? 3c^ iaffe bie 5lntwort 
i^rem eigenen ©uta^ten uber, 

greilid^ n) in gro^em .Svrtl^um, woenn 
h>ir un6 t)orftel(ten, al0 ob burd^ ^alente unb'®e^ 
lei^rfartifeit bag 233er! ber |)eibenbefel^rung er^ 
xeid)t mxtcn folTte. (^ott hexx>di)xe ung »or biefem 
SKa^n! dg foil nic^t buret) |)eer ober ^raft fonbern 
buret; meinen (^eift gefc^el^en, f)3ric^t ber ^err i^baot^. 
^a^r 4, 6, 14 * 


212 JBexbreUm^ t)cr l^eiligen 6c^rift 

•;*: ■'"■ ■ ■ ■"■'■; ■• :■■'■:-- 

5(bcr glcid^tt)ie gum S3au eine6 ^anfeS aUerlet 
SJ^aterialien erforberlit^ jtnb .^olj, ©tein, 6anb unb 

V ^alf — unb glei^wie ttjebcr ber S^w^^^^i^^tttttt mit 
SSalfen attein, nod^ ber SJlaurer mit feinem <Bidxi 
unb £alf ein f^one6 |)au6 p @tanbe bringen fonnte, 
fonbern ade muffen nac^ i^rer 5(rt bap |)anb an* 

^ legen — alfo tnuffen pm ^aue 3^^«^ f ^^^ ^irc^c 
Sefu ^grifti l^ter unb in ber .^eibentt)elt , Scanner 
i>on allerlei @aben, ^alenteu unb 5ln(agen pfammen 
l^elfen. @o voax e0 ja fc^on in ber 5l^oftel 3fiten: 
aU uac^ ^otteg (^nabenratl^ ba^ ^^angelium in 
9iom unb ^riec^entanb , in be^ ^aifer6 ^alaft unb 
i)or ben :p!)iIofopl^ifc^eu 5lt!)enern geprebigt werben 
foUte, erwecfte er in bent ^aulu^ ein au^erwal)lte0 
9fluftjeug; beffen geiftige ^^ilbung nac^^bem fie burd^ 
tk ^nabe /@otte6 gel^eiligt tt)ar,.i^n p biefem wid^^ 
tigen 5(mte 6efonber6 6efa{)igte. 

D greunbe , fo la^t un6 in ^inern ^cifte pfam* 
nienftet)en, unb biefe 5errlict}e (Ba^^e Qf>f>ik^ betrei5en» 
(S^ ift mir (Srnft, 3cb ful^Ie mic^ gebrungen, ftarf 
anpfloipfen, tt)eil ic^ ti^eig, tt>ie fel^r e6 ^lotl^ tt^ut, 
ta^ boc^ 5((le, bie Sefum i^ren |)ei(anb uennen, t^a^^ 
tan ^l^eil nel^mcn, 2hx fount nid^t 5(tle na^ Snbien 
ober 5lfrica ge^en, abet Sebe6 foil ftdb felber fragcn^ 
«?ie fauu ic^ pr gorberung be^ Oleic^e^ (^otte^ be^ 
l^ulflicfe fe^n? (^ans Serael ]^alf pm S5aue ber 
6tift^I)utte 5 ber (Sine brac^te (Sbelfteine, ber 5lnbere 
@olb unb 6ilber. SlCfe^, wa^ notl^ig wjar, murbc 
mit wiUigem ^erjen gegeben. £) ba^ ift eine greube^ 
«?enn tvir ein freiee iviKigee .^erj l^aben , n>enntt)ir bic 


SBortc 3cfu au6 @rfa^rung i?erftc^en, •— ge^en tfl 
feltger al^ nef)men. S(^, ba^ ein fo((^er l^eiiiger 
^ifer unfere ^^riffenl&dt ^elebte, t)ami ttjurbe ber 
6egen ®otte^ iti ©tromen auf fie flie^en, greuteii 
fic^ boc^ Me SSater be^ alten S3unbe0 fd^cn, im ^tic! 
auf bie J)errltc6e 3^^^^ t)a ®otte^ 9f{eic!^ auf ber gan* 
sen Srbe ftd) t)erbreiten wurbe, unt) fangen in T^eili^ 
ger 33egeifterung il)re ?Pfa(me unb Sobgefcinge. — 
^ollten tt)ir nic^t au<^ mit einftimmen unb un^ freuen, 
bie ttjir ^iugenjeugen bat)on jinb, tt>ie ta^, wa6 fie 
in bunfler 3ii^wnft erblirften, in unfern ^agen in dr^ 
fu(rung ge^t, 

3ft ^i^ viiit (^i^bet ge^eiligte ©abe bent |)errn 
m6) dn angenel)me0 Cpfer, ba6 fcinSegen begleitet, 
fo follten ho6) , t)k t)k\ii^ Seben6 ©nter ^ahm, bem 
SSetfpiele ber SBeifen au0 bem 3Worgen(anbe folgen 
unb »on il)ren 6c^a§en einen Z^ni ju 3efu giigen 
nieberlegen; fo barf ber $Crme ftc^ au^ nic^t fc^amen, 
fein ©c^erflein ^u bringen. 

Syjeine greunbe , bie @rnbte tvirb balb fomnten : 
ia ber |)err ruft felber bur^ bU dreigniffe biefer3eit 
un^ Su: (5ief)e, idb fage euc^, l^ebet eure 5(ugen auf, 
unb fel)et in ba6 gelb, betin e6 ift fd^on weig jur 
@rnbte. Unb wer ba fc^neibet, ber empfdnget So^n 
nnb fammelt grud^t jum ettjigen Men, auf ba& ftd^ 
wit einanber freuen, ber ba fdet unb ber bii f^neibet. 

in Stibieit. 

2angfamed gsoriuart^fc^reiten be^ (Sljrtjtent^um^ in ^n&icn. 
— Urfa<f)en baoon. — ?)er moralifc&e unb reltgfefe ^&araf= 
tet ber^iubu^. — ©laube an cin unabanberlic^e^ @(t)icfs 
faL — i>a^ ^ajlenwefen unb fein (5i«flu§^ — 3)ie ®e- 
wait ber J^amilien* — ^nterbung, SSerjlo^ung unb 9Ser= 
fol9un<) ber 35efcl)rten. — 2Biberftanb hn ^ricfter. — 
3)ie 2e^ren be^ ©cbajler^. — 2>er crmebrigte ^uflanb 
be^ roeibltdjen @efd?lec^t^, — (Jrlernung ber 2anbe6fpra.= 
cben. — ©eringe atnjal)l ber gKifttonare. — S)a6 bofe 
35eifpiel ber (Europder. — 3)er ^barafter ber etngeborenen 
S^ri(len. — ^Infe^tungen berfelben. — SBetrac^tungen. — 

Ctarfet bte miiben fjanbe unb erquidtet bfe flrant^ernben ftniee. 6ogt ben 
jjetjagten |)erjfn: 6eib getroft, furt^tet «ucl^ nic^t! ©e^et, euec @ott bet 
lomiiit }ur Sad^e ; ©ott ber ba nergilt, fommt unb wirb eud^ belfen. 21U« 
bann tcecben bk bitnben ^ugen aufgetban u>erben, unb bet Sauben C>^mt 
ffierben geoffnet werben. Sllsbann roerben bie Barmen loden, mie ein •S)irfc^ 
unb ber ©tummen Suuge toirb Sob fagen. !I>enn tS werben SBaffer in bee 
SGtifie f)in unb miebet fliefen unb Stroine in ben @ef!Iben. 

,...;.-,,. 3efaio« 35, 3 — 6. 

58ott tttan(^cn 6eiten licx Ijat man He ^lage ge* 
I)ort, bap tie !D?tffion6*<Sa^e in Subien gar 
langfam t)ortt)drt6 fc^reite, unb wenn toix in 
6rtt)agung ste!)en, \}a^ in man(^en Jl^eilen be6 ^an^ 
M bie SQiif^ondre bereit^ 40 Sal^re unb in anbern 
no(^ langer gearbeitet l^aben, fo muffen n)ir frei ge^ 
ftel)en, ta^ biefe ^kge feine6w)eg6 unbegrunbet ift. 
3Ba6 mag ttjol^l bie Urfad^e tat)on fein? 3cf) glanbc 
fte liegt ^an)3tfdd^lic^ in bem DfJeligton^ ^ 6^ftem bfr 

!t>ie 6<^tt)icngf eiten heiMi}^t0n^MxMt in 3nt>ien, 215 

@6 ifl »iel leid^tcr ein |)au6 an einem ^piafee ^u 
bauen , mo no^ nie eine6 gejtanben ift , aU ait 
einem Drte, tt?o ein alte^ ©ebanbe bafte!)t, Befont»er6 
tt)enn bie 53cfi^er beffelben ftd^ an6 atten ^raften ba- 
gegen we^xcn, ta^ fein @tein bat)on meggebroc^en 
tt)irb, meil e6 il^nen einen guten^an^^in^ einbringt, 
3n anbern SS^orten, e6 ift leic^ter eine rol^e filiation, 
tt)ie bie 5ReufeeIdnber, jnm (Sljriftent^nm in befe^ren, 
bie beina'^e !eine religiofen 33egnffe J^at, al^ ein Q^olf/ 
beffen Sfteligion^f^ftem in alfe (^elenfe nnb gugen be^ 
bnrgerlt(^en unb gcfellfc^aftlic^en Seben6 tjerwoben nnb^ 
i?errtrt(ft ift. D mie »iel gibt e^ t)a nieberprei^en, 
nnb mie tnan^e^ 3a^r gel)t bal^in, bieJ nnr einmal 
ber fnrc^tbare (^6tenf(J)ntt an6 bent SKege gerdnmt, 
nnb ein gnte^ gnnbament ber reinen S93a{)r^eit ge# 
legt iji. 

Ueberbieg ift e0 nic^t nntt>a!)rfd^einli(i^ / ba^ fd^ou 
ju ben ^eiten ber 5(:pofte( in pkkn ^l^eilen i^on 3n* 
bien ia^ ^i^angelinm t)er!nnbigt murbe, l^aben nnr 
ia bo(3^ im 6iiben in ben^]^onia^'^t;riften , in ben 
f^rifcben ^irc^en noc^ merfmnrbige Ueberbleibfel ba* 
xion, unb menn e6 bem fo ift, \)a^ bie 3nbier fd6on 
bamal6 ta^ 93Sort ©otte6 au6 bem !D*lunbe eine^ 
^poftel 3!!)oma6 unb anberer ^D^ldnner t)on opoftoli*' 
fc^^em .^er^en Ijorten, nnb i)on pd^ ftie^en, fu rnl^t 
ba6 (^eric^t ber S5er|ic(!ung .auf il)nen, unb fie finb 
barum fur bie 293a^r^eit urn fo unem^fdnglid^er ge^ 

5(u0 meinen t)or^erigen !I)arjietIungen mu^ e0 bem 
aufmerffamen Sefer bereit^ flar gemorben fet)n, ba^ 


216 2)ie ec^ttjien^feiteu t>er !0?iffton6^'51[racit 

bic 9)Kffton^fad^e inSnbten mit nic^t geringen €c^wie^ 
rigfeiten ^u !dnH)fen ^at. ^D^^eine 5(ufgabe in Mefeni 
5lbfcf)mtte ift biefe ©c^tuiengfeiten in geDrangter ^iir§c 
jufammen §u ftellen, unb ic^ bin ijerftc^ert, tt)er einen 
flaren 33li(f in tie ^Stellung be6 9}^iffiondr0 befommt, 
tt?irb nic^t md)x fragen, tt)arum bi^ je^t fo wenig in 
Snbien geleiftet tt)orben ift, fonbern er wirb im ^e* 
gent!)ei( ftc^ vomxtcxn, ta^ mit geringen ^rdften fo 
tDtc^ttge 9iefu(tate errei($t tt)orben jtnb. 3(^ ful)le 
e^ tief, \>a^ man in ber lieben |)eimatl^ mit ben 
^rufungen be6 .^Uiifftoneleben^ in 3nbien and) barnm 
genauer befannt' iverben foKte, weil e^ in jebemSJlen* 
fc^enfrcunb eine innigere ^{)eina!)me erwerfen, unb 
iebe6 ^^riftenl)er§ gebrungen ttjerben tt)irb, fur un6, 
bie tt)ir auf bem ^eigen ^ampfipla^c ftel^en, §u beten, 
unb un6 nad) ber ^raft, bie jebem gegeben ip, gu 

■ Seit Sa^rtaufenben l)ai ber 53ramamgmu6 l>en 
moralifc^'religiofen ^l^aracter be^ SSolf6, fo n)ie fei* 
nen dugern 3#<^ttb ftereot^pifrf) firirt. 53ei ber 
9)laffe M 3Solf6 ift an eine freie 55en?egnng beS 
^emut66 gar ni(5^t ^u benfen. ^in ®otteggeful)l, 
eine bunfle ^el^nfnc^t nad) .^eil ift nocf) ba, unb 
treibt ben |)inbn §ur SSere{)rung ber ®o^en; er fc^tt)ebt 
untriffenb swiften gur(^t unb ^offnung, er gfaubt, 
tra6 er anUUt, befige eine SDZa(^t, unb fonne \)a^ 
536fe abnjenben unb ba6 ^ute geben, tveiter befum- 
niert er fid) nic^t um bie 3ufwnft, SUiand^e fagen, 
niein ®uru (geiftlicber Sel^rer) t^ut alle^ fur mi^; 
jie fe^en \l)n ale eine %xt 'ocn QSermittler stvif^en 


, in Snblett. a 217 

^ott itnb t»en SJlenf^en an. SBd^rcnt) tine Piaffe 
I)errfc^t unb Me anbere unterbriirft wirb, ^at jebe bie 
religiofe Ueberaeugung , ba^ e6 t)on Dben fo beftimmt 
ift. §ffieid^li(?^er Suru6 ift bci bem rei^en ^aiaf) an 
ber Jtagee^Drbnung 5 er ift ein grobfrnnlic^er 9J?enfc^, 
ber bem gleifd^e fro^nt. 2)a ft^et er mit uberfc^la* 
genen giiper auf bem perftfc^en ^e^:|3id^ , ftu^t f^inen 
^Uenbogen auf ein njeic^e^ ^iffen unb rauc^t feinen 
^nda, ein 2)uaent fried^enbe ©c^meidbler ftfeen im 
£rei6 um il^n l^er, nnb njarten auf feine SSefel^Iej er 
mdftet fi(^ im fHQo^khen, — rei^ tt)erben unb fett 
werben ip nad^ ber ^(nfic^t ber ^inbu^ ein^ unb 
baffetbe. Se mel^r ®elb @iner fur ben ®6$enbienft 
au^giebt, befto l^eiliger evf(^eint er toor ben 5lugen 
be6 3Solf0. ^ine folc^e SteUgion ift bem ftoljen in 
gleifd^e6(uft t)erfunfenen SJienfd^en gang angemeffen. 
^r miU t)a^ ^cxt ^otte^ mit|)ol^n »on ftd& gurucf. 
3c^ l)abc fein S3eif:piel bon 33,efel)rung unter biefer 
(^kffe t)cn .^inbu6 eriebt. 9J?an^e bie idb befud^en 
n>ottte, (iegen mir an ber ^au6tl)ure fagen, fte »er- 
langten feinen 93^ iffiondr ju fel^en. 5Jfnbere finb gwar 
freunblicfeer in ii)rem S3ene]^men, aber in ber S^egel 
ganj tjetgnugt mit xl)xex ®o^en*SSeref)rung. 
" 9}lit einem folc^en 5Df^anne, ber l^errlic^ unb in 
greuben lebte, unter^ielt ic^ mi(^ eineg ^age^ uber 
bie enge SSerbinbung »on 3>^it unb (Swigfeit. @r 
fagte, bie SBelt ift tt>ie ein 53asaar, auf bem jeber 
fein il^m angewiefene^ (^ef^dft au^ri(^tet. X)er einc 
fauft unb ber anbere t>er!auft, !)ier bietet einer Db|l 
feil, bort ein anberer ©emitfe, (Siner Iiigt, ber anbere 

218 !Die 6(^tt){cri9feiten ber 9Jitf(tone^2ltbcit 

fxef)it, ber brittc betritgt feineti S^ac^bar. Sie e6 
tie ©otter »erorbnet .I)aben, fo gefi^iel)t6/ 

^in Jfnberer, wetd^er auf ber intettectueffen ^a!)n 
etn?a6 welter fortgerucft, unb fiber bie S^rabitionen fet* 
ner SSciter meg njar, gab ju, ba§ ber (^ogenbienfl 
Unilnn fei), aber fe^te er Ijiusu, beine c^riftlic^^e 9fie^ 
ligiott iji nid^t toiel beffer, imfere bummen Sanb^leute 
betett t)tele ©otter an, aber il^r ^abt brei; i(^ l^abe 
ba0 SfJed^te unb Derel^re nur @inen ©ott* — (§6 ware 
etwa^ leid^te^ fol^e aberwi^tge $btIofo:pben i)on il^^ 
rem Strtlbum ju itber^eugen, wenn auc^ nur ein Hei* 
ne6 Duantum »on reblic^er Sernbegierbe fid^-^eigte, 
aber bafur ftof en wtr anf @toIj ber mit geinbfc^aft 
gegen ba6 ©ute gelpaart ift, fte wnrbigen bie l)eiHge 
©c^rift nie einer ernfilic^cn SBetrac^tung. . 

^6 tft erftaunlic^ mte i)ie( bie r eleven ^inbu6 auf 
ifjren ©o^enbtenft ijerfd&wenben. 3c^ befuc^te eine6 
Za^e^ UnfRaidf) t)on35urbwan,-unb fanb i^n in fei* 
ner (Sd^a^fammer. gunftig 6d(f(em mit ©elb, t?on 
benen iebe6 1000 *) 9fJu:pie^ entl^ielt, ftanben auf bem 
55oben ^a* 2Ba^ t{)un €ie , fragte ic^ , mit all bie* 
fem ©erb. ^i> ift fiir meinen ©ott, war bie ^nU 
wort. SSie fott i(^ ba6 i^erfte!)en? ^in 3Siert^eil 
ge!)t nacb ber l)eiligen 6tabt S3enare0, bort ^aU ic^ 
'f^wei fdbone ^em^el am gluffe, unb t?iele ^Sriefter, 
tie fur mi(^ beten; ein anbrer 5^^eil gebt nad^ 
Suggernautl^ , ein britter nac^ (^a^a, unb fo t?ers 
wenbet ein einjiger |)inbu t)on feinen fnrftli(^en (Rin^ 
fiinften ja^rlic^ 250,000 ©ulben auf ben ©ofeeubienft. 

*) 1200 @ul£»en. 

in Sntieit. 219 

SBdl^reub ic^ im Sajaar i)on ^urbiuan prebtgte, fd^au^ 
ten einmal biefe tt)o]^(gena()rten ^Priefter be6 9^aial& 
in feincnt ^falafte sum genfter l^eran^ unb Ia<i^ten 
mtd^ au6. ^6 tft bod^ ^u bebauern, fagte mir ein 
retd^er ^Olann, ba^ <5ie ftc^ mit ben geringen Seuten 
bemfi{)en unb ^rebigen, e6 tft ja bo(^ umfonft, 

!Diefe reic^e |)ulf0quetten be6 33ramani0mu0 muf* 
fen erft t)ertro(f nen , bet)or ba^ (SJo^ent^um feinen 

3^ ^be im ^((Igemeinen nod^ mel^r ^offnung 
t)on ber !Dkffe be^ 3SoIf6, bie in Unit>iffen{)eit ta\)m 
leU, aB t)on ben retd^en SoUuftlingen be6 Sanbe^; 
jene fu{)Ien ba6 3ocf) ber 53raminen , t)iele feufjen 
unter ber Scla\)erei unb !)ei§en fte ^Setriiger; abet 
no(^ l^aben jte ntc^t ba6 ^er§, bie g^iwft auc^ auger 
bem 6a(f ju mac^en^ 

^ettJinnen biefe burd^ \)a^ tt)ieber|)orte |)6ren 
^rtftlic^er ^al^x^cit Uc Ueber^eugung ' i>on etn)a^ 
SBefferem, fo fag en fte: Ami ki koribo, Ischwurer 
itcha tsclemon, temoDi hai. SBa^ fann i(^ madden, 
ivie eg ^ott ijerorbnet l^at, fo ge^t6: foil t(^ jum 
(il^riftentl)um befel^rt n^erben, fo n)irb e6 o^ne mein 
3ut6un gefd^el)en. 2)iefe furd^tbare i^el^re beg g a* 
ialigmug tft ber 6(^lagbaum ber bem armen^inbu 
ben 5Seg '§ur SBefferung auf alien <5eiten t)erf^errt; 
fein |)ers gegen gute @inbriidfe jufd^lie^t, unb aUc 
SSerantttJortli(^feit l)intt)eg nimmt; fte mad^t benSJlen^ 
fc^en ju einem ^lo^. Sllle fetne 6unben betrad^tet 
ber IReid^e unb ber 5lrme al6 bie notl)tt)enbige golgc 
t>on ^anblungen, tvel^e er in einer tjorigen (Sripenj 

x)errid^tet ^nt, 2)a^er flagt flc^ auc^ ber grojjte SSer* 
brecf)er nie aU fc^ulMg an; ba^ (^emiffen ift uiiter* 
brucft, t)on9f{eue n?et^ er ni(^t6. 2)a^er ber 6tumvf- 
ftnn, tie ©leit^cjultigfeit, tie l)er§(ofe faltMutiae SBeife, 
in ivdd^er bie amen ^twU uber ®ott unb ^wigfeit 
f^re(J)en, unb fc^aamW i^n al^ ben Ur^eber be^ 
S35fen imb ®uten barftelTen^ balder hk gefu^ofe 
^raufamfeit, mit tt)e(^er jtc bie ^oi\) unb Seiben 
be^ S'Jebenmenfd^en mit anfefeen fonnen, o!>ne fid) t>Ott 
ber (SteUe ^u ben>egen. 2)al)er fommte aud^, ba^ bie 
abfc^eulic^en Safter ber Un§u(^t, ber Sugen unb be6 
tinbermorbe etwae ganj ^ett)6f)n(i^e0 fmb, woiiber 
9f?iemanb ftc^ beffagt, mil man glaubt, e6 gel^ore 
notl)tt)enbt(jer 3Beife in ben 2BeltIauf l^inein. 
' ,3^ befud^te einmal einen SJliffet^citer , ber wegen 
einef ^inbermorb6 gnm ^algen »ernrtl^eilt n)ar. 3c^ 
fuc^te ben (^fenben t)on feiner (Sd^ulb gu uber^eugen, 
i{)m bie S^^dlje ber ^wigfeit t^orsuftellen unb fo eine 
6e{)nfuc^t nad^ ©nabe unb (SuubentJergebuncj in il^m 
5u evwetfen. 5(ber biefer SJlann bel)arrte barauf, er 
l)ahe bie 5D^orbtt)at uotl^tvenbiger SSeife t^oltbringen 
miiffen, fie gel()ore §u feinem Seben^Iauf; ai\<i) tt?ar 
er feft uberjeugt, ber eiferne (^riffel be^ Saturn^ ^abe 
c^ fd^on t?or feiner ^eburt in feinen |)trnf^dbel ge^ 
fd^rieben, ba^ er am ©atgen fterben miiffe, dine 
t)albe (Stunbe e^e man il^n gum S3(utgerufte I)inau^' 
fii^rte, »er^el^rte er noc^ mit gutem 5(ppetit ein grii^:^ 
ftiirf, legte barauf ftc^ felber ben ©tri^ um ben|)al^ 
ta^ 58rett fiel unter feinen gugen, unb fo eilte ber 
glenbe in bie @tt)igf eit ()inuber. 

in 3nMen. 221 

SQSa^renb tie Seljre be$ gataU6mu6 ben ®eift er* 
brucft unb ba^ |)erj t)er!noc?&ert l^at, ift ta^ ^afien# 
njefen barauf bered^net baa (^ludf be^ gefeUfct^aft^ 
Hd^en Sebene gu gerftoren, unb bie eblen ^eful^Ic ber 
9^dcJ)ftenliebe im ©runbe au^surotten. SSenn ber 
6ol^n be6 £aufinann6 ein ^anfmann tx>erben ntu^, 
unb ber be6 53ramtnen fd^on feiner ©eburt nad^ jura 
^riefter ober ©elel^rten beftimmt ift, \'o nnrb bie 
!menfd^l)eit ftereotv^. Me^ UeiU beim 5C(ten^ ber 
SD^lenfc^ nnrb ein 5(«tomat, fetne ^alente unb 5(nla* 
gen ^erroften. ^iee ift ber 3uft^"^ ^^^ |>inbu^ er 
ift in feinem ganjen SBefen gerabe t\>a€ feine SSorfal^* 
ren t>or 1000 3a!)ren ttjaren. 3)a6 ^aften^SKefen l)ai 
eine d!)nlicf)e SKirhtng ge^abt, tt)ie ber !(eine ^^u^ 
bet ben d^ineftfc^en granen, i!)re gu^e ftnb v^erfru^* 
^elt unb ni(^t mefer gum (^et^en gefi^idft. 2)er 53ra* 
mine ift nnter-biefem fd^dnblic^en 6vftent in Unwif* 
fenl^eit l^jerabgefunfen, gibt aber fein 3ota X)on feinen 
alten 5lnfpru^en auf .^ol^eit auf. 

2)er Xlinflu^ euro^difd^er (iit)ilifation unb 3Sijfen- 
fd}aft unb bie ^raft (f)rtftlid^er ^ 9[Baf)rlf)eit ^at iwax 
biefe eiferne ^^tU nidc^tig erfc^uttert, aber noc^ nic^t 
burd^brod^en, 6elbftfuc^tig in ftd^ abgefd^loffen ftel)en 
jbie t>m ©ectionen feinbfelig einanber gegenxiber; tt)ie 
baa ^ferb t)om Oc^fen f:pecifif($ r>erfd^ieben ift, fo be^ 
trad^tet eine ^afte bie anbere aia eine gang anbere 
!9Zenfc^en*5(rt , unb mit ber fte nid()t in na^e S3erut)^ 
rung fommen barf. 2)iefea geijdfftge 6»ftem ba6 ber 
|)inbu gen)o{)nli(^ afa bie 6untnia unb (Subftanj, 
tia^ Tlaxf unb Seben feiner O^eligion betrad)tet^ feat 

einerfeit6 bie Station unter fid^ felber gerriffen, unb 
fd^lie^t anbrerfeitg tnit finfterem il^ro| jebe anbere 5Re* 

ligion t)on feinem. magifc^en Sii^"^^^ <J^^) ^^^ i^^*^^ 
tern 53anbe eine^ blinbeti ^Iberglaubene toereinigt bet 
SBramine aUe gegen ba$ ^inbrinQeu einer neuen 0le* 
ligione^Se^re. (Sine £afte betrac^tet bie anbere ale 
unrein iinb meibet tl)ren Umgang, aber ber (Suropder 
wirb t)on alTen aB ber Unreinfte gemieben; barum 
teejr^n tl^n t)k ^raminen mit bem (San0!rit*2Bort 
Mletscha, 5(u^wurflmg. 2)ie :practtf(^e golge ift, ba§ 
H)ir ^ifftondre felt en in familiar en Umgang mit \)m 
^ingebornen !ommen fonnen, 2Bir l^abgn feinen 
freien 3utrit ^u ben ^^erjen ber Sente, )£)a^ gefell* 
ft^aftlic^e 3«f(i^nienleben, tk frennblic^e Unterl)ali» 
tung Ui ber ^afel, ubt, toix toix {a afle wiffen, cU 
nen grogen dinflug anf nnfer moralifc^e^ unb geifti* 
ge6 SKefen au^. 9Son biefem einflu^reid^en Umgang 
fd^lieft.un^ ber |)inbu au6» Dft mu^te ic^ mit S3e* 
bauern (dc^eln, al0 i^ feine 3^l)ure offnete, unb bie 
^ef(^dftigfeit bemerfte, mit tt?elc^er er alle^ aue bem 
SBege rdumte, bamit burc^ meine SSeru^rung ni^t^ 
t)erunreimgt njurbe* Tilt (^rftaunen l^orten t)k Sen* 
ten su, ale i6) i^nen erjd^lte, t)a^ in ^eutfc^lanb 
ber $rebiger mit bem ^auer^mann ^nft^en unb effen 
fonne, oI)ne ba^ feine |)eilig!eit etwa6 barunter leibet, unb 
ta^ ein 9)Ze^ger unb ©c^ufter, tk mit gleifc^ um* 
gel)en, eben fo gute ^l)riften fe^n fonnen, ale ein 
(3cU^xUx unb (Scbreiber. 5Son SSoreftern l)er l)aben 
fie ben tiefen ©inbruef erl^alten, t)a^ ee unfcbirflic^; 
^nte^renb , beflecfenb ift , wenn SD^^enfc^en x>on »er* 

inSnbien. ^ 223 

fc^iebenen fHationcn ftd^ mit einanber tjermifc^en , e6 
graut i^nen balder t)or ber 3!enbenj be6 ^^riften* 
t^ume, wel^e^ im J)o!)eni Sinn alien au^ern Unterf 
fc^ieb aufi^ebt unb feme ^Serel^rer in eine ©efeUfc^aft 
jufammenbringt. 2)e^tt>egen »er^Men mand^e ^in:^ 
bu0, bie no^ feft am Allien l^dngen, tvenn ^te ben 
SO^iffiondr ptebigen l^oren, mit il)rem Dberfleib ben 
SJJiunb unb bie S^Jafe, hamit fte nid^t burd^ feinen 
|)aud^ ijerunreinigt murben. <Sobalb ta^ (Sjf^n 
aiff ben Zi\(i) tarn, entfernte jid^ mein ^-Punbit al^^ 
balb au6 bem ^immex, ba ber (^eruc^ ber Speife, 
ja fogar ber Slnblitf be^ Dc^fenfleif^e^ feine |)eilig* 
feit beflecfte. , 

- din Settler tt)urbe Ueber ^unger'^ jierben, al^ 
etwaS t)on ber <Speife geniefien, bie ber (Suro:pder 
ubrig gelaffen f)at. 2)ie ^alanfintrdger, welc^e ^u 
einer ber niebrtgften ^aften gei^oren , tt)eigern jtc^, 
Semanb ju tragen, ber noc-^ niebriger. ift. ©o fam 
ic^ einmal auf einer 9ieife in gro^e SSerlegen^eit , jte 
tDeigerten ft(^ bie ^inb^magb mitjnne^men^ enblicf> 
gab il)r meine (^attin unfer fleine^^inb in bie Slrme, 
well fie fagten jie tragen nur tt)ei§e Seute unb jeftt 
liefeen jte e6 fic^ gefallen* 

'S:)a @^re unb ^f^eid^tl^um mit bem ^ajientvefen 
oft in enger SSerbinbung fte^en, fo Id^t ji(^ ben!en, 
n)ie gro^e |)inberniffe baffetbe ber SSerbreitung be§ 
^^rijientl^umg in ben S93eg legt, 

3c^ i^atte )?or mel^reren 3al;ren einen ^ulin*53ra*' 


minen*) im Unterric^t, ber in Calcutta getauft wor^ 
ben war. 2)e0 5lbenb6 befuc^te er juweilen bie S3ra* 
minen in S5urbtt)an unb trug in i^rer @efeUf(^aft 
ta^ ^exi^m ber ^afte, bie .^eilige <5^nur um ben 
^al^. (Sobalb ic^ i^n baruber jw^ 9lebe ftellte, 
mac^te er ftc^ bai?on unb liep ftd^ nic^t w>ieber fe^en. 

^in anberer 9?anien6 ^f)a^aban, befu^te l^ciuftg 
nnfern bengalifd^en ^otte6bienft, unb tt>urbe ^on ber 
fS^al)x\)dt fiberjeugt (Sine 3t^xt (ang gerietl^ er in 
gropen ^am^f unb Unruf^e; jweinial bather mx^ nm 
bie ^aufe, unb \t>k e3 ju bem widbtigen 6(^ritt fam, 
Sog er ftc^ tt)ieber juriief. IDiefer S3ramine l)atte fei^^ 
nen Slntl^eil an t)^m (Sinfomnten eine0 ©o^entem^el^j 
c§ l^anbelte iic^ bal)er Ux x^m nic^t nur um bie 
(B^maCi) i)on feinen greunben au^geftogen p wer^ 
ben, fonbern aud^ )x>a^ ^ciuftg ber gall ift, um feinen 
Seben^^Unterl^alt,* er mad^te bie Sf^e^nung unb l^atte 
nid^t ^raft e6 l^inau^juful^ren. 3d^ fenne mel^rere 
ref))ectable |)inbu0 in ^urbwan unb ber Umgegenb, 
iveld^e fur \)k 5(nnal)me be^ ^^riftent^um^ geneigt 
tt>aren, aber ber S^erluft ber ^afte, ber (Sf)re unb 
bee @infommen6 ^It fie gurucf. 5t(te ^evr»ol^nl^eiten 
unb ^ebriiuc^e, fo un^ernunftig unb f^dblid^ fie au^ 
feitt mogen, tt)erben mit ben Shorten entfc^ulbigt : 
„ @0 gel)ort §u unferer ^afte " , unb bamit benfen tk 
^enie, xft attee in6 Sfieine gebrac^t. ^ ^ 

@in anbere6 ^inberni^ gegen ben gortgang be^ 
(S^rifient^um^, ift ta^ in ijielen S^l^eilen i?on 3nbien 

2)ie I;oc^|le ^lajfe ber ^riej^erlafle. 

in 3nt)ten, 225 

tio(^ befte!)enbe ^atriard^alifc^^e 6vftem. din ^an€^ 
x>akx \)at Me Dberl)errfcf)aft uber feine Qanje ga^ 
milie; fo lange er (ebt, @tirbt fein SSruber unb (a§t 
eine gamilte ^urud, fo ubernimmt er au(^ i)Ott biefer 
bie oberfte Seititng. ^eixat^ct bev @o^n, fo n)irb er 
be^ttjegen ni^t unab^dngig i)on bem SSater, Slon 
bem gememfamen ^rtrag be6 gelbbaue^ gibt bet 
5tlte t)m iungern gamilien fo t)iel a(0 er fur if)re 
Bebitrfniffe not^ig a^UU |)dnbel unb ©treitigletten 
bie i)on 33etrug unb Unterbrucfungl^errul^ren, fommen 
jwar l^duftg t)or. 5(ber tt>enn einer ^a^ gamilien^ 
banb serrei^t unb fid^ abfonbert , fo ik^ er fid^ ben 
^abel unb ijk SSerac^tung ber S^^a^barn ju» 60 
fommt e§, ba^ bie Sugenb, welc^e in ben (Sc^ulen eine 
(f)riftlid)e (^r!enntni§ erlangt ^at, unb fur bie SQ3al)r:^ 
})ni am emipfdnglic^ften ift, e^ nic^t n)agen barf, il)- 
rer Ueberseugung gemd§ ju l)anbe(n. liefer Urn- 
ftanb t)inbert unter bem t>offnung^t)oKften Z\)ni be^ 
fSolU hie freie (Enttvicfelung be6 ^^riftent^ume unb ift 
eine ber Urfac^en, \)a^ e^ un^ an nii^lic^en pm ^etjr^^ 
ami tauglic^en Lenten gar fel)r fe{)(t ©ibt unter 
biefen Umftdnben ein iunger SJ^ann feine »dter!ic?^e 
^Religion auf, fo wirb er al^balb au6 bem gamiiien^^ 
^reife au^gefc^loffen unb mit (Srbitterung tjerfolgt. 
2)te ^efefee Wlnm^ berauben il}n M vdterlid^en 
(Srbt^eiB unb gebieten, bap er t)on nun an al6 geinb 
ber menfc^li^en @efel(f(^aft angefel^en werben foU, 
S3i^^er l)at bie oftinbif^e Olegierung noc^ feine @(^ritte 
get!)an, um biefem f(f)reienben Uebel abjul^elfen, unb 
Jtiem sum ^l)riftentf)um befe^rten fein @igent!)um ^u 


^4 !Dic Sc^WJiengfeiten ter !0lif(tona^flrbctt 

minen*) im Unternc^t, ber in Calcutta getauft wor*? 
ten War. ^e^ 5lbenb6 befu(^tc er jutioeilen tie S3ra* 
mineu in 35urt)tt)an unb trug in i^rer ®efetlf(3^aft 
i)a6 ^d^m ber ^afte, bie .^eilige 6c^nur urn ben 
|)al6. (Sobdb i^ i^n bari^ber pr 9lebe Mte, 
ma^U er ftc^ bai)on unb liep fic^ nic^t W)ieber fe^en. 

^in anberer S^^amen^ ^^a^ahan, befu(^te l^auftg 
unfern bengalifc^en ©otte^bienft, unb n>urbe ^on ber 
9Bal)ri|eit fiber^eiigt. (Sine 3^it (ang gerit^tl^ er in 
grogen ^am^f nnb Unruf^ej gnjeimal bather mid^ nm 
bie ^aufe, nnb tt>ie e^ §u bem tt)i(i)tigen (S^ritt !am, 
Sog er jt(^ tt)ieber ^urucf. !Diefer SSramine l)atte fei* 
nen ^(ntl^eil an bem (Sinfommen einea ®6feentem:peB; 
e6 t)anbe(te fi(3^ ba!)er bei ii)m nicS^t nur um bie 
(B(i)ma^ »on feinen greunben au^gefto^en p wer* 
ben, fonbern au^ tt?a^ t)duftg ber gall ift, um feinen 
Seben^^Unteri^alt^ er mad^te \)u 3fied^nung unb Ijattc 
nid^t^raft e6 l^inaue^uful^ren. 3c^ fenne mel^rere 
reft)ectable $inbu6 in 33urbwan unb ber Umgegenb, 
iveld^e fur bie Wnnal^me be^ (S^riftent^uma geneigt 
tt)dren, aber ber SSerluft ber J^afte, ber (Sl)re unb 
bee (Sinfommene l)dlt fie gururf. 5llte (^eVfol^nl^eiten 
unb ©ebrdu^e, fo un^ernunftig unb f(^dbli^ fie au(^ 
fein mogen, ttjerben mit \)m Shorten entfd)ulbigt : 
/, @6 gel)ort ju unferer ^afte", unb bamit benfen bie 
^eute, iji alle0 in6 S^ieine gebra^t. 

^in anberee ^inbernif gegen ben gortgang be^ 
'^^riftentl^um^, i^ i)a^ in i)ielen Sl)eilen t)on 3nbien 

') 2)te l;oc^|le (5lafe ber ^Priejlerlajle. 

in Snbien, 225 

ito(^ beftel^enbe ^atrmrd^alifc^e 6#em, din |)au6^ 
vater l^at He Dberl)errfc^aft uber feinc ganje ga^ 
milie, fo lange er (ebt. 6tirbt fein 53ruber unb (a§t 
cine gamilie juru(f, fo ubernimmt er auc^ »on biefer 
bie oberfte Seitmg. |)eirat^et ber (5o^n, fo tt)irb er 
be§tt)egen nid)t unabpngig »ott bem SSater, S^on 
bem Qemeinfamen ^rtrag be6 getbbaue^ gibt ber 
5llte i)m iiingern gamtlien fo t)ie( a(6 er fur i^re 
^ebiirfniffe not^ig ac^tet, |)dnbe( unb ©trettigfeiten 
bie t)on S3etrucj unb Unterbrucfung l^erruljren, fommen 
jwar ^dufig »or, 5(ber tt>enn einer ba^ gamilien^ 
banb ^errei^t unb flc^ abfonbert, fo jief^t er ftd^ ben 
ZdM unb bie 3Serac^tung ber ^a^haxn lu* <5o 
fommt e6, ba§ bie Sugenb, W)el(^e in ben ©cbulen eine 
(i)riftlicf)e (Srknntni^ erlangt I)at, unb fur bie 2Ba^r^ 
})dt am emipfdnglirf^ften ifi, e6 nic^t tvagen barf, il)- 
rer Ueberjeugung gemdg ^u f)anbe(n. 2)iefer Urn- 
ftanb !£)inbert unter bem I>ofnung^t)ottften 3:^eil be^ 
SSolf^ bie freie (Sntwicfelung be6 (i^riftent^ume unb ift 
eine ber Urfac^en, ta^ e^ un0 an niiltic^en pm ^c^x^^ 
ami tauglic^en Lenten gar fel)r fel)lt» ®ibt unter 
biefen Umftdnben ein junger SJ^ann feine »dter!idf)e 
^Religion auf, fo wirb er al^balb au6 i>cm gamitien* 
^reife au^gefc^Ioffen unb mit (Srbitterung t?erfolgt 
2)ie (^efe^e 9}lenu6 berauben il)n be^ vdterli^en 
(SrbttjeiB unb g.ebieten, bap er t)on nun an al^ geinb 
ber menfcfclic^en ^efetlfc^aft angefei)ett tverben fott» 
S3i0f)er ^at bie oftinMfc^e Olegierung noc^ feine 6(i^ritte 
get^an, urn biefem f^reienben Uebel ab^u^elfen, unb 
iem sum ^{)riftentf)um befe^rten fein Qigentf^um au 

i>*.^ - -'•^■Kc^weuifW'^i. 

226 2)if Sd^miertgfeitctt ber i0?iffton6^2rr{^it 

i^^en, Mt^, tt)a6 feinem . |)er^en Iteb unb tl^euer 
tft, tt)irb i^m ent^ogen, er fami nid^t tne!)r bei ben 
©eitticjen leben unb tnu5 bie gtuc^t ergreifen. <Sogar 
feitt SBetb unb -feme ^inber n^erben in inanc^en^drfeti 
gurM be|)a(ten,.aitcl^ itjennfte t»in% mcireir, ba6 Soo^ 
lte0-®atten unb SSaterg ju tl)eilen. @o fomrat e^, 
ta^ |>unberte ft* furc^^ten, ben 5Borten beig SJ^iftto* 
jidre .^el^or gu geben unb il^rer Ueber^eugung gemd^ 
bie SSal^rl^eit frei gu befennen; ftejittern, vijenn (te 
baran benfen, bag fte mit 'einem folc^en 53efenntmg 
^eimatl^, greunbe, mii alien greuben ber SBelt, ja 
^eib unb Seben auf ba6 (5:|)iel fe|en; * 
* 3(^ fal^e eiiien befe^rten Sungling in (Calcutta, 
bem feine ndc^fien SSentanbten na^ ber &aufe nar* 
fotifc^e -^etrdnfe gaben; tk if)n be^ SSerjianbe^ be* 
raubten, unb noc^ i.e|t leibet er an ben gofgen ba»on» 
(Sinem jungen ^aijomebaner , ben ic^ in 33urbtt>an 
taufte, brac^te fein jimgerer 33ruber einen 5!o)3f t)oK 
mn^, biefer fc^cpfte Sl^erbad^t , gab einer ^^age eU 
n?a6 bat>on, hie balb barauf tobt ba (ag» Qin anberer 
Sungling' \)on ^o^ex S3rdminenfafte , weld^er bafelbfi 
sum ^l)riftentl)uni ubergej^en tvottte, ttjurbe gewaft?? 
famer iSBeife in etnen $a(an!in gefdble!ppt unb unter 
53ebec!ung nac^ einent fernen ^i)ei(e be6 tobeg weg^^ 
gefu^rt; "i^ fal) i'^n teiber ni(^'t meljr. ?D^ifftondr 
^dberlin fu^r eine6^age6 mit eiaem' Sungling in . 
bie ^ix^e, wo biefer bie ^oufe erl^alten fotlte. 5(uf ' 
bent SQSege wurbe er t>on 50 mit ^t^iigeln betvaffneteu . 
!2euten aufgel)a(ten unb sum D^fufsug genotl)igt. 3u 
t&aufe angefommen, braug bie tt)ilbe ©d^artr il^m auf 

•in Snbieiu • . 22T 

• . - • 

Itm Su^e nad^, unb tt>ar eben im ©egriff, ben ^auf* 
ling bie ^reippe !)innnter ju f(^re]p:pen, aU bie ^oli^et 
anfam imb fte aueeiuauber trieb* • 

@tu ^nabe t>oii 16 3a!)ren,:\>on ter erften ^(affe 
in ber englifc^en (5c^ule in S3urbtt>an , ttjnrbe bnr^ 
-ba6 Sejcn ein^6 ^mctat^ mci^tig ergrifen. (Bx fagte 
feinem QSater, er fonne nid^t (anger (^o§en anbeten^ 
unb l)abe ftcb entfc^loffen, ein ^^riff ju werben. !l)er 
JBater .fc^lug ifjn mit einem 6ito(f/ fl3errte i^tt brct 
JIage ein, au(^ er^iek ft nid^t^ al0 Saffer.unb et^ 
n>a0 trocfhien 3ftei^. 3)arauf brad^te er iijn bnr^ 
33efte(^ung in ba^ ©efdngnip ber <Btat)t, »on bem er 
ncrc^ einigcn iagen entrann unb px mir <t(^ flitc^tete. 
@eine iBermanbten !amen unb woHten i^n wegnefi* 
men. W($ er fetnen (Entfd^Iu^ bet mir gu blettett 
auefprad^,. warf ftd& fetn after ©rrfoater auf ben 
IBoben l)in unb fd^rie gar jammerlic^, We meine 
^offnung ift ba()in, i0 bin in einen Dcean be^ Un^ 
qIuc!6 .\)crfunfen, id^ fturje in Die ^oUc l^inunter. 
3d^ ^offte, biefer mein ©ro^fo^n njerbe meine ZoUeH'^ 
feier f)alten/ unb mir in ben |)imme( ^elfen, j[e|t bin 
id^ i^erloren! 2)a6 SKel^Hagen. bee ©reifen mit wei§em 
^aar girig mir burd^^ -^erj unb i^ furd^tete, bet 
^nabe mcc^te jtd6 bewegen-laffen, tt>iebet abpfaffen, 
— - aber er blieb feft; " ^nn- w?anbten fie fic^ an beu 
9li(^ter unb gwei^age barauf, er^ielt i^ einen ob* 
tigfeitlid^'en Sefei)!, ben ^naben an feine dltern au^^ 
Sufiefern. 335ag [olTte i^ t^un, Um ^otte^ SBitten, 
fagte ber 3ungling, fdbidfen fie miii) nid^t jurittf^ — 
i^ xvci^f mein 3Sater ivirb mic^ mit @ift um^ringen, 

15 * 

■sap's^'- ^'i^^r'WE'a^-^ 

228 2)ie @d)n)ieri9fciten ber !»?iffion6^5(rbcit 

tt)enn ic^ nic^t t)or bem ®6§enbilb nieberfnie. 3^ 
betete mit i()m ju betii 3Sater ber in6 SSerborgenc 
ftel)t; taufte x\)n benfelbigeii 5lbeub im Seamen ^t\u 
imb fc^icfte i^n wa^rent) t>er Dlat^t "unter S3eg(eitun^ 
i)on i\m »ertrauteu SJJdnuern auf eine entfcrnte 
Station, unb al6 nac^ etntgen 3J?onaten ber 6turm 
i?oruber war, Urn ex na^ 53iirbn?att ^nxM, unb ar^ 
beitet feit 6 3al;ren a(6 Se^rer an ber englif^eii 

: 2)er ©uru ober geiftlic^c i^e^rer ift eine Wrt 
ober 5lbart t?on ©eelforger unter ben 4)mbu6. (Sr 
befuc^t \)k gamtlien i>on |)au^ ju ^axi^ unb Idgt 
fic^ »on il)nen anbeten. @r forgt bafitr, ba^ feine 
33eicbt!inbcr fein crt^obor bleiben unb feine anbere 
religiofe Sbcen befommen, aB bie, w>elc^e er fur 
rei(^li(^e ^ejal^lung i()nen einflo^t. 33ringt ein^nabe 
ein dbriftlicf^e^ S3ucf^ nac^ ^aufe, fo n^arnt ifen biefer 
^uru t)or ber falfcben Se^re, woelc^e feine ^eiligfeit 
beflecfen tt>urbe, unb gebietet, ba^ tk (Sc^rift ^erftort 
w>erben foil, _ 

3^igt ft(^ in einem Drte eine ^Reigung pr 5fti^ 
nal)me be^ ^^rifteutl)utn0 , fo macbt ber ^riefter mit 
bem ^d^ter gemeinfame Sac^e, um ba^ SSeiterbriu- 
gen ber neuen Seljre p J^inbern, SSor ac^t Sa^ren 
Moax eine folc^e SBewegung in einem 2)orfe, fiinf 
8tunben »on S3urbwan. ^t^n gamilien t^aren be^ 
reit, ben ©ogenbienft auftugeben unb famen, ha^ 
SBort (S^otte^ ju l)oren, D tt)ie id^ mic^ freute, naci^ 
langem barren, nun balb , tt)ie ic^ l)offte , einen gro* 
^en ^ieg bee (Svangelium^ feiern §u biirfen, ^bet 

in Snbtett. 229 

n?a6 gef$a^, met »on ben S^auffmibibaten gcg ftc!^ 
nacf) bem anbern jururf nnb nad^l^er erfu^r \<i) , baf 
bie ^raminen mit anbern einflugreid^en Wlanncxn [xc 
burc^ ^rof>ungen eingefd^iic^tert l)atten» j 

2)iefer ^a^ ^pflanjt ftc^ and^ gcgen bit bereite 
^etanften fort nnb bric^t ntd^t felten in ^Scrfolgnng 
M, mnn jtc6 etne ©elegenbeit baju barMetet 2)at)on 
l)abe t($ betrubenbe (^rfai^rungen gemddbt 3nt 3^^^ 
1832 tnufte i^ eine |)inbn ^ gamilie. 3* rerri^tete 
bie feierli^e |)anblung mitten in bem 2)crfe »or ei=? 
nem (^ogentemipel. 3)?e]^rere jnnge |)inbu * 6{)riften 
begletteten mic^ , tt)ir fangen ein ^k\) , id^ l^ielt einc 
5Infprac^e an bie verfammelte ^Ulenge , eine gro^e 
@(taar |)inbn0 t)6rten aufmerffam jn, SSiele fletter* 
ten auf 53annie, anbere auf t)k (Strol^bac^er \)et 
^utten, urn §n fel)en, tvd^ forging. Silled ging litb^ 
Ucb nnb in guter Drbnung jn unb i^ !ef)rte banfbar 
nac6 53urbiDan gnriicf. (B)i^at be6 Sfbenbe fam @inet 
t>on nnfern jnngen Senten nnb brac^te bie S'Jad^ric^t/ 
ba§ jte eine groje 50f?i{ibanblung erlitten l^atten. 5lnf 
bem SBege burc^ ein benadbbarte^ 2)orf fa^en fte 
mube unter einem 9J?angoe*33aum nieber unb fangen 
ein ^kt. din S3ramine , ber S^niinbar be6 5)orfe6 
rief Die Seute jufammen nnb gebot it)nen; bie (§^riften 
tnrf^tig burc^juprugeln ; fo wurben fie jdramerlid^ ge/ 
f(^lagen nnb nad^^er in ba6 .2)orfgefdngni6 einge* 
fperrt. 3^ n^ar ba^er genot^igt, mic^ an bie Obrig^ 
feit §u tt>enben, bie (Ec^ulbigen wurben gefdnglic6 
dngeaogen, aber auf meine gurbitte balb wieber frei* 


230 l)k (Bdjmmofeiten ber faiifjtou^^Srrbeit ' 

flelaffen, ber 53ramme aBer mu^tc nncnMonai ge^ 
feffelt im ©efangni^ Bleibeii.. . ^-^ : : - „^ 

2)ie religiofen ^ e i) r e n unb(^ efc^id^t en ber Scfi a^^ 
fter6 jtnb dn anbere^ kbeutenbe^ *|>mbern.t6 g^gen tie 
SSerbreitung be6 (5!f)nftent!)um6. 53ei eiuem 53efu(^ in ^e*' 
nare0 Ueg ber 8tf(J)of t>on Calcutta einjge geie^rt'e Sra^ 
minen fommen nnb fragte eiaeu: 28a6 ift ber|)aupt* 
begrtff eurer ^Oel^re ? ^iinx antmortcte : Unfer .erfter 
Sel^rfaJ ift biefer: - OTe (Simbe fonimt .t)on S.ttft t^er^, 
biefe iwb burdf) 6unbe aufgeto^t , man rang ba^er 
fo t)iete <Simben al6 moglid^ be^elien, urn bie ?uft su 
^erfioren. ■ ' - :■-'-■ ■ '■"'-.■. - ■ '-^^ - -^^^ ' ^-7-^ '' •..■-:.: -^f ■;:■-;■ • • 

®ott ift nad^ ben Se^ren ber SBeba^ ber Ur^eber 
»en (Sunbe, barnm weis^t ber |)inbu alle^D'^a^nungen 
inx ^u^e i>on ft<^ . ab, gragt ber ?92iff!onar, tt>ie '^ott, 
ein reined imb l)ei(tgef SBefen, 53ofe^ ti)un fann, fo 
antwortet er ganj gemutf)!!^ : .SBa6 ki ben 9J?eni* 
fd^en fur Bmtc gilt, ift ki ben ^ottetn nic^t^ ber 
Slrt; fie ^abm ba6 $ri»ilegium, §u tt)un, wie e^ if^ 
nen beliebtj fte burfen nii^t na(^ einem menfcblic^en. 
SUiaagftab g^rid^tct . wevbcn. • SSie foH ber ^rebiger 
^eibcn an t)a^ ^^U. nnb (^ett^iffen foramen/ bei be^ 
ncii alle raoralifd^en ^egriffe v^vwirrt ^inb unbwelc^e 
baf gottUc^e SQSefen a\^ beniBater ber Sage unb alle^ 
S5^|en barftellcn? - . -^ ^^^^^ 

•SBenn t)k |>inb.u0 t?on SBunbern ^^rifii Ijoren, fo 
entgegnen fte^ unfere ® otter ^aben noc^ oiel grogere 
»errtcf)tct, n?el^e bie SBelt in ^rftannen fejte. ^rifc^na 
jura S3ct}>iel l)ob auf feiner gingerfpige einen raeilen^ 
]^o"§en ^erg in bie |)o^e unb befc^ugte fo bie .^irtea 


_ in 3nMen; 231 

im gefbc gcgen ein fur(?^tbare0 |)agelwetter , anbere 
riffen 53er0e au0 i^ren ©runbfeflen unb roUten jie, 
tt)ie 6))ielbStte gegen il^re gdnbe unb nod^ dner tranf 
bae gange ^SJJeer au^. 

5(nfiatt SD'^enfd^enlkbe , lel^ren manege <Bai^e tct 
Sc^ajier^ iOJenfcfeenl^ag im grellfien <Sinne. S3ei ei^ 
nem Dpfer fpncfet ber ^defter folgenbe SSorte: O 
®ott be$ genera, ^erftore bie^(Sinhe meine^ gdnbe^,. 
mdd&e feinen iD?unb »erftummett;- ^efte feine.3u«9e 
an, bag fie ftc^ nid^t me^r bewjegen fann, »erbrenne. 
i:^'n 5u 5(fd^e! 3fi e6 ein 3Sunber, bajp 9lac^bam 
unb 35ruber einanber anfeinben unb bejianbig im 
igtreit unb 3tt>idmd^t (eben, menn bic SSikba^ felber 
ben SD'lenfc^en 3u biab.oUfd[)em ^affe anfeuerri.l; 

3n ber l^eiligen S^nft fagt ber |)err : * „3^t 
fo((t l^dfig fe^n, benn i^ bin l^eilig," 2Bie gan^ an^ 
ber6 befd^reiben bie (S(^after0 bie ©otter -be^ ^inbu; 
fie jihb morxiUfd^e llnge^euer, bie fid^ in tguuben ber 
llnjuc^t tDaljten", t)ie .^immel, tveldbe fie bett)o{)nen, 
ftnb mit 6d^anbt]^aten befledft , wefc^e ft^ ffid^t er* 
ga()len laffen, 3)ie reLigiofen ^Betrac^tungen, iioelc^e 
am ®ange^ unb i)or bem S^em^el ben ^inbu^ aut-- 
gegebenfmb, erfutten bie (iinbilbun^efraft mit lui;^ 
rdnen ^itbern. 3)ie Suftfeud^e ber Unjud^t, in welc^e 
bie gan^e Station tJerfunfen ift / ifi baS . natMd^e @r^ 
gebnig i^rer 9{eIigion; fie \)at wa^rlid^ t)a^ 33eifpiel 
i^rer ©otter nad^geal^mt, todc^e^ i!)ncn juruft: ,,3^r 
follt unl^eiHg fe^n/benn toir ftefjen ale bie 9ieprafen^ 
tauten »on aUeri Saf^ern t>or e*ud^ \)di 
. X>Qn tief erniebrigten 3uftanb bee xo^ih^ 

^.'W^.. ---T?=*t *'^^t ■ 

232 ^ie @($n)ien{jfciten tier m^on^Mxbdt 

itidd)tt9ffett S3oKtt)erfe, ba^ t)er ^if(ton6fa(^e ten 
SSeg »erfperrt. 9Jlan benfe ftc^ einmal bie ^alfte 
einer Nation i)on 150 SD'lilliotteii *) SJlenfc^en »ott 
cittern ^efc^^Iec^t §utit attbern §u l^offnung^Iofer Un* 
W)iffen^eit t>erurtf)eilt. S33a0 fantt au^ einem fol^en 
S^olfe werben! 2)ie grauerunter beit !)of)ern (5(af^ 
fen lebett eittgefd^loffen utib fel^ett ttur §ttm fitter in 
ben (Garten ]^inau6, bte nieberen I)oren felten ta^ 
@t)attgeliitm, bettn jte bitrfen fic^ ni^t in ©efedf^aft 
ntit xl)xen ^dnitern jeigeit. SQStr f)aUn bep^alb be^ 
ftdttbig toor SJidnnern ^u ^rebigeit unb ttoenn ein guter 
^tnbrurf mtf fte getnac^t ift, fo gef(^ief)t e6 bi^wetfen 
ta^ ba6 SBeib ilf)it tt?icber au^tt^ifd^tj benn fte f)at 
t>ieKeic^t geftort, bag bie (^riftlicbe Oieligton atte aUe 
Drbnungen uber ben .^aufen tt)erfe. 2Bie jener 3J?ann, 
ber 3af)re lang im ©efdngnig fag, a(^ man i!^n f)er^ 
au0ful)rte, ba6 ^age^lic^t nid^t ertragen fonnte nnb 
in feinen ^er!er ^uxM »er(angte, fo ift be6 ^inbu 
gran atf \)a^ @c(at)en{od^ gett)ol)nt unb ftirci^tet, »or 
SO^enfc^en p erfcf)einen. > 

SBei meinen 53efu(^en im ^alajle be6 ?ftaiai^ yjon 
53urbtt)an bat i^ me^rere Wlai um bie ^rlaubnig, 
feine ^J^iitter fpre^en ^n burfen; tie nemlid^e 53itte 
tt)ieberf)olte ic^ na^ feirter ^eixaif), um bei fetner 
gran eingeful&rt ^u werben, aber W)eber mir, nod^ 

*) 9cad) neuern unb ^uverlaftgen SJerecbnungen belauft 
ft^ bie (5inn>ol)nerjaW t»on ganj 3nbten, bie von ben 
€naldnbern unabWngigen ©taaten mit eingcrecbnet/ 
anf 180 ?))iiUioneu, alfo beinalje eben fo uiele ale bie 
Sanber uon (guropa. 

in Sntien. 233 

meiner (^aii'm wurbe biefe ®unfl crjdgt. d^ ift 
ni(i^t (£itte in wnfcrem Sanbe, tvar He wieber^olte 

Unb bod) kmerftc i* mand^mal, ba^ ba6 ttjeib* 
Uc^c ©efd^ledbt mt ol^ne ©efu^l fur ba^ ®utc ift, 
mon^e l^orten aufmerffam meiner ^rebigt gu, imb 
njaren tief gerul^rt, ^^ ift bae (5l)riftent!)um, welc^ee 
bem W)eibli(f)en ©efci^Iec^t t)k ©teKung ijerfd^afft Wf 
W)e(c5e t)on einem ttjeifen unb gutigen ©d^opfer fur 
fte beftimmt W)an 2)a6 SBeib fott bie (^el^ulftn M 
Wtannc^ fe^n, ma^renb ba6 $eibentl)um jte teina^c 
burdBgel^enb^ al6 ben ^(i)Ud)iexen Zl^'til ber ^enfc^I)eit 
betrac^tet, unb no^ immer vvirb in 55engalen bie 
^eburt eine6 !!Jldb(^en0 al6 ein UnglM beflagt, unb 
no(^ immer njerben in !Olalwa unb 3flabfc^^utana »tele 
(Sauglinge burcS^ ®ift getobtet. 5(ber au^ i?on bie* 
fern uniiberfteigli^en 55erge, tt)e(d^en bie ^a^t bet 
gtnfterni^ aufgetKtrmt l)at, gelten bie W&oxte ber 
93erf)ei^ung : ^SllTe 35erge unb |)ugel folTen ernie* 
brigt werben, unb voa^ unglei^ i(i , foU eben werben* 
^ine anbere (5d^tt)iertg!eit finbet ber ?Dfiifilondr in 
ber (5^ra<^e be^ Sanbe^. ^in ganjee 3al)r, 
unb oft mel)r mug er ftc^ T^infefeen unb flc^ mit bem 
6tnbium berfelben abgeben, U^ er fie ferttg lefen 
unb ettt)a6 ^erficinblic^ fprecS^en faun; aber el^e er mit 
gertigfeit t>or einer IBerfammlung auftreten unb ^re* 
bigen !ann, gef)ett immer 3 U^ 4 3a^re baljin. 2Ber 
in feiner Sugenb Satein eriernt })at , fann nad^i)er 
mit leic^ter 9}lu^e ber englifd^en, franjofifc^en unb 
anberer 6^rad^en 9)leiper werben, wdl fte t>on bee 


234 X)ie @^tt)ien9!eiten ber mi\^on^MxMt 

erfieren abgeleitet jtub, oijer t>od^ im <5praci^enbau 
$(el)nli'd^feit l^aben. Mha Me orieiitalif^en @))ra<^eii 
l)aben einen gan^ neuen (S^aracter; beibe^ in (^ram^ 
niatif uni) 3t>iom, unb toenn, wie e0 in S^bien-l^du* 
ft9 ift, biefe no^ unenttx>i(felt ftnb, tt)enn ber 3)Zif? 
Jxomx feine !lJiteratur in berfdben .finbet, fo \)at a 
Swei (c^were 5(ufgaben, ncimlfd^ bie S3ilbung ber 
<S^raci^e unb tkfbde^xunQ be^SSolf^ t)orfic&. '^ami 
iii gewol^nlid^ noc^ ein tnoten p Bfen. 3>ie t?on 
ben S3.raminen »erfa^te l^iteratur im 53eiigalif^en^at 
in ^onjiruction unb 5lu6brucfen t)ie(e0 t>on bem(5an0- 
frit , unb ift nur ben (^ebilbjeten gan^ t>erftanblic^, 
ma^renb ba6 unter bem SSoll gefproc^ene SSulgar- 
SBengalifc^e, fur ben 3w?^<f ber .!B^iffton6fad^e noc^ 
weuiger taugt !I)eif f^liffionar mu^ begl^alb im ^xc^' 
bigen unb 53ftcberfc]^reiben eine SKittelftra^e . wci^len. 
Seinal^e nod^ fi^njieriger. ift e0, fur religiofe 3Ba^r* 
l^eiten unb abftrarfte 33e.griffe, bie gel^origen Slu^.brucfc 
ju finben. 2)a0 S3engalifc^e unb |)inboft|^anifc6e mu^ 
mie ba0 SSoIf, gleic^fam- gum ^l^rifientbum befel)rt 
merbeu; e^e fid^ biefe6 frei in benfelben betvegen faun. 
5ln Shorten fet^lt e^ jmar nic^t, aber biefe 2B"orte 
unb ^I)rafen be3eid>nen hei bem^inbu^ gar oft etn?q^: 
anbere6, M b<i0 wad ivix und. barunter t)orfte((in. 
3um §Bei}>ie{ ta^ SBort 6unbe l^at na^ feinen tl^eo^f 
Icgifc^^n 3been einen ganj anbern . 33egriff at6 bei 
und; er ^aubt ed bebcute ein 3Serge^en, Dad fcine 
^afte ^erle^t, mnn er eine ^ul) an ber ^ctte fterben 
[d§t , fe'ttxHxe Unreined anrut)rt ober. i^t, t)a^ i{)m ^er^ 
b(rten ift. iS^rce^en n)ir »ori ber' 9?ctl\wenbigfeit ber 

_ in SnMeri. ' 235 

innern ^Srneucrung be6 |)erseu^ imt) Sfleinigung »oti 
6unbe, fo benft kr |)iubu al^balt) an t>a^ ^a^ett 
im ^an^e^, tt)clc^e6 5lfte6 abn?afc()t ©ebraud^eu 
tt>tr bie 335otte (^ered^tigf eit/ ^eiligfeit, \o \UUt ex 
f«^ fearunter ba0 ^ol^c SBerbienft »or, wdc^e^ erjic^ 
burc^ SBattfal^rffn, ben Slnbltrf ber ^o^en, unb Mt 
Dpfer, wel^ benfclben barbriiigt, ertDtr!t^re* 
bi^en tt)ir »pti (Setbftoerlduguuitg unb 8d)etbuii0 ^6n 
ber 53^elt unb ii)ren @uiiben; fo mmfd)t er ftc^ ben 
3ujianb be6 ga!tv6, ber |)au^ uub |)of »erlaffen ' ^at, 
unb bur(i^ langttierige drtobtun^- be^ gkife^e^ |tc^ 
ben @ottern gleic^ cjemad^t ^at (Sagen tt)ir, ber Ttm\fy 
n>erbe burc^ ben ® lanbeh mil @ott tjereinigt, fo lerinnert il)ii 
ba^an bie :pantf)etftif^e 3bet, ba^ ber 5D|enfc^ jur^rlan^ 
9ung ber. ^.b^\Un ^eligleit {t(^ mtgeftort'ber.ftittenSBe^ 
trac^tung .(ScJ)in)ae bber. SOSifc^nu^ ^ingeben mn§, uob 
fprec^en wir fiber \)k greuben be^|)immel^,.fo bringt 
e^ beri @ebanfen an bie grob^jtnnlic^en Sl^ergniigimgen 
in % (^emutl); in )x>d^^e\^ i^re (hotter fid§ berufligen. 
3rt fogcir ber (^ebanfe an ®ott, Wei6t fie auf bie 
nnge^eure 3^^^/ '^^^ ®o^en l^in, tvel(^e in i^rem 
$ant{).eon ftguriren, ober an 58ra^m^ ber im 3iift^iibe 
ber 6c^laffn^t mit ben ^ngelegenl^eiten ber 9Jienfc|en 
nicif)t0 .§n tl^un ^at. 

^ragen wir bie !Be^re t)on ber SSiebergeburt »or, 
fo fagen bie .^inbu6, o ba6 ift un6 nic^t^ ^em^, 
Yoxx tt)iffen au6 unferii €c[}ajier^ , ba§ tt)ir n^ieberge* 
bofen VDerben miiffen, ee ift.unfer 6c^ic!fai fo.' 3Sa0 
ijerfteljen t)k ^cnU unter ■ biefer Seljre ? 52ic^t^ an* 

236 ^k @d^wieri9feitctt ber Wi^xcn^^xMi 

ber6, a(6 ba^ Me 6ede nad^ bent 2!obe in f inert ait* 
bern ^orper faf)ren tinb in einer nenen ^eftalt mif 
drDen erfd^einen mug. $^ie ^eeleniwanberung wirb 
mit bent 3Bort (Punarzonomo) SBiebergeburt be* 
gd(^net. % 

: 6agt ber !!}^ifitonar , t^ tneiue etttjaS gan^ (in* 
bere6, nSntlic^ bte jweite innere ®eburt »on Dben, 
fo fdttt iener auf einen jwetten Sntlbiim; benn bie 
gweite (^eburt l^eigt ber ^inbu bie @intveif)nng eine^ 
jungen 55raminen, ba i()m unter grogen geierlicfcfei* 
ten bie (^a\)txi ober ber !)eiligfte 53er6 ber 53eba6 iu6 
DIjr gefagt unb .bie S8raniinen*@c^nur urn ben ^a\^ 
gel)angt wirb, unb oft benennt man be§l[)alb ben 
S3raminen mit bem ^^rentitel jVDeimal geboren (dwi- 
zonomo). @o !am eg, ta^, al6 einer meiner TliU 
arbeiter bie SSorte 3efu Ia6: „ber SJ^enfc^ mug t)on 
!Reuem geboren werben/' ein ©ubra lac^enb au6* 
rtef : „t)a^ tft fd^on , id;} wiinfd^e, e6 tuare fo, unb ic^ 
fount eine 33ramine vverben." 

2)er c^rifilid^e Sefer fann barau^ abnef)men, it)ie 
not!)ig eine t)ottfommene €:prac^!enntnig ffir ben W\^ 
ftoncir ift , fo tt)ie au(^ eine t>oKige 53efanntfc5aft mit 
ben (bitten unb ©ebrdut^en ber |)inbu6; olb^e biefe 
ift fein ^rebigen unnuj; bie Seute fonnen il^n nif^t 
t)erftef)en; ober ttjag no(^ fc^limmer ift, fte mtg^er* 
fte^en feinen SSortrag unb nelimen ba»on STnlag jum 
(Epotten. SllTe tl^eologifcje unb religiofe 5(ugbrucfe 
muffeu einfad^ unb ^Jimftlic^ erffdrt itjerben, fo ta^ 
ber |)inbu fte i?on feinen ijorgefagten 53egriffen §u 
unterfc^eiben n?eig. 


in Sntm 237 

Qin trdtereg |)(nberm§, t)a6 unfcrer ^r6dt im 
SBege ftel^t, iji He geringe ^njat)l i)on SJlif- 
fiondren. SDf^an^e Seiite ftetten jtc^ "oox, SnHen 
fe^ mtt Slrbeitern befe§t, unb in aHen ^ro^injen be^ 
grc^en Dieic^e tt)erbe bae dtjangelium geprebigt, O 
greunbe \}a^ ift nic^t ber gaH. 3w^<ir 1^^^ ^^ t)ielen 
gro^en (Stdbtcn SDZiffton^ftationen angeJegtj unb Heine 
(^emeinben uon ©laubigen gefammelt worben. §ibec 
(eiber fann man na^ ber gegenwdrtigen 5(n^a!)l ber 
5(rbeiter nic^t mel)r al^ ettt)a einen 9^i|ftondr auf 
anbert^alb ?D?iHionen ®o|enbiener jd^len, ^ie ^tck'' 
tionen ftnb gett^o^nlic^ mel)rere ^agreifen i)an einau^ 
ber entferntj j. 58, S3urbtr>an ift t)on (Calcutta 30 
(Stunben unb t)on ^ifd^nagore 24 (Stunben weit ent- 
fernt, unb nur ein ober jweimal be6 3a^r6 fonnen 
bie ndcE^ften S^^ac^barn einanber befntf)en, unb ftc^ ge* 
genfeitig jum SKerf be6 ^erm ermuntern. Stebet 
ii^efer, fe^e einmd ben gall^ e^ ttjdren in berS^wei^ 
^mi nub in 533firtemberg ein ^rebiger be^ @t)ange^ 
liume, ift e^ nie^t fonnenflar, t}a^ biefe tk geiftlid^en 
^ebitrfniffe he^ 3SoIfe6 nic^t befriebigen fonnten, — 
benn aurf> in betrdc^tlid}en Drtfc^aften fonnten fte 
ja nur alle ^mi ober brei SciT^re einmal ba^ (§)?an* 
gelium ^rebigen — unb ttjenn e6 n>al)rf^einU(^ ift, 
t>ci^ Ui einem folefeen (Stanb ber 2)inge ba^ SSolf 
moralifc^ unb religion tjerberben, ja in ein neue^ ^cU 
bentl)um suriicfftnfen wurbe, fo Id^t fic^ au^ biefer 
SSerg(ei(^ung abnel)men, \vk e^ einem 3)Zif5ondr uu^ 
ter anbettl^alb miU onen |)eiben au mntl)c fc^n mu0, 
SBie foil er bie Wla^t bee ^ogent^ume bur^bred&en 5 

238 !l)ie ec^wieri9!eit«n ber ^^i|fton6=$fr6ett 

ttjenn er au^ t)en (lifer dne6 ?paii.(u0, bie Siebe eu 
Tte^ 3o!)anne^ imb ti^ ^orperfraft te6 9^iefen (^oliatl) 
l^atte, trirb tie jjfta^t ber ginfterhig, tt>e[^e im 
^raurni)o(lfn |)eibent!)um uBeraU wie bie 6c5rt)eijer* 
Silken aufgetT^urmt; t)0.r ij^m ftc^. erl)ebt, ibn feine 
ec^ti>ad)I)eit, fein ^id^t^ . fuJ)ren (affen. 'S:)Ci^ @eraffel 
be6 ®o^enfarren6 , bie 50fJu(tf unb ba^'vvilbe ^efcf)rei 
ber tbbenben SJKenge xibertaubt feine fc^ttjadje <Stimme^ 
<§6 ift feit 20 3a!)ren im.3)iftnft »on iBurbTOn, bee 
ijegen H SJJiUionen i)inbu^ entf)aU, t)ier geiprebigt, 

. t)iel bur(^ (Sc^ulen unb SSerbieitung. ber leil. (Sc^nft 
get!)an njorben, aber i^ "!ann »erftc^ern, \io!^ n)a!)r^ 
fc^ein(i(?^ brei 35iertt)eile berfelben nod) nie ettua^ »om 
SBbrt be6 Seben^ geprt Tjaben', ober ma^ t<iufenbe" 
t>om (il)riftent^nih tt)iffen , ift it)neri burtf) |)^ren|a9en 

. auf eihe entfteEte SBeife tJor bie DI)ren gefommen. 
llnter einem. fofc^en (5t)aog »o.n ^eibentl^um , in ei* 
nem fold^.en SSblfer^^Q^eere, beftnbet ft (^. ber SJ^ifftondr 
tt>ie eiti einfame6 ©cfeifftein auf bem ftitrmif^en £)cean. 
gurd^t nnb @rauen tt)urbe fein .^eq erfulten, menn 
cr jt(^ nid^t an ®ott unb feine 5Serl^eigungen ^oXivx 

^ie ic^ -bei ben ^o^enfefien biefe ?U?enfc^enm.affen 
iiberf^aute, erinnerte id^ mic^ an bie t5rage,n)elc^e 
'ber |)^rr'an ben ^rop^eten (5§ec^iel tT^at:- „^u9J?en* 
fc^enfinb, wie fbnneh biefe ^obtengebeine leben?" 3u 
tfr 3!!)at ; " alfe unfere SSemiil^ungen in"<S(^u(en unb 
burdb ^rebigen famen mir oft gerabe fo t)or, nl0 
tDenn einer ein (^Ia6 fatted Staffer in ben Crater 
eine^ feuerfpeienben ^erge^ t^ineinjielt 

in Snttett. . . 239 

5(ber in ben 5Cugfn\ ®otte^ ift e^ bod^ ^an^ anber6. 
2)a6. itngefunbe. (5 lima ift fur ben 3D?ifftonar dn 
anbere0bebeutenbe6^inberni^ in feiner 5lrbeit. SBenn 
t(^ be6 $lben5^ mn @(^tt>et§e triefenb t)om ^rebigen 
l)dmtam, ta fel^nte tc^ mic^ oft nac^ ein menig fri* 
fcf)er |)eimat^6hift. ^eibe6; ber Setb. unb '(^eiji , let* 
ben unter biefem ©influf j ba^ 0lertJenf^(iem' mirb 
abgefpannt unb reisbar, unb unter ben .55efc3&tt>€r* 
ben, Sorgen irnb -^iiyiul^fengfeiten 'oonvxan^ald ^xi, 
vt)irb fein ganje^ Seferi niebergebrucft nnb erfd^iit? 
. tert Ttan fann na^ 8U^r be^DJlorgen6 nid^f o!)ne 
(5(^aben im greten'fjerurage^en. " (Sin wacferer 9}^tf* 
fionar, 5ibam in (5akaitta,t)erfu(^te e^ me^rereSBo* 
c^en , nnb ata eir bat^te er f^aU ft(^ nun balb, accli- 
-niatifirt, vvurbe er fcf)nel( t?pn einer |)irn:=(5nt5uhbung 
^vegg^rafft. 3n ber Ste^eriseit iftbie bdmpftge. @(^n?ule 
uod^ bruifenberj "Ijier in ber |)emdtl) ift ia^ 5(rbetten 
in gefunber Suft cm Suft , bort in 3nbien ift jebe 
Sfnftrengung eine Saft, unb ma^t nic^t nur mube, 
fonbern entfrdftet. 5(ber- e6 ift nod^ eindinflu^ ia, 
ber fd^iberer brMt - al6-, ba0 . ungefunbe (ilima; er 
fommt t>m tex'Ma^t ber ginfterm^ l^er, ^leic^wic 
in ber naffen 3rf^ ba iin fruc^.tbaren ^engalen bie. 
^pianjennjelt in gaulni^ uberge^^f, • bie :pl)vftf*e llJuft 
t»erpeftet tt)irb , unb jetier . ^tt)eni§ug tie !i!unge be# 
.fcf)tt>ert, fo fu!)It ber SJlifftondr auf jebem €(^ritt, 
bag bie moralifc^e Suft rait bofen ^finften angefulft 
ift; bag er in einem i^anbe ift; ttjo ber @atan feinen 
^%on aufgefd^kgen-l^at: .UeberaU tritt i^m in ben 
(Sojenbienern biefeSD^ad^t feitibfelig entgegem @^ ifl 

i'W^^ -' '^f^ *" * » T"?. 

240 ^ie 6(^tt)iert9!eiten ter !XKiffton6^^rbeit • 

ein eigene0 ©efu^l , »on bent man ftc^ in ber c^rifr^ 
lichen |)einiati) feine recite SSorfteKung madden !ann, 
fben Weil e0 bem bunflen .^eibentl)um angelfeort. 

@o fommt e0 , ba§ ber ^rebiger nid^t felten in 
ben erften Sa'^ren fran! tt)irb, unb entnjeber ftirbt 
ober mit feinem Seben in ber ^anb batjon eilen mug, 
unb \)a ^at ex 3u feinem ^eibivefen oft ^u fe^en, tt)ie 
ber geinb ta^ , wa^ er 3<il)re lang mit t)ie( 5lrbeit 
nnb ©ebet auftubauen p^ bemiil^t l)at , wieber nie^ 
berrei^t, weil !ein 55ruber ba ift, ber, ba6 tt)a^ er 
angefangen ^ai , fortfu^ren fonnte, Urtl^eift felber 
baruber, fagte einer meiner SJJitarbeiter Id bem 3^^- 
te^fefte ber 5DZif<ton0'®efeKf(feaft in Sonbon, tt?ie e6 
bem ^fJlifftondr um6 |)er3 fe^^n mu§, wenn er geno* 
tl^igt ift eine 6cbule ober (Station anfpgeben, nnb 
W .f)eiben ftc^ fpottenb baruber anslaffen. Da fagen 
fie Ui folc^en ©elegen^eiten : „^6 ift bo^ gut, baj 
toxx biefemSJ^ann nic^t ^el^or gegeben l^aben; Mtten 
n)ir i^m gefolgt, fo witrbe er un6 jejt im <Sticbe 
laffen, gerabe nac^bem tt)ir unfere ^afte jerbroe^en 
unb ben Umgang mit unfern Sanb^leuten aufgegeben 
l^atten. 3)ag ift V\t 6^ra(^e ber |)eiben, tt)enn SQiif^* 
fion6''UnterneI)mungen fe^l fc^lagen; ic^J^ ab e jie mit 
meinen D^ren ge^ort." 

SSiele li^eute fagen, e0. fe^ eine lei^te @a(^e a(^ 
SDtiffionar nac^Snbien an gel)en, ba {a ^unberte t)on 
dngldnbern im (§i\>iU unb ?Dflilitdrbienft \i(k^ nam* 
U^e tl^un» 2)a^ ift w?a^r; aber ftc befummern ftd^ 
gro^tentl^eiB nx^i um ben <S(^aben 3ofe:|3l)6. 2)er 
SOeltmenf^ finbet au(^ in Snbien S'lal^rung fur feine 

in Sniien, 241 

€inn(i(^feit, unb gerabe ta^ bofe S5eif:pie( i?icler 
^uropaer, unb kfanber^ englifd^er Zrappen, ift eiit 
betrac^tUd^e^ |>mberm§ fur bie «miffton^fa^e, aj?an ift 
Je^t in ^engalen aKgemein barin dnt)erftanben, ba^ (Sta^ 
tionen, auf benen engUpe ilrupipen in ^arnifon •jtnb, 
ft^ fiir bic 9Jliffton^^5lrbeit am wcnigften eignen. 

9Sor 4Q SaJ^ren l^atte man ein (S^jrid^n^ort in 
Sengakn, t)a^ bie (Sngtanter auf ber 9ietfe na(^ 3u^ 
bien i!)re 9fteligion auf bem ^ap ber guten ^offnung 
jurucflaffen. ©ottlob, auc^ in biefer ^injic^t l^aben 
fi^ t)k 3^iten geanbert, d^ gibt je^t t?iele, bie i^re 
Sleligion mitbringen, ober njenn jie feine l^aben, bort 
eine befommen. — 5Bie tjerfel^rt unb fttten(o6 in* 
beffen bie |)inbu^ ftnb, fo wiffen fie bo^ ben mora* 
Ufc^en (5i|ara!ter ber ^ngldnber genau ^u :|)rufen; 
unb benfen tt?ol)l nid^t mtt Unred^t, jeber ber ein 
(5f)rift I)eige, folfe ein guter SJ^ann fe^n. ;- 

^a bie^ nun ni(^t immer ber gall iji, fo legen 
fte bie Siumoralitdt ber @uro:pder^ Der 9fieligion aut 
Saft. Oft riefen fte mir hdm ^rebigen ^u, 3^t 
(Engldnber fev;b fein |)aar beffer, aU voir; toei^t ^m 
nid^t, \)a^ liefer unb Seuer in fold^en unb anbern 
Sunben lebt? 2Benn eure 9fleligion fo v>ortrefflid^ ifl^ 
n)arum itnb »ie(e »on eud^ fo bofe, 5lntn?ortete ic^^ 
„gerabe barum, toeil fte jtd^ nid^t^ barum befum* 
mem," fo ertoieberten jte, ,,gel)e benn unb befel)re su^ 
rrji beine Sanb^leute/ 

^ »g)ier mein lieber Sefer, ift ein ^^er tJon 6d^tt)ie* 
rigfeiten, t)k bem SQlifflondr auf jebem <bCbxitt unb 
S^ritt ftd^ entgegenftellen. ?)a fte^t er aUein mit bee 

S3tit6tf{^t SWiffton in 3nbi<». 1(> 

^ tinjigen 5Bafe/ bein SSort (^otte6 in bet |)anb, iitn ben 
"ftarfen ©ewapneten anjugreifen unb ju xibeminben. 
SSuuberfi bu \)i^ noc^ immer, ba^ in 3nbien fo tt)e^ 
nig gef(!^el)en ift, — ober foKte bie ^l^atfad^e nic^t 
ol^ tin SSunber ®otte$ "oox imfern 5liigen baftel^en, 
ba^ ttjenigftene 12, t)iel(et^t 14,000 befe^rte ^inbu6 
in 33engalen unb ben norbtt)efl(id^en $rot)insen ^u 
ftnben'ftnb, unb ba^ n^enigfitm^ 80,000 berfelben, in 
ben proteftantifc^en SJltffionen in 3nbien ancjetrofen 
iDerben. Der junge i^irtenfnabe 2)at)ib, erlegte tm 
Sliefen ^oliatl) mit ber (gd^leuber unb bem ^teinj 
vocii er auf ben lebenbigen (^ott t)ertraute, be^wegen 
f(^o§ ber (Stein mit einer ^raft, bie bem ^^ilifter 
bie 6tirne fipaltetej eine folc^e ^raft l)at ta^ SKort 
(Settee : 3ft nic^t mein 2Bort tt)ie ein geuer, f^ric^t 
ber |)err, unb n)ie ein |)ammer ber gelfen jerfc^met^ 
tert. Unb biefe^ SKort be^ lebenbigen ®otte6, ijl unfer 
^roft unb unfere 3u»erft^t» Unter feinem fraftig^n 
©c^lag, ift fc^on manc^er ©tarfe in ben (Btxinh 
gefunfen, unb ^at jtc^ t)or bem ^reuge be^ ^rlofer^ 
gebeugt, : 

©0 bunfel unb traurig einerfeit^ ba^ ^iih i% 
tt)elc^e6 id^ I)ier entix>orfen l)abe, ^alte ic^ e^ bod^ ^iel 
beffer, ba^ man bie 5Uliffton6fac^e i^rer waljjren Sage 
n<ic^ fenne, a(0 wenn man ^ier in ber ^dmat\) 5(n* 
fic^ten ba»on ^at, bie nur in ber 33orfteI(ung , abet 
fcine^weg^ im Seben begrunbet ftnb, 3c^ ^a^^ mid^ 
burc^ t}k 6c^tx)ierigfeiten nic^t entmut^igen laffen, 
nein Ueber 9)^ifftcn^freunb , jte fotten un6 im ®egen*^ 
il;etr 3u neuem (Sifer unb SSirfen in ^ereinter ^raft 

^^^^^^;^^^^^^^^ .. in Snbictt. 243 

(inreMen. SSijfeti m(r ja boci^ , bag ber mit «n0 ffl, 
groj^er iff, aI6 ber in ber SSelt ift 

|)ier laffen ftc^ bie fc^onen 393orte be^ ®laub^en0< 
l)elben ^nt^er^, ber jur S^it ber Oleformation cmd^ 
ein 3)?tffiondr war, gar fuglic^ anvvenben: 

Wlit unfrer ^Kiaii)t i(l nic^t^ getNn / 

2Bir fmb gar balb perloren ; 

a^ jlreit't fur un^ ber recite ^ann, .. 

®en ®ott felbft au^erforen. 

gfragft bu, wer ber ijl? 

€r ^leifet 3efu^ €^ri|l, 

3)er ^err ^ebaot^ , 

Unb i(t liWK anbrer @ott, 

3)a^ gelb mu^ er be^alten* 

Unb wenn \i\z SSelt vott ^ewfel wdr;^ 
Unb ipettt nn^ gar verfc^Ungen , 
©0 furc^ten roir un^ nic^t fo fe^r, 
€0 foil une boc^ gelingen! 
2)er Jurjl Mefer SCelt, 
_.2Bie fau'r er ftc^ jleUt, 
%^)xt er un^ boc^ nic^t^ , 
3)a^ mac^t, er ifl geric^t't; 
gin Sortlein fann i^n faUen* 

(I^e ic^ ^um 6c^luffe eile, fiil^le id^ mid^ gebrun^ 
gen, eine furje6c^ilberung ttonbemS^ara!* 
ter ber befel^rten ^inbu6 beijufugen. 2)ae 
(Stoangelium %(xi feinen 6ieg uber Sente »on allerlei 
^(ajfen nnb ^aften \i(Xii^Xi getragen, 2)od^ flnben m 

16 * 

rAf'^WP^ ■ 

244 2)tc ©c^njtertgfdtctt ^er Wlx]fxon^ - ^xMt 

SlHgcmeinen He 3Borte M 5lpofie($ au<^ m Sntictt, 
mc unter ben §()nfien * ©emeinben be^ erften ^nU 
altera i^re 5lmvenbungr 9^i(^t t)icle SKeife na^ 
bem gleif^; nic^t t>iele ®et\)altige, nic^t mele ^ble 
finb berufen. 

33ei ttjeitem bie ^Jle^rja'^l i)er ©etauften beftefyt au6 
ber arbeitenben Slaffe, ben 2)orfbewo^)nern, beren (^e^ 
werbe ber Metban, obcr bie S^ielj^ud^t ift. SO^lan ift in 
2)eutfd?lanb geneigt, ftd^ biefe nenbe!el)rten Seute ent* 
fc^iebener unb eifriger ijorjnftetten , aB fte e0 ge^ 
ii?ol)nlic^ fmb^ ?Qlit tt)entgen 5tu6nat)men ftel)en fie 
'bei\)c^ in (Srfenntnig unb bem praftifc^en (55riften=^ 
tl)um, auf einer niebrigen 6tufe. 2Bie icigt c^ ft($ 
anberg emarten ijon Seuten, tt?el^e erft furslic^ au^ 
bem finftern |)eibent()vnn l^er^orgejogen worben ftnb. 
JDer TOffton^freunb ift geneicjt gu benfen, irenn 
ber (^ojenbienfl fo augenfc^cinlic^ aUe^ gute an bem 
5Ulenfciben »emitftet, fo tt>irb ber |)inbu um fo leic^^ 
ter ben gro^en ©egenfa^ bat)on, in ber reinen Se^re 
M (5»angelium6 erblicfen, unb ftd^ »on ber 3[Ba^r- 
j^eit beffelben uberseugen laffen. 5Kber bie Grfafjrung, 
bejengt ba0 ©egentl^eil, 2^ie tinber ber ginfterni^ 
^affen ba6 ^i^t, Weil iljre S3}er!e bofe ftnb. ^uf 
bie nieberfte 6tufe »on 33Unb^eit unb 53o6t)eit ^cx^ 
untergefunfen, ift fein ^erj ben ©tra^Ien ber S[Bal)r* 
l)di oft gana t>erf(^lpffen. Dae |)eibent]^um gleic^t 
in biefer ^inftc^t ben diegefifben bee S^Jorbene^ bie 
grut)Ung6fonne f^eint auf bie gefrornen SDZaffen ])inj 
ol^ne fte ^u fc^melaen. 

§ltterbinge l^at ber 9J?enfc§ eine bofe 9?atur, et 

r'^' in 3nbien, 245 

tncig in btr ^nb^eit getauft, ober ale dw^eibe auf* 
gewacftfen fe^n. fiber eine drfenntnig d^rifilic^er 
2Baf)rf)€it, fie mag andb no$ fo gering fe^n, legt 
tod) in bem tjerborbenften ^D^enfc^en einen morali* 
fc^en @runb, ben ber (^ogenbiener nit^t beftgt; er 
inu^ ihm tm^ Unterric^t erft einge^flanjt njerben. 

2)a{)er fommt e^, H^ ^mte t)k ftc^ urn Ue ^aufe 
tnelben, webcr \}k fd^retflic^e ^atnx be^ (^ojent^um^, 
«oc^ bte Sc^ott^eit gottltc^er SKa^jr^eit fo ttef fufjien, 
it)ie man e0 erwarten foOfte, ^u(^ \)ieCe ber @etauf* 
ten J)aben bei einem reblid^en 6inn, boc^ nic^t \)k 
flare 5(njtc^t S)on Otec^t unb Unred^t, nici^t ba6 mo* 
r-alifc^e (^efu^(, tt)ie wir e^ Mnfci^en moc^ten. S3ei 
t>er erften (Srwecfung er^alten ^te jtvar ein 33etDu§t* 
fevn i^rer ©unbl^aftigfett, ta^ ©ewiffeu flagt jte an, 
v6 regt (td^ ein 3SerIangen na^ ftwa^^efferemj aber 
f((le6 ift boc^ nnbeftimmt unb bunff I. SBie Idpt e^ 
fid^ anber6 crwarten? 

* 2)ie l^crrlic^en SKa^r^eiten be6 S^riftentl^ume finb 
i^nen/ ob |te auc^ 5(nflang im ^erjen ftnben, bo(^ 
ehva^ 9?euee unb lluer^orte^, wk ift e^ moglic^, 
J)a^ folc^e ?D^enf(^en, auf einmal SQlufter t>on c^riftUt^er 
Olein^eit unb 3f{€C^tfcf)af€n^eit voex^m fonnen, fobalb 
il)nen ta^ ©ewiffen aufwac^t unb ftc mit ben erften 
^runb^ugcn be^ dyangeliumS befannt werben. 

3war ^iht ^6 einjelne S3eif^iele t)on jSefel^rungen 
auc^ in ber ^Olifjtone - (^efd)id}te 3nbien'e »on M^ny 
Wen ; bie mit ber 5f enberung M i>exim^ auf ein* 
inat eine ganjlidbe Umwanblung i^re0 moralifcfcen 
0i)araftOT errangenj aber fold^e ^rfreu(i(^e S5eifpieC« 

246 JDic ed^miengfeUen ter 9Wi|fton6 ^ 5(rBeit 

t)on tcr 55eit?effiSn9 Qottlid^er ^raft itnb mannUdf>ct 
-^ntfd^lojfenl^eit, jtnb j[a auc^ in c^riftlid^en Sanbern 
etne (5e(teni)ett, wnb no(^ feltencr in einem Sanbe, 
wo ba6 (^ift eine^ befletfenben @o§entt)umei 3<i^v* 
l^unberte lang ba^ .^ergblut bcr iOlenfc^^eit bur% 
brun^ett l^at. 

- Unfere 9Jiiffton6 * €tationen finb in biefer |)inf[c^t 
;^ranfenpufern ju i)crglei($en , in benen bie 5lr§neiett 
iimfonft »ert^eilt tt)erben. Unfere ^dnflinge unb ®e* 
taufte gepren nic^t gu ben ^efunben, fonbern befin* 
ben ftc^ nnter ber drjtlic^en ^flege, \)ic einer treuen 
nnb tjoritc^tigen ^etjanbhmg beburfen. SBir muffen 
iinter biefen ITmftdnben nnfere ^rwartnngen unb gor* 
berungen, bei benen, welc^e bie 3;aufe ^erlangen, 
nicbt ju 1)0^ ftetten; nnb tt?enn fie tie brei folg^nben 
gragen geni'tgeub beantivorteten , voax i(^ bereit fte 
an^une^men. , • . 

1) (^laubft bu »on ^exien an Sefum a(0 ten ^eu 
; lanb unb briefer ber SBelt? 

2) 53ift bu entfc^loffen bem ©o^enbienfte unb bem 
, bamit t)erbunbenen ^apenmefen ju entfagen? 

' 3) SSittft bu tt)ie bi6()er in beinem 53erufe bid^ 
; rebli(^ ernd^ren, ober fonfi auf eine treue unb 
flei^ige 3Beife bir bein 5lu6!ommen ^erfc^affen? 
' SSenn jte bicfe grage aufrictjtig beantmorten, barf 
ber SJJifjtondr t?erft(f)ert fe^n, ta^ e^ i{;nen barum 
§u tl^un ift, ber Segnungen be6 ^^riftentl^ume t^eil- 
][)aftig §u tt?erben. (Sin |)au:ptbett)ei0 , ta^ fie t>a^ 
53anb ber ^afte serbroc^en l;abert, ift, t\)enn fte furc^t^ 
Io0 mit ben ^etauften pm dffen fjinft^en, unb be* 

, fn Snbiem 247 

fonber^ su fold^en, tie fn'tljer eiuer niebrigern ^afte 
auge^ovten. !l)a biefe^ in ben 5tugen il^rer Saub6* 
leute eine gro^e ^Sefc^imvfung ift, unb be^t^alb einett 
JDemuttj^ftnn unb dntfci^loffenl^eit erforbert. $un* 
terte »on ben arbeiteuben (Slaffen ftnb ju mir gefonu 
men unb ftaben bie ^aufe serlangt unb ^iev fonnen 
iinr ni^t tiorftc^tig genug \ein, benn ^auftg l)ahm 
bie armen !Oeute bie |)offnung; ba^ ite ntit ber 5ln^ 
nal^me be6 ^l)riftentl)nm^ il^re bebftrftigen Umftdnte 
i?erbeffern tverben. (£oI(^e ^^auf- (5anbibaten Herbert 
naturlid^ imnter jurucf gewiefen , fobdb bie n)al)re Utf 
[ac^e i^re0 5(nfu(^en6 ^um 3Sorf(S^ein fommt. 

2)ie grage: tt)ie n)irb e6 un6 gel^en, n?enn )x>it 
(i^riften tt>erben/ifl au^ bei Seuten t>on reb(i(^er ®e* 
jtnnung gar [cornier ig ju beantwovten. 3^re 55efeV 
rung fc^Uegt fte t)om llmgange ntit greunben unb 
9(la^barn au6, ^ommt e6 nic^t ju einer offeutH^eit 
SSerfolgung, fo ivivb i^nen jebenfaU^ burd} allerlei 
9?ecfereien ba^ !Oeben fauer gemac^t;— unb nimmt 
fic^ ber SiJlifftonar iljrer nic^t an, fo ftnb pe in (^e- 
faljr, gleic^fam notl)gebrungen in \)a$ altc l^eibnifc^e 
SBefen aururfaufatten. §H^enn aber einmal in einem 
2)orfe eine betrdc^tlid^e 5(nsa^l t)on gamilien ftc^ 
3itm ^^riftentbum befeitnt, n?ie e^ im 2)iftrict fifc^* 
nagore ber gall i\t, fo »erfc^tt?inben au^ biefe ^<^me- 
rigfeiten allmdl)lig, fte bilben eine (befell fc^aft unter 
fi^, ^elfen einanber fort unb fonnen ftd^ »on t)cn 
^c\\)cn unabl)dngig fortbringen. 

@c^on ber au6gei^rod}ene ^ntfc^luj, jt^ taufen 
iu laffen unb ber 53efuc]b beim SD?iffiondr, erforbert 

248 Die ®d^tt)iena!«ten ter !0^ifftonS ^ STrBeit 

cin grogee bpfer, al6ba(b l^ortmatt Me^eit)mf($en 9?a(^* 
barn fagen, ber tt>iK eiu (5f)rtft n?erben! |)a9 unD 
SSeradbtung ifi fein Soo0; unb la§t man e0 mit ber 
^Taufe metjrere 3)lonatc anftel)en, fo tt)irb ber arme 
5Qlann gar oft eingefc^ftcfttert unb tritt wieber ^urucf, 
greilic?^ gibt e6 wieber rul^mlic^e Stu^na'^men. (So 
wurDe ein ^nabe in Calcutta , »on feinem 3Sater ein^ 
gefperrt unb al0 er l)6rte, \)Qi^ biefer bamtt mnging 
il^n ju ijergiften, rief ber jngenblic^e |)e(b au0 : „5Sa^ 
ter i(^ bin ebenfo entf^loffen, al6 bu! bu fannfi mei* 
nen Seib tobten, aber nic^t meine @eele. 5lber ba6 
{age ic^ bir \t%i, fobalb ic^ frei bin, wirb mic^ Sf^id^t^ 
»on ber ^aufe juru(ff)alten.^ 

3tti ganjen jtnb bie getauften |)inbu6 ^inber OiX^. 
SSerftanb unb (Srfa^rung; unb al^ £inber muffen (te 
bel^anbelt unb f)erangebilbet tverben. SSir l^aben in 
ber 6ee(enfiilf)rung ein groped "^(xo^^ i)on (^ebulb unb 
©lauben notl^ig, 2)a^ ftc^ unter ber ^flege ber 
^O^ifftondre ber moralifc^e unb geiftlic^e 3uft««b bie^ 
fer gefammelten ©emeinben mit Jebem S^^te beffert, 
fann \^ au^ eigener (§rfat)rung t^eriic^ern. 

Slber ein neue6 ©efc^Iec^t mu§ !)erantt)a(f)fen unb 
tt)a^rfc^ein(id^ ein britte^, \i\^ unter i^nen atTc @)JU* 
ren be6 finftern ^eibent^um^ i)ottig ou^gewif^t ftnb, 
unb bie ba0 50olf \i\z moraUf^e ^raft entnjicfelt, 
tt?e(cbe e0 in ben (Stanb fegen vioirb, o^ne bie .^ulfe 
curo:paifc^er SJlifftondre, m felbftftdnbigen ^emeinben 
5u befte^en unb \iO^^ Sic^t gottU^er 2Bal)r!)eit burd^ 
SSort unb SCanbel um ftc^ l^er ^u i)erbreiten. S^o^en 
jia boc^ in 2)eut.fd^lanb 3cil)rl^unberte ba^in, nac^bem 

in Sntieit. :249 

cd km !)?am^n imb 53efenntui§ na^ dn c^rifili^e^ 
Sanb gmorb^tt w^r, e^^e bte @puren be6 alten |>ei^ 
bent letting gdni^Ud^ tJertilgt tt)aren» 
- 3n 5)?and^em mdner SJiiffion^freunbe tt)irb bdm 
ilefen btefe^ 5(bf^mtt6; ber (^ebanfe aufgeftiegen feJ^n: 
in 3nbien ftel^t e6 tm gangen, boc^ no6s) traurig 
au6. 5(Kerbing6 meine grambe, unb id^ l^offe, e^ 
W)irb Seben ^u ler^Hd^er ^l^ilnal^m^ emecfen. 3c^ 
l^abe bie (Ed^tDierigfeiten gefd^Ubert, gerabe tt)ie 
fie »or un6 liegen. 3ebe^ #emdlbe l^at eine ^i<fyU 
unb 6c^attjenfette unb bk SJiifpon^fad^e f)at auc^ 
i^r^e Ueblid^e @eite, bie nn6 SJlut^ ma^t unb ^um 
lSob unb 2)anf ftimmen foH. 2)a»on wirb in bem 
ndd^ften ^xipitel em iBort gefagt tt?€rben. Dae 3Solf 
b^r |)mbu6 ift tkf gefunfen , aber e^ ^at angefangen 
fein i^awpt p ert)^ben ; bk !!Jlef)r^a!)( l^a^t ba^ SBort 
^oitee unb bocf) »er(angen 3Siefe barnac^. 2^or et^ 
nigen 3«^ren ftarb ein 33ramine, bcr frutjer Sel)rer 
in unferer (Sc^ule bei 53nrbn)an war. 3n ber (Stunbe 
tet> ZoM bekk ex su 34^^/ ^t mi>c^te if)n in ^naben 
aunelE)men, er \)abe ja i)iele ^naben im 2Borte ®ct- 
k6 unterric^tetj — eS tvar mir biefer ©terbefenfjer 
be6 Uerfdjeibenbjen 53raminen ein crmunternber 53e* 
mei6, tjon bem/ nja^ bie <5timm=e ber 3Ba^r:^eit in 
ber tiefen JBerborgen^eit be6 |)ersen6 wtrft, ttjenn 
im auc^ du^erlid^ feme 5Serdnberung erblicfen burfen. 
-Die <^o|enfefle bauern jtvar noc^ fort, aber i!)r 
<^Ian§ ift t)alb i)erfd^tt)unben, unb jle njerben nic^t 
me^r me frul)er »on ben 3J?affen §8olf0 befuc^t. Der 
JBriimiuj^nbetrug tvirb Don ^aiifenbeu eingefel^eu unl^ 

250 3)ie <B(^mcxi^Uikn btx mi\fion^f%xhdt 

fie fcmmen alTma^Ug in SSerad^tung. (Suro:paif(^e 
SBiffenf^aft blul)t auf unb ber ^Iber^laiibe nimmt 
ab. !l)a^ iveibltc^e (^efc^(c(^t* ifi noc^ immer umvif* 
fenb unb unter bem !Drurf be0 6cIat)enio($e6. 5lber 
ber ^ag feiner drlofuug tt)irb auc^ balb fd)Iagcn, bic 
graunjtrb mit \i)xem an3efum glaubigeniO^anne ®e* 
noffm ber SBerl^eigung be^ :2eben6 njerben. ^ieSJlad^t 
.ber ginfterni^ ift ^war noc^ grog, unb wenn man bie 
^arte t>on 3nbien in tic ^anb nimmt unb nad) ber 
(Finwol^neraal^l ^Sered^nungen anfteHt, fo ftnb bie 
SJiifjton^jiationen mit ten gefammelten fieinen ©e^ 
meinben »on befel^rten |)inbuc^riften, mie einige Heine 
gerftreute 6tern(ein in einer ftnftern ^a^t. 51 ber 
e^ ift ein gottlic^e6 l^ic^t barin; ber, w?el(?^er 
gefagt l^at: „3(^ bin ta^ Sic^t ber SSelt/' 
l^at fie angejunbet unb fie I)aben tic (Sigen^ 
fc^aft ber Slu^bel^nbarteitj fie werfen il)re 
Stal^len in immer weiterem ^reife ^inau6 
unb tic ginfternig mug weic^en. 5(C[erbing^ 
n?irb tic ^iffton6fa^e nod^ manc^en ^axicn ^ampf 
beftel)en muffen unb unfer Soo6 f^eint gewig viclcti 
fein beneibenettjert^e6 an fe^n. Slber Ueber SJiiffion^* 
freunb , ber ^err ber |)eerfc^aaren ift mit un^, blicfe 
l)tnauf gum |)imme(, bort ift unfere ^eimat!), (^ott 
f}at fte au(^ fur unfere armen •f)iububruber , unfere 
gertretene |)inbuf(f)vr>efter beftimmt. 53etrac^tcn unr 
bie SJ^ifftou^fa^e v>on biefem ]^oI)en 6tanb:punfte au^, 
ber ia boc^ ber einjig ric^tige fein mug, weil unfer 
anbetung^u>urbiger (Eriofer jte bort l)iugefteKt ^at, fo 
barf ic^ e^ mut^ig n?agen, im iRamen meiner '^yHit* 

in Subtettv . 2j1 

axUitex, Mc auf bem !)ei^en gelbe ftel^en, bie Jreunbe 
in bet ^eimat^ unb ifjre d^riftlic^e €t)mpatl)ie anju* 
fprec^en. SQSottt i(>r nicfttaud^ un6 fo etn ermuntem* 
bee^ SKort jnrufen , ^t)te mtr Mr^Udfe ein SJiann »cn 
eblem ®eift eine^, ber J^el^rer in ber ^aubftummen^ 
5(nftalt ju ^Ric^en bei 53afel, jurief, ein SBort, ba^ 
mir lieblid^ an bag |)erj flang, weil e0 gar gut fur 
unfern 53eruf ftdf) eignet: „9?un (^lucf auf beun 
eurem SKerfe, bie i!^r aU tt)adfere 53ergleute l)u\ah 
fteigt in ben bunflen 6cf)ac^t eine^ ge{)eimnig»ollen 
@eelen(e6en6 , in beffen 2^iefen euc^ erft nur ein 
fcbauerlicf^ee 2)unfel umfangt, wo iljr !einen anbern 
^lang X)erne^mt, al^ t)a^ bumpfe 9^anfd)en ber ©e* 
it>affer, tt)o il}x eu^ t)inburc^ art)eiten mu§t, bur(^ bie 
i?ern?orrenen (^dnge bunfler unb truber 58orftellungen, 
tt>o ber Qualm unb 2)unft funblid^er S^eigimgen unb 
S3egterben au6 bem unl^eimlic^en 5(bgrunb euc^ ent* 
gegenfc^Iagt, n)o bie bofen (^eifter, bie au(^ Ijiex un-- 
ten l^aupen, eud^ unb euer SBerf ju »erf($utten bro* 
l^en, l)abt 5D^ut]^ unb 3Sertrauen ^u &ott , ber euc^ 
nic^t yerld^t. SBerbet nic^t mube, anju!(o))fen mit 
bem |)ammer M SSortc^ ^otte^ an bem @efteine, 
fotget ber l^euc^te biefe6 SSorteg burd^ bie 'bunflen 
©dnge unb if)r merbet mit be^ ^errn |)ulfe ein eb^ 
M '^etaU 3u Za^e forberU; ha^, wenn eg erft »on 
ben 6d^Uicfen gereinigt ifi, ju (^efdjen feiner (Sljrc 
bereitet tt)erben fann." 

©4) »iel ift mir nad^ bem bi6l;erigen ^rfolg btr 
SJJiffiongarbeit in Snbien flar unb auggemac^t, ha^ 
ipenn eine gro^ere moralifc^ geiftige ^aft in jenen; 


252 S)k 6(^tt)ieri9f?iten ber !mif}tott6 * 5(rbcit 

f)Oi^\t interejfanten gelbe entwirfelt ttjurbe, ber ^rfofg 
in bemfelben QSerpItniffe aud^ ^ro^er wto. ^ie 
SCrbeiten ber t)erf(^i«benen !Ultfjton^gefe((f(^aften ftub 
in biefer |)infl^t ber drpebitiou gu ttergleid^en, njeldre 
tjor t?ier 3at)ren na^ (Si^ina gefanbt n?iirbe. €ie 
beftanb au6 5000 Tlann ^anbtru^pen unb fnnfte^n 
^rieg^fc^iffen ; mit biefer ^anh'ooU Seute ^of te bie 
engltfd^e SfJegierung tic (5{)inefen ju b^mutlEiigen. ^f^ 
lerbtng^ wurbe eine gro^e ^af^l c^ineftfc^er ilfc^unfen 
genomnifn^ a«c^ ein^elne (Stcibte erobert, e6 gab 
€c^armu5€l unb ^efed}te unb wo fic^ eine c^ineftfc^e 
Hrmee blicfen \k^, ba iDurbe fte tx)ie @preu t)or bem 
SSinb jerftreut 5lber aS biefe^ %c^kn, 3}Jan6t»rtreu 
unb (Stdbte ^ (Srobern fii^rte eben ju feinem genugen* 
ben Otefultate. ^nbli(^ int britten Sci^re gingen ben 
englifcfren ^J^iniftern bie 5(ugen auf; eine 3(rmee t)on 
14,000 !9^ann wurbe nac^ (5^ina gefanbt, mit eincr 
^rieg^fbtte.; tie fx6) fammt 2)ani))ffc^iffen unb ^ran^* 
^brten auf 200 6(ftiffe belief j' fte fegelten ben gro^en 
glu^ g)angtfe^fiang f)inaufy befe^ten ben gropen ^ai^ 
ferfanal unb maren eben im 53egriffe, 9?anfing, bie 
^xoexte ^aiDptftdtt be^ diei(^e^ ^u fturmen, al6 ein 
Slbgefanbt-er »om ^aifer in grower (5ile im englic^en 
Sager anfam unb bemut^ig um grieben bat. 

©erabe fo gel^t ee mit ber 9Jliffton6fad^e in 3n* 
i>ien. ^er ^inbui^mu^ tt)an!t unb . bie SBraminen 
gittern »or ber fleinen (Streiterfraft, bi€ gegen fie 
^u gelbe ge^ogen ift. 5lber bie 3Sort^ei(e, tt?elc^e wir 
bi^^er errungen l)aUn , fonnten ttjegen ^QJanget an 
Erbdlern nicf^t ge^orig benu^t mxten. Wan ^at 

in SnDicm , 253 

u n ^ t> m ^ aup t q u art i cr i?er d& xiftli^ en ^ i rc^ e 
l)er nic^t frdftta gewug unterftu^t. 2)ie2Borte 
unfer^ |)errn jtub in S3engalen tt?ortli{?^ trat^r : !Dic 
^rnbte ift fo gro^ , aber ber Sc^nitter ftnb wenige, 
28 SJliiftondre fur SBengaleu