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(Of 



^cpartwciii of five ^rtieviov 

V. S. NATIOXAli MUSEUM. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THK 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



Vol. X. 

1887. /3^"//6 

I ...JAN 22 1890 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OE THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1888. 



advp:rtisement. 

The extensiou of the scope of the National Museum duiiug the past 

■few years, and the activity of the collectors employed iu its interest, 

have caused a great increase iu the amount of material in its possession. 

Many of the objects gathered are of a novel and important character, 

and serve to throw a new light upon the study of nature and of man. 

The importance to science of prompt publication of descriptions of 
this material led to the establishment, in 1878, of the present series of 
publications, entitled "Proceedings of the United States National 
Museum," the distinguishing peculiarity of which is that the articles 
are i)ublished in signatures as soon as matter sufticient to fill sixteen 
pages has been obtained and printed. The date of publication being 
plainly expressed on each signature, the ready settlement of questions 
of priority is assured. The present volume constitutes the tenth of the 
series. 

The articles in this series consist : First, of papers prepared by the 
scientific corps of the National Museum ; secondly, of papers by others, 
founded vipon the collections iu the National Museum ; and, finally, 
of interesting facts and memoranda from the correspondence of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

The Bulletins of the National Museum, the publication of which was 
commenced in 1875, consist of elaborate papers (monographs of families 
of animals, etc.), while the present series contemplates the prompt pub- 
lication of freshly-acquired facts relating to biology, anthropology, and 
geology 5 descriptions of restricted groups of animals and plants ; the 
settlement of particular questions relative to the synonymy of species; 
and the diaries of minor expeditions. 

The Bulletins and Proceedings are published by the authority and at 
the expense of the Interior Department, and under the direction of the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

Papers intended for publication in the Proceedings and Bulletins of 
the National Museum are referred to the Committee on Publications, 
composetl as follows: T. H. Bean, A. Howard Clark (editor), Otis T. 
Mason, Leonhard Stejneger, Frederick W. True, and Lester F. Ward. 

S. P. Langley, 

* Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. 

United States National Museum, 

Washington, March 1, 1888. 
II 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Alphabetical index 733-771 

Appendix 699-731 

Beau, Tarlclon H. Descriptions of five new species of fishes sent by Prof. A. Dugfes 

from the province of Guanajuato, Mexico (with one phite) 370-375 

[Oharacodon variatus, Oharacodon bilineatus, Characodon ferrugineus, Fiindulua duncsii, 
Lampetra spadicea, species novaj.] 

Notes on a young Red Snapper (Lntjanus blackfordi) from Great South Bay, Long 

Island ^1- 

Description of a new species of Thyrsitops (T. violaceus) from the fishing banks off 

the New England coast .'■>13, 514 

Description of a supposed new species of Char (Salvelinus aureolus) from Snnapee 

Lake, New Hampshire C28-630 

Description of a new genus and species of fish (Acrotns willoughbyi) from "Washing- 
ton Territory 631,632 

Beckham, Charles Wickliffe. Notes on the birds of southwestern Texas 633-696 

[Mr. Beckham died in June, 1888, before this paper was put in type.] 
'^eudire, 4Japt. C. E., U. S. Army. Description of the nest and eggs of the California 

black-capped gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica Brewster) 549,550 

Notes on a collection of birds' nests and eggs from southern Arizona Territory 551-558 

iOllmann, Charles H. Notes on the North American Lithobiidce and Scutigeridas 254-266 

[Lithobius minnesotce, Lithobius tuber, Lithobius proridens, Lithobius pitlhis, Lithobiua 
trilobiis, Lithobius howei, Lithobius jumntus, species novas.] 

Descriptions of fourteen new species of North American Myriapods 617-627 

[Parajulus ectenes, Parajulus zonatus, Craspedosoma atroUneatum, Paradesmus dasys, 
Polydesmus testi, Polydesmus branneri, Fontaria evides, Fontaria rubromarfiinata, Fon- 
taria montana, Qeophilus 02veni, Geophilus calif or niengis, Lithobius eigcntnanni, Litho- 
bius atkinsoni, Lithobius tyrrannicus, species novas.] 
Call, B. Ellsworth. Descriptions of two new species of the genus Unio (with Plates 

XXVII, XXVIII) 498-500 

[Unio ozarkensis, Vnio brevieulus, species novae.] 

Cope, E. I>. On a new species of TropidonOtus found in Washington 146 

[Tropidonotus bisectus, sp. nov.] 

List of the Batrachia and Eeptilia of the Bahama Islands 436-439 

[Liocephalus loxogrammus, sp. nov.] 
£ig;eniuaiin, Carl II., and Hnghes, Elizabeth O. A review of the North American 

species of the genera Lagodon, Archosargus, and Diplodus 6.^-74 

Eigenmann, Carl H. Description of a new species of Ophichthys (Ophichthys retropin- 

nis) from Pensacola, Fla 116 

Oilbert, Charles II. Descriptions of new and little known Etheostomoids 47-64 

[Etheostoma (TJloeentra) histrio, E. (cottogaster) manidca, E. {Hadropterus) ouachitce, E. 
(Hadropterus) squamatus, E. (Hadropterus) cymatotoinia, E. (Radrcjpterus) niangiue, 
species novic ; E. nianguce spilotum. subsp. nov.; E. (Rhothceca) blennius, E. (Rho- 
thoeca) rupestre, E. (Etheostoma) luteovinctum, E. (Etheostoma) parvipinne, E. (Etheos- 
toma) tuscnmbia, E. (Alvarius) fonticola, species no vte.] 

(See Jordan and Gilbert.) 

Gill, Theodore. The characteristics of the Elacatids (with Plate XXXIX) 012-614 

Note on Gramma loreto of Poey CIS, 616 

Hay. O. P. A contribution to the knowledge of the fishes of Kansas 242-253 

Hnghes, Elizabeth O., and Eigenmanu, Carl H. Keview of North American s;)e- 

cies of Lagodon, Archosargus, and Diplodus 65-74 

Jordan, David Mtarr. Note on Polynemus californiensis of Thominot 322 

Note on the "Analyse de la Nature" of Rafinesque 480, 481 

Description of a new species of Callionymus (Callionymus bairdi) from the Gulf of 

Mexico .'J01,.'302 

Description of a new species of Xyrichthys (Xyrichthys jessise) from the Gulf of 

Mexico 698 

III 



IV TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 
Jordnn, David Miarr, and Eigeiiiuaiiii, Carl II. Xot«8 on a collection of fishes 

si'iit by Mr. Chaik-s C. Leslie Iroiii CLailcston, S. U 269, 27* 

Jordau, l>avid Miarr, and 4iiilbf;rt, Charles II. Description of a new species of 

Thalla.ssophr.N ne (Thallassophryno dowi) from Punta Arenas and Panama 888 

Knofvlton, F. II. Paper edited by (see LKsguElSEUX). 

Kocliicr, W. R. Catalof;ue of the Contributions of the section of Graphic Arts to the Ohio 

Valley Centennial Exposition, Cincinnati, 1888 701-731 

Kanz, (iSearjge V. The meteoric iron which fell in Johnson County, Ark., 3.17 p. ni. March 

27, 1886 (with Plates XXXVI-XXXVllI) 598-605 

Jja-vrrencc, Ororge IV. Description of a new species of bird of the genus Catharns, from 

Ecuador 503 

[Catha rus fuscater, sp. nov.) 
licsquercux, lieo. List of recently-identified fossil plants belonging to the United States 
National Museum, with descriptions of several new species. Compiled and prepared for 

publication by F. H. Knowlton (with Plates I-IV) 21-4S 

[Pecopteris poiwUii, sp. nov.; Cordniiet, sp. nov.?; Alethopteris lonchitica, var. angus- 

tifolia, n. v.; Cycadeospermnm ceqnUaterale, sp. nov. ; G)/cadesopernnm/aboideum,ap. 

nov.; Oycadeonpernnim subfalcatum. sp. nov.; Irites Alaskana, sp. nov.; Oaulinite* 

beckeri, sp. nov. ; Sarjittaria, sp. nov. ? ; Qitercus Crossii, Andromeda linearifolia, Vac- 

citiium Ooloradense, Cratcegus Rohnesii, CinsiUs microphyllHH, Orcimopsii acuminata, 

Grewiopsu Walcotti, Phyllites fraxineus, Phrjllites inimiisopsoideits, species novse.l 

liilljeborg, W. Contributions to the Natural History of the Commander Islands. (See 

Stejn'egek and Vasey.) 

No. 9. On the Entromostraca collected by Mr. Leonhard Stejneger on Bering Island, 

1882-'83 154-156 

[Eurycerciig glacialis, Diaptnmiig amhigmtx, .species novjp.) 
liinton, Ed^viii. Notes on a Trematode from the white of a newly -laid hen's egg (one text 

figure) 367-309 

LiUcaM, Frederick A. Notes on the osteology of the Spotted Tinamou (Nothura maculosa) 157, 158 

[two text figures.] 
McTVeill, Jerome. List of the Myriapods found in Escambia County, Fla., with descrip- 
tions of six new species (with Plate XI) 323-327 

[Polydesnuiabimaeiilatun. Polydesmus variug, Julus lineatus, Schendyla! perforatiis, Li- 
thobius clarus, Lithobius aiireux, species nova;.] 

Descriptions of twelve new species of Myriapoda, chiefly from Indiana (with one plate) . 328-334 

[nexaglena, gen. nov. ; Hexagleua cruptncepliala, Polydesrniin caxtaneus, Trichopetalum 
boUmani, Lisiopetalum eudasyin, Jnlus initltiannulatus, Oeophilus brunneus, Geophilux 
indiance, Mecistocephalus strigosns, Scolopocryptopg nigridius, species novic.) 
Rathbun, Richard. Catalogue of the species of corals belonging to the genus Madrepora 

contained in the U. S. National Museum 10-19 

Annotated catalogue of the species of Porites and Synariea in the U. S. National Mu- 
seum, with a description of a new species of Porites (with Plates X V-XIX) 354-36S 

\ Porites Branneri, sp. nov.] 

Descriptions of the species of Heliaster (a genus of star-fishes) represented in the U. S. 

National Museum (with Plates XXIII-XXVI) 440-449 

Descriptions of new species of Parasitic Copepods belonging to the genera Trebius, 

Perissopus, and Lernanthropus (with plates XXIX-XXXV) 559-571 

[Trebius tenuifurcatus, Perissopus communis, Lernanthropus Brevoortia, Lernanthropus 
Pomatomi, .species nova>.] 
Ridgway, Robert, Description of a new species of (;oting<i from the Pacific coa.st of 

Costa Rica (with figure on Plate VI) 1,2 

[C'otinga ridgwayi Zcledon MS.] 

Descrii)tion of a new form of .Spindalis from the Bahamas 3 

\,Spindalix zena townsendi, subsp. nov.] 

Description of the adult female of Carpodectes antoniip Zeledon, with critical remarks, 

notes on habits, etc., by Jos6 C. Zeledon 20 

Description of a new species of Porzaiia from Co.sta Rica Ill 

[Porzana al/ari, sp. nov.] 

Notes on Ardea wuerdcnianni 112-115 

Trogon anibiguus breeding in Arizona 147 

. Description of anew Plumed Partridge from Sonora 148-150 

[CalUpepla elegans bensoni, subsp. nov.] 

Description of a new genus of Dendrocolaptine Bird from the Lower Amazon 151 

[Berlepschia, gen. nov.] 

Description of a new species of Phacellodomus from Venezuela 152 

[Phacellodomns inornatus, sp. nov.] 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. V 

Page. 

Bidgway, Robert. Description of two new species of Kaup's genus Megascops 267,268 

[Megascvps vcrmiculatu^, Megascops hastatun, species nova).] 

Description of a new species of Muscisaxicola from Lake Titicaca, Peru 439 

[Muscisaxicola occipitalis, sp. nov.J 

On Plirygilus Gayi (Eyd. and Gerv.) and allied species 431-43S 

[riiryyilus puncnsia, sp. nov.J 

A review of the genus Dendrocincla of Gray 488-497 

[Dendrocincla lafremayei, Dendrocincla ru/o-olivacea, Dendrocincla castanoptera, species 
novffi.] 

Remarks on Cathams berlepschi 504 

Deactiptions of some new species and subspecies of birds from Middle America 505-510 

[Catharus fumosus, sp. nov. ; Mimus gracilis leucophceus, Harporhynchris longirostris sen- 
netti, subsp. novae ; Campylorhynchus castaneus, sp. nov. ; Thryothorus rufalbus cas- 
tanonotus, subsp. nov. ; Microcerculus daulias, Dendrornis laivrencei, species novaj ; 
Dendrornis lawrencei costaricensis, subsp. nov.] 

Note on the generic name Uropsila, Scl. ic Salv 511 

Descriptions of new species and genera of birds from the Lower Amazon 516-528 

[Thryothorus herbcrti, Eiker, MS.; Thryothorus oyapocensis, Thryothorus tcenioptera, Cy- 
phorhinus griseolateralis, Colopteryx inornatus, Ornithion napceum, Tyrannulus regu- 
loides, Attila viridescens, Thamnophilus inornatus, species novae; Heterocnemisl hypo- 
leuca, Dichrozona (genus novum) zononota, species novae ; Phlogopsis bowmani, Eiker, 
MS. ; Ithegmatnrhina (genus novum) gyvmnps, Dendrornis fratcrculus, Dendrocolaptes 
obsoletus; Zenaida jessicn, Kiker, MS., species novae.] 

——A review of the genus Psittacula of Brisson 529-548 

[Psittacula passerina vivida, subsp. nov. ; Psittacula insularis, Psittacula exqtiisita, Psit- 
tacula deliciosa, species nova'.] 

Catalogue of a collection of birds, made by Mr. Charles H. Townsend on islands in the 

Caribbean Sea and in Honduras 572-597 

[Dendroica axiricapilla, sp. nov. ; Columbigallina passerina insularis, subsp. nov. ; Conto- 
pus vicimis, Butorides saturatus, Thamnophilus intermedins, species novsB; Centurus 
santacruziy auper, subsp. nov.; Engyptila vinaceiventris, sp. nov.; Pitylus poliogastcr 
scapularis, Sturnella magna inexspectata, subsp. novae ; Thalurania townsendi, sp. nov. ; 
Colinus nigrogularis segoviensis, Porzana exilis vagans, subsp. novae ; Columba purpu- 
reotincta (Demerara), Tigrisoma exceUens. species novae.] 

Description of a new Psaltriparus from southern Arizona ggy 

[Psaltriparus santaritce, sp. nov.] 
Shnfeldt, Dr. R. ^V., If. S. Army. On a collection of Birds' sterna and skulls, collected 

by Dr. T. H. Streets, U. S. Navy (four text figures) 376-387 

Smith, John B. The species of Euerythra (with Plate XIII) 335-337 

[E)terythra trimaculata, sp. nov.] 

The North American species of Callimorpha (with Plate XIV) 338-358 

[Callimorpha lactata, Callimorpha suffusa. species novae.] 

New genera and species of North American Noctuidie 450-479 

[Agrotis binominalis, A. erenulata, A. confusa, A. tepperi, A. sorror, A. proclivis, A. alhi- 
costa, A. oblongistigma, A. flavidf.ns, A. brevipennis, A.flavicolUs, A. obesula, A. sponsa, 
A.flnis, A. luteola, A. serricornis, A. tetrica, A. medialis, A. extranea, A. trifasciata, A. 
bifasciata, A. orbicularis, A. rii/ula, A. pallipennis, A. solitaria, species novas ; Mamex- 
tra subapicalis. var. n.; M. lepidula, M. prodeniforniis, M. canadensis, M. rectilinea, M. 
vau-media, M. ineurva, M. variolata. M. minorata, species novai ; M. pulverulentus. vai-. 
nov. ; M. obscura, sp. nov. ; Scotogramma, gen. nov. ; S. perplexa, S. ineoneinna, S. urn- 
hrosa, Copimamestra curialis, species nova? ; Tllolonche, gen. nov. ; U. fasciata, Tcenio- 
eampa uniformis, T. Columbia, T. utahenxis, T. suffusa. T. obtusa. T. pectinata, T. termi- 
nata, T. subterminata, Perigrapha inferior, Trichoclea edwardsii, Orthodes irrorata, 
species nova\] 
Stejneger, I^ieoiihard. Review of Japanese Birds: 

IV. Synopsis of the genus Tardus 4 5 

[Turdus jouyi, sp. nov.] 

Birds of Kauai Island, Hawaiian Archipelago, collected by Valdemar Knudseu, with 

descriptions of new species (with figures on Plate VI) 75-108 

[Himantopvs knudseni, Himatione parva, Chasiemjiis dolei, Gha»iempis ridgwayi, Phce- 
ornis myadcstina, species nova' : Oceoj«.?/za, gen. nov. ; Oreomyzabairdi, sp. uo-^.] 

Notes on the Palaearctic Bullfinches 103-11* 

Contributions to the Natural History of the Commander Islands: 

No. 7. Revised and Annotated Catalogue of the Birds inhabiting the Commander Islands 

(with Plates VII-IX) 117-145 

No. 8. (See Vasey, Dr. Geohgk.) 
No. 9. (See Lilljeborg, W.) 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 
Stfjneger, EfCoiibard. Kcview <if Japanese Birds: 

V. Ibises, Storks, and limous (with Plate X) ; 271-318 

[Deiniegieita rinijeii, sp. uov.] 

On tlie Svsteiuatic name ot'Kanitschalkan and Japanese Carrion Crow 320-321 

Notes on I'sittirostra psittacea li oui Kauai, Hawaiian Islands 389-390 

Further contributions to the Avifauna of the Liu Kin Islands, Japan, with descriptions 

of new species (with Plates XXI, XXII) 391-415 

[Porzana pha'opijga. Eiirijzoiia gfpiaria. Turtur stitnpsoni, species nova- ] 
Review of Japanese Birds: 

VI. The Pigeons (tigures on Plato XXII) 416-429 

[Janlhoenas tdtenx, sp. nov.J 

On a collection of birds made by Mr. M. Namiye, in the Islands <if Idzu, Japan 482-480 

Review of Japanese Birds : 

VII. The Creepers C06-611 

Townscntl, Charles II. Field-notes on the Mammals, Birds, and Reptiles of northern 

California (with Plate V and four text figures) 159-241 

True, Frederick W. Description of a new species of Bat, Yet.pertilio Inngicrm, from 

Puget Sound *j, 7 

Some distinctive cranial characters of the Canada Lynx 8, 9 

A note on Vesperugo hesperns (Allen) 51S 

Vasey, l>r. Oeorgc. Contributions to the Natural History of the Commander Islands 

(See LiLLJEBORG and Stejneger) : 
No. 8. Description of Alopecurus stejnegeri, a new species of Grass from the Commander 

Inlands l" 

Zelcdon, Jose €. On Carpodectea. (See Kldgway.) 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, 



TEXT" FIOXJRES. 

Page. 

Skall of Nothura maculosa 157 

Pelvis of Nothtira maculosa 157 

Outline of Mount Shasta 160 

Outline of Lassen's Peak 162 

Antlers of Black-tailed Deer, yearly growth 168 

Abnormal antlers of Black-tailed Deer 166 

Ventral view of Trematode, Distomuin ovatum 368 

Sternum of Daption capensis 379 

Skull of Cliloe.phaga poliocephala 333 

Skull of NycUcorax nycticnrax nrevius 385 

Skull of Corvus corax sinii.alus 386 

PLA.TES. 

I. Fossil plants : FUtonia ? spec. ; Pecopteris Powellii, Gaulinites Beckeri, new species. 

11. Fossil plants: C'aiUinites Beckeri, Qaercus OrosKii, new species; Quereus Gaudini. 

III. Fossil plants : Popidus denticidata ; Andrornnda linearifoUa, Vaccinium coloradense, Sapin- 

dus angustifulinii, Cratcegus Holniem, Cinsites microphylluis, Cfrewiopsis acuminata new 
species. 

IV. Fossil ijlants : Grewinpsis acuminata. Gri'wiupsis Walcotli, now species. 
V. Sketch map of California nortli of the 4iitli ]»aralltl. 

VI. Head of Hiinantopus mexicanus ; head of Himantopiis kimdseni ; wing and tail of Cotinga 

ridgwayi ; wing and tail of Cotinga amubilis. 
VII. Bill of Stercorarius parasiticus ; heads of ^gialitis mongola. 
VIII. First four piiniaries of Larus schistisagus and Larus ajiiiix. 
IX. Thalassocetus pelagicus. 

X. Bills of Platalea leucorodia, Platalea major, Platalea tninor, Platalea regia. 
XI. Myriapods: Pohjdesmua varius, Polydesmus himaculatus, Shendyla perforatus. 
XII. Myriapods : Hcxaglena cryptocephala, Trichopetalum bollmani, Oryptotrichus ccesioannu- 
latus, Polydesmus castaneus, Polydesmus erythropygus. 

XIII. Venation of Euerythra .• primary wings and genitalia of E. phasma and E. trimacidata ; 

venation of Callimorpha ; genitalia of C clymene, G. contigua, G. vestalis, G. lecontei, and 
G. niilitaris. 

XIV. Maculation of species of Gallimorpha. 
XV-XIX. Poritcs furcata, P. clavaria, and P. Branneri. 

XX. New species of fl^^hes from Mexico : Gharacodon variatus, G. bilineatus, G. ferrugineus, 
Fundulus dugesii, Lampetra spadicea. 
XXI. Sketch map of the islands between the main island of Japan and Formosa. 
XXII. Primaries of Dendrocygna javanica and Treron; tail feathers of Turtur douraca torqiiatus 
and Turtur humilis. 

XXIII. Heliaster microbrachia Xantus. 

XXIV. Heliaster cumingii Gray. 
XXV. Heliaster helianthus Gray. 

XXVI. Heliaster multiradiata Gray. 
XXVII-XXVIII. Unio ozarkensis, new species. 
XXIX-XXXV. New species of parasitic Copepods : Trebius tenuifurcatus, Perissopus communis, 
Lernanthropus Brevoortia, Lernanthropus pomatomi. 
XXXVI. Map of part of Kansas. 

XXXVII-XXXVIII. Meteoric iron from Arkansas, under and upper surface. 
XXXIX. Elacate canada. 

VII 



DATES OF PUBLICATION OF SIGNATURES. 

The signatures of this volume were received from the Piililic Printer and published by the Smith- 
sonian Institution as follows : Signatures 1, 2, April 2'i. 1887 ; 3-6. May 17 ; 7-16, July 2 ; 17, August 1 ; 
18-20, Auiiust 3 ; 21, 22, September 16 : 23, 24, September 29 ; 25-28, November 3 ; 29-31, January 6, 1888; 
32-37, August 6 ; 38-43, September 19 : 44, 45, October 12. 



LIST OF CORRECTIONS. 

Page 368. line 16, for oval read oral. 

Page 368, line 32, for 110 diameters read 10 diametcra. 

Plate X, Fig. 7, for Platalea flavipes read Platalea regia. 

Plate XXII, Fig. 1, for Dendronegsa javanica read Dendrooi/gna javani*a. 

VIII 



PROCEEDINGS 



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, 

1887. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF COTINGA FROM THE 
PACIFIC COAST OF COSTA RICA. 

BV RGBEKT RIIi'GWAV 

Cotlnga ridgwayi Zeledon MS. 

Sp. Char. — Similar in color to C. amabUis, but scapulars and inter- 
scapulars more extensively black centrally (producing a distinctly 
spotted appearance), a black line bordering- the base of the upper 
mandible, from forehead to rictus, and a black space immediately in 
front of the eye 5 purple patch on breast smaller. In certain points of 
structure very different, the tail-coverts falling far short of the tip of 
the tail (the upper coverts by .80, the lower by .55, of an inch), instead 
of reaching quite to or even beyond the tip: fifth instead of second 
quill longest, the first two abruptly smaller and shorter than the rest 
(second about equal to sixth). Female and younr/ unknown. 

jgV(&. — Western Costa Eica (Pozo Azul) and south to Colombia 
("Bogota"). 

Adult male (type. No. 109813, U. S. Nat. Mus., Pozo Azul, Costa Eica, 
September 8, 18SG; Jose C. Zeledon): General color rich cerulean-blue, 
purest on head, elsewhere changing to bright yellowish emerald-green 
in certain lights; lesser and middle wing-coverts, scapulars, and inter- 
scapulars largely black centrally, producing a distinctly spotted ap- 
pearance; wings (except lesser and middle coverts) and tail deep black, 
the greater coverts, secondaries, and rectrices edged narrowly with 
greenish blue; whole chin, throat, chest, and malar region rich pansy- 
l^urple, very abruptly defined, all round; a patch of ligliter purple 
("aster-x)urple " anteriorly, fading into pale mauve or violet posteriorly) 
occupying the middle of the breast and belly; a narrow line of black 
along lower edge of lores, from rictus to forehead, and a small space 

Proc. N. M. 87 1 



2 NEW SPECIES OF J^OTINGA. 

of same immediately iu front of eye. Length (skin) G.80, wing 4.35, 
tail 2.85, exposed culmen .50, tarsus .80. 

In addition to the points of distinction from C. amahilis noted above, 
are the following: (1) The general tone of the blue color is slightly but 
very appreciably more green throughout; ('2) the feathers of the ])ileum 
are decidedly coarser and less blended ; (3) the greenish or bluish edg- 
ings on wings are rather narrower. 

There is apparently some resemblance to C. cincta (Bodd.) from Bra- 
zil, but the latter is said to closely resemble C. cayana in having the 
upper parts black, spotted with bluish or greenish (only the tips of the 
feathers being of tbe latter color), and in having the inner webs of the 
primaries broadly edged with white, neither G. ridgicayi nor G. amahilis 
having a trace of white edging to the totally black inner webs of the 
primaries. Unfortunately, I am not able to make a direct comparison 
with G. cincta. (See plate.) 

A "Bogota" specimen in the National Museum collection (No. 78138) 
agrees in all essential characters with the type, thus considerably ex- 
tending the range of the new species. It formed part of a lot of 
"Bogota" birds, and has the unmistakable "make" characterizing 
specimens sent from that locality. 

The new species was found in the same woods with Garpodectes an- 
tonice, both being birds of the western tierra caliente, and representing 
on the Pacific side the eastern Cotinga amahilis and Garpodectes nitidus. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEV7 FORM OF SPINDALIS FROM THE BAHA- 

MAS. 

BV ROISERT RIDG^VAIT. 

Spindalis zena townsendi, subsp. nov. 

Diagnosis. — Similar to 8. zena (Linn.),* but ^ith the back either 
entirely olive or much mixed with this color, iustead of being uniform 
deep black. Rab. Abaco Island, Bahamas. (Dedicated to Mr. Chas. 
W. Townsend, collector of the type specimen, No. 108525, U. S. Nat. 
Mus. ; Abaco, March 26, 1886.) 

Five adult males from Abaco differ in the character pointed out above 
from every specimen in a series of twenty from other islands (New 
Providence, Eleuthera, and Cat Island), obtained at the same season, 
showing the difference to be local, and not dependent on age or season. 

" Fringilla zena LiXN. S. N., ed. 10, i., 1758, 181. Spindalis zena Scl. P. Z. S., 18.56, 321. 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 
BV I>EO.MIAR» STEJ'NEGER. 

IT. STXOPSIS OF THE GEXUS TURDUS. 

The present number of the "Eeview" intends merely to call atten- 
tion to a Thrush which I regard as different from the species usually 
recognized as Japanese. A provisional synoptical key to the species, 
so far as known, has been prepared, as it may be of use in identifying 
the species of this rather difficult genus. It will be observed that 
Tvrdus sibiriciis is not included in this synopsis, for the reason that 1 
do not consider it congeneric with the thrushes here treated of. It may 
easily be distinguished from these by its rounded tail and peculiar wing- 
pattern. 

Detailed tables of synonyms, dimensions, etc., are reserved for a future 
fuller account of the Thrushes. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE JAPANESE SPECIES OF THE GENUS TUEDUS. 

c' Under wiug-coverts ricli brown, rusty, or blackisli (never wliitisli or light gray, 
Xiure or tinged witli ochraceoiis). 

h^ Flanks with distinct blackish terminal, fan-shaped or guttiform spots 

(Blak. & Pryer, No. 260) T. cardis Temm. 
l^ Flanks without terminal spots to the feathers. 

c' U'jder wiug-coverts j^aler or deeper chestnut ; second primary longer than lifth. 
rfi Feathers of the flanks blackish in the center, with broad pale edges; tail 

uniform dark (264) T. eunomus TKMyi. 

d^ Feathers of the flanks pale chestnut in the center, with broad pale edges: 

inner webs of tail-feathers pale chestnut (261) T. naumaiini Temm. 

[c^ Under wing-coverts rich rust colored; second primary shorter than fifth 

(263^) T. Jwrtulorum Sclater.] 

a^ Under wing-coverts whitish or light gray, pure or slightly tinged with ochraceous. 

¥ A distinct white stripe over and under the eye : second primary longer than 

flfth (262) T. oiscurits Gmel. 

l'^ No white stripes about the eyes ; second primary equal to or shorter than fifth, 
c' No distinct Avhite terminal spots on the tail feathers, or only a small one ou the 
outer pair ; flanks and breast bright tawny. 

d' Axillaries and greater under wiug-coverts pure gray ; bill larger 

(263) T. chrymlaus Temm. 
d^ Axillaries and greater under wing-coverts gray, strongly suffused with rusty ; 

bill smaller T.jouyi Stejxeger. 

c" Distinct white terminal spots on outer two pairs of tail feathers, at least ; 

flanks and breast gray, slightly tinged with brownish 

(259) T. pallidiis Gmel. 
Turdus jouyi, sp. n. 

Diagnosis.— Similar to T. chrysolaus, but bill smaller; axillaries and 
greater under wing-coverts strongly suffused with rusty. 
1883.— Turdus oiscurus JOUY, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. VI, Dec. 13, 1833, p. 227 (part 
nee Gmei.).— i/erH^rt obscura Blakist., Chrysanth., 1883, p. 34 (imrt ; comp. 
op. cit. Febr. No. sub No. 262). 
4 



ldS7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 5 

ISSS.—Turdus chrysolaus Blakistox, Clirysantli., 1883, Febr. sub No. 263 {2)art; nee 
Temm.). 

Type.— U. S. Nat. Museum, No. 88605. 

Habitat. — Hondo (Main Island), Japan. 

This form has the bill nearly as small as T. obscurus, and the breed- 
ing birds at least, in a general way, more resemble the latter bird than 
T. chrysolaus; they are easily distinguished, however, by the different 
wing-formula and the absence of distinct white markings on the sides 
of the head. 

Undoubtedly Jouy's Thrush is more closely allied to T. chrysolaus. The 
smallness of the bill, however, is at once apparent, and the coloration of 
theaxillaries and under wing-coverts is considerably different, showing 
as it does a strong suffusion of the rusty color of the flanks, while in T. 
chrysolaus the axillaries and greater under wing-coverts are pure gray. 
The two species seem also to difier in the coloration of the throat. In 
the adult male birds of T. chrysolaus the feathers of this part are uniform 
sooty black clear to the grayish base, and more or less margined with 
rusty, according to season. In T. jouyi the sexes seem not to differ in 
this respect, for both birds of the breeding pair which Mr. Jouy col- 
lected have the throat pure white, streaked with dusky, and there can 
be no doubt that both these birds are adult. They possess, moreover, 
a faint trace of a superciliary stripe behind the eye, and, on the whole, 
present features somewhat intermediate between the two old species, 
without, however, forming anj^ connecting link between them. 

A bird of the year, collected by Mr. Jouy at Tokio, on March 1, 1883, 
I refer with some doubt to the present form. It has, however, the 
small bill and the axillaries strongly tinged with rusty, in these respects 
differing from a bird of corresponding age and undoubtedly referable to 
T. chrysolaus. The greater richness of the rusty and olive color I take 
to be due to season. 

A full description of this form I reserve for a future fuller account 
of the Japanese Thrushes. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF BAT, VESPERTILIO LON- 
GICRUS, FROM PUGET SOUND. 

BY FRK die: RICK AV. TKITE. 

Among- a number of small fishes collected in 18S0 by Prof. D. S. 
Jordan, for the National Museum, in the vicinit}^ of Puget Sound, was 
found a single bat, which, upon examination, j)roves to be of a species 
closely allied to T'. liicifngus, but hitherto uu described. 

The specimen is a female and is in a tolerable state of preservation, 
though the hair is lacking from the abdomen and tbe lumbar region of 
the back. 

DESCRIPTION.* 

Glandular prominences of the sides of the face well developed, as in 
V. lucifugus, making the muzzle appear blunt. Ears shorter than the 
head ; laid forward they do not reach the nostrils by a millimeter ; 
inner margin evenly convex from lobe to tip ; upper third of outer mar- 
gin scarcely concave, lower two-thirds rather strongly convex. Length 
of the tragus slightly more than one-half the height of the ear ; inner 
margin concave, outer margin convex, crenulate ; tij) rounded off. 

Wings from the base of the toes ; foot less than one-half the length 
of the head. Tail long. Interfemoral membrane deep antero-poster- 
iorly ; the hinder margin straight in the posterior half Calcaneum 
ending in a small rounded lobe in the middle of the hinder margin of 
the interfemoral membrane ; the margin between this lobe and the 
foot very convex. Only tbe cartilaginous extremity of the tail free. 
Tibia very long, excelling the head by nearly one-fourth. 

The fur of the body extends on the interfemoral membrane along the 
tail as far as a line joining the centers of the tibiee. The fur above 
uniform umber colored, or slightly lighter at the extremities ; beneath, 
umber in the basal three-i^urths, dull Naples yellow in the apical fourth. 
Membranes dull brown. 

Skull with the face very short and the brain-case greatly elevated. 
Teeth as in T'. lucifugus, except that the first upper premolar is not 
crowded behind the canine. 

On account of the length of the tibia, I have thought it appropriate 
to name the species Ves2)ertilio longicrus. 

It is evident that it is closely allied to V. hwifugiis, but it is readily 
distinguishable from that species by its shorter and broader ears, longer 
tibiae, smaller feet, and duller color. 

* A. diagnosis of tlie species was published in tScieuce, Dec. "24, 1886, p. 586. 
6 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 7 

Measurements of Vespertilio longicrus, 15623, $ {type). Puyet Sound. 



mm. 



Length of head and body 47.5 

Length of head IC.O 

Height of ear lo_ 5 

Length of tragns (3. 5 

Length of forearm 39. 

Length of tb nmh 6.0 

Length of tibia 20. 

Length of foot 7.5 

Length of tail , 45. 

\yASHiNGTON, December 17, 1886. 



SOME DISTINCTIVE CRANIAL CHARACTERS OF THE CANADA 

L"^NX. 

BV FESiCDERICK IV. TRIE. 

Xo one who has examined the literature relating to the lynxes can 
fail to be struck with tlie dissonance of opinions regarding the number 
of existing species. Gray, with characteristic insistence upon minor 
characters, recognizes eight species, and, going still further, divides the 
genus Lyncus into two subgenera, Lynx and Cerraria. Mivart, on the 
other hand, in his work upon the cat, will not even admit the genus 
Lynx, and writes: "The lynxes * * * cannot be separated ofi" as a, 
nominally distinct group or genus."* He also quotes Prof. Alphouse 
3Iilne-Edwards as saying: "Whether there are several species in the 
northern hemisphere, or only races, is a question which I cannot answer. 
There are certainly- distinct forms, but before ranking them as species it 
would be necessary to determine what variations are due to climate, age, 
sex," &c. 

Prof. Allen, after an elaborate study of the skulls of American car- 
nivores, in 1S7C, proposes to reduce all the nominal species of American 
lynxes to varieties of L. rufusA Eegarding the Canada lynx he saj's: 
"Its supposed greater size and larger limbs are also due almost wholly 
to the greater fullness and length of the pelage, the fresh carcass (in a 
specimen from Houltou, Me.), with the skin remoN'ed, giving the same 
measurements as in L. rufiis (a specimen from Colorado)." 

Prof. Baird, in his "Mammals of North America," makes L. maculatus 
a variety of L. riifus, and recognizes three species, L. rufus, fasciatus, 
and canadensis. Professor Flower, in the ninth edition of the Encyclo- 
pedia Britannica, writes in favor of a single species for all the lynxes, 
American and Eurasian. 

I shall not attempt in this essay to harmonize these widely variant 
opinions. My wish is simply to call attention to the apparent value of 
certain cranial characters which are of aid in distinguishing some speci- 
mens of American lynxes from others. I believe that the same distinc- 
tions obtain for the Eurasian lynxes, but the material at command is 
too limited to be of much service. 

" The specific distinctness of L. canadensis, the most northern type," 
writes Professor Allen,| " has been hitherto scarcely questioned, in con- 
sequence of its supposed larger size, larger limbs, longer, softer i^elage, 
longer ear-tufts, more indistinct markings, and generally lighter or 
grayer color. The longer ear-tufts correlate with the longer, softer 
pelage that always characterizes the boreal representatives having a wide 
latitudinal range. The diflerence in coloration is not greater than, or 
even so great as, that which obtains between fasciatns and rii/us, or be- 
tween fasciatiis and maculatus, which forms naturalists now seem dis- 
posed to refer to one and the same species under the name of X. rufusP' 

* Mivart, "The Cat," p.' 4-^4. t Bull. Geol. Surv., II, ld76, 324. 1 1. c. 



1687.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 9 

Viewed from Professor Allen's standpoiut these remarks have very 
great weight, and I have hitherto been inclined to accept his decision 
as hnal. During- my examination of Mr. E. W. IS'elson's Alaska collec- 
tion, however, I was very much struck by the uniformity of relation of 
parts presented by the skulls of the Canada lynx which he collected. In 
all of his skulls, and, as I afterwards ascertained, in all of the skulls from 
British America and the northern parts of the United States, in the 
:N"ational collection, the portion of thepresphenoid visible upon the un- 
der surface of the skull is flask-shaped, the convexity being forward. 
Again, in all these skulls the anterior condyloid foramen is large, iuid 
looks downward, and is not confluent with the foramen J acerum poster ius. 
Comparing these skulls, which had been labeled L. canadensis, with 
those marked L. riifus, fasciatus, and maculatus, I find that in the latter 
the visible portion of the presphenoid is triangular or linear in outline, 
and that the anterior condyloid foramen is confluent with the foramen 
lacerum posterius. 

These characters are of minor importance, but their constancy makes 
them valuable for the division of the genus. The shape of the exposed 
portion of the presphenoid can scarcely have any physiological signifi- 
cance, but the slight change in the position of the anterior condyloid 
foramen may to some extent influence the direction of the hypoglossal 
nerve. Further than this, these characters probably have no special 
significance. They are simply differences in detail of structure, which, 
having been established, are perpetuated from generation to generation. 

On account of their presence and constancy, however, I cannot, with 
Professor Allen, regard the greater size and the differences of pelage ob- 
servable in the Canada lynx as due entirely to climatic conditions. In 
fact, in such skins of the Canada lynx as I have examined I find no 
transition to L. rufus, such as binds the latter species with the so-called 
L. maculatus and L.fasclatus. 

I do not regard the paleness of the fur in L. canadensis as a sign of obso- 
lescence of marking, but as the normal style of coloration of a si)ecies 
not highly colored. So far as the denseness of the pelage is concerned, 
I am willing to believe that it is due entirely to climatic influences. The 
color of the tail, however, I believe to be characteristic of the species. 

Of twenty-four skulls having the characteristics of L. canadensis in 
the National collection, eighteen are from Alaska, two from the Red 
River of the ]Siorth, and one from each of the following localities: The 
main fork of Medicine Bow Creek, Liard River, Fort Simpson, and Ne- 
braska. The sex of only four specimens is recorded; two of these are 
males and two females. Forty-six other skulls, labeled L. rnfus, macula- 
tus, and fasciatus, agree as regards the position of the anterior condyloid 
foramen and the shape of the presphenoid. 

It is interesting to observe that two skulls from Sweden, labeled re- 
spectively Felis lynx and Lynx cervaria, agree with L. canadensis in the 
characters in question. I can only regret that I have no skulls of the 
other nominal species of Eurasian lynxes at command for examination. 



CATALOGUE OP THE SPECIES OP CORALS BELONGING TO THE 
GENUS MADREPORA, CONTAINED IN THE UNITED STATES 
NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

BY RICHARD RATflBlN. 

The U. S. National Museum has been the recipient of two important 
type collections of corals, which have now been in its possession for 
many years. The first of these was obtained by tlie United States 
Exploring Expedition around the world, from 1838 to 1842, under com- 
mand of Capt. Charles Wilkes, U. S. N., and the second by the North 
Pacific Exploring ExpeJition from 1853 to 1856, under command of 
Capts. C. Ringgold and John Eodgers, both of the U. S. Navy. The 
collection of corals made by the former expedition was especially large 
pnd fine, and formed the basis of Professor Dana's classical monograph,* 
the most important and comprehensive work on corals that had been 
published up to that time. Professor Dana was a member of the civil- 
ian scientific staff of the exi^edition, and thus had an opportunity of 
examining in their natural state the objects which he was destined 
to bring so prominently to the attention of naturalists. His observa- 
tions on the living animals of many species are of great interest and 
add much to the value of his report. 

The Anthozoa of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, of which 
the late Dr. William Stimpson was naturalist, were referred to Prof. A. 
E. Yerrill, then of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Harvard 
College, and his results were published in several numbers of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Essex Institute, of Salem, Mass.t 

The coral collection of the United States Exploring Expedition did 
not come into the possession of the National Museum until some years 
after it had been returned lo the Government by Professor Dana, and 
in that interval it suffered greatly from the loss of specimens, the in- 
jury of delicate species, and the misplacement of labels. The original 
catalogue of the corals is not known to be in existence at the present 
time, and there is no way of ascertaining the actual loss, but it amounted 
to a large proportion of the specimens. Many specimens were lent to 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology, when Professor Verrill -was an 
assistant there, and these received the benefit of a careful revision at 
his hands. The same naturalist also visited the National Museum and 
replaced a number of the missing labels. Professor Dana's method of 

'United States Exploring Expedition, during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 
under the command of Charles Wilkes, U. S. X., Vol. VII. — Zoophytes. By James D. 
Dana, A. M., Geologist of the Expedition. Quarto, 740 pp., and one folio atlas of 61 
plutes. Philadelphia: Printed by C. Sherman, 1846. 

t Corals and Polyps of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, with descriptions 
of other Pacific Ocean species. By A. E. Verrill. Proc. Essex Institute, Vols. IV and 
V; April, 1865, to July, 1866. 
10 



18S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 11 

labeling the specimens was such as to leave no grounds for excuse in 
misplacing tliem, each label being distinctly written, in ink, on a piece 
of stiflt' paper, firmly secured to the specimen by copper wire. When 
the present curator took charge of this collection, he found very many 
of these original labels still upon the speciuiens, and in good condition. 

In both of these collections the geuns Madreporawns well represented, 
but more especially so in that procured by the United States Exi)loring 
Expedition. The writer has recently made a careful examination of all 
the specimens in the collection belonging to that genus, identifying such 
as were without labels and verifying the identifications of the others. 
Other portions of the collection will soon be gone over in the same man- 
ner, but it has been deemed advisable to present a list of the species of 
Madrepora at once, for the benefit of those who maj' desire to refer to 
that part of the collection, or who have an interest in knowing its ex- 
tent and present condition. In addition to the specimens received from 
the two naval expeditious, we have included the three Florida and West 
Indian species, and also one of recent origin from the South Pacific 
Ocean. 

tn his " Zoophytes" Professor Dana describes 64 species of Madrepora, 
54 of which were collected bj the exploring expedition. Of the species 
in the collection of this expedition 48 were described as new. One of 
the new species, secunda, was subsequently united by Professor Verrill 
with nobilis of Dana, and alces of Dana is regarded by Pourtales to be 
the same as palmata of Lamarck. Dana's deformis (non Michelin) is 
called JDancv by Yerrill, and his plantaginea (non Lamarck) has been 
named secale by Studer. This leaves the number of new species de- 
scribed by Dana as given above, and of this number 40 are still repre- 
sented by Dana's types (one or more of each) in the collection of the 
National Museum. Professor Verrill described 6 new species from the 
collection of the North Pacific Exploring Exi^edition, specimens of all 
of which are now in the keeping of this Museum. The total number of 
species in our collection represented by type specimens is, therefore, 52. 

The coral collection made by the British ship Challenger from 1873 
to 1876 Avas very rich in species of Madrepora, and contained very many 
of those described by Professor Dana. They have been reported upon 
during the past year by Mr. John J. Quelch.* 

Since the collections of the United States naval expeditions were ob- 
tained, comparatively few specimens of Madrepora have been received 
at the National Museum from other sources than Florida and the West 
Indies. A small but exceedingly fine lot was donated a few years ago 
by 3Ir. J. M. Brower, United States consul at the Fiji Islands 5 it was 
collected at the island of Levuka, and apparently contains several new 

* Report on the reef-corals collected by H. M. S. Cballeuger during the years 1873- 
'76. By John J. Quelch, B. Sc, Loud., late assistant, British Museum; curator of 
the British Guiaua Museum, Georgetown, Demerara. The Voyage of H. M. S. Chal- 
lenger. Zoology, Vol. XVI, Part III, 1SS6. Quarto, 203 pages, 12 plates. 



12 CATALOGUE OF MADREPORA CORALS. 

species, the writer beiug unable, in fact, to identify more than one of 
the species with certainty. It has been thoufjht best, however, to defer 
reference to these species until a more careful comparison can be made 
with other collections than our own. Two other species of doubtful 
identity have also been contributed by Dr. W. H. Jones, U. S. N., from 
Palmyra Island, in the Pacific Ocean. 

In the following list the species have been arranged in alphabetical 
order, without regard to their relations, as affording the most conven- 
ient means of reference. A mark of interrogation, thus (?), before the 
name of a locality indicates that the identity of the specimen is in ques- 
tion ; after a locality, that the latter is in doubt. The numbers under 
which the specimens are recorded in the catalogue books of the National 
Museum are given in parentheses following each citation of locality and 
collector. 

Genus Madrepora Liunseus. 

1. Madrepora abrotauoides Lamarck. 

Lamarck, Hist, des Auim. sans Vert., ii, p. 280, 1816. — Dana, Zoophytes, p. 
477, pi. 41, fig. 1.— Mil-ie-Eihvards, Corall., iii. p. 140. 
Fiji Islamls (?) : U. S. Expl. Exped. (300). 

2. Madrepora acervata Daua. 

Dana, ZoophyTes, p. 4G0, pi. 34, fig. 43. — Qnelch, Cballenger Reef-Corals, p. 
153. 
.Singapore ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (271). 

3. Madrepora aculeus Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 450, pi. 32, fig. G.— Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
160. 
Fiji Islands: U. S. Expl. Exped., type (257). 

4. Madrepora appressa Dana. 

Hetcropora appressa Ehrenberg, Cor. Roth. Meer., p. 109. Madrepora ap- 
pressa Dana, Zoophytes, p. 457, pi. 31, fig. 8, pi. 34, fig. 3. — Quelch, 
Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 163. 
Singapore; U. S. Expl. Exped. (264). 

5. Madrepora arbuscula Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 474, pi. 40, fig. 2. 
Sooloo Sea; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (296). 

6. Madrepora aspera Daua. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 46S, pi. 38, fig. 1. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
156. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (285). 

7. Madrepora brachiata Dana. 

Dana, Z()ui)liytes, p. 474, pi. 38, fig. 3 
Sooloo Sea; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (295). 

8. Madrepora carduus Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 464, pi. od, fig. 2. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (278). 
Sooloo Sea; U. S. Expl, Exped. (277). 



1887. J PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 13 

9. Madrepora cerealis Daua. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 460, pi. 35, fig. 2,— Quelch, Cliallenger Eeef-Corals, p. 
153. 

Sooloo Sea ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (269). 
East Indies; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (270). 

10. Madrepora cervicornis Lamarck. 

Lamarck, Hist, des Auim. saus Vert., ii, j). 281, 181G. — Daua, Zoopliytes, p. 
479. — Milne-Edwards, Corall, ill, p. 136. — Pourtal^s, Ulust. Cat., Mus. 
Comp. Zool., No. IV, p. 84, 1871. 
Florida: (3085.) 

Liglit-ship Bank, three milea west of Carysfort Reef; E. Palmer, 18d4 (15473, 

15474, 15479-15481, 15483). 
Garden Key, Tortugas; Capt. D. P. Woodbury (1642). 

Tortugas; Col. F. Farquhar (3929); E. Palmer, 1834 (15475-15478, 15432, 
15484-15487). 
West Indies; (301, 3965); U. S. Fish Comm. Str. Albatross, 1884 (11009, 11010). 
Island of Curasao, Venezuela; U. S. Fish Comm. Str. Albatross, 18'S4 (7355, 73.58, 
7362-7365, 7368). 

There are several specimens of Madrepora^ of the tyi>e of cervicornis 
and prolifera, from both Florida and the West Indies, which the writer 
has been unable to identify to his satisfaction, and they are not men- 
tioned in this catalogue. As remarked by Pourtale.s, these two species 
are usually more readily distinguished by their general shape and mode 
of growth, than by the character of tlie cells, which are exceedingly 
A'ariable as to size, prominence, and numbers, and intermediate forms 
between the two are very common in all large collections. In the col- 
lection made at the island of Oura9ao, by the steamer Albatross, the 
greater number of specimens undoubtedly belong to cervicornis, but 
some recall prolifera. 

Among the many specimens sent from Hayti by Mr. J. M. Langstou, 
the majority are typical of prolifera, but the same series shows great 
variation in mode of growth, in the direction of cervicornis. Similar 
variations occur among specimens from Florida, but it would not be 
safe to change the present status of the species without a more careful 
study and comparison than appears yet to have been made. For this 
purpose very large collections would be necessary. 

11. Madrepora conferta Quelch (f). 

Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 164, pi. X, fig. 3, 1886. 
South Sea Islands; donated by the Hon. H. F. French, 1885 (8923). 

There is in the collection a large and very i^erfect vase-shaped Madre- 
pore, whicli appears to represent this species recently described by 
Quelch. The exact locality where it was obtained is not known, but 
it is said to have come from one of the "South Sea Islands." It was 
presented to the Museum by the late Hon. H. F. French, together with 
several other corals from the same region. 

It is a comparatively symmetrical, shallow, vase-shaped form, with 
a short, rounded pedicel. The upper surface is slightly oblique, broadly 



14 CATALOGUE OF MADREPORA CORALS. 

oval (sub-circular) iu outline, the longest diameter measuring about 40 
centimeters, the shortest about 35 centimeters. The center is but 
slightly depressed, or between 5 and 6 centimeters below the highest 
plane of the surfiice. From this point the surface rises most rapidly 
at first, and then forms a gentle, more or less regular, curve to the 
margins, which are slightly below the upper plane. On all sides of the 
center the surface is generally convex, but in some places it is slightly 
concave.. The .shaj^e is, however, exceedingly regular for this group of 
corals, and tlie sj)ecimeu in question is one of the most beautiful of all 
the madrepores iu the collection. 

The pedicel is about G.i) centimeters iu diameter, and spreads very 
slightly at its base ; its height to the {)oiut where the upper spreading 
portion begins is only about 4 centimeters, and in the upper part the 
interspaces between the main branches are deep and well defined. The 
calicles extend nearly to the base in some places. 

In the thickness of the corallum, in the mode of branching, and in 
the characters of both surfaces, this specimen agrees very well with the 
description published by Quelch ; but the small solid areas of the lower 
surface, caused by the coalescing of the branchlets with the branches, 
which he mentions, are nowhere specially observable. The branchlets 
of the upper surface are very closelj^ and regularly placed, and are^ 
therefore, separated by narrow interspaces of very regular width. The 
branchlets are longer, more slender, and less vertical toward the mar- 
gin, where the structure is naturally more open than elsewhere. The 
extreme central depressed portion is solid, with a few very small^ 
upright branchlets and ijromiuent calicles, distributed among other 
crowded calicles which are but slightly exsert. 

On one part of the upper surface a stout branch has started up, 
growing obliquely to a height of 4.5 centimeters. It is closely over- 
grown with branchlets of the same size and character as those of the 
plane surface. 

The star of the terminal calicles is less distinct than in Quelch's fig- 
ure, and the lateral calicles are thinner and of a looser texture than in- 
dicated by his description. The size and shape of the calicles are, how- 
ever, the same. While the writer cannot definitely refer this specimen 
to Quelch's species, it certainly approaches it more closely than it does 
any other species that has yet been described. In its general shape it 
somewhat resembles Madrepora patella Studer,* but it differs from that 
species in the character of the branches and calicles, the- former not 
being obliterated on any part of the lower surface. 

12. Madrepora conigera Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 440, pL 32, fig. 1. 
Singapore ; U. S. Espl. Expetl., type (240). 
Tahiti, Society Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped. (239). 

* Monatsber. der K. Preuss. Akad. der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, 1878, p. 527, pi. 1, 
fig. 1. 



1867.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 15 

13. Madrepora coiivexa Daua. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 449. 
Singapore; U. S. Expl. Exped., type ("236). 
Singapore ; U. S. Expl. Exped., young specimen (262). 

14. Madrepora cribripora Dana. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 470, pi. 31. fig. 1. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (289 . 

15. Madrepora cuneata Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 487. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 148. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (334). 

16. Madrepora cuspidata Dana. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 485, pi. 42, fig. 1. 
Tahiti, Society Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., types (314, 3969). 

17. Madrepora cyclopea Daua. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 439. 
Wakes Island, Pacific Ocean; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (231). 
(?) Wakes Island, Pacific Ocean; U. S. Expl. Exped. (232, 233). 

18. Madrepora cytherea Dana. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 441, pi. 32, fig. 3. — Qaelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
165. 
Tahiti, Society Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., types (226-229, 242, 359, 421-423, 3989, 
3990, 4004, 4014, 4020). 

19. Madrepora Danse Verrill. 

Madrepora Dance Verrill, Bull. Mas. Comp. Zool., i, p. 41, 1864. — Quelch, 

Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 151. 
Madrepora deformis Dana (nonMichelin), Zoo^ihytes, p. 484, pi. 43, fig. 1. 
Talaiti, Society Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (303). 

20. Madrepora divaricata Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 477, pi. 41, fig. 2. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (299). 

21. Madrepora eoliinata Daua. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 464, pi. 36, tig. 1.— Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
162. 
Fiji Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (275). 

22. Madrepora exigua Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 469, pi. 38, fig. 2. 
Fiji Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (288). 

23. Madrepora florida Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 466, pi. 37, fig. 1. 
Fiji Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (282). 

24. Madrepora formosa Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 473, pi. 31, fig. 2, pi. 38, fig. 4. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., types (294,888). 
Sooloo Sea ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (292). 
Singapore; U. S. Expl. Exped. (265, 266). 
Unknown localities ; U. S. Expl. Exped. (293, 911). 



16 CATALOGUE OF MADREPORA CORALS. 

25. Madrepora globiceps Daua. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 454, pi. 34, fig. 3. 
Tahiti, Society Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (261). 

26. Madrepora gracilis Daua. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 482, pi. 41, fig. 3. — Qiielch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 158. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (333). 

27. Madrepora hebes Daua. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 466, pi. 35, ilg. 5. — Verrill, Proc. Essex Institute, v, p. 
20, 1866. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 155. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., types (286, 287). 
Tahiti, Society Islands (?); Dr. William Stimpsou, North Pacific Expl. Exped. (370). 

28. Madrepora horrida Dana. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 472, pi. 39, fig. 2. 

Fiji Islauds: U. S. Expl, Exped., type (291). 

29. Madrepora humilis Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 483, pi. 31, fig. 4, pi. 41, fig. 4. 
Fiji Islauds ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (332). 
Levuka, Fiji Islands; J. M. Brower (3917). 

Only one of the original types of this species is now in the collection. 
It is a small clump, about 10 centimeters in diameter and Co centime- 
ters in greatest height, the longest branch measuring about 5.5 centi- 
meters in length and 1.2 centimeters in thickness at the base. The 
collection of Mr. Brower, from Levuka, contains a much larger and finer 
specimen, diflering from the former only in its measurements. The 
greatest spread of the clump is nearly 24 centimeters, the greatest height 
about 11 centimeters. The base is much thickened so that the longest 
branch measures only about 6.5 centimeters. The branches are very 
stout, the largest being about 1.8 centimeters thick at the base ; their 
characters are the same as in the type. The cells are large, the apical 
measuring 4.5 millimeters across, and the lateral about 2 millimeters 
midway of the branches, where they are also most prominent, being 
generally much less exsert toward the base. 

30. Madrepora hyacinthus Dana. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 444, pi. 32, fig. 2. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 164. 
Fiji Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (246). 

31. Madrepora liystrix Daua. 

Daua, Zoophytes, j). 476, pi. 31, fig. 5, ]}\. 40, fig. 1. 
Fiji Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (293). 

32. Madrepora labrosa Dana. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 486, pi. 31, fig. 10, pi. 43, fig. 3. 
Sooloo Sea ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (315). 

33. Madrepora nasuta Daua. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 453, pi. 34, fig. 2. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
154. 
Tahiti, Society Islauds; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (260). 



1887.] PEOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 17 

34. Madrepora uobilis Daua. 

Madrepora nohilia Dana, Zoophytes, p. 481, pi. 40, fig. 3. — Veirill, Bull. Mus. 
CoLup. Zool., i, p. 40, 1864; Proc. Essex Inst., v, p. 20, 18G6.— Quelcli, 
Challenger Reef-Corals, ji. 150. 
Madrepora secunda Dana, Zoophytes, p. 481, pi. 40, fig. 4. 
Singapore; U. S. Espl. Exped., type (4"27). 
Singapore ; U. S. Expl. Exped., types of JLf. secunda Daua (302, 323). 

35. Madrepora palmata Lamarck. 

Madrepora palmata Lamarck, Hist, des Auim. sans Vert., ii, p. 278, 1816. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 436, pi. 31, fig. 11. — Pourtales, Illust. Cat. Mas. 

Comp. Zool., No. IV, p. S'i, 1871.— Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 149. 

Madrepora flahellum Lamarck, Hist, des Auim. sans Vert, ii, p. 279, 1816. — 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 438, pi. 31, fig. 13. 
Madrepora aloes Dana, Zoojjhytes, p. 437, pi. 31, fig. 12. 
Florida; L. Woodhury (225); Captain Pickering (1623, 1624); General Totten 
(3968) ; Collector? (4025) ; E. Palmer (15500), 
CarysfortReef; E. Palmer, 1884 (15498). 
Key West ; C. L. Hamilton (2424), 

Eastern Dry Rocks, near Key West ; E. Palmer, 1834 (15496, 15502). 
Homasassa ; J. W. Milner (4711). 

Dry Tortugas; Col. F. Farquhar (3927) ; E. Palmer, 1884 (15497, 15503) 
Garden Key, Tortugas; Capt. D. P. Woodbury (1643). 
West Indies; U. S. Fish Comm. Str. Albatross, 1884 (11008). 

Saint Thomas; U. S, Fish Comm, Str. Albatross, 1884 (15504). 
Hayti; U. S. Consul J. M. Langston (4066, 4069-4071). 
Island of Curagao, Venezuela ; U. S. Fish Comm. Str. Albatross, 1884 (7270-7272). 

Variety flahellum. 

Dry Tortugas; E. Palmer, 1884 (15501). 

Hayti, West Indies; U. S, Consul J, M, Langston (4067, 4068, 4072), 

West Indies (238). 

Variety alces. 
East Indies; U, S, Expl, Exped,, type oi Madrepora alces Dana (237). 

36. Madrepora paxilligera Dana. 

Dana Zoophytes, p, 452, pi, 34, fig, 1, — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
154, 
Tahiti, Society Islands; U, S, Expl, Exped,, types (247, 249). 

37. Madrepora prolifera Lamarck, 

Lamarck, Hist, des Anim. sans Vert,, ii, p, 281, 1816, — Dana, Zoophytes, p. 
480. — Milne-Edwards, Corall., iii, p, 139, — Pourtales, Illust. Cat., Mus. 
Comp. Zool., No. rV, p, 84, 1871,— Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 149, 
Florida : 

Dry Tortugas ; E. Palmer, 1884 (15490-15492); Col. F. Farquhar (3939). 
Garden Key, Tortugas; Capt. D. P. Woodbury (1641), 
West Indies: (330,3967). 

Hayti ; U. S. Consul J. M. Langston, 1381 (4618, 4C20, 4623, 4624, 4627, 4630, 
4636,4637, 4647,4649, 4G50). 

See remarks upon this species under Madrej)ora cervicornis. 
Proc. N. M. 87 2 



18 CATALOGUE OF MADREPORA CORALS. 

38. Madrepora prolixa Vorrill. 

Verrill, Proc. Essex lust., v, p. 22, 1S66. 
Ousima, Japan; Dr. William Stimpson, North Pacific Expl. Esped., types (412, 
414). 

39. Madrepora prostrata Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 447, jjI. 33, fig. 1. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
163. 
Sooloo Sea; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (253). 

40. Madrepora pumila Verrill. 

Proc. Essex Inst., V, p. 23, 1866. 
Bonin Islands; Dr. William Stimpson, North Pacific Expl. Exped., typo (389). 

41. Madrepora ramiculosa Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 463, pi. 35, fig. 4. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
159. 
Fiji Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (274). 

42. Madrepora retusa Dana. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 462. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 153. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (273). 

43. Madrepora robusta Dana. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 475, pi. 31, fig. 3, pi. 39, fig. 3. — Quelch, Challenger 
Reef-Corals, p. 151. 
Fiji Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (297). 

44. Madrepora rosaria Dana. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 465, pi. 36, fig. 3. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
162. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., types (281, 933). 

45. Madrepora secale Studer. 

Madrepora plantaginea Dana (non Lamarck), Zoophytes, p. 459. 

Madrepora appressa Dana, var., teste Verrill, Bull. Mus. Comj). Zool., i, p. 42, 

1864. 
Madrepora secale Studer, Monatsber. d. k. Preuss. Akad. d. Wiss., Berlin, p. 
530, 1878. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 163. 
East Indies; U. S. Expl. Exped. (268). 

46. Madrepora securis Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 486, pi. 43, fig. 2. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
148. 
East Indies (?); U. S. Expl. Exped., type (304). 

47. Madrepora spicifera Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, \y. 442, pi. 31, fig. 6, pi. 33, tig. 4. 

Singapore; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (244). 

Singapore; U. S. Expl. Exped., var. abbreviata, Dana (235, 245). 

Singapore; U. S. Expl. Exped., variety (234). 

48. Madrepora striata Verrill. 

Verrill, Proc. Essex Inst., v, p. 24, 1866. 
Ousima, Japan (?) ; Dr. William Stimpson, North Pacific Expl. Exped., type (371). 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 19 

49. Madrepora subulata Daua. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 448, pi. 33, fig. 3. 
East Indies; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (256). 

50. Madrepora surculosa Daua. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 445, pi. 32, fig. 4, 5.— Qnelcb, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 
166. 
Tahiti, Society Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (251). 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (248). 

51. Madrepora tenuis Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 451. — Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 157. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (259). 

52. Madrepora teres VerrilJ. 

VerriU, Proc. Essex lust., t, p. 20, 1866. 
Ousima, Japan ; Dr. William Stimpson, North Pacific Expl. Exped., type (.377). 

53. Madrepora tortuosa Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 467, pi. 37, fig. 3. 
Fiji Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (284). 

54. Madrepora tubicinaria Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 451, pi. 32, fig. 7.— (?) Verrill, Proc. Essex Inst., r, p. 23, 
1866. 
Fiji Islands ; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (258). 

(?) Tahiti, Society Islands; Dr. William Stimpson, North Pacific Exnl. Exped. 
(374). 

55. Madrepora tumida Verrill. 

Verrill, Proc. Essex lust., v, p. 21, 1866. 
Hong Kong, China ; Dr. William Stimpson, North Pacific Expl. Exped., types 
(360, 419). 

56. Madrepora turgida Verrill. 

Verrill, Proc. Essex Inst., v, p. 19, 1866. 
Loo Choo, China ; Dr. William Stiinxjson, North Pacific Expl. Exped., type (358). 

57. Madrepora valida Daua. 

Daua, Zoophytes, p. 461, pi. 35, fig. 1. 
Fiji Islands: U. S. Expl. Exped., type (272). 

58. Madrepora virgata Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 471, pi. 39, fig. I.— Quelch, Challenger Reef-Corals, p. 

158, 

Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (290). 

59. Madrepora implicata Dana. 

Dana, Zoophytes, p. 466, pi. 37, fig. 2. 
Fiji Islands; U. S. Expl. Exped., type (283). 

The original specimen of this species has been discovered since the 
foregoing was in type. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ADULT FEMALE OF CARPODECTES AN- 
TONIJE ZELEDON ; WITH CRITICAL REMARKS, NOTES ON HAB- 
ITS, ETC., BY JOSE C. ZELEDON. 

BY KOBERT RIDGWAY. 

Adult female (No. 109S14, U. S. Nat. Mus., Pirris, Costa Eica, Sept. 
14, 1886; Jos6 C. Zeledou) : Above plain slate-graj-, with a slight 
brownish tinge ; wings slate-black, the middle and greater coverts and 
secondaries broadly edged with white; tail plain dark slate; lower 
parts pale gra^-, deeper across chest and along sides, fading into white 
on lower belly, anal region, and under tail-coverts ; axillars and under 
wing-coverts entirely pure white ; bill dark brown, blackish on culmen, 
and fading into yellow on basal half of lower mandible and that portion 
of upper beneath lores; iris dark brown, eyelids black. Length (skin) 
7.C0, wing 4.90, tail 2.50, exposed culmen .62, tarsus .90. 

Several specimens were obtained by Mr. Zeledon, who secured also 
additional examples of the male, and who sends the following observa- 
tions on the species : " I was quite surprised to observe the great dis- 
similarity between the two sexes, a fact which I had not suspected, 
though it is almost the rule throughout the Cotingidcey at least so far 
as the family is represented in Costa Eica. As I took particular pains 
in ascertaining tiie sex of all the specimens, and have now before me 
twenty-two males, differing in no respect whatever from the type, I 
think it is perfectly safe to say that this species never has the black 
tips of the wings seen in immature specimens of C. nitidus. One of my 
specimens shows a somewhat smaller and paler bill and a few scattered 
white feathers along the outside of the tarsi, no doubt indications of 
immaturity. I cannot detect the slightest difference between the five 
female specimens before me. . . . Judging from analogy, I am led 
to believe that the female of 0. nitidus has not as yet been discovered, 
and when obtained will prove to be fully as different from the uiale as 
in the present case. 

" The bird cannot be called common, and it was by mere accident that 
I came across a particular tree with ripe fruit for which it shows much 
partiality, and there I stationed a man to watch and shoot the birds as 
they arrived to feed. ... I have not heard its song, nor has any 
one else, that I know of. The call-note resembles very much that of 
Tityra per sonata.'''' 
20 



1887.] PEOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 21 



LIST OF RECENTLY IDENTIFIED FOSSIL PLANTS BELONGING TO 
THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, WITH DESCRIPTIONS 
OF SEVERAL NEW SPECIES. 

BV £iEO liESQUKKGUX, Columbus, Ohio. 

[Compiled and prepared for publication by F. II. Kuowlton.] 

(With four plates.) 

NOTE OF EXPLANATION. 

The followiug list comprises the identification of a large amount of 
material that has been accumulating in the Department of Fossil Phiuts 
since the founding of the Smithsonian Institution. This material, filling 
some fourteen boxes, was sent to Professor Lesquereux in September, 
1885, and returned by him, named and labeled, in July, 1886. Much of 
the material was in a fragmentary condition, and was found to be in- 
capable of satisfactory specific or even generic determination, and such 
has been discarded. As many of the specimens were without labels or 
other data by which they could be located, this will account for the 
frequently recurring statement that the locality and collector are un- 
known. 

Several new species, of which descriptions and figures will be found 
in the text and plates, have been detected by Professor Lesquereux. 
These have generally been named for the discoverers. 

The first number given the specimen is the regular catalogue number 
of the Museum collection of fossil plants. The lot number refers to the 
number given each lot of specimens before they were sent to Columbus. 
This was done to prevent confusion when there were numerous speci- 
mens representing different species from the same locality. 

ALGiE. 

FUCACE^. 

1. Palaeophycus irregularis Hall. 

Head of Eed Water Valley, Black Hills, Dakota ; H. Newton, col- 
lector, 1875 ; nineteen specimens ; Museum number 2145 ; 9 specimens 
collector's number, 8684. Museum number, 2146 (1 specimen) ; collect- 
tor's number, 8685. Museum number, 2147 (7 specimens) ; collector's 
number, 8685. Museum number 2148 (2 specimens) ; collector's num- 
ber, 8689. 

2. Palaeophycus tubularis Hall. 

Head of Ked Water Valley, Black Hills, Dakota; H. :N"ewtou, col- 
lector, 1875; seven specimens; Museum number, 2149; collector's num- 
ber, 8684. 



22 FOSSIL PLANTS IX NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

3. Palaeophycus rugosus Hall. 

Blount County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector, 1885; two specimens ; 
^Museum number, 2150 ; lot number, 224. 

4. Buthotrepliis flexuosa Hall. 

Blount County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector, 1885 ; seven specimens ; 
Museum number, 2383 ; lot number, 224. 

5. Buthotrephis gracilis Hall, var. crassa Hall. 

Locality and collector unknown ; Museum number, 2384. 

EQUISETACB^. 

EQUISETE^. 

6. Equisetites s^ec, a stem. 

Locality and collector unknown ; one specimen ; Museum number, 
2389 ; lot number, 220. 

CALAMARIE^. 

7. Calamites approximatus Schlotb. 

Texas ? Eeceived through Mr. W. S. Yeates ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2152 ; lot number, 94. 

8. Calamites approximatus Scliloth, var. cruciatus Lx., u. v. 

City of Mexico, Mexico. Eeceived from Ellis Clark; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2151 ; lot number, 91. 

9. Calamites cannaeformis Schlotb. 

Blount County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 21G2 ; lot number, 89. Trinity Eiver, Jackson County, Texas; 
A. E. Eoessler, collector ; two specimens; Museum number, 2156; lot 
number, 101. 

10. Calamites Cistii Brougu. 

Bay of Fundy. Through Dr. E. Foreman ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2157 ; lot number, 95. Pennsylvania Coal Fields. Eeceived 
from the American Museum of Natural HLstory, ISTew York ; one speci- 
men ; Museum number, 2161 ; lot number, 93. 

11. Calamites dubius Artis. 

Trinity Eiver, Jackson County, Texas ; A. E. Eoessler, collector; two 
specimens; Museum number, 2155; lot number, 101. 

12. Calamites ramnifer Stur. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector; two 
specimens ; Museum number, 2158 ; lot number, 223. 

13. Calamites ramosus Arti.s. 

Cannelton, Pa. Eeceived from I. C. Eussell; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2163; lot number, 227; one specimen; Museum number, 2159; 
lot number, 224. Centerville, Hickman County, Tenn. Ira Sayles, col- 
lector ; one specimen. Museum number, 2160 ; lot number, 215. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 23 

14. Calamites Suckowii Brongu. 

Commercial Summit, Whitney County, Ky.; M. P. Lightfoot, collector; 
two specimens; Museum number, 2153; lot number, 100. Two speci- 
mens ; Museum number, 2154; lot number, 101. 

15. Asterophyllites equisetiformis Brongn. 

Mazon Creek, Illinois; A. H. Wortlieu, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2220, on same stone as 2219 ; lot number, 69. 

16. Calamodeudron approximatum Brongn. 

Coalburg, W. Va. ; W. H. Edwards, collector ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2286 ; lot number, 216. 

17. Macrostachya Schimp., sp., spike of. 

Coalburg, W. Va.; W. H. Edwards, collector ; one specimen ; Mu- 
seum number, 2393 ; lot number, 109. 

18. Bornia radiata Schimp. 

Eufaula, Indian Territory ; H. F. Buckner, collector; one specimen ; 
Museum number, 216-1 ; lot number, 96. Warrior Creek, Jefferson 
County, Ala., Frank Burns, collector ; two specimens ; Museum num- 
bers, 2165, 2166 ; lot number, 223. Locality, unknown ; J. T. Abert, 
collector ; one specimen ; Museum number, 2167. Locality and collector, 
unknown ; one specimen ; Museum number, 2168 ; lot number, 226. 

19. Sphenophyllum ercsum L. & H. 

Centerville, Tenn. ; Ira Sayles, collector ; two specimens ; Museum 
number, 2225 ; lot number, 215. 

20. Annularia longifolia Brongu. 

Canneltou, Pa. ; Eeceived from I. C. Eussell ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2172 ; lot number, 227. 

21. Annularia longifolia, var. augustifolia Ls. 

" Mire Road, C. B.," collector unknown ; two specimens ; Museum num- 
ber, 2171 ; lot number, 102. 

22. Annularia splienophylloides (Zenk.) Gutb. 

Centerville, Hickman County, Tenn. ; Ira Sayles, collector; one speci- 
men ; Museum number, 2169 ; lot number, 215. Locality and collector, 
unknown ; two specimens ; Museum number, 2170 ; lot number, 99. 

FILICES. 
SPHENOPTERIDE^ . 

23. Sphenopteris flaccida Cr^pin. 

Rawley Springs, Ya. ; Beuj. Miller, collector; two specimens; Museum 
number, 2223 ; lot number, 57. 

24. Sphenopteris pseudo-murrayana Lx. 

Saint Clair, Pa.; received from George Powell ; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2224 ; lot number, 75. 



24 FOSSIL PLANTS IX NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

25. Archaeopteris minor Lx. 

Towanda, Pa. ; George 11. Eldridge, collector; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2385 ; lot number, G2. 

XEUROPTERIDE^. 

26. Neuropteris biforniis Lx. 

Warrior Creek, Jeflerson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector ; one 
specimen ; Museum number, 2180 ; lot number, 223. 

27. Neuropteris Carrii Lx. 

Wiikes-Barre, Pa.; received from American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Xew York ; one specimen ; Museum number, 2181 ; lot number, 66. 

28. Neuropteris cordata Brougu. 

Canneltou, Pa. ; received from I. C. Eussell ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2213, on same stone as number 2212 ; lot number, 227. 

29. Neuropteris decipiens Lx. 

Grundy County, Ills.; Fred. C.Green, collector; three specimens; 
Museum number, 2173 ; lot number, 222. 

30. Neuropteris Elrodi Lx. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala. ; Frank Burns, collector ; one 
specimen; Museum number, 2175: lot number, 223. Warrior Creek, 
Jeflerson County, Ala. ; one specimen; ^Museum number, 217G ; lot num- 
ber, 223. Locality, unknown ; I. T. Abert, collector ; two specimens; 
Museum number, 2189 ; lot number, 226. 

31. Neuropteris hirsuta Lx. 

Saint Clair, Schuylkill County, Pa. ; received from George Powell ; 
three specimens; Museum number, 2185; lot number. 75. Eugene, Ind.; 
I. Collet, collector ; four specimens ; Museum number, 2188 ; lot num- 
ber, 71. 

32. Neuropteris Loshii Brongn. 

Saint Clair, Schuylkill County, Pa. ; received from George Powell ; two 
specimens; Museum numbers, 2183, 2186; lot number, 75. 

33. Neuropteris obscura Lx. 
SaintClair5SchuylkillCounty,Pa.; receivedfrom GeorgePowell; two 

specimens; Museum number, 2182; lot number, 75. 

34. Neuropteris rarinervis Bniibury. 

Saint Clair, Schuylkill County, Pa. ; received from George Powell; 
two specimens; Museum numbers, 2184, 2187; lot number, 75. 

35. Neuropteris retorquata {'!) Daws. 

Crested Butte, Gunnison County, Colo.(?); George H. Eldridgr, col- 
lector; twenty-two specimens. 

They are all very small fragments either of ultimate pinnte or mostly 
of pinnules. The large pinnules agree well with the description and 
figures of Dawson [Canadian Fossils p. 50, PI. XVII, fig. 197] ; but most 



1887.] PEOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 25 

of the pinnules are smaller and narrower. As no fragment represents 
an entire pinna, the identification cannot be positive. 

The nature of the anthracite shale in which these plants are pre- 
served makes it seem improbable that they came from Colorado. The 
material resembles that from St. John, Canada ; Museum number, 2197; 
lot number, 213. 

36. Neueropteris Smitliii Lx. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector; two 
specimeus; Museum numbers, 2174, 2178; lot number, 223. 

37. Callipteris pilosa (?) Daws. 

Crested Butte, Gunnison County, Colo.(?); George H. Eklridge, col- 
lector; one specimen. 

From the description of the auth*or [Foss. PI. of tiie Devonian, p. 51, 
PI. XVI, fig. 189] we learn that the frond is covered with numerous mi- 
croscopic hairs, masking the nervation. The form and division of the 
pinnae and pinnules agree better with the figures than with the descrip- 
tion of the plant by the author. The pinnules are enlarged and decur- 
rent, connate at base, thin ; nervation obsolete. 

From the general character of the plant it appears rather referable 
to a Pecopteris than a Callipteris. 

According to Dawson the plant is from the Middle Devonian of St. 
John. 

Museum number, 2390; lot number, 213. 

38. Triphyllopteris Lescuriaua Meek. 

Whetstone Hill, Ya. ; H. E. Geiger, collector; six specimens ; Museum 
number, 2190; lot number, 218. 

PECOPTERIDE^. 

39. Pecopteris aiborescens Brongn. 

Locality and collector unknown ; two specimens ; Museum numbers, 
2194, 2201. 

40. Pecopteris dentata Brougn. 

Saint Clair, Schuylkill County, Pa. ; received from George Powell ; 
one specimen ; Museum number, 2197 ; lot number, 75. Deavertown, 
Ohio; received from S. C. Gray; two specimens; Museum number, 
2200 ; lot number, 73. 

41. Pecopteris Fontainii Ls. P. abbreviata, Brgt., olim. 1st Penn. Geol. IIc[)t., 

p. 867, etc. 
Locality and collector unknown ; one specimen ; Museum number^ 
2198 ; lot number, 70. 

42. Pecopteris serrulata Hart. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala. ; Frank Burns, collector ; one 
specimen ; Museum number, 2191 ; lot number, 223. 



26 FOSSIL PLANTS IX NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

43. Pecopteris uuita Brougu. 

Locality aud collector unknown; one specimen; Museum number, 
2199 ; lot number, 70. 

44. Pecopteris villosa Brougn. 

Mazon Creek, 111. ; received from the American Museum of Natural 
History, New York; one specimen; Museum number, 2195; lot number, 
G8. Oannelton, Pa. ; received from I. C. Russell ; one specimen ; Mu- 
seum number, 2203 ; lot number, 227. Cannelton, Pa. ; received from 
I. C. Eussell ; one specimen ; Museum number, 2211, on same stone as 
number 2210; lot number, 227. Museum number, 2214, on same stone 
as number 2212 ; lot number, 227. 

45. Pecopteris villosa Brougu., var. microphylla Ls. 

Green County, Pa. ; Benj. Miller, collector ; four specimens ; Museum 
number, 2196; lot number, 7-1. Two specimens; Museum number, 
2193 ; lot number, 53. 

Differs by the smooth rachis, the pinnules very small narrow linear- 
oblong obtuse, free to the base or connate only at the very base, at 
right angles to the narrow rachis. The pinnae are linear- lanceolate, 
also at right angles, curved upwards near their extremities ; the pin- 
nules at base are not more than 1°*™ broad and 3-4™°^ long, deeply villose 
on the surface. 

46. Pecopteris Pow^ellii, sp. uov. PI. I, fig. 1, 1 a. 
City of Mexico ; Ellis Clark, collector. 

A small bipinnate fragment : Rachis narrow ; ultimate pinnse oppo- 
site, open and slightly recurved ; i^innules small, alternate, close, sub- 
linear, obtuse, connate to above the base, separated by narrow obtuse 
sinuses ; medial nerve thin, percurrent, the lateral oblique, curved to- 
ward the borders from the middle, there forking in two or three branches. 

By the form and position of the pinnules, this fern is evidently refer- 
able to Pecopteris. But its basilar nerves are emerging from the rachis 
and enter the base of the pinnules vertically or obliquely as in species 
of Alethoj)teris. 

One specimen ; Museum number, 2202 ; lot number, 56. 

47. Pecopteris spec, fruit of. 

Richmond, Va. ; received from Nat. West; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2192; lot number, 54. "Pettyshon's R. I. Cala"; G.Thomson, 
collector. 

48. Pseudopecopteris anceps Lx. 

Cannelton, Pa. ; received from I. C. Russell; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2212 ; lot number, 227. 

49. Pseudopecopteris dimorpha Ls. 

Rhode Island ; received from the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York ; one specimen ; Museum number, 2209 ; lot number, 65- 



1887.] PEOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 27 

50. Pseudopecopteris muricata (Brgt.) Lx. 

Warrior Creek, Jeffersou County, Ala. ; Frauk Burns, collector ; 
three specimens; Museum numbers, 2204, 2206, 2208; lot number, 223. 
Centerville, Tenn. ; Ira Sayles, collector; four specimens; Museum 
numbers, 2207, 2218 ; lot number, 215. 

51. Pseudopecopteris Pluckenetii (Brgt.) Lx. 

Cannelton, Pa. ; received from I. C. Russell ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2210 ; lot number, 227. 

52. Alethopteris ambigua Lx. 

Mazon Creek, 111. ; A. H. Wortheu, collector; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2219 ; lot number, 69. 

53. Alethopteris lonchitica Sterub. sp. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County-, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector; three 
specimens; Museum number, 2215; lot number, 223. Centerville, Tenn.; 
Ira Sayles, collector; six specimens ; Museum number, 2216 ; lot num- 
ber, 215. Cannelton, Pa. ; Received from I. C. Russell, one specimen ; 
Museum number, 2222 ; lot number, 227. 

54. Alethopteris lonchitica, var. angustifolia Lx., n. v. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector; one 
specimen ; Museum number, 2217 ; lot number, 223. 

55. Alethopteris Serlii Brongn. 

Eugene, lud.; I Collett, collector; two specimens; Museum number, 
2221 ; lot number, 71. 

56. Wood^ivardialatiloba Lx. 

Separation, Colo.; Mr. Levy, collector; one specimen; Museum num- 
ber, 2391 ; lot number, 23. 

LYCOPODIACEiE. 

57. Lycopodites tenerrimus ? Heer. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector; two speci- 
mens. 

The fragments are much like those figured and described by Heer, 
Fl. Foss. Arct. IV., pt. 2 [Jura Fl. OstsibirJ p. 42, PI. XV., figs. 1^, 2-8. 
Stem thin, filiform, fasciculate at base; dichotomous; branches erect, 
filiform, bearing very small linear, short, or lanceolate longer, leaves 
without nerves. Except that Heer says of the leaves that they are very 
approximate, his description agrees with the plant. But from his figures 
the leaves are as distant upon some stems and as large as upon the 
specimens of the Museum. 

This plant is also much like Widdringtonites Beichii Heer, but the 
leaves are larger and the base of the stem is without leaves and more 
slender. Museum number, 2287 ; lot number, 8. 



28 FOSSIL PLANTS IX NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

LEPIDODENDRE^. • 

58. Lepidodeiidrou aculeatum Sternb. 

Warrior Creek, Jetiersou county, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector ; three 
specimens ; Museum number, 2231 ; lot number, 223. 

59. Lepidodendrou acuminatum (Gcipp.) Ung. 

Locality unknown ; received from Professor Taylor, one specimen ; 
Museum number, 2243 ; lot number, 85. 

60. Lepidodendrou clypeatum Lx. 

Liberty Spring, Ark.; Dr. G. H. Horn, collector; one specimen; Mu- 
seum number, 2226 ; lot number, 110. Henry County, Mo. ; Dr. J. 
H. Biitts, collector; one specimen; Museum number, 2230; lot num- 
ber, 101. Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, col- 
lector ; four specimens ; Museum number, 2232 ; lot number, 223. Lo- 
cality unknown ; received from I. T. Abert ; two specimens j Museum 
number, 2218 ; lot number, 226. 

61. Lepidodendron corrugatum Daws. 

Florida; James Neal, collector; one specimen; Museum number, 2244,* 
lot number, 215. Locality and collector unknown ; three specimens j 
Museum number, 2247 ; lot number, 99? 

62. Lepidodendron corrugatum Daws., var. 

Lewis Tunnel, W. Va.; F. W. Meek? ; two specimens; Museum num- 
ber, 2237 ; lot number, 81. 

63. Lepidodendron dichotomum Sternb. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector ; one 
specimen ; Museum number, 2233 ; lot number, 223. Coalburg, W. Va.j 
received from W. H. Edwards ; one specimen ; Museum number, 2236 ; 
lot number, 109. Harrisonville, Pa.; received from Kobert McElwain ; 
one specimen ; Museum number, 2245 ; lot number, 108. 

64. Lepidodendron dichotomum Sternb., var. obovatum Scliimper. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector ; one 
specimen; ]\Iuseum number, 2227 ; lot number, 223. 

65. Lepidodendron Gaspianum Daws. 

Lewis Tunnel, W. Va.; F. W. Meek ? ; one specimen ; Museum num- 
ber, 2238 ; lot number, 81. Lewis Tunnel, W. Va.; received from F. 
W. Meek? ; one specimen ; Museum number, 2239 ; lot number, 84. 

66. Lepidodendron modulatum Lx. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector ; one 
specimen; Museum number, 2234; lot number, 223. Liberty Springs, 
Ark.; Dr. G. H. Horn, collector; one specimen ; Museum number, 2242 ; 
lot number, 110. Harrisonville, Pa.; received from Eobert McElwain ; 
two specimens; Museum number, 2240; lot number, 108. 



1867.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 29 

67 Lepidodendrou Rushvillense Andrews. 

Warrior Creek, Jetfersou County, Ala. 3 Frauk Burns, collector; two 
specimens; Museum number. 2240; lot number. 223. 

68. Lepidodeudroia Veltheimianum Sterub. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala. ; Frank Burns, collector; five 
specimens ; Museum numbers, 2228, 2235 ; lot number, 223. Locality and 
collector unknown j one specimen; Museum number, 2229. Liberty 
Springs, Ark.; Dr. G. H. Horn, collector; one specimen ; Museum num- 
ber, 2241 ; lot number, 110. 

69. Lepidodeudron, leaves of. 

Alabama; unknown; tw^o specimens; Museum number, 2249 ; lot 
number, 223. 

70. Cyclostigma densifolium ? Daws. 

Lewis Tunnel, W. Ya,; "JNCeek's Types?"; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2283 ; lot number, 97. 

71. Bothrodeudron punctatum L. & H. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala. ; Frauk Burns, collector; one 
specimen ; Museum number, 2282 ; lot number, 223. 

72. Knorria species. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala. ; Frank Burns, collector; one 
specimen; Museum number, 2280; lot number, 233. 

73. Lepidostrobus variabilis L. & H. 

Warrior Creek, Jelferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector; one 
specimen; Museum number, 2284; lot number, 223. 

74. Lepidocystis fraxiniformis Lx. 

Henry County, Mo. ; received from W. S. Yates!; one specimen; Mu- 
seum number, 2285; lot number, 90. 

75. Lepidophyllum majus ? Brongn. 

Crested Butte, Gunnison County, Colo. ; Geo. H. Eldridge, collector ; 
one specimen ; Museum number, 2380 ; lot number, 213. 

T^NIOPHYLLE^E. 

76. Taeniophyllum ? n. sp. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector. 

Upon a large specimen partly covered with pinnte, of Pseudopecop- 
teris muricata Bt. [a peculiar variety with rachis smooth and pinnules 
close, decurrent and connate at base] there are two long stems flattened, 
smooth, minutely striate lengthwise, 1^ to 2 centimeters broad, ap- 
pearing like rachis of the fern. From these stems there come out all 
along them parallel leaves similar to leaves of Lepidodeudron 5 centi. 
meters broad, smooth, triple nerved in the middle, linear, curved upward, 
apparently long. They are mostly broken at a short distance from the 
rachis or stem to which they are attached at right angles, but a few are 



30 FOSSIL PLANTS IN NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

preserved as loug as 12 centimeters. The attachment of these leaves 
to the rachises, which are more than 20 centimeters loug, may be merely- 
apparent and these stems or rachises may cover the leaves derived 
from some Lepidodendron, but at some places along the rachis the 
leaves are slightly decurring to it, flattened and really attached to it. 
These leaves and their mode of attachment have some relation to those 
of Lepidoxylon and still more to those of Desmiophyllum gracile 0. Fl. PL 
82 f. 1. But they are evidently triple nerved in the middle and thus 
analogous to leaves of Lepidodendron. The Ta.Ghi& of Fseudojjecopteris 
muricaia is very broad dichotomous (alternately so) transversely rugose 
in the middle. 

One specimen ; Museum number, 2205, on same stone as No. 2204 ;, 
lot number, 223. 

SIGILLARIE^. 

77. Sigillaria Defrancii Brongn. 

Henry Countj^, Mo.; received from W. S. Yeates?; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2267 ; lot number, 90. 

78. Sigillaria elliptica, var. , Brongn. 

Belgium ; received from Professor Hainarts ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2266 ; lot number, 86. 

79. Sigillaria ichthyolepis Sternb. 

Locality and collector unknown; three specimens ; Museum number, 
2268 ; lot number. 111. 

80. Sigillaria monostygma Lx. 

Cauneltou, Pa.; received from J. T. Abert; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2269 ; lot number, 227. 

81. Sigillaria reniformis Brongn. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector ; one' 
specimen ; Museum number, 2264 ; lot number, 223. 

82. Sigillaria Voltzii Brongn. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector; two 
specimens ; Museum number, 2263 ; lot number, 223. 

83. Sigillaria, n. sp. ? too small for determination. 

Centerville, Tenn.; Ira Sayles, collector; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2265 ; lot number, 215. 

84. Sigillaria, spec, -with Sigillaria stellata, Ls. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector; two 
specimens, fragments of a trunk, decorticated ; Museum number, 2262; 
lot number, 223. 

85. Stigmaria ficoides Brongn. 

Two miles west of Wales, Utah; Dr. C. A. White, collector; one 
specimen ; Museum number, 2250 ; lot number, 229. Blount County, 



18S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 31 

Ala.; Frank Burns, collector ; two specimens ; Museum number, 2254; 
lot number, 224. Harrisonville, Pa.; received from Eobt. McEhvaiu ; 
three specimens ; Museum number, 225G ; lot number, 80. Baugli Bend, 
Walker County, Ala. ; 0. 3IcKimley, collector ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2260 ; lot number, 77. 

86. Stigmaria ficoidesBrongu., var. elliptica Goepp. 

Locality and collector unknown ; one specimen ; Museum number, 
2259 ; lot number, 82. 

87. Stigmaria ficoides Brongu., var. minor Gein. 

Locality and collector unknown ; six specimens ; Museum number, 
2257 ; lot number, 82. Blount County, Ala. ; Frank Burns, collector ; 
one specimen ; Museum number, 2252 ; lot number, 224. 

88. Stigmaria ficoides Brongn., var. undulata Goepp. 

Blount County, Ala. ; Frank Burns, collector ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2251 ; lot number, 224. Locality and collector unknown ; two 
specimens ; Museum number, 2258 ; lot number, 82. 

89. Stigmaria, leaves of. 

Centerville, Tenn.; Ira Sayles, collector; one sijecimen ; Museum 
number, 2255 ; lot number, 215. Locality unknown ; A. Hague, col- 
lector; two specimens; Museum number, 2261; lot number, 41. 

90. Stigmaria, spec. 

Lewis Tunnel, W. Va.; Meek, collector ; two specimens; Museum 
number, 2253 ; lot number, 103. 

CYCADACE^. 

CORDAITE^. 

91. Cordaites angustifolius Daws. 

Warrior Creek, Jelferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector; one 
specimen; Museum number, 2274; lot number, 223. Crested Butte, 
Gunnison County, Colo. ; Geo. H. Eldridge, collector; two specimens; 
Museum number, 2276; lot number, 213. 

92. Cordaites borassifolius Ung. 

Cannelton, Pa.; received from I. 0. Russell; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2279 ; lot number, 227. 

93. Cordaites costatus Lx. 

Cannelton, Pa.; received from I. C. Russell; two specimens; Museum 
number, 2278; lot number, 227. 

94. Cordaites mausfieldi Ls. 

Cannelton, Pa.; received from I. C. Russell ; two specimens; Museum 
number, 2277; lot number, 227. 

95. Cordaites, spec. 

City of Mexico, Mexico ; received from Ellis Clark ; one specimen ; 
Museum number, 2270; lot number, 56. 



32 FOSSIL PLANTS IN NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

Ceuterville, Tenn.; Ira Sayles, collector; one specimen; Museum num. 
ber, 2272; lot number, 215. 

96. Cordaites. u. sp.? 

liussia; collector and exact locality unknown. 

Leaves large, cuneiform, flabellate in outline, apparently thick, equally 
thickly nerved, nerves simple, at equal distance, very obtuse or flattened 
at the top. 

There are two leaves, close to each other, 1 centimeter broad at the 
base where they are broken, 14 centimeters long and 10 centimeters 
broad at the apex, which is also destroyed. The nerves at or near the 
base are thick nearly 1 millimeter and a little more than 1 millimeter 
distant in the middle of the leaves, while above they are only ^ milli- 
meter distant, all very distinct and without intermediate veinlets. The 
form of these leaves is much like that of Oordaites gr'anflifolius, Lx., C. 
n. PI. 77, fig. 1, 2, but the substance is thicker, apparently coriaceous 
and the nervation is different. 

One specimen; Museum number, 2275; lot number, 98. 

97. Cordaites, stem of. 

Henry County, Mo. ; Dr. J. H. Britts, collector; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2273; lot number, 8S. 

98. Cordaites, leaves of. 

Ceuterville, Tenn.; Ira Sayles, collector; one specimen; Museum num- 
ber, 2271 ; lot number, 215. 

99. Cordaiauthus, spec.^ 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala. ; Frank Burns, collector ; one 
specimen ; Museum number, 2391 ; lot number, 223. 

NCEGGERATIE^. 

100. Noeggeratbia, spec. 

Oxford, England ; received from the University of Oxford, through 
Prof. H. y. Mosley; one specimen; Museum number, 2281; lot num- 
ber, 26. 

CYCADE^. 

101. Fittonia, spec. ? Plate I, fig. 1. 

Fragment of a trunk of the Cycadese, with prominent balf-round 
bolsters like those of Fittonia^ Carruth. Apparently new species. 

Clear Lake, Cal. ; G. F. Becker, collector; one specimen. Museum 
number, 2395 ; lot number, 10. 

102. Cycadeospermum eequilaterale, n. sp. 

Oxford, England ; received from the University of Oxford, England, 
through Prof. H. N. Mosley. 

Fruit oblong-linear, obtuse or obtusely rounded at the base, obliquely 
pointed, flat, convex, and obscurely striate; 10-22 millimeters long, bS 
millimeters broad. 

Six specimens ; Museum number, 231G ; lot number, 26. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 33 

103. Cycadeospermum faboideum, sp. nov. 

Oxford, England ; received from the University of Oxford, England, 
through Prof. H. N. Mosley. 

Fruit oval, rounded at the apex, unequilateral at base, with a semi- 
lunar scar marking the point of attachment; obscurely striate; 26 milli- 
meters long, 20 millimeters broad. 

One specimen ; Museum number, 2318J ; lot number, 26. 

104. Cycadeospermum impressum Nath. 

Oxford, England ; received from the University of Oxford, through 
Prof. H. N. Mosley ; three specimens ; Museum number, 2318 ; lot num- 
ber, 26. 

105. Cycadeospermum subfalcatum, n. sp.? 

Oxford, England ; received from the University of Oxford, through 
Prof. H. N. Mosley. 

Fruit oblong, pointed at both ends, thick, not compressed, subfalcate, 
obtuse, or truncate at the apex, truncate at the base or short pedicelled 
[the pedicel immersed or indistinct] ; 13 centimeters long, 5 centimeters 
broad and as thick, nearly semilunar in form. 

One specimen ; Museum number, 2319 ; lot number, 26. 

106. Cycadeospermiun Wimillense? Sap. 

Oxford, England ; received from the University of Oxford, through 
Prof. H. N. Mosley ; four specimens ; Museum number, 2317; lot num- 
ber, 26. 

107. Cycadeospadiz, spec. 

Oxford, England ; received from the University of Oxford, through 
Prof. H. N. Mosley ; one specimen; Museum number, 2311; lot num- 
ber, 26. 

108. Rhabdocarpus multistriatus (Presl.) Ls. 

Centre ville, Tenn. ; Ira Say les, collector; four specimens; Museum 
number, 2288 ; lot number, 215. 

109. Cardiocarpus conglobatus Ls. 

Eufaula, I. T. ; H. F. Buckner, collector ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2388 ; lot number, 96. 

110. Cardiocarpus annularis St. 

Fuveau, Bouches-du-Rhone, France; received from J. B. Marcou; one 
specimen; Museum number, 2387; lot number, 37. 

111. Taxospermum Gruneri Br. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah ; C. D. Walcott, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2407 : lot number, 26. 

112. Trigonocarpus perantiquus Daws. 

Crested Butte, Gunnison County, Colo. ; Geo. H. Eldridge, collector; 
three specimens ; Museum number, 2392 ; lot number, 213. 
Proc. K. M.87 3 



34 FOSSIL PLANTS IX NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

CONlFERiE. 

ABIETINEiE. 

113. Pinus, scale of. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah. ; C. D. Walcott, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2289; lot number, S. 

114. Abietites dubius Lx. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah ; C. D. Walcott, collector; four specimens; 
Museum number, 2290 ; lot number, 8. 

CUPRESSINEiE. 

115. Palaeocyparis elegans f Sap. 

Oxford, England ; received from the University of Oxford, through 
Prof. H. N. Mosley ; one specimen; Museum number, 2406; lot num- 
ber, 26. 

TAXODIE^. 

116. Sequoia Laugsdoriii Heer. 

Kudlesaet, North Greenland ; A. A. Ackerman, collector; four speci- 
mens ; Museum number, 2291 ; lot number, 44. 

117. Sequoia Reichenbachi Heer. 

Dpper Kanab Valley, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector ; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2292 ; lot number, 8. 

118. Taxodium distichum Rich., yhv. mioceuum Heer. 

Mackenzie Eiver, mouth of Bear River; B. R. Eess, collector ; five 
specimens; Museum number, 2297; lot number, 25. Selvinia Caiion, 
Utah; G. K. Gilbert, collector; three specimens; Museum number, 
2298; lot number, 17. 

119. Taxodium dubium Sterub. 

Deer Creek Coal field, Ariz.; CD. Walcott, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2296; lot number, 214. 

120. Glyptostrobus Ungeri Heer. 

Locality and collector unknown; two specimens; Museum number, 
2299; lot number, 13. 

121. Glyptostrobus, spec. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector; one speci- 
men ; Museum number, 2293 ; lot number, 8. 

122. Echinostrobus Sternbergii Sch. 

Oxford, England; received from the University of Oxford through 
Prof. H. N. Mosley; three specimens; Museum number, 2294; lot num- 
ber, 20. 

123. Brachypliyllum crassum ? Lx., iued. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2295; lot number, 8. 



1887.] PEOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 35 

TAXE^. 

124. Ginkgo adiantoides Uug., sp. 

Sitka, Alaska J E. W. IS^elson, collector; one specimen; Museum num- 
ber, 2300; lot number, 210. 

125. Frenelopsis Hoheneggeri ? (Ett.) Schenk. 

Southwest of Stralileuberg Mountain, Nev. ; C. D. Walcott, collector. 

The stems are not articulate nor sheathed. It is a stem apparently 
granulose or punctate and obscurely lineate, but as the stone is very 
coarse it is not possible to see if the granulations are not caused by 
impression from the stone. 

Museum number, 2301 ; lot number, 196. 

CONIFEROUS ? 

126. Whittleseya elegans Ny. 

Warrior Creek, Jefferson County, Ala.; Frank Burns, collector: one 
specimen; Museum number, 2177, on same stone as number 2176; lot 
number, 223. 

GR AMINES. 

ARUNDINE^. 

127. Arundo Goepperti Heer. 

Silver Cliff, Colo.; received from C. W. Cross; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2303 ; lot number, 199. 

128. Arundo Goepperti ? Heer. 

Southwest of Strahlenberg, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector; one spec- 
imen; Museum number, 2302; lot number, 796. 

129. Arundo, spec. 

Yankton, Dak.; P. Soper, donor; one specimen; Museum number, 
2301; lot number, 51. 

130. Phragroites Alaskana ? Heer. 

Fort Concho; W. M. Norton, collector; one specimen; Museum num- 
ber, 2307; lot number, 72. 

131. Phragmites cretaceus ? Lx. 

Deer Creek coal-field, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector. 

Appears to be this species differing by the intermediate veinlets 
being less numerous than in the Miocene species. 

Four specimens ; Museum number, 2305 ; lot number, 214. Upper 
Kanab Valley, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector; two specimens; Mu- 
seum number, 2306 ; lot number, 8. 

FESTUCE^. 

132. Poacites Mengeanus? Heer. 

Clear Lake, Cal.; G. F. Becker, collector; two .specimens; Museum 
number, 2308; lot number, 10. 



36 FOSSIL PLANTS IN NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

CYPERACE^. 

CARICE^. 

133. Carex, leaves of. 

Sitka, Alaska; E. W. Nelson, collector ; one specimen ; Museum num- 
ber, 2309; lot number, 210. 

134. Cyperites borealis? Heer. 

Applegarth Cafiou; A. Hague, collector; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2312 ; lot number, 112. 

135. Cyperites canaliculatus Heer. 

Southwest of Strahlenberg, Utah ; C. D. Walcott, collector; one speci- 
men ; Museum number, 2313 ; lot number, 196. 

136. Cyperites, spec. ? 

Bridgetou, K J.; J. B. Marcou, collector; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2314 ; lot number, 207. 

IRIDACE2B. 

miDEiE. 

137. Irites Alaskana, n. sp. 

Cape Lisbourn, Alaska, Henry D. Woolfe, collector. 

Leaves thickish, linear-lanceolate, tubulose at apex, narrowed to the 
base, falcate, aequi-nerved, medial nerve obsolete, lateral, broad, equal. 

The leaves are comparatively narrow ; the best preserved, apparently 
nearly entire, is 13 centimeters long, 1^ centimeters broad in the 
middle; nerves, about 1 millimeter in width, not very prominent, equal, 
not separated by intermediate veinlets, very distinct ; surface smooth, 
covered by a thin pellicle of coaly matter, some fragments showing the 
tubulose point and base. The median nerve is slightly marked in 
places. 

Comparing these leaves with those of cultivated species of Iris, the 
essential characters, nervation, thickness of leaves, &c., are the same. 

Four specimens ; Museum number, 2320 ; lot number, 204. 

NAIADACE-aJ. 

138. Caulinites Beckeri, u. sp." PL I, fig. 3; PI. II, fig. 2-4. 
Clear Lake, Cal. ; G. F. Becker, collector. 

Khizoma horizontal, cylindrical or flattened, marked all around or 
articulate by the scars of leaves (?) in parallel short close rows, emit- 

* April 2, 1887.— Since the above was in type, the following letter has been received 
from Mr. G. F. Becker, the collector of the specimens, which seems to show that it is 
the modern Tule, Scirj)U8 lacuatria L. \_Scirpxi8 validua Vahl.], in a state of calcification 
or incrustation : 

Department of the Interior, 
United States Geological Survey, 
Washington, D. C, February 28, 1887. 
Prof. Lester F. Ward : 

Sir : The roots sent you from Sulphur Bauk, Clear Lake, California, occur in mod- 
ern lake beds close to an outflow of basalt and to the edge of the present lake. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 37 

tiug numerous erect cylindrical smooth stems, surrounded at base by 
rows of scars of leaves or close articulations, being marked, like the 
rhizomas, by deep, round points, scars of rootlets. 

The rhizomas, varying in diameter from 1 to 2^ centimeters, are ir- 
regular, cylindrical or flattened, strangled and contorted in divers ways, 
much branching, or sending upwards at irregular distance cylindrical 
stems 6 to 10 millimeters diameter, surrounded at their base by concen- 
trical layers, like the remaining base of rows of leaves. The stems are 
quite smooth, though obscurely striate lengthwise, resembling those of 
some large species of Juncus, like J. militaris or those of the leaves and 
flowers of Nelumbium luteum. 

The species is distantly related to Caulinites Parisiensis, Brgt., as 
figured in Schimper's Atlas Pal. Veget., PI. LXXXI, fig. 1 and 2, at 
least for the articulation left by the base of the leaves. But the rhizo- 
mas are, at least sometimes, twice as large ; the stems are short, with 
only four or five rows of very narrow, J to 1 millimeter broad, basilar 
scars of leaves, and the rhizomas creeping, with all the stems turned up 
or toward the same side. 

Though there are among the specimens large blocks of hardened clay 
filled with rhizomas and stems of the species, I have not been able to 
see in them any traces of leaves. But decorticated fragments show, on 
the under side of the bark, two kinds of radicles, some most abundant, 
often in regular rows, being tubulose inflated, at least ^ millimeter in 
diameter, others intermixed, very thin filiform. 

These remains are in a kind of tufaceous clay from the shores of Clear 
Lake, California. The species is named for the collector, Mr. G. F. 
Becker. Museum number, 2320; lot number, 10. Fifty specimens. 

TYPHACEiE. 
139. Sagittaria, n. sp. ? 

Sitka, Alaska; E. W.Nelson, collector; one specimen; Museum num- 
ber, 2310 ; lot number, 210. 

Through the basalt and within a few yards of the silicified roots, active, solfatanc, 
thermal springs still exist. All along the edge of the lake tales grow in great abund- 
ance. I compared the fossils with the roots of the living tules and could see no dif- 
ference whatever. I am no botanist, however. As a geologist I do not hesitate to 
affirm that the roots are recent, and I do not believe that they are one thousand 
years old. I have instructed Mr. H. W. Turner to forward to you roots of the living 
tules by mail or express. If we have no specimens in San Francisco, T. will procure 
them from the lake. 

Very respectfully, 

G. F. BECKER, 
Geologist in charge. 
Professor Lesquereux says of this additional information [in litt. April 1, 1887]: 
"The subject is interesting, as the study of the plant in the different states of preser- 
vation or fossilization of its organs could show the work of nature and the modifica- 
tions of forms by fossilization and prove also the long continuance of a type formerly 
recognized in geological time." It has been thought best to let the name stand 
the present as it is. — Editor. 



•38 FOSSIL PLANTS IN NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

I 
PALMEiB. 

CORYPHEE. 

140. Sabalites, spec. 

Salvinia Cafion, Utah ; G. K. Gilbert, collector ; two specimens ; Mu- 
seum number, 2315 ; lot number, 17. 

MYRICACEiE. 

141. Myrica callicomae folia Lx. 

Locality and collector unknown. Two specimens ; Museum number, 
2362 ; lot number, 13. 

142. Myrica Studeri ? Heer. 

White River, Dakota, Maj. J. W. Powell, collector; two specimens; 
Museum number, 2361 ; lot number, 27. 

CUPULIFERiE. 

BETULEiE. 

143. Alnus Kefersteinii, var. Heer. 

Kudlisart, Xorth Greenland ; A. A. Ackerman, collector ; one speci- 
men ; Museum number, 2369 (on same stone as number 2366) ; lot num- 
ber, 44. 

CORYLE^. 

144. Ostrya! Walkeri ? Heer. 

Withville, Va. ; Howard Schrie-ve, collector; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2322 ; lot number, 24. 

145. Carpinus grandis Ung. 

Locality and collector unknown ; one specimen ; Museum number, 
2323 ; lot number, 18. 

146. Corylus McQuarrii Forbes. 

Unga Island, Alaska ; Mr. W. H. Dall, collector ; five specimens ; 
Museum number, 2324 ; lot number, 29. Kudlisart, North Greenland ; 
A. A. Ackerman, collector ; one specimen ; Museum number, 2325 ; lot 
number, 44. 

QUERCINE^. 

147. Fagus Deucalionis Ung. 

Kudlisart, North Greenland ; A. A. Ackerman, collector ; one speci- 
men ; Museum number, 2326 ; lot number, 44. 

148. Castanea Ungeri Heer. 

Kudlisart, North Greenland; A. A. Ackerman, collector; one speci- 
men ; Museum number, 2327 ; lot number, 44. 

149. Quercus chrysolepis Leib., forma montana. 

Placer County, Cal. ; Wm. P. Blake, collector ; one specimen ; Mu- 
seum number, 2334 ; lot number, 33. 



18^7.] PROCilEDIXGS OF UNITED STATES NAflONAL MUSEUM. 39 

150. Quercus Crossii, n. sp. PI. II, Figs. 5, 6. 

Ryolite Bed, Silver Cliff, Colo. ; C. W. Cross, collector. 

Leaves small, coriaceous, convex on the upper face, obloug or ob- 
lanceolate, cuneate at the base, abruptly round-pointed at the apex, 
dentate, except toward the base ; mid-rib thick, straight ; secondaries 
oblique, slightly curved in passing to the borders, nearly simple ; cras- 
pedrome. 

Two small leaves, 3^ to 4 centimeters long, 1^ centimeters broad in 
the upper part or above the middle, with 5-6 pairs of alternate or op- 
posite secondaries diverging 30°-35o, curved in passing toward the 
borders, thick and simple, except near the border, with somewhat ob- 
solete nerviles at right angles. The leaves have a degree of affinity to 
those of Quercus Mediterranea Ung., differing especially by the short, 
less-acutely pointed teeth, very short toward the base, gradually larger 
to the apex, similar, however, to the figure of this species in Heer. 
Fl. Tert. Helv., Plate LXXVI, f. 15. 

With living species, the relation of the leaves is closely marked with 
those of Quercus snber and Q. ilex, differing by the great thickness of 
the nerves, especially the medial. They appear to have been short 
petioled. Species named for the collector, Mr. C. W. Cross. 

Two specimens ; Museum number, 2329 ; lot number, 209. 

151. Quercus Drymeja Ung. 

Separation, Colo., 1881; Lester F. Ward, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2333; lot number, 22. 

152. Quercus Gaudini Ls. PI. II. Figs. 7, 8. 

Locality and collector unknown ; one specimen ; Museum number, 
2330; lot number, 13. Upper Kauab Valley, Utah; C. D. Walcott, col- 
lector; one specimen; Museum number, 2332; lot number, 8. 

153. Quercus imbricaria Mich, fossilis. 

Bridgeton, K. J. ; J. B. Marcou, collector ; two specimens , Museum 
number, 2328; lot number, 207. 

154. Quercus neriifolia Al. Br. 

Locality and collector unknown; one specimen; Museum number, 
2335 ; lot number, 13. 

155. Quercus Platania? Heer? 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah; CD. Walcott, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2331 ; lot number, 8. 

SALICINE^. 

156. Salix proteaefolia ? Lx. 

Near Las Animas, Colo. ; Dr. C. A. WTiite, collector ; three specimens ; 
Museum number, 2336; lot number, 4. 

157. Populus arctica Heer. 

Cascades, Oregon; A. Hague, collector; one specimen; Museum num- 
ber, 2338 ; lot number, 20. 



40 FOSSIL PLANTS IN NATIONAL MUSEAM. 

158. Populus deuticulata Heer. 

Upper Kauiib Talley, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector; one specimen; 
Museum uumber, 2337; lot number, 8. 

JUGLANDACE^. 

159. Juglans acuminata Al. Br. 

Amethyst Mountain, Yellowstone Xational Park; W. H. Holmes, col- 
lector; two specimens; Museum number, 2378; lot number, 21. 

160. Pterocarya Americana Lx. 

Locality and collector unknown; one specimen; Museum number, 
2377; lot number, 28. 

PLATANACEiE. 

161. Platanus Gufllelmae Goepi). 

Kudlisart, Xorth Greenland ; A. A. Ackerman, collector ; one speci- 
men ; Museum number, 2366 ; lot number, 44. Separation, Colo. ; Mr. 
Levey, collector ; one specimen ; Museum number, 2340; lot number, 23. 

162. Platanus, spec. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah; 0. D. Walcott, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2339 ; lot number, 8. 

URTICACEiE. 

163. Ficus atavina Heer. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah ; C. D. Walcott, collector ; one specimen. 

According to the author is the same as F. protogea Heer. Fl. Arct. iii, 
p. 109, PI. XXX, f. 1-8. The leaf which I refer to it has the lateral nerves 
obscure, but visibly very close, at an acute angle of divergence. The 
leaf is large, equally and gradually narrowed to the base and to the apex, 
which seems to be accuminate. 

Museum number, 2402 ; lot number, 8. 

Las Animas, Colo. ; Dr. C. A. White, collector ; two specimens ; Mu- 
seum number, 2403 ; lot number, 4. 

164. Ficus tiliaefolia Al. Br. 

Silver Clifl", Colo. ; C. W. Cross, collector ; three specimens ; Museum 
number, 2341 ; lot number, 199. 

PROTEACEiE. 
EMBOTHRIE^. 

165. Lomatia Saportanea ? Lx. 

Las Animas, Colo. ; Dr. C. A. White, collector ; one specimen ; Mu- 
seum number, 2342 ; lot number, 4. 

166. Lomatia, spec. ? 

Locality and collector unknown ; one specimen ; Museum number, 
2343 ; lot uumber, 13. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 41" 

BANKSIE^. 

167. Dryandroides lignitum (Uug.) Ett. 

Deer Creek coal-fields, Ariz.; 0. D. Walcott, collector; five specimens; 
Museum number, 2344 ; lot number, 214. 

LAURACEiE. 

TETRANTHERE.^. 

168. Laurus socialis Lx. 

Locality and collector unknown; two specimens; Museum number 
2347 ; lot number, 28. ' 

169. Laurus, spec. 

Deer Creek coal-fields, Ariz.; C. D. Walcott, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2345; lot number, 214. CTpper Kanab Valley, Utah; 
C. D. Walcott, collector: one specimen; Museum number, 2346; lot 
number, 8. 

CINNAMOMEJE. 

170. CinnaBiomuin lauceolatuia Heer. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah ; C. D. Walcott, collector; one specimen ; 
Museum number, 2349 ; lot number, 8. 

171. Cinnamomum Scheuchzeri Heer. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector; two speci- 
mens; Museum number, 2348; lot number, 8. 

ASCLEPIADE^. 

172. Echitonium Sophiae O. Web. 

White River, Dak.; Maj. J. W. Powell, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2398; lot number, 27. 

EBENACE-ffi. 

173. Diospyros anceps Heer. 

White River, Dak.; Maj. J. W. Powell, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2350; lot number, 27. 

174. Diospyros brachysephala ? Al. Br. 

Deer Creek coal-fields, Ariz. ; 0. D. Walcott, collector ; one speci- 
men; Museum number, 2351; lot number, 214. 

ERICACE.a5. 

ANDROMEDE^. 

175. Andromeda afBnis Ls. 

Las Animas, Colo.; Dr. C. A. White, collector; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2355; lot number, 4. 



42 FOSSIL PLANTS IN NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

176. Andromeda linearifolia, n. sp. PI. Ill, Figs. 2 and 3. 
Ryolite Beds, Silver Cliff, Colo.; C. W. Cross, collector. 

Leaves small, narrow, linear, coriaceous and revolute on the borders, 
narrowed at base; medial nerve very thick and broad; secondaries 
very oblique, parallel live to six pairs in a fragment of a leaf 2*='" long, 
4mm broad. The angle of divergence of the nerves is only 10 to 15°. 
The species is comparable to A. revoluta Heer. Fl. Tert. Heir., PI. (ci, 
t. 24, especially 24b,) the leaves being however narrower and much 
smaller, one of them preserved nearly entire being only G"*"^ long, 2™™ 
broad. It still differs by the secondaries at a mor i acute angle of di- 
vergence, strong, and the surface obscurely reticulate. 

Three specimens; Museum number, 2352; lot number, 209. 

177. Andromeda Parlatorii, Heer. 

Las Animas, Colo.; Dr. C. A. White, collector; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2354; lot number, 4. 

178. Andromeda! protogaea? Heer. 

Clear Lake, Cal.; G. F. Becker, collector; eleven specimens; Museum 
number, 2353; lot number, 10. Kudlisart, iSTorth Greenland; A. A. 
Ackerman, collector; one specimen; Museum number, 2356; lot num- 
ber, 44. 

VACCINACE-aJ. 

EUVACCINIE^. 

179. Vaccinium Coloradense n. sp. PI. Ill, Fig. 4, .'>. 

Eyolite beds. Silver Cliff", Colo.; C. W Cross, collector. 

Leaves small, oval, pointed at apex, narrowed to the base, coriaceous 
and very entire, lateral nerves camptodrome close and forked at apex, 
6-7 pairs in leaves 16 millimeters long 6 millimeters broad ; angle of 
divergence of the nerves 25-30^. Related to V. acheronticum Heer Fl. 
Tert. Helv., PI. CI, f. 29, with the veins forking near the borders as in 
V. Orel, fig. 35, same plate. 

Two specimens; Museum number, 2357; lot number, 209. 

Ryolite beds. Silver Cliff, Colo.; C. W. Cross, collector; one speci- 
men; Museum number, 2372 (on same stone as number, 2371); lot num. 
ber, 209. 

CORNACEiE. 

180. Cornus ferox Ung. 

Kudlisart, North Greenland; A. A. Ackerman, collector; one speci- 
men; Museum number, 2368 (on same stone as number 2366); lot num- 
ber 44. 

181. Cornus rhamnifolia ? O. Web. 

New Jersey? Collector unknown; two specimens; Museum number, 
2360; lot number, 16. 



188: 



] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 43 



182. Cornus Studeri ? Heer. 

"P. Y. station, near Messa station;" received from W. S. Yeates; 
one specimen. 

Agrees with the figure and description in Heer Fl. Tert. Helv., p. 27, 
PI. OV, f. 18-21. The two lower pairs of nerves from above the base are 
opposite, but the acute divergence of the secondaries is the same. As 
the upper part of the leaf is destroyed the identification is not certain. 

Museum number, 2359 ; lot number, 9. 

ARALIACEiE. 

183. Aralia Browniaua Heer. 

Kudlisart, North Greenland ; A. A. Ackerman, collector ; two speci- 
mens ; Museum number, 2358 ; lot number, 44. 

ROSACEiE. 

184. Crataegus antiqua Heer. 

Kudlisart, North Greenland ; A. A. Ackerman, collector ; one speci- 
men ; Museum number, 2267 (on same stone as number 2266) ; lot num- 
ber, 44. 

185. Crataegus Holmesii, u. sp. PI. Ill, Figs. 7-9. /"^ ^ / u.w/^'*--^'' 
Ryolite beds, Silver Cliff, Colo. ; W* H. Holmes, collector. 

Leaves small, coriaceous, oblanceolate-spathulate, gradually narrowed 
to the base from an obtuse truncate or acute apex; primary nerve 
broad ; secondaries thick, very oblique, simple, parallel, the lowest pair 
opposite and emerging from above the base of the leaf. The leaves, 
mostly in fragments, vary from 18 to 30 millimeters long, 4 to 10 millime. 
ters broad above the middle or in the upper part, gradually decurriug to 
a comparatively long petiole 15-16 millimeters long, inflated at the point 
of attachment ; secondaries 5-6 pairs, at an angle of divergence of 
about 20°, deeply impressed upon the leaf which appears thus folded 
along them and simply dentate on the borders by the excurriug points 
of the nerves. These leaves resemble those of Cratcegus spatJmlata Mich, 
and also of C. tomentosa in some of the varieties, being however much 
smaller. But for the long petiole and the nervation very distinct, not 
obscured by intermediate nerves or tomentum, these leaves could be 
referred to the genus Cercocarpus H. B. K. / 

Seven specimens ; Museum number, 2381^; lot number, 200. /q 

LEGUMINOSiB. 

186. Leguminosites, spec. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2381 ; lot number, 8. 

AMPELIDEiE. 

187. Cissus laevigata Lx. 

Near False Creek, Southeastern Utah ; G. K. Gilbert, collector ; one 
specimen ; Museum number, 2401 ; lot number, 21. 



44 FOSSIL PLANTS IN NATIONAL MUSEUM. 

188. Cissites microphyllus, n. sp. PI. Ill, Fig. 11. 
Clear Lake, Cal. ; G. F. Becker, collector. 

Leaf small, ovate pointed, enlarged above the base and rounded in ^ 
narrowing to the petiole (broken) ; border simply dentate ; nervation j 
sub-tripalmatifid ; primary nerves slightly more distant from the low- 
est pair of the secondaries and parallel to them, much branched on the 
lower side; secondaries simple or forking near the borders, all the divis- 
ions craspedodrome. 

This small leaf is two centimeters long, one and one-half centimeters 
broad below the middle, secondaries four pairs ; angle of divergence 
40O. 

One specimen ; Museum number, 2400; lot number, 10. 

ANACARDIACEiE. 

189. Rhus bella ? Heer. 

Kudlisart, Xorth Greenland ; A. A. Ackerman, collector ; one speci- 
men ; Museum number, 2379 ; lot number, 44. 

SAPINDACEiE. 

190. Sapindus angustifolius Lx. 

Ryolite beds. Silver Cliff, Colo.; C. W. Cross, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2371; lot number, 209. // .5, ^^^ <^ 

191. Acer vitifolium Al. Br. 

Wythe ville, Va. ; Howard Shrieve, collector ; one specimen ; Museum 
number, 2370; lot number, 24. 

RHAMNE^. 

192. Rhamnus Cleburni Lx. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah; CD. Walcott, collector; two specimens; 
Museum number, 2373 ; lot number, 81. 

193. Rhamnus Dechenii Web. 

Locality and collector unknown; two specimens ; Museum number, 
2374 ; lot number, 15. 

194. Rhamnus Goldianus Lx. 

Eyolite beds. Silver Cliff, Colo.; C. W. Cross, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2375 ; lot number, 199. 

195. Rhamnus intermedius Lx. 

Locality and collector unknown ; one specimen ; Museum number, 
2376 ; lot number, 28. 

TILIACE.^. 

196. Grewiopsis acuminata, n. sp. PI. Ill, Fig. 12, 13; PI. IV, Figs. 1, 2. 

•'P. Y. Station Xo. 49, near Messa station ; " received from W. S. 
Yeates. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 45 

Leaves rhomboidal-oval, acumiuate, wedge form at base in narrowing 
to the petiole, dentate on the borders, obscurely palmate-nerved ; lateral 
primary nerves two, joining the middle a little above the base of the 
leaves, slightly more oblique than the secondaries and a little more 
distant of the lower pair of secondaries than these are from each other; 
secondaries slightly curved in passing to the borders craspedodrome. 

The leaves vary much, especially in width, from 5 to 9 centimeters 
long and 3 to 4^ centimeters broad in the middle, the acumen being G to 
8 millimeters long. The medial nerve like the secondaries is distinctly 
marked but not broad ; the lower primaries are oblique, passing nearly 
straight to the borders, at an angle of 30°; the secondaries, 5 to 6 pairs, 
are a little more open and curved in passing up, entering each one of the 
small rather obtuse teeth of the borders. The areolation is made by 
transverse nervilles anastomosing at right angles to the nerves near the 
borders by short divisions passing up the sinuses or curved along the 
borders. 

The species is very similar to G. viburnifolia Ward, Types of the 
Laramie Flora, Bulletin U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 37, p. 89, PI. XL, f. 2, 
from which it differs by the leaves being generally narrower at the cune- 
iform base with a long, sharply-pointed acumen ; the teeth less numer- 
ous, less marked, and obtuse, effaced from the middle downward. Ex- 
cept the acumen the difference is not very great, and as those leaves 
differ much in their width they might (but for the apex) be referred to 
the same species. The petiole is of the same length, about 2 centimeters. 

Eight specimens ; Museum number, 2363 ; lot number, 9. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah ; C. D. Walcott, collector ; three speci- 
mens ; Museum number, 2365 ; lot number, 8. 
397. Grewiopsis "Walcotti, n. sp. PL IV, tigs. 3, 4. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah ; G. D. Walcott, collector. 

Differs from G. acuminata by the broader leaves, scarcely dentate on 
the borders, and apparently not acuminate. There is, however, a dif- 
ference in the leaves which are more or less dentate on the border, and 
as the top of the three leaves of this species are destroyed they may be 
the same, there being scarcely any difference in the nervation. 

Three specimens ; Museum number, 2364 ; lot number, 8. 

STERCULIACEiE. 

198. Pterospermites dentatus ? Heer. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah; C. D. Walcott, collector; one specimen; 
Museum number, 2399. 

NYMPHiEACEiE. 

199. Nymphaea ? scars of, on roots. 

" Mouth of Indian Creek;" collector unknown; two specimens ; Mu- 
seum number, 2405 ; lot number, 42. 



46 FOSSIL PLANTS IN NATIONAL MUSEUM, 

MAGNOLIACEiE. 

200. Magnolia Inglefieldi Ileer. 

Amethyst Mountain, Yellowstone Xatioual Park ; W. H. Holmes, col- 
lector; two specimens; Museum number, 2382; lot number, 31. 

RANUNCULACEiE. 

201. Dewalquea Haldemiana ? Sap. et. Mar. 

Upper Kanab Valley, Utah ; C. D. Walcott, collector. 

This fragment is similar to those figured by Heer. from Patoot. Fl. 
Foss. Arct. VII, PI. LV. fig. 19 a. The form of the leaf, its round nar- 
rowed base, the thick median nerve, the total erasiou of the lateral 
ones and the entire borders are the same. The fragment, however, is 
too small for positive identification. 

PLANTS OF UNCERTAIN RELATION. 

202. Phyllites fraxineus, u. sp. 

Bridgeton, N. J.; J. B. Marcou, collector; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2397 ; lot number, 207. 

203. Phyllites mimusopsoideus, u. sp. 

Bridgeton, N. J.; J. B. Marcou, collector; one specimen; Museum 
number, 2396 ; lot number, 207. 



18S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 47 

DESCRIPTIONS OP NEW AND LITTLE KNOWN ETHEOSTOMOIDS. 
By CHA.<^. H. OILBERT. 

The present paper is occupied chietl}^ with the descriptiou of new 
Etheostomoids collected during the summer of 1884, in the course of a 
series of explorations of streams of the South and Southwest, under- 
taken in the interests of the U. S. National Museum. The writer was 
associated with Prof. Joseph Swain in field work in Indiana, Kentucky, 
Tennessee, and Alabama ; with Prof. S. E. Meek in Southwestern 
Missouri; and with Prof. D. S. Jordan in Arkansas and Texas. 

Types of all of the new species here characterized have been de- 
posited in the National Museum, their numbers on the Museum register 
being cited at the beginning of the descriptions. 

The species described come under the current genera TJlocentra^ 
Cottogaster, Hadroptenis, Bhothceca, Etheostoma, and Alvarius. It is 
not believed that these now admit of satisfactory generic characteriza- 
tion, and they are here recognized as convenient subgeneric divisions 
only. Characters based in this group on the protractility or nonpro- 
tractility of the i^remaxillaries, the union or non-union of the branch- 
iostegal membranes, and the completeness or incompleteness of the 
lateral line, may indicate real affinity, but I think we are hardly pre- 
pared to insist that they always and of necessity must do so. 

What are apparently geographical varieties have been described in 
order to call attention to them. Their claim to subspecific rank can- 
not be established until further exploration shall have determined the 
limits of variation within the species. The entire question of the rec- 
ognition of subspecies among the Etheostomoid s must for the present 
be treated as an open one. 

1. Etheostoma (Ulocentra) histrio Jordan & Gilbert, sp. uov. 36386, 36409, 36448. 

In form much resembling Etheostoma zonale, but the body slenderer 
and less compressed, and the anterior profile of head more declivous, 
the mouth being on a level with lower portion of base of pectorals. 
Mouth small, horizontal, subinferior, the lower jaw included ; maxillary 
reaching vertical from front of pupil, 3^ in head. Eye rather large, 
high up on sides of head, its diameter much greater than length of 
snout, 3 in head. Interorbital width half vertical diameter of orbit. 
Parietal region narrow, smooth, rather strongly' arched. Opercular 
spine little developed. Gill-membranes broadly joined across tlie isth- 
mus. Premaxillaries technically ijrotractile, the upper lip everywhere 
separated by a fold from the skin of the forehead; they are, however, 
very little movable. 

Vertical fins small, the paired fins greatly developed. Spinous and 
soft dorsals separate, nearly equal in height and extent; the longest 



48 DESCRIPTIONS OF ETHEOSTOMOIDS. 

dorsal spine half length of head, the spines all slender and weak. First 
anal spine longer and stronger than the second, slightly longer than 
snont. Caudal fin emarginate, less than length of head. Pectorals 
much longer than head, reaching beyond tips of ventrals to vent, their 
length nearly one-third that of body. Ventrals about as long as head. 

Scales ctenoid ; lateral line complete, not decurved ; head naked, or 
with a few scales on opercles ,• nape completely scaled ; breast, and a 
long strip behind ventral fins, naked, the posterior half only of ventral 
region scaled over. No enlarged humeral scale. 

Head, 4 to 4r| in length; depth, 5 to 5^. Lat. 1. 50 to 54, 5J series be- 
tween it and base of spinous dorsal. D. X-13; A. II, 7. L. If inches. 

Color: Body very dark green ; back with 7 light cross-bars usually 
very distinct ; ventral region light, the lower half of sides marked with 
light and dark greenish, these markings showing a tendency to form 
bars usually alternating with those on back. Top of head dark, the 
sides light greenish ; a broad dark bar from eye to tip of snout, one be- 
low eye, and a broad dusky area covering parts of opercle, preopercle, 
and cheek. A dark bar in front of pectoral fins, and several transverse 
series of dark spots on under side of head. Fins all conspicuously 
marked with broad bars of light and dusky greenish. A black humeral 
spot. Males showUraces of this plan of coloration, but are more uni- 
formly dusky greenish,* the lighter markings much less conspicuous. 

Abundant in the Poteau River, near Hackett City, Ark. Found also 
in the Saline River at Benton, Ark., and in the Washita River at Arka- 
delphia. 

2. Etheostoma (Cottogaster) uranidea Jordan & Gilbert, sp. uov. 36413. 

Allied to Etheostoma shumardi. 

Form elongate, terete, very little compressed; upper profile gently 
arched, the lower almost straight; caudal peduncle short and very 
slender ; upper profile of head descending in a long gentle curve to 
the sharp snout. Mouth terminal, nearly horizontal, the lower jaw in- 
cluded ; premaxillaries on a level with lower margin of orbit; maxil- 
lary reaching beyond vertical from front of orbit, 3| in head. Premax- 
illaries protractile, the fold very narrow. Eye equaling length of snout, 
3|- in head, nearly twice interorbital width in a specimen 2 inches 
long. Opercular spine well developed; preopercular margin entire. 
Parietal region rather broad, depressed, the bones rugose. Gill-mem- 
branes very slightly joined at base. Cheeks mostly naked; opercles 
closely scaled. Breast naked, or with a few scattered scales. Paired 
fins rather small, the vertical fins long but rather high. Membrane of 
first dorsal not joining base of second. Longest dorsal spine about 
equaling distance from tip of snout to middle of orbit; soft rays half 
as long as head. Caudal fin deeply emarginate. Anal spines very 
short, about equal in size, as long as diameter of orbit. Soft rays of 
anal high, the fin rather larger than second dorsal. Pectorals and 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 49 

reafcrals short, reaching about the same vertical, not nearly to vent ; 
length of pectorals nearly equal to head. 

Scales of moderate size; nape completely invested; a wide naked 
strip on each side median line of belly, the latter containing a single 
series of thin, elongate, plates, weakly spinous on posterior margins; 
lateral line complete, parallel with outline of back. 

Head, 3J to 3f in length; depth, 5|. D. XI-13; A. II, 10 or 11. 
Lateral line 48 to 56, 6^ series between pores and dorsal fin. 

Color in spirits : Greenish olive, rendered dusky on upper parts by. 
black specks, which become large and very conspicuous on top of head, 
opercles, and sides of snout. Four conspicuous dark cross-bars, nar- 
rower than interspaces, downward and forward from back to lateral 
line: the first from anterior dorsal spines, the second from space between 
dorsals, the third from posterior half of soft dorsal, the fourth from 
caudal peduncle. A series of about 11 dusky blotches on sides imme- 
diately below lateral line. A black bar before, one below, and one 
behind eye ; the one below eye very distinct. Dorsals, pectorals, and 
caudal barred with light and dark ; ventrals and anal plain. In life, 
the colors were similar, there being no distinct blue, red, or green. 

Several specimens, varying from 1^ to 3 inches in length, from Wash- 
ita Eiver at Arkadelphia, Ark. 

3. Etheostoma (Hadropterus) ouachitae Jordan & Gilbert, sp. uov. 36449. 

Body elongate, slender, comparatively little compressed, in general 
contour much resembling E. uranidea. Head slender, the snout not 
blunt, the upper profile descending in a long gentle curve. Mouth mod- 
erate, narrow; premaxillaries on a level with lower part of orbit, non- 
protractile; lower jaw included; gape nearly horizontal; maxillary 
reaching vertical from front of orbit, its length slightly greater than 
snout, U in head. Eye equaling snout, 3f in head. Gill-membranes 
scarcely joined across isthmus. 

Fins of moderate size; longest dorsal spine 2i in head, the longest 
soft ray more than half head ; anal spines short and weak, the two 
nearly equal, their length equaling diameter of orbit. Caudal emar- 
ginate. Pectorals reaching to opposite tips of ventrals, as long as head. 

Scales moderate, rough ; lateral line complete, straight ; opercles and 
nape scaled; cheeks smooth, naked or covered with imbedded scales; 
breast naked. Middle of belly naked, without series of enlarged 
plates in our specimens. An enlarged spinous scale between bases 
of ventral fins. 

Head 4 in length; depth 6^; D. XI or XII, 13; A. II, 10. Lateral 
Ime 52 to 56; 6 series of scales between lateral line and base of spinous 
dorsal. Length 2 inches. 

Color : Olivaceous, back more or less tessellated with dark brownish, 
the margins of the scales dusky. Five rather faint dark bars from the 
back downward and forward to lateral line: the first under front of 
Proc. IST. M. 87 4 



50 DESCRIPTIOXS OF ETHEOSTOMOIDS. 

spinous dorsal and the second under its last rays, the third under mid- 
dle of soft dorsal and the fourth immediately behind it, the fifth a 
mere cross-blotch on back of tail. On middle of back these bars are 
narrower than the interspaces, but grow much wider downward. Mid- 
dle of sides with a series of 8 or 9 quadrate dusky blotches, more or 
less confluent, as in E. aspro. Below pale, unmarked. Dorsals, caudal, 
and pectorals more or less evidently barred with light and dark ; ven- 
trals and anal unmarked. No bright colors in life. 

Several specimens from the Saline liiver at Benton, Ark. 

4. Etheostoma (Hadropterus) squamatus Gilbert «fe Swain, sp. uov. 36652. 

Body elongate, the sides and caudal peduncle compressed ; back ele- 
vated, the profile forming a slight angle at occiput ; head very long and 
slender, with a long acuminate snout, as in E. phoxocephalum, which 
this species somewhat resembles in appearance. Cleft of mouth long 
and narrow, the lower jaw included in closed mouth ; maxillary reach- 
ing vertical from front of orbit, its length equaling that of snout, 3J 
times in head ; upper jaw not protractile. Bands of teeth very wide, 
the outer premaxillary series enlarged. Vomerine patch well devel- 
oped. Eye moderate. If in snout, 4f in head to end of opercular spine, 
2^ times the furjowed iuterorbital width. Preopercular margin strictly 
entire. Gill-membranes widely united across isthmus. 

Spinous dorsal long and low, spines from the 3d to the 10th subequal 
in length, those anteriorly and posteriorly gradually shortened ; longest 
spine one-third length of head. Spinous and soft dorsals well separated. 
Base of soft dorsal equaling one-half the distance from its origin to front 
of spinous dorsal. Anal shorter than soft dorsal, but higher and inserted 
more anteriorly; anal spines strong, the first slightly the longer, about 
equaling length of snout. Highest anal ray nearly half length of head. 
Caudal emarginate, the lobes rounded, 14 in head. Pectorals equaling 
length of head behind front of eye. Ventrals If in head. 

Body covered with very small scales, uniform in size, and completely 
investing the ventral region, which is without series of enlarged scutes. 
Cheeks, breast and nuchal region covered with still finer scales having 
entire edges, and the opercle with larger. spinous scales; interopercle 
and part of subopercle naked. An enlarged black humeral scale. 

Head, 3^ in length ; depth, 5^. D. XIY-13; A. II, 10. Lateral line 
82 ; 10 series between lateral line and middle of base of spinous dorsal, 
18 in a vertical series from hit. 1. to middle of belly. 

Colors in life : Yellowish-olive, with about 10 broad dusky bars across 
the back, and an equal number of dusky blotches along lateral line ; a 
conspicuous black humeral spot ; a broad black line forward from eye 
to snout, and a narrower line backward from eye to upper preopercular 
margin ; opercle and occiput largely dusky. A diffuse dusky blotch at 
base of tail, with a small, round, jet-black spot behind it. Spinous 
dorsal translucent, with a broad subterminal brownish-orange bandj 



18S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 51 

soft dorsal and caudal barred with dusky and orange-yellow. Pectorals 
slightly reddish. Ventrals translucent. 

A single specimen, 3.9 inches long (numbered 36652 on the catalogue 
of the ]!s^ational Museum), was taken by the writer and Prof. Joseph 
Swain in the French Broad Eiver at the mouth of Wolf Creek, Ten- 
nessee. It was found in very rapid water, lurking under the stones. 

5. Etheostoma (Hadropterus) cymatotcenia Gilbert *& Meek, sp. u. 36215, 36308, 

3S260. 

Body robust, comparatively little compressed, the ventral region very 
prominent, rounded, the dorsal region scarcely- elevated; dorsal and 
ventral outlines converging rapidly towards caudal peduncle, which is 
very narrow and expands abruptly behind to form a broad basis for 
the caudal fin. Head short, tapering rapidly forwards, the snout not 
blunt, short and slender. Mouth small, oblique, the lower jaw included. 
Maxillary nearly reaching vertical from front of orbit, about 4i in head. 
Teeth in very narrow cardiform bands, the outer series in both jaws 
rather conspicuously enlarged. Eye large, about equaling snout, 4 
in head. Cheeks, opercles, nape and breast covered with large scales, 
those on cheeks smaller than the others, Preopercular margin entire. 
Gill-membranes narrowly joined across isthmus, the union being in most 
cases hardly perceptible, but in one specimen quite broad. 

Spinous dorsal rather short and high, the first spine but little shorter 
than the second ; anterior spines highest, the outline of the fin thence 
declined ; highest spine equaling half the length of the head. Soft dor- 
sal small, quadrate, as long as high, its base but little more than half 
that of spinous dorsal ; its longest ray If in head. 

First anal spine very strong and robust, much stronger than any of 
dorsal spines, or than the second anal spine; its length equaling dis- 
tance from snout to center of pupil, equaling or slightly exceeding that 
of second anal spine. Anal larger than second dorsal, its base slightly 
longer, and the rays higher, the longest ray 1^ or 1§ in head. Caudal 
slightly emarginate. Pectorals short, not reaching tips of ventrals, the 
two about equal in length, equaling head behind nostrils. 

Body covered with large rough scales, everywhere spinous but with a 
tendency to smoothness on the breast. Ventral region completely and 
uniformly scaled without median series of enlarged plates, two or three 
of which only are visible between the ventrals. 

Head 4 to 4^ in length; depth 5. Lateral line 64 to 70; 7 scales from 
lateral line to middle of spinous dorsal, 12 to median ventral line. 
D. XII to XIV-12 to 14 ; A. II, 10. 

Colors in life : Above and on sides greenish, made very dark by fine, 
close-set, punctulations. Two pairs of light streaks along sides, narrower 
than interspaces, becoming yellowish in spirits ; the upper pair from the 
nape running along each side of dorsal, inclosing between them a 



r.o 



DESCRIPTIONS OF ETHEOSTOMOIDS. 



dusky streak occupying median line of back ; the lower pair from above 
opercles running in a wavy course above lateral line to upper caudal 
lobe. Below this and bounded by it, occupying the middle of the sides, 
is a broad, dusky mouiliform band. Lower part of sides and ventral 
region light olive, dusted sparsely with rather coarse black specks. A 
small jet-black spot at base of caudal. A broad black bar (sometimes 
obscure) on head, from snout through eye across upper part of cheeks 
to opercular spine. Sometimes a series of small black cross-blotches on 
median dorsal line. Fins translucent, barred with dark lines. 

Abundant in the Niangua Eiver and the Osage Fork of the Gasconade, 
near Marshfield, Mo., and in the Sac liiver,uear Greenfield, Mo. Numer- 
ous specimens were taken, and are numbered 3G215, 36308, and 38260 on 
the register of the National Museum. 

6. Etheostoma (Hadropterus) nianguae Gilbert & Meek, sp. nov. 3'i2I4. 

Body elongate, terete, the sides somewhat compressed, becoming more 
so posteriorly ; back elevated, the profile descending gently in an un- 
broken line from front of dorsal to tip of snout. Head very long and 
slender, much as in E. macrocephalum and phoxocephalum; the snout com- 
paratively deep and narrow, abruptly rounded vertically at tip. Mouth 
large, the cleft wide and slightly oblique, the maxillary reaching beyond 
front of orbit, its length equaling distance from snout to front of pupil, 
3^ in head (the latter measured in this description to end of opercular 
spine). Outer series of premaxillary teeth somewhat enlarged ; the bands 
all broad. Eye slightly less than snout, 5^ in head to end of opercular 
spine; interorbital space convex transversely, its width about three- 
fifths diameter of eye. Cheeks perfectly smooth, with a few scattered 
embedded cycloid scales ; opercles and breast strictly naked ; nape and 
ventral region closely scaled. Preopercular margin entire. Gill-mem- 
branes scarcely joined across the isthmus. 

Spinous dorsal short and high, the first spine much shorter than the 
second, the seventh and eighth about equal, the longest 2^ in head. Soft 
dorsal high, its base 1^ in that of spinous dorsal, the longest ray 14 iu 
head. Anal similar to second dorsal, but smaller. First anal spine 
short, the second but little longer, its length equaling that of snout. 
Caudal wide, truncate behind, slightly emarginate when fin is not 
spread. Pectorals equaling distance from front of orbit to tip of oj)er- 
cular spine, the tips of pectorals and ventrals reaching about the same 
vertical. Ventrals 1^ or If in head. 

Scales on body of moderate size, becoming larger and less closely im- 
bricated posteriorly ; those on nape and along base of dorsal anteriorly 
little imbricated, roundish, without spinous points, partially embedded 
in the skin. Ventral region uniformly scaled, without naked strip or 
series of caducous ])lates ; no enlarged scale between bases of ventral 
fins. Head and breast naked, excepting a few embedded scales below 
and behind eye. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 53 

Head, 3f in length ; depth, of to 6. D. XI or XII, 13 or 14 ; A. II 
11 or 12. Lat. 1. 74|^ L. 3^ in. ' 

Color : Olivaceous, the back with 8 to 10 dusky cross-bars wider than 
the interspaces; these dorsal bars usually continuous with an equal 
number on middle of sides, the latter terminating below lateral line in 
V-shaped prolongations, much like those in Efheostoma hlennioides. lu 
one specimen (an adult S ) the first two bars are partially confluent on 
sides, the anterior one including the axil and ending in a black spot 
below pectorals, the second encircling body behind ventral fins ; bars 
behind front of anal in this specimen also completely encircling body. 
Back and sides marked with many small bright carmine-red spots, ir- 
regularly disposed in the light interspaces; in the male specimen they 
are much more numerous, those on hinder part of body confluent, form- 
ing narrow bars, one down the middle of each light space. A dark 
streak forward and one backward from eye, none downward ; opercle 
and top of head dusky. 

Spinous dorsal dusky, the base marked with fine red spots, the fin 
broadly margined with a bright carmine band. Soft dorsal barred with 
alternating series of dark and of reddish spots. Caudal with wide bars of 
dark and red. A pair of small jet-black spots on caudal peduncle at 
base of median caudal rays. Anal dusky at base. Pectorals and ven- 
trals light orange, indistinctly barred with dusky. 

Two specimens, each 3f inches long, were taken by the writer, in 
company with Mr. Seth E. Meek, in the headwaters of the Niangua 
Eiver, near Marshfield, Mo. One of these is deposited in the U. S. iSla- 
tioual Museum, the other in the museum of the University of Cincin- 
nati. 

7. Etheostoma niangua spilotum Gilbert, subsp. nov. 38319. 

Diflering from the above in squamatiou only, the scales being much 
larger, and the lateral line incomplete in all specimens examined. The 
scales along anterior portion of base of spinous dorsal have like those 
on nape lost their ctenoid chara^jteristics, but are not reduced in size, 
and are still regularly disposed in series continuous with those of sides. 
In typical nianguce they are much reduced, and not in definite series. 

Head, 3i to 3f ; depth, 5^ to 6^. Eye 5 in head, in specimens 2 to 3 
inches long. D. X or XI-12 or 13 ; A. II, 10 or 11. Lat. 1. 58 to 60, 
the pores absent on the posterior 5 to 13 scales, and occasionally on 
single scales more anteriorly. Eight series of scales between lateral 
line and base of spinous dorsal. 

Color in life: Olive green above, light below; back with S dark cross- 
bars formed of dusky mottliugs ; continuous with these, or in other 
ca^es alternating with them, are 8 V-shaped markings on middle of 
sides; sides and above spotted with reddish orange occupying the 
light interspaces. A narrow black bar from upper opercular angle 
through eye encircling the snout. Pectorals and ventrals translucent, 



54 DESCRIPTIONS OF ETHEOSTOMOIDS. 

tinged witli light orauge. Dorsal trausluceut, the rays speckled. 
Spinous dorsal with a narrow red margin, terminating posteriorly in a 
bright orange-red spot, in advance of which is a large black blotch. A 
black humeral spot. Two jet-black spots at base of caudal, more or less 
confluent into one. In all other respects this agrees with the descrip- 
tion of typical niangucc. 

Twelve specimens, the largest 2f inches long, were taken by the 
writer in Sturgeon Creek, a tributary of the Kentucky River, near Trav- 
eler's Rest, Owsley County, Kentucky. 

8. Etheostoma zonale Cope. 

? E, hjneeum Hay, substitute for Xanostoma elegans Hay, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1880, 493. 

This species has been taken in abundance in immediate tributaries 
of the Ohio River in Southern Ohio and Indiana, in both lowland and 
mountain streams of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Alabama, and in various 
streams of Arkansas and Texas. In Alabama it occurs both north and 
south of the watershed separating the Tennessee and Black Warrior 
Rivers, and will probably be found in all the streams of Northern and 
Central Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia which flow to the Gulf of 
Mexico. It has not yet been recorded from streams of the Atlantic 
slope. 

Specimens from the same locality vary greatly in coloration and in 
fin and scale formulse. It is probable that no tangible varieties can be 
distinguished in any portion of its known range. The dorsal varies 
from X-11 to XII-13, the anal is II, 7 or II, 8, and the lateral line ranges 
from 41 to 53. The green on sides varies from short blotches to wide 
bars entirely encircling belly and extended on dorsal region. The red 
on dorsals is usually confined to a series of spots, one at base of mem- 
brane between each two spines, but is occasionally developed as a basal 
band along both spinous and soft portions of fin. 

The type specimen of .EJ. lynceum, kindly sent me by Professor Hay, 
is a brightly-marked adult male, showing black spots at bases of dorsal 
scales, and having the snout somewhat blunter than usual, but agree- 
ing in all other respects with zonale. The green bands on sides are not 
mentioned in the original description, but traces of them can still be 
seen. 

Specimens from Arkansas and the Southwest have been designated 
a subspecies [Etheostoma zonale arcansamtm Jordan, Cat. Fish. X. A. 
1885, 80 ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1886, pp. 5, 13) be- 
cause their breasts were nearly or quite naked. Characters based on 
squamation of head and breast are valueless here for even subspecific 
distinction, as will be seen by the following results of an examination 
of material from various i)arts of the country. 

In specimens from Cypress Creek Florence, Ala., the following stages 
in the squamation of the breast were found in different individuals : 
(1) Breast entirely naked, no scale present anterior to bases of ventral 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 55 

and pectoral fins ; (2) a single soale only, firmly embedded in middle 
of breast; (3) an additional patch of scales occupying region between 
base of pectoral fins and gill opening; (4) this patch produced down- 
ward and encroaching on the breast proper, which may then have fur- 
ther a transverse band of scales or a V-shaped patch in front of ventral 
fins. Some or all of these stages have been found in material from the 
Eolling Fork and the Rockcastle Eiver, in Kentucky, the Chickasawha 
Eiver, in Mississippi, and the Little Miama River, in Ohio. The ma- 
jority of specimens show the breast naked and a patch of scales jjresent 
in advance of pectoral fins. In no specimen examined has the breast 
been found completely invested. 

What is true of the squamation of the breast is true also of the 
cheeks and opercles. Specimens from the Little Miami River and from 
Florence, Ala., have these regions scaled, but the scales vary greatly 
in condition. In some individuals the scales are ctenoid and imbri- 
cated, like those on the body; in others they are almost completely 
embedded in the skin, the spiny points only projecting; in still others 
they have become thin and weak, are no longer imbricated, and show 
only cycloid concentric rings. A further stage in this last process 
would doubtless result in their absorption and entire disappearance. 
Specimens from the Rolling Fork have the cheeks usually naked, the 
opercles more or less completely scaled ; from the Rockcastle have 
cheeks and opercles either partly or wholly naked, the scales on cheeks 
being the first to disappear ; from the Washita River, Ark., have cheeks 
and opercles, entirely scaled, or j>artly or wholly naked. 

It seems at least possible that zonale is tending toward entire loss of 
scales from head and breast, this tendency being independent of local 
conditions, and therefore pretty equally exhibited throughout the range 
of the sjiecies. 

9. Etheostoma (Rhothoeca) blennius Gilbert & Swain, sp. nov. 36187. 

Body exceedingly robust, little compressed, the ventral outline more 
strongly arched than dorsal outline ; greatest depth opposite front of 
spinous dorsal, the two profiles thence converging rapidly backwards to 
form the rather long, slender, caudal peduncle. Head very deep, with 
subvertical cheeks, broad below, narrowing upwards and forwards. 
Profile from nape to middle of iuterorbital space nearly horizontal, 
thence abruptly and very obliquely decurved to tip of snout. Middle 
of eye equidistant from tip of snout and front of nape. Greatest depth 
of preorbital two-sevenths length of head. 

Mouth very small, subinferior, the lower jaw included. Length of 
maxillary equaling distance from tip of snout to anterior nostril. Pre- 
maxillaries not protractile, the fold of upper lip interrupted by a very 
narrow frenum, as is the case in some specimens of Etheostoma simoterum, 
to which blennius seems closely related. Vomer with teeth. Opercular 
spine very little developed, the opercle terminating in a flat point, 



56 DESCRIPTIONS OF ETHEOSTOMOIDS. 

scarcely projecting beyoud the membrane. Gill-membranes very widely 
joined across isthmus, the width of the union being two-thirds distance 
from posterior margin of membrane to tip of lower jaw. Eyes small, 
high up, their diameter two-thirds snout and 4^ in head. 

Spinous dorsal long and rather low, composed of stiff spines, the 
membrane of last spine joining base of first soft ray ; the middle spines 
the highest, about half length of head. Second dorsal shorter and 
higher than the first, much larger than the small anal tin, its longest 
ray If in head. Anal spines short and robust, the first longer than 
second; longest anal ray about equaling length of snout. Caudal lunate. 
Pectorals very large, reaching much beyond ventrals, about one-third 
length of body. Length of ventrals equaling distance from snout to 
base of pectorals. Least depth of caudal peduncle two-fifths depth of 
body. 

Body covered with very large scales, those on nape somewhat smaller. 
Head and breast wholly naked. Lateral line complete, straight. 

Head 4t in length ; depth 4f . D. XII, 12 ; A. II, 8. Lateral line, dSf. 
Length, 2| inches. 

Color in life : Light olive-green above, with four conspicuous black- 
ish-brown cross-bars, narrower than the interspaces, running from back 
downward and forward to below lateral line ; the first, very broad, occu- 
pies the entire nape, and terminates above base of pectorals ; the sec- 
ond, much narrower, begins below end of spinous dorsal ; the third 
below last rays of soft dorsal ; the last bar, much less conspicuous, on 
back of caudal peduncle. On middle of each light interspace is a sim- 
ilar, somewhat broader, bar, less clearly marked, and with ill-defined 
boundaries. These bars terminate below lateral line in seven or eight 
dusky blotches. Each scale on back and sides with the central portion 
light red, changing to golden brown in spirits. Belly and lower fourth 
of sides silvery- white. Two bright areas at base of caudal, with a 
blackish bar immediately behind them ; caudal indistinctly barred with 
dusky. Dorsals translucent, the membrane between each two rays with 
an elongate dusky-red blotch, extending two-thirds height of fin ; spin- 
ous dorsal margined with light red. Pectorals barred with dusky and 
light-yellowish. Ventrals with traces of similar bars. Anal translu- 
cent, an indistinct yellowish band along its middle. 

Two specimens were taken near Florence, Ala., by the writer and Mr. 
Joseph Swain, the largest of these (the type of the present description, 
numbered 36187 on the register of the National Museum) in Cox's 
Creek, the smaller in Shoal Creek — clear, rapid streams, tributary to 
the Tennessee River. 

This species is very close to Etheostoma inscriptnm Jordan & Bray- 
ton, but differs from published descriptions of the latter in form, in 
some details of coloration, and in the smaller eye. We have bad no 
specimens of inscriptum with which to compare it. 



1S87.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 57 

10. Etheostoma (RhothcEca) rupestre Gilbert &, Swaiii, sp. nov. 36695. 
Closely related to Etheostoma thalassinmn, from wbich it may be dis- 

tiuguislied by its more sleuder form, the absence of bright coloration, 
the smaller scales, and the squamation of the opercle. 

Body slender, fusiform, little compressed, the upper anterior profile 
descending rapidly to tip of snout. 3Iouth small, horizontal, terminal, 
at lower side of snout, the lower jaw included ; maxillary reaching ver- 
tical from front of orbit, its length slightly less than diameter of eye, 
3^ in head in specimens li inches long. Interorbital space very nar- 
row, its width half diameter of orbit. Gill-membranes widely joined, 
free from the isthmus. 

Scales small, 6 to 7 longitudinal series between lateral line and the 
base of the spinous dorsal ; tubes of lateral line usually 55 or 5Q in 
number, varying from 50 to 57. Lateral line complete, straight. Oper- 
cle more or less completed covered with scales as large as those on sides; 
cheeks and breast naked, the nape closely scaled. 

Fins of moderate size, the spines weak and flexible. Length of dorsal 
spines equaling distance from tip of snout to middle of orbit. Anal 
spines short, about equal in size, their length less than diameter of orbit. 
Pectorals long, reaching beyond vertical from vent, their length 3 to 3^ 
times in length of head and body. Yentrals reaching vent. Caudal 
short, not deeply notched, ii in length. 

Head, 34 to 4 in length ; depth, 5i|. D. XI or XII— 11 or 12 ; A. II, 
7 (8). Lat. 1. 50 to 57 ; 6 or 7 series above lateral line. 

Coloration in life: Grass green, with darker markings, but no red or 
blue. Back with six dark cross bars, wider than the light interspaces. 
A series of six dark blotches, sometimes W-shaped, along sides imme- 
diately below lateral line. Usually four dark spots at base of caudal, 
two of which are closely approximated at base of median caudal rays. 
Dark vermiculatious on top of snout; a dark bar downwards, and one 
downwards and forwards from eye. Fins with wiivy dusky bars. 

Xumerous specimens were taken by us in North River, a tributary 
of the Black Warrior, near Tuscaloosa, Ala. It may prove to be a sub- 
species of thalassimim, but we cannot at present so determine it. 

11. Etheostoma (Etheostoma) saxatile Hay. 36628, 36630, .36736. 
Numerous specimens from various localities enable us to contribute 

the following points to our knowledge of this species : 

With much the habit of E. olmstecU, but the snout slender and sharp, 
with gently decurved profile and the mouth terminal, nearly horizontal. 
Lower jaw included ; maxillary extending scarcely beyond vertical from 
front of eye. Pieopercle entire; ojiercular spine developed. Gill mem- 
branes evidently but rather narrowly united across isthmus. 

Pectorals reaching somewhat beyond ventrals, about as long as head, 
not nearly reaching vent. Ventrals not extending two thirds distance 
to front of anal, equaling distance from snout to preopercle. Dorsal 
fins well separated, the interval between them equaling two-thirds diam. 



68 DESCRIPTIONS OF ETHEOSTOMOIDS. 

eter of orbit ; dorsal spiues very slender and fragile, the longest equal- 
ing longest soft ray, and half length of head. Anal spines slender, 
about equal in length, the anterior the stronger, one-third length of 
head ; soft anal rays equal lialf distance from snout to base of pectorals. 
Caudal shallowly lunate. 

Scales strongly ctenoitl, uniformly covering body except breast, those 
on nape smaller ; opercles and upper portion of cheeks closely scaled, 
head otherwise naked. No enlarged black humeral scale. Lateral line 
reaching about to end of soft dorsal, on 30 to 45 scales. 

Head, 3f to 4 in length ; depth, 6. D. XI to XIII— 11 to 12 ; A. II, 
9. Lat. 1. 50 to 55. Five longitudinal series between lateral line and 
base of spinous dorsal. 

Color in life: Olivaceous, with six dark cross-bars on back, and with 
dark tessellations which follow the same pattern as in E. olmstedi, those 
on upper parts light brownish red, instead of dusky; the Msli^P^d 
marks along sides dusky, serving, in the brighter specimens only, as 
the starting points for light-blue bands which more or less completely 
encircle belly and caudal peduncle. No other bright markings. A 
narrow dark streak from eye to snout ; an indistinct dark streak be- 
low, and a black spot behind eye. Dorsals and caudal inconspicuously 
barred. A pair of minute jet-black spots at base of median caudal rays, 
more conspicuous in the young. Opercle dusky. 

This species has undoubtedly a very wide distribution. Originally 
described by Professor Hay from the Chickasawha River, it was during 
the summer of 1884 found to be abundant in tributaries of the Clinch 
Biver near Clinton, Tenn., in the Black Warrior River at Morris, and 
at Tuscaloosa, Ala., and in the Saline and Washita Rivers in Arkan- 
sas. Our specimens have been compared with the original types, with 
which they agree in all respects. The frenum joining the premaxillary 
to the forehead is very narrow and easily ruptured, the upper jaw then 
appearing protractile. Occasionally the fold is continuous, no frenum 
being present, the species varying in this respect like E. aimoterum. 

12. Etheostoma (Etheostoma) luteovinctum Gilbert & Swain, sp. uov. 36139. 

Body compressed, the back elevated, the profile descending rapidly 
forward, and gradually towards tail, from front of spinous dorsal ; 
caudal peduncle very slender. Head compressed, with a short high 
snout, the upper profile of which descends in a strong curve. j\Iouth 
at lower level of muzzle, which does not project beyond it; mandible 
included. Gape nearly horizontal, of moderate size, the maxillary reach- 
ing vertical from front of pupil, 3J in head. Cheeks and opeicles 
scaled. Preopercle entire. Opercular spine present. Branchiostegal 
membranes narrowly joined across isthmus. Eye rather large, longer 
than snout, 3i to 4 in head. 

Dorsals shortand low, well separated from each other; baseof spinous 
dorsal equaling length of caudal peduncle, and but little longer than 
that of soft dorsal. Highest dorsal spine half length of head; the 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 59 

highest soft ray 1| in head. Anal spines of about equal length, both 
slender and rather high, ^ length of head. Pectorals as long as head; 
ventrals 1| in head. 

Cheeks, opercles, and nape closely scaled, the breast naked or par- 
tially scaled. No black humeral scale. Lateral line nearly straight, 
continued to below middle of second dorsal, running on 30 to 35 scales. 

Head, 3f to 4 in length ; depth, 4J to 5. D. IX or X— 13; A. II, 7 or 
8. Lat. 1. 49 to SS^s^. Length, 2 inches. 

Colors in life: Very light pale olive, with 7 dusky cross-bars on back 
narrower than the interspaces, and reaching about half way to lateral 
line, their ends connected by dusky lines. Below lateral line about 9 
dusky-greenish blotches, between which are orange-yellow cross-bars, 
most distinct posteriorly, not reaching median ventral line. Xo dis- 
tinct streak forward from eye ; a dusky bar below eye ; snout dusky. 
Small black spots at base of caudal. Soft dorsal and caudal barred 
with dusky. Spinous dorsal with a black blotch on posterior rays, a 
yellow or orange bar through middle of fin, the base and margin dusky. 
Anal fin unmarked. 

Five specimens were obtained from a quiet gravelly spot in Stone 
Eiver near Nashville, Tenn. 

13. Etheostoma (Btheostoma) parvipinne Gilbert & Swaiu, sp. nov, 36716. 

Body compressed, little tapering, the caudal peduncle deep, its depth 
approximately equal throughout. Head small and broad, with very 
short snout which is abruptly somewhat blunt, its tip about on a level 
with axis of body, the dorsal outline descending to it equally as the 
ventral outline rises. Mouth small, with broad, oblique cleft, tbe max- 
illary reaching beyond vertical from front of orbit, 3| in head. Teeth 
on vomer and palatines. Eye 4^ in head, equaling distance from tip of 
snout to front of pupil. Interorbital width § diameter of orbit, with a 
median furrow. Preopercular margin* entire. Gill membranes very 
broadly joined across isthmus, the distance on median line from their 
posterior border to articulation of mandible equaling diameter of orbit. 
Cheeks, opercles, nape and breast closely scaled. 

Spinous dorsal low and of weak spines, the median portion highest, the 
outline descending gradually either way ; the highest spine 2^ in head. 
The two dorsals scarcely joined at base. Second dorsal small, its base 
equaling length of head in front of preopercular margin, the lougest 
ray half length of- head. Anal spines rather weak, the second longer 
and somewhat stronger than the first. Caudal rounded. Pectorals and 
ventrals both very short, their tips reaching about the same vertical, 
the ventrals scarcely extending half way to vent. Pectorals equaling 
head behind middle of eye. 

Scales weakly ctenoid, those on head, nape, and breast smooth. Oper- 
cular scales about as large as those on body, those on cheeks, inter- 
opercles, breast and nape much smaller; lateral line nearly straight, 
with a slight arch anteriorly, wanting on three or four scales only. 



60 DESCRIPTIONS OF ETHEOSTOMOIDS. 

Head, 4^ iu length; depth, 4a D. XI-10 ; A. II, 7. Lateral line,- 
•±013. 

Color: Dusky olive above and on sides, dusted with line dark i^oiuts. 
Eleven or twelve faint dark cross-blotches on back, and a correspond- 
ing number on middle of sides below lateral line. Lower part of sides 
and the ventral region unmarked. Two small black spots at base of 
caudal. Spinous dorsal with about two irregular series of black spots ; 
soft dorsal and caudal speckled ; other fins unmarked. A dark bar 
below eye, none in front or behind. 

A single specimen, 2 inches long, was obtained in a small spring- 
branch tributary to the Black Warrior River, at Tuscaloosa, Ala. It 
is numbered 367] G on the National Museum register. 

14. Etheostoma (Etheostoma) punctulatum Ag. 3fi240, 36212. 

Body slender, compressed, the ventral outline nearly straight, the 
back scarcely elevated ; upper profile descending in a gentle regular 
curve from front of dorsal to snout, which is below axis of body. Snout 
sharp; mouth terminal, moderately oblique, large, the maxillary reach- 
ing vertical from middle of pupil, 3 in head ; premaxillaries not pro" 
tractile. Eye large, 3^ in head; the snout 4^. Teeth on vomer and 
palatines; outer series in upper jaw enlarged. Preopercle entire; oper- 
cular spine very slender. Branchiostegal membranes not united across 
isthmus. 

Fins rather small. Pectorals and ventrals about equal, the latter not 
nearly reaching vent, as long as from snout to nape. Dorsals not joined 
at base, the spines rather strong. Anal with two slender subequal 
spines, as long as diameter of orbit, the first stronger than second. Can. 
dal truncate. 

Body covered with small ctenoid scales, which become very tine on 
the nape; breast naked. An enlarged black humeral scale ; cheeks and 
opercles naked. Lateral line straight, ending below last rays of soft 
dorsal, the tubes wanting on about 20 scales. 

Head, 3J in length ; depth 5g. D. X or XI-14 ; A- II, 8 or 9. 

Lateral line G3 to 73, about 9 series above it. Length 2 inches. 

Colors in life: Very dark slaty-green, with indistinct darker bars, 
irregular in number and size, downwards from back. Belly and branch- 
iostegal membranes deep orange-red. Sides of head coarsely punctate 
with black ; top of head dusky, a dark bar forwards from eye, one up. 
wards and backwards across upper portion of cheek and oi)ercle, and a 
broad bar downwards to behind the mandible. A consi)icuous black 
humeral spot. Usually a darker area at base of caudal, one below soft 
dorsal, and a dusky bar in axil of pectorals euding below the fin in a 
blackish blotch. Spinous dorsal dusky-green at base, a broad black 
bar through its middle, more conspicuous anteriorly, its margin red- 
dish ; second dorsal, caudal, and pectorals light reddish, with indistinct 



18S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 61 

wavy bars formed of black punctulatious ; auals and veutrals dusted 
with coarse black specks. 

This species is abundaut in small streams in the Ozark region of 
Southwestern Missouri. It was taken by Mr. S. E. Meek and the writer 
in the Sac Eiver near Greenfield, and in the Mangua River, the James, 
and the Osage Fork of the Gasconade Rivers, near Marshfield, Mo. 

15. Etlieostoma TEtheostoma) whipplei Girard. 36353, 36442, 36377, 1331, 36419, 
36818, 36735. 

Closely related to Etheostoma punctulatum from which it differs con- 
spicuously in its deeper, more compressed body, thicker caudal peduncle, 
coarser scales, smaller eye, the union of the branchiostegal membranes 
across the isthmus, and the different coloration. 

Body rather deep, compressed; least depth of caudal peduncle equal- 
ing length of snout and eye. Mouth terminal, oblique, maxillary 
reaching vertical from front of pupil, 3^ in head. Premaxillaries not 
protractile. Eye moderate, slightly greater than snout, 4^ in head. 
Preopercle entire ; opercular spine strong. Branchiostegal membranes 
rather widely joined across isthmus. 

Fins larger than in punctulatum; dorsals slightly joined at base, the 
longest soft ray half length of head; pectorals somewhat longer than 
veutrals, which equal distance from snout to preopercular margin; first 
anal spine longer and much stronger than second; caudal truncate. 

Scales small; lateral line straight, ending under last rays of soft dor- 
sal, the pores wanting on 16 to 20 scales. Opercles with a few large 
ctenoid scales. Breast and ventral region, cheeks, nape, and a strip 
along base of spinous dorsal anteriorly, naked or with embedded, cycloid 
scales. 

Head 3^ in length: depth ^ to 5. D. IX to XII-12 to 14; A. II, 7. 
Lateral line 60 to 70, 8 or 9 series between it and base of spinous dorsal. 

Colors in life: Grayish, mottled with darker, and with about 12 in- 
distinct dusky bars, becoming more clearly marked posteriorly ; scales 
of lighter interspaces on sides, with small, round, bright, orange-red 
spots, those near lateral line in longitudinal series of two to five. Two 
orange blotches at base of caudal. A dark spot below eye, and two 
behind it — one of these on upper part of cheeks, the other, fainter, on 
occiput. A conspicuous black humeral spot. 

Spinous dorsal dusky-translucent at base, a dark bar about half way 
up, then a translucent bar, an orange-red bar, and a translucent bar 
tipped with dusky; soft dorsal similarly marked, with more yellowish. 
Anal like soft dorsal, the orange brighter, sometimes covering distal 
half of fin, the basal dusky area fainter. Caudal barred with light and 
dark, and margined with black; sometimes with a submarginal band 
of orange. 

Occurring abundantly in the Poteau River near Hackett's City, the 
Saline River at Benton, and the Washita River at Arkadelphia, Ark- 



62 DESCRIPTIONS OF ETHEOSTOMOIDS. 

16. Etheostoma whipplei alabamae Gilbert & Swaiu, 3nbsp. iiov. 

It has seemed desirable to assigu subspecific rank to specimens col- 
lected by Mr. Swain and the writer in the Black Warrior River near 
Morris and Tuscaloosa, Ala. We have found no difference between 
these and typical ichipplei, from the West, except the constantly lai'ger 
scales in alabamw. There are usually- from 50 to 5G in the lateral line, 
occasionally 58, and in one instance as low as 43. There are 7 or 8 
series between lateral line and base of spinous dorsal, these being re- 
duced to 4 in the single instance referred to above. The pores of the 
lateral line are wanting on about 12 scales. In all other details of color, 
proportions and fiu-formulte, the two forms appear not to differ. A 
single specimen from Arkadelphia, Ark., has the lateral line 48. This 
must be a very exceptional irregularity, as in the count of some 30 speci- 
mens from Arkansas, none other was foiiud with less than 60 scales. 

* 17. Etheostoma cragini Gilbert. 3H320. 

Head and body heavy and not closely compressed, the back not ele- 
vated, the caudal peduncle deep; snout short and broad, less than 
diameter of orbit, 5 in head ; mouth terminal, broad, little oblique, the 
lower jaw included: the maxillary scarcely reaching vertical from front 
of pupil, 3J in head. Premaxillaries non-protractile. Eye large, much 
longer than snout, equaling length of maxillary. Interorbital space 
narrow, less than diameter of pupil. Preopercle entire; opercle ending 
in a short fiat point, the spine poorly developed. Gill membranes some- 
what narrowly joined across the isthmus. A conspicuous black humeral 
scale. 

Fins small, the pectorals reaching but little beyond tips of veutrals, 
1^ in head. Spinous dorsal low, the spines strong, the longest about f 
length of head. Anal fin very small; first anal spine longer and 
stronger than the second, 3^ in head. Caudal truncate, equaling length 
of pectorals. 

Scales weakly ctenoid, uniformly covering body Including nape and 
ventral region, becoming somewhat smaller anteriorly on sides ; cheeks 
and opercles with few scales or none, head and breast otherwise naked. 

Head 3^ in length ; depth 4f . D. VIII or IX, 10 to 12 (VI, 12 in one 
specimen, probably abnormal) ; A. II, G or 7. Lateral line 46 to 50, the 
tubes i^resent on 15 to 20 scales; 6 or 7 series of scales above lateral 
line. Length 1^ inches. 

Color in spirits : Olivaceous, much mottled with dusky above; lower 
half of sides sprinkled with coarse black specks, and with traces of two 
silvery lines; middle of sides with a series of about 12 dusky spots as 
large as pupil, the interspaces silvery; a black spot on opercle, one 
behind and one below orbit ; snout dusky. Caudal conspicuously barred 
with light and dark; soft dorsal and anal faintly barred ; spinous dorsal 

* This description appeared originally in the " Bulletin of the Washburn College 
Laboratory" for March and April, 1885, p. 99. 



IdSr.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 63 

translucent, dusted with minute dark points, margined with blackish. 
Traces of orange markings on lower side of head, and on bases of pec- 
toral fins; caudal apparently tinged, in life, with light yellow. 

Several specimens were collected and forwarded to the writer by 
Prof. F. W. Cragin, who took them in a small weedy stream connecting 
the "Lake" at Garden City, Kans., with the Arkansas River. A single 
specimen was also taken in Snokomo Creek, Wabaunsee County, Kansas. 

18. Etheostoma (Etheostoma) tuscumbia Gilbert & Swain, sp. nov. 3G154. 

Body exceedingly heavy and robust, with elevated back, and broad, 
thick head. Anterior profile descending rapidly from front of dorsal, 
the snout blunt and broadly rounded, but not overhanging the mouth. 
Gape large and wide, the mandible little included, the maxillary reach- 
ing vertical from middle of orbit, 3 in head. Eye rather small, 4J in 
head, the interorbital width two-thirds its diameter. Preopercular 
margin entire. Cheeks, opercles, nape, and top of head generally 
scaly, only the snout, interorbital space, and preorbitals naked. Oper- 
cular spine little developed. Branchiostegal membranes scarcely Joined 
across isthmus. 

Fins all very small. Dorsal spines weak, the median spines highest, 
half length of head; soft dorsal scarcely higher than spinous; anal fin 
with a single, rather weak spine, the first soft ray articulated and 
branched. Pectorals and ventrals very small, the latter not reaching 
I distance to vent ; length of pastorals equaling distance from tip of 
snout to preopercular margin. Caudal broadly rounded. 

Head 3 J to Sf in length ; depth 4 to U. D. IX or X, 11 to 13 ; A. I, 
s. Lateral line 50 ^^o or 50 ^\. Length 2 inches. 

Scales rough, wholly enveloping head and body except snout and in- 
terorbital space. Lateral line incomplete, arched, following the curve 
of the back. Pores absent on 15 to 18 scales. 

Color in life : Varying shades of grayish and greenish olive, much 
mottled and speckled with black. Six broad, dark bars across back ; 8 
or 10 linear black blotches along lateral line separated by silvery inter- 
spaces. A dark streak before, one below, and one behind orbit. 
Opercle and top of head dusky. Pectorals with several dark bars, ven- 
trals unmarked. A black blotch at base of each caudal lobe. Other 
fins more or less barred with light and dark. 

This species differs from all those hitherto referred to the group Etheos- 
toma in having a single anal spine, and will have to form the type of a 
new genus, if we attempt to recognize as genera such groups as Nanos- 
toma, Nothonotus, Hadroptertis^ &c. 

Etheostoma tuscumbia was found exceedingly abundant in the stream 
flowing from the large spring at Tuscumbia, Ala. 

19. Etheostoma ( Alvarius) fonticola Jordan & Gilbert, sp. nov. 36523. 

Moderately compressed and elevated, the two outlines about equally 
arched ; head short and deep, with very short snout ; mouth terminal, 



64 DESCRIPTIONS OF ETHEOSTOMOIDS. 

oblique, rather large, the lower jaw slightly iucluded; maxillary reach- 
ing vertical from pupil, rather more than ^ length of head. Eye large, 
3J in head, much longer than the snout or the narrow interorbital 
space. Gill membranes moderately joined across the isthmus, uniting 
in an acute angle. Opercular spine well developed. Premaxillaries 
non-protractile. 

Fins small ; the spinous and soft dorsals well separated ; the anal tcith 
a single rather strong spine in all specimens seen. Length of pectorals 
equaling length of head behind front of eye. Longest dorsal spine 
equaling length of snout and eye. 

Scales large, covering sides and ventral region uniformly ; nape, 
breast, and cheeks naked, opercles scaled. Pores of lateral line present 
on one or two scales next the head, only. 

Head, 3f in length ; depth, 5. D. VI-10 : A. I, 7. Lat. 1. 34. Length 
about 1 inch. 

Color in life : Olivaceous, the scales on sides broadly margined be- 
hind with dusky. Dorsal region dusted with fine dark specks, and with 
about S indistinct dusky cross-blotches. A series of horizontal stitch- 
like dark lines along middle of sides, forming an interrupted lateral 
streak. Three small dark spots at base of tail. A dark spot on opercle. 
A dark bar before, one below, and one behind eye. Soft parts of ver- 
tical tins with light and dark bars. Lower half of spinous dorsal jet- 
black; above this a broad red band, the fin narrowly edged above with 
black. 

Taken in small numbers in the San Marcos River, near San Marcos, 
Tex. It resembles in most details Etheostoma prwliare and microperca,* 
but diflers in the constant presence of but one anal spine, in the 
bright coloration of the spinous dorsal, and in the somewhat larger 
mouth ; from prceliare it differs also in having naked cheeks. It does 
not seem very improbable that these three species may eventually be 
reduced to one. But few specimens have been examined, and nothing 
is known concerning their variability. Of the two specimens of praliare 
thus far known, one has twp anal spines, and the other but one. 

Alvarius lateralis Grd. is a closely related species and may even be 
identical with the above. It is said, however, to have the lower jaw 
longer than the upper, and the cheeks and opercles scaly ; no anal 
spine was observed, and nothing said with regard to length of lateral 
line. In our ignorance concerning these points we have not thought 
it best to make the identification. 

UNIVEESITY of ClXCI]NNATI, 

Decemher 9, 1886. 

'Etheostoma microperca Jordan & Gilbert = ii"iej'0^;erco pwnctulata Putnam. The 
name punctulatum is preoccupied iu Etheostoma. 



1887. ] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 65 



A REVIEW OF THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF THE GENERA 
LAGODON, ARCHOSARGUS, AND DIPLODUS. 

By CABr. H. EIOEIVillAIVIV AND ELIZABETH G. HVCBES. 

In the following paper we give the synonymy of the North American 
species of the genera Lagodon, Archosargus, and Diplodus, with notes 
on the skeletons and keys for the identification of the si^ecies. 

The specimens examined have, for the most part, been collected by 
Dr. D. S. Jordan, and are in the Museum of the Indiana University; 
duplicate series of all these are in the United States National Museum. 

The genera of the American Sparinse maybe distinguished as follows: 

AJNTALYSIS OF THE GENERA OF NORTH AMERICAN SPARINiE. 

a. Second. iuterhsBmal spine normal, not "pen-sliaped." 

i. Front teeth conic, usually more or less canine-like ; occipital crest coalescent with 

the temporal crests Sparus.* 

bb. Front teeth broad, incisor-like ; no canines, 
c. First spine-bearing interneural developed as an antrorse spine above. 
d. Occipital and temporal crests nowhere coalescent, the interorbital area not 
swollen. Bones of the Interorbital area thin, concave in transverse sec- 
tion; temporal crest low, seiiarated from occiiiital crest by a tlattish 
area, which extends forward on each side of the occipital crest and to 

the groove of the premaxillary spine Lagodon, 1. 

dd. Occipital and temporal crests coalescent anteriorly, both disappearing in the 
gibbous interorbital area. Bones of the interorbital area transversely 
gibbous and more or less cavernous or honey-combed ; temporal crest 
separated from occipital crest by an excavated, area, which is bounded 
anteriorly by the lateral crest, which merges iuto the occipital crest in 

the interorbital area Archosargus, 2. 

cc. First spine-bearing interneural not developed as an antrorse spine above ; 
skull essentially as in Archosargus ; the interorbital area more cavern- 
ous DiPLODUS, 3. 

aa. Second interhaemal spine enlarged, hollowed anteriorly, pen-shaped, receiving 
the posterior end of the air-bladder in its anterior groove. 

e. Front teeth narrow, incisor-like ; an antrorse spine on the first spine-bearing 
interneural ; temporal crest obsolete ; lateral crest nowhere coalescent 
with the occipital crest ; interorbital area flattish, with two low ridges, 
a small foramen in each of these above anterior margin of ijupil; 
interorbital area much contracted anteriorly ; a strongly projecting 
preorhital process which makes an acute angle with the supra-orbital 
bone Stenotomus.I 

ee. Front teeth conic or canine-like ; no antrorse spine on first spine-bearing 
interneural ; temporal crest very thin and high, joining the lateral crest 
(which in this case forms part of the margin of the orbit) above the mid- 
dle of the orbit, both coalescing with the occipital crest in the cavernous 
anterior part of the interorbital area ; interorbital area somewhat con- 
tracted anteriorly; the preorbital i>rocess stronger than in Stenotomus, 
but making a very obtuse angle with the supra-orbital bone. .Calamus. 

*We have examined the skulls of S. aurata, pagrus, and erythrinus, the types of 
Cuvier's genera Chrysophris, Pagrus, and Pagellus ; though there are some variations 
in structure, the differences are not of generic character, nor do the teeth offer any 
grounds for division. 

tWe have examined only the skulls of Calamus calamus and Stenotomus cliryso2)8m 
this group. 

Proc. N. M. 87 5 



66 REVIEW OF LAGODON, ARCHOSARGUS, AND UIPLODUS. 

1. LAGODON. 
LaGODON Holbrook, Ichth. South Carolina, 59, 1860 (rhomboide^). 

Type. — Spams rhomhoides Liuuaeus. 

There is a marked differeuce in the character of the iuterorbital boues 
of Lagodon as compared with Archosargus and Diplodus. As there are 
no species known which show intermediate characters between L. rhom- 
hoides and the species of Archosargus, the differences set forth in the key 
may be considered of generic value. The interorbital bones of Archo- 
sargus are much more like those of Diplodus than like those of Lagodon. 

But one species of Lagodon is yet certainly known. 

ANALYSIS OF THE SPECIES OF LAGODON. 

a. Upper jaw with two rows of molars ; dorsal spiiies, 12 ; second anal spine not 
larger than third. Body elongate, elliptical ; depth, 2 to 2| in length ; head, 
3^ ; head flattened, muzzle pointed, profile not very steep. Eye moderate, 
li to 1^ in snout, 1 in interorbital, 4 in head. Mouth moderate, maxillary 
not reaching to front of orbit, 3i in head ; incisors |, deeply notched ; molars 
in two series in each jaw. Dorsal spines all rather high, the highest about 2 
in head. Caudal deeply forked. Ventrals short and broad ; pectorals mod- 
erate, upper rays reaching past origin of anal. Bluish above, paler below ; 
sides with 8 to 12 golden longitudinal stripes and about 6 dark cross-bars. 
A black blotch above pectoral. Anal with a light margin. Dorsal and anal 
each with a median golden stripe. D. XII, 11 ; A. Ill, 11. Scales 10-(35 to 
70_17 Rhomboides, 1. 

1. Lagodon rhomboides. Piv-fish; Bream; Sailor's Choice; Chopa Spina. 

Sparus rhomhoides Liunaus, Syst. Nat., ed. xii, 1, 470, 17G6 (Charleston ; on a 
specimen from Dr. Garden). Schopf, " Schrift. der Naturf. Freunde, 
Berlin, viii, 153," 1788 (New York). Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1275. 1788 
(copied). Walbaum, Artedi Piscium, 292, 1792 (copied). Shaw, "Geul. 
Zool., iv, 447, 1803." 

Sargus rhomhoides Cuvier &, Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vi, 68, plate 
143, 1830 (New York, New Orleans). De Kay, Fishes New York, 93, plate 
71, fig. 228, 1842 (New York). Storer, Synopsis Fishes, 333, 1S45 (copied). 
Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., I, 447, 1859 (Southern U. S.). 

Lagodon rhomhoides Holbrook, "Ichth. S. Car., .58, plate 8, fig. 1," 1860 (South 
Carolina). Gill, Cat. Fish. East Coast, 31, 1861. Poey, Syu. Pise. Cub., 
310, 1868 (Cuba). Gill, Cat. Fishes East Coast, 27, 1873. Poey, Enumer- 
tio Pise. Cub., 58, 1875 (Cuba). Uhler & Lugger, Fishes of Maryland, 
104, 1876 (Maryland). Goode, Fishes Bermuda, Am. .Journ. Sci. and Arts, 
1877, 292 (Bermuda). Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1878, 378 
(Beaufort). Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 133 (Pensacola). 
Jordan, Proc. U. S.Nat. Mus., 1880, 19 (Eastern Fla.). Jordan, Proc. U. 
S, Nat. Mus., 1880, 22 (Saint John's River). Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1880, 95 (Saint John's River). Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1882, 278 (Pensacola). Jordan Sc Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 
605 (Charleston). Bean, Cat. Fish Interuat. Fish Ex., London, 57, 1883 
(Galveston, Texas). Henshall, Florida, 239, 1884 (east and west coasts; 
Florida Keys). Gill, Standard Nat. Hist., Ill, 222, 1886. 

Diplodus rhomhoides Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish North America, 558, 1883. 
Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., If84, 1^?9 (Key West). JoMau & Swain, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1884, 233 (Cedar Keys). Jordan, Cat. Fish North 
America, 91, No. 1064, 1885 (name only). Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1886, 28 (Beaufort, N. C). 



18S7.] PROCEEDI^'GS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. G7 

Perca rhomhoidalis Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mns., 1>;'5, 20 (not of 
Liunoius). 

Habitat. — Atlantic aud GuW coasts of the United States. Cape Cod 
to Cuba. 

This species is very common all along the eastern coast of the United 
States south of jSTew York and on the Gulf coast as far west as Pensa- 
cola. 

Its synonymy needs uo remark. 

SMeton.—Y ertehvx 10 -f 14. Occipital crest high and thin, extending 
to above the anterior part of the eye, the frontal crest being very low. 
Xo transverse ridge or crest anywhere. A thin crest (temporal) extends 
back from above the eye past the edge of the skull, the suprascapula 
being attached some distance in advance of its posterior edge. Skull 
otherwise smooth. Interorbital area low, depressed, narrowest near the 
anterior border; its bones thin. A small foramen in the anterior part of 
the maxillary, the outer coating of the anterior part being thin. Teeth 
much narrowed towards their base. 

The posterior part of the skull on each side of the occipital crest is 
higher than in A. prohatocej)halus or A. imimaculatus, and less concave 
or excavated than in either of these species. 

2. ARCHOSARGUS. 

Archosakgcs Gill, Cauadiau Naturalist, August, 1865 {prohatocephalua). 

Type. — Sparus prohatocephalus Walbaum. 

For reasons already stated, Archosargus is here admitted as a valid 
genus as distinct from Lagodon on the one baud and Diplodus on the 
other. The structure of the skulls of A. prohatocephalus and A. iini- 
maculatus are very much alike; the skulls of the other species of the 
genus we have been unable to examine. The presence of a procumbent 
dorsal spine serves to separate both this and the preceding genus from 
Diplodus. This character is, curiously, confined to American species of 
Sparince, none of the European tyi^es showing it. 

We recognize three species and one variety as inhabiting our waters. 
Besides these species Dr. Giinther records Sargus capensis from our 
waters (Giinther, Shore Fishes, 9, ISSO, Bermudas). The record is some- 
what doubtful and we omit the species from our list. 

ANALYSIS OF NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF ARCHOSARGUS. 

u. Upper jaw with three rows of molars ; second anal spine much larger than third. 
b. Incisors, i orf ; dorsal spines, 12 or 13. 
c. Occipital crest broad, its honeycombed structure plainly exposed at its upper 
margin; dorsal spines 12. Seven broad, black cross-bars, separated 
by narrower light bars. No distinct shoulder spot. Body much com- 
pressed; dorsal outline strongly arched; ventral outline almost straight. 
Profile straight and steep anteriorly. Depth, 2 to 2i in length; head 
3^. Head compressed, deep; mouth large, almost horizontal ; maxillary 
2|- in head; eye placed high, 4 in head, 1| in interorbital, IJ in suborbital. 
Incisors, f ; entire or slightly emarginate, serrate in the young ; molars 



68 REVIEW OF LAGODON, ARCHOS ARGUS, AND DIPLODUS. 

in three series above, iu two below; those of the inner series larger, those 
behind the incisors very small. Highest dorsal spine IJ^ in head. Caudal 
not deeply forked. Second anal spine about twice in head, much larger 
than third. Ventrals not near reaching vent ; pectorals reaching past be- 
ginning of anal. Color: Head dark ; body silvery gray with 5 to 7 dark 
bars, which are less distinct in the adult; base of pectorals black. D. 
XII, 10 or 12; A. Ill, 10 or 11 Probatocephalus, 2. 

d. Incisors broad, their breadth about half their length. Scales, 7-48-15. 

var. Frohatocephalua 2 (a). 

dd. Incisors narrower, their breadth 2| in their length. Scales, 7-44-14. 

var. aries 2 (6). 
CO. Occipital crest rather thin, the honeycombed structure not exposed ; dorsal 
spines 13; black cross-bars narrow, disappearing with age, their width 
about \ that of the interspace ; a distinct shoulder spot. Body somewhat 
elongate and compressed ; depth 2 to 2^ in length ; head 3|. Profile 
rounded, steep. Mouth large, horizontal ; maxillary not reaching front of 
orbit, 3 to 3^ in head. Eye large, placed high, its diameter equal to the 
preorbital, 3f to 4 in head, 1^ in interorbital width. Incisors, f , entire 
or with a shallow notch; molars in three series in upper jaw, iu two in 
lower. Fifth dorsal spine highest, 2 to 2-J^ in head. Second anal spine 
strong, recurved in head. Ventrals not near reaching vent ; pectorals 
broad, the upper rays reaching past insertion of anal. Bluish above; 
about 7 narrow, dark cross-bands; a black humeral spot. D. XIII, 10; 

A. Ill, 10 or 11. Scales, 7 to 9-45 to 50-14 to 16 Unimaculatus, 3. 

66. [Incisors f ; dorsal spines 12. Depth 2-^1^ in total length ; head, more than 4 ; 
eye 3^ in head, 1 in snout ; maxillary extending to a point between the 
pupil and the " interior " border of the eye ; profile with slight depres- 
sion above the eye ; second anal spine much longer than the third. Color 
grayish, belly white; 8 golden longitudinal bands; a black shoulder 
spot. D. Xli, 10; A. Ill, 9.] {I'oey) Tridexs, 4 

2. Archosargus probatocephalus. Sheeiyshead ; Sargo Eaiado. 

Sparus Sheepshead " Schriften der Gesellsch. Natf. Freunde, VIII, 152." 1788 
(New York). 

Sparus prohatoceijhalus Walbaum, Artedi Pise. 295, 1792 (based on Schopf). 

Archosargus probatocephalus, Gill, Cat. Fish, east coast North Ameiica, 27, 
1873. Uhler and Lugger, Fishes of Maryland 103, 1874 (Maryland) ; Jor- 
dan and Gilbert Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1673, 379 (Beaufort); Goode and 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 133 (Pensacola): Jordan, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1880, 22 (Saint John's River) ; Beau, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1880, 95 (Saint John's River) ; Goode and Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1885, 208. 

Diplodus probatocephalus Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 278 
(Pensacola) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 605 
(Charleston) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Syn. Fish. North America, 558, 1883 ; 
Beau, Interuat. Fish Exhib. London 57, 1883 (Matanzas River Inlet, 
Florida) ; Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat, Mus., 1884, 128 (Key West) ; Jordan 
and Swain, Proc. IT. S. Nat. Mus., 1884, 232 (Cedar Keys); Jordan and 
Meek, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1884, 237 (Jacksonville, Fla.); Henshall, 
Florida, 239, 1884 (east and west coast, Florida Keys); Jordan, Catalogue 
Fishes North America 91, No. 1066, 1885; Gill, Standard Nat. Hist., Ill, 
220, fig. 125, 1885; Goode, Hist. Aquat. Animals, 381, plates 130 and 131, 
1886; Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1886, 27 (Beaufort, N. C). 

Sparus oricephalus Bloch & Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 280, 1-sOl (based on 
Schopf). 



1887.1 PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 69 

Sargus ovtcephalus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 20, 1860 (name only). 
Gill, Cat. Fish East Coast, 31, 1861 (name only). 

Sargus oris Mitcbill, Trans. Lit. .& Phil. Soc. N. Y.,I, 392, plate 2, fig. 13, 1814 
(New York). Cuvier »fe Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VI, 53, 1830 (N. 
Orleans) ; Dekay, Fishes, New York, 89, plate 8, fig. 23, 1842 (New York) ; 
Storer, Synopsis Fishes North America, 332, 1846 (copied); Giinther, Cat. 
Fish. Brit. Mus. I, 447, 1859 (North America) ; Holbrook "Ichth. S. Caro- 
lina, 54, plate 8, fig. 2," 1860 (South Carolina); Stoier, Fishes Mass., 126, 
plate 10, fig. 1, 1867 (New Bedford). 

Habitat. — Atlantic and Gnlf coasts of the United States. Cape Cod 
to Florida Keys and Texas. 

The numerous specimens examined by us are chiefly from Florida. 

The synonymy and characters of this well-known food-fish need no 
special discussion. 

Sl-eleton. — Vertebrae, 10 + 14. Occipital crest very stout, broadened 
at its upper edge, which is very finely honeycombed, and appears as if 
cut with a sharp knife; frontal crest extending to above middle of orbit; 
from the anterior edge of this crest a ridge extends outward and back- 
wards to the upper corner of the preopercle. All bones in front of this 
ridge are swollen and finely honeycombed, the interorbital region being ■ 
slightly convex ; all the bones behind the crest are smooth. A very 
high and thin crest extends forward from the insertion of scapula to the 
transverse crest, a somewhat prominent preorbital process ; interorbital 
area of same width everywhere. Ko foramen in maxilliary, the bones 
thick and hard ; teeth long, scarcely narrower at their base than at 
their cutting edge. 

2 (b) Archosargus probatocephalus aries. 

Sargus aries Cuv. & Val. Hist. Nat. Poiss., vi, 58,1830 (Rio Janeiro Mara- 
caibo); Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit, Mus. i, 449, 1859 (copied). Giinther, 
Fishes Central America, 386. 1864. (Belize.) 

This species is unknown to us except through the published descrip- 
tions above referred to, and through the manuscript notes of Dr. Jordan 
on the type of Cuv. & Val. It would appear to be very closely allied to D. 
probatocephalus, distinguishable only by the slightly narrower teeth and 
I)ossibly larger scales. It is doubtless to be regarded as a geographical 
variety or southern representative of the common sheepshead. 

3. Archosargus unimaculatus. SaJema. 

Salema, Marcgrave, Hist. Pise. Brasil, 153, 1648 (Brazil). 

Bream Brown, "Jamaica, 446, No. I," 1756. 

Perca unimaciilata Bloch, Plate 308, 1792 (Brazil). (On a figure by Prince 
Maurice.) 

Grammistes unimaculatus Bloch & Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 184, 1801 (after 
Bloch). 

Sargus unimaculatus Cuvier & Valencienues, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vi, 62. 1830 
(Rio Janeiro, Martinique); Storer, .Synopsis Fish North America, 334, 
1845 (copied); Giinther, Cat. Fish Brit. Mus., I, 446, 1859 (Babia; Rio Ja- 
neiro ; Guatemala, Puerto Cabello ; Jamaica) ; Giinther, Fishes of Central 
America, 386, 1866 (Belize). 



70 REVIEW OF LAGODON, ARCHOSARGUS, AND DIPLODUS. 

Diplodm unimaculaius Jonlau & Gilbirt, Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus., 1834, 128 

(Key West); Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1864, 156; Jordan, Cat. Fishes 

North America, 91, No. 1065, 18S5; .Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., L'^SG, 

43 (Havana). 
Sparua salin Lac^pede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iv, 1S6, 180:' (based on unimaculatus 

of Blochj. 
Sargus humeri-maculatus Quoy & Gaimard Voyage Freycinet, Zool. 297, 1825 

(Rio Janeiro). 
Sargus flavolineatus Cnvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vi., 60, 1830 

(Cuba); Storer, Syn. Fish U. S., 333, 1845 (copied); Gunther, Cat. Fish 

Brit. Mus., i, 446, 1859 (copied); Poey, Syn. Pise. Cub., 310, 1868 (copied); 

Poey, Enumeratio, 57, 1875 (copied). 
Diplodus flavoUneatuH Jordan, Proc. U. S.Nat. Mus., 1886, 42 (Havana). 
Sargus caribau>i Poey, Mem. Pise. Cub.. II, 197, 1860 (Cuba); Poey, Syn. Pise. 

Cub., 309, 1868 (Cuba); Poey, Enumeratio, 56, 1S75 (Cuba); Poey, Fauna 

Puerto Riqueua, 328, 1881 (Porto Rico). 
Z)i^/o(i«8carJ&(BHS Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish North America, 930, 1883(copied). 

Habitat. — West Indiaii Fauna, north to Key West ; south to Eio Ja- 
neiro. 

The numerous specimens examined by us are from Key West and from 
. Havana. 

The specimens before us differ decidedly in the proportions, the color, 
and the size of the teeth ; but while the differences of the extremes are 
very marked, the intergradation is so perfect that no tangible difference 
can be made out. We have only the deeper form (flavolineatus) from 
Key West, while we have both extremes from Havana. 

As far as we are able to judge from the figures and descriptions the 
unimaculatus of Bloch, Bloch & Schneider, Cuv. & Val. and of Jordan 
& Gilbert, the cariha^us of Poey and the hvmeri-maculatufi Quoy & 
Gaimard rejiresent the more slender form, while the flavolineatus Cuv. 
& Val. represents the deeper form. 

The differences of the extreme forms seem to be these : 

The deeper forin {flavolineatus). The more slender form (nnim(iculatus). 

Greatest depth, 2 in length. Greatest depth, 2^ in length. 

Ventral outline very much rounded. Ventral outline almost straight. 

Distance from insertion of first dorsal Distance from insertion of first dorsal 
spine, obliquely to snout, 1^ in depth. spine, obliquely to snout, 1 iu depth. 

Teeth about one-third narrower than 
in the more slender form. 

Body more compressed. 

Skeleton. — Skull essentially as in A. 2)rohatocephalus ; the occipital 
crest thinner, its honey-combed structure not exposed; a deep notch in 
the supra-ocular bone in front. Teeth short, abruptly narrowed at 
the base to a third of the width of the cutting edge. Maxillary with a 
small foramen in front ; the outer coat of the bones thin. 

A species very close to Archosargus unimaculatus has been lately de- 
scribed from the Galopagos If;lands as Sargus pourtalesii (Steindachuer, 
Fische Afrika's, 39, 1881). 



18S7.1 PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 71 

4. Archosargus tridens. 

Sar(ju8 tridens Poey, Enumeratio Pise. Cub., 57, 1875 (Cuba). 

Habitat. — Ciib.a. 

This species is knowu to us ouly from the description of Professor 
Poey. Its distinctive characters need verification, it being perhaps an 
abnormal specimen of Archosargus unimaculatiis. 

3. DIPLODUS. 

DiPLODUS Rafinesqne, Indice d'lttiologia Siciliaua, 54, 1810 (annularis), 
Sargus Cuvier, Regue animal, 1817 {sargus), (uaine preoccupied). 

Type. — Sparus annularis Gmeliu. 

The name Diplodus should of course sui)ersede Sargus both from the 
fact that it is prior in date and because the latter name has been earlier 
used for a genus of insects. The genus Diplodus, as here understood, 
differs from Archosargus chiefly in the absence of a procumbent dorsal 
spine. 

Most of the species of Dijjlodus are European, as those of Lagodon, 
Archosargus, and iStenotomus — the genera which have the procumbent 
dorsal spine — are American. The skull in Diplodus resembles that of 
Archosargus, but the cavernous or honey-combed structure of the in- 
terorbital area is still more prominent. 

Skeleton of Diplodus annularis, type of Diplodus. — Vertebrte 10 + 
14. No procumbent spine before the dorsal fin. Upper surface of the 
skull very rugose, with many ridges ; occipital crest extending to 
frontal bone ; frontal crest a mere ridge in the interorbital area ; the 
bony stay extending on the occipital crest up from the posterior edge of 
the skull more prominent than in others ; a crest extending from the 
upper angle of the preopercle, forward to anterior edge of occipital 
crest; this crest is broad and porous posteriorly ; the inner edge is well 
defined, the outer edge with many projecting points. A smooth, thin, 
but higher crest extends between this and the occipital crest from the 
insertion of the scapula forward to the transverse crest. The interor- 
bital not rounded, with many irregular crests. Maxillary without fora- 
men. Teeth somewhat abruptly narrowed. 

ANALYSIS OF SPECIES OF DIPLODUS. 

a. Scales, 7-5G-14 ; depth iu adult, 2^ in length ; black bar extending entirely across 
caudal peduncle ; body regularly elliptical, moderately compressed ; bead 
3| iu length ; profile reguarly rounded, not as steep as in argenteiia; eye 
1£ in preorbital ; 1^ in snout ; 4| iu head ; mouth large, almost horizontal; 
maxillary 3^ in head; incisors |, inserted obliquely; molars iu 3 series 
above and 2 below ; longest dorsal spine Sf in head ; caudal deej)ly forked ; 
second anal spine little larger than third, 3^ iu head; ventrals reaching 
half way to the anal fin ; pectorals not reaching to first anal spiue ; steel- 
blue above, paler below, abroad black border on the operculum ; a black 
spot on upper part of base of pectoral ; D. XII, 14 or 15 ; A. Ill, 13. 

HOLBROOKI, 5. 



72 REVIEW OF LAGODON, ARCHOSARGUS, AND DIPLODUS. 

aa. Scales, 8-62 to 65-16 ; black bar not extending entirely across the caudal peduncle. 
b. Eye 3^ in head, 1 in snout ; second anal spine 2j in head ; body much compressed ; 
dorsal outline greatly elevated ; depth, 11 in length ; head, 3^ in length ; 
profile almost straight, very steep; eye large, li in preorbital; mouth 
moderate, almost horizontal ; maxillary 3i in head : incisors |, placed as 
in holbrooki ; molars as in holbrooki. Longest dorsal spine 2i in head ; cau- 
dal loug, forked ; second anal spine much stouter and i longer than third ; 
veutrals reaching half way to second anal ray ; pectorals reaching to first 
anal spine ; steel-blue above, silvery below ; a blackish border on the 
operculum ; a black spot on the upper part of the base of pectorals; five 
or six very narrow, oblique blackish crossbars; D. XII, 14; A. Ill, 13; 

scales 6-6-2-16 Argenteus, 6. 

bb. [Eye 4^ in head, 1^ in snout ; second anal spine 3^ in head ; depth about 2 in 
length ; incisors rather Inroad, implanted obliquely ; three series of molars 
above, two below ; eye 1^ in interorbital ; crown of head convex, a pro- 
tuberance above the anterior angle of the orbit ; preorbital not entirely 
covering maxillary; pectoral fius extending to origin of anal; ventrals 
nearly to vent ; silvery or shiuiug golden, with many narrow longitudinal 
dusky stripes (8 or i) above lateral line, 15 or 16 below), and with four or 
five narrow blackish cross-bands, the first between the origin of the dorsal 
and the axil; D. XI or XII, 12 to 15; A. Ill, 13 or 14; scales, 8-65-16.] 

{GUnther) Sargus, 7. 

5. Diplodus holbrooki. 

Saryu8 Jwlbrooki, Beau, "Forest & Stream, June 13, 1878" (Charleston); Bean, 
Proc. U. S.Nat. Mus., 1878, 198 i. Chariest on); Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., 1878, 379 (Beaufort); Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, 95 
(Charleston ; New York market). 

Diplodus holbrooki, Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 605 (Charles- 
ton); Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. North America, 559, 1883; Jordan & 
Swain, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1884, 232 (Cedar Keys); Jordan, Catalogue 
Fishes North America, 91, No. 1067, 1885; Goode, Hist. Aquat. Anim., 386, 
fig. 132, 1886; Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1886, 27 (Beaufort, N. C). 

Diplodus caudimacula, Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. North America, 559, 1883 
(Young; not caudimacula of Foej). 

Hahitat.— South Atlautic and Gulf coasts of the United States, Cape 
Hatteras to Cedar Keys. 

The specimens examined are from Cedar Key'and Pensacola, Fla., 
and from Beaufort, X. C. 

This species has not yet been found in the West Indies, though it 
probably occurs there. It may be considered as the northern repre- 
sentative of argenteus. It is, however, unquestionably a different spe- 
cies from the latter. 

Skeleton. — No procumbent spine before the dorsal fin. Occipital crest 
high, moderately thick, produced somewhat back of posterior edge of 
skull; frontal crest moderately high at the anterior edge of the occipital 
crest, extending to the anterior edge of the skull, and running up to a 
point. An almost horizontal crest extends from the upper corner of the 
preopercle forward to the frontal crest. The region immediately in front 
of this very coarsely honey-combed. The space between the anterior 
part of the orbits with three longitudinal crests, one in the middle, the 



1S87.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 73 

exteusion of the frontal crest, and one on each side a little less than 
half way between it and the outer edge of the supraorbital; foramen 
above the middle of the eye on either side of this lateral crest extend- 
ing backward into the honey-combed structure. A very high thin crest 
extends forward from the insertion of scapula to the point of union be- 
tween the frontal and horizontal crest; in the others this crest is joined 
to the lateral (or horizontal) crest. Maxillary with a very large foramen 
in front, the outer coating of the bone being very fragile, the bone much 
smaller than in Archosargus and somewhat different in shape. Teeth 
very long and evenly narrowed towards their base. 

6. Diplodus argenteus. 

Sargus argenteus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., VI, 60, 1830 (Brazil). 
Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus. I, 444, 1359 (Eio Janeiro) ; Goode, Bull. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., V. 75 (Bermudas); Giinther, Shore Fishes 5-7,1880 (Island 
of Ascension; Bermudas). 
Sargus caudhnacula Poey, Memorias de Cuba, II, 198, 1860 (Cuba) ; Syn. Pise. 
Cub. 310, 1868, Cuba) ; Enumeratio Pise. Cub. 57, 1875 (Cuba). 
Habitat. — West Indian Fauna; Florida and the Bermudas to Eio 
Janeiro. 

The specimen examined is from New Smyrna, Florida, where it was 
obtained by Mr. P. Shannon. This is the only one yet recorded from 
the United States. 

The account of Sargus argenteus Cuv. & Val. agrees well with our 
specimen from New Smyrna, which is certainly the Sargus caudimacula 
of Poey. We have therefore substituted the name S. argenteus for the 
current name caudimacula. The types of 8. argenteus in the Museum 
at Paris are also identified by Dr. Jordan as belonging to the same 
species as the types of Sargus caudimacula which are in the National 
Museum. 

7. Diplodus sargus. Sargo. 

SjKirus No. 13, Artedi Genera, 37 ; No. 2. Sueci Descr. 58, 1738. 

Sparus sargus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. ed. X, 278, 1758 (Mediterranean) and of 

early European authors. 
Sargus variegatus Lac6pfede, Hist. Nat. Poiss. IV, 207, 1803, (Mediterranean); 

Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. V, 52, 1876 (Bermuda) ; Goode, Cat. Fish. 

Bermuda, Am. Journ. Science & Art, 292, 1877 (Bermuda). 
Sargus raucus Geoft'rey St. Hilaire, Descr. de PEgypt, Poiss. 1813, plate XVIII, 

tig- 1. 
Sargus rondeleti Cuv. & Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss. VI, 14, plate cxli, 1830 (Medi- 
terranean) ; and of European writers generally. 

Habitat. — Coast of Southern Europe, Bermudas. 

This species is known to us only from descriptions. It is included in 
the American Fauna on the record of Mr. Goode of its occurrence in the 
Bermudas. 



74 REVIEW OF LAGODON, ARCHOSARGUS, AND DIPLODUS. 

List of the nominal sj^ecies of Larjodon, ArchosarguH, and Dlplodus, in chronological order, 

with identifications. 

[Tenable specific names in italics.] 



Nominal species. "Sear. 



Identification. 



Spaius «ar£rMS LinnsEua i 1758 Diplodus sargns. 

Sparns rAomboWejt Linusus , 1"C6 Lagodon rhomboides. 

^X>a,v\x»probatocephalus Walbaum 1 1792 Aichosargus probatocepbalas. 

Perca M?u7»oci(<n(rt Bloch 1798 Archosargns nniraacnlatus. 

Spams ot)icej>Aa2w« Bloch & Scbneider 1801 j Archosargus probatocephalus. 

Sargus salin Lac6pMe ' 1803 Archosargus imimacnlatus. 

Sargus variegatu8 Lacfepede 1803 \ Diplodus sargus. 

Sargns raucus Geofl". St. Hilairo 1813 ! Do. 

Sargns ovis Mitchill i 1814 1 Arcbosargus probatocepbalus. 

Sargus bumerimaculatus Quoy & Gaimard i 1825 Arcbosargu.s uniuiaculatus. 

Sargns rondeleti Guv. &. Val I 1830 ; Diplodus sargus. 

Sargus arips Guv. & Val i 1830 j Arcbosargus probatocepbalus aries. 

Sargns or!/«7i«eu« Guv. <fe Val i 1830 i Diplodus argenteus. 

Sargus flavolineatus Cuv. & Val I 1830 ; Arcbosargus uniuiaculatus. 

Sargus caribiiius Poey : I860 | Do. 

Sargus caudimacula Poey , 1860 j Diplodus argeuteus. 

Sargus iriden* Poev | 1875 [ Arcbosargus tridens. 

Sargus /lo^6roo^-^ Bean 1878 , Diplodus bolbrooki. 



RECAPITULATION. 

We recognize seven species of Lagodon, Archosargus, and Biplodus as 
inhabiting North American waters. In the following list of the species 
recognized the general distribution is indicated by: (E) Coasts of Eu- 
rope and North Africa. (M) Coasts of North Atlantic States. (S) 
Coasts of South Atlantic States. (W) West Indian coasts (A) At- 
lantic coasts of tropical South America. (B) Bermudas. 

Geuus I. Lagodon, Holbrook. 

1. Lagodon rhomhoides lj\iin3d\\%. (S. W.) 

Genus II. Archosargus, Gill. 

2. Archosar gtis prohatocephalusV^ aWmnni. (U.S.) 

2(o). Archomrgus proiatocephalus aries Cuv. & Val. (A.) (Not examined by us.) 

3. Archosargus unimaculatus l&\oc\x. (W. A.) 

4. Archosargus iridmsVoey. (\V.) (Doulitfnl species ; not examined by us.) 

Genus III. Diplodus, Ratiuesque. 

5. Diplodus holbrooki Bean. (S.) 

6. Diplodus argmteus Cuvier & Valenciennes. (S. W. B. A.) 

7. Diplodus sargus Linnaeus. (E. B.) (Not examined by us.) 

Indiana University, December 15, 1886. 



1SS7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 75 



BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAKAN ARCHIPELAGO, COLLECTED 
BY MR. VALDEMAR KNUDSEN, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW 

SPECIES. 

By rEONHARD »«TE: JNEOER. 

The National Museum is iudebted to Mr. Valdemar Knudsen for sev- 
eral interesting collections of birds from the island of Kauai, Hawaiian 
Archipelago, gathered by himself, and forwarded from time to time. 
Some of the novelties in the earlier collections have already been pub- 
lished by Mr. Robert Kidgway, partly in these "Proceedings," partly 
in the great work on the "Water Birds of North America," but the 
present writer has deemed it best to include these also in the present 
paper, since few of them have been mentioned in any memoir exclu- 
sively devoted to Hawaiian ornithology. By so doing it will also at 
once become apparent how greatly Mr. Knudsen has advanced our 
knowledge of one of the most interesting ornithological regions in the 
world. 

The island of Kauai, or A tool, as the early travelers erroneously called 
it, was not only the first one discovered, but also the first one on which 
ornithological specimens and observations were collected. It may not 
be without interest here to quote what Captain Cook wrote in regard to 
the birds the first discoverers met with on this island (Cook's Voy. 
Pacif. Ocean, II, pp. 207 and 227, 1784) : 

[Page 207.] " We were at a loss to guess from whence they could 
get such a quantity of these beautiful feathers, but were soon informed 
as to one sort, for they afterward brought great numbers of skins of 
small red birds for sale, which were often tied np in a bunch of twenty 
or more, or had a small wooden skewer run through their nostrils. At 
the first those that were brought consisted only of the skin from behind 
the wings forward, but we afterwards got many with the hind part, in- 
cluding the tail and feet. * * * The red bird of our island [AtooiJ was 
judged by Mr. Anderson to be a species of Merops, about the size of a 
spariow, of a beautiful scarlet colour, with a black tail and wings and 
an arched bill twice the length of the head, wiiich, with the feet, was 
also of a reddish colour." * * * 

[Page 227.] " The scarlet birds, already described, which were brought 
for sale, were never met with alive; but we saw a single small one, 
about the size of a canary bird, of a deep crimson colour; a large owl; 
two large brown hawks or kites; and a wild duck. The natives men- 
tioned the names of several other birds, amongst which we knew the 
otoo, or bluish heron, and [p. 228] the torata, a sort of whimbrel, which 
are known by the same name at Otaheite, and it is probable that there 
are a great many sorts, judging by the quantity of fine yellow, green, 
and very small, velvet-like, black feathers used ui)on the cloaks and 
other ornaments worn by the inhabitants." 



76 BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 

I am not aware that bird collections of auy consequence have been 
made in Kauai since then. The naturalists of the United States Ex- 
ploring Expedition (Wilkes's) visited the island, it is true, but as most of 
their birds are labeled " Sandwich Islands," and none as being from 
Kauai specially, this fact is of very little importance. Most of the 
expeditions which at various times visited the archipelago landed and 
collected in Oahu and Hawaii, and information concerning the orni- 
thology of the northern islands is therefore particuhirly acceptable. 

Kauai, the northernmost of the Hawaiian Islands and the fourth in 
size, is separated from Oahu by a channel 70 miles wide. It is, there- 
fore, more isolated than either of the larger southern islands, none of 
which is distant from another more than 30 miles. It is very mountain- 
ous, but the vegetation is luxuriant ; forests cover the mountain slopes, 
sugar plantations fill the charming valleys, and at least one-half of its 
area of 520 square miles is adapted to grazing and agriculture; the 
climate is said to be very agreeable, and altogether the island deserves 
its name, the " Garden of Hawaii." A rich avifauna is therefore to be 
expected, and the discovery of several novelties in the mountainous 
interior of this island is not at all surprising. The town of Waimea, 
where Cook first anchored in 1778, is situated near the southwestern 
corner of the island, and from this neighborhood are most of the birds 
described in this paper. 

In describing the coloration of the birds I have adhered to Mr. R. 
Ridgway's excellent "Nomenclature of Colors,"* and would advise 
other writers to use the same as a standard, that we may have some 
means of identifying colors. When every author uses his own system 
of designating colors, descriptions become nearly useless. 

In order to secure stability in the zoological nomenclature I also ob- 
serve strictly the rules contained in the "Code of Nomenclature adopted 
by the American Ornithologists' Union. "+ 

The measurements, which are given in millimeters, have all been taken 
with sharply-pointed dividers, the arms of which were a^out 150™"" long. 
The " tail-feathers" are measured by thrusting one arm of the dividers 
between the two middle tail-feathers to their insertion, measuring from 
that point to the tip of the longest rectrix. 

For some species a full synonymy has been given, but in most cases 
only such authors are quoted as have treated of the birds of the Ha- 
waiian Islands directly and particularly. Whenever it has been impos- 
sible for the present writer personally to verify a (piotation, the number 
of the page has been given in parentheses, and he disclaims any respon- 
sibility for figures thus designated. 

*A I Nomenclature of Colors | for Naturalists | aud | Compendium of Useful Knowl- 
edge I for Ornithologists. | By | Robert Ridgway, | etc. Boston: Little, Brown, aud 
Company, 1886. — 129 pp., 17 plates. 

t The Code of Nomenclature | and | Check-List I of | North American Birds | Adopted 
by the American Ornithologists' Union, | etc. New York, 1886. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 77 

^strelata sand'wichensis Eidgw. 

?Uan. 

1869.—? ProciUnria alba Dole, Proc. Boston See. N. H., XII, 1869, p. 308, Extr. p. 15 

(nee Gmel. ?). — Id., Hawaiian Almanac, 1879, p. 55. 
1884. — GEstrelata sandwichensis Ridgway, Water B. N. Am., II, p. 395. — ^strelata e. 

Id., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., IX, 1886, p. 95. 

In the great work on the Water Birds of North America Mr. E. Eidg- 
\ray writes as follows (II, pp. 394-395) : 

"A specimen from the Sandwich Islands (Xo. 61259, Y. Kmidsen, 
coll.), labeled ' Pufflmis rneridionaUs,^ differs from the above diagnosis 
[of ^. luesitata] in several particulars, and may possibly be distinct. 
The entire upper parts, except forehead, are continuously uniform dusky, 
nearly black on the head, the nape, the back and scapulars more gray- 
ish brown ; this dark color even covers uniformly the entire side of 
the head and neck, except that portion of the former before the eye, 
and thence downward and backward across the malar region. The 
feathers of the nape and side of the neck, however, are white imme- 
diately beneath the surface, this color showing conspicuously wher- 
ever the feathers may be disturbed. There is likewise no exposed white 
on the upper tail-coverts or base of the tail 5 the former are, however, 
very abruptly white beneath the surface, but the latter is white only 
at the extreme base, and the outer rectrices have a considerable amount 
of white on their inner webs. The lower parts are almost entirely white, 
there being merely a few plumbeous irregular bars on the flanks. The 
measurements are as follows : Wing, 11.80 inches (less than the aver- 
age of (E. hwsitata as given by Dr. Coues) ; tail, 5.75 ; its graduation, 2.40 ; 
culmen, 1.22; depth of bill at base, .99; tarsus, 1.40; middle toe (without 
claw), 1.55. In view of the difierences of coloration, much more gradu- 
ated tail, and smaller dimensions — and especially in view of its different 
habitat, no specimens of (E. hcesitata having to our knowledge been re- 
ported from any part of the Pacific Ocean — the specimen in question 
may be really distinct. Should such prove to be the case, the name 
(E. sandicichensis is proposed as a suitable designation." And in a foot- 
note he adds: ''In pattern of coloration this specimen agrees exactly 
with an example of Q^. cooM, but has the back, scapulars, rump, and 
tail decidedly less ashy." 

Aft«r having had an opportunity to compare Kuudsen's bird with ex. 
amples of true JE. h(esitata, and also with the type of Lawrence's 
JE. meridionalis, the same author afterwards (Pr. U. S. Kat. Mus., IX, 
1886, p. 96) pronounces the opinion that they are entirely distinct from 
JE. sanduiichensis, but has " a suspicion that the latter is the same as 
JE. pha^opygia Salv. (Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., Vol. IX, part ix, May, 
1876, p. 507, pi. 88, fig. 1), from the Galapagos." 

This point, however, can only be determined by direct comparison of 
the types, and until then we prefer to retain the name which belongs 
strictly to the Hawaiian specimens. 

Latham's "White-breasted Petrel " (Gen. Syn., Ill, ii, p. 400) "from 
Turtle and Christmas Islands," upon which Gmelin based his Procellaria 



78 BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 

alba, scarcely belongs here, as from the description of the former it seems 
to have the whole head and neck blackish with a white patch on the 
throat ("the head, neck, and upper parts of the body dusky brown, 
nearly black ; on the throat a whitish patch ; breast, belly, and vent, 
white"). I do not know I\Ir. Dole's reasons for including P. alba in the 
list unless it be Bloxham's very uncertain statement (Voy. Blonde, p. 
252), and I think it most probable that ^. sandwichensis is the bird he 
intended by tliat name. 

Oceanodroma cryptoleucura (Ridgw.)- 

lS82.—Cpnochor€a crypiolcucura Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., IV, p. 337.— W., 
Water B. N.Am., II, p. 406 (18?4). 

Mr. E. Ridgway, in 1882, described this species as new from two 
specimens, collected by Mr. Knudsen (Xos. 41949 and 41950). It is 
easily distinguished from all its allies by having the upper tail-coverts 
white, the larger ones broadly tipped with black, and by having the 
concealed bases of the tail-feathers, except middle pair, white. 

This is probably the unnamed ^'■Thalassldroma^^ to which Mr. Dole 
refers (Pr. Boston Soc. K H., XII, 1869, p. 308, Extr., p. 15), and Ha- 
waiian Almanac, 1879, p. 55. 

Gallinula galeata saudvicensis (Streets). 

Hawaiian Galliuule. Alai ula. 

1826.— I\iUca chloro}} lis B-Loxii AM, Voy. Blonde, p. 250 («ec Lixx. ). — GaUimda chloropus 

Peale, U.S. Expl. Exp., Oru., 1 ed. (p. 2-20) (^1848).— Hartlaub, Wiegm. 

Arch. Naturg., 1652, p. 137.— Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., XII, 1869, p. 302, 

Extr., p. 9. 

lSb9.—Gallinnla ? Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isl. Pacif., p. 5^3. 

ISiO.—GaUinula galeata Gray, Haudl. B., Ill, p. 66 (part). 

IS77. —Gallhuda sandvicensis Streets, Ibis, 1877, p. 2b.— Id., U. S. Nat. Mus. Bulletin 7, 

p. 19 (1877). — FiNSCH, Ibis, 18S0, p. 78. 
1881.— Gallinula sandvichensis Wallace, Isl. Life, p. 296. 

Mr. Knudsen sends two specimens of this representative form of the 
American G. galeata Light., which, compared with Streets's type and 
typical specimens of O. galeata, show that the differences between the 
alleged two species are much smaller than supposed by the original 
describer of G. sandvicensis. 

Dr. Streets {II. cc.) sums up the distinctive characters as follows : "[1] 
The greater extent of the frontal plate, [2] the shorter wing, [3J the 
absence of white on the abdomen and [4] on the under surface of the 
wing, as well as its reduction to a mere trace on the margin of the latter, 
[5J the more robust and different form of the tarsus, being broader and 
more rounded in front, [C] as well as the great difference in the color of 
the tarsus, are characters which separate it immediately from G. galeata, 
and render its identification easy." 

(1) There are numerous American specimens in the collection before 
me which have just as large frontal shields as the Hawaiian birds, and 
some have it even larger. 



1887. J PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 79 

(2) It will be seen from the table of measurements given below that 
there is no diifereuce whatsoever in regard to dimensions or proportions, 
;No. 84683, from Florida, being, in fact, nearly identical with the type of 
G. sandvicensis in these respects. I should remark that the American 
specimens were picked up at random for measuring, except the last one, 
a youTig male, which was selected as being the largest of the whole 
series before me, and the only one with the wing longer than the second 
Hawaiian specimen. 

(3) The absence or presence of white on the abdomen is simply due 
to season, the type of G.sandvicensisheingvi-ithont white markings, while 
both the birds collected by Mr. Knudsep have them. Both styles are 
well matched by American birds. 

(4) Also in regard to the scarcity of white on the lining of the wing 
the Hawaiian specimens are completely matched. 

(5) The tarsus is of the same length in both forms, as shown by the 
table beiow. As to robustness and different form, I can only state that 
I am unable to discover any tangible difference. 

(6) There remains only the difference in the color of the tarsus, which 
is said to be, in the Hawaiian bird, of " a decided crimson blush on the 
front," while in the American form the tarsus is uniformly "yellowish 
green.'' I am, however, somewhat doubtful as to the stability and value 
of this character, for in No. 110026 there is every indication of the 
tarsus having been green like the toes, and not red like the lower end 
of the tibiji. 

A very careful comparison with numerous American specimens fail 
to reveal any other differences, exceiJt, possibly, a somewhat deeper 
shade of plumbeous on the lower parts. 

It seems, therefore, that there are no characters upon which to bfise a 
specific separation, and were it not that the difference in regard to the 
color of the tarsus may hold good in the majority of specimens. I should 
be disinclined to regard the Hawaiian bird as even subspecifically dis- 
tinct. 

The Gallinule is probably a comparatively recent immigrant to the 
islands from the American continent, as shown by the very small 
amount of differentiation, for the close resemblance to the original 
stock can hardly be accounted for by any other supposition. 

Bloxham, in 1826, mentions '■'• Fulica chloropus^^ as a Hawaiian bird, 
but he apparently obtained no specimen. Peale, during the CTnited 
States Exploring Expedition, obtained a specimen from Oahu, but lost 
it, and Street's specimen was from the same island. Dr. Finsch (/. c), 
during the summer of 1879, observed the Gallinule in the lagoons near 
Waike and Kahalui, Maui, and near Waimauaio (Oahu). Knudsen's 
specimens show that it also occurs on Kauai. This completes, so far as I 
know, the published record of this bird on the islands. 
. Mr. Kuudsen writes that this species is called by the natives ^^ Alai 
iila,'^ Red Alai, as distinguished from '^Alai Jieokeo,''^ the coot with the 



80 



BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 



white frontal shield {Fulica aiai). He says that the latter also occurs 
in Kauai. 

Comparative table of measurements, 
a. GALLINULA SANDVICENSIS. 

















M 


M 


!^ 


o 














a 


« 




ts 
















&. 




9 


9 

3 


Collector. 


§ 


Locality. 


Date. 


a 


% 

'S 
68 


.a* 
=-| 
|l 
5 

4 p. 


c 
p 

9P 


i 

5fi 


i 

O* 

2 

c 

1 


110025 
110026 
67361* 


Knudsen 

.--.do 

Streets 


ad 






174 


7?, 


ad 


do 




178 


65 


44 


?9 


59 


70 


ad.. 






168 


63 


40 


27 


55 


75 











"Type. 
6. GALLINULA GALEATA. 



80912 Ober 

84683 Maynard 
60317 Latimer 

84684 Kelson... 



d-ad. 

9 ad- 

ad. 

cT jun 



Montserrat, W. I. 

Florida 

Porto Rico, W.I. 
Illinois 



Jan. 3, 1872 



Aug. 25, 1874 



169 
174 
165 
195 



58 78 

55 79 
53 j 71 

56 ! 81 



Charadrius dominicus fulvus (Gmel.). 

Pacitic Golden Plover. Kolea, 

\1S'^.— Charadrius pluvialis Pennant, Cook's Voy. Pacif., Ill, p. 357 {nee. Linn.).— 
Peale, U. S. Expl. Exp. (p. 239) (1848). 

1788.— Charadrius fulvus Gmelin, S. N., I, p. 687. — Cassin, U. S. Espl. Exp., Mam. 
Oru., p. 326 (1858).— Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isls. Pacif., p. 47 (1819).— Dole, 
Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., XII, 1869, p. 304, Extr. p. 11.— Id., Hawaiian Al- 
manac, 1879, p. 50. — Streets, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. No. 7, p.. 16 (1877). 

1827. — '? Charadrius'xanthocheilusW AGhKR, Syst. Av., p. 100, n. 36. — Cassin, U. S. Expl. 
Exp., Mam. Oru., p. 325 (1858). 

1821.— Charadrius ta'itensis Lesson, Man. d'Orn., II, p. 321. 

1880. — Charadrius dominicus fulvus Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., 1880, p. 198.— 
Nelson, Cruise Corwin 1881, p. 84 (1883). 
[For further synonyms see my Res. Orn. Explor. Kamtsch., p. 104 (1885)]. 

The Golden Plover wintering on the Hawaiian Islands is the Asiatic 
and Polynesian Ch. fulvus as distinguished from the more easterly 
American Ch. dominicanus proper. The shorter wings and golden yel- 
low of the upper surface easily distinguish the former from the latter 
form, and the specimens sent by Mr. Knudsen as well as those in the 
Museum agree in these respects with Asiatic and Alaskan specimens. 

Measurements. 



6 
'A 

m 


Collector and 
number. 


1 


Locality. 


Date. 


fcJD 


IE 

O 


S 

a 

5 
d 




H 


110032 
110033 










167 
171 
164 
172 


62 
62 

58 
63 


25 
26 

24 


47 

45 
47 


31 


....do 




do 


.SI 


67338 


Streets, 2 






31 


15314 


Peale 




do 


















1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 81 

Himantopus knudseul, s^i. n. 
Knudsen's Stilt. Aeo. 

Diagnosis. — Similar to Himantojms mexicanus (Mull.), from North 
America, but with the bhick of the head extendiug further down on the 
forehead and occupying the proximal half of the lores 5 black on neck 
extending to the sides and the front of the neck, except the middle line, 
mottled with black, the feathers being narrowly tipped with black; 
tail-feathers broadly and abruptly tipped with greenish black, nearly 
the entire outer web of the outer pair being of the same color; tail- 
feathers, with the outer webs, light smoky gray, and the inner ones 
white, except the middle pair which has both webs light smoky gray; 
bill, tarsus, and tail considerably longer than in K. mexicanus. 

Dimensio7is of type specimen. — Wing, 232™"^ ; tail-feathers, ST'"'" ; ex- 
posed culmen, TS""""; tarsus, 121™""; middle toe, with claw, 47'"'". 

Habitat. — Hawaiian Islands. 

Type.— TJ. S. Nat. Mus., No. 110024; Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. Val- 
demar Knudsen, coll. 

S'V'NOXYMY. 

1&7-S.— Himantopus mgricollisf Pelzeln, Verli. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1873, p. — , Estr. 

p. 7 {nee ViEiLL.). 
1879. — Himantojms Candidas Dole, Hawaiiau Almanac, 1879, p. 52 (nee BONX.). — 

FiNSCH, Ibis, 1880, p. 79. 

This species is most nearly related to the two American species, H. 
brasiliensis and H mexicanus, and differs from the last one in about the 
same degree as do the species mentioned inter se, H. mexicanus being 
in a measure intermediate as far as the relative amount of black and 
white in the coloration of the plumage is concerned. 

R. l-mi(1seni, which I take great pleasure of naming in honor of Mr. 
Valdemar Knudsen who made the interesting collections upon which 
the present paper is based, needs only comparison with S. mexicaiius, 
and the most salient differences have already been pointed out in the 
diagnosis. I may add that I have before me 17 specimens of the latter 
species, representiog very fairly the individual and seasonal variation, 
as well as that due to age and sex. The type of H. knudseni is evidently 
an old male. 

The accompanying cuts (see Plate VI) explain at a glance the different 
dist;?ibutiou of black and white in the two species, and make a more de- 
tailed comparison superfluous. Suffice it to say, that in the whole series 
of R. mexicanus, I have not found a single individual that even ap- 
proaches H. Icmidseni, and \u none of them, old or young, is the black 
mottlings on the fore neck even indicated, the border-line between the 
black of the hind neck and the white of the sides being quite abrupt. 

The coloration of the tail is very peculiar, as already described in the 

diagnosis. Only in a single specimen of R. mexicanus (Xo. 84669, from 

Florida) is there any approach to the pattern exhibited by the type of 

R. Icnudseni, but the dusky markings are not so large, nor so dark and 

Proc. N. M. 87 6 



82 



BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 



well-defiued. It may be, therefore, that these marks have no diagnostic 
value. 

In regard to the dimensions, it will be seen from the subjoined table 
of measurements of adult H. mexicanus compared with those of H. 
Jcnudseni, as given above, that in the latter the bill is 4'^'" longer than 
maximum of the former, the tarsus 7"'™ longer, and the tail-feathers 
13™™ longer, while the wing is slightly shorter than that of the largest 
ff. mexicanus. The extraordinary length of the tail in the Hawaiian 
bird is especially remarkable, it being more than 25 per centum longer 
than the average of five adult males of the North American species. 

The occurrence of a Stilt in the Hawaiian Islands was first recorded 
by Dr. A, v. Pelzeln {I. c), who named the bird R. nigricolUs^ with a 
query. The specimen was a female, collected at Honolulu, February 
21, 1870, by Mr. H. Kraus, who noted the color of the iris as " red." Dr. 
O. Finsch (I. c), during his recent visit to the islands, observed the Stilt 
on Maui, and now we have it, thanks to the liberality of Mr. Knudsen, 
from Kauai. This gentleman states that the name by which it is known 
to the natives is "Aeo." 

Measurements of Himantopus mexicanus. 



TJ.S. 

Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 



84669 
30332 
59754 
17274 

79839 
17272 

80998 

1154 



Collector. 


Sex 
and 




age. 


Maynard . 

Marsh 

Sumichr .. 
Xantus . .. 


cfad. 

cTad. 
cTad. 
cfad. 


Henshaw . 
Xantus . . . 


cfad. 
$ad. 


Ober 


?ad. 


Baird 


$ad. 



Locality. 



Florida 

Jamaica 

Tehuantepec, Mexico. 

Sierra de Santiago, 
Lower California. 

Colorado 

Sierra de Santiago, 
Lower California. 

St. Thomas, West In- 
dies. 

Cape May, N. J 



Date. 



Apr. — , 1863 
Aug. 4,1869 
Jan. — , 18G0 

June 21, 

Jan. — , I860 



July 21, 1843 





Tail- 


Ex- 


Wing. 


feath- 


posed 




ers. 


culmen. 


ooo 


68 


66 


200 


64 


66 


227 


69 


68 


228 


74 


66 


234 


70 


71 


220 


74 


63 


214 


70 


66 


215 


68 


65 



! Middle 
Tar- toe, 
8U8. with 
claw. 



114 
114 
112 

113 
102 

107 

107 



Calidris arenaria (Linn.). 
Sanderling. Akekeke. 

I can find no published record of this species having previously been 
taken on the islands. To Mr. Knudsen, therefore, belongs the honor 
of having added this species to the Hawaiian fauna. It is evidently 
only a winter migrant. 

Mr. Knudsen, on two of the labels, gives the native name as "Ake- 
keke," and on the third one (No. 110031) "Akekeke Kakiowai." 

Measuremetits. 



V. S. Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Collector. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tail- 
feath- 
ers. 


Ex- 

posed 
culmen. 


Tar- 
sus. 


Middle 

toe 

witb 

claw. 


110029 


Knudsen.. 

... do 

....do 


Kauai, Hawaiian Islands.. 




125 


52 


27 
27 
27 


27 
27 
27 


19 


110030 
110031 


do 1 

do I 


124 
123 


49 
50 


20 
19 



18^7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



83 



Heteractitis incanus (Gmel.). 
Wandering Tattler. Ulili. 

l788.—Scolo2)axincana Gmelin, S. N., I, p. iibS.—Totanm incanus Gray, Cat. B. Trop. 
LsL Pacif., p. 50 (1859).— Sclater, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 351.— Id., Rep. Voy. 
" Challenger," Zool., II, pc. viii, Birds, p. 99 (18Sl).—Actitis incanus Dole, 
Proc. Boston See. Nat. Hist., XII, 1869, p. 303, Estr., p. 10.— Id., Hawaiian 
Almanac, 1879, p. 52.— J. incana FiNSCH, Ibis, 1880, p. 79.— Heteroscelus 
incanus Streets, U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 7, p. 19 (1877). 

1826.—Scolopax solitaris Bloxham, Voy. "Blonde," App., p. 2r)2.—Totanu8 s. Hart- 
LAUB, Wiegm. Arch. Natiirg., 1852, p. 135. 

1854. — Totaous soUtarius Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn., 1854, p. 170. 

1854. — Actitis pulverulentus Lichtenstein, Nomencl. Av. Mus. Zool. Berol., p. 92 (nee 

MtJLL.). 

[For additional synonyms see my " Res. Oruith. Explor. Kamtsch.," p. 132 (1885).] 

Two specimens confirm the correctness of my supposition (see Res. 
Orn. Expl. Kamtsch., p. 135) that it is the present species (the one with 
the long nasal groove) that occurs in the Hawaiian Islands, and not H. 
hrevipes. 

Measurements. 



U.S. 

Nat. 
Mas. 
No. 



Collector, 



110027 iKnudsen. 



110028 



..do 



Sex 
and 



Locality. 



Date. 



Wins 



Kauai, Hawaiian' 

Islands. j 

do 



167 



Tail- E^-, 
feath.P°^«d 

^''- 'men. 



Length 

ol 

nasal 

groove. 



Tar- 

sas. 



Middle 

toe 

with 

claw. 



Numenius femoralis Peale. 
Bristle-thighed Curlew. 

1848.— Numenius femoralis Peale, Zool. U. S. Expl. Exp., 1 ed. (p. 233).— Cassin, 

U. S. Expl. Exp. Mam. Orn., 2 ed., p. 316. pi. xxxvii. 
18S0.—Numeniustahitien8is Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Ill, p. 10 (nee Gmel. ?).— 

Id., Water B. N. Am., I, p. 324 (1884). -A. O. U. Check List, p. 159, No. 

268. 

I do not think that Latham's " Otaheite Curlew " (Gen. Syn., Ill, i, p. 
122), upon which is based Gmelin's Scolopax tahitiensis, is the present 
bird. He states the size to be that of If. arquatus, and the bill 4 inches 
long, dimensions entirely too large for the present species. The rest of 
his description fits equally well J^. cyatiopus, or better, inasmuch as it 
entirely omits the diagnostic and striking peculiarities of If. femoralis. 
This latter is easily distinguished from the other species of Curlew by 
having the shafts of the thigh feathers prolonged into glossy, barbless 
bristles; by its nearly unspotted, buffy-white upper tail-coverts strongly 
contrasted against the dark rump, and by the under tail-coverts being 
unspotted whitish. In addition to these characters If. femoralis has 
the crown of the head dark sooty-brown, with a light mesial line of 
buff ; the primaries have light bars in the inner web, and the under 
wing-coverts and axillaries are buff with dusky cross-bars. 

Mr. Dole (Proc. Boston Soc. X. H., XII, 1869, p. 303, Extr., p. 10) in- 
cludes N. australis Gould (= If. cijanopus Yieillot) in the list of 



84 



BIRD8 OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAX ARCHIPELAGO. 



Hawaiiau birds. This bird is larger ; has uo bristly thigh-feathers ; 
upper tail-coverts buffy-graj-, barred and streaked with dusky, like the 
ruiup ; under tail-coverts stieaked and barred ; axillaries and nnder 
wing-coverts white, barred with dusky; and crown streaked with light 
and dusky, without a mesial stripe. 

The bristly thigh-featbers of K.femoralis are quite characteristic, and 
are not due to abrasion, as has been supposed by some authors, for they 
are certainly i)resent in a quite young bird, collected by Mr. Charles H. 
Townsend in Alaska, during the summer of 1885. 

Mr. Knudsen, at an earlier occasion, presented the Museum with two 
specimens of this species, an addition to the Hawaiian fauna. In the 
table of dimensions I have added the measurements of two other speci- 
mens, including the type : 

Measurements. 



F.S. 

Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Sex 
Collector, and 


Locality. ' Date. Wing. 


Tail 
feath- 
ers. 


E.t- 

posed 

culmen. 


Middle 
Tar- toe 
sua. with 
claw. 


41953 


Knudsen ad. 

...do j ad. 

Streets . ad. 

I'eale ... 9 ad. 




240 


92 


93 


56 


45 


41954 


do 




67336 


Palmyra Island, Fanning 


240 
248 


88 
94 


94 
67 


62 


46 


15379* 


group. j 
Vincennes Island, Po- 






motu group. 







^Type. 



?Plegadis guarauna (Linn.). 
Wliite faced Glossy Il)is. 

1766.- Scolopax guarauna Linn., S. N., I'Z ed., I, p. 212. — Plegudis g. Ridgway, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., I, 1878, p. 163.— /<?., Water B. N. Am., I, p. 97 (1884). 

A young G-lossylbis, collected in Kauai, was received from Mr. Knud- 
sen in 1872. It is No. 61258. Mr. R. Ridgway, referring to this speci- 
men, says as follows (Water B. K Am., I, p. 98) : "A specimen from the 
Sandwich Islands; we refer to this species somewhat doubtfully, it 
being in immature plumage. It agrees strictly with American examples 
of the same age in all respects wherein guarauna differs from falcinellus, 
even to the reddish color of the bill, lores, and feet. Still, it is possible 
that perfect adults may show differences from both forms." 

We are not aware that any other collector has obtained any Plegadia 
in the Hawaiian group. 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius (Bodd.). 

Black-crowued Night Herou. 

1783. — Ardea ncevia Boddaert, TabL PL EuL, p. 56. 

1873. — Nycticorax griseus Pelzeln, Verb. ZooL Bot. Ges., 1873, p. — , Extr., p. 7. 

1884. — Nycticorax griseus nwvius Ridgway, Water B. N. Am., I, p. 55. 

A nearly adult Night Herou and a younger bird, both from Kauai, 
are in the Museum from Mr. Knudsen (Nos. 41951, 41952). However, 



1887] PKOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 85 

until quite adult specimens are obtained the identification must remain 
somewhat doubtful. 

On the other hand, I feel not quite assured that it is possible to dis- 
tiuguisli between an American race and an Old World form of this 
species. The latter is said to be a trifle smaller, but it is hardly con- 
sistent to keep them separate as long as the Mallard and Pin-tail 
Ducks of the two hemispheres are nob deemed worthy of separation. 

Asio accipitrinus (Pall.). 
Short-eared Owl. Pueo. 

ITll.—Sirix accipitrina Pallas, Raise Eiiss. Reich., I, p. 455. — Asio accipitrinus Newton, 

YarrelPs Brit. B., 4th ed., I, p. 163 (1872).— Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. 

Mns., IV, p. 369(1882). 
1772.— S^n.c brachyotus FOKSTER, Phil. Trans., LXII, 1772, p. 384.— O^ms b. Peale, U. S. 

Expl. Exp., 1 ed. (p. 75) (1848).— Lichtenstein, Nomeucl. Av. Mas. Berol., 

p. 6 (1854).— SCLATER, Ibis, 1871, p. 35S.— /fL, P. Z. S., 1878, p. 348.— 

Pelzeln, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges., 1873, p. — , Extr., p. 3.— Finsch, Ibis, 1880, 

p. 78.— Wallace, Island Life, p. 296 (188l).~Asio h. Sclater, Rep. Voy. 

"Challenger," Zool., II, pt. viii, p. 96 (1881). 
1826. — Sirix sandwichensis Bloxham, Voy. "Blonde," App., p. 250. 
1852. — Otus sandvicensis Hartlaub, Wiegm. Arch., XVIII, pp. 97, 131. — Id., Journ. f. 

Orn., 1854, p. 170.— Asio s. Blyth, Ibis, 1863, p. 27. 
1858. — Brachyotus galapagoensis Cassin, U. S. Expl. Exp. Mam. Orn., p. 107 (nee 

Gould).— Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., XII, 1869, p. 296, Extr., p. 3, (scr. 

gallapagoensis). — Id., Hawaiian Almanac, 1879, p. 43. 
1875. — [ Jsio accipitrinus'] S Asio sandwichensis Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., II, p. 238. 

The four specimens of Short-eared Owls from the Hawaiian Islands 
before me do not seem to justify the retention of Asio sandicichensis 
as a separable race. 

Two of them (Nos. 110034 and 110035) agree in general coloration with 
the majority of American specimens; the two others are deeper tawny, 
and No. 110036 nearly uniform dusky on the back, but it is in very 
abraded plumage, and is, moreover, easily matched by several other 
specimens in the large series of the United States IS'ational Museum. 

The character pointed out by Mr. Sharpe (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., II, p. 
239), viz, the "very dusky frontal patch," I find well pronounced in my 
Hawaiian specimens, but as Mr. Sharpe has found the same in some 
Asiatic examples and it also apparently occurs in some American speci- 
mens which have come under my own observation, I am very doubtful 
as to the importance of this character. I am bound to remark, how- 
ever, that I believe the make of the skin and the abrasion of the feath- 
ers to have something to do with it, and future observations based on 
fresh birds or absolutely perfect specimens may be necessary to settle 
this question, which is of considerable importance in order to ascertain 
whether the owls on the Hawaiian Islands are in part migratory or not. 

That they are not smaller than those from other localities is evident 
from the measurements which I have given below. Those of the largest 
individual are about equal to the average of the species, while the 



86 



BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 



length of the wing, if it had grown to its fall length, wonld not have 
fallen far behind the largest. 

Cassin referred the Hawaiian bird to A. galapagoemis (Gould), but 
with no good reason. The most distinguishing character of the latter 
is the dusky streaks on the legs, a feature not at all iudicated in any 
of the Hawaiian specimens before us. 

Measurements. 



TJ.S. 

Nat. Mas. 

No. 

110034 

110035 

110036 

13890 



Collector. 



•Wing molting. 



Sex and 

age. 



Locality. 



Date. Wing 



Tail- 
feathers. 



Knndsen 

do.. 

do.. 

Peale 



ad. 

ad. 

$ad. 

ad. 



Kanai. Ha-waiian Islands 

do 

do 

"Sandwich Islands" — 



*304 
(*) 

t290 
300 



144 

140 

two 

138 



t Wing and tail feathers very much abraded. 



Chasiempis sclateri Ridgway. 
Sclater's Spotted-winged Flycatcher. Amakahi. 

10^2.— Chasiempis sclateri Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., IV, March 29, 1882, p. 337. 
1885.— Chasiemjris sandwichensis Sclater, Ibis, 18S5, p. 19 (nee Gmel.). 

There exists a vague notion amongst ornithologists, or rather a theory, 
that the bird which Gmelin designated as Muscicapa sandwichsensis is 
the male and his M. maculata the female of the same species of Chasi- 
empis. There seems also to exist a theory that the Hawaiian Islands 
ought not to have more than one species of Chasiempis, these Flycatchers 
having been denied the privilege of differentiating into separate forms 
in their respective islands, like the birds of the Antilles or the Gala- 
pagos. As a consequence, not only have the above two names been 
lumped together, but any Chasiempis comingfrom the "Sandwich Islands'' 
must bear the name Ch. sandwichensis, whether the original description 
ats it or not. The theory will have it so. What does it matter that 
Latham describes his bird as having "a white line over the eye," when 
in another specimen the " feathers over the eye are chestnut " ? Or what 
does it matter that the collector marks the specimen as a female when 
the theory is that it ought to be a male? Following this theory I 
should have saved myself great trouble by simply saying that I have 
received from Mr. Knudsen four Ch. sandwicheyisis, two males with 
white rump and two witb tawny rump, notwithstanding the fact that 
they do not fit Latham's (or Gmelin's) description, and in spite of Mr. 
Knudsen's positive statement that the two white-rumped birds are 
male and female and the two tawuy-rumped specimeus likewise male 
and female, as ascertained by him by dissection. But, on the contrary, 
I shall have to ask the forgiveness of my colleagues for introducing no 
less than three new names, and for recognizing five different Hawaiian 
forms, at least provisionally. 



IdbT.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 87 

But, before proceeding any farther, I may first introduce a synopsis 
of these five forms in order to make the explanation following more 
intelligible: 

PROVISIONAL KEY TO THE HAWAIIAN SPECITCS OF THE GENUS 

CRASIEMPI8. 

fl'. Wiug-markiugs pure white. 
bK A whitish mark above, or in front of, the eye. 

c' . " Upper parts of the body brown." Ch. sandwichensis (Gmel. ). 

c^. Upper parts of the body deep smoky gray Ch. doJei Stejn. [sp. u.]. 

fc2. No whitish mark above, or in front of, the eye ; " forehead and feathers over the 

eye chestnut" Ch. ridgiva yi Steju. [Ibis, 1885, pi. i, fig. 1]. 

a^. Wing-markings tawny, or " ferruginous white." 
6'. Sides of head, including ear-coverts, uniform bright tawny, without distinct 

superciliary stripe Ch. sclateri Ridgw. 

¥. Ear-coverts dusky, lores and a distinct superciliary stripe pale tawny 

Ch. iiidis Stejn. [Ibis, 1885, pi. i, fig. 2]. 

In the first place, I do not think there are any observations on record, 
which at the present time justify us in regarding the white-rumped 
specimens as males and the tawny-rumj)ed ones as females. On the 
contrary, the only published observation that I am aware of is strongly 
against such a supposition, for the two specimens collected on Hawaii 
by the naturalists of the "Challenger" — the form which I call Ch. ridg- 
icayi — are said to have white rumps and white wing markings, but both 
are determined as 29 by the collector. It would also seem as if the 
9 of the pair in tbe Vienna Museum has a white rump (Pelzeln, Ibis, 
1874, p. 462). Mr. Knudsen's observations in regard to the four speci- 
mens (two white-rumped Ch. dolei and two tawny-rumped Ch. sclateri), 
as related in letter to Mr. R. Ridgway, are to the following effect: 

"2 Amakahi [C/i. sclateri \ — all the birds that follow are male and female — . . . 
"2 Apekepeke [C'/i. dolei'\, also flycatcher, as the above. They live together and by 
many are considered as the female of Amakahi. 
These are male and female, as I have seen by the ovary, &c." 

I will suggest the possibility of the tawny-rumped specimens being 
the younger birds, but until the question be settled one way or another 
by competent observers on the spot, I feel not at liberty to substitute 
one uncertain theory for another, and shall therefore keep the two styles 
of birds apart provisionally. 

This point being decided, there can hardly be any doubt as to the pro- 
priety of recognizing three different species with white- wing markings 
(and probably white rumps). We have first the brown and chestnut 
colored bird from Hawaii, Ch. ridgicaiji, figured on plate i. Ibis, 1885. 
This bird has the sides of the head entirely dark, " the forehead and 
feathers over the eye chestnut, and feathers below the eye blackish 
washed with chestnut," and the color of its breast and flanks is "chest- 
nut," consequently it cannot be identified with Latham's -^ Sandwich 
Flycatcher," which he describes as having "the forehead buff'-colored ; 
over the eye a white line," and "breast rust-color." Then we have the 



88 BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 

bird collected on Kauai by Mr. Kuudseu and by me described below as 
Ch. dolei. This species is smoky gray above, has a white supraloral 
spot, but no superciliary line; throat, foru-neck, breast, and flanks uni- 
form tawny. Xor can this one be Latham's " Sandwich Flycatcher," 
for he says that the latter has "the upper parts of the body brown," and 
"over the eye a white line." The chin he describes as "pale, marked 
with dusky streaks," while no such streaks occur in Ch. dolei. I am, 
therefore, obliged to regard 2Iuscica]}a sandicichensis as distinct from 
both the forms mentioned, and its real habitat may be one of the islands 
between Hawaii and Kauai. 

In regard to the tawuy-rumped forms the accessible facts are as fol- 
lows : 

Mr. Eidgway in 1882 described two specimens collected by Mr. Knud- 
sen in Kauai as Ch. sclateri. These specimens Dr. Sclater afterwards 
compared with a specimen (without certain locality) in the British Mu- 
seum, which Dr. Cabanis had determined as Ch. sandicichensis "by com- 
parison with the specimens of both sexes of this species in the Berlin 
Museum," the specimens in the latter museum having been obtained in 
Oahu by Mr. Deppe. Dr. Sclater at the same time gives a figure of 
the British Museum specimen (Ibis, 1885, pi. i, fig. 2), and states that 
Mr. Ridgway's type specimens " agree completely with the specimen 
now figured." This specimen is nowhere described (not even in the 
Cat. B. Brit. Mus., IV), but the figure quoted above shows so great a 
difference from the four Kauai specimens before me that I feel great 
doubt in regard to their identity with the British Museum specimen, es- 
pecially as lam forced to believe that the different islands are inhabited 
by different forms of the white-rumped kind. However, should, con- 
trary to expectation, the British Museum specimen and those in the 
U. S. National Museum really prove identical, then I can only say that 
the published figure of the former is worse than useless. 

The chief differences betvs-een Ch. sclateri and the figure in the " Ibis," 
which I shall designate as Chasiempis ibidis, consist, in the first place, 
in the much deeper and richer tawuy color of the former, aud this color 
extends much further on the breast, flanks, and tibije than in Ch. ibidis. 
TJie latter has the greater wing-coverts tipped with brownish white, 
while in Ch. sclateri these tips are tawny like those of the smaller cov- 
erts. Ch. ibidis has the ear-coverts dusky, apparently of the same color 
of the back, thus setting off a well-defined superciliary stripe, entirely 
wanting in Ch. sclateri, in which the whole side of the head, including 
ear-coverts, is of a uniform bright tawny. In Ch. ibidis the bill seems 
to be horn gray, darker towards the tip ; in Ch. sclateri it is blackish 
brown, except the basal half of the lower mandible, which is bright 
yellow. 

Whether these differences hold good in nature, of course I cannot say, 
but I think it is safer to assume the correctness of the plate. That Dr. 



lt!37.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



89 



Sclater failed to notice auy difference in the specimen may partly be 
due to the very bad co ndition of the type specimens which he had for 
examination. 

As to the names of these birds it matters little whether Gmelin's M. 
macnlata applies to one or the other, inasmuch as this term was applied 
by Ph. St. Miiller twelve years previous to no less than two different 
species (Canon xxxiii, A. O. U. Code, p. 47). 

Mr. Knudseu writes that the Amakahi is also called " Kahuna ka lai 
waa," or canoe-builder, by the natives. It catches moths and other fly- 
ing insects on the wing, and also spreads the tail as a fan.* 

Jleasuremenfa. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
Xo. 



41955* 

41956* 
110037 
110038 



Collector. 



Sex and 



Kundsen . ad. 



...do.... 
...do .... 
...do .... 



ad. 
ad. 
ad. 



Locality. 



Kauai, Hawaiian 
Islands. 

...do 

...do 

...do 



Date. 



Wing. 


Tail- 
feath- 
ers. 


Exposed 
culmen. 


Tar- 
sus. 


67 

66 
66 
67 


60 

62 
62 
63 




24 

25 
24 
25 




ii 

12 



Middle 
toe, 
witlx 
claw. 



'Type. 



* The synonymies of tlie different forms of Chasiempis recognized above, but not oc- 
currins in Kauai, stand as follows: 



Chasiemjns sandirichensls (Gmel.). 

Sandwich Flycatcher. Elepaio. 

1788. — Muscicapa sandivichensis G.melin, S. N., I, p. 945. — Eopsaltria (Chasiempsis) 8, 

Gray, Cat. B. Trop. Isls. Pacif , p. 21 (1859). — ? Chaaiempis 8. Pelzeln, Ibis, 

1874, p. 462. 

1869. — Eopsaltria sandvicensia Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., XII, 1869, p. 300, Extr., 
p. 7. — Id., Hawaiian Almanac, 1879, p. 48. 

Chaaiempis ridgtcaiji Stejn. 

Brown-faced Flycatcher. f? 

1878. — Chaaiempis sandvicensis Sclater, P. Z. S., 1878, p. 346 (nee Gmel.). — Id,, Rep. 

Voy. "Challenger," Zool., II, pt. viii, p. 94 (1881).— Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. 

Mus., IV, p. 232 iimrt.) (1879). 
1885. — Chaaiempis sandivichensis Sclater, Ibis, 1885, p. 18, pi. i, fig. 1 {nee Gmel.). 

Chaaiempis ihidia Stejn. 

Spotted-winged Flycatcher. 

1783. — ^Muscicapa maculata Gmelin, S. N., I, p. 945 {nee Mull., 1776). — Dole, Proc. 

Boston Soc. N. H., XII, 1869, p. 299, Extr., \i. 6. — Id., Hawaiian Almanac, 

1879, p. 48. 
1847. — ? Chaaiempis sandvicensis C.4.BANIS, Wiegm. Arch. Naturg., I, 1847, p. 208. — 

LiCHTENSTEiN, Nomencl. Av. Mus. Berol., p. 19 (1854). 
1862. — Cnipolegus, sp. 1238, Sclater, Cat. Am. B., p. 203. 
1879. — Chaaiempis sandvicensis Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., IV, p. 232 (part.). 
1885. — Chasiempia aandivichensis Sclater, Ibis, 1885, j). 18, pi. i, fig. 2. 



90 



BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 



Chasiempis dolei, sp. u. 
Dole's Flycatcher. Apekepeke. 

Diagnosis.^ Ahoy Q dark smoky gray, rump aud upper tail-coverts 
white, each feather beiug broadly tipped with that color; forehead 
washed with pale tawny ; lores and space above the lores from base of 
culmeu to eye whitish slightly tinged with tawny; under surface white, 
strongly tinged with tawny on throat, fore-neck, upper breast, and 
flanks; secondaries and all upper wing-coverts, except primary coverts, 
tipped with white; under wing-coverts and axillaries gray at base, 
white at tip ; quills internally edged with white; tail tipped with white 
as iu the other species. Bill aud feet tawny black. 

Dimensions (average).— Wing, 6d^^; tail-feathers, G4"^"' ; exposed cul- 
meu, 11'"'"; tarsus, 24°""] middle toe with claw, IG™"". 

Habitat.—Kau'M Island, Hawaiian Archipelago. 

Ttjpe.—U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 110040. V. Knudsen coll. 

The two specimens sent, Mr. Knudsen says, are male and female, as 
ascertained by him by dissection, but it is not indicated which one is 
the male and which the female. The only difference between the two 
is that No. 110039 is somewhat larger and has the extreme tip of the 
chin black, while in the other specimen the white of the chin reaches 
the angle of the bill. 

I have dedicated this species to Mr. Sanford B. Dole, to whom we 
owe the first elaborate attempt at a synopsis of the Hawaiian Avi- 
fauna. 

Measurements. 



V. S. Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Collector. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. | Date. 


Wing. 


Tail- 
feath- 

! ers. 


Exposed 
culmen. 


Tar. 

sus. 


Middle 

toe 

with 

claw. 


110040* 
110039 


Knudsen. 
....do.... 


ad... 
ad... 




67 
71 


63 
64 


11 
11 


23 
24 


15 


Islands. 
....do i 


16 



'Type. 



Phaeornis myadestina, sp. n. 
Flycatching Thrnsli. Oil, or Uapauan. 

Diagnosis. — Similar to Ph. ohscura, from Hawaii, but the upper sur- 
face more olive, the under surface much lighter, white tips to the outer 
tail-feathers, and a very distinct myadestine wing-pattern ; inner pri- 
maries and secondaries at base of outer web bright russet, forming an 
oblique band across the wing, followed by a similar black one which is 
caused by the olive-russet edges to the quills suddenly narrowing a 
little distance from the bright russet '' speculum." 

Dimensioris (average).— Wing, lOS-"""; tail-feathers, 82'"'°; exposed 
culmen, 14'°'° ; length of gonys, G.S'"'" ; tarsus, 32"^'° ; middle toe with 
claw, 24'°'°. 

Habitat— Kansii Island, Hawaiian Archipelago. 

Type.— TJ. S. Nat. Mus. No. 110041. V. Knudsen coll. 



18S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 91 

SYNONYMY. 

1858. — ?Tcenioptera obscura AGASSI'S, U. S. Expl. Exp. Mam. Orn., p. 155 {nee Gmel.). 
—Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., xii, 1869, p. 300, Extr., p. 7.— Id., 
Hawaiian Almanac, 1879, p. 48. 

Cassin haviug one specimen of true Ph. ohscura and one of the present 
form, or at least very closely allied to it, evidently guessed at the first 
one being the male and the latter one the female, and unhesitatingly 
described them as such. However, we have not only Knudsen's asser- 
tion that the two specimens of Ph. myadesUna from Kauai are male and 
female, but the naturalists of the Challenger expedition collected 
both sexes of the typical Ph. ohscura in Hawaii, of which Mr. Sharpe 
(Cat. B. Brit. Mus., IV, p. 5) remarks that the female is '*■ similar in 
color to the male." This apparently disposes of any theory of these 
birds being dift'erent sexes of the same species. 

The specimens collected by Mr. Knudsen are quite alike, except that 
No. 110042 shows unmistakable signs of being in immature plumage, 
for the great upper wing-coverts, as well as those of median row and 
the inner secondaries, have a subapical semilunar spot of bufiy white 
terminally bordered by a blackish fringe. 

Description {U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 110041. Kauai, Haumiian Archi- 
pelago. V. Knudsen coll.) — Entire upper surface of a dull hair-brown 
with an olive tinge ; sides of head dull tawny, the feathers fringed 
with dusky; lower surface of a light smoky gray, somewhat motley in 
appearance, caused by the dusky fringes to the feathers, lighter on 
throat and fading into nearly pure white on abdomen and under tail- 
coverts, while breast and flanks are more olive gray, the latter strongly 
tinged with the color of the back; tibiae of a brownish olive gray; gen- 
eral color of the wings above like the back, but the edges of the outer 
webs of the quills more russet, except the edges of the second to fifth 
primaries beyond the sinuation, which are of a grayish tinge ; the base 
of the inner primaries and secondaries in the outer webs bright russet, 
forming an oblique angular band across the wing followed by a similar 
black one caused by the restriction of the russet edge for a distance of 
about 7™"" from the bright russet base ; basal third of inner web of 
secondaries abruptly creamy white, this color also invading the bases 
of the inner webs of the primaries, except the two outermost ones, but 
in such a manner as to become gradually narrower and not reaching 
the shaft while extending farther up along the edge ; great under wing- 
coverts dark ashy, the smaller ones and the axillaries like the under 
parts of the body ; middle tail-feathers colored like the back, the re- 
mainder blackish, broadly edged in the outer web with the color of the 
back or slightly more russet, except the outer pair which has the entire 
outer web light isabella-gray ; three outer tail-feathers with a white 
mark at tip, those of the two outer pairs forming a long and narrow 
wedge-shaped spot in the inner web along the shaft, while on the third 
pair the white mark is reduced to a small speck in the inner web. Bill 
horny black; feet dark horny brown. 



92 BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 

Wingfo-innia : 1>A2; 2<9>10; 3=7; 5>4>G, these tUree 
longest aud the differeuce between them only slight (about 1"™). 

For dimensions see table below. 

The systematic position of these rare birds has been somewhat doubt- 
ful and is still so. Phccornis obscura was by Cassin referred to the 
"American Flycatchers," but the shortened first primary shows that 
it has nothing to do with these jS^eotropical birds, and those ornitholo- 
gists who placed it with the "Old World Flycatchers" came nearer 
the truth. Mr. II. B. Sharpe refers it to the Prionopid(S, evidently ex- 
cluding it from the Muscicapidcc on account of the very forward position 
of the chin-angle, an essential character of his •' Coliomori)ha;.'" This 
feature, however, is by no means peculiar to the latter group, as I have 
already shown in my paper on the arrangement of the American Tur- 
dida3,* in which I separated, as a subftimily, the Myadestince with the 
character; " Chin-angle always anterior to the line of the nostrils." And, 
in fact, nobody can help being struck by the great similarity between 
Phccornis myadestina and, say, Myadestes ohsciirtts, a similarity first 
pointed out to me by friend Ridgway. So great is the resemblance, 
that I doubt whether Mr. Seebohm could consistently keep them apart 
generically. Not only is the general color very similar, but the pattern 
of wing and tail most surprisingly so. Also some of the structural 
characters bring the two birds rather close together: both have a very 
short gonys which is less than one-third the commissure, and the chin- 
angle is much anterior to the large nostrils, and both have " booted " 
tarsus. The chief differences consist in the greater length and rounded 
shape of the tail in Myadestes, aud the longer first primary and longer 
tarsus of Phceornis. 

But this is not all that speaks in favor of this bird being related to 
the Turdidce (and to the Muscicapidcv, as I can see no possibility of keep, 
iug these two so-called families apart), for the young specimen of Ph. 
myadestina (No. 110042) shows that the young ones have the spotted 
plumage so characteristic of all Turdidw. 

The question in regard to the systematic position of Phwornis is one 
of great interest, for should it really be nearest related to the Myadestina, 
then the " non- American " appearance, or rather "• Old World" appear, 
auce, of the latter would perhaps not be so inexplicable. 

Mr. Knudsen writes that the Uapauau, or, better, the On, feeds on 
bugs aud sings on the wing like "the lark." 

MeasureMoits. 



' ! i Ft I i i ^*^' 

U. S. Nat. , Ses I ' Tail- LoJlrt Len^ ' ^ ■ die 

Mns. ! Collector. I and Locality. Date. Wing, feath- I'"f?' ot toe 



Xo: ! age. ■ eis. „-- gonys. «"- with 

claw. 



cul- 
nien. ''^ 



110041t ] Knndsen. 
110042 I. ...do.... 



ad.. Kanai, Hawaiian | 104 j 83 14 ! 7 32 i 24 

Islands. I ' ! ' : „„ 1 

jun.j..-.do 1 102 : 81 14 I 6 32 23J 



* Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus.. V, p. 459. tType. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 93 

Heraignathus obscurus (Gmel.)- 
Green Sickle-bill. Iwi. 

1788. — Certhia obscura Gmelin, S. N., I., p. 470. — ? Hemignathus obscurus Lichtenstel\» 

Abli. K. Akad. Berliu, 1838, p. 449, tab. v, fig. 1 (1839).— Cassix, U. S. Espl. 

Exp. Mam. Oru., p. 178 (1858).— Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., XII, 1869, 

p. 298, Extr. p. 5. — Id., Hawaiian Almanac, 1879, p. 45. — Sharpe, Cat. B. 

Brit. Mus., X, p. 4 (1885). 
1859. — Drepanis {Hemignathus) elUsiaiia, Gkay, Cat. B. Trop. Isls. Pacif., p. 9. 

Two birds which Mr. Knudsen desiguates as male and female I refer 
with a little doubt to Latham's " Hook-billed Greeu Creeper," upou which 
Gmelin based his Certhia obscura. The length of the bill alone, as given 
by Latham (1^ inches), proves, beyond a shadow of doubt, that Gray 
was wrong in referring C. obscura to Vestiaria coccinea. Having only 
Kauai birds before me, I can, of course, express no opinion in regard 
to possible representative races on the other islands on which this spe- 
cies likewise occurs. I may remark, however, that Latham describes 
his bird as "in general olive green, palest beneath, and somewhat in- 
clined to yellow," while Knudsen's birds are decidedly sulphur yellow 
underneath; on the sides washed with olive. The bird from Oahu, 
judging from Lichtenstein's descriptions and figure, differs from mine 
in being much less yellow on the under surface, and in having the abdo- 
men and under tail-coverts Isabella color and not olive yellow, but an 
actual comparison can only decide whether there are two distinct forms 
or not. 

Generally this bird is referred to the same genus as Hemignathus luci- 
dus, but with doubtful propriety, as I think.* The bills in this group 
of birds have served as the chief character for the establishment of 
genera, and if we recognize more than one genus of Drepauine birds, 
the two species of Reterorhynchus with their unique bills should cer- 
tainly stand alone. With specimens in hand Mr. Sharpe would never 
have included H. obscurus in a genus which he defines as having the 
"upper mandible nearly twice the length of the lower one" (Tom. cit. 
p. 2, Key to Genera), for the species in question has "both mandibles 
of nearly the same length," the difference being about one-tenth the 
chord of the exposed culmen, or proportionately the same as in Vestiaria 
and Himatione. 

Whether the present bird, on the other hand, may not be strictly 
congeneric with Brepanis pacifica I am unable to say positively, but, 
judging from the descriptions and figures of the bill of the latter, I feel 
confident that no great violence would be committed in uniting these 
"Great Hook-billed Creepers" under the term Drepanis. 

The two specimens sent by Mr. Knudsen are identical as far as color 
is concerned, but ^STo. 110044 has the bill less curved and shorter than 
the other specimen, a difference which may perhaps be due to sex. 



*From the wording of the phrase in which Lichtenstein proposes the generic name 
Eemignathus, it is evident that H. obscurus is the type and not H. hicidus, as gen- 
erally stated. 



94 



BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 



Measurements. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Collector. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


"Wing. 


Tail- 
feath- 
ers. 


rvinrd Distance 
^P°^.'* between 


Tar- 
sus. 


Mid- 
dle 
toe 
with 
claw. 


110043 


Knndsen. 
....do.... 


ad., 
ad.. 


Kauai, Hawaiian 

Islands. 
do 




76 
82 . 


50 
48 


53 4 
48 4.5 


26 
27 


25 


11004+ 




24 















Himatione parva, .sp. u. 

Kamao. 

Diagnosis. — Tail-feathers much more thau three times the length of 
the exposed cnlmeii, the latter shorter than middle toe with claw ; gouys 
nearly straight ; above bright yellowish olive-green, underneath bright 
olive yellow, except middle of abdomen which is white; under tail- 
coverts yellow. 

Dimensions (average). — Wing, SO™'" ; tail-feathers, i2™'" ; exposed 
culmen, 12™'"; tarsus, 19™™; middle toe with claw, 14™™; hind toe 
without claw, 8™™. 

Habitat. — Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Type.—U. S. :N^at. Mus. No. 110051. Y. Knudsen. coll. 

In general proportions the present species, which is the smallest of 
the slender-billed Hawaiian Dicceidcc, agrees very well with Himatione 
sanguinea, except in its proportionately somewhat shorter bill, and can- 
not be separated from it generically, although in shape and size of bill 
somewhat intermediate between the latter species and Loxops. It is of 
about the same size as L. coccinea, consequentlj^ much smaller than H. 
sanguinea, and easily separable from both by its coloration, except per- 
haps from the female Loxops coccinea, which, according to v. Pelzelii 
(Journ. f. Orn., 1872, p. 29), is green above and yellow below. The bare 
nasal fossse and longer bill of H. parva will prevent its being confounded 
with Loxops, however. In regard to color it approaches more closely 
Himatione chloris, but H. parva is brighter yellow both above and below, 
and has the under tail-coverts yellow, strongly contrasting with the 
white of the abdomen, while in H. chloris they are whitish washed with 
dull buft. They are ver3' easily told apart by the quite different dimen- 
sions and proportions, H. chloris being much larger, with a much longer 
and more curved bill and a proportionately much shorter tail than H. 
parva. 

From H. virens (Gm.) (which I take to be the same as Sharpe's and 
Sclater's bird of the same name, and also the same as Bloxham's H.flava, 
Mr. Sharpe having the types of the latter in the British Museum) our 
H. parva may be distinguished principally by its smaller size, and espe- 
cially by its much shorter bill. 

H. maculata Cabanis, which is evidently quite distinct from both H. 
virens and H. chloris, is at once excluded from comparison with H. parva 
on account of the dimensions, and especially as having an entirely dif- 
ferent wing-formula. 



1&S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



95 



Description. Ad. {U. 8. Nat. Mus., No. 110051; Kauai, Hawaiian Isl- 
ands. V. Knudsen coll.). — Entire upper surface aud sides of body as well 
as the outer edges of quills aud tail-feathers bright yellowish olive-green, 
inclining to olive-yellow on forehead, region above the lores, supercilia, 
and rump; trace of a dusky line between bill and eye; under surface, 
including under tail-coverts, bright olive-yellow; middle of abdomen, 
tibia?, axillaries, and under wing-coverts white, except those of the latter 
nearest to the edge of the wing, which are bright yellow ; quills black- 
ish, edged in the outer web with yellowish olive, in the inner one with 
white. Bill horny, brownish gray, pale at base below the nostrils ; feet 
horny, brownish gray. 

^S'o. 110052 differs only in having the colors slightly less bright. 

Mr. Knudsen writes that this little bird, the native name of which is 
Kamao, feeds on bugs, but also on the juice of flowers. The speci- 
mens sent were male and female. They are evidently adult birds, with- 
out any trace of immature plumage. 

Measurements. 



U.S. 

M«8. Collector. 
No. 


Sex ; ! , ; Tail- 
and Locality. Date. i Wing, feath- 
age. 1 1 ers. 

1 1 


Chord 
of ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Tar- 
sus. 


Middle 

toe 

with 

claw. 


Hind 

toe 

without 

claw. 


110051' Knudsen 






58 1 41 


11 
12 


18 
20 


13 
14 


7 
8 


110052 ....do... 


Islands. 
Ad..j do 




60 1 42 









* Type. 

There is in the U. S. National Museum a specimen (No. 14686) ob- 
tained by Mr. J. K. Townsend in the •' Sandwich Islands " [probably 
Oahu] which bears a general resemblance to H.imrva. It seems to be 
considerably smaller, but as it is in extremely abraded plumage and 
the exact locality is unknown nothing definite can be made out of it. 

Himatione sanguiuea (Gmel.). 

Apapane. 

llir^.—Certhia sa^^ainea Gmelin,S. N., I, p. A79.—Rtmatione sanguineaCABAHis, Mus. 
Hein., I, p. 99 (1850).— Pelzeln, Joura. f. Orn., 1872, p. 27.— Sharpe, Cat. 
B, Brit. Mus., X, p. 8 {l^6o).— Drepanissan guinea Cxssui, U. S. Expl. Exp., 
Mam. Oru., 2 ed., p. 439 (1858).— Dole, Proc. Boston Soc. N. H., XII, 1869, 
p. 297, Extr. p. 4. — Id., Hawaiian Almanac, 1879, p. 44. 

1626. — Nectarinia hyronensis Bloxham, Voy. "Blonde," App., p. 249. 

Five specimens from the "U. S. Exploring Expedition" and one ob- 
tained by Mr. Townsend are before me for comparison with the three ones 
sent by Mr. Knudsen. The former, except one, are only labeled " Sand- 
wich Islands," but they are probably not from Kauai. In color I can 
discover no difference, and from the table below it will be seen that 
there is none as regards dimensions. 

The three Kauai birds are apparently fully adult, they being rich 
crimson both above and below. One specimen (No. 110056) has the 



96 



BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 



outer edges of the secondaries crimson, while the two others have 
them yellowish biift", which color also ed^es the two outer great coverrs. 
This may indicate somewhat younger birds, although I am more in- 
clined to think that they are females, and that the bird described by 
Mr. Sharpe (Cat. B, Brit. Mus., X, p. 9) as an adult female is really only 
in transition plumage. 

The ashy under wing-coverts seem to be a character which may sep- 
arate the present species in most of its plumages from allied species. 

Mr. Knudsen expresses his belief that the Apapane feeds exclusively 
on flower honey, but Dr. Finsch (Ibis, 1880, p. 80) states that he only 
found small seeds in their stomachs. 

Measuremeiits. 



U. S. Nat. 

Mus. Collector. 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Wing. 


Tail- 
feath- 
ers. 


Chord 

of e.K- 

posed 

culmen. 


Tar- 
sus. 


Middle 
toe 
with 
claw. 


Hind 

toe 

without 

claw. 


110056 
110057 


Knudsen. 
.. do 


ad... 


Kauai, Hawaiian Islands, 
do 


71 
70 
74 
72 
73 
74 
74 
72 
71 


50 
49 
53 
50 
51 


16 
15 
16 


22 
23 
23 


16 
16 
18 


9 
9 


110058 


do 




do 


10 


14688 


Peale .... 
... do ... . 
...do.... 
....do.... 
...do.... 
Townsend 


ad .. 
ad... 
ad... 


Hawaii 

"Sandwich Islands " 

do 




14698 


17 








aaiei 


23 




9 


32159 


ad. .. 


do 


56 

47 
48 


17 
15 
16 


9 


32157 
14692 


ad... 
ad .. 


......do. ........ 


23 


17 


10 















? Himatione chloris Cab. 

Auoaiiii. 
1850. — Himatione chloris Cabanis, Mus. Hein., I, p. 99. 

1853. — Himatione flava Reichenbach, Handb. Spec. Ornith., II Abth., p. 225 {nee 
Bloxham). — Pelzeln, .Jonrn. f. Ornith., 1872, p. 28. 

It is with considerable doubt that I apply both the specific and gen- 
eric term of the above heading for three specimens which are in Mr. 
Knudsen's collection from Kauai. 

H. chloris is usually referred to R. vlrens of Gmelin (Latham's " Olive- 
green Creeper"), but I think quite erroneously. Latham's description 
indicates a bird of essentially the same size and proportions as H. san- 
guinea, with a bill rather straighter than otherwise. The bill of H. san- 
guinea he describes as "not very hooked, though bent" (Syn. B., L pt. ii, 
p. 739) ; that of H. virens,* on the other hand, as '• very little curved " 
{torn. cit. p. 740). Now, Cabanis says that his H. chloris has the bill 
"perceptibly more curved" than H. sanguinea {I. c), and v. Pelzeln de- 
scribes birds from the same collection as Cabanis's as being distinguish- 
able by their more strongly curved bills {torn, cit., p. 29). Knudsen's birds 
have the bill not only " perceptibly more curved " than that of H. san- 
guinea, but quite as much so as that of Vestiaria coccinea ; the concavity 
of the gonys is even much more arched than the convexity of the culmen 
of H. sanguinea! The bills of these birds are also much stouter at base 
than are those of R. sanguinea. As will be seen from the table of dimen- 

* H. virens I take to be the form peculiar to Hawaii, .^Y. Jtava of Bloxhaui beiug a 
strict synonym. It seems to have the same shape and dimensions as H. coccinea, but 
the colors of H. chloris. * 



1887.] 



PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED tiTATES NATIONAL. MUSEUM. 



97 



sions below, the bills of the Kauai birds are longer than those of H. san- 
guinea {of. table ou p. 96), while Cabanis says that the latter has a louger 
bill than his H. chloris. This statement has made me somewhat doubt- 
ful in regard to my birds being identical with this species, but then, 
on the other hand, the measurements given by v. Pelzeln do not agree 
with the statement of Dr. Cabanis, which perhaps may be due to au in- 
advertency. As far as coloration is concerned my birds seem to agree 
fairly with Cabanis's description. They may be said to be similar to 
H. parva, though somewhat duller and more olive, and the under tail- 
coverts are whitish and not yellow. It should be remarked that the 
types of H. chloris came from Oahu, and that au actual comparison of 
birds from this island with Kauai specimens are necessary in order to 
establish the identity beyond doubt. 

As to these birds being members of the genus Himatione I have con- 
iderable do ubt. ]S"o t only is the bill quite different, but the three speci- 
mens before me have the tails proportionally much shorter than in H. 
sanguinea and j^arya. 

Mr. Knudseu states that both sexes are represented in the collection. 
ISTo. 110055 is considerablv duller and paler than the two other speci- 
mens, and is probably a female. All are adults, without trace of whit- 
ish tips to the wing-coverts. 

In his letter Mr. Knudseu furthermore informs us that the Anoanii 
feeds on bugs as well as on flower-honey. 

Measurements. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
No. 


Collector. 


Sex 
and 

age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tail- 
feath- 
ers. 


Chord 
of ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Tar- 
sus. 


Mid- 
dle 
toe 
with 
claw. 


Hind 

toe 

without 

claw. 


110053 


Kundsen . 

....do.... 
....do.... 


ad.. 

ad., 
ad.. 


Kauai, Hawaiian 

Islands. 
....do 




67 

67 
67 


40 

39 
40 


20 

19 
18 


22 

22 
22 


16 

17 
16 


9.5 


110054 




10 


110055 


....do 




10 











Vestiaria coccinea (Merr.). 

Olokele. 

1786. — Mellisuga coccinea Merrem, Av. R.ar. Descr. et Icon. (p. 14, pi. ivY. — Vestiaria c. 
EEiCHENiiACH, Haiidb. Spec. Ornith., II Abth., p. 254, p]. dlsii, figs. 3830- 
32 (1852).— Drf^rtHis c. Cabanis, Mus. Hein., I, p. 99 (1850).— Cassin U. S. 
Espl. Exp. Mam. Orn., p. 177 (18.58).— Dole, Proc. Boston See. N. H. XII, 
1869, p. 297, Extr. p. 4. — Id., Hawaiian Almanac, 1879, -p. 44. — Pelzeln, 
Journ. f. Orn., 1872, p. 26.— Finsch, Ibis, 1880, p. 79. 

1790. — Ccrthia vestiaria Latham, lud. Orn., I, p. 282. 

1879. — Drepanis rosea Dole, Hawaiian Almanac, 1879, p. 44. — Id., Ibis, 1880, p. 241. — 
Loxops rosea Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., X, p. 50 (1885). 

A careful comparison of Knudsen's four specimens with three birds 
in the museum, probably not from Kauai, shows no tangible difference 
in color or dimensions. 

* I find also cited " Certhia coccinea Forster, Gott. Magaz., I, for IV] 1780, p. 346," 
but I am without means of verifying the quofeation. 

Proc. N. M. 87 7 



98 



BIRDS OF XAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 



:So. 110048 is an mimatiire bird in transition plumage corresponding 
closely to the bird described by Dole as D. rosea, and I have no doubt 
that the latter belongs to V. cvccinea as a synonym. It is difficult to 
see how Mr. Sharpe could refer it to the genus Loxops, reprinting as he 
does Dole's description, in which the bird is compared witli '•^ Drepanis 
coccinea,'^ and the bill stated to be " 1 inch, curved." 

The immature bird seems to have had the bill and leet somewhat 
brownish or dusky, while in the adult these parts are evidently beau- 
tiful red. 

Measurements. 



U.S. 

^*t- Collector. 
Mus. 
Xo. 



110045 

110046 

110047 

110048 

14697 



Knndsen 

....do... 
....do..., 

...do ... 

Peale — 



14699 I. ...do 
85559 \ 



Ses 
and 
age. 



Locality- 



Date. 



Wing, feath- 



™„., Chord 1 
^»''- I of ex- : Tar- 



Pra • T>OScd 8US. 

*'"'• culmen. 



ad . . Kauai, Hawaiian 
1 Islands. 

ad ..' do 

ad -. do 

imm. do 

ad..' "Sandwich Isl- 
ands." 

ad do 

ad do 



25 

28 
24 
24 



Mid- 
dle 
toe 
with 
claw. 



23 

25 I. 



18 



Hind 

toe 

without 

claw. 



23 



OREOMYZA, geu. uov. 
(ope(of=montanus ; //u^eu = sugo.) 

This genus may be characterized as one of the nine-primaried Bi- 
cceidce (as defined by E. B. Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., X, p. 2) distin- 
guished (1) by having the nasal fossil partly hidden by autrorse feath- 
ers; (2) by the absence of rictal bristles; (3) by the elongated, but 
otherwise Loxiops-like bill ; (4) by the shortness of the first (ninth) 
primary which is but slightly longer than the secondaries ; (5) by the 
shortness and stoutness of the feet, the tarsus being not more than 
twice the hind toe without claw. 

Type. — Oreomyza bairdi Stejneger. 

In some respects the present form seems to agree with Pinaroloxias 
Shakpe, especially in the profile of the bill. I can find no other struct- 
ural character of consequence assigned to the latter species than " the 
culmen flattened in front of the nostrils " (Sharpe, Cat. B. Brit. Mus., 
X, p. 3), a peculiarity not at all shared in by Oreomyza. 

The most noteworthy peculiarity of the present genus is expressed 
by the wing-formula which seems to be unique among the Hawaiian 
members of the I)ica'ida% for all the other forms which 1 have been able 
to examine,* viz, Hemignathus, Yestiaria, Himatmie, Heterorhynclms 

* According to v. Pelzeln, Jour. f. Orn., Ib72, p. 28, Himatione mavulata Cab., has a 
rather short first (ninth) primary, bnt the 3(1 one is longest, and not the 4th as in my 
birds. Cabanis's species may belong to Oreomyza as seooiul species, although its pro- 
portions generally agree with those of H. sanguinea, judging from v. Pelzelu's meas- 
urements (I. c). 



1.^87.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 99 

{lucidus), Loxops {eoccinea), aud Psittirosira, have the first (ninth) pri- 
mary never shorter than the fifth, while in Oreomyza it is shorter than 
the seventh, aud only slightly longer than the secondaries which in the 
other genera fall short of the tips of the exterior primary by more than 
the length of the hind toe without claw. I have examined carefully 
both specimens of Oreomyza bairdi aud find they agree completely ; I 
also find that the quills are fully grown, so that there is no chance of 
their being undeveloped. 

Another important feature is the partial covering of the nasal fossae 
by overhanging feathers, aud the absence of real bristles. In the speci- 
mens of Loxops and Psittirostra before me, the nasal fossae are likewise 
covered by autrorse feathers (in the cuts of the bills of these genera 
in the tenth volume of Cat. B. Brit. Mus., pp. 40, 51, the nasal fossae 
are represented as entirely bare), and the bristles, if present, but slightly 
developed, while in the other genera strong and black bristles are seen 
guarding the base of the upper mandible. 

The hind toe is better developed, and the tarsus comparatively 
shorter than in the allied genera. Taken in connection with the rounded 
shape of the wing and the comparative shortness of the tail, it seems 
likely that the habits of the present form are more terrestrial than 
those of the other Hawaiian Dicccidw. 

Oreomyza bairdi, sp. n. 

Akakane. 

Diagnosis. — Above clear olive-gray tinged with pale olive-green on 
rump and margins of tail-feathers and secondaries ; underneath pale 
olive-baft", nearly white on chin, throat, and under wang-coverts, tinged 
with pale primrose-yellow on the fore neck, and suttVised with olive- 
gray on the flanks ; lores whitish; ear-coverts like the upper parts. 

Dimensions (type specimen). — Wing, 65'"'" ; tail-feathers, 40'"'" ; ex- 
posed culmen, 12'"'" ; tarsus, 20'"™ ; middle toe with claw, IG""" ; hind toe 
without claw, lO'"™. 

Habitat. — Kauai, Hawaiian Islands. 

Tyjje.—U. S. Nat. Mus., Ko. 110049. Y. Knudsen coll. 

This species is so different from all the other Hawaiian Dicceidije as 
to require no further comparison with either of them, as the generic 
characters given above will suffice to distinguish it at once. 

The two birds which Mr. Knudsen collected in the mountains of 
Kauai, and which \\q states to be male and female, are evidently adults, 
as no trace of immaturity can be discovered. It seems that most of 
the Hawaiian Dicceidce, and possibly all, have light tips to the wing- 
coverts in the young plumage, but the specimens before me have these 
coverts quite uniform. 

I have nothing to add to the above diagnosis by way of description, 
except that the bill is light horny-bi"own above and pale underneath, 
and that the feet are horny brown. Both specimens are quite alike, 



100 BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 

except that No. 110050 has the culmeu slightly more straight aud the 
upper parts slightly more brownish. 
I dedicate this new species to Prof. S. F. Baird. 

Measurements. 



U.S. 
Nat. 



No. 



■Age 

Collector, and 

I sex. 



Locality. 



Bate. 



110019*1 Ejindsen ad.. Kauai, Hawaiiau 

I I I.slaiuls. 
110050 ....do ... ad.. I.... do 



Tail- 
Wing. |fcatli. 
I era. 



Chord 

of ex- 

jjosed 

culmen. 



CI 



39 



Middle Hind 
Tar- toe tne 

siis. ■with without 
claw. ! claw. 



' Type. 

In addition it may not be out of place to give a brief 

PROVISIONAL KEY TO THE GENERA OF THE HAWAIIAN DICJEID^. 

a' Uiiper mandible more tliau one-third longer than the under mandible. Hetero- 

rhynclius. 
a"2 Upper mandible slightly, if any, longer than the under mandible, the difference 
being about one-tenth the chord of the culmen, or less. 
&' Chord of exposed culmeu about equal to the tail-feathers. Hemitjnathue. Dre- 

panis. 
b- Chord of exposed culmeu about half the length of the tail-feathers, or less, 
c' Nas.ll fossie entirely bare, 
d' Chord of exposed culmen less than the length of the tarsus. Himatlone. 
d- Chord of exposed culmeu not less than the leugth of the tarsus. Vestiaria. 
c' Nasal fossaj more or less covered by anthrorso plumes, 
d' First primary shorter than sixth. Oreomyza. 
d- First primary longer than sixth. Loxops. Psittirostra. Loxioides. 



Moho braccata Cassix. 

Go. 

ISiQ.—WertJna iiacijica Pkale, U. S. Expl. Exp., 1 ed. (p. U9), {nee Gmel.). 

lb53.—Mohoa fasciculaia 2 Reichenbach, Handb. Spec. Orn., II Abth., p. 33, pi. 
dcxir, fig. 4009 (nee Lath.). 

1856. — Mohoa braccata Cassin, Proc. Philada. Acad., VII, p. 440. — Id., U. S. Expl. 
Ex]). Mam. Orn., p. 272 (IS:)8).— (J/o/io) Dole, Proc. Post. Soc, XII, 1869, 
p. 296, Extr. p. 3. — Id., Hawaiian Almauac, 1879, p. 46. — Sclateu, Ibis, 
1871, pp. 358-360.— Zf7., ibid., 1S79, p. 92.— Pelzelx, Journ. f. Orn., 1872, p. 
20,.— Id., Ibis, 1873, p. 21.— Wallace, Isl. Life, p. 297 (1881.) 

Dr. H. Gadow (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., IX, p. 284, 1884), notwithstanding 
Dr. Sclater's statement that this bird is an " undoubtedly good species" 
(Ibis, 1871, p. 2'o'i), unites it with M. nobilis, withoi^ a single word of 
explanation. Reichenbach believed the bird to be the female of the 
latter, but there is no clue as to whether Dr. Gadow shared this opinion. 

Cassin and Gould inform us that nearly the only sexual difference in 
M. nobilis and J\r. apicalifi, rcsi)ectivcly, consists in tbe much inferior 
size of the female, and v. Pelzeln's measurements and remarks (Journ. f. 
Orn., 1872, pp. 25, 20) seem to corroborate their opinion. As will be 
seen from the table below, I have before me two large, long- tailed M. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 101 

nobilis and two smaller ones with shorter tail-feathers, there being little 
doubt that these represent the males and females of this species. 

Xor is there the remotest probability that 21. braccata is the young of 
M. nobilis, for not only are there differences in structure and in the text- 
ure of the feathers, but the color difierences are such as to preclude 
this possibility. The two birds from Kauai show no trace of imma- 
turity. 

The three species of 3Ioho may be very easily distinguished by the 
following "key:" 

a' Tail-featliers uniform blackish, without any trace of white 21. braecaia. 

a" Tail-feathers blackish, four or more tipped with white, 

&' Ouly two outer taii-feathers ou each side tipped with white M. nohilis. 

h- All the tail-feathers, except the middle pair, tipped with white M. apicalis. 

In order to emphasize the differences between 21. braccata and 31. no- 
bilis, I shall tabulate them as follows : 



I 



M. noMIis. 

(1) Bill more curved. 

(2) Feathers on top of head more round- 
ed and st>fter. 

(3) First primary about one-third the 
length of the wing. 

(4) Lower back and rump, inch^ding 
upper tail-coverts, black. 



(5) Feathers of chin, throat, and fore- 
neck uniform glossy black. 

(6) Abdomeu blackish. 

(7) Under tail-coverts bright yellow. 

(8) Feathers of tibiie uniform black. 

(9). Small upper wing-covertsall glossy 
black. 



(10) Quills blackish without light inner 
margins. 

(11) Axillary tufts very long andbright 
yellow. 

(12) Middle pair of tail-feathers greatly 
lengthened beyond the rest ; two outer 
pairs broadly tipped with white. 

(13) Size larger. 



M. braccata. 

Bill straighter. 

Feathers on top of head more lanceolate 
and rigid. 

First primary considerably more than 
one-third the wing. 

Lower back and rump, including upper 
tail-coverts, tawny gray inclining to raw 
nmber. 

Feathers of chin, throat, and fore neck 
black, with a transverse subapical bar 
of white. 

Abdomen russet. 

Under tail-coverts russet, slightly palei 
than the abdomen. 

Feathers of lower part of tibiie light 
chrocie yellow. 

Small upper wing-coverts glossy black, 
except those covering the bastard-wing, 
the primary coverts, and the bend of the 
wing, which are pure white. 

Quills internally edged with whitish 
for the basal half. 

Axillary tufts less developed, and of a 
pale, buify gray. 

Middle pair of tail-feathers much less 
elongated beyond the rest; all the rec- 
trices uniform blackish without white 
tips. 

Size smaller. 



The coloration of tibioe, tail, and bend of wing, alone shows con 
clusively that 2L braccata is a good species. 

If to the characters given in the above comparison we add that M. 
braccata has the upper parts of the head glossy black, the back dark 



102 BIRDS OF KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGO. 

gray washed with tawny, and the interscapalaries with light shaft- 
streaks and that the breast is similarly though deeper colored, we have 
a tolerably exhaustive description of this species. 

Mr. Knudsen writes, that the Oo is a tine songster which in the dis- 
tricts, where bananas grow wild, feeds on the fruit, hollowing it out be- 
fore it is ripe. 

AIea8ureme)itti. 

MOHO BRACCATA. 



TJ.S. 
Uat. 
Mils. 
No. 


Collector. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tail 
feath- 
ers. 


Middle 1 

tail- 1 
feather 1 Exposed 
bevond culmen. 

the 

rest. 


Tar- 
sus. 


Middle 

»oe 

with 

claw. 


1 
110039 Knudsen 


ad., 
ad .. 


Kauai, Hawaiian 

Islands. 
do 




90 
93 


82 
77 


16 
16 


25 
26 


32 
32 


20 


110060 ---do 




22 













MOHO XOBILIS. 



Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, D. C, January 13, 1887. 



14644 


Peale . . . 
...do.... 

...do 

...do.... 


ad -. 

ad.. 

ad .. 
ad .. 


Hawaii, Hawai- 
ian Islands. 

"Sandwich Isl- 
ands." 

...do 




119 

122 

100 
105 


168 

200 

111 

132 


48 

61 

28 
33 




37 

39 

35 
33 




14615 




29 


26 


32142 






32145 


do ' 


24 


22 









1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 103 



NOTES ON THE NORTHERN PALiEARCTIC BULLFINCHES. 
By LiEOIVIIARD 8T£JI>iE:c:E:R. 

Wbeu, at the request of Mr. Lucieu M. Turner, five years ago, I ex- 
amined the type of Fyrrhula cassini (Baird) and wrote for liis report 
on the Birds of Alaska an article on the subject, the collection of the 
United States National Museum was rather deficient in Old World 
FyrrhuUcj so that I had to go by descriptions and figures only. Since 
then the Museum has received many valuable additions to its Palaearctic 
collection, among which a pair of the Siberian Gray Bullfinch {FyrrJmla 
cineracea Cab.) which prove to me, beyond doubt, that my conclusions 
arrived at five years ago were quite correct, viz, that the type-specimen 
of Fyrrhula cassini is a female, notwithstanding the statement of the 
collector to the contrary, and, lurthermore, that it is the female of the 
species which subsequently was named Fyrrhula cineracea. 

I shall not repeat here the reasons upon whicli I then based my con- 
clusions ; nor will a very detailed comparison be necessary now. Suf- 
fice it to say that the type-specimen, U. S. National Museum, No. 
49955, collected at Nulato, Alaska, January, 1867, by Prof. W. H. 
Dall, agrees very well with a female of P. cineracea., II. S. National 
Museum, No. 101978, collected at Onon, Siberia, January 11, 1873, by 
Dr. B. Dybowski. The general coloration of the plumage both above 
and underneath is identical, the only difference 1 can conceive being 
the faint rosy wash near the tips of the ear-coverts of the former. The 
type of P. cassini lacks the red spot on the outer web of the inner- 
most tertial, a feature characteristic of P. cineracea, though our speci- 
men of the latter has a faint indication of this spot. The white spot 
on the outer pair of tail-feathers is the same in both specimens, but 
in the Onon specimen it is confined to the inner web, while in that from 
Alaska it also occupies the whole of the adjoining part of the outer web. 
In addition the following comparative measurements are appended: 



Wing 

Tail-feathers 

Exposed culinen 
Tarsus 



No. 49055 type of 


No. 101978 $ P. 


P. eassini; Nu- 


cineracea; 


lato, January 


Onon, Janu- 


10, 1867. 


ary 11, 1873. 


mm. 


tmn. 


90 


85 


68 


64 


9 


10 


19 


18 



Since I made the first determination I have also had the opportunity 
of examining the type of P. cassini with a female of Taczanowski's P. 
l-amtschatica, but the latter is much clearer gray, and has the band across 
the wing much broader and whiter. 



104 NORTHERN PAL.EA.KCTIC BULLFINCHES. 

It may thus be regarded as fairly proven, that the suspicious of 
Dresser (B. of Ear., IV, p. 100), and Cabanis and Dybowski (J. f, Orn., 
ISTi, p. 40), were well founded, and the uaine giveu by Professor Baird 
in 18G9 will conseqaefii^j' t-^ke the precedence over that bestowed upon 
the species by Professor Cabanis three years later. The following syn- 
onym will be found to contain most of the important references. 

Pyrrhula cassini (Baird). 

1826. — Pyrrhula ruhkilla Pallas, Zoogr. Ross. As., II, p. 7 ( $ part.). 

1869. — Pyrrhula coccinea var. cassini Baird, Tiaua. Chicag. Acad., I, 18G9 (p. :51G). — 
Dall & Banxist., Tr. Chic. Ac, I, 1869, p. 281. 

1&7 1.— Pyrrhula cassini Tristram, Ibis, 1871, p. 231.— Finsch, Abb. Ver. Bremen, III, 
1872, p. 54.— Taczax., J. f. Orn., 1873, p. 95.— Caban., J. f. Orn., 1873, p. 
315.— B. Br. & RiDGW., H. N. Am. B., I, p. 457 ( 1874).— Dybow., J. f. Orn., 
1874, p. 39.— Dresser, B. of Eur., IV, p. 100 (1870). 

1872. — Pyrrhula cineracca Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn., 1872, p. 31(J.— /(?., ibid., 1873, p. 314. 
—Id, ibid., 1877, p. 223.— Dybow., J. f. Orn., 1874, p. 40.— Severzow, J. f. 
Orn., 1875, p. 173.— Taczan., J. f. Orn., 1875, p. 254.— /</., ibid., 1881, p. 185.— 
/rf.,Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1876, p. 183.— /rf., i^^fcL, 1880 (p. 138).— Dres- 
ser, B. of Eur., IV, p. 100 (part) (1876).— Homeyer, J. f. Orn., 1879, p. 
178.— Stejneger, N. Mag. Naturv., 1881, p. 115.— Bolau, J. f. Orn., 1882, 
p. 334. 

figures. 

Trans. Chicag. Acad., I, 1869, ]>l. xsix, fig. 1. 

J. f. Orn., 1874, pi. i. 

Baird, Brew. & Ridgw., Hist. N. Am. B., I, pi. xxiii, fig. 11 (1874). 

For completeness' sake I add below the synonyms of the other spe- 
cies inhabiting the Northern Paluearctic Eegion, the geographical dis- 
tribution of which is very curious. 

In the western portions of Central and Southern Europe the smaller 
form of the Red-breasted Bulltinch is the breeding bird, while the true 
Pyrrhula pyrrhula is more northern and eastern. The former is very 
seldom found within the breeding territory of the latter, although I 
shot a specimen in Western Norway (now in the University Museum 
in Christiania, Norway), while the large form, in winter, invades the 
region occupied by P. europwa. P. pyrrhula seems to go as far east as 
Transbaicalia, to the river Ouon, east of Lake Baikal, Eastern Siberia, 
where its place is occupied by P. cassini {cineracea), in which the male 
is entirely gray without any trace of red. How far east and north this 
species reaches is not known,* but it is not improbable that it has a 
range somewhat resembling that of Motacilla ocularis Swinhoe. Nor 
is the north-eastern limit of P. pyrrhula known 5 all we can sa}' is, that 

* Dresser states that he has examined a specimen of P. major I P. pyrrhula'] from 
Ussnri, collected by Dybowski. This is probably the same one referred to by Tac- 
zanowski, Journ. f. Orn., 1875, p. 254, and may be an accidental visitor only (cf. also 
Ibis, 1874, p. 463). Both species occur in Kultuk, Darasun, and Dauria. According 
to Severzow P. cineracea [cassini] occurs as far west as Turkestan, and Mr. Seebohm 
kindly informs me that he has specimens from the Altai Mountains and Krasnoyarsk. 



18S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 105 

tliere is uo record of its having been collected at or near the Asiatic 
shores of the Pacific or Bering Sea. But in Kamtschatka, again, we 
find a red-breasted form which, in general coloration, is extremely like 
the true P. pyrrhula, the males only differing by the greater width and 
the purer white of the alar band. This form, which Taczanowski has 
named P. l-amtsehatica, is apparently separated from the western red- 
breasted allies by the interposition of P. cassini, which is so remark- 
ably distinct by the entire absence of red in the male. 

If we consider only the females we are confronted, however, with a 
somewhat different problem, for it will be found that the western form, 
P.pyrrhula, represents the brownest phase, and the Kamtschatkan sub- 
species the grayest extremity, while the female P. cassini, intermediate 
as it appears geographically, is also intermediate in coloration, being 
grayer than P. pyrrJiula, but browner than P. Mmtscliatica. 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula (Lixx.). 

llbS.—Loxia pijrrhula Lixx., Syst. Nat., 10 ed., I, p. 171. 

1789.— Pyrrhula rubicilla Schaffer, Mus. Oru., p. 30 {nee Loxia ruhicilla Guldenst., 

1775, nee Coccothraustes r. Gill, 1781).— Pallas, Zoogr. Eoss. As., II, p. 7 

(18-26).— HOMEYER, J. f.Orn., 1879, p. 175.— /r/.. Ibid., 1880, p. 154.— Radde, 

Oru. Cancas., p. 180 (1884). 
18-23.— Pyrrhula vulgaris Brehm, Lehrb. Eur, VOg., p. 172 {nee Temm. 18-20). —Mid- 

DEXi). Sibir. Reise I (p. 149) (1853).— NiLSSOX, Skand. Fauua, Fogl. 3 

ed. I, p. 524(1858).— Radue, Reis. Sud. Ost-Sibir. II, (p. 184) (1862).— FixscH, 

Zool. Bot. Ges. Wieu, 1879, p. 211.- Homeyer aud Taxcre, Mittl. Oru. 

Ver. Wieu, 1883, No. 5, p. 28.— Seeuohm, Brit. B. Eggs, II, p. 51 (1883). 
1831.— Pyrrhula major Breii.m, Haudb. Vug. Deutscbl., p. 252.— Dresser, B. of Eur., 

IV, p. 97 (1876).— Newtox, Yarr., Brit. B., 4 ed. II, p. 170 (1877).— 

Stejxeger, N. Mag. Naturv., 1881, pp. 115, 117. 
18A'L— Pyrrhula coccinea DE Selys, Fauue Beige (p. 79) {nee Emheriza cocciuea Gmel. 

178tS?)— Deglaxd, Oru. Eur., 1 ed. I, p. 187 (1849).— Degl. & Gerbe, Orn. 

Eur., 2 ed. I, p. 251 (1867).— Tristram, Ibis, 1871, p. 232.-1(1., J. f. Oru. 

1871, p. 316.— Taczan., J. f. Oru., 1873, p. 95.— W , ibid., 1874, p. 33G.— Id., 

ibid., 1875, p. 2bi.—Id., Bull. Soc. Zool. Frauce, 1876, p. 182. 
18A9.— Pyrrhula vulgaris major Temm. & Schleg., Fauu. Jap. Av., p. 91.— Seebohm, 

Br. B. Eggs, II, p. 52 (1883). 
1854. — Pyrrhula pyrrhula Liciitexsteix, Nom. Mus. BeroL, p. 48. 
1871.— Pyrrhula rubicilla /j. coccinea Dubois, Cousp. Av. Eur., p. 18. 
1873.— Pyrrhula cassini Taczaxowski, J. f. Oru., 1873, p. 95 {nee Baird). 
1877. — Pyrrhula linnei Malm, Goteb. och Bohusl. Fauna, p. 194. 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula europaea (Vieill.). 

178\.—Coccothrausfes rubicilla Gill, Rom. Oru., I, p. 158 {nee Loxia riibieilla Guld. 
1775).— Pyrrhula ruhicillaBosAP., Cousp. Av., I, p. 525(1851) (nfcSCHAFFER, 
1789).— Tristram, Ibis, 1871, p. 232.— Id., J. f. Oru., 1871, p. 316. 

1787 .—Loxia pyrrhula Latham, Suppl. Synops., I, p. 285 {nee Lixx. 1758). 

1788. — 1 Emheriza coccinea Gmelix, Syst. Nat., I, p. 873. 

181Q,.—Pyrrhula europwa Vieill., N. Diet. d'H. Nat., IV, p. 286.— Leach, Sys. Cat. M. 
B. Brit. Mus., p. 13 (1816).— Degland, Oru. Eur., 1 ed., I, p. 185 (1849).— Dres- 
ser, B. of Eur., IV, p. 101 (1576).— Newton, Yarr., Brit. B., 4 ed. II, p. 
166 (1877).— Stejxeger, N. Mag. Naturv., 1881, p. 113. 



106 



NORTHERN PAL^ARCTIC BULLFINCHES. 



1816. — PjjrrhuJa rufa Kocii, Bair. Zool., I, p. 2'2T. 

18'20. — Fijrrhiila nilgarh Temm., Man. d'Oni., 2 ed., I, p. 330. — de Selys, Fauiie Beige 

(p. 7f ) (1H42).— Deglaxi) and Gerhe, Oru. Eur., 2 ed., I, p. 250 (1G7). 
1831. — ri/rrltiila gcnnainca Breh.m, Handb. Viig. Deutsclil., p. 252. — Homeyer, J. f. 

Orn., 1879, p. 177, 
1831. — Pyrrhula ptregrina Breh.m. Handb. Vog. Deutschl., p. 253. — Homeyer, J. f. 

Oru., 1880, p. 154. 
1839.— Pjirrhula pileaia MACGiLL.,Hist. Brit. B., I, p. 407. 
1849. — Pi/rrhnia vulgarh minor Te.mm. & SCHLBG., Fauu. Jap. Av., p. 91. 
ISbo. — Pyrrhula mhior Brehm, Naumauuia, 1855, p. 276. 
l!r56. — Pyrrhula coccinea a rubicUIa Bon.\p., Cat. Parzud., p. 4. 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula kamtschatica (Tacz.). 

1826. — Pyrrhula rnbiciUa Pai.las, Zoogr. Ross. As., II, p. 7 (part), (riec GCld.). — 

KiTTLiTZ, DenkwUrd., I, p. 322 (1858). 
1882. — Pyrrhula kamtwhatlca Taczanowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1882, p. 395- 

Journ. f. Orn., 1884, p. 408 (1885). 
1883. — Pyrrhula kamtschatkensis Dybowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1883, p. 367. 
1884. — Pyrrhula rubidlla kamtschatkensis Dybow. & Tacz.\n., Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr.. 

1884, p. Estr., p. 2. 

1885. — Pyrrhula pyrrhula kamischatica Stejneger, Res. Orn. Explor. Kamtcb., p. 322. 
1887. — Pyrrhula vulgaris kamtschatica Seebohm, Ibis, 1887, p. 101. 

Since compiling tbe Synopsis of Kamtscbatkau birds (L c), I bave 
received from my friend Capt. J. E. Hunter four specimens of tbe pres- 
ent bird, tbree males and one female. Considering tbe apparent isola. 
tion of its babitat it is ratber astonisbiug to find it so closely allied to 
P. pyrrhula. Tbe differentiation, bowever, is like tbat of most of tbe 
peculiar Kamtscbatkau forms, tbe color being purer and tbe wbite more 
extended, in tbis particular case especially on tbe wing-band. Tbe red 
of tbe under parts can be matcbed by Scandinavian specimens, but tbe 
ear-coverts show more of tbat peculiar silvery gloss so bigbly developed 
in tbe Japanese species, P. griseiventris. Tbe females differ more from 
tbe western form, tbe back being nearly a pure cinereous with tbe 
faintest possible wash of brownish on tbe lower back. In both sexes 
tbe red spot on tbe inner tertial is present, though on an average some- 
what paler than in true P. pyrrhula. In size tbe present form appears 
to be intermediate between P. vyrrhida and P. europaa^ a^ evidenced 
by the following 

Measurements. 



U. S. Nat. 

Mas. Collector. 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Wing. 


Tail- 
leath- 
era. 


Ex- 
posed 
culmen. 


Tar- 
sus. 


Middle 

toe 

with 

claw. 


1 
110011 I Hnnter... 
iioor.' ....do 

110013 ....do.... 

110014 ,... do .... 


(cr)ad. 
(d")ad 
I'cDad. 
(?)ad. 


Petropaulski, Kamtsch. 

do 

do 

do 


8* 
92 

88 
87 


70 
69 
67 
05 


9 
9.5 

10 
9 


18 
19 
18 
18 


18 

""ig"" 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 107 
Pyrrhula griseiventris Lafr. 



1835.- 
1841.- 

1844.- 
1849.- 



1860.— 



187G.- 

1882.- 



1887.- 



Pyrrhula vulgaris Temminck, Mau. d'Orn., 2 ed., Ill, p. 248 (part). 

I'l/rrhula (jriseiventris Lafresnaye, Rev. Zool., 1841, Aug., p. 241. — SwiNHOE, 
P. Z.S., 1871, p. 3?6. 

Spermophila (jrisvoventris Gray, Gen. 13., II, p. 386. 

Pyrrhula orxenialis Temm. & Schleg., Faun. Jap. Aves, p. 91. — BoNArAUTE. 
Consp. Av., I, p. 525 (1650).— Blakist., Ibis, 1862, p. 328.— 7fZ., Chiysantb., 
1883, Febr., p. — . Id., Am. List B. Jap., p. 64 (1»84).— Wiiitely, Ibis, 1^67, 
p. 203.— SwiNHOE, Ibis, 1874, pp. 160, 463.— Taczan., J, f. Orn., 1876, p. 200. 
—Id., Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1876, p. 183.— Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, 
p. 246.— /irf., Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 235.— /id., ihid., X, 1882, p. 176.— 
BOLAU, J. f. Oru., 1880, p. 126.— W., ibid., 1882, p. 335.— Jouy, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., YI, p. 293 (1883). 

Pyrrhula vulgaris var. orientalis Schrexck, Reis. Amur!., I, ]>. 291 (I860).— 

Pkzewalski, Putescb. Ussuri, (No. 53) (1870). 
-Pyrrhula cintracea Dresser, B. of Eur., IV, p. 100 (part). 

-Pyrrhula rosacea Seeboiim, Ibis, 1882, p. 371. Journ. f. Oru., 1884, p. 409 
(1885). — Blakist., Cbrysantb., 1882, p. 474. — Id., ibid., 1883, Jan., p. 36. — Id. 
ibid., Feb., p.—. —.Id., Amend. List B.Jap., p. 64 (1884). 
-Pyrrhula orientalis rocacea Seebohm, Ibis, 1H87, p. 101. 

hula pyrrhnloides Temm.", Mus. Acad. Pbilada. 



Temmixck et Schlegel, Fauna Japonica, Aves, pi. liii. 
Gould, B. As., pt. V, pi.— (1853). 

Measurements. 



■" Museum anil No. 



Collector 
and Mo. 



U.S. Nat. 110199. 
U.S. Nat. 91339.. 
Christ iania, N .. 
U. .-.Nat.98:i90.. 
U.S. Nat. 110200. 
U.S. Nat. 90388.. 
U.S. Nat. 1101:01. 
U. S. Nat. U1310. 
U.S. Nat. IIO-JU?, 
U. S. Nat. 9C389.. 
U. S.Nat. 9039 1.. 
U.S. Nat. 110203. 
U.S.Nat. 91342.. 



Jony, 1630.. 
Jouv, 812... 
Petersen, 4 . 
Ota, Bl. 1995 
Jouy, 1031 .. 
Blakist. 1057 
Jouy, 1032.. 
Jouy, 815 . .. 
Jouy, 1033 . . 
Blakist. 1060 
Ota, Bl. 1990 
Jouy, 1634 .. 
Jouy, 875 . . . 



(cDad, 
d ad., 
d ad.. 
d-A.. 
{d")ail 
d ad.. 
(d")ad 
d- ad.. 
(cDad. 
d ad.. 
d ad. 
(d')ad 
d ad.. 



Locality. 



Nikko, Hondo 

Tato Yarn.', Hondo . 

Yaiuato, Kiusiu 

Tokio, Hondo 

Nikko, Hondo 

Hakodadi, Yezo 

Nikko, Hondo 

Tato \''aiua, Hondo . 

Nikko, Hondo 

Hakodatli, Yezo . . . . 

Toklo, Hondo 

Nikko, Hondo 

Tate Yama, Hondo. 



Date. 



Nov. 28,1882 
Dec. 13, 1885 



Feb. 15,1873 
Nov.' 28,' 1882 
Feb.' "I'e" 1873 



Dec. 17, 



Average of 13 males 



U.S. Nat. 91341.. 
Christiania, N . . 



Jouy, 816 ...j 
Petersen, 27i 



9 ad.. 
? ad.. 



Tate Yama, Hondo I Nov. 28, 1882 

Shimbon, Kiusiu Feb. 14, 1886 



9.5' 17 
10 I 17 

9 ! 17 

9.5 17 
10 1 18 

9.5 18 



9 

10 

9 I 
10 
10 I 

9.5 



62 9.5:17.5 



61 i 9 117.5 

60 1 9.5i 18 



I liave before me, as will be seen by the above table, 13 male Japanese 
Bullfiuches, which, for convenience' sake, I shalUlesiguateiu the follow- 
ing by their current numbers. Arranged in a row, from Xo. 1 to Xo. 13, 
they form an uninterrupted series from the most extreme P. rosacea to the 
grayest P. griseivenh'is, the intergradation being in every respect per- 
fect. From 'So. 1 to ISTo. 10 the red " flush " is visible on the wider parts, 



108 NORTHERN PAL^ARCTIC BULLFlXCnES. 

grading iuseusibly from a somewhat grayish " burnt carmine" down to 
a just perceptible red wash over the deep cinereous gray. On the hack 
the burnt carmine tint is deeper in Xo. 2 than in Xo. 1, and from these 
gradually fading until Xo. 7, which shows the last trace of red on the 
upper parts. 

It is impossible for me to draw a line anywhere in this series, but, 
judging from Mr. Seebohm's original description (Ibis, 1882, p. 371), 
where he particularly enlarges on the red color of the back, I presume 
that he would refer the lirst six ones to P. rosacea. If we now look at 
the localities given in the above table, it will be seen that among the 
six first numbers are specimens from Kiusiu, Hondo, and Yezo, conse- 
quently, from the three principal islands and from both sides of " Blak- 
iston's Line ;" it is also clear that true P. griseiventris occurs both south 
and north of that line. 

It may be said, however, that the above series proves but little geo- 
graphically, since all the specimens are probably winter birds ; that 
there would be nothing surprising in finding F. griseiventris migrating 
south to Hondo during the cold season; and that even the appearance 
of a true and typical P. rosacea from Hakodadi at that time of the year 
is of little importance. 

I find, however, in the manuscript notes which Captain Blakiston 
kindly placed at my disposal, several remarks which are of some con- 
sequence in the present connection, for it is evident that Xo. of the 
above table (Blakiston's Xo. 1U57) is by no means the only specimen 
from Yezo with red on the back. Here are Captain Blakiston's remarks : 
" Xo. 10.J7 [the one in U. IS. Xational Museum just alluded toj, S , Feb- 
ruary, Hakodate, Jiush on bacl-j represented in Hakodate Museum by 
Xo. 772, Hakodate, October, which has slight flush on back, and Xo. 
1952, Hakodate, May, good deal flush on back." Judging from the 
Avording, the latter specimen must be something like Xo. 2 of my 
table above, and having been obtained at Hakodadi in May, it goes a 
long way to prove that locality has nothing to do with the presence or 
absence of red on the back or its greater or lesser intensity generally.* 

I have carefully gone over my whole series in order to ascertain 
whether there might not be any other characters possibly distinctive of 

* Since the above was submitted for publication I learn from an article in the 
Ibis, 18d7, p. 101, that Mr. Seebohm, whose type specimens of F. romceu came from 
Yokohama, now considers this bird peculiar to Yezo and the opposite portion of the 
Siberian mainland. Unfortunately I have onlj' one very gray F. (irisciventris from 
Hakodadi to disprove this, and Blakiston's manuscript notes do not assist me in 
this case, except that he mentions a Sapporo specimen without "Hush" on the back. 
That Blakiston's notes prove nothing in this respect is due to the fact, however, that 
he only made notes in regard to the red siiecinieus from Yezo, and not to the common 
gray ones, which seem to be much more common. He who for twenty years had col- 
lected in Yezo, was under the same impression as I, that F. rosacea was intended for 
a supposed southern race. Nothing could prove more conclusively how worthless is 
the claiui of F. rosacea to be regarded otherwise than a phase of the gray bird. 



1887.] PKOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 109 

two races, but have so far failed. It will be seen that there are only 
two females in the collection, and inasmuch as the females of F. piirrhula 
and its races and nearest allies seem to show greater differences than the 
males, there might still be some doubt iu regard to the Japanese spe- 
cies, but in describing F. rosacea Mr. Seebohm informs us {I. c.) that the 
females of the latter '• do not apparently ditfer IVoai those of P. orien- 
talis'^ [ = P- griseiventris]. 

Messrs. Blakiston and Pryer {U.cc.) have already shown that there is 
no diflerence in size, and my measurements fully substantiate their con- 
clusions. 

Mr. Dresser (B. of Eur., lY, p. 100) speaks of having "examined sev- 
eral specimens [of P. cincracea = cassini] in the collection of Mr. R. Swin- 
lioe," from Japan, " which ^re as a general rule a little more dull in gen- 
eral coloration than those from Siberia." In this connection it may be 
useful to refer to Swinhoe's own remarks (Ibis, 1871, p. 463) : " On exam- 
ining these specimens [a pair received from Captain Blakiston] lately, 
I observed that the male was typical both in size and color, whereas the 
female was large, and has a wash of Avhite along the web on each side of 
the stem of each outer tail-feather. From this last character I argued 
that I had from Hakodadi a female P. cassini Baird." He also mentions 
having a female from the Kuriles and another one froai Hakodadi, col- 
lected by Whitely, both similarly marked. This white mark has appar- 
ently induced Dresser to regard them as distinct and belonging to P. 
cassini or cineracea. It is now well known, however, that this character 
is utterly worthless, and 1 have, moreover, the assurance of Mr. See- 
bohm, who is the fortunate possessor of the Swinhoe collection, that 
"the alleged skins from Jajian are females of P. orientalist^ (S. iu litte- 
ris).* The white streak on the outer tail-feathers is less common in P. 
griseiventris than in the more northern species, but of the specimens in- 
cluded in my table above it is present iu Nos. 4, 8, 14, and 15. 

I am, therefore, compelled to accept the conclusion arrived at by 
Messrs. Blakiston and Jouy ^Chrysauth., 1883, Feb., p. — , Amend. List 
B. Jap., 1884, pp. G4, 81, and Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VI, 1883, p. 293) 
that P. rosacea is not a valid species or subspecies. Whether it is 
" a highly developed stage of plumage of P. orientalis,^'' in other words, 
whether the gray individuals ever assume thered " flush," I do not know, 
but I am inclined to doubt it It may be a kind of " dichromatism," as 
in the owls, and jirobably also in Acanthis and Carpodacus. Mr. See- 
bohm lays much stress on the " fact that neither of these species [P. 
orientalis and P. major] has any trace of red on the back," but I have 
specimens before me both of P. pyrrhula (U. S. Xat. Mus. No. 98013, $ , 
Bergen, Norway =P. major) and of P. europwa (No. 90601, S , Woolwich, 
England), which have a decided red "flush" on the back, and Nau- 
mann refers to similarly colored specimens as very old birds (Vog. 
Deutschl., IV, p. 386). This tendency of the red color to spread over 

* Cf. bis recent remarks, Ibis^ 1887, pp. 100, 101. 



110 JfORTHERX PAL.EARCTIC BLLLFINCHES. 

the pliiiuage seems, however, more common in the Japanese than in the 
European birds, and is carried to such an extreme that in ifos. 1 and 
2 of my table it also invades the white of the rump with a most delicate 
tinge of light rosy pink. 

No. 1 is even more remarkable, for in this the excess of red color goes 
so far as to break down a character which has always been relied upon 
as distinctive of the Japanese species, viz, the absence of red on the 
inner tertial. In this bird the red spot on this feather is very distinct 
and large, and even the large upper wing-coverts are edged exteriorly 

■with red. 

Pyrrhula kurilensis Sharpe. 

ISoO.—Pyrrhula orkntaJis'SliDDEyDORFF,M6m. Acail. Imp. St. Petersb. Sc. Nat., VIII. 

p. 124. — SwiNHOE, Ibis, 1874, p. 463. — Blakist. & Pryeu, Tr. As. Soc. 

Jap., X, 1882, p. 176 (part). 
1887.— Pyrrhula kurilensis Shaupe, fide Seebobin, Ibis, 1687, p. 101. 
It87. — Pyrrhula orieniaUs kurilensis Seebohm, Ibis, 1887, p. 101. 

No specimen of this, the latest discovery among the Pyrrhida% has 
yet come under ray observation, but I am indebted to Mr. E. B. Sharpe 
for the following account of this species, or subspecies, which he had 
the kindness to communicate to me in a letter dated November 12, 
1886: 

'■^ Adult male. — Similar to P. orientalis^hnt much paler in color, being- 
pale ashy-brown above, instead of blue-gray, and pale drab-brown be- 
low, instead of bluish gray, but faintly tinged with rosy on the breast. 
Total length, 5.3 inches [135"'"'] ; culmen, 0.45 [11.5] ; wing, 3.5 [89] ;tail, 
2.6 [66] ; tarsus, 0.7 [18]. 

'''■Adult female. — Not to be distinguished from the female of P. orien- 
talis. Total length, 6 inches [152'""'] ; culmen, 0.4 [10] ; wing, 3.25 [83] ; 
tail, 2.45 [62] -, tarsus, 0.7 [18] {Mus. H. Seebohm). 

" We have a male from the Kurile Islands and Seebohme has a pair 
collected by Wossnessensky." 

Wossnessenski, according to Middendorff, found the Bullfinch on 
Urup during May and August, and according to Blakiston and Pryer 
it is " very numerous on Eturop in September." It may be looked for 
in Yezo during the winter months.* 

» In order to bring the subject up to date (of proof correction) I may add, that Mr. 
Seebohm in his article in the Ibis, 1887, p. 101, has separated an eastern form of P. 
cineracea as P. c. pallida. It is distinguished by having the wing-band gray, the sides 
of the head almost white, and by being paler on the under parts generally. This 
form hails from the Altai Mountains and from the valley of the Ussuri. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. Ill 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF PORZANA FROM COSTA 

RICA. 

By ROBERT RIDOVI'AV. 

Porzana alfari, sx). uov. 

Sp. chak. — Similar to P. albigularis Lawr., but darker, with the black 
bars ou tiauks, &c., much broader, aud the white interspaces corre- 
spondiugl^" narrower. 

Adult female (specimen in " Coleccion del Museo Nacional de Costa 
Eica," Las Trojas, Pacific coast, February, 188G). — Pileum deep bistre- 
brown, becoming- lighter and more of an umber tint along the hind neck; 
rest of upper parts deep bistre anteriorl}^, deepening gradually into 
blackish brown posteriorly, the tail almost black. Sides of head, neck, 
aud breast cinnamon-rufous, most intense laterally, much paler along 
the middle line, the chin and throat being almost white. Lores dull 
light grayish brown, bordered above by a very indistinct rusty streak 
on each side of forehead ; ear-coverts tinged with grayish brown. En- 
tire sides. Hanks, thighs, under tail-coverts, anal region, and belly dis- 
tinctly and regularly barred with black and white, the bars^of the latter 
color everywhere much narrower than those of the former. Bill dusky 
olive-greenish ; legs and feet olive-blackish. Length (skin), 5.50 inches; 
wing, 3.00; culmeu, 0.70; tarsus, 1.20; middle toe, 1.25. 

EemarTcs. — This new species is most nearly related to P. albigularis 
Lawe., of which there are two specimens, from the Isthmus of Panama, 
before me. In the very broad black bars of the lower parts, however, it 
is much more like P. cinereiceps Lawr., from Talamanca, but the latter 
ditters consi)icuously in the color of the head. These three species, to- 
gether with P. leucogastra Eidgw., from Nicaragua (Los Sabalos), may 
be distinguished as follows: 

a'. Head without any gray. 

6^ Belly and anal region white ; the black bars on adjacent portion of sides nar- 
rower than the white interspaces; uj^per parts paler aud more rusty. Hab., 
Isthmus Panama P. aJbiguIaris Lawr.' 

5^ Belly aud anal region heavily barred with black, the black bars everywhere 
broader than the white interspaces ; upper parts darker, more sooty. Hab. 

Costa Kica (Las Trojas) P. alfari Kidgw.-* 

a^. Head partly gray. 

6-. Breast entirely deep rufous; throat pale rufous, approaching white onlj' on chin. 
Eab. Costa Rica (Talamanca) P. cinereiceps Lawr.^ 

¥. Breast white, tinged with cinnamon, passing into pale cinnamon-rufous on 
cheeks, the throat again white. Hab., Nicaragua (Los Sabalos, Atlantic 
side) P. leucogastra EiDGW.^ 

^Corethrura albigularis Lawr., Ann. Lye. N. Y., vii, 1861, 302.— Forzana albigularis 
Sol. & Salv., P. Z. S., 1867, '280. 
^New species. 

^Porzana cinereiceps LAwai., Ann. Lye. N. Y., xi, Feb., 1875, 90. 
*Porzana leucogastra Ridgw., Proc. U. S.Nat. Mus., vi, Apr. 11, 1884, 408. 



NOTES ON ARDEA WUERDEMANNI BAIRD. 
Ity KOItfl^KT a£II><;\VAV. 

Haviug been euabled to examine eiyljt additional examples of this 
little-kuowu bird, 1 desire to ofl'er the tollo\vin<;- remarks concerning 
tbem : — 

Three of the specimens in question are the property of the National 
Museum, having- been purchased from Mr. R. C. Stuart, of Tampa, Fla. 
Four were kindly loaned for examination by Mr. Charles B. Cory, of 
Boston, and one was furnished for the same purpose by Mr. Stuart. All 
were obtained by Mr. Stuart in December, 1880, on the keys near Cape 
Sable. 

With a single exception (to be particularly noted further on), they all 
closely resemble the type specimen obtained about thirty years ago 
near Cape Sable by Mr. G. Wiirdemanu, differing only in unimportant 
details of coloration, as follows: 

(a) Xo. 110210, Nat. Mus., adult male. Dusky streaks on forehead 
much less distinct and less numerous, and black streaks on fore-neck 
also smaller and sparser; lower parts immaculate white, except on 
breast, which is broadly streaked, as in the type; thighs i)aler cinna- 
mon-rusty ; bluish gray of upper parts and ecru-drab of neck also de- 
cidedly paler * 

(6) No. 110211, Nat. Mus., adult female. Very much like the preced- 
ing, but neck still paler and much tinged with rusty in middle portion, 
and forehead and fore-neck more broadly and conspicuously streaked, 
almost exactly as in the type; shoulder-tufts or "epaulets" much more 
broadly striped with white, and with the black portions partly replaced 
on some feathers by rusty ; middle line of belly striped with black, as 
in type ; longer lower tail-coverts marked near tip with a pair of oblong 
spots or broad streaks (one on each web) of dusky slate. 

(c) No. 8010, coll. C. B. Cory, adult female. Forehead immaculate 
white, and crown with only a few indistinct streaks, but sides of occiput 
marked with a few blackish broad streaks or dashes ; lower i)arts almost 
immaculate white, there beiug only a few narrow streaks of dark slaty 
brown on the breast. 

{(l) No. 8011, coll. C. B. C, adult male. Exactly like the type, except 
that on each side of theoccii)ut there is a i)atch of blackish (somewhat 
broken by white streaks), about l.oO inches in length by .50 wide at 
broadest part. 

* The type (litters from all other speciuieus examined in clecitledly darker color of 
the neck, and darker, dingier color of back, wings, etc. The si»ecimen is very old, 
however, and it is very likely that these peculiarities in coloration are more or less 
due to the suli'usion of grease from the skin. 
11-2 



ItieT] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 113 

{€) Xo. 8009, 0. B. C, adult male. Similar to type, but forehead more 
thickly streaked with blackish, the latter formiug almost a patch cover- 
iug median portiou of forehead; sides of crown aud occiput SDeckled or 
touched with dusky brownish ; thighs paler cinnamon, and cinnamon 
on edge of wing also paler. 

(/) No. 8012, C. B. C, adult male. Head and under surface of body 
as in type ; thighs much paler cinnamon, almost cinnamon-buff on inner 
side. 

{g) Specimen belonging to E. C. Stuart, Tampa, Fla. In coloration 
similar to specimen a, but neck paler, with color grading more gradually 
into white anteriorly, the black streaks down fore-neck rather larger; 
thighs colored as in specimen b. The two longer under tail-co\ erts with 
an oblong blotch or spot of black near tip ; the lower parts are almost 
entirely white, there being a few very faint narrow streaks of grayish 
on belly and broader streaks or stripes of brownish gray (not black) on 
breast. There is a slight tinge of light rusty on neck, but much less 
distinct than in si)ecimen b. » 

{h) No. 110G67, Nat. Mus., adult male. This is clearly intermediate 
between A. wuerdemanni and A. wardi and may possibly be a hybrid 
between the two. The forehead and middle of crown, also long occip- 
ital feathers, are immaculate white ; the longest occipital plume, how- 
ever, is black, except for about 2 inches of its terminal portion ; the 
sides of the crown aud occiput are black, forming a nearly uniform 
space about 2^ inches long by half an inch wide at widest part; the 
epaulets are black, many of the feathers, however, streaked medialy 
with white or with much of the basal portion white. The lower parts 
are chiefly immaculate white, as in specimen c, but the sides are chiefly 
black. 

It would thus appear that leaving out the specimen last described, 
which may be a hybrid, the characters of A. wuerdemanni are not only 
very pronounced but also fairly constant. They may be briefly stated 
as follows : 

(1) Head entirely white, excepting (usually) dusky or blackish streaks 
on forehead or median jjortion of the crown, but even these sometimes 
absent. 

(2) Shoulder-tufts or epaulets broadly striped with white, aud with 
black portions of the feathers sometimes partially replaced by rusty. 

(3) Lower parts chiefly white, sometimes only the breast being 
streaked with dusky. 

(4) Lowermost middle (and sometimes greater) wing coverts marked 
with a median streak of white (this sometimes occupying a consider- 
able portion of the outer web). 

(5) Outer pair of tail-feathers with a well-defined wedge-shaped mark 
occupying basal half (approximately) of outer web. 

Placing a large series of A. herodias, A. icardi, and A. louerdemanni 
in a row, in the order named, it is seen at a glance that the first two 
Proe. N. M. 87 8 



114 NOTES ON ARDEA WUERDEMANNI. 

agree iu the darker, more plumbeous, shade of the gray, that of the 
last uamed being of a much lighter or more ashy shade; herodias ami 
wardi agr^e also in the pattern of coloration of the head (which has the 
whole forehead and center of crown immaculate pure white, the occiput 
and sides of crown to considerably in front of the eye deep black) ; in 
having the epaulets or shoulder-knots entirely black (or, rarely, nar- 
rowly streaked with white), and in having the lower wing-coverts uni- 
form gray ; in having the breast, belly, and anal region black, striped 
with white, chiefly along the median line. A. ivucrdemaimi , on the 
other hand, has the head white,^usually more or less streaked on the 
forehead with black or dusky, and sometimes, though very rarely, with 
more or less of a blackish patch or space on sides of crown, beneath edge 
of the crest, all the feathers of which are white ; the snoulder-knots are 
broadly striped with white, and tinged more or less with rusty ; the 
lowermost wing-coverts (near edge of wing) have more or less of their 
outer webs white and are often tinged with rusty ; the breast, belly, 
and anal region are white, the last entirely so and the other two streaked 
or narrowly striped with black or brownish gray, even these markings 
being sometimes wanting. I have never seen in specimens of herodias 
or icardi any tinge or admixture of rusty on the sides of the neck, which 
is frequently seen in wuerdetnanni, nor is the white wedge-shaped space 
on basal portion of outer web of outer tail-feather nearly so extensive, 
if, indeed, it be at all developed. 

What relationship Ardea wuerdemanni bears to A. occidentalis and A. 
icardi the material examined does little toward elucidating. It would 
seem to be a permanent form, however, and, if not a color-phase of A. 
occidentalis, is probably a distinct species. It has been met with by Mr. 
C. J. Maynard, who, in his "Birds of Eastern North America"* (pp. 
407, 408), mentions it as follows: 

"The Florida Herons have long been a puzzle to ornithologists, but 
that such a species exists is now proved beyond a doubt, though they 
are far from being common, and are, I believe, restricted to the Florida 
Keys, or, at best, are mere stragglers on the mainland ; but I do not 
think that a well-authenticated specimen has ever been taken there, 
those which are considered this species being merely Great Blue Herons, 
with dark streaks on the forehead for at least two instances of this 
kind have come under my notice. Some writers on the subject are 
inclined to dispose of the Florida Herons by considering them merely 
a plumage of the Great White, but I greatly fear that such conclusions 
rest too much upon purely theoretical grounds. It is true that it has 
been alleged that birds of both species have been found in one nest, 

* The Birds | of | Eastern North America; | with original descriptions | of all the 
species which occur | East of the Mississippi Rivei-, | between the | Arctic Circle and 
the Gulf of Mexico, | with full notes upon their habits, etc., j by | C. J. Maynard; | 
containing | Thirty-two plates drawn en stone by the Author. | Revised edition. | New- 
tonville, Mass.: I C. J. Maynard & Co. | 1881. | [Quarto; title-page, pp. iii-iv, 1— 
532, 3 colored steel plates, 29 colored lithographic plates.] 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 115 

and without doubt this is a fact; yet it proves nothing, unless, indeed, 
the nestlings were too small to go about much, for any one who is 
familiar with Florida heronries knows that the young birds leave the 
nest almost as soon as fledged, and walk over the branches, and if sud- 
denly surprised will squat in the nearest nest. I was once ujion an 
island, during the last week in April, which was covered with a dense 
growth of high mangroves and buttonwood, on which Great Blue 
Herons, Florida and Great White were breeding ; but I did not find the 
young mixed at all, simply because they were too small to move about, 
but this might not have been the case two weeks later. The flight 
of this fine Heron resembles that of the Great Blue, being regular with* 
each flapi^ing of the wings, greatly prolonged. They breed on the Keys 
and, I think, always prefer high trees." 

Mr. Maynard apparently collected several specimens, since he gives 
average and extreme measurements, as quoted below; but what be- 
came of them I do not know. He also found nests and eggs, which he 
describes as follows : 

^^Nests placed on trees and composed of sticks, somewhat loosely 
arranged. Uggs^ two or three in number, varying from ellii^tical to oval 
in form, pale bluish green in color, unspotted. Dimensions from 1.80 
by 2.60 to 1.85 by 2.90." 

He gives measurements as follows : 

"Average measurements of specimens from Florida: Length, 49.50; 
stretch, 74.50 ; wing, 20.50 ; tail, 7.75 ; bill, 6.50 ; tarsus, 8.25. Longest 
specimen, 50.00; greatest extent of wing, 75.00; longest wing, 21.00; 
tail, 8.00 ; bill, 7.00 ; tarsus, 8.25. Shortest specimen, 48.00 ; smallest 
extent of wing, 74.00 ; shortest wing, 20.00 ; tail, 7.50 ; bill, 5.95 ; tar- 
sus, 7.95." 

In the same work (page 409) he says that A. occidentalis was found 
by him on the Florida Keys in great abundance, one small key being 
" comi>letely covered with their nests." Yet " they were all snowy white, 
not a colored specimen of any species being among them ; nor were 
there any among the young left behind, for I carefully examined every 
nest, as they were all built low." 

Measurements of the specimens examined, including the type, are as 
follows : 



Mu- 
seum 
No. 



8690* 
110210 
110211 
8009 
8010 
8011 
8012 



Collection. 



Nat. Mus 
....dc... 
...do .... 

C.B.C... 
....do .... 

...do .... 
....do .... 

R.C.S... 



Sex 
and 



Locality. 



cfaa. 
d-ad. 
$ad. 
rfad. 
?ad. 
rfad. 
9 ad. 
ad. 



"South Florida" 
Near Cape Sable. 

do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

....do 



Date. Wing. 



Dec. — , 
Dec. — , 
Dec. — 
Dec. — 
Dec. — , 
Dec. — , 
Dec. 



21.00 
19.00 
19.00 
19.00 

18. 75 
20.00 

19. 00 
20.00 



Average ; 19. 47 

" Type. 







Depth 




Tail. 


Cul- 


of bill 


Tar- 


men. 


at 


sus. 






base. 




8.00 


6.45 


1.25- 


8.00 


7.00 


6.05 


1.20 


7.70 


7.20 


6.40 


1.30 


8.00 


7.15 


6.00 


1.20 


7.35 


6.25 


5.80 


1.22 


7.40 


7.50 


6.55 


1.28 


8.75 


7.50 


.5.75 


1.20 


7.30 


7.30 


0.70 


1.28 


8.40 


7.24 


6.00 


1.24 


7.77 



Mid- 
dle 
toe. 



4.80 
4.50 
4.80 
4.60 
4.30 
5.20 
4.20 
4.95 

4.79 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF OPHICHTHYS (OPHICHTHYS 
RETROPINNIS\ FROM PENSACOLA, FLA. 

By CARL. H. ElOENIUAIVN. 

Ophichthys retropinnis, sp. nov. 

This species is most nearly related to 0. ocellatiis and 0. guttifer. It 
can be distinguished from these and all other described American spe- 
cies of Ophichthys by the posterior insertion of the dorsal fin. 
' Head pyramida.l, flattened above, tapering from the occiput to the 
pointed snout. Moutli very large, the cleft about 3 in head. A single 
series of irregular teeth in the mandible, those forward larger; two 
small canines behind this series in front. ^Nlaxillaries with two distinct 
series of smaller teeth ; premaxillaries with a single series of teeth. 
Vomer with about 15 teeth, the first two side by side, the others in a 
single series; the third (first in single series) largest. Eye elongate, 
rather large, 1^ in snout, equal to the interorbital width. Gill-opening 
5 in head. Pectorals well developed (measured from the upper margin 
of their base to the tip of the longest ray), 2J in the distance from the 
snout to their base. Dorsal inserted 1^ length of pectorals behind the 
tips of the pectorals ; the distance from its insertion to the gill-opening 
slightly more than length of head. Head 9 in length. 

Color faded in spirits, apparently light olivaceous, with about 20 ob- 
long dark blotches along the median line of the body and tail ; the in- 
terspaces between these, each a round pale spot about as large as eye ; 
the dark spots about twice as long ; a dark bar behind cheek ; a black 
point below middle of eye ; three points in a vertical series behind eye 
and three on top of the head ; one a little behind the vertical series of 
spots and one above the posterior part of each eye. 

A single specimen taken from the stomach of some other fish was 
sent by Mr. Silas Stearns to the museum of the Indiana University and 
has now been deposited in the U. S. National Museum. (No. 3805i.) 

Length, 20§ (9j| + 11^) inches ; distance from snout to dorsal, 5J inches. 

Indiana University, February 12, 1887. 

116 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 117 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE COMMANDER 

ISLANDS. 

No. 7 — Revised and Annotated Catalogue of the Birds inhabiting the Com- 
mander Islands. 

Ry I.EONHARD STO JIVEOER. 

(With three plates. ) 

Considerable material has accumulated since the author published 
his "Eesults of Ornithological Explorations in Kamtschatka and the 
Commander Islands" (U. S. Nat. Mus. Bulletin, No. 29), which has in- 
duced him to prepare the present catalogue. Several species new to 
the fauna have been added, and many doubtful points have been dis- 
cussed in view of recent accessions to the museum collections. The 
"conclusions" to be drawn will form another number of these "Con- 
tributions." 

In regard to the following catalogue it may be remarked that the 
nomenclature and arrangement is that of my "Eesults," &c.; the first 
number preceding the specific name is the running number of the spe- 
cies in this catalogue ; the number in parenthesis is the number of the 
species in the Synopsis of the Birds of Kamtschatka ("Kesults," pp.313- 
331); the figure following the specific name indicates the page on which 
the species is treated of in detail in the "Kesults." The designations 
of colors reter to Eidgway's " Nomenclature of Colors." The measure- 
ments are in millimeters. 

COLYMBOIDE^. 

1 (1). Colymbus holbcellii (Reinh.) 11. 

A rare straggler. One specimen obtained on Bering Island Novem- 
ber 24, 1882. 

2 (2). Colymbus auritus Lin. 14. 
Eare straggler. 

ALCOIDE.E. 

3 (3). Urinator adamsii (Gray) 14. 
Winter visitor only ; rather rare. 

4 (4). Urinator arcticus (Lin.) 313. 

By Taczanowski and Dybowski given as inhabiting Bering Island 
(Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1884, Extr. p. 3). It may occur during the mi- 
grations only; in 1883, however, 1 was told of a "Bolschoj Gagara" 
breeding at the Ladiginskij Lake, but I did not see it myself, nor did 
the natives succeed in killing a specimen of wbat may possibly have 
been this species. 



118 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 

5 (■')). Urinator lumme (Guxx.) IJj. 

Very common resident on Bering Island. Breeds aVso on Copper 
Island. 

6 a lomvia arra (Pall.) 17. 

Common summer resident on both islands. 

7 (7). Uria troile californica (Bryant) 20. 
Sparingly among the foregoing species. 

8 (8). Cepphus columba (Pall.) 21. 

Common summer resident on both islands. 

9 (9). Cepphus carbo Pall. 21. 

Occasional (?) during the spring migration. Two pairs were observed 
by me on Bering Island April 28, 1883. 

10 (12). Synthliboramphus antiquus (Gm.) 23. 

Breeds on both islands, but more numerous on Copper Island. Win- 
ters probably ou the open sea, not very distant, since a few were ob- 
served and one shot at Bering Island in the beginning of January, 
1883. 

11 (13). Simorhynchus pygmaeus (Gm.) 23. 

As the foregoing species. Quite a number were observed and shot 
at Bering Island in December and January. 

12 (14). Simorhynchus cristatellus (Pall.) 32. 

A regular but not very numerous summer resident of both islands, 
wintering like the foregoing species. 

13 (15). Simorhynchus pusillus (Pall.) 35. 

I only met with this species on Bering Island in winter. Dybowski's 
statement of it nesting there is very doubtful. He also asserts that he 
has collected, or observed, it on Copper Island, but I am unable to either 
confirm or deny this statement. (Dyb. & Tacz., Bull. Soc. Zool. Fr., 
1884, Extr. p. 3.) 

14 (10). Cerorhinca monocerata (Pall.) 331. 

182Q.—Alca monocerata Pallas, Zoogr. Ross. As., II, p. SG'Z.—Ceratorlnjncha Cassix, 
Perry's Exped. Jap., II, p. 233 (1857).— SwiNH., P. Z. S., 1863, p. 330.— /rf., 
Ibis, 1874, p. 166.— Whitely, Ibis, 1867, p. 209.— Blakist. aud Pryer, Ibis, 
1878, p. 211.— lid., Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 180.— lid., ibid., X, 1882, 
p, 92.— Blakist., Amend. List B. Jap., p. 32 (18Si).— Simorhynchus m., 
SCHLEG., Mus. P. B.jUrin., p. 26 (1867).- Cerorhinavi., Dall and Bannist., 
Tr. Cbicag. Acad., I, 1869, p. 309.— Taczan., J. f. Orn., 1876, p. 203.— /rf., 
Orn. Fauii. Vest. Sibir., p. 74 (1877).— Irf., Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1877, p. 
52,— Ceror/iincam., STEJNEGEK,Re8.0rn.Explor.Kamt8cb., pp. 314,331 (1885). 

1827.— Pluihris cerorhynca Bonap., Zool. Journ., Ill, 1827 (p. 53). 

IS28.— Cerorhinca occidentalis Bonap., Ann. Lye. N. Y., IV, 1828 (p. 428). 

IS29. — Chimcrina corvuta Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, III (p. 2, pi. 12).— Dybowski, 
Sitzb. Dorpat Natiirf. Ges., 1881, p. —.—Id., Orn. Centralbl., 1882, p. 28. 

l8■.^7. —Ccrorhina orientalis Brandt, Bull. Scientif., II, 1837, p. 348. 

1849.— Alca monoceros Temm. & Schleg., Faun. Japon. Av. (p. 140). 

1858.— Cerorhina snckleyi Cassin, in Baird's B. N. Am., p. 906. 



1887 ] PKOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 110 

A year or two before my arrival at Beriug Island Mr. X. Grebnitzki 
obtaiued two specimens, in the early part of spring, from the outlying- 
islet Arij Kamen. One of these he sent to the museum at Irkutzk, where 
it afterwards was destroyed by the great fire, while the other was pre- 
sented to Dr. Dybowski. It is this specimen the latter alludes to when 
he speaks of having found this species nesting on the Commander 
Islands, a generalization which does not seem to be warranted by the 
facts, the more so as the bird is wholly unknown to the natives. It can 
hardly be regarded as more than an accidental visitor. ISone were seen 
or captured during my stay. 

Curiously enough Messrs. Taczanowoski and Dybowski have dropped 
the species altogether in their latest list. {Cf. Stejneger, Ees. Ornith. 
Expl. Kamtsch., p. 331.) 

15 (17). Cyclorrhynchuspsittaculus (Pall.) 38. 

Common summer resident on both islands. Not observed in winter. 

16 (18). Lunda cirrhata Pall. 43. 

Breeds in great quantities on both islands, but particularly numer- 
ous on Beriug Island. In winter, occasionally after severe gales, a few 
specimens are found cast up on the beaches. 

17 (19). Fratercula corniculata (Naum.) 59. 

Like the foregoing, but much less numerous. 

LAROIDE^. 

18 (20). Larus glaucescens (Naum.) 02. 

A common summer resident on both islands, but particularly numer- 
ous on Copper Island. The L. glaucus reported by Dybowski and 
Taczanowski as observed or collected on Bering Island (B. S. Z. F. 
1884, Extr. p. 3) may possibly be this species. 

19 (22). Larus schistisagus Stejn. 67. 

Only a few flocks observed, and one specimen shot on Bering Island 
during the latter part of April and the beginning of May. This species 
does not breed on the islands. 

When first describing this species (Auk, 1884, p. 231) and preparing 
the manuscript for my "Orn. Expl. Kamtsch." (pp. 67-73), 1 had speci- 
mens only of Larus mariuus, argentatus, cachimians, and orientalis for 
comparison. The National Museum, since then, has received from Mr. 
Howard Saunders three good specimens of Lams affinis Reinh., a ma- 
terial sufficiently ample to prove beyond dispute that L. schistisagus and 
L. affinis are entirely different. 

The fact that we have now four adult specimens, and one nearly so, of 
L. schistisagus, all agreeing as to the essential characters, at once dis- 
poses of the doubt expressed by Mr. Seebohm that it may be "an acci- 
dental variety" of X. affinis (Br. B. Eggs, III, p. 324). 

In regard to size, the specimens at hand would indicate that L. schisti- 
sagus is considerably larger than L. affinis. It should be remarked, how- 
ever, that the only L, schistisagus, which is sexed, is a male, while two L. 



120 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 

ajffinis are marked as females ; it may be, therefore, that all the specimeus of 
the former are males, and the latter all females. A glauee at Dr. Fiusch's^ 
table of measurements (Verb. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1879, p. 208) shows 
that there is not so very great difference between the sexes, although the 
average of his five males is larger than that of my tliree specimens. 
While it thus remains to be seen whether L. schistisagus really is larger 
than L. affinis there is one character to be derived from the measure- 
ment which at once separates the two, viz, the shortness of the middle 
toe of the latter as compared with the tarsus. In L. schistisagus tarsus and 
middle toe, with claw, are practically of equal length (average differ, 
ence, 1.5°""; maximum, 3""°), while in L. apnis the former is much longer 
than the latter (average, 12"'" = ^ inch; maximum, 14"""; minimum, 
Qmiu^ That this difference is not accidental and due to the scantiness 
of the material is clear from the fact that we find the same proportion 
in the seven specimens measured by Finsch, and in a specimen meas- 
ured by Meves.* In the five males as given by Finsch the average dif- 
ference is 14'^^ ; maximum, 17""™; minimum, 12™°^. It is possible that 
Finsch's measurements do not include the claw; but, on the other hand, 
I am not certain whether he measures the tarsus in front or from the 
side, and in the latter case his measurements would agree very nearly 
with mine. Even granting that the length of the tarsus as given by 
him is that of its greatest dimension, and adding the length by which 
the claw extends beyond the toe, the average difference between toe 
with claw and tarsus would not fall much short of lO™'", while L. schis- 
tisagus, in having the tarsus and middle toe of equal length, agrees with 
L. argentatus and L. cachinnans. 

There is a decided difference in the color of the soft parts of the two 
species. As will be seen from my notes (Oru. Fxpl. Kamtsch, pp. 6S, C9) 
in L. schistisagus the eyelids are " reddish violet gray," the angle ot 
mouth pale yellow, and the feet flesh color of a rather deep reddish hue. 
All observers of L. affinis agree that its eyelids are orange-red and the 
feet yellow. Mr. Seebohm (Ibis, 1876, p. 452) says: "Like both these 
species [L. cachinnans and L. fuscus] it has yellow legs, and the circle 
round the eye is brilliant vermilion, or the color of a Seville orange. 
* * * In winter, no doubt, the legs lose their yellow color and become 
grayish white, but the orange-red eyelid is retained." In the Ibis for 
1879, p. 162, the same author speaks of it as ''this yellow-legged Her- 
ring-gull." Meves (Oefv. Sv. Yet. Akad. Handl., 1871, p. 786) describes 
the bird shot by him as having " the feet of a beautiful lemon-yellow 
color, as in Lams fuscus,''' and " the angle of mouth and eyelids orange- 
red." Dr. Finsch (op. cit., p. 269) states that his No. 513 had the " eyelids 
vermilion, legs dirty ocher-yellow;" in Xo. 510 the eyelids were minium 
red, and the legs orange ocher-yellow. The colors of the soft parts, con- 
sequently, differ iu the two species even more than those of L. argentatus 

* Cf. also Saunders's remark, P. Z. S., 1878, p. 172, to the effect that the foot of L. 
affinis as compared with the tarsus is smaller than that of either L. argentatus, L. 
cachinnans, or L. occklentalia. 



16d7.J PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 121 

proper, and tbe Mediterranean Herring-gull, L. cachinnans, or whatever 
its proper name may be.* That the flesh-color of the legs in the bird col- 
lected by me was not an individual variation is evident from the fact 
that I shot and examined two additional specimens in which the color 
was the same, and through my biuocle I was able to make out that the 
feet of the birds I only saw were similarly colored. The skins which 
I afterwards received from Petropaulski were quite fresh, and the 
color of the legs was a dark reddish violet-gray, a color they would never 
have assumed had they ever been yellow. Von Schrenck obtained old 
males, undoubtedly belonging to this species, at the Lower Amur in the 
latter part of May, and he also describes the legs as flesh -colored (Reis. 
Amurl., I, p. 505). The remarks by Mr. Iloward Saunders (P. Z. S. 
1878, pp. 170 and 172) in regard to the intensity of the colors of the 
soft parts are hardly applicable to the present case, for while L. arf/en- 
tatus, with flesh-colored feet, is northern and L. cachinnans, with yellow 
legs, southern,! X. affinis breeds north of the Polar Circle, while L. schis- 
tisagus breeds as far south as 52'^ north latitude. 

My specimens of L. schistisagus have the mantle just a shade darker 
than any of the three L. affinis. 

The wing pattern of tbe two species is at least as diflerent as that of 
any two species of the group to which they belong, although nearly 
agreeing in regard to the absence of a gray wedge on the outer web of 
the first three primaries. On the fourth primary my specimens of L. 
affinis have a very abruptly-defined wedge in the outer web, while in the 
type specimen of L. schistisagus the whole web is black ; but as No. 
106625 in this respect resembles L. affinis, this difference in the pattern 
of the fourth primary (shown in our figures, pi. viii) is of no account. 

In the first primary the size of the inner gray wedge is much greater 
in L. schistisagus than in L. affinis, and the white at the tip appears to be, 
on the whole, more extended. 

In the second primary the gray wedge in L. schistisagus goes farther 
forwards ; a large white mirror is found in the black, and the white 

* Mr. Dresser (B. of Eur., VlII, p. 418) rejects Pallas's name for this bird, and calls 
it L. leuco}}h(eus,hskSGd upon Bruch's application, in 1853, of the name given by Lichten- 
stein to specimen in the Berlin Museum. In the Isis for 1832, cols. 1107, 1108, there is a 
very good description of the bird by Bruch. He considers it a good species, mentioning 
the dark color of the back, the red eyelids, and the yellow legs as distinguishing 
it from L. argentatus, and proposes to name it after Dr. Michahelles. But he onits 
to do so. In the 10th volume of Naumanu's " Naturgeschichte der Vogel Deutsch- 
lands" (1840), p. 382, the description is repeated, and the name LarnsmichaliellistoTmaUy 
applied to it. Those rejecting cachinifans must adopt L.viichaheUis, for leucoplwus, 
although mentioned by Naumann {I. c), is not described. 

tin regard to the Kola Peninsula '■'■ Larus argentatus," however, Mr. Th. Pleske re- 
marks as follows (Siiug. Vog. Kola-Halbins., II, 188ij, p. 390): "Meiner Ansicht nach 
gehort die Silbermowederlapliindischen Halbinsel nicht zu der Hauptform Larus ar- 
(jentatus, da sie sich von letzterer durch dunkleren Mantel und gelbe Fiisse uuterschei- 
det. Ein von mirmitgebrachtes Exemplar einesalten Vogels .... stimmt mit der Be- 
schreibung von Larus leucophwus Licht. iiberein." It may have been a L. affinis, 
though if he compared it with Dresser's plate (B. Eur., VIII, pi. 602) he could hardly 
confound them. 



122 



BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 



tip is rather large. In No. 106625 the white mirror is much larger than 
in the quill figured, crossing both webs in one wing, and nearly con- 
fluent with the gray wedge. Two specimens of L. affinis are without a 
trace of the white mirror, while only the one figured has a small white 
spot ; the absence of a white mirror seems to be the rule iu this species, 
" and only to be found in very old birds (not one of thirteen breediug- 
birds obtained on the Petchora had it"), according to Saunders (P. Z. S., 
1878, p. 172). 

In the third and fourth primaries of L. schistisagus I find in all speci- 
mens a somewhat unique character, inasmuch as the gray wedge on 
the inner web terminates in a large white mirror, as shown in the fig- 
ure.* In L. apnis there is, at most, a narrow white line separating the 
gray from the black. This strongly marked character of L. schistisagus 
is not due to an extremely old age of the specimens here in question, for 
it is found even in the young bird. No. 101660 is still gray on head and 
belly ; the new slate-colored feathers have nearly all appeared on the 
back, but the wing-coverts are still mostly brownish gray, the tail- 
feathers are blackish towards the end, white at base, mottled with 
brownish-gray, and the bill is dusky, becoming lighter on the basal 
half of the tomia. The primaries (the first two not yet fully out) are 
pale brownish-gray, the outer webs and tips much darker dusky ; iu 
the first one there is a large white mirror on the inner web about 20™°^ 
from the tip ; the second one is without any definite pattern, but the 
third has a gray wedge terminated with white, as in the old bird, but 
more restricted, while on the fourth primary the pattern is stronger de- 
fined and the extent nearly exactly as in the third primary of the adult 
birds. 

The above comparison should be sufiScient to reitiove all doubts as to 
the specific validity of Larus schistisagus, and will, in connection with 
what is said in "Orn. Expl. Kamtsch." under this species, enable the 
student of Eastern Asiatic birds to distinguish the different species of 
the very difiQcult group of Herring-gulls. 

I.-LARUS SCHISTISAGUS: 



1 

1 


Collector 
and No. 


1 
1 
g 


Locality. 


Date. 


a 


2 

"5 


d 

o 

E 

"5 

u 

p. 


o 
P< 

C3 

1 

'Si 


1- 


si 

P3^ 






92886 
101665 


Stejn.,2007 


ad. 
ad. 
ad. 

jun. 


Bering Island 


May 5ri883 


467 
(1) 

440 
(t) 


191 
163 
177 


57 
58 
54 
55 

56 
56 


81 
79 

80 


26 

28 
2fi 


22 
20 
20 
19 


71 
69 
73 
72 


71 
66 


1066'-'5 




(lo 




70 


106624 




do 




76' 26 


71 






Average meas- 
nrenients of 4 
adults. 




83 


26.5 








20 


71 69. 5 


101666 




(t) 


180 


27 22 


76 74 

















♦This feature is not well represented in the previous figure (Orn. Expl, Kamtsch., p. 70, fig. 4, cf. 
tfootuote, p. 362), and a new one is therefore given here (pi. viii). 
tWing molting. 



l--^7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 123 

n.— LARUS AFFINIS. 



6 

-J 


Collector 
and No. 

Seeb , 681 . 

Seeb., 930 . 
Blanf., ... 


o 
y; 

ea 

-a 

§ 

o 

$ad. 

$ad. 
ad. 


Locality. 


Date. 




© 

1 

'3 
H 


a 

o 

a 

1 
p. 


1 

§ 

s 


o 

a 

a 

i 


ll 

mI 


00 

a 

i 


6 
1 


103393 

103391 
103390 


Tnshina, Northeast 

Rnssia. 
Tenisej, Siberia 


June 25, 1875 

July 26, 1877 
Jan. 9, 1875 


425 

440 
420 


160 

163 
159 


49 

51 

49 


68 

70 
71 


22 

21 
25 


16 

16 
16 


68 

71 
67 


59 

60 
53 




Average meas- 
urements of 3 
adults. 








50 


70 


22.7 


16 


68.7 


57 












20 (24). Larus kamtschatchensis (Bp. ) 73. 

A j^oung bird of this species was shot en Bering Island on May 29, 
1883, when I was absent in Petropaulski. It was not observed abont 
the isUmds by me, and does not breed there. 

21 (2.5). Laxus cauus Lixx. 76. 

Apparently < 'uly an occasional visitor, like the foregoing. I shot an 
adult female ou Bering Island November 26, 1882. 

22 (26). Larus ridibundus LiXN. 76. 

Not seen by me, but recorded as occasionally occuring on Bering Isl- 
and on trustworthy testimony. 

When writing the part of my " Orn. Explor. Kamtsch.," I stated 
that I had been unable to compare the eastern bird with specimens from 
Europe. The National Museum has, since then, received a number of 
European birds, and from Capt. Hunter, in Petropaulski, three more 
Kamtschatkan specimens. I have carefully measured the whole series, 
including six specimens from Japan and one from India, and can find 
no difierence in the dimensions of eastern and western birds. The al- 
leged larger size of the eastern birds does not exist, nor can I discover 
any difference in regard to coloration or wing-pattern. 

23 (27). Rissa tridactyla pollicaris Stejn, 78. 

Breeds in immense flocks on both islands. Ou Bering Island it is 
mostly confined to the southern portion. 

24 (28). Rissa brevirostris (Bruch). 82. 

Large colonies on both islands, but on Bering Island only on the 
southeastern coast between Cape Manatee and Peregrobnij Mys. 

(30) 25. sterna camtschatica Pall. 83. 

As already remarked in " Orn. Expl. Kamtsch.," I was wrong in 
originally asserting that this species breeds on Bering Island, the bird 
breeding there being the common Arctic Tern. The Kamtschatkan 
Tern is only an occasional visitor to the islands; two specimens were 
obtained by me in the early summer of 1883. 



124 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 

26 (31). Sterna paradisaea Brukk. 85. 

A few pairs breed regularly- in the northern part of Bering Island. 

27 (;}2). Stercorarius parasiticus (Lixx.) 8t5. 

Rather common in summer, breeding on the tundra. The light phase 
is comparatively rare. 

In 1884 I received from Capt. E. I. Hunter, in Petropaulski, a speci- 
men of the light phase (Nat. Mus., No. 101672), the bill of which is in a 
condition that makes it highly probable that the basal covering, often 
called the "nasal shield" or "cere," is shed periodically in the same 
manner as in the Puffins {Fratercula and Lunda), {cf. Stand. Nat. Hist., 
IV, Birds, 1885, p. 75). Unfortunately no date is given, but judging 
from the condition of the plumage the bird seems to be in autumnal 
dress. In birds which have the "cere" or "nasal cuirass" in per- 
fect condition it covers the entire basal portion of the bill above the 
nostrils and behind the "nail." Comparing the bill of a Stercorarius 
with that of the Tufted Puffin [Lunda cirrhata), (Orn. Expl. Kamtsch., 
pi. i and ii), it will be seen that the "nail" of the former corresponds 
exactly with the red portion of the Puffin's bill, and the "cere" to the 
deciduous green portion of the latter, only that in the Jasger the basal 
part of the bill is proportionally more elongated than in the Puffin. On 
both sides of the broad and somewhat iiatteued culmen the "cere" is 
marked with a well-defined groove, which runs from the frontal feath- 
ering to the "nail" parallel with the culmen, dividing the "cere" into 
three longitudinal pieces, two lateral ones and one median. The lower 
edge of the cere partly overhangs the nostrils, as will be observed if 
one looks through the nostrils towards the light. This normal condi- 
tion is represented in our figure, pi. vii, fig. 1, U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 75206. 

The other figure, pi. vii, fig. 2, U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 101672, represents 
the specimen which is thought to be shedding the "nasal cuirass." {ef. 
Stejneger, Orn. Expl. Kamtsch., p. 49, footnote.) Comparing it with 
the normal bill it will be seen that the median piece, corresponding to 
the "horny casque" of the Tufted Puffin, is raised somewhat from the 
"matrix;" the lateral piece has separated entirely from the " subnasal" 
portion, and on the side not shown in the figure the groove separating 
the lateral and the median piece has also burst open for almost its whole 
length ; the basal part behind the dotted line, in the figure, is dark, 
adhering to the underlying part of the bill, while the anterior part has 
a dull, yellowish, dead color, showing that it has loosened from the layer 
underneath; the front border of the "cuirass" has broken off irregu- 
larly ; the covering of the lower mandible is also in the progress of scal- 
ing off irregularly. In short, the bill presents exactly the same aspect 
as that of numerous specimens of Lunda in the act of shedding the green- 
colored parts, and I entertain no doubt that the process of shedding is 
as regular in the Stercorarii as in the Puffins. If that be the case, the 
"nasal cuirass" would probably be soft and membranous in winter, be- 
come hardened toward the breeding season, remaining thus until the 



1HS7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 125 

shedding in late autumn. There is to my knowledge no direct indica- 
tion in the literature that anybody before has observed such a i^rocess, 
but the various ways in which the authors describe the basal parts point 
toward the probability that the condition of these is not the same at all 
seasons, for we find them described by some as a soft membrane, by others 
as a somewhat hard cere, by others again as a •' horny shield." In look- 
ing over the material at hand I find other specimens apparently in the 
first stage of shedding, notably one from Godhavn, Greenland, collected 
by Governor Fencker, August 15, 1879 (U. S. Nat. Mus. ISo. 79054). 

28 (o3). Stercorarius lougicaudus Vieill. 87. 

An occasional, though by no means uncommon, visitor to the islands 
during the migrations. 

29 (33.i). stercorarius pomarinus (Temm.) 331. 

By Dybowski given as occurring in Bering Island. Probably only 
an occasional straggler. 

PROCELLAEOIDE^. 

30 (34). Diomedea albatrus Pall. 69. 

Quite a number of adult and young Albatrosses visit the sea surround- 
ing the islands during the summer months, the black young ones being 
in the majority, however, the old ones making their appearance as early 
as the middle of March. D. nigripes Aud., does not occur, and those re- 
ported from the islands and Kamtschatka are only the young ones of the 
present species. 

31 (36). Pulmarus glacialis glupischa Stej>\ 91. 

Both the dark and the light phase occur on the islands, the former 
breeding in enormous number on both islands, the latter only in small 
colonies on Copper Island. 

32 (37). Puffinus tenuirostris Temm. 96. 
Xot common, but probably breeding.* 

33 (3rt). Oceanodroma leucorhoa (Vieill.) 97. 
Breeds at Tschornij Mys, Copper Island. 

34 (39). Oceanodroma furcata (Gm.) 98. 

Breeds at the same place as the foregoing ; also indifferent other locali- 
ties in the same island, and doubtless also in Bering Island. A male, 
shot on Bering Island, October 25, 1S84, has been received from Mr. 
Grebnitzki (U. S. Nat. Mus. Xo. 106610; Grebnitzki, No. 200). 

SCOLOPACOIDE.^. 

35 (40). Haematopus osculans Swinh. 100. 
Only occasionally during the migrations. 



" The Mstrolata desolata lueaMoued iu my List of the Birds of Kamtscliatka (Oru. 
Expl. Kamtscb., p. 316) should probably stand as JE. lencoptera Govlv, being the 
Procellaria desolata of Kuhl (Beitr., p. 143) and Schlegel, but not of Gmelin. 



126 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 

36 (11). Arenaria interpres (Lix.) 102. 

Very numerous in .s])ring and autumn, only a few remaining over sum- 
mer on Bering Island, where they possibly breed. 

37 (42). Charadrius squatarola (,Lix.) 103. 

Visits the islands on the fall migration. Mr. Grebuitzki has kindly 
forwarded a specimen ( S ) from Bering Island collected October 8, 1884 
(U. S. Xat. Mus., No. 10CG13). This species was not obtained by Dr. 
Dybowski's collectors. 

38 (43). Charadrius domuiicus fulvus (Gm.) 104. 

Regular, though not very numerous on the migrations, spring and fall. 
Xot known to breed on the islands. 

39 (44). ^gialitis mongola (Pall.) 105. 

A common breeding bird on both islands, appearing during the first 
half of May and returning south about the end of September. 

Dr. Wilh. Blasius has recently (Zeitschr. Ges. Ornith., Ill, 1886, pp. 
148-152) discussed the status of the present species with regard to the 
alleged u3^. inirrhotliorax, and on the strength of six unsexed specimens 
he thinks it probable that the latter forms at least a "constant variety." 
The chief characters by which tlie tAVO forms are said to be distinguished 
consist in difierence in the facial markings, the color of the crown and 
hind neck, and the length of wing and of tarsus. 

In addition to the twelve specimens which I collected in the Com- 
mander Islands, I have before me two specimens from Middle Japan and 
one from the Kurile Islands. Kearly all the specimens are carefully 
sexed and^ full data given. An inspection of this material may throw 
some light on the question. 

In the first place it may be necessary to determine whether our birds 
really are Pallas's Charadrius mongolus. In his Zoographia, II, page 
137, he describes the head markings as follows: "Frons nigra, ad ros- 
trum alba, nigraque liuea divisa. Vertex cinereus. Fascia nigra arostro 
sub oculis coutinua, arcu integro cingit gulam albam." This description 
suits the male specimen from Bering Island, which we have figured 
(pi. vii, U. S. Kat. Mus. No. 89051). It still better fits No. 92778, $ , 
also from Bering Island, and No. 95940, from the Kuriles, for in both 
there is the black line dividing the white of the forehead (frons)* com- 
plete above. He further says : "Cervix exsolete ferruginea, intense, et 
cum fulvedine, collum jugulumque," a feature which we find in all the 
male birds before us, including the three just mentioned, though of vary- 
ing extent and intensity. 

Inasmuch as a totally or almost totally black forehead is said to be a 

*Dr. Blasms (o^;. cit., p. 151) evidently misunderstands the English word "fore- 
head." He says: " Schreuck soil ferner nach Harting ein Exemplar viit schwarzem 
Vorderkopf vom Amur beschreiben, was in diesem Zttsammenhanfje offenbar 'sckwarze 
Stirn ' unA Hinneiguug zur FiLrbung von pyrrhothorax bedeitten soil." "Forehead," 
however, is equivalent to "Stirn" (/rows), but not at all to the German "Vorderkopf." 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 127 

characteristic feature of ^. pyrrkothorux, we feel safe iu asserting that 
we have not misideutified our speciiueus so far. 

But it should at ouce be stated, that iu regard to the facial or froutal 
marks not two of the specimens at hand'are exactly alike, and to illus- 
trate these euormous variations some of the extremes and intermediate 
forms are figured on the accompanying plate. It ranges from an almost 
black forehead (Stiru) to an almost white one, aud all of these speci- 
mens are killed between March and May. No. 85779, a male from Yoko- 
hama, is a typical pyrrhotliorax so far as the forehead is concerned, for 
it seems that not even the most extreme specimens are quite without a 
trace of white; at least, those of Dr. Blasius are not, but through No. 
92778, which has a little more white, and No. 95940, iu which the white 
spots are still somewhat larger, it grades insensibly into the other ex- 
treme, a female from Bering Island (No. 89052, May 11), with but a few 
dusky spots at the border of the white (pi. vii, figs. 3-6). 

Dr. Blasius asserts that iu 'pyrrhotliorax he has found "some white, or 
at least hoary (greise), feathers behind the dark, nearly blackish brown, 
forehead forming a light transverse line fading gradually backwards 
over the crown, which is tinged with hoary." Now, in the Yokohama 
male, the black extreme, this post frontal light line is appreciable, but 
it is not hoary ; on the contrary it is strongly tinged with rusty and so 
is the whole fore-part of the crown and the light line bordering the 
orbits above and behind. The Japanese female, however, No. 91584, has 
these parts mixed hoary and pale rusty, while in No. 92779 they are en- 
tirely hoary and more or less so in several other specimens. Dr. Blasius 
quotes his father's diagnosis of the true mongola, iu which the latter 
speaks of the white of the forehead being continuous with the " white 
stripe over the eyes," asserting that in his specimens he found the dis- 
tinguishing features quoted "sharj^ly pronounced." In nearly all my 
specimens the light stripe over the eyes is strongly tinged with fer- 
ruginous, and the only specimen having the posterior half of it dis- 
tinctly white is the female from Japan, but even in this the portion 
along the crown and occii^ut is rusty. Dr. Blasius also lays consider- 
able stress on the fact that iu the three specimens, by him held to be 
pyrrhotliorax the grayish brown of the occiput is sharply separated 
from that of the back by a " light rusty cervical band about I*'™ wide." 
So it is iu our Yokohama male (mounted); in the Kurile specimen (a 
skin w^ith the neck very much stretched) it is nearly IS"^"* wide, but 
of a lighter shade; iu the other males it is also present, though some- 
what narrower, hut this circumstance is simply due to the fact thatinmalc. 
ing the sMn the neck has been drawn in; in most of the females this cer- 
vical band is only faintly indicated, or entirely absent as in the one 
from Japan. 

The above analysis proves conclusively that the frontal and cervical 
marks are subject to an almost indefinite variation, and I have no hesi- 
tation in saying that no distinction of the two alleged species can be 
based upon the color marks of the head. 



128 



BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 



Now in regard to the size. From tbe measurements of the Com- 
mander Islands birds given in my " Oru. Exj)!. Kamtscb.," page 107, and 
those of the three Japanese specimens below, it will be seen that the 
diliereuce between the sexes iS very small, in fact smaller than the indi- 
vidual variation, the females being, on the average, a trifle larger than 
the males. In addition to the measurements given I may state that the 
length of the tarsus in the Commander Islands birds varies between 30 
and 32™'". 

A direct comparison of the dimensions as measured by me and those 
recorded by Dr. Blasius is hardly justifiable, for our methods of measur- 
ing may be entirely different. They should, therefore, be considered 
separately. It is then evident that in my series the bird which accord- 
ing to its coloration should be a pyrrliotliorax does not differ as to size 
from those which are typical mongola. In the list of dimensions given 
by Dr. Blasius we are at once struck by the fact that the individual 
variation of the wing o^ mongola is 7""", and that oi iiyrrhothorax is 1""", 
while the difference between the alleged species is only 3""". Further- 
more, in the former the variation of the tarsus is only ^'""' ; in the latter 
it is 3""", while the difference between both amounts to no more than 
J"". In other words, the individual variation is considerably^ in fact 
many times, greater than the diagnostic difference. 

For the present, therefore, I see no reason for changing the verdict ot 
Harting (Ibis, 1870, p. 384 seqii.) that 2)yrrhothorax is a synonym oH onon- 
gala. 

Measurements. 



TJ.S. 

Nat. 1 Collector 
Mu8. and No. 
No. 1 

1 


Sex 
and 

age. 


Locality. 


Date. Wing. 


Tail- 1 Pvn 

i 


1 Middle 
Tar- i toe 
8U8. with 
claw. 


85779 
91584 


Jouy 

Jony, 1037.. 
Snow, BL. 
2757. 


cTad. 

?ad. 
cfad. 


Yokohama 

Kanaka wa 


Apr. 28, 

Mar. 29, 1883 
"May-July, 
1881." 


130 
137 
128 


51 15 
55 16 
51 16 


30 23 

31 22 
31 









40 (4.'»). Gallinago gallinago (Lin.) 110. 

A regular summer visitor; tolerably common in Bering Island.* 

* 111 my Synopsis of the Birds of Ktiintscbatka I enumerated the second species of 
snipe as Gallinago hyemalis (Eversm.) with a query. It now appears that I was cor- 
rect in questiouiug the specilic appellation, since Mr. Seehohm (Ibis, 1886, p. 129) as- 
serts that " Scolojjax hyemalis of Eversmann (Bull. Soc. Mosc. 1845, j). 257, pi. vi), from 
the Altai Mountains, is unquestionably the Himalayan bird," or the true G. solitaria of 
Hodgson. The correct name of the Eastern or Japanese Solitary Snipe seema to be 
Gallinago solitaria japonica, as originally proposed by Bonaparte. Mr. Seebohra {I. c.) 
denies the right of Bonaparte to be quoted in the present connection, and would sub- 
stitute Swiuhoe as the authority for the name, but it seems as if he labors under a 
mistake. He says, " The Gallinago japonica oi \ionu,]}avXt^ (Couipt. Rend., 1856, p. 715) 
is apiiarently a nomen nudum Avithout description of any kind, and may belong to any 
of the half-dozon snijies of Japan." Now, in the first place, no such a name is found 
oni)age715of any of the two volumes of the "ComptesEeudus" i)ublished in 1856. lu 



183T.] PROCEEDIXGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 129 

41 (47). Arquatella couesi EiDGW. 112. 

A commou resideut. It breeds iu great numbers, most of them leav- 
ing in autumn, but a great many remain all winter. 

Usually this species is confounded with A. maritiina, of which it is the 
Pacific representative. It seems, however, as if Professor Bogdanow, 
on the other hand, has confounded it with the Japanese Tringa eras- 
sirostris Temm. & Schleg., for he does not mention A. maritima, or any 
representative of it, from the Pacific possessions of Eussia, while he 
attributes T. crassirostris to Kamtschatka and Bering Island, where 
it was found neither by Dybowski nor by myself {cf. Bogdanow, Cousp. 
A v. Imp. Koss., I, pp. 88-90). 

Apart from the difference in coloration and the discrepancy in size, 
which is very great, T. crassirostris being more than one-third larger 
than A. couesi, as will be seen from the subjoined table, they are very 
easily distinguished by the quite differently proportioned feet, the 
former having the tarsus much longer than the middle toe with claw, 
while in A. couesi this toe with claw is longer than the tarsus. In fact, 
the two species belong to different genera, and should always be dis- 
tinguished by their structural differences: 

Comparatire measurements. 
a. TEIXGA CRASSIKOSTEIS. 



U.S. 
Nat. 
Mus. 
Ko. 



Collector. 



Sex 
ami 



96424 Swinh. 

97975 

102143 



Vatl. 
juu. 
jun. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Shanghai, China. . . 
Tokohania, Japau . 
"Japan" 



Apr. -,1873 



"Wins 



ISJ 
177 
176 



Tail- 
feath- 
ers. 



Exp. 
culmeu, 



Tar- 
sus. 



Middle 

toe 

■with 

claw. 



vol. xliii, however, on page 579, Bouaparce under Gallinaijo scohpacinu meutions a 
subspecies " n.Japonica." This is a nomen nudum witliont dispute, though evidently 
referable to Jupauese si)ecimens ofthe commou suipe. But on the samepage he names 
another bird Spilura solitaria a.japonica (X. 13., not Gallinagojaponica)': And this name 
is not a nomen nudum, for in separating it from " *S. solitaria Hodgson," he expressly 
refers it to " <Sc. solitaria, Scbleg.," which is just the bird Mr. Seebohm proposes to call 
"japonica Swixhoe " Bonaparte's name Spilura solitaria japonica cannot " belong to 
any of the half-dozen snipes of Japau," but only to the one which Schlegel had called 
Scolopax solitaria I 

The synonymy of the present form should therefore stand as follows : 
(46). Gallinafjo solitaria japonica (Bp.). 
1849. — Scolopax (Gallinago) solitaria Temm & Sculeg., Fauna Jap. Aves (p. 11'2, pi. 

Ixviii) {nee Hodgson). 
1S56. — Spilura solitaria a. japonica BoxAP., Compt. Rend., XLIII, p. 579. 
1873. — Gallinago japonica Swixhoe, Ibis, 1873, p. 364. 

1876. — Gallinago hijemalis Taczaxuwski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1876, p. 256 {nee 
EVERSM.).— If/., ibid., 1883, p. 34U. 

I have received from Schliiter a skin of this form, which is said to have been col- 
lected in Kamtschatka May 11, 1884 (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 108954), but this is appa- 
rently a mistake, as it most probably came from Ussuri. It differs in no way from 
Japanese and Chinese specimens with which I have compared it. 
Proc. N. M. 87 9 



130 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 

Comjiarative measurements — Continued. 
b. ARQUATELLA COUESI. 



Tail- 



I Middle 
TTTj„„ , f^^t*. ' Exp. j Tar- toe 
Wing, featb- culmen.' sua. with 

e'^s- , 1 claw. 



Average measnrements of 7 adult cf d" ; 1^^ 

Average measurements of 6 adult $ ? | 121 



26 24 

29 I 24 



27 

28 



42 (48). Actodromas acuminatus (Horsf.) 115. 
Visits the islands on the fall migration (onlyf). 

43 (49). Actodromas damacensis (Horsf.) 116. 

Most of the Long-toed Stints visiting the islands only pass through 
during the migration, but a few stay over the summer in Bering Island, 
probably breeding. 

44 (50). Actodromas ruficollis (Pall.) 118. 

Visits the islands during the migrations only. 

45 (51). Actodromas temminckii (Leisl.) 119. 
As the foregoing species. 

My conjecture (Orn. Expl. Kamtsch., p. 119 and p. 117) that Taczan- 
owski's damacensis is referable to the present species, which at the time 
was given out with considerable doubt, has received confirmation by 
the fact that in their ''Liste des Oiseaux du Kamtschatka" ^Bull. Soc. 
Zool. France, 1884) p. 2, Messrs. Dybowski and Taczanowski enumerate, 
as occurring in Kamtschatka, Bering Island, and Copper Island, '^damac- 
ensis Horsf.," ''salina Pall" { — ruJicoUis), and ''subminuta Midd." {dama. 
censis vera), without mentioning A. temminckii, which it is quite improb- 
able that Dr. Dybowski's collectors should have missed altogether, 
while it is still more improbable that they should have got the true A, 
minuta. 

46 (52). Pelidna alpina pacifica (,Coues) 120. 

An additional specimen of this species, which only visits the islands 
during the migrations, has been received from Mr. Grebnitzki (U. S. 
Xat. Mus. Xo. lOOGLl, Grebnitzki No. 201, S , Bering Island, October 
25, 1884). 

47 (53). Calidris arenaria (Lin.) 122. 

Only during migration, and apparently very rare. Not obtained by 
Dr. Dybowski's collectors neither on the islands nor in Kamtschatka. 

48 (54). Limosa lapponica baueri (Nalm.) 122. 

A regular visitor during the migratory seasons, a few individuals 
staying over summer. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 131 

49 u>')). Limosa limosa melaiiuroides (Gould) 31('. 

1835. — Lhuosa melatiura Temm., Mau.d'Oru., 2 ed., Ill, p. lii. — Temm. & Sciileg., 

Fanuu Japuu. Aves (p. — ) (Ie'4l)).— Kittl., Denkv.., II, pp. •2y4, 314 

(leodj.— SwiXHOE, Ibis, lf;68, p. 58. 
1846. — Limosa melanurotdes Gould, P. Z. S., 1846, p. !?4.— Pezewalski, Put. Ussuri 

(p. 54) (lb:0).—I(l., Mongol., II (p. 142), (li?T6).— Taczanowski, Journ. 

f. Oru., 1873, p. 104.-1(1, iUd., iyT4, p. 336.— /f?., Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

18T6, p. 255.— M, ibid., 1883, p. 340.— /<?., Orn. Faun. Vest. Sibir., p. 58, 

(1877).— BoGDAN., Consp. Ay. Imp. Koss., I, p. 85 (1884.) 
1853.— Iiwi08« a-gocephala Middendorff, Sibir. Eeise, II, ii (p. 218) (nee Lin.).— 

SwiNHOE, P. Z. S., lo63, p. 313.— Radde, Reiseu Slid. Ost-Sibir., II (p 

331) (1863). 
1864.— ii'mosa hrevipes Schlegel, Mtis. P. B. Scolopac, p. 21 {vec Gray, 1844, quse L. 

6a«£n).— SwiNHOE, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 406.— id., Ihis, 1875, p. 4s3.— David 

& OusTALET, Ois. Chine (p. 460) (1877).— Blakist. and Pryer, Ibis, 1878, 

p. 220.— 7id., Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 194.— /id., ibid.,X, 1882, p. 

111.— Blakist., Amend. List. B. Jap., p. 11 (1884). 
1884.— Ztmo«« agocephala melanuroides Dybow. & Taczan., Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 

1884, Extr., p. 2.— Stejneger, Oru. Expl. Kamtsch., p. 316 (1H85). 
1885. — Totanus melaiiurus melanuroides Seebohm, Brit. B. Eggs, III, p. 163. 

A good specimen of the Eastern Black-tailed Godwit was collected at 
Bering Island, June 9, 1884, by Mr. Grebnitzki, and kindly forwarded 
to the National Museum (Grebn. No. 134, U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 106615). 
It is a rare visitor to the islands, and possibly only an occasional strag- 
gler. 

From the typical western Limosa limosa (Lin.) the present form only 
differs in its proportionately shorter tarsi, as will be seen from the sub- 
joined table of measurements, though one of the birds from Japan agrees 
very well with the European specimens. It may also be that the west- 
ern bird averages slightly larger. As to coloration I can detect no con- 
stant difference, though it may be that melanuroides in full summer 
plumage has the under tail-coverts more heavily marked with dusky. 
My material, however, is too scanty to decide upon this point. 

The four species of Limosa are very easily distinguished by the color- 
ation of their axillaries, with which the greater part of the under wing- 
coverts agree. They may be identified in all plumages as follows : 

1. Limosa limosa.* ? a -n • ■, -^ 

a. Limosa Umosa melanuroides. j Axillanes pure white. 

2. Limosa lapnoniia. ^ a -n • u-^ -^i j i 

a. Limosa lapponica baueri. ^ Axillaries white with dusky marks. 

3. Limosa ha'mastica. Axillaries uniform dusky. 

4. Limosa fedoa. Axillaries cinnamou-ocher. 



* By authors who do not adopt the rule of retaining the original specific name when 
used for the genus, this species is usually called Limosa melanura Leisler, Ibll. The 
oldest name undoubtedly belonging to this species, after Linnsei Scolopax limosa, is 
Limosa iotatuis Schaffer, Mus. Orn., p. 52, pi. xxv (1789), as both his description 
and Lgure testify. Gmelin's Scolopax belgica (1788), " dorso, alis, cauda pedibusque 
nigris," cannot be identified from the diagnosis. 



132 



BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 



Co>n2)(n-ative measnrcmeHts. 
a. LIMOSA LIMOSA. 



TJ.S. ! 

Nat. ; Collector 

Mas. j and 'No. 

No. 1 



Sex 
aud 
ajre. 



Tail- 



Locality. 



Exp. 



Date. Winjr. feath- ^f^'^^ 

ers. 



9400 
56974 



1 ad. "Europe" 

Schliit.,946, "cf "ad. ....do 



'Summer" 



2(8 
206 



Middle 
Tar- toe 
siis. with 
claw. 



b. LIMOSA MELANUROIDES. 



97974 ad. 

109436 Namive ... d" ad. 

106615 Grebn.,134 cTad. 

109435 Nami ye . . . : ? ad. 

85743 Ferguson. ?ad. 



Tokohama, Japan . 185 

Shimosa, Japan . . . i Mar. 18, 1883 186 

Berins Island June 9, 1884 : 184 

Shimosa, Japan ...\ Mar. 18, 1883 198 

Shanghai, China .., Mar. 18, 1881 200 



75 


62 


73 


62 


74 


63 


88 


72 


106 


67 



50 (56). Pseudototanus guttifer (Nordm.) 124. 

Oae specimen shot on Bering Island during the spring migration. 

It is curious that this bird has not been found anywhere except at 
Okhotsk and in Kamtschatka in summer, and in India in winter. 
It is one of the rarest waders in collections, and the type specimen in 
the Berlin Museum and the one in the U. S. National Museum seems to 
be the only summer specimens preserved. 

Since writing the account of this species (Zeitsch. Ges. Ornith., 1, 18S4, 
p. 223, pi. X ; Orn. Expl. Kamtsch., pp. 123, seq.) I have had the op- 
portunity to verify the quotations from " Stray Feathers," thanks to the 
generosity of Mr. W. E. Brooks, who presented a full set of this maga- 
zine to the library of the National Museum. Thus the first quotation 
of the synonymy of the genus should be corrected to 
187^^.— Pseudototanus Hume, Stray Featli., VII, p. 488. 

A corresponding correction should be made in the quotation of the 
fifth specific synonym, and under the fourth synonym should be added 
the following quotations, to be inserted before " Harting " : 

Hume, Stray Feath., IV, 1876, p. 346.— 7f7., ibid., VI, 1878, p. 463. 

51 (57). Totanus nebularius (Gunx.) 128. 
Common during the spring migration. 

Owing to the lack of a suflicient series I have, in my Orn. Expl. 
Kamtsch., p. 128, expressed some doubts whether the Greeushank from 
Eastern Asia ought not to stand as Totanus nehularius glottoides. The 
accumulation since then of a series of twenty-six specimens from all parts 
of the range of the present species has convinced me that the latter 
name has not the slightest foundation in facts. I have before me 
specimens from Bering Island, Japan, China, Siam, various parts of 
India, ten specimens from different localities in Europe, and two from 
South Africa, but I can discover no character by which to separate the 
eastern from the western ones. The dusky marks on rump, under wing- 



1«87.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 133 

coverts, aud axillaries vary to the same extent iu all localities, and 
there is absolutely no diflference iu size. 

52 (5S). Totanus ater (Sander) 129. 

The Dusky Sandpiper is only an occasional visitor to the islands dur- 
ing the migrations. 

53 (59). Totanus glareola (Lix.) 130. 

A common breeding bird in Bering Island. Dybovrski records it 
from Copper Island, where, of course, it occurs during the migrations, 
but during all my rambles over this island I never found it breeding 
there. 

54 (iJO). Pavoncella pugnax (Lin.) 317. 

The Euff seems to be a comparatively rare bird on the Pacific coast of 
Asia. Only two specimens are known from Bering Island, where they 
were obtained during the remarkable spring of 18S3. 

55 (61). Actitis hypoleucos (Lix.) 131. 

Only observed during the migrations, and even then rather rare. 

56(62). Terekia ciiierea (Guld.) 132. 

Only a single specimen from Bering Island during the autumnal mi- 
gration, 1883. Not recorded by Dybowski from Kamtschatka or the 
islands, though it probably occurs regularly on the peninsula. 

57 (63). Heteractitis incanus (Gm.) 132. 

Rather common in spring in the islands, aud probably breeds there. 

It is curious that it is the eastern and American species which occurs 
most commonly in the Commander Islands, the ornis of which is other- 
wise so pronounced Paljearctic, while the Kamtschatkan species only 
straggles across the narrow sea occasionally. 

58(64). Heteractitis brevipes (Vieill.) 137. 

Oidy occasional or accidental during the migrations. A single speci- 
men has been taken on Bering Island. 

59 (65). Numeuius cyanopus Vieill. 317. 

l784.—ScoIoi)axarquata Pennant, Cook's Voy. Pacif., Ill, p. 357 (wee Lin.). — Numenim 
a. MiDDEND., Isepipt. RussL, p. 125 (18.59). 

1817.— ]Sfumemii8 cyanoims Vieillot, N. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., VIII, p. 306.— Seeb., Ibis, 
1884, p. 34.— Blakist.. Amend. List B. Jap., p. 39 (1834).— Stejneger, Res, 
Orn. Explor. Kamtscli., p. 317 (18d5). 

IQ'il .—Niunenius australis Gould, P. Z. S., 1837, p. 155.— Schrenck, Reis. AmurL, 
I, p. 426(1860).— Radde, Reis. Sud. Ost-Sibir., II, p. 338 (1863).— Schleg,, 
Mns. P. B. Grail., p. 90 (1864).— Dybow. «&,Parvex, J. f. Orn., 1868, p. 337.— 
Przew., Putesch. Ussur. (n. 178).— Taczax., .J. f. Orn.. 1871, pp. 58, 395.— 
Id., J. f. Orn., 1874. p. 336.— Jf?., ibid., 1876, p. 201.— Bogdax., Cousp.A-r. 
Imp. Ross., I, p. 82 (1884). 

1847.—Xume)nui^ major Temm. & Schleg., Faun. Jap. Av. (p. 110), (/;a/-0.— Whitely, 
Ibis, 1867, p. 205.— SwiXH., Ibis, 1376, p. 334.— Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 
1878, p. 222.— lid., Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 18--:0, p. 197.— JiV7., ibid., X,1882^ 
p. 115 (part). 



134 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDKll ISLANDS. 

18{J2.—Xumeniii8 rufescens Gould, P.Z. S., 1862, p.286.— SwiXH., P. Z. S., 1863, p. 318. 

l87l.—NHm€»iii8 iahitiensis SwisnoE, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 410 (HecG.MEL. ?).— Taczan., J. 
f. Oru., 11-73, p. 336.— /rf., Bull. Soc. Zool. Frauce, 1876, p. •2:A.—Id., ibid., 
1pp2, p. 397.— /f/., ibid., 1883, p. 340.-/(7., Orn. Fauna, Vost. Sibir., p. 57 
(lg77)._XACZ. & Dyb., Bull. Soc. Zool. Frauce, 1884, Extr., p. 2. 

Au occasional visitor from the mainlaud. I kuow of ouly oiie speci- 
men killed on Bering Island, viz, one collected by Wosuesseuski about 
forty years ago, and now in the mnseum of the St. Petersburg Academy. 
Early in the spring of 18S3 I myself observed two large curlews on the 
beach near Fedoskija, and shot one, which, however, falling into the sea, 
was carried away by the tide. They most probably belonged to the 
present species. 

From Kamtschatka the Australian Curlew is reported as early as 1784, 
it being included in Pennant's list of Kamtschatkau birds in the third 
volume of Cook's Voyage under the name of Scolopax arquata. Later 
on it was obtained by Wosnesseuski at the southern extremity of the 
peninsula, in September, 1847, and Taczanowski has recorded several 
specimens, obtained by Dr. Dybowski's collectors, as V. tahitiensis, a 
name the original application of which is too dubious to allow its being 
used for any known curlew. 

A specimen in the National Museum (No. 108953), said to have been 
collected in " Kamtschatka," May 20, 1884, but probably from Ussuri, 
agrees closely with Japanese specimens. 

60 (67). Phalaropus lobatus (Lix.) 139. 

A common summer visitor to the islands ; breeding numerously on 
Bering Island. 

61 (68). Crymophilus fulicarius (Lin.) 140. 

Once observed by me at sea a few miles off the coast of Bering Island 
during the autumn of 1882. 

Mr. Seebohm mentions having specimens in his collection from the 
Kuriles and Kamtschatka (Brit. B. Eggs, III, p. 86 (1885)). 

GRUOIDE^. 

=62 (69). Grus grus orientalis (Blyth)? 317. 

The description by the natives of a large long-necked, long-legged 
bird of a gray color, which has been observed occasionally on Bering 
Island during the spring migration, accords pretty well with that of a 
crane. But whether it belongs to the present form, the status of which 
is very uncertain, or to Grus canadensis, is extremely doubtful. 

ANATOIDE.^. 

•63 (7U). Anser segetum midendorfiB (Severz.) 141. 

Visits Bering Island occasionally during the spring migration. 
64 (71). Anser albifrons gambeli (Hartl.) 145. 

Like the foregoing species. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



135 



65 (72). Chen hyperboreus (Pall.)oIT. 

Duriugthe autimiu, 1863, some large white birds with black wings were 
observed by the natives on the northern lakes of Bering Island 

€6(7.3). Branta canadensis hutchinsii (Rich.) 147. 

A few pairs breed on the northern swamps of Bering" Island. la 
addition to the specimens which I collected, Mr. Grebnitzki has pre- 
sented the museum with an adult female, obtained June 1), 18S4. on 
Bering Island (Grebn. No. \o(), U. S. Nat. iMus. No. 100(317). 

The dimensions of tliij> specimen are as fullow^s: Wing, uS7""'; tail 
feathers, 120"""; bill, from frontal feathers, 3-1'"'"; bill along gape, 36"'"; 
bill to hind border of nostrils, 24'""' ; width of bill at nostrils, IT'"""; 
tarsus, 75"^'" ; middle toe with claw, 60'"'". 

67 (74). Branta nigricans (Lawr. ), 149. 

Only one specimen obtained in Bering Island, November, 1882. 

The Black Brandt is mentioned as occurring in Kamtschatka as early 
as 1784, being incorporated in Pennant's list (Gook's Voy. Pacif., Ill, 
p. 356) as Anas bernicla. It was not obtained, however, by Dr. Dybow- 
ski's collectors. 

68 (74.1 ). Philacte canagica (Sevast.). 

1800. — Anas canagica Sevast., N. Act. Petrop.. XIII, 1800 (p. 346, pi. s). — Anscr cana- 
gicus Brandt, Bull. Ac. St. Petersb., I, 1836, p. ;!7. — Id., Dersr. et Icou. 
An. Ross. Nov., I, p. U, pi. i (1836).— Fixsch, Abb. Brem. Yer., Ill, 187-2, 
p. 66. — Chlcephaga canagica Dall & Banxist., Tr. Cbicag. Ac, I, 1869, p. 
296. — Dall, Notes Avif. Aleut. Isl. Uual. Eastw., p. 5 (1873). — Adams, Ibis, 
1878, p. 429.— Philacte c. Dall, Notes Avif. Aleut. Isl. West. Unal., p. 6 (1874). 
— CouES, Elliott's Aff. Alaska, p. 189 (1875).— Elliott, Mou. Seal-Isl., p. 
130 (1882).— Nelson, Cruise Corwin, 1881, p. 95 (1883).— Baird, Brewer, 
& RiDGW.,Water-B. N.Am., I, p. 477 (1884).— Turner, Auk, 1885, p. 158.— 
Id., Coatrib. Nat. Hist. Alaska, p. — (1887). — Bernicla c. Saunders, Ibis, 
1883, p. 348. 

1826. — Anser pictus Pallas, Zoogr. Ross. As., II, p. 233, pi. Ixvii ((ifc'GjiEL.). — Pal- 
men, Great Interu. Fish. Exh. Loud., Sweden, Spec. Cat., p. 200 (1883). 

The capture of two Emperor Geese on Bering Island in the s])ring of 
1885, during the migration ('?), is the most interesting addition to the 
avifauna of the Gommander Islands and Kamtschatka since my de])art- 
ure from that region, and, with the exception of the specimens obtained 
by N^ordenskiold on the Tschuktschl Peninsula, the only record of this 
species in the Old World, that I am aware of. 

The measurements are as follows : 



U.S. 

Nat.'-i Collector 
Mas. ; and No. 
No. 



109993 



Grebn, 147 
....do 



Sex 
and 

age. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Tail- 
Wing, feath- 
t ers. 



ad. 



Bering Island Apr. 6, 1886 

do 



386 
402 



Exp. Tar. 
culmen.; sus. 



125 
130 



Middle 

toe 

with 

claw. 



71 
76 



136 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 

69 (Tfi). Cygnopsis cyguoides (Pall.) 318. 

Dr. Dybowski, iu 1SS2, orally informed me that be had once obtained 
a head of the present species from Bering Island. This locality is not 
given, however, in his "Liste des Oiseaux dii Kamtschatlia." 

70 (76). Olor cyguus (Lix.) 149. 

A species of Swan is a regular, though not numerous, winter visitor 
to the region. Xo Commander Island bird has been positively identi- 
fied as belonging to this species, but there can be little doubt that it is 
the one which also occurs in Kamtschatka, while the following species 
is only an accidental visitor. 

71 (77). Olor columbianus (Ord) 150. 

A single young individual, probably only an accidental straggler, 
was obtained by me on Bering Island in the beginning of Xovember, 
1882. , 

72 (78). Anas boschas (Lix.) 152. 

Eesident, breeding numerously in Bering Island; comparatively rare 
on Copper Island. 

73 (78.i). Chaulelasmus streperus (Lix.) 331. 

Reported by Dybowski as taken on Bering Island ; a straggler only. 

74 (79). Dafila acuta (Lix.) 153. 

Summer visitor ; very numerous on Bering Island, sparingly on Cop- 
per Island. 

75 (80). Dafila ciC^ca (Lix.) 155. 
Like the foregoing species.* 

76 (82). Eunetta falcata (Georgi) 156. 

Occasionally straggling to Bering Island during the spring migra- 
tion. 

77 (84). Mareca penelope (Lix.) 157. 

Visits the islands during the migration season. Two additional 
specimens, males, were sent by Mr. Grebnitzki (U. S. Xat. Mus., Xos. 
106618 and 106619). 

78 (85). Mareca americana (Gm.) 158. 

A single straggler was picked up dead among the sand-dunes on Ber- 
ing Island.t 

* QKerqutdida qiicrqiudula (Lix. ) was uot fouud by me on the isLands. By Dybowski 
it is stated to have occurred on Bering Island (Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1884, Extr., p. 
3), but no particulars are given. The localities as given in the " Liste " referred to, 
however, are in many instances so incomplete, insufficient, or even quite erroneous, 
that it can hardly be taken as an authority for occurrences not otherwise expMcitly 
demonstrated. It is uot unlikely, however, that a few Garganeys may have visited 
the island during the spring migration of 1883. 

t The first record of Eunetta formosa (Georgi) occurring iu Kamtschatka is by 
Fischer, who. in the Bulletin Soc. Nat. Moscou, III, 1831, p. 279, described a male 
from Petropaulski as a new species uuder the name of Anas cucuUata. In the Nouv. 
M^m. Soc. Nat. Moscou, III, 1834, p. Ill, pi. ix, the specimen was redescribed and 
figured. 



1687.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 137 

79 i^d). Spatula clypeata (Lix.) 159. 

Summer visitor to Bering Island ; one of the rarer ducks, but possibly 
breeding-. 

80 (67). Aytliya fuligula (Lin.) 1(X». 

Bare on the islands, but may breed occasionally. An additional speci- 
men ( 5 ) wasseutby Mr. Grebuitzkiin 1885 (U.S. Nat. Mus.,Xo. 106620). 
It measures as follows : Wing, 192™'"; tail-feathers, oS'"""; exp. culmen, 
36™™; tarsus, 34™™; middle toe with claw, 57™". 

SI (S&). Aythya marila (Lix.) ICl. 

A common summer visitor, breeding numerously on Bering Island; 
sparingly on Copper Island. 

?? Aythya ferina (Lix.) 318. 

Very doubtful. Xot reported from Kamtschatka.* 

82 (89). Glaucionetta clangula (Lix.) Ifcio. 

A not very common winter visitor to the islands. 

83 (90). Cliaritonetta albeola (Lin.) 166. 

An accidental visitor during the winter of 1882-'83. 

84 (91). Histrionicus histrionicus (Lix.) 166. 

Occurs round the islands all the year round, but apparently without 
breeding. 

85(92). Clangula hyemalis (Lin.) 169. 

A very common resident, breeding numerously on Bering Island. 

86 {9'6). Euicouetta stelleri (Pall.) 170. 

Inhabiting the shores of the islands during winter in countless num- 
bers. They arrive in the beginning of November and stay until ufter 
the middle of May. 

87 1^94). Somateria v-uigra Gray. 173. 

Breeds in very limited number in a few places on Copper Island, only 
occasionally flying over to Bering Island, round the shores of which a 
few may be seen in winter. 

* Xyroca nijroca (GuLD.) should be added to the list of Kamtschatkan birds as No. 
88.1. In a letter to Notary Brucb, dated Petropaulski, October, 1827, aud published 
in Okeu's Isis for 1829, pp. 523-530, Baron vou Kittlitz gives some of his ornithologi- 
cal experience during the voyage. Speaking of the birds of Petropaulski, he says 
{torn, cit., p. 529) : " I recognized very distinctly Anas crecca and leucophthalinos among 
Bome ducks which were killed and shown to me." That in his " Denkwiirdigkeiteu "' 
he forgets mentioning the White-eyed Duck is of no moment, for he also omits men- 
tioning A. crecca, in the identitication of which he couid not well have been mistaken. 



138 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 

88 (95). Somateria spectabilis (Lix.), 31H. 

VbS.—Anas spectabilin Lix., S. N., 10 ed., I, p. 1-23.— Pennant, Cook's Voy. Pacif., Ill, 
p. 356 (1784).— Pallas, Zoogr. Ross. As., II, p. 230 (18->6).— Middend., 
Sibir. Reise.II, ii (p. "233) (1853).— Swinhoe,P.Z. S.. 1863, ]),32i.— Somateria 
8. Cassin, Pr. Philatla. Acad., 186-2, p. 323.— Dall & Bannist.', Tr. Chicago 
Acad., I, 1869, p. 3C1.— Dall. Avif. Alent. Isl. Unal. Ea.stw., p. (> (1873).— 
Taczanowski, Bull. Soe. Zool. France, 1877, p. 4"^.- /(Z., j6irf., 1883, p. 344. 
—Id, Oiii. Fauua Yost. Sibir., p. 71 (1S77).— Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
V, 1882. p. 167.— Palmkn, luteru. Fish. Exli. Loudon, 1883, Sweden, Spec. 
Catal.,p. 199 (1883).— Nelson, Cruise Corwiu, p. 101 (1833).— Dybow. &, 
Taczan., BuIL Soc. Zool. France, 1884, Extr.. p. 3.— Ste.ineger, Orn. Ex- 
plor. Kamtsch., p. 318 (18-5).— Mukdoch, Ray's Exped. Point Barrow, p. 
- , (1885). 

A winter visitor only, aud rather rare. Siuce my return I liave se- 
cured a speeimeu, an adult male, which was collected on Bering Island 
January 12, 18S3. 

This specimen is now No. 108951, U. S. National Museum, and meavS- 
ures as follows : Wing, 285""' ; tail-leathers, 83""" ; culmeu, from anterior 
border of knob, 31"'"; height of naked portion of knob from tomium, 
37""" ; tarsus, 4S""' ; middle toe with claw, G4'""\ 

89 (96). Oidemia americana (Sw. & Rich.) 174. 
Occurs sparingly at the islands in winter. 

90 (97). Oidemia stejnegeri Ridgw. 174. 

W^.— Oidemia denlandi Stejneger, Orn. Expl. Kamtscli., p. 174 (wee Bp.). 
1887.— OfrfeHua stt-jnefieri Ridgway, Man. N. Am. B., p. 112. 
Eare in autumn and spring. 

91 (98). Merganser merganser (Lin.), 176 331. 

A regular, but not common, summer visitor to Bering Island. 

92 (99). Merganser serrator (Lin.) 178. 

Resident, though only few remain all winter ; common on Bering Isl- 
and, less so on Copper Island. 

93 (100). Mergus albellus Lin. 178. 

Occasional visitor during the spring migration. 

PHALACROCORACOIDE^. 

94 (101). Phalacrocorax perspicillatus Pall. 180. 

Formerly an inhabitant of Bering Island ; now extinct. 

95 (102). Phalacrocorax urile (Gm.) 181. 

Resident. Not common, though more numerous on Copper Island 
than on Bering Island. 

96 (103). Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pall. 187. 
Resident. Abundant on both islands. 



1887.J PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 139 

TETEAOXOIDE^. 

97(107). Lagopus ridgwayi Stejx. 194. 

Eesideiit. Numerous on both islands, 

A large series of additional specimens secured by Mr. Grebuitzki 
confirms the distinctness of this species. 

ACCIPITROIDE^. 

98 (108). Falco rusticolus Lin. 203. 

The Gray Gyrfalcon is only a winter visitor to the islands, and is not 
uncommon. 

In the Nouveaux Memoires de la Societe Imperiale des Xaturalistes 
de Moscou, Tome XV, livr. 3 (1885), p. 09, Mr. M. Menzbier has pub- 
lished a posthumous memoir by the late Dr. N. A. Severzow, in which 
the latter describes a new Gyrfalcon as Hierofalco grebnitzl'ii, from a 
single specimen collected at Bering Island by Mr. Grebuitzki. 

The diagnosis of this alleged new species is given as follows: 

" Cauda valde apice rotunda, rectricibus externis li" brevioribusquam 

medife; remigibus 3>2>1>4>5 Adultus colore H. gyrfalconi 

sen. simillimus, S€d subcaudalibus solo vexillo externo trausversim 
fasciato, areis nuchalibus duabus, circumscripte albo-fulvesceutibus, 
quarum plumse anguste uigro raarginatffi." 

Having seven specimens of the alleged new form from Bering Island 
and Kamtschatka (my friend Captain Hunter having recently favored 
me with two specimens, adult and young, from the latter country) 
against Severzow's one specimen, I may, perhaps, be able to throw ad- 
ditional light on the question, although I do not consider my material 
quite sufficient yet to settle it entirely to my own satisfaction. 

In regard to the alleged plastic differences between F. grebnifzlii and 
its congeners I can state without hesitation that they are of no value 
whatsoever. In none of my specimens is the tail so strongly rounded 
as in the one described by Dr. Severzow, the maximum distance be- 
tween outer and middle tail-feathers being only 1 inch (No. 10995:>4), while 
in most of the specimens it is less than one-half inch, against li inches 
in Severzow's specimen. He lays considerable stress upon the fact that 
in the type of F. grebnitzkii the third primary is longer than the second,* 
while in the allied species the second is longer than the third, but this is 
purely an individual variation, for in all the specimens before me the 
second primary is decidedly longer than the third, the normal condition 
in the Gyrfalcons. 

The specimens before me show a nearly complete intergradation be- 
tween the dark upper head with light margins to the feathers and the 
white head with narrow dark shal't-streaks, so that the coloration of 
the head is quite unserviceable as a character for separating the Kamt- 

* It seems tbatiu his specimeu the third primary is longer thau the second in one 
wing and equal to it in the other (see op. c'f., p. 70.) 



140 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 

scbatkan birds, ami each cue of the stages cau be iuatcbed exactly by 
specimens from other localities within the extensive range of F. rusti- 
coins. This remark also apjjlies to the two "nnchal areas" of a color 
which rfeverzow describes as ^'albotulvescens," but which is evidently 
too deep in the plate accompanying the memoir. 

In my '-Orn. Expl. Kamtsch.," p. 204, I expresse-^ myself in regard 
to the Bering Island birds as follows: "My specimens from Bering 
Island are rather light, however, and may, perhaps, be nearest related 
to the Greenland race [F. holhceUi], if any average differences exist. 1 
should, however, be inclined to the belief that in such case the Pacific 
bird might be entitled to separate recognition. The paucity and small- 
iiess of the dark spots on the under parts would seem to indicate such 
a possibility " 

The two additional specimens from Kamtschatka, and Severzow's de- 
scription of his Bering Island bird, certainly go some way to strengthen 
the above ''possibility," but, as I have been unable to find a tangible 
character, I shall wait for more material before deciding. Dr. Severzow 
finds a positive character in the dusky barring of the under tail-coverts, 
which he describes as only occupying the outer web in F. grehnitzUiy 
while in the allied species it is said to occupy both webs. Now, in point 
of fact, all ray birds have the under tail-coverts nearly uniform white, 
with only faint traces of streaks (young) or cross-bars (adult), conse- 
quently still lighter than Severzow's specimen. In a specimen from 
Nushagakh, and in one from Saint Paul Island, Pribylof group, I find a 
similar state of things, while in other specimens from the American side 
of Bering Sea, and also in most of those from the interior of Alaska, the 
Arctic coast, Greenland, and Iceland, the stripes or bars are more or 
less heavy, though very variable even in birds from the same locality 
and of apparently corresponding age. But the exceptions are too 
numerous and the variation too great to establish even an average 
difference. Thus I have before me an adult bird from Disco, Green- 
land (No. 95127), which has the under tail-coverts colored precisely as 
described by Severzow in F. grehnitz'kii. Another (Xo. 79016), an adult 
female collected by Governor Feucker, at Godhavu, Greenland, has 
only a very few and small dusky marks. A young bird from the same 
country (No. 5G051) has only the shafts dusky, and an adult male (No. 
51689)* from the Yukon River, near the month of the Porcupine River, 
Alaska, has only faint traces of dusky m the outer webs. 

Should future accumulation of additional material prove that the 
Kamtschatkan bird (including part of the specimens trom Alaska) never 
have the lower tail-coverts so decidedly barred with dusky as the ma- 
jority of the American specimens, then it might become a profitable 
question to discuss whether such a form should correctly stand as Falco 

*Tbis is the specimen which served Mr. Kidgway as the type of his Falco gyrfalco 
var. sacer (FORSTER),iu Baird, Brewer, aud Kidgway, Hist. North Am. Birds, III, p. 
115 (1675). 



1837.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 141 

ruaticolns (/rehnitzfcii or Falco rusticolus sacer. At present such a discus- 
sion would be a quite unnecessary waste of time and labor. 

99 (109\ Falco islandus Brunn. "204. 

A few pairs breed on Bering Island, but this species does not seem 
to remain there over winter. 

100 (110). Falco pealei (Ridgw.) 20G. 

Add to the synonymy : 

1S85. — Falco perigrinus Dyb. & Taczan., Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1S84, p. — , Extr. 
p. 4 (nee TuxsT.). 

Common resident on both islands. An additional specimen has been 
received from Mr. Grebnitzki (Orig. No. 202, U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 
106621).* 

101 (115). Archibuteo lagopus (Brlxx.) 203,329. 
Occasional visitor to Bering Island. 

102 (117). Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Lix.) 209. 

Breeds on Bering Island, though not so common as formerly. 

103 (113). Haliaeetus hypoleucus Ridgw. 213. 

The only known specimen is the type from Bering Island.! 

104 (120). Thalassoaetus pelagicus (Pall.) 217. 

Occasional visitor to Bering Island. The old notion that this island 
is the true habitat of the Great Sea Eagle is quite erroneous. fPl. IX.) 

105 (121). Pandion haliaetus (Lin.) 219. 
Occasional visitor to Bering Island. 

STRIGOIDE^. 

106 (123). Asio accipitriuus (Pall.) 220. 

Eesident on both islands, though less common in winter. 
107(124). Nycteanyctea (Lin.) 221. 

Numerous on Bering Island, where it is resident. On Copper Island 
it seems to be only an occasional winter visitor. 

CrCULOIDE^l 

108 (12H). Cuculus cancruE telephouus (Heine) 224. 
Accidental on Bering Isiand. 

109 (127\. Cuculus penin.sulee Ste.tn. 227. 

Straggling individuals from the mainland were shot by me on Copper 
Island. 



*Dybowski & Taczauowski, "Liste," &c., record ''Ri/potriorchis aubbuteo," -'Jsttir 
candidissiimis," and '' Accipiter iiisus,'' from Beriuo- Island, iu regard to whicii see foot- 
note, aatea, p. 136.] 

T Dybowski & Taczauowski, /. c, also give R. aJbiciUa as occurring in Bering and 
Copper Islands. I am satistied that tlie statement rests on a misidentllication of young 
birds. 



142 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 

PICOIDE^. 

110 (,l"^r . Dryobates punis Stkjn. 2M. 

Occasionally straggling to Bering Island, where I obtained three speci- 
mens, two males and one female.* 

PASSEROIDE^. 

111 (i:«). Alauda blakistoni Stejn. 234. 

Apparently a regnlar summer visitor to Bering Island, where a few 
pairs probably breed. 

112 (1%). Corvus behringianus (Dybcav. ) 237. 

An all-year resident on both islands, and apparently peculiar to them, 

113 (136). Corvus corone levaillantii (Less.) 239. 
A rare straggler irom the mainland. 

114 {I'i'^). Hypocentor aureolus (Pall.) 244 

Visits Bering Island occasionally during the spring migration. 

115 (139). Hypocentor rusticus (Pall.) 246. 
Like the foregoing. 

116 (140). Hypocentor variabilis (Temm. & Schl.) 247. 

Only a rare straggler from the mainland. The only specimen known 
from the islands is an adult male, collected by me on Bering Island, 
June 11, 1883. 

117 (142). Plectrophenax nivalis (Lix.) 248. 
Resident, but not numerous in winter. 

118 (143). Calcarius lapponicus (Lin.) 250. 

Summer visitor. Very common on both islands. 

119(144). Acanthis linaria (Lix.)252. 

Winter visitor only; during that season it was the most common of 
the three Redpolls; it was not met with from the end of May until the 
beginning of November. 

120 (145). Acanthis linaria holboellii (Brehm) 256. 

Apparently resident; is the only form breeding on the islands. 

121 (146). Acanthis hornemannii exilipes (Coues) 258. 
Winter visitor only. 

122 (148). Leucosticte griseonucha (Brandt) 261. 

Resident on both islands, though much more common on Copper 
Island. • 



* Dyb. & Taczan., " Liste," &c., give Micropus pacificus as occurring on both islands. 
It is sufficient to refer to the fact that Dr. Dyb., in his former report, only mentions 
the species from Kamtschatka with a query. No specimens appear to have been 
taken, and on the islands this species has never been observed. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 143 

123 (149). Fringllia moutifringilla i^Lix.) 264. 

Kegular visitor to Beiiug Island during the migrations. 

In 1885 1 received fr* m Mr. Grebuitzki two additional specimens 
from Bering Island, collected May 20, 1885 {$ U. S. Nat. Mns. No. 
106011, 9 No. lOOOm). He remarks that this species has of late been 
by no means uncommon. 

124 (l.'y). Loxia sp. inc., o22. 

A straggling Crossbill has once been taken on Bering Island, but 
the species is uncertain.* 

125 (157). Chelidon tytleri (Jerdox) 269. 

Straggles occasionally to Bering Island from the mainland during 
tlie spring migrations. 

126 (159). Ampelis garrulus Lix. :V23. 

During the spring of 1882 I observed on Bering Island a single Wax- 
wing in company with two Suowbuntings, but I did not succeed in se- 
curing it. Mr. Grebnitzki was more fortunate in 1885, when he obtained 
a female on May 19 (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 10C610). 

This specimen is the palest and grayest of a good series ol Pa!a;arctic 
specimens, both eastern and western, though closely approached by a 
Japanese specimen (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 109366, 9 , Iwaki, Hondo, Feb. 
21, 1886). I find, however, quite as much individual difference in a 
large series of North American specimens, apparently without regard 
to locality. The Bering Island bird, which is, of course, only a rare 
straggler, measures as follows: Wing, 112^^""; tail-feathers, 59 ; ex- 
posed culmen, 10.5; tarsus, 20.5; middle toe with claw, 21. f 

127 (162). Butalis sibirica (Gm.) 27-2. 

Exceedingly numerous on Bering Island during the spring migra- 
tion of 1883. No other record. 

128 ( 162. i).-? Butalis griseisticta Swinhoe. 

When comparing his Korean specimens of the present genus with the 
birds I collected on Bering Island, Mr. P. L. Jouy pointed out to me 
that I had wrongly referred a specimen of what appears to be the pres- 
ent species to B. sibirica. I have to plead guilty to the oversight, which 
could not have taken place had I examined the under wing-coverts. 
But having obtained it simultaneously with the other Flycatchers and 
agreeing with them in general appearance, I made no closer examina- 
tion. It is U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 92535, and was shot on Bering Island 
June 17, 1883, and not on June 7, as stated in my list (Orn. Expl. 
Kamtsch., p. 273), and forms a very interesting addition to the fauna 
of Kamtschatka and the Commander Islands. 

*In regard to the alleged occurrence of CUvicola riparia on Bering Island see my 
Orn. Expl., p. 268, and footnote antea, p. — . 

tDybowski's statement (B. S. Z. F., 1883, p. 361) that Lanius major is also found on 
Bering Island apparently lacks all foundation, and the species is not so marked in his 
»nd Taczanowski's "Liste, " &c. 



144 BIRDS OF THE COMMANDER ISLANDS. 

I refer it to Swiulioe's B. </riseisticU( with some doubt, however, for it 
differs considerably from two aiitheiitic specimens of the latter from 
China iu being much lighter and grayer above and in having the 
dusky streaks on the under surface much smaller and paler. The white 
on the supraloral region is broader and continues backwards in a tol- 
erably well-detined superciliary streak. Mr. 11. B. Sharjje observes 
(Cat. B. Brit. Mus., lY, 1879, p. 153) that "si)ecimens differ in the dis- 
tinctness of the markings on the under surface, which is more striped 
with brown in some examples than in others." The specimens which 
he had before him, however, ai)pear to have been collected in the win- 
ter quarters of these birds, and the light and *lark birds may really be- 
long to two different races. Whether, if such being the case, Wallace's 
B. hypogrammica would be applicable to the light race I do not knoM-. 
but should the type of the latter name be strictly identical with Swin- 
hoe's griseisticta, I would propose Butalis xmllens for the Bering Island 
bird. 

From B. sibirica it is easily distinguished by having the under wing- 
coverts and the inner edges of the quills drab-grfiy, while in B. sibirica 
these parts are " wood-brown" (Ridgw., Nomencl. Col., pi. iii, n. 19): 
and by having sharply-defined smoke-gray longitudinal spots on the 
breast and the sides of the throat. The specimen in question measures; 
Total length, ISS'"'" ; wing, SS'"'" ; tail feathers, oi"^'" ; tail beyond wing, 
16™™. 

A single straggler among the many B. sibirica that visited Bering 
Island in the spring of 1883 was shot on June 17. 

129 (163). Erythrosterna albicilla (Paxl.) 273. 

Occasional visitor to Bering Island during thes pring migrations. In 
addition to the specimens secured by myself, Mr. Grebnitzki has sent 
me a female which was captured during the spring of 1885. It (U. S. 
]S^at. Mus. Xo. 106608) measures as follows: Wing, 66""™; tail-feathers, 
50"'"'. 

130 (164), Authus gustavi Swinhoe 274. 

One of the commonest summer visitors to the Commander Islands.* 
131(166). Anthuscervinus (Pall.) 323. 

Has been obtained once on Bering Island during the spring migra- 
tion, according to Dybowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 18S3, p. 361. 

132 (168). Budytes flavus leucostriatus (Homey.) 280. 

Occasional visitor to Bering Island in spring. No authentic observa- 
tion of its breeding there is on record. 

133 (169). Motacilla melanope Pall. 283. 

One of the rarer spring migration visitors to Bering Island, although 
during the extraordinary spring of 1883 this species was not uncom- 
mon there. 

" A. jajionicus from Bering Islaiid, according to Dyb. «fe Tacz., " Liste," &c.; but 
see footnote antea. 



iyt*7.] PKOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 145 

134 (ITO). Motacilla ocularis Swixjiok 2&'4. 

A siuj^lc stray iiulividual was shot on lierinjj Island Juuc 10, 1882, 

135 (ITl). Motacilla lugens Kittj.. '287. 

A lobular spring" migration visitor, but does not rennain to breed. 

136(I7'J). Troglodytes pallesceus (Kidgw.) 292. 

Tins s])ecies, which is peculiar to the Coniuiander Islands, is, of course, 
a resident. It is very common on Copper Island, less so on Bering- Isl- 
and. 

137 (174j. Parus kamtschatkeusis (IjI-.) 297. 

i\Iay occasionally straggle over to Bering Island from the maihlaud, 
but no specimen has as jet been obtained there. I have recorded, how- 
e\ ei', an observation, referring no doubt to the present species which 
on account of its very striking ai)pearance can hardly be mistaken. 

133 (177). Acrocephalvis ochoteusis (Midd. ) 2*J'J. 

An occasional visitor to Bering Island during the migrations. One 
si)ecimen was shot July 13, and the species may occasionally breed. 

139 (171)). Pliyllopseustes borealis IjLas. 302. 

\'isits the islands regularly every spring, and a few may possibly stay 
and breed during a favorable summer. Mr. Grebiutzki has sent in a 
specimen shot on Bering Island June L'5, 1885 (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 
10GG07). 

140 (lb-). Tardus euuomus Temm. Ii07. 

A single straggler from the mainland was obtained by me on Bering- 
Island June 3, 1883. 

141 (18;]). Turdus obscurus Gm. 307. 

Visits Bering Island occasionally during the spring migration. It 
was found rather luimerous about the middle of June, 1883. 

142 (l'-4). Jaiithia cyanura (I'all.) 303. 

A single straggler was shot ou Bering Island May Ul, 1883. 

143 (I'^G). Melodes calliope (Pall.) 30U. 

Occasional visitor during the spring ndgration. In addition to the 
one I obtained on Bering Island, June 29, 1883, Mr. Grebnitzki has sent 
me a fine male from the same island, shot June 6, 1885 (Grebn. No. 218; 
U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 10G006). 
I*roc. N. M. 87 10 



ON A NEW SPECIES OF TROPIDONOTUS FOUND IN WASHINGTON. 

Ky E. ». C 0I»B:. 

A small Miitersuake amis taken uear the central istation of the U. S. 
Fish Commission known as the old Armory, in Washington, and was 
sent to the National IMuseuni by Mr. J. B. Brown. Alter considerable 
examination of the sijecimen I have concluded that it cannot be prop- 
erly referred to any of the species of the genus to which it belongs, tlie 
Trcpidonotus of authors. 1 therefore, with considerable surprise at the 
necessity for so doing, name and describe it as follows: 
Tropidonotus bisectus, sp. uov. (U. S. Nat. 2klus. No. 14643.) 

Scales in twenty-five longitudinal rows, all keeled. Form moderately 
robust. Internasals nearly triangular; prefrontals wider than long; 
frontal with i)arallel sides, which are longer than the anterior border. 
Ivostral broad, low, divided in two by a vertical suture. Loreal higher 
than long. Oculars 2-3, the superior anterior shorter than the inferior; 
the inferior posterior so produced forward as to exclude the fifth supe- 
rior labial from the orbit. Superior labials nine, the fourth only enter- 
ing the orbit. Temporals l-o, the superior of the second series elon- 
gate. Gastrosteges, 143 ; urosteges, 07. The color is olive- brown above, 
dirty white below. There is a row of blackish spots along the sides, of 
small size, which cover the adjacent parts of three scales of the first and 
second rows, and which are separated by an interspace of one and a half 
scales. These spots are wanting from the anterior fourth of the length. 
Above the interval between them there is, on each side, a longitudinal 
dusky spot, which is entirely separate from that of the opposite side. 
These longitudinal spots commence at the head and disappear near the 
middle of the length, after acquiring a tendency to extend obliquely 
downwards and backwards. Head without marks, except three ])ale 
spots on the parietals; one on ciich side of the median suture, and one 
at the angle of the frontal. Belly unicolor, except at the lateral spots, 
which extend over the posterior angle of the gastrosteges. Inferior sur- 
face of tail black-speckled. Total length, 271"""; of tail, 00"'"'. 

The only ^Xortii American species with which this Ibrm can be com- 
pared is the Tropidonotus icoodhousei B. & G,, of Texas. That species 
only has twenty-five series of scales and nine superior labials, but it 
has but one preocular plate and a totally difl'crent coloration, which is 
like that of the T. Hipedon. The ])eculiar vertical division of the rostral 
plate may be abnormal, but it is associated with a depressed form which 
is not found in the T. u-oodhoutici. 

Of the true habitat of this species no conjecture can be made. Its 
apparent immaturity renders it inobable that it is native to the region 
in Avhich it was found, but it may have been-ln-ought to the Armory 
concealed in freight. In anv case it is Korth Ameiqcan, and belongs to 
the group of which T. Ja.sdalK.s is the type. 
14G 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED .STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 147 



TROGON AMBIGUUS BREEDING IN ARIZONA. 
Ky KOKIi:K'l' UlIXiSWAV. 

Lieut. U. C. ISensoii, U. S. A,, stiitioiifd :it Foit Ilnachiica, Ariz., Las 
sent to the Natioiiiil Museuiii a si)eciiiieii of Tnxjon amhi(/uiis Gould, in 
first pluiiiaj;e, obtained on the Hnaeliuca Mountains Auj;u>st 24, 1S85, 
thus sliowing that the species breeds in that loeality. The nestling 
])luuiaoe of this TrofjonuexGv having been pubbshed, so far asvl am 
aware, 1 give the Ibllowing description of Lieutenajit lienson's specimen : 

YoiDuj S (No. lOKol'.J, U. S. Nat. Mus., Iluachuca Mts., Arizona, Au- 
gust 24, 1885 ; Lieut. IJ. C. Benson, U. S. A.): 

Head dull brownish gray, darker above, paler beneath, more tinged 
with olive-brownish posteriorly; lores and suborbital region blackish 
gray J a small S])ot on malar apex, a conspicuous orbital ring (inter- 
rupted on middle portion of upper eyelid and on anterior half or more 
of lower lid) and broad bar crossing obliquely; middle portion of au- 
riculars pure white; back and scapulars grayish brown (interspersed 
with a few metallic bronze green feathers of the adult ])lumage); rump 
and upper tail-coverts dufl cinnamon-brown, mixed with a few feathers 
of pure metallic green (of adult livery); middle tail-feathers dusky, 
})assing into dull cinnamon-brown on edges and toward tips (the latter 
narrowly black at extremity) and glossed with coppery bronze; next 
two pairs of rectrices uniform black; two outer rcctrices with outer 
webs pure white (excei)t basally), barred with black, the inner webs 
chiefly black, but passing into pure white terminally and on edges, the 
white portion barred with black. Lesser and middle wing-coverts buffy 
white or very pale buff, margined with black, producing conspicuous 
large spots; greater coverts and tertials pale grayish bufi'y, minutely 
freckled with dusky, and each terminated by a large spot of buffy white 
(nearly pure white on tertials); secondaries dusky, edged with freckled 
pale grayish buffy; primaries blackish" dusky, edged, with pure white/ 
Breast, belly, sides, flanks, anal region, and lower tail-coverts dull white 
or grayish white, marked with rather broad but more or less irregular 
transverse bars of grayish brown, this nearly uniform on sides of breast, 
but, flanks, anal region, and crissum nearly immaculate. .Bill bright yel- 
low ; feet pale brownish gray (in dried skin). Length (skin), 1 1.50; wing, 
5.40; tail, 6.40. 



' The species of Trogon reterred to by Mr. W. E. D. Scott iu the Auk for Octo- 
ber, 188(j, p. 425, is without much doubt the ouly other Mexicau species of typiciil 
Trogon with red breast (T. elcgans Gould, T. mcxicanus Sw., and T. puella Gould), 
being confined to the southern portions of that country. A yellow-breasted species 
(T. dtrcolus Gould) is common in the vicinity of Mazatlau, and may possibly occur 
as far north as Southern Arizona. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NETV PLUMED PARTRIDGE FROM SONORA. 
Uy leOBKKT ICIUdiWAV. 

Callipepla elegans bensoni. subs)), uov. 

SuBsi'. Char.— Similar to C. elcgam (Less.),* •>"! throat with bUick, 
decidedly predominating over white; rusty markings of hind neck, 
scaj)ulars, tertials, and Hanks much less bright; lower back, rump, 
and upper tail-coverts decidedly less brown or olivaceous, and white 
spots on lower bn ast and belly larj^er; the /cwKfYc with crest uniform 
dusky-black instead of mainly light tawny ; tlie throat thickly streaked 
or spotted with blackish, instead ot marked with very narrow shaft- 
streaks only ; back nearly plain grayish, instead of being distinctly 
bailed, and lighter spots on lower parts much larger. 

Adult male (type, No. 110502, Campos, Sonora; Lieut. II. C. Benson, 
U.S.A.): A eonspicuous crest of h'ligthened, rather narrow, feathers 
of a plain ochraceous buCf (;oh)r, with deep brown shafts. Forehead, 
fore part and sides of crown, and lores, gray, narrowly streaked with 
black; feathers of chin and throat black, with narrow terminal mar- 
gins of white and spotted with same beneath surface ; feathers of cheeks 
and sides of nape similar, but also edged with white, producing more 
streaked appearance; feathers of nape pale-grayish, each marked Avith 
a mesial wedge-shaped streak, the narrow basal portion of which is 
blackish, the wider terminal portion rusty-chestnut or hazel ; feathers 
of lower hind-neck and sides of neck ash-gray laterally, bright hazel 
medially, these latter markings changing on sidesof chest to vinaceous- 
cinnanion,and become gradually smaller and more guttate toward front 
part of chest, which is i)laiu ash-gray ; back plain ash-gray, tinged with 
olive posteriorly, the lower back, rump, and upper tail-coverts i)laia 
olivaceous-gray ; scapulars light hazel or dull rusty centrally, then gray- 
ish, the edges rather broad white ; tertials similar, but merely tinged 
with hazel, the general light brownish color of exposed jmrtion linely 
mottled or freckled with darker, the whitish edging on outer webs indis- 
tinct or broken; prevailing color of wings olive-grayish, but upper- 
most larger coverts marked with hazel and white, like scapulars; pri- 
maries plain slate-gray, with dusky shafts and somewhat heavy edges; 
tail deep bluish-gray, or plumbeous, with black shafts. Sides and 
flanks dull grayish and vinaceous-cinnamon, the latter in form of large, 
but rather ill-defined, mesial guttate marks, the edges of the feathers 
marked with oval or elliptical spots of white, these changing on ui)per- 
. most feathers to streaks, and toward belly to circular spots, the vinace- 
ous-cinnamon disappearing altogether on the breast and belly, which are 



"Ortyxelcgaua Less., Ceut. zool., 1832, pi. 61. CaUqjepla elerjam Gould, Mon. Odout., 

IdOO, pi. 13. 

148 



1H87.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STAtES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 149 

(lull asligniy, coarsely spotted with wliiic; fcinoral lejiiioii dull white, 
with lar<;e, somewhat saj^itt ate, stripes of jirawsh-brown ; under tail- 
coverts buliy-white or very pale bulf, marked with broad mesial, some- 
what wedge-shaped, stripes of deep olive, changing- to plumbeous ou 
longer feathers. Bill deep black ; legs and ieet deep horn-color (more 
grayish in life f). Length (skin), 9.50 ; wing, 4.05; tail, 4.()(>; tarsus, 1.30. 

Adult female (No. 110504, Campos, Sonora; Lieut. IL 0. Benson, U. 
S. A.): Very different in color from the male. Crest smaller than in 
male, uniform dull black; foiehead,&c.,dull brownish grey (more brown- 
ish posteriorly) streaked with black, the streaks growing much broader 
and the groundcolor paler on occiput; sides of nape and sides of neck 
dull whitish spotted with brownish bhick : chin, throat, and cheeks 
white, speckled with black, each leather having a central guttate spot 
of the latter and a broad margin of the former color; ear-coverts uni- 
form deep hair-brown, producing a distinct sjiot ; back dull gray, mi. 
nutely mottled or zigzagged with lighter and darker (but not barred), the 
general color changing to a more olivaceous gray on lower ba(;k and 
rump ; upper tail-coverts brownish gray, coarsely zigzagged with whitish, 
the concealed portion of the feathers more uniform and more bluish 
gray; tail ])laii!beous, l)ut upper surface minutely mottled with grayish 
brown and whitish. Scapulars dark brown, mottled with paler, many of 
the feathers broadly, but more or less irregularly margined with dull, l)uffv 
■whitish, producing a coaisely blotched appearance; teitials sin)ilar, but 
light buffy edging to inner webs, broader and very sharply defined; 
wings in general coarsely mottled, light giayish brown, dusky and ])a]e 
einnamon-buffy, the latter forming irregular borders to the larger cov- 
erts; primaries as iu the male (plain slate-gray Avith hoary edges); 
chest light brownish gray (more decidedly brownish next to throat), 
coarsely spotted with dull whitish, these spots growing gradually larger 
posteriorly, uutil on lower breast and middle of belly the prevailing 
color is dull white, narrowly barred with grayish brown ; sides and flanks 
dull white, tinged with bully, and broadly striped with hair brown ; fem- 
oral region more distinctly buffy, but marked with more pointed stripes; 
lower tail coverts buffy whitish, marked with broa<l mesial stripes oi 
hair-brown, changing to slate-gray on longer feathers. Bill black; feet 
dark horn-color. Length (skin), 8.50 ; wing, 4.50 ; tail, .3.75 ; tarsus, 1.20; 
middle toe, 1.10. 

Two other adult males are essentially like the type, but differ in some 
details, as follows: 

No. 110501 has the crest of a much deeper color, the tint being cinna- 
mon-buff; the crissum and umler tail-coverts are ])ale buff, with narrower 
mesial streaks. 

No. 110503 has the crest rather paler than in the type, and the black 
of the chin and throat is nearly uniform, owing to wearing away of the 
white terminal marjrin. 



150 



NEW PLUMED I'AIITRIDCJE FROM SONOKA. 



Another female (No. 11()50(>) ditlers IVoiii tliat dosciibcd in Iiavinji: 
the crest less deeply black, the shorter leathers having an indistinct 
freckling of brown, and the upper tail coverts are much more distinctly 
marked with butty whitish, in the form of irrejjuhir bars. 

The live si)ecimens upon which this new race is based have been care- 
fully compared with six examples (four males and two females) of true 
C. elegans from Mazatlan, and the difference noted in the above diagnosis 
found to be constant. A pair of typical C elegans are well ligured in 
Gould's Monograph of the Odontophorime, the figures in question 
showing unmistakably the characters of the Mazatlan bird, even to the 
light-brown crest of the female, which, however, is represented as being 
uni(;olored. That this is an error is evident, however, from the text, 
which describes the crest as brown, "crossed with zigzag markings of 
a darker color," thus agreeing with the specimens which have been ex- 
amined by me. 

Measurements of the two forms comi)arc as follows: 

C. ELEGAJJS. 



Mns. 
No. 



37S41 
2:«Vi 
23873 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


267 
"158 


cfad. 
cfad. 
d'ad. 
cfad. 



Localitv. 



Mazatlan , Mpx i co . 

, do 

do 



Average). 



Date. 



June, — , 1861 
Juno— ,1861 
Apr. 21, 



Wiut 



4.50 
4.40 
4.50 
4.60 

4.50 



Tail. 



3. 3.-) 
3.50 
3. 5 p 
3.45 



3. 45 



Tar- 
sus. 



1.20 
1.20 
1.20 
1. 25 



1.21 



Middle 
toe. 



1.10 
LIS 
1.10 
1.10 



1.11 



C. ELEGANS BENSONI. 



110.'->02 
110.''>01 

iior.o3 



9 I rfad. Campo.s, SoDora 

3 U/ad. do 

13 I fad do 



Averajro . 



Fob. 
Fob. 



3, 1887 
3, 1887 



4. i50 
4.40 
4.70 



3.75 
3.50 
3. 85 

3.70 



1.20 
1.20 
1.20 



1.10 
1.10 
1.15 



% 

1-sr. ] PROCEEDINGS OE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 1 T) I 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEV7 GENUS OF DBNDROCOLAPTINE BIRD 
FROM THE LOWER AMAZON. 

My KOnEKT tiimiW W. 

Berlepschia, gen. uov. 

Generic Characters. — Most like rseudocoJaptcH liEiciiENiiACii,* 
but witli wing- more pointed (first quill lougcr than iUlh instead of 
shorter than tenth), feet much weaker (tarsus not lonj^er than bill from 
froutal leathers), tail-feathers narrower and more pointed at tii)s, and 
coloration very different (type species with lower parts stieaked and 
spotted with black and white, top of head and hindueck black streaked 
with white, back scapulars, greater })ortion of wings, rump, upper tail- 
co verts, and tail plain cinnamon-rufous or rusty). 

Type, Ficolaptes rikeri RiDGW.t 

The type species of this new genus was at (irst referred to Ficolapfes, 
but Count von Berlepsch, to whom it was sent for examination, has 
kindly pointed out its radical differences from that genus and its reia- 
tionshi[) to Pseudocolaptes^ facts which are at once obvious wii^n tiie 
proper com[)arisou is made. Ju selecting a name for this new genus, I 
can think of none more fitting than that given at the head of tliis articjle 
as a slight recognition of Count von Berlepsch's eminent services in 
the careful elucidation of ISIeotropical ornithology. 

Smithsonian Institution, March 9, 1887. 



* r.seudocolapies Reich., Haiulb. Orn., i, 185".?, 209. Type, i'. vemichvximnmeuft Rkicu., 
= Anahatcs hoissorieantii Lafr. 
\ PieoJnplcs rikeri Ridgw., Proc. IT. S. Nat,. Mns., ix, NovcniLcr 'JO, 188(5. r>2'.i. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF PHACELLODOMUS FROM 

VENEZUELA. 

By KOKEKT KHX^WAIT. 

Phacellodomus inoruatus, sj). uov. 

Sp. CnAR. — Similar in general appearanee to P. /Vo7j/fl//.s^, but lack- 
ing entirely any tinge of rufous on forehead; Hanks and under tail-cov- 
erts more fulvous; culnien an<lconimissure much more strongly curved, 
and lower mandible light colored ; wing and tail shorter. 

Adult male (type, No. 80704, Caracas, August 4 ; W. B. Gilbert) : 
Above uniform })lain grayish brown, becoming lighter and more tawny 
on rump ; beneath dull bully white medially, changing on sides to light 
brownish, the flanks, anal region, and lower tail-coverta light tawny 
brown or isabella-color ; upper mandible dark brown, lower man<lible 
yellowish; legs and feet light biownish. Length (skin), 0.(50; wing, 
2.50; tail, 2.50; exposed culmen, .58; tarsus, .80; middle toe, .00. 

Count von Berlepsch, to whom the type specimen has bcMMi submitted, 
agrees with me that this is a very distinct species from P./roiiUdis, and 
says that he has similar specimens from the same country. 
152 



l^S'i.-] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 153 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE COM- 
MANDED ISLANDS. 

No. 8.— Dksckiptiox or Ai.oi'ixniius STKJNKOEm, a new Species of Guars fhom 
THE Commander Islands. 

By GEO. VASEY, M. ». 

Alopecurus Stejiiegeri, Vasey. 

Culms .i foot to 1 foot long, decumbent and gTMiicnlate below; leaves 
2 to 3 inches long, njnier sheaths inllated, ligule conspicuous, nienibrau- 
aceous, truncate; spike ovoid oblong, ^v to IJ inch long, about £ inch 
thick, densely flowered; spikelets 2^ to 3 lines long, 1 line wide ; outer 
glumes very villous, ^ longer than the flower; flowering glume 2 lines 
long, A line wide, sparsely hairy near the apex, awn attached near the 
base, equaling or l longer than the spikelet. 

Differs from the arctic forms of A. al2)itii(.s]n the larger size, especially 
of the spike, in the larger ligule, the much longer and narrower and 
more densely hairy outer glumes, and the narrower and longer flower. 

Collected by Mr. L. Stejneger on the Commander Islands, in llussian 
territory, but probably also to be found within the American lines. 

[The type specimens were collected on Bering Island, at the South 
Rookery, and on Copper Island, at Karabelnij, and were referred to as 
A. al2nnus in the original report on the jdants (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
VII, pp. 529, 538).— L. Stejneger. | 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE COM- 
MANDER ISLANDS. 

iV'o. 9.— Ox Tiir. Kxtomosthaca coi.lectkd I'.y Mk. Lkoxiiard STK.iNr.cKU. ox IJer- 

iXG Island, 1882-'8;{. 

Ky W. I.II.ffi.lIi:BORC:, 

Professor KmeriluK, Cpsala, Sweden. , 

1 Branchipus pakidosus (O. F. MUllkr)- 

Canerr panidoyns O. F. MuiJ.KR, Zoolojjia Danica, vol. II. p. 10, tab. 48, lijf. 1- 

8 (1788). 
Branchlnecla tjrociilau^Hm Vkrrill, Proc. Amor. Assoc. Atlv. Science, 1869 
((mill. July, 1870), Kxtr., p. Hi. 
Branch inect a arctica of Veirill, described from Labrador {op. cit, p. 
If)), is probably likewise identical with Miiller's species. The Cancer 
stagnalis, described by Fabricius in his Fauna GrcBiikindica (p. 2-45), 
also beloni,^s Itere, and not to Cancer stagnalis of Liunieus. 

According to Mr. Stejneger's MS. notes this species was found rather 
numerous in many of the small ponds in the neighborhood of the vil- 
lage on Bering Island. It occurs besides in Greenland, in the Alpine 
anil northern districts of Xorway, on the Kola Peninsula, and according 
to specimens collected during the ditl'erent expeditions of I'rofessor 
Nordenskiiild, also in Waigatsch and Novaja Semlia, and may be re- 
garded as circumpolar in its distribution. Collector's numbers, 12G9 and 
2418 ; U. S. Nat. Mus. Nos. 12435 and 12430. 

2. Daphiiia longispina O. F. Mvllkr. 

Daphnia loni/ispiiia O. F. MvLLKK, Entoiiiostr. Daiiica, p. 8S, tnl). xii, (ij;. 
8-10 (178.')).— Fr. Leyoig, Naturj^eseh. tl. Daphiiid., p. 110, taC. ii,lig. l:?- 
20 (18fi0). — G. O. Sars, Om do i Onies'ii'.n af Cln-istiania forekomiueiHlc 
Cladocerer, Videusk. Selsk. Christiana Forliandl., 18f)l, p. 145.— P. E. 
MiJLT.KR, Daniuark's Cladoce,ra, Natnrliist. Tidsskr., :> Ii:i'kk(>, V, Extr., p. 
(iO, tab. i, tig. 1,2(1807). 
The few specimens collected by Mr. Stejneger in small ])onds near 
Ladiginsk, Tiering Island, prove to belong partly to a forma rernalis 
characterized by the thick and short setiB on the second pair of anten- 
na;, and partly to a varietas ahhrcviafa., peculiar by having the head un- 
usually abbreviated, and by the short spine on the posteriiir end of the 
shell. This species occurs in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, llus- 
sia, England, Germany, TJelgium, and without doubt also in Siberia and 
North America. 

Collector's No. 1270; U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 12431. 

3. Eurycerciis glacialis, sp. uov. 

Jjjncem hrmellalits^ II. Kl{<)YER, Gronland's Aniphipoilor, K. Dan.sko Vidonsl<^ 
ScLsk. Natnrv.-:\lath. Afliandl., YII, p. :;20 (witliont dcsfrijilion). 
Distinguished from Eurxjccrcus lamcllatiis (O. V. MiiLl.KU), the only 
known species of this genus : (1) F.y its consideraldy larger size (length 
1.'54 



18H7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATK^NAL MUSEUM. 155 

i-5"""); (J) by a somewhat different structure of tlie shell, which is 
marked by pentagoual or hexagonal somewhat elongated meshes ; (3) 
by the dorsal margin of the head not being constricted posteriorly but 
l)assing directly into that of the shell ; (4) by the dorsal portion of the 
shell back of the head being broad and convex, and without any com- 
pressed sharp dorsal ridge ; aud (5) by the spines on the dorsal edge of 
the tail being larger and less numerous (about 80), the innermost ones 
being nearly as broad at base as the rest, &c. 

Mr. Stejueger collected this new species on Bering Island. It has 
also been obtained by Professor Nordenskiold's expeditions in Greenland 
aud Waigatsch, and seems consequently to have a considerable range 
in the northernmost regions of the globe, hence the name which I have 
proposed above, and which I have already employed in my i)ublic lec- 
tures on these anin)als. 

Collector's No. 23S4; U. S. iNat. Mus. No. 12432. (Types.) 

4. Calanus cristatiis Ku<")VEii. 

Cdlanus crisiafus H. Krover, in Gaimard's Voyiige en Scaudinavio, Lappoiiio* 
&.C., Atlas, Zoologie, Criistac('>.s, pl.41, fig. (" iristatus,"erroretypogr.), — 
S. A. PoPi'K, IJBber die von den Ilerren Dr. Arthur und Anrel Krauso iiu 
luirdlichen Stilleu Ocean und Ijehringsnieergesammelten freilebeudeu 
Copepoden, Arch. f. Naturgcseli., L, i, p. 282, taf. xx, fig. l-G. — H Kr()Ver. 
Naturliist. Tidsskr., 2 Raekke, II, p. .^^46 (184n-4<)). 

I quote the following from Mr. Stejueger'sMS. notes in regard to this 
species : 

"Quito a nnmber of this species were found at Comaiidor, Bering 
Island, August 29, 1882, cast ashore during the heavy gale which 
raged during my stay at that place. After another heavy gjile I found 
them on the 7th of May, 1883, in enormous nunibers on the sandy 
beaches south of the main village. From the mouth of Kamennaja 
River southward for a distance of 1.} kilometers the whole beach was 
margined with three undulating belts of these animals, which marked 
the outlines of the waves of the retiring tide. When fresh the animals 
were semitranslucent and of a rosy flesh-color, but after having been 
dry for a little while they assumed a vivid orange-red color, which made 
them very conspicuous on the brownish sand. By actual counting 1 
found them to average 75 to the inch, which gives a grand total for 1.^- 
kilometers of nearly 4^ millions. But from the point where I ended my 
walk I could still see the red lines continuing southward, and have no 
doubt that they reached at least 10 kilometers further, w^hich would give 
a total number of no less than 35 millions." 

Kroyer obtained this species from the Kamtschatkan Sea, so that it 
seems to be peculiar to, the northern part of the Pacific Ocean. 

Collector's Nos. 1507, 2013 ; U. S. Nat. Mus. Nos. 12433 and 12434. 

5. Diaptomus ambiguus, sp. nov. 

The female only. Length, 1.75 """. Particularly remarkable for having 
the first caudal segment ("abdominal segment ") more than three times 



15G r.NTOMOSTRACA. FRO^t OOMMANDeG ISLANDS. 

longer than the two next segments combiiUMl. and for the second caudal 
segment being rndimentary. In addition it may be noted that the lirst 
pair of antenna', reach to the end of tlie fnrca and have twenty-six joints ; 
that the hist (sixth) thoracic segment, seen from above, terminates in a 
point and possesses a stnall spine in the posterior border; that the tirst 
caudal segment in its anterior portion has a quite small spine on each 
side; that thefarcais short, being about the same lengtli as the last 
caudal segment; that the inner branch of the fifth pair of feet has only 
one joint, tlie tip of which is provided with two strong spines and only 
a trace of a third one, and tiiat it hardly reaches to the end of the first 
joint of the outer branch; that the great spine on the second joint of 
the outer branch has extremely small spines only on the middle of the 
inner side, and that itsthird joint is indistinct and possessestwo spines, 
of wliich the larger one reaches to or beyond tlie middle of the above- 
mentioned large spine on the second joint. In other respects it presents 
the usual features of the genus. 

Of this species Mr. Stejneger only obtained a couple of fully-developed 
females, besides a few specimens not yet developed. 

According to his notes it was collected July 22, 1882, in a small fresh- 
water pond at Ladiginsk, near the main village on Bering Island. 

Collector's No. 1271 : U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 12437. (Types.) 

Upsala, Sweden, March 8, 1887. 



1886.] PKOCEEDINCS OF UNITi?]D .STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 157 



I^OTES ON THE OSTEOLOGY OF THE SPOTTED TINAMOU 
(NOTHURA MACULOSA). 

By a-'KEBiSKSi: A. S.rCAS. 

Dr. Parker's ■\vell-kiio\vii memoir on the Ostcoloj^y of the Tiimmoiis 
treats the ^'roiip so tliorouglily that little or iiotliinj;- remains to be tlone 
ill that (lirection, except to notice any points therein sj)ecies not hith- 
erto described differ from tliose that have been. 

xV skeleton of the S[)otted Tiniiinou {Nolhuni macidosa) recently 
acquired by the National Museum ])resejits some interestini;- features 
which seem worthy of description. 

^^' — " "^ 




Pelvis of Xothura iuttculnsa 



As is well known, one of the nio^t^ ciiiious, as wcil as most noti(;eable 
characters of the Timiminc skiiil is th.". |)reseiice of a chain of supra- 
orbital ossicles firmly attached to tin' skull and completely roofing- over 
the eye. 

This feature is entirely hicking in the S[)ot(e(l Tinamou, the inter- 
orbital portion of the cranium being nui(;h coiiti acted. 

The beak of Nothura is comparatively short and curved, being in 
marked contrast to that of Tinamus rolnisfus, while the general resem- 
blance of the skull to that of a fowl is quite noticeable. 

There being no skeleton in the Museum of any species of Tinainou 
save the one under consideration, comparisons of all parts but the skull 
rest upon descriptions and figures alone. 

The first three dorsals of Nothura are fused in one mass, this being 
an exception to what is ordinarily found, not only in the Tinamous 
but in the fowls. The usual rule is that the last cervical anchyloses 
with the succeeding three dorsals, this fusion of vertebric compeusat- 



158 OSTEOLOGY OF SPOTTED TINAMOU. 

iug for the loss of strength occasioned by the great lateral compression 
of these bones. 

Four ribs are connected with the sternum, one more than in Tinanm.s 
robustns or Cryptiirtis megapodius. A fifth sternal rib is present, 
although .sei)ai'ated by a wide interval from its corresponding dorsal 
rib. The sixth and last rib is very peculiar, for instead of pointing 
downward it is turned so abruptly backward that the terminal portion 
very nearly touches the great preacetabular i)rocess of the pubis, the 
two being intimately connected by ligament. 

Judging from the published figures, this condition does not exist in 
either Tinamus rohustus or Cryptums megajwtUus, although curiously 
enough it is a modification of what is found in Apteryx ansiralis. In 
Apteryx, however, the last rib has its origin almost directly over the 
preacetabular process, points downward, and is joined to the pubis by 
ligament at its median portion. 

Like other Tiuamous, yothura has rather feebly-developed wings. 
Still the crest of the humerus seems to be more prominent than in its 
relations, and so far as I can ascertain Xotlmra excels them all in 
flight. My friend. Mr. W. B. Barrows, who spent some time in Uruguay 
and tiie Argentine Republic, and who collected the specimen under con- 
sideration, tells me that the Spotted Tinamou flies for considerable dis- 
tances as often as occasion requires. The Paifons Tinamou {Ehynchoim 
rvfescens), on the other hand, usually rises but three tiaies in succession, 
each successive flight being shorter than the preceding, until after set- 
tling for the third time the bird is forced to rely upon its legs alone. 

The radius and ulna are widely bowed apart. As this occurs also 
in the fowls and in the humming-birds, and as all these birds move 
their wings very rapidly, this peculiar curvature would seem to have 
some direct relation to the frequency of the wing beats. 

Dr. Parker notes that in Tiiuwms rohustus there is no calcaneal 
ossicle, and tbat the nails have a reptilian sprawl. 

In Xothura, on the contrary, a large calcaneal sesamoid is present, 
and so far as may be determined by the terminal phalanges the nails 
themselves diverge no more than in GalUmc. 

In all the particulars above mentioned (save the modification of the 
last rib) the Spotted Tinamou more nearly approaches the fowls than 
do other described species, and would therefore seem to deserve a lead- 
ing place in the order to which it belongs. 

It may not be out of place in this paper to add a word or two con- 
cerning the habits of the Tiuamous. It has been quite positively 
stated that these birds are strictly terrestrial in their mode of life and 
never alight in trees. IN'ow it is a fact that some spc^cies reside in 
regions subject to sudden floods, where, like the historic beaver, it 
would seem that they imist take to a tree, and Waterton states that a 
species found in Guiana habitually sleeps in trees, the peculiar scutel- 
lation of the tarsi enabling the bird to roost in safety, although the 
structure of the feet does not permit a firm grasp of the boughs. 



1*7.] PKOCEElymGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 159 



FIELD-NOTES ON THE MAMMALS. BIRDS AND REPTILES OF 
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

By CHLAKL.es 11. TO^Vi^SEi'Nl). 

(With one jHate. ) 

The first studies of the zoology oi" XortLeiu Calilbruia of which we 
have any record were those of Dr. J. S. Xewberry, iu conuectiou with 
the Pacific llailroad Surveys of uearly thirty years ago.* Subsequently, 
collections of mammals, birds, and reptiles were made at Fort Crook 
by Lieut. John Feilner and D. F. Parkinson, and at Yreka by Mr. Will- 
iam Vuille, but no publications on the subject appeared after the Ee- 
ports of the Pacific Eailroad Surveys until Mr. 11. W. Henshaw, iu 
1878, studied the ornithology of the northeastern portion of the State 
in connection with United States Geographical Surveys west of the 
100th meridian. ! 

Prof. E. 1>. Cope published brief notes on the reptiiia of the region 
in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, which 
were based on collections made by himself on the McCloud liiver in 
1882. 

The extensive labors of Dr. Cooper in California were altogether 
south of the region here treated oi". 

The present paper results from collections and observations made by 
my.self while connected with the operations of the United States Com- 
mission of Fish and Fisheries in California. During a period extend- 
ing from April 1, 1883, to July 15, 1881, I visited the counties of Si-ski 
you, Shasta, Tehama, and Lassen, and subsequently spent a month iu 
JIumboldt Counry in 1885 (November 15 to December 17). 

Of birds, the entire number of species noted by me personally is more 
than two hundred, but by placing on the list about sixty additional spe 
cies known to the region from the labors of other observers, the ornitho- 
logical portion of the paper is made a complete list of the species so 
far known to have been found in California north of the fortietjj par 
allel. The same is true with regard to the fullness of the lists of mam- 
nmls and reptiles; all three lists being restricted to the specie.* whose 
presence in the region is proved. 

The Sierra Nevada and Coast ranges extending through Xorthern 
California divide it very naturally iuto three separate faunal regions: 
the Eed wood region on the coast; the Sacramento, lying between the 
two ranges of mountains: and the eastern region, sloping froai the 
Sierras toward the State of Nevada. (See Plate V, sketch map of 
Northern California.) 

* See Bibliograiiliical Appendix. 

t A brief acconnt of "Explorations in Nortliein California." byJoba Feilner, .-ip- 
peared iu tlie Sniitlisouiau Reports for tlic year 18!j4. 



IGO NOTES OX JALIFOKNIA ANIMALS. 

The first is cliaiacterizeil by ii heavy growth of redwood forest, which 
(h^es not extend much farther soutli in California than the Russian 
lliver, and by a greater rainfall than any other part of the State. It 
is apparently but a narrow southward extension of the redwood region 
occupying the coast farther north, and with a similar climate. Several 
species of birds are here found darker, or otherwise differentiated, 
when couipared with examples from drier regions. Examples of such 
;(ri' the Valley Quail, the AVreu-Tit, and the California Jay, and they 
have been distinguished from those on the opposite side of the mount- 
ains as subsi)ecies. 

The second is the narrow northward extension of the great interior 
l»laiu of California drained by the Sacramento lliver. It is compara- 
tively dry and is usually unwooded, except in the vicinity of streams. 

The Magi)ie, tliu Koad-liunner, the Burrowing Owl, «&c., range from 
the far south to the very head of the valley. The Antelope once 
abounded here and the Badger finds here the open plains it requires. 

But the tliinl, or eastern, region, is the most nunked and the most 
diversified. Beginning at the Xevada boundary line Avith level plains, 
it rises through scattered hills to the li'gli Sierras. There are no large 
streams, but large and small lakes are scattered everywhere, aiul open, 
sage-covered meadows are fouud at random auu^ng the lower pine 
forests. Birds of the central region of the United States, such as the 
Sharp-tailed Grouse, Sage lien, and J^uttall's Whippoorwill, find the 
Sierra XcN'adas an impassable barrier, and are found no farther west 
in tliis latitude. The western limit of many mammals, among whicli 
nmy be mentioned the Muh; Drerand tlie llocky Mountain Woodcliuck, 
is also found here. 

In addition to the interest wliicli attaches to the meeting in Northern 
California of the faunas of three se[)arate regions there is that of the 
classitication of tlie country into tliree regions according to elevation: 
The valleys or plains, but little above tlie level; the foot-hills or cliapar- 
ral belt; and the i)iue forests extendiug from about o.OOO feet up to the 
highest limit of timber. As might be ex])ectcd, these regions differ 
greatly from ea(;h other in climate and vegetation. 

/o.ooa... 
8,oao^- 

6000.- 



i!^,ufJO 



Mduiil Shustii, NoitliU'u C.ilil»jnii;i ((.iiliiu'j hum rioutbt-ust). 



1S67.] rUOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. IGl 



My most fruitful collectiug- liekl was in the rugged foot-hiils of Shasta 
Couuty, ])articulaily in the viciuity of the TJuitcd States saliuou-breed- 
iug-establishnieut on McCloud Eiver. 

The station has an elevation of 1,000 feet, bat is surrounded by 
mountains rising usually a thousand feet higher. The country is 
wooded chiefly with pines, but the forests are often interspersed with 
vast tracts of inpenetrable chaparral. 

Mammals, birds, and reptiles abound, and the streams are full of sal- 
mon and trout. 

The Black-tailed Deer {Cariacus coUDnhiamis) is especially abundant. 
The following species of birds obtained here were not met with else- 
where : 

Coluniha fanciala. I Tachyvhicta thalassina. 

Splii/rapicus varius lutchaHs. Vlreo hnitonl. 

Trochilufi ah'Jiundri. HarpnrhiiHcliHn rcdivivus. 

Trochilus calliope. Chamaa fasciata hentihawi. 

Melospi~a licerman ni. 

During the summer of 1883 I traveled through the Mount Shasta 
country in Siskiyou County, with a party of the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey, the topographical division, Prof. Gilbert Thompson in 
charge. The route included Yreka and the headwaters of the Mc- 
Cloud River as well. Much time was spent on the higher slopes of the 
mountain, the summit of which is 14,440 feet high, and clothed in per- 
petual snow. North of Mount Shasta there are extensive sage plains 
stretching away toward Oregon, but immediately around the mountain 
and to the southward are continuous and magnificent pine forests. The 
nature of the country in general is so frequently explained in the fol- 
lowing notes that it is unnecessary to speak further of it here. 

The following is a list of the birds and mammals belonging i)roperly 
to the evergreen coniferous forests and higher mountains of Northern 
California generally : 



Oreortyx "jjlumiferus." 
Dendraijapus '^fuJiijiiiosus.^' 
Colmnha fasciata. 
Accipiter " striatulus." 
Xeuo2)icus aJbolarvatus. 
Picoides arvficus. 
SpJiyrapicas ruber. 
Spliyrapicus thyroidenti. 
Ceophlocus pileatns. 
Coutopus borealis. 
Cyanocitta stelleri. 
Perisorens obscurits. 
Picicorvns columbianus. 
Cyanoceplialus cyanocephahis. 
Carpodacus cassini. 
Loxia mi)ior. 
Pasnerella me(jarhyncha. 

Proc. N. M. 87 11 



Passerella " schistacea." 
Pipilo chlorurus. 
Dendroica occideutaHs. 
HelminthophUa " lutescen.'i.' 
Geothlypis viacgiUivrayi. 
Geoth Jypis * ' occidentalis." 
Certhia " americana.^' 
Sitta canadensis. 
Parus gambeU. 
Parus rufescens. 
Sialia arctica. 

MAMMALS. 

ILapJodon riifus. 
Lagomys princeps. 
Tamias lateralis. 
Sciurus ^^frcmonti." 
Sclurus douglassi. 



1G2 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

MIDSUMMKU IJIKDS OK TIIK TIMUKK-I.lN'l-; OX MOl'XT .SHASTA, 

1. Dendragajnis "fuUginosus." Common. 
)i. Accijnter coopcri. Ouo specimen. 

3. Acciviter vtlox. One specimen. 

4. Accipitcr " striatuhis." Two specimens. 

5. Buteo ^' cahirus." Seen once. 

(j. IlaUntus IcucocephaJus. Seen once. 

7. *FaIco .s2)arrerius. Very common. 

8. Sjjhijrapiius tltyroidrus. One specimen. 
U. Mdancrpes torquatna. Not common. 

10. *Colapie8 cafir. Common. 

11. Troclnlus 7-iifus. Not nncommon. 
1*2. Coniopns borealis. Two specimens. 

13. Contopus ricliardsoni. Rare. 

14. *C\janociUa stclleri. Rather common. 

15. * Perisorcus ohscurits. Frequent. 

Ifi. *Picicorrus cohimhiiDuti. The most abiuulaut species. 

17. Stuniella neglecta. One specimen foiuid i'rozen in snow. 

18. * Carjiodaciis " cassini." Very common. 

19. *Sp>zeUa '^arizona'." Very common. 

20. *Juuco " oreijonus." Common. 

21. * Hihniulhophaga '^ gittiiiralis." 

22. ^Helmiiilliophaga '' Intcsccns." 
2:5. Dendracu aadnboni. Common. 

24. Dendirrea occidentalis. One specimen. 

25. Geothlgpis macgiUirrani. Common. 
2(). Sglvanla "pilcolatu." 

27. Cinclus mericanus. Seen once. 

28. *Salpinctes obsoleius. Abundant. 

29. Catherpes conspersns. Seen once. 

30. Certhia " americana." Rare. 

31 . tSltta canadensis. Not common. 

32. *rarns gainhcU. Plentiful. 

33. *Ilegtilus "oUvaceus." Rare. 

34. ^Ilcgithis calendula. Rare. 

35. Myadcstcs iownscndi. Not uncommon; one specimen found I'lozen in the 

c;ater. 

36. ^Menila " 2>ropinqiia." Rather common. 

37. ^Sialia arcfica. Aluindaut. 

Tho summer of iSSl, iiutil July, was is])ent in Lassi'u County, in tlic 
region sloi)in,i;' eastward from Lassen's PeaK',:i perpetually snow-crownetl 

/C>.4^ff- 

9,a^o. yf .; Ij- K KN^^^^ 



Z^oa. 



S/?0'0. /_ 

Liisspu's IV:;!;, Xoitli'in Califoiniu (outline from uortli). 
' l::-i^. 



1887.] PKOCEEDINGS OF UNITED HTATE.S NATIONAL MUSEUM. \6o 



moutitaiii 10,400 feet high. The ref^ioii is mouiituiiiuius, witii immerous 
lakes aucl vast piue forests extending- down to the borders of the sage 
plains to the eastward. 

The mammals and birds named below were obtained only on this 
eastern slope of the Sierra Xevada : 



MAMMALS. 

Cariacus macrotis. 
JrctoniysJIavivvnter. 
Tamias " lownscndi." 
SpennophUiis " toivnseudi." 
Sc'uini.'i " frcmonti." 
Lepus campestrla. 
drvicola " curtatus." 



Bydrodiclidon " surinamensiH.' 
relccaniis erjitkrorliynchos. 
J'elgadis (/aarauna. 
rhalaropus tricolor. 
Ii( care h'o.s' Ira a meriva iia. 
Himan ^.opus in exican us. 
I'ediocwtes " columMannii." 
Ceiitrocercu.i uropliasianns. 
Piooides arcticns. 
Passerella " schiatanea." 
riiakenoptilus nutlaWi,. 



Collections were made in winter in the northern end of the Sacra- 
mento Valley, near the town of Eed Bluff. The following are the birds 
peculiar to the valley region, or at least not obtained elsewhere : 



TotaiiKii melaitolciiciis. 
Ercuncles ocadeii talis. 
Elanus leucurits. 
Geococcyx californianus. 



Coccyzus americanus. 
Dryohates nuttaUi. 
Otocoris " strigata." 
Pica nuttalU. 



On a brief trip to Northern California, in the fall of 1885, 1 was 
enabled to make small collections of vertebrates in the rainy belt of 
country occupying the coast, a region of dense and continuous redwood 
forests. The birds abounding here, but apparently wanting in the in- 
terior, are : 



Urinaior pnciftcits. 
Stercorurius parasiticus. 
Larus glaucescens. 
Lav us occidentalis. 
Larus brachyrhynchus. 
Larus ph i ladelphia. 
Pdtcanus calif ornicas. 
Merganser serraior. 
Anas peuelope. 
Oidcmia fnsca. 
Oidemia perspicillata. 
Philacte canagica. 
Porzana Carolina. 
Porzana novcboracensis. 
Crymophilus fulicarius. 
Plialaropus lohatus. 



Tringa canufus. 
Tringa minutilla. 
Tringa " paciftca." 
Litnosa fedoa. 
Totan us flavipes. 
Symphemia semipalmata. 
Charadrius squafarola. 
Arenai'ia interpres. 
Arcnaria melanocephalu. 
Callipepla calif ornica. 
Bonasa '* sahinii." 
Falco anatum. 
Bubo saturatns. 
Melospiza " samuelis.^ 
Pipilo '' oregomts." 
Chamwa fasciata. 



I received courteous treatment from many persons while residing in 
4S'orthern California, whom it would be superfluous to name. 1 am, 



1G4 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

liowover, specially indebted to the Ibllow iii,u-ii;uned geutlenicii at whose 
hands I had substantial favors: 

Messrs. Iloboit IJadclill" and L. W. GrecJi, in charj^c of tlie Go\ern- 
ment lislieiies on ."McCloud liiver; Prof. Gilbert Thompson, in charge 
toi>oi;iaiiliical division U. 8. Geological Survey; Mr. II. A. llawsou of 
Ked Blnfj, and Mr. J. II. yisson of Strawberry Valley. 

T. — Ma:\dials. 

Family CKIiVID^E. Dkkiss. 

Caiiacus niacrotis (Say). AJiilc. Drvr. 

The i\Inle Deer was ft)nnd in comparative abundance along the east- 
ern slope of the Sierra Nevadas in Northern California, but was not 
observed west of that range. 

In the region east of Mount Shasta the Ulack-tailed Deer appeared 
to be tiie prevailing species, the present one being only occasionally 
met with, but in Lassen County, a hundred miles farther south, the 
reverse was fonnd to be the case. Indeed, I saw notliing of the Black- 
tailed Deer there, but the hunters witii whom I associated informed uie 
that tlu'y sometimes killed stragglers of that species in the country 
sloi)iug eastward from Mount Lassen. 

After several months' experience with the rather small Llack-tailed 
Deer in Shasta (Joniity and elsewhere, the immense size of the present 
species, as observed for the first time on the eastern slope of the mount- 
ains, was quite a revelation, but nowhere in its range did the Mule Deer 
appear to exist in as great nnmbei\s as did other species on the opposite 
slope. The first one seen, an old buck, which had been alarmed by the 
discharge of my shot gun when 1 little susi)ected the near presence of 
su<;h game, si)rang from the bushes at my feet and tore off at such tre- 
mendous sp(H'd and with such i)rodigious bounds and crash of chaparral, 
that he seemed a different kind of deer altogether. AVlien running, 
the white i)atch about the tail renders this species conspicuously ditl'er- 
ent from the following one: 

Cariacus columbianvis (liicb.). Cohinthia Deer; JUack-laihd Deer. 

As mentioned in the account of the preceding species, the Black- 
tailed Deer, which has hitheito been considered as confined strictly to 
the Pacific slope, is known to occur in many places low down on the 
eastern sIojjc of the Sierras. Its eastward range in general is, however, 
bounded by these mountains, showing its singularly narrow belt of dis- 
tribution. In the case of this animal, where chmate and food can 
hardly be taken into consideration, such remarkable limits are inex])H- 
cable. As expicssed by Judge (Jaton: "An imaginary line which be- 
comes as impassable as a Chinese wall to an entire species of animals 
who have full ])hysi(;al power to traver.se it, but do not, wiiile all others 
pass it uidiesitatingly, is certainly a (uirious ami interesting fac^;," 



l.^-r. I PROCfiKDINGM Ol'^ itNTTED STATES NATfONAL MTtSF.ltM. 1 G5 

This Deer was found in abundance in Shasta iind Siskiyou Counties, 
where I obtained many specimens, as shown by the extract from tlie 
Smithsonian catalogues following:: this sketch. Altliough ahnost ex- 
chided from the timbered portions of the TT])per Sacramento Valley by 
the encroachments of civilization, it is found immediately upon enterin<:j 
the foot-hills, and ranges thence in summer high up on the mountains. 
I frequently saw individuals in midsummer at the limit of highest 
bushes on Mount Shasta, and obtained specimens near the timber line in 
September. At this season, some of the younger animals were still in 
the yellowish -red summer coat, which, in the majority of the older Deer, 
had given place to the short hairs developing into the bluish winter 
coat. Instill other examples the long lighter-colored hair was adher- 
ing in patches about tlie binder ])arts, and could be rubbed oif with the 
hand, exposing the new growth beneath. A montii later the new coat 
had attained i)robably its full length, as there was no apprecial)le dif- 
ference in this respect between those taken in October and those taken 
in February. 

There is what might be termed a migration of Deer in this region — a 
very decided up and down movement in spring and fall between the 
valleys and the high mountains. In Shasta County this is north and 
south migration, from the fact of the country rising toward the north, 
the southern portions being foot-hill country. 

Indeed the animals seem to retire en masse into the mountains in 
spring, for it was with difficulty that venison could be procured in suf- 
ficient quantity for the table during the summer along the Lower Mc- 
Cloud River. They were found in midsummer in abundance every- 
where about Mount Shasta, where, during the month of July, 1883, one 
of my friends killed twenty bucks. It is unlawful to kill female Deer 
at any season in California, and a sportsman who does it is dubbed 
with the contemptuous sobriquet of " doe-killer." In one hunter's camp 
where I was entertained for a time the rule was that any member of the 
party who should bring in a buck with less than three "points" to 
his antlers should i)errorm the culinary duties of the camp until some 
one else should be proven guilty of a similar ofiense. The dish-wash- 
ing punishment was an effective restraint upon those wiio were un- 
sportsmanlike enough to kill "spike" bucks and females where large 
Deer were plenty, and prevented the undue ac(;umulation of venison. An 
exception to this rule was made iu the case of the writer on the grouiul 
that he did not shoot for sport, but iu the interests of science. 

Several hundred Deer have recently been killed in jSTorthern Cali- 
fornia for their hides alone, the carcasses being often thrown away 
entire. Such fiendish work is condemned by all honorable persons, 
and the practice is being frowned down. liesidents of localities abound- 
ing in deer are accustomed to kill females when requiring meat, and 
nothing is said about it, but the time will surely come when the laws 
must be religiously observed if the Deer are to be preserved in abun- 
dance. 



IGO 



NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANJMALM. 



In the fall the Black-tailed Deer begin to descend into the foot-liillr 
and the lower country generally, and in winter are as numerous there 
as tlie^' are in summer at greater elevations. 

AVinter specimens were all infested with jiarasites, about an inch in 
Jcngth, which were found in clusters in the i'olds of the throat, almost 
every animal examine<l Jiaving consideiable numbers of tliem. Tliey 
api)eared to be the larva of a bot-lly {(Estriis f). 

Many of these specimens were useless for mounting, tlu^ animals 
having spoiled their coats by rubbing against trees to rid themselves 
of wood-ticks. 

The antlers of these ])eer vary greatly in the number of " i)oinls," 
deformity, rugose aj^pearance, «S:c. 




Fi<j. 1, spike of yearling ; Figs. 2 and 3, aiitlor at second y«ar; Figs. 4 and 5, antlers at third yiKiT; 
Fiji. 6, fully-developed antler as f o form, but becoming heavier and rougher with age. 

The accompanying cut illustrates, in a general way, the appearance 
of the antler with each year's growth, nntil the fourth or tifth year, 
after which the normal appearance is that of Fig. (>. 




AliNOUMAI. r.uoWTIIs.— Fig. 1, double antler with two brow-tines ; Figs. 2, .3, and 4, deformed anllers 

from old d(^(T.. 



In Siskiyou County I saw a i)air of antlers Avith the right one so 
palmated and flattened that it resembled a miniature moose-horn. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 167 

A liuuter iu Shasta County sllo^Yt'd me a pair of slim-looking horns, 
which he assured me adorned the head of a doe, killed by an Indian iu 
his employ, and the statement was substantiated by one of his neigh- 
bors. This man's porch was ornamented with numerous deer-horns 
remarkable for size and deformity. 

The wild bucks seen April 1 had new liorus, in the velvet, about 3 
inches long. In July they appeared to have attjiiuod there full size, 
but the velvet did not begin to rub off until towards the last of August. 
In specimens killed September 10 there were bits of this covering still 
adhering to the white and, as yet, unpolished antlers. The antlers do 
not drop off until about the 1st of February, although there is consid- 
erable difference in this respect between the young and the old bucks, 
the former carrying their spikes much longer. 

We thought we could detect quite an individual difference in the 
adult bucks brought to our camps. One class were seemingly long- 
legged lank deer, with large and rough horns, while the others had 
shorter legs and smoother, and usually smaller, though perfectly 
developed, antlers. The difference iu the weight of these two kinds 
was very noticeable, the latter being decidedly heavier. The hunters 
appeared to have no explanation for this individual difference, although 
they constantly recognized it. It is probably due to age only, the very 
old animals probably not attaining the weight of those only five or six 
years old. 

The rutting season with this species is about the month of November, 
when the first frosts come. It is somewhat earlier in t!)e high mount- 
ains than in the low country. An early rain appears to liave the eflect 
of hurrying this time a week or more, and then the Deer are found run- 
ning everywhere about the woods, where a week before they migiit 
have been scarce. In this region fawns are dropped in May and June. 
Hunters think that this period is also affected by the locality, whether 
low or elevated. In such mountainous country a difference of only a 
couple of thousaud feet in altitude makes a great difference iu the prog- 
ress of the seasons, the first frosts affecting the rutting, and thus the 
fawning periods. 

Still-hunting is the only method practiced in Korthern California, so 
far as I am aware, in the hunting of the Black-tailed Deer, I heard 
nothing of any habitual hounding of Deer, or shooting on runways, or 
night-hunting with lights. Dogs are used by many hunters in trailing 
wounded animals and as assistants in discovering game, but the com- 
mon varieties are usually the only ones trained in such work. 

In the spring and sammer mouths the customaiy method of the still- 
hunting is to ascend the high wooded ridges, early iu the morning, and 
seek the deer before they retire to the brushy gulches for concealment 
and to escape the heat of noon. At such times they may be found 
wandering in small bands along the ridges and other elevations where 
there is but little brush, while later iu the day they are not easily 



u;h 



NoTF-S on 0,\LlFOnNI.\ ANIMATES. 



starlcd IVoiii their hiding- iilact's mile.ss fViglilcned by a dog. At other 
seasons they arc more irregnUir in their liabits, and may be found with 
equal readiness at all hours of ^ho day. A good tractable dog is a 
valuable adjunct in hunting-, but really reliable dogs are the exception, 
and many hunters are accustomed to do without them altogether. 

The " salt-licks," occurring in many parts of the country, are regu- 
larly visited at uiglit by the deer, at certain seasons, and often i)rove 
good shooting i)la('.es, Tiie animals establish distinct trails leading to 
these licks, and sometimes resort to them in considerable uumbers. 

The Black- tailed Deer is called Uop by the Indians of Northern Cali- 
fornia. 



Mnsenni 
rofjis- 
tor No. 

1410S 
14109 
14110 
UUl 
14112 
14113 
14114 
14115 
14110 
14117 
14118 
14119 
14120 
14121 
14122 

14248 
14249 
14250 
14251 
14252 
142.53 
14254 
14255 
14313 
14314 
14315 
14310 
14317 
14318 
21225 
21218 
21220 
21219 
21220 
21221 
21222 
21227 
21228 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sox 
and 
atje. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Natnro of speci- 
nicn.s. 


28 
29 
31 
32 
33 
34 
.35 
30 
37 
38 
41 
42 
43 
51 
52 

CO 
01 
02 
0.3 
04 
05 
08 
09 
75 
70 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
S2 
83 
84 
85 
81) 
87 
88 
89 
90 
91 
92 


9 juv. 
d juv. 
9 juv. 
d ad. 
9 juv. 
9 ad. 
d iii. 
9 juv. 
d ad. 
d jnv. 
9 juv. 
9 ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 

d ad. 
9 ad. 
9 juv. 
9 ad. 
9 juv. 
9 ad. 
d ad. 
9 ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
9 ad. 
c^ juv. 

d ad. 
9 ad. 
d ad. 
9 ad. 
9 ad. 
9 ad. 
9 ad. 
d ad. 
d ad. 
cT ad. 
9 ad. 
9 ad. 


Siskiyou Coun(v, California. .. 

do ; 


1883. 
Sept. 7 
Sept. 11 
Oct. 18 
Oct. 18 
Oct. 18 
Oct. 19 
Oct. 23 
Oct. 31 
Oct. 31 
Oct. 31 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 7 
Nov. 15 
Nov. 20 

1884. 
Jan. 15 
Jan. 15 
Jan. 15 
J.an. 19 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 20 
Jan. 20 
Feb. 8 
Feb. 8 
Feb. 11 
Feb. 11 
Feb. 11 
Feb. 11 
Feb. 11 
Fob. 11 
Feb. 11 
Feb. 13 
Fob. 13 
Fob. 13 
Fob. 13 
Fob. 13 
Fob. 13 
Fob. 17 
Feb. 17 
F.-b. 17 


Skin. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Skin of liead. 
Skin. 

I>o. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do; 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Skin of bead. 

Do. 
Skin. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Skolotiui. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 


Sliaata County, California . 

do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do : 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do ...4 

do 

do 


do 

do 


do 


do 


oo 


do 


do 


do 

do .. 

do 


do 

do 

do 


21223 
21224 


do '.'......'..'. 

do 



CeiviLS canadensis Erxl. Wapiti : American " FAlc." 

The retreat of llie large mammals before advanciing civilizalion i,s 
am])ly illustrated in the history of the Elk in California: Once abundant 
in nearly all suitable localities in the State, it is now almost uid^uov, n. 
I saw its weather-worn anthn-s at several places in the Sacramento Val- 
ley and along tlie coast in the vicinity of Point Reyes. It still exists 
in moderate numbers in Mendocino, Humboldt, and Trinity Counties, 
along the i![)i)<'r courses of Ia'I, Elk, and Trinity IMvers. Two large 



ISPT T riJOf'EEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAE MUSEUM. K.l) 

Elk wcivo sliot ill Humboldt Couiity in December, 18S5, and biouj^lit to 
Eureka, where I saw them. It has probably entirely disappeared from 
its former haunts about the eastern base of Mount Shas'U. 



Family ANTILOCAPEID..E. Tin: Prong-uoun Antelope. 

Antilocapra americana Ord. J'rong-hin'ii Axttlopc. 

Like the preceding, this species was once abundant in nearly all the 
open country of California. It is but a few years since it disappeared 
from the Sacramento Valley, where it lived in great numbers. It is not 
now found west of the Sierras in the northern part of the State. . Along 
the eastern slope, from the Klamath lakes southward, it is yet compar- 
atively common. I saw some in 1883 that had been killed on the plains 
lying northeast of Mount Shasta, and met with it frequently in Lassen 
County in 1884. There it was usually found on the open, sage-covered 
meadows intersi^ersed through the pine forests, and was sometimes 
found back among the pines, a mile or more from any open glade. The 
sheep-herders of the region said that their young were often found in 
June. 

The skins of Antelopes I killed at that season were unfit for preserva 
tiou, owing to the looseness of the hair. 



Mu.seum 
regis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex 
and 

age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
meua. 


21519 
21520 


147 
174 


9 


Lasseu County, Calil'orni.i 

do '. 


1884. 
June 6.. 
June 26. 


Skeleton. 
Do. 



Family BOVIDyE. Cattle. 

Ovis canadensis Shaw. Bighorn ; Mountain Sheep. 

As a further illustration of the disappearance of large mammals from 
regions where they were once abuudant, I quote the following, written 
by Dr. Kewberry, a little more than twenty- five years ago: 

'^ On the slopes and shoulders of Mount Shasta the Ovis moniana ex- 
ists in large numbers, so much so that one spur of the mountain has 
been named 'Sheep Eock,' and there the hunters are always sure of 
finding them." 

All this is changed. There is probably not a single Bighorn remaining 
either on Shasta or its outlying spur, Sheep Rock. I had the i)rivilege 
of traveling over every part of this particular section with the Topo- 
graphical Division of the U. S. Geological Survey during the summer 
of 1883, and we could find no traces of its presence. Eesident hunters 
reported it as having disappeared, none having been seen for more than 
six years. Its former abundance at Sheep Eock was attested by the 
great number of its horns and bones, which were scattered about every- 
where. Prof. Gilbert I'hompson, in charge of our party, pointed out to 
me a complete skeleton of this animal at the foot of the Mud Creek ghi- 



170 



NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 



cier, high up on ]\rount Shasta. I learned nothing of its occurreucc in 
the Mount Lassen region, although it is found in the higli Sierras, 
farther south. It exists in moderate numbers in Xortheastern Califor- 
nia and the adjoining i^ortion of Oregon. 

Family SCIUEIDiE. Squirrels. 

Aictomys flaviventer And. and Uacli. Hock;/ I\roH)itaiii ^fnrmot. 

This animal was met Avith only on the eastern slope of the Sierras 
in Jjassen County, and in l)ut one particular ledge of rocks, where it 
lived in large numbers. It has been taken at Fort Crook by Captain 
Feilner, and as this locality is also on the eastern side of the mountains 
it ai)pears that the species may be confined to that side as I learned 
nothing of its occurrence elsewhere in Northern California. 



Museum 
regis- 
ter So. 


Col- Sex 

lector's and 

No. age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
mens. 


]4.')72 
14573 


148 Ad.... 


Lassen County, California 

do 


1884. 
June 6 
June 17 


Skin. 
Bo. 







Tamias lateralis (Say). Say''8 Chipmunk. 

This handsome animal is an abundant resident of the pineries, to 
which it is strictly limited. It is found from the lower border of the 
coniferous belt as high up on t-he mountains as the timber extends, 
and in certain portions of its range, as on the western slope of Mount 
Lassen, literally swarms. It, like all other Chipmunks of the higher 
pine forests, passes the severer iiart of the winter in complete hyber- 
nation. 

Resident hunters about Mount Sliasta said that Chipmunks never 
appeared in midwinter. Its large size and distinct stripes render it a 
conspicuous species in its haunts ; while riding along the unfrequented 
roads through the pines one may see it continually bobbing up from 
behind some rock or prostrate tree trunk, often remaining so close as 
to render distinct every movement of its bright eyes twitching with 
nervous curiosity. 



Museum 


Col- 


regis- 


lector's 


ter No. 


No. 


14455 


10 


1445C 


15 


14457 


16 


14589 


149 


14590 


1.50 


14598 


151 


14C44 


201 


14645 


202 


14G4(i 


20.3 


14G47 


204 


14048 


205 


14(;49 


206 


14650 


207 



Localit', 



Sisliiyon County, California . 

do : 

do 

Lassen County, California . . . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

flo 

do 



Date. 



1883. 

July 22 

July 26 

July 26 

1884. 

Jnlv 15 

July 15 

July 15 

Julv — 

July — 

July — 

July - 

July — 

July — 
July 5 



Nature of speci- 
mens. 



Skin. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



iHSr.] TROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 171 

Taniias asiaticus Townsendi (Cacb.). Townseud's ChijnnunJc. 

Abundant on the eastern slope of the Sierras in Lassen County. It 
is confined to the pine forests like the others of its genus in Nortliern 
California. Although not recognized elsewhere there is probably no 
reason why it should not occur on the western side of the mountains. 



Mnseum 

legis- 
tei- No. 


C61- 

lectoi-'.s 

No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
mens. 


14591 
14i>92 
14503 
14594 
14595 
14596 
14597 
14C51 
14C52 
14653 
14054 


167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
197 
198 
199 
200 


Lassen County, California .... 
do ■ 


1884. 
June 20 
Juno — 
Juno — 
June — 
Juno — 
Jirao — 
June — 
July — 
July — 
July — 
July - 


Skin. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


do 


do 

do 

do 


do 

do 


do 


do 


do 





Taniias asiaticus quadrivittatus (Say). Eoclcij Mountain Chlinnunlc. 

Quite as abundant in Siskiyou and Northern Shasta Counties as 
the preceding species is on the eastern side of the Sierras. Chip- 
munks were not seen in the foothills except on one or two occasions 
when I found the present species on the high hills along the Lower 
McCloud. 



Museum 

re<iis- 

ter'No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
mens. 


14458 
14459 


7 
8 


Shasta County, California 

Siskiyou County, California .. 


1883. 
Juno 17 
July 14 


Skin. 
Do. 



Tamias asiaticus Townsendi (Baelimaii). TownsouV-s Chipmunl-. 

This Chipmunk is plentiful among the redwoods at Ilumboldt Bay. 
Iso other squirrels were met with in the coast region. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
men. 


293 
204 
295 
296 

297 




1885. 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 

Dec 


Skin. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


do 


.. . do 


do 

do 



Sperniopliilus grammurus Douglassi (Rich.) DouaJass's Lincd-iailcd Si^crmopliilc. 

Exceedingly abundant in the Upper Sacramento Valley, ranging well 

into the foothills in some places, but never being I'onnd as high as the 



172 



NOTKS ON CALIFOUNIA ANIMALS. 



Museum 
regis- 
ter No. 


Collec- 
tors 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of 
lucn 


spcci- 


14437 
14438 

14439 
14440 
14441 
14445 
14440 
14447 
14448 
14449 
14450 
14451 
14452 
1 14453 
' 14154 
14442 
14443 
14444 
21235 
21236 
21237 
21238 
21:'39 
21240 
21241 
21242 


4 
6 

106 
]06 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
117 
118 
119 
120 
127 
128 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 




Shasta County, California 

do 


J883. 
Apr. 20 
May 12 

18S4. 
Mar. 15 
Mar. 15 
Mar. 15 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 20 
Mar. 28 
Mar. 28 
Mar. 29 
Mar. 29 
Mar. 29 
Apr. 4 
Apr. 5 
Apr. 5 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 25 
Apr. 25 


Skin, 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
D9. 
Do. 
Do. 
Skeleton. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 




? 


Tohama County, California . . . 


do 


d 
d 
? 
d 
? 
S 
? 
d 
d 
? 
d 
d 
d 


(Jo 


tlo 


do 


do 


..do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 


.. do 


do 


do 




do 




do 




do 




t}i, 


do 


do 


do 





pino belt. In the region about lied Bhiff it was especiall.v immerons ; 
whether cue went along the roads thiougli the tields, or along the 
streams, he was sure of tiuding this omnipresent Spermophile. It not 
only makes itsburrows around the orchards and along the fences through 
the wheat Uelds, but gathers in colonies or lives solitary in places far 
distant from the tilled lauds. In places where its burrows are numer- 
ous, a pair or more of burrowing owls may be found, which, having no 
])rairie dogs to dig lioles for them, are compelled to depend ui)on it for 
their habitations. 

This animal may hibernate to a certain extent, but as snow rarely 
falls in the Upper Sacramento Valley and never lies more than a few 
hours when it does, its hibernation is imi)erfect. The large proportion 
of mild <lays renders it possible for the animal to apjiear at any time. I 
was not in the valley during January and February, but in December 
and March the only indii^ations of liibernation were its decreased num- 
bers. 

Douglass's Si ermophlle is a destructive animal to growing crops, and 
although under the ban of agriculturists seems to maintain its exist- 
ence in spite of all poisons that may be employed against it. 



Spermophilus grammurus Beecheyi (Rioli.). CaViforn'mn Lined-failed Spn-mophilc. 

As is weinvnowii, the preceding northern variety, Doiit/lafisi, and the 
present southern variety, Beecheyi, meet and intergrade in Northern 
California. 

Although my own specimens of Spermophilus (/rammurus are probably 
ail referable to the former, Die latter is certainly entitled to a place in 



18S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 173 

this ciitiiloj^iie, as speciiuens taken at Fort Keacliug by Dr. Hauiiuoud, 
and at Fort Crook by Captain Feiluer, have been referred to the variety 
Bceoheyi. 

Spermophilus Ricliardsoni Townsendi (li;uhiiiaii). TowiincKd's iS2)cnnophilt'. 

I found this speeies on the eastern sh)[)e of the Sierra Nevadas, in 
Lassen County, where it was abundant, replaeiny;" the two preeedinj; 
species. It is a typical Spermophile in its habits, gathering in commu- 
nities in suitable places, such as are afforded by the open meadows in- 
terspersed through this coniferous region. 

It is never found far from these open glades and makes no solitary 
burrows as chipmunks do. Althougii from its gregarious life it is at 
once recognized as a Spermophile, its smaller size and short erected tail 
render it strikingly chipmunk-like when running. 

The Lined-tailed Spermophiles run by comparatively easy bounds, 
with their long tails gracefully curved, but this fellow scurries over the 
ground making all sorts of contortions, with his stunted tail pointed 
skyward. When sitting erect he applies the caudal appendage flat to 
the ground as a prop, and with fore paws drawn close to the body 
looks from a distance like a stake in the ground, suggesting at once 
the yame "picket-i^in," by which it is known to the hunters and herders 
of the region. More than once have 1 mistaken the erect motionless 
form of this Spermophile for a picket-pin in the grass. 



Museum 

regis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of si)eci- 
mens. 


14580 
14581 
14582 
14583 
14584 
14585 
1458C 
14587 
14588 
14G55 


162 
103 
1C4 
lf)5 
160 
179 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 


Lasaou County, California 

do ..'. 


1884. 
June 20 
June — 
June — 
June — 
June — 
June 20 
July 20 
July — 
July _ 
July — 
July — 


Skin. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do 

1)0. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 

do 


do 

do 


do 







Sciurus hudsonius Fremonti (Add. and Bauli.). FrcmonVs Chickaree. 

Not uncommon in the pines of Lassen County, the only i)lace it was 
found. This, with the following variety and intermediate grades, has 
been obtained at Fort Crook by Feiluer and Parkinson: 



Museum 
regis- 
ter No. 


Col 
lector's Locality. Date. Nature of spoci- 
No. men. 


14577 
14578 


145 
146 


Lasspn County, California 

do 


1884. 
June 1 Skin. 
Juno 1 Do. 





174 



NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 



Sciuriis liudsonius Douglassi ((Jray). Dotujluss.-i Chickarvv. 

Common tbrougliuiit llio [)iiie forests siiiiuuiuliiii;' Momil iSluista. 



Museum 


Col- 


regis- 


lect oi's 


ter ^0. 


No. 


14433 


9 


14434 


13 


14435 


14 


1443C 


17 



Locality. 



Siskivou Couiitv, Calit'oDiia 

Ilo ■ 

<lo 

do 



Date. 




Nature of speci- 
meu. 



Skiu. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



©ciiuus fossor Poale. California G-raij Squirrel. {Ti-lccl-is of the Wiutuus). 

Very commou everywhere tbroughoiit the couiferous Ibrests, ruiigin;^- 
h)w «h)\vii into the foothills in many ])liice.s. In winter the males of this 
species appear to gather in g'roups, ami in Shasta County, in January 
and February, 1 have frequently shot half a dozen out of one tree as 
fast as I could load and fire. Females seemed never to be present iu 
these bands. 



Museum 
regis- 
ter No. 



14432 

14429 
14430 
14431 
14472 
14473 
14574 
14575 
14576 
21513 
21514 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



58 
59 
142 
143 
144 
190 
191 



Sex 
aud 
age. 



Locality. 



Shasta County, California 



.do 
.do 
-do 
.do 
.do 



Lassen County, California 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Dale. 



1883 
Apr. 

1884 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
June 
Juno 
June 
July 
July 



Natnr(^ of spoc-i- 
uieu. 



Sliiu. 

Skin iu alcohol. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Skin. 

Do. 

Do. 
Skeleton. 

Do. 



Sciuropteius voliicella hudsonius (GiucL). Xorlhcru Flying Squirrel. 

I learned from hunters and miners of the occasional occurrence of the 
Flying Squirrel in ^N^orthern California, but did not meet with it. The 
species is, however, known to the region from specimens obtained at 
Fort Crook by Captain Feilner. 

Family HAPLODONTIDiE. Skwellels. 

Haplodon rufus* (Raf.). Scivellel; " Mouniain Beaver" ( U. Cala.) ; "Ulur Munhrut." 

{If. Gala.) 

A short-tailed rodent of the size of a Muskrat was described to me by 
lesidonts of Korthorn California as existing in one or two places on the 
southern slope of Mount Shasta, and in several places on the eastern 
slopes of Mount Lassen. This animal, from the minute account given of 
its mode of life and external features, I readily recognized as Haplodon. 
It was variously described under the names "Mountain ]Jeaver" and 

"Dr. C. H. Merriam has recently described a larger forui (//. major) iVoui Central 
Calilbniia, to wliicli the i)r(;.s('iit may be referable. 



1-S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 175 



"Blue Miiskrat," the names Mountain Boomer, Showt'l and Sewelltrl 
not being- in use there. Mr. J. B. Campbell, of Shasta County, told mo 
of finding peculiar animals in his traps once while trapping on Mouui 
Shasta, and his description of them was such as to leave no doubt as to 
their identity. Subsequently when on Mount Shasta I was unable to 
find the exact locality where the animals abounded, but met with their 
burrows at Mount Lassen the following summer (188i). While passing 
rapidly through the latter region 1 obtained evidence of the existence 
of some species of the genus llaplodon near Morgan's Springs, on the 
headwaters of Mill Creek, and while at Big Meadows, on the north fork 
of Feather Eiver, was shown burrows said to be inhabited by the 
" mountain beaver." These burrows were in a wihl gorge, deep anu 
narrow, down which the little river dashed with roar and foam. In 
certain i^laces, where for a short distance moist, clayey banks took the 
place cf the interminable fallen trunks and bowlders, were numerous 
holes, somewhat resembling those made by muskrats, and near them 
were scattered bunches of freshly cut weeds and coarse grasses. Some 
of the green herbs were dragged partially into the mouths of the bur- 
rows, and if the aniuial itself had not been readily recognizable from 
my informant's description, it could doubtless have been identified from 
this singular habit of cutting herbs and laying them out to dry, as de- 
scribed in Vol. IX of the Pacific Eailroad Eeports. As I was con)i)elled 
by force of circumstances to leave there the next day, spc^-'^jiens, un^ 
fortunately, could not be obtained. The altitudes of these two localities 
were each a little over 5,000 feet. 



Family CASTORID^E. Beavers. 

Castor fiber Liund. Beaver. 

Kather common along the wilder streams of the region, such as the 
Upper Sacramento and the McCloud Eivers. At the western base of 
Mount Shasta a number of them occupied unmolested a dam, vrhich they 
had constructed in a corner of a meadow belonging to Mr. <J. H. Sisson. 

Beaver skins are worth from $3 to $5 in j::«rorthern California, but trap- 
ping in general is not much practiced now. This animal is called Ccl-tet 
by the Indians of McCloud Eiver. 



Musenm 
refcis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's Locality. 
No. 


Date. 


Nature of sneci- 
nion. 


21230 
212:J1 


93 Shasta County, California 

94 do -■ 


18.S4. 
Feb. 20 
Feb. 20 


Skeh^ton. 
Do. 



Family MURID/E. Mice. 
Arvicola austerus citrtatus Cope. Western Prairie Mouse. 

Collected at Fort Crook by Capt. John Feiliu'r: not represented in 
my collection. 



17G NOTES OX CAl.irOK.MA AMMAl.S 

Arvicola riparius (Onl). Comutvn JmcrictiH Meuiloir Moiim: 

Fouiuliii abuiiilaiice in timotiiy nu'adowsat tho baso oi Mount Shasta, 
ami probably eiiiially uumeious iu siiitablo loiMliiir.s ilmnijilioiU the 
ivgiou. 



Maaeaiu 
tvsis- 



144*4 
14490 
144^0 
144<^; 
144*7 
144j^ 
144sS 



Col- 
lector') 
No. 



Localitv. 



19 I SiskivouCouutv, Cttlifomuk. 

20 «lo .' 

21 ' do 

22 do 

23 do 

24 do 

23 1 do 



Date 




1SS3. 


' 


Aug. 




Aufi. 




t Ang. 




' Aug. 




! Aug. 




Aug. 




Aug. 





iueu». 



1SS3. 
Aug. 1 
Aug. 1 
Ang. 4 
Aug. 4 
Aug. 4 
Aug. 4 


Skin. 

Do. ' 
l>o. i 
Do. ! 
Do. i 
IV.. 


Aug. 4 


i 



Hesperomys leucopus (,Le ConU'\ White-fooUti Mow^c. 

Probably the most abundant and regularly distributed ot" all the 
Mnrhhr of the reiiiou, having: been met with from the open plains high 
up iiito the pine-eovered mouataius. At one of our camps iu Lasseu 
Couuty we were literally besieged by Mice of this species. They would 
enter the cabin at all hours of the day aud feed upou crumbs strewu 
upon table aud tloor, while their noisy foraging among our provision 
bo:ses by uight was a source of real annoyance. 



1 
Museum 
ivgis- 
ler Xo. 


1 
Col- 
lectors 
^•o. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Loc;Uity. 


D.ue. 


Nature of speci- 
mens. 


144S3 
1*451 
144Si 


12 
44 
45 

130 
131 
175 
176 
177 
173 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 


Juv... 
Juv... 
Juv... 




Siskiyou County. California .. 

Shasta Countv, California 

do .' 


ISSJ. 
Julv 22 
Xov. 9 
Xov. 9 

18S4, 
April 5 
April 5 
June 26 
June 26 
June 26 
June 26 
Julv — 
JulV — 
JiUV — 
JulV — 
JulV — 


Skin 
Do. 
Do, 


14479 

1447S 

14600 

1 14601 


Tehama Countv, California . . . 
do ■- 

Lassen County. California 


Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


1460-> 


do 


14603 


do 


140CS 


do 


14659 
14660 


do 

do 


14661 


do 


146C2 


do 









Hesperomys leucopas sonoriensis »,Le Coute). 

Fort Crook. Feilner's collection. 
Neotoma cinerea ^.OriD. BHshii-iailed Wood Hat. 

The AVood Eat is regularly distributed throughout the foothills and 
mountains, aud its bulky nest, resembling a large brush pile, is one of 
the common objects to the hunter of the region. I have frequently 
found a dozen in a single day's tramp, being situated for the most part 
in brushy tracts or secluded ravines. Sometimes they are built among 
bushes or against fallen tree trunks app.irently for support, as the 
structures are often 5 feet high. _ Wood Rats steal all sorts of light port- 



ins:.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED .STATES NATIONAL MU.SEL'.M. 177 

iible articles from Lull ter.-s' cabiii.s, wLicblljcy u.s«; in huildiug tbeir Imhi- 
tations, and will can y oti' lar;:^e (jaaiitiUes of crackers, ^rain, groceries,, 
etc. In fact no piovision.s are sate from tbeir foraginf( if left unguarded 
in remote camps. Tbe animiils tbemse'.ves are seldom seen, being 
rather nocturnal in their habitci and must be trai)ped to be secured. 



Miueum 

icgiu- 

ier No. 


Col- , 
lfcctor'8 Locality. 
Ko. 


Date. 


1 

Nature of spfxi- 
nien^i. 


14480 
14599 


18 1 Siskiyou Connty, California .. 
152 1 Lassen County, California 


1883. 
Aug. 1 

June 13 


Skin. 
Do. 



Neotoina fuscipes C<joper. Dinskij-focAed Wood Hat. 

Xear the coast in Humboldt County this Woofl Kat is very ai>undant, 
building immense houses of twigs, sticks, etc., like the preceding species, 
which it resembles in its habits, ^ear the mouth of Eel Eiver I saw 
the domicile of a Wood Kat perched upon the roof of a deserted cabin in 
a dense thicket. It consisted of a pile of brush G feet in height and 
diameter covering half of the roof. A small tree, whose branches ex- 
tended into the nest, was evidently used by the animal as a means of 
access to its nest, a portion of which extended from the roof to the 
trunk of the tree. This species often builds in colonies, and in a thicket 
at San Simeon, in San Louis Obispo County, I found no less than forty 
nests within a radius of as many yards. 



Col- I 
lector's ' 

No. ; 



Localitv. 



Date. 



Nature of speci- 
men. 



291 Humboldt County. 



1885. 
Dec. - 



Skin. 



Family GEOMYID^. Gophers. 

Thomomys talpoides btilbivonis (Rich.). Pacific Pocket Gopher. 

Common in nearly all parts of the region. When at San Diego a 
perfect albino of this species was presented to me. 



Family SACCOMYID^. Pouched Eats. 

Perognathus monticola Baird. Mountain Pocket Mouse. 

Obtained at Fort Crook by Captain Feilner : not represented in my 
collection. 

Dipodomys PhiUipsi (Woodhouse). •• Phillip's Pocket Eat ;" " Kangaroo Eat." 

Not uncommon in many localities. At Eed Bluff I sometimes found 
it drowned in the water tanks at railroad crossings. 
Froc. X. U. 67 1:.' 



178 



NOri':.S ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 



Family ZAPODID^E. Ju.mi-inu Miuk. 

Zapus hudsouius Coues. Jumping Mouse. 

Several iuclividuals of tins species were seeu in some ineavlow.s at tlie 
western base of ]\Iouut Shasta, where one s[)eciiiien was (;ollecte<l. It 
was also found in Shasta County by Dr. IsTewbeny, and occurs no doubt 
tbrouchout the region. 



Museum 
regis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of spei'i- 
men. 


14491 


11 


Siskiyou Couuty, Califoruia .. 


1883. 
July 22 


Skill. 



Family IIYSTRICID/E. Porcupines. 

Erethizou dorsatus epixantlius (Brandt). WiHtern I'orcKpinc. 

^Vbile in Northern Calitbruia I was much interested in the habits of 
the Porcupine, which was found to be very abundant in Lassen County. 
The first intimation we had of its presence was on the first niiilit of our 
stay in an old cabin on a sheep range, Avhich was adoptt^l as headtiuar- 
ters while in tbat region. We had noticed numerous chipmunks {Ta- 
mias (nteralis and T. Toivnscndi) while establishing ourselves for the 
night, and hearing considerable nil;)bling of our boxes alter dark we 
naturally attributed the noises to these animals or to wood rats, whose 
brush-pile domiciles existed })lentifnlly all over the, country. I>ut a 
certain persistent nibbling kept me awake, and I finally investigated 
with a candle. A large Porcupine was found squatted upon a box con- 
tentedly regaling himself on morsels of pine which he was biting from 
the edge of the table. He faced the light with much curiosity, and 
seemed in no way disconcerted at finding four men gazing at him. A 
companion passed a revolver to nie, which 1 snapped close to his head 
several times, but finding it empty I struck an ineffectual blow with a 
stick, when the animal very deliberately crawled through an unchinked 
space between the logs and departed. Oar three dogs outside growled 
ominously, but did not venture to attack the animal, whose natura.l 
means of defense one of them at least had experienced to his sot row. 

We were destined, however, to meet with Porcupines again ; a stump 
before the cabin door had been used Ibi' st \('ia] seasons by the !:e;d('rs 
as a salting place for their horses, and they told me that it was resorted 
to nightly by Porcupines, occasional ones being killed there from time 
to tim(\ They had eaten part of the top of this stump down to a d<'p: li 
of four inches and Iiad gnawed deep excavations in each side of it. We 
placed salt there as usual, which was dissolved by the rain, thus per- 
meating it thoroughly, and again, as predicted by the herders, the place 
became a nocturnal rendezvous for Porcupines. 



1S87.] PKOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 179 

A Chinamau lierder, employed on the range, killed four of these ani- 
mals for me at this plaee inside of a week's time, and others could prob. 
ably have been taken if 1 had been there to keep careful watch for 
them. Ou my returii to the main camp I shot one in the act of gnawing 
this particular stump, the animal being too much absorbed in its occu- 
pation to pay any attention to my approach. Before we abandoned that 
camp the Porcupines had gnawed a hole completely through the stump 
from side to side. Its original diameter was about IS inches. 

Dogs that have experienced the disadvantages of Porcupine fighting 
are reluctant to engage with them again, one tussel being sufficient for 
the majority of them. Those attached to our camp would bristle up 
when they came around, but would wisely retire from the scene of action 
with knowing growls. 

A rancher living Smiles south of Susanville, in the same (Lassen) 
county, told me that a dog belonging to his ranch killed more than 
twenty Porcupines before succumbing to his injuries. In addition to 
this number he had treed nearly as many besides, which were killed by 
his master and the people about the place. This was related by the 
man, Mr. S. xVlexauder, in the i)resence of several of his neighbors, who 
did not seem' inclined to question the verity of the statements, and 1 
repeat it as an illustration of the unoommon abundance of the Porcupine 
in that region. 

A sheep-herder on a neighboring range whom I had interrogated as 
to the possibility of obtaining specimens of this aniuial, replied, "Fou'll 
soon get all you wantif you stay round here; they won't trouble them- 
selves to get out of a person's way." Uis prediction as to their abun- 
dance was soon verified, and he spoke not less truly of their stupid fear- 
lessness of man, for I soon after approached two by day, in the open 
woods, which were easily dispatched with clubs. 

It was ascertained from other herders in that section that it was the 
habit of Porcupines to prowl about cabins by night and nibble at boxes, 
tables, and other camping furniture that had traces of salt upon them. 
There could be no doubt but that salt, and salt only, was the source of 
their attraction to the above mentioned stump. 

When assaulted, the Porcupine makes no defensive demonstration 
other than the erection of its quills. It retreats only at a feeble swayin«- 
trot, which a child could surpass, and if closely pressed it moves off 
sideways with mouth open and back arched. 

All the specimens obtained were infested with wood-ticks to a dis- 
yiusting extent, and their legs and bellies were covered with sores from 
this cause. There being no quills on the legs and underp arts it was not 
as difficult a job to skin them as might be supposed. They have but 
small eyes for the size of their heads, with a decidedly ''piggish" look 
about them. 

ISTotwithstanding the abundance of the species in Lassen County, 
observed but one individual in Shasta and Siskiyou Counties dur- 



180 



I,OTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 



iug iiiorc than a year's residence. It was not met with in the cuast 
region. 



Museum 
rofiis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


» Nature of speci- 

UlCUS. 


U5G5 
145G(i 
14r.(i7 
14508 
21510 
21.515 
21517 


158 
1;VJ 
IGO 
Kil 
180 
181 
182 


Las.scn County, California 

ilo ". 


1884. 
Juno 17 
June 17 
June 17 
June 17 
July 12 
July 12 
July 12 


Skiu. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Ski'letou. 

Do. 

Do. 


do 


do 


do 


do 


do 





Fiiiuily LAGOMYID.E. Pikas. 

Lagoniys princeps (liicli. ). Xorth jlmcricati Pika : LUih Chief Ilurc. 

I (lid not meet with this interestiii];^' animal on Mount Shasta, although 
I have reason to believe it exists there, from a statement made by a 
resident of Siskiyou County. I found it, however, in many places on 
the eastern and western sloi)es of Mount Lassen, where it inhabited 
roek ledf^es, or, more correctly, })laces whe'."e lar^ij^e masses of rock had 
slipped from hijiher positions, formini^ rock slides. It was especially 
abundant in the vicinity of Morgan*^ Si)rings, on the western side of the 
mountains, at an elevation of about G,000 feet. The Pikas did not appear 
to come out from their retreats until late in the day, at least 1 did not 
hear them until towards ev^eiiing', and then their sharp s(jueaks came 
from all parts of the great heap of loose rocks where 1 used to watcli 
for them. They are as good ventriloquists as locusts and katydids, 
and 1 have sometimes stared at the rocks from which their tiny shrieks 
arose until my eyes ached before catching sight of one. Indeed, if I 
could locate one by the sound in half an hour's time, so as to shoot it, I 
considered myself fortunate. 

This deceptiveness m their cries, together with their inconsi)icuous 
color and diminutive size, rendered them altogether quite diliicult to 
obtain, for they never went near my traps. 

They were not observed to sit upright like chipmunks, as they are 
said to do elsewhere, but scpiatted mouse-like upon some stone or 
crouched beneath its shelter. They are decidedly mouse-like in their 
actions. 



Museum 
regis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's Locality. 
No. 

1 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
niiu. 


146.'-.G 
14657 


183 
184 


Mount Lassen, California 

do 


1884. 
July 20 
July 20 


Skin in alcohol. 
Do. 





iMs/.j ]*iiO0Ei=:niNas ov tInited states national museum. 181 

Fiuuily LI'iPORID.E. IIauks. 

Lepus ameiicanus Washingtoni (J3;iir(l). ll'tstcni J^iri/hHj Hare. 

Not uncommon in the upper Hiicnvmento Valley, and sometimes ranges 
well into the foothills. 



Mil SMI m 

rcLiia- 
tcr No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of .speci- 
mens. 


144G0 
144G1 


10:5 
VAi 


Shasta County, California 

Teliama County, California... 


1884. 
Mar. 1 
Apr. 8 


Sliin in alcohol. 
Do. 



Lepus sylvaticus Auduboni (Baird). Amhihayihi Hare. 

Not uncommon about Humboldt Bay, where two specimens were 
obtained. Found at Fort Crook by Capt. John Feilner. 

Lepus campestris Bacliinan. Prairir Hare. 

Fort Crook, Captain Feilner. I shot a hare near Eagle Lake, in June, 
which I thought to be this species, but the specimen was not preserved. 

Lepus Tro-wbridgei (Bainl). Trowhridfjea Hare. 

Fort Crook, Captain Feilner. A liare whicli I took to be the species 
was seen on the Sage Plains, north of Mount Shasta. 

Lepus californicus Gray. California Hare ; '' JaeJcass llahhit." 

The Californian Hare, or Jack Rabbit, as it, like all other large liares, 
is usually called, '•* abundant iu every part of the upper Sacramento 
Valley and the adjoining foothills, in some places being found almost 
up to the pine belt. It was found to be less numerous on the coast. 
The Jack Kabbits may be seen towards evening, iu little companies, 
playing on the open plains bordering the timber belts, and if suddenly 
come upon there is a general stampede among them and a scamper for 
the nearest cover. It leaves in the mind of the hunter, as he walks 
homeward, u pleasant i)i(;ture, the principal features of which seem to 
be several pairs of disproi)ortioiiately l)ig ears galloping off in the gloam- 
ing toward some dark wood in the background. 

Somewhere in this region I he.ird the i-idiculous nickname of" Narrow- 
gauge Mule'' applied to the Jack lv,al)bit. 



Museum 

regis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
mens. 


14126 

14462 
14403 


1 

i-;o 

124 
300 


Shasta County 

Tehama County 

tio : 

Humboldt County 


1883. 
Apr. 20 

18,s4. 
Mar. S9 
A])r. 4 

1885. 
Dec. — 


Skin. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



182 



NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 
Fanulv VESrEKTILIONIDyE. Bat.s. 



Vesperugo serotinus (Sclnebcr). Serothic Bat. 

Obtained at Sheep lioclc, at tlie iiortlieast base of Mount Shasta. 
Not very coninion. 



Mnaeum 

logis- 
tor No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
nious. 


14492 
14493 


20 
27 


Siskiyou County, Cixlifornia.. 
ilo 


1883. 
Aug. 23 
Aug. 23 


Skin. 
Do. 





Vespeiiigo noctivagaus (Lo Conte). Silvery-haired Bat. 
Collected at Fort l>eadii)^^ by Dr. J. F. Hammond. 

Vespertilio lucifugus Lc Couto. JHnntnosal Bat. 
Fort Eeading", Dr. Ilaramond. 

Family TALPID^E. Molec. 

Scapanus To'wnsendii (I5ach.). Oretjon Mole. 

Not common ; only seen on two or three occasions. 



Museum 

regis- 

toi- No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
mens. 


14475 


40 


Slia.sta Couuty, CalHoruia 


1883. 
Nov. 10 


Skin. 



Family TIRSIDiE. Bears. 

Ursus americaiius Pallas, fllack Bear ; Tcilc of the JVintiinft. 

Black Bears are plentiful throuf^hout the mountains and higher foot- 
hills of Northern California. 

They are wild and watchful creatures, and it is dillicult to shoot 
them in " still-hunting," for they can seldom be approached within easy 
shooting distance as deer can, and if not " hard hit" are likely to be 
lo^:t. They are, however, readily trapped, and according to hunters in 
general one trap is worth several guns if the business of getting them 
is to be seriously entered upon. 

I saw a large and glossy Bear near tlie Government trout hatchery, 
on Lower McCloud River, once, engaged iu browsing upon the leaves 
of trees, which it rose upon its haunches to reach, iHilling' down the 
branches with its paws. When fired upon it rushed to the steep 
(ilayey bank of an adjacent gulch and threw itself, apparently with de- 
liberate intention, by successive somersaults, to the bottom, reaching 
whicii, it started down the little valley at marvelous spe(ul, crashing- 
through the low brush like a demon of wrath. It rapidly distanced 



lHrf7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 18,3 

the pack of dogs that pursued it from iioou until nightfall, and escaped, 
although leading them all the way by a much blood-bespattered trail. 

In following this Bear across the many steep-banked gulches that it 
had sought in its precipitate flight, we observed that it had descended 
all favorable declivities by rolling, heels over head, to the bottom, ap- 
parently gaining time by headlong tumbles down hill. This, as I was 
afterwards told by Indians, is not an unusual trick with wounded or 
frightened bears. 

Californian examples of Ursus americanus are remarkable for variety 
of coloration. During the month of November, 1883, Mr. J. B. Camp- 
bell and the writer trapped four Bears on McCloud Eiver, one of which 
was glossy black, another dark brown, and two almost yellowish. 

The usual method of trapping is to fasten the bait to a tree Just out 
of reach of the Bear, and place the trap, concealed by leaves, &c., where 
the animal (a bear, or possibly a panther) must spring it with its feet in 
attempting to reach the meat. We collected skins and skeletons of 
deer on the same trip, and our custom was to search for Bear signs 
where intestines and other useless parts of deer had been left at the 
time of shooting on previous days, as the Bears were quite likely to 
revisit such windfalls on following nights, and there set our tra^). 

One very large Bear dragged the trap and the piece of sapling to which 
it was secured (for the trap should not be fastened immovably) over the 
high ridges east of the McCloud to the Squaw Creek side of '^ the 
divide," a distance of several miles, taking it entirely out of our neigh- 
borhood. Traveling with these " impediments" in tow, the Bear, of 
course, left a very distinct trail, but it required six hours or more to 
overtake and shoot him, so tortuous and rugged was liis way. The re- 
turn from such a hunt is even harder than the pursuit, for the heavy 
skin and a little of the meat are load enough for one man, and the two 
guns and the, trap are rather more than a load for the other man, with 
much chaparral to struggle through and night coming on. A good 
bear trap with its chain weighs 30 pounds, and costs half as much as 
the average rifle does. 



Museum 
regis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex 
and 
ago. 


Locality. 


Date. 


i 
Nature, of speci- ■ 
luen.s. 


14123 
14124 
14125 
21531 


39 

50 

53 

209 


? 


Shasta County, Califoruia 

do 

do 


1883. 
Nov. 4 
Nov. 15 
Nov. 20 


Skin. 1 
Do. ; 
Do 1 


do 


Skull. 1 






1 



Ursus horribilis Orel. Grizzhj Bear : Wl-ma, of Ihr WhiUuin. 

This animal is rare in Northern California, but I heard of a few 
instances of its capture within late years. While in Lassen County, 
several hunters reported the presence of a very large Grizzly along the 



IfU 



NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMATES. 



easlt'iii sl()i)i> of llic mouutains in June. It somctiiiios ;i))[)ears in tlic; 
]\[<)mit, Slia.sta ie.<;ioii ami in Trinity County. Au old Indian living- iu 
the. vioinity of tbe ]\[c01oa(l Kivor tish hatchery, in ISSl, bore sad marks 
of ail encounter with a"?r/?>m" more than twenty year.s belore, the 
]»atel]aof the ri.uht knee having been bitten oft", and that i)art ol'tho 
leu,- otherwise mutilated, leaving an ugly cancerous sore, which, under 
barbarous Indian treatment, had never liealed. 

When Dr.J.S. Newberry passed through Xorthern (/alifornia twenty- 
five or thirty years ngo the (Tri/zly was met with in many places, to the 
app;!i('!it cxcliision of the Dlack Bear, which was not found until the 
expedition liad passed well into Oregon. Since the Grizzly began to 
disai)pear before the advancement of the settler, the other species has 
been more numerous, leading to the inference that the Black r>ear will 
not be found in abundance where the larger species is well established. 
Mr. J. L. AVo.rtraan informs me that in many parts of the West where 
Grizzlies abound the black bear occurs very rarely. 

F:iiiiil\ I'ROCYONID^. Kaccoons. 

Piocy on lotor ( I j i i iiu' ) . Jlaccoon . 

Pretty generally distributed, but not observed in the high mountains. 
Common about the sloughs in the timber belts of the Sacramento Valley, 
less numerous in the foot-hills of Shasta County. Called Kuril by the 
Win tuns. 



Mii.scnm 
vesis- 
ter No. 


Col- 

lo.ctor'.H 
No. 


Sex 
and 
ago. 


Locality. 


Tint . Nature of spoci- 
•^*^'^- mens. 


14391 
144flG 
14467 


71 
125 
129 





Slia.st.ii Connty, California 

Tehama County, California .. 
do 


1884. 
Jan. 28 
Apr. 4 
Apr. 5 


Slun. 
Do. 
Do. 



Bassaris astuta Licht. Cacomisth; Civel Cat. 

I trapi)ed one of tliesc animals in Shasta County in February, 38S4. 
The species occurs throughout the wooded country, ex(*ei)t jierhaps the 
coast and the higher mountains, but is regarded as somewhat of a raiity 
by those who engage in trapping. A Pitt lliver min er told me of hav- 
ing had a pair of tame Civet Cats about his cabin for a year or more. 
He described them as being most active at night and decidedly noc. 
turiial in their habits. 



Museum 

rciiis- 
tcr No. 


Col- 

lec.tni'"8 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of .speci- 
men. 


144-24 


102 


d 


.Slmsta Connty. Califoniia 


1881. 
Feb. 29 


Skin. 



issr.] IMJOCKF-DlXCS OF IIXiTEI) STA'Pl'-S NATiOl^AI. MUSEUM. 185 
F;niiily MU.STELID.E. Weaskls. 

Lutra canadensis (Tiirtoii). NortJt American Otter. 

The Otter is not uiux)iiimoii on the iiiountuin streams of Xortherii 
California, especially on rivers abounding- in lisli, like theMcCloud and 
Upper Sacramento. The evidence of its presence, however, rested upon 
pelts seen in the possession of trappers, and tracks along the shores, for 
I never saw it alive. 

Although a piscivorous creature, and abundant in the vicinity of the 
Government iisli hatcheries on the Lower McCIoud, I never heard of its 
committing- depredations upon the trout ponds, as the lynxes were 
accused of doing. Its natural shyness was probal>ly a reason for this, 
as it is a most difiicult animal to entrap and is accredited with a very 
suspicious nature. 



Museum 
regis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
men. 


2I-jn2 


73 


Shasta County, California 


1884. 
Feb. 5 


Skeleton. 



Mephitis mephitica (Sliaw). Common ,SknnJc. 

This species was met with on several occasions along McCloud River. 
A s])ecimen of a female, obtained April 20, was found with foetuses but 
an inch and a half in length at that date, indicating probably that the 
young would not have been brought forth until the summer was well 
advanced. Audubon saw the young of this species in the Eastern States 
in May, but other authors that I have consulted are silent on that point. 



Museum 

roffis- 

ter'^No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. Date. 


Nature of speci- 
men. 


14127 2 


? ad. 


Shasta County, California 


iss.-? 

Apr. 20 


Skill. 



Mephitis putorius (Liuuc). Little Striped Skuvk. 

This veiy handsome little animal was found to be rather common in 
the timber belts around Red Bluff, in Tehama County, and in the foot-hills 
of Shasta, the adjoining county on the north. Several fine specimens 
of this species, that had been killed during my residence in that region, 
were lost to science on account of my reluctance about engaging in 
the by no means delectable occupation of preparing their skins for the 
cabinet. Although the odor arising from this species is decidedly less 
obnoxious than that of the larger Skunks, it is still sufficiently pro- 
nounced as to cause hesitation on the part of the most ardent collector. 
I doubted whether the befouled skin of a Skunk killed by the ordinary 
method of shooting could ever be rendered tolerable by any method of 



ISG 



NOTES ON CALirOIlXTA ANIMALS. 



disinfection. In the fiice of these difficnlties a letter arrived from Pro 
fessor Baird suggesting' a new method of treatment for such .specimens, 
Nvhicli was followed with gratifying success. "The best way of treating 
the Skunks," he wrote, "is to catch them in a closed box trap, baiti'd 
with meat. This box can be immersed in water and the animal drowned 
without causing any smell. Last summer at Wood's IIoll [Mass.] eight 
or ten were taken directly under the house which we occui)ied, and 
we drowned them and sent them to Washington without their becoming 
in any way a nuisance." 

The attempt at preserving the offensive specimens thatliad been shot 
or taken in steel traps having failed, a box trap was baited with a young 
chicken and jdaced under a sheep-herder's cabin to which the animals 
resorted nightly. When visited the following morning it was found 
sprung and proved to contain tlie desired species, although it was with 
some misgivings that we ventured to peep into it. The captive being 
uninjured had not been frightened into a discharge of its formid- 
able secretion, and the characteristic odor of its family was barely 
l^erceptible. It was a very pretty creature, and I regretted that it could 
not be studied alive for a time, but adult Skunks in full possession 
of their defensive armature are not well adapted for pets, so it was 
converted into a dried specimen after the i^rescribed process, without 
becoming offensive to any one. The method of killing Skunks by drown- 
ing, I have since learned, has long been known, although apparently 
not in that region. The herders told me that scarcely a night passed 
without their being awakened by the noise made by Skunks rummaging 
among the camp uiensils, and they hailed the box trap as a means of 
s})eedy and safe deliverance from their persecutors. This Skunk, from 
its very small size and apparently greater agility, is more dangerous to 
poultry than the larger Mephitis me])hitica, being especially destructive 
to young ehickens. At one ran<;h where I staid for a time it would 
enter the coops and kill small chickens by the dozen, but never seemed 
to disturb the hens that were brooding them. It was difficult to exclude 
it, for it seemed to find its way into the coops as readily as a weasel. 

I shot one of these Skunks at this ranch one iiight, the; Chinese cook, 
who had discovered it, holding a lamp to disclose its position among 
the hen-coops. It ])ad already killed about ten small chickens, but had 
made no attempt to disturb the hen that was covering them. 



Museum 
regis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of 
specimen. 


14426 
14428 
14<rJ7 


104 

ne 

132 


cT 


Shasta County, C.aliConiia. . . 
Ti-hania County, California 
<1<) 


1884. 
yisir. 4 
Mar. 28 
Apr. 8 


Skin. 
Do. 
Do. 







1887.1 PROCEEDINGS OF UNTITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 187 

Taxidea americaua (Bodila'it). Americau lUuhjcr. 

The Badger is a common species in the Saci'ameuto Valley aiul ou the 
plains of Northeastern California. My own experience with this retiring;' 
animal accords with that of other travelers through regions when^ it 
abounds. Its omnipresent burrow furnishes unmistakable evidence oC 
its i)resencc, but theaninuil itself is not often seen. The only one I saw 
was a young one, 7 or 8 inches in length, which was killed on a- ranch 
near Red Bluff, onlMarchlo. It was yellowish cottony white, with the 
characteristic dark feet and striped head of the species, the markings, 
however, being rather faint. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
men. 


105 


Juv... 


1884. 
Eed BlufF, CaUfomia Mar. 15 


Skin. 



Putorius vison (Sclireber). American Mlnlc. 

Common throughout the region. Mink skins were often seen in the 
possession of the Indians of McOloud Eiver, by whom the animal is 
called Bas sooh'. We had live Minks at different times at the Fisheries, 
but they never seemed to thrive. It is not im])robable, however, that 
they died from wounds received in trapping. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of speci- 
men. 


301 


Humboldt County 


1885. 
Dec. — 


Skin. 





Putorius brasilieusis frenatus (Sewast.). Bridled Weasel. 

I was told of the frequent occurrence of weasels in iSTorthern Califor- 
nia, and saw one near Mount Lassen, wliich was not secured. As spec- 
imens of P. frenatus were taken at Fort Crook, by Captain Feilner, there 
can be little doubt it is the prevailing if not the only species. 

Mustela pennanti Erxlebeu. Ptlan. I'cnnaitVa Marlen. 

Pennant's ^Marten, better known as the "Fisher," is found throughout 
the wooded and mountainous portions of this region. A handsome 
specimen was obtained in Shasta County, in February, which was taken 
in a steel trap set for a fox. Its name in the language of resident 
Indians is Ye-paJc-u.s. 



Museum 
regis- 
ter No. 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


. Date. 


Nature of speci- 
mens. 


14395 
21233 


72 
95 


d 


Sbasta County, California 

do . 


1884. 
Feb. 5 
Feb. 20 


Skin. 
Skeleton. 







18.^ 



NOTES ON C.\LIF0RN1A ANIMALS. 



Mustela ameiicaua Tin ton. Americdn Sdhle or Marten. 

The Piue Marteu is a commou inliabitaut of the ]>i!ieiit's of Northern 
California. 'Jurdogs killed one in Lassen Connty, whicli was too badly 
mutilated to be preserved. 

Family CANID.E. DoGS. 

Urocyon virginianus littoralis (ISainl). Coast dray Fos. 

Foxes are plentiful in many parts of the conntry, especially between 
the Saeramento Valley and Monnt Shasta, and are readily trapped. 



Masenin 
regis- 
terNo. 



Col- 
lector's 
No. 



14128 I 

14129 I 

14130 j 

u?m 

21210 
21211 
21212 
21213 
21214 
21215 
21216 
21217 
21529 
21530 



40 
47 
49 

54 
66 
67 
70 
74 
9G 
97 
99 
100 
210 
211 



Sex 
and 
age. 



Lociilitj-. 



Sbaitta Conntv, California . 
do ■ 



Date. 



Nature of speci- 
mens. 



.do 

.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



1883. 
Nov. 6 
Nov. 10 
Nov. 11 

1884. 
Jan. 7 
Jan. 2.5 
Jan. 25 
Jan. 28 
Fell. 5 



.do Feb. 20 

.do Feb. 23 

.do Feb. -26 

.do Feb. 26 

.do luly — 

.do I July — 



Skin. 
Do. 
Do. 

Skin. 
Skeleton. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Vulpes fulvus argeutatus (Shaw). SiUver Fox; Black Fox. 

I secured a halt-grown lllack Fox at Red Bluff, in 1884, by digging 
it out of a hole. 



Museam 
regis- 
ter No. 

14428 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


Sex 
and 
age. 


Locality. Date. 


Nature of speci- 
men. 


208 


Jnv... 


1884. 
Red Bluff, California Mar. — 


Skin. 



Canis latrana Say. Coyote. 

On the plains north and east of Mount Shasta and along the eastern 
slope of the Sierras, the Coyote is a com mon animal. I .secured a speci- 
men in Lassen County, in June, 18SL It constantly harasses the 
sheep that are herded there in thousands in summer. It is rare in the 
Sacramento Valley. 



Museum 
regis- 
ter No. 


Col- 1 
lector's Locality. 
No. 


•Date. 


Nature of .speci- 
men. 


14570 


153 


Lassen County, California 


1884. 
June 15 


Skin. 



1867.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAJ. MUSEUM. ISO 

Family FELID^E. Cats. 

Felis concolor LiuiK'. J'nma or Fuiitltcr : I'dt-cl of ihe If'intuns. 

lu the ruggetl country about tbe junctiou of McCloud and Pitt Kivers 
the widely di.stributed Panther, or "Mountain Lion,"' a.s it is called in 
California, is especially numerous. It has been taken many times in the 
vicinity of the Government Fishery Establishment there. On JMarch 
29, 1884, three Panthers which had approached the building, in all 
probability for the purpose of stealing hogs, were " treed " by the nu- 
merous curs about the place, and were shot and converted into speci- 
mens — numbers ]21, 122, and 123, as given below. Mr. John Miles, a 
settler in the same neighborhood, had half a dozen or more skins of 
Panthers about his place in February, 1884, all of which I believe he 
had killed within a j-ear's time. They were, as a rule, shot in the near 
vicinity of his house, after having; been treed by dogs. 

It is practically impossible to raise colts in the Shasta County hills 
on account of these pests. They destroj^ many hogs and young cattle 
also, but do not present so serious an impediment to the keeping of 
these animals as in the case of horses. Mr. J. B. Campbell, who 
trapped two Panthers for me in 1883, told me that he had actually 
never seen more than two or three of the numerous colts borji on his 
stock range, as they had been killed and devoured by Panthers soon 
after birth. 



Museum 


Col- 1 


regis- 


lector's 


ter ^'^0. 


No. 


21078 


30 


14469 


121 


14470 


122 


14471 


123 


21526 


212 


2527 


213 


21528 


214 

1 



Locality. 



Date. 



1883. 
Shasta Countv, California Oct. 15 

1884. 

do I Mar. 29 

do Mar. 29 

do ' Mar. 29 

do ! July — 

do j July — 

do Julv — 



Nature of speci- 
mens. 



Skeleton. 

Skin. 

Do. 

Do. 
Skeleton. 

Do. 

Do. 



Lynx rufus (Giild.). Bed Lynx. 

We trapped numerous Lynxes in 1883-84 along McCloud lliver and 
Squaw Creek (flowing into Pitt River), where they are apparently as 
numerous as fo.xes, and as easily secured. Mr. W. E. Bryant, of Oak- 
land, had a pair of tame Lynxes at his home in 1885, which were as afl'ec 
tionate and agreeable pets as could be desired, purring contentedly in 
true cat fashion when their fur was stroked. This, however, is very 
unusual with Lynxes; they are bad-tempered and savage. One which 
was kept cagetl at the McCloud Eiver fisheries for two or three years 
was always the most vicious creature imaginable, snarling and glaring 
at every one who approached, with an expression truly satanic. He 



190 



NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 



lived iiluiost exclusively upon the iLsh wiiicli died IVoiii time to time in 
the ponds. 



Mnseaui 

rojiis- 

tor No. 

14131 
14132 


Col- 
lector's 
No. 


SesL 
and 
age. 


Locality. 


Date. 


Nature of spoci- 
mou9. 


5 

48 

!)8 
101 




Sbaslii Co'.uitv, Calil'oruia .... 
ilo 


1883. 
May 1 

Nov. 11 

1884. 
Feb. 23 
Feb. 26 


Skill. 
Do. 

Skeltitou. 
Do. 


d 


do 




do 









II, — Birds. 

Family PODICIPID.E. Gkebes. 

iBchmophorus occidentaIis(Lawr.). WedGrn Grebe. 

The western Gull, whicli was not met with in the inteiior of Xortheru 
California, except at Eagle Lake, was found in great abundance in 
.;N^oveml»er and December on the coast at Humboldt liay. At the 
former locality it was rather common iu June, and several nests of some 
species of grebe were seen among the tule reeds bordering the lake. 

iBchmophorus clarkii (Lawr.). Clark's Grebe. 

The relationship of this bird to the preceding, of which it may be the 
female, not being clearly established, I retain it for the present as a 
sefjarate species. It was found but once, a single specimen, the sex of 
which I could not determine, having been obtained on the lower Mc- 
Gloud Kiver on October 14. 

ColymbiLS auritus (Liun.). Horned Grebe. 

1 secured two specimens of this bird at Uumboldt IJay, where it is 
not uncommon. It has also been taken at Fort Crook (Feilner's col- 
lection). 

Colymbus uigricollis californicus (Heerm.). American Eared Grebe. 
Xumerous at Eagle Lake and Humboldt Bay. 

Podilymbus podiceps (Liuu.). Pied-biUed Grebe. 

The Dabchick is found on most of the lakes and streams of this region. 
It was obtained on ponds near the base of ]\Iount Shasta in summer, 
and was present on the Lower IMcCloud and Humboldt Bay in winter. 

Family UR1NAT0KID..E. Loons. 

Urinator imber (Guuu.). Loon. 

The Loon lireeds regularly on the mountain lakes of Northern Cali- 
i'ornia. In June and .July I visited several wild secluded lakes in tlie 
mountains east of Lassiiii's Peak, each of which had its pair of Loons. 
T'he larger of these are each a mile or two in extent and are known as 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 191 

Uutte, Glassy, and Suaggy Lakes, but the more isolated ones are prob- 
ably kuownouly to liuuters, being far removed from settled localities, and 
many of them are nameless. It is probable that all of those lakes which 
contain fish are regularly resorted to by Loons as breeding jdaces. On 
July 10 I waded out to a narrow sand bar in Butte Lake, upon which 
a Loon had been sitting, and found her nest or rather egg, for although 
two eggs is the regular number for this species there was but one in 
this instance, which was lying on the bare sand. It measured 3.40 by 
2.18. Our eflbrts to shoot Loons here proved quite unavailing, for they 
were far out of shotgun range; and after much ammunition had been 
expended in vain by other and better marksmen than 1, we decided 
that they could certainly dodge a ride ball at two hundred yards dis- 
tance, let the aim be directed at them or in front of them, or where we 
would. At short range these birds can be killed with the shotgun by 
aiming at the water before them where they receive the charge in 
Ijluuging forward to dive. Loons were observed nowhere else than on 
these lakes, with exception of one specimen seen in the possession of an 
Indian at the month of Pitt River. 

Urinator pacificus (Ijawr. ). I'acific Loon. 

Occurs'irregularly at Humboldt Bay, where Mr. Charles Fiebig ob- 
tained the specimens contained in his collection at Eureka. 

Urinator lunime (Guiin). licd-iJiroalcd Loon. 

The only instance of the appearance of the lied-throated Loon in this 
region is that of a specimen obtained at Fort Crook by Captain Feilner. 

Family STERCORAEIID^E. Skuas and Jaegers. 

Stercorarius parasiticus (Linn.), rurasiiiv Jaeger 

I saw a specimen of this bird in the collection of Mr. Fiebig, at 
Eureka, who shot it on Humboldt Bay, and who says it is not often seen 
there. 

Family LARID^E. Gulls axd Tkkns. 

Larus glaucescens Naum. (llancous-winijvd Gull. 

This and the next species were both obtained at Humboldt Bay in 
December, glaueescens, however, being quite rare com])ared with the 
great numbers of occidentalis gathered there. 

Larus occidentalis Aud. IVi'^ta-n Gull. 

Icarus californicus Lawr. California Gall. 

The California Gull was found in abundance at Eagle Lake late in 
June, but there were comparatively few breeding there, the only suit- 
able localities, two small islands, being apparently monopolized by cor- 
morants Phalacrooorax dilophus alboclllatus and pelicans. It was nu- 
merous at Humboldt Bay in December. I obtained a single indi- 



192 NOTES ON CALJFOKXIA ANIMALS. 

vidiial at the mouth of the McCloud Kivor on May H'k and si ta.unU'rs 
were observed on the Sacramento Kivernear iJed lUnd at va."ii»ns times 
in winter. 

Larus delawareusis Onl. ItiiKj-hUUd Gull. 

A solitary specimen of this Gull waLS taken at Summit Lake, near 
Mount Lassen on June 5. 

Larus brachyriiynchus Kicli. >s]iorl-bilk'il Gull. 

Kather common at Humboldt Bay, where specimens were shot in 
December. 

Larus Philadelphia (Ord). Bonaporlcs Gull. 

This bird was seen in the collection of Mr. Fiebij;', who rei)orts it 
common on Humboldt Bay in winter. 

Sterna forsteii Nutfc. Fornter's Tern. 

Found in comparative abundance at Eaj^le Lake, where it was prob- 
ably breeding' on Pelican Island. I saw straj' companies of Terns ocea- 
sionall}' along the river at the northern end of the Sacramento Valley 
in the spring-, and they were plentiful at Humboldt Bay in the fall. 

Hydrochelidon nigra suriuaniensis (Ginol.;. Black Tern. 

Very common at Eagle Lake, and doubtless breeds regularly there 
among the tangle and debris of the tule marshes with the grebes, whose 
deserted nests it has been known to utilize. It was not observed else- 
where. 

Family PHALACROCORACID.E. Cormoraxts. 

Phalacrocorax dilophus albociliatiis Ridjxw. Farullone Cormorant. 

This Cormorant appears to be present during the greater part of the 
year on the larger streams of this region, but was wanting on McCloud 
River in summer, having doubtless repaired to the coast or to suitable 
lakes to breed. On June 28, I found a large colony breeding upon a 
small rocky islet in Eagle Lake, their nests being made of reeds and 
rushes, which they must have carried from the shore a mile away. On 
March 3 I visited a roostiug-place of this species near the mouth of 
Pitt Eivcr, to which a hundred or more birds resorted nightly. The 
trees there were conspicuously marked with their excrement. The 
largest roost, however, was found on Lower Mad Kiver, near Hum- 
boldt Bay, every tree along the bank for several hundred yards being 
crowded with Cormorants towards nightfall. They occupied even the 
tops of the tallest pines, and the place was a Babel from their commo- 
tion, although a railroad upon the opjiosite bank of the river was less 
than a hundred yards from their roost. 

Family PELECANID,^. Pehcaxs. ' 

Pelecauus erythrorhynchos, (Jmel. American While I'eUcan. 

This Pelican was found only at Eagle Lake, where it rcsoits to breed! 
in great numbers in sunimer. Tliere are two islands lying in this btuiuJ 



1867.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 193 

til'ul sbcer of water, and I obsorvod that tlic Pelicans had taken almost 
exclnsiv^e possession of one of thein, the other being- similarly occupied 
by equally large numbers of shags. Although a few of the latter were 
living peaceably with the former on the Pelicans' island, there were only 
two Pelicans found on the island occupied by tlie shags. On the day 
of our visit (June 28, 1884) a flock, numbering a score or more, were 
seen wheeling gracefully in the air at a very great height, their white 
forms distinct in the sunlight miles away. 

Pelecanus califoniicus Kiilgw. Culifontia Brown I'clican. 

This bird, which is quite common on the coast, may be seen almost 
any evening in the fall fishing in Ilumboldt Bay. It flies in a rapid 
business-like manner but a few feet above the surface of the water, and 
drops with a great splash when a fish is discovered. It continues its 
search well into the night, and 1 have frequently been startled by its 
noisy splash when rowing on the bay after dark. During the day it 
usually swims quietly and does not ap])ear to lish much by diving. 

Family ANATID^E. Ducks, Geese, and Swans. 
Merganser americaiius (Cass."). American Merganser. 

This sheldrake breeds regularly on the Lower McCloud, where it is 
present the year round. Young birds in the down were obtained on 
May 21, and several flocks of young were seen a ccuple of weeks later. 
Young birds of this species were also seen on Eagle Lake late in June. 
Pish ducks were not observed elsewhere than on the larger mountain 
streams and lakes. 

Merganser serrator (Linii.j. lied-breusled Merganser. 

Common at Humboldt Bay, but not observed elsewhere. 

Lophodytes cucuUatus (Linn.). Hooded Merganser. 

Apparently a winter visitant, having been met with on McCloud and 
Pitt Rivers, and Humboldt Bay in the fall and winter. 

Anas boschas Linn. Mallard. 

TheJMallard is a common constant resident of this whole region, hav- 
ing been observed to be comparatively abundant in the Upper Sacra- 
mento Valley in winter, and found breeding in limited numbers about 
the mountain lakes in summer, i found Mallards August 1, at the 
base of Mount Shasta, in certain wet meadows, where, in all i)roba- 
bility, they had nests, and on June 27, I found a nest of eight eggs, in 
the middle of a grassy ijlain near Eagle Lake. It is one of the com- 
monest game-ducks at Humboldt Bay, 

Anas strepera Liuti. Gadwall. 

The Gadwall is a rather rare duck at Humboldt Bay, and was not 
met with in the interior counties at all, but specimens were shot at Port 
Crook by Captain Feilner, and ihe species doubtless breeds in suitable 
lakes in the region. 

Proc. N. M. 87 13 



194 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

Anas penelope Liuu. Widgeon. 

1 saw a moimted specimen of this Okl-Woild bird in the collection 
of Mr. Charles Fiebig, of liureka, who shot it in the vicinity in 1SS4. 
The only instance of its occurrence in the region. 

Anas americana Guiel. Baldpaic 

Observed regularly in the sloughs south of lied Ulull" in winter, and 
was seen on the McCloud in January only. It is abundant at Uuni- 
boldt Bay. 
Anas caroliuensis Giiulin. Grcen-icinijcd Teal. 

I saw this bird on two or three occasions at lied liluff only, but it is 
well known to sportsmen as a very common game bird of the Sacra- 
mento Valley. Mr. Fiebig reports it as a regular winter game bird at 
Humboldt Bay. 

Anas discors Liuii. Bhie-icinged Teal. 

]S^ot met with by me, but recorded as a rare migrant by ]Mr. 11. \\. 
Henshaw. 

Anas cyanoptera Vicill. Cinnamon Teal. 

This Teal was not seen by me, but was coUecleil at Fort Crook by 
Captain Feilner, and supposed to breed in the vicinity of the larger 
lakes. 

Spatula clypeata (Liiiii.). SlioveUcr. 

The only specimens of this bird obtained were killed on the McCloud 
liiver in May, about the close of the rainy season. Although well known 
to sportsmen, it is apparently not very abundant, either in tlie Sacra- 
mento Valley or on the coast. I saw it, however, at Humboldt Bay in 
November and December, 1885. 

Daflla acuta (Liiui.). I'intail. 

A common winter resident of the Sacramento Valley and the coast 
about Humbolt Bay. 

Aix sponsa (Linu.). irood Duck ; Siiininer Duck. 

The Wood Duck is a common and com[)aratively well distributed 
species. It was observed on the Lower McCloud at various tinu's from 
October 1 until March 1, often in quite large Hocks, and was seen in 
April and May at Ked Bluff, where it frequented the sloughs in tlie 
timber belts along the Sacramento liiver. 

Aythya americana (Kyt.). Redhead. 

J{ei)orte<l as breeding in limited numbers in Northeastern Calilbrnia 
by Mr. Henshaw. Mr. Fiel)ig has specimens in liis col'ection from 
Humboldt Bay, where it is considered rare. 

Aythya vallisneria (Wilis.). Canvas-back. 

I was informed by sportsmen of the occasional occurrence of this 
species in the Upper Sacramento Valley and at Humboldt Bay. 



1H87.] PROCEEDINGS OE UNITED c^TATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 195 

Aythya marila nearctica Stcjii. Amcrii-an Saiui> Duel;. 

This, and the next two species ure inserted in this list on the iiuthoiity 
of Mr. Ileushiiw, who records them as migrants and winter visitants iu 
the northeastern part of the State. 

Aythya affinis (Eyt.). Lesxcr Scaup Duck. 
Aythya collaris (Doiiov.). Hhitj-ncclcd Duck. 

Glacionetta clangula americana (Boiiap.)- American (i olden-eye. 

The goldeu-eye m as frequently observed on the Lower McCloud in 
fall and winter, and Mr. Fiebig informed me of its irregular occurrence 
at Humboldt Bay. 

Chaiitonetta albeola (Linn.). Bufflc-liead. 

Apparently scarce in the interior, but 1 saw a female on a small 
tribuary of the Lower Pitt Kiver in January, 1884, and the Feilner col- 
lection shows that it has been taken at Fort Crook. Subsequently I 
found it common on the coast at Humboldt Lay. 

Oideniia fusca (Linn.). I'elret Scoter. 

Both this and the next species are very common at Humboldt Bay. 

Oidemia perspicillata (Luni. }. Surf Scolcr. 

Chen hyperborea (Pall.). Leaner Show Goone. 

An abundant winter resident, being especially numerous in the Sacra- 
mento Valley. On one occasion at lied Blutt", while watching the inces- 
sant northward movement of the geese from the Sacramento Valley, I 
saw a triangle of Canada geese headed by a single one of this species, 
the two waving lines of dark forms converging in a snow white point. 
The nuusual spectacle attracted the attention of pedestrians on the 
street. Other triangles, composed of the two species flying in ai)parent 
harmony, were seen frecpiently. When passing down the Sacramento 
Valley on the cars, Hocks of these white geese in company with other 
darker kinds were sometimes seen settling in the wheat almost within 
gunshot of the train. 

Anser albifrous gambeli (Ilartl.). American White-fronted Goose. 
Very abundant in winter. 

Branta canadensis (Linn.)- Canada Goose. 

xV very abundant winter resident of jS^orthern California, but exceeded 
in numbers by the following: 

Branta canadensis hutchinsi (8\v. and Kick.). Uulchins's Goose. 

The most abundant species. California is blessed with a large and 
varied assortment of waterfowl, but is specially celebrated in this 
respect for the vast multitudes of wild Geese which winter in the interior 
valleys. In the Sacramento Valley the Geese in their aggregate num- 



196 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

Ik'is i>iol);il»ly far surpass those of any otber rcj^iou in Mie Tniti-n 
States. 

Wheat j;rowin<? is carried on most extensively and the ranebers are 
compelled to defend their growing crops from invading Geese, regularly 
employing " goose herders" to patrol their lands and frighten away the 
numberless feathered marauders. One great ranch in Colusa County, 
of more than fifty thousand acres, employed quite a iormidable company 
of men who rode about with repeating ritles, tiring among the Geese as 
they settled in lloeks in the more distant tracts, causing them to take 
jkving. This is a common practice throughout the valley. 

Branta nigricans (Lawr.). Jllach- Brant. 

Common in winter in the vicinity of the coast, but not met with in the 
interior. 

Philacte canagica (Sevast.)- Emperor Goose. 

I was much surprised when Mr. Fiebig,.of Eureka, told me that 
the fine mounted specimen of this far northern bird, contained in his 
collection, had been killed at Humboldt Bay. 1 was (piite familiar 
With the species, having collected specimens of it in Northern Alaska, 
its natural habitat, but 1 little suspected that it would wander as far 
south as C'alifornia. The si)ecimen was taken in the winter of 1884. 

Oior columbianus i.Ord.)- U'liistrnii/ Swuii. 

A winter visitant from the north to the larger lakes and streams ot 
the region. 

Olor buccinator (Kicli.)- Tnrmiictcr ^waii. 

Uare; visits California during the migrations, according to Dr. Xew- 
berry. 

Kiuiiily IBIDIDtE. Ihisks. 

Plegadis guarauna (Liuii.). IVIiiie-faced Glos.'iij Una. 

Found in the northeastern part of the State by I\lr. llenshaw, in 
1877-78. 

Family AKDEID.E. IIkuons, Butekns, etc. 

Botaurus lentiginosus (xMuntag.). .liiiericnn l',U(cr)i. 

Found in large numbers on upper Titt IJiver by Dr. Newberry, col- 
lected at Fort Crook by Lieutenant Parkinson, and reported by Mr. 
riel)ig as of irregular occurrence at Humboldt IJay. 

Botaurus exilis ((iuii'l). Len><t Jiitinii. 

Found rather common in the Sacramento Valley by Dr. Newberry. 

Ardea lierodias l,imi. Grent lllite Jhron. 

A coumion resident, wandering well into the mountains in following 
the streams. Found in all i)arts of the country that were visited. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OP tlNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 197 

Ardea egretta Guu'l. Anurlain I'ljrit. 

Koticed occasionally in tiic Upper riiiciainonto Valley, and at Hum- 
boldt Bay. 

Ardea virescens Limi. (Ircen Heron. 

1 found this specitis onl^^ twice in Northern California. It was ob- 
tained near Yreka, August 20, and at Red Bluff, May 0. These speci- 
mens were noticed by Mr. Uidgway to be of rather unusual appear- 
ance, the fulvous-white edging of the wing coverts being broader in 
pattern than in any other specimens with which they were compared. 
This may be peculiar to the Greeu Herons of the Pacific slope, but the 
scarcity of specimens from that region does not admit of any satisfac- 
torj' conclusions being arrived at. 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius (Bodd.). Black-crowned Night Heron. 

The Black-crowned Xight Heron, which was found in abundance at 
its established "roosts" on Eel River, in Humboldt County, was seen 
but once in the interior, a specimen having been shot on Lower Pitt 
River in the spring of 1883. 

Family GRUID.E. Cranks. 

Grus mexicana (Liuu.). Sandhill Crane. 

Cranes were seen occasionally on the plains south of Red Blufl" in the 
fall, and one was seen on a mountain meadow east of Mount Lassen in 
June. 

Family RALLID^E. Rails, Gallixules, and Coots. 

Rallus virginianus Liuii. Virginia Bail. 

Recorded by Dr. Newberry as common throughout California, and by 
Mr. Henshaw as numerous about all marshy lakes. 

Porzana Carolina (Linn.). Sora. 

Only met with near the mouth of Mad River, Humboldt County, 
where two specimens were obtained November 24, 1885. 

Porzana noveboracensis (Giiiol.). Yelloio Bail. 

This Rail, heretofore unknown on the I'acific sloj>e, was found by Mr. 
Charles Fiebig at Humboldt Bay, a s|)ecimen having been taken in the 
marsh at the outlet of Freshwater Creek in 1884. This bird was accom- 
panied by another of apparently the same species, which could not be 
secured. 

Fulica aniericana Ginel. American Coot. 

Numerous in all tule marshes, lakes, an<i other localities frequented 
by water birds. Abundant in the coast region. 

Family PHALAROPODID.E. Piiai.aiiopks. 
Crymophilns fulicarius (Liiiii.). I!(d Bhahiropr. 

The collection of Mr. Fiebig, of Eureka, (^ontains :i spin-imen of this 
bird shot at Humboldt Bay in May, 188.'3. 



198 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMAt-H. 

Phalaropus lobatus (Linn.)- Xorthrrv PlioJnropf. 

Mr. Fiebig, who lias specimens of this .si)ecies, int'oiMis me of its t're- 
queut appearauce on HuniboUlt l>ay in winter. 

Phalaropus tricolor (Vicill.). Wilson's I'halarope. 

Tiuee specimens of Wilson's Plialai'opc were obtained in June, 1884, 
in the vicinity of certain shaHow lakes in W(\stern Lassen Oonnty. No 
otliers were seen in the country. 

Family EECURVIROSTRIDiE. Avocets and Stllts. 
Recurvirostia americana Gni. American .ivorct. 

1 obtained a pair of Avocets on June 17, in the locality mentioned in 
the preceding i)aragraph. 

Himantopus mezicanus (Mull.)- Blaclc-neclied Stilt. 

I did not meet with this species myself, but it is represented in other 
collections from the northeastern i)art of the State. 

Family SCOLOPAOID^E. Snii'Ks, Sandpipers, etc. 

Gallinago delicata (Oid). H'llson's Siii2)c. 

I shot a snipe on July 25 on a small tributary of the McCloud flowing 
from the eastern base of JMount Shasta. It w;is not seen anywhere else 
in the country except at llumboldt Bay. 

Tringa caniitiis Liun. Knot. 

Mr. Charles Fiebig informed me of the occurrence of this species at 
llumboldt r>iiy in wititer. 

Tringa miiiutilla \'iL'ill. Least iSandjjipcr. 

Common along the coast of Humboldt County. 

Tringa alpina pacifica (Cones). lied-hachcd Sandpijycr. 
A very common const species in winter. 

Ereunetes occidentalis Lawr. JVcslcrn Sandpiper. 

S[)«'(;imens of this bird were obtained at Red Bluff on May 8, 1884, the 
only time it was seen. 

Limosa fedoa Linn. Marhled Godwit. 

According to Mr. Fiebig's statement, the Godwit is present at Hum- 
boldt Bay the year round and probably nests there. 

Totanus melanoleucus (Gmol.). lirvater Yclloio-lct/s. 
Obtained on April 22 at Red Bluff, and not observed elsewhere. 

Totanus flavipes (Grael.). Ycllow-hgs. 
Of frerpient occurrence at Humboldt Bay. 

Totanus solitarius (Wils.). Solitary Sandpiper. 

I met with this species only at the western base of Mount Sliasta 
August 3, 1SS;5. Collected at Fort Crook by Feilner. 



1>'.^7.] PliOCl'.EDlXGS OF UNITED STATES Js^Al'IOXAL MUSEtlM. If);) 

Symphemia scmipalmata fGind.). iriJIrt. 

SpociiiUMis of Iho Willet were collected in Novcniher and December afc 
ITuuiboldt Bay, where it is common. 

Actitis macularia (Limi.)- Spot tid Sandpiper i 
Found s])aringly tbroiigliout the region, 
Breeds at Eagle Lake. 

Numenius longirosti'is Wils. Loiuj-hiUcd Curtew. 

According to resident sportsmen, occurs in the vicinity of Ked Bluff 

in spring. It is probably only a migrant in the Upper Sacramento 

■ Valley, but is known to be abundant about the lakes east of the Sierras. 

Family CHARADRIID.E. Plovkhs. 
Charadrius squatarola (Liun.). Black-bellied Plover. 

Met with only at the outlet of Eel River, in Humboldt Couuty, Decem- 
ber, 1885. 

^gialitis vocifera (Liun.). Killdccr. 

Abundant in all open i^arts of the country. Found in meadows at the 
base of Mount Shasta. 

Family APHRIZID.E. Surf Birds and Turnstones. 

Arenaiia iiiterpres (Liun.)- Titrmtoiie. 

This and the next species both occur at Humboldt Bay, nichmoccphala 
being the more common. 

Arenaria melanocephala (Vig.)- Black Tttrn-sloiu: 

The Black Turnstone is a common bird at all points on the Pacitic 
coast that I have visited. 1 first met with it at the Farallone Islands, 
thirty miles west of San Frauciso Bay, in August, 1881, and in July, 
1885, found it north of the Arctic circle in Alaska. 

Family TETRAONID^E. Grouse, Partridges, etc. 

Oreortyx pictus plumiferus (Gould). Plumed Partridfje. 

The Mountain Quail, as this bird is usually called, is a common resi- 
dent of the foothills and mountains. In summer it was found breeding' 
plentifully about the western base of Mount Shasta in company with 
the '' Valley Quail," but was not observed on the higher slopes of the 
mountain. 

Mountain Quails are very numerous among the hills of the Lower 
McCloud, gathering in large flocks in winter. I found a nest of ten eggs 
east of Mount Lassen on June 12, anil a nest of eight eggs was taken at 
Baird on June 24. I did not meet with it near the coast. 

Callipepla califoniica (Shaw). California Parlridije. 

This coast form of the California. Quail was found-in the greatest abun- 
dance in the logging districts and en I rivaled portions of Humboldt 
Couuty. 



20() NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

Callipepla califoriiica vallicola ]Jiclij;\v. I'allcj/ Partrhiijc. 

The "Valley Quail" of the interior region was found in abundance 
throujihont the upi)er Sacramento Valley, and the more open jiarts of 
the foothills which inclose it. In oue instance only was it found in the 
higher pine country, having been seen in considerable numbers at the 
base of jMount Shasta. It was nor observed anywhere north of Mount 
Shasta, nor east of the Sierras. 

Deudragapus obsciirus fuliginosus liidgw. Sooitj Grouse. 

A common inhabitant of the pine forests and the mountains. T found 
females and young birds ou August 1 in the meadows at the base of 
Mount Shasta, and late in June young birds just hatched were captured 
at the eastern base of Mount Lassen. I tried to raise these, and might 
have succeeded it they had not been killed by an unexpected cold snap, 
as they were rather lively and had fed freely for a week or more. I often 
Hushed grouse at the line of highest bushes on JMount Shasta in mid- 
summer, wiiich were ])robal)ly all males, as no young birds were found 
in such situations. These Grouse are also inhabitants of the pine-cov- 
ered hills east of the belt of redwood forest, extending along the (;oast. 

Bonasa uinbellus sabini (I)oii<;l.)- Orct/on Huffed Crousf. 

1 saw a specimen of this (Jrouse in the collection of I\Ir. Fiebig, of 
Eureka, who says it is to be found only in the desert and densest por- 
tions of the Humboldt redwood forests. 

Pediocaetes pliasianellus coliimbianus (Old). Columbian Sharp-iailcd Grouic 

As 1 did not travel into N^ortheastern California farther than Eagle 
Lake, I did not meet with this and the next species, but was assured by 
hunters and others that they were to be found in many localities. 

Centrocercus iirophasianus (Bp.). Sage Grouse. 

Known to be common in suitable country east of the Sierras. Cer- 
tain hunters told me of having killed them within 20 or 30 miles of 
Eagle Lake. 

Family COLUMBIDiE. Pigeons. 
Columba fasciata Say. liand-iailed Pigeon. 

Very abundant in tlie foothills of the Lower McOloud in the fall and 
winter, gathering iu the pine trees on the higher ridges in immense 
Hocks. It was very seldom seen in the high mountains in summer and 
did not appear to descend at all into the A^alleys in winter, i do not 
know where it breeds. 

Zenaidura macroura (Liiiii.). Mourning Dorc. 

A very common summer resident of the valleys and lower hills, being 
more abundant and more gregarious than in eastern United States. 
Tt was found breeding late in May in the hills along r>attle ('reek cast 
of Red Blutf. 



iHsr. I PROCEEDINGS OE iJNITEt) STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 201 

Family CATIIARTID.E. American Vultuijes. 
Pseudogryphus califoruianus (Shaw). California Vitllurc. 

Ill 1884 a hunter at lied Bluff told iiie that he had killed a vulture 
of immeuse size in the southeastern part of Tehama County two or three 
years previous, and that he liad seen others in the foothills southwest 
of Mount Lassen within the last four or five years. As this is all the 
information 1 could obtain with regard to this species, it has probably 
almost disappeared from Xortheru California, where it was once cer- 
tainly common, 

Mr. W. E. Bryant, of Oakland, had a live Californian Condor when I 
visited him in December, 1883, but it has since died. Mr. EL. W. Hen- 
shaw has obtained six of these birds in the southern part of the State 
during- the past year. 

Recent measurements by Mr. Eidgway show that this species is really 
larger than the Condor of the Andes, so that in "<;limate," ])roduction 
of gold, mammoth trees, fruits, &c., and a just claim to the largest 
bird of flight, California is "still ahead.'' 

Catliartes aura (Liuii.)- Turkey J'lilfure. 

One of the common birds of the country in summer, both on the 
coast and in the interior. 

r'anuly FALCONIDyE. Falcons, Hawks, Eagles, etc. 

Elaiius leucuriis (Vieill.)- U'hiie- tailed Kite. 

Seen at Red Bluff" only, where two individuals appeared early in May. 

Circus liudsouius (Linn.)- Marsh IlauJc 

The Marsh Hawk appears to have been found in abundance by all the 
ornithological observers of this region but myself, as I only saw it in 
the Sacramento Valley at rare intervals. Dr. Newberry found it 
" abundaut beyond all parallel on the plain of upper IMtt River." Hum- 
boldt Bay, common, Fiebig. 

Accipiter velox (Wils.)^ lSharj-)-s]tinncd Ilaivk. 

Met with on one occasion only. A specimen Avas taken at the timber- 
line of Shasta on September 7. Mr. Fiebig, however, says it is not un- 
common in Humboldt County. 

Accipiter cooperi Bonap. Coopers Hawk. 

Not uncommon; taken near the timber-line of Shasta in September. 
It was also obtained at Red Bluff. 

Accipiter atricapillus striatulus Ridgw. Western Goshairk. 

1 shot two young Goshawks near the timber-line of j\Iount Shasta on 
July 28. It has been taken at Yreka by Mr. Vuille and at Fort Crook 
by Lieutenant Parkinson. 



'■202 NOTES ox OAUrORNiA ANIMALS. 

Buteo borealis calurus (Cass.). U'entcr)) Ked-taiJ. 

Next to the Sparrow Hawk tbis is the most abundant species, having- 
been met with in all parts of the country from the Sacramento Valley 
to the timber-line of :\Iount Shasta. 1 obtained a set of four egj?s at 
Red liluft" April 1. The nest from which they were taken occupied the 
forks of a scrubby oak, about 20 feet from the ground. It was built 
of heavy twigs, and had a uniform lining of " soap-root" fiber. 

Buteo lineatus elegaxis (Cass.)- lled-hdlkd IFan-k. 

This species is recorded as common by Dr. Newberry, and was ob- 
tained at Fort Crook by Captain Feiluer. 

Buteo swainsoiii Boiiap. Swainsoirs Ilaivk. 

1 found this species to be of common occurrence in the Sacramento 
Valley in winter, and it was found frequently in the pine country about 
IMouiit Lassen in summer. 

Archibuteo lagopus saucti-johannis (Gmel.). American Iio>if)h-Ie;i(f<'d If auk. 

Obtained at Fort Crook. Eeported as common in juarshy lt)calities 
by Mr. IJenshaw. 

Archibuteo feirugineus ^I.iclit.). Firniginoiifi li'onfjh-laj. 

Mr. Henshaw saw a Hawk in Northeastern California wliicli he be- 
lieved to be of this species. 

Aquila chrysaetus (Linn.). Golden Eayle. 

1 shot a Golden Eagle, the only one met with, near Sheep liock, 
northeast of Mount Shasta, on August 21, 1883. I was riding in the 
rear of our party (a division of tlie IJ. S.Geologi(?al Survey), and dropped 
the noble bird by a shot, from the saddle, as we passed along the trail, 
within 80 yards of the deart cedar from which it was calmly regarding 
us. • 

Haliasetus leucocephalus (Linn.). I'xihl IJat/le. 

Eagles were fre(piently seen in Northern California, and with excep- 
ti(m of the one m*entioned in the preceding paragrai>h, 1 think they 
were all of this si)ecies. Tiiey are destructive to young lambs, and the 
sheep-herders in nuujy localities are their sworn enemies. ^Vhen on the 
extreme peak of Shasta (14,440 feet altitude), on July 27, 1883, in com- 
pany with memb(;rs of tlie U. S. Geological Survey, an l^^agle came up 
tlirough the fog that had gathered immediately below us and shared 
with us our rocky pinnacle aboA'e the clouds. 

Falco mexicanus Sclilij;- I'rahie Falcon. 

Tliis riawk 1 saw <in two or three occasions, in tlie upper Sacramento 
Valh'V. Mr. Henshaw found it common at l'\)rt I'.idwell, and it was 
collected at I'oi t (rook by Lieutenaid Parkinson. 



issr.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. '20?i 

Falco peregrinus anatum (IJonap.)- i>i(ch IJawl. 

Mr. Fiebig informed me tbat this was one of the commonest Hawks 
about Hnmbohlt Bay. He pronounces it a feeder npon snipe and shore 
birds ratlior than other game. 

Falco colunibarius (Liuii.)- Pigeon Hawk. 

Numerous specimens of the Pigeon Hawk were obtained at Yreka by 
Mr. Vuille. It was also taken at Fort Crook by Captain Feihier. I 
did not find it myself. 

Falco richardsoiii Eidgw. Illcliardson^ s Merlin. 

The presence of this species was noted in Northern California by 
Mr. Henshaw. 

Falco sparverius Li an. Sparrow Hawk. 

An exceedingly common inhabitant of all parts of the country. It 
was frequently seen in summer on Mount Shasta, at an elevation of 9,000 
feet, and many i^airs were found breeding at the base of the mountain. 

Pandion haliaetus caxolinensis (Gm.). American Osprey. 

The Fish Hawk was occasionally seen on the McCloud River and on 
streams in the vicinity of Yreka. 

Family STEIGIDyE. Baex Owls. 

Strix pratincola (Bouap.). American Barn Oicl. 

This Owl was found by Mr. Henshaw to be tolerably common on the 
Madeline Plains and at Fort Bidwell. It was also met with by Dr. 
Newberry. 

Family BUBONID^E. Horned Owls, etc. 

Asio wilsonianus (Less.j. American Long-eared Owl. 
Collected at Fort Crook, by Captain Feiluer. 

Asio accipitrinus (Pall.). Short-eared Owl. 

This species was fotmd in considerable numbers on Upper Pitt River 
by Dr. Newberry, was obtained at Fort Crook by Captain Feilner, and 
is contained in Mr. Fiebig's collection of Humboldt County birds. 

Uhila cinerea (Gmel.). Great Gray Owl. 

Dr. Newberry obtained proofs of the existence of this Owl in the Sac- 
ramento Valley. 

Mega.scops asio kennicottii (Elliot) ? Kennieotfs Screech Owl, 

In the spring of 1883 I found the fragments of a specimen of this 
species at Baird. It is represented in tlie collections from Fort Crook. 
]\Ir. Ridgway informs me that the si)ecimen from Fort Crook is appar- 
entlv intermediate between Icnnieotti and benilirei. 



204 KOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

Megascops flamineolus (Kau))). Fhimmnlated iScrcech Owl. 

A speciiueti of this southern Owl was takeu at; Fort Crook, iu August, 
18G0, by Capt. John Feilner — the lirst instance of its capture i'l the 
United States. 

Bubo virgiuiauus subarcticus ( Hoy ). U'csleni Honied Oirl. 

Common throughout Xortheni (3alitoinia. I obtained ii specimen at 
Ked r.IutTM;nchl2L 

Bubo virginianus saturatus IJidujw. Dusky llorvcd Owl. 

The Horned Owls, which I saw at Humboldt Bay, are jjrobably refer 
able to this variety. Xo specimens were obtained. 

Speotyto cunicularia hypogaea (Hoiiap.). JJiirrowhig Owl. 

The Burrowing Owl is a very common resident of all suitable places. 
It was found on the sage-covered districts jiorth of Mount Shasta, and 
occu[Med the deserted burrows of the spermophiles in the Sacramento 
Valley. 

Glaucidium gnoma AVagl. Pygmy Owl. 

I obtained two specimens of the Pygmy Owl at tlie western base of 
jVIount Shasta in 1883, and two more at Humboldt Bay in 188.3. 

This is a most interesting binl. It is rather<liurnal in its movements, 
and m-Ay be seen long before sunset engaged in its search for small 
birds, upon which it seems to subsist largely, dying close to the ground 
along the borders of tull nuirshes. It doubtless kills marsh-wrens and 
small sparrows, as such birds were often noticed near the hunting 
grounds of the owl. One Pygmy Owl, which I shot, had a freshly killed 
snowbird {Jnnco orcgonns) in its claws. 

Family ClICULID^E. Cuckoos. 

Geococcyx californianus (Less.). Hoad-runucr; Chaparral Cool:. 

The Tload-runncr is rare in Northern Ciilifornia. Found throughout 
the Sa(;ramento Valley, its munbers gradually diminish towards the 
north, until at Pittliiver its northward limit is reached. Several hunters 
informed me that it has been seen in the vicinity of Copper City, on 
Pitt liiver, ten miles above its conliuence with the Sacramento. It is 
of more frequent occurrence in the southern i)art of Shasta County, and 
is not uncommon at Red Blulf, where one was captured during my resi- 
dence there. 

Coccyzus americanus (Liiiii.). Yellow-hilled Cuckoo. 

At Fort lieading Dr. Newberry frequently saw and heard " Rain 
Crows, "whichhesupposed to be C.eri/fhrophfhalmus, butas ('. aiinrirfoivs 
is the oidy ont^ of the genus known to inhabit the Pacifu; slope there 
can be iitth' doubt about its being this si)ecies. 



1H87.", PR0CEP:DING8 of united HTATES national JIUSEUM. 205 
Fiiiuily ALCEDINID.E. KiNr.FisiiKU.s. 

Ceryle alcyoii (Liiui.)- Hclkd KUxjjinhrr. 

A resident species, cominon ou streams as las up as the base of Mount 
Shasta. 

Family I'ICID.E. Woodpeckkus. 

Dryobates villosus harrisii (Aud.). Ilanin's }Voo<lpeckir. 

Coninion everj'wliere in the higher country, l^'ouud also in the red- 
wood forests of the' coast. 

Dryobates piibescens gairdnerii (Aiul.). <!<iir(hi(r's li'ooilpccher. 

Common in all parts of the country, except at the western side of 
Mount Lassen, where I do not remember to liaveseeii il. It was found 
breeding at Baird in April and May. Once, when rowing on the Mc- 
Cloud Itiver, I was attracted to a nest of this species by seeing a snake 
crawl into a hole in a dead stump overhanging the water. Investiga- 
tion proved that it had made a meal of the young woodpeckers. 

Dryobates nuttalli Gamb.. KnltalVa IVoodpeclcr. 

Found only in the timber belts of the upper Sacramento Valley, of 
w^hich it is probably a constant resident, as it was very common about 
Bed Bluif both in spring aud fall. In Mandi it was more frequently 
seen in the cottonwoods aud sycamores by the river than elsewhere. 

Xenopicus albolarvatiis (Cass.)- Uhilc-hetulrd ]Voodi)€tker. 

This bird was found to be very common iu summer, in the [>ineries, 
out of which I have not seen it. Three nests containing young birds 
were found early in June, iu tlie Mount L:issen region, where tlie s[»ecies 
appeared to be more numerous than about Mount Shasta. These nests 
were iu holes iu dead pine trees, within ten or fifteen feet of the ground. 

Picoides arcticus (Swains.). Ai-cllr Thrce-tocd Jroodpcck-ci-. 

Two specimens of the Three-toed AVoodi)ecker were obtained in the 
dense forest east of Mount Lassen early in June, i^one were found 
west of the Sierras, where the species is probably very rare. It was 
found rather common along the eastern slope by Mr. Hensliaw. 

Spliyrapicus varius iiuchalis Eaird. Ilid-napcd Sapsucker. 

A single specimen of this form was obtained at Laird, November 13, 
1883. This is the only record of the occurrence of this s[)ecies west of 
the Sierras, it being ])roperly a bird of tlie region east of the iiiountains. 

Spliyrapicus ruber (CJiii.). Ilcd-bnatted Hapniukd-. 

Found in midsunnner in limited numbers ou the heavily pine timltered 
slopes of Mounts Shasta aud Lassen, aud in December iu the redwood 
forests on the coast. Numerous specimeus of this ami the next species 
were collected at Fort Crook, by Feilner aud Parkinson. 



20G NOTES ON CALirOKNIA ANIMALS. 

Sphyrapicus thyroideus (Cass.)- J'-huk-hrai'ilcd Woodpecker. 

Two spL'ciiiu'iKS only of this species were taken, one on the timber 
line of JMonnt Shasta Angust 25, 188;3, the other at the eastern base of 
]\Ionnt Lassen early in June, 1884. 

Ceophloeus pileatus (Liuu.)- Pihatcd Woodpecker. 

This bird was observed on several occasions in tlie high hills along 
McCloud Kiver and at the base of Mount Shasta, and was seen once 
tiraoiig the Kedwoods near the coast. 

Melauerpes formicivorus bairdi Ridijw. CnUfomian Woodpecker. 

A very common inhabitant of all parts of the country up to the border 
of the heavy pine region. I do not remember to Iiave seen it as lar east 
as IVIount Lassen. iSTeither this nor the uext species were seen iu the 
belt of iledwood forest along the coast. The trees there borp no marks 
to indicate the presence of formicirorm. 

Melauerpes torquatus (Wils.)- Lewis's Woodpecker, 

This is probably the most regularly distributed of all the Woodpeckers 
of this region. It is a constant resident of the valleys and foot-hills, 
and is found in sunuuer throughout the pine country. One specimen 
was taken in midsummer on the timber-line of Shasta. It was often 
seen in winter along the Lower McCloud, and in fall and spring fre- 
quented the oak timber of the Upper Sacramento Valley in considerable 
numbers. 

Colaptes cafer ((Jniel.)- Hcd-shafted Flicker. 

A very common resident of the foot-hills and mountains of the coun- 
try, probably, however, leaving the higher mountains in winter. It was 
present in the hills of the Lower McOIoud in January and February, 
and was found on the timber-line of Shasta in summer. 

Colaptes cafer s:ituratior Kiilgw. Xortlnvestern Flicker. 

The Flickers obtained in the Redwood region and at ivetl Llutf have 
been referred to this variety by Mr. Kidgway. 

Family CAPRIMULGID.E. Goatsuckers. 

Phalaenoptilus nuttalli (Aiul.)- roor-will. 

On July 10, 1884, while deer hunting in the pine forest at the eastern 
base of Mount Lassen I started a bird of this si)ecies from her eggs. 
Not having a gun adai)ted to the puri)()se 1 could not obtain the bird, 
but was near enough to identify the si)ecies with certainty, even if I had 
not additional evidence in the characteristic creamy whiteness of the 
eggs. These latter were on the ground, in the open forest, entirely un- 
protected by nest or shelter of any kind. They measured 1.00 by .70 
and 1.00 by .78 inch. 



ISbT.J PKOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 201 

The species is kuowu to be a simmier resident of the couutry to the 
eastward of the Sierras, aud if found at all to the west of the mountains, 
in the northern part of California, it is as a rare visitor, for there is no 
record of any suchdistributiou, and 1 did not meet with it except upon 
this occasion. It was collected at Yreka by ]\Ir. Vieille. 

Chordeiles virginiauus henryi (Cass.)- Wcsiern Nighthaick. 
X common summer inhabitant of the open country. 

Family MICROPODID.E. Swifts. 

Chsetura vauxii (Towns.). I'aux's Swift. 

"Common in California." (Newberry.) 

Family TROCHILID.E. IIcmmixgiukds. 
Trochilus alexandri Bonrc. & Muls. Bluclc-chinntd Hummin'jhird. 

A very common summer resident of the foothills, breeding- numer- 
ously on the Lower McCloud Kiver, where seven nests were found at 
intervals from May 2S to June 20, 1883. These nests were without 
exception built on the branches of alders and other low bushes close 
by the McCloud liiver or the creeks Howing into it, none of them being- 
loo liigli to be easily reached from the ground. 

While composed mainly of the cottony down of plants general!^ used 
by Hummingbirds for building material, they were very differently 
disguised by the materials used for their outside covering. Instea<l of 
being lichen-coated, in the manner of nests found in large trees, these 
were closely covered with the brown husks of buds and (;ertaiu sniall 
seeds, which were finally enveloped in a network of s[)ider-web to hold 
them in place. One nest, taken June, 21, was so heavily covered with 
thi-5 netting of spider's manufacture as to be remarkably finn aud hard 
for a Humming-bird's nest. Another, taken May 28, was composed of 
the above-mentioned seed husks and spider-webs to the total exclusion 
of the usual down of willows and other plants. Only one nest in the 
lot was entirely lichen-coated, aud as it was built in a young live oak 
this coating corresponded with the gray-colored branch on which it rested 
much better than would the brownish color emi^loyed to disguise the 
nests in the lichen-colored branches of the alders. 

Here we have a beautiful adaptation of means to reciuisite ends, which 
may be further illustrated by similar methods of concealment adopted 
by two of the following species. In all these instances the artifices 
resorted to by the birds to render their nests inconspicuous ap|)eared to 
be efl&cient, for I do not remember even to have discovered any of the 
twenty or more Hummingbirds' nests I have collected until their posi- 
tions were disclosed by the movement of the builders or the actions of 
the anxious parent birds. 



208 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

Tlic iiiciistirciiKMits of lour 0!^;;s of this specjes from as many dificrciit 
nests were (in luimhcltlis of an inch): .18 by .o2, .50 by .aJ, .50 l)y .oo, 
and .50 by .'M. 

Trocliilus anna (Less.). Anm'fi Jluminiiujlnnl. 

Tlie si)ecies wjis fonnd in abundauco along the Lower McClond and in 
the timber belts of the npper Sacramento Valley. Specimens were 
obtained in the former region as early as March 7. On Febrnary 4 L 
saw a Ilummingbird miles above the month of Pitt Kiver, which I 
think Ix'longed to this species. Another was seen on Febrnary 24, on 
the Lower IM(;('l()nd Tiiver, which also seemed to be of this species. As 
there was a little snow on some of the hill-sides at that early date, these 
birds api)eared to be advancing more rapidly than the season, but the 
manzanita blossoms which were beginning to appear on the sunnier 
slopes probably encouraged them in their northward movement. 

I did not myself find this bird breeding in these places, but nests 
collected at the United States tishery on McCloud ; liver by Mr. Liv- 
ingston Stone establish the fact. These are altogether the coarsest 
nests I have seen, being made of plant down and tlaxy plant tibers with 
a miscellaneous coating of mosses, coarse lichens, husks of buds, tiny 
bits of bark, and even a few minute twigs. I think they wouM har- 
monize admirably with their surroundings in the high oak trees in which 
they are said to have been i)laced. 

l''.arly in June I found a curious double nest which, from its coarse 
structure and heavy covering of mosses and lichens, might have been 
built by this species, l)ut 1 could not make its identity certain by obtain- 
ing the bird. A fresh nest was placed upon a bit of drift lodged in 
the tip of a swaying branch of a willow which overhung the IMcOloud 
liiver. To the side of this mass of leaves and grasses was attached a 
weather-worn nest which in all [)robability had been built the previous 
season by the same bird. 

Trocliilus rufus (jiiicl. Iiii/uiix Jlinnmiiiijbird. 

This bird was tirst seen in the foot-hills of the Lower McOloud about 
April 5, its presence there being noted throughout the summer. Several 
specimens of males in flue plumage were obtained on ]\Liy 17 in the 
vicinity of certain beds of wild flowers on the tops of the high hills 
about the United States fishery. In such places I was always certain 
of finding a considerable number of them during the latter part of the 
month, and their actions there were cliaracterized by a wondei'ful degree 
of animation. Tlie males Avere (u)nstantly darting into the air to a 
height of liO or 40 feet above their fellows, uttering sharp squeaks and 
dropi)ing almost instantly anion •; them and buzzing among the tlowers 
in the noisiest possible manner. 1 could find no nests of this species, 
an<l I do not think that they build close to the streams, lik(^ the other 
fluminingbirds in this region, V)ut resort to the dry, brush-covered hills. 
I found these birds in midsummer at the highest limit of timber on 
Shasta. 



1887.] PEOCEEDINGS Ob' UNITED STATES xXATlONAL MUSEUM. 2 09 
Txocliilus calliope Gould. Cdlliopc IIuiiiiiiiiKjInnL 

This species was uot uiet with iiutil May 17, when two were obtained 
ainotiiLj tlie above-mentioned wild flowers in company with TrocJiilus 
ri(fi(s. J fonnd nests on the following dates: May 29, June and 12. 
These were in trees on the bank of McCloud Eiver, and were observed 
to be lichen-coated, to correspond with their situations. One of them, 
so placed upon a decayed limb as to be completely sheltered by a larger 
one immediately over it. was covered with as great a variety of ma- 
terials as the nests of Trochilmunncv, and in a<lditiou to these had some 
cast off skins of aquatic insects built into it. 

Fiiiuily TYKANNID^E. Tvkant FiA'CATcnEi;s. 

Tyrauiiua veiticalis Say. fVcutcrii Kbi<jhird. 

A very couimon summer resident of the settled and cultivated por- 
tions of the country. lta[)peared at lied liluff A])ril 5, and was noticed 
in the foot-hills of the Lower McCloud abont tiie last of the i^nth. At 
the latter phice a nest of four eggs was found June *J. Another was 
taken in the hills east of Eed Bluff a week earlier. These, ami all 
others noticed, were in the near vicinity of houses. 

Myiarciius cinerascens Lawr. Jsh-UiroaJed Fli/calcJicr. 

This species ariived at Ked Bluff' April 25, and at Baird May 15. It 
is comuion in summer, both in the Sacramento Valley aud in the chap- 
airal and wooded country higher up. It was not found in the pine re- 
gions of Mounts Shasta and Lassen. 

Sayoniis saya (nsniap.). Say'ts rhwbe. 

A cominou sutumer resident of the Upper Sacramento Valley, partic- 
ularly iu the viciuity of Ked Bluff', where it was first observed March 
11. It was uot fouad to iuhabit higher country. 

Sayornis nigricans (Swains. ). Blavk Phoebe. 

The Black L*ewee was noticed at Baird as early as February 21), 1SS4, 
and the first nest of eggs was obtained April 21. It remained about 
the buildings throughout the summer, usually raising two broods. 
Found everywhere but in the mountains. 

Coutopus borealis (Sv.aluis. ). Olive-sided Flycatcher. 

Not uncommon in the pine forests in summer. I found it on one or 
two occasions as high as the timber-line on Shasta. Specimens were 
rather hard to procure, owing to the great height which the bird main- 
tained in the trees. It was seldom seen in the pineiies qf the Lassen 
region. 

Contopixfj richardsoni (Sw.). Western IVood I'ewev. 

A comnion summer inhabitant of the foot hills and u}oi|ntaius. It was 
uot obtained at Saird until May 28, and. \vas not WQti(?e(| at all iu t|iQ 
Sacramento Valley. 

Troo, N. M, 87-- -14 



210 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

Empidonax pusillus (Svraius.)- LUth Fli/cafvlur. 

Specimens of this species were obtained in Lassen and Modoc Counties 
by Mr. Heusbaw, who reports it as a numerous summer resident of the 
eastern slope of the Sierras. 

Empidoiiax obscurus (Swaius.)- Wrujhl's Flycatcher. 

1 did not meet with this species myself, but it was found breedin.u" in 
Lassen County by Mr. Henshaw, where, however, it was not common. 
Specimens were collected at Fort Crook by Captain Feilner. 

Family ALAUDID.E. Lakks. 

Otocoris alpestris rubea lleiish. JUuWij Horned Lark. 

This jbrm of the Horned Lark is a very common inliabitant of the 
plains and open country everywhere in Northern Calilbrnia. It was 
found in limited numbers on the sage-covered districts north of Mount 
Shasta in midsummer. The closely- grazed sheep pastures of the Upper 
Sacramento Valley were alive with them in April and May, and they 
were abundant in July on the grassy plains east of Mount Lassen. As 
1 was not at lied Bluif in midsummer or midwinter I cannot aflirm that 
they are always present there, but think it not nnlikely a few were 
nesting there late in May. On May 4 1 found a most remarkable nest ot 
eggs in all probability of this species. I had secured a number of Horned 
Larks the same morning in a stubble-field and a nest containing one 
egg of the n.^ual olive-white color, with minute dark spots, so charac- 
teristic of the egg of the species, when a plowman approached with 
a nest containing threi' eggs of similar size and i)atlern of marking, 
but so sufliised with a rich reddish-brown as to be unrecognizable. The 
man said they were those of a bird exactly like the Otocoris in my 
basket. 1 ioth nests were of equal size, loosely made of grasses and weeds 
and placed an)ong the clods and stubble. There were no other birds 
on the entire plain but Horned Larks, and as the eggs agree with no 
others, there is no other resort than to call them eggs of this species. 
The measurements (in hundredths of an inch) are: of the normal egg .TG 
by .60, and of the reddish colored set, .SI by .58, .70 by .50, .74 by .50. 

Otocoris alpestris strigata Ilnusli. i^lreaked Hormd Lark. 

This northwestern dark-colored race was abundant at IJed Llulf in 
Decembei-, when a few specimens were obtained. 

Family CORVID.F. Chows, Jays, Ma(;pies, Ac. 

Pica pica hudsonica (Sal),). Amer'teun Maf/piv. 

This species is known to the legion chietly from specimens taken at 
Fort Crook by Cai)tain Feilner. Its western limit is reached there, 
for it is replaced on the op[)osite side of the Sierras by the next species. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 211 

Pica uuttalli Ami. Yellow-billed Ma<jpie. 

A very couuuou constilnt resident of the Upper ^Sacramento ^'alley 
out of which it was not observed. IMagpies were always to be found 
about the buildings on the ranches around lied Blulf, and their brush- 
pile iiests were conspicuous objects in tlie scraggy oak trees near them. 
They began making repairs on several old nests about March 10, but 
1 found no eggs, althougli I ius])ected them regularly for a month or 
more. I have no reason to believe that any new nests were built, but 
1 think that the birds laid their eggs in two oi- three old nests that were 
inaccessible to me. All those examined were found to be roofed with 
twigs in the usual manner of Magpies' nests, and had oi)enings on op- 
posite sides so that the birds could enter and leave without the incon- 
^•euience of turning their long tails in crowded (inarters. 1 saw a pair 
of sparrow hawks Hying in and out of one of these arboreal brush-piles 
early in the spring, but could not determine whether they nested there 
on account of its inaccessible situation, 

Cyanocitta stelleii (Guiel.). !<lelhrs Jaij. 

Moderately common among the redwoods of Humboldt County. 

Cyanocitta stelleii frontalis (lii(lg\Y.). /line-fronted Juy. 

This jay is a very common inhabitant of the pine region, wintering 
in consideral)le numbers in the foot-hills, where a few remain to breed* 
I found full grown young birds at tiiC timber-line of Shasta in midsum- 
mer. It was not observed in the Sacramento Valley in winter. 

Aphelocoma californica (Vig. ). California Jai/. 

A common resident of the foot-hills in summer and of the valleys in 
winter, generally speaking, stragglers being found in both regions at 
all seasons. It was very rarely found in the higher i)ine country. One 
specimen was obtained near the base of Mount Shasta, at an altitude 
of 4,500 feet. The only nest obtained at Eed Bluff was taken May 1. 

Perisoreus obscurus (Kidgw.). Ore'jon Jai/. 

The only place in the interior where I found this species was on the 
heavily-timbered slopes of Mount Shasta a lev/ thousand feet below 
timber-line, where four Hocks of about half a dozen birds each were 
seen. I saw a floek on the west side of the mountain on July 30. Ten 
specimens were collected on the east side during August and Septem- 
ber. On September 7 1 crippled one of a band of five, which scieamed 
so continuously that its comrades returned and assaulted it furiously. 
They were so excited by its cries that I shot one after the other in quick 
succession until all were immolated upon the altar of ornithology, the 
last one still violentlj' attacking the first unfortunate. These very 
interesting birds never appeared as pests about our camp, as they are 
known to do in Oregon and elsewhere. They were silent creatures, 
with the exception of a startling scream sometimes uttered when flying 



212 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

hi^'h tluou-li the tops of the i)iiic.s. None were observed amoii!^- the 
conifers of JMoiiut Lassen, but in December, 1885, numerous bauds 
were met witli in the Humboldt redwood forests. 

Corvus corax sinuatus (Wagl ). American Haven. 

The Kaven I only saw on one or two occasions at Red Bluff. It is re- 
corded by other observers as a common species of all parts of the coun- 
try except the high mountains, and was collected at Fort Crook by 
Lieutenant Parkinson. On the coast, however, about Humboldt Bay 
it was constantly present. California Kavens appeared to be scarcely 
more than half the size of those 1 obtained in Xorthern Alaska, and 
certaiidy had not half the vocal power of the Alaskan birds, which are 
remarkably loud-voiced. 

Corvus ameiicanus And. American Crow. 

An abiyidant, constant resident of the U[)per Sacramento Valley, oc- 
casionally wandering- into the higher foot-hills. It was seen on two or 
three occasions in the hills about Baird, but was not observed anywhere 
in the high mountains. Early in May Crows were breeding everywhere 
in the timber belts south of Eed Bluff. Their nests always contained 
four eggs, and neither nests nor eggs differed in any way from those ot 
the common eastern Crow, although the birds themselves were inva- 
riably found to be much smaller. They exhibited none of the pro- 
verbial wariness of eastern Crows, and were always easily obtainable. 
On one occasion, tinding it necessary to economize ammunition, 1 poi- 
soned wheat with strychnine, hoping to obtain specimens thereby, but 
although sick Crows were noticed in the vicinity for several days after- 
ward, only one died from the effects of the poison. 

Picicorvus columbianus (Wils.)- Clarkc/s XuUrac.kcr. 

My most ]>leasurable memories of bird collecting in California arc 
insei»arably connected with the time spent in hunting the Nutcracker 
along the timber-line of :\[ount Shasta. Hi^h up on the lonely mount- 
ain, where the dark pine forest gives place to scattered trees and 
stunted shrubs, where tracts of pumice and ashes, marking old vol- 
canic liows, lie strewn with lava bowlders, and where common bird life 
languishes, is the home of the Nutcracker. Such a locality is desolate 
enough, but is not without its grander asi)ects ; for from the somber 
ibreground the picture widens out into vistas the sublimity of which 
becomes iiulelibly stamped upon the imagination. On one side and 
below are the forests stretching downwards and away tarther than the 
eye Ccau see, affording glimpses of scenery only surpassed in grandeur 
by the view on the other side, where the snowy peak rises glistening 
in the sunshine far above. 

In the thin air of this high latitude— nine or ten thousand feet— any 
but the slowest walking is too exhausting to be continued long, and as 
the Nutcrackers are observant and shy, it is not an easy matter to shoot 



iSsr.j PROCEEDINGS OP UNITED STATES NATIONAL MttSEUM. 213 

tlieiii. Tbey are .such restless rovers, too, that one can never depend 
on their remaining long enough in one situiitio;i to be stalked. It is 
useless to follow one of these birds, for when he leaves the ])ine cone 
at which he may have been hammering contentedly he is as likely to 
fly clean out of the neiglilxnhood as not. The best way to get the 
birds IS to shoot them on the wing from some covert over which they 
are likely to fly in passing from one patch of pihons to another. Their 
coming is unmistakably announced by their incessant s(|ualling. hjven 
when feeding the Nutcrackers kee^) up a peevish s(;olding. In summer 
their heads and breasts are always reddened l)y the juice of the unripe 
cones of PIums Ji^.rilifi, but later they depend on the seeds of the larger 
pines. 

Cyanocephalus cyanocephalus (Wicd.). I'lnon Jaij. 

About fifteen sj»ecimens of this species were collected at Fort Crook 
by Captain Feilner. Tiiere are no records showing that it has been 
found in this region by any one else, but there (^an be no doubt that 
it inhabits the |)inon-covered localities generally. 

Family ICTEEID.'E. Blackbirds, Okioles, &c. 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Conap.). YcUow-lieadcd Blackbird. 

A bird common in Northern California, but of irregular distribution, 
often passing over extensive stretches of unfavorable country to arrive 
at the cultivated tracts and reedy lakes where it breeds. This is char- 
acteristic of all the Blackbirds found in the country, for, after leaving 
the Sacramento Valley, the settled places aie few and far between, and 
Blackbirds are too partial to grassy meado ws and niarshes to wander far 
from them. 1 do not remember of ever seeing a Blackbird of any species 
among the foot-hills of the Lower McCloud. 

This species was often found among the flocks of Brewer's Blackbirds 
that frequented the timothy meadows of Berry vale, at the western base 
of Mount Shasta, 3,500 feet altitude. Very few were seen at Red Bluff, 
but large numbers were found breeding in the " tules " bordering Eagle 
Lake. Here they led an independent sort of life amid strange surround- 
ings, for with the exception of the marsh wreus that nested in the riieds 
with them, other species of land birds were scarce; ducks, coots, and 
grebes weresplashing and gabbling ainong the reedsbeneath their nests; 
gulls, terns, shags, and pelicans were flying overhead or darting into 
the water all around. The rippling surfiice of the lake, tlie waving 
reeds along its miirgin, the tall pines, with their background of mount- 
ains, and the presence of a great variety of birds, all contributed to 
form h.ere a scene of life and beauty. I'lom tlu'ir station upon the tops 
of the tules these Blackbirds dis[)iayed their yelU)\v heads and vied 
with their strange neiglibors iu noise and animation. 

Agelaius phoeniceus (Linn.'). lUdwnKjvd HUiclhhd. 

An abundant summer resident oi" the cuiiivated country north of 
Mount Shasta, and obs(u^ved in moderaxe numi>c,'s in suitable localities 



214 N0TK8 OX CALIl'OKNIA ANIMALS. 

elsewhere. It was lirst seeu at Red Hlnlf March lii, in coiupaiiy with 
Brewer's Blackbird. 

Agelaius guberuator (Wagl.)- IlUohnd Jiluckbird. 

This form may have been amoii;^- the Hocks of tlie preceding;- species 
that were observed in various places, but J did not recogtiize it as sncli. 
Dr. Newbecry found it common in the Sacramento Valley and Mr. 
Henshaw records its presence on the eastern slope of tlie Sierras, 

Agelaius tricolor (Nutt.)- Trimlored Jihtilhiiil. 

As this is a spe(;ies not distinjiuishable on si<4ht from the two pre- 
ceding- species when iiocking with them, and as none were collected, I 
cannot aflirm that it is a bird of the re.^ion under dis(;ussion. It is ad- 
mitted on the strenjijth of the records of Drs. Newberry and Ileermann ; 
according" to the former, common in the Klamath basin, and tlie latter, 
breeding- in great numbers in the vicinity of the town of Shasta. 

Sturnella magna neglecta Ami. H'cstrrn Meadow Lark. 

The remarks on the distribution of the precedin<^ species of the 
family Icteridai are largely applicable to this one, which is very nu- 
merous wherever there are meadows of any considerable extent. It is 
exceedingly abundant throughout the up])er end of the Sacramento 
Valley, especially when the larks of the higli mountain meadows also 
gather there to pass the winter. I found one individual frozen in the 
snow of Shasta in August, more than 1,000 feet above the timber-line. 

Ictertis bullocki (Swains.). Jit(Uoch\i Oriole. 

Bullock's Oriole was ftrst collected at the United States fishery on Apiil 
25. A pair nested in a " live oak " overhaaging the river quite near the 
fishery, and I was entertained by the hostile bearing of the male toward 
iiitru(l<Ms. One day a stray Icterus hulloeJci came along and essayed to 
usurp tin; place of the rightful owner of the nest, which brought an 
immediate conflict. The two males struggled and tore each others hair, 
so to speak, until both fell into the water beneath, where of course they 
separated. Before their plumage was dry they met at the nest over- 
Iiead and engaged in combat again, and with the same result. Seven 
or eight times in succession did I see their angry struggles interrupted 
by repeated tumbles into the icy McCloud. 

These Orioles were first seen at Red Bluff Ai)ril 5, where they nested 
regularly in the cottonwoous and locusts about the ranch buildings. In 
a clump of half a dozen trees at one place I counted more than twenty 
deserted nests, some of which were occupied by crimson-fronted house 
finches. The nnnd)er of old nests about this house would seem to indi- 
cate that they were not ()ccu[)ied a second time by the orioles. One of 
these nests was composed almost entirely of various kinds of strings 
and coarse twine, interwoven throughout with horse hair, which last ap- 
l)eared to enter largely into the c()m[>osition of all the nests. It was cer- 



ISHl".] I'ROCKKDlJJGS OV ttNlTED STATICS NATIONAI. MUSEUM. 2 1 f) 

tainly a couvciiieut building; imUcrial, for tlioie were more tliau a lum- 
dred horses aud mules on the rauch, and combings Irom their manes and 
tails were sticking everywhere about the stables and corrals. This 
species was very abundunt in the timber belts of the Uppor Sacramento 
Valley about the latter part of April, feeding among the new leaves of 
the oaks, but later in the season had mostly scattered ofl" to their nest- 
ing places in various parts of the valleys aud foot-hills. Xonc were 
seen in the pine country or the high mountains. 

Scolecophagus cyaiiocephalus (Wugl.)- Jireiver^s Bluckhird. 

The most abundant of all the Blackbirds of IS^orthern California, and 
like the other species a summer resident of all localities suitable for 
blaekbirds. They were not luimerons at Red Bluff until near the last 
of March. 

Family FRINGILLID.^. Fintciies, Spaukows, &c. 

Coccothraustes vespertma (Cooper). Evening Grosbeak. 

Seemingly very rare. Two specimens have been procured in this 
region, one at Fort Crook, by Captain Feiluer, and the other at Yreka, 
by Mr. Vuille. 

Carpodacus purpureiis californicus Biiird. California Purple Fincli. 

This species was observed on a few occasions only. It was taken at 
Baird on June G, and again on the i'ith, 1883. A single individual was 
obtained at the eastern base of JMouut Lassen on June 1, 1884, and it 
■was subsequently secured at Iluniboldt Bay in December, 1885. 

Carpodacus cassini Baird. Cassiu's Purple Finvli. 

Cassin's Purple Finch is an abundant summer inhabitant of the 
mountains aud the pine regions generally. During tlie summer of 1883 
it was found in abundance on the higher slopes, and especially along 
the timber-line of Mount Shasta, where, although no nests were found, 
its breeding was indicated by the large proportion of young birds pres- 
ent. Very few were to be found at the base of the mountains and none 
in the lower foot-hills and valleys, with exce]>tion of a single individual 
taken on the Lower McCloud November IG. It is probably only iound 
there when passing between its winter and summer homes. 

Carpodacus frontalis (Say). House Finch. 

The House Finch is a very abundant resident of all parts of Northern 
California, except the pine forests and the high mountains. The major- 
ity of those that are in the foot-hills in summer probably winter lower 
down, for only occasional stragglers were seen at Baird ni winter. ^Vc 
Red Bluff they begau nesting about May 1. Here their presence and 
agreeable songs enlivened the usually unattractive buddings upon the 
grain ranches, where they were the prevailing species during tl»e long 
dry season when most valley birds seek the shelt 'r of the timber. The 
"Linnets," as these birds are called m California, nest in all sorts of 



210 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

places. At ii ranch near the town, where my laboratory was set up for a 
time, they took possession of all the available cracks and crevices about 
the buildings, nesting also in the locust trees, the rose bushes, and even 
in several deserted nests of Bullock's Oriole. They did not accept these 
nests as built by the Orioles, but constructed their own nests in«ide, often 
half filling them with rubbish. One of these was tilled to overflowing, 
so there was barely room for the eggs, thus making it quite a heavy 
and bulky affair. Sometimes their nests were found in the lower 
branches of the cottouwoods along the river. 

The nest of the ITouse Finch, in the materials entering into its com 
position, is subject to as great variety as is its situation, being made of 
all kinds of green and dried weeds, of coarse twine and strings, of sun- 
dry fibers of dead weeds, with lining of horse-tail, wool, cotton, or in 
fact of any handy material that would do to build a bird's nest out of. 
They lay not more than five eggs, which are subject to much variation 
in their marking. They arc very destructive to fruit, and in some 
places T found the ranchers prepared with special ammunition for de- 
stroying them. 

In the autumn they are gregarious, and a flock of thirty or forty of 
these rosy fellows in one small tree is a pretty sight. 

Loxia curvirostia minor (Brebra). A mericatt Crossbill. 

This resident of the pines appears to be somewhat irregular in its 
distribution. Although I spent more than two mouths among the con- 
ifers of Mount Shasta, Crossbills were not met with, except on one occa- 
sion, until September 3, on the eastern slope. Our camp, at an elevation 
of about 0,000 feet, on a small stream, was occasionally visited by small 
bands of these birds. I soon learned from the monotonous iu)tes which 
they uttered in concert when flying when they were about camp, and 
on going out usually saw them in the tops of certain tamaracks near 
by. As observed in the pine region east of Mount Lassen the following 
summer tliey were more numerous and easier to obtain. 

In this region they were nearly always to be found in three particudar 
localities in the vicinity of springs, and seldom anywhere else. One of 
these was our own cabin, and I collected many Crossbills l)y firing from 
the door with a parlor gun which did not make report enough to frighten 
them away. It w-jis their custom to come to a stump before the door 
early in the morning, often half a dozen being on it at onc(% and some- 
times three or four conUl be killed in succession before they became 
alarmed. A few moments' inspection of the place from the nearest ])ine 
was sufficient to restore their confidence, however, and they would 
come down again. 

I have every reason to believe that the source of their attraction to 
this particular stump was salt, as we always salted the horses there, 
and thero. was always n)orc or less of it sticking in the crevices. This 
stump was resorted toby poicui)iiu\s during llu^ night for the salt which 



18.^r.J PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 21? 

permeated it, and I am at a loss to explaiu its attraction for the birds in 
any other way. 

A spring in a grove of aspens some miles away was also nnich fre- 
quented by Crossbills, but as I saw them there only when i)assing by, 
there was no opportunity for observing their habits. 

The thir<l place frequented by them was the vicinity of a tumble- 
down hut by a spring in a grove of tamaracks. This place, known to 
sheep-herders as Bridge Creek, was on the trail leading from Mount 
Lassen to Susanville. Ifere we camped for a short time, and the Cross- 
bills did not fail to appear each day, being especially active at morning 
and evening. In this flock of old and young there were birds of every 
color intermediate between the red of the male and the olive of the 
female. 

As they perched in the tamaracks over the door, single ones were 
easily picked ofl' with the small gun without disturbing the rest, and if 
we retired to a suitable distance they would enter the shanty and pick 
over the fragments of victuals that littered the earthen floor. 

Although I rambled all over the surrounding country, 1 do not re- 
member finding Crossbills elsewhere than at these three places. 

Spinus tristis (Liuu.). American Goldfinch. 

Common at Red Bluff in spring and summer, where they were usually 
found in flocks in the cottouwoods along the river. They were first seen 
March 20. Also obtained at Humboldt Bay. 

Spinus psaltria (Say). Arkansas Goldfinch. 

The Green-backed Goldfinch is a common summer resident of the foot- 
hill country, particularly the lower parts. A limited number Avander 
higher into the mountains and still fewer remain in the valleys, although 
two nests were found at Red Blufl' (April 30 and May 14). The first 
one of the season arrived at Baird as early as IMarch 1. 

Spinus pinus (Wils. ). Pine Siskin. 

A considerable number of specimens of the pine goldfinch were col- 
lected at Fort Crook by Capt. Feiluer. I did not meet with it myself 
untd I arrived at Humboldt Bay in N^ovember, 1S85, where, however, it 
was seldom seen. 

Poocaetes gramineus confinis Baird. Jl'estern Vesper Sparrow. 

Not represented in my collection, but common in the valleys, according 
to Dr. Newberry and Mr. Henshaw. 

Ammodranius sandiwichensis alaudiuus (lip.)- Wesiern Sarannah Sparrow. 

This species was found in abundance at Red Bluff in spring and fall. 
I^ot having been there in summer and winter, I am uncertain whether 
it winters there, but there is little doubt that it remains through the 
hot weather, although the greater part of the valley birds wander a 
little higher up at that season. Large Hocks of the species were gath- 



218 NOTKS ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

I'K'd t<);;('llK'r laic in December. With the exception of a very lew 
Ibiiiid near the mouth of the McCloud Elver in November they were not 
observed in lii,<ih country. 

Chondestes grammacias strigatus (Sw.)- Wo^UrH Lark Finch. 

An abundant summer resident of all parts of the country, except the 
pine forests and the high mountains. As observed, breeding Lite in 
May at Baird, the nests were on the ground, wliile at lied Bluff' they 
nested two weeks earlier, and all the nests noticed were in h)w trees. 
It was very abundant in August on the higli lying plains northward of 
Mount Shasta. 

Zonotrichia leucophrys (Forst.). WMie-cronncd Sparrow. 

Numerous in the mountains of the northeastern i)art of the State, 
where it was found breeding in June by Mr. Uenshaw. Also recorded 
from :Xortliern California, by ]>r. Newberry. I have not recognized it 
then^ myself. 

Zonotrichia intermedia Ridgw. Jtitcrmediale Sjiarrow. 

Tliis species was abundant at Bed Bluff in the spring. Flocks of 
them, accompanied by occasional individuals of eoronata, constantly 
frequented the brush fences of certain localities. A few were observed 
there in December also. They were seen only at rare intervals in the 
region round about ]\Iount Lassen and were not found at all about 
Mount Shasta. 

Zonotrichia gambeli (Nntt.)- (rambcr.s S2)arrow. 

A single S[)ecimen of this form was obtaine(l at the United States 
fislieiy November 10. 

Zonotrichia eoronata (Pall.)- Goldeii-croicved Sparrow. 

Occasionally met with at lied Bluff" in jMarch, and oidy nnde:- the 
circumstances mentioned in the paragraph relating to 'nitermc<H<i. At 
ITnmboldt Bay it was more numerous. 

Spizella monticola ochiacea Brewst. Wenlcrn Trev, Sparrow. 

Tliis species is represented in Captain Feilner's JMut Crook colle(;- 
tion. 

Spizella socialis arizonae Coii(\s. (rc^tern Chipphij/ Sparrow. 

Met with almost everywhere in the country, even np to the timber- 
line of Shasta, where nunierons younj>' birds were fonnd in midsummer. 
The va'ley region about lied Bluff was the oidy locality where this 
sparrow was really rare. At Jiaird nests wei-e found late in Mny and 
at ]Mount Lassen early in June. 

Spizella breweri C.-iss. Hrrwrr's Sj)<(rrotc. 

Keeorded as iihinid.'.nt i)y Dr. Newberry and Mr. Ilensliaw. Speci- 
mens were collected at \\n\ Crook by Ca])tain I-'eiliier. 



1>H7.] rROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 219 

Juiico hyeinalis oiegoniis (Towns.)- Orcf/oii Jinico. 

The Oregon Snowbird is a very coiuinon iulial)itant of the high mount- 
ains, retiring to all i^arts of the lower country in winter. Snowbirds 
breed everywhere in the pine country about Mount Shasta, and often at 
the timber-line. At Mount Lassen, where they were equally common, a 
nest of four fresh eggs was taken on June C. It was built on tlie ground, 
the usual situation of nests of this species. These birds were abun- 
dant and familiar at Red Bluff early in the spring, and were noted among 
the foot-hills of the Lower Mc(31oud River in January. 

Ampliispiza belli nevadensis (Kidgw.). Saije S^yarrow. 

Xot observed by me, but found in moderate numbers in the sage-cov- 
ered districts of Northeastern California b3^ Mr. Ilenshaw. 

Melospiza fasciata heevmaniii (Baird). Heermann' a Song Sjyarrow. 

This species appears to be confined to the foot-hills proper, of which 
it is a constant and rather common resident. It may be fonnd along 
with the next species in the valleys, but I did not recognize it elsewhere 
than as stated. 

As a rule it frequents the shrubbeiy overlianging the streams, in 
which situations it nests in April, especially towards the last of the 
month. 

All the nests found along the McOloud River were built among the 
drift twigs and leaves lodged in the low bushes at the season of high 
water. One found May 10 was a bulky structure of the outer bark of 
reeds, with some grasses and withered leaves, the lining being princi- 
pally of the separated fibers of dead weeds and reeds. It contained 
five eggs of a pale blue-ground color, minutely dotted with reddish- 
brown, especially at the larger end. Their measurements were: one, 
.78 by .GO ; one, .82 by .GO, and three .80 i^y .GO inch. 

Melospiza fasciata samuelis (B;iird). Samuels's Song Sparrotv. 

A single specimen, the only one of the kind seen, was taken on the 
coast at the mouth of Eel River in December, 1885. 

Melospiza fasciata guttata (Nntt. ). liw^i;/ 8ung Sparrow. 

Not uncommon at Baird in fall and winter, associating i)robably with 
the above-mentioned variety, as it affects similar localities. At Red 
Bluff it was seldom obtained. 

Melospiza lincolni (Aud.). Lincohi's Sparrow. 

Specimens of Lincoln's finch were collected at Fort Crook by Captain 
Feilner. 

Passerella iliaca unalasclicensis (Gin.). TownacncVs Sparrow. 

The only specimen of the genus Fasserella, collected on the Lower 
McCloud River, iiroves to be of this variety. It was taken at the 
United States fishery on Septend)er 24, 1883. Common on the coast of 
Humboldt County. 



2t20 XOTES ON CALirORKIA ANIMALS. 



(rrow. 



Passerella iliaca megarhyncha (Raird). Thirt-hUhd Sp((i 

Coniuiou about Mount Shasta in summer, where it frequented tlic 
eliaparral tracts and the bushes scattered through the pine country. 
Althouj;li no nests were found, its breeding there was indicated by the 
number of iimnature birds uiet with. 

Passerella iliaca schistacea (Bainl). Slate-colored Sjyarrow. 

Tliis slate-colored variety was found in abundance in June in brushy 
tracts everywhere about the eastern base of Mount Lassen. 

Pipilo maculatus megalonyx (Hainl). Spurred Towhee. 

The Spurred Towliee is an abundant, constant resident of all parts of 
the country, excepting, perhaps, the higher slopes of the mountains, as 
1 did not tind it on Shasta above 5,500 feet altitude. The nesting i)eriod, 
as indicated by the dates of nests found in the valleys and foot-hills, 
extends from the middle of April to the last of May. 

Pipilo maculatus oregonus (Bell). Oregon Towhee. 

:My coast specimens of the Towhee arc all typical oregonus. Abun- 
dant in Humboldt County. 

Pipilo chlorurus (Towns.)- Green-tailed Towhee. 

The Green-tailed Finch was found to be quite common -in the brushy 
tracts that are interspersed through the higher pine regions, never being- 
found lower than the bases of Shasta and Lassen. 

Pipilo fuscus crissalis (Vig.).. Califoririan Towhee. 

An exceedingly common all-the year-round inhabitant of the foot hills 
and valleys. It was very rarely found higlier than the border of the 
heavy pine country. The breeding season ai)i)ears to be later than that 
of P. mcoalonij.r, lasting from May 1 until July 1. The builders of these 
latest nests may have been raising a second brood, but it is rarher 
doubtiul. 

As it was noticed neither as f;ir north as Mount Shastii nor as far 
west as Mount Lassen, its range in the interior of Northern California 
m:iy be considered as limited to the Sacramento Valley and tlu' foot hills 
which incdose it. 

Habia melanocephala (Swains.). Blacl-headcd Gi-osheal'. 

This grosbeak is a Common summer resident of the foot hill region, 
never having l)eeu observed higher than 3,000 feet altitude. IL arrived 
at Red Blutf May 1, and at Laird May 11. At Ked Blutf it jirobably 
never remains to breed, but passes through to higher country. A nest 
of three eggs was found at Baird "May 21, in some tangled bushes by the 
river. It was comi)osed entirely of twigs, the lining consisting merely 
of rather liner ones, and the whole not so (!ompactly built but that one 
could see through it. The eggs, of a light blue color, weri' I'atiier closely 
spotted, especially at the larg 'r end. These spots were in two layers. 



1SC57.J i'koci:e!>in»js of united .si'atks national mushum. 221 

the uikUt and obscurer ones bciii,!;' of ii puriilisli i;rjiy, the distinct out 
side scries of uuibcr brown. T1k3 e,iii;s measured: on(>, .9li by ,08, tlic 
other two, .94 by .00 incli. 

Guiraca cserulea (l/uiii.). JUiic Groshcaly. 

The only account of the occurrence of this s[)ecies iu Xoitliern (Jab- 
Toruia is by Dr. Xewberry, who fouiul it on lJ[)i)er Pitt Itiver. 

Passeiiua amoena (Say). Laztdi Jlintlituj. 

A couiniou summer resident of all i)arts of the country up to the bor- 
der of the dense pine region. It arrived at or, more i)roperiy, passed 
through, Ited liluff May 1, and was first seen at JJaird about the uiiddle 
of the month. The first nest was found May -0 at tlit^ latter placa It 
was a symmetrical structure of dried grasses and tlui outer <;overing or 
bark of certain species of reeds, the whole being so wiihered and bleached 
as to present a uniform grayish a[)pearan(;e. There was no lining, and 
as the eggs had not yet been laid it is not unlikely that it was an un- 
finished nest. A few bits of moscpiito netting were the only artificial 
substances in its composition, it was attached to the twigs of a low 
shrub, among some l)owlders near the river. 

Family TANAGlilD.E. TAXAiricus. 

Piranga liidoviciaiia ^_^\'i!s.). l^ouisiaint fdiiagcr. 

A very common summer resideut of the foot hills and mountaius. It 
arrived at Eaird May 14, and at lied lilufif, the following season, May 
17. At the latter place it occurs only when passing through to higher 
country. 

Fiuriily HIRUNDINID.E. Swallows. 

Pi'Ogue subis (Ijiuu.)- rurple Martin. 

Martins were not common in the lo;;alities wluu'e 1 collected. A few 
were noticed about some buildings at the west base of .Mount Shasta iu 
midsummer, A colony of a dozen or more was found established in a 
large dead pine on the edge of the forest at the eastern base of Mount 
Lassen on June 0. The only nest 1 could reach occni)ied a large de- 
cayed cavity 2t) feet from the ground. It contained four fresh eggs. 
There were other nests higher up. 

Petioclielidon lunifrons (Say). Cliff Swalloir. 

Common only in certain localities. A moderate number of Clitf 
Swallows inhabited the buildings alluded to in the account of the pre- 
ceding species, and they w^ere abundant in the cultivated region about 
S)Usanvdle, Lassen County. They were very rarely seeu in the Sacra- 
mento Valley, and never found breeding on cliffs or other natural situ- 
ations. 

Chelidon erythrogaster (BocUI,). Bam Swallow. 

Of similar distnbtitiou m(\ abi;a(lq,nce a3 the 01 iff' S\7^Uow. 



222 NOTES OX CALiroKMA ANIMALS. 

Tachycineta bicolor (Vioill.). Tree Swallow. 

All iibuiulaut .summer resident of all settled parts of Northeru Cali- 
Ibruia. The ihst bird of the season at Baird was seen as early as Feb- 
ruarj' 24, and the first nest of eggs (a set of seven) was found May IL'. 
These Swallows nested regularly under the eaves of the tishery build 
ings, and sometimes established eolonies in dead trees along the rivef. 
About lied lUuff they seemed to prefer dead trees in tlw timber belts 
to the artiiicial nesting plaees aftbrded by the buildings on the ranehes. 

Tachycineta thalassina (Swaius.). Vioh't-green Swallow. 

The Violet-green Swallow was often seen Hying over the almost iii- 
aecessible limestone rocks which crowned the high ii<lge oi)posite the 
United States lisliery. llere 1 procure*! my lirst and only specimen of 
this exquisitely colored bird ou July 4, 1883. 

Clivicola ripaiia (Liiii).). Hank Swallow. 

Not found in any of the localities! visited, but according to Dr. New- 
berry and Mr. Ileushaw it is not uncommon. 

Stelgidopteryx serripemais (Amio. Uonijk-wUujed Swallow. 

Apparently rare. Specimens were obtained at Baird on July 7, 1S8;>, 
and at Red iilulf IMay 9, 1884. 

l^imily AMPELID^. Waxwings, &c. 

Ampelis cedrorum (Vieill.). Cedar JVaxwiiig. 

Seemiugl.v I'are, having been observed on one occasion only. A Hock 
of about a dozen ap^peared at Red Bluft" on December 19. 

Phainopepla uiteiis (.Sw. ). I'hainopepla. 

I am almost certain that I saw this species at J'.ainl late in June, 
1883. Its claim to being a bird of the region is established by the fact 
of its having been taken at Fort Crook by Captain Feilner. This is 
probably the most northerly record of its range. 

Family LANIID^E. HiiiiiKES. 

Iiaiiius ludovicianus (Liuu.). Loggerhead Shrike. 

Xot uncommon about Red Bluff in the spring. A single specimen 
was obtained on a sage plaineast of Mount Lassen in July, 1884. Shrikes 
were never seen in the foot-hills of Shasta County. 

Lauius ludovicianus excubitorides (Ssv.). l\li\ie-rnmp(d Shrike. 

Very rare, as it was found only on the sage plains n«'ar Vreka in 
August, and at lIuml)oldt l>ay in J)eceml)er. 

Family VI KEONID/E. ViUEOS. 

Vireo gilvus (Vi(;ill.)- Warbling Virco. 

Uncommon. At Baird it was first observed on June 7, where oc- 
casional ones were met with during the spring and early summer. It 
was found at rare intervals in midsummer about the base of Shasta. 



1HS7.3 PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED .STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 223 

Vireo solitarius cassinii (Xantus). CaHsiu'a J'ino. 

JMore commoii and more geueniily distiibutcd than any otbei- viico. 
It was lirst observed at Baird May li[). Very rarely seen in the Shasta 
and Lassen regions. 

Vireo huttoaii Cass. Mutton's Virco. 

Iluttou's Vireo was met with oceasionally during the spring and sum- 
mer at Baird, where it was first observed May ".iL 

Family ULNIOTILTID.E. Wooi> Wauuleks. 
Helniiuthopliila ruficapilla gutturalis Kidgw. LdJarintN IVarlihr. 

ivare at Baird, where I obtained only a single s[)ecimcn. In August 
the}' were rather eominon among the bushes about the margin of Castle 
Lake, 1*0 miles west of JNlouut Shasta., associating with the Pileolated 
Warblers [Sijlcania pileolata), which were equally common. 

A little later some were found on the highest timber-line of Shasta, 
w !nM<' a few young birds also were seen. 

Helmiiithophila celata lutesceiis Eidgw. Lutesccnt ]Vt(rhlcr. 

Probal)ly raic as I have but one specimen, which was taken at the 
t iiiibei -]iiu> of Shasta. 

Dendroica rijstiva (Giiu'l.). Yellow Warlihr. 

A bird api)arently as common as in the Eastern States. It arrived 
at 1> 111- 1 al) )ut May 1, where it was abundant uutil midsummer, when 
its numbers greatly diminished. Three nests were found in the bushes 
by the river, t-.vo o:i May 2-9, one on June 10. 

Dendroica coronata (i^iuu.). Myrtle Warhlcr. 

A number of specimens from Ked Bluft", which I at first took to be 
X>, (Nf'/. 7 /^o??/.. prove to be of this species. They were plenti'nl in the 
timber belts about May 1 aiul at Humbohlt Bay in the fall. 

Dendroica aiiduboiJ. ;Ti)\vus.). Andiihon'' n Warhlcr. 

Although 1 was in the foot-hills of Shasta County from April 1 to 
July 1, ISS.J, I did not find this species itntil I ascended Mount Shasta 
in August. It was the commonest species of Warbler immediately below 
the timber-line, the bulk of these being young birds. On March 29 of 
the following year they arrived at Ked Bluff, where they were rather 
common during the spring. 

Dendroica nigrescens (Towns.). Blaolc-ihroalcd Gran Jl'arbhr. 

Quite common in the foot-hills along the Lower McCloud Biver. It 
was first seen at Baird May 10, and at Bed Bluti' the following spring 
on May G. At the latter place, however, it was \'ery rare, aud was 
totally wanting in the heavy pine regions al)0ut Mounts Shasta and 
Lassen. 



224 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

Tills .si)C'cies, usually observed in pairs or iu <,n-oui>s of tluee or lour, 
seemed to fiecineut all parts of the foot-bill country, loitering,' iiiucli in 
the jj;ulclies, the luanzanita brush, and the lower shrubbery i;enera11y, 
but sonu'tiuies resorting- to the oak trees. 

A nest containing three fresh eggs was found at the United States 
Fishery on INIay 18, 1883. It was placed upon the horizontal limb of au 
"evergieen" oak, 10 feet from the ground. The sitting lemale retired to 
ail upper branch and witnessed the abduction of her treasures with ab- 
solute inditterence. This nest in its composition consists ahnost en- 
tirely of the bark or outer covering of dead weed-stalks of various kinds, 
with' a slight interweaving of ilaxy grass libers. The lining is of bird 
feathers, probably those of the quail, interspersed with the hair of cattle. 
The grouuil <;olor of the eggs is white. They are dotted with leddish- 
brown somewhat irregularly all over, but at the large end the dots are so 
ck)seas t<» form a circle. The nu'asurements are: of one, .<Jl by .10 and 
of the other two .(!! by .48. With exception of a doubtful set forwarded 
from the same locality, the previous season, by ^Mr. Livingston Stone, 
this is the lirst record of the hnding of the eggs of this sjjecies. The 
eggs obtained by Mr. Stone are much rounder, one of them measuring 
.()L» by .51', while the blotches are very mu(4i larger and of a brighter 
color. The nest is more loosely constructed, of still lighter materials 
and with searet4y any lining. A third nest has since been forwarded 
from Ari/.oua by Mr. E. W. Nelson. 

Dendroica occideutalis (Towus.). Jlermlt Warbler. 

A single si)ecimen of this warbler was obtained at the tiud)er line of 
Mount Shasta August 15, 188;i. It was iu a small spruce pine witb a. 
group of mountain chickadees. 

Geothlypis macgillivrayi (And.). MuculUirniii's Warbhr. 

Found only at Mount Shasta. It was not uncommon from the base 
up to timber4ine in July and August, and seemed to frequent the scat- 
tered ti-acts of shrubbery rathin- than the dense pine woods. I saw no 
nests, but it is probable that it breeds there. 

Geothlypis trichas occideiitalis (Browst.). iresteni YeUuw-throat. 

A single individual of this species was obtained at the base of Mount 
Shasta on August G, aud being a com[)aratively young bird was proba 
l)ly reared there. 

Icteiia virens longicauda (Lawr.)- LotKjUiilcd Chat. 

Common throughout the lower country generally, but not ranging as 
high as the pine belt. It was lirst seen at Baird May 10 and at Eed 
r.luff I\Iay 4. 
Sylvauia pusilla pileolata (Pall.). J'ih'olaUd Warbhr, 

At lied Bluff the first migrant arrived on May 1, where, however, it 
was cot often seen, probably only occurring tUere while passing through 



1887. J PliOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL iMUSEUM. 226 

to liiglier country. It i.s ratlicr imiueioiis duiiiiy" tl](^ .suiiiiuer about 
Mouut Sbasta from the ba«e. up to tiuibcr-line. 

l-aniily MOTACILLID.E. Wagtails. 
Anthus pensilvauicus (Cicm.)- American Pipil. 

Plentiful iu tbo Sacrameuto Valley. It had a habit of \va(lin,i; in 
shallow water like a sandpiper, and 1 have secured several at once by 
taking a " line shot" along the river's edge. It was occasionally noted 
along the ocean beaches of Humboldt County. 

Family CINCLID^E. Dipi-ehs. 

Ciiiclus niexicauus >S\vaiiis. American Dipper. 

One of the characteristic birds of the country, especially numerous iu 
the foot-hills and mountains. 

Water Ouzels were common all along the McUloud Itiver in the fall 
and winter, but from April 1 to July 1 it was only seen twice. This can 
probably be accounted for by the birds having gone further into the 
mountains to breed, for they were found in abundance on the rapid 
streams about Mount Shasta in Julj-, August, and September. I found 
one individual at the snowline on Shasta in midsummer, on an icy 
rivulet llowing from beneath the perpetual snow. It was a surprise to 
find this bird in such a desolate i)lace ; there seemed to be nothing for 
an ouzel or any other bird to eat along that cold stream, full of ashy 
sediment and flowing a couple of hundred yards only to disappear in 
the loose pumice and other volcanic rocks of which the mountain is 
composed. -Why should the bird leave its native streams iu the val- 
leys for the desolate limit of perpetual snow? The Ouzel certainly 
wanders into very inhospitable places, for I have seen it on the snow- 
fed rivulets of the Aleutian Islands. 

It is a most persistent diver; I remember of watching one for nearly 
two hours once, diving for some kind of tiny shell-lish. It plunged 
from the upstream end of a low rock, about 4 feet loug, and was evi- 
dently swept well down by the current, for it always rcai>i)eared sonui 
distance below the rock, to which it would return. After a shake of 
its plumage it would walk to the up[)er end to re[)eat the maneuver. 

Family TROGLODYTID.E. Wreus, Tlirasher.s, &c;. 
Harporhynchus redivivus (Gamb.). Californian Thraslier. 

The only specimen obtained was found dead on the stage road neai- 
Baird, on January 3, 1884. Judging from its wasted form it niiglit 
have died from starvation. There was a little snow in some of the 
gulches near by, and the bird had probably been overtaken by severe 
weather. This is the only instance oi its occurrence in Northern Cali 
fornia so far as I am aware. 
Proc. N. M. 87 15 



226 NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

Salpiuctes obsoletus (Say), lioclc li'roi. 

A very conimou suiumcr habitant of rocky ledjjes everywhere, lleie 
is a bird well named. Yea, though its systematic synonymy multiply 
ibrever, yet will not the observant naturalist be teM)i)ted to call its 
I'^nglish name other than " Rock Wren." It is tlioronj;lily chara(;teristic 
of the bird's habits. 

I found it in ]\[ay abundant in the rugged limestone rocks that top 
nearly all the high hills along the Lower McCloud Uiver, where its 
animated song was suri)assed only by the sweeter music of the White- 
throated Wren with which it sometimes associated.' In midsummer 
when high up above the timber line of Shasta t!ie songs of the liock 
Wrens came to me constantly from among the surrounding lava boul- 
ders. Later in the season when at Sheep Eock lintte, I'O miles north- 
east of Mount Shasta, the bleak forbidding rock bluffs were eniixencd 
chiefly by the presence and the songs of these birds. 

Catherpes mexicanus conspersus Eidgw. Canon U'rcn. 

Neither as abundant nor as well distributed as the preceding species, 
but like it a frequenter of the most desolate rocks, it was oiten seen 
in the linu' rocks at liaird, where its young were also observed late in 
June, but only one was found on the lava rocks above the tiinbe" line 
of Shasta, although sometimes Ibund in suit-able pla(;es at rhe noi-ilieast 
base of the mountain. 

At the first-mentioned locality 1 observed them creeping ovvv the 
vertical, and sometimes overhanging, rock surfaces after the maniuM- of 
the Creeper {Cerfhiu). 

But the retnarkable song of this Wren is the principal fact with le- 
gard to it, and here I heard it at its best. I accompaniexl a party of 
young men on a cave exploring trip once, and after a hard clin)b under 
a blazing sun, over limestone rocks weathered out into points and edges 
so sharp that our shoes were cut to pieces by them, we came in sight 
of the cave. Here, while holding on to the sloping lock wall across 
the face of which the trail led, we heard a bird song that caused each 
man to look up. Clinging to the opposite wall o! the (iafion was a 
W^hite-throated Caijon Wren pouring out bewitching n)elo(ly. '-Listei. !" 
said some one. The song was quickly over, but tlu; bird flew nearer 
the mouth of the cave and began again. It was about noon, w.th nor 
a breath stirring and the sun's rays [)oiuing dou n. The cle;ir ringing 
notes in the still air re echoed from the bare walls of rock all aionial. 
A companion who bore a heavy coil of rope on his shoulders, turned 
to me, the sweat dropping from his face: " Did you ever hear the like 
beibref 1 certainly never had, and felt already repaid for my laborious 
climb, ibr I had never known a feathered songster to utter notes so 
enchanting. 

AVhen. a monjent later as we rested in the shelter of the cavern's 
mouth, the wild, sweet song broke forth again, the singer this time 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 227 

overhead and out of «i<;lit, even the stoHd Judiaii who carried one ot 
our packs ghiuced at iiie and uttered some word of a])proval. The 
soug is indescribable, so I have tokl this long- story to show how even an 
nnappreciative audience at an unfavorable time couhl be (;aptivated 
by a remarkable bird song. 

Mr. Eidgway, who has heard the song of this species in many places 
among the western mountains, suggests to me that the echoing walls 
of rock which usually inclose the retreat of the bird serve to enhance 
the beauty of the notes, and 1 myself do not doubt that they are ren- 
dered more striking by the very desolateuess of the surroundings. 

Thryothorus bewicki spilurus (Vig). Vigor'' s Wren. 

This Wren was observed in moderate members at IJaird and at the 
base of Shasta in summer. A few probably winter iu the hills about 
the former place as I saw occasional ones there in February. Full- 
grown young birds were discovered about June 1. 

Troglodytes cedon parkmanii(Au(l.)- Parkman's Tfren. 

Found breeding in considerable numbers about one of the cultivated 
gardens of the United States fishery reservation. In midsummer they 
were abundant among the piled-up logs of a certain clearing in the forest 
at the base of Mount Shasta. Also seen at Eed Bluff in the spring. 

Anorthura hiemalis pacificus Bainl. IVt-steni IVinkr JVren. 

I did not meet with more than half a dozen individuals of this species 
HI the interior, and these only in the rocky and mossy canons about the 
Lower McCloud liiver in the fall and winter, but it was found every- 
where about the redwood logging districts of Humboldt County. 

Cistothorus palustris Wils. Loiuj-biUed Mar.sh Wren. 

The conspicuous globular nests of this Wren were found clinging to 
the stems of the tules wdierever our boat penetrated at Eagle Lake, 
but no eggs were discovered. The bird is less numerous iu the marshes 
of llumboklt County. 

Family CEirrHIlD.E. Ciieepeks. 
Certhia familiaris ameiicaua (Bonap.). Broun Creeper. 

Noticed only occasionally in the pine forests inland. It ])robably 
winters lower down, for stragglers were seen at JJaird in January and 
numerous pairs in the Humboldt redwoods in December. 

P\'iiuily TARID^E. NuxnATCiiES and Tits. 
Sitta caroliuensis aculeata (Cass.). Slender-billed Nuthatch. 

Decidedly not common, having been found only at rare intervals in 
the McCloud Eiver hills and very seldom at Eed Bluflf. 

When seen they appeared rather silent, seldom giving vent to the 
querulous notes so characteristic of Nuthatches, and which the eastern 
species utters so constantly. A solitary individu:d was secured at Huia- 
l)oldt Bay. 



2"J.S KOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

Sitta canadensis Linn. JUd-brcu^lvil ytithaldi. 

A intlu'i' aluiiidaiit losideiit of tlie vast pineries around Mount Las- 
sen, but apparently nt>t so coiniiion in similar country about Mount- 
Shasta. A few were obtained on the Shasta timber-line. On June 1, 
1884, a nest was found in a dead pine in western Lassen County. A 
hole had been drilled in the trunk about ten feet from the .ground, but 
the wood was so hard that it effectually resisted my huntinj>- knife. The 
cavity, which had a depth of 8 inches, had evidently cost the exca- 
vator consi<lerable hard work, whether it was its ju-esent occupant or 
the downy woodiiecker. 

Sitta pygmaea N'i;;. I'ligimj Xuthahh. 

Although I was constantly on the alert for this bird I did not meet 
with it, which was contrary to my expectations, as it was found by Dr. 
Newberry, Captain Feiluer, Lieutenant Tarkinson, and Mr. Heushaw 
in the respective locabties of Northern California explored by them,* 

Parus inoniatus Giunb. I'lain Titmouse. 

Though not observed in the high mountains, it was not uncommon in 
the foothills and valleys. A nest containing seven eggs was found 
April 4, 1884, in a poultry-house at Ked Bluff, It was composed of the 
stalks of weeds and grasses, and a considerable amount of tow or oakum, 
with a lining of wool and Huffy bird feathers, and occupied a cavity 
between the Joists, <piite near the roosting place of the chickens. The 
sitting female made no effort to escape as I gently lifted her from the 
nest. 

Jn the latter part of May this Titmouse was rather common in the 
scattered oak timber on Battle Creek, 20 miles east of lied Bluff'. 

It is not mentioned by other observers in Nothern California. 

Parus atricapillus cccidentalis (liaiid). Om/ow Cliichadre. 

A common winter visitant from the north, a(;cor(ling to the accounts 
of Newberry and Cooper. I did not meet with it myself. , 

Parus gambeli Ridgw. Moutiiuin Chickadee. 

An abundant resident of the mountains, out of which I have not seen 
it; breeding everywhere on the slopes of IMouiits Shasta and Lassen, 
even uj) to the highest timber line. Late in June, 1881, a nest was dis- 
covered in the pine forest at the western base of Mount Lassen. It 
occupied a crack in the end of a i^rostrate ])ine log by the loadside, and 
contained young birds nearly^rown. 

* Mr. Townseml apparently overlooked two specimens of this species which he col- 
lected on Mount Lassen July 4, lr<84, one of them bcinj? an adult, the other a youn.u; 
hird. His remarks under the head of S. canadensis would therefore appear to apply 
111 part to .S. i))i(im(va, if not entirely so far as Mount Lassen is concerned, the three 
examples of iS. canadensis collected by him bein<» all from Mount Shasta, from which 
locality his collection contains no example of .S' p>if/ni(ea — R. RiD(JWav. 



lA-!7. J PROC'EkDINGS of UNITED SIATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 220 
Parus rufesceiis Towns. Cientitnt-huclud ChicLddcc. 

Abuudaut iu the iall on the coast, where i shot many, oeeu but once 
elsewhere. 1 obtainetl a single indiNid'ial at the western base of Mount 
Shasta on -hily IT, 188^5. It was found near a wayside watering-trougli, 
where the stage road i)assed through the densest part of the forest. 

Clianiaga fasciata G;iuil>. tfren-TH. 

Found constantly among the briars and brushwood in JIumboldt 
County iu the fall. ]Sothing like the sweet song of the lollosving va- 
riety WciS cv'or heard in this region, but this may have beeu due to the 
late season of the year. 

Chaniaea fasciata henshawi Ridgw. PaUid Wren-Tit. 

This variety of the Wren-Tit is a rather rare summer visitor to the 
Lower McCloud. In July it was observed in the bushes that filled some 
of the canons leading into the rugged mountain opjjosite the United 
States fishery at liaird, where its singidar and ])leasing song, not much 
inferior to that of the Canon Wren, was often heard. In November it 
was occasionally seen in the shiubbery along thi' riv(U'. 

Psaitriparus minimus (Tdwns.). Leaal Til. 

A rather common resident of the valleys and ib A-hills; ranging higher 
up iu summer. 

The Least Titmice go about in Hocks of a dozen or two, the different 
members of the bands keeping w^ell together in their foraging. They 
usually all settle in the same bush, scattering through it and inspecting 
it thoroughly, and when two or three begin to move off the rest soon 
follow. 

In the foot hills they were apparently as plentiful in winter as in sum- 
mer. The timber belts about Ked Lluif, in the U[tper Sacramento Val- 
ley, were favorite breeding resorts wMth them, as I found a dozen or more 
nests, old and new, within a week's time. 

A nest found Ajuil 28 in some dead willow^s near the river contained 
three eggSj but all tliose lound after May 1 were emi)ty or contained 
young birds. Theii- <listance.s from the ground did not average higher 
than 12 feet. 

1 know^ of no Xorih American bird l)u,ldiiig a more ex(]uisite nest or 
larger in proportion to its own size than this one. The materials com- 
posicg it, such as the '•cotton ''of the cottouwood tree, the silky co- 
coons of insects, the down of i)lants, small mosses, blossoms, »Src. are 
simply "felted" together, and the structture dei)ends for its firmness 
upon whatever adhesive i)roper(ies the substances ha\e for each other. 

It is a long pendant nest, somewhat after I he fashion of an oriole's but 
consisting of these soft mateiials, is (piite tlexible. The entrance is an 
inconspicuous hole in one side, near tlie toi), whicdi is never opeu above 
like the oriole's. It is a. curious agglomeration which must be seen to 
be appreciated. 



230 N0TE8 ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

Family SYLVIID.K. Waiuslkus, Kinglets, Gxatcatciiers. 

Regulus satrapa olivaceus Baird. Westtrn Golden-crowned Kinglet. 

This bird, wliicli is inoderatelj' coininoii on the coast, is rare lartlier 
inlaiKl, where two specimens, collected at the timber-line of Mount 
Shasta in July, were the only ones met with. The fact of these latter 
being younj;' birds wouhl seem to indicate the breedinj;' of the species 
there. 

Regulus calendula (Liiiii.). Pi nhij- crowned Kinglet. 

Two specimens only were seen at Mount Shasta, one on August 15, 
1S83, at the timber-line, the other on September 2, at an elevation of 
about 0,000 feet; the latter, being* quite a young bird, was probably 
reared there. Several were seen auioug the shrubbery along tlie river 
at Baird in November, and a couple of stragglers were obscived there 
in January. More common along the coast. 

Polioptila casrulea (Linu.). ]>luc-gray (Jnalcatcher. 

Not common breeds. F collected a single specimen and found a 
newly-built nest at Baird on June 19, ISSl). A nest was found at lied 
Bluff, in the oak timber by the river, on May 12, 188-1. Another was 
found in a similar situation soon after. These nests were respectively 
about 10, 15, and 20 feet from the ground, in stunted scraggy oak trees. 
One was placed in the forks, where it was admirably concealed ; the 
other two were saddled on top of the limbs that bore them, and all 
were lichen-coated on the outside. There were no eggs in any of them 
when first discovered, and as none were foun<l at subsequent visits I 
think the little builders had been frightened away by my first inspec- 
tion of their exquisite architecture. 

The Blue-gray Guatcatcher does not appear to have been met with in 
Northern California by any other observer except Mr, Vuille, who found 
it at Yreka in May. 

Family TURDID-^. Turusiiks, 8oLn'AiRES, Stoneciiats, Bluebirds, &c. 

Myadestes townsendii (And.)- ToH^usend'H SolHaire. 

A rather conunon constant resident. The remarks on ^S^aIia arotica 
would apply pretty well to this species in so far as they relate to its 
breeding in the mountains and wintering in lower country. But Town- 
send's Solitaire does not appear to descend into the lowest valleys, for 
I saw nothing of it during the winter at Bed Bluff. Jt was frequently 
seen in the rugged foot-hills of Shasta County in January, February, 
and March. 

Dr. Newbury's remark that it does not inhabit dense forests does not 
accord with my experience. It frequented the most heavily-timbered 
sections of both the Shasta and Lassen regions. It is a true t1yeat(;her 
in its habits, returning to the same jxireh from ea<;h short llight after 
insects. 



l.^.sr. J PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NA TIONAL MUSEUM, 231 

A nest coutuiuiug three eggs was found on July 12 in tlie dense pine 
forest surrounding Butte Lake, near Mount Lassen. It was built iu 
a cavity in the splintered end of a pine log, wliich, having fallen across 
A bowlder, was raised about 5 feet above the ground. I passed close 
by and would not have noticed the neat had not-the sitting bird taken 
flight. A projecting piece of bark sheltered it perfectly. 

This nest was composed almost entirely of pine needles, with a slight , 
base of pine twigs. There was no perceptible lining, unless the decayed 
and broken needles upon which the eggs rested could be called such. 
The eggs measure .90 by .70, .90 by .72, and .92 by .70. They are uni- 
formly but rather faintly marked with reddish-brown upon a whitish 
ground color. This was probably rather late breeding for this species. 

Late iu July I found a specimen of this bird frozen in the snow and 
ice which filled the crater of the extinct volcano of Shasta. It is but 
rarely that a passerine bird ascends so high. The finding of its frozen 
form recalled the passage relating to the bird that " wandereth from its 
iiest." 

Turdus aonalaschkae Gmel. Dwarf Hermit Thrush. 

First seen on the southern slope of Mount Shasta on July 25, 1883. 
My catalogue of specimens shows but four of this species from the in- 
terior region, specimens having been taken on the Lower jMcCloud early 
in October, and at Eed Bluft" on May 12 and December 24. On the 
coast of Humboldt County it^was rather numerous in the fall. 

The Dwarf Thrush usually frequents the dense pine woods or the 
shady gulches, and is always near the ground. 

Turdus aonalaschkae auduboni (Baird). Juduhon's Hermit Thrush. 

Found only in the northeastern part of the State. The important fact 
of this Eocky Mountain species breeding on the eastern slope of the 
Sierras was ascertained by Mr. Henshaw, who found it very abundant 
iu the mountains near Fort Bidwell iu July. 

Merula migratoria propinqua Kidgw. Western Eohin. 

More common in the cultivated valleys than elsewhere, but never 
abundant asEobins are in the long-settled sections of the Eastern States. 
Stragglers were met with iu the foot-hills of Shasta County at all sea- 
sons of the year. The first nest was found at the United States fishery 
May 21. It was high up on the horizontal limb of a " live oak" by the 
river and contained four eggs. Specimens were obtained in the mount- 
ains along McCloud Eiver iu January, and on the timber line of Mount 
Shasta in August. 

During the summer of 1885 I found the eastern form of thcEobin and 
the Varied Thrush associating among the dwarf pines of the JCowak 
Eiver region iu Northern Alaska. 

Hesperociclila iicEvia (GnieL). Varied Thrush. 

I first s;iw the Varied Thrush while " a hunting of the deer " along the 
Lower McClou«l Eiver early in November, 188;), often finding it loitering 



•2:\'2 N()Tr..S IN C'ArJFORNIA ANIMALS. 

umlcr the low shrublxMy and aiiioiigMlio falhMi tice tniiilcs in the dcciK'sl, 
and wildest canons where the snidij^lit conld not penetrate. In such 
(|niet i)laces I used to rest sometimes when making- a long round, aud 
the stillness would often be broken by a note of alarm from this bird 
when it had discovered so unusual an apparition as a human being' iti 
its secluded retreats. He would lly into some pine near by and earnestly 
reganl the motionless forms of the hunter and h)s dog, and if given no 
further cause for alarm would remain in the vicinity quietly continuing 
the ins])ection from various ])oints of view. 

Jn January and February, wheu the leaves had fallen and there was 
snow in the gulches, it was often found among the oaks on the hi«»h 
ridges, but nothing striking w^as observed in its habits, as it was rather 
silent and solitary. In autumn I thiidc it fed on the berries of the juni- 
pers that grew in the canons. It was not met with in the valleys or 
the higher mountains, but was found in abundance in the redwood 
forests of Humboldt ('oniity in ISTovember and December, 1885. 

Sialia mexicana Swjiiiis. Ji'csUni Illnchird. 

The Western liluebird is prob ibly entitled to be called constant resi- 
dent, as I noted its presence at Baird in January, March, June, July, 
August, iind Deciember. It was found breeding at the western base of 
IMouiit Shasta late in July, where the only nest discov^ered was placed 
in an old post hole in the ground. The post had been moved only a few 
inches and the nest was under its shelter in its new position. Grasses 
overhung ihe hole and the young birds, then nearly grown, were well 
concealed. No other nests were seen, but from the constant presence 
of bluebirds 1 have no doubt but a limited luimber of them were breed- 
ing in the vicinity of Mount Shasta. 

They were common in the region around Mount Lassen ui June ami 
July, 1881, where they were constantly associated with the Mountain 
liluebii'ds {Sialia arcfica), which were much more numerous. 

Sialia arctica (Swjiins.). Mouniaiu Blnehird. 

This bird is a constant resident, migrating not northward and south- 
ward, but up and down betv-zeen the valleys arul the high mountains. 
I did not meet with it until I ascended Alonnt Shasta, in July, where 
along the timber-line parent birds accomi)anied by full lledge<l young 
were found in abundance. Stragglers were occasionally to be found 
lower down, but the rule was ;S'. vie.ricfoia at the base and S. arvtica at the 
'tind)er-line of the mountain. 

In western Lassen County, where tiie land has an elevation of r),0()() 
or (5,000 feet, Mountain JJluebirds were very conunou in ,lune and 
July. There they were usually ac(jompanied by such of the Western 
Bluebirds as had straggled up that far. The presence of young birds 
indicated that they were breeding in that region. Late in December 
small bands of them were found Hying about the stubble-fields at litu 



1S87. ] PnOCEKDiNGr-i OF UNITED STATES NATIOXAL AIUSETTM. 



0'>'> 



liluff, tlicir inteiisoly blue colors at that time eoutrastiiii;' stroni^ly with 
their faded condition in the breeding season. 

Their habit of perching" on weeds and bushes about the plains, and of 
hovering in the air like sparrow-hawks, as recorded by other observers, 
wfis a striking feature of their conduct as observed at Red Bluff. They 
did not frequent the timber belts when wintering in the valleys, but were 
generally to be found in the open country or along the brink of the river, 
perching upon scattered driftwood, often in conii)any with the other 
species. 

Here we have an exchange of courtesies, Sialiaarctica being graciously 
received at his cousin's headquarters in the valley in return for hospi- 
tality extended to Sialia mexicana in tlie. mountains during the past 
summer. , 

VERTICAL RANGE OF BIRDS IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA. 

The following table illustrating the vertical range of birds in Northern 
California is modeled somewhat after a similar one on the birds of Colo- 
rado, by Mr. F. M. Drew {The Auk, January, 1885, p. 11), and is interest- 
ing chiefly as showing a much lower average range than in the latter 
State, which has a vastly greater average elevation. While there are 
mountain peaks in California as high as any in Colorado, the upward 
range of birds in the former State begins at sea level instead of at an 
altitude of 3,500 feet, which is already attained upon passing within the 
borders of the latter State. In Northern California the two great 
ranges of mountains — the Sierra Nevada and the Coast Range, from 
which rise peaks crowned with per[)etual snow — are sei)arated by the 
valley of the Sacramento, a broad plain, which at its upper end, about 300 
miles from the sea, has an altitude of but 500 feet. From there it is but 
40 or 50 miles through the chaparal belt or "foot-hills" to the border 
of the coniferous forests, at an altitude of 2,500 or 3,000 feet, represent- 
ing an elevation less than the lowest laud in Colorado. 

From this it will be seen that birds are not forced into the mountains 
as they are in Colorado, since they can i)ass between the two ranges 
almost the entire length of the State. 

The present table of upward ranges of birds cannot claim the same 
degree of completeness as the one with w^hich it is compared, being 
limited, as a rule, to the observations pf one person, made at lower alti- 
tudes. The timber-line on Mount Shasta, with an elevation of 9,000 
feet (more than 1,000 lower than on the Rocky Mountains), being the 
highest field of observation and the Sacramento Valley at Red Bluff 
the lowest except at the coast, it is evident that the birds will not be 
found to range as higii as in Colorado. 

If, in any case, species have been found at greater elevations in the 
region in question than those indicated by my own observations, the 
former altitudes are substituted. This is, however, the exception. 



234 



NOTKS OX CALIFOltNIA AM.M.VLS. 



The table is reliable as far as it goes, and it goes ouly as far as the 
comparatively limited observations of one person, with occasional notes 
from other sources, will admit. 

When collections shall have been made at higher stations, and all the 
species known to the region similarly reported npon, the vertical range 
of birds becomes a very interesting study, where the extremes of eleva- 
tion are so great. 



No. 


Xanie. 


Highest range in — 


Breeds— 


Spring. 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


Winter. 


From— To— 


1 






5,100 




Coast. 


5,100 


2 






1,500 




;{ 






3, 900 
5,100 


Coast. 
Coast. 
Coast. 




4 








5. 100 


\ 




3,400 


1,500 




3,400 


c 




e,ooo 


0,000 


7 








Coast. 






8 






3, 900 








q 














10 










Coast. 






11 










Coast. 
300 




T^ 




1,000 


:>, 100 

5,500 






5,100 


13 








1) 








Coast. 
Coast. 
Coast. 






!.-> 














l(i 




300 


5,100 
5,100 
5,100 
5, 100 




5,100 


17 


nydrocholifion " suiinamensis " 




5,100 


IK 




1,500 




.5, 100 


l<) 








5,100 


Vo 


Pelocanus califofnicus 






Coast. 






■'1 




1,500 


5,100 


1,.500 


.5, 100 






Coast. 

1, .500 

300 






•'If 








1,500 




•'i 


Anas l)().schas 


5,200 






5,200 


•>r> 


3, 900 






'.'t\ 


Anas j)i'm;lo|)e 






Coast. 
300 
300 






'n 












?8 














SI) 














•M\ 


Alias cyanoptcra 




3,900 










■M 


Spatula clypoata 

Dafila aciita 


1,000 




Coast. 

300 

1, .500 

Coast. 

Coast. 
4, 000 
4, GOO 
4, GOO 
1,.500 
1,700 

Coast. 

Coast. 
300 






X? 








:« 


Aix .sponsa 












.■{4 












3.-. 


Aytliya vallisueiia 








:tfi 


Avtliya "jK-aictica " ' 








:i7 


Avtli va iifiiiiis ' 










'M 


Aythva (■olhiris 










:!fl 














40 


Chaiitonctta albeola 













41 












4? 


Oidoiiiia pcispicillata 




] 






4;i 










44 


Anser "ganibeli" 






1,000 


1, 000 

300 

300 

Coast. 






4.''> 


Erauta canadensis 










4G 


Urauta " liutchinsi" 










47 


Branta nii^ricans 










48 












4!) 


Olor cohiniUianus 




i 


r>, 000 


"" 


.'■)(l 


Olor buccinator 










.')1 


Plogadis Ruaiauna 




4, 000 
3, 900 






1 


.12 


Uotauius Iontii;ino8ii3 










.1:! 


Ardctta exilisl 










r4 


Ardea herodias 1 


5,100 
"""2,035' 




1, 600 


.. ' 5 ino 


.5,5 




300 

300 

1,000 


1, 500 




' 


.If. 




Coast. 






.'-.7 


Nycticorax " najvius " 




.1H 


Orns niexicana 

llallns vii'tiiuianus 


5,300 
4, (JCO 


300 






U9 








m 


Porzana i;aroliua 






Coast. 






f.i 


Porzaua novcboraconsis 










(Vl 


l''nlicaaiii('ricana 




.1, 100 




300 


5 100 


K.) 


('iyni(i]iliiliis f'ulicariiis 

I'iuilaidpus lobatus 


.1, 300 




Coast. 




G.'i 


J'lifilaropiis triftolor 










GO 


liecui'virostra aiucricana 


5, 300 














ISS7. ] PROCEEDINGS OP UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



9'ir; 





Name. 


Higliest range in— 


Breeds— 


No. 


Spring. 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


Winter. 


From — 


To- 


07 
08 
0'> 






4,000 
3,100 










GallinaiXo delicata 






Coast. 








Coast. 


















71 


Triuiia "pacilica" 

I'^i'fuuetcs occidontalis 


300' 






Coast. 






73 






Coast. 






74 




300 










75 
70 


Totamis llavipos 


'""3,"406 




Coast. 














Coast. 






78 


Aftitis luacularia 




5,100 




5,100 


70 


300 








80 


Chaiadrius squatarola 






Coast. 






HI 




30U 


5. 100 




5,100 


8'^ 






('oast. 

Coast. 
3, 000 
1,500 

Coast. 


Coast. 




83 

84 


Aienaiia melauocepliala 


3, 000 
1,500 


"".5," 306' 
3,500 

Coast. 
9,000 

Coast. 
4,000 
5,000 


3,' 606 


'5, ,366 


85 




3,500 


86 








87 




3,000 


3, 000 


5,300 


88 


Bonasa ".sabini" 




Coast. 




89 








90 














91 




3, ooo' 
1,000 


3,000 


3,000 






9-> 




3, 500 
1, 000 
3,400 






93 












91 




1,000 
300 


1,000 








95 










9(i 




3, 000 
9, 000 
8,500 
8,000 
8, 000 
3, 900 
5,300 
.5, 300 
4,600 
3,000 
14, 000 
4,600 
Coast. 
3,900 




300 






97 






2,600 

2, 600 

3, 900 






0^ 




300 








99 








8,000 


100 




1, 000 




300 


5,300 


10) 










10--1 






300 






5,300 


Id'! 




3,900 








104 












105 








3,900 
3,900 






100 


Ilaliaitns leiicocopbaluii 










107 


300 






KI8 


Falco "anatum" 










109 














110 


Falco ricliardsoui 












111 




2, 600 


8,500 
2,500 
4,600 
3, 900 
3,900 


1,000 
1,500 


1,000 


Coast. 


8,000 


11'' 




11 3 












114 














115 








Coast. 


Coast. 




110 


Ulula cinwea. .. 










117 


Mogascops "konuicotti" 

Mofascops flammeolus 


1,000 


3,900 










lis 


3,000 








119 




300 


2,066 








T'O 


Bubo "satuiatus" 




Coast. 


"'"366" 
Coast. 




r^i 


Speoty to ' • bypogaia " 

tTiaucidiiim guoma 




300 
5, 000 
1,000 

900 
5,100 
5, 300 
3,900 

300 
5, 300 
5,300 
4,600 
7, 000 
8,000 
0, 000 






r'i 




Coast. 
1, 000 


5,000 


i:'3 


Goococcyx oaliforniauus 




1,000 


I'M 










1'>5 


Cciylo alcyon 




1,000 
3,900 








r-'o 


Diyobates 'harrisii" 




3,900 

3, 900 

300 






I'T 




3,900 


3,000 
300 




V'8 


Dv voliates ' ' iiu ttalli i " 






1"9 




5,300 




5,300 


130 












13) 


Sphyrapicus "nucbalis" 

Spbyrapicus ruber 


""3,' ooo' 


1, 200 

2, 600 
3,900 








13'^ 








133 










134 


Ceopblffius pileatus 

Melancipes ' ' baii-di " 


3,000 








1 35 










130 




3,900 
3,900 


8, 500 
8, 500 
300 
0, 500 
3, 400 


2, (iOO 
• 3, 900 








137 




3, 900 
300 






138 




Coast. 


300 


i;;9 


Phabcnoptilns nuttalli 


2,600 
1,000 




6,500 


110 










3,400 


141 


Cl):ctuia vanxii... 










If' 




1,000 


3, 900 
J, 000 
8, 500 

4, 600 
3, 900 
3, 900 




1,000 






ri3 






1,666 
1,000 

1,000 

1,000 




144 




2,000 
3, 900 
3.900 
1,000 








145 


Xiocbibis calliope 








140 


Tyianii us verticalis 

My iai cbus ciuerasccus 








147 









23G 



NOTES ON CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 



Higbest range iu — 



No. 



1-18 
H!) 
l-)0 

ir.i 
I'lj 

153 

ir>4 

li5 

150 

157 

l.JS 

159 

I GO 

101 

16li 

103 

104 

105 

100 

107 

108 

109 

170 

171 

17J 
173 

174 

175 

17(i 

177 

178 

17!) 

ISO 

181 

182 : 

183 

184 

185 

185a 

186 

187 

188 

189 

19U 

lill 

19J 

193 

191 

195 

190 

197 

198 

199 

200 

201 

202 

203 

204 

205 

200 

207 

208 

209 

210 

211 

212 

2i3 

214 

215 

216 

217 

218 

219 

220 

221 

222 

223 

224 

225 

220 



Name. 



S.iyoniis sayi • 

iSayoniis iii;L;iiciiiis 

Coutopus boii-alis 

Coiitopus liilianlsoiii 

Eiiipidonax piisilliis 

EmpUlouax oltsciirii.s 

Otocoris "ral)(^a" 

Otocoris "stri^ata" 

Pica "liudsonica" 

Pica nuttalii 

Cyanocitfa strlleii 

Cyauocitta " frontalis " , 

ApLcloccima caliloruica . . 

Puiisorcus ob.scuiiia 

(^orviis 'siuiiatus" 

Corviis anioricamis 

Picicorvus coluruliianiis 

Cyanocoiihaliis cyanocepbalus. .. 
Xautli()<i-i)liaUis xanthoceplialns. 

Agelaiiis pliauicL'us 

A gola ins i^ubtiiiator 

Af^claius tricolor 

Sluiiii'lla "neglecta"' 

Icterus bullocki 

Scolccopbaj;us cyixiioceplialiis 

(Joccotluauslus vesportina 

Cari»oihu'ns "calit'oinicua" 

Carpotlacus cassiiii 

Caipoibicns frontalis 

Loxia "niiuor' 

Sjiiniis tjislis 

Spimis psaltria 

Spiuu.s pinuH 

Pooca-tes "conlinis" 

Aninioilranius ■' alaiuliniis '' 

Clionilestes stiijratus 

Zono: ricbia Icucophry.s 

Zouotricbia iutormcdia 

Zouot ricbia gauiboli 

Zonotrichia coronata 

Spizclla "ocbracea" 

Si)lzolla "arizouio" 

SpizcUa browcri 

.lunco "oresjonus" 

Ampbi.spi/.a " ncv.atlonsis " 

Melosp;/.a ' 'bcermacui" 

Molospi'/.a " saniuelis" 

Melospiza "guttata" 

Molospiza liacolui 

Passorella '•unalascbousia" 

Passorella mesa'byncba 

Passorella 'scbislacca" 

Pipilo '■ luegalonyx" 

Pipild "oregouus" 

Pipilo chlorurus 

Pipilo ■'( lissalis'' 

llabianiciauoceplial.'i 

Guiraca c ii i iilca 

Passcrina auKt- na 

Pirauga lu(l^viciana 

Progni- subis 

Plerocbclidon luni Irons 

Chilicloii II ytlirogastcr 

Taiiliyciiirta hii-nlor. 

Tacln riiicta tbalassiua 

Cliviiiila rii)aiia 

Stolgiiloplcryx scrripennia 

Anipclis codiorum 

Pbainopcpla lutcns 

Lanius liidoviciauus 

Latiiiis "cxiiibitoridfS "' 

Viroo gilvus ,. 

Vireo "cassini ". 

Vireo biittoiii 

lIcbiiiiilliDpliila "gutturalis" .. 

Helm ill I liojibila "lutoscons" 

Dcndroica astiva 

Dondroica coronata 

Uondroica auduboui 

Dcndroica nigrescens 

Deudroicii occiduntalis 



Spring. Summer. Autumn. Winter 



1, 000 



3, 900 



1, 000 
3, 900 
1,000 
3, 900 
3,900 

'300' 



3,900 
3, 900 
1,000 

5, 300 
3, 900 
1,000 
3, 900 
2, 600 
1,000 



300 
1,000 



3, COO 

300 

'1,000 

'3,' 900 



3,900 
1,000 
8,000 
8,000 
4, 600 

4, 600 

5, 300 



3,900 
1,000 
8, ."iOO 



5,900 
7,000 
3,900 
3, 900 
9,000 
3,900 
5,100 
3,000 
4,000 
300 
.5, 300 
3,900 
5, 300 
3,900 
5,300 
8, 500 
3, 000 
6,000 



3, 400 
3,900 

4, 600 



2,600 
4, 600 
6,500 



3, 900 
8, 500 

3, 900 
8, 500 

4, 600 
1, f)00 



3, 900 
1, 000 



3, 900 
1,000 
3, 900 



1,000 
2, 600 



3, 900 
3,400 
3,900 



3, 900 
1.000 
3, 900 
1,000 
1,000 



2, 6110 
300 

3, 900 



3,900 



6,000 
5, 300 
5, 300 



5,300 

2, 000 
3,400 

3, 900 
3, 900 
6,000 
5, 300 
4,100 
4,100 



2,500 
4,600 
1, 000 



3,900 
5, 300 
2, 700 
4, 600 
5,300 



8, 500 
8, 500 
2, 600 



8, 500 
1, 000 
8,000 



3, 900 
'2, 600 



3,000 
'300 



1,000 




300 

1,000 I 1,000 



1,000 



1,000 

1,000 I 1,000 



1,000 
Coast. 
Coast. 



300 



300 
300 



3,900 
3, 900 
1, 000 



3, 900 



tloast. 



1,000 
3, 900 



300 



300 



Coast. 



1, 000 



1,000 



3, 900 



300 
300 



1,000 



1, 500 
Coast. 



1,000 



300 

300 



3,000 



1,000 



3,000 



1,000 
Coast. 



1, 000 



1,000 



5,900 



1,000 



1,000 



300 
1,000 



1, 000 
1,000 
3,000 



300 
2, 500 



1,000 

i, 600 



7,000 



1,000 
7,000 



1, 000 8, 500 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 237 



No. 


Name. 


^ Highest range lu — 


Breeds— 


Spring. 


Summer. 


Autnnin. 


Winter. 

300 
2, 500 
1,000 


From— 


To- 


228 






8,500 
3,400 
2, 000 
8, 500 
300 
8, 500 




300 
" 300 

2,000 
2, 000 
1,0(11) 

1, ooo' 


8 000 


229 
230 
23] 

232 


Ge<)lhl.vi)iM "occidentajis' 

Icfciiii '■(iiiLiicaudu" 

Sylvaiiia "iiileolata" 

Ant bus pcusilvanicus 

CincluH niixioanus ... 


"""2,606' 
3, 900 

""1,600 


3, 400 


233 

''34 


1, 50 () 


4, 500 


235 




2, 000 
2, 000 
1,000 
1,000 


i>, OCiO 
8, 500 
3, 400 
3, 400 




8,500 


330 




2, 000 
1,000 


237 




1,000 


.3, 400 
3, 400 


238 




?3') 




1, 000 


2, 500 


"40 


Cistdt bonis palustris 


3,900 


5, 100 
8, 000 






'>I1 


.3, 900 
3,500 


3,900 
300 




7,000 


242 






"43 






8, 000 


8,000 


•'44 






3, &00 
1, 000 






300 


"4.''> 


PaiuH iuoinatus 

Pains 'ociideutalis'' 


1,500 




"4(1 








247 






9, OOU 
3, 400 


3, 100 


("oa,st. 
Coast. 




8,000 


248 






"40 


Cliania'a fasciata 









"-.0 


Cbacuica "hensbawi" 




2, 000 

3, 000 
8, 000 
8, 000 
1, 000 
8, 000 

4, OUO 
4,000 
8,500 


],000 




2,000 


or,i 


Psaltripaius minimus 


1, 500 


1,500 


300 


?.'■:'?, 


Eegulus "olivacena" 




8,000 
7,000 


•^^3 






1, 000 


1,000 


300 
300 


?M 


Folic mtila C(£riilea 

Myadostes townseudii 


2, GOO 


?,r-,n 




1, 500 

300 


7, 000 


2.)6 
?57 


Turdus aonalascbl;a3 

Tuidus "auduboni" 


300 


1, 000 

3, 900 

2, 000 

3, 900 


?■)« 




1, 000 


1,500 

2, 000 

1, 000 

300 


300 


6, 000 


?5!» 


Hesperociclila na- via 


"00 




3,000 
3.900 


5,300 
8,500 


300 


600 
8,500 


261 


Sialia arctica 







ALTITUDES OF LOCALITIES IN THE INTERIOR OF NORTHERN CALI- 
FORNIA. 



Tcet. 
, Sacraiiiento River : 

Red Blurt' 309 

Redding 917 

Soda Springs 2,360 

McClond River : 

United States tislieries (Daird) 984 

J. B. Canipljell's 1 , 671 

Horseshoe Bend 2, 704 

Pitt River : 

Mouth 917 

Fort Crook 3, 900 

Other phices : 

Fort Bid well 4,680 

Goose Lake 4, 600 



Feet. 
Mount Shasta region : 

Yreka 2, 635 

Mount Shasta 1'. O 2, 734 

Berry vale 3, 462 

Nahar's Raueh 3, 176 

Brewer's Creek 5, 989 

Peak 14,440 

Mount Lassen region : 

Peak 10, 437 

Cinder Cone 6, <J07 

Eagle Lake ;">, 115 

Susauville 4, 195 

Big Meadows 4,285 

Battle Creek Meadows 4, 700 

Deer Flat 4, 357 

Butte Lake 6, 085 



HE. — Reptiles. 

TEST UDIN ATA. Tortoises and Turtles. 
Chelopus marmoratus (Bd. & Girard). Calljornia Terrapin. 

Foimd ill Pitt River and in suitable poiids aloug tbe Lower McCIoud, 
Apparently not commou,, 



238 NOTES UiN CALIFORNIA ANIMALS. 

LACEKTILIA. Lizakds, Ac. 

Eumeces skiltoiiiauus B. & G. SMUon's SJcinlc. 

Obtained by Fiof. E. 1). Cope near the United States lisli-iiatchiiig 
establislinient on MeCloud Iliver diirinj;- his trip throiii;h Northern 
California in 1882, and by Dr. J. S. dewberry, on Pitt Kiver, during 
the Paeific llailroad expeditions in 1855. 
Gerrhonotus multicarinatus B. «& G. Manij-lceelcd Lizard. 

Conunoii in dry situations along the Lower MeCloud River, where 
numerous speciineus were obtained. This elegant Lizard, the largest in 
the region, was particularly numerous among the limestone rocks on 
the hilis. Its presence is usually made known by the sudden rustling 
of the dry leaves as it makes a rush for cover. It has much cariosity, 
however, and is easily secured when it pauses to watch one with its 
bright eyes. The Indians suppose it poisonous, but, like all other Lizards 
of the United States, except, perhaps, the Gila Monster {Eclodcrina 
}<ii.sj)iclHm), it is harmless. Its sharp teeth will soon bring the blood 
on on(^'s hands if it is handled carelessly. 
Gerrhonotus scincicaudus Skiltou. SJcinlc-tailed Lizard. 

Not represented in my collection, but obtained at Fort Reading by 
Dr. Hammond. 
Sceloporus undulatUs (Harlan). AU'ujator Lizard. 

Abundant everywhere among the foot-bills of Shasta County. 

SceloporiLS undulatus thayeri (Ilarlau). Thayer's Alligalor Lizard. 

Obtained by Professor Cope on the Lower MeCloud. 
Scelopurus consobrinus gratiosus (B. & G.). New Mexican Alligalor Lizard. 

Taken on Upper Pitt River by Dr. Newberry. 

Phryaosoma douglassi pygmeea (Boll) Yarrow.* rifjiny Horned Lizard. 

The only Horned Toads met with in Northern California were obtained 
at the western base of Mount Shasta in 18S3. With the exception of 
one specimen found by Prof. Gilbert Thompson (in charge of the topo- 
graphical division U. S. Geological Survey), they were of most dimin- 
utive size. Species of the genus Fhrynosoma do not appear to occur 
west of the Sierras, in Northern California, the presence of pyfjnuva 
being simply due to its having ranged southward from Oregon as far 
as Mount Shasta until it reached the mountain barrier to its progress. 

r. conmatum, of Central and Southern California, is not found as far 
north as the Upper Sacramento Valley ; therefore the genus is probably 
not represented at all in this latitude between the Sierra Nevadas and 
the coast. 



*/'. dowjluHfii piigmaa was described by Yarrow (I'roc. Nat. Mus. 1883, p. 443). Spi-ci- 
nicus obtained from Dcscbutes Kivcr, Orej^on, I'^ort WnHu Walla, Wash. Tor. 



18S7.] PKOCEEDINGy OF UNITED STATES JNA'llONAL MUSEUM 239 

OPHIDIA. Skrpkxts. 

Crotalus Incifer B. & G. California Eattlcsnale. 

Pretty geuerally distributed, but more numerous iu the foot-bilLs ol' 
iSUasta Couuty tbau elsewhere. Yery few Snakes were met with in the 
elevated coniferous forests, and none high u]) on the mountains. Abun- 
dant as this Eattlesuake is in many parts of the foot-hills, it does not 
appear to be oflensive. I have almost trodden ou it a score of times. 

Allen writes as follows regarding Cmtdisona confluenta in tbe region 
of the Upper Missouri : " It was estimated that on the expedition of 
1872 (North Pacific llailroad Expedition) not less than two thousand 
were killed and yet not a man nor an animal was bitten by them. This 
shows how little danger there really is from them, even when numerous. 
Man is a far more fatal enemy to the Snake than the Snake is to man." 

Gontia mitis B. & G. Fnrple-taiUd Snake. 
One specimen only. Shasta County. 

Opliibolus getiilus boyli (Linu.). California Kin<j Snalw.. 

Not uncommon on the Lower McCloud, in damp places near the river. 
The Wintuns of that locality had a mortal fear of it, calling me *SVt IxiU-ijd- 
patiin (snake devil), as I allowed one of the animals to twine about my 
arm. 

Diadophis punctatus amabilis (Linu.)- Biwj- necked Snake. 

Specimens of this small Snake were obtained on McCloud lliver by 
Mr. Livingston Stone and myself. It is not often seen. 

Diadophis punctatus pulchellus (Liuu.), Yarrow. California Uimj-necked Snake. 

Pound on the McCloud by Professor Cope, who says it ditfers iVom 
amabilis in having the inferior two rows of scales unicolor with the 
abdomen, which in life is brilliant orange. 

Pityophis catenifer * B. & G. Paeifie Fine Snake. 

A Pine Snake, 5 feet long, whi(;h I obtained near Mount Shasta, 
and kept as a pet for several weeks, became very tame. Other speci- 
mens were collected on the McCloud liiver. 

Fityophis sayi bellona f Sclilcg.). Western Ball Snake. 

Pound at Honey Lake in 1877 by Mr. II. W. Ilenshaw, and at Port 
Crook by Capt. John Peilner. Not represented in my collection. 

Bascanium constrictor Liim. Black Snake. 

Eecorded in Smithsonian catalogues as having been collected at 
Honey Lake by Mr. Henshaw, and at Pitt River by Lieutenant William- 
son. 



* /•". catenifer is a uaiiic applied to a colored variety of /'. saji hoUona; it is not u 
distinct species, 



240 NOTES ON CAl.IFOKMA ANIMALS 

Bascaiiiuui constrictor vetustiiiu ' vLiini.). YvUowl'ilUvd J:Utrl, Snahc. 

Not uiicoiiiiiion oil (Ik- INIcC'IoikI. 
Bascauium taeuiatuni laterale (llullowell). IlaUtmiU't Coatli-nhip Snahc. 

One spcciiiu'ii. Not coininon. 
Eutseuia hammoudi Kcnuicott. llammoud'n (imhr Snake. 

From Ea^le Lake. Collected by "Sir. lleihshaw. 
Eutaeiiia vagrans (B. &, G.)- 11 anderiiKj Garlcr SiuiLc. 

Collected on Pitt liiver by Lieutenant ^Villianlsoll, and al Ilninboldt 
Uay by Lieutenant Tiowbiidi;e. 

Eutaeiiia elegaiis 15. & G. Boi/d's Curler Snake. 

Obtained at Fort Bidwell in 'Inly, 1878, by Mr. llenslunv. 
Eutseuia sirtalis (Liiin.)- Striped Snake. 

Numerous s[)eciinens were collected on the JNIcClond and elsewhere. 
Eutaenia sirtalis parietalis (Linn.), Cope. Eockij Uonntaia (lartcr Snake. 

Fort Lidwell. H. W. Heushavv. 

Eutaenia sirtalis obscura (Linn.), Cope. Dusky Garlcr Snake. 

Fort Crook. Capt. John Feilner. 
Entcenia sirtalis pickeringi {15. &, G.), Cope. Plckcrhufs Garter Snake. 

Fort Eeadiug. Dr. Hammond. 
Eutasnia sirtalis tetrataenia (Linn.), Cope. California Garter Snake. 

Fill Kiver. Lieutenant Williamson. 
Eutceuia atrata Kenuicott. Black Garter Snake. 

Obtained at Crescent City by Mr. Paul Schumacker. 
Charina plumbea B. & G. Lead-culored Worm Snake. 

NVhile at Berry vale, near the western base of Mount Shasta, a boy 
killed a Snake which he thought had " a head at each cud," a notion not 
unlikely to be sujigested by the ai)pearauce of this short-tailed Snake. 
The species is not uncommon about Mr. J. H. Sissou's meadows at that 
place. Mr. Henshaw met with it at Eagle Lake, on the eastern slope 
of the Sierras, in LS77. 

URODELA. Sala.mandeks. 

Amblystoma tenebrosimi 13. & G. Oregon Salamander. 

1 found this Salanuinder rather numerous in the small Iributaries of 
the Lower McCloud late in the autumn, and secured many si)ecimens, 
the largest of which was probably not more than 7 inches in length. 
Plethodon iecanus Copo. Mount SItaiita Salamander. 

Described by Professor Cope from a specimen which lie found near 
the mouth of the McCloud. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philada., 1SS3, p. 24.) 

* 77. constviclor ret ii'itnm shonUl he H. ronstrictor JIarirentria (Lhm.),Yiirte,v>- and 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 241 

My owD specimen is from the same place. Professor Cope named this 
species " from the aboriginal name, jTt'Aa, of the grand peak of Northern 
California, Mount Shasta. From the same name the town of Yreka 
derives its name." I can think of no better English name than Mount 
Shasta Salamander. 

Diemyctylus torosus Esch. Pacific Water Lizard. 

Found throughout the region. Very abundant in small streams in 
Shasta and Humboldt Counties. The orange color of the under parts 
appears to vary considerably with the season from yellowish to reddish 
tints. The animals congregate in shallow water in the fall, a dozen or 
more often being visible at once. They are hardy, and may be kept 
alive without water for a long time. Professor Cope (Proc. Phila. Acad., 
1883, p. 28) says the species is entirely aquatic, but I have certainly 
found it among damp logs away from water. 

ANUEA. Frogs and Toads. 
Bufo halophilus Baird. BairWs Toad. 

Obtained by Professor Cope at United States fishery establishment 
on McCloud River. 

Hyla regilla Baird. Pacific Hyla. 
MeCloLid River; not uucommou; also Fort Crook, Captain Feilner. 

Rana pachyderma Cope. Thick-skinned Frog. 

Described by Professor Cope from specimens from McCloud River, 
where it is rather common. 

LIST OK WOKKS AXD WiaTTEX KECOKDS REFERRED TO IN THE PRESENT PAPER. 

1857. — J. S.Nttwberry, M. D. Pac. R. R. Surv., vol. vi. Pt. iv, Zool.,chap. i, Mammals; 

cbai^. ii, Birds. 
1857.— S. F. Baird. Pac. R. R. Surv.,vol. x. Pt. iv, Zool., No. 4, Reptiles. 
1859-1861. — Capt. Joliu Feilner and Lieut. D. F. Parkinson, Smithsonian Mus. Cata 

logna, vols, iv and v. Entries of numerous specimens of birds collected at 

Fort Crook, N. Cal. 
181)5. — Capt. John Feilner. Smithsonian Report, 1865. Explorations in N. Cal. in 

1860, under auspices of Smithsonian Institution. 
1866. — Wm. Vuille. Smithsonian Mus. Catalogue, vol. viii. Entries of specimens of 

birds collected at Yreka, N. Cal. 
1879. — H. W. Heushaw, U. S. Geographical Surv. Rept. ou ornithological collec- 
tions made iu portions of California, Nevada, and Oregon in 1877-'78. 
1883.— E. D. Cope. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philada., 1883, p. 23. Notes on reptiles 

from McCloud R., N. Cal. 
1883.— H. C. Yarrow. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 24. Check-list of N. A. Reptilia 

and Batrachia, with catalogue of specimens in U. S. National Museum. 
1883, '84, and '85. — C. H. Townsend. Smithsonian Museum Catalogues. Current 

vols. 
Entries of more th^n one thousand birds, together with several hundred mammals 
ind reptiles collected in Northern California. 
Proc. y. M. 87 IG 



A CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE FISHES OF 

KANSAS. 

By O. I». IIAV. 

The fishes euuiiierated in the following- paper were collected during 
the month of July, 18S5, by the writer and Prof. M. J. Thompson, of 
Bethany College, West Virginia, while on a trip which extended from 
Concordia, Cloud County, Kansas, westward along the Missouri Pacific 
Eailroad to Leuora, Xorton County ; thence south across the country 
to AVa Keeney, in Trego County, on the Union Pacific Eailroad ; and 
from there to Wallace, Wallace County, near the western border of the 
State. Collections were made at Concordia ; Beloit, Mitchell County ; 
Kirwin, Phillips County; Lenora; in the Saline Elver, about 5 miles 
north of Wa Keeney; and in the Smoky Hill Eiver at Wallace. Only 
29 species of fishes were secured as the result of several days' hard 
work at dragging the seine. Of these, 2 are described as species prob- 
ably hitherto unnamed. The types of these supposed new species 
and specimens of most of the others have been sent to the National 
Museum. 

I.— Eepublican Eiver at Concordia. 

On account of an accident, I am able to name but five species from 
this locality. 

1. Hyodon alosoides (Raf.) J. & G. 

This species appears to be quite abundant in the Eepublican, as 
several specimens were observed which had been taken by fishermen 
with hooks. 

2. Notropis lutrensis (Bd. & Gd.) Gilbert. 

3. Ictiobus velifer (Raf.) .Jor. «fc Meek. 

One specimen, nearly 8 inches long, displays the following charac- 
ters: 

Scales, 7-35-5. Depth in length, exclusive of caudal, 2^. Head in 
length, 4. Eye in head, 3i|. Operculum strongly striated. Dorsal 
rays, I, 24, the first soft ray three-fourths the length of the base of 
the dorsal. Snout blunt, about the diameter of the orbit, and over- 
passing a little the mouth. 

4. Ictalurus punctatus (Raf.) Jor. 

5. Amiurus melas (Raf.) Joi-. & Copel. 

II. — Solomon Eiver at Beloit, Mitchell County. 

The collection was made not in the river itself, but in a small tribu- 
tary stream just west of the town. This stream, like all others in this 
part of the State, flows in a deep ravine, is very sluggish, and so filled 

242 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 243 

with ooze as to make the dragging of a seiue a very diflacult and disa- 
greeable task. 

1. Boleosoma olmstedi (Stor.) Ag. 

Two specimens secured; one with dorsal rays X, 13, the other IX, 12. 

2. Lepomis humilis (Grd.) Cope. 

Many specimens of this brilliantly colored fish were obtained here, 
as at most other places visited. Two styles of coloration have been 
described ; the one abounding in green and red, with orange spots, the 
other with plainer colors and spots of olive-brown. I have no doubt 
that the more gaudily ornamented individuals are males, and the 
plainer ones females. The males obtained at Beloit have the belly, 
breast, and lower fins orange-red and the sides of the body with orange 
spots, which in life were probably scarlet. The females, often swollen 
with spawn, are darker in general color and have on the sides spots of 
olive-green or brown. Probably young males resemble the females. 

3. Lepomis cyanellus Raf. 
Two specimens. 

4. Semotilus atromaculatus Mitchill. 

Seinotilus corporalis Jordan & Gilbert, Synop. Fishes N. A., 1832, 221. 

A single specimen. 

5. Phenacobius mirabilis (Grd.) Jor. 

One specimen. Snout much longer than the diameter of the eye 
which is contained in the length of the head 4^ times. Head in length 
^. Teeth 4-4 ; scales 45. Eecalls Cope's Sarcidium scopiferum. 

6. Notropis megalops (Raf.) Jor. & M'k. 

Minnilus cornidus, Jordan & Gilbert, Synoi>8is, 186. 

7. Notropis lutrenis (Baird & Girard) Gilbert. 

Leuciscus lutrensis, Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Pliiia., 1853, 391. 

Leuciscus huhalinus, Baird & Girard, loc.cit.,391. 

Montana gibbosa, Girard, Proc. Acad., Phila., 1856, 201. 

Montana lejnda, Girard, Loc. cit., 197. 

Cyprinella umhrosa, Girard, loc. cit., 197. 

Cyprinella billlngsianaf , Cope, Haydeu'sAnnual Rep. G. & G. Survey, 1870, 439. 

Cyprinellaforbesi, Jordan, Bulletin Ills. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 1878. 57. 
This species, at once the commonest and the most beautiful minnow 
of the region west of the Mississippi, has suffered much at the hands of 
describers. This is due, in a great measure, to its great variability in 
form, dentition, colors, and probably scale-formula. With the possible 
exception of Professor Cope's Cyprinella billingsiana, all the nominal 
species cited above, together with others which Professors Jordan and 
Gilbert have already shown to be not valid, and possibly others of 
Girard's Cyprinellcv, such as gunnisoni and suavis, that have not been 
identified by later students, must be included under the specific name 
lutrensis, given by Baird and Girard in 1853. The genera Moniana and 
Cyprinella were established on supposed differences in the dentition of 
the species arranged under each. It is now evident, however, that these 



244 FISHES OF KANSAS. 

differences are uot even specific, but are rather individual variations, 
due possibly to age, sex, or accident. There is a good deal of difference 
between the two sexes in the colors; the females being usually quite 
plain and having yellow or orange fins ; while the males are brilliant 
with blue and green reflections, and are especially marked by a shoulder 
baud of violet. Their lins are bright red or orange. Professor Jordan 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1885, 0) has already recognized these differences 
in the sexes. Now, of these undoubted males, nearly all specimens ex- 
amined have the teeth in a single row of 4 on each pharyngeal. In the 
collection made in the Saline, near WaKeeuey, is a specimen which yet, 
after lying in alcohol a year, retains some traces of the violet shoulder 
band and the orange of the snout and of the lower and caudal fins. Its 
dentition is plainly 1, 4-4, 1. It is possible, however, that it is a female: 
but it is undistinguishable, except by its somewhat faded colors and 
dentition, from another specimen from the same place whose teeth are 
4-4. In the Kirwin collection is an undoubted male, with the shoulder 
band bright violet, whose right pharyngeal has the outer row of four 
teeth and uo trace of the inner-tooth, while the left pharyngeal has the 
teeth 1-4. A female also is found in the same collection whose teeth 
are 1, 4-4, 0; but there are some evidences that the inner tooth on the 
right side has been broken oft'. This latter specimen shows the follow- 
ing additional characters: Depth 2^^ in length, scales G-35-3; fins yel- 
low, probably orange in life; anal filled with satiny pigment. 

Many of the females obtained at Beloit have teeth 4-4; others 1, 
4_4, 0; others still 1, 4-4,1. When the teeth are not symmetrically ar- 
range<l on the two sides it is possible in some cases that a tooth may 
have been recently shed or broken off, but close examination usually 
shows no traces of its former existence. 

It seems probable, therefore, that the young and many of the females 
have an inner tooth on one or both pharyngeals; while the adult males 
are seldom so provided. 

The species varies much in the relation of depth to length of body. 
It is not difficult to obtain a series in which the ratio of depth to length 
rises gradually from 2i to 4, and this in specimens having the same ab- 
solute length. If the deeper-bodied specimens should have the teeth 
in two rows, they might be regarded as belonging to CyprineUa umhrom 
or hubalina; and the slenderer ones to suav'is or lepida. 

1 think it will also be found that the number of scales in the lat- 
eral line is quite variable; but on this point I can speak with less con- 
fidence. C. unihrosa is stated to have 42 scales in the lateral line ; but 
I am not aware that there is any other basis for this statement than 
Girard's figure. 

8. Notropis niacrostoma (Girani) Jor. 

('ijprUmUa macrostoma, Girard, Proc. Acad., Pliila., 185d, I'Jd. 

A single specimen found in the Beloit collection, and four in that 
made at Wa Keeney, are referred to the above species. At first view 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 245 

these have a strikiug resemblance to Notropis topclm Gilbert, but a 
close examination reveals several important diflerences. The teeth are 
1, \-i. 1; the head much deeper than in X. topc/ca; the snout, viewed 
from the side, not nearly so pointed, and the anal rays, 9. Head in 
length to caudal, 4^; its depth at the occiput nearly equal to its length; 
mouth moderate, the maxillary reaching to a i)erpendicular from the 
front of the orbit; the gape quite oblique; snout shorter than the eye, 
which is contained in the length of the head 3 times; teeth 1. 4-4. 1, 
with hook and triturating surface, whose bounding edges are distinctly 
serrated; depth in length, 4; the body considerably compressed; dorsal, 
S; anal, 9; the dorsal being inserted just behind the ventrals; scales 
in the decurved lateral line, 30; high, narrow, and closely imbricated; 
coloration much like that of N. topelca ; scales above dark-edged; a 
dusk^' band along the sides, most conspicuous on the caudal peduncle, 
not terminating in a well-defined spot; a dusky dorsal streak; dorsal 
and caudal fms somewhat dusky, the others pale; top of the head and 
snout sprinkled with black dots. 

In case future investigations should prove that these specimens are 
not to be referred to Girard's species, I propose for them the name of 
N. umhrifer. 

9. Notropis aeneolus Hay, sp. iiov. 

Body compressed and considerably elevated, the profile ascending 
from the snout to the dorsal fin. Head broad, the interorbital space 
in the length of the head, 2.\ times; diameter through the opercles in 
the length of the head, 1^. Snout blunt. Mouth small, terminal, and 
oblique; the lower jaw included within the upper in the closed mouth, 
the maxillary not attaining a perpendicular from the front of the eye. 
Eye small, eqial to the snout, and its diameter in the length of the head 
4 times. Head in length, 4J; depth, 3i. Scales, C-35-5, in very regular 
rows, not markedly higher than long, and rather loosely imbricated. 
Lateral line complete and little decurved. Caudal peduncle high and 
compressed, its median depth equal to one-half of the greatest depth of 
the body. Dorsal I, 8; A, I, 7. Dorsal directly over the insertion of 
the ventrals, high and falcate; its greatest height one-fifth of the 
length of the body; its base one-seventh the same unit; the pectorals 
scarcely reaching the base of the ventrals; these fully attaining the 
anterior ray of the anal. Anal high and falcate; its height G, and its 
base 9 times in the length of the body. Caudal deeply forked. Teeth 
4-4, hooked, and with an evident grinding surface and slightly serrated 
edges. Color above brassy, with a tinge of green; below, orange. All 
the scales above the lateral line edged with dark points, which, be- 
coming more abundant above, ])roduce a dorsal streak. Along the lat- 
eral line there is a more or less conspicuous greenish band, and in most 
specimens each pore of the lateral line is conspicuously marked by dots. 
Top of the head orange and dusky, as well as the snout. All the rest 



246 FISHES OF KANSAS. 

of the head orange; belly also orange, as well as the fins. Pectorals 
dusky in front. 

Of the species above described seven specimens were collected at 
Beloit, but the same species was obtained at Kirwin, Wa Keeney, and 
Wallace, which fact shows that it has a wide distribution and is quite 
abundant. A specimen from Wa Keeney, which has a total length of 3^ 
inches, is regarded as the special type of the species. The specimens 
from Kirwin and Wallace are the most brilliantly colored, the head, 
eyes, belly, and fins being of an intense orange hue. 

It is possible that this is Girard's Moniana aurata, but the scales are 
not high and narrow enough to bring the species under Girard's genus 
Moniana. Professor Jordan also indicates that aurata closely resembles 
lutrcnsis, while it appears to me that my species is quite different. 

10. Notropis deliciosus (Grd.) Jor. &, M'k. 

A single specimen of a fish closely resembling an Indiana straminens 
is referred to the above species. There appear to be 38 rows of scales 
crossing the lateral line. 

11. Notropis topeka Gilbert. 

CUola to2)eka, Gilbert, Bull. Washburn Coll. Lab. i, 13. 
Notropis iopeka, Gilbert, loc. cit., i,98. 

Four specimens of a Notropis are referred to the above species. They, 
however, present some characters deviating somewhat from those as- 
signed by Dr. Gilbert in his descriptions. The scales are G-37-4. Eye 
larger than in the types, being greater than the snout and contained in 
the head 3 times. The rays of the dorsal, the caudal, and, to a less ex- 
tent, of the anal, fins are ornamented with lines of black dots, giving 
the fins a dusky appearance. 

In other resi)ects these specimens conform to the original descrip- 
tion. 

12. Pimephales notatus (Raf.) Blatchley. 

Hylorliynchus notatus, Jordan &, Gilbert, Synopsis, 159. 
Pimeiyhalcs notatus, Blatchley, W. S., Proc. Acad., Phila., 1665, G3. 

]!!fumerous specimens were collected which are referred to this species. 
Some of them are undistinguishable from specimens obtained in In- 
diana, except that at the caudal base there is a more sharply defined 
black spot. The scales are dark-edged abo ve, and th ere is a plumbeous 
lateral band from the snout to the caudal spot, in some cases very dis- 
tinct, in others obscure. The fins are of a creamy tint, varied with 
dusky. There is a spot on the anterior raj s of the dorsal and indica- 
tions of a band extending from this spot across the other rays. 

The resemblance of this species to CUola vig'dax has often been re- 
marked. ]\Iy specimens agree quite well with Professor Jordan's de- 
scription of this species in the Proc. U. S. ZS^ational Museum, 1885, p. 3, 
except that the mouth is a little more inferior than it is in C. vUjilaX' 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 247 

It is possible that specimens of this latter species are included with P. 
notatus, but, if so, I am unable to distinguish them. 

After a careful comparison of specimens of F. notatus from various 
quarters with the types of Hyhopsis taurocephalus Hay (C. rigilax), 
found in Eastern Mississippi, I am unable to distinguish any generic 
diflerences between them ; and even the specific diflerences are slight, 
but, doubtless, sufficient. There are no special diflerences in the den- 
tition, the teeth of Plmcplialcs being also more or less hooked. The 
alimentary canal of P. notatus varies much in length, sometimes being 
even less than twice the length of the body. The specimens from 
Kansas have the intestines about twice the length of the body, some- 
times a little more, sometimes less. The structure of the dorsal spine 
in C. xigilax is the same as it is in Pimepludes. It appears, therefore, 
probable that to the genus Pimephales must be assigned three species, 
promelas, notatus, and vigilax, and these three are closely related. 

13. Pimephales promelas confertus (Grd.) Gilbert. 
Abundant. 

14. Campostoma anomalum (Raf.) Ag. 
Two specimens. 

15. Moxostoma macrolepidotum (LeS.) Jor. 

Two specimens ; one 10 inches long, fins bright orange, and consid- 
erable portions of the body charged with yellow pigment. 

16. Catostomus teres (Mitcbill) Giinth. 

17. Ictiobus velifer (Raf.) Jor. & Meek. 

18. Ictalurus punctatus (Raf.) Jor. 

19. Amiurus melas (Raf.) Jor. & Copel. 

20. Lepidosteus osseus (L.) Ag. 

One specimen 3J inches long whose head formed one-third the total, 
length. 

III. — North Fork of Solomon River, at Kirwin, Phillips 

County. 

The collection obtained at this point was made in a muddy, oozy, 
stream within a mile from the town. Only nine species were secured 
as the fruits of a day's hard work. 

1. Lepomis humilis (Grd.) Cope. 

2. Semotilus atromaculatua Mitcbill. 

3. Notropis megalops (Raf.) Jor. & Meek. 

4. Notropis deliciosus (Grd.) Jor. & Meek. 

Common, and much resembling specimens of same species trom In- 
diana. Scales of lateral line, 38. Paler in color than specimens collected 
at most other points in Kansas. 



248 FISHES OF KANSAS. 

5. Notropis lutrensis (Bd. &. Gd.) Gilbert. 
Abinulaut. Some females with teeth 1, 4-4, 1. 

6. N. asneolus Hny. 
Two specimens. 

7. Pimephales promelas confertus (Gid.) Gilbert. 

8. P uotatus(Ral'.)Blatch. 

9. Amiurus melas (Raf.) Jor. & Copol. 
One siieeimen. 

IV. — Collection at Lenora, Xoeton County, N^ortii Fork of 

Solomon River. 

At Lenora tlie ^orth Fork of tlie Solomon River is a small, and in 
most places a shallow, stream, flowing with sufficient rapidity to cany 
away the finer materials and leave for itself a clean bed of sand. A 
part of our work was done in the main stream, but another j>art in a 
shallow, but in i»laces, broad stream a mile from the vdlage. 

1. Etheostoma lepidum Baird & Girard. 

Boleosoma Jepida, Baird & Girard, Proc. Acad. Phila., 1853, 338. 
Pmciliclithys lep'uhis, .Jordan & Gilbert, Synopsis, 18S2, 517. 

To the above species I refer numerous specimens secured at Lenora. 
Since they, however, differ in some respects from any published descrip- 
tions of P. Icpidus and of Aplesioii iwffsii, OUgocephalus grahami, 0. 
leonensis, and 0. pulclieUus, all of which are regarded by Messrs. Jordan 
•& Gilbert as identical, I proceed to give a somewhat detailed account 
of the specimens in mj' possession. 

Body fusiform, somewhat compressed. Head i)ointed, contained in 
the length to the caudal 4 times. Mouth little oblique, rather large, 
the maxillary extending back a little beyond the vertical from the an 
terior edge of the orbit. Jaws equal. Preraaxillaries non-projectile 
Teeth prominent. Eye moderate, equal to the snout, and 4 in the head 
Operculum, cheeks, and breast scaleless. Outer lamina of the preoper 
cular creuulated. Fins as follows : D X— 13 ; A II. 7. Base of anterior 
dorsal in length of head and body 3^; its height one-half its length 
Base of the soft dorsal in length to the caudal 41; three-fourths as high 
as long. Anal base half that of the first dorsal. First anal spine 
strong. 

Scales G-50 to o3-3. Pores of the lateral line on 35 scales; these 
ceasing just behind the middle of the soft dorsal. 

The ground color is a dark olive. There are in the males about 10 
vertical bars of indigo blue, the i)osterior five of which are much the 
most distinct. These vertical bars are in many specimens separated 
by bars of orange. Dorsals barred with indigo and orange. A dark 



1887. ] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 249 

bar below tke eye aiul a splotch ou the opercle. Pectorals and anal 
iudigo blue. 

Many specimens, probably females, are less brilliant. In these the 
dark bars are more distinct anteriorly; being, rather, square blotches. 
Many of the scales above the lateral line have on them black spots 
^yhich are arranged with some regularity in longitudinal rows. Belly 
and lower fins pale. 

The rays of the dorsal fins vary from IX-12 to X-14; those of the 
anal may be II, G, but are usually II, 7. One male has a length of 2i 
inches. 

2. Boleosoma olmstedi (Stor.) Ag. 

Common. In some cases D. YIII-14, A. I, 11. One specimen has 
the fins, D. IX-12, A. I, 9, with breast sparsely scaled. 

3. Lepomis cyanellus Raf. 
Common. 

4. Fundulus zebrinus Jor. iSc Gilb. 

Abundant in the shallow tributary. It is probably a fish that re- 
quires a clear stream. 

5. Squalius eloagatus (Kirt.) Jor. & Gilb. 
A single specimen. 

6. Semotilus atromaculatus Mitcbill. 

Quite common. One specimen nearly 5 inches long with C5 scales 
along the lateral line; no visible barbel. 

7. Phenacobius mirabilis (Grd.) Jor. 

Several specimens were secured. Head in length 4J; D. 5J. Scales 
about 45. Teeth 4-4; no traces of an inner series. 

9. Notropis megalops (Kaf.) J. & M. 

10. Notropis umbratilis (Gd.) J. & M. 

Alinnilus timhratUis, Jordau & Gilbert, Synopsis, 200. 
Four specimens secured. 

11. Notropis deliciosus (Gd.) J. & M. 

12. Notropis lutrensis (Bd. & Gd.) J. & G. 

Abundant and showing the same variations in the dentition as have 
been already referred to. 

13. Pimephales promelas coiifertus CGrd.) Gilbert. 

14. P. notatus (Raf.) Blatchley. 

One specimen with the intestines barely twice as long as the body. 
Closely resembles an Indiana specimen of the same species except that 
the caudal spot is a little more distinct. Might easily be taken for P. 
vigilax. 

15. Clirosomus erythrogaster Ag. 
Two specimens. 



250 FISHES OF KANSAS. 

16. Campostoma anomalum (Eaf.) Ag. 
One of the commonest of fislies. 

17. Catostomus teres (Mitch.) Giinther. 

18. Noturus flavus Kaf. 
One specimen only. 

Y.— Saline River, near Wa Iveeney, Trego County. 

The Saline at this point, 5 or G miles north of Wa Keeuey, is a shallow, 
rather rapid prairie brook, with a clean, sandy bed. Its depth, when 
visited, varied from a few inches to 3 or 4 feet. Twenty-two species 
were secured. 

1. EtheoBtoma lepidum (Bel. & Gd.). 

iJ^umerons specimens of this brilliant little fish were secured. The 
Etlieostombuc appear to be meager in species in this region. 

2. Boleosoma olmstedi (Stor.) Ag. 

3. Lepomis humilis (Grd.) Cope. 

4. Lepomis cyaiiellus Raf. 

Several fine specimens were secured. 

5. FunduluB zebrinua J. &, G. 
Very abundant. 

6. Hyodon alosoides (Raf.) J. & G. 
One small specimen. 

7. Semotilus atromaculatus Mitcbill. 

8. Hybopsis biguttatus (Kirt.) J. «fc M. 

Numerous large specimens are found in the collection. 

9. Hybopsis storerianus (Kirt.) J. & M. 

Hijhopsh storerianus, Jordan & Meeli, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 18y5, 6. 

In the Saline collection are several specimens that appear to belong 
to the above-named species. They are, however, in poor condition, the 
scales being so completely removed that their number cannot be deter- 
mined. Moreover, the dentition differs from that heretofore assigned 
to this species, being neither 4-4 nor 1, 4-4, 0, but 1, 4-4, 1. Head in 
the length, 4^ ; depth, 5. Otherwise the specimens conform to the de- 
scriptions. 

10. Phenacobius mirabilis (Grd.) Jor. 

11. Notropis megalops (Kaf.) J. &, M. 

Several small specimens and one with a total length of 5^ inches. 
This has the sides charged with rosy pigment. Branchiostegal region 
red. Lower fins orange. 

12. Notropis deliciosus (Grd.) Jor. «fe M'k. 

13. Notropis lutrensis (Bd. & Gd.) J. & G. 

Common, as it is elsewhere in Western Kansas. One male with its 
characteristic bright colors has the teeth 1, 4-4, 1. 



1S«7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 251 

14. Notropis eeneolus Hay. 

Four specimeus of this species were collected in the Saliue, of Nvhich 
one 31: inches long is made the tj'pe of the species. 

15. Pimephales promelas confertus (Grd.) Gilbert. 

16. Pimephales notatus (Raf.) BlatcLley. 

17. Hybognathus nuchalis Ag. 

A number of good specimens of this widely-distributed species were 
obtained. One of these has a total length of 4i inches. These speci- 
mens appear to be somewhat more elongated than usual, the head and 
the greatest depth being each contained in the length to the caudal base 
5 times. Eye small, its diameter in the length of the head 43, and 
less than the snout. Scales G-40-5. D. I, 8. A. I, 8. The dorsal is 
apparently more anterior than in specimens so far described, a perpen- 
dicular from the insertion of the ventrals leaving two-thirds of the dor- 
sal base in front of it. Vertebral streak indistinct. One specimen has 
on the right pharyngeal 8 teeth, all of the same size. Four of these 
occupy the usual position ; 3 form an inner row ; while the remaining 
tooth stands outside of, but close against, the row of four teeth. On the 
left pharyngeal there are 6 teeth, the usual row of 4, then at each end 
of this row, but placed somewhat further out, another tooth. A hole in 
the bone midway between these two supernumerary teeth indicates that 
a seventh tooth has recently dropped or been broken off. Such an ab- 
normal increase in the number of pharyngeal teeth has now and then 
been observed in other species, and it appears to occur in both pharyn- 
geals at the same time. It is not at all unlikely that the genus Tirodon 
(Hay, Bull. U. S. Fish Com. 1882, 68) was founded on a specimen of 
this same species with an abnormal number of teeth. 

18. Campostoma anomalum Ag. 

19. Catostomus teres (Mitch.) Glinth. 

20. Ictiobus velifer (Raf.) J. & M. 

Characters essentially those of the specimens collected at Concordia. 

21. IctaluruB punctatus (Raf.) Jor. 

22. Amiurus melas (Raf.) J. & Coiiel. 
Common. 

VI.— Smoky Hlll Eiver, Wallace, Wallace County. 

The Smoky Hill Eiver at Wallace is much like the Saline at Wa 
Keeney, but smaller and more rapid. At a point within two miles from 
the railroad station the stream has been dammed, in order to furnish 
a supply of water for the railroad tanks, to which it is forced through 
pipes. Above this dam, where the water is several feet deep, we se- 
cured the greater part of our collection. Nineteen species are enumer- 
ated. 



252 FISHES OF KANSAS. 

1. Etheostoma lepidum (Bd. »fc Gil.)- 

Some of the males of this species were most brilliantly colored. The 
vertical bars of indij-o-blue were separated by bauds of orauge, which 
was especially bright on the caudal peduncle. Much orange adorned 
the anterior part of the body above the lateral line. Both dorsals with 
a broad baud of orange or scarlet. 

2. Lepomis humilis (Grd.) Cope. 

3. Lepomis cyanellus Raf. 

4. Fuiidulus zebrinus J. & G. 

This si)ecies is very abundant in the vicinity of Wallace, and very 
line and large specimens were collected. Little is to be added to Dr. 
Gilbert's very full description given of this species in the Bulletin of 
the Washburn Laboratory, 1S84, vol. i, p. 15. In my specimens the 
eye is contained in the length of the head 5 times. The base of the 
dorsal in the total length 7J times in the female, and 5J times in the 
male. In the males the anterior margin of the dorsal is midway be- 
tween the tip of the snout and the tip of the caudal: in the females it 
is set considerably further back. 

Length of the longest specimen, 4 inches. 

6. Semotilus atromaculatus Mitchill. 

6. Hybopsis biguttatus (Kiit.) J. & M. 

7. Phenacobius mirabilis (Gnl.) Jor. 

With 44 transverse rows of scales. Teeth 4-4, no traces of an inner 
tooth on either pharyngeal. A dorsal dusky streak and a dark band 
from the snout through the opercle to the caudal, where it terminates in 
a distinct black spot. 

8. Notropis megalops (Raf.) J. & M. 

9. Notropis deliciosus ((ird.) Jor. & M'k. 

Common. A row of dark specks along the lateral line. Scales 
above dark-edged. A vertebral dusky streak and a lateral silvery 
band. Snout du^ky. 

10. Notropis lutrensis (Bd. cS: Gd.) Gilbert. 
Abundant. 

11. Notropis aeneoliis Hay. 

Fins all brilliantly red. AYhole head and eyes red, and body with a 
tinge of the same color. 

12. Notropis germanus Hay, sp. iiov. 

It is with reluctance and trepidation that I add auother specitic name 
to the (leliciosus group of yotrojns. In my collection made at Wallace 
is a single specimen which I have not been able satisfactorily to refer 
to any described species. Were the intestinal canal not so short — shorter 
than the body — the specimen might be referred to Eybof/nafhus [JJionda) 
mibila Forbes. Under the circumstances I deem it better to describe 
the form as new. 



1887. J PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 253 

The form of the fish is much like that of ^. deliciosus, being, perhaps, 
somewhat slenderer. Head in length, 4 ; dejith, 5. Head somewhat 
like that of deliciosus. Mouth like this species, but smaller, the 
maxillary not reaching back to a perpendicular from the front of the 
orbit. Head, viewed from the side, somewhat more pointed than that 
of deliciosus, the snout not being so heavy. The antorbital bone dis- 
tinctly larger and projecting further toward the tip of the snout than 
that of deliciosus. Eye greater in diameter than the length of the 
snout 5 contained in the head 3;^; the snout in the head 4;^. Teeth 
4-4, with distinct masticatory surface ; the first tooth hooked. 

D. I, 8 ; A. I, 9, the ninth ray dividing at its base into two subor- 
dinate rays. Insertion of the dorsal directly over the ventrals. Pectorals 
falling short of the ventrals ; the latter extending to the vent. Caudal 
peduncle longer and slenderer than in deliciosus. 

Scales 5-35 or 30-4; 15 between the occiput and the first dorsal ray. 

The color is quite dark above, all the scales having broad dusky 
edges. The sides are silvery, but through the silvery band there runs 
from the snout to the caudal base a distinct dusky streak. This strealv 
is very distinct on the snout and opercle. Along the sides the streak 
is rather leaden in hue, but the pores of the lateral line are distinctly 
marked by black dots. Top of the head dusky. Belly, lower jaw, and 
throat pale. Cheeks and opercle silvery. A narrow black line along 
the lower edge of the caudal peduncle. 

Dorsal, caudal, anal, and front edge of the pectoral fins dusky, with 
black puuctulations ; the ventrals pale. 

Total length of the specimen a little over 2 J inches. 

13. Notropis lutrensis (Bel. & Gd.) Gilbert. 

Numerous specimens. Transverse rows of scales 34 in one speci- 
men. Depth, 25. Others slenderer. 

14. Pimephales promelas confertus (Grcl.) Gilbert. 

15. Hybognathus nuchalis Ag. 

16. Campostoma anomalum. 

17. Catostomus teres. 
Apparently abundant. 

18. Amiurus nielas. 

19. Noturus flavus. 

Indianapolis, Ind., August 7, 1886. 



NOTES ON THE NORTH AMERICAN LITHOBIIDiE AND SCUTI- 

GERIDiE. 

ByCIIARLE!^ II. BOLL-MAN. 

lu examining the collection of myriapods belonging to the museum 
of the Indiana University, I have found a number of species new to 
science. On account of the confused condition of our North American 
myriopoda, I have deemed it best to introduce a description of the known 
species embraced in the same collection, as well as the description of 
those species supposed to be new to science. 

The types of the new species have been deposited in the United 
States National Museum. 

Family A.— LITHOBIID^. 

Genus I.— Lithobius Leach. 

The following key is only for the species in the present paper. The 
last legs of juventus being lost, I have not included it. In counting the 
spines I have also included the claw. 

* Posterior angles of none of the dorsal plates produced. 
a. Penultimate pair of feet armed with three spines; coxal pores in a single series, 
round. 
b. Anal pair of feet armed witli one spine. 
c. Posterior cosaj unarmed. 

d. Prostemal teeth 4-8 ; joints of the antenna) 20-23. 
c. Joints of the last pair of legs not provided with oi produced into knots. 
/. First pair of feet armed with 0, 1, 1 spines ; claw of the female genitalia 

bipartite ' Kocmi, 1. 

ff. Spines of the first pair of feet 1, 3, 2; claw of the female genitalia 

tripartite, MiNNESOTiE 8p.nov.,2. 

fff. Spines of the first pair of feet 2, 2,2-2, 3, 2; claw of the female 

genitalia whole, Bilabiatus, 3. 

ee. Third and fourth joints produced into knots ; spines of the first pair of 

feet 2, 3, 2; claw of the female genitalia tripartite, tuber, sp.nov., 4. 

dd. Prosternal teeth 10-12; joints of the antenna) 24-29; spines of the first 

pair of feet 2, 3, 1-3, 3, 2 ; claw of the female genitalia whole ; 

color yellow-brown, Prouidens, sp. nov., 5 

cc. Coxa; armed with a single spine ; prosternal teeth 4 ; joints of the antenna) 
20; spines of the first pair of feet, 1, 2, 1-1, 3, 2; claw of tho 

female genitalia tripartite, Pullus sp. nov. 6. 

hb. Anal feet armed with two spines; prosternal teeth 4 ; joints of the antenuiD 
20 ; ocelli 18-25 ; spines of the first pair of feet 1, 3, 1 ; claw of the 

female genitalia tripartite, Tkilobus sp. nov., 7. 

bbb. Anal feet armed with three spines; coxa) with an indistinct spine; pro- 
sternal teeth 4 ; joints of antenna) 20-31 ; spines of the first pair of 

feet 2, 3, 2 ; claw of the female genitalia tripartite 

Cardinalis sp. nov., 8. 

254 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 255 

** Posterior angles of 9, 11, 13 dorsal plates produced. 
a. Anal pair of feet armed with one spine ; penultimate with two. 
h. Coxaj unarmed ; coxal pores in a single series. 

c. AntenutB 20-joiuted ; prosternal teeth 6 ; ocelli 2.5, HoWEi, sp. uov., 9. 

cc. Antennte more than 30-jointed ; claw of the female genitalia tripartite. 
d. Coxal pores round 7, 7, 6, 5; antenna) 31-jointed ; ocelli, 27..Aztecus, 10. 
(Id. Coxal pores transverse 6, 6, 6, 4-9, 10, 9, 6 ; joints of antennas 33-43 ; ocelli 

23-48, FoKFiCATUS, 11. 

hb. Coxas armed with a single robust spine ; coxal pores multiseriate ; prosternal 

teeth 15-20; joints of antenna) 20, long, Xaxtt, 12. 

rtfl. Anal and penultimate feet each armed with two spines ; coxas unarmed ; joints 

of the antenna) 20 ; prosternal teeth 4, Politus, 13. 

*** Posterior angles of the 7, 9, 11, 13 dorsal plates produced. 
a. Anal feet armed with one spine; coxse unarmed; coxal pores in a single series. 
h. Penultimate pair of feet armed in the two spines ; joints of antenna) 31-38 ; 
prosternal teeth 12-14 ; coxal pores 7, 7, 6, 5, 10, 10, 10, 9 trans- 
verse ; spines of the first pair of feet 2, 2, 1,3, 3, 2, Mordax, 14. 

bb. Penultimate jiair of feet armed with three spines ; joints of antenna) 26-30; 
prosternal teeth 8; coxal pores 4,4,5, 8,4, 5,5, 4, round; spines of 

the firstpair of feet 1,3,2,2, 3, 2, Clakus, 15. 

**** Posterior angles of , the 6, 7, 9, 11, 13 dorsal plates produced. 
a. Anal feet with a single spine; coxa) armed ; coxal pores multiseriate; joints of 
antennae 19-23 ; prosternal teeth 14-18 ; spines of the first pair of 
feet 2, 3, 1-2, 3,2 Multidextatus, 17. 

Subgenus ArcMlWiobms Stuxberg. 

1. Lithobius kochii Stuxberg. 

Lithobius kochii Stuxberg, Afver. Kongl. Vetens.-Akad. Forhandl., 68, 1875. 
(Saucelito, Cal.) 

To this species I refer a specimen from Ukiali, Cal., which has lost 
the antennae and nearly all the feet. It has 11 ocelli, arranged in 5 
series, prosternal teeth 4, small; coxal pores 3, 4, 4, 3, small and round ; 
color fulvous. 

.2. Lithobius minnesotae, sp. uov. 

Brown, head darkest, feet and ventral laminoe not much i^aler ; tip of 
antennse and prehensorial feet rufous. 

Slender, smooth ; very sparsely pilose. Head subcordate, wider than 
long (3, 5 : 3), smooth, very sparsely hirsute. 

Antenna? short, joints 20, mostly long; the last long and sharp, 
densely hirsute. 

Ocelli 13, arranged in G series. 

Prosternal teeth 4, small and indistinct. 

Coxal pores 4, 5, 5, 4, rather small, round. 

Spines of the first pair of feet 1, 3, 2 ; penultimate 1, 3, 3, 1 ; last 
pair 1, 3, 2, 1. 

Posterior pair of feet moderately long and slightly swollen. 

Claw of the female genitalia moderately wide, tripartite, the middle 
lobe much longer; spines robust, subequal. 

Length of body 16™™; last pair of legs 5™™. 

Habitat. — Fort Snelline-, Minnesota. 



256 DESCRIPTIONS OF LITHOBIID^ AND SCUTIGERID^. 

This species is described from one specimen collected by Mr. Walter 
D. Howe. It is related to Lithoblus pullus, but is distinguished bj' its 
larger size, the joints of the antennie, the coxal pores, and a few points 
about the claw of tiie female genitalia. 

3. Lithobius bilabiatus Wood. 

Lithoblus hUahiatits Wood, rroc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phil., 130, 1867. {Bocl< 
Island, JU.) 

Brown, head darkest, feet and ventral lamin?e paler, the tip of an- 
teuniiB rufous. 

Somewhat robust, smooth, a little roughened posteriorly ; sparsely 
hirsute, vontriil larain;e sometimes almost densely hirsute posteriorly. 
Head large, obcordate, of nearly equal length and breadth, nearly 
smooth, sparsely pilose. 

Antenoro short, joints 20-23, mostly long, densely hirsute. 

Ocelli distinct, 11-20, arranged in 5-7 series. 

Prosternal teeth 4-8, moderately large and stout. 

Coxal pores 3, 4, 4, 3-4, 5, 5, 4 round ; sometimes the depression is 
shallow and the porps indistinct. 

Spines of the first pair of feet 2, 2, 2-2, 3, 2 ; penultimate 1, 3, 3, 1- 
1, 3, 3, 3 ; last pair 1, 3, 2, 0-1, 3, 3, 1. 

Posterior feet rather short, moderately swollen. 

Claw of the female genitalia large and stout, whole; spines short 
and strong, the inner shortest. 

Length of body 12-18'"'" ; last pair of legs o-e™'^^ 

Habitat. — Illinois (Rock Island), Indiana (Bloomingtou), Michigan 
(Ludington, X. B. Pierce). 

I have examined a large number of specimens of this species from 
Bloomingtou, Ind., and one from Ludington, Michigan. 

4. Lithobius tuber, sp. nov. 

Lithobius bilabiatus Wood, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.,130, 18(37. (Bock 
Island, Illinois, in part; not type.) 

Brown, head andantenu?e darkest, tip oflatter rufous, feet and ventral 
plates pale. 

Robust, moderately smooth; dorsal plates sparsely pilose; ventral 
more densely pilose posteriorly. 

Head large, obcordate, wider than long (3, 5 : 3), moderately smooth, 
sparsely pilose. 

Antennfe moderate, joints 20, mostly long and stout, moderately pilose. 

Ocelli 11-13, arranged in !j or 6 series. 

Prosternal teeth 4-G, small. 

Coxal pores 4, 4, 5, 5,-4, 5, 5, 4, large and round. 

Spines of the first pair of feet 2, 3, 2 ; penultimate S 1, 3, 3, 1, 9 1, 3,- 
3, 2 ; last pair $ 1, 3, 2, 0, 2 1, 3 (4), 2, 0. 

The last pair of legs moderate, swoUeu, the inner side provided with 
l)eculiar knobs in both male and female; male, the end of the third 



L 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 257 

joints produced into a short, blunt lobe, which is surmounted with 4 
spines, the basal third of the fourth joint produced into a large, Hat, 
outward curving lobe, about S""™ long, the end with a row of bristles, 
the eud of the same joint i)roduced into a small, sharp, outward pointing 
lobe; female, the end of third joint swollen, pilose, also two large spines, 
base of fourth joint produced into a cylindrical lobe, directed forwards, 
pilose, a little shorter than in the male, the end of the same joint swollen 
on the inner side. 

Claw of the female genitalia wide, tripartite ; spines stout, subequal. 

Length of body 10-15""" ; last pair of legs 4-5""°. 

Habitat. — Bloomington, Ind., and Kock Island, 111. 

The above description was taken from a male and female from the 
former locality. I have also sent a male to the collection of Dr. Anton 
• Stuxberg, of Goteborg, Sweden, under the name of L. hilahiatus. Dr. 
Wood, in his description of Lithohius hilahiatus, has included two species. 
I have restricted hilahiatus to the one having the ordinary type of hind 
legs, the other I have described as a new species — Lithohius tuher. 

5. Lithobius proridens, sp. nov. 

Yellow-brown ; antennie, feet, and ventral laminae pale. 

Slender, smooth, sparsely pilose; ventral lamimie more densely pilose 
posteriori}'. 

Head obcordate, of about equal length and breadth (3: 2. 5), smooth, 
sparsely pilose. 

Antenuie moderate, joints 21-29, short ; rather densely pilose. 

Ocelli sometimes indistinct and irregular, 8-15, arranged in 4-G 
series. 

Prosternal teeth 10-12, small, not crowded together. 

Coxal pores 3, 4, 4, 3-4, 6, 5, 5 large and round. 

Spines of the first pair of feet 2, 3, 1-3, 3, 2 ; penultimate 1, 3, 3, 1- 
1, 3, 3, 2; last pair 1, 3, 3, 1-1, 3, 3, 2. 

Posterior pair of feet long, not swollen. 

Claw of the female genitalia long and slender, whole; spines mod- 
erate, subequal. 

Length of body 10-12™"' ; last pair of legs 4-5™". 

Hahitat. — Bloomington, Ind. 

This species is common under leaves, «&;c. 

The following is the description of a specimen 5'"™ long. 

AntenD;i3 short, joints 21. Prosternal teeth 10. 

Ocelli distinct, 1, 2, 1. Coxal pores 1, 1, 1, 1. 

Spines of the first pair of legs 2, 3, 1 ; penultimate 1, 3, 3, 1 ; last 
pair 1, 3, 3, 1. 

6. Lithobius pullus, sp. nov. 

Brown ; head darkest, feet and ventral lamiucie pale ; tip of antennas 
and prehensorial feet chestnut. 
Proc. 2^. M. 87 17 



258 DESCRIPTIONS OF LITHOBIID^ AND SCUTIGERID^. 

Eatber robust, srnootb ; sparsely hirsute, more densely beneath. 
Head obcordate, longer than wide (7:0); moderately smooth ; sparsely 

pilose. 
Auteuuai short, joints 20, not as short as in the preceding; the last 

joint long and sharp. 

Ocelli moderate, 10-12, in 5 series. 

Trosternal teeth 4, small and indistinct. 

Coxal pores 2, 2, 2, 2-3, 4, 3, 3, moderately large and round. 

Spines of the first pair of feet 1, 2, 1-1, 3, 2; penultimate 1, 3, 3, 1-1, 
3, 3, 2 ; last pair 1, 3, 3, 0-1, 3, 3, 1. 

Posterior pair of feet rather short, not swollen. 

Claw of the female genitalia tripartite, the middle lobe by far longer 
than the others, which are small and indistinct ; spines short and ro- 
bust, the inner shortest. 

Length of body 9-ll°>'" ; last pair of legs 3-^°^. 

Habitat.— Bloomington, Ind. 

I have over a dozen specimens of this species. 

7. Litliobius trilobus, sp. uov. 

Brown ; head and the last 3-4 segments darkest; feet and ventral lam- 
inae gray-brown ; tip of antenm© and prehensorial feet chestnut. 

Kather slender, but wide and thin, moderately smooth ; sparsely pilose, 
the ventral lamina? more densely. 

Head obcordate, a little longer than wide (G. 5: 6. 2) ; nearly smooth; 

sparsely pilose. 
Antenn® short, joints 20, mostly short, the last moderately long and 

blunt ; densely pilose. 

Ocelli 18-25, arranged in 7-8 series. 

Prosterual teeth 4, small and indistinct. 

Coxal pores 3, 4, 4, 3-4, 5, 5, 4, large and round. 

First pair of feet armed with 1, 3, 1 spines; penultimate 1, 3, 1, 0- 
1, 3, 2, 1 ; last pair 1, 3, 1, 0. 

Posterior pair of feet moderately long, not swollen ; in the male the 
fifth joint is produced into a short lobe on the inner side. 

Claw of the female genitalia wide, tripartite, the middle lobe not 
much longer than the others ; spines rather short and stout. 

Length of body 10-12""" ; last pair of legs 3. 5™"^. 

Habitat.— Bloom'mgtou, Ind. 

This species is described from a number of specimens. 

It is easily distinguished from the preceding by the claw of the 
female genitalia and by the greater number of ocelli. 

8. Litliobius cardinalis, sp. nov. 

Brown; head, tip of antenna?, and last pair of legs chestnut; ventral 
laminiie and feet light. 
Slender, smooth ; sparsely pilose. 
Head large, subcircular, wider than long (7 : G); sparsely pilose. 



18S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 259 

Antenuce short, joiuts 20-31, rather short and tiiick; densely pilose. 

Ocelli distinct, 9-10, in 4-G series. 

Prosternal teeth 4, small and indistinct. 

Coxal pores 2, 2, 3, 2-2, 4, 3, 2, ronnd. 

Spines of the first pair of feet 2, 3, 2 ; penultimate 1, 3, 3, 1 ; last pair 
1,3,3,1-1,3,3,2. 

Posterior pair of feet moderate, not swollen. Claw of the female 
genitalia wide, tripartite, the middle lobe not much longer; spines short 
and robust, the inner shortest. 

Length of body G-O'"" ; last pair of legs 2-2.5"^™. 

Habitat. — Bloomington, Indiana. 

This species is common ; I have taken it mostly under boards laid on 
a heavy growth of grass in the spring. 

Subgenus Ltthohms Stuxberg. 

9. Lithobius ho-wei, sp. nov. 

Brown; head chestnut, antenuiii very dark, feet and ventral laminae 
pale. 

Eobust, not smooth, more so posteriori}-; sparsely pilose. 

Head lar^e, subquadrate, a little wider than long ; sparsely pilose 

Antennae short, joints 20, mostly long ; densely pilose. 

Ocelli distinct, 25, arranged in 7, very oblique series. 

Prosternal teeth G, small. 

Coxal pores 5, 5, 6, 5, large and oval. 

Spines of the first pair of feet 2, 3, 2 ; penultimate lost ; last pair 
1,3,3,1. 

Last pair of feet rather long. 

Length of body 15™™ ; last pair of legs 7™™. 

Habitat.— Fort Snelling, Minn. (Walter D. Howe.) 

This species is described from one made in a rather bad condition, 
collected by my friend and fellow-student Mr. Walter D. Howe, after 
whom the species is named. 

10. Lithobius ? aztecus Huiubnrt & Saussure. 

Lithohius aztecus Humljurt & Saussure, Rev. »fc Mag. Zool.. 2« ser., xxi, 156, 
18G9. 

Brown ; scuta margined posteriorly with dark ; head and antennae 
dark ; prehensorial feet and tip of antennae rufus ; feet and ventral 
laminae very pale. 

Robust, not smooth, more so posteriorly ; sparsely pilose. 

Head large, subquadrate, a little wider than long (4.5: 4); nearly 
smooth, sparsely punctate; a few hairs scattered over the surface. 

Antennae moderate, joints 31, rather densely pilose. 

Ocelli 27, arranged in 8 series, rather crowded together. 

Prosternal teeth 12, the inner very small, the rest of an even size. 

Coxal pores 7, 7, 6, 5, round and small. 



260 DESCRIPTIONS OF LITHOBIID^E AND SCUTIGERID^. 

Spines of the first pair of feet, 2, 3, 2 ; penultimate, 1, 3, 3, 2 ; last 
pair 1, 3, 3. 2. 

Last pair of feet moderat3ly long and swollen. 

Claw of the female genitalia not wide, indistinct tripartite, the middle 
lobe much longer; spines slender, the inner shortest. 

Length of body, 16""" ; last pair of legs 9™'". 

Eabltat.—JJkiQh, Cal. (J. H. Burke), and Mexico. 

This species is described from one female, from the former locality, 
which has the antennae and posterior legs broken off". Having only a 
short description of aztecus, I do not feel sure of my identification, 
although it agrees with it as far as it goes. 

11. Lithobius foi-ficatus Liunicus. 

Scolopendra forficata Linnieus, Syst. Nat. Ed. x, I, 638, 1758. 
Lithobius forjicat us Leach, Edhib.,Enoycl., vii, 408,1815. 

Brown, of varying shades ; feet and ventral laminjB paler; tip of an- 
tennae rufus. 

Kobust, not smooth; a little hirsute, especially posteriorly, and along 
the edges of the dorsal laminie. 

Head large, subquadrate, much wider than long (8: 5. 5), rough, 
punctate, esi)ecially the frontal plate. 

Antenna) long, joints 33-43, mostly short, densely hirsute. 

Ocelli distinct or not, 23-48, arranged in G-8 series. 

Prosternal teeth moderate, 8-12. 

Coxal pores G, 0, 6, 4-9, 10, 9, 0, transverse or round in younger 
specimens. 

Spines of the first pair of feet, 2, 3, 2; penultimate, 1, 3, 3, 2; last 
pair 1, 3, 3, 2. 

Posterior feet long, not much inflated. 

Claw of the female genitalia trilobed, the middle lobe much longer; 
spines short, robust, the inner shortest. 

Length of body, 18-28"^'" ; last pair of feet lO"^^'. 

Habitat. — Eastern United States. 

I have examined about a dozen specimens of this species from Lud- 
ington, Mich., and one from Bloomington, Ind. One female has the 
claw of the genitalia four-lobed — having two divisions on the inner 
side of the middle lobe. 

The following is a description of a young specimen: 

Antenme 32 jointed. 

Ocelli 14, in G series. 

Prosternal teeth 6-10. 

Coxal pores 3, 3, 3, 3, round. 

Spines of the first pair of feet, 2, 3, 2 ; penultimate 1, 3, 3, 1 ; last 
pair, 1, 3, 2, 0. 

Length of body, 11™"" ; last pair of feet 4'"™. 



1387.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 261 

12. Lithobius xanti Wood. 

Lithohius xanti Wood, Jourii., Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 15, 1863. 

Fulvous, feet, autenu.ne aucl ventral plates pale, head dark. 

Robust, not smooth ; sparsely pilose above, the ventral plate, densely 
pilose posteriorly. 

Head moderate, obcordate, not much wider than long (5.3 : 5) : smooth, 
sparsely pilose. 

Antennae long, joints 20, all long. 

Ocelli 12-15, arranged in 6 or 7 series. 

Prosternal teeth 15-20, small, not coaduate on the inner side. 

Coxal pores numerous, arranged in 3-5 series. 

Spines of the first pair of feet 2, 3, 1 ; penultimate (1), 1, 3, 3, 2 5 last 
pair(l), 1,3,2, 0, or (1), 1,3,2, 1. 

Last pair of feet long, slender, not swollen. 

Claw of the female genitalia long, wide, tripartite, the middle lobe 
long, the inner very small ; spines, 3 on each side, long, slender, and 
wavy. 

Length of body 20-25™'" 5 last pair of legs 9-ll"i"i. 

Habitat. — California and Oregon. 

I have examined a number of specimens of this species from Ukiah, 
Cal., collected by Mr. J. H. Burke. 

13. Lithobius politus McNeill. 

Lithobius politus McNeill (MSS.). 

Brown ; head, anteunte and edges of dorsal plates dark ', feet and ven- 
tral plates paler. 

Robust, smooth pilose. 

Head moderate, obcordate, of about equal length and breadth; 
sparsely pilose. 

Antennae short, joints 20, mostly long. 

Ocelli 15-18, arranged in 6 or 7 series. 

Prosternal teeth 4, small. 

Coxal pores 3, 4, 4, 3-5, 6, 6, 6, round. 

Spines of the first pair of feet 1, 3, 2; i)enultimate 1, 3, 3, 1 ; last pair 

l, O, -J, ±. . 

Last pair of feet moderate, scarcely swollen. 

Claw of female genitalia short, wide, tripartite, the middle lobe not 
much longer; spines short and thick, subequal, the outer sometimes 
indistinct, notched on the inner side. 

Length of body 8-11™-" ; last pair of legs 3-4'"°'. 

Habitat. — Dublin and Bloomiugton, Ind., and Ludington, Mich. 

I have examined the types of this species from Dublin, Ind., besides 
a number of specimens from Ludington, Mich., and one female from 
Bloomington, Ind. The one from the latter place is larger; the coxal 
pores are also more numerous and of a larger size. 



262 DESCRIPTIONS OF LITHOBIIDJE AND SCUTIGERID^ 
Subgenus Neolifhobuis Stuxberg. 

14. Lithobius mordax Koch. 

Lithobius mordax Kocli., Die Myriapodengattang Lithobius, 34, 1862. 

Brown, ventral lamina?, feet and tip of antennse light ; prehensorial 
feet bright chestnut. 

Robust, not smooth, more so posteriorly. 

Head subcordate, slightly longer than wide; punctate. 

Antennte long, joints 31-38, mostly small ; densely pilose. 

Ocelli numerous, 34-50, in 7-10 series. 

Prosternal teeth 12-14, stout, conic, not crowded much. together. 

Ooxal pores 7, 7, G, 5-10, 10, 10, 9, large, nearly all transverse. 

First pair of feet armed with 2, 2, 1-3, 3, 2 spines ; penultimate 1, 3, 
3, 2; last pair 1, 3, 3, 1 or 1, 3, 3, 2. 

Posterior feet rather long, scarcely inflated. 

Claw of the female genitalia large, trilobed, the middle one by far the 
largest; spines rather long and slender, the inner shortest. 

Length of body 20-2G""" ; last pair of legs 10-11™™. 

Habitat. — Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Florida. 

I have examined specimens of this species from Bloomington, Ind., 
and Pensacola, Fhi. Those from the latter locality have the coxal 
pores more numerous, the spines of the first pair of feet less, and a 
lighter coloration. One specimen 18™™ long, from the same place, has 
the ocelli 25 in number. 

15. Lithobius clarus Mc Xeill. 

Lithobius clarus McNeill (MSS.). 

Yellowish-brown; edges of scuta darker, antennre dark, tip rufus; 
ventral lamiutB and feet somewhat paler. 

Rather slender, scarcely' robust, smooth. 

Head obcordate, length and breadth equal ; a little rough. 

Antenna? moderately long, joints 2G-30, becoming shorter towards 
the end, not densely pilose. 

Ocelli moderate, 20-27, in 5-7 series. 

Prosternal teeth 8, short, evenly separated. 

Coxal pores few, 4, 4, 5, 3-4, 5, 5, 4, round. 

Spines of first pair of feet 1, 3, 2-2, 3, 2; penultimate 1, 3, 3, 2; last 
I)air 1, 3, 3, 1-1, 3, 3, 2. 

Last pair of feet long, not inflated. 

Claw of female genitalia broad, trilobed, the middle lobe about 1^- as 
long agani as the others ; spines moderately long and slender, the inner 
shortest. 

Length of body 15""" ; last pair of feet G""". 

Habitat. — Pensacola, Fla. 

The above description is taken from part of the type specimens. The 
following is a description of a young specimen : 

Yellow ; slender. Joints of antennie 28. 



18b7.1 PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 263- 

Ocelli few, 13, arrauged iu 5 series. 
Prosterual teeth 8. 
Coxal pores 4, 4, 4, 3. 

Spines of first pair of feet 1, 2, 1 ; peaultiinate 1, 3, 3, 2 ; last pair 1» 
3,3,1. 
Length of body ll"^"" ; last pair of feet 4, 5"^". 

16. Lithobius juveutus, sp. nov. 

Brown ; head and antennae dark, tip of latter fulvous, feet and ven- 
tral plates pale. 

Slender, not smooth ; sparsely pilose. 

Head large, subcircular, of nearly equal length and breath, nearly 
smooth ; sparsely pilose. 

Antennas moderately long, joints 31, short; rather densely pilose. 

Ocelli 10, arranged in 4 series. 

Prosternal teeth 4, small. 

Coxal pores 4, 4, 4, 3, round. 

Spines of the first pair of feet (?) 1, 3, 2 ; penultimate 1, 3, 3, 1 ; last 
1, 3, 3, 1. 

Last pair of feet moderate, not swollen. 

Claw of the female genitalia wide, short, tripartite, middle lobe long- 
est ; spines long and slender, subequal. 

Length of body 9™^" ; last pair of legs 3.5™™. 

Hahifat. — Bloomington, Ind. 

At first this species might be taken for the young of mordax. I have 
no young specimens of the latter on hand, but judging from Dr. Mein- 
ert's description of a specimen 15.5™™ long, it can easily be separated 
by the number of prosternal teeth (4 instead of 10), by the spines of the 
first pair of legs (1, 3, 2 instead of 2, 1, 1) and by the number of ocelli. 

Subgenus EuUthobkis Stuxberg. 

17. Lithobius multidentatus Newport. 

Lithohius mulltdcntutKS Newport, Traus. Lian. Soc , xis, 365, 1S45. 

Brown ; varying from a deep mahogany to rather a light yellowish- 
brown ; ventral lamiure and feet paler ; tip of antenna^, mouth parts and 
the last few joints of the hind legs rufus. 

Eather strongly or moderately robust; not smooth, more so poste- 
riorly. 

Head subobcordate, wider than long (6:5), somewhat rough. 
• Antennte short, joints 19-23, mostly long. 

Ocelli numerous, 27-35, arranged in 7-8 series. 

Prosternal teeth 14-18, rather short, stout, conic, not crowed together. 

-Coxal pores numerous, large and small, arranged in 3-5 series. 

First pair of feet armed with 2, 3, 1-2, 3, 2 spines; penultimate 1, 
3, 3, 1-1, 3, 3, 2 ; last pair 1, 3, 2, 1-1, 3, 3, 2. 

Last pair of feet long, not swollen. 



264 DESCRIPTIONS OF LITHOBIlD.E AND SCUTIGERIDiE. 

Claw of the female genitalia wide, tripartite ; spines moderately long 
and stout, subequal, point of tbe inner sometimes curved inwards. 

Length of body 25""" ; posterior legs 10""". 

Habitat. — Eastern United States. 

I have examined numerous specimens of this species from Blooming- 
ton, Ind., and Ludington, Mich. 

Specimens 12 "'"' long differ from the adult as follows : 

Violet-brown; head bright chestnut; antennaj and posterior legs 
lighter. 

Antennae moderate. Joints 20, moaeralely long. 

Ocelli 16-17, arranged in series. 

Coxal pores arranged in 2 or 3 series. 

Length of last pair of legs 5 ™"\ 

Specimens 10""" long differ from the above in having 13 ocelli, ar- 
ranged in 6 series; coxal pores in 1 or 2 series, and the spines of the 
first pair of feet 2, 3, 1; length of last pair of legs 3">"', while those 5 '""^ 
long have the ocelli 8, In 5 series; coxal pores 2, 2, 2,2, in 1 series j 
spines of the first pair of feet 1, 2, 1 ; length of last pair of legs 2""^. 

Family B.— SCUTIGERID.E (Nervals. 
Genus II. — Scutigera Lamarck. 

18. Scutigera forceps (Rafiuestiue). 

Sclista forceps Rafinesque, Auuals of Nature, 7, 1820. 
Scutigera forceps Meinert, Proc. Amer. Philos, Soc, Phila., 171, 18^5. 
Light brown, dorsal plates with three black stripes, the outer more or 
less broken, a greenish spot on the posterior border of each plate on 
each side of the median line; antenna? and tarsi brown, patella and 
tibia with two bluish bands, those of the last pair of legs dark, almost 
violet. 

Eobust, dorsal plates with obscure tubercles, spines numerous, ar- 
ranged in almost regular series. 

Cephalic plate large posteriorly, a moderate sulcus, not much im- 
pressed, margins not strongly elevated, moderately smooth, wider than 
long(G:5). 

Antennte rather slender, exceeding the length of body. 

Dorsal plates moderately marginate, outer margin very sparsely 
spinulose, posterior margin strongly rounded, deeply excised in the 
middle, spines more numerous than on the outer margin. 

Last dorsal plate narrow, Avith two indistinct transverse sulcations, 
sides rounded, not converging much, posterior margin obscurely ex- 
cised. 

All the stomata, except the first, of nearly equal length, first about 
4 times in length of the dorsal plate. 

Feet moderately carinated, spines rather numerous. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 265 

Last pair of feet a little more than twice as long as body, slender ; 
tibia somewhat clavate, armed with two long, unequal spines. 

Forceps of the female moderately short, sparsely pilose, on the inner 
side of the first joint a brush-like bunch of hair; the first joint longer 
than last (4:3). 

Length of body 20-25'^"" ; last pair of legs ■40-55'""^ 

Habitat. — Eastern United States. 

I have examined specimens of this species from Bloomiugtou and 
]S"ew Harmony, Ind. Seutigera linccci, the only other species recorded 
from the United States, is much smaller and diflers in color. 

North American species of Lithohiidcv and bcutigeridw. 

The following is a list of the North and Central American species of 
Lithohiidcc and Scutigerida; known to date. 

I have used the following letters for the different Zoo-Geographical 
regions as given in the Keport U. S. Entomol. Comm., No. 3: 

B = Boreal (Canadian) Province. 

E = Eastern (Athmtic) Province (n = north; s = south). 

W= "West Indian or Antillean. 

C = Central Province. 

P = Western (Pacific) Province. 

C A = Central American. 

Family A.— LITH0BIIDJ2. 
Geuus I. — Hexicops Newport. 

1. Renkops fidvicornis (Meiiiert). E n. 

Geuus II.— LiTHOBius Leach. 
Subgeuus Archiliihohius Stuxberg. 

2. Lithobius cardinalis Bollmau. E u. 
8. Lithohius pulliis BoWuvAu. En. 

4. Lithobius trilobus Bollnian. E u. 

5. Lithobius bilabiatus Wood. E u. 

6. Lithobius tuber Bollmau. E u. 

7. Lithobius minnesota Bollmau. En. 

8. Lithobius paradoxus Stiixberji;. P. 

9. Lithobius obesus Stuxberg. P. 

10. Lithobius kochii Stuxberg. P. 

11. Lithobius joivensis Meiuert. E n. 

12. Lithobius exiguus Meiuert. E u. 

13. Lithobius lundii Meiuert. En. 

14. Lithobius toltecus Humb. & Sauss. C A. 
lo. Lithobius jiusio Staxhevg. P. 

16. Lithobius proridens Bollmau. E n. 

17. Lithobius monticola Stuxberg. P. 

18. Lithobius bipunctatus (Wood). P. 



266 DESCRIPTIONS OF LITHOBIID^ AND SCUTIGERID^. 

Subgenus Hemilithohiua Stuxberg. 

19. Lithobiuaeucnerm Stu±beTg. E. 

'20. Lithobim cantabrigenaia Meinert. E n. 

Subgenus rseudolithobius Stuxberg. 

21. Lithobiits mcfjaloporus Stuxberg. P. 

Subgenus Lithobius Stuxberg. 

22. Lithobius mexicaniis Perbosc. C A. 

23. Lithobius pinctorum Harger. P. 

24. Lithobius hoivei BoUman. E n. 

25. Lithobius paucidens Wood. P. 

26. Lithobius mysticus Humb. & Sauss. C A. 

27. Lithobius aztecus Hnnib. &, Sauss. C A, P. 

28. Lithobius forficatus (Liumcus). B, E n, E s, 

29. Lithobius aureus McNeill. E s. 

30. Lithobius poJitus ^Icl^eiU. E u. 

31. Lithobius saussurei Stuxberg. C A. 

32. Lithobius planus 'Nevrport. (?) B 
'33. Lithobius xanti (Wood). P. 

Subgenus Xcolithobius Stuxberg. 

34. Lithobius transmarinus Koch. E s. 

35. Lithobius juventus BoUman; E u. 

36. Lithobius latzeli Meinert. E n. 
57. Lithobius mordax Koch. E n, E s. 

38. Lithobius vorax Meinert. E s. 

39. Lithobius clams McNeill. E s. 

Subgenus Euliihobius Stuxberg. 

40. Lithobius multidcntatus Newi^ort. E n. 

Family B.— SCUTIGERID.E Gervais. 
Genus III. —ScUTiGERA Lamarck. 

41. Scutigera forceps (Rafinesque). E u, E s. 

42. Scutigera mexicana (Humb. & Sauss;. C A. 

43. Scutigera linccci (Wood). E s. 

44. Scutigera elegans Gervais. W. 

45. Scutigera guildiugii (Newport). W. 

46. Scutigera occidentaJis Meinert. A. 

Indiana University, 

Entomological Laboratory^ January 7, 1887. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UJIITFiD STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 267 



DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW SPECIES OF KAUP'S GENUS MEGAS- 

COPS. 

Br ROBERT RID01VAV. 

1. Megascops vermiculatus, sp. uov. 

? Scops gtiatemaJce {Scops brasUlanns, Sabsp. J.] Sharpe, Cat. B, Brit. Mas., ii, 1875, 112 

(part ?). 
Scojys brasUianns, d. giiatemalw Ridgw. Pr. U. S. Nat. Mas., i, 1878, 93-102 (part ; .spec. 

No. 55978, Costa Rica). 

Sp. Char. — Similar to *S'. nudipcs in only partially feathered tarsus 
and total absence of any black or dusky bar across side of head, but 
plumage much more uniform, both above and below, and feathering of 
legs light brownish or brownish white, distinctly barred with brown, 
instead of plain bright ochraceons. 

Hah. — Costa Eica. 

Adult (type, Xo. 55978, Costa Rica ; General Lawrence). — Above 
nearly uniform mummy-brown or deep cinnamon-brown, irregularly, 
and in places rather coarsely, vermiculated with dusky, but without 
any trace of streaks; outer .webs of exterior scapulars irregularly barred 
or spotted with white ; lowermost middle and greater wing-coverts 
with a large part of their outer webs white, forming conspicuous roundish 
or oblong spots; primary-coverts dusky, crossed by two distinct bauds 
of tawny brown, and tipped broadly with the same color mixed with 
dusky ; outer webs of primaries cinnamon-brown, spotted with white, 
the spots approximating a semicircular shape, and margined distinctly 
with dusky ; they number about six on the longer quills, and gradually 
change in color to a light cinnamon-brown on the shorter quills ; sec- 
ondaries rather deeper cinnamon-brown, irregularly barred with dusky 
and very indistinctly banded with a lighter shade of the general color. 
Tail irregularly banded with dusky and cinnamon-brown, the latter 
prevailing terminally, the former basally. Entire head and neck cin- 
namon-brownish, narrowly and rather indistinctly but very regularly 
barred with dusky, but without trace of other markings ; eyebrow 
somewhat lighter than general color, but not at all distinctly so. Lower 
parts dull whitish, tinged with dull rusty, everywhere coarsely vermic- 
ulated with dusky brownish, hut without any longitudinal marlcingH. 
Wing G.50, tail 3.30, culmen .55, tarsus l.OS (naked in front for .33), 
middle toe .85. 

Another specimen (Xo. 90398, Dr. VanPatteu) is very much like the 
type, but is rather deeper colored, the dusky markings above more 
distinct, those on the pileum and hind-neck spot like, though still de- 
cidedly transverse; the dusky vermiculation of the under surface is 
rather less regular, and in places rather coarser, while on the fore-neck 
and breast are some decided indications of dusky mesial streaks. Wing 



268 NEW SPECIES OF MEGASCOPS. 

C.70, tail 3.50, culineu .60, tarsus 1.15 (naked below, in frout, for ouly 
.15), middle toe .87. 

2. Megascops hastatus, sp.uov. 

Sco2)s bm^ilianus S. guatemala' ( Sharpe) Ridc.w., Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 
99-102 (part; Mazatlan, Mexico). 
Sp. Char.— Most like *S^. bmsilianus (G-M), bat inach lighter and 
grayer above, with the darker marking.s more distinct and less linear, 
those on the pileuni and hind neck in the form of irregularly rhomboid 
or hastate spots ; lower parts much more delicately and less reguhirly 
barred, and with very little, if any, ochraceous on the underlying por- 
tion of the plumage : feet proportionally smaller. 

Adult (type, No. 85673, U. S. Xat. Mus., '-La Paz, Lower Cali- 
fornia, winter of 1877"*).— Prevailing color above light grayish-brown, 
but this much broken by a coarse mottling of lighter (becoming 
nearly brownish-white on forehead aud sides of crown), and very dis- 
tinctly marked, especially on pileum, hind-neck, and back, with irregu- 
lar spots of blackish, these sometimes approaching a rhomboid or 
hastate form ; lowermost middle aud greater wing-coverts with outer 
webs mostly white ; primary-coverts banded with dusky and pale 
browuish-buffy (about four bands of each color) -, outer webs of pri- 
maries spotted with buffy-whitish (changing to pale buffy-brown on 
shorter quills) ; tail banded with grayish-dusky and grayish-buff'y. 
Face dull grayish- white, narrowly and rather indistinctly barred with 
grayish-brown, the outer border tinged with pale brown, and, laterally, 
marked with an indistinct or broken bar or -stripe of brownish-black 
across side of head. Lower parts dull white, narrowly and very irregu- 
larly barred or vermiculated with dusky-brown, two bars of the latter 
color often inclo.sing a broader oue of pale brown, especially on flanks 5 
most of the feathers of the under surface marked with irregular brown- 
ish-black mesial streaks, broadest and most conspicuous on the chest; 
legs dull whitish barred with dusky-brown. Wing 6.10, tail 3.40, cul- 
men .45, tarsus 1.25, middle toe .75. 

Another specimen (No. 23793, Mazatlau, John Xantus) is very simi- 
lar to the type, but has the plumage pervaded by a more decided brown- 
ish tinge, but the difference is so slight as to be noticeable only on 
actual comparison. Wing 6.00, tail 3.50, culmen .45, tarsus 1.25, middle 
toe .75.t 

* Probably from Mazatlau. The specimen was purchased by Mr. E. W. Nelson in 
Sau Francisco from a collector who had recently returned from Lower California, 
and assured him that all the birds which Mr. Nelson purchased were from La Paz. 
Since, however, the lot included Centurus eleyans (four specimens), and Merida grayi, 
species which occur abundantly at Mazatlan, on the opposite shore of the Gulf of 
California, but have not yet been recorded from the peninsula, there is a strong 
probability of error as to the locality. 

t Specimen remeasured, some of the measurements previously recorded being in- 
correct. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 26^ 



NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF FISHES SENT BY MR. CHARLES C. 
LESLIE FROM CHARLESTON, SOUTH CAROLINA. 

By DAVID S. JORBA.X A.NO i'AKL, H. KBOEXMAIN'IV. 

A tauk of fishes was recently sent to the museum of the ludiana 
University by Mr. Charles C. Leslie, the specimens having been col- 
lected in the vicinity of Charleston, S. C. Several of the species in- 
cluded had not been previously recorded from that locality. We give 
here a list of the more interesting forms ; those marked * are not re- 
corded in the list of the fishes of Charleston, published by Jordan and 
Gilbert in the Proceedings of the U. S. Xat. Mus. 1882, 580. 

1. Cyprinodon variegatus* Lac^p^de. 
A single specimen. 

2. Siphostoma louisianae (Giiuther). 

Two specimens-^females; the longest 9 inches; rings 20-|-3G. 
3 Hippocampus punctulatus* Guichenot. 

A male specimen, brownish, marbled with darker; irregular dark 
rings on tail, much broader than the lighter intervening spaces ; dorsal 
brownish, broadly edged with white, a black blotch on the anterior rays 
below the white border. Body everywhere covered with white points, 
most numerous on head and tail. D. 19. 

4. Trachinotus falcatus* (Linntpiis). 

{TrachijnotHS rhoinboides (Bloch). 

A single specimen 3 inches long. Sides bluish above, silvery below; 
dorsal and anal blackish, especially anteriorly ; inner side of base of 
pectorals black. Head 3 J- in length ; depth 1=^ ; dorsal and anal spines 
connected and joined to the fins. 

5. Epinephelus drummond-hayi* Goode &. Beau. 

A single specimen about a foot long. This species has not been before 
recorded from the Atlantic. The specimen agrees with the description 
of the type; it differs from a specimen from Pensacola in having the 
spots more distinct from each other. 

6. Serrauus brasiliensis* (Barueville). 

{Centropristis suhligarlus Cope; Centropristis dispilurus Giinther.) 
A single specimen 2.J inches long. 

7. Pseudopriacanthus altus* (Gill). 

One specimen about 11 inches long. As this specimen is much larger 
than any one as yet described we adtl a short description : 

Eeddish, overlaid with plumbeous above ; apparently bright red or 
crimson in life; all the fins except the pectorals edged with black; 
otherwise entirely plain (in spirits). Body ovate: profile straight and 
little oblique; mouth subvertical; teeth in upper jaw villiform, in a 
narrow band with an outer series of enlarged teeth ; teeth of lower jaw 



270 FISHES FROM SOUTH CAROLINA. 

similar, but the inner ones larger than in npper jaw; eye very large, its 
diameter little less than half length of head ; preorbital narrow, strongly 
serrate ; preopercle serrate, the serra? of the lower margin largest ; no 
spines at its angle ; subopercle and opercle serrate on their lower mar- 
gins ; highest dorsal spines If in head ; anal spines graduated, the third 
spine 24 in head ; ventrals scarcely reaching anal ; pectora Is 1 j in head ; 
scales all extremely rough, very strongly ctenoid; lateral line ascending 
to below 5th dorsal spine, then descending to caudal peduncle, then 
median to tail. Depth 2i- in length to base of caudal; head 2^ ; D. X, 
11; A. Ill, 9. Scales in lateral line 37; in a series between opercle and 
caudal 41. 

Another specimen also about a foot in lengt.h was sent some time 
since by Mr. Leslie to Professor Gilbert. It is now in the University of 
Cincinnati. 

This species has been hitherto known only from a few very young 
specimens taken in the Gulf Stream, from Cuba to Ehode Island. From 
these the adult differs in several respects, especially in the form of the 
body and the armature of the preopercle. 

8. Rhomboplites aurorubens* (Ciiv. & Val.)- 
Two specimens. 

9. Lobotes surinameusis (Blocli). 

A single specimen 4i inches long. Color variegated, light and dark 
brown ; vertical fins black ; caudal light-edged ; pectoral light. Pre- 
opercle with large spines, especially at the angle ; lateral line 54. 

10. Eques acuminatus * Blocli & Scliueider. 

A single specimen 7f inches long. This species has not been recorded 
as occurring north of the Gulf of Mexico. 

Light brownish; a narrow strip of darker along base of dorsal and 
anal; a series of six small round spots above the lateral line ; traces of 
9 narrow longitudinal lines; spinous dorsal, caudal, and edge of anal 
blackish ; other fins the color of the body. Profile strongly convex from 
dorsal to occiput; concave anteriorily; scales about the head as strongly 
ctenoid as those of the body; pectorals slightly longer than ventrals, 
almost reaching the tips of the latter; longest dorsal spine about 2 in 
head; second anal spine 2^. D. X, 41. A. Ill, 7. Lateral line 52. 

11. Eleotris amblyopsis (Copo). 

A single specimen 5 inches long. 

12. Dormitator maculatus (Blocb). 

A single specimen 5 inches long. 

13. Scorpaena brasiliensis* Cuv. «S: Yal. 
Xnmerous specimens. 

14. Aramaca paetula* (Goode & Beau). 

A single specimen 12i inches long. This species has been known 
only from the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico. 
Indiana University, April 6, 1887. 



1837.] PKOCEEDIXGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 271 
REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

Y. — Ibises, Storks, and Hekons. 

By LEONHAKD STEJINEOER. I I '^ 



(Witli oue plate.) 



i 



The present part of the "Eeview" embraces the order Herodii^ of 
which 21 species have been recorded with certainty as occurring in 
Japan. 

Many of these birds are shy and of skulking habits, difiQcult to collect 
and very bulky, so as to joake it quite a task to bring large series to- 
gether; other species are superficially so alike on account of the uniform 
white color as to require a close study of their structural differences in 
order to enable one to properly distinguish them ; others again are so 
changeable in the coloration of their plumage and so variable in size 
that the museum naturalist has to appeal to his colleague in the field in 
order to have him solve some of the questions by observations in the 
haunts of the living birds. 

These circumstances explain why our knowlege of these birds is still 
60 defective, and, at the same time, are my excuse for the fragmentary 
form of the following review and for its great bulk. 

To Mr. P. L. Jouy, who has recently returned from Korea and Japan 
with magnificent collections, I am under great obligations for being 
allowed to examine his material, a courtesy for which I herewith tender 
him my sincere thanks. I am also indebted to Mr. J. A. Allen for loan 
of specimens in the ZsTew York American Museum of Xatural History ; 
to Mr. Harry Y. Hensou, for the privilege of inspecting his magnificent 
collection of Hakodate birds ; and to Professor E. Collett, Christiania 
University, Norway, for submitting for my examination two most in- 
teresting collections made by Mr. Petersen in the neighborhood of 
i^agasaki. 

Order HERODII. 

The following synopsis of the families and subfamilies of Japanese 
Herodii only comprises a few of the most obvious external characters, 
by which the known species may be easily referred to their respective 
divisions, but the arrangement here adopted is capable of being sup- 
ported by strong anatomical characters. 

rt'. Sides of the upper mandible with a deep, uarrow groove, exteudiug uuiutorrupt- 
edly from the nasal fossiie to the extreme tip of the bill, which is truncate and 
bent downwards. 

I.— IBIDOIDE^E. 

i. Ibidid^. 

&'. Bill nearly cylindrical, tapering gradually towards the tip, and conspicuously 
arched from the base 1. Ibidix .e 



272 KEVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

l\ Bill very broad and depressed, widened at the tip into a spatule, and nearly 

straight, except at the -extreme tip 2. PLATALEixJi. 

a». Nasal groove never reaching the tip of the bill, which is pointed and straight. 

II.— ARDOIDEiE. 
fc'. Inner edge of middle claw not pectinated; tarsus reticulate ; chin-feathering 
not extending in front of the nostrils. 

ii. ClCONllDJ::. 
fc-. Inner edge of middle claw pectinated; tarsus more or less scutellate ; chin- 
feathering extending considerably in front of the nostrils, 
iii. Ardeid.e. 

Superfamily Ibidoide^. 

Family IBIDID^. 
Subfamily Ibidin^^, Ibises. 

The status of the genera composing the subfamily Ibidince is by no 
means yet satisfactorily settled. As our material is very small, we 
shall not attempt to solve the question here. The apparent difference 
between the two species inhabiting Japan is so great, however, that we 
prefer to regard them as generically distinct until Ave have had an oppor- 
tunity to convince ourselves that the differences are bridged over by 
some of the forms unknown to us. 

The two genera may be distinguished as follows : 

o' . Face only bare of feathers Xipjionia. 

O'. Entire head and neck naked Ibis. 

NIPPONIA Rkichb. 

1852.— Xipi)onia Reiciiexbach, Syst. Av., p. xiv (type J. nippon Temm.)- 

(125.) Nipponia nippon (Temm.). 
Japan Ibis. Toki. 

1835.— Ibis nippon Temminck, PL Color., V, 931ivr., pi. 551.— Temm. & Sciil., Fauna 
Jap. Av (p. — pi. Ixxi.) (1849).— Blakist., Ibis 1862, p. 331.— /d., Amend. 
L. B. Jap., p. 12 (1884).— Schlegel, Mus. P. B., Ibis., p. 9 (1863).— Ousta- 
let. Bull. Nouv. Arch. Mus., VIII, 1872, p. 136. — Swinhoe, Ibis, 1873, 
p. 249.— Id., ibid., 1875, p. 455.— Blak. & Pryer, Ibi.s, 1878, p. 223.— 
lid., Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1830, p. 198.— lid., ibid., X, 1882, p. 117.— 
Xipponia nippon Bonaparte, Consp. Av., II, p. 152 (1855).— Elliot, Ibis, 
1877, p. A95.—GeronUcu8 n. M'Vean, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinb., 1877, 
p. — , extr. p. 7. 

1852. — Nipponia toHmincfcii Reichenbach, Syst. Av., p. xiv. 

I have not included in the above synonymy P^re David's Ihis sinensis 
(Compt. Kend., 1872 (p. G4)), from Tshe-kiang, China, which is charac- 
terized by being gray throughout life. The bird which is figured by 



1687.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 273 

Oiistalet (Bull. Xouv. Arcli. Mas., VIII, 1872, pi. G) has iiothino- to indi- 
cate young age, or immaturity ; the face is apparently quite bare of 
featbers, and the quills are in that bigb state of coloration only found 
in the adult bird. I am the more convinced of the correctness of this 
view by the fact that I have before me a Ja])anese specimen, which to 
all appearance is younger than the one represented in the figure quoted 
above, which has still a stripe of downy feathers down the middle of 
the fore crown, and the outer quills more or less dusky with hardly any 
trace of salmon color ; yet the rest of the plumage is pure white. I 
therefore agree with Mr. Oustalet in legardiug the Tshe-kiangbird as a 
local race* of the true Eosy or Japan Ibis. 

It would be a promising field for local ornithologists to work out the 
history of this beautiful species. Swinhoe, in the Ibis for 1873, has some 
good notes on its feeding habits, accompanied by observations on the 
changes of plumage, etc., but his statements are rather obscure, and, I 
think, somewhat confused. In one place (p. 251) he describes the 
plumage of the adult as being " of a lovely rosy white," while two 
pages previously he speaks of being toW in April " that they were put- 
ting on their dark breeding-feathers." "A full-fledged bird of the 
year" he describes as being "of a dusky cream-color washed lightly with 
rosy," and "its cheeks and over the eye were covered with small downy 
feathers, while the rest of its face was bare and colored orange-yellow 
instead of red." The "male, after autumnal moult," he says, has " the 
general plumage rosy; wings shorter than in the adult, and wanting 
its flammeous lateral rectrices, moulting into the flame-colorof the adult 
dress." The changes of plumage he sums up as follows {op. cit., p. 253) : 

The young are fully fledged and have the appearance of adult birds by April. » * * 
The young retain their grey phimage throughout the summer, associating with adults, 
even while the latter are continuing their nesting-duties, and moult about October, 
when they change their attire for a white robe with a tinge only of rosiness, their 
wings and tail alone remaiiaing the same ; but these get abraded and the former 
fades, and occasionally some quills are cast, to be renewed by others of the early 
spring suit which these birds of the year put on before breeding. 

The two Japanese specimens before me are females collected in Jan- 
uary, and probably birds of the foregoing year. They are nearly pure 
white all over with a faint salmon-colored glow on the concealed parts 
of the feathers, especially the inner secondaries, upper wing-coverts 
and under tail-coverts; the two outer primaries are of a nearly uniform 
dark drab-gray, while the two next to them are white mottled with the 
same color. 

It should be remarked, that the "glow" of salmon-color, or perhaps 
rather saturn-red, fades very soon in museum specimens. 

* Mr. D. G. Elliott, Ibis, 1877, p. 497, says that he agrees "with M. Oustalet (/. c) 
that they are only the young of the present species " [?nj;jJon], but O. does not regard 
it as the young. On the contrary, he {I. c.) calls it " var. sinensis : omni sestate juveni 
inijjponisi simillima." 

Proc. IS". M. 87 18 



274 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



Mr. P. L. Jouy has kiudly furnished me wi:h the following color 
notes on the specimen which he collected: 

U. S. Xat. Mils. Xo. 9148G, F. L. Jouy, Xo. 9;?3: "Lores, forehead, aud chin orange 
vermilion, color lighter on the chin, intensified around the base of Mil ; eyelid 
golden yellow ; iris orange ; bill black mottled with red at the tips of both mandibles, 
nail yellow ; nasal grooves red ; tarsi, toes, and naked tibiic light red." 

Aleasurements. 



a 














% 




A 






a 

3 
So 


!z; 


6 








2 


a . 
11 






"Sj 


a 
J 


zA 


3 

"3 


03 


a 
3 





a 




.a 
O 


n 

S 

£ 




o 
H 


1 


91486 


Jouv, 933 


? 


Tokio, Hondo . . . 


Jan. 8, 1F83 


390 


140 


170 


80 




"768" 


"1308" 


109457 




9 


Shimosa, Hondo 
Fusan, Korea . . 


Jan. 29, 1883 
Dec. 17, 1683 


390 
424 


147 
161 


175 
192 


83 
90 


80 
84 






Jouy, 1353 




"1460" 



I have added the measurements of a male collected by Mr. Jouy near 
Fusan, Korea, in order to show the dimensions of the male. This spec- 
imen has a rather slight crest, but the red glow is more vivid than in 
the other two specimens; the two outer primaries, however, are still 
dusky for the greater extent, while the following ones are more or less 
mottled with dusky toward the tips. The fresh colors of the naked 
parts noted by Mr. Jouy are as follows: "Iris (faded) light sienna; 
bill black, tip scarlet ; naked face-skin scarlet vermilion; tarsus and 
toes dull red." 

IBIS Lacep. 

1790.— Ibis Lacep^de (type, as restricted by Illiger, 1811, I. aetliiopicus Lath.). 
1842.— Threskiornis Gray, App. List Gen. B., p. 13 (same type). 
1855. — Thereschioniis Brehm, Naumannia, 1855, p. 290 (emend.). 

(1-26.) Ibis propinqua SwixH. 

Black-headed Ibis. Kuro-toki. 

ISm.— Threskioniis meJanocephaliis ? Swixuue, P. Z. S., 1863, p. 318 (nee Lath. ?).— 
Elliot, Ibis, 1877, p. 488 (part). 

1&70.— Ibis propinqua SwiXHOE, P. Z. S,, 1870, p. 428.— Blak. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, 
p. 223.— lid., Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 198.— /((7., ibid. , X, 1882, p. 117.— 
Seebohm, Ibis, 1884, p. 35.— Blakist., Amend. L. B. Jap., pp. 24, 40 (1884). 

Both Elliot and Reichenow, in their monographs, unite Ibis propinqua 
with I. melanocephalus (Lath.), but neither of them seems to have ex- 
amined specimeus of the former, I, therefore, retain Swinhoe's name» 
for the present at least, especially since Mr. Seebohm has pronounced 
Blakiston and Fryer's identification of the Japanese specimen as 
J. propinqua to be correct without suggesting its identity with J. mda^ 
noceplialus. But being without specimens of either species I am at 
present unable to give any description of the former or to point out 
the differences between the two supposed species. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 275 

I. propinqua is one of our greatest desiderata among Japanese birds. 
It is very rare in collections; in fact, I am not aware of the existence 
in any museum of a specimen except Blakiston's Xo. 1829 [formerlj- 
in the Hakodadi ]Mus.], which was obtained by Dr. Hilgendorf at 
Tokio, July 5tli, 1874, and those which he has recorded as being in the 
Tokio museums. According to Messrs. Blakiston and Pryer, it is "not 
uncommon about Omori, Tokio." We would, therefore, earnestlj' re- 
quest the friends of our Museum to aid us in obtaining specimens of 
the Black-headed Ibis, and in order to facilitate the identification I 
reprint Mr. D. G. Elliot's description of the t3q)ical Ibis melanocephalus^ 
as given on page 489, Ibis, 1877 : 

Head aud Deck denuded of feathers, skiu black, occasionally with reddish bars 
across the back of neck. Scapulars and tertials with open lengthened barbs, rather 
thin in substance, aud falling over the -wing; the color of these varies in individuals 
from a pearly white to almost a black shade. Rest of plumage and wings pure white. 
In the breeding season the lower feathers of neck in front are mucji lengthened. 
Bill black; feet black. Total length about 29 inches [737nim]; wings 14 inches 
[356™""]; tail 5 inches [IS?'""!]; bill along culmen 6| to 7^ inches [171-190™™]; tarsus 
4 inches [102™™]. 

Young. — The head and neck covered with short feathers, at first dark brown, 
then white; and the lengthened scapulars are absent. 

Subfamily Platalein^, Spoonbills. 

PLATALEA Linn. 

1758.— Platalea Linn., S. N., 10 ed., I, p. 139 (type P. leucorodia Linn.). 

1760. — Platea Brisson, Ornith., V, p. 351 (same type). 

1761. — Platelea Linn., Fauna Suecica, 2 ed., p. 56 (emend.). 

I8o2.—Spatheroclia Reichenbach, Syst. Av.,p. xvi (type P. melanorhi/nchos Reichb.). 

1852. — Leacerodia Reichenbach, Syst. Av.,p. xvi (type P. nudifrons Cuv.). 

The Japanese fauna apparently possesses two species of Spoonbills, 
which may be distinguished as follows : 

a'. Throat naked for a considerable distance from the base of the lower mandible ; 

naked skin of face and throat light colored, yellowish, or pinkish. ..P. major, 
a-. Throat entirely feathered until between the mandibular rami ; naked skin 

blackish p. minor. 

(127.) Platalea major Temm. & Schl. 
Japan Spoonbill. Hirosagi. 

IM'^.—I'latalea major Temminck & Schlegel, Fauna Japon., Aves (p. 119, pi. Ixxv). 

ScHLEGEL, Mus. P. Bas, Cicon., p. 21 (1865).— Martens, Preuss. Exp. Ost- 

As., Zool. Th., I, p. 105 (1866).— Whitely, Ibis, 1867, p. 204. —Dresser, B. 

of Eur., VI, p. 324 (1873).— M'Vean, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc, Ediub., 1877, 

p. — , extr., p. 7.— Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 223.— /;(?., Tr. As. Soc. 

Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 193.— /k?., ibid., X, 1882, p. 117.— Seebohji, Ibis, 1879, 

p. 27.— Blakist., Chrjsanth., 1883, Jan., p. 28. 
1877. — Platalea japonica Reichenow, Journ. f. Orn., 1877, p. 1.59. 
1^^'^.— Platalea leucorodia Seeboh.m, Ibis, 1882, p. 370 {nee Linn.).— /(?., Brit. B, 

Eggs, II, p. 514 (1884).— Blakist., Amend. List B. Jap., pp. 12, 40 (1884.) 

The problem of the Japanese Spoonbills has of late become more 
complicated than ever, and, unfortunately, my material is too scanty to 



^76 PvEYIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

solve the mystery completely. I. therefore, cau do nothing better than 
state the case in all its details and point out as distinctly as possible 
the different questions at issue. 

To begin with the beginiiing, Schlegel (and Temminck ■?)? i" the 
" Fauna Japonica," described two Japanese specimens, collected by Dr. 
Burger, as P. major and P. »ii)wr. Both were young birds (both de- 
scribed as "male de Faunee'') chietiy distinguished inter ae by their size, 
and from the European P. leucorodia by the naked portion of the 
throat being less extensive. Schlegel himself, afterwards (Mus. P.-Bas, 
Cicon., p. 21) united the two Japanese specimens under the common 
heading of P. major, evidently influenced by having obtained from 
Swinhoe a specimen, likewise '• individu de I'aunee," killed at Swatow, 
China, which in dimensions is nearly intermediate between the two 
types of P. major and minor, and possibly also by Swinhoe's remarks 
in the Ibis for 18G4:, to which we shall return later on. But he still 
maintains the distinctness of the eastern species, and characterizes it 
as " tres semblable a la Platalea leucorodia ; mais a la partie posterieure 
de la gorge emplum(5e et a bee brunatre." I may here remark, by the 
way, that for comparison he had, according to his catalogue, 6 young 
birds "de I'annc^e" of P. leucorodia. 

This view was accepted by nearly everybody until Mr. Seebohm, in 
1882, suggested the identity of the Japanese (and the Formosan) birds 
with the true P. leucorodia. Upon receiving an adult male, collected by 
Captain Blakiston at Hakodadi in April, 1879, he positively asserts 
(Brit. B. Eggs, II, p. 515, foot-note) that it "belongs to the European 
species, of which Platalea major of Temminck is undoubtedly a young 
bird." Unfortunately, no further details in regard to this specimen are 
given. At the same time he recognized P. minor as a second Japanese 
species, as will be seen from the following quotation : "In a paper on the 
ornithology of Japan ('Ibis,' 1882, p. 370) I made the mistake of iden- 
tifying Swiuhoe's examples from Formosa with this species (P. leuco- 
rodia). They belong undoubtedly to P. ??iinor of Temminck, which species 
is founded on immature examples of the previously described P. rcgia 
from Australia. This species differs from our bird (leucorodia) in being 
slightly smaller, in having the bare space on the forehead and sides of 
the head extending to the eye, and in having the gular pouch feathered 
to the base of the lower mandible, beyond which the chin is black. 
The signs of immaturity are the same as iu the Common SpoonbilK" 
These are all the details given, and we are not informed if the above 
conclusion is based on a study of the type specimen of P. minor from 
Japan, and if the latter has been compared carefully with undoubted 
specimens of P. regia iu corresponding plumage. We may, by the way, 
point out one error in the above statement, viz, that P. regia differs 
from P. leucorodia " in having the gular pouch feathered to the base of 
the lower mandible," for in the specimen before us the gular pouch is 
naked for a distance of over 40°*'" from the base of the lower mandible 



1887.] PROCEEDIXGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 277 

(Plate X, fig-. 7), a feature also sliowu iu Gould's plate (B. xVustr., VI, 
pi. 50).* 

This mistake of his is easily explained, however, when we consider 
that the feathered throat belongs to his Formosau specimens, which 
are not identical with the Australian P. regia, as 1 shall attempt to 
l^rove later on. For the present it suifices to state that Mr. Seebohm 
now holds that there occur in Japan two species of Spoonbills, which 
he calls P. Jeucorodia (synon. major), and P. regia (synon. minor). 

For reasons which will appear in the following remarks 1 am not 
prepared to accept Mr. Seebohm's nomenclature. The material at hand 
is scanty, it is true, but in several points it gives results at variance 
with those of Mr. Seebohm, and which cannot be disposed of with the 
mere statement that the birds in question are "undoubtedly" identical. 
It will be useful, however, first to review the characters assigned to the 
different forms, confining ourselves here to the first mentioned species. 

Mr. Taczanowski is the latest author to compare them, apropos of a 
pair of adult birds from Sungatsha, Ussuri, which he refers to Platalea 
major. He says (Bulletin Soc. Zool. France, X, 1885, p. 47G), that these 
birds, in addition to the distinctive character of the naked part of the 
throat being more restricted, have the tips of the remiges black, a 
feature only found in the young of the European form ; they have, be- 
sides, the crest less elongated, and the jugular region less yellowish. 

That the Japanese birds when fully adult also have the wing tips pure 
white is undeniable. Blakiston's Hakodadi specimen is said to have the 
wing entirely white, and so they are in an adult specimen iu the Tokio 
Educational Museum (Xo. 761), and in another in the Xational Museum 
iu Tokio, according to Blakiston's manuscript notes. Black tips to 
the quills are, therefore, also a sign of immaturity in the Japanese form. 
That Taczanowski's Ussuri birds had crests combined with black-tipped 
quills is not so strange, for the European bird, according to Xaumann, 
assumes a quite perceptible crest in the second year, and the Ussuri 
birds may not have molted the quills of the first plumage. (Jn the 
other hand, there is a possibility that the eastern birds (P. major) may 
retain the black tips longer than the true P. leucorodia. 

The less amount of yellowish on the jugulum and the smaller size of 
the crest also agree with the supposed immaturity of Taczanowski's 
specimens. 

There remains the alleged smaller extent of the naked space on the 
throat in the eastern form, which also is the character ascribed to 
P. major by Professor Schlegel. Keeping in mind that the type of the 
latter, and that Taczanowski's birds have black primary tips, conse- 

* With only one specimen of P. regia I felt a little uncertain, but in reply to a re- 
quest to examine a specimen in the American Museum, New York, Professor J. A. 
Allen kindly writes me as follows : " The naked black space on the throat of our ad. 
P. regia is over 21 inches louj; and extends fully 2 inches posteriorly to the angle of 
the mouth." 



278 REVIEW OF JAPANESE T.IRDvS. 

queutly imuiatuie bird, the alleged restriction of the naked space on 
the throat mijjht easily be accounted for. 1 have, however, by the 
courtesy of Mr. J. A. Allen, had the opportunity of comparing my 
eastern young birds with a slightly younger specimen from Frauce, 
uow in the American Museum, New York, (Plate X, fig. 1), and even at 
this age the European bird is characterized by the greater extent of 
the naked space, and I have reasons for believing that this naked space 
is smaller also in the adult birds, and that the character, therefore, 
will hold. Mr. P. L. Jouy has kindly furnished me with an accurate 
sketch, natural size, of the bill and throat of No. 761, Tokio Educational 
Z^Iuseum, a fully adult female with crest, entirely white primaries, and 
corrugations at the base of the lower mandible (Plate X, fig. 2). In this 
bird the denudation extends only 54°^^" down the throat, ending in a blunt 
point, a distance considerably less, I believe, than the corresponding 
space in the European bird. 

According to Schlegel, Professor SundevalPhas pointed out that the 
lim of the upper mandible between the nasal groove and the edge is 
broader in the Japanese form than in the European, but Schlegel him- 
self regards this character as neither " assez sensible" nor "constant.'' 
Whether this character is absolutely constant I cannot say, but my 
specimens bear out the distinctions made by Sundevall, ibr in the two 
eastern immature birds the greatest width of the rim measures 4.2 to 
4_9mm against S.S'"'^ in the fully adult European specimen, and 2.5'"'" in 
the young of the year ( Amer. Mus., X. Y.), a difference which is " assez 

sensible." 

My material also seems to indicate that the eastern birds have the 
upper mandible proportionably more widened at the tip than the west- 
ern ones, as evidenced by the measurements contained in the tables 
below. I therefore consider myself justified in regarding the Japanese 
form as separable, characterized by the restriction of the naked gular 
space, the broader rim to the upper mandible, and the greater width of 
the " spatule". 

It is, however, very desirable that the ornithologists residing in Japan 
should do all in their power to settle the question beyond doubt, to that 
end collecting series of old birds and observing the changes which take 
place in the Japanese species in the different stages of its growth. In 
order to facilitate their work I shall give a short abstract of Xaumann's 
account of these changes in the European true P. leucoroiUa, which will 
afford material for comparison. 

The downy young is white, with nearl.\- the whole face and throat 
naked ; iris ]>earl-white ; bill and feet light plumbeous. 

The young in the Jirst 2)lf(mage is white with black shafts to the quills, 
and with the outer primaries more or less marked with <lusky towards 
the tips; hardly a trace of crest yet ; iris light grayish blue; bill smooth 
above, flesh-colored near the forehead and the entire under side, reddish 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 279 

gray ou the upper side toward the tip ; lores and naked eye i lug whitish ; 
naked throat flesh-color. 

lu the second year a small crest appears, and t^ie quills are pure 
white*, very rarely with a dusky streak on or near the shaft of the 
first primary ; the male has a slight trace of the yellow band across the 
lower neck; iris changes to brownish yellow after the second year; on 
the bill a few corrugations appear from the nostrils downwards, the color 
above on the widened spatula somewhat dusky, becoming yellowish 
towards the tip ; naked skin round the eyes yellowish white, that of the 
throat more reddish. 

When three years old the European Spoonbill has obtained its final 
coloration; the large white crest reaches a length of 6 inches, white on 
the outside, but beautifully tinged with rusty on the inside ; a broad, ill- 
defined cross band of ochraceous buff surrounds the lower end of the 
neck; iris blood-red ; the corrugations ou the bill extend further; the 
<iolor of the bill is black except the terminal half of the spatula, which 
is of a vivid ocher-yellow, and the spaces between the corrugations are 
tinged with light slate-blue; naked throat reddish yellow, paler above, 
or like the lores and eyelids, which are whitish yellow, or often only 
white. 

In the subjoined tables of measurements 1 have incorporated the 
■dimensions of the type as given by Schlegel {I. c), and of a Formosan 
specimen recorded by Mr. Swinhoe (Ibis, 1S04, p. 3G7), converted into 
millimeters. I have also tabulated Blakiston's notes, to which I have 
iidded a few measurements derived from Mr. Jouy's tracings from two 
of the specimens In the Educational Museum, Tokio. Finally, there are 
some measurements of European P. leucorodia for comparison. I have 
thus laid all the available data before the reader. 

Tables of dimensions. 
I. — Platalea MA.JOR (U. S. Nat. Mus. ). 



6 
























ci 


'A 
















& 




\i 




.i 


s 

O 
















-..» 




rt 




t^ 


6 

!z; 












13 


"S 




,3 




c 


3 


a 


£ 


Locality. 






« 


a 


^ 




t; 


- 


_c 




a 


S 








<a 


o 


P 




g 


M 


5 


;2i 
M 


llectoi 


5 

C3 




6 


a 


«2 


d 

P. 


6 


i 


4 


"a 


Q. 


P 








d 


^ 


H 


f^ 


5 


H 


^ 


o 
H 


^ 










1883. 


















91485 


Jouy, 932 


d jJn. 


Tokio, Koudo 


Jan. 8 


388 


118 


223 


55 


158 


95 


895 


84 


109456 




jun. 


Shimosa, Hondo 


Feb. 19 


360 


111 


184 


49 


130 


84 




04 









* Mr. Seebobm (7. c.) says that " Birds of the year have the bill somewhat iuterme- 
diate ; the primaries are pure white." This is evidently a mistake, and he probably 
aneans " Birds of the second year." 



280 REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

II.— Platalka .ma.jou (lide Schlcgel and Swiuhoe). 



III. — Platalea MA.JOR (from Blakistou's MSS.). 



00 

s 

3 


Collector and No. 


s 

M 

3 

a 
a 


Locality. 


o 



a 


? 

H 


3 


o 

£ 




•a 


Ml 

a 

o 
H 


2 

1 

o 
p< 


•1 


Biirgcr 

Swinhoo 


cf jun. 
? jnn. 






395 
381 


131 

127 


230 
190 




158 






10ft 




Tamsity, Formosa .. 


Mar. 7 


.... 


140 




838 


76 





^ 












% 




Ji 








^ 












A 




.1i 








■3 


i 










% p. 




ll 


.a 


m 


1 
s 


CoUeclo 


1 


Locality 


6 


si 

a 


C3 
<S 

a 

o 




m 

P 

£ 
H 




890 


B 


Seebohm? 


IJlakist., 2669 


cfad. 




Apr., 1879 


395 










(1) 


Yesso. 




















? ad. 


S b i m o 8 a , 
Hondo. 




400 


180 


48 


128 


73 




C) 










Do 




jnn. 
jiin. 
ad. 
jun. 






397 
406 


215 
211 


55 


140 
140 


81 
90 




(X) 








f4> 


Jap Nat 






410 

380 


210 
195 


50 


150 


83 
80 


'860 


(5) 










(6> 

















Remarks. — (1) No black on "wiag; well developed crest; bill dark aud roiiyli, 
yellow only at end. 

(2) All white with crest like Ibis [uippon] ; bill black, tip of upper mandible yel- 
low ; bare skin on throat yellow. 

(3) Primaries partly black; shafts of primaries and scapulars black; slight ap- 
pearance of crest. 

(4) Partly crested ; some of the qnill shafts partly black ; bill black except near 
tip; bare skin on throat yellow. 

(5) Uncrested ; white wing; black rough bill. 

(0) All the primaries with more or less black, secondaries with black tips only; 
bill straw color at tiji mottled with brown for about the middle two thirds; base 
brown with yellow; beneath mottled brown and yellow with a few spots near the 
tip approaching to liesh color. 

Mr. Jouy's descriptiou of the soft parts of the fresh bird obtained 
by him in the Tokio market, January 1, 1883 (U. S. Nat. Mas. Xo, 9US5), 
is as follows : 

Iris black, or dark brown. Bill: upper mandible dusky, horn color, mottled with 
darker markings ; base bluish ; tip slightly lighter, with dull orange blotches on sides 
and median ridge; a slight bluish reflection is more prominent on the lower third ol 
the bill; lower mandible dusky; tip dull reddish, speckled all over with small red 
spots: throat flesh color; cere dull bluish; lower lid dull grayish. Feet and legs 
black. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 
IV. — Platalea leucorodia. 



281 



















^ 






.„ 


s 






















i ° 


'A 
















si 




'^ 


d 


cS 

g 

3 


o 
u 








M 




§ 

3 
U 




B 


©"a 


§ 


1| 


a 
3 






o 






U 




o 


s 


'a 




.M 


o 


s 
•Jj 


Hi 





^ 


^ 


W 


O 


H 


3 


o 
H 


iZ5 


U. S. Nat. 57036 




d ad. 


Central Eu- 




403 


r? 


225 


48 


158 


ft5 




9G 


Am.^r.T 


Pluche. 


d jun. 


rope. 
H&vie,France 


Oct. 19, 1876 


392 


127 


163 


44 


1.52 


94 




87 


U. S. Xat. 57033 




juv. 






315 


108 


97 


25 


123 


88 




58 













Platalea minor Temm. & Schl. 
Formosan Spoonbill. 
1849. — 'i Platalea minor Temmixck & Schlegel, Fauna Japou., Aves (p. 120, pi. 

Isxvi). — Savixiioe, Ibis, 1864, p. 368. — Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 

223. 
1SQ\.— Platalea major Swixhoe, Ibis, 1864, p. 368 {nee Temji. & Sciileg.). — 

Schlegel, Mus. P.-B., Cicon., p. 21 (1865) (part). 
1882. — Platalea lencofodia Seebohm, Ibis, 1882, p. 370 (part ; 7iec Linn.). 
1884. — Platalea reg'ia Seeboh.m, Brit. B. Eggs. II, p. 515 {nee Gould). 

The claim of the present species to a place in the Japanese avifauna 
rests on the type specimen in the Leyden Museum, Holland, which was 
collected by Dr. Burger in " Japan," and described and figured in 
"Fauna Japonica," and on a specimen collected by Mr. Petersen at 
Nagasaki. 

From the dimensions given by Schlegel (?. c.) and the description by 
Bonaparte (Consp. Av., II, p. 148 ; unfortunately I cannot consult the 
original description and plate in Fauna Japonica), I conclude that the 
type is a very young bird. It is a curious peculiarity of the Spoonbills 
(at least of the European species) that the very youngest birds have the 
face more denuded of feathers than the older ones. Bonaparte describes 
P. minor as follows : " Frontis parte plumosa antice emarginata ultra 
oculum vix producta ; orbitis nudis ; genarum parte plumosa marginem 
oculi hand attingeute : gulte [sc. parte plumosa] antice valde protracta 
acuminatim." This description of the outline of the feathering suits 
exactly a very young European specimen before me (U. S. Xat. Mus. 
Xo. 57033) with the exception of the last sentence ; for in the latter the 
gular feathering does not extend further forwards than that of the 
cheeks, and is cut squarely across anteriorly, not accuminated. That 
the type of P. minor is not so young as the young P. leucorodia }\\9.t re- 
ferred to, is plain from the size of the bill, and also from an inspection of 
Reichenbach's otherwise very indifferent reproduction of the original 
figure (Yollst. Xaturg., Grallat., pi. ccclxi, fig. 2829). This anterior pro- 
trusion of the feathered apex of the chin is, I think, by itself alone suflS- 
cieut to prove P. minor specifically distinct from P. major. The type o& 
the former exhibits another peculiarity in the proportions, which, if the 
measurements given by Schlegel are correct, is very remarkable, for the 



282 KEVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

length of its tarsus is so much uuder the miuimum of all the allied 
species, and so much out of proportion with the other measurements, 
that it can be hardly more than an extreme individual aberration. 

A young specimen which Mr. P. L. Jouy collected at Fusan, Korea, 
December 7, 1884 (Plate X, figs. 5, G), may be the same as P. oninor. 
The outline of the feathering on the face agrees nearly with Bonaparte's 
description, and the gular portion particularly corresponds exactly ; 
for in the Korean bird the feathering runs in between the mandibular 
rami forming a triangular apex 18'""^ high. Compared with three Jap- 
anese P. major of apparently corresponding age the difference in the 
outline of the feathering is quite striking. On the other hand, the di- 
mensions and proportions are widely different from Schlegel's and 
Bonaparte's bird, the tarsus especially being much longer. 

Since formulating the above I have received for examination a young 
bird collected by Mr. Petersen, at Nagasaki, in December, 1880, and 
kindly lent me by Professor Robert Collett, in Christianiti. It is some- 
what large, but otherwise a perfect counterpart of Jouy's Korean ex- 
ample. The feathered angle on the chin is identical ; the feathering 
recedes at least equally far on the forehead, and the naked skin of the 
face is abruptly blackish, except a light patch underneath each eye. It 
is evidently of the same age as the above, or slightly older, judging 
from the longer bill, and bears out the characters assigned to P. minor 
beautifully. 

However, if we look at the appended tables of measurements, we 
will find a bewildering individual variation, and all we can do is to 
confess our profound ignorance and to ask information from those in 
possession of more material. « 

I shall now devote a few remarks to the Spoonbills which Mr. Swin- 
hoe collected in Formosa and called P. major, but which Seebohm has 
afterwards identified with P. minor and P. regi^. Swinhoe obtained 
four birds, of which he has given very full descriptions in the Ibis for 
1864, pp. 3G4-370. 

The bird which he designates as Xo. 4 (Tamsuy Harbor, March 17) is 
n male, and evidently /«//?/ adult, with the " entire plumage pure white,'" 
^' the occipital crest long, but not fully developed, being still partially 
in quill"; "irides blood-red"; "sides of upper and lower mandibles 
deeply corrugated transversely, the corrug?e being black"; " bare face- 
skin black, with a bright yellow-ocher patch before the eye, extending 
over the under lid and in a thin line over the upper lid." The outline 
of the feathering on the head he describes as follows : '• Round the eye 
bare. The plumes advance on the forehead to just over the middle of 
the eye, form an obtuse angle towards the commissure in about the 
same plane, and then recede well clear of the lower jaw, advancing 
again on to the gular pouch .0 [15.2'""'] and terminating in its center in an 
^nndetermiued angle." 

No. 3, a 9 , same date and locality, and " paired with the foregoing," 
is younger, with a smoother, lighter colored bill, occipital feathers only 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 283 

*' somewhat elongated " ; " iiides yellovrit>li-browu"' ; aud "the external 
<iuills and shafts of most of the rectiices black." "The plumes ad- 
vance on the forehead to about .3 in. [7.6'""'] bejond exterior plane of 
•eye towards the commissure only slightly in advance of the eye; they 
then recede inwards and downwards .5 [12.7"""], and forming inwardlj- 
an angle of about 80^, advance on to the gular i)Ouch about .8 [20.3"'"^], 
terminating in an angle of 45°;" " bare face-skin dull purplish-brown." 

ISTo. 2, $ , same locality, March 7, is very similar to Xo. 3, with the 
"naked face-skin purplish-black," and apparently of corresponding 
age. The outline of the facial feathering is also very similar, viz: "the 
plumes advance on the forehead about .1 in. [2.5'"'"] beyond the eye; 
towards the commissure they fall short of the exterior plane of the eye, 
and recede only .2 [5"^'"] ; then advance .8 [20.3'""'] on to the center of 
the pouch, aud terminate in an imperfect angle.* 

Leaving the immature birds (Nos. 2 aud 3) out of consideration for 
the present, it is evident that the adult (No. 4) represents a very dis- 
tinct species, differing equally well from P. major and P. regia. Both of 
the latter have the throat more or less bare, while the Formosan bird 
lias the whole throat feathered in advance of the lateral featheriug of 
the lower mandible. From the former it differs furthermore by having 
the bare face-skin blackish, while from the latter it is distinguished by 
the feathering of the forehead reaching as far forward as the eye. The 
differences of the full-grown birds of the three species may be tabulated 
in the following manner (applying the name P. minor for the Formosan 
birds) : 

i P. major. Face-skin light (flesh color to yellowish). 
Throat naked ) 

( P. regia. ^ 

> Face-skin blackish. 
Throat feathered P. minor. ) 

A comparison of Mr. Jouy's Korean specimen and of Petersen's 
^Nagasaki skin with Swinhoe's descriptions of his ISTos. 2 and 3 estab- 

* No. 1 is here left out of consideration, for it is plain from the description that it 
"belongs to a different sitecies, it being in fact an immature P. major, corresponding 
exactly -with the two birds before me from the Main Island of Japan. A few quota- 
tions from Swinhoe's description is sufficient to prove this assertion : ( 9 , March 7, 
Tamsuy Harbor) " bare face-skin flesh-colored, more or less tinged with yellow"! 
^'plumage white, except part of some outer quills, the shafts of the quills, and a few 
other wing-feathers, which are faded blackish-brown"; "the frontal plumes ad- 
vance .4 in. [10'"'"] before the exterior plane of eye. The plumed skin advances 
below the eye .6 in. [15.2"""] beyond its exterior plane on to the lower mandible, 
ending obtusely beyond the plane of the commissure ; then receding downwards and 
inwards 1.5 [38"""], exposes the gular pouch without readvauciug." That this speci- 
men is said to have been ''paired" with No. 2 is of no importance, for Swinhoe did 
not shoot the birds himself, but got them from a friend of his, and the dissection re- 
vealed that the sexual organs were quite undeveloped : " ovary minute," aud " testes 
.-small." The statement evidently only means that the birds kept company. A fur- 
ther proof of the distinctness is the fact that No. 1, the female, is considerably larger 
than the male (ii), while in the other couple (3 and 4) the male is the larger. 



284 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



lisbes tbeir ideniity beyoud a doubt. The cbaracteristic featberiug of 
the throat is the same, and the color of bill and naked skin is also 
unmistakable, as evidenced by the following description by Mr. Jouy 
from the fresh bird : " Ui>per mandible dusky purplish, lower mandible 
pale reddish; naked skin dusky; iris dark brown." In the Nagasaki 
bird the dark color of the face and the light brown of the bill are very 
strongly and abruptly contrasted. 

Whether the P. minor of "Fauna Japonica" really is a younger bird 
of the black-faced si)ecies which Swiuhoe collected in Formosa, Peter- 
sen iu Kiusiu, and Jouy in Korea is not quite certain, but I am of the 
opinion that there is sufficient reason for using the name given by Tem- 
minck and Schlegel. Swiuhoe compares his birds with the description 
in " Fauna Japonica" in the following manner: " In P. minor the feath- 
ered forehead, it is said, is ' un peu ^chancre par devant, et ne depas- 
sant guere le bord anterieure de I'ceil.' So far it would agree with our 
(2). But 'la partie emplumee des joues ue s'avance que jusque sous le 
bord posterieur de I'ceil.' This last shows a greater expansion of bare 
skin than iu our most developed (4)." To this 1 would remark that, as 
already stated, I regard the type of P. oninor as very young, and that 
the greater extent of naked skin is due to its younger age. At any rate, 
Bonaparte's expression "gulte parte plumosa antice valde protracta 
acuminatim " is to me sufficient evidence that the specimens in question 
are correctly referred to P. minor. Should, however, an inspection of 
the type disprove this conclusion, then I would propose Flatalea sicin- 
hoei as a fitting name for the Formosan black-faced species. 



Tables of dimensions. 
I. — Platalea mixor (Koreaaiifl Japan). 



6 














Si 




X. 




- 


"A 












2 






7Z* 




o 


o 


IS 


Locality. 






S 


ga 






T =5 




P-iS 


» 


§ 




e 





=S 


r 


3 


•5 


"m 




o 


Si 




Q 


^ 


e5 


« 


o 


H 


•^ 


o 


IZi 


Jony, 1470 


cT jun. 


Fusan, Korea.. 


Dec. 7, 1884 


380 


109 


168 


52 


133 


87 


775 


66 


Petersen, 81 


d" jun. 


Ivagasaki, Jap 


Dec, 1866 


350 


104 


188 


51 


129 


80 




80 



II. — Platalea minor (Formosa; /rfe Swinhoe). 



6 

a 

o 

o 

.2 

■ "o 


1 

o 


Locality. 






■5 


5 


1 




2 


Swiuhoe, 4 


cT ad. 
cT jun. 
? jun. 




March 17 
March 7 
March 17 


361 
330 
356 


127 

114 
114 


198 
183 
190 


127 
119 
127 


800 

787 
800 


8d 


Swinhoe, 2 


do 


61 


Swiuhoe, 3 


do 


7G 









1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 285 
III.— Platalea minor (fype; fide Scblegel). 























t« 






















o 






















a 






c 














ja 


o 






fc£ 














M 


1- ^ 


g 


o 


^ 


Locality. 












a 


H:=5 


3 


o 


a 
a 




o 


n 


^ 






J 




a 




72 




« 


^ 


H 


M 


03 

H 


o 
H 


i5 


Leiden. . . 


Burger 


d" jun. 




329 


122 


151 


110 




88 





lY.— Platalea regia. 



















^ 








c— 


o 














a 










O 




o 
o 


R 


Locality. 


c 


it 

n 


S 


a 

o 


la 


s 
2 


^3 


1 


if 

o 
-a: 


t^ 


o 


3 

m 







^ 


H 


[^ 


o 


Eh 


3 


H 


Is; 


15360 


Peale . . . 




Australia 




390 


121 


189 


51 


130 


95 




80 











. Superfamity ARDOIDE^. 
Family CICONIID^. 

Subfamily Ciconiin^, Storks. 

CICONIA Briss. 

17G0. — Ciconia Brissox, Oruitli., V, p. 361 (type, Arclea ciconia Lixx.) 

1852. — MelanojjeJargus Reichexbach, Syst. Av., p. xvi (type, A. nigra LiXN.). 

Only one species of Storks has been recorded from Japan. As the 
Black Stork, however, is. said to occur throughout Eastern Siberia (ex- 
cept Kamtschatka and the extreme north) and Northern China, it may 
be well to give the characters bj^ which it is distinguished from the 
white Japanese species, in order to facilitate the identification if any 
straggler should visit Japanese territory.* 

<i^. White, except quills, alula, and greater wiug-coverts, which are black with green- 
ish metallic luster, tertiaries, aud edges of secondaries and inner coverts also 
with purplish and bronzy reflections ; outer webs of secondaries and inner 
primaries, except the edge, of a silvery whitish gray, more or less mottled 
with dusky C. boyciana. 

a^. Brownish-black with metallic reflections, especially on head and neck, except the 
lower surface from the breast backwards, which is white [C nigra. ^f 

*Cf. von Martens, Preuss. Exped. Ost-As., Zool. Th., I, p. 105(1836). 

1 17b8.—Ardea nigra Lixx., S. N., 10 ed., I, p. 142.— id., S. N., 12 ed., I, p. 235 (1766).— 
Ciconia nigra Bechsteix, Gemeinn. Naturg., I, p. 420 (1792). — Sciirexck, 
Reis. Amurl., I, p. 453 (1860). — Radde, Rei.s. Slid. Ost-Sibir., II (p. 345) 
(1863).— Swixhoe, p. Z. S., 1871, p. 411.— Taczaxowski, Bull. Soc. Zool- 
France, 1876, p. 257. — Bolau, Journ. f. Oru., 1832, p. 339. 

1793. — Ardea chrysopelargus Lichtexsteix, Cat. Rer. Nat. Rar., p. 29 (reprint). 

1831. — Ciconia fusca Brehm, Handb. Vog. Deutschl., p. 576. 



286 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



(130.) Ciconia boyciana" Swixii. 
Japaa Stork. Ko-ilzmiu 

1860. — Ciconia alba Schrexck, Reis. Amurl., I, p. 4.'>4 {tiec Sciiafker, IT-^O). 
1S73.— Ciconia bojiciana SwixiiOE, P. Z. S., 1873, p. 513. — Sclater, P. Z, S., 1874, pp. 
2, 306, pi. i.— Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 224.— lid., Tr. As. Soc. Jap., 
VIII, 1880, p. 200.— lid., ibid., X, 1882, p. 121.— Blakist,, Amend. List B. 
Jap., p. 24 (1884). 

The Stork is meutioned as a Japanese bird as early as Kauipfer, who 
in his History of Japan (Yol. I, London, 1778, p. 129), says that the 
"Storks stay in the country all the year round." Xo Ciconia was ob- 
tained by any of the later Dutch travelers, and no specimen from 
Japan seems to have come under the observation of any ornithologist 
until Swinhoe, in 1873, described C. boyciana from two living Japanese 
specimens. 

This bird is evidently very rare in collections, and is also wanting 
in the Xational Museum, being one of our most important desiderata. 
The characters of the above " key" are drawn from specimens collected 
near Fusan, Korea, by Mr. P. L. Jouy, to whom I am indebted for the 
privilege of examining this rare species. 

Measurements. 



Locality. 







d 








o 








B 
















3 






o 


<i 






.£) 


•O 














s? 








=a 




i 


^ 




S 


H 


690 


260 


260 


305 


650 


238 




290 


640 


238 


231 


247 






Jouy, 1350 . . 
Joay, 1341 . . 
Jouy, 1356 . . 



cfaa. 
d"ad. 

$3(1. 



Fusan, Korea I Dec. 15,1883 

do I Dec. 3,1883 

do I Dec. 21,1883 



110 

112 

97 



Family ARDEID^E. 
Subfamily Aedein^, Herons. 

A closer study of the birds composing the present family has con- 
vinced the present writer that it should only be divided into two sub- 
families, the Cochleariime, the Boatbills, and the Ardciiuc, comprising 
the Bitterns and the true Herons, which may be better treated of as 
sections of lower rank than subfamilies, the proportionate length of 
the inner toe and the number of tail-feathers being the most obvious 
external characters for separating them. The Bitterns (Botaurecc) have, 
besides, only two pair of powder-down patches, while the Herons 
(Ardece) have three. The genus Gorsachius is often referred to the Bit- 
terns, but in the length of the inner toe and the number of tail-feathers 
it agrees with the Herons, and seems most nearly related to the Night- 
Herons. As our only specimen is mounted, I have not attempted to 



* Named in honor of Mr. R. H. Boyce. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 28T 

ascertain the number or' powder-down patches in this form, a question 
worthy the iuvestisfttion of the naturalists now in the tield. 

SYNOPSIS OF THE JAPANESE GENERA OF THE SUBFAMILY AEDEINxE. 

a' . Inner toe decidedly longer than the outer ; 10 rectrices (Botaurej^). 

i\ Middle toe, without claw, much longer than exposed culmeu ; hind claw more than 

one-third the exposed culmen; wing more than 2.'iO"'™ Botaurus. 

ii>2 Middle toe, without claw, about equal to, or shorter than, exposed culmeu ; hind 
claw less than one-third the exposed culmeu ; wing less thau 250™".. J/'(fe«a. 
a^. Inner toe equal to, or shorter than, the outer ; 12 rectrices (Aede^e.) 
¥. Naked portion of tibia shorter thau inner toe without claw. 
c'. Lower part of tarsus in front reticulate, 
rf'. Exposed culmen shorter thau middle toe, with claw. 

e'. Naked tibia and tarsus combined much more than twice the culmen which 
is shorter than outer toe with claw ; inner toe, with claw, equals middle 

toe without claw Gorsachiua. 

e-. Naked tibia and tarsus combined much less than twice the culmen, whick 
IS longer than the outer toe with, claw ; inner toe, with claw, decidedly 

shorter than middle toe, without claw Xycikorax, 

d^. Exposed culmen longer than middle toe, with claw Bntorides. 

c^. Tarsus in front scutellate to the tarso-phalangeal joint. 
d}. Exposed culmen longer than middle toe, with claw. 

e^ Tarsus much longer than middle toe, with claw Deinief/retta. 

e-. Tarsus about equal to middle toe, with claw Ardeola. 

d-. Exposed culmen much shorter than middle toe, without claw Babidcus, 

h-. Naked portion of tibia longer ihau inner toe, without claw. 
c^ Lower end of tarsus in front covered with regular hexagonal meshes; Japanese 
species particolored, and the ornamental plumes of the adults with com- 
pact webs Ardea. 

c^. Lower end of tarsus in front covered with narrow band-shaped transverse 

' bcutellse, or narrow transverse bands of uearlj^ quadrangular scutellaj ; 

Japanese species pure white, and some of the ornamental plumes with 

decomposed webs Herodias.. 

BOTAUEE^. 

BOTAURUS Hermann. 

1783. — Botauriis Hermann, Tabl. AfSn. Anim., p. 1^5, (type Ardea stellaris L.) 
1837. — Butor SWAiNSON, Classif. B., II, p. 354, (same type.) 

(1:30.) Botaurus stellaris (Linn.). 

Bittern. Sankano goi. 

1758.— ^rf?m sieUaris Linn., S.N., 10 ed., I, p. U4.—Id., S. N., 12 ed., I, p. 239 (17(56). 
— TEMM.,Man.d'Orn., 2 ed., IV, p. 381 (1840).— Tbmm. & Schl., Fauna 
Japon., Aves, p. 116 (1849).— Schlegel, Mus. P. Bas, Ardese, p. 47 (1863). 
— Botaurus s. Stephens, Gen. ZooL, XI, ii (p. 593), (1819). — Sharpe, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., 4 ser. VL 1870, p. 160.— Swinhoe, Ibis, 1875, p. 455.— Mc. 
Vean, Proc. R. Phys. Soc. Ediub., 1877, p. — , extr. p. 7.— Blakist. & 
Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 223.— I(U, Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 199.— lid., 
ibid., X, 1882, p. 118.— Blakist., Cbrysanth., 1833, April, p. 173.— Id., 
Amend. List B. Jap., p. 12 (1884). 

1831. — Botaurus lacustris Brehm, Handb. Vog. Deutschl., p. 596. 

1831. — Botaurus arundinaceuH Brehm, Handb. Vog. Deutschl., p. 596. 



28.^ 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



Two Japanese specimens of Bittern agree iu every respect with Euro- 
l)eau examples. Their coloration is identical, and the table of measure- 
ments given below shows that there is no diflfereuce in size. 

Captain Blakiston (in ''Chrysanthemum" for April, 1883, p. 173) 
remarks that " the Common Bittern seems to vary much in size. Ten 
specimens obtained one day in February in the Yokohama market by 
Mr. Owstou ran thus : Males, wings 342 to 360, bills 71 to 74, tarsi 96 to 
98; females, wiugs 310 to 325, bills 02 to 73, tarsi 82 to 92; while in 
the Hakodate museum is a female example obtained in April which 
only measured 538 in total length, and 280 in the wing." 

The latter (Blak. No. 1420, Ilakod. Mus.No. 1059), according to Cap- 
tain Blakistou's manuscript notes, was a female collected by him at 
Kuuebetz, Yezo, April 0, 1874. The measurements, however, are so 
much under the minimum of ordinary specimens, that I am somewhat 
skeptical as to the correctness of the identification, for the early date 
shows that it was no young bird of that year. The length of the wing, 
280'"'", on the other hand, is nearly like the average length of wing 
in the American Bittern {B. lentiginosus Mont.). This species is very 
easily distinguished by the uniform blackish color of the jjrimaries, 
■which iu B. stellcbris are irregularly barred with cinnamon-rufous. It 
would, therefore, be interesting if anybody having access to the speci- 
men in question (Hakodate Museum, Xo. 1059) would examine it in re- 
gard to its primaries and report the result of his examination. The 
American Bittern on the Pacific coast goes as far north as Vancouver 
Island, at least. 

Measurements. 





















^ 


o 


















s 


"A 


o 












a 

4) 




o 
















a 






S 


« 


tX) 


Locality. 


Date. 




£ 

s 
.a 




^ 

S 


C3 


p 


n 










■5 






"A 


» 


g 






M 


=2 


§ 


s 




ti 




K 
o 
M 






Es 


^ 


V. 




3*3 


91598 


Jouy, 1044 


cf ad. 


Yokohama, Hondo 


Feb. 21,1883 


350 


121 


72 


104 


94 


91597 


Jouy, 1045 


$ ad. 


do 


Feb. 21,1883 


305 


109 


62 


90 


85 




Herison, 7 


d" ad. 


do 


Aug. 26, 1885 


355 


115 


67 


102 






Hen8on,1020.. 


? ad. 


do 


Mar. 29, 1885 


310 


118 


G6 


88 




[European specimens.] 


57023 


Schliiter 

Schliiter, 109 . . 


d ad. 
ad. 






345 
342 


121 
121 


74 

07 






570-24 


do " 








80800 




ad. 


Italy 




300 


101 


64 



















ARDETTA Gray. 

1827.— J?-deo?a Bonaparte, Specchio Comp., p. 60 (type ^. mhiiita Lin.) (nee BoiE, 

1822). 
1842. — Ardetta Grav, App. List Geu. B., p. 13 (same type). 
1842. — Erodisciia Gloger, Haudb. Naturg. (p. 410) (same type). 
18S7. —Xannocnua Stejneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu3., 1887, p. 289 (type A. eurhythma 

Sw.). 



1887. J PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 289 

Only two species of this genus have been recorded as occurring iu 
Japan. As another species has been found abundant in Formosa (Ibis, 
1S63, p. 422), however, I think it proper to inchide the latter in the fol- 
lowing synopsis, from which it will be seen, that I have found it neces- 
sary to establish a special group of at least subgeneric value for A. 
eurhytlima and its allies. 

«i. Tibise feathered nearly to the heel joint ; longest tail-feathers longer than middle 

toe without claw (Ardetta) A. sinensis. 

a-. TibiiB naked at the lower end ; longest tail-feathers shorter than middle toe with- 
out claw (Nanxocnus). 

&'. Quills and tail-feathers blackish A. eurhythma. 

h-. Quills and tail-feathers cinnamon-rufous [J. cinnamomea.^'\ 

(131.) Ardetta sinensis (Gmel.). 

Little Yellow Bittern. 

17c3.— .JrfZm sinensis Gmelin, S. N., I, p. Q^'Z.— Ardetta s. Gray, List. Spec. B.Brit. 

Mus., Ill, p. 83 (1844).— Seebohm, Ibis, 1879, p. 27.— Blakist. & Pryer, 

Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 199.— lid., ibid., X, 188-2, p. 118.— Blakist., 

Amend. List. B. Jap., p. 12 (1884). 
18:23.— ^?Y/m ?ejnrfa HoRSFiELD, Trans. Lin. Soc, XIII (p. 190). 
1831. — "Ardea melanophis Cuvier," fide Lesson, Traits d'Oru., p. 57,3. 
18id.—"Ardea melanotis CuviER,"fide Gray, Gen. B., III., App., p. 25. 
1851.— "^r(fea metanoptera " Cuvier, fide Pucherax, Kev. Mag. Zool., 1851, p. 375 

(nee Beciist.). 
1873.—? \_Ardetta'\ pulchra Hume, Stray Feath., I, p. 309. 
1878. — Ardetta sp. inc. Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 223. 

With only one adult Japanese specimen, another from the Philippines, 
and a third one from China, it is impossible to say with certainty whether 
the form occurring in Japan is identical with the typical A. sinensis. 

The adult bird from Japan (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 95972; Wakayama, 
Kii, Hondo; Coll. Ota) differs from the two other specimens mentioned 
in several respects : The color of the back is much darker, being a dull 
Vandyke-brown, while in the other two it is more russet ; the brown of 
the hind neck is strongly tinged with vinaceous in the latter, of which 
there is hardly a trace in the Japanese specimen ; this one, moreover, 
has the upper wing-coverts (except the series covering the cubitus) of a 
dirty " wood-brown " or grayish clay color, with the series just mentioned 
forming a uniform and uninterrupted band of dull chestnut along the 
cubital edge of the wing, while iu the specimens of what I take to be 
true A. sinensis the majority of the wing-coverts are buff, more or less 
tinged with ochraceous, and the cubital edge only slightly tinged with 
the brown of the back near the elbow and the wrist ; in the Japanese 

* llSS.—Ardea cinnamomea Gmelix, S. N., I, p. 643.— Ardetta e. Gray, List. Spec. 
B. Brit. Mus., Ill, p. 83 (1844).— SwiXH., Ibis, 1863, p. 422. 
l&2'o.—Ardea nebulosa Horsfield, Trans. Lin. Soc, XIII (p. 190). 
Eahitat.— From India, including Ceylon, eastward throughout Burmah and China 
to the Philippines and Formosa, south to Malacca and the Malayan Archipelago. 

The Little Chestnut Bittern is easily recognizable in all ages by the rufous color of 
the quills and tail-feathers. 

Proc. N. M. 87 19 



290 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



example the rump and upper tail-coverts are almost uuiform with tbe 
back, the latter being slightly more dusky, while in the other two the 
rump is nearly drab-gray and the upper lail-coverts blackish slate ; in 
these latter birds the top of the hea^l from the bill and the upper nape 
is solid slate black, while the Japan bird has the feathers of the fore- 
head and fore part of crown broadly edged with cinnamon-rufous. 

The ditferences pointed out above do not seem to be due to age, for 
the Ja])anese specimen has certainly passed the young stage, and has 
every appearance of being an old bird. Inasmuch as the different 
plumages of these birds are only imperfectly known, I draw the atten- 
tion of my fellow-ornithologists in Japan to the great importance of 
collecting extensive series of these birds and to study them closely. 
Should then the little Japanese Yellow Bittern turn out to be distinct, 
I would propose to name it Ar delta lufeola. 

The Little Yellow Bittern is closely allied to the European A. mimita, 
Ibut differs at once by having in no stage of plumage the glossy black 
back of the latter. The young ones are especially alike, but the Eastern 
species has the light edges to the feathers of the back broader and 
brighter, and has also light edges to the feathers on the top of the head, 
while in the young Euroi)eau bird the crown and upper nape are nearly 
solid black. 

In the Ij^blo below I have included the dimensions of several extra- 
limital specimens for comparison. But I do so especially in order to call 
attention to the necessity of having the sex of these birds carefully 
ascertained b^' dissection. Judging from analogy, I take the adult 
Japan bird to be a female, and the larger, but younger, ones to be males. 
By a similar way of reasoning we are led to believe that the adult 
Philippine example is a female, and the one from Hankow a male. If 
these assumptions be correct, then the Japanese form is larger, but 
everybody will see how futile are conclusions drawn from such material. 
To be of value the specimens must be properly sexed. 

Aleasurements. 



o 

Ota, Bl., 2704 . 
Blakist., 2592 
Ilenson, 147 . . 

Swinboe 

Jony 

SbansbaiMns 



Locality. 



Date. 



-i s » 







a 






ffl 
















r. 


^'2 












o 










a 


- 


be 












^ 






125 


43 


50 


134 


41 


47 


130 


42 


44 


132 


43 


50 


119 


40 


51 


127 


44 


50 


130 


42 


54 


123 


40 


51 






95972 
95971 



109455 
77002 
37714 
86102 
85749 



ad 

jun .. . 
d .jnn. 
cf jnn. 

ad 

ad..-, 
cfjun. 
juu ... 



Wakayama, Kii, Hondo 

Hakoflate, Yezo 

do 

Slilmosa, Ilondo 

Pbilii)pine8 

Hankow, China 

Deep Bay, Hong-Kong, Cbina . . 
Shangbai, China 



Sept. — , 

Sept. 6, 1883 
Mar. — , 1884 



"Summer" . 
Oct. 9, 1881 



46 39 
41 

46 I 30 
43 I 37 

...1 37 

47 39 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 291 
Subgenus Nannocnus Stejn. 

(va'vvoi, dwarf; oKvoi, bittern.) 
(l:V2.) Ardetta eurhythma SwiNii. 

Schrenck's Little Bitteru. Yosbi-goi. 

1860. — Ardea cinnamom^a Schrenck, Reis. Amurl., I, p. 447, pi. xiii, fig. 3 {nee Gm^i.., 

1788). 
1873. — Ardttta enrhi/thma Swinhoe, Ibis, 1873, p. 73. — hi., ibid., 187.5, pp. 132, 455. — 

Id., ibid., 1876, p. 335. — Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 2:^3. — /ifi., Trans. 

As. Soc. Jap. VIII, 1880, p. 199.— lid., ibid., X, 1^82, p. 118.— Blakist., 

Amend. List B. Jap., p. 12 (1884). 
1873. — Ardetta eurythma Swinhoe, Ibis, 1873, pi. ii. 
1874. — Ardetta sinensis Taczxviow SKI, Journ. f. Orn., 1874, p. 325 (nee Gmel. ). 

Schrenck's Little Bittern diifers from the Little Yellow Bittern not 
only by the characters of structure and proportions already pointed 
out, but also by the coloration of the upper parts, which is more or less 
dark chestnut, uniform, or varied with whitish spots. 

The exact relations of the different plumages are not yet fully under- 
stood, and a thorough study of these birds in the field is a very desira- 
ble and promising one. How complicated the question is may be best 
understood from a quotation of Mr. Swinhoe's observations on breed- 
ing birds (Ibis, 1875, p. 133). 

On May 20 he obtained a "male with enormous testes," and on 
the same date a female with the " eggs largely developed, nearly ready 
for emission," but it had the ^^ plumage spotted lilie that of the immature 
bird.^^ He continues as follows : " On the 21st a bird in the male dress 
[unspotted] proved on dissection to be a female, and on the 22d one in 
female dress [spotted] turned out to be a male. There was no difference 
in the swollen state of their sexual organs from those of normal birds. 
From the number of adult females I examined there can be no doubt 
that the immature dress is the full feminine costume; and that an occa- 
sional female, probably well advanced in years, should affect the male 
plumage is a very ordinary circumstance amongst birds. But what 
means the adult male in immature dress "? I presume that males re- 
quire two years to acquire their full plumage, and breed in their first 
year." Finally he adds (p. 134) : " I know no other Bittern of which 
the sexes have different plumages." 

This last remark at once makes us think of the European Little Bit- 
tern {Ardetta minuta) and the American Least Bittern {Ardetta exilis). 
Nearly all the European authorities (including Dresser and Seebohm) 
agree that in the former the sexes are very different, the male having 
the back glossy greenish black, and the female dark Vandyke-brown, 
like the adult Japanese Yellow Bittern. Naumann, however, asserts 
most positively (Xaturgesch. Vog. Deutschl., IX, p. 201) that the old 
female is black above like the male. But may it not be that Kaumanu 
obtained female A. minuta in the plumage of the male just as Swinhoe 



292 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



did ! And may it not be that females in that plumage are more com- 
mon than perhaps supposed f In regard to the American A. exilis, on 
the other hand, there seems to be no doubt as to the sexes being dis- 
similar in somewhat the same manner as the European bird, and 1 am 
not aware of any record of a female A. exilis in the male garb. In this 
species, furthermore, the male apparently molts the first year directly 
from the young plumage (chestnut with pale margins) to the black of 
the adult, as I have a specimen before me (U. S. Xat. Mus. Xo. 12628), 
from Washington, D. C, which is still mostly in the first i)lumage, but 
with the glossy greenish-black feathers protruding on the back. In 
this species, therefore, the males do not require two years to acquire 
their full plumage. 

I have added the dimensions of a specimen in the unspotted plumage 
from the coast of Cochin China, apparently the southernmost record 
of this species. 

Measurements, 



















^ 




o 


















— 




1^ 


6 












a 




o 

.a 




X 


^ 












» 








1 

OS 


1 

o 


« 

■a 


Locality. 


Date. 


a 


Is 


'a 
o 
rs 

1 


^ 


■5 


.a 

M) 

a 
3 


ti 


o 


S 






^ 


H 


» 


H 


a 


H 


95974 


Blakist., 1843.. 


d ad.. 




Aug. 16, 1875 
Apr. 8, 1875 


143 


3. 


43 


50 


43 


35<> 


95973 


B|Qki8t.,1832.. 


? 


do 


13fi 


39 


43 


48 


43 


34ft 






J ad.. 


do 


July 25, 1883 
Aug. 20, 1883 
May 22, 1857 


141 


43 


48 


51 








Henson, 53 

Dr. Suckley... 


9 


do 


139 
132 


40 
37 


45 

44 


50 
46 






9120 


ad.... 


Coast of Cochin Oliina 


44 


.... 



ARDE^. 



GORSACHIUS BONAP. 

1854. — Gorsakius Bonaparte, Ann. Sc. Nat., 4 ser., I, ii, p. 141 (nomen nudum). 

1855. — Goraachius "Pucherau" Bonaparte, Consj). Av., II, p. 138 (type A, goisaki 

Temm.). 
1855. — Goiaakiua Gray, Cat. Gen. B., p. 114 (emend.). 
1871. — Goisachius Swinhoe, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 413 (emend.). 
1877. — Butio Reicuenow, Journ. f. Orn., 1877, p. 246 (same type). 

(129.) Gorsachius goisagi (Temm.). 

Japan Tiger Bittern. Miso-goi. 

1835. — Nycticorax goisayi Temminck, PL Color., V, livr. 78, pi. 582. — Ardea g. Temm. 
& Schleg., Fauna Jap. Aves, p. 116, pi. Ixx (1849.)— Blakiston, Ibis, 
1862, p. 331.— &orsac/i(«8 g. Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 38. — Bl'TTIKOFER, Notes- 
Leyd. Mus. IX, 1887, p. 84. — Butio goisagi Cabanis, Journ. f. Oru., 1881, p. 
425. 

1855. — Goraachius goisaki Bonaparte, Consp. Av., II, p. 138 (jjart). 

1871. — Nyctiardea melanolophos Gray, Hand-1. B., Ill, p. 33 (nee Raffles). — Goisachius 
melanolophua Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 223. — lid., Tr. As. Soc. Jap., 
VIII, 1880, p. Wd.—Iid., ibid., X, 1882, p. 118.— Blakiston, Amend. List 
B. Jap., pp. 24, 40 (1884).— Seebohm, Ibis, 1884, p. 176 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 293 

It will be seen from the above synonymy that I regrard the Japanese 
Tiger Bittern as different from G. melanolophus of Raffles, which ranges 
from Ceylon to Formosa. The question is by no means settled, how- 
ever, and with only one specimen before me I cannot be expected to 
■€lucidate it much. A review of what has been written on the subject* 
may throw some light on the subject, and seems to prove that a union 
of the two names, at present at least, is premature, t 

First, in regard to the adult birds the most marked differential char- 
acter possessed by O. melanolophus, according to Lord Walden (Tr. 
Zool. Soc, IX, p. 238; Tweedd. Works, p. 401), "is its black crown and 
long black crest. In no authentic Japanese individuals do the crown 
and crest seem to be black. In the adult they are of a rich purple- 
chestnut." So far as 1 know there is only one record of a black-crowned 
Japanese specimen, viz, by Bonaparte, in his Conspectus Avium (II, p. 
138.) This specimen he states to be iu the Paris Museum, collected in 
1829 by Brossard; but this assertion carries little weight iu the face of 
his well-known inaccuracy iu regard to localities. Bly th,| Walden {I. c), 
and Cabanis§ seem to be right when stating that the Japanese bird 
never has black on the crown. 

Bonaparte regarded the black-capped individuals as adults and the 
brown-crowned ones as young, but this is now known to be erroneous. 
Swinhoe (Ibis, 1866, p. 403) explains the difference by assuming that 
the crest is black, but that it is shed in winter. "In winter the crest 
«eems to fall, leaving the head smooth and plain chestnut, instead of 
being capped and crested with cinereous-black plumes." But Lord 
Walden describes a Nagasaki example iu his own collection as having 
■"a full chestnut-colored crest," while on the other hand he had a Ma- 
lacca specimen with black crest killed in December; and I would like- 
"wise call the attention to Mr. Bourdillon's description of a male obtained 
by him in Travancore, on January 3 (apparently a bird of the year, as 
the crest feathers were marked by white), with "crown of head and 

*I have to regret uiy inability to consult Mr. Oates' remarks (B.Brit. Burmah, 
II, p. 261), as his book is not in the library. 

t Since this article was set in type, the January number of the " Notes from the 
Leyden Museum," vol. IX, has come to hand. In a paper entitled "On a Collection 
of Birds made by Dr. C. Klaesi in the Highlands of Padang (W. Sumatra)," Dr. J. 
Blittikofer discusses the question very fully, and he comes to the same conclusions as 
myself, viz, that the two forms are quite distinct. The synonymies of both are elab- 
orately treated of, and the essential differences well pointed out. He also gives "A 
chronological review of the essential papers hitherto published on both species." 
The discussion occupies pp. 81-91. 

tMr. Swinhoe (Ibis, IdSfj, p. 123) most erroneously asserts that Blyth "identifies 
(Ibis, la65, p. 38) the Ardea meJanolopha of Ralfles with the Japanese bird." On the 
contrary, Blyth (/. c.) maintains their distinctness as follows: "The adult of G 
melanolophus is similar to that of P. goisacji, but has a long black crested pileus at 
all ages. G. goisagi, from Japan, has no black on crest at any age." This view he 
modified, however, subsequent to Swiuhoe's remarks, as quoted above (Ibis, 1367, p. 
173). 

§ Journ. f. Orn., 1681, p. 425. 



294 REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

uape black ; the feathers of the occiput leugthened into a lull crest'^ 
(Stray Featli., YII, 1878, p. olio). 

It appears from the descriptious of the two species that the yoimg 
birds of the year differ no less than the adults. The young G. melano- 
lophu.s i)roper is said to have the crown and crest black, "each plume 
having a bold subtermiual white irregular mark,"* while those of the 
young G. goisagi are described as being brownish, with dusky vermicu- 
lations like the wing-coverts, and destitute of white spots. 

Lord Walden also remarks that "the bill in all the Malaccan ex- 
amples 1 have examined is longer and straighter than in that of the 
is^agasaki individual above referred to," and Mr. R. G. Wardlaw Kamsay 
partially contirms this distinction (Ibis, 188-4, p. 335). 

That the true G. goisagi has been obtained in the Philipi)ine Islands,^ 
iu which the black-crested form {G. melanolophus, or G. kutteri, as the 
Philippine bird has been named by Cabanis), proves nothing against 
the supposed distinctness of the two species, as Japanese birds may 
well be supposed to migrate so far south. The question which rises, 
and which will have to be solved by the ornithologists in Japan, is simply 
this: Does G. goisagi, at any season or at any age, assume a black crest, 
and have the young Japanese birds white subterminal marks on the 
crest feathers ? 

In answering this question it should not be forgotten that the black- 
created species is found in Formosa,! and that, consequently, it may 
turn up on some of ihe small islands belonging to the Japanese Empire 
and situated near Formosa. 

The dimensions of the only specimen in our museum (additional ma- 
terial is very desirable) are as follows : 9 ad. ( U. S. Nat Mus. No. 91599, 
Yol-ohama, April 11, 1883, coll. L. P. Jomj). " Total length, 485'"'"" ( Jouy). 
Wing, 200""' ; tail-feathers, 11G"»" ; exposed culmen, 30'""^ ; tarsus, Ol"^'" ; 
middle toe with claw, 49'"'". 

Mr. Jouy's notes in regard to the soft parts of the fresh bird are to 
the following eftect : " Iris chrome ; bill dusky greenish ; feet and legs 
light brownish yellow." 

^ Mr. A. O. Hume (Str. Feath., II, 1874, pp. 313 aud 314) describes the head of an 
adult <? and au immature 9 of G. mehinolophus collected in the Nicobars about the 
middle of March, as follows- 

^ ad. "Forehead, crown, occiput, and nape, and the elongated pointed occipital 
crest, which is fully three inches in length, a deep blackish brown exhibiting in some 
lights a faint maroon tinge ; over the eyes there is an ill-defined chestnut baud. 

9 immat. " The whole of the top, sides, and back of the head and back of the neck 
black ; each feather, including those of the crest, with a larger or smaller white sub- 
terminal spot, which, especially on the longer crest and neck feathers, are more or 
less curviforui ; besides these there is a tiny white dot at the tips of the most of the 
feathers." 

t Wardlaw Ramsay, Ibis, 1884, p. 335; ibid., 1886, p. 161. 

t Swinhoe, Ibis, 1866, pp. 123, 403. The young specimen (" nearly full grown ") had 
the " coronal and occipital feathers fine black, with white spots and streaks, those of 
the front having brown edges." 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 295 



NYCTICORAX Forster. 

1817. — Xycticorax Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. B., p. 59 (type iV. iufaustus Forst.= 
A. nycticorax LiNN.). 

18S7.—Xyctiardea Swainson, Classif. B., II, p. 354 (same type). 

WiO.—Scotaeus Keyserlixg & Blasius, Wirbelth. Eur., I, p. 220 (same type.) 

lSi2. -XiicU-rodius* Macgillivray, Mau. Brit. Orn., II, p. 126 (same type) {nee 
Reichenb., 1852.) 

At least two species of Night Herons occur in Japan, inasmuch as 
the Bonin Islands are inhabited hj a species entirely different from the 
common Gray Night Heron. The status of the Bonin bird is, however^ 
extremely uncertain, a question to be discussed more fully under the 
head of that species. It may be sufficient to remark here that the two 
species may be easily distinguished as follows : 

aK Primaries gray; adults with the back glossy blackish greeu N. nycticorax. 

a-'. Primaries rufous; adults with the back rufous iV". crasslrostris 

(128.) Nycticorax nycticorax (Lin.). 
Gray Night Heron. Seguro-goi. 

17r)8.—Ardea nycticorax Linn., S. N., 10 ed., I, p. 142.— M, S. N., 12 ed., I, p. 235 (1766).— 

Temm, & SCHLEG., Fauna Jap. Aves, p. 116 (1849).— Schleg., Mus. P-Baa 

Ardeas, p. 56 (1863).— Nycticorax n. BoiE, Isis, 1822, p. 560. 
1762.— Alcedo (egyptia Hasselquist, Reise Paliest., p. 300. 
l7Qii.—Ardea grisea Linn., S. N., 12 ed., I, p. 239.— Nycticorax g. Swinhoe, Ibis, 1877, 

p. 146.— Blakist. & Pkyer, Ibis, 1878, p. 223.— lid., Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 

1880, p. 198.— iW., ibid., X, 1882, p. 117.— Blakist., Amend. List B.Jap., p. 

24 (1884). 
1771.— Ardea kwakwa S. G. Gmelin, Nov. Comm. Petrop., XV (p. 452, pi. xiv). 
1771. — Ardea ferruyinea S. G. Gmelin, Nov. Comm. Petrop., XV (p. 456, pi. xvi). 
1788.— ^rrfm maculata Gmelin, S. N., I, ii, p. 645. 
1817. — Nycticorax infaustas Forster, Synopt. Cat. Brit. B., p. 59. 
1819. — Nycticorax enropwas Stephens, Gen. Zool., XI, ii (p. 609). 
1828. — Nycticorax vulgaris Hempr. & Ehrknb., Symb. Phys., Aves (fol. m), 
1828. — Nycticorax Precipes Hempr. & Ehrenb., Symb. Phys., Aves (fol. m). 
1831. — Nycticorax orientalis Brehm, Haudb. Vog. Deutschl., p. 592. 
lc)31. — Nycticorax tarfnis Brehm, Handb. Vog. Deutschl., p. 592. 
1831. — Nycticorax meridionalis Brehm, Handb. Vog. Deutschl., p. 593. 
1835. — Nycticorax ardeola Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 2 ed., Ill, p. lii. — Id.,ihid., IV, p. 

384 (1840). 
1852. — Nycticorax gesneri Reichenbach, Syst. Av., p. xvi. 
1856. — Scotaeus gutiatus Heuglin, Syst. Uebers. (p. 59). 
1877, — ^ Ardea goisaga McVean, Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edinb., 1877, j). — , extr., p. 7 

{nee N. goisagi Temm.). 

The only adult Japanese bird before me agrees well with European 
specimens as regards size, but it is considerably darker. The sides of 
the head and neck, the flanks, axillaries, and the under wing-cov- 
erts are of a dark smoke-gray, and the upper surface of the wing is 

* It will be seen that this name antedates Nyctherodius Reichenbach by ten years. 
As no other generic name seems available for the Yellow-crowned Night Heron {Ardea 
ciolacea Linn.), I propose Nyctanassa {vv^, night, ava?ia, queen) as a new name for 
this type, which should stand as Nyctanassa violacea. 



296 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



strongly washed with brown; while in the European examples the 
flanks are pure white or nearly so, and the axillaries, under wing- 
coverts, and sides of head and neck pale French gray, the latter more 
or less tinged with vinous. Larger series will be necessary, however, 
to decide whether there exists any average difference between Japanese 
and Western s])ecimens.* I should remark that an example from Lower 
Pegu ( 9 , U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 95930, November 18, 1879) agrees well 
with the Japanese bird, but is a shade lighter. 

In the synonymy above I have quoted McVeau's "Night Heron, Ardea 
goisaga,''^ with a query, though I have but little doubt that he really 
means the i^resent species, for he speaks of it as very common within 
the city limits of Tokio, and says that he has " seen a })eriect cloud of 
them rise from a favorite clumj) of trees when disturbed." 

^fea8urements. 





1 

J 

9 


1 

ft 


Locality. 


Date. 


bil 

n 


t 

.4' 


(3 

s 

5 


p< 


3 

£ 

ai 


1 





91518 
9:529 


Jouy, 967 
Jouy, 978 
Uamiye... 


? ad. 
$ ad. 


Tokio, Hondo 

Yokohama, Hondo. . . 
Liu Kin Island 


Feb. 11,18F3 
Mar. 1,1683 
Mar. 26, 1883 


273 
264 
280 


100 
107 
107 


69 

64 
CO 


72 
6S 
71 


78 
77 
74 


"572" 

''5e'o''" 



Mr. Jouy's notes relating to the fresh colors of the above specimens 
are as follows : 

No. 91513. "Iris, carmine; bare skin around eye, dark greenish; bill, dusky; un- 
der mandible, greenish yellow; tarsus and toes, chrome." 
No. 91.529. "Iris, orange." 

Nycticorax crassirostris Vigors. 
Thick-billed Night Herou. 

1833. — ArAea caledonica Kittlitz, Kniifcrtaf., Ill, p. 27, pi. 35, tig. 2 (nee Gmel., 1788). 
1839. — Xycticorax crassirostris Vigors, Voy., Blossom, Ornith., p. 27. — Boxap., Consp. 

Av., II, p. 140 (1855).— KiTTL., Dcnkw., II, p. 182 {I8b8).—Kijctiardea c. Gkav, 

Hand-1. B., Ill, p. 33 (1871). 
18G3. — Ardea mamllensis ScHLKGEL, Mus. P. B., Ardese, p. 60 {part). 

Neither Schlegel (7. c.) nor Eeichenow (Journ, f. Orn., 1877, p. 238), 
who both unite this species with manillensis YiG., seem to have seen 
specimens from the Bonin Islands. Gray, having specimens of both 
forms in the British Museum, gives them as distinct, and so does Bona- 
parte, who may have examined specimens too, judging from his descrip- 
tion as compared with that of Vigors. The name crassirostris, as based 
upon the Bonin specimen, is therefore retained here, especially since 
Schlegel's measurements indicate that the Philippine birds have the 

* Since the above was written I have examined a specimen collected by Mr. Namiye 
on Liu Kiu Island, which in every respect resembles the lighter European exami)les. 



1887.] PKOCEEDINGS OF UNI'lED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 297 

tarsus as long as, or longer than, the bill, "while Yigors's original meas- 
urements show the bill one-fourth of an inch longer than the tarsus. 

Having no access to a specimen, I quote the original description of X. 
erassirostris : 

"Above, chestnut-red; below and the three occipital plumes, white; 
head above, black; bill, thick, nearly straight; the lower mandible 
whitish with dusky tip; the upper one black. 

" Length of the body, 21 ; of the wing, from the bend to the end of 
the third primary, 10^ ; of the bill, 4^; of the tail, 5; of the tarsus, 4. 

"This species agrees in every respect with the yi/ct. CaJedonica in its 
colors and the distribution of them, with the exception of the coloj of 
the bill, which is black in the latter bird. It diflers essentially, how- 
ever, in the shape of the bill, which is much more solid and nearly 
straight, approaching in this respect to the bill of the Bitterns. The 
proportions of the wiug also are different, the length from the carjial 
joint to the extremity of the largest quill-feather being an inch less in 
our bird than in the allied species." 

Von Kittlitz makes the following remarks on the birds collected by 
him: "The figure [/. c] represents a fully developed male, and this 
seems to be the perfect plumage. True, I shot once a specimen of a 
very beautiful, entirely unspotted dark Isabel color, with slate-colored 
top of the head and a crest consisting of three long plumes, quite 
similar to that of A. caledonica as it is seen in the Paris Museum, but 
this was a female. Another female, on the other hand, was still more 
strongly spotted than the other males, with very short crest." 

Schlegel has probably united N. erassirostris with K. manillensis on 
account of their habitats being neighboring, while X. caledonicus is 
more southern and western. But the first-mentioned species is said to 
resemble X. caledonicus in every respect except in the size and shape 
of the bill, which is larger and heavier. The adults of the three forms 
may probably be distinguished by the following characters derived from 
an Australian specimen of X. caledonicus and the published descriptions 
of the others : * 
«'. Exposed culmen sliorter than tarsus. 

¥. Occipital plumes wholly black, or at the tips at least ; axillaries pale rufous ; fore 
neck, upper breast, auddauks pale rufous tawny N. maniUensis. 

¥-. Occipital plumes wholly white, axillaries pure white; fore neck and upper 
breast slightly tinged with ocraceous buff, flanks pure white. ..iS". caledonicus. 

a-. Exposed culmen longer than tarsus (coloration similar to foregoing species) 

JS'. erassirostris. 

The type of X. erassirostris does not seem to be in existence any more, 
for the Marquis of Tweeddale remarks (Trans. Zool. Soc, IX., p. 238 ; 
Orn. Works, p. 400) that it is no longer contained in the British Mu- 
seum, although enumerated in the Hand-list as being extant. 

* For descriptions of Philippine specimens of ^V. maiiiUensis, see Tweeddale, P. Z. S., 
1877, p. 769 ; 1873, p. 346 ; Orn. Works, pp. 542, 602. 



298 REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

Mr. Collie ou the " Blossom " was the first to collect this species, 
which has ouly been fouud ou Bouiushima. He remarks that several 
were seen frequenting the rocks ou the sea-shore, and Von Kittlitz, who 
shortlj' after visited the same place and collected specimens, says : 
"Bather common, keeping itself concealed during day-time in the lava 
caves at the shore and iu the neighboriug dense bushes." The same au- 
thor, iu his " Denkwiirdigh. eiuer Keise," &g., I. c, adds that " the single 
rough call-notes, which are also heard during the day-time, have some 
resemblance to the cry of the raven." 

BUTORIDES Blyth. 

18A9.—Butori(le8 Blyth, Cat. B. Mus. As. Soc. (p. 231) (type A.jaranicus Horsf.). 
1856.— OcHiscH« Cabanis, Journ. f. Orn., 1856, p. 343 (type A. virescais Lix.). 

(138.) Butorides javanicus amurensis (Schrexck). 
Greeu Heron. Mino-goi.» 

1849.— ^rf7(a seajudaris Temm. & Schleg., Fauiia Japou. Aves, p. 116 {ttec LiCHT, 

1823). 
ISbo.— Butorides cMoriceps Bonaparte, Consp. Av., II, p. 129 {part). 
I'iQO.—Ardea vireacens var. scapularis SCHRENCK, Reis. AmurL, I, p. 437. 
lQQO.—\_Ardea vxrescens'] var. aninrensw Schrenck, Reis. AmurL, I, p. 441. 
1863.— Jrrfm macrorlirjncha Schlegel, Mus. P.-Bas, Ardepe, p. 44 {part).— Butorides 

macrorhynchus Swiniioe, P. Z. S., 1871, p. 413.— Blakist. & Pryer, Tr. As. 

Soc. Jap., X, 1862, p. 120.— Seeboiim, Ibis, 1884, p. 35.— Blakist., Amend. 

List. B.Jap., p. 41(1884). 
lS82.—Xyctlcorax griseus Blakist. & Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap., X, 1882, p. 117 in fine 

{part ; nee Lixx.). 
1884. Butorides schrenchii, Bogdanow, Consp. Av. Imp. Ross., I, p. 115. 

Bogdauow has recently (i. c.) described the bird from the Amur and 
Ussuri as distinct under the name of B. sckrencJcii. Judging from my 
material I think he is right iu regarding the northern form as separable 
from the Australian representative, and I refer the Japanese specimens 
without hesitation to the continental form, but I cauuot regard either 
of these forms otherwise than subspecies of the origiual B. javanicus 
(Horsf.), nor can I adopt Bogdanow's name, iu view of the fact that 
Von Schrenck himself has intimated a subspecific appellation for the 
bird afterwards named in his honor. 

It is a curious fact that B. javanicm and its subspecies are much 
more like the South American B. striatus (Ltnn.), thau the North 
American B. virescens (LiNN.), but the South American form is easily 
distinguished by the rich rufous spots on the fore neck. 

B. amurensis shares the thick bill (by which it chiefly diflers from 
the typical B. javanicm) with the Australian B. macrorlujnclms. Bog- 
danow states that its bill is even much thicker (" rostro ad basin sesqui 
crassiore"), but I cannot help thinking that he has had an unusually 
slender billed B. macrorhynchus for compar ison, for the three specimens 

•According to the invoice received from the Tokio Educational Museum. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 299 

before me, which I refer to B. amurensis, are fully equaled, as far as 
robustuess of bill is concerned, by an Australian example. 

The main feature by which B. amurensis seems to differ from the 
Australian form is the pure cinereous color of the sides and back of 
neck and sides of head, while in the southern representative these parts 
are more or less washed with brownish. Both of my Japanese speci- 
mens are apparently immature, the front of the neck being strongly 
spotted with blackish, but the absence of a brownish tinge to the parts 
mentioned is quite marked. A fully adult bird from the Philippines in 
perfect plumage shares these features, but the fore neck and sides of 
face are nearly unspotted ; the gray of the sides and back of neck is 
nearly pure, and corresponds in intensity with Ridgway's Gray No. 6 
(Nomencl. Colors, pi. ii) ; the bill is very stout, and the bird undoubt- 
edly belongs to the form B. amurensis. In this specimen, as well as in 
the two Japanese examples, there is a very pronounced and pure white 
streak running from the malar apex backwards along the upper edge 
of the lower mandible ; this streak is not indicated in the Australian 
specimen nor in Gould's figure. On the other hand, it is present in a 
B. javanicus from Tenasserim, and in Peale's type of B.patruelis (which 
I cannot separate from the latter) from Tahiti. 

Ornithologists in Japan should be on the lookout for this bird, and 
our correspondents would confer a great favor upon us could they pro- 
cure for our inspection fullj^ adult specimens from that country. 

Measurements. 



6 




















A 




;? 












a 
o 






'? 


a 


-3 










r. 


d 


,3 








a 

a 




Locality. 


Date. 




2 


a 


O " 




li 


cS 


o 












"""^ 


^ 






^ 


u 








fcb 


=S 


o 


Tc 


3 


2. 


tn 












r^ 


c 


it 


rs 


tJ 










i 


H 


W 


W 


H 


3 


95976 Einger.Bl. 2811. 


inn ... 


Nagasaki, Kiusiu .. 




190 


m 


64 


14 


?P. 


57 


109454 


? 


Sagami, Hondo 


June 20,1886 




63 


62 


13.5 


50 


55 


107648 Marche, 394 ... . 


d" ad.. 


Luzon, Philippines.. 


May —,1880 


203 


76 


67 


15 


52 





For the sake of comparison, I here reproduce von Schrenck's measure- 
ments of his Ussuri and Amur specimens, as given in his great work 
{op. cit., p. 44:3). Eeduced to millimeters, they may be tabulated as 
follows : 





6 










C4 








'3 










^'5 




4 


Museiuu. 


3 


Locality. 






a 






a 

o 




.2 




a 


„• 


a 


tJL'*^ 


£ 


s 




o 




^ 


c« 


3 






o 




U 




H 


a 


16.5 
16.5 


H 


H 


St. Petersb .. 


Schrenck . 
....do 




201 
201 


77 
77 


65 

68 


50 
52 


508 


Do 















300 iiEVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

DEMIEGRETTA Blyth. 

liHG.—Demiegretta" Blyth, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, XV, 1846 (p. 37G), (type A.ju- 

gularis ; nee Baird, 1858). 
1855.— i/erorfias Bonapartk, Cous)). Av., II, p. 1'20 (nee BoiE, 1822). 

Two forms or phases of Eeef Herons, which, for reasons given fur- 
ther on, we have treated as different species, are recorded from the 
small southern islands of the empire, being the northernmost localities 
for any of the forms of this genus, the distribution of which is tropical 
and subtropical. They may be distinguished thus : 

-fli. Slate-colored with a white streak down the chin and throat I), ringeri. 

a-. Pure white all over -^- ^'"ei/t. 

(137^.) Demiegretta ringeri, sp. n. 

Japanese Reef Heron. Knro-Sagi. 

\-iQ^i.—Ardea jugidaris CassIxV, Proc. Acad. Phila., 1862, p. 321 (jiec Wagler). 
l^Q'i.—Ardea albilineafa Schlegel, Mus. P. B., Ardeie, p. 27 (part, nee A. albolineata 

Gray, 1859). 

lii82.—Ardeola ? Blakist. & Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap., X, 1882, p. 120. 

188i.—Ardea sacra ? Blakist., Amend. List B. Jap., p. 41.— Seebohm, Ibis, 1884, p. 

176. 

Diagn. — Similar to D.jugularis Wagl., but with the top of the head 
and the occipital crest plumbeous and lighter than the back. 

Eah. — Tsushima j Goto Island ; Liu Kiu Island. 

Type.—V. S. Nat. Mus. No. 21241. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. P. L. Jouy, who collected four fine spec- 
imens of this bird on Tsu-shima, I have been able to institute a com- 
parison of the Japanese Reef Heron with a series of typical specimens 
of the true D. jugularis. 

Schlegel has recorded several Japanese specimens in the Leyden 
Museum, as A. albilineata Gray, saying that this form differs from D. 
Jugularis only in its larger size. As the tables below show, there is no 
appreciable difference in this respect, and Schlegel's own measurements 
<lo not bear out his assertion. On the whole, D.jugularis seems to be 
subject to a great amount of individual variation in regard to size, as 
already shown by Hume (Stray Feathers, II, p. 304). In referring to 
the tables given below, I should remark that the apparent shortness of 
the tarsus of the typical D. jugularis is probably due to the fact that all 
the specimens of the latter are mounted, while those of D. ringeri are 
skins ; the measurements of the former are therefore less reliable. 

The Tsushima* specimens and one from Liu Kiu, collected by Dr. Will- 
iam Stimpsou, differ materially from five specimens collected by the U. S. 
Exploring Expedition in several islands of Central Polynesia, by having 
the top of the head and the occi])ital crest of a fine plumbeous color, 
which is appreciably lighter than the rest of the upper surface, excei^t 
the scapular plumes, while in the Polynesian specimens the top of head 
and the occipital crest is much darker, corresponding closely to Ridg- 

* Often spelt Demigretta. I cannot now ascertain the original spelling. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 301 

way's " slate black " (Nonieiicl. Colors, pi. ii, f. 2). I was at first led to- 
believe that the uorthern birds might be identical with those iDhabiting 
the islands of the Bay of Bengal, but Hume (Str. Feath., II, p. 305) 
describes " the adult in full breeding plumage" from these localities as 
being " everywhere of a deep blackish slate color; the feathers of the 
head almost black." This agrees very well with the coloration of the 
Polynesian examples, which on the whole are darker and less plumbeous 
than the Japanese ones. I have therefore been obliged to give a new 
name* to the northern form, and in doing so I dedicate it to Mr. Fred- 
erick Einger, of Nagasaki, who collected this si)ecies on Goto Island, 
and to whom we are indebted for some of the most interesting additions 
to the avifauna of Southern Japan. 

I abstain here from giving a detailed description of this bird in the 
present connection, as such a one may be expected in Mr. Jouy's forth- 
coming report on the birds collected by him in the East. 

I may mention, however, that the scapular plumes which are very 
well developed in three of the Tsu-shima birds appear to have the webs 
more compact and less disintegrated than the Polynesian specimens. 

I. — Measurements of Demiegretta ringeri. 



Museum and 
Ko. 


Collector and 
No. 


6 
to 

cS 
-^ 

a 
a 


Locality. 


Date. 


bc 


1 


a 
3 
1 

1 
o 


03 

a 

cS 


1 


n 

o 


U.S. Nat., 21241 

P. L. Jouv 

Do..! 


Stimpson, 1C8.. ad.. 

Jouy, 1518 cf ad.. 

Jouy, 1519 ! cT ad.. 

Jouy, 1517 1 ? ad.. 

Jouy, 1520 9 ad.. 


Liu Kiu Dec. — , 1854 

Tsu-sliiuia May 26, 1885 

do May 26, 1885 

do May 25,1885 

do ' Mav 20. 18K5 


296 
320 
.306 
297 
283 


105 

no 

112 

no 

95 


86 
88 
86 
84 
79 


87 
89 


68 
67 


'660 
6'iO' 


Do 

Do 


81 


65 


610 
600 



















* The synonymy of true Dcmief/retta jugularis may be given as follows : 
1788.— (?) Ardea sacra Gimelin, S. N., I, ii, p. 640. 
1827. — Ardea jutjularis Wagler, Syst. Av., p. 214, n. 18. 

1843. — Herodias matooh Gray, App. Dieffenb. Nov. Zeal., II (p. 196) {nee Vieill.). 
1846. — Demiegretta concolor 15lyth, Jouru. As. Soc. Bengal, XV (p. 372). 
1859. — Ardea {Herodias) ahoUneata Gray, P. Z. S., 1859, p. 166. 
1861. — Ardea cinerea Ellmax, Zoologist, 1861 (p. 7469) {nee Linn.). 
1867. — Herodias andamanensis "Tytler," Beavan, Ibis, 1867, p. 333. 
1874. — Bemi-eyretta sacra Hume, Stray Feath., II, p. 304. 
1877. — Ardea jug ularis var. conco/or Keichenow, Journ. f. Orn., 1877, p. 262. 

The present species is often given as Demiegretta sacra Gmel., but I am not at all satis- 
fied that this is the bird described by Latham and named by Gmelin, hence I have 
only quoted it with a query. 

Vieillot's Ardea matoolc (Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XIV, 1817, p. 416) is also usually re- 
ferred to this species, but as he describes it as being " d'un bleu vert-pale," I think 
it more probable that he meant the bird already described by Latham under the 
name oi Ardea novce-hollandia:. 

In the same manner I have excluded Syke's Ardea asha, which Hume has referred 
to Bosc's A. gularis. 



302 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 
II.— Measurements o/Demiegretta jugularis. 



15296 
15298 
15281 
15288 
17102 



6 




tz; 




_4 






o 


s 


bs 


h 


a 


c 


•9 




a 




H 


o 


o 


O 


CO 


Peale 


ad.. 


...do 


2 ad.. 


...do 


ad. 


...do 


ad.. 


do 


ad.. 





Locality. 



Samoan Lslanda • 

Upolu Islands 

Aurora Island. Society Islands 

Matavai Bay, Tahiti, Society Lslands 
Tongatabu Island 



300 
284 
286 
293 
303 



102 
89 
95 
92 
95 






92 



Demiegretta greyi (Gray). 
White Reef Heron. 

ISi'i.—ncrodias greyi Gray, List B. Brit. Mits., Ill, p. 80 {part; nomen nudum). 
18id.—Herodias grnji GotTLD, B. Austr.,VI, p. & pi. 61 (clescr. & fig. ).—Ardca g. Cassin, 

Proc. Acad. Phila., 1802, p. 321. 
187 i.— Demiegretta Candida Tytler, Stray Featli., II, p. 307. 
1377.— Ardea jngularis var. greyi ReichexOW, Jouru. f. Orn., 1877, p. 2C2. 
1^7.— Ardea grayi Seeboiim, Ihis, 1887, p. 182 (uec Sykes). 

A perfectly white Reef Heron, obtained by Mr. Stiiupson during bis 
visit to Liu Kiu in December, 1854, forces upon us the very perplex- 
ing question of the so-called "dichromatism" in the Herons. As this 
problem has not previously entered Japanese ornithology a brief review 
of it may not be out of place. 

By the term "dichromatism" we designate the peculiarity in certain 
species of birds, that individuals, otherwise identical, present two dif- 
ferent styles of coloration, or "phases," presumably more or less inde- 
pendent of geographical distribution, present or past, or, in fact, of any 
apparent cause whatsoever. The difBculty in finding a plausible theory 
is much increased by the circumstance that there are nearly as many 
kinds of dichromatism as there are dichromatic species. Thus, among 
Japanese birds we may mention Richardson's Jaeger {Sfercorarius par- 
asiticus), the Fulmar {Fulmarus), and the little Screech Owl {Megascops 
japonicus), but in neither of these cases do we know the exact nature 
of the phenomenon nor its significance in the animal economy. In some 
of the ca^es, however, we can trace a connection with the geographical 
distribution, but the only tbing we know for certain is, that the two 
phases are entirely independent of sex, age, or season. 

The Herons afford a more striking and at the same time more puzzling 
example of dichromatism, for of the two phases one is generally very 
vividly colored or strongly marked, while the other is pure white all 
over. This problem has been studied closer here in America than in 
the Old World, and consequently we know a little more about the 
American si)ecies. The earlier authors supposed that the white birds 
were the young ones, but observations both in the Old World and in 
this hemisphere have proved conclusively that this was an entirely 



1§87.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 303 

erroneous theory, for uot onlj' have we white birds with the ornamental 
plumes showing them to be fully adult, but actual observations have 
established the fact that the young birds belong to the white or colored 
phases already in the nest. What makes the question so very trouble- 
some is the fact that there are hardly two species in which the relation 
between the two phases is exactly alike. In the Little Blue Heron 
{Florida coerulea), from the eastern parts of North America and the 
West Indies, the white phase is seldom if ever perfectly developed in 
the adults, while intermediate specimens are quite numerous. The 
Eeddish Egret {Dichromannssa rufescens), upon which Mr. Ridgway be- 
stowed the generic appellation in allusion to the dichromatism of its 
plumage, may also be regarded as strictly dimorph, for in Florida, 
where this species breeds abundantly, both phases are said to have 
been found in the same nest, attended by parents either both reddish, 
both white, or one in each of these stages of plumage, other circum- 
stances at the same time leading to the conclusion that the two i^hases 
are not only uot specifically distinct, but that they have nothing to do 
with either sex, age, or season. It is not quite so certain that Ardea 
occidenfaUs is now only a white phase of A. wardi, for it is stated that 
in Florida the former is confined mainly to the Atlantic coast while 
the latter chiefly inhabits the Gulf side. I believe that the differentia- 
tion between the colored and the white phase of the Reef Heron has 
reached a degree further. Butler (B. of ISTew Zealand, 1873, p. 229) 
asserts that the white form has never yet been met with iu Few Zea- 
land,* and according t9 Seebohm (Ibis, 1884, p. 177), it is also said to 
be absent in Southeastern Australia. Kor do pied examples occur in 
these localities, and contrary to the rule iu Florida coeriilea, these in- 
termediate birds appear to be comparatively rare iu the Reef Herons, 
for it seems that all the specimens collected by Mr. Hume and his col- 
lectors on the islands in the Bay of Bengal (forty-one specimens) belonged 
either to the normal dark form or to the pure white phase, and the same 
was the case with the large collection of these birds by Mr. Titian Peale 
(U. S. Exploring Expedition) from the Polynesian Islands. Among the 
fifteen specimens enumerated by Schlegel {I. c.) as contained in the Lei- 
den Museum only one appears to bo pied (No. 4). Von Pelzeln (Novara 
Reise, Zool., I, Vogel, 1»69, pp. 118-123) examined thirteen specimens, 
only two being pied. Dr. Finsch (Jour. f. Orn., 1870, pp. 136-139) does 
not give data sufificiently explicit to enable us to state the proportion be- 
tween the uniformly colored specimens aud the pied ones, but the latter 
seemto be in a decided minority. I am therefore inclined to accept Mr. 
Seebohm's theory {I. c.) that these pied individuals are hybrids between 
the two forms, the more so since Dr. Finsch {totn. cit., p. 137) informs 
us that he received from Viti-Levu a pair collected by Dr. Graffe, of 
which the male was slate-colored, the female pure white, and both were 

* I may meution, however, that Schlegel enumerates a white bird in the Leyden 
Museum as from New Zealand (Mus. P. Bas, Ardeaj, 1863, p. 27, No. 15.) 



304 REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

said to have beeu "killed at the nest," and during his trip to the Pacific 
islands he also observed dark and white or pied birds paired (Ibis, 1S80, 
pp. 220, 432). Both v. Pelzelu and Dr. Fiusch (//. cc.) find in the speci- 
mens examined by them ample proof that a change of color takes 
place in the individual bird, and assert that the change (" Verfiirbung") 
is independent of the molt. How little this " proof" is entitled to con- 
sideration is apparent from the fact that v. Pelzeln proves the bird to 
change from white to black, while Dr. Fiasch proves that it changes 
from black to white. But against both theories there are the obser- 
vations of trustworthy collectors and naturalists that tbe dark and 
the white birds are dark and white respectively from the nest. 

Mr. Hume, in the article repeatedly quoted (Str. Feath., II, p. 307), 
speaks of the pure white adult as haviug the " fully developed dorsal 
plumes rather more disintegrated than in the adult ashy bird, and some 
of them exteudiug fully aa inch beyond the end of the tail (which is 
the case in no specimeu of the ash-colored bird that I have seen)." Of 
the white specimens before me, only one (U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 1j399, 
from Upolu, coll. Peale) is provided with these plumes, and the structure 
of these seems to corroborate Mr. Hume's statement. 

I also want to call attention to the difference in the habits of the two 
forms, as observed by this author, who states that the white birds are 
" infinitely more wary, so much so that * * * we ourselves only suc- 
ceeded in shooting one white adult against thirty-two ashy ones, though 
we were daily seeing and trying to shoot the white ones." 

Taking all the above facts into consideration, I think it is by far the 
wiser course to distinguish the white bird by a name and to treat of it 
separately. 

Tbe question is one of great interest and importance. It seems to 
me that there is a tendency in all the colored day Herons to develop 
into a white form which may finally bring about the extinction of the 
colored phase by absorption, unless the latter be preserved intact in 
some locality not influenced by the conditions favorable to the produc- 
tion of the white form. In this connection I would call attention to the 
white birds which are usually regarded as a generic or subgeueric 
group under the name of Egrets [Eerodias). There can hardly be any 
doubt that these have developed out of colored phases which have be- 
come extinct, and the high degree of disintegration of their ornamental 
plumes lends an additional importance to the observation by Hume, 
quoted above, and strengthens the theory that the Reef Herons are 
now undergoing tbe same development which in tbe diftereut species 
of Eerodias has resulted in a single pure white form. 

Such a possibility contains a warning against basing any generaliza- 
tions on the geographical distribution of the white forms. Suppose a 
North American Egret to be indistinguishable from a Xew Zealand 
species ; any conclusions as to the former history, migrations, &c., based 
upon the apparent identity of these birds would be very hazardous. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 305 

in view of the fact that the former might have developed iu its present 
habitat from a bUie form, while the latter emanated from an ancestor 
as gaily decorated as the European Purple Heron. It will be seen 
how extremely Important it is in such a case to be on the lookout for 
tbe minutest and even apparently most trifling distinctions; and even 
so slight a character as the color of the naked portion of the tibise, or 
the length of the barbs of the scapular plumes may become important 
facts in distinguishing forms like Hcrodias cgretta aud H. syrmafopkorns. 

Measurements. 





















i 


o 
'A 


6 
"A 
















"3 




-s 










to 


a 











'3 


Locality. 


Date. 










5 


J5 










a 


=£ 


6 


^ 


o 


ti 


-3 


m 






^ 


3 
H 


W 


H 


g 


21242 


Stlmpson, 174 . 


ad.... 




Dec, 1854... 


290 


98 


88 


86 


68 







Beyond the fact that a specimen of this form was obtained on Great 
Liu Kiu during Eodger's Xorth Pacific Exploring Expedition, Decem- 
ber, 1854, nothing is known iu regard to the occurrence of the White 
Eeef Heron in Japan. It may easily be overlooked, however, on account 
of its great similarity to the Egrets, but is easily distinguishable by its 
generic characters. 

ARDEOLA BoiE. 

1822. — Ardeola BoiE, Isis, 1822, p. 559 (type A. ralloides Scor.). 
1826. — Buphus BoiE, Isis, 1826, p. 979 (type A. makiccensis Gm.). 
1829. — Cancropliacjus Kaup, Eutw. Eur. Thierw., p. 42 (tyi)e A. ralloides Scoi'.). 

The Squacco Herons form a very interesting little group of tropical 
and subtropical species. All of the known species are apparently very 
much alike in structure and proportions, while the coloration of the 
adults iu summer is very different. The young and winter birds, of at 
least five of the known six species (the first five ones of the following 
synopsis), on the other hand, are so much alike that no characters 
have as yet been pointed out, which will satisfactorily separate them. 
For that reason the following synopsis only refers to the adult birds in 
full breeding plumage. 

Synopsis of the knoicn species of the yenus ARDEOLA. 

<t}. Abdoineu and upper wiug-coverts white. 

¥. Crest-feathers streaked with blackish 1. A. ralloides (ScOP.).* 

* Syn. — 1769. — Ardea ralloides Scopoli, Ann. I Hist. Nat., p. 88. 

1770. — Ardea castanea S. G. Gmelix, Reise RussL, I (p. 165). 
1770. — Ardea marsigll Lepechin, Nov. Comm. Petrop., XIV (p. 205). 
1770. — Ardea pumila Lepechix, Nov. Comm. Petrop., XIV (p. 205). 
1773. — A7-dea comata Pallas, Reise Russ. R., II (p. 715). 
Proc. N. M. 87 20 



306 REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

i-. Crest-feathers not streaked ■with blackish. 
c'. Back dark colored, slate-black, or bay. 
(IK Back bay colored, slightly suffused with cinereous . ..2. A. 'jrai/H (Sykes).* 
d'. Back slate-black, or "purplish black with a hoary shade." 

e'. Neck " pale ferruginous butt'," crest " white" .. .3. A. speciosa (HoRSK.).t 

e-. Neck chestnut, crest deep bay 4. A. leucoptera (Bodd.). 

C-. Back pure white, or slightly suffused with yellowish. 5. A. xanthopoda {'P'Ei.z.).X 
a-. Abdomen and ujiper wing-coverts " rufous bay " 6. A. ruficentris (SvyDEV.).^ 

For reasons, to be given further on, we refer Boddaert's A. leucoptera to 
the bird with chestnut head and neck, which afterwards was described 
by Swinhoe as .1. prasinosceles. We are unable to place the bird which 
Dr. A. Eeichenow, in his monograph of the order (Journ. f. Orn., 1877, 
p. 257), describes under A. leucojytera. Its habitat is given as the " Indo- 
Malayan Subregion (Malacca, Sumatra)," and it is characterized as 
" alba, capite, coUoque totis caudidis ; dorsi plumis longis laxis nigro- 
schistaceis."|| It is not probable that Malacca is inhabited by two 
species of this genus, both with slate-colored backs and one with chest- 
nut head and neck, the other with these parts entirely white, and as 
Hume (who does not seem to know any bird of the latter description) 
obtained the former from there, we are considerably puzzled in regard 
to Dr. Eeichenow's bird. 

I7i<2 — Ardea audax Lapeirouse, Sv. Vet. Acad. Nya Handl., Ill, 1782, p. 
112. 

1783. — Ardea f/risea BoDDAERT, Tabl. PI. Eul., p. 19 (wecLixx.). 

17p8. — Ardea squaiotta Gmelin, S. N., I, p. 634. 

1788.— Ardea erythropus Gmelix, S. N., I, p. G34. 

1788. — Ardea senegaJensis Gmelix, S. N., I, p. 645. 

1792. — ' Ardea (jriseo-alha Bosc, Act. Soc. d'Hist. Nat., Paris, I, i, p. — . 

1798. — Ardea botaiiruliis Sciikaxck, Fauna Boica, I (p. 221). 
Hab. — Mediterniueau Subregion ; Africa. 
*Syn. — ld32. — Ardea grayii Sykes, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 158. 

1832. — Ardea malaccensis Sykes, P. Z. S., 1832, p. 158 (wee G.mel.). 

1849, — Ardea Jeucopte^ra Blytii, Cat. B. Mus. As. Soc, p. — {nee Bodd.). 

1853. — Ardea leucoptera grayi Sculegel, Mus. P.-Bas, Ardeje, p. 35. 
Hab. — India ; Ceylon ; Burmah ; Tenasseriui. 
t Syx. — 1823. — Ardea apeciosa Horsfield, Tr. Linn. Soc, XIII (p. 189). 

1663. — Ardea leucoptera speciosa Schlegel, Mus. P.-Bas, Ardete, j). 34. 
Hab. — Java; Borneo; Sumbava ; Celebes. 
t Syx. — 1858. — Ardea sp. Pelzelx, Nauinannia, 1858, p. 497. 

1860. — Ardea xayiihopoda Pelzelx, Jouru. f. Orn., 1860, p. 1G6. 

1860. — JrJea if?ae Hartlaub, Journ. f. Orn., 1860, p. 167. 

1861. — Ardea elegans Yehreavx , in Hartlaub's Orn. Beitr. Fauna Madag., 
p. 73. 

1866. — Ardea leucoptera Sciilegel, P. Z. S., 1866, p. 425 («ecBoDD.). 

1867. — Ardea leucoptera Wae Schlegel & Pollex, Rech. Faune Madag. (p. 
125). 
Hab. — Madagascar ; Eastern Africa. 

§ Syn. — 1850. — Ardea ruflventris Suxdevall, Oefv. Sn. Vet. Akad. Forhandl., 1850 (p. 
110). 

1863. — t Ardea semirufa Schlegel, Mus. P.-Bas. Ardea?, p. 35. 
Hab. — Southern Africa. 

II Cf. also Swinhoe, Ibis, 1863, p. 422 : "A. leucoptera has the blue back, but the head 
and neck are pure white." 



lc'87.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 307 

^liJ-'i.) Ardeola leucoptera (Bodd. )• 
Eastern Poucl Heron. 
1783. — Cancromu Zewcojjfera Boddaert, Tabl. PI. Eul., p. 54 (nee A. leucoptera Jerdox 

qute A. (/rayii).—Ardea I. Schlegel, Mus. P. B., Arcle;e, p. 32.— Hume, 

Stray Featb., VIII, 1879, p. IGl. 
1788. — Ardeamalaccensis Gmelin, S. N., I, ii, p. 043. 
1855. — Bitjyhiia hacchus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., II, p. 127. 
1860.— Ardeola 2}rasinosceIes SwixnoE, Ibis, 1860, p. 64.— /d., ihid., 1861, p. 52.— /c?., 

ihid., 1833, p. 421. — Seebohm, Ibis, 1884, p. 35. — Blakist., Amend. List B. 

Jap., p. 41 (1884). 
1S61.— Ardeola sjyeciosa Sclatkr, Ibis, 18G1, p. 52, foot-note (nee Horsf.). 
I87i.— Ardeola 2)rasi)tosceHs Hume, Stray Feath., II, p. 483. 
ISSO.—Rerodias ? Blakist. & Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 200. 

The right of the i)resent species to a phice iu the Japanese avifauna 
rests solely ou a single specimen, iu young plumage, obtained by Cap- 
tain Blakiston at Hakodate, October 12, 1879, and now in the U. S. 
Xatioual Museum (Xo. 95977). To Japanese ornithologists a detailed 
description of this interesting specimen may be quite welcome. 

Jun. ( U. S. Xat. 2lus. No. 95977; Hakodate, October 12, 1879; coll. Thos. Blakiston).— 
Upper side of head black, each feather with a sharply defined and narrow streak of 
pale buff" along the middle for its entire length ; hind neck of a pale sepia with sim- 
ilar but broader and more ill-defined buffy streaks ; interscapilium and scapulars 
rather dark sepia, the latter slightly washed with russet and indistinctly streaked 
with pale buff; lower back, uropygium and upper tail-coverts pure white ; chin and 
throat white, unspotted ; sides of head and neck and front of neck of a pale buff', be- 
coming nearly pure white in the middle line of the latter, each feather striped with a 
snbmarginal longitudinal spot or stripe of blackish brown iu each web, rest of under 
surface pure white, except a bunch of feathers ou each side of breast, which are of a 
tint slightly paler than the interscapilium, with a narrow shaft-stripe of a pale buft'; 
wings white, the wing-coverts slightly suffused with buff and shaded with drab iu 
the outer webs; primaries white, the outer ones with distinctly black shafts, the two 
outermost, besides, having the tips drab colored for a distance of 25™™ and 15™", re- 
spectively, the entire outer web being similar, but fading into dirty white towards 
the base ; the four primaries following have a small mark of the same color near the 
extreme tip ; secondaries white, the three innermost ones brownish drab, and the one 
next to them shaded with the same color near the tip ; tail-feathers white, faintly 
shaded with dusky towards the tips, giving them a dirty appearance. Upper man- 
dible and tip of lower mandible "dark horn color," rest of under mandible "yellow- 
ish green " ; legs " yellowish green " (Blakiston). 

Total length, 483™™ (Blakiston). Wing, 193™™ ; tail-feathers, 71™™ ; exposed cul- 
men, 60™™ ; tarsus, 59™™ ; middle toe with claw, 58™™. 

No occipital crest ; feathers of the lower neck elongated, but not particularly nar- 
row. Second primary longest, third slightly shorter ; first between third and fourth, 
the first four ones forming the tip ; inner secondaries reaching slightly beyond the 
longest primaries. 

Mr. Seebohm has identified this specimen as Ardeola j)rasinosceles 
of Swinhoe. As remarked above, however, the immature plumages of 
the species of this genus are practically indistinguishable as far as our 
present knowledge goes, and I think that all that can be said with ab- 
solute certainty is that the present specimen belongs to this group of 
Herons. The probability is that it belongs to the Chinese species, being 
apparently only a straggler to the northern island of Japan. As it 



308 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



differs somewhat from four specimeus of A. jjmsinoscWes wbicL practi- 
cally are identical inter se, and in a pluujage precisely corresponding to 
the one described above, I may point out the most striking ditlerences. 

In tlie Japanese specimen the light shaft-stripes on the top of the 
head are much narrower, and tlie black deeper; the brown of the inter- 
scapilium and the scapulars is darker and less russet ; and the buliy 
suffusion is less vivid. From the subjoined table it will be seen that 
the dimensions are the same, but it may be worth mentioning that in 
the Japanese bird the inner secondaries are longer than the primaries, 
while in the four immature specimens given in the table, and in the 
only adult of this species (Shanghai, May 1, 1881, Jouy's Coll.) before 
me the longest primaries reach 20""" to 33""" beyond the secondaries. 
I mention this particularly, because Mr. Hume has intimated the possi- 
bility of this character being diagnostic of Ardeola speciosa (Str. Feath., 
YI, p. 482), but I hardly think that it is of any value, as an adult male 
A. grmji (U. S. Nat. Mus. Ko. 95927; Lower Pegu ; May 7, 1880, coll. 
Gates) in this respect closely resembles the Japanese specimen. 

Boddaert's name Ardea leucoptera is based on PI. Enl. pi. 911, which 
represents a bird in the immature plumage, said to have come from 
Malacca, and the name, therefore, properly belongs to the species in- 
habiting that peninsula. From Hume's note in " Stray Feathers," 
YIII, p. IGl, it appears that the adult Malacca bird has the head and 
neck chestnut, that it consequently is the same as Swinhoe's A. prasi- 
nosceles. This being the case, the latter appellation will have to give 
way to the older one by Boddaert. 

The geographical distribution of A. leticoptera may then be stated to 
embrace China, at least from Shanghai southwards to Cochhi China, 
Siam,*and Malacca. An accidental straggler (?) has been taken in North- 
ern Japan, but 1 am not aware that this species has been recorded from 
Formosa, or the Philippine Islands. Another solitary specimen, possi- 
bly also a straggler, has recently been reported from Ussuri by Mr. 
Taczanowski (Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1886, p. 309). 

Measitretnents. 



95977 

85820 

85819 

86154 

107659 



Blakist., 2677. 

Jouv, 135 

Joiiy, 134 

Jouy, 217.... 
Germain, 1276 



jun ... 
o'.iun 
<i jun. 
? jun. 
d"juii- 



Locality. 



Hakodate, Tezo ... 
Hong Kong, China 

do , 

do 

Cochin China 



Date. 



Oct. 12, 1879 . 
Sept. 10,1881. 
Sept. 16,1881. 
Oct.—, 1881. 
Sept. — , — . 







a 








V 






















t~> 


s 






.a 














tL 


=2 


a 


i 


a 


^ 


Cm 


^ 


^ 


a 


K 


a 


H 


W 


^ 


193 


71 


60 


59 


200 


80 


56 


57 


208 


71 


eo 


00 


194 


71 


t;o 


56 


223 


80 


m 


63 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 309 

BUBULCUS BoxAP. 

1854.—BuhHlcu8 "PuCHERAX," Boxapartp:, Auu. Sc. Nat.,4 ser., I, ii, p. 141 {nomen 

nudum). 
18b5.—Bubulcus "Pucheran," Boxaparte, Cousp. Av., II, p. 1'24 (type A. ihis 

Hasselqv.). 

(137.) Bubulcus coroniandus (Bood. ). 

Easteru Cattle Heron. Ama-sagi. 

1783. — Cancroma coromrtwrfaBoDDAERT, Tab!. Pl. Enl., j>.54. — Ardea c. Schlegel, Mus. 
P.-Bas, Ardea», p. 30 (1863). — Buhulcui? eoronmndus Meyer, Joiirn. f. Orn., 
1873,p. 40.5.— BLAKIST.& Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap., X, 1882,p. 120.— Blakist., 
Chrysauth., 1883, Apr., p. 173.— 7f?., Amend. List B. Jap., p. 41 (1884).— See- 
BOHM, Ibis, 1884, p. 35. 

1788. — Ardea comata i3. Gmelin, S. N., I, ii, p. 633. 

1S17.— Ardea hicolor Vieillot, Nonv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XIV, p. 409. 

1817.—? Ardea ruJicajnUa Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., XIV, p. 409. 

1819. — Ardea coromandelensis Stephexs, Shaw's Gen. Zool., XI, ii, p. 577. 

1820. — Ardea deaurata Merrem, Ersch & Gruber's Encycl., 1 sect., V, p. 173. 

1822.— Ardea affinis Horsfield, Trans. Linn. Soc., XIII (p. 189). 

1823.— Ardea Jiavirostris Vieillot, Enc. M6tb.,III, p. 1124. 

1823. — Ardea coromandeUca Lichtexsteix, Verz. DoubL, p. 78 {x)art). 

1827.— Ardea ?•«.?«« to Wagler, Syst. Av., p. 211, u. 12 (jwri).— Temm., Man. d'Oru., 2 ed., 
Ill, p. lii (1835) ; IV, p. 377 (1840).— Temm. &. Schleg., Fauna Japou., Aves, 
p. 115 {18i9).—E(jretta r, Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, i^. 224.— Herodias r. 
Blakist. & Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 200. 

18'il.— Ardea cahoga* Fraxklix, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 124. 

In regard to the above syuoDymy I have ouly to remark that Merrem's 
Ardea deaurata uudonbtedly belongs here, and not, as usually supposed, 
to Ardeola ralloides, being based expressly upon Buflbn's " Crabier de 
Coromandel" (PI. Enl., pl. 910), the same bird upon which Boddaert pre- 
viously had bestowed the name Cancroma coromanda. 

The Eastern Cattle Heron has often been regarded as couspecific with 
the Mediterranean Buhulcus ibis (Linn.), from which, however, it differs 
in many important respects. In the white winter plumage tbe two birds 
may be easily distinguished by the proportionately much smaller feet 
of the latter, and especially by the shortness of the bare portion of the 
tibite. It is asserted that it is in every way a smaller bird, but such is 
hardly the case, as will be seen from the appended measurements. The 
breeding plumages are also dilferently colored, for in B. ibis the elon- 
gated plumes on head, lower end of fore neck, and back are of a nearly 
uniform "reddish buff"; in B. coromandus, however, this color is con- 
fined to the dorsal plumes, while the wljole head and neck are of a beau- 
tiful golden ochraceous. 

The ground color of this species is white in all ages, and the richly- 
colored plumes of the adults are only assumed early in spring, to be 
dropped in the autumn, the bird being plain white during the winter. 

" S'ykes (P. Z. S., 1832, p. 158) quotes as authority for this name : "*Penn., Hindoos. 
2. 158," which I am unable to place, unless Pennant's "Outlines of the Globe," vol.2, 
Eastern Hindostau (London, 1798-1880), be meant, a book inaccessible to me. 



.10 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



The bright plumes are apparently not assumed before the bird lias passed 
its second winter, since when a year old it only shows a few ochraceous 
feathers on the crown and on the neck, as well as a few buff ones on 
the back, the rest being white. A bird in this plumage, taken in the 
latter part of June, has been received from the Tokio Educational 
Museum. 

Captain Blakiston, in the April number, 1883, of the " Chrysanthe- 
mum", remarks as follows: 

"An example obtained by Mr. Ota at Tokio as late as December 20, 
now in my possession, retains a good deal of the summer rust-color on 
the head, neck, breast, and plumes of the back, which Mr. Ota considers 
singular at this season.'' This specimen is now before me (U. S. Xat. 
Mus. No. 95975), and I think I can explain the abnormity. The ochra- 
ceous and buff plumes are extremely abraded, indicating that they have 
been worn for a longer period than originally contemplated by nature ; 
but they would undoubtedly have disappeared very shortly, for the 
bird is in full molt, and new 7chite feathers are protruding. The left 
wing is clipped, proof that the bird had been kept in captivity, and this 
fact alone is sufficient to explain the retarded molt, a thing not at all 
uncommon among birds in similar circumstances. 

Measurements of Bubulcus COROMandus. 



d 


















»s 


» 


. 
















c 




^ 












^ 




.= 


d 
S 




? 








2 


S 




^ . 






bt. 


Locality. 


Date. 




.a 


u 




C T. 


a; 


3 








.2 


a 


c 


1 




P 


6 


^ 






^ 


H 


« 


H 


S 


85794 


Jonv, 21 


cT ad.. 


Nagasaki 


Mav 27, 1881 


?48 


91 


56 


9fi 


65 


95975 


Blak., 3215... 


? ad.. 


Tokio 


Dec. 20, 1882 


232 


82 


57 


87 


64 


109453 




rf 

cT ad.. 




Jnne21, 1886 
April 25, 1881 


249 
252 


85 
83 


58 
60 


96 
94 


68 


85748 


J. M. Young.. 


Shanghai, China 


64 



Measurements of BUBULCUS IBIS. 



57021 Schliiter, 1049. c' Southern Europe 255 96 54 80 54 



ARDEA Lixx. 

17.58. — Ardea Lixx., S. N., 10 ed., I, p. 141 (type A. cinerea Lixx.). 

1855. — Auchthouia Box'aparte, Con.sp. Av., II, p. 113 (type A. occidcntalis Audub.). 

18^7.— rhoyx Stejxeger, MS. (type A. purpurea Lixx.). 

There being a probability that the Purple Heron may occasionally 
occur in Japanese territory, a synopsis of the characters by which it 
can easily be recognized may be useful : 

a'. Tar.su3 mnch longer than exposed cuhiien or middle toe ; bind claw about one- 
eighth the length of the tarsus ; predominating colors gray, white, and black, 
(Ardea) A. cinerea. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 311 

fl-. Tarsus about equal to exposed culaicu or middle toe ; hind claw more than oue- 
fourtli the length of the tarsus ; predominating colors, black, gray, and differ- 
ent shades of chestnut and rufous (PiiOYX) [J. p»)*j>)frea.] 

(133.) Ardea cinerea Linx. 

Common Reron. Awo-sagi. 

l7o8.— Ardea cinerea Linx., S. N., 10 ed., I, p. 143.— W., S. N., 12 ed., I, p. 236 (1766). 
— TeMxMJXCK, Man. d'Om., 2ed., Ill, p. lii (1835) ; IV, p. 371 (1840).— 
Temm. & SCHLEG., Fauna Japon,, Aves, -p. 114 (1849).— Cassix, Perry's 
Exp. Jap., II, p. 244 (1858).— ZfZ., Journ. f. Orn., 1858, p. 450.— Schlegel, 
Mus. P.-Bas, Ardeae, p. 5 (1863). — FMartexs, Preuss. Exped. Ost-Asien, 
Zool., I, p. 83 (1866), p. 371 (1876).— SwiXHOE, Ibis, 1876, p. 335.— M'Vean, 
Pr. E. Phys. Soc. Edinb.,1877, Extr., p. 7. — Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, 
p. 223.— i;^., Tr.As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 199.— lid., Hid., X, 1882, p. 
118.— Blakist., Chrysanth., Feb., 1883, p. — .— Id., Amend. List. B.Jap., 
p. 12 (1384).— JOUY, Proc.U. S. Nat. Mus., VI, 1883, p. 317. 

1848.— ? Ardea leucoplma Gould, P. Z. S., 1848, p. 58. 

1874.— ? Jr<7ea Irag Taczaxowski, Journ. f. Orn., 1874, pp. 335, 336(Hfc Geoffk. St. 
HiL.).— 7(7., Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1876, p. 258. 

With only a few fragments of a youug bird from Japan (U. S. Nat. 
Mus. No. 91600), I can say notliing as to the correctness of referring 
the Japanese Awo-sagi to the true Ardea cinerea. I trust, however, 
that Mr. P. L. Jouy, who collected this species in Korea, will soon have 
something to say in regard to the Eastern birds. 

Subgenus Phoyx* Stejneger. 

[Ardea purpurea Lixx. ] 

Purple Heron. 

1766. — Ardea purpurea Lixx., S. N., 12 ed., I, p. 236. — Temmixck, Man.d'Orn., 2 ed., 
IV, 372 (1840).— SwiXHOE, Ibis, 1863, p. 319.— Hartlaub &: FixscH, Vog. 
Ost-Afr. (p. 676), (1870).— Arm. David, Nouv. Arch. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Bul- 
let., VII, p. 12 (1871).— Dresser, B. of Eur., VI, 217 (1875).— Walden, Tr. 
Zool. Soc. Loud., IX, 1875, p. 236. 

1769. — Ardea rufa Scopoli, Ann. I Hist. Nat., p. 87 {nee BODD., 1783). 

1769. — Ardea variegata Scopoli, Ann. I Hist. Nat., p. 88. 

1774. — Ardea caspia S. G. Gmelix, Eeise Russl., II, (p. 193, pi. 24). 

1787. — Ardea riitila Latham, Syu. Suppl., I,p. 291. 

1788. — Ardea bolaurus Gmelix, S. N., I, p. 636. 

1788. — Ardea purpurata Gmelix, S. N., I, p. 641. 

1799. — Ardea monticola La Peyrouse, Tab. M6th. Mamm. Ois. (p. 44). 

1831. — Ardea purpurascens Brehm, Haudb. Vog. Deutschl.,p. 583. 

1834. — 1 Ardea imrpurea var. manillensis Meyen', Nov. Acta Ac. Leop. Carol., XIV, 
suppl. i (p. 102). 

"1855. — Ardea pliaraonica Boxaparte, Cousp. Av.,II, p. 113. 

The Purple Heron has been found as far east as China and the Philip- 
pine Islands, but there is no authentic record of it having been obtained 
anywhere in Japan, although it is vaguely stated by various authors 
{Swinhoe, Hartlaub & Finsch, Dresser, II. cc.) that it occurs there, 
statements which are probably based upon the assertion of Temminck 
{I. c.) that the Purple Heron is " tout aussi abondante que I'espece pr6- 

* ^d}v^, a species of Heron mentioned by Aristoteles (IX; 17.2), possibly Ardea pur- 
^urea. 



312 



REVIf:W OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



cedeute [A. clncrea] et daus les lueiues climats qui vienuent d'etre 
d^sigues ci-dessiis," where he says that the common Herous " font aussi 
partie des oiseaux qui peuplent les contrees du Japou et les cotes de la 
Cor^ft."' 

Meyeu {J. c.) separated the Philippine Islauds bird subspecitically from 
the Western examples, it is said, on account of its superior size. I have 
only one Eastern bird at hand, but as far as size is concerned, it is rather 
smaller than the European specimens, as will be seen from the table be- 
low. Then the question conies up whether the Philippine bird is iden- 
tical with those inhabiting Pegu, a question which, of course, cannot 
be settled without specimens from those islands. For the present I 
feel constrained to assume that all the Eastern birds belong to the same 
race, if, in reality, they differ from Western specimens, and my Pegu 
bird leads nie to think that such is the case. This specimen is certainly 
very different from two European examples and one from South Africa, 
particularly in the following points: 

(1) The entire front of the neck is destitute of the black longitudinal 
spots and streaks so conspicuous in the other three examples. 

(2) The whole breast and abdomen is black with a greenish gloss, a 
narrow margin of liver-brown separating it from the gray of the flanks^ 
while in the other specimens the under surface is of a viuaceous chest- 
nut, marked in the middle with large blackish longitudinal spots. 

(3) "Epaulettes" anteriorly of a deep claret-brown, with a hoary 
suffusion, posteriorly grading into a bluish or greenish — according to 
the light — slate-color, against the medium bay color of these tufts in the 
Western specimens. 

(4) The interscapilium appears to be of a more plumbeous tint. 
Should these differences hold good in other specimens from the East, 

it will be necessary to recognize the Purple Heron from there as a dis- 
tinct geographical subspecies at least. 

2Iea8urements. 



i 


6 












a 




"3 


s 












oc 


E 




.■S 


a 


a 
■s. 


tc 


Locality. 


Date. 




o 


3 
























o 


ri 


o 


rs 












• 




Jz; 


a 


a 






M 


tS 




3 


e 


aj 

6 


"3 


•A 

CO 






^ 




p. 




1 


95931 

109835 

19054 

57010 




ad.... 
ad.... 
ad ... 




July— ,1880. 


355 
335 
370. 


125 
125 
120 


115 
112 
125 


121 

no 

121 


115 






115 


Lazar 

ScLluter,267.. 






120 


d"ad.. 






380 


124 


136 


136 


140 









Schlegel remarks (Mus. P.-Bas, Ardeae, p. 8) that birds from Eastern 
and Southern Africa seem to be smaller than those from other countries. 
The above measurements slightly corrobora tethis statement, but then 
Bonaparte diagnosed his A. pharaonka "from Eastern Africa" as 



1«S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 313 

similar to A. ^jurpurea, " sed valde mai^jor." Size appears, therefore, 
to be a poor diagnostic character iu these birds. I may add that 
our Transvaal specimen has the back much more bronzy than the other 
specimens, but is otherwise like those from Hungary. 

HERODIAS BoiE. 

1822.— Herodias Boie. Isis, 1S2'^, p. 559 (type A. egretfa Gm. ?). 

1828.— iejjfej-offirtgEiiREXBERG, Symb. Phys. (typeX. iSc/i(.s/rtce«EHR.),(_^^eEeiclienow). 

1329.— Garzetia Kaup, Entw. Eur. Thierw., p. 76 (type A. (jarzeUa Lix.). 

ISZO. —Egreita Bonapakte, Sulla Sec. Ed. Regno Anim. Cuv., p. 97 (type A. egretta 

Gm.). 
IS\2. —Erodius Macoillivray, Man. Br. B., II, p. 130 (type A. alba Lin.). 
1842. — Cosmerodius Gloger, Handb. Naturg. (p. 412), (same type). 

Si/nopais of the Japanese species of the genus HEBODIAS 

AT ALL SEASONS. 

a'. Feathering on sides of lower mandibie reaches beyond frontal apes ; wing, more 
than 330™'" (Herodias). 

¥. Wing more than 400™"' ....H. alba. 

h'. Wing less than 400ni™ H, modesta. 

a-. Feathering on sides of lower mandible not beyond frontal apex ; wing less than 
330""" (Garzetta). 

6'. Exposed culmen shorter than middle toe, with claw H. inttrmedia. 

6^. Exposed culmen longer than middle toe, with claw. 

c^. Bill black ; toes [usually] light yellow E. garzetta. 

c^. Bill yellowish or greenish ; toes dark colored IB. enlophotes.'\ 

ADULTS IN FULL BREEDING PLUMAGE. 

a'. Without long pectoral plumes (Herodias'). 

¥. Wing more than 400'"'" H. alba. 

b-. AVing less than 400'"™ H. modesta. 

a^. With long pendant pectoral plumes (Garzetta). 

¥. No occipital crest of elongated plumes; pectoral plumes with decomposed web& 

of hair-like barbs H. intermedia, 

b'. With an occipital crest; pectoral plumes narrow and pointed, but with ordinary 
webs. 
c'. Occipital crest consisting of two or three very long and band-like feathers ; bill 

hlack E. garzetta. 

C-. Occipital crest of numerous narrow and pointed plumes; bill yel- 
low IB. eulophotes.l 

(134i.) Herodias alba (Linn.). 

Great Egret. ? 0-sagi. 

lloS.—Ardea alba Linn., S. N., 10 ed., I, p. 144.— M, S. N.,12 ed., I, p. 239 (1766).— 
Eerodias a. Gray, List Spec. B. Br. Mus., Ill, p. 77 (1844).— Blakiston, 
Chrysanth., April. 1883, p. 173.— /fZ., Amend. List B. Jap., p. 40 (1884). 

1774. —Ardea egrettoides S. G. Gmelin, Reise Russl., II (p. 193, pi. 25). 

1S03.— A rdea eg relta Bechstein, Orn. Taschb., p. 261 {nee G.mel., 1788). 

1829.— Lepferodatis flavirostris Eiirenberg, Symb. Phys. Aves (fol. m). 

1831.— Eerodias Candida Brehai, Handb. Vog. Deutschl., p. 584. 

lS42.—Erodius victoriw Macgillivray, Man. Br. Orn., II, p. 131. 

18o2- —Egretta nigrirostris Macgillivray, Hist. Br. B., IV, p. 460. 

1882.— Eerodias modesta Blakiston & Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap., X, 1832, p. 119 (part). 



314 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



In a letter dated September 21, 188C, Captain Blakiston kindly in- 
formed me that Mr. Heuson, of Hakodate, bad obtained at that place, 
on October 10, another specimen of the Great Egret, a $ , with yellow 
bill. 

Through the liberality of Mr. Benson I have had the opportunity to 
examine this specimen. The measurements are incorporated in the table 
below. It is in every respect a typical H. alba in winter plumage. 

It would appear that this large form, apparently identical with the 
European bird, is only an occasional winter visitor to the Japanese 
islands, which would account for the four specimens thus far collected 
there having yellow bills. This circumstance seems, therefore, to in- 
dicate that the difference in size between this form and the birds breed- 
ing in Japan is not simply one of individual variation. 

Measurcjiients. 



o 


6 




1 


























"a 








3 


s 
o 

o 


e 

w 


Locality. | Date. 










g 










a 


'cS 


G 


i 




c 


p 


O 


^ 




H 


W 


H 


ii 


H 


91484 


Jouy, 931 


cfad.. 


Tokio, Hondo . . Jan. 8, 1883 


440 


158 


124 


189 


120 


"1090" 


01483 


Jouv, 930 


$ ad.. 


...do IJan. 8,1883 


420 


167 


120 


164 


110 


"1060" 




Henson, 4 


d ad.. 


Hakodate, Yezo, Oct. 10, 1863 


435 


161 


125 


200 


120 


"910" 



Mr. Jouy's remarks in regard to the fresh colors of these birds are as 
follows : 

" Iris, chrome ; bill, yellow, with the tip of upper mandible dusky ; 
bill at bas and lores greenish ; tarsus and toes black ; naked portion of 
tibia mottled with yellowish." 



(i:34.) Herodias alba modesta (J. E. Gray). 



South 
1827.- 
1831.- 

1831.- 
1831.- 



1835. 



1849. 



1854.- 
1874.- 
1876.- 



0-sasi. 



•eastern Egret. 

-Ardea flavirostris Wagler, Syst. Av., p. 210, n. 9 {nee Vieill., 1823). 

-Ardeatorra "Buciiaxan," Franklin, P. Z. S., 1831, p. 123.— ZTerofZifls torra 

Hume, Stray Feath., VI, 1878, p. 472. 
-Jrdfaj>((/m Buchanan, tide Frankliu, P. Z. S., 1831. p. 124. 
-Ardea modesta J. E. Gray, Zool. Miscell., p. 19.—Egretta m. Swinhoe, Ibis, 

1876, p. 335.— Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 224.— Seeboiim, Ibis, 1879, p. 

27.— Herodias m. Blakist. & Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 199.— 

lid., ibid., X, 1882, p. 118.— Blakist., Amend. List B. Jap., pp. 12, 40 (1884). 
-Ardea egretta Temminck, Man. d'Oni., 2ed.,III, p. lii ; IV, p. 372 (1840; {nee 

Gmel., 1788).— Schlegel, Mus. P.-Bas, Ardete, p. 17 (part) (1863). 
-Ardea alba Temm. & Schleg., Fauna Japon., Aves, p. 114.— Cassin, Proc. 

Acad. Pliilada., 1862, p. 321.— Herodias a. McVean, Proc. R. Phys. Soc. 

Ediub., 1877, Extr. p. 7. 
-'i Herodias latiefn A. E. Breum, Jonni. f. Oni., 1854, p. 80. 
-Egretta syrmatophora Taczanowski, fourn. f. Orn., 1874, p. 325 {nee Gould). 
-Ardea alba vur. modeata Bruggeman, Abb. Natnrw. Ver. Bremen, V, p. 96. 



1H87.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 315 

Only to be distinguished from the foregoing by its smaller size. 
Measurements of the wings of eleven specimens indicate that the indi- 
vidual variation in this form runs between 340'"'^ and SOO"^"^. In veri- 
fication of this I have appended a table of measurements derived from 
Captain Blakiston's manuscript notes. 

MeasureTnenis. 



21240 Stimpson, 175 

109448 I Namiye 

109449 !....do 

Henson, 116 



cT ad. 
? ad. 
d ad. 



Locality. 



Date. 



Liu Kiu Island ... Dec. — , 1854 

Joshiu, Hondo i June 21, 1886 

...do June 21, 1886 

Hakodate, Tezo... July 10,1884 











a 




a 
















o 




r^ 




<U 






s 


a. 


£ 




a 


W 


H 



106 164 112 

1 

nil 157 112 
103i loo! 105 
162: 162' 110 



Remarks. 



Tibia dark ; 

bill light. 
Tibia light; 

bill black. 
Tibia light; 

bill black. 
Tibia light; 

biU black. 



Blalciston^s measurements o/ Herodias modest.\. 



JMusaum and No. 


1 
5 

a 

o 
_5 


o 
ci 

n 
a 
« 

o 


Locality. 


Date. 


a 
(5 


d 
S 
u 

c 

X 


Hakod., 1053 


Blak., 1010.... 
Blak., 1865.-.. 
Blak., 2255 .. 
Blak 25'1 . 








340 
340 
370 
350 
372 
380 
355 
383 






...do 


Sept. 10, 1875 ... 

May 2, 1877 

April — , ... 




Hakod 1053 


do 




Hakod 1054 


. do 












108 


lokio Educat. 










110 




Einger 

. do 


cT... 




April — , ... 

April — , ... 


105 




...do 


117 











Subgenus Garzetta Kaup. 

(135.) Herodias intermedia (W.\gl.). 

lutermediate Egret. Chiu-sagi. 

1829. — Ardea intermediaWAGLER, Isis, 1829, p. 659. — Schlegel, Mus. P.-Bas, Arde;e, p. 
19, (1863). — Efjretta i. Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 224. — Herodias i, 
Blytii, Cat. B. Mus. As. Soc. Bong. (p. 279) (1849).— Seebohm, Ibis, 1879, 
p.27. — Blak. & Pryer, Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p.200.— iid., ibid., X, 
1882, p. 119. 

1829. — Ardea melanopus Wagler, Lsis, 1829, p. 659 {nee Blyth). 

1831— ?..iI>Y?ert nigrirostris J. E. Gray, ZooL, Miscell., p. 19.. 

1840. — Ardea egrettoidea Tammixck, Man. d'Orn.,2 ed., IV, p. 374 (/(ec S. G. Gmel.. 
1774). — Temm. & ScHLEG., Fauna Japon. Aves, p. 115 (pi. Ixix). 

1854. — ? Herodias hrachyrhynchos Brehm, Journ. f. Orn.,1854, p. 80. 

1884. — Herodias plamiferus Ridgway, Water B. N. Am., I, p. 23 {nee Gould) 

I have questioned the propriety of referring J. E. Gray's A. nigrirostris 
to the present species, because he gives the middle "foe with claw as 



316 



REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 



being one-qnarter of an inch shorter tbaa the '• bill to gape," whereas 
in H. intermedia it is at least as long as the commissure. 

H. plumiferus of Gonld, from Australia, is very closely allied to the 
present species, if not (piite identical. It seems to differ chietly in bar- 
ing the bill yellow even in the breeding plumage, while in the Japanese 
form it is black during the summer; the latter form also appears to have 
the naked portion of the tibia3 entirely black, and not " inclining to 
tlesh -color,'- as the Australian bird. 

The Intermediate Egret is easily recognized by its short and com- 
paratively stout bill, and should at no season be confounded with any 
of its congeners. 

Measurements. 



o 

9 


Colloctor and No. 


rs 

a 

o 
in 


Locality. 


Date. 




£ 


i 




p. 


H 


p 


1 


Eemarks. 


91504 
109450 

109452 
109451 


.Touy, 953. . 
Xamiye... 

....do 

do 


cT ad. Yokohama. .1 Jan. 20,1883 
cT ad. Josliiu i June 2, 1886 

rf ad do June 2,1886 

?ad.....ilo Junes, 1886 


"325" 

320 
323 


119 
125 

125 
124 


67 

76 

76 
76 


112 

117 

113 
113 


94 
99 

98 
97 


Bill yellow. 
Bill 'black, yellow 
at base. 

Do. 

Do. 



(136.) Herodias garzetta (Lin.). 

Little Egret. Shira-sagi. 

1766.— Jrrfm yarzetia (LiXN.), S. N., 12 ed.,I, p. 237.— Temminck, Man. d'Orn., 2ed.^ 
Ill, p. Hi (1835); IV, p. 376 (1840).— Temm. & Schleg., Fauna Japon., Aves^ 
p. 115 (1349).— SCHLEGEL, Mus. P.-Bas, Ardeie, p. 12 (1863).— Maktexs, 
Preuss. Exp. Ost-A.s. Zool., I, pp. 88, 106 (1866); p. 371 (1676).—Egretfag. 
Bl.\kist. &. Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 2'2A.—Eerod)as g. BoiE, Isis, 1822, p. 559.— 
McVe.\x, Proc. R. Pbys. Soc. Eilinb., 1877, Extr., p. 7.— Seebohm, Ibis. 1879, 
p. 27.— Blakist. & PiiYER, Tr. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 200.— /iY7., ihid., 
X, 1882, p. 119.— Blakist., Amend. List B. Jap., p. 24 (1884). 

1770. — Ardea nivea S. G. Gmelin, Reise Russl., I (p. 164). 

1774. — Ardea santodactylos S. G. Gmelin, Reise Russl., Ill (p. 253). 

1810. — Ardea xanthodacfyla Rafinesque, Caratteri (p. 5). 

1816. — Ardea mjuinoctialia Leach, Syst. Cat. M. B. Br. Mus., p. 33 (nom. nud.). 

1831. — Ardea orienialis J. E. Gray, Zool. Miscell., p. 20. 

1854. — 1 Herodias lindermayeri Breiim, Journ. f. Oru., 1854, p. 80. 

1855. — Garzetta egretta Bonaparte, Consp. Av., II, p. 118 (nee A. egretta G.mel.). 

In regard to the synonymy I have the following remarks to make : 
Ardea nigrirostris J. E. Gray, Zool. Misc., p. 19, is often quoted as a 
synonym to this species, but the length of the middle toe with claw, 4 
incbes=102""", at once dismisses it from consideration in the present 
connection. 

Herodias jnhata Brehm, Handb. Vog. Deutsclil., p. 58G, also regularly 
quoted as belonging here, seems to me to be something else, perhaps a 
distinct but overlooked species, for he describes it as having an occipital 



18S7.J PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 317 

crest '' consisting of many plumes more than 3 inches long, wLicli form 
a kind oi mane,'''' consequently toto coelo different from the two or three 
long, ribbon-like plumes of the true H. garzetta, and apparently like the 
crest of H. eulophofes Swinhoe. The tarsus is also said to be shorter. 
Brehm's collection ought to be brought to light some day and his types 
examined. 

Herodias immaculata Gould may possibly belong to the following 
species, but is probably distinct from both. We have Salvadori's word 
for it that it is different from E. (jarzetta (Prodr. Orn. Pap. Mol., XII, p. 
17, foot-note ; Ann. Mus. Civ. St. Nat. Genova, XYIII, 1882, p. 334). 

Individuals from Java, Borneo, and Celebes have been separated as 
Herodias nigripes* on account of the toes being black and the basal 
half of the lower mandible light, and Walden refers the birds of the 
Philippine Islands to this race (P. Z. S., 1877, p. 703). In the true H. 
garzetta the toes are usually yellow, in strong contrast with the dusky 
tarsus, but Schlegel (Mus. P.-Bas, Ardete, p. 13) enumerates specimens 
from Japan, some with yellow toes and some with the toes dusky. It 
may l>e that both races meet in Southern Japan, but there is also a bare 
possibility that the dark-toed specimens belong to Swinhoe's H. eidopho- 
tes. 

Our museum possesses no Japanese specimen of the Little Egret, 
which, therefore, is one of our desiderata, and I am unable to say 
^ whether Schlegel's remark that specimens from Japan, as a rule, are 
smaller than those from Europe holds good. The few measurements of 
European specimens below may help in solving this question, I add 
the dimensions of a specimen from Pegu, apparently belonging to A. 
nigripes, to show that they differ in nowise from the true R. garzetta. 

Measurements. 
I. — Herodias garzetta. 



o 
s 


6 
a 

CS 

o 


o 
M 
a 

a 

CS 

« 


Locality. 


Date. 


a 


c 


p 

& 
S 

5 

c 
y. 


s 

K 

s 
a 

o 


i 


O 


109834 


Ruiz. 


d ad.. 

d" 

$ ad.. 


Sevilla, Spain. .. 

"Europe " 

Hungarj- 


May 2G, 18G9 
Aug. 1.5, 

May 17, 


265 
290 

278 


92 
110 
99 


85 


100 


98 
105 

98 




9657 


V. Miiller 

Schliiter, 1052. 


73 
76 


57013 


82 


98 


70 







II 


. — Herodias garzetta xigripes. 












95926 


Oates 


.... d-ad.. 


Pegu Sept. 30, 1880 


292 


— • — r 
99 


83 


100 

1 


100 


73 



ISiO.—Ardea nigripes Teumisck, Man. d'Oru., 2 ed., IV, p. 377 {nom. niid.). —Herodias 
n. Waldex, Tr. Zool. Soc, VIII, p. 99 (1872).— W. Blasius, Joiirn. f. Orn., 
1882, p. 253.— Id., Zeit.scbr. Ges. Oru., 1885, p. 316. 

1876.—Ardea fjarzetta var, nigripes Bruggem.\x, Abh.Natur. Ver. Bremen, V, p. 96. 



318 REVIEW OF JAPANESE BIRDS. 

[Herodias eulopliotes Swixn.] 

\S&).—He)-odius enhphotis SwixiiuE, Ibis, 1S(;0, p. G4.— M, ibid., 1663, p. 41s.— /</., F. 

Z. S., 1863, p. 320. — Hume, Stray Feath., VI, 187?, p. 47S.—Jrdea e. 

SCHLEGEL, Mu8. P.-Bas, Ardea?, p. -29 (1863). 
1853. — Herodias melaitopus Blyth, Journ. As. Soc, XXII (p. 437) {mc AVagl.). 
1865. — Herodias imviaculata Blyth, Ibis, 1865, p. 37 (wee Gould ?). 
1877. — Ardca candidissima siibsp. eulopliotes Eeichenow, Jouru. f. Ornith., 1877, p. 

274. 

I have included the present species, which was originally described 
from Amoy by Mr. Swinhoe, because it is quite probable that it may 
occur, at least occasionally, on Japanese territory. It is as yet but 
imperfectly known, and specimens are found only in very few collec- 
tions. 

Swinhoe's original descrii)tion (Ibis, 1860, p. G4) reads as follows : 

This difters from H. garzetta strikingly in liaviug a yellow bill, full-crested occiput, 
and shorter legs. It is a rare and solitary sjjecies. Length, 27 inches [686"^™] ; wing,. 
9.25 [235™m] ; bill, from tip to gape, 3.75 [95'""'] ; tarsus, 3.00 [70°""] ; naked part of 
the tibia about 1.75 [41'"°']; middle toe, 2.25 [57"""]; its claw, .25 [6.4'°'"]. Legs, 
greenish black ; feet, olive-brown, patched in places with yellow. Bill, orange-yellow, 
becoming flesh-colored and purplish in the lores and around the eye. Irides pearl- 
white. A number of loose feathers spring from the occiput, forming a full ornamental 
crest, the highest ones being longest and measuring 4^^ inches [IH"""'] each, the 
length diminishing gradually in the lower ones. Long loose feathers also spring from 
the lower neck, as also from the back, whereas in H. garzetta they become decomposed 
into hair-like silky webs curling upwards at their ends. This bird appears to havi- 
considerable affinity with H. candidiesiina of N. American ornithology. 

He afterwards met with it in Northern Formosa, where he found it 
" pretty common on the Tamsuy River, being frequently seen in parties 
of four and five, and occasionally in company with the H. garzettaP I 
transcribe some of his remarks in regard to the Formosa birds (Ibis, 
18G3, p. 418) : 

I procured both males and females of this species at Tamsuy. The female is a lit- 
tle larger, but they are not otherwise to be distinguished. This Egret has a line clear 
yellow bill in summer, becoming tinged with brown in winter. Its cere is tinged with 
green and purple ; its irides light pearly yellow. Its legs are in summer black, in 
winter greenish brown ; its feet and claws are greenish yellow. From H. garzetta it 
can at all seasons be distinguished by its light and shorter bill, and by its much 
shorter legs; but in summer its fine full crest marks it at once as different, as well as 
the scantiness of the dorsal plumes, which do not, as in that species, exceed the tail, 
and turn feathering upwards. It has considerably more affinity with H. candidissima 
of America; but that bird is of diHerent proportions, and has a black bill and feet. 
This bird, in common with most of the Heron tribe, loses its crest early in August; 
and the other nuptial plumes are then much worn and sc anty, and soon drop away. 
The breeding season is then over. 

In regard to the alleged close relationship to H. candidissima it may 
be remarked that the resemblance is onlj^ confined to the fact that both 
have the occipital crest composed of a great number of plumes. In 
other respects H. eiilo2)hotes di&ers even more from its American cousin 
than from H. (jarzetta. In fact so close are its affinities with the latter 



1S87.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 319 

that it is difficult to point out a structural character which will separate 
the two forms at all seasons. The measurements given by Swinhoe 
would seem to furnish such characters, but Schlegel {I.e.) has recorded 
the dimensions of another Formosan specimen collected by Mr. Swin- 
hoe, which throw doubt on the accuracy of the former and on their value 
as distinctive characters.* 

Mr. A. Hume [1. c), in his '' Key to the Whitts Herons of India," is 
under the impression that H. eidopliotes has the dorsal plumes of ex- 
actly the same structure as those of lower end of the fore neck, and 
Swinhoe's description of 1860 certainly justifies such an impression. 
But the wording of this author's remarks in his two papers in 1863, 
quoted in the synonymy above, is less explicit in this respect, and 1 
have reasons to believe that in reality the fully developed dorsal plumes 
are quite decomposed, though considerably less so than in H. garzetta. 

Smithsonian Institution, March 30, 1887. 

* The dimensions of a male collected April, 1862, in Formosa are given by Schlegel 
as follows : Wing, 10 inches [Pied du Roi, 271™™] ; tail, 3 inches 1 line [84""™] ; tarsus, 
3 inches 4 lines [90™™] ; naked portion of tibia, 2 inches [54™™] ; middle toe, 2 inches 
1 line [54™™] ; bill, 3 inches 2 lines [86™™] ; nuchal plumes, 3 to 4 inches [80 to 108™™]. 



ON THE SYSTEMATIC NAME OF THE KAMTSCHATKAN AND JAP- 
ANESE CARRION CRCW. 

By I.EOiXHARD !^TEJ>EC;EK. 

Wlieu writiug my " Results of Oruitbological Exploratious in Kamt- 
scliatka aud the Commauder Islands," three years ago, the series of Old 
World Crows possessed by our Museum was very scauty. Siuce theu we 
have received many additions, aud, although our series of these birds 
is still very deficieut, euough material has accumulated to convince me 
that I was entirely wrong in identifying the Kamtschatkan and Japanese 
Carrion Crow with the '^ Black Hill Crow" of India {Corvus levaillantii 
Less.). I hasten to correct the mistake, which was chietly due to the 
ikct that at the time I did not realize the essential differences between 
the two groups of crows represented by C. macroyhynch us aud C.corone. 
Ornithologists familiar with these must have wondered at my absurdity 
in making C. levaillantii a subspecies of C. corone. 

The difference between the two groups is one of structure rather than 
of color, and one who has once observed it will not likely confound 
them afterwards. 

C. corone and its allies differ materially from C. macrorhynchus aud 
its allies in the form and aspect of the feathers of the crown and the 
jugulum. In the former the feathers of the top of the head are. indi- 
vidually distinguishable, the outline of each feather beiug well marked, 
giving the idumage of the crown a somewhat scaly appearance. In 
C. macrorhynchus^ levaillantii, cidminatus, and japonensis it is quite 
otherwise, for in these the top of the head presents a very smooth ap- 
pearance, the individual feathers blending into a uniform glossj' sur- 
face. On the jugulum the difference is perhaps still greater, the feathers 
of this part in C. corone being lanceolate, pointed, and individualized 
like those of the throat, while in the other forms mentioned above the 
jugular feathers are rounded and blended in contradistinction to the 
throat-feathers, which are pointed. 

If these differences be kept in mind there can be no difficulty in sepa- 
rating the two groups, and tested by them the Kamtschatkan and Jap- 
anese bird proves to belong to the G. corone group. 

I agree with Mr. Taczanowski that the Eastern Carrion Crow differs 
sufficiently from the typical European bird to justify their separation 
as a subspecies, and not being able to consult the original description 
of Eversmann's C. orlentalis, or specimens from the locality whence 
came Eversmann's type, I accept Taczanowski's identification. 

The following synonymy may be acceptable in place of the one given 
in my " Oru. Expl. Kamtsch.," p. 239. It should be remarked, how- 
ever, that Taczanowski's Corvus orlentalis in Journ. f. Orn., 187G, p. 198, 
320 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 321 

is not the present species, as Sliarpe lias identified two of Dr. Dy- 
bowski's specimens collected at the Ussnri Eiver, January 20, 1874, as 
G. levaillantii (Cat. B. Brit. Mus., Ill, pp. 40, 41). 

Corvus corone orientalis (Eversm.). 

1829. — Corvus corone Kittlitz, Isis, 1829, p. 529. — Id., Deukw., I, p. 313, and II, p. 
412 (1858).— Temminck, Man.d'Orn., 2ed., Ill, pp. li, 58 (1835).— Temm. 
& SCHL., Fauua Jtip. Aves (p. "9) (1847). — Blakiston, Ibis, 1862, p. 326.— 
Id., Chrysanth., 1882, p. 428.— Id., ibid., 1883, Jan., p. 29.— Id., ibid., 1883, 
Feb., p. — . — Id., Amend. List B. Jap., p. 14 (1884). — Schlegel, Mus. P.- 
Bas, Coraces, p. 17 (1867).— Swixhoe, Ibis, 1874, p. 159.— Martens, Preuss. 
Exp. Ost-As., Zool., I, p. 369(1876).— Blakist. & Pryer, Ibis, 1878, p. 232.— 
lid., Trans. As. Soc. Jap., VIII, 1880, p. 212.— lid., ibid., X, 1882, p. 141.— 
JOUY, Proc. U. S.Nat.Mus., VI, 1883, p. 3Ui. 

1841. — Corvus orientalis Eversmanx, Add. Pall. Zooj;fr., II (p. 7). — Taczanowski, 
Journ. f. Orn., 1874, p. 329.— Dybowski, Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 1883, p. 
362.— Dyb. & Tacz., ibid., 1884, Extr., p. 2. 

1885. — Corvus coroue levaillantii Stejneger, Orn. Exi>1. Kamtsch., pp. 239, 322 (nee C 
levaillantii Less.).— /d., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., X, 1887, p. 142 
Proc. Isr. M. 87 21 



NOTE ON POLYNEMUS CALIFORNIENSIS OF THOMINOT. 
By DAVID 8. JORDAN. 

lu the Bulletin de la Soci^t^ Philomathique ile Paris, Seance du 27 
Juin 1886, M. Alexandre Tliominot has described a new species of Pohj- 
nemus under the name of Polynemus caUforniemis. 

The typical spedmen (0"'.235 \o\\^) comes from a "collection made by 
M. de Cessac in California," but in what part of that vast area, which 
comprises three distinct lish-fauu;i3, it is not stated. 

The specimen described seems to be the young of the well known 
Polynemus approximans Lay & Bennett, a species abundant in the 
waters about Cape San Lucas, from which region the new species was 
probably obtained. 

With all respect to the learning and acumen of my excellent friend 
Monsieur Thominot, I may say that a remark of Dr. Beau (Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1885, 167) seems still pertinent: 

"As a general rule it will be safe to intrust the novelties of fish dis- 
tribution in our country to its resident ichthyologists." 

322 



1887.1 .PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 323 



LIST OF THE MYRIAPODS FOUND IN ESCAMBIA COUNTY, FLO- 
RIDA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF SIX NEW SPECIES. 

(With one plate.) 

The Myriapods which fiiriiished the niateii;il for this paper were col- 
lected by Mr. Charles 11. Bollinan during- the months of March nud 
April, ISSG, on the shores of Pensacola Bay. The collection contains 
four hundred specimens, and is in Mr. Bollmau's possession. Six of the 
species apjiear to be new to science. 

1. Polydesmus bimaculatus, n. sp., P]. xi, figs. 3, 4, and 5. 

Obscure olive or chestnut, the scuta generally marked with an indis- 
tinct transverse dark band, with lighter color towards the margins; a 
well-defined oval spot of gray is frequently present on the lateral mar- 
gins ; lateral laminie with a narrow pink border. 

In the young the color is white with a conspicuous black dorsal band. 
The color becomes gradually darker as the animal grows, and the band 
finally becomes indistinct or obsolete. Venter and legs yellow. Head 
dark except a narrow border around the cephalic margin ; vertex fur- 
row strongly pronounced and labrum emargiuate. 

Anteunai pilose, especially distad. 

Caudal scuta rapidly contracted. 

Anal scutum prolonged, acute, and apex subtruueate. 

The male appendages consist of two pairs of spines placed on low 
tumuli, which are sunk below the surrounding surface. 

The larger pair of spines are somewhat twisted and cut distad into 
two broad, thin processes. 

The caudal surfaces of these spines are completely covered to the 
furcation with a very long, bushy growth of hair. The second pair of 
spines are cephalad to the first and spring from their base. This pair 
is smooth, very slender, acute, and nearly as long as the first pair. 

Length, 34™'".5; width, T™-". 

This description is based upon thirty or more specimens of various 
ages and both sexes. 

Eabitat.—Veussicol'd, Fla. Mr. Charles H. Bollman. 

This is the common form of Polydesmus. It resembles PoUjdesmus 
erythropygus in its habits, but differs from it decidedly in form, color, 
size, and in the genitalia. 

2. Polydesmus varius, n. ep., PI, xi, figs. 1 and 2. 

Varied with red, black, and white, dorsum with a conspicuous mesa! 
line. 

Each scutum has its caudal half blackish with a white spot on each 
side of the mesal line ; cephalic half yellow varied with darker color 



324 FLORIDA SPECIES OF MYKIAPODS. . 

aud with one red spot on each side of the mesal liue. The vertex fur- 
row is very ])hiiu and the vertex is beautifully marked with a reticuhi- 
tion of black on a yellowish- white ground. 

The labrum is very deeply emarginate with a fringe of long hairs; the 
antenuiB are white and i)ilose with somewhat silky hairs. 

The venter is yellowish, mottled with brown. The legs are yellowish 
white, almost hairless proximad but moderately pilose distad, the first 
two joints without spinous processes. 

The anal scutum is large, subtriangular, somewhat depressed, apex 
truncate, the caudo-lateral margins strongly concave and armed with 
very long hairs. 

The female genitalia consist of two flattened pyramidal processes 
contiguous to each other and with openings mesad. 

Length, 15™"\ 

Habitat. — Pensacola, Fla. Charles H. Bollman. 

I had three specimens, all females. 

3. Polydesmus canadensis Newport. 

This species was most abundant in the neighborhood of Titi swamps. 
All the specimens found were very dark chestnut or black. They are 
also notably diiierent from the species found in Indiana in form and 
size, being uniformly smaller, with the ends of the body tapering more 
gradually, but they agree well in the form of the genitalia. 

4. Lisiopetalum eudasum McNeill. 

A few specimens of this species, which has hitherto only been reported 
from Indiana, were found. The specimens found agree well with the 
published descriptions. 

5. Julus impressus Say. 

This species was found abundant. The specimens do not differ ma- 
terially from individuals of the same species in the Central States. 

6. Julus lineatus, u. sp. 

Color varying from deep yellow to deep brown with a series of brown 
spots along each side of the dorsum, very large and conspicuous in 
the light-colored specimens, becoming obsolete in the very dark ones. 

Vertex furrow wanting. Segments, 38-42. Scuta smooth dorsad, 
canaliculate ventrad. 

Ocelli 8 or 9 in each series in onedecurved line which reaches almost 
to the base of the autennse. 

Antenna? i)ilose, the first joint suborbicular, the succeeding four 
clavate, the second being four times as long as it is thick at the distal 
end, the fifth being as long as it is wide at the distal end, the sixth 
joint is cylindrical, and the seventh subconical aud very short. 

The labrum is slightly marginate with a double row of hairs around 
its margin. The aLal scutum is triangular aud without amucro, and 
with a few long hairs around its caudal margin. 



1887.] .PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUfeEUM. 325 

The aual plates are each armed with four long hairs. 
Leugth, 12""". 

Habitat. — Peusacola, Fla. Charles H. Boliman. 
I had six specimens. 

7. Spirobolus uncigerus Wood. 

This species was common under loose materiiil in the neighborhood 
of swamps. The segments vary in number from 48 to 51 ; the ocelli are 
almost complanate. 

8. Mecistocephalus foveatus McNeill. 

Three specimens were found which agree with the description of this 
species published by the writer. 

9. Schendyla ? perforatus, n. sp., PI. xi, figs. 6 and 7. 

Eather robust, gradually attenuated cephalad, rapidly aud very de- 
cidedly attenuated caudad, sparsely pilose with long hairs ; yellow, 
head orange. 

The mandibles are deeply punctate, armed with four not very distinct 
teeth, the basal joint four-fifths as wide as long, sternum deeply emar- 
ginate and coarsely and broadly punctate. 

Cephalic lamina length, l'""M5; width, 1.03; deeply and coarsely 
punctate; cephalic and caudal margins truncate; sides evenly curved. 

Prebasal lamina concealed. 

Basal lamina three times as wide as long with the lateral margins 
converging cephalad. 

Antennae pilose with long bairs, the articles gradually diminishnig in 
length distad. 

Dorsum bisnlcate. Praescuta narrow cephalad, broader caudad. 

Sterna, except the last, trisulcate. 

Prnesterna cephalad are wider laterad than mesad ; caudad half as 
broad as the sterna. 

The last sterna pilose with one mesal sulca, the lateral margins 
slightly converging, caudal angles rounded and caudal margin slightly 
emarginate. 

The last praescuta with a deep mesal groove aud two shallow lateral 
grooves. 

Spiracles round, larger cephalad. 

First pair of feet very little shorter than tbe second pair. 

Feet very slightly pilose. 

Anal coxa slightly, inflated, with two very large pores, the caudal 
one exposed, the one cephalad partly concealed by the last sterna. 

Anal feet more than twice as long as the penultimate pair, rather 
densely pilose, and claw obsolete. 

Pairs of feet of the female sixty-one. 

Length, 48™'" ; width, I'^'^.l. 

^r(?>?Y«f.— Pensacola, Fla. Charles H. BollmaL 



326 FLORIDA SPECIES OF MYRIAPODS. 

I had a siugle specimen, female. I place this species iu the geuus 
Schendyla with some hesitation, but having only a siugle specimen it 
is impossible to determine the character of the mouth parts by dissec- 
tion. 

10. Scolopendra woodii Meiuevt. 

A single specimen belonging to this species was found. 

11. Scolopendra viridis Meinert. 

This species was found abundantly. 

12. Scolopocryptops sexpiuosa S:iy. 

Tiie specimens found agree well with Wood's Scolopocryptops spini- 
Cauda, but I agree with Minert in uniting this species with sexpinosa. 

13. Of>isthemega crassipes ? Meinert. 

1 have not fully identitied this species; the prosternal teeth, in the 
specimens 1 examined, were often 6 or 8 on a side and very irregular in 
size, and in the more mature individuals often run together. The two 
caudal pairs of legs had the tibia and first tarsal joint unarmed. 
Meinert appears to say only the anal pair are without tibial and tarsal 
spines. The antennoe are pubescent. 

This form of Scolopendrida' occurs as abundantly about Pensacola as 
8. sexpinosa does in Indiana, while the latter form occurs as rarely there 
as 0. crassipes occurs here. 

14. Cryptops asperites Wood. 

Specimens belonging to this species agree well with Wood's descrip- 
tion, with the exception that the joints of the antennae always number 
seventeen instead of nineteen. 

15. Litnobius mordax Koch. 

This seems to be the common form of the Lithohiadce. 

16. Lithobius clams n. sp. 

Caudal angles of the 7., 9., 11., 13 scuta produced. 

The anal feet each armed with a single claw. 

Coxal pores few, arranged in a single series. 

Penultimate feet armed with three claws. 

Coxse of the anal feet armed with a spine. 

The claw of the female genitalia three-cleft. 

Yellowish brown or chestnut, venter and feet orange or paler than 
dorsum, rather slender. Scutfe polished, smooth cephalad, very slightly 
rugose and pilose caudad. Venter very pilose caudad with long hairs. 
Antenuse pilose, 31-34 articulate. Head about as long as wide. 

Ocelli 24-20 arranged in 5 curved longitudinal lines, 7, a, 5, 4, 3. 

Prosternal teeth 5-5. 

Coxal i)ores 5, G, (3, 4 or 5, 5, 5, 4 or 4, 5, 5, 3, round. 

Cephalic pair of feet armed with spines 2, 2, 1 ; anal feet armed with 
spines 1, 3, 3, 1. 

Anal feet slightly elongated and swollen. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 327 

Claw on the female genitalia divided into three acutely pointed lobes. 
Claws of the penultimate feet three, one of the smaller pair sometimes 
minute or wanting. 
Length, 15-17"^'". 

J?a7)/te/^.— Pensacola, Fla. Mr. Charles H. Bollman. 
This species is a common one about Peusacola. 

17. Lithobius aureus, u. sp. 

Caudal angles of scuta not produced. 

Coxal ijores few, arranged in a single series. 

Coxae of anal feet each arc ed with a single spine. 

Penultimate feet each armed with three claws. 

Yellowish brown, head and antenna reddish, venter and legs paler. 
Body and legs moderately pilose. 

Head obcordate, 1""'\16 wide; 1"'™.02 long. AntennfB pilose, short, 
2.74""" long, with twenty joints. 

Ocelli 13, in three longitudinal straight rows, 3, 6, 4. 

Prosternal teeth 2-2, acute, diverging. 

Coxal pores 4, 4, 4, 3, round. 

Penultimate feet each armed with three claws and 1, 3, 2, 1 spines. 

Claw of the female genitalia three-lobed. 

Caudal margins of the scuta elevated in the 1., 3,, 5., 8., 9., 10. 

Caudal margins of the scuta straight in the 2., 4., 6., 7., 9., 11., 13. 

Caudal margins of the scuta curved in the 1., 3., 5,, 8., 10., 12., 14., 
15. 

Caudal angles of the scuta subrectangular in the 2., 4., 6., 7. 

Length, 9'"'".5. 

In the two specimens — one male, one female — which I had the anal 
legs were wanting. 

Habitat. — Pensacola, Fla. Mr. Charles H. Bollman. 

Entomological Laboratory of Indiana University, 

Bloomington, May 4, 1886. 



DESCRIPTIONS OF TWELVE NEW SPECIES OF MYRIAPODA, 
CHIEFLY FROM INDIANA. 

By JEROME 7IcIVEIL.I.. 

[With one plate.] 

The types of all but two of the species of Myriapods described in the 
following paper were furnished by a collection made by Mr. Charles H. 
Bollmau and the writer in the vicinity of Bloomiugton, Monroe County, 
Indiana, in the fall and winter of 1885-18SG. This collection contains 
about three thousand specimens, and is in the museum of Indiana Uni- 
versity. Of the fortj' species represented in this collection, twelve ap- 
pear to be new to science. Types of each of these have been sent to 
the U. S. National Museum. I take pleasure in acknowledging my in- 
debtedness for specimens to Prof. Henry L. Osborne, of Purdue Uni- 
versity, to Miss Ivosa Smith, of San Diego, Cal., to Mr. Justus M. T. 
Myers, of Fort Madison, Iowa, and to Mr. A. E. Brunn, of Gartield, 
Kans. 

HEXAGLENA,*gen. nov. 

Eyes six, arranged in two divergent lines, close to the bases of the 
antennae. The head conical, minute, concealed beneath the first scu- 
tum ; spiracles in one row on each side of the body. This genus belongs 
to the family Polyzoniclcc and occupies a position between Octoglena 
(Hood) and Petaserpes (Cope). It differs from Qctof/lena in having six 
instead of eight eyes; in the size and shape of the first scutum, aiul 
particularly in the position of the head, being entirely exposed, in the 
dorsal aspect in Octoglena; wholly concealed in the new genus. It differs 
from Fetaserpes in having six eyes instead of two and in the position ot 
the head, which in Petaserpes is concealed beneath the first scutum as 
far as the bases of the antennae, and in the spiracles which are arranged 
in one row on each side of the body in Hexaglena and in two rows in 
Petaserpes. 

1. Hexagleua cryptocephala, spec. uov. Plate xii. 

Light brown or i)archmeut colored above, dirty white below. Dor- 
sum moderately convex. Venter plainly concave. Heatl conical, as long 
as wide, very minute and entirely concealed in the dorsal aspect. Eyes 
six, in two divergent straight black lines near the bases of the antennae, 
circular in outline and very convex. Antennae very large in proportion 
to the head, densely pilose, separated at the base by a space equal to 
width of the proximal joint of the antennae; the joints of the antennaj 
are of varying lengths, subcjiindrical, scarcely larger distad. Legs 
almost transparent and colorless, about 85 pj). when extended, not 

* £c, six ; yy/v tj, i)upil of the eye 
328 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 320 

leacliiug- beyond the body. Segments not more than 4G. Scuta thickly 
marked with small longitudinal depressions (under a half-inch glass). 
Spiracles two to each segment in one line on either side of the body. 
In some specimens the subsegraeuts are some of them furnished with 
spiracles so that scuta may have four spiracles, but never in more than 
two rows. The scuta decrease in width very rai)idly cephalad and 
caudad; the first scuta is one-half and the last one-tenth the width of 
the body. 

Length, IS-""' ; width, 3™"^. 

Twenty specimens are in the collection, all from Bloomington Town- 
ship, Monroe County, Indiana. 

2. Polydesnius castaneus, spec. uov. Plate xii. 

Dark chestnut to olive-gray with a very indistinct black mesodorsal 
line and pinkish lateral laminj©. Vertex chestnut or concolorous with 
the body ; vertex furrow strongly pronounced and in the dark variety 
piceous; cephalic margin of the labrum broadly and deeply emarginate 
and thickly fringed with hairs; four long sette are arranged in a curved 
line half way between the cephalic margin of the labrum and the bases 
of the antennae. Antennte much less approximate than in P. erythropy- 
gus, pilose and concolorous with the body, a ring of lighter color distad 
of each joint ; basal joints yellowish white, each bearing one or two long- 
setce. First scutum nearly semicircular. Anal scutum triangular, very 
acute behind, with ten long hairs on the anal valves, two-thirds to three- 
fourths the length of anal scutum. Feet pilose, dirty white and concol- 
orous with the ventral side of the body. The genital appendages of the 
male are of the P. erythropygus type, but very diiierent in detail. They 
are composed of two smooth subconical tumuli, to which are articulated 
two long curved spuious processes, which cross each other at two-thirds 
their length from the proximal end. The tumuli are pilose mesad with 
long setse, which are thickly interlaced with each other. Th^ spinous 
processes are also pilose mesad with long hairs to a point just beyond 
their crossing. The spinous processes each bear lateral i^rocesses which 
project cephalo-mesad and end in two spines, one short and acute, the 
other long, slender, curved, and very acute. The spinous processes are 
deeply bifid distad, and the space between the forks is filled with a thin 
transparent membrane. 

There are three specimens in the collection, all from Bloomington 
Townfehi}), Monroe County, Indiana. 

3. Polydesmiis erythropygus, var. Plate xii. 

This variety is very distinct in general ai)pearance from the typical 
P. erythropygus, but does not deserve to rank as a species. 

Salmon pink, deeper on the caudal margins of the scuta and on the 
lateral laminae, an indistinct dark mesodorsal line. Lateral laminae 
separated by a space nearly equal to their width. The male genitalia 
are formed as in erytliropygus, but have nothing of the " swan-ne(;k 
curve," being straight, upright, and approximate. 



330 NEW MYRIAPODS FROM INMANA. 

4. Trichopetalum boUmani, spec. nov. Plate xii. 

This species resembles T. glomenititm, but differs in the following 
respects : 

Light horn color; leg bearing segments about forty-live. Legs 4G to 
50. Antennai relatively more slender. The third joint of the antenna^ 
is .Sd*""" long and .083'"'" wide at proximal end, and .119"'™ distad, being 
therefore about eight times as long as wide. T. glomeratum has the 
corresponding joint about four times as long as wide. The other joints 
are proportionally slender. The fourth and fifth joints of T. bollmani 
are more nearly equal than the correspondingjoints are in T. glomeratum. 
In the former the length is, respectively, .03""'" and .72"""', in the hitter 
_24mm ami .33™™. The former has the fourth joint straight instead of 
kneed as in the latter. The length of the joints of the antennie, except 
the first, is, 2nd, .34™™, 3rd .84™'", 4th .03"'™, 5th .72™™, 6th .41™™, 7th, 
.24™™. The caudal subsegments are swollen and give the body of the 
animal a ridged appearance. Length. 17™™; diameter, 1.5™™. 

During the months of XDVciuber and December, 1885, this species 
was found in small numbers, in May fold's cave, 5 miles northwest of 
Bloomington, Ind. This cave is about a I'ourth of a mile in length, 
and is simply the outlet of an underground stream. Ten feet high at 
the entrance, it gradually decreases in size to a slit in the rock too small 
to admit the body of a man. The floor is covered with fragments of 
rock fallen from the ceiling under which the specimens furnishing this 
description were found. There are seven specimens in the museum. 

5. Lisiopetaliini eudasym, spec. uov. 

Body and head deep brown, almost black, with lighter mesodorsal and 
laterodorsal stripes. Each scutum, except a few nearest to the head, 
has twenty-six ridges situated upon the caudal two-thirds of its dorsal 
surface. Fourteen of these ridges are comparatively small and twelve 
larger. Each of the larger ridgcs extends caudad in an acutely-conical 
bristle-tij)ped point, which projects over the following scutum. Two 
small ridges are i)laced in the mesodorsal stripe ; laterad to these on 
either side six larger ridges alternate with six smaller; three larger 
ridges lie between the mesodorsal and laterodorsal stripes, one lies in 
the laterodorsal stripe and two ventrad. Immediately below the anal 
scutum and on either side of the meson are situated two very coarse 
setae, out of which two fine set<e grow. The eye-patches are triangular 
with convex margins and each contains forty-six ocelli. Antenna? cou- 
colorous with the body and pilose except the first joint, which is lighter 
and not i^lose. All the joints distad of the first have a ring of lighter 
color distad ; the four joints distad of the first are moderately clavate 
and subequal ; the sixth is more decidedly clavate and a little more than 
half as long as the fifth ; the distal joint is a convex cone. The antenna? 
are kneed at the junction of the third and fourth joints. Head punctate 
and densely- pilose. Labrum deeply emarginate. Legs pdose, yellowish 
white, darker distad. Leg bearing segments, 58. Legs, 102. Length, 



1867.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 331 

5d™™ ; diameter, 3'"'". There are seven specimens in the collection, all 
found in Bloomington Township, Monroe County:, Indiana. 

€. Inlus multiannulatus, spec. uov. 

This is the largest species of Inlus yet described as belongmg to North 
America. Black annulate with brown. Cephalic subsegments smooth, 
polished, and black; caudal subsegments variegated with brown and 
closely and deeply conaliculate dorsad and ventrad. Segments, 10. 
Body and head nowhere pilose. Mncro very small. Eyes brown, -48 in 
number, arranged in a linear patch ..::.■.■... close to the base of each an- 
tenna. Antennae pilose and moderately long and slender. Legs pilose 
and equal in length to the diameter of the body. Length, IGo""" ; diam- 
eter, 8.5""". 

The specimen which furnished this description was found by the chil- 
dren of Mr. Justus M. T. Myers, near Fort Madison, Iowa. 

7. Geophilus brunneus, spec. iiov. 

Olive-brown, cephalic segment deep orange, caudal segment and 
caudal legs light orange, the remaining legs concolorous with the body. 
Cephalic scutum irregularly isunctate, nearly as broad as long, and 
slightly broader proportionally in the female than in the male, slightly 
abruptly narrowed cephalad. Cephalic scutum in the male is .86""" long, 
.77""' wide ; in the female .94"'"' long by .86"'"' wide. Antennae moder- 
ately pilose, 2.66""" long. Labium plainly canaliculate, punctate, and 
emarginate cephalad. Mandibles sparsely pilose, with one very small 
tooth. Scuta pilose ; scuta-episcutal sutures very plain, with a greener 
tinge than the other parts of the dorsum ; cephalad i)arallel caudad di- 
vergent. Sterna punctate ; sterna-episternal sutures plain, with small 
mesal depressions of elliptical shape. Legs pilose, in the male 47 pp., 
in the female 49 pp.; caudal legs of the female little modified, 1.23""", 
pair cephalad to these l"""long; caudal legs of the mah) greatly en- 
larged and more pilose; tibial .19'""' thick, .26""" long. Coxae of caudal 
legs plainly pitted. Body 23""'" long, 1.16"'"' wide. 

This species is rare in Bloomington Township, Monroe County, Indi- 
ana. There are three specimens in the collection, 

S. Geophilus indianas, spec. nov. 

Fuscous, cephalic segment reddish orange, caudal extremity of the 
body light orange. Cephalic plate .96'""' long, .94""' wide ; cephalic half 
semicircular; caudal margin truncate, .54'"'" in length; cephalic margin 
very slightly emarginate. A row of setae projects laterad from the lat- 
eral margins of the cephalic plate and mesad to these two parallel rows 
of setae ; the surface is unevenly and sparsely punctate. Antennae mod- 
erately pilose, 2.14'"'" long. Mandibles very slightly pilose, with one 
almost obsolete tooth. Labium evenly and deeply punctate, indistinctly 
canaliculate, and scarcely emarginate. Scuta-episcutal sutures very 
plain. Sterna-episternal sutures and mesal depressions ve-ry i)lain. 



332 NEW MYKIAPODS FROM INDIANA. 

Legs il PI)., scarcely pilose. Caudal legs much swolleu ami pubescent, 
with a very few long hairs ; tibial joint .19'""', .15™™. Pits on caudal 
coxaj distinct. Length, 17.14'""' ; width, .OS""". 

The single specimen which furnished this description was found near 
La Fayette, Ind., by Prof. Henry L. Osborne. 

9. Geophilus varians. 

Obscure orange or yellow, deeper and bright toward the head. 
Cephalic segment orange, .77'""' long, .GO'""" wide. Cephalic and caudal 
margins straight and equal, lateral margins evenly curved. Antenn;e 
pilose, 1.9""" long. Labium lightly punctate, pilose, and slightly emar- 
ginate. Mandibles sparsely pilose, each with one small tooth. Scuta 
hardly at all pilose. Scuta-episcutal sutures moderately plain cephalad, 
obsolete caudad. Sternaepisternal sutures plain; mesal depressions 
plainer cephalad and caudad thau mesiad. Legs 53 to 55 pp. Caudal 
pair swollen slightly; 1.3""" long; scarcely at all pilose; tibial joint .20'""' 
by .12'"!". The pair just cephalad .6""" long. Length, 18.85™"'; width, 

yQmm 

There are twelve specimens in the collection, all found near Bloom- 
ington, Ind. 

10. Mecistocephalus umbraticus. 

Light orange cephalad and caudad, fuscous mesiad. Head deep 
orange. Cephalic plate irregularly punctate, 1.11'"'" long, .78™™ wide. 
Anteunie 2.-1™™ long, pilose. Mandibles pilose, with longer hairs mesad» 
deeply i)uuctate, each with four teeth, the two outer larger thau the 
two iuner. Labium deeply punctate, pilose, canaliculate and emarginate. 
Scuta very pilose for this genus. Scuta-episcutal sutures less distinct 
and wider apart caudad thau cephalad. Sternaepisternal sutures plaiu. 
Legs, 49 pairs, pilose, with loug hairs. Caudal legs slender, scarcely 
modified, 1.1™™ long, the pair just cephalad .9™™ loug. Length, 21.25™™^ 
width, .9.™™ 

Found uear Bloomington, Ind. Eight specimens in the collection. 

H. Mecistocephalus strigosus, si)ec. nov. 

Light orange cephalad, yellow caudad, head deep orange. Cephalic 
plate 1.1™'" by .07'"'"; cephalic margiu truncate, caudal margin rounded 
and as long as the cephalic. Antennte 2.7"'™ loug, sparsely pilose, 
almost bare proximad. Mandibles sparsely pilose, each with two very 
minute teeth. Labium sparsely pilose, lightly punctate, oUsoletely 
canaliculate, scarcely emarginate. Scuta-episcutal sutures plain ceph- 
alad, becoming obsolete caudad. Sterna-e])isternal sutures plain ; mesal 
depressions elongate and distinct cephalad, caudad, and mesiad, form- 
ing a shallow oval. Legs, 55 pp., sparsely pilose. Caudal legs mi- 
nutely pubescent, with a very few longer hairs, 1.11"'" long, the pair just 
cephalad .08" ■". Length, 23.5"""; width, .8'"'". 

Found near Bloomington, Ind. One specimen iu the collection. 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 333 

12. Mecistocephalus foveatus, spec. uov. 

Orauge, polished, with au iuterrupted fuscous band ou the caudal 
two-thirds of the dorsum. Head orauge. Cephalic plate 1.J9""" by 
.77""", dee])ly punctate, pilose, caudad; the lateral margins are con- 
tracted abruptly, and the cephalic plate is extended into a very short 
neck, with the caudal margin truncate, and marked with very closely 
set impressed lines. Antennae 2.0"™ long, pilose, the hairs distad longer 
thau in allied species. Labium very profoundly punctate, plainly cau- 
alicuate, pilose, and very sharply emarginate, the labium cephalad ex- 
tending into two sharp teeth. Mandibles pilose, less deeply punctate 
than the labium, two-toothed, the cephalic black, the caudal one orange, 
and therefore inconspicuous. Sterna-episternal sutures and elongate 
mesal depressions plain. Scuta-episcutal sutures plain. Legs, 43 pairs, 
very long, pilose. Caudal legs not modified except in length, the for 
mer being 1.08""" long, the pair just cephalad .80™™. Many hairs on all 
the legs as long as the joints. Length, 23.31'"™; width, .94™'". 

Found near Bloomingtou, Ind. Two specimens in the collection. 

13. Scolopocryptops nigridius, spec. uov. 

Olive-brown, cephalic and caudal segments and appendages reddish 
brown. Cephalic margin of the labium straight and very slightly 
emarginate. Caudal legs with the first tarsal joint sparsely and sec- 
ond and third densely villose. Tarsal joints of the three or four pairs 
■of legs cephalad to the caudal pair more or less villose. Apex of the 
caudal scutum depressed, giving it the appearance of being slightly 
emarginate. Dorsum smoothly rounded, without any indication of 
laterodorsal carina. Length, 26.5™™ to 29.5™™. The thirty-five speci- 
mens I have examined are very constant in size, colors, and other 
characteristics. This species evidently occupies a position intermediate 
between S. sexpinosa and S. gracilis, having the straight, slightly emar- 
ginate labium of the first and the villose tarsi of the second. In gen- 
eral appearance it strougly resembles a large Litliolmis, and its habits 
are those of. Lithohins rather thau of tioolopocryptops. 

Found near Bloomingtou, Ind. 

14. Cryptotrichus caesioaunulatus (Wood). Plate xii. 

I have examined seventy specimens taken without selection from the 
two hundred or more found in Monroe County, and about oue in ten 
proved to be males. The eight pairs of legs are modified as follows : 
Joints six, i. e., femur and tibia, aud four tarsal joints united to form a 
hook. The basal joint is slightly lengthened and curved upward nearly 
parallel to the body. The tibia is compressed, and gradually enlarged 
to a point one-third its length from the distal end ; from this point it 
is abruptly constricted so that the diameter of the proximal and distal 
ends is about the same. The enlargement of the tibia is ou its ventral 
side and ends in a tubercle which does not bear a seta. The four tarsal 
joints (with the distal third of the tibia) form a semicircular hook tipped 
with a normal claw. The two proximal joints of the hook are equal in 



334 NEW ilYKIAPODS FROM INDIANA. 

size, cyliudrical, length equal to the diameter. The last joiuts are coni- 
cal and very small. The length of the four tarsal joints is equal to the 
greatest diameter of the tibia. The femur and tibia are white and not 
l^ilose, the hook is brown and pilose. 

I have recently examined seventy-four si)ecimens of that group of 
Strigamia which is characterized by pits on the cox;© of the caudal legs. 
I placed those together which had the same number of legs and the 
caudal legs alike. 

The result was as follows : 

Specimens. 

1 . Legs 37 pairs ; caudal legs, stout . , 1 

2. Legs :39 pairs ; caudal legs, stout 5 

3. Legs 37 pairs ; caudal legs, slender I 

4. Legs 39 pairs ; caudal legs, slender 1 

5. Legs 41 pairs ; caudal legs, slender 2 

6. Legs 47 pairs ; caudal legs, slender 1 

7. Legs 49 pairs ; caudal legs, slender 10 

8. Legs ')! pairs ; c andal legs, slender 12 

9. Legs 47 pairs ; ca udal legs, stout 8 

10. Legs 49 pairs ; ca udal legs, stout 3 

11. Legs 67 pairs; caudal legs, stout 1 

12. Legs 09 pairs ; caudal legs, stout 6 

13. Legs 71 ])airs ; caudal legs, stout 2 

14. Legs 71 pairs ; caudal legs, slender - 12 

15. Legs 73 pairs; caudal legs, slender 9 

It will be observed that these easily divide into three groups, Xos. 
1-5 having 37-41 pairs of legs; Nos. G-10 having 47-51 pairs of legs, 
and Xos. 11-15 with 67 to 73 pairs of legs. It is a striking fact that not 
one specimen out of the seventy-four has an even number of pairs of 
legs. It will be noticed that in each group the ditfereniie in the num- 
ber of pairs of legs is 2 or 4. Assuming that the specimens with slen- 
der caudal legs are females and those with stout caudal legs males, it 
will be seen that in the first group the females have 41, 39, or 37 pairs 
of legs ; the males have 39 or 37 pairs of legs. In the second group 
the females have 51, 49, or 47 pairs of legs ; the males have 49 or 47 
pairs of legs. In the third group the females have 73 or 71 pairs of 
legs ; the males have 71, G9, or G7 pairs of legs. 

In each groui) the specimens with the largest number of legs are 
females, those with the smallest number males. But in the first and 
second groups there seem to be females that have as few pairs of legs 
as the males that have the fewest ; a glance at the first table will show 
that there is but one specimen of this kind in each of the groups (]!?^os. 
3 and G). It would appear then that adult females have two more i)airs 
of legs than adult males and that these animals grow by the addition 
of two pairs of legs, and therefore two segments at one time. Whether 
these conditions will hold good for the whole genus or the whole family 
I do not know, but I have reason to believe that it is the rule for males 
to have fewer legs, by two pairs, than the females. 

Indiana University, March 10, 18SG. 



1887.] PEOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 335 



THE SPECIES OF EUERYTHRA Harv. 
By JOHIV B. S.^IITII. 

(With one plate.) 

lu Cau. Eut. Vlir, p. 5, Harvey describes '■'- Euerythra pliasma ii. g. 
et sp." as follows: " $ The insecit is allied to Spilofioma, but the head 
is more promineut, the wings narrower, and the anteuuce more coutiuu- 
ously pectinate. The neuration has not been studied of this form, which 
is so distinctl3^ marked as to be at once recognized, and which I do not 
find in authors. Wiiite ; fore wings white, crossed by a broad irregular 
blackish baud from base to extremity of veins 3 and 4, where it retains 
[stains] the otherwise white fringes. From apices to middle of external 
margin a second band diagonally crosses the wing. A discal black 
spot and traces of an extra basal band. Everywhere where the black- 
ish color obtains the veins are bright yellow, as is the submedian 
fold. Body above crimson, whitish at base. Thorax and head above 
white. lS<juamatiou about the eyes crimson. Anterior legs fuscous 
outwardly ; palpi fuscous. Beneath, the white secondaries show a dot. 
Expanse 38""" (May 5, Belfrage, Xo. 471)." It will be seen that really 
no distinctive characters are giveu, although the genus seems a very 
distinct one, and has been universally recognized. The species is not 
uncommon in Texas, and in arranging the Museum material quite a 
number of specimens were found in the various collections that were 
incorporated. 

It at once struck me that there were two distinct forms, and further 
study convinced me that there were two good species ; the genus, too, 
proved to be rather peculiar, so that a complete description and study 
seems not out of place. 

GENERIC DESCRIPTION. 

Head moderate in size, scarcely retracted, tongue weak, but distinct, 
semi-corneous. Palpi small, in the $ scarcely exceeding the front, in 
the 9 longer. Anteunie of the $ rather lengthily bipectinated to the 
tip, the branches ciiiate; of the 9 simple. The eyes are naked, globose; 
the ocelli present. The thorax and abdomen are untufted, the vesti- 
ture hairy. The legs are subequal in length, the median tibine with 
one pair, posterior tibioe with two pairs of short spurs. Tarsi sparsely 
spinulose. As a whole the insect is moderately stout, the thoracic 
vestiture rather shaggy; abdomeu short, not exceeding the secondaries. 
Primaries moderate, trigonate, outer margin obliquely rounded ; 
broader in the female than in the male. AYith twelve veins. Dorsal 
or internal vein not forked at base, median vein giving rise to 2 at 
outer third, and to 3, 4, and 5 at equal intervals fxom the tip, 6 and 7 



336 THE SPECIES OF EUERYTHRA. 

from the tip of subcostal, 7 giving off first 10 tlieu S, from wliich 
9 branches close to the tip — that is to say veins 7 to 10 are on a single 
stalk ; 11 from subcostal rather close to the end of the cell, thence to 
costa. Costal as usual. Cell closed by a fine cross vein. Secondaries 
freuate, the costal vein icanting. Two internal veins, the outer very 
faint. Median vein giving rise to 2 at the outer third, 3 and 4 at the 
end of cell ; 5 is from the cross vein, close to 4. The subcostal branches 
into C or 7 some distance beyond the cell and these veins are therefore 
unusually short. The absence of tha costal vein recalls the so-called 
Zyf/a'nid families, but is not so usual in the Arctiidce where it is usually 
from the subcostal at a variable distance from base. 

The genitalia of the male are somewhat distinctive, the supra anal 
hook is inflated at the angle of the bend, and viewed laterally has some 
resemblance to a bird's head. The side pieces are broad, semi-cylindrical 
corneous toward tip where the upper angle is produced into a rather 
long pointed somewhat twisted projection — there is some difference in 
the species which will be pointed hereinafter out. 

E. phasma Harv. Can. Eut. VIII, 5. 

The brief description at the beginning of the article is sufficiently 
characteristic to obviate the necessity of a detailed enumeration of pe- 
culiarities. It remains only to add that the palpi are crimson as are 
the front coxae. Inner side of front femora and tibiae dark. On the 
underside the primaries generally show a faint reproduction of the 
markings of upper side. The tip of the side pieces of the $ is in this 
species considerably drawn out, corneous and acute, somewhat curved. 
A reference to the figure will show the structure at a glance. The 
rounded i)rojection at the lower angle is membraneous in texture. 

E. trimaculata, sp. uov. 

Head and thorax white, orbits of eyes and the vestiture of palpi 
bright red. Abdomen white, the segments ringed with bright red 
(crimson) of variable width. In the 2 the red is sometimes very faint 
orange, covered with white scales. In the $ , on the contrary, the pre- 
dominating color is sometimes red or crimson and the abdomen appears 
white bandetl. The basal segments are always more narrowly red- 
ringed in both sexes, and rarely they are altogether absent at this 
l)oiut. A row of black dorsal spots, which are, however, often wanting. 
Primaries with an umber brown or blackish fascia of variable width 
near the base — broadest at costa, outwardly oblique to the submedian 
interspace, and there usually terminated ; occasionall}' there is a nar- 
rower prolongation, inwardly oblique to the internal vein. Another 
short'baud of similar color from the costa near apex, inwardly oblique 
to vein 5. A short upright band from tlie inner mart:in near anal angle 
to vein 2. In some specimens there is a double spot at the end of the 
discal cell. The veins where they cross the brown bands are marked 
with yellow scales. Secondaries pure white, immaculate. Beneath, the 



1H87.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 337 

markings of primaries are faintly reproduced; secondaries occasionally 
with a discalspot. Anterior cox;Ti bright orange red, inside of anterior 
femora and tibiie brown. Else, underside white. 

Expands 1-1.25 inches = 20-33™". 

Habitat. — Texas. 

The side piece in this species has the tip much less drawn out and 
more obtuse at tip, hardly corneous, and not so much curved. A com- 
parison of the figures of Plate xiii will show the differences at a glance. 
In maculation the principal points of difference are the want of the 
longitudinal baud and the incompleteness of the oblique baud, which 
in phasma extends from near the apex to the middle of the inner mar- 
gin. 

Proc. N. M. 87 22 



THE NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OP CALLIMORPHA LATH. 
Mty JOHN B. S.^BTII. 

(With one plate.) 

Tlie species of CaUimorpha are ^raeefal, rather sliglitly Imilt motbs^ 
■svitli comparatively large wings and smoothly clothed body. Head rather 
small, but distinct, not at all retracted; eyes large, globose, naked f 
ocelli present; front broad snbquadrate; tongue moderate in length, 
corneous. Palpi slender, middle joint much the longest. Antenuiie- 
slender, filiform, with a single fine bristle at each sideof each joint in both 
sexes; stronger, however, in the male. Thorax short, oval; abdomen 
elongate, reaching to or exceeding anal angle of secondaries, cylindric 
subequal throughout. Legs closely scaled, anterior tibia much the 
shortest, posterior pair much the longest, middle tibice with a pair of 
terminal spurs only, posterior with two pairs. Tarsi distinctly spin- 
ulated. Primaries with distinct, somewhat acute, apex and slightly 
oblique, rounded outer margin. Twelve veins. Internal vein not fur- 
cate, ;2 from the submedian, 3, 4, and 5 from the same vein at the end of 
the cell at equal distances. Six fron) the upper edge of the cell — a 
distinct accessory cell from which arise veins 7 to 10 — 8 and 9 on a stalk ; 
the cell is variablejn size and shape even in the same species, and there 
is, therefore, some inconstancy here. Vein 11 from the subcostal one- 
third from the end of cell to costal margin. Costal vein (12) as usuaL 
Secondaries 8 veined, two internal veins. Veins 3, 4, and 5 are nearly 
equidistant at the end of the median vein, G and 7 formed by the fur- 
cation of the subcostal at the end of the cell. Costal vein from the 
subcostal some distance from base. The venation is somewhat vari- 
able, but after the same general type. Frenelum present. In the (5 
simple, sliding in a loop from the costal margin. In the female com- 
l)Ouud covered by a few crossed hairs on the median vein, the loop from 
costa wanting. The genitalia are all after the same pattern. The hook 
is very long, slender, and acute; side pieces long, narrow, broadening 
a little at tip, the angles variably produced. 

This genus contains, according to the most recent list, three species,. 
c/^mcHC Esp., interriiptomarginata'Deli.. and lecontei Bd., the latter with 
four varieties and three synonyms. The tirst two of these are well 
marked si)ecies which have never caused question as to their limits, but 
the third, lecontei, has bothered authors more than enough — some sub- 
dividing it into five species, others referring them all as varieties of 
one and the same form. 

A brief history of the variation of the opinions nuiy not be uninter- 
esting. 
336 



1887.J PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 331) 

Harris, in 1835, in bis catalogue of the insects of ^Massachusetts, 
named the first variety or species after Boisduval's original description 
of Iccontei, calling it miUtaris. 

Doubleday, in a letter to Harris* (May, 1839), says: 

" Of the Arctia Lccontei of Boisd. (Gueriu Icon. It. A.), I have all 
manner of varieties ; your miUtaris is a'^.otber one. The white spots 
becoming couHueut in a different manner will account for all these vari- 
ations." In June, 1839, he writes: "As to CalUmorpha Lecontci, and 
miUtaris, I can only say that at Trenton I took a series of them running 
one into the other so that one conld not draw the line to divide them. 
Variable insects do not vary in some localities." In September, 1840, 
he returns to the same subject, and says : t " The larva of your viiUtaris, 
or any allied species, is not in Abbott's drawing. Stephens thinks it a 
true Hypercompa. * * * Stephens says your miUtaris is quite dis- 
tinct from Lccontei, and points out a small white spot near the outer 
margin as not being" present in Lecontei. I must acknowledge that I 
begin to waver in my opinion. He thinks the spots cannot coalesce so 
as to give the markings of miUtaris.'''' 

In Flint's Edition of Harris' Injurious Insects, page 344, figure 1G5 
represents CaUimorplia miUtaris, and Harris says of the genus CalU- 
morpha: ^' Some of the slender-budied Arctians with bristle-formed 
antennaj which are not distinctl.y feathered in either sex, and having 
the feelers slender and the tongue longer than the others, come so near 
to the Lithosians that naturalists arrange them sometimes among- the 
latter and sometimes among the Arctians. They belong to Latreille's 
genus CalUmorpha (meaning beautiful form), one species of whicn in- 
habits Massachusetts, and is called CalUmorpha miUtaris CFig-. 105), the 
soldier moth in ra^' catalogue. Its fore wings expand about 2 inches, 
are white, almost entirely bordered with brown, with an oblique band 
of the same color from the inner margin to the tip, and the brown bor- 
der on the front margin generally has two short angular projections 
extending backwards on the surface of the wing. The hind wings are 
white and without spots. The body is white ; the head, collar, and 
thighs buff-yellow ; and a longitudinal brown stripe runs along the top 
of the back from the collar to the tail. This is a very variable moth;^ 
the brown markings on the fore wings being sometimes very much re- 
duced in extent, and sometimes, on the contrary, they run together so 
much that the wings appear to be brown, with five large white spots. 
This latter variety is named CalUmorpha, Lecontei by Dr. Boisduval." 

This is the first expression by Harris of the variability of the moth. 
Harris considered the darkest, most spotted form lecontei, while the 
pale form with the oblique baud from the inner margin to the tip is his" 
miUtaris. Harris says, in a general way, of the larvjie of CalUmorpha, 
that they are more sparingly clothed with hair than the other Arctians, 
are generally dark colored, with longitudinal stripes, feed on various 

* Ent. correspondence, r2"2. t L. c, 149. | The italics are mine. 



3-10 ^ORTII AMEKKJAX CALMMfJilPIIA. 

lieiWiKt'oas and .sliiul)l)y plaiit.s, and conceal themselves during the day. 
He nioiesses ignorance of the hirva of niitifdris. Packard, in his Guide, 
maues tlie same general titatenient. 

Walker, in the Cat. Lep. li. M. Ilet., Ill, 050, divides the Xorth 
Americiui S[)ecies as follows : 

A. Ala- iiostica- lutea-. 

a. Ala! autitM' fiisca;, vittis iiiaiulaiibus aUjis Clv.mkm'. K-^jicr. 

b. Ala' aiitica' Intescentes, fusco subiuaTj^iiiata' Comma It'aihcr. 

B. Ala' postica; aU)a'. 

o. Ahu autic'a> maculis albis Lkc< ixtei lioiid. 

i. Aliv. anticai vitta macnlifmiiu' duabii.s albis contigua Walker. 

c. AliC aiiticiB vitta macula(iiie albis Coxfinis Walker. 

He does not know the miliiaris of Harris, which he redescribed as 
confinis, nor the interrupto-maryinata of De Beauvois, which he names 
comma. 

Of lecontci he describes four varieties : 

a. Fore vriugs with four white spots ; second nearly round. 

,3, Second spot forked ; fourth iuterruiited. 

j\ Like var. fi. Third spot nearly divided. 

S. Like rar. ,3. Second and third spots divided. 

Two forms seem mixed here, the true Iccontei and the species herein- 
after named by me siiffusa. 

One of the immaculate forms was afterwards described as Tanada 
jconscifa, and this is the form named restalis by Packard. 

In 18G0, Proc. Ac. y. Sc. Phil., 530, Clemens first described one of the 
immaculate forms as C.fuh-icosia, and considered it a good species. 

Packard, in his Syuopis of the Bombycida', 1804 (Pr. E. S. Ph., 1864, 
107), cites miUtaris as a sj'uonym of Iccontei^ and leaves contigua, con- 
Jinis, nud fulvicosta with specific rank. He also describes as vestaUs an 
immaculate form which he says is smaller than the other species and 
nearly pure white. 

In speaking of /Mrrico,v/«, Stretch, in his Zygienida? and Bombycidie, 
p. 04, says " of which vestaUs Pack, is only a synonym." 

Morris, in the Synopsis, suppl., p. 345, follows Walker in the syuon- 
omy as a rule, omits lecontci altogether, but describes four varieties of 
militarls Harris, as follows: 

" Var. a. Primaries with four white spots ; second nearly round. 

'' Var. b. Second spot forked ; fourth interrupted. 

" Var. c. Third spot nearly divided. 

" Var. d. Second and third spots divided." 

Messrs. Grote and liobinson, in the Tr. A. E. S., II, p. 72, refer con- 
finis Walk, and contigua Walk, as synonj'ms of lecontci. 

Stretch, in the Zygienidie and Bombycid;e of Korth America, p. 02, 
gives a synonomy in which he refers miUtaris as a synonj'm of lecontei, 
makes confinis, contigiui, and fulvicosta varieties, and cites vestaUs a 
synonym of fulvicosta. 



1887.] PROCEEDIXGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 341 

Hesays, p. G3: "Some forms here classified as varietie.s may prove 
to be valid species when their history is known, as, for instance, C. con- 
tifjita, which is stated by the editor of the Casiadian Entomologist (vol. 
1, p. 45) to be quite a constant form." At \). lioO he apiin refers to the 
species and quotes a letter from ]\Ir. Saunders, claiming" that kcontei 
and contUjua are valid species; but after ail, on the basis of the exam- 
ples he then had, he does not change the synonymy as above given. 

In describing CalUmorplia rcversa he says (Ent. Am., I, 104) : " This 
species has long been contounded with Lceonfti. Harris and Doubleday 
discussed the question of their specific identity, and Canadian entomol- 
ogists have long contended that two species were included under the 
latter name, but, so far as I know, without pointing out the most rec- 
ognizable character, which is to be found in the main transverse band 
of the primaries. In Lecontei this starts from the inner margin and goes 
to the apex, while in reversa it starts from the outer margin and goes to 
the anal angle, being exacth" as in clymene. Just as is often the case in 
the latter species, the transverse band is sometimes partly obsolete near 
to the costa, and this seems to be the chief variation." 

This term embraces two very distinct forms, and he mistakes the type 
of lecontei, which is incorrectly figured in the Z. & B. on PI. IX, f. 14. 
Yet it is this very.form that he here describes as reversa, evidently now 
considering mil i far is Harris as typical of lecontei. 

In the Sixteenth Annual Report of the Entomological Society of On- 
tario, 188G, p. 38, Mr. F. B. Caulfield says : " I have only seen four 
Canadian species, one buff, inierrupto-marginata,, and three white, Le- 
contei, contigua, and one unnamed species which generally passes for 
Lecontei, but certainly is not that species, as I have bred both species, 
and the larva of Lecontei is larger and the colors are duller than 
those of the larva of the smaller species. Lecontei has several varieties, 
such as miUtaris Harris and conjinis Walk., and these varieties have 
much more white on the wings than the type, or, in other words, it varies 
in the direction of albinism, while in the smaller species the reverse is 
the case, this species varying in the direction of melanism, in some 
specimens the white spots being almost entirely covered. * * * 
Contiguais a well marked form and varies very little, but, as I have no 
specimens at hand, I cannot point out the distinctive features. I am, 
however, satisfied that breeding the larva will in time prove that we 
have three white-winged species, Lecontei, Contigua, and the smaller 
form which now does duty as LeconteiJ' 

In arranging, under Professor Ililey's direction, the Museum collec- 
tions of Arctiidw, I endeavored in this genus to make out all the listed 
variations from an unusually abundant material, and L soon found that, 
while there was a considerable variation, so that an apparently complete 
series could be made, yet there was at the same time a change in the 
pattern of the markings, and following out this idea I arranged the 
species allied to lecontei into four distinct species, exclusive of tne two 



342 NORTH AMERICAN CALLIMORPHA. 

immaculate iorms^fulricofitu and ve.stalifi, which are abundantly distinct 
from each other, though tliey may possibly be albino forms of one or 
the other of the maculate species. J do not believe this, however, and 
prefer for the present to consider them distinct, though perhaps uot 
strongly nuirked, species. 

An examination of the genital structure proved my idea correct, suf- 
ficient constant dilfereuces existing to make the distinction certain if 
not very great. 

The scheme of the arrangement in synoptic; form is as follows: 

SYNOPSIS OF THK SPECIES. 

1. Secondaries yellow " 

Secondaries white ^^ 

2. Primaries with costal, outer, and inner margin blatk margined, leaving the apex 

and anal angle white, an obliqne half band from the outer end of the band 
along internal margin Interrupto-margixata. 

Primaries with all the margins black bordered, leaving the apex only white, the 
outer half of wing divided by bands so as to form three white spots along 
the costal niarginand alarge triangularspotalongonter margin.. Clymene. 

Primaries immaculate, pale creamy white Lactata. 

3. Primaries marked and banded with black 4 

Primaries immacnlate ' 

4. Primaries without a basal cross-band •'> 

Primaries with a basal cross-band <> 

5. Primaries with an oblique cross-baud from inner margin to the apex ..Militakls. 
Primaries with an oblique band from anal angle to costa two-fifths from apex ; the 

outer part of wing divided into two large spots Contigua. 

Primaries with an oblique band from anal angle to costa three-tifths from apex ; 
outer part of wing divided into four large white spots Sufflsa. 

6. Primaries brown, with five large white spots, the middle one largest and partly 

divided Lecoxtei. 

7. Size larger ; primaries a delicate creamy white FULVlCOSTA. 

Size smaller ; primaries pure white Vestalis. 

C. interrupto-niarginata De Beanv. Ins. Afr. et Amer., 265, pi. 24, f. 5 and G, Bomhix ; 
Clem., Pr. Ac. N. Sc. Phil., xii, 1860, 15:3 and 161, Eypercompa; Morris, Syu. 
Lep. App., p. 346, CaUimorpha ; Saund., Syu. Can. Arct., 1863, p. 29, Hijper- 
lompa; Pack., Pr. E. S. Ph., iii, 1864, 107, CalUmorplia ; Guide, p. 286, f. 216, 
CaUmoipha; Beth., Can. Eut., i, 45 ; Stretch, Z. and B.,66, pi. 2, f. 19, CaUi- 
morpha; Siewers, Can. Ent.. x, 84; id. xi, 47; Strk. Proc. Dav. Ac. Sci., II, 
275 (hybrids of). 
cowuim Wlk., C. B. M. Lep. Het., iii, 652, Uijpercompu ; Clem., Pr. Ac. N. Sc. Phil., 
xii, 1860, 536, pr. syu. 

Head pale fulvous, paler on vertex ; palpi yellowish, apical joint 
blackish brown; antenna3 also blackish. Thorax whitish, with a broad 
dorsal stripe. Abdomen yellow, with a blacki sh dorsal band of variable 
width, rarely obsolete. Thorax beneath, and legs yellow, the anterior 
pair dark brown outwardly. 

Primaries creamy white, somewhat more deeply colored towards apex. 
Costal margin broadly dark brown, nearly to the apex ; outer margin 
also brown from apex nearly to the hind angle; inner margin also 
broadly brown nearly to the anal angle, giving off at the end a broad, 



1887.] PEOCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 343 

somewliat recurved baud to the center of the wiug. Secoudaries clear 
jellow, usually with a blackish spot of variable size near to the anal 
angle ; sometimes this spot is wanting altogether. Beneath yellow with 
the markings of upper side faintly reproduced, the recurved band from 
inner margin most distinctly. 

Expands 1.00-1.75 inches ; 40-44'"'". 

Habitat. — Canada to Georgia, west to Illinois, Missouri, Wisconsin, 
Indiana, and Kentucky'. 

This species is very constant in color and maculation, and dozens of 
specimens will present the same uniformity of appearance. 

In the Proc. Dav. Ac. oST. Sc, ii, -575, Mr. Strecker calls attention to 
some interesting hybrids. He describes a lot of specimens received 
from Southern Indiana, and says : " But among this lot were also a 
number of examples that at first fairly i)uzzled me. They were marked 
exactly like some varieties of Lecontei, and one was immaculate like the 
var. fulvicosta of that species ; but the ground color of these was a pale 
bulf, a little darker than in the primaries of intcrruptomarginata in- 
stead of being white ; but independent of this uniform yellow color of 
all wings and body they were to all intents LeconteV^ He further re- 
cords the receipt of a $ interrvpto-marglnata and a S lecontei^ taken m 
copula, and that from the eggs of this 2 he obtained larvae, three of 
which produced imagoes which had the maculation of lecontei with the 
color of interrupto-marginata. On pi. iv, f. 5 and 6, two of these are 
shown, and the markings are precisely those of miUtaris Havr. (See pi. 
xiv, fig. 3). 

In Cau. Ent., xi, 47, Mr. Siewers mentions among other things the 
liabit of the moth to fly with a darting motion a few yards at a time, 
and then, after apparently settling, to continue their flight between the 
weeds upon which they are said to feed, Eupatoriiim ageratoides. He 
also mentions and describes certain anal apendages of the male as fol- 
lows : " Out of the hind segments there issued two plumes over an inch 
long and less than one-sixteenth in diameter, so light that the least 
breath of air fluttered them from side to side. They w ere cut in numer- 
ous vertical segments and sparsely covered with short hairs, were semi- 
transparent, and evidently air-inflated." Mr. Siewers considered these 
organs as aids to flight, but observation since made shows that they 
have other functions. I cannot find that they have been observed 
since. 

In the tenth vol. Can. Ent., p. 84, the larva is described in a general 
way on snake- weed. " The weeds were covered with the larvae, of a 
bright yellow color with a white lateral stripe, mottled along its upper 
edge with briglit red, the anal end being also faced with red markings. 
The length about 1^ inches." None were raised to maturity, and that 
these were the larvae seems to have been a guess, though made as a 
positive statement. Mr. Strecker's description in Pr. Dav. Ac, ii, 276, 
is from larvae obtained from eggs and carried to maturity, and differs 



344 NORTH AMERICAN CALLIMORPHA. 

essentially from the preceding". According to biui, '-The hirvte were 
black above with rich yellow dorsal and lateral lines, the latter some- 
what irregular and broken; also with rows of raised bluish-black tuber- 
cles, from whence proceed tufts of short bristles. Beueath it is pale 
grayish with darker marks. Head black. Feet bhick, prolegs black out- 
side, pinkish on the inside." They were raised on willow and peach. 

These descriptions do not correspond very closely. Mr. Strecker's is 
most characteristic of the genus, but he had hybrids, and the larvte 
could hardly be couuted as typical. 

The species is locally common. 

C. clymene Esper, Schmett., iv, 2-2. 10 pi., 1&2; iioct. 103 f. 1, Xoctua ; Meig. Syst. 
Beschr, Eur. ScLinett., iii, 40 pi. 8'6, f. 2, CalUmorpha ; Oclis. Schmett. Eur. 
IV, suppl., 208, Euprejna; Hb. Yerz., 1816, 18->, Haploa ; Wlk. C. B. M. Lep. 
Het., iii, G50 Ilypercompa ; Clem., Pr. Ac. N. Sc. Ph., 18(50, 5:56, Hijpercompa ; 
Morris, App. to Syn. 1862, 345, CalUmorpha ; Saund. Syn. Can. Arct., 1863, p. 
28, Hypercompa ; Pack., Pr. Eut. Soc. Phil., iii, 1864, 107 CaUimorpha ; Beth.» 
Can. Eut.,1, 18; Stretch., Zyg. and Bomb., 172, p. 7, f. 19, CaUimo}p}ia. 
Carolina Harris, Kept. lus. Mass, 1841, 243 ; luj. lus., 344 CalUmorpha : Pack., Pr. 

E. Soc. Phil., iii, 1864, 107, pr. syn. 
coloria Hb. Bomb., 135, pi. 31, f. 135, Bomhijx ; Wlk. C. B. M. Lop. Hot., iii, 650, 
pr. syu. 

Head yellow; palpi with terminal joint black; eyes and antennae 
black ; collar yellow, with two black dots, one on each side of the mid- 
dle. Thorax white, pategia- black edged anteriorly, a broad dorsal black 
stripe. xVbdomen yellow. Thorax beneath and legs yellow ; anterior 
femora, tibia, and tarsi blackish, a black spot on coxte ; median tibia 
and tarsi blackish outwardly. Primaries white, with a very faint yel- 
lowish tinge ; completely black margined except at apex, where the 
white reaches the costa ; sometimes, too, the anal angle is clear. A 
brown band crosses the wing from the anal angle to the costa, about 
two-fifths from base. From the middh- of this band runs another to 
the outer margin below apex. From the same point as the last-mentioned 
band a short baud goes to costa at the end of the cell. A cross baud 
runs from the subapical band to the costa near apex, leaving thus a 
large triangular white patch in the wingbasally, a series of three large 
spots along the costal margin, of which the middle is the largest, and 
a large, triangular patch along the outer margin which is sometimes 
divided superiorly by black veins crossing it. Often a small white s[)Ot 
in the dusky part of anal angle. The bands vary in width, and the 
spots sometimes become more or less confluent. As a rule, however, 
the species is very coustaut. Secondaries clear yellow, sometimes with 
sometimes without a black dot near the anal angle. Under side yellow,, 
the markings of the upper side more or less completely, but generally 
faintly, reproduced. 

Expands 1.92-2.10 inches ; 48-52""". 

Habitat.— Canada, New York, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Texas', 
Illinois. 



1837.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 345 

This species though widely distributed has uot beeu recorded any- 
where as common. Two Texau specimens in the Museum collection are 
very much paler in color than the generality of specimens, and are en- 
tirely intermediate between suffasa and clymene in this respect. The 
entire habitus, however, and more particularly the two spots on pro- 
thorax, leave no doubt where the specimens are referable. It would be 
interesting to know whether they are albinos, or whether suffusa and 
clymene sometimes mate. The maculation of primaries is precisely iden- 
tical in both species. 

Walker mentions four varieties: 

a Hind wings with three submarginal spots and a marginal streak. 

,3 Hind wings with two submarginal spots. 

/ Hind wings with one submarginal spot. 

6 Hind wings unspotted. 

I have never seen the first and second of these varieties. 

In this species the side pieces of the $ have both upper and lower 
angles produced and somewhat acute, the upper portion, however, much 
longer than the lower. 

I cannot find that the larva has been described. 

On plate xiv, figs. 2, and 7-11, are shown the only variations known 
to me. 

C. lactata, sp. nov. 

Head and collar yellow ; palpi black tipped ; anteunte black. Thorax 
white, immaculate. Abdomen yellow, immaculate. Beneath thorax 
and legs yellow. Anterior tibia and tarsi and middle, tarsi blackish 
outwardly. Primaries a very pale creamy white, immaculate. Second- 
aries yellow, immaculate. Beneath yellow, immaculate. 

Expands 2.25 inches =55-50'""'. 

Habitat. — Texas. 

Two female specimens are in the Museum collection (Coll. O. IMeskc)^ 
others are undoubtedly scattered in collections as albino or aberratic 
forms of clymene, which indeed it may possibly be. I prefer to consider 
it distinct for the present, because I have never seen anything like an 
intergrading series between the two, and the form will always hold 
varietal rank anyway, even should it prove specifically identical with 
clymene^ which I scarcely believe. 

C. militaris Harris, Cat. lus. Mass.. 592, 1835, CalUmorpha ; Ins. Mass., 1841,243, 
CaUimorpha; Inj. Ins. Flint ed., 344 f. 165,= leconlei var ; Clem., App. to Morris 
Syu., 354, CaUimorpha; Grt. Pr. E. S. Ph., lii. 94 Iccontci var; Pack, Pr. E. S. 
Ph., iii. 107,= ?ecoH/et Lint. Eat. Cout., iii. 142. 

leconteit Stretch., Z. & B., 63, pi. 2, f. 2U, 21. 

coiifinis Wlk-., C. B. M.Het., iii. 65, Hi/percompa ; Clem., Pr. Ac.N., Sc. Ph., 1860,43,. 
Hypercompa; Morr., Syn. App., 345 CaUimorpha; Saund., Syu. Can. Arct.,28, 
Hypercompa; Pack., Pr. E. S. Ph., iii. 1304, 107, CaUimorpha; G. & E., Pr. 
A. E. S., ii. 72,= lecontei. 

Head pale, creamy yellow; tips of palpi and antenme blackish. Col- 
lar white, more or less marked with pale yellow, often entirely yellow, 



346 NORTH AMEKICAX CALLIMORPHA. 

rarely entirely wliite. Thorax white, patef;iai browii-edged anteriorly; 
a broad brown dorsal stripe. Abdomen Nvhite, the thoracic dorsal stripe 
continned on the basal segments, but much narrowed, and sometimes 
entirely obsolete. Feet pale yellow, the anterior and njiddle tibia and 
tarsi dusky outwardly. Primaries margined with brown along eosta to a 
variable distance, never quite to apex. Internal margin brown to near 
iinalaugie. Outer margin brown from apex nearly to anal angle. An ob- 
lique band iron) inner niaigln about one-third from anal angle to outer 
margin just below apex. This band varies considerably in width, some- 
times becoming obsolete in the upper i»art of its course and leaving 
thus oidy a short spur from the hind margin. In this form there is a 
very strong resemblance in maculation to interrupto-marginata, espe- 
<;ially as it is usually accompanied by a shortening of the costal brown 
margin and a great narrowing of the brown outer margin. Sometimes 
there is a small spur from the costal brown margin near the apex, and 
a corresponding one on the oblique band, indicating an approach to 
an apical spot similar to that in leconiei, but the teeth never join, and 
the course of the oblique band, which is i)recisely the opposite of lecontei 
and contiguo, will serve to distinguish this species. Secondaries im- 
maculate white. Beneath white, the maculation of primaries faintly 
reproduced. 

Expands 1.(55-1.1)0 inches=4:l-l:7'"'". 

Habitat. — Canada, Massachusetts, Xew York, Missouri, Illinois, 
Indiana, Iowa and Texas. 

The essential difference in maculation is in the course of the main 
oblique baud of the primaries, as has been already pointed out, and 
this species is the white representative of the yellow internipto-mar- 
{jinala, as sujfusa is of clymene. It was this species which, according to 
Mr. Strecker, mated a S with a 9 inter rupto-marginata, and produced the 
hybrid he figures and describes. The side pieces of the male genitalia 
differ from those of SKffu.sa oidy by having tlie inferior angle more 
extended and the superior angle shorter. A reference to the figures on 
plate xiii will show the forms in all the species. 

The insect is locally common, and is widely distributed. The priu- 
•cipal variations are shown on plate xiv, figures o-~). 

The larva has not been described. 

C contigua Wek., 0. B. M. Het., iii, G5'2, Ili/pcrcomjju ; Clem., Pr. Ac. N. Sc. Pliil., 
1860, 536, Hypercompa ; Morris, Syii. Lep. App., 346, IJypercompa ; Sauud., 
Syn. Can. Arct. 1863, 26, Hypcrcompa ; Pack., Pr. Eut. Soc. Phil., iii, 108, 
Callimorpha ; G. & R., Tr. A. E. Soc. ii, 72^ lecontei; Stretch., Z. & B. 62- 
237, pi. ix, f. 13, var. lecontei; Caulfield, 16 Kept. Ent. Soc. Out., 1886, 38 an 
sp. dist. 

Head yellow ; palpi black tii)ped ; antennae black. Prothorax yellow, 
with a double black sjjot. Thorax white, anterior margin of i)ategiai 
black ; a broad black dorsal stripe. Abdomen white, with a broad 
black dorsal band, forming with the thoracic band a continuous broad 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED 8TATE8 NATIONAL MU8EUM. o47 

black line from head to tail. Probably this band on the. abdomen soiiio- 
times breaks up into spots, but none of my si)eeimens sliow this. Feer. 
^^eilow, anterior tibia brown outwardly. Primaries white. Costal 
margins blackish from base nearly to apex. Internal margin blackish 
from base to hind angle. Outer margin narrowly black margined, 
leaving apex and a small space above anal angle free. From the anal 
angle to the costa about two-fifths from apex is a broad oblique blackish 
baud ; from the middle of this band to the outer margin below the 
apex runs another blackish band. There are thus three large white 
patches. The only variation is in the width of the blackish bands and 
the corresponding size of the white i)atches. Secondaries white. Be- 
neath white, the maculatiou of primaries faintly reproduced. 

Expands 1.65-1. 75 inches=40-J:4""". 

Habitat. — Canada, New York, and Massachusetts. 

This is a very constant and well-marked species. The oblique baud 
from hind angle forms with the costal band almost a right angle, and 
the s})ace beyond this band is never divided into more than two spots. 
It is really surprising that this distinctive feature has not been hereto- 
fore pointed out. The side pieces of the male genitalia have the su- 
perior angle produced into a moderately long, somewhat curved process, 
with acutely rounded tip, and the inferior angle produced iuto a shorter 
more pointed process. 

C. suffusa, sji. Dov. 

lecontei t Saund., Syn. Can. Arct., 1863, 28, HyjJercompa ; 1 Cau. Eut., i. 21) (larva); 

Beth , Cau. Ent., I, 45, Callimorplia ; Stretch, Z. & B., 62 et 237, pi. ix, f. 14; 

Strk., Pr.Dav. Ac. Sci. ii, 275; Cauliiekl, Kept. Egt. Soc. Out.. 18.'^6, 38. 
reversa Stretch, Eut. Am., i, 104 (iu j)art). 

Head yellow; palpi black tipped; antenuic black. Collar yellow, 
with a small blacliish spot each side of the middle, which is sometimes 
wanting. Thorax white, pategiie black-margined anteriorly ; a broad 
blackish dorsal stripe. Abdomen white, with a row of small, dorsal 
<lark spots, rarely forming a complete line, and often entirely wanting. 
Beneath, legs yellow, anterior coxoe with a black spot, tibiiie dark out- 
■wardly, fore and median tarsi blackish. Primaries white ; a broad 
brown costal margin nearly to the apex ; a broad brown internal mar- 
gin from base to anal angle. Outer margin also black margined from 
apex to near the anal angle. Earely the margins are connected so that 
the wing is completely dark margined. An oblique dark band from 
anal angle to costa about two-fifths from base. From the middle of 
this band runs another, to outer margin below apex. From this, close 
to its inception, a short band runs to costa ; at its outer third another 
spur is sent ofl', also to the costa ; forming thus a series of three white 
spots below costa and beyond the first oblique band, and a larger, 
somewhat triangular spot uear the outer margin, its broad base near 
the anal angle. This maculatiou varies in that the dark veins some- 
times divide the marginal spot into two or three, or, on the contrary, 



348 NORTH AMERICAN CALLIMORPHA. 

the (lark bauds become attenuated aud some of the spots become more 
or less coutiueut. Karely the macuhition is almost, but uever entirely, 
wanting-. The distinctive feature which is always noticeable is found 
in the oblique baud, which, in this species, reaches the costa abont two- 
fifths from the base, and the -white patch on the disk is therefore very 
obtusely angled on the costa. Secondaries white, iinaiaculate, raivly 
with a dusky spot near anal angle. Beneath, white, maculation of 
])rimaries faintly reproduced. 

Exj)ands 1.75-2.00 inches =43-50""". 

Habitat. — Canad.i, Xew York, Massachusetts. Georgia. Kansas, .Mis- 
souri, Illinois, and Texas. 

In maculation this species is the exact counterpart of clinnene. aud t he 
size also is nearly the same. The ground color, then, is the only point 
of difference, sui)erficially : but this removes all chance of coufasion^ 
except in the case of specimens like the pale forms of clymene hereinbe- 
fore described ami which may be hybrids. Compared with contigua^ our 
species is uniformly larger and heavier. 

The side piece of the male genitalia has the superior angle prolonged 
into an obtusely rounded, subequal process, and the inferior angle 
simply rounded. It differs, therefore, very decidedly in this respect 
from contigua and still more so from clymene. 

The larva has been described by Mr. Saunders, Can. Ent., i, 20, as 
follows: 

"Taken June 10, 18GS,feedingon horse gentian (Triosfe?tw i)erfoUatum). 
Length 1.10 inches, nearly cylindrical. Head rather small, bilobed, black 
and shining, with a few short hairs ; mandibles black ; palpi pale browu 
tipped with black ; body above black, with transverse rows of elevated^ 
shining black tubercles, from each of which arises a spreading tuft of short 
bristly hairs; a bright yellow dorsal stripe aud a wide band of the same 
color on each side, this latter intersected with streaks aud centered with 
a broken band of black ; about half way between the dorsal and lateral 
stripes is a row of pale whitish dots, forming a faint, broken line. Under 
surface dirty grayish white with streaks and dots of brown ; feet black; 
prolegs dirty white on inside, with a patch of shining black on the outside 
of each. These larva entered the chrysalis state on the 19th aud 20th of 
June, aud produced the imago on the 12th and 14th of July. Four 
specimens were reared, and the moths were as nearl}^ alike as possible^ 
showing no tendency to the remarkable variations attac hed to this 
species." Peach has also been mentioned as a food plant of this species, 
but it has never been abundant enough to cause damage. 

V. 

C. lecontei B<1. in Gner., Ic. Rrjxue Auiiu., i>l. 3'J, f. 4, CullUnorpha ; Uoub. in HaiT. 

Corr., l2->, 149; Wlk., C. B. M., Lep. Het. iii, Gfil, Uypercompa ; H. Sch., Lep. 

Ex. p. 72, CaUimorpha ; Clem., Pr. Ac. N. Sci. Phil., IdGO, 53(5, Hypcrcompa. 
Jeucomelas H. Sch., Lep. Ex., p. 17, f. 431, CaUimorpha ; id., p. 72, pr. syn. 
reversa Stretch, Eut. Am., i, 104 (iu pari). 

Head yellow, tips of palpi aud antennie black. Thorax white, anterior 
edge of pategitie brown ; a broad brown dorsal stripe. Abdomen white, 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 349 

witli an iuteiTupted dark dorsal liue. Le^s yellow, anterior and middle 
tibia and tarsi dusky outwardly. Primaries brownish black. A series 
of four large white spots below the costal marjiin, the tirst basal, the 
fourth apical. Below the second spot is another of usually smaller size. 
Close to outer margin, and usually touching the aual angle, is a large, 
somewhat triangular spot, which is interrupted b^'the nervures superi- 
orly. This is the maculation of a dark, fully-marked specimen. It 
varies in the spots becoming more or less confluent, and the course of 
the dark bands then becomes evident ; described in the same manner 
as are the preceding species ; the costal margin is dark nearly to the 
apex. The internal margin is dark to the anal angle. The outer margin 
is dark from the apex nearly to the anal angle. Both apex and anal 
angle are usually left white. From the internal margin near the anal 
angle a broad, quadrate, dark spot extends to the middle of the wing, 
in the lower portion of which is usually a white spot. From the middle 
of this runs a spur to the costa, and in slenderly marked specimens this 
becomes the representative of the cross-band as found in contif/ua. 
From the outer upper angle proceeds a band to the outer margin below 
the apex, and thus the marginal white patch is inclosed and a long sub- 
costal white patch reaching to the apex. This is divided by a spur 
from the costa to the oblique band. The white disk is divided into two 
patches by an oblique, slightly augulated band from inner margin to 
costa, and this band is peculiar to the species and always present 
though not always complete. An inward spur from the quadrate half 
band along the median vein usually constricts the second spot, and 
sometimes divides it. All these marks are indicated in all the speci- 
mens, even in those m which the spots are most completely confluent. 
Secondaries immaculate white, rarely with a blackish dot near aual 
angle. Beneath white, with the maculation of primaries faintly repro- 
duced. 

Expands 1.50 inches=37-3S""". 

Habitat. — Canada, New York, and Massachusetts. 

This species, to a certain extent, combines the two types of markings 
of lecontei and militaris ; both oblique bauds are present though some- 
what modified, and the militaris band is most markqd. The basal band 
is the specific peculiarity of the species. 

I have taken this species rather abundantly in the Catskills, and of 
the specimens taken then all were of the one type. I have retained 
enough to make a fine series combined with the Museum specimens. 

In this series of maculate forms the insects in my own collections very 
fortunately supply the deficiencies in the Museum material, and together 
these two form a very complete series. 

Lintner, in the Ent. Contr., iii, 1-13, described under the name lecontei 
some specimens of this form, in which the secondaries of the male have 
four brown submarginal spots in the 9 antl three in the $ . He also 
describes a larva in the following terms: "Larva feeding on spearmint 



350 NORTH AMERICAX CALLDIOKPHA. 

{Mentha viridis). Lenrjth at rnntinity 1 iiu-h; tuberculated, bearing fas- 
cicles of stiif hairs; dark brown with yellow spots. It made a cocoon 
just beneath the surface of the ground July 1; from which the moths 
emerged July 24." 

^yhich of the forms these imagos were is not stated, though it waS' 
probably the i)resent species. 

C. fulvicosta Clcui., Pr. Ac. X. He. Ph., 18G0, W.iG, Ilj/pcrconijia ; Sannd., Syu. Can. 
Arct., 18G3, 26, Hijpcrcompa ; Pack., Pr., E. S. Ph., iy()4, 180, Callimorplia ;■ 
Kiley, iii Report 132, f. 56, larva; Stretch, Z. &, B., 62 = var. ZccoHfef; SaiiiKL 
Fruit Ins. 197, f. 206. 

Head pale yellow, as are also the pali)i ; antennre pale brown. 
Thorax white, rarely with a faint trace of a dorsal line anteriorly. 
Abdomen white, basal segment often yellowish above. Prinmries 
silky-white, immaculate, save for a very faint fulvous or yellowish 
shade along the costa. Secondaries immaculate. Beneath white, im- 
maculate. 

Expands 1.80-2 inches =47-50'^"". 

Habitat. — New York, Texas, Missouri, and Illinois. 

This has been said to be an immaculate variety of lecontei, and, indeed^ 
it may be, but I do not believe it. I have never seen any specimen 
w^hich in any Avay was doubtful, and have never seen anything like a 
series of intergrades between this and lecontei. The almost immaculate 
form mentioned under suffusa was evidently a form of that species, 
because the thoracic band was well marked, the wings have not that 
shiny appearance peculiar to the present form, and the habitus, which 
is so ditilicult to describe, but so readily seen by the trained eye, at once 
bespeaks a different species. It would need positive proof by breeding 
to convince me of the specific identity of these forms. I have not been 
able to dissect a male of this form. 

The larva has been described by Professor Kiley in his Third Eeport, p. 
134, as follows : " Color velvety -black above, pale bluish-gray sprinkled 
with black below ; a deep orange medio-dorsal line (usually- obsolete 
towards each end) and a more distinct, wavy, broken, yellow stigma- 
tal line, with a less distinct, coincident pale line below it. Covered with 
large, highly polished, roughened, deep steel-blue warts, the irregular- 
ities of w'liich, as they catch and reflect the light, look like i)a1e blue 
diamonds. Closely examined these warts are found to be covered with 
small elevations, each of which furnishes a short, stiff yellow hair, tiiese 
hairs radiating in all directions around the warts which are i)laced as 
follows: Joint 1, with an anterior transverse row of eight, and a jws- 
terior dorsal row of four; Joints 2 and 3 each with a transverse row^ of 
eight across the middle; joints 4-11, inclusive, each with four circular 
ones anteriorly, and two irregular ones posteriorly on doisum (each of 
the last evidently formed by the blending of two), and two on each side 
near the middle of the joint; joint 12 with two that are irregular on the 
back, and one that is circular on each side. Anal shield formed of one 



18S7.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 351 

large irregular wart. In addition to these there is a narrow subventral 
wart on each side, and two large ventral ones on each of the legless 
joints. Head polished black with a few black hairs. Thoracic legs^ 
polished black, bat pale at the joints inside; prolegs black outside, flesh- 
colored within and at extremities. Stigmata not perceptible. Largest 
in the middle of the body. Average length 0.90, greatest diameter 0.15 
inch." 

Food i)lant peach. Spins a slight cocoon of white silk, changing to 
a pupa of a purple-brown color, finely and thinly punctured, and ter- 
minating in a horizontally tlattened plate which is furnished with 
numerous yellowish-brown curled bristles. The moth issues from this 
chrysalis during the fore part of June. 

C. vestalis Pack.,Pr. E. S. Ph., iii, 108, 1864, Callimorpha ; Stretch, Z. & B., &l=fal- 
vieosta; Grote, New List, var. lecontei. 
conscita Wlk., C. B. M. Het., 32-377, 1865, Tanada; G. & R., Tr. A. E. S., ii, 85 = 
lecontei; Stretch, Z. & B., 62. 

Head very pale yellow, antennae very pale brown. Thorax and abdo- 
men white, immaculate, legs pale fulvous. Primaries white, usually 
immaculate, often with the costal and outer margin a little dusky. 
Secondaries and underside pure white. 

Expands 1.30-1.50 inches = 33-37°^™. 

Sa&ifrti.— Canada, is'ew York, Iowa, Eastern, Northern, Middle, and 
Western States. 

This has been referred as a synonym of fulvicosta directly, and of 
lecontei indirectly, and it certainly is neither the one nor the other. It 
might possibly have been referred as a variety of militaris, but even 
this I do not believe, for I have never seen a specimen of this form with 
the internal margin dusky, nor, on the contrary, have I ever seen any 
specimen of militaris in which this dusky internal margin was not 
present. 

In addition to the superficial characters, however, the genitalia show 
a decisive difference, and resemble those of clymene very closely while 
diftering markedly from militaris. The superior angle is drawn out and 
somewhat acutely rounded. Inferior angle conically produced, rounded 
at tip. A comparison of the figures on plate — will serve to show the 
differences 

The larva of this form has not been described. 

The foregoing species treated in detail are all in the Museum collec- 
tion, and most of them in several specimens. The belief has been held 
so long that these species were varieties merely, that it will seem an 
extremely radical revision of the genus. However, though not a " split- 
ter" by any means, I cannot avoid the conviction that all the forms 
noted by me are, without exception, good species. I hope that those 
who may disagree with me will try to prove me in the wrong by careful 
breeding. 



352 NORTH AMERICAN CALLIMORPHA. 

POSTSCRIPT. 

Sometime alter liandiiig in the MSS. of tbe foregoiug paper, Mr. A. 
<x. Bntler, ot tbe British Museum, writinj^- to me on other matters, 
mentioned that he had recently made some study of the American 
spec es of Hyjyercompa, and had made some discoveries which M'ould be 
something- of a surprise. I immediately wrote him, stating the result 
of my studies, and he very kindly sent me a statement of what he had 
concluded. lie says: ''As you are about publishing on the genus, I 
think it will be more for the advancement of science that I should send 
you my facts than that you should repeat often repeated errors, aud I 
should come in afterwards aud worry you by showing them to be so. 

'•The H. chjmene of Brown* takes priority of U. intcrrnptomarginata 
by several years, and his species being figured in colors, there can be uo 
mistake about it.'' 

'• The H. chimene of Esper, ])ublished later by several years thau that 
of Brown, will therefore take the name of JT. colona Hiibu.-' 

After gixing some notes on the specimens in the British Museum, 
with sketches of Mr. Walker's type forms, Mr. Butler adds : 

"I would make about six American species, thus: 

1. H. conscita^:: ccsta/fs v?iv.^=fuh'icosta var. and links to H. Carolina. 

2. H. Carolina (with links to H. chjmene aud H. colona)=R. chjmene var. 

3. H. contigua (linked to tl. clymcnc through //. Carolina var.) and links to H. colona. 

4. H. colona and nnincrons links to H. lecontei. 

5. H. lecontei and links to //. confinis (including H. mUilaris). 

6. H. confinis. 

"But for H. militaris the last-mentioned si)ecies would stand apart 
as a fairly well-defined species." 

Mr. Butler considered the white species which I have named sufusa 
as an albino form of the yellow clymene {colona). 

He has sent me sketches of some of the so-called intermediate forms, 
which, however, are all referable without any hesitation as variations of 
one or the other of the species I have recognized, and I cannot consider 
them links. 

Mr. Butler, and with him the English entomologists generally, use 
CalUmorpha for Jacobaa (which INIr. Butler says is a Lifhosian) and 
uses Hypercompa Stephens, for dom inula and allies. 1 prefer to follow 
Staudinger and other Continental authors who use Callimorpha in the 
same sense that Mr. Butler uses Hijpcrcompa. 

Mr. Butler further considers that the American species are not con. 
generic with the European, and proposes to use Ilaploa Hb. for our 
species. The following are the differences enumerated by him: 

"Wings shorter than in Ilijpcrcompa, with shorter costal margin to 

"Peter Brown's Illustrations of Zoology, 4*'', London, printed for B. White, at 
Horace's Head, Fleet street (1776), pi. xxxviii, p. 96. Mr. Butler sends the above 
reference and the following copy of the description : " The Moth belongs to the PllAL. 
NocT. sriKiLiNGUKS L.EVES of LiNN.EU.s; the under side of the wing is of the same 
color with the upper side of the under wings, the black mark of the interior margin 
of the upper wings only appearing. We shall name it Clymene." 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 353 

primaries, costal vein terminating: at about third fourth of costa, in- 
stead of at fourth sixth. 

"All tiie subcostal branches emitted separately, whereas in Ri/per- 
compa the third and fourth are emitted from a long pedicle or footstalk. 

"Supplementary (or post-discal) cell much narrower and more elon- 
gated, emitting- last subcostal branch from its inferior margin, instead 
of from its extremity. 

" Upper radial emitted near to, but not from anterior augle of dis- 
coidal cell; lower radial also emitted further from inferior angle of 
same. i 

" Second and third median branches emitted nearer together. 

" Secondaries with louger and straighter costal margin. 

" Subcostal branches emitted from anterior angle of cell and not from 
a pedicle, as in Hypercompa.^'' 

A careful examination of a number of specimens of several species 
convinced me that the characters given by Mr. Butler are not constant. 
The shape of the accessory cell varies greatly, sometimes narrow and 
linear, and again nearly as broad as long, while the veins arising from 
it are sometimes all separated or partly (in one case all) from a stalk. 
The other features are not less inconstant and I cannot see the propriety 
of a separate generic term for our species. 

However, Mr. Butler's notes have affected the synonymy of the yellow 
winged species to some extent, and that given in the text must be 
amended as follows : 

C. clyniene Brown. 

interriqjto-marghiata DeB. et auct. 

comma Wlk. 
C. colona Hb. 

clymene \\ Esp. et auct. 

Carolina Harr. 

I regret that it becomes necessary to disturb the established synon- 
ymy in this genus, especially as the new application of the name cly- 
mene is apt to cause confusion for a time ; yet I presume, even at the 
end of one hundred years, an error or injustice should be rectiiied. 

It may not be amiss, eitlier, to call attention to the fact that whereas 
Canadian collectors have very generally contended for the specific dis- 
tinctness of some of the forms of this genus, the late Jacob Boll claimed 
that he had raised all the species of the genus from larvae feeding on 
the same species of plant (see Eiley, Gen. Index and Suppl. to Mo. 
Eepts., p. 55), and Prof. Eiley assures me that he has seen Mr. Boll's 
series, including all the known species, and believes his statement. I 
can only say that I find it impossible to do so. The species seem to 
me as well separated, with the possible exception of the immaculate 
forms, as species are in any other family of the Lepidoptera. 

I must also express my gratitude to Mr. Butler for his great courtesj'- 
in placing at my disposal so freely his notes on the genus. 
Proc. iN\ M. 87 23 



ANNOTATED CATALOGUE OF THE SPECIES OF PORITES AND 
SYNARiEA IN THE UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, WITH 
A DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES OF PORITES. 

By KIC'IIAKD KA'rillSUN. 

(With plates XV-XIX.) 

Tills list comprises tweutj^-three species of Forites and three of 
Synanea. One species of Porites from the Brazilian coast is described 
as new, and notes are given on Forites clavaria, furcata, astra'oides, and 
mlida. From the collection of the United States Exploring Expedition, 
Professor Dana described eighteen new species of Forites^ including* 
variety mucronaia of P. nigrescens, and P. contigua Dana (non Madrepora 
contigua Esper), which have since been recognized as distinct species. 
Of these species, fourteen are now referred to the genus Foritts and 
four to the genus ISynarcaa of Verrill, Tyjjes of all of Dana's species, 
excepting Porites levis and Forites [Synariva) informis, are now in the 
collection of the Is'ational Museum, which also contains the type speci- 
men of P. tenuis Verrill, obtained by the IS^orth racitic Exph)ring Ex- 
pedition. A large and fine series of the three common Antillean species 
have recently been added to the collection from Southern Florida, and 
two of the same species are well represented from Bermuda. 

The numbers iu i^arentheses refer to the record books of the National 
Museum. 

Geuns I'OKITES Lamarck. 

1. Porites astraeoides Lamarck, 

Hist, cles Anim, saus Vert., ii, p, 269, 1816. — Ayassiz, Mem. Mus. Comp. ZooL, 

vii, No. 1, pi. 16, tigs. 1-1-i, 1880. 
Bermuda; Bermuda Cent. Commissioners, 1876 (3189); G. Brown Goode, 1876, in 

exchange witli Wesley an Univer.sity (15846) ; G. W. Hawes, 1882(15519). 
Nassau, Bahama Islands; U. S. Fish Commission str. Alhatross, 1886 (15.")14). 
Key W>st, Fla. ; E. Palmer, 1884 (15r)17, 15518) ; H. Hemphill, 1885 (8897). 
Eastern Dry Rocks, near Key West, Fla. ; E. Palmer, 1884 (15.520). 
Dry Tortugas, Fla. ; Capt. D. P. AVoodhury, U. S. A. (1640) ; E. Palmer, 1884 (15521). 
Old Providence Island, Carihhean Sea; U. S. Fish Conmi. str. Alhatross, 1884 

(15515). 
Curasao Island, Caribhean Sea; U.S. Fish Comm. str. Albatross, 1884 (7236). 

The Bermuda specimens agree with those from Florida iu their mode 
of growth, but differ Irom them in generally having rather larger cells 
with the septa wider in the ujiper jmrt, making the cells appear less 
deeply excavate, though they may be equally deep in the center. The 
specimens vary considerably iu this iiarticular, and in some cases the 
cells are comparatively shallow throughout. This species is described 
by Mr. Goode as one of the most common in the shallow waters about 
the Bermuda reefs, ranging from low-tide level to depths of 2 and 3 

354 



1867.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 355 

fathoms. It is not recorded from Bermuda by Mr. Qiielch in bis re- 
port oil tbe Challenger reef-corals. 

2. Porites Branneri, uew species. 

(Plate XIX, fig. 2.) 

Corallum small, either incrusting, more or less convex, or siibglobular 
in shape, generally irregular, but with an even surface, and without 
defined protuberances or branches of any kind. The cells are very 
sunill, shallow to moderately deep, without columella but with prominent 
pali. The corallum is usually attached by the entire base, and may be 
slightly constricted or expanded at the margins, but the Litter are 
sometimes free in places for a slight width, the under surface where 
exposed being provided with a thick epitheca, which is strongly wrinkled 
concentrically. Xone of the specimens are relatively thin, though some 
are nearly flat on top. One of the largest of the iucrustiug forms 
measures about 50 by 35 by 7.5"'™ thick in the niiddle, while one of sub- 
globular shape is about Qo^^^'^^ in diameter. 

The structure is everywhere very loose and open, especially near the 
surface, the processes sometimes becoming more thickened below, but 
always with large perforations. The cells are small, remarkably uni- 
form in size in each specimen, and not varying much in the entire 
series examnied ; .75 to 1"''" in diameter, polygonal, separated by thin 
walls, and Avith moderately thick septa which vary more or less in the 
different specimens. In some cases the cells are entirely superficial 
near the margins, but usually they are moderately deep and of the 
same diameter at the base as at the top. The processes entering into 
their structure are generally more or less strongly echinulate, being 
armed with very small, acute spinules, giving the interior a much 
roughened appearance. Columella absent, bottom of cell usually i)er- 
forated, but sometimes more or less filled in. Pali 4 to C, generally 5, 
in number, regularly placed, very prominent, echinulate, varying with 
the thickness of the septa from slender to moderately stout ; in the 
deeper cells they extend about half way from the bottom to the top, but 
in the shallower ones they often reach to the surface. The septa are 
twelve in number, and vary in thickness and width ; they are unequal 
in width in the same cell and generally extend from one-half to two- 
thirds the distance from the wall to the pali, but are often much nar- 
rower. Above the base each consists of one to three disconnected pro- 
cesses, more or less resembling the pali in appearance, and projecting 
inward from a narrow vertical ridge upon the wall. In the bottom of 
the cell, 8 to 10 of the septa meet in the middle, generally first uniting 
in pairs, and afterwards becoming more or less connected together by 
processes which inclose the small central cavity. The upper edges of 
the walls are serrate, caused by the upward extension of the septa in 
the form of irregular processes, which are generally echinulate, though 
sometimes nearly smooth. 



356 CATALOGUE OF PORITES AND SYNAR.EA. 

This small species is very tlistiuct from Poritefi solida Verrill, the 
only other member of the genus yet recorded from the Brazilian coast, 
and I have also been unable to unite it with any of the species described 
by Duchassaing and Michelotti from the Caribbean Sea. Its principal 
characteristics are the mode of growth, the generally smooth surface, 
small crowded cells, separated by thin but distinct walls, the lack of 
columella, conspicuous pali, and fine echinulation of all the processes. 
The amount of variation is not. great, though in some specimens the 
septa and walls are thicker than in others, and in such cases the echinu- 
lation is generally less marked. Thirty-two specimens have been ex- 
amined by the writer froai the following localities : Parahyba do Norte, 
near the city of Pernambuco, and the Bay of P>ahia. The species is 
represented in the National Museum collection as follows : 

Parahyba tlo Norte, Brazil ; J. C. Brauner, 1876, type (10961). 

Caudeias Reef, Peruambnco, Brazil; C.F. Hartt, 1875, types (10962). 

3. Pontes clavaria Lamarck, 

Hist, (les Auim. saus Vert., ii, p. 269, 1816.— Agassiz, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
vii, No. 1, pi. xii, tigs. 4-6, 1880. 

(Plate XVI; pi. XVII, fig. 2; pi. XVIII; pi. XIX, fig. 1.) 

Bermuda; Bermuda Cent. Commissioners, 1876 (3160); G.Brown Goode. 1876, iu 
exchange witli Wesleyan University (15867) ; G. W. Hawes, 1882 (15868). 
Bahamas : Nassau, New Providence ; U. S. Fish Comm. str. Albatross, 1886 (15870). 
Florida : 

(?)* Ca'sar's Creek, 17 miles sontli of Cape Florida; E. Palmer, 1884 (15872). 
Rodriguez Creek, 40 miles soutli of Cape Florida ; E. Palmer, 1884 (1.5863). 
Stock Island and Salt Pond Key, about 6 miles NE. of Key West ; E. Palmer, 

1884 (1.5864, 15865). 
Eastern Dry Rocks, 9 miles SW. of Key West ; E. Palmer, 1884 (15866). 
Tortngas; Capt. D. P. AVoodbury, U. S. A. (1638); E. Palmer, 1884 (15859- 
15^862). 
West Indies ; J. D. Dana (706). 

The branching Porites of the Autillean region are represented in the 
National Museum by a very large series of specimens, coming mainly 
from Southern Florida, the Tortugas, and Bermuda. The collection from 
the Florida reefs, including the Tortugas, comprises several hundred 
specimens iu flue condition, the most of which have been recently ob- 
tained expressly for this Museum. They were collected at several 
diiferent localities between Cape Florida, at the northern extremity of 
the reefs, and the Tortugas, at the southwestern extremity. At each 
locality large numbers of specimens were secured, and the collection as 
a whole affords an excellent opportunity to study the numerous varia- 
tions in growth and structure, which render it so difficult to separate 
the species. 

As stated by Pourtales, the structure of the cell alone is not suffi- 
cient to characterize the two branching species now recognized from 



*A mark of interrogation before the name of a locality indicates that the identity 
of the specimens from there is somewhat uncertain. 



1687.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES XATIOXAL MUSEUM. 357 

Plorida; but the same is almost equally true with respect to the mode 
of growth, although davaria is usually a much stouter foriu thau/«r- 
cata. lu both species the columeUa may be present or lackiug eveu in 
the same specimen, but, as a rule, the center of the cell is seldom deeply 
joerforated, aud the free portion of the columelhi is much more sleuder 
and less conspicuous than the pali, which are generally well developed. 
Constant reliance cannot be placed upon the relative compactness of 
the texture, either internally or externally, but it is generally somewhat 
looser in furcata, the cells rather smaller, irregular, polygonal, sepa- 
rated by thin walls ; while in davaria the walls Are often much thick- 
ened, porous, the septa sometimes, but not always, better developed, 
the excavated portion of the cell almost always circular in outline and. 
legular. The cells may be superficial to moderately deep in both species, 
but become most excavated at times in davaria ; the echinulation varies 
similarly in both, but the processes are very rarely nearly smooth in 
either, and when so are much twisted and very irregular. The figures of 
the cells of furcata and davaria given in " The Memoirs of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology," vol. vii, 1880, pi. xii, fig. 5, pi. xvi, fig. 14, 
might serve indiflerentlj" for either species, but those on pi. xii, fig. 5, 
labeled davaria, are of rare occurrence in our collection. 

In classifying the collection in the National Museum, the writer has 
followed as closely as possible the views of Dana, Verrill, an d Pourtales, 
relying for his data upon specimens in the old collection labeled by Dana 
and Verrill, and upon the few brief diagnoses that have been published. 
There is no difiBculty in assigning most of the specimens to one or other 
of the two species, which appear very distinct in what may be called 
their typical forms, but there exist a large number of intermediate varie- 
ties the exact position of which cannot bo determined, aud which render 
the specific value of the two forms somewhat doubtful. The depth at 
which they grow aud the nature of their surroundings undoubtedly have 
much to do with the character of their growth, but many of the varia- 
tions cannot be explained by such means. It is to be regretted that 
fuller notes are not made by collectors in the field upon the conditions 
attending the growth of such forms as these, for they would probably 
serve to show relationships which might not otherwise be suspected. 
Fortunately, in the last and largest collection received from Florida 
all the specimens from each locality have been kept together, and it is 
shown that each spot hasits peculiar variety or varieties, differing more 
or less from those of all the others. 

In the specimens referred to furcata, the tendency is to form small, 
more or less dense, clumps, composed of rather slender, rapidly dividing 
branches, with relatively small, crowded, polygonal aud often very 
irregular cells, vseparated by thin walls, and either superficial or moder- 
ately excavated. In davaria, which is more varied in growth, the 
branches, on the contrary, are generally stout, dividing much less 
rapidly and forming open clumps or very short, rapidly tapering and 



358 CATALOGUE OF PORITES AND SYNARiEA. 

twisted, more or less proliferous triiuks, arising fi oni an almost solid 
base; in seme cases the clumps are dense, but the branches retain the 
same character as in the open growths. The cells are rehitively large, 
usually circular and regular in oulliue, with thicker walls than in furcat^j 
and may be either very shallow or deeply excavate. The specimens that 
aredillicult to classify are mostly intermediate both in mode of growth 
and in the character of the cells, but very exceptional varieties occur. 
Large cells, containing from eighteen to twenty iour septa, occur fre- 
quently in both species, but have been noticed most often in clavnria. 
The majority of the specimens of the latter species examined have at 
least one of these enlarged cells, and some have several, but they are 
never numerous on any one specimen. They are as common in the Ber- 
muda si)ecimens as in those from Florida, and are apparently no more 
abundant in the few specimens of P. porona which this Museum has 
received from Lower California. 

The following notes u])on the specimens of elararia in the Xatioual 
jMuseum may be of service to others in identifyiug that species. The 
varieties of P. furcata are described further on. The figures given on 
plates XV-XVIII, and figure 1 of plate XIX, are intended to illus- 
trate the princi])al variations in growth of these two species as rep- 
resented in the Museum collection. The process by which they have 
been engraved does not permit of showing the details of structure on so 
small a scale, but an attempt has been made to imitate the general ap- 
pearance of the surface. The drawings are by Mr. A. H. Baldwin. 

Is ear Salt Pond Key, 6 miles northeast of Key West (PI. XVI, figs. 1 and 
2). — Que of the finest series of specimens of clavaria was obtained near 
Salt Pond Key and between there and Stock Island, where the sur- 
roundings are evidently very favorable to the growth of this species. 
They form mostly very open clumps of few, widely divergent branches, 
starting from a single stem, and varying in diameter from 10 to 35™'". 
Branching takes place at intervals of 20 to 70"''", and is generally 
simi)le. The branches are mostly circular in section, sometimes more 
or less compressed, slightly swollen or constricted in i)laces, but for the 
most part quite regular; straight or slightly sinuose in the intervals 
between branching, but zigzag in their entire length, and very gradu- 
ally ta])ering from the base.toward the tips, which are blunt and rounded 
or conq)ressed and bifurcate; alive for a variable distance, and some- 
times for nearly their entire length, but generally dead and overgrown 
with nullipores and sponges below. Terminal branchlets may be 70'"'" 
louii' without dividing. Cells from 1.5 to 2.5""" in diameter, varying 
from shallow to very deep, generally subcircular and regular in outline^ 
occasionally somewhat crowded. The color of living specimens, accord- 
ing to Dr. Palmer, is violet and purplish. 

Ro(lri(/uez Creel:, about-^0 miles south of Cape Florida (PI. XVI, fig.3). — 
Frouj this locality we have many specimens, somewhat similar in growth 
to those from Stock Island, the branches of about the same diameter 



1887.] PROCEEDINGS OF UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. 359 

but dividing more rapidly and forming denser clumps, not unlike some 
of the more open ones of fiircata, excepting for the larger size of 
the branches. Branching occurs at intervals of about 10 to 30""", but 
is often less frequent and the angle of divergence is generally less than 
in the Stock Island specimens, due to the more numerous and closer 
branches. In some specimens the tips of nearly all the terminal branch- 
lets are more or less enlarged and furcate or digitate as in fnrcata. The 
largest specimen measures 20'='" in height and 25°'" in width. The cells 
are generally circular and may reach a diameter of 2.5'"™. Depth of 
water 1 foot at low tide. A single specimen froni the Tortugas cannot 
be distinguished from this variety. 

Dry Tortugas. — A large series of sjiecimens from the Tortugas ex- 
liibits a very wide range of variation, tending in one direction towards the 
Bermuda specimens described below. The clumps are generally dense, 
sometimes very close in texture, the lower branches often much enlarged 
and the basal portion frequently nearly solid. Branches divergent or 
more or less i)arallel and vertical, dividing either rapidly or distantly, 
occasionally coalescing, and thus forming clumps that vary greatly in 
character and proportions ; sometimes low, convex, or hemispherical, at 
others tall, enlarging upward. One tall clump consisting of stoat, as- 
cending, closely-placed branches measures about oO''"', both in height 
and spread (Plate XVIII, fig 2). Some of the specimens resemble those 
from Eodriguez Creek both in the mode of branching and in the char- 
acter of the tips of the terminal branchlets, but such clumps are gen- 
erally lower and denser at the Tortugas. The main branches range in 
diameter from 15 to 25™™. Terminal branchlets large and rounded at 
the tips, or more or less compressed, broadened and bifurcate, or tri- 
furcate, sometimes rapidly tapering. The cells vary greatly in size and 
character, and may be circular or much crowded and polygonal ; the 
walls are rarely very thick. One specimen, measuring 13*^™ in width 
and 4"" in height, consists of a small solid base from which arise seven 
very stout, rapidly tapering, irregular, and more or less sinuose and 
divergent trunks, separated below by very narrow interspaces. On 
the upper side these trunks give off from two to six short, stout, rounded, 
simple branches or lobes, from 12 to 24™™ in length. 

Eastern Dry Bodes, 9 miles southwest of Key West (PI. XIX, fig. 1). — 
The most exceptional forms in the collection are from this locality. They 
are apparently stunted growths and form very dense convex clumps, 
consisting of short, stout, very irregular, generally closely placed 
branches, arising from a more or less solid base. The branches all 
reach to about the same height, enlarge upward, and toward the sum- 
mits are usually much divided, forming broad lobes, short, stout, simple 
branchlets or mammillations. The largest clum{) measures 20^"' in di- 
ameter and 12°™ in height ; the terminal lobes may have a spread of 
20™™. The cells in all cases are deeply excavated, crowded, and with 
thin walls; they vary in size, but measure on an average about 1.5™™ 



360 CATALOGUE OF PORITES AND SYNAR^A. 

iu diameter. The branches are alive for 10 to 40""" only. Color of 
living specimens yellow. A similar specimen in the old collection is 
labeled Tortugas. 

Bermuda. — From this region, Avhich is represented by a unmber of 
specime'js, we recognize two general forms of growth, coiniected by in- 
termediate varieties. One is said to be from more shallow water than 
the other and has a stunted appearance, probably due to its being more 
or less exposed or brought close to the surface during spring tides. 
The deeper water variety (PI. XVIII, fig. 1) consists of moderately stout, 
numerous, ramifying, sometimes coalescing branches, dividing at very 
unequal intervals, more or less siuuose, and Ibrmiug rather dense 
clumps, more dense than the similar growths from the Tortugas, of which 
there are several in the collection. The lower branches are often much 
thickened, but not consolidated. The upper branches are usually about 
10 to 20'"'" thick, circular or more or less compressed, proliferous, the 
branchlets divergent, blunt, and rounded at the tips or enlarged and 
furcate. 

The shallow- water variety (PL XVII, fig. 2) forms very irregular clumps 
and masses, which are generally nearly or quite solid below and some- 
times much filled in above. These clumps may be low and spreading 
or of moderate height, the largest one iu the collection measuring 
IS*"" in width and IV^ in height. The branching is similar to that 
described above as occurring in the specimens from Eastern Dry Rocks, 
Florida, and in the single specimen with solid base from the Tortugas, 
but exhibits greater variatiou and is difficult to define. The most de- 
pressed specimen is slightly co