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1. The Life of Cicero ......... 

2. The Life of Archias .......... 1 

3. The Case .............. 12 

4. The Procedure ............ 

TEXT .................. 17 

NOTES .............. 



$ 1. Karens Tullius Cicero, the greatest of Roman 
orators, was born near Arpinum in 106 B.C. His family 
was of equestrian rank, but had never held any office in 
Rome. Cicero was accordingly a novus homo, and his struggle 
to obtain the praetorship and consulship was on that 
account made harder. He was sent while still a young lad 
to Rome, and there studied under the best masters, such as 
Archias. In B.C. 91 he assumed the toga virilis, and then 
attended the lectures of orators and lawyers. He was 
entrusted by his father to the special care of Mucius 
Scaevola, the Augur, from whose side he hardly ever 
departed. At that time one of the easiest methods of 
obtaining fame and success was by means of oratory, and as 
Cicero had a natural talent for this art, he cultivated it in 
preference to devoting himself to a military life. However, 
he served, as was usual with young Romans who aspired 
to public office, one campaign, and this happened to be in 
the Social War (89 B.C.) under Cn. Pompeius Strabo (the 
father of Pompeius the Great). For the next siz years he 
took no part in public affairs, but devoted his time to the 
study of rhetoric and the various schools of philosophy; 
from Phaedrus he learned the Epicurean system, from Philo 
that of the New Academy, and from DiodQtus that of the 

The first of his extant speeches is that Pro P. Quinctio, 
which was delivered in 81 B.C. Next year, in a criminal 
trial, he defended Sextus Roscius Amerinus, whose accuser 
was Chrysogonus, the powerful freedman of Sulla. It 
was bold in Cicero to undertake this defence and thereby 


to risk the anger of Sulla, but his boldness was equalled 
by his eloquence, and his success on this occasion plact d 
him at once amongst the best orators of the day. Ill- 
health obliged him to retire to Rhodes and Athens, where 
he continued his study of rhetoric and philosophy for 
two years, returned to Rome in 77 B.C., and was elected 
quaestor for the year 75 B.C. He served this office at 
Lilybaeum in Sicily, and acquired golden opinions from the 
natives through his integrity, impartiality, and self-denial. 
In 74 B.C. he returned to Rome, and again devoted himself 
to his profession as an advocate. In 70 B.C. he undertook 
the impeachment of Verres, who was charged by the 
Sicilians with having been guilty of misgovernment, oppres 
sion, and extortion when pro-praetor in Sicily, 73-71 B.C. 
Hortensius, the consul-elect for the following year, was 
Verres advocate, and on behalf of his client was anxious 
that the trial should be delayed until the next year, when 
the presiding Praetor would be more favourably disposed 
to the defendant. Cicero frustrated this attempt by getting 
his evidence ready in half the time allowed, and by opening 
his case very briefly and proceeding at once to the examina 
tion of his witnesses. The result of Cicero s onslaught 
was that Verres departed at once into exile without even 
attempting a defence. 

In politics Cicero was a fairly consistent member of the 
Senatorial party, or party of the Nobles (Optimdtes) ; the 
opposition was the Democratic party, or party of the People, 
and there were numbers of disappointed men of all ranks 
of society ready for revolution in any form if they could find 
a leader. Cicero was Curule Aedile 69 B.C., Praetor 66 B.C. 
in this year he advocated the Lex Manilla, giving to 
Pompeius the conduct of the war against Mithradates and 
Consul 63 B.C. The revolutionary movement had by this 
time taken the form of a widespread conspiracy ; its members 
were of every class, even senators and consulars ; it had 
branches in many Italian towns ; its object was to over 
throw the government of the Senate by violence and substi 
tute a Democratic government ; and from the name of its 
leader, it was known as the Catilinarian conspiracy. Its 
first step was to be the assassination of Cicero ; but the 


latter by means of spies kept himself informed of all its 
movements, and at the close of 63 B.C. suddenly arrested 
the leading conspirators. A few days later he had them 
executed (although as Roman citizens they were exempt 
from such punishment), and the remainder, attempting to 
carry out their plans by force of arms, were defeated at 
Pistoria, in Northern Etruria, where Catilina fell. The 
surviving conspirators fled to the provinces, and in par 
ticular to Greece. For his services on this occasion Cicero 
received extraordinary marks of honour, including the title 
of Pater Patriae. 

In 60 B.C. the Democratic Party found leaders in Caesar, 
Pompeius (recently returned triumphant from the war in 
Asia), and Crassus ; these formed the coalition known as the 
First Triumvirate. They determined to get rid of Cicero, 
who was too good an Optimate to please them ; and they 
employed for the purpose P. Clodius, an unprincipled Demo 
crat, and a Tribune of the year 58 B.C. Clodius drew 
attention to the illegality of the execution of the Catilina- 
rians, overawed both Senate and Consuls by the violence of 
his attitude and the presence of his armed partisans, and 
ultimately compelled Cicero to go into banishment. In the 
next year Pompeius quarrelled with Clodius, and to spite 
him procured the recall of Cicero (57 B.C.), who, his political 
activity being crippled by the Triumvirate, devoted his elo 
quence to the defence of his friends. In 56 B.C. he delivered 
his speech Pro Sestio, in 54 B.C. the Pro Plancio, and in 
52 B.C. the Pro Milone. In 55 B.C. he was admitted to the 
College of Augurs; and in 51 B.C. he acted as Governor of 
the province of Cilicia, where he conducted with success 
some small military operations. 

About this time Pompeius came over from the side of 
Caesar to that of the Senate ; and accordingly, when 
Caesar marched upon Pvome 49 B.C., Cicero, after some 
hesitation, joined Pompeius ; but subsequently, after the 
battle of Pharsalia in 48 B.C., he was reconciled to Caesar. 
After the death of Caesar, 44 B.C., an open rupture ensued 
between him and Antonius, and Cicero gave vent to his 
anger and indignation in the famous Philippic Orations, 
fourteen speeches, the finest and most renowned of which is 


the second. From the beginning of 43 B.C. until the end 
of April, Cicero was in the height of his glory, but before 
the end of that year, in the proscription that followed 
upon the formation of the Second Triumvirate, Cicero s 
name was, on the suggestion of Antonius, put in the list of 
those doomed to summary destruction. Soldiers were im 
mediately sent in pursuit, and although his attendants 
wished to offer resistance, Cicero forbade them, and sur 
rendered to his pursuers, by whom he was killed. 

In the foregoing sketch no mention has been made of 
Cicero s philosophical works, which were both numerous and 
important. His activity in this direction begins from his 
exile in 57 B.C. ; in 55 B.C. he produced the De Oratore, in 
54-51 B.C. the De Re Publica, and in 52 B.C. the De Legibus. 
This period of activity was followed by five years (51 to 46 
B.C.) of comparative rest, but in 46 B.C. he wrote the 
Hortensius or De Philosophia, a treatise now lost, in addition 
to the Partitiones Oratoriae, the Brutus or De Claris 
Oratoribus, and the Orator. During the years 45 and 
44 B.C. he wrote the De Comolatione, on the occasion of the 
death of his daughter Tullia; the Academica, an account of 
the new Academic Philosophy, which maintained that there 
was no such thing as certainty we must be content with 
probability; the Disputationes Tusculanae, treating of 
happiness and morality ; the De Natura Deorum, the 
De Divinatione (on the subject whether gods communicate 
with men by means of augury, etc.), the Cato Maior or De 
Senectute, the De Amicitia, the De Fato (an account of Fate 
and Freewill), the Paradoxa (an account of certain para 
doxical opinions of the Stoics), the De Officiis, a treatise on 
duty, and the De Finibus, on the Highest Good. 

So far we have dealt with Cicero s speeches and philo 
sophical works. In addition to those must be mentioned 
(1) his Letters, of which he wrote a vast number, and of 
which more than 800 are preserved ; (2) his Poetical Works, 
which were very poor in quality though not small in 
quantity his chief poem was written on the subject of his 
consulship ; and (3) his Historical and Miscellaneous Works, 
e.g. a prose account of his consulship, an account of his 
policy immediately previous to his consulship, etc. 


2. Aulus Licinius Archias, the defendant in the case, 
was born at Antioch in Syria, of well-to-do Greek parents, 
about 1 20 B.C. He showed a remarkable precocity in literary 
effort, and had made himself well known throughout Asia 
Minor and Greece, when in 103-102 B.C. he landed in Italy. 
The southern parts of Italy, Magna Graecia so-called, were 
largely peopled by Greeks, and Archias was warmly welcomed 
there. The states of Rhegium, Neapolis, Tarentum, and 
Locri, presented him with their franchise, and he finally 
settled himself at Rome 102 B.C. (in the year when C. Marius 
and Q. Catulus were consuls acting in Narbonese and Cis 
alpine Gaul against the invading Teutoni and Cimbri). He 
was under the special patronage of the two Luculli, and 
rapidly made friends ; all the leading statesmen and social 
figures of the day made him their guest ; his lectures were 
well attended, and he ingratiated himself with his patrons 
by writing poems upon their achievements. Both Cicero 
and his brother Quintus were amongst his pupils. He ac 
companied L. Lucullus whenever that officer went abroad, 
following him throughout his campaigns against Mithradates 
in Asia. It was on the occasion of a visit with Marcus 
Lucullus to Sicily that Archias was presented with the civitas 
of Heraclea. We know little more about him : he was alive 
in the year of Caesar s death (44 B.C.), and as he was still 
living at Rome in 61 B.C., within twelve months after this 
trial, he was almost certainly acquitted. We gather from this 
speech that amongst his poetical works were (1) Res Cimbri- 
cae, an epic poem on the victories of Marius (see Index) 
over the Cimbri ; (2) Bellum Mithridaticum, an epic upon 
Lucullus campaigns in Asia ; (3) an epic upon the events 
of Cicero s Consulship (63 B.C.), i.e. the Conspiracy of 
Catilina. This latter was not finished, at any rate at the 
date of the trial. The critics of the time compared Archias 
to the best of the old poets : Cicero does not hesitate to 
speak of him as a second Homer. He wrote in Greek, his 
native language. 

As a native Greek the poet had but one name, Archias. 
On his arrival in Rome he took the nomen (clan-name) of 
his patron Lucullus, i.e. Licinius ; and, as a full Roman 
citizen bon,stod also a third or personal name (praenomeri), 


the poet took that of Aulus, and retained his Greek birth- 
name as his cognomen. 

3. The Case. The possession of the civitas (" freedom " 
or " franchise ") of every ancient state carried with it very 
valuable privileges, and was accordingly very jealously 
guarded. Especially was this so at Rome, because Rome 
was always a conquering and sovereign state, and to be a 
Roman civis was proportionately desirable and useful. In 
consequence, numbers of aliens flocked to the city, always 
seeking an opportunity to get themselves enrolled as citizens 
(in tabulas ascribi) by whatever means ; and as the per 
formance of the Census and examination of the citizen-rolls 
was now seldom and only remissly fulfilled (see note, v. 19), 
it was comparatively easy to secure enrolment. Neverthe 
less, Rome refused to give the civitas, although the whole 
of the population of Italy had now long been Romanised in 
all other points. She persisted in utilising that population 
as a field for raising taxes and recruiting armies, but declined 
to grant them the merited reward of the civitas, so depriving 
them, for instance, of the right of free intermarriage with 
Romans, the right of receiving bequests from Romans, the 
right of voting at elections, and even the right of residing 
at Rome without fear of expulsion. As a result, after re 
peated efforts to secure the franchise by peaceable means, 
and in particular when disappointed by the death of their 
last and most promising champion Livius Drusus (see Index), 
the Italian peoples took up arms. Thus arose the Social 
War (see note, iv. 22). It lasted over three years, and was 
only extinguished by Rome s conceding under compulsion 
the civitas which she had refused to grant voluntarily. 
After 88 B.C. all the peoples of Italia (i.e. of the peninsula 
south of the Rubicon and Macra) might receive the civitas 
if they desired it. 

The laws which authorised this were as follows : 
I. The Lex lulia, carried by the Consul Lucius Julius 
Caesar (v. 24) in 90 B.C. By this law the inhabitants of 
any town not in rebellion might, if they chose, be enrolled 
bodily upon the list of Roman cives. Probably most of the 
towns seized the opportunity ; some few, federate statef 


(see iv. 4, note) possessing treaties with Rome of an excep 
tionally favourable character, hesitated at least for a time. 

II. The Lex Plautia-Papiria (Lex Silvani et Carbonis, 
iv. 7), passed by the Consuls of the following year, 89 B.C., 
extended the facilities of enrolment to single persons rather 
than entire corporations, subject to the fulfilment of three 
conditions : 

(a) They must be citizens of, or aliens resident in, 
some federate state or community (Archias was 
a civis of Neapolis, Tarentum, Khegium, Locri, 
and Heraclea, all of them federate communities) . 
(6) They must have permanent residence within the 
boundaries of Italy (as Archias had at Rome), 
at the date of the passing of the law. 
(c) They must register their claim for the civitas 
before a Roman Praetor, within two months of 
the date of the passing of the law. (Archias 
claim was registered before Q. Metellus). 
It was intended that all names so registered before the 
Praetors should be drafted by the Censors into the Census- 
roll (see note on v. 19). 

The Prosecution attacked Archias claim to be a civis on 
two main grounds : 

(i.) He could not show the documents to prove that 

he was ever made a civis of Heraclea. 
(ii.) He could not show his name upon a single 

Roman census-roll. 

To these was appended a third and minor allegation, that 
he had never availed himself of the privileges of the civitas 
of Rome. 

Now as Archias, for some reason of his own, had registered 
himself before the Praetor on the strength of his being 
already a civis of Heraclea, and as the record-office of 
Heraclea and its contents had been destroyed by fire about 
the time of the registration, he could not produce the deeds 
required. But he could bring forward witnesses sufficient 
in the persons of L. Lucullus (who had secured him the 
Heracliot franchise) and a deputation of distinguished 
And as Archias had been absent from Rome on thft 


occasion of every census since 89 B.C., and as the censors of 
that year had not properly done their duty in drawing up 
a citizen-roll, it was easy to explain why Archias name did 
not appear in any such roll. 

And finally, the third allegation was untrue. 

As a matter of fact, there was no chance for a verdict 
for the Prosecutor, as far as the evidence went. The trial 
was merely a way of annoying not Archias so much as his 
patron, Lucullus, who was at this time at feud with the 
other party headed byPompeius (see Index). The two had 
been rival candidates for the honour of conducting the 
Mithradatic war to a conclusion ; and though Lucullus had 
already shown himself quite competent to deal with it, the 
popular party triumphed, and sent Pompeius to complete 
what Lucullus had begun, hoping to be rid of him. They 
were disappointed. Pompeius was successful ; and in 62 B.C. 
he was on the point to return to Rome, whereupon his 
enemies the party which favoured Lucullus began to 
scheme against him. In return, his own partisans attacked 
Lucullus, and amongst other petty insults they included 
this, of attempting to separate him from his most intimate 
literary companion. 

4. The Procedure. The Prosecutor, Grattius (iv. 14) 
indicted Archias under the Lex Papia (de civitate Romano) of 
63 B.C. (see note, v. 15), i.e. he insulted Lucullus by classing 
the latter s brilliant protege with the ruffians who supported 
a Catilina or a Clodius. The case came before a jury of 
indices selecti, that is, chosen by lot from the full list of the 
names entered upon the Album ludicum Senators, Knights, 
and Aerarian Tribunes. According to the arrangement of 
Sulla, a large number of offences were relegated to certain 
permanent courts, or standing commissions (quaestiones) ; 
and as Cicero speaks of the case as one for a quaestio 
legitima, " a statutory court " (ii. 2), it probably came before 
one or other such standing commission. Each such quaestio 
tfas presided over by a Praetor (or, in default, by a 
Quaesitor specially nominated) : the Praetor in this case was 
Q. Cicero, which fixes the date of the trial at 62 B.C., and 
in the latter part of the year probably, as it was after the 


death of Roscius the actor (viii. 2), which occurred in that 
year. Grattius would speak first ; Cicero replied : the 
verdict was given by secret ballot ; the penalty would be 
regulated by the terms of the Lex Papia. 

Quintns Cicero was a few years younger than Marcus, 
the orator. He was a man of education, and something of 
an author, whence Marcus indulges in a long panegyric of 
genius and literature, especially of poetry. Quintus was 
also, like Marcus, an old pupil of Archias, and moreover 
was a political opponent of Pompeius and Grattius, and 
therefore friendly to the party of Lucullus and Archias. 
From 55 to 52 B.C. he served in Gaul under Caesar, after 
whose death both he and his brother Marcus were proscribed 
by Antonius, Octavianus, and Lepidus in 43 B.C., and in 
the following year he was put to death at Rome. 

The parts of the speech are: (1) Exordium or intro 
duction, 1-4 ; (2) Disproof of the allegations of the 
Prosecutor, including a sketch of the life of Archias, and 
detailed vindication of his rights to the civitas under the 
Lex Plautia Papiria, 4-11: (3) Archias had at any rate 
deserved the franchise by his literary merits : discursus on 
the value of literature, 12-30 : (4) Peroration, 31-32. 

%* The text is that of C. F. W. Mullet, in the Bibliotheca Teub- 
neriana. The exposition is largely based on the commentaries of 
Hahn, Eichter-Fleckeisen, Reid and Emile Thomas. 



I. 1. Si quid est in ine ingenii, iudices, quod sentio quam 
sit exiguum, aut si qua exercitatio dicendi, in qua me non 
infitior mediocriter esse versatum, aut si huiusce rei ratio 
aliqua ab optimarum artium studiis ac disciplina profecta, 
a qua ego nullum confiteor aetatis meae tempus abhorruisse, 5 
earum rerum omnium vel in primis hie A. Licinius fructum 
a me repetere prope suo iure debet. Nam, quoad longissime 
potest mens mea respicere spatium praeteriti temporis et 
pueritiae memoriam recordari ultimam, inde usque repetens 
hunc video mihi principem et ad suscipiendam et ad ingre- 10 
diendam rationem horum studiorum exstitisse. Quodsi haec 
vox huius hortatu praeceptisque conformata non nullis 
aliquando saluti fuit, a quo id accepimus, quo ceteris opitulari 
et alios servare possemus, huic profecto ipsi, quantum est 
situm in nobis, et opem et salutem ferre debemus. 2. Ac ne 15 
quis a nobis hoc ita dici forte miretur, quod alia quaedam 
in hoc facultas sit ingenii neque haec dicendi ratio aut dis 
ciplina, ne nos quidem huic uni studio penitus umquam 
dediti fuimus. Etenim omnes artes, quae ad humanitatem 
pertinent, habent quoddam commune vinclum et quasi cog- 20 
natione quadam inter se continentur. 

II. Sed ne cui vestrum mirum esse videatur me in quaes- 
tione legitima et in iudicio publico, cum res agatur apud 

Cic. Arc. 2 


praetorem populi Romani, lectissimum virum, et apud 
severissimos iudices, tanto conventu honiinum ac frequentia 

5 hoc uti genere dicendi, quod non modo a consuetudine 
iudiciorum, verum etiara a forensi sermone abhorreat, quaeso 
a vobis, ut in hac causa mihi detis hanc veniam accoininod- 
atam huic reo, vobis, quern ad modum spero, non molestam, 
ut me pro summo poeta atque eruditissimo homine dicen- 

10 tern hoc concursu hominum litteratissimorum, hac vestra 
humanitate, hoc denique praetore exercente iudicium patia- 
mini de studiis humanitatis ac litterarum paulo loqui libciius 
et, in eius modi persona quae propter otium ac studium 
minime in iudiciis periculisque tractata est, uti prope novo 

15 quodam et inusitato genere dicendi. 4. Quod si mihi a 
vobis tribui concedique sentiam, perficiam profecto, ut hunc 
A. Licinium non modo non scgregandum, cum sit civis, a 
numero ci\ium, verum etiam, si non esset, putetis asciscen- 
dum fuisse. 

III. Nam, ut primum ex pueris excessit Archias atque ab 
iis artibus, quibus aetas puerilis ad humamtatem inforinari 
solet, se ad scribendi studium contulit, primum Antiochiae 
(nam ibi natus est loco nobili), celebri quondam urbe et 

5 copiosa atque eruditissimis hominibus liberalissimisque studiis 
affluenti, celeriter antecellere omnibus ingenii gloria coepit. 
Post in ceteris Asiae partibus cunctaque Graecia sic eius 
adventus celebrabantur, ut famam ingenii expcctatio homi- 
nis, expectationem ipsius adventus admiratioque superaret. 

10 5. Erat Italia turn plena Graecarum artium ac disciplinarum, 
studiaque haec et in Latio vehementius turn colebantur quam 
nunc isdem in oppidLs, et hie Eomae pi-opter tranquillitatem 
rei publicae non neglegebantur. Itaque hunc et Tarentini et 
Locrenses et Ehegini et Neapolitani civitate ceterisque prae- 

15 miis donarunt, et omnes, qui aliquid de ingeniis poterant 
iudicare, cognitione atque hospitio dignum existimarunt. 
Hac tanta celebritate famae cum esset iam absentibus notus, 
Eomam venit Mario consule et Catulo. Kactus est primum 

28.] PRO ARCHIA. 19 

consules eos, quorum alter res ad scribendum maxumas, alter 
cum res gestas, turn etiam studium atque aures adhibere 20 
posset. Statim Luculli, cum praetextatus etiam turn Archias 
esset, eum domum suam receperunt. Et erat hoc non solum 
ingenii ac litterarum, verum etiam naturae atque virtutis, 
ut domus, quae huius adulescentiae prima favit, eadem esset 
familiarissima senectuti. 6. Erat temporibus illis iucundus 25 
Q. Metello illi Numidico et eius Pio filio, audiebatur a M. 
Aemilio, vivebat cum Q. Catulo et patre et filio, a L. Crasso 
colebatur, Lucullos vero et Drusum et Octavios et Catonem 
et totam Hortensiorum domum devinctam consuetudine 
cum teneret, afficiebatur summo honore, quod eum non solum 30 
colebant, qui aliquid percipere atque audire studebant, verum 
etiam si qui forte simulabant. 

IV. Interim satis longo intervallo, cum esset cum M. 
Lucullo in Siciliam profectus et cum ex ea provincia cum 
eodem Lucullo decederet, venit Heracleam. Quae cum esset 
civitas aequissimo iure ac foedere, adscribi se in earn civitatem 
voluit idque, cum ipse per se dignus putaretur, turn auctori- - 
tate et gratia Luculli ab Heracliensibus impetravit. 7. Data 
est civitas Silvani lege et Carbonis : Si QUI FOEDERATIS civi- 


PRAETOREM ESSENT PEOFESSi. Cum hie domicilium Eomae 10 
multos iam annos haberet, professus est apud praetorem 
Q. Metellum, familiarissimum suum. 8. Si nihil aliud nisi de 
civitate ac lege dicimus, nihil dico amplius ; causa dicta est. 
Quid enim horum infirmari, Gratti, potest? Heracleaene 
esse eum ascriptum negabis ? Adest vir summa auctoritate 
et religione et fide, M. Lucullus; qui se non opinari, sed 
scire, non audivisse, sed vidisse, non interfuisse, sed egisse 
dicit. Adsunt Heraclienses legati, nobilissimi homines ; 
huius iudicii causa cum mandatis et cum publico testimonio 
venerunt ; qui hunc ascriptum Heracliensem dicunt. Hie 2O 
tu tabulas desideras Heracliensium publicas, quas Italico 


bello incenso tabulario intorisse scimns omnes 1 Est ridicu- 
lum ad ea, quae habemus, nihil dicere, quaerere, qnae habere 
non possumus, et de hominum memoria tacere, litteraruin 

25 memoriam flagitare et, cum habeas amplissimi viri religionem, 
integerrimi municipii insiurandum fidemque, ea, quae de- 
pravari nullo modo possunt, repudiare, tabulas, quas idem 
dicis solere corrumpi, desiderare. 9. An domicilium Romae 
non habuit is, qui tot annis ante civitatem datam sedem 

30 omnium rerum ac fortunarum suarum Romae collocavit ? 
An non est professus 1 Immo vero iis tabulis prof essus, quae 
solae ex ilia professione collegioque praetorum obtinent pub- 
licarum tabularum auctoritatem. 

V. Nam, cum Appi tabulae neglegentius adservatae 
dicerentur, Gabini, quamdiu incolumis fuit, levitas, post 
damnationem calamitas omnem tabularum fidem resignasset, 
Metellus, homo sanctissimus modestissimusque omnium, tanta 
5 diligentia fuit, ut ad L. Lentulum praetorem et ad indices 
venerit et unius nominis litura se commotum esse dixerit. 
His igitur in tabulis nullam lituram in nomine A. Licini 
videtis. 10. Quae cum ita sint, quid est, quod de eius civitate 
dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque in civitatibus fuerit 

loascriptus? Etenim, cum mediocribus multis et aut nulla 
aut humili aliqua arte praedit is graCuito civitatem in Graec-ia 
homines impertiebant, Rhcginos credo aut Locrenses aut Nea- 
politanos aut Tarentinos, quod scaenicis artifiribus largiri 
solebant, id huic summa ingenii praedito gloria noluisse ! 

1 5 Quid ? ceteri non modo post civitatem datam, sed etiam post 
legem Papiam aliqtio modo in eorum municipiorum tabulas 
irrepserunt ; hie, qui ne utitur quidem illis, in quibus est 
scriptus, quod semper se lleraclieusem esse voluit, reicietur ? 
11. Census nostros requiris. Scilicet; est enim obscurum 

20 proximis censoribus hunc cum clarissimo imperatore, L. 
Lucullo, apud exercitum fuisse, superioribus cum eodem 
quaestore fuisse in Asia, primis, lulio et Crasso, nullam 
populi partem esse censam. Scd, quoniam census non ius 

8 14.] PKO ARCHIA. 21 

civitatis confirmat ac tantum modo indicat eum, qui sit 
census, ita se iam turn gessisse, pro cive, iis tempo ribus, quern 25 
tu criminaris ne ipsius quidem iudicio in civium Romanorum 
iure esse versatum, et testamentum saepe fecit nostris 
legibus et adiit hereditates civium Romanorum et in bene- 
ficiis ad aerarium delatus est a L. Lucullo pro consule. 

VI. Quaere argumenta, si quae potes; numquam enim 
hie neque suo neque amicorum iudicio revincetur. 

12. Quaeres a nobis, Gratti, cur tanto opere hoc homine 
delectemur. Quia suppeditat nobis, ubi et animus ex hoc 
forensi strepitu reficiatur et aures convicio defessae con- 5 
quiescant. An tu existimas aut suppetere nobis posse, 
quod cotidie dicamus in tanta varietate rerum, nisi animos 
nostros doctrina excolamus, aut ferre animos tantam posse 
contentionem, nisi eos doctrina eadem relaxemus 1 Ego 
vero fateor me his studiis esse deditum. Ceteros pudeat, *o 
si qui ita se litteris abdiderunt, ut nihil possint ex iis neque 
ad communem afferre fructum neque in aspectum lucemque 
proferre; me autem quid pudeat, qui tot annos ita vivo, 
iudices, ut a nullius umquam me tempore aut comrnodo aut 
otium meum abstraxerit aut voluptas avocarit aut deniquc 15 
somnus retardarit? 13. Quarequis tandem me reprehendat, 
aut quis mihi iure suscenseat, si, quantum ceteris ad suas 
res obeundas, quantum ad festos dies ludorum celcbrandos, 
quantum ad alias voluptates et ad ipsam requiem animi et 
corporis conceditur temporum, quantum alii tribuunt 2O 
tempestivis conviviis, quantum denique alveolo, quantum 
pilae, tantum mihi egomet ad haec studia recolenda sump- 
sero ? Atque hoc eo mihi concedendum est magis, quod ex 
his studiis haec quoque crescit oratio et facultas, quae 
quantacumque in me est, numquam amicorum periculis 25 
defuit. Quae si cui levior videtur, ilia quidem certe, quae 
summa sunt, ex quo fonte hauriam, sentio. 14. Nam, nisi 
multorum praeceptis multisque litteris mihi ab adulescentia 
suasissem nihil esse in vita magno opere expetendum nisi 

22 CICERO [en. vi. vin. 

30 laudein atque honestatem, ia ca autem persequenda oinnes 
cruciatus corporis, omnia pericula mortis atque exilii parvi 
esse dncenda, numquam mo pro salute vestra in tot ac 
tantas dimicationes atque in hos profligatorum hominum 
cotidianos impetus obiecissem. Sed pleni omnes sunt libri, 

35 plenae sapientium voces, plena exemplorum vetustas ; quae 
iacerent in tenebris omnia, nisi litterarum lumen accederet. 
Qunm multas nobis imagines non solum ad intuendum, 
verum etiam ad imitandum fortissimorum virorum expressas 
scriptores et Graeci et Latini reliquerunt ! quas ego mihi 

40 semper in administranda re publica proponens animum 
et mentem meam ipsa cogitatione hominum excellentium 

VII. 15. Quaeret quispiam : "Quid? illi ipsi summi 
viri, quorum virtutes litteris proditae sunt, istane doctrina, 
quam tu effers laudibus, eruditi f uerunt 1 " Difficile est 
hoc de omnibus confirmare, sed tamen est certum, quid 
r respondeam. Ego multos homines excellent! animo ac 
virtute fuisse sine doctrina et naturae ipsius habitu prope 
divino per se ipsos et moderates et graves exstitisse fateor ; 
etiam illud adiungo, saepius ad laudem atque virtutem 
naturam sine doctrina quam sine natura valuisse doctrinam. 

TO Atqne idem ego hoc contondo, cum ad naturam eximiam et 
illustrem accesserit ratio quaedam conformatioque doctrinae, 
turn illud nescio quid praeclai-um ac singulare solere exsistere. 
16. Ex hoc esse hunc numero, quern patres nostri viderunt, 
divinum hominem, Africanum, ex hoc C. Laeliuin, L. Furium, 

15 moderatissimos homines et continentissimos, ex hoc fortis- 
simum virum et illis temporibus doctissimum, M. Catonem 
ilium senem ; qui profecto si nihil ad percipiendam colen- 
damque virtutem litteris adiuvarcntur, numquam se ad 
oartim studium contulissent. Quodsi non hie tantus fructus 

20 ostenderetur, et si ex his studiis delectatio sola peteretur, 
tamen, ut opinor, hanc animi remissionem humanissimam 
ac liberalissimam iudicaretis. Nam ceterae neque temporum 

1419.] PRO ARCHIA. 23 

sunt neque aetatum omnium neque locorum ; at haec studia 
adulesceiitiam alunt, senectutem oblectant, secundas res 
ornant, adversis perfugium ac solacium praebent, delectant 25 
domi, non impediunt foris, pernoctant nobiscum, peregri- 
nantur, rusticantur. 

17. Quodsi ipsi baec neque attingere neque sensu nostro 
gust-are possemus, tamen ea mirari deberemus, etiam cum 
in aliis videremus. 30 

VIII. Quis nostrum tarn animo agresti ac duro fuit, ut 
Rosci morte nuper non commoveretur ] qui cum esset senex 
mortuus, tamen propter excellentem artem ac venustatem 
videbatur omnino mori non debuisse. Ergo ille corporis 
motu tantum amorem sibi conciliarat a nobis omnibus : nos 5 
animorum incredibiles motus celeritatemque ingeniorum 
neglegemus ? 18. Quotiens ego hunc Arcbiam vidi, iudices, 
(utar enim vestra benignitate, quoniam me in boc novo 
genere dicendi tarn diligenter attenditis) quotiens ego bunc 
vidi, cum litteram scripsisset nullam, magnum numerum 10 
optimorum versuum de iis ipsis rebus, quae turn agercntur, 
dicere ex tempore, quotiens revocatum eandem rem dicere 
commutatis verbis atque sententiis ! Quae vero accurate 
cogitateque scripsisset, ea sic vidi probari, ut ad veterum 
scriptorum laudem perveniret. Hunc ego non dib gam, non 15 
admirer, non omni ratione defendendum putem ] Atque sic 
a summis hominibus eruditissimisque accepimus, ceterarum 
rerum studia ex doctrina et praeceptis et arte constare, 
poetam natura ipsa valere et mentis viribus excitari et quasi 
divino quodam spiritu inflari. Quare suo iure noster ille 20 
Ennius " sanctos " appellat poetas, quod quasi deorum aliquo 
dono atque munere commendati nobis esse videantur. 19. Sit 
igitur, iudices, sanctum apud vos, bumanissimos bomines, 
hoc poetae nomen, quod nulla umquam barbaria violavit. 
Saxa et solitudines voci respondent, bestiae saepe immanes 25 
cantu flectuntur atque consistunt ; nos instituti rebus 
optimis non poetarum voce moveamur? Homerum Colo- 


phonii civem esse dicunt suum, Chii suum vindicant, 
Salaminii repetunt, Smymaei vero suum esse corifirmant 
3 itaque etiam. delubrum eius in oppido dedicaverunt, per- 
multi alii praeterea pugnant inter se atque contendunt. 

IX. Ergo illi alienum, qiiia poeta f uit, post mortem etiam 
expetuut ; nos hunc vivum, qui et voluntate et legibus 
noster est, repudiabimus, praesertim cum omne olim studium 
atque omne ingenium contulerit Archias ad populi Romani 
5 gloriam laudemque celebrandam ] Nam et Cimbricas res 
adulescens attigit et ipsi illi C. Mario, qui durior ad haec 
studia videbatur, iucundus fuit. 20. Neque enim quisquam 
est tam a versus a Musis, qui non mandari versibus aeternum 
suorum laborum facile praeconium patiatur. Tliemistoclem 

1 o ilium, summum Athenis vii um, dixisse aiunt, cum ex eo 

quaereretur, quod acroama aut cuius vocem libentissirue 
audiret : " eius, a quo sua virtus oplime praedicaretur." 
Itaque ille Marius item eximie L. Plotium dilexit, cuius in- 
gonio putabat ea, quae gesserat, posse celebrari. 21. Mithri- 

15 daticum vero bellum magnum atque difficile et in multa 
varietate terra marique versatum totum ab hoc expressnm 
est ; qtii libri non modo L. Lucullum, fortissimum et claris- 
simum virum, verum etiam populi Romani nomen illustrant. 
Populus enim Romanus aperuit Lucullo imperante Pontum 

20 et regiis quondam opibus et ipsa natura et regione vallatum, 
populi Romani exercitus eodem duce non maxima manu 
innumerabilis Armeniorum copias fudit, populi Romani 
laus est urbem amicissimam Cyzicenorum eiusdem consilio 
ex omni impetu regio atque totius belli ore ac faucibus 

2 5 erept am esse atque servatam ; nostra semper f eretur et 

praedicabitur L. Lucullo dimicante, cum interfectis ducibus 
depressa hostium classis est, incredibilis apud Tenedum 
pugna ilia navalis, nostra sunt tropaea, nostra mouumcnta, 
nostri triumphi. Quae quorum ingeniis ecferuiitur, ab iis 
30 populi Romani fama celebratur. 22. Carus fuit Africano 
superior! noster Ennuis, itaque etiam in sepulcro Scipionum 

19 25.] PRO ARCHIA. 25 

putatur is esse constitutus ex marmore ; cuius laudibus 
certe non solum ipse, qui laudatur, sed etiam populi Romani 
nomen ornatur. In caelum huius proavus Cato tollitur ; 
magnus honos populi Romani rebus adiungitur. Omnes 35 
denique illi Maximi, Marcelli, Fulvii non sine communi 
omnium nostrum laude decorantur. 

X. Ergo ilium, qui haec fecerat, Rudinum hominem 
maiores nostri in civitatem receperunt; nos hunc Hera- 
cliensem multis civitatibus expetitum, in hac autem legibus 
constitutum de nostra civitate eiciemus ? 

23. Nam, si quis minorem gloriae fructum putat ex Graecis 5 
versibus percipi quam ex Latinis, vehementer errat, prop- 
terea quod Graeca leguntur in omnibus fere gentibus, 
Latina suis finibus exiguis sane continentur. Quare, si 
res eae, quas gessimus, orbis terrae regionibus defmiuntur, 
cupere debemus, quo manuum nostrarum tela pervenerint, 10 
eodem gloriam f amamque penetrare, quod cum ipsis populis, 
de quorum rebus scribitur, haec ampla sunt, turn iis certe, 
qui de vita gloriae causa dimicant, hoc maximum et pericu- 
lorum incitamentum est et laborum. 24. Quam multos 
scriptores rerum suarum magnus ille Alexander secum 15 
habuisse dicitur ! Atque is tamen, cum in Sigeo ad Achillis 
tumulum astitisset : " O fortunate," inquit, " adulescens, qui 
tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem inveneris ! " Et vere. 
Nam, nisi Ilias ilia exstitisset, idem tumulus, qui corpus 
eius contexerat, nomen etiam obruisset. Quid? noster hie 20 
Magnus, qui cum virtute fortunam adaequavit, nonne Theo- 
phanem Mytilenaeum, scriptorem rerum suarum, in contione 
militum civitate donavit, et nostri illi fortes viri, sed rustici 
ac milites, dulcedine quadam gloriae commoti quasi parti - 
cipes eiusdem laudis magno illud clamore approbaverunt ? 25 
25. Itaque, credo, si civis Romanus Archias legibus non esset, 
ut ab aliquo imperatore civitate donaretur, perficere non 
potuit. Sulla cum Hispanos et Gallos donaret, credo, hunc 
petentem repudiasset ; quern nos in contione vidimus, cumei 

26 CICERO [CH. x. XTI. 

30 libellum mains poeta de populo subiecissot, quod epigramrna 
in eum fecisset tantum modo alterais versibus longiusculis, 
statim ex iis rebus, quas turn vendebat, iubere ei praemium 
tribui, sed ea condicione, ne quid postea scri beret. Qui 
sedulitatem mali poetae duxorit aliquo tamen praemio dig- 

35 nam, huius ingenium et virtutem in scribendo et copiam 
non expetisset ? 26. Quid ? a Q. Metello Pio, farniliarissimo 
suo, qui civitate multos donavit, neque per se nequo per 
Lucullos impetravisset ? qui praesertim usque eo de suis 
rebus scribi cuperet, ut etiam Cordubae natis poetis pingue 

40 quiddam sonantibus atque pcregrinum tamen aures suas 

XI. Neque enim est hoc dissimulandum, quod obscurari 
non potest, sed prae nobis ferendum : Trahirnur omnes 
studio laudis, et optimus quisque maxime gloria ducitur. 
Ipsi illi pbilosophi etiam in iis libellis, quos de contemnenda 
c gloria scribunt, nomen suum inscribunt ; in eo ipso, in quo 
pracdicationem nobilitatemque despiciunt, praedicari de se 
ac nominari volunt. 27. Decimus quidcm Brutus, summus 
vir et imperator, Acci, amicissimi sui, carminibus templorum 
ac monimentorum aditus oxornavit suorum. lam vero 

10 ille, qui cum Aetolis Ennio comite bellavit, Fulvius non 
dubitavit Martis manubias Musis consecrare. Quare, in 
qua urbe imperatores prope armati poetarum nomen et 
Musarum delubra coluerunt, in ea non debent togati iudices 
a Musarum bonore et a poetarum salute abhorrere. 

15 28. Atque ut id libentius faciatis, iam me vobis, iudices, 
indicabo et de meo quodam amore gloriae nimis acri fortasse, 
verum tamen honesto vobis confitebor. Nam, quas res nos 
in consulatu nostro vobiscum simnl pro salute huius urbis 
atque imperil et pro vita civium proque universa re publica 

20 gessimus, attigit hie versibus atque inchoavit. Quibus 
auditis, quod mihi magna res et iucunda visa est, hunc ad 
perficiendum adhortatus sum. Nullam cnim virtus aliam 
mercedem laborum periculorumque desideiat praeter hanc 

2531.] PRO ARcniA. 27 

laudis et gloriae ; qua quidem detracta, indices, quid est, 
quod in hoc tarn exiguo vitae curriculo et tarn brevi tantis nos 25 
in laboribus exerceamus 1 29. Certe, si nihil animus prae- 
sentiret in posterum, et si, quibus regionibus vitae spatium 
circumscriptum est, eisdem omnes cogitationes terminaret 
suas, nee tantis se laboribus frangeret neque tot curis 
vigiliisque angeretur nee totiens de ipsa vita dimicaret. 30 
Nunc insidet quaedam in optimo quoque virtus, quae noctes 
ac dies animum gloriae stimulis concitat atque admonet 
non cum vitae tempore esse dimittendam commemorationem 
nominis nostri, sed cum omni posteritate adaequandam. 

XII. 30. An vero tarn parvi animi videamur esse omnes, 
qui in re publica atque in his vitae periculis laboribusque 
versamur, ut, cum usque ad extremum spatium nullum tran- 
quillum atque otiosum spiritum duxerimus, nobiscum simul 
moritura omnia arbitremur ? An statuas et imagines, non 5 
animorum simulacra, sed corporum, studiose multi summi 
homines reliquerunt; consiliorum relinquere et virtutum 
nostrarum effigiem nonne multo malle debemus summis 
ingeniis expressam et politam ? Ego vero omnia, quae 
gerebam, iam turn in gerendo spargere me ac disseminare 10 
arbitrabar in orbis terrae memoriam sempiternam. Haec 
vero sive a meo sensu post mortem afutura est sive, ut 
sapientissimi homines putaverunt, ad aliquam animi mei 
partem pertinebit, nunc quidem certe cogitatione quadam 
speque delector. 15 

31. Quare conservate, indices, hominem pudore eo, quern 
amicorum videtis comprobari cum dignitate, turn etiam 
vetustate, ingenio autem tanto, quantum id convenit existi- 
mari, quod summorum hominum ingeniis expetitum esse 
videatis, causa vero eius modi, quae beneficio legis, auc- 20 
toritate municipii, testimonio Luculli, tabulis Metelli com- 
probetur. Quae cum it-a sint, petimus a vobis, iudices, si 
qua non modo humana, verum etiam divina in tantis in 
geniis commendatio debet esse, ut eum, qui vos, qui vestros 

28 CICERO PRO AHCHIA. [ 31, 32. 

25 imperatores, qui populi Romani res gestas semper ornavit, 
qui etiam his recentibus nostris vestrisque domesticis peri- 
culis aeternum se testimonium landis daturum esse profitetur 
estque ex eo numero, qui semper apud omnes sancti sunt 
habiti itaque dicti, sic in vestram accipiatis fidem, ut 

30 humanitate vestra levatus potius quam acerbitate violatus 
esse videatur. 

32. Quae de causa pro mea consuetudine breviter simplici- 
terque dixi, iudices, ea confido probata esse omnibus ; quae 
a forensi aliena iudicialique consuetudine et de hominis 

35 ingenio et communiter de ipso studio locutus sum, ea, 
iudices, a vobis spero esse in bonam partem accepta, ab eo, 
qui indicium exercet, certo scio. 


NOTE : The references in these notes are as follows :-- 

L. C. = Allcroft and Haydon s Latin Composition (Univ. Tutorial Press, 
2.t. 6d.). 

I,. G. = Tutorial Latin Grammar (Univ. Tutorial Press, 3*. Gd.). 

The references to the text are by chapter and line : thus 111. 10 denotes the tenth 
line of the third chapter. 

An obelus (f) denotes a variant reading (v.l., varia lectio). 

Such proper names of importance as are not discussed in the notes will be found 
in the INDEX. 

First Part of the Speech : The Case. 

ARGUMENT. 1-4. Exordium: I one my powers of oratory to 
Archias, and, therefore gratitude demands that I should be his counsel 
in this case ( 1). True he is a poet and I am an orator, but all 
provinces of literature are closely united ( 2). The character of my 
client mill compel me to say much that is very unusual in a court of 
law, but this your orcn literary tastes, gentlemen of the jury, mill 
easily pardon ( 3). Only hear me, and 1 feel sure I shall convince 
you of my client s merits ( 4). 

[See Introd., 2, for A. Licinius Archias.] 

Ch. I. 1. Si quid: the speech opens with a triple protasis (- 
clause), answered by the single apodosis (result-clause) earum . . . 
debet. Each of the three protases is qualified by a relative clause 
(quod xentic . . . ,in qua . . . , a qua. . . .). 

Quid is the indefinite pronoun (quis, qua or quae, quid ; plur. qiii, 
quae, qua or quae), regularly used only after si, ne, nisi, num, and 
quando, rarely in other connections. So, si qua excrcitatio. 

ingenii : partitive genitive, allowable in dependence upon almost 
any neuter word expressing quantity or measure. L. C., 141 ; 
L. G., 395, NOTE 1. 

indices : "gentlemen of the jury," not "judges." See Introd., 4. 

quod sentio quam sit: lit. "which I feel how small it is," i.e. "and 
I feel how small it is." Quod (ingenium) is at once the subject of 
sit and the object of sentio (a construction called Antiptosis, which 
is common in Greek). Sit is the subjunctive of indirect question. 
L. C., 227. L. G., 485. 

2. dicendi : objective genitive with exercitatio. L. C., 40 (a). 
L. G., $ 399. 


3. huiusce rei : i.e. the art of speaking, oratory. The suffix -ce 
is appended to the demonstratives hie, ille, and ixte, to render them 
more emphatic. The genitive is objective after ratio, which means 
" theoretical knowledge," i.e. knowledge of the rules and principles 
of the art of speaking. 

4. optimarum artium studiis : = liberalusimisstudiis, iii. 5, includ 
ing all the subjects of a liberal education, such as Oratory, Poetry, 
Philosophy, etc. In translating, stitdiis et disciplina should be taken 
together as a Hendiadys ("one through two ")" scientific training." 

5. qua : i.e. ratione. 

G. vel in primis : rd is from the root seen in vclle, and means " if 
you like," hence perhaps " ; here it has a slightly apologetic force. 

hie : "my client," used of the defendant. So iste is used of the 
other party in the suit, whether defendant or plaintiff, as the case 
may be. 

A. Licinius : by using Archias Roman names Cicero tacitly 
assumes his right to the civitas. See Introd., 2, end. 

9. memoriam : recordor, " to recall," always governs an accusative, 
though other verbs of remembering admit the genitive. See L. C., 
37, NOTE 2 ; L. G., $ 397, Ob*. 3. 

inde usque : lit. " as far as from that point onwards," i.e. " ever 
since that time." 

repetens : here used intransitively. 

10. hunc . . . principem : principrm is part of the predicate (com 
plementary accusative) ; see L. C., 14 (iii.). 

ad ingrediendam rationem : gerundival construction. See L. C., 
92 ; L. G., 430. 

11. rationem : here = scientific study," "course." 

haec vox: this voice of mine." But liuhts = ArcJiiae, "my 
client s." 

13. saluti: dative of result (predicative dative) (L. 0., 144; 
L. G., 359), to he distinguished carefully from the dative of 
purpose (L. C., 145; L. G., 358;. Distinguish non nullus 
= "some," "one and another," and nullus nun = " every one without 

id accepimus : id is explained by the following relative clause 
quo . . . jjosgemus, which is in the subjunctive because of the con 
secutive force of quo, Id . . . quo = "something such that thereby." 
See L. C., 283 ; L. G., $ 501 (d). 

ceteris . . . ahos : cctcri (nom. sing. masc. not used) means " the 
others," "all the rest," alii merely "others." Of all (ceteri) the 
clients who needed Cicero s help only some (alii) needed to be saved 
from serious danger. 

14. quantum: "as far as in me lies," an accusative (adverbial 
neuter) of extent. L. C., 135 ; L. G., $ 339. 

eat situm : impersonal, "so far as in me lies." 

15. ne . . . miretur: this is not a direct prohibition, but gives the 
negative purpose of the following statement : ne, nos quidem . . . 

CH. II.] NOTES. 31 

17. facultas ingenii : = "natural powers of talent," " inborn genius," 
e.g. for poetry. This is contrasted with ratio ("theoretical know 
ledge ") and dixciplina (" practical training ") in oratory. 

sit : subjunctive of Virtual Oblique Oration, giving the reason as 
conceived by him who marvels, and not statins the cause simply 
as a fact. See L. C., 270, 271 ; L. G., 526. 

19. dediti fuimus : "I was (at one time or for some time) 
devoted" ; i.e. "a devoted person" (aorist or indefinite past of the 
state). It is not used of the perfect of the state (I have been devoted, 
dediti sumus), nor of contemporaneous state in past time (dediti 
fueramus) (Roby). 

humanitatem : "culture." So humanus, " cultured." Both words 
imply the qualities of a " finished gentleman." This mennine sur 
vives in the academic term "The Humanities," but is greatly 
modified in our word " humanity." 

20. quasi . . . quadam : " by a kind of kinship, so to say {quasi)" 
Both quasi and quid am are constantly used to modify assertions, 
like the phrase ut ita dicam (French, pour ainsi dire). Cp. vinclurn 
quoddam, above. 

Ch. II. 1. no ... videatur: for the construction see note on 
ne . . . miretur, i. 16 ; it is taken up by quaeso a vobis, below, 
vestrum : vestrum and nostrum (gens, plur.) are always partitive, 
I estri and nostri always objective. L. C., 153. 

quaestione legitima : " a statutory commission," so called as 
depending on a definite law ; see Introd., 4. This court was also 
called iudicium publicvm, a court where public interests were at 
stake, in contrast to indicium privatiim, a court which had to do 
with ordinary civil processes concerning private interests. 

2. cum . . . agatur: cum has a concessive force, hence the subj. 
See L. C., 264- ; L. G., 525. 

3. apud praetorein : "in the presence of a Praetor" as presiding 
judge. See lutrod., 4. Praetor was originally a title of the Roman 
consuls. In 367 B.C. the title was given to a new patrician magistrate 
who took over most of the judicial functions of the consuls. A second 
Praetor was created in 243 B.C., and subsequently the number was 
raised to eight, twelve, and sixteen. Their duties were always mainly 
judicial, but they also acted as provincial governors, and as com 
manders when there were more legions in the field than the consuls 
or proconsuls could manage. Under the Republic the legal age for 
the office was forty, and under the Empire thirty. Each Praetor 
had a toga practexta, a sella curulis and lictores (in the provinces 
six, at Rome two). 

lectissimum virum : a common idiom ; see L. C., 9, NOTE 3 ; 
transl. " so worthy a Praetor." Lvctus is used as term of general 

4. tanto conventu . . . ac frequentia : referring to the crowds of 
onlookers in the court, including deputations from Heraclea (iv. J8) 
in support of Archias. Below concur xu (1. 10) refers merely to the 


panel of jurors. The ablatives are those of attendant circumstance 
(abl. absolute). The proper meaning oifrequentia is " crowdedness," 
cf.frequens, "crowded." The sense, of "frequent" is not usual. Comentu 
. . . ac frequentia, go together as a Hendiadys ; cp. note on i. 4. 

5. uti : the construction is ne vidratnr mirum esse me uti, etc. 
quod . . . abhorreat : subjunctive because in Virtual Oratio Obliqua, 

the main verb being miretur. 

6. forensi sermone : " the language of the Bar," because the law- 
courts (Basilicae) were situated in and about the Forum, the great 
business centre of Roman life. 

7. hanc veniam : explained by the following clauses ut . . . patia- 
mini liberius loqui . . . et uti, etc. The words accommodatam . . . 
molt stam are merely epithets of veniam, 

10. hoc concursu : ablative of attendant circumstance. Cp. tanto 
convcntu (1. 4) above, and note. So the following ablatives humanitate 
and praetore. 

11. exercente iudicium : "presiding over the court wcase." The 
phrase is technical, and occurs again in the last line of the speech. 

12. paulo . . . liberius: the comparative is often thus used to 
express what is considerable. See L. C., 178 ; L. G., 89. 

13. in eius modi persona: "in the case of a character which," i.e. 
that of a poet such as was Archias. Persona means primarily an 
actor s mask"; then the "character" which it represents, or "a 
character" generally ; finally, in law, " a person." 

otium ac studium: Hendiadys " a life of studious seclusion." 

14. tractata est : a technical term with persona = "acted," "re 

15. quod si: = et id si, i.e. et si id, id going with tribui, and 
making an ace. and infin. construction. 

16. sentiam . . . perflciam : future simple. According to rule, 
when the apodosis of a hypothetical sentence is in future time, the 
protasis likewise stands in the future (perfect or simple). See L. C., 
250 O). 

17. segregandum : supply esse from/?/ isxe below. 

cum sit civis : though he be (supposing he be) a citizen." The 
subjunctive is due to the concessive force of cum. The present tense 
is due to the tense of j)ntetis. 

18. numero : as recorded in the census. See notes, v. 19, foil. 

si non esset : for the type of sentence, see L. C., 251. The 
imperfect subjunctive represents the imperfect of Oratio Recta; xi 
non easet (civ is"), asciscendvx esset. 

ARGUMENT. 4-7. 3fy client rvas lorn at Antiocli, and quickly 
became famous throughput Asia and Greece ( 4). Passing to Italy, 
lie was cordially welcomed by the Italian Greeks; and when he 
readied Home he mas already well known there by rc/>tite. He found 
friends in the Luculli ( 5), and in many other leading men. Subse 
quently fie. went with M. Lucullus to /Sicily, and later to Herarlea, 
nhere he mas presented n-ith the franchise of that place ( f>). You 

CH. III.] NOTES. 33 

know the three requirements of the law as to the Enfranchisement oj 
Aliens at Rome ; Archias fulfilled them all ( 7). 

[See the Index for Antiochia, Tarentum, Locri, Rhegium, Neapolis, 
and Heraclea ; also for Marius and Lucullus.] 

Ch. III. 1. ex pueris excessit: lit. "passed from among the boys," 
i.e. " passed out of boyhood," which terminated about the 14th 15th 

3. An tiochiae: locative "At Antioch." The original locative form 
of -a stems ended in -ai, as seen in Romai, but this was weakened to 
ae in later times, and so came to coincide with the genitive. 

4. loco nobili : ablative of origin with natus " in a high position." 
celebri: "populous." This is the first meaning of celeber. The 

sense of " famous" is secondary. Cp.frequens, ii. 4, note. 

5. hominibus : dependent upon affluenti. Adjectives and verbs 
expressing abundance may take either an ablative (instrumental) or 
a genitive (objective). Cp. plena artium, 1. 10. L. C., 51, and 
NOTE 1. 

6. antecellere: takes the dative of the person (omnibus) and in 
strumental ablative of the thing (gloria). 

1. post : here an adverb = postea. Most prepositions may be so 
used, more especially if dissyllabic. 

8. adventus : the plural denotes " his arrival on each occasion." 

celebrabantur : " were attended in crowds." See the note on 
celebri, above. 

expectatio hominis : the genitive is objective, " the expectations 
formed about him." 

10. artium: see the note on hominibus, 1. 5 ; and L. C., 40. 

in Latio : in this passage this does not refer exclusively to the 
district called Latium, but to those parts of Italy in which Latin was 
the spoken language ; i.e. chiefly Latium and the Latin colonies. 

12. hie Eomae: "here in Rome." For the locative, see on An- 
tiochiae, 1. 3. Cicero is referring to the long peace of Italy before 
the outbreak of the Social War of 91-88 B.C., aud the Civil Wars of 
Marius, Cinna, and Sulla which followed. There had been no war in 
Italy proper since Hannibal withdrew in 203 B.C., more than one 
hundred years before. Southern Italy was peopled with Greek 
colonies (the four here mentioned are all Greek) to such an extent 
as to obtain the name of Magna Graecia; and Greek literature, art, 
and life, of course, nourished there especially. 

13. Tarentini, etc.: see Index, s.v. TARE:;TUM, LOCBI, RHEGIUM, 

14. ceteris : " the other (customary) presentations," e.g. crowns, 
gifts, etc. 

16. cognitione : the usual case after diynus. L. C., 53 ; L. G., 

17. cum . . . easet : cum takes the subjunctive here because causality 
is implied. See L. C., 290. 

18. Eomam : accusative of the goal of motion, which, in the case 

Cie. Are. % 


of place-names, requires no preposition. See L. C., 113; L. G., 
S 331. 

Mario consule et Catulo : ablative absolute. The years of Roman 
history were known by the names of the consuls for that year, and 
Marius was consul with Catulus in 102 B.C. See Index. 

nactus est: "he found," "he chanced upon." 

19. alter . . . alter: the first alter, the great "maker of history." 
is C. Marius : the second refers to C. Lutatius Catulus. For the 
mood of pnnxct, cp. possemits, \. 14. 

ad scribendum : lit. " to write about," i.e. offering material for an 
epic poem such as Archias actually wrote ; see Index, s.v. MARIUS. 

20. studinm atque aures : i.e. enthusiasm and taste for poetical 
composition, aures : " judgment," " taste " ; cp. English, "a fine ear 
for music, rhythm," etc. 

21. cum praetextatus . . . esset : " though Archias was even at that 
date but a boy." The subjunctive mood is due to the concessive 
force of rum ("although"); see L. C., 264 ; L. G., 525. The 
toga praetexta, a white toga with a purple stripe woven into it, was 
the badge of the arias puerilis, and was worn by Roman boys until 
the fifteenth birthday. Cicero, by here attributing to Archias the 
toga praetexta, speaks as though the poet had been a born Roman, 
and not merely naturalised. So practextatvs means " a boy." Cicero 
is exaggerating here, for he spoke of Archias in 4 as already "passed 
out of a boyhood." See first note to Ch. iii. 

22. domum suam: damns (and nis) are treated like place-names 
when standing as accusative of the goal of motion. See L. C., 113 ; 
L.G., 331. 

f erat hoc . . . in genii : "there was this much in his talents" 
(lit. "this was a mark of his talents"). The genitive is predicative 
(L. C., 142 ; L. G., 39(5), and hoc is explained by the clauses 
vt . . . scnectiiti. There is a variant Sed ctiam hoc . . . cirtuti* 
cut, domum, quae . . . prima affnit, eandem csse familiarissimam 
senectuti. " But this too ... is a mark of his merit, that the house 
that . . . first assisted . . . was also the best friend of his old age." 
Observe the idiomatic use of eadcm, in English = "at the same 
time," "notwithstanding," "also." 

26. Metello illi Numidico : " to the great Q. Metellus Numidicus." 
When joined with proper names, ille constantly has the force of a 
complimentary adjective. Metellus Numidicus was consul 109 B.C., 
proconsul 108 B.C., and commanded against Jugurtha in Numidia; 
whence his cognomen. His son Piua carried on the war against 
Sertorius (79-71 B.C.) 

audiebatur : audire is commonly used = "to attend a lecture." 

27. M. Aemilio: Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, twice Consul, and 
Censor 109 B.C. He was a great orator and a leading member of 
the Optimates (nobles), and contrived to maintain his high position 
until his death, although it was notorious that he was the greatest 
offender in the disgraceful bribery-scandals resulting from Jugurtha s 
efforts to purchase a favourable peace, 1 1 1 B.C. 

CS. IV.] NOTES. 35 

Q. Catulo : the singular is rather a rare usage. The father was 
commander against the Cimbri, but was proscribed by Marius 87 B.C. 
The son was consul in 78 B.C. and a leading member of the Optimates. 

L. Crasso: one of the most eminent orators of the generation 
preceding Cicero ; he died 91 B.C. 

28. Drusum : the celebrated tribune Livius Drasus. 

Octavios : the Gens Octavia furnished a number of leading men 
in society and politics, before and during Cicero s time. 
Catonem : probably M. Cato, the father of Cato Uticensis. 

29. Hortensiorum : M. Hortensius succeeded to the position of 
L. Crassus (above) as the foremost orator of the time, and was himself 
ousted by Cicero. 

31. percipere . . . audire : percipere = " to grasp thoroughly," 
audire " to listen to," in many cases doubtless merely for the pleasure 
of having the ears tickled. 

32. sinmlabant : " who made only a pretence (of this eagerness 
to hear, etc.) " ; i.e. such persons as made a show of Greek studies 
which then were thought to give a good tone to the manners. 
Simula = " I pretend to be what I am not " : dissimulo = " I pretend 
not to be what I am." 

Ch. IV. 1. satis longo intervallo: "after a fairly long interval. 
Satis added to an adjective or verb commonly has this meaning. 
The ablative is one of attendant circumstance (ablative absolute). 
The period was some ten years. 

3. Heracleam: cp. Romam and domum, ii. 18 and 22. 

4. civitas aequissimo inre ac foedere : " a state on perfectly equal 
treaty rights." Heraclea was a civitas foederata that is, an inde 
pendent state allied with Rome on particular terms stipulated for 
in various treaties (foedera). That of Heraclea was particularly 
advantageous. Another smaller class of Italian towns were inde 
pendent and tax-free, but possessed these privileges only on sufferance, 
and had no treaty to show (civitates liberae et immunes sine foedere). 
Quite different from these were the Roman towns, which we may 
subdivide roughly into coloniae, municipia, and praefecturae. The 
position of the coloniae was highest : they were offshoots from Rome, 
enjoying in full the privileges of the civitas Romano,. Originally 
they were of two kinds, the Coloniae civium Romanorum and the 
Coloniae Latinae ; but the distinctions, as far at least as Italy was 
concerned, were removed by the Social War. Their government was 
an imitation of that of Rome, consisting of a senate (decuriones). 
and officers (duumviri) representing consuls. The municipia were 
governed by their own citizens, each in its own way ; but after the 
Social War they gradually adopted the forms of government pre 
vailing in the Coloniae. The praefecturae differed from the two 
preceding in being governed by officers (praefecti iuri dicundo) 
from Rome, nominated annually by the praetor urbanits, and in 
some cases elected at the comitia tributa under his presidency. The 
difference was mainly feet in judicial matters. This was the arrange- 


merit after the date of the Social War (91-83 B.C.), ami after the 
passing of the Lex lulia (90 B.C.) and Lex Plant ia Papiria (89 B.C.), 
which extended the full civitas or franchise to the Latins and Italians. 

ascribi se . . . voluit: lit. "he claimed that he should be en 
rolled." This meaning of volo is not uncommon in Cicero. 

5. cum . . . putaretur : the subjunctive is due to the causal sense 
of aim. 

auctoritate : influence as a public man. 

f>. gratia: influence as a private individual. 

data est civitas : sc. Montana,. By becoming a rlvl* of a civitas 
forderata (Heraclea), Archias was enabled to become further a civ is 
Romania, on complying with the law of Silvanus and Carbo. 

7. Silvani lege et Carbonis : more commonly known as the Lex 
Flautia Papiria of 89 B.C., because passed by Plautius Silvanus and 
Papirius Carbo. 

si qni : a quotation (in Oratio Obliqua, dependent upon some 
verb of enunciation understood) from the law. In the original form 
the words would run : si qtii . . . ascripti fncrint, si turn, cum hacc 
lex feretur . . . habucrint, et si . . . fuerint professi. These three 
clauses (protases) contain the three conditions upon which the ac 
quirement of the Roman franchise depended (see Introd., 3), and 
were answered by some such apodosis as cives sunto. The pluperfect 
subjunctive of Or. Obliq. answers to the future-perfect of Or. Recta. 
See L. C., 309, 250 (a), Obs., and NOTE 2. 

8. ferebatur : as the rest of the quotation is in Or. Obliq., we 
should expect ferretvr here (L. C., 309), but Cicero goes back in 
thought to the actual time when the law was being passed, and uses 
the indicative to emphasise the precision of his statement "at the 
actual date of the passing of this law." 

9. sexaginta diebus : " within sixty days," ablative of the time 
within which. L. C., 125 ; L. G., 372." 

10. professi : " declared or registered their names." Profit for is 
technical for "putting in a claim" personally before a returning- 

11. annos: accusative of extension in time. L. C., 124; L. G., 

ARGUMKNT. 8-11. Archias has fulfilled every condition 
requisite to his obtaining the franchise, for firstly, he was enrolled 
an citizen of a federate state (it is absurd to auk for the lost registers 
and ignore the evidence which me offer"), namely, Heraclea ( 8) ; 
secondly, he had long resided at Home; and third ly^ he registered 
his name before Q. Metellus, and you can see it in the register ( 9). 
/// iv as far more worthy of enrolment in federate states than many 
another inan ( 10). The reason that his name does not appear on 
the Census-returns is that he. was aicay when they were made ( 11). 

[See Index for Heraclea, Tarentum, Rhegium, Neapolis.] 

12. aliud : supply agimus, i.e. dc nulla alia re dicimus. 

CH. V.] 

NOTES. 37 

13. civitate : i*e. the Roman franchise, lege: the lex Plautia 

14. Gratti: vocative. Grattius (or Gratius), otherwise unknown, 
was the prosecutor in the case. The vocative is quite regular. See 
L. G., 44. 

Heracleaene : the enclitic interrogative -ne asks a question to 
which the answer may be either " yes " or " no." 

15. adest : "supports me," a technical word for the presence of 
influential persons on behalf of parties to a lawsuit. 

auctoritate et religione : ablatives of quality (L. 0., 133 ; L. G., 
382). Religione = " conscientiousness" with regard to affidavits ; 
it means lit. " religious scruples," so " scruples with regard to the 
gods by whom the oaths were made." 

16. fide: "good faith," "truthfulness." 

18. legati: see Introduction, p. 13. 

19. publico testimonio: i.e. written evidence attested by the cor 
poration of Heraclea. 

20. hie : adverb "hereupon," "at this point." 

21. tabulas : "schedules" or "registers" of persons qualified to 
vote, " the citizen roll." 

Italico bello : ablative of the point of time. The Italian, 
Social, or Marsian War, was a rising of the bulk of the peoples of 
Central Italy, the socii (allies) of Rome, in order to compel Rome to 
extend to them the full franchise. It commenced in 91 B.C., and 
ended 88 B.C., after the passing of the Leges Papia, Julia, Plautia 
Papiria, for which see In trod., 3. 

22. est ridiculum : the infinitive clauses following form the subjects 
of the adjectival clause. 

25. habeas : after cum in a concessive sense. L. C., 264. 

27. idem : and yet you " ; see note on eadem, iii. 22. 

28. an: "surely he had . . ."? Strictly used, an introduces the 
second and further parts of a complex question ; and when apparently 
used alone in a simple question, it is implied that the opposite alter 
native is too absurd to mention. L. C., 225, NOTE 1. 

29. annis : cp. seray tnta divbus, 1. 9. 

ante civitatem datam : Latin constantly avoids the use of an 
abstract noun by help of a past participle " before the bestowal of 
the franchise." See L. C., 81, NOTE 3. 

31. immo vero: a strong negation, "nay rather." 
iis tabulis : " by means of those registers." 

32. obtinent : " maintain " ; vbtineo does not often = "obtain " in 

Ch. V. 1. Appi . . . Gabini : Appius and Gabinius were two of 
the Praetors of 89 B.C., and employed therefore in registering names 
under the Lex Plautia Papiria (iv.). They were evidently men of 
doubtful character, and quite capable of making false entries in their 
tabulae. Substantives with sterns in -io- may contract the genitive 
and vocative (cp. Gratti, iv. 14) to i. 


2. incolumis : lit. " uninjured," hence " in full enjoyment of civil 
rights" in contrast to calamltas, lit. "disaster," hence "loss of 
civil rights." He was subsequently condemned for peculation when 
governor of the province of Achaea, which would involve loss of civic 
rights (demintttio capltis). 

?>. resignasset : " cancelled," lit. " unsealed." The subjunctive 
depends upon cum, and is coordinate with diccrentur. 

4. tanta diligentia : ablative of quality. 

6. venerit . . . dixerit: subjunctives after nt consecutive; but why 
perfect subjunctive in secondary sequence after the past indefinite 
fuit ? Either (a) we may say that the perfect is used instead of the 
imperfect to show clearly that the actions expressed are historic 
facts (see L. C., 215, NOTE 2 ; L. G., 485, Obs. 1) ; or (l>) it has 
been well suggested that in such cases as this the so-called perfect 
subjunctive has both (i) a past complete (perfect), and (ii) a past 
indefinite (aorist) force ; just as in the indicative fui = (i) " I have 
been," or (ii) "I was," so in dependent clauses it will have corre 
sponding uses in the subjunctive. 

8. quid est, quod dubitetis : quod is syntactically an accusative of 
limitation (L. 0., 135). The subjunctive is consecutive "What 
reason is there so that therefore (lit. as to that) you should doubt 1 " 
hence " What reason have you to doubt? " 

9. praesertim cum : regularly takes the subjunctive and means 
" particularly since," " and that too though." 

fnerit ascriptus : for the meaning see deditifuimiu, i. 19. 

11. humili : e.g. according to Roman ideas, the theatrical profession. 

Graecia : i.e. Magna Graecia. 

15. post legem Papiam: in 65 B.C. the Senatorial government was 
nullified by the powers of Publius Clodius and other demagogues, 
who secured popularity by indulging the mob, and utilised the latter 
as voters for carrying ill-advised laws against the Senate and nobles. 
As the mob was largely made up of non-Romans, the Tribune Papius 
carried his Lex Papia which compelled the majority of them to 
leave Rome, and so deprived the demngogues of the bulk of their 

19. census nostros requiris: "you ask for our Census-returns," i.e. 
the census-lists of Rome made between Archias alleged enrolment at 
Rome (89 B.C.) and the date of the trial (62 B.C.). According to 
early constitution, two Censors numbered the people anew every five 
years, making a return of their incomes such as might serve for the 
purpose of assessing them for taxation (tributum). The Romans 
personally ceased to be taxed after 167 B.C., and therefore the 
Census-returns were no longer made with any regularity. There had 
been only two Censorships since the passing of the Lex Plautia 
Papiria, viz., in 86 and 70 B.C., and in both of these years Archias 
was away from Rome, and therefore could not have any entry made 
against his name, while the Censors actually in office at the date of 
the passing of the law (89 B.C.) took no Census at all. 

proximis censoribus: not the last Censors (of 65 and 64 B.C. . 

CI1. V.] NOTES. 3D 

as there was no Census in these two years, but the last who presided 
at a Census-return, i.e. those of 70 B.C. So superioribus, " under 
the Censors next preceding (i.e. in 86 B.C.), and primia, "under the 
original Censors" at the time of the passing of the Lex Plautia. 
See last note. The ablatives are all of attendant circumstance (abl. 

21. quaestore : the Quaestors ("investigators") were originally 
appointed to assist the kings in "investigating" crime. Later they 
became the Comptrollers of the Treasury (aerarium~), and eventually 
their numbers were so much increased that, while two stayed at 
home to manage the state-chest, others accompanied every commander 
or governor of a province, to act as Paymasters of the Forces, col 
lectors of revenues, etc. Lucullus was Quaestor to L. Sulla in Asia, 
86 B.C. 

22. lulio : the author of the Lex Julia ; see Introd., 3. Crasso : 
see 6, note. 

23. sed, quoniam . . . pro cive, iis temporibus : the sentence must 
be broken up in English, " putting a fullstop after " as a citizen," and 
beginning the apodosis " Then (I say) at the aforementioned dates." 

24. qui sit census: "any one who is assessed" or "returned." 
The subjunctive is regular in a relative clause in Oratio Obliqua, the 
main verb being indicat. 

ita . . . pro cive: the latter phrase explains the adverb "in 
such and such a fashion, viz., as a citizen." 

25. quern tu criminaris : the antecedent to quern is the subject to 
the verbs fecit, adiit. delatus eat, i.e. Archias. 

27. testamentum fecit : all wills made by Romans were registered 
before the Comitia Curiata (or its representative), and were other 
wise invalid, and the power of giving and receiving preperty from 
Romans by will (ius testamenti) was possessed only by Roman citizens. 

adiit hereditates : " has entered upon inheritances," a technical 

28. in beneficiis ad aerarium delatus est : " has been notified to the 
Treasury by Lucullus on his list of emoluments." Lucullus, as 
general in Asia (70 B.C.), had included Archias name amongst those 
whose services deserved an honorarium from the State. Cicero means, 
he would not have done this, had Archias not been a citizen. The 
Aerarium, " state-chest," was kept in the temple of Saturn, and 
under the control of the Quaestors for the year, who could however 
only make payments from it on the authority of a decree of the 

Second Part of the Speech : The Merits of Literature. 

ARGUMENT. 12-16. If I am asked wliy I undertake the defence 
of Archias. I shall reply that he is a literary man and so am I, and 
I am proud of it ( 12). I only spend my leisure, time upon literature, 
as other men spend theirs on other pursuits ( 13) ; and indeed it is 
to the teaching and example of old writers that I otve my successes 


and my courage ( 14). It is possible, of course, to be both successful 
and bold without deep reading, but certainly reading helps to these 
ends ( 15) ; and to say the least, I have plenty of examples to show 
that mine is a noble form of recreation ( 16). 

[See Index for Africanus, Laelius, and Cato.] 

Cu. V l. 5. reficiatur: the subjunctive is due to the consecutive 
force of ubi (= locum talem ut ibi~); see L. C., 283; L. G., 
501 (d~), 536. So conquiescant. Translate "he provides me 
with that wherein my spirits may recover themselves." 

6. nobis : the plural refers to orators and statesmen in general. 

7. dicamus: final subjunctive after quod = ut . . . id; L. C., 
278 ; L. G., 501 (r). Excolamus and relaxemus are subjunctives 
of the dependent verb in O ratio Obliqua. 

10. ceteros pudeat: jussive subjunctive "let others be ashamed " 
(L. C., 208), or potential subjunctive "the rest of the world may 
be ashamed (if they see fit)." See L. C., 257 ; L. G., $ 477, 517. 
In the next sentence pudeat is certainly potential, and so reprehendat 
and tnccfiixeat in 11. 16, 17. 

11. litteris abdideruut: Utteris is either (i) abl. of the instrument, 
" buried themselves with book-lore," or (ii) dat. of indirect object, 
abdo being used almost in the sense of dedo. Litteris should not t>e 
taken as an abl. of place without a preposition ; see L. (_!., 120, 121. 

13. ita vivo: to be translated by a perfect present "have been 
living." Cp. the construction with iamdiu. iampridem, etc. L. C., 
19 J ; L. G., 461. 

14. tempore: = periculo, " hour of need," referring to criminal cases, 
commodo : = "opportunity," "interest," referring to private suits. 

16. reprehendat : see on ceteros pudeat, 1. 10. Tandem is frequently 
used to emphasise a query : quis tandem ? = " Who, 1 pray ? " " Who 
in the world ? " 

17. si, quantum: the order is si tantum temporum . . . sumpsero, 
quantum, etc. The six clauses introduced by quantum are all co 
ordinate, and may be connected in translating by " or" ; and temporum 
(partitive genitive, L. C., 141 ; L. G., f 395, NOTE 1) is transferred 
from the antecedent to the relative clause. The plural denotes the 
different " leisure hours" devoted to each pursuit. 

18. dies ludorum: there were many Ludl exhibitions of races, 
gladiatorial combats, wild-beast rights, plays, etc., in the theatre or 
Circus during the year, which would be observed as holidays ((lies 
festi, ferine ). 

21. tempestivis : "beginning early," and therefore all the longer. 
The customary hour for dinner was the ninth (i.e. from two to three 
o clock in the afternoon). 

22. sumpsero : future perfect as subordinate to the potential sub 
junctives reprehendat and mtccenxeat, which refer to a possible future 
condition. See L. C., 250 (), NOTE 2. 

23. eo . . . mapis : "all the more" (lit. "by this much the more," 
L. C.. 130 ; L. G., $ 378). 

CH. VII.] NOTES. 41 

24. oratio et facultas: "eloquence and ability." Some join the 
two as a Hendiadys, translating "powers of eloquence." 

26. levior . " somewhat trivial " ; the comparative degree is fre 
quently used to express what is excessive or considerable. L. C., 
178 ; L. G., I 89. 

27. hauriam: indirect question. L. C., 227; L. G., 483. 

nisi . . . suasissem : the apodosis is contained in the clause 
nunquam . . . obiecissem, the intervening words being accus. and 
infin. clauses, which form the direct objects of suasissem. 

31. parvi esse ducenda: "is to be deemed of little weight or 
cost." Parvi is the so-called genitive of price, in reality a locative 
expressing at what point in the scale of value. See L. C., 

33. dimicationes : alluding to his political troubles with Catilina 
and his companions, theproftiffati homines, who repeatedly attempted 
Cicero s life. See Introd., 1. 

38. expressas : " well-finished," " clearly-moulded." The metaphor 
is from moulding portrait-models (t;xprimere imagines) of the dead 
out of wax. 

41. hominum: objective genitive after cogitatione. 

Ch. VII. 2. istane doctrina: ablative of the instrument. Istane 
= ista and ne. Iste generally refers to something which has been 
just mentioned by the person addressed "by that training which 
you praise." 

5. respondeam : subj. in a dependent relative clause, representing 
a deliberative subj. in direct interrogation quid respondeam? 
" What am I to reply ? " 

7. moderates: "men of self-control"; graves: "men of serious 
character, moral resolution." 

10. idem ego : see note on idem, iv. 27. 

11. ratio quaedam conformatioque : lit. "a certain method and 
moulding"; but combining this Hendiadys the phrase becomes in 
English idiom, " what may be called a systematic moulding." 

doctrinae : subjective genitive, "afforded by culture." 

12. nescio quid praeclarum: "a certain excellence." For the use 
of nescio quis, see L. C., 229. The idiom exactly represents the 
French Je ne sain quoi d illustre. Cicero refers to the ideally perfect 
development, but tones it down by nesoio quid. 

13. ex hoc esse hunc numero : the construction is still in 
Or. Obliqua, after contendo. Hunc probably means the younger 

14. L. Furium : a friend of Africanus, and one of the chief littera 
teurs of the time. 

18. adiuvarentur . . . contulissent : "they would never have 
betaken themselves (once and for all) . . . had they not been 
(constantly) deriving help." Observe the distinction between the 
past complete (pluperfect) and imperfect continuous tense (im 


22. temporum . . . aetatum . . . locorum: the genitives are pre 
dicative. Cp. erat hoc ingenii ac litterarum, iii. 22. 

24. secundas res: "prosperity." So adrersis (sc. rebus), "mis 
fortune." Sfcundus is properly the archaic gerundive of sequor used 
with the force of a present participle "following," and so either 
(i) favourable," or (ii) of order in time or place, "second." 

26. domi . . . foris : locatives, the former true locative (see iii. 2, 
note on Antiochiae), the latter (foris) locative ablative from the stem 
fora-, seen in foras (cp. foris, " a door ") ; hence " at the doors " and 
so "out of doors." 

ARGUMENT. 17-22. Even though me are not ourselves gifted, 
ive can and do admire these gifts in others ( 17), and Archias i-s, as 
I can testify, especially worthy of such admiration ( 18). Let us 
then protect him jealously, remembering horn Homer s memory is had 
in honour, for he has done muck to sing tlie praises of our country 
( 19). Marius and Themistocles mere great, but they liked to hear 
their praises sung ( 20), and Archias has praised us Romans in the 
matter of Lucullus rears rcith Mithraddtes ( 21). Let us value 
Archias as his friends valued Ennius ( 22). 

[See Index for Homerus, Themistocles, Marius, Lucullus, Ennius, 
and Tenedos.] 

Ch. VIII. 1. animo agresti ac duro: "of so uncultivated and 
unfeeling a heart" ; agresti refers to lack of (artistic) taste, duro to 
lack of feeling. 

2. Eosci : a protege of Sulla and friend of Cicero, whose powers as 
a comic actor were so great that after him any great artist was 
called a Roscius. He died in the very year of this speech (niiper), 
62 B.C. 

4. mori non debuisee : impersonal verbs when constructed with a 
dependent infinitive take themselves the tense-sign, which is in 
English transferred to the dependent infinitive. See L. C., 79. 

6. animorum . . . motus: = mental activity"; the plural of a 
concrete noun is often used in Latin, where the English idiom 
prefers a singular abstract noun. 

10. cum litteram scripsisset nullam : " without having (lit. " though 
he had not ") written a bingle letter." For the concessive subjunctive, 
see L. C., 264 ; L. G., 521. Littera in the singular means "a 
letter" of the alphabet; in the plural (i) " letters of the alphabet," 
(ii) "an epistle," (iii) "literature." 

11. agerentur : " were under discussion." So rem agere, " to discuss 
a point." The subjunctive is probably due to attraction to the mood 
of xcripsi.ttet ; cp. L. C., 31o. It may be hypothetical ; qitae = si qtiae, 
"supposing any subjects were then under discussion." L. C., 2u8. 

12. extempore: "offhand," "extempore." 
revocatum: " recalled to lepeat his poem," "encored." 

15. diligam . . . admirer: deliberative subjunctives. L. C., 207; 
L.G., 481. 

CH. IX.] NOTES. 43 

18. praeceptis : " principles," "theoretical rules." arte : artistic 
or technical skill in practice. 

21. quod . . . videantur : subjunctive as giving the reason of 
Ennius, not of Cicero, for so calling them. See L. C., 8 271 ; L. G., 

22. aliquo dono : lit. " by way of some gift " (abl. of manner); hence 
translate " as a kind of gift." 

23. sit igitur: jussive subjunctive. L. C., 208 ; L. GK 477. 

24. poetae nomen: "this the poet s reputation," not "the name 
of poet," which would usually be hoc nomen poetam (L. C., 9). 

25. saxa et solitudines : alluding to the legends that told how the 
music of Amphlon, Orpheus, and Anon, had these results. 

27. Colophonii: for this and the following adjectives, see Index, 

30. eius : genitive of possession, " as his," i.e. (: to him." 

Ch. IX. 1. alienum : only one city could have been the genuine 
birthplace of Homer, to the rest he was a stranger. 

3. olim : " long ago." Olim is derived from olle (archaic form of ille), 
and means at that (distant) date," usually past, sometimes future. 
Occasionally it bears the sense of " times and again " or " this long 
time," " continually." 

5. Cimbricas res : see Index, s.v. MAUIUS. 

6. durior : " somewhat lacking in sympathy for." For the mean 
ing, cp. viii. 1 ; and for the use of the comparative, vi. 26, levior. 

7. quisquam : this pronoun can only be used in clauses which 
are negative, or virtually so ; e.g. in questions expecting a 
negative reply, after vix, or after comparatives. L. C., 171 ; L. G., 
116 (3). 

8. aversus a Musis : "unpoetical," lit. " estranged from the Muses." 

9. facile: adverb with patlatur. 

praeconium : the proclamation of apracco ; see x. 18, note, 
patiatur : the relative qui is consecutive in force ; it = ut is, and 
gives the consequence of tarn aversus. 

10. Athenis : locatival ablative. L. C., 122 ; L. G., 368. 

11. quod acroania . . . aut . . . vocem . . . audiret: acroama is a 
Greek word denoting that which one hears with pleasure. In Latin 
it is applied to persons, and = "actors." Vocem refers to singing. 
Audiret is subjunctive of indirect question; the direct form was 

12. eius : sc. vocem se audire, depending on dlxisse. 

13. L. Plotium : the first rhetorician who opened a school at Kome 
for practice of rhetoric in Latin. 

15. Mithridaticum bellum : see Index, s.v. LUCULLUS (i.). 

16. expressum : see note on expressas, vi. 38. 

17. qui libri : " and these volumes," referring to those in which 
the Bellum Mithridaticum, of Archias was written. 

19. aperuit: "threw open," i.e. made Pontus a free trading-ground 
to Roman merchants, by destroying the power of Mithradates, 


who had excluded them, or at any rate put them under disad 

21. eodem duce : ablative absolute. 

manu : "band," "force." According to Plutarch the Romans 
numbered 10,000, the Asiatics, 200,000. 

23. urbem . . . ereptam esse atque servatam: the accus. and iufin. 
clauses stand as subject to the predicate latts cst ^;<y;M/i Itomani. 
For Cyzicenorum, see Index, s.v. CYZICUS. 

25. nostra : secondary predicate" will be spoken of and proclaimed 
as ours." 

27. apud Tenedum pugna : see Index, s.v. TENEDOS. 

29. quae quorum . . . ecferuntur : the double relative is not trans 
latable in modern English ; see L. C., 20, NOTE 1. 

31. superior!: "the elder." 

32. ex marmore : " it is believed to be he (i.e. his statue) that was 
set up in marble." The ablative of material may stand with or 
without the preposition ex or in ; L. C., $ 134. 

34. huius: sc. Catonis "of the Cato here." Iluim implies that 
he, Cato Uticensis, was present in court. See Index, s.v. CATO (2). 

35. rebus : res may be called a blank cheque, the meaning of which 
is to be filled in according to the context. Here it means " the 

36. Maximi, Marcelli, Fulvii : all of these were famous families 
in Roman history. The greatest of the Maximi was Q. Fabius 
Maximus, who first resisted Hannibal with success in the second 
Punic War (218 202 B.C.), and by his policy of declining to fight 
a pitched battle, won the surname of Cvnctator, "the Lingerer." 
M. Marcellus distinguished himself during the same war by capturing 
Syracuse after two years of siege (212 B.C.). Fulvius Nobilior sub 
dued the Aetolians (189 B.C.). His son procured for Ennius the 
Roman franchise. 

37. omnium : objective genitive with laude. nostrum : partitive 
genitive with omnium. Observe that nostrum and vcxtrum are always 
partitive, nostri and vestri (plural) always objective. See L. C., 
153 ; L. O.. $ 39,5, Ob*. 

Ch. X. 1. haec fecerat : sc. carmina, " who had composed these 

Kudinum hominem : see Index, g.v. ENNIUS. 

2 maiores : " ancestors," as usual when used as a substantive. 

3. civitatibus : dative of the agent, which is regular after a gerund 
or gerundive, and is sometimes used after a perfect tense of a passive 
verb. See L. C., 111 ; L. GK, 356. 

ARGUMENT. 23 end. Arch t as is not the morse a poet because 
fie writes in Greek, for it is a world-wide language, and therefore the 
letter fitted to celebrate our world-wide glory ( 23). Alexander 
wanted a Homer ; Pompeius a Theophanes ( 24); had need been, 
Archias would have been presented by some general with the franchise 

CH. X.] 

NOTES. 45 

( 25). Metellus lias his second-rate panegyrist* ( 26), and I may 
name other examples of poets rervards ( 27). Personally I admire 
Archias verse. He has commenced a poem on my consulate ( 28), 
and n e all seek for posthumous glory ( 29); this at least is the motive 
for all that I do ( 30). I have shown to you that Archias deserves 
your aid : help him then ( 31), and let me thank you for listening 
to me so patiently ( 32). 

[See Index for Sulla, Pompeius, Accius, Ennius, Homerus.] 

5. nam : answers a supposed objection : " Oh, but Archias is a 
Greek, and nothing to the Latins." Cicero replies : " Nay, for . . ." 

7. Graeca . . . Latina : sc. scripta. 

8. exiguis : part of the predicate " limits of its own which are 
quite narrow." See note on iii. 10, in Latin. 

10. quo . . . pervenerint : the relative clause is placed before its 
antecedent eodem . . . pi-nctrare. The mood of pervenerint (perfect 
subjunctive) is due to Or. Obliqua. 

12. scribitur : impersonal, " it is written," i.e. " a history is made." 
haec : refers to aloriam famamque. 

13. hoc . . incitamentum est : " these rewards (gloria famaquc) are 
the greatest spur." Hue is attracted to the gender of the predicate 
(inntamcntiim) according to a common idiom. 

16. in Sigeo : the promontory forming the southern entrance of the 
Hellespont, now Yenishrri. Here was shown the tomb of Achilles, 
the bravest of the (I reeks who fought in the Trojan war, whose 
oxploits occupy the greater part of the twenty-four books of Homer s 

18. qui praeconem inveneris : qui has a causal sense ; whence the 
mood (perf. subjunctive). L. C., 273 ; L.G., 501 (b}. Praecones 
were public criers employed by the government or by private persons 
to proclaim any matter of public interest, e.g. sales, deaths, lost 
property, notices of assemblies, elections, games, etc. 

19. Ilias: Index, s.v. HOMERUS. 

20. Me : "of to-day," "no\y living." 

21. Magnus: the surname (cognomen) of Pompeius, q.v. Index ; as 
also for Theophanes. 

22. Mytilenaeum : a native of Mytilene (or Mitylene), the capital 
of the great island of Lesbos, off the coast of Asia Minor, now Mitileni. 

30. poeta de populo : to be taken together" a poet of the people," 
i.e. a poet of the humbler class. 

subiecisset : lit. " had thrown up from below." Sulla was on the 
platform auctioneering the goods of the proscribed. 

quod epigramma : the antecedent (epigramma) is here transferred 
to the relative clause, a common construction in Latin. See L. C., 

31. alternis : "of alternating length," possibly Elegiacs, in which 
Hexameters and Pentameters occur alternately. 

longiusculis : a curious diminutive of lonaius fairly long," " of 
moderate length." 


83. qui . . . duxerit: "if he thought" (L. C., 258), or "seeing 
that he thought" (L. C., 273, and cp. qui hivenerin, 1. 18). We 
might expect dtixissct to correspond to cxpetis&et, but the perfect 
subjunctive emphasises the actual occurrence of the supposed case. 
See also note on v. 6, vencrit . . . dixerit. 

34. aliquo tamen : tamen means " for all that he was so bad a 

38. impetravisset : sc. si rogavissct. When the protasis is thus 
omitted the mood in apodosis (as here impetravissef) is called the 
Potential Subjunctive. See L. C., 257 ; L. G., 517. 

qui praesertim cuperet : = praesertim cum is cuperet ; see note on 
praefertim cum, v. 1 . 

usque eo . . , ut: " to such a degree . . . that." 

39. pingue atque peregrinum sonantibus : the adjectives are used 
adverbially in the accusative, a usage which is an extension of the 
cognate accusative. See L, C., 33, 136 ; L. G., 341. Pingue 
means "stupid," "crass"; percgrinnm, "foreign," "outlandish." 
Corduba is the modern Cordova, on the Guadalquiver. 

Ch. XI. 3. optimus quisque : " all the best of us." See L. C., 
176; L. G., 5S4. 

6. praedicari de se . . . nominari : observe that pracdlcari is im 
personal, but fc must be supplied before nominari. 

I. Brutus : Decimus Junius Brutus was surnamed Gallaecus for his 
successes in Gallaecia (Spain) in his Consulship of 138 B.C. He was 
a patron of the tragic poet L. Accius, whose plays continued to be 
produced down to the latest times of classical Rome. Brutus, as 
was usual, built and restored various edifices in commemoration of 
his victory, and inscribed verses of Accius on the walls. 

10. cum Aetolis . . . Fulvius : see note on ix. 36. 

Ennio comite : ablative absolute " with Ennius on his staff." 
Coinites was the name of the select few friends who accompanied a 
general to the seat of war, either merely as companions, or more 
usually to learn the art of war under his guidance. 

II. Martis : god of war, here used as a common noun = helium, by 
the construction called Metonymy (" change of name "). The mean 
ing is that Fulvius spent some of the proceeds of his campaign in 
building a temple to the Muses. 

13. togati : " in the garb of peace," " civilian," opposed to armati. 
The toga was the regular dress of every citizen when at Itome, but 
was laid aside when he left the city for military service. 

16. meo quodam amore : sec quasi cognatitnu- quad am, i. 20. 

18. in consulatu nostro : in 63 B.C.. against the Catilinarians. Sec 
Introd., 1. Cicero wrote a very bad poem about this subject 

20. incohavit : " made a beginning upon " ; it was not finished. 

24. quid est quod . . . exerceamus : see v. 8, note. 

27. in posterum : " with regard to the future." In such expressions 
the adjective is treated as an abstract substantive. 

CH. XII.] KOTES. 47 

quibus regionibus : for the transference of the antecedent into the 
relative clause, see note on quod epigramma, x. 30. 

31. nunc : logical "as it is." 

noctes ac dies : accusatives of extension. L. C., 124 ; L. G., 

Ch. XII. 1. an : the first half of the question is left to be inferred 
from the context. An frequently (as here) introduces questions 
which imply the needlessness of the preceding remark, or meets an 
anticipated objection. Herb the objection is, Literature is not con 
ducive to active statesmanship, videanmr: cp. dillgam, viii. 15. Parvl 
animi is a genitive of quality. L. C., 133 ; L. (Jr., 394. 

3. cum . . . duxerimus : " though we have drawn." 

9. ingeniis : = " men of genius," cp. the English " geniuses." 

10. spargere ac disseminate : a metaphor from a man sowing seed. 
The subject to the infinitives is omnia qvae gerebam. 

12. a meo sensu : " far removed from my perception." Haec refers 
to memoria. 

16. pudore eo: ablative of quality with hominem ( = Archiam). 
So ingenio tanto, and causa eiusmodi (where eiusmodi does duty for 
the necessary epithet with this ablative ; L. C., 133). 

20. videatis : subjunctive in a relative consecutive clause. 

21. comprobetnr : consecutive subjunctive ; qtiae = tit ea. 

22. petimus . . . ut enm : the verb is accipiatis, at the end of the 

si ... debet : " if, as I assume, there ought " ; the indicative 
denotes an assumption. 

26. his recentibus : the events of Cicero s consulship. 

28. qui semper sancti : i.e. poets, according to Ennius saying, 
viii. 21. 

32. pro mea consuetudine : " as my custom is." 

37. qui iudicium exercet : cp. itt-diciiim exercente. ii. 11, note. 




Accius, -i, m. : see xi. 7, note. 

Africanus, -i, m. : ,<t.v. SCIPIO ( 16, 22). 

Alexander, -ri, m. : Alexander the Great, son of Philip of Macedon, 
became king of that country in 336 B.C. His father had already 
made himself over-lord of all Greece. Alexander crossed into Asia, 
defeated Darius king of Persia in a sanguinary battle at Issus 
(333 B.C.), reduced Tyre by siege (332 B.C.), conquered Egypt and 
founded Alexandria (331 B.C.), and turning back defeated a million 
of Persians at ArbC-la, and so made himself master of the Persian 
Empire. He subsequently invaded India (327 B.C.), and died of 
fever at Babylon in 323 B.C. lie is said to have carried a copy of 
Homer about with him through all his campaigns, and to have often 
regretted that there were no more worlds to conquer, and that he 
had not lived at such a date that Homer might have written of his 
achievements ( 24). 

Antiochia, -ae, f. : of the many cities of this name the most 
important was the capital of Syria, founded by Antiuchus, one of the 
successors of Alexander the Great. It stood upon the Orontes, about 
twenty miles from the sea, to the north of Phoenicia, and was long 
one of the most populous, cultivated, and luxurious cities of the East. 
It was the birthplace of Archias, and was also the home of numbers 
of other Greek writers. The modern name is Antaliia ( 4). 

Armenii, -orum ( m. : the natives of Armenia, a wide and ill-defined 
region of Asia lying about Lake Van, south of the Caucasus, between 
the Caspian Sea and the river Halys (Kyzyl-Irmalt ). It was an 
offshoot of the old Persian Empire, and came under the power of 
Mithradates (<, who set up his son-in-law Tigranes as its king. 
In 69, 68 B.C., Lucullus entered Armenia, and twice defeated Tigranes 
( 21). 


Cato, -onis, m. : (1) Marcus Porcius Cato, surnamcd the Censor, 
born 234 P.C., was quaestor under Africanus in the second Punic 


War, and was consul B.C. 195. He was famous for his uprightness 
and temperance. Until very late in life he was strongly opposed to 
the introduction of any kind of Greek refinement info Roman cha 
racter and life, but before his death he withdrew this opposition 
( 16). It was he who first brought Ennius (#.??.) to Rome ( 22), 
and he was accordingly spoken of very highly by that poet. He was 
censor in 184 B.C.. and used the powers of his office with rigour and 
severity, and died about 150 B.C. From his great age and famous 
censorship he was known as Cato Sejiex, Senior, and Censor, To 
him Cicero dedicated his treatise " De Senectute," otherwise known 
as " Cato Maior." (2) Marcus Porcius Cato, great-grandson of the 
above, was a leading member of the Senate and party of the Nobles 
in Cicero s time. Like the elder Cato, he was exceedingly obstinate, 
and got into constant trouble with Pompeius and Caesar, who were 
threatening the independence of the Senatorial government. He 
was naturally therefore on Lucullus side in politics, and appeared at 
this trial (Indus proavus Cato, 22) on behalf of Lucullus client 
Archias. Subsequently when Caesar invaded Italy and commenced 
the Civil War against Pompeius and the Senate, Cato fled to Africa, 
and there organised an army for the Senate. He was defeated by 
Caesar at the battle of Thapsus (46 B.C.), and withdrew from the 
field of battle to Utica, where he committed suicide. Hence he 
earned the name of Uticensis. 

CWus, -i, f. (adj. Chivs, -a, -urn, Chian, 19): the modern Khio 
(Greek) or Scio (Italian), an important island of Ionia, lying imme 
diately off a peninsula of Lydia in Asia Minor, between Samos and 
Lesbos, and due west of Smyrna. It claimed to be the birthplace of 
Homer, who is supposed to speak of himself in one passage as " the 
blind poet of Chios." 

Colophon, -onis, f. (adj. COlOphonivs, -a, -urn) : one of the twelve 
Ionic cities of Asia, situated near the mouth of the Cayster, a few 
miles north of Ephesus. It claimed to be the birthplace of Homer 

( 19)- 

Cyzlcus, -i, f. (adj. Cyzlcemis, -a, -uni) : the mrdern Bal Kit or 
Ch-izicu, an important Greek seaport, a colony of Miletus, situated 
about the midmost point of the southern shore of the Propontis 
(Sea of Marmora). It was besieged by Mithradates in 73 B.C., and 
relieved by Lucullus ( 21). 


Ennius, -i, m. : the greatest of the early poets of Rome, was born 
at Rudiae, in Calabria [Jiominem Rudinum ( 22)], in 239 B.C. He 
was enrolled for service in a Roman army in Sardinia, where he 
attracted the notice of Cato the Elder, who brought him to Rome. 
Here he found many patrons, particularly Scipio Africanus Maior 
and M. Fulvius Nobilior. He was taken in the retinue of the latter 
to the Aetolian War in 189 B.C., and later in life was presented with 
the Roman franchise through the efforts of Nobilior s son. He wrot.p 

Gie. Are. 4 


mostly Epic poetry, notably a poem in eighteen books styled Annalex, 
a verse-history of Rome down to the close of the war with Hannibal. 
He died in 160 B.C., and his statue was placed on the sepulchre of 
the Scipios ( 18, 22, 27). 


Heraclea, -ae, f. (adj. Heraelii-nsis, -e~) : the modern Palicorn, an 
important city of Lucania, situate at the mouth of the river Siris, 
on the north-west coast of the gulf of Tarentum (Taranto ). The 
case against Archias turns upon the question whether or no he can 
bring evidence to prove his assertion that he had been presented 
with the franchise of Heraclea ( G) which was a federate town ; 
and this was somewhat difficult because the record-office of Heraclea 
had been burnt during the Social War. 

Homerus, -i, m. : the famous Epic poet, Homer, the oldest and 
greatest of the Greek writers in verse, and the " Father of Epic 
poetry." His reputed works are the Iliad (llias. 24) twenty-four 
books concerning the siege of Troy, and the Odyssey twenty-four 
books of the Wanderings of Odysseus (Ulysses). In the former work 
the hero of the story is Achilles, whence Alexander is said ( 24) to 
have wished that lie were Achilles. So famous and admired was 
Homer, that many cities claimed him as their own, and Cicero 
mentions some of them in 1U. The most important may be re 
membered by the old couplet 

Smyrna, Rliodos, Colophon, Salami x, Chins, Aryos, Athfnae, 
Orbis (Je patria ccrtat, Ilonicrt , tua. 

But from internal evidence it is probable that the Homeric poems 
are of Thessalian origin, the date being roughly the eleventh century 
B.C. The poems were brought by emigration to Asia Minor, where 
they were lonicised, and where the addition of further books and 
passages took place. 


Laelius, -i, m. : Caius Laclius was born about 1S6 B.C.. and greatly 
distinguished himself as a statesman, soldier, and orator, though he 
was more of a statesman than a soldier, and more of an orator than 
a statesman. He was a useful and successful officer of Scipio s in 
the Third Punic War, was praetor in 145 B.C., when he conducted 
the military operations in Spain against the powerful Viriathus with 
energy and success, and was consul in 140 B.C. He was leader of a 
large literary circle which included Scipio Africanus Minor and the 
poet Terence. Cicero quotes him as an example of notable culture 

( 16). 

Latium, -i, n. : the country of the Latini, the region immediately 
Pouth of Rome occupied by the thirty cities of the Latin League. 
The name was early extended to mean (i) the territory lying between 
the Tiber (N.), the Apennines (E.), the Mediterranean (W.), and 


Campania (S.) ; and (ii) the population of all towns possessing certain 
rights in relation to Rome known as the ivs Latii, originally the 
privileges of the thirty Leagues-cities of Latium only. These towns 
were now scattered all over Italy, and Cicero says that prior to the 
Social War they vied in culture with Rome itself. 

Licinius, -i, m. : Aulus Licinius Archias. See Introd., 2. 

Locri, -orum, m. (adj. Locrensis, -<?) : a Greek colony of Magna 
Graecia, lying upon the south-east shore of Bruttium, north of the 
promontory of Zophyrium, near the " toe " of Italy. It was sur- 
named Epizepliyrii, to distinguish it from the territorial Locri in 
Central Greece. It bestowed its franchise upon Archias ( 5). 

Lucullus, -i, m. : (i) Marcus Licinius Lucullus, a distinguished 
patron of literature, befriended the poet Archias, and was the chief 
instrument in securing his election to the citizenship of Heraclea 
( 6). He was brother of (2) Lucius Licinius Lucullus, who in 74 
B.C., being then Consul, was entrusted with the conduct of the second 
war against Mithradates, king of Pontus. That monarch had organised 
a great empire along the south shore of the Black Sea, and in 88 B.C. 
he attacked the Roman Province of Asia, massacring 80,000 Romans 
and Italians at one coup, but was reduced to seek peace in 81 B.C. 
by Sulla. After a trifling war in 83, 82 B.C., he busied himself in 
collecting his energies, and especially in extending his Empire over 
Southern Russia and the Crimea. At last in 74 B.C. he commenced 
the Thud or Great Mithradatic War by overrunning Bithynia, a 
Roman possession, and laying siege to Cyzicus. Lucullus raised the 
siege, forced Mithradutes back upon Pontus, and in two years drove 
him into exile at the court of his son-in-law, Tigranes, sovereign 
of Armenia. Lucullus next invaded Armenia, and twice defeated 
Tigranes and Mithradatcs combined (69, 68 B.C.), but was forced 
to resign the command to Pompeius in 66 B.C. Pompeius completed 
the war, forcing Mithradatcs to suicide in 63 B.C., and Lucullus 
returned to Rome where he triumphed in 63 B.C. He had always 
been a great patron of literature, and the chief friend of Archias, 
who celebrated his deeds in a poem styled the Belhtm Mithridaticum 
( 21), and accompanied him on campaigns in Asia in 86 B.C., when 
Lucullus was Quaestor to Sulla, and in 70 B.C. In his later years 
he was a proverb for luxury with refinement. Re died about o "> B.C. 
(passim). It was to spite him that his enemies, the friends of 
Pompeius who had cheated him out of the results of his campaigns, 
attacked Archias. See Introd., 3. 


Marius, -i, m. : Caius Marius was born near Arpinum, 157 B.C. 
He was of low birth, and is even said to have been a hired labourer 
before he joined the army. His military prowess attracted the 
favourable notice of Scipio Africanus at Numantia, 134 B.C., who 
even spoke of him as a coming general. His marriage with Julia, 
the aunt of the great Julius Caesar, added greatly to hi8 influence. 


In 109 B.C. he accompanied the consul Metellus to Africa as his 
lieutenant, and distinguished himself in the campaign against 
Jugurtha. He returned to Koiw, and was elected consul, with com 
mand in Nurtiidia. Jugurtha was cvptured after a long resis ance in 
106 B.C.; and in 104 B.C. Marius was consul for the second time. To 
meet the hordes of barbarians that were threatening Italy, he was 
elected consul again annually for the years 103-100 B.C. The 
Teutoni and Ambroues were annihilated by him at Aquae Sextiae 
(^lir) 102 B.C., and conjointly with Catulus he destroyed the Cimbri 
at Vercellae ( Vi-rcMi) 101 B.C. He aided Saturninus in his demo 
cratic reforms, 100 B.C., as the price of his consulate for that year, 
then joined the Optimal s and crushed Saturninus. He took part in 
the Social War, but was eclipsed by Sulla. In 88 B.C. Sulla obtained 
the command in the war against Mithradates. Marius intrigued to 
deprive him of it ; Sulla thereupon marched upon Rome, and Marius 
was forced to escape in a vessel. Stress of weather compelled him 
to land at Circeii, and he took refuge in a marsh near Minturnae, 
where he was discovered and handed over to the authorities of 
Minturnae. who at first imprisoned him, but afterwards gave him a 
vessel in which he succeeded in arriving in Africa. Obliged to leave 
Africa by the governor of that province, he joined Cinna and returned 
to Rome with him 87 B.c His death took place shortly after the 
commencement of his seventh consulship, 86 B.C. Archias com 
plimented him by describing the events of 102, 101 B.C. in a poem 
entitled De Rebus Cimbricis ( 5, 19). 


Neapolis, -i, f. (adj. Ncaj/Glitdnt/s, -a, -?/;): Xajx>li or Majors, a 
town of Campania in Italy, a Greek colony, and early celebrated for 
its wealth. It was a federate city ( 5), and presented Archias with 
its civitag. 


Pompeius, -i, m. : Cnaous Pompeius Magnus was born 106 B.C., 
and distinguished himself against (ho Italians in the Social War 
(89 B.C.). He obtained three triumphs (a) in 81 B.C., over the 
African Prince larbas; (f>) in 71, over the Spaniards ; and (/") in 61, 
for his victories in the East. He was Consul in 70, 55, and also in 
52 B.C. on the latter occasion without any colleague. The Lex 
Gabiitia of 67 B.C. invested him with extraordinary powers in the 
Mediterranean in order to extirpate the pirates, and the Lr.r ^ff^niUa 
gave him the command against Mithradates, 66 B.C., in which he 
superseded L. Lucullus (y.f.) when on the point to reap the reward 
of eight years of successful fighting. From this date forward, 
Lucullus w r as at feud with Pompeius. and it was to spite Lucullus 
that Grattius, acting on behalf of Pompeius party, brought this 
action against Archias. In 60 B.C., he formed the First Triumvirate 


with Caesar and Crassus. He was, on his return from the East, the 
most powerful person in Rome ; but he soon became jealous of Caesar, 
and eventually broke with him altogether. When Caesar crossed 
the Rubicon, and marched on Rome, in 49 B.C., Pompey was obliged 
to retire to Thessaly, where he suffered a severe defeat at Pharsalia in 
48 B.C. Thereupon he fled to Egypt, where he was killed. He was 
the patron of the poet Theophanes of Mitylene, who wrote in praise 
of Pompeius campaigns, and was in return presented by Pompeius 
with the franchise of Rome in an assembly of the army ( 24). 

Pontus, -i, m. : (I) The Pontus Euxinus, or Black Sea. (2) The 
kingdom of Mithradates, lying on the southern shores of the Black 
Sea between the Caucasus and Armenia (east), and Paphlagonia and 
Bithynia (west). In 21 it may bear either sense. 


Rhegium, -i, n. : (Rpggio) a large Greek port on the east side of 
the Straits of Messina, at the extremity of the "toe "of Italy. It 
was a federate town, and presented Archias with its civitas ( 5). 


Salamis, -Inis, f. : (Koluri) a small islet off Peira^us, the harbour 
of Athens, in the Saronic Gulf, famous as the scene of the great rout 
of the Persian fleet of Xerxes by the Greeks, 480 B.C. It claimed 
also to be the birthplace of Homer (q.v.). 

Scipio, -onis, m. : (1) Africanus Major defeated Hannibal at Zama 
in 202 B.C., and concluded the Second Punic War. From this achieve 
ment he was called Africanus. He was legate to his brother Lucius 
in the Syrian War, 19U B.C.; they were both accused of corruption ; 
Lucius was convicted, but the prosecution against Africanus was not 
continued ; but Scipio was so disgusted with this treatment that he 
retired to Liternum, and there died in 183 B.C. He was a great 
patron of literature, and amongst his circle was Ennius, whose effigy 
is said to have been sculptured upon Scipio s tomb. He was called 
Major to distinguish him from (2) Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus 
Minor, his adopted grandson, who conducted the Third Punic War, ami 
rased Carthage 146 B.C., whence he took his cognomen of Africanus. 
In 133 he finished the Numantian War (whence he is sometimes 
called Numantinus). On his return to Rome he opposed the demo 
cratic party, and expressed approval of the death of Tib. Gracchus, 
his brother-in-law. In B.C. 12!) he was found dead in bed on the 
morning after he had made a speech against Gracchus Agrarian Law, 
and the tribune Carbo was suspected of his murder. He was a great 
patron of literature, like his grandfather, and amongst his circle 
were Laelius, Terence, and Ennius ( 16, 22). 

Smyrna, -ae, f. (adj. Smyrnaeun, -a, -uoi) : a famous Ionic Greek 
colony of Lydia, at the centre of West Coast of Asia Minor. Ita 


people claimed Homer as one of themselves, and erected a temple in 
bis honour ( 19), 

Sulla, -ae, m.: Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix, born 133 B.C., served 
as Quaestor to Marius in the Jugurthine War. He was Consul in 88, 
and was appointed to the command against Mithradates. The people 
\vere induced to transfer it to Marius. Sulla resented this transfer, 
marched upon Rome, and expelled the supporters of Marius, 88 B.C. 
From 87-83 Sulla was engaged against Mithradates and other enemies, 
but returned to Italy in 83 B.C. In 81 he was appointed perpetual 
Dictator, and passed many imporlant laws in favour of the aristocracy 
and Senate. At the end of the year 80 B.C. he laid down the 
Dictatorship. He died in 79 B.C. Amongst the items of his legis 
lation was the establishment of the QitficRtiwii s Pcrpctuae, or 
Standing Judicial Commissions ( 3). See In trod., 4. 


Tarentum, -i, n. (adj. Tarentimts, -a, -urn") : now Taranto, a famous 
city at the head of the Gulf of Taranto, in Southern Italy, a colony 
from Sparta in 708 B.C. It was famous for its culture, wealth, and 
fisheries ; and Archias possessed its franchise ( 5). 

Tenedus, -i, f . : an islet oif the coast of Troas in the north-west 
corner of Asia Minor, still called by the same name. The " Battle of 
Tenedos " was really fought off Lemnos, an island further to the 
west, and was the opening event of Lucullus campaigns against 
Mithradates, 73 B.C. ( 21). 

Themistocles, -is, m. : the great Athenian general and admiral, 
author of the policy by which Athens became a naval power, and 
mainly answerable tor the great triumph at Salamis (7.?-.) He also 
fortified Athens and the i eiraeus (478-47(5 J;.c. ). In 471 he was 
ostracised (banished) from Athens, and subsequently became in 
volved in some treasonable correspondence with the 1 ersians. He 
was compelled to fly, and took refuge in 1 eisia, where he died 
about 4,30 ( 20). 





TEST PAPER 1. ( 111.) 

1. Translate : (a) Cli. I., 2, Ac ne quis . . . continental". 

(6) Ch. IV., 8, 9, Est ridiculum . . . collocavit. 

2. Comment on the construction of the words in italics, with 
special attention to the tenses in (b) and (c) : 

(a) Erat hoc naturae atque virtutis, ut domus, quae liuius adule- 
scentiae prima favit, eadem esset familiar issima senectuti. 

(/*) Si qui foederatis civitatibus ascripti fuissent, si turn, cum lex 
ferebatur, in Italia domicilium habuissent et si sexaginta dielm* apud 
praetorem essent professi. 

(c) Metellus tanta diligentia fuit, ut unius nominis litura se com- 
motum esse dixerit. 

3. Give the meaning of (a) pueritiae memoriam recordari ultiniam, 
(b) praetextatus, (c) Heraclea erat civitas aequissimo iure ac foedere, 
(d) incenso tabulario, (e) scaenici artifices. 

4. Give the town-names corresponding to the following adjectives, 
and locate the towns : Tarentinus, Locrensis, Rheginus, Neapoli- 
tamts, Heradiensis. 

CIC. ARC. 5 


TEST PAPER 2. ( 1222.) 

1. Translate : (a) Ch. VIII., 17, Quis nostrum . . . neglegemus ? 

(b) Ch. IX., j>21, Populus enim . . . servatam. 

2. Explain the historical events referred to in 1 (b). 

3. State briefly what you know of: the Roscius mentioned in 
1 (a), Ennius, Themistocles, L. Plotius. 

4. In what connection does Cicero mention in these sections : 
(a) Marius, (b) Homer, (c) Cato the Elder, (d) the tomb of the 

TEST PAPER 3. ( 23 end.) 

1. Translate: (a) Ch. XII., 30, An statuas . . . sempiternam. 

(b) Ch. XII., 31, Quare conservate . . . compro- 

2. Explain the use of the subjunctive in each of the following 
sentences : 

(a) An vero tarn parvi animi videamur esse omnes? 

(6) Quid est, quod in hoc tarn exiguo vitae curriculo tantis nos in 
laboribus exerceamu.s ? 

(c) fortunate adulescens, (jui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem 
inveneris ! 

3. Who or what were (ot)Sigeum, (b) Ilias, (c) Corduba, (d) noster 
hie Magnus ? 

4. \Vlnt do we learn from this speech abaut the contents and 
character of poems written by Archias ? 



TEST PAPER 4. ( 111.) 

1. Translate: Ch. II., 3, Quaeso a vobis . . . dicendi. 

2. Translate and explain : Quoniam census non ius civitatis 
confirmat ac tantum modo indicat euni, qui sit ctnMio, ita se iam 
turn gessisse pro cive, ids temp< nbus, qmm tu criminari? ne ipsius 
quidem iudicio in civium Roniaiioruni hue esse veisatum, et testa- 
mentum saepe fecit nostris legibus et adiit hereditates civinm 
Romanorum et in bemficiis ad atrarium delatus est a L. Lucullo 
pro consule. 

3. Explain the allusions in : 

(a) Erat iucundus Q. Metello illi Numidico et eius Pio filio, 
audiebatur a M. Aemilio, vivebat cum Q. Catulo et patre et filio. 

(6) Ceteri post legem Papiam aliquo modo in eoiuni municipiorum 
tabu las irrepserunt. 

4. Who brought the action against Archias ? What was their 
motive in so doing 1 

TEST PAPER 5. ( 1222.) 

1. Translate : (a) Ch. VI., 12, Quaeres a nobis . . . relaxemus? 

(b) Ch. VIII., 18, Quotiens ego ... sententiis. 

2. Give the meaning of : (a) delubrum, (/>) acruama, (c) tempestiva 
convivia, (d) animi remissio, (e) ptoavus. 

3. Explain the allusions in the following : 

(a) Cimbricas res adulescens attigit. 

(b) Mithridaticum helium magnum atque difficile et in multa 
varietate terra marique versatum. 

4. Reproduce briefly (in English) what Cicero says in defence of 
literary studies. What famous Romans does he mention as 
addicted to them ? 


TEST PAPER 6. (23 end.) 

1. Translate : (a) Ch. X., 23, Quare, si res eae . . . laborum. 

(b) Ch. XL, 29, Certe, si nihil . . . adaequandam. 

2. Explain the allusions in : 

(a) Ille, qui cum Aetolis Ennio comitante bellavit, Fulvius non 
dubitavit Martis manubias Musis consecrare. 

(/;) Ergo ilium, qui haec fecerat, Rudinum hominum maiores 
nostri in civitatem receperunt. 

3. With the help of what we learn from this speech, write a short 
life of Archias. 

4. Name with approximate dates three Greek or Latin writers 
mentioned by Cicero. Give further particulars of one of them. 

TEST PAPER 7. (Revision of whole.) 

1. Translate : (a) Ch. II., 3, Quaeso a vobis . . . dicendi. 
(b) Ch. XII., 29, An vero . . . sempiternam. 

2. Explain the allusions in : 

(a) Incredibilis apud Tenedum pugna ilia navalis. 

(b) Decimus Brutus, summus viret imperator, Acci, amicissimi sui, 
cirminibus tz n > .O.M n ac m mimjntorum aditus exornavit suoru n. 

3. Ratranslate : 

. (a) I will make you feel that my clie;it (seeing that he is a citizen) 
not only should not be removed from the roll of citizens, but also, 
that if he were not, he ought to have been placed on it. 

(b) He \vas made much of, not only by thosa who were ea^er to 
understand and to hear, but also by any who miy hive mide a 
pretence of eagerness. 

4. State in brief the provisions of the L.x, Pl vMia, Papiri t. 
Show how they beir upon the case, and hiw Archias satistied them. 
Wuy w is it tint the pro303iiti m failed ti support their case by 

eference to the census-lists? 


1. ingenii ingenium, -ii, n. (natural ability), talent. 

indices iudex, -icis, c. (judge), jury-man. 

2. exiguum exiguus, -a, -um, small. 

exercitatio exercitatio, -onis, f. (practice), readinest. 

3 infitior infitior, I, to deny. 

mediocriter adv., moderately. 

versatum versor, 1 (to busy oneself about), to be ex 
perienced in. 

huiusce hic-ce, haec-ce, hoc-ce, dem. pron., this. 

4. studiis studium, -ii, n. (zeal for a pursuit), study. 

disciplina disciplina, -ae, f., training. 

profecta proficiscor, -fectus, 3 (to set out), to start from. 

0. confiteor confiteor, -fessus, 2, to acknowledge. 

abhorruisse abhorreo, 2 (to shrink from), to avoid. 

(5. fructum fructus, -us, m. (fruit), profit. 

1. repetere repeto, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 3 (to ask back), to 

get back. 

iure ius, iuris, n., right. 

debet debeo, 2 (to owe), to be in duty bound. 

quoad adv. (how far), as far as. 

8. respicere respicio, -spexi, -spectum, 3, to look back. 

praeteriti praeteritus, -a, -um, past. 

9. pueritiae pueritia, -ae, f., boyhood. 

recordari recorder, 1, to recall to mind, 

10. principem princeps, -cipis, c. (a chief), a guide. 

suscipiendam suscipio, -cepi, -ceptum, 3 (to take up), 


11. ingrediendam ingredior, -gressus, 3, to enter upon. 

exstitisse exsisto, -stiti, -stitum, 3 (to stand forth), to 

appoint oneself. 
quodsi conj., but if , and if . 

12. hortatu hortatus, -us, m., encouragement. 

praeceptis praeceptum, -i, n., teaching. 

13. aliquando adv., at gome (or any) time. 

saluti salus, -utis, f ., deliverance. 

opitulari opitulor, 1, to bring help to. 

15. situm sino, sivi, situm, 3 (to allow), permit. 

opem opem, opis, ope, f., help (plur. wealth). 

facultas facultas, -tatis, f. (capability), f*"" . 


17. ratio ratio, -onis, f. (reason), theory. 

18. penitns adv. (inwardly), deeply, entirely. 

19. dediti fuimns dedo. -didi, -ditura, 3 (to give up to), apply to. 

humanitatem humanitas, -tatis, f., culture. 

20. pertinent pertineo, 2 (to tend towards), bear upon. 

vinclum vinclum (vinculum), -i, n. (bond), tie. 

cognatione cognatio, -onis, f., kinthip. 

continentur contineo, -ui, -tentura, 2 (to hud together), 



1. vestrum gen. plur. of tu, tui, pers. pron., thott, 

2. quacstione quaestio, -onis, f. (inquiry), court. 

legitima legitimus, -a, -um, appointed by law. 

iudicio iudicium, -ii, n., trial. 

agatur ago, egi, actum, 3, to conduct. 

3. praetorem praetor, -oris, m., a praetor. 

lectissimum lectus, -a, -um (jtelect), choice. 

4. severissimos severus, -a, -um (stern), impartial. 

conventu conventus, -us, m., an assemblage. 

frequentia frequentia, -ae, f., a crowd. 

5. uti utor, usus, 3, to use. 

ronsuetudine consuetude, -inis, f. (custom), usage. 

6. forensi forensis, -e, belonging to the bar. 

sermone sermo, -onis, m. (discourse), language. 

quaeso quaeso (old form of quaero), -ivi or -ii, -itum, 

3, to beg. 

7. veniam venia, -ae, f. {pardon), privilege. 

accommodatam ... accomraodatus, -a, -um (fitted), appropriate. 

8. reo reus, -i, m., a defendant. 

quern ad modum ... adv. phrase (in what manner), at. 

10. concursu concursus, -us, m. (running togctltfr), assem 

litteratissimorum .. litteratus, -a, -um, highly educated. 

11. paliamini patior, passus, 3, to allow. 

paulo adv. (by a little), tomewhat. 

liberius comp. adv. libere,/m Z//. 

13. persona persona, -ae, f. (a mask), a character. 

otium otiuni, -ii, n. (leisure), retirement. 

14. tractata tracto, 1, to handle. 

15 inusitato inusitatus, -a, -um, untried. 

16. perficiam perficio, -feci, -fectum, 3 (to complete), bring 

to past. 
profecto adv., assuredly. 

17. segregandutn segrego, 1 (to separate froni), to remove. 

civis civis, -i?, c., citizen. 

18. asciscendum ascisco, -scivi, -scitum, 3 (to approve of), 




1. excessit excedo, -cessi, -cessum, 3, to go out of. 

2. puerilis puerilis, -e, boyish. 

informari informo, 1, to mould. 

3. solet soleo, -itus sum, 2, to "be wont. 

contulit se confero, -tuli, -latum, -ferre, to "betake oneself. 

4. loco locus, -i, m. (in pi. m. andn.^place^position. 

nobili nobilis, -e (noble), exalted. 

celebri Celebris, -e (crowded ), populous. 

quondam adv., at one time, formerly. 

6. copiosa copiosus, -a, -um (full of), teeming with. 

eruditissimis erudltus, -a, -um, learned. 

liberalissimis liberalis, -e (liberal), cultured. 

6. affluenti affluens, -ntis, adj. (flowing with), rich. 

celeriter adv., quickly. 

antecellere antecello (no perf. and supine), 3, to excel. 

coepit coepi (no pres.), coeptum, 3, to begin. 

8. adventus adventus, -us, m. (coming), arrival. 

celebrantur celebro, 1, to throng. 

9. superaret supero, 1 (to go beyond), to exceed. 

10. plena plenus, -a, -um,/wZZ of. 

11. vehementius comp. adv. vehementer, with zeal. 

colebantur colo, -ui, cultum, 3 (to attend to), to follow. 

12. hie adv., here. 

tranquillitatem ... tranquillitas, -tatis, f. (quietness), security. 

14. civitate civitas, -tatis, f., citizenship. 

praemiis praemium, -ii, n. (reward), honour. 

15. donarunt dono, 1 (to make a gift of), present. 

16. cognitione cognitio, -onis, f., a becoming acquainted ivith. 

hospitio hospitium, -ii, n., entertainment. 

18. nactus nanciscor, nactus, 3, to meet uiith. 

20. cum . . . turn correl. ad vs.. both . . . and. 

gestas gero, gessi. gestum, 3 ; res gestae, achievement*. 

aures auris, -is, f. (ear), attentiveness, good taste. 

adhibere adhibeo, 2, to manifest. 

21. statim adv., at once. 

praetextatus praetextatus. -a, --am^wearing the garb of youth. 

24. favit faveo, favi, fautum, 2 (to favour), patronise. 

2o. familiarissima familiaris, -e, friendly. 

20. illi ille, ilia, illud, demons, pron., that famous. 

29. devinctam devincio, -nxi, -nctnm, 4, to bind damn. 

30. afficiebatur afficio, -feci, -fectnm,3(toputupon),to honour. 

32. forte adv., by chance. 

simulabaiit simulo. 1 (to pretend), to make a show of. 


1. interim adv., meanwhile. 

satis adv. (sufficiently), fairly. 

intervallo intervallum, -i, n. (space between), interval. 


3. decederet decedo, -cessi, -cessum, 3, to leave. 

4. civitas civitas, -tatis, f., state. 

aequissimo aequus, -a, -um, equal. 

foedere foedus, -eris, n., a treaty. 

ascribi ascribo, -psi, -ptum, 3 (to write in), enroll. 

5. auctoritate auctoritas, -tatis, f., influence. 

6. gratia gratia, -ae, f. (favour), popularity . 

impetravit impetro, 1, to obtain a request. 

7. foederatis focdero, 1, to be in league. 

9. domicilium domicilium, -ii, n., a settled dwelling. 

10. professi profiteer, -fessus, 2 (to declare publicly), to 


12. nisi conj., unless, except. 

18. amplius comp. adv. from ampins, further. 

causa causa, -ae, f ., case. 

14. infirmari infirmo, 1, to invalidate. 

10. religione religio, -onis, f. (respect for obligation ), con 
opinari opinor, 1, to think. 

17. interfuisse inter-sum, -fui, -esse, to be present at. 

18. Heraclienses Heracliensis, -e, of Hcraclea. 

legati legatus, -i, m., envoy. 

19. mandatis mando, 1 (to hand over to), to instruct. 

testimonio testimonium, -ii. n., witness. 

21. tabula* tabula, -ae, f. (tablet), records. 

desideras desidero, 1, to ask for. 

22. incenso incendo, -di, -sum, 3 (to be on fire), to burn. 

tabulario tabularium, -ii, n., record-office. 

interisse intereo, -ii, -itum, 4, to perish. 

scimus scio, 4, to know. 

ridiculum ridiculus, -a, -um, preposterous. 

1\. litterarum littera, -ae, f.. writing. 

2-">. flagitare tlagito, 1, to demand. 

amplissimi amplus, -a, -um (full), perfect. 

2>\. integerrimi integer, -gra, -grum (uneorrupted), irre- 

proaclialli . 

municipii municipium, -ii, n., a township. 

iusiurandum iusiurandum, iurisiurandi, n., an oath. 

depravari depravo, 1 (to distort), to tamper with. 

27. repudiare repudio, 1, to reject. 

28. corrumpi corrumpo, -rupi, -ruptum, 3 (to corrupt), to 


29. tot , numeral adj. indccl., so many. 

sedcm sedes, -is, f. (seat), home. 

30. collocavit colloco, 1 (to place together), to ttation. 

31. immo adv., nay, rather. 

vero adv., of a truth. 

32. professione profcssio, -onis, f. (public declaration), re 



32. collegio collegium, -ii, n., a gild, board. 

obtinent obtineo (obt-), -ui, -tentum, 2, to possess. 


1. neglegentiug comp. adv. neglegenter, carelessly. 

adservatae adservo, 1, to preserve. 

2. quamdiu adv., as long as. 

incolumis incolumis, -e (unimpaired), undisgraced. 

levitas levitas, -tatis, f. (lightness ), rvorthlessness. 

3. damnationem damnatio, -onis, f., condemnation. 

calamitas calamitas, -tatis, ., disaster. 

resignasset resigno, 1 (to unseal), to cancel. 

4. sanctisMmus sanctus, -a, -um, upright. 

modestissimus inodestus, -a, -um (in due limits ), law-abiding. 

6. litura litura, -ae, f., erasure. 

commotum oommoveo, -movi, -motum, 2, to disturb. 

9. praesertim adv., expecially. 

10. etenim conj., and truly ; percJiance. 

mediocribus mediocris, -e, ordinary. 

11. humili humilis, -e (on the ground), mean. 

praeditis praeditus, -a, -um, endowed with. 

gratuito adv., /or nothing. 

12. imperttebant impertio, 4 (to impart), bestow. 

Reginos HegTnus, -a, -um, (men) of Rhegium. 

Locrenscs Locrensis, -e. (men) of Locri. 

Neapolitanus Neapolitanus, -a, -um, (men) of Neapolis. 

13. Tarentinos Tarentmus, -a, -um, (men) of Tarentum. 

scaenicis scaenicus, -a, -um, connected with the stage. 

artificibus nrtifex, -ficis, c. (one who has a liberal pro 
fession), a player. 

largiri laigior, 4, dep., to gire freely. 

16. Papiam Fapius, -a, -um, of Papius. 

17. irrepserunt irrepo, -psi, 3, to creep in. 

18. reicietur reicio, -ieci, -iectum, 3, to reject. 

11). census census, -us, m., census, census-returns. 

requiris require, -quisivi or -quisii, -quisitum, 3, to 

ask after. 

scilicet adv., of course, naturally. 

obscurum obscurus, -a, -um (dark), doubtful. 

proximis proximus, -a, -um (super! adj. from prope), last. 

20. censoribus censor, -oris, m., a censor. 

imperatore iruperator, -oris, m., a commander. 

21. superioribus comp. superus, -a, -um, former, previous. 

quaestore quaestor, -oris, m., a quaestor, paymaster. 

23. censam censeo, -ui, -sum, 2 (to count), to ax&esx. 

25. criminaris criminor, 1, to accuse. 

27. testamentum testamentum, -i, n., a will. 

saepe adv., often. 

hereditates hereditas, -tatis, f., an inheritance. 


28. bencficiis beneficium, -ii, n. {good conduct), reward. 

aerarium aerarium, -ii, n., treasury. 

delatus defcro, -tuli, -latum, -ferre (to bring down). 


1. argumenta argumentum, -i, n., argument, 

2. iudicio indicium, -ii, n., judgment. 

revincetur revinco, -vici, -victum, 3 (to conquer), convict. 

3. tanto opere adv. phrase, go greatly. 

4. delectemnr delecto, \, to delight, 

suppeditat suppcdito, 1, to supply fully. 

6. strepitu strepitus, -us, in., noise. 

reficiatur reficio, -f eci, -f ectum. 3 {to malic anew), restore. 

convicio convicium, -ii, n. (the sound of many voices), 


defessac dcf etiscor, -f essus, 3, to grow weary. 

conquiescant conquiesco, -quievi, -quietum, 3, to find rest. 

6. suppetcre suppeto, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 3, to have in store. 

1. cotidie adv., daily. 

8. doctrina doctrina, -ae, f. (instruction), study. 

excolamus excolo, -ui, -cultum, 3, to cultivate carefully. 

9. contentionem contentio, -onis, f. (tension), strain. 

relaxemus rolaxo, 1 (to make slack), relax. 

10. fateor fateor, fassus, 2, to confess. 

pudeat pudet, -uit or -itum est, 2, it causes shame. 

11. abdidcrunt abdo, -didi, -ditum, 3(t,oputairay),toco7iceal. 

12. aspectum aspcctus, -us. m. {a looking at), notice. 

lucem lux. lucis, f. (light), publicity. 

15. abstraxerit abstraho, -xi, -ctum, 3 (to draw from), to 

avocarit avoco, 1, to call away. 

16. somnus somnus, -i, m. {sleep), sloth. 

retardarit rctardo, 1 (to make slow), to delay. 

quare adv., wherefore. 

reprehenciat reprehendo, -di, -sum, 3, to blame. 

17. suscenseat susconsco, *2 {to be inflamed at), to be angry 


18. obeundas obeo, -ii, -itum, 4 (to go to meet), to engage in. 

festos fcstus, -a, -um, holiday. 

ludorum Indus, -i, m., in \A\ir., public games. 

19. requiem requies, -etis, requietem and requiem, requie 

(no plur.), f., rent. 

21. tempestivis tempostivua, -a, -um (early), protracted. 

conviviis convivium, -ii, n., banquet. 

alveolo alveolus, -i, m., dice-box. 

22. pilae pila. -ae, f. (a ball), I/all-play. 

egomet personal pron. emphatic form, I myself. 

recolenda recolo, -ui, -cultum, 3 (to cultivate again), ti* 



22. sumpeero sumo, -mpsi, -mptum, 3 (to take up}, to employ. 

24. crescit cresco, crevi, cretum, 3, to grow. 

25. quantacunque quantus (-a, -um) -cunque, how great soevar. 

26. levior levis, -e (light), trivial. 

27. fonte fons, -ntis, m. (fountain), source. 

hauriam haurio, hausi, haustum, 4, to draw. 

28. litteris littera, -ae, f., literature. 

29. suassissem suadeo, suasi, suasum, 2 (to persuade), to 

magno operc adv. phrase (very greatly), particularly. 

30. honestatem honestas, -tatis, f. (honourableness), honour. 

persequenda persequor, -secutus, 3, to follow up, 

31. cruciatus cruciatus, -us, m., torture. 

exilii exilium, -ii, n., banishment. 

33. dimicationes dimicatio, -onis, f., quarrel. 

profligatorum profligatus, -a, um, abandoned. 

34. cotidianos cotidianus, -a, -um, daily. 

obiecissem obicio, -ieci, -iectum, 3, to cant in the way of. 

35. exemplorum exetnplum, -i, n. (example), precedent. 

vetustas vetustas, -tatis, f., antiquity. 

3G. iacerent iaceo, 2 (to be cast down), to lie. 

tenebris tenebrae, -arum, f., darkness. 

37. imagines imago, -inis, f. (a mask), a portrait. 

intuendum intueor, 2, to look upon. 

38. expressas exprimo, -pressi, -pressum, 3 (to press out), to 

depict exactly. 

41. cogitatione cogitatio, -onis, f., contemplation. 

excellentium excellens, -ntis, adj., distinguished. 

42. conformabam conformo, 1, to mould to. 


1. quispiam quis- (quae, quod -or quip-) -piam, indef. pron., 

some one. 

2. proditae prodo,-didi,-ditum,3 (to put forth), toexhibit. 

3. effers effero, extuli, elatum, efferre, to extol. 

4. confirmare confirmo, 1 (to establish), to state positively. 

6. habitu habitus, -us, m. (state of body, etc.), character. 

7. moderates moderatus, -a. -um, self -controlled. 

grayes gravis, -e (weighty), of sound character. 

8. adiungo adiungo, -nxi, -nctum, 3 (to join to), to add. 

saepius comp. adv. from saepe, often. 

9. valuisse valeo, 2 (to be strong), to hare influence. 

10. eximiam eximius, -a, -um, extraordinary, exceptional. 

11. illustrem illustris, -e, brilliant. 

ratio ratio, -onis, f., system. 

conformatio conformatio, -onis, f., moulding. 

12. singulare singularis, -e, unique. 

15. continentissimos ... continens, -ntis, self-controlled. 

20. delectatio delectatio, -onis, f. (delight), enjoyment. 


21. remissionem remissio, -onis, f., relaxation. 

24. alnnt alo, -ui, -turn or -itum, 3, to nourish. 

oblectant oblecto, 1 {to delight), to charm. 

secundas becundus, -a, -um (following), prosperous. 

25. perfuginm perfugium, -ii, n., a refuge. 

solacium solacium, -ii, n., a consolation. 

praebent praebeo, 2 {to hold out), to offer. 

26. foris adv., abroad. 

pernoctant pcrnocto, 1, to pass the night. 

peregriiiantur percgrinor, 1 (to be in foreign parts), to travel. 

27. rusticantur rusticor, 1, to be in the country. 

28. attingere attingo, -tigi, -tactum, 3, to handle. 

scnsu sensus, -us, m., sensation. 

2 J. gustare gusto, 1 (to taste), to dabble in. 

rnirari miror, 1, to admire. 


1. agresti agrcstis, -e (countrified), boorish. 

duro durus, -a, -um, rough. 

2. nuper adv., lately. 

3. venustateni vcnustas, -tatis, f., gracefulness. 

4. omnino adv. (altogether), at all. 

5. motu motus, -us, m. (motion), activity. 

conciliarat concilio, 1, to win favour. 

6. incrcdibiles incredibilis, -e (incredible), singular. 

1 quotiens num. adv., how often ? 

8. bcnignitate benignitas, -tatis, f., good nature. 

10. litteram littera, -ae, f., a letter of the alphabet 

11. vcrsuum versus, -us, m., a verse. 

12. revocatum revoco, 1, to call back. 

1. !. commutatis commuto, 1, to change. 

sententiis sententia, -ae, . (a way of thinking), a 

accurate adv., with great care. 

14. cogitate adv., with much thought. 

probari probo, 1 (to approre of), to praise. 

15. diligam diligo, -Icxi, -lectum, 3 (to choose out), to lore. 

16. ratione ratio, -onis, f. (method), means. 

19. viiibus vis, vim, vi (gen. sing, rare), plur. vires, -ium, 

f. (force), strength. 

20. spiritu spiritus, -us, m. (breathing), inspiration. 

iriflari inflo, 1, to breathe into. 

22. munere inunus, -ens, n. (a function), a present. 

comniendati cunnnendo, 1, to entrust to. 

2. >. igitur adv., therefore. 

2-1. barbaria bnrbaria, -ae, f., barbarism. 

violavit violo, 1, to do violence to. 

25. solitudines solitude, -inis, f. (loneliness), tcildernrtt. 

bestiae bestia, -ae, f., wild brant. 


25. immanes immanis, -e (huge), savaga. 

26. cantu cantus, -us, m., singing. 

flectuntur flecto, -xi, -xum, 3 (to turn), to sway. 

consistunt consisto, -stiti,-stitura, 3, tomaltc to standstill. 

instituti instituo, 3 (to set uj) in), to instruct. 

27. Colophonii Colophonius, -a, -um, (man) of Colophon. 

28. Chii Chius. -a, -um, (man) of Chios. 

vindicant vindico, 1 (to claim at law), to claim.. 

29. Salaminii Salaminius, -a, -um, (man*) of Salamis. 

Smyrnaei Smyrnaeus, -a, -um, (man) of Smyrna. 

HO. delubrum delubrum, -i, n., a shrine. 

dedicaverunt dedico, 1, to dedicate. 

31. permulti permultus, -a, -um, very much, very many. 

praeterea adv., besides. 


1. alienum alienus, -a,-um (belonging to another), foreign. 

2. Toluntate voluntas, -tatis, f. (willingness ), wish. 

3. repudiabimus repudio, 1, to reject. 

olim adv. (at that time), in past time. 

5. Cimbricas Cimbricus, -a, -um, belonging to the Cimbri. 

6. durior durus, -a, -um (hard), unsympathetic. 

8. aversus averto, -ti, -sum, 3, to turn away from. 

mandari mando, 1 (to hand over to), to commit. 

9. praeconium praeconium, -ii, n., a publishing abroad. 

10. aiunt aio, verb defective, to assert. 

11. acroama acroama, -atis, n. (something heard), a reciter. 

libentissime supeii. of adv. libenter, freely. 

12. praedicaretur praodico, 1 (to speak forth), to proclaim. 

13. item adv., likewise. 

eximie adv., especially. 

dilexit diligo, -lexi, -lectum, 3 (to choose out), to esteem. 

14. Mithridaticum ... Mithridaticus, -a, -um, of Mithradates. 
celebravi celebro, 1 (to Jill), to honour. 

18. illustrant illustro, 1 (to make bright), to glorify. 

19. aperuit aperio, -ui, -turn, 4, to open. 

20. vallatum vallo, 1 (to palisade), to fortify. 

21. manu manus, -us, f. (a hand), a band (<>f men). 

22. copias copia, -ae, f. (sing.,ple?ity) ; in p[. forces. 

fudit fundo, fudi, fusum, 3 (to pour out), to rout. 

23. Cyzicenorum Cyzicenus, -a, -um, (man) of Oyziciis. 

24. faucibus fauces, -ium, f., the throat. 

25. ereptam eripio, -ui, -reptum, 3, to snatch out of. 

26. dimicante dimico, -avi or -ui, 1 (to quarrel), tojight. 

interfectis interficio, -feci, -fectum, 3, to slay. 

27. classis classis, -is, f., a fleet. 

28. navalis navalis, -e (belonging to ships), na i-al. 

tropaea tropaeum, -i, n., a trophy. 

monumenta monumentum, -i, n., a memorial. 


29. triumph! triumphus, -i, m. (triumph), conquest 

ecferuntur ecfero (= effero), -tuli, -latum, -ferre, to extol. 

30. carus cams, -a, -um (dear), esteemed. 

31. sepulcro sepulcrum, -i, n., a tomb. 

32. marmore marmor, -oris, n., marble. 

33. certe adv., assuredly. 

34. caelum caelum, -i, n., the sky. 

proavus proavus, -i, m., great-grandfather. 


4. eicieraus eicio, eicci, eiectum, 3, to cast out. 

6. errat crro, 1 (to wander), to make a mistake. 

propterea ndv., on that account. 

8. finibus finis, -is, m., limit. 

sane adv. (soundly"), altogether, quite. 

continentur contineo, -ui, -tentum, 2 (to hold together), 

to conjine. 

9. regionibus regio, -onis, f. (a ruled line), a boundary. 

dcfiniuntur definio, 4, to set limit* to. 

10. cupere cupio, -ivi or -ii, -itum, 3, to desire. 

tela tclum, -i,n., a javelin. 

11. pcnetrare penetro, 1, to make way into. 

12. ampla amplus, -a, -um (spacious), magnificent, 

14. incitamcntum incit amentum, -i, n., incentive. 

16. tumulum tumulus, -i. m. (funeral mound), tomb. 

17. astitisset adsisto, -stiti, -stitum, 3, to stand beside. 

fortunate fortunatus, -a, -um (fortunate), happy. 

18. praeconem pracco, -onis, m. (a crier), herald. 

vere adv., truly. 

19. Ilias Ilias, -ados, f., the Iliad. 

20. contexerat contego, -xi, -ctum, 3, to cover up. 

obruisset obruo, -rui, -rutum, 3 (to over whelm), to bury. 

21. adaequavit adaequo, 1 (to make equal to), to match. 

22. contione contio. -onis, f. (a coming together*), a public 


23. donavit dono, 1 (to make a gift), to present. 

rustic! rusticus, -i, m., a countryman. 

24. dulcedine dulcedo, -inis, f. (sweetness), charm. 

participcs pnrticeps, -cipis, copartner. 

2.". approbaverunt approbo, 1 (to approve), to commend. 

27. perficere perficio, -feci, -fectum, 3, to accomplish. 

30. libollum libellus, -i, m., a little book. 

subiecisset subicio, -ieci, -iectum, 3 (to throw up) t to 

hand vp. 
epigramma cpigramma, -atis, n., an epigram. 

31. altornis alternus, -a, -um (alternate); versus alterni, 

longiusculis longiusculus, -a, -um, rather long. 


32. vendebat vendo, -didi, -ditum, ^(to offer for sale), to sell. 

33. condicione condicio, -onis, f., condition. 

postea adv., afterwards. 

34. sedulitatem sedulitas, -tatis, f. (zeal), qfficiousnes*. 

38. usque eo adv. phrase (up to that point), so greatly. 

39. pingue pinguis, -e (fat), grogs. 

40. sonantibus sono, -ui, -itum, 1, to sound. 

peregrinum ^"-egrinus, -a, -um (foreign), outlandish. 


1. dissimulandum ... dissimulo, 1, to pretend that something is not 

what it is. 
obscurari obscuro, 1 (to darken), to conceal. 

4. philosophi philosophus, -i, m., a philosopher. 

contemnenda contemno, -mpsi. -mptum, 3, to despise. 

5. inscribunt inscribo, -ipsi, -iptum, 3, to write in. 

6. pre"Sicationem praedicatio, -onis, f. (a speaking forth), open 


nobilitatem nobilitas, -tatis, f., renown. 

despiciunt despicio, -spexi, -spectum, 3, to look down on. 

8. carminibus carmen, -inis,n. (a song), poem ; in pi. verses. 

9. monimentorum ... monimentum. -i, n. (= monumentum), a 

memorial, a statue. 

aditus aditus, -us, m., an approach. 

exornavit exorno, 1, to adorn. 

10. comite comes, -itis, c. (a companion), a member of 

one s suite. 
bellavit bello, 1, to carry onrvar. 

11. manubias manubiae, -arum, f. (the proceeds of booty), 

consecrate consecro, 1 , to dedicate. 

13. delubra delubrum, -i, n., a shrine. 

togati togatus, -a, -um (wearing the taga), civilian. 

"15. indicabo indico, 1, to give evidence. 

16. nimis adv., too much. 

acri acer, acris, acre, keen. 

f ortasse adv., perchance. 

18. consulatu consulatus, -us, m., consulship. 

simul adv., together with. 

20. inchoavit inchoo, 1, to begin. 

22. adhortatus adhortor, 1, to encourage. 

23. mercedem merces, -cedis, f. (pay), reward. 

praeter prep. gov. ace., except. 

24. detracta detraho, -traxi, -tractum, 3 (to draw away), 

to take away. 

25. curricula- curriculum, -i, n. (* racecourse ), span. 

26. exerceamus exerceo, 2 (to wor k hard), exert oneself. 

praesentiret praesentio, -sensi, -sensum, 4 (to feel before 
hand), to anticipate. 


27. posternm postcrus, -a, -urn (coming aftrr), future . 

regionibus regio, -onis, f. (a riding line), a boundary. 

28. circumscriptum ... circum-scribo, -psi, -ptum, 3, to inclose. 
terminaret termino, 1, to limit. 

30. vigiliis vigilia, -ae, f., a watching. 

angeretur ango, anxi, 3 (to press tight), to vex. 

31. insidet insideo, -sedi, -sessum, 3 (to sit in), to reside in. 

32. stimulis stimulus, -i, m. (a goad), an incentive. 

concitat ... concito, 1, to stir up. 

33. dimittendam dimitto, -misi, -missum, 3 (to send away), to 


commemorationem commcmoratio, -onis, f. (a malting mention), 
a narrative. 

34. posteritate posteritas, -t-atis, f. (posterity), futurity. 


4. utiosum otiosus, -a, -um (having leisure), leisurely. 

5. statuas statua, -ae, f. (a statue), a bust. 

imagines imago, -inis, f. (a mash), a portrait. 

6. simulacra simalacrum, -i. n., a representation. 

studiosc adv., zealously. 

8. effigiem effigies, -ei, f. (a likeness), a pattern. 

malle malo, malui, rnalle, to prefer. 

9. politam polio, 4, to polish. 

10. spargere spargo, -rsi, -rsuni, 3, to scatter. 

disseminare dissemino, 1 (to scatter seed), to spread abroad. 

11. orbis orbis, -is, m. (a circle) ; orbis terrae = tl.e 


sempiternam scmpiternus, -a, -um, everlasting. 

12 afutura absum, afui, abesse, to be an- ay from. 

14. pertincbit pertineo, 2 (to extend through), to reach. 

16. pudore pudor, -oris, m. (modesty), good character. 

17. comprobari comprobo, 1 (to approve), to establish. 

18. convenit convenio, -veni, -ventum, 4 ; impersonal, t(> 

he fitting. 
24. commendatio conimendatio, -onis, f., a recommendation. 

26. reccntibus recens, -niis, adj. (fresh), recent. 

domesticis domesticus, -a, -um, amnestic. 

27. aeternum aetennis, -a, -um, everlasting, 

29. habiti habeo, 2 (to hare), to hold, to consider. 

30. levatus levo, 1 (to lighten), to assist, 

acerbit:ite acerbitas, -t;itis, f. (harshness), severi. y 

32. breviter adv., shortly. 

Bimpliciter adv v plainly. 

33. confido confido, c-ontisus sum, 3, to trust. 

34. iudiciali iudicialis, -e, belonging to the law-courts. 

35. communiter adv. (in common), in general 

37. certo adv., u*ith certainty. 


I. 1 . IF, gentlemen of the jury, I have aught of talent and 
how small it is, I am conscious ; or if I have any readiness 
in speaking and in this I do not deny that I am tolerably 
experienced ; or if I have some theoretical knowledge of this 
art, a knowledge which is the outcome of a scientific training 
in liberal arts, which I allow that no period of my life has 
avoided ; of all these acquirements, my client Aulus Licinius, 
I may say before any one else, ought almost of his own 
right to recover from me a profit. For as far as ever my 
mind can look back upon the course of bygone time and 
recall the remotest memories of boyhood ever since that 
time I recognise that it is my client has set himself to 
be my guide both in undertaking and entering upon this 
course of studies. And if this voice of mine, which was 
moulded by my client s encouragement and teaching, has 
proved at any time a deliverance to some individuals, 
surely, as far as in me lies, I ought to bring both assistance 
and deliverance to the very man from whom I received that 
which enabled me to assist the rest and to deliver others. 
2. And lest perchance a man should marvel that I speak 
thus much in this fashion, on the ground that the force of 
genius in my client is of some other sort than my own, and 
not either a theoretical or practical kno\vledge of the art of 
speaking, why, even personally I have never been entirely 
given over to this one branch of study. Indeed, all accom- 

Cic. Arc. Tr. 

2 CICERO [CH. I lit. 

plishments which have any bearing upon culture have a 
kind of common tie, and are united to one another by what 
1 may call a kind of kinship. 

II. 3. However, that it may not seem matter of surprise 
to any of you that in a statutory court ami a public trial, 
though the case is being conducted in the presence of so 
worthy a Praetor of the Roman People, and in the presence 
of a most impartial jury, amidst so crowded an assemblage 
of people, I make nse of a style of speech which is quite 
alien to judicial usage as well as to the bnguage of the 
Bar : that this, I say, may not seem mailer of surprise, I 
beg of you, in this case, to grant me this privilege one 
appropriate to such a defendant as my client, and further 
one which, as I hope, is not disagreeable io yourselves the 
privilege of allowing me when speaking on behalf of an un 
rivalled poet and deeply-read scholar, amidst an assemblage 
like this of thoroughly educated men, and in fine with such 
a Praetor as this presiding over the case, to speak with soii_e 
little freedom on the pursuits of culture and literature, and 
to employ a style of speech well-nigh original and untried in 
the case of a character which has been but little represented 
in trials and processes owing to its learned retirement. 4. 
And if I shall perceive that this is granted and allowed to 
me by yourselves, I shall assuredly bring it to pass that you 
shall deem my client, Aulus Licinius, not only not a man to 
be struck off the citizens roll though he be a citizen, but a 
man to have been enrolled therein if he had not been already 

III. For from the day when first Archias passed out of 
boyhood and betook himself, from those forms of study by 
which boyhood is usually moulded to a cultured form, to 
the pursuit of authorship first at Antioch (for he was born 
there in a high position), once a populous and wealthy city, 
teeming with men of proi oundest learning and studies of 
the highest culture he speedily began to surpass all men 
in the fame of his talents. At a later date, with such 
crowds was his arrival at various places attended in the 
other regions of Asia and the whole of (!rc<ce, that the 
expectations formed about him surpassed the renown of his 
talent, while his arrival in person, and the wonder thereby 

37.] PRO ARCHIA. 3 

excited, outdid even those expectations. 5. At that time 
Italy was filled with the culture and teaching of Greece, 
and such studies were at that period pursued among the 
Latin peoples with greater ardour than they now are in the 
same towns, while here at Rome they were not passed over, 
thanks to the security of the state. For this reason the 
men of Tarentum and Locri, of Rhegium and Naples, pre 
sented my client with the freedom of their cities and the 
other usual honours, and all who could form any judgment 
upon talents, reckoned him a man worth knowing and 
entertaining. Already well known even to distant peoples 
through the wide notoriety of his reputation, he came to 
Rome in the consulship of Marius and Catulus. On his 
first arrival he found in the Consulate men of whom the 
former could show the grandest of achievements to write 
about, the latter both enthusiasm and taste, as well as 
achievements. The Luculli welcomed him at once to their 
house, though Arch ias was even at that date but a mere boy. 
And there was this much in his talent and literary acquire 
ments, no less than in his character and merits, that the 
household which was first to patronise my client s youthful 
years was also the best friend of his old age. 6. In those 
days the great Quintus Metellus Numidicus and his son 
Pius found him a pleasing acquaintance ; his lectures were 
attended by Marcus Aemilius; he lived with Quiutus Catulus, 
the father and the son of that name ; he earned the respect 
of Licinius Crassus ; and while he kept devoted to himself, 
by constant intercourse, the Luculli and Drusus, the 
Octavii and Cato, and the entire family of the Hortensii, 
he was paid a very high honour in that not those alone 
cultivated his acquaintance who were eager to learn and 
listen to something, but eTen any who by chance were 
making a show of such eagerness. 

IV. Meantime, after a fairly long interval, he set out 
with Marcus Lucullus for Sicily, and, after quitting that 
province with the same Lucullus, came to Heraclea ; and as 
this was a state on perfectly equal treaty rights, he claimed 
that he should be enrolled in that state, and, being personally 
considered eligible upon his own merits, he obtained his wish 
from the men of Heraclea by the influence and popularity 


of Lucullus also. 7. The Roman franchise was granted him 
in accordance with the Law of Silvanus and Carbo : If any 
persons should be enrolled as citizens of allied states, provided 
that at the time when the laiv was passed they had settled 
residence in Italy, and provided that they registered their names 
before a Praetor within sixty days of the same. My client, 
having now for many years had a fixed residence in Rome, 
registered his name before the Praetor Quintus Metellus, his 
most intimate friend. 

8. If we are to speak of nothing except the franchise and 
the law, I have no more to say ; my case is stated : for which 
of these points can be invalidated, Grattius ? Will you say 
that he was not enrolled a citizen at Heraclea ? Marcus 
Lucullus, a gentleman of the highest influence, conscien 
tiousness, and good faith, supports me, and declares that he 
does not think, but knows, did not get it by hearsay, but was 
an eyewitness, was not merely present, but transacted the 
business. Envoys of the highest rank from Heraclea support 
me : they have come on account of this very case with official 
instructions and the testimony of their state, and they aver 
that my client was enrolled a citizen of Heraclea. Do you 
ask hereupon for the public archives of the TIeracliots? 
Why, we all of us know that they perished when the Record- 
office was burned in the Social War. It is preposterous to 
say nothing in reply to what evidence we have, and to demand 
what we cannot have, to ignore personal testimony and to 
cry out for written testimony, and, though you have the 
scrupulosity of a man of honour, and the oath and pledge of 
an irreproachable township, to reject evidence which cannot 
in any way be tampered with and to ask for archives which 
you nevertheless aver are often forged. 9. Surely a man 
who stationed at Rome the home of all his property and 
fortunes so many years before the franchise was conceded, 
had fixed residence at Home 1 .Surely he registered his 
name . Why, he registered it in the particular schedules 
which, alone of all that registration and of the board of 
IVaetors, possess the weight of public records. 

V. For whereas it was alleged that Appius schedules 
were carelessly preserved; whereas all the credit of Gabinius 
schedules was destroyed by his worthless character so long 

S 12.] PRO ARCHIA. 5 

as he was un disgraced, and by his disgrace after his condem 
nation ; Metellus, the most upright and law-abiding of them 
all, was a inan of such exactness as to come before Lucius 
Lentulus the Praetor and a jury, and declare himself troubled 
by the erasure of a single name. In those schedules then you 
find no erasure in the case of Aulus Licinius name. 10. And 
since this is so, what reason have you to doubt his citizenship, 
and that though he was an enrolled citizen in other towns 
as well ? Or perhaps, at a time when in Magna Graecia they 
were bestowing their franchise for nothing upon numbers 
of men of ordinary merit, and men possessing either no 
skill at all or skill of some mean class ; I suppose the men 
of Rhegium and Locri and Naples and Tarentum declined 
to bestow upon my client, though possessing the widest 
reputation for his ability, what they were in the habit of 
bestowing upon stage-players ! Why, not after the bestowal 
of the Roman franchise only, but even after the passing of 
the Papian law, the others crept somehow into the census- 
rolls of those townships ; and shall my client be rejected, 
who never even makes use of the schedules upon which he 
was enrolled, because he has always claimed to be a citizen of 
llerach a ? 11. You ask for our census-returns. Naturally ; 
for it is doubtful, I suppose, that under the last censors my 
client was with the army accompanying the distinguished 
general Lucius Lucullus, and that he was in Asia with the 
same Lucullus when Quaestor under the previous censors, 
and that under the first censors, Julius and Crassus, no part 
of the population was assessed. However, the census does 
not establish the right of citizenship, but merely shows 
that the person who is returned has at that particular 
time conducted himself as a citizen. Well, then, at the 
aforesaid date, the man whom you accuse of never, upon his 
own showing, having shared the rights of Roman citizens, 
frequently made wills under our laws, entered upon in 
heritances from Roman citizens, and was notified to the 
Treasury by Lucius Lucullus the Proconsul upon his list of 

VI. Seek any arguments you can, for my client will 
never be refuted by any judgment of his own or of his friends. 
1 2. You will ask me, Grattius, why I take so much pleasure 


in this genf leman : because lie provides me with that wherein 
my spirits may recover themselves after this turmoil of 
the law-courts, and my ears find peace when wearied with 
the noise of wrangling. Surely you do not believe that we 
can keep ourselves supplied with something to say every 
day on such a variety of topics, unless we thoroughly culti 
vate our minds by study ? Surely you do not think that 
our minds could endure such strain unless we should give 
them the relaxation of the same study? For my part I 
o\vu that I am devoted to the pursuit of this. The rest of 
the world may be ashamed to have so buried themselves 
with literature as to be able neither to produce therefrom 
anything to the common profit, nor to bring it into sight 
and publicity. But why should I be ashamed, gentlemen 
of the jury, to have been living now so many years in such 
fashion, that neither lias my love of retirement ever with 
drawn me from any man s time of peril or season of advan 
tage, nor has indulgence called me away, nor, in short, has 
sloth kept me back from it 1 13. AVho therefore, I pray, 
could find fault with me, or who could, with justice, be 
vexed with me, if I have myself appropriated to the re 
sumption of such studies just so much out of my leisure 
hours as the rest of the world devotes to the transaction of 
their nH airs, meeting of private engagements, or to attend 
ing the holidays of the Games, or to other indulgences and 
the mere rest of their minds and bodies? just so much 
time as some devote to lengthy dinners, or even to the dice- 
box and the tennis-ball ? Indeed, this should be all the more 
allowed me, because by these very studies this eloquence and 
ability of mine likewise gathers strength, and, so far as I 
possess it, it has never failed the perils of my friends; and 
even supposing it seem somewhat trivial to any man, at 
any rate I am conscious of the source from whence I draw 
the following principles, which are of the highest value. 
14. Had ] not from early youth convinced myself, by the 
teaching of many a man and by wide reading, that there is 
nothing to be particularly preferred in life save merit and 
honour; and that, in the pursuit thereof , any bodily torture, 
any peril of death or banishment, is to be deemed of little 
weight ; never should I have thrown myself, for your pre- 

1516.] PRO ARCHIA. 7 

servation, in the way of such constant and serious conflicts, 
nor in the way of such daily attacks from abandoned des 
peradoes. No : all books, and the utterances of the wise, 
and antiquity, are full of precedents, which would all lie in 
darkness unless there were brought to bear upon them the 
light of the world of letters. How many a well-finished 
portrait of heroic men have the historians of Greece and 
Latium left to us, not to look upon only, but to imitate ! 
Keeping these always before me in my political life, I tried 
to mould my will and reason by the more contemplation of 
distinguished men. 

VII.- 15. Some one will ask: "What? Were those 
very men of genius, whose merits have been handed down 
by literature, trained in this learning which you extol with 
praise ? " It is not easy to assert this confidently of all of 
them, yet what I am to reply is certain. I own that many 
men of exceptional mind and merit have had no learning, 
and that through the well-nigh divine character of their 
very nature they have, by their simple selves, become con 
spicuous for their self-control and moral resolution. Nay, 
1 also add this, that nature without culture has more often 
been of significance with regard to merit and moral worth, 
than has culture without nature. And, further, I maintain 
this, that when to an exceptional and brilliant nature has 
been added what may be called the systematic moulding 
afforded by culture, then there generally results a peculiar 
product of quite unique excellence. 16. Of this number I 
count to be the glorious Africanus the younger, whom our 
fathers saw; of this number I count Caius Laelius and 
Lucius Furius, men of the greatest self-control and restraint; 
of this number I count famous old Marcus Oato, the most 
resolute and learned man of those days. Assuredly had 
they found themselves in no measure continually assisted by 
literature in their comprehension and practice of virtue, 
they would never have betaken themselves to the study 
thereof. And yet if so great a profit were not held out to 
them, and if enjoyment only were sought from such studies, 
still, I fancy, you would decide that this is the mind s most 
refined and liberal relaxation. The other classes of enjoy 
ment are not for every time or every age or every situation, 


but tliese pursuits are the food of youth and the charm of age; 
they are the ornament of prosperity, and lend a refuge and 
comfort to misfortune ; at home they are a pleasure, abroad 
they are no hindrance ; they are with us by night, upon 
our journeys, at our country seats. 17. Why, supposing 
we could not of ourselves finger or with our own faculties 
dabble in such pursuits, yet we ought to view them with 
admiration even when we saw them in others. 

VIII. Which of us all was so uncultivated and un 
feeling of heart as not to be deeply moved of late by 
Roscius death ? Though he was an old roan when he died, 
yet, on account of the surpassing grace of his artistic 
performance it seemed that he ought not to have died at 
all. So then, while he had won for himself so much affection 
from us all by mere bodily activity, shall we have no 
consideration for singular mental activity and quickness 
of intellect? 18. How many a time, gentlemen, for since 
you are giving me your attention so closely in this new style 
of speech I will make the most of your good nature, how 
many times have I seen Arcbins here, without having 
written down one letter, speak ofT-hand a lengthy number 
of excellent verses on the particular matters which were at 
the moment the subject of conversation ! How many times 
have I known him, when recalled, deliver himself upon the 
same matter with a change of language and sentiments ! 
And I have seen what he had written with care and 
thought so highly praised, that he quite cnme up to the 
merits of the ancient authors. Am 1 not to love him then 
and admire him, and reckon him a man to bo defended in 
every way? Besides, wo have been told by men of the 
highest eminence and learning that whereas the study of 
all other subjects is founded upon learning and theoretical 
rules and technical skill, the poet draws his strength from 
his own natural ability, and is stirred by the force of his 
mind, and is inspired, as it were, by a sort of heaven-sent 
jtfflatus. It is for this reason that our famous Ennius of 
his (iwii ri<jl in!;.- poets li<-l_\ men, because Ihey seem to 
him to have been committed to our care as a kind of gift 
and present, I may say, from the gods. 19. Then, 
gentlemen of the jury, let this, the poet s reputation, be 

1721.] PRO ARf IITA. 9 

holy in the eyes of such refined gentlemen as yourselves, a 
name to which no barbarism has ever done violence. The 
rocks and wildernesses make answer to his voice ; ofttimes 
by his song ferocious beasts are swayed and brought to a 
standstill : and are we, who have been instructed in the 
best teachings, not to be affected by the poet s voice ? The 
men of Colophon allege that Homer was a citizen of theirs ; 
the men of Chios claim him for their own ; they of Salamis 
demand him as their own ; and, again, they of Smyrna 
confidently assert that he is their own, and so they have 
even dedicated a chapel to him within their town ; and very 
many others besides wrangle and dispute with one another 
about him. 

IX. Thus those even seek after a stranger when dead 
because he was a poet : and shall we reject, while still alive, 
my client here, who is, by his own wish and by the laws, 
our own, and that though Archias long ago contributed all 
his enthusiasm and all his talents to extolling the renown 
and glory of the Roman people ] As a youth he set his 
hand to the subject of the Cimbric war, and gave pleasure 
even to Caius Marius himself, who was, it seems, somewhat 
lacking in sympathy for such pursuits. 20. Indeed, there 
never was any one such a stranger to poetic feeling as not 
readily to allow the immortal advertisement of his deeds to 
be committed to verse. They say that, on being asked 
which was the actor or whose the voice that he listened to 
with most pleasure, the famous Themistocles, the most 
eminent man in Athens, said : " His by whom my merits 
are best proclaimed ! " Thus the famous Marius, in like 
manner, showed a singular regard for Lucius Plotius, 
because he thought that his achievements might be glorified 
by Plotius talents. 21. By my client has been depicted 
the whole of the Mithradatic war, a great and hazardous 
war, involved in many a change of fortune both by land 
and sea ; and these volumes glorify not only the name of 
the brave and famous Lucius Lucullus, but that of the 
Pioman people also. For it was the Roman people that, 
with Lucullus as their general, threw open that Pontus 
which was fortified alike by the formerly existing resources 
of its king and by its natural situation : it was the army 


of the Roman people that, under the same leader and 
with no very large force, routed the countless hosts of the 
Armenians : it is the merit of the Roman people that, 
thanks to the policy of the same Lucullus, the city of the 
Cyzicenes, one of our best friends, was rescued from every 
attack of the king and from the jaws and throat of the 
whole war, and was saved. That unparalleled sea-fight off 
Tenedos, when Lucius Lucullus fought and slew the enemies 
leaders and sank their fleet, will for all time be spoken of 
and proclaimed as ours : ours are his trophies, his monu 
ments, his triumphs ; and the men by whose talents these 
are extolled, glorify the fame of the people of Rome. 22. 
Our Ennius was an esteemed friend of the elder Africanus, 
and therefore it is believed to bo his statue in marble 
that was erected even upon the tomb of the Scipios ; 
and of a truth by Ennius panegyrics is glorified not he 
only who is complimented, but the name of the people of 
Rome as well. Cato, the great-grandfather of the Cato here 
present, is lauded to the skies, and thereby is great honour 
done also to the commonwealth of the people of Rome. In 
a word, it is to the general glory of all of us that all those 
great men of the name of Maximus, Marcellus, and Fulvius, 
are honoured with praise. 

X. It was for this reason that our ancestors welcomed 
into their franchise him, the man of Rudiae, whose composi 
tions these were ; and shall we cast out of our state, this 
man of Heraclea, one sought after by many states and by 
law established in this of ours 1 23. For should a man 
fancy there is a lesser meed of renown reaped from Grecian 
verse than from Latin, he is utterly mistaken, for the 
reason that Greek is read in almost every nation, whereas 
Latin is confined within limits of its own, which are quite 
narrow. And therefore, if what we have achieved is limited 
only by the boundaries of the world, we ought to be desirous 
that our glory and renown may reach as far as the weapons 
of our hands have carried, since these rewards are not only 
honourable to the particular peoples, whose deeds are re 
corded, but they also form the chiefest spur to perils and 
sufferings, at least to those men who fight for their lives 
for glory s sake. 24. What a number of historians of his 

2226.] PRO ARCHIA. 11 

achievements is Alexander the Great said to have kept 
with him ! And yet he, standing on Sigeum by the tomb of 
Achilles, exclaimed "0 happy youth, to have found the 
herald of thy valour in Homer ! " True enough ; for had 
not the famous Iliad been produced, the same mound which 
had covered up Achilles body would have buried his renown 
as well. Why, did not our Pompeius Magnus of to-day, 
who has matched his good fortune by his merit, present 
with the franchise in military assembly Theophanes of 
Mitylene, the historian of his achievements ] And did not 
those stout heroes of ours, though but men of the soil and 
soldiers, deeply stirred by what I may call the charm of 
fame, commend the act with loud applause, as though them 
selves the partners in the same panegyric? 25. And so, I 
imagine, had Archias not been by law a Roman citizen, he 
would not have been able to bring it about that he should be 
presented with the franchise by some general ! I suppose 
that, though Sulla presented therewith natives of Spain and 
Gaul, he would have rejected a request from my client ! 
Why, we saw him in a public assembly, when a sorry poet 
of the people offered him from below a little book of verses 
consisting of an epigram which he had composed about him, 
merely in a set of distichs of moderate length, at once give 
orders that reward should be paid the fellow out of the 
property which he was at the moment selling, but on the 
condition that he never wrote anything thereafter. If he 
deemed the officiousness of even a sorry poet worthy all the 
same of some acknowledgment, would he not have sought 
after my client s talent, power, and fluency in composition ? 
26. Again, could not Archias have obtained his wish from 
Q. Metellus Pius, one of his most intimate friends, who 
presented numbers with the franchise, either by his own 
efforts or those of the Luculli ? and that though Metellus 
was so desirous of having a history of his achievements 
written, that he lent ear even to poets born at Cordova, 
though they have a somewhat crass and outlandish ring 
about them. 

XI. For indeed we must not conceal from ourselves, but 
keep before our minds this truth, which cannot be thrown 
into the shade, namely, that we are all drawn on by the 


pursuit of praise, nnd nil the best of vis are so led by glory 
in the highest degree. Those great philosophers themselves, 
in the very books -which they compose on the subject of 
despising glory, write their own names upon the title-pages ; 
and in the very thing wherein they look down on public 
praise and a name of renown, they claim to be publicly 
praised and named. 27. Indeed, that distinguished gentle 
man and commander, Dccimus Brutus, adorned the ap 
proaches of his temples and public buildings with lines from 
Accius, his dearest friend ; and in fact, that Fulvius who 
conducted the war against the Aetolians with Ennius on 
his staff, had no hesitation in consecrating the spoils of war 
to the honour of the Muses. So that civilian jurymen 
ought not to hold aloof from the honour of the Muses and 
the safeguarding of a poet in the city wherein generals, 
hardly yet unarmed, have paid honour to the poets name 
and the Muses shrines. 28. And that ye may more readily 
do so, gentlemen of the jury, I will now turn evidence 
against myself before you, and make confession to you of 
what 1 may call my passion for glory too keen, perhaps, 
yet honourable. My client set his hand to and made a 
beginning upon the successes which I achieved in my 
consulship in conjunction with yourselves on behalf of the 
safety of this our city and our empire, on behalf of the 
lives of our fellow-citizens, and on behalf of the state as a 
whole. When I heard this, I encouraged him to complete 
the task, as it seemed to me a splendid and agreeable 
subject; for merit seeks no other reward for its risks and 
toils save this of praise and fame, and if this be taken away, 
gentlemen, what reason is there why we should exert 
ourselves in toils so heavy for a span of life so little and so 
short? 29. Of a truth, our souls, if they had no anticipa 
tion about the future, and if they limited all their designs 
by these same bounds wherewith our span of life is hemmed 
about, would not weaken themselves with labours so 
grievous, nor vex themselves with so many cares and 
anxious watchings, nor fight so often for dear life. As it 
is, there resides in all the best of us a sort of noble instinct, 
which night and day rouses up our souls with the spur of 
fame, and warns us that the narrative of our renown is not 

2732."] PRO ARCH1A. 13 

to be abandoned with life s day, but to be made equal in 
duration with all futurity. 

XII. 30. Or indeed are we all to seem so small-minded, 
we who are busied with public affairs and the present perils 
and labours of our life, as to think that, albeit up to the 
very end of our course we have drawn never one breath 
in peace and retirement, with ourselves will perish our all ? 
Has many an eminent man been so zealous to bequeath to 
us his bust or portrait as the image of his body only, not of 
his soul 1 Ought not we by far to prefer to leave behind us 
some pattern of our views and virtues delineated and finished 
by men of the highest genius ? Personally, in my very 
actions, I believed that all that I did was scattering and 
spreading abroad my own self over the world s undying 
memory. And whether that memory will be far removed 
from any perception of mine after my death, or whether, 
as the greatest philosophers have maintained, it will even 
reach to some portion of my soul ; in this life I take 
pleasure at any rate in the contemplation of it in some 
sort, and the anticipation of it. 31. Wherefore, gentlemen 
of the jury, come to the rescue of one ..whose honourable 
character is such as you see proved by the rank and long 
standing of his friends ; one whose genius is such as you 
may fairly believe a genius to be when you observe that it 
is sought after by men of the highest genius ; one whose 
case is of a character to be upheld by the kindly purpose 
of the law, by the evidence of a township, by Lucullus 
testimony, and by Metellus schedules. And as these are 
the facts, gentlemen, I beg of yon, if there should be in 
such talents as his any recommendation, not of man s 
making only but of Cod s giving, take my client under your 
protection in such fashion that he shall be seen to be rather 
assisted by your benevolence than wronged by your severity ; 
for he is a man who has always proved an ornament to 
yourselves, to your generals, and to the deeds of the Roman 
people ; he is one who declares himself ready to bestow an 
undying meed of praise upon these late domestic perils of 
my own and yours ; he is one of that number which has 
in all ages and amongst all peoples been called holy, and so 
considered. 32. What I have said, gentlemen, on the case 


itself briefly and simply as my custom is, I trust has been 
to the satisfaction of all : what I have said about the 
defendant s talents, and about study itself in general terms, 
foreign to the custom of the bar and the law-courts, has, I 
trust, gentlemen, been heard by you in good part, as I am 
convinced that it has by the officer who presides over this 


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Cicero, Marcus Tullius 
6279 Pro Archia