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THIS BOOK I'AY HOT BE PHOTOCOPIED 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON 



FOE THE YEAR 



1869. 




PRIKTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
AND SOLD AT THEIE HOUSE IN H.AJSfOVEE SQUARE. 

LONDON: 
MESSRS. LONGMANS, GREEN, EEADEE, AND DYEE, 

PATERNOSTER ROW. 



70 
9 - 



2 






PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FllANCI.S, 
KED LIOX COURT, FLEET STREET. 



LIST 



OP TriE 



^ CONTKIBUTORS, 



With References to the several Articles contributed by each. 



Page 
Adams, Henry, F.L.S. 

Descriptions of a New Genus and Fourteen New Species of 
Marine Shells. (Plate XIX.) 272 

Allport, Morton, F.Z.S. 

Letter from, on the Introduction of Salmon into Tasmania . 473 

Anderson, Dr. John, C.M.Z.S. 

Letter from, relating to his travels in Yunan and Upper 
Burmah 1 1 ^ 

Letter from, concerning his. recent Expedition to Yunan, 
and Animals destined for the Society's Menagerie 277 

Letter from, relating to living Specimens of Ailurus fulgens 278 

Letter from, relating to Indian Animals (Porcula salvania 
and Budorcas taxicolor) 470 

Angas, George French, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S., &c. 

Descriptions of Twelve New Species of Land and Marine 
Shells from Australia and the Solomon Islands. (Plate II.) 45 

Descriptions of Eight New Species of Helicidce from the 
Western Pacific Islands. (Plate XLVIII.) 624 



IV 



Page 



Baird, William, M.D., F.R.S. 

Description of a new Species of Earthworm {Megascolex 
diffringens) found in North Wales 40 

Descriptions of some New Suctorial Annelides in the Col- 
lection of the British Museum 310 

Additional Remarks on the Megascolea; diffringens 387 

Barboza du Bocage, Prof, iosk Vicente, F.M.Z.S. 

OiseauxNouveauxdel'Afriqueoccidcntale. (Plate XXIX.) 436 

Bartlktt, a. D., Superintendent of the Society's Gardens. 

Remarks upon the Habits of the Hornbills (Buceros) . . 142 

Bennett, George, M.D., F.Z.S. 

Letter from, concerning the Tuatera Lizard , . 227 

Letter from, relating to the Zoology of Lord Howe's Island .471 

Blanford, William T., C.M.Z.S. 

Exhibition of Heads of Rhinoceros keitloa and Phacochoerus 
CBliani, and of some Skins of Hyraces 432 

Exhibition of some rare Indian Birds 432 

Descriptions of New Land and Freshwater Molluscan Spe- 
cies collected by Dr. John Anderson in Upper Burma and 
Yunan 444 

On the Species of Ilyrax inhabiting Abyssinia and the 
Neighbouring Countries G38 

Blyth, Edward, C.M.Z.S. 

Notice of two overlooked Species of Antelope 51 

Exhibition of a Pair of Horns of Strepsiceros imberbis . . 58 

On the Hybrid between the Chamois and the Domestic 
Goat 134 

Bowerbank, James Scott, LL.D., F.R.S. &c. 

A Monograph of the Siiiceo-fibrous Sponges. — Part I. 
(Plates III.-VI.) GG 



V 

Page 
A Monograph of the Siliceo-fibrous Sponges. — Part II. 

(Plates XXI.-XXV.) 323 

On Dr. Gray's Genus Theonella 389 

Brazier, John, C.M.Z.S. 

Observations on the Distribution of Bulimus millocheilus 
in the Solomon's Archipelago 162 

Notes on an Egg of a Species of Megapodius 528 

Notes on the Localities of two Species of Land-Shells and 
three Species of Volutes 560 

List of Species of Cones found in Port Jackson, New South 
Wales, with Notes on their Habitats and Distribution 561 

Bulger, Major George Ernest, C.M.Z.S. 

Note on Corvus splendens 60J 

Notes on the Habits of Myrinecocichla formicivora, as 
observed near Windvogelberg, S. Africa 637 

Busk, George, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. 

Notice of the Discovery at Sarawak, in Borneo, of the 
Fossilized Teeth of Rhinoceros and of a Cervine Ruminant . . 409 

Butler, Arthur G., F.Z.S., Assistant, Zoological Depart- 
ment, British Museum. 

Description of a New Genus of Heterocerous Le[jidoptera, 
founded upon the Papilio charinioHe of Fabricius 43 

Cambridge, Rev. O. Pickard. 

Notes on some Spiders and Scorpions from St. Helena, 
with Descriptions of New Species. (Plate XLIL) 531 

Campbell, Dr. A., late Superintendent of Darjeeling. 

Notes on the Mode of Capture of Ele[ihants in Assam . . 136 

Clark, George, C.M.Z.S. 

On the Squill of Mauritius (Squilla stylifern) 3 



Page 

Clark, John W., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of Skeletons of Didus ineptus and Pesophaps 
soUtaria 4 73 

Cox, James C, M.D., C.M.Z.S. 

On a New Species of Haliotis from New South Wales . . 49 

On Three New Species of Australian Marine Shells. (Plate 
XXVI.) 358 

Day, Surgeon Francis, F.Z.S., F.L.S., &c. 

On the Fishes of Orissa.— Part 1 296 

On the Fishes of Orissa.— Part II 369 

Remarks on some of the Fishes in the Calcutta Mu- 
seum. — Part 1 511 

.Remarks on some of the Fishes in the Calcutta Mu- 
seum.— Part II 548 

On some of the Fishes in the Calcutta Museum. — Part III. 61 1 
On the Freshwater Fishes of Burma.- — Part 1 614 

De Crespigny, Lieut. C. C. 

Notes on the Friendship existing between the Malacoptery- 
gian Fish Premnas biaculeatus and the Actinia crassicornis 248 

Dresser, Henry E., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of some eggs of the Little Gull (Larus minutus) 530 

Elliot, Daniel G., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

A Monograph of the Genus Pe/eca?2Ms. (Plate XLIV.). . 571 

Elwes, Henry John, F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of a pair of Horns of the Sinaitic Ibex (Capra 
sinaitica) 530 

FiNscH, Dr. Otto, C.M.Z.S. 

On a very rare Parrot from the Solomon Islands. (Plate XI.) 1 26 

Notice of a Memoir on the Collection of Birds formed by 
Mr. W. Jesse in Abyssinia 430 



vu 

Page 
FiNSCH, Dr. Otto, C.M.Z.S., and Hartlaub, Dr. G., F.M.Z.S. 

On a small Collection of Birds from the Tonga Islands . . 544 

Flower, William Henry,F.R.S.,F.L.S.,F.Z.S., Conservator 
of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. 

On the Value of the Characters of the Base of the Cranium 
in the Classification of the Order Carnivora, and on the Sys- 
tematic Position of Bassaris and other disputed Forms .... 4 

Note on a Substance ejected from the Stomach of a Horn- 
bill {Buceros corrugatus) 150 

Notice of a Memoir on the White Dolphin {TieJphinus si- 
nensis) 430 

On the Anatomy of the Proteles, Proteles cristatus (Sparr- 
man). (Plate XXXVI.) 474 

Exhibition of the Skull oia.Hijrux with abnormal dentition, 
obtained by Mr. Bianford 603 

Notes on four Specimens of the Common Fin-whale 
(Pht/salus antiquorum. Gray ; Balcenoptera musculus, auct.) 
stranded on the South Coast of England. (Plate XLVII.). . G04 

Fraser, Charles, M.A., F.G.S. 

Letter from, relating to a Species of Seal {Stenorhynchus) 
captured in New Zealand 2 

Fraser, William T., C.M.Z.S. 

Letter regarding the existence of the Rhinoceros in Borneo . 529 

Gould, John, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. 

Description of a new Genus and Species of the Family 
Trochilidce 205 

Description of a new Species of Dacelo from North-western 
Australia , fj02 

Gray, Dr. John Edward, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. 

Note on lanthella, a new Genus of Keratose Sponges . . 49 



Vlll 

Page 
Notes on the Families and Genera of Tortoises {Testudi- 

nat(i), and on the Characters afforded by the study of their 

Skulls. (Plate XV.) 165 

On the Incisor Teeth of the African Rhinoceros 225 

On the Bony Dorsal Shield of the Male Tragulus kanchil 226 

Note on the Young of the Spotted Ilysena {Crocuta ma- 
culatd) 24 5 

On the Guemul or Roebuck of Southern Peru 496 

Description of Mauremys laniaria, a new Freshwater 
Tortoise. (Plate XXXVII.) 499 

Description of Emys flavipes. (Plate L.) 643 

Gulliver, George, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

On the Muscular Sheath of the Cardiac End of the (Eso- 
phagus of the Aye-Aye (Chiromys madagascariensis) .... 249 

GuNTHER, Dr. Albert, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Report of a Second Collection of Fishes made at St. He- 
lena by J. C. Melliss, Esq. (Plate XVI.) . 238 

Note on the Ichthyology of Zanzibar 24 I 

Descriptions of some Species of Fishes from the Peruvian 
Amazons 423 

Contribution to the Ichthyology of Tasmania 429 

Report on two Collections of Indian Reptiles. (Plates 
XXXVIII., XXXIX., XL.) 500 

IIabel, Dr. (of New York). 

Exhibition of some Birds from the Galapagos Islands. . . . 433 

Hamilton, Dr. Edward, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

On a Variety of the Canis vulpes {Vulpes vulgaris, Bris- 
son) found in the Forest of the Ardennes, Belgium 247 

Harting, James Edmund, F.Z.S. 

Remarks upon the Protection of Sea-fowl during the Breed- 
ing-season 135 



IX 

Page 
Exhibition of, and Remarks upon, a rare Wading-Bird 

{^Anarhynchus frontalis) from New Zealand 3G0 

IIartlaub, Dr. Gustav, F.M.Z.S. 

On Anarhynchus 43.'i 

IIartlaub, Dr. G., and Finsch, Dr. O. (See Finsch and 
IIartlaub.) 

IIoRNE, Charles, F.Z.S. 

Notes on the Common Grey Hornbill of India (Meniceros 
bicornis). . , 24 1 

Notes on Ploceus baya and its Nest. (Plate XVII.) . . 243 

Notice of a Memoir on the Hymenopterous Insects of the 
North-western Provinces of India 430 

Hudson, William H. 

Extract of Letter from, respecting Lichenojisjierspicillatus 432 

HuTTON, Capt. Thomas, C.M.Z.S. 

Notes upon certain Indian Mammals 58 

IIuxLEY, Prof. Thomas Henry, F.ll.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

On the Representative of the Malleus and the Incus of the 
Mammalia in the other Vertebrata 391 

Jesse, William, C.M.Z. S. 

Report of Proceedings in connexion with the Abyssinian 
Expedition Ill 

Kent, William S., F.Z.S. 

On a new British Nudibranch {Embletonia grayi). (Plate 
VIII.) lOD 

Krefft, Gerard, F.L.S., CM Z.S., Curator and Secretary of 
the Australian Museum at Sydney, N. S.W. 

Descriptions of new Australian Snakes 318 



X 

Page 
Layard, Edgar Leopold, F.Z.S. 

Letter from, relating to a Ribbonfish lately cast ashore 
at Simon's Bay 135 

Letter from, relating to the habits during Nidification of 
the Horubills (^Buceros) 529 

Legge, W. Vincent, F.Z.S. 

Notes on the Habits of the Collared Plain-Wanderer 
(Pedionomus torquatus, Gould) 236 

Macalister, Alexander, Demonstrator of Anatomy, Royal 
College of Surgeons, Ireland. 

Note on Gyropiis dicotylis, a new Species of Parasite 420 

Macdonald, John Denis, M.D., F.R.S., C.M.Z.S., Staff 
Surgeon, R.N. 

On the Characters of a Type of a proposed new Genus of 
of Mugilidce inhabiting the Fresh Waters of Viti Levu, 
Feejee Group; with a brief Account of the Native Mode of 
capturing it. (Plate I.) 38 

On an apparently new Genus of minute Parasitic Cirripeds, 
between iepa« and DicAe/as/jis. (Plates XXXIIL, XXXIV.). 440 

Milne-Edwards, Alphonse, C.M.Z.S. 

Letter from, relating to M. Grandidier's discoveries in Ma- 
dagascar 1 

Mivart, St. George, F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Note on Pachybatrachus robustus 22/ 

Notes on the Myology of Menopoma alleghaniense 254 

On the Classification of the Anurous Batrachians 280 

Notes on the Myology of Menobranchus lateralis 450 

MoNTEiRO, J. J. (See Sharpe, R. B.) 

Mueller, Dr. Ferdinand von, F.R.S., C.M.Z.S. 

Communication from, containing a List of Birds occurring 
in the Botanic Gardens, Melbourne 27!) 



XI 

Page 
MuRiE, James, M.D., F.G.S., &c., Prosector to the Society. 

Exhibition of, and remarks upon, two Malformed Hoofs of 
Cattle 59 

Report on the Eared Seals collected by the Society's Keeper 
Francois Lecomte in the Falkland Islands. (Plate VII.) . . 100 

Note on the Sublingual Aperture and Spincter of the 
Gular Pouch in Otis tarda 140 

Murray, Andrew, F.L.S. 

Exhibition of some articles sold as food in the market of 
Old Calabar 530 

Nation, Professor William, of Lima, C.M.Z.S. 

On the Birds of the Vicinity of Lima, Peru, By P. L. 
ScLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. With Notes on their Habits, 
by Prof. W. Nation.— Part III. (Plate XII.) 14G 

Nevill, Geoffrey, C.M.Z.S. 

Additional Notes on the Land-Shells of the Seychelles 
Islands 61 

Owen, Prof. Richard, F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

Notice of the Fourteenth Part of his series of Memoirs on 
Dinornis 59 

Pascoe, Francis P., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of Tapliroderes distortus from Natal 429 

Pease, Harper, C.M.Z.S. 

Descriptions of the Animals of certain Genera oiAuriculidce. 59 
On the Classification of the Helicterince 644 

Playfair, Lieut. -Colonel, R. L., H.B.M. Consul-General in 
Algeria, F.Z.S. 

Further Contributions to the Ichthyology of Zanzibar. . . . 239 

Ponton, Thomas Graham, F.Z.S. 

Communication from, concerning the arrangement of the 
Shells of the Genus Mangelia 249 



Xll 

Page 
QUELCH, T. J. 

Exhibition of a supposed hybrid fish of the Genus Rhombus 473 

Ramsay, Edward P., C.M.Z.S. 

Some further Remarks on the Cuckoos found in the 
Neighbourhood of Sydney, and their Foster-parents. (Plate 
XXVII.) 35!) 

Reinhardt, Prof. J., F.M.Z.S. 

Letter from, relating to Potamochoerus porcus and Pte- 
ronura sandbachii 55 

Rowley, George Dawson, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of, and Remarks upon, a rare Asiatic Thrush 
{Turdus atriyularis) shot near Lewes 4 

Exhibition of, and Observations on, some British-killed 
Pipits 24!) 

Salvin, Osbert, F.Z.S. (See Sclater and Salvin.) 

Saunders, Howard, F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of some Flamingo's Eg^s 432 



^Ot)^ 



Sclater, Philip Lutley, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., Secretary to 
the Society. 

Exhibition of a Skin of Spizaetus from Japan. 1 

Exhibition of, and Remarks upon, some Specimens of the 
Potto (Perodicdcus potto) 1 

On a Collection of Birds from the Solomon Islands. (Plates 
IX. & X.) 118 

Exhibition of some Reptiles transmitted to the Society by 
Mr. G. Wilks, of Buenos Ayres, C.M.Z.S 135 

On the Birds of the Vicinity of Lima, Peru. With Notes on 
their Habits, by Prof. W. Nation.— Part III. (Plate XII.) 14G 

Exhibition of some New Australian Birds lately described 
by Mr. E. P. Ramsay 149 

Notices of Additions to the Society's Menagerie during 
the months of January and February 149 



XIU 

Page 
Exhibition of a Hybrid Pheasant 149 

Notice of Additions to the Society's Menagerie. (Plate 

XX.) 276 

Exhibition of Drawings illustrative of Wart-hogs 2/7 

Notices of recent Additions to the Menagerie 407 

Notices of recent Additions to the Menagerie 430 

Exhibition of Snakes from Buenos Ayres 432 

Exhibition of some Drawings of Hippocampi 432 

Notices of recent Additions to the Menagerie 467 

Characters of a new Species of Ofyt?romM5. (Plate XXXV.) 472 
Remarks on Animals observed in various Zoological Gar- 
dens on the Continent 527 

Exhibition of and Remarks upon the Egg of a Species of 

Megapode 528 

Description of a new Species of Mexican Wren. (Plate 

XLV.) 591 

Remarks on two Species of Mammals described from Speci- 
mens recently living in the Society's Gardens. (Plate XL VI.) 592 

Remarks on the recent Additions to the Society's Menagerie 602 
On the Breeding of Birds in the Gardens of the Zoological 

Society of London during the past Twenty Years 626 

On some new Species of 5?/Ma//ajm«. (Plate XLIX.) . 636 

ScLATER, p. L., F.E.S., and Salvin, Osbert, M.A., F.Z.S. 

Notes on the Species of the Genus Asturina 129 

On Peruvian Birds collected by Mr. Whitely. — Part IV. 
(Plate XIII.) 151 

Second List of Birds collected at Conchitas, Argentine 
Republic, by Mr. William H. Hudson ; together with some 
Notes upon another Collection from the same locality 158 

On Venezuelan Birds collected by Mr. A. Goering. — Part 
III. (Plate XVIII.) 250 

On a Collection of Birds made by Mr. H. S. le Strange 
near the City of Mexico 361 

Notes on the Species of the Genus Micrastur 364 



XIV 

Page 
Descriptions of six new Species of American Birds of the 

Families TanagridcB, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicartidee, Tyran- 

nidcB, and Scolopacidce. fPlate XXVIII.) 4 1 G 

On two new Birds collected bj^ Mr. E. Bartlett in Eastern 
Peru. (Plate XXX.) 437 

Descriptions of three new Species of Tanagers from Veragua. 
(Plates XXXI., XXXII.) 439 

On Peruvian Birds collected by Mr. Whitely. — Part V. . . 596 
Third List of Birds collected at Conchitas, Argentine Re- 
public, by Mr. William H. Hudson 631 

Sharpe, R. B. 

On the Genus Chcetops. (Plate XIV.) 16.''. 

On the Genus Alcyone 351 

Additional Notes on the Genus Ceyx . . . . 507 

Exhibition of a rare Indian Kingfisher {Alcedo grandis). 530 

On the Birds of Angola. — Part I. With Notes by the 

Collector, J. J. Monteiro. (Plate XLIII.) 563 

On a New Kingfisher, belonging to the Genus Tanysiptera . 630 

Simpson, B., M.D. 

Note on Ailurusfulgens. (Plate XLI.) 507 

SwiNHOE, Robert, F.Z.S., H.B.M. Consul, Amoy. 

On the Cervine Animals of the Island of Hainan (China) 652 

Tegetmeier, William Bernhard, F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of some Horns of the Cape Buffalo {Bos coffer) 
and of the Domestic Goat Ill 

Ward, Edwin, F.Z.S. 

Exhibition of a Variety of Scolopax rusticula 473 

Welch, Francis H., Assistant-Surgeon 22nd Regiment. 

Observations on Lepus americanus, especially with re- 
ference to the Modifications in the Fur consequent on the 
rotation of the Seasons, and the Change of Colour on the 
advent of Winter ; based on Specimens obtained in the pro- 
vince of New Brunswick, North Amerioa 228 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plate Pape 

1. Gonostomyxus loa-loa 3S 

II. New Shells from Australia and the Solomon Islands . . 45 

III.^ 

IV. I 

^ /^Siliceo-fibrous Sponges 66 

VI.J 

VII. Otariajuhata 100 

VIII. Embletonia grayii 109 

IX. Gracula kreffti I , , „ 

X. Rallus intacfus 1 

XI. Domicella cardinalis 126 

XII. Neorhynchus nasesus* 146 

XIII. Poospiza ccesar 151 

XIV. Chatops grayii 163 

r Fig. 1. Trionyx formosus \ ^^^ 

^ ' \ Fig. 2. Baikiea elegans / 

XVI. Chcetodon dichrous 238 

XVII. Nests of Ploceus baya 243 

XVIII. Brachygalha goeringi 250 

XIX. New Marine Shells 272 

XX. Phaeochcerus cBliani, $ 2/6 

XXT.^ 
XXII. I 

XXIII. [>^Siliceo-fibrous Sponges 323 

XXIV. 1 
XXV. J 

XXVI. New Australian Shells 358 

XXVII. Eggs of Australian Cuckoos and their Foster-parents . 359 

XXVIII. CaUiste Jiorida 416 

XXIX. Buccanodon anchietce 436 

r ^ ^ f l^'igs- 1' 2- Euphonia chrysopasta, d et ? I ^^^ 

XXX. J^ y^^ ^ Neojnpo ruhicunda J 

- XXXI. Buthraupis arcai \ ^gy 

XXXII. Tachyphonus chrysomelas J 

* Err. maseiis on Plate. 



XVI 

Plate Page 

■L" ■ I Paradolepas neptuni 440 

XXXV. Ocydromus sylvestris 472 

XXXVI. Proteles cristatus 474 

XXXVII. Mauremys laniaria , 499 

XXXVIII. Emys grayi ^ 

XXXIX. Psammophis leithii 



XL. 



1 Fig. 1 . Dendrophis caudolineolata [ 

I Fig. 2. Dipsas barnesii J 

XLI. Ailurus fulgens 507 

XLII. New Spiders of St. Helena 531 

XLIII. Hirundo angolensis 563 

XLIV. Pelecanus molincB 571 

XLV. Thryothorus nisorius 591 

XLVI. Cephalophus dorsalis 592 

XLVII. Physalus antiquorum 604 

XLVIII. New Helices from the Western Pacific Islands 624 

I Fig. 1. Synallaxis curtafa 1 

■ I Fig. 2. Leptasthenura andicola ) 

L. Emys Jiavipes 643 



PROCEEDINGS 



Of THE 



SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 



OP TUB 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 14, 1869. 

George Busk, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Mr. Sclater exhibited a skin of a Spizaetus, which had been for- 
warded to him by Mr. Charles Rivington of Hong Kong, and which 
Mr. Rivington had had two years in captivity. The specimen ap- 
peared to be identical with that figured in Temminck and Schlegel's 
'Fauna Japonica' as Spizaetus orientalis, but was considered by 
Mr. J. H. Gurney, to whom Mr. Sclater had shown it, to be merely 
one of the numerous stages of plumage of Spizaetus nipalensis. 



An extract was read from a letter addressed to the Secretary by 
M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, C.M.Z.S., relating to some interesting 
discoveries made by M. Grandidier, C.M.Z.S., in Madagascar:— 
"In digging in a httle marsh in Amboulitsate (Ranou-be) M. 
Grandidier had found a great number of bones belonging to a species 
of Hippopotamus much smaller than H. amphibius. He had found 
also bones of ^pyornis and of new species of Crocodiles and Tor- 
toises." 

Mr. Sclater exhibited specimens in spirits of a female and young 
Potto {Perodicticus potto), which Mr. Frederick M. Skues had ob- 
tained living on the west coast of Africa, and had endeavoured to 
bring home for the Society's Menagerie. Mr. Sclater read the fol- 

Proc. ZooL. Soc— 1869, No. I. 



2 LETTER FROM MR. C. FRASER. [JaU. 14, 

lowing extract from a letter addressed to him by Mr. Skues relating 
to this animal : — 

" The large Potto (the mother) was offered to me for sale, at Cape 
Coast, by a native, about the commencement of this year ; but I 
declined it. On the 31st March he brought it again to me, with a 
young one which it had given birth to on the 8th February ; and I 
bought them, and they remained in my rooms till the end of April, 
when I went to Accra. All the time at Cape-Coast Castle they kept 
in excellent condition, but I could not succeed in taming either of 
them. They used to sleep all day, the mother usually perched on 
the top of a door, with the young one hanging in front of her belly, 
clasping her with both fore and hind extremities. As soon as it was 
dusk they came down, and wandered about the room all night. 
For some time the mother carried the young one about at night 
hanging to her belly, but afterwards it used to travel about by itself. 

I fed them on pine-apples and bananas, with water ; milk and bread 
they would not eat. Though there were insects about the room, as 
is the case always in tropical climates, I never detected them eating 
them ; but one day I found the large Potto busily munching at a tray 
of beetles I had drying, and before I detected her she had eaten a 
good many. At Accra I was miable to afford them the same hberty 
as at Cape-Coast Castle, and, moreover, being constantly ill with 
fever, was unable to pay them as much attention as formerly. On 
the 9th July the young one died, aged 2I|^ weeks, with all the 
symptoms of intermittent fever, of which it had experienced several 
previous attacks. The mother I took on board the steamer on the 
7th August in tolerable condition ; but being an invalid I was unable 
to look properly after her, and she died on the 20th, a little before 
we reached Teneriffe. The natives call the Potto " Ajwsoro," and 
seem much afraid of it." 

A note was read from Mr. Charles Fraser, M.A., F.G.S., Christ- 
church, Canterbury, New Zealand, dated Sept. 5, 1868, relating to 

a female Seal (Stenorhynchus 1) caught in the harbour of Lyt- 

telton, Canterbury, New Zealand, in the month of August 1868. 
The worn state ot the teeth indicated that it was an aged animal. 

Incisors j, canines j^, molars j^., in all 32. The total length was 

I I feet 8 inches, and the girth at the thickest part of the body 
6 feet. The nails were very small on the fore paws, and very small, 

■but still present, on the hinder extremities. The whole body was 
covered with thin, sparse, longish hairs lying close to the skin. In 
colour the animal was grey above, with black tlakes, and a brownish 
tinge all over the central part. On the sides the black spots were 
replaced by white flakes or spots ; while the underpart of the body 
was light grey. The fore paws were white, with light grey flakes ; 
the hinder extremities black, with light grey flakes. There was no 
tail, nor rudiment of one ; the vertebral column terminated in a 
round compressed manner under the skin, which extended about 

3 inches beyond it, so as to form the curve uniting the hinder extre- 
mities. 



1869.] LETTER FROM MR. G. CLARK. 3 

A communication was read from Mr. George Clark, of Maheburg, 
Mauritius, Corr. Memb., on the Squill of Mauritius {Squilla styli- 
fera). After a detailed account of the external characters of this 
group, Mr. Clark proceeded to observe as follows : — 

" The Squills are mostly nocturnal animals, living in holes ; hence 
it is not surprising that they are little known. It is evident at a 
glance that the position of their branchial apparatus renders it im- 
possible for them to carry their eggs as Lobsters and Shrimps do ; 
such an arrangement would stop their breathing. Cuvier states 
that he never saw one bearing eggs ; and it was with no small satis- 
faction that, while making researches on the history and habits of 
these creatures, I learnt from Dr. Power he had seen this ; and a few 
days after I had the satisfaction of witnessing it myself. The roe 
of the Squill is very curious, and occupies the whole length of the 
body. The eggs when first extruded form a compact mass, which 
the female holds between the three pairs of jaw-feet. As this mass 
expands it forms a loose kind of tissue, somewhat similar to a fleece 
of wool. Little by little, as the eggs enlarge, the texture of the 
mass becomes looser, until the larvae are hatched and swim off to 
shift for themselves. In the first period of incubation, if I may so 
call it, the female will hold her eggs even when caught ; but the 
further advanced they are the more readilj' does she drop them, 
possibly on account of their cohering less firmly. I believe the 
female must fast while carrying her eggs ; for I have found the sto- 
machs of those taken at that period quite empty, but generally full 
at other times. When first hatched the larvie are of a delicate yel- 
lowish green, and are very active. As they grow they assume a 
mottled gre_v, and the swimmerets and legs become pea-green. The 
green gradually increases in brightness ; but it is not till they have 
reached a length of three inches that the colours of the adult appear. 
The male is then of a beautiful bluish green, with the jaw-feet, the 
swimmerets, and the branchiae, as well as the antennae and the fim- 
briae which border the different organs, of a cherry-red. The female 
is clouded with brown and grey, presenting much the appearance of 
tortoiseshell, and the red about her is much less vivid than in the 
male. The young Squills inhabit holes in the sand, near low-water 
mark. The old ones are never found here, but reside in the patches 
of coral which are scattered over the shallows. Both old and young 
have invariably two entrances to their holes ; and the adults always 
stop these with a plug of fine seaweed. They do not swim swiftly ; 
and in places where the water is not deep enough for them to swim 
their principal organs of progression are their large jaw-feet, which 
they thrust forward as a man would do striving to get along on the 
points of his elbows. I believe these limbs also serve them to make 
their holes, as they are often considerably worn on the joints. The 
motions of the Squill are very different from those of a Shrimp or a 
Lobster, being much more like those of a caterpillar ; hence the 
little Creoles call the young ones ' Chenilles de mer.' The extensor 
muscles seem to act much more powerfully than tlie flexors ; and it 
is by the former that the vigorous motion is produced which inflicts 



4 MR. AV. H. FLOWER ON THE [Jail. 14, 

such terrible wounds with the tail. I have seen one literally split 
the end of a person's finger, and another wound the hand through 
a thick leather glove. I believe the Squills to be, as Cuvier sup- 
posed, carnivorous. I have carefully examined the stomachs of 
some, and have always found them to contain the remains of small 
crustaceans, but no vegetable matter. Their flesh is excellent ; but 
the great strength of their integument renders it difficult to detach 
it. The most extraordinary circumstance in the distribution of the 
branches of the heart is that it has no apparent connexion with the 
antennae or the eyes. 

" This beautiful creature would be a great ornament to an aqua- 
rium ; but, unfortunately, I have never been able to keep an adult 
specimen alive more than a few hours after it was caught, though 
using every precaution — placing it in a vessel as soon as it was taken 
from the sea, and renewing the water at short intervals. When 
young I have preserved them for days, and might, perhaps, have 
preserved them indefinitely had I persevered in the attempt. I have 
known them exist in full vitality for twelve or fifteen hours without 
water." 

Mr. George Dawson Rowley, F.Z.S., exhibited, and read the fol- 
lowing remarks upon, a specimen of a rare Asiatic Thrush {Tardus 
atrogiilaris, Temminck) recently killed in this country, this being 
its first recorded appearance in the British islands : — 

" The specimen of Turdus atrogularis was shot near Lewes, 
Sussex, on December 23rd, 1868. It is a young male, as shown by 
its plumage ; dissection also confirmed the fact. I saw the bird in 
the flesh, and took particular care to ascertain its history, because 
it belongs to the fauna of Central Asia, and is only an accidental 
visitor to Europe. To find such a species on the south coast of 
England appears to me a matter of considerable interest. It is now 
in the collection of T. J. Monk, Esq., of Mountfield House, near 
Lewes, who purchased it for a trifle of a working-man." 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Ou the Value of the Characters of the Base of the 
Cranium iu the Classification of the Order Carnivora, 
and on the Systematic Position of Bassaris and other 
disputed Forms. By William Henry Flower, F.B.S., 
F.Z.S., &c.. Conservator of the Museum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons. 

The Order Carnivora has always been an attractive one to zoolo- 
gists ; and consequently nearly all the important structural modifi- 
cations which occur among its members are so well known that it 
is surprising that there is not yet a more universal accord of opinion 
upon their arrangement and mutual affinities. 



1869.] CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 5 

Too exclusive attention has been paid to the characters of the teeth 
in defining the family divisions of tlie order. The difficulty in the 
taxonomic use of these organs arises from the fact that the teeth 
of all the members of such a limited and well-defined group as the 
terrestrial or fissipedal Carnivora are formed on the same general 
type, but with infinite modifications of this type. And as these mo- 
difications are mainly adaptive and not essentially indicative of affi- 
nity, they reappear in various degrees and combinations in many of 
the great natural divisions of the order. Thus, as will be shown 
further on, teeth alone afford us no satisfactory means of diagnosis 
between the very distinct groups of the ProcyonidcB and the Fiverridce. 
The teeth of Proteles, though demonstrating undeniably its right 
to a place in the order, are so rudimentary or generalized that they 
afford no help whatever to determine its special position. Again the 
teeth of Gulo are so similar to those of Hyana, that if this character 
alone were used, these two otherwise widely differentiated forms would 
be placed in the closest proximity. Enhydris, among the Mustelidje, 
and Cynogale, among the Viverridse, might also be cited as examples 
of strangely modified dentition, with comparatively little correspond- 
ing change in other parts. 

Rather more than twenty years ago the late Mr. H. N. Turner*, 
in a paper read before this Society, pointed out the importance of 
certain structural peculiarities of the base of the cranium in the 
classification of the Mammalia, and especially demonstrated the con- 
stancy of these characters in the various members of the natural 
divisions of the order Carnivoraf. Very few subsequent zoological 
writers, however, have followed out the indications suggested in that 
communication ; and Mr. Turner's views as to the position of certain 
disputed forms, and the general relationship of the groups one to 
another, have not by any means met with universal acceptance. 

It seems desirable therefore to test whether the characters chiefly 
relied upon by Mr. Turner really have the value which he attributed 
to them. In endeavouring to do this I shall find it necessary to 
give a more detailed description than the limits of his paper allowed, 
to supply a larger number of illustrative examples, and, while fully 
recognizing the great merit of his observations, may find myself 
occasionally obliged to differ from the conclusions which he deduced 
from them. 

It may be objected at the outset that such an investigation cannot 
be worth the pains bestowed upon it, as any classification founded 
solely or even mainly on one limited portion of the organization 
must necessarily be an artificial one. But if it can be proved that 
the modifications of any one part are always correlated with impor- 
tant variations in several other and quite unconnected portions of the 
organization, it is obvious that its study will become of great practical 

* This original and accurate observer fell a victim to his zeal for his favourite 
science, having died in 1851 from the effects of a dissection-wound. 

t " Observations relating to some of the Foramina in the Base of the Skull in 
Mammalia, and on the Classification of the Order Carnivora," by H. N. Turner, 
jun. (.P. Z. S. 18-18, p. 63). 



6 MK.W. H. FLOWER ON THE [Jail. 14, 

utility to the zoologist ; and this will be more especially the case when 
the part in question is one so imperishable, so easy of examination, 
and affording indications so clear and capable of ready definition and 
description, as the base of the skull. 

In order not to extend this communication to too great length, or 
over too great a variety of subjects, I propose to limit my observa- 
tions on the present occasion mainly to the terrestrial or fissipedal 
Carnivora, and only to those genera now existing. My reason for 
this last restriction is, that it is only in these that we have the oppor- 
tunity of thoroughly working out all the important points of struc- 
tural modification throughout the system, and fhiis definitely assign- 
ing their position ; and from these only can we hope to establish 
any correlation between the structure of the hard and imperishable 
parts and the viscera. When such a correlation has been established, 
then the examination of the fragmentary remains of the extinct forms 
can be made with much greater advantage, and the work of tracing 
the stages by which the present condition of the order has come into 
being can be approached with more probability of a satisfactory 
result. 

The region to which attention will now be especially directed is the 
posterior part of the base of the cranium, the most conspicuous fea- 
ture in which, in all Carnivora, is the auditory bulla ; and it is mainly 
the characters of this bulla, and the structures immediately surround- 
ing it, which will be described in the principal genera of the order. 

Following Mr. Turner's example, 1 will first take one of the ex- 
treme forms of existing terrestrial Carnivores, the Bear. 

Figures I and 2 (pp. 7 & 8) are taken from the skull of a not quite 
adult Ursus ferox in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons 
(No. 4016). 

The auditory bulla is comparatively little inflated. It consists of 
a single bone, readily detached from the cranium in skulls of young 
animals. Its form is more or less triangular, being broad and nearly 
straight at the inner edge, and prolonged outwards into the much 
produced floor of the external auditory meatus (tn.a). Its greatest 
prominence is along the inner border ; from this it gradually slopes 
away towards the meatus. Near the hinder part of the inner edge 
is a considerable circular foramen {car), which pierces the bone 
obliquely, leading to a canal which runs forwards in an arched direc- 
tion, in its inner wall. This is the carotid canal. In old Bears the 
entrance is partly concealed by the prominent lip of the basiocci- 
pital, which abuts against the inner edge of the bulla ; and by the 
growth of this and of the paroccipital process it becomes almost in- 
cluded in the deep fossa leading to the foramen lacerum posticum (J). 
Anteriorly the carotid canal of the bulla ends close to the inner side 
of tlie groove for the eustachian tube ; and the artery quitting it 
takes a sudden turn upwards and backwards and enters the cranium 
through the foramen lacerum medium. 

When a section is made through the auditory bulla (see fig. 2, p. 8) 
it is seen to be a simple thin-walled bony capsule, imperfect above, 
where it fits on to the petrosal and squamosal bones, and prolonged 



1869.] 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 



externally into the much thickened spout-like floor of the meatus 
externus. At the inner extremity of this floor is a freely projecting 
oval lip (t), which gives attachment to the membrana tympani, and 




Part of the base of the skull of the Grizzly Bear ( Ursus fcrox). 

■c. The condyloid ibramen. /. The foramen lacerum posticuin. car. The carotid 
canal, e. The eustachian canal, o. Tlie foramen ovale, a, the posterior, 
and a' the anterior, opening of the alisphenoid canal, f. The paroccipital 
process, m. The mastoid process, s. The stylo-mastoid foramen, m. a. The 
external auditory meatus, g. The glenoid foramen*. 

* This and all the figures, except figs. 9, 10, and 14, are taken from specimens 
in the Museum of the Uoyal College of Surgeons. All are of the natural size, 
except fig. 4, which is enlarged. 



8 



MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THE 



[Jan. 14, 



which is the original and first ossified ring-hke portion of the tym- 
panic bone. In the front of the floor of the bulla is the groove for the 
eustachian canal (e) ; between this and the anterior part of the tym- 
panic ring, a low and thin ridge of bone with a concave free margin 
rises from the floor of the cavity. This is the only indication of any 
septum or division of the cavity of the bulla. "Whether the whole 
of this bone is developed from the original tympanic, or whether the 
bullate inner portion is (as will be shown to be the case in some other 
Carnivora) ossified from a distinct cartilage of its own, I am not at 
present able to determine. In the youngest Bears' skulls that I have 
examined, the ossification of the whole bulla is continuous with that 
of the tympanic ring and floor of the meatus. 

Fig. 2. 




Section throngli the auclitoi-y bulla of Ursimferox. 

8q. Squamosal bone. T. Tympanic bone. BO. Basioccipital. g. Glenoid 
canal, a.m. External auditory meatus, t. Tympanic ring. e. Eustachian 
canal, car. Carotid canal. 



Behind the bulla (fig. 1, p. 7) the prominent and tuberous paroc- 
cipital process {p) projects downwards, outwards and backwards, 
standing quite off" from the bulla, and only connected with it by a low 
laterally compressed ridge. Between the paroccipital process and 
the occipital condyle is a smooth concave surface, the front of which 
is excavated into a deep notch, the posterior boundary of the foramen 
lacerum posticum {I), between which and the condyle is the distinct 
subcircular foramen condyloideum (c), which transmits the hypo- 
glossal nerve. 

At the outer side of the bulla, just behind the meatus auditorius 
externus, the mastoid process (jn) is distinct and prominent, and 
widely separated from the paroccipital. At the bottom of a deep 



1869.] CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 9 

hollow between these processes and the bulla is placed the stylo- 
mastoid foramen («), through which the facial nerve makes its exit 
from the cranium*. 

Immediately in front of the commencement of the meatal prolon- 
gation of the tympanic, at the base of the postglenoid process of the 
squamosal is a conspicuous opening called foramen glenoideum {g), 
which leads to a venous canal which runs upwards and backwards 
into the lateral sinus. 

Still more forward, immediately to the inner side of the glenoid 
fossa, is the foramen ovale of the alisphenoid (o), transmitting the 
third branch of the fifth nerve, and bounded and partly covered on 
the inner side by a strong ridge of bone. Close in front of this is 
the hinder aperture of the large canal (a), bridged over by a lamina 
of bone from the alisphenoid, to which Mr. Turner has particularly 
directed attention under the name of " alisphenoid canal." Through 
this the ectocarotid artery runs for a part of its course. It opens in 
front by a common aperture with the foramen rotundum (a'). 

With this the list of the parts to which it is necessary to refer at 
present concludes. The description just given will apply, with 
trifling modifications, to all known species of the genus Ursus, in- 
cluding the subgenera Thalassarctos, Helarctos, and Prochilus. 

Passing to the animals usually considered most nearly allied to 
the Bears, Procyon (fig. 3, p. 10) has the auditory bulla more dilated 
and prominent, it is true, than in Ursus, but with the same general 
form, i. e. rising abruptly on the inner side, most prominent near the 
middle of the inner edge, sloping oflF behind and before this point, and 
flattened at the outer side, where it is continued into the prolonged 
under lip of the auditory meatus. Moreover it is simple within, 
undivided by any distinct septum ; on looking into the meatus the 
opposite wall can be distinctly seen, or a probe can be passed to it 
without meeting with any impediment. 

The aperture of the carotid canal (car) is large, and rather more 
advanced and more distinct from the foramen lacerum posticum (I) 
than in the Bears. The paroccipital process (p) stands away from 
the bulla ; the mastoid (m) is very distinct. The condyloid foramen 
(c) is freely exposed on the surface, and quite distinct from the 
foramen lacerum posticum. The glenoid foramen (ff) is large and 
conspicuous, though somewhat overlapped by the margin of the 
tympanic bone. The alisphenoid canal is completely wanting ; this 
is the most important distinction from the true Bears. 

In Nasua the bulla is still more rounded and prominent ; indeed 
its resemblance to that of the Bear is chiefly in its simplicity, and in 
the prolongation of the auditory meatus. The carotid foramen is 
advanced to the middle of the bulla. The paroccipital and mastoid 
processes, and condyloid foramina, are as in Procyon. The glenoid 
foramen is more conspicuous. There is no alisphenoid canal. 

Cercoleptes presents a great difference from Nasua and Procyon 

* The modifications of this foramen in situation will not be noticed hereafter, 
as they depend simply on the amount of inflation of the external portion of the 
bulla. 



10 



MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THE 



[Jan. 14, 



ill the form of the auditory bulla— it being more like that of Ursus, 
except that it is rather longer from before backwards, and slightly 
more buUate. The carotid foramen, however, differs widely in its 
position from that of the Bear, being placed very conspicuously 
rather in front of the middle of the inner edge of the bulla. The 
paroccipital and mastoid processes are not much developed, partaking 
of the general flattening that the base of the cranium seems to have 
undergone, but they occupy the same relative position as in the 

Fig. .3. 



Fig. 3 a. 




car- 




Fig. 3. Under surface of the skull of the Kaccoon {Proci/on lofor). 
3«. Under surface of the skull oi Bassaris astuta. 
(The letters as in fig. 1.) 



foregoing genera. The first-named is much compressed and turned 
backwards. The condyloid foramen is conspicuous ; but the glenoid 
foramen, though present, is reduced to a mere slit by the overlapping 
of the tympanic bone and shortness of the postglenoid process. 
The alisphenoid canal is absent. 



1869.] CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVOUA. 11 

In the singular genus Ailurus the auditory bulla is very small and 
simple, prominent and rounded on the inner side, with a very pro- 
longed bony floor to the external auditory meatus. The carotid canal 
is large and distinct, rather behind the middle of the inner edge of the 
bulla. Paroccipital process long and trigonal, standing backwards 
and outwards, quite unconnected with the bulla, curved inwards at 
the extremity in old animals. The condyloid foramen is distinct in 
a flat exposed surface between the paroccipital and condyle. There 
is a well-developed rounded mastoid process, quite distinct from the 
paroccipital. The glenoid foramen is large, situated between the 
inner end of the tympanic meatus and the most prominent part of 
the large postglenoid process. There is a distinct alisphenoid canal. 

To pass to the Mustelidce : — Lidra is extremely Ursine in the base 
of its skull, although all the bones (including the auditory bulla) are 
remarkably thinned-out and flattened. The meatus is much pro- 
longed. The carotid foramen is placed rather nearer the anterior 
than the posterior part of the inner edge of the bulla. The glenoid 
foramen is very distinct. The cavity of the auditory bulla (as is the 
case with many of the Mustelidce) is divided into several freely in- 
tercommunicating cells by thin incomplete bony septa placed trans- 
versely across the floor of the bulla, and connected at their outer 
end with the tympanic ring. The paroccipital process is greatly 
compressed from before backwards. The mastoids are prominent 
laterally. The foramen lacerum posticum very large. There is no 
alisphenoid canal. 

Enhydris diffiers from Lutra chiefly in the large size and more 
posterior position of the carotid foramen, and the very small size of 
the glenoid foramen. 

Meles presents, in the most characteristic manner, the form of 
auditory bulla assigned by Mr. Turner to this group, " rising sud- 
denly on its inner side, and flattened off towards the meatus." In- 
ternally it has two transverse imperfect septa rising from the floor. 
The meatus is considerably prolonged. The paroccipital and mastoid 
processes are very well developed and far apart, the former rather 
compressed and pointed, the latter tuberous. The carotid foramen 
is placed rather behind the middle of the bulla. The condyloid 
foramen is small, its hinder border partially overlapped by a slight 
ridge of bone passing from the paroccipital process to the condyle ; 
but it is quite superficial and distinct from the foramen lacerum pos- 
ticum. The glenoid foramen is distinct, though not very large. There 
is no alisphenoid canal. 

Taxidea diff'ers from Meles in the remarkably inflated condition of 
the auditory bulla. Essentially, however, its characters are much 
the same ; the bulla is not so dilated at its hinder part as to come into 
contact with the paroccipital process, though in front it reaches to 
such an extent as to overlap and obscure the glenoid foramen. It 
has several partial transverse septa. 

In Mephitis, on the other hand, this region of the skull is nearly 
as much expanded and flattened as in the Otters. The bulla forms a 
very small prominence. The paroccipital process is widely separated 



12 MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THE [Jail. 14, 

from it ; and the mastoid projects directly outwards. The bony 
meatus is of considerable length. The carotid foramen is large, 
placed at the middle of the inner border of the bulla. The condyloid 
foramen is large and quite exposed. The glenoid foramen is repre- 
sented by a small hole just above the superior anterior angle of the 
meatus externus. 

In Helictis the auditory bulla is elongated from before backwards, 
the hinder part, near the paroccipital process, being more inflated 
than usual ; consequently this process, which is but feebly developed, 
does not stand so far off "from the bulla as is usual in the group. The 
meatus is moderately produced. The carotid foramen is conspicuous 
at the middle of the inner border of the bulla. The condyloid foramen 
is partially concealed and thrown forwards by the ridge extending 
inwards from the paroccipital process. The glenoid foramen is 
placed above the auditory meatus. On the whole these parts exhibit 
a more generalized and less characteristic form than in most other 
members of the group. 

Arctonyx has the base of the skull very flat and expanded late- 
rally. The bulla small, but elevated and rounded near the inner 
edge. Floor of meatus very long, wide, and flat. Canal of meatus 
large, directed somewhat downwards and forwards as well as outwards. 
Carotid foramen large, placed near the hinder part of the bulla. 
Paroccipital process well developed, quite distinct from the bulla, 
flattened from before backwards, curving forwards at the extremity. 
Mastoid very large, flattened and rough behind, rounded and smooth 
in front, projecting outwards, downwards, and forwards. Glenoid 
foramen distinct. Postglenoid process rather small. No alisphenoid 
canal. Great peculiarities in the base of the skull are the remark- 
able extension of the bony palate backwards, reaching as far as the 
glenoid fossfe, and the lateral bullate expansion of the palate-bones 
behind the last molar tooth. 

Mydaus presents the same general characters as Arctonyx; but, 
as might be expected in a smaller animal, the bulla is rather more 
inflated, the paroccipital and mastoid processes less developed, and 
the meatus less elongated. The palate also does not extend so far 
backwards, and wants the peculiar lateral dilatation. 

In Gulo the auditory bulla is like that of the Bear, but rather more 
dilated. It contains several partial transverse septa. The meatus 
is much prolonged. The carotid canal is rather behind the middle, 
and almost completely concealed by the thickened edge of the basi- 
occipital. The condyloid foramen has a strong ridge behind it, and 
approaches very near to the foramen lacerum. The paroccipital pro- 
cess is compressed and triangular. The mastoid is very strong, and 
directed laterally, though turned downwards at the extremity. The 
glenoid foramen is conspicuous. There is no alisphenoid canal. 

All the remaining genera have the auditory bulla rather large, and 
the floor of the meatus, though forming a distinct prolongation from 
the bulla, comparatively short. 

In Mellivora the bulla is very prominent, oval, thick-walled, and 
rough on the surface. The paroccipital process is stout and trian- 



1869.] CLASSIFICATION OF THK CARNIVORA. 13 

gular, the mastoid process strong and rounded. The carotid foramen 
conspicuous, near the middle of the inner border of the bulla. The 
condyloid foramen not bounded posteriorly by a ridge. The glenoid 
foramen large, close to the anterior edge of the meatus externus. 

In Galera the bulla is less prominent, the carotid foramen partly 
concealed by the basioccipital. The glenoid foramen large, and 
rather more internally placed than in the last. 

In Martes the bulla is elongated from before backwards. The 
paroccipital and mastoid processes are small. The carotid foramen is 
partly concealed by the basioccipital. The condyloid foramen par- 
tially overhung posteriorly by the ridge from the paroccipital. The 
glenoid foramen large, situated at the upper anterior angle of the 
auditory meatus. 

In Mustela the dilatation and elongation of the bulla is carried to 
a great extent. The meatus is directed much forwards, and appears 
externally to be very short ; but this is occasioned (as shown in the 
transverse section, fig. 4) by its inferior lip being covered up by a 
thick layer of cancellous tissue, of which the whole parietes of the 
bulla are to a great extent composed, and which adds much to its 
external bulk. But for this peculiarity, the general form of the 
cavity is not unlike that of Ursus. In addition to this cancellous 
structure in the wall, a considerable portion of the interior, especially 
of the inner and lower parts, is pervaded by numerous fine osseous 
septa and trabeculse. The paroccipital and mastoid .processes are 
very feebly developed, especially in the smallest members of the 
group, where they are flattened and lost on the expanded posterior 
end of the bulla. The carotid foramen is placed conspicuously at, 
or rather injfront of, the middle of the long straight inner wall of 
the bulla. The condyloid foramen is quite exposed, and distinct 
from the foramen lacerum. The glenoid foramen is tolerably large, 
and situated just in front of the external auditory meatus. As ia 
the preceding genera, there is no ahsphenoid canal. 

Fig. 4. 




Section through the auditory bulhi of the Polecat {Mustela piiiorius). Twice 

the size of nature. 
(The letters as in fig. 2.) PL The petrosal. 

In Rhabdo(jale the form of the auditory bulla externally much 
resembles that of Mustela, though rather less inflated ; but a section 
shows that its walls want the peculiar cancellous structure noticed in 



14 MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THE [Jail. 1 J, 

that genus. There are only a few partial septal bauds across the 
floor, as in the Badgers. The anterior inferior extremity of the 
bulla is pointed, and commonly united to the prolonged hamular 
process of the pterygoid. 

The whole of the genera above described are united by Mr. Turner 
into one family, Ursidee ; and that they constitute a natural group, 
T think no one should doubt, even on grounds independent of their 
cranial characters. They all agree in having the intestinal canal 
without a caecum, all other known Carnivora possessing this appen- 
dage. Moreover they all agree together, and differ from all other 
Carnivora, in the structure of the generative organs of the male, 
parts of considerable value in determining affinities. They all have 
a large penis, with a very considerable bone, which is usually more 
or less curved, somewhat compressed, not grooved, dilated posteriorly, 
and often bifurcated, or rather bilobed, in front. They are all desti- 
tute of Cowper's glands. All have the prostate rudimentary, or con- 
sisting only of a thickening of the wall of the urethra and forming 
no distinct prominence. 

Among all the diversity that has been shown to exist in the cha- 
racters of the base of the cranium, especially in the form of the 
auditory bulla, the following points of general agreement are to be 
found : — 

1. The cavity of the bulla is simple (as compared with another 
form to be described presently). That is, although there are fre- 
quently trabeculse or partial septa passing mostly transversely across 
the lower part, and generally connected with the tympanic ring, 
there is no distinct and definite septum dividing it into a separate 
outer and inner character. In all cases, on looking into the external 
auditory meatus (in the dried skull when the membrana tympani is 
removed) the opposite wall of the bulla can be seen ; or if a probe 
is passed into the meatus, no obstacle will prevent its touching the 
inner wall. Whatever the diversity of development of the bulla, it 
always has its greatest prominence near the middle of the inner 
border, and slopes away from that point, not only externally, but 
also forwards and backwards. 

2. The inferior lip of the external auditory meatus is always con- 
siderably prolonged. 

3. The paroccipital process is more or less triangular, and directed 
backwards, outwards, and downwards, standing quite aloof from the 
bulla. This relation depends chiefly on the want of development of 
the posterior portion of the bulla ; and is absent, or obscure, in 
Mustela alone. 

4. The mastoid process is widely separated from the paroccipital, 
and generally very prominent. 

5. The carotid foramen is always large, and placed usually near 
the middle, but sometimes more posteriorly, on the inner margin of 
the bulla. It is generally very conspicuous, but sometimes partially 
concealed by the projecting lip of the basioccipital. 

6. The condyloid foramen is distinct and exposed ; and although 
sometimes partially overlapped posteriorly by a ridge of bone jiassing 



18G9.] CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 15 

from the paroccipital to the condyle, it is never sunk into a common 
opening with the foramen lacerum posticum. 

7. The glenoid foramen is always present, and generally^ very con- 
spicnous. In Enhydris it is least so. 

8. The alisphenoid canal is present in the true Bears and Ailurus, 
absent in all the others. Hence it cannot be used to characterize the 
entire group, though useful in aiding its subdivision. 

The group thus defined is, I think, too extensive, and presents too 
great variation among its members, in dentition and external cha- 
racters, to constitute a Family, as proposed by Mr. Turner. I 
would rather regard it as a primary section of the fissipedal Carni- 
vora, to which the name of Arctoidea might be given. 

I perfectly agree with Mr. Turner that it is further divisible into 
four chief sections, or families, as 1 should call them — the Ursidce, 
Ailuridce, Procyonidce, and the Mustelidcc. The further considera- 
tion of these divisions must be reserved for the present, my ])urpose 
now being to establish the group Arctoidea upon a perfectly secure 
basis. 

I will now pass to a genus as far removed from the Bear in its 
general strucmre as it will be seen to be in the construction of the 
base of its skull, Felis. Figs. 5 and 6 (pp. 16 & 17) are taken from 
the Tiger (i^. tigris). 

The auditory bulla is very prominent, rounded and smooth on the 
surface, rather longer from before backwards than transversely, its 
greatest prominence being rather to the inner side of the centre. The 
lower lip of the external auditory meatus {a.m) is extremely short ; 
the meatus, in fact, looks like a large hole opening directly into tlie 
.side of the bulla. On looking into this hole, at a very short distance 
(in fact, just beyond tlie tympanic ring) a wall of bone is seen, quite 
impeding the view or the passage of any instrument into the greater 
part of the bulla. On making a section (fig. 6), it will be seen that 
this wail is a septum (s) which rises from the floor of the bulla, along 
its outer side, and divides it almost completely into two distinct cham- 
bers ; one {o.c), outer and anterior, is the true tympanic chamber, and 
contains the tympanic ring, membrane, and ossicula, and has at its 
anterior extremity the opening of the Eustachian tube (e) ; while the 
other {i.c), internal and posterior, is a simple but much larger cavity, 
having no aperture except a long but very narrow fissure (*) left 
between the hinder part of the top of the septum and the promon- 
toiT of the petrosal, which fissure expands posteriorly, or rather at 
its outer end, into a triangular space, placed just over the fenestra 
rotunda or cochlearea(?'), so that the opening of this fenestra is partly 
in the outer and partly in the inner chamber of the bulla. This 
chamber is formed by a simple capsule of very thin but dense bone, 
deficient only at a small oval space in the roof, where the petrosal 
projects into and fills up the gap, except such portion of it as is left 
to form the aperture of communication with the outer chamber. 

Not only are these two cliambers thus distinct, but they are 
originally developed in a totally different manner. At birth the only 
ossification in tlie whole structure is the incomplete ring of bone sup- 



16 



MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THE 



[Jail. 14, 



porting the membrana tympani, and developed originally in mem- 
brane. Ossification extends from this, so as to complete the outer 
chamber and the very limited hp of the meatus auditorius externus. 
The inner chamber is formed from a distinct piece of hyaline carti- 
lage, which at birth is a narrow slip, pointed at each end, lying be- 
tween the tympanic ring and the basioccipital, appUed closely to 

Fig. 5. • 



car- 




Part of the base of the skull of the Tiger {Felh tkjris). A portion of the audi- 
tory bulla has been removed to show its interior. The cavity of the inner 
or posterior chamber is exposed. 

r. The fenestra rotunda in the petrosal, s. The septum between the chambers. 
» The aperture of communication. The other letters as in the preceding 
figures. 



18(i9.] 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 



17 



the surface of the already ossified petrosal, and forming no distinct 
prominence on the under surface of the skull*. Soon after birth this 
increases in size, and gradually assumes the bullate form of the wall 
of the inner chamber. In young animals, even some time after the 
ossification of the bulla is complete, the distinction between the two 
parts is clearly seen externally ; not only are they marked off by a 
groove, but the tympanic portion has a more opaque appearance than 
the other. 

Fig. 6. 




Section of the auditory bulla of the Tiger. 
o c. The outer chamber, i c. The inner chamber, .s. The septum. 



tare of communication between the chambers, 
preceding figures. 



* The aper- 
The other lett«r.« as in the 



The septum is formed by an inversion of the walls of both, applied 
.together and ultimately perfectly fused in Felis, although, as will be 
seen, permanently distinct in some other allied formsf. 

No indication of a carotid foramen can be seen anywhere on the 

* The cartilage from which the auditory bulla of the Felidce is developed evi- 
dently corresponds with that lamella of the "opisthotic" of Man which "gra- 
dually wraps itself round the carotid, and so converts the primitive groove for the 
vessel into a complete tube, at the same time furnishing the inner part of its floor 
to the tympanum" (Huxley, Elements Corap. Anntomy (1864), p. 155). 

t These parts are all described in great detail in Straus-Durckheim's ' Ana- 
tomic du Chat' (18-15), vol. i. pp. 409 et seq. He calls the outer chamber the 
" caisse du tynipan, the inner one the " cavite mastoidienne, ' or " seconde 
chambre de la timbale," regarding it as tlie " analogue" of the mastoid cells of 
man. This part, he says, " ne commence que par un seul point d'ossification qui 
ne parait meme que quinze jours aprcs la naissance ; et a six semaines il est en- 
tiereraent for;ne, et a articule avec tous les os voisins." The septum, or " cloison," 
is " commune aux deux os, formee par deux lames adossees et soudees entre e!les." 

Prog. Zool. Soc— lfi()9, No. II. 



18 MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THE [Jail. 14, 

inner side of the bulla, where it was so conspicuous in most of the 
Arctoidea, but it is represented by a minute groove (car) deep in 
the recess of the foramen lacerum posticum. In the smaller members 
of the genus this groove is more superficial, but alwajs very minute, 
and apparently never converted into an actual foramen except by the 
contiguous wall of the basioccipital. 

The paroccipital process (/j) is flattened out over the back of the 
bulla, being applied closely to the whole of its prominent rounded 
hinder end, and projecting, as a rough tubercle, slightly beyond it. 
From the inner side of this process a strong sharp ridge runs towards 
the occipital condyle. This forms the posterior boundary of a deep 
fossa, at the bottom of which is the foramen lacerum posticum (I), 
and in the hinder part of which, under cover of the aforesaid ridge, 
the foramen condyloideum (c) opens. 

The mastoid process (w) is a moderately conspicuous rough pro- 
minence, not very widely separated from the paroccipital. 

There is no distinct glenoid fossa, nor is there an alisphenoid canal. 

This description applies equally well to all the true cats (genus 
Felis), including the slightly aberrant Cheetah, but not to any other 
members of the Order. 

I pass next to the Viverridce. 

In the African Civet {Viverra civetta) (fig. 7, p. 19) the auditory 
bulla is very prominent, smooth and oval, broader behind than before. 
The meatus has scarcely any inferior lip, its orifice (« m) being close 
to the tympanic ring. The part of the bulla immediately surround- 
ing the meatus is separated by a distinct groove from the much larger, 
more inflated, and more transparent inner, or, rather, posterior part, 
as it is in this animal. There is a septum witliin, disposed exactly 
as in Felis, but very short, owing to the small space it has to fill 
up, occasioned by the slight dilatation of the outer chamber. It is 
applied closely to the petrosal above, leaving a mere linear fissure, 
probably closed in the living animal, expanded at one end into a 
small triangular space, situated just over the fenestra rotunda. 

Instead of a carotid canal, there is a groove (car) on the inner 
side of the bulla, near its anterior end. 

The paroccipital {p) is triangular, spread very evenly over the 
hinder part of the bulla, applied to it "like the capsule of the acorn 
to the seed"*, and projecting slightly beyond it, as a rough pointed 
process. The ridge running from its inner side bounds the common 
fossa into which the condyloid foramen (c) and the foramen lacerum 
posticum (/) open. 

The mastoid process can be scarcely said to exist. An extremely 
minute aperture near the hinder end of the postglenoid process 
may represent the glenoid foramen. There is a distinct alisphenoid 
canal (a). 

In the Rasse (Viverra malaccensis) the bulla is large, as wide in 

front as behind, much elongated, narrow, and compressed laterally, 

corresponding, in fact, with the proportions of the entire cranium. 

Otherwise its structure is essentially the same as that of the Civet. 

* Owen, Cat. Osteological Series in Miis. Roy. Coll. Surg. vol. ii. p. 680. 



I8G9.] 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 



19 



The anterior chamber is rather more developed, and less distinctly 
marked off externally from the posterior. The orifice of the meatus 
is very large, and opens directly into the tympanic cavity. The 
carotid enters by a distinct groove near the middle of the inner wall 
of the bulla, partially concealed and converted into a canal by the lip 
of the basioccipital. 

The paroccipital process is smoothly expanded over the posterior 
part of the bulla, but does not project beyond it. The mastoid pro- 
cess is not very distinct. The condyloid foramen is much overhung 
by the ridge from the paroccipital. The glenoid fonimen is very 
minute. 



Fig. 8. 





Fig. 7^ Civet ( Viverra civetta). 

8. Paradoxiire {Paraduxvnts hondnr), 

(The letters as in the preceding figures.) 

Mr. Turner remarked that in this species the alisphenoid canal is 
not developed ; but I find, on examining a series of seven skulls in 
the Museum of the Roy al College of Surgeons, that in one this canal 
exists on both sides, and in another on one side only ; in the remainder 
it is absent. 

In the true Genettes, which otherwise closely correspond to the 
Rasse in cranial characters, the alisphenoid canal appears to be always 
present. 

In the Paradoxures (fig. 8) the external form of the bulla is more 
like that of the Civet than the Genette ; but the inner or posterior 
chamber presents, in some species at least, the peculiarity of being 



20 MR. W. H. FI.OWICR ON THK (Jail. 14, 

permanently distinct and moveable, not only from the other cranial 
bones, but also from the tympanic portion of the bulla. In form it 
is conical, broad and truncated behind, pointed in front, and rather 
compressed at the sides, which meet in a ridge. The orifice between 
the two cavities of the bulla is very minute, and the septum perma- 
nently double, receiving a stratum from the wall of each cavity. The 
carotid canal is distinct, situated near the anterior end of the inner 
wall of the posterior chamber of the bulla ; but it appears to be 
never completely closed on the inner side, except by the contiguous 
basioccipital. The paroccipital and mastoid processes are as in the 
Civet. The condyloid foramen is even more concealed. The glenoid 
foramen is very minute. The alisphenoid canal is distinct. 

In a specimen of Nandinia binotata in the College Museum, which 
otherwise agrees generally with Parudoxurus, the posterior chamber 
is entirely cartilaginous, although the cranium appears to be adult or 
nearly so, and the tympanic portion of the bulla is completely ossified. 

Cynogale, which has a singularly modified dentition, closely resem- 
bles the Paradoxures in its cranial characters, even to the permanent 
want of union of the two portions of the bulla. The anterior cham- 
ber is very small and flat ; the posterior rather more inflated and 
conical than in Paradoxurus, being more like that of Viverra. The 
carotid canal forms a deep groove, converted into a foramen by the 
lip of the basioccipital, placed rather in front of the middle of the 
posterior chamber. The paroccipital process projects beyond the 
bulla. There is no alisphenoid canal. 

All the Ilerpestine members of the Viverridts (^Cynopoda, Gray) 
present certain common characters of this region by which they can 
be readily recognized. The bulla (fig. 9, p. 21 ) is very prominent and 
somewhat pear-shaped, the larger, rounded end being turned back- 
wards and somewhat outwards ; a well-marked transverse constriction 
separates the chambers, which are now directly anterior and posterior. 
In front of tlie constriction the anterior (true tympanic) chamber is 
somewhat dilated again, much more than in the Civet-like Viverrines. 
The aperture of communication between the two chambers is rather 
larger. The carotid canal {car) is very distinct, situated quite at the 
front of the posterior chamber. The paroccipital process (p) does 
not project beyond the bulla, but is spread out and lost (in adult 
animals) on its posterior surface. The condyloid foramen (c) is 
concealed ; the glenoid foramen is very minute or absent. The ali- 
sphenoid canal appears to be always present. 

The Suricate {llhyz<ena zenik) presents the same essential charac- 
ters in a very modified form, caused by the general lateral expansion 
of the posterior part of the cranium. Here, and here alone among 
the FiverridoE, there is a prolonged auditory meatus ; but it presents 
the peculiarity of being fissured along the whole extent of the middle 
of its floor*. The anterior chamber is remarkably prominent, even 
more than the posterior. Externally these parts have some resem- 
l)lance to those of the Arctoidea, but show their adherence to the 
Yiverroid tvpe in the two distinct chambers of the bulla, the ex- 
* The slightly pioduced floor of the meatus of Urva is also fissured. 



18G9.J 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE CAKNIVORA. 



21 



panded and applied paroccipital process, the concealed condyloid, 
and absent glenoid foramen. The carotid foramen is distinct, situatec' 
at the anterior extremity of the posterior chamber ; and, as in th 
other Herpestines, the alisphenoid canal is present. 



am 




Herpestcs ichneumon. From a specimen in the British Museum. 
(The letters as in tlie preceding figures.) 

The Felidce and the ViverridcB have thus the auditory bulla and 
surrounding portions of the cranium formed upon a common plan dis- 
tinct from that of the Arctoidea, the essential features of which are: — 

1. The bulla is greatly dilated, rounded, smooth, thin-walled, and 
divided by a septum into two distinct portions, communicating only by 
a narrow aperture— an outer or true tympanic portion, into which 
the meatus externus and the eustachian tube open, and a simple vesi- 
cular inner chamber. 

2. The bony meatus is extremely short; or when prolonged (as 
in Rhyzcend), the inferior wall is imperfect. 

3. The paroccipital process is closely applied to, and, as it were, 
spread over the hinder part of the bulla. 

4. The mastoid process is never very salient, and often obsolete. 

5. The carotid canal is small, sometimes very inconspicuous, and 
rarely, if ever, a true canal excavated in the substance of the wall of 
the bulla, but a groove converted into a canal by the basioccipital 
bone applied to its inner side. 

6. A ridge from the paroccipital process to the condyle encloses 
the condyloid foramen in a common fossa with the opening of the 
foramen lacerum posticum. 

7. The glenoid foramen is extremely minute, or absent. 

The animals which possess these characters show their affinity to 



22 MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THE [Jail. N, 

each other in other parts of their organization, especially in those 
which were made use of in defining the Arctoidea. They all have a 
short simple csecum. They all have a comparatively small penis, 
with a more or less conical termination, and of which the bone is 
small, irregular in shape, or not unfrequently altogether wanting. 
They all possess Cowper's glands, and a distinct lobed prostate. 

The Felidce and Viverridee may therefore be united into another 
primary group, for which I would propose the name ^Eluroidea. 
The two families have been chiefly distinguished by the well-known 
differences in their dentition ; but they also show characteristic cra- 
nial distinctions. In the Felidce the auditory bulla is more globular, 
and the inner chamber is placed really to the inner side, as well as 
somewhat posterior to the tympanic. The carotid canal is repre- 
sented by a very minute groove placed far back on the inner side of 
the bulla, often quite concealed in the foramen lacerum posticum. 
There is no alisphenoid canal. 

In the Viverridee the bulla is more elongated, and the inner cham- 
ber is placed more posteriorly, usually entirely behind the tympanic. 
The distinction between the two parts of the bulla is better marked 
externally. The carotid canal is larger and placed more conspicu- 
ously and nearer the anterior part of the bulla. The alisphenoid 
canal is almost always present. 

Cryptoprocta is a member of the iEluroid group, which, as long 
as it was known only by a single immature individual, was placed 
among the Viverridee. The recent examination of a complete ske- 
leton of an adult animal has led MM. A. Milne-Edwards and Gran- 
didier to remove it completely from that group, and to ally it closely 
to the Cats — not indeed in the same family ; for they form a tribe 
containing Felis and Cryptoprocta alone, each genus constituting a 
family by itself, the first digitigrade, the second plantigrade. The 
teeth are certainly more Feline than Viverrine, and so is the general 
appearance of the upper surface of the skull ; but I cannot alto- 
gether agree in the remarks that *' la conformation de la tete osseuse 
du Cryptoprocta rappelle le type felin, plus que le type viverrien," 
and " en eflFet, s'il y avait a chaque machoire une premolaire de 
moins, son crane ne diflfererait en rien de celui des Chats " *. 

On examining the base of the cranium of the adult Cryptoprocta 
lately received at the British Museum (fig. 10, p. 23), I find that it 
possesses all the characters above shown to be common to the Felidce 
and Viverridee, but that it has a distinct alisphenoid canal (a a'), a 
distinct carotid foramen {car") near the front part of the inner side of 
the bulla, and the bulla itself constructed more on the viverrine than 
the feline type. The inner chamber is quite behind the other ; it is 
flattened at the sides, ridged and very prominent posteriorly, and low 
in front. The paroccipital process does not extend beyond the bulla. 

As the dentition and the general osteological characters pointed 
out by the authors just quotedf forbid us to place it among the Vi- 

* Aiinales des Sciences Naturelles, 1867. 

t Tlie form of the scapula of the specimen at the British Museum ajipears to 
nie decidedly more viverrine than feline. 



18C9.] 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 



23 



Fig. 10. 



c 


:^ 


I 

car — 






Crypfoprocta ferox. From a specimen in tlie British Museum. The fori.men 
between c and the occipital condyle is an accidental vacuity, existing only 
on one side of the skull. (The letters as in the preceding figures.) 

verridcE as ordinarily constituted, I think, with them, that it must 
form a family by itself ; but I look upon it as a perfectly annectent 
form, as nearly allied to the Viverridts on the one hand as to the 
Felidcc on the other. 

The visceral anatomy of Cryptoprocta is at present almost entirely 
unknown ; but the little information we possess shows that in one re- 
spect it departs widely from both the families with which it otherwise 
appears so nearly connected — that is, in the possession of a large os 
penis. In the British-Museum skeleton this bone is 2f^" long, slen- 
der, compressed, slightly curved, not grooved or divided anteriorly, 
rounded and slightly dilated at each end, but thickest posteriorly. 

Passing over for the present the consideration of several somewhat 
doubtful forms, it will be convenient to examine Mr. Turner's third 
type of Carnivorous cranium, that of the Dog. In the genus Canis 
(figs. 11 & 12, p. 25) the auditory bulla is externally simple, smooth, 
and evenly rounded. The meatus has a rather prominent under lip, 
though less so than in the Bears. Interiorly a very incomplete 
septum («) springs from its anterior wall in exactly the same situation 
as in the Fdidas, and divides the front part of the chamber into an 



24 MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THE [Jail. 14, 

outer division, in which is the opening of the eustachian tube (e), and 
an inner one, of which the anterior end is a cul-de-sac, as in Felis ; 
but this septum only extends through about one-fourth or one-third 
of the entire cavity, so that the two chambers communicate most 
freely. In the hinder part of the inner chamber are a few irregular 
projecting bony ridges. The bulla is developed as in the Cats, from 
two parts, an outer true tympanic, and an inner cartilaginous portion. 
At birth ossification has not commenced in the latter, and appears 
in the former only as the horseshoe-shaped tympanic ring. 

The carotid canal (car) is complete, and of tolerable dimensions ; 
but its external opening is not visible on the surface of the bulla," being 
deep in the foramen lacerum postieum (/) ; the course of the artery 
is similar to that which it takes in the Bears. The paroccipital pro- 
cess {p) is long and prominent ; and its anterior surface is applied 
closely to the back part of the bulla, but to a less extent than in the 
Cats, as the process is more compressed. The mastoid (?«) is dis- 
tinct, but slightly developed. The condyloid foramen (c) is con- 
spicuously situated on the ridge passing from the paroccijiital to the 
condyle, and is quite distinct from the foramen lacerum postieum 
(/). The glenoid foramen {g) is very large. The alisphenoid 
canal (a a') is present. 

It is clear that, with these cranial characters, which are found dis- 
tinctly developed (with some modifications to be noticed hereafter) 
in all the members of the family Canidce, the Dogs cannot be placed 
in either of the great primary groups as above defined. They are in 
fact as nearly as possible intermediate between the two. The general 
form of the bulla and the presence of a septum, though imperfect, 
incline to the jEluroid type ; while the position and development of 
the carotid canal, of the condyloid foramen, and of the glenoid fora- 
men are Arctoid characters. The form of the paroccipital and 
mastoid processes, and the length of the meatal lip, are intermediate. 

Though I agree with Mr. Turner in making the Dogs a distinct 
primary group, which might be termed Cynoidea, I differ from him 
in placing them at one end of the series and the Bears at the other. 
The Dog appears to me to be the most central or generalized form of 
the whole order as at present existing, at least as far as the structure 
of the cranium is concerned. The comparative length of the folded 
caecum is a special peculiarity*. The reproductive organs belong 
neither to the Arctoid nor to the iEluroid type, but partake of some 
of the characters of each. In the absence of Cowper's glands, and 

* The length of the caecum in the Dogs, among other characters, induced 
De Blainville to place them at the end of the series of which the Bears were at the 
head, the Cats, with moderate caecum, intervening. But may not the long caecum 
be rather a retention of general mammalian structure, which has been completely 
or partially deviated from in the Bears on the one hand, and the Cats on the other, 
both more specialized groups ? 

It should be remarked that the Dogs retain more nearly the typical number of 
teeth tlmn any other Carnivores, and that some of the earliest known forms of the 
order appear, as far as can lie gathered from their fragmentary remains, to belong 
lo the grou]i. Thus the Early Miocene Aviphici/on had the teeth of a modern 
Dog, with an additional upper molar, coni|)leting the typical mammalian dentition. 



186!).] 



CLASSIFICATION OF THIC CARNIVORA. 



25 



Fig. 11. 




Wolf {Canis hqms). 
(Tliu letters as in the preceding figuiv.s. ) 

Fig. 12. 




car 



BO 



Section of auditory bulla of Dog. 
(The letters as in tlie preceding figures. 



26 MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THE [Jail. \-i, 

the large size of the os penis, they resemble the former, though the 
OS is of a different form, being straight, wide, depressed, and grooved. 
In the distinctness of the prostate gland they approach the ^Eluroids. 
The bulbous dilatation of the penis during erection is a special Cynoid 
peculiarity. 

The above-described cranial characters are very constant in all the 
known forms of dogs, even the most aberrant*. The principal modi- 
fications are in the size of the meatus and amount of inflation of the 
bulla, which appear to be in direct relation to the development of 
the external ear, as they reach their maximum in the Fennec. The 
only deviation presenting any approximation to any other family 
that I have observed is in Lycaon, in which the condyloid foramen is 
partly concealed by the ridge from the paroccipital as in the jElu- 
roids and the Hysena, an animal with which it has been supposed 
to have some affinity. Bui for this slight peculiarity, it presents 
no other deviation from the true Cynoid type. 

Such being the three principal types of Carnivora as indicated by 
the modifications of the base of the cranium, I will next consider 
the position of certain genera about the affinities of which there has 
been some real or supposed difficulty. 

First the Hyaenas, which are placed by Mr. Turner without 
hesitation in his family Felidce, equivalent, it must be remembered, 
to the group here called .^luroidea, as they present, he says, " the 
same cranial characters as the cats." But he appears not to have 
noticed the peculiar septum, which forms such a marked character 
in the Felince or ViverridcB, and which is completely wanting in the 
Hyaenas t. 

The cranial characters of this genus (fig. 13, p. 27) are as follows : 
— Auditory bulla inflated, smooth, oval, most prominent posteriorly, 
and rather pointed in front, slightly compressed laterally. Bony 
meatus short, but its anterior lip slightly produced. Bulla perfectly 
simple within, without trace of division into compartments. Carotid 
foramen (ca?-) distinct, near the middle of the inner side of the bulla. 
Paroccipital process {p) spread out over the posterior surface of the 
bulla, and forming a nodular protuberance beyond it, as in the larger 
Felidce. Mastoid process {m) slightly developed. Condyloid foramen 
(c) quite concealed by the ridge from the paroccipital to the condyle. 
Glenoid foramen verj' minute or absent. No alisphenoid canal. 

These characters all agree with the .iEluroid type, with the ex- 
ception of the absence of septum to the bulla, and when taken toge- 
ther are perhaps rather more feline than viverrine. The other parts 
of the system which have previously been made use of in the former 

* I should mention that I have not had an opportunity of examining the skull 
of Icticyon vendticus ; but Burmeister's figure shows its true cynoid character. 

t Mr. Turner says of the fiverridw, "The auditory bulla has very distinctly 
the appearance of being divided into two portions, of which the posterior is much 
the larger, and elongated in form : the more anterior division, which encloses the 
meatus auditoriu's externus, is much smaller, and partly overlapped by the other." 
— Loc. cil. p. 78. This only refers to the external appearance of the bulla, and is 
given as diagnostic of the bulla of the Viverridce as opposed to that of the Felkhe. 



1869.] 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 



27 



cases lead to similar conclusions. In the presence of a short caecum, 
and of Cowper's glands, and a distinct prostate, Hyaena conforms 
with the J^Iuroids. The penis is of a form unlike that characteristic 
of that group, being large and pendulous under the abdomen ; but 
in the entire absence of a bone it agrees with some of the Viverridce, 
and differs essentially from all the Arctoid and Cynoid Carnivora. 
The large number of rib-bearing vertebrae (fifteen or sixteen) of the 
Hyaenas is a special peculiarity, as thirteen is the most usual number 
in the ^luroids. 

Fig. 13. 




Hya>na {Hyieiui strlnfu). 
(The letters as in the preceding figures.) 

The Hyaenas must then form either a fourth primary division of 
the Carnivora, or be added, as rather aberrant members,' to the ^Elu- 
roid section. On the whole I am inclined to the latter arrangement, 
especially as it will be seen to gain support from the examination of 
the singular genus next to be spoken of. 

Pro<e/e« was considered by Cuvier a " Genette hy^noide." It is 



28 



MR.W. H. FLOWER ON THE 



[Jan. 14, 



placed by Dr. Gray, in his "Revision of the Viverrida" (P. Z. S. 
1864), close to the genus Viverra. De Blainville included it in the 
genus Canis, where it is also placed, in the Catalogue of the Osteo- 
logical Series in the Museum of the College of Surgeons, by Professor 
Owen. Many other authors have placed it in the Hycenidce, as Dr. 
Gray in 1868 (P. Z. S. p. .525). The visceral anatomy of this 
animal appears at present to be quite unknown ; and the rudimentary 
molar teeth afford no indication of its affinities. Both in external 
appearance and in the general characters of the skeleton it closely 
resembles the Hysenas*. 

The examination of the base of the cranium in this genus is there- 
fore of great interest, as it affords in the present state of our 
knowledge the only true guide to its position. 

Its characters (see fig. 14) are as follows: — 

The auditory bulla is very large, pyriform, and everted posteriorly, 
almost exactly as in the larger forms of Herpestes. A septum divides 
it into two chambers, the meatal or true tympanic chamber being 
quite in front of the other ; externally the two are completely fused. 

Fig. 14. 



car. 




Protvli's lalandii. From a specimen in the British Museum. 
(The letters as in the preceding iigures.) 

* The Skeleton of Proteles in the Leyden Museum has 15 lilj-ljearing veitebrae : 
Wagner gives 14. 



1869.] CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 29 

The anterior lip of the meatus is considerably prolonged and thickened, 
as in the Hysenas. Its floor is not split as in RhyzcEna and Urva. The 
carotid foramen (car) is very minute, placed near the middle of the 
inner side of the bulla. The paroccipital {p) and mastoid (w) pro- 
cesses are smoothly spread over the posterior dilated end of the bulla, 
and form no projection beyond it. The condyloid foramen (c) is 
concealed. There is no glenoid foramen ; nor is there an alisphenoid 
canal. 

I need scarcely comment upon the value of these characters as 
affording a satisfactory solution to the guesses that have hitherto 
been made as to the affinities of Proteles. In the first place they 
are thoroughly ^luroid, but they do not exactly agree with either of 
the families of that group as hitherto defined. On the whole they 
approach nearest to the Herpestine section of the Viverridce, but 
deviate from this, and approximate to the HycenidcB, in two points — 
the development of the anterior rather than the lower portion of the 
lip of the meatus, and the absence of the alisphenoid canal. These, 
in conjunction with the general characters of the skeleton and exterior, 
appear to be sufficient, as in the case of Cryptoprocta, to warrant the 
formation of a distinct family, intermediate between the Viverridce 
and the Hycenides, approaching nearest to the former. If Cnvier 
had called Proteles a Hysenoid Ichneumon, instead of a Hyaenoid 
Genette, exception could scarcely have been taken to the description. 

Another genus, whose characters were omitted in their proper place, 
on account of the great difference of opinion that has existed upon 
its true position, is Arctictis, the Binturong of the East Indies. 
Ever since its discovery this animal has oscillated between the Vi- 
verridcB and the JJrsidcB without any conclusive reasons having been 
given for either position. F. Cuvier, Mr. Turner, and Dr. Gray 
assign it a place among the former group, while De Blainville, 
Wagner, Van der Hoeven, Giebel, Gervais, Cams, and Owen include 
it in the Ursine or "Subursine" group. Dr. Cantor has published 
some details of its anatomy, including the statement that it possesses 
a short csecum ; but no mention is made of tlie structure of the 
generative organs*. 

The pattern of the teeth when closely examined is clearly that of 
the Paradoxures — modified, it is true, but forming, as it were, a third 
term of a series of which a Civet and an ordinary Paradoxure are the 
first and second terms. Their resemblance to the teeth of Cerco- 
leptes, so often insisted on by zoologists, appears to me only super- 
ficial or adaptive, and affords an instance of the difficulty of dia- 
gnosing the family characters of the Carnivora by teeth alone, which 
I mentioned at the commencement of this paper. 

Fortunately an examination of the base of the cranium (fig. 1 .5, 
p. 30) gives no uncertain indication of the animal's position. The __ 
auditory bulla and all its surrounding parts are decidedly and essen- ' 
tially Viverrine, most resembling in form those of Paradoxurus, 
though the walls of the tympanic and inner chambers of the bulla are 
completely fused together as in nearly all the other members of the 
* Journal of the Asiatic Society, 1840, p. lOi. 



30 



MR.W. H. FLOWER ON THE 



[Jan. 14, 



family. The posterior chamber of the bulla is much inflated, espe- 
cially the anterior part, which overlaps the very small tympanic por- 
tion. The meatus externus {am) is very contracted. The carotid 
canal (^car) is a deep groove near the middle of the inner wall of the 
bulla. The paroccipital {p) is closely applied to the bulla. The 
ahsphenoid canal (a) is distinct. There is not the slightest ap- 
proximation iu any particular to the arctoid type. I feel, therefore, 
no hesitation in placing the Binturong among the FiverridcB, even 
without waiting for the confirmation which the examination of the 
structure of the organs of generation will doubtless afford. 

Fig. 15. 




Binturong {Arctictis binturong). 
(The letters as in the preceding figures.) 

A comparison of Arctictis with Cercoleptes supplies a good illus- 
tration of superficial and adaptive resemblance masking absence of 
real affinity — closer, that is to say, than ordinal affinity. They belong 
to two different types of the Carnivora, both modified in the same 
direction. One is an arboreal, prehensile -tailed, omnivorous, Viver- 
rine ^luroid, the other an arboreal, prehensile-tailed, omnivorous, 
Procyonine Arctoid. Geographically, each is confined to near the 
headquarters of the family to which it belongs ; and in a functional 
sense only can they be regarded as representatives of each other in 
these different regions of the globe. 

If the study of the cranial characters of the Binturong has com- 
pletely removed it from all suspicion of relationship with the Bears, 



1869.] CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 31 

and established its true position among the Fiverridce, the same 
method of observation has resulted in affording a full compensation 
to the former group by assigning to it the interesting little American 
Carnivore the Bassaris, frequently placed among the Viverridce. 

When this animal was first subjected to scienti6c examination, the 
distinctions between the different families of the Carnivora were less 
understood than at present ; and Lichtenstein, who named it*, and 
Wagler, who gave a description of its external characters-)-, were con- 
tent with pointing out that it showed resemblances on the one hand 
to the Eaccoons and Coatis, and on the other hand to the Genettes. 

The first and hitherto only published details of its anatomy were 
given by M, Paul Gervais, in his description of the mammals collected 
by MM. Eydoux and Souleyet in the voyage of the " Bonite" ( 184 1 ). 
He gives a figure of the skeleton, and a brief description of the prin- 
cipal viscera, including the important statement, apparently since 
overlooked, of the absence of a caecum to the intestine. He also 
describes the very large os penis, from which and certain other minor 
characters he concludes that Bassaris is allied to the MustelidcB, 
although, on the whole, belonging to the Viverridce, and most nearly 
approaching fhe " Mangoustes," more especially the genera Galictia 
and Galidia. 

In his more recent ' Histoire naturelle des Mammif eres ' (1855), 
Prof. Gervais places Bassaris in the Tribe of " Viverrines," between 
which and the "Mangustins" it is said to establish a transition. 

De Blainville, giving a figure of the same skeleton, places it among 
the Mustelidce, it being evidently, he says, a " Mustek viverrin, dont 
en effet le systeme dentaire est Viverrin et le reste Mustela"i 

Mr. Waterhouse, as early as 1839, indicated its true position in a 
note to his paper " On the skulls and the dentition of the Car- 
nivora"§, saying, " From an examination of the external characters 
oi Bassaris astuta, it appears to me that it belongs to this group," 
i. e. that division of the UrsidcB which includes Proct/on, Nasua, &c. 

Mr. Blyth in his translation of Cuvier's 'Animal Kingdom' 
(1840), introduces it provisionally after Cercoleptes, saying, in a note, 
" Strong presumptive evidence that the Basset {Bassaris astuta) 
does not appertain to the Viverrine group, is afforded by the restric- 
tion of the geographical range of the latter to the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere in every other instance. The presence or absence of a caecum 
would decide the question." 

Mr. Turner 11, after quoting Mr. Blyth's observation, says, " I am 
not aware whether this last-mentioned point has ever been ascertained ; 
but, from the characters presented by the cranium, I do not feel the 
slightest hesitation in referring this animal to the Subursine group." 
He, however, gives no description of these characters ; and his de- 

* " Erlauterungen der Nachrichten des Fran. Hernandez von den vierfiissigen 
Thieren Neuspaniens," Abh. Berlin Akad. 1827, p. 89. The animal was mentioned 
by Hernandez under the name of Tepe-Maxtlaton or Cacaniilztli, meaning, ac- 
cording to Lichtenstein, the " Rush-Cat." 

t Isis, 1831, p. 512. X Osteographie, torn. ii. p. 65. 

§ P. Z. S. 1839, p. 137. i Loc. cit. p. 81. 



32 MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THE [Jail. 14, 

cision does not appear to have affected the judgment of any subse- 
quent author. On the contrary, of late years, Bassaris seems to have 
completely subsided into a settled position among the Viverridcs, as 
all the undermentioned systematic authors place it there, with scarcely 
a qualifying remark, further than that in its American habitat it 
forms an exception to the remainder of the group : — ■ 

Wagner, in Schreber's 'Saugethiere' (1841); Giebel, ' Die Siiv.ge- 
thiere' (18.59); Van der Hoeven, 'Handbuch der Zoologie' (18.t6); 
Baird, 'Mammals of North America' (18.59); Gray, "Revision of 
the Fiverrid(e" (P. Z S. 1864); Carus, 'Handbuch der Zoologie' 
(1868). 

The external characters of Bassn/'is are too well known to require 
further description*. They really afford no satisfactory solution of 
its affinities, simply because in each of the great families of the Car- 
nivora there is considerable variation in such characters. Either 
Viverrida, MustelidcB, or ProcyonidcB allow of sufficient latitude 
in structure of feet, ears, fur, and tail, to admit of this genus being 
ranged among them. If coloration counts for anything, except in 
closely affined forms, it may be noted that it approaches Procyon as 
much as any other known Carnivore, certainly more than Galidia, 
with which Gervais compared it in this respect. 

In placing Bassaris among the Viverridce zoologists have chiefly 
relied upon the characters of the teeth. The dental formula is pre- 
cisely identical with the prevalent one in that group, viz. I. j, C. j^ 
P. J, M. 5 : total 40. The presence of a second upper molar dis- 
tinguishes it from all the known Mustelidte. But on the other hand 
the dental formula of Procyon and Nasua is exactly the same. Indeed 
it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to find any substantial 
character which would exclude these two genera, and at the same 
time comprehend all the range of modifications among the Fiverridre, 
from the slender sharply cusped teeth of the Gcnettes and smaller Ich- 
neumons to the massive teeth of the African Civet, the blunt rounded 
molars of the Paradoxures and Binturong, or the square tubercular 
hinder teeth of Cynoyale. In the sole distinctive character that I 
have been able to find (the presence of a second cusp on the inner 
lobe of the upper sectorial) Bassa7'is agrees with the Procyonidce. 

The ProcyonidcB as hitherto established, being a very limited group 
as to numbers, offer less range of dental characters ; Bassaris, how- 
ever, if included among them, will hold precisely the same relation to 
Procyon and Nasua as the smaller Genettes and Ichneumons do to 
the Civets and Paradoxures, the teeth, though formed on the same 
type, having a slenderer form and sharper cus|>s, being, in fact, merely 
adapted to more strictly carnivorous habits (see figs. 3 & 3a, \). 10). 
Cercoleptes deviates in its dentition from the more typical members 
of the group far more than Bassaris, though in a precisely opposite 
direction. 

Gervais gives the number of vertebrae of his specimen as C. 7, 

* A good figure from life is given in Wolf and Sclater's ' Zoological Sketches,' 
vol. i. pi. 14. 



1869.] CLASSIFICATION OF THE CAKNIVORA. 33 

D. 12, L. 6, S. 3, C. 22. Such a formula is perfectly exceptional, 
as no known Carnivore has so few dorso-lumbar vertebrae as 18. 
The skeleton in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons has 
C. 7, D. 13, L. 7, S. 3, C. 23 or more, the dorso-lumbar vertebrae 
being 20, the most usual number in the order. Although the pre- 
vailing number of the rib-bearing veitebrae of the Arctoid group 
is 14 or 15, and of the ^luroid and Cynoid 13, there are so many 
excej)tions that this character cannot have much weight iu deter- 
mining the position of any doubtful form*. 

The skull of Bassaris (fig. '6a, p. 10) in its general form presents 
a nearer approach to that of Procyon than to any other known 
Carnivore, allowing for the considerable difference of size and conse- 
quent alteration in proportion of brain-case to surrounding parts. 
The general form of the brain-case, and the direction and develop- 
ment of the zygomatic arches, are exceedingly similar. The prin- 
cipal differences are, that in Bassaris the muzzle is narrower and 
more pointed in front, the orbits larger and more sharply defined 
from the temporal fossae by the larger postorbital processes, and 
especially that the bony palate is very much shorter, as it terminates 
at the level of the hinder border of the last molar tooth, while in the 
Raccoon it is continued as far as the anterior end of the pterygoid 
bones, or very nearly to the level of the anterior edge of the glenoid 
fossa. This distinction is of no more than generic importance, as 
similar variations in the extension of the palate backwards in the 
middle line are met with among different, and otherwise closely 
aUied, members of the ViverridcB and of the Mustelidce. The form 
of the lateral margins of the palate bones, of the pterygoids, and of 
the hinder margin of the palate itself is precisely the same in both 
Procyon and Bassaris. 

The mandible of Bassaris differs from that of Procyon only in 
having the coronoid process less recurved — a very common character 
in the mandibles of smaller species both of the Fiverridce and Mus- 
telidce. In the special part of the skull which affords the most 
strongly marked distinctive characters between Procyon and the Vi- 
verridce, Bassaris agrees in every point with the former. The audi- 
tory bulla is almost a miniature representation of that of Procyon ; 
it is quite simple, without any septum, prominent at the middle 
part, but falling away before and behind, and prolonged externally 
into a well-developed bony meatus (a m). The carotid foramen 
{car) is large, situated rather behind the middle of the inner border 
of the bulla. The paroccipital (p) and mastoid (;«) processes, 
though more feebly developed than in Procyon (as is usually the 
case with smaller animals), have the same general characters, the 
former especially projecting outwards and backwards, quite free from 
the bulla. The condyloid foramen (c) is exposed on a flat surface, 
quite distinct from the foramen lacerum posticum (/). The glenoid 

* Among the other ProcyonidcB, Cercoleptes has 15, Procyon 14, and Nasua 
13 pairs of ribs, though in each instance the nunihers seem occasionally to vary 
in the same species, to judge by the discrepancy in the statements of different 
authors. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. III. 



34 MR. W. H. FLOWER ON THK [Jail. \4, 

foramen (ff) is large, and occupies precisely the same position as in 
Procijon ; and, lastly, there is no alisphenoid canal. 
■ There is therefore nothing questionable in the characters of this 
region, nothing showing even the shghtest indication of an aberrant 
or transitional form. 

Such other parts of the animal's anatomy as are known, fully con- 
firm the cranial evidences as to its position. 

Some of the viscera of the specimen which died at the Gardens of 
the Society in 1854, are fortunately preserved in the Museum of the 
Royal College of Surgeons ; and among others a special preparation 
has been made of the junction of the ileum with the colon, confirming 
Gervais's observation of the total absence of caecum. Unfortvmately 
I have not been able to find the organs of generation, if they are 
preserved ; but this important link of evidence is not entirely wanting. 
Gervais and De Blainville have described and figured the os penis of 
the Paris spechnen, showing that it conforms to the Arctoid type. 
The former says, " La verge est soutenue par un os considerable, 
et qui a O'OoO en longueur. II ofFre a sa base une espece de tete ; en- 
suite il est comprime dans une partic de sa longueur et courbe legere- 
ment, puis courbe' en sens inverse, et dcprime a mesure qu'il approche 
de son extremite libre, dont le bout est elargi et tres-deprime." 

It will be very interesting, when opportunity offers, to complete the 
description of these parts, Ijecause the presence of a large os penis in 
Cryptoprocta shows that this character cannot be absolutely relied 
on as distinctive between the two great iEluroid and Arctoid groups. 
The absence of Cowper's glands, or of a prominent prostate would 
be more decisive. 

Mr. Gulliver, in reference to the size of the blood-corpuscules, says 
"Bnssaris has been alternately associated with the Bears and Viverras; 
as far as regards its corpuscles it agrees best with the Bears"*. 

On the whole I think there can be little question that evidence 
enough has been adduced to prove that Bassaris is a member of the 
Arctoid subdivision of the Carnivora, and among these approaches 
most nearly to Procyon and Nasua. 

With regard to the group of Seals, which I look upon as essentially 
belonging to the same ordinal division of the Mammalia as the ani- 
mals hitherto treated of, the differences of the cranial characters of 
the three natural families into which they are divisible, Otariidce, 
Trichechidce, and PJwcida, are so well described by Mr. Turner that 
I need only refer to his paper for them. But I must add that I can- 
not agree with him when he says, " I have not seen in the Seals any- 
thing which, in my opinion, warrants their approximation to any of the 
other families, more than another," or in his placing them and the 
three divisions of the terrestrial Carnivora as primary groups of equal 
value. The differences between the Seals and the terrestrial Car- 
nivora both in teeth and limbs are much greater than any found 
between different members of the latter group. They should there- 
fore constitute in my opinion a distinct suborder, the jEluroid, Cy- 
noid, and Arctoid Carnivora being united to form the other suborder. 
* P. Z. S. 18fj2, p. 9(3. See also P. Z. S. 1841, p. 43. 



1869.] CLASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 35 

I think moreover that there is not the slightest question that 
their cranial characters indicate most stronijly their ap|)roximation 
to the Arctoid type, as has often been noticed before on other 
grounds*. Indeed their skulls seem to be simply a further modi- 
fication of this type, showing resemblances to the true Bears on 
the one liand, and the Otters on the other ; but I hope to take some 
other opportunity of examining more fully iuto these relationships. . 
The presence of a caecum in this group is a circumstance not easy to 
be accounted for. 

Conclusion. — Mr. Turner was strongly impressed with certain re- 
semblances, which appear to me rather superficial or accidental, be- 
tween the Ichneumons and the Weasels ; and it was in order to bring 
these groufis in juxtaposition, in his syno[)tical table of the Carni- 
vora, that he commenced with the Bears and ended with the Dogs, 
placing the Felic/ce in the central position ; in this arrangement I 
cannot, as I have said before, concur. The Dogs, for reasons given 
al.ove, should be placed in the central position, while the ^Eluroids 
occupy one flank and the Arctoiils the other. 

Of the former, the Felidce are perhaps the most specialized, and 
the HycenidcB the least so. The Viverridce are closely connected with 
the Felidce on the one hand, especially by the intervention of Cryp- 
toprocta, and, though less closely, with the Hycenidce on the other, 
the gap being partially closed by the annectent Proteles. The Vi- 
verridce show a great tendency to break into two groups, of which 
Viverra, Paradoxurus, Arctictis, Cynogale, and Genetta belong to 
one, and Herpestes and its various modifications to the other, Rhy- 
zceyia being an aberrant member of the last. The distinction between 
the five families of iEluroidea is founded mainly on the characters of 
the teeth, too well known to need recapitulation here ; but, as shown 
above, the cranial characters alone would suffice to distinguish them. 
Africa and Southern Asia are the head quarters of the group, all the 
families being restricted absolutely or very nearly (two of the Viver- 
ridce alone passing into Southern Europe) to these regions, except 
the Felidce, which are almost cosmopolitan. 

The Cyuoidea admit of no subdivision into families ; and, although 
there is a considerable tendency to variation in external characters, 
they are remarkably " true " in cranial conformation. They are per- 
haps the most universally diffused of any of the groups. 

Of the Arctoidea the true Bears are the most specialized or aber- 
rant ; they form a very compact group, distinguished by their very 
characteristic dentition and their completely plantigrade mode of 
progression. They have a very wide geographical range. On the 
other hand the Procyonidce, though few in numbers and restricted 
to the warmer and temperate parts of the American continent, are 
structurally less closely connected, at least if the singular Cercoleptes 
is truly a member of this group. Excej)t for the increased number 
of the molar teeth, which is the only definite character by which 
they can be separated from the Mustelidce, I see no reason for con- 
sidering the ProcyonidcB more nearly allied to the Vrsidce tlian are 

* De Blainville says " I.es Ours, dont les rapports avec les Phoques out c'tu 
seiitis flc tout temps et meme par Aristote" {op. cif. tome ii. p. 40'!. 



36 MR. w. H. FLOWER ON THE [Jan. 14, 

the other families of the group, or of speaking of them as specially 
"subursine." 

Ailurus (an unfortunate name for an animal so essentially Arctoid) 
appears to me to be an isolated form ; but until more is known of its 
anatomy, a very definite position cannot be assigned to it. Its den- 
tition, though remarkably modified in character, is numerically that 
of the Procyonidce ; but certain cranial peculiarities already pointed 
out, and its Asiatic habitat, lead me to concur with Mr. Turner in 
placing it in a distinct family. 

The Mustelidce constitute a large, widely diffused, and somewhat 
disjointed group, but exceedingly diflficult to reduce into natural sub- 
families. The most aberrant or specialized are the Otters, which, end- 
ing with Enhydris, run parallel to the Bears towards the Pinnipedia. 

In order to exhibit at one glance the general result of this exami- 
nation, I have arranged the various groups of the Carnivora in a dia- 
grammatic plan (see p. .37), which has obviously a great advantage 
over a linear series m showing cross relationships, especially as it 
attempts to indicate, by the distances the groups are placed apart, 
the amount of affinity between them*. 

A tree has long been a favourite image by which to illustrate 
genealogical descent ; and we are generally accustomed to have side- 
views of such trees presented to us, with the stem, main boughs, and 
smaller branches growing from them, all in perfect order. But the 
ancestral records of our existing fauna are so imperfect that it would 
be hopeless, from our scattered fragments of knowledge of them, to 
attempt at present to construct such a view of the descent of any 
zoological group. What we may, however, do with tolerable cer- 
tainty is to take a careful survey of the top of the tree (to keep up 
the simile) as far as it has now grown, the only part that is completely 
exposed to our view, and make out the mode in which the compo- 
nent branches are now arranged. The diagram is intended to indi- 
cate the general outline of what may be called the Carnivora tree at 
its present stage of growth, seen from above ; or it may be said to 
represent a transverse section of all the diverging genetic lines, showing 
the amount of differentiation of the groups, and the directions they 
have respectively taken at this particular epoch. Similar sections, 
taken at different geological periods, would probably present very dif- 
ferent appearances. Groups now sharply separated might in other 
times have been united by intermediate forms ; and other highly spe- 
cialized groups would be seen which have now entirely disappeared. 

The value of this plan all depends upon whether that great zoolo- 
gical problem, interpretation of true affinity, has been rightly solved. 
It is probable that a longer and more minute study of the details of 
the organization of different members of the order than has yet 
been given will introduce nianj' modifications in this rough sketch ; 
it is not too presumptuous, however, to hope that ultimately it may 
be so perfected that every genus and even species will have its ap- 
propriate place assigned to it. 

* Prof. Milne-Edwards in 1844 (Annales des Sciences Naturelles), and on se- 
veral subsequent occasions, has made use of similar plans to illustrate his views 
of classification. 



1869.] 



Cr,ASSIFICATION OF THE CARNIVORA. 



37 






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38 DR. MACDONALD ON A NEW GENUS OF MUGILID^. [Jan. 14, 

2. On the Characters of a Type of a Proposed new Genus of 
MugU'/dce inhabiting the Fresh Waters of Viti Levu, 
Feejee Group; with a brief Account of the Native Mode 
of capturing it. By John Denis Macdonald, M.D., 
F.R.S., Staff-SurgeJn, R.N. 

(Plate I.) 

The fish foiining the subject of the present paper is found in 
abundance in the deeper parts of the Wai Mann, one of the tribu- 
taries of the Rewa River, iVoi Viti Levu (Large Feejee). An ordinary 
specimen would measure eighteen or twenty inches from the tip of 
the snout to the emargi nation of the tail, and five inches vertically 
at its deepest part. The native name, Ika loa (black fish), is de- 
rived from its colour, the head and upper part of the body being of 
a rich black, which gradually softens on the sides into a warm brown, 
growing paler and more silvery towards the white belly. My friend 
the Rev. Samuel Waterhouse, Wesleyan Missionary, who was with 
me when the first specimens were obtained, at once recognized the 
famous " Black Mullet" ; but, in the absence of all works of reference, 
I was obliged to content myself with drawings and notes carefully 
taken on the spot. The more important characters of Ika loa are 
the following : — 

Head thick, convex, and rounded above, but flattened and sucker- 
like beneath, where the lower jaw is circumscribed by a thin promi- 
nent border, angularly produced in front so as to occupy a corre- 
sponding median notch in the upper lip. The eye is of moderate 
size, with a yellowish-brown iris, the snout short and bluntly pointed, 
and the mouth protrusible to a considerable extent, with the cleft on 
each side reaching a line drawn perpendicularly through the centre of 
the orbit. The teeth of the upper jaw are minute, recurved, and 
disposed in a single series, interrupted, however, in front, where the 
lip presents the angular grooved space already noticed. Within the 
dental margin a crescentic palate-like membrane, with a transverse 
oval thickening in the middle, extends across the roof of the mouth. 
Behind this valvular membrane, and to the right and left of the 
mesial line, the vomer bears a small transverse zigzag row of teeth. 
In the lower jaw the teeth are arranged in a gently curved, villiform 
cluster on either side, with a wide median interval. A horseshoe- 
shaped series of delicate transverse suckerdike folds or plicte corre- 
sponds with the contour of the mandible interiorly, the fore part 
being very narrow, like an isthmus connecting the lateral portions, 
which gradually increase in breadth towards their posterior end. A 
similar structure is present in Jyonostoma pl.icatile ; but the lateral 
portions are not united anteriorly as in Ika loa. This difference evi- 
dently arises, in one case, from the angular projection of the man- 
dible anteriorly, and, in the other, from its roundness at the corre- 
sponding part. 

Operculum, inter-, and prseoperculum scaly ; gill-rays six on each 







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1=3 



O 

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o 

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1869.] DR. MACDONALD ON A NEW GENUS OF MUGILID.E. 39 

side, the left apparently overlapping the right. Dorsal fins two, 
distinct, the anterior consisting of four rigid spines, and the posterior 
of eight soft rays and one rigid in front. Pectoral fins small and 
scaly to the tip. Abdominal fins with five soft rays, fronted by one 
spinous. Anal with ten rays, the first alone of which is spinous. 

No lateral line visible as in the Mullets generally. Scales large, 
both the longitudinal and transverse measurements reaching -^ of 
an inch, with a mucus-groove on the inner surface of each, fulfilling 
the office restricted to those that form the lateral line in other fishes. 

On reviewing Dr. Giinther's Synopsis of the characters of the three 
genera of JNIugilidse, viz. Mugil, Agonostoma, and Mrjxus, I find that 
£ka loa is not strictly conformable to any of them, but apparently takes 
up an intermediate place heivieen Agonostoma ?mA.Mgxus. Thus the 
cleft of the mouth extends on the side of the snout to the orbit as in 
Agonostoma, dissociating it from Myxus ; the teeth of the upper jaw, 
however, are in a single series, the anterior margin of the lower 
jaw is sharp, as in Myxus, and the upper lip is notched to receive 
the mesial jirolougation of the lower, still further distinguishing it 
from Agonostoma. I therefore conceive that Ika loa deserves a 
place in a new genus, for which I propose the name of Gonostomyxus, 
retaining the native word, loa loa (black), for the species. The fol- 
lowing diagnosis of the genera of Mugilidse may be given to illus- 
trate the view here expressed, adopting Dr. Giinther's characters: — 

I. Cleft of tlie mouth extending on the sides of the snout, but 

not to the orbit. 

a. No true teeth in the jaws ^Ingil, 

h. Small teeth in a single series in the upper jaw, and 
sometimes in the lower and on the palate. Anterior 
margin of the mandible sharp Myxus. 

II. Cleft of the mouth extending on the .sides of the snout, beyond, 

to, or nearly to, the orbit. 

a. Small teeth in a single series in the upper jaw, in two 

lateral crescentic clusters in the lower jaw, and in 
a short irregular transverse row on either side of the 
vomer. Anterior margin of the mandible sharp ... Gonostomyxus. 

b. Small teeth at least in one of the jaws, and sometimes 

on the palate. The lower lip with the margin 

rounded, not sharp Agonostoma. 

Of course the further discovery of species referable to Gonosto- 
myxus may suggest some modification of the characters above given. 

I shall now give a brief description of /Aa-Zoa-fishing on the Wai 
Manu. 

The Maroons of Jamaica capture the freshwater Mullet with a 
pronged spear, pursuing it under water ; but the Feejeeans take the 
Ika loa very skilfully in a small net, assisted by outlying divers who 
decoy the fish into the net, cutting off their escape. The men of 
Soloira, under the Vuni Chief of Vun Mbua, are famous for their 
knowledge of the habits of the "Black Mullet" and their success 
in fishing for it. 

It will be necessary here to give an idea of the construction of the 
net. It is very simple, consisting merely of a piece of net once 



40 DR. W. BAIRD ON A NEW EARTH-WORM. [Jail. 14, 

doubled upon itself so as to make a perfect square, and sewn up so 
that two contiguous sides are closed, and two open, the closed sides 
being behind and below, and the open sides above and in front. 
The two upper free borders are connected with strong rods, 
moving upon one another at the angle when the net is opened or 
closed. At the lower and anterior angle a weight, generally consisting 
of a perforated stone, is appended, and the apparatus is complete, 
With this net one or two men dive into a deep part of the river, near 
a bold shore ; immediately also some others disappear, and, having 
remained a considerable time under water, pop their heads up one 
by one, after which the net is drawn up on a shingly bank with the 
Ika loa floundering within it. 

DESCEIPTION OF PLATE I. 

Fig. 1. Lateral view of Gonostomyxus loa loa (the type specimen is contained 
in the Haslar Museum). About one-third of the natural size. 

2. Inferior aspect of the head, with the mouth open to show the cresentic 

palatal membrane and the sucker-Uke plicated band within the border 
of the lower lip. 

3. A scale from the shoulder, magnified about 8 diameters to show its 

ctenoid character and the mucus-groove on ita deep surface. 



3. Description of a new Species of Earth-worm {Megascolex 
diffringens) found in North Wales. By W. Baird^ M. D., 
F.R.S., &c. 

The genus Perichata was formed by Schmarda to include a number 
of species of earth-worms differing from the more common genera 
in having each segment of the body marked in the centre by a narrow, 
raised rim, which is beset, for the whole circumference of the body, 
bv a row of spines or setee. He describes, in his ' Neue wirbellose 
Thiere,' four species, all natives of Ceylon. In 1845 Dr. Templeton 
characterized a new genus of earth-worms, natives also of Ceylon, 
which he called Mec/ascolex. This genus consisted at that time of 
only one species, a native of the alpine regions of that island, and is 
distinguished, like Pericheeta, by a row of small spines or setae sur- 
rounding each segment. This row, however, according to Dr. 
Templeton's description (see Ann. & Mag. of Nat. Hist. vol. xv. p. 
60) is not completely circular, the setae being deficient in the mesial 
line of the back for about the tenth of an inch. Schmarda, who 
considers the two genera distinct, does not quote Templeton's de- 
scription accurately ; for he seems to think that that naturalist de- 
scribes the ridges on each ring as occurring only on the back ; 
whereas he distinctly says they surround the body, only that the 
rows of bristles are not continued round the whole circumference, 
but are deficient for a short space on the back. 

In describing the genus Perichceta, Schmarda says that the species 
he describes possess no cincture or girdle, whereas in P. cingulata 



1869.] DR. W. BAIRD ON A NEW EARTH-WOUM. 41 

(plate 18. fig. 162) he figures very distinctly a cincture after the 
thirteenth segment. I thought that perhaps a better distinctive 
character might consist ia the form of the setae themselves. Tem- 
pleton describes them (in Megascolex) as about 100 in number, and 
as being in the form of small mamillse, each surmounted by a minute 
bristle arched backwards. In Perichceta these bristles are bluntly 
lanceolate in form, slightly curved, and nearly equal in size at each 
extremity. Upon examining Megascolex ctBruleus, of which we 
possess several specimens in the Collection of Annelids in the British 
Museum, I found that the setae or spines in it were nearly exactly 
the same in form, only much smaller ; so that in my opinion, these 
characters fail to constitute a distinct genus. I have now, therefore, 
little hesitation in referring the species of Perichceta described by 
Schmarda to the genus Megascolex of Templeton. The chief differ- 
ence appears to me to consist of size, the species described by this 
latter author, M. ccBruleus, being from 20 to 40 inches in length, 
and 1 or 1| inch in breadth, while the species of Perichceta de- 
scribed by Schmarda are only about six inches long. 

Very lately my attention has been called to a species of Earth-worm 
found in North Wales, which evidently belongs to the same group as 
the Perichceta of Schmarda. It is about 4 or 5 inches in length, 
3 lines in circumference, and is very lively in its movements — when 
touched by the hand, or laid upon it, twisting itself into a variety of 
violent contortions which render it very difficult to hold ; or, as my 
correspondents correctly say, the motions are " like those of an eel." 
After the thirteenth ring there is a short cincture or girdle, which 
completely conceals from view the segments of the body underneath. 
Beyond this the worm consists of about ninety-one or ninety-two 
segments, making in all about 104 or 105 distinct rings. Near the 
'extremities, both superior and inferior, the rings are very distinct ; 
the ridges which run round them are very prominent, and the setae 
are considerably, even positively, longer than those in Megascolex, 
notwithstanding the difference in size of the worms ; they are of 
a linear lanceolate form, blunt at the apex and slightly bent, and are 
about 60 in number in each segment. Towards the middle of the 
body, these rings become nearly flat, and the setae are not so dis- 
tinctly seen, except with the lens. The back of the worm is of a brown 
colour, and the belly of a very pale yellow, agreeing in this respect 
with the Megascolex cceruleus. The mouth is also like that organ 
in Megascolex ; and the anus is terminal, round in shape and central 
in position. 

These worms lived for some time after being sent to me ; but they 
appear to be very brittle, many of them breaking off a portion of 
of their body and then dying. 

I have named it Megascolex {Perichceta) diffringens, from this 
habit of breaking into pieces. 

In the beginning of last December, a few of those interesting Worms 
were sent by Mr. Johnstone, gardener at Plas Machynlleth, in Mont- 
gomeryshire, North Wales, to Mr. Draper, at Seaham Hall, near 
Sunderland. They were brought before the Tyneside Naturalists' 



42 



DR. W. BAIRD ON A NKW EARTH-WORM. [Jail. 1-1, 



Field Club, in order to ascertain their name and history ; and two of 
these were afterwards sent to me by Mr. Dinning, Secretary to the 
Club, for identification. They evidently did not belong to any de- 
scribed British species ; nor had I ever seen such before, as occurring 
in this country. Unfortunately the two individuals first sent to me 
escaped during the night from the box in which they were confined, 
before I could ascertain or identify the species. A request, however, 
to Mr. Draper brought me two move alive ; and since that time I 
have had several others sent to me by Mr. Johnstone direct. They 



V) 



M 




Fig. 1 . Megascolex diffrhiffcns, natural size. 

2. Portion of body, magnified. 

3. Spinet of M. diffringcns, magnified. 

4. Spinet of M. ca-ruJeuf.. magnified. 

are found, he informs me, in a bed of tan and leaves in the plant- 
stove, mixed up and living with others of the common sort. 

Upon reference to the description of Annelids by Schmarda, I 



1869.] MR. A. G. BUTLER ON A NEW GENUS OF LEPIDOPTERA. 43 

found they would properly belong to his genus Perichceta, which, 
however, upon more mature examination, I believe, as I have stated 
above, to be synonymous with the genus Megascolex of Templeton. 
The species hitherto described are all natives of Ceylon ; but in the 
National Collection we have a specimen from the Dukhun (Deccan), 
in India, and two or three from New Zealand, undescribed ; and I 
wrote to Mr. Johnstone to ask if there was anything in the dung-bed 
which came from that island or from India, through which the 
Worms could have been introduced into this country. In answer he 
tells me that " he does not know of any matter, in the bed, from the 
East Indies." There are, he adds, a few Orchids amongst the plants ; 
and the bed has been partially emptied annually for five years, the 
same kind of worms being always found there. Mixed with these 
worms, in the same bed, are numbers of a common British species, 
some of which Mr. Johnstone kindly sent me, and which upon exa- 
mination I found to be the Liimbricus fcetidus of Dug^s. 

Perhaps upon attention being called to these Earth-worms of Indian 
form, they may be found in other parts of the country in similar 
situations. 

4. Description of a new Genus of Heterocerous Lepidoptera, 
founded upon the Papilio charmione of Fabrieius. By 
Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

At page 205 of his ' Entomologia Systematica' Fabrieius describes 
a very remarkable species of Lepidopterous insect under the name 
of Papilio (Daiiais) charmione, the characters of the species being 
probably taken from a figure by Mr. Jones, whose ' Icones' furnished 
Fabrieius with many of his new species. This figure was copied by 
Donovan in 1827, forming the subject of the l/lst plate of his 
' Naturalist's Repository,' vol. v. 

Fabrieius gives the Island of Johanna as the locality from which 
charmione was obtained. But Donovan remarks, " We, however, 
perceive in our copy of the 'Entomologia Systematica' that this 
habitat is erased, a correction made by ourselves many years ago 
upon the authority of Mr. Jones himself." 

In his 'Species General des Lepidopteres' (pubhshed 1836) M. 
Boisduval referred this species to the genus Terias {Pierince), with 
the following observation : — " Ne I'ayant jamais vue, nous n'aflfirmons 
pas qu'elle appartienne au genre Terias." But in the margin of the 
page I find a note in pencil by Mr. E. Doubledav — " Not even a 
Butterfly." 

The supposition that charmione was a Rhopalocerous insect seems 
to have arisen from the fact that it is represented as such by Dono- 
van. Whether the antennae really are clubbed or not, is a question 
that can only be decided when we see a perfect example of the spe- 
cies ; at present the only point that can be settled is that the species 
certainly is not a Butterfly ; for an old and well-worn specimen in 



44 MR. A. G. BUTLER ON A NEW GENUS OF LEPIDOPTERA. [Jail. 14, 

the national collection testifies to the contrary. This individual was 
obtained in the year 1841 ; and on turning to the old Register I find 
it entered as Erycina charmione (ex Mus. Milne), and in pencil a 
note — " Not a Rhopalocere at all !" No locality is given. It is not 
impossible that this is actually the type specimen formerly existing 
in the collection of Mr. Drury ; for it seems certain that at least one 
species formerly in that collection, and pinned in the same manner, 
now exists in the British Museum*. 

Mr. F. Walker has kindly referred me to the genus Nyctemera, 
Hiibn., which he considered the nearest approach to the charmione 
type of coloration and general form ; and amongst the species of that 
group I detected one {N. expandens. Walker) agreeing with the 
latter in every structural particular, and differing from the remaining 
species in its narrow elongated wings and different neuration. These 
two species will therefore form a new genus allied to Nyctemera. 




Fig. 1. Avmemopsyche eTpandens,'WgiWeT. 
2. cJiarmione, Fabric. 

Amnemopsyche, gen. nov. 

Typical species A. charmione, P'abr. 

Corpus sat yracile, subcylindricum, capite perparvo, thorace brevi, 
abdomine alas non superante, ano conico ; pedes graciles, antici 
simplices, tnedii calcari uno tibiali, postici tribus uno sub- 
apicali duobusque terminalibus : alee elongatce, tenues, antieee 
casta vix arcuata, margine externo distincte arcuato, margine 
interiore subrecto ; cella discoidalis perlonga, vena prima di- 
scoidali bifurcata, vena superiore disco-cellulari obliqua cum 
vena secunda discoidali fere continua, vena inferiore disco- 
cellulari transversa : postica subpyriformes, area apicali Ion- 
giore ; cella discoidalis perlonga, venis omnibus distincte sepa- 
ratis, vena superiore disco-cellidari obliqua, inferiore angulari 
transversa : uI<e plerumque nigra albaque coloratee. 

Sp. 1. Amnemopsyche charmione. 

Papilia charmione, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. p. 205, u. 641 (1793); 
Donovan, Nat. Rep. v. pi. 171 (1827). 

♦ Namely Strymon fitxs, Fabr. ( ThecUnw), still bearing the old ticket " T^tus 
130," the number being a reference to the ' Ent. Syst.' 



P Z. 3, 1869 Pill. 






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11 ' 





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rC,ScwBp1)Y.del,clJil)i 



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M/mHanhaj-t JiM 



NEW SHELLS FROM AUSTRALIA &, SOLOMON'S ISLAND 



I 



1869.] MR. G. F. ANGAS ON NEW AUSTRALIAN SHELLS. 45 

Terias charmione, Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lep. i. jj. 677, n. 40(1836). 

Hah. ? B.M. 

From the collection of Mr. Milne. 

Sp. 2. Amnemopsyche expandens. 

Nyctemera expandens, Walker, Lep. Het. Brit. Mus. ii. p. 398. 
n. 17(1854). 

Hab. ? B.M. 

Presented by E. Doubleday, Esq. 



5. Descriptions of twelve new Species of Land and Marine 
Shells from Anstralia and the Solomon Islands. By 
George French Angas, C.M.Z.S., F.L.S., F.R.G.S., &c. 

(Plate II.) 

Haliotis (Padollus) brazieri, n. s. (Plate II. fig. 1.) 

Shell oblong-ovate, body-whorl nearly flat above, whorls marked 
with an obscure single central rib ; perforations peculiarly tubiferous, 
standing erect, si\ open ; spire somewhat elevated ; sculptured 
throughout with striae radiating from the sutures, with a few spiral 
ridges on the first and second whorls, which lose themselves on the 
body-whorl and again appear on the outer margin of the lip ; beau- 
tifully marbled with blotches of red and green interrupted here and 
there with a few white zigzag markings ; base of body-whorl some- 
what flattened ; interior briUiantly nacreous. 

Diam. maj. 1^ inch, niin. 1 in., alt. .5 lines. 

Hab. Lake Macquarie, New South Wales {Brazier). 

A beautiful species, remarkable for its radiate sculpture and large 
erect elevated perforations. 

Triton bassi, n. s. (Plate II. fig. 2.) 

Shell ovately fusiform, with five or six rounded varices ; spire 
moderately raised, one-third the length of the shell, apex obtuse ; 
whorls rounded, closely encircled throughout with irregular narrow 
flattened ridges beaded alternately here and there and especially 
towards the base with small inconspicuous nodules, the interstices 
very finely longitudinally crisped, last whorl slightly angled at the 
upper part, and furnished at the angle with a few rude tubercles ; 
pale purplish brown, the nodules here and there whitish occasionally 
interrupted on the wider ridges with small chestnut spots ; columella 
white, arcuate, furnished with a small callosity at the upper part, and 
tooth-ridged below ; canal short, recurved ; interior of the aperture 
violet ; outer lip thickened, white, closely and strongly denticulated 
within. 

Length 13, diam. 7| lines. 

Hab. Corner Inlet, Bass's Straits (Brasier). 



46 MR. G. F. ANGAS ON NEW AUSTRALIAN SHELLS. [Jan. 14, 

A very interesting new species, which I have dedicated to the in- 
trepid voyager who, in an open whale-boat, first explored the straits 
that bear his name. 

Triton (Epidromus) brazieri, n. s. (Plate II. fig. 3.) 

Shell elongately turreted, thick, with about twelve rather pro- 
minent rounded varices ; spire very slightly twisted ; whorls nine, 
sculptured with regular close-set longitudinal ridges and reticulated 
with irregular impressed striae ; light brown, paler on the varices, 
with a broad slightly darker fascia on the middle of each whorl, and 
a series of small spots at the lower edge of the fascia of the last whorl, 
the fascia darker where it crosses the varices ; columella excavated, 
smooth, orange-coloured ; canal very short, recurved ; outer lip orange, 
denticulated within. 

Length 2 in., breadth 7i liu. 

Hab. Lake Macquarie ; and Cape Solander, Botany Bay, New 
South Wales. 

Named after its discoverer, Mr. John Brazier, an enthusiastic and 
intelligent conchologist, who has contributed much to our knowledge 
of the Australian nioUusca. 

Helix (Trochomorpha) deiopeia, n. s. (Plate II. fig. 4.) 

Shell deeply umbilicated, depressedly and convexly conical, mode- 
rately thin, finely obliquely irregularly striated, upper whorls brown, 
last whorl black, ornamented with numerous pale diaphanous oblique 
stripe-like spots ; spire convexly depressedly conical, apex obtuse, 
suture narrowly margined ; whorls six, rather convex, the last not 
descending, keeled, somewhat flattened at the base ; umbilicus co- 
nical, moderate, partly surrounded by a faint horn-coloured band 
passing into the interior of the shell ; aperture oblique, truncately 
oval; peristome non-continuous, pale horn-colour, margins converging, 
the right thin, slightly expanded, the basal a little thickened, sinuous, 
and somewhat reflexed. 

Diam. maj. 8, min. 7, alt. 4| lines. 

Hab. Marau Sound, Gruadalcanar, Solomon Islands. 

This beautiful species is somewhat intermediate between H. me- 
leagris, Pfr., and H. merziana Pfr. Five specimens were obtained 
by my friend Mr. John Brazier, on the trunks of trees, during the 
visit of H. M.S. "Curapoa' to Marau Sound. 

Helix (Corasia) rossiteri, n. s. (Plate II. fig. 5.) 

Shell imperforate, globosely conical, very thin, obliquely irregu- 
larly plicately striated, with the interstices very finely transversely 
striated, pale straw-colour encircled with numerous narrow white 
diaphanous bands, the one nearest the sutures the broadest ; spire 
ol)tusely conoidal, somewhat flattened at the apex ; whorls four, 
convex, the last descending, acutely keeled at the periphery, rounded 
at the base ; columellar margin arcuate, narrowly excavated, sharp 
within ; aperture oblique, rhomboidal ; peristome not continuous. 



1869.J MR. G. F. ANGAS ON NEW AUSTRALIAN SHELLS. 47 

white, with a purpHsh rose-coloured spot at the periphery, and 
another at the junction of the right margin with the body-whorl. 

Diani. niaj. 10, min. 8, alt. 7g lines. 

Hab. Ysabel Island, Solomon group. 

This species belongs to the same group as H. tricolor, Pfr., and 
H. purchasi, Pfr. ; I have named it after Mr. Rossiter, of Sydney, to 
the kindness of whose friend Mr. John Brazier I am indebted for a 
specimen of this singularly beautiful shell. 

Helix (Geotrochus) dampieri, n. s. (Plate II. fig. 6.) 

Shell imperforate, trochiform, rather solid, obliquely faintly irre- 
gularly striated, white, with a narrow pale yellowish-brown band 
just below the suture, a broader one above the periphery darker 
below and becoming nearly black as it approaches the margin of 
the peristome, and a still broader band of the same character at 
the base; spire conoidal ; whorls 4|, slightly convex, the last de- 
scending, rounded at the periphery, flatly convex at the base ; 
columella sloping, aperture oblique, truncately oval ; peristome 
expanded and slightly reflexed, tbe right margin a little sinuous, 
the columellar margin triangularly dilated and furnished within 
with a prominent rounded callus terminating abruptly within the 
aperture, 

Diam. maj. 12, min. 10, alt. 9 lines. 

Hab. Louisiade archipelago. ^ 

Helix (Geotrochus) donna-isabell^e, n. s. (Plate II. fig. 7.) 

Shell perforate, somewhat depressedly conical, moderately solid, 
very finely malleated by two sets of oblique strise crossing each other 
at right angles above the periphery, whilst below it the malleations 
become more irregular and flowing, pale yellowish brown ornamented 
with a narrow white band below the sutures and one or two dark 
brown bands on each whorl, the upper one being the narrowest ; 
spire conical, apex rather obtuse ; whorls 5|, rather convex, the last 
not descendiuL'-, angled at the periphery, a little convex at the base, 
which has a single broader band of dark brown just below the peri- 
jihery ; aperture diagonal, truncately ovate ; peristome white, the 
upper margin narrow, expanded, the lower margin arcuate and re- 
flexed, almost covering the umbilicus. 

Diam. maj. 12, min. 10|, alt. 10 lines. 

Hab. Eddystone Island, Solomon Group. 

Helix (Trochomorpha) eudora, n. s. (Plate II. fig. 8.) 

Shell widely and profoundly umbilicated, depressedly conoidal, 
moderately solid, obliquely sculptured with sharp close-set soniewliat 
irregular raised striae, pale chestnut-brown ; spire convexly conoidal, 
apex obtuse ; whorls 6i, slightly convex, the last carinated at the 
periphery, not descending, convex at the base ; umbilicus one-fifth the 
diameter of the shell ; aperture oblique, subangular, interior violet ; 



48 MR. G. F. ANGAS ON NEW AUSTRALIAN SHELLS. [Jail. 14, 

peristome white, margins converging and united by a slight callus, 
the right margin thin, the basal arcuate and thickened. 

Diani. maj. 11|, min. 10|, alt. 5g lines. 

Hab. New Georgia, on trees. 

Helix (? Plectotropis) howardi, u. s. (Plate II. fig. 9.) 

Shell deeply umbilicated, lenticular, moderately solid, obliquely 
irregularly striated, and, beneath the lens, very finely granulated, 
yellowish horn-colour with two indistinct chestnut bands ; spire de- 
pressed, apex obtuse ; whorls A^, rather convex, the last a little de- 
scending, acutely keeled, slightly convex at the base, which is with- 
out bands ; aperture narrowly ovate ; peristome white tinged wit]* 
brown at the junction of the margins with the body-whorl, margins 
converging and united by a callus, the right margin slightly expanded, 
the basal one expanded and reflexed. 

Diam. maj. 11, min. 9, alt. 4 lines. 

Hab. Arrowie, 450 miles north of Adelaide, South Australia. 

MiNOLiA pulcherrima, 11. s. (Plate II. fig. 10.) 

Shell depressedly conical, rather solid, transversely finely ridged 
with two or three broader ridges forming keels, the interstices crossed 
everywhere with very fine close-set oblique striae, pinkish or yellowish 
white stained on the body-whorl with bright rose, and spotted on the 
keels with deep purple lake ; whorls six, angularly convex, sutures 
broadly and flatly channelled, last whorl tricarinate, white, and 
rounded beneath ; umbilicus wide, perspective, crenate within ; aper- 
ture circular, pearly inside ; peristome continuous, margins thin, 
simple. 

Diam. maj. 4, min. 3^, alt. 2k lines. 

Hab. Brisbane Water, New South Wales {Brazier). 

MiNOLIA BELLULA, U. S. (Plate II. fig. 11.) 

Shell somewhat globosely conical, rather solid, polished, obscurely 
obliquely striated, and very finely spirally ridged, pale straw-colour, or- 
namented with a series of close-set serpentine descending rose-coloured 
flames on each whorl, ceasing on the last whorl at the periphery ; 
whorls 6|, flatly convex, sutures flatly excavated, channelled, and 
narrowly margined, last whorl obtusely angled at the periphery, 
somewhat rounded at the base, which is silvery white ; umbilicus 
deep, profound, and perspective, surrounded by a crenulated keel, 
from which faint striae radiate towards the periphery ; aperture cir- 
cular, pearly within ; peristome simple, margins not continuous, but 
strongly converging. 

Diam. maj. .5, min. 4, alt. 4 lines. 

Hab. Brisbane Water, New South Wales {Brazier). 

Thracia speciosa, 11. s. (Plate II. fig. 12.) 

Shell elongately ovate, thin, white, rather compressed, very inequi- 
lateral, beaks posterior, irregularly concentrically striated, beyond the 



1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON lANTHELLA. 49 

umbonal ridges closely and strongly granulated ; anterior side semi- 
ovate ; posterior side obliquely truncate ; dorsal margin posteriorly 
sloping, anteriorly slightly convex ; umbonal ridge raised, obtusely 
angulate and slightly curved ; ventral margin a little arcuated ; hinge 
with the cartilage-processes small ; pallial sinus deep, extending be- 
yond the umbones and nearly to the middle of the shell. 

Long. l\i, alt. 6, lat. 3 lines. 

Hab. Port Jackson, dredged off the " Sow and Pigs " reef, in 
four fathoms water (Brazier). 



6. On a new Species of Haliotis from New South Wales, 
By J. C. Cox, M.D., C.M.Z.S. 

Haliotis hargravesi, Cox. 

Shell orbicularly ovate, spire much raised, rather thin, flatly de- 
pressed in the centre between the spire and the perforations, longi- 
tudinally strongly ribbed, with nine to ten ribs, which are flat and 
coarsely lamellose on the surface, intercostal spaces scarcely sca- 
brous, perforations long and tubular, five open ; internal surface 
longitudinally grooved, the depressions corresponding with the raised 
ribs without; exterior variegated with red and olive-green, within 
silvery. 

Length Ij^-inch, breadth -f-^ inch. 

Hab. Broken-Bay Heads, north coast of New South Wales. 



7. Note on lanthella, a new Genus of Keratose Sponges. 
By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S,, V.P.Z.S. 

Several of the older naturalists, as Rumphius (Amb. Rar. t. 80. 
f. 1), Seba (Thesaurus, iii. t. 95. f. 2-4), and perhaps Petiver 
(Gazoph. ii. t. 32. f. 1), figure a horny netted marine sponge, for 
which Pallas (Zoophytes, 320) adopted the name of Spongia Jlabel- 
liformis, given by Seba to his first figure (t. 95. f. 2). Under this 
name a good specimen of it is figured by Esper in his * Zoophytes,' 
t. 13. 

The frond looks much more like the very slender netted axis of a 
species of Venus's Fan (Rhipidogorgia) stripped of its bark than 
a sponge. 

Carefully collected and well-preserved specimens of this sponge 
are more or less covered with a quantity of dried mucilaginous sar- 
code, that fills np the spaces between the horny network, and covers 
the frond with a black polished coat. 

It is doubtless a peculiar form of keratose sponges, most likely 
the type of a separate family. 

Puoc. ZooL. Soc— 1869, No. IV. 



50 DR. J. E. GRAY ON I.\NTHELL\. [Jail. 14, 

This genus and the sponges which I described at a preceding 
Meeting under the name of Ceratella, &c., are pecuhar in that the 
skeleton, though formed of a horny substance, is so dense that it 
does not, as in the generahty of horny sponges, become softened and 
more flexible by being soaked in water ; and, unlike the common 
sponges of commerce, they do not imbibe the water. But I suspect 
that many of the sponges with a hard, thick, black, horny network 
will be found to be unchanged by being soaked. 

There is no appearance of any pores for inhaling or oscules for 
emitting the water in the dry specimen. 

Being desirous of having it more carefully examined than the 
state of my eyes allows me to undertake, I sent a fragment of the 
specimen received from Capt. Sir Everard Home to Mr. M. C. Cooke, 
of the India-House Museum. He reports to me as follows: — 

1 . That he has not been able to discover any trace of siliceous or 
calcareous spicules. 

2. It is dissolved away by acid. 

3. In liquor potasses it gives a bright violet-colour, like that of 
Roccella and other orchil-lichens. 

Ianthella. 

Sponge frondose, expanded on a plane, flat, fan-like or funnel- 
shaped ; black, when dry more or less covered with dry, black, mu- 
cilaginous sarcode, that often fills up the spaces between the horny 
network, and gives it a black polished appearance. Root expanded ; 
stem very thick, compressed, formed of interlaced filaments, ex- 
pandeH above into a broad flat frond entirely composed of rather 
thick, compressed, parallel ribs or branches, slightly diverging from 
the base towards the margin ; some of these are once or twice forked 
in their length. These ribs or branches are united into a network 
with a square mesh by very short, subcylindrical, thinner, equal- 
sized, diverging, compressed branchlets. 

* Frond flat, expanded. lanthella. 

1. IaNTHELLA FLABELLIFORMIS. B.M. 

Sponge flabellate, expanded, oblong, fan-shaped, with a single 
thick stem ; fibres of the network slender. 

Flabellutn marinum, Rumphius, Herb. Amb. vi. 208, t. 80. f. 1 
(good). 

Spongia flabelliformis, Seba, Thes. iii. 183, t. 95. f. 2; Pallas, 
Zooph. 320 ; Lamk. Ann. Mus. xx. 380. n. 35 ; Esper, t, 13. 

Var. Network much finer. 

Spongia erectu subtilior, Seba, Thes. iii. t. 95. f. 4. 
Hab. Australia. 

The figure of Petiver (Gaz. ii. t. 32. f. 1) has been referred to 
this sponge ; but it is not a recognizable figure of it. 



1869.] MR. E. BLYTH ON TWO NEW ANTELOPES. 51 

** Frond broad, folded together, more or less completely funnel- 
shaped. Basta. 

2. Ianthella basta. B.M. 

Sponge broad, the sides folded together, leaving an open space 
below near the root, forming an incomplete funnel, which is more or 
less distorted and divided ; the network slender. 

Basta marina, Rumph. Herb. Amb. vi. t. 89. f. I. 

Spongia basta, Pallas, Zoop. 309 ; Esper, Zooph. t. 25 ; Lamk. 
Ann. iMus. xx. 442 ; Lamx. 1 1, f. 57. 

Spongia flabelliformis, E. \V. Q-ray, B. M. 1804, from spec, in 
Mas. Sloane, no. 996. 

Hub. Indian Ocean, Quail Island ; found dead attached to con- 
glomerate ironstone (Rayner). 

3. Ianthella homei. B.M. 

Sponge fan- shaped, expanded laterally, the sides bent up, with a 
thick single stem ; fibres of the network thick, strong. 

Hab. Australia (Capt. Sir Everard Home). 

This chiefly differs from /. basta in the network appearing to be 
thicker and stronger. It is only a young, partly developed specimen, 
and may become more funnel-shaped when it grows older. 



8. Notice of two overlooked Species of Antelope. 
By Edward Blyth. 

In or about the year 1840 the Society possessed a fine male spe- 
cimen of the true Antilope bubalis of Pallas, of which individual I 
still possess a series of sketches or studies from life. The skin of it 
is now mounted in the British Museum. I have lately seen one 
exactly like it in the Antwerp Zoological Gardens ; and there is an 
admirable portrait of one of the same kind in the picture-gallery at 
The Hague, in the same apartment (or rather landing-place in the 
Museum) in which is exhibited the celebrated life-size portrait of a 
young bull by Paul Potter. Again, the same species is figured and 
described by Buffon as la Buhale (Hist. Nat. tome xiii. p. 294, 
t. 37), and its skull, together with that of the Hartbeest {Bos- 
elaphiis caama), showing the considerable difference of size of the 
two, in the following plate. It is also figured and described by MM. 
Cuvier and Geoffroy St.-Hilaire. This animal is much smaller than 
the Hartbeest, and it is of a uniform bright chestnut-colour, without 
any markings on the feet. It is the particular species figured and 
described as the Bubalis of North Africa in every work that I have 
seen which treats of the animal. 

At the same time that the Society possessed the living example 
before referred to, I saw with Mr. Warwick, of the Surrey Zoological 
Gardens, the perfect skin of what I at once recognized to be that of 
a distinct though closely allied species, differing from the true B. 



52 MR. E. BLYTH ON TWO NEW ANTELOPES. [Jan. 14, 

bubalis in being fully as large as the Hartbeest, and in having 
black markings in front of all four feet above the hoofs. In the 
Museums of Amsterdam and of Leyden there are mounted specimens 
of this animal, which have hitherto been supposed to exemplify the 
true B. bubalis (which those Museums do not contain), and of 
which I repeat that I lately saw a living adult at Antwerp of the 
usual very inferior size. I have also recently seen several frontlets 
of the larger race, some of which were received (together with front- 
lets of Oreas derbianus) from the west coast of Africa ; but the 
Boselaphus bubalis, var. 1, of Dr. Gray (P. Z. S. 1850, p. 139), which 
I take to refer to the same animal, is stated by him to have been 
brought by Mr. Louis Fraser from Tunis. I suspect that it is chiefly a 
western race, though more or less diffused also in the region tenanted 
by the smaller and more familiarly known B. bubalis ; while a third 
and eastern representative of the same form exists in the Antilope 
lichtensteini of Dr. Peters, which I only know from his figures and 
description of it (Naturwissenschaftliche Raise nach Mossambique, 
p. 190, tt. 43, 44). 

By the kind permission of Mr. H. Ward, taxidermist, of Yere 
Street, I am enabled to exhibit a pair of frontlets (evidently male and 
female) of what I shall now designate as Boselaphus major, received 
from the west coast of Africa, and also a frontlet of B. bubalis (male) 
for comparison ; and at the same time I exhibit a characteristic skull 
of the Hartbeest. There is a good pair of frontlets of B. major in 
the collection of Alfred Denison, Esq., which I refer to because that 
of the male retains the skin of the forehead with its hair on, the 
latter being of a bright chestnut hue where it is black in the Hart- 
beest. So far as I can perceive, the horns of the three North-African 
species are similar in shape, those of B. major being only distin- 
guishable by their superior size ; and all may be readily told from 
those of the Hartbeest by the difference at the base when viewed in 
front, the horns of the latter diverging in the form of the letter V, 
those of the others in the form of the letter U. The specimen (such 
as it is) of B. major in the national collection is only a skin without 
horns or hoofs. 

Another animal to which I would call the attention of the Meet- 
ing is the Kudu, figured by Sir Andrew Smith, in his ' Zoology of 
South Africa,' under the name Damalis kudu (both sexes of it), as 
distinguished from the ordinary large and familiarly known Kudu, the 
best figure of which, to my knowledge, is that by Sir W. Cornwallis 
Harris in his ' Portraits of the Game and Wild Animals of South 
Africa,' pi. 20. The one is described to measure 4 feet in lieight 
at the shoulders, the other 5 feet. The male of the large species is 
adorned with a copious fringe of long hair down the front of the neck, 
of which the mature male of the other shows not a trace. There is 
also a difference in the character of the markings of the body, which 
is more recognizable to the eye than capable of satisfactory descrip- 
tion. The large species is the Condoma of Buffbn (Hist. Nat. 
tome xii. p. 301, and t. xxxix.) and of autliors in general. Dr. 
Riij)pcll, however, informs us that the xlbyssinian Kudu is one-third 



1869.] MR. E. BLYTH ON TWO NEW ANTELOPES. 



53 



Fig. A. 




Figs. 1, la. Bosclaphus major, J. Fig. 2. Ditto, 9, 

3, 3a. buhalis, ^ . 

4, 4a. caama, <? . Fig. 5. Ditto, 9 . 



54 



MR, E. BLYTH ON TWO NEW ANTELOPES. [Jail. 14, 



smaller than the South-African one, but does not notice the absence 
of long hair in front of the neck*. There is, however, an Abj'ssi- 
nian specimen of an adult male in the British Museum, which was 
presented by the Hon. East-India Company ; and it agrees in every 
respect with the animal figured by Sir Andrew Smith. On the 
other hand, the young Abyssinian Kudu which was lately living in the 
Society's Gardens was of the large kind, as indicated not only by its 
size, but by the incipient appearance of the fringe of hair along the 




Fig. 1. Strepsiceros kttdii. 

2. Ditto, half -grown. 

3. 8. imherbis, two-thirds grown. 

3a. Ditto, .showing the straight axial line, a b. 



* In a presentation copy of the ' Systematische Uebersicht der Yogel Nord- 
Ost-Africas,' in the library of the Asiatic Society, Calcutta, there is bound up a 
Synopsis of the Mammalia of the same region, wherein the aboye statement 
occurs ; but in the ' Neue Wirbelthiere' &c. (p. 20), the large Koodoo is evidently 
the species referred to, as the fringe of hair in front of the neck is mentioned. 



1869.] LETTER FROM PROF. J. REINHARDT. 55 

front of its neck. It follows that both species are alike met with in 
Eastern and in Southern Africa. 

By the kindness of Mr. Knight and other gentlemen connected 
with the Ipswich Museum, I am enabled to exhibit a pair of loose 
horns of the smaller Kudu, which are about two-thirds grown ; that 
they belong to a different species from the other is at once percep- 
tible upon comparison. Those upon the stuffed specimen in the 
British Museum had long been full-grown ; and their much abraded 
appearance indicates the individual to have been aged ; yet from 
base to tip they measure only 19| inches in a straight line, and fol- 
lowing the curve 24 inches ; greatest width apart (at the tips) 
12 inches. They are thus only two-fifths of the size of the horns 
of the other species, which commonly attain to 4 feet or more in a 
straight line from base to tip, and 54 feet round the curvature ; 
from anterior base of horn to nostril (in the stuffed specimen) 
7^ inches, and ears 8 inches. In the smaller of these two species of 
Kudu the horns are more prominently angulated, and their spirature 
is considerably more tense than in the other ; indeed what consti- 
tutes the posterior angle of the horn at base, and appears to the 
front about the middle of its length, hardly deviates from a straight 
axial chord (fig. 3", a b), round which the horn twirls ; while in 
S. kudu the spirature is invariably much more apart — and not 
varying, as it does so remarkably in the horn of the Markhore Goat 
{C'ajira meyaceros). The horns of the smaller Kudu are extremely 
rare in collections, the reason probably being that, as horns of this 
kind are chiefly brought as trophies of the chase, the smaller have 
been neglected on the supposition that they were inferior specimens ; 
and the only pair which I know of in any English museum (besides 
those upon the head of the stuffed example in the national collection) 
consists of the two loose horns now exhibited from the museum of 
Ipswich. Dr. Gray, in his 'List of Specimens of Mammalia in the 
British Museum' (1850, p. 143), under Strepticeros kudu, notices 
" Var. smaller. Inhabits Abyssinia ; Mus. E. I. C. ; Mus. Frankfort, 
adult and young." I consider this small Kudu, of which adults of 
both sexes are figured and described by Sir Andrew Smith, to be 
decidedly a well-marked species ; and therefore I now propose for it 
the name of Strepticeros imberbis. 



January 28, 18G9. 
J. Gould, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

The following extracts were read from a letter addressed to the 
Secretary by Prof. J. Reinhardt, F.M.Z.S., dated Universitetets 
Zoologiske Museum, Copenhagen, January 15th, 1869: — 

" Amons the different interesting contributions which my excel- 



56 LETTER FROM PROF. J. REINHARDT. [Jan. 28, 

lent friend Dr. Gray has communicated to the ' Proceedings' of the 
Society for 1868 there are two on which I beg leave to write a few 
observations, which I should wish you to communicate to the 
Zoological Society. 

"In his 'Synopsis of the Species of Pigs,' Dr. Gray remarks 
that, according to Marcgrave's statement, Potamochoervs porcus was 
in his time imported by the negroes, and naturalized in Brazil ; and 
then adds that having on all his inquiries received the answer (which, 
by the way, was perfectly correct) that this Pig is at present kept 
nowhere in Brazil, he must suppose that it ' has not been found 
profitable, or was not fitted for the American climate, as the breed- 
ing of it has been discontinued' *. As far as I have been able to 
learn, the Potamochcerns porcus has not been domesticated anywhere 
in its native countrj'. West Africa. If this Pig, accordingly, can be 
considered identical with the one described by Marcgrave by the 
name of Porcus guineensis (and in that point Dr. Gray is certaiidy 
right), and if farther it really whs the case that the Pig of Marc- 
grave at his time was domesticated in Brazil, we should here liave 
an instance of an animal having been brought in a wild state from 
one part of the world to another, and of its having been made a 
domestic animal there. Now this would certainly be an interesting 
case, which would deserve considerable attention ; but on that ac- 
count there is also so much reason to examine accurately whether such 
is really the meaning of Marcgrave's words ; and when we do so I 
think it will appear that a misunderstanding has taken place. For 
Marcgrave does not state at all in plain terms that his Porcus gui- 
neensis is kept as a domesticated animal anywhere in Brazil. He 
begins his description of it in the following way : — ' Porcus guineensis 
i^'c. e Guinea Braziliam translatus.' But in these words he has cer- 
tainly never thought of saying that his Pig was a domestic animal, 
but only that in Brazil he had seen such a Pig, brought thither 
from Africa and being quite tame — that is to say, doing no harm, 
but being of a placid, inoffensive nature. He might, indeed, have 
occasion to point out these qualities distinctly, especially as con- 
trasting with the well-known fierce and headstrong character of the 
European Wild Boars. And that Marcgrave's words really mav be 
justly applied to the said African Pig, we have a further proof in 
a description of the establishments (formerly Danish) on the Gold 
Coastf, in which it is especially remarked that the hunting of the 
Red and Black Boars of this place is without danger, that these 
Pigs do not show the least inclination to attack their pursuers 
— nay, that they do not turn upon them when wounded. That 
Marcgrave should have had an opportunity of seeing such a Pota- 
mockcerus porcus in Brazil, even though it has never been domes- 
ticated there, ought not to surprise us ; and more especially it is 
no more startling than that he also had an opportunity of seeing 
there, and of sketching, several African Monkeys. It is easily ex- 
])lained when we remember that Prince Maurice of Nassau, in whose 

* P. Z. S. 1868, p. 37. 

t Mourad, H. C, ' Bidrag til en Skildring af Giiinea-Kysten.' Kjobenliavn. 



18()9.J LETTER FROM X'ROF. J. REINHARDl. 37 

service he was, caused animals to be fetched from many countries 
to keep them ahve in the park of his country-seat, Freiburg, near 
Recife (Pernambuco) ; and that some of these animals had come 
from Africa is so much more probable, as a lively intercourse, called 
forth by the slave-trade, took place between the then Dutch North 
Brazil and the western coast of Africa, where an expedition, sent 
out by the Prince Maurice in the year 1641, had conquered the 
possessions of the Portuguese in Angola. I have still to add that 
if the said Pig had really been a domestic animal generally found in 
Brazil in Marcgrave's time, it would most probably have also been 
mentioned by the not much older author Gabriel Soares de Souza, 
who has left us a very detailed and, for his time, excellent descrip- 
tion of the condition and appearance of Brazil at the close of the 
sixteenth century. But it is not mentioned at all in his work 
among the domestic animals then kept in that country. As for the 
rest, Dr. Gray is not the first who has supposed Marcgrave's Sus 
porcus to be not a breed of the common Pig, but a peculiar species, 
and yet a domestic animal in Brazil. Already in Erxleben we find 
the same view ; and he does not even hesitate to state that it was 
found there in great numbers even at the time when he wrote ('ubi 
hodie copiosissimus,' Erxleben, Syst. Regni Anim. p. 184). 

" My other observation relates to Dr. Gray's notice about Ptero- 
nura sandbachii. He concludes the welcome information about this 
rare Otter with the remark that Natterer's Lutra solitaria from 
South Brazil (Ypanema, in San Paulo) probably forms a second spe- 
cies of the genus Pteronura. This supposition, however, is scarcely 
well founded ; for in the short original description given by A. Wag- 
ner of this Otter he calls our particular attention to the naked 
muzzle ('die nackte Nasenkuppe') as one of the most essential cha- 
racters of this species ; whereas the muzzle of Pteronura, as we 
know, is entirely covered with hair. But even though Lutra soli- 
taria, Natt., according to all that we know about it, cannot be a 
Pteronura, yet I consider it not improbable that a species of this 
genus (or, perhaps, rather subgenus) is living in Brazil, to which it 
may be useful to direct the attention of travelling naturalists, though 
it is only very insufficient information I can impart about it. I have 
sometimes in the province of Minas Geraes seen the stretched and 
tanned skins of a large Otter, and also myself brought home such 
a one, which, though the point of the tail is wanting, has never- 
theless the very considerable length of 6 feet. I do not consider 
this mutilated and damaged specimen sufficient for definitively de- 
ciding the question ; but so much may at any rate be stated, that 
this Otter has a muzzle entirely covered with hair, the very narrow 
edges of the nostrils only exce{)ted ; and on the tail of the skin we 
see still distinct traces of a lateral ridge (not very prominent, to be 
sure) which has formed the limit between the upper and the under 
side, and which it has been impossible to efface completely, though' 
the skin has been stretched and tanned. Thus it is at least very 
likely that this skin really belongs to a Pteronura ; and as for the 
colour and the spots on the throat, it seems even to agree so well 



58 LETTER FROM CAPT. T. HUTTON. [Jail. 28, 

with Dr. Gray's description, especially of Mr. Bartlett's specimen of 
Pteronura sandbachii, that I do not even consider it impossible that 
my Brazilian Otter may be of that species. At all events, I con- 
sider it certain that it is different from the considerably smaller Lutra 
bradliensis ; and I may add that the more experienced hunters of 
the province Minas Geraes distinguish clearly between two Otters 
indigenous there : the smaller one they call ' Lontra ;' to the larger 
one thejr give the name 'Ariranha.' Prof. Burmeister is not accu- 
rate when, in his ' Uebersicht der Thiere Brasiliens,' he states that 
these denominations are used indiscriminately for the same animal, 
Lutra brasiliensis." 

Mr. Blyth exhibited and made some remarks upon a pair of horns 
of one of the new Antelopes {Strepsiceros imberlis) described by 
him at the last Meeting. 

A communication was read from Capt. Thomas Hutton, C.M.Z.S., 
containing notes upon certain Indian Mammals, principally regard- 
ing their habits and distribution in India. The species alluded to 
were the following : — 



"O ' 



1. The Indian Bhaloo (Ursus labiatus of Jerdon's 'Indian 

Mammals'). 

Capt. Hutton gave a full description of the variety of this animal, 
met with in the north-western provinces, which appeared to present 
some points of difference, and gave copious notes upon its habits, 
stating in particular that, although it can climb trees readily enough 
in search of fruits, it finds difficulty in doing so unless the trunk of 
the tree is gnarled and rough. 

2. The Snow-Bear of the Himalaya {Ursus isabellinus). 

This species of Bear was stated to be entirely confined to the 
snowy region of the northern Himalaya and Tibet, where it subsists 
upon roots, berries gleaned from the neighbouring cultivated spots, 
fruits both wild and cultivated, and such small animals as it may 
occasionally surprise. Capt. Hutton was of opinion that this spe- 
cies was essentially distinct from the Syrian Bear (Ursus syriacus), 
to which it had been united by some authors. 

3. The Ounce, or Snow-Leopard (Felis uncia). 

This species was stated to be resident among the snows in the 
treeless region of the higher Himalaya, occurring occasionally on the 
Indian slope of the snowy range, where a fine living female, which 
had come into Capt. Hutton's possession in 1864 when about five 
months old, had been captured by Mr. Frederick Wilson and 
brought into Mussooree. In the following year two other cubs were 
seen about the same place, but were not captured. Capt. Hutton 
gave a full description of the first-mentioned animal when about six 
months old ; its length at that time was about 2 feet 3^ inches, and 



1869.] MR. HARPER PEASE ON THE AURICULIDiE. 59 

its tail about 2 feet 10 inches. Full particulars about this animal in 
a state of captivity were also given. 



Dr. Murie exhibited two malformed hoofs from a specimen of the 
feral cattle of the Falkland Islands. The owner, Capt. Henry 
Payne, stated that he shot the animal himself, and remarked that 
such an instance had rarely, if ever, been seen by the Falkland- 
Island residents*. The hoofs were a left fore and a riaiht hind one. 
The outer half or segment of the fore hoof was considerably length- 
ened and expanded ; the inner half, on the contrary, was narrow, 
elongated, and very convex on its upper surface. This latter, inner, 
enormously overgrown portion of the hoof formed ^ complete semi- 
circle, and crossed above and round to the outside of the outer half. 
It lay like a section of a quoit over its neighbour. The outer half 
of the hind hoof was lengthened, but not so much flattened as the 
corresponding fore one ; its point had a tendency to turn upwards. 
The inner half of the hind hoof curved outwards and over its neigh- 
bour, but somewhat differently from the front one. Instead of being 
quoit-shape, it twisted like a Ram's horn, the plantar surface turn- 
ing forwards and outwards. 

As to the cause of this peculiar growth of the hoof, Mr. Darwin 
remarks of the Falkland-Island Horses : — " From the softness of 
the ground their hoofs often grow irregularly to a great length, and 
this causes lameness" (Voy. of Beagle, p. 192). 



A communication was read from Prof. Owen, F.R.S., on Dinornis, 
forming the fourteenth part of his series of memoirs on this subject. 
The present paper related chiefly to the craniology of the genus, but 
contained also the description of a fossil cranium from the London 
clay of Sheppey, in the collection of the Earl of Enniskilleu, F.R.S., 
which Prof. Owen considered to present combinations of Dinornithic 
and modern Struthious characters, and characterized under the name 
Dasornis londinensis. 

This paper will be printed in the Society's 'Transactions.' 



The following papers were read :~ 

1. Descriptions of the Animals of certain Genera of Auri- 
cididce. By Harper Pease, C.M.Z.S. 

Genus Plecotrema (H. & A. Ad.), 

The animal of the above genus appears to have been unknown to 
Messrs. H. and A. Adams ; and I find no description of it published 
elsewhere. That of P. striata ^Phil.) presents the following cha- 
racters : — Proboscis short, very broad, slightly emarginate in front, 
produced laterally, neck long, more so than that of Melampus. Foot 
* See another case recorded by Mr. Sclater, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 44. 



60 MR. HARPER PEASE ON THE AURICULID^. [Jail. 28, 

entire, short, extending but a short distance beyond the aperture, 
bluntly rounded behind. Tentacles short, stout, cylindrical, obtuse 
at their ends ; eyes immersed at their posterior inner bases. 

Genus Blauneria (Shuttl.). 

The animal of B. gracilis, Pease, inhabiting the Sandwich Islands, 
differs so widely from that of B. pellucida, as described by Gund- 
lach and Binney*, that I am disposed to regard it as a distinct 
genus, although the shells can scarcely be distinguished. Mr. 
Binney appears to have been acquainted with but one species. Four 
have been described, three of which are in my collection. That in- 
habiting the Sandwich Islands is the largest, attaining to 8 mill, in 
length. 

The animal of B. gracilis is small in proportion to the size of 
the shell, the head projecting but slightly from the shell, and the 
foot extending just beyond the aperture. It is pellucid, colourless, 
excepting a yellowish tinge around the mouth. Tentacles short, 
stout, approximating at their bases. Head narrow above, and much 
dilated below ; mouth a simple longitudinal slit. Foot small, short, 
bluntly rounded behind, truncate in front, divided by a transverse 
groove, the posterior segment being slightly the longer. Eyes con- 
spicuous, black, immersed at the posterior bases of the tentacles. 

B. pellucida is reported to have been found at Washington city 
in gardens. The above species is marine, or at least amphibious. 
Its station is similar to that of Pedipes, which is found in the cre- 
vices of stones overflown at high water. I have never found B. 
gracilis on the sides or tops of stones when the tide was out, but 
around their bases where the water stood in little pools. 

Genus Tralia (Gray). 

The animals of the two species of this genus inhabiting the Sand- 
wich Islands are those of true Melampi ; their shells are strictly 
Tralia, being furnished with three internal elevated ridges on the 
outer lip, not dentate or plicate near the edge. 

Melampus (Tralia) semiplicata. Pease, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 146. 

Animal : proboscis rather narrow, emarginate in front, finely 
wrinkled transversely, blackish on its upperside. Tentacles when 
extended elongate, cylindrical, somewhat enlarged near the base, 
obtuse, terminating in a slight round knob, transversely grooved, 
black at the tips, shading off into cinereous at their bases. Foot 
divided by a transverse groove at about one-third of its length ; 
anterior segment bluntly rounded in front, concave behind ; poste- 
rior segment bifid at its termination by a short slit. It moves by 
advancing the anterior portion of the foot, and then drawing up 
over it the hinder part. Its motion is regular, similar to that of the 
Helices — gliding along, when on a smooth surface, rather quickly, 

* Land and Freshwater Shells of North America (Smiths. Institution), 1865, 
part 2, p. 20. 



1869.] ON THE LAND-SHELLS OK THE SEYCHELLES. 61 

The animal of Melampus jiarvulus (Nutt.) agrees with the above 
iu all respects excepting its tentacles, which are shorter and more 
stout in proportion. 

I will take this opportunity of correcting an error in the habitat 
of Melampus pusillus (Gm.). It does not occur at the Sandwich 
Islands. 

The above observations show that Dr. Gray's opinion, that the 
shells are not always a guide to the generic relations of the animal, 
is correct. 



2. Additional Notes on the Land-Sliells of the Seychelles 
Islands. By Geoffrey Nevill, C.M.Z.S. 

The land-shells of the Seychelles are not only remarkably few in 
number, but are also, generally speaking, local. This probably 
arises from the nearly complete destruction at some period or an- 
other of the original flora ; for at Mahe, and at most of the other 
islands we visited, it was only on the extreme summit of one of the 
highest passes in the former, and on the top of the mountain at 
Silhouette, that I could perceive anything like a peculiar or ancient 
flora. Praslin, it is true, has a vast number of the Coco-de-mer trees 
and many shrubs, some of which may possibly prove peculiar and 
of interest to the botanist ; but vegetation seems to thrive little better 
under them than under the ordinary Cocoa-nut or Vacoa Palm. It 
seemed to me evident that the flora at Mahe must originally have 
been very diff"erent. Large fires have probably been the chief cause 
of the destruction ; and the cutting down the timber, whether for 
firewood or to plant Cocoa-nuts, must also have had considerable effect, 
and have enabled the Pine-apple, Cinnamon, Bamboo, &c., and even 
possibly some of the common Mauritian ferns (Gleichenia &c.) to 
obtain a firm footing. These introduced plants now cover large 
tracts of country, killing all the more delicate indigenous flowers 
and ferns. The first mentioned, more especially, is abundant in most 
of the islands, and grows almost up to the tops of the highest moun- 
tains. Where the large timber has been thus destroyed, the water, 
almost as soon as it falls, forms for itself channels, and, running off 
from the soil, causes it in a short time to become dry and more or 
less arid. This is clearly perceptible both at Mauritius and Bour- 
bon. In such situations there are no shells to be found, excepting, 
indeed, some two or three species, such as Achatina fulica &c. 
By searching, however, where the trees have been recently cut down, 
one finds quantities of dead shells, evidently killed by want of 
moisture and by exposure to the tropical sun. 

Out of the meagre list of the land-shells I found at the Seychelles, 
I believe a considerable number to have been introduced. It does 
not appear diflScult to account for this when one considers that such 
has been the case with a large number of the commonest trees and 



62 MR. GEOFFREY NEVILL ON THE [Jan. 28, 

plants, amongst the roots &c. of which they could easily have been 
brought. I have always noticed that the species having the sup- 
posed widest ranges are principally found close to the coast, or near 
some town, where, generally, the chief part of the vegetation has 
been introduced. In these places one rarely finds a species which 
can confidently be pronounced to be indigenous, about the only 
exception that I have met with being Gibbus mauritianus, which 
abounds everywhere in tlie sugar plantations near Port Louis. The 
commonest shell in the Mascarene Islands, as well as at Mahe and 
Praslin, is Helix similaris, which I believe has been thus introduced 
into all of them, either from India or Ceylon. At the great abun- 
dance of most of these species one cannot be surprised when one 
considers the vast numbers now to be found of Achatina panthera 
at Mauritius, and Achatina fulica at Calcutta, both of which have 
been introduced within the memory of many of the ]5resent inha- 
bitants of those places. The others, of course, on account of their 
small size, have not been noticed, and consequently their introduc- 
tion cannot be so easily traced. 

The following are species which I believe, from the localities in 
which I found them, to have been introduced into the Seychelles : — 
Helix similaris, Ennea bicolor, Subulina clavulus, Carychium mauri- 
tianum, Acicula mauritiana, Succinea striata, and Achatina fulica. 

I should draw a very different deduction from the apparent aflfi- 
nities of the Sej'chelles Pulmonata to that which my friend and 
companion Mr. E. Newton, in his admirable paper in 'The Ibis' of 
1867, arrived at from his careful study of the ornithology of these 
islands, where he states, "As regards the Ornis of the Seychelles, 
its Malagash tendency is evident." Now the land-shells seem to 
me to have far more affinity with the Indian fauna than with the 
Malagash or African. Perhaps it would be more correct to say 
that the Seychelles fauna forms an intermediate and connecting 
link between the two, rather approximating to the former than to 
the latter. 

Five genera are common to the Indian region which are not found 
in the Malagash, viz. Streptaxis, Cyathopoma, Onchidium, Helicina, 
and Paludomus, the reverse being the case with only two, Tropi- 
dophora and Gibbus, The only other species known of Stylodonta, 
as restricted, is from the Philippines {S. cepoides. Lea). The spe- 
cies of Discus and Conulus are also common Indian forms. 

The only land-shells I can find recorded from the Seychelles 
which I did not myself meet with, are Helix militaris, Ptr., pro- 
bably a variety of Stylodonta unidentata, and Bulinms ornatus, Duf., 
probably the species of which I have seen two specimens in the fine 
local collection of Mr. Caldwell, of Mauritius ; and if the same, it is 
a very handsome distinct species of the section Leptomerus, and 
must be extremely rare. 

1. Helix (Dorcasia) similaris, F^r. 

From Mahe and Praslin, where it abounds, but always near cul- 
tivated land, and never at any considerable height. The shells are 



18()9.] LAND-SHELLS OF THE SEYCHELLES. 63 

a smaller thinner variety than the ordinary Mascarene ones, very 
seldom having a brown band on the last whorl. 

2. Helix (Conulus), n. sp. ? 

From Mahe, Fe'licite, and Silhouette. Rare ; amongst dead leaves, 
&c., in damp places. 

3. Helix (Discus) serratus, H. Ad., n. sp. 

From Mahe, Praslin, and Silhouette. Uncommon ; on the ground 
in moist places. 

4. Helix (Discus), n. sp. 
From Silhouette. Very rare. 

5. Helix (Stylodonta) unidentata, Chemn. 

From Mahe', Felicite', Silhouette, and Curieuse. On the ground, 
amongst decaying leaves of the ordinary Cocoa-nut tree, &c. This 
species is not found at all at Praslin. The variety from the three 
latter localities, as given above, differs from the Mahe typical form 
in being thicker, more produced, with a strongly marked brown 
band round the last whorl, and in often being deformed. This spe- 
cies, even in its youngest stages, can be readily distinguished from 
Styl. studeriana, the spiral striae on the first few whorls not beino- 
cancellated, as is the case with the latter species ; it is also far more 
globose, &c. &c. The animal is a uniform brown, varying in shade ; 
the foot underneath is greenish, and the tentacles a purplish grey. 

6. Helix (Stylodonta) studeriana, Fer. 

From Praslin onhj. This species is remarkable from its being 
restricted to one island, like the extraordinary tree the Coco-de-mer, 
on whose leaves and trunk it lives ; unlike the preceding species, I 
never found any live specimens of it on the ground. There are two 
varieties, one a rich brown colour, the other a decided yellow. In 
shape it always appeared to be perfectly constant ; and the refiexed 
outer lip is always white, whilst in Styl. imidentata it is violet — 
although I procured one specimen of the latter in which it also was 
white. 

7. Streptaxis souleyetiana. Petit. 

From Mahe', Praslin, and Silhouette. In damp places, on the 
ground. Animal ash-colour, the posterior part greenish yellow, 
stained on the neck with mauve (varying in shade), foot (underneath) 
yellow, tentacles black. 

8. Ennea (Elma) nevilli, H. Ad., n. sp. 

From Mahe and Silhouette. Extremely rare at the first-men- 
tioned locality, more plentiful at the latter ; on the ground, amongst 
dead leaves &c. 



64 MR. GEOFFREY NEVILL ON THE [Jan. 28, 

9. SUBULINA MAURITIANA, Pfr. 

From Mahe and Silhouette. Amongst the husks of Cocoa-nuts, 
under stones, &c. This shell, as well as the following, belongs to a 
most perplexing group ; though I have examined a great many spe- 
cimens, from every place where I have been, I have been unable to 
come to any satisfactory conclusion concerning them. The present 
species I take to be the same as one from Mauritius, but which I 
did not find at Bourbon ; it is, if not the same, very closely allied to 
the common S. gracilis, Hutt., of Ceylon and India, although I 
have never seen the latter at all approaching it in size ; the striae 
also are a shade stronger, and the last whorl is a little less rounded 
and more angular in the present species. It is very variable in size, 
my largest specimen having ten whorls and being 16 mill, long, 
while usually they have eight whorls and are about 12-14 mill, in 
length. 

10. SUBULINA, n. sp.? 

From Mahe, Praslin, Silhouette, and Felicite'. In the same loca- 
lities as the preceding. Certainly distinct from S. clavuhis and 
5. jnauritiana, also from S. gracilis, being more nearly allied to 
S. clavulina, P. & M., from which, however, it seems to constantly 
differ in several respects. Tbis Seychelles species I also found at 
Bourbon and Mauritius ; S. clavulina, on the other hand, only at 
Mauritius. 

11. ACHATINA FULTCA, FcT. 

From Mahe, Praslin, and (I believe) Silhouette. A smaller, 
thinner variety than the Mauritian type ; never very far from culti- 
vated land. 

12. ACICULA MAURITIANA, H. Ad., U. Sp. 

From Mahe. Rare ; under stones &c. 

13. SUCCINEA ? STRIATA, Kr. 

From Mahe, Praslin, Silhouette, and Felicite. Amongst decayed 
leaves &c., on the ground. This is certainly the same as the Mas- 
carene species. 

14. GiBBUS MORELETi, H. Ad., n. sp. 

From Silhouette. Extremely scarce ; I only found one specimen, 
at a great height. 

15. Ennea bicolor, Hutt. 

From Mahe, near Port Victoria, in the cinnamon groves. After 
a very careful examination of a large number of specimens from 
Mauritius, Seychelles, Ceylon, and India, I am convinced they are 
all one and the same species, in which case Pfeiffer's E. ceylanica 
must become a synonym. I have examined the animals both at 
Mauritius and Cevlon," which are perfectly similar. The shell varies 



1869.] LAND-SHELLS OF THE SEYCHELLES. 65 

slightly as regards the convexity of the whorls, the striation, and 
the spiral angle ; these varieties I possess from all the above locali- 
ties, occurring in all instances with others of the typical form. If 
E. ceylanica is to remain as a good species, I have three or four 
others possessing equal, or greater, claims to be distinguished. 

16. Helicina ?. 



From Mahe, Praslin, and Silhouette. Amongst decayed leaves 
&c., on the ground. The shell varies somewhat in colour, sometimes 
being a bright red, at others an orange-yellow. 

17. Onchidium ? 



From Mahe. Under stones &c., in damp places ; common. 

18. Onchidium 1 

From Praslin. On the stems and leaves of the " Coco-de-mer." 
The differences between this and the preceding species afford a cu- 
rious parallel to those between Styl. unidentata and Styl. studeriana. 
In each instance the Praslin species are far more finely developed 
than their Mah^ representatives : whilst the latter appear to live 
always on the ground, the former seem to prefer a different habitat. 
Sometimes one sees the sea-cocoanut-trees covered with shells, not 
only the two above mentioned, but also Bulimus fidvicans, Cyclosto- 
7nus pulcher, and others. On the common cocoa-nut tree I never at 
any place found any shell except Bulimus fulvicans. This species 
differs from the preceding in being considerably larger, in not pos- 
sessing the oblong blackish spots, but in being covered with regular, 
small, roughish pustules, of the same colour as the rest of the animal, 
which is extremely variable. I found black, brown, and pure-white 
varieties ; the underneath part also, instead of being a pinkish cho- 
colate colour, is darkish yellow (varying in shade, sometimes quite 
white). 

19. Cyclostomus (Tkopidophora) pulcher. Gray. 

From Mahe, Praslin, and Silhouette. On the Coco-de-mer, 
shrubs, &c. The shell varies in colour, but not, apparently, in form. 

20. Cyathopoma blanfordi, H. Ad., n. sp. 

From Mahe. Extremely rare ; amongst decayed leaves &c., on 
the ground, near a stream, rather high up. 

21. Carychium, n. sp. ? 

From Praslin, near the Protestant church, at the foot of a common 
cocoa-nut tree. I unfortunately only found a single specimen, 
which I hardly like to describe as new, though it differs from C. mau- 
ritianum in very many respects. 

22. Melampus hvidus, Desh. 
From Mahe and Praslin. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. V. 



()() DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

23. Melampus fasciatus, Desh. 
From the same islands as the preceding. 

24. Melampus caffer, Kiist. 
From Mahe. 

25. Melampus bridgesii. Carp. 

From Mahe. Under damp stones, close to the sea; extremely 
local, I only found it at one spot. 

26. Plecotrema, n. sp.7 

From Mahe. Under the stones of an old jetty at Port Victoria ; 
rare. 

27. Neritina gagates. Reel. 

From Praslin. In a very small rapid stream, close to where one 
crosses to go to Curieuse ; very local. 

2S. Melania (Melanoides) tuberculata, Mfill. 
From Mahe, Praslin, and Silhouette. 

29. Pyrazus palustris, Linn. 

From a creek at Mahe, near Port Victoria. 

30. Paludomus ajanensis, Mori. 

From a rapid stream, rather high up, at Mahe ; rarely collected. 

31. Paludomus, n. sp. ? 

From Silhouette. Very rare ; in a small stream, very high up. 

3. A Monograph of the Siliceo-fibrous Sponges. 
By J. S. BowERBANK, LL.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c.— Part I. 

(Plates III., IV., v., & VI.) 

In my observations on Dr. Gray's " Notes on the Arrangement 
of Sponges," published in the ' Proceedings' of this Society for 1868 
(pp. 124 & 125), I have stated my objection to his arrangement of 
the siliceo-fibrous sponges, several species of which he has named 
and described in the volumes of the ' Proceedings.' His descriptions 
are very brief, and are mainly dependent on the characters of 
external form and the peculiarities of their surface ; but although 
describing them as sponges, he appears to be still in a state of un- 
certainty regarding their real nature. In his descriptions of his 
genera MacAndrewia and Myliusia (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 437), 
throughout the whole of the paper, he expresses doubts of their 
spongeous nature, and inclines to the belief, in p. 440, that they, 
with BactyloeaJyx, might "all prove to be a peculiar family of 



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1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROtJS SPONGES. 67 

zoophytes rather than sponges." In his " Notes on the Arrangement 
of Sponges (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 492) he arranges them as 
sponges ; but in his description of his genus MacAndrewia he com- 
mences thus : — "The coral expanded, cyathiform," &c. This con- 
fusion of ideas can only be accounted for on the supposition that 
Dr. Gray has really never taken the trouble to ascertain the struc- 
tural characters of the specimens that have been so many years in 
his possession. 

Although differing to a considerable extent from the general mass 
of the SpongiadcB, the primary design of sponge-life in the siliceo- 
fibrous species is in perfect accordance with the great mass of the 
sponges. The external and internal defensive systems are as those 
of other sponges, and their minute organs, as in other species, are 
exceedingly various in form and strikingly demonstrative of their 
specific characters ; in truth they possess in perfection every essen- 
tial organ of the Spongiadce. 

Dr. Gray, in his " Jfotes on the Arrangement of Sponges " (Proc. 
Zooi. Soc. 1867, p. oOo), has formed an order to receive the siliceo- 
fibrous sponges, which he has designated Coralliospongia, and he 
thus defines the members of his order : — " Sponge hard, coral-like. 
Skeleton entirely formed of siliceous spicules, anchylosed together 
by siliceous matter, forming a netted mass covered with sarcode." 
Prof. Wyville Thomson, in the 'Ann. & ^ag. Nat. Hist.' for February 
1868, p. 120, in describing the siliceo-fibrous sponges, under the 
head of the " sihceous skeleton," says: — " In Habrodictyon \_Alcyon- 
cellum speciosiim, Quoy et Gaimardj and Hyalonema the skeleton is 
composed entirely of separate siliceous spicules of various forms, in- 
terwoven in fascicles and connected by the thin sarcode layer, or 
scattered irregularly among the fascicles of spicules. In Euplec- 
tella, Aphrocallistes, Dactylocalyx, and Farrea, certain kinds of 
these spicules are more or less completely fused together, forming a 
continuous anastomosing network." 

In my observations on Dr. Gray's " Notes on the Arrangement of 
Sponges" (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1868, p. 118), I have already pointed 
out the error the author has fallen into in describing Dactylocalyx as 
"entirely composed of siliceous spicules anchylosed together by sili- 
ceous matter into a network ;" and I have there stated, and have not 
since seen reason to alter my conviction, that the description of Dr, 
Gray is eminently incorrect, as no one, " I believe, ever saw the termi- 
nations of spicula united into a network through the morbid action of 
anchylosis by means of siliceous matter ;" and I may add that I have 
never yet seen a case of the anastomosis of spicula. The normal 
condition of these organs is never to anastomose, however closely they 
may be packed together, while that of siliceo-fibrous structure is always 
to anastomose when they touch each other ; and this law is abun- 
dantly illustrated in the fibrous structure of the skeleton of Euplec- 
tella aspergillum, Owen, now so common a specimen in the cabinets 
of collectors. This error of Dr. Gray, regarding the spicular structure 
of Dactylocalyx and other siliceo-fibrous sponges, seems to have been 
unhesitatingly adopted by Prof. Wyville Thomson, and without any 



68 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

effort to test its accuracy, as it appears to me to be impossible that 
the fibres of Dactyl ocalyx pumiceus should be seen beneath a micro- 
scopical power of about one or two hundred linear without the con- 
viction being immediately arrived at that the tissue was purely 
fibrons ; and sections at right angles to their axes at once exhibit 
their concentric structure, and jjrove that they are not compound 
structures formed of "separate siliceous spicules of various forms, in- 
terwoven in fascicles." This description, quoted from Prof. W. 
Tiiomson's paper (Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Feb. 1868, p. 120), will 
ajjply correctly enough to Hyalonema, but certainly not to " Eu- 
jilecteUa, Owen, Aphrocallistes, Bactylocalyx, and Yarrea,''' the 
latter four genera having purely siliceo-fibrous skeletons, while 
Hyalonema is as purely a spiculo-reticulate structure. 

Prof. Wyville Thomson, in his paper in the ' Ann. & JMag. Nat. 
Hist.' for Feb. 18G8, has proposed a new name for the siliceo- 
fibrous sponges ; but a new name, unless it be more significant 
than the old one, is a detriment rather than an advantage to science. 
He designates them as vitreous sponges ; this is an erroneous idea, 
inasmuch as the fibres are not inorganic and amorphous in their 
structure like fibres of glass, but, on the contrary, they are highly 
organized, consisting of concentric layers of silex and keratode com- 
bined, and thus are totally different in their origin and structure from 
an artificial amorphous structure like glass. The term vitreous 
naturally supposes an origin and a transparency through the agency 
of fire ; hut if we submit the fibres of Bactylocalyx pumiceus to the 
action of that element by making a small portion of the rigid ske- 
leton red-hot two or three times in the flame of a spirit-lamp, it 
tomes forth from the trial as black as charcoal, and perfectly opaque. 

If the term vitreous is meant to represent the general character 
and appearance of these sponges in their natural condition, it is then 
still more inappropriate, as in the living state their external ap- 
pearance is that of an ordinary sponge entirely enveloped in a more 
or less fleshy dermal envelope ; if at all applicable, it can only be so 
when the animal is in a deteriorated and partially decomposed condi- 
tion; while siliceo-fibrous is correctly expressive of the nature of their 
structure, and contrasts well with the terms kerato-fibrous and 
spiculo-fibrous. For these reasons, therefore, I feel under the neces- 
sity of rejecting the new designation proposed by the learned Pro- 
fessor. 

Prof. Wyville Thomson, in his proposed arrangement of the 
Sponyiada; "Order I. (P. silicea) Vitrea," gives the following as the 
characters of his proposed new order: — " Sarcode in small quantity, 
very soft ; never containing formed horny matter, either fibrous, 
membranous, or granular. The skeleton consists entirely of sili- 
ceous spicules, either separate (in fascicles or scattered) or anasto- 
mosing, and combined into a siliceous network. The sarcode con- 
tains small spicula of a diff"erent character from the general spicules 
of the skeletons, and of complicated forms. The spicules, whether 
of the skeleton, or of the sarcode, may all be referred to the hex- 
radiate stellate type. Ex. Hyalonema, Dactylocaly.v." 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 69 

Dr. Wyville Thomson's endeavour, by the institution of his pro- 
posed new order Vitrea, and his description of its characters, has, 
instead of elucidating the subject, still further complicated it. All 
the members of his new order should certainly agree in a series of 
definite structural characters ; but this is not the case. Thus he 
gives, as examples of his order, Hyalonema and Dactylocalyx, the 
sponge of the first having a skeleton composed of spicula cemented 
together by keratode, as in the great mass of Halichondroid sponges, 
the mass of the skeleton being eminently elastic and entirely desti- 
tute of siliceo- fibrous structure, while in the latter genus the skeleton 
is perfectly rigid, being composed entirely of inelastic siliceo-fibrous 
tissue. 

But this is not the only error in the descriptions of the characters 
of his proposed new order Vitrea ; thus he states (Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. p. 120) of the sarcode : — "It is small in quantity, very soft, 
probably semifluid, extending in a thin layer over the fascicles of 
siliceous needles and over the siliceous framework." 

Dr. Thomson's description of the sarcode in this tribe of sponges 
is correctly applicable as regards quantity, if, as appears to have 
been the case, he has derived his conclusions from an examination of 
the prepared skeletons of the sponges in the Museum of the Jardin 
des Plantes and the British Museum ; but it is a mistake to imagine 
that the sarcode is deficient in quantity when in their natural condi- 
tion. In Dactylocalyx heteroformis, D. M'Andrewia, D. Prattii, 
and D. Masoni which are in the same condition as when taken alive 
from the sea, there is quite as much of that vital substance in their 
interstitial cavities as we find in the greater portion of siliceo-reticular 
sponges, and frequently more in proportion than we find in many of 
them. It is also an error to conclude that there are no membranous 
tissues within them. The usual delicate interstitial membranes exist 
in their cavities to about the same extent as in other sponges. 

The author also says, in his character of Vitrea, " never con- 
taining formed horny matter, either fibrous, membranous, or gra- 
nular." Now Hyalonema contains an abundance of horny matter, 
cementing the spicula together in the basal mass of the sponge, and 
also in the coriaceous envelope of the so-called " glass rope " of the 
sponge, and Dactylocalyx has plenty of membranes in the interstices 
of the skeleton, and an extensive and elastic dermal membrane en- 
veloping the whole of the sponge. 

Prof. Thomson's description of the characters of his proposed new 
order embraces very many more genera than he could possibly have 
contemplated when he wrote it. He says, " The skeleton consists 
entirely of siliceous spicules, either separate (in fascicles or scattered) 
or anastomosing and combined into a siliceous network." Let us 
now see what the effect of this very sweeping character will be : — 
1st, under the head of spicules " separate," it will include the genera 
Hymeniacidon and Hymeraphia ; 2nd, " spicula in fascicles," it 
will embrace ten other genera, viz. Geodia, Pachymatisma, Ecio- 
nernia, Dictyor.ylindrus, Polymastia, Ciocalypta, Tethea, Phakellia, 
Microciona, and Ilymedesmia ; 3rd, " combined into a siliceous net-: 



70 DR. J. S. BOWEItBANK ON SI LICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jail. 28, 

work," it will include six other genera, Hallchondria, Hyaloneina, 
Jsodictya, Spongilla, Dlplodemia, and Desmacidon. We have thus 
no less than eighteen genera, not one of which has a particle of true 
siliceo-fibrous structure in their skeletons, incorporated with Dactylo- 
calyx and the other truly siliceo-fibrous species. Such a character, 
instead of facilitating the discrimination of species, is calculated to 
lead us unto a perfect maze of doubt and uncertainty ; and all this 
while he entirely ignores the existence of solid siliceous fibre. 

The author's application of negative characters in his description 
of his order Vitrea is certainly bad : it is positive characters that 
lead us to correct discrimination of orders, genera, and species ; 
it is what they are that must be our guides, not what they are not. 
If Prof. Wyville Thomson had a more extensive and intimate know- 
ledge of the species of siliceo-fibrous sponges than he appears to 
possess, I can readily imagine that he would not have fallen into the 
errors that I have pointed out. 

Dr. Thomson, in his highly imaginative paper " On the Vitreous 
Sponges," has not only proposed a new and very impracticable 
order for their reception, but he has also, contrary to all the esta- 
blished canons of nomenclature, proposed to abrogate the established 
generic names of the working naturalists who have preceded him in 
writing on the siliceo-fibrous sponges; and, after criticising their 
differences of opinion very freely, he at once proposes that they 
shall all be abolished, and his newly concocted name Habrodictyon 
be established in their stead. If the new name were illustrative of 
new ideas, or of new facts, it might be entitled to consideration ; 
but as we find neither the one nor the other in the learned pro- 
fessor's paper, I do not think he can reasonably expect that it will 
be adopted. 

Before we commence the descriptions of the genera and species of 
the siliceo-fibrous sponges, it will be as well to ask, what is a 
siliceo-fibrous sponge ? and in what important points of structure 
does it differ from the general mass of the Spongiadee ? In the ex- 
tensive order Silicea we find by far the gi eater number of genera are 
characterized by the existence of siliceous spicula in their skeletons, 
and that they are separated from each other by peculiar modes of 
their arrangement in the structures. In all the genera comprised in 
the siliceo-reticulate and spiculo-fibrous sponges nature has provided 
in their structure for their capability of expanding and contract- 
ing their skeletons to a certain limited extent ; and this power 
appears to be inherent in all parts of the animal mass. We there- 
fore find the dermal integuments closely adherent to the surface of 
the animal, expanding and contracting in unison with the general 
mass. This is not the case with a siliceo-fibrous sponge. The whole 
mass of the skeleton is formed of a continuous reticulation of solid 
siliceous fibre, which renders the skeleton perfectly inexpansible ; but 
to compensate for this apparent defect in its economy, these sponges 
are provided with a peculiar expansile dermal system, the dermal 
membrane being furnished abundantly with connecting spicula, the 
distal surfaces of which are closely cemented to the inner surface of 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. /I 

the membrane, while their shafts are freely suspended in the interval 
existing between the dermal membrane and the surface of the rigid 
skeleton ; so that when the animal is actively inhaling or exhalinc;, 
the expansile dermal system expands or contracts in accordance witli 
necessities of its vital actions ; but when in a state of inaction or re- 
pose, it subsides on to the rigid surface of the skeleton, and the long 
shafts of its connecting spicula are immersed in its interstices. This 
singular and beautiful provision of nature prevails in all the known 
sihceo-fibrous sponges which are in the condition they were when 
alive in their native element ; it also readily accounts for the naked 
skeleton-like structure of many of the ' specimens of Dactylo- 
calyx and Iphiteon which are preserved in the museums of London 
and Paris. The whole of this beautiful dermal structure is held to- 
gether in life by the tough and elastic dermal membrane ; but as 
soon as this is removed, either by decomposition or maceration in 
water, the remainder is the skeleton only of the animal, with pro- 
bably a few of the retentive and interstitial spicula entangled in the 
interstices of the skeleton. I have not seen one of these sponges 
taken from the sea; but in two specimens in my possession, which 
were dried in the Hving condition, Bactylocahjx Prattii and Masoni, 
their external appearance is that of being enveloped in a thin brown 
leathery or parchment-like skin, and not the slightest indication of 
the beautiful rigid siliceo-fibrous skeleton is visible. In D. Prattii 
the expansile dermal membrane in its present condition is contracted 
into folds and ridges at the margin of the sponge, strongly indica- 
ting its lax and expansile nature when in the living state. I im- 
mersed one end of my specimen of D. Masoni in water for about half 
an hour ; on removing it from the water, the dermal surface pre- 
sented a smooth and slightly glazed appearance, and the membrane 
was readily removeable by the point of a penknife from the mass of 
the skeleton. When thus removed, I submitted it, immersed in 
water, to a power of 108 hnear; I found that the sarcode lining it 
was so abundant and so much expanded by the water it had imbibed, 
that I could not see the apices of the numerous connecting spicula 
imbedded in it, their long shafts only being visible on its inner sur- 
face projecting through the stratum of sarcode. A thin slice of the 
rigid skeleton prepared under the same circumstances presented si- 
milar difficulties ; the siliceous fibres were completely obscured by the 
abundance of the sarcode present, which filled all the interstitial 
cavities, appearing like a firm gelatinous matter of a deep-brown 
colour ; and it was not until the specimens under consideration were 
dried, the sarcode again contracted into comparatively a thin film, 
and the specimens mounted in Canada balsam, that any of the sili- 
ceous structures of the sponge could be rendered distiiictly visible. 
This abundance of the sarcode and its capability when in the dried 
state of imbibing water with great avidity are not peculiar to the 
siliceo-fibrous sponges; a great numbe'r of the Plalichondioid 
sponges, under similar circumstances, present precisely the same 
phenomena. 

If we make sections in the dried state of cither of the sponges 



72 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jail. 28, 

of which I have been treating at right angles to their surfaces and 
then mount them in Canada balsam without previously immersing 
them in water, we frequently find portions of their surfaces in which 
the expansile dermal membrane has dried without having come into 
close contact with the rigid skeleton beneath it, and we see the shafts 
of the connecting spicula pendent from the inner surface of the der- 
mal membrane and freely suspended in the intervening space ; and 
under these circumstances we also frequently see a secondary thin 
brown dermal membrane closely adhering to the surface of the rigid 
skeleton. Fig. 6, Plate V., represents such a section from Dacty- 
loculyx Prattii. 

When the expansile dermal system in Dactylocahjx Prattii has 
been removed, we find the surface of the rigid skeleton closely co- 
vered by this continuous enveloping membrane, which in its present 
condition is closely adherent to the external surface of the rigid ske- 
leton : while this membrane is in its natural state and position, no 
orifices whatever are observable in it ; but when it is removed, we 
find immediately beneath it, on the surface of the rigid skeleton, a 
vast number of incurrent orifices of about the average diameter of 
one-third of a line. They are very evenly dispersed at about three 
or four times their own diameter from each other. That the enve- 
loping membrane above them should appear imperforate is perfectly 
natural while the sponge is in a quiescent state ; and there is no 
doubt that when requiring nutriment, imbibing-pores would be 
opened above each of the incurreut canals of the skeleton, in the 
same manner as in Geodia and numerous other similarly constructed 
sponges. 

From the lengths of the shafts of the connecting spicula, which 
vary in some species from y^^ to ^-j^ inch, we may estimate tole- 
rably closely the range of the contractile and expansile capabilities 
of the dermal system ; and it is exceedingly probable that this space 
contains the aerating organs of the animal, and is truly the homo- 
logue of the large intermarginal cavities that are so numerous in the 
dermal crust of Geodia Barrettii and other closely allied sponges (see 
Phil. Trans, for 1862, pi. 32. fig. 2, a a, p. 788 ; and ' Monograph 
of British Spongiadse,' vol. i. pi. 28. fig. 35-4, a a, p. 171). And this 
idea is rendered more probable by the existence of the innumerable 
spherical vesicles on the corresponding membrane of Iphiteon IngaUi, 
which have every appearance of being the basal cells bearing the 
vibratory cilia during the life of the animal. 

The most decisive and valuable specific characters are tliose de- 
rived from the connecting spicula. They vary to a very consider- 
able extent in different species in both size and form ; but whatever 
may be the shape of their apical radii, their mutual conuexion is 
always so ordered that not only is there abundant means for their 
combined mass to expand at right angles to the surface of the 
rigid skeleton, but there is always ample room for a great amount of 
expansion and contraction in a lateral direction ; and however com- 
plicated or eccentric may be the radii of their apices when seen 
separately, when in situ they always form a compact reticula- 



1869.] DU. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGKS. 73 

tioii, each ray being so adapted to the structure of its neighbour as 
to render its eccentricity of form, when separate, no longer appa- 
rent when in combination (Plate V. fig. 8). The apices of the con- 
necting spicula are exceedingly various in their forms, but they are 
all modifications of the triradiate one, even in the peltate forms ; the 
triradiate canals passing from the distal termination of the central 
caual of the shaft at once indicate the connexion with the normal 
structure, as represented Plate V. figs. 9, 10, 11. 

The general mass of the fibro-siliceous skeleton in the genera Dac- 
tylocahjx and Iphiteon varies considerably in the different species. 
In some it is quite smooth, in others tuberculated or spinous ; but 
it is constant in its characters in each separate species ; and besides 
its generic value, it very frequently affords valuable specific charac- 
ters. Amidst the tissues of these sponges we find a secondary series 
of skeleton-fibres which are auxiliary to the primary ones, from which 
they diifer in form and character to a very considerable extent. 
In the young condition they assume very much the aspect of the 
rectangulaied hexradiate spicula ; but they differ from the latter in 
alwajs being based upon the skeleton-structure. In their progres- 
sive development they also unite readily with other fibres of a like 
description with which they may come in contact, a habit never as- 
sumed by true spicula of a similar form ; and if in the course of 
their projection they do not meet with other similar fibres, they oc- 
casionally produce a second crop of rectangulating radii, a habit 
which has never yet been observed to occur in rectangulated hexra- 
diate spicula ; and although the latter are frequently intermixed 
with the auxiliary fibres, the spicula and the fibres are always dis- 
tinctly separate from each other. 

The especial office of the auxiliary fibres is evidently that of afford- 
ing support to the interstitial membranes : they are rarely found in 
the compact portions of the rigid skeleton ; but wherever there has 
been a large vacant space in those structures, there we find them 
projected into the space, anastomosing freely with each other, sup- 
porting thin films of interstitial membrane, and ultimately filling 
up spaces in the skeleton with solid fibrous structure, as represented 
in the large interstitial spaces (Plate III. fig. I, a, a, a). Auxiliary 
fibres are frequently found in the interstitial spaces of keratose 
sponges ; but in this olass they always assume the character of the 
common skeleton-structure of the sponge in which they occur, the 
only difference being that they are very much more slender than the 
surrounding skeleton-structures. 

The simple rectangulated hexradiate spicula occur, either singly or 
in fasciculi, in some species of siliceo-fibrous sponges in considerable 
numbers ; in others they are of rare occurrence, or entirely absent. 
Their office is evidently purely that of affording support and exten- 
sion to the interstitial membranes. Tliey never anastomose with 
each other, or unite with any portion of the rigid skeleton. They 
are generally very slender, and when loosely fasciculated they accord 
in position. Their radii are frequently incipiently spinous at their 
apices, apparently for the purpose of affording a secure attachment 



74 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jail. 28, 

to the membranes they are destined to support, and which, in well- 
preserved specimens, may be seen stretching from point to point of 
the radii. Fig. 2, Plate III., represents a spiculum of this form 
X 1 08 hnear. 

In some species of siliceo-fibrous sponges there is a paucity or a 
total absence of the rectangulated auxiliary fibres and of the simple 
rectangulated hexradiate spicula ; in such cases we frequently find 
their places supplied by numerous long acerate interstitial spicula 
dispersed in the interstitial spaces of the rigid skeleton, their office 
appearing to be to increase the surfaces of the nutrimental mem- 
branes. In specimens in which the animal matter is well preserved, 
the membranes are seen stretching from point to point of each spi- 
culum, and from the points of one of these spicula to those of other 
similar ones in its neighbourhood ; and as these spicula occur grouped 
together frequently in considerable numbers, it may be readily con- 
ceived that they perform an important office in thus increasing the 
amount of the nutrimental surfaces within the animal. The inci- 
pient spination of the radii, so prevalent in this form of spiculum, 
admirably fits them to maintain their hold of the delicate interstitial 
membranes which are attached to them. 

The spinulo-trifurcated hexradiate stellate (Plate III. fig. 4) and 
other forms of those spicula appear to be peculiar to the siliceo- 
fibrous sponges. In the well-washed specimens they do not seem 
to be very numerous ; but in cases where the interstitial membranes 
are in a good state of preservation, they are occasionally found to be 
so abundant and so closely packed together as to completely cover 
and obscure the membrane beneath them. Occasionally the hexra- 
diate stellate forms occur with the radii attenuated and acutely ter- 
minated (Plate III. fig. .5). 

This form of spiculum is abundant in the type specimen of 
Dactrjlocalyx pumiceus, and is probably either an abortive or an im- 
mature development of the spinulate form of spiculum. In my exami- 
nation of the corresponding forms of spicula in Iphiteon Ingalli I 
found two of this attenuating form of spiculum which, under a 
power of 108 linear, appeared to have their radii acutely terminated ; 
but on the application of a power of (JQ^ linear I found that their 
apices exhibited incipient spinulation ; and these spicula were the 
only two that I could find, although I searched for other specimens 
in a similar condition amidst a crowd of spinulate ones which com- 
pletely covered a fragment of membrane that I obtained from the 
sponge while in the possession of my late friend Mr. Ingall. 

The situation and peculiarities of the oscula and pores afford im- 
portant characters in the determination of the species in all sponges. 
In the cup-shaped siliceo-fibrous sponges the oscula are situated on 
the surface of the inside of the cup, and the pores on the outer sur- 
face. The same law obtains in the cup-shaped kerato-fibrous 
sponges of commerce and in numerous cup-shaped Halichondraceous 
species. In coating or amorphously massive sponges the oscula and 
pores occupy the same surface, and the incurrent and excurrent sys- 
tems of canals are intermingled. The circulation of the nutrient 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICKO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 75 

and effete fluids of the animal are on the same principle as artery and 
vein in the higher animals, the excurrent canals having their minute 
origins near the terminations of the incurreut canals. But this dis- 
tribution of the two systems does not obtain in all massive sponges. 
In some species of symmetrically oval or nearly spherical forms we 
find a modification of the system that obtains in the cup-shaped 
sponges, the inner portion of the cup being replaced by a large cen- 
tral cloacal tube into which the effete streams from the sponge are 
poured, and from the mouth of which they are projected, in many 
cases with a considerable degree of force. 

This system is well exemplified in the genus Grantia. 

Among the siliceo-fibrous sponges, we recognize the same principle 
in Iphiteon beatrix (Aphroca/Hstes beatrix. Gray), which in every 
other peculiarity of its skeleton is truly an Iphiteon. This variation 
in its habit from the cup-shaped siliceo-fibrous sponges is not sufficient 
to constitute it a separate genus, as we frequently find in the same 
species of sponges (as in Halichondria panicea) that one individual is 
massive with simple surface-oscula, while larger specimens, in addi- 
tion to the surface-oscula, have several large cloacal appendages, re- 
ceiving the excurrent streams in their cavities and discharging them 
from a common orifice. Such modifications of the excurrent sys- 
tem prevail to a very considerable extent in many other sponges ; 
but the type of the skeleton-structure, which should always form 
the basis of generic characters, is never found to vary under any 
circumstances. 

The descrimination of the genera and species of the siliceo-fibrous 
sponges is by no means a difficult task if we address ourselves to the 
operation with a sufficient degree of care and attention. 

In our determination of genera it is necessary that the skeleton- 
structures should be examined in sections parallel to the surface of 
sponge, as well as in those at right angles to it, as the general aspects 
of these two sections are essentially different. Thus in fyhiteon 
calhcyathes a section of the skeleton at right angles to the confluent 
radial strata presents no appearance of the rotulate arrangements of 
the fibre that are so characteristic of the genus ; and in Myliusia 
the crypt-like form of the skeleton is only distinctly visible in a sec- 
tion at right angles to its surface. 

The most efficient and striking specific characters are to be found 
in the expansile dermal system, in the spicula of the dermal mem- 
brane, and in the peculiarities of the structure of the connecting 
spicula. The characters derivable from the skeleton-fibre are often 
very effective ; but in several of the species they so closely resemble 
each other as to be relatively of very little value as distinctive cha- 
racters, while in no two of the known species of siliceo-fibrous sponge 
have we ever seen the same forms of connecting spicula and spicula 
of the dermal membrane occurring together. In the discrimination 
of species we should especially note the peculiarities of this interest- 
ing and beautiful dermal organism ; and a portion of it should be 
boiled in nitric acid to obtain the spicida contained in it in a sepa- 
rate state. 



76 DR. J. S. BOWEREANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

When the expansile dermal sj'stem is present wholly or in part 
in specimens under examination, we are enabled to establish specific 
characters of external form and structural peculiarities of the most 
satisfactory description ; but when that important portion of the 
organic structure of the sponge is absent, the characters derived from 
the form and surface of the rigid skeleton are necessarily provisional, 
and can maintain their places in its description only until a specimen 
in a natural and perfect state can be procured. When in the denuded 
state, the form and surface of the sponge should be stated as those 
of the rigid skeleton, not as that of the sponge. 

Genera, 
Dactylocal\x, Stutchbury. 

Skeleton siliceo-fibrous. Fibres solid, cylindrical. Reticulations 
unsynmietrical. 

Type Dactylocalyx pumiceus, Stutchbury, P. Z. S. 18JI, p. 86. 

Iphiteon, Valenciennes. 

Skeleton siliceo-fibrous. Fibres solid, cylindrical. Reticulations 
symmetrical. Areas rotulate, confluent. 

Type Iphiteon panicea, Museum Jardiu des Plantes, Paris, from 
Porto Rico, 1799. 

Myliusia, Gray. 

Skeleton siliceo-fibrous. Fibres solid, cylindrical. Rete sym- 
metrical, disposed in a series of crypt-like layers parallel with the 
external surface, with intervening planes of perforated siUceous 
tissue. 

Type Myliusia callocyath.es. Gray, from the Island of St. Vin- 
cent, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 439, and 1867, p. 506. 

Kaliavsis, Bowcrbauk. 

Skeleton siliceo-fibrous. Basal fibres cylindrical and canalicu- 
lated ; distal fibres uon-canaliculated, compressed. Basal reticula- 
tions symmetrical and reversedly arcuate ; distal reticulations un- 
symmetrical and continuously ramifying. 

Type Kaliapsis cidaris, Bowerbank. 

Farrea, Bowerbank, 

Skeleton siliceo-fibrous. Fibres canaliculated, canals continuous. 
Rete symmetrical; interstices rectangulated. 
Type Farrea occa, Bowerbank. 

Purisiphonia, Bowerbank. 

Skeleton siliceo-fibrous. Fibres canaliculated, canals continuous, 
Rete unsymmetrical. 

Type Purisijihonia Clarkei, Bowerbank. 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. TJ 

Alcyoncellum, Quoy et Gaimard. 

Sponge fistulate ; fistula single, without a massive base. Skeleton 
siliceo-fibrous ; primary lines radiating from the base in parallel 
straight or slightly spiral lines ; secondary lines at right angles to 
the primary ones. Oscula congregated, with or without a marginal 
boundary to their area. 

Type Alcyoncellum speciosum, Museum Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 



Dactylocalyx pumiceus, Stutchbury. 

Sponge cyathiform, slightly pedicelled. Surface even. Oscula 
and pores unknown. Expansile dermal system — connecting spi- 
cula furcated, attenuato-patento-ternate, and dichotomo-})atento- 
ternate. Dermal membrane — tension-spicula small acerate and 
subequiangular triradiate spicula ; retentive and defensive spicula 
acerate or cylindrical verticillately spinous, whorls of spines nume- 
rous and very large ; and also attenuato-stellate, very minute, and 
numerous. Skeleton : — rete irregular ; fibre stout, irregularly and 
abundantly tuberculated, apices of the tubercles minutely papillous. 
Auxiliary skeleton-fibres more or less rectangular hexradiate, pro- 
fusely spinous, distal terminations clavate, large and numerous. 
Tension-spicula rectangular hexradiate, smooth, long and slender, 
radii subclavate. Retentive spicula trifurcated attenuato-hexra- 
diate stellate ; and spinulo-trifurcated hexradiate stellate, minute and 
very numerous. Gemmules membranous, aspiculous. 

Colour unknovra in the living state. 

Hab. Barbadoes (Dr. Cutting), " Martinique par M. Ple'e, 1829." 

Examined in the state of skeleton. 

Stutchbury's paper descriptive of this sponge was read at the 
Zoological Society, Oct. 26, 1841, and was published in vol. ix. p. 86 
of their Proceedings. A full account of the paper is also published 
in the 'Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' vol. ix. p. 504. 
The author describes the sponge as being " formed entirely of silex, 
the reticulate structure of the mass being composed of transparent 
vitreous tubuli without any admixture of keratose or calcareous mat- 
ter." This is a mistake, as the adult fibres are solid in every por- 
tion of them from the type specimen that I have submitted to micro- 
scopical examination. 

Stutchbury has characterized the species as follows : — 

"Sponge fixed, rigid, siliceotis ; incurrent canals uniform in size; 
excurrent canals large, forming deep sinuosities on the outer surface, 
radiating from the root to the outer circumference." 

In this description the author has reversed the positions of the 
inhalant and exhalant organs, the former being placed on the outer 
surface and the latter on the inner one. 

The whole of these character.s appertain only to its outward appear- 
ance ; and the description would serve equally well for several other 
species beside the one to which he has applied it. I have therefore 
thought it necessary to characterize the sponge from its internal 



78 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

Structure as well as from its external aspect, in the preceding manner. 
The type specimen v.'as a widely expanded cup 16| inches in dia- 
meter. It was divided into about equal parts ; one half remains in 
the Bristol Museum, and the other is in the British Museum ; the 
sides rather exceeded an inch in thickness. 

The expansile dermal system, wiiich usually contains the most 
strikingly characteristic parts of such sponges, is entirely ahser.t ivom 
the general mass of the animal. The nature of the dermal mem- 
brane, the pores, and the oscula are therefore unknown to us ; but 
without the aid of these organs there still remain sufficient perma- 
nent specific characters to enable us to readily separate this species 
from its nearly allied congeners, in their present denuded state. Of 
the two species in the British Museum, Dactylocalyx piimiceus and 
Iphiteon Ingalli, the latter has been figured by Dr. Gray in the 
'Proceedings' of this Society for 1867 (plate 27. fig. 2), and has 
been erroneously designated DactylocaJyx jmmicea ; and this error 
is the more remarkable as the surface-characters of the two spe- 
cimens differ very materially from each other. The outer surface 
of D. pumiceus is furnished with deep channel-like depressions, dis- 
posed in irregular lines radiating from the basal portion towards the 
margin of the sponge. These channels or large interstitial spaces 
penetrate deeply into its substance, so as to convey within it the 
newly imbibed streams from the inhalant pores. On the upper 
surface of the sponge these channels do not exist ; but in lieu of them 
there are numerous large round or oval orifices, varying in diameter 
from about two lines to nearly half an inch. There is a slight ten- 
dency to an arrangement in lines radiating from the centre to the cir- 
cumference. There can be little doubt of these orifices being the 
terminations of the great excurrent system of the sponge, and that 
above each of them in the living state there would be the true oscula 
of the dermal system of the sponge. /. Ingalli differs materially in its 
surface-characters from D. pumiceus. The inner surface of the cup 
is furnished with numerous deep channels or depressions with sharp 
margins, while in D. pumiceus the corresponding part of the sponge 
is occupied with numerous circular or oval orifices with rounded 
margins ; the outer surface of /. Ingalli is furnished with deep 
more or less sinuous channels with rounded margins, while the si- 
milar channels in D. pumiceus are decidedly arranged in nearly 
straight lines. Beside these differences in external appearance, the 
characters of their respective skeletons at once separate them not 
only as species, but as genera. The irregular structure of D. pu- 
miceus is readily to be distinguished from the characteristic symme- 
trical configuration of the circular confluent areas of Iphiteon. 

There is also in the British Museum a piece of D. pumiceus, about 
2 inches long by 1 1 inch broad and about \ inch thick, on a tablet, 
said to be from Barbadoes ; this is probably a fragment off the large 
specimen from the Bristol collection, as its microscopical characters 
agree precisely with those of the large portions which I have exa- 
mined. 

There is also a small specimen of the species in the Belfast Ma- 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWKRBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 79 

seum in about tlie same degree of preservation as the type one ; but 
in consequence, probably, of not having been so much washed to 
make it look pretty, it abounds in the beautiful and characteristic 
spinulo-trifurcate hexradiate stellate retentive spicula. 

The fibre in the skeleton is abundantly but irregularly tuber- 
culated, as represented in fig. 1, Plate III., from a section of 
the type specimen from Barbadoes in the British Aluseum, X 1 08 
linear. 

The tuberculation of the fibre is remarkable and very character- 
istic ; when viewed with a power of about 700 linear, their apices are 
always more or less papillous ; in some the papillae are numerous and 
well produced, while in others they are in an incipient condition. 
Fig. 13, Plate III., represents two of the tubercles on the side of a 
portion of skeleton-fibre with their terminal papillae, X 666 linear. 

Beside the large primary fibres, there is a secondary series of 
skeleton-fibres, which are evidently auxiliary to the larger system. 
They occur especially in the large interstitial spaces of the sponge, 
their office being apparently that of filling up those vacant spaces 
when no longer necessary in the economy of the animal, and to sus- 
tain therein the multiplied folds of the interstitial membrane ; their 
office in this respect is the same as that of the large rectangulated 
hexradiate spicula (PI. III. fig. 2) which occur so frequently in the 
interspaces of the skeletons of the siliceo-fibrous sponges, and their 
mode of development verj^ closely resembles that of those spicula. 
In an early stage of their growth they very closely simulate the form 
of the spicula ; but instead of being freely developed amidst the 
membranous tissues, they are always based on the primary skeleton- 
fibres. A single small fibre pullulates from some part of one of the 
larger skeleton-ones, and is projected in a straight line into the vacant 
space : if it meets with none other in its progress, at some distance 
from its origin four lateral branches are thrown out at right angles 
to the axial fibre and to each other, and the axial fibre conti- 
nues its progress in a straight line. If it meets no other fibre in 
its progress, the distal ends of the axial fibre and of the lateral 
ones become clavated, and all parts of the shaft and radii profusely 
spinous, and the whole constitutes a perfect simulation, in form, 
of a rectangulated hexradiate spiculum. But, on the contrary, 
should the axial or the radial branches meet with other such fibres, 
they immediately inosculate, and the previously straight radii are 
contorted in various directions to meet the necessities of the situa- 
tion ; and, as is frequently the case, where many of these fibres 
are projected from different bases into the same space, they unite 
and form one mass of small contorted fibres, while there is good 
reason, from the gradual increase in size of the basal portions of 
some of them, to believe that they are ultimately developed into 
the size and form of the primary skeleton-ones. 

The primary skeleton-fibre averages ^^ inch in diameter; the 
auxiliary fibres vary from YThro ^^ ToVo ^^^^ ^^ diameter. How 
ever closely they may simulate the form of true hexradiate spi- 
cula, they may always be distinguished from them by their attach- 



80 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

ment to the primary skeleton-fibres and by their habit of inos- 
culation. 

Beside the auxiUary fibres, there are in some parts of the 
sponge an abundance of true rectangular hexradiate spicula (Plate 
III. fig. 2) ; but they are rarely found mixed with the auxiliary 
fibres or in the same spaces with them. Although occurring in 
closely packed groups, they never unite with each other, nor are 
they even attached to any parts of the surrounding skeleton-fibre, 
and they always preserve their normal form. They are slender, 
smooth.'and their radii are very slightly inclined to become clavate. 
The termination of the elongated basal portion of the spiculum is 
frequently incipiently spinous. Their length is -^ inch, the expan- 
sion of the lateral radii Yjro ^^^ch> and the diameter of the axial shaft 
varies from -jr^^jj-jj- to jy-uoTr i"ch. 

The trifurcated atteuuato-hexradiate stellate (Plate III. fig. ^) and 
the trifurcated spinulo-hexradiate stellate spicula (Plate III. fig. 4) 
are both very abundant, and in some small masses of sarcode they 
are so numerous and so closely packed together as to render it quite 
impossible to count them. The sarcode appears to have been very 
abundant, as in some parts it completely fills up the reticulations 
of the skeleton ; it is of a full amber-yellow colour. 

Thus far we have positive characters by which to discriminate 
this beautiful species of sponge from its nearly allied congeners ; 
but I have been fortunate in finding other characters, which, from 
the mode in which ihey have been obtained, although not so deci- 
sive in their nature, are yet of such importance that their descrip- 
tion cannot be omitted in treating of this species. 

I carefully examined the half of the type specimen of D. jmmi- 
ceus that is in the British Museum in the hope of finding a small 
fragment of the dermal portion of the sponge, but I did not suc- 
ceed in detecting any remains of it on the cup-shaped portion of 
the specimen ; but on the basal surface of the pedicel there were 
remains of what appears to have been the basal membrane. It 
consists of a dense yellow incrustation, closely intermingled with 
the basal skeleton-structure, and agreeing in colour and appearance 
with a few very minute specks of the animal matter of the external 
surface of the sponge. I mounted a small portion of this basal mat- 
ter in Canada balsam ; but this material did not render the fragments 
transparent ; yet there were at some portions of their margins unmis- 
takable evidences of their containing spicula. There were also 
fragments of the skeleton-structure of the base of the sponge, the 
reticulations of which were, as might be expected from their situa- 
tion, very close and dense (Plate III. figs. 14 and 15); and along 
with these fragments there was a group of three large and very 
remarkable verticillately spined cylindrical spicula, very closely re- 
sembling in their structure the one represented by fig. 69, plate 3, 
vol. i., ' Monograph of British Sponges,' and also by fig. 23, plate 3fi, 
Phil. Trans, for 1862, but differing from those figures in being much 
longer in their proportions, and in having a greater number of circles 
of spines (Plate III. fig. 6). Having seen thus much of the dermal 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 81 

structures, I treated the remaining portion of the specimen by boil- 
ing it in nitric acid, and obtained not only numerous specimens of 
the spicula I have described above, but others of an exceedingly in- 
teresting description, vrhich I shall now proceed to describe. 

The large verticillately spined spicula are very numerous, and ex- 
ceedingly various in their proportions. They are usually more or 
less curved, and vary greatly in size and in the mode of their spina- 
tion : some of the larger ones are acerate ; that is, each end termi- 
nates in a well-produced point ; others have at one end an irregular 
aggregation of stout spines, while the other is acutely terminated ; 
and in some both ends are crowded with stout spines; and the general 
character of the shaft is that of a cylindrical spiculum. They occur 
in every imaginable stage of development, from extremely delicate 
diameters with the whorls of spines in quite an incipient condition 
(Plate III. fig. 6 a) up to the fully developed spiculum (fig. 6 b). 
The number of whorls of spines vary from 9 to 16; one with the 
latter number measured ^ inch in length, and the diameter of the 
shaft was ^-J^ inch. The spines are large, acutely conical, and there 
are seldom more than five or six in each whorl. These spicula must 
have been very numerous and closely disposed in the membrane. 
The two small pieces acted upon by the acid would not have exceeded 
the space of a quarter of a superficial square inch, while the results 
of their dissolution by the acid would cover more than a superficial 
square inch, and in a microscopic field of view ^g- iuch in diameter 
I counted as many as twenty-one of them. Under all these circum- 
stances there can be no reasonable doubt of these spicula being those 
of the defensive system of the dermal membrane of the sponge ; and 
such spicula are usually found as abundant in the basal membrane 
as in other parts of the dermal system. 

I found also a considerable number of small equiangular or sub- 
inequiangular triradiate spicula with smooth attenuated radii, varying 
in size, from point to point of the rays, from ^^2 '-^ yi a inch (Plate 
III. fig. 7). Such spicula are usually comparatively few in number, 
and are dispersed irregularly on the surfaces of the dermal or inter- 
stitial membranes of sponges. At the margin of a fragment of the 
sponge from very near the basal attachment, which was mounted in 
Canada balsam in its natural condition, I found the small equiangular 
spicula and little acerate ones (Plate III. fig. 8) imbedded in the mem- 
brane amidst minute attenuato-stellate ones. In this position they 
may therefore be regarded as tension-spicula of the dermal membrane. 

Amidst the other spicula resulting from the dissolution of the 
fragments from the base of the sponge by nitric acid there were 
several furcated attenuate- patento-ternate (Plate III. fig. 9) and 
dichotomo-patento-ternate (fig. 10) connecting spicula. One large 
one of the last-named form measured across its ternate termination 
-^j, inch ; and all of them had large central canals in their radii. 
These spicula appear to vary considerably in size ; a smaller one 
measured y^^ inch in greatest expansion. There can be no doubt 
that they belonged to the expansile dermal system of the sponge ; 
and the small number of them found may be accounted for by their 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 18G9, No. VI. 



82 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jian. 28, 

forming no part of the economy of the basal membrane, although 
usually abounding in the dermal one ; and their presence may be 
accounted for bv the fact that the material operated on was princi- 
pally taken from the margin of the base of the sponge, at the junc- 
tion of the membrane of the pedicel with that of the base. 

Imbedded in the remains of the membranous structures operated 
upon by nitric acid, there were a few very minute attenuate-stellate 
spicula ; and I subsequently found at the margin of a fragment of 
the basal portion of the sponge, mounted in Canada balsam in its 
natural condition, several dichotomo-patento-ternate connecting 
spicula in situ, and along with them a crowd of the minute attenuato- 
stellate ones. They were so numerous as to entirely obscure the 
small portion of dermal membrane on which they reposed. The 
regular mode of their disposition on the membrane, and the contact 
of the latter with the expanded outer surface of the heads of the 
dichotomo-patento-ternate connecting spicula, unmistakably indi- 
cates their especial office and true position in the sponge as reten- 
tive and defensive spicula of tne dermal membrane. 

I measured several of these minute spicula. The largest was 
-j-gVr "^^^' ^'"*^"^ ^^^ opposite points of their radii ; the smallest was 
■TTYo^ inch iu extreme diameter ; but by far the greater number were 
about ^j-jjVu inch in diameter, and the largest measurement was of rare 
occurrence. Occasionally, but very rarely, the radii were cylindrical, 
instead of attenuating to an acute point. 

From the indications afforded by the spicula I have described 
above we may reasonably predict that, when a specimen of D. putni- 
ceus shall have been found in a living state and perfectly preserved, 
we shall find it to be furnished with a beautiful expansile dermal 
system similar in character to those of the siliceo-fibrous sponges 
which are well known to us in a perfect state of preservation, such 
as D. Prattii and D. Masoni. But our evidence regarding the 
structure of the sponge is not yet exhausted ; for by a careful exa- 
mination of a series of minute fragments which I subsequently ob- 
tained from the margin of the base of the type specimen in the 
British Museum and mounted in Canada balsam in their natural 
conditions, I strengthened the evidence obtained from the spicula 
operated on by nitric acid. In several cases these spicula were seen 
imbedded together in the same membrane at the transparent edges 
of the fragments under examination. In one such case the membrane 
was thickly studded with the minute attenuato-stellate spicula, and 
amidst them was imbedded one of the subequiangular triradiate and 
several of the small acerate tension-spicula ; from the edges of an- 
other fragment the ternate heads of two connecting spicula, covered 
by dermal membrane containing innumerable miuute attenuato-stel- 
late spicula, were projected, thus confirming the inferences raised 
by the spicula arising from the dissolution of the fragments in nitric 
acid. 

The evidence derived from the dissolution of portions of the basal 
part of the sponge in nitric acid might reasonably be questioned ; 
but when we are able to confirm it by detecting the spicula separated 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICKO-FIBROUS SPONGKS. 83 

by the acid imbedded together in their natural conditions in the 
membranes of the animal, this at once removes all doubts respecting 
their really appertaining to the animal under consideration. 

In a small fragment of the skeleton from the inner surface of the 
sponge near the base I found portions of the interstitial membranes 
filling the areas of the network of the skeleton in a good state of 
preserration ; they were coated with dense yellow sarcode, in which 
were a considerable number of trifurcated hexradiate stellate spicula 
completely imbedded ; but I could not detect any of the minute 
attenuato-stellate, the equiangular triradiate, or the small acerate 
spicula ; it may therefore be fairly inferred, from their absence in the 
interstitial membranes, that the latter three forms appertain more 
especially to the dermal one, in which they occur in such abundance. 

In the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes at Paris there are two 
very interesting specimens of Dactylocalyx pumiceus ; one is a 
small and apparently young specimen, the other a tall ewer-shaped 
specimen in a well-developed adult condition. The first of these 
two specimens, I was informed, had not been in the possession of 
Dr. Lacaze-Duthiers more than a few weeks previously to my seeing 
it. It was labelled " Iphiteon panicea, Valenciennes. La Marti- 
nique." It is 2| inches in height, and the same in diameter at the 
top of the cup. It is based on the edge of a Hat piece of what is 
apparently tufa. In form, it is a symmetrical cup without a pe- 
dicel ; the base is about li inch by 1 inch in diameter. The thick- 
ness of the cup at the margin varies from a quarter to rather exceed- 
ing half an inch. On the outer surface there are deep channels run- 
ning most frequently in a longitudinal direction, varying in width 
from about 1 to 2 lines, and in length from | inch to 2 inches ; and 
where they are not present, their places are supplied by round or 
oval deep apertures. On the interior surface there are also 9 or 10 
lines of large round or oval apertures radiating from the base of the 
cup to the margin. Many of these deep interstitial cavities pass 
entirely through the sides of the cup, so that they are common to 
both internal and external surfaces. In some of these cavities on 
the inside of the cup there were one or two long slender spicula, the 
whole lengths of which could not be seen. 

The structural peculiarities of the skeleton agree perfectly with 
those of the type specimen of Stutchbury's genus Dactylocalyx, and 
the specific characters, as far as they were present, with the species 
pumicetis. The specimen has been too well washed, to make it look 
beautiful ; but notwithstanding this injudicious treatment, I found, 
in the minute section of the skeleton, made at right angles to its sur- 
face, several little groups of spinulo- trifurcated hexradiate spicula 
imbedded in the remains of the animal matter. 

The second or ewer-shaped specimen is 14 inches in height ; its 
upper margin is not circular, but has one portion of its circumfe- 
rence bent outward and downward like the lip of a large water-ewer. 
At this depressed part it is 1 2| inches across ; and at right angles to 
this Hue the measurement is 10 inches. It is XahtW^A. " Iphiteon 
panicea " from " Martinique par M. Plee 1829." It lias no part 



84 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

remaining of the basal membrane or true surface of attachment, and 
has in the centre of its present base a hole through it big enough to 
receive my first finger ; and it is probable that the true base was an 
inch or more below the present one. On its external surface it has 
numerous wide and deep channels, radiating irregularly from the base 
towards the margin of the cup. The ridges between these channels 
have rounded edges, and they have frequently round or oval aper- 
tures irregularly dispersed upon them. Both channels and round 
orifices penetrate deeply into the substance of the sponge. The in- 
terior surface has very few of these interstitial channels ; but there 
are an abundance of large cavities of a somewhat funnel-shaped form, 
their lower orifices being small compared with their surface ones, 
many of which are ^ inch in diameter. There is a very slight 
tendency towards a radial arrangement of these large orifices. 

The results of the microscopical examinations of fragments of 
the tissues of this sponge from various parts were exceedingly satis- 
factory. From the part of the base of the sponge, where it is stained 
yellow by the remains of the animal matter, I obtained portions of 
membranous structure containing numerous specimens of dichotomo- 
patento-lernate spicula, like those in the basal membrane of the type 
specimen in the British Museum. Dense patches of small acerate 
spicula with numerous minute simple attenuato-stellate ones inter- 
mixed with them, precisely similar to those in the type specimen, 
were also abundant and in situ, completely covering and concealing 
comparatively large fragments of the skeleton-tissues. A few frag- 
ments of a basal siliceous reticulation similar to that in the type spe- 
cimen were also observed. 

From a part of the external surface of the sponge near its upper 
margin, which was stained of a brown colour by the animal matter, I 
obtain fragments containing numerous patches of dark amber- 
coloured sarcode and a considerable number of gemmules in situ. 
They are globose and variable in size (Plate III. fig. 12); they 
are membranous and aspiculous, and are very like those figured in 
plate 25. fig. 340, 'Monograph of British Spongiadse,' vol. i., from 
Iphiteon panicea in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes. Im- 
bedded in the patches of sarcode there were trifurcated attenuate 
and spinulo trifurcated hexradiate stellate spicula in considerable 
quantities ; and in some dust shaken out of the inside of the sponge 
numerous fine specimens of the large fusiformi-acerate spicula, like 
those of the type sj)ecimens, were obtained. The discovery in the 
French specimen of the dichotomo-patento-temate spicula, and the 
patches of the small acerate and simple attenuato-stellate spicula in- 
termingled, is highly satisfactory, as it places beyond a reasonable 
doubt their true positions in the sponge, and that they were not ad- 
ventitious in the type specimen, but were really characteristic of the 
species ; and at the same time it marks the specific identity of the 
French specimen with the type one of Stutchbury's genus. 

None of the large acerate or cylindrical verticillately spinous spi- 
cula which abound in the basal membrane of the type specimen, 
or of the subequiangular triradiate spicula of the dermal membrane, 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 8.5 

were observed ; but their absence may be readily accounted for by 
the condition of the basal portion of the French specimen and the 
apparently total destruction of its dermal membrane. In every 
other specific character there is a complete agreement between the 
two specimens under consideration. 

Among the spicula resulting from the dissolution of a portion of 
the basal structures of the type specimen of D. pumiceus, I found two 
trifurcated expando-ternate spicula, which are represented by fig. 14, 
Plate III., X 666 linear. They are very minute, and probably 
belong to an unknown species of the genus, and were adherent to the 
basal membrane of D. pumiceus. I have never met with this form 
of spiculum before ; I have therefore thought it advisable to record 
its occurrence. 

Dactylocalyx heteroformts, Bowerbank. 

Coscinospongia heteroformis, Valenciennes. 

Sponge sessile, fan-shaped, plicated sinuously. Surface slightly 
undulaling, minutely hispid. Oscula on the upper surface slightly 
elevated and marginated, margins rounded ; uniform in size and 
very numerous, irregularly dispersed, rarely exceeding one-third of a 
line in diameter. Pores congregated on the under or inhalant 
surface ; porous areas scarcely visible to the unassisted eye, slightly 
depressed, very numerous, dispersed, rarely more than once their 
own diameter from each other. Expansile dermal system exceed- 
ingly ramified and complicated ; inhalant surface furnished abun- 
dantly with long, slender, flexuous spicula, irregularly dispersed amid 
the dermal fibres. Dermal membrane pellucid, furnished with a fine 
but very irregular network of apparently siliceous fibres. Skeleton 
— reticulations close, irregular, and very much ramified ; fibre smooth, 
slightly compressed ; frequently terminating in dense short tufts of 
minutely ramified fibres. 

Colour in the dried state, dark brown. 
Hab. Shanghai {M. Montigny, 1854). 
Examined in the dried condition. 

The sponge is composed of numerous sinuous plications or folds 
from 3 to 4 lines in thickness near the margin. It is 5 inches in 
height, A^ inches in breadth, and, including the plications, from 3 to 
4 inches from back to front. The membranous and sarcodous tis- 
sues are apparently in the same state of preservation as when taken 
from the sea in a living condition. The surface of the plications is 
slightly undulated. The hispidation of the surface is not visible to 
the unassisted eye ; but, in a section at right angles to the surface, 
beneath the microscope it is distinctly apparent. The integral parts 
of the expansile dermal system appear to be inextricably locked to- 
gether ; but this external layer of tissue is distinctly separated from 
the solid mass of the skeleton beneath it. The porous system on 
the under or inhalant surface of the sponge is a very beautiful mi- 
croscopical object. The inhalant areas are exceedingly numerous 
and closely adjoining each other ; they vary to some extent in their 



86 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

form from circular to oval, and occasionall_y they are nearly oblong. 
Thev are protected from the incursions of minute annelids and other 
eneiiiies by the projection into their areas of the furcated termina- 
tions of the skeleton-fibres of the surface-tissues (Plate IV. fig. 2). 
This beautiful mode of defence is very characteristic of the species, 
and is an excellent substitute for the usual defensive spicula in such 
organs. Beside this mode of defence, the dermal surface is fur- 
nished rather abundantly with long slender flexuous spicula, which 
pass over the inhalant areas in various directions. 

The oscular surface of the sponge is not furnished with the same 
minute slender acerate spicula that abound on the inhalant one, but 
the whole of the former surface is protected by a modification of the 
style of defence that is so beautifully exhibited on the margins of 
the inhalant areas. The oscular membrane which closes that organ 
and the slightly elevated ring whence it proceeds have not the same 
furcated defences that are so abundant at the margins of the inha- 
lant areas ; but as we focus downward through the orifice towards 
the surface of the rigid skeleton of the sponge, we occasionally ob- 
serve some of the furcated defences projecting from the parietes of 
the cavities. The oscular membranes at several of these orifices 
were in a semicontracted state ; numerous minute grains of sand 
were scattered on their external surfaces, but no spicula were appa- 
rent in any of the membranes. In one of them the margin was in a 
very perfect condition, slightly thickened ; and tlie membrane exhi- 
bited faint concentric lines of contraction (Plate IV. fig. 3). 

The dermal membrane is jjellucid, and is furnished with a fine but 
very irregular network or stratum of slender siliceous fibres, their sili- 
ceous structure being well characterized by the frequency of their frac- 
tures at right angles to their axes ; they do not appear to anastomose, 
but to overlie each other without any approach to symmetry in the 
mode of their disposition. Plate IV. fig. 4 represents a small por- 
tion of this tissue beneath a power of 308 linear. 

The skeleton-tissue is exceedingly irregular and intricate. The 
fibres of which it is composed are more or less compressed ; they 
are quite smooth, but frequently throw off short branches which 
terminate with crowded masses of minute ramifications of siliceous 
structure. 

In July 1861, when I first saw this sponge in the collection of the 
Jardin des Plantes at Paris, the late Professor Valenciennes told me 
that he had not yet described it ; and on the occasion of my last 
visit to Paris, in May 1868,1 could not learn that he had subsequently 
done so. I am therefore quite ignorant of the characters he would 
have assigned to his genus Coscinospotigia ; but as it agrees in the 
structure of its skeleton with Stutchbury's previously established 
Dactylocalyx, I have assigned it to that genus accordingly. 

Dactylocalvx M'^Andrewii, Bowerbank. 
MacAndrewia azorica. Gray, P. Z. S. 1839, p. 438, plate xv. 
Sponge pedicelled, sinuously cup-shaped. Surface even or 
slightly imdulating. Oscula small, evenly dispersed on the inner or 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 8/ 

exhalaut surface ; simple or slightly elevated and marginated. Pores 
inconspicuous, evenly dispersed on the outer or inhalant surface, 
furnished with a protective fringe of minute short acerate spicula. 
Expansile dermal system — dermal membrane abundantly furnished 
with minute, short, stout, acerate spicula, evenly matted together. 
Connecting spicula foliato-expando-ternate ; foliations of the apex 
depressed, very elaborate and irregular, shaft rather long. Skeleton- 
surface covered by a secondary dermal membrane ; abundantly fur- 
nished with minute, short, acerate spicula, same as those of the pri- 
mary dermal membrane. Skeleton-fibres somewhat compressed, 
smooth, furnished at intervals with groups of large spicular attenu- 
ated spines. Sarcode in the dried state amber-coloured. 

Colour, in the dried state, nut-brown. 

Hub. St. Michael's, Azores {Robert M' Andrew, Esq.). 

Examined in the dried state. 

This sponge was described by Dr. J. E. Gray in the ' Proceedings' 
of this Society for 18.59, p. 438, plate xv. Radiata, under the 
name of MacAndrewia azorica. In its external appearance it very 
closely resembles Ductyloculyx heteroformis of the Museum of the 
Jardin des Plantes, Paris, and Dactylocalyx Prattii ; but in its 
structural characters it differs in many important respects from 
either of them. 

The structure of the skeleton is truly that of a Dactylocalyx, and 
I have therefore referred it to that genus. 

The description of the genus in the ' Proceedings ' of this Society 
for 1859 refers only to its external characters, and is so vague that 
it might be equally well applied to several other species of this 
tribe of sponges. In the 'Proceedings' for May 1867 Di". Gray 
gives another version of its generic characters, in which he designates 
the sponge as a coral, thus : — " The coral expanded, cyathiform ; 
the upper and lower surface smooth, the upper surface with small 
oscules ; the fibres of skeleton small, with stellate spicules on the 
dermal surface. The stellate spicules three-rayed ; the rays forked 
and reforked. Bowerbank, British Sponges, fig. 53." This de- 
scription is not only quite as vague as the original one, but, in addi- 
tion, is very incorrect. In the first place, the specimen is undoubt- 
edly not a coral ; and, secondly, there are no stellate spicula on the 
dermal surface, nor have the connecting spicula " the rays forked and 
reforked." And the reference made to ' British Sponges,' fig. 53, 
is a mistake, as a reference to that work will prove, the spiculum 
there represented by the figure quoted being " a spicuiated dichotomo- 
patento-ternate " one "from an unknown sponge." And, moreover, 
no such form of spiculum is to be found in Dr. Gray's MacAndrewia 
azorica. The specimen is in the British Museum. 

The sponge is elevated on a short stout pedicel, from the top of 
which it expands into an irregular sinuously shaped cup with rounded 
margin. The external or inhalant surface is smooth, but slightly 
undulating. The internal or exhalant surface is slightly roughened 
by the presence of the oscula, which are evenly distributed over the 



88 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

whole of its surface ; they rarely exceed a line in diameter ; the 
smaller ones are frequently simple orifices, the larger ones are slightly 
elevated and marginated. The pores are not visible without the aid 
of considerable microscopical power; with about 100 linear their 
structure exhibits an exceedingly beautiful appearance. They each 
occupy an area formed by the intermingling of the elegant foliations 
of the ternate connecting spicula ; and each little porous area is fur- 
nished with a regular fiinge composed of a single series of the small 
dermal tension-spicula, which, projected from its margin inwards, 
meet at about the centre of the space, forming a complete defence 
against the incursions of any minute enemy ; in the dermal mem- 
brane around, the minute tension-spicula are closely and irregularly 
matted together (Plate IV. fig. 5). 

When we view a section of the sponge made at right angles to its 
surface, the structural peculiarities of the expansile dermal system 
of this tribe of sponges are very beautifully displayed. The outer 
surface is densely covered with the terminations of the ternate spi- 
cula of that organ, and again with the dermal membrane and its 
closely matted tension-spicula. Immediately beneath we see the 
pendent shafts of the ternate spicula, more or less clothed with minute 
acerate spicula, and with the proximal terminations of the shafts 
cemented by keratode to projecting portions of the fibre of the rigid 
skeleton, the surface of which is covered by a stratum of membra- 
nous structure, abundantly furnished with minute acerate spicula ; 
the space between this surface-membrane of the rigid skeleton and 
the under surface of the expansile dermal system forms a large ca- 
vernous or crypt-like cavity supported by innumerable pillars at 
about equal distances from each other. 

The arrangement of the fibres of the rigid skeleton have all the 
complete irregularity of a Dactylocalgx, and there is not the 
slightest approach in any part to the confluent radial structure of an 
Iphiteon. There are a few comparatively large acerate spicula dis- 
persed amid the reticulations of the rigid skeleton ; they are about 
four or five times the length of the dermal ones, and they are not 
frequently to be seen in situ. The connecting spicula are exceedingly 
beautiful objects. They are very variable in size and structure ; and 
no two of them are alike in the mode of the foliations of their ternate 
radii, which are evidently modified to meet the necessities of the in- 
termingling of their terminations, so as to secure a strong and elastic 
covering to the interstitial cavity beneath, and at the same time to 
produce abundant spaces for the porous areas of the dermis of the 
inhalant system. The structural aspect beneath the exhalant sur- 
face is very different from that of the inhalant one : here we find, as 
might be expected, large cavernous spaces for the reception of the 
effete streams from the rigid skeleton beneath, and, instead of the 
regular crypt-like form with its numerous minute pillars, we have 
elongated extensive spaces, the sides of which are, to a great extent, 
composed of irregularly disposed large acerate spicula imbedded in 
membranous structure ; the shafts of the connecting spicula above 
are some of them connected with the parietes of the cavernous spaces. 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 8) 

Them °^^^'^' ^^^^" ^'^ ^^""^ ""^ connexion with the tissues beneath 

Dactylocalyx Prattii, Bowerbank. 

Sponge irregularly cup-shaped, pedicelled ; surface even, slightly 
undulatuig Oscula simple, small, dispersed, numerous. Pores 
congregated ni areas formed by the distal terminations of the ex- 
pando-ternate connecting spicula, numerous and large. Expansile 
dermal system-dermal membrane pellucid, furnished abundantly 
with minute entirely spined fusiformi-cylindrical spicula. short 
trequently semilunate or angulated, irregularly dispersed. Con- 
necting spicula irregularly furcated patento-ternate ; radii slightly 
depressed, apices thin and expanded; ternate heads combiniL to 
form a dermal network. Enveloping membrane of the rigid skeleton 
abounding with the same minute spicula as those of the dermal 
membrane and also with numerous separate flat fasciculi of Ion- 
and slender acerate tension-spicula. Skeleton-rete compact*^ 
fibres smooth, or irregularly and slightly spinous ; free terminations 
of fibres ramose, or abundantly tuberculated. Interstitial spicula 
acerate long slender, and frequently flexuous, mostly disposed in 
lines at right angles to the dermal surface. Interstitial membranes 
pellucid, furnished with the same form of retentive spicula as the 
dermal membrane. 

Colour in the dried state, light brown. 

Examined in the dried state. 

I am indebted to my late friend Mr. S. P. Pratt for the very in- 
teresting specimen under consideration. He stated that he was not 
quite certain of its locality, but he believed he had received it from 
his son, who was then in Lidia, along with many other interesting 
marine specimens. The form of the sponge is that of an irregularl? 
shaped cup, the rim of which is nearly an oblong, 4| inches longaud 
3i inches wide ; and at one corner tbere is a depression of the mar- 
gin so as to form a lip to the cup of rather more than an inch in 
deptii. The height of the cup in its present state is 4 inches. It 
has been broken away from its natural base ; but, from the indications 
remaining, it is probable that it was elevated on a short pedestal 
ihe margin of the cup is unequal in its thickness, varying from half 
an inch to a thin sharp edge. The specimen was evidently in a living 
state when taken from the sea, and it is still in an excellent state ol" 
preservation. 

The oscula are simple orifices, without any especial defensive or- 
gans ; they have the usual contractile membrane to open and close 
them in accordance with the necessities of the amimal. The greater 
portion ot them were closed, while others were more or less open. 
Ihrough one in the latter condition, in a slice from the surface 
mounted m Canada balsam, the surface of the rigid skeleton was 
seen, covered by the enveloping membrane, which was closely adhe- 



90 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jail. 28, 

rent to the outer portion of the rigid skeleton. "When the back of this 
specimen was presented to the eye, this membrane was seen to be 
abundantly supplied with large, long, flat fasciculi of slender acerate 
tension-spicula. The minute short fusiformi-cyHndrical spicula were 
as profusely scattered over the surface of this membrane as on the 
external dermal one. 

The porous system, especially when we view its inner surface, is a 
most beautiful object for the microscope. The interlacing radii of 
the large pateuto-ternate connecting spicula form a beautiful series 
of round or oval areas, each containing from one to four or five large 
pores, the greater portion of which were open ; and the dermal mem- 
brane on which they exist is beautifully freckled with innumerable 
minute, entirely spined fusiformi-cylindrical spicula, so closely packed 
together as to completely obscure the surface of the membrane, while 
the acutely conical shafts of the connecting spicula are seen at re- 
gular intervals projected towards the eye. A portion of this beau- 
tiful membrane is represented by fig. 8, Plate V. 

The expansile dermal system is admirably displayed in this sponge 
by a section at right angles to the surface from almost any part of 
it. In some portions of such a section the dermal surface is closely 
pressed on to the surface of the rigid skeleton, while m others it is 
seen more or less separated from it, forming a cavity above it, into 
which the shafts of the connecting spicula are projected towards the 
surface beneath, as represented by fig. (3, Plate V. 

The irregularly furcated patento-teruate connecting spicula are 
singular in their structure, and very characteristic of the species. 
No two of them are precisely alike, either in size or form ; tbe ec- 
centricity with which the radii are projected from the head of the 
shaft and the exceedingly variable mode of their ramifications are 
not a matter of chance, but they are evidently influenced by the ne- 
cessities of their combinations with each other in forming the dermal 
network and porous areas ; ibr if we view them in situ, we observe 
no points straying fiom the lines of combination, but the whole of 
their radii are locked together so as to form a compact but expansile 
network for the support of the dermal membrane and the formation 
of the porous areas. 

The interstitial membranes filling the areas of the network of the 
skeleton are very translucent, and would scarcely be visible when 
immersed in Canada balsam, if it were not for the minute, short fusi- 
formi-cylindrical spicula which are dispersed over their surfaces. 
These sj)icula, though exceedingly minute, aiFord very decisive spe- 
cific characters. They are dispersed, more or less, over every part 
of the membranous structures, but more especially on the dermal 
membrane and the enveloping membrane of the rigid skeleton, which 
tissues they completely cover. They require a power of from 700 
to 1000 linear to define their structural characters in a satisfactory 
manner. They vary considerably in size ; one of the largest that 
I measured was ., .^.^ 3 inch in length, and Yite 6 ^"'^^ ^" diameter ; 
one of the smallest measured 4 gVff i^ch in length, and -^olds ^"^'^ 
in diameter. 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 91 

The continuous reticulating fibre of the skeleton is smooth and 
slightly compressed ; but there are numerous stout branches pro- 
jected from it that are full of large tuberculations, so that they very 
closely resemble the young budding antlers of a stag which are being 
renewed after the old ones have been shed. There are also occasion- 
ally small short groups of tubercles on the angles of the reticulating 
skeleton ; but these are probably an incipient state of the large 
tuberculated branches which are projected in such great numbers 
into the interstitial cavities of the sponge. These organs apparently 
supply the place of auxiliary fibres and the rectaugulated hexradiate 
spicula so plentiful in other species of DactylocaJyx, but which 
appear to be totally absent in this one. The numerous fasciculi of 
long slender acerate spicula also appear to replace the rectangulated 
hexradiate ones in their oflSce of supplying support to the interstitial 
membranes of the sponge in the larger spaces within the skeleton ; 
a few single ones are frequently seen passing amid the reticulations 
of the skeleton in directions either horizontal or diagonal to the 
surface. 

During a visit to the British Museum on the 23rd of October, 
1868, I was fortunate enough to find a second specimen of this spe- 
cies, from Formosa by Mr. Swinhoe. It differs materially in form 
from the type one that I received from my late friend Mr. Pratt. 
It is a much less developed sponge ; but what there is of it is on a 
larger scale ; and fortunately the basal attachment, wanting in the 
type specimen, is in a perfect condition. It is seated on one end of 
a small mass of what appears to be sandstone, the under surface of 
which is covered by serpulge. On the sandstone at the base of the 
sponge there is a cream-coloured patch of a compound tunicated 
animal, about 1 1 inch in length and | inch in breadth. The base of the 
sponge is 2 in<;hes by 1^ iuch in diameter ; half an inch above the at- 
tachment the specimen is contracted (and at that part the development 
of the cup commences), and it expands slightly upward ; the height 
of the specimen is about 3 inches. The sponge is fortunately in 
very nearly as fine a state of preservation as when taken from the 
sea ; and every organ that is found in the type specimen appears 
in abundance in the one from Formosa. In truth, portions of the 
structures taken from the one specimen cannot, by microscopical 
examination, be distinguished from those mounted from the other. 

There are some points in the state of the two specimens that are 
very instructive. Thus in the type specimen the porous system is 
in a beautiful condition, and the numerous pores in the areas are all 
open, while in the corresponding portions of the dermal membrane 
in the specimen from Formosa they are entirely closed ; so that the 
important character of the congregation of the pores in areas could 
not have been determined from the latter specimen alone. 

The acquisition of this specimen from Formosa is in favour of Mr. 
Pratt's belief that the type one was really an East-Indian specimen. 

Dactylocalyx Masont, Bowerbank. 

Sponge sessile, sinuously fan-shaped ; surface even, margin 



92 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

rounded. Oscula small, slightly elevated, dispersed, very numerous. 
Pores inconspicuous, dispersed. Expansile dermal system — dermal 
membrane abundantly spiculous. Connecting spicula furcated, at- 
tenuato-patento-ternate, large and numerous ; heads combining to 
form an irregular dermal network. Retentive spicula elongo-at- 
tenuato-stellate ; radii long and slender, rather numerous. En- 
veloping membrane of rigid skeleton- — retentive spicula same as 
those of the dermal membrane, rather numerous. Skeleton — areas 
of reticulation round or oval, nearly equable in size ; fibre smooth, 
but umbonaied at intervals ; umbones cylindrical, smooth, short ; 
apices very nearly flat. Gemmules membranous, smooth, sub- 
globular. 

Colour, in the dried state, nut-brown. 
Hab. Madeira {H. N. Mason, Esq.). 
Examined in the dried state. 

The form of this sponge is that of a ])road, irregularly sinuous, fan- 
shaped plate about .5 or 6 lines in thickness ; it is Ih inches high, 
12| inches wide, and 3| inches from back to front. On the latter, or 
inhalant surface, at about the middle of its width, there are three 
sinuously fan-shaped plates given off, the largest one from about 
midway between the base and top of the sponge, and two smaller 
ones from near the base ; the upper one has grown on a plane about 
parallel to that of the parent sponge, and its inhalant and exhalant 
surfaces accord with those of that portion of the specimen. The two 
lower ones are projected from the large sponge at nearly right angles 
to its inhalant surface ; and they have their inhalant surfaces on 
their upper sides, and their exhalant ones within the folds of their 
under ones. 

The sponge has evidently been sessile : there are no remains of an 
expanded base, but the attachment has apparently been near the 
middle of the basal portion of the specimen ; and it appears to have 
grown on a somewhat elevated piece of rock, as both of the extreme 
ends of the sponge project below the apparent plane of attachment. 
It is evidently an old and well-matured specimen, as it has numerous 
parasites attached to its inhalant surface, among which are several 
specimens of Vermetus, and three of what is apparently Caryophyllia 
Smithii, two of which are full-grown, and one of them has numerous 
parasites on its external surface. 

The condition of the sponge is excellent : all its organs are evi- 
dently in the state they were when it was taken alive from the sea ; 
and it has apparently never undergone the deterioration of immersion 
in fresh water, as a quantity of salt remains in crystals on its surface. 

This specimen is therefore especially valuable as leading to a 
natural elucidation of the general characters of the singular and 
beautiful class of sponges to which it belongs. 

The oscula present no very striking characters ; the margins are 
slightly elevated and rounded ; many of them are completely closed, 
while others are only partially so ; and through the central orifice on 
these the enveloping membrane ol the rigid skeleton, thickly studded 



18G9.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 93 

with elongo-attenuato-stellate spicula, may frequently be seen in situ. 
The connecting spicula are very numerous beneath the dermal mem- 
brane of this surface, and their closely intermingled ternate heads 
form a strong and very complicated dermal network. Occasionally 
the oscula run from two or three to six or seven in a line, on a 
slightly elevated ridge ; but in other respects there is no approxima- 
tion to a definite arrangement. The pores are situated each in a single 
area, the margin of which is slightly thickened and elevated ; the 
areas are visible by the aid of a lens of 2 inches focus ; they are 
very numerous, and about equidistant from each other ; the greater 
portion of them were in a closed condition. 

The expansile dermal system of this sponge affords excellent 
specific characters : the furcated attenuato-patento-ternate connect- 
ing spicula are large and strong, and their shafts comparatively 
long, and the central canals in both the shaft and the radii are large 
and well defined ; the furcations of their ternate heads are closely in- 
termingled, forming a fine but very irregular and complex dermal 
network. They vary very considerably in size and proportions : 
one of the largest measured -^ inch in length, and -^ inch in the 
extreme expansion of its ternate head ; one of the smallest measured 
Y^3 inch in length, and in extreme expansion of its ternate head 
y^^ inch. 

The elongo-attenuato-stellate retentive spicula of the dermal mem- 
brane are very minute ; two of the largest measured xtVt "^'^^^ ^^^ 
Y^y-(y inch in length. Their shafts are rarely straight ; they have 
usually two or three angular bends. The radii are long, slender, 
and exceedingly acutely terminated. Their structure and profuse 
dispersion on the surface of the membrane renders them a most 
effective protection against the insidious attacks of voracious enemies 
on that organ. Those on the oscular surface are larger than those 
of the inhalant one. 

The skeleton is also strikingly characteristic. The fibre is some- 
what compressed ; it is perfectly smooth excepting the umbones 
with which it is studded at intervals ; they project from half to once 
their own diameter from its surface, are nearly cylindrical in form 
and have either a flat or a hemispherical apex. In the dried con- 
dition of the sponge, when closely adherent to the inner surface of 
the dermal membrane, they may at first sight be readily mistaken 
for pores ; their form and general appearance is unlike any cor- 
responding organs of a similar description in any other known species 
of this tribe of sponges. 

A few gemmules were observed ; they were somewhat globular, 
with a broad attachment ; with a power of 308 linear they appeared 
to be filled with minute semitransparent molecules. Their general 
character is very much that of the similar organs in Iphiteon panicea 
of the Porto-Rico specimen in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes. 

When portions of the interior of the skeleton of this sponge are 
immersed in water, and examined beneath the microscope, the sar- 
code is found to be abundant in the interstices of the skeleton, some- 
times completely filling the interstitial spaces, and quite ignorinfr 



94 DR. J.S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO- FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

the idea that it occurs in but very small quantities in the siliceo- 
fibrous sponges. In truth, if we compare the abundance of its pre- 
sence in this species, as well as in D. M'Andrewii and other such 
sponges which have been preserved in their natural condition, we 
cannot come to any other conclusion than that this vital substance 
is as abundant in the siliceo-fibrous sponges as it is in the Hali- 
chondroid species, and even in the true Spongice. 

Dactylocalyx BowERBANKii, Johnson. 

Sponge sinuously and expansively cup-shaped, sessile. Surface 
even ; margin flat and angulated. Oscula simple, dispersed, nu- 
merous. Pores inconspicuous, dispersed. Expansile dermal system 
— dermal membrane abundantly spiculous ; connecting spicula fur- 
cated patento-ternate, and rarely dichotomo-patento-ternate, large 
and long ; tensiou-spicula fusiformi-acerate, small and short, few in 
number; retentive spicula elougo-cylindro-stellate, with very short 
radii, minute, exceedingly numerous ; and elongo-attenuato stellate 
few in number. Skeleton — areas round or oval, irregular ; fibre 
cylindrical, smooth, but irregularly nodulous at intervals ; nodules 
cylindrical, short, terminating hemispherically. Interstitial mem- 
brane — interstitial spicula fusiformi-acerate, long, slender, and flexu- 
ous, and same form rather short and stout ; retentive spicula 
elongo-cylindro-stellate, and elongo-attenuato-stellate, the same as 
those of the dermal membrane, few in number. 

Colour, alive, white {J. T. Johnson, Esq.), in the dried state light 
brown . 

Hab. Deep water off Madeira (/. Y. Johnson, Esq.). 

Examined in the dried state. 

The only specimen of this species known was obtained from " deep 
water off the coast of Madeira," by James Yate Johnson, Esq., and 
was described and named by him in P. Z. S. 1.S63, p. 259. The 
general description he has there given is very correct as far as it 
goes ; but he has not given a definite specific description of its cha- 
racters. The specimen is now in the British Museum. 

Dr. Gray, in his "Notes on the Arrangement of Sponges" 
(P. Z. S. 1867, p. 507), notices the specimen as a synonym of his 
genus and species MacAndrewia azorica, in the following terms : — 
" The specimen which Mr. J. Yate Johnson has described under 
the name of D. Bowerbankii is larger, more orbicular and expanded 
than I described years before as MacAndrewia azorica ; but I cannot 
see any other difference." But as the learned author has nowhere, that 
I can find, given any particulars of the structural peculiarities of the 
specimen as compared with those of his species MacAndrewia azorica, 
his hasty assignment of it to that species is in reality devoid of any 
authority. Half an hour's microscopical investigation of the two 
specimens which are in his possession would have completely satisfied 
him that they were very distinct species of animals, as the reader 
may readily satisfy himself by comparing the figures illustrating the 
species under consideration in Plate V. figs. 2, 3, 4, & 5, from Z>. 



18G9.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 9.5 

M'Andrewii, with those representing the organization of D. Bower- 
ba^ikii in Plate VI. figs. 6, 7, 8. 

The form of the sponge under consideration is that of a shallow 
cup with expansively undulating margin. The diameter varies 
from twelve to fourteen inches, and its thickness from half to very 
nearly one inch. It has six large sinuous doublings of its margin, 
which extend as much beyond the general plane of the sponge at its 
under as at its upper surface ; two of these foldings of its substance 
have met at its under surface, and have become cemented together. 
The greater portion of the sinuous margin of the sponge is flat, the 
outer and inner edges in some parts being quite sharply defined. 

The dermal system in this sponge presents very important specific 
characters. In some sections made at right angles to the surface it 
was evidently in a state of complete collapse ; the under surfaces of 
the connecting spicula were closely in contact with the surface of the 
rigid skeleton, and their shafts were deeply immersed in its sub- 
stance. This position of the expansile dermal system of the sponge 
is probably its natural one while the animal is in a state of repose. 

The connecting spicula vary considerably in their size, form, and 
degree of development. The primary ternate rays are usually short ; 
and the secondary furcating ones are five or sis times the length of 
the primary ones, and without any secondary furcations, while at 
other times one or more of the furcating rays have a second terminal 
furcation ; these terminal radii are short, and are frequently pro- 
jected on a plane at right angles to the other furcations ; these 
terminal furcations are sometimes very irregular, their apices, 
instead of two only, having three or four small branches projected in 
different directions, as represented by fig. 7, Plate VI. The mode 
of the disposition of the ternate heads of these spicula in the dermis 
is remarkable : they are not arranged so that their ternate radii 
form definite inhalant areas ; but the rays cross each other in every 
imaginable direction, and the pores are found in the little irre- 
gular areas, one, or rarely two together, and they therefore appear 
indiscriminately scattered over the whole of the ]3orous surface. 
They are simple orifices without any defensive spicula such as we 
observe in Bactylocalyx M'Andrewii. The dermal m^embrane is 
abundantly supplied with retentive spicula ; they iire so numerous 
and closely packed as to completely obscure it. They are very 
minute, and no t\Y0 are alike in size or form ; they require a micro- 
scopical power of about 700 linear to render them distinct to the 
the eye. Under these circumstances they present remarkably thick 
and obtuse proportions, and are distinctly different from any others 
of this class of spicula that I have ever seen. Sometimes the shaft 
is multiangulated, each angle producing a single short cylindrical 
ray, while in other cases the shaft is quite straight, and the radii are 
projected from it in a perfectly irregular manner. Besides these 
two prevaihng forms, they assume every imaginable variation of 
shape that such spicula can be subjected to. One of the largest 
and most regular of the multiangulated forms that I measured pre- 
sented the following proportions : — length of spiculum ^im ^^^^ » 



96 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jan. 28, 

greatest lateral expansion j^^^ inch ; diameter of shaft g-Jg^ inch ; 
length of projection of a ray y^p-jj inch ; diameter of a ray jyiuo 
inch. The greatest disparity existing between them is not in the 
size of the shaft, or in the length of the projection of the radii, but 
in the length of the spiculum and in the various modes of its struc- 
ture. I have been thus particular in its description because it is a 
new form of spiculum, and is especially characteristic of the species 
of the sponge in which it occurs (Plate VI. fig. 8 «). 

The elongo-attenuato-stellate spicula are comparatively few in 
number, and very diiferent in their general aspect to the elongo- 
cylindrical ones. They vary exceedingly in their forms : sometimes 
they assume the shape of spiculated biternate ones ; but generally 
their long, slender and attenuated radii are projected without any 
approximation to regularity. An average-sized one measured, length 
g|j inch, length of a ray j^^ inch, diameter of shaft -j-^ inch 
(Plate VI. fig. 8 5). 

There are also a few short cyhndrical spicula, with an irregular 
inflation near the middle ; but this form is probably an undeveloped 
state of the elongo-cylindro-stellate spiculum. 

From the collapsed state of the expansile dermal system, no very 
clear view could be obtained of the investing membrane of the 
rigid skeleton ; but in sections parallel to the surface, mounted in 
Canada balsam, small portions of it were occasionally visible ; and 
these appeared to be rather sparingly supplied with the elongo- 
cylindro-stellate and elongo-attenuato-stellate spicula that are so 
abundant in the dermal membrane. A few of both these forms of 
spicula are also found dispersed on the interstitial membranes. 

The long, slender and flexuous interstitial spicula occur either 
singly or in bundles of four or five together, and are usually disposed 
at nearly right angles to the surface, immediately beneath the in- 
vesting membrane of the rigid skeleton. They are very long and 
slender, and attenuate to extremely acute terminations. 

Short, stout fusiformi-acerate spicula in considerable quantities 
are sometimes found intermixed with the skeleton-fibre, immediately 
beneath the enveloping membrane of the rigid skeleton ; but they 
are not found in such quantities in all parts of the sponge ; amid the 
deeper portions of the skeleton a few single ones only are occasionally 
found. A few short, stout cylindrical spicula were found among 
the spicula obtained by the dissolution of portions of the sponge in 
nitric acid ; but these are probably cases of immature development. 

The sarcode is as abundant in this as in other species of the same 
genus. Its quantity cannot be correctly appreciated in its dried 
condition, or when mounted in Canada balsam ; but in wet prepara- 
tions of portions of the skeleton, when fully expanded by moisture, 
it is in many cases to be seen completely enveloping the skeleton- 
fibre, and filling the interstices of its reticulations. 

DACTYLOCALyx POLYDiscus, Bovvcrbank. 

Sponge irregularly cup-shaped, pedicel short. Surface even ; 
sides of cup thick ; margin rounded. Surface even. Oscula slightly 



18C9.] DR. J.S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUSSPONGES. 97 

elevated and margined, dispersed. Pores inconspicuous. Expansile 
dermal system-dermal membrane pellucid, furnished abundantly 
with small fusiformi-acerate spicula irregularly dispersed. Retentive 
spicu a fusiformi-cyhndrical, short and variable in size. Connecting 
spicula-apices discoid, irregularly circular or oval, smooth and 
thin ,• margins entire ; shafts short and conical. Skeleton— fibres 
cylindrical, smooth, their free terminations abundantly tuberculated • 
tubercles cylindrical, short, terminations hemispherical. Interstitial 
membranes— tension-spicula fusiformi-acerate, short, rather nume- 
rous, dispersed. Gemniules membranous, spherical. 

Colour light fawn-brown in the dried state 
G^ldt )'^^'"^ °^ ^'" ^'''''=^"*' ^^^^ I'^'i'^s (^^^- Lansdowne 

Examined in the dried condition. 

This interesting little specimen is in the collection of the British 
Museum It was obtained by the Rev. Lansdowiie Guilding at the 
Island of St. Vincent, West Indies. 

The specimen is a small, unequally developed, cup-shaped sponge ; 
the margin is nearly oval, with an average diameter of seven-eighths 
of an inch, and it is about five-eighths of an inch high ; the thick- 
ness of the sponge near the margin is about three lines. From its 
genera aspect it would seem that the specimen was a young one in 
an early stage ot development. The oscula are slightly elevated, 
have a thin margin, and are about one-third of a line in diameter 
they are equally distributed, and are about five or six lines apart 
just as they might be expected to appear on a sponge of very much 
larger dimensions. ■' 

The pores are dispersed on the outer surface of the cup ; they are 
not readily detected even in a piece of the dermis when mounted in 
Canada balsam; they are found in intervals between the discoid 
plates, which frequently have semilunar notches to afford space for 
the passage of the inhalant streams. 

The dermal membrane is very translucent ; but the fusiformi- 
acerate spicula with which it is furnished are so exceedin-W nume- 
rous that they render the discoid heads of the connecting spicula 
immediately beneath them perfectly undistinguishable. An average- 
sized one measured ^j- inch in length (Plate VI. fig. !•>) The 
retentive spicula are comparatively few in number ; they are very 
much smaller than the tension ones, and although mixed with them 
are readily distinguished by their fusiformi-cylindrical shape (Plate 
VI. figs. 13 & 14). ^ ^ 

The connecting spicula are singular in their form, and very cha- 
racteristic of the species ; the normal form of their discoid heads 
appears to be nearly circular, but they vary to a very considerable 
extent to suit the circumstances of their situation. Their mar^^ins 
lap over each other to frequently the extent of one-third or one-half 
ot their diameters, so that they not only form a secure and con- 
tinuous platform for the support of the dermal membrane, but they 
also admit of a very considerable extent of lateral expansion and 

Proc. Zool. Soc — 1869, No. VII. 



98 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [Jail. 28, 

contraction. Their margins are entire, and their surfaces perfectly 
smooth and even. 

In a section made at right angles to the surface of the sponge, a 
portion of the expansile dermal tissue remained in situ, and the 
sharply conical shafts of the connecting spicula were seen projecting 
into the space between the dermal membrane and the surface of the 
rigid skeleton of the sponge. The spaces of the rete of the skeleton 
are tolerably equable, but without any approximation to order in 
their arrangement. The fibres of the skeleton are cylindrical and 
quite smooth, excepting at their free terminations, which are fre- 
quently abundantly tuberculated. The tubercles are cyhndrical, 
with hemispherical terminations, and are usually about once their 
own diameter in height. 

The interstitial membranes are very pellucid, and are rather abun- 
dantly supplied with the same description of tension-spicula that are 
so abundant in the dermal membrane ; and they may also frequently 
be seen imbedded in the sarcode that surrounds the skeleton-fibres. 

A few gemmules were observed ; they were globular, membranous, 
and very like those of Iphiteon panicea ; they were adherent to the 
inner surface of the dermal system. 

When sections of the sponge were examined in water, there were 
numerous monihform series of spherical molecules, varying from 
three or four to six or eight in number, on the inner surfaces of the 
discoid heads of the connecting spicula, and also on the surfaces of 
the interstitial membranes. Such molecules in moniliform series are 
not uncommon in the sarcode of the interstitial membranes of many 
species of Halichondroid sponges ; and this arrangement apparently 
arises from axial attraction. It is the first case of tlieir occurrence 
that I have observed in the siliceo-fibrous sponges. 



DESCEIPTION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate III. 

Fig. 1 . Surface of the rigid skeleton of the type specimen of Bactyhcalyx pu- 
micens, Stutchbury, exhibiting the irregularity of the skeleton-struc- 
ture and the auxiliary skeleton-fibres in the large interstitial cavities 
opposite, a, a, a, magnified 108 linear. 

Fig. 2. A rectangulated hexradiate tension-spiculum, magnified 108 linear. 

Fig. 3. A portion of one of the large fusiformi-acerate spicula from amidst 
the rigid skeleton of the type specimen of D.pumiceus, magnified 108 
linear. 

Fig. 4. A trifurcated spinulo-hexradiate stellate retentive spiculum, magnified 
666 linear. 

Fig. 5. A trifurcated attenuato-hexradiate stellate retentive spiculum, magnified 
666 linear. 

Fig. 6. A large and a small verticillately spined spiculum from the basal portion 
of the type specimen of D. pumiceus in the British Museum, mag- 
nified 108 linear. 

Fig. 7. Subequiangular triradiate tension-spiculum from the type specimen, 
magnified 108 linear. 

Fig. 8. Acerate tension-spiculum from the type specimen, magnified 108 linear. 

Fi". 9. A furcated attenuato-patento-ternatc connecting spiculum from the type 
specimen, magnified 108 linear. 



1809.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 99 

Fig. 10. A dicliotomo-pateiito-ternate connecting spiculum from the type spe- 
cimen, magnified 108 linear. 

Fig. 11. Minute attenuato-stellate retentive and defensiye spicula from the type 
specimen, magnified 666 linear. 

Fig. 12. A genimule adhering to auxiliary fibres of the skeleton from the large 
specimen of D. i^umiceus {IphUeon pmiicca, Valenciennes) in the col- 
lection of the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, magnified 108 Linear. 

Fig. 13. A profile view of two of the tubercles on the skeleton-fibre of the type 
specimen of D. puviiceus, exhibiting the papillation of their summits, 
magnified 666 linear. 

Figs. 14 & 1.5. Portions of the densely reticulated basal skeleton-structure from 
the type specimen, magnified 108 linear. 

Fig. 16. Trifurcatcd expando-ternate connecting spicula, probably belonging to 
an unknown species of Dactylocali/x, magnified 666 linear. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. A portion of the rigid skeleton of Bactylocalyx heteroformis {Coscino- 
spongia heteroformis, Valenciennes), exliibiting the complicated reticu- 
lations of the structure, and the ramified free terminations of tlis 
fibres, magnified 175 linear. 

Fig. 2. One of the large incurrent areas of the inhalant surface of the same 
sponge, exliibiting the protective furcated terminations of the marginal 
fibres, magnified .308 linear. 

Fig. 3. One of the oscula from tlie exlialant surface of the same sponge, exhibiting 
the oscular membrane in a half-open condition, magnified L83 linear. 

Fig. 4. A portion of the dermal membrane of D. heteroformis, with its fine but 
very irregular network of siliceous fibre, magnified 308 linear. 

Fig. 6. A portion of the dermal membrane of Dactylocalyx M'Andreu'ii (Mac- 
Andrewia azorica. Gray), exhibiting the ramifications of the foliato- 
expando-ternate connecting spicula beneath, and one of the inhalant 
pores with its defensive system of minute acerate dermal spicula, 
magnified 183 linear. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. A portion of the rigid skeleton of Bactt/localyx M'Andrewii, magnified 
175 linear. 

Fig. 2. A foliato-expando-ternate connecting .sjjiculum from the expansile 
dermal system of D. M'Aiidrewii, with the inner surfece towards the 
eye exhibiting the short acutely conical shaft of the spiculum, magni- 
fied 175 linear. 

Fig. 3. An elongated and more ramose variety of the ternate head of the same 
sort of spiculum as that represented by fig. 2, magnified 175 linear. 

Fig. 4. A view in profile of a spiculum of the same form as those that are re- 
presented by figs. 2 & 3, magnified 175 linear. 

Fig. 5. One of the minute fusiformi-acerate tension-spicula of the dermal 
membrane of D. M'^Andrewii, magnified 666 linear. 

Fig. 6. A section at right angles to the surface of B. Praftii, exliibiting a portion 
of the expansile system {a) in a state of separation from the rigid 
siliceo-fibrous skeleton beneath, with the shafts of the connecting 
spicula pendent in the space between them, and also the primary 
dermal membrane, and the secondary membrane CLivering the external 
surface of the rigid skeleton filled with the innumerable retentive 
spicula of those organs, magnified 108 linear. 

Fig. 7. Two of the retentive spicula of the dermal membrane and the investing 
membrane of the rigid skeleton, magnified 1250 linear. 

Fig. 8. A view of the inner surface of a portion of the expansile dermal system, 
exhibiting the interlacing of the radii of the irregidarly furcated 
patento-ternate connecting spicula to form the inhalant areas, in 
which are situated the pores of imbibition, magnified 108 linear. 

Figs, y, 10, & 11. Three of the irregularly furcateJ patento-ternate connecting spi- 
cula, exhibiting their extreme diversity of form, magnified 108 linear. 



100 DR. J. MURIE ON THE SEALS OF THE FALKLANDS. [Jan. 28, 

Plate VI. 

Fig. 1. A piece of the fibre of the rigid skeleton of Dactylocalyx Masmii, mag- 
nified 108 linear. 

Pig. 2. A view of the inner surface of part of the expansile dermal system of 
D. Masoni, with a portion of the rigid skeleton in situ, magnified 
108 linear. 

Pig. 3. One of tlie furcated attenuato-patento-ternate connecting spicula of 
I). Masoni, magnified 108 linear. 

Pig. 4. A minute elongo-stellate retentive spiculum from the dermal membrane 
of D. Masoni, magnified 666 linear. 

Pig. 5. A piece of the fibre of the rigid skeleton of D. Bowerbankii, magnified 
108 linear. 

Pig. 6. One of the furcated attenuato-patento-ternate connecting spicula of the 
normal form from the expansile dermal system of B. Bowerbankii, 
magnified 17u linear. 

Fig. 7. A furcated attenuato-patento-ternate connecting spiculum with ramified 
terminations to the furcations of the radii. This form, with more or 
less ramified terminations, is frequently found in this species. Mag- 
nified 175 linear. 

Fig. 8. Retentive sjiicula from the dermal membrane of B. Bowerbankii: a, a, 
the elongo-cylindro-stellate form, variable in size, and very numerous ; 
ft, the elongo-attenuato-stellate form, few in number : magnified 666 
linear. 

Fig. 9. A fragment of the fibre of the rigid skeleton of D. polydiscus, magnified 
108 linear. 

Fig. 10. A portion of the expaiisile dermal system of D. polr/discus, with the dis- 
coid expando-ternate connecting spicula in situ, magnified 108 linear. 

Fig. 11. Two varieties in form of the connecting spicula of D. polydiscus, mag- 
nified 108 linear. 

Fig. 12. A fusiformi-acerate tension-spiculum from the dermal membrane of 
D. polydiscus, magnified 666 linear. 

Pigs. 13 & 14. Two of the retentive spicula of the dermal membrane of B.'poly- 
discus, magnified 666 linear. 



4. Report on the Eared Seals collected by the Society's Keeper 
Fran9ois Lecomte in the Falkland Islands. By James 
MuRiE, M.D., F.L.S., Prosector to the Society. 

(Plate VII.) 

An account of the Society's keeper Lecomte's expedition to the 
Falkland Islands for the purpose of collecting live specimens of 
Eared Seals, Penguins, (S:c., has already, in November last, been 
laid before the Scientific JNIeeting by our Secretary, Mr. Sclater (see 
P. Z, S. 1868, p. 527). It devolves upon me to add to that report 
memoranda concerning the skins and skeletons of the PhocidcB ob- 
tained during Lecomte's sojourn at the above islands. The speci- 
mens in question, owing to difficulties and mishaps in the way of 
transport, did not arrive in England until some time after the live 
stock, brought home by Lecomte himself. Furthermore, I regret to 
mention that, from a variety of causes, the condition of the objects 
is not so perfect as could be wished ; but, under the adverse circum- 
stances incident to the voyage, this is not to be wondered at. I am 
happj' to add, though, that some points in connexion with the 







"» ■? * 






< 

J3 



< 
< 

o 



1869.] DR. J. MURIE ON THE SEALS OF THE FALKLANDS. 101 

Otariidce, which hitherto have been indefinite, receive elucidation, 
even from the imperfect supply now furnished. 

The skins were preserved in a salted condition, the hones roughly 
dried. They have been compared and identified with those in the 
British Museum. 

The total number of animals to which the specimens belong is 
sixteen: they comprise but two species, namely, the Otaria jubata, 
Foster, and Olaria nigrescens (^Arctocephalus nigrescens, Gray). 
Of these, fifteen belong to the first, and but one to the second 
species. 

I. Otaria jubata. 

1 . Skin and cranium (tolerably perfect) of an adult male, but not 
aged. Sea-lion, technically called by the traders a "Bull;" shot at 
Kelp Island, one of the eastern islets of the group of the Falkland 
Islands. 

Lecomte states that there were altogether about 40 Seals com- 
posing the herd of which this male was a member. Another, much 
larger and maned male was wounded by a shot at the same time, 
but it managed to escape. 

The above skin, in its present moist condition, measures 96 inches 
from the muzzle to the posterior end of the hind flippers as they 
are thrown backwards ; from .the muzzle to the tip of tail 73 inches ; 
from point to point of the outstretched fore flippers 7Gh inches. 

The pelage on the back and belly is worn and rubbed off^, the ani- 
mal evidently having been just shedding its coat when slain. There 
is a very slight tendency to development of a mane, the longish hairs 
here being of a brindled yellow-and-brown shade. The throat is 
lighter-coloured and with shorter hairs ; but towards the mandible 
they are longer, darker, and beard-like. The upper surface of 
the head, almost as far as the nose, is of a light or vellowish- 
brown shade ; the two cheeks dark brown ; the muzzle black. 
The fresh undercoat of shorter hairs (not the underwool) all along 
the back inclines to a yellowish grey. The long and partially abraded 
hairs in scattered patches are dull brown, which becomes slightly 
redder and richer in tint at the buttocks and posterior tibial regions. 
This same hue is apparently the original one previous to the shedding 
of the outer coat ; it is well seen in the axillae. The belly, with very 
short and finely set hair, is of a brownish yellow. The flippers are 
black where bare of hair. 

The skull is a good representative of the species during middle 
life — that is, before the extraordinary high occipito-parietal and longi- 
tudinal parieto-frontal crests peculiar to very old age are developed. 
These elevations have just commenced to show themselves in a raised 
narrow plate of bone. The surface of the cranium is altogether rough. 
The palate is broad, and but moderately deep (see fig. 1, p. 103). 

The teeth exhibit a most remarkable condition, and such as I have 
only witnessed (and that but slight in comparison) in one other spe- 
cimen of the genus. Not only the whole of the smaller-sized molars 
and premolars, but also the great canines of both upper and lower 



102 DR. J. MURIE ON THE SEALS OF THE FALKLANDS. [Jan. 28, 

jaws, in the specimen under consideration, are worn in a circular 
grooved manner, as if compassed by a ring in their middles. The 
canines are not so grooved round about, but rather deeply excavated 
behind. The crowns of the canines and the grinding-teeth are like- 
wise ground down and flattened ; but this is of less moment than 
the way in which the dentine is grooved. The worn surface is black- 
ened, but smooth. 

Three reasons may be given for the wearing of the teeth in this 
uncommon way :: — 

(a) It is possible for the dental apparatus of the upper and lower 
jaws to effect a wearing away of the softer dentine by their unequally 
fitting and rubbing against each other. Examination, however, of 
the maxillae when approximated proves this to have been unlikely — 
in fact, impossible. 

(b) Again it may be suggested that granules of sand and pebbles, 
which these animals swallow, as I shall afterwards mention, may have 
ground down the teeth at the gums. This also is a most unlikely 
circumstance, if we attentively consider the nature of the polished 
surfaces and the apparent mode in which they are eroded. Besides, 
it would be too good a joke to admit that the Sea-lion possessed a 
bad dentifrice and tooth-brush. 

(c) In the human being, cases do come before dentists where 
circular abrasion occurs such as we have here. This has been proved 
beyond doubt to be effected by an altered condition of the glandular 
fluids ejected into the mouth. The tongue, laving the surfaces of 
the teeth with the changed secretion, by degrees abrades the den- 
tinal surface, wears irregular grooves, and leaves the harder enamel 
comparatively unchanged. Such may likewise happen even to an 
Eared Seal for aught I know to the contrary. 

2. Skin and skeleton (the cranium considerably injured) of a preg- 
nant female Eared Seal (termed " Clapmatch "). This was killed 
by the stroke of a baton at Kelp Island on the 8th June 1868. The 
sex is well authenticated, inasmuch as Lecomte extracted a foetus of 
about a foot long from the womb. This foetus, curious to say, was 
pounced upon and carried off by a Chimango (?), which had been ho- 
vering overhead watching the operation. 

Greatest length of skin, including hind extremities, 80| inches ; 
from muzzle to end of tail 66| inches; tip to tip of fore limbs out- 
spread 58 inches. 

Teats well developed, 4 in number ; front ones 2 inches from the 
middle line of abdomen, and distant 5 inches behind the axillae ; 
hinder ones 1 inch outside the median line, and 9 inches distant from 
the pectoral ones. 

From the forehead, along the whole line of the back and the upper 
sides of the body to as far as the tail, the colour is blackish mingled 
with grey, the tips of the hairs being grey, their bases black. There 
is a black streak from the muzzle to the forehead, on either side of 
which and above the eye is JtHiight grey patch, the cheeks outside of 
that being of the same shade as the back. A light and longer-haired 
beard is partially developed ; behind is a moderate-sized darker patch ; 



1869.] DR. J. MURIE ON THE SEALS OF THE FALKLANDS. 



103 



and then the throat and the whole of the abdomen posteriorly is of a 
yellowish-grey or light drab tint. Around each eye is a narrow circlet 
of brown. The hair on this skin, as well as on those of the next three 
females, is much shorter than the outer coat of the male No. 1 ; indeed 
it resembles, both in colour and texture, the inner coat of the said male. 
The skull of this female being considerably injured in the maxil- 
lary and premaxillary regions, I shall make no comments on it 
further than to mention the size — namely, greatest length 1 0'3 inches. 
The skeleton agrees with that of specimens of Otaria jubata. 




Under views of male and female skulls of Otaria jv.haf a. 
Fig. 1. Adult male, that described in test as No. 1. 

2. Adult female, the specimen referred to as No. 3. 
(Both reduced to one-third of nat. size.) 



104 DR. J. MURIE ON THE SEALS OF THE FALKLANDS. [Jail. 28, 

3. Another skin and skeleton (in better condition) of an adult 
and pregnant female, killed at tlie same time and place as the fore- 
going (No. 2). The foetus found in this specimen corresponded in 
size to the other. 

The colour of this skin corresponds in every particular with that 
described as No. 2, only it is not quite so dark. 

The maxillary and premaxillary bones of this skull are also partly 
broken by the fatal blow with the baton. The palate, however, a 
good character of the species, is entire. This demonstrates, as does 
the whole inferior region (compare figs. 1 and 2), -that the cranium 
of the female is much narrower and shallower than that of males of 
the sam.e age and size. Especially is this the case in the maxillary 
region of the palate. The teeth altogether are much weaker and 
more sharply pointed than in the male. So marked is this that the 
skull of a female can at a glance, and by this character alone, be 
distinguished from that of a male. In some respects the female 
skull approaches that of Arctocephalus hookeri ; but the posterior 
nares and great length of the palatines of both male and female 
Otaria jubata readily separate them. The greatest length of this 
cranium is 10*5 inches, the greatest breadth (at the zygoma) 6 inches. 
The crests of the roof are but feebly developed. 

4. Skin and skeleton (not perfectly complete) of a female Otaria, 
young but nearly adult. This was captured alive on the 4th June 
1868, at North- Point Island, situate at the south-east corner of the 
Falklands. 

In markings and colour this younger female is hardly to be dis- 
tinguished from the older pregnant animals. There is perhaps a 
more marbled aspect, produced by a greater and more irregular dis- 
tribution of the light upper hairs. 

5. Skin, disarticulated fragmentary skull, and leg-bones of another 
female, about the same age as No. 4. This specimen also was taken 
alive at North-Point Island, 4th June 18C8. 

No difference in colour and hairy covering is appreciable between 
this and No. 4. 

6. Skin, leg-bones, and cranium, with imperfect dentition of a 
young but considerable-sized male Sea-lion. This animal was taken 
alive at Kelp Island on the 8th June 1868, and said to have been 
about eighteen months old at date of capture. 

The entire head, neck, and body of this skin is clothed with short, 
fine, smooth, closely set hairs of a nearly uniform chocolate tint. The 
nape of the neck and the belly are a trifle lighter than the other parts. 

7. Skin only of a very young male Otaria, technically called a 
"pup." Caught alive, 16th February 1868, on one of the islets 
near Kelp Island. This and the three succeeding specimens (Nos. 8, 
9, and 10) were seized at one raid. They shall be described and 
commented on together. 

8. Another skin, closely resembling the last. 

9. A skin, vertebral column, leg-bones, and feet of a similar very 
young but female Seal. 

10. Similar skin of another young female. 



1869.] 



DR. J. MURIE ON THE SEALS OF THE FALKLANDS. 



105 



One of the females died on the 3rd of March 1868, the other 
three days after, namely, on the 6th. One of the males lived a month 
longer, to the 9th April ; the last of the four specimens died on Good 
Friday (April 10th). 

The accompanying admeasurements of three of their bodies were 
taken in centimetres by Lecomte immediately after their death. I 
have reduced these to inches and decimals. 





? 


? 


S 




340 

47-7 

11-3 
90 


33-2 

41-3 

11-7 
90 


371 

46-7 

12-9 
11-0 


Lengtii from the muzzle to the furthest point of 1 

the backwardly stretched liind flipper J 

Greatest length of the pectoral extremity 





The hair on these skins is short, firm, and thick in the pile. 
Beneath is a reddish underwool, but very sparsely scattered. The 
colour of one and all is a very rich dark brown, approaching black 
on the upper parts, and appearing quite so under certain lights when 
the skin is moist. The flippers are black only where bare. Scarcely 
any appreciable difference exists between the males and the females ; 
if any, the males are darkest. 

By way of comparison with the adult male and female of the same 
species (Nos. 1 and 2), I shall here give the diameters of the soft 
skins of the young ones (Nos. 7 and 10) — all four, adult and young, 
having been pickled in the same manner. No. 7. Greatest length 
(from the muzzle to hinder flipper) 50 inches, to the end of the tail 
40f inches ; breadth between the furthest point of the extended 
pectoral members 32 inches. No. 10 gives these consecutive mea- 
surements as 47, 39, and 30^ inches. 

11. Large and much worn skull of a very old Sea-lion. 

12. Large and much worn skull, also old. This specimen has the 
left ramus of the lower jaw attached. 

13. Another aged cranium, but without mandible. 

14. Another aged cranium, but without mandible. 

15. Another aged cranium, but without mandible. 

The respective proportions of the above venerable cranial remnants 
of the once plentiful race of Falkland-Island Sea-lions may be 
tabulated thus : — ■ 



No. 11. Length 14-8 inches. 

12. „ 141 „ 

13. „ 140 „ 

14. „ 13-9 „ 

15. „ 13-5 „ 



Greatest (zygomatic) breadth IQ-O inches. 
., 10-0 „ 

jj 11 11 ■ 

„ ., 1. 8"7 „ 

1. .1 11 .^"" 11 



The occipito-parietal crests of all are enormously developed, and the 
extra processes in No. 12 are peculiarly prominent. The mandible 
of the latter specimen measures 1 TS inches long, and it is 6"5 inches 
in vertical height at the coronoid process. 

These five skulls, evidently much worn by being rolled on the 



106 DR. J. MURIE ON THE SEALS OF THE FALKLANDS. [Jail. 28, 

shino'le, were picked up on the beach at Elephant Island, on the east 
side of the Falklands. Lecomte and his companions beheved these 
lai-o-e old skulls of Otaria jubata to be those of the Elephant-Seal 
{Morunga elephantina), as it was stated by some of the party that 
these animals formerly did exist on this island. One of the pilots 
(Louis Despreaux by name) had resided thirty-two years on the 
Falkland Islands, and he distinctly remembered shooting many 
Elephant-Seals in the neighbourhood in bygone years ; but about 
twelve years ago they began to get scarce and disappear. While 
Lecomte was absent on one of his excursions, a report was current 
on the islands that a young Elephant-Seal, about 8 feet long, had 
been killed with a baton by the lighthouse-keeper at Cape Pembroke. 
On his return Lecomte endeavoured to obtain the skeleton, but it 
had in the meantime been destroyed. 

II. Otaria nigrescens. 

16. Bones of the two pectoral extremities of an adult male Fur- 
Seal. Specimen shot by Mr. Cobb (the Manager of the Falkland- 
Island Company) on the Volunteer Rocks, north-east of the Falkland- 
Island group. 

Habits and Economy of the Eared Seals. — Under this heading I 
append chiefly such observations as I have received verbally from 
Lecomte upon interrogating him respecting what he had witnessed 
of the daily life of these creatures. 

He corroborates the statements of the older voyagers as regards 
the gregarious habits of the Eared Seals. At various times he has 
seen families of six, a dozen, and even up to twenty ; but, generally 
speaking, he supposes from ten to fifteen to be the average number 
of a family group. Several families, again, congregate near each 
other in the same creek or islet, but, notwithstanding, they do not 
intermingle. In one instance he calculated there would be about 
forty individuals, old and young, in the herd. This was when the 
old male was shot and the four youngsters captured alive. On an- 
other occasion, that on which the two adult pregnant females were 
killed, he reckoned there would be as many as 100 in the herd, dis- 
tributed, of course, hither and thither in clusters. 

They seem to prefer (it may be through a wise precaution on their 
part) headlands or isthmuses, and choose the most southern locality 
thereon as a resting-place. One of the old males guards as a sen- 
tinel. Usually he is seen perched on an eminence, and invariably, 
as Lecomte affirms, with outstretched neck and upraised head, as if 
sniffing around for the slightest ominous warning. The signal of a 
grunt or growl sets the others on the alert ; and on any real approach 
of danger they rush all helter-skelter towards the water, which they 
never wander far from. 

Their daily occupation seems divided between sleeping and pro- 
curing food. They lie huddled together in a drowsy condition, or 
slumber, for a great part of their time, and this both during the day 
and night. At high tides, day and night, they take to fishing near 



18G9.] DR. J. MURIE ON THE SEALS OF THE FALKLANDS. 107 

the entrance of the freshwater rivulets into the sea. At such times 
they will remain a whole tide dabbling about singly after food. This 
consists of fish and crustaceans. In capturing their prey they 
swallow it either above or below the water. Our live Sea-lion in 
the Gardens, as a rule, comes to the surface during the process of 
deglutition ; the other Seals swallow underneath the water. Lecomte 
says the Eared Seals never drink water ; and he substantiates the fact 
that he kept the first animal he brought to this country for a year 
without fluid, except such as adhered to the fish he fed it with. 
He tells me, moreover, he has noticed the common Seals in our own 
collection occasionally suck in water as a horse would, but the Otaria 
never. Another curious circumstance he assures me of is, that in 
the stomach of every one he has examined, with the single exception 
of a young animal, there existed a quantity of pebbles. The amount 
varied in individuals from a few to many. Indeed one of the Falk- 
land-Island pilots told Lecomte in good faith that he himself had 
removed 28 lb. of stones from the digestive cavity of an Elephant- 
Seal, an old Otaria juhata (?). The common notion among the 
traders and hunters is that these Seals swallow the stones as a kind 
of ballast to enable them to dive quickly after their prey. For my 
own part I cannot at all accept this reason on the evidence. 

The voices of the old and young animals differ in tone. The adult, 
and more particularly the old ones either growl in an undertone, or, 
when excited during the breeding- season, heighten this to a volu- 
minous interrupted roar. The young cries with a kind of bleat like 
a sheep. In the first Sea-lion possessed by the Society the pupils 
of the eyes contracted and dilated to an enormous extent ; and when 
enlarged, which took place towards sunset, they became of an opaline 
hue. The live Otaria jubata at present in the Gardens also mani- 
fests considerable dilatability of the pupils, but not quite the same 
change of colour. At night the eye of Phoca vitulina appears iri- 
descent, as in some Carnivora. As regards this frequent change in 
the diameter of the pupil in Otaria, this may have relation to its 
nocturnal habits as much as to the difference of medium in which 
the animal lives. 

The sexual season lasts for about a month, namely, between the 
latter end of February and that of March. As has been described 
by other observers, Lecomte remarks there are then regular pitched 
battles, the females looking on but not interfering. Tbe males at 
such times are savage, and if attacked do not run away ; but the 
females are rather timid and shy. After these matches are adjusted, 
a good deal of playing and gambolling in the water occurs, but the 
act of coupling takes place on the land. When a male, through age 
or otherwise, is driven away, he leads a solitary hfe, and then often 
goes further inland. 

The females go with young about ten months, giving birth to a 
single one about Christmas or the end of the year, equivalent to our 
midsummer in this country. Lecomte says there is no great interval 
between parturition in the females of a herd, as the young range 
much of a size. They rear their offspring at a short distance from 



108 DR. J. MURIE ON THE SEALS OF THE FALKLANDS. [Jan. 28, 

the water's edge ; the young, however, does not enter the water for 
some time. At the earhest stage the baby Seals are like so many 
puppy dogs, fat, plump, and shapeless. They play, fight, and frisk 
about in twos and threes, at times dabbling and floundering in the 
shallow pools left by the receding tide. Suckling continues until 
they are about three months old, at which period the mother entices 
them by degrees towards and into the water. From that time the 
young begin to cater for themselves. In youth, as has been shown, 
the skin is of a dark brown hue. This changes very gradually, and 
hghtens after they are a year old ; it then seems sensibly to alter 
annually by a partial shedding of the coat. The males remain 
darkest, and have always the longest hair throughout life. 

No lean animals are ever observed. 

There appears to be a periodical migration towards the south. In 
November the Sea-lions come to the Falkland Islands, where they 
remain till June or July, when the greater number depart ; but some 
remain at the islands the whole year round. 

With respect to certain doubtful specific forms of the genus 
Otaria which Dr. Peters and Dr. Gray have named, I must say I 
do not entirely agree with their determination. 

I differ from Dr. Gray in ranking the skin described by him in the 
'Annals of Natural History,' 1868, i. p. 219, as a distinct species — 
his Arctocephalus nivosus. This I believe to be but a variety, 
seasonal, sexual, or of a different age from those specimens hitherto 
obtained. 

Also I do not acquiesce in his critical remark that Dr. Peters's 
figured skull of Otaria philippii is most nearly allied to O. stelleri 
from California, inasmuch as I consider it to be nothing else than 
O. hookeri. As in Dr. Gray's case, I have not seen the skull, 
but base my judgment on a careful comparison of Dr. Peters's 
figure with the British-Museum specimens of skulls named O. 
hookeri. 

On the other hand, I unhesitatingly agree and support Dr. Gray's 
criticisms on Dr. Peters as regards the species of Sea-lions termed 
respectively O. byronia, O. leonina, O. godeffroyi, and 0. uUoce, as 
I am perfectly convinced they are but differently aged specimens of 
Foster's Otaria jubata. From the manner in which Dr. Peters 
ranges these in his tabular view, I have no doubt that he has arrived 
at the same determination, although still clinging somewhat to his 
own nomenclature. 

P.S. — The fresh information gained, and the clearing of dubious 
points, in connexion with the Otariidce, which the preceding report 
conveys, may be summed up as follows : — 

1. The young of both sexes of Otaria jubata are alike of a dark 
brown or very deep chocolate colour. 

2. The males of a year old or thereabout retain somewhat of the 
chocolate tint of youth, which, however, is paler, and subsequently 
changes annually as the coat is shed. 

3. The females of equal age assume a dark grey hue dorsally. 



P Z S 1869.P1.A/IK. 






:^i5iV' 







10 




TAT S . Kent deL . E , I STnitti lith 



W.Weat imp 



Enibletonia ^rayii. 



1869.] MR. W. S. KENT ON A NEW NUDIBRANCH. 109 

while the abdominal parts are light yellowish. As they grow older 
they alter little. 

4. Males a couple of years old or more become of a rich brown 
shade on the back and sides, and lighter or yellowish beneath. Old 
males alone are maned. 

5. There is a sparse underwool on the young, which sensibly di- 
minishes with age. 

6. The skulls of the adult male and female differ considerably, the 
latter being comparatively the narrower of the two — the former pos- 
sessing a somewhat different form of teeth, besides proportionally 
immense canines. 

7. The teeth of Oturia jiibata are occasionally subject to a pecu- 
liar wearing, of a median constricted character. 

8. The sexes differ in size, the males attaining far the largest growth. 

9. Between the female and male of this species there is a wide 
difference as regards the stretch of the pectoral flippers. In the skin 
of the male the breadth from tip to tip of the fore flippers is equal 
to or greater than the length of the body ; in the female the reverse 
obtains. This fact points to greater strength and swimming-power 
in the former. 

10. It appears that the Elephant-Seal {Morungu elephantina) is 
now only rarely met with in the Falklands. 

11. The bones of the pectoral limb of the Fur-Seal of commerce 
(Otaria nigrescens, Gray) differ from those of the Sea-lion (Otaria 

jubata). 

DESCEIPTION OF PLATE VII. 

Fig. 1. Adult male Otaria jvJbata, from the skin No. 1. The abraded surfaces 
have not, hovpever, been delineated. 

2. Adult I'emale of the same species, from the skin described as No. 2. 

3. Young Otaria jubata, about four months old, referred to as No. 10 in 

the preceding list. 



5. On a new British Nudibranch [Embletonia grayi). 
By W. S. Kent, F.E.M.S. 

(Plate VIII.) 

The last October excursion to the Victoria Docks of the Quekett 
Microscopical Club afforded m.e the pleasure of capturing, in some 
quantity, a minute representative of the Nudibranchiate Mollusca. 

It belongs to Alder and Hancock's genus Embletonia, which is 
characterized as follows : — " Head terminal, furnished with two flat- 
tened lobes, broadly expanded laterally. Tentacles two in number, 
linear. Branchiae papillose, placed in a single or double row down 
each side of the back, alternating posteriorly." Three species are 
described by the authors above quoted, viz. E. pulchra, E. minuta, 
and E. pallida. Of these, Embletonia pallida is the most closely allied 



1 10 MR. W. S. KENT ON A NEW NUDIBRANCH. [Jail. 28, 

to the species 1 here introduce, it being the only one possessing a 
double row of branchial papillae down each side of the back. 

In the species recently obtained from the docks, and for which I 
here propose the name of Embletonia grayi, the branchial papillae 
are developed to a still further extent, three, in the adult specimens, 
entering on each side into the formation of the second anterior fas- 
ciculus*. The oral lobes, moreover, are highly developed, while in 
Einbletonia pallida they are described as being small and indistinct. 
The lingual membrane, or odontophore, again, furnishes points of 
distinction, the median denticles surpassing the lateral ones in size 
more considerably than in E. pallida ; and the odontophore in this 
respect more closely approximates to that of Eolis nana. The number 
of lingual plates also exceeds that possessed by Embletonia pallida, 
being not fewer than thirty-five, while in the latter there are said to 
be but twenty-one. 

The colour of the little Mollusk is a semitransparent white, having 
the integument of the antero-dorsal region usually more or less 
sprinkled with minute ramifying pigment-cells of a blackish hue, 
these occasionally extending over the papillae. The eyes are deeply 
sunk beneath the integument, and situated, some distance apart, 
immediately behind the tentacula ; in many instances these organs 
are scarcely discernible, more especially in those specimens wherein 
the superficial pigment-cells are greatly developed. 

It is particularly remarkable that this Nudibranch is a denizen of 
water containing but about one-third of the saline constituents of 
pure sea-water. Its habits are gregarious ; and its tastes appear to 
be eminently carnivorous, the luxuriant masses of Cordylophora 
lacustris clothing the submerged timber-balks in the docks proving 
a special attraction, and serving not only for the purpose of food, 
but also as a suitable nidus whereon to deposit its spawn. The ova, 
or spawn, on being extruded are enveloped in a gelatinous mucus, 
adherent at first to any object wherewith it may be brought into 
contact ; this property, however, disappears after a brief exposure 
to the surrounding medium. The spawn masses are of an irregular 
oval form, each mass containing from five or six to as many as forty 
or fifty ova. 

On first leaving the egg the young are, in common with other 
Nudibranchiata, furnished with a delicate nautiloid shell, and propel 
themselves through the water with great activity by means of their 
cihated lobes, or epipodia. Figs. 12 and 13 represent the animal 
about one month after quitting the egg ; but further stages of deve- 
lopment remain to be traced. The length of the adult animal varies 
from one to as much as three tenths of an inch, though the majority 
of the specimens examined have not exceeded that 0^ two tenths of 
an inch. 

* One or two specimens have been met with having three papillre in the first 
anterior fasciculus also. 

Tlie arrangement of the ]3apilliC also holds good in distinguishing this spe- 
cies from tlie CalUopcea heUula of D'Orbigny, figm-ed and described in the ' Mag. 
de Zoologie' for 18;J7. 



1869.] LETTER FROM DR. J. ANDERSON. HI 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE VIII. 

Fig. 1. EiMetonia ffra//i, n&tuisil size. 

2. The same, magnified. 

3. The same, viewed dorsally when in a state of repose. 

4. The head, seen from above, showing the expanded oral lobes. 

5. A portion of the odontophore, viewed laterally. 
G. The same, from above. 

7. A single lingual plate detached and magnified 300 diameters. 

8. A mass of ova. 

9. First condition of the embryo on quitting the egg. 

10. The same having lost its ciliated lobes, or epipodia. 

11. The cast nautiloid shell. 

12 & 13. The embryo about a month old, showing at a the eyes, at 6 tlie 
auditory vesicles, and at c the heart. 



February llth, 1869. 
Osbert Salvin, Esq., M.A., in the Chair. 

The following extract was read from a letter addressed to the 
Secretary by Dr. John Anderson, C.M.Z.S., dated Calcutta, Janu- 
ary 5 th : — 

" I have brought back a tolerably large collection from Yunan and 
Upper Burmah ; but I had great difficulties to contend with, and it 
is not so large as I expected it would be. Once across the Kak- 
hyen Hills, our road lay through paddy-fields in elevated valleys 
(4000 to 5000 feet), defined by long ranges of high mountains. It 
was unsafe to venture on the hills ; so that my spoils are almost 
entirely derived from a cultivated country. Ailurus abounds ; and 
two, if not three, species of Manis are very common. Pheasants 
are plentiful ; and Western Yunan, on the very confines of Burmah, 
is apparently rich in Thaumalea amherstice. If I could have ven- 
tured on the hills, I believe I could have made good bags of this 
splendid bird. On our way through the Shan states we saw its 
handsome tail-feathers very frequently in the hands of the natives, 
who use them as ornamental fly-switches. But all the information 
gained in the journey will be given in the Report which will be sub- 
mitted to Government." 

Mr. W. B. Tegetmeier exhibited a pair of remarkably large horns 
of the Cape-Buffalo {Bos caffer), and two remarkable pairs of horns 
of the Domestic Goat. 

Mr. William Jesse read the following Report to the Council of the 
Society upon his proceedings in connexion with the Abyssinian 
Expedition : — 

Gentlemen. — It is with pleasure that I find myself in a position 



112 REPORT OP MR. W. JESSE. [Feb. 11, 

to lay before you a sketch of my proceedings during my recent 
journey with the late expedition in Abyssinia. 

I should first like to state that, my late arrival on the scene of 
action having prevented me from accomplishing anything like the 
work I wished to carry out, I eagerly seized upon an opportunity 
which presented itself, after the close of the campaign, of supplying 
the deficiencies thus occasioned. 

I heard from Mr. W. T. Blanford, Geographer to the Expedition, 
that he, Capt. Mokeler (political officer), and Mr. Munzinger 
(H.B.M. Consul at Massowah) contemplated an excursion into the 
Bogos country ; and I therefore wrote to the Consul begging his per- 
mission to make one of the party. This permission I subsequently 
received, and under these auspices found means to fulfil my mission 
more completely than I had anticipated. 

On the 27th of January, 18G8, I left England, and on the 24th 
of February we cast anchor in Annesley Bay. My arrangements on 
shore not being completed, I obtained a boat and crew from the 
Captain and started with a party to the head of the bay. I spent a 
couple of days here, examhiing the surrounding country and shooting. 
I procured specimens of the Naked-necked Francolin of the plains, 
one species of Hornbill, and a variety of other birds, the most im- 
portant of which were eight specimens of the Dramas ardeola. These 
latter I especially wished to bring home, both as skeletons and in 
spirits. Unfortunately I could not carry out this intention, as, instead 
of returning safely in about two hours' trip to the ' Great Victoria,' 
we were nearly wrecked on the opposite shore ; and the energies of 
our crew and selves were so severely tried by wind and rain that we 
with difficulty, and utterly exhausted, reached the fleet at the end 
of twenty-four hours. My specimens being spoiled, this was rather 
a discouraging commencement of my duties. I may here remark 
that I did not again obtain specimens of this bird until on my voyage 
home, at Suakim. 

On the 27th I landed at Zoulla, and reported myself to General 
Stuart, there awaiting orders from the Commander-in-Chief. In a 
few days I received an intimation from his Excellency that I should 
find ample scope for my researches in the neighbourhood of Zoulla ; 
it was, however, at that time impossible to prosecute them with any 
result, on account of the country being utterly devastated of wood 
and grass, offering but small opportunities for the zoologist. I ob- 
tained a few specimens, when an attack of sickness put an end to my 
endeavours, and compelled me to go on board the hospital sliip. 
After some days I returned ashore ; but in the course of a few hours 
I had a relapse, which induced me to leave the plain and move up 
towards the highlands. I was also disappointed in not meeting at 
Zoulla with the taxidermists Lieut. R. C. Beavau had given me 
reason to expect would be there ; but before quitting the place I 
was fortunate enough to find a man who eventually proved of use to 
me in this department. 

The country lying between the sea and the foot of the hills at 
Koomayli was of the most barren description — to the seaward saudv. 



1869.] REPORT OF MR. W. JESSE. 113 

and nearer the hills broken ground, bearing, at the period of which 
I speak, but few traces of vegetation bej'ond those of low thorny 
mimosas and a stunted species of cypress. The plain is intersected 
by dry watercourses, running froui the hills towards the sea. The 
presence of salt in the soil is to be detected from the sea even up to 
Koomayli. Along the seashore are belts of mangroves, affording 
shelter for many species of waterfowl. About an hour's ride from 
Zoulla towards the head of the bay are some hot springs, near a 
large grove of tamarisks. It was at this place I found spoor and 
dung of Elephants, three species of Antelope, and one of Bustard. 
The tenants of these barren districts, as far as I could ascertain, are 
Elephants (during the wet season), three species of Antelope, Wart- 
Hogs, a small Hare, one species of Hyena (probably the spotted), 
one of Jackal (probably Cams anthus), a Jungle-Cat (supposed to 
be identical with the Syrian Cat, of which I obtained a female and 
cubs), also a Jerboa-like Rodent. Scorpions are here numerous and 
large. For further details I shall refer to my collections at a later 
date. The character of the fauna of the plains is migratory, chan- 
ging almost monthly from the hills to the plains, and vice versd. 

Proceeding up the passes, the only object worthy of special notice 
was the curious Rodent named by Mr. Blyth Pectinator spekii, the 
existence of which was made known to rae by Mr. Blanford, and of 
which I obtained specimens. I should have procured more speci- 
mens had not my taxidermist fallen ill with fever, and my own 
health continued far from good. 

On arriving at Senafe I made that place my headquarters ; and 
health rapidly improving, I set to work in the surrounding neigh- 
bourhood. Here, on one of my excursions, a companion who had 
separated from me was robbed of one of my rifles, and returned to 
camp stripped. Unfortunately, this happening out of my reach, I 
lost the opportunity of procuring a skeleton of one of the inhabitants 
for our investigation in England. From Senafe I made a short trip 
to Addigerat, adding somewhat to my collection. 

The rapid and successful termination of the Abyssinian campaign 
brought my labours to an unexpected close ; but I continued work- 
ing until Lord Napier's return to Senafe obliged me to return. 

I here found the list of birds numerically increased. About 
Senafe and Rareguddi the "Koodoo," or"Aggazin" (Strepsiceros 
kudu), was found in small herds, and a fine young buck came into 
my possession alive — a present to the Society from Dr. Knapp, 
surgeon to the 25th Bengal Native Infantry. Unfortunately, two 
consecutive attacks of dysentery reduced the animal to such a state 
of weakness that it was impossible to save it — a fact which I much 
regretted, as I believe at that time the Society did not possess a 
specimen alive in their gardens. The " Klipp-springer " Antelope 
existed in these regions; and the " Beni-e-Israel " Antelope I foimd 
in the valleys at the back of Senafe, as also the "Wart-Hog." 

Two species of " Ground-Squirrel," one striated, the other not, 
and one species of Ichneumon came under my notice up the passes. 

On the hills in the neighbourhood of Senafe I found another 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1809, No. VIII. 



114 REPORT OF MR. W. JESSE. [Feb. 11 , 

species of Hare, about equal in size to a threequarter-grown English 
Leveret, and of the same colour. A small sandy, strong-haired Rat 
I also procured a specimen of, which was unavoidably lost. 

On the return journey I spent a few days at Undel Wells, with a 
view of obtaining a more specific knowledge of the fauna of that 
elevation, having reason to believe it differed materially from that of 
the higher and lower zones. I did not, however, obtain much satis- 
factory information until my subsequent trip, at a later date, into 
Northern Abyssinia. 

I arrived with the rearguard at ZouUa, where, after having made 
some additions to my collection, I prepared seven cases to be sent 
to England. As I have before stated, I obtained permission from 
H.B.M. Consul at Massowah to join him, Capt. Mokeler, and Mr. 
Blanford in an expedition into the Bogos country, which, although 
already explored by Brehm and Heuglin, I thought worthy of atten- 
tion. Had opportunity offered, I should, in accordance with my in- 
structions and my own wishes, have visited the country towards 
lake Assal. During the third week in June we were occupied in 
preparing for our proposed trip. We sent our baggage and pro- 
visions round to Massowah by buggalow, and our animals by land. 
We ourselves started on board the ' General Havelock ' for Mas- 
sowah, where we had to remain a few days arranging our affairs. 

On the 22nd of June we left Massowah for the mainland, assem- 
bling our caravan at about four miles distance, at Monkooloo, and 
started the next morning with 38 camels, 8 horses, and about 30 men. 
We halted at Sahati, en route for Ailet, and heard there of Lions, but 
found no traces of them, so proceeded to Ailet the following day. 
Our camp here was situated on the banks of a wild nullah, watered by 
a hot spring at no great distance. This place is noted but too truly 
for its man-eating Lions and Panthers. It is a legend in the village 
" that no man dies in his bed." During one or two days I accompa- 
nied Capt. Mokeler (Mr, Blanford being lame) in pursuit of a lioness, 
tracks of which we had seen close to our tent, but with no success, 
Capt. Mokeler only obtaining one shot, which was without effect. 

On the 27th of June, after some premonitory symptoms, I received 
a sunstroke, which completely put an end to my researches. My 
Iriend Mr. Blanford was more fortunate, and laid the good founda- 
tion of his subsequent collection. On the 29th, at about 12 o'clock 
at night, I was awoke from a sick bed, along with my companions, 
by shrieks of the most fearful kind. It was pitch dark; and we 
rushed out of our tents with our arms in our hands, to find our fol- 
lowers in a state of most dire terror and confusion, filling the air 
with cries of " the Lion, the Lion ; " and then a dusky form was 
seen to bound away over the thorn fence and disappear in the dark- 
ness. After having in some degree quieted the fears of our people, 
we called the roll, and found that one of my gun-bearers, a Shunk- 
galla of huge proportions, lay dead in the midst of us, his throat 
bearing but too terrible marks of the manner in which the poor fel- 
low had perished. I may add that, only the night before, Mr. 
Blanford's butler had been severely wounded in the head by the claws 



1869.] REPORT OF MR. W. JESSE. 115 

of what we supposed to be a Panther. These brutes had passed bv 
our camels, horses, milch-goats, and fires without harming anything. 
In the morning, after a useless search for the brute of the precedin" 
night, on which we naturally desired to wreak our vengeance, we 
buried the poor victim, covered him with a pile of stones, and left for 
Asoos. From here we started the same day, and halted at Kooserit. 

On the 31st we left Kooserit, and, halting at Anagully, arrived in 
the evening at Kanzal, where I managed to stroll out, but I was 
still very ill. I fired at two Panthers without effect. At 6 p.m. on 
the 4th of July we started across the desert to Ain, on the river 
Lebka, which rises in the hills and flows across the plains to the sea. 
I stopped to look at a Bedouin village, consisting of about 100 mat 
huts. The inhabitants were a portion of nomad tribes which pas- 
ture their flocks, during the wet season, on the coast, moving up 
towards the highlands as the pasturage fails. We passed through 
the Ostrich-country, but we did not see any. During the night, the 
moon being up, we saw several herds of Antelopes. 

"We arrived at Ain at about 10 o'clock. In the afternoon I went 
out, and succeeded in procuring some specimens. This place is very 
prettily situated, forming quite an oasis in the desert. A bright 
stream runs through grass and high reed jungle, bordered with 
tamarisks and other trees ; a background of rugged barren hills, 
rising tier above tier, enhances the beauty of the scene. 

On the 7th of July we left Ain for Mahabar ; and when there I 
began to regain my health. Between Ain and Mahabar we found 
spoor of Elephants, evidently in a state of migration from the low- 
lands to the highlands. At Mahabar I added considerably to my 
collection, particularly by specimens of a small hawk, which I take to 
be the Nisus sphenurus of Riippell. Mr. Blanford obtained several. 
The night before our arrival a native had been killed by a Lion. The 
animal left his track by the waterside, and it was taken up by Mr. 
Blanford and Capt. Mokeler without effect. I took up the track 
of a solitary Elephant with a like result. At 5 o'clock a.m. the 
next day we continued our march, halting at Gelamet for lunch, and 
arrived at 6 p.m. at Kokai, or the City of the Lions. Between 
Gelamet and Kokai the scenery improved greatly, exchanging rather 
stunted tamarinds and barren mimosas for the baba tree, or Adan- 
sonia, the cactus-hke Euphorbia, and a dense jungle, with a strong 
undergrowth of rank grass and aloes. 

Here the climate was truly European, and, indeed, at night in- 
tensely cold. The fauna began to show the peculiarities which I had 
expected at Undel Wells, and in which I was disappointed; the 
transition was so sudden that on the first day I procured three 
species of " Roller," a Parrot, and several other birds. 

The next morning we found on inquiry that Elephants were in 
the neighbourhood ; so, having supplied my taxidermist with ma- 
terials for his day's work, I joined Capt. Mokeler and Mr. Blanford 
in an excursion in search of them. 

I remained two days longer in this neighbourhood collecting with 
success, and then proceeded over the pass to Bejook on the river 



116 REPORT OF MR. W. JESSE. [Feb. 11, 

Anseba. Here I had a good week, securing many specimens I had 
hitherto failed to obtain. On the 14th of July we went out in pur- 
suit of a Rhinoceros we had heard of the day before, and which Mr. 
Blanford and I had the good fortune to shoot. The nest morning 
I went out with my attendants and posse comitatus of natives, to 
bring in the skeleton, and on arriving at the place I witnessed a 
scene precisely similar to that described by Sir Samuel Baker as 
taking place over the carcass of a Hippopotamus : — women, old and 
young, the former hideous, scratching, screaming, and fighting over 
the entrails, pulUng furiously at these or at one another's hair, it 
mattered not which so that possession of the prey was secured ; the 
men jabbering like jackals, fighting with sticks and knives, one and 
all knee-deep in filth and blood ; so that between them, in about four 
hours, the skeleton was utterly bared of meat and skin, leaving not 
an atom for the Vultures. 

On the 18th we had the first earnest of the rainy season, which 
was ushered in by a terrific storm of rain and hail, some of the hail- 
stones being as large as small walnuts. The Anseba, an affluent of 
the Barca, from a dry bed with an occasional waterhole became a 
splendid river, varying from 50 to 100 yards in width, and flowing 
between banks of dense jungle and fine forest trees. The spoor of 
Elephants, Black Rhinoceros, and Lions were plentiful along the 
banks, so much so as to give the appearance of a place frequented by 
giant rabbits. The valley here varied from 15 to 20 miles in width, 
the jungle and forest limiting itself to about a couple of miles on 
each side. The remainder of the ground was stony and barren, 
rising gradually towards the hills, and intersected by numerous 
nullahs running into the Anseba. Here we came in for a glimpse, 
on two occasions, of another species of Antelope, slightly larger 
than the " Beni-e-Israel." Unfortunately I had but a momentary 
view of it, and never succeeded in obtaining a specimen. On the 
1 9th we left Bejook for Waliko, seeing on the road plenty of spoor 
of Elephants and Rhinoceros ; from the dung of the latter I collected 
a few Coleoptera. While at Waliko, finding a great scarcity of 
birds, I followed up more closely the tracks of the Rhinoceros, pass- 
ing through very dense jungle that is never penetrated by sun or 
air, by means of their paths, which are from 2 to 3 feet broad, 
and formed like galleries in a mine, about four feet high — and so 
entering their dens, which are very curious, having the appearance 
of immense arbours; they vary in size from 13 to 20 feet square, 
and have in some cases a smaller retreat adjoining. 

On the 24th, Mr. Blanford and I went out birding, and came 
upon fresh tracks of two Lions ; they had followed Elephants' spoor 
for over two miles. The herd consisted of three old ones and a 
young one. The next day we left for Maraguay, where Capt. 
Mokeler shot a doe Koodoo, and I procured a few birds, one species 
of "Indicator." Mr. Blanford obtained a new Kingfisher, of which 
I also secured a specimen the next day. I also shot a pair of fine 
Ground-Hornbills {Bucorax abyssiniciis), which I prepared as ske- 
letons. The rains having set in, and the term of our excursion 



1869.] REPORT OF MR. W. JESSE. 11/ 

drawing to a close, we left Maraguay on the 31st of July on our 
return journey. When I arrived at Waliko, to which place Capt. 
Mokeler had preceded us, I found that he had heen charged by 
a herd of some twenty Elephants, and had been forced to make 
good his escape into a tree, after hard running, and having left a 
bullet in the head of a large bull. At a later date I found myself 
in the same disagreeable predicament, and under a like disagreeable 
necessity. At Waliko I found two species of crested Cuckoo and 
the English Cuckoo. I also obtained a Bateleur Eagle, two species 
of Tortoise, and a small Squirrel. I must here state that Waliko 
is not, as represented in the map, on the right side of the river, but 
on the left, running down stream. From here we crossed over to 
Gabena Weld Gonfallon, or the River-plain, where Mr. Blanford 
and Capt. Mokeler killed a Rhinoceros. We returned by the old 
route to Kokai and Gelamet, and then branched off to Rairo ; here 
we stopped two days collecting. On the 15th of August we moved 
on again to Mombarharattby, where we killed a Lioness, one out of 
four, the others running away, — from this place to Ain (where we 
reentered our former route), which we quitted on the 1 7th of Au- 
gust for Amba and Mai Wallet. Mr. Blanford and I stayed in Amba 
from the 19th to the 21st, trying to obtain specimens of the " Oryx 
heisa." I unfortunately did not even see one ; Mr. Blanford pro- 
cured four specimens. We went from Amba to Massowah, which I 
left on the 27th for England. 

I append a list of my collections, full information relative to 
which will appear at a later date : — 

Skins of mammals, about 24 

Skull of an aboriginal 1 

Skull of African Elephant 1 

Skeleton of Rhinoceros 1 

Heads of Antelope 3 

Skeletons of other mammals, about . . 8 

Skins of birds, about 750 

Birds and Mammals in spirit, about . . 20 

Reptiles in spirit, about 6 

Tortoises and Lizards, about 6 

Fish, about 30 

Crustacea, about 50 

Lepidoptera, about 150 

Coleoptera, about 200 

Total number of specimens, about. . 1250 

The following living specimens were also forwarded to the Zoolo- 
gical Society from Zoulla : — 

Young Wild Cats * 2 

Jerboa-like Land-Rats 2 

Guinea-fowls 2 

* These were the only specimens forwarded by Mr. Jesse that reached the 
Society alive. They were the young of Felis maniculata, Ruppell. — P. L. S. 



1 IS MR. P. L. SCLATER ON BIRDS [Feb. 1 1, 

The following papers were read : — 

1, On a Collection of Birds from the Solomon Islands. By 
P. L. ScLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.', Secretary to the 
Society. 

(Plates IX. & X.) 

Our Corresponding Member Mr. Gerard Krefft, the active Curator 
and Secretary of the Australian Museum, has most kindly presented 
to me a collection of birds in spirits, made by the captain of the 
(former) yacht ' Chance,' owned by Mr. J. A. Buttray of Bristol, 
during a voyage to the Solomon Islands*. 

The collection contains thirty specimens, belonging to twenty-one 
species, many of them of great interest. But before speaking of 
them I will say a few words upon what has hitherto been recorded 
concerning the ornithology of this group of islands. 

Our present authorities upon this subject are few in number, 
namely : — 

(1) The "Zoologie" of the voyage of the French ships 'L' As- 
trolabe' and 'La Zelee,' under the command of Dumont-d'Urville, 
in 1837-1840, commonly known as the 'Voyage au Pole Sud.' 

The "Atlas" to this voyage contains figures of ten species of 
birds from the Solomon Islands, concerning which " some further 
details are given in the letterpress of the same work, subsequently 
written by Dr. Pucheran and published in 1853. These ten species, 
which are all described as new to science, are : — 

Zool. Tol. iii. Atlas. ex ins. 

Athene tmniata p. .50, pi. 3. fig. 1. S.George. 

Pachycefhala orioloidcs ... p. 57, pi. 5. fig. 3. S. George. 

Laniprotornis fulvij)cnniii . . . p. 81, pi. 14. fig. 2. Isabel. 

Dicmum (Bnexmi p. 97, pi. 22. fig. 4. S. George. 

Myzoinela lafargei p. 98, pi. 22. fig. .5. 

M.soHtaria p. 99, pi. 22. fig. 0. 

Lorius cardinalis p. 103, pi. 24 te. fig. 2. 

Pio7ms heterocUtus p. 103, pi. 25 6«. fig. 1. S. George and Isabel. 

P. cyaniceps p. 105, pi. 25 ifs. fig. 2. 

Cacafua ducorpsii p. 109, pi. 26. fig. 1 . 

(2) Mr. Gould's notices of new birds collected during the voyage 
of the 'Rattlesnake' (P. Z. S. 1856, p. ISO et seqq.). The species 
here described from the Solomons are : — • 

1. Centtopus milo, from Guadalcanar. 

2. Turaccena crassirostris, from Guadalcanar. 

3. Lorius chlorocercus, from San Cristoval. 

4. lotreron eugenice, from "the Solomons." 

* The name of these islands is variously spelt "Salomon'' and "Solomon" 
Islands. But we learn from Hakluyt (iii. p. 802) that the discoverer (Mendana) 
" named them the Isles of Salomon to the end that the Spaniai'ds, supposing 
them to be those isles from whence Solomon fetched gold to adorn the Temple, 
might be the more desirous to go and inhabit the same." It would appear, 
therefore, to be better to call them in English " Solomon " Islands, according to 
the ordinary English orthography of Solomon's name. 




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RALLUS INTACTUS. 




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186"9.] FROM THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 119 

(3) Mr. G. R. Gray's ' Catalogue of the Birds of the Tropical 
Islands of the Pacific Ocean' (London, 1859), which mentions seven 
species as occurring in the Solomon Islands, besides those given by 
the two already quoted authorities, namely : — 

Halcyon cinnamomina, Sw. Carpophaga pistrinaria, Bp. 

sancta. Vis;. & Horsf. ruhracera, Bp. 

leucopygia (Verr.). Nycticorax manillensis. 

Trichoylossus massencB, Bp. 

Mr. Gray has not stated his authority for the occurrence of these 
species in the Solomon Islands, and there is probably some error 
as regards the first two of them. H. leucopygia is described by 
Verreaux from the Solomons, and the type is in the British Mu- 
seum. Of Trichoglossus massence and the two Carpophagce there 
are examples from San Cristoval (collected by M'^Gillivray) in 
the British Museum. The Nycticorax is probably given on the 
authority of Bonaparte's 'Conspectus' (ii. p. 140), but must be 
regarded as a very doubtful denizen of the Solomon Islands until 
the statement is confirmed. 

(4) My description of the new Nasiterna from the Solomon 
Islands, published in the Society's 'Proceedings' for 1865 (p. 620). 
For this interesting representative of the iV. pygmcea of New Guinea 
I was likewise indebted to Mr. Kreift's kindness. When I described 
it I was not certain from what island it came ; but a subsequent 
communication from Mr. Krefft informed me that it was obtained 
in New Georgia, or St. George* Island. 

The present collection from the Solomon Islands contains the fol- 
lowing species : — 

1. SaULOPROCTA MELALEUCA. 

Muscipeta melaleuca, Q. et G. Voy. Astr. Zool. i. p. 180, Atlas, 
t. 4. f. 4. 

Rhipidura melanoleuca, Bp. Consp. i. p. 322. 

Sauloprocta melanoleuca. Cab. Mus. Hein. i. p. 57. 

Originally discovered by the naturalists of the 'Astrolabe' expe- 
dition in New Ireland. A specimen from the same island (with 
which my example agrees), in the British Museum, was obtained in 
New Ireland during the voyage of the ' Sulphur.' 

A fine series of this species is in Mr. Wallace's collection, from 
Bouru and other Moluccan and Papuan islands. Rhipidura atri- 
pennis, G. R. Gray, from the Aru Islands, appears to be scarcely 
distinguishable. 

2. DiCRURUS MEGARHYNCHUS. 

Edolius megarhynchus, Q. et G. Voy. Astrol. Zool. i. p. 184, 
Atl. t. 6. 

My single specimen of this Dicrurus seems to agree with a mounted 
specimen in the British Museum, received from " New Ireland " 

» Cf. Finsch, Papag. i. p. 328. 



120 MR. P. L. SCLATER ON BIRDS [Feb. 1 I, 

through the late Sir Charles Lemon, F.R.S. Messrs. Quoy and 
Gaimard give Havre Dorey, Nevr Guinea, as the habitat of this 
Drongo. But this is probably an error, as Mr. Wallace and other 
collectors who have since visited that locality have never met with 
it, and Drongoes are mostly abundant individually, and not easily 
missed if present. The species is probably restricted to the group 
of New Ireland and the Solomon Islands. 

3. Philemon vulturinus*. 

Tropidorhynchus vulturinus, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. au P. S. Zool. 
iii. p. 88, Atl. t. 18. f. 1. 

A single imperfect skin of a Honey-eater, which seems to agree 
generally with the figure above referred to. Pucheran gives the 
locality as Raffles Bay, New Holland ; but the species is not known 
to the Australian fauna, and it is more than probable that there has 
been some error in M. Jacquinot's notes as to the locality. 

The present bird is generally darker above than is represented in 
the figure, and has the apical portion of the bill light yellow. It is 
more like the so-called Tropidorhynchus diemenensis. Lesson, than 
any other species I am acquainted with, but has not the bluish 
wing-patch which distinguishes that species. 

4. Calornis metallica (Temm.). 

Lamprotornis metallica, Temm. PI. Col. 2G6. 

Aplonis metallica, Gould, B. Austr. Suppl. pt. 1. 

Calornis metallica, Gould, Handb. B. Austr. i. p. 477. 

Three skins (two <S and one $ ) agree with marked specimens 
in the British Museum. The species was originally described by 
Temminck from Amboiua, but seems to extend over the whole of 
the Moluccan and Papuan Islands, including the northern promon- 
tory of New Holland. Mr. Wallace has a fine series from many 
localities, which vary but little inter se. 

5. Gracula kreffti, sp. nov. (Plate IX.) 

^neo-nigra : regione ocvlari late denudata flava : caudcB tectri- 
cibus superioribvs et inferioribus, speculo alari et ventre imo 
albis, hoc fiavescente tincto : rostro et pedibus aurantiacis : 
long, tota W'O poll. Angl., alee 6'3, rostri a rictu lin. dir. 1*5, 
caudce 4 "2, tarsi VAb. 

Hab, Inss. Salomonenses. 

Obs. Proxima Graculce dumonti, sed valde major, Cauda longiore, 
et ventre medio non flavo differt. 

* It is always a misfortune to be obliged to change well-established names ; 
but there seems to be no doubt that Trcqiklorkz/jichtis of Vigors and Horsfield 
(1820) must give place to Fhihmov of Vieillot (1810). The fh-st type given by 
Vieillot (Analyse, p. 47) is Le Polochiun of Buffon = Mcnqjs mohiccensis, Latham. 
This species is stated to inhabit Bouru, and is clearly the same as that subse- 
quently described by Mr. Wallace (P. Z. S. 1S03, p." 31) as Trojiidorhynchus 
bouruensis. It is a typical species of the genus, and should be caUed I'fiilemon 
moluccensis. 



18f39.] FROM THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 121 

This fine new Gracula is, as might have been expected from its 
patria, nearest to Gracula dumonti of New Guinea and the Aru 
Islands, of which I exhibit a fine skin from Mr. Wallace's collection 
for comparison. The naked space round the eye is nearly, though 
not quite, of the same form. There is also a narrow naked line 
along the lower edge of the mandible ; but this is not nearly so broad 
as in G. dumonti, and is almost hidden by the feathers on each side. 
The primaries have a broad white bar across them, about halfway 
up on the outer primary, but descending gradually towards the apex 
on the inner primaries. This forms a white speculum, as in G. du- 
monti. All the dimensions of the new species exceed those of its 
ally ; but this is particularly the case in the tail, which in G. dumonti 
is rather stumpy, measuring only 26 inches from the insertion of the 
feathers in the coccyx, instead of 4'2. 

I have great pleasure in naming this new Grackle after our active 
Corresponding Member Mr. Gerard Krefft, to whose kindness I am 
indebted for the whole of the very interesting series of which it 
forms a part. 

The stomach of the single specimen in the collection contained 
seeds and stones of semidigested fruit. 

There is a single skin of this Gracula in the British Museum, 
received from " New Ireland " through the late Sir Charles Lemon,' 
F.R.S. It agrees very well with the present specimen, except in 
having the lower belly rather more deeply tinged with yellow. 

6. EURYSTOMUS CRASSIROSTRIS, Sp. nOV. 

Similis E. pacifico, sed major, rostra latiore, crassiore, rohustiore; 

capite supra nigricaate nee fuscescente ; dorso toto viridescenti- 

caruleo: ventre magis coeruleo : cauda valde longiore : long. 

iota 11-5, al(B 7"2, caudcB 5-0, rostri ah ang. oris lin. dir. 1-6, 

ejusdem lat. \-2. 
Hab. Inss. Salomouenses. 

There is a single specimen of this Roller in the collection. I have 
compared it with Mr. Wallace's series of E. pacificus, from which it 
presents readily appreciable differences, and with other Australian 
specimens. The strong thick bill and longer tail seem to render it 
impossible to leave it as a variety of E. pacificus. In Mr. Wallace's 
collection, however, is a single skin from Waigiou which is generally 
very similar to the present example, differing principally in haviuo- 
the wing-coverts of a more bluish tinge. The wing-coverts of E. 
crassirostris are more like those of E. pacificus. 

7. TODIRHAMPHUS CHLORIS (Bodd.). 

Alcedo chloris, Bodd. ex Buff, PI. Enl. /83. f. 2. 
A. chlorocephala, Gm. 

One specimen apparently referable to this widely distributed spe- 
cies, which is diffused from the north-east coast of Africa over India, 
the Malayan archipelago, and the Moluccan and Papuan Islands. 
In Australia it appears to be represented by T. sordidus. 



122 MR. p. L. SCLATER ON BIRDS [Feb. 1 1, 

8. BUCEROS RUFICOLLIS. 

Buceros rujicollis, Vieill. Temm. PI. Col. 557. 
A young male of this species, which is the only one of the family 
found in the Papuan subregion. 

9. Centropus ateralbus. 

Centropus ateralbus. Less. Voy. Coq. Zool. i. p. 620, Atlas, t. 33 ; 
Bp. Consp. i. p. 108. 

One example of this Coucal, which was originally discovered by 
Lesson, during the voyage of the ' Coquille,' at Port Praslin, New 
Ireland. 

10. Cacattta goffini. 

Plictolophus goffini, Finsch, Papag. i. p. 308. 
A single skin of a white Cockatoo, is apparently referable to this 
species, of which the exact habitat was previously unknown. 

11. GeOFFROIUS HETEROCLITUS. 

Pionus heteroditus, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. au P. S. t. 25 ; Puch. 
ibid. Zool. iii. p. 105. 

Pionias heteroditus, Finsch, Papag. ii. p. 390. 

Two skins apparently referable to the female or young of this 
species as represented in the second figure of the Atlas of the 'Voyage 
au Pole Sud.' Dr. Pucheran has recognized in this form a distinct 
species, which he has proposed to call Pionus cyaniceps, but Dr. 
Finsch believes him to be in error on this point. 

Dr. Finsch has examined the two specimens in the present col- 
lection. One of them has had its wings cut, having been apparently 
in captivity. 

12. LORIUS CHLOROCERCUS. 

Lorius chlorocercus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 137 ; G. R. Gray, 
List of Psitt. p. 49 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 183, pi. xvi. 
Domicella chlorocerca, Finsch, Papag. ii. p. 767. 
Three skins of this splendid species are in the collection. 

13. LORIUS HYPOENOCHROTJS. 

Lorius hypoinochrous, G. R. Gray, List of Psitt. p. 49 (1859). 

Domicella hypoinochroa, Finsch, Papag. ii. p. 768. 

One skin of this fine Lory is in the collection. I have compared 
it with the typical example in the British Museum, which is, as far 
as I know, unique. 

14. Eos CARDINALIS. 

Lorius cardinalis, Homb. et Jacq. Voy. au P. S. Zool. iii. p. 101, 
t. 24 bis. f. 2. 

Domicella cardinalis, Finsch, Papag. ii. p. 785. 

Dr. Finsch has kindly undertaken the examination of this rare 



1869.] FROM THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 123 

Parrot, and his notes upon it will be read to the Meeting ; so I need 
say no more*. 

15. Trichoglossus massen^e. 

Trichoglossus massenm, Bp. ; Finsch, Papag. ii. p. 834. 
One skin agreeing with the specimen so named in the British 
Museum {cf. Finsch, I. c. p. 826). 

16. Athene variegata. 

Noctua variegata, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. Astr. Zool. i. p. 166, Atl. 
t. 1. f. 2. 

Athene variegata, Bp. Consp. i. p. 41. 

One example which seems to agree well enough with Quoy and 
Gaimard's figure and description. These naturalists met with the 
species in New Ireland. 

17. Carpophaga rubricera. 

Globicera rubricera, Bp. Consp. ii. p. 31. 

Carpophaga rubricera, G. R. Gray, List of Columbse, p. 18. 

C. lepida, Cassin, Proc. Acad. Phil. 1854, p. 230. 

I have compared this with the type specimen in the British Mu- 
seum. Bonaparte states that an example in the Paris collection is 
from New Ireland. A second example in the British Museum is 
from San Cristoval {M'^Gillivray). 

18. Ralltjs intactus, sp. nov. (Plate X.) 

Supra olivaceo-brunneus ; capite colloque toto et remigibus pri- 
mariis eccternis rufis : uropygio et cauda nigricanti-ciyiereis : 
subtus gula albicante ; pectore toto rufo, capite concolori ; 
ventre plumbeo, crisso nigricante : hypochondriis et tectricibus 
subalaribus nigricantibus, albo guttatis : long, tota 10'5, alee 
6*8, caudce 1*8, rostri a rictu \'9, tarsi 2-5, dig. med. c. u. 2"0. 
Hab. Inss. Salomonenses. 

Obs. Similis R. plumbeiventri (G. R. Gray, P. Z. S. 1861, p. 432), 
sed rostro breviore, capitis et pectoris colore rufo obscuriore, ventris 
autem dilutiore plumbeo distinguendus. 

The collection contains only a single skin of this Rail, which is 
more nearly allied to Rallus plurnbeiventris of Mysol and Morty 
Island than to any other species known to me. 

19. Ardea SACRA (Gm.). 

Two skins of this wide-spread and variable species : — one in uni- 
form nearly black plumage (as represented by Buffon, PI. Enl. 926), 
with faint indications of a narrow gular stripe ; the other white, but 
showing traces of the black plumage gradually making its appear- 
ance. Upon this species consult Hartlaub and Pelzeln (Fauna 
Central- Polynesiens, p. 201). 

* See below, p. Vl'o. 



124 MR. p. L. SCLATER ON BIRDS [Feb. 11, 

20. Tringoides hypoleucus (Linn.). 

Three skins of this species, or of the Australian form of it, Actitis 
empusa (Gould, B. Austr. vi. pi. 35). 

21. Sterna lunata, Peale; Finsch et Hartl. Fauna Centr. Pol. 
p. 231. 

A skin of a Tern in transition plumage, which Dr. Finsch has 
kindly determined for me. 

After inserting in their places such of these twenty-one species as 
have not been previously recorded by the before-named authorities 
upon this subject, we shall have the following list of well-authenti- 
cated species of birds from the Solomon Islands : — 

I. Passebes. Distrihution. 

1. Sauloprocta inelaleuca Papuan subregion. 

2. Pachycephala orioloides Peculiar to Solomons. 

3. Dicrurus megarhynchus New Ireland. 

4. Philemon vulturinus Probably peculiar. 

6. Bkceum (Biieum Peculiar. 

6. My zonula lafargei Peculiar. 

7. solifaria Peculiar. 

8. Calornis nietallica Papuan subregion. 

9. fulvipennis Peculiar. 

10. Gracula krejfti New Ireland. 

II. PlCARI^. 

1 1 . Eurystomus crassirostris Probably peculiar. 

12. Todirhamfhus chloris Papuan subregion and India. 

13. leucopygius Peculiar. 

14. Biiceros ruficollis Papuan subregion. 

15. Centropus ateralbus New Ireland. 

16. milo Peculiar. 

III. PsiTTACI. 

17. Cacatua goffini Probably peculiar. 

18. ducorpsii Peculiar. 

19. Nasiicrna pusio Peculiar. 

20. Geoffroius heteroclitus Peculiar. 

21. Lorius chlorocercus Peculiar. 

22. kypcenochrous Lousiade Islands. 

23. Eos cardinalis Peculiar. 

24. Trichoglossus iJMSsena New Caledonia and New Hebrides. 

IV. ACCIPITRES. 

25. Athene variegata New Ireland. 

26. tceniafa Peculiar. 

V. COLUMB^. 

27. Carpophaga rubricera New Ireland. 

28. pistrinaria Peculiar. 

29. Macropygia crassirostris Peculiar. 

30. Philonopus cugcnice Peculiar. 

VI. G-RALL;E. 

31. EaUus intacius Peculiar. 

32. Tringoides hypoleucus Generally distributed. 



1869.] FROM THE SOLOMON ISLANDS. 125 

VII. Herodiones. Distribution. 

33. Ardea sacra India, Australia, and Polynesia. 

VIII. Gavi^. 

34. Sternalunata Polynesia. 

It thus appears that of the thirty-four authentically determined 
species of birds of the Solomon Islands seventeen are certainly, as 
far as is hitherto known, and three others probably, peculiar to the 
group. Of the remaining fourteen, five have likewise been met with 
in New Ireland, which is one of a neighbouring group of islands 
probably belonging strictly to the same fauna ; one has hitherto only 
been found in the Lousiade Islands ; and the remainder are of more 
or less extended distribution, being, however, mostly restricted to 
the Papuan Islands. 

But to obtain a better idea of the true nature of the avifauna of 
the Solomon Islands we may first consider very shortly what are 
the principal divisions of the great region of wliich it forms a part. 
The Australian region (Regie australiana), as I have proposed to 
call this*, appears to be most naturally divisible into five subregions, 
namely : — 

1. The Papuan subregion {Subregio papuana), or Austro-Ma- 
layan Subregion of Wallacef . 

2. The true Australian subregion (^Subregio australis), comprising 
continental Australia, with, perhaps, the exception of the northern 
promontory of Cape York, which has been overrun by Papuan forms 
(such as Cuscus, Casuarius, Manucodia, &c.). 

3. The New-Zealandian or Maorian subregion (^Subregio mao- 
riana), which is characterized by the recently extinct Dinornithes, 
as well as by the presence of numerous peculiar ornithic types. 

4. The Polynesian subregion (Subregio polynesica), comprising 
the numerous groups of Polynesian islands lying between the Equator 
and the Tropic of Capricorn. 

5. The Sandwich-Island subregion {Subregio sandvicensis), com- 
prising only the Sandwich Islands, which are so very peculiar iu 
their zoology that they must, I think, stand by themselves. 

A very short examination of the foregoing list of the birds of the 
Solomon Islands will be sufficient to show us to which of these sub- 
regions this group of islands properly belongs. One of the principal 
features which distinguishes the Papuan subregion from the true 
Australian subregion is the occurrence in the former of numerous 
Indian types which do not extend into the latter. For example, the 
Hornbills (Bucerotidce) are entirely foreign to Australia, but are 
found in the Papuan and Moluccan Islands. One species (Buceros 
ruficollis) only has yet been met with in New Guinea. This bird 
also occurs in the present collection from the Solomon Islands. 
Again, the genus Gracula is a well-known Indian form, but extends 
also over the Papuan subregion of Regio australiana, being, however, 

* Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. Zool. ii. p. 130. 

t C/. WaUace, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 273, et Journ. Geogr. Soc. xxxiii. p. 217. 



12G DR. O. FINSCH ON A RARE PARROT. [Feb. 11, 

non-existent in Australia. Two species of it occur in New Guinea 
(G. dumonti and G. anais). Of the former of these we meet with a 
beautiful representative in the present collection from the Solomons. 

Again, the existence in the Solomons of two species of true Lorius 
and one of Geoffroius is quite sufficient to show the Papuan tenden- 
cies of the fauna ; and from these facts alone Mr. Wallace has already 
included the Solomon Islands in his Austro-Malayan region*. 

The subsequent discovery of a second species of the peculiar 
Papuan type Nasiterna in the Solomons has materially strengthened 
Mr. Wallace's argument from what was then known of the Psitta- 
cine fauna of these islands. 

On the whole, therefore, it is manifest that the results derivable 
from the study of the present collection serve only to confirm the 
views Mr. Wallace has already put forward upon the avifauna of the 
Solomons, namely that these islands constitute an eastern outlier of 
the Papuan subregion. It need hardly be added that this makes 
the further investigation of their fauna still more desirable. Where 
such forms as Nasiterna pusio and Gracula kreffti occur, it is rea- 
sonable to expect that other brilliant representatives of Papuan types 
likewise remain to be discovered. It would not be surprising if even 
new species of Paradisece were yet to be found in some of these 
islands, or in the adjacent lands of New Ireland or New Britain, the 
latter of which has already produced to us a very remarkable form 
of one of the most characteristic of Papuan types {Casuarius 
bennettii). 

Under these circumstances, I trust that our Corresponding Member 
Mr. KrefFt and other numerous friends in Sydney will use their best 
endeavours to persuade tlie owners of the vessels which, as I under- 
stand, are trading between Sydney and these islands to lose no oppor- 
tunity of acquiring specimens of their natural productions. And I 
trust that the time may not be far distant when it may be possible 
to fit out a regular expedition for the investigation of this rich but 
hitherto comparatively neglected district. 



2. On a very rare Parrot from the Solomon Islands. 
By Dr. O. Finsch, C.M.Z.S. 

(Plate XI.) 

Amongst the species of Parrots which are more or less obscure 
there is scarcely one rarer than the Lori cardinal of MM. Hombron 
and Jacquinot, which is only known by the figure published in the 
Atlas of Dumont-d'Urville's 'Voyage au Pole Sud' (pi. 24 its. 
fig. 2) in the year 1843. This plate represents a Lory belonging 
apparently to the subgenus Eos, Bp., being throughout of a brilliant 
scarlet, therefore an unmistakable species. The descriptive part of 
the zoology of the French voyage, published ten years later, by 
* Cf. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 278. 



F. 2,3.1863. HIJl 




■% 



MiN.HAMKART IMT. 



DOMICELLA CARDINALIS 



^o?^^^^'^^^ 






18Gy.] DR. O. FINSCH ON A RARE PARROT. 127 

M. Jacquinot and Dr. Pucheran, gives no further account of the 
Lorius cardinalis (page 103), except the short notice that the 
species comes from the Solomon Islands. If I am right, the only 
specimen collected by the French naturalists of the expedition was, 
unfortunately, lost by the shipwreck of the 'Astrolabe.' When J 
was working o\it my Monograph of Parrots, I therefore was not 
able to give more than a description taken from the figure in the 
voyage ; all my endeavours to get better information were without 
success. A new beam of hope arose when I was reading Prof. 
Rietmann's ' Wanderungen in Australien und Polynesien ' (St. 
Gallen, 1868), and found mentioned in that amusing and, in many 
respects, interesting book (page 194) "shining-red Parrots," which 
were offered for sale by the natives of Guadalcanar during the stay of 
the traveller on that island. In the belief that these Red Parrots 
could be nothing more than Lorius cardinalis, I wrote a letter to 
Prof. Reitmann begging for more special information. In his kind 
answer the traveller was sorry to say that he was not sure whether 
these Parrots were quite red or not, not having brought home spe- 
cimens of them ; so that our knowledge of the Cardinal Lory re- 
mained as imperfect as before. 

During my recent visit to London Dr. Sclater kindly showed me 
a very interesting collection of birds from the Solomon Islands, for- 
warded to him by Mr. Gerard Krefft of Sydney. This collection 
contained, besides two or three new species, most of the Parrots 
known from that group of islands, namely Plictolopkus ducorpsi, 
Hombr. et Jacq., Pionias heterocHtus, Hombr. et Jacq., Domicella 
hxjpoenochroa. Gray (new to the Solomon Islands), and Domicella 
chlorocerca, Gould. Amongst them was a species of Lorius, which 
I, to my greatest pleasure and surprise, recognized immediately as 
the Lorius cardinalis, Hombr. et Jacq. A comparison with the 
plate shows some differences, in the specimen not being throughout 
of a brilliant scarlet, but having the upper parts decidedly brownish 
red and the feathers of I he body beneath margined with pale 
orange-yellow. The latter peculiarity may be perhaps a sign of the 
specimen not being in mature state. The brilliancy of the colours 
in general has probably lost somewhat by the specimen having been 
preserved in spirits ; but in any case one may say that the coloration 
of the plate in the ' Voyage au Pole Sud ' is too bright and a little 
exaggerated. 

Concerning the generic position of this Parrot, it may be remarked 
that it belongs, according to coloration, along with Domicella rubra, 
Gm., D. rubiginosa, Bp., and the allied species, to the subgeneic 
division Eos of Prince Bonaparte. The shape of the bill, and the 
structure of the quills and tail-feathers, show a greater affinity to the 
so-called genus Chalcopsitta, Bp. (based upon D. scintitlata and D. 
atra. Scop.), which is chiefly distinguished by a narrow, naked, black 
ring round the mandible, and more extended naked orbits. 

Before describing this scarce specimen, I must remark that there 
are a few more Parrots of a more or less uniform red plumage, all 
being nearly, or entirely, unknown. 



128 DR. O. FINSCH ON A RARE PARROT. [Feb. II, 

The first is the beautiful Edectus cornelice, Bp. (Finsch, Parrots, 
ii. p. 348), well described and figured in P. Z. S. 1849, pi. xi., and 
seen once or twice living in the Zoological Gardens at London and 
Amsterdam, but without any information about the dwelling-place 
— probably from one of the islands of the Malayan archipelago. 

Another uniform red one is the Psittacus wncolor of Shaw 
(Finsch, Parrots, ii. p. 924), a very doubtful species, and known 
only from the descriptions of the older authors. It is not quite im- 
possible that the P. vnicolor may be related to the Edectus cornelice, 
being evidently a short-tailed Edectus or Pionias, and not an Eos, 
as Mr. G. R. Gray suggests (List Psitt. p. 20) ; but it differs in 
having all the quills and the bill red. Levaillant mentions having 
seen two specimens in the collection of M. Temminck ; but that I 
believe is one of his mystifications, and his figure (pi. 125) is only 
copied from Shaw's ; for there is no reference to the Lori U7iicolor 
in Temminck's * Catalogue Systematique du Cabinet d'Ornithologie,' 
of the year 1807. If that species really exists, I believe it will be 
found also in the Moluccan region ; but I consider it to be more 
probable that the P. unicolor was based upon a manufactured speci- 
men, and never will be found again. 

A third thoroughly red Parrot is an Arara, mentioned by Alexander 
von Humboldt (Reise in die Aequinoctial-Gegeuden des neuen Con- 
tinents, iv. 1860, p. 6 ; Finsch, Parrots, ii. p. 935) in the following 
short note : — " In one of the huts of the Pacimonales we bought an 
Ara, being a species of Aras, about 1 7" long, and of an entirely 
purple plumage, like the Psittacus niacao." The celebrated tra- 
veller made this notice at the missionary station San Francisco So- 
lano, on the left side of the Casiquiare, a country not yet explored 
by zoological collectors. If the information is correct, there can be 
no doubt that the Ara might be certainly new, and one of the most 
wonderful species in the whole tribe. It must be recollected, how- 
ever, that Von Humboldt was not at all an ornithologist ; and there 
may have happened a mistake, as in the case of the celebrated Ca- 
perote of Madeira, which was nothing more than our well-known 
Sylvia atricapilla, Lath. 

About all those questionable points we must wait for further ex- 
planations. These will come, perhaps, as unexpected as in the case 
of Domicella rubiginosa, Bp. (Finsch, Parrots, ii. p. 781), also a 
red-coloured species, which was for a long time said to be a native 
of New Guinea, but was found by the Novara expedition on the 
small island Puynipet, of the Senjawin group, in a region where 
nobody would have expected Parrots at all. 

Now we will give for the first time a full description of the excellent 

Domicella cardinalis. (Plate XI.) 

Lori cardinal, Hombr. et Jacq. Voy. au Pole Sud, Atlas, pi. 24 bis. 
f. 2 (1843). 

Lorius cardinalis, Jacq. et Pucher. Voy. au Pole Sud, Zoologie, iii. 
(1853) p. 103 ; Hartl. Journ. f. Ornith. (1854) p. 165 ; G. R. Gray, 
Gen. of B. App. p. 20. 



1869.] MESSRS. SCL.ATER AND SALVIN ON THE ASTURIN.E. 129 

Eos cardinalis, Bonap. Compt. Rend. 1857; G. R. Gray, List 
Spec. Brit. Mus. Psittac. (1859) j). 63. 

Eos unicolor, part., Wall. P. Z. S. 1864, p. 291. 

Eos cardinalis, G. R. Gray, B. of Trop. tsl. p. 31. 

Domicella cardinalis, Finsch, Papageien, ii. (1868) p. 785. 

Head and nape deep crimson, the under parts of the same colour 
but lighter, and each feather pale orange-yellow-margined at the end, 
giving a somewhat undulated appearance ; the under tail-coverts 
uniform crimson ; back and other upper parts purplish brownish 
red, darkest on the shoulders and quill-coverts, lighter and more 
crimson on the rump and upper tail-coverts ; on the mantle some 
feathers with narrow obsolete yellow margins ; primaries on the 
outer web reddish brown, with olive-yellow lustre in certain lights ; 
on the inner web dark reddish brown ; secondaries brownish red, 
like the back, the tail-feathers also ; quills and tail-feathers beneath 
brownish red, in some light shining red. 

Bill orange ; cere, a naked ring round the mandible, and the con ■ 
siderably extended naked orbits black ; legs and claws blackish. 

Long. corp. 11 1", al. 6" 4'", rectr. intern. 5" 5'", rectr. ext. 3", 
culm. 9'", alt. rost. ad basin 9'", tars. 9"' (French meas.). 

Hub. Solomon Islands. 



3. Notes on the Species of the Genus Asturina. By P. L. 
ScLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, 
M.A., F.L.S. 

Recent investigations having convinced us that there is still much 
confusion amongst the American species of Hawks of the genus 
Asturina, we beg leave to submit to the Society the following notes 
upon the subject. 

The genus Asturina, founded by Vieillot in 1816 upon his Astu- 
rina cinerea (Falco nilidus. Lath.), embraces a small series of Ame- 
rican birds closely resembling Buteo in structure, but in habits more 
nearly approaching Accipiter. The most noticeable difference be- 
tween Asturina and Buteo consists in the shorter wings of the 
former ; but in this respect Buteo pennsylvanicus (which has the 
habits of Asturina) is nearly intermediate between the two genera. 
Putting this bird aside for the present, we have left seven species of 
true Asturina, which may be separated into three groups, as fol- 
lows : — 

(1) The species allied to A. nitida, of which there appear to be 
two representative forms, — one occupying Central America and 
Mexico, which has been named A. plagiata ; the other the true A. 
nitida, which, commencing its range at Panama, extends itself over 
the greater part of tropical South America. 

(2) The species allied to A. magnirostris, which is the type of 
the genus Rupornis of Kaup. These are four in number, eacii 

Proc. Zqol. Soc— 1869. No. IX. 



130 MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON THE ASTURIN^. [Feb. 1 1, 

occupying a distinct area, as will be seen by reference to our notes 
below. 

(3) The isolated species A. leucorrhoa, which appears to be a true 
Asturinn in structure, but in plumage forcibly calls to mind the Buteo 
brachyurus, Vieill. The latter bird has likewise been referred by 
some authors to Asturina — but, from its lengthened wings, should, we 
think, be either placed with Buteo or stand by itself under the desig- 
nation Buteola, proposed for it by Bonaparte from Du Bus's MS. 

The subjoined table may, perhaps, assist in distinguishing the 
seven species in their adult dress : — 

A. Supra cinerese aut fusciB : subtus plus mmusve transfasciatfe. 

a. rem. priin. pogoniis internis albis nigro transfasciatis : 

f supra transfasciata 1. iiitida. 

\ supra unicolor 2. plagiata. 

b. rem. prim, pogon. int. rufis nigro transfasciatis: 

a', caudre fasciis cinereis : 

f tibiis albis, cinereo transfasciatis 3. magnirostris. 

\ tibiis fulvis rufo transfasciatis 4. nattereri. 

V. Cauda; fasciis rufis : 

J gula et pectore cinereis .') riificaiida. 

1 gula obscure fiisca, pect. albicante 6. gularis. 

B. Supra et subtus unicolor nigra 7. leucorrhoa. 



1. Asturina nitida. 

Falco nitidus. Lath. Ind. Orn. i. p. 40. 

Asturina cinerea, Vieill. Analyse, p. 68 ; N. D. iii. p. 41 ; E. M. 
p. 12G0, et Gal. Ois. t. 20. 

Falco striolatus. Max. Beitr iii. p. 209 ; Temm. PI. Col. 87 (ad.) 
et 294 (jr.). 

Astur nitidus, D'Orb. Voy. Ois. p. 95 ; Burm. Syst. Ueb. ii. p. 68 ; 
Leotaud, Ois. Trin. p. 46. 

Asturina nitida. Cab. in Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 737; Pelz. Orn. 
Bras. p. 3; Scl. et Salv, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 369, 1867, p. 589, 1868, 
p. 173; Lawr. Ann. L. N. Y. vii. p. 316; Scl. P. Z. S. 1860, 
p. 288. 

Supra in /undo alba, dorso toto et alls extus griseseentioribus ; 
schistaceo frequenter transfasciata : gula alba. Junior, tibiis 
rufescentibus immaculatis. 

Hab. Panama (M'C/ea?;wflw); Western Ecuador (/'raser) ; Bogota 
(Mus. S.-G.); Y eneznela {Goerinff); 'Vrimdad (Leotaud) ; Cayenne 
{Buff.); British Guiana {^chomb.)\ Lower Amazons {Wallace); 
Barra, Borba, Cuyaba et Araguay {Natterer); Wood-region of S.E. 
Brazil {Max. et Burm.). 

This well-known species is, as will be seen from our list of loca- 
lities, widely disti ibuted in South America. The most northern point 
from which we have seen examples is the isthmus of Panama, where 
many specimens have been procured by M'Cleannan and Arce. In 
Costa Rica the next species replaces it, 

2. Asturina plagiata. 

Aaliirina nitida, Cassin, in Baird's Birds of N. Am. p. 35 ; Scl. 



I8C9.] MESSRS. SCLATKR AND SALVIN ON THE ASTURIN^. 131 

et Salv. Ibis, 1859, p. 217; Salvin, Ibis, 1861, p. 68; Scl. P. Z. S. 
1857, pp. 201 et 227, 1859, pp. 368 et 389, 1864, p. 178; Lawr. 
A. N. Y. Lye. ix. p. 133. 

Asturina plagiata, Schl. Mus. d. P.-B. AsturincB, p. 1 ; Scl. et 
Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 173. 

Supra schistacea fere unicolor : gula cinerea. Junior, tibiis albi- 
cantibus fusco transfasciatis. 

Hab. Mexico, New Leon {Couch) ; Jalapa (Salle) ; Vera Cruz 
(Mus. Berol.) ; Guatemala (Salvin) ; Costa Rica (Arce). 

This northern representative of A. nitida is easily distinguishable 
by the darker and uniform slaty plumage above in the adult bird. 
In A. nitida the feathers of the head and upper neck are white, 
with numerous narrow transverse bars of slaty grey. On the back 
and wings externally the gro.und- colour is ashy, but the darker 
transverse bars, though wider, are numerous and very conspicuous. 
In the present bird the transverse barring is wholly absent, leaving 
the upper surface nearly uniform, though traces of transverse mark- 
ings are apparent in some places beneath on raising the feathers, and 
are also faintly visible on the wing-coverts in some specimens. The 
lower of the two white tail-bands is narrower in the present bird 
than in A. nitida, but the upper appears to be usually more strongly 
shown in A. plagiata. 

The young plumage of the northern bird generally resembles that 
of the southern, but, as appears from the specimens we have met 
with, presents a constant difference in having the tibiae distinctly 
marked by numerous cross bands. In the young of A. nitida the 
thighs are of a uniform ferruginous, more or less deep. 

The most southern locality we have yet met with for this species 
is Costa Rica, whence Arce transmitted a single immature specimen 
iu 1864. 

Dr. Peters having most kindly lent to us the type of Buteo pla- 
giatus, Licht., upon which Schlegel established his Asturina plagiata, 
we have been enabled to ascertain without doubt that it is the young 
of the present species. 

3. Asturina magnirostris. 

L'epervier h gros bee de Cayenne, Buff. PI. Enl. 464. 

Falco magnirostris, Gm. S. N. i. p. 282. 

Nisus magnirostris, Tsch. F. P. Aves, p. 104. 

Jtupornis magnirostris, Cab. in Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 7^7. 

Asturina magnirostris, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1857, p. 261, 1858, p. 451, 
1859, p. 147, 1860, p. 288; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 198, 
1867, pp. 589, 753. 

Astur macrorhynchus, Pelz. Orn. Bras. p. 6. 

Falco insectivorus, Spix, Av. Bras. i. p. 17, t. 8" (partim). 

Supra dare cinerea: sub tus gula et pectore cinereis ; ventre toto 

cum tibiis albo et ru/escente cinereo frequenter transfasciatis. 
Hab. Cayenne (Buffon) ; Brit. Guiana (Schomb.) ; Rio Negro, 
Rio Brancho, and Rio Madeira (Natterer) ; Venezuela (Goering) ; 



132 MESSRS. SCLATKR AND SALVIN ON THE ASTURIN^. [Feb. 11, 

Mexiana {Wallace); Eastern Peru {Bartlett et Tschudi) ; New 
Granada, 13ogota (Mus. S.-G.); Western Ecuador (Fraser). 

The first and, indeed, only author who has appreciated the dis- 
tinction between the present species and its Brazilian representative 
is von Pelzeln, who, in his ' Ornithologie Brasiliens,' considers the 
latter the true Astur maynirostris, and calls the present bird 
Astur macrorhynchus from Natterer's MS. Of this being the case 
we are enabled to speak with some confidence, as one of Natterer's 
marked specimens from San Carlos on the Rio Negro, in the col- 
lection of Salvin and Godman, is undoubtedly referable to this species. 
But Gmelin's Falco magnirostris is based entirely upon Buffon's 
Epervier a gros hec de Cayenne (PI. Eiil, 464). This figure, leaving 
the locality out of the question, clearly represents the northern spe- 
cies, which must therefore retain the name Asturina magnirostris. 

Comparing a considerable series of specimens of these two allies 
together, we cannot but fully agree to von Pelzeln's separation of 
them. The present bird may be readily distinguished from the next 
species by the cinereous colour below, slight indications of rufescent 
tinge being only seen upon the darker bands of the belly and thighs. 
In A. nattereri the throat is darker cinereous and distinctly striped 
with white longitudinally ; the breast is rich rufous in very adult 
birds, almost without cross markings ; the belly is very pale fulvous 
or almost cream-colour, with numerous cross bands of deep ferrugi- 
nous ; the thighs are covered by minute cross bands of the same 
colour. In A. magnirostris the thighs are pure white, cross-banded 
with pale cinereous with merely a slight rufescent tinge. 

4. Asturina nattereri. 

Falco magnirostris. Max. Beitr. iii. p. 102; Temm. PI. Col. 8G 
(avis jr.). 

Astur magnirostris, Pelz. Orn. Bras. p. 6. 
Nisus w.agnirostris, Burm. Syst. Ueb. ii. p. 76. 
Falco magnirostris, Spix, Av. Bras. i. p. 18 (partim). 

Supra brunnescenti-cinerea ; subtus gula cinerea albo striata : 
pectore ferrugineo : ventre toto cum tibiis ferrugineo-rufis pal- 
lido fulvo transfasciatis : cauda nigricante, cinereo trivittata 
et terminatu. 

Hab. South-eastern Brazil {Max. et Burmeister) ; Bahia ( Wu- 
cherer) ; S. Paolo et Mattogrosso (Natterer). 

As will be seen from von Pelzeln's Hst, Natterer collected a large 
number of this species in various parts of Southern and Inner Brazil ; 
but the specimens referred to as obtained by him at Barra do Rio 
Negro are more probably referable to the true A. magnirostris. An 
excellent series of examples of this Hawk, collected in the vicinity 
of Bahia, has lately been received by Salvin from Dr. Wucherer. 
We have also to thank the authorities of the Norfolk and Norwich 
Museum for the loan of many specimens of this and the preceding 
species from their tine collection of Rapacious birds. 

Having aheady explained why the name magnirostris, which has 



18l)9.] MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON THE ASTURIN^. 133 

always been applied to this bird, must be restricted to the preceding 
species, we propose to call it after the naturalist who first appreciated 
the differences between them. 

5. ASTURINA RUFICAUDA, Sp. n. 

Asturina mngnirostris, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 285, 1859, p. 368, 
1864, p. 178. 

Asturina magnirostris, Scl. et Salv. Ibis, 1859, p. 217; Lawr. 
Ann. L. N. Y. vii. p. 316, viii. p. 178; Moore, P. Z. S. 1859, 
p. 52. 

Supra obscure cinerea : subtus gula et pectore obscure cinereis : 
ventre toto cum tibiis ferrugineo et pallido fulvo frequenter 
transfasciatis : cauda nigra, ferrugineo trivittata et terminata. 

Hab. Cordova {Salle) ; Jalapa (De Oca) ; Mexico city {White) ; 
Omoa {Leyland); Guatemala {Salvin) ; Veragua {Arce) ; David 
{Hicks). 

As in the case of A. nitida, the northern representative of the 
present group of AsturincB appears in its adult dress to be readily 
distinguishable from the southern forms, and to require specific 
separation. From A. magnirostris and A. natter eri it differs in the 
deep-red tail- bands, the corresponding colour in the two last-men- 
tioned species being pale cinereous. In younger specimens of A. 
ruficauda these bands are likewise cinereous, but in nearly every case 
show traces of rufesceut colouring beginning to appear. In the 
general colour of its under plumage A. ruficauda more nearly resem- 
bles A. nnttereri than A. magnirostris, having the belly, flanks, and 
thighs of the same rich ferruginous tinge which distinguishes A. 
nattereri; but in the present bird the throat and chest are usually 
of a pale cinereous, thus more resembling A. magnirostris. 

We have examined a great number of specimens of this bird from 
various parts of Southern Mexico and Central America. In Guate- 
mala, where it is one of the commonest species of Hawk, Salvin 
obtained examples from the plains of Zacapa, the Pacific coast- 
region, the valley of the river Polochic, Choctuni in the forest-region 
of Vera Paz, and the savannas of the district of Peten. We have 
also received specimens from Costa Rica, Veragua, and Panama, 
besides the Mexican series obtained by Salle and his coadjutors. 

Asturina ruficauda, though thus widely distributed, is not found 
in the elevated mountain districts, but frequents the lowland plains 
up to an elevation of about 2500 feet above the sea-level. Its food 
in Guatemala consists almost entirely of small snakes and lizards. 

6. Asturina pucherani. 

Esparvero indaye, Azara, Apuut. i. p. 131. no. 30. 
Astur magnirostris, Hartl. Ind. Azara, p. 2; D'Orb. Vov. Ois. 
p. 91. 

Nisus magnirostris, Burm. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 623. 
Asturina pucherani, J. et E. Verreaux, 11. Z. 1855, p. 350. 
Falco gularis, Licht. in Mus. Berol. 



134 MR. E. BLYTH ON A HYBRID CHAMOIS. [Feb. 1 1, 

Rupornis gularis, Licht. Nomencl. p. 3. 

Asturina gularis, Schlegel, Mus. des P.-B. Asturinee, p. 4 (1862). 

Supra obscure fusca : capita toto cum gutture ohscurioribus : 
pectore et ventre toto cum tibiis pallide fulvis, lineis angustis 
ferrugineis parce traiisfasciatis : cauda nigricante, rufo late 
trivittata et terminuta. 

Hab. Buenos Kyres {Schlegel) ; Corrientes (Z)'0/-6.) ; Paraguay 
{Azara) ; ^oXWia. {Bridges) ; piov. Yuugas (I*'0;-6.). 

In speaking of his so-called Astur magnirostris, D'Orbigny (/. «. c.) 
calls especial attention to the differences between his series of this 
bird from Corrientes and Bolivia and that in the Paris Museum from 
Brazil, and concludes that they form " two distinct and constant 
varieties." We have little doubt that it is to this so-called variety 
that Lichtenstein applied the name gularis, afterwards adopted by 
Schlegel in his ' Musee des Pays-Bas.' 

But this term must, we think, give way to that of pucherani, 
under which the MM. Verreaux described a species of Asturina in 
18.55. A mounted specimen belonging to the Norwich Museum is 
marked as the original of this description in the handwriting of M. 
Jules Verreaux, and perfectly accords with the characters given. 
We believe we are correct in referring it to the immature dress of 
the present species. A nearly similar specimen is in the British 
Museum, also received from Verreaux, under the name Asturina 
pucherani, but with " Guatemala" attached as a locality. This is 
probably an error, as it does not correspond with any one of our ex- 
tensive series of the Central-American form, which is A. rujjcauda. 

The only adult example we have yet seen of this bird is in the 
British Museum. It was obtained in Bolivia by Bridges. 

7. Asturina leucorrhoa. 

Falco leucorrhous, Q. et G. Voy. Uranie, Zool. p. 91, t. 13. 

Nisus leucorrhous, Tsch. F. P. Aves, pp. 18, 103. 

Asturina leucorrhoa, Bp. Consp. p. 50 ; Kaup, Isis, 1847, p. 199 ; 
Schlegel, Mus. des P.-B. Asturinee, p. 5. 

Astur leucorrhous, Pelz. Orn. Bras. p. 7. 

Nigra: tectricibus cauda libus supra et subtus albis : tibiis rvfis : 
cauda ad basin alba, inde nigra albo bifasciata. 

Hab. Brazil, vie. of Rio {Mus. Vindob. et S.-G.)\ Venezuela 
{Dyson in Mus. Brit., et Levraud in Mus. Paris.) ; New Granada, 
Bogota {Mus. S.-G.) ; Peru {Mus. Berol.). 



4. Oh the Hybrid between the Chamois and the Domestic 
Goat. By Edward Blyth. 

Upon a recent occasion (c/. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 623) I exhibited 
four pairs of horns which puzzled me exceedingly at first, but which 
I learn from Mr. Joseph Wolf are those of hybrids raised from the 



lt>G9.] LKTTKR IROM MR. E. J.. LAYARD. 135 




Horns of liybrid Chamois. 
a. Horn of pure Cliamois, for comparison. 

Chamois and the Domestic Goat. It appears that it is not unusual 
for a tame buck Chamois to interbreed with domestic she-Goats ; 
and as the horns of the hybrid so produced are so remarkable that 
they might well be suspected to indicate some undeseribed species, 
intermediate to the Chamois and the Himalayan Thar {^Uemitragns 
jemlaicus), I now submit a photograph of the series, considering the 
figures to be quite worthy of publication, in order to prevent, if 
possible, any mistake of the kind. For comparison, the horu of a 
pure Chamois (a) is placed along with them. 



February 25, 1869. 

W. H. Flower, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

A letter was read from E. L. Layard, Esq., F.Z.S., dated Cape 
Town, December 31st, 1868, enclosing a drawing of another species 
of Ribbonfish {Gymnetrus), which had come ashore in rather a bad 
state at Simon's Bay on the 23rd of December, 1865, and been 
drawn on the spot by P. D. Martin, Esq. Mr. Layard believed it 
to be perfectly distinct from the species mentioned in a former com- 
munication to the Society (P. Z. S. 1868, p. 319), and could not 
find any description that answered to it. 



The Secretary exhibited specimens of some Reptiles which had 
been collected for the Society's Menagerie by Mr. George Wilks, of 
Buenos Ayres, C.M.Z.S., but had, unfortunately, died before reach- 
ing their destination. They consisted of two Snakes taken in copula, 
which had been determined by Dr. Gilnther to be Coronella anomala, 
Giinth. (Cat. of Snakes, p. 57), and some specimens of a small 
Cayman (^Jacare ocellata, Gray). 



Mr. J. E. Harting called the attention of the Meeting to the steps 



136 DR. A. CAMPBELL ON THE INDIAN ELEPHANT. [Feb, 25, 

now being taken to protect Sea-fowl during the breeding-season, 
and stated that it was proposed to bring in an Act of Parliament on 
the subject during the present session. 



The following papers were read : — 

1. Notes on the mode of Capture of Elephants in Assam. 
By Dr. A. Campbell, late Superintendent of Daijeeling. 

By far the greater number of the Elephants for the supply of the 
Bengal markets are now caught in Assam ; the Dooars of Bootan 
are so iniquitously misgoverned that the Elephant-catchers nearly 
shun them altogether. 

The Nipal Tarai furnishes Elephants for the marts of the central 
and western provinces ; Mymunsingh and Sylhet for lower Bengal, 
&c. &c. 

The people who are principally engaged in catching Elejthants for 
upper Bengal live in the northern parts of the Purneah and Rung- 
poor districts. Titalya is the most central position for the col- 
lection of Elephants by these people, and it is close to all the routes 
from the Elephant-catching districts*. 

The Elephant-merchants who conduct the trade between the 
eastern districts and other parts of India come from the central and 
western provinces ; some even from the Punjab, Cashmere, and 
Cabool. 

The men who keep koonkis and supply the funds for catching 
Elephants are known as " Keda Walas." They often take their own 
Elephants for sale to the Hajipoor Fair, or further west ; but 
usually look to the merchants, zemindars, baboos, &c. of their own 
districts as purchasers. At the Nek Mured Fair, in the Dinajpoor 
district, annually held in April, there is a good deal of business done 
in Elephants. 

An Elephant-catcher (or keda wala)'s establishment consists — 
1st, of " Koonkis," i. e. tame Elephants trained to hunting and 
catching wild ones ; 2nd, " Phanaits," or uoosemen ; 3rd, Lohattias, 
or Elephant-drivers, who sit on the croup and urge on the koonkis 
with an iron-spiked mallet; -^th, mates, or under drivers; and 
5th, an abundant supply of ropes and cables for catching and tying 
up their gigantic quarry. 

The old system of decoying or driving wild Elephants on pits dug 
for them is altogether exploded; and the lassoo, or "phan," is the 
only mode now employed to catch them. 

The process is described as sufficiently simple, although it is 
attended with some danger. It is very extraordinary to hear a thin 
miserable-looking fellow (as many of the " phanaits" are) describing 
in the quietest way possible how he has caught very large and fierce 
Elephants. 

The usual mode seems to be to form the " keda," or encampment, 
*_ See Jlooker's Himalayan Journals, vol. i. p. 181. 



18G9.] DR. A. CAMPBELL ON THE INDIAN ELEPHANT. 137 

at a likely place outside the forest and near water, generally selected 
on intelligence of its being the haunt of wild Elephants, or by finding 
their fresh trail. 

From this you take out the kooiikis, three or four together, and 
reconnoitre in all directions in the open places at early morning or 
in the afternoon ; for the wild Elephants always keep to the heavy 
forest during the heat of the day, coming into the more open spots 
morning and evening only. When any of your parties have found 
a " khanja," or herd, it singles out one and gives immediate chase, 
sometimes even with one koonki only, if you have no more in your 
" keda," and when the quarry is a small one ; but it is better to do 
so with two, and three are requisite to catch and master a large 
animal. The chase is kept up until one of the koonkis gets along- 
side the wild Elephant, the great object being to lay a koonki on 
either side of the wild one, as fast as possible. When alongside and 
he sees his opportunity, the "phanait" (nooseman), who drives his 
Elephant and holds the open noose with both hands above his head, 
lets it fall over the wild one's head and on the trunk, which in running 
is pendent to the ground. Immediately the noose touches the trunk, 
the animal by an instinct which is fatal to its liberty coils it in- 
wards, and by this movement it passes at once under the neck. 
The lohattia who holds the coil of the lassoo immediately pulls upon 
it, and the koonki is kept close upon the wild one and pressing 
against it until another koonki comes on the opposite side and a 
second noose is delivered. When this is done both koonkis move off 
in opposite directions, and thus in a short time the wild Elephant is 
suifocated and stretched on the ground between them. This takes 
some time, however, when the noosed animal is a powerful one, as it 
sets off at speed and struggles long and violently before it is choked 
and down. As soon as it is, the running nooses are loosed to give 
the animal breath, and a stopper put on each to prevent their run- 
ning. The two koonkis again press on each side ; and by this means 
and one or two more pushing from behind, the captured animal is 
forcibly dragged away to the keda, where it is strongly picketed 
and starved into tameness. i\fter a month or two it is quiet and 
tractable enough to be marched homewards, being in the mean- 
time led out frequently with koonkis, and gradually accustomed to 
a rider. 

During the first six months fresh Elephants become thin and 
weak-looking, and then begin to pick up again. During the first 
rainy season (or, rather, during August, September, and October of 
the first year) they are most liable to iUness and death. The risk 
decreases the second season, and is not great in the third, after which 
they are considered "pucka," i. e. safe and acclimatized. 

There is no procuring any data by which to arrive at the rates of 
mortality of fresh Elephants. It seems to depend on circumstances 
quite unknown to the catchers (who suffer most from it), and is 
therefore always attributed to " kismut," chance. Sometimes all 
the catchings of a season will die in one man's hands ; at other 
times he will have a succession of seasons without anv losses. The 



138 DR. A. CAMPBELL ON THE INDIAN ELEPHANT. [Feb. 25, 

" keda wala" is emphatically described as always being in the way 
of wealth or ruin. He is an "Ameer" or " Fugeer," i. e. a " prince 
or a beggar ;" so proverbially uncertain are his gains, and his trade 
so full of risks. 

The proportion of adult females caught is probably as eight to 
one. This arises from two causes. They are less violent and more 
easily subdued ; and it is rare to find more than one male with a 
whole herd of females, and he is always an immense one and rarely 
to be mastered. 

The catchers and dealers give numerous divisions or varieties of 
the Elephant, such as Muringi, Kumulia, Kooji, &c. They also 
notice the peculiarities of arched and straight backs ; but it is suffi- 
cient to attend to the following for practical purposes. The males 
are tusked or tuskless, i.e. "Dantal" or "Mukuna;" one-tusked 
ones are prized by Hindoos. One with the left tusk is a " Ganess," 
God of Wisdom ; with the right a " Manik dunta." The females 
are maiden or mothers, the terms being "Sareen" and " Dohi ;" a 
barren one is also a " Sareen," and the Dohi is not reckoned of 
equal value. The Sareen is distinguished from the Dohi by the 
small teats and undeveloped mammaR. A male is 20 per cent., at 
least, more prized than a female, on account of his greater strength 
and powers of endurance. It seems difficult to ascertain the period 
required for the full growth of the Elephant. After comparing 
many opinions and statements, I make it twenty-five years, and the 
known age eighty-five in the same manner. The female goes eighteen 
months with young, and gives suck for two years. In addition to 
the smaller size, youth is indicated by a general smoothness ^nd 
roundness of the face and trunk, with an almost unmistakable 
expression of simplicity and innocence as you examine the face 
standing right in front. The central depression on the top of the 
head is but faintly developed in youth, while in an aged animal the 
coronal protuberances stand up prominently. The ears in youth 
and middle age are thin, light, and unbroken along the outer margin ; 
in age they are large, flapping, thick, and jagged. 

There is no particular breeding-season. "Elephants, like cows 
in India, have young all the year round." The mother shows great 
affection for her young, and even when chased by the catchers will 
not leave it, if it gets into trouble or is too young to follow. The 
mothers frequently fall an easy prey on this account, allowing them- 
selves to be noosed while they are helping on the young one, A 
young one of six months will fly off when the mother is taken ; 
under that age it will stick to the captive mother. Twins are 
unknown. 

The catching-season is from November to July ; June is the 
month in which the greatest number are taken. The fresh grass 
and reeds, after the annual burning, is then greatly relished by 
these animals, who come far out of the forest to seek it. The 
Elephant is gregarious in the highest degree : herds of more than a 
hundred are sometimes seen ; fifty, thirty, and twenty are common. 
Sullen males, which have been driven out of the herd by hard fight- 



1869.] DR. A. CAMPBELL ON THE INDIAN ELEPHANT. 139 

ing, are the only solitary ones to be met with. Large males with a 
herd are rarely ventured on by the catchers ; they are bold and 
ferocious. The females and young males take instant alarm at the 
approach of the koonkis ; and sometimes a whole herd becomes 
bewildered with fright on seeing them, and breaks up in all directions. 
This is the harvest of the catchers, and a bold and expert " phanait" 
will sometimes noose three wild ones out of one herd. So soon as 
he can get his "phan" off the neck of a prostrate one, he sets 
upon another, and similarly on a third. This prowess and luck are 
rare, but they happen occasionally. Mr. P. had a phanait who did 
this two seasons. He was a "Koch," and the quietest, most un- 
pretending fellow in the world out of the keda. In the field he was 
a perfect Nimrod, full of energy and life, and for six or seven years 
he brought eight to twelve Elephants home annually of his own 
noosing. His pay was 10 rs. per mensem at home, 12 when in the 
field, and an annual present of a pair of silver bangles weighing 
20 rupees, and a pair of gold earrings worth 20 rs. more. These 
"honorary distinctions" gained, he used to take a short leave to his 
home, when he bestowed them on his wife, and again took to the 
forest in search of fresh laurels. 

" How many Elephants have you caught in your time ?" I one 
day asked Mr. P. " I cannot tell you how many," he replied ; 
" but I was seven years engaged in the business ; one year I caught 
180, some years 1 got 100, some 80, some 60." We may safely 
put down 1000 to his name, I think ; and this gives a pretty good 
idea of the supply and demand in this business. Mr. P.'s " keda " 
was always a strong one, ranging from ten to twenty koonkis. 

Although I have set down eighteen months as the most generally 
adopted period of the Elephant's going with young, I must state 
that it is not universal in this part of the country. RambuUub Sah 
of Choora Bundur, on the Bootan frontier, who has been an Ele- 
phant-catcher for many years, says the period of gestation is twenty- 
two lunar months ; and this is supported by a case of gestation 
which originated in his own stables, and in which the union of the 
sexes was known and recorded — a very rare case in the tame state ; 
but this one is quite authentic, i. e. the conception, gestation, and 
birth. The record of the period of gestation I have not seen, but 
all the people of Choora Bundur are familiar with the facts, aud 
many of them corroborate the twenty-two months' period. 

In 1 849 I saw an infant Elephant that had been born in the Octo- 
ber of 1848. He was with his mother. She had been caught in 
June 1847 ; and although then pregnant, there were no signs of un- 
usual size until the January following. This case does not help to 
fix the limit of gestation ; but it proves that sixteen months is under 
that period. This female had immensely large breasts ; and I tried 
to procure some of the milk to taste, but in vain. She lay down on 
her side at the command of the Mohout, but swung her trunk about 
and roared when we commenced pulHng her teats. The young one 
applied himself to the breasts every five minutes, and for a minute 
or so only. The trunk appears quite in the way of a sucking Ele- 



140 DR. J. MURIE ON THE GULAR POUCH OF OTIS TARDA. [Feb. 25, 

phant ; but it is dexterously turned upwards and to one side when 
he is at the breast ; and the usual position is standing at right angles 
with the mother. The young one generally sleeps under the 
mother's belly, lying on his side, his legs stretched out straight. 
He not unfrequently lies down under other Elephants, and is quite 
fearless among them, they alwaj'S treating him kindly, never hurt- 
ing him. "The smallest Bucha may go up to the largest male, 
even when he is Musth*, and he will be kindly treated." The large 
one will welcome him with his trunk, laying it over him and smell- 
ing him. 



2. Note on the Sublingual Aperture and Sphincter of the 
Gular Pouch in Otis tarda. By James Murie, M.D., 
F.L.S., Prosector to the Society. 

The following memoranda may be regarded as addenda to the 
paper on the gular pouch ol Otis Icori and O. australis, previously 
communicated by me to the Society (see P. Z. S. 1868, p. 471). 
Since then an opportunity has been afforded me of examining a male 
specimen of the Great Bustard at least six years old, judging from 
the time the biid had been in the Society's possession. A gular 
pouch was present, as described underneath. 

On looking into the mouth of the bird while the tongue lies 
between the rami of the lower mandible, no opening into the gular 
pouch is seen ; but when the tongue is raised and the parts held as 
in the act of gaping an aperture easily admitting one's finger is ob- 
served. This is situated beneath, and almost an inch behind, the 
tongue itself ; in fact it lies underneath the upper larynx, occupy- 
ing the space between it and the submandibular deep and cutaneous 
tissues. In the stretched condition of the parts above spoken of 
(displayed in the figure, p. 141), the said aperture (a) is oval in form, 
assuming almost an elliptical figure if its raised whitish marginal 
membrane is followed. This marginal fold of membrane or lip (/) is, 
indeed, the true boundary of the aperture itself; but as it is partly 
adherent to the tissue beneath the uro-hyal and to the subcutaneous 
textures between the rami of the lower mandible, it causes the open- 
ing to appear almost arched instead of an acute ellipse, as it truly is 
when the tongue is pulled out and the skin near the " beard " is 
held tense. A second short raised membranous fold {/) proceeds at 
an acute angle outwards from the middle of each outer side of the 
former one and goes to the tissues covering the muscles lying beneath 
the thyro-hyals. These two latter duplications of the faucial mem- 
brane permit of stretching of the parts when the tbyro-hyals are by 
any means thrown outwards ; and they may also influence the toni- 
city of the membrane of the aperture itself when its marginal lips 

* The tame males, and males driven out of a 'errl, are subject to fits of tem- 
porary fury, or madness. lu this state they are said to be " Musth." 



1869.] DR. J. MURIE ON THE GULAR POUCH OF OTIS TARDA. 141 

approach. The lips of the opening into the gular pouch, then, may- 
be said in strict language to be composed of a fold of the sub- 
laryngeal membrane stretching between the uro-hyal and the skin 
of throat. 




Fore-shortened and reduced view of Bustard's bead, to show the gular aperture 

under the upper larynx. 

T. Tongue dragged upwards and outwards, a. Aperture of gular pouch. J. Lip 

or margmal fold. / Fold of membrane, s. ^. Sublingual gland. 

The glandulse sublinguales («. g.) are elongated flat bodies of 
considerable size lying just within each dentary portion of the man- 
dible. Between these, and occupying the middle third, is the skin of 
the throat, the roots of the feathers being barely hidden, when look- 
ing into the mouth, by the thin almost transparent subcutaneous 
tissue. 

In the present instance the gular pouch was 4 inches long, and 
held 2 ounces of water, as it remained in position in the neck of the 
bird. The thin walls seemed but a continuation or duphcature 
inwards of the sublaryngeal fibro-mucous tissue or membrane ; the 
same as that constituting its free marginal aperture. 

As regards the thin muscular strata around the pouch, these, I 
apprehend, are slightly different from what I found and figured in 
Otis kori (see P. Z. S." 1868, p. 472). A film of platysma undoubt- 
edly covers the lower part of the sac ; a considerable number of 
small vessels pass beneath and on the surface of the platysma, and 
as they proceed to the base of the skull run between its internal 
border and part of the muscle next to be described. What appears 



142 MR. A. D. BARTLETT ON THE [Feb. 25, 

to represent the so-called stylo-hyoideus is here, as in many other 
birds, divisible into three portions. The posterior is a broad but 
thin layer ; this as it diverges from the common cranial origin pro- 
ceeds backwards and downwards, and intermingling along with the 
platysma they both pass round and in front of the gular pouch. 
The middle one, also broad and thin, passes over the upper or deep 
surface of the pouch. The third division, long, narrow, and round- 
ish, runs forwards to the tongue. This triparte but singly named 
muscle may, indeed, be representative of the stylo-hyoid, stylo- 
pharyngeus, and stylo-glossus. Besides these, a broadish band of 
very delicate but ti'ansversely striped fibres mingling with the tissue 
of the neck of the pouch itself surrounds it ; this I take to be part 
of the superior constrictor of the pharynx, which encircles the in- 
vaginated duplicature of the sublingual or sublaryngeal membrane 
differentiated into gular pouch during later life in the male Bustards. 

The gular pouch, in fact, appears to me but an infolding of the 
membrane below the upper larynx, developed to a large size in male 
Bustards only after they attain ripe or old age. This view, there- 
fore, accounts for its absence in the young, [its moderate size in 
adult, and its increased capaciousness in old birds. 

The present note serves to show : — 1 . That the gular aperture is 
rather sublaryngeal than sublingual. 2. That in a bird six years 
old it has only reached a very moderate size, compared with what it 
ultimately attains, according to several observers. 3. That there is 
good reason for believing in the so-called sphincter of the pouch, but 
that this is merely a lesser or greater development of the fibres of 
the superior constrictor of the pharynx and stylo-pharyngeus, and not 
a specialized structure alone adapted for the office it here subserves. 



3. Remarks upon the Habits of the Hornbills {Buceros) . 
By A. D. BartletTj Superintendent of tlie Society's Gardens. 

A few weeks after the Wrinkled Hornbill {Buceros corrugatus) 
was received in the Society's Gardens*, the keeper called my atten- 
tion to a queer-looking fig-like substance he had picked up in the 
aviary. Struck with its appearance, I took it home and endeavoured 
to examine it carefully, and opened its closely folded mouth. I 
found this fig-like bag contained plums or grapes well packed toge- 
ther, the wrapper or envelope looking much like the inner lining of 
a gizzard, somewhat tough, elastic, and gelatinous. Almost alarmed 
for the safety of the bird that had thrown it up, and at the same 
time having some doubt as to its real nature, I at once sought the 
assistance of our Prosector, Dr. Murie, handing him the specimen 
and telling him its history. 

Dr. Murie's report was as follows : — 

" On examination of the specimen I found, as was at first sug- 
gested in joke, that the bag did absolutely consist of nothing else 
* The specimen was purchased March 27, 1868. 



1869.] HABITS OF THE HORNBILLS. 143 

than the thickened semichondrified lining membrane of the gizzard. 
All the puckerings and indentations were more or less exactly repre- 
sented, though less sharp in outline than is ordinarily the case. 
The mucous surface of the inner wall of the bag was slimy, other- 
wise perfectly identical with the same structure in a healthy bird. 
The surface outside, on that which might be said to be the sub- 
mucous tissue, was moist, comparatively uninjured, and free from any 
eflFusion or disease. The rim of the mouth of the bag was irregular 
and shreddy, and thinned away at its free edge. 

" The soft egg-like bodies contained within this (so to speak) cast- 
up sac proved to be seven or eight discoloured grapes ; or they 
might be, so far as appearance went, raisins. None of these had 
undergone the process of digestion, but, from their sodden aspect, I 
believe had been slightly acted on by the gastric juice. 

" Positive of the nature of this queer rejected pellet, there follows 
the still more extraordinary circumstance that the Hornbill should 
live and feed afterwards, seemingly not much affected by the loss of 
the inner coat of its stomach. Had I not myself seen and examined 
the objects, I would scarcely have credited the facts." 

Having placed the specimen in what I believed to be safe cus- 
tody, I kept a strict watch over my suspected Hornbill, and a day or 
two afterwards was rewarded by a second and very perfect specimen 
of this extraordinary package of fruit. This I at once, after carefully 
examining the outside only, placed in spirits, and am now able to 
bring before the Meeting. Since I obtained these two specimens 
I have seen others, all from the same individual bird ; but as the 
Lyre-bird and others were in the same aviary, these were mutilated 
and destroyed before I could save them. 

Now, notwithstanding all that has been advanced by my friend 
Dr. Murie, I beg leave to difiFer from him entirely ; and instead of 
this most wonderful body being the result of indigestion, disease, or 
derangement of any kindj I have no doubt it is the natural secretion 
that is provided for this bird during the breeding-season, and that 
it is the means by which the male Hornbill supplies the female 
bird with food during the time she is imprisoned by him while 
sitting upon the eggs in the hollow tree, in which, according to the 
most trustworthy authorities, the male builds up the entrance to the 
nest with clay. Dr. Livingstone was the first person, I believe, who 
called attention to this singular habit in the Hornbills ; since then 
many other observers have confirmed the fact, both in Africa and 
India. Capt. Tickell speaks of it, saying that he " saw with his 
own eyes," although he previously " thought it was a fable." The 
Rev. J. Mason, in his work on Burmah, says of the Concave Horn- 
bills, " their nests are constructed in a superior manner of clay in the 
stumps or hollows of old trees. After the female has laid five or six 
eggs, the male bird shuts her entirely in with mud except a small 
hole, where she can only put out her head. Here she must sit 
during her incubation, for if she breaks through the inclosure her 
life pays the forfeit ; but to compensate for the loss of freedom, her 
spirited mate is ever on the alert to gratify his dainty mistress, who 



144 MR. A. D. BARTLETT ON THE [Feb. 25, 

compels him to bring all her viands unbroken, for if a fig or any 
fruit be injured she will not touch it." 

This remarkable passage at once arrested my attention ; for doubt- 
less it is the result of careful observation. The point to be noticed 
is the fig-like appearance of the pellet of food that the male bird 
offers to the female, as it would be impossible at the distance the 
observer must be from the birds that he could distinguish the little 
yellow-skinned bag from a fig or other fruit of about that size. 
Mr. Wallace says the entrance of the nest is stopped up with mud 
and gummy substances. Referring to Dr. Livingstone, I find that 
on page 613, 'Missionary Travels in South Africa,' he says: — "The 
first time I saw this bird was at Kolobeng, where I had gone to the 
forest for some timber. Standing by a tree, a native looked behind 
me and exclaimed, ' There is the nest of a Korwe.' I saw a slit 
only, about half an inch wide and three or four inches long, in a 
slight hollow of the tree. Thinking the word Korwe denoted some 
small animal, I waited with interest to see what he would extract ; 
he broke the clay which surrounded the slit, put his arm into the 
hole and brought out a Tockus, or Red-beaked Hornbill, which he 
killed. He informed me that when the female enters her nest she 
submits to a real confinement. The male plasters up the entrance, 
leaving only a narrow slit by which to feed his mate, and which 
exactly suits the form of his beak. The female makes a nest of 
her own feathers, lays her eggs, hatches them, and remains with the 
young till they are fully fledged. During all this time, which is 
stated to be two or three months, the male continues to feed her 
and the young family. The prisoner generally becomes quite fat, 
and is esteemed a very dainty morsel by the natives, while the poor 
slave of a husband gets so lean that on the sudden lowering of the 
temperature, which sometimes happens after a fall of rain, he is 
benumbed, falls dpwn, and dies." 

It will be seeu by this statement that tlie male dies from ex- 
haustion, doubtless produced by the constant and continual repro- 
ducing not only of the actual food taken by the male, but of the 
supply of nutritive secretion in which the same is enveloped*. 

Without, however, allowing this strange statement and supposed 
discovery to remain simply, as many may think, an unlikely story, 
let us consider whether there are any other known facts bearing 
upon the point that will assist us in arriving at a fair conclusion 
upon this extremely interesting subject. 

That Parrots, Pigeons, and many other birds reproduce their par- 
tially digested food during the pairing and breeding-season for the 
support of the female and young is well known. The tame male 
Hornbill is particulai-ly distinguished at all seasons by this habit of 
throwing up its food, which he not only offers to the female but to 

* The Rev. T. Phillips, in his MS. notes (see Moore's Catalogue of Birds in 
East-India House), speaking of the common Grey Indian Hoiuhills, says: — "A 
specimen killed at Hasanpur, on the Ganges, had in its belly when opened a hard 
lump about the size of a Pigeon's egg, which on being cut open was found filled 
with the fruit of the Peepul and other trees." 



1869.] HABITS OF THE HORNDILLS. 145 

the keepers and others who are known to him. The male Concave 
Ilornbill {Buceros cavatus) now in the Gardens will frequently throw 
up grapes and, holding them in the point of the bill, thrust them 
into tlie mouth of the keeper if he is not ou the alert to prevent or 
avoid this distinguished mark of his kindness. 

We have now to consider the facts brought forward ; and in no 
class of animals do we find so many instances of the frequent and 
easy mode of casting up or reproducing the food, or in other cases 
the indigestible substances taken with the food, as in Birds. But 
there is more than this to be noticed ; for instance, in the Esculent 
Swallows. We know the so-called edible Swallow's-nest consists 
of a gelatinous secretion from the glands of a kind of Swift ; and 
doubtless a portion only is used to form the nest ; the secretion is, 
in all probability, continued to feed the female aud young, probably 
mixed with the insects captured during flight. There is also a 
similar secretion from the Woodpecker, but in this case made to 
assist in the capture of their food ; and many other instances can, 
no doubt, be brought forward, showing the power that birds have 
of ridding their stomachs of that part of their food not required for 
their nourishment. One very remarkable instance I well remember. 
A year or two ago I found in my garden, in a small heap, about a 
handful of the most beautiful blue pills, about the size of peas and 
studded all over with brilliant and shining blue fragments. I soon 
discovered that they were the castings of the Flycatchers that had 
a nest immediately above the spot upon which I found them ; tbe 
charming colour was due to the outer skins of the Bluebottle flies 
upon which the birds had fed. All the insect-feeding birds throw 
up pellets consisting of the refuse or indigestible parts of the insects 
■ they swallow, just in the same way as the Raptorial birds (as Hawks, 
Owls, &c.) cast up the feathers, bones, hair, aud food of grain- 
eating animals in the form known as castings or pellets. 

In conclusion, I think 1 may fairly reason that it is much more 
likely that these food-pellets of the male Hornbill are intended for 
the support of the female and young, and belong to the natural and 
healthy condition of the birds which produce them, than that they are 
the result of indigestion or disease. For we see that the power and 
habit of casting up from the stomach is one of frequent and common 
occurrence among birds, and also find that the secretions of the 
oesophagus are used as food for the young of many species of birds : 
in the Parrots and Pigeons I think this is universal. 

Another strong argument in favour of my belief is to be found in 
Dr. Livingstone's statement that " the male bird by his constant 
attention upon the female becomes so prostrate aud exhausted that 
a slight change in the temperature causes him to fall down and die." 

It cannot be supposed that the mere collecting food for the female 
is the cause of this fatality ; it is doubtless the overtaxing the system 
by the constant secretion of this nutritive matter, reminding one of 
the blood in the nests of the Esculent Swifts after the birds have been 
robbed of the first and second nests. But the most positive proof 
of finding this package of food is given, without, however, urider- 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. X. 



146 MR. p. L. SCLATER ON THE BIRDS OF LIMA. [Feb. 2.5, 

standing its use, in the extract from the Rev. T. Phillips's MS., 
before referred to. 

P.S. A singular habit of the Flamingoes has been observed, which 
induces me to believe that something analogous to the secreting- 
power already alluded to exists iu these birds. During the time the 
Flamingoes were kept in the same aviary with the Cariamas, the 
latter birds, as is their habit, frequently turned their bills upwards 
and uttered their harsb and loud notes. The Flamingoes, appa- 
rently under the impression of their want of food, advanced to their 
assistance, and holding their heads over the gaping mouths of the 
Cariamas ejected a glutinous fluid (nearly resembling blood in colour), 
which fell sometimes into the mouths of the Cariamas, but more 
frequently on to their backs, and rendered their feathers glutinous 
and, when dry, very dirty. 

Since writing the foregoing, I have obtained some of the coloured 
fluid from the Flamingoes, ejected this day (March 22, 1869), and, 
having submitted it to the examination of Dr. Murie, find by view- 
ing it under the microscope that it contains a vast proportion of 
blood-corpuscles, and is little else than blood. Have we here an 
explanation of the old story of the Pehcan feeding its young with 
its own blood? I think we have j for the Flamingo was, and is still, 
found plentifully in the country alluded to ; and it may be that in 
the translation the habit of the one bird has been transferred to the 
other. At any rate, I have no doubt that the Flamingo feeds its 
young by disgorging its food, as is shown by the bloody secretion 
that I find ejected by these birds in their endeavour to feed the 
craving Cariamas. This habit has been observed and remarked 
upon, and has doubtless led to what we have so long considered a 
fable. I have yet to learn if the same power may not exist in the 
Pelicans, and perhaps in other birds, of supplying nutriment to 
their young by these means. 



4. On the Birds of the Vicinity of Lima, Peru. By P. L. 
ScLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. With Notes on their 
Habits ; by Professor W. Nation, of Lima, C.M.Z.S. 
(Part ITI.*) 

(Plate XII.) 

A third small collection of birdskins from Professor Nation has 
lately reached me, together with notes upon some of the species, 
which I have now the pleasure of submitting to the Society. 

1. Campylorhynchus balteatus, Baird, Rev. A. B. p. 103. 

a zonatoides, Scl. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 272. 
C. pa/lescens, Sclater, Cat. A. B. p. 16. 

* Continued from P. Z. S. 1867, p. 344. 



P Z S 1869. PI XII 




/^ 



V. t£\\ HANHAfiT T1C> 



iS^EORHYNCHUS MASEUS 



^^^^^nr;^ 




"<^RAL HV^ 




1869.] MR. p. L. SCLATER ON THE BIRDS OF LIMA. 147 

Professor Baird is probably right in recognizing in the species I 
have hitherto called Camp, megalopterus the true C. pallescens of 
Lafresnaye. I therefore adopt his suggested name for the present 
species, which I had at one time supposed to be Lafresnaye's C. 
pallescens, and at another time to be his C. zonatoides. Mr. Nation 
sends one young specimen, agreeing with a skin of Eraser's from 
Babahoyo in my collection. 

2. Pheucticus chrysogaster (Less.). 

An adult male of this species. It is a close ally of P. aureiventris 
(Lafr. et D'Orb.), but easily separable in the adult, although I am 
not yet prepared to say this is always the case in immaturity. 

3. Neorhynchus nasesus. (Plate XII.) 
Callirhynchus masesus, Bp. C. R. xlii. p. 822. 

" This rare and singular Finch is a summer visitor ; it arrives 
about the end of November, and leaves about the beginning of May. 
Its favourite haunts are clumps of tall willow trees, in the vicinity 
of water. Rarely more than one or two individuals frequent the 
same clump. During the day it conceals itself in the densest foliage 
of the trees, utters at intervals a whistling note, not unlike the call- 
note of Cardinalis virginialis ; when disturbed, it glides from branch 
to branch and from tree to tree ; and it is so shy and recluse that it 
requires great caution and perseverance to procure even a glimpse of 
it. It feeds on the seeds of grasses that grow in wet shady places ; 
in the stomach of one example I found unripe Indian corn and bits 
of a substance that resembled egg-shells. 

" The upper mandible of this species, when perfect, greatly curves 
over the lower, as in some of the Psittacidee ; but the tip, being weak, 
is very often broken or worn away. 

" In March 1867 I picked up a young bird that had escaped from 
the nest before it could fly ; it is now living in a cage along with 
some Spermophili." — W. N. 

Mr. Nation has forwarded a single skin of this bird, which is the 
first specimen that has come under my notice of this rare species. 
It agrees with the late Prince Bonaparte's short description of his 
Callirhynchus nasesus* sufficiently well to prevent my describing it 
as a new species. 

Lesson's term Callirhynchus having been previously employed for 
a well-known genus of fishes, I propose Neorhynchus in its place. 

4. Spermophila telasco, Lesson; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1867j p. 34 1 . 

A young pair of this Finch, of which Mr. Nation had previously 
sent specimens. 

5. Sturnella bellicosa, DeFilippi; Sclater, C. A. B. p. 128. 

Examples of both sexes of this species. 

* This name is printed in the C. R. masesus. I suppose this may be a misprint 
for nasesus — in allusion to the worn tip of the upper mandible. — P. L. S. 



148 MR. p. L. SCLATER ON THE BIRDS OF LIMA. [Feb. 25, 

6. MoLOTHRUS PURPURASCENS, Cassin, Pr. Acad. Phil. 1866, 
p. 20. 

No doubt the species spoken of by Cassin under this name (/. c), 
Imt probably not the bird intended by Hahn. Specimens of both 
sexes. 

7. Ceryle cabanisi, Tsch. F. P. Aves, p. 253 ; Sharpe, Alced. 
pt. 2. t. Ifi. 

A single skin of this Kingfisher. 

8. Rhooopis vespera (Lesson). 

" This is one of our rarest Humming-birds, visiting us at long 
and uncertain intervals. I have seen a single individual in imma- 
ture plumage occasionally in spring, and once or twice I have seen 
one in adult plumage in summer. Like Thaumastura cora, it fre- 
quents low bushes and flowering plants near the ground. At a 
distance it resembles the Cora Humming-bird ; but its note is louder 
and its flight stronger." — W. N. 

9. Thaumastura francesc^e, Sclater, Cat. A. B. p. 299. 
Ornismya fanny, Less. 

" This is the rarest of Lima birds. I saw it for the first time in 
the winter of 1865 ; in the spring of 1867 I saw it again. \\\ habits 
it resembles the Cora Humming-bird." — W. N. 

Mr. Nation sends one young male of this species, the only one 
he has ever obtained. 

10. Crotophaga sulcirostris, Sw. 
Crotophaga casasii, Tsch. F. P. Aves, p. 256. 

11. Chrysoptilus atricollis (Malh.). 

Chrysopicns atricollis, Malh. R. Z. 1850, p. 156; Mon. Pic. ii. 
p. 178, t. 88. f. 4. 

A male of this distinct species, which I had not previously met 
with. 

12. Thinocorus rumicivorus, Eschsch. 

A single skin of a Thinocorus sent by Prof. Nation agrees very 
nearly in plumage with skins of T. rumicivorus from Chili, but is 
very much smaller in dimensions. Before separating it specifically 
I should like to have an opportunity of examining more specimens. 
(See remarks, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 989.) 

13. PORZANA ERYTHROPS, Sclat. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 343, t. XXI. ; 

Sol. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 457. 

A second example of this curious species of Crake. 



18G9.] KXHIBITION OF A HYBRID PHEASANT. 149 

March 11, 1869. 

St. George Mivart, Esq., F.Z.S., in the Chair. 

The Secretary exhibited, on behalf of Mr. E. P. Ramsay, of 
Dobroyde, C.M.Z.S., specimens of some of the new birds described 
in Mr. Ramsay's paper read before the Society on the 1 1th of June, 
1868. Amongst these were examples of both sexes of Orthonyx 
spaldingi (P. Z. S. 1868, p. 386), Glyciphila subfasciata {I. c. 
p. 385), and of a supposed new species of Podarffus. These skins 
were to be placed in Mr. Gould's hands to be figured in the Supple- 
ment to his work on the ' Birds of AustraUa.' 



The Secretary called the attention of the Meeting to the follow- 
ing remarkable additions to the Society's Menagerie during the 
months of January' and February : — 

1. A Black Ape (Cynopithecus niger), purchased January 1st, 
being an example of a form of Monkey that had long been unrepre- 
sented in the Society's collection. 

2. A young specimen of the Two-wattled Cassowary {Casuarius 
bicarunculatus), purchased January 13th from the Zoological Society 
of Rotterdam. This Cassowary had been originally described in 
1860* from a specimen living in the Society's collection. The 
original specimen had subsequently died, and was now in the British 
Museum. As in the former example, the present bird was in the 
immature brown plumage, but was nevertheless of great interest as 
serving to confirm the validity of this species. 

3. An American Badger {Taxidea americana), purchased January 
23rd, and believed to be the first living example of this species ex- 
hibited in the Society's Menagerie. 

4. A Fennec Fox, captured at Mount Sinai by the members of 
the Sinai Survey Expedition, and presented to the Society on the 
19th of February. This animal was obviously distinct from the true 
Fennec (Cams cerdo, Gm.), and appeared to be referable to the 
species described and figured by Riippell as Canis famelicus (Atlas, 
p. 15, t, 5). 

The Secretary exhibited, on the part of Mr. G. F, Westermann, 
For. Memb., a stuifed specimen of a hybrid Pheasant, which had 
been transmitted living from Japan to the Zoological Gardens, Am- 
sterdam. The bird appeared to be due to hybridism between a 
Silver Pheasant {Euplocamus nycthemerus) and a Gold Pheasant 
{Thavmalia picta), but was remarkable for a curious tuft of feathers 
on the back of the head. 

* See Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. iv. p. 358, and P. Z. S. 18G0, pp. 211, 248. 



150 MR. W. H. FLOWER ON BUCEROS CORRUGATUS. [Mar. 1 I, 

The following papers were read : — 

1. Note on a Substance ejected from the Stomach of a Horn- 
bill {Buceros corrugatus). By W. H. Flower^ F.R.S. &c. 

The body described by Mr. Bartlett and Dr. Murie at the last 
Meeting of the Society*, and placed in my hands for further exami- 
nation, consists of a sac of somewhat globular form, and averaging 
an inch and three-quarters in diameter. On one side it has a large 
ragged aperture, the margins of which are folded inwards so as to 
close the orifice. Its walls are thin, slightly plicated, moderately 
tough and consistent, though torn without difficulty, translucent, 
and of a dark brown colour. The margins of the aperture are softer 
and of a paler colour. 

The contents of this sac are perfectly non-adherent to it and 
readily removed. They consist of sixteen raisins in an undigested 
condition, mostly with their skins broken, packed pretty closely 
together and somewhat softened; but as the specimen had become 
j)artially dry before it was procured, and has been for several months 
in spirit, their exact condition at the time of ejection cannot now be 
ascertained. Among the raisins were a few flakes of the same ma- 
terial as that of which the sac was composed, 

A superficial examination led at once to the belief that it consisted 
of the entire epithelial lining of the gizzard ; and a closer investiga- 
tion, aided by comparison with the gizzard of the bird which ejected 
it, removed after death and preserved by Dr. Murie, corroborated 
this view. 

The muscular coat of this gizzard is thin, almost membranous ; 
and the epithelial lining forms a layer of nearly uniform thickness, 
having no specially thickened lateral triturating disks as in gra- 
uivorous birds. It, moreover, peels off from the subjacent fibro- 
vascular coat (from the folhcles in which it is secreted) with great 
facility. In this instance numerous small nematode worms had 
lodged themselves beneath it. 

Making allowance for the drying and subsequent hardening in 
spirit that the former has undergone, the microscopic structure of 
the ejected sac and of the epithelial layer which lined the stomach 
of the bird at the time of its death are identical. Both swell up and 
become more transparent when treated with liquor potassae ; both 
turn a bright yellow colour with nitric acid. Sections of both pre- 
sent a matrix slightly laminated, with scattered nuclei and granules. 
I was not able to detect in either the definite structure ascribed to 
the epithelial stratum of the gizzard of granivorous birdsf; only 
near the attached surface, where the secretion is most recent, a 
parallel striatiou was observed in vertical sections of both. 

The specimens have, through the kindness of Dr. Murie and 
Mr. Bartlett, been placed in the Museum of the Koyal College of 
Surgeons. 

* See P. Z. S. 1869, p. 142. f See P. Z. S. 1860, p. 330. 




•i' 



n * 



^AL H\^ 



1869.] MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON PERUVIAN BIRDS. 151 



3. On Peruvian Birds collected by Mr. Whitely. By P. L. 
ScLATER, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, 
M.A., F.L.S.— Part IV.* 

(Plate XIII.) 

The present collection of Mr. Whitely contains 131 specimens of 
birds, obtained in May, June, July, and August last, at Tinta on the 
Vdcaniayo, south-east of Cuzco, and at Tuugasuca and Pituinarca, 
two villages in the immediate vicinity of Tinta. Tinta is about 
11,000 feet above the sea-level, and therefore belongs to the upper 
part of Tschudi's Eastern Sierra regionf. Tungasuca and Pitumarca 
are both higher on the hills, the former on the right bank, and the 
latter on the left bank of the Vilcamayo, and may probably come 
mto Tschudi's Puna region (11,000-14,000 feet). 

The total number of species contained in the collection is forty-six, 
of which four appear to be uudescribed, namely Saltutor laticlavius, 
Poospiza ccesar, Af/riornis insolens, and Centrites oreas. The others 
are mostly known to us from the researches of D'Orbigny in Bolivia, 
and Tschudi in higher Peru. 

We have added some field-notes, taken from Mr. Whitely's MS. 
catalogue. 

1. HiRUNDo ANDicoLA, Lafr. et D'Orb. 
Tinta, May 22, 1868. 

2. DiGLOSSA BRUNNEIVENTRIS, Lafr. 

Tinta, May 1868. 

" Shot in a garden. Its habits closely resemble those of a Blue 
Tit (Parus) ■ it frequently clings beneath the branches of trees." 

3. Tanagra darwini, Bp. 
Tinta, May 10th. 

4. SaLTATOR LATICLAVIUS, Sp. IIOV. 

Saltator aurantiirostris, Lafr. et D'Orb. Syn. i. p. 35, et D'Orb 
Voy. Ois. p. 288 (partim). 

Supra cinereus, fulvescente tinctus : suiierciliis 2iostocularibi(s 
albis: capitis lateribus cum torque collari antico lato conjunct is 
nigris : gula alba ; abdomine medio fulvo, lateraliter cinereo 
perfuso : cauda nigricante, rectricibus duabus utrinque extimis 
albo terminatis : rostra aurantiaco, pedibus nigris: long, tota 
9 5, alcB 4-2, caudce 4-2 poll. Angl. 

Hab. Vexm'mahdi {Whitely). 

Obs. Similis S. aurantiorostri ex rep. Argentina, sed torque col- 
lari lato, et rectricum apicibus albis angustioribus dignoscendus. 

jy *f TTT ^T'/-' ?;..^- ®- ^^^^' !'■ ^"^-^ ^"'^ "•• P- Z- W- ^^^^, p. 173; ami 
Tart III., ibid. p. 5(58. 

t Faun. Per. Vorrede, p. xxr. 



152 MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON PERUVIAN BIRDS. [Mar. I 1, 

111 Sclater's "Synopsis of Tanagers" (P. Z. S. 1856, p. 75) he 
speaks of certain specimens of S. aurantiirostris in which the 
" front, sides of the head, throat, and breast are all deep blacli, a 
postsnj)erciliary stripe and middle of the throat only being white." 
These specimens (collected by D'Orbigny in Bolivia, aud MM. Cas- 
telnau and Ueville in high Peru) were no doubt identical with the 
present example, which, however, we believe to be specifically dis- 
tinct from the true S. aurantiirostj'is, aud propose to call laticlavius 
from its broad-bordered throat. 

Mr. Whitely's skins of this Saltator were obtained at Tinta. One 
was shot in a garden, the others off cactus plants on the hills above 
Tinta, in May and Juue. " Eyes dark hazel ; bill orange ; legs, 
toes, and claws black." The sexes, as marked, are coloured alike. 

5. Catamenia analis (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 

Tinta. 

" Shot off cactus plants. It frequents lanes, appearing to have 
the liabits of a Finch. Bill bright yellow; legs and feet brownish 
black ; eye dark hazel." — H. W, 

C. PoospizA c^SAR, sp. nov. (Plate XIII.) 

Supra plumhen : remigihus et rectricibus obscurioribus, unicolo- 
ribus : superciliis albis : capitis lateribus nigricaniib^is : sub- 
tus alba, pectore lato et crisso castaneis : ventre lateraliter 
plumbeo, rnediuliter albicante : rostro niff}'icanti-plumbeo, man- 
dibula subtus albicante: pedibus coiylinis: long, tota 7'7, 
al(B 3"2, Cauda 31, tarsi \'\. 
Hab. Peruvia alta {Whitely). 

Two skins of this Poospiza are in Mr. "Whitely's collection. One 
is a young male ; of the other the sex is not marked, but we should 
suppose it to be an adult of the same sex. They were both obtained 
at Tinta in May last. 

The species is larger than any other member of the genus kuown 
to us. In colour it is something like P. thoracica, but has distinct 
white superciliaries, and no chestnut-colour on the flanks. 

" Shot in a ^hedge. Length /^ inches, ditto of wing 3g. Bill 
slate-colour; eye d-iik hazel; legs and toes brownish flesh-colour." 

7. Phrygilus PLEBEius, Tsch.; Scl. etSalv. P. Z. S.1868, p. 508. 

Tinta, May 1868. 

•• Shot in a cactus hedge." 

8. PhrygiLiUS fruticeti, Kittl. 

Tinta, May 1868. 

" Shot off cactus plants. Eye dark hazel ; bill, legs, and toes 
brownish flesh-colour." 

9. Chrysomitris atrata (Lafr. et D'Orb.) ; Scl. Cat. A. B. 
p. 125. 

Pitumarca, August 1868. 



1869.] MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON PERUVIAN BIRDS. 153 

10. Sycalis chloris, Cab. ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 5G8. 
Two adult males of this bird in full plumage, both obtained at 

Tinta in June last. 

" Shot on the banks of the river. Appears to be common, fre- 
quenting also the houses of the village." 

11. Agelasticus THiLius (Mol.) ; Scl. Cat. A. B. p. 136. 
Affelaius xanthocarpus, Bp. Consp. p. 430 (av. jr.). 

One adult male of this species from Tungasuca, May 1868. 

" Shot on the margins of the lake, where it frequents the reed- 
beds. Eye dark hazel ; bill, legs, toes, and claws black. Total 
length 7\ inches, ditto of wing 3|. Stomach contained the remains 
of small beetles." 

12. Geositta tenuirostris (Lafr. et D'Orb.). 
Certhilauda tenuirostris, Lafr. et D'Orb. Syn. Av. p. 72 ; D'Orb. 

Voy. Ois. p. 359, t. 43. f. 2. 

Four skins from Tinta and Tungasuca ; sexes alike. 

" Found near the lake, and also near the banks of the river. Eye 
dark hazel ; bill sepia ; legs, toes, and claws black." 

13. CiNCLODES FUSCus(Vieill.); Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 985. 
Tungasuca. 

14. Agriornis insolens, sp. nov. 

Supra fuscescenti-cinerea unicolor ; alis nigricantioribus, colore 
pallidiore marginatis : loris et superciliis indistincte fidvis : 
subtus pallidefulvescenti-cinerea, gutture albicantiore et nigra 
striata : ventre dilutiore : subalaribiis, crisso et cauda fere 
tota alb is ; rectricibus autem duabus mediis cinereo-nigrican- 
tibus et his duarum proximarum pogoniis iiiternis cinereo 
marginatis : rostro et pedibus nigris : long, tota lO'O, alee 5 3 
caudcB 4'1, rostri a rictu I "4, tarsi 1'35. 
Fem. Mari similis. 
Hab. Peruvia, Tinta {Whitely). 

Four specimens of this Agriornis were collected at Tinta in May 
and June. It approaches nearest to A. solitaria of Ecuador, being 
nearly of the same build, and having, like that species, the three 
pairs of external tail-feathers wholly white. But it may be imme- 
diately distinguished by its much paler colour below, and by the 
distinct black markings on the white throat. 

A. pollens, Sclater* {A. andicola, Sclater, nee D'Orb.), has also 
the external rectrices wholly white, and is very like the present bird 
in general colour, but is much larger and stronger in form, resem- 
bUng in these respects A. livida, the ty])e of the genus. 

" Shot off the roof of a house. Quite solitary in its habits ; I 
have never seen two birds together." 

* The name andicola liaving been used bj Lafresnaye and D'Orbigny for a 
species of this genus, I have altered my former name (given P. Z. S. 1860, p. 78) 
into pollens. — P. L. S. 



154 MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON PERUVIAN BIRDS. [Mar. 1 1 , 

15. OcTHOECA LEUCOPHRYS (Lafr. et D'Orb.) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1867, p. 986. 

Tinta, May. 

" Shot off cactus plants. Bill black ; eye dark hazel ; legs and 
toes black." 

16. MusciSAxicoLA RUFivERTEX, Lafr. et D'Orb.; D'Orb. Voy. 
Ois. p. 354, t. 40. f. 2. 

One example from Tinta (marked $ ), May. Rather larger than 
Chilian specimens, and varying otherwise, but very slightly. 

" Shot off the top of a rock. Eye dark hazel ; bill, legs, and toes 
black." 

17. MuscisAxicoLA MACTJLiROSTRis, Lafr. ct D'Orb.; Scl. et 
Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 568. 

Tinta. 

" Shot on a bank." 

18. Centrites oreas, sp. nov. 

Centrites niger, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 987, et 1868, p. 569. 

Niger : dorso casiarieo : remignyn prifnarioru?n pogoniis iiiternis 
albicantibus : long, tota 5'5, alee 3'2, caudce 2"0. 

Fern. Fusca : dorso luride castaneo: primariis, sicut in mart albi- 
cantibus sed cinnamomeo tinctis. 

Hab. Peruvia alta (TF/^jYe/y). 

Obs. Centrites niger remiges intus nigros unicolores ostendit. 

Two pairs of this Centrites were collected at Tinta. D'Orbigiiy 
does not appear to have recognized its distinctness from the common 
species of the Argentine Republic, of which we have examined many 
specimens. Besides the difference in the wing-feathers, the present 
species is larger, and has the back of a rather lighter chestnut. Mr. 
Whitely's former specimen from Salinas belongs also to the present 
species. 

" Shot on the river bank ; common." — H. W. 

19. Patagona gigas (Vieill.). 
Tinta. 

20. CoLAPTES RUPicoLA, Lafr. et D'Orb. ; D'Orb. Voy. Ois. 
p. 377, t. 62. f. 1; Sundev. Cousp. Pic. p. 78. 

Tungasuca and Tinta. 

"Appears rather common, frequenting holes in banks, there being 
no timber in the neighbourhood. Some specimens were shot off a 
mud wall. Eye greenish yellow ; legs and toes greenish brown ; 
bill black." 

21. BoLBORHYNCHUS oRBiGNESius (Bp.) ; Fiusch, Papag. ii. 
p. 129 ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 569. 

Tinta. Sexes, as marked, are alike. 

" Found frequenting the top of a church." 



1869.] MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON PERUVIAN BIRDS. 1,55 

22. MiLVAGo MEGALOPTERUS, Meycii ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1S(J7, p. 988. 

Adult and young from Tinta. 

23. BUTEO ERYTHRONOTUS (King) ; Hob. I. c. p. 988. 

One skin, marked female, in the plumage figured by D'Orbigny 
(Voy. t. 3. f. 2), from Tinta. 

" Legs and toes bright chrome-yellow ; claws black." 

24. Geranoaetus melanoleucus (Vieill.). 
Tungasuca. 

" Bill black at the tip, yellowish green at the base ; eye light 
hazel; legs and toes chrome-yellow; claws black. Total length 
18| inches." 

25. TiNNUNCULTJS spARVERius (Liun.). 
Tinta. 

26. Hypotriorchis femoralis (Temm.). 
Tinta. 

" Shot by a native off the top of a cactus plant. Bill slate-colour 
at the point, yellow at the base ; eye dark hazel ; eyeUd, legs, and 
toes bright yellow ; claws black." 

27. Circus cinereus (Vieill.). 

One skin, apparently an immature male, of this species from 
Tinta. 

" Bill slate-colour ; eye yellow ; legs and toes chrome-yellow ; 
claws black." 

28. Strix perlata, Vieill. 
Tinta. 

29. Bubo virginianus (Gm.). 

Tinta. Smaller, as is usually the case, than northern specimens. 
" Shot by a native, in the daytime, off a cactus plant. Eye bright 
yellow." 

30. Pholeoptynx cunicularia (Mol.). 
Tinta. 

31. Metriopelia melanoptera (Gm.) ; Bp. Consp. ii. p. 75. 
Tinta. 

32. Cham^epelia erythrothorax (Meycn) ; Scl. et Salv. 
P. Z. S. 1867, p. 989. 

Tinta. 

" Shot off the top of a mud wall." 



156 MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON PERUVIAN BIRDS. [Mar. 1 1, 

33. Vanellus resplendens (Tsch.) ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1858, 
p. 556. 

Four examples from Tinta, obtaiued at an elevation of 12,000 feet. 
Sexes alike. 

" Shot on marsh land. Has the habits of a Plover. Bill pink at 
the base, reddish brown at the tip ; eye, eyelid, legs, and toes pink." 

34. Gambetta melanoleuca (Gm.). 

Tinta and Tungasuca. 

" Shot on marshy lands in the vicinity of the lake of Tinta ; quite 
alone. Bill horn-colour ; eye dark hazel j legs and toes yellow 
ochre ; claws black." 

35. Gallinago frenata. 

Scolopax frenata. Max. Beitr. iv. p. 712; Tsch. F. P. ^w*, p. 299. 

One skin from Tungasuca, with the tarsus shorter than usual. 

*' Found in pairs on the borders of the lake, but not common. 
Bill reddish slate ; eye dark hazel ; legs and toes brownish flesh- 
colour ; claws black." 

36. FuLiCA ardesiaca (Tsch.); Scl. et Salv. Ex. Orn. p. 113, 
t. 57. 

Two specimens from the lagoon of Tungasuca. 
"Appears to be common. Bill white, marked with orange at the 
base ; crown of the head chocolate-colour ; legs and toes light green." 

37. Ardea egretta (Gm.). 

A. leuce, Burm. Syst. Ueb. iii. p. 416. 

Tungasuca. 

" Bill yellow-ochre ; eye cream-colour ; legs, toes, and claws black." 

38. Nycticorax obscurus, Bp. Consp. ii. p. 141. 

Adult and young from Tinta. 

" Upper mandible of bill black, marked vyith olive-green at the 
base ; lower mandible olive-green, marked with streaks of black ; 
eye crimson lake ; legs and toes greenish yellow ; claws black." 

39. Ibis falcinellus (Linn.); Schlegel, Mus. d. P.-B. Ibis, p. 2. 
Ibis ordii, Tsch. F. P. p. 298. 

Tungasuca. 

" Frequents the neighbourhood of the lake in flocks of from 
twenty to thirty. Bill reddish slate-colour ; eye crimson lake ; legs, 
toes, and claws black. Total length 2\\ inches." 

40. Bernicla melanoptera (Eyton). 

Anser melanojiterus, Eyton, Anatidse, p. 93 ; Tsch. F. P. Aces, 
p. 308 ; Darwin, Voy. Beagle, Zool. iii. p. 134, t. 50 ; Phil, et Landb. 
Wiegm. Arch. 1863, p. 185. 

Anser andicola et A. montanus, Tsch. 



1869.] MKSSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON PERUVIAN BIRDS. 15/ 

Two examples from Pitumarca, in the plumage figured in the 
' Voyage of the Beagle.' 

" Common on all the large swamps near Tinta. Bill, legs, and 
toes Indian-red ; eye dark hazel." 

41. Dafila spiNiCAUDA (Vieill.). 

Anas spinicauda, Schlegel, Mus. des P.-B. Ans. p. 39. 

Two skins from the lagoon of Tungasuca and a river near Tinta, 
which we believe to belong to this species, although they do not 
quite agree with Burmeister's description (La Plata- Reise, ii. p. 515). 
But they are identical with a skin from Buenos Ayres, obtained by 
Mr. Hudson {cf. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 146) ; and we think Burmeister 
must have made some error in separating the Peruvian bird {A. 
oxyura, Meyen) from the eastern form. 

" Total length 24^ inches. Upper mandible yellow, marked with 
a streak of black down the centre ; lower mandible yellow at the 
base, black at the point ; eye dark hazel ; legs and toes lead-colour." 

42. QuERauEDULA oxYPTERA (Mcyen) ; Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 
1867, p. 990. 

Specimens of both sexes of this Duck from the lagoon of Tunga- 
suca and a river near Tinta. The males and females are alike. 
" Found in the river." 

43. QUERQUEDULA PUNA. 

Anas puna, Tsch. F. P. Aves, p. 309. 

Two skins, both of females, from the lagoon of Tungasuca. This 
species seems most nearly allied to Q. versicolor, but is readily dis- 
tinguishable by its larger black bill, blacker head, whiter throat, and 
finer markings above. 

We have previously seen this species only in the gallery of the 
Jardin des Plantes, where there is a specimen from Cochabamba 
(D'Orbigny), and a second said to be from Chili (Gay). 

" Found in pairs ; rare. Bill light blue, with a streak of black 
down the centre of the upper mandible ; eye dark hazel ; legs and 
toes bluish slate-colour." 

44. Merganetta leucogenys. 

Anas leucogenys, Tsch. Wiegm. Arch. 1843, p. 390. 

Erismatura leucogenys, ej. I. c. 1844, p. 316. 

Merganetta leucogenys, Tsch. F. P. Aves, p. 310. 

Mr. Whitely has sent a pair of this Merganetta, which is cer- 
tainly distinct from both the Chilian and New-Granadan species. 
The male was obtained by his friend Mr. Turner ; the female was 
shot by himself at Tinta in July last. 

The male has a black neck, like M. chilensis, but a pure white 
neck and throat, with only a small black line round the base of the 
bill, as in M. columbiana. Tschudi's description appears to have 
been taken from a bird not quite adult. The female appears to 



158 MESSRS. SCLA.TER AND SALVIN ON [Mar. 1 1 , 

resemble the female of M. armata, as figured by Des Murs (Icon. 
Orn. pi. 48). 

" Bill, legs, and toes Indian red." 

45. Lartjs serranus, Tseh. F. P. Aves, p. 307. 
L. persoyiatus, Schlegel, Mus. des P.-B. Lari, p. 35. 

Several skins from Tinta, obtained in July, in winter dress or im- 
mature plumage, with the head almost white. One of them, appa- 
rently most immature, shows traces of a black subterminal tail-band. 

46. PoDTCEPS calipareus. Lesson; Tsch. F. P. Aves, p. 315. 

Lagoon of Tungasuca. 

" Bill lead-colour ; eye red ; legs and toes lead-colour." 

47. PoDiCEPS rollandi, Q. et Gr. 

Lagoon of Tungasuca. 

" Bill black ; eye red ; legs and toes slate-colour." 



3. Second List of Birds collected at Concliitas^ Argentine 
Republicj by Mr. WiQiam H. Hudson ; together with 
some Notes upon another Collection from the same 
locality. By P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., and 
OsBERT Salvin, M.A., F.Z.S. 

A second collection of birdskins made by Mr. Hudson having 
been transmitted to us for inspection by the authorities of the 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, we beg leave to offer to tlie 
Society a list of the species therein contained which were not enu- 
merated in our former paper on this subject'", with occasional remarks 
upon them. 

The collection consists of 105 specimens, referable to fifty different 
species. The following fourteen were not in the first collection. 
Two only of these, namely Cyanotis azarce and Elanus leucurus, are 
not mentioned in Burmeister's work on the zoology of La Plata. 

1. Troglodytes furvus (Gm.) 

Tr. platensis, Burm. La Plata-Reise, ii. p. 476. 

Basacaraguay, Azara, Apunt. ii. p. 19. 

Several examples of this widely diffused species. It has been 
already pointed out (P. Z. S. 1867, p. 321) that the true Sylvia 
platensis of Latham (founded on Buffon's PI. Enl. 730. f. 2) is 
Burmeister's Cistothorits fasciolatus, which should be called Cisto- 
thorus platensis. Azara's Todo voz, Apunt. ii. p. 29. no. 151 
(Thryotkorus jiolyglottuSyYkiW.), is, no doubt, the same species. 

Mr. Hudson gives Ratoncito as the vernacular name of the pre- 
sent bird. 

* See P. Z. S. 1868, p. 137. 



18fi9.] BIRDS FROM THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 159 

2. Progne domestica (Vieill.). 

Hirundo domestica, Vieill. N. D. xiv. p. 521, et E. M. p. 527 ; ex 
Golondrina domestica, Azara, Apuut. i. p. 502. 

Progne domestica, Baird, Rev. A. B. p. 282 ; Barm. La Plata- 
Reise, ii. p. 477. 

One skin of this species, which seems to us very nearly allied to 
the Central-American P. leucogastra, though larger. Burmeister 
describes the adult as being steel-blue all over, having, vre suppose, 
confounded it with the southern representative of P. purpurea (i. e. 
P. elegans, Baird, Rev. A. B. p. 751). 

3. Atticora cyanoleuca (Vieill.) ; Burm. /. c. p. 479. 
Golondrina timoneles negros, Azar. Apunt. ii. p. 508. no. 303. 
Two examples of this widely spread species. 

4. Cyclorhis viridis (Vieill.) ; Burm. I. c. p. 472. 

Ilabia verde, Azara, I. c. i. p. 361. no. 89. 

Sclater's Bolivian specimen (C. A. B. p. 46) has a rather stronger 
bill, and the base of the lower mandible black. The chestnut eye- 
brows are also deeper in colour. It approaches C. fiavipectus. The 
present species comes nearer the Brazilian C. ochrocephala, and has 
no black spot on the lower mandible. 

5. Agelasticus thilius (MoL). 
Agelaius thilius, Burm. I. c. p. 492. 

Tordo negro cobijas amarillas, Azara, /. c. i. p. 301. 

Agelasticus chrysopterus. Cab. M. H. i. p. 188. 

Agelaius xanthocarpus, Cassin, P. Acad. Phil. 1866, p. 12. 

Two males and a female of this species, which we agree with 
Burmeister in regarding as hardly distinct from the Chilian bird. 
It only differs in its smaller size. The single Peruvian skin we have 
seen is most like the Chilian in size ; so that Bonaparte's A. xantho- 
carpus (ex Peruvia) is probably a mere synonym of ^. thilius. Ca- 
banis wishes to call the Argentine form chrysopterus, from Vieillot's 
Agelaius chrysopterus, which name, however, has no reference to 
Azara' s species, and is a mere synonym of Icterus cayanensis. 

6. Xanthosomus RUFicAPiLLUs (Vieill.). 

Tordo corona de canela, Azara, I. c. i. p. 315. 
Agelaius rufcapillus, Vieill. 
Chrysomus frontalis, Burm. I. c. p. 492. 
Dolichonyx ruficapillus, Cassin, Pr. Acad. Phil. 1866, p. 17. 
Cassin is quite right in separating this bird from the Brazilian X. 
frontalis, with which it has been generally confounded. 

7. Cyanotis azar^ (Licht.); Scl. C. A. B. p. 212. 

Tachuri rey, Azara, Apunt. ii. p. 72. no. 161. 

Two pairs of this species, which Mr. Hudson marks as a " summer 
bird frequenting swamps." Not mentioned by Burmeister. 



IGO MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON [Mar. 1 1, 

8. Hapalocercus flaviventris (Lafr. et D'Orb.) ; Burm. La 
Plata-Reise, ii. p. 456. 

Tachuri vientre amarillo, Azara, Apunt. ii. p. 89. no. 171. 

One example obtained in November 18G7 and marked as a 
"summer bird." On comparing this with other specimens in Scla- 
ter's collection, including a typical Chilian example of Arundinicola 
citreola, Landbeck (Wiegm. Arch. 1864, p. 58), we find them all 
identical*. The latter name may therefore be regarded as a synonym 
of Hapalocercus Jlaviventris. 

9. Ceryle AMERICANA (Linn.) ; Burm. /. c. p. 447. 
One skin of a female of this Kingfisher. 

10. Elanus leucurus (Vieill.); Burm. Syst. Ueb. ii. p. 11.3. 
Alcon blaiico, Azara, Apunt. i. p. 165. 

Two specimens. Not included in Burmeistev's list. 

11. ROSTRHAMUS SOCIABILIS (Vicill.). 

Gavilan de estero sociable, Azara, Apunt. i. p. 84. no. 16. 
R. hamatus, Burm. La Plata-Reise, ii. p. 435. 
One example of this species. 

12. Aramus scolopaceus (Vieill.); Burm. I. c. p. 504. 
Carau, Azara, Apunt. iii. p. 202. no. 366. 

"Cariiu" or " Viuda loca."— W. IL H. 

13. QuERauEDULA CYANOPTERA (Vieill.) ; Burm. /. c. p. 516. 
Pato alas azulas, Azara, Apunt. iii. p. 437. no. 434. 

" Pato chocolate."— W. H. H. 

14. Dendrocygna viduata (Linn.) ; Burm, I. c. p. 515. 
Pato cava hlanca, Azara, Apunt. iii. p. 440, no. 435. 

We have likewise lately examined a small collection of birds made 
near Buenos Ayres by Mr. Haslchust of that city. Out of forty-five 
species represented in it, the following ten have not been yet sent by 
Mr, Hudson : — 

1, ViREOSYLVIA CHIVI, 

Sylvia chrvi,^'\&}X. N. D. xi. p. 174,etE. M. 437, ex Azara, no. 152, 

Contramaestre (javiero, Apunt. ii. p. 34. 

V, chivi, Baird, Rev. A. 13. p. 337. 

A single skin, which we are not able to separate from V. at/ilis 
of Brazil {F. virescens of Sclater's American Catalogue). But put- 
ting aside virescens, which Prof. Baird, perhaps rightly, considers 
to be a synonym of V. olivacea, chivi is the oldest name for this 
bird. This species is not mentioned by Burmeister. 

* Cf. Scliiter's remarks, P. Z. S. ISO?, p. 326. 



18G9.] BIRDS FROM THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. IGl 

2. Stephanophorus leucocephalus (Vieill.). 

Undo azul caheza blanca, Azara, Apunt. i. p. 3/5. no. 93. 
Tanagra leitcocephala, Vieill. N. D. xxxii. p. 408, et E. M. 774. 
Several skins of this Tanager. 

'^. Donacospiza albifrons (Vieill.) ; Cab. Mus. Hein. i. p. 1 3G. 

Poospica albifrons, Burm. I. c. p. 484. 

Cofa aguda vientre de canela, Azara, Apunt. ii. p. 263. no. 234. 

Poospiza oxyrhyncha, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 168, ex MS. Natt. 

On comparing the present specimen with Sclater's type oi Poospiza 
oxyrhyncha, there remains no doubt of their identity. Natterer's 
specimen in Sclater's collection, which was obtained at Curytiba in 
Brazil, has the tail-feathers rather worn. The species is well figured 
in the ' Voyage of the Beagle' (t. 29) as Ammodramus longicaudatus. 

4. Sycalis chloropsis. 

Crithagra chloropsis, Bp. Consp. i. p. .521. 

Sycalis chloropis, Burm. Journ. f. O. 1860, p. 257, et La Plata- 
Reise, ii. p. 489. 

A pair of what we suppose to be this Sycalis, which has not been 
very sufficiently described either by Bonaparte or Burmeister. It 
is most nearly allied to 8. hrasiliensis, but rather smaller, with the 
front less deeply orange, and the back strongly striated with fuscous. 

5. Sturnella defiuppii, Bp. ; Sclater, Cat. A. B. p. 138. 
Trupialis militaris, Burm. I. c. p. 490. 

Tordo degollado primero, Azara, Apunt. i. p. 304, no. 68. 
Easily known from the true S. militaris (which is found near 
Mendoza and along the Cordilleras) by its black under wing-coverts. 

6. Amblyrhamphus holosericeus (Scop.) : Sclater, Cat. 
A. B. p. 137. 

A. ruber, Burm. I. c. p. 491. 

Tordo negro cabeza roxa, Azara, Apunt. i. p. 316. no. 72. 

7. Picolaptes angustirostris (Vieill.) ; Lafr. Rev. Zool. 
1850, p. 151. 

Trepador comun, Azara, Apunt. ii. p. 279, no. 242. 

Nearest to P. hivittatus, as pointed out by Lafresnaye, but re- 
cognizable by the well-marked striae below and the longer beak. Not 
mentioned by Burmeister. 

8. Myiarchus swainsoni. Cab. et Heine, Mus. Hein. ii. p. 72. 
Suiriri pardo amarillo menor, Azara, Apunt. ii. p. 138. no. 19'i. 
We are inclined to think this form may be really distinguishable 

from M.ferox, although in some cases it is exceedingly difficult to 
say to which of the two species a particular skin should be referred. 
A Nattererian specimen of Myiarchus cantans (Pelzeln, Orn, Bras. 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No, XI. 



162 MR. J. BRAZIKR ON BULIMUS MILTOCHEILUS. [Mar. 11, 

p. 117) in Sclater's collection agrees very well with the Buenos- 
Ayrean bird. Pelzeln unites M. swainsoni with M.ferox, and may 
thus have fallen into the error of describing his M. cantans as new. 
This species is not included in Burmeister's list. 

9. Phytotoma rutila (Vieill.); Burm. /. c. p. 452. 
Dentudo, Azara, Apunt. i. p. 361. no. 91. 

10. Vanellus cayanensis (Gm.) ; Burm. I. c. p. 502. 
Terutero 6 Teteu, Azara, Apunt. iii. p. 264. no. 386. 



4. Observations on the Distribution of Bulimus miltocheilus 
in the Solomon's* Ai-chipelago. By John Brazier, of 
Sydney, New South Wales. (Communicated by the 

Secretary.) 

Bulimus miltocheilus. 

Bulimus miltocheilus. Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. 49. fig. 322 ; 
Deshayes in Fer. vol. ii. p. 105, pi. 154. figs. 3 & 4 ; Pfeiffer, Mon. 
Hehc. vol. iii. p. 372, and vol. iv. p. 440 ; Cheuu, Manuel de 
Conch, part. i. fig. 3216. 

Aspastus miltocheilus, Albers, Heliceen, first edition, p. 149. 

Otostomus miltocheilus, H. & A. Adams, Recent Mollusca, vol. ii. 
p. 151. 

During my visit to the Solomon's archipelago in H.M.S. 
' Cura9oa,' under the command of my esteemed friend Commodore 
Sir William Wiseman, C.B., in the months of August and Septem- 
ber 1865, I found that Bulimus miltocheilus is not only met with 
at Port Makera, San Christoval Island, but also on two other islands 
in the archipelago. On the Island of Sesarga or Contraietes 
(situated 9° 48' S. lat., 162° 8' 10" E. long.) I believe I was the 
first that ever landed in search of conchological specimens ; and I 
was well rewarded by finding B. miltocheilus on a species of pahii 
tree about twenty feet from the ground. The next island that we 
visited is one known by the name of Golfe Island ; the native name 
is Ugi ; here B. miltocheilus is found in thousands on the palm 
trees. The third place that we visited was Wanga Bay, San Chris- 
toval Island ; here we found this Bu/itnus rather scarce, not getting 
more than thirty specimens. At this spot they are found on leaves 
of bushes and other small plants, quite vigorous and crawling about, 
where the land is very low and damp. The next place that we 
visited was Recherche Bay, San Christoval Island, where the land is 
very high on the coast. To obtain B. miltocheilus you must go three 
or four miles inland ; here it is found on a broad-leaved tree, but 

* Kecent writers on the Mollusca of this archipelago (such as Pfeiffer and 
others) make use of the term " Salomon " Islands ; it should he Solomon's Archi- 
pelago or Islands. 



1869.] MR. R. B. SHARl'E ON THE GENUS CHiETOPS. 16.3 

is rather rare. At Port Achard it is fouud in abundance, and is 
used by the natives to make necklaces of, or strung in clusters round 
their waist in their war-dances. It is always found in company with 
Heli.f merziana and H. cleryi. The most northern limit of it is 
Sesarga or Contraiete's, the southern limit is San Christoval. Spe- 
cimens vary much both in colour and in size. 



5. On the Genus Chcetops. By R. B. Sharpe. 

(Plate XIV.) 

The genus Chcetops was founded by Swainson in 1831, and up to 
the present time contains only two species, viz. C. frenatus and 
C. aurantius. In a collection of birds formed in Damara-laud by 
the late I\Ir. C. J. Andersson, I met with a species of Chcetops which 
I have every reason to believe is new to science. On taking my 
specimen to the British Museum I discovered another in the na- 
tional collection ; and my friend Mr. George Robert Gray coin- 
cided in my opinion as to its novelty. He had, indeed, noted it as 
new, and intended to describe it himself shortly, I have therefore 
very great pleasure in naming this species 

Ch^tops grayi, sp. u. (Plate XIV.) 

C. valde minor: gutture et pectore superiore albidis : ])ecto)-is la- 
teribus nigro guttatis : long. tot. 6-8 unc, rostri 0'7, alee 2'S, 
caudcB 3"0, tarsi 0'85, dig. med. 0"7. 
Hab. in terra Damarensi, in Afr. merid. 

The above short diagnosis is quite sufficient to distinguish it from 
either of the species hitherto known ; and the following diagnostic 
Table indicates the specific characters of the three species : — 

A. Majores: gutture nigerrimo. 

a'. Abdomine intense castaneo C. frenatus. 

b'. Abdomine aurantiaco C. auranfiin'. 

B. Minor : gutture albido C. grayi. 

1. Ch^tops frenatus. 

M alums frenatus, Temm. PI. Col. 38.5 (1826). 

Chcetops frenatus, Gray, Gen. of Birds, i. p. 217 (c. 1844); Bonap. 
Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 278 (1850); Layard, Birds of S. Afr. p. 125 
(18G7). 

Chcetops burchelli. Swains. Fauna Bor.-Am. p. 486 (1831); 
Classif. of Birds, ii. p. 233 (1837). 

The following account of the habits of this rare bird is taken from 
Mr. Layard's work {loc. cit.): — 

"This bird is, as far as I yet know, peculiar to the mountain- 
ranges between Caledon and Swellendam. It frequents the tops of 
the hills and high elevations on their stony sides, and seeks its food, 
consisting of insects, about stones and rocks. In habits it much 
resembles the Bock-Thrush, and, like it, is fond of perching upon the 



164 MR. R, B. SHARPE ON THE GENUS CH.ETOPS. [Mar. 11, 

summit of some conspicuous stone or ant-hill, from which it surveys 
the surrounding prospect, and seeks for safety by immediate flight 
on perceiving the approach of a foe. It progresses by a series of 
enormous hops, its povFerfal legs being well suited to this end ; while 
its strong pointed claws enable it to traverse with ease the inclined 
surfaces of slippery rocks. It conceals itself readily in holes, and, 
if wounded, seeks such a retreat in which to die. Generally found 
in small families of three or four individuals." 

2. Ch^ETOPS AURANTIUS. 

Cheetops aurantius, Layard, Birds of S. Afr. p. 126 (1867). 

This species was first recognized by my friend Mr. Layard ; a 
single specimen is in the British Museum ; and I agree with him in 
considering it to be distinct from C. frenatus. The following ex- 
tract from his work sufficiently explains the reasons that induced 
him to separate the two birds. 

"This handsome species was obtained by Mr. J. O'Reilly in some 
abundance in the mountains near Graaff-Reinet. He describes it as 
very wary and difficult of approach, and feeding on insects, for 
which it seeks among the low brushwood. It has also been received 
from Captain Bulger at Windvogelberg, and from Mrs. Barber." 

Mr. J. O'Reilly writes as follows : — " Graaff-Reinet, January 2nd, 
1863. Inhabits rocks in high mountain-ranges. Scarce ; very shy 
and cunning, usually frequenting places assiir.ilatiug to its plu- 
mage. Continually on the hop, and seldom takes wing ; when it 
does so, flies but a short distance. Always on the watch, seldom 
showing much more than its head above the stones. Found about 
Graaff-Reinet all the year round, and in pairs. Food consists of 
small insects of any sort ; drinks in the evening. Note, a sharp 
chirp, particularly when surprised. Breeds in December. Nest 
built of grass and rock-mosses, in crevices among rocks. Eggs three 
to four ; green, with brown speckles." 

" When this bird was sent home. Dr. Hartlaub and Mr. Sclater 
identified it as C. frenatus, Temm. Since then, specimens have 
been obtained corresponding entirely with Temminck's figure of that 
bird, and I am convinced that this species is distinct. I have male, 
female, and young birds of each ; and Mr. O'Reilly describes the 
nest and eggs of the orange-bodied species which Dr. Hartlaub sup- 
poses to be the young of C. frenatus. G. frenatus breeds about 
Caledon ; and our C. aurantius never appears there by any chance." 

3. Cheetops grayi. 

The specimen in the British Museum is labelled as coming from 
South Africa. My bird was obtained by Mr. C. J. Andersson on the 
Omaruru River, Damara-land, October 30th, 1866. The present 
species cannot be mistaken for either of the others mentioned above, 
its m\ich smaller size and white throat distinguishing it at a glance. 
I should add that the British-Museum specimen has more black 
spots on the sides of the breast than my bird. 



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1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 165 

6. Notes on the Families and Genera of Tortoises [Testudi- 
nata) , and on the Characters afforded by the stndy of their 
Skulls. By Dr. John Edward Gray, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S., 
F.L.S. 

(Plate XV.) 

Papers on the skulls of Chelydidce and on the skulls of the Asiatic 
and African species of Trionychidce were read at meetings of this 
Society in 1867, and I was enabled to found on the study of their 
skulls what appeared to me to be more natural arrangements of the 
species into genera and larger groups. I wished to follow the same 
plan with regard to the other families of Testudinata, but I was 
stopped by want of material. 

The British Museum has since then received some additional skulls 
and skeletons ; and I hope that, with these and with the examination 
of the heads and mouths of the specimens in spirits and stuffed, I 
have been able to place the characters of the genera and to group 
the genera into sections on a firmer basis than that hitherto used, 
and thus to add to our knowledge of these neglected animals. 

Anatomists have been content to study the osteology of the three 
or four larger groups of the Tortoises, and have paid very little atten- 
tion to the skulls, much less to the skeletons, of the genera or other 
smaller groups ; and very few skeletons or skulls have been figured. 

To give some idea of the little attention hitherto paid to the sub- 
ject and of the difficulty that existed of examining the skeletons and 
skulls of them, the Museum of the College of Surgeons, when Pro- 
fessor Owen printed his Catalogue of the osteological series in that 
collection, only contained the skulls or skeletons of five species of 
TestudinidoB, of one of the Cisiudinida, of two EmydidcB, and of one 
of the ChelydradcB. I am glad to say that the collection has been 
lately increased by the addition of several other skeletons and skulls. 

To remedy this evil, 1 have exerted myself to bring together the 
skeletons and skulls of as many specimens of Tortoises as I could 
procure for the British Museum collection ; and there are now in 
that collection 78 complete skeletons, and 59 skulls, besides bones of 
parts of the body, belonging to 67 species, as follows : — 

Species. Skeletons. Skulls. 

Testudinidae 13 22 10 

Cistudinidse 3 5 — 

Emydidae 22 24 5 

Chelydradse 6 8 — 

Chelydidse 7 6 6 

Trionychidaa 12 6 17 

Cheloniadse 3 6 15 

Spargidse 1 1 6 

In my paper on the skulls of Chehjdidce (P. Z. S. 1 86 J, p. 128) 
I divided them into two groups — one having the temporal muscles 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XII. 



166 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 1 1, 

almost entirely covered with a bony case formed of the dilated zygo- 
matic arch, as in the Sea-Turtles {Cheloniadce), and the other with 
those muscles only covered with skin, and protected externally by a 
broad band- like zygomatic arch, as in the Tortoises {Testudinida- 
and Trionychidce); and I observed that the same difference in the 
form of the skull was to be observed in the genera of the EmydidcE ; 
but some genera, as Geoemyda and Cistudo, like several genera of 
ChelydidcB, are even without any zygomatic arch, the temporal 
muscles being only covered with skin between the orbit and the 
tympanic bone as on the temple and crown. 

The families may be divided, according to the state of the temple, 
thus : — - 

Temple bony. Temple fleshy. 

I. Feet clavate. Terrest rial Testudinida. 

II. Feet palmate. Fliiviatile. 

A. Thorax covered with bony plates. 

a. Pelvis free below ; sternal shields 

S or 1 2 PlalysternidcB. Cistudinidte. 

Emydidcs. 
Chelydradas. 
h. Pelvis attached to the sternum ; 

sternal shields 13 Podocfphalidce. Cheh/dida. 

B. Thorax covered with skin Trionuchida. 

III. Feet fin-shaped Cheloniada;. 

Sphargididce. 

The horny beak of these animals not only forms a cutting instru- 
ment for the separation of the food from the mass, but it also covers 
the chewing surface on the sides of the jaws, there being a more or 
less extended plate on the inside of the jaws for this purpose. In 
some the surface of the bone and the horny covering is smooth, as in 
Malademys and Chelydra. In general there are one or more ridges 
on the upj)er jaw fitting into grooves in the lower jaw. In the Tor- 
toises and some of the more terrestrial Emydidce, the ridge and groove 
are simple ; in the more aquatic Terrapins (as Pseudemys and Ba- 
tagu)') they are more numerous and wider. Unfortunately, the 
form of the masticating surface is not to be usually seen in stuffed 
sjiecimens ; so that it is only known in a limited number of species. 
It must have great influence, or, rather, it shows that there is great 
variation in the habits of the animals, and ought to be studied for 
the natural arrangement of the groups. Indeed I can only regard 
the* notes I am now making as the breaking of the sod, and consider 
that much has to be done before one can arrive at a satisfactory 
history of the habits and structure of these creatures, and form an 
arrangement of them consistent with their habits and manners and 
peculiarities. 

I. LAND-TORTOISES— TESTUDINIDiE. 

Skull solid. Orbit complete, lateral, large, hinder edge moderate. 
Zygomatic arch strong, well developed, united to the ear-bone be- 
hind, with a large cavity for the temporal muscle above. Temporal 
muscles covered with skin or horny plates. 



1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. ' 167 

They may be divided into sections thus : — 

Section I. Sternal shields 12, regularly arranged in pairs on each 
side of the central line. Pectoral plates large, like the others. 

A. The inguinal plates moderate; the nostrils in a square fleshy 

nose, between the upper edge of the beak and the frontal plates ; 
thorax solid. Testudinina. 

1. Testudo. Gular plates separate. Claws 4 . 5. Alveolar plate 

with two ridges. 

2. Peltastes, Gular plates separate. Claws 4 . 5. Alveolar plate 

with an indistinct ridge. 

.3. HoMOPUs. Gular plates separate. Claws 4.4. 

4. Pyxis. Gular plates separate. The front lobe of the sternum 

mobile. 

5. Chersina. Gular plates united and produced. 

B. The inguinal plates very large ; the nostrils in a notch On each 

side of the upper edge of the beak ; thorax, hinder part mo- 
bile. Kinixyina. 

6. KiNIXYS. 

Section II. Sternal shields 10, arranged in five pairs. The two 
pectoral shields small, short, triangular, far apart, on the sides 
at the hinder edge of the axillae. Manourina. 

7. Manouria. This genus, before the animal was known, was 

erroneously arranged in Etnydidce. 

1. Testudo. 

The skull has a well-developed zygomatic arch. The palate is 
deeply concave, especially in front ; and there are three more or less 
distant, narrow, elevated, parallel longitudinal ribs on it behind the 
internal nostrils, which are placed in front of the palate. The alveo- 
lar margin of the upper jaw broad, with two ridges parallel to and 
as long as the outer margin of the beak. The central ridge is divided 
into conical teeth ; the inner marginal ridge higher and with a more 
even edge. The nostrils are placed in a more or less square fleshy 
muffle, which is situated on the upper edge of the horny beak. 

The genus may be divided into two sections by the form of the 
alveolar surface of the lower jaw : — 

a. Lower jaw narrow, with a deep groove extending the whole 
length of the edge ; front of upper jaw with a central notch 
and two slight prominences. Testudo. 
Testudo indica, T. planiceps, T. tabulata, T. radiata. 
h. Lower jaw narrow in front, with a short deep groove as long 
as the hinder half of the outer margin. Scapia. 
T. (^Scapia) fnlconeri. 



168 ' DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 11, 

The hinder part of the skull over and near the ethmoid bones 
varies considerably, and affords very good characters for the distinc- 
tion of the species. 

1. Testudo indica, Gray. 

Testudo indica, (skull figured) Cuvier Oss. Foss. v. t. f. ; 
copied, Wagler, N. Syst. Amph. t. 6. f. 51, 52, 53 ; Gray, Cat. 
Shield Reptiles in B. M. t. 35. fig. 1. 

T. elephantopus, Owen, Cat. Osteol. Mus. Col. Surg. p. 194. no. 
1011 (skeleton), 1058 (skull). 

Skull — length 5| inches, width at zygomatic condyles 4| ; the 
alveolar plate in the upper jaw broad, with a central and marginal 
ridge, and a groove in the lower jaw, the whole length of the margin. 

There is a skeleton of a small adult specimen of this species in the 
British Museum. 

2. Testudo planiceps. 

T. planiceps, (skull figured) Gray, Cat. Shield Reptiles in B. M. 
t. 34. 

Skull — length b\ inches, width over zygomatic arches 4^ ; the 
alveolar plate in the upper jaw narrower, with a central and marginal 
ridge, and a groove in the lower jaw, the whole length of the margin. 

3. Testudo tabulata. 

T. tabulata, (skeleton) "Wiedemann, Arch. Zool. ii. 181 ; Wagler, 
N. Syst. Amph. t. 6. f. 1-6; Owen, Cat. Osteol. Mus. Coll. Surg, 
p. 200. no. 1044 (skeleton with mutilated skull), 1046 (skull?). 

Var. Testudo boiei, Wagler, N. Syst. Amph. t. 6. f. 7-13. 

Junior ? T. denticulata, Owen, Cat. Osteol. Mus. Coll. Surg, 
p. 201. no. 1045 (skull); not Green. 

The upper jaw with a high triangular ridge, and the lower with a 
deep triangular groove with a very high inner edge, parallel to and 
nearly as long as the short-edged outer margin, only represented in 
the front of the upper jaw by the broad, deep, central, anterior pit. 
The upper jaw with a notch on each side of the centre, and the 
lower with a broad, compressed, conical projection. Palate very 
deep nearly the whole length, deeper on each side in front, with 
three laminar ridges, the middle one being the most distinct. The 
ethmoid bones smooth, without any distinctly raised ridge on each 
side. 

There are a skeleton and two skulls appearing to belong to this 
species in the British Museum. Length of the skull of the skeleton, 
from nose to condyle, 2\ inches ; width at zygomatic arches If inch. 
Length of largest separate skull 2 inches 5 lines, width 1| inch. 
There is also in the Museum the skeleton of a small but adult spe- 
cimen of the variety, with very deeply sulcated shields. They differ 
from each other somewhat in the depth, and slightly in the form of 
the concavity in the palate, and in the strength of the margin on 



1869.] DR. J. K. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 160 

the side of the hmder part of the palate within the temporal muscles. 
They all three vary in the form of the ethmoid bone : in one it is 
nearly square, with evenly truncated front edge ; in the other two it 
is more elongated, and the middle of the front edge is more or less 
projecting in front. 

Of the skeleton of a young specimen in the British Museum the 
skull is well formed ; it has the symphysis between the two bones 
very narrow ; the beak has the three anterior notches, and the 
alveolar ridges or grooves, as in the adult. 

A half-grown specimen from Xeberos, obtained from Mr. Hig- 
gins, in spirit, has the head black, the crown and cheeks yellow- 
varied, the two oblong longitudinal shields on the nose and the small 
shield edging the upper part of the orbit pure white ; a small spot 
on each temple and a large shield between the orbit and the upper 
edge of the tympanic cavity yellow. 

4. Testudo radiata. 

Testudo radiata, Cuv. Oss. Foss. v, 193, t. 12, 13 ; Wagler, N. 
Syst. Amph. t. 10. f. 37, 40, t. 1 1 (skeleton). 

The skull of the skeleton in the British Museum is solid, heavy, 
rather longer than wide in the widest part ; crown rather convex ; 
nose erect ; sides of face concave ; orbit large ; zygomatic arch strong, 
broad, convex, about as wide as the small oblong tympanic cavity. 
Palate very deeply concave in front, gradually shelving off to the 
ethmoid, with three narrow laminar longitudinal ridges near together 
in the centre of the concavity. Ethmoid bone narrow, with a narrow, 
linear, rather arched ridge on each side. Lower jaw with a deep 
narrow groove parallel to and as long as the short outer margin, and 
with a prominence in front. The skull is 2 inches long from the 
nose to the condyle, and If inch wide over the zygomatic arches, 
which is the widest part. The mastoid bone, in the different species 
of Tortoises, differs greatly in shape ; in this species it is short, 
with a shelving outer surface ; it is always hollow, forming a tym- 
panic cavity. 

5. Testudo (Scapia) falconeri. B.M. 

Skull solid, oblong ; face broad, rounded in front. The groove on 
the palate very deep and wide. The upper jaw with three narrow 
ridges — one on each edge of the margin, and a short one interme- 
diate between them ; the outer margin high and without any teeth. 
Lower jaw with a sharp edge, a rather acute sharp edge in the front 
part, and with a sharp inner ridge rather more than half the length 
of the side, separated from the outer edge by a deep groove. 

Hab. India ? 

Length of sktill from nose to condyle 3^ inches ; width 2 inches 
5 lines, of forehead between orbits 2^ inches ; length of outer edge 
of upper jaw 1 inch 8 lines. 

The skull above described was received in Dr. Falconer's collection, 
which was presented to the British Museum by his brother on his 



170 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 11, 

Fig. 1. 




Testudo faJconeri. 
Note. — The figures are all of the natural size, except when otherwise stated. 

death. It is most probably from India, and perhaps from the 
mountain-regions. It is evidently the skull of a very large species 
of the genus and very distinct from Testudo indica, the skull of 
which was figured in the ' Catalogue of Shield Eeptiles in the British 



186!).] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 171 

Museum,' t. 35. f. 1, and the larger Testudo planiceps, figureil in 
the same work, t. 34, and only known from a skull in the Miisemn 
collection. From its size, it is most j)robably the skull of one of the 
Black Tortoises of Asia that have been called Testudo indica, which 
are found spread over all parts of tiie Asiatic region, also on the 
islands off the east coast of Africa, and in California and the Gala- 
pagos, and of which certain variations in form were regarded by the 
older writers as denoting distinct species. Modern writers on the 
subject have united these into a single species under the name of 
Testudo indica. 

Testudo falconeri and T. p/aniceps having been described from 
skulls in museums, without any knowledge of the thoraces of the 
animals to which they belonged, I am not able to say if they are 
identical with any of the Tortoises which have been described from 
thoraces only, under the names of Testudo elephantopus, T. nigra, T. 
dussumieri, T. gi(jantea, T. vosmaeri, T, nigrita, T. daudini, T. ele- 
phantina, T. perraultii, and T. peltastes. This is one of those in- 
stances which ought to teach naturalists caution in determining 
species without the examination of all the parts of the animal, the 
skull as well as the thorax. 

The Tortoises that have been called T. indica are found in India, 
Africa, and America, or rather on the islands of these two latter 
continents ; and it has been supposed that they have been intro- 
duced to these places by ships, as they are sometimes collected and 
used as food aboard ship. Some say they were introduced into India, 
and the original habitat of the species is unknown. Perhaps the 
discovery that there are several species confounded under the name 
of T. indica may solve this problem. 

There is a large species of Tortoise from India named Manouria 
fusca, the skull of which has somewhat the general form of that of 
Testudo falconeri ; but the latter differs in having a broad, well- 
developed zygomatic arch, the arch in Manouria fusca being slender 
and weak. 

2. Peltastes. 

The alveolar margin of the upper jaw rather broad in the hinder 
part, interrupted in front by a broad concavity over the anterior in- 
ternal nostril ; the broad hinder part with a slightly raised ridge and 
a similar raised inner edge nearly parallel to the margin of the jaw ; 
the front of the jaws has two slight prominences, separated by a 
slight notch. Lower jaw slender, with a short edge in front, and 
with a rather deep rounded gi'oove with a very thin iimer edge oc- 
cupying the inner surface of the hinder half of the margin. 

1 . Peltastes elongatus. 

Testudo elongata. Gray, P. Z. S. 1S61, ]>. 13!). 

Hab. India. 

There are two skulls of this kind in the British Museum, the 
smaller sent by Professor Oldham with the thorax, which proves it 
to be the skull of T. elongata ; the larger one was presented l)y the 



172 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



[Mar. 11, 



brother of Dr. Falconer on the death of the Doctor. The larger 
skull (from Dr. Falconer) is 2i inches long, 1^ inch wide ; the 
other (from Professor Oldham) is 1 inch 11 lines long, and li inch 
wide. 

Fig. 2. 




Peltastes elongatvs. 



The thorax has all the characters of Testudo. Claws .5.4. The 
nostrils in a fleshy disk, with a shght notch in the upper edge of the 
l)eak, directly under and partly enclosing them. Palate deeply con- 
cave nearly the whole length, with three laminar longitudinal ridges 
in the centre of it. Ethmoid bone flat, with a more or less distinct 
raised marginal edge. 

Young specimen in spirit, from Pegu, obtained from Mr. Theo- 
bald : — Thorax oblong, hemispherical, rather convex, dull brown ; 
centre of dorsal shield blackish ; sternum yellow, black in the cen- 
tre ; nuchal shield short, square ; the four lateral hinder marginal 
shields produced into an acute point behind ; the caudal shield 
broad, with a straight denticulated hinder edge, with a longer acute 
point at each end ; legs and feet very dark olive. 

Hah. Pegu {Theobald). 



IW69.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 173 

2. PeLTASTES ? SULCATUS. 

Testudo sulcata. Miller, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. B. M. p. 9. 

Hab. Africa. 

Skeleton in the British Museum. Skull imperfect, the nose and 
lower jaw having been crushed ; but from what remains I suspect 
that it belongs to the genus Peltastes. 

The skull is high and short, rather like the skull of Testudo in- 
dica. The central ridge on the palate is very high and laminar, 
much higher than the ridge on each side of it. Zygomatic arch 
broad and short and convex. Tympanic cavity imperfect behind ; 
the mastoid bone is large and entirely hollow, forming a tympanic 
cavity. Length of skull from nose to condyle 2| inches, width at 
zygomatic arches 2 inches. 

3. Peltastes gr^cus. 

Skeleton in the British Museum. Skull thin ; the upper alveolar 
edge with a regular groove parallel to the margin, with a sharp ridge 
on the inner margin ; the lower jaw with a regular triangular groove 
parallel to the whole of the lateral margin. 

There is a very pretty specimen (young) of P. grcecus, in spirit, 
in the British Museum, from the valley of the Minder, Asia Minor, 
presented by Mr. R. MacAndrew. 

There are two skulls in the British Museum received from Mr. 
Yarrell as the skulls of Testudo grceca. They are evidently of a 
very distinct species ; they both belong to the genus Peltastes. 

4. Peltastes geographicxjs ? 

Skull of a smaller species in the Museum of the College of Sur- 
geons, without any number. From the size, probably the skull of 
Testudo geographica. 

Skull short, broad, crown flat, broad, truncated in front ; nose- 
hole very large, square ; orbit large, lateral ; zygomatic arch slender, 
rather convex ; tympanic cavity oblong, erect ; mastoid bone half- 
oval, hollow, labial edge even, with three slight teeth in front ; the 
palate very concave ; the alveolar surface very narrow in front, 
wider behind, with a very slight submarginal ridge on the hinder 
part of it. Lower jaw weaker ; alveolar edge narrow, with a swollen 
dentary groove behind, about two-thirds of the length of the 
outer side of the bone, and with a very slightly raised point in 
front. 

5. Peltastes? marginatus. 

Skull figured as the Caret, Spix, Cephal. t. 4. f. 12-15. 

4. Pyxis. 

Pyxis arachnoidea, var. oblonga. 

Skeleton in the British Museum, received from Leyden. It is 
exactly like the oblong specimens figured by Dumeril and Bibron, 
Erp. Gen. t. 13. f. 2. 



174 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. II, 

Skull small, thin ; crown convex, arched ; nose-hole very large, 
with a deep oblong notch in the upper edge ; orbit very large ; side 
of face shelving ; the hinder edge of the orbit very thin ; zygomatic 
arch very slender, short ; tympanic cavity small, oblong, erect. 
Lower jaw slender. Beak of upper jaw with a smooth edge, and 
entire in front. The alveolar edges narrow, parallel, linear, simple ; 
internal nostril like exterior. The thorax is very like that of some 
of the varieties of Testudo stellata, which is a very variable species 
both in size and surfaces ; so that one might almost regard it as only 
a variety of it. The sternum is divided by a straight suture between 
the second and third pairs of plates ; the second pair large, with a 
straight posterior edge. The abdominal or the fourth pair of plates 
very large ; the first or gular plate small, narrower than the small 
anal ones. 

5. Chersina. 

Chersina angulata. 

Testudo angulata, Owen, Cat. Osteol. M. C. S. p. 201. n. 1050 
(skeleton), 1051 (skeleton of trunk and extremities). 

Skeleton in the British Museum. 

Back edge of the orbit thin ; zygomatic arch short, rather slender 
from the middle part of the back edge of the orbit; tympanic cavity 
small ; nose-hole large, square ; nostril in a small granular disk ; 
orbit large, lateral ; upper beak with three anterior teeth, with a deep 
notch in the upper edge for the nose- disk. Lower jaw weak, the 
beak with a short central hook. The alveolar surface of the upper 
jaw linear, rather wider behind, with a very short central ridge. 
Lower jaw sharp-edged in front, rather wider on the hinder half of 
the margin, with a middle groove for the ridge on the upper jaw. 

6. KiNIXYS. 
KiNIXYS BELLIANA. 

Sheath of the upper jaw very high, with the nostril in a notch in 
its upper edge, between it and the front edge of the frontal shields ; 
of lower jaw high, convex in front. Zygomatic arch (as seen through 
the skin in the stuffed specimen) convex, narrow from the back of 
the orbit to the upper front part of the oblong tympanic cavity. 

7. Manouria. 
Manotjria fusca. 

The stuffed specimen shows that the skull is oblong, forehead flat, 
face short ; orbit large, lateral, rounded ; zygomatic arch weak and 
thin, compared with the same bone in Testudo ; the tympanic bone 
surrounding the ear is deep-seated ; the mastoid is not prominent as 
is usually the case in Land-Tortoises. 

II. The TERRAPINS or FRESHWATER TORTOISES. 

After a patient examination of the skulls and skeletons and a re- 
vision of the specimens of the Freshwater Tortoises, or Terrapins, 



1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 175 

in the British Museum, which have hitherto been referred to the 
family Emydidee as defined in the ' Catalogue of Shield Reptiles in 
the British Museum,' published in 1855, I think they may be more 
conveniently divided into four very natural groups, which may be 
called families. These groups may be thus characterized : — 

I. The temporal muscle covered with skin, and generally protected 
by a narrow band-like zygomatic arch. 

1. CiSTUDiNiD^. The sternum united to the thorax by a cartila- 

ginous lateral suture, and divided transversely into two move- 
able portions. 

2. CHELYDRADiE. The stemum united to the thorax by a bony 

symphysis, covered with from 7 to 1 1 shields ; the middle por- 
tion fixed to the thorax ; the front and hinder portions often 
separated from it by a transverse suture and moveable. 

3. Emydidje. The sternum united to the thorax by a bony sym- 

physis, solid, and covered with 12 shields. 

II. The temporal muscle covered with a bony hood formed by the ex- 
tension of the zygomatic arch. Head very large. Sternal 
shields 1 1 . 

4. Platysternid^. Asiatic. 

Fam. I. CisTUDiNiD^ or Box-Tortoises. 

Head moderate, covered with a hard thin skin. Eyes lateral or 
subsuperior ; pupil annular. Temporal muscle covered with the 
skin and (except in Cistudo) protected by a band-like zygomatic 
arch. Thorax covered with horny plates. Sternum very broad, 
attached to the thorax by a ligamentous suture, covered at the sides 
by the pectoral and abdominal shields, and divided across into two 
parts by a suture between the pectoral and abdominal plates. Sternal 
shields 12; the axillary and inguinal plates very small or wanting. 
The mastoid bone is excavated to form a tympanic cell. 

I have little to add to my monograph of the species of the family 
printed in the ' Proceedings ' of the Society for 1863, p. 1/3, except 
that the temporal muscle of the North-American genus Cistudo is 
only covered with skin, and the skull is destitute of any zygomatic 
arch between the orbit and the tympanic bone. In this respect, as 
well as in the position of the suture between the sternum and the 
thorax, this genus differs from the Lutremys of Europe and the 
genera found in Asia, all of which have a well-developed zygomatic 
arch for the protection of the temporal muscle. 

The skull of Lutremys of Europe is figured by Cuvier, Bojanus, 
and Wagler. I am not aware that the skull of the very common 
Cistudo clausa has been figured or described. I have not seen any 
specimen of the Californian Cistudo blondinsia ; but, judging from 
the figure of the animal in Holbrook's ' North- American Herpeto- 



176 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



[Mar. 11, 



logy,' p. 39, t. 3, it appears to agree with the otiier American spe- 
cies. If it does, this is another reason why it should not be referred 
to the genus Lutremys, in which Agassiz has placed it in his ' Con- 
tributions.' 

Tribe I. Cistudinina or North-American Box-Tortoises. 

The temporal muscle only covered with skin. The skull without 
any zygomatic arch between the orbit and the ear-bones. Lobes of 
the sternum moveable at all ages, unequal ; front shorter, almost 
free from the symphysis ; the hind fixed, narrow, elongate. 

1. CiSTUDO. 
CiSTUDO CLAUSA. 

Skeleton in the British Museum. 

Cistudo clausa, Owen, Cat. Mus. R. C. S. p. 192. n. 998 (skele- 
ton), 1009 (skull of young). 

Professor Owen describes a peculiarity in the neural arch of the 
atlas and the other vertebrae, and in the bones of the feet ; but he 
does not notice the absence of the zygomatic arch in the skull. 

Fig. 3. 




Cistudo clatisa. 



Skull in College-of-Surgeons Museum, No. 999 : — Nose-hole 
square, moderate ; orbit excessively large ; tympanic cavity oblong, 
erect ; upper jaw with a straight lateral edge and a broad central 
part ; palate flat, internal nasal apertures anterior, with a broad tri- 
angular concavity behind them with a central ridge ; alveolar plate 
smooth, narrow in front, rather wider behind ; alveolar surface of the 
lower jaw rather wide, concave. 



1869.] 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



177 



Tribe II. Lutremyina or Old-World Cistudinidae. 

The temporal muscle protected by a well-developed band-like zy- 
gomatic arch. Sternal lobes more or less moveable, subequal ; both 
lobes forming part of the lateral symphysis. 

* Lobes of the sternum moveable at all ages. 
2. Pyxidea, Gray, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 175. 
Pyxidia mouhotii. 

The skull (as seen through the skin in the preserved specimen) 
is trigonal, flat on the sides ; the crown flat, triangular, short, 
scarcely produced behind the hinder edge of the orbit ; truncate 
behind, rather more produced in the centre ; zygomatic arch flat, 
weak, narrowed in the centre, much narrower than the orbit in front, 
and gradually dilating so as to be almost half as broad as the front 
edge of the tympanic cavity behind ; orbit rather large, lateral ; 
beak of the upper jaw entire, with a strong central hook. 

3. CisTOCLEMMYS, Gray, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 175. 

4. CuoRA, Gray, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 198; 1863, p. 176. 

Fig. 4. 






Cuora amhoincnsis. 

CuORA AMBOINENSIS. 

Skeleton in the British Museum. 

Skull rather elongate, rhombic, ovate ; crown flat ; nose erect ; 
nose-cavity square, moderate ; orbit large, oblong, transverse, lateral ; 



178 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES, fMar. 11, 

zygomatic arch complete, broad in front, narrowed behind and at- 
tached to the upper front part of the tympanic cavity ; mastoid bone 
acute behind, keeled on the outer upper side, hollow ; palate flat ; 
internal nostrils anterior, with a short, oblong, slightly sunken con- 
cavity behind, each separated from the other by a blunt ridge ; 
alveolar plate very narrow, linear, with a slight ridge on the inner 
margin ; upper beak with a smooth edge and an entire, recurved, 
sharp tip. Lower jaw moderately strong, rounded below in front ; 
lower beak with a simple sharp edge, rather produced and acute in 
front, with a slightly concave linear inner margin. 

5. Pyxiclemmys, Gray, P. Z. S. 1863. 

6. LuTREMYS, Gray, V.Z.B. 1855 & 1863. 

The anatomy of the animal is well described by Bojanus. The 
skull is figured by Cuvier (Oss. Foss. v. t. 11 . f. 13-16) and Wagler 
(in N. Syst. Amph. t. 5. f. xv.-xviii.). There is a skeleton in the 
British Museum ; it has a well-developed zygomatic arch. 

7. NoTOCHELYs, Gray, P.Z. S. 1863. 

** Lobes of the sternum moveable in the young state, often 
becoming anchylosed. 

8. Cyclemys, Gray, P.Z. S. 1855, p. 198, 1863, p. 177. 

The thorax convex or depressed. The sternum flat or slightly 
convex, with the lateral symphyses well marked, truncated before 
and notched behind ; the cross suture indistinctly marked and nar- 
row, more or less obliterated in the adult, covered with the produced 
front edge of the ventral shields. The legs covered with large, band- 
like thin plates in front. The toes banded above, the front one 
short, webbed. The hind feet flattened, with the toes broadly 
webbed ; the hinder edge keeled and angularly produced. 

Cyclemys orbiculata. 

Skeleton in the British Museum, from Java. 

Skull elongate ; zygomatic arch rather narrow, distinct. The 
alveolar surface of the upper jaw is narrow, with a well-marked lon- 
gitudinal groove the whole length of the outer edge, and with a raised 
internal margin. Edge of the upper jaw rather arched on the side, 
with a small central tooth. The lower jaw with a simple, short 
edge shelving inwards in the centre, and with a rather concave sur- 
face on the inner side, and a sharp, produced central anterior 
process. 

Fam. II. Chelydrad^. 

Head large, covered with a thin, hard skin, or hard bony plates ; 
temporal muscle large, covered with the skin, and protected on the 
edge by a well-developed band-like zygomatic arch. Eyes lateral or 



1869.] 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



179 



superior, often rather close together. Thorax covered with horny 
plates. Sternum attached to the thorax by a bony symphysis, 
generally small (compared with the size of the thorax) and cross-like, 
sometimes large (nearly as big as the thorax) ; sternal shields vari- 
able in number from 7 to 11, never 12. Toes short, spreading, 
webbed to the claws, shielded above. 

Skull with a well-developed zygomatic arch, extending from the 
orbit to the tympanic cavity, leaving a large wide space for the tem- 
poral muscles. Palate flat ; internal nostrils anterior. Alveolar 
plate narrow, simple. Iris annular, without any spot on the sides. 

Section I. Crucisterna. The sternum small, cross-like, narrow 
at the ends. Head and tail large. 

Tribe I. Chelydraina. Sternum solid, cross-like, acute before ; 
sternal plates 10, with a broad one (the displaced abdominal 
plate) on each side over the produced sides of the sternum. 
Palate flat ; internal nostrils anterior. Alveolar plate flat, 
rather broad. 

1. Macrochelys, Gray, P. Z. S. 1855, p. 200= Gypsochelys, Agas- 

siz ; (skull figured) Gray, Catalogue of Shield Reptiles, t. 38, 
.39, 40. The alveolar plate very broad. Eyes lateral, distant. 

2. Chelydra, (skull figured) Gray, Cat. Shield Reptiles, t. 38 & 

40. f. 2. Alveolar plate moderate. Eyes superior, rather close 
together. 






Hfdurofi/jjHs siilriii ii. 



180 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mat. II, 

Tribe II. Staurotypina. Sternum cross-like, middle portion 
narrow, covered by the abdominal plates, and extended to 
the thorax ; the front and hinder lobes often moveable on the 
central fixed one. Axillary and inguinal plates large ; sternal 
plates 7 ; the gular, humeral, and pectoral plates of each side 
united ; the femoral and anal small, united into one large ventral 
shield. 

3. Staurotypus, Wagler ; Gray, P. Z.S. 1864, p. 127. 
Staurotypus salvinii. (Fig. 5, p. 179.) 

4. Stauremys, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 127. 

Tribe III. Aromochelyina. Sternum truncated in front, nicked 
behind ; sternal shields 1 1 ; gular pair united into a narrove 
linear shield. Head large ; zygomatic arch very broad, strong, 
arched. 

.5. Aromochelys, Gray, P. Z. S. 1855, p. \99,~Goniochelys and 
Omotheca, Agassiz, 1857. 

Section II. Kinostern a or Double-flapped Box-Tortoises. Ster- 
num broad ; sternal shields 8 or 11; the short process that 
unites the sternum to the thorax covered with the elongated 
axillary and inguinal plates ; front and hinder lobes of the 
sternum generally moveable on the fixed central portion. In- 
ternal nostrils anterior. Alveolar plate flat. 

Tribe IV. Kinosternina. 

7. Swanka, Gray, Cat. Shield Reptiles. 

8. Kinosternon, Fitzinger; Gray, P. Z.S. 1855, p. 398, =Thy- 

rosternon &nd Platy thy ra, Agassiz, 1857. 

Chelydra serpentina, Gray, Cat. Shield Reptiles, t. 40. f. 2. 

B.M. 

Skull depressed, very broad behind, crown rhombic, sides of the 
face shelving outwards; orbit very large, anterior, subsuperior on 
the shelving side of the face ; the cavity for the temporal muscle 
very wide ; the zygomatic arch very broad, broader than the orbit 
and much broader than the oblong erect tympanic cavity. The 
palate flat, internal nostrils in the front of the palate, the outer edge 
sharp, with a central anterior bony hook, and with a broad, flat, 
smooth alveolar plate parallel to the outer edges. The lower jaw 
moderately strong, narrow in front, with a conical central bony pro- 
cess, and with a smooth, shelving, rather concave band inside the 
sharp margin. 

A young specimen in spirits, which was brought from North 
America, and presented by Mr. iVrthur Russell, F.Z.S., is very beau- 
tifully painted on the sternum and underside of the margin of the 



1809. J DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 181 

thorax. The sternum is black, with symmetrical variously shaped 
white spots, most abundant near the outer edge ; the underside of 
the margin of the thorax is yellow, varied with dark edges to the 
shields. The animal is pale brown and more or less yellow-spotted. 
There is a series of triangular yellow spots on the lower edge of the 
lower beak. 

Aromochelys odorata. 

An adult specimen, in spirits, in the British Museum, from North 
America, presented by Odo Russell, Esq. 

Head large ; nose produced, conical, acute, shelving to the mouth 
below ; nostrils surrounded by a very small fleshy margin. Head 
dark olive, punctulated, with a narrow white streak from the upj)er 
and the lower edge of the nose, the upper streak edging the crown 
over the orbit to the nape ; the lower diverging under the eye and 
tympanum and crossing the beak. The lower beak with a streak 
on each side of the centre in front, diverging to the chin on the lower 
edge of the horny sheath. Neck with streak of roundish confluent 
spots. 

SWANKA. 

The sternal lobes as broad, or nearly as broad, as the opening of 
the thorax, rounded in front, and rounded or very slightly truncated 
behind. 

a. The stemo-costal suture and the abdominal shields as long as the 
front sternal lobe ; hinder lobe rounded at the ends. Thorax 
three-keeled. Fertebral plate elongate. 

1. SwANKA SCORPOIDES. 

Kinosternon scorjjoides. Gray, Cat. Shield Reptiles, p. 4 •4. 

Cinosternon scorpoides, Wagler, N. Syst. Amphib. t. 5. f. xxxi.- 
xxxvii. (skull); Owen, Cat. Osteol. Mus. C. S. p. 191.n. !*92 
(skeleton). 

Skeleton in the College of Surgeons, No. 992. Skull thin, light ; 
nose rather produced ; crown rhombic, flat ; sides of face flat ; orbit 
moderate, lateral ; zygomatic arch very broad, strong, nearly flat. 
Palate flat. The alveolar edge smooth, rather wider behind. In- 
ternal nostrils close, anterior between the frontsof the alveolar plates. 
Lower jaw rather strong, broad, and convex, in front more slender 
than the sides ; the upper edge broad, rather concave, with an acute 
central process. 

The two small specimens from M. Salle both with rather rough 
and worn dorsal shields. One of them is keeled the whole length of 
the back, and the other only keeled over the hinder part of the back. 
They both have the front lobe of the sternum very nearly of the 
same length as the rather long abdominal shield. I cannot take on 
myself to say if they are of two species or only varieties of the same 
without having more information respecting them and the develop- 
ment of the animals. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XIII. 



182 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 1 1, 

b. The sterno-costal suture and the abdominal shields not so long as 
the front lobe of the sternum ; hinder lobe rounded behind. 
Thorax not keeled. Vertebral plate longer than broad. 

2. SWANKA MACULATA. 

The sides of the head, neck, and throat grey, with a few indistinct 
dark-edged subcjHndrical spots, largest on the front of the cliin ; 
fore legs with three cartilaginous ridges. Thorax dark olive. Ster- 
num-ridges and lower side of margin yellow, with dark spots on 
areoles of shields. The fore and hinder ends of sternum regularly 
rounded. Vertebral shields longer than broad. 

Hab. Mexico {Salle); Vera Paz (Salvin). 

A specimen in spirit, collected by M. Salle in Mexico. The 
sternum and underside of the margin pale yellow ; the areola of the 
third and fourth pairs of sternal plates, which are situated on the 
outer side of the anterior transverse suture, is surrounded by an ir- 
regular-shaped brown ring. A more or less obscure indication of 
such a ring is to be seen surrounding the areola of the other sternal 
plates. The areola is on the outer hinder side of all tlie sternal 
shields, except of the fourth or abdominal pair, where it is on the 
front outer angle. 

Two large specimens in spirit, from the Lower Forest of Vera 
Paz, received from Mr. O. Salvin. They are like those from 
Mexico, but darker below. The head is large, very hard, and the 
beak and temporal muscles very strong. The two beards are in 
front of the chin, quite near the hinder edge of the lower beak. The 
zygomatic arch is wide, strong, and rather convex. Toes very strong, 
short, with a few bands above near the ends, with narrow webs to 
the claws. The fore legs with the skin smooth, and three oblique, 
arched, sharp-edged horny cross ridges just above the feet, the 
lower one the shortest. 

In the band over the orbit this species agrees with Kinosternon 
hijipocrepis, figured from a young specimen. Gray, Cat. Shield Kept, 
t. 20 c. f. 3, 4 ; but the sternum is much broader than in that spe- 
cies, and more completely closes the cavity of the thorax. Thorax 
about 4 inches long. 

A large well-grown specimen in spirit in the British Museum, 
received from M. Brandt of Hamburg as from North America. The 
skull is pale olive, speckled with darker brown ; thorax pale bright 
brown, the underside of the margin of the thorax being uniform 
blackish brown. 

Four specimens in spirit, obtained by M. Salle at Papalco Apoia ; 
b\it it is not stated that they were from the same district. If they 
were, it will go to prove that the height of the front lobe, as com- 
pared with the length of the abdominal shield, is probably a character 
of ase and not of specific distinction. They each have a speckled 
or inottled neck, and are without any head-streak. The two larger 
specimens vary in other particulars, but probably from local circum- 
stances, as one has a good smooth shield, and of the other the shield 
is rugose and covered with mud and algae, and the whole specimen 



1869. J DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 183 

looks as if it had lived in dirty water. They both have the front 
lobe of the sternum about one-fourth of its length longer than the 
abdominal shields, which are short. 

c. The sterno-costal suture and the abdominal shields not so lonij as 
the front lobe of the sternum; the hinder lobe of the sternum 
slightly truncated behind. Thorax not keeled. Vertebral 
plates as broad as long. 

3. SWANKA FASCIATA. 

Head olive, with a dark-edged pale streak from the nostril, over 
the eye, to the upper part of the tympanum (it is narrow before, and 
wider behind the eyes), and with a streak from the lower edge of the 
orbit, over the angle of the jaw on the side of the neck ; occiput 
and back of neck white-spotted. The lobes of the sternum are rather 
narrower than the opening of the thorax. 

Hab. ? (from M. Brandt). 

KiNOSTERNON. 
1. KiNOSTERNON PENNSYLVANICUM. 

The skull in the British Museum is depressed, ovate triangular, 
crown rhombic, narrow behind, short, only slightly produced b°hind 
the orbits ; orbit lateral, large ; zygomatic arch broad, rather convex 
and prominent behind, including "the whole front edge of the small 
tympanic cavity ; palate deeply concave in the centre, with three 
longitudinal ridges on each side of the central line, very narrow 
behind ; upper jaw with, a broad intermediate ledge edged with a 
slightly raised ridge ; lower jaw with a shelving edge to the back, 
and hooked in front. 

2. KiNOSTERNON HiRTiPES, Wagler, N. Syst. Amph. 

The skull is figured by Wagler in N. Syst. Amph. t. 5. f. xxxi.- 
xxxviii. The figure is very like the skull of Ohelydra. 

Fam. III. Emydid^ or True Terrapins. 

When my two papers on the skulls of Chelydradte and Trionychidge 
were published, I hoped that some of the American zoologists, 
who have so many species of one group (Emydidfe) living in their 
country, and consequently at their command, would take up the sub- 
ject. But they have not done so ; and as the British Museum has 
received a few more specimens, 1 have determined to do the best I 
can with the specimens at my command, and the figures of the spe- 
cimens that have been published by Wagler and others. 

It is to be regretted that Agassiz, in his notes on the American Ter- 
rapins in his ' Contributions,' has confined his attention so completely 
to the external characters, and the development of the youno- animal. 
He does make some observations on the form of the jaws ; %\\t they 
are so indistinct and general that they afford very little information. 



184 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 11, 

The family Emydidae, as now restricted, may be thus divided : — 

Section T. Amphibioclemmys. The alveolar surface of the 
upper and lower jaws linear, narrow, with a sharp outer edge. 
Internal nostrils in front of the palate. Toes short, strong, erect, 
and included in the skin to the claws, or more or less expanded 
and united by a narrow scaly webb to the claws. These spe- 
cies are amphibious, and some of them more or less terrestrial. 

Subsection 1. The temporal muscle only covered with skin, without 
being protected by any band-like zygomatic arch in the skull 
uniting the orbit to the ear-cavity of the temporal bone. Eyes 
lateral. Toes short, strong, conical, free or very slightly 
webbed. Legs covered with short triangular scales. 

Tribe I. Geoemydina. 

1. Geoemyda. The alveolar surface of the jaws has not been 

examined. 

2. Melanochelys. 

Subsection 2. The temporal muscle protected on the outer side by 
a distinctly band-like zygomatic arch extending between the 
orbit and the tympanic cavity. 

Tribe II. Geoclemmydina. Toes short, enclosed in the skin to 
the claws. Legs covered with thick, hard, triangular scales. 
Eyes lateral (or subsuperior) ; pupil annular. Jaws with a 
narrow alveolar plate. Internal nostrils in front of the palate. 

* Eyes lateral. 

3. Geoclemmys, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 17. 

** Eyes subsuperior, on the margin of the crown. 

4. NicoRiA, Gray, Cat. Shield Kept. p. 17. 

5. Rhinoclemmys, Fitziuger. 

Tribe III. Emydina. Toes strong, short, spreading, covered above 
with bands of transverse shields, united by a narrow web 
to the claws. Jaws with a narrow alveolar surface. Internal 
nostrils in the front of the palate. Head covered with a thin, 
hard skin. Eyes subsuperior, with a dark spot on each side of 
the pupil. 

6. Emys. 

7. Clemmys. 

8. Chrysemys, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 32. 

9. Graptemys, Agassiz. Emys §§, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. 29. 



1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 185 

10. Callichelys, Gray, Ann. and Mag. N. H. xii. 1863, p. 1/6. 

11. Deirochelys, Agassiz. 

I have not been able to examine the alveolar edge of the last three 
genera ; they may belong to the next tribe. 

Section II. Hydroclemmys. The alveolar surface of the upper 
and lower jaws broad, expanded, covering more or less of the 
sides of the front of the palate, so that the internal nostrils 
open near the middle of the palate. Lower jaw strong. Toes 
■webbed. 

Tribe IV. Malaclemmydina. The alveolar surface smooth. Toes 
strong, spreading, covered with a soft skin. Eyes subsuperior ; 
pupils annular, without any lateral spot. 

I. The upper or alveolar surface of the under jaw broad, concave, 

rather narrower on the hinder part of the side. Internal 
nostrils subposterior, behind the middle of the alveolar surface. 

* Front of the palate, before the internal nostrils, with a broad 
central groove. Eyes subsuperior (Estuarian). 

12. Malaclemmys, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 37. 

** Front of the palate, before the interior nostrils, simple. 
Eyes lateral. 

13. Damonia. 

II. The upper or alveolar surface of the under jaw wide, angular, 

concave in front, narrow and sharp-edged on the sides behind. 
Internal nostrils subanterior. 

14. Glyptemys. 

III. The upper or alveolar surface of the lower jaw narrow, sharp- 
edged in front, wider and fattened on the hinder part of the 
sides. Internal nostrils subanterior. 

15. Bellia. Skin of neck and limbs with very minute granular 
scales. 

Tribe V. Batagurina. Head large, nose rather produced ; angles 
of the mouth covered with minute scales. The alveolar surface 
of the jaws very broad, with one or two strong ridges or grooves. 
Internal nostrils subposterior. Toes elongate, weak, expanded, 
covered with small scales, united by broad webs to the claws ; 
hind feet fringed. The cavity of the thorax much contracted 
on each side at each end by broad, erect, internal, bony lateral 
plates. Asia. 



186 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 11, 

A. Claws 4.4. Head covered with a soft skin, divided into small 

sfiields on the crown and temple. Nose conical, produced. 
The chin with a series of distinct shields at the under edge of 
the beak. The alveolar surface of the jaws very wide, with 
two well-marked subparallel ridges. Gular shield short, band- 
like. 

IG. Tetraonyx. Batagur, Gray, Cat. Shield Kept. p. 35. 

B. Claws .5.4. Head covered with a thin skin. Nose subcorneal, 

more or less produced. Alveolar surface of the jaws with a 
single well-marked angular ridge. Gular shields triangular, 
moderate. 

a. The alveolar surface of the jaws very wide and loell-developed, 

with a denticidated ridge parallel to the outer edge. The in- 
ternal edge of the alveolar surface, which edges the internal 
nostrils, is denticulated ; it must not be confounded with the 
second ridge in the genus Tetraonyx. 

17. Kachuga, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 35. 

b. The alveolar surface narrower, with a single well-marked acute 

ridge. Back of the thorax high, subangular ; keels subnodose. 
The sternum high, keeled on each side. 

18. Pangshura. 

Tribe VI. Pseudemydina. The alveolar surface of the jaws very 
broad, with one or two strong ridges or grooves. Internal 
nostrils subposterior. Toes elongate, slender, covered with a 
few small bands, united by broad webs to the claws. Hind 
feet fringed. The cavity of the thorax simple, not much con- 
tracted at the ends. America. 

* Sternal costal suture simple, normal. 

19. Pseudemys, Gray, Cat. Shield Kept. p. 33. 

20. Trachemys, Agassiz. 

** Sterno-costal suture with four sterna-lateral shields. 

21. Dermatemys, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 49. 

Tribe I. Geoemydina. 

1. Geoemyda. 

Geoemyda grandis. The skull (as seen through the skin) in 
a very large old and a younger stuffed specimen, like the skull of 
Cistudo, is destitute of any zygomatic arch uniting the orbit to the 
ear-cavity of the temporal bone, the temple and temporal muscles 
behind the orbit being only covered with a skin protected by thin, 
small, tessellated plates. 



1869.] 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



18/ 



A second half-grown specimen agrees with the very large old 
specimen above noticed in the absence of the zygoma. 



The thorax oblong, 



2. Melanochelys. 

three-keeled. Vertebral plates broad, six- 



sided. Skull lather depressed ; zygomatic arch imperfect, tapering 
behind, and not reaching the tympanic bone ; lower jaw weak ; the 
alveolar surface narrow, linear. Toes strong, webbed to the claws. 

Melanochelys trijuga. 

Emys trijuga, Gray, Cat. Shield Reptiles in B.M. t. 37. f. 2 
{"E. subtrijuga," not good, zygomatic arch too broad and extending 
to the ear-bone). 

Skull (as seen through the skin in the stuffed specimen) ovate, 
elongate, triangular in front ; sides of the face nearly erect ; orbit 
lateral, subsuperior, large ; nose rather narrow ; crown rather con- 
vex, elongate rhombic, narrowed and produced behind ; from the 





MclanocMys trijuga. 

hinder point to the back edge of the orbit more than once and one- 
half the distance of the latter from the end of the nose ; zygomatic 
arch rudimentary, very slender, linear, extending from the middle 
of the back edge of the orbit to the upper part of the front edge 
of the large tympanic cavity, which has a narrow, rounded edge ; 
sheath of the upper jaw with a simple straight edge, without any 



188 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 11, 

central hook ; the lower jaw moderately strong, covered in front 
with a convex liorny sheath. Toes strong, included in the skin to 
the claws, covered above with band-like shields. 

A skull received from Mr. Oldham, which appears to belong to this 
species, may be thus described : — Skull depressed, nose nearly erect 
from upper lip ; crown rather convex, tapering behind ; orbit large, 
circular, lateral, subsuperior ; zygomatic arch imperfect, rather 
broad in front, about half as broad as the back edge of the orbit, 
and tapering off behind just before it reaches the upper edge of the 
small circular tympanic cavity ; palate flat, broad, with a short 
shallow concavity behind each internal nostril ; the lateral edge of 
the upper jaw nearly straight, with a slightly produced broad central 
beak, and with a narrow alveolar plate having a slight groove parallel 
to the short ouier edge for the greater part of its length; lower 
jaw weak, erect on the side, shelving in front, with a central conical 
prominence in front, and with a straight, thin, sharp edge, without 
any dilatation of any kind. 

Tribe II. Geoclemmydina. 
3. Geoclemmys. 

1. Geoclemmys guttata. 

A beautiful skeleton is in the British Museum, and a skeleton 
without lower jaw in the Museum of the College of Surgeons, 
no. 977a. 

Skull thin, crown slightly arched, nose erect ; orbit lateral, very 
large ; zygomatic arch broad, short ; palate flat behind ; lower jaw 
slender ; side edges of the upper jaw slightly arched, and with a 
notch in front ; alveolar groove very narrow, even ; mastoid bone 
conical, produced, hollow. Toes short, strong. 

2. Geoclemmys seb^. 

Specimen in spirit in the British Museum. Nose rather pro- 
duced, shelving to the lip below, triangular, soft, in a notch on the 
upper edge of the upper beak ; alveolar process linear, marginal ; 
upper beak with a straight edge and a very slight acute central notch, 
lower hooked and acute in front. Toes short, included in the skin 
to the base, but slightly separate, conical, witli a central series of 
narrow six-sided scales above ; web very shght, if any. 

3. Geoclemmys muhlenbergii. 

An adult specimen in spirit, from North America, with the 
yellow spots on the occiput well-marked. The beaks have an even 
lateral edge and an acute notch in the centre in front ; the lower 
beak convex and rounded below ; crown rather convex, dark olive, 
with black spots. Toes united in the skin to the claws, with a few 
band-shaped shields above. The upper alveolar surfaces rather 
broadly linear, with a submarginal internal ridge ; the lower with a 
continuous submarginal groove, rather broad, and produced, with a 
sharp edge, in front. 



1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 189 

4. Geoclemmys callocephalus, Gray, P. Z. S. 1863, p. 254. 

The upper beak with an acute central notch ; the alveolar surface 
linear, with a submarginal ridge on the upper, and a narrow groove 
in the lower jaw. 

4. NlCORIA. 
NiCORIA SPENGLERI. 

Skull (as seen through the skin in the stuffed specimen) narrow, 
rather acute in front, flat on the sides ; orbit very large, lateral ; 
zygomatic arch broad, flat, as wide as the back edge of the orbit, as 
wide behind as the rather small tympanic cavity ; lower jaw rather 
weak, with a large inferior space, rather rounded in front. The 
sheath of the upper jaw is strongly and acutely hooked at the tip, 

and entire on the edge. Palate ? Tiie toes enclosed in the 

skin to the claws, covered with band-like shields. 

5. Rhinoclemmys, Fitz. 
This genus may be divided thus : — 

* The sternum flat longitudinally, and very slightly elevated at the 
sides under the sterno-costal symphyses. 

1. Rhinoclemmys annulata. 

** The sternum slightly arched longitudinally, and much elevated at 
the sides under the sterno-costal symphyses. 

2. Rhinoclemmys scabra. 

Crown flat, with a spot before each eye, and an oblong band on 
the crown, over back part of orbits. 

Skeleton in the British Museum received from the Utrecht Mu- 
seum. Skull elongate, rather solid ; nose erect, shelving beneath ; 
crown rather convex ; orbit large, circular, lateral ; sides of the face 
nearly erect ; zygomatic arch very broad, forming part of the temple 
above, slightly convex on sides ; mastoid bone rather elongate ; 
edge of upper beak straight, with a slight central notch. Palate 
flat ; internal nostrils anterior, with a short, rather deep oblong con- 
cavity behind each, separated by a strong central ridge. Alveolar 
surface narrow, linear, with a slight sunken groove, edged internally 
by a slightly raised sharp edge. Lower jaw wider ; upper surface 
slightly prominent in front, with a sharp edge having a slightly 
concave linear depression on the inner side. Toes short, strong. 

Specimen in spirit in the British Museum. Skull ovate rhombic, 
rather elongate, sides of the face flat, erect ; nose short ; orbit large, 
subsuperior, on the outer edge of the crown ; crown rhombic, pro- 
duced, and acute behind ; rather longer from the hinder edge to the 
hinder edge of the orbit than from that part to the end of the nose ; 
zygomatic arch thin, flat, dilated, forming part of the crown in front, 
narrow and only attached to the upper front part of the small sub- 
trigonal tympanic cavity ; upper jaw with a narrow double edge, the 
edges parallel and separated by a rather deep narrow groove ; lower 



190 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 11, 

jaw moderate, nearly erect and with a narrow simple edge rather 
produced into an acute point in front. Palate flat, broad, with a 
triangular flat plate over the interior nostrils in front, and with a 
slight central keel with a slight concavity on each side just behind 
the openings of the internal nostrils. Toes short, imbedded in the 
skin to the base of the claws. 

Tribe III. Emydina. 

6. Emys. 

1. Emys JAPONiCA. 

An adult specimen from Japan, in spirit. Thorax oblong ; dorsal 
shields broad, six-sided, with a well-marked large central areola of 
the same shape and with a few concentric ridges, and more or less 
distinct radiating grooves and some rather nodulose radiating ridges, 
dark-brown or black varied with orange rays or lines, the areola of 
the marginal plate near the outer hinder edge ; sternum and lower 
side of the margin uniform black. Legs and tail uniform black. 
Head ovate rhombic, longer than broad, crown and sides olive-black. 
Neck with longitudinal ridges and conical short spine-like scales, 
those on the back of the neck being the largest. Crown flat ; eyes 
lateral, subsuperior ; nose truncated, rounded in front ; edge of the 
beak even, without any central notch ; lower beak weak. Alveolar 
surface narrow, linear, with a submarginal ridge on the upper, and a 
groove on the lower jaw ; lower jaw scarcely thick, with the edge pro- 
duced into a sharp point in front. Tail conical, elongate, flat above, 
with a pale streak on each side of the upper surface. Front legs 
covered with rather large scales ; the hind legs and feet spinulose. 

2. Emys tristrami. 

Head oblong trigonal, half as long again as wide (to the end of 
crown-ridge) ; eyes subsuperior ; temple and jaws with a few dark- 
edged pale sinuous lines ; temple, between orbit and the wide zy- 
gomatic arch, short, flat ; lower jaw strong ; alveolar surface of both 
jaws linear, marginal ; internal nostrils subanterior. 

Hab. Holy Land. 

See also Emys undetermined. Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. in B. M. 
t. 35. f. 3 (skull). 

7. Clemmys. 
Clemmys caspica. 

Clemmys cas2nca, Wagler, Nat. Syst. A-mph. t. 5. f. iv., v. (skull 
figured). 

A specimen in spirit (from Arabia Petrsea?), purchased of the 
Rev. H. Tristram. Thorax oblong ; nuchal plate broad. The upper 
surface of each marginal plate with a subcentral darker-edged cross 
streak, sometimes dilated and extended into a streak along the upper 
edge of the plate. Back pale olive, with indistinct paler yellowish 
reticulated lines edged with black ; sternum and underside of the 
margin black, with irregular- sized subtriangular yellow spots on the 



1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 191 

outer side of each sternal shield and a pale blotch on the outer edge 
of the inguinal shield. Head and neck olive, sides of the neck and 
throat with numerous black-edged pale parallel streaks. Legs with 
irregular rather broad black-edged pale streaks. Beaks olive, rounded 
in front ; upper with a slight acute central notch with a slight tooth 
on each side of it. 

8. Chrysemys. 
Chrysemys picta. 

Emrjspicta, Owen, Cat. Osteol. Mus. C. S. p. 189. no. 964 (skull 
and thorax). 

Skull in the Museum of the College of Surgeons, no. 964. 
Skull rather solid, crown very flat ; orbits large, oblong, forming 
part of the crown-edge ; nose-hole moderate, labial edge even, with 
two small close teeth quite in front ; zygomatic arch broad, strong, 
convex externally ; palate flat ; internal nostrils quite anterior, with 
a concavity in front between, and with a slight oblong concavity 
behind each, separated by a slight raised central ridge ; lower jaw 
depressed, rather broad in front and on the sides, rather convex 
externally (the jaws are fastened together). 

There is also a skull of a smaller specimen, no. 967. The alveo- 
lar surface of the upper jaw linear, with a slight narrow raised 
ridge parallel to the outer edge, and occupying the middle, half its 
length. Lower jaw depressed ; alveolar surface linear, with a well- 
marked groove with a sharp raised edge on each side for the greater 
part of its length, except in front, where the jaw is thinner, simple, 
and acute. 

11. Deirochelys. 

? Deirochelys reticulata, Agassiz. 

A young specimen in spirits, received from Mr. Arthur Russell, 
from North America, under this name. It is most beautifully orna- 
mented, both on the back and sternum, with dark-edged rings and 
irregular marks ; the beaks are most beautifully ornamented with 
regular black-edged yellow streaks diverging from the nose across the 
lower beak, so as to form the lines on the throat ; the underside of 
the lower beak is convex. The alveolar surface of the upper and 
lower jaw rather wide ; the upper with a very slightly raised narrow 
submarginal ridge ; the lower jaw with a regular well-marked conti- 
nuous sub marginal groove. 

Tribe IV. Malaclemmydina. 

12. Malaclemmys. 
Malaclemmys concentrica. 

Two skeletons in the British Museum. Skull broad, ovate tri- 
gonal, rather depressed, sides of the face rounded ; crown flat, 
rhombic, hinder end narrow, extended into a crest, as long from the 
hinder edge of the orbit as that part is from the end of the nose ; 



192 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



[Mar. 1 1, 



orbit lateral, superior, on the outer edge of the crown ; zygomatic 
arch strong, broad, convex, rather wider than the orbit in front, so 
much so that the circular tympanic cavity behind is rather con- 
tracted in the middle. The palate flat ; internal nostrils near the 
centre of the palate, from under a rather convex plate in front, and 
with a central keel in the wide sunken space behind them. The 
alveolar surface of the upper jaw very wide, quite simple, occupying 
all the front of the palate but a central triangular space, without any 
internal ridge. The lower jaw very strong, flattened out in front 
and on the sides of the front, without any gonyx, the upper edge 
simple, with a very broad, shelving, concave inner aveolar surface 
and an acute central point. Toes rather elongate, webbed to the 
claws, with band-like shields above. 





Malaclmnmys concentrica. 

Skull in the Museum of the College of Surgeons, no. 1057, with- 
out Jiorny sheath. The palate flat; the aveolar process very wide, 
smooth, rather convex on the front part of the inner edge. The 
part of the palate behind the internal nostrils broad, slightly sunken. 



18C9.] 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



193 



flat, with three rather thick ridges, the central one long, the side 
ones short. The lower jaw very strong, thick, bent up in the centre 
in front and acute ; the alveolar surface very broad, slightly concave 
the whole length of the sides. Length 1 inch 7g lines, width 1 inch 
5 lines. 

13. Damonia. 

Head very large, covered with a hard thin skin. Nose high, 
truncated ; nostrils in a small disk notched out on the upper edge 
of the very high convex upper beak. Eyes lateral, subsuperior. 
Sides of the face shelving outwards below. Zygomatic arch str&ng, 
wide. The labial edges of the upper beak slightly arched, bent 
inwards. Lower jaw very strong, convex and rounded in front below, 
with a strong, sharp-edged, broad central tip. The alveolar disk of 
the upper and lower jaws very broad, the upper flat, and the lower 

Fig. 8. 






Damonia inacrocephala. 

concave. The internal nostrils subcentral, with a short oblong 
sunken space behind each. The thorax oblong, more or less dis- 
tinctly three-keeled ; the vertebral shields six-sided, as broad behind 
as before ; marginal plates dilated over the hinder limbs. Sternal 



194 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 11, 

plates regular. Toes strong, covered with band-like shields, united, 
to the claws, by a very narrow web covered with scales ; hind toes 
longest. Asiatic. 

The skull and palate similar to those of Malaclemmys, but the feet, 
shell, and head different. 

1. Damonia macrocephala. 

Geoclemmys macrocephala, Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 479, t. xxi., 
1861, p. 139. 

Emys trijuga, Mus. Utrecht. 

Hab. Siam and Canibogia. 

The skull (as seen through the skin in the stuffed specimen) has 
a very broad, strong, rather convex zygomatic arch between the orbit 
and the ear-cavity ; crown broad, flat, trigonal, broader and trun- 
cated behind. 

Skeleton in the British Museum. Skull large ; nose rather pro- 
duced, conical ; crown flat, rhombic, short ; orbit lateral, very large ; 
zygomatic arch very broad, short ; palate slightly concave ; internal 
nostrils near the middle of the palate ; alveolar surface of the upper 
jaw rather arched, very convex. The lower jaw curved upwards and 
acute at the tip, with a very broad, rather concave alveolar surface 
the whole of the length, broader and most concave in front. 

There is a second skeleton, of a small specimen, of this species, 
which, from the bad state of the shell, must have been kept in con- 
finement for a long time. 

2. Damonia reevesii. 

Emys reevesii. Gray, Syn. Rept. 73. 

Geoclemys reevesii. Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 18. 

Skull (as seen through the skin in the stuifed specimen) small, 
ovate trigonal ; crown rhomboid, rather convex, produced in the 
centre behind, about as long from the back edge of the orbit as from 
the nose to that part of the skull ; orbit rather large, lateral ; zygo- 
matic arch short, broad, wider than the back of the orbit, and con- 
fluent with the crown above, not quite so wide as the front edge of the 
tympanic cavity behind. Sheath of the upper jaw simple, without 
any central hook. Lower jaw strong, convex in front, and with a 
convex horny sheath. Toes enclosed in the skin nearly to the claws, 
covered above with band-like shields. 

An adult specimen in spirit, obtained from Mr. Blyth, most pro- 
bably from India, but received without any habitat. Head large, 
strong ; crown flat and short, not so long as wide ; nose high, 
rather shelving to the mouth ; eyes lateral ; cheek flat ; temple and 
zygomatic process convex. Upper beak very large and thick, with a 
straight edge without any central notch ; the lower curved and acute 
in front, convex beneath. The alveolar processes very broad ; upper 
rather convex and rugose ; lower rather concave and broad the whole 
length of the side of tlie jaw. Neck and feet lead coloured, without 
any streak. The thorax solid, thick, oblong, with three very ob- 



1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 195 

scure keels, the central one broad, and the lateral ones narrower, 
about one-fourth of the width of the shield from the upper edge. 
The back dull ohve, the chest black, the underside of the margin 
pale yellowish. Toes strong, united in the skin to the claws, with a 
few shields above ; claws acute, black. Tail moderate, conical, 
tapering at the end. The 1st vertebral plate rather longer than wide, 
narrowed behind, with a concave hinder edge ; the 2nd, 3rd, and 
4th vertebrals as wide as long, with a rounded front and an arched 
hinder edge, the 2nd and 3rd wider behind than in front, and the 
4th wider in front than behind. 

This specimen chiefly differs from typical D. reevesii in the larger 
size, the larger head, and a difference in the form of the dorsal 
shield ; but all this may depend on age and nourishment ; and what 
were considered adult D. reevesii may have been young animals. 

3. Damonia hamiltonii. 

Geocletnys hamiltonii, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 17. 

Skull (as seen through the skin in the stuffed specimen) ovate 
trigonal, sides flattened ; orbit lateral, rather large ; crown rhombic, 
rather convex in the middle, concave over the orbits, produced be- 
hind, about once and a half as long from the back edge of the orbit 
as from that point to the tip of the nose ; zygomatic arch very 
short, broad, confluent with the crown above, and much wider than 
the orbit in front, as wide as the tympanic cavity behind ; sheath of 
the upper jaw simple, without any central hook ; lower jaw strong, 
convex, and covered with a horny sheath in front ; toes enclosed in 
the skin to the claws, with band-like shields above, claws small. 

A specimen in spirits in the British Museum. The head mode- 
rate ; nose with each nostril in an oblong soft space ; the upper 
beak with a simple short edge, rounded in front ; lower beak with 
an acute produced centre. Alveolar surface of the upper jaw wide, 
linear, convex and rugose on the sides ; alveolar surface of the front 
of the lower jaw broad, rugose, concave in the upper surface, narrow 
on the sides. Toes broadly webbed, crenulated on the edges, with a 
series of hexangular larger scales on the upper surface. 

This animal has the feet of Batagur ; but the cavity of the skull 
is not contracted at the ends as in that group. 

4. Damonia nigricans. 

Emys nigricans, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 20, t. 6. 

Skull (as seen through the skin of the stuffed specimen) oblong 
triangular, sides of face flattish ; orbit lateral, rather large ; crown 
nearly flat, with an arched hinder edge, which is about as far behind 
the hinder edge of the orbit as that part is from the end of the 
nose ; zygomatic arch flat, as wide in front as the back edge of the 
orbit, and as the front edge of the tympanic cavity behind ; the 
sheath of the upper jaw rather notched at the tip, with a simple 
edge ; lower jaw broad, convex, and covered with a broad horny 
sheath in front. Toes slightly \vei)bed to the claws. 



196 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



[Mar. 1 1 . 



14. Glyptemys. 



Glyptemys pulchella, Agassiz. 

Geoclemys pulchella. Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 18. 

The skeleton of a large specimen which had been in eoufinemeiit, 
with the bones separate, in the British Museum, prepared by Dr. 
Giinther. The skull with a broad, very flat forehead, and high, square 
nose ; the latter granular, the lower half sunk in a deep wide notch 
in the upper edge of the upper beak. Upper beak high, with an 
acute central notch. Lower jaw strong, thick and convex in front. 
Zygomatic arch strong, convex. Orbit large, quite lateral, with a 
narrow lower hinder edge. Palate concave in front, flat behind ; 
internal nostrils large, anterior. The alveolar surface of the upper 
jaw rather broad, smooth, with a slight concavity in front ; of the 
lower jaw broad in front, narrower on the sides, regularly concave. 

The broad front of the alveolar surface of the lower jaw separates 
these animals from the genus Geoclemmys ; and therefore I have 
adopted Agassiz's generic name. 

Fio'. 9, 





Glyptemys pulchella. 

A large specimen in spirit in the British Museum. Skull rather 
thin, ovate rhombic, sides flat ; orbit very large, subsuperior, in the 
upper margin of the crown ; crown rhomboid, produced into an 
acute point behind, the hinder end as far from the hinder edge of 
the orbit as that part is from the end of the nose ; zygomatic arch 
short, broad, rather broader in front than the back edge of the orbit, 



1809.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 197 

about as large as the small circular tympanic cavity behind, but 
attached to the temple rather below the upper margin of the tym- 
panic cavity. The upper jaw (with the sheath on) has a sharp edge 
with a broad internal groove edged on the inner side by a slight 
ridge. Palate rather concave, especially in front. The sheath of 
the upper jaw with a slightly bidentate notch in front, and simple 
straight sides. The lower jaw strong, erect on the sides, shelving, 
convex, and rounded in front, covered with a horny sheath, and with 
a central acute point. 

15. Bellia. 

Head very large, short, covered with a thin and hard skin, over 
the orbit and other fleshy parts covered with very small granular 
scales. Nose high, truncated in front ; nostrils in the upper edge 
of the horny beak. Beak of the upper jaw high, convex, with 
i)roadly arched dependent sides and a central notch. Lower jaw 
strong, convex in front, with a central acute sharp-edged point. 
Thorax oblong ; back three-keeled ; vertebral plates elongate sub- 
trigonal, areola of discal shields with a narrow longitudinal ridge. 
Toes strong, expanded, with transverse band-like shields, united, to 
the claws, by a narrow scaly web. Asiatic. 

Skull solid. Nose-hole square ; the front and sides of the upper 
lips shelving inwards. Orbit large, oblong, subquadrangular, lateral. 
Palate flat, internal nostrils anterior, with a short oblong concavity 
behind each. Alveolar plates moderate, baud-like, rather wider 
behind, rather concave. Lower jaw short, strong, convex in front, 
and wide and thick behind, with a conical central prominence and a 
broad flat alveolar edge that is broader behind and with a very 
slightly raised outer margin. 

Bellia has the large head, with dependent lips, of Damonia ; but 
the alveolar surface of the upper jaw is not so wide, and the inner 
nostrils are anterior. 

Bellia crassicollis. 

Emi/s crassicollis, Bell ; Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. B. M. p. 20. 

Skull (as seen through the skin of the stufied specimen) broad, 
depressed, ovate, sides shelving outwards ; orbit subsuperior, on the 
lateral edge of the crown ; crown flat, rhomboid, broader in front, 
rather produced and narrow in the middle of the hinder edge, which 
is almost as far from the back edge of the orbit as that part from 
the end of the nose ; zygomatic arch short, broad, convex, forming 
part of the crown, and wider than the back edge of the orbit in front, 
not quite so wide as the front edge of the tympanic cavity behind ; 
edge of tympanic cavity rounded ; sheath of the upper jaw very 
strong, and high in front and on the sides, lower margin truncated 
in the middle, and larger and arched on the sides ; the lower jaw 
strong, short, broad in front, covered with a broad horny sheath. 
Toes strong, short, webbed to the claws, covered with band-like 
shields. Feet like those of the American Emydidce. 

Skeleton of a half-grown specimen in the British Museum, re- 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XIV. 



198 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



[Mar. 11, 



ceived from Holland as " Clemmys sprengleri." The head of the 
younger specimens is rather more slender and thinner than that of 
the adult. 

A young specimen in spirit, sent with an adult and a half-grown 
specimen from Borneo, and presented by Mr. Dillwyn. The head 
is black, witli an elongated yellowish white spot over each orbit, 
extended towards the nostrils, and a large round opake pure-white 
spot on each temple over the zygomatic arch, a triangular white spot 
on each side of the lower jaw, and a small white spot on the side of 
the head under the tympanum. 

The head of the adult specimen has not these distinct spots ; but 
the region of the orbit and temple is varied with white. Unfor- 
tunately, however, the older specimens are not in such a good state 
as the young one. 

Fig. 10. 




Bellia crasstcollis. 



Two skulls in the Museum, sent by Prof. Oldham, are very solid ; 
nose rather produced, conical ; nose-hole in front large, four-sided ; 
cheeks shelving outwards ; crown flat, rhombic, narrow and acute 
behind ; zygomatic process moderately broad, from back of orbit to 
the upper front half of the oblong tympanic cavity ; orbit oblong, 
large. The labial edge of the upper jaw arched on each side and 
overlapping. The palate nearly flat, with a concavity in front be- 
hind each internal nostril. The alveolar plate broad, flat, smooth, 
broader behind, and with a slight oblong central pit and a larger 



1869.] 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



199 



central concavity behind it. Lower jaw very strong, short, with a 
narrow erect front edge ending in a central conical prominence j 
broad and flattened out behind, especially just before the condyle. 
The tympanic concavity opens into the larger cavity that occupies 
the whole of the mastoid bone. 

Fig. 11. 





Tdraonyx hai^ka. Two-thirds of nat. size. 



200 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 11, 

Tribe V. Batagurina. 
16. Tetraonyx. 
Tetraonyx baska. (Fig. 11, p. 199.) 
Batagur baska, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 35. Skull B.M. 

17. Kachuga. 

* The upper jaw with a short very distiTict central longitudinal 

dentuted ridge behind the deep conical pit in the front of the 

jaw, which commences between the ends of the secondary ridges. 

The lower jaw with a deep longitudinal groove in front behind 

the central conical prominence on the edge. 

t Palate flat, with two very deep oblong concavities, one behind 
each of the internal nostrils. The ridges of the upper jaw are 
elongate, and the anterior central ridge is broad at the base, 
ivith a deep broad concavity on each side betiveen the sphenoid 
and condyle. The iimer surface of the front part of the lower 
jaw is erect, without any expanded plate. Batagurella. 

1. Kachuga peguensis. (Fig. 12, p. 201.) 

The concavities behind the internal nasals as broad behind as iu 
front ; orbit large, irregular, oblong, nearly as high as long in front. 
Hab. India. Presented by W. Theobald, Esq. 
The thorax is unknown. 

ft Palate narrow, concave, with a ridge on each side and two mo- 
derately deep concavities behind each internal nostril, each 
marked with a central longitudinal ridge. The ridges on the 
tipper jaw short, and the anterior central ridge narrow and 
skaip-edged. The front part of the lower surface of the tem- 
poral bone, between the condyle and sphenoid, shelves upward, 
not forming a broad cavity. The inner surfaces of the front 
part of the lower jaw have a shelving plate for the support of 
the inner longitudinal ridge on the upper dental surface. The 
orbit regular, oblong, moderate. The thorax is unknown. 
Kachuga. 

2. Kachuga trimneata, Theobald. (Fig. 13, p. 202.) 

The concavities behind the internal nostrils oblong elongate, 
narrow, narrower and deeper behind ; orbits very large, regular 
oblong, much longer than high. 

Hab. India. Skull Brit. Mus. 

3. Kachuga oldhami. (Fig. 14, p. 203.) 
Hab. India. Presented by Prof. Oldham. 

** The ujjper jaio with u notch between the two divergent ridges, 
and an indistinct broad longitudinal ridge in the centre of the 



1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 

Fig. 12. 



201 




Kcicln((f(( jwgtievMK. Two-thirds nat. size. 

plates behind them. The lower jaw ivith a distinct sharp- 
edged short longitudinal central ridge just between the bach 
edge of the conical marginal prominences and the middle of the 
diverging ridges, and a deep ovate longitudinal concavity be- 
hind the middle of those ridges : the lower jaw ivith a slightly 
shelving plate for the support of the diverging dental ridges. 
The palate narrow, rather concave, with a very deep oblong 



202 



DR. J. K. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 1 1, 

Fig. 13, 




KacJmga trilmmta. Two-tliirds nat. size. 

concavity behind each internal nostril. The orbit regular ob- 
long, longer than high. Dongoka. 

4. Kachuga hardwickii. 

Batagur dongoha. Gray, Cat. Shield Kept, in B. M. t. 36. f. 1 
(skull). 

Hob. Nepal {B. H. Hodgson, Esq.). 



1869.] 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



203 



Fig. 14. 





Kachuga oldhami. Nat. size. 

5. Kachuga affinis, 

A specimen of the young animal in spirit, from Penang, from the 
Cantor Collection, named Tetraonyx junior by Dr. Cantor. It has 
five distinct claws on the fore, and five on the hind feet. The shell 
is nearly circular, and the sides of the sternum are very sharply and 
strongly keeled. The upper beak is straight-edged, with two small 



204 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 1 1, 

acute teeth in the centre in front. The alveolar surfaces rather 
broad, the upper with a siugle triangular ridge separated by a central 
concavity ; the lower with a single ridge parallel to the edge. The 
vertebral shield rugulose, with a broad flat- topped keel ; the costal 
shields with an indistinct central keel more prominent behind, the 
part above the keel rugulose, that below it smooth ; inguinal shields 
very wide. 

6. Kachuga berdmoorei. 

There are two specimens in spirit, purchased of Mr. Theobald, in 
the British Museum. The alveolar surfaces of the upper and lower 
jaws very wide, as wide behind as before, rugulose, tubercular ; the 
upper one with a very strong triangular submarginal ridge ending 
short of the centre and in front sharply turned towards the outer 
margin ; the central part concave in front, and flat behind ; the 
portion behind the ridge very broad. Lower jaw with a very strong 
triangular ridge stopping short of the centre, which is coneave. The 
upper beak even on the side, with a broad triangular central nick 
with a slight tooth on each side ; the lower with a short conical 
centre ; the whole surface of the upper and the outer surface of the 
lower grooved and rugose. The nostrils small, circular, pierced in a 
horny plate that edges the nose and with a lower process produced 
downwards, on the upper edge of the beak. 

Hab. ? 

18. Pangshura, Gray. 

Pangshura, Gray, Cat. Shield Kept. p. 36. 

The beaks of Panffshura tecta, in a specimen in spirit, are unlike 
the beaks of Tetraonyx ; the gape is scaly, but the lower beak is 
broad in front, with a rather curved hinder edge, and there is a 
series of more or less distinctly separate long trigonal shields below 
the outer margin on the hinder part of the beak. The skin on the 
crown is continuous, without any grooves; the skin over the tym- 
panum is soft, with some very obscure concentric wrinkles or 
grooves. 

1. Pangshura tecta. 
Emys nomadicus, Theobald. 

A specimen in spirit in the British Museum. The alveolar pro- 
cess wide on the upper and lower jaws. The upper jaw with a 
subcentral acute ridge interrupted in front by a central longitudinal 
ridge, and with an acute ridge on the inner margin which is conti- 
nuous in the centre. Alveolar process in the lower jaw broad, with 
a strong triangular ridge parallel to the margin, and with a short 
central longitudinal ridge. Labial edge of the upper beak simple, 
of the lower beak acute and bent up in the middle. 

Skull (as seen through the skin in the stuffed specimen) ovate 
rhombic, rather high in front, nearly erect on the sides ; crown 
rhombic, produced and acute behind, rather longer from the pos- 



1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 205 

terior end to the back edge of the orbit than from that part to the 
end of the nose ; eyes lateral, eyebrows rather convex ; zygomatic 
arch short, narrow, from the middle of the hinder edge of the orbit 
to the upper part of the front margin of the tympanic cavity, which 
is only furnished with a narrow edge. Sheath of the upper jaw with 
straight, closely denticulated edges ; lower jaw strong, very convex, 
and covered with a horny sheath in front. Toes slender, with a few 
hexangular shields above, very broadly webbed ; claws small. 

2. Pangshura tentorium. 

Skull (as seen through the skin of the preserved specimen) very 
like that of P. tecta, but the crown is rather more produced behind, 
or rather the orbits are more in front of the head ; the bony temple 
is broader behind the eyes ; and the zygomatic arch is broader, 
being as wide as the upper half of the front edge of the tympanic 
cavity. The horny sheath of the upper jaw is rather sinuous, dis- 
tinctly but closely denticulated. Toes slender, very widely webbed 
to the claws ; claws small. 

3. Pangshura dura. 

Skull (as seen through the skin of the stuffed specimen) ovate 
triangular, sides erect ; orbit very large, subsuperior; crown rhombic, 
produced and acute behind, twice as long from the hinder end to 
the back edge of the orbit as the length from that part to the 
end of the nose ; zygomatic arch short, convex, the front end form- 
ing part of the crown, and wider than the orbit, and the hinder part 
narrower and only attached to the upper part of the edge of the 
tympanic cavity. Sheath of the upper jaw broad, high, with a 
straight simple edge ; lower jaw strong, covered with a convex 
horny sheath in front. Toes slender, broadly webbed to the claws. 

Tribe VI. Pseudemydina. 

19. PSEUDEMYS. 
1 . PsEUDEMYS SERRATA. 

A mounted skeleton in the British Museum, from North America. 
Skull solid, crown flat, produced and narrow behind, very broad, 
square, high in front, shelving to the mouth below ; the labial edge 
nearly straight, with a notch in front, and minutely denticulated on 
the margin. The zygomatic arch very broad, slightly convex ex- 
ternally ; the mastoid bone produced horizontally, flat above exter- 
nally, and keeled above, with a moderate-sized internal cavity. 
Palate concave behind the internal nostrils. The alveolar surface of 
the upper jaw flat, wide, rather produced behind ; inner or palatine 
edge simple, and armed in front with a large tooth on each side of 
the centre, which is produced into a longitudinal sharp-edged irre- 
gular ridge parallel to the outer margin and nearer to it than to the 
inner edge of the alveolar surface. The lower jaw strong, much 
depressed and wide in front, and quite flat on the lower surface ; 



206 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



[Mar. 11, 



the alveolar surface broad, expanded, nearly as broad behind as in 
front, the centre of the outer edge produced and acute, with a large 
concavity on each side behind it, and with an irregular sharp-edged 
ridge nearer the inner edge than the outer margin, with a conical 
compressed prominence in front ; the labial margin with a series of 
conical teeth. 

Fig. 15. 




Pseudemys serrata. 

A second skull depressed, ovate, sides of the face shelving ; nasal 
aperture very large ; orbits very large, superior, separated by a very 
narrow space ; crown rhombic, produced behind ; zygomatic arch 
very broad, convex, nearly as wide as the back edge of the orbit and 
the front edge of the oval tympanic cavity. Upper jaw with a well- 
marked irregularly dentated ridge parallel with the outer edge, and 
a broad flat space behind it ; there is a conical tooth on the front 
end of the ridge, and a deep conical pit on the front of the upper 
jaw. Hinder nasal opening arched in front, near the middle of the 
palate. The lower jaw strong, broad, expanded ; lower surface flat ; 
upper surface with a short denticulated marginal edge, and a conical 
central prominence in front, with a central longitudinal ridge and a 
stronger arched ridge parallel with the outer margin. Toes long, 
slender, broadly webbed. 

2. Pseudemys decussata. 

Pseudemys decussata, Gray, Ann. & Mag. N. H. xii. p. 183. 



1869.] 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



207 



Emys decussata, Bell ; Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. in B. M. t. 36. 

f. 2 (skull). 

Skull in British Museum. The internal nostrils subanterior, be- 
tween the converging alveolar plates ; lower javF with a short 
groove. 

20. Trachemys. 

Trachemys holbrookii. 

Trachemys holbrookii. Gray, Ann. & Mag. N. H. xii. p. 181. 
Emys cumberlandensis, Holbrook. 



Fig. 16. 




Trachemys holbrookii. 

Skeleton (in separate bones) in the British Museum, prepared by 
Dr Gunther. Skull ovate, solid, crown quite flat, sides of face 
shelvmg outwards ; nose rather produced beyond the mouth ; orbit 
very large, lateral, subsuperior, upper hinder edge narrow ; zygo- 
matic arch very broad, convex ; tympanic cavity subcircular. The 
edge of the jaws swollen, convex", labial edge rather arched, entire 
in front. Tiie palate flat ; internal nostrils large, subanterior. with 
an elongated broad slight concavity behind them. The alveolar 



208 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 1 1, 

surface broad, divided just over the internal nostrils by a large, 
thick central ridge parallel with the outer side, having a broad 
space on each side of it. Lower jaw strong, rather short, front and 
sides convex and rounded beneath ; alveolar surface broad, with 
a short outer edge of an irregular narrow subcentral ridge parallel 
with the outer margin. 

21. Dermatemys. 

Dermatemys, Gray, Cat. Shield Reptiles in B. M. p. 49. 

Skull figured by M. Aug. Dumeril in the ' Archives du Museum,' 
vi. p. 223, t. 15. "The alveolar surfaces are broad, with distinct 
dentated ridges, like those of the genera Pseudemys and Batagur.'^ 
Gray, P. Z. S. 1864. 

This genus was arranged, in the ' Catalogue of Shield Reptiles,' 
in the ChelydradcB, near Chelydra, on account of the additional 
shield on the suture ; but at that time the thorax only was known. 
The animal, like the skull, is very like Pseudemys and Batayvr. 
The specimen in spirit of the animal in the British Museum, re- 
ceived from Mr. Salvin, has very small gular shields, for the greater 
part of their length united, which gives them much the appearance 
of a single shield. This union and their small size give the animal 
at first sight the appearance of an Hydraspis, the gular shields being 
regarded as the intergular of that genus. 

Fam. IV. PLATYSTERNIDiE. 

Head very large, covered with a thick, hard, bony case ; upper 
jaw with a strong short-edged central hook. Skull thick, hard ; 
zygomatic arch much dilated posteriorly and forming a bony cover- 
ing over the temporal muscles. Toes 5 . 4, short, free at the ends ; 
the three middle ones of the fore foot and the two middle ones of 
the hind foot longest ; claws compressed, acute. Tail cylindrical, 
elongated, covered with rings of square shields. Thorax thin. Ster- 
num solid, broad, attached to the thorax by a bony extension co- 
vered with the ends of the pectoral and abdominal plates ; not 
transversely divided, separated from the marginal shields by a longi- 
tudinal series of small shields. 

Emydidcc, b, Gray, Cat. Shield Reptiles, p. 49. 
Emydida, § b, Gray, Cat. Tortoises in B. M. p. 13. 

Platysternon. 

Plutysternon, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 49. 



Fam. Chelydtd^e. 



In the ' Proceedings ' of the Society for 1864, p. 128, I proposed 
an arrangement of the genera of this family founded on the exami- 
nation of the skull of the genera which I then knew, and I figured 
some of them. 



1869] 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



'209 



I have since obtained the skull of Chelodina colliei. It does not 
render necessary any alterations in the system ; but I would propose 
that the place of the genus {Chelodina) in the series should be 
rather altered : instead of following Hydraspis in Ili/drasjndina, I 
think that it had better be arranged before it in that tribe, as the 
skull is more depressed and has a more slender lower jaw, and many 
other characters render it intermediate in form between the genera 
Hydrasjns and Chelys. 

17. 





Chelodina colliei. 



Fam. Trionychid.e. 

"When my " Revision of the Species of TrionychidtB" was read, 
on the 23rd February, 1864 (see P.Z.S. 1864, p. 76), I was in 
doubt whether the alveolar surface of the jaws of these animals did 
not change in form as the animal increased in age, this doubt being 
caused by receiving from West xlfrica skulls from the same locality 
which chiefly differed in size and in the form of the alveolar surface. 
The British Museum has since received other specimens from West 
Africa ; and after examining them I am satisfied that the skulls re- 
ferred to belonged to two species, and that the difference of form and 
structure above mentioned is permanent, and found in young speci- 



210 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 1 1 , 

mens as well as old of the two species ; and the examination of the 
jaws of the young specimens of other species in the Museum collec- 
tion has convinced me that very little, if any, change of form occurs 
in the alveolar surface of the soft Mud-Turtles of the same species 
from j^outh to old age, and that the various forms of the alveolar 
surface aiford excellent characters for the distinction of the species 
and genera of the group, and are also in conformity with their habits 
and food. Extending the examination to the mouth of old and 
young specimens of Tortoises of other families, I find that these 
characters are equally permanent in them. 

When the above-mentioned essay was prepared, as we had only a 
limited number of skeletons, I was obliged to leave in it a number of 
species doubtful as to the genera to wliich they ought to be referred. 
Having discovered that the characters afforded by the alveolar pro- 
cess were the same in the young specimens as in the older ones, I 
was induced to examine the mouths of all the young specimens which 
we had in spirit in the British Museum ; and finding that, by very 
careful preparation and manipulation, I could open the mouths of the 
stuffed specimens in the same collection without in the least degree 
injuring them, I have examined the mouth and alveolar surfaces in 
all of them, and thus satisfied myself of the permanence of the 
characters that these afford, and have been able to determine with 
certainty the systematic position of some species, which was before 
doubtful. 

This reexamination has also shown me the permanence and the 
importance, as a specific character, of the manner in which the odd 
bone in front of the bony dorsal disk is developed, and whether it 
is in an early or late stage of its development that it becomes pitted 
like the rest of the bones of the disk, and when it becomes united to 
the front bone of it. 

These additions to my knowledge of the structure and develop- 
ment of the animals induce me to propose the following amended 
arrangement of them. A natural arrangement of the genera can 
only be prepared by taking account of all the changes of the animal 
during growth, and deriving the characters from it in its perfect 
state. The young specimens are required in order to know the 
coloration of the species, the adult to know the perfect development 
of the sternal callosities, and those of intermediate ages to give the 
manner the odd bone in front of the dorsal disk is developed, and 
when and how it becomes fitted like the other bones of the back- 
shield ; but this has rendered it impossible to interpolate in their 
proper place in the system those specimens in the Museum which 
are only in a young or imperfect state of development, not showing 
the sternal callosities or the true form of the dorsal disk. 

The Mud-Turtles with depressed head and thin depressed skull 
have a very short face, and the eyes only a very short distance from 
the end of the nose ; all the genera which have a higher, strong, 
hard skull have a short face and a convex rounded forehead, except 
Ti/rse, which has an elongate conical face, and the eyes considerably 
further back. 



1869.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 211 

The genera of the latter group may be arranged according to the 
number of the sternal callosities, thus : — 

I. Sternal callosities two, lateral : Aspilus, Rafetus, Dogania. 
II. Sternal callosities four, lateral and anal : Trionyx, Potamochelys, 
Pelocheh/s, Chitra, Tetrathyra, Platypeltis. 

III. Sternal callosities six, lateral, anal, and pectoral ; the latter 

transverse and developed late : Landemania. 

IV. Sternal callosities seven : Heptathyra. 
V. Sternal callosities nine (or ten): Emyda. 

VI. Sternal callosities fifteen, and often some subsidiary ones : Cy- 
clanosteus and Baikiea. 

The development of the pittings on the surface of the odd bone in 
front of the bony dorsal disk affords good generic characters. 

1 . It is smooth to a comparatively later period, eveu after the 
sternal callosities are developed in Aspilus. 

2. It is pitted in the centre in very young, and gradually becomes 
more covered with pits in young specimens in Trionyx, Potamochelys, 
and Tyrse. 

The Mud-Turtles with a depressed thin skull and very short face 
have a broad flat palate and scarcely any indication of a central 
groove in front of the internal nostrils, and only a slight depression, 
if any, behind them ; whereas in the more or less oblong, thick, 
solid skulls the palate is more or less concave, and almost always 
has a central groove in front and two more or less deep concavities 
behind the internal nostrils. The extent and form of the depressions 
afford very good generic characters. 

The skulls of the Trionychidce may be arranged in sections thus : — 

1 . The central groove in front of the internal nostrils narrow and — 

a. Deep : Landemania, Sarbieria, Potamochelys, 1 Platypeltis, 
Callinia, 1 Emyda. 

b. Very shallow : Aspilus. 

2. Central groove in front of the internal nostrils short, triangular, 
narrow in front : Cycla7iosteus, Baikiea, Tetrathyra. 

3. Central groove in front of the internal nostrils wide and shallow, 
but well marked : Trionyx, Rafetus, Dogania, Tyrse. 

The form of and the extent of the development on the edge of 
the jaws afford excellent characters, and show the differences in 
the habits of these animals. In the Mud-Turtles with depressed, 
thin, light skull, and short face, the alveolar edges of the jaws 
are thin and linear. In those which have a more or less high, 
solid, strong skull, the edge of the lower jaw and the surface of 
the upper one that meets it offer several variations. The genera 
may be arranged by the different forms of the alveolar surface, 
thus : — 

1 . The edge of the lower jaw flattened and broad in front and 
on the sides : Trionyx, Aspilus, Rafetus, Baikiea. 



212 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 1 1, 

2. The front edge of the lower jaw narrow ; the inner surface 
of the front part of the jaw shelvmg inwards. 

a. In some of these the hinder part of the sides of the edge 
is more or less expanded and flattened out into an alveolar 
disk : Dogania, Potamochelys, Cyclanosteus. 

b. In others the sides of the edge are as narrow as the front 
part : Tyrse, Platypeltis, Callinia. 

The genera of the family may be thus arranged : — 

Section I. The head ovate or oblong, face moderate. Skull strong, 
thick, solid. 

A. The sternum contracted behind, without any Jlaps over the hind 
legs. 

a. Nostrils small, far apart, on the sides of the end of the proboscis. 

1 . Amyda. a. tnutica. 

b. Nostrils moderate, circular, close together in the middle of the 

end of the proboscis, with a small lobe on the inner side, 

* Head short, forehead convex. The front and sides of the lower 
jaw with a broad, e.vpanded, flat or slightly concave alveolar 
surface. Anterior palatine groove deep. 

a. Sternal callosities six. 

2. Landemania. L. irrorata. 

j3. Sternal callosities four. 

3. Trionyx. Head short, forehead convex. Anterior palatine 

groove broad, shallow. Alveolar surface of the lower jaw 
broad, as wide in front as on the sides, rather concave, with a 
central longitudinal ridge in front. Nab. Asia. T gangetica. 

4. Fordia. Head short, forehead convex. Anterior palatine 

groove narrow, linear, deep. Alveolar surface of the lower jaw 
very broad, as wide in front as on the sides, flat, granular. 
Hab, Africa. F, africana. 

5. Sarbieria. Head rather elongate. Anterior palatine groove 

(in beak) narrow, deep, gradually becoming wider behind (in 
skull). Alveolar surface (of beak) in lower jaw regularly con- 
cave and smooth in front, and slightly concave on the sides. 
Odd anterior bone of dorsal disk free and smooth in the young 
specimens. S.frenata. 

y. Sternal callosities two, lateral. 

6. AspiLus. Head oblong, elongate. Alveolar surface of the upper 

jaw wider behind ; of the lower jaw broad, rather wider in front 



18(i9.J DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 213 

tliaii on the sides, flat, with a sligh.t concavity on the outer and 
convexity on the inner side behind. Central anterior palatine 
groove in the beak narrow, linear, deep, in the skull narrow, 
elongate, but very slightly marked ; the front of the palate is 
very deeply concave to the front edge of the internal nostrils, 
and then bent up on the sides of them. Internal nostrils 
oblong. A. cariniferus, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 83, f. 4-6. 

7. Ra FETUS. Head broad, forehead convex. Skull rather longer 

than broad at the ears. Anterior central palatine groove broad 
and shallow, rather broader behind than in front. Alveolar 
surface of the jaws narrow, linear, in the upper jaw scarcely 
wider in front than behind , in the lower jaw rather wider in 
front, smooth, slightly concave on the sides, with an oblong 
slight concavity on each side ; the concavity behind the inter- 
nal nostrils deep, and rather narrower behind. Internal nostrils 
large, circular. R. euphraticus, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 81. 

** The front of the lower jaw with a shelving inner surface and a 
narrow sharp alveolar edge, and with a more or less dilated 
concave alveolar surface on the sides, rather narrow behind. 

a. Face short, rounded ; forehead convex ; anterior central longitu- 
dinal palatine groove narrow, deep, short. Sternal callosities 
four. 

8. PoTAMOCHELYS. The alvcolar surfacc of the Upper jaw couvcx, 

shelving outwards, elongate, only slightly wider behind; of 
lower jaw rather wide, concave, and shelving inwards in fi-ont, 
rather dilated on the hinder half of the sides, with a slightly 
shelving oblong concave surface. The upper jaw bent down in 
front. The palate flat behind ; the central anterior palatine 
groove narrow, deep, short; internal nostrils oblong, anterior, in 
a deep cavity, })artly hooded by the alveolar surfaces of the 
upper jaw, and with an elongate deep concavity behind each, 
P, stellatus, P. Z, S, 1864, p. 85, f. 7, 8. 

ft. Face tapering on sides, narrow in front ; forehead shelving. An- 
terior central palatine groove broad and shallow ; internal nos- 
trils oblong, large. 

9. DoGANiA. Head broad ; face very short, narrow in front. Skull 

depressed, broad ; underside of skull straight, not bent down 
in front. Anterior central palatine groove shallow, broad, 
rounded in front, very slightly narrowed behind. Alveolar sur- 
face of the upper jaw flat, broader behind, of lower jaw mode- 
rately broad, with a shelving upper surface, and a sharp, simple 
alveolar edge, rather expanded and flattened out behind and 
slightly concave on the surface. Internal nostrils oblong, largo, 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XV. 



214 DR. J. K. GRAY ON THE TORTOISKS. [Mar, 11, 

obliquely longitudinal, with a short concavity behind each. 
Sternal callosities two, lateral, narrow. D. subplana. 

10. Platypeltis. Head oblong, rather depressed ; face moderate, 
rounded in front. Front of the palate with a very wide, shal- 
low concavity, which is rather narrowed and rounded in front, 
and gradually dilated behind. Alveolar surface of the jaws 
flat, rather wider behind, of the upper jaw flat in front, rather 
wider on the hinder part of the sides, with a raised longi- 
tudinal subcentral ridge ; of the lower jaw oroad, flat in 
front, with a sharp front edge, narrow in the front part and 
rather dilated on the hinder part of the sides, with a deep 
central longitudinal groove. Sternal callosities four ; the late- 
ral ones tvkice as wide on the inner as on the outer side ; the 
liinder triangular, front edge sinuous and wider than the length 
of the straight inner sides. P. ferox. (From Pennant's spe- 
cimen.} 

1 1 . Tyrse. Head elongate, face elongate, conical, narrow in front ; 
forehead shelving. Skull, underside scarcely bent down in 
front. Palate nearly flat ; central longitudinal concavity in front 
of the internal nostrils wide, much wider behind ; internal nos- 
trils small, rounded, with a short concavity behind each. The 
alveolar process of the upper jaw linear, elongate, scarcely wider 
behind. Lower jaw rather broad, with a shelving concavity on 
the uj)per surface ni front, with a sharp alveolar edge which is 
ratlier wider and has a linear elongate concavity on the upper 
surface of the hinder half of the sides. Sternal callosities four, 
lateral and anal ; anal triangular, rather broader than long. 
The hinder costal bones short, forming together a semicircle 
which is about two-fifths of the width of the costal pieces before 
them. T. nilotica. 

12. Callinia. Head small, face short, tapering in front. Ante- 
rior palatine groove (in head with beak) narrow, linear, deep. 
Alveolar edge of tlie beak and upper jaw narrow, linear, taper- 
ing behind ; of the lower jaw rather wide, shelving inwards, 
with a sharj) edge in front, and narrow, short, and tapering to 
a point behind. Sternal callosities four, lateral and anal. C. 
taicrocephula and C. sjyicifera. 

B. ISternum dilated behind, with a Jlap on each side covering the 
hind legs. 

* Margin of dorsal disk cartilnginotis, without 7narginal bones. 
Anterior central palatine groove short, triangular, broader be- 
hind. African. 

l;j. Uyclanosteus. Sternal callosities 15. Alveolar surface thin 
in front, broad on the sides. V. senegulensis. 



1869.] DR. J. K. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 21.5 

14. Baikiea. Sternal callosities 15 or more. Alveolar surftice 

broad in front and on the sides. B. efeffatis. 

** Dorsal disk with marginal bones. Asiatic. 

15. Emyda. Sternal callosities 9 or 10. E. punctata. 

Section II. Head depressed, broad, face very short ; eyes anterior. 
Skull depressed, thin and weak. Alveolar edge of the jaws 
thin. Palate flat. 

a. Sternum dilated behind into flaps on each side covering the hind 

legs. Sternal callosities odd. 

16. Heptathyra. Sternal callosities seven. H.frenata. 

b. Sternum contracted behind, without any flaps over the hind legs. 

Sternal callosities in pairs. 

17. Pelochelys. p. cantorii. 

18. Chitra. C. indica. 

2. Landemania. 

Head elongate ; the odd bone in front of the dorsal shield in adult 
specimens pitted, and united to the first costal by a straight suture. 

Fisr. H. 




Zra/iitt-^nt/iiw. 1,1 ,'orafa. Steriiuiu. 

Sternal callosities six — two sternal, two lateral, and two anal ; the 
sternal pair narrow, transverse, and not developed until the animal 



2J6 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THK TORTOISES. [Mar. 1 1, 

is nearly adult. .laws strong ; alveolar surface broad in front and 
on the sides, rather broader on the sides behind, that of the lower 
jaw shelving inwards. The anterior central palatine groove deep, 
narrow in front, and wider behind. 

1. LaNDEMANIA IRRORATA. 

Head and body closely speckled with minute white dots ; the chin 
and underside of the throat with rather larger but similar white 

spots. 

Trionyx peroculatus, Giinther, MS. in B. M. 

A specimen (which had been allowed to get dry) now in spirit, from 
Shanghai. Head black (face without any diverging lines), with very 
small white speckles verv close together, and most of the same size 
and form, of underside (if any difference) very slightly larger ; the 
skin of the back similarly and equally minutely white-dotted. Ster- 
nal callosities six ; the anterior pair narrow, band-like, transverse, 
in the centre of the front of the sternum ; lateral callosities narrow 
in the middle, very broad at the inner end ; the anal broad, sul)- 
trigonal, united in the middle line by a truly dentated suture. 

2. LaNDEMANIA? PEROCELLATA. 

Head olive, with diverging brown lines from the eyes and across 
the forehead ; chin and throat with large white spots. 

Trionyx perocellatus, Gray, Cat. Tort. B. M. p. 48 ; Cat. Shield 
Kept. p. 6.7, t. 31. 

Fotamochehj si perocellatus. Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 86. 

Hab. China and Chusan. 

A specimen in spirit, received from 3Mr. Swinhoe, from Formosa. 
The front of the lower jaw with a flat triangular alveolar surface ; 
the central groove in the palate before the internal nostrils narrow, 
deep, wider (sublunate) quite in front. Forehead with a narrow in- 
terrupted dark hue from the front canthus of one eye to the other. 
Face with five diverging brown lines from the vuidersideof the eye — 
the three front to the lower lip, the two hinder from the hinder can- 
thus of the eye across the temple. Sternal callosities four ; the 
hinder pair subtrigonal, with the angles rounded, and well sepa- 
rated. Sides of lower jaw, chin, and throat with large, symmetrical, 
but different-shaped white spots. 

A stuffed half-grown specimen in the British Museum, from China. 
The bony dorsal disk oblong ; the front odd bone united to the first 
costal by a straight edge, and rugose like it, with a very small pit on 
each side of the middle of the hind edge ; the front edge with a few 
tubercles in the centre ; the hinder flap with roundish tubercles. 
Sternal callosities four ; lateral narrow on the sides, much wider in 
the middle ; the hinder callosities ovate, oblique, with short convex 
sides and rounded ends. Head moderate; alveolar surface of the 
jaws broad, rather broader behind ; the anterior central palatine 
groove deep, wide, and rather wider behind. 



1809. J DK. J. E. GRAY ON TlIK TORTOISKS. 21/ 

',i. Trionyx. 

The odd bone of the dorsal disk covered with a pitted coat in the 
young animals. The genus maj^ be divided into sections tluis : — 

* Head short, broad (about as long as broad at the ear-bone), rounded 
in front. The alveolar surface of the lower jaw concave, loith 
sharp raised inner and outer margins, and an indistinct short 
central ridge on the inner side of the front. The central pala- 
tine groove in front of the internal nostrils eery wide, as wide 
in front as behind. 

1. Trionyx gangeticus. 

** The head rather elongate (rather longer than the breadth at the 
ears), rather tapering in front. The alveolar surface of the 
tower jaw as wide in front as on the sides, slightly concave, 
with a central longitudinal ridge across the front, and with a 
slight concavity on each side. The central anterior palatine 
groove shallow, narrow in front and wide behind. 

2. Trionyx jeudi. (Fig. 19, p. 218.) 

Hab. Java ? From the Museum of Prof, Lidth de Jeude. 

This species is described from a fine adult skull received from the 
Utrecht Museum, which, no doubt, was obtained from some of the 
Dutch colonies. It is most distinct from the Indian species. I have 
named it after the Professor who formed the Museum. The front 
longitudinal ridge is very distinct in the jawbone, almost more so 
than in the horny beak of the jaw. The front of the jaw of the T. 
gangeticus is simply concave, without any indication of a ridge, but 
only a slight prominence on the inner part of the inner edge ; and 
the alveolar surface on the sides of the lower jaw is flat and with a 
deep oblong concavity on each side. 

In the British Museum there is the head of an adult animal in 
spirit that was purchased of Mr. Theobald, who obtained it in Pegu. 
It has the narrow central anterior palatine groove, and the cylindri- 
cal ridge across the front of the lower beak, of this section of the 
genus ; but the ridge is only slightly raised and very different from 
that in the skull from Utrecht. 

3. Trionyx formosxjs. (Plate XV. fig. I.) 

This species is described from a young specimen in spirit, pro- 
cured by Mr. Theobald from Pegu, 

The back shield olive, with four very large black-eyed spots, the 
central spot circular, black, with a narrow white margin, and a dark 
brown ring close to it, which is surrounded by a larger pale brown 
ring, separated from the inner one by a broad olive space. The 
outer ring forms part of a regular series of netted dark lines, which 
are symmetrical on the two sides of the keel, forming a large open 
space in the middle of the back, and a smaller one near the margin 
and on the hinder part of the disk. The underside of the margin 
of the disk sooty grey, paler in part, with a white edge on the margin 



218 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 



[Mar. 1 1 , 



Fig. i9. 




Trionyx jmdi. 

of the shield. The iipperside of the limbs olive, with small white 
spots. The head aud back of the neck olive, varied with black-edged 
white spots, which are of various sizes, but symmetrically disposed 
on the two sides. There is a small oblong white spot on each temple, 
and an irregular larger white spot just hefore the angle of the mouth, 
and a large white spot below on each side, and a larger spot in 
centre of the hinder part of the gullet, and a series of small white 



18fi9.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 2 1 'J 

spots on the flap of the upper lip. The hinder part of the head is 
encircled hy a broad black-edged white band or collar, which is in- 
terrupted by a small olive spot in the middle of the back of the neck. 
The collar is broader and more diffused on the sides of the throat ; 
it gives oif a horizontal streak from its hinder side nearly as broad as 
itself, which is extended for a short distance on the sides of the neck. 
Tlie alveolar surface of the lower jaw broad and slightly concave. 

Hub. Pegu. 

In its young state this Trionyx is one of the most ornamental 
species, the dorsal shield being decorated with four large eyed spots, 
each surrounded by several concentric rings of different width, and 
the white interrupted collar on the neck is very striking. It has the 
four large spots on the dorsal shield so common with the young 
state of Trionyx gangeticus, figured in that state in my ' Illustrations 
of Indian Zoology' as Trionyx ocellatus, which is copied from Dr. 
Buchanan Hamilton's drawing of Testudo ocellatus. But in this 
species and in the more advanced state of the young animal figured 
in ray ' Indian Zoology' as Trionyx hurum, from another of Dr. 
Buchanan Hamilton's drawings, there is a yellow spot on each temple 
just behind the eyes ; while in T. ornntns the temples are olive, and 
the white collar is much further back — as far from the back edge of 
the eyes as the eyes are from the tip of the nose. 

The upper part of the head is olive, very closely and minutely 
dotted with black ; the underside is uniform greyish white. The 
nostrils are very close together, with a slight lobe on the inner side 
of each. This may be the species indicated as a Trionyx phayrei by 
Mr. Theobald (Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. vol. x. p. 18), but so indis- 
tinctly described as not to be recognizable, 

4. FORDIA. 

Head short, broad ; face short, forehead convex. Anterior pala- 
tine groove narrow, linear, deep. Alveolar surface of the beak of 
the upper jaw very wide, flat; of the beak of the lower jaw very 
broad, as wide in front as on the sides, acute, flat, granular, with a 
very indistinct indication of a longitudinal central ridge. The hinder 
pair of costals about half as broad as the pair of costals before them. 
Skull ? Hab. Africa. 

Known from Trionyx by the flatness and width of the alveolar 
surface of the beaks. I have named this genus after Mr. Ford, who 
has illustrated so many of my papers. 

FoRDIA AFRICANA. 

The head and neck (and most likely the other parts of the body, 
limbs, and dorsal shield) olive, minutely and regularly speckled with 
small white spots. The hinder sternal callosities triangular, rather 
longer than wide, straight in front and on the inner side, very acute 
behind. 

Hab. Upper Nile, Chartoum {Petherick, adult male and female 
in the B. M.). 



220 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 1 1, 

These specimens are those referred to as having been sent from 
Chartoum by Mr. Petherick in the account of Tyrse nilotica in the 
P. Z. S. 18G4, p. 88, where they were regarded as being specimens 
of the common Nilotic Mud-Tortoise ; but the examination of the 
alveolar surface of the jaws at once showed that they had no affinity 
with that genus, but must be more allied to the Gangetic Trionyx ; 
and then I observed that they had the shorter face of that group, 
which character had been previously overlooked. The alveolar sur- 
face of both jaws is very wide, nearly flat (not concave in front as in 
Trionyx ganyeticus). The species is, no doubt, peculiar to the 
Upper Nile, and had not been before observed. 

The examination of the alveolar surface of Du Chaillu's specimen, 
which had been named Aspidonectes "aspilus hy Mr. Cope, showed 
that it was (as I had previously determined it to be) identical with 
Tyrse nilotica of the Lower Nile. The head and neck of this large 
specimen, when the skin was wet, showed that it was speckled with 
white like the true Nilotic Mud-Tortoise Tyrse nilotica. The ster- 
nal callosities rather differ in form from those of T. nilotica ; the 
hinder ones are larger, and more acute behind. The last of the 
ribs are also wider, compared with the others, than in that species. 

A young specimen in spirit, from the Upper Nile, obtained from 
Mr. Petherick, probably belongs to tliis species. The head, neck, 
feet, and dorsal disk covered with close, small, dark-edged, annular 
white spots, those on the sides of the head and, especially, on the 
chin and throat being rather the largest. 

5. Sarbieria. 

Head rather large ; eyes lateral, subsuperior. Jaws strong ; 
alveolar surface (of beak) broad, broader and more dilated behind, 
surface shelving inwards, — of lower jaw deeply concave, smooth, 
and with a sharp edge in front, and slightly concave on the sides. 
The central anterior palatine groove narrow and deep, with a short 
slight dilatation in front and with rather diverging sides behind. 
Dorsal disk small. Costal bones separate. Front odd bone in the 
young and half-grown specimens separate, broad, transverse, and 
with a smooth upper surface. Sternal callosities four; lateral nar- 
row on the outer side ; anal ? 

This genus is in many respects allied to Doyania ; but it appears 
to have four callosities, and the upper surface of the back is concave ; 
it is narrow in front, and wider behind. But it is difficult to com- 
])are a head with the beak on with a prepared skull without a beak, 

Sarbieria frenata. 

Trionyx frenatus, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 67. 

Potamochelysl frenatus, Gray, P. Z. S. 18G4, p. 87. 

Hab. Singapore (TFaltace). 

A stuffed specimen in the British Museum, "of a young female 
with full-sized eggs," from Mr. Wallace. The odd bone in front 
of the dorsal disk entirely covered with the skin, and smooth. The 



180D.] DR. J. K. GRAY ON THE TOKTOISES. 221 

Sternal callosities are scarcely developed, only showing a slight 
roughness on the surface. Head olive, with a black central streak 
from the snout to between the eyes, which divides behind into three 
diverging streaks on the crown and nape ; a streak from the nose, 
through the eye, and continued on the temple, to the side of the 
neck. The alveolar surface of the upper and lower jaws very broad 
the whole length of the outer edges ; the alveolar surface of the 
upper jaw is so large as to cover the greater part of the palate, much 
more so than in Triony.v gangeticus ; in the lower jaw it is very 
broad, as broad behind as before, and slightly concave. The central 
palatine groove in front of the internal nostrils narrow, deep. The 
bones of the dorsal shield are distinctly marked and separate ; the 
vertebral plates are very narrow, nearly twice as long as broad ; the 
costal ones are linear, scarcely broader at the outer ends, the last one 
being the least and narrow at the outer end. The odd bone in front 
is quite separate from the granular buckler, covered with skin, and 
quite smooth. The lateral sternal callosities are scarcely developed, 
only showing a slight roughness on the surface. The hinder pair of 
sternal bones are broad at the inner end and united together in front 
of the inner edges by two broad lobes. 

Very like the figure in Cuvier's ' Ossemens Fossiles,' v. t. 23. f. 5. 

6. AspiLus. 

The odd bone in front of the dorsal shield in the younger speci- 
men is separate, and smooth ou the upper surface, and it becomes 
pitted and united to the costal by a straight suture in the adult 
animal. 

8. POTAMOCHELYS. 

The odd anterior bone of the dorsal disk in the young animal is 
pitted on the surface and separate, but in the older ones it is united 
to the dorsal disk by a straight suture. The skull resembles that 
of Cyclanosteus. 

12. Callinia. 

Head small, elongate ; face narrow, tapering ; eyes lateral, superior. 
The jaws weak ; the alveolar plates narrow at the hinder part, trian- 
gular and broader in front. The lower jaw slender, narrower at the 
hinder part of the sides. The central palatal groove in front of the 
internal nostrils rather wide and deep. The dorsal disk oblong, 
broad. The odd bone in front of the dorsal shield separate, trans- 
verse, and pitted in the young animal ; in the older one it is united 
to the front costal bones by a straight edge with two round perfo- 
rations, one on each side of the central part. The vertebral callo- 
sities narrow. The costal callosities scarcely broader at the outer 
edge, except the fifth and sixth pairs ; the hinder pair short, and 
narrow at the outer ends. Sternal callosities four ; the lateral pair 
broad on the inner side ; the hinder or anal pair oblong triangular, 
oblique, with a straight inner edge. 

Aspidonectes, sp., Agassiz, not Wagler. 



222 DU. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar, 1 1, 

1. Callinia microcephala. 

Potamochelys} microcephalus, Gray, P. Z. S. 1864, p. 87. 
Hab. Sarawak (Wallace). 

2. Callinia spicifera. 

Trionyx spiciferus, Lesueur, Mem. Mus. xv. p. 2.o8, t. 1.5. 
Trionyx ferns, Holbrook, Herp N. A. ii. t. 1. 
Tyrse argus. Gray, Knowsley Meiiag. t. 
Hab. North America, 

14. Baikiea. 

Ill the " Revision of the species of Triovychidce" in the P. Z. S. 
1864, p. 95, I figured the skull of an African Trionychid with 
a very broadly dilated concave alveolar surface to the jaws, which 
I considered might perhaps be the adult state of the jaws of Cy- 
clanosteus senegulensis. In my paper on the genus Tetrathyra, 
in the Society's 'Proceedings' for 186.5, I thought that it miglit 
perhaps be the skull of the Trionychid which I then described 
under the name of Tetrathyra. Since that time I have been able 
to examine the skull of a young Trionychid from Africa, which has 
the broadly expanded alveolar surface of the adult skull that I figured. 
This shows that the form of the alveolar surface does not depend 
on the age of the specimen, and that it is the character of an ad- 
ditional genus, which I have named after Dr. Balfour Baikie, from 
whom we have received so many species from Central and Western 
Africa. 

Unfortunately there are only skulls of adult and a specimen in 
spirit of a young.animal of this species ; so that we do not know the 
form and number of the sternal callosities, especially those of the 
adult form. I suspect that the thorax in the British Museum, 
received with the jaws, may be that of an adult animal ; but 
there is no material to show that this is the case. If it is, the ster- 
nal callosities are as in Cyclanosteus with some smaller additional 
ones in front, as in the specimen figured as Cyclanosteus senegu- 
lensis, var. callosa. Gray, 1?. Z. S. 1865, p. 424, f. 1. 

Baikiea elegans. (Plate XV. fig. 2.) 

The young specimen in spirit has the back of the thorax dark 
olive-brown with large yellow spots, which are somewhat similar 
but not quite symmetrical on the two sides of the central keel : 
and there is a series of large but smaller square or roundish yellow 
spots on the margin. The sternum and under surface of tlie 
margin blackish, with yellow spots, and a narrow yellow edge to the 
lobes of the sternum. The underside of the shield is varied with 
yellow on the edges. Head grey-brown, white-spotted. Thorax 
white. 

The young specimens of Cyclanosteus senegnlensis in spirit are 
known from those oi BaiJciea elegans by having the white spots on 
the crown and sides of the head nearly of the same size ; in B. ele- 



I8G9.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. 223 

(/ans the spots on the crown are small and those on the sides of the 
head are larger and unequal-sized. 



III. THE SEA-TURTLES— CHELONIA. 

The common Turtle, covered with horny plates, has a skull as 
different from that of the coriaceous Turtle, which has the bones of 
the body covered with a soft skin, as the two animals are different 
in external appearance. I formerly regarded the coriaceous and the 
scale-bearing Turtles as forming two distinct families (Annals of 
Philosophy, 1825, vol. x. p. 212); but having received from Mr. 
Collie, as stated in the 'Catalogue of Shield Reptiles,' a skull of 
a true Chelonian as that of a coriaceous Turtle {Sphargis), and find- 
ing they were so much alike, I was induced to reconsider the ques- 
tion and to unite Sphargis and Chelonia in the same family, regard- 
ing them as distinct tribes characterized by the nature of the surface. 
Such a mistake was excusable, as I am not aware that the skull of 
the adult Sphargis is in any European collection, or has ever been 
figured, and I had overlooked the figure of the skull of the very 
young specimen that is given in Prof. John Wagler's * New System 
of Amphibia,' t. 5. f. 1. In that work the skulls of the young 
Chelonia and young Sphargis are figured side by side ; therefore the 
distinction can be easily seen. The great peculiarity of the skull of 
the genus Sphargis consists of the opening to the nose being in the 
upper part of the head, the nose-cavity being carried up by the 
elongated erect form of the intermaxillary bone ; the orbits are also 
exceedingly large. 

Fam. I. Cheloniad^e. 
CheloniadcB, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825, x. p. 212. 

The thorax covered with distinct horny plates ; the sterno- costal 
suture covered with a longitudinal series of sterno-lateral plates. 
Nose anterior, erect ; the nostrils anterior, at the upper edge of 
the nose. Upper jaw simple, or rather hooked in front. Eyes 
moderate. 

Skull oblong, crown flat behind ; orbit moderate, nose truncate, 
erect ; nostrils anterior, on the upper part of the nose. The inter- 
maxillary bone small, narrow, short, erect. 

The study of the skulls of these animals first led me to observe 
the importance of the alveolar chewing-surface of the jaws for distin- 
guishing the genera. The Turtles may be divided into two groups 
thus : — 

* The alveolar surface of the upper jaw concave, broad, narrower 
behind, with a single linear central ridge. Lower concave, 
with a rather strong ridge on the inner side. Carnivorous. 

1. Caretta. 



224 DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TORTOISES. [Mar. 1 I , 

** The alveolar surface of the upper jaw with two arched ridges, 
the inner one near the inner margin, the outer near the outer 
margin, and interrupted by a deep pit' in front. Loiver one 
strongly toothed on the edge, with a suhcentral ridge, with a 
large conical prominence in the middle, and a deep pit on each 
side in front of it . Algivorous. 

2. Chelonia. 

3. Mydas. 

Chelonia-^^, Gray, Cat. Shield Rept. p. 75. 

Fam. II. Sphargidid^. 

Sphargididce, Gray, Ann. Phil. 1825, x. p. 212. 

The thorax covered with a continuous soft skin. Nose blunt and 
broad ; nostrils on the upper surface of the nose. Upper jaw with 
a deep notch on each side. Eyes very large. 

Skull oblong; crown swollen, subglobose behind. Orbits very 
large. Nose-cavity superior, carried up by the elongated erect 
intermaxillary bone. Maxillary bone with a deep notch in the front 
of the lower edge, near the intermaxillary. Lower jaw produced, 
acute, bent up in front. 

BermatochelydcB, Fitzinger ; Wagler, Amph. p. 20, t. 1. f. 1. 

Sphargiidee, Agassiz, Contrih. 

Sphargis, Merrem= ConWo, Fleming; Sytina, Wagler; Dcr- 
matochelys, Fitzinger. 

Fig. 20. 




Sphargis mercurialis. 

Mr. E. Gerrard has prepared a beautiful skeleton of a very young 
specimen of this genus, about 4 inches long. It is a most curious 
preparation, with its odd-shaped head with very large nasal cavities 
and orbits, extremely large fore fins with extremely slender fingers, 



18(39.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE AFRICAN RHINOCEROS. 225 

and a short hind foot like the skeleton of a human hand, with the 
short metatarsi and thumb springing from one side of the base of 
them, as if it might be opposable . 

The fingers and toes five ; the fingers long, slender, the second, 
third, and fourth very long, of four joints, lower large, the last joint 
small and short ; the first and third toes of three joints, the first 
strongest, the fifth shortest. The hind feet much like the human 
hand. The toes short ; the thumb short, strong, from the base of 
the metatarsus, the other four toes longer, subequal, the third or 
middle toe being rather shorter, the second and fourth subequal, 
and the fifth rather the shortest and most slender. Sternal bone 
very narrow, only forming a large, oblong, elongated ring. 

See also Wagler, N. Syst. Amph. t. 5. 

DESCRIPTION OF PLATE XV. 

Fig. 1. Triom/x furmosus, p. 217. 
2. Baikiea clcgans, p. 222. 



7. On the Incisor Teeth of the African Rhinoceros. 
By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. 

The skull of the nearly adult female specimen of Rhinaster 
keitloa in the British Museum killed by Mr. Jesse in Abyssinia 
has the small intermaxillary bones well preserved. They are not 
united together in front ; the dental edge has unfortunately been 
injured in the carriage from Abyssinia; but they each exhibit 
small cylindrical blunt rudimentary incisor teeth. The intermaxil- 
lary of the right side has a large tooth on the hinder part ; the 
intermaxillary on the left side has a middle-sized tooth in the middle 
of the dental surface, and a very small rudimentary tooth behind it 
near the hinder edge of the bone. These teeth would induce one to 
believe that in the perfect state there are two, or perhaps three, in- 
cisors in each intermaxillary ; for close to the symphysis is a small 
alveolus in the front part of the dental margin on each intermaxillary ; 
but these do not now contain any rudimentary teeth. Professor Vrohk 
has described the lower incisor teeth in the skull of the young Afri- 
can Rhinoceros (see Ann. d. Sci. 1837, p. 20, t. 1b) ; but I believe 
that they have not before been observed in the adult animal. 

If the observations of MM. Lefebvre, Petit, and Dillon, in the 
' Voyage en Abyssinie,' Paris, are to be relied on, there must be 
other Rhinoceroses in Abyssinia than those we have yet seen. They 
state, " 11 y a plusieurs especes de Rhinoceros en Abyssinie. II y en 
a qui ont deux, trois et quatre cornes : cela est certain ; il Test moins 
qu'il y en ait a cinq et six, mais on I'assure. Sur I'animal vivant 
elle est toujours mobile, sans os a Tinterieur " (pp. 26, 27). 



226 



DR. J. E. GRAY ON THE TRAGULUS KANCHIL. [Maf. 11, 



8. On the Bony Dorsal Shield of the Male Tragulus kanchil. 
ByDr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. 

Mr. Edward Gerrard the younger has prepared for the British 
Museum a beautiful skeleton of the male Tragulus kanchil which 
lately died in the Society's Gardens. 

The skeleton is very Uke that of other ruminants ; but it has the 
remarkable peculiarity of the lumbar vertebrae and pelvis being co- 
vered with an expanded thin bony plate, or, rather, a series of small 
irregular-shaped plates united together by a dentated suture iuto a 
dorsal and lumbar disk, apparently formed by the ossification of the 
lumbar fascia. This lies immediately on the upper surface of the 
dorsal muscles, and between them and the skin. The plate is attached 
by the whole length of the central line, and extends on each side 
considerably beyond the sides of the lumbar vertebrae and the pelvis. 




Bony dorsal shield of Tragulus kanchil. 

Mr. Gerrard informs me that it did not occur in a female T. kan- 
chil that he had examined ; so that it may be peculiar to the male sex. 

M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards has figured a somewhat similar ex- 
pansion covering the pelvis in the skeleton of Tragulus napu (see 



1869.] MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON PACHYBATRACHl'S. 227 

Anil, des Sci. Nat. 1864, t. 4. f. 2). It appears to be common to 
the species of the genus Trayulus, but, I believe, does not occur in 
the genus Meminmi. M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards {loc, cit. t. 10. 
1". 7) figures the pelvis of that animal without any bony disk. 



April 8, 1869. 

Dr. E. Hamilton, V.P., in the Chair. 

A communication was read from Dr. George Bennett, F.Z.S., 
dated Sydney, January 26th, enclosing a copy of an article upon the 
Tuatera Lizard (Sp/ienorlon puiietatum*) of New Zealand, contri- 
buted by him to the 'Sydney Herald' of January 19th, which was 
read to the Meeting. It appeared from this article that so recently 
as December 1851 this Lizard was abundant in one of the islands in 
the Bay of Plenty, in New Zealand. The island in question was 
stated to be one of four small volcanic islands, distant about eight 
miles from the coast and situated opposite to the mouth of the Waka- 
tane river. The party of officers who visited it upon the occasion 
in question are stated to have collected in half an hour nearly forty 
of these Lizards of different sizes, varying from two feet long to 
three inches. They stated that the island seemed to be swarming 
with them and with another Lizard called the Moko-raoko {Tiliqua 
zeelandicci). In the daytime these Lizards are seen basking them- 
selves in the sun on the bare rocks. Noon is therefore the best time 
to visit the island. It was stated that there were four small islands, 
on two of which Tuateras are found. They are called Rurima and 
Montoki. The largest is about half a mile in circumference at high 
water. They are all of volcanic origin, and are scantily covered 
with soil, but it is sufficient to grow a few of the most hardy New- 
Zealand shrubs and creepers, among the latter of which was observed 
the delicate flower of the Pohne or Panapa (Calystegia sepiuni), the 
long fleshy root of which was formerly a source of food to the New 
Zealander. There was no fresh water on the island but what was 
contained in the crevices of rocks from rain. 



The following papers were read: — 

1. Note on Pachybatrachus robustus. 
By St. George Mivart, F.Z.S. &c. 

I had the honour to read before the Zoological Society on the 
r2th of November, 1868, a paper which was published in the 

* Olini Hdftcria puncUda. Cf. Gray, Ana.' Nat. Hist. 4th ser. vol. iii. p. KIT 
(, lt<6y).— P. L. S. 



228 MR. F. H.WELCH ON LEPUS AMERICANUS. [Apr. S, 

Society's ' Proceedings' for the same year (page 557). In that paper 
I described a new Frog, which I proposed to name Pachybatrachus 
robustus. I now find that, by a singular coincidence, the very same 
generic term was apphed abouc the same time by Professor W. 
Keferstein, M.D., of Gottingen, to another new Batrachian. This 
appears in the third number of the 'Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte' 
for 1868, where, at page 273, Professor Keferstein has pubhshed a 
description of his Pachybatrachus. I therefore beg leave to with- 
draw the name which I before gave, and to substitute for it the 
more appropriate term Clinotarsns. I propose therefore that my 
new Frog should bear the name Clinotarsus robustus. 



2. Observations on Lepus americanus, especially with refer- 
ence to the Modifications in the Fur consequent on the 
rotation of the Seasons, and the Change of Colour on 
the advent of Winter ; based on Specimens obtained in 
the province of New Brunswick, Noith America. By 
Francis H. Welch, Assistant- Surgeon, 1st Battalion, 
22nd Regiment*. 

This species is the sole representative of the LeporidcB in the pro- 
vince of New Brunswick. In the List of Mammalia of the Portland 
Natural-History Society it is called the "White Hare," and in the 
' New York Fauna,' by De Kay, the " Northern Hare." It is also 
termed the "American Varying Hare," and was for a long time con- 
founded with the L. variabilis of Europe. Its geographical range 
appears as yet undetermined. According to Sir John Kichardson it 
" is found as far north as C4° 30', Fort Enterprise, forming the staple 
food and clothing of the Hare Indians on the banks of the Mackenzie 
Eiver." Its southerly limits are given by DeKay as "the northern 
parts of Pennsylvania and the mountain-tops of the northern part 
of Virginia." Of the many species of Leporida inhabiting the North- 
American continent, it appears to be the only one that undergoes a 
complete change of colour during the winterf,— the Greenland Hare 
remaining white during the whole year, L. nanus becoming of a 
lighter hue, and occasionally iron grey, during the winter months, 
and L. glacialis assuming occasionally in the adult a greyish tint 
during the summer, limited to the points of the hair, the deeper 
parts remaining white permanently, the young, however, being born 
grey, and changing to white on the advent of winter J. Its weight 
varies — in its southernmost limits reaching 65 lbs. ; in New Bruns- 
wick averaging 3 lbs. ; in Hudson's Bay Territory 4 lbs. 

* Communicated by Mr. G. Busk, F.R.S. 

t i. c. provided the L. cait/pesfris be fJiily a variety of L. amcriccniKS, as stated 
by Sir J. Eiclinrdson. but denied by Baird. 
t Fauna Boreali- Americana. 



1869.] MR. F. H.WELCH ON LEPUS AMERICANUS. 229 

This Rodent is described in the 'New York Fauna' by De Kay; 
but I beHeve, up to the ])resent time, no detailed account of the fur- 
changes in sequence to the seasons has appeared. Its representative 
among the European species is L. variabilis, the process of change 
in which is summed up in the 'Naturalists' Library' (vol vii.) as 
follows : — "From the examination of individuals at different periods 
of the year, I have inferred that in this species the hair is almost 
always changing ; that in April and May there is a general but 
gradual shedding, after which the summer colours are seen in per- 
fection ; that towards the middle of autumn many new white hairs 
have been substituted for coloured ones ; and that by degrees all the 
hairs and under-fur are shed and renewed before the end of Decem- 
ber, when the fur is in the perfection of its winter condition, being 
closer, fuller, and longer than in summer." In the 'Edinburgh 
Philosophical Journal' (vol. xi. p. 191) the conclusion arrived at is 
that "during the whole of this remarkable change in the fur no hair 
falls from the animal ; hence it appears that the hair actually 
changes its colour, and that there is no renewal of it." Thus, in 
the former article the change is attributed to an autumnal shedding 
and new winter growth ; in the latter to a change of colour only in 
the existent hair. I propose in the following remarks to enter fully 
into the details of the process, as illustrated by Lepus americanus. 

In order to appreciate fully the cycle of changes in the coat of 
this Rodent in sequence to the rotation of the seasons, it seems best 
to take the summer dress as our starting-point, and inquire into the 
varieties of hair entering into the composition of the fur at this period, 
for the better elucidation of the part each individually plays in the 
subsequent phases ; for in scientifically inquiring into the change of 
colour in the fur-bearing animals, it is essentially necessary to make 
a clear distinction between that resulting from alteration of colour in 
the already existent coat, and that consequent on a fresh under- 
growth, which by gradual increase may eventually obscure the 
summer and autumnal hues. Each portion also of the skin must be 
separately examined, and individual peculiarities noted. The summer 
dress may be described as follows : — Back and sides of a glistening 
fawn-colour, interspersed with black, especially over the vertebral 
ridge ; tail white ; face and ears reddish brown, sparsely variegated 
by black hairs ; edges of ears externally black or dark brown, in- 
creasing towards the tips ; internally whitish, especially posteriorly ; 
whiskers and eyebrows black ; margin of lids dark brown or black, 
pupil the same, iris yellow ; underparts white ; anterior surface of 
feet light brown, the treading surface dirty white with hair very wiry. 
On examination, the components of this coat will be found to vary 
according to the portion of the animal examined ; consequently it is 
necessary to enter somewhat into details. 

In the fur are to be distinguished the external firm hairs con- 
stituting the pile and determining the colour, and the soft woolly 
undergrowth constituting the thickness of the coat and mainly in- 
strumental in the retention of the animal heat. On the back the |)ile 
is made up of firm, straight, pointed hairs of diminished thickness 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XVI. 



230 MR. F. H.WELCH ON LEPUS AMERICANUS. [Apr. 8, 

at their insertion into the skin, divisible into two varieties as to 
length and colour, — the one, in the minority, entirely black, average 
length ly^^- inch ; the other, black at extreme tip, succeeded down- 
wards in the shaft by a well-defiued tawny band again merging into 
black, which fades into light brown at the attached extremity, ave- 
rage length f'-^ inch. The delicate, wavy, flocculent undergrowth is 
of a slaty hue, passing into reddish brown at the free extremity, and 
of an average length of h inch ; the commingling of the hairs in 
siiu produces five zones of colour in the coat, viz. (proceeding from 
within outwards) slaty blue, reddish brown, brownisli black, tawny, 
black. On the underparts the components of the fur are the same, 
of finer texture ; the pile being entirely white lightens the hue of 
the undergrowth, which is slaty blue. No imdergrowth is present 
on the ears, except at the base, and is very slight on the head and 
feet, especially on the treading-surface ; here the hairs are of the 
same length, wavy in outline, and wiry in character. On the head, 
ears, and feet the pile is made up only of the shorter coloured hairs ; 
at the nape of the neck only the undergrowth is present. 

The autumnal coat is characterized by an increase in length of 
the outer hairs and undergrowth, generally over the whole body, and 
more appreciable as winter approaches. 

About the commencement of October the first indications of the 
hybernal change are to be detected : the nose and lips assume au 
iron-grey hue, from the presence of white hairs ; many of the 
whiskers are white at the tip or some portion of the shaft ; a patch 
of white hairs, twenty to thirty in number, of the size of a split-pea, 
forms on the centre of the forehead* ; white hairs become apparent 
on the edges of the ears outside and at their junction with the neck, 
while on the inside a crop of downy white fluff springs up ; a few 
of the longer hairs of the pile of the back, especially towards the tail, 
are observed to be blanched wholly, or only at the tips, while the 
greater part of the smaller kind are brown at the tip, with the tawny 
band of the shaft much lighter in colour or even white ; the anterior 
surface of the feet, especially of the hind ones, is mottled with white. 

Thus far the most careful examination fails to elicit any addition 
to the autumnal coat, the change being superficial and entirely de- 
pendent on an alteration of colour in existent hairs ; the hind feet 
are the most advanced, then the ears and muzzle, lastly the back. 
During November this surface-change gradually deepens in intensity, 
especially around the tail, and on the feet, ears, and face (on the 
latter by a white streak extending from nose to eyes and upwards to 
the ears), and is accompanied by a deeper one of a much more potent 
character ; for on separating the fur a thick crop of white stiff hairs 
(first apparent at the root of the tail) is to be detected springing up 
over the back and sides. These hairs, at first extremely minute and 
entirely of a new growth, rapidly increase in length, accompanied by 
an advance in the superficial changes above mentioned ; soon they are 

* " Fancy Rabbits Lave often a white star on the forehead, and so has the 
young of L. amcricanus, like the English Hare" (Darwin, Animals and Plants 
under Domestication, vol. i. p. 140). 



1869.] MR. F. H.WELCH ON LEPUS AMERICANUS. 231 

on an equality with the pile of the autumnal coat on the sides, form- 
ing a mottled whity-hrown band from ears to tail, contrasting strongly 
with the centre of the back, at present comparatively unchanged ; anon 
they outstrip this, reducing the mottling on the sides to a pure white, 
and, gradually implicating the centre of the back in the same process 
(through the varying hue-phases, according as the rapidly advancing 
white growth appears through and finally overwhelms the variegated 
changing autumnal coat), they clothe the animal in a thick white 
outer garment, generally assumed about the first week of December. 
As soon as the new growth renders itself superficially evident, the 
change of colour in the old hair, which on the back up to this time 
has been slow in progress, advances with great rapidity, so that in a 
few days only a few coloured hairs, generally remaining unchanged 
throughout the whole winter, are to be detected. The feet and ears, 
the first to show indications of change, are the last in completing 
the winter hue: generally the head and ears have no hybernal fresh 
growth ; but occasionally it is to be met with. During this period, 
and especially when the new hybernal growth of white hair renders 
itself conspicuous on the surface of the autumnal coat, an extremely 
handsome fur is produced ; every degree of variation may be met 
with, and each step of the process can be traced with accuracy and 
clearness. Modifications of the progressive changes enumerated 
above often occur in individuals, from an anticipation or retardation 
of change in one part relatively to the whole ; these, however, are of 
a temporary nature — mere individual peculiarities, and finally merge 
into the all but universal midwinter clothing, which may be described 
as under. A white, with a leaden tinge, from a few long black hairs 
undergoing no change, pervades the entire skin, with the exception 
of the edges of the ears, eyelids, and legs ; a narrow rim of black 
hair, -t inch wide, is present at the tip of the ear externally and 
1^ inch downwards on each side of the cartilage, which is thrown 
into strong relief by the thick white woolly coat now existent on the 
inside ; a narrow rim, also black, on the free edge of the eyelids ; 
the whiskers white entirely, or interspersed with some not changed, 
the shaft of hair white only at tip, or with alternating white and 
black bands ; the anterior surface of the feet mottled reddish white, — 
the colour of the ears and eyelids being the resultant of no change in 
these situations, that of the feet and whiskers from a non-completion 
of the process. However, although this is the general rule, yet it 
is not difficult to find specimens where the length of the hybernal 
growth on the ears and around the eyes conceals the normal black, 
and the absolute completion of change elsewhere obliterates these 
peculiarities, leaving the animal snowy white, broken only by the 
glistening dark-brown pupil of the eye and yellowish iris. 

Contrasting the winter with the summer and autumnal coat we 
find a colour-change with a great increase in the length and tliick- 
ness of the fur ; let us inquire minutely into the process and its local 
modifications. On the back is to be distinguished the pile and 
undergrowth. The former is made up of straight pointed hairs, 
slightly varying in length, the average l-j^^^inch, and white through- 
out the entire shaft, mingled with a few isolated black hairs and 



232 MR. F. H.WKLCH ON LEPUS AMERICANUS. [Apr. 8, 

reddish-brown ones with white tips : these latter are evidently un- 
altered or partially changed summer varieties ; but the mass of the 
pile, trebly increased in number and at least half an inch in length, 
is the produce of the hyberual growth superadded to the elongated 
and blanched autumnal coat. The under fur has increased y^ inch 
in length, but is unaltered in thickness or colour. A crop of white 
hair has sprung up on the inside of the ear, on the outside and on 
the face the hairs have increased in length, and the shaft is partially 
or wholly whitened from the tip downwards. In most specimens no 
new hybernal growth is perceptible in these localities, in some there 
is a slight addition, in a very few it is as complete as on the back. 
However, where no increase in number ensues, compensation is effected 
by an extra augmented growth in the existent fur. On the legs the 
change is limited to a lengthening and bleaching of the outer hair ; 
often this is limited to the tips of the shaft ; and an occasional 
absence of change in spots leaves an irregidar fawn-coloured mottling 
and streaking, especially on the front paws ; the hair on the treading 
surface is lengthened and dirty white. On the underparts there is 
no addition beyond an increase of length of the fur ; occasionally the 
whiskers and eyebrows remain black. Thus the winter hue would 
appear to be brought about by a change of colour in the pile of the 
autumnal coat combined with a new hybernal white crop, the latter 
undoubtedly playing no small part in the colouring process and in 
the thickening of the fur. There is no indication of shedding. An 
increase in length ensues over the whole body. On the underparts 
the change is limited to this, but elsewhere it is associated with a 
bleaching of the pile, generally commencing at the tip of the hair 
and involving part or the whole of the shaft. On the feet, and gene- 
rally on the outside of the ears and face, no additional growth is 
perceptible ; but on the inside of the ears, and over the whole back 
and sides, a thick crop of white hair springs up as the winter ad 
vances, and, blending with the changed surface, materially increases 
the thickness of the fur, protects the animal against the inclemency 
of winter, and assimilates it in colour to external nature. The pro- 
cess may be summed up as a combination of colour-change (except 
in the underparts) of the lengthened outer hairs of the autumnal 
coat, with an additional hybernal growth ; the former universal over 
the body, the latter limited to certain portions. 

The shaft of the hair of the new growth is invariably white, a cir- 
cumstance which renders it easily distinguished from the autumnal 
hair in process of change. Careful examination of a great number 
of these latter hairs will render it evident that, although the blanch- 
ing process commences, perhaps, most frequently at the tip and 
proceeds downwards, involving the whole or a part only of the shaft, 
yet it is easy to obtain specimens (especially among the shorter 
variety of the pile) demonstrating its commencement at the centre, 
and occasionally at the attached extremity. The whiskers, which 
apparently do not lengthen but merely alter in colour, will demon- 
strate each variety. 

Microscopically examined, the hair of this Rodent, circular in 
outline, is composed of oval or irregular shaped cells placed end to 



1869.] 



MR. F. H.WELCH ON LEPUS AMERICANUS. 



233 



end and arranged in linear series in the long axis of the shaft, covered 
externally hv a delicate tissue of elongated flattened epithelium (fig. 2). 
The shaft oV the under-fur (fig. 1) averages vt/uTT in^h i" thickness, 
has one series of cells in its structure; the pile, y^j\^inch in diameter 
(fig. 3), four or more, according to the varying thickness of the shaft, 




2 



Fig. 1. Microscopic aspect of shaft of und°i' 

2. Epithelial covering of shaft. 

3. Shaft of pile. 




one series only at the tip, and the number gradually augmenting to 
the greatest circumference — the cells varying in colour according to 
the portion examined, but when white to the naked eye then colour- 
less microscopically. The increase in the length of the autumnal 
hairs has been already noted ; to this must be added that the blanch- 
ing shaft, in the majority of cases, has also augmented in thickness, 
the average ^-i-y inch in "diameter (corresponding to the new growth), 
the increase being consequent upon a more than usual number of 
series of cells entering into its composition. In some hairs where the 
centre of the shaft has changed, bounded on each side by an unchanged 
portion, it will be noted that at the altered segment the shaft bulges 
out, increasing in diameter from -^}j-^ to jf^j of an inch by the addi- 
tion of one or more series of colourless cells, and that at the unaltered 
portion, both above and below, it is contracted to the former size, 
contrasting strongly both in the number of series of cells and in 
the absence of colour in the changed parts. If also we examine one 
of the long black hairs bleaching at the tip, the addition of the 
colourless cells, as contrasted with the same portion of an unchanged 
hair, is very marked. Again, a comparison of changed hairs with 
unchanged ones of almost equivalent length, from the same vicinity, 
gives frequently a double thickness to the former over the latter. 
The increase of series to the shaft of the hair in process of change 
seems the rule, the absence of colour invariable ; but in the whiskers, 
which in their structure approach rather the human hair with its 
fibrous cylinder and cellular centre, the former is not so apparent. 



234 MR. F. H.WELCH ON I.ICPUS AMERICANU.S. [Apr. 8, 

What is the 7-ationale of the process in virtue of which to the 
naked eye the colour of the hair is changed from black or tawny to 
white ? Is it dependent on an abstraction of pigment, an alteration, 
or new deposition ? and must we regard it in the light of some general 
condition of the animal frame modifying the whole cajjillary pig- 
mentary secretion, or, on the other hand, interrogate the hair itself 
for the solution of the problem ? The gradual character of the pro- 
cess, the immunity of some hairs from all change whatever, the irre- 
gularity of its course in involving different hairs in the same portion 
of the body, the all but invariable commencement of change in any 
other part of the shaft than that first to be influenced by altered 
secretions, the temporary localization of the process to some one part 
of the shaft, entirely limited to this or gradually implicating the rest, 
and the freedom from all change in colour in the under-fur, incline the 
balance of evidence to the latter opinion, and, moreover, indicate a 
capability of action of one portion of the shaft of the hair indepen- 
dently of any general change aifecting the whole, and derived from 
the organism within. It would seem that the rapid development of 
new hairs, varying in no appreciable respect except colour from the 
pile, called forth by the increasing rigours of climate for the pro- 
tection of the animal frame, involves the autumnal outer fur in the 
same process, leading to an increased length and thickness in the 
shaft of the hair by the superposition of layers of the same colour- 
less cells entering into the structure of the new growth — perhaps 
combined also with an arrested production of pigmentary matter. 

Although, as a general rule, it may be stated that the hybernal 
change commences about the first week in October, and is finished the 
first week in December, thus occupying two months, yet departures 
from it are not at all uncommon, both as regards the comparison of 
one individual with another at the same period of time, and as regards 
the modifications consequent on yearly climatic variations. For ex- 
ample, a specimen shot in December 1866 was only beginning to turn 
white. On November 6th, 1867, a skin (before the first fall of snow) 
had a head piebald, feet white, back with a scattered white hair, no 
undergrowth. On November 18th (after the first fall), two Hares were 
shot in the same vicinity, one changing, the other not. On the 22nd, 
from a high ground, one was perfectly white on head and feet, and 
on each side and around the tail deeply patched of the same colour ; 
the other showed only slight superficial changes, but on separating the 
fur the new growth was easily detected, linch in length, hidden under 
the autumnal coat. Again, on the 21st one was in the same state as 
the preceding, while another from the same vicinity presented a dark 
streak along the centre of the hack gradually fading into the white 
sides ; change elsewhere accomplished except on centre of forehead. 
On the 28th one was pure white. In the first week in December 
1868 one was complete in the change; another was still very brown 
along the spine. On the 11th December 18G8 three were examined, 
—one, ears not whitened at all in front, feet very reddish, body 
changed ; another, feet changed, side of face mottled, centre of back 
not yet implicated ; the third, complete except a patch on each side 



1869.] MR. F. H. WELCH ON LEPUS AMliRICANUS. 235 

of the face. Altliougli the examples quoted demonstrate how indi- 
vidual peculiarities, apart from age, sex, or habitation, may modity 
a general law, there can be no doubt that the change is essentially 
dependent on the season, and is hastened or retarded by its severity or 
otherwise. On the seaboard it is postponed in comparison with inland 
districts in the same latitudes. Sir J. Richardson remarked the early 
change of i. americaniis in the Hudson's Bay Territory, as well as the 
carrying of its winter coat until June. He also especially mentions 
" the absence of change of dress in the winter time in the southern 
parts of the United States"*. 1 am informed that one kept in con- 
finement at St. John's, N. B., in a warm barn, retained the summer 
colours. Respecting the popular idea of the white- fur coinciding 
with the first fall of snow, careful observation does not corroborate it. 
The change is essentially gradual, and spread over some seven weeks ; 
but the rapidity with which the new white growth, when it first ren- 
ders itself apparent externally, involves the entire surface of the back 
may somewhat explain the popular belief on the subject, although 
at least seven days must be taken up in this part of the process. 

The winter's coat is generally carried in New Brunswick until the 
middle of May, when it is gradually shed, so that in June the animal 
may be said to have assumed its summer fur. Thus five months 
may be regarded as the period during which in this province L. 
americanus is clothed in white — from December to April ; two 
mouths are occupied by the autumnal change, and one by the vernal. 
We have seen how in the Arctic regions the duration of the winter 
coat is extended, and its absence in southern latitudes. Considering 
the increased duration of the winter coat over the sunnner one in 
proportion to the seasons, as well as its importance to the animal in 
assimilating it to the natural features of the country for the greater 
part of the year, and as a protection against cold and its numerous 
enemies, it would be rational to regard the winter fur as the ordinary 
coat of this Hare in New Brunswick and northern climes, and the 
summer change its modification ; the opposite would hold good in more 
southern latitudes, in sequence to the relative length of the seasons. 

The dimensions of this Rodent, as met with in New Brunswick, 

are as follows : — 

ft. in. 

Length from nose to end of tail 1 fi 

from ear to end of hind leg stretched .... 2 .5 

of ears 3 

of head S-7h 

Fore leg, from middle toe to ulna extremity ..... 6 

— , from wrist-joint to middle claw 2" 9 

Hind leg, from middle claw to hip-articulation . . 12 

— foot, from middle toe to calcis 6 

, breadth posteriorly 0| 

, breadth anteriorly 1| 

, ,, „ when expanded 4 

Average weight, 3 lb. 

* AppcMidix to Parry's Arctic Expedition. L. iimcricanus. 



236 MR. W. V. LEGGE ON PEDIONOMUS. [Apr. 8, 

Thus the pecuHarity of L. americanus consists in the develop- 
ment of the feet relatively to the body generally, as contrasted with 
other species. Although only weighing 3 lb. in New Brunswick, 
against 6| lb. in southern districts, with a corresponding diminution 
in the dimensions of the body, the feet yet retain fully as great deve- 
lopment in one as the other. L. timidus, with an average weight of 
8 lb., and length '26 inches, has a hind foot only 5| inches long ; 
whilst L. variabilis, with an average length of body of 23 inches, has 
also 5^ inches. L. ylacialis, found in common with the American, 
7 lb. weight, and 22-6 inches long, has dimensions as follows : — from 
wrist-joint to end of claw 2 inches 9 lines, heel to point of middle claw 
5 inches 9 lines* Not only is the foot of i. americanus proportionately 
lengthened, but a remarkable degree of lateral extension is allowed 
between the metacarpal and metatarsal bones, with great laxity of 
the web membrane. Inhabiting the woody districts, where the snow 
remains deep and soft during the greater part of the winter, the 
advantage of such a modification in the feet, especially when com- 
bined with the lengthened stiff winter hair on the treading-surface, 
is apparent, allowing it to pass over the softest snow with the slightest 
impress, and thus giving it the power of eluding by swiftness its 
numerous enemies. A recent impress of these natural snow-shoes 
gave the following shape and dimensions : — Fore feet oval, each 
3| inches long by 2 inches broad. Hind feet egg-shaped (large 
end anteriorly), each 6 inches long by 3 inches in front and \h inch 
behind. 

The average snow-shoes adapted to an ordinary-sized man have a 
superficial area 5| inches for each pound in weight, which is extended 
in tliis Rodent to 11-4 inches. In the Hudson's Bay Territory L. 
glacialis and L. americanus exist in the same district, the one inha- 
biting the open barrens, the other the soft snowy woodlands. 

It appears much to be desired that the modifications in the feet 
and winter coat of this Rodent, under different latitudes and varia- 
tions of natural conditions, should be accurately traced out, inasmuch 
as the indications are that, both in the one and the other, they 
fully illustrate the capability of external circumstances to call forth 
structural changes, placing the animal frame in harmony with the 
surrounding natural features, and allowing it to compete advan- 
tageously with its numerous and powerful enemies in the great 
struggle for existence. 



3. Notes on the Habits of the Collared Plain Wanderer 
{Pedionomus torquatm, Gould) . By W. Vincent Legge^ 

r.z.s. 

Mr. Gould says this bird is not uncommon in South Australia, 
where it inhabits the plains of the interior; but I think he does 
not record its presence in Victoria. It makes its appearance in 



1869.] MR. W. V. LEGGE ON PEDIONOMUS. 237 

the vicinity of Melbourne in the summer, coming down from the 
interior along with Coturnix pectoralis, probabl}' for the pur- 
pose of breeding, and departing northward, I should say, about 
April. 

Much of the country round Melbourne, including the district 
called the Keilor Plains, is in features suited to the habits of the 
" Collared Plain Wanderer ;" and one or two individuals fall every 
season to the gun of the sportsman, as it is found in the same loca- 
lities as the Pectoral Quail. It was in the vicinity of the Keilor 
Plains that I met last January with this singular bird ; and as the 
-locality I found it in was a field of short English grass, I had, for- 
tunately, ample opportunity of observing minutely for some time its 
actions and deportment. In these it has every resemblance to a 
grallatorial. and, as far as can be seen from short observation, very 
httle to a rasorial bird. It runs at a medium pace hither and 
thither, checking itself and pausing at times, at the same time twist- 
ing about its high-carried head like a member of the Plover family. 
When in a state of quiescence, it holds itself erect with its head 
raised. Its mode of flight, however, is entirely peculiar to the bird 
Itself; It rises suddenly, and for a little space proceeds with a dip- 
ping Finch-like motion, and then settles down into a steady flutter- 
ing flight, reminding one somewhat of a young Lark. A very 
peculiar feature was exemplified in a second individual (the mate of 
the bird the actions of which I have just described), which, after 
I had flushed it several times, flew off and perched on the lower rail 
of a " post-and-rail " fence ; it remained in this position for a couple 
of minutes, and then again took flight. 

What I would wish here to call particular attention to is the ese: 
of Fedionomus torquatus, which I took perfect in shape and colora- 
tion out of the specimen now before me. It was very large for the 
bird and was Plover-like, being pyriform and of the exact shape and 
dimensions of the egg of Charadrius hiaticula. It was of a green- 
ish white ground-colour, blotted and speckled, principally at the 
arger end, and faintly streaked throughout, with umber-brown and 
hlac-grey. In form, then, the egg resembles that of a Wader, though 
ttie coloration is somewhat peculiar. 

As some authors arrange this bird in the family of the Turni- 
cidcB, while Bonaparte regards it as belonging to Coturnia: (solely on 
account of the presence of the hallux, I suppose), it seems a disputed 
point where to place it exactly. To the mind of the inquiring though 
inexperienced naturalist the subject presents some difliculties, as the 
bird appears intermediate between the rasorial and grallatorial orders 
and to belong to a separate group. Its habits and actions, the shape 
of its head and bill (which latter is longer than that of other mem- 
f 1 .M , '^'"''^"'1"''^^ family), its length of leg (especially that 
of the tibial joint, so much of which is bare), the delicate structure 
of tlie leg, moreover, and its feet, its Bustard-like upper pluma<re 
and chiefly Its egg place it somewhat near the Grallatores ■ while 
IS diminutive size, the contour of its body, and the Quail-hke tail 
show its affinities to the rasorial birds. 



238 DR. A. GIJNTHER ON FISHES FROM ST. HELENA. [Apr. 8, 

The following are a few of the exact measurements, taken from 

the specimen in my collection : — . , 

inch. 

Bill, from gape to tip of upper mandible | 

Tibia ji 

Bare portion of tibia, from tarsal joint i 

Tarsus , 1 

Middle toe 1 

Is it not probable that other members of a group in which this 
bird might be placed may in future be found in the unknown north- 
western districts of the continent? The fact of representation of 
species between the north and south is true with regard to most 
forms of the Australian avifauna. 



4. Report of a second Collection of Fishes made at St. Helena 
by J. C. Melliss, Esq. By Dr. Albert GuntheKj 
F.R.S., F.Z.S., &e. 

(Plate XVI.) 

The British INIuseum received in the month of June of last year 
a second collection of fishes made at St. Helena by J. C. Melliss, 
Esq. With regard to the preservation and number of the specimens 
it proved to be as valuable as the first, of which an account is given in 
the ' Proceedings' of this Society (1868, pp. 225-228). I have now 
also examined the Eels, which are evidently very well represented in 
that part of the ocean. Their descriptions will be found in the eiglith 
volume of the ' Catalogue of Fishes ;' but I may mention that the 
new genus Myroconger is of great interest, being a Murcena with 
pectoral fins. The following list contains twenty-one species, which 
raise the total number of fishes collected by Mr. Melliss to fifty-six. 
As in my former paper, I have marked the localities from which the 
species were previously known, thereby indicating the affinity of 
this fauna to that of other parts of the Atlantic: — 

1. Polymixia nobilis, Lowe. Madeira. 

2. Myripristis jacobus, C. & V. West Indies, Brazil. 

3. Chcetodon dichrous, sp. n. 

4. Auxis rochei, Risso. Tropical seas. 

5. Caranx erumenophthalmus, Bl. Tropical seas. 

6. Caranx hippos, L. Tropical seas. 

7. Antennarius pinnicej)s, C. & V. Tropical seas. 

8. Antennarius multiocellatus, var. /3, Gthr. Caribbean Sea. 

9. Acanthurus chirurgus, Bl. Atlantic coasts of Tropical Ame- 
rica and Africa. 

1 0. Heliastes niurginatus, Castel. Coasts of Brazil and California. 

11. Suurus atlanticus, io\\wi,ow.. Madeira, Zanzibar. 

1 2. Saurns myops, Forst. Tropical seas. 



x; 

1 — 1 

Ph 
O) 
CO 

00 

CO 

M 
Oh 







CO 

p 

o 

o 

p 

o 

G 
o 

o 



■3 



1869.] LIEUT.-COL. PLAYFAIR ON THE FISHES OF ZANZIBAR. 239 

13. Exocoetus cyanopterus, C. & V. Brazil. 

14. Conger vulgaris, Cuv., var. nigra. Europe, South America, 
East lud. archipel., Japan, Tasmania. 

\i). Congromurcena meliissii, sp. n. 

16. Ophichthys regius, Shaw. St. Helena. 

17. Myroconger compressus, g. et sp. n. 

18. Murcena Jlavopicta, Kaup. Tropical Atlantic. 

19. Murcena sanctce helence, sp. n. 

20. Mur(B7ia moringa, Cuv. Tropical Atlantic. 

21. Murcena unicolor, liQldi^oche. Mediterr., Madeira. 

The new Chastodon may be described as follows : — 
Ch.etodon dichrous. (Plate XVI.) 
D-i- A.^. L.lat. 53. 

Snout rather produced, a little longer than the eye, with the upper 
profile concave ; prseoperculum slightly serrated. Dorsal spines 
strong, the third and fourth the longest, two-thirds of the length of 
the head ; the soft portion of the dorsal and anal fins low, rounded. 
Body bicoloured — the anterior parts to the fourth dorsal spine and 
the lower half of the fish being uniform brown, the remainder (tail 
and caudal fins included) pinkish white. The scales of the lateral 
line silvery. 

There is only one example of this remarkable species in the col- 
lection ; it is 5 inches long. 



5. Further Contributions to the Ichthyology of Zanzibar. 
By Lieut.-Col. R. L. Playfair, H.B.M. Consul-General 
in Algeria. With a Note by Dr. A. Gxjnther. 

A large cask of fishes was lately sent to me by Dr. Kirk from Zan- 
zibar ; but, for want of adequate accommodation for examining so 
extensive a collection, I was compelled, after a single cursory in- 
spection, to close the cask again and send it to the British Museum. 
I, however, kept a few small specimens ; and amongst these I find 
one new species, and two others which I had not before observed on 
the east coast of Africa. They are : — 

Antknnarius nigromaculatus, sp. n. 

D. 3|12. A. 7. P. 10. 

It is not without considerable reluctance that I venture to describe 
a new species oi Antennarius with the limited means of identification 
at my disposal in Algeria ; but this specimen differs so distinctly 
from all I have observed at Zanzibar and Seychelles, and from ail 
that I can find recorded, that I am inclined to regard it as an unde- 
scribed species. 

Diagnosis. — Cleft of mouth subvertical and ascending in an oblique 
line, slightly inclined backwards. Length of maxillary bone one- 



240 LIEUT.-COL. PLAYFAIR ON THE FISHES OF ZANZIBAR. [Apr. 8, 

sixth that of the body. Anterior dorsal spine filiform, terminating 
in a lanceolate trifid (or fringed ?) lobe ; its length is more than twice 
that of the second spine, which is about one-half that of the third. 
The third is remote from the soft dorsal, but connected with it by a low 
cutaneous fold. The end of the soft dorsal is remote from the base 
of the caudal; it is quite unconnected with it, and the last ray does 
not reach so far if laid backwards ; anal not half the length of the soft 
dorsal. There are a few very minute tentacles on the lower jaw, but 
none on the body. A cutaneous fold runs along the sides a little 
distance below and parallel to the base of the soft dorsal, than which 
it is somewhat shorter. Skin rough, covered with minute spines. 

Colour. — Ground-colour brownish, a large black patch extending 
over the whole of the abdominal region ; other smaller mass-like 
patches below chin, on sides of head, on upper part of body, soft 
dorsal, anal, and across the tail ; these sometimes anamostose and 
enclose spots of the ground-colour ; several round ocelli above base 
of pectorals and on base of dorsal ; all the patches and ocelli have 
light edges, as also have the pectoral and ventral fins. 

Length 4 inches. 

DiAGRAMMA ORIENTALE. 

Anthias orientalis, Bl. t. 326. f. 3. 
Serranus orientalis, Cuv. & Val. ii. p. 318. 

Diagramma orientale, Cuv. & Val. v. p. 299, pi. 124 ; Giinth. 
Fish. i. p. 326. 

D. sibbaldii, Benn. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1832, p. 182. 
Zanzibar. Seas of Ceylon and Bali. 

Prosopodasys leucogaster. 

Prosopodasys leucogaster, Richardson, Voy. Samarang, Zool. Fish, 
pi. 5. f. 1, 2; Gunth. Fish. ii. p. 141. 

Height of body less than length of head, and one-fourth of total. 
Lower jaw slightly prominent, cleft of mouth oblique ; maxillary 
reaches slightly beyond centre of eye. Interorbital space much less 
than orbit. Prseorbital with two spines, of which the first is rather 
small, and the second very long. Lifraorbital with bony ridges, but 
no distinct spine. Prseoperculum with five spines ; the interoper- 
culum with one, and the operculum with two bony ridges. The 
first dorsal spine is situated before the posterior of orbit ; it and the 
two succeeding ones are contiguous with, but rather remote from, 
the remainder ; the third is the longest ; the fourth is situated above 
the opercular margin. Caudal acutely rounded. Ventrals reach- 
ing to the vent, and pectorals much beyond it. Head and body 
naked. 

Colour brownish, marbled with darker and lighter. Upper part 
of head black ; a black spot on spinous dorsal between fifth and 
eighth spine. 

Length 2^ inches. 

Zanzibar. 



1869.] MR. C. HORNE ON THE GREY HORNUILL. 



241 



Addendum. By Dr. A. Gunther. 

Col. Playfair has sent to the British Museum, besides the fishes 
described in the preceding paper, an example of a small Labroid fish, 
which he regarded as a new species of Lahrichthys, requesting me 
to examine it also. It proves to be identical with Lahrichthys cya- 
notcenia of Bleeker ; but it would have been difficult to recognize it 
from Bleeker's description, as he has omitted to say that the ground- 
colour of examples preserved in spirits changes into black. Beside 
an example sent by Dr. Bleeker as L. cyanoffsnia, the British Mu- 
seum possesses an example of Thysanochilus ornatus of Kner. This 
I find is identical with the Zanzibar fish, although it appears really 
to be the type of a distinct genus closely allied to Labroides, for 
which the name proposed by Kner ought to be retained. The 
synonymy is : — 

Thysanochilus cyanot^nia. 

Lahrichthys cyanotcenia, Blkr, 
Thysanochilus ornatus, Kner. 
Samoa Islands, Flores, Zanzibar. 

Specimens in the British Museum : — 

a. 6i inches long. Samoa Islands. Type of Th. ornatus. 

b. 3 J inches long. Flores 1 (L. cyanotcenia.) 

c. 3j inches long. Zanzibar. 



6. Notes on the Common Grey Hornbill of India {Meniceros 
bicornis). By C. Horne, F.Z.S. 

Dr. Jerdon, in his 'Birds of India' (vol. i. p. 244), has briefly 
sketched tlie habits of the Homrai, or Great Hornbill, and allusion 
is there made to its curious custom of building-up its mate in the 
hole of a tree for the purposes of incubation ; and I observe that 
Mr. Wallace, in an interesting article in the 'Intellectual Observer' 
(June 1863), states that a similar habit has been observed in at least 
three species, including that under notice. 

Dr. Jerdon also quotes Major S. R. Tickell as having " seen this 
with his own eyes." 

The number of observers must of necessity have been very small 
who have had the opportunity of watching the process of nidifica- 
tion ; and as I only last year was so fortunate, I have deemed the 
subject worthy of a note. 

The beak, neck, and tail of this bird being long, and the wings 
comparatively short, its flight is rather undulating, accompanied by 
frequent flapping of the wings, as the bird traverses the short dis- 
tance from grove to grove in search of its favourite food, the fig of 
the Peepul tree {Ficus religiosa). Moreover, as during its flight it 
often utters its harsh note, it is a bird which attracts the notice of 
the most casual observer. It often flies in threes ; and a visit from 



242 MR. C. HORNE ON THE GREY HORNUILL. [Apr. 8, 

these birds is much to be dreaded in well-stocked fruit-gardens. It 
feeds on all kinds of fruit, but more especially on figs, whether cul- 
tivated or of the wild varieties. The bird, its beak, and its structure 
have been so often described, that I will confine my remarks to what 
I have myself observed. 

During the year 186/ I was resident at Mainpuri, N.AV. pro- 
vinces, India, and was much troubled with these birds, of which I 
shot a dozen. This was an easy matter, as when in search of food 
they are very fearless. 1 observed its habit of climbing by the 
beak, somewhat as a Parrot does ; and the way in which they cleared 
the trees of fruit and jerked the said fruit into their throats, after 
seizing it with the points of their beak, was very curious. 

I had some very choice, large, loose-skinned oranges ; and I often 
found apparently entire skins only still attached to the twig, the 
whole of the inside having been extracted, piece by piece, section by 
section, by this clever " Dhaiiel," as he is there called. 

In April 1868 I received intelligence of two nests, and found that 
both had been made in the trunks of " Seemal," or cotton-trees 
(Bombax heptaj)hyllum), the bird having dug out and enlarged with 
his bill holes in this soft wood which had been previously used by 
Parrots. 

In each case I obtained three eggs ; and the hole, at a great height 
from the ground, appeared to have been plastered up with cowdung, 
or something nearly resembling it. I could not, however, determine 
this positively, as in each case I had to go some six or eight miles, 
and so had no opportunity of observing the process. The bird 
which I took from one nest had lost many of her loosely put-on 
feathers, and appeared to be in bad condition. As, however, the 
natives wanted her flesh for medicinal purposes, I allowed them to 
take her. 

I was, however, more fortunate at the close of the same month 
(April 1868). On my lawn, surrounded by other trees, stood a 
noble sissoo-tree {Dahlbergia sissoo) ; and where the first great fork 
diverged was a hole, for the possession of which for purposes of in- 
cubation the Rollers and Parrots were always noisily contending. I 
had often wished the Hornbills to use this ; and I was much pleased 
to see that, after great consultation and inspection, and vociferation 
by the Rollers, and screeching by the Parrots, they on April 28, 
1868, made up their minds to use it. The hole was nearly a foot in 
depth, and roomy inside. On the 29th of April the female went 
into the hole, and did not again come out. 

There was sufficient room in it for the female to draw in her head 
altogether when she wished to conceal herself or to bring up the 
ordure from below. 

The hole being about 10 feet from the ground and opposite my 
verandah, I could watch everything perfectly through a glass. The 
tree was also very near to the house. 

From the time the female went in, the male was most assiduous 
in feediug her, bringing generally the small Peepul-fig. 

On April 30th I observed the female working hard at closing the 



<gvrMuse:. 



^ 7 S 1869 PI. XVII 




J SMIT LITE 



M &■_ "N BANT1/J*T IMP 



NESTS OF PLOCEUS BAYA. 



18G9.] MR. C. HORNE ON PLOCEUS BAYA. 243 

orifice with her own ordure. This she must have brought up from 
the bottom of the hole ; and she plastered it right and left with the 
flat sides of her beak, as with a trowel. 

I never saw the male bring anything but food ; and I never found 
any fruit which had been rejected under the tree, and but very little 
ordure, which latter had apparently been thrown out by the female 
when the closing-work was finished. 

The male bird would alight near, then fly to the hole, holding on 
to the bark by his claws, and knock with his beak. On this the 
points of that of the female appeared and received the fruit, when 
the male flew off. 

I herewith beg to submit some of the substance with which the 
hole was closed up, which is manifestly what I suppose it to be, 
and when fresh, possesses great viscidity. It contains the remains 
of insects, which probably the female had eaten before she entered 
the hole — thus confirming Dr. Jerdon's statement as to their various 
diet. 

The hole was at first perhaps G inches in height, and .3 or 4 wide. 
When closed up, the opening at the widest part was a httle larger 
than would admit the finger. It should, however, be borne in mind 
that the bill opened upwards, and thus had 3 or 4 inches play. The 
plastering-operation took two or three days, after which the ordure 
was thrown out. 

The third Hornbill used to hover about, watch proceedings, and 
sometimes quarrel with the accepted lord, but he never brought 
food to the female. 

On May 7, thinking that I had given time enough for the female 
to lay her three eggs, which I wanted, I got a ladder, opened out 
the nest, and with some difliiculty got out the bird, who was fat and 
in good condition, with the desired eggs (three). At first she could 
scarcely fly, but did so after a little time. 

The natives, who know the habits of these birds well, told me 
that the female digs herself out directly her newly hatched young 
need food ; and this is most probably correct. 



7. Notes on Ploceus baya and its Nest. 
By C. HoRNE, F.Z.S. 

(Plate XVII.) 

In submitting these notes upon Ploceus baya I do not suppose 
that I am narrating anything not previously observed, although 1 
have never met with any account of the method in which this inge- 
nious bird obtains its material. 

I cannot solve the mystery of the lumps of clay found in the 
nests, although I have examined many at all seasons for the pur- 
})Ose. I may remark, however, that I have seldom, if ever, found a 
finished nest without them. 



244 MR. C. HORNE ON PLOCEUS BAYA. [Apr. 8, 

Here is an extract from my journal : — " This morning (July 7, 
I860), as T passed our solitary palm tree {Phoenix dactylifera) in 
the field, I heard a strange twittering overhead, and looking up saw 
such a pretty sight as I shall never forget. 

" In this tree hung some thirty or forty of the elegantly formed 
nests of woven grass of the Baya bird, so well known to all. The 
heavy storms of May and June had torn away many and damaged 
others, so as to render them, as one would think, past repair. Not 
so thought the birds ; for a party of about sixty had come to set them 
all in order. 

" These little birds are about the size of a Sparrow, and have 
yellow in their crests, and are darker about the wings, being paler 
below, with shortish tails. The scene in the tree almost baffles 
description. Each bird and his mate thought only of their own nest. 
How they selected it I know not, and I should like much to have 
seen them arrive. I suppose the sharpest took the best nests, for 
they varied much iu condition. Of some of the nests, two-tliirds 
remained, whilst others were very nearly all blown away. Some of 
the birds attempted to steal grass from other nests, but generally 
got pecked away. 

"As the wind was blowing freshly, the nests swung about a good 
deal ; and it was pretty to see a little bird fly uj) in a great hurry 
with a long bit of grass in his beak. He would sit outside the nest 
holding on by his claws, with the grass under them. He would 
then put the right end into the nest with his beak, and the female 
inside would pull it through and put it out for him again ; and thus 
the plaiting of the nest went on. All this was done amidst tremen- 
dous chattering, and the birds seemed to think it great fun. When 
a piece was used up one would give the other a peck, and he or she 
would fly oflP for more material, the other sitting quietly till the 
worker returned. Nests in every stage of building aff'orded every 
position for the bird, who seemed at home in all of them. The joy, 
the life, the activity, and general gaiety of the birds I shall never 
forget. 

"July 11, 1865. — To-day I noticed that nearly all the nests had 
been repaired, and the birds were more scattered, either helping 
themselves to my Jowahor {Sorghum vulgare) in the field or collect- 
ing insects. 

"July 20. — I observed some eight or ten newly built nests on the 
ground under the tree, which I believe to have been deliberately cut 
ofl" from their supports by the thievish Striped Squirrels (Sciurus 
palmarum) for use by them in their nests. Some of these had un- 
broken eggs in them. 

"August 18. — Noticed to-day how the birds obtain their grass. 
The little bird alights at the edge of the high strong Seenta grass 
{Atidropoffon euripeta ?) with its head down, and bites through the 
edge to the exact thickness which it requires. It then goes higher 
up on the same blade of grass, and having considered the length 
needed, bites through it again. It then seizes it firmly at the lowest 
notch and flies away. Of course, the strip of grass tears off and 



18(i9.] DR. J. E. GRAY ON THK SPOTTED HY^NA. 245 

stops at the notch. It then flies along, with the grass streaming 
behind it. As the edge of the grass is much serrated, the bird 
has to consider and pass it throngh the work the right way. This 
serration renders it so difficult to pull a nest to pieces, and makes 
the same nest last for years. 

In some instances the male continues to build for amusement after 
the nest is finished, not only elongating the tubular entrance, hut 
also making a kind of false nest. 

Before the colony ceased building there were more than seventy 
nests in the tree, which is represented in the photograph now exhibited 
(Plate XVII.). Three great notches may be seen on the trunk. These 
were made when the tree was smaller, by baring a side of the crown 
and tapping the trunk for toddy to be used in bread-making. This 
operation so weakened the tree, that last year in a violent storm the 
crown broke off, and thus destroyed the whole settlement. 



8. Note on the Young of the Spotted Hysena [Crocuta macu- 
latu). By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S.*, V.P.Z.S., &c. 

The British Museum has lately acquired a very young female pup 
of the Spotted Hysena (^Crocuta maculata), which was born in the 
Society's Gardens. 

The animal is covered with a short soft fur of nearly uniform 
length, of a nearly uniform rather brownish- black colour, which is 
rather paler on the face. It is without any indication of spots. The 
tail is slender, tapering. There is a stuffed specimen of a rather 
older and larger male in the British Museum, which was preserved 
by M. Verreaux at the Cape ; it is of the same uniform tint, but is 
much paler, and has become paler than it originally was on one side 
by exposure in the case, 

I may observe that the pups of the Striped Hysena {Hycena 
striata) are pale and streaked like the adult. There are some spe- 
cimens of very young pups of this species in the British Museum. 

The skull of the very young female pup is solid ; and the bones 
are well ossified, and united in all parts by very narrow and often 
indistinct sutures. The bullae of the ears are peculiar for having a 
large space on the outer side of the under surface only covered with 
membrane, which has the opening of the ear in the upper part near 
the margin of its outer side. This disk occupies about one-third of 
the lower surface of the bony bullae. The cutting-teeth and the 
canines are well developed, the cutting-teeth in each of the jaws 
being placed in a straight line, the outer tooth in each series being 
rather the largest. The grinders are not developed above the alveoli ; 
but their situation is indicated by the dried pulps. There are three 
pulps on each side of each jaw : the two front ones on each side of 
the upper jaw, belonging to the premolars, are small ; the others in 
both jaws are rather large. 

Pkoc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XVII. 



2-^6 DR. J, E. GRAY ON THE SPOTTED HY.ENA. [Apr. 8, 

Fig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 




Fig. 1. Skull of young HyEcna (lateral view). 

2. Lower surface of ditto. 

3. Left ramus of lower jaw. 



1869.] UR. E. HAMILTON ON A VARIETY OF THE COMMOT* FOX. 247 

The upper jaw, when cut away at the side (as shown in fig. 1, 
p. 24f)), exhibits a very ruditnentary canine tooth of the adult series, 
and three molars, the middle being the flesh-tooth of the milk-series. 

The lower jaw shows thice molars of the milk-series in a moderate 
state of development, and a cavity in which the large hinder molar 
is to be developed, but which is now in a very rudimentary state. 

The first tooth indicated on the edge of the jaw is the permanent 
canine, and the two other teeth are the anterior molars. 

I am not aware that the skull of the young animal of this genus 
has been figured ; so I have had some drawings, to illustrate this 
paper, made by Mr. Ford. 



9. On a Variety of the Canis vulpes ( Vulpes vulgaris, Brisson) 
found in the Forest of the Ardennes^ Belgium. By Dr. 
Edward Hamilton, F.L.S. 

The Prince of Musignano, in his ' Fauna Italica,' describes a variety 
of the Canis vulpes under tlie name of melanog aster, and claims 
specific characters, in that the colour of the fur on the throat, chest, 
and abdomen is l)lack instead of whitish grey ; the head and back 
dark greyish, and mixed with a quantity of silver hairs ; the tail 
more bushy, and furnished with a white tip. Mr. Gerrard, in his 
* Catalogue of Bones in the British Museum,' places the Vulpes mela- 
nogaster as a distinct species. Dr. Gray, "Catalogue of the Canidse" 
(P. Z. S. 18G8, p. 51.')), describes it as a variety only; Ilab. Italy. 
Linnaeus describes a variety, Canis alopex, with a straight tail black 
at the tip, and smaller than the Canis vulpes. Bufion's Reuurd 
charbonnier, or Alopex europceus, is of a silver greyish colour, tail 
tipped with white ; remarkable black feet and legs, which appear 
as if produced by charcoal-dust, hence its name; it is smaller than 
the common Fox. Hab. Burgundy. 

The variety which I bring before the notice of the Society was 
shot last autumn in the Forest of the Ardennes, near Rochefort, in 
Belgium. The hunters there know it under the name of " Le Renard 
Noir." It is comparatively rare; about five or six are killed during 
the season. It is larger than the Common Fox, and a very active 
animal. Colour brownish grey, mixed with silver-grey hairs ; deep 
brownish red stripe extending down the back, lighter towards the tail ; 
head, face, and neck brownish red, mixed with silver-grey ; throat, 
chest, and abdomen black, merging into blackish grey at the posterior 
part ; tail blackish brown on the upper part, blackish yellow beneath, 
the tip black ; fore legs blackish grey from shoulder to claws ; hind 
legs, a blackish grey stripe running from the hip and becoming 
black at the feet. 

The skin measures from tip of nose to root of tail 3 feet ; tail 
1 foot 6 inches. Approximate height at shoulders 1 foot 5-6 inches. 

In comparing the skin with the figure given by the Prince of 
Musignano (/. c.) there is a great similarity, with the exception of 



•248 LIEUT. Die CRESPIGNY ON THE HABITS OF AN ACTINIA. *[Apr, 8, 

the -white tip to the tail and the size, the Ardennes variety being a 
much larger and stronger animal. Nilsson describes a variety very 
like the Vulpes melanogaster as inhabiting Scandinavia. 



10. Notes on the Frieudship existing between the Malacopte- 
rygian Fish Premnas biaculeatus and the Actinia crassi- 
cornis. By Lieut. C. C. De Crespigny*. 

The Anemone here spoken of is found at Labuan in various ha- 
bitats — sometimes domiciled in rows along the horizontal fissures of 
sandstone rocks (the positions being chosen so that at low water 
they may be just awash), in other cases surrounding and covering 
a mass of exposed dead madrepore. It is also found attached to 
rocks or dead coral some inches under the surface of the sand, and 
from this vantage ground protruding or withdrawing its tentacula at 
pleasure, so that when they are withdrawn the animal is no longer 
visible. On a calm evening, when the tide is out, one may observe 
with advantage the sympathy which appears to exist between this 
animal and the little fish called Premnas biaculeatus. The Actinia 
is in a state of quiescence, allowing its tentacula to float and move 
about freely in obedience to the impulse of each ripple of the water, 
they being now supple, pointed at the extremities, and gravitating 
downwards. A Pre7mias now passes over the Anemone, and imme- 
diately the tentacula become erect and diverge as if galvanized, while 
their extremities become clubby and phosphorescent. 

The fish hovers over it, gently rubbing the tentacula with his 
pectoral fins, and so will remain for some time. The hand-net is 
passed quietly down under the Anemone, and the alarmed fisli, 
instead of swimming away, dives into the body of its friend, the 
tentacles closing over it and thus burying it in a living tomb. Tlie 
hand of the captor now disturbs the fish in its hidden retreat, and 
upon its again rushing forth from its hiding-place the net is drawn 
to the surface of the water and the little fellow captured. The 
natural colour of this fish is pale red, having three perpendicular 
white stripes on the body. Upon its attaining full growth, however, 
when it is from four to 'five inches long, it becomes almost black, 
and the stripes are very nearly obliterated. In captivity I have 
known an Anemone live in perfect harmony with a Premnas for 
nearly a year. One morning the fish was found dead outside its 
tub, from' which it had leapt in the night ; the Anemone sickened, 
became elongated and flaccid, and died in a few days. 

On the other hand, I have known a fish live in a tub for a long 
time without the society of its complementary Anemone. 

It may be that the "fish spawns upon the Anemone, or that by 
continually rubbing its fins against the extremities of the tentacles 
it rids itself and its friend of disagreeable parasites, or that it causes 
a continuous flow of water across the body of its friend, in which 
stream are conveyed the animalcula on which it lives. 
» Communicatefl by E. Iliggins, Esq., F.Z.S. 



1869,] MR. G. GULLIVER ON THE OESOPHAGUS OF THE AYE-AYE. 249 

These points may be determined by future observations. It will 
be noticed that the extremities of the fins and tail of tlie Premnas 
are attenuated to what appears to be the utmost degree consistent 
with cohesion of their molecules. 



April 22, 1869. 
The Viscount Walden, President, in the Chair. 

Mr. G. Dawson Rowley, F.Z.S., exhibited some specimens of Bri- 
tish-killed Pipits, and made the following observations upon them : — 

I have the pleasure to exhibit a series of Water-Pipits {Anthus 
oqiiaticus) and Rock-Pipits {Anthus ohscurus), all shot or taken near 
Brighton, in spring and autumn plumage, male and female respec- 
tively, showing the distinction between the two species in the several 
states. Only two or three of the former have ever been, I think, 
noticed in print as found in the British isles, and considerable con- 
fusion has existed in collections respecting them. I have at times 
observed each one doing duty for the oti)er, A. aqnaticua is not 
very common ; but it visits the south coast regularly in the spring, 
moves on to breed, and again stops with us a few weeks on its return 
in autumn. In spring it has a blue tinge on the back, with a vinous 
one on the chest, underparts greenish ; in the autumn dress these 
are lost, and the underparts turn pure white. The outer tail-feather 
also changes from buff to white. Males differ little from females. 



A communication was read from Mr. Thomas Graham Ponton, 
F.Z.S., containing a criticism of the arrangement of the shells of the 
genus Mangelia adopted by Reeve in his • Monograph,' in which it 
was pointed out that the seventy species of this group given in the 
♦ Conchologia Iconica' ought to be distributed amongst the genera 
Befruncia, Cythara, and Mangelia. Mr. Ponton gave a list of the 
species which he considered referable to each of these three genera, 
and proposed to assign one to Befrancia, fifty-three to Cythara, 
and sixteen to Mangelia. 

The following papers were read : — 

1. On tlae Muscular Sheath of the Cardiac End of the (Eso- 
phagus of the Aye- Aye {Chiromys madagascariensis) . 
By George Gulliver, F.R.S. 

Among the many inexplicable structural arrangements of animal 
organs is that of the comparative distribution of the striped muscular 
fibre to the same part in different orders ; and the obscurity is not 



250 MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN [-^Pl"- 22, 

lessened by the discovery of this fibre on the whole alimentary canal 
of the Tench* {Tinea vulgaris), after I had observed that this is not 
the case in some other cypriuoid fishes. 

Such facts tend to weaken the value in systematic zoology of the 
character afforded by the muscular sheath of the oesophagus. But 
whatever structure proves constant cannot be devoid of importance, 
however difficult the explanation may be ; and, so far as my limited 
observations liave gone, it is always easy to distinguish between 
certain orders of Mammalia, and these from birds and reptiles, 
simply by the muscular fibre of the oesophagus. For example, in 
the Quadrumana the striped muscular fibre stops short of the cardia, 
while in the Rodeutia this fibre extends quite to that part of the 
stomach, as has been more particularly described of these and other 
vertebrates in the ' Proceedings' of this Society (1842, p. 63 et seq.). 

Hence it seems desirable to add this character, for as much as it 
may be worth, to the descriptions already known respecting such 
Mammalia as may have a questionable position in systematic zoology. 
The Aye- Aye is one of these ; for it has been alternately placed 
among the Rodentia and Quadrumana. And by the courtesy of 
Mr. Flower I have examined for striated muscle about an inch of 
the cardiac end of tlie oesophagus of this animal, preserved in spirit 
of wine. The results were entirely negative. Not a single striped 
muscular fibre appeared, although the whole thickness of the oeso- 
phagus was examined, from the outer part of the preparation to the 
plaster with which it had been artificially distended ; in short, nothing 
of muscular tissue but the smooth variety could be found. And 
thus, so far as regards this point, the ffisophagus of the Aye-Aye is 
as unlike that of Rodentia as it is like that of Quadrumana — a fact 
which tends to support the latest and now general conclusion as to 
the afiinities of this singular animal. 



2. On Venezuelan Birds collected by Mr. A. Goeriug. By 
P. L. ScLATER, M.A., Ph.D.j F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, 
M.A., F.L.S.— Part Ill.t 

(Plate XVIII.) 

Mr. Anton Goering's present collection was principally formed in 
the vicinity of the Lake of Valencia, into which district he has made 

* Since tliis fact first came to my knowledge, tlirough the last edition of 
Professor Beale's excellent work on the Microscope, in which Weber is quoted 
as tlie observer, I have examined the intestines of the Tench, and foimd the 
striated muscnlar fibre on the greater part of its alimentary canal. The primi- 
tive muscular fascicles of the a?sophagus, stomach, and intestines ])resented an 
avei'age diameter of ^ .J.^ ., of an inch, while those of the dorsal and ventral muscles 
measured as much as ^^J-j-. Thus the striated fibres of the hollow muscles are 
only about one-fourth the thickness of those of the ordinary voluntary muscles ; 
and this agrees vrith my old measurements in fishes and other vertebrates, tabu- 
lated in the ' Proe. Zool. Soc' (1842, p. 08). 

t See Part I., P. Z. S. 1868, p. 165 ; Part II,, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 626. 



PZ S 1869 PI x\nii. 




J ssax UTE. 



M * N FtANHAHT Li£P 



BPjVCHY&ALBA &OERIN&I. 



1859.] ON VENEZUELAN BIRDS. 251 

excursions from San Esteban, near Puerto Cabello, where he has 

been lately resident. . f. , • , 

The collection contains altogether fifty-six species ot birds, most 
of which are already well known as inhabitants of this part of the 
continent of South America. There are, however, several of great 
interest among them, and one in particular, a new species of Jacarnar, 
which anpears to have been hitherto undescrihed. 

The following extracts from a letter recently received from Mr. 
Goering will give the Society some information concerning the loca- 
lities which he has lately explored, and the route which he is now 
intending to follow : — 

" The Lake of Valencia seems to be a station for birds which come 
from the llanos and from the river-districts of the south of Vene- 
zuela. When the swamps and the llanos are dry, thousands of birds 
resort to it. There is, however, great difficulty in obtaining a boat 
for the purpose of shooting, nearly all of them having been demo- 
lished during the recent revolution. The mountains on the south of 
the lake (the Serro Azul of Guiguc) are tenanted by the same birds 
as the coast-range ; but the vegetation is not so rank, and the species 
of small size appear to be less numerous. San Esteban is situated 
about six English miles inland from Puerto Cabello, in a valley, 
throuo^h which runs a small river. INIost of the birds obtained here 
are different from those found in eastern Venezuela, where my first 
collections were formed. It is singular that Cardinalis phcenicens, 
so common near Cariipano, is very rare here. I have never seen 
this bird on the hills, but only on the plains near the coast, which 
are covered with a simple vegetation of Mimosa, Cactus, &c. The 
Chasmorhynchus variegntus is common here, but only during the 
months of April and May. It is also abundant in the forests of 
Caripe ; and this spot seems to be nearly the extreme limit of its 

western range. _ , c, a • • 

" Speaking of Caripe', I may mention that the Steatorms is not 
only found in the well-known cave near that city, visited by Hum- 
boldt, but also inhabits several other caverns in the forests situated 
to the south-east. I visited three of these, and found one of them 
much larger than the cave of Caripe. It was eight English mdes in 
extent, and every part of it seemed to be inhabited by thousands of 
this wonderful bird. It is very impressive when, at sunset, they 
leave their subterranean abodes, and m.ake the forest resound with 

their shrill cries." . 

Mr. Goering contemplates moving his quarters into the feierra 
Nevada of Merida, to which district he will proceed by Maracaibo 

and Zuher. • i • Tir o • . 

The following is a list of the species contained in Mr. Goering s 
present collection, to which are added notes upon such of them as 
call for remark : — 

Name. Locality. 

1. Bonacobms atriciqyillus Lake of Valencia. 

2 Henicucichla novcbomcends Marana, north ol the lake. 

3. Bendrxca asttva «• side of the Lake of Valencia. 



252 MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN [A^P'- '-''^> 

Name. Locality. 

4. Geothlypis (equinoctialis Maruria. 

5. Hi/hphiliis acuticaudus Plain of Valencia. 

*(). Calliste cyaneicoUis Maruria. 

*7. Orysoboms melas San Esteban. 

8. Siiermophila lineola Maruria. 

*9. ocellata Plain of Valencia. 

10. C'oryphospingus pileatus Lake of Valencia. 

1 1 . Leisfes guiancnsis Plain of Valencia. 

12. Xanfhosomus icteroccpkalus Maruria. 

1 3. Cassidix ory^it'ora Plain of Valencia. 

*14. I'hilydur columhianus Coast-range of Puerto Cabello. 

15. Syiudlaxh cdbiyidarh Plain of Valencia. 

10. Lep>toxyura cinnamomca Lake of Valencia. 

17. Bendrornis siistirrans Guacara, Lake of Valencia. 

18. Myrmothcnda mcncfriesi San Esteban. 

ly. Form/cnrius crissd/is San Esteban. 

20. Arundiuicohi letuxicepJmla Marshes in the Plain of Valencia. 

21. Platyrhynchux cdbogularis Lake of Valencia. 

22. Cokiphrun pilaris N. side of the Lake of Valencia. 

*23. EuscarfhiiiKS impfffer Guacara, Lake of Valencia. 

24. Tyrann incus, sp. inc Maruria. 

25. Pyrocepholus rubineus Plain of Valencia. 

26. Milindus tyr annus Plain of Valencia. 

27. Vachyrhamphns, sp. inc. $ Guacara. 

28. Pipreola formosa Coast-range of Puei'lo Cabello. 

29. Pyrodcriis orcnocensis Puerto Cabello. 

*30. Brachyyalba gocringi, sp. no\ Maruria. 

31. Ccrylc amazona Lake of Valencia. 

32. Nyctidromus a^bicollls Maruria. 

33. Eamphasfos ambiguvs Guataparo. 

34. Falco cohnnburius, L Maruria and Lake of Valencia. 

35. Hy2>ofr iorc/i is femoud is (Temm.) Lake of Valencia. 

36. rvfigularis ( Daud. ) San Esteban . 

*37. Tinnimculus sparverius (L.) Plain of Valencia. 

38. Ehimts h'ucurus {Y\e\\\.) Lake of Valencia. 

39. Gampsonyx swainson i, Vig Maruria. 

40. Accipifcr bicolor (V'kiW.) Maruria. 

*41. Micrashir zonothorax Coast-range of Puerto Cabello. 

42. Vrubitinga meridivncdis (Lath.) Plain of Valencia. 

43. Circus macropicrus^YxdAX Plain of Valencia. 

44. Polyborus tharus (Mol.) Maruria. 

45. Milvago chi mail go (VieiW.) Lake of Valencia. 

46. Eiq^sychorfyx sonnini {Texnm..) Plain of Valencia. 

*47. Cryjifuriis sfrigidosns {Temm.) Serro Azul of Guiguc. 

48. Vanellus caycnnensis (Gm.) Lake of Valencia. 

49. JUgicdites collaris {\\e\\\.) Lake of Valencia. 

50. Limosa hudsonica (Lath. ) Lake of Valencia. 

51. Porzana Carolina (L.) Lake of A^alencia. 

62. Parra jacana, L Lake of Valencia. 

53. Ardca caridea, Jj Lsike of Valencia. 

54. Bidoridcs vircscens (L.) Lake of Valencia. 

55. Querquedida discors (L. ) Lake of Valencia. 

56. Podilymbits podiceps Lake of Valencia. 

6. Calliste cyaneicollis (Lafr. et d'Orb.). 

One example ( (S , iris dark brown) from the mountains south of 
the Lake of Valencia, where it is said to be "not common." 

This is evidently the bird described by Mr. Cassin (Pr. Ac. Sc. 
Phil. 1864, p. 287) as Calliste hannahice; but we are not convinced 



1869.] ON VENEZUELAN BIRDS. '2b3 

that the characters given by him to distinguish it from the true C. 
cijaneicollis are sufficient. Of two skins from Bogota in Sclater's 
collection, one has the blue abdomen, and one not. The latter, we 
may remark, is the original of Sclater's figure in his ' Monograph of 
Calliste" (pi. 38). The variation would therefore appear not to be 
constant in the same locality. We have not, however, yet had an 
opportunity of recomparing the Bogota skins with examples of C. 
cijaneicoUis from its typical country (Bolivia). 

7. Oryzoborus melas, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 979. 

One example from Esteban {S , bill silvery, legs greyish blue, 
above browner), apparently agreeing best with the bird described by 
us from Pebas. 

9. Spermophila ocellata, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1866, p. 181. 

One example from the plain of Valencia, "bill and legs black," 
agreeing with the birds described by us from Mr. Bartlett's collection, 
except in having the bill and legs black instead of brown, 

14. Philydor colombianus. Cab. et Hein. Mus. Hein. ii. p. 29; 
Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 170. 

One example ( tS , iris brown, legs yellowish brown) from the coast- 
range of Puerto Cabello, at an elevation of 1500 feet. 

23. Euscarthmus impiger, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 171, 
t. xm. f. 1. 

Another specimen of this Tyrant from the plain near Guacara, 
on the north side of the Lake of Valencia. " Iris yellowish white, 
legs bright flesh-colour. A quiet bird, generally found in the Mi- 
mosa bushes." 

30. Brachygalba goeringi, sp. nov. (Plate XVIII.) 

Supra ceneo-viridis, capite colloque toto fuscis, superciliis indi- 
stinctis et nucha dilutioribus, flavicante tinctis : subhis nigri- 
cans ; gutture, jiectore medio et ventre toto cum crisso pure 
albis, plumis in ventre medio ferrugineo tinctis : rostro et 
pedibus nigris : long, tota 7'0, ala 2'75, caudce 23, rostri a 
rictu 2'0 poll. Angl. 
Fem. Mari similis sed ventre medio fere omnino ferrugineo. 
Hab. in vicin. Lacus Valencise, in Venezuela. 
Obs. Sim. B. inornata, sed gutture albo facile distinguenda. 
Mr. Goering sends us three skins of this fine new Jacamar, which 
we have the pleasure of naming after its discoverer. It was obtained 
near Maruria, at the foot of the mountain of Guiguc, where the birds 
were met with in pairs sitting close together on the branches of trees. 
'• Iris red-brown ; bill, legs, and claws black." 

This species makes the fourth of the genus Brachygalba, two of 
which have white beaks {B. melanosterna and B. albigularis), and 
two have the beak black {B. iuornata and the present bird). 



254 MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON L'^V^- '■^-J 

37- TiNNUNCULUS SPARVERIUS (Lilltl.). 

A single male, from the plain of Valencia, has the body below 
wholly without spots, as the bird described by Swainson as Folco 
isubeilinus (An. in Men. p. 281). See v. Pelzeln's remarks on this 
supposed local race in his List of FalconidcB in the Imperial Col- 
lection (Verb, zool.-bot. Ges. 1863, p. 627). 

41. MiCRASTUR ZONOTHORAX. 

Climacocercus zonothorax. Cab. Jouru. f, O. 1865, p. 406. 

A single skin, immature, but no doubt referable to this northern 
form of M. ruficollis sive xanthothorax as described by Cabanis. 
Whether it is really distinct we have not j^et sufficient materials to 
give a decided opinion. 

47. Crypturus strigulosus. 

Tinamus strigulosus, Temm. Pig. et Gall. iii. p. 594. 

Mr. Goering's skin agrees generally with the specimens in the 
British Museum thus marked (c/. Gray, List of Gall. p. 100), but 
has the middle of the throat pure white. 



3. Notes on the Myology of Menopoma alleghaniense. By 
St. George Mivart, F.L.S.^ Lecturer on Comparative 
Anatomy at St. Mary's Hospital. 

Having been engaged for some months in working at the Urodele 
Batrachians, the liberality of the authorities of the Royal College of 
Surgeons, and the kindness of my friend Mr. AV. H. Flower, have 
placed at my disposal certain specimens well |)reserved in spirit of 
wine. One of these is the subject of the following notes. 

In describing the muscles I think it better to give each a distinct 
name. In doing so, however, I by no means intend to imply that 
there is necessarily a real relation of homology between the several 
muscles of Menopoma and those of Mammals and Sauropsidans. It 
may well be that in many cases the resemblance is merely one of 
analogy, resulting fiom similarity of conditions. 

The general form of this species is well known, with its broad and 
flat body, its very wide and flat head, and rounded muzzle. The tail 
has a rather deep cutaneous fin both above and below ; but while it is 
continued along the whole length of the dorsum of the tail, it only 
extends along about the hindmost sixth of its inferior border. 

The skin is nearly smooth all over, and is destitute of any tubercles 
or prominences. It is smoothest on the middle of the crown of the 
head and on the middle of the belly. Numerous short transverse 
wrinkles, however, extend, at short intervals, across the throat and 
along the whole back and belly ; on the tail, on account of the great 
lateral compression of that organ, these wrinkles assume a vertical 
direction. 



1809 ] THE MYOLOGY OF MENOPOMA. 255 

Two large cutaneous folds (each much convoluted and like a frill) 
extend backwards, one along each side of the body, from the arm-pit 
to a little behind and above the root of the pelvic limb. 

A marked fold on each side of the neck projects round the bran- 
chial orifice, and is continued backwards from its upper border 
towards or over the root of the pectoral limb. 

The antero-posteriorly elongated cloacal aperture is placed just 
behind, and not between, the pelvic limbs. Its circumference 
(which is of a lighter colour than the rest of the skin) is thrown into 
numerous small, sharp folds. 

The proximal and distal divisions of each arm and leg (i. e. the arm 
and forearm and the thigh and leg respectively) are subequal in length. 

The posterior digits are very broad, through cutaneous expansions. 

The pectoral limb when turned forwards does not attain the angle 
of the mouth, nor when turned backwards does it even nearly meet 
the pelvic limb turned forwards. 

A cutaneous fold extending along the margin of each jaw serves 
as a lip. 

The external nostrils are very small and simple apertures close to 
the end of the muzzle. 

The eyes, as is well known, are very small and quite destitute of 
eyelids. 

Tlie gape of the mouth extends backwards beyond the eye. 

The head is very flat, without ridges or any marked concavities or 
convexities. A shallow, rather ill-defined, longitudinal depression 
runs along the middle of the back. The size and proportions of the 
specimen are as follows : — 

Dimensions. . , 

inches. 
Jbxtreme length, measured along dorsum, from anterior end 

of muzzle to posterior end of tail 13-20 

Length from mandibular symphysis to middle point between 

the arm-pits 30q 

From the said middle point to anterior end of cloaca 5-13 

Length of cloacal aperture •22 

from anterior end of cloacal aperture to end of tail. . 5-07 

of head, about j .(3q 

Breadth of head j .^q 

Vertical thickness of head and throat -95 

of mid-body, about -83 

Greatest breadth of body, the cutaneous lateral folds not in- 
cluded { .-() 

Transverse thickness of tail at about its mid-length -30 

Vertical extent of tail at the same place ] -40 

Distance between the eyes 1 qq 

the outer nares -40 

Extreme length of pectoral limb (with manus) 1-53 

Its longest digit .4Q 

Extreme length of pelvic limb (with pes) isu 

Its longest digit .5Q 



256 MR. ST. GEORGK MIVART ON [Apr. 22, 

inches. 

Distance from mid-point between the eyes to end of muzzle . '56 

Extreme width of mouth 1'55 

Distance from mid-point between the angles of the moutb to 

the mandibular symphysis '65 

Length from angle of mouth to branchial orifice, about .... 122 
branchial orifice to root of pelvic limb, about. . "72 

Proportions. 

Length of head compared with its breadth at 100 94* 10 

Height of head compared with its breadth at 100 .55'88 

of bodv compared with its breadth at 100 4882 

Breadth of mid-tail to its height at 100 46-66 

of body to its length (without head and tail) at 100 3.3'13 

Height of body to its length at 1 00 16-17 

Length of tail to length of body at 100 98-83 

Length of pectoral limb to length of body at 100 29-82 

Length of pelvic limb to length of body at 100 35-08 

Myology. 

On removing the skin of my specimen I do not find the fat 
which, according to Drs. Schmidt, (Joddard, and Van der Hoeven *, 
exists in the hollows at the roots of the limbs in Cryptobranchus. 
Neither have I found any conspicuous cutaneous muscle or the 
contrast in colour which those authors have described as existing in 
the last-named genus between some and others of the muscles, but all 
are moderately pale in my specimen. 

The general muscular investment of the body is, in the tail, di- 
visible into an antero-posterior series of segments corresponding to 
the division of the vertebral column into vertebrae. In the trunk 
this divisibility is very obscurely indicated, least so towards the mid- 
dle of the abdomen, where there are transverse tendinous inter- 
sections. 

The nmscular envelope consists of four longitudinal portions sepa- 
rated by four more or less marked linear divisions. 

The first of these divisions extends backwards from the mid-cranial 
region to the end of the dorsum of the tail. It is deepest by far in 
the caudal region of the body, where it is filled up by a very large 
accumulation of fat. A fibrous membrane extends down from the 
bottom of this dorsal furrow to the spines and neural arches of the 
vertebrse, and forms a partition between the dorsal muscular mass of 
one side and that of the other side. 

The second antero-posterior linear division extends similarly along 
the ventral surface of the body from the thoracic region backwards. 
It is only a deep furrow, however, behind the cloacal aperture ; in 

* Aanteekeningen over de Anatomic van den Cri/pfobranckusjaponicvs door 
Dr. F. J. J. Schmidt, Dr. Q. J. Goddard, en Dr. J. Van der Hoeven. Natuur- 
kundige Verhandelingen van de Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen 
te Haarlem. Tweede Verzameling, Negeiitiende Deel, Eer.ste stuk. 1862. 



1869.] 



THE MYOLOGY OF MENOPOMA. 



25/ 



front of that orifice it is represented by a more or less marked ten- 
dinous interval, or linea alba, in the midst of the superficial muscles 
of the ventral portion of the abdominal muscidar mass. 

The third and fourth linear divisions are placed one on each side 
of the throat, trunk, and tail. In the throat region the anterior end 
of this furrow forms the gap out of which the ends of the branchial 
arches protrude. In the trunk it is a mere shallow furrow, dividin"- 
the dorsal part of each lateral half of the muscular mass from the 
ventral portion of such half. 

In the trunk this linear division is situated above the middle (ver- 
tically) of the side of the body. In the tail it is situated at about 
the middle. 

Each dorsal portion of the lateral muscular mass (i. e. the part 




Superficial muscles of right side of bead and of anterior part of trunk. 
2). 1. Digastric. £. S. Erector spinas. Z. .4. Levator arcuum. Z. Z). Latissi- 
mus dorsi. M. Masseter. M. H. 2. Mylo-liyoideus posterior. P. S. Del- 
toid. T. Temporalis. T. Trapezius. 



258 MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON [Apr. 22, 

between the dorsal furrow and the lateral linear division) extends 
from the upper surface of the skull to the distal end of the dorsum 
of the tail (figs. 1 & 8, JE". -S), investing the transverse processes, 
neural arches, and spines of the vertebrae, and also the ribs, but it 
has no direct connexion with either the pectoral or pelvic girdle. 
It forms a continuous and very thick fleshy mass, answering to the 
erector spince of higher animals, but not differentiated into distinct 
muscles. Its fibres are all antero-posteriorly directed. 

Each ventral portion of the lateral muscular mass (i. e. the part 
between the lateral linear division and the middle of the ventral sur- 
face of the body and tail) presents a larger surface than does the 
dorsal portion of the lateral muscular mass. It extends from the 
basihyal to the distal end of the ventral surface of the tail, inter- 
rupted, however, by the pelvis. 

As in higher vertebrata, the abdominal portion of this mass is 
distinguished into muscular layers with differently directed fibres ; 
in the caudal region, however, as might be expected, this distinction 
does not obtain. 

Muscles of the Trunk. 

The external oblique (figs. 2, 3, 5, & 7, Ex. 0). This is an 
elongated sheet of muscular fibres (with the usual direction down- 
wards, backwards, and mesiad) extending from the lateral longi- 
tudinal furrow to the outer margin of the rectus. The muscle ex- 
tends forwards as far as the scapula (passing beneath the latissimus 
dorsi), its anterior extremity being overlapped by the minute and 
oppositely directed serratus magnus. Posteriorly it is inserted into 
the fascia investing the root of the thigh, also with the ilium and the 
pubis. It fuses so gradually with the rectus that I have not suc- 
ceeded in defining the line of demarcation between the two. The ex- 
ternal oblique appears to be continued on in tiie caudal region as the 
most external ])ortion of its infero-lateral muscular mass. This 
caudal continuation, however, takes fresh origin from the hinder side 
of the ilium. 

The internal oblique (fig. 5, In. O) is the largest muscle of the 
body, and extends antero-posteriorly from the basihyal backwards 
to the end of the tail (for the pelvis seems only partially to interrupt 
it), and inwards from the lateral longitudinal furrow. The fibres are 
but very slightly oblique, very many are altogether antero-posterior 
in direction, and the fasciculi are very large and coarse. The muscle 
is thickest anteriorly and in the tail. In the pelvic region many 
fibres are inserted into the ilium and into the rib which articulates 
with the ilium, but other fibres appear to continue on altogether 
beneath these bones without being interrupted by them. 

At its anterior end this muscle becomes indislinguishably fused 
with what may be a deeper part of the rectus, and which has here 
been called the sterno-hyoid (fig. 2, St. H). This is inserted into 
the basihyal and into the adjacent root of the first branchial arch. 

Transuersaiis. A very delicate lamella of transversely directed 
muscular fibres represents this muscle. It extends in a continuous 



I8fi!).j 



THE MYOLOGY OF MFNOPOMA. 



259 



Fig. 2. 



jLlBH—iUi 




Muscles of ventral surface. On the right side superficial muscles. On the left 
side deeper muscles, with remoral of left pectoral limb. 

B. Biceps. C.A. Constrictor arcuum. C.B. Coraco-brachialis. C.F. Con- 
strictor faucium. C. H. E. Cerato-hyoideus esternus. C. H. I. Cerato-hyoi- 
deus intern us. £'.i. Extensor longus. &. 0. External oblique. F.L. 
Plexor longus. G.H. Genio-hyoideus. M.H.I. My lo-hyoideus anterior. 
M.H.2. Mylo-hyoideus posterior. P. 1.&P.2. Pectoralis. P.T. Pronator 
teres. S. Subclavius. S. L. Supinator longus. S. M. Submentalis. St. H. 
Sterno-hyoideus. T. Triceps. 



260 MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON [^pi'. 22, 

sheet from the region of the heart backwards to the inside of the 
pelvis. It does not seem to extend so far inwards towards the 
middle line of the body as does the internal oblique. 

The al)dominal nerves pass along between this muscle and the in- 
ternal oblique. 

Rectus. This muscle consists, as usual, of antero-posteriorly 
directed fibres in the middle of the abdomen, but is very difficult 
accurately to define. It seems to be overlapped externally by some 
of the fibres of the external oblique, while internally it is closely 
adbereut to what is either a deeper portion of the rectus or the 
median part of the internal oblique, and which runs forwards (with 
the scapular aicb, except the sternum, altogether superficial to it) 
to be inserted, as before said, into the basihyal, 'I'he external por- 
tion of the rectus is inserted anteriorly into the sternum, posteriorly 
into the anterior part of the pelvis. 

Retrahens costarmn. This elongated muscle passes antero-pos- 
teriorly, on each side of the spine, beneath the bodies of all the 
trunk-vertebrae, being attached to them and to the ribs down to 
their extremities, where it is closely connected with the fascia of the 
transversalis. The muscle gets thinner and smaller backwards, and 
appears to end at the commencement of the caudal region ; but 
anteriorly it enlarges and passes, as a fleshy mass, beneath the skull. 
Throughout the trunk this muscle is separated from the dorso-lateral 
muscular mass by the internal obhque and transversalis ; but where 
these diverge from that mass to leave space for the branchial arches, 
there the muscle now described becomes applied to the under surface 
of the dorso-lateral mass, and more or less closely connected with it. 

Muscles of the Head. 

Temporalis. This (fig. 1, T.) is the most anterior of all the 
muscles on the dorsal aspect of the body, its anterior margin even 
extending forwards in front of the eyes. It is not a completely 
distinct muscle, as its hinder end is but imperfectly separated from 
the innermost part of the dorsal lateral mass of the same side ; of 
which it, in part, may therefore be considered the extreme anterior 
prolongation. It also takes origin, by fascia, from the first three 
neural spines and from the anterior part of the upper surface of the 
skull — Cuvier's frontal. The most anterior fibres slope backwards ; 
but all converge, and passing behind the eyeball, are ultimately at- 
tached, by means of a strong tendon, to the inner side of the summit 
of the mandible just in front of its articulation with the suspensorium, 
and behind and somewhat within the insertion of the masseter. 

The pterygoid. Dr. Fischer * describes this muscle as arising from 
the side of the skull and from the upper surface of the pterygoid, 
and with a similar insertion to the temporal, from which it is very 
indistinctly separable. In my specimen it seems to be so intimately 
united with the temporal that I cannot but doubt its distinctness. 

* Anatomische Abhandlungen iiber die Perennibranchiaten und Derotremen. 
Hamburgh, 1864, p. 63. 



18(i'J.] 



THli: MYOLOGY OF MENOl'OMA. 

Fig. 3. 



LM) 1 



3JJi. O. 




Superficial muscles of right side. 

A. A. Adductor arcuum. B. Biceps. C.A. Constrictor arcuimi. C.F. Con- 
strictor fauciuin. B. Deltoid. B.\. Digastric. E.L. Extensor longus. 
Ex.0. E.xternal oblique. L. A. Levator arcuum. L.D. Latissinuis dorsi. 
3/. Masseter. M.H.I. Mylo-hyoideus anterior. 71/. /f. 2. Mylo-hyoideus 
posterior. S. Subclavius. S. L. Supinator longus. T. Trapezius. T. 
Triceps. IT. Ulnaris. 

Masseter (figs. 1, 3, & 5, M). This is an exceedingly thick 
muscle, which arises from the anterior surface of the suspcnsorium 
as far as the margin of the parietal. It is inserted into the upper 
border and outer surface of the posterior part of the mandible. It 
covers externally the descending terminal portion of the temporal, 
which runs down in a sort of groove on its inner surface. 

The digastric (figs. 1, 3, & 5, Z). 1 & Z). 2) is a very large and 
powerful muscle, consisting of two parts, which are together inserted 
into the posterior extremity of the mandible. The hinder portion of 
the muscle arises from the dorsal fascia, closely connected with the 
similarly arising part of the posterior mylo-hyoid, and overlapping 
the levator arcuum. The anterior portion takes origin from the 
occiput, the hinder surface of the suspensorinm. Both portions 
pass over the cornu of the hyoid (without being directly connected 
with it) to their before-mentioned insertion. 

Levator arcuum (figs. 1 & 3, L. A). This is a small delicate 
layer of fibres springing from the dorsal fascia in the angle between 
the digastric and the temporal. Passing obliquely downwards and 
backwards, and covered, more or less, by the hinder part of the 
digastric and the posterior mylo-hyoid, the fibres go to the dorsal 
segments of the last three branchial arches as Fischer has described *. 

Mylo-hyoideus anterior (figs. 2 & 3, M. H. 1). This forms, with 
» L. c. p. 83, tab. 4. fig. 2, ht. 
Pkoc. Zool. Soc— 1869. No. XVIII. 



262 



MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON 



[Apr. 22, 



its fellow of the opposite side, a thin transverse sheet of muscular 
fibres immediately beneath the skin. It springs from the inner surface 
of the lower margin of the mandible, almost as far backwards as the 
articulation of the latter with the suspensorium. Its fibres incline 
slightly backwards ; and a sort of faint linea alba is interposed 
between it and its fellow of the opposite side. 

The mylo-hyoideus posterior (figs. 1, 2, & 3, M. H. 2), with its 
fellow, forms another thin transverse sheet of muscular fibres placed 
immediately beneath the skin, except where the mylo-hyoideus 
anterior is superficial to it. It springs from the dorsal fascia and 
from that over the cornu of the hyoid, and covers the hinder portion 
of the digastric and part of the levator arcuum. 

Submentalis (fig. 2, S. M). This small, azygos, transverse muscle 
connects together the anterior ends of the two mandibular rami. It 
is placed immediately above the most anterior portions of the mylo- 
hyoidei anteriores, and is much connected with them and with the 
genio-hyoidei. 

Fig. 5. 



i' AT 




Deeper muscles of right side, tlie mylo-hyoidci, the trapezhcs, and the 
latissimus dorsi being removed or cut short. 

A. A. Adductor arcuum. C.A. Constrictor arciumi. C.F. Constrictor faucium. 
C. H. E. Cerato-hyoideus extcrnus. C. H. I. Cerato-hvoideus intenius. D. 
Deltoid. D.lkb. 2. Digastric. Ex. 0. External oblique. G. H. Genio- 
hyoideus. In. 0. Internal oblique. L. A. S. Levator anguli scapultc. 
L. D. Latissimus dorsi. M. Masseter. S. Subclavius. <S. M. Serratus 
magnus. T. Trapezius. 



Constrictor faucium* (figs. 2, 3, and 5, C. F). This muscle 
springs from the under surface of the dorsal segment of the second 
branchial arch {i. e. the second after the hyoidean cornu), and is 
inserted into a fascia beneath the throat, into which the genio-hyoid 
of the same side is also inserted. As the constrictor faucium passes 
downwards it is overlapped (and strapped in, as it were) by the 
band-like constrictor arcuum. 

The constrictor pharyngis is a delicate muscular sheet arising 

* Constrictor faucium internus of Schmidt, &c., see L c. p. 29, and pi. 6. 
fig. xiii. 4. 



1869.] THE MYOLOGY OF MENOPOMA. 263 

partly from the postero-ventral border of the last branchial arch*, 
partly from the fascia of the side of the neck behind the branchial 
archesf . Thence it descends to the middle line of the body beneath 
the trachea, and above the sterno-hyoid, which latter is superficial 
to it. 

Genio-hjoideusX (figs. 2 & 5, G. H). On removing the mylo- 
hyoidei, the two genio-hyoidei are seen running backwards (one on 
each side) from the symphysis of the mandible. Each genio-hyoid 
arises from the anterior part of the ramus of the mandible of its own 
side (more or less connected with the submentalis), and is inserted 
posteriorly into the fascia, which also receives the insertion of the 
constrictor faucium. 

The cerato hyoideus externus (figs. 2 & 5, C //. E) is a con- 
siderable muscle which arises from the first branchial arch, and is 
inserted into the cornu of the hyoid towards its middle. 

The cerato-hyoideus internus (figs. 2 & 5, C H. I) can hardly 
perhaps be reckoned a distinct muscle in Menopoma, in which it 
has a common insertion with the muscle last noticed. It arises, 
however, from the ventral segment of the second branchial arch. 

Constrictor arcuum (figs. 2, 3, & 5, C. A). This small band- 
like muscle arises from the first branchial arch, and is inserted into 
the last two branchial arches. Fischer says§, no doubt correctly, 
that the muscle consists of two layers, the superficial one being 
inserted into the last branchial arch, and the deeper layer into the 
penultimate branchial arch. This muscle overlaps and binds down 
the constrictor faucium. 

The adductor arcuum (figs. 3 & 5, ^. A) is a very small muscle, 
arising from the fascia on the ventral surface of the sterno-hyoid. 
Passing upwards and outwards, it goes to the last branchial arch. 

Sterno-hyoideus (fig. 2, St. H) A considerable muscular mass, 
which may conveniently be distinguished by this name||, though in 
fact it is the anterior termination of that great ventral muscular 
mass which consists of the united internal oblique and rectus. Its 
insertion is into the posterior part of the under surface of the basi- 
hyal and the adjacent parts of the ventral segments of the branchial 
arches. 

The antero-internal portion of the ventral part of each sterno- 
hyoid shows a slight indication of distinctness as a muscular fasci- 
culus inserted into the fascia into which the genio-hyoideus is inserted. 
This appears to represent, in a rudimentary manner, the distinct 
muscle named levator maxillse inferioris brevis by the Dutch 
authors T[. 

* The hyo-trachealis of Fischer, /. c. p. 92. 

t The dorso-trachealis of Fi seller, I. c. p. 92. 

\ The levator maxilla; inferioris loiigus of Schmidt, &c., see I. c. p. 29, pi. 6. 
fig. siii. 5. 

§ L. c. p. 75, and tab. 4. fig. 2, ca. 

II It is so by Dr. Fischer, see /. c. p. 104, and tab. 4. fig. 2, sh. It is the 
cerato-hyoideus of the Dutch authors, Schmidt &c., see I. c p. 30, pi. G. 
fig. xiii. 9. 

^ See Schmidt &c., p. 30, and ]il. (3. fig. siii. 6. 



264 MR. ST. GKORGE MIVART ON [Apr. 22, 

Omo-hyoideus (fig. 6, 0. H). This is a flat band of mnscle 
which springs from the lower part of the anterior margin of the 
scapula, and, passing forwards, downwards, and inwards, loses itself 
in the lateral part of the sterno-liyoid, with which it coalesces. 

Fig. 6. 




Deepest muscles of outside of right slioukler, the trtqiczius and sttbclavhis 
being cut short to sliow the o?no-kt/oid. 

D. Deltoid. L. A. S. Levator anguli scapul.T. 0. H. Omo-hyoideus. 
S. Subclavias. T. Trapezius, 

Genioglossus. I have not succeeded in defining this muscle ; but, 
according to Dr. Fischer*, it is represented by some fibres which 
pass from the hinder surface of the mandibular symphysis to the 
skin of the mouth. This is not the genioglossus of Schmidt &c., 
which is my submentalisf. 

Appendicular Muscles. 
Pectoral Limb. 

Trapezius (figs. 1, 3, 5, & 6, T). This is a small subtriangular 
muscle which arises from the fascia outside the trunk-muscles, and 
immediately behind the levator arcuum and mylo-hyoideus externus. 
Passing downwards and slightly backwards, it is inserted into the 
angle between the scapula and the precoracoid (of Parker), but 
mainly into that side of the angle which is formed by the lower end 
of the anterior margin of the scapula. 

The latissimus dorsi (figs. 1, 3, & 5, i. D) is a small triangular 
muscle of about the same size as the trapezius. It arises from the 
fascia outside the dorsal muscles, and, passing downwards and for- 
wards, is partly inserted into the head of the humerus, and, partly 
fusino- with the triceps, is continued on by that muscle to the proxi- 
mal end of the ulna. 

The pectoralis (fig. 2, P. 1 & P. 2) consists of two parts with a 
common insertion. The first and larger part springs from the sur- 
face of the superficial abdominal muscles ; the second portion from 
the sternum. They are inserted into the inner side of the radial 
(greater) tuberosity of the humerus. 

Serratus magnus (fig. 5, 5. M). This very small muscle arises 

* L. c. p. 66. t L. r. tabb. 6, 7. 



1869.] THE MYOLOGY OF MENOPOMA. 265 

from the lateral muscular mass just at the lateral longitudhial groove, 
and is inserted on the inner side of the upper part of the scapula. 

The levator anyuli scapulce (fig. 5, L. A. S) is the antagonist 
of the muscle last described. It is very long and slender, and arises 
from the hinder and inferior margin of the exoccipital, and is inserted 
into the upper part of the inner side of the scapula. 

The omohyoid has been already described as the last but one of 
the muscles of the head. 

The subclavius* (figs. 2, 3, 5, & 6, S.) arises from the outer sur- 
face of the precoracoid (of Parker) and, passing backwards beside 
the coraco-brachialis, and more or less connected with the latter, is 
- inserted into the summit of the great tuberosity. 

Coraco-brachialis (fig. 2, C. B). This muscle is large, and con- 
sists of two parts. The first of these springs from the whole surface 
of the coracoid, and is partly covered up by the pectoraiis ; it is 
inserted into the inner side of the radial tuberosity of the humerus. 
The second part, thick and long, arises from the posterior margin of 
the coracoid, close behind the glenoid cavity ; passing down into 
the bend of the elbow-joint, it is inserted into the shaft of the 
humerus down to the internal condyle. 

Deltoid (figs. 3, 5, & 6, D). A muscle which may perhaps 
answer to the deltoid of higher forms springs from the outside of 
the scapula, and passing down is inserted into the outer side of the 
radial tuberosity, near its summit. 

Subscapularis. A very small triangular muscle, springing from 
the inner side of the scapula close to the glenoid surface, and im- 
planted into the humerus. It passes between the two heads of the 
triceps, which spring from the scapular arch. 

Biceps (figs. 2 & 3, B). This muscle, which appears to answer 
both to the biceps and brachialis anticus of higher animals, consists 
perhaps of two parts, though one is with difficulty separable from the 
long coraco-brachialis. This latter portion springs from the poste- 
rior margin of the coracoid, close to the glenoid surface ; and a strong 
tendon runs along it. The other part arises from the front of the 
shaft of the humerus, immediately below the insertions of the pecto- 
raiis and subclavius. The muscle is partly inserted into the shaft of 
the radius, and in part fuses with the supinator longus. 

Triceps (figs. 2 & 3, 2'). This is a large muscle arising partly, 
by a considerable head, from the junction of the scapula and cora- 
coid just in front of the glenoid surface, by another and much smaller 
head from the inner surface of the coracoid, just behind the glenoid 
surface. It also takes origin from the inner and outer surfaces of 
the humerus near its summit, and it receives an accession by the 
union of the latissimus dorsi. It is implanted into the proximal 
end of the ulna. 

Supinator longus (figs. 2, 2a, 3, Si A, S. L). A thick muscle 
which may be thus named springs from the radial side of the lower 

* Prof. Rolleston has shown, I think conchisively, that my epicoraco-humeral 
is really the subclavius ; and the muscle here described in Menojioma may 
probably be the same as my epicoraco-humeral. 



2G6 MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON [ApV. 22, 

part of the humer>is, and is inserted into the same side of the radius 
towards and at its distal end, some fibres seeming to run on to tlie 
carpus. 

Fig. 2 a. 




Deeper flexor muscles of right forearm, the flexor longus cut and reflected. 

B. Biceps. F. B. Flexor brevis. F. L. Flexor longus. S. L. Supinator longus. 

P. T. Pronator teres. 

FI-. 4. 




Deeper muscles of extensor surface of right forearm, the extensor loiigns cut 

and reflected. 

E.B. Extensor brevis. E.L. Extensor longus. P- Q. Pronator quadrat us. 
8. L. Supinator longus. U. Ulnaris. 

Vlnaris. A muscle which extends along the ulnar border of the 
forearm (figs. 3 & 4, JJ), arises from the ulnar side of the lower end 
of the humerus, and is inserted along the corresponding border of 
the ulna. Some fibres coming from the radial condyle of the 
humerus, and fusing with this muscle, doubtless represent the extensor 
ulnaris of higher animals. 

'The pronator teres (figs. 2 & 2a, P. T) is a rather large muscle. 
It springs from the lower end of the ulnar border of the humerus, 
and is inserted into about the distal half of the radius. Although a 
wide muscle, only the narrow edge of it is seen before the removal 
of the flexor longus. 

Extensor longus (figs. 2, 3, & 4, E. L). This arises from the 
radial border of the lower end of the humerus, and, expanding as it 
passes downwards, is inserted by fascia into the digits. 

Extensor brevis (fig. 4, E. B). A subtriangular muscle may 
perhaps be thus named which arises from the distal part of the radial 
side of the ulna and from the carpus, and goes mainly to the radial 
digit. It may perhaps represent the extensor pollicis. 

Pronator quadratus (?) (fig. 4, P. Q). A small muscle passes 



1869.] 



THE MYOLOGY OF MENOPOMA. 



26; 



downwards, and radiad between the ulnaiis, the supinator longus, 
and the extensor brevis. It arises from the proximal end of the ulna ; 
and some fibres seem to come from the internal condyle. It is in- 
serted into the ulnar aspect of the radius. 

Flexor longus (figs. 2 & 2a, F. L). This muscle springs from 
the ulnar border of the lower end of the humerus, and, passing down- 
wards and expanding, goes to the palm of the manus, and is inserted 
by delicate tendons into the digits. 

Flexor brevis (fig. 2a, F. B). A short triangular muscle which 
may be thus named arises from the ulna and the palmar surface of 
the carpus, and, passing downwards and expanding, goes to the. digits. 

Pelvic Limb. 

Semimembranosus (figs. 7, 8, 9, & 10, S. M). This small muscle, 
which may perhaps be but a second head of the semitendinosus, 
arises from the underside of the caudal vertebrae at about the fourth 

Fig. 7. 




WW 



Superficial muscles of ventral surface of right side. 

Rr. 0. External oblique. F. C. Femoro-caudal. G. Grracilis. /. Iliacus. I. C. 
Iscliio-caudal. II. C. Ilio-caudal. S. M. Semimembranosus. S. T. Semi- 
tendinosus. T. A. Tibialis anticus. 



2G8 



MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON 



[Apr. 22, 

postsacval. It comes to the surface between the adjacent sides of 
the femoro-caudal and ischio-coccygeal muscles, and is inserted into 
the posterior edge of the semitendinosus a httle after the latter muscle 
has left the ischium. 

The ischio-caudal (figs. 7 & 10, /. C) passes forwards beside the 
cloacal aperture, and therefore forms the most median part of the 
subcaudal muscular mass. It springs from the hypapophyses of the 
first four caudal vertebrse, and is inserted into the postero-external 
angle of the ischium. 

Femoro-caudal (figs. 7, 8, 9, & 10, F. C). A rather large muscle 
which I thus name comes out of a sort of muscular sheath on each 
side of the proximal part of the under half of the tail. The sheath 
is formed by the ilio-caudal above, and by the semimembranosus 
below ; and the muscle springs from the sides of the hypapophyses of 
two or three of the anterior caudal vertebrae. It is inserted by a 
strongish tendon into the flexor surface of the femur just below the 
great trochanter, just behind and outside of part of the insertion of 
the adductor. 

Fig. 8. 




Superficial muscles of outer side of hinder part of trunk and anterior part of tail, 

and of the dorsal (extensor) side of right pelvic limb. 
E. S. Erector spina\ E. L. B. Extensor longus digitorum. F. C. Femoro- 

cavidal. G. Mx. Gluteus maximus. /. Iliacus. 11. c. Ilio-caudal. /. P. 

Ilio-peroneal. R. F. Eectus femoris. & M. Semimembranosus. S. T. 

Semitendinosus. 

Ilio-caudal (figs. 7, 8, 9, & 10, II. C). This is that part of the 
infero-lateral caudal muscular mass which is inserted into the posterior 
aspect of the ilium. The insertion is just above the origins of the 
gluteus maximus and biceps. 

Gracilis (figs. 7 & 10, G). A very large sheet of muscle may 



1869.] THE MYOLOGY OF MENOPOMA. 269 

perhaps be thus named. It is thickest posteriorly, and arises from 
the whole length of the much prolonged pubo-ischiatic symphysis. 
It is inserted into the postero-peroneal surface of the upper half of 
the tibia. 

The adductor (figs. 10 & 11, A) is a very thick mass of muscle 
which arises from the whole ventral surface of the pelvic shield be- 
tween the acetabulum and the pubo-ischiatic symphysis, and is 
covered by the gracilis. It is inserted into the postero-tibial surface 
of the femur down to the intercondyloid space, where its insertion is 
widest. 

Semitendinosus (figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, & 11, iS. T). A muscle I ven- 
ture, suggestively, thus to designate, arises from the postero-external 
angle of the ischium, just at the insertion of the ischio-caudal. It 
is inserted, passing downwards, into the outside of the lower part of 
the flexor longus digitorum, on its plantar surface. A little after 
leaving the ischium it is joined by the before described semimembra- 
nosus. 











Deeper muscles of dorsal or extensor surface of right pelvic limb, the gluteus 
maximus, rectus femoris, and extensor longus being cut and reflected. 

B. Biceps. E. B. Extensor brevis. E. H. Extensor halhicis. E. L. D. Extensor 
longus digitorum. F. C. Femoro-caudal. G. Md. Gluteus medius. G. Mi. 
Gluteus minimus. G. Mx. Gluteus maximus. /. TUacus. //. C. Ilio- 
caudal. LP. Ilio-peroneal. B.F. E«ctus femoris. S.M. Semimembra- 
nosus. 8. T. Semitendinosus. T. A. Tibialis anticus. 

Iliacus (figs. 7, 8, 9 & 10, /). This is a very considerable muscle, 
and arises from the anterior part of the internal (abdominal) surface 
of the pubic shield. Curving over the anterior margin of that shield, 
it is inserted into the lower two-thirds of the femur, down to the tibial 
condyle ; but no fibres extend to the tibia itself. 



270 



MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON 



[Apr. 22, 



Gluteus maximus (figs. 8 & 9, G. Mx). An elongated, but 
tolerably wide muscle (which I provisionally distinguish by this 
name) springs from the outside of the lower part of the ilium, and, 
passing downwards, ends in an aponeurosis which invests the knee 
anteriorly, and passes to the upper part of the front of the tibia. 

Rectus femoris (fig. 8 & 9, It. F). This is very similar in shape 
and size to the preceding. It arises from the pelvis immediately in 
front of the gluteus maximus and of the acetabulum, and, passing 
downwards on the tibial side of the last-named muscle, is inserted by 
aponeurosis into the inner side of the upper part of the tibia. 

Gluteus medius (?) (fig. 9, G. Md). A small muscle invests the 
outer side of the femur, somewhat as a vastus externus. It arises, 
however, from the ilium just above the acetabulum. Passing down- 
wards, covered by the gluteus maximus, it is inserted into the front 
and peroneal side of the shaft of the femur down to near the external 
condyle. 

Fig. 10. 




Deeper muscles of ventral or flexor surface of right pelvic limb, the gracilis 
being cut and reflected. 

. Adductor. B. Biceps. F. C. Femoro-caud<al. F. 1). Flexor digitorum. 
G. Gracilis. /. Tliacus. I. C. Ischio-caudal. II. C. Ilio-caudal. /. P. 
Ilio-peroneal. S. M. Semimembrano.sus. 8. T. Semitendinosus. T. A. 
Tibialis anticus. 



Gluteus minimus (?)(fig. 9, G. Mi). This is a still smaller muscle 
than the preceding, and arises from the hinder surface of the ilium 
and immediately opposite the origin of the gluteus medius, being sepa- 
rated from it only by the ilium. Passing downwards it is inserted 
beside the last-named muscle, with which it is intimately connected. 

Ilio-peroneal (figs. 9 & 10, /. P). A muscle which I propose 
thus to designate, and which is very long and slender, arises from 
the ilium immediately beneath and closely connected with the glu- 
teus maximus. It is inserted into the peroneal side of the fibula 
slightly above its middle. 



18G9.] THE MYOLOGY OF MENOPOMA. 2/1 

The biceps (?) (figs. 9 & 10, B) is slender, like the muscle last 
described ; it extends from the insertion of the femoro-caudal to the 
fibula, being fixed to that bone immediately below the attachment of 
the ilio-peroneal. It expands somewhat just before its insertion. 

Tibialis anticus (figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, & 11, T. A). This is a large 
and prominent muscle. It arises from the front of the distal end ot 
the femur and from the proximal parts of the tibia and fibula. It 
is inserted into the tarsus on its tibial side. 

Peroneus. A portion of muscle, somewhat difficult, to define ex- 
actly, passes down, in front of the insertions of the ilio-peroneal and 
biceps, from the head of the fibula to the peroneal side of the tarsus. 

Extensor longus digitorum (figs. 8 & 9, E. L. D). This large 
muscular layer arises, by a strong aponeurosis, from the front of the 
distal end of the femur. Passing downwards it goes to the digits. 

Extensor hallucis (?) (fig. 9, E. H). A rather delicate muscle, 
covered by that last described. It goes from the upper part of the 
fibula downwards to the hallux. 

Extensor brevis digitorum (fig. 9, E. B). A small triangular 
muscle, placed on the peroneal side of that last described, passes 
down obliquely from the lower end of the fibula to the four peroneal 
digits. 

Flexor digitorum (figs. 10 & 1 1, /'. D). This considerable muscle 
comes into view when the expanded lower part of the semitendinosus 
is removed. It arises from the posterior surface of the peroneal 
condyle of the femur, and passes downwards to the pedal digits. 




^'?.^4^/^<y,^/ 



Deepest muscles of ventral or flexor surface of right pelvic limb, the semiten- 
dinosus and flexor dk/iforuni being cut and reflected. 

A. Adductor. F. D. Flexor digitorum. F. H. Flexor hallucis. G. Gracilis. 
<S. T. Semitendinosus. T. A. Tibialis anticus. 

Flexor hallucis (?) (fig. \\,F. H). On the removal or reflection of 
the flexor digitorum, a deeper layer of muscle, subtriangular in shape, 
comes into view. It arises from the whole length of the fibula, and 
passes obliquely downwards to the sole of the foot. It goes mainly, 
if not exclusively, to the hallux. 

Peroneo-tibial (I). Some muscular fibres connect the lower part 
of the tibia and fibula, passing obliquely from the latter bone down- 
wards and inwards to the former. 



2/2 MR. H. ADAMS ON NEW MARINE SHELLS. [Apr. 22, 

4. Descriptions of a New Genus and Fourteen New Species 
of Marine Shells. By Henry Adams, F.L.S. 

(Plate XIX.) 

CoNus (CoRONAXis) CERNicus, Barcl. MS. (Plate XIX. fig. 1 .) 

C. testa conica, soUda, polita, spiraliter puncto-sfriata, striis antice 
validioribus et propinquioribus ; spira elevata, convexo-conica, 
sutura valde impressa ; anfr. 9, angulatis, coronatis ; cinereo- 
alba, rubidn-fulvo fasciata et nebulosa, inacuUs albis aspersis, 
juxta suiu)-as rubido-fulvo notata ; apertura angusta, lineari. 
Long. 25, lat, 12 mill. 

Hab. Barkly Island, Mauritius {Coll. Barclay). 
This and several of the following species were procured at Mau- 
ritius after a late severe storm, by which large masses of coral were 
displaced and formed into a small island on the coast, which has been 
named Barkly Island, after the Governor Sir Henry Barkly. 

Clathurella robillardi, Barcl. MS. (Plate XIX. fig. 2.) 

C. testa turrita, tenui, alba, costis validis rottindatis ad 10 longitu- 
dinaliter ornata, costulis transversis et striis longitudinalibus can- 
cellata ; anfr. 9, convexis, postice e.vcavatis, ultimo l^ longitudinis 
testes; apert>:ra anguste lunata ; columella costulis obliquis in- 
sciilpta; labro incrassato, intus subsulcato ; sitiu angusto, haud 
prof undo ; rostro longo, recurve. 

Long. 25, lat. 8^ mill. 

Hab. Barkly Island, Mauritius {Coll. Barclay). 

Drillia barkliensis, H. Ad. (Plate XIX. fig. 3.) 

D. testa elongate- turrit a, rosee-fulvida, lungitudinaliter striata, ad 
basim, plicata ; spira anfr. 8, prepe suturam excavatis, costulis 
granulosis {granulis albis) cinctis, interstitiis transversim striates, 
ad mediitm iiodulis albis or?iatis ; apertura oblonga, ^ longitudinis 
testa aquante ; columella rectiuscula ; sinu mediecri ; labro extus 
varicoso, macula fulva notato. 

Long. 18, lat. 6g mill. 

Hab. Barkly Island, Mauritius {Coll. H. Ad.). 
I am indebted to Mr. Caldwell, of Mauritius, for an example of 
this species. 

i,^, CoRALLiopHiLA coRONATA, Barcl. MS. (Plate XIX. fig. 4.) 

C. testa imperforata, ovato-fusiformi, plicis longitudinalibus dis' 
tantibus, et costis transversis undulalis confertis sculpta, in medio 
anfractus ultimi costis duabus validioribus, posteriore spinis cur- 
vatis armata; purpureo- fulva, costis transversis pallidioribus ; 
anfr. 7, convexis, ultimo diiyiidiam longitudinis testce superante ; 
apertura acuminato-ovata, intus violacea ; columella Iccvi, si?n- 



P.Z S.1869.P1XIX 













14- 



&B SowevVy:lith. 



NEW MARINE SH-ELLS. 



M&N.Hanhart jmp . 



1869.] MR. H. ADAMS ON NEW MARINE SHELLS. 27.3 

plici ; canali mediocri, antice rosea tincta ; lahro intus leviler 

lirato. 
Long. 20, lat. 10 mill. 
Hab. Barkly Islaiul, Mauritius (CoU. Barclay). 

Genus Mauritia, H. Ad. 

Testa fusif or mis, spira acuminata; apertura angusta, lineari, antice 
truncata; columella numerose plicata ; lahro extus incrassato, 
antice decurlato, 

Mauritia barclayi, H. Ad. (Plate XIX. figs. 5, 5a.) 
M. testa oblongo-fusiformi, solida, striis concentricis confertis {an- 
tice validioribus) sculpta, lineis rufis distantibus transversis 
cincta, callo vitreo teniii fulvo tecta ; spira brevi, subacuminata, 
apice acutiusculo, sulura leviter impressa ; anfr. 8, subplanatis, 
ultimo ascendente, | longitudinis cequante ; apertura angusta, an- 
tice lutiore; columella callosa, pUcis parvis obliqnis ad 10 {supe- 
rioribus majoribus) antice instructa, truncata, producta, basi re- 
cur vata ; lahro postice angulato, margine recto, extus valde 
incrassato. 
Long. 50, lat. 15 mill. 

Hab. Barkly Island, Mauritius {Coll. M' Andrew). 
In general appearance Mauritia resembles Bibaphus, but from 
that genus the presence of folds on the columella distinguishes it. 
From Mitra it differs both in form and iu the columellar plaits being 
much more numerous and less distinct. 

Marginella (Glabella) mirabilis, Barcl. MS. (Plate XIX. 
figs. G, 6 a.) 

M. testa trigono-ovata, solida, polita, longitudinaliter valde plicata, 
plicis subtus obsoletis, albida, lilaceo nehulosa et fasciata, punctis 
iividis aspersis, fascia livida angusta interrupta ad suturam et ad 
peripheriam ornata; spira parum elevata, apice ohtuso, sutura 
medioci-i ; anfr. 6, ultimo ascendente ; apertura angusta; colu- 
mella plicis 4 validis vix obliquis instructa ; labro extus valde in- 
crassato, albido, maculis et liris sanguineis notato, intus crenulato. 

Long. 32, lat. 1 9 mill. 

jjab. ? {Coll. Barclay). 

Nacella (Cellana) cernica, Barcl. MS. (Plate XIX. 
figs. 7, 7a.) 

N. testa tenui, ovata, depresso-conica, costis ohtusis radiantihus 
numerosis et liris elevatis concentricis confertis undulatis decus- 
sata, albida, radiis rubro-fulvis ornata; apice subcentrali, ohtuso; 
apertura ovata ; fascia interna secundum superficiem exteriorem 
decussata et picta, micante, submargaritacea ; margine plus mi- 
nusve late crenulato. 

Long. 39, lat. 29, alt. 10 mill. 

Ilab. Barkly Island, Mauritius {Coll. Barclay). 



Wy. 



274 MR. H. ADAMS ON NEW MARINE SHELLS. [Apr. 22, 

This beautiful example of the genus Nacella differs from the 
typical species in the apex being nearly central, and in the form 
being depressedly conical. I therefore propose to separate it as a 
subgenus under the name of Cellana. 

YVtti Natica marmorata, H. Ad. (Plate XIX. fig. 8.) 

N. testa subglobosa, solida, subtilissime ac oblique striatula, albida, 
pallide fulvo marmorata, juxta suturam strigis fulvis ungulatis, 
et in medio anfractus ultimi macuUs sagittutis seriatim fasciata ; 
spira parum elevata, sutura distincta ; an/r. 5, ventricosis ; uper- 
tura subsemilunari ; columella arcuata, callosa, callo antice cas- 
taneo ; umbilico parvo,funiculato ; labro simpUci, recto. 

Long. 1 6, lat. 1 2 mill. 

Hah. Canary Islands {Coll. M'Andrew). 

Scala DELiCATULA, H. Ad. (Plate XIX. fig. 9.) 

S. testa vix perforata, elongato-turrita, tenui, albida, lamellis ele- 
vatis tenuibus numerosis longitudinalibus, ad suturam productis, 
clathrata, inter lamellas spiraliter striata ; spira anfr. 1 1 , con- 
vexis, contigtiis, apicalibus Icevibus ; apertura subcirculari ; labro 
vix incrassato. 

Long. 6^, lat. 2^ mill. 

Hab. Lancerote (Coll. M'Andrew). 

Syrnola minuta, H. Ad. (Plate XIX. fig. 10.) 

S. testa subulata, in medio tumida, solidula, polita, albida ; anfr. 
ad 1 0, planatis, fascia angusta pallide fulvo ad suturas cinclu ; 
sutura impressa ; apertura ovata ; plica parielali conspicua, trans- 
versa ; labro intus simplici. 

Long. 4, lat. |- mill. 

Hab. Orotava {Coll. M'Andrew). 

TuRBONiLLA SPECIOSA, H. Ad. (Plate XIX. fig. 11.) 

T. testa subulato-twrita, solida, albida vel pallide fulvu ; aifr. 1 (5, 
planiusculis , costis obliguis validis undulatis rotundatis instructis, 
interstitiis eequaniibus l<evibus ; costis in anfractii ultimo ad peri- 
pheriam desinentibus ; apertura ovato-quadrata ; labia recto. 

Long. 18-24, lat. 4|-5| mill. 

Hab. Vigo {Coll. M'Andrew). 

Cancellaria pusilla, H. Ad. (Plate XIX. fig. 12.) 

C. testa imperforata, ovato-turrita, albida, longitudinuliter obtuse 
nodoso-costata et filis remotis cincta ; spira elata, sutura leviter 
impressa; anfr. 5, convexiusculis, ultimo ^ longiludinis testa; 
apertura oblonga, antice vix canaliculata ; labia antice sinuato, 
plicis duahis validis insti'ucto ; labro simplici, intus valde lirato. 

Long. 6, lat. 21 mill. 

Hab. Canary Islands {Coll. M'Andrew). 



1869.] MR. H. ADAMS ON NEW MARINE SHELLS. 275 

Haminea subpellucida, H. Ad. (Plate XIX. fig. 13.) 

H. testa tenuissima, albida, subpellucida, ovata, in medio plerumqtte 
gibbosa, longitudinaliter striis undulatis rugosis, et spiraliter 
lineis elevatis irregularibus sculpta ; vertice excavato, subper- 
forato ; apertura antice dilatata ; margine columellari simplici, 
arcuato ; labro recto, postice rotundato. 

Long. 1 7, lat. 1 1 mill. 

Hub. Lisbon (Coll. M'Andrew). 

GouLDiA MODESTA, H. Ad. (Plate XTX. fig. 14.) 

G. testa subtriangulari, solidula, costis concentricis insculpta, inter- 
vallis costis aqualibus, pallide fusca, maculis rubris paucis pivtu ; 
extremitate nntica versus umbones concava, postica arcuata ; urn- 
bonibus acutis approximatis ; m:irgine ventrali convexo, intus 
crenulato. 

Long. 6i-, alt. 6 mill. 

Hab. Gulf of Tunis {Coll. M'Andrew). 

I take this opportunity of correcting a few names given by me to 
shells in former papers, which I have since found to be preoccupied : — 

Planorbis (Adula) septemvolvis to be altered to Planorbis 
(Anc^us) septemvolvis (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1861, p. 145). 

Helix (Geotrochus) blanfordi to be altered to Helix 
(Geotrochus) blanfordiana (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 415). 

Pupina PFEiFFERi to be altered to Pupina pfeifferiana (Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1865, p. 416). 

Stylodonta (Erepta) rufocincta to be altered to Stylo- 
donta (Erepta) rufozonata (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 303). 

Nanina (?Rotula) conulus to be altered to Nanina (?Ro- 
tula) turritella (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 307). 

DESCEIPTION OP PLATE XIX. 

Fig. 1. Conus {Coronaxii) cernicus, ■p. 272. 

2. ClathureUa rohiUardi, p. 2715. 

3. DrilUa barkliensis, p. '112. 

4. Coralliophila coronata, p. 272. 

5. ba. Mauritia barclayi, p. 273. 

6. 6«. MargmcUa {Glabella) mirabilis, p. 273. 

7. 7a. Nacella {Cellana') ccrnica, p. 273. 

8. Natica marmorata, p. 274. 

9. Scala delicattda, p. 274. 

10. Syrnola minuta, p. 274. 

11. Turbo7iilla spcciosa, p. 274. 

12. Cancelluria picsilla, p. 274. 

13. Hmninea subpellucida. p. 275. 

14. Gouldia modcsta, p. 27.5. 



'2/0 THE SECRETARY ON ADDITIONS TO THE MENAGERIE. [May l.'J, 

May 13, 1869. 
John Gould, Esq., F.R.S., V.P., in the Chair. 

The Secretary called the attention of the Meeting to the following 
remarkable additions to the Society's Menagerie during the montlis 
of March and April : — 

1 . A Senegal Coucal (Centrojms senegalensis) from West Africa, 
being the first specimen of this bird exhibited in the Society's col- 
lection. It was purchased March 8th. 

2. Three Menopomas {Meyiopoma alleghanieiise) from the Alle- 
ghany river, U. S. A., presented by the Trustees of the Smithsonian 
Institution, U. S. A. (March 9th),'and believed to be the first exam- 
ples of this singular Batrachian brought alive to this country. 

3. A young Yaguarundi Cat {Felis yaguarund'i) from Panama, 
presented by Capt. G. E. Bird, of the Royal Mail S. S. Co.'s service. 

4. A female Musk {Moschus moschiferus), presented by Major 
F. R. Pollock, Commissioner at Peshawur, and most carefully con- 
veyed to this country by Lieut. C. H. T. Marshall, F.Z.S., from 
whom it was received March 31st. This animal had been captured 
in June 1867, in the Hills of Cashmere, by Major Delme' Radcliffe 
of the 88th Regiment, who shot both the parents, and brought it 
when quite a kid to Peshawur. It was now about two years old, 
and was believed to be the only Musk ever brought to Europe alive. 

5. A Cape Eared Owl (Otus capensis. Smith, 111. Zool. S. Afr. 
t. Ixvii.), captured on the rock of Gibraltar by Major Irby, and 
deposited in the Society's Gardens by Lord Lilford, F.Z.S., April 
.Oth. In reference to this bird, Mr. Sciater remarked that, although 
its occasional occurrence upon the southern coast of Spain had been 
mentioned by Kjiirbolling some years ago *, there was not, as far as 
he was aware, any previous authentic record of a specimen of it 
having been obtained in Europe. 

6. An jEliau's Wart-hog {Phacochoerus celiani), which had been 
captured near ZouUa, on the coast- district of the Red Sea, and 
brought to England in one of the transports engaged on the Abyssi- 
nian Expedition, April 1.5th (see Plate XX.). This animal had been 
placed in the Swine-house, next to the fine pair of ..Ethiopian Wart- 
hogs from Natal (P. cetkiopicus), which had been presented to the 
Society by H. R. H. the Duke of Edinburgh on the 6th of May, 1866. 
The external differences between the two species were very obvious 
on comparison, the sides being much more naked in P. aliani, while 
the hairs on the back and nape of the head were much thicker and 
longer. In P. (Bliani the ears were longer, more pointed, and more 
naked ; in P. cethiopicus these organs were densely clothed with hair. 
In P. celiani also the whiskers are very long and well developed. 

One other specimen of Lilian's Wart-hog had been previously 
living in the Menagerie — namely an adult female from Ashantee, 
presented to the Society by H.M. the Queen in 186 If- 

* Naumannia, ii. p. 10 (1S.32). t See P. Z. S. lH(il, p. 30. 



PL, 

00 




r 






CO 

'X 

o 
o 



? 

s 



18(59.] 



I.KTTICIt FROM DR. J. ANDERSON. 



277 




Pf/acf>chirr)is rfthinpieiis. 




Phacnckaerna rr-JifDii. 

Mr. Sclater exhibited drawings illustrative of the external differ- 
ences between these two Wart-hogs, and also made remarks upon 
their well-known cranial and dental differences, which had been fully 
described by F. Cuvier, Van der Hoeven, and Owen, but which had 
not prevented Dr. Gray from uniting the two species in his recent 
Catalogue* of these animals. 



The following extract was read f' .n a letter addressed by Dr. J. 
Anderson, C.M.Z.S., to Mr. A. Grjte, F.Z.S., concerning his recent 
expedition to Yunan : — 

" I have brought back a large collection of birds, mammals, rep- 
tiles, fishes, insects, and land and freshwater mollnsks, and believe 
I have a number of novelties amongst them. I will send you a copy 
of my report when finished, but tliat will not be for some time yet. 

* P. Z. S. 1868, p. 46, and Cat. Caniivorous. Pachvdormatous, and Edenttite 
Mamm. p. .'i.")2(1860). 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XIX. 



278 LETTER FROM DR. J. ANDERSON. [May 13, 

Mr. W. T. Blanford has kiiicHy given me tlie names of the shells, 
and Dr. Day of Madras has worked out the fishes. 1 shall do the 
mammals, birds, and reptiles myself, and give an account of the 
geology. I have collected vocabularies of the various native tribes, 
and shall be able to give you a rather interesting account of the hill 
tribes between Bnrmah and China. 

" I have brought two living Monkeys of the Rhesus group from 
Yunan, quite different from anything 1 have ever seen. I also came 
across another peculiar form of this genus, and sent the specimen 
alive to Bhamaun under the care of a policeman (one of our guards), 
with strict orders, if it died, to preserve the skiu and skeleton ; this, 
however, was not done. The two specimens I have brought with 
me are small, and have the red face of Macacus rhesus. I agree 
with you that more than one species have been hitherto united under 
that name. My specimens are great pets ; and after they have been 
figured, I will send them to the Zoological Society. They were 
obtained in the province of Yunan, at an elevation of from 4000 to 
.5000 feet. I got Thaumalea amherstice, and a Francolin which I 
am not quite sure about, as also a Pheasant, which is the living 
image of the English bird. I have also species of Suthorn and Pyc- 
nonotus, and other birds which have yet to be determined. The 
mammals and reptiles are not yet finished. Day has described a 
number of new fishes, and Blanford about twelve new species of land 
. and freshwater shells. 

" I am trying hard to get living specimens of the pigmy Hog of 
the Terai for the Zoological Society, and hope to succeed. To-day 
I have had a letter from Mr. J. C. Haughton, Commissioner of Jul- 
pigom, offering me a living Arctonya.^, which I have also accepted 
for the Society. I do not know the species yet, but it will probably 
be A. collaris." 

The Secretary also read the following extract from a letter addressed 
to him by the same gentleman, dated Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
April nth, 1869:— 

" I know you will be interested to learn that the three specimens 
oC Ailurus have arrived. I have taken them under my charge, and 
am doing all I can to mitigate their sufferings from the heat, which 
has been very great during the last few days, reaching as high as 
95° on the cool shaded side of the house. I have a man attending 
to them all day ; and when the sun goes down I have them carried 
out into a cool breezy spot. I have had a new and comfortable airy 
cage constructed, as the one they were in was filthy in the extreme. 

" The original specimen, which I found at Darjeeling, and which 
now belongs to Dr. Simpson, is in capital condition, and may live 
through the heat of the Red Sea ; but I doubt much if the others 
will. I have told Dr. Simpson to preserve their bodies if they die. 
They are most interesting animals. In appearance they are wonder- 
fully like Raccoons. Every movement is Bear-like ; they sit up on 
their hind quarters and strike with their paws in the same way as 
the Bear, climb like the Bear, and when irritated make the sudden 



1869.] 



LETTKR FROM DR. F. V. MUELLER. 



279 



rush of that niiimal amJ emit a nearly similar cry ; the bushy barred 
tail, which is fully as long as the body, is carried straight out, or 
nearly so. They are very fond of milk, bamboo-leaves, and grass, 
and have a strong penchant for sugar. We cannot get them to eat 
any of the plain's fruits. It will be a splendid success if they reach 
Europe alive." 



A communication was read from Dr. F. von Mueller, F.R.S., 
C.M.Z.S., containing a list of birds permanently occurring, or perio- 
dically visiting, the Botanic Gardens, 



Melb 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

.5. 

6. 

/. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

J9. 

20. 

21. 

22. 

23. 

24. 

2.5. 

26. 

27. 

28. 

29. 

30. 

31. 

32. 

33. 

34. 

35. 

36. 

S7. 

38. 

39. 



Falco melanogenys. 
leraciflea beriyoru. 

Occident alts. 

Astvr novce.-hollandicB. 



approximans. 

Accipiter torquatus. 
Circus assimilis. 
Strix tenebricosus. 
Athene boobook. 

strenua. 

^gotheles nova-hoUandia. 
Hirundo neoxena. 
Attieora leucosternon. 
Dacelo gig ant ea. 
Alcyone azurea. 
Halcyon sancta. 
Artamus sordidus. 

superciliosHS. 

DicfPum hirundinaceum. 
Pardalotus punctatus. 
Grauca/iis melanopsis. 
Pachycephala melanura. 

pectoralis. 

CoUuricincla harmonica. 
Oreoica gutturalis. 
Falcuncidus frontalis. 
Gymnorhina tibicen. 

leuconota. 

Corcorax leucopterus. 
Corvus coronoides. 
Strepera anaphonensis. 

graculina. 

Rhipidura motacilloides. 
— -- rujifrons. 

albiscapa. 

Seissura inquieta, 
Malurus cyaneus. 

melanotus. 

Stipiturns malacurus. 



40. 

41. 

42. 

43. 

44. 

45. 

46. 

47. 

48. 

49. 

50. 

51. 

52. 

53. 

54. 

55. 

56. 

57. 

58. 

59. 

60. 

61. 

62. 

63. 

64. 

65. 

66. 

67. 

68. 

69. 

70. 

71. 

72. 

7S. 

74. 

75. 

76. 

77. 

78. 



ourne : — 

Sphenceacus graminens. 
Calamanthus fidiginosus. 
Anfhus australis. 
Sericorrns osculans. 
Acanthiza chrysorrhoa. 
lineata. 



nana. 



Ephthianura albifrons. 
Petroica phoetiicea. 

midticolor. 

Cincloramphus rufes''ens. 
Estrelda bella. 

• temporalis. 

Ainadina lathanii. 
OreociHcIa lunulata. 
Oriolus viridis. 
Meliphaga australasiana . 

longirostris. 

Glyciphila albifrons. 

fulvifrons. 

Ptilotis penicillata. 
Anthochcera lunulata. 

mellivora. 

Acanthogenys rufogularis. 
Acantho ^-hynchus tenuirostris. 
TropidorhTjnchuscomicvlatus. 
Melithreptes lunulatus. 
Ciimacteris scandens. 
Sittella chrysoptera. 
Calyptorhynchus naso. 
Aprosmictus scapulatus. 
Platycercus eximius. 

pennantii. 

Nymphicus novcc-hollandicE. 
Euphema elegans. 
Melopsittacus undulatus. 
Trichoglossus rubritorques. 

pusillus. 

Cuculus cinerascens. 



280 MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. [May 13, 



79. Chrysoccccyx hicidus. 

80. Phaps chalcoptera. 

81. Peristera elegans. 

82. Syncjecus austraHs. 

83. (Hemenensis. 

84. Lobivanellus lobatus. 
8.5. Sco/opax australis. 
86. Scltceiiichis australis. 
87- subarquatus. 

88. Rhynchtea australis. 

89. Hero/lias syrmnfophoriis. 

90. Nycticorax caledoniciis. 

91. ^/'J/s australis. 

92. Botaurus australis. 

93. Platalea reyiu. 

94. Porphyria melanotus. 
9i>. Fulica australis. 

96. Rallus pectoralis. 

97. Gallinula tenebrosa. 



98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
102. 
103. 
104. 
10.5. 

106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
112. 
113. 
114. 



Cygnns atratus. 
Cereopsis nov(B hollandiai. 
Anseranas melanoleuca. 
Bernicla jubata. 
Anas superciliosa. 

ncBvosa. 

punctata. 

Malacorhynchus mcmbrana- 

ceus. 
Biziura lobata. 
Nyroca australis. 
Sternula nereis. 
Pelicanus conspicillatus. 
Phalacrocorax carboides. 

leucoyaster. 

sulcirostris. 

Podiceps australis. 
gularis. 



The following papers were read : — 

1. On the Classification of the Anurous Batrachians. 
By St. George Mivart. 

In June 18.58 Dr. Giinther read a very valuable paper before the 
Zoological Society *, stating the principles according to which he 
was disposed to arrange, systematically, the Anurous Batrachians. 
The system therein offered is that adopted by the same author in his 
Catalogue of the Frogs and Toads contained in the British Mu- 
seum f. 

In 1865 Mr. E. Cope gave to the world another and very different 
plan for arranging the same animals J, a plan which he has amended 
and further elaborated in papers published in the ' Journal of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia' §. 

Dr. Giinther's system reposes mainly on external and readily as- 
certainable characters. 

Mr. Cope's system is founded on certain points of osteological 
detail. 

I venture here to propose a classification which is derived from, 
and in all the most important points agrees with, that of Dr. Griin- 
ther, but which differs from it in certain minor respects (owing to 
a different estimate of the value of certain points of structure), while 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 339. 

t ' Catalogue of tlie Batrachia Salientia in the Collection of tlie British 
Museum,' by Dr. Albert Giinther. 1858. 

I Natural History Eeview, vol. v. 18(55, p. 97. 

§ Vol. vi. of the new series of that Journal, part 1, .July 1866, p. 67, and 
part 2, September 1807, p. 189. 



18G9.] MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. 281 

it adopts from the labours of Mr. Cope osteological characters noticed 
by him, but which are here restricted in their application to the 
Jimitation of more subordinate groups than those for wliich he uses 
them. 

Mr. Cope's osteological system would divide the Anura into two 
great series, the Arciformia and the llatdformia. 

The Raniformia are thus characterized * : — " Coracoidei abutting ; 
epicoracoidei, when present, continuous, transverse, and abutting on 
coracoidei ; not connected with the latter by overlapping longitudinal 
cartilages." 

The Arciformia are distinguished as follows f: — " Acromials and 
coracoids divergent, the former directed forward and connected with 
the latter by a longitudinal arched cartilage, which is free from, and 
overlapped by, the corresponding cartilaginous arch of the opposite 
side." 

This system associates Bombinator, Pelodytes, and Cultripes with 
Hyla, Cystigtiathus, Hylodes, and Bufo, in one division ; while 
Engystoma, Phryniscus, and Hemisus are altogether separated from 
the true Toads, in order to be classed with Rana, Hylarana, &c. 

Such approximations seem to me forced and unnatural, and likely 
to lead to the rejection of the system from which they necessarily 
result. 

Mr. Cope employs other osteological characters for more subor- 
dinate groups ; thus his HylidceX are characterized, among other 
points, as having the " fronto-parietalia shortened anteriorly, usually 
embracing a fontanelle," and "superior plate of ethmoid never 
covered by fronto-parietals, usually produced anteriorly, between 
fronto-nasals." 

Skeletal characters are, indeed, most valuable ones in leading us to 
detect the deepest and truest affinities of vertebrate animals. But 
these affinities once found, it is very desirable that zoological classi- 
fications should not, if it can possibly be avoided, repose upon them 
only, but rather on more external and more readily ascertainable 
characters. Such external characters will probably be found to 
exist in all really natural groups, although they may turn out to 
be distinctions so little obvious that they might never have been 
noticed, but for the guidance afforded by the previous careful study 
of the osteology of such groups. 

As to the particular character selected to distinguish Mr. Cope's 
two great primary divisions, I cannot think it of anything like the 
importance § he attaches to it. The point is one easily to be studied, 
as the Common Frog is the ty{)e of the Runiformia, while the Com- 
mon Toad exemplifies the Arciform type of structure. 

When the two adult shoulder-girdles are compared, a considerable 

* Journal Acad. Phil, new series, vol. vi. pt. 2, p. 190. 

t Ibid. pt. 1, p. 67. 

\ Ibid. p. S3. 

§ I am fortified in this, I rejoice to say, by the valuable opinion of one of the 
very first of existing osteologists, I mean my esteemed friend Mr. \V. K. Parker, 
F.R.S. 



282 MR. ST. GEORGE MIT ART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. [May 13, 

difference certainly appears at first sight to exist ; but if a Frog of 
a somewhat earlier age is examined, it will be seen to be as " arcife- 
rous " as in the Toad. In Mr. Parker's elaborate Monograph on the 
shonlder-girdle, published by the Ray Society, this fact is well shown 
at plate 5, where the various stages are represented between the 
shoulder-girdle of the Frog-tadpole, "with budding limbs but per- 
fect tail" (fig. 1), and that of the "old male Frog" (fig. 11). In 
the Frog, a few weeks after metamorphosis (fig. 9), the arched car- 
tilages are well shown ; and the young Frog with the tail absorbed 
(fig. 6) exhibits a condition, as regards the overlapping cartilaginous 
arches, closely resernbling that presented bij the Toad of the first 
summer (fig. 16). 

Now the existence of structures in a rudimentary, transitory con- 
dition during the develo|»ment of certain animals, does not necessarily 
invalidate the employment of the manifest conspicuous presence of 
such structures in the adult condition of other animals as distin- 
guishing characters of the latter. But in all such cases a really 
marked distinction must be capable of being drawn. This cannot 
be said to be the case in the present instance, where two animals (the 
common Frog and Toad) closely resemble each other after they have 
assumed their final, adult external form. 

The Anura, then, can hardly, I think, be divided into two primary 
sections on the strength of a character so little distinctive as Mr. 
Parker's observations prove the visible presence of these cartila- 
ginous arches to be. I say visible presence, because even in the 
old male Frog this arch really persists, though its existence is dis- 
guised and hidden by the superficial extension over it of the lower 
part of the coracoid. Some of the other characters are also but 
little satisfactory. Thus the presence of a fontanelle is sometimes 
at least merely a proof of the immaturity of the individual possess- 
ing it. 

The Anura form such a remarkably homogeneous group, that 
their subdivision is a work of great difficulty. I fully agree with 
Mr. Cope that adaptive modifications should be neglected as affording 
distinctive characters of groups, in favour of others going deeper 
into their essential relations and affinities. But here it is not at all 
evident to me which are the really essential characters ; and when 
these cannot be clearly distinguished, I think it well to turn to such 
others as can easily be observed, though regretting at the same time 
the absence of more significant and satisfactory distinctions. 

Thus the system proposed by Dr. Giinther should, I think, be 
retained as far as possible, being so " complete and practically use- 
ful," as Mr. Cope acknowledges*. 

That Dr. Giinther's system admits now of some modification, I 
think its author would freely acknowledge. The discovery that some 
species of Callula have very large digital disks, while others are 
totally devoid of such expansions, cannot but cause grave doubts as 
to the propriety of the dividing the Anura into large groups on the 
strength of such a character. Then the presence or absence of a 
* Natural History Review, vol. v. p. 120. 



18()9.] MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. 283 

web is sometimes so variable in one and the same genus, that, I sub- 
m\t, family distinctness can hardly be determined bj it. I therefore 
propose to treat the presence or absence of disks as a character of 
minor importance, and to place in one family all forms not otherwise 
distinguishable than by the presence or absence of a web. 

The two remarkable and aberrant genera Pipa and Dactijlethra 
(which agree in having the eustachian tubes so united as to have but 
one pharyngeal orifice, and in being destitute of a tongue) I am not 
disposed to regard as low forms. The absence of the tongue is a 
defect ; but then the highest of all reptiles (the Crocodilia) differ from 
the inferior forms of their class by a similar one. The single eusta- 
chian opening is certainly rather an evidence of higher development. 

It is with considerable doubt, and mainly out of deference to the 
opinion of others, that 1 make Pipa and Dactylethra types of one 
and the same primary subordinal division. It may be that Pipa is 
to the edentulous Anura what Dactylethra is to the toothed forms, 
and that they are, as Mr. Cope has suggested*, extremes of two 
different series. Nevertheless the agreement between these genera 
is very remarkable, not only as to the absence of a tongue and the 
structure of the tympanum, but also as regards the expanded sacral 
vertebra, the absence of parotoids and of teeth on the palate, the 
hidden tympanum, and the broadly webbed toes. 

In searching for an important character by which to divide \m- 
marily the rest of the Anura, I have to choose between tliat afforded 
by the expansion or non-expansion of the transverse process of the 
sacral vertebra, and the presence or absence of maxillary teeth, as 
(considering the conditions presented by the genus Callula) I de- 
cline altogether to adopt as an important distinction the expansion 
of the ends of the digits into disks. 

The sacral dilatation is certainly a very remarkable structure, and 
one probably rather essential than adaptive f- Nevertheless, were 
it to be selected as the primary character, it would lead to the asso- 
ciation of Engystoma and Bufo with Uyla and Discoglossus, and the 
radical separation of the last-named genus from Rana, and of Poly- 
pedates and Hylodes from Hyla. I therefore conclude to adopt that 
character which Dr. Giinther considers the most important after the 

* Natural History Eeview, 1865, vol. v. p. 08. 

t Dr. Giinther says, "What influence the dilated or more cylindrical form of 
the process of sacral vertebra has upon the mode of life is difficult to explain, as 
it does not absolutely correspond with other physiological or anatomical charac- 
ters. The pelvis obtains by the dilatation of these processes much more firm- 
ness ; and a lateral motion is more or less entirely impeded. We should there- 
fore expect to meet witli this character in those Batrachians flhicli are provided 
with the longest and most powerful hind legs, according to the jshysical problem 
that the longest lever requires the strongest centre. But, on the contrary, the 
Batrachians with the sliortest legs exhibit a much-dilated sacral vertebra, wliilst 
on the other hand the long-legged Hylid<B .^how the same pecuharify. In fact, 
this osteological form seems to be connected with none of the mndificdfions of /vco- 
motion ; for we find among these Batrachians good swimmei-s as well as bad. 
tree- as well as eartli-frogs, those which always hop as well as tliose which ollcn 
cniwl ; finallv we are unable to refer to it a peculiaritv of anv part of the propa- 
gation." (P. Z. S. 18:)8, p. 340.) ' ■ _ 



284 MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUKOUS BATRACHIANS. [May 13, 

tongue and digital disks — which latter I decline to select. This 
character is the presence of maxillary teeth. 

On this subject Dr. Giinther observes *, " When we consider that 
the lower jaw of the tailed Batrachians is provided with a series of 
teeth, and that these are wanting in all the tailless Batrachians, we 
are obliged to acknowledge the importance of this character." Since 
this was written, however, two forms have been discovered which are 
provided with mandibular teeth f; and this may perhaps be considered 
to strengthen Dr. Giinther's refusal to consider the possession of teeth 
a primary character — a refusal he fortifies by reference to the Eden- 
tata and Salnionidaj. 

But the learned Doctor's refusal was mainly grounded on his " not 
being able to consider the character of the dentition among the tail- 
less Batrachians as one intimately connected with their mode of life" %, 
an objection the force of which I am so far from being disposed to 
admit that I would select for classificatory purposes the least 
adaptive characters I could find, provided they were constant and 
easily to be ascertained. It is true that in the Edentata we have 
edentulous and many toothed forms, but then these forms are very 
distinct ; we have no edentulous Armadillos and no toothed Ant- 
eaters, and indeed the order may well be primarily divided according 
to the dentition ; so that I think that, on the whole, the Edentata 
favour my view. 

(characters as to dentition serve also to define the primary divisions 
of the orders Primates, Chiroptera, Insectivora, Cetacea, and Mar- 
supialia, at the least, if not others also ; and the edentulous Chelonia 
form the most natural and well-defined primary groups of existing 
Eeptiles. 

Mr. Cope opposes the adoption of dental characters for important 
divisions as follows: — "The increase of knowledge furnishes us with 
cases of rudimental dentition, indicating a less significance for the 
character which has been supposed to characterize the Bufoniformia. 
Such occurs in the genus Colostethus, Cope, which seems to be quite 
identical with Dendrohates, except in the possession of teeth. Mkro- 
hyla, a true Engystomatid, is said by Dr. Giinther to possess teeth ; 
and minute rugosities on the maxillse of Cullula naiatrix deceived 
me into the belief at one time that teeth actually existed. Among 
arciferous geneva. EupemiMx (Steindachner) is said by him to possess 
very minute teeth, which in some adults are entirely wanting "§. 

To this it may be replied that the loss of teeth in certain individuals, 
perhaps aged, can hardly be a valid reason to reject this character as 
one of weight. Secondly, Microhyla does not possess teeth ; the 
possession of teeth was attributed to it by Dr. Giinther on the 

* Proc. Zool. Soe. 1858, p. 340. 

t These are : — Hemiphractus scntaius, described by Peters, in ' Berlin, Monats.' 
1863, p. 144 ; and Gri/jn'scus, described by Cope in ' Journal of Acad. Phila- 
delphia,' 1867, vol. vi. part 2, p. 205. 

+ Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 340. 

§ Journal of the Acad, of Nat. Sc. of Pliiladelphia, new scries, vol. vi. part 2, 
p. 18'J. 



18G9.] MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. 28o 

nuthority of Tschudi* and MM. Diimeril and Bibronf. Thirdly, 
Mr. Cope admits that he was misled as to the existence of teeth in 
CaUulu natatrix. Perhaps a similar circnmstance may have occurred 
as regards Colostethus, or perhaps Hylajjlesia may be found to have 
teeth at some period of life. 

Next in importance to the presence or absence of teeth I am dis- 
posed to rank the condition of the development of the ear and the 
dilatation of the sacral transverse process, I am moreover inclined 
to lay additional weight on them from their not being adaptive cha- 
racters — the dilatation of the sacral vertebra being, as we have seen, 
apparently independent of locomotive habit. 

As to the condition of the internal ear, neither Dr. Giinther nor 
Mr. Cope are disposed to attach primary importance to it ; and I 
fully agree with the first-named author in thinking that " the Batra- 
chians with imperfectly developed ear would form together an un- 
natural group, and would be separated too far (rom other allied 
forms "J, if that character were made the main character in Batra- 
chian classification. Neverthel°ss it seems to me a character of such 
great importance that I propose to rank it next after the presence or 
absence of teeth. 

Of the characters that remain the most readily available are the 
presence or absence of parotoids and the dilatation or non-dilatation 
of the tips of the digits. 

That the latter character is, as Mr. Cope considers, not one of 
any great real value, seems to me to be demonstrated, as before said, 
by the varying condition in which it is found in the single genus 
Callula. The presence or absence of parotoids therefore may, I 
think, well take precedence of the digital disks as a distinctive cha- 
racter. As to the "presence or absence of a web between the toes," 
that character can only be applied with doubt and uncertainty even 
to certain groups ranking as low as genera. 

Making use of these characters in the subordination above indi- 
cated, we shall have, besides Pipa and Dactylethra, two great series — 
( 1 ) a toothed (Frog) series, and (2) an edentulous (Toad) series. As 
some of the animals of the latter series seem to oifer the lowest 
condition found in the order, we may ascend through them to the 
Frogs, beginning with a section containing those in which the ear is 
imperfect. The first family of these will be the Rhinophrynidce, 
which have parotoid glands and a tongue free anteriorly. The 
second family will be the Phryniscidce, in which there are no parotoid 
glands, and in which the tongue is fixed in front.- The next eden- 
tulous section will consist of such toothless forms as have a perfect 
ear. 'It will contain one family with an undilated sacral vertebra 
(the Hylaplesidce) and three families in which the sacral vertebra is 
dilated, the first of the three {Bufonidce) having parotoid glands, the 
other two being destitute of such structures and distinguished from 

* ' Classification der Batracliier,' p. 71, "Benfcs maxillares et palatinos bre- 
lu'fsimos." 

!■ Erpetologie Generale, vol. viii. p. 614. 
t Prnc. Zool. See. 18o8. p. 342. 



28(j MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. [May 1-3, 

each other by the tongue being fixed in front as usual (the Engy- 
stomidce) or free in front (the Xenorhinida;), 

The toothed (or Frog) series may also be similarly divided into 
two sections : — first, those with an imperfect ear, the Bomhinatoridoi; 
secondly, those with a perfect ear. This latter section contains 
more families than any other section of the order, there being three 
families in which the sacral vertebra is not dilated, and four in which 
it is dilated — seven in all. In order, however, to place tliose families 
in juxtaposition which have most affinity for each other (e. g. the 
Biscoglossidce next to the Ranidce, &c.) I have thought it desirable, 
in the annexed table, to treat the dilatation of the sacral vertebra as 
subordinate to the presence or absence of parotoids. I do not, how- 
ever, consider, as I have already said, the latter character to be infe- 
rior in importance ; but such a way of treating the matter is conve- 
nient in this particular instance. 

Thus the Plectromantidce, with parotoids and non-dilated sactal 
vertebra, will come first, then those with parotoids and dilated sacral 
vertebra; first, the Alytidce, without digital disks, and then the 
Felodryadidce, with them. 

Of those without parotoids the Hylidee have a dilated sacral 
vertebra and digital disks ; while undilated sacral vertebra is common 
to the Polypedatida and Ranidce, which differ in the presence or 
absence of the disks ; after these the DiscoglossidcB, which have the 
sacral vertebra dilated, but are devoid of disks. 

Finally come Pipa and Dactylethra, which thus form a third 
primary division of the Anura, characterized by a highly developed 
tympanum, but no tongue. 

ANURA. 

A. Without maxillary teeth at any time of life, but with a tongue. 

I. Ear imperfect. 

Tongue free in front Rhinophrynidce . 

Tongue fixed in front Fhryiiiscidce. 

11. Ear perfect. 

a. Sacral vertebra not dilated tlylaplesidee. 

j3. Sacral vertebra dilated, 

1 . Parotoids liufonidce. 

2. No parotoids. 

Tongue free in front Xenorhinidie. 

Tongue fixed in front Engystomidic. 

B. With maxillary teeth at some time of life and with a tongue. 

I. Ear imperfect Bombinatond(e. 

II. Ear perfect. 

a. Parotoids. 

1. Sacral vertebra not dilated .... Fleet romantida. 

2. Sacral vertel)ra dilated. 

No digital disks Alytidce. 

Digital di.'^ks Pelodnjudid/e. 



1869.] MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. 28/ 

/3. No parotoids. 

1 . Sacral vertebra dilated ; digital 

disks HylidcB. 

2. Sacral vertebra uudilated ; digital 

disks Polypedatidce. 

3. Sacral vertebra undilated ; no 

digital disks Ranidce. 

4. Sacral vertebra dilated ; no digital 

disks Discofflossidce. 

C. No tongue ; maxillary teeth present or absent. 

I. Maxillary teeth absent Pipidce. 

II. Maxillary teeth present DactijlethridcB. 

Section A. No maxillary teeth ; a tongue. 

Division I. Ear imperfect. 

Fam. I. Ehinophrynid^. 

No tympanum ; no cavum tynipani ; no eustachian tubes ; trans- 
verse processes of sacral vertebra dilated ; parotoid glands present 
but hidden, large, with smooth surface ; tongue free in front, fixed 
behind ; fingers webbed at the base, toes half webbed ; " no articulated 
ribs or opisthoccelian vertebrae ;" " ethmoid septal walls ossified to 
the end of the muzzle, and separating the prefrontals ; its superior 
plate covered by the completely ossified fronto-parietale. Fronto- 
nasalia well developed, entirely in contact with fronto-parietalia, 
separated by a median point of the latter and by the ethmoid sep- 
tum." " Coracoid and epicoracoid divergent, connected by a nar- 
row single cartilage; the former not dilated, in contact with, or 
slightly separated from, that of the opposite side." Nine vertebrae 
and a coccyx attached by two condyles. 

Tropical America. 

Rhinophrynus, Dum. & Bibron, viii. p. 75,8, pi. 91. fio-s. 2. 2a; 
Giinther, P. Z. S. 18.58, p. 348; Cope, Nat.' Hist. Review! vol" v' 
1865, p. 100. 

Genus Rhinophrynus, Mexico. 

Fam. II. Phryniscid^. 

No tympanum ; no cavum tympani ; eustachian tubes absent or 
rudimentary ; transverse processes of sacral vertebra dilated ; no pa- 
rotoid glands ; tongue more or less elongate, fixed in front, free 
behind, where it is entire ; digits free or webbed, but undilated or 
only moderately dilated. No arciform cartilages. 

Neotropical and Australian, Indian and Ethiopian regions. 

This is almost equivalent to the Brachycephalina of Dr. Giinther, 
including, as it does, the Phryniscidce, Brachycephalidce, and adding 
to them the Micrhylida. (Cat. of Bat. Salientia, pp. 42, 45, & 121° 
and Synopsis, p. 8). 



288 MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. [May 13, 

Subfam. 1. Phryniscina. 

" Prefrontals small, widely removed from each other and from the 
fronto-parietals ; eustachian tubes rudimentary ; no digital disks ; 
precoracoidei present and smaller than coracoids"*. 

See Cope, Journal of Acad, of Phil, 1867, p. 195. 

Genera : — Phnjniscus, Neotropia ; Pseudophryne, Australian ; 
Brachycephaius, Neotropia. 

Subfam. 2. Hemisina. 

No eustachian tubes ; tongue posteriorly retractile into a sheath ; 
fronto-parietal and prefrontal bones fully developed, in contact, the 
latter separated to end of muzzle by ossified ethmoid septum ; manu- 
brium present ; coracoids more slender than precoracoids ; no digital 
disks. 

See Cope, I. c. p. 198. 

Genus Hemisus, Ethiopia. 

Subfam. 3. Michrylina. 

Precoracoidei wanting ; no eustachian tubes ; ethmoid arch ossi- 
fied ; prefrontals fully developed, in contact with each other and 
fronto-parietals; latter complete ; moderate digital disks. 

Genus Micrhyla, Indian region. 

Division II. Ear perfect. 

Subsection n. Sacral vertebra not dilated. 

Fam. III. IIylaplesid^ (Giinther). 

A tvm{)anum and cavum tympani ; two eustachian tubes ; pro- 
cesses of sacral vertebra not dilated ; no parotoid glands ; tongue 
free behind ; digits free and all dilated at their ends ; no arciform 
cartilages ; precoracoids present ; sacrum distinct from coccygeal 
style, three lobes to tire liver ; prefrontals widely separated ; ethmoid 
broad, ossified to extremity of muzzle; terminal phalanges with two 
divaricate limbs. 

Tropical America. 

Hylaplesidce, Giinther, Cat. of Bat. Sal. }>. 124. 

Dendrobatidce, Cope, Journal Phil. 18G7, p. 197. 

Genus Ilylaplesia, Neotropia. 

Subsection /3. Sacral vertebra dilated. 

Fam. IV. BuFONiD^, (Giinther). 

A tympanum and cavum tympani ; two eustachian tubes ; pro- 

* These characters may not apply to Pseudophri/ne, wliich does not appear 
to be inchided by Cope in liis I'hri/niscidce, though iu the paper in the Nat 
Hist. Review it is placed beside Phrpiiscus, 1. c. p. 102. 



1869.] MR. ST, GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. 289 

cesses of sacral vertebra dilated ; parotoid glands present ; tongue 
free behind ; digits not dilated, toes more or less webbed. 
Cosmopolitan, except Australia. 

Subfam. 1. Kalophrynina. 

No arciform cartilages ; precoracoids present ; prefrontals fully 
developed, forming suture with each other and fronto-parietals ; skin 
of the back forming one large flat parotoid. East-Indian islands. 

Genus Kalophrynus, Indian region. 

Subfam. 2. Bufonina. 

Arciform cartilages ; precoracoids present ; parotoids normal, pro- 
minent. Cosmopolitan, except Australia. 

Genera : — Bufo, cosmopolitan, except Australia ; Otilophiis, Neo- 
tropical region; Peltaphryne, Neotropical region; Pseudobufo, East- 
Indian archipelago; Schismaderma, Ethiopian. 

Fam. V. Xenorhinid^. 

A tympanum and cavum tympani ; two eustachian tubes ; pro- 
cesses of sacral vertebra dilated ; no parotoid glands ; tono-ue en- 
tirely attached behind, free in front ; digits all free, but only the toes 
provided with disks ; tympanum distinct, large ; no tarsal tubercle ; 
habit of Engystoma. 

New Guinea. 

See Peters, Berlin. Monats. 1863, p. 82. 

Bombinator oxycephalus, Schlegel, Handleiding tot de beolfening 
der Dierkunde, ii. p. .58, tab. iv. fig. 74. 

Genus Xenorhina, Australian region. 

Fam. VI. ENGYSTOMIDiE. 

A tympanum and cavum tympani ; two eustachian tubes ; pro- 
cesses of sacral vertebra dilated ; no parotoid glands ; tongue fixed 
in front ; digital disks present or absent. 

African, Indian, Neotropical, and Australian regions. 

Includes Engystomidce, BhinodermatidcB, Brachymeridce, and 
HylasdactylidcB of Dr. Giinther, Cat. of Bat. Salientia, Synopsis. 
pp. 8 & 9. if' 

Subfam 1. Engystomina. 

Coracoidei abutting ; no precoracoids ; no arciform cartilao-es. 

Engystomidce of Cope, /. c. pp. 190 & 191. 

Genera : — Engystoma, Neotropical region ; Biplopelma, Indian 
region; Cacopus (Systoma), Indian; Glyphoglossus, Indian; Callvia, 
Indian ; Brachymerus, Ethiopian ; Adenomera, Neotropical ; Pachtj- 
batraehus (?), Australia. 

Subfam. 2. Brevicipittna. 
Coracoidei abutting ; precoracoids present ; no arciform cartilages. 



290 MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. [May l.S, 

Genera: — Breviceps, Ethiopian region; Cke/i/dobatrac/ius, Aus- 
tralian ; Hypopachus, Neotropical ; Rhinodennu, Neotropical ; Ate- 
lopus, Neotropical; Copea, Neotropical. 

Subfam. 3. Paludicolina. 

Coracoids and precoracoids present ; also arciform cartilages. 
Genus Paludicola, Neotropical region. 

Section B- With maxillary teeth, at some time of life, and with a 

tongue. 

Division I. Ear imperfect. 

Fam. VII. BoMBiNATORiDyE (Giinther). 

Tympanum and cavum tyampani present or absent ; eustachian 
tubes always absent, or reduced to a minute foramen with an absent 
tympanum [Cacotus) ; transverse processes of sacral vertebra almost 
always dilated ; no parotoid glands ; tongue fixed in front ; toes free 
or webbed ; no digital disks ; arciform cartilages present. 

Palsearctic and Neotropical regions, and New Zealand. 

Subfam. 1. Bombinatorina. 

No tympanum ; no cavum tympani ; eustachian tubes rudimentary, 
minute, or wanting ; tongue entirely adherent ; fingers free ; toes 
webbed ; vomerine teeth ; vertebrae opisthoccelian ; ribs present ; a 
fronto-parietal fontanelle ; prefrontals in contact anteriorly ; one 
coccygeal cotylus. 

Genus Bombinator, Palsearctic region. 

Subfam. 2. Pelobatina. 

No tympanum ; no cavum tympani ; eustachian tubes, if present, 
very narrow; tongue free behind (Didocusi), nearly entire; ver- 
tebrae procoelian ; no ribs ; vomerine teeth ; " coccygeal style without 
condyloid articulation, its axial j)ortion restricting that of the sacrum 
and connate with it." 

Genera : — Pelobates, Euro})e ; Didocus, Europe. 

Subfam. 3. Alsodina. 

No tympanum, cavum tympani, or eustachian tubes (Telmato- 
biusl); toes webbed; sacral vertebra not, or scarcely dilated ; ver- 
tebrae procoelian ; no ribs ; coccyx attached by two condyles ; vome- 
rine teeth present or absent. 

Genera : — Alsodes, Neotropia ; Telmatobius, Neotropia. 

Subfam. 4. Cacotina. 

Tympanum absent, but minute eustachian tubes ; sacral vertebra 
not dilated ; toes quite free ; vomerine teeth. 

Genus Cacotiis, Giinther, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 482, Neotropia. 



1809.] Mil Sr. GKORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BA.TRACHIA.NS. 291 

When reading his ])apei- before the Zoological Society, Dr. Giinther 
called attention to the interesting and highly remarkable parallelism 
between this genus of South America and the Enropean Bombinator. 

Subfam. .5. Liopelmatina. 

Tympanum none (or hidden) ; no eustachian tubes ; sacral ver- 
tebra dilated ; no vomerine teeth ; toes webbed at the base. 

Genus Liopelma, Fitz., and Giinther, B. Mus. Cat. MS., New 
Zealand. 

Divison II. Ear perfect. 

Subsection a. Parotoids. 

Fam. VIII. Plectromantid^. 

A tympanum and cavum tympani ; two eustachian tubes, each 
with a considerable aperture ; transverse processes of sacral vertebra 
not dilated ; parotoids present as a large oblong gland behind the 
mouth ; tongue large, rounded and free behind ; toes nearly all 
free, but with small disks; no disks to fingers. [Arciforni cartilages 
present ?] 

Genus Plectromantis, Neotropical region. 

Fam. IX. Alytid^. 

Answers to the Alytida; and Uperoliidce of Dr. Giinther. 

A tymj)anum, cavum tympani, and eustachian tubes present ; 
transverse processes of sacral vertebra dilated ; parotoid glands pre- 
sent ; tongue fixed in front ; digits not dilated at the tips ; arciform 
cartilages present. 

Palsearctic, Nearctic, and Neotropical regions. 

Subfam. 1. Alytina. 

Vertebrae opisthoccelian ; ribs present ; " first coccygeal vertebra 
united as usual with the second or style, but furnished with posteriorly 
divergent diapophyses, and attached to the sacral by two cotyloid 
cavities ; a fronto-parietal fontanelle ; terminal phalanges continuous, 
simple." 

Genus Alytes, Palsearctic region. 

Subfam. 2. Scaphiopodina. 

Vertebrae proccelian ; no ribs ; no coccygeal diapophyses ; coccyx 
connate with sacrum ; terminal phalanges continuous, conic. 
Genus Scaphiopus, North America. 

Subfam. 3. Uperoliina (Uperoliidce, Giinther). 

Vertebrae proccelian ; no ribs ; coccyx separate, attached to two 
condyles, with no diapojjhyses ; terminal phalanges simple. 

Genera : — Hyperoliiis, Neotropical region ; Helioporus, Neotro- 
pical ; Nattereria, Neotropical. 



292 MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. [May 13, 

Fam. X. Pelodryadid^ (Giiiither). 

A tympanum, cavum tympani, and eustachian tubes present ; 
transverse processes of sacral vertebra dilated ; parotoid glands pre- 
sent ; tongue fixed in front ; digits dilated at the tips. 

Genera : — Phyllomedusa, Neotropical region ; Pelodryas, Aus- 
tralian ; Chirodryas, Australian. 

Subsection (i. No parotoids. 

Fam. XI. Hylid^ (Giinther). 

A tympanum, cavum tympani, and eustachian tubes present ; 
transverse processes of sacral vertebra dilated ; no parotoid glands ; 
tongue fixed in front ; digits dilated into disks at the tips ; arciforin 
cartilages present ; coccyx articulated by two condyles ; " fronto- 
parietals shortened anteriorly, usually embracing a fontanelle ; ter- 
minal phalanges articulated inferiorly on to the extremity of the 
penultimate, globular or swollen proximally, and giving rise to the 
curved acute distal portion." 

Genera : — Hyla, Cosmopolitan, except Indian and Ethiopian re- 
gions ; Hylella, Neotropical; Ololyyon (Thoropa), Neotropical; 
Pseudacris (Chorophilus), North American; Pohlia, Neotropical; 
Litoria, Australian ; Triprion, Neotropical ; Opisthodelphys, Neo- 
tropical ; Trachycephalus, Neotropical ; Nototrema, Neotropical. 

Fam. XII. PoLYPEDATiDiE (Giinther). 

A tympanum, cavum tympani, and eustachian tubes present ; 
transverse processes of sacral vertebra not dilated ; no parotoid 
glands ; tongue fixed in front ; arciform cartilages present or absent ; 
digits dilated at the tips. 

Answers to the Polypedatidce and HylodidcB of Dr. Giinther. 

Cosmopolitan, except Palaearctic region. 

Subfam. 1. Polypedatina. 

Coracoids and precoracoids, but no arciform cartilages ; simple 
coccyx attached by two cotyloid cavities ; manubrium bony. No 
fronto- parietal fontanelle ; toes almost always more or less webbed. 

Genera: — Ixalus, Indian and Ethiopian regions; Meyalixalns* , 

? ; Hylarana, Indian and Ethiopian ; Leptotnantisf, Indian ; 

Hylambates, Ethiopian ; Flatymantis, Indian and Polynesia ; 
Cornvfer, Indian and Australian ; Hemimantis, Ethiopian; Rhar.o- 
phorus, Indian ; Ghiromantis, Ethiopian ; Polypedates, Indian and 
Ethiopian; Theloderma%, Indian; llappia, Indian and Australian 
regions and the Seychelles. 

Subfam. 2. Acridina. 

Arciform cartilages present ; vertebrae procoelian ; simple coccyx 

* Skeletal characters unknown, but placed provisionally beside Lrahts. 
t Placed here on the authority of Peters, who says it is so like Lrahia. 
I Placed here on the authority of Cope. 



18G9.] MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATR:VCHIANS. 29.3 

with two condyles ; terminal phalanges curved, sharp-pointed, swollen 
at the base, hyloid ; ethmoid never covered by fronto-parietals. 

Genera: — Jcris, North America; Leiylal (Kefcrstein), Costa 
Rica. 

Subfam. 3. Hylodina. 

Arciform cartilages present ; vertebrje prococlian ; coccyx separate, 
attached to two condyles ; manubrium wanting, or cartilaginous ; ter- 
minal phalanges with a transverse limb {Stmhomanf.isi), not hyloid. 

Genera: — Elosia, Neotropical region; Epirhexis, Neotropical; 
Phyllobtttes, Neotropical; Ilijlodes, Neotropical; OropodactyUis, 
Neotropical ; Strabomantis (?), Neotropical. 

Subfam. 4. Calostethina. 

Precoracoids present, but no arciform cartilages ; xiphisternum 
and manubrium wanting ; terminal phalanges with transverse limb ; 
no vomerine teeth. 

Calostethidte, Cope, Journ. Ac. Pliilad. 2nd ser. vol. vi. pt. 2. 

Genus Calostethus, Neotropia. 

Fam. Xm. PiANiD^. 

A tympanum, cavum tympani, and eustachian tubes present ; 
transverse processes of sacral vertebra not dilated; no parotoid 
glands ; tongue fixed in front ; arciform cartilages present or absent ; 
digits not dilated at the tips. 

Answers to the Ranida and Cystignathidce of Dr. Giinther. 

Cosmopolitan. 

Subfam. 1. Ranina. 

No arciform cartilages ; manubrium with a strong bony style ; 
xiphisternum similar ; no fronto-parietal fontanelle ; no mandibular 
teeth. 

Genera : — Rana, all regions except the Australian region ; Odon- 
.ophrynus, Neotropical ; Dicroglossus, Indian ; Oxijglossus, Indian ; 
Phrynobatrachus, Ethiopian ; Hoplobatrachus, Indian ; Fhn/no- 
glossus (? skeletal characters unknown, but otherwise very like Oxy- 
glossus) ; Clinotarsus (skeletal characters unknown), 1 

Subfam. 2. Cystignathina. 

Arciform cartilages present ; manubrium wanting or cartilaginous 
(except Limnocharis) ; a styloid osseous xiphisternum with a carti- 
laginous disk ; sometimes a fronto-parietal fontanelle ; no mandibular 
teeth. 

Genera : — Pseudis, Neotropical region ; Pithecopsis, Neotropical ; 
Mixophyes, Australian ; Pyxicephulus, Ethiopian and Indian ; Cera- 

tophrys. Neotropical ; Zachcenus, ? ; Platy plectrum, Australian ; 

Neobatrachus, Australian ; Cyclorhamphus, Neotropical ; Limnody- 
7iastes, Australian ; Crlnia, Australian ; Eusophleus, Neotropical ; 
Pleurodema, Neotropical; ie2M/je/'2<5, Neotropical ; IIylorhma,Neo- 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XX. 



294 MR. ST. GEORGE MIVART ON ANUROUS BATRACHIANS. [May 13, 

tropical ; Limnocharis, ? ; Cystir/nathus, Neotropical and 

Ethiopian. 

Subfam. 3, Hemiphractina. 

Mandibular teeth. 

Genus IlemiphractuSf Neotropical. 

Fam. XIV. Discoglossid^ (Giinther). 

A tympanum, cavum tympani, and eustachian tubes present ; 
transverse processes of sacral vertebra dilated ; no parotoid glands ; 
tongue fixed in front ; digits not dilated at the tips ; avciform carti- 
lages present or absent ; bony manubrium present or absent ; ribs 
present or absent ; mandibular teeth present or absent. 

Answers to both the Biscoglossidce and the Asterophrydidce of 
Dr. Giinther. 

Cosmopolitan, except Nearctic and Ethiopian regions. 

Subfam. 1. Chiroleptina. 

VertebrfB proccElian ; no ribs ; arciform cartilages present ; ma- 
nubrium wanting or cartilaginous ; fronto-parietal bones complete, 
no fontanelle ; xiphisternum a cartilaginous plate ; no mandibular 
teeth. 

Genera: — Chiroleptes, Australian region; Zachcenus (!) ; Calyp- 
tocephalus. Neotropical. 

Subfam. 2. Asterophrydina. 

Vertebrse opisthoccelian ; no ribs ; arciform cartilages present ; 
no mandibular teeth. 

Genera : — Cryptotis, Austrahan region; Asterophrys, Australian ; 
Xenophrys, Indian ; Megalophrys, Indian ; Nannophrys, Indian. 

Subfam. 3. Pelodvtina. 

Vertebrae proccelian ; no ribs ; arciform cartilages present ; no 
mandibular teeth. 

Genera : — Pelodytes, Palsearctic region ; Leptohrachiiim, Indian 
region. 

Subfam. 4. Discoglossina. 

Vertebrae opisthoccelian ; short ribs present ; arciform cartilages 
present; no mandibular teeth. 

Genera: — Discoglossiis, Palsearctic region ; Zaphrissa, Pakearctic; 
Latonia, Palsearctic. 

Subfam. 5. Arthroleptina. 

No arciform cartilages ; no ribs ; precoracoids present ; no man- 
dibular teeth ; manubrium and xiphisternum bony ; no fontanelle. 
Genus Arthroleptis, Ethiopian region. 



1869.] MR. J. GOULD ON A NEW HUMMING-BIRD. 295 

Subfam. 6. Grypiscina. 

Arciform cartilages present ; uo ribs (?) ; mandibular teeth 
developed. 

Cope, Journ. Ac. Philad. 1867, vol. vi. pt. 2, p. 205. 
Genus Gryinscus, Neotropia, 

Section C. No tongue ; maxillary teeth 'present or absent. 
Division I. No maxillary teeth. 

Fam. XV. Pipid^. 

A tympanum and an entirely bony caviyn tympani; eustachian 
tubes united, with a single oral opening ; transverse processes of 
sacral vertebra dilated ; no parotoids ; no tongue ; atlas and second 
vertebra confluent ; vast cartilaginous xiphoid and great arciform 
cartilages. 

Genus Tipa, Neotropical region. 

Division II. Maxillary teeth. 

Fam. XVI. Dactylethrid^. 

A tympanum and an entirely bony cavum tympani ; eustachian 
tubes united, vpith a single oral opening; transverse processes of 
sacral vertebra dilated ; uo parotoids ; no tongue ; atlas and second 
vertebra distinct ; coccyx and sacrum continent ; moderate carti- 
laginous xiphoid, and no arciform cartilages ; yet coracoid and pre- 
coracoid very widely diverging. 

Genus Dactylethra, Ethiopian region. 



2. Description of a New Genus and Species of tlie Family 
Trochilidce. By John Gould, F.R.S. &c. 

Genus Oreonympha. 

Gen. Char. — Bill longer than the head, stout, and with a some- 
what downward curvature ; wings large and sickle-shaped ; tail 
ample and forked ; tarsi clothed nearly to the toes, which are of 
moderate size ; the hinder toe and nail rather shorter than the middle 
toe and nail. 

Notwithstanding the length and stoutness of the bill, I consider 
this form to be nearly allied both to Oxypogon and Ramphomicron. 
It has the same kind of brilliant gular streak, a similar laxity of 
plumage, and soft flexible tail-feathers. 

Oreonympha nobilis. 

Bill and legs black ; crown blue, with a streak of black down the 
centre ; on the throat a lengthened streak of brilliant feathers, of 
which those nearest the bill are green, those which succeed are red- 



296 MR. F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORTSSA.. [May 13, 

dish purple, and those at the tip purplish blue, the whole being 
bordered on each side with black ; sides of the neck and chest greyish 
white ; abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts mottled white, grey, 
and light brown ; back of the neck and upper surface bronzy brown ; 
wings nurplish brown ; outer tail-feather on each side white, with a 
longitudinal streak of bronzy brown at the tip of the inner web ; the 
next on each side the same, but the bronzy mark of greater extent ; 
the central feathers entirely bronze, as in Oxypoyon. 

Total length G inches, bill l(j, wing 3^, tail 3, tarsi \. 

Remark. — This remarkably large and handsome species was dis- 
covered by Mr. II. Whitely at Tinta in Peru, at an elevation of 
11,500 feet. 



3. On the Fishes of Orissa. 
By Surgeon F. Day, F.Z.S,, F.L.S.— Part I. 

Having during the last few months been employed in conducting 
an inquiry into the present state of some of the freshwater fisheries 
on the eastern coast of India, I propose in the following paper giving 
a list of such species of fishes as I obtained in the province of Orissa. 
This portion of Bengal is comprised in one Commissionership, com- 
mencing in the south at the Chilka lake, and terminating at Jella- 
sore in the north. I have also included a few species from the 
Cossye at Midnapore. 

]\Iy investigations occupied December 1868 and the following 
month, and were instituted into the condition of every river which 
empties itself into the sea, also into the condition of many tanks, 
and the fisheries at the mouth of the Balasore river. Although I 
was not so fortunate as to obtain many species new to science, I was 
much gratified in procuring several of Hamilton Buchanan's and 
M'Clelland's fish whose existence has been doubted, or which have 
been referred to different species or genera or even renamed. 

Before commencing the list I may remark upon the interesting 
fact that at last I have been a witness to fish being exhumed alive 
from beneath the mud of an Indian tank. On January 18, I was 
out fishing a tank, when I mentioned to an intelligent native official 
my wish to see fish exhumed from the mud of tanks. He remarked 
that the Labyrinthici, Ophiocephalida, and llhynchohdellidce, be- 
sides the Saccohranchus and Clarias, invariably retire into the mud 
of tanks when the water dries up, but denied that the Carps ever did 
so. Pointing to a neighbouring tank which was almost dry, he ob- 
served that we could at once make the examination. I promised 
a reward to whoever would let me see him exhume fish, and we ad- 
journed to the spot. 

The tank was about one acre in extent, and had not above 4 inches 
depth of water at its centre, whilst its circumference was suffi- 
ciently dried up to walk upon. The soil was a thick, consistent, 
bluish clay, and I refused to allow any one to go nearer the water 
than 30 paces. Six coolies set to work, and in less than five minutes 



1869.J MR. F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. 297 

extracted from at least 2 feet below the surface of the mud, two 
specimens of the Oj)hiocej)halus punctatus, Bloch, and three of the 
B/iynchoLdella aadeata, Willughby. All of these fish were very 
lively, and not in the slightest degree torpid. They were covered 
over' with a thickish adherent slime ; and on dissecting them at a 
subsequent date, none contained ova. The natives stated that if I 
returned in about a month, by which time they expected the ground 
would be hard and caked, they were confident that we should still 
find fish below the surface. 

1. Lates calcarifer, Bloch. 
Bekkut (Ooriah). 

This marine Perch ascends the rivers far beyond the influence of 
the tides, following those species which migrate to the fresh waters 
for the purpose of depositing their ova. In the Mahanuddi it is 
frequently taken at Benki, about 7G miles from the sea. 

2. Mesoprion chirtah, Cut. & Val. 

Soosta (Ooriah), 

B.Tiii. D. ii. P. 19. V. ^. A. |. C.17.L. 1.5-4. L. tr. |. 
Caec. pyl. 6. 

The form I obtained was the young M. annularis, C. & V., at 
Chanderpore, near the mouth of the Balasore river, where I examined 
the stake-nets on three different days during the spring tides, and 
obtained several species of fish and two sorts of sea-snakes, one of 
the latter of which bit my left heel whilst wading in the sea amongst 
the fishing-nets. I procured specimens, and I find it to be the 
Enhydrina bengaliensis, Gray. As the fangs drew blood, I am in- 
clined to think that perhaps the reptile had discharged his venom 
on some fish previously to trying his teeth on my heel. I may men- 
tion that I found alive on the shore at the same place a very fine 
specimen of that handsome Sea-snake the Pelamis bicolor, Schneider. 

3. Mesopeion sillaoo, Cuv. & Val. 
Purruiva (Ooriah). 

B.vii. D.g. P. 17. V.3. A.|. C. 17. L.1.50. L. tr. ^. 

Some fine specimens of this fish were taken in the sea at Chan- 
derpore ; I likewise saw many which had been dried in the sun. 

4. Ambassis alta, Cuv. & Yal. 
Chandee (Ooriah). 

B.vi. Ty.7\^,- P. 11. V.i. A. j5^, C. 17. L.1.58. 

Several spines about the head ; six directed backwards on the pre- 
orbital ; one moderately strong one is ])laced on the centre of the 
anterior margin of the orbit, and five more along its lower edge. On 
the centre of the posterior margin of the orbit is a similar spine, with 



298 MR. F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. [May 13, 

five more, decreasing in size, along its superior half. The horizontal 
limb of the prseoperculum with a double denticulated margin. 
Hub. Rivers and tanks of Orissa. 

5. Ambassis phula, H. Buchanan. 
Goa chujjpi (Ooriah). 

B.>-i. D. rln- P-ll- V.i. A. f^^. C. 19. 

Lower jaw much the longest. Three denticulations along the an- 
terior edge of the orbit. Vertical limb of prseoperculum with two 
or three small denticulations at its angle in the young, which be- 
come blunted by age ; its horizontal limb with a double denticulated 
margin, which also becomes blunter in the adult. Other opercles 
entire. A large canine tooth on either side of symphysis of lower jaw. 

Scales very minute. 

Lateral line at first curves upwards, and becomes horizontal under 
the second dorsal fin. 

Hab. Tanks in Orissa. 

6. Ambassis dussumieri, Cuv. & Val. 
Chandee (Ooriah). 

B. vi. D. 7|,-^. P. 15. V.|. A. ^,. C. 17. L. 1. 27. 

L. tr. |. 

Lateral line interrupted. 

Hab. Mostly in rivers even within the influence of the tides, but 
is also found in tanks. 

7. Ambassis nama, II. Buch. 
Cartcana (Ooriah). 

B.vi. D. 7li\. P. 11. V.^^. A. i C. 17. 

Lower jaw much the longest. One denticulation at centre of the 
anterior margin of the orbit, and another at its posterior superior 
angle. Prceorbital with three strong denticulations along its margin. 
A'^ertical limb of prseoperculum entire, but two or three deuiiculations 
at its angle becoming blunter with age ; its horizontal limb has its 
double edge scarcely denticulated. Canine teeth in lower jaw. 

Lateral line entirely absent. 

Hab. Tanks. 

8. Ambassis lala, H. Buch. 
Laal chandee (Ooriah). 

B. vi. D. 71 A- P. 11. V. ^. A. :^. C. 17. 

Length of head a little above \, of pectoral i, of caudal f of the 
total length. Height of head h, of body 4 of the total length. 

Eijes. Diameter f of length of head, | of a diameter from end of 
snout, 1 diameter apart. 



1869.] MR. F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. 299 

Preeorbital strong!)' serrated; horizontal limb of proeoperculum with 
a double denticulated margin. No denticulations around the orbit. 

Scales minute. 

Lateral line entirely absent. 

Colours as described by Buchanan. The term lata is evidently 
derived from " laal," " red," the predominant colour. 

Hub. Tanks in northern Orissa, where it grows to 1| inch m 
length. 

9. Therapon trivittatxjs, H. Buch. 

Gahnu (Ooriah), 

These fish are frequently taken inside large medusEe. 

Hab. Seas and estuaries in salt or brackish water. 

10. LOBOTES SURINAMENSIS, Bloch. 

Chota bekkut (Ooriah). 

Not uncommon at Chauderpore in the sea. 

11. SiLLAGO SIHAMA, Forsk. 

Curama (Ooriah). 

B.vi. DAO-n\^^. P. IG. V.J. A. 2^. C. 17. L. 1. 71. 

Csec. pyl. 4. Vert. j^. 

No elongated spine in dorsal fin. Teeth villiform. 
This species about Cocouada begins to give place to the next, 
which is most numerous in the sea at Orissa. 

12. SiLLAGO BOMINA. 

Gudji curama (Ooriah). 

B.vi. D. 9|^. P. 21. \.\. A. 4 C. 19. L. 1. 90. 
Csec. pyl. 4. 

An elongated spine in the first dorsal fin. 

Teeth. An external conical row in both jaws, with the four largest 
in the centre of the upper jaw, and several viUiform rows posterior to 
them. A transverse semicircular band of villiform teeth in the 
palate. 

13. MUGIL CORSTJLA, H. Bucll. 

Kakunda (Ooriah). 

B. iv. D. 4|g. P. 13. V.J. A.g. C. 13. L. 1. 50. L. tr. 15. 

The eyes of this species of Mullet are considerably elevated, their 
superior margin being above the level of the upper profile of the 
head. 

This fish is very abundant in the rivers of Orissa, ascending far 
beyond tidal influence. I took considerable numbers above Cuttack, 
or 00 miles from the mouth of the river. It grows to a foot in 
length, and is excellent eating. 



300 MR. r. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORissA. [May 13, 

It swims with its snout on a level with the water, so that its eyes 
are ahove it ; immediately it perceives any one approaching it rapidly 
darts down out of sight. 

14. MuGiL AXILLARIS, Cuv. & Val. 
Magi (Ooriah). 

B. v. D. 4|-^. P. 15. V.]. A. g^g. C. 14. L.1.42. L. tr. 14. 
Hab. The sea and brackish waters, along with the M. parsia. 

15. MuGiL PARSTA, H. Buch. 

B. vi. D. 4 I i. P. 14. V. |. A. ~. C. 14. L. 1. 35. L. tr. 12. 

I took this species in brackish water within tidal influence, but 
not in the sea. 

It grows to 8 inches in length. 

16. MtTGiL BORNEENSis, Blcekcr. 

B. vi. D. 4| i. P. 15. \.\. A.f. C. 14. L. 1. 34. L. tr. 13. 
One specimen from Chanderpore in the sea. 

17. ScATOPHAGUs ARGUS, Linn. 

Found in the sea at Chanderpore, and also ascending the mouth 
of the river. Is not used as food. 

18. CORVINA MILES, Cuv. & Val. 

Ilab. Chanderpore, in the sea. 

I may here mention that I have satisfied myself that the species I 
named V. 7ieilli in my ' Fishes of INIalabav,' p. 55, is the C. albida, 
Cuv. & Val. I took specimens at Pondicherry and Madras. The 
rays &c. were 

B. vii. D. 9 1 23^5- A- ?• L. 1. 53. L. tr. 24. 
Dr. Gvinther gives them as follows from the British Museum speci- 
mens :— D. 10 I j^. A. |. L. 1. 75. L. tr. 7/19. 

19. CoRviNA coiTOR, H. Buch. 
Botalil, Putterilii (Ooriah). 

This species ascends rivers to far beyond tidal influence for breed- 
ing-purposes. I took it above Cuttack. 

20. Otolithxjs maculatus, Cuv. & Val. 
Birralli (Ooriah). 

B. vii. D. 10|i. P. 19. V.^. A. ^. C. 19. 

This fish, hitherto recorded from Malaysia, is very common in the 
sea at Chanderpore, where specimens were taken up to 13 inches in 
length. 



18G9.] MR. F. DAY ON THE lISHliS OF ORISSA. 301 

21. BoLA PAMA, H. Bucli. 
Botid (Ooriah). 

B. vii. D. 10 1 50^3- V.i. A.f. C. 17. L. 1.70-80. 

L. tr. ^. Vert. 24. Csec. pyl. 9. 

It ascends rivers for breeding-purposes as far as docs the Corvina 
coitor. It grows to 5 feet in length ; and if cooked directly it is 
taken from the water, it is fair eating. 

22. PoLYNEMUS PARADiSEUS, Linn. 
Tupsi (Ooriah). 

B. vii. D. 7 1 1^. P. 15/vii. Y. i. A. ^. C. 19. L. I. 70. 
L. tr. ^. Csec. pyl. 5. 

Common in the sea at Chanderpore. I found only five ceecal 
appendages, and not ten, which is said to be the normal number. 

23. POLYNEMUS SEXTARIUS, Bloch. 

B.vii. D. 8 1 12^3. P. 15/vi. V.i. A. f^. C. 17. L. L 48. 
L. tr. ^. 

Grows to 7 inches in length. Common in the sea at Chanderpore. 

24. PoLYNEMUS iNDicus, Shaw 

B.vii. D. 8|i3^,. P. 20/v. V.|. A. ifE|. C. 17. L. 1.62-65. 
L. tr. ^^. Vert. ^. 

One 30 lbs. weight taken at Chanderpore in the sea, 

25. TRiCHiuRrs savala, Cuv. & Val. 
Droffa piittiah (Ooriah). 

JIab. Chanderpore, in the sea. * 

26. Scomber kanagurta, Cuv. & Val. 

B. vi. D. 8-9 I ;^ I V. P. 21. V.^. A. j\ ] v.-vii. C. 25. Vert. |. 

No prseanal spines. 

Hub. Chanderpore in the sea. 

27. Cybium guttatum, Bloch. 

Very common at Chanderpore. 
Hab. Chanderpore, in the sea. 

28. Stromatexjs argenteus, Bloch. 
JIab. Chanderpore, in the sea. 

29. Stromateus cinereus, Bloch. 
Ilab. Chanderpore, in the sea. 



302 MR. F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. [May 13, 

30. Stromateus NIGER, Bloch. 
Baal (Ooriah). 

Hub. Chanderpore, in the sea. 

31. Caranx armatus, Forsk. 
Hab. Clianderpore, in tlie sea. 

32. Chorinemtjs lysan, Forsk. 

One large specimen taken at Clianderpore, in tlie sea. 

33. Equula ruconius, H. Buch. 

1 Equula splendens, Cuv. & Val. 
. Tunker chandee (Ooriah). 

B. V. D. ,^. P. 21. \.\. A. ^. C. 19. L. h68. 

This species Dr. Giinther has considered to be the same as the 
E. interrupta, Cuv. & Val., of which he observes, " No spines above 
the orbit ; the cavity on the head is triangular, and twice and a half 
as long as broad. The lower prseopercular margin is minutely ser- 
rated." 

The following is a description of Hamilton Buchanan's fish, which 
I found common in the rivers of Orissa, far beyond tidal influence : — 

Length of head |, of pectoral fin above i, of base of first dorsal i, 
of base of second dorsal \, of base of anal | of the total length. 
Height of head \, of body |, of first dorsal i, of second dorsal jL, 
of ventral ^, of anal \ of the total length. 

Eyes. Diameter nearly ^ of length of head, 1 diameter from end 
of snout, and 1 diameter apart. 

Dorsal profile rises rather abruptly to opposite tlie anterior third 
of the orbit, and the occipital process ascends very abruptl}^, as shown 
in Hamilton Buchanan's figure. 

Lower jaw inferioily concave. Lips fleshy. Cavity on head 
lanceolate, half as wide as long. Lower margin of preeoperculum 
with a strongly serrated edge. Two strong sharp spines, one over 
the anterior third of the orbit, the other above it and posterior to 
the nostril. The upper margin of the orbit serrated in the whole 
of its posterior two-thirds. 

Fins. Dorsal spines strong, the second being one-third as high 
as the body, and slightly longer but not so strong as the second 
anal spine. Third anal spine serrated on the lower half of its an- 
terior margin. Caudal forked, lower lobe slightly the longest. 

Scales minute, but firmly adherent to the fish. 

Lateral line in 68 fine tubes, and distinct from the scales. It 
first ascends slightly, and opposite to the end of the second dorsal 
it proceeds horizontally. 

Colours. Silvery, shot with purple, and having dusky greyish 
bands descending from the back to the middle of the body. Snout 
covered with black spots. Fins yellowish. Eyes with a dark supe- 
rior edging. A silver stripe is sometimes apparent along the side of 
the body. 



1869.] MR. F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. 303 

34. GoBius GiURis, H. Buch, 

Giilah, Bali gulah (Ooriah) . 

Hab, Tanks and rivers throughout Orissa. 

Zd. Apocryptes lanceolatus, Bloch. 

Pittalu (Ooriah). 

This fish resides in fresh or brackish water, but not beyond tidal 
influence so far as I have observed ; the best place to capture it 
is the mud at the sides of rivers. Considering its size, this is a most 
savage species, biting at any other fish that conies near it, and hold- 
ing on with its teeth most tenaciously. 

36. Apocryptes bato, H. Buch. 

Hutta (Ooriah). 

This fish inhabits the same localities as the last. The laro^est 
specimen captured was b\ inches in length. Natives take them in 
the following manner : they walk about in the mud, and as soon as 
they see or feel a fish moving they seize it with both hands. 

Zl . Euctenogobius striatus, Day. 

Mahturi, Naolli (young, Ooriah). 

The very young have black vertical bands, most apparent in the 
posterior half of the body. The first dorsal is occasionally stained 
orange. 

Hab. Found in the rivers of Orissa. 

38. BOLEOPHTHALMUS BODDAERTII, Pall. 

Apocryptes punctatus, Day, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 941. 

This fish climbs up rocks and on to pieces of wood, and appears 
to mostly inhabit muddy estuaries. It may be seen bobbing about 
in the soft mud or dirty water as the Muyit corsula does iu rivers. 
In deep water it becomes drowned. It is as savage as the Apocryp- 
tes lanceolatus. 

39. Eleotris fusca, Bloch. 

Bundi, balah kera (Ooriah). 

Hab. Fresh and brackish waters along the coast, also extending 
its range beyond tidal influence. 

40. Eleotris amboinensis?, Bleeker. 
Gayi balah kera (Ooriah). 

B. iv. D. 6|^. P. 17. V.|. A.|. C. 13. L. 1. 28. L. tr. l.i. 

Length of head \, of pectoral \, of base of first dorsal \, of base 
of second dorsal |, of base of anal \, of caudal i of the total length. 
Height of head |, of body 4-, of first dorsal |, of ventral \, of anal § 
of the total length. 

Eyes. Diameter | of Icngtli of head, 1| diameter from end of 
snout, \\ diameter apart. 



304 MR. r. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORissA. [May 13, 

Head broad, depressed ; snout produced. The greatest width is 
opposite the opercles. There is a considerable rise from the snout 
to the base of the first dorsal. 

Lower jaw the longest. The maxilla extends posteriorly to be- 
neath the centre of the orbit. A finely serrated ridge along the 
superior and posterior edges of the orbit, from which in the adult it 
is divided by one or two rows of scales. This serrated ridge is con- 
tinued towards the snout, dividing opposite the nostrils and enclosing 
an irregular lanceolate space which extends close to the margin of 
the upper lip. 

Teeth in numerous fine villiform bands, those on the outer row 
being slightly enlarged. 

Fins. Base of pectoral rather muscular, the fin wedge-shaped, 
rays not silk-like. Caudal cut square. 

Scales ctenoid, but cycloid on the chest; they extend as far 
forward as the snout. 

Colours. Of a blackish stone. Fins black, second dorsal and 
caudal edged with white. Pectoral also white, with the exception of 
two black blotches at its base. 

Specimens were captured up to 2h inches in length in the Balasore 
river. It is said never to be found in salt water. 

This species may be the same as Dr. Bleeker's fish from Amboina. 
Still in this Indian specimen there are serrated ridges extending along 
the summit of the head and on to the snout, whilst the pectoral rays 
are not silk-like. 

41. Amblyopus c.eculus, Bloch. 

This species ascends rivers as far as tidal influence extends, even 
into freshwater. It is found in the same situations as the Jpocryp- 
tes, and captured in the same way. 

42. Badis buchanani, Cuv. & Val. 
Boondei, kahli bundahni (Ooriah). 

B. vi. T).^. P. 12. V.|. A. ^^. C. 16. L. 1. 2G-28. 

L. tr. l- Csec. pyl. 0. 

Air-bladder large and simple. 

Hab. Common in tanks in Orissa, up to 3 inches in length, 

43. Nandus marmoratus, Cuv. & Val. 
JBodosi, Gossiporah (Ooriah). 

Hab. Rivers and tanks. 

44. Anabas scandens, Dald. 

Corvu (Ooriah). 

In ^Madras the species oi Analas has no csecal pylori, and its 
body is banded. 

At Tranquebar and Poudicherry, to the south of Madras, and 



1869.] MR. F. D\Y ON THE FISHES OF OaiSSA. 305 

Gaiijaai and Orissa to the north, every specimen dissected had three 
Ciecal pylori, as stated by Cuvier. Placing the two varieties together, 
there does not appear to be any difference apparent exter.ially, except 
in the coloration. 

In the Ganjam district one was captured of a deep orange-colour, 
it appeared to be quite healthy, and the fishermen asserted that this 
change in colour is not uncommon. 

45. Trichogaster fasciatus, Bloch. 
Kussuah (Oorlah). 
Ilah, Common in tanks. 

4G. Ophiocephalus marulius, II. Buch. 

Saal (Ooriah). 

The coloration of these fish widely differs from the Madras speci- 
mens, and the ocellated blotch on the caudal was as distinct in a 
specimen 16 inches long as in the young. 

47. Ophiocephalus striatus, Bloch. 
Sola (Ooriah). 

Hah. Common in tanks and canals. 

48. Ophiocephalus gachua, H. Buch. 
Cheyuivj (Ooriah). 

Hah. Found in tanks, canals, and sluggish rivers. 

49. Ophiocephalus punctatus, Bloch. 
Cartua gorai (Ooriah). 

Hab. Found in tanks, canals, and sluggish rivers. 

50. Rhynchobdella aculeata, Bloch. 
Gutti (Ooriah). 

Hab. Rivers and tanks. 

51. Mastacemblus pancalus. 
Turi, Bakru (Ooriah). 

Hab, Rivers and tanks. 

52. Mastacemblus armatus, Lact'p. 
Barm, Bummi (Ooriah). 

Hab. Rivers and tanks. 

53. Etroplus suratensis, Bloch. 
Cundahla (Ooriah). 

Hab. Found in tanks in the southern portion of Orissa near the 
sea-coast. 



30(i MR. F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. [May l.*^, 

54. Clarias magur, H. Buch. 

Magur (Ooriah). ^ 

Hub. Tanks. 

55. Saccobranchus singio, H. Buch. 
Singi (Ooriah). 

Hah. Tanks. 

56. Wallago attu, Bloch. 

Boalli, Ballia, Moinsia ballia (Ooriah). 
Hab. Rivers and tanks. 

57. Calltchrous checkra, H. Buch. 

Pobtah (Ooriah). " Butterfish " of Europeans. 
Hab. Rivers and tanks. 

58. EUTROPIICHTHYS VACHA, H. Buch. 

B. xi. D. ||0. P. i V. 6. A. ^. C. 17. 

Butchria (Ooriah). 

Cleft of mouth extending in the adult to behind and beneath the 
posterior extremity of the orbit. 

Teeth. Villiform teeth in a triangular spot on the vomer, and in a 
long pyriform shape on the palate ; the whole of these with those on 
the upper jaw are so closely set together that it may give the ap- 
pearance on a superficial examination that there are " no teeth on 
the palate," as remarked by Dr. Giinther. 

59. PSEUDEUTROPIXJS ATHERINOIDES, Bloch. 

Battuli, Jemmi carri, Bipotasse (Ooriah). 
Hab. Rivers and tanks. 

60. PSEUDEUTROPIUS MURIUS, H. Bucll. 

Eutropiusi murino, Giinth. Cat. v. p. 54. 
Motusi (Bengali). 

D. i|0. P. n. V. 6. A. „4. C. 17. 

7 1 11 oo 

Snout rounded, upper jaw overhanging the lower to a slight ex- 
tent. The angle of the mouth is under and close to the anterior 
third of the orbit. Nasal cirrus extends from between the two 
nostrils to opposite the posterior margin of the orbit. Maxillary 
cirrus arises opposite the centre of the anterior margin of the orbit, 
and extends to the base of the pectoral fin. The four mandibular 
cirri arise on a transverse line just behind the lower lip, and extend 
to slightly behind the vertical from the posterior margin of the orbit. 
Eyes lateral. 

Out of sixteen specimens, the largest was 6 inches ; it, however, 
was said to grow to a greater size. Those I obtained were from the 
Cossye at Midnapore. 



18C9.] MR. F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF OHISSA. 80" 

61. PSEUDEUTROI'IUS GARUA, H. Bucll. 

Punia buchua (Ooriah). Pultosi (Bengali). 
B.vi. D.ijO. P.i V.6. k.^. C. 17. 

This species forms the type of the genus Schilbeichthys, Bleeker, 
which differs from the Pseudeutropius chiefly in having no second 
or adipose dorsal fin. 

I have taken a large number of the young of this species from 4 
to 9 inches in length, and find that the adipose dorsal, though small, 
is distinct in the fry ; but as the size of the specimens increases up 
to 6 or 7 inches it has either almost or entirely disappeared, and is 
invariably absent in the adult. 

I therefore consider the species to be a Pseudeutropius ; for the 
difference which exists in the nostrils between it and some others oif 
the genus is insufficient for more than a specific division. 

Hab. Elvers of Orissa and the Cossye at Midnapore. 

62. AiLiA BENGALiENSis, Gray. 
Puttuli, Bounce puttri (Ooriah). 
Hah. Rivers and tanks. 

63. Pangasitjs buchanani, Cuv. & Val. 
Hah. Ascends rivers far beyond tidal influence. 

64. SiLTJNDIA GANGETICA, CuV. & Val. 

Jillung, Sillund (Ooriah). 

Hab. Taken in the same places as the last. 

65. Macrones cavasius, H. Bnch. 
Guntea, Cuntea (Ooriah). 

Hah. Rivers and tanks. 

66. Macrones aor, H. Buch. 

Alii, Arriah alii; if young, Giigah alii (Ooriah). 
Hab. Rivers and tanks. 

67. Macrones tengara, H. Buch, 
Bikuntia (Ooriah). 

Hab. Rivers and tanks. 

68. Macrones corsula, II. Buch. 
Punjah c/agah (Ooriah). 

B. X. D. ^|0. P. i V. 6. A. ^. C. 17. 

Hamilton Buchanan has given an engraving of this species ; but 
the description was omitted from the ' Pishes of the Ganges.' 

Length of head \, of pectoral i, of base of first dorsal ^ of base 
of adipose dorsal -jL.> of base of anal ^V' of caudal ^ of the total 



308 MR. F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. [^I'lJ 13, 

length. Height of head g, of body jr, of first dorsal ^, of adipose 
dorsal j\j-, of ventral g, of anal ^ of the total length. 

Eyes. Diameter 4- of length of head, 2 diameters from end of 
snout, 2 diameters apart. 

Mouth antero-inferior ; upper jaw the longest, its posterior extre- 
mity does not reach so far as to below the centre of the orl)it. Nasal 
cirri extend to opposite the middle of the orbit, maxillary cirri to 
the base of the anal fin, the external mandibular to the base of the 
pectoral, and the internal to opposite the posterior extremity of the 
proeoperculum. The central longitudinal groove along the summit of 
the head reaches to the base of the occipital process, which latter is 
short its whole length, not being equal to one diameter of the orbit. 

Fins. Dorsal spine slender and equals half the length of the head 
in extent ; it is slightly serrated posteriorly in its upper fourth. 
Pectoral spine strong, flattened, rugose externally, and serrated in 
its whole extent internally ; it is slightly longer than the dorsal spine. 
Caudal deeply forked, upper lobe the longest. 

Lateral line ceases at the base of the caudal fin. 

Colours. Greyish brown superiorly, dirty white inferiorly. Fins 
greyish, stained with black, several vertical rows of black spots along 
the anterior portion of the lateral line. 

Three specimens obtained from the Mahauuddi river at Cuttack, 
tlie longest being 8 inches. 

G9. Rita kuturnee, Sykes. 

Jtita biichanani, Bleeker. 
Mussayahri, cunta gagah (Ooriah). 
Hah. Rivers of Orissa. 

70. ArIUS THALASSINUS, Riipp. 

C'untea (Ooriah) , 

At Chanderpore large numbers were taken in the sea ; some were 
of a very large size. They are much esteemed by the natives as 
food. 

71. Hemipimelodus cenia, H. Buch. 

Jungla (Bengali). 

This species appears to have been entirely overlooked in the 
' Catalogue of Fishes.' 

B. vi. D. j^.|0. P.i. V. G. A. ^. C.17. 

Length of head 4-, of pectoral \, of base of first dorsal nearly \, 
of base of adipose dorsal y\,, of base of anal y'j^, of caudal i of the 
total length. Height of head g, of body ^-, of first dorsal \, of ven- 
tral nearly i, of anal g of the total length. 

Eyes, High, covered by skin, diameter + of length of head, 1 
diameter from end of snout, 1 diameter apart. 

Body fusiform, with compressed sides. A considerable rise from 
the snout to above the orbit. Snout overhanging the mouth, upper 



1869.] MU. F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. 309 

jaw the longest, the angle of the mouth is situated about midway 
between the snout and the anterior margin of the orbit. Maxillary 
cirrus osseous in its basal half; it extends nearly to the base of the 
pectoral fin. The four mandibular cirri arise in a transverse line 
just behind the margin of the lower jaw; they only extend to opposite 
the middle of the orbit. The occipital process is one-third as wide 
at its base as it is long ; it extends to the basal bone of the first 
dorsal fin. The superior longitudinal groove is wide, but rather 
shallow, becoming indistinct. For a short distance opposite the 
posterior margin of the orbit, its upper portion extends nearly to the 
base of the occipital process, which, as observed by Buchanan, may 
be regarded as a point from which seven bony ridges arise. The 
upper surface of the head granulated. Nostrils large and placed 
close together ; no well-developed valve to the posterior one. 

Teeth. Five in both jaws, none on the palate. 

Fins. Dorsal spine strong, anteriorly rugose. Pectoral spine 
somewhat stronger and of the same length as the dorsal ; it is ser- 
rated internally, rough externally. The ventrals arise posterior to 
the vertical from the last dorsal rays. Caudal deeply forked. 

Lateral line ceases at the base of the caudal fin. 

Colours. Yellowish bronze, becoming silvery on the abdomen ; 
three dark bands over the head, and four more over the back, de- 
scending as low as the lateral line. A black edging to the caudal, 
and a black blotch on each lobe. A dark mark across the dorsal fin. 

It grows to about 3 inches in length, and is abundant in the Cos- 
sye river at Midnapore. 

72. Bagarius yarrellii, Sykes. 
Sahlun, Cart cuntea (Ooriah). 
Hab. Rivers of Orissa. 

73. Gagata typus, Bleeker. 
Callomystax gagata, Giinther. 

This species was Dr. Bleeker' s type of the genus Gagata, of which 
Dr. Giinther remarks, " Dr. v, Bleeker does not appear to have 
been acquainted with this fish ; so that not only the characters of the 
genus which he proposed for it are incorrect, but it is also improperly 
referred to the 'phalanx' oi Arii, and to the ' stirps ' o{ Bagrini." 
He therefore renamed the genus, taking the same species as his 
type! 

The air-bladder is divided into two portions, and enclosed in a 
bony capsule formed from the bodies of the anterior vertebrae. 

It grows to 1 foot in length, and is common in the rivers of 
Orissa. 

74. Belone cancila, H. Buch. 
Gungituri (Ooriah). 

Hab. Common in rivers and tanks. 
Proc. Zool. Soc— 18o9, No. XXI. 



310 DR. W. BAIRD ON NEW ANNELIDKS. [May 13, 

75. Hemiramphus ectuntio, II. Buch. 
Gungituri (Ooriah). 

D. |. P. 11. V. 6. A. |. C. 15. L. 1. 52. L. tr. 7/4. 

Length of head \, of pectoral yL, of base of dorsal ^, of base of 
anal ,\, of caudal \ of the total length. Height of head jV, of body 
yL, of dorsal ^, of ventral ^^j, of anal Jg of the total length. 

Eyes. From li to 2 diameters from the posterior extremity of the 
opercle, and 1 diameter apart. 

Prseorbital one-third longer than high. Upper jaw nearly trian- 
gular, its base slightly longer than its length ; it is keeled along its 
central line. 

Teeth in both jaws, also on palatines. 

Fins. Dorsal commences somewhat in advance of the anal ; the 
ventral nearly midway between the posterior margin of the orbit and 
the base of the caudal fin, which last is lobed, the lower being the 
longest. 

Scales scarcely deciduous, covering the body, and existing between 
the orbits and over the prseorbital ; none on the bases of the fins. 

Lateral line runs the lower fourth of the abdomen. 

Colours. Greenish above, silvery below. A burnished silvery line 
extends from above the orbit to the centre of the caudal fin ; it is 
widest over the anal, where it has a dark edge along its upper margin. 
Dorsal and caudal stained at their edges. 

This fish is very numerous in the rivers of Orissa ; it has, how- 
ever, been placed amongst the "doubtful species" in the Catalogue 
of the British Museum. 

76. Haplocheilus panchax, H. Buch. 
KanaJcuri (Ooriah). 

Hub. Tanks and rivers throughout Orissa. 

77. Haplocheilus melastigma, M'Clelland. 
Panchax cyanophthalmus, Blyth. 

D.i P. II. V. 6. A. .I. C. 13. L. 1. 29. L. tr. 13. 
Hah. This species is not uncommon in tanks in Orissa. 



4. Descriptions of some new Suctorial Annelidas in the Col- 
lection of the British Museum. By W. Baird, M.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 

Genus Branchellion, Savigny. 
1. Branchellion intybifolium, Baird. 

Body elongate, very concave ventrally, convex dorsally, consisting 
of about 48 segments, which are transversely striated on the back. 
Neck distinct from the body, consisting of 10 or 12 short, narrow 
segments. Oral sucker small. Ventral sucker large, circularly 



1869.] DR. W. BAIRD ON NEW ANNEl.lUliS. 311 

striated round the external margin, and studded with granules in- 
ternally, at the bottom of the cup. Both suckers are plaited on 
the margins. Each segment from the commencement of the body 
to within four of the posterior sucker is furnished on each side with 
a large foliaceous appendage, which is sessile, simple on the margin, 
but puckered and sinuated like the leaf of the endive. 

The only specimen the British Museum possesses is of a uniform 
very dark colour, the edges of the posterior sucker excepted, which 
are much lighter. 

Length about 1| inch, breadth (of body) 4 or o lines*. 

The habitat is unknown. The specimen was added to the Museum 
collection by the late Mr. H. Cuming. 

2. Branchellion lineare, Baird. 

Body hnear-elongate, flattened, distinctly annulated. Segments 
of body about 32, those of neck not so distinct as those on the body, 
and about 10 or 12 in number. The neck is separated from the 
body by a well-marked constriction, but is nearly equal in diameter 
to the body. The oral disk is circular and smooth, or only finely 
striated interiorly. The ventral is considerably larger, circular, and 
densely granulated within the cup. The disks are slightly excentral. 
Branchiform lateral appendages simple, not puckered ou the margin. 

Length about 6 lines, breadth about 1 line. 

This species was taken from a S[)ecies of Mustelus in King George's 
Sound, N. Australia, by Mr. Rayner, Surgeon to H.M.S. 'Herald.' 

3. Branchellion punctatum, Baird. 

Body narrow, elongate, nearly flat on both ventral and dorsal 
surfaces, distinctly annulated. Segments somewhat striated on their 
backs, those of the body about 32 in number. Neck indistinctly 
annulated. Ventral surface light-coloured ; dorsal dark, with nu- 
merous small, round, yellow spots scattered over the surface. The 
oral sucker is much smaller than the ventral, the margin thickene<l, 
and the cup is minutely granulated interiorly. Ventral sucker large, 
quite terminal, shallow, and with larger granulations on its inteiior 
surface. Branchiform appendages larger on the posterior portion 
of the body, simple, not puckered on the margin. 

Length of largest specimen nearly \h inch, breadth about 2 lines. 

The only specimen we possess in the British Museum collection 
was taken from a species of MijUobates caught in King George's 
Sound, N. Australia, by Mr. Rayner, Surgeon of H.M.S. 'Herald.' 

Genus Eubranchella, Baird. 

Margins of body furnished with linear, pinnated, instead of broad, 
foliaceous, appendages, much more resembling true branchia; than 
those in BrancheUion. Neck separated from the body. Head small, 
leech-like. 

* The species described in this paper are all preserved in spirits; and being 
more or less cornifiated hy tlie spirit, the diinensionp arc only a|)proxiuialive. 



312 DR. W. BAIRD ON NEW ANNELIDES. [May 13, 

EUBRANCHELLA BRANCHIATA. 

Hirudo hrancliiata, Menzies, Linn. Trans, i. 188, tab. xviii. fig. 3. 
Polydora testiulinum, Oken. 
Branchellion pinnatum, Savigny, Grube. 
Branchiobdella memiesi, De Blainville, Diesiug. 

This, as far as I am aware, is the only species of this genus known. 
Savigny was the first to recognize it as belonging to a different genus 
from Branchellion. Diesing and Moquin-Tandou appear to con- 
sider the species doubtful ; but Mr. Ilayner, Surgeon of H.M.S. 
' Herald,' succeeded in taking it from a turtle in Sharks' Bay, Aus- 
tralia, eleven or twelve years ago. The animal is only half an inch 
long. 

Genus Pontobdella, Leach. 

1. Pontobdella afra, Baird. 

Body cylindrical, ventricose in the middle, attenuated at each ex- 
tremity, slightly posteriorly, but more so anteriorly. Segments en- 
circled with a series of rather large warts, each wart being circular 
in form, rather flattened, and covered with a series of smaller warts 
or minute tubercles on its centre. The neck consists of 12 segments, 
every third one being the largest and warty, the intervening ones 
quite smooth, and is separated from the body by five narrow smooth 
segments. The acetabulum or ventral sucker is much larger than 
the head, which is ver}' small in com})arison and armed on its 
margin with six rather small nodules or conical tubercles, three ou 
each side. 

The postoccipital segment is armed with a row of similar small 
conical tubercles, differing from the warts on the body. The colour 
of this Leech is a dark olive, or of a blackish hue. 

The worm is about 4\ inches long, and the largest portion of 
the body is about '2\ inches in circumference. 

The only specimen the Museum possesses is ticketed " San 
Vicente," and was presented to the collection by the Rev. R. T. 
Lowe, late of Madeira. 

2. Pontobdella planodiscus, Baird. 

Body much flattened, attenuated at the anterior extremity. Seg- 
ments surrounded with a row of conical raised warts, each wart 
having two or three small nodules on tlie upper surface. The neck 
consists of 12 segments, all of which are warty, the warts, however, 
being much smaller than those of the body, from which it is sepa- 
rated by five warty rings. The acetal)ulum is considerably larger 
than the head, is quite plane, not hollowed at all, and rayed exter- 
nally with numerous rather broad bands of brown. The head is 
small and puckered round the edges, and has six small conical papilla) 
on the margin, three on each side, not in a line with each other 
but set in a triangular manner, two on the same plane, the third, 
forming the apex of the triangle, at some little distance from the 
marsin. The body is marked on the anterior portion and the neck 



1869.] DK. AV. BAIRD ON NEW ANNELIDES. 313 

with rather narrow circular bands of dark brown on a yellowish 
ground. 

We possess only one specimen of this species. It was collected in 
Possession Bay, Patagonia, by Dr. Cunningham, naturalist to the late 
Surveying Expedition to the Straits of Magellan. 

Length of body about 2 inches, breadth (at broadest part) about 
4 lines. 

3. PONTOBDELLA VARIEGATA, Baird. 

Body cylindrical, somewhat fusiform, much attenuated at the an- 
terior extremity. Posterior extremity the larger in circumference, 
gradually tapering towards the head. Segments covered with smooth, 
conical, rounded warts, of nearly uniform size. The neck is com- 
posed of 10 or II segments, and is separated from the body by five 
iiarrower ones, all the segments being slightly warty. The aceta- 
bulum is considerably larger than the head, which is smooth on its 
margin, having no nodules round the rim. The body is marked 
with spots of a deeper brown colour on a yellowish ground, and the 
acetabulum is rayed with the same hue. 

We possess two specimens, — one in very good preservation from 
the Straits of Magellan, presented by the Lords of the Admiralty ; 
the other from Possession Bay, Patagonia, collected by Dr. Cun- 
ningham along with the preceding species. 

One specimen (somewhat contracted) measures about 2| inches 
in length, the other (more relaxed) is nearly 3 inches long; circum- 
ference (at the broadest part) 1^ inch. 

4. PONTOBDELLA BAYNERI, Baird. 

Body cylindrical, much attenuated at the anterior extremity. 
Segments surrounded with raised conical warts, each wart having 
several small warts on its summit. The neck is elongated, and sur- 
rounded, as is the body, with warts. It consists of 12 segments, 
and is almost continuous with the body, being slightly separated 
from it by five warty rings. The acetabulum is larger than the head, 
faintly rayed with brown, and somewhat puckered round the margin. 
The head is small, circular, and the margin has six small conical 
papillae. On the side of the head are two well-marked brown spots, 
somewhat triangular in shape. The warts on the body are so ar- 
ranged as to present one row of large ones, and two rows of smaller 
ones succeeding it ; that is to say, every third row of warts is the 
largest. 

When relaxed, the length is about 1 inch ; when corrugated by the 
spirit it diminishes one-fourth. 

Hal). Found on a species of Rhinohatis in Sharks' Bay, Australia. 
Collected by Mr. Rayner, Surgeon H.M.S. ' Herald.' 

Genus Aulastoma, Moquin-Tandon. 
1. Aulastoma planum, Baird. 
Body flattened, slightly convex dorsjilly, very flat ventrallv, at- 



'M4 DR.AV. BAIRD ON NEW ANNELIDES. [May 13, 

tenuated anteriorly, broadest about the centre. Colour of a light 
olive, uniform underneath, but marked with irregular black spots on 
the back. Rings rather narrow, with an indistinct keel along both 
dorsal and ventral surfaces of each. Oral sucker rather small, 
ventral large. Anus large. Teeth on the jaw nearly black. 

Length of body (in spirits) 3 inches, breadth (at broadest part) 
9 lines, 

Hab. Cuba? From the collection of the late Mr. John Christy, 
F.Il.S. &c. 

2. AuLASTOMA EXiMio-STRiATUM, Baird. 

Body flattened, especially on the ventral surface, slightly at- 
tenuated at each extremitj^ but more so anteriorly ; broadest about 
the centre. Back olive-coloured, speckled with black spots or marks 
scattered profusely over the surface ; ventral surface of a uniform 
colour, lighter than the back. Rings very distinct, particularly well- 
marked at the sides, which appear as if crenate ; on the back they 
are marked with very numerous, minute fine strife, which are best 
seen when the specimen is taken out of spirits. Oral sucker small ; 
ventral moderate and rather deep, granose on outer edge. Anus large. 

Length about 2 inches, breadth about 8 lines. 

Hub. ? Old collection. 

Genus Hirudo, Linnaeus. 

1. Hirudo inconcinna, Baird. 

Body much depressed, of a uniform dark olive-colour, somewhat 
lighter underneath, much attenuated at anterior extremity. Body 
broad posteriorly, coarsely annulated ; surface of rings roughly 
wrinkled. Oral sucker small ; ventral large, shallow, bordered with 
a smooth margin, distinctly radiately plaited on interior surface, and 
covered with flat granulations externally, or as it were tessellated. 

Breadth of anterior portion immediately below the oral sucker 
3 lines, breadth at broadest part of body 9 lines ; diameter of ventral 
sucker 5 lines ; length of body 4 inches. 

Hab. Ceylon {Sir A. Smith, M.D.). 

Several species of Leeches are found in Ceylon, and are particu- 
larly mentioned by the late Sir J. E. Tennent in his history of that 
island. This may be the Leech mentioned by him in vol. i. p. 305 
(footnote), which was observed by Mr. Thwaites at Kolona Koole, 
but which he was not able to examine particularly. He describes 
it "as flatter and of a darker colour" than the paddy-field Leech' 
{Ilomopsis sanguisorbd) of Ceylon. 

2. Hirudo lowei, Baird. 

Body depressed, concave on ventral surface, slightly convex dor- 
sally, of a uniform olive-colour, rather lighter underneath. No 
bands or marks on the surface to be seen. Attenuated anteriorly. 
Body distinctly annulated ; rings very irregular, contracted at about 
every fourth or fifth, the fourth or fifth being smaller than the rest. 



18G9 ] DR \V. BAIRD ON NEW ANNELIDES. 315 

and as it were sunk beneath the others. Rings beset with spinulous 
tubercles, about 30 or 35 in number. In mauy the spines are only 
on the lower edge of the ring and point downwards. Oral sucker 
small ; ventral deep and large, much plaited both internally and on 
the external margin, and covered externally with spinulous tubercles. 

Length nearly 3 inches, breadth (at broadest part) about 9 lines. 

Hab. Borneo. From the collection of Mr. Lowe, H.B.M. Consul 
at Sarawak. 

3. HiRUDO BELCHERi, Baird. 

Body depressed, slightly convex on the back, of a yellowish grey 
colour, indistintly banded near the dorsal margin with dark olive ; 
edges as it were serrated, attenuated anteriorly. Body consisting 
of about 95 very narrow rings, each ring beset all round with nu- 
merous pointed raised dots or small tubercles, about 40 on each 
ring. Oral sucker of considerable size ; ventral moderate, and ra- 
d lately plaited internally and on external margin. The rings of this 
species are narrower and much more distinctly tubercular than 
those of Hirudo granulosa from Lidia. 

Length of body 2\ inches, breadth (at broadest part) 6 lines. 

Hab. Borneo {Sir E. Belcher, R.N.). 

4. Hirudo maculata, Baird. 

Body depressed, flat beneath, slightly convex on the back ; at- 
tenuated anteriorly. Back of a deep grey colour, marked in the 
centre with an interrupted black line, and a row of spots of the 
same colour near the edges, the spots being distributed alternately 
— first on one ring with an intermediate ring without a spot, then, 
secondly, a spot and two rings without a spot, and thus alternately 
throughout its whole length *. Abdominal surface hghter-coloured, 
with a broad line of a dark colour on each side. Rings very narrow, 
beset with numerous small tubercles, about 36 in number. Oral 
sucker of considerable size ; ventral circular, with a simple border, 
strongly plaited internally and granulous externally. 

Length of body about 2^ inches ; breadth (at broadest part) 
about 7i lines. 

Hab. Siam. 

5. Hirudo assimilis, Baird. 

Body rather narrow, attenuated anteriorly, of a light yellowish 
colour above and beneath. Back convex, marked with an indistinct 
row of small spots in the centre, and an interrupted row of larger 
black spots at the margins, the spotted alternating with the unspotted 
rings, in the same way as in //. maculata, described above. Ventral 
surface of a uniform colour, without any markings. Rings larger 

* In general I have observed that in European species the marginal row of 
spots is continuous, a s]iot occurring on each ring, whilst in those from the 
Eastern countries the spots are alternate, as I have described them in the species 
mentioned here. This holds good with the Hirudo gramilosa from India, the 
present, and succeeding species, all from the East. 



31C DR. W. BAIRD ON NEW ANNELIDES. [Maj' 13, 

than in maculata, and tubercular. Oral sucker moderate in size ; 
ventral circular, radiately plaited internally and granulous externally. 

Length of body about 3 inches, greatest breadth about 4 lines. 

Hab. Hong-Kong, China {Sir A. Smith, M.D.). 

A species has been described by Blainville from a drawing made 
by a native artist in the Chinese ' Encyclopgedia,' and named by him 
Hirudo sinica. This Leech is said to be employed medicinally in 
China. It is small and entirely black, which would show it to be a 
different species from that found in IIong-Kong. 

6. Hirudo semicarinata, Baird. 

Body rounded, of a uniform dark olive-colour above and beneath, 
slightly narrower at anterior extremity. Rings narrow, with a few 
tubercles on the surface. Oral sucker round, with scarcely any lip, 
but plaited round its margin ; ventral sucker moderate, indistinctly 
plaited on internal surface. Anus small. The anterior half of the 
body is marked on the dorsal surface with a sort of raised keel. 

Length of body 16 lines, breadth of body about 3 lines (largest 
specimen). * 

Hab. Vancouver Island (J. K. Lord, Esq.) ; Great Bear Lake, 
N. America {Sir J. Richardson, M.D.). 

7- Hirudo l^vis, Baird. 

Body depressed, flat ventrally, slightly convex dorsally, attenuated 
anteriorly. Of a uniform dull yellowish colour above and beneath. 
No bands or marks to be seen, unless an indistinct continuous band 
on each side dorsally. Rings quite smooth ; the lower margin of each 
raised somewhat like a keel ; and on the edges at the sides the rings 
are as it were divided into two, but only on the edges. Oral sucker 
small ; ventral rather small, radiately plaited. 

Length 4^ inches, greatest breadth about 9 lines. 

Hab. ? Old collection*. 

Genus Heterobdella, Baird. 

Body composed of 160 rings. Male organ situated between the 
twenty-ninth and thirtieth ring ; female between the forty-eighth 
and forty-ninth. Eyes five pairs — three situated on first ring, one 
on second, and one on fifth. Anus rather small, round, and distinct, 
situated between the fourth and fifth last ring, in the centre, a little 
above the ventral sucker, which is obliquely terminal, and so placed 
as to have a ventral aspect. 

* A cargo of Leeches was lately imported into London from Australia; but, 
tlie demand for Leeches being now much rcstrieted owing to (lie disuse of blood- 
letting by medical men in this country, it appears tliat they were almost all 
thrown into the Thames. Three or four speciTnens, however, were saved from 
the mass, and kindly sent alive to the British Museum by Mr. Morson of Soutli- 
ampton Row. This Leech is one which is used in Australia for medicinal pur- 
poses ; and a dissection of the mouth shows the teeth to be strong and well deve- 
loped. The species is the Hirudo qv.inqyrs>iri(ifa of Schmarda, and described 
by him in his ' Neue Wirbelthiere,' vol. ii. 



I8G9.] DR. W. BAIRD ON NEW ANNELIDES. 317 

Heterobdella mexicana, Baird. 

Body rounded dorsally, flattened ventrally ; narrow, nearly uniform 
in breadth, but slightly attenuated anteriorly ; of a uniform pale 
brown colour. Rings very narrow, rather rugose. Oral sucker 
rather small ; upper lip prominent, plaited. Ventral sucker round, 
deep, plaited on outer margin, smooth, obliijuely terminal, and with 
a ventral aspect ; in several specimens this sucker was closed, being 
contracted longitudinally. Anus distinctly visible, of moderate size, 
between the fourth and fifth last ring, above the ventral sucker. 

Length about 20 lines, breadth about 4 lines. 

llab. Mexico. Collected by M. Salle. 

Genus Glossiphonia, Johnson. 

1. Gj^ossiphonia rudis, Baird. 

Body of an obovate form, and of a uniform olive-colour ; roughly 
annulated, each ring armed with a series of tubercles along its sur- 
face, and having a number of larger, reddish-coloured tubei'cles scat- 
tered irregularly over the surface of the back. Head and body 
continuous. Dorsum rather convex, ventrally concave. Oral sucker 
smaller than ventral, which is round, hollow, and smooth internally. 
Eyes? six in number (as far as could be made out). Sexual orifice 
about the twenty-third ring. 

Length about 1 inch, greatest breadth nearly | inch. 

Hah. Great Bear Lake, N. America (iStV /. Richardson, M.D.). 

2. Glossiphonia trisulcata, Baird. 

Body obovate ; head small, distinct from the body, being separated 
by a distinct notch. Eyes two, or, if four, placed so close together 
that they look as only two. Of a uniform dull olive-colour, with 
three distinct raised sulci or ridges, which converge to a point at the 
upper part of the body, just below the head, and nearly converging 
posteriorly also. The ridges are beset, all along their upper margins, 
with raised tubercles. Ventral surface as if trellised by crossing 
striae. Ventral sucker rather small, round. Back somewhat con- 
vex, ventral surface concave. 

Length about 10 lines, greatest breadth 4 lines. 

Ilab. ? Old collection. 

3. Glossiphonia cimiciformis, Baird. 

Body rounded oval, flat, somewhat concave ventrally, nearly flat 
on dorsal surface. Rings very close and indistinct, beset with six 
longitudinal rows of raised tubercles, the two central rows the largest 
and most distinct. Colour above of a reddish brown, the tubercles 
lighter in hue. Borders or margins of body very thick and large, 
leaving a hollow space in the centre of ventral surface, with a row 
of black spots on each side running longitudinally for the greatest 
part of its length. Eyes six ; anterior pair very small, second pair 
large, and third pair smaller than second. Body of a hard crusta- 



318 MR. G. KREFFT ON N KW AUSTRALIAN SNAKES. [May 13, 

ceous sort of structure ; and the form altogether presents very much 
tiie appearance of a bug. Ventral sucker round and rather deep. 

Length about 3 lines, breadth about 2| lines. 

Hab. 1 Old collection. 



5. Descriptions of new Australian Snakes. By Gerard 
Krefft, F.L.S.^ C.M.Z.S., Curator and Secretary of the 
Australian Museum at Sydney, N.S.W. 

Cacophis fordei. (Figs. 1 & 2.) 

Scales in 15 rows. Abdominal plates ? Subcaudals 1 

Two anal plates. 

Total length 13 inches, head |, tail 1|. 

Figs. 1 & 2. 




IIIIIIIB 



Cdcoph is fordei. 

Body elongate and rounded ; head rather small, not distinct from 
trunk, flat, regularly shielded ; vertical moderate, with a very sharp 
angle behind ; superciliaries much smaller, occipitals slightly larger 
than the vertical ; rostral rather depressed, with a groove on its 
lower edge ; one anterior, two posterior oculars ; one large and elon- 
gate temporal shield, with two others behind, the upper one being 
nearly as large as the first temporal ; six upper labials, the third and 
fourth coming into the orbit ; these shields increase from the first to 
the last, which is the largest ; the lower labials are also six in number ; 
the eye is small, with rounded pupil ; scales hexagonal, about as 
broad as they are long, except the upper rows on the back, which 
are more elongate. The head is scarcely to be distinguished from 
the body, and for one-fourth of the whole length there is no increase 
in size ; the body then gradually enlarges, being much stouter pos- 
teriorly, with a short and very distinct tail. In young and half- 
grown individuals these characters are not so clearly defined ; the 
tail is nearly of the same size as in the adult, rather stout, but dis- 
tinct from the body. The general colour is a kind of sepia-brown 
above, in adults much lighter anteriorlj', a white or yellowish collar 



I8fi9.] MR. G. KREFFT ON NEW AUSTRALIAN SNAKES. 319 

dividing the head from the neck. This collar commences at the 
last labial shield, covers five scales in length by one (or at the angle 
two scales) wide ; it then crosses the neck, the width of a scale or 
less, and joins the opposite angle. The shields on the side of the 
face are all more or less spotted with white, including the onter 
edges of the superciliaries, the rostral, and the first pair of frontals. 
The general colour of the body covers the outer margin of every 
abdominal plate, rather jagged and irregular in the middle, but 
sharply defined on the sides, particularly in young individuals ; the 
inner margins of the two-rowed subcaudals are marked in the same 
wa}' to the tip. The abdominal plates are otherwise of a clear straw- 
yellow, brighter in young individuals. The outer margin of each 
scale of the back is darkly shaded, with a light elongate spot in the 
middle, giving the body a keeled appearance. 

Hub. iMr. George Masters discovered this handsome little Snake 
at the Pine-Mountain, near Ipswich, Queensland, and states that it 
can be freely handled without offering to bite. 

CaCOPHIS HARRIETT^.. (Fig. 3.) 

Scales in 15 rows. Abdominal plates 193. Two anjil plates. 
Sidicaudals 3.i/3.T, or more. 

Total length 12 inches, head |, tail 1|. 

Fis. 3. 




Cacophib harriettcB. 

Body rather elongate and rounded ; head scarcely distinct from 
trunk, quadrangular, not much depressed ; tail rather short and 
stout, distinct from the body. The vertical is rounded off behind, 
about as large again as the superciliaries ; the occipitals are rather 
small and narrow, not much larger than the vertical (too large in 
my figure). The plates on the side of the face are similar to those 
of C. fordei ; the third and fourth upper labials come under the eye, 
and the sixth and last is the largest ; the temporal shields are one 
large one and two others of unequal size behind. The general colour 
is a kind of pur|jlish brown above, each scale with a white central 
streak (except the outer row on each side), forming thirteen thin 
lines from nape to base of tail ; head and neck white above, with a 
central spot (the colour of the body) covering part of posterior 
frontals, vertical superciliaries, and occipitals, and one row of scales 
surrounding the occipitals. The shields on the side of the face, the 
lower labials, and chin-shields are dark-spotted and blotched ; eye 
small, pupil rounded. Abdominal plates uniform purplish brown, 
with a light outer edge ; subcaudals with similar markings. 



320 MR. G. KREFFT ON NEW AUSTRALIAN SNAKES. [May 13, 

Hab. Warro, Port Curtis, Queensland. Discovered by F. A. 
Blackman, Esq. 

Cacophis blackmanii. (Fig. 4.) 

Scales in 15 rows. Abdominal plates 197. Two anal plates. 
Subcaudals 43/43, or more. 

Total length 16 inches, head §, tail 2|. 




Cacophis hlacJcmanii. 

Body elongate and rounded ; head distinct from neck, rather de- 
pressed, with obtuse muzzle. The vertical without the sharp angle 
behind would form a square ; the superciliaries are very small, 
shghtly larger than the anterior ocular ; occipitals also of small size, 
and not as large again as the vertical ; the hind part of the head 
rather thick ; the vertical and occipitals depressed. Six upper labials, 
the two last of about equal size, with a large temporal shield wedged 
in between them ; seven lower labials. Purplish brown above, 
lighter on the sides ; all scales with a slightly transparent outer 
edge, but without any markings ; ventrals straw-yellow, with darker 
spots in the corners. Head, from the muzzle to the occipitals, dark 
brown above ; the upper margin of the upper labials tinted with the 
same colour, the rest of the lower labials yellowish ; mental shield 
dark brown. The upper part of the head behind the occipitals light 
brown ; a clear small spot in the corner of each superciliary yellow. 

Hab. The Pine-Mountain, Queensland. Discovered by Mr. George 
Masters. 

VeRMICELLA I.UNULATA. (Figs. 5 & 6.) 

Scales in 1.5 rows. Abdominal plates 220, or more. Two anal 
plates. Subcaudals 26/20, or m.ore. 

Total length 8i inches, head less than ^, tail |. 



&6. 




Vermicelln hmvlafu. 



1869. J MR. G. KREFFT ON NEW AUSTRALIAN SNAKES. 321 

Head very flat ; rostral not quite so high as in V. annulata ; ver- 
tical and occipitals more elongate. Head, body, and tad covered by 
fifty-nine elliptical spots, which, only in a few instances near the tail, 
join beneath, but very faint and scarcely a line in width. On the 
middle of the back these spots are about g inch wide. 

Hab. The Upper Burdekin. A single specimen in the Museum 
collection. 

Denisonia, Krefft. 

Head high and quadrangular, distinct from trunk, regularly 
shielded, but with a large loreal, which is absent in all other Aus- 
tralian venomous Snakes. Body not very elongate. 

-Denisonia ornata. (Fig. 7.) 

The present species is a very peculiar form on account of the 
loreal shield, which in the venomous Colubrine Snakes is, I believe, 
generally absent. The head is rather thick, distinct from trunk, 
high, and quadrangular, with shelving snout ; and in this respect 
resembles the genus Acanthophis. The markings of the upper and 
lower labials, the chin-shields, and the first ten or fifteen abdominal 
plates are almost identical with those of young Death-adders of the 
first year. The occiput is black from the posterior frontals to the 
commencement of the neck, leaving a mottled spot on the inner 
margin of the superciliaries, and another very small one at the pos- 
terior part of the vertical. The tips of the two occipitals and the 
scale between them are also light-coloured; and below these is another 
whitish spot formed by the inner portions of eight scales with a 
darker centre. The occipitals are slightly raised above the eye, and 
resemble in this respect the same scales in Acanthophis. The frontals 
are shelving downwards ; and the rostral is very low, and not visible 
from above if the head is put in a horizontal position. Body and 
tail above lead- coloured, beneath whitish; the abdominals with 
brown spots in the corner of each plate, which become faint towards 
the tail. 




Beniaonia ornata. 

Hah. Mr. Thomas Nobbs, a liberal donor to the INIuseum, dis- 
covered this new Snake near Rockhampton, in Queensland. 

Emydocephalus, KrefFt. 

Anterior half of the trunk rounded, posterior part compressed ; 
ventral plates well develoi)ed. Head shielded, gape of mouth short ; 



322 MR. G. KREFFT ON NEW AUSTRALIAN SNAKES. [May 15, 

three upper and three lower labials, the middle one largest, covering 
nearly the whole upper and lower lip (scales large and ranch imbri- 
cated, in sixteen rows). Occipitals not much larger than the super- 
ciliaries, very irregular, with sometimes a plate between them, and 
much broader than long. Tail much compressed, ending in a large 
flat scale, with two or three denticulations and a strong keel on each 
side. Scales in sixteen or seventeen rows, hexagonal, much imbri- 
cated, and covered with from five to ten or more tubercles. Ventral 
plates much tuberculated, in particular those near the tail. 

Emydocephalus annulatus. 

Scales in 16 or 17 rows. Ventral plates 144. One anal j)late. 
Subcaudals 36 (ending in a broad spine). 

Total length 30 inches. 

Scales large and imbricated. Head small, about as long as broad, 
covered with rounded plates, which are more or less raised in the 
middle and much tuberculated ; one or two elongate shields wedged 
in between the superciliaries ; the number of upper and lower labials 
reduced to three, a middle one of extraordinary size between two 
small scale-like shields, each scale and plate covered with many 
small tubercles, and the body encircled by thirty-five black and as 
many white rings. The white scales upon the back and sides more 
or less black, and some of the black rings white-spotted. 

Hub. Probably the Australiaa seas. Two specimens in the Mu- 
seum collection. 

Emydocephalus tuberculatus. 

Scales in 1 7 rows. Abdominal plates 135. One anal plate. Sub- 
caudal plates 30. 

Total length 32 inches, head 1, tail 51, girth 4. 

Head short, but longer than in the previous species ; neck rounded ; 
all the other parts of the body compressed, very stout, with strongly 
compressed tail, ending in a large fiat scale or sj)ine divided into three 
segments. Scales very large, hexagonal, the greater portion fully 
one quarter of an inch wide, much imbricated and tuberculated. 
Abdominal plates large, with a fold or ridge in the middle, but not 
keeled ; each plate covered with several elongated tubercles. Head 
shielded, the sutures of the frontals and nasals forming right angles ; 
vertical nearly rounded ; superciliaries large, five-sided ; occipitals 
short, much broader than long. Three upper and lower labials, the 
middle one very large, covering nearly the whole gape ; the middle 
lower labial shield very irregular in form, with one or two indenta- 
tions. One anterior and two posterior oculars ; eye of moderate size. 
General colour uniform purplish brown ; some of the scales on the 
side mottled with lighter brown spots. 

Hab. Probably the Australian seas. A single specimen in the 
Museum collection. 



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1869.] DR. J. S. BO\VERB.\NK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SP0N(;ES. 3J^ 

6. A Monograph of the Siliceo-fibrous Sponges. 
By J. S. BowERBANK, LL.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c.— Part II.* 

(Plates XXI.-XXV.) 

Iphiteon, Valenciennes. 

Iphiteon panicea, of the Museum, Jardin des Plantes, is distinctly 
a symmetrical structure. The skeleton is reticulated in a very remark- 
able manner. The whole consists of a series of regular areas, with 
pentagonal or hexagonal margins, from each angle of which a fibre 
passes in a direct line to the centre of the area, where they unite, 
forming a central, slightly protuberant mass. From each of these 
centres one or two fibres are given off at about right angles to the 
plane of the area, in opposite directions to each other, by which the 
adjoining areas above and below are connected. These connecting 
fibres always terminate at junctional angles of the nearest adjoining 
area, and the fibres thus projected never seem to unite with any 
other portions of the reticulating skeleton. 

The appearance resulting from this mode of structure is very re- 
markable when we view a microscopical plane of this beautiful tissue. 
The effect is that all the areas present a singularly confluent appear- 
ance, each perfect in itself, and each forming, as it were, a part of a 
neighbouring area. Occasionally square spaces may be found ; but 
these are only intervals of the reticulations. 

In treating of the gemmules in my paper " On the Anatomy and 
Physiology of the Spongiadse," I have figured a small portion of the 
skeleton of the specimen in the French Museum, said to be from 
Porto Rico (plate 34. fig. 17, Phil. Trans, for 18G2), and I 
have there designated it as identical with Stutchbury's genus Dactij- 
locahjx ; but a more critical examination, with a view to the deter- 
mination of its specific characters, has convinced me that I was in 
error in doing so. Neither Dactylocalyx nor Iphiteon appear in 
Lamarck's ' Animaux sans Vertebres,' second edition, published in 
1836, nor in Agassiz's 'Nomeuclator Zoologicus,' published in 1848. 
Nor is there any notice of the subject in the list of the works of Prof. 
Valenciennes publislied in the ' Bibliographia Zoologife et Geologiae,' 
by the Ray Societj-, 18.i4; we may therefore reasonably conclude 
that although named by Prof. Valenciennes in the Museum of the 
Jardin des Plantes, he never published any descri]jtive characters of 
the genus. The symmetrical arrangement of the skeleton-structures 
distinctly separates Iphiteon from Dactylocalyx, with which it has 
hitherto been confounded by other English naturalists as well as by 
me. I therefore propose the following characters for the genus 

Iphiteon, Valenciennes. 

Skeleton siliceo-fibrous. Fibre solid, cylindrical. Reticulations 
symmetrical. Areas rotulate, confluent. 

Type Iphiteon panicea from Porto Rico, Museum of the Jardin des 
Plantes, Paris. 

* For I^arl I. sec nnfca. pj). (IC)-!!!!!. 



3?4 DR. J. S. BOWERBANR ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

Iphiteon panicea, Valencieunes. 

Sponge cyathiform, slightly pedicelled. Surface of rigid skeleton 
even ? Oscula, pores, and dermal membrane unknown. Skeleton 
symmetrically radial ; radii short and stout ; areas of the rete mostly 
six-sided, spaces within triangular ; fibre cylindrical, incipiently 
spinous. Tension-spicula simple, hexradiate, slender, abundantly 
spinous ; radii terminally more or less clavate. Retentive spicula 
spinulo-pentafurcated ? hexradiate stellate, few in number. Gem- 
mules simple, membranous, subspherical, irregularly dispersed, very 
numerous. 

Colour in the living state unknown. 

Hah. Porto Rico, 1799 {Prof. Valenciennes). 

Examined in the state of skeleton. 

The specimen designated Iphiteon jjanicea in the Museum of the 
Jardin des Plautes, Paris, is said to have been brought from Porto 
Rico in the year 1799. It is an irregularly cup-shaped sponge, the 
diameter of its distal margin being about equal to its height, which, 
to the best of my recollection, was from 7 to 8 inches. From the 
colour and general appearance of the specimen, I believe it to be the 
one from which Prof. Valenciennes gave a small fragment to Prof. 
Melville some years since, which he kindly transferred to me, and 
which fragment contains the gemmules in situ. I have so fully de- 
scribed the general structure of the skeleton in my description of the 
genus, as to render it unnecessary to dilate further on that portion 
of its history. 

No fragments of the expansile dermal system could be detected ; 
and we are therefore deprived of the most important specific cha- 
racters. 

I could not detect auxiliary skeleton-spicula, simulating hexradiate 
spicula, springing from the primary skeleton-fibres and anastomo- 
sing freely with each other, as iu Bactylocalyx ; but in lieu of them 
true simple hexradiate tension-spicula were frequently to be seen in 
groups in the interstitial spaces, but they never appeared to inoscu- 
late with each other or to deviate from their normal forms. These 
spicula are of comparatively large size ; the radii are slightly and 
progressively attenuated, and entirely and acutely spinous, but they 
do not terminate iu a point, but either in a group of acute spines or 
they are more or less subclavate. 

The retentive spicula appear to be exceedingly few in number in 
the interstitial tissues; in several small masses of the skeleton 
abounding in sarcode and genmiules I found but two of them. The 
secondary radii were apparently five in number, but they were so 
much obsoired by the surrounding sarcode as to render the deter- 
mination of this character very uncertain. 

The simple membranous subspherical gemmules are very like 
those of a halichondroid sponge ; they are very numerous, some- 
what variable in size and form, and are nearly all of them attached 
to the skeleton-fibres. 

A portion of the skeleton with the gemmules is figured in the 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 325 

illustrations to my paper " On the Anatomy and Physiology of the 
Spongiadfe" (Phil. Trans, for 1862, plate 34. figs. 17 '& 18), 
and also in vol. i. of 'Monograph of British Spongiadse' (plate 3.5. 
figs. 340 & 341). The latter figure in each of these quotations 
represents one of the gemmules filled with granular matter, x 666 
linear. A small portion of the skeleton from the Porto Rico speci- 
men is also figured in Plate XXII. fig. 1, of the present work, X 108 
linear, to exhibit the abundance of these organs in situ. In this 
portion of the skeleton (fig. 1, Plate XXL, representing the general 
contour of the skeleton) the gemmules are very few in number, the 
original of the figure being from a different portion of the sponge. 

Iphiteon BEATRIX, Bowcrbank. 

Aphrocallistes heatrix, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1858, p. 115, pl.xi. 

Sponge fistulous, branching irregularly. Surface of the rigid 
skeleton undulating or tuberous. Oscula congregated, terminal. 
Pores and dermal system unknown. Skeleton symmetrically ra- 
dial ; radii short and stout ; areas of the rete mostly six-sided, spaces 
within triangular ; fibre cylindrical ; central umbo of the areas spi- 
nous. Inhalant spaces of the skeleton-surface armed with stout 
elongo-conical, acutely terminated, ai::l abundantly spinous defensive 
fibres. External defensive spicula of the skeleton acerate, distal por- 
tions incipiently recurvato-spinous, long and slender, very immerous ; 
and also stout sub fusifor mi-cylindrical, entirely spinous spicula, few 
in number. Interstitial spicula attenuated rectangulated hexradiate, 
large and small ; axial ray of the latter occasionally spinous at one 
or both of its terminations ; spines very long and slender, curving 
towards the extremities. Spicula of the membranes : — Tension- 
spicula acerate, very slender. Retentive spicula acerate, verticil- 
lately spinous ; verticilli few in number ; spines large and acute, 
and also porrecto-spinulo-multiradiate spicula with slightly attenu- 
ated shafts ; radii from three to six or more, slender and minute, few 
in number. Gemmules spherical, membranous, irregularly dispersed. 

Colour in the living state unknown. 

Hab. Malacca {Admiral Sir Edward Belcher'). 

Examined in the skeleton state. 

Dr. Gray's description of this beautiful sponge in the ' Proceed- 
ings' of this Society for 1858 is inaccurate in several important 
points. In the first place he describes it as calcareous, whereas 
it is purely siliceo-fibrous. He also states the outer surface to be 
*" formed of intertangled transparent spines which inosculate and 
imite with each other at the intersection," while the whole of the 
skeleton is formed of a symmetrical network of siliceous fibre. He 
further states that " the end of the main tube is closed with an 
open network formed of spicula," when in reality it is an intricate 
reticulation of siliceous fibre of a very remarkable structure. Subse- 
quently the author writes, " in this genus the mass of the sponge is 
formed of small spicula, which inosculate and are united together, 
forming a hard mass pierced with numerous closed, small, uniform 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XXII. 



326 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

hexangular pores, lined with a thin layer formed of elongate fusiform 
spicula, placed parallel in bungle in a more or less longitudinal 
direction round the inner mouth of the pores." The whole of this 
latter description of the structure of the sponge is remarkable for its 
inaccuracy. He repeats the fallacy that "the sponge is formed of 
small spicula," and describes their inosculation, when no such inos- 
culation ever takes place among true spicula. He describes the 
pores in the total absence of the dermal membrane, evidently mis- 
taking the iucurrent ori6ces of the skeleton for those organs, and 
then he lines the cavities " with spicula placed parallel in bungle." 
What may be the mode of disposition of spicula in bungle I must 
leave my readers to imagine, as I really cannot conceive their arrange- 
ment under such circumstances, and especially as I have been totally 
unable to detect any such lining of spicula within the orifices de- 
scribed by Dr. Gray. 

The sponge, of the natural size, and slightly magnified, has been 
beautifully represented in plate 11 of the ' Proceedings of the Zoolo- 
gical Society' for 1858. 

The natural surface, and the whole of the dermal system of this 
sponge, have been entirely destroyed, and the pores are therefore un- 
known to us ; but from the regularity of the size and mode of dis- 
position of the incurrent orifices of the skeleton, it is very probable 
that they were congregated immediately above them. Within the 
sponge, on the surface of the great cloacal cavity, there are a series of 
large areas for the discharge of the excurreut streams into the cloaca ; 
they are very like in size and form to those of the inhalant surface, 
but they are destitute of the elaborate defences that characterize the 
inhalant organs. Fig. 4, Plate XXI. represents one of these areas 
X 1 08 linear. 

The form and mode of disposition of the oscular area readily in- 
dicates the congregation of the oscula after the same manner as that 
indicated in Alcyoncellum speciosum, and as exhibited in various 
species of Geodia. The reticulation-fibre closing this area in the 
sponge under consideration is remarkably complex and beautiful ; 
each fibre of the oscular area is a compound structure. When a 
portion of it is immersed in Canada balsam, and viewed by a micro- 
scopic power of about 150 linear, it is seen to be a complete cylinder 
formed of a dense network of siliceo-fibrous structure, produced on 
the same radial principle as that which prevails in the skeleton of 
the sponge, but in consequence of the small elongate cylindrical 
space in which it is developed, its structure is necessarily very con- 
fused ; yet the indication of radial fibres within it are sufficiently 
apparent to assure us of this fact. On the surface, and within the 
reticulations, there were a few very slender, smooth, acerate spicula 
which, from the mode of their disposition, are evidently the tension- 
spicula of the membranous tissues of the sponge. From the ex- 
ternal surface of the compound fibre there were a few basal portions 
of, apparently, hexradiate auxiliary fibres projected ; but none of 
them were developed to the extent of the production of the rectan- 
gulated lateral fibres. The external fibres of this beautiful com« 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 327 

pound structure were iucipiently spinous, but the internal ones were 
smooth. The portion of the compound fibre examined measured -^^ 
inch iu diameter, and is represented by fig. 2, Plate XXII., X 108 
linear. 

The structure of the skeleton of Aphrocallistes heatrix. Gray, is 
precisely in accordance with that of Iphiteon panicea ; and if agree- 
ment in organic structure be an evidence of close alliance, the two 
must belong to the same genus, however different their external 
forms may be. The same description of symmetrical confluent areas 
of siliceo-fibrous structure forms the skeleton, the only difference 
being that the areas are rather less in their average diameter than 
those of I. panicea. In the latter species they average -^ inch, 
while in the former they are -^ inch ; but in their general structural 
aspect they so closely resemble each other that, if it were not for 
the spinous umbonate centres of the areas in I. beatrix, they could 
not be distinguished when examined beneath the microscope. Fig. 2, 
Plate XXI. represents a section at right angles to the surface of the 
sponge. The view of the surface of the sponge does not exhibit 
distinctly the peculiar rotulate structure of the areas ; and it is only 
when we obtain a section at right angles to the surface that this 
strikingly characteristic structure is to be seen in all its symmetry 
and beauty. But the surface view exhibits many of the specific 
characters in an extremely striking and beautiful manner. Here 
we observe lai'ge inhalant spaces, abounding in rectaugulated hexra- 
diate spicula, for the support and multiplication of the nutrient 
membranes of the sponge ; and that the delicate tissues may be pre- 
served from the ravages of minute annelids and other insidious ene- 
mies, the mouths of the apertures are abundantly defended by the 
projection into them of large elongate cones of fibre, profusely fur- 
nished with minute spines ; and deeply imbedded amidst the skele- 
ton-fibre we find an abundant supply of acerate tension-spicula, and 
of the short, acerate, verticillatelj'^ spined retentive ones, and occa- 
sionally groups of two or three of the porrecto-spinulo-quaternate 
spicula with attenuating shafts (fig. 3, Plate XXI,, X 108 linear). 
The surface of the skeleton is furnished with a profusion of attenu- 
ated acerate external defensive spicula, the distal portions of which 
are abundantly spinous, the spines appearing as if notched upward 
out of the shaft of the spiculum, their acute points being all directed 
downward. The greater portion of these defensive organs are deeply 
immersed in the skeleton-mass beneath, their distal ends projecting 
not more than about one-fifth or one-sixth of their length beyond 
the general surface of the sponge. A section at right angles to the 
mass of the skeleton is necessary to exhibit distinctly their structure 
and position in the sponge. The auxiliary rectaugulated hexradiate 
fibres of the skeleton are produced very sparingly in this species ; 
they do not attain the full development of the shaft and lateral ra- 
diations as in Dactylocalyx, the lower half of the shaft only being 
produced ; and this portion of it is abundantly spinous, and termi- 
nates hemispherically. In one portion of the skeleton, mounted in 
Canada balsam, their purpose in the economy of the animal is dis- 



328 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS Sl'ONGES. [May 13, 

played in a very beautiful manner. Five of them are projected at 
different angles in about the same plane; and as it fortunately happens 
that the interstitial membrane is in a beautiful state of preservation, 
it is seen suspended on the points of the fibres, the margin curving 
gently from one to the other of them, in precisely the same man- 
ner as wet linen cloth would if it were supported on a series of short 
props for the purpose of being dried ; and the resemblance is rendered 
the more complete by the doubling and folding of the membrane at 
the points of contact with the rough terminations of the supporting 
fibre ; and in the space of membrane between two of these support- 
ing props, we have one of the rcctangulated hexradiate interstitial 
spicula, with its almost brush-like spinous axial spiculum, imbedded 
in the surface of the membrane, to contribute its share of support to 
that portion of the structure. 

The attenuated hexradiate rectangulated interstitial spicula are 
comparatively small and delicate in their structure ; the proximal and 
distal portions of the axial spiculum are very nearly equal. They 
have usually one or both of these parts furnished with very long and 
slender spines, which curve in the directions of the terminations of 
the shaft (fig. 3, Plate XXII.). But when this form of spiculum 
occurs in some of the larger interstitial cavities, they are increased in 
size in proportion to the necessities of the situation, and two or three 
of them are grouped so as mutually to support each other, as well 
as to perform the common office of supporting the membranous 
structures. In this case their radii appear to be entirely destitute 
of spines. 

The slender acerate tensiou-spicula are few in number, and appear 
to abound more towards the surface of the sponge than in its deeper 
recesses. 

The acerate verticillately spinous retentive spicula are exceedingly 
abundant in those parts where there are any remains of the mem- 
branous and sarcodous structures. The spinous verticilli are few in 
number ; when in a fully developed condition there are frequently as 
many as four of them ; but three is the more usual quantity, with 
perhaps a single intermediate spine to represent the fourth whorl. 
Sometimes they exhibit only two irregular terminal groups of spines 
and a smooth shaft intervening. The spines are long and acutely 
conical (fig. 4, Plate XXII., X 308 linear). 

The porrecto-multispiuulate spicula are comparatively few in 
number. They do not appear to be irregularly dispersed, but occur 
in groups of two or three together. They agree very nearly in size, 
but the degree of expansion of their terminal radii differs considerably; 
nor do all the rays on the same spiculum agree in that respect. The 
number of the radii at their apices appears to vary considerably ; 
those I have observed and figured in Plate XXII. figs. .5, G, 7, 8, 
range from 3 to 6 spiuulate radii. The shaft is long, slender, and 
attenuating to its base. Prof. Wyville Thomson, in describing this 
form of spiculum in his paper on Sponges in the ' Annals and Maga- 
zine of Natural History' for February 18G8, p. 124, says, "no 
doubt these are the separate branches of a complex hexradiate spi- 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 329 

cule, closely resembling those figured by Bowerbank (' British 
Sponges,' vol. i. figs. 190, 192)." I cannot agree with the learned 
Professor in this opinion. All the numerous specimens that I have 
seen, both separated from the sponge and in situ, have their natural 
basal terminations ; and no indication whatever exists of any central 
hexradiate spiculum from which they may have been separated. 

A few gemmules were observed adhering to the skeleton-fibres of 
the inner surface of the interstitial cavities of the sponge ; they are 
similar in character to those of I. panicea, but in the specimen under 
consideration they are not nearly so numerous as in the Porto-Rico 
specimen of that species. 

Iphiteon subglobosa, Bowerbank. 

Dactylocalyx subglobosa. Gray, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 506, plate xxvii. 
fig. 1. 

Sponge massive, somewhat cyathiform, sessile. Surface uneven. 
Oscula and pores unknown. Dermal membrane — retentive spicula 
spiculated biternate, minute, very numerous 1 Skeleton symmetri- 
cally radial ; areas confluent, somewhat irregular, mostly six-sided, 
spaces within triangular ; skeleton-fibre at the external surface 
coarsely and irregularly tuberculated ; fibre within the sponge mi- 
nutely tuberculated ; disposition of the tubercles sublinear. Auxi- 
liary fibres rectangulatcd hexradiate, abundantly spinous ; radii spi- 
nulate. External defensive spicula fusiformi-acerate, very large and 
long, distal terminations occasionally incipiently spinous. Intersti- 
tial spicula rectangulated hexradiate, very slender, radii subclavate, 
basal ray very long. Spicula of the membranes — retentive spicula 
spinulo-quadrifurcate and pentafurcate hexradiate stellate, numerous ; 
margins of the spinulate terminations crenulate. 

Colour in the living state unknown. 
Hab. Malacca ? {Dr. J. E. Graij). 
Examined in the state of skeleton. 

This sponge is in the collection at the British Museum. It is 
figured of the natural size in the ' Proceedings' of this Society for 
1867, plate 27. fig. 1 ; and at p. 506 of the same volume. Dr. J. E. 
Gray gives the following brief description of it : — " Sponge subglo- 
bose, with a deep central concavity above ; the outer surface with 
irregular anastomosing oscules. 

"Hab. Malacca?" 

The sponge is based on a fragment of coral, and has very much 
the form of a young and undeveloped specimen of one of the best 
description of Turkey sponges, in which the form of the cup is rather 
indicated than produced ; and it is very probable that in its fully 
developed state it will be found to be a truly cyathiform species. 

The expansile dermal system of the sponge has been entirely de- 
stroyed ; the oscula and pores are therefore unknown to us ; but on 
one fragment of the outer portion of the skeleton submitted to exa- 
mination there was a very small piece of the dermal membrane ad- 
hering to the surface of the skeleton, and this was densely crowded 



330 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

with minute spiculated biternate retentive spicula, and a few single 
ones were entangled in the adjoining interstices of the skeleton. As 
the colour of this small portion of the membrane was the same as 
that of minute portions of sarcode dispersed amidst the reticulations 
of the skeleton, there can be no reasonable doubt of its really belong- 
ing to the sponge. 

These spicula are so minute that they require a microscopic power 
of about 700 linear to define them in a satisfactory manner, and in 
the present case they were only visible after having been immersed 
in Canada balsam. A detached specimen of one of these spicula is 
represented by fig. 1 1, Plate XXII. 

The structure of the skeleton is stronger, larger, and more irre- 
gular than that of I. panicea or /. beatrix ; but there is no doubt of 
its being truly an Iphiteon. The average diameter of the skeleton- 
fibre is T^-l-jj inch. The surface-fibres are very closely tuberculated, 
the tubercles looking very like small extraneous patches of silex 
adherent to the surface ; and clusters of these coarse tubercles are 
frequently accumulated on the umbones of the confluent areas of the 
skeleton-structures, as represented in fig. 10, Plate XXII., which re- 
presents a portion of the surface of the rigid skeleton. The tubercles 
of the interior fibres are much more regular in their form, and are 
frequently disposed in lines, consisting of five or six of them at 
nearly right angles to the axis of the fibre ; and a very considerable 
number of the tibres have no tubercles upon them. 

The rectangulated hexradiate auxiliary fibres were very abundant 
in some of the large interstitial spaces of the skeleton : when fully 
developed they are abundantly spinous, and the radii have spinulate 
terminations ; in an early stage of growth they are frequently spine- 
less, or only incipiently spinous, and in this condition, intermixed 
with the stouter and more developed ones, they may be readily mis- 
taken for spicula ; but their habit of anastomosing with each other, 
and their basal connexion with the parent skeleton-fibre, readily dis- 
tinguish them. Fig. 12, Plate XXII., represents two of the auxili- 
ary fibres in a less complicated form than they are usually met with 
in the interstitial spaces of the skeleton, and exhibiting distinctly 
their basement on the skeleton-fibre, and their subsequent i:;oscula- 
tion. 

The rectangulated hexradiate interstitial spicula are comparatively 
few in number ; they are very slendei", smooth, and their radii are 
clavate. The auxiliary fibres seem to have superseded them in their 
peculiar office of aifording support to the interstitial membranes, 
and of multiplying the sarcodous surfaces of the interstitial spaces. 

The external defensive spicula of the skeleton are remarkably large 
and long. I have not seen an entire one ; but iiT a perfect condition 
they cannot be less than \ inch in length, and the diameter of the 
middle of one in situ was -^-^ inch, more than twice the size of an 
average-sized skeleton-fibre. Their basal portions are deeply im- 
mersed in the external portion of the skeleton. The basal termina- 
tion in a few cases appeared to be incipiently spinous ; but this 
seemed to be rather the exception than the rule. 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-PIBROUS SPONGES. 331 

The retentive spinulo-quadrifurcate and pentafurcate spicula are 
very numerous, and the numbers of the two appear to be about 
equal. When a power of 700 or 800 hnear is appUed to them, their 
margins are seen to be regularly and closely crenulated. I do not 
remember to have seen this remarkable character in the correspond- 
ing spicula of any other species of siliceo-fibrous sponges. 

Iphiteon Ingalli, Bowerbank. 

Dactylocalyx pumicea, Gray, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 506, plate xxvii. 
fig. 2. 

Sponge cup-shaped. Rigid skeleton — upper or exhalant surface 
with large intermarginal excurrent canals radiating irregularly from 
the centre towards the circumference. Under or inhalant surface 
with short radiating intermarginal canals. Surfoce even. Oscula, 
pores, and expansile dermal system unknown. Skeleton — fibre stout, 
more or less furnished with scattered warty tubercles. Auxiliary 
fibres abundantly tuberculated, terminating spinulately. Interstitial 
spicula rectangulated hexradiate, large; radii nearly equal, attenuated 
and acutely terminated. Retentive spicula spinulo-quadrifurcate 
hexradiate stellate ; terminal radii long. 

Colour in the natural state unknown. 

Ilab. St. Vincent's, West Indies (^Thos. Ingall, Esq.), 

Examined in the skeleton-state. 

This sponge is figured by Dr. Gray, on the scale of one-eighth of 
its natural size, in plate xxvii. of the 'Proceedings' of this Society for 
1867, and is erroneously designated Bactylocalyx pumicea in p. .506 
of the same volume, but without any reference either to its internal 
or external characters, although the latter in 1. Ingalli are strikingly 
different from those of the rigid skeleton of the former, as I have stated 
at length in my description of the surface-characters of Dactylocalyx 
pumiceuSy anted p. 77. 

Beside the difference in the surfaces of the rigid skeletons, there are 
such conclusive structural characters in their configurations that, had 
Dr. Gray taken the trouble to compare sections of the two sponges, 
he must have at once seen that they were not only different species, 
but distinct genera as well. 

In the absence of the expansile dermal systems in both sponges, 
they agree in their external forms exceedingly well ; but this cha- 
racter is common to so many and such discordant genera and species 
as to be of little or no value in their specific discrimination, even had 
they belonged to the same genus. 

I have been unable to detect any characteristic fragments of the 
expansile dermal system of the type specimen of/. Ingalli. 

The outer or inhalant surface of the sponge is covered in nunierous 
places with a thin brown membrane adhering closely to the surface 
of the rigid skeleton, and dipping into and lining the incurrent 
orifices of the sponge. The membrane is completely covered by 
minute spherical vesicles ; but I could not detect any imbedded spi- 
cula. From its close adherence to the surface of the rigid skeleton, 



332 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

its delicate structure, and the total absence of dermal spicula, it is 
evident that it has formed no part of the expansile dermal system, 
and that it is truly the enveloping membrane of the rigid skeleton 
of the sponge thickly covered by sarcode. 

Whether these minute molecules are the basal vesicles of the 
ciliary system is a question of considerable interest, to be hereafter 
determined by naturalists who have the opportunity of examining 
these interesting sponges fresh from their native element. Their 
situation and general character are very similar to the homologous 
organs in Gruntia compressa, and their position in/. Iiujalli is just 
that in which we should expect to find the ciliary system. We 
cannot hope to find any cilia remaining under such circumstances ; 
those of Grantia compressa and other nearly allied species are rarely 
visible, except during the life of the animal and while in a state of 
activity. 

In a small piece of the membranous structure of this sponge 
which I received from my friend Mr. Ingall, in March 18C0, the 
appearances presented are widely different from those of the mem- 
brane I have described above. The colour and the sarcode are very 
similar ; but there is a total absence of the minute spherical bodies. 
The field of view presents a very confused appearance. Numerous 
long, slender, and flexible attenuato-acerate spicula are confusedly 
matted together, and amongst them there are a considerable number 
of large rectangulatcd hexradiate spicula with radii of equal length, 
gradually attenuated from their proximal to their distal terminations ; 
and amidst this complicated mass there are innumerable spiuulo- 
quadrifurcate hexradiate stellate retentive spicula. 

From what part of the sponge these portions of its structure have 
been derived it is diflftcult to conjecture ; but it is evident that there 
are other forms of spicula than those we have observed in situ that 
belong to it, and that, although the spinulo-quadrifurcate retentive 
spicula are rather abundant in the interstices of the rigid skeleton, 
there are other parts of the sponge in which they are crowded to 
such a degree as to be innumerable. 

The general appearance of the spinulo-quadrifurcate hexradiate 
spicula is very like that represented by fig. 2, PI. XXIII.; and I have 
chosen a mutilated specimen which has only three of its primary rays 
remaining as best calculated to display its quadrifurcate structure. 
The configuration of the rigid skeleton is decidedly that of an Iphiteon 
of a somewhat delicate structure. The skeleton-fibres near the 
surface are rather strongly tuberculated ; but those of the interior 
are very much less so, and in some parts they are almost smooth. 
The mouths of the incurrent canals on the surface of the ligid skeleton 
are numerous and frequently closely adjoining each other, the sepa- 
ration often not exceeding half of their own diameter. The auxi- 
liary fibres at some distance within these canals are frequently 
abundant and much complicated in structure. They are stout, very 
rugged, with irregularly disposed tubercles, and their free termina- 
tions are spinulate. The rectangulatcd hexradiate interstitial spi- 
cula in situ are few in number, and their radii are gradually 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 333 

attenuated to a sharp point. In size, compared with those I have 
previously described in a fragment of the membranous tissue, they 
are small and slender. 

The genera of the two sponges /. Iiif/alli and Dactxjlocahjx pumi- 
ceus being distinctly different, it is unnecessary to enter into a long 
description of their differential characters to prove that Dr. Gray is 
in error in assigning the type specimen of the former to the latter 
genus ; but it may be as well to state that none of the singular and 
beautiful forms of spicula which I have obtained from the type speci- 
men of D. jmmiceus, and have figured in Plate III., part 1, are to be 
found in the tissues of the type specimen of I. Ingalli. 

Iphiteon callocyathes, Bowerbank. 

Myliusia callocyathes, Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 439, Radiata, 

pi. XVI. 

Sponge sessile or slightly pedicelled, cyathiform. Upper surface of 
rigid skeleton even ; under surface sinuously plicated and tubulated. 
Oscula and pores imknown. Expansile dermal system — dermal mem- 
brane pellucid, furnished abundantly with minute short, stout, acerate 
tension-spicula ; connecting spicula furcated foliato-expando-ternate. 
Skeleton — fibre variable in diameter, verticillately spinous, spines 
small, acutely conical ; interstitial spicula rectaugulated hexradiate, 
axial and rectangulating radii nearly equal in length, slender, termi- 
nations subclavate ; retentive spicula spinulo-multifurcate hexra- 
diate stellate, terminations of each heptaradiate or octoradiate; of two 
sorts, one with terminal radii expanded, the other with terminal 
radii contracted into separate groups. 

Colour in the natural state unknown. 
Hub. West Indies {Dr. M'Gee). 
Examined in the skeleton-state. 

In the description of the external characters of this sponge it must 
be remembered that it is that of the rigid skeleton only, and that it 
is probable that both surfaces would be more or less smooth and even 
when covered by the expansile dermal system. 

The arrangement of the skeleton is decidedly that of an Iphiteon ; 
but the structural character of the fibres of which it is composed 
is strikingly distinct from any other species of the genus. The}' are 
variable in size to a considerable extent ; but whatever may be their 
diameters, they are always furnished with numerous small sharply 
conical spines, which exhibit a strong tendency to a vertlcillate ar- 
rangement ; and around the central umbones of the confluent areas 
of the skeleton they are frequently congregated on slightly elevated 
detached patches, each containing from seven to ten minute s])iuules. 

These structural characters would have sufficed, in the ])resent 
state of our knowledge of the species of this genus, to distinguish 
it from any other member of the group ; but, by a careful exami- 
nation of the type specimen, I fortunately obtained from near the 
base of the sponge on the inner surfiace a small piece of the ex- 
pansile dermal system in connexion with a portion of the surface of 



334 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SII,ICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

the rigid skeleton ; but as these tissues on the exhalant surface are 
not nearly so distinct and regular in their structure as those of the 
inhalant snrface, I could not find a piece that would have afforded 
a satisfactory figure, although when viewed beneath the microscope 
the nature and characters of the tissues were beyond a doubt. The 
furcated foliato-expando-ternate connecting spicula, when thus seen 
in situ, are so closely packed, and the terminations of their radii 
are so locked together, that they cannot be separated by the eye ; and 
the small acerate tension-spicula so profusely scattered on the dermal 
membrane covering their apices tends greatly to confuse the aspect 
of the tissues beneath : it is only when we have one of them 
separated, as represented by fig. 6, PI. XXIII., that we are enabled to 
comprehend their structure. But although ineligible for figuring, 
this fragment of the expansile dermal system clearly demonstrated 
the agreement in general structure of this species with those in which 
it is more amply and clearly exhibited. 

The furcated foliato-expando-ternate connecting spicula are sin- 
gular in their form, and are very characteristic of the species. Both 
the primary and secondary ramifications of their apices are very 
much depressed ; they are very thin, and small short branches are 
projected from their edges so as greatly to increase their plane of 
support to the dermal membrane, which appears to have closely ad- 
hered to them in the living state, as I have not seen any separate spi- 
culum of this form without a portion of the dermal membrane and its 
numerous tension-spicula closely adhering to its external surface. 

The rectangulated hexradiate interstitial spicula appear to be few in 
number in the present condition of the sponge. They are small and 
slender, and the apices of the radii are slightly inclined to be clavate; 
the axial and rectangulating radii are usually of very nearly tlie same 
length," — a few of them only having the basal portions of the axial 
radii elongated to about twice that of a rectangulated ray. 

There are two sorts of spinulo-multifurcate hexradiate retentive 
spicula, with seven or eight spinulate radii to each termination : — one 
in which the primary radii are short, and the secondary ones j)ro- 
jected expansively, so as to form one great compound stellate spicu- 
lum, in which it is very difficult to separate with the ej'e the six sets 
of terminal spinulate radii ; the other form in which the primary 
radii are longer and the terminal groups of spinulate spicula, usually 
six, rarely seven or eight in number, are projected contractedly so 
as to form six separate and very distinct groups of terminal spinulate 
spicula, as represented by fig. 7, PI. XXIII. The first-mentioned 
form is very like that from Dactylocalyx pitmiceus, represented by 
fig. 4, PI. III., part 1, with the imaginary addition of as many more 
radii as are there represented. 

Myliusia, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1859, p. 439. 

Skeleton siliceo-fibrous. Fibres solid, cylindrical. Rete symmetri- 
cal, disposed in a series of crypt-like layers parallel with the external 
surface, with intervening planes of perforated siliceous tissue. 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 335 

The stratified character of the reticulating skeleton of the type 
sponge of this genus, when viewed in a section at right angles to its 
natural surface, with a microscopical power of 1 00 linear, at once 
separates it from the unsymmetrical structure of Bactylocahjx ; and 
although participating with IjMteon in the character of symmetrical 
arrangement of its skeleton, it is equally well distinguished from 
that genus by the total absence of the confluent areas that are so 
characteristic in those sponges. 

In a paper read before this Society, November 22, 1859, by Dr. 
J. E, Gray, entitled " Description of MacAndrewia and Myliusia, 
two new forms of Sponges," and published in the ' Proceedings ' of 
the Society for that year, page 437, the author has described his 
genus Myliimu, page 439, and has figured in plate xvi. Radiata, 
of the same volume, his species Myliusia cullocyathes as the type 
of his genus ; subsequently, in the ' Proceedings ' of this Society for 
1867, p. 506, in his " Notes on the Arrangement of Sponges," he 
has given the following characters as those of the genus ; — " The 
sponge conical, cup-shaped, pierced with numerous short truncated 
tubes, forming raised folded anastomosing laminee on the lower sur- 
face." This description applies only to the external characters of 
the skeleton, entirely omitting all the other anatomical peculiarities 
of the sponge. On microscopically examining the structures of the 
type specimen I found them to be identical with those of the genus 
Iphiteon, and I have therefore arranged Dr. Gray's Myliusia cul- 
locyathes as fyhiteon caUocyathes in the present paper. 

In Dr. Gray's "Notes on the Arrangement of Sponges," p. 506, 
he states that, " There are two small specimens in the British Mu- 
seum which probably belong to the same species. The smaller one 
was collected by the Rev. L. Guilding at St. Vincent's in 1840; and 
the other was received from the West Indies by Mr. Scrivener in 
1842." On examining microscopically the structures of the speci- 
men collected by the Rev. L. Guilding at St. Vincent's, I found it to 
differ widely in the construction of its skeleton from either Iphiteon 
or Bactylocahjx, and I therefore propose to apply Dr. Gray's genus 
Myliusia to this species in place of the one to which he has erro- 
neously attached it. 

The specimen from " Mr. Scrivener in 1842 " is identical in struc- 
ture with Dr. Gray's type specimen of his genus Myliusia, both as 
regards generic and specific characters, and should therefore be ar- 
ranged with that sponge as Iphiteon caUocyathes. 

Myliusia Grayii. 

Myliusia caUocyathes, Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 439, et 1867, 
p. 506. 

Sponge sessile, massive. Dermal surface unknown. Surface of 
rigid skeleton uneven and excavated. Oscula, pores, and expansile 
dermal system unknown. Skeleton stratified, forming a series of 
expanded crypt-like spaces. Fibre cylindrical, incipiently or mi- 
nutely spinous. Interstitial spicula numerous, acerate, large and 
long, variable in size ; disposed in lines at right angles to the strati- 



33C DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

fication in loose fasciculi of two to four or five together. Retentive 
spicula spinulo-multifurcate hexradiate stellate. 

Colour of skeleton translucent white. 

Hah. St. Vincent's, "West Indies (^Rev. Lansdown Guilding). 

Examined in the skeleton-state. 

The specimen proposed as the type of the genus Mi/lmsia has on 
the front of the board on which it is fixed Mylmsia, St. Vincent's, 
Rev.L. Guilding, 40. 10. 23. 11." On the hack of the board "Scri- 
vener." 

The sponge is sessile, the base being as wide as the specimen, 
which has a diameter of about three-fourths of an inch, and is about 
half an inch in height. The form of the mass is slightly oval ; it is 
composed of a series of thin sinuous plates of skeleton-structure not 
more than one-third of a line in thickness. The sinuations of the 
plates form deep orifices in the substance of the sponge, which some- 
times extend nearly to the base. By the aid of a lens of an inch 
focus, the stratified texture of the sinuous plates is distinctly visible. 
No sarcodous matter could be detected. 

There are no visible remains of the expansile dermal system of the 
sponge. "When viewed by the microscope the surface of the rigid 
skeleton has a very remarkable aspect. It is formed of a series of 
square or irregularly angular areas, the angles of which are filled in 
with thin perforated angle-plates with their inner margins curved, 
so that when combined they leave a large circular or oval orifice in 
the middle of each space ; and the upper surface of each layer of 
vaulted structure presents as nearly as possible the same aspect as 
the external layer of the rigid skeleton. There is no uniformity, 
either of size or arrangement, in the perforations of these horizontal 
angle-plates ; but combined they present to the eye the idea of the 
greatest amount of lightness, strength, and beauty that can well be 
conceived to exist in such a structure (fig. 8, PI. XXIII.). 

When we obtain a favourable section of the rigid skeleton at right 
angles to the surface of the sponge, we find that it is formed of a 
series of crypt-like layers of skeleton-fibre, each layer forming as 
it were a distinct and extensive crypt-like space with short, stout, 
cylindrical pillars with gradually expanded bases and capitals, the 
intervening portions of the shafts of the columns being irregularly 
studded with acutely conical incipient spines. Occasionally the 
regularity of the columnar arrangement is broken by the occurrence 
of large irregular interstitial spaces, into which short, stout, very 
spinous cylindrical or attenuating portions of fibre are projected, very 
like the basal portions of the auxiliary fibres that occur in several 
species of Iphiteon, but never appearing to throw off rectangulating 
lateral branches. These organs are evidently rather for defensive 
])urposes than as auxiliary supporters of the sarcodous membranes, 
as beside them these spaces frequently have several long and slender 
acerate interstitial spicula traversing them in various directions ; 
while in the crypt-like spaces a few only of such spicula are seen 
passing through them in diagonal directions (fig. 1, PI. XXV.). 



18G9.] DR. J. S. BOWERBzVNK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 337 

These iuterstitial spicula are very long and are frequently flexuous, 
and are sometimes extremely numerous and closely matted together. 
In this state they have probably belonged to the expansile dermal 
system ; but in the present well-washed condition of the specimen 
the true position of these matted groups could not be determined. 
The probability, however, of their having belonged to the external 
surface is increased by the presence among them of fragments of a 
thin brown membrane and numerous grains of sand. 

The skeleton-fibres are more or less spinous. The spines are acutely 
conical, and are irregularly dispersed over the surface ; some parts 
of the skeleton have the fibres nearly spineless, while others are 
abundantly furnished with those minute organs. 

The spinulo-hexradiate stellate spicula are found dispersed iu all 
parts of the skeleton-tissues ; but there are some little patches of in- 
termingled remains of membranes and spicula in which eight or ten 
were in close conjunction, indicating the probability that in the 
natural condition of the sponge they were very numerously dispersed 
in the membranous tissues. I counted thirty rays in some of them ; 
and we may therefore designate them as spinulo-multifurcate liexra- 
diate stellate spicula. 

The basal structure of the sponge is a remarkably beautiful tissue. 
It has on its surface an indistinct indication of irregular areas, similar 
to those of the skeleton-structure, when viewed at right angles to its 
surface ; but the spaces of the open central areas are filled up by 
plates of siliceous structure perforated by numerous round or oval 
holes. The skeleton-structure immediately above it is an irregular 
modification of the ordinary skeleton-tissues, with dense patches of 
stout acerate spicula intermixed with it. A few patches of the basal 
membranous tissue remain hi situ ; in its present state it is of a 
brown amber-colour ; no spicula could be detected imbedded in them. 

Kaliapsis, Bowerbank. 

Skeleton siliceo-fibrous. Basal fibres cylindrical and canaliculated ; 
distal fibres non-canaliculated, compressed. Basal reticulations sym- 
metrical and reversedly arcuate ; distal reticulations unsymmetrical 
and continuously ramifying. 

The structures of the sponge which is the type of this genus are 
remarkably anomalous, it combining in its skeleton both solid and 
canaliculated fibre, each having a separate and distinct mode of dis- 
position ill the animal. The terminations of the central canals of 
tlie basal cylindrical fibres are abrupt, and they are distinctly visible 
at the parts where the ramified skeleton commences. No evidence 
of central canals could be detected in any part of the upper ramify- 
ing portion of the skeleton-structure, which divides continuously as 
it approaches the surface, where the terminations spread horizontally 
in every direction, their extremities interlocking and forming a com- 
plicated and very beautiful lace-like surface to the rigid skeleton, a 
small portion of which is represented in Plate XXV. fig, 3. 

These structures, and their modes of disposition, are so remarkable 



338 DR. 3. S. BOWERBANIC ON SILICEO-FIBROT7S SPONGES. [May 13, 

as to cause this genus to be readily distinguished from any others 
with which we are acquainted among the siliceo-fibrous sponges. 

Kaliapsis ciDARis, Bowerbaiik. 

Sponge coating, parasitical, very thin. Oscula and pores unknown. 
Expansile dermal system furnished with foliato-peltate connecting 
spicula, peltate heads more or less mammillated, very various iu 
form ; shafts short and conical. Dermal membrane furnished 
abundantly with minute incipiently spinous fusiformi-cylindrical spi- 
cula, short and stout, dispersed. Skeleton — basal portion composed 
of stout canahculated cyhndrical fibre arranged symmetrically in a 
series of reversed semicircular confluent arches, from the crowns of 
which emanate short stout cidarate prehensile fibres with acutely 
conical terminations. Basal limbs of the arches attenuating and ra- 
mifying irregularly upwards, and terminating at the surface of the 
rigid skeleton in a plane of very complicated nou-canaliculated reti- 
forra layer of depressed fibres. 

Colour in the dried state white. 

Hab. Parasitic on the base of Oculina rosea, from the South 
Seas (J. S. Bower ban/c) . 

Examined in the dried state. 

I found this singular and beautiful little sponge on the base of a 
specimen of Oculina i-osea from the South Seas in 1855, and figured 
a portion of it in illustration of my paper on the " Anatomy and 
Physiology of the Spongiadee" published in the 'Philosophical 
Transactions of the lloyal Society' for 1862, plate 28. fig. 12, 
p. 759, as a specimen of prehensile sponge-fibre ; and also in vol. i. 
of 'A Monograph of the British Spongiadfe,' plate 15. fig. 2/8, 
p. 80, for the same purpose. 

I also figured seven specimens of the dermal connecting spicula in 
the 'Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society' for 1858, 
plate 24. figs. 32-38 inclusive, in illustration of the foHato-pel- 
tate forms of connecting spicula, and described in detail the mode of 
their development from the simple discoid form to their mature and 
most complicated ramified condition. They are also figured in ' Mo- 
nograph of British Spongiadse,' plate 4. figs. 102, 103, and plate 5. 
figs. 104-108 inclusive, iu illustration of the terminology. 

The whole sponge, when attached to the base of the coral, did not 
exceed about 3 lines in diameter; and the largest portion obtained for 
examination is nearly square, 2 lines in length, and about 1| hne 
in breadth, and not exceeding ^ inch in thickness. Its peculiar 
structure is singularly illustrative of its parasitic habit. I have 
carefully examined many other specimens of Oculina rosea, but have 
never been fortunate enough to find another specimen. 

On several portions of the largest piece of rigid skeleton I found 
one or two of the foliato-peltate spicula adherent and in situ; and 
in the material scraped from the coral matrix immediately surround- 
ing the sponge, they were found in abundance in every stage of de- 
velopment, and along with them numerous very minute fusiformi- 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 339 

cylindrical spicula, which had every appearance of belonging to the 
dermal membrane. With this indication, I mounted all the remain- 
ing fragments of the sponge in my possession, and I was fortunate 
enough to find a small piece of dermal membrane crowded with these 
minute spicula, and having several of the foliato-peltate spicula 
attached to its under surface, thus leaving no doubt remaining re- 
garding the presence and nature of the expansile dermal membrane 
of this singular and beautiful species of siliceo-fibrous sponge (PI. 
XXV. fig. 4). 

The specific characters of the sponge, although few in number, 
combined with the peculiar and very striking ones derivable from the 
skeleton, which I have described in detail in treating of the genus, 
enable us readily to distinguish the species from any other siliceo- 
fibrous sponge. The cidarate prehensile fibres at the base of the 
sponge are remarkably curious organs ; they proceed at right angles 
from the crowns of the reversed basal arches, and terminate in stout 
and acute cones ; and intermediate between their origins and termi- 
nations each has a ring of stout round bosses admirably fitting them 
first to penetrate the fleshy external coat of the coral, and, when once 
inserted, to securely maintain their position. There is no mistaking 
the office of these curious and beautiful organs and the admirable 
adaptation to the nature of the basis on which they were destined to 
be parasitic (PL XXV. fig. 2). 

The forms of the foliato-peltate heads of the connecting spicula 
are exceedingly various, passing through every gradation from simple 
circular plates to the most elaborate foliations. On some of the 
heads of the detached spicula groups of three or four of the minute 
fusiform-cylindrical retentive and defensive spicula were attached ; 
but on some parts of the small fragment of the dermal membrane 
they were so numerous and so crowded together as to render their 
individual forms perfectly undistinguishable. The membrane is of 
a dark brown colour, and can scarcely be said to be transparent, in con- 
sequence of the number of the spicula and the density of the sarcode 
in which they are imbedded. I measured some of the largest and 
smallest of them, and found their average length not to exceed ^y 
inch. The greatest diameter of a large one was ^^jjir inch (PI. XXV. 

%-^)- 

In these minute spicula the central canal was visible with a linear 

power of 660 throughout the whole of their lengths, and it occupied 

about one-sixth of the greatest diameter, so that its own diameter 

could not exceed about 3,.},^) inch. 

Farrea occa, Bowerbank. 

Sponge massive, pedicelled ? Surface even ? minutely hispid ? 
Oscula and pores unknown. Dermis furnished with a quadrilateral 
smooth siliceo-fibrous network, armed at the angles oppositely, ex- 
ternally and internally, with short imbricated conical spicular de- 
fences. Skeleton — rete irregularly quadrilateral ; fibre cylindrical, 
more or less minutely tuberculated or spined. Tension-spicula 
biternate, spiculated biternate, and furcated spiculated biternate, 



3-10 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

and rarely attenuato-rectan2;ulatecI triradiate spicula. Retentive 
spicula attenuato-stcllate, very irregular in structure, minute, very 
numerous. 

Colour in the living state unknown. 

Hah. Seyclielle Islands {Capt. Etherulr/e, R.N.). 

Examined in the state of skeleton. 

The remarkable sponge, the subject of the present description, is 
beautifully figured in the ' Transactions of the Linuean Society of 
.T;ondon,' vol. xxii. plate 21, as the basal mass "of a coarse irre- 
gular siliceous sponge," upon which the suljject of tlie paper, 
Euplectella cucinner, Owen, is based. The author very briefly 
notices the structure of this basal portion of liis figure ; and three 
small portions of its structure are represented by figures 8, 9, and 9a, 
with scarcely a suflScient amount of microscopic power to give an 
adequate idea of their structures. 

The sponge is an irregular mass, 4 inches in length by about 
2\ inches in width, of siliceo-fibrous structure : about 2 inches of the 
basal portion of its length consists of a dense irregularly cylindrical 
stem about | inch in diameter ; from its surface-structure, as seen by 
the aid of a 2-inch lens, there appears to be no doubt of its being truly 
a portion of the sponge whence it is projected. The dense structure 
and mode of projection of this indurated portion of the sponge 
renders it probable that in the living state the animal was more or 
less elevated on a pedestal. 

The greater portion of the body of the sponge is in a disrupted 
state, apparently from compression ; but the whole of its structures 
are loosely bound together by the numerous long prehensile basal 
spicula oi t\\e Euplectella, which penetrate its substance and envelop 
it on every side. Fragments of the beautiful harrow-like tissue of 
the dermis are dispersed on various portions of the specimen ; and in 
one place, partly hidden by what appears to be the small valve of a 
Terebratula, there is a portion of the harrow-like tissue about equal 
to half or three-fourths of a superficial square inch. The general 
distribution of the fibres of the skeleton is not readily to be deter- 
mined, as the intermixture of the prehensile bas.al spicula of the Eu- 
plectella with its tissues is so abundant as to very much confuse its 
general aspect to the eye of an observer. The dermal structure of 
this sponge is very remarkable. It consists of a regular quadrilateral 
network of smooth siliceous fibre, from the angles of which a double 
set of short conical spiculum-shafts are projected, each about y^ inch 
in length, and entirely covered with spines. Each set are at right 
angles to the pl.ane of the network, one series pointing inward and 
serving the purpose of attaching the dermis to the body of the sponge 
beneath, while the other set are directed outward, serving as defen- 
sive weapons ; so that a small piece of this tissue beneath the micro- 
scope closely resembles an agricultural harrow, with the difference 
that it has two sets of teeth in opposite directions instead of one. 
The dermal membrane has been nearly all destroyed ; but entangled 
with the fibres of the skeleton there are some of the attenuato-stel- 



1SG9.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK OX SILICEO-FIBROUS Sl'UNGES. 341 

late spicula, with which it is probable that the membrane was amplv 
furnished as secondary defences against minute enemies. 

This singular tissue is figured in the ' Pliilosophical Trausactions 
of the Royal Society' for 1862, plate 32. fig. 7, aud also iu my 
'Monograph of the British Spongiada',' vol. i. ])late 21. fig. 311. 
I believe the portions jirescnted to the eye in the pieces figured to 
be the external surface, as the fragments of tlie dermal membrane 
which remained all seemed to cover that side of the fibres of the 
network, and the presence of the external series of the spicular 
organs is strongly indicative of the minute hispidation of the surface 
of the sponge in its natural condition. 

In the present condition of the sponge it is impossible to deter- 
mine whether this singular harrow-like dermal structure was con- 
tinuous over the whole of its surface when in the living condition ; 
but the probability is, judging from the general structure of the ex- 
pansile dermal system of every other known species of sihceo-fibrous 
sponge, that it was composed of detached sections, so as to allow of 
the usual amount of expansion and contraction that we observe to 
exist in every other such sponge. 

The reticulation of the skeleton is always angular, but the areas 
vary from square into all imaginable varieties of the oblong figure. 
The fibre is stout and strong, with a well-defined central canal in its 
fully developed condition ; a portion of it is represented in Plate 
XXIV. fig, 1, with numerous attenuato-stellate retentive spicula ad- 
hering to the fibres. 

Occasionally in some portions of the skeleton-fibre we find two 
canals, neither of which are central : this abnormal form probably 
arises from two immature fibres, closely approximated in an early 
stage of their development, uniting longitudinally; and in one case 
I observed as many as three irregular portions of canals in one frag- 
ment of the fibre ; but this irregularity of structure is the exception 
and not the rule. The spination of the skeleton-fibres is very slightly 
produced in the form of acute cones, and in some of the larger fibres 
it may be almost designated as incipient, while occasionally in some 
of the immature ones the spinules assume the forms of tubercles, 
which are sometimes more or less bifurcated. 

The interstitial tension-spicula of this sponge are very remarkable 
organs. They are simple biternate, spiculated biternate, and fur- 
cated spiculated biternate. Sometimes one termination only is spicu- 
lated, sometimes both are thus furnished. One or two of the terminal 
radii are frequently furcated; but it is of rare occurrence that the 
whole of them are produced to that extent. They occur in groups 
entangled together ; in several of these groups they were numerous 
and closely packed, much in the same manner in which we fi-ud the 
si)inulo-trifurcated hexradiate spicula of the interstitial membranes 
of Dactylocalyx pumicea when seen in situ. They are stout and 
comparatively of large size (PI, XXIV, tigs. 5 & G). 

The attenuato-stellate retentive spicula are minute and very irre- 
gular in their structure and in the number of their radii. They have 
evidently been very numerous, as they are frequently found adhering 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XXIII. 



342 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

in considerable numbers around portions of the skeleton-fibres ; and 
it is probable that the dermal and interstitial membranes were abun- 
dantly furnished with them (PI. XXIV. figs. 2, 3, 4). 

This remarkable sponge is in its skeleton- structures exactly like 
those of a Veronyia, its siliceous nature constituting the only essen- 
tial diiference. The specimen is undoubtedly by far the most valu- 
able of the two represented in the plate in the ' Transactions of the 
Linuean Society.' In conclusion, I must return my best thanks to 
my friend Dr. A. Farre for the repeated opportunities I have had of 
closely examining its structure. 

PuRisiPHONiA, Bowerbank. 

Skeleton siliceo-fibrous, reticulate, uusymmetrical ; fibres com- 
posed of concentric layers of solid silex, with a continuous central 
canal. 

This genus is intermediate in its structure between Bactxjlocahjx, 
Stutchbury, and Farrea, Bowerbank. Like the latter, its fibres are 
continuously canaliculated ; but it has not anything approaching the 
augulated symmetrical arrangement of its skeleton-fibres ; on the 
contrary, it very closely simulates the mode of the distribution of 
the fibres that prevail in Bactylocalyx. The central canals in the 
fibres of the species of Pui'isijihonia on which the genus is founded 
occupy from about one-fifth to one-third of the entire diameter of 
the fibre ; they are straight and uniform in their own diameter, and 
Lave little or no enlargements at their junctions with each other. 
The reticulations of the skeleton are frequently extremely close, so 
that the areas do not exceed, or sometimes even equal, the diameters 
of the fibres bounding them. 

PuRisiPHONiA Clarkei, Bowerbank. 

Sponge fistulous, branching ; surface of rigid skeleton even. Os- 
cula simple, dispersed over the inner surface of the fistulse. Dermal 
structures unknown. Skeleton stout, closely reticulated. Inter- 
stitial cavities furnished with rectangulatcd hexradiate spicula. 

Eab. Wollumbilla, Queensland, Australia (Dr. Clarke). Fossil. 

There is much greater diflniculty in the specific description of a 
fossil sponge than of a recent one, as a considerable portion of the most 
decisive specific characters are usually absent, in consequence of the 
decomposition of the softer parts of the organization previously to 
fossilization ; and this is doubtless the case with the specimen under 
consideration ; but although thus deprived of the use of many valu- 
able descriptive characters, there are sufficient remaining to enable 
us to securely determine its specific identity. 

It is difficult to say what has been the correct form of the speci- 
men in its unmutilated state ; but, judging by its present condition, 
it has originally been a large fistulous sponge, giving off fistular 
branches at irregular intervals. The large fistular body of the 
sponge has been split longitudinally, and a portion 4 inches in length, 
and of about half of the tube of the sponge, remains, and from the 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON S1LICEO-FIBROU8 SPONGES. 343 

surface of this the entire basal portions of two secondary fistular 
branches proceed. There are also the remains of another such 
branch at the margin of the primary fistula at the right-hand side. 
The outer surface of the sponge has an irregular reticulation of stout 
siliceous fibres, very similar to those of Dactylocalyx immediately 
beneath the dermis. 

In all the recent species of this tribe of siliceo-fibrous sponges 
with -which I am acquainted, there is an exp?msile dermal system 
attached to the stiiF non-expansile skeleton beneath by connecting 
spicula cemented at their basal points more or less to the mass of 
the skeleton beneath by keratode only, and which would naturally 
be separated from the body of the sponge by maceration and by de- 
composition of the membranous and keratose matter a short period 
after its death ; and none of the expansile dermal system, it is pro- 
bable, would appear with the fossil unless it were to be enveloped 
and fixed in the matrix after its death — a result scarcely to be ex- 
.pected. This organized envelope usually affords the most distinct 
and determinative specific characters of the sponge, and it was very 
important to discover its remains if possible ; but in this attempt I 
have been imsuccessful. 

In its living condition this sponge would probably exhibit a smooth 
membranous surface ; but in its present state we have large open 
areas exhibited in lieu of the smooth dermal membrane. These 
areas are, in fact, the distal ends of the intermargiual cavities, and 
are usually much larger than the interstitial spaces immediately be- 
neath them. In the specimen under consideration, as in similarly 
organized recent sponges, the proximal terminations of the intermar- 
ginal cavities communicate immediately with the distal ends of the 
interstitial spaces, and these uniting increase in their size as they 
progress towards the inner parietes of the great cloacal cavity of the 
sponge, into which they finally discharge their streams through the 
oscula. In this organization they closely resemble the structures in 
the recent genera Grantia, Verongia, and many of the fistular 
keratose sponges of the West-Indian seas. 

I have not detected any connecting spicula, and I have assigned 
the rectangulated hexradiate ones to the interstitial cavities on the 
faith of some very dilapidated remains of them, deeply immersed 
in the tissues, and rendered visible only by the penetrating power of 
the Lieberkiihn — and by two other fragments, one detached, repre- 
sented in Plate XXV. fig. 7, and the other in situ, in the portion of 
the skeleton figured at a, fig. 6, Plate XXV. 

The nearest relations to this tribe of sponges among the fossil 
ones are decidedly the siliceo-fibrous sponges of the Flamborough 
Chalk ; below that formation I am not aware of any such sponges 
having ever been foimd. The matrix of the Australian fossil also 
possesses much of the character of chalk ; it dissolves completely in 
dilute hydrochloric acid, leaving only a small quantity of sandy resi- 
duum . 

I may also observe that the similarity of form and structure be- 
tween the Australian and the English Chalk fossil sponges in this 



344 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SII.lCEO-FIBllOUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

case is by no means a new fact, as there are abundant instances of 
similai' close alliances existing among the recent Australian sponges 
and those of the chalk formation of England ; and amongst the most 
prominent are the existing representatives of Choanites and Fentri- 
culites. 

ALCYONCELLUiM spECiosuM, Quov ct Gaimarcl. 

JEupIectella asjyerffillinn, Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. iii. p. 203. 

Eiqjlectella cucumer, Owen, Trans. Linn. Soc. sxii. p. 117, pi. 21. 

Sponge sessile, cylindrical, more or less curved, enlarging pro- 
gressively from the basal to the distal extremity ; upper portion 
furnished with numerous sharp ridges of interlacing fibres disposed 
diagonally and somcv/hat symmetrically ; apex truncate, closed by a 
coarse, veutricose, fibrous network, and encircled by a strongly pro- 
duced fibrous ridge or frill. Base furnished with numerous fasciculi 
of large and long prehensile spicula projected downward ; spicula at- 
tenuato-qnaternate, barbed alternately for about one-third of their 
length from the distal extremity. Oscula congregated, terminal. 
Pores congregated ; inhalant apertures symmetrically equidistant, 
disposed in lines radiating from the base to the apex of the sponge. 
Dermal membrane abundantly spiculous ; spicula acerate, long and 
slender, fasciculated ; fasciculi compact, disposed in radiating or 
parallel groups. Skeleton symmetrical : primary lines radiating from 
the base to the apex, equidistant ; secondary lines at right angles to 
the primarjr ones ; interstitial structures interlacing diagonally. Spi- 
cula of the membranes — interstitial spicula rectangulated attenuated 
hexradiate, short and stout, rarely completely developed ; also at- 
tenuated rectangulated triradiate apically spiued. Spicula of the 
sarcode trifurcated attenuato-hexradiate stellate, and floricomo-hex- 
radiate,very minute. 

Colour amber-yellow ? 

Hah. Philippine Islands; Island of Bohol, 1 fathoms (ilf?-. Hugh 
Cuminf/) ; Island of Zebu, about 24 fathoms (M?-. R. Geale), 
Examined in the skeleton-state. 

There are several indications of a close alliance between Alcyon- 
celluni and Bactijlocalyx, fyhiteon, and the other genera of well 
developed siliceo-fibrous sponges. 

The structure of the skeleton-fibres and their habit of anasto- 
mosing whenever they touch each other are precisely the same as 
they are in the genera I have named. The floricomo-hexradiate stel- 
late retentive spicula of ^^c?/o«ce//««», Plate XXIV. fig. II, and the 
beautiful spinulo-multifurcate hexradiate spicula of fyhiteon callo- 
cyathes, Plate XXIII. fig. 7, are so peculiar in their forms, and so 
similar in the mode of their construction and relative positions in 
the two sponges, as to at once lead us to the conclusion that the two 
species are in very close alliance with each other. A similar close 
alliance is indicated by the comparison of the slender attenuated rec- 
tangulated-hexradiate interstitial spicula of Alcyoneellum (PI. XXIV. 
fig. 9) and those oi Iphiteon callocy allies represented Plate XXIII, 



18C9.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROTJS SPONGES. 345 

fig. 5. These strongly marked points of resemblance in form and 
identity in relative situation and oflice between the auxiliary spicula, 
in addition to those of the skeleton, irresistibly lead us to the con- 
clusion that these sponges, however different in their forms, are 
structurally members of the same family. Strongly marked dif- 
ferences in form are apt to lead our judgments astray when super- 
ficial observations only are made of the specimens before us ; but 
when we see such extraordinary variations of form occurring in the 
same species under different circumstances and amounts of develop- 
ment as those we observe in sponges with the habits of which v.e- 
are perfectly familiar, as, for instance, in our protean species Hali- 
clwndria panicea, we should be prepared to admit, as in truth we 
ultimately must do, the same latitude of variation among the nearly 
allied species and individuals of the same species of the siliceo-fibrous 
sponges. 

In all the numerous specimens of Alcyoncellum with which I am 
acquainted, the skeleton is composed of rigid inosculating sihceous 
fibre, as I have stated in my paper on Alcyoncellum speciosum, 
Proc. Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 351, in my description of the generic 
character in p. 353, in the following terms: — "Skeleton siliceo- 
fibrous ; primary hnes radiating from the base in parallel, straight, 
or slightly spiral lines ; secondary lines at right angles to the pri- 
mary ones." I will not reiterate here the full details of the struc- 
ture of these beautiful sponges that I have given in my paper as 
quoted above ; and such a repetition is the more unnecessary as 
they have been imported so abundantly of late as to place specimens 
for microscopical examination within the reach of almost every one 
interested in the subject. The sponges have also been figured in 
Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. iii., and in Trans. Linn. Soc. London, xxii. 
pi. 21, and also in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, for Feb. 1868, pi. iv. ; 
but in none of these plates is there any delineation of the skeleton- 
structure with a high microscopical power, and it is this want that 
I purpose at the present time to supply, that we may be enabled to 
arrive at a sound conclusion as regards its true skeleton-structure, 
and also as to such of its specific characters as have not hitherto 
been figured or described. 

Dr. Gray, in his " Notes on the Arrangement of Sponges," Proc. 
Zool. Soc. 1867, p. 492, has, at p. 504, described the Eiqilectelladce 
(Alci/oncelhmi, Quoy et Gaimard) as having a " skeleton composed 
of longitudinal, transverse, and oblique bundles of spicules inter- 
secting each other and forming a network;" and Prof. Wyville 
Thomson, in his paper on the "Vitreous" Sponges, Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist, for Feb. 1868, p. 114, at p. 126, in his description of 
his proposed new genus " Habrodlctyon," has adopted the error into 
which Dr. Gray has fallen by describing the skeleton as consisting 
" of a perfectly irregular network of siliceous needles loosely and 
irregularly arranged in sheaves crossing one another at low angles, 
and connected by a small quantity of soft mucilaginous sarcode." 
These descriptions of the skeleton are, ia both cases, completely 
erroneous, as can be readily demonstrated by boiling portions of the 



346 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SiLICEO-FIBROtIS SPONGES. [May 13, 

skeleton in nitric acid, when it will be immediately apparent that no 
disintegration of the reticulated structure results from this operation, 
which would inevitably be the case if it were formed of fasciculi of 
spicula held together by sarcode only. On the contrary, the whole 
of the skeleton is formed of an irregular network of solid siliceous 
fibres approaching each other and anastomosing with more than the 
usual frequency in such sponges. 

Very few, if any, of the secondary fibres in either the transverse 
or diagonal portions of the skeleton are simple in their structure. 
•They seem always to be composed of two or more simple fibres 
running parallel to each other and anastomosing at short distances. 
Sometimes the anastomosing points of two parallel fibres are so close 
to each other that the two thus combined have the appearance of a 
narrow tape or ribbon with thickened margins and a line of nearly 
uniform pinhole perforations running down the middle of it. 

Amidst these complicated anastomosing lines of the skeleton nu- 
merous stout rectangulated hexradiate and triradiate spicula are irre- 
gularly mixed ; they appear as if they were simply entangled amidst 
the tissues supporting and supported by the interstitial membranes 
of the sponge. None of them under these circumstances have any 
permanent connexion with the skeleton ; neither do the spicula of 
the numerous bundles of long prehensile organs so abundant towards 
the base of the sponge ever anastomose with the skeleton-fibres or 
with each other. No marks of such an attachment can be detected 
upon any part of them ; and, in truth, their recurved spinous appen- 
dages and their long and flexible shafts imbedded in the tough mem- 
branous integuments of the dermal tissues renders such anastomsis 
of the organs with the rigid skeleton quite unnecessary ; and if we 
measure the probability of the possession of such dermal integu- 
ments by Alcyoncellum in a living state with what we know of the 
dermal structures oiDuctylocahjx Masoni, Pi-attii, &c., little doubt 
can remain in our minds that its dermal integuments are much 
of the same nature as those of the rest of the rigid siliceo-fibrous 
sponges. The structure of the stout network of the oscular area is very 
similar to that of the corresponding organ in Iphiteon beatrix. Each 
fibre of the net is compounded of a condensed mass of simple skeleton- 
fibres anastomosing in every direction as in that of I. beatrix. In 
truth, the more searchingly we examine the skeleton-structures of 
the beautiful subject under description the more closely we find its 
alliances to be to the great family of the siliceo-fibrous sponges. 

It is much to be regretted that, amidst the large number of speci- 
mens that have recently been imported, there does not appear to 
have been any one of them preserved in the living state as when 
taken from the sea ; nor have we any well authenticated report by 
a competent naturalist of their condition when thus obtained. But 
if we may reason from the analogies pi'esented by other siliceo-fibrous 
sponges preserved in the state in which they were taken from the 
sea, we should expect to find Alcyoncelhim with a stout and some- 
what coriaceous enveloping dermal membrane ; and I have in my 
possession a fragment of such a membrane about 2 lines in length, 



1869.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 347 

and g in breadth, which was shaken oiF a specimen of A. speciosum 
that I purchased of Mr. Geale in January 1867. 

This fragment of membranous tissue is, comparatively speaking, 
of considerable thickness, and abounds in amber-coloured sarcode, 
and there appear to be two well-defined layers of tissue. In the 
external one there are numerous fasciculi of long slender acerate 
spicula, the number in each being much too numerous to be counted, 
and they are very compactly disposed. In one part of the surface 
the fasciculi radiate from a common basal point, while in two other 
parts they are nearly parallel to each other. On reversing the speci- 
men the internal layer presented a rudely cellulated appearance, 
abounding in sarcode, in which two of the most characteristic auxili- 
ary spicula of Alcyoncellum were deeply imbedded — one of them, an 
incompletely developed stout rectangulated hexradiate interstitial 
spiculum, exactly represented by fig. 181, plate 7, Mon. Brit. Spon- 
giadse, vol. i., and the other a rectangulated hexradiate one, repre- 
sented by fig. 198, plate 9, of the same work; and there is also a 
slender rectangulated hexradiate spiculum, like the one represented 
by fig. 10, Plate XXIV., illustrating the present paper. "With these 
indications, I think there is little doubt that the structure I have 
described is a portion of the dermal system oi Alcyoncellum, and that, 
when we obtain a specimen in the condition in which it is taken from 
the sea in thg living state, we shall find the beautiful skeleton entirely 
enveloped by such a dermal membrane as I have described from the 
fragment in my possession. 

Should these ideas prove correct, a slight addition would become 
necessary in my description of the specific characters oi Alcyoncellum 
speciosum in the Proc. Zool. Soc. for March 28, 1867, p. 354, line 12 
of the specific character, where the dermal membrane is described as 
" unknown," in place of which should be added, " Dermal membrane 
abundantly spiculous ; spicula acerate, long and slendei", fasciculated ; 
fasciculi compact, disposed in radiating or parallel groups." 

In this description of the dermal structure of the sponge, it will 
be observed that there are no connecting spicula present ; and we 
may therefore infer that the genus Alcyoncellum is not furnished 
with an expansile dermal system as in the massive rigid skeletons of 
Dactylocalyx and other similar siliceo-fibrous sponges. The fistular 
construction of the skeleton in Alcyoncellum renders such a provi- 
sion as an expansile dermal system quite as unnecessary as it w ould 
be in the genus Grantia and numerous other fistulous sponges. 

I obtained also two fragments of the skeleton in which there was 
a considerable quantity of sarcode ; and immersed in this substance 
numerous rectangulated triradiate and rectangulated hexradiate spi- 
cula of the slender descriptions were intermixed without any apparent 
arrangement. Every one of the interstices of the fibrous skeleton, 
large or small, was abundantly supplied with them. The well- 
washed specimens of the sponge now so numerous afford no adequate 
idea of the profusion of these descriptions of spicula that exist in the 
sponge in its natural condition . 

There were also numerous indications of the presence of floricomo- 



348 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

hesradiate stellate spicula amidst the sarcode ; but the density of 
that substance rendered them almost invisible. 

In some of the specimens that I have recently examined, I have 
observed a remarkable habit of some of the rectangulated hexradiate 
spicula — that is, that one of the axial radii is more or less sheathed 
or enveloped by branches of skeleton-fibre, so as to give the spiculum 
a firm and permanent position ; and this appears to be more frequently 
the case with those which are projected into the inhalant areas. 
This attachment of the spiculum by the fibre is not a fusing of one 
into the other, as when two fibres touch each other, but it is simply 
a partial envelopment of a portion of one of the radii, so as to give 
it a secure basal point of attachment to enable it to perform its 
appointed office of sustaining the interstitial membranes of the sponge 
under peculiar circumstances, or to protect the orifice over which it 
is projected. The portion of the ray thus enveloped may frequently 
be traced within the enveloping fibre. It is a very remarkable fact 
that none of the other auxiliary spicula, although largo and strong, 
are ever seen to be tlius agglutinated by the fibres. This singular 
habit of the rectangulated triradiate spicida assimilates them in their 
ottice in some measure to the auxiliary fibres in the skeletons of 
Dactijlocahjx and Iphiteon. Althougli thus agglutinated by the 
fibre, they really form no essential part of the true rigid skeleton of 
the sponge, but are in reality neither more nor less tlian auxiliary 
supports to the interstitial membranes under certain conditions. 

APPENDIX (May 25, 18C9). 

Since the preceding ])ortion of this paper was written, I have seen 
several specimens of Alcyoncellum speciosum that were sent home in 
spirit in the condition they were in when taken from the sea. There 
were five specimens, all as nearly as possible in the same condition. 
They were of a dark dirty colour, and looked very much as if they 
had been dipped into thin mud and then dried. On mounting slices 
from the surface, and fragments of the entire structure of the skele- 
ton, this dirty-looking substance, when immersed in Canada balsam, 
proved to be the remains of the membranous and sarcodous tissues ; 
but I could not find any traces of a dermal membrane, such as might 
naturally be expected to be present if the sponges were in a living 
condition when taken from the sea. The largest specimen in spirit 
had a considerable portion of one side of it entirely deficient of the 
sarcodous and membranous structures that were abundant in the other 
parts of the specimen. This circumstance, the deficiency of dermal 
membrane, and the condition of the sarcode and interstitial mem- 
branes in the whole of the specimens, appears to lead to the conclusion 
that these specimens were dead sponges in a state of partial decom- 
position, and that we have yet to acquire specimens which were in 
the living state when brought up from the bottom of the sea. 

Although not in so satisfactory a condition as may have been 
desired, they were still in such a state of j)rcservation as to afford 
some interesting points of information regarding the structural pecu- 



18C9.] DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. 349 

liarities of the animal. Thus the true natural positions and mode 
of arrangement of the stout attenuated rectangulated hexradiate spi- 
cula, the full series of the varieties of which are figured in the ' Philo- 
sophical Transactions,' 1858, plate 25. figs. 24-33, and in Mon. Brit. 
Sponges, vol. i. plate 7. figs. 1/4-183, are well exhibited in situ, 
which I have never yet seen in any of the well-washed specimens 
with which we are now so familiar. In the large lateral orifices of 
such specimens they are sometimes entirely wanting, or a few only 
of them are found iu the neighbourhood of the large circular area. 
In the specimens in which they are held in their natural positions by 
the sarcodous and membranous tissues, they are regularly disposed 
around the circular area, forming a compact marginal ring, their 
stout radii projecting in every direction among the surrounding por- 
tions of the skeleton, but not within the circular area ; so that where 
one of the radii would, by the natural laws of development, have been 
found, its production is arrested, and it is represented by only a 
slight tumefaction on the axis of the spiculum ; hence it is that we 
find such numerous varieties of form among these remarkable spi- 
cula. All the other radii immersed in the surrounding structures 
are completely developed, crossing each other in every direction ; so 
that although unconnected by siliceous cementation with the fibrous 
skeleton, they form a strong but somewhat expansile marginal band 
to the circular area. We are thus enabled to perceive the reason of 
the numerous cases of the suppression of frequently several of the 
radii of these marginal spicula, and to read the important fact from 
their positions and modifications that their production is as much 
regulated and modified by the structural necessities of the organs in 
which they form important parts, as are the bones and other organic 
structures of the most highly constituted animals. 

The true positions of the slender rectangulated hexradiate spicula 
with elongated basal axial rays are also well determined in these 
specimens ; they are seen in considerable numbers in the interstitial 
cavities of the sponge, supporting the interstitial membranes, and 
vastly increasing the amount of surface iu those vital organs. 
■ The trifurcated attenuato-hexradiate and floricomo-hexradiate spi- 
cula are not very immerous ; they are irregularly dispersed on the 
sarcodous membranes of the sponge, and are completely immersed iu 
the sarcode, and without the aid of Canada balsam are usually invi- 
sible. 

DESCEIPTION OP THE PLATES. 
Plate XXI. 

Fig. 1. A portion of the rigid skeleton of Ipluteon jMnkca from the specimen 
from Porlo-Eico, in the Museum of the Jardin des Plantes, Paris, ex- 
hibiting the confluent structm-e of the rotulate areas of the skeleton, 
rectangulate hexradiate spicula, and a few gemmules in situ, X 108 
linear. 

Fig. 2. A section at right angles to the surface of Iphiteon leatrix, exhibiting 
the confluent rotulate structure of the rigid skeleton, the fasciculi of 
accratc spicula, and the verticillately spinous retentive spicida in situ, 
X 1U8 linear. 



350 DR. J. S. BOWERBANK ON SILICEO-FIBROUS SPONGES. [May 13, 

Fig. 3. One of the inhalant areas on the external surface of the rigid skeleton of 
1. beatrix, exhibiting the elongo-conical defensive fibres and numerous 
verticillately spined retentive spicula m situ, x 108 linear. 

Fig. 4. One of the large exourrent orifices on the side of the great cloacal cavity 
within the sponge of /. beatrix, x 108 linear. 

Plate XXII. 

Fig. 1. A small portion of the rigid skeleton of Iphiteon panieea from Porto 
Bico, exhibiting the abundance of the gemmules in some parts of the 
sponge, X 108 linear. 

Fig. 2. A portion of one of the fibres forming the oscular area of Iphiieoyi 
beatrix, exhibiting the compound reticulate nature of its structure and 
a few of the slender acerate spicula in situ, X 108 linear. 

Fig. 3. One of the attenuated rectangidated hexradiate interstitial spicula with 
one of the shaft-radii spinous, from J. beatrix, X308 linear. 

Fig. 4. A retentive verticillately spined spiculum from /. beatrix, X 308 linear. 

Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8. Four of the porrecto-multiradiate retentive spicula from /. bea- 
trix, X 308 linear. 

Fig. 9. One of the subfusiformi-eylindrieal entirely spinous spicula from /. 
beatrix, X 108 linear. 

Fig. 10. A portion of the sm-face of the rigid skeleton of Iphitemi subglobosa, ex- 
hibiting the umbonal clusters of coarse tubercles, rectangulated hex- 
radiate interstitial spicula in situ, and numerous spinulo-quadrifur- 
cate and pentafurcate hexradiate stellate retentive spicula dispersed 
amidst the interstices of the skeleton, X 108 linear. 

Fig. 11. One of the minute spiculated biternate retentive spicula of the dermal 
membrane of/, siihglobosa, x666 linear. 

Fig. 12. Two of the rectangidated hexradiate auxiliary fibres from I. subghbosa, 
based on a portion of a fibre of the rigid skeleton, anastomosing by 
their radii, X 175 linear. 

Fig. 13. One of the pentafurcate hexradiate stellate retentive spicula of I. sulglo- 
bosa, X666 linear. 

PL.iTE XXIII. 

Fig. 1. A small portion of the surface of the rigid skeleton of Tphiteon Ingalli, 
exhibiting its confluent rotulate structure with quadrifurcate hexra- 
diate stellate spicula amidst the fibres opposite a, a, a, a, X 108 linear. 

Fig. 2. One of the quadrifurcate hexradiate sttdlate retentive spicula of I. Ingalli ; 
three of the primary radii having been broken oiF, the quadrifurcate 
structure of the remaining radii is very distinctly displayed : X 530 
linear. 

Fig. 3. One of the rectangidated hexradiate interstitial spicula of /. Ingalli, X 
108 linear. 

Fig. 4. A small portion of the surface of the rigid skeleton of /. caUocyathes, 
exhibiting the more or less verticillate disposition of the minute spines 
of the skeleton-fibre, X 108 linear. 

Fig. 5. One of the rectangulated hexradiate interstitial spicula of /. callocyathes, 
X 175 linear. 

Kg. 6. A furcated foliato-expando temate connecting spiculum of I. callocya- 
thes, covered by the minute, short, stout acerate tension-spicula of the 
dermal membrane, X 183 linear. 

Fig. 7. A vei-y perfect and beautiful example of a spinulo-multifm'cate hexra- 
diate stellate retentive spicidum of /. callocyathes, X 666 linear. 

Fig. 8. A view of portions of two of the intervening planes of perforated sili- 
ceous tissue parallel with the external surface of the rigid skeleton, 
and which divide the layers of crypt-Kke tissue of the skeleton of 
Myliusia G-rayii from each other, with their numerous circular orifices 
of intercommunication between the upper and lower strata of the 
skeleton, x 108 linear. 



1869.] MR. R. B. SHARPE ON THE GENUS ALCYONE. 351 

Plate XXIV. 

Fig. 1. A small portion of the rigid skeleton of Farrea occa, exhibiting its an- 
gulated structure and central canals in the fibres, on wliich are 
dispersed numerous small attenuato-stellate retentive spicula, x 108 
linear. 

Pigs. 2, 3, & 4. Three of the small attenuato-stellate retentive spicula from F. 
occa, showing some of their numerous variations in form, size, and 
the number of their radii, figs. 2 & 3 X 400, & fig. 4 X 666 linear. 

Fig. 5. A spiculated biternate interstitial spiculimi from F. occa, X45 linear. 

Fig. 6. A furcated spiculated biternate interstitial spiculum from F. occa, X 65 
linear. 

Fig. 7. A portion of the harrow-shaped quadrilateral siliceo-fibrous dermal 
structure of F. occa oppositely armed at its angles, X 50 linear. 

Fig. 8. A fragment of the siliceo-fibrous skeleton of Alcijonccllum spcciosum. 

Fig. 9. A slender attenuated rectangulated hexradiate interstitial spicidum with 
nearly equal radii from A. spcciosum, X 175 Hnear. 

Fig. 10. A slender attenuated rectangulated heiradiated interstitial spiculum 
with elongated basal shaft from A. speciosu'in, X 108 linear. 

Fig. 11. Avery fine specimen of floricomo-hexradiate stellate Retentive spicu- 
lum from A, speciosum, X 666 linear. 

Pl-We XXV. 

Fig. 1. A portion of a section of the rigid skeleton of Mylmsia Grayii, at right 
angles to the surface, exhibiting the crypt-like arrangement of the 
skeleton, X 108 Hnear. 

Fig. 2. A section at right angles to the surface of the skeleton of Kaliapsis 
cidaris, from the surfiice to the basal preliensile organs, exhibiting 
the change of the structm-e from the basal canalieulated fibres to the 
imperforate and ramifying ones of the superior mass of the skeleton, 
X 183 linear. 

Fig. 3. A poi'tion of the minute ramifications of the fibrous structure of the 
siu'face of the rigid skeleton of K. cidaris, X .308 linear. 

Fig. 4. Three of the foliato-peltate connecting spicula of the expansile dermal 
system of K. cidaris, one of them {a) having upon it a group of 
minute incipiently spinous fusiforuii-cylLndiical spicula, Xl75 linear. 

Fig. 5. Two of the minute incipiently spinous fusiformi-cylindrical spicula of 
the dermal membrane of K. cidaris, X 666 linear. 

Fig. 6. A portion of the rigid skeleton of Purisipkonia ClarJcei, exhibiting tlie 
irregular mode of disposition of the canalieulated siliceo-fibrous struc- 
ture, and one of the rectangulated hexradiate interstitial spicula in 
situ, opposite (a), X 108 linear. 

Fig. 7. An imperfect rectangidated hexradiate interstitial spiculum from P. 
Clarkei, X 175 linear. 



7. On the Genus Alcyone. 
By R. B. Sharpe. 

I propose to give short synopses of some of the more obscure 
genera of the family Alcedinidce, in order that the various species, 
before appearing in my 'Monograph,' may be brought under the 
notice of ornithologists, and thus my arrangements and synonymy 
may be fairly exposed to criticism. It is my wish to make the 
Monograph of the Kingfishers as complete as possible ; and I there- 
fore invite the criticisms of all my friends, in order that I may be 
able to take advantage of them in my larger work. 



352 MR. R. B. SHARPE ON THE GENUS ALCYONE. [May 13, 

Having already (P. Z. S. 1868, p. 587) treated of the genus Ceyx, 
I propose in the present paper to discuss the genus Alcyoiie, which 
has only three toes, and is otherwise closely allied to Ceyx. The 
genus Alcyone was founded in 1837 by Swainson (Classif. of Birds, 
ii. p. 336), and at present contains seven species. 

The two most distinct and clearly characterized are Alcyone pusilla 
and A. cyanopectus ; but the other five are very closely allied and 
hard to distinguish. I believe tliat the following synoptic table will 
materially assist in their identification : — 

A. Torque pectorali lazulino 1. A. ci/ano;pcctus, 

B. Torque pectorali nullo. 

a. Abdomine rufo. 

a', Eostro robustiore. 

a". Supra saturate ultramarina 2. A. Icssoni, 

h". Supra laitissime ultramarina 3. A. affinis, 

b'. Eostro tenuiore. 

a". Eostro breviore : pileo nigro iudistincte 

fasciato 4. A. dicmc7ists. 

b", Eostro longiore : pileo baud fasciato. 

a"'. Ilypochondriis rufis 5. A. asurea. 

V". Hypocboudriis pulcberrime ul- 

tramarinis 6. A.fulchra. 

b. Abdomine albo 7. A. pusilla. 

The first on the above list, Alcyone cyanopectus, serves to connect 
the genus Alcyone witli Ceyx, as it is very closely allied to Ceyx 
philippinensis, Gould ; and, on the other hand, another link is dis- 
covered in Alcyone pusilla and Ceyx solitaria, both of which species 
are closely allied. The principal difference between the genera Ceyx 
and Alcyone is in their habits. Whereas the Ceyces are almost 
entirely insectivorous, the members of the genus Alcyone feed almost 
entirely on fish. The geographical distribution of each genus is also 
in favour of their direct affinity. Ceyx is an Indian genus strictly 
speaking, extending all over the Indian peninsula and Malayasia, 
being also distributed over the Malay archipelago, where, how- 
ever, a different form of the genus (with bright blue back) is met 
with. On the other hand, Alcyone is essentially a typical Austra- 
lasian genus, being widely distributed over the whole Australian 
continent, and thence extending northwards, through the Austro- 
Malayan subregion, to the PhiHppines. In these islands the aber- 
rant species Alcyone cyanopectus occurs ; and in every respect as 
regards plumage this species is a true Ceyx. In form of bill, how- 
ever, it is an Alcyone — although, but for the distinct pectoral baud 
and blue flanks, it might be mistaken for Ceyx philippinensis. My 
friend Dr. Salvadori has written to me, calling in question the pro- 
priety of my placing this latter bird in the genus Ceyx ; but in my 
opinion the species really belongs here. Alcyone cyanopectus should 
probably also be included in the genus Ceyx as au aberrant species 
forming the point of union between the two genera, and I should 
not be at all surprised to find this view adopted by some future 
systematist. But no satisfactory conclusion can be obtained until we 
know more of the habits and geographical distribution of these two 



18G9.] MR. R. B. f=HARPE ON THE GENUS ALCYONE. 353 

Philippine species. The arrangement proposed above, viz. of uniting 
Alcyone cyanopectus to Ceyx philippinensis under one and the same 
genus, would be more natural, as v?e should then have all the three- 
toed Kingfishers with bright backs under the genus Ceyx ; and all 
those having the upperside uniform under Alcyone. No one who 
saw the specimens from which I described and figured the species in 
my ' Monograph' would doubt for an instant that I had placed them 
in the proper genera, from a study of their external form. 

The following I believe to be the correct synonymy of the various 
species of Alcyone, specimens of all of which are at present before 
me : — 

1. Alcyone cyanopectus. Blue-girt Kingfisher. 

Ceyx cyanopectus, Lafr. Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 33; Gray, Gen. of 
Birds, App. p. 5 (1848). 

Alcyone cyanopectus, Jard. Contr. to Orn. 1850, p. 82 ; Sharpe, 
Monogr. Alced. pt. 4 (1869). 

Alcyone cyanipectits, Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. i. p. 158 (1850); 
Reich. Handb. Alced. p. 7, t. 39G. f. 3O0O (1851) ; Bonap. Consp. 
Vol. Anis. p. 10 (1854); Hartl. Journ. f. Orn. 1854, p. Ixiv. 

Alcedo cyanipectus, Schleg. Mus. Pays-Bas, Alced. p. 18 (1863). 

Alcyone cincta, Jard. Contr. to Orn. 1850 (plate only). 

A. torque pectorali lasulino lata : mandibula nigricante, maxilla 
aurantiaca. 

Ilab. in insalis Philippinis. 

Head deep bluish black, irregularly banded with bright blue, more 
thickly on the nape ; the whole of the back rich shining cobalt ; 
scapularies and wing- coverts black, broadly washed with dark blue, 
the latter also spotted with bright cobalt ; wing-feathers brownish 
black, the secondaries narrowly edged with indigo ; tail black, washed 
with indigo ; cheek indigo, spotted with cobalt ; a spot in front of 
the eye, a patch of feathers at the side of the neck, throat and upper 
part of the breast, whitish tinged with pale sienna ; a band across 
the upper part of the breast and the flanks deep indigo, tinged with 
brighter blue on the latter ; abdomen and under wing-coverts rufous ; 
bill brownish black, the lower mandible tinged with Orange. Total 
length 5 inches, of bill from the front \-A, from gape \'7, wiug 25, 
tail 07, tarsus 0-3, middle toe O'S, hind toe 0-2. 

Hah. Philippine Islands {Mus. T. G. Eyton). 

The description and measurements are from Mr. Eyton's speci- 
men, the same described by Sir William Jardine and kindly lent me 
by Mr. Eyton. 

2. Alcyone lessoni. Lesson's Kingfisher. 

Alcyone lessonii, Cass. Proc. Phil. Acad. 1850, p. 69; id. Cat. 
Hale. Phil. Mus. p. 5 (1852); Sclater, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. 
1858, p. 156. 

Alcyone azurea, var. lessonii, Gray, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 155 ; id. 
P. Z. S. 1861, p. 433. 



354 MR. R. B. SHARPE ON THE GENUS ALCYONE. [May 13, 

Ceyx azurea. Less. Voy. Coq. Zool. i. p. 690 (1826). 

Alcyone azurea, Rosenb. Journ. f. Orn. 1864, p. 118. 

A. torque pectorali Jiullo: abdomine rufo: rostro rohustiore : 
supra saturate ultramarina. 

Hab. in Nova Guinea et in insulis dictis "Aru." 

Above deep rich ultramarine ; wing-coverts deep blue-black edged 
with ultramarine ; quills blackish, the inner web very hght rufous 
from the base, the secondaries broadly edged with rich ultramarine ; 
tail deep ultramarine above, black beneath; a minute loral spot 
rufous ; a longitudinal patch of feathers along the sides of the neck 
white tinged with pale orange; throat whitish tinged with pale 
rufous ; cheeks, sides of the neck, and a large patch of feathers on 
the sides of the upper part of the breast deep rich ultramarine ex- 
tending a little on to the flanks ; rest of the under surface of the 
body deep rufous, with a rich lilac shine upon the flanks ; bill jet- 
black ; feet red. Total length 7 inches, of bill from front 17, from 
o-ape 2-1, wing 2-85, tail 1"2, tarsus 0-3, middle toe 0-5, hind toe 
0-25. 

The above description is taken from a very beautiful male pro- 
cured in the Aru Islands, and kindly lent to me by Mr. Wallace. 
Another male specimen from New Guinea, collected by Mr. Wallace, 
for the loan of which I am indebted to the Viscount Walden, is 
apparently a younger bird, and differs in having the tips of both 
mandibles ivory-white, and the whole under surface paler, especially 
on the throat, which is nearly pure white. To this specimen Mr. 
Wallace has attached a MS. note on the spot, as follows : — " feet 
Vermillion ; bill black, tipped with white ; eyes dark brown ; length 
6-6 inches." The measurements of this bird agree exactly with the 
Aru-Island specimen described above. 

3. Alcyone affinis. Allied Kingfisher. 

Alcyone affinis, Gray, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 348. 

A. torque pectorali nullo : abdomine rufo : rostro rohustiore : 
supra Icetissime ultramarina. 

Hab. in insulis "Batchian" et "Gilolo" dictis. 

Above brilliant ultramarine, brightest on the back ; wiug-coverta 
black washed with ultramarine ; quills blackish, the inner web light 
rufous from the base, the outer web of the secondaries narrowly 
edged with ultramarine ; a very small loral spot faint rufous ; throat 
and a longitudinal patch of feathers along the sides of the neck 
whitish tinged with orange-rufous, paler on the chin ; cheeks, ear- 
coverts, and a patch of feathers on the sides of the upper part of the 
breast briUiant ultramarine ; under surface of the body rufous, with 
a rich hlac lustre on the flanks ; feet red ; bill brownish black, 
towards the tip whitish. Total length 67 inches, of bill from front 
1-6, from gape 2*0, wing 3-85, tail 1*2, tarsus 0-3, middle toe 0"5, 
hind toe 0*25. 

Hab. Batchian, Gilolo (Wallace). 

From Alcyone lessoni this species differs in being slightly smaller. 



1869.] MR. R. B. SHARPE ON THE GENUS ALCYONE. 355 

and in having the back of a much more brilliant blue than in the 
New-Guinea bird. The description and measurements are from a 
bird kindly lent me by Mr. Wallace, and procured by him in Gilolo. 

4. Alcyone diemensis. "Van Diemen's-Land Kingfisher. 

Alcyone diemensis, Gould, P. Z. S. 1846, p. 19 ; id. Introd. Birds 
of Austr. p. 31 (1848); Gray, Gen. of Birds, i. p. 82 (c. 1844); 
Kaup, Fam. Alced. p. 18 (1848) ; Reich. Vog. Neuholl. p. 278 
(1850) ; Cab. & Heine, Mus. Hein. Th. ii. p. 143 (1860); Gould, 
llandb. Birds of Austr. i. p. 141 (1865). 

A. torque pectorali nullo : abdomine rttfo : rostra tenuiore, hre- 
viore : pileo nigro indistinete fasciato. 

Hab. in Tasmania. 

Above deep blue, a little brighter on the rump, the head having 
the appearance of being indistinctly banded with dusky black; 
cheeks, ear-coverts, scapularies, and wing-coverts black washed with 
blue; wing-feathers blackish, the inner web light rufous from the 
base, the outer web distinctly washed with blue ; tail blue above, 
black beneath ; a small loral spot, a patch of feathers along the sides 
of the neck and the throat white tinged with rufous ; the whole of 
the under surface of the body deep rufous, with a very faint lilac 
lustre on the flanks ; a large patch of feathers on the sides of the 
upper part of the breast black, with a slight blue shine ; bill black ; 
feet red. Total length 6 inches, of bill from front 1-4, from gape 
1-9, wing 3-1, tail 1-35, tarsus 0-3, middle toe 0-55, hind toe 0-25. 

Hab. Tasmania {Gould). 

This species is rare in collections ; and I have only met with one 
specimen, which I purchased of Verreaux. It is allied to A. azurea, 
but is much smaller and not nearly so brightly coloured, while on 
the back, as Mr. Gould justly observes, there is a shght greenish 
tino-e in some lights. There are also some obscure black bands on 
the head. The description and measurements are taken from the 
specimen in my collection mentioned above. 

5. Alcyone azurea. Azure Kingfisher. 

Alcedo azurea, Lath. Ind. Orn. Suppl. ii. p. xxxii (1801); Swains. 
Zool. Illustr. Istser. pi. 26 (1820); Schl. Mus. Pays-Bas, Alced. 
p. 17(1863). 

Ceyx azurea, Steph. Gen. Zool. xiii. p. 106 (182G); Jard. and 
Selb. 111. Orn. ii. pi. 55. f. 1. 

Alcyone azurea, Gray, Gen. of Birds, i. p. 82 (c. 1844); Gould, 
Birds of Austr. ii. pi. 25 (1848); id. Intr. to Birds of Austr. p. 31 
(1848); Gray, Cat. Fiss. Brit. Mus. p. 65 (1848); Blyth, Cat. 
Birds Mus. As. Soc. Beng. p. 50 (1849) ; Bonap. Consp. Gen. Av. 
i. p. 158 (1850) ; Reich. Vog. Neuholl. p. 278 (1850) ; id. Handb. 
Alced. p. 7, t. 397. f. 3064, 3065 (1851); Cass. Cat. Hale. Phil. 
Mus. p. 5 (1852) ; Macgill. Voy. Rattl. ii. p. 356 (1852) ; Bonap. 
Consp. Vol. Anis. p. 10 (1854); Pelz. Toy. Novara Vog. p. 50 
(1865); Gould, Handb. Birds of Austr. i. p. 139 (1865). 



356 MR. R. B. SHARPE ON THE GENUS ALCYONE. [Maj 13, 

Alcedo tribraehjs, Shaw and Nodd. Nat. Misc. pi. 281 (1804). 

Ceyx tribrachys, Ciiv. Regn. Anim. i. p. 417 (1817). 

Ceyx cyanea. Less. Traite d'Orn. p. 241 (1831). 

Alcedo australis. Swains. Classif. of Birds, ii. p. 336 (1837). 

A. rostro tenuiore, longiore : pileo liaud fasciato : Jiypochondriis 
rujis. 

Hah. in Australia. 

Above bright ultramarine ; wiug-coverts blackish, edged with 
ultramarine ; quills blackish, the inner web light rufous at the base, 
the secondaries externally edged with faint blue ; tail deep ultra- 
marine above, black beneath; a loral spot pale rufous; throat and 
a longitudinal patch of feathers along the sides of the neck white 
tinged with orange ; cheeks, ear-coverts, and sides of the upper part 
of the breast bright ultramarine ; rest of the under surface of the 
body rufous, with a lilac shine on the flanks and under tail-coverts ; 
bill black ; feet red. Total length 6'8 inches, of bill from front TS, 
from gape 2"25, wing 2-8, tail 1*1, tai'sus 0"3, middle toe 0*5, hind 
toe 0-2. 

Hab. Australia : New South Wales, and Southern Australia 
(^Gould); Cape York (Cockerell) ; Queensland (Mus. R. B. Shai-pe). 

This species, which is the commonest of all the genus, is inter- 
mediate between A. diemensis and A. imlchra, which replace it in 
Tasmania and Northern Australia respectively. It is a beautiful 
species, yielding in this respect only to A. pulchra. 

6. Alcyone ptjlchra. Resplendent Kingfisher. 

Alcyone pulchra, Gould, P. Z. S. 1846, p. 19; Gray, Gen. of 
Birds, i. p. 82 (c. 1844); Gould, Intr. to Birds of Austr. p. 31 
(1848) ; Reich. Vog. NeuhoU. p. 278 (1850) ; id. liandb. Alced. 
p. 7 (1851); Cass. Cat. Hale. Phil. Mus. p. 5 (1852); Elsey, 
P. Z. S. 1857, p. 25; Gould, Haudb. Birds of Austr. i. p. 141 
(1S65). 

A. torque jysctorali mdlo : abdomine rufo : rostro tenuiore, lon- 
giore : 2)ileo hand fasciato : hypochondriis indcherrime ultru- 
mariiiis. 

Hab. in Australia septe;itrionali. 

Above very brilliant ultramarine, a little deeper on the wing- 
coverts ; wing-coverts brownish black, edged with ultramarine ; 
wing-feathers brownish, the inner web very light rufous at the base, 
the secondaries externally edged with ultramarine ; tail deep blue 
above, black underneath ; a small spot in front of the eye light ru- 
fous ; throat and a patch of feathers along the sides of the neck 
white tinged with orange ; cheeks and ear -coverts brilliant ultra- 
marine ; sides of the body also brilliant ultramarine, extending on to 
the flanks ; rest of the under surface of the body deep rich rufous, 
with a lilac shine on the abdomen and luider tail-coverts ; bill deep 
black ; feet orange. Total length G'5 inches, of bill from front r95, 
from gape 2-2, wing 3-0, tail 1-3, tarsus 0-3, middle toe 0*5, hind 
toe 0-2. 



18G9.] MR. R. B. SHARPE ON THK GENUS ALCYONE. 357 

Hab. Australia, Cape- York peninsula {Mus. R. B. Sharpe) ; Vic- 
toria River and Port Essington, N. W. Australia {Gould, Elsey). 

Prince Bonaparte, following Mr. G. R. Gray, has united this s|)e- 
cies to the foregoing, in my opinion erroneouslj% and I can only 
believe that they have not seen a specimen. Mr. Gould and Mr. 
Cassin, both of whom have examined the type specimens (now in 
the Philadelphia Museum), have separated the two as distinct, and 
I entirely agree with their decision. I have in my collection two 
beautiful specimens of A. pulchra, and I certainly consider it one of 
the most clearly characterized of all the species of Alcyone. The 
brilliant hue of the whole plumage and the extension of the blue 
from the sides of the breast down on to the flanks distinguish it 
from any of the allied species. Both of my specimens have a slight 
blue edging to the feathers of the breast, one of them showing this 
peculiarity more than the other ; in fact it almost forms a pectoral 
band in this specimen. 

7. Alcyone pusilla. Little Blue Kingfisher. 

Ceyx pusilla, Temm. PL Col. 59.5 (1836); Mull. Verb. Etha. 
p. 22 (1839); Gray, P. Z. S. 1858, p. 172. 

Alcyone pusilla, Gould, Birds of Austr. ii. pi. 36 (1848); Reich. 
Handb. Alced. p. 7. t. 398. f. 3068, 3069 (1851); Cass. Cat. Hale. 
Phil. Mus. p. 5 (1852); Macgill. Voy. Rattl. ii. p. 356 (1852); 
Sclater, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. 1858, p. 172 ; Rosenb. Journ. f. Oru. 
1864, p. 118; Gould, Handb. Birds of Austr. i. p. 142 (1865); 
Ramsay, P. Z. S. 1868, p. 383. 

Alcedo j)usilla, Schl. Mus. Pays-Bas, Alced. p. 18 (1863); id. 
Vog. Ned. Ind. Alced. pp. 12, 48, pi. 3 (1864). 

Nu-rea-bin-mo, of the natives of the Coburg peninsula (Gould). 

A. torque pectorali nulla : abdomine albo. 

Hab. in Australia septentrionali, in Nova Guinea, et insulis Mo- 
luccensibus. 

Above rich ultramarine, having a greenish tinge in some lights on 
the head, cheeks, and wing-coverts ; quills blackish, the inner web 
lighter at the base, the outer web distinctly washed with greenish 
blue, especially on the secondaries ; tail blue above, black beneath ; 
a loral spot and a patch of feathers along the sides of the neck white, 
the latter slightly tinged with orange ; entire under surface white, 
with a greenish gloss on the breast in some lights ; shoulders, sides 
of the breast, and flanks rich ultramarine ; bill and feet black ; irides 
dark blackish brown. Total length 4-8 inches, of bill from front 
1-15, from gape 1-4, wing 2*0, tail 0-85, tarsus 0-25, middle toe 
0-4.5, hind toe 0-2. 

Hab. Australia : N. Australia {Gould) ; Rockingham Bay {Ram- 
say); New Guinea {Milller); Aru Islands {JFallace); Gilolo {TT^al- 
lace). 

This little species, though everywhere rare, is widely distributed. 
My description and measurements are from a Gilolo specimen lent 
to me by Mr. Wallace. 

Proc. Zool. Soc— 1869, No. XXIV. 



358 DR. J. C. cox ON NEW AUSTRALIAN SHELLS. [May 13, 

8. On three new Species of Australian Marine Shells. 
By James C. Cox^ M.D.^ Sydney, New South Wales. 

(Plate XXVI.) 

CypRiEA THATCHERi, 11. sp. (Plate XXVI. figs. 1, la.) 

Shell pyriformly ovate, rather thin, markedly ventricose, base 
almost flat ; sides steep, deeply notched ; anterior end contracted 
and prominent; posterior end produced, narrow; aperture almost 
straight, except in front, rather open ; teeth thick, obtuse, faint 
purplish white, about twenty-four on the outer edge, and confined 
to the margin of the aperture ; on the columellar side the teeth are 
short, oval, blunt, and larger, becoming almost obsolete in front ; 
cream-coloured with a cinnamon tinge, smooth and polished, varie- 
gated with rather large orange-brown spots of irregular size and irre- 
gularly distributed ; the cinnamon tinge is slightly deeper at the 
ends ; base white and perfectly smooth, sides light ; extremities 
rather recurved ; interior pinkish white. 

Length 3 inches, breadth ll|, height 1|^. 

Hab. Dampier's Archipelago, West coast of Australia. 

The two specimens of this beautiful species now before me, one 
of which I send to be figured, were obtained by Mr. C. R. Thatcher, 
from a fisherman who took them at the locality above recorded, 
about ten years ago ; and, so far as I know, no other specimens 
have yet been found. The two specimens are exactly alike in every 
way, and in a fine state of preservation. The surface of the shell 
is uniformly covered with a smooth shining enamel, showing no trace 
of a dorsal opening. 

VoLUTA HARFORDi. (Plate XXVI. figs. 2a, 2b.) 

Shell elongated, ovate, thick ; spire acuminate, short, apex papil- 
lary ; whorls smooth, slanting, strongly excavated or channelled at 
the suture ; columella four-plaited, pinkish white ; aperture elon- 
gated, hp simple ; pinkish white, shining, longitudinally striated by 
fine waved brown lines, ornamented by four bands of squarely elon- 
gated orange-brown spots on the body-whorl, and by a band of round 
spots of the same colour about the centre of the shell, between the 
upper and lower rows of squarely elongated markings. 

Length 1-jSg inch, breadth \^, height yV. 

Hab. Wreck Reef, near Lady EUiott's Island. 

This species in general aspect much resembles Voluta macuhita 
of Swainson, but is at once distinguished from that or any other 
species by its channelled or excavated suture, elongated striation, 
and regular squarely elongated orange-brown markings. 

VoLTjTA SCLATERI. (Plate XXVI. fig. 3.) 

Shell pyriformly oblong, ponderous ; spire rather short, obtuse, 
papillary ; whorls smooth, porcellanous, the last tending to be angled 
or protuberant round the upper part ; columella strongly five- 



P.Z S 1869. XXVI. 




GB SoweT^by Jilh. 



M & N Hanhart imp 



NEW AUSTRALIAN SHELLS 



(* 7 ^ D *) 



PZ S 1869 Pl.}(XyiI. 









*'„''> 





• 






is 



J SKIT LlTa 



u: b R SAJfSMcr ixi 



EGGS OF AUSTRALIAN CUCKOOS AND 
THEIR FOSTER PARENTS 



1869.] MR; E. p. RAMSAY ON AUSTRALIAN CUCKOOS. 359 

plaited, the top and second plait semibifurcated, pure white, shining 
and porcellanous, as is also the interior of the mouth and the under 
part of the shell ; aperture elongated, lip simple, not thickened ; of 
a dull whitish-brown colour above. 

Length 3 inches, breadth 1|, height l^^. 

Hab. Banks's Straits. 

This beautiful species, of which I have two specimens in my 
cabinet, is at once distinguished from any other species by its dense, 
white, shining, porcellanous interior and under surface. 

DESCEIPTION OF PLATE XXVI. 



Figs. 1, 1 a. Cypraa thatcheri, p. 358. 
2a, 2b. Valuta harfordi, p. 358. 



Fig. 3. Valuta sclateri, p. 358. 
4. Haliotis hargravesi *, p. 49. 



9. Some farther Remarks on the Cuckoos found in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Sydney, and their Foster-parents. By E. P. 
Ramsay, C.M.'z.S. 

(Plate XXVII.) 

In some former remarks on the Cuckoos found in the neighbour- 
hood of Sydney (P. Z. S. 1865, p. 460), it will be remembered that 
the species recently termed by Mr. Gould Lamprococcyx plagosus 
and L. basalis (Gould's Handb. B. Austr. i. pp. 623, 626) were 
regarded as one species under the name of Chalcites lucidus 
(Gould's Birds of Austr. iv. pi. 89), and that I described their eggs 
as two varieties of the egg of the same species. At that time my 
remarks were so far correct. Now, however, as most ornithologists 
agree in considering L. plagosus and L. basalis distinct species 
(and L. lucidus from New Zealand as a third), it will be necessary 
to make a few remarks on the subject. My reasons for treating 
L. plagosus and L. basalis as varieties of the same species were 
manifold. The young on leaving the nest are scarcely (if at all) to 
be distinguished from one another ; their notes are for the most part 
exactly alike ; the colouring and marking of the eggs are not con- 
stantly different ; and, lastly, the plumage of one is merely a shade 
lighter or darker than that of the other. The only differences of 
any value are the thinness of the bill in L. basalis, and the much 
deeper tint and greater extent of the rufous on the second and third 
outer tail-feathers ; for it must be remembered, although seemingly 
overlooked by Mr. Gould, that the two tail-feathers next to the 
outer one on either side are distinctly marked with rufous in L. 
plagosus. 

But, however slight the differences between these two species may 

be, either in the eggs, the young on leaving the nest, or in the fully 

adult birds, there is one fact that sets the question at rest, viz. that 

the young, about three months old, have the same characteristic 

* For the description of this shell see Dr. Cox'.s previous paper, antea page 49. 



360 MR. J. E. HARTING ON ANARHYNCHUS FRONTALIS. [May 27, 

markings as their parents, which fully proves that L. basaJis cannot 
be the young of L. plagosus. 

A young bird of L. plagosns now before me, shot in September 
and supposed to have been hatched in June, distinctly shows the 
wavy bands on the chest, breast, and flanks, also the rufous blotches, 
to the same extent as the adult, on the second and third outer tail- 
feathers on either side. 

The accompanying coloured drawings represent the eggs of the 
various Cuckoos found in the neighbourhood of Sydney, and the 
eggs of their most usual foster-parents, as spoken of in my former 
paper. They are all taken from fresh specimens. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XXVII. 



Fig. 1. Egg oi Lamprococci/x plagosus. 
2. ,, basalis. 



3. 


)» 


Cuculus inornafus 


4. 


„ 


cineraceus. 


5. 


,, 


Acanthiza lineata. 


6. 


!> 


pusilla. 



Fig. 7. Egg of Acanthiza nana. 

8. „ Geobasileus rcguloides. 

9. ,, Smicrorms brevirostris. 

10. „ Stipituriis malacurus. 

11. „ Chthonicola minima. 

12. „ Piilotis auricomis. 



May 27, 1869. 
W. H. Flower, Esq., F.R.S., in the Chair. 

Mr. J. E. Harting, F.Z.S., exhibited a skin of a rare wading bird, 
AnarhyncJms frontalis, from New Zealand, together with three bills 
of the same species which had been saved from birds eaten by the 
natives, and remitted through the kindness of M. Jules Verreaux. 
He remarked that the chief peculiarity in this bird lay in the form 
of the bill, which was curved, not downwards as in Numenius, nor 
upwards as in Recurvirostra, but to one side, and that he had good 
grounds for believing that this peculiarity was constant. He had 
seen six examples of the bird, and had heard of others, in all of 
which the bill was curved as described. He had no doubt, from its 
general appearance, that its habits resembled those of Strepsilas, 
although it differed in other respects from the only two species 
known of this genus. He believed that its nearest ally would be 
found in another New-Zealand bird, Thinornis novce zealandicB, of 
which genus Thinornis another species, Thinornis rossii, had been 
found in the Auckland Islands. The bird now exhibited had been 
described so long ago as 1830 by MM. Quoy and Gaimard in their 
zoology of the 'Voyage de 1' Astrolabe' (i. p. 252, pi. 31. fig. 2), 
and had since been noticed by Mr. G. R. Gray, in ' Dieffenbach's 
Travels in New Zealand' (ii. p. 190), in the 'Voyage of the Erebus 
and Terror' (Birds, p. 12), and in 'The Ibis' (1862, p. 234). 

Mr. Harting proposed at some future time to offer some further 
remarks on this curious bird. 



1869.] MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON MEXICAN BIRDS. 3G1 

The following papers were read : — 

1. On a Collection of Birds made by Mr. H. S. le Strange 
near the city of Mexico. By P. L. Sclater, M.A.^ 
Ph.D., F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, F.L.S. 

Mr. H. S. le Strange, during his residence in Mexico, as attache 
to the British Legation in 1865 and 1866, formed a considerable 
series of bird-skins, principally in the vicinity of the capital itself 
and in the upper parts of the valleys which fall towards the Atlantic. 
Mr. le Strange having kindly submitted this collection to our exami- 
nation, we have had great pleasure in determining the species con- 
tained in it (which are 262 in number), and beg leave to oifer to 
the Society some notes on a few of the rarer species, made during 
our examination of the specimens. 

1. PiPiLO MACULATUS, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, i. p. 434. 

Three skins of this bird are in the collection. Mr. le Strange 
notes that it is found iu the tierra fria, in the barrancas, and that its 
Mexican name is " Chalmero." 

It seems to us very doubtful whether it will not be necessary to 
unite under this name Pipilo arclicus, Sw., P. orec/onus, Bell, and 
F. megalo7iyx, Baird. The northern specimens are mostly blacker 
on the back ; but a skin sent to Sclater by Prof. Baird as P. niega- 
lonyx from South California, and another as P. arcticus, are not, in 
our opinion, separable from Mexican specimens. This bird descends 
as far south as the highlands of Guatemala, and was obtained by 
Salvin near Quezaltenaugo ('Ibis,' 1866, p. 193). 

2. PiPiLO MACRONYX, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, i. p. 434. 

We have usually called the species in our collections Pipilo vires- 
cens, under which name it was described by Hartlaub, ' Journ. f. 
Orn.' 1863, p. 169. But upon referring to Swainson's characters 
there can be no doubt that the same bird is his Pipilo macronyx. 
It is easily known from the preceding (P. maculatus) by the olive- 
green edgings of the back- and wing- and tail-feathers ; but Mr. le 
Strange has not distinguished the two species in his MS. Sclater 
has one of the original specimens of P. virescens in his collection, 
received from Dr. Hartlaub, also examples collected by Boucard 
during his last expedition, and a skin obtained by Mr. White near 
the city of Mexico. 

3. Pipilo fuscus. 

Pipilo fusca, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, i. p. 434, et Anim. in Men. 
p. 347 ; Bp. Consp. p. 487 ; Cab. J. f. Orn. 1862, p. 474. 

Pipilo mesoleucus, Baird, Pr. Ac. Phil. vii. p. 119, et B. N. A 
p. 518 ; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 304. 

There is no doubt that, as pointed out by Cabanis, the present 



362 MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON MEXICAN BIRDS. [May 27, 

species (called by Baird P. mesoleucus) is the true P. fuscus of 
Swainson, and that the Californian bird (called P. fuscus by Baird 
and others) should be termed P. crissalis. Sclater's collection con- 
tains an original specimen of P. mesoleucus, collected by Kennicott 
in New Mexico, which agrees perfectly with the skins in Mr. le 
Strange's collection, and with others obtained in Mexico by Boucard 
and De Saussure. Mr. le Strange notes that this bird is " common 
in the valley of Mexico." 

4. Carpodacus cassinii, Baird, B. N. A. p. 414. 

Three specimens (2 d and 1 $ ) of this species, obtained by 
Mr. le Strange, are the first of it we have seen. As stated by 
Baird, it is most like C. purpureus, but remarkable for the large 
size and elongation of the bill. Baird' s specimens were from New 
Mexico. 

5, CHRYSOMiTRisPiNus(Wils.); Baird, B. N. A. p. 425 ; Sclater, 
P. Z. S. 1864, p. 174. 

Three skins of what we believe to be this North-American species, 
agreeing with one in Sclater's collection from the same locality. We 
much doubt the distinctness of C. macroptera, Du Bus (Esq. Orn. 
t. 23), which appears to be the same bird. 

fi. Icterus bullockii, Sw. Ph. Mag. 1827, i. p. 436 ; Baird, 
B.N. A. p. 549. 

Examples of both sexes of this species, which is stated to inhabit 
the tierra fria, and is called " Calandria nogalera." 

7. Icterus abeill^i (Less.); Sclater, P. Z. S. 1860, p. 252, et 
1864, p. 175 ; Cat. A. B. p. 130. 

A pair of this species, stated to have been brought in alive and 
kept in a cage for some time. Mexican name " Calandria mielera." 
The female does not appear distinguishable from that of /. bullockii ; 
the males are readily separable by the black sides and uropygium of 
the present species. 

8. Cyanocitta californica (Vig.); Sclater, Cat. A. B. p. 143. 

Aphelocoma Jloridana, Bp. C. R. xlii. p. 956. 
Cyanocitta fioridana, Scl. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 300. 

Mr. le Strange's skin (obtained in the tierra fria) agrees well with 
a Californian specimen in Sclater's collection, and with the charac- 
ters whereby Baird distinguishes C. californicu from C. woodhousii. 
It is white without any bluish tinge below, and the crissum is 
nearly pure white. It is probable, therefore, that Prof. Baird has 
wrongly referred his specimen no. 8465, from Mexico, to C. wood- 
housii. 

We have little doubt that Salle"s specimen (no. 186 of his first 
collection), referred by Sclater (following Bonaparte) to C.Jloiidana, 



1869.] MEaSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN ON MEXICAN BIRDS. 363 

was really of this species. Salvia has received a skin of this Cyano- 
citta from the vicinity of Oaxaca, collected by Mr. A. Fenochio. 

9. PsiLORHiNTis MOKio (Waglcr). 

Two skins of this bird, marked c? et 2 , and coloured alike, ob- 
tained from the tierra caliente of the Atlantic, where Mr. le Strange 
says they are "very common, and often follow the passer-by, taking 
short flights from tree to tree, and making a harsh and discordant 
noise." 

This bird has long been confounded with the Psilorhinus mexi- 
camis of Riippell, which is immediately distinguishable by its white 
belly and the broad white terminations of the rectrices. Riippell 
gives the locality of his species as Tamaulipas ; but all the Mexican 
specimens of Psilorhinvs which have come under our notice have 
belonged to the black-tailed Ps. morio, while all the Guatemalan and 
more southern examples have been of the (so-called) Ps. mexicanus. 
Under these circumstances it is not unlikely that there may have 
been some mistake in Riippell's locality. 

The two species (if such they be) will stand as follows : — 

Psilorhinus morio. 

Pica morio, Wagl. Isis, 1829, p. 751. 

PicafuUginosa, Less. Traite d'Orn. p. 333. 

Psilorhinus inorio, Bp. Consp. p. 381 ; Cab. Mus. Hein. p. 226 ; 
Baird, Birds N. Am. p. 592 ; Scl. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 300, and 18.09, 
pp. 57, 365. 

Diagn. Ventre cinerascente ; rectricibus totis concoJoribus. 
Hob. S. Mexico, Cordova (Salle), Jalapa {de Oca). 

Psilorhinus mexicanus. 

Corvus morio, fem. et juv., Wagl. Isis, 1829, p. 751. 

Psilorhinus mexicanus, Riipp. Mus. Senck. ii. p. 189, t. II. f. 2. 

Psilorhinus morio, Scl. & Salv. Ibis, 1859, p. 22; Taylor, Ibis, 
1860, p. 113 ; Cab. Journ. f. Orn. 1861, p. 83 ; Scl. Cat. Am. B. 
p. 145; Lawr. Ann. Lye. N. Y. ix. p. 104. 

Diagm. Ventre albicante, rectricum later alium apicibus latis albis. 
Hub. Guatemala (Salvin), Honduras (Taylor), Costa Rica (Arci), 
"Tamaulipas, Mexico (Riijip.)." 

10. Sittasomus olxvaceus (Max.). 

We have already given our reasons for using this name for the 
bird usually called S. sylvioides (cf. P. Z. S. 1868, p. 630). 

11. Ch^tura rutila (Vieill.), Sclatcr, Cat. A. B. p. 283. 

Mr. le Strange's collection contains a pair of this beautiful Swift 
from the tierra fria, the first Mexican specimens we have seen of 
it. Mr. Lawrence has lately presented to Sclater an Ecuadorian 
skin of the bird, which agrees perfectly with Mexican and Gua- 
temalan examples. 



364 MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN [May 27, 

12. Centurus albifrons (Sw.). 

Picus albifrons, Sw. Phil. Mag. 1827, i. p. 439 ; Sund. Pic. p. 52 ; 
Cab. Journ. f. O. 1862, p. 324. 

Centurus santacruzi, Bp. P. Z. S. 1837, p. 116; Sclater, Cat. 
A. B. p. 343. 

We have hitherto called this species by Bonaparte's name ; but 
there can be no doubt that, as pointed out by Cabanis, it is the P. 
albifrons of Swainson. It is common in Southern Mexico and 
Guatemala. 

13. BuTEO ELEGANS, Cassiu ; Baird, B. N. A. p. 28. 

Mr. le Strange's collection contains a single skin of this Buzzard, 
agreeing with Texan specimens collected by Mr. Dresser. We have 
also seen an example of it in a collection recently sent to M . Sall^ 
from Orizava by M. Botteri. 

14. Ortalida vetula, Wagler, Isis, 1830, p. 1112, et 1832 
p. 1227; Sclater, P. Z. S. 1859, p. 391. 

O. poliocephala, Sclater, P. Z. S. 1856, p. 310. 

Mr. le Strange's collection contains a single skin of this Ortalida, 
which he found " very common " in the tierra caliente of the 
Atlantic. He shot many on the road to Tampico, in April 1866. 
We believe that the Texan bird called by the American ornitholo- 
gists O. vetula, O. poliocephala, and O. tnaccalli is probably refer- 
able to this species. 

15. Ortalida poliocephala, Wagler, Isis, 1830, p. 1112, et 
1832, p. 1227. 

Two skins of this species, in Mr. le Strange's collection, are the 
first we have met with. It is immediately distinguishable from the 
preceding by its larger size, longer tail, whiter belly, and the much 
broader terminal bauds of the tail-feathers, which are fulvous and not 
pure white. 



2. Notes on the Species of the Genus Micrastur. By P. L. 
Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., and Osbert Salvin, 
M.A., F.L.S. 

As in case of the Asturince, to which we have lately called the 
Society's attention*, some of the members of the genus Micrastur 
are at present in a state of great confusion. We trust that the 
following remarks may serve to render the species of the group with 
which we are acquainted more readily distinguishable. 

The genus Micrastur, established by Mr. G. R. Gray in 184 If 

* See P. Z. S. 1869, p. 129. 
t List of Genera of Birds, p. fi. 



1869.] ON THE GENUS MICRASTUR. 365 

(in the place of Brachyplents of Lesson, previously employed), 
embraces a series of American Hawks with the general structure of 
Accipiter, but distinguished by their short toes and more rounded tail. 
"We have examined specimens of seven species of it, which may be 
shortly distinguished as follows : — 

A. Majores : subtus albi fere unicolores. 

a. major, supra nigricans 1. M. semitorquaius. 

6. minor, supra cinereus 2. M. mirandollii. 

B. minores : subtus albi, dense transfasciati. 

a. dorso rufo : pileo cinereo : 

a", minor : dorso dilutiore rufo 3. M. rnficolUs. 

b". major: dorso saturatiore rufo 4. M. zonothorax. 

h. dorso cinereo : pileo concolore : 

a", ventre imo et crisso albis immaculatis 5. M. gilmcolUs. 

b". ventre imo et crisso cinereo transfasciatis : 

a", dorso dilutiore cinereo 6. M. kttcauchen. 

b'". dorso satiu-atiore cinereo 7. M. guerilla. 

1. MiCRASTUR SEMITORQTJATUS. 

Sparvius semitorquaius, Vieill. N. D. x. p. 322, et Enc. Meth. 
p. 1263. 

Sparvius melanoleucus, Vieill. N. D. x. p. 327, et Enc. Me'th. 
p. 1267. 

Falco brachypterus, Temm. PI. Col. 116 (jr.) et 141 (adult.). 

Micrastur brachypterus, Pelz. Orn. Novara, p. 1 2, et Orn. Bras. p. 7. 

Micrastur semitorquatus, Scl. et Salv. Ibis, 1859, p. 218 ; Law- 
rence, Ann. L. N. Y. ix. p. 134. 

Climacocercus brachypterus, Burm. Syst. Ueb. ii. p. 88. 

Falco leucomelas, Licht. Doubl. p. 62. 

Carnifex naso. Lesson, Rev. Zool. 1842, p. 379. 

Falco percontator, Cabot, Boston Journ. iv. p. 462. 

Hab. Rio Janeiro {Natt.); Mato Grosso (Natt.) ; Borba {Natt.); 
Rio Negro et Rio Brancho (Natt.) ; Costa Rica {Zeledon) ; Guate- 
mala (Salvin) ; Yucatan (Cabot). 

This species, well known by the figures of the adult and young in 
Temminck's ' Planches Coloriees,' is widely distributed throughout 
Tropical America, from Yucatan to Paraguay. It does not, however, 
appear to occur in the wood -region of Eastern Brazil, nor have we 
yet seen specimens from New Granada and Ecuador. In Guatemala 
it seems to be rare, as Salvin only obtained one specimen from 
Retaluleu, in the forest-region bordering the Pacific. Another 
Guatemalan specimen, in the Norwich Museum, is probably from 
Vera Paz. 

The large size of this bird renders it easily distinguishable from 
every other species of the genus. 

2. Micrastur mirandollii. 

Astur mirandollii, Schl. Ned. Tijdschr. i. p. 130, et Mus. de P.- 
B. Astur es, p. 27. 

Micrastur macrorhynchus, Natt. MS. ; Pelz. Orn. Novara, p. 21, 
et Orn. Bras. p. 7. 



366 MESSRS. SCLATER AND SALVIN [May 27, 

Micrastur mirandollei, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1867, p. 759. 

Hab. Eastern Peru, Chyavetas (Bartl.) ; Rio Negro et Rio 
Brancho (Natt.) ; Barra do Rio Negro (Cast, et Dev.). 

This bird is most nearly allied to the preceding species, but is 
easily recognizable by its smaller size and slaty-grey upper plumage. 

The only example of it in this country is, as far as we know, the 
specimen obtained by Mr. E. Bartlett in Eastern Peru, noticed in 
our article, P. Z. S. 1867, p. 759. As already mentioned there, 
Sclater has compared the typical specimen of Astur mirandoUii in 
the Leyden Museum with an example of v. Pelzeln's Micrastur 
macrorhynchus in the same collection, and has little doubt of their 
being identical. 

In the Paris Museum there is a specimen of this bird collected by 
Castelnau and Deville at Barra do Rio Negro. 

In its range this species appears to be restricted to the district 
of Upper Amazonia. 

3. Micrastur ruficollis. 

Sparvius ruficollis, Vieill. N. D. x. p. 322, et E. M. iii. p. 1263 ; 
Puch. R. Z. 1850, p. 91. 

Micrastur ruficollis, Strickl. Orn. Syn. p. 122. 

Falco xanthothorax, Temm. PI. Col. 92. 

Climacocercus xanthothorax, Burm. Syst. Ueb. ii. p. 85. 

Micrastur xanthothorax, Pelz. Orn. Bras. p. 7 • 

Hab. S.E. Brazil {Burm.); S. Paulo {Natt.); Goyaz (5'^- 
Hilaire). 

The adult of this species is well figured in Temminck's ' Planches 
Coloriees,' no. 92. It is easily recognizable by its deep rufous, 
almost chestnut breast. In younger specimens this colour is only 
partially apparent, and the bars on the belly are much wider apart ; 
but in all stages we have seen the reddish-brown back is more or 
less persistent, thus distinguishing it from M. leticauchen. 

Our specimens of this bird are from Rio and Bahia. Natterer 
obtained it in the Province of San Paulo, and St.-Hilaire in that of 
Goyaz. 

4. Micrastur zonothorax. 

Climacocercus zonothorax. Cab. J. f. O. 1865, p. 406. 

Micrastur zonothorax, Scl. et Salv. P. Z. S. 1869, p. 253. 

Hab. Puerto Cabello ; Bogota. 

Dr. Cabanis has lately separated this bird as a northern repre- 
sentative of the preceding, stating that it differs in its larger size, 
stouter bill, and in the darker reddish-brown of the upper surface, 
also in having the red-brown on the lower surface confined to the 
throat and not extending over the breast. 

We have not yet met with the adult of this species, but have 
referred to it a bird in immature plumage collected by Mr. Goering 
in the coast-region of Porto Cabello, which is the same district as 
that whence Cabauis's type specimens were derived. A second im- 
mature bird, in the collection of Salvin and Godnian, is from Bogota. 



1869.] ON THE GENUS MICRASTUR. 36/ 

5. MiCRASTUR LEUCAUCHEN. 

Falco leucavchen, Temm. PI. Col. 306. 

Micrastur leucauchen, Strick. Orn, Syn. p. 123, 

Micrastur gilvicollis (adult.), Pelz. Orn. Nov. p. 10. 

Hah. Brazil; 'Qahm {Wucherer) ; Mato Grosso (Va^^.). 

This Micrastur is immediately distinguishable from M. rvficoUis 
by its grey back and by the entire absence (in the adult bird) of any 
rufous colouring upon the throat and breast. In specimens not quite 
mature there is a rufous tinge upon the breast, which has apparently 
caused the species to be confounded in most collections with M. 
ruficoUis. As in the latter bird, the belly is regularly banded con- 
tinuously down to the crissum. This character and its paler upper 
surface serve to distinguish it from M. gilvicollis. 

In his ' Planches Colorie'es ' (no. 306) Temminck has figured his 
Falco leucauchen, which has been regarded by most writers as being 
the young of the same author's Falco xanthothorax {:= Micrastur 
riificollis, Vieill.). Temminck does not expressly say whether his 
figure was taken from a specimen in the Paris Museum or in that of 
Vienna, both of which he states contain examples of this bird ; 
but according to Schlegel (Musee des Pays-Bas, Astures, p. 51) 
Temminck's type is one of Natterer's specimens now in the Leyden 
Museum. To determine positively whether Temminck's figure is 
applicable to the young of the present species or to that of M. rufi- 
coUis, reference must be made to this type specimen, which we have 
not yet had an opportunity of doing. But to avoid the unpleasant 
necessity of giving a fresh name to the present bird, which is certainly 
a most distinct species, we propose for the present to use Temminck's 
name for it, bearing in mind that M. Pucheran, a very accurate ob- 
server, has stated that in his opinion naturalists have erred in consi- 
dering Temminck's two names synonymous*. 

Three specimens of this Hawk, in the collection of Salvin and 
Godman, are from Bahia, and were received from Dr. Wucherer. 
An example which we regard as the adult, and of which we shall 
speak subsequently, was obtained by Natterer in Mato Grosso. 

6. Micrastur guerilla. 

Micrastur guerilla, Cass. Proc. Ac. Phil. iv. p. 87, et Journ. Ac. 
Phil. vol. i. p. 295, t. 40; Bp. Consp. Av. p. 30. 

Micrastur concentricus, ScI. P. Z. S. 1856, p. 285. 

Micrastur gilvicollis, Scl. et Salv. Ibis, 1859, p. 218 ; Scl. P. Z. S. 
1858, p. 96 ; Scl. P. Z. S. 1860, p. 96 ; Lawr. Ann. L. N. Y. vii. 
p. 317. 

Micrastur xanthothorax, Scl. P. Z. S. 1859, p. 368. 

Hab. Mexico, Jalapa (Cassin) ; Cordova (Salle) ; Guatemala 
(^Salvin) ; Veragua {Arce) ; Western Ecuador, Nanegai (Fraser). 

We have long been well acquainted with this Micrastur ; Salvia 
obtained specimens of it in every stage of plumage during his expedi- 
tions to Guatemala, and it is also common in Mexican collections ; 
« Kev. Zool. 1850, p. 91. 



368 ON THE GENUS MiCRASTUR. [May 27, 

but we have hitherto wrongly referred it to its southern representa- 
tive M. gilvicoUis, in which other authors have followed us. In its 
plumage above, this present bird very much resembles that species ; 
but beneath the narrow grey bands are closer together, and are con- 
tinued regularly over the thighs, belly, and crissutn, whereas in M. 
gilvicoUis they gradually disappear, leaving these parts nearly white. 
In the adult of M. guerilla also there appear to be three distinct 
white tail-bands besides the narrow terminal band ; in the adult M. 
concentricus the normal number seems to be one, or sometimes two. 
Cassin founded his Mierastur guerilla upon immature specimens 
obtained by Mr. Pease near Jalapa in Mexico, and has figured the 
bird in this plumage. As already stated, we have seen other ex- 
amples in the numerous collections recently made in the same dis- 
trict. In Guatemala Salvin found it common in all the low- 
lands of the Atlantic slope. From Veragua Arce has transmitted 
individuals both in the adult and immature plumages. We have not 
yet seen it from Panama ; but it certainly extends as far south as 
Western Ecuador, where Mr. Eraser obtained an adult specimen in 
1859. This bird is now in the collection of Salvin and Godman. 

7. MiCRASTUR GILVICOLLS. 

Sparvius gilvicoUis, Vieill. N. D. x. p. 323, et Enc. Meth, p. 1 264 ; 
Puch. Rev. Zool. 1850, p. 91. 

Mierastur gilvicoUis, jr., Pelz. Orn. Novara, p. 10, et Oru. Bras, 
p. 7 ; Scl. et Salv P. Z. S. 1867, p. 590. 

Nisus concentricus. Less. Tr. d'Orn. p. 60 ; D'Orb.Voy. Ois. p. 88. 

Climacocercus concentricus. Cab. in Tsch. F. P. pp. 18, 98, et in 
Schomb. Guian. iii. p. 735 ; Burm. Syst. Ueb. ii. p. 87. 

Hab. Cajenne (Less.); Eastern Peru (TscA.) ; Bolivia (Z)'0>-6.) ; 
Rio Negro, Barra and Para (Natt.). 

Vieillot's Sparvius gilvicoUis was founded upon a specimen in the 
Paris Museum, which Pucheran, in one of his articles upon Yieillot's 
types, declares to be the same as 31. concentricus. Now, although 
Falco concentricus is an old MS. name of Illiger's, it was first pub- 
lished by Lesson, and based upon a specimen brought by Poiteau 
from Cayenne, likewise in the Paris Museum. It follows that M. 
Pucheran, having had the two types before him, had an excellent 
opportiuiity of arriving at the result which he came to. 

Our worthy friend Herr von Pelzeln, of Vienna, has, however, 
recently come to a different conclusion, and, in his treatise on the 
birds of the Novara Expedition, has treated M. gilvicoUis and M. 
concentricus as different species. This caused us no small perplexity, 
until, with his usual kindness, Herr v. Pelzeln transmitted to us for 
examination the whole series of specimens of these two supposed 
species upon which he had founded his remarks. We trust that our 
good friend will pardon us, if, in the interests of science, we state that, 
after inspection of the specimens and comparison of them with others 
now before us, we have arrived at a somewhat different conclusion. 

It is certain that the bird from Mato Grosso, which Herr v. Pelzeln 
regards as the adult of his M. gilvicoUis, is distinct from his M. con- 



18G9.] SURGEON F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. 369 

centriciis ; but, as we have already stated, we believe that this bird 
should be referred to the Brazilian species which we have termed 
M. leucauchen. The younger specimens, called M. gilvicollis by 
Herr v. Pelzehi, in spite of the number of tail-bands, we consider 
referable to the present bird, which he calls M. concentricus. 

One of the main points which Herr v. Pelzeln urges as distinguish- 
ing his M. gilvicollis from his M. concentricus is that the former has 
in every age and sex, besides the termination, three white tail-bands, 
whereas the latter has usually only one, but sometimes two. But 
we do not consider this character altogether to be relied upon, it 
being notoriously variable in other species of Accipitres. When it 
is discarded there is, as far as we can see, nothing to prevent us 
associating the two immature female birds from the Amazonian 
district, which Herr v. Pelzeln refers to M. gilvicollis (as dis- 
tinguished from M. concentricus), with the present species. 

We may also urge that this interpretation is more consonant with 
the phenomena of geographical distribution, it being prima facie un- 
likely that two so closely allied species should be found maintainino- 
their distinctive characters in the same area. 

All the specimens of the present species which have come before 
us with ascertained localities have been either from Guiana or from 
some part of Amazonia, which we regard as belonging to the same 
fauna. Natterer's specimens were collected at Para and upon the 
Rio Negro. Other specimens we have seen are from Cayenne and 
the Lower Amazon. Tschudi's Peruvian specimens have no doubt 
been correctly referred by Cabanis to the present bird ; but we have 
not yet had an opportunity of ascertaining to which species 
D'Orl)igny's Bolivian examples belong. 



3. On the Fishes of Orissa. 
By Sm-geon Francis Day, F.Z.S., F.L.S.— Part II.* 

Amongst the Siluroids, I captured one small specimen of a Hara 
in Orissa, which I left undescribed ; I have since taken many more, 
and compared them with those in the Calcutta Museum. It is the 

78. Hara buchanani, Blyth. 

D. i|0. P. i. V. 6. A.'. C. 15. 

Length of head \, of caudal i of the total length. The bases of the 
first dorsal and anal fins are of the same length, and equal the dis- 
tance from the posterior margin of the orbit to the end of the suout. 
The length of the base of the adipose dorsal is only equal to one-half 
of that of the anal. Height of body equals the length of the head ; 
the width of the head opposite the opercles equals \k its length. 

Eyes small, situated in the posterior half of the head. 

Gill-openings narrow, the skin confluent with that of the isthmus. 
* See P. Z. S. 18G9, p. 292. 



370 SURGEON F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. [May 27, 

Maxillary barbels dilated at their bases ; they extend as far as the 
pectoral fin. The four mandibular barbels are on a transverse line ; 
the two outer the longest, reaching the gill-opening. Nostrils 
placed close together and divided by a short barbel. The occipital 
process is about three times as long as wide at its base, and has 
another parallel bony process on either side. Basal bone considerably 
dilated. Humeral process rugose, elongate, and with two ossicles 
posterior to it. 

Teeth vilhform in the jaws and also in a fine band on the palate. 

Fins. Dorsal spine stout and nearly as long as the head, serrated 
posteriorly. Pectoral spine one-fourth longer, flattened, strongly 
serrated internally, and with finer serrations externally but arranged 
in a very peculiar manner, each alternate tooth being directed 
anteriorly or posteriorly. Pectorals reaching ventrals. Caudal 
deeply forked. 

Skin covered with little rough elevations, which in the posterior 
part of the body are in parallel lines. This roughness is also seen 
on the cheeks. 

Lateral line proceeds direct towards the centre of the base of the 
caudal fin, but ceases before arriving so far. 

Colours. Brownish, banded with a darker shade. Fins banded 
with black. Barbels annulated with black. 

This little fish grows to about 2^ inches in length, and Uves 
amongst weeds or in very muddy parts of rivers. 

The Cyprinidce are extensively represented in Orissa. 

79. Catla buchanani, Cuv. & Val. 
Barkur (Ooriah). 

B. iii. D.'^*. P. 21. V. 9. A.|. C. 19. L. 1. 40-43. 

L. tr.y Vert. i|. 

The gill-rakers in the adult are long, moderately strong, and set 
rather widely apart. 

The Cyprinus ahramioides, Sykes, may be this species, which 
abounds in the river Kistna. 

80. Amblypharyngodon mola, H. Buch. 
Morara (Ooriah). 

B. iii. D.f. P. 15. V. 9. A. |. C. 20. L. 1.71-75. 
L. tr. 20. 

Dr. Giinther observes that the engraving of Leuciscus melettinus, 
Cuv. & Val., is incorrect ; for he considers the lateral line, instead of 
being continued to the base of the caudal fin as delineated, ought to 
cease, which would make it an Amblypharyngodon. Might not the 
drawing be correct, and the species be a Thynnichthys, as I have taken 
one in India ? Mr. Blyth ( Journ. Asiat. Soo. of Bengal, 1 860, p. 1 64) 
observed of his genus Mola, of which he made this species his type, 
"The {Leuciscus) harengula and (i.) melettina of Valenciennes 
should also range in the same division, even if the lateral line be 



1869.] SURGEON F. DAY ON THE FISHES OF ORISSA. 371 

continuous as represented in the figures of those species." The 
correctness of placing Amblypharynr/odon and Thynnichthys as 
distinct genera is, I think, questionable ; and I am the more confirmed 
in this belief by an examination of the A. atklnsonii, Blyth (not 
A. pellueidus, M'Clelland), from Burmah, in which the lateral line 
is continued for one-third of the length of the body of the fish, or 
for 19 scales, thus reaching nearly as far as the base of the ventral 
fin, from which it is divided by six rows of scales. 

81. CiRRHINA MRIGALA, H. Buch. 

Mrigale, Mirrgah (Ooriah). 

B. iii. D.J. P. 17. V. 9. A. |. C. 19. L. 1. 40-43. 
L. tr. ?J. 

Differs from the C. leschenaultii, Cuv. &Val., by only having the 
rostral barbels. In Orissa it appears entirely to supersede the 
C leschenaultii, which is a species very common in Madras. 

Amongst the fishes brought to Calcutta by the late expedition to 
China are specimens of the C. mrigala, H. Buch., probably identical 
with C. chinensis, Giinther. 

82. Crossocheilus rata, H. Buch. 

Crossocheilus rostra fus, Giinther (immature). 
Dunf