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r • 

Railway Shop Kinks 

Compiled under the direction of a committee 

of the Intemational Railway General 

Foremen's Association, 

Mechanical Department Editor, Railway Age Gazette. 

Under the supennsion of the following committee: 

H. D. Kelley, Chairman, General Foreman, Chicago & North 
Western Railway, Chicago, 

C. H, Voges, General Foreman, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St. Louis, Bellefontaine, Ohio. 

L. H. Bryan, General Foreman, Duluth & Iron Range, Two 
Harbors, Minn. 



NEW YORK : 83 Fulton Street. 
CHICAGO: Plymouth Building. 

CLEVELAND : New England Building, 
LONDON: Oueen Anne's Chambers. 

Resolution adopted by the Executive Committee of the International Railway 
General Foremen's Association at a meeting held in Chicago, 

December 12, 1910: 

"WHEREAS, The Railway Age Gazette has collected 
a considerable amount of valuable data on shop kinks 
that is available for reproduction in book form; and 

• "WHEREAS, The Shop Kinks Committee believes that 
its work and the interests of the Association would best 
be advanced by co-operating with the Railway Age 
Gazette in the publication of such a book, in which shall 
be embodied the work of that committee ; be it 

"RESOLVED, That the Railway Age Gazette be and 
hereby is authorized and empowered to publish, under the 
supervision of the Chairman of the Committee on Shop 
Kinks of this Association, an illustrated book of shop 


The Railroad Gazette 








At the sixth annual convention of the 
International Railway General Foremen's 
Association at Cincinnati, Ohio, May, 1910, 
the suggestion was made that the work of the 
association would be more effective if the 
subjects which were selected for discussion 
were fewer in number and of a more practical 
nature. In accordance with this suggestion, 
the Executive Committee selected four sub- 
jects for discussion at the 1911 convention. 
One of these was shop kinks and was assigned 
to H. D. Kelley, general foreman, Chicago & 
North Western, Chicago. After thoroughly 
canvassing the situation, Mr. Kelley came to 
the conclusion that a study of this subject, pre- 
pared in a proper manner, would cost far more 
to reproduce than the association could well 

In October, 1909, the Railway Age Gazette 
inaugurated a Shop Section as part of the 
first issue of each month. An important fea- 
ture of the Shop Section has been the results of 
a number of shop kink competitions which 
have been held, and which have drawn out and 
resulted in the publication of several hundred 
shop kinks used in connection with the repair 
and maintenance of cars and locomotives and 
other equipment in the care of the mechanical 
department. Five general shop kink competi- 
tions of this sort have been held, prizes being 
awarded as follows: 

September 15, 1909: First prize, D. P. Kel- 
logg, master mechanic, Southern Pacific, Los 
Angeles, Cal.; second prize, C. J. Drury, gen- 
eral roundhouse foreman, Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, Albuquerque, N. Mex. 

December 15, 1909: First prize, F. C. Pick- 
ard, assistant master mechanic, Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton, Indianapolis, Ind. ; sec- 
ond prize, W. H. Snyder, assistant general 
foreman. New York, Susquehanna & Western, 
Stroudsburg, Pa. 

February 15, 1910: First prize, Elmo N. 

Owen, general foreman. Southern Pacific, 
Bakersfield, Cal.; second prize, William G. 
Reyer, general foreman, and J. W. Hooten, 
foreman of repairs, Nashville, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis, Nashville, Tenn. 

June 15, 1910: First prize, C. J, Crowley, 
piece work inspector, Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, West Burlington, Iowa; second prize, 
E. G. Gross, master mechanic. Central of 
Georgia, Columbus, Ga. 

January 15, 1911: First prize, M. H. West- 
brook, Grand Trunk, Battle Creek, Mich. ; sec- 
ond prize, R. G. Bennett, motive power in- 
spector, Pennsylvania Railroad, Pittsburgh, 

In addition to these general shop kink com- 
petitions, engine house kink competitions were 
held September 15, 1910, and March 15, 1911, 
with the following results: 

September 15, 1910: First prize, Richard 
Beeson, roundhouse foreman, Pittsburgh & 
Lake Erie, McKees Rocks, Pa.; second prize, 
C. J. Lindgren, roundhouse foreman, Chicago, 
Burlington & Quincy, Aurora, 111. 

March 15, 1911: First prize, C. C. Leech, 
foreman, Pennsylvania Railroad, Buffalo, 
N. Y. ; second prize, H. L. Burrhus, assistant 
to general foreman, Erie Railroad, Susque- 
hanna, Pa. 

A car department kink competition was held 
November 15, 1910, the first prize being 
awarded to W. H. Snyder, assistant general 
foreman, New York, Susquehanna & Western, 
Stroudsburg, Pa., and the second prize to C. C. 
Leech, foreman, Pennsylvania Railroad, 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

In addition to these kink competitions, sev- 
eral competitions of a more general nature 
were held as follows: 

April 15, 1910 — How the Foreman Can Pro- 
mote Shop Efficiency : First prize, William G. 
Reyer, general foreman, Nashville, Chatta- 


nooga & St. Louis, Nashville, Tenn. ; second 
prize, George H. Roberts, assistant machine 
foreman, New York, New Haven & Hartford, 
Readville, Mass. 

October 15, 1910 — Care and Selection of 
Machine Tools and Shop Equipment: First 
prize, T- S. Sheafe, engineer of tests, Illinois 
Central, Chicago, 111. ; second prize, E. T. 
Spidy, instruction card inspector, Canadian 
Pacific, Angus Shops, Montreal, Can. 

December 15, 1910 — Increasing Shop Out- 
put: First prize, H. L. Burrhus, assistant to 
general foreman, Erie Railroad, Susquehanna, 
Pa.; second prize, William G. Reyer, general 
foreman, Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

February 15, 1911 — Car Department Com- 
petition: First prize, Robert G. Bennett, mo- 
tive power inspector, Pennsylvania Railroad, 
South Pittsburgh Shops, Pittsburgh, Pa.; sec- 
ond prize, A. G. Pancost, draftsman, Elkhart, 

April 15, 1911 — Instruction of Workmen 
and Apprentices: First prize, H. S. Ranch, 
apprentice instructor, New York Central & 
Hudson River, Oswego, N. Y. ; second prize, 
John H. Linn, apprentice instructor, Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 

Realizing that the Railway Age Gazette 
thus had a large amount of valuable data on 
shop kinks in its files, which were available for 
reproduction, Mr. Kelley asked the Executive 
Committee of the International Railway Gen- 
eral Foremen's Association to authorize the 
publication of a Railway Shop Kink book 

under the auspices of that association and 
prior to the 1911 convention. 

The kinks in this book have, therefore, been 
selected from shop kinks published in the Shop 
Section of the Railway Age • Gazette and in- 
clude not onlv the results of the above-men- 
tioned competitions, but also special contri- 
butions, and investigations made by its editors. 

The descriptions of the kinks have been 
carefully revised and in many cases amplified, 
and the kinks have been classified as far as pos- 
sible according to the diflFerent shops or de- 
partments in which they are used. The classi- 
fication in some cases has had to be made on a 
more or less arbitrary basis. For instance, 
most of the kinks which are used in the engine 
house may be used to advantage in the erect- 
ing shop, particularly when we remember that 
the engine houses throughout the country vary 
from houses with a few stalls to those with 
from 40 to 55 or more stalls. Some of the en- 
gine houses are often located at a great dis- 
tance from the main shops, while others are 
adjacent to them. In some cases an engine 
house may have shops in connection with it of 
greater importance than the entire shop plant 
of one of the smaller roads or at a division point 
on a large road. In referring to the different 
departments, therefore, it is quite likely that 
other kinks which may be used to advantage in 
that department will be found in other chap- 
ters. With this in mind, a very complete index 
has been provided. 

New York, June 30, 1911. 



Machine Shop Kinks 1 

Erecting Shop Kinks 76 

Boiler Shop Kinks 109 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting 136 

Blacksmith Shop Kinks, Locomotive Department and General 149 

Brass Foundry Kinks 166 

Tin and Copper Shop Kinks 170 

Engine House Kinks 178 

Car Department Kinks, General 201 

Steel Freight Car Kinks 219 

Passenger Car Kinks 228 

Planing Mill Kinks 238 

Blacksmith Shop Kinks, Car 240 

Air Brake Kinks 251 

Oil House Kinks 263 

Paint Shop Kinks 270 

Miscellaneous Kinks 275 

Machine Shop Kinks 


An efficient belt clamp and stretcher is illustrated in 
Fig. 1. The device consists of two clamps, 121^ in. 
long, made of 2-in, angle iron. The clamps may be 
opened and closed quickly by the handle nuts. Two 
parallel iron strips with teeth cut in the outer edges 

should be taken not to drag it from the smallest to 
the largest step, but to get it on the next larger step. 
Then, with very little effort, it can be put where it is 

Table for Lacing Bells. 

r- Width of — 1 First Second r— Distance of holes— i 


Fig. 1 — Belt Clamp and Stretcher. 

are riveted to one member of the clamp. The other mem- 
ber is riveted to a piece which slides between the two 
longitudinal members. This slide also carries an oper- 
ating lever and two dogs. When the lever is operated 
back and forth the ;clamp is advanced and- the belt 
stretched a corresponding amount. With one of these 
clamps a man can take care of all belts of 6-in. width 
and under. The operation of stretching is performed 
quickly and the expense of belt maintenance will be 
largely reduced by introducing such a device into the 
shop. — £. /. McKeman, Tool Supervisor, Atchison, To- 
pcka & Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 


There seems to be no standard method for lacing 
belts. In most shops every man has his own way 
and some belts get improper treatment ; this is especially 
true of those running on cone pulleys. The method 
of shifting a belt from one step of a cone to 
another is important. If the proper care is not exercised 
a belt can soon be stretched out of shape on one side 
and will have a tendency to creep on the next step of 
, the cone. In lacing the belt both ends should be cut 
square and be drawn tight against each other. When 
shifting a belt from one step of a cone to another care 




6- in. 


































wanted and not be stretched out of shape. Do not put 
any resin or any kind of belt dressing on it that will 
hang or stick on the side of the cone, as this is very 
destructive to a belt. As soon as a belt starts to creep 
on the side of the cone it should be turned end-for-end, 
or the outside be turned to the pulley. Doing this will 

Fig. 2 — Diagram for Laeing Belts. 

often save a belt from destruction. The number of holes 
and width of laces to be used for lacing belts is shown 
on the accompanying table and in Fig. 2. This style 
of lacing is giving good satisfaction. Punch the holes 
as shown on the sketch and table, according to the width 
of the belt. Commence lacing from the outside, bring- 
ing one end of the lacer through A and the other end 
through B, crossing them on the inside of the belt. Put 
them back down A and B again, coming up through C 
and D and crossing on the inside as before, and then 
going back down C and D and coming up through E 
and F, and so on. In finishing, either tie, or if there is 
any lacer left, finish by going back, as shown by dotted 
lines on the sketch. When finished, take a hammer and 


llatten ihe lacer down. The feature of this lace is that 
where the lacer crosses on the inside the edges are some- 
what higher than the rest of the lace,, which has a 
tendency to make it wear longer. — IV. H, Snyder, Assist- 
ant General Foreman, Xe%v York, Susquehanna & West- 
ern, Strondshurg, Pa.' 


Poor Belt Maintenance and Its Effect on Output.— It 
a machine stands idle during working hours, while the 
belt is being repaired or tightened, it produces nothing 
during that time, and there is a distinct loss in output. 
If it stands idle for one-half hour in ten hours' work- 
ing time there is a loss of 5 per cent, in its output; 
if in a shop having 100 machines ten machines lose one- 
half hour each day on account of repairs to belts it 
amounts to a loss of 0.5 per cent, of the total output of 
the shop. This, however, is probably not so serious as 
the loss in output due to belts being run so loose that 
they cannot begin to take the speeds, feeds and depth 
of cut for which the machines w^ere designed and that 
the tools will stand. Almost every efficiency engineer 
in attempting to bring up the speeds of his machines 
to what he knows is possible has found that such at- 
tempts usually result in the belts slipping and breaking, 
or the lacings giving out, and he knows that where the 
care of belts is left to the man at the machine, in only 
a very few cases can the belts be depended on to do the 
maximum amount of work. Belts of the best quality 
must be used at proper tension, and they must be kept 
in first-class condition and be inspected out of working 
hours. Very few machinists, or even foremen, know 
how to tighten or lace a belt properly, the amount to 
to be taken out being usually guessed at, and much time 
is lost through the machines standing idle while the cut- 
ting and trying is going on. I have known cases where 
good machinists have run cone belts, which have been 
made too tight, on "cross cones," i. e., on steps not in 
line with each other, the result being that the belt 
twisted itself up like a corkscrew and was practically 

Proper Method of Lacing. — It is safe to cut belts 2 
in. short in every ten feet of measured length. To lace 
with leather lacings, butt the ends of the belt together, 
being careful that the edges are cut exactly at right 

^ A #\ ^ 

U w U I 



Fig. 3 — Correct Method of Lacing a Beit. 

angles to the belt. Holes should then be cut in the belt 
with an oval punch, making the larger diameter of the 
oval parallel with the sides of the belt. The holes should 
be punched as nearly as possible according to the fol- 
lowing table: 

of outer holes on row 
Punching lace holes, near ends of belt, Size of 
Width of belt r-from ends of belt— > to be distant from lace leather 



2 to 


4 in. 

8 in. 
12 in. 
16 in. 
20 in. 
24 in. 






1 in. 


2 in. 

each edge, 
of belt, 



1 in. 

to be 





J/2 -in. 

The best method of lacing a belt is shown in Fig. 3 ; 
the lacing on the pulley side of the belt runs parallel with 
the belt and is crossed on the opposite side. 

Belt Tension. — Belts put on too tight produce excessive 
strain on the pulley bearing and consequent loss of 
power and output. Belt clamps. Fig. 4, having spring 

Fig. A — Beit Ciamp. 

balances between the pair of clamps, should be used 
for measuring the tension accurately each time the belt 
is tightened. They should be tightened in this manner 
to give the following pressure per inch of width, with 
an arc of contact of 180 degrees: 

3-ply about 47 lbs. 5-ply about 63 lbs. 7-ply about 80 lbs. 
4-ply about 57 lbs. 6-ply about 70 lbs. 8-ply about 95 lbs. 

10-ply about 140 lbs. 

Clamps for tightening belts, as shown in Fig. 4, can 
easily be made in various sizes to suit the different belts. 

Cemented Splices. — Cemented splices, when properly 
made, give the best results and are being adopted by 


Cemented afong Spf/ce 

Fig. &— Proper Method of Cementing a Beit; Cemented 
Spiices Are Being Adopted Extensiveiy. 

most up-to-date machine shops. The ends of the belts 
are beveled and then firmly cemented and rolled or 
pounded together and allowed to dry thoroughly before 
being run on the pulleys. 

Keep Belts Clean. — One of the most important points 
in the care of belts is to keep them clean. All belts 
should be examined frequently, and the greasy or dirty 
ones scraped to remove all surface dirt. They should 
then be washed with warm water and soap, care being 
taken that the water is not too hot to be uncomfortable 
to the hands. Very dirty or greasy belts can be cleaned 
with a mixture of two parts of gasoline and one part of 
turpentine, but remember that this mixture is highly in- 
flammable and must be kept away from open lights and 
fires; then scrape the loosened dirt off with an old file 



or dull knife, and wash again if you have not reached 
bare, clean leather. When the belt is dry it should be 
given a light, even coating of castor oil on the working 
side, and if very dry, on both sides. 

A Good Belt Dressing. — A good formula for a surface 
compound for belts is: Equal parts of red lead, black 
lead, French yellgw and litharge. Mix with boiled Jin- 
seed oil and add enough japan to make it dry quickly. 
A thin coating can be applied with ^ brush and should 
be allowed to dry before running the belt. There are 
several good preservative foods or dressings manufac- 
tured by reliable firms which may be applied to belts 
after cleaning and from which splendid results have been 
obtained, as shown by experiments, records and data kept 
before and after treatment. 

Belt Shifters, — A shifter having rollers should be 
used when the belt is a wide one. These rollers should 
press against the flat of the belt, not the sides, thus 

Fig. 6 — Best Method of Cutting a Lap Splice 
for a Composition Belt. 

avoiding heating . and damaging the edge of • the belt. 
Near each pulley on the lineshaft, where a belt drives a 
machine that is liable to stand idle for some time, a 
staple should be driven into the rafters or ceiling. A 
hook of ^-in. round iron should be hung from the 
staple; it should be made long enough to reach almost 
to the rim of the pulley, but a little to one side of it. 
When a belt is taken off its pulley it should be hooked 
up by the belt stick, the slack of the belt allowing it to 
be caught on the hook. When the belt sags the hook 


Fig. 7 — Arrangement for Hanging Idle Belt to Clear Pulley 

and Line Shaft. 

should swing so as to make the belt clear the side of 
the pulley and also the shaft, as shown in Fig. 7. This 
avoids the tieing of belts to beams, hangers, etc., or of 
leaving them hanging on the revolving shaft, causing the 
belt to be worn through or weakened. It is very little 
trouble to hook them up. 

Keeping Track of the Belt Repairmen, — In large ma- 
chine shops and factories where a great number of 

belts are used a recording board, as shown in Fig. 8, has 
been used to advantage for keeping track of the belt 
man and keeping him informed as to the department or 
section of the works in which his services are required. 
Each of the top holes in the board has a number corre- 
sponding to a department or section. Near the center 
of the board is a row of holes having black pegs inserted 
in them, and at the bottom of the board are two more 
rows of holes, in which red pegs are inserted. These 







• 7 

o o 











la 17 








o o 









2« 27 








o o 















I o 



o o o 



1 o 


o o o 




Fig. 8 — Recording Board for Belt Repairman. 

lower holes are numbered from 1 to 15. When the belt 
man is wanted one of the numbered red pegs is put 
in the hole at the top to show the department where a 
belt requires attention. When the belt man returns he 
sees at a glance where he is wanted. Before he leaves 
the board he replaces the red peg with a black one. The 
first party coming to the board uses red peg No. 1, the 
second No. 2, and so on, thus letting the belt man know 
where to go first. 

Belt Guards, — All belt drives within reach of persons 
standing on the floor, or on adjacent platforms, such as 
drives to emery wheels, etc., should be carefully guarded 
by wire screens of not less than 1-in. mesh. These are 
light and can be easily removed when it is necessary to 
get at the belt. 

General Suggestions, — In conclusion, let me offer a 
few suggestions. 

7. The best belt speed is from 4,000 to 4,500 ft. per 

2, To find the velocity of a belt, multiply the diameter 
in feet of the pulley by the number of revolutions of the 
pulley by 3.1416; this gives the velocity in feet per 

J. Never overstrain a belt, as this produces unneces- 
sary wear of belts and machinery and causes considerable 
loss of power by friction. 

7. Do not throw on belts- when pulleys are running 
at an extremely high rate of speed. 

5. Do not run belts exceedingly tight, as the best 
service and greatest power are derived by their being 
just slack enough not to slip. 


6. A steel tape is best in taking measurements for 
belting; other methods are less reliable. 

7. A light belt on a large pulley is preferable to a 
thick belt on a small pulley. 

8. The better you look after your belts the fewer 
machine failures you will have, which means less worry 
and more money, — A. D. Porter, Shop Efficiency In- 
spector, Canadian Pacific, West Toronto, Ontario, Can. 


A bolt-centering machine used at Elizabethport is 
shown in Fig. 9. The necessity for this machine arose 
from the fact that the machine had a long lever feed, 
which allowed excessive pressure, resulting in broken 
drills, especially when operated by green apprentices. In 

Fig. d — Bolt-Centering Machine. 

the present design the drill is fed into the bolt by air 
pressure. The three-way valve fastened to the upright 
plate at the right-hand end of the machine is the same 
as used in a locomotive cab for controlling the air which 
operates the water scoop. When the air is admitted it 
exerts a steady and sufficient pressure against the drill 
to feed it into the metal. When the drilling is completed 
the handle is thrown over, releasing the air behind the 
piston and at the same time admitting air in front of 
it to withdraw the drill. 

The machine is made from scrap material which may 
be found about any shop,— Cm/ ro/ Railroad of New 
Jersey, Elizabethport, N. J. 


A simple driver for a bolt lathe is shown in Fig. 10. 
These drivers are made in .sets for the different sizes of 
bolts to be turned. Two holes are tapped in the face 
plate and studs are screwed in to hold the drivers, so 
that they may be easily and quickly placed or removed. 
The driver has many points of advantage over the old 
style driver, as it adjusts itself to the head of the bolt, 
provides a double drive and keeps the lathe balanced, 
which is necessary when running at high speeds. The 
best way in which to make these drivers is to plane a 
long bar of steel to shape and cut off the drivers to 

the different widths desired; hardening will increase 
their life about 300 per cent. — C. J. Crou-ley, Piece Work 

J Jb ^ Otarance in this dlncfton 

• Quincy, West Bur- 

Flg. 10 — Bolt Chuck ( 

Inspector, Chicago, Burlington 6 
iington, Iowa. 


A chuck for holding the heads of bolts, which is much 
more convenient than the dogs or drivers that are or- 
dinarily used, i.s shown in Fig. II. The two parts of 
the clamp are each held at one end by a %-\n. stud boll, 
Tn order to adjust the distance between them, they swing 
around these bolts and may be clamped in any desired 
position by tightening the square head stud bolts at the 
other eiid.^F, F. Smith, Chief Draftsman; Thomas 
Marshall. Master Mechanic: Henry Holder, General 

i :.7|'- J 

Fig. 11 — Adjustable Chuck for Holding Bolt Heads. 

Foreman, and James Findlay, Machine Shop Foreman, 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, St. Paul, 


Three useful labor-saving attachments for use on a 
four-spindle Lassiter bolt machine are shown in Fig. 


12. The attachment at the left is used for roughing 
cuts or turning straight bolts. The attachment in the 
center is used for cutting off taper, or straight bolts, 
and the hollow mill shown in the center is used for 
sizing bolts for threading. The attachment to the right 
is used for pointing and turning teats on the ends of 

Hooten, Foreman Repair Work, Nashville, Chattanooga 
& St. Louis, Nashville, Tenn. 


There are two standards of taper bolts in use on 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western locomotives. For 

F(g. 12 — Bolt Machine Attachments. 

bolts. The dies are tripped from the under side by the 
thumb screw shown and can be adjusted for afiy length 
of thread. , With these attachments, bolts are handled 
direct from the heading machine, requiring no centering. 
The attachments are also adapted for use on a drill press. 
— IViltiam G. Reyer, General Foreman, and J. IV. 

the cylinder and frame bolts a taper of 1-16 in. to the 
foot is used, and for the rods a taper of ^ in. to the 
foot. Regular schedules have been adopted for the 
making of all sizes and lengths of these bolts, and these 
are shown in the accompanying tables. Figs. 13 and 14. — 
Delazi-are, Lackau-anna & Western, Scranton, Pa. 


Fir StraisM Solta. 





Fig. 13 — Plug Gaget for Bolt Turning Machine. 

Fig. 14 — Plug Gaget for Bolt Turning Machine. 



'I'lie cutter head, shown in Fig. 15, is a simple and 
strong tool for cutting 6 to 16-in. diam. holes from the 
solid, after drilling; the hole for the center pin. It is a 

4<I-i»- studs running through it, which provides for se- 
curely holding the tool much more firmly than is possible 

Pis. 17 — Heavy Duty Boring Bar. 

with a set screw. It is also easier to make the square 
slot between the two pieces than to inake a square hole 
through the end of a solid bar. — IV. H. Snyder, Assist- 
aitl GciiernI Foreman, Xnv York, Susquehanna & West- 
ern, Stroii<isbur_i;. Pa. 


-A simple boring bar is shown in Fig. 18. Any size 
. bar can be applied without removing the shank from the 

Fig. IS— Adjustable Cutter Head for Drilling or Boring. 

good tool for cutting out side rods, working from either 
side. This method permits the use of short and stiff 
tools. — C. J. Croii'ley, Piece Work Inspector, Chicago. 
Burimgtoii & Qiiincy, Wcsl Burlington, /otctt. 


The boring bar shown in the photograph, Fig. 16, 
is used for light work on the boring mill, and can be 

Fig. 18 — Boring Bar. 

socket. — A. L. Bauer, Machine Shop Foreman, Terminal 
Railroad Association of St. Louis. 


A boring bar holder used in the place of the ordinary 
tool post on a lathe is shown in Fig. 19. It has a T- 
head bolt by which it is clamped to the lathe carriage, 
and the boring bar is held by two %-in. set screws as 

Fig. 18 — Boring Bar for Ute t 

I Boring Mill. 

held in the ordinary tool post. The Jwo parts of the 
fork are of rectangular section and slip under and are 
held by the ordinary cutting tool clamp. It can be put in 
place as quickly as the regular cutting tool and is corre- 
spondingly handy. — Dclazvare, 'Lackawanna & Western, 
Scranton, Pa. 

BORING bar: 

A boring bar for heavy duty, used for boring and slot- 
ting locomotive driving wheels on a 90-in, Niles boring 
mill having a sloller attachment is shown in Fig. 17. 
A feature of the bar is the clamp at the bottom which 
secures the tool. This clamp, or bottom plate, has two 

* Fig. 19 — Boring Bar IHolder. 

indicated. The bar is 2-)^ in. in diameter and 30 in. 
long. A %-m. X ^^-in. tool is fastened in the end of 
the bar by a H,-m. set screw. — F. C. Pickard, Assistant 
Master Mechanic, Cincinnati, Hamillon S- Dayton, 
Indianapolis, bid. 



A handy device for boring hollow spheres is shown 
in Fig. 20. In the drawing the piece to be turned is 
shown in section, and is carried by a chuck or the hollow 
spindle of the lathe. The tool is carried by a worm gear, 
supported by a bar held in the tool post. The spindle 
and worm operate the feed and are turned by a handle. 
For adjusting, the tool is turned so that the center of 
the gear coincides with the axis of the lathe spindle. 
If the center line corresponds with that of the piece, it 
is fed directly into the work until the center of the 
worm gear coincides with the center of the curved sur- 

ciirely in place. After once adjusting the chuck and the 
table for a given job, an)- number of similar pieces may 
be adjusted by simply loosening and tightening the set 
screws in the chuck, as the pieces are removed and re- 
placed. — John V. Lc Comptc, Assistant Foreman, Balti- 
more & Ohio. Garrett. Iiiti. 


A considerable saving of time in stopping a boring 
mill may be accomplished by the use of a foot brake, as 

Fig. 20 — Device for Boring IHoliow Spheres. 

face. When tliis is done, the tool is fed through the 
circimiference by turning the hand wheel. With this 
device, the internal surface of a sphere can be bored 
through any number of degrees, provided there is an 
opening of sufficient size on one side to admit the tool. 
The radius of the surface so turned is equal to the dis- 
tance from the point of the tool to the center of the 
worm gear and can only be varied by readjusting the 
tool. A study of the design will show that it is not neces- 
sarj- to adjnst the spindle so that the center line coincides 
with that of the lathe spindle, although in this position 
the greatest radius of turning can be obtained. — Eastern 
Railroad of France. 


In boring oil cellars, grease lubricators, trailer cellars, 
bearings, etc., in a horizontal boring mill, the wrought 
iron chuck shown in Fig, 21 has proved valuable in the 
saving of both time and labor. Two of these chucks are 
adjusted suitable to the length of the work to be bored, 
and are clamped to the table of the machine with bolts 



shown jn Figs. 22 and 23. The brake A, consisting of a 
block of wood, is connected to the foot brake C. When 

Fig. 21 — Adjuetable Chuck for Horiiontet Boring Mlli. 

in the holes provided for that purpose. The tongue in 
the bottom of the chuck fits snugly in the slot of the 
table, thus holding the two chucks parallel to each other. 
The work is clamped in the chuck by the set screws, 
which are set at an angle, so as to hold the work se- 

Fig. 23 — Foot Brake on Boring Mill 


pressure is placed on C the brake is forced against the 
table with sufficient force to stop the machine immedi- 
ately. When pressure is removed from C the spring D 
releases the pressure on the block. — Chicago & North 
Western, Chicago. 


An adjustable boring tool for use in the tail-stock of 
a lathe is shown in Fig. 24. It consists of two cutting 
tools, A and B, held in the chuck C by the nut D. The 


The tapered end of the adjustable boring tool. Fig. 26, 
is made to fit the socket in the lathe tail-stock. A ^-in. 
X 1-in. slot receives the two cutters, which are held in 
position by the plate that is secured by the screw-head 

i 4- J 

L...._ ^___u 

Fig. 24 — Adjustable Boring Toot. 

tools may readily be adjusted. The device is used prin- 
cipally in boring valve motion bushings. — Chicago & 
North Western, Chicago. 


The boring head shown in Fig. 25 has three tools 
held in place by the bolt in the center. Each tool is 
tapped at its inner end for a small bolt to provide ad- 
justment as the cutter wears. A sliding gage should be 
used to grind and adjust these cutters, keeping each set 
at the same length. Several different sizes of holes can 


Pig. 2«— AdJuctabI* Boring Tool. 

bolts. These cutters are adjusted by the fluted section 
of the small spindle, which is operated by a small wrench. 
After the required adjustment is obtained the cutters are 
clamped in position by the set screw. The cutters are 
made of tool steel and the body of the tool is of soft 
steel. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania Railroad, 
Buffalo, N. y. 


A drawing of a swing polishing machine, which is 
not a new idea, but may be interesting to many readers, 
is shown in Fig. 27. This machine does all the work of 
polishing rods, guides, rocker arms, links and motion 

Pig. 2S— Boring Head for Drill 

be bored by having small blocks to place back of the 
screws in the cutter head. The head is also arranged 
for using a facing cutter. It is possible to chuck, bore 
and face nine eccentrics with 9 in. holes, 3j4 in. deep, 
in one hour, — C. /. Crowley, Piece Work Inspector, Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Qi'iiicy, West Burlington, Iowa. 

Pig. 27 — Swing Potlthing Machint 

pins and other work for a shop that has an output of 
from 25 to 30 engines a month. — D. P. Kellogg, Master- 


Mechanic; W. F. Merry, General Foreman, and G. H. 
Goodwin. General Gang Foreman, Southern Pacific, Los 
Angeles, Cai. 


A mandrel for turning bushings of various kinds and 
sizes, especially for motion work, is illustrated in Fig. 
28. The nut and sliding portion are removed, the man- 



— ^ 







ytfartl Drilling TtilmiiM /itU/ln 

cB fe--^* ^ thick 




O '^^ o 

W.I. \ 


' Hot 


Fig. 29 — Chucki for Making Bushlnga. 

as much as forged bushings or tubing, which means a very 
large saving, as all the valve motion, part equalizers, 
equalizer fulcrums, spring hangers, atr-brake hangers, 
etc., are bushed, using from 80 to 100 bushings on each 
engine. — C. J. Crowley, Pxefe Work Inspector, Chicago, 
Burlington &■ Qiiincy, iVest Burlington, Iowa. 


A hoist for handling car wheels to and from a boring 
mill is shown in Fig. 30. The hand crane attached to the 
boring mill bed has been displaced by an air hoist of 
rather novel design, The cylinder, which is 5 in. in di- 
ameter and has an 18-in. piston stroke, is mounted di- 
rectly on the crane arm and swings with it. The over- 

._g^' ^ Sliding Fff 

- -9'- - A 

Pig. 28 — Bushing Mandrel. 

drel inserted in the bushing, and the sliding portion and 
nut re-applied and tightened sufficiently to prevent the 
bushing from turning. The mandrel is made of tool 
steel and the conical portions are case hardened. The 
time and labor required for doing this work have been 
reduced about 50 per cent, by the use of this style of 
mandrel. — A. S. Willard, Forema%i, Norfolk & Western, 
Crewe, Va. 


The chucks for drilling and reaming bushings, shown 
in Fig. 29, are bolted to the side of the drill press table. 
Bushings are usually made from bars of iron or steel, 
after the stock has been notched a little deeper than the 
hole to be drilled, the drill cutting off each bushing at 
the notch. Bushings made in this way cost about half 

Fig. 30 — Air Holit for Car Wheel Boring Mill. 

hang of the crane arm is 4 ft. The air cylinder is sup- 
ported by the wrought iron braces. — 7". E. Freeman, 

General Foreman; A. G. Wright, Master Mechanic; 
J. L. Riley, Machine Foreman, Chicago, St. Paul, Minne- 
apolis & Omaha, Sioux City, lou-a. 


The counterboring tool shown in Fig. 31 may also be 
used for boring. It was designed for use on drill presses 

Fig. 2 Fig. 3. 

Pig. 31 — Counterboring Tool. 

and lathes. The design, clearly shown on the drawing, 
is simple and inexpensive. — A. L. Bauer, Foreman Ma- 
chine Shop, Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis. 


A toot for drilling square holes in crank pin collars 
on a drill press is shown in Fig. 32. The collar is placed 
on two parallel strips and the soft steel cap is then ad- 



justeci 311(1 clamped in position. This cap centers the 
work, being bored out to fit over the collar. Inserted in 
the cap is a hardened steel guide, secured by four pins. 
This guide has a square of the same size as the square 
hole lo be drilled in the collar. The drill is made of a 
long piece of steel, as shown, which allows it to give the 
necessary spring when in operation. The cutting end of 
the drill is triangular in shape, with a cutting edge on 
each corner, and is fitted to the guide die so tliat it will 
turn free at the four corners. The drawing shows this 
combination designed for drilling 15'4-in. holes J4 in- 

rod fit on difl'erent classes of locomotives. — R. E. Broti-t 
Foreman, Atlantic Coast Line, U'aycross, Ga. 

Fig. 33 — V-BlockB for Supportlrrg and Clamping the Piston 
Rod When Planing Croasheada. 

^'-blocks for supporting and clamping the piston rod 
when planing crossheads on a quick return stroke crank 
planer are shown in detail in Figs. 33, 34 and 35. They 
are of simple design, one being an ordinary V-block and 
the other having an overhang of some 10 in. to pro- 
vide a more rigid support. Any style of crosshead may 
be used with them, and as the crank planer is much 
quicker in movement than other types of machines, it is 
evident that much time may be saved. These blocks 
are made of cast iron. The crossheads are planed with 
the piston rods keyed to them to insure perfect alinement 
with the rod. A master bar cannot be used because of 
the difference in taper and the size of holes for the piston 


Pig. 34— Ordinary V-Block for Uae on a Crank Plat 

Applicafion of Jig fy crank Pin Co/fan 

Fig. 32 — Tool for Drilling Square Hoiet. 

deep. The tool has given very satisfactory results. — 
P. P. Kellogg, Master Mechanic; IV. F. Mcry, General 
Foreman, and C. H. Goodwin, General Gang Foreman, 
Southern Pacific. Los Angeles. Cal. 




Fig. 35 — Overhanging V-Block for Uae on a Crank Planer, 


An alligator crosshead chucked on a planer bed in 
position for planing the babbitted shoe is shown in Fig, 
36. The tool used is 4],2 in. wide. The shavings re- 



nwjv-ed are seen to be wide and heavy. It acts largely as 
a scraping tool and makes a true, even finish, with no 

are made to fit in the planer slots ; the crosshead is planed 
while mounted on the piston rod and perfect aliiienient 
is thus insured. — (('. H. Snyder, Assistant General Fon-- 
inmi, .\>Ti' Vork, Susquehanna & Western, Strands- 
burg, Pa. 


A gage for wrist pins is shown on the accompanying 
photograph. Fig. 38. It consists of two plates, each 
about -14 in. thick, and held about 2'/^ in, apart by bolts 

Pig. 38— Wrist Pin Gag«. 

and separators. The holes shown are bored to standard 
diameters and marked, and serve as a guide and gage 
for the turning of the pins. — Delaware. Laekattvnna & 
Western, Scranton, Pa. 

Pig. 3<— Planing a Babbitted Cronhead Shoe. 

possibility of gouging into the soft metal. — Lehigh Val- 
ley Sayre. Pa. 


One view of a cylinder bushing chuck which is easily 
and quickly adjusted in the bushing and grips it firmly 
is shown in Fig. 39. The four dogs on each cone are ' 


A simple but efficient design of pedestal \'-blocks for 
planing crossheads is shown in Fig. i7. The base higs 

Fig. 37 — Pedettal V-Block* for Planing Croaaheads. 

Fig. 39 — Cylinder Bushing Chuck. 

first set for the bushing diameter and are fixed in place 
by the tap bolts shown. One cone is keyed on the shaft, 
while the other is a sliding fit and is clamped against the 
bushing by a large nut But. two cuts are necessary in 
machining a bushing, the roughing cut renwving about 
^4-in. of metal. The finishing cut takes out any spring 
which may have resulted from the first cut, — Baltimore 
& Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 



The work of removing machine cuttings from a large 
shop is an important item ; the practice of having it done 
by laborers with wheelbarrows is expensive and is not 
entirely satisfactory. The photograph, Fig. 40 shows a 
chip box, a number of which are located about the shop, 
especially near the large machines. These boxes are 36 
in. X 36 in. x 36 in., made'of '/i-'m. boiler steel and will 
hold abont 2 tons of chips. The practice is for each op- 
erator to throw the cuttings from his machine into a 

Pig. 41— Cylinder In Place for Boring. 

cast iron parallels which are bolted to the bed of the ma- 
chine. They also move longitudinally on tlie parallel 
strips, having wide feet to give stability and to ]>rovide 
for the holding bolts. Both cylinders and bustlings are 
bored and faced to length on this machine. The boring 
head was designed and made at the Sayre shops. Fig. 
42 shows a face view of the head with the bar drawn 
back. Provision is made for using six tools. Each one 
is adjusted by a screw, the end of which is shown. The 
lower end of the screw adjustment carries a right-angle 

Fig. 10 — Metal Bex for Handling Cuttings. 

box. There is no difficulty in 'getting this done, as the 
mechanic shovels the cuttings up as they accumulate, his 
machine being supplied with the necessary broom and 
shovel. After working hours in the evening, the shop 
crane handles these boxes to a scrap car, which is run 
into the shop. The box has four grabs; one side which 
is hinged at the top has a latch at the bottom and pro- 
vides for easily emptying the boxes when suspended over 
tiie scrap car and held by the two back grabs only— Le- 
/ii,^/f Valley, Sayre, Pa. 


A Barrett Bros,' horizontal cylinder boring machine, 
used exchisively for boring cylinders and cylinder bush- 
ings, is shown in the photographs, Figs. 41 and 43. The 
V-s, adjustable for 12-in. to 40-in, diameters, rest on 

Fig 42 — Boring Head of Cylinder Boring Machln 


William G. Reyer, General Foreman, Kaslnillc, Chat- 
tanooga & St. Louis, KashviUe, Tcnn. 


A method of boring and turning cylinder bushing? at 
one operation on a vertical boring mill is shown in Figs. 
45 and 46. The rough bushing is made 4 in, longer than 

Fig. 43 — A Cylinder Butiiing About to be Clampad 
Preparatory to Boring. 

hook against which the cutter rests. The tools are set 
out the proper distance from the head by measurement. 
so that it is not necessary to run trial cuts and caliper the 
cylinder or bushing; a considerable amount of time is 
thus sa\'e<k — Lehigh Valley, Sayre. Pa. 


It formerly required 12 hours to bore an I8-in. cylin- 
der, this being measured from the time the cylinder was 
taken off the floor until it was returned. This is now be- 
ing done in nine hours, and the time will be reduced stil! 
more when the chuck shown in Fig. 44 has been installed. 
A is a section of the bed of the cylinder boring machine. 
and B is the base of the chuck, which may be used either 
for a cylinder hushing or a cylinder casting. The methori 
of chucking one of the bushings is clearly shown in the 

^ ^ 

Fig. 45— Cyilnd«r Buahing Clamped to Boring Mlli Table. 

the cylinder, with a flange at one end for clamping. After 
clamping it to the table, one head of the boring mill may 
be used for turning and the other for boring. This re- 

Fig. 44 — Chucic for Boring Cylinders or Cylinder Buaiiing*. 

illustration. To use this chuck with a cylinder it is neces- 
sary to remove the part C by taking out the bolt £ and 
removing the block D and the pin F. The cylinder may 
then be placed on the base and adjusted to the proper po- 
sition by manipulating the screws / and H. The casting 
may be securely clamped in position by means of two 
cross bars, one at each end of the cylinder, one end of the quires about one-half the time of the old method and 
bars being held by eye bolts which fit on the pins F, and eliminates any liability of the bushing being sprung out 
the other by T-bolts, which fit in slots G. The lugs L of round. — R. E. Bro7vii. Forcntaii. Atlantic Coast Line, 
are bolted to the base of the machine by two bolts each. — IVaycross, Go. 

Turning and Boring ■ 

Cylinder Busiiing I 



The design and application of a set of dogs used in 
machining cylinder heads on a boring mill are shown in 
Figs. 47 and 48. There are three such dogs in a set and 
they are made of soft steel. The gripping face, }'s-m. in 
depth, has teeth set at an angle of 60 deg. with the hor- 
izontal and opposed to the direction of motion of the 
machine, so that any tendency to slip forces the teeth 

the chucks are used on a 42-in, high-power, double-head 
Gisholt mill, they give satisfactory results under the most 

Pig. 47 — Application of Cylinder Head Dog* to a Boring Mill. 

more firmly into the work and wedges it more securely 
against the horizontal surface on which it rests. Each 
dog has two holding bolts which tap into a cleat, fitting 
in the universal chuck strip in the machine bed. A sec- 
tion of the base. of the dog is supplied with teeth to mesh 
with those in the strips. These dogs are designed to take 
all of the cylinder heads used on the road. Although 

Fig. 48— Cylinder Head Dog. 

severe conditions. — Long Island Railroad, Morris Park, 

.\. y. 


The chucks, shown in the photograph. Fig. 50. and the 
drawing, Fig. 49, are made to accommodate all sizes of 
cylinders from 18 in. to 25 in. in diam. The steps on the 
cones fit the counterbores of the different size cylinders. 
The set consists of two end and two centre chucks. One 
of the center chucks is made long (the one shown to the 
right in Fig. +9), since some of the cylinders have frame 
fits extending beyond the ends of the cylinders. If the 
frame fits do not extend beyond the cylinders, a short 
center is used (about 9 in. wide over-all except for the 
base, which is 12 in. wide), bringing the cylinders closer 
together and saving considerable time in planing. The 
gap at the top of the chucks is provided to lighten them, 
and is also useful in placing the two large bolts which are 
used to draw the chucks tight against the cylinders. The 
chucks should have the steps on the cones machined first. 

Fig. 4S — Datalls of Cylinder C^iucke. 



after which the center hole should be bored out. They 
should then be placed on a mandrel and finished to fit the 
slots in the planer bed. With these chucks, it is possible 

Fig. 90 — Cylinders and Chucks in Position on Planer. 

to set up and bolt a pair of cylinders ready for planing 
in one and a half hours. — C. J. Crowley, Piece Work In- 
spector. Chicngo, BitrHn:^ton & Quincy, West Biirlhig- 
ton, Jozi-a. 

DIE 1101.nF,H, COMB1N.\T10\. 

.\ combination die holder, used principally on the tur- 
ret lathes for brass work, is shown in Fig. .SI. This 
style of die holder has given perfect satisfaction, and as 
it is adjustable, the dies can be reground whhoui chang- 

any work between 2 and 3 in, — D. P. KcUog^, Master 
Mechanic; IV. F. Merry, General Foreman, and C. fl. 
Goodii-in, General Gang Foreman, Southern Pacific, Los 
Angeles. Cdl. 



The dove-tailing tool shown in Fig. 52 is for use after 
a hole is made with an ordinary flat bottom drill. When 
the end of the dove-tailing tool reaches, and is pressed 
against the bottom of the hole, the cutter is forced out, 
niaking a dove-tail such as is often used to anchor babbitt 
in crosshead shoes, driving boxes, etc. 

The counterboring tool, shown in the same illustration, 
was designed especially for reaming frame bolt holes of 
cylinders. As these holes are 18 in. long, they are very 
difficult to ream. With this tool the center of the hole 
is counterbored for about 6 or 8 in., after which the 

.-■S^Ohm, >j 

Pig. &2 — Dov«-Tailing and Counterboring Toot*. 

holes can be reamed in about half the time formerly re- 
quired. In operation, the cutting tool is first set and 
fastened with a set screw. The milled nut is then screwed 
down so that the cutter does not project beyond the body 
of the tool. The bar is then entered in the hole from the 
botiom ; the motor is started, and the tapered head hold- 
ing the cutter is drawn into place by tightening the milled 
nut, forcing the cutter into the metal. — C. /. Croidey, 
Piece Work Inspector. Chicago, Burlington &■ Quincy, 
West Burlington^ lozi'O. 


A simple guide for drilling a series of holes which run 
into each other in the base of a rail is shown in Fig. 53, 
The guide was made especially for use in connection with 
cutting planer clearance slots in a number of standard 
ing the size of the holder. The die is removed from the section rails, the flanges of which were being planed 
cage by loosening the knurled screws. A large number down for guard rails. Although it is a special tool, it il- 
of dies can be used with the one holder. The size shown lustrates an application which may be used on any job 
is for use on standard hose nipples, water car nipples or requiring a series of consecutive drilled holes. A slight 

Fig. SI — Combination Die Holder. 



change in the design of the piece which holds the hard- 
enefl bushing would be necessary for any work other 
than a rail. The guide is held in place on the rail by driv- 
ing in the wedge which draws the loose key against the 




( 'Bashing \ 


Fig. 54— Clamp for Holding Ash Pan Caating on Drill Preaa. 

shaft B, which is bolteii to the drill press table. The 
casting C, which is held by the clamp, may be placed in 
any position for drilling by driving out the key D and 
turning on the pin B. — Chicago & North Western, 


A pneumatic clamp applied to a drill press is shown 
in Fig. 55. All the heavy radial drills in our shop are 
equipped with this attachment. The clamp holds the 
work securely and is quick to operate. It is made adjus- 
table to suit any size of work, and saves the time of 

flange. This idea is one which is used very extensively 
at the Long Island shops, on all sorts of jigs and chucks. 
It replaces the nut which is usual in such cases, being 
much more quickly operated. The body of the device 
is made of wrought iron or soft steel and the drill bushing 
of hardened steel. — Long Island Railroad, Morris 
Park, X. y. 


A clamp for holding ash pan castings on a drill press 
table is shown in Fig. 54. The clamp A revolves on the 

Fig. SS — Pneumatic Clamp Applied to Drill Pretc 

loosening and tightening nuts, which amounts to con- 
-siderable in a month's time. — D. P. Kellogg, Master Me- 
chanic; W. F. Merry, General Foreman, and G. H. Good- 
man, General Gang Foreman, Southern Paci/ic, Los 
^Ingeles, Cal. 


Flat drills, when used in drill presses or with air mo- 
tors, are generally unsatisfactorily held, usually with 
a .set screw or even nothing but a square socket to take 
the rough forged shank. The chuck here shown. Fig. 56, 
consists of two main pieces and two semi-circular steel 

Fig. e»— Flat Drill Chuck. 

blocks which grip the round shank of the drill. In the 
drawing, the top view of these steel blocks shows also the 
relative position of the flat portion of the drill, the round 



not being shown. These blocks fit in the head of the 
chuck and are held from falling, in case the lower cap be 
removed, by a yt-in. dowel pin. After placing the round 
i^hank in the chuck and forcing it up between the steel 
blocks, the cap is screwed up and the taper faces of the 
blocks, fitting against similar tapers in the cap and head 
of the chuck, cause the blocks to firmly clamp the shank 
of the drill. Flat drill shanks from j4-in. to )i-m. in 
diameter ■ may be used with a chuck of the dimensions 
shown. The Morse taper shank in this case is made to 
fit a No. 3 sleeve.— Ba/ti»wr^ 6- Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, 
Baltimore, Md. 


A handy chuck for using square shank taps or ream- 
ers on a drill press is shown in Fig. 57. The body A is 
bored out to receive the collet C, which has a square 
opening to fit over the shank of the reamer or tap, A 
set of these collets should be provided having squares 
ranging from }i in. to V/t in. After placing the collet 


cut is run through to remove the metal below the hori- 
zontal diameter line and at the retaining shoulder, thus 
eliminating the necessity of any chipping in the erecting 
shop in order to get the box to fit down over the journal. 

Fig. B8 — Driving Box Boring Bar, 

The entire operation saves about 50 per cent, of the lime 
formerly required for doing this work. — John V. he 
Compte, Assistant Foreman, Baltimore & Ohio, Garrett, 


Driving box brasses may be machined to the press fit 
sizes in a lathe to better advantage than on a slotter. On 
a slotter it is necessary to allow the tool to pass eom- 
pietL'ly around the bearing — or at any event, to make at 
leasl a few cuts on either end of the diameter of the brass 
— in order lo caliper the size. When machining on a 
lathe, a few revolvtions of the work suffice to give the 

Pig. 67 — Drilt Pr«M Chuck for Squars Shank Tooli. 

in the retaining collar D, it is screwed on to the body A, 
damping the collet firmly. The dowel pin, indicated at 
B, prevents turning. The collets are made of tool steel 
and the other parts of soft steel. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, 
Pennsylvania Railroad, Buffalo, N. V. 


A double tool boring bar for finishing driving box bear- 
ings is illustrated in Fig, 58, The lower end of the bar 
fits in a bushing in the table of the boring mill. The 
head carries two tools, one for roughing and the other 
for finishing, both of which are made of 1-in. square steel. 
The finishing tool is first applied and about j4-in. depth 
of metal is removed in order to get the proper size. The 
roughing tool is then adjusted to leave 1/32-in. to be re- 
moved by the finishing tool and is set to lead the finishing 
tool by % in. This operation therefore roughs and fin- 
ishes the bearing simultaneously. After the box is fin- 
ished the tool is moved back to the top and the box is re- 
volved once to make sure it has not been moved while 
the cut was being taken. Before the box is removed it is 
moved from '4 •"• to J^ in. away from the center and a 

rig. B9 — Driving Box Bearing Ciiuel<. 

desired measurement. The chuck shown in the lathe, as 
illustrated in Fig. 59, has two cones, one of which is ad- 
justable on the spindle. Besides being held between the 
cones, set screws are also used for gripping the brass. 
These chucks will take bearings for from 8-in. to 10-in. 
journals, the cones being well supplied with set-screw 
holes.— BaWmore &■ Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Balti- 
more, Md. 



The chuck shown in Fig. 60 consists of a heavy base 
slotted at the edges to admit holding bolts, and with a 
mandrel projecting upward, to the end of which a sliding 


A V-block for setting driving box brasses on a planer 
bed is shown in Fig, 62. This block is held in place on 
the planer by the lug at the bottom, which fits the slot 
in the platen. The brass, which has been previously 
machined on the lathe or on a vertical mill, is placed en 
the V-block, and is held in position by a long clamp and 


Tig. 60 — Chuck for Turning Driving Box Braaies. 

collar and nut are fitted. The brass is set on the lower 
collar. and the upper one is dropped down and adjusted 
with the set-screws and then tightened in place by the 
nut. It is intended for use on a boring mill. — Delaware, 
Lacktrn'oniia & Western, Seratiton, Pa. 


Driving box brasses are turned on a center-drive axle 
lathe, using ihe turning bar shown in Fig. 61. Two 
brasses can be turned in a half hour, or 15 minutes to the 
brass. The bar, which is 5 ft. 8 in, long, is made from a 
scrap axle. Details of the driving dog and the steady 
and grip flanges are shown. The grip flanges are made 
in different diameters to suit brasses of various sizes, the 

Fig. 61 — Turning Bsr for Locomotive Driving Box Braisei. 

diameter of the grip flange being that of the finished 
brass. These flanges are a sliding fit on the bar. The 
steady flange fits in the center head of the lathe to steady 
the bar. These turning bars are being used in all of the 
shops of the road. The same kind of lathe is also used 
for driving axles, saving much time. — Great Northern, 
Dais Street Shops, St. Paul; Minn. 

, /4i jj i<- 7^1 J 

Fig. 62 — Chuck and Gage for Driving Box Brait. 

bolts, which latter also hold the V-block to the planer. 
The tool for obtaining the size of the brass from the box 
is also shown. It is adjusted to the box size by the 
thumb screws, and the end lugs are adjusted to the proper 
angle of the retaining shoulder. After the gage is ad- 
justed to size it is placed against the end of the brass, 
wiiich is marked off accordingly. — L. M. Granger, As- 
sistant General Foreman, and John Todd, Machine Fore- 
man, Erie Railroad^ Gallon, 0. 


The driving box brass chuck. Fig. 63, is made in three 
sizes: one for 7 to 7}.'i-'m. x 8-in. journals; one for 8 
to 8'/2-in. X 10 in. journals, and one for 9 to 9>4-in. and 
10-in, X 12-in. journals. There are also three sizes of 
gages, one for each chuck. The frames of the gages are 
constructed of J^-in. steel .'•^ in. wide. The small piece 
with the 4j4-'u. radius, shown at the right on the draw- 
ing, is used with the smaller size gage only. The circle 
of the box is first calipered and the points on the gage 
set accordingly. The gage is then laid on top of the 
brass and the cutting tool is set to the gage points, mak- 
ing allowance for the finishing cut. .After the radius 
is slotted, the gage, which meanwhile has been fitted to 
the box to get the proper angle of the dove-tail, has 
the small angle piece of 3-16 in. round iron fastened 
against the middle point of the gage. The projecting 
arm of the angle piece is pressed against the brass and 
the dove-tail is scribed. The assembled view of the gage 
shows it arranged for this purpose. After the dove-tail 



is slotted to the line, the gage is placed on top of the 
brass and a scale is held against the dove-tail to check 
the work. This tool has been used for slotting brasses 
for several years; but one operation is required instead 
of three or four, as when the brasses are turned in the 

r-^^--i ?r 





Fig. 63 — Driving Box Bra88 Chuck for Slotter and Gage for 

Laying Out Bra88e8. 

lathe, after which the dove-tail is cut on a shaper or 
slotter. Brasses are slotted and pressed-in in 35, 40 or 
45 min., according to the size, making perfect fits with- 
out filing. — C. /. Crozvley, Piece Work Inspector, Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Qnincy, West Burlington, Jo^ca. 


In fitting locomotive driving brasses into the boxes 
it is customary to turn off the circumference of the brass 
in the lathe to the diameter of the box, after which it is 

»j»j<cocooce ^ 

' _. 


l L-?l!.j! '*^ 

^\ iV^ 

«7»i/* C-/7huS. 

Fig. 64 — Caliper for Driving Boxee and Braeeee. 

put in the shaper and the ends are planed off as close 
to a fit as possible. The job is then finished with a file 

and this takes considerable time if the work comes up 
again and again in a large shop. The accompanying 
sketch. Fig. 64, gives a clear idea of a caliper used in a 
large western railway shop with excellent results. The 
inside caliper is used for getting the inside measurement 
of the driving-box at its smallest point, which is usually 
near the center. The outside caliper is then set to the 
inside caliper, allowing a certain amount for a press fit, 
depending of course on the size and material in the box 
and on the pressure required. The brass is placed on a 
slotter and slotted off to the diameter of the box, after 
which the outside caliper is used to lay off the amount to 
be taken off the ends. After being slotted to the cali- 
per, the brass is ready to be pressed into the box, with 
no filing or fitting. A slotter-hand working on this class 
of work can fit from ten to fifteen brasses per day. — 
F. A. Dailcy, Northern Pacific, St. Paul, Minn. 


The usual way of laying off bearings for driving 
boxes, preparatory to slotting or turning them for the 
box fit, is to place the brass on the box in the position 
which it will assume for pressing into place and then 

Fig. 65 — Driving Box Bearing Gage. 

scribe off on the edge of the brass the line of fit. This 
method is generally satisfactory, but it is almost impos- 
sible to press the brass into the box without using a file to 
get the proper angle at the retaining shoulder. The gage 
shown in Fig. 65 is really an inside caliper wnth three 
legs and is designed for laying off the proper angle at 
the ends of the brass. The three legs are adjustable to 
the requirements of any brass for from 6-in. to 10-in. 
journals. The central adjustable leg always moves along 
a radial line, being guided by a fixed pin, while the 
other two legs are free to be adjusted to obtain the 
proper angle. The plate is made of sheet iron about 
3/16 in. thick. All driving box brasses at these shops 
are turned on a lathe for the circular fit, using a specially 
designed mandrel. Brasses are much more easily turned 
to size on a lathe than machined on a slotter, since it is 
impossible for the mechanic to caliper the finished sizes 
of the brass on a slotter until an entire cut has been made. 



while in the case of a lathe, it is only necessary to make 
one or two revolutions in order to caliper it. — Baltunore 
& Ohio, ML Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


The output of driving box brasses on the slotter was 
greatly increased by the use of the device shown in 
Fig. 66. The brass is held by a jig, the idea being to 
have everything perfectly rigid and then to use a stiff 
tool in a rigid tool post. After the first brass is finished 

Fig. 66 — Slotting Driving Box Bra88e8. 

the tool is not disturbed, for it is preferable to cut as 
many brasses as possible without grinding it. The gag- 
ing is done by calipering one driving box and then, if it 
is necessary, moving the table in or out to suit the next 
size. — Frank Rattek, Brighton^ Ma^ss. 


A useful angle plate used in connection with slotting 
the ends of driving box brasses is shown in Fig. 67. 
The V of the angle plate insures the brass being ma- 
chined square with the turned crown. The brass is held 
rigidly to the angle plate by a clamp and two bolts which 
pass through the ^-in. holes. After the ends are slotted 
the brass is pressed into the box under a pressure of 8 to 

10 tons ; the brass is then slotted or bored for the journal 
fit. The device is simple in design and easily made. — 


— H 






T I 


l-^ — 






'i^.3%'.M}k e'—4 

Fig. 67 — Driving Box Bra8s Angle Plate. 

JV, H. Snyder, Assistant General Foreman, Nezv York, 
SusauehaJina & Western, Stroudsburg, Pa. 


A tool for boring oil cellars and grease lubricators 
is shown in Fig. 68. It was devised to do the work 
formerly handled by a single tool boring bar used on a 
horizontal mill. The head carries four independent tools 
made of 1-in. square steel, which are held rigidly in place 
by set screws and are easily adjusted. The practice is 
to have the cellar fit within 1/16 to % in. of the journal 
to prevent unnecessary waste of grease and oil. As the 

Fig. 68 — Driving Box Cellar Boring Tool. 

journals are allowed J4 in. limit of wear it may require a 
cut of % in. or more to bore the cellar to fit a new axle. 
The four cutters- are adjusted to different lengths in 
order that each may do its proportionate share of the 
cutting. This tool is of simple design, yet it has in- 


creased the output to 25 cellars per day and decreased 
the cost of this work about 20 per cent. — John V. Le 
Compte, Assistant Foreman, Baltimore & Ohio, Gar- 
rett, Ind. 


One of a set of two chucks used on a boring mill for 
facing off cast brass hub liners of driving boxes is shown 
in Fig. 69, while the photograph. Fig. 70, shows a pair of 
these chucks in use. They are fastened to the machine 
bed bv bolts that have T-heads which fit in the slots. 

that fits the center hole of the table. The box rests 
on the parallel pieces A and is adjusted centrally by set- 



1 1 

U ...„ii.. 



Fig. 69 — Detail* of Driving Box Chuck. . 

There is a 1-in. x 1-in. wrought iron piece set in the 
bottom of the chuck, which meshes with the table slot 
and prevents rotation of the chuck. The chucks are 
placed on the bed of the machine so that a box will slip 
into position easily, after which the set screws are tight- 

Fig. 71 — Cliuck for Boring Driving Boxes. 

screws in the vertical flanges at the sides. It is clamped 
down in the usual manner, — Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western, Scraiilon, Pa. 


The usual method of chipping oil grooves in driving 
box shoe and wedge faces with a pneumatic hammer 
takes considerable time and makes unsatisfactory 
grooves. By the method illustrated much better grooves 
are made in a shorter time. The tool shown in Fig. 72 
is applied to a drill press and is made so that a small 
drill may be placed in the pocket in the center of the 


Fig. 70— Driving Box Chucks on Boring Mill. 

ened against the flanges. When the box is to be re- 
moved, the set screws are loosened on but one side. 
These chucks will take all designs of boxes used on the 
road and are made of wrought iron, planed from the solid. 
A box is usually handled, floor to floor, in 15 minutes. — 
Long Island Railroad, Morris Park, N. V. 


Driving boxes are bored on a boring machine and are 
held in a simple chnck, Fig. 71, with a short projection 



Fig. 72 — Tool for Msking Oil Grooves In Drlvlnfl Box Shoe sml 
Wedge Faces. 

bar and be adjusted to project the proper distance. It 
is clamped in this position by a set screw. This drills a 
hole and holds the bar rigidly in place, while the groov- 
ing tool, after being adjusted to the desired radius and 
clamped in place by the taper .key, makes the oil groove. 
Grooves may be made thus in 40 per cent, less time than 



if the center hole ati'l ynKive were made in two opera- 
tions, and in 75 per cent. It-i time than required for chip- 
ping with a pneumatic hammer. — John V. Le Comple. 
Assistant Foreman, Baltimore & Ohio. Garrett, Ind. 


.-\ll driving U^xes are fittetl to mandrels, instead of 
fjoring ibem and sending them to the erecting side to 
be fitted to the journal;', The-e mandrels are hollow- 
cast-iron cylinders, ranging from 7 'J/fA in. to 9>^ in. 
in diameter, increasing by sixty- fourths. They are stored 
in a rack bt-iide the Ixiring mill and one man gives all 
of his time to boring and fitting driving boxes. The 
Great .N'orthem u^.t-, grea-e for its driving journals, and 
the grease gr'Xives. which are }-k in. x Js in., are cut in 
the bra-! by this man with an air hammer. — Creat 
Sorthern, Dale Street Shops, St. Paul, Minn. 


The lieaiii shown in I'ig. 7i is used on the double 
head' planer for planing driving lyjxes. It is a casting 
4 ft. long, fitted with three T slots in each face, to which 
the Iwxes are iKilttd in rows by means of the usual 
clamps. With the Ijeam set properly on the bed of the 
planer it is merely nects^ary to bfilt the boxes against 
the face to iniure accurate alinement for planing. — 
DelaiL'are, Laekaii-anna & Western, Scranion, Pa. 

applying, the ccceotric is placed in the pocket in the 
chuck plate and clamped, as shown in the sectional draw- 
ing. This chuck can be placed on either a boring mill 
or lathe and will stand a hea\-y cut or feed. Eccentrics 
can be applied or removed rapidly and with little labor. 
The chuck will not only increase the output of the ma- 


A steel eccentric chuck for turning four different 
throw eccentrics by simply changing the position of the 
eccentric plate on the chuck plate is shown in Fig. 74. 
The pockets are counter-bored in the chuck plate and lo- 
cated so as to give the desired throws, and each pocket 
is stamped the size of throw which it represents. The 
top side of the eccentric plate is made the size of the 
driving axle fit for the eccentric, while on the bottom 
side is a boss to fit the pocket in the chuck plate. When 



■Secffon .4-3. 
Fig, 7 A — Ecc«ntric Chuck. 

chine on this class of work but will insure a correct throw 
to every eccentric turned. — E. G. Gross, Master Me- 
chanic, Central of Georgia, Columbus, Ga. 


A cast iron chuck for boring and facing eccentrics is 
shown in Fig. 75. Provision is made for 5-in., 5^-in, 






_, -1 4-; 1-^- 

Fig. 73 — Jig for Planing Driving Boxsi. 



and B'/i-iii- tlirow eccentrics. 
tries that have been turned 

When boring out eccen- 
tlie outside, circniar filler 

ing by three forged top clamps, fastened by l-in. tap 
bolts. About lyi hours' time is required for boring the 
axle fit and facing both sides of a rough casting. For 
an old eccentric about 30 minutes' time is required for 
reboring.— Lod;,' Island Railroad, Morris Park, N. Y. 


The details and general appearance of a jig for drill- 
ing the boh holes in the halves of split eccentrics are 
shown in Figs. 76 and 77. The jig is placed on a drill 











■ ■ : IT i 


n- ^TTtrli il- r— m 

Fig. 7&^Eccentrle Chuck. 

Fig. 77— Eccentric Drilling Jig. 

pieces are used inside the chuck. When facing, the cast- press table in the position shown. The half-eccentric is 
ing is held by the three l-in. set screws, and when bor- placed on the cams, planed face upward. The levers are 

Fig. 7t — Datall* of Eccentric. Driiling Jig. 



then raised until the planed surface is in contact all along means of the adjusting screw. The base may be gradu- 
thc under side of the top bar of the jig. The latch dogs ated to facilitate adjustment to any desired throw. The 
provide for locking the cams in position. The half-ecceo- table of the boring mill is grooved to accommodate the 
trie is centered l^ the graduations shown on the draw- annular boss on the base plate of the mandrel, which is 
ing, and the drill is fed down through one of the bush- clamped to the bed through the four lugs. After two 
ings in the top bar of the jig, no laying oflF of holes be- or three eccentrics are applied to the mandrel, depend- 
ing necessary. It will be noticed that the plate bolted to ing on their thickness and the height of the mandrel. 

the under side of the top bar has a wider groove than 
does the under side of the bar itself, which provision is 
necessary to provide for different style eccentrics. — 
Central Railroad of New Jersey, Elisabelhporl, N. J. 


A rigid mandrel ■ 
turning eccentrics oi 

Mth an adjustable throw, for use in 
a boring mill, is shown in Fig. 78. 

which latter may be made to suit any conditions, a heavy 
washer is placed over the top eccentric and clamped to 
the mandrel by a 1^-in. bolt. The following results 
have been obtained with this mandrel on a 42-in. Gbholt 
boring mill, using both heads. In a day of 10 hours, 
18 eccentrics, 17 in. in diameter, 4j4-in. face, with 2j^- 
in. boss, making the width 7 in,, were finished. Two 
eccentrics were applied at a time, making nine separate 
operations. This method increased the output for this 
size eccentric by 45 per cent. On another day of 10 
hours, 22 eccentrics, 14^ in. in diameter, 4-in, face, and 
without a boss, were turned. Three eccentrics were ap- 
plied at a time. This method increased the output for 
this size eccentric 54 per cent. — John V. Le Comple, 
Assistant Foreman, Baltimore & Ohio, Garrett, Ind. 


.A.n eccentric mandrel for a lathe is shown in Figs. 79 
and SO. It consists of a cast iron slotted base, which is 
bolted to the face plate of the lathe. The bar on which 
the eccentric fits is held in place on the base by a large 
nut. This bar may be adjusted for different throws of 
eccentrics by the long screw which passes through the 
The shaft of the mandrel being solid is adapted only for base. As shovm in the photograph, the bar has four 
eccentrics of a given bore. The eccentric is placed on slots in which tapered wedges fit. These are grooved 
the shaft and is held from turning by the key. The lug near the outer ends to engage the collar of the large nut, 
on the bottom of the mandrel slides in a slot in the base, the turning of which adjusts the wedges for the differ- 
thus providing for the adjustment of the eccentricity by ent sizes of axle fits. There is an adjustable dog on the 


f£i rf"n-.. 






-- i 

Fig, 79— Detail* of Eccttntric Mandrel. 



base of the mandrel which engages the inside fillet on the center of the boss, and is prevented from turning by 
the center rib of the large half of the eccentric and holds a key. The eccentric is slipped on the chuck and is 
it rigidly in place. Different sets of wedges to cover a held by set screws and the key. — L. M. Granger, Assist- 
ant General Foreman, and John Todd, Machinist Fore- 
man, Erie Railroad, Cation, Ohio. 


The mandrel for turning eccentrics shown in Fig. 82 
consists of a disk 21 in. in diameter and 2% in. thick, 
with a taper mandrel projecting on one side, with its 

Fig. 80 — Eccentric Mandrel. 

wide range of axle fits are shown in the photograph. 
A gage for measuring the different eccentric throws is 
also shown, resting on the mandrel. — P. F. Stnilh, Chief 
Draftsman; Thos. Marshall, Master Mechanic; Henry 
Holder, General Foreman, and James Findlay, Machine 
Shop Foremnn. Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & 
Omaha, St. Paul, Minn. 


The eccentric mandrel. Fig. 81, consists of a flat plate 
held in place on the boring mill by lugs which fit in the 

Fig. 81— Eccentric Mandi 

slots of the table. A boss is turned on it. as shown, to 
finish the eccentric at one chucking. The chuck is 
held securely in position by a bolt which passes through 

h- .i- 







center 2>'2 in. from the center of the disk. A sleeve 
bored with an inside taper to fit the mandrel and of an 
outside diameter equal to the bore of the eccentric to be 
turned is slipped over the mandrel. The disk is bolted 
to the faceplate and the eccentric is slipped over the 
sleeve and bolted in the proper position. It is then 
turned in the usual way, with the surety that the throw 
will be correct and that all surfaces will be in proper 
relationship. — Delaivare, Lackaii^anna & Western, Scran- 
ton, Pa. 


A 52-in, Bullard vertical boring mill and an eccentric 
clamped in position for turning are shown io Fig. 83. The 
drawing. Fig. 84, shows the chucking plate and clamping 
sectors in detail. New eccentrics are first bored to mini- 
mum axle fit diameters and are then placed on the chuck- 
ing mandrel for turning, using two tools, one for rough- 
ing, and the other for finishing. The chucking mandrel 
consists of a base plate made of soft steel, and four cast 
iron sectors that are expanded by a conical wedge. The 
base plate has a lug that fits in the slot on the table. 
There are several ^-in. holes shown near one end of 
the base plate to provide for 4-in., 4j4-in. and 5-in. 


The details of a mandrel for turning eccentrics before 
the key-way is cut are shown in Fig. 85. A faceplate, 
fitted to the lathe doing tiie eccentric work, is coimter- 
bored about J^ in. deep, the size of the outside of cast- 
ing A. This casting is fitted and held in the counterbore 
by the bolt B. The head of this bolt is slotted and pro- 

Fig. S3 — Application of Mandrel for Turning Eccentrics. 

throws, by moving the base plate along the slot. Sev- 
eral boles have been drilled in the bed of the mill to 
correspond to the throw holes in the base plate, and a 
plug is used to locate the base plate. *The eccentric is 
fastened to the base plate by the expanding bushing, 
the four sectors and the conical wedge. It is held from 
turning by a plug that is driven in the base plate so that 
the rib will fall central, thus holding it rigidly in place. — 
Lchi^li Falhy. Snyrc. Pa. 

mm He© 

■■' Fig. 85 — Mandrel for Turning EccentricB. 

jects from the back of casting A. One side of the slot- 
led head i» fitted with a j's-in- set screw. A lug on the 
casting A is turned to a taper for 6 5/16-in. of its 
length, and the outer end is threaded and fitted with a 
nut and washer. An expanding sleeve C, the inside bore 
of which is the same taper as the lug on casting A, is 
pressed part way on the lug and is held in place by the 
above-mentioned nut and washer. The eccentric (after 
being bored) is placed on the mandrel and the rib is 
caught in the slotted bolt and clamped by the set screw. 
The nut on the end of the lug is drawn tight, thus ex- 
panding the sleeve C and holding the eccentric rigidly. 
The expanding sleeve will make up for any variations 
in the eccentric bore. — F. A. Dailey, Northern Pacific, 
St. Paul, Minn. 


Cast Iron S^efors 

' ' !' ' — 

das9 Plate 

Conical Wedgt 

Fig. 84 — Mandrel for Turning Eccentrics on Boring Mill. 




The device for turning eccentrics, Fig. 86, combines an 
adjustability to care for a wide range of eccentric throws, 
quick setting of the work and rigidity while in opera- 
tion. The base A is bolted to the faceplate and carries 
a way, or bearing, B, which extends across A. This 
way. Fig. 87, is really U-shaped, with the two legs cast 
solid with the main body. The open portion serves as a 
space for the tightening nut C. of the expanding man- 
drel. The end of tlie mandrel is put in through a rectan- 
gular hole in the face of the way, and is held set in any 
desired position of eccentricity by the nut C. The man- 
drel is provided with the expanding jaws D D, which 
move to and fro in the grooved guides in the usual man- 
ner, and are held out to the work by the nut E. With 
the eccentric set over the mandrel and held in this way 

the eccentric over the end of the mandrel. Another ec- 
centric can then be put in place and clamped by setting 

i 1 

! ■ 



/ /' /• \ --^ \ 


FJg. 86 — Eccentric Mandr«r. 

there is considerable overhang, and on heavy work there 
would be apt to be a good deal of chatter. To obviate 
this and hold the work steady, a collar F, is slipped on 
over the end of the mandrel stem. This collar has a 
side projection or overhang extending out on one side 
in which there is an undercut way (Fig. 87), This over- 
hang and its way are held in line with the main way B 
of the base by a key, and carries a small slide 2 which 
may be clamped in any position by a nut. By setting 2 
with the same offset, but in the opposite direction from 
the mandrel, it offers a center bearing for the tailstock, 
so that the latter can be brought up against the work, 
and the mandrel can thus be securely supported. 

In turning the eccentric the work is done just as 
though it were held on a solid mandrel carried at its ends 
by the head and tailstocks. For setting or removing 
the work it is simply necessary to drive out the key hold- 
ing the collar F in place, back off the tailstock and slip 

Fig. 87— Details of Way of Eccentric Mandrel. 

up the nut E and keying on the collar F. With the de- 
vice shown eccentrics with throws ranging from to 
6 in. can be turned, and the adjustment from one to the 
other is easily and quickly made. 


A chucking arrangement for machining cast steel ec- 
centric straps on a boring mill is shown in Figs. 88 and 
89. The Long Island use a flangeless eccentric strap 
with an I-shape brass bearing liner. This liner is double- 
flanged, one side gripping the strap and the other over- 
lapping the eccentric. The flanges on the strap side of 
the liner do not clamp it tightly, but just enough to hold 
it while handling. The ^-in. thick strap liners between 
the two halves extend beyond the cast-steel portion of the 
straps and hold the brass bearing liners from turning. 
The two holding pieces of the chucks, to which the halves 
of the strap are bolted through the \%-'va.. holes, are 
made J/i-in. thick to correspond to the standard liner 
used. The strap is held above the bed of the ma- 
chine to permit facing off the under side without reset- 
ting. The driving clamp is fastened to the bed of the 

Pig. aa — Detail* of Eccentric Strap Chuclc. 


Fig. 89 — Eccentric Strap Chuck ai Us«d o 

boring and facing to snap gages, in about one hour per 
strap. — Long Island Railroad, Morris Park, N. Y. 


Owing to the shape of eccentrics, it is necessary to use 
jigs to secure rapid production in planing and drilling 
them. In the photograph, Fig. 90, are shown two box- 
section plates used for this purpose. The half-eccen- 
trics are first drilled to a template to fit the ^-in. plugs, 
two of which may be seen on the side of the upper plate 
in the photograph. The halves are then clamped to the 
plates, fitting over these J^-in. plugs. Each faceplate 
will accommodate six halves, and two such plates are 
put end to end on a planer at one time. After the plan- 
ing is completed the plates or jigs, with the eccentric 
halves still clamped to them, are taken to the drill press 
for drilling the targe bolt holes. — Lehigh Valley, Savre, 


Among the minor gages in use in the shop, on which 
much depends, are the four shown in the accompanying 
photograph. Fig, 91, 

One of these, marked X, is used for keeping the pis- 
ton rods accurately to size. On it are a series of rings, 
7 in number, varying by increments of 1/32 in. These 
are all stamped and numbered and a corresponding num- 

Boring Mill. 

machine, as are the holding pieces, and grips the blade 
end of the strap by the two set screws. All three pieces 
may he made of either wrought iron or soft steel. Straps 
are handled, floor-to-floor, with these chucks, including 

FIfl. 90— JIga for Planing and Drilling Eccantrlca. 

Pig. 91 — Minor Qagos. 

W = center for turninE valve rods. 

X ^ piston rod gage. 

Y ^ block gage for standard bolls. 

Z =: block gage for tapered end of valve rod. 

ber is stamped on the rod. When a rod is turned it is 
brought to one of these diameters and stamped, and from 
this mark the packing rings are selected and issued, 

A second, Y, is a block bored out to the proper taper 
to take standard bolts and to which they are all fitted. 

A third, Z, is a gage similarly bored, with a taper hole, 
to which the tapered end of the valve rod is fitted. 

The fourth, W , is more of a shop tool or kink. It is 
quite common for valve rods to be so abused in their 
removal from the valve rod sockets that the centers are 
either destroyed, or so mutilated that they cannot be 
used. This block, W, is bored to fit over the tapered 
end of the rod, and at its end has a good center that 
can be used in the lathe when it becomes necessary to 


turn the stem. — Delaware, Lackazi-aniia &■ IVestem, 
Scrantoii, Pa. 


The bracket shown attached to the faceplate of a lathe 
in the accompanying sketch, Fig. 92, is a jig for facing, 
or drilling and tapping holes in a goose-neck. The 
tongue at the back of the jig fits in a slot in the face-. 
plate, and the semi-circular groove in the jig, in which 

Fig. 93 — Slotting the Frame Fit on a Grate Bearer Croes-TIe. 

Fig. B2 — J)g for Machining Gooae-Neck«. 

the goose-neck rests, is bored in line with the tongue, 
which makes the jig easy to adjust and set up. The 
goose-neck is strapped down into this groove. The out- 
put may be tripled with this device, which may readily 
be adjusted and handled by an apprentice, if necessary. 
— Samuel Magill, Apprentice Instructor, Atchison, To- 
peka &■ Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 


Two positions of a grate bearer cross-tie on a double 
head slotting machine are shown in the accompanying 
photographs. Figs. 93 and 94. The first one shows the 
cross-tie in position for machining the frame fit. There 
are two parallel blocks used for this work. The lower 
one is clamped to the bed of the machine and the upper 
one swings above the lower one and on the bolt, the 
head of which may be seen at the far end of the lower 
block just beyond the slot. The opposite, or near end. 
of the top parallel is provided with a set screw. By this 
means it is possible to square up the two ends of the 
cross-tie. When machining the ends of the feet the top 
parallel is swung up out of the way and the cross-tie is 
turned on edge and allowed to fall in the slot in the 
lower parallel. The foot is then held against movement 
by the clamp, as shown. — Lehigh Valley. Sayre, Pa. 

Fig. M — Slotting the End of a Grate Bearer Croaa-Tle. 



AVith the device shown in Fig. 95, 60 grease ctip plugs 
may be finished in one hour. A hole has been drilled 
through the drill press table allowing the plugs to drop 
through it into a box as they pass through the device. 
It is only necessary to clamp the chuck to the drill press 
tabic and to apply a square socket to the drill press spin- 
dle. The design of the plug is of interest. The projec- 

wheel. and will be found especially useful for grinding 
light work. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, Buffalo, .V. y. 


An arrangement for adjusting a grinding wheel to an 
o.rdinary lathe for grinding purposes is shown in Fig. 97. 
The wheel is carried by the shaft with hearings in a block 
bolted to the carriage. The shaft has a small pulley 
about 3 in. in diameter, which is belted to the line shaft. 
The tool is used mostly for grinding motion work pins. 
The countershaft has a pulley 12 in. in diameter and 36 
in. long to allow for the travel of the beh, due to the 

Fifl. 95— Device for Finishing Create Cup Plugs. 

tion at its bottom is forced into the hard grease and pre- 
vents the plug from loosening and working out. The 
finished plug, which is made of brass, weighs 7 ozs. ; it 
would probably give just as satisfactory results if made 
of malleable iron. Another advantage of this style of 
plug is that the engineers do not have to loosen up a 
jam nut in adjusting it. The engines are supplied with 
a wrench similar to the one shown in the illustration, and 
the engineer has no difficulty in quickly tightening down 
the plug. The plugs should be screwed down into the 
cup their full length and should not be allowed to pro- 
ject above the top of the cup. — William G. Reyer, Gen- 
eral Foreman, Xas/n-ille, Chattanooga & St. Louis. 
Kashvilic, Tenii. 


A simple and convenient table for use with a grinding 
wheel is shown in Fig. 96. It can be adjusted so that 
its surface is slightly below the top of the grinding 


-- i-fi-zi 

5 J^ 

Fig. 96 — Table or Reat for Emery Wheel. 

Fig. 97— Lathe Grinder. 

movement of the carriage. The body of the device is 
an ordinary forging fitted with the shaft, which has 
pointed center bearings to take up lost motion. This ap- 
paratus can be made to fit any lathe and is especially 
useful on case hardened work in shops which have no 
special grinder. — F. C. Pickard, Assistant Master Me- 
chanic, Cincinnati, Hamilton &■ Dayton, Indianapolis, hid. 


An emery wheel requires a considerable amount of 
power when running, even though no grinding is being 
done. Men who use the wheel are usually very care- 
less about shutting off the power when tlicy are through 
using it. In order to save this waste of power a treadle 
device for throwing the switch of motor-driven grind- 
ing wheels is used, as shown in Fig. 98. Tlie original 
switch .-i has an extension B bolted to the handle, and 
this, through the (wo connections and the lever C is con- 
nected with the upper arm of the lever D. This lever 
is pivoted at its lower extremity on a fixed shaft and 
has a bell-crank extension, at the end of which there Is 
a treadle. Midway up this lever is a helical spring which 
bears against a stop on the machine. When the grinder 
is to be used the operator puts his foot on the treadle 


an<l by pressing il down throws the switch in and closes centers for drilling- — IVm. G. Rcycr, General Foreman, 
the motor circuit. He holds his foot on the treadle while Xashziile. Chattanooga &■ St. Louis, Nasli^-Uie, Tcini. 


A brass injector water nut, with 50 grooves milled in 
the top. is shown in Fig. 100. These grooves are cut on 
an ordinary milling machine with the aid' of the special 
chuck shown in Figs. 101 and 102. The chuck consists 
of a shell H. a 50-tooth gear C. which is feather-keyed 
to the shaft D that carries the head B; aUo a handle E, 

Fig. 98 — Grinding Wheel Switch. 

Fig. 100— Injector Water Nut. 

he is at work, and when he lifts it to go away the spring on the end of which is fastened the cam F. This cam 
throws out the switch and the wheel stops.— Delain-are, works against the follower C, the working faces of the 
Lackau'atina & Western, Scranton. Fa. «m and the follower being helices. Attached to the 


The template for drilling hub plates shown in Fig. 99 
s a simple device and can be made very cheaply of tool 

Trmp/aAr Scrmrt. 

Fig. 99 — Template for Marking Centers for Drilling Hub 

steel. The centers, or template screws, are screwed 
into tapped holes in the template. It is placed on the 
hub plate and tapped with a hammer, thus marking the 

Fig. 101— Chuck for Mlllins Grooves on Injector Water Nuts. 

handle is a ratchet R. The chuck is set on the bed of 
the milling machine and its operation is as follows: The 
nut to be milled is screwetl into the head B; the handle 



E is turned in a counter clockwise direction until the or shaper being sufficient in most cases to make a good 
rachet R drops through the slot S in the shell H and bearing. The tool is a disk of a diameter to suit the 
engages the gear C, thus turning the shaft D to the brasses, ^i in. thick, and made of tool steel. It fits the 
proper position for the cutting of the first groove. The head of a Morton draw cut shaper, but the shank may 
slot S is so designed that a movement of one-fiftieth of be made to suit any machine. When dull the cutter may 

be revolved one-third of the way, which gives a new cut- 
ting surface ; it thus has three cutting surfaces which 
may be used before resharpening. — M. H. Westbrook, 
Grand Trunk, Battle Creek, Mick. 


A burnishing tool with three rollers for driving axle 
journals is shown in Fig. 104. Most rollers are set in a 
fork, making them useless for burnishing next to the 
shoulder. This tool overcomes this difficulty, allowing 

Fig. 102— Chuck for Milling Groovei on Injector Water Nut*. 

a turn of D is allowed. The spring I furnishes friction 
for holding the chuck in position, while the handle E 
is turned back Until the slot in H stops it at A, the slot 
being just wide enough from A to A' to allow the handle 
to pass through H. The backward movement of the 
handle brings the cam F into engagement with the fol- 
lower G, thus raising the nut to such a height that the 
groove will be milled to the proper depth. The follower 
G is feather-keyed to the shell H so that it will not re- 
volve with F. As the handle is turned back to its initial 
position the spring / pulls the chuck down, the ratchet 
R turns the gear C one-fiftieth of a revolution and the 
operation is ready to be repeated. It is possible to mill 
tlie grooves as fast as the handle can be turned back 
and forth. — Chicago S- North Western, Chicago. 


A tool for planing babbitted bearings of engine truck 

brasses is shown in Fig, 103, two strokes of the planer 





„ fc 





niahing Tool for Driving Wheel Journaia. 

Fig. 103 — Tool for Planing Babbitted Truck Brastea. 

the rolls to go into a corner without any trouble. A 
smaller tool of the same style has been built for burnishing 
piston rods, and both are giving excellent satisfaction. — 
D. P. Kellogg, Master Mechanic; W. F. Merry, Gen- 
eral Foreman, and G. H. Goodwin, General Gang Fore- 
man, Southern Pacific, Los Angeles, Cal. 


One of a set of two angle plate chucks for holding 
truck boxes on a boring mill while machining hub faces 
which have been fitted with cast brass hub plates is 
shown in Fig. 105. The angles, or chuck plates, are 
made of cast iron, with the soft steel strip, Ij-^ in. x 
2;-^ in. X 12j^ in., set in J4 in. on the vertical face. The 
plates are bolted to the boring mill bed by the 5^-in. 
through bolt and also by two short bolts through the ob- 
long slots in the base. The under sides of the upper 
flanges of the truck box rest on the soft steel strips, and 
the box is held firmly by four 5^-in. set screws, two in 
each chuck plate. This provides for the hub face of the 
box being parallel with the inner faces of one set of 
flanges. As there is usually considerable lateral motion 



FIfl. 105— Truck Box Chuck. 

metal removed that it can be done better by grinding 
than by turning. For such work a small base carrying 
an emery wheel is a handy tool. The one shown in 
Fig. 107 is bolted to the carriage of the lathe and the 
wheel is driven from an overhead drum, while the axle 
is revolved in the ordinary manner. In this way the 

I 4'. — 4 

Fig. 107— Grinder for .Truck Wheel Lathe. 

of the box on the pedestal jaw, the inside flange surface journals can be quickly and accurately trued up with the 
need not necessarily be parallel with the jaw face. — removal of minimum amount of metal. — Delazuare, Lack- 
Long Island Railroad, Morris Park, N. Y. a-wanna & Western, Scratiton, Pa. 


Many driving wheel lathes are not arranged for op- 
erating at a high speed in order to turn the driving jour- 
nals. A simple and convenient method of revolving the 
wheels and axle at a comparatively high speed on the 
lathe centers for perfortning this operation is shown in 


FIfl. 106 — Attachment t 


The knuckle-joint key for the side rods of mogul and 
consolidation locomotives has a projection J^ in. in diam- 
eter and yi in. long at the side of one end. It is a 
troublesome thing to get at of its small size and 
position. To do the work, a small chuck has been de- 
signed. Fig, 108, that has a shank to fit in the live center 
hole of the lathe spindle. The projecting head is split 
and provided with a tap bolt for clamping. The outer 

AiiyA Aiy Finishtd tf«y. 

Fig. 108— Chuck for Turning Knuckle-Joint Keya. 

Fig. 106; a pulley on the countershaft is belted direct to end of the slot is cut out so that the shank of the key 

one of the driving wheels as shown. The intermediate can be put in. Tightening of the bolt clamps the key 

pulley is provided to make adjustment for different size and leaves the projection on the key so that it can be 

wheels. — C. J. Drury, General Roundhouse Foreman, turned quickly and accurately, — Delaware, Lackawanna 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Albuquerque, Neiv Mex. & Wesiern, Scranlon, Pa. 



The journals of an engine truck are frequently worn Slightly different designs of chucks for turning 
slightly out of true and. need such a small amount of knuckle and wrist pins are shown in FSg. 109. They are 



designed for screwing on the main spindle of the lathe, 
and are notched, as shown, to facilitate removing by the 
use of a block and hammer. The outer end of the 
casting is threaded to correspond to the threads of the 
knuckle or wrist pin. The wrist pin chuck is arranged 


A German machine shop is using an end tool for cer- 
tain classes of work, such as centering and the like, that 
is handy, easily used and capable of variations not shown 
in the sketches. It may be used in the case of stock that 

Ftg. 10»— Knuckle and WH«t Pin Chuck*. 

for securing the pin against a lock nut as shown, while 
the knuckle pin chuck has a key which bears against the 
end of the pin. These chucks are convenient for this 
class of work and are easily and cheaply made. — E. I. 
McKernan, Tool Supervisor, Atchison, Topeka & Smita 
Fe, Topeka, Kan. 


A pneumatic grinder for lathe centers is shown at E 
and G in Fig. 175 and in Fig. 110. It is made from a 
rotary air motor originally designed for drilling 3/16-in. 
tell-tale holes in staybolts. It is comparatively small and 
may easily be held in place in the ordinary lathe tool 
holder, — M. H. Westbrook, Foreman, Grand Trunk 
System, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Fig. 111— Work Don« by End Tool 

is to be worked off or centered, as shown in Fig. Ill, 
Nos. I, 2 and 5, showing round, square and octagonal 
sections, respectively ; No. 4 shows the bar as it is broken 
ofE, No. 5 with the end milled and centered, No. 6 with 





Fig. 110— Dstalla of Lath« C«nter Grinder. 



the end milled and center bored; No. 7 is a small rod 
turned or milled with a hemispherical end to correct cen- 
ters. One form of the tool which centers and end mills 
is shown in No. 8 (Fig. 112). There is a sliding center 
drill, which makes a 60-deg. countersink in the end, of a 
depth and diameter dependent on the amount of projec- 


Fig. 112 — End Tool for Lathes. 

tion of the bit. The rest of the tool forms an end mill 
with two cutting faces. Where center boring is desired 
the tool, instead of being slotted, is merely drilled to 
accommodate the small flat drill, No. p. For ball mill- 
ing, as in No. 7 (Fig. Ill), the bit is made as shown in 
No. JO (Fig. 112). The same holder may be used for 
either the countersink or ball tool. 


A tool holder for use on lathes is shown in Fig. 113. 
It is made of machine steel for all sizes of lathe tools 
and is designed to hold the tool at the proper angle and 
form a rigid support for the cutting edge. This will 
allow small-size high-speed tools to be used on heavy 







: • ,0 

1" ic" 




Fig. 113— Lathe Tool Holder. 

work without vibration and chatter. The economy in 
high-speed steel is also an important point. The holder 
is clamped in the tool post and the wedge hinged on a 
pin is arranged above the tool and damped down on it. 
— S, S, Lightfoot, Bonus Demonstrator, Atchison, To- 
peka & Santa Fe, San Bernardino, Cat. 


A heavy duty boring and turning tool for use on engine 
lathes is shown in Fig. 114. It is used in place of the 
tool post and is clamped to the slide rest by two J^-i^i' 
bolts as shown on the drawing. After the holder is 
placed in position it is unnecessary to remove it for grind- 
ing the cutter, which may be easily removed and re- 
placed by slackening off and tightening the set-screw. 



^ -ft ^ 

^ Square 
7^ — 


Fig. 114 — Heavy Duty Boring and Turning Tool. 

The cutting tool is made of j4-in. square tool steel and 
may be set to bore on either side. The time consumed 
in turning rod bushings, for which it is used almost en- 
tirely, has been reduced about 35 per cent. — A. S, Wil- 
lard, Foretnan, Norfolk & Western, Crewe, Va. 


A simple lathe turret tool holder, to carry four tools, 
which may easily be constructed, is shown in Fig. 115. 
Each tool is held securely in position by two ^^-in. set- 
screws, and the turret head is clamped to the carriage 


I k 





^ I 

Fig. lis— Turret Tool Holder for Lathe. 

of the lathe by tightening the nut on the 1-in. bolt about 
which it revolves. — P, F. Smith, Chief Draftsman; 
Thomas Marshall, Master Mechanic; Henry Holder, 
General Foreman, and James Findlay, Machine Shop 
Foreman, Chicago, St, Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, St. 
Paul, Minn, 



A certain shop bought a milling machine, which was 
used extensively, but had no accurate means of grinding 
the cutters. There happened to be a small lathe bed 
handy that had been discarded. The head and tail stocks 
were removed, and in their places brackets, A A (Fig. 
116), were placed. These were bored to take the man- 
drel B. A bearing with a shaft, pulley and emery wheel 
was attached to the carriage and was driven by an over- 

duty the arbors become slightly sprung, which results in 
two or three teeth having to do most of the work. In 
many ways this method has proved superior to the gen- 
eral practice. The portable grinder has been found use- 
ful for other purposes. — M. H. Westbrook, Grand 
Trunk, Battle Creek, Mich. 


A new form of spiral milling cutter used by the Cin- 
cinnati Milling Machine Company is illustrated in Fig. 
118. The spacing between the teeth is V/i in., and this 
allows ample room for the chips, the space being 
about four times as great as in the usual standard 
cutter. The chip made by a milling cutter is quite 
different from that produced by a lathe or planer 
tool. The latter makes chips of uniform section, 
while the section of a milling chip increases from 
zero to a maximum. When the cutter revolves it pene- 

Fig. 116 — Imprvvlaed Grinder for Milling Cuttera. 

head drum. The milling cutter C, to be ground, was 
put on the mandrel and the latter was clamped by the set- 
screws in the brackets A. Adjustments were made by 
easing off on the screws and turning the mandrel. The 
traverse of the emery wheel was accomplished by hand 
through a feed screw, not shown, and by the adjustment 
of the cross feed of the carriage. Rather, crude for fine 
work, but it served its purpose for many months in a 
pretty big shop. 


A method of sharpening milling cutters while on their 
arbors is shown in Fig, 117, A portable adjustable head 

Fig. 117— Sharpening Milling Cuttera In Place on Arbor. 

carries an emery wheel which is driven by a belt from 
an air motor supported on a suitable frame. This method 
is considered an improvement over grinding them in the 
usual way in the tool room, as frequently after severe 

Fig. IIS— Now Form of Spiral Milling Cutter. 

trates into the work and compresses it, which results in 
a springing of the arbor. After a certain amount of 
spring, the blade begins to remove a chip. It is believed 
that this action more than any other causes a dulling of 
the cutter. With a light cut it is possible that one tooth 
would fail to take a chip and the succeeding tooth would 
remove the double amount of its normal cut. This ac- 
tion is inherent in milling cutters, and experiments have 
recently been made by the Cincinnati Milling Machine 
Company for the purpose of discovering some method 
of minimizing these results. 

The ability of a milling cutter to remove metal is also 
limited by the relation between the size of the chip and 
the space between the teeth. This limitation does not 
exist with lathe or planer tools, as the chips or turnings 
have ample space in which to flow off. It was found 
that with the ordinary spiral milling cutters the amount 
of metal removed per tooth was sufficient to fill the chip 
space, and the capacity of the cutter was limited to small 
output ; but when the space between the teeth was in- 
creased to allow ample room for the chip, a given amount 
of metal was removed with less power. This fact has 
led to the adoption of standard cutters 3j4 in. in diam- 
eter, with only 9 teeth and 4>i in. in diameter with 10 
teeth, corresponding to a spacing of lj4 in. between the 



teeth. The chip space is thus made four times as large 
as that in general use at the present time. 

By the use of these improved milling cutters, the 
amount of metal removed per horse power has been 
largely increased, and the capacity of the knee and col- 
umn milling machine has been considerably enlarged 


w 1— 





10 B.H.splnd5tMth 

^^/ \ 


Fig. 119 — Naw Type of Taper Shank End Mills. 

without increasing its size or weight. Experience with 
the cutters has shown that they have other advantages, 
and few, if any, of the minor disadvantages which might 
have been expected. In roughing ordinary work the 
wide-spaced cutter remains sharp for a longer period, 
even where the feeds have been increased, and in many 
cases double the amount of work can be done without re- 
sharpening. With a smaller number of teeth, it is also 
found that the time required for re-sharpening is only 
one-half that for the fine-toothed cutter. 

The ratio of the pitch to the depth of tooth is practic- 
ally the same as with the older form, and the depth of the 
new tooth is about twice as large as formerly, so that the 
cutter can be sharpened a greater number of times, and 
its life is thereby considerably increased. Another ad- 
vantage of the wide-spaced tooth is the fact that, while 
at first glance it has the appearance of weakness, it is 
stout and well proportioned, and while breakage of the 
old cutters is not frequent, the new ones do not break, 
even when subjected to the heaviest class of service. It 
might be thought also that the wide spacing of the teeth 
would cause the feed to act with a jerk, but the feed is 
smoother and there is less jerk when the cutter first 
strikes the work, because there is less spring in the arbor, 
which is made larger than formerly, and there is less ten- 
dency for the cutter to ride over the work. 

The new spiral cutter is particularly weU adapted to 
milling cast iron, and with it there is a notable absence 
of jerking and chattering which is often found in milling 
this material. Where very smooth finish is required it 
has been the custom to use a roughing cutter with a chip 
breaker, followed by a fine-toothed cutter without the 
breaker, and this requires a large number of extra cut- 
ters. Another advantage of the wide-spaced cutter is 
the fact that the chip breaker can be used without aflFect- 
ing the smoothness of the finish, and only one cutter is 
required for roughing and finishing. 

The new standard end mills used by the same company 
are shown in Fig. 119. The 1-in. mill has only four 
teeth, and the 2-in. mill has eight teeth. In cutting, these 
mills are remarkably free. A 2-in. end mill will cut a 
slot 1 1/16 in. deep in cast iron at the rate of 6 in. per 
minute. The same cutter removed a section from the 
end of a casting Ij/^ in. wide and Ij^ in. deep with a 
feed of 11 in. per minute. A similar cut 1 in. by \% 
m. in section was taken with a feed of 33 in. per minute. 

Fig. 120— Spiral Shell Milling Cutters. 

Shell end mills of the wide-spaced type are shown in 
Fig. 120. 

Perhaps the most interesting improvement is that shown 
in Fig. 121, illustrating the new type of helical cutter 
as designed by the Cincinnati Milling Machine Com- 
pany. These cutters are very efficient when working on 
steel, and the power consumption is extremely low com- 



pared with that of ordinary cutters, the tests showing 
that a roughing cut in steel requires only one-third the 
power of an old-style spiral mill. The chips come from 
the work in the form of gimlets with the back burnished, 
and the surface shows no sign of tearing of the metal. 
The peculiar feature of these cutters is that they push 
the chip off in the direction of the axis of the cutter, 
or at right angels to the feed. The power consumption 
for cutting steel is so low that a roughing cut requires 
only about one-third the power used by the old-style 
spiral mill. For cast iron their performance is not so 
favorable. As they do not make revolution marks, a 
much causer feed can be used for finishing, and a cutter 
with ttuKc teeth will allow a finishing feed three times 
as fast as the ordinary spiral cutter. On accoimt of 
the direction of thrust being parallel with the axis of the 
arbor, there is a complete absence of spring in the arbor 
in cutting steel. This fact makes it possible to use the 

of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers for 
April, 1911. 


The tool shown in Fig. 122 was designed for use on the 
boring bar of a horizontal milling machine for finishing 
solid side rod oil cups. The tool is held on the boring 
bar by a J^-in x %-ia. key. The arm of the tool has a 
Vi-m. slot cut through it on an angle in which the cutter 

-'»• 1 


Fig. 122.— Tool for Machining Solid Side Rod Oil Cups. 

is held by the set-screw. After the outside of the cup is 
finished a counterbore and tap are used on the inside. 
These tools have shanks to fit the ends of the boring bar. 
By this method it is possible to complete the work on an 
oil cup at one setting of the rod. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, 
Pennsylvania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y, 


A device for machining the outside of solid rod cups, 
rocker arm bosses, etc., on a drill press, is shown in 
Fig. 123. The sleeve at the upper end fits over the drill 

Fig. 121— Details of New Type of Helical Milling Cutter. 

milling machine without braces in most cases where they 
would be otherwise needed. 

The end pressure on the spindle is not excessive, and 
although the interlocking right and left-hand helix was 
made to obviate this objection, little advantage was found 
from it in this respect. The best results are obtained 
when running at the usual speeds of the ordinary spiral 
cutter,. and the new cutters show a remarkably low power 
consumption in cutting steel as compared with any other 
form of cutter. Mr. DeLeeuw explains why the new 
helical cutter shows a less saving in power on cast iron 
than on steel by saying that a cutting tool must detach 
the chip by bending and partially breaking it. When 
cutting steel, the radius of curvature of the chip becomes 
greater with increased rake, and the extent to which the 
chip is broken off becomes less. Cast iron allows much 
less bending before breaking, so that even with the in- 
creased rake, the chip is still broken up, as when the usual 
form of spiral is used, and no saving of power is possible. 

These illustrations are from a paper on the "Efficiency 
of Milling Cutters," by A. L. DeLeeuw, in the Journal 

Fig. 123 — Tool for Machining the Outside of Solid Rod Cups, 

press spindle and is held in place by a flat taper key. The 
forked end is milled at the ends of the two forks to take 
J^ in. X lyi in. tools which are secured by set-screws 
as shown. One of the tools is made with a straight face 
for finishing the rod at the bottom of the cup, and the 


other is rounded for the finishing cut and filleting. The 
tool with the straight face at the bottom is set a little in 
advance of the other tool and takes a roughing cut on 
the side of the cup as it is fed down, the other tool follow- 
ing it with a finishing cut. Cups may be finished on the 
outside in fifteen minutes with this tool. A pin may be 
placed in the center of the tool, which will act as a guide 
and furnish stabilit}' during the operation. Different 
sizes of these pins may be used for different classes of 
work ; in turning a cup or boss a hole is first drilled for 
the insertion of the pin. The tool may be used with or 
without the pin, as the nature of the work requires. — 
R. E. Brczvn, Foreman, Atlantic Coast Line, Waycross, 


A gang tool for turning and finishing cylinder piston 
rings is shown in Fig. 124. While it is usual to employ 
gang tools for cutting off the rings, this device includes 

Fl(|. 12G — Pneumatic Clampa and Jiga for Boring Holea in Plna. 

Fig. 124 — Platon Ring Gang Tool. 

a roughing tool on the same holder as the six cutting- 
off tools. The rough casting is just large enough to per- 
mit of cutting five rings and is finished on the inside with 
a regular cutting tool on one of the two heads of the 
boring mill. The outside is turned with a tool in the 
second boring head and the rings are separated and fin- 
ished on the sides by the narrow cutters. The num- 
. ber of rings finished by the ordinary method with a single 
tool is one per hour, while the gang cutter will finish 
three rings per hour, — Chicago, Miln>aukee & St. Paul, 
West Milwaukee, Wis. 


A four-spindle drill, equipped with a gang of pneu- 
matic clamps and jigs for drilling holes in pins, bolts, 
etc., is shown in Fig. 125. To operate the clamp, air at 
a pressure of 85 lbs. is admitted to the cylinder A, and 
the lever B is forced down on the pin. The jig C is fitted 
with a set of bushings whose inside diameters corre- 
spond to the sizes of the drills used. The clamp is 
shown in detail in Fig. 126. — Chicago & North Western, 

Fig. 126 — Pneumatic Clamp and Jig for Drilling Plna, Etc. 


With the advent of side and main rods having oil cups 
forged on them it became necessary to devise a tool for 
cutting the clearance space at the base of the threads in- 
side the cup. This can be done by using a small cutter 



on a vertical spindle. In this case, however, it is neces- 
sary to have the spindle of a diameter sufficiently small 
to allow for feeding the tool into the work, with the re- 
sult that the tool chatters and the cut is generally unsatis- 
factory. The tool shown in Fig. 127 was designed to ob- 



Fig. 127— Solid Oil Cup Under^Cutter. 

viate these difficulties. Its outside diameter is made slightly 
less than that of the hole drilled for tapping. The cut- 
ting edge of the tool is seen at B. The opposite end of 
the cutter receives the end of the lever which is fulcrumed 
at A. Power is applied to force the cutter outward 
through the square threaded screw. The circular plate, 
fastened by four countersunk screws, holds the cutter 
within the tool. The six flutes provide for gathering 
the cutterings. This tool is for use in a drill press and 
has a standard Morse taper shank. — Erie RoUroad, Mead- 
viltc. Pa. 


At the Silvis shops only the top end of the engine truck 
pedestal is machined, where it fits the frame. This work 


oil Uo 

tt[ = 

— X 





^I'sfudi Q 




,%ii * 'sef Jcrerrs, 




o\\ io 


L j^' ^ 

Fig. 129— Spaclal Tool Post Us«d on Slottor for Machining 
th« Endt of Engine Truck Pedestal*. 

tool posts fit the slots in the clapper and are set 6 in, 
apart so that two tools may be operated at tlie same 
time. — Rock Island Lines, Sihis, III. 


The piston ring mandrel, Fig. 130, consists of a cast 
iron bell-shaped cone on a threaded spindle, which is 
held between the lathe centers. On the same spindle is 
pressed the flat casting, on which the slotted dogs with 
tapered ends to fit the taper on the cone are bolted. By 
turning the nut shown just in front of the bell-shaped 
cone, the dogs are forced outward from the center and 
engage the inside of the ring, as shown. A driver, which 

Fig. 128 — Chuek to Hold Engine Truck PedeaUle on Sfotter. 

is done on a slotter in a minimum amount of time by the 
use of the chuck shown in Fig. 128, The chuck holds 
two pedestals at a time, square with the cross-feed. The 
1 X 6-in. studs clamp the pedestals to the chuck, and the 
chuck itself is bolted to the table by 1-in. bohs through 
the four 1 1/16 in. holes. In practice the pedestals are 
placed in the chuck and the four set-screws are set up 
by hand; the pedestals are then drawn down solid by 
two horseshoe clamps used in connection with the two 
1-in. studs, after which the set-screws at the side are 
tightened with a wrench. In connection with the chuck 
a new tool post has been designed (Fig. 129). The'ie 

Fig. 130— Pleton Ring Mandrel. 



is bolted to the faceplate, engages a dog on the spindle, 
thus driving the mandrel. Several unfinished rings are 
shown hanging on the tail-stock center, and just back of 
the mandrel is an iron hook on which the finished rings 
may be hung. On the carriage in the foreground is 
shown an extra set of dogs for use on rings of larger 
sizes, which do not come within the limits of the dogs 
shown on the mandrel. — P. F, Smith, Chief Draftsman; 
Thomas Mixrshall, Master Mechanic; Henry Holder, 
General Foreman, and James Findlay, Machine Shop 
Foreman, Chicago, St, Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, St, 
Paul, Minn, 


An expanding mandrel for holding piston rings for 
turning on a lathe is shown in Fig. 131. It consists of a 
casting, bolted to the faceplate of the lathe, which has a 
conical opening in its front face. Extending down to 
this opening from the circumference are a number of 
small dogs, which are expanded by driving a cone into 
the tapered hole. This cone is forced into the mandrel 
by the large nut, expanding the mandrel and holding 
the ring rigidly in position for turning. The use of this 
device has given very good satisfaction at our shop. — 
F. C, Pickard, Assistant Master Mechanic, Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton, Indianapolis, Ind. 


Piston rings may be cut from the finished stock very 
rapidly with the tool shown in Fig. 132. The 2-in. 

I<u si- 








Ik I 



! I ! I I !• 

I I 

J \ 


I I 
I I 




'! J 











-I •' /# 



Fig. 132 — Gang Tool for Cutting Apart Piston Rings. 

square shank is held in the tool post in the usual manner. 
The body of the tool is made of steel, with a lj4-in. x 
6j4-in- slot machined through it. There are five Xy^-in. 



Length of Shaff 


•^ A T^rtacfs per /nch 


\ — ; \ L' 


y-^- _.--[_ 

i^=^-^r — ^i— >^ \ 







■4'- — V%'. 

Chmpiifff /fJng. 



I I 
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/< 41s^ 





Secf/on ^'A. 

60, Jf Dh/rf' Sf9^ 





Mfkf Sfit€/. 



/^r/77 Dog. 
Fig. 131 — Piston Ring MandreL 

Arm Dog. 








X 6>^-iii. blocks, tapered from ^ in, at the top to 27/32 
in. at the bottom, and two blocks having this same taper 
<Mi one side, but square with the top and bottom on the 
other. These two blocks fit at the ends of the slot in the 
tool body, while the tapered ones lie on 1-in. centers 
along the slot. The five cutters, of high-speed steel, are 
10 in. long with tapering sides to fit against the tapered 
filler blocks. The cutting tools and filler blocks are held 
in place by the two ^-in, x 3j^-in, set screws. Before 
tightening the set-screws, the ends of the cutters should 
be adjusted at slightly varying distances from the work, 
the tnitter fartiiest from the tool post being in advance 
of the others. This provides for the rings being cut off 
successively, working from the end of the stock. — Balti- 
more & Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


A multiple parting todi used on boring mills for 
making piston rings is shown in Fig. 133. A tool is 
made for each width of ring used, as it takes time to 
change the spacing blocks for the rings of various 








1 'w II 







—3i-- 1 

Ma:iof Tool. 

Fig. 133— Muftiple Parting Tool for Pitton Ring*. 

widths. When properly adjusted, these tools are used 
to part the rings to the correct width and no facing- 
up is necessary after they are cut off. The drawing 
shows the tool in detail. — M. H. Westbrook, Grand 
Trunk, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Fig. 134— Pivton Ring Saw. 


The machine illustrated in Figs. 134 and 135 was 
devised to save time and labor in cutting and fitting pis- 
ton rings. Ordinarily they are cut with a hack saw and 

Fig. I3B— Piston Ring Saw. 



filed to fit, which usually takes from IS to 30 minutes; 
with this machine the same work may be accomplished 
in one minute, making a much better fit. The 1/16-in. 
X 6-in. slitting saws are used with an adjustable col- 
lect between them to give the desired width of gap. 
The ring is held in a swivel chuck, making it possible 
to cut it at any desired angle. The chuck may be 
raised or lowered by the hand-wheel and J^-i^* screw. 
The rings are gripped in the chuck by set screws. The 
machine as shown is belt driven, but by extending the 
driving shaft with a suitable connection either an air or 
electric motor may be used, and it may then be readily 
converted into a portable machine, if desire^. It has 
been used for three years with splendid results. — W, H. 
Fetner, Master Mechanic, and C. L, Dickert, General 
Foreman, Central of Georgia, Mctcon, Ga, 



A tool for use on a lathe for finishing up Dunbar piston 
rings is shown in Fig, 136. The sliding tool holder pro- 
vides for setting the tool to finish a number of rings to 
a given size and in case of the tool's .cutting edge 
wearing, it is only necessary to readjust the tool. The 
steel guide pin receives the side thrust of the ring, and, 
if desired, both sides of the ring may be machined at the 
same time by replacing this guide pin by a cutting tool. 
The work for which this tool was designed was formerly 
done with a forked tool, through the ends of which steel 


Fig. 136 — Piston Ring Tool. 

cutters were driven at an angle and were held by set 
screws. It was difficult, however, to get the fine adjust- 
ment of the cutting edges which is possible with the 
tool shown. — Central Railroad of New Jersey, Elizabeth- 
port, N, /. 


We make piston rings with the tools shown in Fig. 
137 in the following manner: A vertical boring mill with 
two heads on the cross-rail is used, and is operated at 
a cutting speed of about 30 ft. per minute. The left head 
is used for the roughing cut at a feed of y^ in, per 
revolution, and then for a finishing cut at a feed of ^ 

to J4 in. per revolution. The right head is used for 
cutting the rings to the desired width with the special 
tool shown in the upper right hand corner of the draw- 
ing. It is made of six y^ in. -x, \ in. high speed steel 
tools, separated from each other by strips of steel, whose 
width is the width of the rings, plus the thickness of 
tissue paper, this extra thickness being allowed for fin- 
ish, which is accomplished by slightly raising and lower- 


(kxxfwngTbol A 

^ N 


3haH j 





/hrHn^Tool Ife 

k- ^- -— 



K— -8- 






K ^1 


1 \ 

/ I 



Covtr Phh. 

o o 


Fig. 137 — ^Tools for Making Piston Rings. 

ing the head with the parting tool after it has cut to 
the proper depth. The pocket in the tool, which con- 
tains the; six tools, should be 1/32 in. less in depth than 
the thickness of the tools, so that the cover plate when 
placed over the tools will hold them firmly. The set 
screws at the top of the head also clamp the tools and 
spacing strips firmly in place. After the first six rings 
are finished, if it is desired to groove them so that the 
bearing on the cylinder walls may be reduced, another 
tool. A, should be inserted in the other side of the head. 
Very little time is thus required for separating and fin- 
ishing the rings, for while the left hand head is rough- 
ing and finishing the outside of the casting, the right 
hand head is separating and. grooving the rings. In 
boring off these rings it is not necessary to raise the 
head to remove each ring separately, as they will ride in 
place and time is saved by taking them off four or six at 
a time. With this device we have been able to reduce 
the cost per ring 33 per cent. Forty-five rings, from 20 
in. to 22 in. in diameter, are finished in 10 hours. That 
part of the tool, or head, which holds the grooving tool 
may be used for a variety of other purposes, often mak- 
ing it possible to do odd jobs on the machine without re- 
moving the tool from the head. — John V. Le Compte, 
Assistant Foreman, Baltimore & Ohio, Garrett, Ind. 


The tool shown in Fig. 138 was designed for cutting 
off piston rings in a high-duty lathe. The illustration 
shows the tool at work parting piston rings. It con- 
sists of a heavy tool post bolted to the carriage, with the 
cutting-off tools set in and held by set screws in the 
ordinary way and spaced the proper distance apart to 
give the correct width to the rings when they are separ- 


« i«l !«! 


Fig. 138— P)«ton Ring Tool. 

ated. It can also be used for the roughing and finishing 
tools for turning as shown in the illustration, these two 
tools being operated simultaneously. — Frank Rattek, 
Brighton, Mass. 


It is not necessary to heat sprung piston rods in the 
blacksmith shop and hurry them to the lathe centers for 
straightenii^, when a heater similar to the one shown 
in Fig. 139 is used. The oil supply is kept in the reser- 

Fig. 140— Platon Rod Paeklng Ring Mandrel. 

voir mounted under the furnace, and the furnace may 
be easily rolled alongside of the machine, — Lehigh Val- 
ley, Sayre, Pa. 

The mandrel shown in Fig. 140 is designed for use cm 
a lathe for turning piston rod packing rings. The shaft 
A has a shoulder H against which the part B bears, 
being shrunk on. This part is also tapered as shown to 
receive the cone C, which is driven against the end of 
the jaws E, causing theni-to move out against the pack- 

Fig. 139 — Oil Furnace for Heating PItton Rods Preparatory to Straightening Them In Lathe Center*. 



ing ring. The six jaws are held in place by the plate F, are attached to the crossbar. This crossbar is moved up 

which is bolted to the face by six screw-head bolts. This 
chuck is accompanied by several sets of jaws in order 
to cover a wide range of diameters, the travel of any one 
set being only J-S-in. If desired, the chuck can be made 
to fit into the sleeve of the live center of the lathe, which 
makes a carrying dog unnecessary. This chuck may also 
be used for turning steam pipe joint rings, by having a 
set of long jaws. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania 
RailTckid, Buffalo. N. Y. 


The devices in use for making metallic packing rings 
for piston rods and valve stems start with the molding of 
the rings and cover each successive step until they are 

and down by the piston rod in the small cylinder at the 

Fig. 143 — Chuck for Boring Paoking Ring*. 

base. This cylinder is <tbout 3 in. in diameter, with a 
3-in. stroke of piston. When air is admitted to the bot- 
tom of the cylinder the cores are held up in place and 
the mold is ready for pouring. After the rings have 

F)g. 142. — Expanding Mandrel for Turning Platon Rod Paclclng. 

Pig. 141 — Moiding Mactilne for Platon Rod Paelcing Ringt. 

completed. The molding machine is a moditicalion of a 
regular molding machine in that it mechanically draws 
the core after the ring has been cast. In the machine. 

Fig. 144 — Tooi for Forming Motaiiie Paciclng. 

cooled air is admitted to the upper end of the cylinder, 
the cores are pulled down and the rings are readily re- 

For turning the rings there is a special expanding man- 


Fig. 14fi— MeUilic Paclcing Chuel<. 

a photograph of which is reproduced in Fig. 141, the drel, Fig. 142, which is made to screw on the end of 

tc^ plate is bored out to form three dies or molds, into a lathe spindle in the place of the face plate. Beyond the 

which the metal is poured. The cores of these molds are hub in which the screw thread is cut is a projecting 

held in place hy the three stems that project down and mandrel, cut with a thread for the nut A, then with a 



taper to take the expander, and at the end with a thread 
for the tightening nut jB, The expander is of the usual 
ring type cut to permit of being expanded as it is forced 
on the taper. The operation is very simple ; the packing 
is slipped on over the expander, as indicated by the 
dotted lines, and the tightening nut is drawn home. After 





1 ' ' 



1 1 

^ i 




Q O I Q O 


J 'hpfyr Stt Serwiii'S 

Fig. 14«— Facing Tool for Metallic Packing. 

turning, the expander is backed off by the nut A. An- 
other chuck, Fig. 143, which screws on the lathe spindle, 
is used for boring out. This chuck is bored out on the 
face to receive the ring, which is held in place by the 
nut A. 

The tool used for forming the outside of the rings with 
these chucks is shown in Fig. 144. It is held in the or- 

body and are bored with tlie flare away from the head. 
The taper mandrel has a long stem (2) extending through 
the spindle to the back, where a handle is attached that ex- 
tends to the front of the lathe within easy reach of the 
operator, ■ The movement of this handle is limited 1^ 
stops, so that the mandrel cannot be thrown out too far. 
This makes the chucking of the ring an exceedingly rapid 
operation and leaves the outside and one end of it acces- 
sible for machining. 

The tool for facing the rings with this chuck is shown 
in Fig. 146. It consists of a head carrying a tiat-blade 
tool which is pushed against the ring. 

The chuck and tools used for forming the vibrating 
cups are shown in Fig. 147. The stem of the chuck is 
made to fit the machine that is used, and the cup is held 
by the set-screws. The tool holder D is set on a vertical 
spindle and turns so as to bring either the roughing or 
boring tool into play. The inside of the cup is finished 
with the tool E. — Delwware, Lackawanna & Western, 
Scranton, Pa. 


The four photographs. Figs. 148, 149, 150 and 
151, show the three processes of making the soft metal 
rings and that of handling the vibrating cups. The 
rings are cut from a cast bushing, using a gang 
tool and cutting off one set of three rings at a 
time as shown in Fig. 148. The bushings for piston 
rod packing are cast sufficiently long for cutting 
five sets of packing from each, while those for valve 
stem packing make six sets per bushing. The bushing 
is rough bored to a minimum rod diameter before the 
rings are cut. This rough size also suits the mandrel 
which is used in the second operation, that of forming. 
On top of the turret head is shown a number of cut 
rings, and on the pegs of the shelf above the machine are 
a number of sets of both cut rings and the finished 

Fig. 147 — Tool for Forming Vibrating Cups. 

dinary tool post and is simply fed against the ring as it 
turns in the chuck. 

Another form of chuck is that shown in Fig. 145. It 
requires a lathe specially fitted to receive it, and this has 
been provided, an old turret lathe being used for the pur- 
pose. The body of the chuck is screwed on the spindle, 
which is hollow. The expanding rings (1) are set in this 

Fig. 149 illustrates the second operation, that of form- 
ing the outside of the rings to the exact contour of the 
vibrating cup. A set of formed rings is shown in place 
on the mandrel and the forming tool is shown turned up 
so as to better illustrate its shape. The rmgs are a neat 
fit on the mandrel, being held by the large nut and 
washer. After this second operation the rings are placed 
in stock in the storeroom, and the third operation, shown 
in Fig. 150, is performed where the packing is drawn for 
use. This last operation consists merely of boring the 
rings to the size for a particular rod. The set of rings 
is held in a bushing, of the same contour as a vibrating 
cup, by a chucking sleeve. One of these sleeves is also 
shown on the turret top. It has a coarse thread with 
three interruptions, which permits its being quickly 
placed in the chucking bushing, as but one-sixth of a 
turn is necessary to lock it. This bushing checks the 
finished size of the packing rings, since the rings will 
not properly fit in it unless they are made of the correct 
size. A number of sets of finished rings are shown in 
front of the turret. 


The method of machining the vibrating cups for this 
packinif is shown in Fig, 151. Close inspection of the 
photograph shows the two tools — roughing and finishing 
— which are used. These are forming tools, the roughii^ 
one doing most of the work and the finishing tool being 
used only for a light finishing cut to the exact contour 
of the rings. The rough casting is held in the universal 
chuck as shown. The outside is turned off and then the 
inside is formed. The cup is then reversed in the chuck, 
the straight face is finished and the rough metal re- 
maining on the outside diameter is turned off. Vibrating 


The shouldered piston rod is used on most of the loco- 
motives of the Lehigh Valley, this being done to get a 
large crosshead fit. It necessitates the use of packing 
having a split vibrating cup, and the work of machining 
these cast-iron cups on a Gisholt turret lathe is of con- 
siderable interest. The first operation is shown in Fig. 
152. The cup casting is made in halves and the edges 
which fit against each other are finished on a shaper be- 
fore the turret lathe work begins. Stock is made the 
length of two vibrating cups. The illustration shows 

Manufacture of PItton and Valve Rod Packing. 

cups are placed in stock and bored out to fit the rod 
when used. 

The Gibbs pattern of vibrating cup is used on piston 
rods with enlarged crosshead fit ends, a built-up cup 
being necessary. The brass portion of the cup is cast 
in halves. These are faced for joining, doweled, sweat 
together, machined and afterward broken apart. The 
machine work is done on the same lathe and with the 
same tools and chucks as used for the packing. — Lottg 
Island Railroad, Morris Park, N. Y. 

the first stage of the work completed, that of machining 
the outside of one cup. The snap gage used for this 
work is shown on the carriage of the machine. It will 
he noticed that a four-jaw chUck is used for this work. 
It was formerly performed with a three-jaw chuck, hut 
it was necessary to drill and dowel the halves before 
putting them in the machine. This not only required 
time, but castings were very often ruined by having the 
small drills broken off in them. 

The second operation is illustrated in Fig, 153. At the 


Fig. 1SZ— FIrat Turret Lath« Operation In Finishing Two Part 
PItton Rod Vibrating Cup*. 

completion of the first operation, the chucking sleeve, 
shown in Fig. 153 is placed in the machine. The inside 
contour of this sleeve corresponds with the outside of 
the vibrating cup. The second cup is then machined to 
the snap gage and is cut from the one in the sleeve with 
a parting tool. The second photograph shows the cup 
just after it was cut off. 

Fig 154 illustrates the operation in which the cup is 
machined on the inside. Still clamped in the split sleeve 

Fig. 1M— Finishing tho Inside of the Two-Part Platon Rod 
Vibrating Cup. 

used in the previous operation, an ordinary roughing 
tool is used to cut away the sandy rough cast iron. Tlien 
two forming tools are used, the roughing one of which is 
shown on the tool turret, and the other in position in 
the turret. This shaping is done to the snap gage shown 
on the machine, near which are the halves of a finished 

This vibrating cup when in use fits into a brass vibrat- 
ing cup, the bore of which is made large enough to slip 

Fig. 153 — Second Vibrating Cup Completed on 
and Cut from the FIrat One. 

Fig. 15S — Finishing the Inilde of the Large Brass Vibrating 
Cup In Which the Cast Iron Cup Fits. 



over the shoulder of the piston rod. These brass cups 
are machined on the same turret lathe, being gripped in 

the four-jaw chuck, extension straps on the jaws, how- 
ever, being necessarj-. The two forming tools used are 
shown in Fig. 155, as is a completed cup and a com- 
pleted combination of the brass and cast iron cups as used 
on the locomotive. 

An ingenuous tool for forming the inside face of the 
gland used with these vibrating cups is shown in front 
of the face plate. Fig. 156. The tool has five separate 
inserted cutters. The gland is, of course, first roughed 
out with a roughing tool. 

The machine on which the soft metal packing rings are 
finished is shown in Fig. 157. In the foreground are 
shown the molds in which the packing rings are cast 
separate. Provision is made for casting 12 piston rod 
and six valve rod rings at one pouring. After the metal 
is poured, the cores are raised by the air cylinders, and 
the rings may be taken off to cool. Each ring is faced 
separately and then a set of three is put on the expand- 
ing mandrel and finished to exact size and contour, using 
a broad forming tool. The spindle is equipped with a 
friction clutch, which is thrown in by the lever seen just 
over the work. This provides for rapid starting and 
stopping. On the floor is shown one of several boards 
that fit neatly into boxes in which finished packing rings 
are shipped to various points on the road. — Lehigh Val- 
ley, Sayre, Pa. 


The cutting of the diagonal ports in bushings for piston 
valves is a slow process at best and usually requires con- 
siderable filing after it is completed. By the use of an 
angular cutting edge on the broaching tool shown in Fig. 

Fig. 1S7 — Moid* for Pouring and Machine for FInlihIng Piaton 
and Valve Rod Packing Ring*. 

Fig. 168 — Shaper Ualng Special Tool on Valve Buehlng. 

159, most of the diagonal ports can be finished on the 
small shaper. The photograph, Fig. 158, illustrates the 
manner in which the bushing is chucked on the shaper 
and the drawing shows the shape of the broaching cut- 



ter. The old method of slotting these ports required 8 
to 10 hours, but by this improvement the work can be 


A traveling head set on a boring bar for boilpg piston 
valve chambers and which is moved along it by. a screw 



^ ^l _j 

Fig. 159 — Tool for Cutting Ports in Piston Valve Bushings. 

done in 4 hours. — Chicago, Mihvaiikee & St, Paul, West 
Milwaukee, Wis. 


A double tool holder used principally for finishing shoes 
and wedges is shown in Fig. 160. The tool blocks in- 
serted in the end of the holder are pivoted on the ^-in. 
pin and are held in position by the spring shown. Both 
sides of the frame fit of the shoes and wedges are fin- 
ished at the same time. The spring arrangement pro- 
vides release for all reverse movements.- This tool has 
been successfully used in these shops for several years. 
— F. C, Pickard, Assistant Master Mechanic, Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton^ hidianapolis, Ind. 

Fig. 161 — Tool Head for Boring Piston Valve Chambers. 

feed is shown in Fig. 161. It is not new in design, but 
may be of value to those who have none. The head itself 
is of cast-iron in the form of a disk A, of a diameter to suit 


I* 9" /' 















^ 1 


! 1 

! 1 

— 1 1 

\ > 

si'. ^_^V- 

^ I 



One Too/ Block Ho/den 


. — .J u y~ — J 

T — r 




% DJam. 





T — r 



y \ 

k 3k'- -M 

7m? Toof Btocks. 
Fig. 160 — Double Tool Holder for Planer. 


U- .si M 

Too/ B/ock Bo/f 

Ho, 10 tY/rg 3prtng. 







that of the chamber. It is bored and key-seated to fit a 
3-iii. boring bar and its spline. Opposite the key-seat is 
another and broader one, dove-tailed to take the feed 
nut B. The tool-holders C are set in T slots cut in the 

the shoulders at B rest on the top surface of the planer 
bed. The dimension C is made slightly less than the 
width of the slots in. the bed plate. — Baltimore &■ Ohio, 
Ml. Clare Sliops, Baltimore, Md. 


The application of an inexpensive turret tool head to 
a small planer is shown in Figs. 164 and 165. It was 
primarily made to reduce the time of planing shoes and 

Fig. 162 — Guide H«ad for Boring Platon Valve Chambers. 

face of the disk, and are adjusted by the screws D, which 
are threaded radially into the hub, and have a head that 
fits the tee in the tool-holder. At the ends of the valve 
chambers the bar is held by guide-heads. Fig. 162, bolted 
fast by means of the valve chamber head studs. — Dela- 
ware, LackaxvanHa & Western, Scranton, Pa. 


The usual practice in planer stops is to drive tapered 
plugs in the cast openings in the planer bed. This ar- 
rangement makes a good, steady stop, but the repeated 
driving in and drawing of the tapered plug results in 
ktK>cking off the corners of the openings, making an 






U -.: i 


Fig. 1fl3 — Planer Stop. 

Fig. 164 — Turret Tool Head Applied to a Small Planer. 

wedges, there being three tools for each shoe. However, 
it has since proved adaptable to the general run of work 
and is a good time and labor saving device. The tool 
head is bolted to the clapper E and turns on the pin B ; 


o * 







i^jT— 1 



Fig. 165— Detail! of Turret Tool Heab for Planer, 

it is centered by the pin C and is clamped in position by 
the hand nut D.—M. H. Westbrook, Grand Trunk, Bat- 
tle Creek, Mich. 


unsightly planer bed. The stop shown in Fig. 163 may The planer tool bar shown in Fig. 166 was designed to 

be made of cast or wrought iron. The side elevation overcome the necessity of resetting a planer toot on the 

shows the position which it assumes when being used, clapper plate when changing the direction of cut. It is also 

The surface A bears against the top of the T slot, while useful in permitting the use of small tool steel cutters. 


The cutter is held in position by the bolt, through the 
head of which it passes. The cutter may be easily and 

small set screws. — JVilliam G. Reycr, General Foreman 
and J. W. Hooteii, Foreman Repair Work, Nashville, 
Chattanooga & St. Louis, Nashville, Tenn. 


The gang slotting tool shown in Figs. 168 and 169 was 
specially made for reducing the labor cost on new locomo- 

M'—^ *- — f- 



Fig. 16S — Planer Tool Bar. 

quickly changed or turned to any angle, which adjust- 
ment is much more easy and rapid than readjusting the 
tool at the clapper plate. The bar is finished on its top 
and bottom surfaces. — Baltimore & Ohio, Mt. Clare 
Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


A double planer tool holder for machining the inside 
faces of the flanges of shoes and wedges, driving boxes, 

FIs. 108 — Raach Rod End Slotting Tool. 

lives. A hundred or more jaws were ordered at one 
time, and finished in large lots. Under the old method of 
slotting with a single tool, it required two hours per jaw. 

Fig. 167— Planer Tool Holder. 

cross-head gibs, etc., is shown in Fig. 167. The tools are 
inserted through slots in the bolts and are drawn down 
tightly against the clapper plates and adjusted by the 

Pig. 169 — Reach Rod End Slotting Tool on Machine. 



With the gang tool having three cutters, the central por- 
tion and the two outside faces are finished at one opera- 
tion, the time required beinp only 35 minutes. — Chicago, 
Milwaukee & St. Paul, West Mihvavkee, IVis. 


The detachable reamer {Fig, 170) was especially de- 
signed to eliminate breaking and warping of ordinary 
shell reamers when the finished tool is tempered. A sav- 
ing in tool steel can also be effected, as one shank may be 
used for a large number of reamers. The small block 

= ^- -i- 


^ — ,j'„ — ^ ^/i»a,»"" i 

i ! i Ma4SmnH \ 

Fig. 170 — Detachable Reamer. 

shown in the illustration acts as a lock in holding the 
reamer in the shank, as it is driven against the threaded 
end of the reamer by the taper key. A clearance of 1/32 
in, is provided between the end of the block and the 
shank. — Fred Bents, Tool Room Foreman, Southern 
PaciHc, BakersHeld, Cal. 

Several reamers and shanks are shown in group /, 
Fig, 171, which illustrates an idea of standardizing the 

holes in special reamers so that spindles or shanks may 
be made to fit into the various styles of machines that 
may have occasion to use them. 

The reamer on the right of group K, Fig. 171, has 
been found to be an improvement over the other two as 
the flutes are not as near together and there is more 
room for the chips to free themselves and work out of the 
hole. Under severe tests this reamer has not broken a 


.\\y economical design of lathe tools for brass work is 
shown in group 0, Fig. 171. Each tool has a seat for 
the set screw located by a jig so that it will fit the shank 
properly and run true with the spindle of the lathe. This 
is much cheaper and more satisfactory than the solid 
tools used in some shops, 


A threading tool is shown at ;V, Fig, 171, and in de- 
tail in Fig. 172. It is only necessary to grind the tc^ face 
to keep it sharp. It is milled by the cutters M, which 
in turn are made by feeding the chaser L into the cutter 
in the lathe forming a series of angular grooves of the 
desired pitch and depth. One of these cutters has 
threaded 14.000 mud plugs and used up lj4 in. of the 
cutter. — M. H. Westbrook, Grand Trunk. 


An adjustable reamer, used in connection with the 
manufacture of 2-in. pneumatic blow-off cocks, is shown 
in Fig. 173. There are 12 removable cutters A, which 
are adjusted to the correct diameter after grinding and 


Fig. 171 — MIteellaneouB Tools and Gaoe*. 


Roblnns Tool |_/;J-_J 

gages in each set vary by 1/32 in. — M. H. Westbrook, 
Grand Trunk, Battle Creek, Mich. 


A socket for holding taper reamers is shown in Fig. 
175, group A. This has proved of value in reaming 

Fig. 172— Threading Tool. 

are held tight by the taper collar B and the nut C. One 
of the cutting blades is shown in Fig. 174. These are 

Fig. 175 — Mlscellaneoui Tool* and Handy Devlc«a. 

main rod ends and straps. The absence of the positive 
rigidity, found in the solid socket and spindle, allows 
the holes to be reamed faster and with less breakages. 


A special gang chuck used for milling four reamers at 
the same time is shown in Fig. 176. It is bolted to the 

Pig. 173 — AdjuBtabU Reamer for Pneumatic Blok-Off Cocke. 

made to fit tightly in equally spaced slots in the 4 1-16 in. 
head. The taper collar forces them against the taper 


Fig. 174 — Cutting Blade for Adjustable Ream«r. 

Fig. 17S — Gang Chuck for Milling Four Reamera at One Time. 

head, holding them securely. The blades may easily be 
removed for regrinding. — Chicago &■ North Western, 
Chicago. table B, and the reamers are inserted in the individual 

chucks C, D, E and F. The gang tail-stock is brought up 

AIR PL-M.r CAGES. ,,, cj-..>f., 

as shown, and the reamers are fed mto the four cutters 

A set of piston and ring gages for air pumps and pis- M, N, O and P. The chuck is equipped with a spacing 

ton packing i-iiigs arc sho«n in group Q. V\^. 171. The head H, and all four reamers are spaced at the same time 


by the movement of the handle S. — Chicago &■ North 
Western, Chicago. 


A quartering machine gage, B, is shown i 

Fig. 175. 


A tool for planing babbitted crosshead shoes in one 
cut is shown at D in Fig. 175. It has been made to cut 
better by having the cutting edges beveled back slightly. 


The quartering indicator, H in Fig. 175. has proved 
v-aluable when pressing axles into driving wheels that 
have the crank pins already in. — M. H. Wcstbrook, 
Grand Trunk, Battle Creek, Mich. 


A Special tool for turning reverse shafts is shown in 
Fig. 177. It consists of ^ brass sleeve A to which the 
tool B is bolted. This revolves about the shaft C, which 
is screwed on the spindle of the lathe. The tool is fed 
by means of the carriage and the plate D, which is fitted 
in the groove E at the left on the sleeve, and is held in 
the tool post. — Chicago & North Western, Chicago. 


V\'ith the design of reverse shaft shown in Fig, 178, 
it is impossible to machine the bearing and use the regu- 
lar tool slide-rest, unless a long tool be used so that the 
tool rest will clear the heavy arm at the center of the 
shaft. A tool of this length would not have the nec- 
It is slipped over the spindle and used to true up the essary stability for even light cuts, and the arrangement 
crank pin preparatory to boring out the opposite wheel would be generally unsatisfactory. To overcome these. 
for a new crank pin. difficulties, and to provide an arrangement by which both . 

Fig. 177 — Tool for Turning Reverse Shaft* Journals. 

Fifl. 178 — Pond Lathe Fitted for Truing Bearings on Reverse Shaft. 



bearings may be machined simultaneously, the extension 
tool-slide was designed. .The two I-beams are bolted to 
the carriage of the machine. A rigid cross-bearer ex- 
tends between the ends of the I-beams, to which it is 
securely braced. The illustration shows clearly how the 
work is done, the two tools being set for starting the 
cuts. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa, 


Reverse shafts are difficulty to turn in a lathe using a 
stationary tool, even if the lathe has sufficient swing, 
and it has been found to be better to hold the work and 
revolve the tool. A simple arrangement of this sort, 
shown in Fig. 179, consists of a mandrel A made to fit 
the spindle of the lathe and having a center B projecting 
from the other end. A cast-iron sleeve C is fitted over the 
mandrel and is prevented from turning by a key. The 
face of this sleeve carries a turning tool. The lifting 
shaft is then supported on the false center B and that of 
the tail-stock, with the arms resting against the bed o^ 
the lathe. The lathe is started and carries the tool and 




Casi ffwt 

lli 7it ^i?^ 

' h fit MM onMKhlne 

gpLt » 


Fig. 17d — ^Tool for Turning Reverse Shaft End8. 

sleeve with its spindle. These are then fed out over the 
work by a bar held in the tool-post in the ordinary way 
and pressing against the left side of the groove in the 
. sleeve. — Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, Scran- 
ton. Pa. 


A tool for turning the ends of shafts with arms too 
long to swing in the lathe is shown in Fig. 180. The 

j'CuHer Here 

|llM'<V \^^ 




I I 

■T— T 





shank X is made to fit in the spindle. The yoke A can 
be made to suit any tool post, and the end for the tool E 



Fig. 180 — ^Tool for Turning the End8 of Shafts. 

can be made to take the standard size tool steel. A key F 
is fastened in the center, as shown, and a key-way is put 
in the sliding head G so it will turn with the center. The 
head G should be a neat sliding fit on the center and the 
key. The yoke A should fit the groove BB snugly. When 
the yoke is fastened in the tool post the feed can be put 
on in the usual way. — W, H, Snyder, Assistant General 
Foreman^ New York, Susquehanna & Western, Strouds- 
burg. Pa. 


Because of the long arms on locomotive reverse shafts 
it is impossible to swing them in an ordinary engine 
lathe. Wheel lathes are sometimes used to perform this 
job, but the journals are usually filed to as near round as 
possible. The tool here illustrated. Fig. 181, is in con- 
stant use in one of the Northern Pacific shops, and is 
giving good satisfaction both in quality of the work and 
in time. The stem C is screwed to the spindle of the lathe 
after the face plate has been removed. The sleeve B is 
a sliding fit on C but is kept from turning by the key. 
The center fits into the hole shown in the end of stem C. 




1^ -/O^ ^ 



Oi Q 

<— -^|--H^U 

Fig. 181 — Tool for Turning Reverse Shaft Journals. 


The fork A goes in the tool post, the curved end fitting 
to the groove in sleeve B. The tumbling shaft to be 
turned is placed between the centers and clamped solid. 
A cutter is put in, as indicated, and is adjusted to 
take just enough off the journal to turn it up true. The 
lathe is then started. The spindle C turns the sleeve B 
and the feed screw carries the carriage ahead, thus mov- 
ing the cutter over the length of the journal. — F. A. 
Dailey, Northern Pacific, St. Paul, Minn. 



The tool shown in Fig. 182 is used for turning rocker 
arm bosses or the outside of oil cups which are forged 
integral with the rod. The end A, or top of the tool, is 

bored to fit the drill press spindle to which it is secured 
by two 5^-in. steel set screws: The slots BB are made to 
receive the cutting tools of J^-in. x I^-in. high-speed 
steel ; these are secured by 5^-in.' set screws. The hole C 
is made to fit the \o. 4 Morse taper of the plugs, the 
diameter of the projecting end of which varies accord- 
ing to the size of the pin hole in the rocker arm or the 
inside diameter of the oil cup. This projecting end 
steadies the tool and in case the rocker arm boss does 
not have a hole bored in it must, of course, be left out. 
— IV. H. Snyder, Assistant General Foreman, New York, 
Susquehanna & Western, Stroudsbiirg, Pa. 


A chuck for machining rod brasses on a shaper is 
shown in the assembled and detail drawings. Fig. 183. 
The chuck is secured to the side of the shaper table 
by four )4-in. x 4-in. bolts, the heads of which fit in the 
T-slots in the shaper table. The 'brass is held between 
the two 9-in. x 9-in. plates which are drawn tightly to- 
gether by the 2-in. nut on the stud which is secured to 
the back of the chuck. The lower portion of this back 
plate is made to fit the shaper on which the chuck is to 
be used, the ^-in. x ^-in. lip fitting in a T-slot below 
the one used for the lower bolts. The 10-in. taper key 
is driven in under the rear clamping plate and along: 
the seat shown and is then secured against loosening by 
the small keeper. The front clamping plate is provided 
with 12 tapped holes for J4-in. set screws which assist in 
holding the brass between the plates. A ^-in. set screw 
in the 2-in. pin, or stud, provides a means for holding 
the brass in position while clamping. This set screw is 
set up against the lower side of the brass. — Baltimore & 
Ohio. Ml. Ciarc Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


A Special chuck for planing rod brasses is shown in 
Fig. 184. It is so constructed that the brass is planed 

Fig. 183 — Chuck for Shaping Rod Brassas. 

Fig. 184— Chuck for Planing Rod BrasMi. 

perfectly square on all four sides without being un- 
damped. Means are also provided to take care of wedge 
brasses. The nut A clamps the brass to the chuck B ; 
the nut C holds the chuck to the frame D. To turn the 
brass 90 deg. the finger £ is drawn down, disengaging a 
slot on the inside. The nut C is then loosened and the 
brass is turned until the finger E engages in the next 
slot on the inside face of B. This slot is cut at right 
angles to the first stop. The brass is turned in this way 


four times and is planed on the four sides. The finger F 
is used when it is desired to plane brasses at angles other 
than 90 deg, — Chicago &■ North Western, Chicago. 


A device for machining strap rod brasses is shown in 
Fig. 185. A small angle plate is secured to the shaper 
table. An index plate provides for changing the position 
of the brass. The plate has four slots set 90 deg. apart. 
After the brass is secured in position it is not necessary 
to readjust it, but simply to remove the catch and re- 
volve the brass a quarter turn until the catch can again 
be shifted into place. There is also a slot at one side 

\t. /zf ^ i<— -V2-— ^ 

Fig. 185 — Device for Planing Rod Brasses. 

ior planing the taper ends. This device will greatly in- 
crease the capacity of tlie shaper on this class of work, 
— F. C. Pickard, Assistant Master Mechanic, Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton, Indianapolis, hid. 


The chuck shown in Fig. 186 was designed to plane 
the front half of main rod brasses. These are circular in 

shape, forming practically one-half of a bushing, al- 
though some of them have flat sides. The ends of the 
chuck for this latter type are designed accordingly, as 
shown by sketch Y. There are many chucks of tHis gen- 
eral construction, but most of them are heavy and it is 
necessary to remove the shaper chuck from the table when 
using them. This chuck is held in the shape*- chuck 

Fig. 18&— Shaper Rad 


while in use. saving considerable time in changing from 
one class of work to the other. The ordinary shaper 
chuck is used for machining the rear brass of the front 
-end of the main rod ; the front half can then be machined 
in the radial chuck without removing the shaper chuck. , 
This chuck can also be used for other work, such as dies, 
etc, on either straight or taper work. For taper work 
.a wedge is placed under one end of the shaper chuck. — 
C. J. Croivley, Piece Work Inspector, Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy, West Burlington, loiva. 


A reamer for truing solid rod bushings after they have 
been applied to the rod is shown in Fig, 187. It is a 
handy, adjustable cutler for use on a drill press; the 
various parts are of mild steel, except the 5/16-in. cut- 
ters, which are of high-speed steel. Rod bushings are 
bored to pin size, applied to the rod and then placed on 
the drill press for truing with this tool. The plunger M is 
recessed to lighten it and is also slotted to carry the cross 
bar .V, which, actuated by the knurled nut D, forces M 

Fig. 187 — Rod Bushing Reamer. 


backward or forward, depending on whether the cutters 
are to be expanded or contracted. With it and a drill 
press equipped with an air ctamp, a rod may be reamed 
and handled, floor to floor, in five minutes. — William 
G. Reyer, General Foreittan, Nashville, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis, Nashzille, Tcnn. 


Side rods are roughed off and finished in one opera- 
tion at the Chicago shops. The special tools for doing 
this work are shown in Fig. 189. One of the cutters 

in. per minute, taking a "-l-in. cut. — Chicago & North 
Western, Chicago. 


There are a number of methods of forking side rods. 
They are frequently drilled at the bottom of the slot and 
the piece is fiarted out by running in two cuts, as shown 
by the dotted lines in B, Fig. 190. Sometimes this is 
done on a rotary saw. and sometimes on a shaper or 

Ftg. 1S8— Ons of the Cutters In Milling Tool for Side Rode. 

(there are 216 in the tool) is shown in Fig. 188. These 
cutters are driven in straight and are kept from turning 
by prick-punching the arbor, forcing the soft metal of 
the arbor into the 7/32-in. recess of the cutter. The re- 
sults from these tools have been excellent. They seldom 
require grinding and are run at a cutting speed of 6 to 8 

Fig. 189— Milling Side Rods. 

planer. These methods appear crude and costly, and in 
order to improve them the tool post, shown in the 
illustration, was designed. The tool is put in a slotter 
and the metal is cut out as in ordinary slotter work. By 
using a heavy duty machine no trouble is experienced 
with even such a wide roughing tool as that shown. The 
use of these tools has reduced the total time of cutting 
out the fork one-half. — Frank Raltck, Brighton, Mass. 


Brass shoes and wedges are used in the Dale street 
shops of the Great Northern at St. Paul, Minn. They 
are milled out, 10 being milled at one operation. Instead 
of planing, the sides are ground on a grinder. 


■Second Boo^Mng Too 

S3 ■¥■ 

Firtishiriff Tool. 


V-Zi--^ Fini3hing Too/. 


Fig. 190 — Tool for Forking Side Rod* ( 



A quick and cheap method of machining the inside and 
outside of shoes or wedges at the same time is illustrated 
in Fig. 191, the machine being shown set up for wedges. 
They are bolted to the cast steel jigs by ^-in. counter- 
sunk head bolts, the nut being placed on the under side 
of the jig. One bolt is sufficient for each wedge as the 
ends are securely blocked. The holes can generally be 
drilled in a pla c e where they iuay hlei be used for -hold- 


A gang tool for milling crosshead gibs, shoes and 
wedges is shown in Fig. 195, This tool is used on a 
horizontal milling machine, the chuck blocks shown in 
Fig. 193 being used for holding the work. In milling 
shoes and wedges with this tool, the outside of the shoe 
or wedge is machined with the large tools having 16 in- 

I r7 

Ftg. 1*1— Milling Shoos and Wedges. 


Ml H 03© 



ing the wedge to the frame jaws. The wedges are 
blocked up on one end to give the required taper, — 
M. H. IVcstbrook, Craud Trunk, Battle Creek, Mieh. 


We finish all shoes and wedges on a milling machine, 
machining both the inside and outside at one operation. 
One man will finish 40 of these in 10 hours. The chuck 
for holding the shoes and wedges is shown in Fig. 192, 
The blocks A, B, C and D are made of cast steel and 
have tongues which fit in the grooves in the table of the 

serted cutters of high-speed steel, ^i in. in section, the 
cutting points of which make a 16-in. diameter circle. 
The frame fit of the shoe or wedge is made with a tool 
Wyi in. in diameter, with 16 inserted blade cutters. An 
adjustable telescopic sleeve is used for gaging the thick- 
ness of the flanges. In finishing the edges of the flanges, 
mills of proper diameter are used by inserting them in 
the gang head. This edge milling on the flanges, how- 
ever, is applicable only to shoes. 

The body of the outside tools is made of two soft steei 

Fig. 192 — Chuck for Milling Shoea and WedBea- 

milling machine. The blocks are held in place by the 
bolts E. The shoes are placed between the upper parts 
of the blocks and these are then forced tightly against 
the ends of the shoes by screwing up the set-screws F 
in the tail block D. The shoes are milled at the top 
and sides in one operation. — H'Uliain G. Reycr. General 
Foreman, A'aslnillc, Chaltaiiooj'a & St. Louis. Xaslt- 
viUe, Tenn. 

forgings ; the main, or outside member, has a hub which 
is bored and key seated for the main spindle, and the 
inner face is turned at an angle of 45 deg., the angle of 
the tool. The two pieces are clamped together, using 
six or eight 5^-in. bolts. Two of these tools are used at 
a time, the cutters being ground right-hand on one 
and left-hand on the other, so that they will cut in the 
same direction. The mill used for cutting out the frame 



fit has inserted cutters at proper angles to form a spiral, are cast on it, which fit the T-slots of the planer bed. 

This member is made solid of soft steel, forged from an The chuck is made in two pieces so that it can be opened 

old locomotive axle and is bored and key-seated to suit or closed to accommodate castings from 12 to 24 in. in 

the main spindle. The inserted cutters in this head or length, or, in fact, of any required length. This arrange- 

mill are V/2 in. wide x ^ in. thick, and of lengths to suit ment permits of chucking the work at its ends to obtain 


Fig. 194-^A(lju sting Wedge for Elevating Center Chuck 
Block In Milling Wedges. 

the frame fit required. An adjusting wedge for elevat- 
ing the center ehuck block in milling wedges is shown 
in Fig, 194. With this gang miller it is possible to mill 
a shoe and finish both inside and outside, in 15 minutes. 
— IViiliam G. Reyer, General Foreman, NashvUie. Chat- 
tanooga & St. Loitis, Nashville, Tetin. 


A method of holding locomotive shoes and wedges for 
the final operation of planing the face and edges after the 
castings have been returned, popmarked, from the erect- 
ing shop is shown in Fig. 196. Much difficulty has been 
experienced in these shops in the matter of setting and 
holding shoes and wedges to the popmarks, as the faces of 
the frame legs do not always wear at right angles, often 
being as much as 1/64 in. and 1/32 in, out of true. This 
necessitates the use of wedges and shims in chucking, 
which on account of the repeated blows of the planer tool 
are very difBcutt to keep in place. This method also re- 
quires considerable time in setting the job. The chuck the greatest holding power. Instead of using the regular 
here shown was designed by W. P. Spade, shop specialist round-pointed pins for holding the work, pins shaped 
at the Mt. Clare shops, to overcome these difficulties and similar to a flat chisel are used. This provides more 
it meets the requirements admirably. The chuck is made holding surface than the round pins, and the fiat surfaces 
of cast iron, and, as is seen in the illustration, tongues do not leave unsightly marks, which is especially the case 

Pig. 196 — Shoe and Wedge Cliucka. 

^ ^ 




Fig. 195 — Gang Milling Cutter for Shoes and Wedges and Crosshead Gibs. 



wheii using pointed pieces on brass shoes and wedges. 
The flat pins eflfectively prevent slippage, which is more 
pronounced when working soft metal such as brass. 
Round points forge into the metal from the continual 
shocks of the tool, especially when it is cutting at a rate 
of about 40 ft. per minute. The pins are forced against 
the work by ordinary set-screws and the opposite sides 
of the shoes bear against the sharpened edges of steel 
plates, which are held in place by the pressure and 
grooves cut in the center section of the chuck. These 
plates, which point slightly downward, are 4 in. long and 
1 in. wide. Their position is shown in the illustration. 
The vertical adjustment of the casting is obtained 
through four set-screws, by which the strips upon which 
the casting rests, are raised or lowered. Spreader bolt' 
are placed between the flanges to prevent them from 
springing. The jacks seen in the foreground are used 
merely to absorb the shocks of the tool and have no par- 
ticular effect in holding the castings in place. These are 
made of l-in. bolts and pieces of 1-in. pipe. An increase 
of 80 per cent, in output and much better work has re- 
sulted from the use of these chucks. — Baltimore & Ohio, 
Mt. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


A partial view of a small planer which handles the fin- 
ishing' of shoes and wedges is shown in Fig. 198. The 

k4^|>4j — <|--* J'| ' t'l 4 '[4 i 

Fig. 197— Shoo and Wedge Chuck. 

chuck is also shown in detail in Fig. 197. One flange of 
the shoe or wedge is placed between the set -screw points 
and the cast partition of the chuck, against which it is 
clamped by the set-screws. A part circular plate and a 
long tapered key are shown in detail in the drawing. 
The slot in the plate engages the pin in the bottom of 
the chuck. This plate and wedge hold the other flange 
against the single set-screw on the left-hand side of the 
chuck. The adjustments for height to get the popmarks 

Fig. 198 — Shoe and Wedge Chuck on Small Planer. 

in. position are gotten by the four vertical corner screws, 
which adjust the entire chuck. A turret tool holder is 
used on this machine. It is capable of holding four tools, 
one for roughing, -one for finishing and two for the fillets. 

— Central Railroad of New Jersey, Elisabethport, A', /. 


The shoe and chuck, Fig. 199, is a forging. Lugs on 
the bottom fit in the grooves of the platen, and clamps 

Fig. 199— Shoe and Wedge Chuck. 



are inserted through the openings at the ends. Two 
sizes of chucks of this design are sufficient to accommo- 
date all the shoe and wedge sizes used in the Erie shops 
at Gallon, Ohio. The shoe or wedge is adjusted to posi- 
tion by four set-screws, making it unnecessary to use 
shims. The construction of the chuck is such that these 
set-screws are easily accessible. .The castings are held 
by four other .set-screws, which engage it at an angle as 
shown. — L. M. Granger, Assistant General Foreman; 
and John Todd, Machine Foreman, Erie Railroad, 
Gallon, Ohio. 


The ouside faces of shoes and wedges are finished in 
a chuck, a section and elevation of which are shown in 

ing from the side and having similar ends. This adjust- 
ment made, the casting is held down and in place by the 
downwardly projecting set-screws, which have sharp 
points that grip the piece and hold it in the usual man- 
ner. — Delaivare, Lackawanna & Western, Scranton, Pa. 


The planing of shoes and wedges at the Sayre shops 
is of especial interest; the three photographs. Figs. 201, 
203 and 204, show all the processes from the rough 
casting to the finished part. As far as possible the num- 
ber of patterns is reduced to a minimum. This, of 
course, requires the removal of a large amount of stock 
in some cases and it is questionable whether it is more 
lical to save handling a large number of patterns 

iw|:^. .7i'- -I 

& QmQ 


!<-— . 

Fig. 200 — Chuck for Planing Shoe* and Wedges. 

Fig- 200. The flanges rest on dowel pins that have coni- 
cal ends and which can be forced up by set-screws enter- 

in the foundrj', or save the additional time required in 
the machine shop to remove the surplus stock. Shoe and 

wedge castings illustrate this minimum-pattern idea 

■^fip '' 

Ffg. 201 — FIrit Operation In Planing Shoei and Wedges. 

A Putnam planer, as used in the first operation of 
this work, is shown in Fig. 201. In order to use the 
four heads of the machine at the same time it was nec- 
essary to apply two permanent extension parallels to the 
platen. The application of these is plainly shown on the 
photographs and also on the drawing. Fig. 202. This 
provision allows the use of the two cross-rail heads 


castings are held free of the machine bed and are fin- 
ished on the top of the flanges and the sides at one set- 
ting. The parallel strips are made of iron or soft steel 
and extend the full length of the bed. A special slot is 
cut in the bed to receive the lug on the parallel. Two 
permanent stops are provided against which the castings 

Fig. 20S — Device for Supporting and Adjusting Shoes i 
Wedges for Final Operation. 

Fig. 203 — Planing the Inner Sidas of Flanges and Face of 
Shoes and Wedge*. 

for machining the tops of the flanges and the vertical 
work on those sides toward the center of the platen, 
while the side heads do (he outside vertical sides. The 

are clamped. The shoes are placed on the parallel strips 
as shown, with a clamping bolt between each pair. 

After the outside surfaces are machined, the castings 
are rechucked as shown in Fig. 203. They are held 
against sliding by stops in the platen and are forced 
against the parallel strips by the set screws and chisel 
points. Two-cutter tools are used for machining the 
flanges and an ordinary tool on the horizontal surfaces. 

After being layed-off, the final operation is handled on 
the machine shown in Fig, 204. Two small parallel strips 
are used for supporting and adjusting the casting." Xhe 
drawing. Fig. 20S, shows a detail view of one of these 
parallels. The wedges are adjusted by set screws, the 
work being very quickly performed. The casting is 
clamped firmly in position by the set screws and chisel 
points, and heavy cuts ma\' be taken. — Lehigh Valley, 
Sayre, Pa. 


A chuck for planing the faces of shoes and wedges 
after they have been laid oflf on the engine is shown in 
Fig. 206. It consists of a bed plate C with three T-slots, 
the central one being used by tlie two T-bolts which hold 
the guide bar A in position. This guide bar is the same 

Fig. 204— Final Operation In Finishing Shoes and Wedges. 

Fig. 206— Chucic for Planing Shoss and Wedges. 

size as the frame jaw, so that the shoe and wedge fit 
over it snugly. There are two dogs D on each side of 
A and near its ends ; the steel screws E which pass 
through the dogs are balled out at the ends to take the 
center points H, which hold the shoe firmly in position. 
The bloclt B is made of tool steel, the top of it coming 
in contact with the shoe, as shown. The shoe is set 



on the guide A and may be adjusted by turning the 
round-head screws G ; the heads of these screws have six 
5/16-in. holes and are turned by means of a pin 7 in. 
long, made of hard steel wire, tapered at one end to enter 
the holes easily. By means of this device it is possible 
to adjust a shoe or wedge in from one and a half to 
two minutes and to hold them securely under any feed 
or depth of cut. — Wiiliant G. Reyer, General Foreman. 
Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Lotus, Nashville, Tenn. 


A chuck for planing shoes and wedges to the pop- 
marks is shown in Fig. 207. It has a longitudinal strip 
cast on the bottom which fits the slot of the planer 
bed ; it is clamped do\vn by two bolts which tap into 
a strip in the slot. The counterbored holes allow the 
bolt heads to be below the surface of the chuck, and as 
the bottom of the counterbore is ball-shaped, a tilting 
movement of the chuck is permitted. The shoe or wedge 
is placed in the chuck and the four 1-in. set screws set 
up lightly against it. The usual thin wedges are used 


in. steel, formed to a circle ^i in. less in diameter than the 
inside of the cone. On the outside of this ring a band 
of wood fiber is riveted, which latter makes the frictimi 
contact. A compression spring and a dc^ are arranged 
to apply and release the brake. The block, which is 
riveted to one end of the band, is slotted to admit a 
cam or eccentric-shaped dog, keyed or pinned to the 
shaft. Through a series of beil cranks and rod connec- 

Flg. 207— Sho* and Wadge Chuck. 

under the flanges of the casting to bring the two pop- 
marks on the outside fiange up to the surface gage. 
When these points are correctly located, the four set 
screws are set up firmly and then the chuck itself is ad- 
justed to bring the third pop mark to the same height as 
the other two. This adjustment of the chuck is accom- 
plished by the four J<4-in, set screws, one at each corner 
of the chuck, which bear against the bed of the planer, 
— Long Island Railroad, Morris Park, N. Y. 


The slotter or lathe brake, shown in Fig. 208, enables 
the operator to stop a machine at any point, thereby sav- 
ing the time and labor necessary to pull the belt. A 
substantial brake of this kind is important on a slotting 
machine. The brake, which is applied to the large step 
of the cone, consists of an expansion ring of 3-in. x 3/16- 

Flg. 20S— Brake for Slotter or Lath*. 

tions the hand lever for operating this brake can be 
placed in any convenient position. The same idea is 
applicable to wheel lathes by reversing the action or 
contracting the band instead of expanding it, as the 
brake must be applied externally to the largest step of the 
cone. — William G. Reyer, General Foreman, Nashville, 
Chattanooga & St. Louis, Nashzille, Tenn, 


The slotter tool bar, shown in Fig. 209, was designed 
to save resetting of the tool on the plate when a change 
was made in the direction of the cut. It is also ad- 
vantageous in that it allows the use of small pieces of 
high speed tool steel. The slot will take j4-in. steel, 
which is held in place by tightening the top nut. When 
it is necessary to change a slotter tool at the plate, 
in order to change the direction of the cut, the exact 
stroke is often lost. With this tool, the stroke is not 
altered at all and the cutter may easily and quickly be 

Fig. ZOO— Blotter Tool Bar. 

adjusted to any position by loosening the nut at the 
top of the tool. — Central Railroad of New Jersey. 

Elizabethport, N. J. 


A slotter bar, fitted with a clapper box which acts to 
relieve the tool during the return stroke, is shown m 
Fig. 210. The tool is held in the clapper by the two set 
screws which tap in from the bottom. Slots in the bot- 
tom of the bar provide for the movement of these screws. 



The coil spring, shown dotted, acts to return the tool to 
the cutting position after it is free of the work and 
before the cutting stroke begins. Adjustment of the tool 
is also provided by loosening the nut at the top of the 

Fig. 210 — Slotter Tool Bar. 

bar and revolving the end carrying the tool. This saves 
the work and the time required to readjust the bar on 
the machine head. — Long Island Railroad, Morris 
Park, N. Y. 


The slotter tool bar, shown in Fig. 211, is made of 
soft steel and is 29 in. long. The lower end, which holds 
the tool, is made 2^ in. square and is slotted to re- 
ceive the movable block in which the tool steel cutter 
is held. This block moves on the J^-in. pin. When 
making the downward, or cutting, movement the steel 

t . 

r — ^*-~-i 

Fig. 211— Slotter Tool Bar. 

spring holds the block in position, but on the upward, 
or return, stroke the block takes the position indicated 
by the dotted lines. This relieves the cutting edge of 
the tool, which ordinarily drags against the work on 
the upward stroke. — C. C Leech, Foreman, Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 

o o o 
o o o 


In order to reduce the expense of boring out stuffing 
boxes and glands the tool shown in Fig. 212 has been 
designed. It consists of a boring bar with a slot in 
the end and a self-centering tool held therein by means 
of a key. A tool of this type is first used as a roughing 
tool, and then the inside of the box is finished with a 
cutter of the standard size, which reams it out at the 
sides and gives the proper shape at the bottom to fit 
the packing. — Frank Rattek, Brighton, Mass, 


The gage. Fig. 213, consists of a V-shaped block 
similar to the base of an ordinary surface gage. A needle 
or pointer is secured to the base and is adjusted by 




Fig. 212— Boring Stuffing Box. 

Fig. 213 — Horizontal Boring WW Gage. 

the thumb screw and slot as shown. This tool is used 
for truing work similar to a surface gage. — L. Af. 
Granger, Assistant General Foreman, and John Todd, 
Machine Foreman, Erie Railroad, Galion, Ohio. 


The chuck shown in Fig. 214 is made to fasten on the 
side of a drill press table, or, where the table is not 
suitable for this purpose, it may be bolted to an angle 
iron fastened to the table, and high enough to allow 
the hook on the switch stem to clear the table. The 
round block, which fits in the body of the chuck, has 
a small flange on the outer edge, which keeps the block 
from dropping out when it is turned. The hole for 
the milling cutter is located near the outer edge of 
the block so that any throw of switch stem used on a 
Ramapo or on a quarter arch switch may be obtained. 
A set screw on the side of the chuck holds the eccentric 
block in place. When it is set for a certain throw, and 
a number of stems of the same throw are to be handled, 
a mark should be made at the edge of the hole in the 
body of the chuck and on the outer edge of the block. 
The milling cutter used with this chuck is cupped out 
at the top, and a small hole is drilled to the hole in the 



center of the cutter. This provides for the oil or 
cutting compound reaching the cutting edge. — C. J. 

Fig. 214— -Chuck for Turning Switch Stand Stems. 

Crowley, Piece Work Inspector, Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, West Burlington, Iowa. 


A good chuck and drive for tires on a boring mill 
is shown in Fig. 215. The bases A, of which there are 

four, ■ are bolted to the faceplate at proper distances 
from the center. The tire rests on the lip, as shown, 
and it is centered by the set-screws. The stirrup clamp 
B is then dropped over the projection on the base and 
a key is driven home in the slot. This holds the work 

Fig. 21! 

Chuck for Boring Mil). 

down so firmly that an exceedingly heavy cut can be 
taken {J/2-in. in one case). It is evident that it can be 
used either inside or outside the tires, and is thus avail- 
able for both turning and boring. — Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western, Scranlon, Pa. 


Tire boring chucks, which in a general way resemble 
those used for truck and passenger car tires on the Long 
Island are shown in the accompanying photographs, Figs. 
216 and 217, and the drawing, Fig. 218. The machine 
used for this work is a 96-in. Niles-Bement-Pond boring 
mill. There are six chucks in a set, made of cast iron 

Fig. 21B— Driving Wheel Tire About to be Placed In the Chucks. 

Fig. 217— Chuck Holding Tin 



and having a soft steel swinging clamp and a tool steel 
toothed-plate which assists in gripping the tire. The 
chucks are fastened to the table by three lj4-in. T- 
bolts each. A lug is cast on the bottom to ht the slot 
in the table. It will be seen that one side of the chuck 
is about twice the width of the other. This was nec- 
essary to provide stock for the set screw used in adjust- 


One of a set of three chucking clamps, which are 
used when boring tires and cutting retaining plate sur- 
faces at one chucking on a 42-in. Gisholt boring mill, 
are shown in Fig. 219. A set of these dogs in use is 
illustrated in Fig. 220. The chucks are fastened to the 
bed of the mill b\' two bolts each, which tap into strips 
fitting in the slots of the mill bed. The upper portions 
of the chucks fit snugly in the slots in the lower por- 
tions, and are held by large taper pins. When placing a 
tire on the machine the taper pins are driven out and 

Pig. 218 — Dfltalla of Chuck for Boring Tlr«B. 

ing the tire to a central position on the machine. The 
soft steel C-clamps are made to swing back on the pin 
near the base. The shop crane is used in handling tires 
to and from the machine; Fig. 216 shows the chucks in 
position for placing or removing a tire. Two tools are 
used, a roughing and a finishing, and a tire is bored 
complete in one operation. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa. 

Fig. 219— D«talli of Tii 

Fig. 220— Tire Boring Chuck* a* Used on Boring Mill. 

the upper pieces removed. The tire rests on ilie hori- 
zontal portion of the base piece, and is adjusted to po- 
sition by the horizontal set screws, which, in connection 
with the vertical ones in the top pieces of the chucks, 
hold it in place. The horizontal set screws are shown in 
the photo but not on the drawing. These chucks are 
made, of axle steel and hive been found very efficient, 
making rapid placing and removing of tires possible. 
The tire is bored and the retaining plate surfaces cut at 
one setting. — Long Island Railroad. Morris Park. N. V. 


A toot that is used on wheel lathes for finishing the 
flanges of steel wheels is shown at A in Fig. 221. It 
is arranged to cut one side of the flange at a time in- 
stead of cutting both sides at once, as is frequently done 



with a tool shaped as at B. The cutting edge, a, dresses 
the working side of the flange and at the same time the 
flat surface of the tool finishes the tread. The tool is 
then drawn back and the other side of the flange is fin- 

Fig. 221— Tire Finishing Tool. 

ished with the other cutting edge of the tool. It is 
claimed that this can be done in less time than will be 
required with the tool shown at B^ which cuts both sides 
at once, because of the heavier cut that can be taken, 
and, in addition to thisf the tool is much more easily 
kept in condition, because when it wears or becomes 
dull it can be sharpened without cutting back to build up 
the flange recess, as is necessary with B, — Delazuare, 
Lackawanna & Western, Scranton, Pa, 


A holder for tools to finish the contour of tires is 
illustrated in Fig. 222, The object of the holder is to 
use steel from stock sizes requiring no machining ex- 
cept on the cutting edge. The dotted line shows the 
holder as it is made for the use of a tire flange finishing 
tool. When the tools become dull they are easily and 


J,u ./4 ^-4^-^ 

Fig. 222 — Holder for Tire Finishing Tools. 

quickly removed and replaced by sharp ones. As the 
cutter wears it may be moved forward by placing shims 
behind it. When it becomes too short for use, the steel 
may be drawn out and used for smaller tools. The 
clamping plate, shown dotted, holds the cutter rigidly. — 
C /. Crcnvley, Piece Work Inspector, Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy, West Burlington, lozva. 


Driving wheel tires sent to the shop from outlying 
points are turned on a lathe, instead of a boring mill, 
by using mandrels made of a scrap axle and two scrap 
wheel centers. The latter have on their peripheries 

grooves for wedges, spaced 10 in. apart, the openings 
being 1 in. x 5^ in., tapered 1/16 in. There are five 
sets of these mandrels for diflferent diameters of tires. — 
Great Northern, Dale Street Shops, St, Paul, Minn, 


With the following system of turning driving wheel 
tires the operator can determine before he starts turning 
just how much to take oflf the tire to make a full flange. 
With the old system of turning tires at random the wheel 
lathe operator took a good big cut. When he came to 
finish it he often found that he could not get a standard 
flange and it was necessary to take another cut. Some- 




Reducing Tire 

of Cut. 

in Diam. 

1/16 in. . 

M in. 

% in. • 

% in. 

3/16 in. 

H in. 

'A in. 

y2 in. 

5/16 in. 

H in. 

11/32 in. 

11/16 in. 

H in. 

Ya in. 

7/16 in. 


Yi in. 

1 in. 

17/32 in. 

1 1/16 in. 

9/16 in. 

\% in. 

^ in. 

\% in. 

21/32 in. 

1 5/16 in. 

11/16 in. 

iH in. 

Ya in. 

VA in. 

25/32 in. 

1 9/16 in. 




1/32 in. 

1/16 in. 

. 3/32 in. 

% in. 
5/32 in. 
3/16 in. 
7/32 in. 

Va in. 
9/32 ia 
5/16 in. 
11/32 in. 

H in. 
13/16 in. 
7/16 in. 
15/32 in. 

J4 in. 

Fig. 223 — Gage and Table Used for Turning Driving 

Wheel Tiree. 

times he would get the cut too deep, thereby wasting the 
tire. Make a gage, A, Fig. 223, from No. 16 or 18 boiler 
steel. Put a line at B corresponding to the standard 
thickness of the flange, graduating it back about J^ in., 
as shown. Put a straight-edge across the inside of the 
tire, and read the amount the flange is worn as indi- 
cated by the gage. Opposite this amount in the table 
the depth of cut will be found in column B and the re- 
duction in diameter in column C If the flange is worn 
'4 in.» as shown in the illustration, the depth of cut will 
be 7/16 in. and the reduction in diameter % in. Caliper 



the smallest diameter of the tire with the worn flange 
and close up the caHpers % in., and you are ready to 
turn off the proper amount accurately and with no 
guess-work. The table can be printed on good paper 
with a typewriter and put in a small frame and hung up 
at the wheel lathe so that it may be referred to con- 
veniently. It has given splendid results in our shop. — 
W. H. Snyder, Assistant General Foreman, \'ew York, 
Susquehatma &■ Western, Stroudsburg, Pa. 


To avoid having a number of cutting tools of the same 
kind at each machine, it was decided to issue tools for 

Fig. 224 — Rack for Cutting Toola in Tool Room. 

immediate use only, which has had the effect of better 
maintenance of the tools and a uniformity of cutting 
edges for the several kinds of work. All grinding is 
done in the tool room and by one man, who works to 
a set of standard shapes. When a machine operator 
desires a new tool, or a freshly ground one for a dull 
one, he applies at the tool room window and is given 
a new tool, or a sharp one, in exchange for the dull 
one. These tools are kept in the rack shown in the 
photograph. Fig. 224. Each pocket is numbered, and 
as the tools arc numbered accordingly they may be 

called for and delivered by number. A tool room at- 
tendant who is not familiar with the shop names of the 
tools, or the uses to which they are put, is thus enabled 
to hand them out properly. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa, 


The pneumatic tool post shown in Fig. 225 has been 
used in the Grand Rapids shop of the Pere Marquette 

Pig. 22G — Pnaumati 

for several years. The time of changing tools in the 
lathe has been reduced from an average of five minutes 
to one minute, and, in addition to this, difficulties with 
broken studs and wrenches, etc., have been eliminated. 
The air cylinder which has a 5%-ia. strc^e is fastened 
to the carriage by four long studs, Iji in. in diameter. 



The piston rod connects the two cam levers, which force 
the holder plates down on the tool. The four springs 
release the tool when the pressure is released from the 
cylinder. The tool holder shown in Fig. 226 is used 
with this device. The springs hold the tool-plate about 


Fig. 226 — Heavy Duty Tool Holder. 

Yi in. from the tool, allowing ample room for removal 
or adjustment. — F. C. Pickard, Assistant Master Me- 
chanic, Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, Indianapolis, Ind. 


A simple chuck for clamping slide valve balance strips 
for planing is shown in Fig. 227. The strip is clamped, 
as shown, so as to counteract, as much as possible, any 
tendency to spring. The hook-shaped clamps grip the 
ends of the strip and are tightened by the nuts on the 
under side. This chuck is light and easily made. The 
special tool holder for planing these strips is shown in 
Fig. 229. — William G, Reyer, General Foreman, and 
/. W. Hooten, Foreman Repair Work, Nashville, Chat- 
tannooga & St, Louis, Nashville, Tenn. 




A neat and serviceable tool rack for use in connection 
with machine tools is shown in Fig. 228. The top and 
shelves are of ^-in. steel plate, the uprights being j4-in. 

2 Thus, 

4* •« 


2 T/tvs. 











Drawer made of ^S sfeef. 









Fig. 228— Tool Rack. 

rods with V^-xn, pipe spacers. The drawer is constructed 
of No. 8 steel. The shop is equipped with a number 
of these racks, or tables, which have been found very 
useful. — Rock Island Lines, Silvis, III, 


The three-bar tool holder shown in Fig. 229 is for 
use on a planer with the chuck shown in Fig. 227. 
Two cutters are used for the roughing cut, machining 




3 c: 

I I 




! o, ! 

K- 4% -H 



rn — r 
i I 



I I 




T — r 
I > 
I I 

J L 





Flg. 227— Valve Strip Chuck. 



both sides of the strip simultaneously, and one set of 
cutters is used for the finishing cut only in order to main- 
tain a standard size strip. The tool holder is fastened 





:l;:;:;; r::io 




Fig. 229— Tool Holder for Planing Valve Strips. 

to the plate of the clapper box by a bolt, and either set 
of cutters may be revolved into position quickly. This 
tool is a labor-saver and does accurate work. — William 
G, Reyer, General Foreman, and J. IV, Hooten, Fore- 
man Repair Work, Nashville, Chattanooga & St, Louis, 
Nashville, Tenn, 


Blocks for holding the truck wheel centers on a boring 
mill table are shown in Fig. 230. Four of these are 
fastened to the table by bolts through the flanges and 
are set in a circle 90 deg. apart. The tongues on the 



V. r**-'i 



K- e- -H 















Pig. 230 — Blocks for Centering and Clamping Truck Wheel 

Centers on a. Boring MiU. 

bottom of the blocks fit in the slots in the boring mill 
table. The wheel is dropped on the blocks, the spokes 
resting in the depressions, and is clamped to them by 

adjustable clamps which fit over the spokes. The wheel 
requires no further setting, as the blocks in which the 
spokes fit bring it central. Our wheels have eight spokes. 
For wheels having an odd number of spokes, or a num- 
ber not a multiple of four, the block could be bolted in 
the proper position on a plate which could in turn be 
secured to the boring mill table. — R, E, Broivn, Fore- 
man, Atlantic Coast Line, Waycross, Ga, 


The ordinary method of cutting the ports in the valve 
faces is to notch out at each end of the port, as shown 



k-- r--*i 

(<- z^t ^ 

Fig. 231— Tool for Porting Slide Valves. 

at A, Fig. 231, and then plane off the part between, the 
notches serving as points for the over-run of the tool in 
each direction. An improved method is to use the double 
pointed tool which cuts on either side. This is put in a 
slotting machine and cuts out about 1/16 in. of metal 
on each side. The time required for the work is or- 
dinarily from IS to 20 minutes, which is less than the 
time taken for cutting the four notches, while with the 



latter system from one-half hour to an hour is spent 
in finishing the valve on the planer. — Frank Rattek, 
Brighton, Mass. 


The wheel lathe driver shown in the accompanying 
sketch, Fig. 232, is designed for use in turning steel tired 

Ptg. 232— WhMi Lath« Driver. 

or rolled steel wheels. The bracket A is made of cast 
iron and is securely bolted to the face-plate of the lathe. 
Part B, made of steel and containing the toothed steel 

dog and key, is securely bolted to the cast iron portion of 
the driver. The dog is driven against the rim of the 
wheel by the key, which is actuated by the nut at its 
end. Six of these drivers constitute a set, three for 
each wheel. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, Buffalo. S. Y. 


The old-Style way was to drive the wheels with an arm 
bolted to the face plate. This is not satisfactory for the 
service now required of wheel lathes. Since we designed 
and made the improved drivers shown in Fig. 233 we 
have been using a set of them for two years. They can 
be adjusted easily to any size tire which is to be 
turned. The driving arm can swing backward and be 
locked in the spring clips when the wheels are being 
changed. The grips are made of tool steel aad are 
hardened; they are held in position against the tire by 
a screw clamp, or jack, as shown. There are four drivers 
to a machine, two on each face plate, set about quarter- 
ing, so when tire is being turned they help steady the 
driving wheel lathe under heavy duty. — D. P. Kellogg, 
Master Mechanic; IV. F. Merry, General Foretnan, and 
G. H. Goodzi-in, General Gang Foreman, Southern Pa- 
ciHc, Los Angeles, Cal. 


A wheel lathe tool holder, designed to use smaller and 

i^cre efficient cutting tools than the old solid bar tool-:. 



Soff 3fMl. 
Fig. 233— Wheel Lmthe Driver. 



is shown in Fig. 234. The holders are made of cast steel 
and take lj4-in, square high-speed roughing tools and 
^'in. flat flanging and finishing tools. The holders and 
tools are clamped in the tool posts in the ordinary man- 
ner. With the old-style solid tools each machine was 
equipped with a set of tools weighing from 125 to 150 
lbs. By the use of the tool holder and smaller tools 
the amount of tool steel per machine has been reduced 

<s | I LUZUlJ^^ -^!^ 

Fig. 234— Whaal Lathe Tool Holder. 

froni 150 to 20 lbs., or in cost from approximately $90 
to $12. With 25 wheel lathes in operation the total sav- 
ing in too! steel tied up for this purpose amounts to 
$1,950 per year. In addition to the great economy of 
the holder and smaller tools, the ease of forging and 
grinding make them much more satisfactory and con- 
venient. — E. J. McKernan, Supervisor of Tools, Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 



The gages shown in Fig. 235 are intended for use in 
the mounting of steel tires and steel wheels on engines 

and tenders, and are for the purpose of securing accur- 
acy in gage by regulating the point to which the wheels 
are pressed on the axle and the location of the flange 
when they are re-tumed. The long gage A is really for 
the turning of the axles. Triangular holes are cut in 
the bar, with the bases of the holes the same distance 
apart as the ends of the wheel fits. This gage can be 
laid on the axle, and a glance shows whether or not 
it has been properly turned. The wheel is then pressed on 
to the edge of the fit. The gages B are used when the 
wheel is to have its tire turned. A straight edge is laid 
against the back end of the hub of the wheel and the 
gage is placed on the flange. The marking on the end 
of it where it abuts against the straight et^e will show 
whether the flange has been properly located or not. 
With these it is possible to put the wheels on the axles 
with the minimum of variation from the truly correct 
position. — Delazvare, Lackauvnna S- Western, Scran- 
ton^ Pa. 


Some time ago we installed a 42-in. Putnam coach 
wheel lathe in the Jackson Street shops. Great things 
were expected of it, for the makers claimed a record of 
something like 22 pairs of wheels in a 10-hour day. 
We managed to turn out seven pair a day, and sometimes 
eight, although this appeared to be the limit, owing to 
the fact that too much time was required for pulling 
the tailstock back and running it forward again after 
the wheels had been put in place. Often as much as 
10 or 15 minutes was required for doing this. To 
remedy this difficulty we removed the hand rigging for 
doing this work and fitted up an air cylinder, as shown 
in Fig. 236. With this arrangement it was possible 


'<^ TendtrAilta A 




For Sngine Trvck Axlts. 

fhtttofl^Sfml "% 

Fig. 23S — Gages for Mounting Engine and Tender Truck Wheels. 




24' Shx>ftB 









lafhe B€€f 


^/fCftcf TjnOOC/ OfOCk 

f^ig. 236 — Application of Power Traverse to Tailstocic of Car 

Wheel Lathe. 

to make the change in from two to two and a half 
muiutes, thus allowing an output of from 12 to 13 pairs 
of wheels in nine hours. As may be seen, the air cyl- 
inder is mounted on a hardwood block, which is placed 
directly back of the base of the machine and is connected 
to it by the Y/^Axi, steel plate. By means of the three- 
way cock, air may be admitted to either end of the cyl- 
inder, enabling it to operate in both directions. We 
also made and applied a 4S-in. scale on the side of the 
tailstock and in a location convenient to the operator. 
The scale is graduated in 1/16-in. for a distance of 24 
in., so that the operator can readily set his calipers ac- 
curately. These appliances, from a practical standpoint, 
help greatly to make the machine up-to-date and mod- 
em. — Theodore Rowe, Foreman, Great Northern, Jack- 
son Street Shops, St, Paul, Minn, 

Erecting Shop Kinks 


The two photographs, Figs, 237 and 238, show a 
set of jigs that are in use for setting air pumps on loco- 
motives. The larger jig is used for marking and drill- 
ing the holes in the boiler for the bracket studs, and the 

troublesome and sometimes dangerous. In order to fa- 
cilitate this work the portable air-jack illustrated in Fig. 
239 has been designed. It consists of a three-wheel 
truck, whose wheels are 10 in. in diameter, with the front 
one pivoted and guided by a tongue or handle. The air 
cylinder is vertical and is formed of a piece of S-in. 
pipe, with heads bolted on. It is steadied by a triangu- 

Fig. 237 — Jig for Air Pump Bracket Studs. 

smaller one for drilling the holes in the bracket, so 
that it will not only fit in place on the boiler, but will 
take the pump. The general form can be seen from 

Fig. 238 — Jig for Drilling Air Pump Brackat. 

the photographs, but the dimensions and proportions will 
depend, of course, on the boiler and the location of 
the pump. — Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, Scran- 
ton, Pa. 

AIR RESERVOIR HOIST. , . , - r . , . ■ . . , ■ - 

lated irammg of angles, and has a piston rod 1J4 m, m 

Blocking and holding main air reservoirs up against diameter, the upper end of which carries a cradle adapted 

the running-boards or other parts of the engine is always to hold a reservoir. Its use is evident. The reservoir 

Fig. 239— Portable Air Holat for Main Reiervolr*. 




is put in the cradle; an air connection is made to the 
piping, and by the admission of compressed air beneath 
the piston the reservoir is lifted and held in place. In 
addition to its use for the purpose intended, the men have 
found it to be a handy tool for a great variety of 
lifting purposes. — Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, 
Scranton, Pa, 


Where small tanks or boilers are handled, such as the 
main reservoirs of locomotives, it will be found con- 

Fig. 240 — Reservoir and Tank Jacks. 


venient to have jacks with adjustable heights. Two of 
these are shown in Fig. 240. The stem of the jack is 

threaded to fit the nut in the stand, which nut operates 
to raise or lower the jack. Where the arrangement is 
to be used for hoisting main reservoirs into place, the 
Y-shaped head is made separate and has a small stem 
that drops down into the head of the screw, as shown 
by the dotted lines in the drawing. With this jack, a 
reservoir may be raised and held in position while the 
fastenings are being adjusted. 


A screw jack for raising locomotive air reservoirs into 
position is shown in Fig. 241. Close inspection reveals 
a large amount of necessarily accurate machine work, 
increasing the jack's first cost over one of simpler design, 
but the points of decided advantage which result would 
seem to offset the cost. The jack is mounted on four 
cast-iron wheels, the forward pair of which are mounted 
on a swiveling axle. The radius of the wrought iron 
stirrup on which the reservoir rests is 7 in., which pro- 
vides for taking any reservoir in use. The 16-in. hand 
wheel rests on 17 ball bearings, J^-in. in diameter. These 
balls run on a j4-in. steel liner, shaped to conform to the 
runway. The 2-in. diameter vertical steel screw is single 
square threaded, J^-in. pitch, for about 3 ft. 5 in. The 
screw permits a maximum lift of 2 ft. 9>4 in., which is 
ample. The 1-in. diameter, horizontal steel screw is 
double square threaded, >l-in. pitch and is used for side 
adjustment, so that the reservoir can be shifted hori- 
zontally. The additional advantage which the ball bear- 
ings give in elevating a reservoir is emphasized by the 
fact that the weight of the screw and its stirrup is suffi- 
cient to cause the hand wheel to revolve and the screw to 

7AfS endriv^ttd aittr 
hofly sojtof miltfvm 

\\\ Sf^Hni* p^m'Jt 


■ \^^* 


Fig. 241 — Screw Jack for Placing Air Reservoirs. 


descend. The collar plate, which holds the base flange of 
the hand wheel against the balls, is made in two halves. — 
Baltimore &■ Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


It is the practice in many shops to remove the bell 
frames from the locomotive when they require re-boring 
and do the work on a drill press or a lathe. The details 
of a portable boring bar for this purpose, by which the 
frame may be re-bored without removing it from the 
locomotive, and which has been used to splendid ad- 
vantage in a large locomotive repair shi^, are illustrated 
in Fig. 242. A fourth-year apprentice can usually re- 
bore a frame in 1 hour and 15 minutes, including the 
time for setting up and taking down the boring bar; 
a first-class machinist can ordinarily do it in much less 
time. The caps shown in the upper left-hand corner of 
the illustration fit over the bosses on the frame, and 
may be adjusted for the proper alinement of the boring 
bar by means of the set screws. The caps are made of 
S/I6-in. boiler steel with J^-in. plates brazed in the ends, 
to carry the bar bushings, which are of brass and are 
shown in the lower right hand comer of the drawing. 
The small handle is fastened to the top of the gear-case 
plates in order to steady the gear frame with one hand 
while the boring bar is being operated with the other. 
Just above the general view, showing the device ap- 
plied to a bell frame, is a steel stud, a brass feed nut 
and, to the right of the nut, a peculiarly shaped piece 

of J4-™- steel. The stud is screwed into the cap oa 
the bell frame at the left and holds the piece of 34-in- 

steel, which fits down c 

the slot in the feed nut on the 
end of the boring bar, 
thus providing for the 
feed while the bar is in 
operation. The three 
driving gears are of 
steel and have 16, 28 
and 36 teeth, respec- 
tively.— .V7. H. West- 
brook, Battle Creek t 


An effective device 
for reseating boiler 
checks is show in Fig. 
243, The brace, made 
of lj4-in. X Ij^-in. 
soft steel, is clamped 
in a bench vise. The 
boiler check body, 
shown clotted, is then 
fastened to the brace 
through holes in the 
casting and the slots in the brace. The tool steel 
reamer is put in position and adjusted by the screw, 
which is later clamped in position by the lock-nut. The 

Fig. 243 — RsMatlng Boilar Check. 

Fig. 242 — Details of Portable Boring B«r for Re-borIng Locomotive Bell Frames In Place. 



slotted hole in the top of the brace allows for the vertical 
adjustment of the reamer which is revolved by using an 
ordinary wrench. — C C. Leech, Foremen, Pennsylvania 
Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 


The gun, shown in F^. 244, is convenient for driving 
out broken frame bolts, or bolts in any other part of 
the locomotive which cannot be driven out with a ham- 
mer and would otherwise have to be drilled out. For 
instance, consider the taking out of broken equalizer 
bolts. These are often broken and are so located that it 
is impossible to get at them with a hammer. On some 
classes of locomotives the brackets which support the 
driving brakes are so placed that it is impossible to drill 

useful tools in the shc^. It is made of an old crank 
pin machined as shown in the sketch. The barrel is 
filled with thick oil, the plunger being withdrawn to its 
full back position before filling. The 3-in. ram is se- 
curely placed under the bolt to be removed. The screw 
forces the oil in the cylinder against the ram. A smalt 

k ^l'. 

Fig. 245— Bolt Extnctor. 

hole is provided near the top of the plunger to prevent 
its being moved beyond the bore. — A. D. Porter, Shop 
Efficiency Foreman, Canadian Pacific, West Toronto, 


The air hammer for driving out bolts, Fig. 246, is 
giving good satisfaction at our engine house. It con- 
sists of a piece of pipe, Z% in. inside diameter, with a 
cap at its lower end. The plunger can be projected with 
considerable force by properly manipulating the }i-\n. 
three-way cut-out cock. It is short and can therefore be 


Fig. 244 — Gun for Shooting Out Frame and Equalizer Bolti. 

the bolts out without removing the driving brakes and 
bracket. If the gun is given a small charge of powder, 
and is placed fairly under the broken bolt, it can easily 
be driven out. The gun is loaded much the same as 
one of the old muzzle-loading shotguns, the fuse be- 
ing placed in the 3/16-in. hole near the bottom. It is 
advisable to get out of the way while it is exploding. 
It saves more time than any device I know of, as engines 
often arrive with broken equalizer bolts which can be 
knocked out with the gun and put back into service in- 
side of two hours, whereas from 15 to 20 hours would be 
required to take down the driver brake and drill out the 
hole. — F. Nowell, Locomotive Foreman, Canadian Pa- 
cific, Ottarva, Ont., Canada. 


The extractor shown in Fig. 245 is used for removing 
bolts from locomotive frames, and is one of the most 


5 T^ree-HfHf 
^Cuf-Ovf Seek 

Fig. 246 — Pneumatic Hammer for Driving Out Bolts. 

used in restricted places. It also has the advantage of 
being safer than guns using powder. — Richard Beeson, 
Roundhouse Foreman. Pittsburgh &■ Lake Erie, McKees 
Rocks, Pa. 



work the cock. The weight of the hammer is 24 

_. . . I J ■ ■ .1 1. 1. ■ 1- ■"=- — i^- P- ^^llogg. Master Mechanic; W. F. Merry, 

The air hammer for dnvme out bolts, shown m Fig. _ , ^ "" , ^ „ ^ , . ^ , ^ 

,. . . ^ , . , General Foreman, and G. H. Goodwin, General Gang 
diameter, rato which „ c- ., n-^r^i^-t 

roreman, Southern Pa-ctnc Los Angeles, Cat. 

247, consists of a cylinder 6 in. 

is fitted a piston with packing grooves and 



The pneumatic hammer shown in Fig. 249 is especially 
useful for removing main rod and frame bolts. Air is 
admitted through the valve A, under the telescopic pis- 
ton, forcing the head against the bolt. By alternately 
opening and closing the valve B air is admitted and 

Fig. 247 — Air Hammer for Driving Out Boita. 

piston rod. Air is admitted to the bottom b\' suddenly 
opening the air cock in the pipe connection, thereby giv- 
ing the piston the necessary impulse. — A. Loicc, Can- 
adian Pacific Railway, Glen Yard, Westmount, Montreal. 


A telescopic pneumatic hammer which has given most 
satisfactory results is shown in Fig. 248. This hammer 
has proved a time-saver, not only for knocking out bolts 
from the frames of locomotives, but for knocking out 
crown-bar bolts, effecting a saving alone on this one job 
of 200 per cent. To operate the hammer after the air 
hose has been connected and the hammer has been 
mounted on substantial blocks, open the lower cock. 
This admits air under the telescopic cylinder and holds 
the punch on the object to be knocked out. Then open 
the top cock quickly. This will admit air through the 



Fig, 249 — Pneumatic Hammer for Removing Frame Boltt. 

exhausted from the cylinder C, projecting the hammer 
against the anvil, which is in contact with the bolt. This 
hammer will strike a blow varying from 800 to 1,000 lbs. 
A great saving is made in both time and material, as a 
bolt is very seldom damaged when removed in this 
way. — A. S. ll-'illard. Foreman, Norfolk 6r Western, 
Crewe, Va. 


A built-up reamer for trucing up the bevel seats of 
by-pass valves is shown in Fig. 250. The spindle, which 
receives the cutters, thimbles, guides and nuts, is made of 

Fig, 248 — Pneumatic Hammer for Driytng Out Bolte. 

%-\n. holes in the telescopic cylinder, causing the ham- 
mer in that cylinder to lift and hit a very hard blow. 
Shut off the cock and release the air, which exhausts 
through the holes in the sides of the cock. The ham- 
mer will then drop on the rubber seat which acts as a 
cushion. The hammer will hit as fast as the operator 

Fig, 290— By-Pau Vaiv« Seat Reamer. 

soft steel. The lower end of the spindle has a washer, ma- 
chined in place, against which the lower cutter rests. The 



lower guide is separated from the reamer by a thimble, this work satisfactorily two reamers are required, one 
and the three are secured in position by the ring nut of which is called the reseating reamer, which provides 
which bears against the guide. The upper cutter and guide the correct width, while the other reamer is a finishti^ 
are similarly clamped in position, there being two ring tool. Care should be taken that the width of the seat 

in the casting is smaller than the cutting edge of the 
valve. A slow running motor may be applied for power, 
but a good ratchet is satisfactory, especially when a 
workman has but one engine on which to do this work. — 
D. P. Kellogg, Master Mechanic; W. F. Merry, General 
Foreman, and C. H. Goodwin, General Gang Foreman, 
Southern PaciHc, Los Angeles, Cat. 


A crank axle turning machine for truing up the in- 
side crank axle bearings of balanced compound loco- 

U sit 

Aanytr Air TftMing Staf. Ittamtr for litfaHng. 

Fig. 2B1 — By-Paai Valva Saat R«am«ra. 

nuts which allow for adjustment of the cutters. The tool 
is designed for use with an air motor, the t<^ of the 
spindle having a standard Morse taper. — Erie Railroad, 
Meadviile, Pa. 


Two styles of reamers and their application in ream- 
ing by-pass valve seats are shown in Fig. 251. To do 

Fig. 2G3 — Crank fMt Turning Machine. 

motives is shown in Figs. 252 and 253. These bear- 
ings wear out or round more rapidly than the outside 

Fig. 252 — Crank Axle Turning Machine. 



piijs and must be maintained in good condition to pre- 
yent overheating and failure. Maintaining the bearings 
by h^nd is costly and unsatisfactory. It requires a 
sjkilled mechanic from 25 to 30 hours to true up a crank 
axle bearing by hand, and when finished the crank is 
liable to .be out of quarter and the original throw 
fh^ged. The crank axle turning machine will fiinish 
^b^^ipg in from five to six hours, turning the pin ex- 
a^cfJy. round and in exact , quarter and throw. The draw- 
ings show the construction of the machine. It consists 
of a two-piece annular worm gear enclosed in an outer 
' case. -An air motor drives this gear by means of a worm. 
Two cutting tools are mounted in the gear body and 
are fed automatically. The machine has a positive cen- 


The machine shown in Fig. 254 is designed for re- 
turning side and main rod crank pins which have become 
untrue in service. It consists of an outer frame with an 
interior mechanism for driving two turning tools. The 
frame has points for adjusting the machine to. the cen- 
ters of the axle and pin, in order to correctly establish 
its position. The tools are driven by an air motor 
through gearing independently of eacli other, and are 
fed automatically. The machine is adjustable to all 
sizes of pins, With the machine one man can turn 
up and finish a crank pin in about Zj'i hours, at an av- 
erage cost of $1.14. By hand, with chisel and file, it 
requires a skilled mechanic on an average of 9 hours 

' / 

Fig. 264 — Crank Pin Turning Machine 

taring device, making adjustment on the crank correct to true up a pin, at a cost of $3.60. With the machine 

for quarter and throw. The inside cranks of about 150 the pins are round and in correct throw and quarter, 

balanced compounds are overhauled per year, so the which is not usually the case when finished by hand. 

saving made by the use of the machine over the hand About 300 pins are turned up each year, and at_ the rate 

method is quite large. The costs of the two methods are of $2.46 per pin a considerabe saving is effected by the 

as follows: machine, and the quality of work is far superior. — 

„ , , „,,„£./. McKernan, Tool Supervisor, Atchison, ToPeka & 

By hand, per engine $11.10 ^ r- t- r i-- 

By machine, per engine 2.S9 S<mta be, Topeka, Kan. 

Saving by machine, per engine 8.51 

Saving by machine, per 150 engines 1,276.51 CABS, HANDLING. 

In addition to this large saving per year the delays to Steel cabs are conveniently handled about the shop 

power for crank axle work are reduced 75 per cent, by the crane and the device shown in Fig, 255. The 

through the use of the machine. — E. J. McKernan, Su- cross-piece is made of a T-bar, the vertical flange of 

pervisor of Tools, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, To- which is cut off at the ends and the bottom web is turned 

feka Shops. up for the chain connections. The triangular arms hook 


in the end of the cylinder, with the templet T pivoted to 
it at the center B. The templet is then adjusted so that 
there is stock outside of it at all points where the cast- 

Fig. 25S — Device for Handling Steel Cabi. 

in the windows and provide for handling a cab without 
injury to the newly painted and varnished surfaces. — 
Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa. 


The boring bar shown in Fig. 256 may be used for 
either cylinders or piston valve chambers. It is oper- 
ated by an air motor, the spindle being geared to the 
main shaft of the motor. The feed is operated through 
the 15/16-in. diameter lead screw, actuated by the star 
wheel. The bar is held in positicm by the two heads 
which have shoulders to fit the bore of the piston valve 
chamber or cylinder. These heads are clamped to the 
cylinder, — K. J. Lamcool and J. S. Naery, Jr., Special 
Apprentices, Chicago, Indiana &■ Louisville, Lafayette, 


A templet for laying out cyhnder castings for plan- 
ing is shown in Fig, 257. The false center A is placed 

Pig. 287— Templet for Laying Out Cylinder Caetlnge. 

ing is to be machined. This being done, the cylinder 
casting is laid off according to the outline C, D. E, F, 
G, H and I. — Chicago & North Western, Chicago. 


The tool or jig for grinding cylinder heads, shown in 
Fig. 258, can he made for $2.25, labor and material. 
In »ome of the larger shops air motors are used for 
grinding cylinder heads, but this device has been found 
far superior and much cheaper, A 4-in. pipe is screwed 
into a casting V/^-m, thick (something similar to i 
follower plate) with an air inlet at the bottom. The 
piston is made of hard wood. The admission of air to 
the cylinder is controlled by the three-way cock. A 

Fig. 2B6 — Boring Bar for Cyllndere or Pliton Valve Chambers. 



rod connects the handle of this cock with the arm at- 
tached to the cylinder head. AH that is necessary is to 
turn on the air, which will start the piston upward until 
such a time as the connecting rod shuts off the admis- 


A full set of cylinder saddle bolt holes may be drilled 
in three hours by means of the jig shown in Hg. 260. 
As indicated, they are drilled from the inside, the for- 
mer practice at Silvis being to do it from the outside. 
The frame of the jig is constructed of four piece: 

Fig. 25S — Davlu for Grinding Cylinder Headi. 

sion of the air, when the weight on the end of the lever 
quickly forces the piston downward. The device is thus 
automatic in action. — C. j. Drury, General Roundhouse 
Foreman, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe,' Albuquerque, 

New Mex. 


A Special tool that readily indicates whether or not 
a crank pin is out of round is shown in Fig. 259. The 

Fig. aeo-^lg for Boring Cylinder Saddle Bolt Hole*. 

J4 X Z'/i-m. common iron and a 22j/^ x 35^ x yi-'va. 
plate, the plate being fastened to the base by long bolts 
and pipe spacers, as shown. Hardened steel bushings, 
1>2 in. outside diameter, are provided to guide the drill. 
— G. IV. Seidel, Shop Superintendent, Rock Island Lines, 
Silvis, III. 


When a cylinder casting cracks in the live steam pas- 
sage between the steam pipe jbint and the valve cham- 
ber, allowing the steam to escape- from the live steam 
passage, the half cylinder saddle is useless. The ac- 
companying drawing. Fig. 261, illustrates a method of 

Fig, 269 — Device for Locating Wear on Crank PIna. 

device is fastened in the crank pin center of a (juarter- 
ing machine, with the three fingers D, C and D in con- 
tact with the pin, as shown. .A.s it is revolved about the 
pin E the high and low spots are noted. The fingers 
are adjustable and may be used on crank pins of any 
size. — Clikage & \arlh Western, Chicago. 

Fig. 261 — Sectlona of Cylinder Saddle and Bushings. 

reclaiming such cracked cylinder castings. The first ap- 
plication was made by G, L. Van Doren, superintendent. 
Elizabethport shops, in February, 1907, and this was 
probably the first application of its kind. Since that 


time 61 pairs of cylinders have been repaired in this 
way at Elizabethport, none of which have given any 
trouble. The saddle casting shown is that of an inside 
admission valve, with two short valve bushings. When 
the crack occurs in the live steam passage between these 
bushings, the steam must be carried direct from the 
steam pipe to the valve chamber, relieving the cracked 
cylinder of all steam pressure. The short bushings are 
removed, the valve chamber is rebored to receive a 
^-in. thick bushing which extends over the outside 
edges of both steam ports. Steam ports are cut in this 
long bushing and the short bushings are replaced. A 
5-in. diameter hole is bored in the long bushing, in 
which the 5-in. seamless steel tube is rolled with a spe- 
cially made roll expander. The upper end of the tube 
has a ring brazed to it, which fits snugly in the steam 
pipe casting as shown. — Centrai Railroad of New Jer- 
sey, Elisabethport. N. J. 




Fig. 203 — Rack for Driver Brake Rloginfl. 

I Fig. 263. The frame is constructed of 2^ x 
-in. angle iron. — Rock Island Lines, Silvis, III. 


A pair of locomotive cylinders being handled by an 
overhead traveling crane is shown in Fig. 262. Ad- 
vantage is taken of the cylinder design which permits 

Fig. 202 — Traniporting Cylindera by a Trav«llng Crane. 

the use of the hooks. There is a heavy crossarm above 
to which the crane block is attached. Cylinders are 
easily handled to and from the frames with this device. 
—rLehigh Valley, Sayc, Pa. 


The tool shown in Fig. 264 is designed to greatly fa- 
cilitate the cutting of. key seats in driving axles. The 
standard Morse taper shank is provided for attaching an 
air motor directly above the milling cutter. Steel ball 
races and bearings prevent any loss of power due to 
friction. The tool is fastened to the axle by means of 
two chains and tightening screws, which latter bear 
against the underside of the axle. The V-shaped sur- 
face of the device provides for bringing the cutter on 
the center line of the axle. The depth of the key-way 
is governed by the horizontal star wheels and is main- 
tained by setting the lock nut. The feed is governed by 
the screw at the opposite end of the device. Provision 
is made for taking up all possible wear in the guides. 

Fig. 2S4— Portable Key Seat Mliter. 

there being two adjustable gibs which are adjusted by 
the set-screws shown in the side elevation — Erie Railroad, 
Mcadi'ille, Pa. 



An inexpensive rack, which keeps'the driver brake There is an advantage in having the circles, which are 
rioting off the floor and economizes floor spac^, is scribed on the ends of driving axles, from which the 


prick punch marks are made when tramming the wheels 
for the side wds, of a standard size. These circles are 
usually cut in new axles on the lathe, but they become 
partly obliterated after the axle has been in service for 

as the cylinder foundation when removing the opposite 
box. — James Stez-ensoii, foreman, Pennsylvania 'Rail- 
read, Olean, N. ¥. 

A truck that has been very helpful in moving driving 
boxes from place to place about the shops, while being 
handled by the different departments, is illustrated in 
Fig. 267. Anyone who has tried to handle a driving box 
on the ordinary shop truck knows what a hard job it is. 

Pig. 2(8 — Ramoving Drivlng4ox Cellar*. 

first rolled over on the axles. The apparatus is swung 
above the axle from a traveling air hoist and the ful- 
crum of the lever, made in the form of a double clamp 
■ and bolted at the bottom, is fastened to the axle. The 
U-shaped piece of metal is then placed in position, bear- 
ing against the box only, after which the cellar bolts are 
removed. The other box is used for a foundation for 
the air cylinder. When the air is applied the box is 
forced down and off of the cellar, which latter is used 


Fig. 2BS — Tool for Scribing Circlea on Driving Axlaa. 

some time. The tool illustrated, Fig. 265, is used for 
truing up an old circle or for making one on an axle 
that has not been so marked. The body of the tool is 
made of wrought iron and the ball center and the scriber 
are of steel. The ball is placed in the large center in 
the axle and the tool is used as a pair of dividers. — 
Baltimore & Ohio, ^ft. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


A method of removing tight-fitting driving-box cellars 
without damaging them, as is the case when using a 
sledge hammer, is shown in Fig. 266. The boxes are 

Fig. 2S7~-Drlving Box Carrier. 

and will appreciate the use of a catrier of this kind. It 
has another advantage, in that it can always be found, 
for it cannot be used for any other kind of trucking. — 
D. P. Kcllogji, Master Mechanic: IV. F. Merry, General 
Foreman, and C H. Goodwin, Genera} Gang Foreman, 
Southern PnciHc. J.os Anj^cles, Cat. 


A special rigging for grinding the dry pipe into the 
front tube sheet is shown in Fig. 268, The device con- 

Fig. 268 — Grinding Dry Pipe Joint In Tube Sheet. 



handling them with a crane. One of these is shown in 
use in the photograph, Fig. 269, and in detail in tlie 
drawing, Fig. 270. There are two loose shoes, which 
slide on the edges of the wedge-shaped centerpiece, 

guided by two pins and the slots shown. The weight of 
the box serves to bind the shoes against the flanges. — 
Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa. 


A simple eccentric blade bender. Fig. 271, can be 
made at a cost of $2.25. Instead of employing the old 
method of twisting and bending with heavj- apparatus 

Fig. 269 — Expanding Wedgfl D«vlce Uied for Handling 
Driving Boxea. 

sists of an air motor A connected to a crank B, which 
oscillates the handle C attached to the dry pipe D, as 
shown in the photograph. — Chicago & North Western, 



An ingenious device, consisting of a pair of expand- 
ing wedges, is used for grasping the driving boxes while 

Fig. 271 — Eccentric Blade Bender. 

and using heavy wrenches, this simple kink can be op- 
erated with a 12-in. wrench. Special attention is called 
to the short bends possible and the close places in which 
the bender can be operated. The slip yoke is moved 
along the blade so that an adjustment can be quickly 
made for a bend at any point. It is a cheap and handy 
kink for use on eccentric blades, reach rods, lifting arms, 
etc. — C. J. Drury, General Roundhouse Foreman, Atchi- 
.wn, Topeka & Santa Fe, Albuquerque, New Mex. 


It is often necessary to adjust eccentric blades after 
they have been bolted to the eccentric strap. The de- 
vice for bending the blades shown in Fig, 272 is light 

iPlg. 27t^— Expanding Wedge Uaed li 

Handling Driving Boxea. 

Fig. 272— Device for Bending Eccentric BladaaJ 

and may be easily applied to either side of the blade. A 
number of shims to suit the different blades should be 
carried in stock. After the device has been adjusted by 


putting the 1-in. pin through the strap and the bar A, 
the blade may easily be bent to any position by turning 
the screw B. — P. F. Smith, Chief Draftsman; Thomas 
Marshall, Master Mechanic, and Henry Holder, Gen- 
eral Foreman, Chicago, St. Paai, Minneapolis & Omaha, 
St. Paul, Minn. 


A device for bending or straightening eccentric blades, 
brake levers, etc., is shown in Fig. 273. It can be used 
without taking these members dcwn, and does not re- 
quire the use of heavy or unwieldly bars such as are so 
often used for this work. It is only necessary to slip 
the strap over the bar, adjtfst'it, and .drive the key into 
place. The 1^-in. screw can l hen be turned by the use 

the block. The key is detachable. A particular point of 
merit in this kink is in the fact that it may be used with- 
out disconnecting the eccentric blade, and in case of 
emergency it can be used as a blade twister by placing a 
chisel or piece of iron under one edge of the block. — 
D. P. Kellogg, Master Mechanic; W. F. Merry, Gen' 
eral Foreman, and G. H. Goodwin, General Gang Fore- 
tnan. Southern Paciiic, Los Angeles, Col. 


A clamp for exhaust nozzles, when the steam pipes 
are being tested, is shown in Fig, 275. The cap A fits 
in the top of the nozzle after the tip has been removed. 
A steam-tight joint is secured by placing a rubber gasket 
over the top of fhe nozzle. The clamps B are moved in- 

I .^'-.--.j. 


of an ordinary wrench. The key can be backed off 
slightly and the strap slipped along the blade or lever, 
if more than one operation is required to properly ben<l 
or straighten it. With this arrangement it is possible to 
make short bends and to operate in restricted spaces. — 
Richard Becson, Roundhouse Foreman, Pittsburgh & 
Lake Erie, McKees Rocks, Pa. 


A light and effective ectfb'ntric blade bender is shown 
in Fig. 274. If, is capable of bending a plate 1% in. 
thick and 4 in. wide and is easily adjusted for bend- 
ing in either direction, it being only necessary to reverse 


Fig. 27S — Clamp for Exhaust Nozzle When Teeting Steam 
PI pee. 

ward along the bar C and fit under the edges of the 
flange of the nozzle casting. When these have been 
properly adjusted they are secured by the ?4-in. set^- 
screws, and the cap A is forced securely over the top 
of the nozzle by turning the screw £. — C. C. Leech, 
Foreman, Pennsylvania Railroad, Buffalo, N.'Y. 


It is often advantageous to have a tool for truing up 
the bearing surfaces for the nuts which secure two-bar 
guide blocks on the cylinder head. These surfaces, be- 
ing on the inside of the disc, which is cast integral with 

Fig. 274 — Eccentric Blade Bander. 

Fig. 276 — Back Facing Tool. 

the back head, are inaccessible, save with a tool designed 
along the lines of the one shown in Fig. 276. In using, 
the cutter is removed from the spindle of the tool and 
replaced after the spindle is inserted through the bolt 
hole. The nut and washer shown are then screwed 


against the face of the disc on the head ; the feed of 
the cutter is regulated by this nut. A single cutter tool 
is often used for this work, but not so successfully as 
the cutter shown. — Fred Bents, Tool Room Foreman, 
Southern Pacific, BakersAeld, Cal. 


A convenient apparatus for reaming guide bolt holei 
is shown in Fig. 277. The rigging may be quickly set 


The lower bar of two-bar guides is usually lined up 
with the aid of inside calipers. It is necessary, in this 
instance, however, to use a square or straight-edge in 
truing the guide bar in the lateral direction, and a me- 
chanic's caHpers are often disturbed by being knocked 
on the floor by other men who may be working about 
the locomotive. The gage here shown. Fig. 278, was 
made especially for lining the lower bar. It is of brass, 
is light, easily handled and easily made. The upright 
may be fastened to the base in any convenient way. The 
pointer is arranged for adjustment in two directions by 
sliding in the slot of the upright and moving hori- 
zontally through the thumb-screw and lock nut shown. 
The height of the pointer is set at }^-m. less than half 
the distance between the crosshead bearing surfaces, 
this J^-in. being the thickness of the base. The shoulder 
guides the gage along the bar and the pointer is set out 
to the line through the center of the cylinder. — Balti- 
more & Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


A kink used in lining up guides is shown in Fig. 279. 
It is constructed with the arms A notched at the ends to 

Fig. 277 — Reaming Guide Bolt Hole*. 

up and is operated as follows : The reamer A is in- 
serted in the guide bolt hole and the lever C, with. a ful- 
crum at D in the adjustable jack E, is placed under the 
motor. Pressure is applied by the workman at the left, 
thus feeding the reamer into the hole as the workman on 
the right operates the motor. — Chicago & North West- 
ern, Chicago. 


Fig. 27ft~-Qaga tw Lining Two-Bar Ouldoa. 

Ftg. 279 — Adjuatable Device for Llnli^ Up Guldei. 

fit cylinders whose diameters range from 16 in. to 21 in. 
It is placed at the front of the cylinder, as shown, with 
a similar but smaller device in the back cylinder head 
supporting the bar B. The bar is thus held in the cen- 
ter of the cylinder and Is free to slide backward and 


forward, affording a means for lining up the guides.- 

Chicago & North Western, Chicago. 


For many years and in many shops it has been the 
practice to set the guides of a locomotive by means of 


Fig. 280 — Spider and Gland for Setting Guidi 

a string stretched along the axis of the cylinder and ex- 
tending back to a point opposite one of the pedestals. 
It was held at either end by rather frail supports, which. 

if ihey happened to be struck, would throw the line out 
of center and might, if unnoticed, make a mess of the 
Job, In order to obviate this difficulty and provide a 
solid point from which to take measurements the spider 
and gland shown in Fig. 280 are used. The spider A 
is made of various diameters and has a tapered rim 2^ 
in. wide that fits into the bore of the cylinder at the 
front, where it is held by nnts on the cylinder head studs. 
The taper of the rim causes the hole at the center to be 
drawn truly central with the bore. The gland B fits 
into the stuffing box at the back, so that its hole is also 
central with the cylinder. The bar C is then slipped 
through the holes in the gland and the spider which are 
in line with each other. As the bar is 8 ft. long and 2j4 
in. in diameter, it is long enough to reach to the end of 
[he guides, and stiff enough to hold without bending, 
and thus furnishes a rigid point from which the guides 
can be set and lined. — Delazvarc, Lacjiauvnna & West- 
ern. Scraiitoii, Pa. 

The easiest and quickest method of cleaning the brake 
rigging, eccentric straps, link motion, driving boxes, 
shoes and wedges, binders, etc., is to put them in a cage 
which may be lowered into a lye vat, such as is shown 
in Fig. 281. As the Lehigh Valley shops have two erect- 

Fifl. 281^Lye Vat for Cleaning Greaay Locomotiva Part*. 


ing floors, one on each side of the building, there are 
two of these lye vats. Each is 10 ft. wide, 30 ft. long 
and 14 ft. deep. There are several coils of pipe arranged 
along the walls of the vat near the bottom. Live steam 
is passed through these coils for heating the solution. , 
It will be noticed that the crate held suspended above 
the vat is handled by the shop crane and that the cover 
sheet is lifted with the crate. Locomotive parts are low- 
ered into ihe vats and left there for about twelve hours, 
when they are taken out and flushed with cold water. 
One of the gang checking boards and a time clock 
are shown at the left side of the photograph. Each 
gang checks separately, so that there are several of 
these boards and clocks about the shop. — Lehigh Valley, 
Sayrc, Pa. 


A tool for slotting keyways, used in a hydraulic press, 
is shown in Fig. 282. The cutting part consists of a 
number of teetji of different heights, the lowest being 

around the motor shaft. The grinder can thus be swung 
over to a second jaw without changing the position of 

Fig. 283 — Pedeatal Jaw Grinder. 

the motor. The latter operates at 900 r. p. m. and the 
emery wheel at 1,200 r. p. m. It is also proposed to use 
the devices for light truing of slide valve seats. — Great 
Northern, Dale Street Shops, St. Paul, Minn. 


A device that is convenient for properly setting the 
petticoat pipe and holding it in position while the hang- 

Fig. 282 — Tool for Slotting Keyways. 

at the right and the highest at the left. As the tool ad- 
vances each tooth removes a little more metal than the 
preceding one. If necessary it may be used by driving 
it with a sledge. — Chicago & North Western, Chicago. 


A simple and successful grinder for facing off pedes- 
tal jaws over the erecting pit is shown in Fig. 283, It 
is motor driven, the motor being under cover on the 
hand truck in the foreground. The device has an an- 
gle-bracket which is held to the locomotive frame by 
two clamps. The grinder frame is bolted to this bracket 
and is adjustable sideways for grinding the vertical 
and sloping legs, A crosshead moves vertically in a 
slot in the frame, and the emery wheel is driven by bevel 
gearing on the rear side of the crosshead. The cross- 
head and wheel are moved up and down by the hand 
crank below the wheel, the adjacent edge of the grinder ■ 
frame being toothed to form a rack. The emery wheel 
is an 8-in. cup type, and is swung around in a half circle 
back of the frame to grind the other leg. It is held in 
position by dowel pins. The knuckle-joint pulley-and- ers are being fastened is shown in Fig. 284, It may be 
belt frame has arms 2 ft. 8 in. on centers and revolves adjusted to any size of petticoat pipe. The t<^gle joints 

Fig. 284— Petticoat Pipe Adjuster. 



which fit on the long bar are forced outward and fast- 
ened by the set-screws, thus holding the petticoat pipe 
securely in place and central with the bar. The lower 
end of the bar has a plug which fits in the exhaust noz- 
zle; the upper end may be adjusted to a central posi- 
tion in the smoke stack by calipering. The pipe may 
then easily be held in position while the hangers are be- 
ing fastened. This is much more convenient than the 
old way of using a string and a plum bob. — William G. 
Reyer, General Foreman, Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis, Nashville, Tenn. 


A tool of great advantage in removing the follower 
from the piston is shown in Fig. 285. The dogs A and 

size ring does not (juite fit the cylinder. In order to 
make a perfect fit the ring may be altered by the use of 
this device. Three hardened rollers, 3 in. in diameter, 
are arranged as shown. The uiq)er roller can be ad- 
justed vertically by a thumb-screw, and it is also keyed 
to a shaft with a square head, so that it can be turned 
with a crank. If the ring is too large it is placed in the 
device with the rollers in the position indicated and by 
adjusting and rotating the upper roller the circumfer- 
ence of the ring may be reduced in a manner similar to 
that of a boiler sheet in the rolls. Adjustment of the 
screw gives the proper curvature. If the ring is too 
small, it is placed between the rollers in the reverse po- 
sition and its diameter is enlarged. — 5". S. Lighlfool, Bo- 
nus Demonstrator. Atchison, Topeka & Santo Fe, San 
Bernardino, Cal. 


A handy device for compressing the packing rings on 
a solid piston head while applying it to the cylinder is 
shown in Fig. 287. Ordinary wedges, the tang of a file, 
etc., are often used for this work. This device is placed 
around the piston head and over the rings and is tight- 
ened up by the small pinion arid latch, which tatter acts 
as a ratchet to mesh in the rack and hold the band 
tightly. The band is made of No. 16 sheet iron, 3 in, 
wide. The lugs or projections at its edge prevent it from 

Fig. 285 — Tool for Removing Bull Ring from Pliton. 

B, attached to the cross piece C, are inserted in the bull 
ring D, and the screw F. is forced against the piston F; 
the dogs A and B pull the spider off. — Chicago &■ North 
Western, Chicago, 


A device for expanding or contracting piston pack- 
ing rings is shown in Fig. 286. They are turned to 
standard sizes and it frequently happens that the nearest 

f— .3J'- 




"vl -. 

\ I ^ Boiler /ron 






Fig. 286 — Pacldng Ring Expander and Contractor. 

Fig. 2S7 — Device for CompreMing Piston Padcing Ringa. 

slipping into the cylinder. In using, the band is tight- 
ened until the rings are flush with the piston head, and 
as it passes into the cylinder the band is forced off by 
the lugs. — W. H. Snyder, Assistant General Foreman, 
New York, Susquehanna & Western, Stroudsburg, Pa. 


The accompanying illustration, Fig. 288, shows a pis- 
ton rod puller which can be made complete for 80 cents, 
labor and material. The method of pulling is the re- 



verse of that when the piston rod is keyed up. It is a 
cheap, handy and sure device. — C. J. Drury, General 

rod, forcing the latter out of the crosshead. This is a 
very handy tool for both shops and roundhouses. — A. D. 
Porter, Shop Efficiency Foreman, Canadian PaciHe, 
West Toronto, Canada. 


A simple but effective piston rod puller is shown in 
Fig, 290. The main block is made to conform to the 
taper of the pin fit in the crosshead, and has a tapered slot 
planed through it, as shown, to receive a key. The 

f^ T 


1 C-/£^i i* 

Vj^y i_ 


Fig. 288— Devlea f^r Pulllnv PItton Rods. 

Roundhouse Foreman, Atchison, Topek/f & Santa Fe, 
Albuquerque, Nno M ex. 'i ■•'' 


The separator. Fig. 289, is made on the same principle 
as the bolt extractor shown in Fig. 245, and is used for 
separating the crosshead and piston rod. It is made of 
wrought iron. The J^-in. holes and the space behind the 
ram are filled with thick oil. The separator is applied 
to the crosshead, taking the place of the end of the 

Fig. 290— Piiton Rod Pulier. 

block, which bears against the end of the piston rod, has 
a round boss in the center on one end and a tapered 
tongue, on the other. This tongue extends into the slot 
of the pin portion of the device and is tapered to corre- 
spond to the key. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania 
Railroad. Buffalo, K. F. 



A piston rod extractor of unusual strength and one 
which will draw piston rods without damaging the cross- 
head is illustrated in Fig. 291. The piston is first drawn 
back to its striking point. The long two-piece sleeve is 
applied to the rod, bearing against the packing gland. 

Fig. 289— Platon Rod Extractor. 

connecting rod, and the wrist pin is put in place. The 
wrought iron ram forces the oil against the plunger, 
which is shown in detail at the upper part of the draw- 
ing. The center of the ram engages that of the piston 

Platan Rod Extractor. 

The two collars are then applied at the crosshead end 
of the rod. The halves of the collars are held together 
by bolts. Taper keys are driven in the ways between the 
collars to draw the piston. — James Stevenson. Foreman, 
Pennsylvania Railrond. Olcan, N. Y. 



A piston rod extractor, which was designed some 
years ago and has performed good service, is shown in 
Fig. 292. Two straps, A, A, are set over the piston 
rod and the apparatus respectively, and are held in posi- 
tion .by the bolts B. The apparatus consists of a cylin- 
der C, in which there is a piston, the stem D of which 
projects and is brought to a bearing against the end of 
the piston rod. The strap prevents the cylinder from 


A simple and efficient device for boring piston valve 
chambers is shown in Figs. 293 and 294. It consists of 
heads with tapered shoulders on the inner faces to fit the 

Fifl. 292— Platon Rod Extractor. 

backing oil when pressure is applied. The projecting 
end of the cylinder at E is fitted with a coarsely threaded 
screw F, whose head receives a turning bar through a 
drilled hole. The end of the screw works through a 
leather packing, the space between it and the piston be- 
ing filled with white lead, which acts as a -pressure me- 
dium. In using, the device is adjusted so that the stem 
of the plunger bears against the piston rod, after which counterbores of the steam chest. This, together with the 
the screw is run in. This displaces the white lead, the holes which fit over the steam chest cover studs, nuke 
thrust of the screw being multiplied in proportion to the it self centering. The heads are fitted with bushings at 
square of its diameter and that of the piston. their outer ends in which the boring bar fits ; collars are 

Fig. 2S3 — Application of Devlc« for Boring Piaton Valve 

Pig. 2B4 — Detaila of Device for Boring Platon Valve Chambera. 



so placed as to prevent the boring bar from moving end- 
ways. At the front end of the bar and clearly shown in 
the photograph is a worm gear which meshes with a 
worm. An air motor fits on the taper shank on this 
worm. The feed mechanism is placed at the other end 
of the boring bar and may be regulated to give either a 
fine or a coarse feed. Different heads are provided for 
the different size valve chambers. — P. F. Smith, Chief 
Draftsman; Thos. Marshall, Master Mechanic; Henry 
Holder, General Foreman, and James Fiiidlay, Machine 
Shop Foreman, Chicago, Si. Paul, Minneapolis &■ Omaha, 
SI. Paul, Minn. 

The parallel strip, shown in Fig. 295, is used to con- 
siderable advantage in lining up dowel pins on piston 

3}s-^n. nuts. The cylinder is inverted and is bolted to 
the lower face of the upper plate. It is 6 in. in diameter 
and is fitted with a plunger. The lower end of the 
plunger sets in a hole in a plate or crosshead, to the ends 
of which lifting chains are attached as shown. These 
chains pass over sheaves set on the uprights at the top 

Fig. 295— Parallal Strip for Lining Up Dowel Pins on Piston 
, Valv« 8p)d«ra, 

valve spiders. For the proper laying off of keyways on 
piston valve spiders the device shown in Fig. 296 is used. 
The spider A is placed in the countersunk hole in the 
plate B, and the parallel strip C is inserted in the slots of 
the tool posts D and E, as shown. The keyway'is then 
scribed at F. It is thus located in the correct position 

Fig. 296 — Laying Off KeyWaya on Platon Vatve Spidera. 

and there is no danger of the valve binding in the steam 
chamber when it is connected to the valve motion. — 
Chicago Sr North Western, Chicago. 


The hydraulic press for rod bushings shown in Fig, 
297 has a table which stands on four substantial legs that 
are embedded in a concrete base and extend up to and 
through the upper plate, which is held in position by the 

Fig. 297— Hydraulic Pr«a« for Rod Buahlnga. 

and carry counter-weights at their ends which serve to 
draw the plunger up after it has done its work and the 
pressure has been removed. The plunger is 6 in. in 
diameter inside and 9 in. in diameter outside. Pipe spacers 
are used over the uprights for holding the base and top 
plates the proper distance apart. — Delanvare, Lackav.-an»a 
&■ Western, Scranton, Pa. 



Long ago, when we first learned that compressed air 
was adaptable to many uses, someone designed a pneu- 
matic press with an inverted cylinder for pressing bush- 
ings in rods, brasses in driving boxes and doing similar 
work. A press of this kind is shown in Fig. 298. It has 

almost 4,000 lbs. The base is a stiff- iron casting, tied to 
the cylinder by four 2^-in. columns, which are, how- 
ever, turned down at the ends to Ijii in., thus forming a 
bearing shoulder of % in, at each end. The three-way 
cock, whicb is shown in detail, can be made to exhaust 
from one end of the cylinder while admitting air to the 
other, or can blank all ports. — Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western, Scran ton. Pa. 


The portable straightening press, which is shown in 
Fig, 299, is used largely for straightening main and side 
rods and in applying or removing bushings from them. 
The base of the trgck is an iron casting and is mounted 
on lOj-^-in. wheels with 3-in, treads so that it may easily 
be moved from one part of the shop to another. The up- 
rights and the top cross piece are forgings ; the screw, 
which is 3^ in. in diameter, is threaded for a distance of 
about 20 in, — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, Buffalo, N. r. 

The 30-ton press for rod bushings and link work, 
which is shown in Fig. 300, consists of a frame work of 
wrought iron, resting on. an oak plank, and a standard 
hydraulic 30-ton jack. The jack is mounted in the frame- 
work as shown, the top fitting in the top crosspiece. The 
yoke or crosspiece on which the jack rfsts is supported 
by the springs at either side. As the jack is operated it 
is forced downward and the springs are compressed. 

Fig, 298 — Pneumatic Prea*. 

a cast-iron cylinder 21 in. in diameter in which there is 
a piston with double-cup leather packings, so that there 
is no leakage in either direction. The plunger is 6 in. in 
diameter and is given a stroke of 8 in. With 90 lbs, air 
pressure the press is capable of exerting a pressure of 




- rr 

Ti, , 




(_ ..^.^.. ^ 


-L, — |-l — ^ 





pfl 1 

Fig, 299 — Straightening Presi for Rod Work. 




i nfB» 


'o o 
to Oj 


1.- -^- 

— J 

l 'H- 


-; ' 



Fig. 300— Pkm for Light Work. 

§i m^ t^fzt^. 

When the pressure is released the springs return the 
jack to its normal position, as shown on the drawing. 
The frame work is simple and inexpensive, and may be 
constructed to suit any special requirements. The capac- 
ity of the press may of course be made greater by select- 
ing a jack of a capacity suitable to the class of work 
which is to be done. If it is desired to make the press 
portable, it may be mounted on a small four-wheel truck. 
It may be use<l to equal advantage in either the erecting 
shop or the engine house. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. Buffalo, N. V. , 


A hydraulic press for driving box brasses and rod 
ttushings is shown in Fig. 301. Hydraulic pressure is 
supplied to the 8 in. cylinder on the press by replacing 
the air end of an air pump with a small cylinder which is 
supplied with water' from the water line, the necessary 
automatic check valves being provided for the proper 

Fig. 301— Hydraulic PreM. 


operation of the device. — A. L. Bauer, Foreman Machine 3/16-in, pin, extending through both sides of the head, 
Shop, Terminal Railroad Assn. of St. Louis. and is held in contact with the ratchet wheel by pressure 


A hydrauhc press for applying and removing driving 
box -brasses is shown in Fig. 302. This press is used in 
both the machine shop and the engine house with satisfac- 
tory results. ■ The entire outfit is mounted on a four- 
wheel truck. The pump, operated by aif pressure from a 
hose connection to the shop air line, consists of an 8-in. • 
air pump with the air cylinder removed aod a piece of 
pipe fitted with a piston substituted for it.' This piston 
forces the water into the 14-in. cylinder to operate the 
pressure piston. Water is supplied to the pump and press 
from a tank located on the truck and is controlled by 
four check valves and two cut-out cocks. After the 
water is used it is returned to the tank. The side view 
shows a driving box brass being applied and the end yiew 
a rod brass. In applying driving box brasses, it is neces- 
sary to use the extension piece, which, however, is easily 
removed when handling rod brasses. The press is 
equipped with a gage showing the number of tons' pres- 
sure exerted. On several occasions the pressure was run 
up to 40 tons without any leak or apparent damage to the 
press. — E. G. Gr^ss, Master Mechanic, Central of 
Georgia, Columbus, Ga. 


A 3l^-in. close-quarter ratchet is shown in detail in 
Fig. 303. ■ The Morse taper socket, the ratchet and the 
feed screw are seen to be in one piece. The tang of 
the drill extends through a slot into a counterbore to pro- 
vide for removing the drill. The hardened center in the 
feed sleeve has a left-hand thread and a hexagon nut 
which seats on top of the sleeve. This centei fits freely 
in the sleeve as it is necessary to remove the i-enter when 
knocking out a drill. The ratchet dc^ is fulcrumed on a 

Fig. 303 — Clote Quarter Ratchet. 

from a ?^-in. coil spring, as indicated. — Baltimore & 
Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


A simple bar for boring rocker boxes without remov- 
ing them from the locomotive is shown in Ftg. 304. It 
consists of a piece of hollow tubing, with a taper shank 
fastened in one end to take the air motor. Brackets or 
bearings to support the bar are bolted to the guide yoke, 
aiid an L-shaped brace is clamped to one of the rocker 
boxes to support the feed screw at the end of the shaft 
opposite the motor. The feed may be operated either by 
hand or by fastening a wrench to the square end of the 
feed screw to hold it stationary. — P. F. Smith, Chief 

Fig. 302— Portable Hydraulic Preie. 



the head, as shown, or it inay be clamped against the 
head with a stirrup bolt, the desigti shown, however, be- 
ing preferable. For use the scale is set to the length de- 
sired and the head is hfld against the shoe face, as in 
the plan view. By lightly tapping the hardened steel 
pointer the desired pop mark may be made on the wedge. 
.This method is much quicker than using a small pair of 
trams to locate the point and then using a prick punch for 
making the pop mark. The scale may be laid off to suit 
any conditions, and in both directions if desired. This 
tool may also be used in a variety of cases as a depth 
gage or for laying off frame holes, but it was designed 
especially for the purpose above described. — Baltimore S- 
Ohio, Ml. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 



A convenient apparatus for drilling holes in steam pipe 
flanges is shown in Fig. 306. The steam pipe is held 
rigidly with the face to be drilled in a horizontal position, 

Pig. 304 — Rocker Box Boring Bar. 

Draftsman; Thomas Marshall, Master Mechanic, and 
Henry Holder, General Foreman. Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis &■ Omaha, St. Paul, Minn. 


In laying off shoes and wedges it is necessary to do 
a large amount of work with trams, straight-edges, par- 
allel strips, etc. The shoe pop marks must be layed off 



— jii-- 

Fig. 30S~-Tooi for Malclng Wedge Pop Marie*. 

with long, adjustable trams. The wedge pop marks, 
however, being layed off from their respective shoe pop 
marks, require only a short tram, and again, as these 
points do not affect the rod lengths, absolute accuracy 
is not necessary. The tool here illustrated. Fig. 305, is de- 

Fig. 306^Drlltlng Hole* in Steam Pipe Flange*. 

by means of the two pairs of legs B and C, the upper 

signed for this latter work. The main part of the tool is parts of which are inserted through the two holes in the 

made either of wrought iron or soft steel, though the lat- steam pipe and are keyed down to the frame D. At the 

ter is preferable as there is less chance of its being af- top of /> is a flat piece of iron £, which supports the top 

fected by rough usage. The scale may be run through of the motor F. This support extends out sufficiently to 


allow the proper adjustment to the motor in locating the 
center of tlie hole to be drilled, — Chicago & Xorth West- 
ern, Chicago. 


One of the most undesirable jobs in overhauling a loco- 
motive is thai which has to do with the removing and 
replacing of steam pipes. The insuring of .neam-tight 

Fig. 307 — Steam Pipe Joint Ring Grinder. 

joints between the several sections of the piping is most 
important and any tool or device which will assist in 
grinding the joint ring is a welcome one. The tool 
shown in Fig. 307 is intended for use with an air motor, 
the shank having the standard Morse taper. It is ad- 
justable and the three self-adjusting shoes accommodate 
themselves to the inner rough surface of the ring, grip- 
ping it tightly as the nut is adjusted on the screw, forcing 
the arms outwartl. — Eric Railroad. Meadi'iUe. Pa. 


The apparatus shown in Fig. 308 is especially useful 
for drilling holes of small diameter when it is not con- 

venient to use an "old man." The long piece A is hooked 
over a stud or bolt at its lower end and is held at the 
upper end b> the workman's right hand. The crosspiece 
B is pivoted to A at C and is pressed down on the slotted 

Fig. 310 — Extension Ball for Supporting Air Motor. 

top of the motor by tlie weight of the workman's body. 
The "old mdn" with the ball-shaped head shown in Fig. 
309 is used for drilhng the saddle bolt holes in the front 
end. An exten.sion bar for supporting an air motor in 
<lrilling holes in the boiler at any angle is shown in Fig. 


310. This extension is adjustable and may be used in any 
size boiler. — Chicago &■ North tVesteni, Chicago. 


used for handling boiler i)latc. The hook, which grasps 
the door, is assisted by the lever action of the central 
piece. The third piece is not necessary. The chain may 

.'^n iffeclive form of wrench for removing studs is 
shown in Fig. 311, It is made of steel, the stirrup and 
the indicated portion of the bar being finished. The stir- 


Fig. 311 — Wrench for Removing Stud*. 

nip here shown will take studs up to 1^ in. in diameter. 
The adjustment is rapid and the tool is exceedingly use- 
ful.— Ba//iHi on? & Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


A steel tool for applying and removing studs is shown 
in Fig. 312. A l/'S-in. hole is drilled in the center of the 
hinged portion, and teeth are filed along half of the cir- 
cle opposite the hinge pin. The swinging portion is 
slotted to receive the lever, which also has teeth filed on 
its rounded end. The swinging part and the end of the 

Fig. 313 — Clamp* for Uftlng Tlrea and Front Ends. 

be attached direct to the lever, which is supplied with 
teeth on the other end that grip the metal. — Lehigh 
Valley, Sayrc, Pa. 

A simple tire carrying wagon is partially shown in 
Fig. 314. The wagon is pushed over the tire, straddling 
it, and the handle is elevated, thus lowering the upright 
and allowing a pin to be passed through the two parts 

Fig. 312— Stud Wrench. 

lever which engages the stud are case hardened. The 
ease with which this tool can be adjusted, its simple con- 
struction and great strength as compared to the ordinary 
alligator or Stilson, make it an eflkient and useful 
tool.— ^. i". WiUard, Foreman, Sorfolk & Western. 
Creuv, Va. 


Simple clamps used in handling tires and front ends 
with the shop crane are shown in Fig. 313. The tire 
clamps have hooks that grip the flange. The arm which 
bears against the inside of the tire has an extension end 
which, being bent outward, provides pressure when the 
tire is lifted sn both the flange and inside of the tire. 
The clamp used on the front end is similar to those often 

Fig. 314— Driving Wheel Tire Cart. 

of the upright and below the inner side of the tire. By 
lowering the handle the tire is raised a short distance 
above the floor. The wheels of the wagon are 56 in. in 
diameter. The upright is constructed of 4 by 1 in. iron; 



the handle bars are 3 in., by ^ in., and are forged round 
at the outer ends as shown. The uprights are braced to 
the handle bars by the ^-in, iron rods. — T, E. Freeman, 
General Foreman, and A. G. Wright, Master Mechanic, 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, Sioux City. 


A driving-wheel tire carrier is shown in Fig. 315. This 
carrier and a tire of the largest size can be handled with 
ease by three or four men, while the old method of rolling 
the tires required six or seven men, with the ever-present 
danger of injuring some one. As will be seen, the 
wheels are built up and can be made in any shop. Our 
carrier has been in service over a year, and the wheels 
arc in just as good shape as when built. The tire is hung 
on pin A which is placed through holes in the upright 
and underneath the rim where the handle of the truck 
is raised, which lowers the upright. Pin B is placed 
through the holes in the handle bars to keep the tire from 
Swinging as it is being moved about, — D. P. Kellogg, 
Master Mechanic; W. F. Merry, General Foreman, and 
C. H. Goodwin, General Gang Foreman, Southern Pa- 
cific, Los Angeles, Cal. 


Those who are familiar with the work in an erecting 
shop or engine house will at once realize the advantage 

of having at the disposal of the workmen a steel cart 
adapted for carrying long material such as tubes, pipes, 
rods, etc. The body of the cart, shown in Fig. 316, is 
made of j4-in. steel, reinforced at the top of the side 

Fig. 316 — Steel Cart for Transporting Long Material. 

by pieces of bar iron. The handle is constructed of 
%-m. round iron and is formed so that long material 
can extend out over it and at the same time leave a por- 
tion at the sides unobstructed. The material from which 
the handle is made is flattened out and riveted to the 
body of the cart as shown, in order to add to its stiffness 
and strength. The cast iron wheels are 18 in. in diameter 


■y. ,iL 



Fig. 315— Drlvina Wheel Tire Truck. 


and have a tread 3 in. wide, thus making^ the cart easy 
to move over roug^ floors, or on the ground outside the 
building. — A. G. Pancost, Elkhart, Ind. 


A hydraulic press for pressing in or removing valve 
chamber bushings is shown in Fig. 317, The piston of 
the ram is forced out by hydraulic pressure suppHed from 
a portable accumulator. The cylinder of the ram is con- 
nected to the hand-operated accumulator by a copper 
pipe. This gives a high, even pressure that applies or 
removes bushings quickly. It formerly required a me- 
chanic and helper 6 hours to apply a bushing with the 
old methods in vogue. The cost of this operation was 
■$3.24, or $6.48 per engine when 2 bushings were applied. 
By the use of the hydraulic press the time of applying 
a bushing was reduced from 6 to 2 hours, making a sav- 
ing of $2.16 per bushing, or $4.32 per engine. An aver- 
age of 240 bushings are applied per year, which, at a 
saving of $2.16 apiece, makes a total saving of $518.40 
by the use of this device. — E. J. McKernan, Supervisor 
of Tools, Atchison, Topeka &■ Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 


In setting up a rotary valve-facing machine the me- 
chanic usually has no particular method for holding the 

Fig. 31S~-Alr Motor Holder for Valve-Facins Machine. . 


Fig. 317 — Hydraulic Press for Valve Chamber Bushlngt. 



air motor. A common method is to rest the motor on a 
wooden strip extending from the floor, and to prevent side 
motion by guying the feed screw heuidle with a couple of 
ropes. This method answers the purpose, but it takes 
time to arrange it. The illustration, Fig. 318, shows a 
holding device which is made of rough strips of iron 
shaped to the general outline of the air motor. It is se- 
cured in place by being bolted to the steam chest stud 
holes. Arrangement is also provided for a* stop against 
which the feed screw bears. This device is a time saver 
a'rid is kept in the tool room. — Baltimore & Ohio, Mt, 
Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


A simple but efficient machine for turning the drivers 
in setting valves is shown in Fig. 319. It is driven by 
an air motor, and the reducing gears are similar to those 
used on a portable cylinder boring machine. The effi- 
ciency of the valve setting apparatus can be very greatly 
increased by taking proper care of it. In many erecting 
shops and engine houses the practice is to toss it to one 
side after it has been used. The result is that when it 
is necessary to place it under another engine, more or 
less time is lost in locating it." Then again, the different 
parts of the apparatus may have become separated and the 
trams and other tools may have been misplaced or lost. 
To overcome this a portable double steel box has been 
built, as shown in Fig. 320. This is arranged so that 
the apparatus can be quickly packed away, and provision 
has been made for placing all of the tools and instruments 

used in connection with valve setting in it. When this 
has been done the boxes are locked and the portable truck 




•at ^ 


k-V2 — X 

t2S l^fh • 

Fig. 319 — Valve Setting Machine. 

is returned to the tool room. The box is constructed 
of J^-in. steel plate, reinforced by wrought iron bands, 
as shown. The wheels are 10 in. in diameter, with a 2j4- 

<■ ■ 




4 zY. 




i'stttf P/ah 


f< ^ o >^ 

Fig. 320— Portable Steel Box for Valve Setting Machine and Tools. 



in, tread. — Richard Beeson, Roundhouse Foreman, Pitts- 
burgh & Lake Erie, McKees Rocks, Pa. 


An arrangement for rotating driving wheels of loco- 
motives while setting the valves is shown in Fig. 321. 
An air motor drives a set of spur and bevel gears which 
rotate the shaft carrying the rollers. The wheels may be 
rotated in either direction by shifting the gears, provision 

shaft loosen the set screw collar A located at the end of 
the shaft. This being done, the gear box can be re- 
moved by sliding it out along the shaft. The gears are 
covered with a neat case made from No. 14 iron. Power 

AppHcafion and Arrangement a/ Ht/tv 
Setting tiacfiine. 

I — jg 


Fig. 321— Valv« Setting Machine. 

for which is provided as illustrated. The weight of the 
engine should be taken off the main drivers by blocking be- 
tween the saddles and frame in the usual manner. — 
E. J. McKernan, Tool Supervisor, Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan, 


A unique valve setting machine is illustrated in Fig. 
322. There are several different kinds of valve setting 
machines, but we have never seen one applied so readily 
as this one. The important feature of the machine is the 
gear box. It is light in construction, but very effective. 
It is geared six to one, allowing the driving-wheel to 
travel about 15 ft. per minute. To detach it from the 

Fig. 322— Valve Setting Machine. 

is transmitted from an air motor which is attached at C. — 
D. P. Kellogg, Master Mechanic; IV. F. Merry, General 
Foreman and G. H. Good'Ann, General Gang Foreman, 
Southern Pacific, Los Angeles, Cal. 


An exceedingly simple arrangement for revolving the 
driving wheels during the process of valve setting is 


shown in the accompanying diagram, Fig. 323, The shaft and B on the ends of the adjustable rod eliminate the 
is extended out on one side and is fitted with a worm gear, necessity of having to find the centers each time. The 
into which a worm meshes. The stem of the latter is proper lengths being obtained, the original rods are made 

Fig. 323— Valve S«tlina Machine. 

made to iit an air motor, which may be attached and 
used as a driver. — Delaware, Lackaivanna &■ Western, 
Scranton, Pa. 


The usual practice of setting valves on locomotives 
equipped with Walschaert valve gear is to change the 
length of the eccentric rod three-quarters of the amount 
the valve is shown to be out of square.- The rod is then 
removed and a cut and try method used, which takes 
considerable time and labor. This may be eliminated 
by using the device shown in the illustration. Fig. 324, 
It consists of an adjustable eccentric rod and an adjust- 
able union link. The original eccentric rod and union 
link are removed and the adjustable devices are put in 
their places. These are adjusted to the proper lengths 
for the correct position of the valve. The centers A 

Adjvsfable fcctnfric Hod. 

i m si^xam 


MJusfab/e Union link. 

Fig. 324 — Device for Setting Watechaert Valve Gear. 

to correspond. — H. F. Grewe, General Foreman, IVabask- 
Pittsburg Terminal Railway, Rook, Pa. 


For each size of slide valve in use there is a gage that 
contains all the essential measurements of the valve for 

Fig. 326 — Application of Gage for inspecting Slide Valves. 



which it is intended. Two examples of these gages are 
shown in Figs, 325 and 326, In one case the application 
of the gage to the valve is shown, and in the other the 
gage is shown on a larger scale, and the measurements on 
it are indicated by letters corresponding to those on the 
valve itself. From this it will be seen that the length, 
width and location, with the width of the groove for 

when the jack is not in use, so as not to obstruct the 
floor or track. The air cyHnder has an inside diameter 
of 14 in. The stroke of the piston is 16 in,, although 
the admission of air to the cylinder may be regulated 
by the air valve so that the wheels are only lifted a 
short distance above the floor. Tbe piston rod is made; 
of 5-in. pipe. — T. E. Freeman, General Foreman: A. G,: 

F)g, 326 — Gage for Inapvctlng Slide Valves. 

the packing ring in the back, the width and the exhaust 
opening in the face and the width of the flange at the 
end are given. Where there is a flange at the side, this 
is also put on the gage. These gages are made of steel 
about y^ in. thick. — Delaware, Lackazeanna &■ Western, 
Scranton, Pa. 


An air jack for raising and turning mounted driving 
wheels at track intersections is shown in Fig. 327. It 
is simple and inexpensive. The top section of the ram 
and the fork on which the axle rests may be removed 

Wright, Master Mechanie, Ckieago, St. Paul, Minneap- 
olis S- Oniaha, Siou.x City, [o-m-a. 


A small track jack, used for lifting heavy tender truck 
and engine wheels and axles, so that they may be turned 
and run from one track to another when the tracks stand 
at right angles to each other is shown in Fig. 328. The 
jack is low, so that a wheel with its axle can be rolled 


Fig. 328— Wheel Swinging Jack. 

over it when it is down. The cap of the jack has been 
removed and a semi-circular yoke riveted in its place. 
This yoke is of such size as to accommodate the center 
of the axle and may be made of 1-in. by 4-in. iron. The 
wheels and axle are rolled over it and the jack is raised 
lifting the wheels from the rails, when they may easily be 
turned to the proper position. — A. S. Dazis, Slw(> Fore- 
man, Northern Pacific, Jamcslozvn, N. D. 


Fig, 327— Air Jack for Turning Mounted Driving Wheel* at A shop kink which is used to great advantage in test- 

Track Interiectlon*. ing the proper location of crank pins in relation to the 




keyway when pressing a wheel on an axle is shown in the point ^ is on the center line of the keyway.- 
Fig. 329. The lower inside center A is placed on the &• North Western, Chicago. 
center line of the kevwa\'. The upper point B is in the 


The end play or allowance which is made for tlie lat- 
eral motion of locomotive drivers is usually measured 
with a stick and a rule. This method may be accurate, 
but it will bear close watching. It is almost compulsory 
that two men hold the stick, one at either end, as it is 
necessary to hold a straight-edge against the outside of 
the frame or shoe on one side. The tool here shown. 
Fig, 330, is in reality merely a specially designed scale for 


Fig. 329 — Tool for Checking Proper Location of Driving 
Wheel on Axle. 

same vertical plane and furnishes a guiding point in 
pressing the wheel to its correct position on the axle. 
The point B should be in the center of the crank pin when 

Fig. 330— End Play or Lateral Motion Gage. 

making this measurement. The square shoulder makes 
the second man with the straight-edge unnecessary. The 
outside adjustable head is set to the distance between 
the hub plates. In case the finished shoe castings are 
in place, the gage, when held with the inside of the 
square shoulder against the shoe casting, indicates the 
exact amount which must be taken up by the two box 
flanges, plus the side play or lateral motion allowance. 
Two sliding heads are provided, as there are a variety of 
ways by which a man may get the desired lateral motion 
allowance. — Baltimore & Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Balti- 
. more, M_d. 

Boiler Shop Kinks 



A Spring stand used in connection with air motors for A convenient bending clamp for use in the boiler shop 

bard work, such as reaming and tapping for crown bolts is shown in Fig. 332. It consists of a cast iron base, 

is shown in Fig. 331. It always takes a powerful ma- supported at its ends on substantial wooden blocks. The 

chine to do this work, especially when the crown bolt is clamp is a 12-m. steel I-beam, reinforced on either sid^ 

tapered. These machines weigh 60 lbs. and it requires along the web by 5^-in. steel plates, which are riveted 

Fig. 331 — Air Motor Stand or Support. 

one boilermaker and two helpers to support one of them. 
Every time they change position from one hole to an- 
other they have to lay the motor down and lift it up again. 
The drawing shows where the motor is connected to the 
stand. The springs are made with enough tension to hold 
up the motor, and can be pulled down to transfer the 
motor to another hole. The spring tension also allows 
the motor to follow a tap without crowding it. The 4 in. 
^sing in which the spiral spring, about 24 in. long, as 
contained is screwed into the base plate, which is 8J4 in- 
in diameter, and into the sleeve at the other end. With 
this stand we do the work with one less man. It is light 
in construction ; one man can carry it, and it does not take 
up much room. It can be regulated to any height by 
applying different length extensions. — D. P. Kellogg, 
Master Mechanic; IV. F. Merry, General Foreman, and 
G. H. Goodxiin. General Gang Foreman, Southern Fa- 
cile, Los Ant^cles, Cal. 

to the web. It is operated by the hand screws at each end, 
and is especially valuable where there is not work enough 
to warrant the purchase of a power clamp. — C. C. Leech, 

Foreman, Pennsylvania Railroad, Buffalo, K. Y. 


A blueprint filing case in the boiler shop, in which are 
filed all the working blueprints required in the shop is 


Fig. 332 — Hand-operated Bending Clamp. 



shown in Fig. 333. The case is substantially made of 
wood, with four partitions, which act also to strengthen 
it; the thin vertical partitions are made of light sheet 
iron. It will be noticed that the partitions are numbered 
serially from 1 to 46. When made it was the intention to 
keep a card index of the prints, but this was later found 
unnecessary, as the men very soon got to know the sizes 

Fig. 333— Blueprint Piling Cast. 

of the various drawings and could locate a print easily 
in less time than they could refer to the index. Each 
print is mounted on heavy cardboard and varnished. — 
Central Railroad of New Jersey, Eihabethport, N. J. 


An alteration in the method of testing boilers was re- 
cently made at our shop. This work had been done by 
using a Philadelphia Rue injector, coupled to the branch 
pipe, making the test through the boiler check, and using 
a strong hose to supply the steam. The results were not 
satisfactory, however, as it was not possible to get more 
than 100 lbs. pressure, and the inconvenience and loss of 
time in moving the apparatus from one engine to another 
were considerable. There was also the ever present 
danger of a man being scalded by a bursting of the 
steam line. 

The sketch, Fig. 334, shows the Rue injector and 
piping as rearranged for boiler testing. The injector was 
secured to the wall of the machine shop, on the pit side. 
The 2-in. service pipe extends to the shop water main. 
The steam pipe is 1}^ in. From this steam line a 1-in. 

pipe is run into the enlargement of the main piping to 
the boiler, for use only when filling the boiler. It is 
used in conjunction with the by-pass from the service 
pipe to heat the water for testing. The enlargement of 
the pressure line pipe where the 1-in. pipe enters allows 
the cold water and the steam an opportunity to mix be- 
fore entering the boiler. After the boiler is filled the 
valves in the by-pass and in the 1-in. steam line are closed, 
and the injector is 6perated to force water and steam into 
the boiler, by which the pressure can be increased to 200 
or 300 lbs. An ordinary pump could be used instead of 
an injector, although not so conveniently. A 2-in. pipe, 
to which the pressure line of the injector is connected, 
was then run along the ends of the pits, with short 

Z/W Sfmam Ybi~ 

Fig. 334 — Piping Arrangement for Testing Bollera. 

branches and 2-in. foot cocks into the end of each pit. 
Xine-ply, wire-woven, 300-1 b. -pressure hose is used be- 
tween the fool cock and the blow-off valve of the engine 
to be tested. The water used for testing may later be 
used for another test by connecting the blow-ofF valve 
of the second engine back to the 2-in. line running along 
the ends of the pits, thus filling up another engine. By 
this method it is possible to test a boiler, after it is filled, 
in 15 minutes, one man doing the work; formerly it re- 
quired at least two men and three hours' time. — Theodore 
Rcnvc. General Foreman, Great Northern, Jackson Street 
Shof'S, St. Paul, Minn. 


A portable hydraulic pump used in the erecting shop 
for testing boilers and in the roundhouse for testing steam 
pipes, valves, cylinder packing, etc., is shown in Fig. 335. 
The pump is mounted on a two-wheel truck and is made 
from an 8-in. air pump, the air cylinder of which is re- 
moved and a pipe substituted. Water is supplied to the 
pump from any convenient shop water line and the pump 
is operated by air pressure from the shop air line. Water 


pressure is controlled by four check valves and the 
amount of pressure is registered on a gage located in 
the water line to the boiler or steam chest. In testing 
steam pipes, valves, cylinder packing, etc., the pump is 
connected to the relief valve in the steam chest ; it is con- 

Fig. 33G — Portable Hydraulic Tcatlng Pump. 

nected, when testing boilers, to one of the washout plugs 
or blow-off cocks in the firebox. This pump has peid for 
itself many times in locating defects on engines giving 
unsatisfactory service. — E. G. Gross, Master Mechanic, 
Central of Georgia, Columbus, Ga. 


For use over the large flange fire in the boiler depart- 
ment, and swinging from one of the building columns, 
is a 25-ft. crane girder, from which is suspended a 6- ft, 
air hoist, for handling the various boiler sheets to be 
Hanged. This air hoist />perates satisfactorily on sheets 
that are only required to be raised from the fire and 
dropped on the flanging form, but when flanging the 
upper half of a large throat sheet, it must be suspended 
and held in a vertical position, which necessitates one 
corner of the sheet being held 12 to 14 ft. from the floor. 
This is impossible with the use of the air hoist, as is 
clearly shown in Fig. 336. It was the custom to use 
the overhead traveling shop crane which is in constant 
demand in the machine bay, to hold a throat sheet until 
the entire upper half could be flanged, which required 
from one to two days. The handicap in the machine bay 
due to the holding up of this crane may readily be 
realized, as the output of the shop depends upon prompt 
crane service. 

To eliminate this trouble the electric hoist shown in 
Fig. 336 was designed. It consists of a drum, W, geared 
to a 5-h. p. electric motor, operated by the controller A, 
by which the load is raised or lowered by means of 
the ^-in. chain, one end of which is anchored at the 
extreme end of the girder, and passes back over the 
carriage pulleys X, X, and block Y, over pulley Z and 
down to drum W. The carriage is moved in or out on the 
girder by a '^-in, chain connection with the reversible air 
motor j^. This motor is geared to a pulley that carries 

Fig. 336 — Alr-El«ctrlc Holat Uaed In Connoctlon with the Flanging of Boiler Sheeta. 



A method of off-setting the flange of the conical con- ■ 
nection sheet of boiler shells by the use of the power rolls 
instead of by the usual method of flanging by hand is 
shown in Fig. 338, A short piece of an old driving axle 
about 8 in. in d-ameter and 10 in. long is placed on the 
two lower rolls near the flange end of the sheet and 
another piece, smaller in diameter, is placed near the 
other end. The difference in the diameter of these pieces 
is made suflicient to flange out the end of the sheet for 
a short distance when it is desired to have a horizontal 
s'eam for the rivets. We believe this is entirely original 
with A. \. Lucas, the boilermaker at West Milwaukee, 
and have the impression that it is not used at other boiler 
shops. It requires three hours to flange this conical con- 
nection on the rolls, while the old method of flanging re- 
quired about eight hours. — Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul, West Mihtmikee, IVis. 

Fig. 337— Magnetic Brak* for Elsctric Hoitt, 

the chain which is fastened to the carriage 0, and passes 
over a pulley on the extreme end of the girder. A light 
chain is fastened to the reversing attachment on the motor 
and is dropped to a convenient height so that the operator 
may control the motor with his left hand, leaving the 
right one free to operate the controller A. In order that 
the load may be slopped and held at any desired height, 
a magnetic brake was devised, as shown in Fig. 337; this 
allows perfect control of the load at all times. The brake 
is applied instantly upon the current being shut off from 
the motor, — H. G. Becker, Shop Demonstrator, Lehigh 
I'allcy, Sayre, Pa. 


A pneumatic holder-on for use in driving rivets and 
staybolts is shown in Fig. 339. The cylinder is made 
from a 4-in. pipe, 10 in. long, and is provided with a 
piston, on the rod of which snaps can be adjusted, depend- 
ing on the size and kind of rivet. The piston head is 
fitted with a leather gasket. A ^-in, air pipe is tapped 
through the back head and has suitable valves for regu- 

Flg. 339 — Pneumatic Holder-On. 

lating the air supply. The back head is provided with 9 
socket for receiving centers of different lengths. The 
piston receives the impact of the air haminer through the 
rivet and compresses the air in the cylinder. This causes 
a reaction of the piston for each stroke of the hammer, 
and the tool serves the double purpose of holder-on and 
hammer. — S. S. Lightfoot, Bonus Demonstrator, Atchir 
son, Topcka & Santa Fe, San Bernardino, Cat. 


A neat and effective contrivance for holding long^ 
stroke hammers for overhead work is shown in Fig. 340. 
The weight of these hammers averages from 25 to 30 lbs. 
each, making it a hard job to hold them up. After com- 
pleting one of these devices it proved so satisfactory that 
we made two more. Note the range that can be cov- 
ered without changing position. We find this very use- 
ful for crown-bar bolts. Instead of hammering the bolts 
down ^yith hand hammers, we have a shallow snap to 
fit the hammer, and worlt them down with the device 
shown. There is tension enough in the spring to hold the 



hammer and yoke up to the sheet. The operator swings 
the hammer around in a circle. The ball on the hammer 
allows the operator to work on an angle when ctrcum- 


usual manner. This work is handled by two men, one 
inside the boiler doing the riveting, while the man on the 
outside shifts the holderon as the bolts are riveted. 
While riveting is going on, during which time he is not - 
engaged in handling the holding device, he places the caps 
on the bolts. — Central RaUroad of New Jersey, Elisabeth- 
port, N. I. 


A method of using two heavy bars of iron, a round iron 
link and a jack for removing a mud ring is shown in Fig. 
342. Although the rivets may all be removed the ring 
is far from being released, as it is held by the clamping 

Fig. 340 — Pn«uiiiatic Hammer Holder. 

stances require it. This device saves much hard work. 
— D. P. Kellogg, Master Mechanic; W. E. Merry, 
General Foreman, and G. H. Goodwin, General Gang 
Foreman, Southern Pacific, Los Angeles, Cal. 


The regular Boyer holder-on, as designed for these 
bolts, la used, with the addition of a stirrup. Fig. 341, 
which passes around the holder-on, one end of which is 
rigid with it while the other end makes a loose fit over 
the collared bushing. This bushing is threaded for 
screwing on the staybolt in place of its cap. When air 

Fig. 341— HolderOn for Tate Staybolta. 

is admitted to the holder-on, the ball end of the plunger 
moves to a solid bearing on the round head of the bolt 
and forces the holder-on away from the bolt, resulting 
in a self-supporting holder-on against which the staybolt 
may be riveted over on the inside of the firebox in the 

FIfl. 342— Device for Removing Mud Rlnga. 

action of the side sheets as well as by the rust and scale 
which has accumulated. Unless some continuous strain 
device, such as the one here shown, is used it is necessary 
to drive the ring down with hammer blows, but this 
usually results in damaging the comers of the ring and 
partially closing the rivet holes. After the rivets are re- 
moved and sections of the box are cut out at the comers, 
as shown, the lower 3-in. x 4-in. x 36-in. bar of iron is put 
in position, one end resting on the mud-ring and the other 
on a block of wood. A hydraulic or screw jack is then 
placed near the mud-ring end, and the top bar of iron 
with the downward extending arm is put in place, the 
hooked end gripping the sheet and the other end being 
run through the lot^. The mud-ring may then easily be 
jacked down about i^-in., and when each comer is han- 
dled in a similar manner, the ring may easily be removed. 
The device is simple but effective. — Central RaUroad of 
Ne^v Jersey, Elieabcthporl. N. J. 


The old man shown in Fig. "343 was designed by H. 
Weeks, a gang foreman at Elizabethport. It is intended 
particularly for work on boilers, but is applicable to 

Fig. 343— Old Man for Boiler Work. 

equal advantage in other cases. The base is made of 
boiler plate, 1}/^ in. x'lO'in. x 10 in. A side elevation of 
this base plate would show four feet formed by cutting 
out the center portion of metal in the vertical members. 
This provides for clearing rivets, etc. This old man h 
easily and quickly placed and by passing the chain 
around the boiler and catching a link in the hook the 
device may be fastened tightly by the use of the threaded 
bolt which has a swivel connection with the upright. — 
Central Railroad of Xc^i- Jersey, Eli^abethporl, jV, /. 


A serviceable drilling knee or "old man" which is in- 
tended for use in the boiler shop, but has been found 

useful in repairing steel cars and also in the locomotive 
erecting shop is shown in Fig, 344. The upright or sup- 
port is made of 2-in. steel tubing or heavy pipe about 30 
in. long with a rod running through the center; the knee 
or arm may be adjusted on the tubing by a set screw. 
When once the upright is set a number of holes may 
often be drilled without changing the base. Another 
good point is that on a rounding surface the base may 
be blocked with wood allowing the drilling knee to be 
set at almost any angle. By bending the rod at its lower 
end and blocking the base in this way it is possible to 
set the drilling knee at an exceptionally large angle from 
the position it would normally occupy. The device is es- 
pecially useful in drilling mud ring comers. — H. L. 
Burrhiis, Assistant General Foreman, Erie Railroad, Sus- 
quehanna, Pa. 


A useful tool for staybolt drilling is shown in Fig. 
345. It may be very successfully used in wide fireboxes. 
Two motors may be used at the same time, as two arms 
are provided. It is easily possible to drill over a wide 
range without readjusting the device. The shaft, made to 
suit any size firebox, is of 1^-in. double strength pipe. 
The double point end is welded in the pipe. The other 
end screws into the pipe and when adjusted may be 


Fig. 344— Drilling Knee or Old Man. 

Pig. 346— Old Man for Boiler Shop. 

securely clamped by the use of a jam nut. Wrought 
iron arms are slipped on the shaft and secured by set 
screws. In ihe case of a locomotive which went into 
the roundhouse with 27 broken staybolts in the firebox, 
this old man was used and the bolts drilled out in an 
hour and 50 minutes. — JViUiam G. Reyer, General Fore- 
man. Xashz'ifle, Chattanooga &■ St. Louis, Xashville, 


A useful patch bolt counter-sink for boiler work, and 
one which has been successfully used in the New York, 
Susquehanna & Western shops at Stroudsburg, Pa., for 
a number of years is shown in Fig. 346. The stud, which 
acts as a guide, is screwed into the tapped hole in the 
boiler sheet. The cutter is then slipped over the stud 
and the counter-sink for the patch bolt is thus made 
square with the tapped hole. The cutters are forced into 
the sheet by tightening' the winged nut. TJie cutter is 
driven by a ratchet wheel which fits over a square section 
of the countersink. Several different sizes of studs, to 


suit the various patch bolts, are carried in stock, such 
as 13/16-in., '-^-iii., 15/16-in. and 1-iii. After using this 
tool the counter-sink of the patch bolt will make a per- 

is taken off the crane chains.— 
Pennsylvania Railroad. Rcnovt 

F: S. Robbins, Inspector, 


A handy, portable rivet forge, used in the erecting 
shop, is shown in Fig. 348. The hood is made of light 








— ^ 

Fig. 34< — Patch Bolt Counter-sink. 

feet fit and will draw down square with the tapped hole. 
— (f. H. Snyder, Assistant General Foreman, Xew 
York, Susquehanna & Western, Stroudsbnrg^ Pa. 


The hook for handling sheet metal, shown in Fig. 347. 
is primarily a safety device, although it is a decided time- 
saver when it is necessary to fasten the sheet firmly to 


1! rH 

i 1 H ,4 

.4: j 

Fig. 347— Hook for Handling Shoot Metal. 

the supports when punching or shearing. The eccentric 
action of the hook plate gives a firm hold on the sheet 
and is instantly released when the weight of the sheet 

Fig. 348— Portable Rivet Forge. 
heet iron and rests on a framework, having three cast 
ron wheels, the small one being a guiding wheel. Coal 
s carried in the box and air pressure is supplied from 
the shop air line. — Lehigh Valley, Sayrc, Pa. 


An efficient design of portable oil rivet forge is shown 
in Fig. 349. The frame work is made of sheet steel and 

Pig. 349— Portable Oil Rivet Forgt. 



angle iron and is mounted on three wheels, the leading 
one of which swivels and carries a tongue for hauling the 
forge about the shop. A tank, 16>^ in. in diameter and 33 
in. high, is mounted at the rear for storing the crude oil. 
The oil is forced to the burner by air pressure,' and the oil 
and air are mixed at the burner In proper proportions for 
complete combustion. The interior of the furnace is 17 
in. wide by 21 in. long, has an 8-in. opening and is lined 
with fire brick. An intense heat can be obtained in a 
short time, and provision is made for close regulation. 
This forge will heat rivets for several gangs at the same 
time. — E. J. McKertian, ToolSiifcn-isor, Atchison, To- 
Pcka &■ Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 


While a yoke riveter is not a new thing, the way we 
use the one shown in Fig 350 in the boiler shop is of in- 
terest. After the staybolts are all broken down with the 
staybolt breaker, the firebox is taken out, the backhead. 


A special set of dies for stamping the projections on 
.steel running boards, or steps, to prevent slipping, is 
shown in Fig. 351. The dies are made of mild steel 
blocks, 15 in. x 19 in. x lyit in. in size, and are fitted 

u ^:. ^ 



'~ >€■ 



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o ooooooo O 


OO OO (M)^ 

o o o o o^e^ 


o ooooooo O 



I l_i.J 

pig. 351 — DIM for Stamping Steel Running Boards and 8t*pa. 

with forty-nine ^-in, pins, as shown. The four springs, 
one at each corner, raise the top die after the sheet is 
stamped. The dies are used in a hydraulic sectional 
danger. — Rock Island Lines, Silvis, III. 


A useful device for flanging light work in the boiler 
shop, as shown in Fig. 352, is applicable to any heavj' 
shear in place of the regular blades. This tool has flanged 
444 ft. of K-'"- tat'k steel in two hours and five min- 

Flg. 350— Voice Riveter. 

of course, being taken off first. Then we have the broken 
bolts left in the outside of the sheet. It used to be the 
custom to drill or split the bolts with an air hammer, but 
we found this slow work ; hence the reason for the yoke 
riveter. A jam riveter is applied as shown. We have a 
portable crane that can be transferred to any part of the 
shop by means of a large electric crane. This portable 
crane holds the yoke riveter in any position we want to 
work in. We take a radial staybolt boiler and knock out 
every piece of staybolt left in the sheet by the breaker in 
nine hours, working one man only. This job used to 
take one man six days. The device thus paid for itself in 
a very short time. — D. P. Kellog^i, Master Mechanic: 
W. F. Merry, General Foreman, and G. H. Goodwin. 
General Gang ■ Foreman, Southern Pacific, Los An- 
geles, Cal. 


Fig. 362 — Flanging Attachment for Shears. 


utes. It may be made to flange at any angle, working 
metal up to 7/16 in. thick. It is made of hardened tool 
steel and may be adjusted to suit any angle or thickness 
of plate by slipping liners under the lower former. This 
tool was used on 146 drop-bottom ash pans, requiring 
flanges top and bottom the full length of the pan. This 
work was done with a saving of $4.85 on each pan. It 
has also been used in flanging several straight crown 
sheets and a large amount of car work. The work flanged 
with this tool is all handled cold. — William G. Rcycr, Gen- 
eral Foreman, S'ash7-ille, Chattanooga &■ St. Louis, Xash- 
ville, Tenn. 


At first glance, one would say that the staybolt breaker 
shown in Figs. 354 and 355 was too large and heavy, but 
as it is intended to be handled by a crane and suspended 
on chains when being used, its weight is of no great mo- 
ment. This breaker differs from the general run of such 
tools, which remove the staybolts by striking a blow, as 


A pneumatic scarfing hammer for making tube ferrules 
is shown in Fig. 353. Previous to having this machine 
the work was done by the use of a hammer, anvil and 
tool. Strips of galvanized iron were cut of a width equal 
to the circumference of the tube hole and about 24 in. 

Fifl. 354— Application of Staybolt Breaker. 

Fig. 3B3 — Pneumatic Scarfing Hammer. 

long, and the edges were then hammered down by hand. 
after which the strips were cut into widths to suit the 
tube sheet. With the pneumatic hammer, which is bolted 
to a substantial bench, the strips are cut as mentioned 
above, but are fed through the hammer at a very rapid 
rate. The air is controlled by a foot treadle. — D. P. Kel- 
logg, Master Mechanic; W. F. Merry, General Foreman, 
and G. H. Goodwin, General Gang Foreman, Southern 
Pacific, Los Angeles, Cat. 

it breaks the bolts by exerting a pulling strain until the 
metal shears. The pulling rod, sliown in the upper left 
hand corner of the sketch, is made in several lengths, in- 
including 4 ft., 6 ft., 9 ft.. 12 ft. and 15 ft., and is made 
in rights and lefts. The main part of the puller rod is 
made of wrought iron with a tool steel end welded on, 
which latter forms the hook for taking hold of the bolts. 
The rough wrought iron sleeve slides on the puller rod. 
With the wrought iron steel pin, this sleeve is quickly 
made fast at any desired point along the rod, and the pull 
is effected by the fork-shaped end of the lever bearing 
against the sides of this sleeve. 

In using, the breaker assumes about the position shown 
in photograph. The rod is then run through the fork 
at the end of the lever and the hook is placed over a stay 
bolt. The sleeve and pin are then slipped into position 
and air is admitted to the cylinder. When used on the 
short bolts in the water leg, the hook is placed at about 
the middle of the bolt, which bends a little and then 
shears off at both sheets. In the case of the long radial 
stays, however, the hook is placed as near as possible to 
the outside sheet and the bolt shears at this sheet only. 
The bolt, therefore, remains in the firebox sheet, but as 
the box is to be removed and usually scrapped, this makes 
no difference. The ends of the bolts remain as plugs 
in the, holes of the outside sheets, but these are easily 
knocked out afterward. It will be noted on the drawing 
that the 7s-in. eye bolts, by which the breaker is handled. 



are cast in, making tliem permanent with no danger of 
loosening due to the heavy strains which come on them. 
The wrought iron lever fits loosely in the end of the 
piston rod. The breaker is made for using on either 
side of the boiler, it being only necessary to remove th€ 
fulcrum bolt and shift the lever to the other side. The 
air-controlling valve, shown in the photograph, is a three- 
way valve, moving 60 deg. on either side of the central 
or lap position. These two extreme positions open com- 
munication with opposite ends of the cylinder. With this 
breaker, a box having 1,800 bolts may be cut out in 14 
hours. — Baltiinorc & Ohio, Aft. Clare Shops, Baltimore, 


The staybolt breaker, shown in Fig. 356, does not differ 
greatly from other breakers of this'general design. The 
barrel is made of steel tubing. 4-in. inside diameter. The 
ram or plunger is 12 in., long and is made loose running 
in the cylinder bore. The J4-in, thick packing leathers 
are used with the flanges turned in opposite directions. 
These leathers are held between two thick washers, 3 in. 
in diameter and 5/16 in. thick, the whole being held in 
position on the back head of the plunger by a y^-m. tap 
bolt. The hammer end is 9 in. long over all, and is 
screwed to the barrel by a spanner wrench. In using, the 
breaker is swung in position, a block and fall being used 
to hold it against the chisel. After a blow, the handle of 
the 3-way cock is drawn back to the position shown. 
When the valve is first moved, air enters the forward end 
of the cylinder to return the plunger preparatory for an- 
other blow. The backward movement of the«valve handle 

also causes a collar to move backward and expose eight 
y^-m. drilled holes which release the air in the front end 
of the cylinder, while that at the rear end exhausts 

Fig. ase—Staybolt Breaker. 

through the 3-way valve. — Central Railroad of New 

Jersey, Elisabeth port. A', /. 


The air hammer, shown in Fig. 3S7, is made of 2j/^-in. 
pipe, and was designed by E. C. Schoen, Chicago, Bur- 
lington & Quincy shops, St. Joseph, Mo. It is intended 
for cutting rivets up to y in. in diameter. By actual test 

Ftg. 365— Staybolt Breaker. 


it will ciit i^-'"- rivets with six strokes and >^-in. rivets into the valve and to the atmosphere tlirough the exhaust 
with one or two strokes. It is operated by a push button . holes H. — John Hmve, Draftsman, Chicago, Burlington 
valve which controls the delivery of the blow; the piston & Ouincy. St. Joseph. Mo. 

Fig. 367— Long Stroks Aii 

returns automatically. Section AB (Fig. 358) shows the 
valve in the position for returning the piston to the back 
end of the hammer ; the live air passes in the inlet £ and 
through the 1/32 in. space at the top of the piston valve 
and the outlet F to the front end of the hammer. The ex- 


The staybolt breaker in Fig, 359 is shown, not to illus- 
trate the ram action which corresponds very closely to 
that of other breakers, but to emphasize a feature not 
found in the others. The metal framework forms a 


Fig. 3S8 — Automatic Vilv« for Long 8trolc« Air 

Fig. 359— Staybolt 'BreclcM-.. 

hatist air passes through the outlet G into the atmosphere carriage, or double A-frame, which is mounted on four 

at M ; the coil spring holding the valve in this position, small wheels. The ram is elevated and lowered by a 

For the driving stroke the operator pushes down the block and fall fastened to the top cross arm connecting 

valve and air enters the inlet E and passes through the the two A-frames, Susjiended below the ram cylinder, is 

outlet G into the back end of the hammer, driving the an air cylinder, the piston of which is supplied with a 

piston forward. The exhaust passes through the outlet F hook. This arrangement provides for holding the breaker 


ram agaj^t the staybolt and for moving the carriage on end. The hook or chisel end is placed against the stay- 
after a bolt is broken. One man stands upon a platform bolt and air is admitted to the back end of the cylinder, 
on the carriage and operates the two air valves, one of which throws the plunger violently forward. The blow 

4x1 / Helta. . T — ^ i j ' 

* O O O Cf O O O C O I \ 6 6 ^ 

Fig. 300— Staybolt Br«aker. 

wjiich controls the carriage while the other applies air for 
the ram. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa. 


The Staybolt breaker, shown in Fig. 360, will break 
three 1-in. staybolts at a single stroke. It consists of a 
5-in. pipe, into which a 12-in, plunger is fitted. The two 
ends of the pipe are connected byilj4-'n- P'ping with a 
three-way cock, to the handle of which a connection 
reaches to a second three-vay cock near the other end of 
the cylinder. The device is suspended outside the i^ater 
leg, and the chisel with a 12-ft. stem, is inserted at the 

of the plunger is cushioned by the air and a rubber pad 
placed at the delivering end of the 5-in. pipe. — F. C. 

Pickard, Assistant Master Mechanic, Cinciitnati, Hamil- 
ton & Dayton, Indianapolis, Ind. 


\n attacliment applied to an Acme staybolt cutter for 
cutting taper threads on crown or radial staybolts is 
shown in detail in Fig. 361 and as it is applied to the ma- 
chine in Fig. 362, It was designed as a shop kink, but 
it proved so valuable, especially where there was a lai^e 
number of taper bolts to be cut, that it was patented by 

Fig. 3S1 — Taper Attachment for Staybolt Cutttr. 



H. Neville, tool room foremanof the Southern Pacific shows the arrangement of the live air and the exhaust 

at Los Angeles, Cal., and is now being handled by the valves, and the 16-in. x 3j4-in. machinery steel ram. 

Acme Machinery Co., Cleveland, Ohio. The device con- which has a packing ring at either end and a 2-in. x 4-in. 

fines the work on the bolts to one machine, where they piece of hard steel in the striking end. The ^-in. x 

are finished with both straight and taper threads. 

23^-in. X I4-ft. 3-in, long track on which the breaker runs 
is bolte<l fast to the firebox. One man operates the cam 
which locks the breaker in position, and also the air valve. 

A second man places the breaker bar end on the staybolts. 
— Long Island Railroad, Morris Park. X. Y. 


A breast drill with an attachment for spraying water 
on the drill in drilling detector holes in staybolts is shown 

Fig.' 3S2 — Tiper Attachment In Poaitlon. 

Previous to having this attachment, two machines were 
used for the work. By the use of this attachment the 
cost of cutting threads on staybolts has been reduced 60 
per cent. A novel feature is that it can be adjusted to 
cut any taper from K-'n. to 2-in. in 12-in. It can be 
operated automatically and may be adapted to other 
machines in cutting both brass and iron. — D. P. Kellogg. 
Master Mechanic; W. F. Merry, General Foreman, and 
G. H. Gooduin. General Gang Foreman, Southern 
Pacific, Los Angeles, Cal. 


A pneumatic staybolt breaker is shown in Fig. 363. It 
is a rather highly-developed design. The cross section 

Fig. 364— Water Attachment for Breaat Drill. 

in Fig, 364. The rubber tubing B is placed in a water 
tank. The water is siphoned from the tank through this 


Fig. 363 — Staybolt Breaker. 



tube, the part A and out through the nozzle C. The air 
for operating the drill enters the motor through D. Some 
of it goes through the pipe A, rushing across the end of 
the tube B, thus causing a partial vacuum in B and 
siphoning the water through it. — Clika,^o & Xorth 
Western. Chicago. 


A multiple staybolt drill in use at the Dale Street shops 
of the Great Xorthern at St. Paul, Minn., is shown in 
Figs. 365, 366 and 367. It was designed and built at 
these shops and is, so far as we know, the most elaborate 
device of the sort in use in any shop in the country. It 
has a total of 11 drills — three on each side and on top, 
and two at the back — and is operated by four men. One 
of the side drills was removed at the time the photograph 
was taken. The saving in time possible with this number 
of drills and men, all working together, is obvious, the 
staybolts in a boiler now being drilled out in one-fourth 
the time possible b\' any method previously used in these 

As appears from the illustrations, the frame is formed 
of 5-in. pipe columns and 8-in. double channel transverse 
top members, with latticed diagonal braces. The frame 
is 13 ft 2% in. x 15 ft. 9 in, on column centres, and the 
pipe columns are 16 ft. 4^ in. long. The top set of drills 
is carried on a rail, supported by a double -channel frame, 
the side members of which are secured to heads sur- 
rounding and sliding vertically on the main frame 
columns. This drill frame is raised and lowered by means 
of four power-driven screws mounted on the frame 

Fig. 3flS— Multiple Staybolt Drill. 

columns and about half the length of the columns. The 
side and end drill carriages are mounted on vertical guide 
bars, 2^3 in, x 7 in,, upon which they slide, being moved 

Fig. 300— Side and End Elevation of Multiple Staybolt Drin. 



by a power-driven worm mechanism, as indicated in the 
carriage details. Fig, 367. The side bars are adjustable 
laterally for different widths of fireboxes, by top and 
bottom adjusting screws. This adjustment is secured by 
a hand-wheel on the bottom screw, a vertical shaft inside 
the column, and bevel gearing, imparting the motion to 
the top screw. At the top the guide bar travels between 

tell-tale holes was a hard job, because tlie operator had 
to push the drill in I'/i in. on each stayboh, and a little 
movement either way when the drill was in the bolt would 
break it. Any man who has had to drill staybolts in the 
boiler will concur in this statement. Our method of drill- 
ing holes with this machine is very simple. Use two high 
horses, and tie with pieces of wire from some convenient 

Pig. 387— Drill-Head and Carrlag* Details of Multiple Staybolt Drill. 

the two frame channels and is carried on four small place at the top of the horses to the boiler. Then set a 

wheels, a pair rolling on each channel, board perpendicular, and it can be moved along the line 

Details of the drill carriage are included in the draw- of bolts to be drilled. The operator can sit down and 

ings. As will be seen from these and the photograph, the drill a staybolt in 20 seconds. Our cost of drills has been 
drills are driven from a horizontal shaft under the car- 

riage, which is driven by bevel gearing from a vertical 
shaft at one end. The drill is adjusted to drill at dif- 
ferent angles by a centering screw between the head 
and the stock, plainly shown in the photograph. The 
drill is fed by air pressure,* the hose connections to the 
small 4-in. x 4-in. air cylinder on the back of each drill 


o J] «^~ 

pig. 3Sa— Punch for Staybolt Te1l-Tal« Hole*. 

stock being for this purpose. Power for the machine is reduced 50 per cent, and labor reduced 40 per cent., be- 
sides making it easier for the driller. — D. P. KeUos^g, 
Master Afcchaiiic; W. F. Merry,' General Foretnan, and 
G. H. Good^vin. General Gang Foreman, Southern 

Pacific, Los Angeles, Col. 

furnished by a 10 h.p., a. c, motor, running at 865 r.p.m. 
under load. — Great Northern, Dale Street Shops, St. 
Paul, Minn. 


A handy machine for drilling tell-tale holes in staybolts 
is illustrated in Fig. 368. By applying an air cylinder to 
the end of a small motor and admitting air after it has 
been placed ready to drill a hole, it acts as an air feed 
and keeps the drill 


A punch used in a bolt heading machine for punching 
and countersinking tell-tale holes 1 ^^ in. deep in stay-' 
bolts at one operation is shown in Fig. 369. The body 

line. The old method of drilling of the punch may be made any size to suit the machine; a 

Fifl. 36S— Pneumatic Attachment for Feeding Air Motor In Drilling Staybolte. 



tool of this kind will punch from 2,000 to 4,000 bolts 
without bending or breaking. It should be made of tool 
steel and in tempering care should be taken not to make 
it too hard. If tempered to a light blue it will give the 
best results. — H. L. Burrhus, Assistant General Foreman, 
Erie Railroad, Susquehanna, Pa. 


A device for applying flexible stajbolts is shown in 
Figs. 370 and 371. It consists of a sleeve A which screws 

driver D in the square recess in the head of the staybolt. 
The driver D is revolved by a small crank, which is not 
shown, making the application of the staybolt a com- 
paratively easy job. After it has been screwed into place, 
sleeve E with anvil F, Fig. 371, is applied to hold the 
head of the bolt while it is being riveted over on the other 
end. — M. H. H'eslbrook, Grand Trunk, Battle Creek, 


A chuck for applying and removing slaybolts with an 
air motor or wrench is shown in Fig. 372. The chuck is 
made of machine steel, with a hardened tool-steel jaw, or 
grip, and is designed to handle staybolts up to 1_'4 in. in 
diameter. The jaw is set tangent to the center hole, as 

-P — ^l- — I 

tH I ^ 

Smcfion Shoming BoH and Drivtr 
Fig. 370— Orivsr for Flexible Btaybolti. 

on the socket B. The sleeve C is threaded to the same 
pitch as the staybolts and holds the end of the square steel 

•- — Li-^ 

cAwj Through Anvil. 
Fig. 371— Anvil for Applying Flexible Staybolt*. 





Maehint Sfrt/ 

Fig. 372-^Stayboit Chuck. 

indicated by the sketch, and is provided with both right 
and left-hand teeth for gripping the bolt in either direc- 
tion. The jaw is made tapering, with the thick end at 
the bottom, to take different size bohs. The thickness 
through the center section is varied, according to the 
diameter of the bolt. A 5/16-in. washer attached by two 
y^-va. setscrews holds the jaw in place. This chuck is 
simple, strong and efficient. Its action is positive in 
either direction and there are no moving parts to break 
or get out of order. The jaws are interchangeable and 
are quickly removed and replaced. — S. S. Light foot, 
Bonus Demonstrator, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, San 
Bernardino. Cal. 


Radial stayboUs are ordinarily threaded on a small 
engine lathe, especially at the head end of the bolt. At 
the Sayre shops this work is done entirely on bolt ma- 
chines. The bolts are stripped and the taper fit and fac- 
ing •f the head are done nn a horizontal bolt machine, 
the dies having extensions for making the nick under the 
head. The bolts are threaded on a vertical machine. The 
lower head carries the bolt, gripping it on the square end ; 
the movable head carries the chasers, and is let down 
from above. In cutting threads close to the head, it is 
necessary to provide a device for tripping the dies. This 
device is shown, as it is about to operate, in Fig. 37i. It 



arranged. A 6-in. air cylinder feeds the cutter, which 
is mounted on a IjA-ln. shaft. On ihie end of this shaft 
is placed a high speed reamer, used for removing the 
burrs or for tapering the ends of the tube for welding. 

Fig. 37»— Threading Radial Staybolti. 

allows the dies to approach within 1/32-in. of the head 
of the bolt, when thej- are opened. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, 


A machine for cutting off the ends of tubes is shown in 
Fig. 374. It does not differ greatly from other machines 
used for this work, although it is compactly and efficiently 

Fig. 374— Tubs Cutting Machine. 

The belt shifter is placed in a handy position, the handle 
being located as shown in the sketch. — £, /. McKernan, 
Tool Supervisor, Atchison, Topeka &■ Santa Fe, Topeka, 



The tube cutter illustrated in Fig. 375 does not differ 
essentially in design from a number of others used else- 
where, but is shown as a matter of record and suggestion 
to others who may wish to build one. The bed is formed 
of a piece of timber 3 in. by 12 in. by 16 ft. and is carried 
by eight legs made in pairs of 3-in. by 5^-in. iron. The 
shaft carrying the cutter has a total length of 5 ft. V/i in. 
and is carried at the back end in a bearing hung in ' 
trunnions. Near the cutting end it is carried in a sliding 
box A which can be forced down by the screw and hand- 
wheel above. The cutter is 3^ in. in diameter and ^ in. 
thick and of the usual form. A pair of idle rollers are 
placed directly beneath the cutter for supporting the end 
of the tube. There is also another pair of idle rollers at 
B. The length is gaged by an adjustable stop C. The 
tube is then simply laid on the rollers with one end against 
the stop and the running cutter is forced down on it 
The cutter is run at a speed of 430 revolutions per minute, 
— Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, Scranton, Pa. 

Fig. 37S — Tube Cutter. 



A most efficient tube cutter has been designed by B. 
Hendrikson, foreman of the tool room. This tool, which 
is shown in Fig. 376, is so constructed that an air whistle 
is blown the instant the cntter wheel has made its way 


The apparatus for driving a tube cutter and the way in 
which it is applied are shown in Figs. 378 and 379. The 

Fig. 376 — Tube Cutter. 

through the tube, thus notifying the operator that the cut 
is finished. Another important feature of the tool is the 
air feed. The tool is driven by a pneumatic motor and 
air is pumped into the cylinder B through the driving 
shaft A, thus affording a means of expanding the cutter 
disks out against the tube. The tube cutter in operation 
is shown in Fig. 377. The following test, which wcs 
made at the Chicago shops, will give some idea of thj 

Fig. 376 — Gear Box for Tube Cutter. 

gears for reducing the motor speed are in a sheet iron; 
case which is attached to the slotted bar. The bar which: 
transmits the motion to the tube cutter is in three parts,: 

Fig. 377— Tube Cutter In Operatlor 

rapiditv with 

vhich the tubes can be cut. The device is 

patented : 

No. Time .Air .Aver, 
of tubes (min- pres- per tube 
cut. utes). sure. (seconds). 

Engine No. 294. . 

—Chicdfio & .\'orth li'cslcrn, Chicago. 

Fig. 379 — Apparatus Adjusted for Cutting Out Tubea. 

connected by knuckle joints, thus making it flexible and 
allowing the cutter tp be changed from one tube to an- 
other without adjusting the gear box. The machine is 
operated by an apprentice. — K. }. Laauool and J. S. 



Naery, Jr., Special Apprentices, Chicago, Indiana & 
J.omsiille, Lafayette, Ind. 


■ The assembled and detailed drawings of the tube cutter; 
Fig. 380, illustrate a most efficient tool for cutting tubes 
out of a boiler. Removing a set of tubes, -using an air 

Fig. 380 — Tube Cutter. 

hammer and chisel to cut loose the rolling at the front 
tube sheet, not only takes from 15 to 20 hours' time, but 
is a laborious task, as the mechanic is compelled to work 
in a cramped position, especially in small diameter arches. 
The simplicity of this tool at once recommends it to the 
tool maker as well as the user. The outside portion is 
made of machine steel and the center cylindrical portion 
of tool steel. This latter part carries a tool steel pin. 

which fits in the high-speed steel cutter. Reference to 
the drawing shows that when the inner cylinder is in its 
extreme position toward the left, the eccentric action of 
the tool steel pin which engages the cutter, draws the 
cutting blade inside the tool. When power is applied in 
the right-hand direction, the eccentric action of the pin 
forces the cutter out and through the walls of the tube 
just behind the flue sheet. By completing the circle a 
band of metal the width of the blade face is cut out of the 
tube. The power is then reversed, which throws the blade 
back into the tool and permits its withdrawal from the 
tube. This tool is intended for use with an air motor, the 
toggle permitting a universal joint connection to a bar, 
one end of which has a Morse taper end for inserting in 
the motor socket. The air motor is swung in the arch on 
the center line of the boiler, and the universal joint 
permits cutting out the entire set of tubes without chang- 
ing the position of the motor. The motor should have a 
quick reversing arrangement, as the tool makes but one 
revolution in cutting and one in the opposite direction for 
removing. The tool foreman at Meadville, John Hessler, 
who designed this tool is authority for the statement that 
it will cut a set of 326 tubes in five hours, which, with an 
air hammer and chisel, would take about three times a^ 
long. — Erie Railroad, Meadville, Pa. 


The machine for cutting out boiler tubes, shown in Fig. 
381, was invented by John T. Fuhrman, foreman of the 
too! room of the Great Northern shops at St. Paul, Minn. 
There are three U/16-in. circular cutters, which are 
forced out to the cutting position by a three-sided, tapered 
spindle, actuated by the pneumatic cylinder. The cutters 
are held to their normal position by a coil spring at each 
end, shown in the longitudinal section and the cross-sec- 
tion on line B. The cutter is driven by an end-spindle air 
motor, also the invention of Mr. Fuhrman. These motors 
have been in use on the Great Northern for a long time, 
there being about 190 in service at present. They are de- 
signed for close-quarter work and are, therefore, especi- 

Fig. 381 — Pneumatic Tube Cutter. 



ally adapted for use with this flue cutter, enabling the flues 
to be cut out at both ends without trouble. The device 
is easily handled by one man, motor and cutter together 
weighing only 36 lbs. It will cut as high as 18 flues a 
minute, and do it smoothly, without burring the ends, 
leaving them in shape for welding. A set of cutters has 
a life of more than 3,000 cuts. The device has been in 
use more than a year and the inventor has applied for a 
patent on it — Great Northern, Dale Street Shops, St. 
Paul, Minit. 

and this one feature should recommend it as a simple and 
rapid tube cutting too!. — IV. H. Snyder, Assistant Gen- 

A device for cutting out tubes is shown in the photo- 
graph. Fig. 382, and the drawing, Fig. 383. The tool 
holder B is first inserted in the tube, after .which the 
cutting tool is placed and the point driven through the 
tube wall. Only one revolution is necessary for the cut- 
off. The photo shows clearly the assembled device and 
the method of hanging it with the block and fall. The 
large gear wheel U is mounted on the spindle which 
carries the cutting tool, and the power of the motor is 
transmitted through the gears V and IV. This arrange- 
ment greatly increases the power and at the same time 
reduces the speed. The flexibihty of the device in adjust- 
ing it to the different tubes is shown in the illustration, 

Fig. 382— Tube Cutting Tool In Poaltlon. 

eral Foreman, Neiv York, Susquehanna & Western, 
Stroudsburg, Pa. 


- A device for forming brick arch tubes to the proper 
shape is located in the boiler shop near an oil furnace in 
which they are heated. The power is supplied by a 14-in, 
X lO-in. driver brake cylinder, the air being controlled 

^^ r^ 






- — J 

-I S.-tw i-^ > 

I^H 1— I k,^i -Mr- ■'i'/'---^-vj<=-r*-[-*f',f- 

Fig. 3S3 — Tube Cutting Toot Detail*. 


Mechanic, and Henry Holdcn, General Foreman, Chi- 
cago, Si. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, St. Paul, Minn. 

Flfl. 384 — Pr«M for Forming Brick Arch Tubei. 

by a foot valve. The construction of the press and of 
the formers is clearly shown in Figs. 384 and 385. — P. F. 
SmUh, Chief Draftsman; Thomas Marshall. Master 

"^'- -»I 

—/tj: — 
Bo/hm Die CJ 


Fig. 385— Diet for Formlnfl Brick Arch TubM. 

An efficient tool for expanding tnbes and one which is 
used in all the shops of the Krie, is shown in Fig. 386. 
This tool differs from the well-known expander of this 
general type, in that the three jS-in. cold rolled steel 
rollers are set at an angle of Z'/^ deg.. as shown, instead 

r-!^ iH 


d— ^ 3 







Fig. 388 — Flue Expander. 

of being parallel to the center line. In using an expander 
in which the rolls are set parallel to the center line it is 
necessary to expand the rolls by striking the end of the 
spindle. This not only tends to strain the fibers of the 
tnbe metal but makes a more or less uneven roll, and also 
shortens the life of the spindle by battering its end. With 
the rolls set at an angle the feed is automatic, as is also 
the withdrawal of the tool when revolving the spindle in 
the opposite direction. — Erie Railroad. Mcadrillc, Pa. 


A special too! for drilling tube-sheets is shown in Fig. 
387. The rose bit A is inserted in the small hole in the 
sheet and the drill B cuts the tnbe hole to the proper size. 

Fig. 387— Tool for Drilling Tube-SheeU. 

A hole can be drilled in from 32 to 35 seconds with this 
tod. — Chicago & i\'orth Western, Chicago. 


.A high-speed tube-sheet cutter with a soft steel arbor, 
for driUing holes in tnbe-sheets on a drill press, is illus- 
trated in Fig, 388. The cutter has two cutting faces 



similar to a twist drill. A carbon steel rose bit cutter 
serves as a nut to hold the cutter on the arbor. The 
cutter reams out the punched holes to 1 3/16 in. in 
diameter and it is properly centered. The use of the 
cutter has greatly increased the efficiency of this class 
of work. With the old-stvle cutter 15 holes were 
drilled per hour at a cost of 1.33 cents per hole on the 
basis of labor at 20 cents per hour. With the new cutter 
the same operator drills 60 holes per hour, at a cost of 
,33 cents per hole. This is a reduction in cost of 1 cent 
per hole, or 75 per cent. The total saving per year by 
the use of this cutter in our shop over the old methods is 
$522. — E. J, McKcrnan, S)ipenisor of Tools, Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, Topcka, Kan. 


The tube-sheet cutter shown in Fig. 389 drills, reams 
and removes the burrs at one operation, making a perfect 
hole. It is possible to cut 247 2^4 -in. holes in eight hours. 
The shank and body are made of soft steel and the center 
is of tool steel. The cutter, reamer and burr remover are 
made of high-speed steel. This tool, with reamer at- 

tached, makes tight and perfect application of the tubes 
possible. It is used on a drill press. The spring in the 

Sfml Pffrt ,^trin^ 


Fig. 389 — Tube-Sheet Cutter. 

tool holds the tit in the small hole, guiding the cutter. 
— William G. Reycr, General Foreman, Nashville, Chat- 
tanooga & St, Louis, Nashville, Tenn. 


A tool for cutting holes in tube-sheets is shown in Fig. 
390. The particular feature of this holder is the small 
amount of high-speed steel required — only two pieces 
j^-in. X ^-in. x 2;5^-in. The cutters are sawed to their 
proper length and are then placed in a special jig in the 
lathe, four at a time, turned to the proper diameter with 
clearance, and bored with clearance on the inside. An- 

/Vo4 Morse Taper 


I I ' 

^ A 




Soff Steel 

% IIThds 

High Speed Sfeet 





I iOThds, 

Soft Steel 

High Speed 



















































































Fig. 388 — High-Speed Fiue-Sheet Cutter. 


other special feature is the provision for breaking the screwed the formers, either the one shown for sweiiging 
sharp corners on the lube hole. This is clone by leaving down the firebox end of the tube, or the pin former for 
a fillet on the cutter. The cutters are held rigid in the expanding the ends of tubes for large holes rather than 

to use a ferrule. An oil furnace is placed near the ma- 
chine for heating the tube ends. When the tube is placed 
V-r on the V-block the air is turned on. The piston in the 
]'^ vertical cylinder responds first, clamping the tube in posi- 

Ulngahivnkon '^ s* 

Fig. 390 — Tool for Cuttlno Tube-Sheet Hole*. 

holder, which is provided with thrust screws by which 
accurate adjustment of the cutters can be obtained. With 
this tool the tube holes are cut and the corners chamfered 
in one operation at the rate of 60 holes per hour. — D. P. 
Kdhgg, Master .\fechaitic: iV. F. Merry. General Fore- 
man, and C. H. Good-ivin, General Gang Foreman, 
Southern Pacific, Los Angeles, Cat. 


A tool for cutting tube-sheet holes is shown in Fig. 
391. The taper shank is made to fit the socket of a drill 
press. The cutter C slips over tlie end of the bar, to 
which it is secured by a pin or key. The bottom of the 
cutter is fluted similar to a milling cutter and operates in 
the same way. This tool will drill 200 holes in a Vi-m. 


1^ s- -H 

Ui -4 









Fiff. 392— Tube Swedging Machine. 

tion, after which the piston of the second cylinder acts 
to move the forming die against the end of the tube. — 
Central Railroad of Keiv Jersey, EHzabcthport, X. J. 


An arrangement for testing tubes with cold water which 
have had new safe ends welded on is shown in Fig. 393, 
The set of tubes on the buggy shows 24-in. safe-ends that 
have just been welded on. At the extreme left of the 

Fig. 391 — Tube-Sheet Cutter. 

flue-sheet in about one hour and forty-five minutes.— 
F. C. Pickard, .-issistant Master Mechanic, Cincinnati, 
Hamilton & Dayton, Indianapolis, Ind. 


The tube swedging machine, shown in Fig. 392. is 
easily and cheaply made from old material. The bed is 
a 13-in. channel, about 10 ft. long. To one end of this 
channel is bolted the upright which holds the air cylinder 
used for clamping the tube. The second cyhnder is 
mounted horizontally at the opposite end of the bed plate. 
On the end of the piston rod of this second cylinder are 

Fig. 3S3 — Tube Testing Machine. 

illustration is seen the plunger against which one end of 
the flue is held, while the near view- of the right han<l end 
of the machine. Fig. 394, gives a good idea of the plunger 


cylinder arrangement and the water supply. The bed 
of the machine is made of two metal plates, riveted to 
the feet. The semi-circular bottom binds the vertical 


A tube swedging machine, which is made from a 10-in. 
brake cylinder with an 8-in. stroke is shown in Fig. 395. 
The piston is returned to its normal position by the 
spring in the cylinder. The machine has two sets of dies. 
The scale is blown off the tube by the exhaust air. The 
foot pedal operates a three-way cock, which controls the 
flow of air, — P. C. Pickard, Assistant Master Mechanic,. 
Cincinnati. Hamilton &• Dayton, IndiaiuiftoHs, Itid. 

Fig. 394 — Operating End of Tube Testing Machim 

plates together, making a tank into which the waste water 
falls. The tubes are handled from buggy to buggy, one 
being placed on each side of the machine. A set of tubes 
can be tested in a comparatively short time. — Central 
Railroad of A'nc Jersey. FJi::(ihelhport, X. J. 


A novel arrangement is used in the flue shop for weld- 
ing and swedging tubes. The shop originally possessed a 
single fiue-welder of the usual roller type. In order to 
do the swedging at the same heat as the welding, another 
machine of exactly the same type was bought and placed 
alongside. The two are now on the same base and are 
strongly tied together and are driven by a common driv- 
ing pinion set between their gears. This pinion was the 
original drive of the first machine. It drives the two 
heads in the same direction, and as soon as a safe end Is 
welded on it is pushed into the swedger and finished. 
This, in combination with the oil furnace, enables the 
work to be turned out with great rapidity. — Delaware, 
LackaziKimia & IVestern, Scranton, Pa. 


In common with other railways the Pennsylvania has 
experienced much trouble from leaky tubes, and while 
on most roads this is attributed to bad water or improper 
methods of feeding, filling and cooling boilers, on the 
Pennsylvania, where there is a good water supply and 
proper methods of handling water are employed, it was 
found that a large part of the tube leakage was caused 
by irregular methods of setting and tightening tubes. 
The practice at different shops and roundhouses was not 








r 1 




Fig. 39»— Tube Swedging Machine. 

Fig. 39fl. 

uniform, and when a passenger locomotive passed over 
several divisions and required tube repairs, the work was 
not always done in such a manner as to prevent leakage. 
In other words, tube repairs were not sufficiently stand- 
ardized to obtain the desired results. After careful in- 
vestigation, the best practice for setting tubes at shops 
and engine houses, the best method of maintaining tubes 
at engine houses, the best method of preventing leaky 


tubes when engines arrive at terminals, and the proper tools \o. 5, Fig. 401, must be maintained within the limits 

tools for tube work, were all standardized and printed i 
a circular which was approved in June, 1909, by the lines 
East and West. Since the adoption of this standard tube 
practice the number of leaky tubes on the Pennsylvania 
Lines has been materially reduced. 

Tubes must be in accordance with standard specifica- 
tions and must be ordered .120 in. thick. Material for 
safe ends must be in accordance with standard specifica- 
tions and must be ordered .134 in. thick. Ferrules must 

|_^„.^ \ [ I \ 


of standard gages and tools Xo. 4, Fig, 399, must be 




iu i 


j_ i 





Fig. 399. 

taken out of service when worn hollow 1/32-in. between 
the fillets. 

Application of Tubes in Shops and Engine Houses, — 
Operation No. 1, — Ferrules must be placed in the tube 

Fig 397. 

be made of soft copper and 1/32 in. longer than the thick- 
ness of the tube sheet, and must be ordered .075 in. thick. 
The outside diameter must be the same as the outside 
diameter of the tube. Tube holes in the firebox tube 
sheet must be the same diameter as the outside of the 
tube and a 1/16 in. radius fillet must be provided on each 
edge of the tube holes. 

When the tube hole in the firebox tube sheet becomes 
J^-in. out of round it must be reamed. Tube holes in the 
smoke box tube sheets must be 1/16-in. larger in diameter 

FIfl. 400. 

holes in the firebox sheet, as shown in Fig, 396, and 
rolled tight with tool No. 1. 

Operation No. 2. — Tubes must be placed in the tube 
holes in the firebox tube sheet neatly fitted, as shown in 

Fig. 398. 

than the outside diameter of the tube and sharp edges of 
the tube holes must be removed. The firebox end of the 
tubes must be swedged down with a slight taper towards 
the end of the tube to a diameter sufficiently small to 
allow the end of the tube to neatly fit the ferrule after 
it has been rolled in the tube hole. The swedged end of 
the tube must not be less than l/^-in. long, as shown in 
Fig. 397. 

All tools for working tubes in locomotive boilers must 
be in accordance with standard tracings and the tool 
numbers must be stamped on each tool with %-\n. figures. 
Each tool must be used for the operation specified. All 


Fig 401 

Fig. 397, and tightened with tool Xo. 2. (Operations 
Nos. 7 and 8, respectively, must be performed after opera- 
tion Xo. 2 is completed and prior to commencing opera- 
tion No. 3.) 


(Operation No. 3. — Firebox ends of tubes, as shown in not stand rescuing: with tool No, 4, tlicy may be 
Fig. 398. must l>e opened with tool No. 3, using either a with tool No. 1, after which the beads must be 

t with 

pneumatic or a hand hammer. 

Operation No. 4, — Firebox ends of tubes, as shown in 
Fig. 399, must be expanded with tool No. 4. This opera- 
tion should be done on the tubes along the lines E-F and 
G~H respectively, as shown in Fig. 400, and then sections 
A, B, C and D should be worked out by performing this 
operation in each section commencing at the outer edge 
of the sheet in working the tubes in these sections in cir- 
cumferential rows toward the center. 

Operation No. 5. — Firebox ends of tubes, as shown in 

tool No. 5. (Tool No. 1 mitsl not be used except \ 
1 the judgment of the foreman it is necessary.) 
Pmeiilioii of Leaking Tubes. — In order to reduct 

Fig. 402. 

Fig. 401, must be beaded with tool No. 5, using cither a 
pneumatic or a hand hammer. 

Operation No. 6 — Firebox ends of the tubes, as shown 
in Fig. 402, may be slightly rolled with tool No. 1, if 

Operation No. 7. — Smoke box ends of tubes, as shown 
in Fig. 403, must be tightened with tool No. C. 

Operation No. 8. — Smoke box ends of tubes, as shown 
in Fig. 404, must be rolled with too! No. 1. 

Maintenance of Tubes at Engine Houses. — Tubes which 
are slightly leaking at the firebox end of the locomotive 






i i 




-■ ^ 




Fig. 404. 

tube leakage to a minimum the following practice must 
be followed : When fires are being cleaned or drawn the 
blower should be used only sufficiently hard to prevent 
smoke einitting from the fire door. All fires must be 
banked at the tube sheet except in the fire boxes having 
front grates bricked off, in which caSe the fire should be 
banked over the adjoining grates. Unless absolutely 
necessary injectors should not be used while the fires are 
being cleaned, also when no fire is in fireboxes, nor while 
locomotive? are being moved under their own steam in 
the engine yards without first brightening up the fire. — 
Pcniisxhviiiti Railroad Standard Practice. 


W.^ ^ ^ r . <gj ^^^ ^ ;w ^<v^k^^^^^^ 

Fig. 403. 

boilers in service must be lightened with tool No. 4 if 
necessary, after which beads must be reset with tool No. 
5. Tubes which are slightly leaking at the smoke box 
must be tightened with tool No. 1. When a locomotive 
arrives at an engine house with the tubes leaking so 
badly at the firebox end that it must be taken out of 
service, the boiler must be drained, after which the fire- 
box ends of tubes must be reset with tool No. 4 and the 
beads then reset with tool No, 5. When the tubes will 

Fig. 405 — Crate for Handling Boiler Tubei. 


TUBES, CRATE FOR HANDLING, p'u?f i" o"^ Operation. After the dies have been closed 

T, . f , t L ■ t r .1 1 ... the taper kev is removed and the 2-in. pin is forced clear 

Ihe crate of tubes shown m front of the locomotive in "^ 

Fig. 405 ilUistrates the method of handling boiler tubes 

to and from the flue shop. When they are removed from 

the boiler, they are dropped into the crate, as shown. It 

is then lifted and transferred by the traveling crane, the 

rings at the top of the crate being connected to the crane 

hook by chains. — Lettish Valley, Sayrc, Pa. 


A set of dies for making corner patches for washout 
phigs is Hsed in the hydraulic sectional Hanger. The 
male die is 5 63/64 in. in diameter and fits in the vertical 
ram of the machine; the lower die is 11 in. long, shaped 
at the top with a 5''^-in. radius, as shown in the drawing. 
Fig. 4C6. A I'-ii-in. hole is drilled in the bottom end of 
the upper die and a taper keyway is cut through the die 
to hold the punch, which is 2 in. in diameter, in place. 
A -^-in. hole is punched in the sheet which is to form the 
patch, after which it is heated and placed between the through the hole in the patch. — Rack Island Lines, Silvis, 
dies. It is bent and the hole is flanged for the washout III. 

Fig. 40fr— Dl«a for Forming Cornor Patch for Waahout Plug. 


Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting 


The oxy-acetylene method of autogenous welding of 
metals -has been in use in this country, to a very hmited 

and although the possibilities of the oxy-acetylene process- 
are very great, railways have been slow to take advantage 
of the savings to be made by this method. The reason is 
that the apparatus now on the market is very expensive 
and too small for railway needs. Most of the plants are 
unable to run over five hours with two burners without 
stopping to recharge. 

The application to a large shop seems to have been lost 

Fig. 408— Burner for Work 

a Horizon tat Position. 

sight of by the manufacturers of oxygen and acetylene, 
and it lias been left to the railways and large manufactur- 
ing companies to develop the details. Preliminary in- 
vestigations covering several years were made by a west- 
ern railway, and it became convinced that the oxy- 
extent, for a number of years. The feasibility of welding acetylene process of welding metals would be both prac- 
steel or iron by this method has been fully demonstrated, tical and economical to- use in railway repair shops. It 

Fig. 407 — Ho» Connection* 

I Plpo Line to the Burner. 

Fig. 409 — Welding Tubes In a Jacobs Superheater by the Oxy-Acetyle 


was discovered that there was but little expert knowledge loss from leakage, as well as danger from explosions, 
that could be obtained and the development was carried Taking everything into consideration, it was decided to 
on by shop employees. build a central plant and equipment has been installed at 

Portable plants were considered undesirable, as each 
one would require expert attention and would neces- 
sarily be intermittent in its action, due to the charging 
of the gas tanks. It is necessary to purchase the oxygen 

Fig. 410— Burner for Work in a Vertical Poiltion. 

in drums from a manufacturing company and, as it often 
conies from a great distance, delays in shipment of the 
drums wotild result in the entire stoppage of the weldinjj 
plant. The oxygen is kept at a very high pressure, often 
as high as 1,800 lbs. per s(iuare inch, which would mean 
great difficulty in keeping the joints tight and consequent 

; shop consisting of a stationary central generating 

Fig. 412— Rolled and Beaded Boiler Tubes Pulled from Sheet. 

plant, the oxygen and acetylene being distributed among 
the different shops through pipe lines. 

Oxygen and Acctylene.—The ox\'gen is generated 
from calcium oxy-chloride, iron sulphate and copper sul- 
phate, as it was found that this was cheaper than the 
usual chlorate of potash method and could be done with 
much less complicated apparatus. The oxygen passes 
into an ordinary gasometer where it is stored until drawn 
out by the compressor. Slorage tanks are provided and 
are so arranged that any one of them may be charged or 

-Boiler Tubea Welded tn Flu 
Shupert Firebox. 

Sheet of Jacobe- 

Fig. 413— Welded Tube Pulled from Sheet. 

discharged independently, A pressure of from 60 to 70 
lbs. per square inch is maintained in the storage tanks 
while the plant is in operation. This pressure is reduced 
to 20 lbs. as the oxygen leaves the storage tanks, in order 
to minimize the loss due to leakage. A separate pipe 
line, carrying the full storage tank pressure, is used to 
take care of the burner when used for the cutting process. 
The acetylene is generated by an automatic water-to- 
carhide feed generator designed by employees of the rail- 
way. .A pressure of 2'/^ lbs. is maintained in the acetylene 
pijie line. 



Advantages of This System. — This system of generat- 
ing oxygen and acetylene gives a constant supply of the 
gases at a constant and at the same time a minimum 
pressure. The great advantage is that there are no in- 
terruptions in the pressure due to shutting down the 
plant when a fresh charge is put in. It is also unneces- 
sary to huy and maintain expensive high pressure re- 

burner, and which, when once adjusted to deliver gas at 
any desired pressure, will Automatically maintain that 
pressure in the discharge line regardless of variations in 
the pipe line pressure. A pressure of about 10 lbs. has 
been found to give the best results in the burner. 

Burners. — There are two general styles of burners 
used in connection with the oxy-acetylene welding pro- 
cess, one, as shown in Fig. 408, for work in a horizontal 
position, and the other, as shown in Fig. 410, for work 
in a vertical position. The burner receives the acetylene 
gas from the main pipe line through a combined flash 
back trap and water column pressure indicator. The flash 
jback trap operates in such a way as to prevent the oxygen 
from backing up into the acetylene line, or any pressure 
in excess of 3 lbs. from accumulating in any part of the 
acetylene system. 

Development of the 0.vy-.4cetylene Method. — The 
oxy-acetylene method of welding is a trade in itself and 
can only be mastered by gradual development. This must 
be carried on in an intelligent and thorough manner, and 
in such a way that the workman can see and know the 
result of his work. It is impossible to see the water side 

Flfl, 414 — Dttfectivtt Part 

ceivers and fittings. There are no fluctuations due to 
recharging, as the plant is absolutely continuous in its 
operation. A sufficient stock of the necessary ingredients 
can be kept on hand to cover any emergency so that there 
is no danger of the stoppage of the plant which might 
result if the gases were purchased from a manufacturing 

Shop Plant. — The plant above referred to generates 
about 2.0CO cu. ft. of oxygen per 10-hour day, at a cost 
of 2 cents per cu. ft. This is less than one-half the cost 
if purchased in drums from a manufacturing company. 
This supply is sufficient to operate four burners, which 
makes the cost 98 cents per burner per hour, including 
material, labor and the expense of compressing the ga.s. 
The cost of the acetylene is 13 cents per burner per hour, 
thus making the total cost of the gases $1.11 per burner 
per hour. 

The burner or blow pipe is connected to the oxygen 
and acetylene pipe lines by means of rubber tubes, as 
shown in Fig. 407. Between the opening in the oxygen 
pipe line and tiie rubber tube which connects with the 
oxygen pipe of the burner or blowpipe, is placed a 
pressure reducing valve by means of which the blowpipe 
operator can readily vary the pressure of oxygen in the 

of the weld in a firebox, and we must depend on the 
skill of the workman in making a perfect weld. To train 
the workmen so that they may know the result of their 
work, they are provided with test pieces which are welded 
together and then pulled in a testing machine, which 
shows them the exact condition of the weld. 

The oxy-acetylene process of welding is adapted to 
wide application in railway shops and its use is being 
cxten<led every day. One of the first jobs performed at 



Topeka was the welding of tubes in a Jacobs superUeatcr. 
This has proved so satisfactory that in the past year over 
20,000 tube ends have been welded with excellent results. 
Fig. 409 shows the tubes being welded in a superheater 
for a tandem compound locomotive. The butt joint in 
the wrapper sheet has also been welded. This was done 
before the joint was riveted. 

Welding of Boiler Tubes. — Boiler tubes have been 
welded in the Hue sheet for a locomotive boiler with the 
Jacob s-Shupert firebox, as shown in Fig. 411. This is 
undoubtedly an innovation, but the excellent results ob- 
tained from welding superheater tubes have shown that 
it is not only entirely feasible for welding boiler tubes in 
the sheet, but will mean an immense saving in the counse 
of ^ year in the repairs of flue leakages. The actual cost 
of removing, repairing and replacing 2-in. boiler flues 
by the usual method of rolling and beading compared to 

one-half when the tubes arc placed in a vertical position, 
such as welding the superheater tubes as shown in Fig. 
409. Sample tubes were welded into the sheet and pulled 
in a testing machine and compared with the usual method 
of rolling and beading. The results of these tests are 
shown in Figs, 412 and 413. The welded tubes offered 

Fig. 416— Patch Wflld«d In Firebox. 

the cost of welding flues by the oxy-acetylcne process is 

as follows : 

' —Per 100 . 

Rolling Oxy-acety- 

and Xent. 

beading. welding. 

Remove complete $2,640 $2,640 

ClMii 105 .105 

Cut tor safe end .525 .525 

Cnt lo length 315 .315 

Spliced or st.irfed .335 .335 

Weld ( safe end) 560 560 

Swedge 210 .210 

-Anneal 030 .030 

Make safe ends 210 .210 

File holes 100 .100 

Apply copper ferrulte .430 

Cost of copper ferrules 2.720 .... 

Measure for leiiglli 220 .220 

Applv and set 890 .890 

Expa'nd. roll and bead 1.540 

Roll and pin .750 

Oxv-aeetylene weld 4.500 

Roll and shim front end 600 ,600 

Test 325 .325 

Totals $11,725 $12,325 

The actual cost by the welding process is about B per 
cent, higher than the usual method of rolling and ex- 
panding, but the life of the tubes is extended almost in- 
definitely, or at least imtil they must be removed for 
some other cause than leaking at the tube sheet joint. 
The above cost is for welding when the tubes are in a 
horizontal position. The welding cost is reduced about 

Fig. 417— Patch Welded on Outilde of Firebox. 

an average resistance during the test of 34,330 lbs. as 
compared to 30.980 lbs, for the rolled and beaded tubes, 
or 10.8 per cent, in favor of the welded tubes. The photo- 
graph of the welded tube, Fig. 413, shows the weld was 
stronger than the tube, as the metal was ruptured and 
part of it left in the sheet. 

In welding some parts it is advisable to pre-heat the 
metal in an ordinary forge, or with an oil burner. With 
a view of reducing the cost of welding tubes this was 
tried, but it was found that it so disorted the tube sheet 

Fig. 418— Pieton Rod Showing Metal Welded on End. 

that nothing was gained by the practice and it was dis- 

Firebox Welding. — This method has been successfully 
used in repairing locomotive firelKixes by welding in 
patches when it was impossible to repair the firebox in 
any other way. This has been done repeatedly, when it 
would otherwise have been necessary to put in a new- 
firebox. Fig. 414 shows a patch in place ready to be 



welded and Fig. 415 shows the same patch in the process 
of being welded. Fig. 416 shows a large patch in a wide 
firebox locomotive. This patch has been in service about 
nine months and has given no trouble whatever. Patches 
are easily welded on the outside of fireboxes, as shown 

Ftfl. 419 — Trailer Truck Hangera t 

Removed from 

in Fig. 417. It is estimated that a saving in firebox re- 
newals for a year will amount to over $35,000 iii a sh<^ 
which repairs locomotives at the rate of 30 per month. ..' 
The following tabulated statement shows a few ex- 
amples of the savings that have been effected in fireboxes 
by the welding on of patches : 

r— — — COSI 

No. Operation. Repair. N'ew part. 

1087 Crack 18 in. long in door sheet and 

several cracks in tube sheet welded $18,00 

Door sheet and tnbe sheet saved $172.00 

1108 Patch 15 X 15 in. on right side sheet. . 1 

12 X 22 in. on right side sheet. . 1 7- (ui 

■■ 12 X 14 in. on fire door sheet . . { '^'^ 

" 12 X 18 in. on fire door sheet. . J 

Engine needed new firebox 800.00 

2264 Patch 12 in. high around entire firebox 

above mud ring 90.00 

Engine needed new firetjox 450.00 

169 Patch 26 X 24 In. on right side sheet, 
mud ring corners patched, several 
other small cracks on various parts 

of firebox 70.00 

Engine needed new firebox 47000 

604 Patch 12 X 14 in, on both fire doors, 
several patches on side sheets, and 

mud ring corners patched 65,00 

Engine needed new firebox "00,00 

345 Two patches 24 x 48 in. on side sheets 

and several small cracks welded,.. ?0,00 

Engine needed new firebox 530,00 

when it would be impossible to repair the old part in 
any other way. The list of such parts is a long one, but 
a few of the more important ones are rocker arms, side 

Fig. 421 — Burner Used In Cutting. 

rods, links, frame braces, eccentric blades, crossheads. 
piston rods, trailer hangers, valve stems, reverse lever 
quadrants, etc. 

Fig. 418 shows a piston rod for a tandem compound 
locomotive that has had metal welded around the end 
which fits into the crosshead. This had become worn so 
that the rod could no longer be used. In this case the 
rod was put in a forge and preheated before the oxy- 
acetylene torch was applied. After about l^ in. of stock 

Fig. 420— Hangers Shown In Fig. 419 with Metal Welded On. 

Miscellaneous Welding. — Locomotive parts arc welded 
nd saved at a trifling expense and made as good as new, 

Fig. 422 — Oxy-Acetylene Torch Cutting Up Scrap Firebox. 

had been added on. the rod was turned to fit the cross- 
head without disturbing the location of the key-way, and 
tlie crosshead was put on as it was originally. The actual 
costs were as follows: 

Liihor welding on metal $0.38 

Oxygen and acetylene 1,67 

Labor turning taper 0,20 

Tual $2.25 


The cost of a new rod is $15, which leaves a saving of sary repairs are made. Often small cracks appear in the 

$12.75 by the expenditure of $2.25, steel castings which, if allowed to spread, would soon 

Trailer truck bolster hangers are removed on account cause a rupture. An illustration of a truck bolster that 

of the pins becoming badly worn, as shown in Fig. 419. has been repaired and saved is shown in Fig. 423. 

It would cost nearlv as much to repair them in the black- 

. , , ■ ' t , 1 . r ■ I'le bolster cost new $21.70 

smith shop as it would to make new ones, and alter they Cosi of welding 1.50 

were repaired in this way, they would require as much — — ■ - 
machining as new hangers. The metal that has been 

worn away on the pin or in the block is replaced by the Comparative Tests of Electric and Oxy-Acciyicne 

oxy-acetylene torch, as shown by Fig. 420, and the cost Welds. — Tests were made of electric and oxy-acetylene 

of machining is small because the original centers are welds to show the comparative strength. Tlie electrically 

preserved. welded bars came from a locomotive manufacturing 

Cutting liuriier.—A special burner, Fig. 421, is used in company, and the oxy-acetylene welds were made by the 

the cutting process and consists of the usual burner with railway company. The results were as follows : 

an additional oxygen pipe placed alongside. The tip of Oxv- 

the pipe is pointed so as to direct the flow of oxygen to- Description. Electric. acetylene. 

ward the hottest part of the flame. The metal to be cut Te^sik s^enRth,' "lbs: "per "sq.'in", ",:;:'. '^37.«lo" ^''^48.]0o"' 

is first heated to tht melting point by the regular burner. Elongation in 4 in., per cent 2 4 

These residts show a decided advantage in favor of 
the oxy-acetyiene process. 

Conclusions, — The oxy-acetylene process of welding 
metals has now reached a practical stage of development 
and is worthy of a place in large manufacturing plants or 
railway shops. The equipment should be such that the 
gases are generated at a central plant and distributed in 
pipe lines to the various shops. A railway shop, over- 
hauling 30 engines a month, should have a plant of suf- 
ficient size to generate 6,C0O cu. ft. of oxygen per 10- 
hour day, which would be siiflficient to operate 10 or 12 
burners. If the oxygen were bought from a manufactur- 
ing company in drimis containing 100 cu. ft. per drum, it 
would mean the handling of CO drums a day, at a cost of . 
more than double what it would cost in a central plant, 
aside from the inconvenience of handling so many drums. 
There is no doubt but that a great saving can be made 
by the use of this process, and development should be 
Fig. 423— Cract* Welded in Car Truck Bolster. aiu,ig the lines of reducing the cost of manufacture of 

the gases for use in large central plants. — H. il'. Jacobs, 

then the additional oxygen is turned on by pressing the ^.j^j,-^,^,,, Si^pcrinteiidcnt Motive Po-.i-er, Atchison, 

.sprmg valve. _ j^^,^^,^^ ^^ ^^^^^ p^_ 

Scrap fireboxes are considered practically worthless 

unless they are cut up in sheets that can be put un<ler the ^. ,s,ivn.i.E sHOi-s ; n-.\shville, ch.att.xn'oog.v & st. louis. 

shears. The cost of handling and shipping fireboxes is 

about as much as they will bring when sold. The oxy- ^"'e sheets can be successfully welded in a locomotive 

acetvlene process has proved to be a money saver in firebox in a comparatively short time and with very little 

cutting up fireboxes into sheets. An illustration of this trouble, if the work is properly done. Provision must 

method is shown in Fig. 422. The price of scrap steel in be made for contraction when the weld cools off. The 

imcut fireboxes is S6.05 per ton. and the same firebox cutting of the opening for the patch in the firebox .should 

cut into sheets wdl bring $10.75 per ton, a difference 

of $4.70. The firebox shown in Fig. 422 weighs about _________^_,<^^^^ 

two tons and the saving would therefore amount to $'>.40 wmmifmfii^in^^ !^^ 

if it were cut up into sheets. The entire cost of cutting p,j_ 424_partlal view of Patch About to Be Welded to the 

by the oxy-acetylene process would amount to about Side Sheet. 

$3.50. The .saving thus made is exclusive of the cost of 

handhng and shipping. be done with a pneumatic hammer and not with the blow- 

Car Truck Repairs.— The use of the oxy-acetylene pipe, as in the latter case the steel will oxidize where it 

process has been confined entirely to the locomotive shop, is cut and il will be difficult to make a successful weld. 

wtih the exception of repairs to truck bolsters, which are The sheet and the patch should \e trimmed with a bevel 

collected and brought to the boiler shop where the neces- such that when the patch is set up ready for welding the 



two sharp pointed edges will touch and an opening or V 
will appear leaving an angle of 45 deg. between the two 
edges of the sheets (Fig. 424). To allow for contraction 
of the patch a U should be formed near its edge, as shown 
in Figs, 424 and 425, and projecting on the same side 
as the open side of the \' formed between the edges of 
the two sheets. This can be made on a press, or under 

clamps or with a fuller. On a 5/i6-in. sheet, for instance, 
the U depression should be about 3^ in. deep with a 
radius of about ^ in. While the weld is cooling off the 
U should be hammered down with a pneumatic hammer. 
The U must, of course, project toward the fire side so 
that it may be hammered. In putting on a patch it is 
best to apply the staybolts before welding. Splendid re- 
sults have been obtained in making a large number of 
wdds in this way. some of them directly under the arch 
on high pressure boilers. 

Fig, 428— End of Eecentri 

; Blade Repair 

I by Oxy-Acetylene 

The welding torch must be kept clean. If too much 
oxygen is used the metal will oxidize and will not weld. 
To get a perfect weld in applying a half side sheet form 
a U along the top of the sheet. In welding a fire door 
flange where the sheet is cracked in the knuckle of the 
flange, do not cut out any more of the door sheet than 
is necessary, keeping the weld as near the turn of the 

flange as possible, thus leaving it free to contract without 
putting much stress on the weld. If this cannot be done 
it will be necessary to use a U, as described above. It 
is good practice to hammer on the heel of the flange 
after welding. 

Cracks develop in the firebox that can be welded per- 
fectly and, again, there are cracks that cannot be welded 
satisfactorily. For instance, if a crack in the knuckle of 
the flange runs the long way of the flange, it can be 
cut with a diamond point chisel and a good weld can be 
made. If the crack is around the knuckle of the flange 
it is useless to try to weld it, as there is no way to pro- 
vide for contraction, and nine times out of ten the weld 
will pull apart. Where the crack is in the center of a 
side sheet, we have never been able to make a success- 
ful weld ; the first effort to weld a crack in a side sheet 
cau.sed no end of trouble; the crack extended 12 in, from 
one sta\bolt to another, taking in three staybolts. It 
was cut out with 1 diamond point tool and apparently 

Broken Jaw flglded ortd Reclaimed. 
Fig. 427 — Damaged Jaw* on Roda Which May Be Repaired by 
Oxy-Acetylene Welding, 

welded very satisfactorily, but after the weld cooled off 
it was found that the next row of staybolts had de- 
veloped a similar crack — the contraction had pulled the 
sheet apart in the weakest place. The new crack was 
cut out and welded and after cooling a similar crack 
developed which opened 3/32 in. We continued to weld 
(ine crack after another nntil the first weld made had 
broken. We tried to weld it again but found it im- 
possible to make a successful weld because of oxidization. 
We cut out the bad place in the sheet and applied a 
patch, which proved entirely satisfactorj'. 

This process is not only convenient and reliable, but 
is economical for welding links, link lifters, link blades, 
intermediate ends on side rods, crossheads. driving 
boxes, reverse levers, quadrants, guide yokes, driving 
wheels, driving wheel tire flanges, Leeds couplers, chan- 
nels on tank truck frames, lubricators and frame braces. 
For cutting purposes it cannot be excelled. When en- 
gines come into the roundhouse with badly cut eccentric 
blades at the pin hole, it is the practice to ream the hole 



out, countersinking it on both sides and to place a bush- 
ing in position, as shown in Fig. 426, and weld with the 
oxy-acetylene torch. The V's indicated by the dotted 
lines are 45 deg. and about % in. deep. The hole is then 
reamed to standard size. Before we installed the oxv- 

Showing Scores af A and S, 


Showing Depth Scored. 

Fig. 428 — Scored Connecting Rod Repaired by Oxy-Acetylene 


acetylene plant it was necessary to apply a new end to 
the eccentric blade, which, under the best conditions, 
would consume eight to ten hours, whereas this work is 
now done in one hour. 

We experienced trouble with our knuckle bushings and 
washers wearing into the rods, thereby weakening 
them. We now weld these worn places, restoring them 
to the original thickness. The jaws, in one case, were 
worn at A and B (Fig. 427) and cracked at the point in- 
dicated by the arrow. Rods scored, as shown in Fig. 428, 
are also easily repaired by welding on material. 

The top of the flanges were cut on the tires of a de- 
railed engine, as shown in Fig. 429. Under former 
practice it would necessitate reducing the tire ^ in. in 
diameter. With the oxy-acetylene process the tire, which 
was practically new, was repaired and put in first class 

Fig. 429 — Steel Tire Cut by Skidding and Reclaimed by Oxy- 
Acetylene Welding. 

condition at a cost of $1. To have re-turned the tire, re- 
ducing it y^ in. in diameter, would have cost $7.06, and 
i|n addition we would have lost y% in. of tire wear. We 
reclaim any number of quadrants and latches by build- 
ing up the worn teeth, thus effecting a large saving. On 
steel driving boxes where the cellar bolt wears the hole 
oblong we drill a larger size hole and countersink it. 
A plug is driven in and welded. The hole is then drilled 
to the original size. We build up reverse levers to proper 
size when thev become worn from the latch. Where we 

find guide yokes cracked we chip out the crack and weld 
it with oxy-acetylene, thereby economizing in both labor 
and material. Front end couplers on locomotives crack 
in different places and are condemned by the inspectors. 
We weld these cracks successfully. We have likewise 
reclaimed a number of fractured channel beams. We 
have also welded tool holders, staybolt taps, shafts, car- 
penter chisels, bits, hammers, adz., and iron pipe, includ- 
ing branch pipes, dry pipes and air pipes of all sizes. 

A piece of shafting 122 in. long and 4^ in. in 
diameter, used in connection with the hoisting engine 
of a yard crane, was badly worn, as indicated in Fig. 
430. A new shaft would have cost $25. The shaft was 
turned down at the worn part and a sleeve was made 
with the inside diameter corresponding to the diameter 

Worn Shaft 

Prepared for lYe/d/n^ on S/eeve, 

Fig. 430— Worn Shaft Which Was Repaired by Oxy-Acetylene 


of the part turned down and the outside diameter to the 
full diameter of the shaft. The sleeve was cut to proper 
length to fit between the shoulders and then split in two 
halves and welded on the shaft. A little filing finished 
the job. The cost of repairs did not exceed $1.50. The 
success of the w^ork lies in the skill of the operator, and 
this can only be acquired by practice and careful study. — 
William G. Reyer, General Foreman, and R. IV. Clark, 
Boiler Shop Foreman, Nashznlle, Chattanooga and St, 
Louis, Xashzille, Tenn. 


In looking over the Erie car shops at Buffalo, X. Y., 
in search of labor and time saving methods and devices, 
the most striking feature encountered was the use of 
oxy-acetylene cutting apparatus in connection with the 
repairs to steel cars and the cutting off of the rivets con- 
necting the coupler and coupler yoke. The center sills 
on steel hopper and gondola cars, especially the older 
equipment, are often cracked or broken near the bolster, 
and it is necessary to cut the sill off and splice on a new 
• end. In doing this the practice on most roads is to drill 
a number of holes in the sill with a pneumatic drill and 
cut it off with a pneumatic chipping hammer. This is 
a rather difficult task, as it is hard to set the brace, or 
"old man," for the air drill, and after the holes are 
drilled it is not an easy matter to cut the sill, as the work- 
man must work in an awkward position. With the port- 



able oxy-acetyiene apparatus it is a comparatively simple 
matter to cut the sill. Tlie apparatus is placed alongside 
the car, and the operator can easily go under the car 
and direct the flame on a chalk mark showing where the 
sill is to be cut. A center sill cut in this manner is 
shown in Fig. 431. It was practically impossible to take 
a photograph while this operation was being performed, 
but the way in which the operator handles the torch is 
plainly shown in Fig. 432. A 12-in. or I4-in. channel, 
such as used for center sills, can be cut through in from 
two to two and a half minutes at a cost, including labor 

Fig. 432 — Cutting a Sleel Channel with an Oxy-Acetylene 

by ordinary methods. With the oxy-acetylene appa- 
ratus the rivet heads can easily be cut off in a very short 
time, /\t first thought it would seem impossible to cut 
oft" the rivet by melting through the head without injur- 
ing the sheet, but that it may be done without doing 
so is indicated by Fig. 433, which shows two 5^-in. 
rivets whose heads have been cut off. The molten metal, 
which is blown to one side by the force of the flame, has 

Fig. 431 — Steel Center Slli Cut with Oxy-Acetylene. 

and material, of about one-sixth of what it would be by 
the method formerly emplo\'ed and described above. 
This cost, however, presupposes that the oxy-acetylene 
apparatus is in more or less constant use and does not 
have to be specially prepared for each operation. Where 
it is only used occasionally the expense would, of course, 
be higher. 

Even after the center sill is cut, where the car is 
equipped with a built-up bolster, the most difiicult part of 
the job remains, and that is cutting the rivets which 
connect the center sill to the bolster. These rivets are 
.difficult to get at and it is a tedious job to remove them 

Fig. 433 — Rivet Heads Are Cut Off Flueh, but the Plate le 
Not Injured by the Oxy-Acetylene Flame. 


Fig. 435— Cutttng off Rivet Head on Coupler Yoke with Oxy- '" fi^^ minutes. 

Acetylene Torch. A general view of that part of the machine that i 



used for generating the acetylene, and which is carried 
on a truck, is shown in Fig. 436. It is a comparatively 
simple matter to charge this generator. It was designed 
for stationary use but was placed on a truck by the rail- 
way company to make it portable. The manufacturer 
now makes a portable outfit which is more conveniently 
and compactly arranged. The rest of the apparatus is 
shown in Fig. 437. The vessel or tube, which is sup- 

principal joints are transversse, extending clear across. 
At either end of tlie car is a longitudinal joint several 
feet in length where the right and left hood plates meet. 
The metal of the roof is 1/16 in. or 3/32 in. thick. A 
difficulty that has been met in such work is a tendency 
of the plates to bend downward and fonn a groove with 
the joint at the bottom. This tendency is successfully 
dealt with by using a small T-bar, to the arms of which 
the edges of the plates are riveted. The web of the T 
lies immediately underneath the joint. The T-bar so 
increases the capacity for the absorption of heat that 
a heavy wire, 54 inch thick, is employed as a welding 
stick, A flat rate of 4 cents per lineal foot is paid for 
the labor; the gas expense is estimated at about Ij/^ 
cents per ft. The welding of the entire roof thus costs 
about $12.75. It is not necessary to chamfer the edges 
in butt-welding such thin sheets. The roof plates are 
about 7 ft, across. The T-bars have a metal thickness 
of J^ in.; the arms are about 1 in. wide, and the web 
about lyi in. deep. The acetylene is supplied through 
flexible tubing from an overhead }i-m. pipe. 

Fig. 437 — Oxygen Tank, Torch, Etc., Used with Oxy-Acetylene 
Cutting Apparatus. 

ported by tl)c tripod, is filled with water and the acety- 
lene gas passes through it ; all danger of air backing up 
into the generator or of back fire is thus eliminated. 
The oxygen is contained in small tanks, as shown at the 
right. These tanks are filled by the manufacturer and 
contain 100 cu. ft. of oxygen under 1.800 lbs. pressure 
per square inch. The oxygen is mixed with the acety- 
lene and ignited, the burner for this purpose being 
shown in the illustration. This particular apparatus was 
furnished by the Linde Air Products Co., of Buffalo. 


Oxy-acetylene welding ts being used to splendid ad- 
vantage in the building of steel passenger cars for mak- 
ing strong, and at the same time invisible joints, which 
have an efficiency of from 80 to 85 per cent. The great 
strength of the riveted joint has made it a favorite for 
many locations on the steel car. But even where the 
rivets are countersunk and the heads are filed or ground 
flush it is not an invisible one. Soldering is sometimes 
used, and at times with success. There are, however, 
two objections to it; it is weak, having only about 40 
or 45 per cent, of the strength of the metal united, and 
it has a different co-efficient of expansion from that of 

On the coaches for one road the joints of the roof 
plates are closed by the oxy-acetylene torch. The roof 
joints on a standard car total about 232 lineal feet. The 

Fig. 438 — Door Frame for Ste«l Coach Made In One Piece by 
Oxy-Acatylene Welding. 

Another example of welding relates to the joints of the 
panel frieze. This is a flat, longitudinal panel with a 
molding above and below. There are three sections on 
one side of a car. The pieces are straight, but the joints 
must be such that there will be a difference when in place 



of }i in. between the level of the center and the ends, 
which are 60 ft. apart, to provide the proper camber. 
Formerly,- soldering was employed. It was, however, 
quite expensive, costing about $9 per car, and is not so 
satisfactory because of the weakness of the joint. By 
the oxy-acetylene process, the work is being done for 
$4,50 and makes a much better job. The plates are 
1/16 in. thick. In making the weld, work is begun at a 
point distant one-third of the total width from the side 
which is to be uppermost when the frieze is in final posi- 
tion. Beginning at this point, the upper third is welded. 
The camber will now be in the wrong direction. How- 
ever, by beginning at the same point as before and weld- 
ing the remaining two-thirds, this camber is eliminated 
and the correct one introduced. There are no supporting 

strips riveted to the frieze, the plates being held to- 
gether by the weld alone. So perfectly is the joint made 
and the excess metal removed that it would require con- 
siderable examination to find the joints in the finished 

Another interesting piece of work is the joints of door 
frames. It is necessary that this shall be a perfect piece 
of work, but it is easily and satisfactorily done by the 
oxy-acetyiene process, as shown in Fig. 438. 

Ten door-headers for five cars were each made ^ in. 
too narrow. The old remedy would have been to tear 
out the frames, involving an expense estimated at $5 per 
door. However, a strip was successfully welded on, 
correcting the defect. The cost of welding and subse- 
quent filing was estimated at 20 cents per door. 

The diamond shaped window frames used on some 

coaches are made of 3/32-in. plate, and have four mor- 
tised joints each. Oxy-acetylene welding is employed 
for this purpose and similar joints in the rectangular 
deck frames are also welded by the same process. In 
a single car, there are upwards of 176 such joints, or 
about 30 lineal feet of welding. 

Another example of the employment of welding as a 
finishing procedure is in connection with the grab 
handles. These consist of three parts, a steel tube and 
two fittings. The fitting when in position has a vertical 
projection which is enveloped by the tube end. A 
counter-sunk pin is employed to hold the two firmly to- 
gether. The welding process is used to efface the joint 
where the end of the tube comes in contact with the 
shoulder on the fitting. The labor cost of setting and 
welding these fittings is Ij/j cents each, or 3 cents for 
each grab handle. 

On certain cars, the roof sheets and the steel head 
lining are about IJi in. apart, along the top of the roof. 
There are ten chandeliers per car, and the double cover- 
ing made of thin material has to be strengthened at ten 
points. This is accomplished by inserting a box-like 
support in two sections in the space between the head 
lining and llie roof at each chandelier. Each of the 
twenty pieces is a rather complicated sheet metal form. 
The upper and lower bases are shaped somewhat like 
the letter C in Gothic type, only they are not precisely 
(lupiicales. These are connected by a strip between the 
convex sides of the C's, Formerly this entire piece was 
formed by pressing. There were, however, a large per- 
centage of failures through radial cracks at the bends 
of the C's, Moreover, it required six operations on the 
press. At the present time, these pieces are formed of 
three pieces of 3/32-in. sheeting welded together by the 
oxy-acetylene process. It is estimated that a saving of 
50 per cent, has been accomplished by the change in 
method, and there are practically no failures. 

In some steel cars there is a recess or alcove for the 
water cooler. At the bottom of the alcove, a somewhat 
complicated depression is made for the reception of the 
drinking glass. It seems to be practically impossible 
to form this bottom together with the depression from 
one piece by the use of the press. The oxy-acetylene 
welding process permits the pressed piece and the bot- 
tom to be united into a single piece. The bottom is 
also welded to the vertical part of the alcove. 

Perhaps the most interesting piece of work being per- 
formed in steel car construction is the welding together 
of sheets to form units of head lining. The units re- 
quired are about 7 ft. square. The requirements call 
for the use of patent level stock. Apparently this is the 
only steel sheeting that is absolutely flat; but it is not ob- 
tainable of sufficient width. By the use of the oxy- 
acetyiene welding process, two strips are so united, edge 
to edge, that a piece of the desired width is produced 
without destroying the required flatness. The stock 
used is quite thin (about 1/16 in. thick) and no re- 
inforcing strip is employed. It is a butt weld. In 
carrying out the operation, the two Half-sheets are se- 



cured edge to edge on a suitable table by heavy bars 
properly clamped. The edges of the sheets are not pre- 
pared, but are placed in contact on one sides and perhaps 
^-in. apart on the other. The operator begins on the 
side where there is contact, using a Xo. 4 tip and 1/16- 
in. wire. At first, the separation of the edges opposite 
tends to increase. But as the work advances, they press 
towards each other. Two or three times during the 
operation the clamps on the open side are loosened and 
the edges permitted to approach a little. As the operator 
works across the 82-in. seam, a buckle follows. But 

this disappears as he finishes the weld. The ends of the 
lengths which have been joined may not form a line that 
is quite straight, but this is readily corrected by trim- 
ming. The surface of the weld will not be smooth, and 
this is remedied by filing. The expense for the labor, in- 
cluding the filing, is 4 cents per lineal foot. The gas 
expense may be taken at Ij/^ cents, so that the weld costs, 
altogether, about 38.5 cents. The major portion of the 
welding aparatus used in the shop in which these opera- 
tions were performed was obtained from the Davis- 
Bournonville Company. 

Blacksmith Shop Kinks ; Locomotive Department 


Dies for welding the blades on ash pan hoes are 
shown in Figs. 440 and 441, Die A is cut away to the 
depth of the hoe blade and is grooved to conform to the 
rods used. Die B is cut to the depth of one-half the 
diameter of the rod and is grooved to match A, The 
face of plunger C is made the full width and length of 
the hoe blade, and is grooved with a radius of 13/16 in., 
which is one-half the diameter of the rod plus the thick- 

blades are cut from scrap boiler plate. One hundred 
and fifty of these hoe;- may be welded in nine hours. 
The eyes in the handles are bent in an eve-bolt machine. 

O ! ^ I 






ffam or Plvnger. 

Aistmbltd View. 
Fig. 440— Di«« for Welding Bladea on Aih Pan Hoer 

Fig. 441— Olea for Welding Blades on Ath Pan Ho«». 

—\V. H. FeUier. Master Mcchmik. and C. L. Dickert, 
General Foreman, Central of Georgia, Afacoii, Ga. 


While no air press that has come under my observa- 
tion can succes^^fully compete with the modern manu- 
factured machines, they do help materially in increas- 
ing the output and making it of a uniform quality; the 
cheapness in building an air press, as compared with the 
price of a modern forging machine, is the principal thing 
that furnishes an argument in its favor. Such an air 
press is shown in Figs. 442 and 443. This I have re- 

A,A- Thrttway Cgett, \ 
tf- OylOt. ^^ 

ncss of the hoe blade. The groove laps the blade half 
way around the hoe back, making a strong and neat 
looking weld. The dies are used in a 2|^-in, bolt ma- 
chine. Before using these dies a cross-rod must be 
welded to the end of the handle similar to that used for 
the clinker rakes, the same dies. Figs. 452 and 4.^3, being 
used. After the desired number of crosspieces have been 
welded to the handles the dies are replaced in the ma- 
chine by those for welding on the hoe blade. The rods 
used are 1-in. round iron taken from scrap and the 

Fig. 442— Air Prew for Bolt Work and Light Forging. 

cently made, and on some work it will compete with a 
forging machine or bolt header ; as a gerieral proposi- 
tion, however, it will not. It was built partly during 



spare time, partly with stolen time, and chiefly from 
scrap material. With an air pressure of about KX) lbs. 
we have an approximate pressure on the grip or vise of 
21,500 lbs., and a pressure from the main cylinder or 
plunger of approximately 40,000 lbs. The dimensions 
given furnish 4'/i in. travel to the plunger, which so far 
has proven to be suflficient. This press has been of so 
much assistance that I am seriously contemplating 
building a larger one, to be used only on large work, as 
doing small work on a large machine would be an ex- 

Flg, 443— Air Prew for Light Forging. 

travagant waste of air. As may be seen from both the 
sketch and the photo, there is plenty of room for im- 
provement or changes. — J, F. Perritt, Blacksmith Fore- 
man, Seaboard Air Line, Jacksomille, Fla. 


In using the machine for bending right angles, shown 
in Fig. 444, the material is heated at the point where 
it is desired to make the bend, and is then placed in the 
slot G in a vertical position and clamped. The 8-in. by 
10-in. air cylinder actuates the arms A through the rods 
R at each side of the machine, which are 1 in. in di- 
ameter. The arms or levers A are keyed to the heavy 
casting B, which moves far enough to bend the iron. 

which projects above the slot (7, down to the table F., 
thus forming a right angle. The frame of the machine 
is constructed of steel plates, castings and forgings, as 

Fig. 444 — Machine for Bending Right Anglei. 

shown. Iron up to 5-in. x l}4-i"- '" section may be 
bent in this machine. — 'C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, Buffalo, A'. Y. 


The portable bending and upsetting machine shown 
in Fig. 44.T has for its base a 12-in. x 4;-2-in. I-beam, 

Fig. 44S — Portable Bending and Upsetting Machii 



which is reinforced at the sides on one end by ^-in. 
steel plates. The 14-in. air cylinder is bolted and 
strapped to the bed. as shown. The machine is es- 
pecially useful in the blacksmith shop for upsetting 
brake shafts, making brake hangers, bending uncoupling 
rods, etc. The adjustable hinged die near the middle 
of the machine is shown in detail in Fig. 446, and is used 
for holding the shaft at the point where it is to be upset 
to make the shaft large enough to form the square part 
on which the ratchet wheel fits. The square portion is 


Fig. 448— Hlnfled Die Uwd on the Portable Bendtng and Up- 
Betting Machine. 

formed under a steam hammer or in a bulldozer. The 
bracket or stop near the other end of the machine is used 
for backing up the stock that is to be bent, and may be 
adjusted for various lengths of work by using the dif- 
ferent sets of holes in the web of the I-beam. The ma- 
chine was originally built for brake shaft work, but 
was afterwards modified to do the other classes of work 
mentioned above. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pcnnsyli-ania 
Railroad, Buffalo. K. Y. 

A tool for making claw bars under a steam hammer 
is shown in Fig. 447. It consists of male and female 
dies, to which the spring steel handle is welded. The 

f^^ 1^ 










Punch and Cuff»r. 

steel for the claw bar is first drawn to the desired shape, 
after which it is placed between the dies at C. This 
form completed, the metal is placed between the dies at 
D and is punched and cut off in one operation. — /. F. 

Pcrritt, Blacksmith Foreman, Seaboard Air Line, Jack- 
sonville, Fla. 



A device for cutting iron and steel bars which are too 
heavj' for the light and medium size shears which are 
found in many of the smaller repair shops is shown in 
Fig. 448, and is used under a steam hammer. It con- 
sists of three parts, which are held togther by the ?^-in. 
bolt, and the steel knife. K. The device illustrated is 

Fig. 447— Steam 

Fig. 448 — Die* for Cutting Steel Bars Under Steam Hammer. 

used for shearing 2-in, round bars. The block has a 
semi-circular channel of 1 l/16-in. radius, in which the 
bar rests. One blow of the hammer on the knife shears 
the bar. Similar blocks and knives are used for shear- 
ing 4 X ^-in. and 4 x J^-in. spring steel. — H. P. Riley, 
Master Mechanic, Untied Railways of Havana, Cienaga, 


The dies, plungers, etc., for making top pieces of loco- 
motive cylinder cocks are shown at the right in Fig. 449 
The stock, Ij^-'"- round iron, is first upset, using the 
lower impressions and the right-hand plunger ; it is then 
moved to the top impressions, where the hole is punched 
with the left-hand plunger. 

Cylinder cock lower pieces are also made on this forg- 
ing machine, and a great saving results, not alone in that 
iron is much cheaper than brass, but because there is 
not the loss by stealing, as is the case of the brass cocks. 
— 1.011^ Island Railroad, Morris Park, X. V. 



A pair of dies for making insulator pins, usetl on the 
high tension lines of the electric zone of the Long Is- 
land, is shown at the left in Fig. 449. The porcelain in- 
sulators are cemented to the end of the pin. the corruga- 
tions providing a permanent bond, Tiie stock, ^-in. round. 
is fir5t partly npset in either the upper or tower impres- 
sions, then reheated and the corrugations formed in thv 

heating. The dies, plunger and final shape explain the 
third operation, which is the result of a single blow. — 
George W. Kelly. Foreman Blacksmith, Central Railroad 
of Ne-,x- Jersey, EHzabethport, N. J. 


An air operated eye-bolt bending machine is shown in 
Fig. 45 L The rack P is forced upward by the air cylin- 
der 0, thus revolving the arm A, on the end of which is 
a pin over which a roller, whose size depends on the size 
of the eye and the stock, is slipped. The heated iron is 
placed in the machine just above this roller and is 
clamped by operating the foot lever B. This forces the 
large pin upward clamping the stock between its head 

Fifl. 449 — Insulator Pin and Cylinder Cock Top Piece DIei. 

center impressions. The finished pin in place illustrates 
this operation. In making these pins five pieces of stock 
are placed in the furnace at a time. Each is upset and re- 
turned to the furnace, after which they are forged to 
shape. Previous to making the dies, these pins were 
made by having a cast iron threaded bushing instead of 
the upset end. They can be made on the forging ma- 
chine at less than half of the cost by the former melhod. 
— Long Island Railroad, Morris Park Sliof's. 


The dies used and the three successive stages of mak- 
ing the jaw ends of eccentric blades is shown in Fig. 450. 
These dies are used in a 3-in. machine and are of cast 
iron ; the plunger is soft steel. Ranged along the top of 
the dies are three pieces, showing the stages of manu- 
facture. The first shape is roughed out under a ham- 

Fig. 451 — Eye-bolt Bending Machine. 

Fig. 450— Eccentric Blade Jaw Dies. 

mer. The second stage is that of punching the jaw. 
This is done on any forging machine, after which the 
jaws are sprea<l suflicientfy to allow the entrance of the 
plunger when put in the dies for the final operation. 
The chalk mark on the upper half of the jaw' indicates 
that portion which is cut off just previous to the final 

and an adjustable lug or stop above. A pin whose diam- 
eter is the same as that required for the eye of the eye- 
boh. is forced inward by means of the lever D. Air is 
admitted to the cylinder and the arm A describes a circle 
about this pin, the roller forming a perfect eye on the 
stock. Pressure is then removed from the foot lever 
and the stock is automatically released by the action of 
the spring. The machine may be adjusted for any size 
oye-bolt or diameter of stock. It does not, of course. 
form a welded eye. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, PennsyU 
vania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 



The dies shown in Figs. 452 and 453 are used to weld 
the forks of clinker rakes to the handles. They were 
designed for use on a 2;^-in. bolt heading machine, but 
this work may also be done in a forging machine or a 
bulldozer. Fig. 452 shows the fork and handle in posi- 
tion for welding. After being welded the fork is bent 


Dies and tools for making fire rakes in three opera- 
tions, after the iron is cut to shape, are shown in Fig. 
454, The machine for bending the handle is shown at 
the lower part of the illustration. A roller A is fastened 
to the wheel under the bed plate, which is turned by 
admitting air to the cylinder C. causing the pin roller A 

Rtghf and Ltft Dies. 



7 or Plunder 

Fig. 452— Dies for Welding Pork on Clinker Rake*. 

to shape in the bending machine. Hy this method the 
operator may weld and bend the rakes in one heat ; 300 
rakes have been*welded and bent in nine hours. The 
fork is made of 1-in. round iron taken from scrap ma- 
terial and is cut to length and pointed in a bolt header 
or under a steam hammer. The handle is made of J^-in. 

to travel around in the groove B. A rod is placed be- 
tween A and D and is bent into proper shape for the 
handle when the above operation takes place. A stop. 

Fig. 453— Ole« for Welding Fork on CJinker Rakes. 

round iron and is cut to the required length. The 
handles are bent in an eye-bendtng machine, ,^00 being 
bent in nine hours. The total labor cost of making the 
rakes complete is 4yj cents per rake. — W . H. Fclncr, 
Master Mechanic, and C. L. Dickert, General Foreman. 
Cettlral of Georgia, .Macon, Ga. 

Fig. 464— Toola for Making Fl 

not shown on the drawing, is placed just beyond the 
letter B to gage the proi>er length of stock for the 



handle. The hot iron must first be bent shghtly so that 
the bar will fit between the two parallel bars that are 
riveted to the top of the tablt, while the hot end extends 
between J and D and rests against the stop. A spring at- 
tached to the wheel under the bed plate quickly brings 
the roller .-j back to the initial position after the handle 
is bent. 

The hook or fork part of the rake is sheared to the re- 
quired length with the ends pointed as shown. It is then 
bent in the dies, the point Z on the male die making the 
proper scarf in the center of the fork to weld the handle 
to. These dies can be made for a bulldozer or for use 
under a steam hammer. The handle and fork are welded 
together with the spring tool shown in the upper right 
hand corner of the illustration. The weld can also be 
made in an up-setting machine. The end of the handle 
is first cut at the necessary angle for properly welding , 
to the fork. These tools are inexpensive and may be 
made of old material usually to be found about a rail- 
way repair shop. — H. L. Biirrhiis, Assistant General 
Foreman, Erie Railroad, Susquehanna, Pa. 


A set of dies for bending clinker bar handles on a 
forging machine is shown in Fig. 455. The part A is 
bolted to the crosshead, and the base B to the bed of the 
machine. When A travels backward the spring H pulls 
the die C open as it moves backward away from the 
roller G. At the same time the plunger D starts back- 
ward, and as it clears the end of the die £, the spring L 
pulls £ to the left. The clinker bar heated to a red heat 
is thrust in to the left of the center piece M until it 
strikes the stop F, which allows just enough material 

in the erecting shop, such as setting running board 
brackels. Otherwise it is necessary to heat these pieces 
in the blacksmith shop and carry them hot to the erecting 

Fig. 456 — Portable Forge. 

shop. An anvil is carried on the bracket shown, but is 
placed on the floor when being used. Provision is made 
for an air hose connection, as shown, — Elmo W Owen, 
General Foreman, Southern PaciHe, BakersHeld, Cal. 

RlkGI NCS, C()MP.\R.\- 


Fig. 45S — Die* for Forming Clinker Bar Handlei. 

for bending. The crosshead then comes forward and 
the plunger D strikes the curved side of the die £ and 
forces it toward the center, bending the iron about the 
left side of .1/. The die C then comes in contact with the 
iron and bends it downward until the die strikes the 
roller G, when it is swept inward and around the center 
piece M. One of the handles is shown in the foreground 
in the photograph. — Chicago & Northivestern, Chicago. 


The portable forge shown in Fig. 456 is designed for 
the use of a blacksmith when working on small parts 

Samples of the standard forgings used on locomotives 
and cars and made at the Mt. Clare shops are shown 
in Fig. 457. A collection of the actual forgings in a case 
which is accessible to every blacksmith in the shop, is 
certainly far better than a file of blue prints of the pieces, 
as a mechanic can more easily make a forging from a 
sample than he can from a blueprint. Each forging is 
numbered and these numbers correspond to the names 
of the pieces given on the accompanying list. The hst 
shows a comparison between the cost of making these 
forgings by hand and the cost when making them by 
machine. .As the actual amount of money involved in 
each case is not necessary for this comparison, we have 
expressed the machine forged cost saving in per cent. 
of the hand-forged cost, the latter being considered 100 
per cent, in each case. In those cases of pieces which are 
still hand-forged or always have been machine forged, no 
cost savings are. of course, given. Small forgings are 
listed in lots of 100 pieces, — Baltimore •&• Ohio, Mt. Clare 
Shops. Baltimore, Md. 


PIfl 457 — Machine and Hand Mada Forginga. 
WITH Per Cfnt. Saving when Machine-Made, I 

ND-FoRGED Cost Being 100 Per Cent, 

Name of parts. Pieces. 

Uncoupling lever for engine and tender 1 

Boiler brace crow toot ! 

Tender draw-bar yoke 1 

Collar nut. Class E-24 1 

Brake-shaft stands, Class M-8 cars 1 

Knuckle-pin and cross-head pin nuts 100 

Top bolster piece, Class 3-A 5-6 1 

Miner draft-gear yoke, Class M-II I 

Carrier iron, Miner drafi-gear I 

Boiler sling brace 1 

Radial yoke end 

Pilot band 1 

Socket wrench 1 

Crank-pill bolt 100 

Truck and body lever connection— B. P. 12458 1 

6-in. and 12-in. jack screws 100 

Radial drawbar yoke end 

3-in. hexagonal head bolts 100 

Dead lever guides— B. P. 6911 100 

Boiler plug 1 

Flexible staybolt spuds 100 

Crown bar, Class E-16 I 

Compression grease cup I 

Westinghouse draft-gear yoke 1 

Radial staybolls 100 

Round lever guide for tender 1 

J^-in, brake-hanger eyes, bent & welded 1 heat 100 

Ji-in. grab iron for all freight cars 100 

Flexible staybolls forged instead of turned.. 100 

1 machine. . 

No. Name of parts. 

32. Knuckle-pin 

33. Flue-welding job oi 

34. Tail -pins punched . 

35. 3-in. square head bolts 

36. Blow-off cock handle 

37. Follower plate 

38. Fulcrum jaw for caboose car 

39. Hand-rail column 

40. Steel car spring hanger, Class N-8 9 

41. Live lever guide with collar 

42. Live lever guide without collar 

43. Drawbar loop 

44. ^-in. brake-beam hanger output, increased 

from 900 to 2,150 per day, the loop of 
hanger increased from 450 to 1,000 per day 

45. Brake-hanger key bolt punched 

46. Flexible staybolt cap nut 

47. Flexible staybolt spud 

48. Radial staybolt cap nut 

49. Westinghouse air pump valve 

50. Welded eye bolt 

51. Bent eye bolt 

52. Boiler safety cap 

53. Boile 

Crown-bar bolls 100 

55. Center plate liners 100 

56. ?4-in., J^-in. and 1-in, patch bolts 100 

57. Fire rakes 1 


A re!ic of the days before the advent of traveling 
cranes is shown in the photograph, Fig. 458. Long loco- 
motive frames are difficidt to handle without crane ser- 
vice or when being taken to or from the blacksmith shop. 

The common method is that of using a hand car, but 
such a car is so wide that it is difHcult to get it around 
the shop and between the pits; besides, it requires some 
ten or twelve men to handle a large frame in this way. 
The truck shown is made in two pieces and is heid to- 
gether by the rough bolt seen between the spokes of thi* 


wheel. It so happened that the balancing point in thii- men may easily handle the largest ones. This truck will 
frame fell in the center of one jaw, in which case it be found especially useful in a small shop not having 

traveling crane service. — Lehigh Valley, Sayrc, Fa. 


Two oil tanks, 12 in. x 33 in., set on two- w'.ieekd 
trucks, are used in welding frames in position. Pour to 
five pals, of oil per tank with 180 lbs. air pressure are 
required to make the average weld. A frame 5 in. x 5 


Fig, 468 — Truck for Transporting Locomotive Frame*. 

was necessary to use a block between the upper ends of 
the uprights, otherwise the lower frame rail would occupy 
that position. By balancing a frame on this truck, si-: 

Fig, 459— Oil Bi 

in. and one 2j^ in. x 12 in. have been successfully welded 
in these shops by this method. The drawing, Fig. 459, 
shows the general design of the burnei used.— K. J. 
Lamcool and }. S. Kaery, Jr. . Special Apprentices, 
Chici'go, Indiana & Louisville. Lafayette, lud. 


The photograph. Fig. 460, illustrates a recent job of 
frame welding at the Fort Wa\'ne shop of the Wabash. 

Fig. 460— Welding a Frame with Crude Oil, 



This method of welding frames is in use at all the main the backs of the adjacent frame legs, is put in place and 

shops on the Wabash system, in addition t:> bciiijj used held by a wedge during the preheating of the section to 

in taking care of broken frames at roundhouses. To be welcle<l. This preheating takes from an hour to an 

weld the top or bottom rail of a frame without taking it hour and a half, according to the size of the frame, 

down is not difficult and is quite frequently done by which must be brought to a white or fusing heat. A 

simply dropping one pair of wheels. In this case, how- 75-lb. crucible with a W-in. tapping hole is swung above 

ever, practically an entire new leg was welded on, as the frame and directly above the pouring gate of the 

shown, without taking the frame down. Tin: piece foini- mold. When the frame is sufficiently heated, the fire 

ing the new leg was first forged and finished, then held is turned off, the jet pipe removed and the ignition pow- 

in -ilace by applying the pedestal binder anu a jack be- der lighted. .-Vfter the Thermit has become set, the 

Fig. 461— Cruda Oil Burn«r Uted for Welding Locomotive Frames. 

twecn the jaws. A home made crude oil burner, shown 
in Fig. 461, was used and the weld in the bottom rail 
was made first in order to take care of the longitudinal 
expansion. The photograph shows the manner in which 
the welds were made : the ends of the frame were tapered 
and the ends of the new jaw were made \' shaped, with 
sufficient metal to form the weld. The total expense was 
$57.43, including labor for forging and finishing the new 
pieces, and the cost of the firebrick, clay and crude oil. — 
Fort Wayiic, Iiid.. Wabash Railroad. 


The use of Thermit for locomotive frame welding 
during the past few years has demonstrated the fact that 
a frame can be permanently welded in place on a loco- 
motive, and that the section thus welded is easily as 
strong as. and in most cases stronger than, the original 
section. The ilhistration, Fig. 462, shows a steel frame 
section Thennit- welded to the frame in place under the 
locomotive when it was in the back shop for light re- 
pairs on March 7. 1907. This locomotive is at present 
in service with the same frame in perfect condition. 
These steel sections are now being applied to all of this 
class engine when ihey are shopped; 31 engines have 
these Thermit-welded sections, 15 of which are thus 
equipped on both sides. The weld is made in the fol- 
lowing manner: After the old section is cut away the 
steel section is brjlted in position, with from ^-in. to 1-in. 
open space between the abutting ends to allow for a free 
flow of the Thermit. The frame is trammed for its final 
position and then jacked long of the tram marks from 
7/32-in to .'j-in.. which is later taken up when the Ther- 
mit contracts on cooling. Short steel wedges are driven 
between the adjoining ends of both rails to hold them in 
position, after which the jacks are removed. A wax 
collar, from ^'^-in. to 1-in. thick, and overlapping from 
ly^-m. to 2-in. on each side of the opening, is then ap- 
plied to the top rail. The bottom half of the mold box 
is then adjusted and a si)rea<ling bar, extending between 

spreading bar is removed and the low^er rail is welded in 
the same manner as the upper one. 

Thermit welding, to be a success, must be properly 
handled, and it is also important that due allowance be 
made for shrinkage and releasing of the strains which 
are set up in the frame. To relieve these strains, the 
forward leg of the second jaw is heated after the weld 
ha; cooled. Thermit frame welding was begun at 
Elizabethport in January, 1905, and up to the present 
time about 300 welds of all kinds have been made, with 
no failures of welds, although failures have occurred in 
lx)th old frames and new steel sections adjacent to the 

Fig. 462— Steel Section Welded to Frame with Thermit. 

Thermit welds. Previous to .August, 19C6. all welds 
were made without preheating, as the 5,400-deg, Fahr. 
heat of the reaction was considered sufficient to pcrfectly 
amalgamale the metals. Since that time, however, pre- 
heating has always been resorted to and the result has 
been nuich more satisfactory. There are at present sev- 
eral locomotive frames in service having as many as five 
and six welds.— Geo rt'c JV. Kelly, Foreman Black- 
sii'ilh. Cailm! Railroad of Xczi- Jersey, Elizabeth fort, 
X. L 



A method of using wliite pine wood, instead of wax. 
for fonning the collar around a locomoiive frame when 
making a Thermit weld is shown in Fig. 463. This 
method is used entirely in the Jacksonville shops of the 
Seaboard Air Line. The wood is not only much cheapei" 
than the wax which would be required, but the frame 's 







*i — 



/y / 

IK / 

Fig. 464 — Hook Bending Machitt« In Open Po*ition. 

tiie hook by the groove in the formers. — /. F . Pcrritl, 
Blacksiitilh Foreman. Seaboard Air Line, Jacksonville, 


The patch bolt dies shown in Fig. 466 are interesting 
as illustrating a method of making a small forging in one 

Fig. 463— Wood Collar for Thermit Weld. 

heated in about two-thirds the time required when wax 
is used. The interior face of the wood mold is changed 
to a heated band, which aids in heating the frame. The 
inside surface of the collar is checked as shown. This 
reduces its thickness and allows the collar to burn out 
more quickly. -After the mold has been packed and the 
plugs removed. .!^-in. holes are drilled through the collar 
at the points marked .-I, This method has given good 
satisfaction at our shops. — /. F. Pcrritf, Blacksmith Fore- 
man, Seaboard Air Line, Jacksonville, Fla. 


The two photos, Figs. 464 and 465, show a machine or 
tool for bending hooks, especially for train chains. The 
open position is shown in Fig. 464 and the closed, or 
forming position, in Fig. 46.S. The two parts of the 
die about which the hook is formed and which are hinged 
together so that the finished hook can easily be removed 
are beveled at the edges. These bevels, when the hinge 
is closed, provide a mold which gives the proper section 
to the hook. The same eflect is gotten on the outside of 

i<- — ■«'-— .] f-ifi 

Fig. 46fr— Hook Bending Machine at Cloae of Operation. 

combined movement. The assembled view at the right 
of the drawing, showing the position of the dies, the 
knife and the plunger when the bolt is finished, is almost 
self explanatory. The metal is passed through the die 
plate and the cast steel knife shears off sufficient metal 
for the finished bolt and continues the movement which 
places the stock in line with the cast steel plunger which 
forms the bolt. The bolt is thrown from the dies by 
a kicker pin which passes through the ^-in. hole in the 
knife. The knife is made of cast steel and is circular in 



Dit Platm. 








i 4 .! 








Fig. 466— Patch Boil DIee. 


shape, being successively revolved into a new position 
as the cutting edge becomes worn. The set screw shown 
in the die plate holds the knife in position. The drawing 
shows the original design, which has been changed some- 
what by bohing high speed steel strips on the top of the 
dies, providing a counterbore which the plunger enters 
rather than merely meeting the flat surface as shown in 
the drawing. These dies are used on a lyi-in. Acme 
heading and forging machine. It is important that stock 
of the correct diameter be used with such dies. Use 
15-16-in, round iron for making a bolt to be sized for 
a 1 3-16-in. diameter tap and having a 13-16-in. square 
end, and use I 1-16-in. round iron for bolts to be sized 

pig. 4«7— Steat 

PilB Band Tool. 



i( < 






- -U: J 

Fig. 4«8— DIei for Making Platon Swab Holdar. 

so that the necessary hammer blows may be struck. The 
several parts, A and B, are described in the notations on 
the drawing. — /. F. Perritt, Blacksmith Foreman, Sea- 
board Air Line, Jacksonville, Fla. 


Dies for making piston swab holders are illustrated 
in Fig. 468; similar ones are used for the swab holder 
for valve stems. The 1/16-in. sheet steel has a hole 
punched in its center and is slipped over the ,'8-in. stud 
in the lower die. The upper die is then placed over it 
and the swab holder is formed to shape under a steam 
hammer. — Richard Bccson, Roiitidhoiisc Foreman, Pitis- 
burg/t &■ Lake Eric, McKees Rocks, Pa. 


The tools shown in Fig. 469 are used successfully in 
welding finished grease and oil cups on main and side 
rods. An inside and an outside welding too! are used 

for I 3-16-in. to 1^-in. diameter taps and having 15-16- 
in, square ends. — George IV. Kelly, Foreman Black- 
smilh. Central Railroad of \'et\' Jersey, Elizabeth port, 


A tool for welding pile bands under a steam hammer 
is shown in Fig. 467. The block C rests on the anvil 
of the hammer and the band takes a diagonal position, 

Fig. M9 — Greaaa Cup and Toola for Welding It to Connact- 

and a few light taps on each with a small 6 or 8-lb. 
hammer will make the weld. Sand or some other weld- 
ing compound should be used to insure a good weld; it 
is important that the heated end of the rod extend over 
the side of the anvil during welding to avoid damage 
to the rod. The grease cup is made of soft steel from 



bar stock and is finished in a turret lathe. In making 
the weld, the inside tool should always be used first and 
the outside one should follow it as quickly as possible. 
After a few trials any blacksmith can successfully handle 
these tools and weld oil cups to rods at the rate of five 
per hour without damaging the threads in the cup or 
disfiguring the cups or rods. These tools have been in 
use at the Columbus shops for several years with splen- 
did results. The parts are heated to a welding heat in 
a common forge using a good grade of coal. — E. G. 
Gross, Master Mechanic, Central of Georgia, Columbus, 


A main rod strap, with the former that is used in bend- 
ing it under a steam hammer, is shown at the left of the 
photograph. Fig. 470. A template for the stock is shown 
back of the former and to the right. The former is 
placed on the anvil of the hammer and the heated metal 
is placed across it, w'ith the oil cup boss against the 
shoulder on the left side of the die. The block shown 
in front of the die is then placed on the stock and it is 
finally formed by a succession of hammer blows, it being 
necessary to use additional blocks as the strap forms. 

arms are pushed forward to make square bends on the 
two lips. These carrier irons are made in rights and 
lefts, and the arms and small blocks, B-B, are exchanged 
when making a change from right to left. The blocks, 
B-B, are made loose, as they have to be removed after 
the carrier iron is formed, so that it may be gotten out 
of the machine, due to the slanted side. — Lehigh Valley, 


. Pa. 


Dies for forging rod straps are shown in Fig. 471. 
The strap is first blocked out in the ordinary manner and 
is then reheated and bent in the block shown to the left 


Dies for bending coal bar hopper carrier irons, a 
finished one of which is shown resting on top of the 
formers, are shown at the right in the photograph. Fig. 
470. The upper former fastens to the crosshead of the 
bulldozer and the lower one to the bed of the machine. 

Fig. 471 — Tool* for Forging Rod Straps Under a Staam 

in the photograph. After both bends have been made, the 
block for straightening and forming the inside of the 
strap is inserted ; the clamp is then put on and the block 
is driven down into place. The various tools for hand- 
ling the strap in the different stages of its construction 
are shown near the middle of the photograph. — P. F. 
Smith, Chief Draftsman; Thomas Marshall, Master 
Mrchamc; Henry Holder, General Foreman, and James 
Lynch, Blacksmith Sho/^ Foreman, Chica:^o, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Omaha, St. Paul, Minn. 

Fig. 470 — Dies for Bending Main Rod Strap* under a Steam 
Hammer and for Forging Coal Car Hopper Carrier Irons. 

When it is at full back stroke, the swinging arms. .l-.l. 
are drawn back parallel to the crosshead by coil springs. 
That portion of the carrier iron which is horizontal 
lengthwise when it is in use, slants downward toward 
the outside and the part of the former which forms it 
is therefore made accordingly, as close inspection will 
show. The two arms, .-l-.i. have slotted holes which 
allow the bending of the lips without breaking the metal ; 
when the machine reaches its full forward stroke, the 


The dies for forging both ends of a smokebox brace 
under a steam hammer are shown in Fig. 472. The 
bottom foot of the brace is first blocked oiii. as shown 
at the extreme right ; it is then reheated and finished to 
tlie proper shape by the dies shown at the left. The pad 
for the smoke arch at the other end of the brace is 
blocked out in the form of a ball, as shown near the 



center of the photograph, and is then reheated and 
formed to the proper shape under the steam hammer in 
the larger round die. The disk tool with the handle is 
then used to offset the pad and complete it, — P. F. Smith, 
Chief Draftsman; Thomas Marshall, Master Mechanic; 
Henry Holder, General Foreman, and Jmnes Lynch. 
Blacksmith Shop Foreman, Chicago, St. Paul, Miniiea- 
polis & Omaha, St. Paul, Minn. 


A Stamp and die for making split keys imder a steam 
hammer are shown in Fig. 473. The die has a hole cut 
through it corresponding to the shape of the key and has 
welded to it a long handle for manipulating it. The 

on the hammer anvi! by the %-m. boiler plate sheets 
which are fastened to the die by J-i-in, through bolts. 
The top die is held by a handle tapped into it near its 
center. Spring clips of the sliape shown are made of 
Ji-in X 4-in. spring steel. The stock is cut to the proper 

a Staam 

punch, A, is made to fit into the die, and by laying the 
iron to be cut over the hole and driving down the punch, 
the key B may be made. — /, F. Perritt, Blacksmith Fore- 
man, Seaboard Air Line, JacksoHville, Fla. 


.\ device for facilitating the work of making spring 
clips is shown in Fig. 474. The lower block or die is held 






c oiW* o 

---- "i- 

length, heated and then placed across the lower die. The 
upper die is forced down by one or two blows of the 
steam hammer. This device was designed by T. F. Mc- 
Donald, blacksmith foreman at Stroudsburg. — W. H. 
Snyder, Assistant General Foreman, Nezv York, Sus- 
quehxnna & Western, Stroudsburg, Pa. 


The pair of dies at the extreme left in the photograph. 
Fig. 475, is used for making locomotive spring hanger 
gibs, one of which is shown. The stock is drawn out 
from scrap tires into strips %-m. x 2^-in. The heated 
metal is fed into the dies from the top and when the 
plunger enters, it forces the metal against the knife edges 

Fig. 475 — Diaa for Forming Spring Hanger Qlba, Welding Bottom Brake Rods, and Punching Them, and a Device for Bend- 
ing 8- Hooka. 



of the steel inlays, cutting off and carrying a portion on 
into the forms. This then becomes a closed die, and it is 
necessary to make provision for the air which would be 
confined. The small grooves machined from the center 
of the impressions answer this purpose. The gibs are 
afterward put in a rattler, thus removing the burrs. — 
Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa. 


The dies in the center of the photograph, Fig. 475, are 
used in welding the jaw ends of bottom brake rods. The 
completed rod is shown in front of the dies. The 
plunger has a central rib, which enters between the two 
forks of the jaw, so that pressure is exerted over the 
entire welding surface. The drawings used in making 
these dies were furnished by John Roach, master black- 
smith of the Philadelphia & Reading. — Lehigh Valley, 
Sayre, Pa, 


The dies at the extreme right in the photograph. Fig. 
475, are used on a power punch for punching the three 
pin holes in the jaws of brake rods, as shown. The 
upper die with the three punches, is carried by the mov- 
able head, while the lower die is fastened to the bed of 
the machine. This punching work is done after the weld- 
ing, the end of the rod being inserted in the die as shown 
at the edge of the photograph. A wedge is then driven 
in alongside of the stock to force it against the guiding 
side of the die and thus insure the centering of the holes. 
This wedge is loosened after the holes are punched, thus 
relieving the metal and allowing it to be easily removed. 
The jaw is then turned over for punching the other side. 
It is necessary in this case to run a strip of thin metal in 
on the under side of the central portion of the die to 
prevent the second punchings from dropping partly into 
the punched holes of the lower half of the jaw, thus 
preventing its removal. The dies were designed for 
punching four holes at a time, but this particular job 
requires only three holes. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa, 


A device for bending S-hooks rapidly by hand is also 
shown in Fig. 475. The stock used is yi-in. in diameter 
and is heated in a small furnace near the anvil, to which 
the device is fastened. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa, 


The Erie uses solid staybolt iron, but instead of drill- 
ing tell-tale holes they are hot punched before the bolt is 
threaded. This is done in a bulldozer, using the die and 
punch shown, Fig. 476. Provision is made for 15/16-in., 
l}i'in, and 1 3/16-in. iron. The dies are made accord-, 
ing to the bulldozer which will receive them. The 
3/16-in. steel pin is inserted in the steel plug, which in 
turn is screwed into the holder. The hole through the 
plug is drilled of the same diameter as the pin and the 

plug is then sawed into halves. This provides for clamp- 
ing the pin firmly when the plug is screwed in place. The 
small head on the pin is peened cold, the end being pre- 



... I 



! 1 



K- 2 H 





Fig. 476 — ^Tell-Tale Hole Punching Dies. 

viously annealed. The iron, after being cut into proper 
lengths, is heated in a furnace. One blow of the steel pin 
is sufficient to pierce the required tell-tale hole, and the 
bolts are threaded after cooling. — Erie Railroad, Mead- 
ville. Pa, 


A handy oil tank for the spring shop is shown in Fig. 
477. It is made of yi-in, steel and is so constructed that 

e^!L J 


k 23^ — 

29=- M 

Fig. 477 — Oil Tanic in Spring Shop. 

a man can work both sides at one time. It has two com- 
partments, the middle one for water and the outside one 
for the oil bath. A constant flow of water is maintained 



in the water compartment in order to keep the oil as cool 
as possible, the water entering through a 1-in, pipe coil 
and going out at one end through the 2-in, overflow pipe. 
A netting is suspended in the oil on each side to hold the 
plates while submerged. — Rock Island Lines, Silvis, III. 


The 3,500-lb. steam hammer in the blacksmith shop is 
made to do a wide variety of work that it was not de- 
signed to perform, by the foreman, T. F. Buckley. This 
is along the line of making die forgings of intricate 

and true. As a molder can make two sets of these dies 
complete in a day, and as the iron goes directly back to 
the cupola again when the die is worn out, the cost is 
very low, since the only other labor required is that of 
fitting dowel pins and holes so that the two parts will 
come together truly, and to planing to fit the hammer 
head and anvil In the use of the dies, the operation does 
not differ essentially from that of making drop forgings. 
The metal is heated to a welding temperature and is laid 

Pig. 478 — Samples of Steam Hammer Forglnga and Dies. 

shapes and designs, such as are usually made by the drop 
press. Three of these dies are shown in Fig. 478 with 
the forgings made from them resting on top of the respec- 
tive dies. The dies are of cast iron and are used just as 
they come from the sand, with the exception of the plan- 
ing required to fit them to the anvil and the hammer 
head. In short, there is no die-cutting whatever either 
in the metal or in the pattern. The method of making 
the dies is to first make a wooden model of the piece to 

Fig. 480 — Die Forgings Made Under Steam Hammer. 

dripping on the dies. The head then strikes good heavy 
blows until the two faces are together and the work is 

The average life of such dies runs from 80 to 100 
pieces. As to form, they run the whole range of what 
may be required for locomotive work. The illustrations, 
Figs. 479 and 480 and 481, show better, perhaps, than 
any description what that range and variety is. Here 

Ftg. 479 — Die Forging* Made Under Steam Hammer. 

be forged. This is used as a pattern for the formation 
of a plaster-of-paris matrix, which is attached to the 
face of the standard pattern body. It is from this com- 
bination that the sand mold is made, the only care being 
that the face and the matrix of the die shall be smooth 

Fig. 481 — Die Forging* Made Under Steam Hammer. 

will be found a variety of pins headed in many ways, 
jaws for transmission rods, coupler yokes, guide yoke 
brackets, fire hoes and hooks. There seems to be hardly 
anything of too complicated a form to be made in this 
way, and it is evident that even for the small quantity of 
some of these forgings that are used, economy realized 
by this method of making, in comparison with the regu- 
lar hammer and anvil work, is very great. Add to this 
the fact that parts are made in what is practically exact 



duplicates, with tiie iiiiniimini of allowances for machine 
finishing, and the saving is stilt further increased. This, 
it will be borne in mind, is just the contrary to what is 
done in regular forge work, under the modern regime 
of rapid and heavy machine work, where it is cheaper to 
cut away and waste the metal than it is to pay for close 
forging. Bui when, as in this case, it is as cheap to forge 
close as it is to forge with big finishing allowances, we 
have three economies combined: that of rapid blacksmith 
work ; that of close forging, with the decrease of waste 
metal, and of saving of labor in the machine shop, all of 
which go far to recommei.d this method of die forging 
for all kinds of duplicate work. — Delan-arc. Lackaiiaima 
& Western, Scrautoii. Fa. 


One of our tool racks and the method of keeping 
formers used under steam hammers, so that they can be 
found easily when needed, is shown in Fig. 482, the piece 
of work hanging on the same hook with the former with 
which it is made. This enables the smith, particularly a 
new man, to find the former without any waste of time. 
The steam hammer swages, not shown in the photo, but 
on another rack, are kept in like manner, arranged in 
rotation from the smallest to the largest sizes; eaclt 
swage has the size marked on it. This arrangement also 
saves considerable time. On another rack we keep 

such tools rust quickly. — /. F. Perritt, Blacksmith Fore- 
man, Seaboard Air Line, Jacksonville, Fla. 


A convenient tool rack used in the blacksmith shop is 
shown in Fig. 483. The top of it, on which tools may be 
laid, revolves on four ball bearing casters. The tool.'! 
may also be hung on the hooks or between the dowel pins 

ilaekimlth'i Tool Rack or Bsnch. 

on the circumference of the revolving table. The com- 
partments underneath may be used for the storage of 

tools or material. — William H. Wolfgang, Draftsman, 
Wheeling & Lake Erie, Toledo, Ohio. 


.\. set of dies and holders for punching and forming 
flat wrenches in a bulldozer is shown in Fig. 484. The 
first operation in making these wrenches is to cut the 
blank, and .f!fe dies for this operation are shown at the 
left of the drawing. The second operation is the bending 

Fig. 482 — Rack for the Storage of Steam Hammar Formert. 

various tools for steam hammer use, each tool being 
placed so that it can be found the minute it is wanted. 
Of course, if the task of keeping these tools in order is 
left to any and every one. they will not remain in order 
long; in our case an old helper is assigned to the task of 
keeping the shop clean and these tools in order. .About 
once a month he oils the working parts of the tools, usin^ 
a piece of cotton waste and some cheap black oil. This 
is particularly necessary in a heavy, damp climate, where 

Pig. 464 — Wrench Punching and Forming Dies. 



of the blank to the desired shape, and the forming dies 
for this process are shown at the right of the sketch. The 
third and final operation is the cutting out of the opening 
for the jaws. All three operations are done with one 
heating. This device will make wrenches for J^-in. to 
1-in. nuts at a rate of 250 an hour with two men. — £. /. 
McKernan, Tool Supervisor, Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe, Topeka, Kan, 


The tool for forging wedge bolt keepers, shown in 
Fig. 485, may be used on a bulldozer or air press. It 
consists of a head, A, and a crosshead, to which the con- 
nections D are pinned. These in turn are attached by pins 
to the forming pieces, C, the other ends of which are con- 
nected to the piece B. When the head is drawn back the 
forming pieces are in the position shown by the dotted 
lines. The piece to be shaped is straight and is placed 
between B and the anvil. Pressure is then applied, and 
the first move is to clamp the piece solidly. Then, as the 
head moves on, the forming pieces, C, are turned about 
the pins in the crosshead and come down against the 
work. When the stroke is completed the piece has been 
bent to the shape shown on the drawing. The same 

device can be used for coupler carri:r irons. — /. F. 
Pcrritt, Blacksmith Foreman, Seaboard Air Line, Jack- 
soninlle, Fla. 

Fig. 48&— Tool for Making Wedge Bolt Keepers, or Coupler 

Carrier Irons. 


Brass Foundry Kinks 


Instead of riveting brass liners on cast iron or steel 
crossheads or driving boxes, we cast the brass directly 
on them. The clamp shown in Fig. 486 may be easily 
and quickly adjusted for any thickness of liner that may 
be desired. It has not been found necessary to heat the 
gib before pouring the metal. This does away with all 
drilling and riveting, and effects a considerable saving 
both in time and material. — William G, Reyer, General 
Foreman^ Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, Nashville, 


Brass anchor pins, when turned tapering from stick 
brass, are expensive, and the process also requires the 
time of a mechanic and a machine w'hich can be used to 
better advantage for other purposes. If it is possible to 
mold these anchor pins in a metal chill and have them 
sufficiently true for use without machining, a consider- 
able saving can be made. The chill shown in the accom- 
panying sketch, Fig. 487, was designed with this end in 
view. The chill is made of cast iron, having six holes 
tapered down from 1 7/16 in. to 1^ in. in diameter. 
A polished metal face plate is used with the chill, the 
larger end of the tapered holes being closed by the face 
plate. The metal is poured into the small ends. This 
precaution is taken so that if there is any piping in 

the metal during cooling, this piping, with the dirt which 
it may contain, will not be on the end which comes in con- 


T — r 



Fig. 487 — Chill for Molding Anchor Pins for Driving Box 


tact with the journal. — Baltimore & Ohio, Mt, Clare 
Shops, Baltimore, Md, 


A. O. Berry, superintendent of the Elkhart, Ind., 
shops of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, gave a 
description at the meeting of the International Railway 
General Foremen's Association of the method used at 
that shop. for pouring the brass bearing of driving boxes 
on the steel boxes, thus saving the necessity of slotting 



o o o o 



Fig. 486 — Clamp Used for Casting BraM Liner on CroMhead Gib. 




the boxes and turning the bearings. This method is as 
follows: After the old shell is pressed out, the box is 
sent to the slotter, where five dove-tailed grooves are cut 
in the old shell bearing, as shown on Fig. i (Fig, 488.) 
If the box is too thin on top, the upper groove may be 
done away with, and only four grooves applied, bringing 
the two middle ones a little closer to the top. Likewise, 
if it is found that the two extreme lower grooves will cut 
through into the shoe or wedge face, they can be brought 
upward or not be made as deep as the other grooves. 
These grooves are lj4 i"- to 2 in. in length, and ^-in. to 
^-in. deep. 

The box is then taken to the boring mill and a groove 
is cut in the hub face about !.^-in. deep and J^-in. wide at 

termined with the mandrel in place, the mandrel being 
then removed during the process of heating. After the 
box is sufficiently heated, and the mandrel is dropped in 
place, the space between it and the box is lined up with 
long sheet iron strips dropped in place. Oil holes or 
other holes in the top of the box are stopped up by means 
of fire-clay. 

Fig. 6 shows the box after it is heated, and with riser 
and mandrel in place. It also shows the hood in place. 
The hood, however, must be removed during the process 
of pouring, and is simply shown in this sketch to give an 
idea of its appearance. Fig. 7 is a plan view of the box, 
with mandrel and riser in place ready to be poured. The 
mandrels used are always of a smaller diameter than the 
driving journal, and all boxes are bored after leaving the 
brass foundry. — A. 0. Berry, Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern, Elkhart, htd. 


We cast the brass on the shoe and wedge fits of both 
steel and cast iron driving boxes and also on the hubs. 
The boxes are not heated before the brass is poured. 
The arrangement for preparing the driving boxes for 
pouring the brass is shown in Fig. 489. The block D is 
placed in the box and the ring E, which forms the hub 
liner and which is 1 in. wide, ^ in. thick and of a di- 
ameter, to suit the box, is placed in position, the block D 
projecting J4 in. above it, as shown in the illustration. 

Fig. 488 — Casting Bearings tn Driving Box. 

the edge of the old crown bearing as shown in Fig. 2. 
This groove is shown also in Fig. i, and may be called a 
"retaining groove," inasmuch as it will retain the shell 
in the box, even if it becomes slightly loose. If the de- 
sign of the box calls for a hub-liner and the hub-face on 
the box is not already grooved for retaining some soft 
metal, then the box is left on the boring mill until dove- 
tailed grooves are cut in the hub-face for retaining the 
brass liner. 

Fig. 4 shows a cross-section through A~B of Fig. $, 
with the brass poured and the hub-liner and crown brass 
in one solid piece. After the machine operations are 
completed on the box, it is taken to the brass foundry, 
where the operations are as follows: The box is set on 
a face plate with the inside face down and the hub face 
up, and a cast iron riser is placed over the top of the box, 
care being taken that all places where the brass is liable 
to run out are stopped with fire-clay, and a sheet iron 
hood is placed over the box for retaining the heat thrown 
out by the oil-burner. A fuel oil torch is then applied 
between the lower ends of the box ; that is, in the cellar 
space, and the box is heated in this manner until it is dark 
red. The burner is then taken away, the hood removed 
and the proper size mandrel dropped in place. The exact 
position of the box on the face plate is originally de- 

Fig 489 — Driving Box Ready for Pouring Bra». 

The box is dove-tailed to hold the brass securely, the 
grooves H H, crossing in the center and extending to 
within ,'4 i". of the flange. Strips G are then clamped 
at the ends and the joints are luted with clay or asbestos. 
-Attention is directed to our method of reclaming old driv- 
ing boxes. Before we started applying the brass liners 
on the shoe and wedge fit we would scrap the box when 
it had been planed down to a certain limit. Now we 
plane the box to the limit and then pour a brass liner on 
it and use it again. This refers to cast iron boxes. The 
practice of casting liners on the steel driving boxes, in- 


stead of riveting, saves about $1.50 in labor on each box. 
— William G. Keycr, General Foreman, Nashville, Chat- 
tanooga & St. Louis, Nashville, Tetin. 


It is generally accepted as necessary thai the hub bear- 
ings of driving boxes should be lubricated. Holes are 
drilled in the box casting from the oil cavity to the bear- 
ing, but to maintain these holes after a new bearing has 
been cast on, although it seems a simple proposition, is 
really a difficult task, for with the hole covered with the 
liner and plugged up with the brass the machinist has no 
means of locating exactly where it should be, and when 
he attempts to drill it the chances are that he will hit 
the hole in the casting a little off the center, which 
usually breaks the drill. This operation of drilling 
through the liner and redrilling the holes in the box re- 
quires, on the average, about one hour. A device shown 
in Fig. 490 has been provided to do away with this diffi- 

hes cooled the boxes are taken to a planer for correcting 
the box size and then to a drill press, where the oil ways 
are cut. Three circular oi! ways are cut on each face, 
the tool used being so set that these circular ways inter- 
sect at one point each. By this arrangement the oil may 
pass from the top to the bottom of the box face, but by 
circular paths. The oil, therefore, does not run down 
the box face as rapidly as it would with vertical, or even 
with slanting oil ways, and the circular ways prevent the 
formation of shoulders on the wearing faces of the shoe 
or wedge. — Baltimore &■ Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Balti- 
more, Md. 


An oil-burning crucible furnace for melting brass, for 
casting driving wheel hub liners, faces on driving and 
truck boxes, bushings for lift shaft bearings and rocker 
boxes, etc., is shown in Figs. 491 and 492, The furnace 
proper is 40 in. in diameter, 36 in, high, and is set 18 in. 
below the ground level and in a concrete foundation. It 
is fire-brick lined and has a 9-in. x 9^i-in, base in the 
center, on which the crucible rests. The center line of 
the blast and oil piping is at about mid-height of the base 
holding the crucible. The plan view on the drawing 
shows that the flame is directed into a space between the 



Fig. 490 — Device for Preserving Lubricating Hoiei When 
Pouring New Hub Liners on Driving Boxes. 

culty. After the old brass has been stripped off and the 
box is ready for its new bearing, a small piece of round 
iron about 5/16 in. in diameter and 3 in. long is placed in 
the holes previously drilled in the box, and over these 
pieces are placed ^-in. copper pipes, about IJ^ in. long, 
resting squarely against the face of the box. The brass 
liner may then be poured on and when it has cooled the 
round iron may be withdrawn, leaving the lubricating 
holes clear. Care must be taken when pouring the brass 
to make sure that the copper pipe is of sufficient length 
so that the brass will not pour over the top, thereby pre- 
venting the removing of the round iron. This device 
costs about one cent per box and saves about 25 cents per 
box when the cost of broken drills is considered. — John 
V. Le Compie, Assistant Foreman, Baltimore & Ohio, 
Garrett, Ind. 


The parallel rails that are used in babbitting the hub 
faces of driving boxes at the Mt. Clare shops, page 173, 
are also used for pouring brass on the shoe and wedge 
wearing faces. The leveled rails provide for setting the 
boxes in position, and it is only necessary to provide the 
barriers at the ends of the box to retain the molten brass. 
The brass, and babbitt also, is heated in a vertical, cylin- 
drical, brick lined furnace, using ml. After the brass 

Fig. -491— OirOrncfbie' Pumaee for Metting Braae. 

base and the brick lining, so that it takes a circular course 
around the crucible. The furnace was designed along the 
general lines of a furnace seen during a visit to another 
shop, with one particular alteration, that of directing the 
circular flame as shown in the drawing, rather than 



directing it squarely against the base of the cyhndrical 

A detail of the burner, which was designed by E. H. 
Sweeley, general foreman, is shown in Fig. 493. The 
air blast, piped from the blacksmith shop, enters through 
the li^-i"- pipe and also through the 3-in. gas pipe. The 
smaller pipe is held concentric with the 3-in. wrought 

Fig. 492— Detail! of 01 

iron pipe by three }^-m. set screws. Each of these pipes 
has an individual gate by which the air is regulated and a 
proper adjustment of these gives the required air supply. 

The oil supply is piped to the ^-in. copper pipe, and 
jetted through the J-^-in. hole in its end against the ^-in. 
ball near the mouth of the l^-in, pipe, forming a spray. 
This acts to atomize the crude oil so that it mixes with 
the air blast. 

When this furnace was first installed, it was found that 
the brass, after being cast for a hub liner, for instance, 
would crack, showing that the metal was being oxidized 
in the furnace. It was, naturally, the custom to regulate 
the oil and air supply to give a smokeless fire, but ex- 

Flg. 493— Section Through Oil Burner. 

periments with a slightly smoking fire gave a much better 
metal and one which would not crack when cold. The 
crucible will hold just enough metal to pour two hub 
liners at one heat. It requires Ij^ hours to heat a charge 
in a cold crucible and 50 minutes in a hot crucible. 
When sufficiently heated, the top of the furnace is thrown 
back, as shown in the photograph ; the crucible is lifted 
out with tongs and placed in a double handle loop, by 
which it is carried into the shop where the pouring is to 
be done. — Long Island Railroad, Morris Park, N. Y. 

Tia and Copper Shop Kinks 


The furnace shown in Fig, 494 is used for melting 
babbitt from the faces of driving boxes and other loco- 
motive parts that are brought into the shop for repairs. 
The parts may be hoisted by a wall crane into the cast 
iron ladle, under which is an 8-in. Good Luck burner. 

taken from two old engine house stoves. Crude oil is 
used and each stove has a separate burner. The crucibles 
may be lifted in and out of the tops of the furnaces by 
means of the lugs. An extra crucible is shown in the 
foreground. — P. F. Smith, Chief Draftsman; Thomas 
Marshall, Master Mechanic, and Henry Holder, General 

Side View. 
Fjg. 494— Babbitt Furnaca. 

Section Throvffh fheffi^/e. 

Gas is supplied to the burner through a ^-in. pipe and 
air through a J^-in. pipe. The furnace is a sheet iron 
box lined with fire brick and having a door on one side. 
This device does away with the machining or chipping 
off of the old babbitt from the box, and the melted babbitt 
thus obtained may be used again. — R. G. Bennett, Motive 
Pozver Inspector, Pennsytvaimia Railroad, Pittsburgh, 


A double furnace for melting two kinds of babbitt is 
shown in Fig. 495. The bases and the fire pots were 

Fig. 49S — Double Furnace for Melting Babbit. 

Foreman, Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, St. 
Paul, Minn. 


A device for babbitting crosshead shoes, after which 
planing is not necessary, is shown in Fig. 496. A material 
reduction is also made in the cost of babbitting the 
shoes, and the operation is performed in one-fourtli 
the time required by the old method. Two tapered cast- 
ings are arranged with grooves on their inside faces to 
receive a central wedge, the three parts constituting the 
core. By adjusting the wedge the width of the core is 
increased or decreased to correspond to the size of the 
shoe and the thickness of babUtt desired. An adjusting 
screw is provided for this purpose. The end plates are 
hinged and close up the ends to retain the babbitt, and 
are clamped in position by the rods. Strips are also 
clamped to the core above the crosshead shoe, closing the 
mold and forming the upper babbitt edge along the flange 
of the shoe. All parts are arranged to be handled easily 
and adjusted quickly. As soon as the molten babbitt 
hardens the device is removed and the crosshead shoe is 
ready to be applied. The time required for finishing one 
shoe of a large crosshead with this device is 10 minutes. 
Under the old methods 42 minutes were required to 
babbitt and plane up one shoe. As about 4 lbs. of babbitt 
were removed in the planer, the total saving accomplished 
hy using the device is $1.13, of which $0.88 is material 
and $0.25 labor. On 1936 crossheads babbitted last year 

h— - 



-\ — ■<-~H 


Secf/'an yf-3. 

Fig. 496— Croiihead Shoe Bmbblttinfl Device. 

on the .\tcliison, Topeka & Santa Fe, a total saving of 
$2,191.55 was made by the use of this device. — E. J. Mc- 
Keman, Tool Siipcn-isor, Atchison, Topeka & Santa fe, 
Topeka, Ka». 


In accordance with what is now common practice, the 
crossheads are babbitted to a finished fit and without re- 
quiring any machine work. For this purpose there is a cast 
base (Fig. 498) in the center of which a plug is set that 
is made to enter the piston-rod fit. This holds the flanges 
vertical. After the crosshead has been heated the U- 

it will leave the faces the proper distance apart. In using 
this arrangement, one side is babbitted at a time and two 
ladles are used in the pouring, so that the metal runs 
down either side and fills in at the center. This is done 
because if an attempt were made to pour in at the center 
and let the metal spread from there to the sides it would 


^ . 

- B 





Fig. 497 — Clamp Ueed In Babbitting CroHheadi. 

clamps A, Fig. 497, are set over the flanges. In order 
that this method may be efficient, it is necessary that the 
flanges .should be planed accurately to a standard height, 
so that the distance between the faces of the wearing sur- 
faces may be exact. The U-clamp has a filler strip B, 
doweled on the inside, the thickness of which is such that, 
if subtracted from the height of the flange on each side. 




Fig. 498 — Device for Babbitting Croaeheada. 

chill and be defective. The thickness of the babbitt liner 
is from y% in. to Yn in., and the men become so skillful 
in pouring into this narrow opening that not a spoon- 
ful is spilled. Of course, the metal is tinned before the 
babbitt is poured in order to secure a proper adherence 
to the crosshead gib.-— Df/aii'drr, Lacka'dmnna & West- 
ern, Scranton, Pa. 



A device for babbitting two-bar cross-head gibs, so that 
they are ready for use without any finishing in the planer 
is shown in Fig, 499. It is made from a piece of 2-in. 
by 8-in. x 24-in. Iron, planed to fit the inside of the 
gibs. Four set screws are placed in it, one at each corner, 





Fig. 49»— Croiahead Babbitter. 

for adjusting the thickness of the babbitt. The gib is 
laid on, as shown, and raised by means of the set screws 
so that the proper thickness of babbitt will be provided. 
The babbitt is then poured into the open space, and when 
it is cold the gib is ready for application without requir- 
ing any machine work. — A. S. Davis, Shop Foreman. 
Northern PaciHc, Jamestown, N. D. 


A crosshead babbitting machine is used in the shops 
of the Norfolk & Western by means of which the cross- 
head is babbitted ready for the engine, and no planing is 
required after the metal has been poured. It consists of 
a heavy base A (Fig. 500) in the center of which a stiff 
mandrel B is placed. The upper end of the mandrel is 
turned to mate in the piston fit of the crosshead, and 
serves to hold the crosshead firmly in place. On either 
side there are uprights C, C, which are planed to cor- 
respond to the guides and which slide to and fro on the 
base and may be clamped in any position. On each side 
of these are stops D, D, which are brought up against the 
crosshead to prevent the molten metal from flowing out. 
These are clamped in place by the cams E, E, and similar 
cams at the bottcmi. The operation is exceedingly simple; 
the crosshead is put in place on the mandrel, the guides 
adjusted and the stops clamped in place after which the 
metal is poured. The device was designed at the Roanoke 


Fig. 500— CroHhead Babbitting Machlni 



shops, but duplicates have been made for other shops on 
the road. — Xorfolk & Western, Roanoke, Va. 


With the device shown ill Fig. 501, the cro.sshead shoe, 
after being removed from the crosshead, is clamped to 
the mold. It is stood on one end and the babbitt is 
poured. The shoe is then ready to be replaced on the 
engine without any machine work, from 15 to 20 minutes 
being required for the entire operation. This is much 
more satisfactory than the former practice, which was to 
fill the shoes with babbitt over blocks slightly smaller 

Fia- 501 — Mold for Babbitting CroMh»ad Sho«*. 

than the guide and plane them to size. At the smaller 
engine houses, which were not equipped with planers, it 
was necessary to replace the shoe with one which had 
already been babbitted and was carried in stock. This 
arrangement was not entirely satisfactory, for the reason 
that the shoes usually required some fitting of the bolts 
Ijecause of the holes not lining up properly. All of our 
engine houses are equipped with these molds. — Richard 
Beeson, Roundhouse Forettian, Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, 
McKees Rocks, Pa. 


The driving boxes are babbitted in shallow cast-iron 
pans. The box is inverted in the pan and the latter, 

which is the proper depth for the desired thickness of 
the babbitt, is filled with the metal. It is said to save 
about 7S per cent, in time as compared to the putty-and- 
shcet-iron method which was formerly used. — Great 
Xorlhcrii, Dale Street Shops, St. Paul, Minn. 


The babbitting jig shown in Fig. 502 affords an easy 
means for babbitting the faces of driving boxes to any 
desired thickness. To apply the jig, first fasten the cross 
piece A to the box by passing the cellar bolts through the 
holes provided; then force the jig into the fop of the 
journal bearing by means of the screw B. The cover 
plate C will then extend over the face of the box and 
may be adjusted by the screw F to give the required 
thickness of babbitt. The clamp D holds this in a rigid 
position. The babbitt is poured through the tap holes in 
the plate and is prevented from flowing away by a gum 
band £, which extends around the outside of the cover 
plate, together with a little clay packed around the out- 
side of the gum band. This device has lightened the 
work on the boring machine on which it was formerly 
necessary to face off the excess metal, — R. G. Bennett, 
Motive Power Inspector, Pennsylvania Railroad, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 


The former practice at Mt. Clare was to babbitt the 
hub faces of driving and truck boxes in the machine shop. 
No particular arrangement was provided for leveling up 
the boxes, so that a large amount of time was consumed 
in leveling up each individual box. This work is at 
present handled on a platform just outside the erecting 
shop. At the edge of the platform, between it and the 
wall of the shop, two rails are laid about 10 in. apart on 
a concrete foundation. The boxes are trucked from the 
shop to this platform and placed directly on the parallel 
rails. No further leveling up is necessary. Engine truck 
boxes are handled in a similar way. This has caused a 
considerable reduction in the time required for babbitting 
boxes, — Baltimore & Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Balti- 
more, Md. 














' L . i %.^- 


' 1 5 

Fig. 502 — Jig for Babbitting th« Fac«« of Driving Boxei. 



A simple and durable gas furnace used for pipe bend- 
ing and brazing in tlie engine house is shown in Fig. 
503. The box, which is 6^^ in. high and about 24 in. x 10 
in. inside, may be made either of cast iron or of iron plates. 
It is partially lined with fire bricks as shown. The gas 
which enters the 1-in, tee through the l-in. pipe is mixed 

at each stroke of the machine. The sheet copper is fed 
in at one side ; the small hole is punched first and the 

e. _ _ .__._***'— -. 



^'l . 


- i 

••r 1 



1 ? 






l»- JO-' » 

Fig. 503 — Gas Furnace for Pipe Bending and Brazing. 

with air, which enters through the J/^-in. pipe ; this mix- 
ture is forced into the furnace through the 1-in. pipe, the 
opening in the fire brick increasing in diameter from 
2 in., where the gas enters, to 4 in., where the fire brick 
ends n*r the center of the furnace. That part of the 
pipe which is to be heated is laid across the furnace in 
the depression 0, where the heat is intense. Fire bricks 
protect the back wall of the furnace. The gas is used 
at a pressure of about 6 oz., and the air at about 70 lbs. 
per sq. in. The furnace is placed on an iron plate ^ in. 
thick. 16 in. wide and 30 in. long, which is supported on 
four legs of 1-in. pipe. The device is comparatively light 
and if desired may be moved about the engine house if 
suitable air and gas connections are provided. — C. C. 
Leech, Foretnan. Pennsylvania Railroad, Buifalo, N. Y. 


Copper gaskets are made with the punch shown in 
Fig. 504, on a slotter in the tool room. The lower die 
block is clamped to the bed of the machine, while the 
upper one, carrying the two punches, is held in the slid- 
ing head. The two punches provide for making a gasket 

Fig. 504 — Punch for Copper Gaaketa, a* ijaed on a Slotter. 

large one next, after which the gasket falls through to 
the table. There is a small stop provided on the side 
from which the sheet is fed, which acts as a guide to 
punch the two holes concentric. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, 


A set of rolls used to form the curved part of jackets 
for boiler heads is shown in Fig. 505. All of the South- 
em Pacific locomotives have their boiler heads covered 
with lagging jackets. Ordinarily planished iron is used. 

Fig. 505— Roil* for Jaelcet Ira 



and forming the round part by hand was a considerable C until the sleeve grips the pipe. Then, with tool D bend 

job. The rolls are operated by an air motor, and a 
variety of radii may be obtained by adjusting them. It 
will be noticed that heavy gears are required. — D. P. 

Kellogg, Master Mechanic; IV. F. Merry, General Fore- 
man, and C H. Gcod'iMn, General Gang Foreman, 
Southern Pacitic, Los Angeles, Cal. 


Engine truck box brasses are babbitted by means of 
the hollow mandrel shown in Fig. 506. The projection, 
1 in. wide at the top, lays against the crown of the brass 

yC^ ^>N 

W/^< / \\ 




1 1 


■* — ^^' — -''-1 

over the pipe, as shown ; release the nut B, draw the 
sleeve .} up to place and connect the new piece of pipe £ 

Mafhod of Holding Copper /^pe WMk nanging. 


Fig. 506 — Jig for Babbitting Engine Truclc BraMft*. 

and protects the oil groove. In the same manner the lip 
at the side fits against the side of the brass at the point 
where the babbitt slops. — Delavjare, Lackawanna &■ 
IV est em, Scranlon, Pa. 


The accompanying drawing, Fig. 507, shows the con- 
nection and tools used for repairing broken oil pipes with- 
out brazing in the engine house on the Rutland. The usual 
procedure in such cases is to apply an outside oil pipe 
until the engine is placed in the back shop, but this is 
very unsatisfactory. To obviate this the following 
method is used : The first operation is to raise the jacket 
and cut-off the old pipe back of the break and slip the 
sleeve A over the pipe. Then the split nut B is applied, 
allowing the pipe to extend 3/32 in. beyond the end, as 
shown in the upper view in the illustration. Tighten nut 

Sfiot¥s Joint Comphh. 


Tool for Flanging Ct^per Kpe. 
507 — Connection and Tooia for Rapairlng Brokan OH 

Pipe* I 

Engine Houee Without Brazing. 

which has previously been made for stock. Repairs of 
this kind have been made complete in 27 minutes. — 
Thomas Moriarly. Pipe Fitter and Coppersmith, Rutland 
Railroad, Rutland. 


The machine for molding packing rings, shown in Fig. 
508, consists of a 3-in, air cylinder which is controlled by 

Fig. 506 — Machine for Molding Pacltlng Ringa. 



A three-way cock. The cylinder is bolted to a frame 
constructed of angle iron ; a )oke at the end of the piston 
rod is attached to the female former, the niale die being 
fastened to the frame. The rings when removed from 
the mold are finished except that it is necessary to clip 
oif and file down the lug formed by the gate for pouring. 
Finished packing rings are shown at the left. The outfit 
is equipped with a complete set of dies for the different 
sizes of piston, valve and air pump packing. The photo- 
graph shows the device tilted on one side to better illus- 
trate its construction and operation. — P. F. Stnilli, Chief 
Draftsman; Thomas Marshall, Master Mechanic, and 
Henry Holder, General Foreman, Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis &■ Omaha, St. Paul, Minn. 


Pneumatically operated rolls and a cutter used for 
shaping and cutting freight car roofing material are 
shown in Fig. 509. The form at the extreme right of 
the roll cylinder is used for shaping the ridge pole sheet. 
The other four are used as one form in shaping the roof 
sheets. The roofing sheet cutter at the left has an air 
cylinder mounted on a metal cross-piece that is bolted to 
the two uprights, which also act as guides for the cross- 
head carrying the blade. The contour of the blade edge 
is shown, as is the shape of the cut sheet, one of these 
being placed on edge below the lower knife.— Z-Wii^/i 
Valley, Sayrc, Pa. 


A set of dies for stamping gaskets for the top, bottom 
and center heads of a y>4-in. air pump is shown in Fig. 
510. The dogs, A, B and C in the male die are remov- 
able, thus allowing the stamping of three different types 
of gasket with these dies. Another set of dies for stamp- 

Fig. 510 — Dies for Stamping Gaskstt for Air Pump H«adi> 

ing the copper water strainer for feed water pipes is 
shown in Fig. 511. These dies are made of tool steel and 
are used in a No. 2,'-^ double stripper machine manufac- 

Flg. S11 — DJa* for Stamping Coppar Water Strainere for Feed 
Water Pipe*. 

tured by the E, W. BHss Company, Brooklyn, N. Y. — 

Chicago & North Western, Chicago. 


The system of material and tool checking used in the 
tin and pipe shop at Ml. Clare is a departure from that 

Fig. G09— Cutter and Roll* for Roofing Material. 



ordinarily used. A case is provided containing 200 
pigeon holes, each 2 in. x 2 in. x 4^ in. When a man 
desires a tool, he writes its name on a 1^-in. x 4^-in. 
ticket and signs it. Before delivering the tool, the at- 
tendant gives the mechanic its number and this^ as well 
as the date, is marked on the ticket. Each tool is also 
stamped "Pipe Shop" in large letters. This prevents its 
being turned in at other tool rooms by mechanics, with 
whose tools it may have been gathered up in other shops. 
The lower portion of the case is alphabetically arranged, 
and the ticket is deposited in a pigeon hole under the 
letter of the mechanic's name. When the tool is returned 
to the tool room the card is given to the mechanic, 
who destroys it and places the pieces in a box inside 
the tool room window placed there for that purpose. 
All tools are returned at closing time each day, 
and if needed again are drawn out on the following 

With this system there is no chance for exchanging 
tools among the workmen as all are numbered and when 
returned must correspond to the number and kind of 
tool drawn. For instance, a man drawing a 14-in Stillson 
wrench, No. 41, must return the same tool, and is pre- 
vented from substituting another wrench*, although it be 
of the same kind. This rule, of course, also applies to 
stocks, dies, cutters, monkey wrenches, screw drivers, 
chisels, hammers, chain tongs, and all tools used in the 
pipe shop. 

Another good feature of this system is that when 
tools are lost or mislaid the mechanic can get the tool's 

number at the tool room, and make a systematic search 
for it, at the same time notifying the tool room attendant 
that he has lost or mislaid the tool. It is then listed on 
the "lost tool sheet," and the tool room attendant watches 
for it. The result is that but very few tools are lost. 

The case is also used to record all material charges 
to locomotives, cars and general shop orders and ef- 
fectually prevents wrong charges being made. An in- 
stance in point was illustrated when a man gave a loco- 
motive number which did not correspond to any loco- 
motive in the shop at that time. He had transposed the 
figures, but his mistake was immediately noticed by the 
tool room attendant. The upper portion of the case is 
reserved for orders of this kind. When it is desired to 
get material from the storehouse the man writes a list of 
the material required on a ticket with the proper designa- 
tion number. The tool room attendant compares this 
designation with the numbers in the case, and if it does 
not appear, the man asking for material is required to 
correct it. An order is written on the storehouse ma- 
terial card by the tool room attendant, who gives this 
order to the workman wanting the material, and files the 
original ticket in the case. By this method charges are 
correctly kept, no improper charges being permitted to 
pass the tool room window. When the shop, locomotive 
or car order is closed, the tickets are placed on file for 
future reference. This system was devised by Wm. 
Magee, foreman pipe shop, who supplied the description 
given above. — Baltimore & Ohio, Mt Clare Shops, Balti* 
more, Md, 

Engine House Kinks 


A simple hoist for removing and applying air pumps is 
shown in Fig. 512. It consists of the strut B of 1-in. 
round iron, a }i-m. chain C with a hook at each end, and 
a J^-ton differential block. To remove an air pump, the 
strut B is placed on top of the pump bracket, as shown, 
and its upper end is connected to the handrail by means 
of the ."^-in. chain C The length of this chain may be 
adjusted by means of the hooks at each end. The J^-ton 
differential block is then attached to the upper end of the 
strut; the reverse valve chamber cap is replaced by the 
lifting eye A, and the hoist is ready for use. While the 
parts are of sufficient strength, the weight is a minimum, 
and one man can carry the apparatus from the tool room 
to the engine in one trip, which takes on an average about 

a clamp when flanging a baffle plate, is shown in Fig. 
513. Not being located near the main shops, where we 
could have access to the rolls in the boiler or tank shop. 
we find it indispensable. The top roll is made of standard 


Fig. S13— Bending Roiii for Light Work. 

4-in. wrought iron pipe, and the lower ones of 3,^-in 
pipe. The rolls rest on Ay-i-'m. x 5j/^-in. oak blocks, 
which are fastened to the floor by lag screws. They are 
revolved by using an ordinarj' bar in the holes at the end 
of the pipes. — B. N. Letvis, Roundhouse Foreman, 
Minneapolis, St. Paul & Saull Ste. Marie, Enderlin, N. D. 


A hand reamer for truing worn seats of boiler check 
valves is shown in Fig. 514. The check, outlined in the 
illustration, for which this reamer was designed, has a 
flat seat, the outside diameter of which is the same as the 
diameter of the hole in the check body through which the 
cutter must be inserted. It is necessary, therefore to 

Fig. 512 — Hoist for Removing and Applying Air Pump*. 

four minutes; after arriving at the engine he can set it 
up in half a minute, making a total of 4j4 minutes to 
have it ready for use after leaving the tool room. The 
same amount of time is required for removing and re- 
turning it. Where a hoist of this kind is not used, the 
ordinary method is to remove the pumps by means of a 
timber about 20 ft, long, clamped to the back edge of the 
roof of the cab. Two men are required to handle the 
timber, and it usually requires about 38 minutes to trans- 
port it to the engine and apply it, and 20 minutes to 
remove and return it. The new device is, therefore, about 
ten times as efficient as the ordinary method. — C. J. 
Lindgren, Roundhouse Foreman, Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy, Aurora, 111. 


A simple bending rolls for light work in an engine 
house, such as forming the petticoat pipes or for use as 

Fig. 514 — Boiler Check Reamer. 

have an offset cutter so as to provide a sweep, when the 
tool is in operation, sufficient to extend over the entire 
seat face. The brass nut screws into the threads of the 
valve body and acts as a guide for the spindle. There 
are two cutting tools, both of which are used at the same 
time. The 2^2-in., or main seat cutter, is offset 3/32-in. 
The 2-in. cutter, which removes the scale from the bore 



of the valve below the seat, also acts as a g^ide for the simplicity of this device is at once noticeable, both as to 

spindle. The reamer is operated with a ratchet or single its design and its use. The branch pipe is disconnected, 

end wrench. — Fred Bentz, Tool Room Foreman, South- the device placed as shown and the handle operated until 

ern Pacific, BakersHeld, Cal. the scale or other foreign matter, which holds the check 


A device for reaming the joints of a branch pipe or 
injector check ball joints is shown in Figs, 515 and 516. 

Fig. 515^Deta)li of Check and Branch Pipe Joint Reamer. 

These joints often become so damaged that it is necessary 
to machine them, and this device was designed by Fred 
Bentz, tool room foreman at Bakersfield, so that the 

Fig. 517 — Device for Reaeatlng Check Valves. 

valve from its seat, is released and blown out. It often 
saves the expense of knocking the fires and blowing off 
boilers to repair the check. — C. /. Drury, General Roiind- 
hottse Foreman, Atchison, Topeka & Sanla Fe, Al- 
buquerque, Ne^r Mex. 


A very handy check valve lifter is shown in Fig. 518. 
The drawing shows the lifter as used on a consohdation 
engine check valve with a flat seat. Often after the 
engine is steamed up a chip or piece of scale lodges under 
the valve and prevents its closing. The check lifter is 
then used allowing Ihe obstruction to be blown off the 

Fig. 61fl — Assembled View of Check and Branch Pipe Joint 

joints could be repaired without removing the check or 
pipes from the locomotive. The assembled view shows 
the device in place on a branch pipe. — Elmo N. Owen, 
General Foreman, Southern Pacific, Bakersfield, Cal. 


The device for reseating check valves shown in Fig. 
517 can be made at an expense of about $1,50. The 
sticking of boiler checks is one of the chief troubles in a 
roundhouse, and is especially annoying and expensive if 
it happens when a locomotive is ready to go out. The 

I Orrcli a effilgtinf point 

Fig. 518— Check Valve Lifter. 

seat. It is applied by merely disconnecting the branch 
pipe. With this lifter it is possible to open a check 
against 200 lbs. steam pressure. — D. P. Kellogg, Master 
Mechanic; W. F. Merry, General Foreman, and C. H. 
Goodzvin, General Gang Foreman, Southern Pacific, Los 
Angeles, Cal. 


A strong safety clamp for the hose which is used for 
testing locomotive boilers in the engine house, is shown 



in Fig. 519. The large end of the clamp, which is made 
of wrought iron, fits over the huse, while the small end 
clanips over the nipple. Two of these double clamps are 
used — one where the hose is connected to the engine 

■1 ' , p.l 

T ^-^ J 

Fig. 519— Safety Clamp for Boiler Teat Hoh. 

house test line, and the other where it is connected to the 
boiler. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Peiinsyh>ania I^Hroad, 
Buifalo. A', v. 

((oilers have to be washed after every trip. A Hght plat- 
form for this purpose, which may be easily adjusted, is 
shown in Fig. 520. It is 3 ft. wide and 5 ft. long, and is 
made of two strips of J^-in. x I'/^-in. iron, to which a 
i^-in. X 5-in. matched pine floor is secured with holts. 
Loops are formed at the outer ends of the iron strips, 
which may be connected to the hand rail by two ^-in. 
round iron rods made with a hook at each end, and the 
two pieces of chain each having four links, as shown in 
the illustration. The chain allows the platform to be 
properly adjusted for the different classes of locomotives. 
At the other end of the platform the iron strips are oflfset 
to catch the edge of the running board. — B. jV. Lewis, 
Roundhouse Foreman, Minneapolis, St. Paul S- Sault 
Ste. Marie, F.udcr'.{n, A'. D. 

IIOTLKR washer's CART, 

A cart for boiler washers in the engine house is shown 
in Fig. 521. It is made of steel and is arranged to hold 
all the necessary tools and equipment for boiler washing. 
The hose is carried on the reel at the rear, and the boxes. 


A large amount of time and labor are ordinarily ex- 
pended in arranging temporary platforms for washing 
over the crown sheets and tubes of locomotive boilers. 
This is especially true in bad water districts, where the 

Fig. 520 — Platform for Boiler Washer. 

Fig. 521— Cart fer Boiler WMhers. 

arranged along the inner sides of the cart, carry the va- 
rious wrenches, nozzles, etc. Locks are provided for the 
boxes so that the equipment is kept in the cart rather than 
in various cupboards or the tool room. — E. J. McKeman, 
Tool Supervisor, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, To- 
peka, Kan, 


We use the Miller boiler washing system. The steam 
and hot water are blown into a heater and the boiler is 
washed out with water at about 130 deg. Fahr., after 
which it is refilled with water at 180 deg. Fahr. The 
washout hose remains connected to the washout line at 
all times, unless it is desirable to change it from one pit 
to another. Formerly we used a hose for connecting the 
blow-off and the filling up lines to the boiler, but we had 
so much trouble in maintaining it that we applied the ball 
joint pipe, shown in Fig. 522. This has given good satis- 
faction; in changing it is only necessary to loosen up the 
nut and change the connection from one pipe to another. 
\\'e have several of these connections to suit the blow-off 



cocks on the different classes of engines. It takes 14 wood. The box ts 54 in. long. ,30 in. high, and 22 in. 
minutes to blow out a wide firebox boiler of a loconiotive wide at the bottom and 32 in. at the top. The door at the 
having 21-in. x 28-in, cylinders, through the 2-in, blow- front facilitates imloading. The wheels are 21 in. in 
off cock, and about seven minutes to refill it. We blow diameter. — C. P. Wilkiiisoii. A I' prentice Ui'strucior, Micli- 

ii'«'i Centra!, Jackson, Mich. 


A portable 3.000-lb. crane, which may be used to- 
advantage in either the engine house or the erecting shop, 
for such work as handling steam chests and covers, cyl- 
inder heads, guide?, crossheads and bumper beams, is 
shown in Fig, 524. The base of the crane, which is 
mounted on the wheels, is a heavy iron casting, the gen- 
eral design of which is shown in Pig. 525. The front 

Fig. B22— Ball Joint Pipe to Connect Blow Out and Filling 
Up Lines of Boiler Changing System. 

off the boiler, wash, refill, start the fire and have up 40 
lbs. of steam in about one hour and 10 minutes. — H'illiam 
G. Rcyer, General Foreman, XasliTillc, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis, \asl)vi!lc, Tom. 

A cart for cinders and rubbish is shown in Fig. 523. 
The box is constnictetl of Xo. 10 tank steel and lJ4-in. 

Fig. 524 — Portable I'/z-Ton Crane. 

axle is pivoted at the center and is offset : the handle is 
rigidly fastened to this axle and when it is raised the 
front of the bed drops until the lugs A rest on the floor, 
thus steadying the crane. The upper frames, B. of cast 
iron, are securely bolted to the base and are reinforced 

Fig 523 — Steel Cart for Cindera and Rubblih, 

X 1^i-in. X 5/16-in angles with f^-in. half round at the 
top on the outside- The frame and the handles are of 


ti: ^ 





. - — I'eoib 

i '1 

4' (.& 4 

•f — *'- — 1 

Fig. 525— Caat Iron Base of Portable ll/j-Ton Crane. 

by the '/j-in, x 2-in. iron straps which pass through the 
lugs, S, at the upper and lower part of the frame. The 
chain runs on the drum, D, and passes over the sheave C. 
A ratchet and pawl are provided for locking the drum anti 
thus holding the load at any height. — C. C. Leech, Fore- 
man, Pennsylvania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 



The efficient operation of an engine house depends to 
quite an extent on the facilities that are provided for 
handling ashes and cinders at the ash pits. An admirable 
arrangement for doing this is shown in Fig. 526. The 
framework for the hoist is supported on a substantia] 
concrete foundation, and consists of 12-in. channels, 20 
lbs. per ft., at the sides, securely braced by angle irons 
and straps as shown. The fop cross members of the 
framework are 12-in. I-beams, 32 lbs. per ft. The frame- 
work extends over two tracks ; one at the ash pit and one 
for the cinder cars. The construction of the ash pit is 
clearly shown on the drawing. The number of ash 
buckets, B, which are supported on the four-wheel trucks, 
C, depends on the length of the ash pit and the service 
which is required of it. When one of the buckets, B, has 
been filled and run underneath the framework the over- 
head hoist, which is supported from the small truck which 
operates on top of the 12-in. I-beams, is placed directly 
over the ash pit by manipulating the handle of the valve 
on the column at the side of the pit. Valve V controls 

the admission of air into the cylinder D, which is fastened 
to the side of the framework. By the system of pulley- 
wheels T, one of which is fastened to the end of the piston 
rod of cylinder D, and by means of a wire cable which 
passes over these pulleys, and which is fastened to the 
truck, H, the latter may readily be moved back and forth 
over the two tracks at will. To steady the piston rod it 
has a crosshead at its end which runs in guides fastened 
to the side of the framework. 

The 9-in. hoisting cylinder which is supported by the 
truck, H, is operated by the three-way valve, and the 
piston rod may be allowed to drop to such a position that 
a hook at its end may be engaged with a link on the ash 
pit bucket. The bucket may then be lifted from the truck, 
and by operating the valve which controls the cylinder, D, 
may be transferred directly over the ash car. Then by 
raising and lowering the bucket slightly and allowing the 
upper end of arm A to strike the heavy iron ring R, 
which is rigidly fastened to the bottom of the cylinder 
head, the two halves of the bucket may be made to open 
outward, allowing the ashes to fall in the car. Allowing 

Fig. 52«— Pneumatic Holat at Cindtr Pit. 



the piston to drop slightly closes the bucket again and it 
may then be moved over and dropped onto its truck, and 
another truck with a full bucket may be run under the 
hoist and be dumped in a similar manner. The carriage 
of the truck H is fitted with a cast iron yoke which allows 
the cylinder to swing a considerable distance in any direc- 
tion. The ash bucket trucks are constructed of 2j^-in. x 
2j^-in. angle iron, and have heavy forged axles with cast 
iron flanged wheels. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsyl- 
vania RaUroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 


The smoke stack crane, shown in Fig. 527, does not 
di£Eer greatly from what has become everyday practice 
in the large majority of shops, but at the same time is a 
design which has proved very efficient. It is made of 
wrought iron and is very light and easily handled. When 
applied to the stack it may be easily swung around in any 

which may be required of it. In removing the crane, the 
screw is slacked off and the I-beam is taken out. The 
clamp is then lowered sufficiently so that with the use of 
a long stick the piece X can be tipped and be drawn up 
through the stack. An important feature of the crane is 



Fig. 928— Simple Crane for Front End Work. 

that the beam is placed high enough above the work, so 
that the tackle blocks do not, come tt^ether. — H. L, 
Burrhus, Assistant to Genera! Foreman, Erie Railroad, 
Susquehanna, Pa, 


The light stack crane. Fig. 529, is made of wrought 
iron, the trolley rail being ^-va. x 2'/^-in. bar iron, 
to which is welded a rod 1 in. in diameter that ex- 
tends back to and down the top of the stack. The 
trolley rail has a forked end to fit the base of the stack 

Fig. 5Z7 — Locomotive Stacic Crane. 

position. The arm or beam is forged from a 3-in, x 
J^-in, wrought iron bar and is stayed by the J^-in. iron 
rod which is connected by a pin to the 2j/^-in x l/i-m. 
collar at the top of the stack. — A. D. Porter, Shop 
Efficiency Foreman, Canadian Pacific, West Toronto, 


A handy and inexpensive crane for lifting steam chests 
and covers, cylinder heads, pistons and front end work is 
shown in Fig. 528. The arm is made of a 6-in. I-beam 
taken from an old brake beam. The upper part of the 
beam forms a runway for a roller from which the hoist 
is suspended. The inner end is clamped to the top of the 
smokestack, as shown. The clamp may be made of any 
length to suit the height of the stack. In adjusting it, 
the crossbar, X, is tipped up and dropped down through 
the stack. As it is evenly balanced, it takes a horizontal 
position after it has dropped through the stack. The beam 
can then be applied and be clamped in any position by the 
screw at the top. While the device is light enough to 
be handled easily, it is sufficiently strong for the work 

Fig. 529 — stack Crane. 

and carries a trolley wheel with a suitable hook for attach- 
ing a block and fall. This device is used for lifting steam 
chests, pistons, cylinder heads, etc. It is handled by one 
man, who can thus do the work formerly done by three 
men. — A. S. Willard, Foreman, Norfolk & Western, 
Crewe, Va. 


A simple method of applying a lost liner to a crosshead 
without taking down the main rod and crosshead is shown 
in Fig. 530. The liner is slipped into position between 
the guide and the crosshead, and the holes are marked off- 
It is then removed and the holes are drilled and tapped, 
after which the liner is replaced and a copper rod with 
threads on one end is screwed into the hole and is cut off 



to allow }i in. for riveting over on the outside of the 
crosshead. In performing this latter operation the cross- 
head is wedged on the other side of the guide, so as to 
draw the liner, which is being riveted, close to the guide. 
Liners may be applied in this way in about an hour, and 
I have often seen them run until the engine went to the 


-JidbSMfn r 

in to foy (ffraomm. 



4s iakftf off. /kfxfy hhepuftnasakK 

Fig. 530 — Applying a Liner Without Talcing Down the 


shop for overhauling. A liner that has become loose, and 
in which the rivet holes are elongated, may easily be used 
by removing it and cutting it into two pieces, as indicated 
on the illustration, and redrilling it as shown. — Thomas 
Naylor, Roundhouse Foreynmi, Chicago, St. Paul, Min- 
neapolis & Omaha, St James, Minn, 


A simple device for handling cylinder heads when they 
are removed or replaced with the aid of a portable crane, 
or by one suspended from the smoke stack, is shown in 







Fig. 531— Cylinder Head Lifter. 


Fig. S3L It is made of soft steel, the end A fitting over 
the stud at the center of the cylinder head. The other 
end is formed into a 2-in. eye to fit the crane hook. — C. C. 
Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania Railroad, Btiffalo, N. Y. 


Cylinder heads of locomotives equipped with a foot- 
board extending over the steam chest, are difficult to 

wu ./5-/.. 












Fig. 532 — Device for Handling Cylinder Heads on Locomotives. 

handle. The jib crane used for removing steam chest lids, 
cylinder heads, etc., cannot be used unless the foot plate 

is taken off. To overcome the difficulty the bar shown in 
Fig. 532 is used. One end of it is put over the cylinder 
head casing stud, the hanger near the end is hooked into 
the jib crane chain and a man handles the tee handle on 
the long end. This device, while exceedingly simple, is 
a great convenience. — Charles Maier, Engine House 
Foreman, West Jersey & Seashore, Atlantic City, N. /. 


A handy tool for removing driving box cellars is shown 
in Fig. 533. Often a cellar sticks tightly and it is a diffi- 


«' - v 


gb ^ 




^ 1 





iJ^rrrl „-. 

Fig. 533 — ^Tool for Removing Driving Box Cellars. 

cult job to get it out. By hooking the lug X into the 
cellar bolt hole and using the points A and B on the tool 
as fulcrums for a small bar, the cellar can be pulled out 
quite easily. The tool may also be used to advantage for 
stirring up or pulling the old packing out of the cellar 
after it has been removed. It is made of soft steel and 
the handle can be of any convenient size. — H. L. Burrhus, 
Assistant to General Foreman, Erie Railroad, Sus- 
quehanna, Pa, 


A handy truck for handling front cylinder heads and 
placing them in position on the cylinder is shown in Fig, 
534. The cylinder head is placed on the truck with the 


J J ^^bctf //t hcks shown in 
-^^pkrfB for odjusfin^ htfshf 


n of head. 

^•^ /found 



Cos find" 






^ JZ ^ 




n¥€r€d fo nvifff^m. 


Fig. 534— Cylinder Head Truck. 


stud for the cylinder head casing projecting through the 
slot in the ^s-in. plate. A washer and nut are placed on 
the stud to hold the head on the truck. The head is then 
adjusted so that when the truck is raised the studs will 
enter it correctly. The truck is lifted to the position 
shown in the drawing. The head may then be raised to 
the proper height and held there by placing one of the U 
pieces in the holes underneath it and using a bar in the 
slot. By moving the truck forward the head can then be 
slipped over the studs. — James Stei-ensoti, Foreman. 
Pennsylvania Railroad, Olean, W Y. 

At the Omaha, Neb., shops of- the Union Pacific is a 
small roundhouse for storing locomotives while breaking 
them in and also for making hght repairs. This building 
is being extended so as to be available for making more 
light repairs to engines which would ordinarily occupy 
valuable space on the erecting shop tracks. Such repairs 
usually involve the removal of engine or tender truck 
wheels and driving wheels, and large drop pit jacks, as 
shown in Fig. 536, are provided for this purpose. The 
jacks are to be operated by water pressure from the shop 
mains at 120 lbs, A new design has been devised for the 
drop pit and its mechanism (Fig. 535), which includes 
an improved method of removing the rails and locking 
them. Ordinarily the rails are removed by hand or by 
overhead jib cranes, but with the new design the rails 
with their supporting beams are dropped with the wheels. 
They are locked in position at regular rail level by a slid- 
ing beam operated by a rack and a geared quadrant. The 
hydraulic piston is 15 in. in diameter, and the cylinder is 
supported on the pit truck by a cast iron housing in the 
usual way. The piston is provided at the top with a cast 
head 3 ft. wide, having brackets for the two 8-in. I-beams 

Fig. 536— Drop Pit Jack. 

Pig. 535— Drop Pit for Engine Houitt. 



under each supporting rail. These beams are bedded on 
2-in. oak planks and are bolted to the cast head, and 
together with the rail are dropped with the wheels. 

Along the pit walls near the top are bolted heavy cast 
iron brackets that are fitted with guides through which 
move the 12-in. I-beams that support the rail in normal 
position. On the outer top ftange of the 12-in. beam a 

drawings illustrate the design as worked out for large 
driving wheels. 


A telescopic air jack in a drop pit in the engine house 
permits the use of a comparatively shallow pit, which is 
of considerable advantage in that it is more handy to 
work about and is also less dangerous. A jack which has 
been used for this purpose is shown in detail in Fig. 537. 
The wheels of the truck on which it is supported are 18 
in. in diameter, the general arrangement of the truck 
being clearly shown on the drawing. The piston is 17 
in. in diameter. After it has reached the top of the cyl- 
inder the inner cylinder starts to rise and the stroke of the 
piston is thus practically doubled. — H. L. Burrhus, As- 
sistant to Getu^ral Foreman, Erie Railroad, Susquehanna, 


A handy and easily made device for moving the heavy 
I-beams on which the rails are laid alongside of drop pits 
is shown in Fig. 538. It consists of a piece of 8-in. pipe, 
about 2 ft. long, capped at each end and fitted with an 
ordinary piston packed with leather, the rod of which 
extends out through one head, which is bored and fitted 
with a gland and stuffing-box. At the end of the piston 
rod is a bent piece of wrought iron which is riveted to 

Fl«. 637— Teleacoplc Drop Pit Air Jack. 

rack is bolted, and on the top of the pit wall are bearings 
for the shaft which carries the geared quadrant. The 
latter is operated by a lever and meshes with the rack. 
When it is desired to drop wheels, the large I-beams are 
withdrawn from contact with the wheel beams and the 
space is clear for the latter to drop with the wheels. In 
this way loose rails are kept out of the way, and the work 
of handling them is performed by hydraulic power. The 

Fig. 538— Drop Pit Rali Remover. 

the web of the I-beam. The air connection is made, as 
shown, with a three-way cock by which air can be ad- 
mitted to either end of the cylinder and exhausted there- 
from. When the rails are in place the piston stands with 
the rod out, as shown in the drawing. After the wheels 
have been raised from the rail, air is admitted to the head 
and the rails are drawn to one side, thus permitting the 
wheels to be dropped into the pit and removed. — A. S. 
Davis, Shop Foreman, Nor them PaciHc, Jamestown, 
N. D. 


A device for quickly removing the eccentric crank arms 
of the Walschaert valve gear is a necessity in the engine 
house. A block and wedges for doing this are shown in 
Fig. 539. The block B is of wrought iron, 9^ in. long, 
6 in. wide and 6 in. high, and is cut out to fit over the 
main rod bearing on the crank pin. After the main rod 
strap and the rear brass have been removed, and the rod 
has been pushed forward out of the way, the block is 
slipped in in its place and fits easily between the inside of 
the crank arm and the side rod bearing. The key-ways 
in the block have a taper of % in. in 6 in., and the crank 



arm is wedged off by driving the two soft steel keys in 
them. This kink will easily start the most obstinate crank 

^: — 



^fi^ — 4- — ny 


n^ r^J 

1 ft' -^ 

Fig. 539 — Block and Wedges for Removing Eccentric Crank 
Arm of Walechaert Valve Gear. 

arm without defacing it. — C. C, Leech, Foreman, Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y, 


In large engine houses it is necessary to have some sys- 
tem by which the condition of any engine in the house 
may be determined at any time. A large board, a partial 
view of which is shown in Fig. 540, is hung up in a con- 
spicuous place, most convenient to all concerned. It is 
made of matched lumber, painted black, and is spaced off 
and lettered with yellow paint. Engineers and hostlers 
bringing the engine into the house report the engine num- 
ber, stall number and the repairs required. This informa- 
tion, with the date received and the time called, is placed 
on the board. When extensive repairs are required, or it 
is necessary to give the engine a general overhauling, the 
"cut out for repairs" column is used. The foreman and 
workmen by consulting this board, and knowing the 
nature of the repairs and the time the engine is called, 
can work to better advantage. — A, G. Pancost, Elkhart, 


The device shown in Fig. 541 is as useful on the road 
as in the shops, for when carried by the wreck crews or 
kept at telegraph towers it immediately proves its worth 
when an engine must be disconnected. The shell is laid 

Mxh Sf9€/ 




i, si'- 4^^ 



7 — 







1 Ajt/t SUtl 







Fig. 641 — Eccentric Crank Arm Remover. 

on the crank pin and the wedge inserted between the 
eccentric crank arm and the shell. A few blows of the 
hammer will loosen the tightest fitting crank arm. — F, S, 
Robbins, Inspector, Pennsylvania Railroad, Renova, Pa. 


A good arrangement for keeping track of the exact 
location of an engine after it is placed in the engine house 
is shown on the accompanying form. It should have the 
same number of horizontal spaces as theije are stalls in the 
house. When the hostler brings an engine in the house 
he must write the engine number, the time in and the 
date on the blackboard on the line oppq^te the stall num- 
ber where the engine is placed. The forman can then 
fill in the time that the engine is to be called, or under 
the column headed "Remarks," can show any special 
work that is to be done on it. If all the work is completed 

V - ■ ■■ ... 




















Fig. 540 — Partial View of Board Showing the Condition of Engines in the Engine House. 


before tlie engine is called, he marks it O. K. Any person 
interested can readily see the condition of every engine 
in the house by looking over the board. It also enables 
the workmen to find the engine on which they are to work 
quickly. If the engine nnmher is not shown on the board, 
the)' will know positively that it has not yet been placed 



1 OUT. 


No, Date. | Tim 

E. 1 Date. | Time. 

""T" 1 


1 1 

; i 1 

1 1 


An adjustable foot to be used with a bar as indicated 
in the drawing is shown in Fig. 543. This device is very 
convenient for roundliouse work, and is used con- 
tinually by the man who works on brake rigging. It 
overcomes the necessity of, and loss of time in, hunting 

in the house, and that it will be useless for them to waste 
time in looking for it. .\s soon as the engine has left the 
house, the foreman or some person with the proper author- 
ity can erase the information, indicating that the stall is 
empty and ready for another locomotive. — H. L. Burrhiis, 
Assistant to General Foreman, Erie Railroad, Susque- 
hanna, Pa. 


The step bracket in Fig. 542 is especially handy as a 
fulcrum for puttiirg up shoes, wedges and binders. It is 

C ^ I 


Fig. 543— Adjustable Foot for Bar. 

for blocks. Being adjustable for different heights, it is 
particularly advantageous for a great variety of work, 
snch as putting up shoes and wedges, etc. — Elmo N. 
Oivcn, General Foreman, Southern Pacific, BakersHeld, 


A portable pneumatic machine for cutting gaskets from 
old hose is shown in Fig. 544. The former practice was 
to cut such gaskets with a knife, but this took consider- 

Fig. 542 — Stsp Bracket for Putting up Pedestal Binder*. 

used with the vertical side placed against the outside of 
the wheel. A bar is fulcrumed on one of the steps, as A, 
and with one end extending through the wheel and under 
the part to be raised. A sufficiently wide range is 
afforded by the five steps or points of support for putting 
up a binder.^CftiVo^tfo & North Western, Chicago. 

Fig. 544 — Portable Pneumatic Gasket Cutter. 

able time and the gaskets did not prove satisfactory. 
With the new device, it is possible to keep a good stock 
of different sizes on hand by having the machine placed 


in the tool room so that the man in charge can cut them 
out during liis spare time. The ^-in. copper plate 
against which the hose is held prevents the tool steel 
cutter from being injured. Although a rather large air 
cylinder is used (12 in. x 14 in.), the stroke is limited by 
a bar, which passes through the slot in the piston rod, to 
about S'/i in., so that only a comparatively small amount 
of air is used. This bar also assists in driving out the 
gasket after it has been cut, for as the piston rod drops 
downward three pins which pass through the cutter come 
in contact with the cross bar and force the gasket and 
center upward. \'o trouble is experienced with the break- 
age of cutters, as is the case when a hammer is used, — 
Richard Beeson, Roundbottse Foreman, Piltsburgh & 
Lake Erie, McKees Rocks, Pa. 

gasket. As this is automatic, gaskets can be cut very 
rapidly. — S. S. Li^htfoot, Bonus Demonstrator, Atchison, 
Topcka & Santa Fc, San Bernardino, Cat. 


A pneumatic hoist with a trolley and an overhead track 
is a most convenient means of handling heavy material 
about the pits in an engine house. If the trolley tracks 
are arranged in U shape, the legs of the U extending along 
each side of a pit, each one of them will serve three pits. 


A gasket cutter of special design is shown in Fig. 545. 
It is turned from tool steel and may be used either by 
hand, with a special machine, or with an air hammer. 
The cutting edges are turned to size and carefully hard- 
ened. A coil spring operates the steel plug in the center, 
and also the four ^^-in. pins in the annular space between 
the cutting edges, for removing the center piece and the 
completed gasket. A ring with four set screws, having 



tr Sprint 

Pig. 545 — Gasket Cutter. 

1/16-in. ends bearing on the ends of the J^-in. pins, is 
fitted to the cutter, as shown. A steel plug 21/32 in. in 
diameter, is mounted on a J-i-in. pin extending diagonally 
through the cutter and the ring. Slots are made in the 
cutter to allow movement of the plug on the pin. When 
pressure is applied to the tool and the gasket is cut, the 
plug is forced back against the coi! spring. Upon releas- 
ing the pressure, the coil spring forces out the plug, the 
collar and the pins, which in turn push out the center and 

Fig. 54«— Pneumatic Hoist 

thus requiring a minimum number of hoists. An air hose 
expending from above the center of the middle pit can be 
made to follow either leg of the U, The hoist, which is 
shown in detail in Fig. 546, has a capacity of from 1,200 
to 1,500 lbs., and can be made any desired length. The 
cyhndrical portion is made of brass, but heavy iron pipe 
may be used after it has been properly smoothed inside, 
or cast iron may be used. In the latter case, the wail 
should be not less than y'l in. thick. The construction of 
the hoist is clearly shown on the drawing. — C. C. Leech, 
Foreman, Pennsylvania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 


Probably one of the simplest substitutes for an old man 
in drilling holes in a boiler shell is the device shown in 
Fig, 547, It is always a matter of difficulty to place an 



ordinary old man for drilling holes in the boiler shell, work is being done in the roundhouse under a hot engine, 
This device consists merely of a metal plate and sufficient is a most difficult job. A light, portable jack designed 
chain attached to it to extend around the boiler. After for this work and which is quite efficient is shown in Fig. 
passing the chain around the boiler and allowing for the 548. The cross-pieces are made of light sheet metal, 

made angular to provide stiffness. The air cylinder is 
mounted at one end and its piston carries a shoe — made 
from an ordinary engine step — on which the binder rests. 
In using, the binder is placed on the shoe, air is applied 
and the binder is carried up and held in place until the 
nuts are placed. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa. 


A considerable saving of time results from the use of 

the small pneumatic bench lathe, shown in Fig, 549, for 

_, ^., ^. .... «.j .. chasinET follower bolts. It consists of an air motor A 

Fig. 547— Flexible Old Man. *>, ,, . „. , ....^ 

mounted on the base plate B ; also of a special chuck C 

air motor and drill, links are slipped into the openings for holding the follower bolt, a tailstock £ and a tool 

shown. The feed center of the motor operates against 

the center mark in the plate. This device is especially 

handy in roundhouse work, saving a large amount of 

time which is usually consumed in arranging for the 

ordinary old man. For the want of a better name we have 

termed this tool a flexible old man, as it so effectively 

overcomes the many difficulties which are met in using 

the ordinary old man, due in great part to its limits as to 

flexibility and adjustment. — Baltimore & Ohio, Mt. Clare 

Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


Raising and lowering heavy pedestal binders, especially 
when the wheels are under the locomotive, or when the 

Fig. 549 — Pneumatic Lathe for Chaiing Follower Bolt*. 

carriage F, which carries the chaser to G. This pro- 
vides a simple and easy means of chasing follower bolts 
at the bench and is especially useful in connection whh 
roundhouse work. — Chicago & North Western, Chicago. 


Two handy tools for applying snap rings to a piston 
head are shown in Fig. S50. The tool A spreads the ring 

Fig, 548 — Jack for Handling Heavy Pedeatal Binder 

Fig. 5S0— Tools for Applying Snap Ringi to Pliton HOMl. 

and B is used as a lever for pulling it down into place. — 
Chicago S- North Western, Chicago. 




A time and labor-saving device for use in connection 
with the changing of piston rod and valve stem packing 
is shown in Fig. 551. Unless a special device of this kind 
is used for holding the gland in place while the nuts are 
being removed or put on, the machinist doing the work 
must have a helper to assist him. In that case the helper 
would hold the gland in place with a bar, but when the 
nuts are removed and he starts to ease up on the pressure 
on the gland in order to allow it to back off, the bar is 
liable to slip and allow the gland to be thrown back 
against the crosshead, often knocking off the copper ring 
that forms the joint. It then becomes necessary to draw 
the piston rod from the crosshead to put in a new joint. 
With the use of the device illustrated one man can change 
the packing, and there is no possibility of the copper ring 
being injured or of the machinist bruising his hand, due 
to the slipping of the gland. 

The ram or pusher B is 1 in. in diameter, the end A 

•"-^ ^_rT2fJ\.ruy,j\j\j\^ru\j\j\jyj\J\^^ 

To Jifif /arf9»fpisfon rod. 




4p- 2i- — ^>i<- — si' — -► 



- a 

Fig. 551 — Device to Facilitate the Changing of Piston Rod 


butting against the gland. D is made of a piece of 1-in. 
pipe and forms a sleeve for B to work in. To remove a 
gland, the pipe D is clamped to the rod. As may be seen 
from the illustration, the bottom of the pipe is trimmed 
for its full length so as to fit snugly on the rod. D is 
adjusted so that the pusher B is extended as far outward 
as it will go and still mesh with the teeth on gear £. The 
clutch F is then dropped down, engaging the teeth in B. 
The nuts on the gland are removed, after which a wrench 
is placed on the end of the j4-in. shaft to which E is 
keyed, the clutch F is thrown backward, and the gland is 
backed off slowly. New packing is put on the rod, after 
which the gland is forced back into position and held by 
the clutch F while the nuts are being replaced. — F. 
Nowell, Locomotive Foreman, Canadian Pacific, Ottawa, 
Ont,, Can. 



when steam is up. The device shown in Fig. 552, which 
can be made for 75 cents, greatly assists in this work. 
Ati indicator plug is removed and the small end of the 

Fig. 552— Device to Facilitate Taking Piston Valve Port 


device inserted. It is provided with an electric light and 
the opening can be plainly seen, regardless of the steam. 
No guesswork is necessary, as is the case when using 
pieces of tin or wire to catch the opening. — C. /. Drury, 
General Roundhouse Foreman, Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, Albuquerque, New Mex. 


The problem of repairing sand boxes in the engine 
house is complicated by the need of having some means 

Emptying Sand From 5anti 
Box /nfo Tank. 

fbrcfnff Sand Back /nio Janef Boat. 

Fig. 553 — Handy Device Used In Connection With the Re- 
pairing of Sand Boxes. 

Many machinists know what trouble is experienced in of emptying the sand from the box and replacing it after 
taking the port openings on a piston valve locomotive the repairs have been made. The usual practice, when 



it is known in advance that repairs must be made to the 
sand box, is not to take sand before going into the house. 
Such sand as remains in the box at the end of the trip 
is rini out on the engine house floor or in the pit and is 
carted to the sandhouse or the refuse dump by a laborer. 
It is then necessary for the engine to take sand on its 
way from the house, which is not always a convenient 
operation, particularly if special provision has not been 
made for sanding on the outgoing track and the operat- 
ing department is in a hurry to get the engine. To over- 
come this the portable tank shown in Fig. 553 has been 
constructed. It is wheeled alongside the engine, the 
sand pipe is disconnected, and tlie sand is run into the 
tank through the rubber hose, connected as shown in 
the left-hand view in the illustration. When repairs 
have been completed, the portable tank is connected to 
the sand box, as shown in the right-hand view, and air 
is atUnitted to the tank by connecting the air hose to 
the air line and opening the }i-m. cut-out cock. The 
l.^-in. cut-out cock is opened and the air pressure forces 
the sand back into the sand box. This method makes it 
possible to fill defective sand boxes before they come into 
the house and thus prevents any delay on leaving the 
house. The portable sand tank is 26 in, x 40 in. in size 
and is constructed of 5/16-in. steel. — Richard Beeson, 
Roundhouse Foreman, Pitlsbitrgh &■ Lake Erie, McKees 
Rocks. Pa. 


The apparatus shown in Fig. 554 is used for tem- 
poriarly holding the sand when repairing locomotive sand 
boxes. Two holes are drilled near the top of the barrel 
and an iron rod is run through them. Another hole is 
bored in the bottom, as shown, and a sheet iron valve is 

box by opening the valve at the bottom. — lames Steven- 
son, Foreman, Pennsylvania Railroad, Olean, K. Y. 


A steam sand dryer, which is simple and does the 
work of two stoves, is shown in Fig, 555. The hopper 
is about 58 in. x 97 in. and has a nest of steam pipes in the 
bottom. These pipes are placed close together and will 
not allow the sand to pass through while wet or damp, 

p- -^ ^ i 





. „r J 

Fig. 555 — Steam Sand Dryer. 

but when dry it falls through readily without any shaking 
or sifting. All of the joints of the piping are made out- 
side, and, in case of a leak, the sand in the hopper is not 
moistened. — C. I. Drury, General Roundhouse Foreman, 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Albuquerque, Nezv Mex. 


A convenient device for sawing a locomotive frame in 
order to insert a piece for a new weld is shown in Fig. 
556. It consists of a portable rail saw, as manufactured 
by the Vandyck Churchill Company, so arranged that 
it may be operated by an air motor connected to shaft A, 

F<B> BS4 — Temporary Receptacle for Sard. 

provided for closing it. When it is necessary to draw 
the sand from the box it is run into the barrel and the 
necessary repairs are made. The barrel is then lifted np 
over the sand box and the sand is allowed to run into the 

Fig* S56 — Locomotive Frame Cotd Saw. 

and fed by hand or automatically by the pawl and feed 
mechanism shown in the illustration. Two adjustable 
legs support one end of the machine while the other end 
is clamped to the locomotive frame. — R. G. Bennett, 



Motive Power Inspector, Pennsylvania Railroad, Pitts- 
btirgh, Pa. 


The portable air motor-driven hack saw, shown in Fig. 
557, is used principally for cutting out sections of broken 
frames which it is desired to weld without removing from 
the engine. The angle iron is clamped to th^ engine 
frame and the rear end of the saw frame is supported on 

ffofor i20 fi.P.M, 

Nofti Saws phced Ao cuf 
ffi ofiposifg ef/recf/on. 

y /^^! ^ 

Fig. 557 — Portable Hack Saw Driven by an Air Motor. 

blocking. The two saw blades are placed to cut in 
opposite directions and are spaced apart by blocking, to 
suit the thickness of the piece which it is desired to re- 
move. — Richard Bceson, Roundhouse Foreman, Pitts- 
burgh & Lake Erie, McKees Rocks, Pa, 


An apparatus for compressing the spring so that the 
driving or truck spring hangers can be put in position is 


Fig. 558 — Spring Compressor. 

shown in Fig. 558. It consists of a flat bar A with a 
series of holes drilled at one end and a hinge hook C at 

the other. It is placed against the inside of the frame 
and a key B inserted in one of the upper holes. The 
chain is drawn down and looped into the hook (the draw- 
ing does not show this quite as clearly as it should) . BV 
operating the screw at the bottom the spring can then be 
compressed the desired amount. — A. Lowe, Canadian 
Pacific Raikvay, Glen Yard, Westmount, Montreal, 


The lever and the clamp, shown in Fig. 559 afford a 
most convenient means for removing and applying driv- 
ing springs in the engine house.' With the driving wheels 
in place, the springs are usually quite inaccessible and 
ordinarily four or five men are required to move a spring 
by the obstructions, and in so doing they often crush their 
fingers. The clamp of the new device, by which the 
spring is lifted, consists of two hooks which engage the 
ends of the spring. These are connected by a turn- 
buckle, so that adjustment can readily be made for dif- 
ferent lengths of springs. By means of the I-bolt at- 
tached to gne side of the turnbuckle, connection is made 


Zrll 4 Sfef.TumbuckM 


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-- ^i — ^ ^^A///*-— H 

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J If 

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•ct I Isf 1 J I /^ If^^ CAa/n ciroanef 

'Rurtn/ng 0oa/tt 

Fig. 559 — Lever and Clamp for Removing or Applying Driv- 
ing Springe. 

to the clevis on the end of the iron lever. This lever is 
suspended from the running board by means of a ^-in. 
chain, which engages one of the six notches in the lever 
to prevent its slipping. In removing a spring, two men 
press down on the handle of the lever and lift the spring ; 
then by pushing it sideways it may be lowered on to one 
of the side rods, from which point it is handled in the 
usual manner. It takes half as manv men and half the 
time to do the work in this way as compared to the old 
method; it is also much safer. — C. /. Lindgren, Round- 
house Foreman, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, Aurora, 


There is probably more temper lost, especially in the 
roundhouse when the locomotive is fired up and due out, 



in connection with spring pulling than with any other 
job on the locomotive. Various spring pullers have been 
devised, using chains or plates or a combination of both, 
but the block here shown, Fig. 560. is probably one of 
the most effective ones which can be devised. This block 

valves are located on each side of the pit to which hose 
is attached for cooling off hot journals. The cylinders 
are piped together, but are so arranged that they may 
be used independently if desired ; the piping may be 
connected either to the shop air line or to the train 
tine hose back of the tank. The plungers of the 
cylinders are provided with removable pieces E, which 
fit between the tops of the cylinders and the under sides of 
the journal boxes. — Charles Maier, Engine House Fore- 
man, West Jersey & Seashore, Atlanlic City, -V. 7. 


A toot which is very useful for rapidly removing 
broken or defective locomotive springs in the round- 
house is shown in Fig. 562. Being light, the device is 
easily handled and quickly adjusted. The hardened point 

Pig. B60 — Spring Puller. 

is used with two plates which extend up to the top of the 

spring. A bolt is placed across the spring an3 through 
the plates and the hooks of the block are inserted in slots 
in the lower ends of the plates, which are sufficiently 
long to permit the screw working against the under side 
of the lower frame rail. The tool's lightness, simplicity 
and effectiveness are the points which particularly recom- 
mend it— Baltimore & Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Balti- 
more, Md. 


An arrangement for sponging journal boxes and re- 
moving brasses is shown in Fig. 561. The track is 
equipped with air jacks in a pit and the necessary tools 
and blocking are kept in a tool chest near by. Two air 
cylinders are used for removing tender truck brasses 
and two for removing trailer and engine truck brasses. 


J — 





Fig. 561 — Pit* and Jack* for Removing Journal Bsarlnga. 

These cylinders are 14 in. in diameter and have a 12-in. 
lift, using air pressure from 100 to 135 lbs. per sq. in. 
Two chains are provided with each pair of cylinders, 
which go under an iron bar, that passes under both rails, 
and over the axle, holding the wheel to the rail while the 
journal box is raised to remove the bearing. Two water 

Fig. 562 — Spring Puller. 

bears against the lower rail of the frame, and the hook 
grips over the top of the spring. The two side bars 
are fitted with a series of pin holes at each end in order 
that the length may be varied to suit conditions. — A. D. 
Porter, Shop EiRciency Foreman, Canadian Pacific, West 
Toronto, C<i»ada. 


In removing tender truck brasses two hydraulic jacks 
are generally used and the wheel is often raised, pre- 
venting the brass from being removed. In the latter case 
it is necessary to use a pry on top of the wheel, which 
requires extra help to remove a defective brass. By the 



device here shown. Fig. 563, one man can readily remove 9 in. in diameter and 24 in. long, with a pipe and funnel 
a brass in four or five minutes. A small screw or at the top for filling and one leading off from the bot- 
hydratilic jack is placed about 4 ft. from the wheel and torn to the burner, which is shown at the right. Air is 

admitted to the top of the reservoir, thereby putting a 
pressure on the gasolene ; at the same time it comes down 
to the burner through the pipe on the outside. The 
mixture of air and gasolene is drawn out through the 

Fig. 563 — Device for Removing Tender Truck Braseee. 

a piece of rail is used as a lever. — C. /. Drury, General 
Roundhouse Foreman, ^tchisoti, To/'eka & Santa Fe, 
Albuquerque, N, Mex. 


A special kink, which is useful in removing tender 
truck brasses, is shown in the photograph. Fig. 564. It 
not onlv saves the time which is required in looking for 
blocking on which to place the jack, but also holds the 
wheel to the rail, as the lip on its end fits over the tread 
of the wheel. Occasionally the wheel will tip up if a 

Pig. 5e&— Tire Heater. 

Y connection into the circular burner that surrounds 
the tire and is there ignited, heating the tire in the ordi- 
nary way. — A. Loivc, Canadian Pacific Railway, Glen 
Yard, Westmount, Montreal. 

device of this kind is not used, due to the weight on the 
other end of the axle. The tool has been used success- 
fully on soft ground where ordinary blocking would sink 
in. It can be made of any size iron, but for good results 
it is best to use a piece of 1-in. x 5-in., about 14 in. long. — 
H. L. Burrhus, Assistoiit to General Foreman, Erie Rail- 
road, Susquehanna, Pa. 


The tire heater shown in Fig. 565 uses gasolene. It 

is a simple cont; 

consisting of a reservoir about 


A portable oil tank and heater for use in connection 
with a tire heating ring is shown in Fig. 566. It is a 
simple and economical device for removing or applying 
driving or truck wheel tires in an engine house. The 
oil tank A is an old 12-in. x 33-in. auxiliary reservoir, - 
A Ys-va, feed pipe extends from the tee just above the 
top head down into the tank and to within one inch of 
the bottom. One end of the tee is connected to the 
54-in. supply pipe C, provided with a check valve, which 
goes to the heater B. The other end of the tee is con- 
nected to the air supply, which may be throttled down 
to give the desired mixture for proper combustion. At 
the side of the tank is an air pipe connected to the air 
system through a reducing valve set to 20 lbs. This 
gives the pressure necessary to drive the oil from the 
tank A through the heater B to the ring. The heater B, 
made from an old 12-in. air brake cylinder with 9 ft. of 
^-in. pipe coiled inside of it, heats the oil, forming a 



gas. This pipe comes out of the heater at D and is con- pipe which is concentric with the one shown, the outer 
nected to the pipe extending to the heating ring by a pipe carrying the air for mixture with the oil at the 
coupler at E. The heater is heated by wood, charcoal nosizlc. The oil is forced in both directions through the 
or by a burner fed from the oil pipe. The tire heating circular pipe and, by proper regulation and after the 
ring is made of 1-in. pipe, with openings J^ in. long and pipe has become heated, makes a steady blue flame all 

around the circumference of the tire. There is an open 
space of about 2 in. on each side of the T-end of the 
delivery pipe. This allows for syphoning outside air 
into the circular pipe. The tires are handled by the jaw 
clamps with a block and fall from a wall crane. It re- 
quires from 15 to 25 minutes to remove or replace a tire 
by this method of heating. — Long Island Railroad, 
Morris Park, N. Y. 

The tire wear gage, shown in Fig. 568, is a simple and 
effective tool. The sliding blade, which fits in the slot 
and may be locked in place by the small bolt, is located 
one inch from the throat of the flange. The gage is 
placed in position over the flange, and the sliding blade 

Fig. 56S— Tire Heater. 

the width of the hack saw blade, which gives a good wide 
flame. This arrangement comes in very handy where 
driving tires are to be tightened at outlying points. — 
W. H. Fetner, Master Mechanic, and C. L. Dickert, 
General Foreman, Central of Georgia, Macon, Ga. 

The method of heating tires at the Long Island shops 
is illustrated in the photograph. Fig. 567. Wheels are 
handled to the 'stationary stand by the shop crane. This 
stand is made from an old axle, into which a cross frame 

/" '^A 

Ffg. 5W— Tlr« Wear Gafle. 

is pressed down to the contact with the tire, the wear 
being indicated on the scale. The straight side of the 
gage is used for measuring the wear of plain tires 
in a similar manner. — L. M. Granger, Assistant General 
Foreman, and John Todd, Machinist Foreman, Erie Rail- 
road, Gallon, 0. 

1 Petition for Heating 

In setting tires in the engine house, a pair of iron 
wedges, 5 in. wide, 2j/. in. high and 28 in. long, are 
placed on the track and the engine is moved over them 
by means of a shop locomolive. The spring saddles are 
then blocked from the frame by the use of old rod keys, 
after which the engine is moved off of the wedges. The 
wheels and axle, which now carry onl\' their own weight, 
are jacked up. The brake shoes are removed, and a gas 
burner, which is made of 1-in. pipe in two sections, is 
slipped over the tire and heat is applied. By this method 
one tire can be set in one hour, whereas by the old method 
of jacking up the engine and taking down the rods it 
required three hours. — C. /. Lindgren, Roundhouse Fore- 
man, Chicago, Burlhi_gton & Qiiincy, Aurora, III. 

^, . , . , ■ , .L .■ ■ TOOL BOX, PORT.\BLE. 

brace is secured. The pipe which encircles the tire is 

perforated with '/i-iuch holes. The cheapest grade of Each mechanic in the engine house has a standard 

fuel oil is used with this heater. The oil is contained in portable tool box, as shown in Fig. 569. It is somewhat 

the old air reservoir, and is forced to the jet by air pres- higher than similar boxes used on other roads, measuring 

sure in the tank. The oil reaches the jet through a small 32j4 in. from the floor to the top of the box. The box 


the box may easily be moved about the house. The tin 
holder at the back is for work slips. — C. P. IVilkinson, 
Apprentice Instructor, Michigan Central, Jackson, Mich. 


Portable tool boxes for the machinists are made of 
steel. This construction, while more expensive than 
wood, is practically indestructible, and the boxes cannot 
be broken open. One -sixteenth -inch steel is used and 
the boxes are 39 in. x 18 in. x lOj-i in. — Richard Beeson, 
Roundhouse Foreman, Pittsburgh & Lake Erie, McKees 
Rocks, Pa. 


A simple tube auger is shown in Fig. 570. The handle 
is made of js-in. round iron, to which is welded the flat 

■■■aff. **o. US'- 

Fig. S70 — Tube Auger. 

twisted J4-in. x 1'4-in. soft steel stock. This auger may 
be made in any length, the three lengths used in our 
engine house being shown on the drawing. — C. C. Leech, 
Foreman, Pennsylvania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Fig. 569 — Portable Tool Box. 


measures 42 in. x 18 in. x 14 in. inside and is made of A portable combined pneumatic and hydraulic wheel 
yi-m. material. The wheels are 19 in. in diameter so that press with a capacity up to 190 tons is shown in Fig. 571, 

Fig. 571— Portable Wheel Preee. 



It is mounted on a 4-wheel truck so that it can be used 
in the roundhouse or in any part of the shop. The 
ordinary work of pressing a wheel on the axle is accom- 
plished with this machine in three minutes. The 14-in. 
piston in the air cylinder operates a 1 9/16 in. hydraulic 
plunger, which forces water into the ram in the press. 
The air cylinder is operated by a valve, shown in section, 
and the operation of the various parts is as follows: 
When the handle is in the center, air is cut off. 
The handle in position R opens valve £ and closes 
valve D, making connection to the 14-in. air cylinder 
through F E B, as shown by arrows, also closing air 
inlet in valve Z at G and making connection through H 
and M to the atmosphere, as shown on section of valve 
Z at G M II, raising the 14-in. air piston and the 
1 9/16-in. water piston, forcing water into the ram. 
The handle in position L closes valve £ and opens valve 
D, making connection B D A from the 14-in. air cylinder 
to the atmosphere ;. also opening the air connection on 
valve Z through G H, as shown on the section of valve 
Z, to the top of the water tank, forcing water through 
the pipe at the bottom of the tank to the top of the 
1 9/16-in. piston, forcing the piston down and filling the 
hydraulic cylinder with water ready for another stroke. 
Each stroke moves the ram }i in. To force the ram back, 
put the handle in the center and open globe valves S T. 
— John Home. Draftsman, Chicago, Burlington & 
Qmncy, St. Joseph, Mo. 


An important advantage of the wagon for mounted 
wheels; which is shown in Fig. 572, is the fact that it 
will turn in its own length, and can thus be used success- 
fully in getting around sharp corners in a crowded 

Fig. 572— Wagon for Mounted Whasla. 

roundhouse. It is made of a 2-in. x 12-in. oak plank, 
6 ft. long, which is hung at its center on the wrought 
iron axle. The wheels are 10 in, in diameter and have 
3-in, threads. The oak plank is stiffened and strength- 
ened by the two trusses of J/^-in. x 2-in. iron, which lip 
over the plank at its ends and are securely bolted to it by 

the 5'8-in. bolts. A bracket of J^-in. x 2-in. iron, over 
which the truss straps extend, is bolted over the axle. A 
'/2-in. X 2-in. strap is also placed across the plank on the 
under side at each end. The top of the wagon is only 
a few inches above the floor, and the wheels can readily 
be rolled on it by using a set of iron, or iron faced wooden 
wedges, which may easily be carried on the wagon. 
These are usually made 6 in, wide and 18 in. long, and 
of the proper height to suit the wagon. As the wheels 
are rolled on the wagon they drop into the recessed parts 
C, which prevent them from rolling off. The wagon may 
easily be moved about by placing a rope through the eye- 
strap at the end. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania 
Railroad, Buffalo, N. }'. 

A vise stand for engine house use is shown in Fig. 573. 
It is made of cast iron and of a suitable size for placing 
it between or at the ends of the pits and is much more 


Fig. 573— ViM SUnd. 

convenient than a wooden bench placed against the wall. 
It occupies very little space, and at the same time is very 
rigid and more substantial than any form of wooden 
bench. The top may be used for straightening bolts, rods, 
etc., and the design of the base provides no place for scrap 
material to accumulate. — E. J. McKernan, Tool Super- 
lisoT, Atchison, Topcka &• Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 


A small bench for a vise is shown in Fig, 574. One of 
these is attached to the posts between every other pit. 


The top is 24 by 32 in. in size and is made of 3-in. oak, 
resting on l)4-'i- angle irons and braced by 2 x j4-in. 

the vise end,of the frame carries the axle for the wheels. 
The weight of the vise at one end so balances the bench 

Fiff. 575— Portable Work Bench. 

that one man can easily wheel it about the house. — A. G. 

Pancost, Elkhart, Ind. 


Much time is saved by the portable work bench shown 
in Fig. 576, as the workman can move it near the engine 
and does not have to carry material back and forth, as is 
necessary where a wall bench is used. The wheels are 
of large diameter and the bench can readily be moved 
from one engine to another. It is 28 in. x Z6 in. at the 
top and stands 30 in. high. The construction is sub- 
stantial, and the drawer is large enough to hold the nec- 
essary tools. — WUHam G. Reyer, General Foreman, 
Nashville, Chattanooga &■ Si. Louis, Nashville, Tenn. 

F\q. 574— Vise Bench. 

iron, as shown. The bench takes up very little room, is 
rigid, and is conveniently placed. — C. P. Wilkinson, Ap- 
prentice Instructor, Michigan Central, JacHson, Mich. 


A portable work bench is a necessity in a roundhouse. 
Two or three benches of this kind, .such as shown in Fig. 
575, will take care of this class of work nicely in a 20 to 
25-stall roundhouse. The bench is made of oak, well 
braced and bolted together, and is fitted with a large 
swivel vise, as shown. The handles at one end are so 
attached that when they are not in use they drop down 
alongside the legs out of the way. A special casting at 


A portable bench, designed for use in the roundhouse 
s shown in Fig. 577. The top is covered with a sheet of 

Fig. B77 — Portable Roundhouse Worit Bench. 

Fig. 576— Portable Woric Bench. 



No. 16 iron and a vise is secured to the end as indicated. 
The 20-in. x 20-in. x 5-in. drawer is sufficiently large to 
carry all small tools required, while larger ones are placed 
on the inside of the bench itself. This bench will be found 
a handy and time-saving device by machinists in the 
roundhouse.— ^£/ wo N. Owen, General Foreman, South- 
ern Pacific, BakersHeld, Cat. 


A portable work bench is shown in Fig. 578. By rais- 
ing the end of the 1-in. handle and placing it in the hook, 
the wheels are lowered to the floor, and one pair of bench 

3* i 

Fig. 578— Portable Work Bench. 

legs is raised upward. The bench can then easily be 
rolled to the most advantageous position for handling the 
work for which it is to be used. By unhooking and 
lowering the handle, the legs of the bench again come in 
contact with the floor. The construction is simple and 
inexpensive and provides the necessary rigidity. The 
detail of the brackets in which the axle fits and of the 
arm or handle at the center of the axle are shown on the 
drawing. — H. S. Ranch, Apprentice Instructor, New 
York Central &■ Hudson River, Oswego, N. Y. 


An important feature of a good engine house organiza- 
tion is the use of the individual engine work report book. 
This should be kept in a small box or holder in the engine 
cab, provided exclusively for the purpose, and should be 
used only by the engineer who is running the engine. 
The book should have duplicate or carbon sheets, and the 
engineer should fill out his work report as soon as lie 
discovers anything wrong. Quite often the train must be 
stopped on the road, giving the engineer a good oppor- 
tunity to inspect the engine. He may notice some repair 
that should be made, but too often trusts to his memory 
to report it on his arrival at the terminal, and sometimes 
forgets it. If he immediately makes a note of it in the 
report book there will be no trouble of this kind. Again, 
if the engine is due at the terminal after dark, and the 
engineer has an opportunity to inspect it on the road by 
daylight late in the afternoon and to make out his report 
at that time, he will make a much closer inspection and 
his report will be more accurate. 

Another advantage is that where engines are not as- 
signed to regular engineers, any engineer that is called to 
take an engine out can look over the report book and see 
just what the troubles on the previous trips have been and 
thus be forewarned. By always having the work report 
book on the engine, any information concerning its per- 
formance can be obtained quickly, thus saving the time 
of checking over a great number of work reports. When 
an engine arrives at the engine house, the work report 
should be taken from the cab by the leading inspector or 
the foreman of the ash pit, and be given to the round- 
house foreman, thus enabling him to get a check on the 
kind and amount of repairs that will be required, and also 
assisting him' in assigning the engine to the pit in the 
house where this work can be most advantageously done. 
This one point alone is quite important and eliminates a 
great deal of unnecessary transferring of engines after 
they have been placed in the house. — H. L. Bitrrhus, As- 
sistant to General Foreman, Erie Railroad, Susquehanna, 

Gar Department Kinks, General 


A car wheel axle truck, which, with the exception of 
the wheel and chains, is made entirely of Ij^-in. iron pipe 
and fittings is shown in Fig, 579, By raising the handle 
and opening the rear hook by means of the rawhide cord 
the axle may be gripped at one end by the hook and then 
by lowering the handle the axle may be gripped at the' 

battered ends. Instead of starting at the end of the boh, 
as is done with the standard die, the two pieces are placed 
over the threaded portion, the holder is slipped over them 
and the die is screwed off the bolt. — F. Rattek, Brighton, 


A serviceable device for a car repair yard is the bolt 
shearing machine shown in Fig. 581. It consists of a 
long lever £, pivoted at G, with a knife blade F bolted 
to it. The lever is operated by a 10-in. air brake cylinder. 
A piece of iron D, notched to receive ^-in,, %-m. or l-in, 
bolts, is bolted to the crosspiece; when air is supplied to 
the cylinder the knife shears the bolt. The whole 
mechanism is mounted in a wooden frame support and 



Fig. 679— Axl« Truck. 

other end in a similar manner. The truck is operated by 
one man and will handle any size car axle. It is easily 
made at a cost not to exceed $10. With a little practice 
the axles may be easily balanced when they are picked up. 

— E. /. McKcrimn, Tool Supen-isor, Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 


any car repairer can operate the machine, thus relieving 
To the car repairman the two-piece die and die holder, ^j,^ blacksmith shop of many small jobs.-^. G. Bennett. 
shown in Fig, 580, are worth their weight in gold for 


Pig. B81— Bolt ahearinf Machine. 

running over old bolts that have become rusted or have 

MoHtc Power Inspector 
burgh. Pa. 

Pennsylvania Railroad, Pitts- 

Flg. 580 — Die for Repairing Mutilated Threads on BolU. 


A simple and handy truck (Fig. 582) is used for hand- 
Hng car doors about the yard. The door sets between 
the metal guides on the truck and one end wedges between 
the two parts of the wooden handle. The guides are 
constructed of J^ by 2-in. iron, as shown, and are bolted 


to the K-'n. plate at the bottom, which is 6 in. wide and table are a number of bins containing all the necessary 
about 16^2 in. long. The wheels are 9^ in. in diameter, nails, castings, screws, etc. — Delaware, Lackawanna & 

Western, East Buffalo, A'. Y. 


.■\ simple device, which is a time-saver in putting up air 
cylinders and reservoirs on new freight equipment, is 
shown in Fig. 584. The drum consists of a piece of 
lJ4-in. pipe, 10 ft. long, the end of which is provided 
with an oak crossbar about 4 ft. long. This device is 
applicable only on new cars and is used before the floor- 


Fig. 582— Box Car Door Truck. 

Car Shops, East 

— A'«t' York Central & Hudson Rtvci 
Buffalo, X. v. 


Accuracy and rapidity in the building of box car doors 
is secured by the use of a cast iron plate 3^ in. thick 
and 7 ft. 3 in. wide by 8 ft. 6 in. long. On two sides, 
at right angles to each other, are flanges 2 in. high, as 
shown in Fig, 583. The door frame is laid on the plate, 
as shown by the photograph, and the siding is placed on 
it and nailed to it. Near the back of the plate will be 
seen what appears to be a boss with a handle on it. This 
is a cam which fits in a hole in the plate ; it was intended 

Fig. 5W — Hand WIndlaia for Reaervoln and Braks Cylinder!. 

ing is laid. It is placed across the sills, and a piece of 
rope or chain is passed around the reservoir or cylinder, 
lying on the ground, and fastened to the windlass drum 
at the eye-bolts shown. By revolving the handle, the 
cylinder, or reservoir, is elevated to position. Using this 
device, two men can place the cylinders and reservoirs 
on six cars in 30 minutes. — Guy A. Adams, Foreman, 
Boston & Maine, Concord, N. H. 



A handy device for elevating and holding the air cyl- 
inders and reservoirs of freight cars in place for bolting 
is shown in Fig. 585, The frame consists of two oak 
pieces, Ij^ in, x 6 in. x 4 ft. 6 in. They are spaced about 
48 in. apart by pieces of l-in, pipe and are held rigidly 

Fig. 583 — rron Table for Building Box Car Doora. 

by turning the handle to force the siding boards tightly 
against each other and hold them there while they were 
being nailed on the frame. There were three of these 
cams. This practice has been discontinued, however, as 
it has been found that the dry lumber, when it becomes 
exposed to the rain and moisture, swells, with resulting 
injury to the appearance of the door. Underneath the 


j IrBftSod^ /I ^M 

Fig. 586 — Brake Cylinder and Reeervoir WIndlaa*. 

together by .'-^-in, iron rods, which pass through the 
pipes. The tops of the uprights are rounded off and 
notched to grip the corner of the side sill. Metal points 
in the feet of the uprights prevent shpping. The drum 



of the windlass consists of a Ij^-in. pipe, at the end of 
which IS a ratchet and pawl. When using, the device is 
set up at the side of the car, the notches gripping the 
comers of the side sills. Two pieces of 1-in. rope, about 
18 ft. long, are spliced to the two eye bolts on the l^^-in. 
pipe. The loose ends of these ropes are fitted with hooks. 
These ends are passed over the truss rod to the ground. 
The cylinder, or reservoir, is then placed on the ropes, 
the ends of which are passed up and hooked over a piece 
of pipe placed parallel to the side sill to which the cyl- 
inder, or reservoir, is to be bolted. This pipe extends 
from one cross or needle beam to another. The slack in 
the rope is taken up and the cylinder lifted to position by 
using a bar in the holes in the drum. With this device it 
is easily possible for two men to do the work, which 
formerly required three. — Gtiy A. Adams, Foreman, 
Boston & Maine, Concord, N. H. 


A quick method of removing car bodies from their 
trucks at the repair track is the use of two air cylinders 
suspended on either side of the track, of sufficient height 
to permit the car being raised high enough to run the 
truck out. . In this company's yard are two 14-in. air 
cylinders, suspended from a rigid steel structure. A 
car is run in on the repair tracks, the lifting hooks are 
placed under the side sills and in less than one minute 
from the time the rope is pulled, which is attached to the 
air valve that admits air to the cylinders, the car body is 
raised and the truck rolled out. This has been found to 
be a very economical and safe method of raising car 
bodies without the use of jacks. — /. E. Osmer, Master 
Mechanic, A'ortlncesfern Elevated. 


A depth gage for adjusting center and side bearings on 
trucks is shown in Fig. 586. It consists of a piece of 
^8-in. material. 6 ft. long x 6 in. wide. The ends are 
shaped as shown in the drawing. An adjustable scale is 


SetScretK ■ 







Fig. 586 — Center and Side Bearing Depth Gage. 

located at the center of the gage. In using this device 
the end<5 rest upon the side bearings. The scale is then 
moved into contact with the center plate, indicating the 
thickness of the liner required. — Guy A, Adams, Fore- 
man, Boston & Maine, Concord, N. H, 


In car repair yards where a large amount of work is 
done, including foreign cars, it is necessary to carry a 

large number and variety of coupler knuckles. As 
many of these knuckles do not differ greatly in construc- 
tion, it is advisable to keep the different types piled 
separately and have them properly labeled, so that no 
time will be lost in finding the proper one. Because of 
their shape, it is difficult to arrange them to advantage 
without some means of support. The rack shown in Fig. 

Fig. 587 — Rack for the Storage of Coupler Knuckles. 

587 has been devised for this purpose. A piece of tin, 
bent so that it will hold a card, is tacked about the top 
of each space and contains the name of the knuckle stored 
below. Resides adding to the neat appearance of the 
yard, the stock of knuckles can readily be accurately 
checked at any time without unnecessary handling. — 
A. G. Pancost, Draftsman, Elkhart, Ind. 


A handy yard crane, operated by air and used in 
handling heavy material in the repair yard and for un- 

Fig. 588 — Portable Air Operated Crane. 

loading lumber, is shown in Fig. 588. Details of the air 
cylinder and boom are shown in Fig. 589. Our crane is 
used on 6 ft. gage track, but a similar car could be used 



equally well on standard gage, especially if outriggers or 
clamps were used when very heavy loads were handled. 
The car is of heavy wooflen construction, well braced, 
and the mast is of oak, braced by a heavy bracket. The 
casting C, to which the boom is fastened, swings freely 
around the mast, operating on cast iron balls which fit 
in a groove or runway. A rope is fastened to the top 
of the boom for swinging it from side to side. The collar 
at the top of the mast, to which the tie rod £ is attached, 
is arranged to revolve easily about the mast. The air 

crane. Fig. 590, is used for loading and unloading the 
heavier material such as wheels, trucks, bolsters, etc. — 
New York Central & Hudson River Car Shops, East 
Buffalo, N. Y. 


Several types of cranes are used for handling material 
about the car yard. In Fig. 591 is shown a revolving 
crane on a truck; it is used for various purposes, includ- 
ing the handling of wheels, axles, etc. In the back- 

&SB — Boom and Air Cyllndsr Uaed on Portable Yard Derrick. 

cylinder is constructed of wrought iron pipe and is ar- 
ranged so that air may be admitted at either end by 
means of the three-way valve F. The stroke of 7 ft. is 
doubled by weaving the chain around the sheave which 
is fastened to the end of the piston rod. As may be seen, 
the end of the piston rod is fitted with a crosshead which 
runs in giiidc;, thus preventing the rod from being bent 
or distorted. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania Rail- 
road, Buffalo, N. Y. 


Several portable cranes are used for handling material 
about the plant. A pneumatically operated revolving 

ground of the same view is shown a gib crane with an 
air hoist for handling wheels. A large air operated 
crane placed on a flat car is used for loading and unload- 

Fig. S91 — Cranea for Handling Wheel* and Axlee. 

iijg heavy material. The division wrecking crane is 
located at this point and is also available for handling 
heavy material. — Delaware, Lackau-anna & Western, 
East Buffalo, N. Y. 

Fig. 690 — Pneumatic Revolving Crane. 


A handy air lift, mounted on a low wagon and used to 
remove defective drawheads and replace new ones on 
tenders, cars, etc., is shown in Fig. 592. The wagon is 
rolled under the ten<ler or car and the pistons are run up 



against the drawhead and yoke. Tlie nuts are then re- 
moved and the drawhead lowered. The phanton illustra- 
tion shows both the high and low positions of a drawbar 

Fig. G92— Drawbar Air Dft. 

on this Viit.—D. P. Kellogg, Master Mechanic; W. F. 
Merry, General Foreman, and G. H. Goodwin, General 
Gang Foreman, Southern PaciHc, Los Angeles, Col. 



and the gear which meshes with the rack. At the lower 
end of the rack is a wrought iron bracket B. The piece A, 
which is fastened to the spindle S, is made of y^ in. boiler 
plate and is so designed that it fits freely into the coupler 
and knuckle, and may be turned by the handle B. At 
the other end of the bracket B is suspended a piece of 
;^-in. chain. In lifting the coupler from the ground this 
chain is passed around the shank of the coupler, which 
rests in the piece E, and the hook at the end of the chain 
is slipped into the loop L. The coupler can be lifted to the 
proper height for riveting by operating the hand wheel 
and the rack R, and may easily be turned over or swung 
into any position under the hammer. A lug consisting of 
a piece of ^ in. by 2 in, iron is riveted on the inside of A 
and is bent at one end, projecting beyond the edge of A. 
On the other end it extends far enough beyond A to 
allow a pin to be put in after the coupler has been 
dropped into place. This prevents the coupler from 
falling out when it is. turned over. An overhead trolley, 
the details of which are shown in the drawing, may be 
constructed, so that the coupler can readily be carried to 
and from the hammer. — C C. Leech, Foreman, Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. Buffalo, N. Y. 


A hydraulic press, or shear, designed at the East 
Buffalo shops, has recently been installed for shearing 
off coupler yoke rivets and is giving satisfactory results. 

When riveting yokes on couplers it is desirable to have 
a special hoist by which the coupler may easily be handled 
and turned over. The hoist for this work, shown in Fig. 

DikaliAr Onr- 




Fig &9^T-Hol«t Used for Riveting Yokes on Couplers. 

593, consists of two J'a in. x 3 in. pieces of iron, between 
which iron blocks are riveted at the top and bottom. 
The rack gear R is raised and lowered by the hand wheel 

Fig. 594— Hydra 



The rivets are sheared at both ends where the. yoke fits 
against the coupler. The body of the rivet drops out of 
the coupler end, and the two ends of the rivet either drop 
out, or may be easily knocked out of the yoke. The dis- 
advantage of most devices designed for doing this work 
is that they cut the rivet head off at one end only, and 
if both of the rivets are not headed up on the same side, 
it is almost impossible to drive one of them out. With 
this machine, although the work is done quickly, there 
is no danger from flying parts as with a drop machine. 

Fig. S96— Thrae-Way Valvs on Hydraulle Prau. 

quired to increase the pressure in the cylinders sufficiently 
to shear off the two lli-'in. rivets at both ends. The air 
pump is then shut off and just enough water is drained 
from the cyhnders to allow the yoke and coupler to be 

Fig. 595 — Hydraulic Pre«s for Removing Yoke> from Couplers. 

The apparatus is shown in detail in Figs. 594, 595, 596 
and 597. The columns of the machine are forged from 
old axles. The coupler is raised by an air hoist on a gib 
crane and the yoke is slipped into place as shown in Fig. 
597. Water is admitted to the cylinders by the three-way 
cock (Fig. ,'^%) and the ram is raised so that the coupler 
is forced against the top die, or former, as shown in Fig. 
597. By means of the three-way valve the connection to 
the main water supply line is then cut off and the pressure 
in the cylinders is increased by starting up a 9-in, loco- 
motive air pump, the lower part of which has been bushed 
down to 15/16 in. and is connected by a T and two check 
valves to the water supply line and the cylinders of the 
press. From 10 to 14 strokes of the air pump are re- 

Fig. 597 — Coupler Yoke Riveti About to be Sheared. 



reriioved and another one to be slipped into place. — 
Del<r:vare, Lackmvanna & Western, East Buffalo, JV. V. 


A simple device for shearing yokes from couplers is 
shown in Figs. ,S98 and 599. The machine consists of a 
cast steel hammer, weighing 1,570 lbs., which may be 
raised to any desired height by means of an 8-in. air 
cylinder; it is tripped by a tripping attachment ccnning 
in contract with a -J^-in. rod which is passed through two 
eye bolts fastened to the guides of the hammer. The 
movable block and spring near the tcq> of the guides ab- 
sorbs the shock of the tripping device as it flies up after 
releasing the hammer. The drop of the hammer is 
regulated to 9 ft. in summer and 8 ft. in winter. One 
blow shears the yoke from the coupler; occasionally a 
malleable iron coupler is damaged, but never a cast steel 
one. The time and labor saved by this machine, however, 
compensate for any loss of this kind. The machine may 
be operated by one man stationed at the cylinder, who. 

the side of valve B permits the upper part of the cylinder 
to drain, thus relieving the pressure ahead of the piston. 
Exhaust valve C is used to exhaust the air from the cyl- 
inder after the piston is moved to the starting position. 
It is closed when lifting the hammer, to give the required 
dash-pot action. Air is taken from an air reservoir 
through the valve D, which should be closed when the 

"1 t^' 

Fig. 69ft-Trip Har 

r for Shearing Yoke* from Couplers. 

by operating the rod connecting the air cocks A and B, 
and opening and closing the valve C in the exhaust pipe, 
may raise and lower the hammer at will. To operate the 
hammer move the connecting rod to close the valve A 
and open the valve B, thus admitting air at the top of the 
cylinder. When the hammer is tripped, move the con- 
necting rod in the opposite direction, which opens valve 
A and closes valve B at the same time. A hole drilled in 

[• — /e^ : 

Fig. B99 — Baae of Device for Removing Yolcea from Couplers. 

machine is out of use. Air is used from the shop line at 
about 100 lbs. pressure. 

Fig. 599 shows a partial front elevation of the lower 
part and base of the apparatus, including the blocks and 
spring on which the yoke with its coupler is placed for 
shearing. Before placing the coupler and yoke in the 
apparatus the hammer is raised slightly and is then 
lowered until it rests on a movable arm which may be 
swung under it. The workmen are thus protected from 
the accidental falling of the weight while they, are plac- 
ing or removing couplers in or out of the device. When 
air is admitted to the cylinder and the hammer is raised 
the arm is automatically swung out of the way. This 
device was first seen at the shops of the Union Rairoad. 
— R. G. Bennett, Motive Power Inspector, Pennsylvania 
Railroad, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


The device shown in Fig. 600 is used for doing close- 
qtiarter drilling in connection with the work of splicing 
sills. That porton of the sill which remains on the car 
cannot be reached without some device of this kind. The 
bevel gears are 1 in. in diameter and are enclosed in a 


light casing. In using, the casing is held in the right 
hand and the Little Giant motor in the left hand. A 
short shank is welded on the bit, and is held in the socket 

from an ordinary Dabber's adz, the blade of which is 
dressed into the semi-circle, as shown, with about ^ in. 
radius. This tool is very popular, doing the work which 



Fig. 600— Clote Quarter Drilling Angle. 

of one shaft, while the other shaft is tapered to fit the 
socket of the motor. — Guy A. Adapts, Foreman, Boston 
& Maine, Concord, N. H. 


The men work in gangs of two men each and are 
divided into two classes, truck men and carpenters. The 
truck men do the work on the trucks, underframe and 
draft rigging; the carpenters do all the work on the roof, 
sides and floor of the car. Except in emergency, not 
more than four men can work on one car at the same 
time — a truck gang and two carpenters. — Delazvare, 
Lackaivanna & Western, East Buffalo, N. Y. 


A convenient form of car inspector's hammer, made 
of low grade steel, with a hooked end for lifting journal 

Fig. 602 — Handle Gouge. 

formerly was performed with a mallet and hand gouge. 

— Guy A. Adams, For.eman, Boston & Maine, Concord, 

N. H. 


A 12-ton portable air jack, with a 20 in. lift, which may 
be used to advantage in the car repair yard, is shown in 
Fig. 603. The cylinder is of cast iron, 18 in. in diameter 
inside. The wheels are mounted on an axle that fits in 
the wrought iron bracket, which is clamped to the cyl- 
inder, A wooden- handle, 60 in. long, is flattened at one 


Fig. 601 — Car Inapector't Hammer. 

box lids, uncoupling steam hose, and useful for a variety 
of purposes, is shown in Fig. 601. — C. C. Leech, Fore- 
man, Pemrsyh-ama. Buffalo, N. Y. 


A handle gouge for cutting channelways for truss rods, 
on the under side of flooring and across body bolsters or 
transoms of freight cars is shown in Fig. 602. It is made 

Brackef fyr IV/tee/s Top Head. 

Fig. 603 — Twelve-Ton Portable Pneumatic Jack. 

end to fit loosely into the pocket A, the top flange and 
cover of the cylinder* being cut away to clear the handle. 
The jack can thus be readfly moved about the yard. An 
air coupling is provided for connecting it to the air line. 
— C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsvlvama Railroad, Buffalo, 
N. Y. 


An iron buggy used for handling a 290-lb. jack, is 
illustrated in Figs. 604 and 605. The ends of the fork 
or claws are turned up slightly to prevent the jack from 
slipping. The wheels have wide treads, but are not 



material that may be needed close at hand. A cart, which 
contains an emergency equipment, used for making 
speedy repairs to hot boxes, is shown in Fig. 606. This 
is always kept near the station and contains dope cans. 

Pfg. 606 — Car Inspector's Emsrganoy Rspair Cart 

waste, oil, special packing tools, jacks, blocking, extra 
journal brasses, etc. The use of this emergency cart has 
made possible the prompt handling of repairs to hot 
boxes. — A. G. Pancost, Draftsman, Elkhart, Ind. 

Fig. 604— Lifting the Jack on the Buggy. 

heavy. One man can easily handle a jack with this 
buggy. It is made high to permit placing the jack on a 


All of the jacking up and lowering of loaded cars is 
done by two men with two air jacks ; these are shown in 
position at one end of a loaded car in Fig. 607. The 
inside diameter of the air cylinders is about 20 in. and the 
stroke is 22 in. ; the piston rods are 4 in. in dameter. The 
air supply for both cylinders is controlled by one valve, 
so that the pressure is equalized and both jacks work to- 

Flg. 605 — The Jack In Position on the Buggy. 

16-in, block direct from the buggy. — F. J. Cook, Fore- 
man, Car Department Smith Shop, St. Louis South- 
•cvestern, Pine Bluff, Ark. 

inspector's emergency repair cart, 

-At terminals where all trains change engines and crews, 
and the inspectors are allowed only from two to ten 
minutes to thoroughly inspect the train, speed and ac- 
curacy are required on the part of all concerned in order 
that the train may leave the terminal on time and in safe 
condition. It is neces<;ary to have any tools or repair 

Fig. 607— Air Jacks for Loaded Cars. 

gether. While the jacks are quite heavy, the men seem 
to have no trouble in handling them about the yard. The 
empty cars are jacked up by ratchet jacks by the gang of 
men working on the car. — Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western, East Buffalo, N. Y. 


The journal brass shown in Fig. 608 may often be 
used to splendid advantage for curing or overcoming a 



hot box without replacing the axle, provided the journal 
is not too far gone. The repairman must, of course, use 
good judgment. Instead of holding the car and removing 
the wheels, it is often possible to save the journals for 

In order to use the bearings again it is necessary to 
refit them to the journal so that they will have a proper 
hearing. The device shown in Fig. 610 has a number 
of rollers of different diameters. The operator covers one 
of these, which corresponds to the diameter of the journal 

..> c 




•:::> o 


' * ■ 


Fig. 608 — Emergency Journal Bearing. 

several thousand miles additional service by applying the 
brass shown. It has a babbitt lining, which is cast on 
an arbor the same diameter as the journal on which it is 
to be used. It not be bored, filed or fitted, and must 
not be used on newly turned journals. — F. Raltck, 
Brighton, Mass. 


A special cart, Fig. 609, is used in connection with-the 
repacking of journal boxes. The wooden box is Uned 
with galvanized iron. The old packing is pulled out of 

Fig. 610 — Roller! Uied in Reflttlng Journal Brauet. 

for which he wishes to use the brass, with black lead, after 
which he pleaces the bearing on the roller and turns it by 
means of the handle A. The bearing is then removed to 
a convenient bench fitted with a clamp so it may be held 
rigidly while it is being scraped. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, 
Pcimsylraiiia Railroad. Buffalo, X. V. 


It is often necessary to re-turn the journals on car 
axles and after doing this they should he polished with 
emery. Fig. 611 shows a simple but efficient device for 
this purpose. The two wooden pieces' are of well- 
seasoned oak or hickory. The operator places the blocks 
about the journal, as shown, and drops the leg which is 

Fig. 609 — Cart for Journal Box Packing. 

the journal box and dumped into one end of the cart; 
fresh waste for repacking is taken from the other end. — 
Srii' Ynrk Central & Hudson River Car Shops. East 
Buffalo, .V. !'. 


Many car repair yards follow the practice of putting 
new bearings in journal boxes when a pair of wheels is 
changed. Wry often the old bearings are only .slightly 
worn and are good for considerable more service. 
Ordinarily the journnls from which they are removed arc 
worn sniaiicr than the standard and the bearing, when 
placed on anolher journal, will not fit down on the crown. 

Fig. 611 — Device for Poliahing Newly Turned Joui 

hinged to the lower block. Two sheets of fine, well-oiled 
emery cloth are inserted between the blocks and the 
journal; the lathe is started up and the operator places 
his weight on the outer end of the top block. In a short 
time a smooth, polished surface is obtained.—.-/. G. 
Pcineosl. Draftsman. F.llfhart, bid. 

.rOfRS.VF, ItOXKS, nRll.I.IXG. 

In rebuilding old freight cars to a capacity greater than 
that for which they were originally designed, it is neces- 


sary to strengthen the trucks, using heavier arch bar 
material, and heavier arch bar bolts. The rigging shown 
in Fig. 612 is used in connection with drilling the bolt 
holes in the journal boxes larger. The journal box is 

held in position by a block wedged against one foot of the 
upright. A guide, or template, is used in drilling, to 
prevent the drill from running to one side in the hole as 


Car inspectors in chat^e of the work in a large yard 
must be prepared at any moment to shoulder their tools 
and look over a train that is either entering the yard or 
preparing to leave it. The inspector does not, of course, 
know just what material he will need for repairs, and if 
he did he would probably be unable to carry it for any 
great distance. It is therefore desirable to provide some ar- 
rangement for storing a limited supply of the parts which 
are most often required convenient to the place where 
repairs may have to be made. This is particularly true in 
the case of such articles as air hose, knuckle locks, pins, 
cotters, bolts, etc. A box, similar to the one she 

Fig. 612 — Device Used for Drilling Journal Box Bolt Hole*; 
alio Metal Scaffold Bracket U«ed In Freight. Car Shop. 

it would be very apt to do otherwise, since the work is 
practically reaming rather than drilling. Flat-twisted, 
high speed drills are used. 

Scaffold. — Hooked over one of the cross-ties of the 
building column is shown an all-metal scaffold bracket 
used in the freight car shop. The extension arm is shown 
partly thrown up, to illustrate the fact that it may be 
moved up out of the way to prevent its being struck hy 
a passing car when not in use: this feature is quite im- 
portant.— Z-c/ii',;'/! J'allcy. Soyrr. Pa. 

An expanded metal locker is provided for each work- 
man in the shops and the repair yard. These lockers are 
placed in the freight car shop and are 1 ft. wide, 1 ft. 
deep and 5 ft. high inside. They are examined three or 
four times a week to see that no inflammable material is 
allowed to accumulate in them. They were manufactured 
and furnished by Merritt & Co. — Dcla;<.vrc, Lackawanna 
&■ Western, East Buffalo, N. Y. 

-^ii~ - 

Fig. 613 — Box for Storage of Car Repair Material. 

Fig. 61,1. may be used to good advantage for storing 
such material. These boxes are placed on two ties partly 
siuik in the groimd. and are located from 150 to 250 ft. 
apart on the side of the yard that is most convenient to 
the workmen and about 8 ft. frorti the track. In addi- 
tion to these small boxes, others, about three times as 
large, are placed from 500 to 600 ft. apart, alongside of 
the yard, and are used for the storage of oil, waste and 
heavy tools. These centers for supplies may also be used 
as dumping places for scrap material which is gathered 
up about the yard and is picked up by a work train at 
regular intervals. This method of storing material in a 
couvenient place for the repairmen not only enables them 
to do more and better work, but prevents the material 
from being scattered promiscuously through the yard 
and being lost or destroyed by exposure to the weather. 
— A. G. Pancnsl, Draftsman, Elkhart, hid. 


The combination steel bar and nail puller shown in 
Fig. 614 is a most convenient tool for use in a car repair 

s Round Spring ■Sfe«t. 

I*— -^- *i 

Fig. 614— Combination Steel Bar and Nail Puller. 

yard ; it may also be used for removing small bolts. — C. C 
Leech, Eoreman, Peiinsyh-ania Railroad, Buffalo, iV. V, 




Few to6\s used by car inspectors can be. put to as many 
uses as the pinchers shown in Fig. 615. The tool weighs 
very little and may be carried in the pocket without in- 
convenience. The two parts are forged from a good 
grade of tool steel and may be polished if desired. The 
end of one part of the handle is tapered to a sharp point, 
while the other is flatened and shaped for use in pulling 


Fig. 615 — Car Inspector's Pinchers. 

tacks. The tool as it is used for removing a rubber 
gasket from an air or steam hose is shown in Fig. 616. 
Every inspector is familiar with the trouble that is ex- 
perienced in removing these gaskets, especially old ones, 
which often stick in the recess. Should any of the pieces 
of gasket, dirt or scale remain in the recess, they can 
easily be removed by inserting the sharpened end of the 
handle and scraping them off. In placing a new gasket 
in the coupling it is necessary to double it up and force 
it through the opening, which is, of course, considerably 
smaller than the overall diameter of the gasket. In some 
instances the gasket does not fit properly in the recess and 
kinks up. By placing the nose of the pinchers in the 

Fig. 616 — Removing a Gasket from Air Hose Coupling. 

opening in the gasket, as shown in Fig. 617, and turning 
the tool around several times, pressing down at the same 
time, the gasket may be spread and forced into the proper 
position. In replacing broken glass on cars it is often 
necessary to remove moldings. This can be done w'ithout 
injury to the molding by the use of the pinchers, as 
shown in Fig. 618. The tack puller end of the handle 

can be used to pry up the molding and loosen the brads. 
The latter can then easily be pulled out. The pinchers 
are useful in breaking off rough edges of glass which 

Fig. 617 — Forcing Gasket to Seat Properly. 

fail to come off at the line made by the cutter. Car in- 
spectors do not like to carry tacks with them. When 
equipped with these pinchers it is not necessary to do so, 
for they can easily remove a tack from the side of a car 

Fig. 618 — Removing Brads from Molding. 

at any time it is needed. Flat places are left on the 
pinchers so that they can be used to advantage in driving 
tacks. — A. G. Pancost, Draftsman, Elkhart, hid. 


All scrap material gathered on the division is shipped 
to the East Buffalo shops and sorted into different classes. 
It is carefully examined by an expert .and such parts as 
are fit for use are transferred to what is known as a 
second-hand platform. When material is taken from this 
platform no charge is made against the car for it. At 
one end of the platform is a shed containing a hydraulic 
machine for cutting off the coupler yoke rivets ; beyond 
this IS a small blacksmith shop where bent or broken 


parts are straiglitened and repaired, and yokes are riveted 
to couplers. — Delaware, Lackav.<anna & Western, East 
Buffalo, N. Y. 


Large timbers are often loaded in gondola or hopper 
cars and are difficult to unload unless some special provi- 
sion is made for so doing. For this purpose a stationary 


Repairmen who are working on cars standing on tracks 
which lead to other parts of the yard should be protected 
by a conspicuous and substantial signal in order to cau- 
tion trainmen against entering the repair track either with 
other cars or with a switching locomotive. The ordinary 
flag is unsatisfactory, as it soon becomes soHd and may 
easily be lost, torn or blown away by the wind. To over- 
come this, the signal shown in Fig. 620 has been con- 
structed. The block which forms the base is heavy and 
insures the signal remaining in an upright position. One 
of these signals is left near each end of all entrance tracks 
to the repair yard and is always at hand when required. 
When in use it is placed in the center of the track. The 
banner should be painted occasionally, but this is the only 
attention which it will require. — A. G. Pancost, Drafts- 
man, Elkhart, Ind. 


A specially good trestle for supporting car bodies is 
shown in Fig. 621. It is substantial, durable and may be 
placed so that it will clear the trucks, allowing them to 
be run out from under the car. The base is made in the 
form of a T. the long member being placed nearest the 
car and parallel to it. The trestle is constructed entirely 

Fig. 619— Timber Holit. 

hoist extending over two tracks is used, as shown in Fig. 
619. The limber is unloaded from the cars and placed on 
lorry trucks and transferred to any part of the yard! 
The cylinder on the hoist is 12 in. in diameter and has a 
stroke or lift of 8 ft. It is operated from the platform 


^ MfifBlut 



k- -/ff-'- — -. 

(. -is^. , 





' \ 


r ''*" 

^^ - 

Fig. 620 — SubatantUI Signal for Uae of Car Repairr 

Fig. 621— A Good Treatle for the Car R«palr Yard. 

at the right by the use of an old engineer's valve. The of iJ^-in. x 6-in. timbers, except for a 1^-in. x 3-in, 

cylinder is supported by a small carriage, which operates piece which ties the legs together at the front and about 

on two sheaves on a track of bar iron. — Erie Railroad, half way up. The base plank at the front is 3 ft. long. 

Buffalo, y. Y. ■ The rear leg extends back 2 ft. from the front of the 


trestle. The flat surface at the top is 5^ in. x lOj^ in. 
and the trestle stands 3 ft, 10 in. high — Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western. East Buffalo, N. Y. 


Considerahie friction developed at one time because of 
the workmen steahng tools from each other's boxes. 
These boxes are of the usual type, 12 in. x 7}/i in, x 24 
in. over all, with half of the top and half of one side open. 
To overcome the difficulty three compartments or closets 
were built in one corner of the freight car shop, each 
about 9 ft. long and containing two shelves, making three 
divisions in each. Each workman's tool box is num- 
bered and must be put in a certain place in one of the 
compartments when he finishes his work in the evening. 
The man in charge locks the compartments when the 
boxes have been placed in them. If any of the men work 
overtime, the night watchman sees that the boxes are 
properly put away. In the morning the men take out 
their boxes when they start to work and if any boxes 
remain the compartment is locked so that the contents 
cannot be tampered with. This scheme is giving splendid 
results, — De!(Ki'are, Lackan'auna & Western, East Buf- 
falo, N. Y. 


An overhead traveling hoist used for loading and un- 
loading mounted car wheels is shown in Fig. 622. It 
consists of two tripods, the legs of which are made of 
3-in, gas pipe, and are fitted to cast iron shoes at the 
bottom. These shoes rest on blocks of stone 20 in. 
square, which are let into the ground and set in concrete. 
The bolts which hold the shoes are let into the stone and 

leaded. The castings at the top are made to hold the three 
legs and the ends of the two I-beams, which are 5-in, high 
and 30 ft. long. These I-beams are trussed on the under 
side with %-in. rods. The trolley has four wheels, 12 in. 
in diameter, and axles lj4 in. in diameter. A Y-shape 
hanger is suspended from the trolley and between the 
I-beams; it is made of 1,'4-i''' ^ 4l2-in. Iron. The air 
cylinder is 10 in. in diameter and has a 5 ft, stroke. The 
wheels are stored on a number of parallel tracks, which 
run at right angles to the yard track over which the 
wheels are brought to storage. A 20-in, gage track runs 
from the macliine shop, tiirough the center of the storage 
yard and parallel' to the yard track. This divides the ' 
storage space into two parts, one of which is used for 
receiving and the other for shipping wheels. The wheels 
are taken from the receiving side of the storage yard to 
the machine shop and are returned to the shipping side 
of the storage tracks on the small truck shown. With 
this hoist two men can load or unload a car of from 14 
to 18 pairs of wheels in from 15 to 20 min. — K. J. 
Lamcool and J. S. Xaery. Jr., Special Apprentices, Clii- 
eago, Indiana & Louisz-itle, Lafayette, Ind. 

WHEFI, noiST. 

.\ convenient hoist for loading and unloading wheels 
from cars is shown in Figs. 623 and 624. As many as 
16 wheels may be placed on the platform of the hoist at 
one time. By admitting air to an 18-in. cylinder placed 
in the pit underneath the platform it may quickly be 
raised to a level with the floor of a flat or box car. To 
guard against accident, due to a sudden fall in the air 
pressure or other cause, the two hooks which are shown 
attached to the uprights are slipped under iron rods at 

Fig. 622 — Holit for Loading and Unloading Mounted Car Wheelt. 



the top of the side walls of the platform. The platform constructed of two IS-in. cylinders, qne on top, of the 

is 6 ft. wide between the sides and 8 ft, long. To steady other, and connected to form a single cylinder. These 

it, braces or brackets are attached to the under side and were at one time used on portable air jacks for raising 

bear against tfae nprights, the sides of which are covered loaded freight cars or passenger cars, but proved to be 

Fl(). 623 — Sixteen Car Wheels c 

Hoist Ready to Be Raised. 

Fig. tZ^ — Wheel ^ 

i Raised to Level of Car Floor. 

Avith steel plates. There are three of thfse brackets lo 
each upright, and there are also smaller brackets at about 
the middle of each end of the pit, these latter brackets 
bearing against plates which are attached to the walls of 
the pit. The uprights or columns are of timber, about 
7 in. X r in. in section. A portable loading platform 
extends from the car tS the hoist. The air cylinder is 

too lieav}- and Ijidky to be used advantageously for that 
purpose.— /iriV Railroad, Buffalo, -V. I'. 


A truck for carrying car wheels or boiler plates, and 
arranged so that the plate may be swung between the 
wheels and the handle is shown in Fig. 625. The wheels 
are .^0 in. in diameter, and the yoke over the top is high 
enough to take boiler sheets' of moderate size. — F. C. Pick- 
aril, .-hsistaiH Master Mechanic, Cinciiiiiati, Hamilton & 
Dayton, hictiana/'olis. hid. 


Fig. 625— Wheel and Plate Truck. 


.\ scheme used in connection with a car wheel press, 
so that car wheels may be applie<l or remove<I without 
changing the heavy movable head on the press, is shown 
in Fig. 626. It is simple and inexpensive, and saves con- 
siderable time ordinarily required for changing the press. 
The bar X may he made of art old piston rod, and when 
not in use may be unhooked from the supporting chains 
and placed to one side out of the way. To remove the 
wheels from the axle, hang the bar on the chains and 



roll the wheels in the press so that the inside face of one made of S-in. pipe. The cylinder is set in a bed of con- 
wheel rests against the surface Y. The bar is hung on crete. — T. E. Freeman, General Foreman, and A. G. 
rollers, as shown in the drawing, so that it may easily 

Fig. 626 — Slmplft Device for Removing Car Wheel 

be moved back and forth with the plunger. — H. L. Burr- 
hus. Assistant General Foreman, Erie Railroad, Susque- 
hanna, Pa. 


An efficient device for loading car wheels is shown in 
Fig 627, As the hoist raises a pair of wheels, the skids 
move up also, and when sufficiently high the wheels roll 
out of the head and onto the car without any handling. 

Fi{). 62S — Jack for Loading Car Whe«l«. 

iVrij^hl, Master Mechanic, Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis 
& Omaha, Sioux City, Iowa. 


A truck for moving mounted wheels is shown in Fig. 
629. Two of these trucks are operated together. The 

Fig. 627 — Device for Loading Mounted Car Wheeii. 

By this method it is only necessary to roll the wheels in 
position over the hoist and apply the air. — C. J. Drury, 
General Roundhouse Foreman, Atchison, Topeka 6r 
Santa Fe, Albuquerque, N. Mex. 


A novel method of loading and unloading car wheels 
to and from flat cars is shown in Fig. 628. The cylinder 
of the air jack has an inside diameter of 8 in., and the 
piston a stroke of 5 ft., or sufficient to raise the wheel to 
the level of the floor of a flat car. The wheel is kept in 
an upright position by the two pieces of 3/16 in. boiler 
plate through which a bolt is placed, as shown, to prevent 
the wheel from rolling off endwise. The piston rod is 

Fig. 629 — ^Tranafer Carrlagt 

S4t 4^30'- 

for Mounted Car Wheela. 

yoke which rests in the bracket or support above the axle 
is grooved to receive the collar on the journal. When the 
handle of the truck is raised the yoke is lowered and 


may be pushed underaeath the journal; by bringing the 
handle down again the wheel is raised from the floor. By 
using one of these trucks at each end of the axle, wheels 
and axle may be transferred to any convenient place. 
The trucks can be run under a car or across the track to 
bring the wheels into proper position. — F. C. Pickard. 
Assistant Master Mechanic, Cincinnati, Hatmlton & Day- 
ton, Indianapolis, Ind. 


A convenient cart for moving mounted wheels about 
the yard is shown in Fig. 630. To pick up a pair of 
wheels the cart is tipped over to one side enough to allow 
the wheels and axle to be run under it. The hook is 
placed under the center of the axle, and then by bearing 
down on the handle of the cart the front wheel is raised 
off the ground, the fork at the same time coming down 
over the axle near the rear wheel. A bolt or rod is slipped 


A 10-in. channel forms the floor of the truck for 
handling mounted wheels shown in Fig, 631, the flanges 
of the channel projecting upward. The wheels are 
loaded on the truck by placing the ends of the wheel 
sticks over the flange of the channel and under the jour- 
nal ; the flanges of the channel keep the wheels from roll- 
ing off. The large wheels are 10 in. in diameter and the 
treads are 2 in. wide. The two small wheels at either end 
of the truck keep it from tipping and catching when the 
load is not evenly balanced. The truck has been used 
successfully over soft ground and on uneven floors, and, 
in addition to handling mounted wheels, may also be used 
to advantage for transporting other heavy parts. — H. L. 
Burrhus, Assistant to General Fdreman, Erie Railroad, 
Susquehanna, Pa. 


In most car repair yards narrow gage Icfrry tracks are 
provided between every other pair of repair tracks for 
the transportation of supplies and material. One of these 
tracks at our shop starts near the wheel storage tracks. 
The truck shown in Fig. 632 may be placed on the nar- 
row gage track and a pair of wheels rolled on it; the 


^b-T ^^J- 

Fig. 630— Truck for Transporting Mounted Wheels. 

through the holes in the jaws of the fork underneath the 
axle, and by raising the handle of the cart both wheels 
are lifted clear of the ground. As the axle is hung from 
near the center the weight may be very evenly balanced. 
To unload the wheels the operation as described is re- 
versed. The wheels on the cart are 42 in. in diameter 
and have steel tires 2 in. wide. A spring which supports 
the upper end of the bolt, from which the hook that car- 
ries the axle is suspended, makes the cart ride more 
easily. Mounted wheels can easily be moved about the 
yard by its use. — Erie Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Fig. 632 — Truck for Transporting Mounted Wheels. 

wheels drop in the cavities A, which are 5j/^ in. wide, 
and are thus held from rolling off while the truck is 
moved about the yard. Mounted wheels, which are re- 
moved from the cars, may be transported about the yard 
in the same way. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania^ 
Buffalo, N. Y. 




Fig. 631— Truck for Mounted Wheels. 



The advantage of the tnick shown in Fig. 633 for 
handhng heavy material, such as wheels, axles and 
couplers, is that it js very low and the material may 
easily be loaded on it. The truck will nin much easier if 
the journals are provided with 7/16-in. roller bearings. 

run is protected by a steel plate, except for a space at 
the middle, which is scooped out slightly to prevent the 
wheels from rolling off. When these trucks cannot be 
used, or where it is necessary to have trucks tor pulling 

Fig. 633 — Truck for Handling H«avy MatsHal. 

The floor is constructed of lYi-\\\. oak planks; the ,'4-i"- 
X 3-in. iron plates at the ends prevent the floor from 
beinp damaged in loading material on the truck. — 
U'ilHam H. H'olf'^an^si, Draftsman, IVbceliuii & Lake 
Eric. Toledo. Ohio. 


Between each pair of standard gage tracks in the car 
repair yard is a lorry track. I!y the use of the truck 
shown in Fig. 634 mounted wheels may be transferred 

Pig. 635— Trucks for Mounted Wheeli. 

the mounted wheds under the ear, the two small trucks, 
shown in Fig. 635. are used. To lift the mounted wheels 
it is only necessary to back these trucks underneath the 
journals and bear down on the truck handles. The 10-in. 
wheels are 3 in. wide. The Z'/^-m. x 12-in. wooden block, 
on which the journal rests, is supported on a 1-in. x 
2;'j-in. piece of iron, which is turned at each end to pro- 
vide journals. The wooden block is covered with a 
cqiqjer plate where it comes in contact with the journal. 
The. truck handle is made of 1-in. iron rod. One man 
pulls the forward truck and another pushes the rear one. 
— Dda'a-are. Lacba;i.-anna & Western, East Buffalo, A'. V. 


The wrench shown in Fig. 636 is convenient for operat- 
ing' the winding bar for closing the hopper doors on 


about the yard over these tracks. The wheels of the 
truck are 15 in. in diameter and the axles have Ij^-in. 
journals. The body is made of two pieces of 3-in. x 10-in. 
plank, 5 ft. 9 in. long. That part on which the wheels N. Y. 

>^ ■ ^ 

\^ 4S- »| 

Fig. 636 — Wrench for Operating Hopper Doors, 

freight cars. The square ends on the winding shafts vary 
in size on the different classes of equipment, and such a 
wrench is necessary unless a number of different size 
wrenches are available at different points throughout the 
yard. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania, Buffalo, 

Steel Freight Gar Kinks 


Steel tank cars are often sent to the repair yard with 
about 6 in. of clearance at the truck bearings on one side 
of the car, while the bearings on the opposite side are 
tight together. This is, of course, due to twisting of the 
center sills because of a derailment, rolling down an 
embankment, rough handling by the wrecker, or all com- 
bined. Were it necessary- to remove the center sills it 
would require holding the car out of service about a 
W'Cek. At Mt. Clare such a job of repair work requires 
only about five hours' time. The two high corners of 
the car are chained to the rails. The low corners are then 
jacked up until they are on a level with the high corners, 
all measurements being made at the side bearing. A 
wood fire is then built under the section of the center 
sills where the twist occurs, and when sufficiently heated 
the metal responds to the strain put on it by the chains 
and jacks. An oil burner may also be used for the heat- 
ing. — Baltimore & Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


The steel car repair jack shown in Fig. 637 has proved 
valuable as a time and labor saver in repairing steel cars. 
It is built of a number of channels, so arranged as to act 
as guides and supports for screw jacks which may be 
used on either the side or top members of the frame. The 
columns are spaced 7 ft. 6 in. apart; they are imbedded in 
concrete piers, which are 5 ft. deep, and are braced at 
the top by angle irons and channels. The screw jacks 
each consist of two bronze nuts which are clamped to 
the channels by bolts so that it is possible to adjust them 
to any height. Through these nuts is passed a steel jack 
screw, outside diameter 2;4 in., with two threads per 
inch (square threads) ; on the end of the jack screw is 
a swivel iron head. The damaged car is placed in the 
structure and the bulged side sheets or underframe, after 
being heated with a burner, may be jacked back into their 
proper places and held there until they cool. Eye bolts 
are placed at the bases of the columns so that the cars 



M^ — 



\Aick Scneiy. 



I' ■ 




/feacf ibr Jack Scmtt 

Bronze Nufs. 

— 1 %»i 



It ji t 

\\ ^ J. iLfc,--^ 1 UX, 

.■ J 

1— J L / J 


■ 1 I, 



Fig. 637— ^teel Car Repair Jacl<. 



may be chained to the rail if necessary to do so. — R. G. 
Bennett, Motive Power Inspector^ Pennsylvania Railroad, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 


The two jacks shown in Fig. 638 are available not only 
for use in connection with straightening trucks, but also 
for other work in connection with the repair of the bodies 

Fig. 838 — Jacks for Straightening St«el Truck* and the Bodies 
of Steel Freight Cars. 

of steel freight cars. The upper one is used for pulling 
the sides of the steel truck inward when they have been 
sprung out too far. The jack is so placed that the two 
eyes at its ends project through the truck pedestals. Bars 
are then placed through the eyes and the ends are pulled 
inward by turning the nut at the center of the jack. The 
• tower jack is used for forcing the sides outward when 

they have been bent in. The construction and operation 
are simple, bars for turning the screw being used in the 
j4-'n. holes in the head at the right hand end. — W. H. 
Snyder, Assistant General Foreman, New York, Susque- 
hanna & Western, Stroudsburg, Pa. 


At one end of that portion of the yard which is used for 
repairing steel cars is a large oil furnace for heating the 
damaged parts, and an iron face plate and press for 
straightening them. This "is shown in Fig. 639. The 
furnace was furnished by the Railway Materials Com- 
pany, and is 8 ft. 10 in. wide, 20 in. high and 13 ft. 11 
in. deep inside. It has an opening at the far end 15 in. 
high and 45 in. wide, making it possible to pass the end 
of a long sill or other piece of material through the fur- 
nace, so that it may be heated in the middle or at any 
other part. One of the burners is purposely lowered for 
heating parts locally. The house or hood was built over 
the furnace to protect it from the weather. Crude oil for 
use in the furnace and for the furnaces in the blacksmith 
shop is stored in two 6,000-gal. tanks, which are placed in 
a pit below the ground level. This is covered over with 
timbers. The oil is unloaded into these tanks from the 
cars by gravity and is forced from them to the furnaces 
by admitting air to the tanks under a pressure of 15 
lbs. per sq. in. 

The iron face plate on which the parts are straightened 
is 7 ft. wide, 10 ft. long and 6 in. thick. Most of the 
parts are straightened, after they are properly heated, by 

9 and Face Plats for Heating and Straightening Large Steel Car Parts. 



two or three men using sledge hammers. In some in- 
stances it is quicker to admit air to the cylinder, which is 
supported by the frame work, and clamp down one end 
of the piece on the face plate while the men drive down 
and straighten the other end. The air cylinder is about 
8 in, in diameter. To the left in Fig. 639 is shown 
another press having two 8-in. air cylinders, which are 
controlled by one valve and operate simultaneously. This 
was intended for pressing out such parts as side stakes, 
using special dies. There is not much of this work to 
be done, however, and it is only used occasionally — Erie 
Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 


The press shown in the dravring. Fig. 640, and in the 
photograph. Fig, 6+1, has been in use in the Columbus 

crums. Steel rails, up to 90-Ib, sections, may be broken 
into guard rail lengths by a single stroke of the piston. 
The frame of the press is made of four 80-lb. rails, there 
being two rails to each half. These halves are bolted 
tc^ether with steel tie plates. The two parts of the frame 
are spaced 4 in. apart with blocks and are held together 
with through bolts. The face plate is made of cast iron, 
and is 96 in. long, 60 in. wide and 10 in. thick. This plate 
rests on top of the lower section of the frame, to which 
it is securely bolted. The top comers of the frame are 
stayed to the face plate by 1^-in. rods, supplied with 
turnbuckles. A guide, made of 80-lb. rails, is placed 
about midway up the frame, and also acts as a brace. It 
guides the piston rod, steel pins being placed to hold the 
rod in any desired position. 
The cylinder is made of steel tubing, 20 in, in diameter. 

Fig. 640 — Air Press for Straightening Damaged Parts and Forming New Material.' 

shops for several years. It is used continually by all 
departments of the shop in straightening damaged mate- 
rial and for forming new work. All steel car parts, with 
the exception of the center sills, are handled cold ; the 

and is carried by four rollers which run on the top rails 
of the frame. It is moved across the frame by a wire 
cable, operated by a hand wheel. The end of the piston 
rod is made for attaching different shaped dies or shoes. 

center sills, when badly damaged, are heated in a furnace From 90 to 100 lbs. of air is sufficient for most all classes 

near the press. The press is useful for straightening of work, but on several occasions it has been run up 

metal brake-beams, the dies used in this connection being to 140 lbs. without damage to the press. The press has 

made to do the work without removing the heads or ful- made possible the repair of badly damaged steel-car mate- 



rial which would otherwise be scrapped, and has reduced 
the cost of repairs to these cars by 50 per cent. Bent 
couplers, body bolsters, truck bolsters and trnck sides 
are easily straightened under the press and used again. 
Two men recently straightened 150 brake-beams in eight 

Fig. 642 is of value. 
in plates up to }i ir 

It will punch s^-in. or }^-'m. holes 
, or >4 in. in thickness.- The jaw 

Fig. 642— Portable Punch for Light Work. 

opening is 23^ i"- wide, and the reach from the center of 
the punch is 2-;^ in. The screw is 2;^ in. in diameter. — 
Eric Railroad. Buffalo, K. Y. 


The portable furnace for heating rivets shown in Fig. 
643 is simple in construction and economical in the use of 
compressed air. The latter point is quite important for, as 

Fig. 641 — Air Press Straightening a Dantaged Steel Piate. 

hours, the work including cutting off the damaged heads 
and fnlcrums. — E. G. Gross, Master Mechanic, Central 
of Gcorj^ia, Columbus, Ga. 

In repairing and reinforcing the sides of gondola or 
hopper cars it is often necessary to pull them in to the 
proper position. To do this a clamp has been made with 
a tumbiickle, 28 in. long over all, at the center. The 
1^4-in. rods which fit in the tumbuckle are upset at their 
outer ends to form a hook, 4 in, wide and 1|4 in. thick in 
section which fits over the top of the sides. — Eric Rail- 
road, Bufralo, .V. Y. 


It is often necessary to drill a ?S-in. or ^^-\n. hole in 
steel plates on trucks or car bodies when an air drill is 
not available or too much time would be required for 
setting it up. In such cases the small punch shown in 

Fig. 643 — Portable Fur 

! for Heating RIv 


a general rule, too little attention is paid to the way in 
which compressed air is used about a shop or a repair yard, 
and a large amount of it is wasted. A 2-in. pipe, about 10 
in. long with a funnel at its lower end 4 in. in diameter and 
4 in, long, is screwed into the bottom of the fire pot. The 
J^-in. air pipe is clamped so that it discharges through a 
3/16-in. nozzle in the end of the pipe directly up through 
the center of the funnel, the top of the pipe being about on 
3 level with the lower part of the funnel. With this 
arrangement a suction is set up and air from the outside 
is drawn up through the fire. It is possible to heat the 
rivets as fast as they can be driven in the car. with the 
air valve open only one-quarter of a turn. The method 
of connecting the compressed air iine to the furnace is 
also of interest. The- hose .4, which is connected to the 
air line, discharges through the end of the T to the hose 
B, which is connected to the air hammer, while the other 
connection from the T carries air to the blast pipe. In 
this way it is possible to operate the forge and the ham- 
mer from one air connection, doing away with the use of 
a second piece of hose. — IV. H. Snyder, Assistant General 
Foreman, A'etv York. Susquehanna & Western, Stroiids- 
burg, Pa. 


The portable rivet heating furnace (Fig. 644) is some- 
what more elaborate than the home-made heaters 

and the handles are constructed of 1-in. pipe. Draft is 
provided by coupling to the compressed air line. — \'etv 
Vork Central & Hudson River Car Shops, East Buffalo, 

N. y. 


A sand blast machine, mounted on a low four-wheel 
truck not shown in the drawing, is illustrated in Fig. 
645. This machine has been in use for two years and has 

I i'^i^ 

1 ^ 







1 r»>,,Awrf-<7/*A»^ '--^f ■ i 


t i 

T .---.•--. ^*J 

FiB. 644— Portable Rivet Heater. 

ordinarily used for this work on most roads. The lop is 
26 in. X 26 in. in size and the 3/16-in. sheet on the three 
sides is 13''2 in. high. The wheels are 16 in. in diameter 

MoMe iestiif f^ pipefhitaet 

OehV of Air Nozzle !n Y f7Hir>g. 

Fig. 845— Sand Blast Machine for Cleaning Steel Car* and 
Locomotive Tend era. 

sand blasted about 1,600 steel coal cars and 100 engine 
tenders. Two laborers can sand blast a steel car com- 
plete in less than half an hour. The machine is operated 
by compressed air at from 80 to 90 lbs. pressure. The 
l.'-^-in. cut-out cocks A regulate the flow of sand from 
the machine. The cock B is always open while the 
machine is in operation. The ^^-in. cnt-out cock C 
releases the air pressure from the tank when the work of 
sand blasting is discontinued, or when it is desired to refill 
the tank with sand. In order to agitate the sand so that 
it will flow freely into the two outlet pipes, air is forced 
into'the tank through ihc two '-^-in. pii>es near the bottom, 
which have 's-in. holes drilled in them. I'niess this 
provision is made all of tlie sand will not flow out of the 
tank, particularly if it is at all damp. Air also cniers the 



tank through the ^-in. T just below the cock C. It also 
flows through the nozzle D in the lj4 in- Y and joins the 
flow of sand from the tank, thus forming a partial vacuum 
in the Y fittings, causing the sand to flow uniformly in 
the proper quantity, and at a velocity that will give the 
most efficient results. Hard crystal ore sand gives the 
best results, although any sharp sand of medium fineness 
may be used. We have used the same sand several times, 
but find that it does not cut well after the third time. 
After it is useless for air blast purposes, it may still be 
used to advantage on locomotives. The screen shown in 

independent of each other, two men may sand blast differ- 
ent parts of the car at the same time, which is an 
important advantage. 

Before the sand blast was used for removing the rust 
and old paint from cars and tenders, we used steel 
brushes, scrapers, revolving steel brushes operated by air 
motors, and other devices, but with very little success. 
They do the work only half as well and require twice the 
time. The most important places to be scraped and 
cleaned, which are around the rivet heads and at the 
angles and joints, could not be cleaned at all, or not very 
well, with these devices. The sand blast machine is 
simple to operate and cleans the steel around the rivet 
heads and in the joints and comers thoroughly. Two 
men can work on the car at the same time, one on each 
side. Because of the agitator in the tank, damp or 
partly wet sand will not interfere with the working of the 
apparatus. The supply of sand to the hose is uniform 
and there is no waste of either sand or air. The machine 
is also used to advantage for sand blasting the brass 
trimmings of passenger cars, these parts thus being given 
the appearance of statuary bronze or old gold. — Frank J. 
Borer, Foreman Air Brake Department, Central Railroad 
of Nezv Jersey, Elisabethport, N. J. 


It is quite often possible to straighten or repair dam- 
aged parts of steel cars in place. For this purpose a 

Fig, 646 is used when it is desired to use the sand a 
second or third time. It will pass through the screen 
and funnel into the tank as fast as two men can shovel it. 

The track used for this work should be so arranged 
that the cars or engine fenders to be sand blasted will 
run to and from the sand blast machine by gravity, thus 
making the use of a special engine to shift the cars unnec- 
essary, or doing away with the slow method of pushing 
the cars with pinch bars. In order that no time may be lost 
in refilling the tank of the sand blast machine, an old box 
car has been rebuilt and is used as a sand storage car. It 
is filled with sand at the sand house by means of two drop 
doors in the roof of the car. Two pockets or hoppers are 
provided in the car, each holding about 10 tons of sand. 
Two small sliding doors are placed on one side of the 
car, through which the sand may be run directly into the 
tank of the sand blast machine. To open or close the 
inlet to the tank, it is necessary to remove or replace six 
1-in. nuts and the cover plate. As there are two separate 
sets of air inlet and air and sand outlet pipes, which are 

Fig. 647 — Heating a Steel Center Sill with Crude Oil Burner. 

Ferguson portable heater and kindler is used. The flame 
from such a burner playing on the center sill of a steel 
underframe is shown in Fig. 547. Where it is necessary 
to heat the bottom of a member of a steel underframe on 



a wtxxlen car the oi! burner cannot be used, because of 
the danger of igniting the wood. For such purposes a 
small size open top rivet heating forge may be used 
to advantage. — Erie Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 


The men engaged in steel car repair work keep their 
tools in special portable tool boxes, as shown in Fig. 648. 
They are constructed of heavy galvanized iron, the box 
or house measuring 33^ in. in length, 2 ft. in width and 2 
ft. in height. The door opening is 14 in. square, the door 

Air is admitted to the tank through the 
connection at F, the pressure forcing the oil out through 
the J^-in. pipe and hose. The construction of the buraer 
is clearly shown in Fig. 650. The supply of oil and air to 
the burner is controlled by the globe valves. The oil tank 

-iS S- 

Fig. MS — Portable Tool Box for Steel Car Repair Gang. 

being secured by a padlock when the box is not in use. 
The wheels are 16 in. in diameter. The tools include cold 
chisels, sledge and hammer, drifts and wrenches; also 
pneumatic hammers, etc. — New York Central & Hudson 
River Car Shops, East Buffalo, JV. Y. 


A simple and convenient crude oil burner is shown in 
Fig. 649. The oil tank is made from a 16-in. x 33-in. 

Fig. SSO — Torch on Crude Oil Heater. 

may be refilled by removing the plug at F. Air pressure 
is used at from 75 to 100 lbs. per sq. in. The handles of 
the truck are made of J^^-in. x. 1^-in. wrought iron, and 
are tied to each other by two %-in. bolts on either side of 
the tank, the arms being properly spaced apart by 6-in, 
lengths of pipe through which the bolts pass. — C. C. 
Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 


A crude oil burner for heating damaged parts on steel 
underframe or all-steel cars is shown in Figs. 651, 652 

Fig. 649— Portable Crude Oil Heater. 

and 653. The end of the torch (Fig 653) may be made in 
any shape or length recjiiired for properly directing the 



flame on the difi^erent parts of the underframe of the 
car. This end is screwed on the short piece of lj4-in. 
pipe which fits on the end of that part of the burner which 


Fig. 652 — Arrangement of Air and Oii Pipes and IMIxing 

Chamber for Crude Oii Torcli. 

is shown in detail in Fig. 652. The end shown in the 
photograph is used for heating two center sills at one 
time, this operation requiring only a comparatively short 
amount of time. The burner is regulated by the two globe 

pressed air line is connected just back of the globe valve 
at the rear of the top of the tank, and air is admitted to 
the tank. This pressure forces the oil out through a pipe, 
which extends to within lj.2 in. of the bottom of the 
tank, and through the hose to the burner. Air is also 
forced through the other hose to the burner. The cheapest 
grade of crude oil is used, cutting the cost down to one- 
half of what it formerlv was with a kerosene burner. — 
IV. H. Snyder, Assistant General Foreman, A'ew York, 
Susquehanna & IVcsiern, Stroudsburg, Pa, 


A table designed for repairing steel cars, especially the 
underframes, is shown in Figs. 654 and 655. This work 

12 Channtf, 3S/Ax per f^. 
ff had af cen^r 20, SZO /As, 


htaHng hryt sor facts 



Siqf i'meh in tnd ofp/p* cap. Utad A>r haaHnff cfthr sit/s. 

Fig. 653 — Typlcai End Pieces or Burners for Crude Oil Torch. 

valves at B, one of which controls the compressed air 
and the other the oil. The oil reservoir is mounted on a 
two-wheel truck, so that it may easily be handled . about 
the vard and over the tracks. The hose from the com- 

Fig. 654 — Eievation of Steel Car Repair Table. 

is coming to require more and more attention, as the 
number of steel cars in use is rapidly increasing. The 
table is substantially built on a concrete foundation, rein- 
forced with rails held in place by a number of anchor 

t$''Cgfinder, UpOOfts. 


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Fig. 655— Plan of Steel Car Repair Table. 




bolts. The top surface is composed of sectional plates, 
which form a face plate. A number of T-slots for holding 
down the work are provided. There are two movable 
cylinders on each side of the table, which may be placed 
in any position to exert side pressure. The end cylinders 
are stationary for exerting pressure on the opposite cor- 
ners in case of the frame being out of square. An 18-in. 
cylinder overhead, having a capacity of 19,000 lbs. pres- 
sure, can be moved in any position over the face plate, its 
carriage traveling lengthwise of the table, while the 
cylinder itself travels across the carriage. With this 
cylinder ordinary bends may be straightened cold. In 
case of sharp kinks in the frarne it is heated before apply- 
ing the pressure. This table is a new departure in these 
shops and is found to be very valuable in taking care of 
steel car work. — D. P, Kellogg, Master Mechanic; IV, F, 
Merryj General Foreman, and G. H, Goodunn, General 
Gang Foreman, Southern Pacific, Los Angeles, Cal. 


A car had been in a fire and had lost its entire wood 
superstructure. When it arrived at the shops it was 

found that the underframe had drooped considerably. 
To dismantle the frame for individual straightening of 
the members would have taken about six days. The 
frame was turned upside down and rested on three rails, 
placed at the ends and in the middle, across and a few 
inches above the track. A wood fire was then built 
under the drooped section of the frame, and when heated 
sufficiently it became straight, due to the action of its 
own weight. This same method has been used with 
frames which would not straighten of their own weight, 
in which case it was only necessary to lift the frame 
by both ends and allow it to fall on the rails, which 
later acted as a faceplate. An underframe may be 
straightened in this way, using six men including crane 
hands, in about ten hours, at a cost of a little more than 
10 per cent, of what it would cost to take it apart, 
straighten the individual members separately and re- 
assemble the frame. The repairing of steel freight cars is 
not a difficult matter ; it requires only a comparatively few 
special tools, and the wooden car repairmen soon become 
accustomed to it. — Baltimore & Ohio, Mt, Clare Shops, 
Baltimore, Md. 

Passenger Gar Kinks 

CARPET CLEANER. Oil the sketch. The usual method of releasing the spring 

. . , , . . , .9 is to turn the nut A'' a distance of about 1 J4 in. along 

A simple arrangement for cleaning carpets with com- 
pressed air is shown in Fig. 657. The carpet is first 
rolled on a wooden roller, which is hung in the brackets 
A. One end is then carried up over the rollers and 
underneath the air pipe B, which has a 1/16-in. slot on 
its underside where it comes in contact with the carpet. 
The air blows the dirt out of the carpet, which is slowly 
moved along until the end can be made fast to the roller 
C. The remainder of the carpet is then drawn slowly 
through the machine by revolving the roller C by the 
hand wheel at the side of the machine. When the car- 
pet has been wound on the roller C it may be removed by 
lifting the hinge E on the frame. The frame is con- 
structed of wood. — C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsylvania 
Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 


Diamond Special brake beams have heads arranged as 
shown in Fig. 656. The head is held to the beam by a 
cast lug, which is forced into a recess in the beam by a 
strong spring. The position of the lug when the head the threaded end of the bolt, which is fastened to the lug. 
and beam are locked is shown by the dot and dash line Even if the nut was in such a position that it could easily 

Fig. 05fr— Simple Method of Applying Brake Head to Diamond 
Special Brake Beam. 


fib//ra htemadt af/*rABrAA 




'^' So/kt'^ 





' 1 - 

3 - 


Flg.,6K7 — Device for Cleaning Carpets with Compressed Air. 



be gotten at, this is a tedious job; but considering the 
angle at which it is set and the short distance between it 
and the top of the rail, it is almost necessary for a man 
to lie flat on his back to adjust it. A simple method has 
been devised for overcoming this inconvenience, so 
simple that it is strange that it was not discovered sooner. 
The heads are received from the maker with the lug 
drawn back ready to slip over the beam. When these 
are received a wedge is driven in to hold the lug in this 
position. The nut is then removed and a block of wood 
about 2 in. square and 1J4 '"■ thick and having a ^-in. 
hole through its center, is slipped over the bolt. The nut 
is replaced and securely tightened. When the head is 
slipped over the beam the piece of wood is given one 
blow with an inspector's hammer, breaking it to pieces 
and allowing the lug to fly into the recess with a snap, 
locking the brake head to the brake beani.^ — A. G. Pan- 
cost^ Draftsman, Elkhart, bid. 


A damp for general use about the coach shop, 
especially for drawing together coach framing, siding, 
etc., is shown in Fig. 658. It has a maximum range of 
13 ft, which is ample for all purposes for which it may 
be needed. The U-shaped pieces, as well as the long 
rod, are made of Js-in, x 2j'^-in. iron. The long rod 

Fig. 658 — Clamp for General Uk In Coach Shop. 

ample provision is made for adjusting to any length. 
The tightening nut has two Sj^-in. arms, giving a good 
leverage. — C. 0. Fuss, Car Shop Foreman, Central Rail- 
road of Nezv Jersey, EUzabethport, N. J. 


A simple arrangement for cleaning car seats, cushions, 
carpets, etc., is shown in the accompanying sketch. Fig. 
659. Air, at about 75 lbs. pressure, is admitted as in- 
dicated, and causes a suction at the nozzle which is con- 
nected at the end of the 1-in. air hose, and is held on the 
seat or carpet. The nozzle is made of galvanized iron 
and has an opening Jli-in. x 6-in, The 1'4-in, pipe 
coupling is soldered to it, making a permanent joint and 
preventing the entrance of air. An ordinary globe valve, 
with its interior partitions removed, is used as a three- 
way connection, through which air is run into the pipe. 
The jet or nozzle at the air inlet has five 7/64-in. round 
holes through which the air passes. — C. C. Leech, Fore- 
man, Pennsylvania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 


An effective device for straightening diaphragm face 
plates is shown. in Figs, 660 and 661. The I-section shape 

is drilled with ^^-in. holes on 5-in. centers for its entire 
length, and as the square threaded screw is 9-in, long. 

Fig. 660 — Application of Olaphragm Face Plate Straightener. 

of the feet provides for using the device for straighten- 
ing any bend in a diaphragm face plate, the screw being 
run in or out as required. The screw is double square 

inshft of Globe 

rig. 699— Suction Cleaner. 



threaded, 1-K >"■ i" diameter. In the majority of cases, 
the diaphragm is bent inward and the device is used as 
shown in the photo. It can be placed in about four or 
five minutes and the face plate straightened in about the 
same length of time. Without this device it would be 
necessary to remove the face plate, which would mean 
taking off the diaphragm, and in a good many instances 

draw gas from the car tank until the pressures 
in it and the portable one are equalized. — Lehigh Valley, 
Sayrc, Pa. 

A cast iron glue pot in the cabinet shop is shown in 
Fig. 663. It is 62 in. long, 29j4 in. wide and 7 in. deep, 
and rests on cast iron feet 20 in. high. There are 12 one- 
gal, and 2 two-gal. kettles, giving a total capacity of 
about 16 gals. The iron kettles have flanges on their top 
edges by which they are held suspended in the water. A 

Fig. 661 — Diaphragm Face Plate Stralghtcner. 

the tearing of it and the necessity of providing a new one. 
The device is also applicable to a variety of other uses 
such as straightening truss rods in place, or the light 
channel section shapes used in coach construction.— C 0. 
Fuss, Car Shop Foreman, Central Railroad of Nni' Jer- 
sey. EHcabctlif'orf, .V. /. 


A portable gas tank, used when testing the Pintsch 
lighting systems in passenger coaches, is shown in Fig. 
662. It is an ordinary coach gas tank, mounted on cast 

Fig. 663 — Glue Pot In Cabinet Shop. 

coil of -'S-in. co])per pipe is placc<l on the bottom of the 
])0t and the steam and water regulating valves, etc., are 
located at one end. The pot is cast in one piece, with a 
flange to which the ribbed cast iron top is bolted. — Lehigh 
Valley. Sayrr. Pa. 

Fig. 662— Portable Gaa Tank. 


Two sheets of coach glass for use in state room or 
toilet room panels, or any place where a non-transparent 
light is used, are shown in Fig. 664. The glass at the 

iron wheels so that it may easily he trans]>orted about the 
shop. It is also used for taking gas from a coach just 
shopped, fur use in another which is ready to leave the 
shop. In this instance, however, it is only possible to 

Fig. 664 — Manufacturing Crackle Glata. 


right shows the completed work, while that at tlie left 
is in the course of preparation. The sheet of glass is 
first thoroughly sanded by a sand blast. This gives it a 
rough surface. It is then coated with a layer of specially 
prepared "Noodle" glue, about 3/32-in. thick, after 
which it is placed in an even temperature room, about 75 
deg. to 80 deg., and left there until the glue dries. In 
drying, the glue surface cracks and the small pieces curl 
up as shown on the sheet of glass at the left in the illus- 
tration. As the surface of the glass is roughened by the 
sand blast, the glue adheres to it and in drying thin scales 
of the glass are carried off by the glue. There is, of 
course, no fixed figure, but very fantastic shapes and 
designs form. To make what is called a much finer 
crackle, a piece of glass may be put through the process 
a second time. — Lehigh Valley. Sayre, Pa. 


A pneumatic jack, which is an efficient and necessary 
coach shop kink, is shown in Figs, 665 and 666. In 
jacking up a coach it is, of course, necessary to use two 

cast iron, as are the piston head, the follower plate and 
the wheels. The bracket which carries the wheels is 
made of cast steel. The plunger is made from a piece 

Pig. 666 — Detaila of Pneumatic Coach Jack. 

of 6-in.' pipe, which screws into the piston. Air enters 
through a port cast in the bottom head. The drawing 
shows the original design using a cap on the plunger, 
but this has been changed, as shown in the photo, to a 
longer ram, by the use of which jt is not necessary to 
bldck up to the sill, but the ram bears directly against it. 
— C. O. Fuss, Car Shop Foreman, Central Railroad of 
^'e7v Jersey, Eli:abelh(>orl, N. J. 


Modern passenger car equipment has grown so heavy 
that something better than a hand or ratchet jack is 
required for lifting the cars in order to remove or re- 

Pig. 665 — Pneumatic Jack for Lifting Coachea. 

jacks under each end. Air hose connections are made 
to operate the jacks sinuiltaneously. which provides for 
their moving equally, both as to speed and travel. One 
man operates the valve, while the second man arranges 
the blocking and different height horses on which the 
cars are placed after the trucks are removed. The cyl- 
inder is made of a piece of tubing, 17 7/16 in. in diameter 
by 24 ill. 'lotvr. The top and bottom heads arc made of 

"^ m tTjT» 

Fig. 667— 17-Inch Air Jack for Llftlnfl Coaches. 

place the trucks. We have constnicted four 17-in. air 
jacks (Fig. 667). one of which is placed under each 
corner of the car. Tlie two jacks at each end are con- 



nected with the same air Une and are operated by the is applied the springs compress, allowing the jack to rest 

same valve, so that the end of the car is raised evenly. 
These jacks have been in service for eight months and 
have not required any repairs, and it looks now as if they 
would operate indefinitely without requiring any. Their 
use has greatly reduced the amount of time required for 
removing and replacing the trucks when it is necessary 
to change the wheels. The cylinders of the jacks are 
constructed of J^-in. boiler steel, which is rolled to the 
proper size for boring and is welded instead of being 
riveted. A two-wheel buggy has been constructed which 

Fig. 668 — Buggy for Traniporting Air Jacks. 

carries the jacks in such a way that the load is evenly 
balanced and they can be conveniently moved from place 
to place about the yard or through the shop. The liandle 
of the buggy (Fig. 668) is raised and the uprights, which 
have U's at the top, are pushed under the two lugs on 
the jack. By lowering the handle the jack is raised off 
the ground and may be pushed about the yard. — Theodore 
Rowe, Foreman, Great Northern, Jackson Street Shops, 
Si. Paul, Minn. 


A portable air jack is shown in Fig. 669, It is sup- 
ported on two pairs of wheels through two springs in 
such a way that when no load is on the jack the springs 
lift it from the floor, making it portable. When the Joad 

the floor. The advantage of this provision is apparent. 
The cyhnder is 14 in. in diameter and the piston has a 
16-in. stroke. The springs are 2 in. in diameter and 8 in. 




Pig. 669— Portabie Air Jack. 

high and are made of ^i-m. steel. — T. E. Frcetnan, Gen- 
eral Foreman, and A. G. Wright, Master Mechanic, 
Chicago, SI. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, Sioux City, 



A convenient fonn of plating room hot oven, for use in 
connection with the replating of headlight reflectors and 
ornamental brass work on cars, is shown in Fig. 670. It 


wrm . 


Fig. 670 — Hot Oven for Plating Room. 



is also used for drying lacquer. It consists of three sub- 
stantial legs of cast iron, supporting a wooden box, lined 
with No. 10 iron, held at the corners by Hght angles, and 
with a space J-j-in. thick between it and the wood of the 
box, which is filled with plaster-of-Paris for insulating 
purposes. Coils of 1-in. gas pipe extend along the ends 
and top of the box, as shown. The doors at the front are 
opened by sliding vertically and are counterbalanced by 
the weights, as shown. The total height of the dryer is 
3 ft. 11 in., and its width is 8 ft. 43^ in. 

members being made of one piece and bolted or riveted 
to the vertical member which carries the hook. The iron 
rounds or steps are spaced 10 in. apart. The uprights 
are loosely bolted to the horizontal timbers at the top and 


A clamping press for use in the cabinet shop is shown 
in Fig. 671. This is used when glueing together several 
sections of light material to be bent to circular form, A 
form for ceiling boards is shown in the press. The frame 
pieces are made of wrought iron, 4 in. wide. The 
threaded bolts carry cast iron heads, to which wooden 

Fig. 671 — Clamping Press with Glu« Pot In Background. 

shoes are fastened. The hand wheels slip over the square 
portion of the shaft, and may be shifted from one side of 
the press to the other. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa. 


The scaffolding, a portion of which is shown in Fig, 
672 does not differ materially from that used in most 
shops, but it shows a design which is extremely simple 
and at the .same time very effective. The brackets are 
made of ^4-in. x 2-in. material, the horizontal and oblique 

Fi(t. 672 — Coach Shop Scaffold I no. 

are fastened to the floor by bolt latches. This latter 
provision allows for swinging the uprights in to the center 
post so as to be out of the way when not in use. The 
top cross member which is shown indistinctly in the upper 
left hand corner of the illustration is rigidly bolted to the 
shop building columns about 10 ft. 6 in. from the floor 
The runways are heavy and are trussed with ?^-in. rods, 
the queen posts being made of 1-in. pipe, flattened and 
notched at the lower end. — C. 0. Fuss, Car Shop Fore- 
man. Central Railroad of Neii' Jersey, Elhabethport, N. J, 


A coach shop scaffolding, with the widest po.ssible 
range of adjustment, is shown in Fig. 673. The flanges 
of the end casting act as guides and also provide metal 
bearing surfaces for the truss rod bolts. The pulley jaw 
is made separate, of wrought iron, and is secured by a nut 
on the under side of the scaffold. Pulley wheels, similar 
to those shown, are mounted near the tops of the posts. 
Special features of this scaffold arc its quick adjustment; 
the safety afforded ; the unusual distance, 11 ft. 4 in., over 
which adjustment is possible; and the provision for 


engage the chains that are used in raising and lowering 
the scaffold, thus locking the scaffold in any position to 
which it may have been adjusted. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, 


A handy and quickly adjustable scaffold bracket in use 
in the car shops is shown in Fig. 675. The interesting 
feature of this bracket is the fact of its being counter- 
balanced by the swing weight making it easily adjustable 
and self-fastening. The strips of -K-'n. x 4-in. iron are 
bolted to the post and held a few inches from it by the 

Frg. 673— Details of Adjustable Scaffold. 

quickly raising the scaffold to the top of the posts and 
entirely out of the way when it is not being used. The 
short chains, about 3 ft. long, that are fastened to the 
posts near the bottom have hooks at the other ends which 

Fig. 67^ — Elliptical Spring Compreisor. 

Fig. 675— Adjustable Scaffold ^racket. 

filler pieces. Oblong holes are partly punched at intervals 
along these strips, and the metal is pushed back. This 
acts as a guide and pushes the holding pin, at the lower 
end of the bracket foot, out of the opening when the 
scaffold is to be moved upward. It is, therefore, only 
necessary to exert a slight pressure upward to raise the 
bracket and scaffold. — Lioig Island Railroad, Morris 
Park. K. r. 


It is hard work, with screw or hydraulic jacks, to place 
a spring in a truck without some method of compressing 
and holding it to its loaded height. The illustrations. 
Figs 674 and 676, show a compressor which is easily and 
cheaply made, comparatively little machine work being 
necessary. The main machining i'^ confined to beveling 
off the fianges on one sido of tl>e I-beam which con- 


stitutes the base plate. The upright is made of l-in, x 
6-in. wrought iron, forged to the shape shown, with the 
ends meeting on the under side of the base plate, to which 
it is securely fastened by J^-in. bolts or rivets. The in- 
verted jack is fastened at the top and is also held by the 
double clamp. A spring is compressed sJightly below its 
loaded height and then two links are slipped over its 

upward when the pressure was released, but it did not 
prove strong enough, and provision was made for allow- 

II H: 1.' 



I <-^l-i,- 


^^^ i.*i-<fJ ~^^_^ 

Fig. 676— Detail! of Elliptical Sprinfl Compreasor. 

ends. These links, one of which is partly shown in the 
photograph, hold the spring compressed, while placing it 
in its position in the truck. After it is finally placed and 
the weight of the truck is on it, the links are easily re- 
moved. Being mounted on wJicels, the spring com- 
pressor may easily be taken to any part of the shop. — 
Baltimore & Ohio, Mt. Clare Sl!ol>s, Baltimore, Md. 


A home-made device for testing the elliptical springs 
on passenger equipment is shown in Fig. 677. The air 
cylinder is 18 in. in diameter and was taken from an old 
hydraulic jack. The pressure per square inch on the 
cylinder is indicated by the air gage. A table on the wall 
back of the machine shows the total pressure on the spring 
to corrospnnd to the various gage pressures, and is as 
follows : 






... 2,544 

. . . 10,687 




... 5.0S9 




. . . 14,085 

... 6,361 






... 7.634 


. , . 12,723 




. , . 8,906 


. . . 13.995 




. . . 9.669 







65. . . . 


- 100... 


The springs are checked as to the height under llie load 
which they must carry on the car, and if found deficient 
are reset. Ordinarily the springs are tested only when 
there is jome question as to their capacity. The apparatus 
is also found useful for coiupre.'^sing the springs and ]»Iac- 
ing a clamp over them to facilitate ])Iacing them in the 
trucks. Formerly a spring was used to force the piston 

FIb- 677 — Sprinji Testing Apparatu*. 

Lug the air to enter underneath the piston when it was 
desired to force it upward, — Eric Railroad. Buffalo, X. Y. 


The coach spring testing machine shown in the accom- 
panying illustration. Fig. 6/8. is used for every coach 
spring. Freight car brake cylinders, arranged in tandem, 
coimcct to a common crosshcad and exert an even 
pressure on the spring. The springs are handled to the 
machine bv a pneuiuatic hoist, running on an overhead 
track, and by the hooks shown in the illustration. .X 
table is [wsted on the side of the building near the 
machhie, wliich shows the pressure to which the springs 
should be tested, .-\ftcr the sjiring is in ])osition and the 
wooden block is placed alx>ve it as shown, air is admitted 
to the cylinclers. The spring is then given tlie pressure 
which it should wiih.<tand according to the table, when 
its height is measured. If the -ipring shows the correct 
loaded height it is <). K.. otherwise it is rejected. The 
chain, weight and lever arrangement shown jirovidos for 


lifting the crosshead, pistons, etc., when the air is ex- 
hausted at the concUision of a test. This machine is 


A light air hoist for holding steps in position while 
bolting them in place is shown in Fig. 679. The cylinder 
is made from a piece of brass pipe, 2]/^ in. in diameter 
and 28 in. long. This pipe is tapped into a cast iron base, 
through a port in which the air enters. A 12-in. diameter 
plate is bolted to the cast iron one, forming a substantial 
base. Unless some device is used for this purpose, two 
men are required for putting up a pair of steps, one hold- 
ing the steps in position while the other places the bolts. 

Fig. 678 — Coach Spring Testing Machine. 

located just outside the coach shop near the spring stor- 
age floor. — C. 0. Fuss, Car Shop Foreman, Central Rail- 
road of A'eiv Jersey, Elisabeth port. A'. /. 

Pickapi fyr 
tiffing Box., 

Fig. 680 — Crane for Handling Storage Batterlee. 

Pig. 679— Coach Step Hoiat In Position. 

With this hoist, one man can do all the work. — C, O. 
Fuss, Car Shop Foreman, Central Railroad of New 
Jersey, EHzabethport, N. J. 


The storage batteries used with the electric lighting of 
passenger equipment have to be handled frequently in 
connection with flushing them with water. These boxes 
weigh about four or five hundred pounds apiece when 
filled, and it is necessary to lift them about 3 ft. from the 
floor. Several workmen have been hurt in doing this by 
having fingers pinched or hands crushed. To overcome 
the difficulty a jib crane and an air hoist were constructed, 
as shown in Fig. 680. With this crane it is possible for 
one man to safely lift and clean a set of batteries in a 
comparatively short time; formerly three or four men 
were required for this work. With an air pressure of 90 
or 100 lbs. . the capacity of the crane is about two tons. 
This type of crane can also be used to advantage for 


serving lathes, planers or other machines which handle 
heavy work in the machine shop. Its construction' is 
simple. — Theodore Rowe, Foreman, Great Northern, 
Jackson Street Shops, St. Paul, Minn. 


An ingenious method of utilizing the weight of a coach 
for power in lifting the truck from its wheels is shown in 
Fig. 681. The jacks have 6-in. gas pipe plungers, the top 
ends of which are left open. In placing the jacks under 
a coach, wooden filler blocks of sizes such that they will 


■ - 

- — 


; ■ 



' JL 


J 1 r 





A drop pit for removing a pair of wheels from a truck 
without taking it from under the coach, and without 
raising the car except for a couple of inches, is shown in 
Fig. 582. It is quite similar to the drop pits often used 
in engine houses. The car is placed with the wheels to 
be taken out directly over the pit ; when not in use the pit 
is covered over with loose planks. The car is jacked up a 
couple of inches and the air brake levers, brake shoes 
and the lower tie straps of the truck are disconnected. 
The air jack is run under the center of the axle and the 
pair of wheels is raised just enough to allow the sections 

F(g. <81— Method of Handling Coach Trucks. 

just go under the car bolsters are used. As several 
lengths of these filler blocks are kept on hand, any height 
may be obtained without using additional blocking. The 
car is then raised to the position shown in the upper 
illustration and the truck is run out. One of the walking- 
beam chains is attached to the track frame and the other 
to the coupler shank. The coach is then lowered and its 
weight acts to raise the truck from its wheels. The coach 
is allowed to stand on the jacks while the wheels are being 
changed, the entire job being the work of one man. We 
regard the device as a most efficient one. — H. Ashley, 
Master Mechanic, White Pass &■ Yukon Route, Skaguay, 

Fig. 682— Pnaumatlc Hoiat in Wheel Drop Pit. 

of the track over the pit to be disconnected and pushed 
aside. The wheels are then lowered into the pit and the 
truck is pushed to one side ; the wheels are raised and 
rolled off alongside the car. Another pair is lowered into 
the pit and placed under the car. The cylinder of the 
air jack is 12 in. in diameter and has a lift of about 4 ft. 
The pit is 48 in. wide at its upper portion, which is 42 
in. deep. The lower part of the pit into which the air 
cylinder projects is about 21 in. wide and 48 in. deep. 
Twelve-inch wheels, placed 36 in. apart lengthwise, center 
to center, are used for the truck which carries the air 
cylinder. — Ddaivare, Lackcnvanna & M-'cstern, East 
■ Buffalo. A'. Y. 

Planing Mill Kinks 


A splendid safety guard for use on cross cut saws has 
been devised by W. T. Diiffin, foreman of the passenger 
car department, and is shown in Fig. 683. This guard, 
of galvanized iron, is attached to the low-er end of a piece 
of pipe, which fits in another piece of larger diameter, as 
shown, and which has a cord attached at its upper end 

The truck for handling lumber, shown in Fig. 684, is 
not very heavy, and as it is mounted on ball bearing 
casters may easily be turned about or pushed over the 
floor in any direction. It is constructed largely of yellow 
pine, except for the oak strips which form the floor. 
These strips are plated 2 in. apart, so that a man can get 
his fingers underneath the timbers in lifting them off the 
truck. There are four stake pockets, so that stakes may 
be used if desired. The construction of the truck is clearly 
shown on the drawing. — William H. Wolfgang, Drafts- 
man, Wheeling & Lake Erie, Toledo, Ohio. 


Not only is the bevel different on each end of a pilot 
rib, but each rib differs from the one next to it, no two 
being alike except the corresponding ribs on each side of 

Fig. 683 — Substantial Safety Guard for Cut-off Sawi. 

which extends upward through the larger pipe and over 
a couple of pulleys to a counter weight in a box alongside 
one of the colunms. The guard may thus be easily moved 
up and down and be adjusted to suit the size of the timber 
to be cut. When placed in the desired position it may be 
temporarily fastened by means of a set screw.— £n> RaiU 
road, Buffalo. N. Y. 

\ ^'■" t3'^Vi^'+ 



,. r- 




Frg. 684 — Lumber Truck, 

Fig. 685— Device for Cutting Bevel on Ends of Pilot Rib*. 

the center rib. The device used for cutting these ribs, as 
shown in the accompanying illustrations, is simple in con- 
struction and is easier and quicker to operate and more 
accurate than the usual method of laying out- each rib 
with a templet. It does not require a skilled mechanic 
to operate it and may be used with any type of cut-off 
saw. The device is made of hard wood, securely braced 
so that it will not wrap, and of about the dimensions 
shown on Fig. 685. It i-s securely bolted to the saw table 
to prevent it from moving out of lin^ when in use. Each 
of the stops, which are numbered from 1 to 10, in two 
rows, represents a different bevel. These stops are Ij-^ 
in. in diameter and have small keys glued to them to 



keep them from turning. When not in use they are the bevel thns formed is placed in the notch of the cor- 
pushed down so that the tops are level with the top of the responding stop No. 6, The proper bevel is then cut on- 

the other end of the rib. In this condition the rib would 

be a little too long, a point projecting above the top of 

Bufton furntd fc Itfstop dem 

Fig. ase— Detail t 

board. When in use they project above the board Y^ in. 
and are held in place by a button or small piece on the 
underside of the board, which swings about a screw, as 
shown in Fig. 686. The material to be cut is first pre- 
pared by dressing it to the proper size. To show how the 
board is used, assume one of the long ribs is to be cut. The 
material is placed on the device with one edge resting 
against the end of the fence on the saw table and one end 
projecting over stop No. 6, similar to the first position 
shown in Fig, 687 with the edge lined up with the side 
of the notch, as shown. The other end is then cut ofl and 

Fig. 687 — Showing Hot 

i End* of th« Pilot Ribs a 

the Proper Bevel. 

the pilot back. By means of a special stop this point is 
cut off at right angles to the bevel edge at the top of 
the rib, and the rib is then ready to be applied to the pilot. 
— 5. 5", See, Foreman of Flaniug Mill, Norfolk & ll'est- 
erii, Roanoke, Va. 


The most dangerous machine in a wood-working shop 
is the variety molder. A pair of safety guards which 
may easily be adju.'!ted for any class of work and which 
also act as clamps or guides for holding the work down 
while it is being passed over the cutter is shown in Fig. 
688. This device was furnished by the .American Wood 
Working Machinery Company. — .\>il' York Central £r 
Hudson River Car Shops, East Baifalo, X. V. 

Fig. 688 — Safety Guarda and Clampi on Variety Molder. 

Smith Shop Kinks, Car 


Two tools used on a bulldozer, with a travel of lAyi in., 
built on the same plan as most presses affording a straight 
pressure, are shown in Fig. 689. The tool on the left for 

tration. This tool was suggested to me by a traveling 
salesman who was formerly a blacksmith foreman with 
the Southern Railway. I consider it the best step tool 
I have ever seen, as the step is completed in one heat with 
one stroke; in most cases, the number of steps bent on 
this tool in any given time is only limited by the capacity 
for heating them, — J. F. Perritt, Blacksmith Foreman, 
Seaboard Air Line, JacksonviHe, Fla. 


To facilitate tlie handling of the carts in which the 
bolts are transported in the various stages of manufac- 
ture a concrete floor has been laid on the side of the smith 
shop where this work is done. The rods are brought in 

Fig. 989 — Typical Tool* Used on a Buildozer. 

making straps for air reservoirs is a double tool ; it may 
be reversed on the press by removing the bolts and turn- 
ing it around. The arms connecting with the head pieces 
are interchangeable, so as to require onlj' one pair. The 
straps made are for 10 in. and 12 in, reservoirs. 


The tool on the right is for making car steps with two 
bends and two quarter twists, such as shown in the illus- 

Fig. S90 — Steel Cart for Handiing Bar Iron. 

at the end of the shop on a special steel cart for handling 
bar iron, shown in Fig. 690. Two men feed the rods to 
the double shear shown at the left in Fig. 691, while a 
third man piles the pieces on the cart shown in Fig. 692, 

Fig. 691— Partial View of the Bolt Manufacturing Side of the Blacksmith Shop. 


and also in Fig. 691, at the same time counting them, moved to the furnaces, thus saving any rehandling. The 
One ot these carts will hold 5,000 pieces for ^-in. bolts, large wheels are 24-in. in diameter and the small ones 6 
The cart is moved to one of the three Ferguson oil fur- in, — Rock Island Lines. Silvii, 111. 


The left-hand dies shown in the photograph. Fig. 695, 
are used in making brake beam hangers for passenger 
cars. The stock, 1-tn. round, is cut and bent to the shape 
shown in a bulldozer. After the second heat, the open end 
is placed between the dies and one end is formed and the 
weld, which falls in the center, is made. After a third 
heat the other end is shaped between the dies. About 25 i 
of these hangers can be made in a day of 10 hours on < 
an anvil, while by the above method 75 may be made in 
the same length of time. 

Fig. 692— steel Cart for Iron Cut to Length for Bolts. BRAKE RIGGING U-SHAPED HANGER. 

naces where the rods are heated, after which they are -^^ the right of the photograph. Fig. 695, are shown 
forged in either the 2-in. Blakeslee or the lj4-in. or 1-in. two sets of dies for making a U-shaped hanger, used on 
Acme forging machines. As the heads are forged the the brake rigging of passenger cars. The piece of stock 

M/AitfM Inai Vtlf'/f 

Fig. 693— Bolt Cart. 

bolts are thrown into the bolt cart, shown in Fig. 693. 
They are then moved down the line to one of the six 
double head bolt cutters. A large number of bohs are 
also reclaimed from scrap by cutting them to shorter 
lengths and rethreading them. — New York Centrai & 
Hudson Rh-er Car Shops, East Buffalo, N. Y. 


As the iron is sheared to length for bolts in the smith 
shop it is piled on the wagon or cart (Fig. 694), and is 

Ftg. BM — Wagon Uaed In the Manufacture of BolU. 

Fig. 695^Brake Beam and U-Shape Hanger DIea. 

shown on top of the dies has been finally formed on one 
end in the large dies. The first operation is that of bend- 
ing, as shown at the opposite end. The S-shape is neces- 
sary in order to get sufficient metal into the dies to fonn 
the complete end, for which a second heat is re- 
quired. This bending operation is done between the 
formers clamped on the top of the cast iron dies, A fifth 
heat is necessary for bending the hanger to the U-shape. 
The stock used is 1 % in. round ; about 80 complete hang- 
ers can be made in 10 hours. — Long Island Railroad, 
Morris Park, N. Y. 


The left-hand dies shown in Fig. 696 are used in making 
collar eye bolts for brake beam safety chains, a finished 
bolt and a piece of bent stock being shown. The eye is 
formed on an eye-bending machine, and is reheated for 
final forming and welding between the dies. It will be no- 
ticed that each die is made in two pieces, joined by two 
1-in. bolts and held apart about 2 in. by the two ccnI 
springs. When in the machine, the dies first close on the 
stock and then the plunger strikes the pair which grip 
the eye and forces the parts against the other pair. The 
metal which bridges the space between the two sets of 


dies then torms the collar. The stock used is j^ in. 

GRATE BAR 'trunnion HEAD, 

At the right in the photograph. Fig. 696, is shown a 
pair of dies used in forming a grate bar trunnion head. 

two pins, over which the stock is placed, and the slot 
guides the tongs to the center of the stock. It is then 
carried to position in the formers, a slot in the center 
block guiding the tongs to bring the stock central. There 
is a movable block, which slides on two bolts — the heads 
of which are shown — through slotted holes. This ar- 
rangement permits of easily placing the stock and also for 
making the bends square, as the crosshead forces it tightly 
against the hanger at the end of the stroke. These 
hangers are made of 1-in. stock and 125 may be bent per 
hour. — Lehigh yalley, Sayre, Pa. 

Fig. 696 — Eye Bolt and Crate Bar Trunnion Head Oie». 

This job requires IS^-Jn. square stock, which is first heated 
for receiving the 1,'4-i"- round pin. In the second opera- 
tion the piece is completed. — Lons Island Railroa<i, 
Morris Park Shof>Sj Morris Park, A'. V. 


Resting on the left hand stop of the bulldozer. Fig, 
697, are shown a block and plunger used in bending J^-in. 
staples cold. The block, which stands in an upright posi- 
tion when being used, is provided with six grooves for 
holding the straight stock. These groovesare cut at an 
angle, so that the stock will not fall out. The plunger is 
deep enough to bend the six staples at one time. The 
stock is cut from ;^-in. scrap rods on a shear, and at an 
angle to provide the points. This arrangement will bend 
700 of these staples per hour. — Lehigh Valley. Sayre, Pa. 


A set of formers used for bending brake hangers on 
a Filakeslee bulldozer is shown in Fig. 697. The machine 
is shown at full back .stroke. The two wings which bend 
the stock are drawn f nil open as soon as the return stroke 
begins by the coil springs, which permits the formed 
hanger to be removed and stock for another to be placed 
before the wings are again carried forward. The ma- 
chine, therefore, operates continuously and a hanger is 
formed at each revolution. The arrangement at the left 
is provided to center the stock. The angle-iron plate has 


The ends of the hangers, illustrated in Fig. 697, are 
upset and punched on a machine using the dies shown at 
the left in the photograph, Fig. 705. The half die at the 
right of the pair shows a piece of stock in position for 
being upset. The stock is first bent cold in the bulldozer, 
three pieces at a time. The pieces are then placed in a 
furnace, the bottom of which is 5 in. below the opening, 
which allows the ends to hang downward. After the end 
is upset, the stock is moved to the position shown in the 
left half die, and the hole is punched. As both plungers 

Fig. 697 — Bending Brake Hangert on the Bulldozer; also Block and Plunger for Making Staple*. 


operate simultaneously, one heat only is required for both 
upsetting and punching. It will be noticed that the dies 
have inlaid blocks at the points of wear. These blocks 
are made of high speed steel and when the dies were first 
made, the steel blocks were hardened before being placed. 
-After upsetting about 3,0C0 ends, it was found that the 
steel blocks were full of surface cracks. They were taken 
out, annealed, surfaced and again p[ace<l in position with- 
out hardening. About 90,000 ends have passed through 
dies since the blocks were renewed and they show no 
bad effects from the work. The large boss on the right 
hand die and the knife on the left hand one were used for 
removing the film of metal that forms when the dies do 
not close. This provision is not, however, necessary. — 
Lehigh Valley, Sayrc, Pa. 

A machine for bending the eyes on brake hangers is 
shown in Figs. 698 and 6*W and 700. The photographs 

round pin whose diameter is the same as that of the eye. 
Fig, 699 shows the positions of the stock and the dies at 
the close of the operation. To bend the other arm of the 

Fig. S98— Bendlno Machine at Beginning of Operatioi 

show the two positions of the machine. The adjustable 
fingers are set according to the length of hanger required. 
The complete details nf the different parts are shown in 
the <lrawing. The hanger whose end.^ are to be bent is 

Fig. 700 — Bralce Hanger Bending Machine. 

hanger it must, of course, be placed on the c^posite side 
of the machine from the position shown in Fig. 700. — 
/. F. Perrilt, Blackstnith Foreman, Seaboard Air Line, 
Jaeksoiiville, Fla. 


The portable air-operated bending machine shown in 
Fig. 701 was built for bending small work, such as car 

Fig. 6S9 — Bending Machine at Close of Operation. 

placed as shown in Fig. 6'IS. As the plunger of the 
chine moves for\var<l the stock is bent around the si 

brake hangers, stake jiockct bolts, etc. The cylinder D 
is an old 12-in. brake cylinder with a suitable crosshead 
fitted on the cn<\ of Ibc uision ri>d. The bending anus A 
are jiinned liinscly to the tabic at their inner ends and are 
conni'cicd to the crns^hcad by links. When the piston is 



forced outward the arms travel as indicated by the arrows. 
The forming block B is shaped to give the desired size 
and form to the parts that are being bent. The bending 
arms A have two holes drilled through them for bolting 
on different sizes of forming plates. A treadle, f ulcrumed 
to the bottom of table, is connected to a grip block and 
clamps the work to keep it from slipping while being bent. 
Fittings for all kinds of bending are provided. This is a 
very handy machine for the smith shop, and we have used 
it to splendid advantage on the lighter classes of work. — 
W. H. Fetner, Master Mechanic, and C. L. Dickert, Gen- 
eral Foreman, Central of Georgia, Macon, Ga, 


Two special devices designed by the general blacksmith 
foreman of the Topeka shops, George Fraser, and used 
for forging and finishing brake-shoe keys out' of old 
scrap iron are illustrated in Figs. 702 and 703. The first 
device. Fig. 702, is an attachment to the bulldozer for 
forging the key to shape. Two keys are forged at one 
time in one operation, one on each side of the plunger. 
These are cut apart and bent to shape in one operation by 
the shear attachment, Fig. 703, to a power punch or 
shears. These devices have proved very economical. 
Keys were formerly forged by hand at the rate of about 


\< 2/^-— -ASU- 

— I 


L ^ 

Fig. 702 — Forging Brake-Shoe Keys on Bulldozer. 


250 per day and at a cost of 16 cents each. By the use 
of the devices shown an output of 3,000 to 3,500 keys per 
day is maintained with the same labor at a cost of 1,'4 

and to the same temperature and having the conditions of 
handling standardized, — Erie Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 


The dies shown at the right in the photograph, Fig. 
705, are used for forming large castle nuts. The stock 
used is 2j4 in. round, and the completed nut is made in 
two operations and one heat. The plunger on top of 

Pig. 70^— D«vloe for Making Brake-Sho« Keys. 

As applied lo power sheara for shtartng and bending the keys aftei forging. 

cents per key. About 125,000 of these keys are made and 
used per year, so that comparing the cost of machine and 
hand methods, S18,418 is saved by the use of these 
devices, — E. J. McKernan, Supervisor of Tools, Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 


The law requiring the lowering of caboose steps has 
made it necessary to provide thousands of new brackets 
for these steps. A bulldozer at the Buffalo shops manu- 
factures all of these for the system. The problem was to 
devise dies by which all the bends could be made in 
one heat and practically one operation. It was done by 
making two sets of dies, as shown in Fig. 704, and using 
a separate cylinder for operating each set. One die acts 

Fig. 70S — Dl«i tor Uputtlng and Punching Brake Hanger 
End! and for Forging Caetle Nute. 

one of the dies is used first, with the stock placed in the 
lower impressions, as shown. This upsets the metal and 
forms the castle nut. The stock is then moved to the 
upper impressions and the round stock is punched away 
from the nut, there being no waste of material. — Lehigh 
Valley, Sayre, Pa. 


Tools for welding lugs on broken cast steel couplers 
are illustrated in Fig, 706, This work is done on a steam 

Fig. 704 — Bulfdozer and Die* for Bending Caboose Stepe. 

in advance of the other and completes its work before the 
other one starts to move. Ten-inch air brake cylinders 
are used. At present the boh holes in the brackets are 
drilled after they are bent. Experiments are being made 
with a view to punching the holes in the J-j-in. x 2-in. bar 
and bending it afterwards. This can, of course, only be 
successfully accomplished by heating the bars uniformly 

Fig. 706 — Welding Toole for Broken Steel Coupler!. 

hammer successfully and profitably, from $6 to $8 being 
saved on every coupler repaired in this manner. Tool A 



is the bottom die block for the steam hammer. This block 
is shaped to fit the inside of the coupler between the 
knuckle pin lugs ; scarfing, welding and cutting off is 
done on this block. Tool B is used for scarfing, and tool 
C for cutting bflf and shaping the new lugs. The perspec- 
tive view shows a coupler and a new lug on the die block, 
scarfed and ready for welding. Sand or a welding com- 
pound should be used to insure a good weld. The work 
is simple and if properly handled no fitting is required 
to apply the knuckle, it being only necessary to drill the 
lug for the knuckle pin. Couplers have been repaired in 
this manner at the Columbus shops for the past two years 
and without a failure. — E. G. Gross, Master Mechanic, 
Central of Georgia, Coiuuibus, Ga. 


Dies for bending coupler yokes on a bulWozer are illus- 
trated in Fig. 707. The stock, which has had the ends 
turned over, is placed between the dies, and as the cross- 
head moves forward the two. wings are forced inward as 
they come in contact with the rollers on the short arms of 
the header. Theae rqllers b^ar against steel friction 
plates. The l-in.* gibs oft' the lx)ttom of the former fit 
in the bulldozer face plate slots and guide it. As the 
header of the machine moves backward, the two wings 

C&: Ltne of Bu/khzer^ ilMt 

are drawn to their initial positions, as shown in Fig. 708. 
This arrangement makes it possible to bend yokes which 
are considerably longer than the stroke of the machine. — 

BuNchzer Head 

Fig. 708 — Open Position of Dies for Bending Coupler Yokes. 


— t^j d!) — tt -t^ 

Bufkhzer Face 




Fncfton Wheel 









!« -/«>i-'— ^ 





I I 


Reversing Lever 

(§) ® 





.± : 

Fncfton Piafe 

^ 1 

: ';5^ 

», I 


Fig. 707 — Dies for Bending Coupler Yokes on Bulldozer. 



iyaiiam H. Wolfgang, Draftsman, IVheeling &• Lake 
Erie, Toledo, Ohio. 


The tools for forging the two members of an ordinary 
drawbar carry iron imder a steam hammer are shown 
in Fig. 709. The stock for the bottom member is first 
bent, as shown by the piece in the foreground in the 
center. It is then placed on the female former at the left 
and the block is driven down into place. The former 
has steel inserts at its outer top edges, and by placing the 
two strips on the ends of the iron, as shown, it may be 


another yoke can be punched at the same stroke. In 
order to avoid having the combined shock of the bending 
and punching come on the machine at the same time, the 
punching takes place near the end of the machine's stroke 

Fig. 710— Bending and Punching Miner Draft Rigging Yokei. 

and after the bending shock has passed. The punches 
also vary ,'4-in. in length, which serves to distribute these 
shocks. The capacity of the machine depends on the heat- 
ing facilities. Under ordinary conditions it will handle 
100 yokes per day.— Ceo. IV. Kelly, Foreman Blacksmith, 
Central Railroad of A'cw Jersey, Elinabethporl, N. J. 

cut off to the proper length by one blow of the hammer. 
The top member is formed by the dies shown at the right. 
Both the top and the bottom members of the support are 
finished at one heat, A set of these ready for drilling 
and application are shown near the center between the 
two sets of dies. — P. f. Smith, Chief Draftsman; Thomas 
Marshall, Master Meclwnic; Harry Holder, General 
Foreman, and James Lynch, Blacksmith Shop Foreman, 
Chicago, St. Pan!, Minneapolis & Omaha, St. Paul, Minn. 


An arrangement for bending and punching Miner 
draft rigging yokes made from 1-in. x 5-in, iron on an 
Ajax bulldozer is shown in Fig. 710, The shoulders on 
the open end of the yoke for gripping the coupler shank 
arc upset on a forging machine, after which the center 
end plate hole is drilled or punched. After heating, the 
plate is placed on the bed of the machine, the end plate 
bole taking a pin in the end of the bending block, which 
is bolted in place. After bending, the yoke is inserted 
between the stripping plate and block shown for punching 
the four large holes. The yoke is then reversed for 
punching the four holes on the opposite side. The 
stripping plate is made loose, so that it acts as a straight- 
ener also, taking out the flare which is left after the bend- 
ing operation, as the bending die is only about half the 
length of the yoke. The plan of utilizing each movement 
of the machine to full capacity is used in this process, 
since while one yoke is being bent by the bending dies 


An interesting pair of dies with plungers for making 
eye bolts is shown in Fig. 711, together with a finished 
?^-in, eye-bolt. The dies, as well as the plungers, are 
made of soft steel. The upper impressions in the two die 
■ blocks with the plunger shown at the left, are used for 
the first stage, during which the collar is formed, while 
sufficient metal enters the end of the plunger to form the 

Fig. 711— Eye-Bolt DIea. 

eye. The lower impressions, with the plunger shown at 
the right, finally shape the collar and also the boss which 
entered the first phmger. The central impressions are 
used without a plunger, their work being that of lateral 
action only in punching the eye hole. A film of metal,. 
1/16 in. thick, remains after this process, and is removed 
cold with a single blow of a hand hammer. — Geo. W. 
Kelly, Foreman Blacksmith, Central Railroad of New 
Jersey, FJizabcthpart, N. J. 



A tool for bending eye-bolts on a small bulldozer or 
air press is shown in Fig. 712, The head A is attached 
to the plunger of the machine, and to it are pivoted the 
two arms, BB. At the outer ends of these arms are pins 
that move in and are guided by the slots CC in the anvil 
or former. The round iron to be bent is laid across the 

pin in the table. A few inches from the pin on which 
these formers revolve is another pin in the bed plate. 
Fig. 713 shows the dies open and the piece of round iron, 
pointed on one end and slightly bent at the other, in 

anvil and against the pin, as indicated by the dotted lines. 
The head is then pushed down, and the arms guided by 
the slots, CC, bend the round bar in front of them until 
the long end strikes the stop, D. The upper arm then 
necks it in and the short end is bent around the pin to 
form the head of the eye. — /. F. Perritt, Blacksmith Fore- 
man, Seaboard Air Line, Jacksonville, Fla. 


A bending machine for forming coal gate hooks is 
shown in Figs, 713 and 714. The female die is carried 

Fig. 714 — Diet After Coal Gate Hook Hae Been Formed. 

position. Fig. 714 shows the dies opened slightly after 
the hook is bent. The metal loops serve to draw the dies 
open as the female die recedes. This machine is a great 
labor saver, turning out from 30 to 40 hooks per hour. — 
F. J. Cook, Foreman, Car Department Snulk Shop, St. 
Louis Southwestern, Pine Bluff, Ark. 


An object lesson in the flow of metal during a die 
forging process is well illustrated in Fig. 715. This 

Pig. 713— Material In 

by the piston rod of the I2-in. x 14-in. cylinder, and the 
two dies which form the hook revolve about the heavy 

Fig. 715 — Fool Forming DIea. 

forging, made from IJ-i-in. round iron, is used for the 
lower foot of a passenger car pedestal strap brace, but 
the same general shape is used in a variety of instances, 
both in car and locomotive work. The bending dies. 


shown at the left, are used in forming the round iron 
into the shape shown. These dies are clamped on top 
of the main dies, the half circular section of the lower 
portion of the extreme left-hand die being made to clear 
the oblique circular impression in the main die. This 
thrte-bend shape resulted from a series of trial shapes, 
it being probably easier to get it in this way than by 
calculation of the metal flow. After this preliminary 
shape is made, the metal is returned to the furnace for a 
welding heat and is made into the final shape by means 
of the dies shown at the right. — Geo. W. Kelly, Foreman 
Blacksmith, Central Railroad of New Jersey, Eli::abeth- 
port, N. J. 


A pair of dies used for making safety chain eyes for 
passenger cars is shown at the left in Fig. 716. A fin- 
ished eye is also shown. The stock, ^-in. 'X Zyi-'m., is 
first heated in a furnace and given the 90-deg. twist. 
After the second heat, the stock is upset and formed in 
the lower impressions, taking the shape shown. This 

the case. The female die bends the iron by carrying the 
two arms from their position in Fig. 717 to that shown 

Fig. 717— Die* in an Op«n Position. 

in Fig, 718. The twist of the ends is made at the same 
time. The two metal loops serve to bring the swinging 
arms back to position for another stroke. This machine 
will bend from 40 to 50 sill steps per hour, making one 
at each revolution of the machine. — F. J. Cook, Fore- 
man, Car Department Smith Shop, St. Louis South- 
western, Pine Bluff, Ark. 

Fig. 716— Safety Cliain 

IHanger and Fiexible Staybott Sleeve 
Cap Diet. 

same heat is sufficient for the hnal operation, that of 
giving the circular form to the loop, A thin film of 
metal remains after this operation, which is afterward 
punched out with a pin. 


A die for making caps for flexible staybolt sleeves is 
shown at the right in Fig. 716. This cap is made in one 
heat, from 2'/4-in. diameter punchings of J^-in scrap. 
But one blow of the plunger is required ; the stock is 
diopped in from the top and the finished forging is kicked 
out by a hammer blow on tlie ram shown at the back of 
the die. .A man can make 800 of these caps per day of 10 
hours. — Long Island Railroad, Af orris Park Shops. 


Spring seat stirrups for freight car trucks are formed 
on an Ajax bulldozer with the dies shown in position in 
Fig. 719, and in detail in Fig. 720, The male die is 
bolted to the face plate and rests against the end st<^ of 
the machine, while the female die is bolted to the mov- 


Two views of a set of dies used on an Ajax bulldozer 
for forming sill steps are shown in the photos, Figs. 717 
and 718. Fig. 717 shows the dies open after having 
formed the step. By reference to Ftg. 718 it may be seen 
that the jaws of the female die are wider than the male 
die — plus twice the thickness of the metal as is usually 

Fig. 718 — Dies Opening Up After the Step Has Been Formed. 

able head. The holes in the stirrups are first drilled and 
countersunk, after which the plate, 1-in. x 6-in., is placed 
in the furnace. The photo shows one of these plates in 
position just before bending. The small drilled hole in 
the center of the plate takes a pin on the male die. Mak- 
ing these stirrups on this machine presented a problem 


which was met in a decidedly novel way, and at the same 
time added a feature to the dies which very materially 
. assists the metal in taking the new form. This problem 

these blocks revolve on the lj4-in. pins, and the flat sur- 
faces of the blocks present two lOj/^-in. movable surfaces 
to bend the iron, which is an advantage over the metal's 
bending against the solid corners of the die. — Geo. IV. 
Kelly, Foreman Blacksmith, Central Railroad of Ncit' 
Jersey, Elizahethport, A'. /. 


Dies for bending uncoupling rods on an Aj'ax bull- 
dozer are shown in Kig. 721. This attachment operates 
on two uncoupling rods at the same time, the four center 
bends being made as indicated by the partially completed 
rod on the face plate and extending aroimd the die block, 

Fig. 719 — Dies for Bending Spring Seat Stirrups. 

lay in the fact that the travel of the machine was about 
3 in. less than the length of the finished stirrup. The 
drawing shows the two extreme positions of the movable 
blocks which were placed on the ends of the female die. 

Fig. 720^8pring Seat Stirrup Dies. 

The dotted lines show the positions which these blocks 
assume at the beginning of the operation, while the full 
lines show their final position. As the dies close together. 

Pig. 721 — Bending Uncoupiing Rods. 

while the two end bends are made as indicated by the 
completed rod shown near the top of the stationary block 
of the machine. These rods are made of l-in. round iron 
and are bent cold. All bends are made against grooved 
rolls, and the cold metal takes the new form much more 
easily than it would were these grooves rigid, in which 
case considerable friction would result. The rod which 
is taken from the lower position and moved to the upper 
for the final bends is not rigidly clamped in position, but 
merely placed along the space blocks. When the rolls 
meet the round iron, they hold it firmly in position. — 
Geo. W. Kelly, Foreman Blacksmith, Central Railroad 
of Neii' Jersey, Blisabcthport, N. J. 

Air Brake Kinks 

A complete outfit for handling the air hose used on 
locomotives and cars is shown in Fig, 722. Without 
exception, we think we can handle and equip more hose 
than any other railway shop in the country. We have a 
chute on one end of the bench. The hose are cut to 
proper lengths when they are received. The two clamp 
rings are slipped over the hose, which are then put on 
the chute and roll down to the operator at section /-/. 
He puts the coupling and the nipple in the carrying arms ; 
with his foot he operates the air connection and the nipple 
and coupling are pressed in the hose at the same time. 
The hose is then transferred to another chute and to the 
air clamps shown in C-D. These tighten the clamps. 
while the operator turns the clamp screws by means of a 
flexible shaft. Tlie hose pass through section /-/ at the 
rate of 300 per hour: that is, putting on 300 couplings 
and 300 nipples, or a total of 600 ends per hour. We also 
have a knife arranged with an air cylinder by which we 
cut old hose to strip the connections. The hose can be cut 

and connections taken out just as fast as the operator can 
handle them. — D. P. Kellogg, Master Mcclwnic; IV. f. 
Merry, General Foreman, and G. H. Goodiwi, General 
Gang Foreman. Southern Faeific, Los Angeles, Cal. 


Compressed air i.s now almost universally used for 
applying couplings and nipplf s to hose. There are many 
designs of machines used for this purpose, one of which 
is shown in Fig. 723. It consists mainly of three cyl- 
inders, A, B and C, mounted on a bench. The A cylinder 
is vertical and contains a piston whose rod is attached to 
the upper part of the hose clamp D. The cylinder A. 
made of a piece of 4!/4-in. pipe, has a spring which tends 
to maintain the piston in its upper position. The piston 
rods of the two end cylinders B and C carry holders that 
take the nipple and coupling respectively. The hose is 
placed between the clamps and the air is admitted to the 
vertical cylinder. The clamps are 20 in. long, with a 
clamping surface of 14 in. A flare at the ends allows for 

section C-0. Saetieit l-J, 

Fig. 722— Bench Equipment for Fitting Up Air Hom. 


Stetion S-F-&-H 


the increase in the hose diameter, due to the insertion of and forcing in the nipple at the same time. The horizon- 
the metal pieces. Air is then admitted to cylinder C and tal cylinder is also equipped with a wedge, shown in two 

Pig. 723 — Machine for Fitting Coupltng and Nipple on Air Hoae. 

D forcing the coupltng and nipple into the hose. — 
Southern Railway. 


An outfit for mounting air hose is shown in Fig. 724. 
The two cylinders are set at right angles. The vertical 
one operates the clamp C, by which the hose is firmly 

— ^ Chisel for Cuffing 
— P Bolt and Hose, imd 

■for separafioff eas- 

fJ/Tff from Hose. 

Fig. 724— Air Hoae Mounting Machim 

held in position, and the horizontal cylinder holds the 
nipple or coupling at the end of the piston rod. A single 
cock admits air to both cylinders, thus clamping the hose 

positions, with which the clamp may be tightened after 
the nipple is pressed in the hose. The chisel, shown at 
the bottom of the drawing, may also be used with the 
horizontal cylinder for stripping the fittings from old 
hose. — F. C. Pickard, Assistant Master Mechanic, Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton &■ Dayton, Indianapolis, Ind. 


The apparatus for stripping the fittings from air brake 
and steam hose shown in Figs. 725 and 726 has caused 
a saving in time of from 60 to 70 per cent., and a saving 
in air hose clamps of from 20 to 30 per cent., as compared 
with the methods formerly used. By means of the air 
hose clamp bolt cutting machine shown in Fig, 725, and 
the stripping machine shown in Fig. 726, an ordinary 
laborer can cut the bolts and remove and assort all the 
fittings for 100 air brake hose per hour, and this with- 
out injury to the fittings. We have stripped about 45,000 
air brake and air signal hose and 2,000 steam hose with 
this apparatus, which was constructed about a year ago. 
The bolts which hold the clamps are first cut on the 
machine which is illustrated in detail in Fig. 725. It 
consists of an old lO-in. passenger car brake cylinder 
fitted with a plain head. Air is admitted to the upper 
end of the cylinder through the J4-'"- three-way cock, 
to the handle of which a coil spring is attached from 
above. The spring, which is not shown on the drawing, 
automatically returns the three-way cock to the release 
position as soon as pressure is removed from the foot 
lever. The standard brake cylinder piston release spring 



returns the piston to its upper position after each stroke. 
The stroke is limited to 2 in. by the oak filhng block which 
is 9^ in. in diameter and 10 in. long, with a 6-in. hole 

up by two pieces of oak, 6 in. square in section. The 
upper part or shank of the chisel which cuts the bolts 
fits over the end of the piston rod and is held in position 
by a ^-in. set screw, which is not shown. 

After the clamp bolts have been cut, the hose is placed 
in the stripping machine, shown in Fig, 726. By operat- 
ing the three-way cock air is admitted to all three of 
the air cylinders at the same time. The end of the piston 
rod of the air cylinder underneath the table is connected 
to a lever which operates the clamps that grasp the hose 
firmly near its center. At the same time the pistons of 
the two cylinders at either end of the top of the table 
move outward, pulling ofE the air hose coupling, nipple 
and clamps. The three-way cock is then placed in the 
release position and the pistons of all three cylinders are 
forced to their normal positions by means of the ordinary 
brake cylinder piston release springs. A filling block 
4 in. thick has been placed in each of the two top cylinders 
to shorten the stroke ; the blocks are cut out at the center 
to make room for the piston rod and release springs. 
The two top cylinders are old 8-in. freight car brake 
cylinders and have been fitted with plain heads on both 
ends, one head being fitted with a stuffing box to 
allow the Ij^-in. piston rod to pass through it. The 
outer end of the piston rod is threaded for a distance of 
2 in. to take the heads which fit over the hose coupling 
and nipple. — Frank J. Borer, Foreman Air Brake De- 
partment, Central Railroad of .Vfrc Jersey, Elisabethport, 


through the center for the piston rod and the release A compact arrangement for stripping the fittings from 
spring. The frame which supports the device consists air brake hose is shown in Fig, 727. The machine is 
of two old i,'4-in. by 5 in. arch bars, which are backed operated by the foot valve B, which admits air to an 8-in. 


"* — r — 


Fig. 726 — Machine for Stripping the Fittings from Air HOM. 



by I2-in. cylinder. The piston rod has fastened to its 
upper end a forked member C, which rises when air is 
admitted to the cylinder. In the lirst operation this end 
C forces the knife A over, cutting the clamp bolts so 
that the clamps may be removed. The piston is then 
allowed to return to its normal position. In the second 
operation the forked end when rising, closes the movable 
clamps f which work on the guides H. The inside faces 
of these clamps are fitted with checkered plates so as to 
firmly grasp the hose. Each clamp also has two studs G, 
at the ends of which are coil springs for the purpose of 
drawing the clamps back after the air pressure has been 
released. The links / and K, and the bell cranks L 
operate the stripping blocks ,1/. To one of these blocks 
is attached fitting .V to catch the hose coupling, and to 
the other fitting E to catch the nipple. These stripping 
blocks move along the top face of the machine, using 
the inside flanges of the I beams, which form the bed of 
the machine, as guides. At the end of each stripping 
block is a rod P which holds a piece of air hose that acts 
as a bulTer and takes up the horizontal shock when the 
hose is stripped. There is a heavy coil spring in the 
cylinder to absorb the vertical shock at the moment the 
stripping takes place. When operating the machine the 
workman, after removing the clamps, places the hose so 

that the fittings catch in their respective holding devices. 
He then operates the foot valve, admitting air and raising 
the piston. The clamps grasp the hose and the fittings 
are drawn from it ; they drop, into a chute and fall to llie 
floor. The foot valve is then released, exhausting the 
air from the cylinder and allowing the hose to be taken 
from the machine. This machine does not require skilled 
labor, but is comparativelj' easy to operate. — R. G. Ben- 
nett, Motive Power Inspector, Pennsylvania Railroad, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 


A device for cutting the clamp bolt and removing the 
fitting from one end of a torn air brake hose is shown in 
Fig. 728. By means of an 8-in, air brake cylinder and a 
system of levers, the operator, by pressing a foot-valve, 
may cut the clamp bolt with the knife A at the left of 
the machine. .After removing the clamp lay the end with 
the fitting horizontally on lop of the jaws and again press 
the foot-valve. The plunger B will force the piece down 
through the jaws tearing the hose from the fitting. The 
knife A ts driven by a cam attached to the frame of the 
machine. This machine has been found to be a valuable 
addition to an air brake hose department. — R. G. Bennett, 

, t 

Fig. 727 — HoH Stripping Machin 



A device for tightening the clamps on air brake hose 
while they are being bolted or locked, as the case may be, 
is shown in Fig. 730. An 8-in. air brake cylinder fur- 

Fig. 728 — Stripping Machine for Torn Air Brak« Hose. 

Railroad, Pills- 

Motive Poiver Inspector, Peiinsyh-ai. 
burgh. Pa. 


A handy tool for boring and turning air pump bush- 
ings is shown in Fig. 729. It is so arranged that two 
cutting tools, }i square, both cut at the same time. One 
tool turns the outside while the other tool bores the in- 
side. Doth tools may also be use<t for boring a cylinder 
by turning one tool upside down and reversing the tools 

Fig. 730 — Device for Tightening Clampa on Air Brake Hoee. 

nishes the power. A spring is to be applied near the 
lower ends of the two levers to force the clamp open 
when the wedge is withdrawn.— AVii' York Central 6r 
Hudson River Car Shops, East Buffalo, X. V. 


The chuck for centering air pumps, shown in Fig. 731, 
is intended to overcome the difficulty of chucking them 


Fig. 729 — Boring Tool for Buehinga. 

so that they both face out from the holder. \Vhen used 
in this way two cuts are taken on the inside at the same 
time. While the tool is intended for machining air pump 
bushings, it may be made any size to suit other work. — 
H. L. BurrliHs. Assistant General Foreman, Erie Rail- 
road, Siisqueliaiina. Pa. 

Fig. 731 — Air Pump Canterlns Chuck. 



for reboring. The outside diameter of the slip ring A is Morse taper shank and is driven by a universal drill, 
a sliding fit in the counterbore of the air pump. The boss The lower end of the boring bar is held central by a split 

B fits neatly in a hole in the center of the boring mill 

table. The pump is placed on the stand and the slip ring 
is pushed up into the coimterbore. The pump is then 
clamped down to the boring mill table and the shp ring 
is pushed far enough out of the way to permit of boring 
the cylinder. This device saves about 15 minutes in re- 
boring each pump cylinder. — Chicago, Milwaukee &• St. 
Paul, West Milwaukee, Wis. 


An air pump top cylinder head, chucked in position for 
boring out the bushing in the main valve chamber is 
shown in Fig. 732. It is difficult to rebore these bush- 
ings without some special design of chuck and the one 
shown is simple and effective. The chuck is made of cast 
iron and consists of two disks and two space pieces, all 
cast in one piece. One of the disks is threaded for screw- 

bushing made slightly tapering on the outside to fit the 
stuffing box gland of the pump. 
To the left of the air pump in Fig. 733 is shown a 

Fig. 732— Air Pump Cyllndar Haad Chuck. 

ing on the faceplate, while the other is provided with 
bolt holes for securing the cylinder head by means of 
bolts through the valve chamber flanges. This arrange- 
ment assures perfect alinement of the bored bushing, as 
the joint surface forms the bearing against the plate of 
the ohucV.— Baltimore & Ohio, Mt. Clare Shops, Balti- 
more, Md. 


A method of boring air pump cyhnders which saves 
taking them apart, as is sometimes necessary when they 
are bored out in a lathe or boring mill, is shown in Figs. 
73i and 734. It insures a bore perfectly true with the 
cylinder head bore, as reference to the drawing will show. 
The guide bracket A is bolted to the cyhnder casting after 
the spindle has been centered. The tools C are adjusted 
by the screws D. The boring bar is made with a standard 

Pig. 734 — Boring Tooi for Air Pump. 

steam chest which is ready for boring. It was formerly 
the practice to cast the steam chest with this hole cored 



and to finish it on a horizontal boring mill, but consider- 
able time was often lost, due to the core having been 
placed off the center or because of the holes being filled 
with sand. By making the part solid and using special 
high speed steel counterboring tools and drills, one of 
these can be finished in a few minutes. — M. H. West- 
brook, Grand Trunk, Battle Creek, Mich. 


The air pump piston holders, shown in Fig. 735, are 
applied to piston heads to prevent their turning when 

enough to make 2i rings, is bolted on the face plate of a 
lathe, and the inner edge E, Fig. 736, is turned off in 
order that a plug center may be forced against it while 
the cylinder is being turned on the outside. The outside, 
after it is turned, is filed smooth. The gang tool B, hav- 
ing 16 cutting tools spaced 9/32 in. apart, is then used 
to space off 24 rings in two operations, cutting in to a 
depth of 5/16 in. The twenty-fifth ring is cut off by a 
special tool. The tool C is then placed in the lathe. It 







Fig. 735 — Air Pump Piston Holders, 

removing the piston rod nuts. The designs are exceed- 
ingly simple. Both are used constantly in the air brake 
department. The 7/16-in. lug at one end is placed in 
one of the holes in the piston and the other end is placed 
in the cylinder head stud hole in one case, or is held by 
the stud in the other. — A. D. Porter, Shop Efficiency 
Foreman, Canadian Pacific, West Toronto, Lin. 'da. 


Packing rings for 9;^-in air pumps are made in the 
following manner: A cast iron cyhnder or barrel, large 

Fig, 737 — Magnetic Chuck for Finishing Packing Ring*. 

has two adjustable boring tools which are adjusted to the 
finished inside diameter of the packing ring. As this bor- 
ing tool advances the rings drop off one at a time; they 
are of the correct inside and outside diameter, but are 
not of the required thickness. 

They are finished to the proper thickness on a mag- 
netic chuck F, shown in Fig. 7i7. The chuck consists 
of a series of electro- magnets, arranged in a circle, with 
rectangular heads finished flush with the face of the 
chuck, as shown in the photograph. The electric current 
is conducted to brass discs or rings at the back of the 

Fig, 738 — Tooii for Boring and Cutting Oft Packing Rings for Air Pump, 



chuck through the carbon brashes A. The brass rings 
are connected to the magnets. The brush holder C is 
bolted to the lathe, and both brashes are held firmly 
against the brass rings by means of springs. The inside 
diameter of the chuck face is equal to that of the largest 
size packing ring. For smaller rings the adjustable dc^ 
E, G, H and / are used to keep the ring from sliding. In 
the photograph a 9^-in. ring is shown in a 10-in. chuck. 
The stop B is set so that the facing-off tool will come 
within % in. of the face of the chuck. The unfinished 
packing ring, 9/32 in. in thickness. Is placed in the chuck 
and finished on both sides to a thickness of J4 't^- By 
this method one man turns out 100 finished rings per day. 
— Chicago & North Western, Chicago. 


One often hears an engineer coming in after an engine 
failure say that if he had only had something to hold the 
air pump piston from turning he would have brought 
his train in without trouble. The device shown in Fig. 


pig. 738— A<r Pump Piston Holder. 

738 is so simple that it hardly seems worth while illustrat- 
ing, and yet many an engine failure could have been 
prevented by its use. Every engineer could make one 
in a moment or two from an old packing hook, a large 
nail, or even by bending a piece of 3i-in. wire into the 
form of the figure 3. The holder shown in the illustration 
is made of 9/16-in. square steel bent at each end as 
shown. A J^-in. hole is drilled % in. from the end of the 
longer arm. This is for a split key to keep the holder in 

place, as shown on the drawing. All air pump piston 
heads have two or three holes in them, and by putting 
one end of the holder in one of these, and the other end 
in one of the cylinder head tap bolt holes, the piston head 
can be kept from turning. — Thomas Naylor, Roundhouse 
Foreman, Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, St. 
James, Minn. 


One man can very easily handle an air pump while it 
is being repaired with the use of the repair stand shown 

J. „i!. 


Fig. 739 — Air Pump Repair Stand. 

in Fig. 739. The table in a vertical position, with a pump 
ready to be bolted to it is shown at the right in Fig. 740. 

Fig. 740 — Device for Handling Air Pumpi. 



The table pivots on a center leg, which is the piston of an 
air cylinder sunk into the floor. To the right, in Fig. 
740, can be seen a diagonal rod, one end of which is 
pivoted to the table, while the other end is fastened in 
an eye-bolt in the floor. When the pump is secured to 
the table the air is turned on, the piston ascends and the 
rod at the end of the table draws it to a horizontal posi- 
tion, with the pump in a good position for repairing. 
When the table is in this horizontal position it is locked by 
means of a small pin ; the rod at the end is removed and 
the pump and table can be swung around so as to secure 
the best light for working. The base is made from an old 
piston head spider and the cylinder is made from an old 
scrap hydraulic jack barrel. — /*'. H. Snyder, Assistant 
General Foreman, A^ew York, Susquehanna &■ Western, 
Stroudsburg, Pa. 


The use of the stand, shown in Fig. 741, greatly 
facilitates the makir^ of repairs to an air-pump. Pumps 

undergoing repairs are lifted on the stand and bolted to- 
the table which can be tilted to any angle up to 45 deg> 
from the horizontal in either direction. There is a center 
pin in the lower end of the pedestal which allows the top 
to turn on the base; the lock lever is operated by the 
workman's foot. With this stand the workman is always 
near his toots, as he practically does not change his posi- 
tion in working on a cylinder. He can also adjust his 
work to get the best possible light on it, which is a most 
important advantage. — F. S. Robbins, Inspector, Pennsyl- 
vavia Railroad, Renora, Pa. 


An air pump mounted on an adjustable table in the repair 
shop is shown in Fig. 742. The important feature of this 
arrangement lies in the table's being designed to be 
shifted and clamped at any angle. The base and upright 
are made in one piece of cast iron. The quadrant is also of 
cast iron, while the table top is formed of two wrought 
iron plates. The advantages of this table at once appeal 

I*— -^ H 

0/v stud Thuf, Sh*l. 

■ OntThus, trjr ' 

I r[ 


1 1 


L.j^ : 




, ( 


a If 

1^ HhiS' 

fed Sis' 


pig. 741— Air Pump Repair Stand. 



The valve seat for an air pump, shown in Fig. 743, is 
manufactured in the following manner: The forging A 
is made by the dies and formers shown in Fig. 744, which 
are used in an Aiax forging machine. A piece of round 
iron is held in the female die at E, and is partly iipset and 
the liole punched in it by the plunger B. The forging is 
completed in a second operation by the phmger D and the 
die C. It is then cut off and finished in a turret lathe by 
the tool shown in Fig. 743. .\i the first operation the 
reamer G faces off the threaded end and roughs out the 

Fig. 742— Air Pump Repair Table. 

to the man who has had to work on an air pump without 
any arrangement for convenience in working. — Central 

Railroad of A'fjf Jersey, Elicabetbport, N. J. 

inside; the turning tool // finishes the outside to the 
diameter of the thread. To cut the recess between the 
threads and the bottom of the seat at M, a lever K is 
thrown up and the tool takes a deeper cut, this being 
done by means of an eccentric L. The throw of the 
eccentric is regulated by an adjusting screw /. The 
forging is then threaded by the die 0, after which it is 
screwed into a chuck, and the seat end is machined to the 
correct angle and the inside diameter is finished by a 
special reamer P. The valve for this seat is forged by 

Fig. 743 — ^Tool* lor Machining Varv« Seat for Air Pump. 



the dies shown in Fig. 745. The flanges of the valve /• 
are flattened from the round iron at a white heat in the 
dies atvf, B and C The last operation is performed in 
D by the plunger E. These valves are formed on both 

rattle and air to escape at the key washer. Unless this 
hole can be bushed the worn top case must be replaced by 
a new one. It is a simple matter to bore out the hole, 
bush it, and bore out the bushing to the required size, as 
the case can ea.sily be fastened to the lathe face-plate. 
But facing off the inside end of the bushing, against 
which the washer bears, is difficult unless some sort of 
special chrck is employed. The one shown in the draw- 
ing, Fig. 747, is probably as simple, and at the same time 
as efficient a one as could be devised. Its application is 
shown in the photograph Fig. 748. The taper fit of the 

Pig. 745^Dle* and Former for Forging Atr Pump Valve. 

ends of a round bar which is cut in the middle. They 
are then finished in a turret lathe by the cross feeding or 
side adjusting tool, as shown in Fig. 746. The cutting 
tool is set for the correct angle of the valve seat and is 
fed across the lathe at right angles to the work. The 

valve .■4, Fig. 746, is held by a two-jaw chuck in the 
spindle of the machine. The cross-feeding device is 
bolted to the tail-stock. — Chicago & North Western, 

engineer's brake valve top cases, repairing. 

A large saving in brake equipment maintenance is 
effected by bushing the hole in the top of engineer's brake 

Fig. 748— Expansion Chuck ae Used on a Lathe. 

chuck shank fits in the lathe spindle, while the opposite 
end fits the hole in the top case. The chucking end is 
sawed through up to the shoulder on two diameters at 
right angles to each other. A conical wedge, with a 
straight shank is drawn into the split portion of the chuck, 
expanding it in the top case hole and gripping the top 
case firmly. The flat, taper key is driven in one slot to 
spread the end of the chuck and in the other to close it 
again. — Long Island Railroad, Morris Park, N. Y. 


A triple valve packing ring grinder designed for grind- 
ing four valves at the same time is shown in Fig. 749. 



Taper fo ft'f \ 

ffachine Spind/e '■ 


Fig. 747— Expanalon Chuck. 

valve top cases, through which the rotary valve key 
passes. This hole becomes worn, allowing the key to 


Fig. 749— Triple Valve Packing Ring Qrlnder. 

These valves are slipped over the vertical bolts and are 
held securely in position by keys which fit in the top of 



the bolts. The valves are rotated and the cam shaft at 
the bottom gives a vertical reciprocating motion to the 
piston, which combination of motions grinds the packing 
rings in a very satisfactory manner. The upper part of 
the shafts which grind the valves, and which are revolved 
by the spur gears in the top of the frame, may be lifted 
upward, thus allowing the valves to be slipped into place. 
This machine has a capacity for 50 triple valves per hour. 
— E. J, McKcrnan, Tool Supervisor, Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 


A clamp for closing up packing ring grooves in triple 
valve main pistons is shown in Fig. 750. It is bolted to 






k 3i'- 











■— 7- 


1 sr^T" r 


^1 ^ 


Fig. 750— Triple Valve Piston Compressor. 

the bench in the position shown. The 3j^-in. diameter 
ram is loosely fastened to the Ij^^-in. threaded bolt. It 
is made loose to permit its seating evenly against the 
piston, which rests in the bored impression in the upper 
side of the U-shaped base. An improvement in this 
respect could be made by using a ball shaped connection, 
rather than the flat one which the device now has. Before 
placing the triple valve piston in the impression its pack- 
ing ring is snapped into position to prevent the groove 

from being closed too much. A 36-in. double end wrench 
provides a sufficient amount of leverage, so that grooves 
are easily closed and marks or burrs can also be pressed 
out. — Central Railroad of A'cw Jersey, Elisdbethport, N. /. 


The grinding of triple valve piston packing rings was 
formerly done at the Elizabethport shops by a tool made 
of a piece of %-in. round steel, a hole being drilled in 
one end to receive the piston stem and a handle being 
placed on the other end, similar to the one shown on the 
accompanying sketch. The piston stem was secured to 
the tool by a set screw ; this arrangement was unsatis- 
factory because of the set screw slightly damaging the 
end of the piston stem. We are still grinding most of our 
triple valve piston packing rings by hand, as it is doubt- 
ful if any time can be saved, or better work be done, by 
the use of a machine, unless a number of men are engaged 
in this class of work and a machine is provided that will 
grind at least eight triple valves at one time. Experience 
has taught us that it is much more important to have the 

Fig. 751 — ^Triple Valve Piston Packing Ring Grinding Tool. 

triple valve piston cylinder bushing and the triple valve 
piston packing ring groove put in good condition, so that 
the triple valve piston packing ring is a perfect fit in the 
groove and in the cylinder bushing. The grinding of the 
ring is then a simple operation. If the triple valve cyl- 
inder bushing is not in good condition, we roll it with a 
special triple valve roller and also true up the triple valve 
piston packing ring groove if it is necessary. The im- 
proved tool for grinding the piston packing ring is shown 
in Fig. 751. The adjusting nut A contains four jaws S, 
which are held apart by the coil springs D. In using the 
tool, the piston stem is placed between the four jaws, and 
the adjusting nut A is held in one hand while the stud C 
is revolved and moved inward by means of the handle F, 
thus closing the jaws B, — Frank /. Borer, Foreman Air 
Brake Department, Central Railroad of New Jersey, 
Elizabethport, N, J, 

Oil House Kinks 


The device for emptying barrels by air pressure, which 
is shown in Fig. 752, is easily constructed and affords a 
rapid and cleanly method of transferring oil from barrels 
to storage tanks. The brass plug is screwed in the bung 
hole and the 1-in. pipe through which the oil is forced 
from the barrel fits snugly in the bushing which screws 
into the plug; the cotton packing makes a tight joint 
between the plug and the pipe. Compressed air enters 
through the %-in. air cock and nipple and passes down 


tration shows the machine arranged with forms for mak- 
ing dope sticks for rod cups. This press is usually located 

Fig. 753 — Grease Formino Prees. 

in the oil houses at large division points. — E. J. Mc- 

Kernan, Tool Supervisor, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, 
Topeka, Kan. 


A press for forming solid grease candles or sticks for 
rod cups is illustrated in Fig. 754. There are a number 

Fig. 752 — Device for Emptying Barrels by Compreaeed Air. 

through a groove between the pipe and the brass plug, 
thus forcing the oil from the barrel, — P. F. Smith, Chief 
Draftsman; Thomas Marshall, Master Mechanic, and 
Henry Holder, General Foreman, Chicago, St. Paul, 
Minneapolis & Omaha, St. Paul, Minn. 


A press for forming grease for Elvin driving box 
grease cellars or sticks for use in side or main rod cups 
is shown in Fig. 753. A 12-in. x 14-in, brake cylinder is 
mounted on a frame in a vertical position, as indicated. 
Adjustable forms are made to suit the various sizes and 
designs of grease cups and driving box cellars. The illus- 


Fig. 754^Preu for Molding Greaee for Rod Cu|m. 

of presses made for this purpose, but the one shown has 
at least one feature whicn makes it far more efficient than 



other designs. A 4-in. pipe is finished inside and provided 
with a piston and forming head. The cylinder is mounted 
vertically on a 2-in. plank and the usual connections ar- 
ranged to operate it with air. Just below the power cyl- 
inder is a similar cylinder drawn down at the lower end 
to a Ij^-in. opening. Around it is wrapped a coil of 


Instead of pounding the grease into the Elvin driving 
box cellar by hand, a molding machine has been devised. 
The grease forms are made of two kinds, one being of a 
size to fill the cellar and the other being for shimming or 
filling pieces 1 in. thick to slip into the bottom of the 

H-in. copper pipe, forming a steam radiator for warming ^^,,3^ 35 the grease above is used up. This saves dropping 

the former and the grease within. The heat reduces the 
density of the grease and makes it much easier to mold 
or form. — S. S. Lightfoot, Bonus Demonstrator, Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fc, San Bernardino, Cat. 


the cellar and filling the casing, and can go on indefinitely 

until the engine comes in for repairs. The grease press 

consists of a 16-in. air cylinder with a 54-in. stroke, bolted 

to a I2-in. grease cylinder of equal stroke. On the end 

of the latter is a nozzle 18 in. long, with four different 

sizes of tips for the corresponding sizes of grease cellars. 

A home-made affair for forming the grease to the The cylinders lie on their sides, the filling hole for the 

proper shape to fit the grease cups and consisting of three grease chamber being at the rear end, on top. The grease 

cylinders in tandem, with the pistons connected by a com- is pressed out on a board having nailed to the back side 

mon rod, is shown in Fig. 755. The cylinders are each a strip with six equi-distant slots, or saw kerfs, in it. The 

10 in. in diameter. Two are for air which serves to com- grease cutter is an old hand saw with the teeth ground 

press the grease and the third (the one on the end at the 
left) is for the grease. This has a hole 4 in. by 6 in. cut 
in the side at the inner end for the insertion of the grease, 
and at the other end a nozzle, Fig. 756, of the proper 


off and the edge sharpened. The nozzle for the filling or 
shimming pieces is 16 in. long and there is only one size 
of tip. The large forms are put in tin casings and packed 
in boxes for shipment. The fillers are laid flat in boxes 

Alrprtti/rf to egtinOtrs, ^ pifi*-^ 

Fig. 7GS — Grease Compreasor. 

inside diameter is screwed. These nozzles are Ij/^ in., 
2 in. and ZYz in. in diameter, respectively. The three- 
way cock is located, as indicated, between the intakes at 





— J 

Fifl. 756 — Greaae Compressor Nozzle. 

the two ends of the center cylinder. This makes it pos- 
sible to admit air pressure to the back end of the two 
air cylinders for compression, but when the compression 
has been completed and the pistons are to be drawn back, 
the air is exhausted from the two back ends and admitted 
to the front end of the center cylinder only, as this will 
give sufficient pressure for returning the pistons to their 
normal positions. — Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, 
Scranlon, Pa. 

with paper between the layers. There is also a former 
for rod-cup grease, on the same principle, with different- 
sized nozzles. The grease is cut to 22-in. lengths and put 
in holders made of old boiler tubes, 24 in. long, with a 
wooden plug in each end. The engineman keeps one of in his seat box. — Great Northern, Dale Street 
Shops, St. Paul, Minn. 


A press for molding the grease to fit the grease cups 
on locomotive connecting rods is shown in the photo- 
graph, Fig. 757. The power is furnished by two 8-in. air- 
brake cylinders, placed tandem. The grease is placed in 
one end of a third cylinder of the same size. The grease 
hopper is made of light copper plate, is 7',,i in. high, 6yi 
in. square at the top, and has an opening into the cylinder 
about Sji in. square. The grease is pressed out through 
the pipe at the left-hand end of the cylinder, and is cut 
into pieces of the proper length by means of the spacing 
box, part of which is shown just behind the cake of grease 
that is being pressed out. The cutting is done with a 
simple form of knife made of a piece of thin sheet iron 
and shown in the photograph. To return the pistons to 
their initial positions, air is admitted to the left end of 



the middle cylinder by means of a three-way cock. The 
apparatus is bolted on a steel plate, % in. thick and 7 ft. 
long, which is flanged down on the sides and is supported 
by cast iron legs, braced by wrought iron straps. The 
middle cylinder and the one containing the grease are 

pressed out. The cylinder is hinged, and may be dropped 
down by removing a pin, after which it may easily be 
refilled with grease. Three grease cakes for a 10-in, x 
12-in. driving journal can be made with one filling of 
the cylinder. The cake, 36 in. long, is pressed out 

Fig. 757 — Pr«BS for Preparing Greaas Cakaa for Connscting Rod Create Cupa. 

tied together by two f^-in. rods, as well as being bolted 
to the table. A shelf for the storage of the grease cakes, 
built of 3/16-in. steel plates, is fastened to the wall at 
the right of the press, and contains three compartments. — 
Delazivre, Lacbcnvamia & Western, Buffalo, N. V. 

A pneumatic press for forming grease cakes is shown 
1 Fig. 758. A feature of this device is the convenient 
av of refiilinc the cvlinder after the erease has been 

ig. /3B. A teature ot tnis device is the convenient 
of refilling the cylinder after the grease has been 

in Fig 

through the forming nozzle at one end of the cylinder 
and drops on a table, where it is cut into suitable lengths 
by a knife attached to a sliding hinge at the back of the 
table. The different sizes of nozzles may be easily and 
quickly changed and adjusted. The grease cylinder is 
made of 10-in. pipe, 17 in. long, and an ordinary 12-in, 
X 12-in. air cylinder. — D. P. Kellogg, Master Mechanic; 
IV. F. Merry, General Foreman, and G. H. Goodivin, 
General Gang Foreman, Southern Pacific, Los Angeles, 

F<g. 758 — Pneumatic Press for Forming Grease Cakes. 


The press for forming Elvin grease packing for use 
in driving box cellars, Fig, 759, is installed in the oil 
house. The 12-in. x 10-in. cylinder is bolted to a ^-in. 
steel plate, which is fastened on the two 6-in. x 6-in. 
wooden posts. The bottom of the press is closed and 

oH through the cock C, after which it may be again 
strained and prepared for use. The compartment B is so 
arranged that it may be removed occasionally for clean- 

Fig. 759 — Pr««* for Forming Qreaae for Driving Box Cellar*. 

held in place by the two latches. Grease is then put 
through the hole just below the plate on the lower end of 
the piston rod, after which air is allowed to enter the 
cylinder and the grease is pressed to shape. Before this 
press was placed in commission the grease was pounded 
to shape by hand, which was a slow and expensive 
process. — Richard Bccson. Roundhouse Foreman, Pitts- 
burgh & Lake Erie, McKecs Rocks, Pa. 


For cleaning packing which has been removed from 
journal boxes, a tank has been constructed of heavy 

ing. When the waste is removed from the tank it is 
placed on the cleaning table shown in Fig. 761 and is 
thoroughly sliaked and cleaned, the dirt and dust passing 
through the s^creen, which has openings J^ in. square. 
AftCT this treatment the waste is saturated with fresh oil. 
— C. C. Leech, Foreman, Pcnnsy'.vaitia Railroad, Buffalo, 

A", r. 


The method of preparing the packing for journal 
boxes at the East Buffalo shops of the Delaware, Lacka- 






B L=l 

ir b 

Fig. 760— Tank for Removing the Oil from Old Journal Box 

galvanized iron, fitted with a steam coil, as shown in Fig. 
760. The waste is allowed to remain in this tank 24 
hours, at the end of which time most of the oil has been 
drained to the bottom and through the strainer into the 
compartment B. The oil as it accumulates may be drawn 

Fig. 7S2 — Storage Tank for Journal Packing Oil. 



wanna & Western is especially good. The waste must 
soak in the oi! for not less than 24 hours and must con- 
tain four pints of oil to each pound of waste. This pro- 
portion was determined on after considerable experi- 
mentation. Five pints and four and a half ])ints to each 
pound of waste were tried and found to be excessive. 
The waste is stored in a compartment, or bin, 7 ft. x 
Sl4 ft., which may be extended as high as is necessary 
by slats. The oil is received in barrels and is forced by 
compressed air into a tank having a capacity of 36 
barrels, or about 1,800 gallons. To do this the bung is 

On the other side of the room are five tanks (Figs. 
763 and 764) constructed of j4-'n. steel, 32 in. in diameter 
inside and 36 in. high. These are supported on 9-in. 
I-beams resting on the concrete floor. To prepare the 
packing 90 gallons of oil are run into one of these tanks, 
and to this is added 80 lbs. of wool waste, the latter 
being put in carefully in order to saturate it thoroughly 
with the oil. This mixture is allowed to stand not less 
than 24 hours. At the end of that time, or when the 
waste is needed, the globe valves in the Ij^-in. pipe at 
the bottom of the tank are adjusted so that the surplus oil 

Fig. 763 — Tanks for Preparing Journal Box Packing. 

removed from the barrel and a brass plug is screwed in 
the hole. A piece of Ij^-in. pipe slips through a hole in 
the plug and extends to the lower side of the barrel. 
The upper end of this pipe is bent over and drops down 
into the manhole of the large tank, as shown in Fig. 762. 
The air enters the top of the barrel through a yi-in. pipe 
in the brass plug. A rubber gasket on the IK-i"- pipe 
at the top of the brass plug prevents the air from escap- 
ing at the joint. The maximum air pressure is auto- 
matically controlled, so that there is no danger of burst- 
ing the barrel. The steam pipes alongside the tank keep 
it warm and heat the room in cold weather. 

can drain into an empty tank. When the height of the 
oil has reached about the same level in both tanks, as 
determined by putting a measuring stick down through 
the vents at the sides of the tanks, the 5^-in. plate or 
piston is pressed down on the waste until 50 gallons of 
oil have been forced into the second tank. The oil is 
measured by a measuring stick properly calibered. The 
packing then contains 40 gallons of oil, or four pints to 
each pound of waste, and is ready for use. As shown 
by the drawing, each tank contains a cast ircm strainer 
near the bottom. 

The lower head of the air cylinder which furnishes the 



pressure is a casting and has two arms which extend 
down over the sides of the tank. Each of these is riveted 
to a j4-in. plate, which has a flange 25 in. long extending 
under the horizontal members of the 4-in. x 3-in. x yi-'m. 
angles, which are riveted to the sides of the tanks. These 
angles are tied to each other at the ends and between the 
tanks by 3jX-in, x ^-.s-in. iron braces, which are turned 
over at the ends and riveted to the angles. When the 
cylinder is not exerting pressure it rests on four 4-in. 
rollers, 2 in. wide, which run on the top of the angles ; the 

vat 30 in. x 60 in. x 30 in, high. This contains a strainer 
at the bottom and the surplus oil is drawn off from time 
to time and sprinkled back over the top of the waste. 
The waste is also handled about occasionally to make 
sure that it is as nearly uniformly saturated with oil as 
possible. — Delaware, Lackaivanna & Western, East 
Buffalo. N. y. 


For preparing packing for use in journal boxes, three 
tanks are provided, as shown in Fig. 765. In each of the 
two larger tanks, A and B, are placed 80 lbs. of waste 
and 560 lbs. of oil. After the waste has had sufficient 
time to become thoroughly saturated, 240 lbs, of oil are 

Fig. 765— Tanks for Preparing Journal Box Packing. 

drained off, leaving 320 lbs. of oil to 80 lbs. of waste, or 
4 lbs. of oil to each pound of waste. The third tank C 
is smaller than the other two, and is used for the prepara- 
tion of waste which has been reclaimed, — C C. Leech, 
Foreman, Pentisyhania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Fig. 764 — Tanks and Press for Preparing Journal Box 

cylinder can thus be moved easily from one tank to an- 
other. Air is admitted to either side of the piston by 
means of a three-way cock. The cjlinder is constructed 
of a piece of pipe, 18 in. outside diameter, which screws 
into the two cast iron heads. In addition to this the heads 
are tied to each other by four )^-in. rods. The cylinder 
has a stroke of about 27 in., the piston rod being 2 in. 
in diameter. 

Oil is transferred from the storage tank to the smaller 
tanks in the following manner : A small tank holding 20 
gollons rests on the floor at one end of the storage tank 
and below it. The oil is allowed to flow into this small 
tank by gravity and when it is filled the connection to 
the storage tank is closed. By admitting air to the top of 
the 20-gallon tank, all of the oil can be forced out of it 
into any one of the other tanks in a few moments; it is 
delivered to the tanks through the spigots shown in 
Fig. 764, 

The prepared waste is transferred to a galvanized iron 


Cotton or woolen waste, in order to give the best ser- 
vice for use in journal boxes of freight or passenger cars. 

! I 

Fig. 766 — Tank for Preparing Journal Box Packing. 

should he thoroughly soaked in oil, after which the sur- 
plus oil should be allowed to drain off. Waste prepared 



in this way can be packed more firmly about the journal 
and will give much more satisfactory results than if it is 
placed in the box too wet. A box, or tank, for preparing 
the waste is shown in Fig. 766. The inside is lined with 
heavy galvanized iron, and two cleats are placed on the 
inside of the box about 8 in, from the top, as shown. 
These support a tray, which has for its bottom a 1/16-in. 
mesh wire netting. The tray is only about one-half the 
length of the box, and may be shifted from one end to 
the other. The lower part of the box is filled with oil 

the shops of the Baltimore & Ohio. The wire basket, 
into which the saturated waste is placed, is about 14 in. 
high and 16 in. in diameter. An ordinary 8-in. freight 
car brake cylinder is mounted on a rack above the wire 
basket. A piston is secured to the end of the rod, and 
this is driven down on the basket filled with oily waste. 
The basket rests on a tinned floor which drains into an 
open oil tank. Air pressure at about 60 lbs. is used. On 
being taken from the basket the waste is thoroughly 
soaked with oil, but there is no loss from drippings. By 
this method, all waste for journal boxes is alike as regards 
the oil it carries, and only about 60 per cent, of the oil 
formerly used is required. — Baltimore & Ohio, Mt. Clare 
Shops, Baltimore, Md. 


A waste picker for repicking the old waste shipped to 
the main shop from various points on the road is shown 
in Fig. 768. This device not only loosens up the waste 
but also removes the cinders and gravel. The cast iron 
cylinder, 18 in. in diameter, carries on its outside 16 rows 
of ^8-iu. teeth. The cylinder is inclosed in a galvanized 

Fig. 767 — Journal Box Packing Preaa. 

and waste. After the waste has become thoroughly 
saturated, it is transferred to the tray, and the surplus 
oil is allowed to drain off. It is removed from the tray in 
dope buckets as it is needed. — A. G. Pancost, Draftsman, 
Elkhart, Ind. 


The press shown in Fig. 767 is one which was first 
gotten up at the Mt. Clare shops, but is now used in all 

Fig. 768— Waate Picker. 

iron casing, which has four rows of teeth which fall be- 
tween those on the cylinder. Old waste is fed into the 
picker through the hopper at the top and after being 
thoroughly loosened and torn apart is discharged 
through the chute. — K. I. Lamcool and T. S. Naery, Jr., 
Special Apprentices, Chicago, Indiana & Louisville, 
Lafayette, Ind. 

Paint Shop Kinks 


A device for spraying paint over cars and locomotives 
is shown in Fig. 769. It consists of a nozzle discharging 

paint bucket. Admission of air to the nozzle creates an 
action similar to that of a locomotive injector, and the 
paint is siplioned up and sprayed over a considerable area 
as it leaves the funnel. The flow of paint is controlled 
by the j4-iii- cock and the air by the gate valve. — F. C. 
Pickard, Cincinnati, Hamitton & Dayton, Indianapolis, 
Ind. . 


At the far end of the paint shqj balcony is a door rack 
which is shown in Fig. 771. This rack affords a storage 
for ]00 car doors, and utilizes a space which cannot be 

Fig. 7S9 — Paint Sprayer. 

from an air pipe in a funnel, into one side of which a 
pipe is admitted from the paint supply. This latter pipe 
has a strainer at its lower end which extends into the 

Fig. 770 — Dfltalli of Top of Rack for Car Door*. 

Ftg. 771 — Rack for Car Doors. 

used to advantage for other purposes. The storage is 
compact, provides for the necest;ary air circulation and 
for a rapid and easy handling of the doors, as each is 
held independently. The drying of the doors is uniform 
and certain, assisted hy the warm air from the heating 
system. The perspective drawing, Fig. 770, gives a 
better idea of the constrwction of the rack than does the 



photograph. The holding piece is raised to its full up- prevent any saving in material, if indeed they do not at 
ward position when placing a door, and then falls to the times offset at least a part of the saving of labor. The 
position shown by its own weight. The jaw, being operator realized that he was being timed when the fol- 
tapered, does not mar the freshly painted or varnished 
surface. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa. 

The paint burner illustrated in Fig. 772 is designed to 
use kerosene oil, so as to eliminate dangerous gasolene 
burners from the shop buildings. A reservoir for the oil 
supply is connected to an air line for the necessary 
pressure for operation. As many burners as are desired 
can be operated from the one reservoir. These burners 
are very effective and are much preferred by the work- 
men to the gasolene torch. Beside the elimination of 
danger in the fuel, the burner is much lighter in weight 

Fig. 773 — Painting a Car with the Spraying Machine. 

lowing test was made, and it probably represents con- 
siderably better than average practice, ahhough in order 
not to get the paint on too thick it is necessary for the 

~2i' i 

Fig. 772— Paint Bi 

for Passenger Can 

and the fatigue to the workmen is lessened. Oil is ad- 
mitted to the burner through the globe valve and passes 
through the coil and out through the opening controlled 
by the needle valve. The coil is first heated by a torch, 
thus vaporizing the oil which passes through it. The 
end of the needle valve is much sharper and longer than 
shown on the drawing. Sediment sometimes clogs the 
opening. If this occurs, turn the valve to increase the 
size of the opening, thus blowing out the obstruction. Air 
is used at about 60 lbs. pressure. — F. S. Robbtns, In- 
spector, Pennsyhania Railroad, Renora, Pa., and J. C. F. 
Kitnkle, Foreman Painter. 


A paint sprayer is used for painting freight cars. It 
saves greatly in labor, although the winds at Buffalo 

Fig. 774 — Paint Sprayer Used for Painting Freight Cars. 

operator to either keep moving or to shut off the device 
and stop. The time from when he started operations 
with a full can of paint (one gallon) until he had finished 



one skle and one end of a 35-ft. 70,000-lb. capacity gondola 
car, inside height 3 ft. U in., was five minutes and ten 
seconds. This included the time for the partial refilling 
of the can of paint, which required 30 seconds, and also 
the touching up of two or three spots at the finish, which 
required about 20 seconds. The operator usually wears 
a mask over his nostrils. The car was thoroughly and 
evenly covered and only a few drops of paint dripped off. 
The paint seemed to have penetrated into all the cracks 
and crevices. The paint spraver is shown in operation in 
Fig. 77i. 

The paint sprayer (Fig, 774) weighs about 6^ lbs. 
when empty and 16 lbs. when filled. In addition, the 
weight of that part of the air hose which hangs from it 
must be considered. By pressing the handle at the side, 
air is admitted through a J^-in. pipe and siphons the 
paint from the bottom of the can out through the T. A 
spring automatically closes the valve when pressure is 
removed from the handle. The mixture of paint and air 
is forced out through the T on tJie J-^-in. pipe, no special 
nozzle being required. About three gallons of paint are 
required for the first coat on a new gondola car, such as 
described above. — Erie Railroad. Buffalo, N. Y. 

which is connected to the bottom of the oil can. The 
paint should be mixed sufficiently thin to flow freely. A 
handle B is attached to the side of the can for con- 
venience in handling. — C C. Leech, Foreman, Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 


A sash 

ack which will accommodate the sash from a 
at one time, together with the deck and 


A simple and efficient paint spraying apparatus is 
shown in Fig. 775. The can is made of heavy galvanized 
iron, and the paint is introduced through the opening A, 
which when the can is in use^s securely covered by the 
cap C. The cap has a rubber disk on the inside at the 
top, making the joint air-tight. A hose from the shop 
air line is connected at B. By opening the valve, which 
is controlled by the lever H, air is allowed to escape 
through the nozzle G, which is an ordinary %-m. T. 
As it rushes out it siphons the paint through the pipe. 

...r. H 

Fig. 776 — Sash Rack with Adjustable Partitions. 

transom sash and the blinds is shown in Fig. 776. The 
adjustable partitions which carry cleats beveled to pre- 

Cenntcf fJate /ten J^ j;.. 

Flfl. 775 — Pnsumatic Paint Sprayar, 





vent marring the freshly applied paint or varnish, may be 
moved side wise after loosening the winged holding 
clamps shown at the top. Similar clamps are provided at 
the bottom of the rack. Sash racks of this design afford 
a safe, clean and quick storage for sash and blinds, and 
allow the circulation of air for drying the fresh paint or 
varnish, — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa. 


Paint is emptied from the barrels into 100-gallon tanks 
in the paint storage building. The barrel is rolled under 
a hoist in this building and is grasped at the ends by 

be ready for use at all times, by the introduction of com- 
pressed air at the bottom of the tank through 3/16-in. 
holes spaced 5 in. apart in an air pipe. — Nem York Cen- 
tral & Hudson River Car Shops, East Buffalo, N. V. 


A simple, inexpensh'e table for painting window sash 
which greatly facilitates the handling of this class of 
work is shown in Fig. 778. The glass in the sash is 






M-"- • 

m I 

■ 1 -^ 

V , 


/ i; 


Ffg. 77S— Tabis for P*)nt<ng Window 8a*h. 

placed on the four rubber rests so that the woodwork 
does not come in contact with them. The stem of the top 
plate provides for revolying the sash so that the workman 
is not required to reach around it. — Baltimore & Ohio, 
Mt. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md, 


A revolving stand for painting water coolers is shown 
in Fig, 779. The bases are made from castings formerly 

Fig. 777— Paint Barrel Hoist. 

the hooks (Fig, 777) and is hoisted through an opening 
in the platform above. A specially designed truck, 
operating over rails on the platform, is run under the 
barrel, which is then lowered on the truck, resting on 
four rollers. The truck is moved over the tank in which 
the paint is to be emptied and the barrel is rolled on the 
four rollers until the bung is at the top. This is knocked 
out and the operator, holding a piece of waste over the 
hole, turns the barrel until the opening is just above the 
tank, when he removes the waste. The air cylinder for 
hoisting the barrels is 12 in. in diameter and has a stroke 
of 36 in. The platform is 8 ft. above the floor. The 
paint in the storage tanks is continually agitated, so as to 

Fig. 779 — Revolving Stand for Painting Water Coolera. 

used in chair cars. The 12-in. diameter top is made to 
revolve, facilitating the painting. These stands are also 



used for any miscellaneous painting when it is advan- fled so that the admission of air from the pipe B to the 

tageous to revolve the work. — Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa. 


Large areas of wall space and roof in a roundhouse 
or shop can be quickly whitewashed by the use of the 
pneumatic sprayer shown in Fig. 780. It is made of an 
ordinary ^-in. T, having an air nozzle, A, connected 
with an air line, projecting into one end. At the opposite 
end of the T is a discharge nozzle, D, which is flared 

nozzle A may be controlled by means of the handle £. 
Air from the supply line is used at a pressure of from 75 
to 100 lbs. per sq. in. The whitewash is siphoned up 

Fig. 780— Pneumatic Whitewash Machine. 

Railroad, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Miscellaneous Shop Kinks 


A pneumatic feed for air motors, C, is shown in Fig, 
175, and in detail in Fig. 781. It has many uses and is 
especially adapted for drilling and tapping driving and 
truck wheel hubs for hub liners, and in drilling into the 







1—1- — j 

"■*"! " 

r... .-^,._! 


Fig. 781 — Pneumatic Feed for Air Motor. 

heads of tire retaining ring rivets preparatory to remov- 
ing the ring and replacing the tire. The pressure on the 
piston gives a constant feeding pressure to the motor. — 
Af. H. iVestbrook, Grmid Trunk, Battle Creek, Mick. 

reaming holes, as it is powerful and runs smoothly. It 
does not operate fast enough to burn the reamer, but 
makes a slight cut at everj' revolution. Large holes may 
be drilled easily with this device. It is also used to pull 
in valve or cylinder bushings when they are put in cold 
and are pulled in with a rod and nnt. In this case it is 
necessary to have a hexagonal hole in the center gear 
the size of the nut used on the drawing-in rod. The 
machine is geared at a ratio of 5 to 1, and the bushing 
has to fit pretty tight to stall the machine, after it has 
once started. — //. /,. Burrliiis. Assistant General Fore- 
man. Enc EaUroari. Stisqnchaniiu, Pa. 


The device shown in Fig, 783 is easily and cheaply 
made and has jjroved very efficient for grinding old and 
broken magnesia or asbestos boiler lagging into a ptdp. 
Both the upper and the lower boxes are made of wootl. 

r -'*i- ! 


A speed reducer used in connection with an air motor 
is shown in Fig. 782. This device is especially useful in 


Fig. 7B2 — Details of Speed Reducer for Atr Motor, 

Fig. 783— Aibeetoi Grinder. 

The division plate is thin sheet iron, perforated with 
^-in. square holes. The three-blade cutter is made 
from an old brake wheel, the cutting edges of which, being 
vertical, work in conjunction with the perforations in 



the plate in breaking up the lagging. An air motor is sary to speed up the machine until the pulley turns 500 

fitted to the upper end of the spindle and the lagging is r.p.m. If the recorder is correct it will register the cor- 

fed into the top box. — IV. H. Snyder, Assistant General rect speed. — Chicago & North Western, Chicago. 
Foreman, New York, Susquehanna & Western, Strouds- 

burg. Pa. 



One man does ail the laying out for the shops and i 
in chaise of all blueprints, jigs and templets. All blue- 
prints and templets are kept in drawers, except frame 
templets, which are kept in a bin. Jigs are kept in pockets 
under the drawers. Everything is classified and num- 
bered for easy selection, and on the outside of each case 
or bin is a list of the contents with the numbers. — Great 
Northern, Dale Street Shops, St. Paul. Minn. 

A universal coupling, or knuckle joint and socket, for 
use in reaming with an air motor when the latter cannot 


A simple device for testing Boyer speed recorders is 
shown in Fig. 784. It consists of a small air engine, 
direct-connected to the flywheel of the speed recorder. 
An auxiliary tank and a reducing valve provide a con- 
stant air pressure, making it possible to maintain any 
constant speed of from one to 100 miles per hour. The 
pulley of the recorder turns ten times as many revolutions 
per minute as the number of miles per hour registered, 
that is, r.p.m, equals ten times m.p.h. For example, to 
check the recorder at 50 miles per hour it is only neces- 

Flfl. 7M — 0«vice for Testing Boyer Speed Recorden. 

be used directly over the reamer is shown in Fig. 785. 
When drilling or reaming in close quarters, where there 
is not sufficient room to use the motor direct, one of these 
sockets with a knuckle joint will enable the motor to be 
used. Otherwise the work would have to be performed 






Brass Bushing. 

Fig. 7S5^Univeraal Coupling. 



by hand, which is much slower and more expensive. One 
end of the knuckle joint is turned to the regular No. 4 
Morse taper to fit the air motor, and the other end is 
an adjustable socket for ali reamers. The socket is 
turned to receive steel centers, with square holes of 
different sizes for reamer shanks of various dimensions. 
These are held in place by two screws and are quickly 
removed or replaced. The device is of substantial con- 
struction, and has proved to be extremely useful and 
handy in shop work. — E. J. McKernan, Tool Supervisor, 
Atchison. Topeka & Santa Fe, Topeka, Kan. 


A universal coupling, which will be found valuable in 
connection with a tube cutter or tube roller when operated 

and polish it nearly as perfectly as it can be bored on a 
machine. The long pieces of round iron wear down the 
ridges or high spots. Care should be taken to select pipe 
with as smooth an inside surface as possible. In one case 
in which the pipe was quite rough on the inside we used 
several pieces of round iron and pipe without any sand. 
After revolving the pipe cne day the bumps and ridges 
were worn down. When once started in operation the 
device does not require attention and it may be run two 
or three days, or until the inside is perfectly smooth. We 
have finished the inside of both cast iron and wrought 
iron pipe from 48 in. to 84 in. long in this way. — H. L. 
Biirrhus, Assistant General Foreman, Eric Railroad, 
Susquehanna, Pa. 


An iron crate used for transporting small stock about 
the shop in quantities is shown in Fig. 788. The crate is ■ 
- shown hanging from the large traveling crane. This 

Fig. 786 — Unlveraal Coupling. 

by an air motor -near the shell of the boiler, or where 
there are obstructions which prevent the motor from 
being placed in line with the tool which it is driving, is 
shown in Fig. 786. The pins in the coupling are Vi in. 
in diameter. — H. .9. Ranch, Apprentice Instructor. New 
York Central & Hiidson River, Osv/ego, N. Y. 


A cheap and good way to prepare a piece of pipe for 
the cyhnder of an air hoist or an air jack is shown in 
Fig. 787. Fill it about half full of sand and pieces of 
iron scrap: also two or three long pieces of round iron or 

P)g. 788— Metal Crate for Handling Material. 

method of handling is especially efficient for small pieces, 
such as bolts, and may even be used advantageously for 
large pieces. A large number of crates are provided, so 
that they may be filled by the men doing the work on 
Cylinder for the pieces which saves extra handling.— Lc/ii^A Valley, 
Sayrc, Pa. 

pipe. Bolt a piece of wood over each end with a rod ex- drinking fountain. 

tending through the center as shown in the sketch; place A drinking fountain, two of which are in the black- 
the pipe on V blocks and revolve by running an old belt smith shop and a number of which are distributed 
around the center and over the line shaft. The action of through the other shops is shown in Fig. 789. The one 
the sand and pieces of scrap on the inside will smooth in the photo is near the center aisle of the blacksmith 



shop, where it is easily accessible. The water used in 
these fountains is obtained by air pressure from a 30p-ft. 
well on the shop grounds. The bowl is made of cast iron. 
The spigot on the feed pipe provides for filling buckets 
for general use, — Central Railroad of Ntrzv Jersey, Eliza- 
beihpori, N. J. 



The receptacle is enclosed in a planished iron case lined 
with asbestos, arranged to be easily removed. The socket 
blades project through a triangular opening in the lower 

Motor extension receptacles for portable tools are 
placed at every other pit, drawings of a receptacle and 
plug being reproduced in Fig. 790. They were designed 
by G. WilHu's, Jr., while mechanical engineer of the Great 

Fig. 7B0— Motor Extension ReeoptacU and Plug. 

end plate, and have their ends bent outwardly to facili- 
tate the entrance of the plug. The device may be used 
on a.c. or d.c. circuits, up to 600 volts. — Great Norlhern, 
Dale Street Sho{>s, St. Paul, Minn. 


A gasolene heating furnace, which consists of a stand 
with a basin filled with cement upon which the material 
to be heated is laid, with the gasolene torch burners on 
either side, is shown in Fig. 791, The gasolene is fur- 
nished from the tank underneath by being forced through 

>«=•• ■«»=)tH 

Fig. 789 — Drinking Fountain. 

Northern. The device is designed to be used either with 
a two or three-wire circuit in order to prevent a reversal 
of polarity by the impro]3er use of the plug, and to guard 
against short-circuiting. It is adapted for either indoor 
or outdoor use. The socket or receptacle has three spring 
blades arranged in triangular form, as shown by the end 
view, mounted on a block of slate secured to a metal base. 
Each blade is crimped about a third of the way from the 
outer end to fit into corresponding grooves in the plug in 
order to retain it, and the lower blade has an additional 
bend at its inner end to serve as a stop for the plug. The 
triangle is made irregular so that the plug can be inserted 
in only one way. The plug is made adjustable, as to 
contact, by having the fiber block at its upper end mov- 
able, to give any desired degree of bow to the blades. 

Fig. 791 — Gasolene Heating Furnacea. 

to the burners by air pressure, where the flow is regulated 
by a needle valve. The apparatus is portable, and con- 
nections can be made at any point with the air line of the 
shop. A modification is also shown of a similar burner 
which is used for heating plates or rods where the work 
has to be done in position. It can also be used for braz- 
ing purposes. Its operation is exceedingly simple. A 
reservoir about 9 in. in diameter and 14 in. long is fitted 



with a pipe at the top by which it can be filled and through 
which air is also admitted for pressure purposes. The 
pipe through which the gasolene is forced to the burner 
extends to within a short distance of the bottom of the 
tank, so that pressure applied to the upper surface of the 
liquid forces it to the burner. — A. Lowe, Canadian Pacific 
Railway, Glen Yard, Westmount, Montreal. 


A tool for refacing worn valves of hydraulic jacks is 
shown in Fig. 792. It consists of two steel blocks, held 
between the jaws of a vise and guided by the dowel pins. 
The cutting edges, indicated on the plan view, extend 
along the conical surface of the bore through the block, 
clearance being provided by filing a radius on each block, 
as shown. For facing, the valve is placed in the bore of 
the blocks and revolved by a screw driver attachment in 



.--^'— ^ 


Fig. 792 — Hydraulic Jaclc Vaive Facer. 

a breast drill. Only a few seconds are required to face a 
valve, which operation may be repeated four or five times 
before it is worn out. — Fred Bents, Tool Room Foreman, 
Southern Pacific, Bakersfield, Cal, 


A few years ago a number of the workmen decided to 
chip in and buy a few medical supplies, which were 
placed in charge of one of the young men in the office. 
When the matter was brought to the attention of the 
company it immediately undertook to supply the neces- 
sary material for "First Aid to the Injured." The men, 
however, have continued their support, the funds con- 
tributed by them being used for supplies for relieving 
such troubles as headache, earache, stomach troubles, etc., 
which do not properly come under the head of injuries. 
There is no question but what a case well filled with 
material for treating injuries, and in charge of men 
properly instructed as to its use, will pay for itself many 
times over in the course of a year, or even a few months, 
if the question is considered from a financial standpoint 
only. The cost is comparatively small and the eflFort is 

greatly appreciated by the men. — Delaware, Lackawanna 
& Western, East Buffalo Car Shops, N. Y. 


A good scheme for locking nuts on bolts is shown in 
Fig. 793. All nuts are drilled in jigs so that the outside 
edge of the hole will just cut to the bottom of the thread. 
The nut is then screwed on the bolt, and after it is tight, 
or is in the desired position, the cutter C, which fits the 
hole in the nut, is driven into the hole cutting off the 



Fig. 793 — Device for Loclcing a Nut on a Bolt. 

exposed thread of the bolt. A piece of round iron is then 
driven through the hole jtnd is bent over on each end. 
This positively locks the nut on the bolt and does not 
damage the bolt appreciably. The diameter of the hole is 
3/16 in. for ^ in., J/i in. and 1 in. nuts and J^ in. for 
larger ones. — Charles Maier^ Engine House Foreman, 
West Jersey & Seashore, Atlantic City, N. J. 


It is frequently necessary to obtain the radii of ir- 
regular parts of machinery, piping or patterns, and a 
templet of wood or cardboard is often used for this pur- 

Pig. 79A — Method of Determining Radii. 

pose. An easier and more rapid method is to use a piece 
of soft solder or wire, especially when the work is small. 
Before using, the wire should be straightened and freed 
of kinks. A stick, shaped on the end, as shown, is then 
used to form the wire to the desired shape. The portion 
of the circle may then be laid off on any flat surface and 
the radius may easily be determined. The illustration, 
Fig. 794, shows wire used in this manner for obtaining 



the large radius of a steam pipe, and also for obtaining 
the small radius of the cross section. 

Another method of obtaining the large radius of a 
steam pipe is also shown in the illustration. By this 
method it is possible to make a working sketch of such 
a pipe without removing it from the engine. Two pieces 
of wood are held, as shown, to form a steady support, 
which is easily obtainable by placing the points of contact 
at some distance from each other. A pair of dividers is 
then adjusted, supporting one leg on one of the sticks as 
indicated. By marking the points of contact at several 
different points along the pipe the required center may 
be obtained. — C. V, Frisk, Chicago, III. 


These rate sheets are made up for each of the different 
hourly rates of wage paid at the shop, there being as 

many tables as there are rates. The foreman is supplied 
with as many rate sheets as he has rates of wages to be 
paid the men on his rolls. The time saved by this kink 
is very large, and it is perhaps of as much or more value 
than some of the mechanical kinks used in the shops. 
These rate sheets are now indispensable in the shop 
clerk's office. — F, S, Robbins, Inspector, Pennsylvania 
Railroad^ Renova, Pa, 


The shop surgeon's office, with a complete hospital 
operating outfit, is located in the upper story of the shop 
office. It has been found a great benefit to have such 
facilities conveniently at hand. Accident cases receive im- 
mediate attention from the surgeon and chances for in- 
fection which often exist in a dirty shop are, in a great 
measure, obviated. The time ordinarily lost in going to a 


, R. R., Erie Division — Western Division — ^Renova Shops. 


of Rates— fo,i69 Per Hour, 

No.R 977. 



150 ^ 

-200 ^ 

-250 V 

300 ^ 

Sheet C. 
/ 350 . 


X > 


Ov ^ 


■lUU \ 

r " 



f 1 













Hrs. . 


Hrs. . 






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































' 7 





























































doctor's office, and the often long wait there, are also 
avoided. An important part of the shop surgeon's 
duty is to make an investigation of shc^ accidents with 
a view to recommending safeguards to prevent their re- 
currence. The surgeon makes a study of safety ap- 
pliance laws and inspects and criticizes the shops with a 
view of complying with these laws. Sanitary conditions 
are also kept under constant inspection and intelligent 
suggestions are made where improvements are thought 
necessary. The surgeon also formulates laws regulating 
the workman's presence at the plant if contagious dis- 
eases exist at his home; if suspicious cases of tuberculosis 
are found a proper decision as to their disposal is made. 
— Lake Shore &■ Michigan Southern, Coilinwood, Ohio. 


The material rack for storing steel rods and bars, 
shown in Fig. 795, is better built and more substantial 
than racks ordinarily used for this purpose. It is 40 ft. 
wide and about 17 ft. deep and rests on concrete piers, 
there being five of these extending the full width of the 
rack. The cast iron uprights are about 9 ft. high and are 

Fig. 796— Partial Sid* and End View of Storage Rack. 

structure together are 5 in. x 8 in. It is the intention to 
cover the rack over to protect the material from the 
weather. — Erie Rail>-oa<i, Buffalo, X. Y. 


It is often desirable to have valves outside of buildings 
locked. This is particularly true where it is necessary to 

Pig. 79&— Partial View of Steel Storage Rack. 

spaced 2 ft, center to center at the front of the rack and 
about 4 ft. 3 in. center to center crosswise. These cast 
iron standards are about 1}/^ in. x 5 in. in section, with 
ribs at the middle of each side, making the maximum 
width at the bosses 4 in,, tapering down to a minimum of 
2y2 in, midway between the cross rods. The Ij^-in. 
cross rods have pipe spacers on which the material rests. 
The cross rods are spaced vertically about 1 ft. center to 
center, except for the lower one, which is 18 in. above the 
base, and the upper one, which is 6 in. below the under 
side of the top timber. It will be seen that the two upper 
rows are divided into smaller width sections by the use 
of pieces of J-2 in. x2 '/i in. iron placed midway between 
the cast iron posts. The rack is tied at the sides by two 
sets of diagonals of 4 in. x J^ in. iron; one set of these 
is shown in a partial side and end view of the rack. Fig. 
796. The timbers used at the tc^ and bottom to tie the 

Fig. 7B7— Davica for Uocking Valvaa. 



store large quantities of oil, gasolene or other inflam- 
mable material outside and away from the buildings for 
safety. In such cases the usual practice is to build a 
housing about the valve and provide a lock for the door, 
or opening, in the housing. A much simpler arrange- 
ment, and one which has proved satisfactory, is illustrated 
in Fig. 797. The full lines in the sketch show the hasp 
in an open position, while the dotted lines show it 
closed. — A. G. Pancost, Elkhart, Ind, 


A deep pit for a transfer table is usually very much of 
a nuisance, and this is particularly true where it is neces- 
sary to locate it within the walls of the building. A 
table, by the use of which the depth is reduced to 13 in. 
below the top of the rail, is shown in the illustration, Fig. 
798. It is formed of I beams, on which the running rails 
rest and which are used as girders for the table. They 
are practically suspended from the journals of the carr\'- 
ing wheels. The table has a width suitable for two tracks 
and is also provided with spools or drums for hauling 
cars. It is braced and held square by diagonal tension 

braces, as shown, and runs on six rails, one-half of the 
table only being shown in the engraving. It would, of 
course, be possible to fit it with electric motors by an ex- 
tension of one of the end axles, so as to run the whole 
length of the machine, and placing the electric drive on 
the floor at a level with the rails. The I beams used are 
7 in. deep. 



The device for pressing on hand car wheels, shown 
in Fig. 799, has a long bar in the center, resting on jack 
screws to provide for adjustment. A V is cut on the 
top of the bar and the axle clamps loosely to it, so that 
it will slide while pressing on the wheels. As the wheels 
are pressed on by the ratchet jack this bar and the clamps 
prevent the axle from springing. The device for re- 
moving the wheels, also shown in Fig. 799, is made from 
old pieces of engine frame. These pieces are set in 
blocks of the proper height. The forgings are held 
together with Ij^-in. bolts with 3-in. thimbles between. 
One forging is arranged to take a 2j/^-in. ratchet jack 
which is forced against the end of the axle; the other 



1^ ^4'si 

— eiff ><- e',/1 -i e'j^ 

I eb^ „, 

Fig. 798 — Low Transfer Table. 


forging is cut out opposite the hole for the screw so 
that the axle may rest in it. The forging is cut to take 
the largest axles and for the smaller ones a V-shaped 


A simple method of cleaning shop windows with the aid 
of an air motor is shown in Fig. 801. A stiff brush is held 
in the socket of the motor and, after dipping in benzine, 
is run over the window glass, A soft, dry brush is used 

Rtr f¥ttsing Yfhttts en At Its. 

nftj'miftfitfJae* a'Plltrl 

'^^■^ — ^ — Az^ 

For Removing Wheels. 

Ptg. 7M— Hand Car Wheel Prewea. 

collar may be slipped in between it and the axle. The 
screw jack does not fit directly against the axle but 
bears against a pin or block, which is a little smaller in 
diameter than the axle. — C. J. Crowley, Piece Work 
Inspector, Chicago, Burlington & Qulncy, West Bur- 
Hiigton, Iowa. 


We had considerable trouble with the water supplv ■'^" arrangement for opening and closing shop win- 

from the main water pipe to the /.-in. faucets in the '**''" **>' <^ompressed air is shown in the accompanying 

shops. This was due to the fact that the main water pipe 

nms parallel and close to the main steam pipe, and also ~~ 
because the water main was tapped at the top. After 

Fig. 801— Cleaning Shop WIndowa. 

for polishing after the glass has dried. — lames Stevenson, 
Foreman Pctiitsylvania Railroad, Oiean, N. Y. 




Old Mefhod. 

Fig. 800 — Improvinfl the Water Supply to th« Shop Faucet*. 

opening the faucets we would obtain dirty and greasy 

water. The method of taking the supply from the main 

water pipe was changed, as shown in the accompanying 

sketch, Fig. 800, thus overcoming the difficulty. — Frank illustration. Fig. 802, It consists of an air cylinder 18 

/. Borer, Foreman Air Brake Department, Central Rail- in. long, made of 3,':2-in, pipe, a long IJ^-in. bar and the 

Pig. 802 — Apparatus 

for Opening and Cloilng Window* by 
Compreaaed Air. 

road of Netv Jersey, Elizabethport, N. }. 

necessary connections. The cylinder rests on a pin which 



allows it to swing when turning the rod. The rod ex- 
tends the length of the shop, being connected to the 
windows by the lever arms, as shown. There are J^-in. 
air connections at the top and bottom of the cylinder to 
lower and raise the piston when desired. This arrange- 
ment is used in the shop power house of the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey at Ashley, Pa. It operates six- 
teen windows, and without a doubt could handle three 
or four times as many. It was designed by A. M. 
Zwiebel, who is employed at the Ashley shops. 


With the wrench shown in Fig. 803 it is not necessary 
to use a lever bar to tighten up a nut. The wrench is so 

designed that good leverage can be obtained by grasping 
the projections extending beyond the bends. Wrenches 





(^ E= 


'tZ — — H 





Fig. 803— A Socket Wrench Which Does Not Require the 

Use of a Bar. 

of this kind can be made all sizes to suit any work. — 
//. L. BurrhuSj Assistant General Foremanj Erie Railroad, 
Susquehanna^ Pa. 


A Page. 

Adams, Guy A 202, 203, 208 

Air Brake Kinks 251 

Air Hoists (see Hoists). 

Preparing Cylinders for 277 

Air Hose: 

Coupling, Removing Gaskets from... 212 

Fitting Machine 251 

Mounting Machine 252 

Stripping Machine 252, 253, 254 

Tightening Clamps on 255 

Air Motor: 

Extension Bar for Supporting 100 

Holder for Valve-Facing Machine ... 1 03 

Pneumatic Feed for 275 

Speed Reducer for 275 

Stand or Support 109 

Air Pump: 

Bracket, Jig for Drilling 76 

Bushing, Boring 255 

Centering Chuck 255 

Cylinder Head Chuck 256 

Cylinders, Drilling 256 

Gages 54 

Gaskets for Heads, Stamping 176 

Hoist for 178 

Jig for Setting 76 

Piston Holders 257, 258 

Piston Packing Rings 257 

Repair Stand 258, 259 

Valve and Seat, Manufacturing 260 

Air Reservoir: 

Hoist 76 

Jacks for Placing 77 

Straps, Forging 240 

Asbestos Grinder 275 

Ashley, H 237 

Ash Pan, Clamp for Drilling Casting 16 

Ash Pan Hoes, Forging 149 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe: 

Albuquerque, New Mex 33, 84, 

87, 93, 179, 191, 192, 195, 216 

San Bernardino, Cal 35, 92, 

112, 124. 189 

Topeka, Kansas 1, 29, 

34, 74, 82, 103, 105, 116, 125. 130, 
136, 141, 165, 171, 180, 198, 201, 

245, 262, 263, 264, 277 

Atlantic Coast Line, Waycross, Ga 10, 

13, 39, 72 

Auger, Tube 197 


(See Crank Axle.) 

(Sec Driving Axle.) 

(See Wheel arid Axle.) 

Truck for 201 


Babbitt Furnace 170 


Crosshead 170, 171, 172, 173 

Driving Boxes 173 

Truck Boxes , 173 

Truck Brasses, Engine 175 

Back Facing Tool 88 

Baltimore & Ohio: 

Mt. Clare Shops, Baltimore, Md...ll, 
17, 20, 42, 51. 52, 57, 62, 78, 86, 
89, 98, 99, 101. 104, 108, 118, 154, 
166, 168, 173, 177, 190, 194, 219, 

227, 235, 256, 269, 273 

Garret, Ind 7, 17, 21, 22, 23, 43, 168 


(Sec Steel Bars.) 

Adjustable Fulcrum for 188 

Combination 211 


Barrels, Device for Emptying 263 

Bauer, A. L 6, 9, 98 


(See Driving Box Brass.) 

(See Journal Box Bearing.) 

(See Tender Truck Bearings.) 

Becker, H. G 112 

Becson, Richard 79, 88, 

105, 159, 173, 189, 192, 193, 197, 266 

Bell Frame, Boring Bar for 78 


Care and Maintenance of 2 

Cemented Splices 2 

Clamp 2 

Clamp and Stretcher 1 

Cleaning 2 

Composition, Lap Splice 3 

Dressing, A Good 3 

General Suggestions for Installing. ... 3 

Guards 3 

Idle, Arrangement for Hanging 3 

Lacing 1 

Lacing, Proper Method 2 

Maintenance, Effect of Poor 2 

Repairmen, Keeping Track of 3 

Shifters 3 

Splices, Cemented 2 

Stretcher 1 

Tension 2 

Bending Clamp 109 

Bending Machine. Eye-Bolt 152 

Bending Right Angles, Machine for 150 

Bending Rolls, for Light Work 178 

Bending and Upsetting Machine, Portable. 150 

Bennett, R. G 170, 

173, 192, 201, 207, 220, 254 

Bcntx, Fred 53, 89, 179, 279 

Berry, A. 167 

Blacksmith Shop Kinks: 

Car 240 

Locomotive 149 

Miscellaneous 149 

Blacksmith's Tool Rack and Bench 164 

Blow-Off Cock Reamer 53 

Blueprint Filing Case 109 

Blueprints, Care of 276 


Check Valve (see Check Valve). 

Corner Patch for Washout Plugs.... 135 

Firebox (see Firebox). 

Side Sheet, Patch Welded in 138, 141 

Sheets, Flanging 112 

Testing 110 

Testing, Portable Pump for 110 

Tests, Safety Clamp for Hose 179 

Washing 180 

Boiler Shop Kinks 109 

Boiler Washer: 

Cart for 180 

Platform for 180 

Bolster, Cracks Repaired 141 


Centering Machine 4 

Chuck or Driver 4 

Extractor 79 

Gage for Standard 28 

Gages for Turning 5 

Gun for Driving Out 79 

Hammer for Driving Out, Pneumatic. 

79, 80 

Re-Threading 201 

Taper, Standard 5 

Bolt Machine, Attachments for 4 

Bolt Shearing Machine 201 




Cart for 241 

Manufacturing 240 

Borer, Frank J 224, 253, 262, 283 


Adjustable Cutter 6 

Spheres, Hollow 7 

Boring Bar: 

Adjustable 8 

Bell Frame 78 

Cylinder 83 

Driving Box 17 

Driving Wheels. Heavy Duty 6 

Eccentrics 8 

Lathe. Adjustable for 8 

Lathe, Holder for 6 

Light Work 6 

Piston Valve Chamber 83, 94 

Rocker Box 98 

Boring Mill: 

Brake for 7 

Hoist for Car Wheels 9 

Boring Mill, Horizontal: 

Adjustable Chuck for 7 

Surface Gage for 66 

Boston & Maine. Concord. N. H . . 202. 203, 208 

Box Car Door: 

Making 202 

Truck 201 

Boyer Speed Recorder, Testing 276 

Brace, Universal (see Old Man). 


Boring Mill 7 

Magnetic, for Electric Hoist 112 

Slotter or Lathe 65 

Brake Beam Hanger, Forging 241 

Brake Beam Safety Chain Eye-Bolt, Forg- 
ing 241 

Brake Cylinder, Windlass for Erecting... 202 

lirake Hangers, Bending 242, 243 

Brake Hanger, Forging 241 

i:rake Hanger Ends, Upsetting and Punch- 
ing 242 

Brake Heads, Applying 228 

Brake Reservoir (see Reservoir, Brake). 

Brake Rod Ends. Punching Dies for 162 

Brake Rods, Welding Bottom 162 

Brake Shoe Keys, Manufacture of 244 

Branch Pipe Joint Reamer 179 

Brass : 

(See Driving Box Brass.) 

(See Engine Truck Brass.) 

(See Journal Box Bearing.) 

(See Rod Brass.) 

(See Tender Truck Bearing.) 

Furnace for Melting 168 

Brass Foundry Kinks 166 

Brass Work, Lathe Tools for 53 

Breast Drill (see Drill, Breast). 

Brick Arch Tube, Dies for Forming 128 

Brown, R. E 10, 13, 39. 72 

Buckley, T. F 163 

Buffing Machine 8 

Bull Ring (see Piston Follower). 


Light Work 149 

Portable 150 

Small Air-Operated 243 


Car Journal 210 

Journal 32 

Burrhus, H. L 114, 124, 

154. 183, 184, 186. 188. 195, 200, 

216, 217, 255, 275, 277, 284 





(S«e Cylinder Bushing.) 
(See Piston Valve Bushing.) 
(See Rod Bushing.) 

Air Pump, Boring 255 

Cylinder, Chuck for 11 

Lathe Tool for Boring, Adjustable... 8 

Making 9 

Mandrel for 9 

Piston Valve Chamber, Hydraulic 

Press for 103 

Press for 95, 96, 97, 98 

By- Pass Valve Seat Reamer 80, 81 

Caboose Steps, Bending 245 

Cabs, Handling . . .' 82 

Canadian Pacific Railway: 

Glen Yard, Westmount, Mont 80, 

193, 195, 279 

Ottawa, Ont., Can 79. 191 

West Toronto, Ont., Can 4, 

79. 93, 183. 194, 257 

Car Bodies, Lifting 203 

Car Center Sill (see Center Sill). 

Car Department Kinks: 

General 201 

Passenger Cars 228 

Smith Shop 240 

Steel Cars 219 

Car Inspector's 

Emergency Repair Cart 209 

Hammer 208 

Pinchers 212 

Car Repair Material, Storage of 21 1 

Car Repairmen's Signal 213 

Car Repairs, Freight, Number of Men in 

Gang 208 

Car Wheel Boring Mill, Hoist for 9 

Carpet Cleaner 228, 229 

Cart (see Truck). 

Castle Nut, Forging 245 

Cellar (see Driving Box Cellar). 

Center Plate, Depth Gage 203 

Center Sill: 

Cut with Oxy- Acetylene 144 

Heating with Crude Oil Burner 224 

Straightening 219 

Centering Machine, Bolt 4 

Central of Cveorgia: 

Columbus, Ga...22, 98, 111, 160, 222, 246 
Macon, Ga 43, 149, 153, 196, 244 

Central Railroad of N. J.: 

Ashley, Pa 284 

Elizabeth port, N. J 4, 24, 

43, 62, 65, 85, 110, 113, 114, 118, 
131, 132, 152, 157, 159, 224, 229, 
230, 231, 233, 236, 247, 249, 250. 

253, 260, 262, 278, 283 

Check Valve: 

Lifter 179 

Reamer 178, 179 

Reseating 7S 

Chicago & North Western, Chicago, 111... 8, 
16, 32, 39, 54, 55, 58, 59, 83, 84, 87, 
89, 90, 91, 92, 95, 100, 101, 108, 126, 
129, 154, 176, 188, 190, 258. 261, 276 

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy: 

Aurora, 111 178, 193, 196 

St. Joseph, Mo 119, 198 

West Burlington, Iowa 4, 6, 8, 

9, 15, 19, 58, 67, 69, 283 
Chicago, Indiana & Louisville, Lafayette, 

Ind 83, 127, 156, 214. 269 

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, West Mil- 
waukee, Wis 39, 50, S3,, 112, 256 

Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific (see Rock 

Island Lines). 
Chicago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha: 

St. James, Minn .184, 258 

St. Paul, Minn 4, 25, 

35, 41, 59, 88, 129, 160, 161, 170, 

176, 247, 263 

Sioux City, Iowa 9, 102, 107, 216, 232 

Chips, Metal (see Cuttings). 

Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, Indian- 
apolis, Ind 6, 30, 41, 50, 

58, 71, 120, 131, 132, 215, 217, 252, 270 

Cinder Cart 181 

Cinder Pit Hoist 182 

Clamp : 

Bending 109 

Passenger Car Repairs 229 

Pull-In 222 

Clamping Press 233 

Clark, R. W 143 

Claw Bar, Dies for 151 

Clinker Rake (see Fire Rake). 

Close Quarter Ratchet 98 

Coach Step Hoist 236 

Cook, F. J 209, 248, 249 

Copper Smith Kinks 170 

Counterboring Tool 9, 15 

Countersink, Patch Bolt 114 


(See also Drawbar.) 

Knuckles, Rack for 203 

Welding Broken Steel 245 

Coupling, Universal 276, 277 


Portable 181, 203 

Revolving 204 

Smoke Stack 183 

Storage Battery 236 

Crank Axle Turning Machine 81 

Crank Pin: 

Turning Machine 82 

Wear Indicator 84 

Crank Pin Collar, Drilling Square Holes 

in 9 

Crosshead : 

Babbitting 170, 171, 172, 173 

Planing 10, 11, 55 

Crosshead Gib: 

Casting Brass Liners on 166 

Milling Cutter for 61 

Crosshead Liner, Applying 183 

Crosshead Wrist Pin, Gage for 11 

Crowley, C. J 4, 6, 

8, 9, 15, 19, 58, 67, 69, 283 

Cushion Qeaner 229 

Cuttings, Box for Handling 12 


Boring 12, 13 

Boring Bar 83 

Chucks for Planing 14 

Cracked, Repairing 84 

Handling 85 

Laying Out Casting 83 

Preparing for Air Hoists 277 

Cylinder Bushing: 

Boring 12, 13 

Chuck for 11 

Machining 13 

Cylinder Cock, Forging Top Piece 151 

Cylinder Head: 

Chuck 14 

Grinding 83 

Lifter 184 

Truck 184 

Cylinder Saddle: 

Bolt Holes, Drilling 100 

Bolt Holes, Jig for 84 

Dailcy, F. A 19. 26, 57 

Davis, A. S 107. 172, 186 

Delaware, Lackawanna & Western: 

East Buffalo, N. Y 202, 204. 

207, 209, 211, 213, 214, 218, 237. 

265, 268, 279 

Scranton, Pa 5, 6, 18, 21, 

22, 25, 29, 31. 33, 46, 51, 56, 63, 67, 
69. 74, 76, 77, 90, 95, 96. 106. 107. 

125, 132, 164, 171, 175, 264 

De Leeuw, A. L 38 

Diaphragm Face Plate Straightcner 229 

Dickert, C. L 43, 149, 153, 196, 244 

Die Holder, Combination 15 

Door (see Box Car Door). 

Door Rack 270 

Dove-Tailing Tools 15 


(See also Coupler.) 

Air Lift 204 

Carrier Iron, Forging 165, 247 

Hoist for Riveting Yoke to 205 

Drawbar Yoke: 

Bending and Punching 247 

Forging 246 

Rivet Heads Cut Off with Oxy- 

Acctylcne 145 

Shearing Rivets 205, 207 


Breast, Water Attachment for 121 

Guide 15 

Multiple, Staybolt 122 

Socket for Flat Shank 16 

Socket for Square Shank 17 

Drill Press: 

Clamp 16 

Clamp, Pneumatic 16 

Drill Socket: 

Flat Drills 16 

Square Shanks 17 

Drilling, Close Quarter 207 

Drilling Knee (see Old Man). 

Drinking Fountain 277 

Driving Axle: 

Key. Way Miller 85 

Tool for Scribing Circle on End of . . 85 

Driving Box: 

Babbitting 173 

Boring, Chuck for 21 

Boring and Fitting 22 

Boring Bar 17 

Casting Brass Liners on 167 

Handling 87 

Lubricating Holes in Hub Liner 168 

Oil Grooves. Tool for 21 

Planing 22 

Repairs 1 68 

Truck for Handling 86 

Driving Box Brass: 

Anchor Pins 166 

Casting in Box 1 66 

Chuck for 17, 18 

Chuck and Gage 18 

Gage 19 

Slotting 20 

Driving Box Cellar: 

Boring Tool 20 

Chuck for Boring 7 

Removing 86, 184 

Driver Brake, Rack for Rigging 85 

Driving Journals (see Journals, Driving). 

Driving Wheel: 

Boring and Slotting, Tool for 6 

Hub Plates, Template for Drilling... 31 

Lateral Motion Gages for 108 

Mounting Properly 107 

Driving Wheels, Air Jack for Turning 

Mounted 107 

Driving Wheel Lathe: 

Driver 73 

Tool Holder 73 

Driving Wheel Tire (see Tire). 

Drop Pit: 

Car Yard 237 

Engine House 185 

Jack, Telescopic 1 86 

Rail Remover 186 

Drury, C. J 33, 84, 

87, 93. 179, 191, 192, 195, 216 

Dry Pipe Joint, Grinding in Tube Sheet.. 86 

Duifin, W. T 238 

Dunbar Piston lyings. Sliding Tool Holder 

for 43 



Boring 8 

Chuck 22, 23 




Drilling, Jig for 23, 28 

Mandrel 24, 25, 26, 27 

Planing and Drilling 28 

Eccentric Blade: 

Bender 87, 88 

Dies for Forging Jaw 152 

Repaired by Oxy- Acetylene Welding. . 142 

Eccentric Crank Arm Remover 186, 187 

Eccentric Strap, Chuck 27 

Electric Motor Extension Receptacle and 

Plug 278 

Electric Welds, Strength of 141 

Emery Wheel (see Grinding Wheel). 

Engines, Condition of, in Engine House.. 187 

Engine House Kinks 178 

Engine House Work Reports 200 

Engine Truck Brasses, Planing Babbitted. 32 

Engine Truck Pedestal, Chuck 40 

Engineer's Brake Valve Top Cases, Re- 
pairing 251 

Erecting Shop Kinks 76 

Erie- Railroad: 

Buffalo (N. Y.) Car Shops.. 143, 213, 
215, 217, 221, 222, 225, 235. 238, 

245, 272, 281 

Gallon, 18, 25, 63, 66, 196 

Mcadville, Pa 40, 81, 

85, 100, 127, 129, 162 

Susquehanna, Pa 114, 124, 

154, 183, 184, 186, 188, 195. 200, 

216, 217, 255, 275, 277, 284 
Exhaust Nozzle, Clamp for Testing Steam 

Pipes 88 

Expansion Chuck 261 

Eye- Bolt: 

Bending Machine 152 

Bending Tool for 248 

Forging 241, 242, 247 

Feed Water Pipe, Stamping Strainer for. 176 

Fctner, W. H 43, 149, 153, 196, 244 

Filing Case, Blueprint 109 

Findlay, James 4, 25, 35, 41, 95 

Firebox : 

Patch Welded in 139 

Scrap, Cutting up with Oxy- Acetylene 140 

Repaired by Oxy-Acetylene Welding. . 142 

Fire Rake: 

Bending Handles 154 

Forging 153 


Air-Electric Hoist for Handling Boiler 

Sheets HI 

Attachment for Shears 116 

Conical Connection Sheet 112 

Power Rolls for 112 

Flexible Staybolt (see Staybolt, Flexible). 
Forge (see Rivet Forge). 

Portable 154 

Forging, Cost of Machine and Hand Made 154 

Forging, Steam Hammer 163 

Forging Machine (see Bulldozer). 
Frame (see Locomotive Frame). 

France, Eastern Railroad of 7 

Eraser, Cieorge 244 

Freeman, T. E 9, 102, 107, 216, 232 

Frisk, C. V 280 

Front End, Clamps for Lifting 101 

Front End Crane (see Smoke Stack 


Fnhrman, John T 127 


(See Heaters.) 

Gas 174 

Melting Brass 168 

Rivet Heating 222, 223 

Fuss, C. 229, 230. 231, 233, 236 


Air Pump 54 

Bolts, Standard 28 

Bolts, Turning 5 


Center Plate and Side Bearing 203 

Crosshead Wrist Pin 11 

Driving Box Brass 18, 19 

Driving Wheels, Lateral Motion ,.,... 108 

Driving Wheels on Axle, Checking... 108 

Guides, Lining Two-Bar 89 

Horizontal Boring Mill 66 

Piston Rod 28 

Quartering Machine 55 

Slide Valves, Finishing and Inspect- 
ing 106 

Tire Wear 196 

Valve Rod End 28 

Wheels, Mounting 74 

Gas Furnace 174 

Gas Tank, Portable, for Testing Purposes 230 

• Gasket : 

Air Pump Heads, Stamping 176 

Removing from Air Hose Coupling. . 212 

Gasket Cutter 188, 189 

Gasket Punch 174 

Glass, Manufacture of Crackle 230 

Glue Pot 230 

Goodwin, G. H 9, 10, 

15, 16, 32, 73, 80. 81, 86, 88, 102, 
105, 109, 113, 116, 117, 121, 123, 

131, 175, 179. 205, 227, 251, 265 

Goose-Necks, Machining 29 

Gouge, Handle 208 

Grand Trunk, Battle Creek, Mich., 32, 34, 

36, 42, 51, 54, 55. 60, 124, 257, 275 

Granger, L. M 18, 25. 63, 66, 196 

Grate Bar Trunnion Head, Forging 242 

Grate Bearer Cross-Tie, Machining 29 

Grease Cup: 

(See Rods.) 

Machining Plugs 30 

Tools for Welding on Rod 159 

Grease Press 263, 264, 266 

Great Northern: 

Dale St. Shops, St. Paul, Minn. 18, 22, 

59, 69, 91, 123, 128, 173, 264, 276, 278 
Jackson St. Shops, St. Paul, Minn. 

75, 110, 232, 237 

Grcwe, H. F 106 


Asbestos •. 275 

I^the Center 34 

Milling Cutter 36 

Pedestal Jaw 91 

Steam Pipe Joint Ring 100 

Triple Valve Packing Ring 261 

Truck Wheel Lathe 33 

Grinding Tool, Triple Valve Piston Pack- 
ing Ring 262 

Grinding Wheel: 

Attachment for Lathe 30 

Rest for 30 

Switch 30 

Grooves, Milling in Injector Water Nut.. 31 

Gross, E. G 22, 98, 111, 160, 222, 246 

Guard, Safety: 

Cross-Cut Saw 238 

Variety Molder 239 


Gage for Lining Two- Bar 89 

Lining 89, 90 

Reaming Bolt Holes 89 

Guide Block, Truing Nut Bearing Surface 

of 88 


Hack Saw, Portable 193 


Car Inspector's 208 

Driving out Bolts, Pneumatic 79, 80 

Scarfing, Pneumatic 117 

Hand Car Wheel Press 282 


(See Tire Heater.) 

Gasolene 278 

Portable Crude Oil 223, 225 

Sprung Piston Rods 44 


Hendrickson, B 126 

Hessler, John 127 

Hoes, Forging Ash Pan 149 


Air-Electric at Flange Fire Ill 

Air Pumps, Removing and Applying. 178 

Cab 82 

Car Wheel Boring Mill 9 

Car Wheels, Loading Mounted 216 

Car Wheels, Loading and Unloading 

Mounted 214 

Cinder Pit 182 

Cylinders 85 

Drawbar 204 

Magnetic Brake for Electric 112 

Main Reservoirs 76 

Pneumatic 189 

Step, Coach 236 

Timber 213 

Wheel and Axle 214 

Holder, Henry 4, 25, 

35, 41, 88, 95, 99, 129, 160, 161, 

170, 176, 247, 263 


For Tate Staybolts 113 

Pneumatic 112 


Bending 162 

Bending Machine for 158 

Dies for Bending 248 

Sheet Metal, for Handling 115 

Hooten. J. W 5, 52, 71, 72 

Hopper Carrier Iron, Dies for Bending. . 160 
Hopper Doors, Wrench for Operating. . . . 218 

Home, John 198 

Hose, Boiler Test, Safety Clamp for 179 

Howe, John 119 

Hub Plates, Template for Drilling 31 

Hydraulic Jack Valve Facer 279 

Hydraulic Press 95, 97, 98, 103, 205 


Injector, Milling Grooves in Water Nuts. 31 

Injured, First Aid to 279 

Inspector (see Car Inspector.) 

Insulating Pin, Dies for Forging 152 

Iron, Storage Rack 281 

Iron Bars, Cutting Under Steam Hammer. 151 



Lifting Passenger Cars 231, 232 

Loaded Freight Cars 209 

Pedestal Binder 190 

Portable 208 

Reservoir and Tank 77 

Steel Car Repairs 219 

Straightening Steel Car Sides and 

Trucks 220 

Telescopic Drop Pit 186 

Truck for 208 

Wheel and Axle 107 

Jacket Iron Rolls 174 

Jacobs, H. W 141 

Jigs, Care of 276 

Journal, Polishing 32, 210 

Journal Bearing: 

Emergency 209 

Engine Truck, Babbitting 175 

Reclaiming 210 

Journal Box: 

Drilling 210 

Engine Truck, Babbitting 173 

Truck, Chuck for 32 

Journal Box Bearing, Truck, Planing 

Babbitted 32 

Journal Box Packing: 

Cart for 210 

Cleaning 266 

Preparing 266, 268 

Press 269 

Journals, Driving: 

Burnisher 32 

Device for Turning 33 

Journals, Truck, Truing 33 



K Page. 

Kellogg. D. P 8, 10, 

15, 16, 32, 7Z, 80, 81, 86, 88, 102, 
105, 109, 113, 116, 117, 121, 123, 

131, 175, 179, 205, 227, 251, 265 

Kelly, George W...152, 157, 159, 247, 249, 250 


Brake Shoe, Manufacture 244 

Knuckle Joint, Turning 33 

Split, Device for Making 161 

Key Seat Miller 85 

Key way Slotting Tool 91 

Kinks : 

Air Brake 251 

Blacksmith Shop, Car 240 

Blacksmith Shop, Locomotive and 

General 149 

Boiler Shop 109 

Brass Foundry 166 

Car Department, General 201 

Engine House 178 

Erecting Shop 76 

Machine Shop 1 

Miscellaneous 275 

Oil House 263 

Oxy- Acetylene Welding and Cutting.. 136 

Paint Shop 270 

Passenger Car 228 

Planing Mill 238 

Steel Freight Car 219 

Tin and Copper Shop 170 

Knuckles (see Coupler Knuckles). 

Knuckle-joint Keyes, Chuck for Turning. 33 

Knuckle Pin, Chuck for « 33 

Kunkle, J. C. F 271 

Lake Shore & Michigan Southern: 

Collinwood, Ohio 281 

Elkhart, Ind 167 

Lamcool, K. J 83, 126, 156, 214, 269 


Brake 65 

End Tools for 34 

Tool Holder 35 

Tool Holder, Turret 35 

Lathe Center, Grinder for 34 

Le Corapte, John V...7, 17, 21, 22, 24. 43, 168 

Leech, C. C 8, 17, 

30, 38, 45, 66, 73, 79, 88, 93, 96, 97, 
109, 150, 151, 152, 174, 180. 181, 
183, 184, 187, 189, 197, 198, 204. 
205, 208, 210, 211, 217, 218, 225, 

228, 229, 266, 268, 272, 274 
Lehigh Valley, Sayre, Pa 11, 12, 

13, 26, 28, 29, 44, 49, 56, 64, 68. 70, 
83, 85, 87, 91, 101, 112, 115, 120, 
125. 156, 160, 162, 174, 176, 190, 
211, 230, 231, 2Zi, 234. 242, 243, 

245, 271, 273, 274, 277 

Lewis, B. N 178, 180 

Lightfoot, S. S 35, 92, 112, 124, 189, 264 

Lindgren, C. J 178, 193, 196 

Lock for Valves 281 

Lockers, Car Shop 21 1 

Locomotive Frame: 

Cold Saw for 192 

Oil Burner for Welding 156 

Truck for Handling 155 

Welding 156 

Welding with Thermit 157 

Wood Collar for Thermit Welding... 158 
Long Island Railroad, Morris Park, N. Y., 

14, 16, 21, 23, 28, 33, 47, 65, 66, 
68, 121, 152, 169, 196, 234, 241, 242, 

249, 261 

Long Material, Steel Truck for 102 

Lowe, A 80. 193, 195, 279 

Lumber Truck 238 

Lucas, A. N 112 

Lye Vat 90 

Lynch, James 160, 161,247 


McDonald, T. F 161 

McKernan, £. J 1 , 34, 

74, 82, 103, 105, 116. 125. 130, 165, 
171, 180, 198, 201, 245, 262, 263, 277 


Machine Shop Kinks 1 

Magill, Samuel 29 

Maier, Charles 184, 194, 279 

Marshall, Thos 4, 25, . 

35, 41, 88, 95, 99, 129, 160, 161, 

170, 176, 247, 263 
Material : 

(See Long Material.) 

Checking Tin Shop 176 

Crate for Handling 277 

Storage of Car Repair 211 

Merry. W. F 9. 10, 

15. 16, 32, 73, 80, 81, 86, 88, 102, 
105, 109. 113. 116, 117, 121, 123, 

131, 175, 179, 205, 227, 251, 265 
Michigan Central, Jackson, Mich. 181, 197, 199 
Miller, Key Seat 85 

Milling Cutter: 

End Mill, Improved 37 

Grinder for 36 

Grinding on Arbor 36 

Helical, Improved 38 

Improved 36 

Side Rod 59 

Spiral, Improved 36 

Spiral Shell, Improved 37 

Minneapolis, St. Paul & Saulte Ste. Marie, 

Enderlin, N. D 178, 180 

Miscellaneous Shop Kinks 275 

Molder, Safety Guard for Variety 239 

Moriarty, Thomas 175 

Mud Ring, Removing 113 


Naery, Jr., J. S 83, 127, 156, 214, 269 

Nail Puller " 211 

Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis, Nash- 
ville, Tenn 5, 13, 

30, 31, 52, 59, 60, 61, 65, 71, 72, 
92, 114, 117, 130, 141, 166, 168, 181. 199 

Naylor, Thomas 1 84, 258 

Neville, H 121 

New York Central & Hudson River: 

East Buffalo, N. Y 202, 204, 

210, 223, 225, 239, 241, 255, 273 

Oswego, N. Y 200, 277 

New York, Susquehanna & Western, 

Stroudsburg, Pa 2, 6, 

11, 20, 56, 57, 70, 92, 115, 128, 161, 

220, 223, 226, 259, 276 
Norfolk & Western: 

Crewe, Va 9. 35, 80, 101, 183 

Roanoke, Va 173, 239 

Northern Pacific: 

Jamestown. N. D 107, 172. 186 

St. Paul, Minn 19, 26, 57 

Northwestern Elevated 203 

Nowell, F 79, 191 

Nozzle (sec Exhaust Nozzle). 

Nut (see Castle Nut) 245 

Nuts, Locking on Bolts 279 

Oil Burner: 

Brass Furnace 169 

Locomotive Frame Welding 156 

Oil Cup, Solid: 

Machining 38 

Machining Outside 38 

Turning Tool for 57 

Under-Cutter for 39 

Oil House Kinks 263 

Oil Pipe, Repairing without Brazing 175 

Oil Tank, Spring Shop 162 

"Old Man": 

Drilling Saddle Bolt Holes 100 

Boiler Work 114, 189 

Osmer, J. E 203 

Owen, Elmo N 154, 179, 188, 200 

Oxy- Acetylene Cutting: 

Burners for 140, 141 

Center Sill Cut by 144 

Channel Cut by 144 

Firebox, Cutting Up 140 


Removing Yokes from Couplers by... 145 

Rivet Heads Removed by 144 

Oxy-Acctylene Welding: 

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 136 

Bolster, Cracks Welded 141 

Burner for Work in a Horizontal 

Position 136 

Burner for Work in a Vertical Posi- 
tion 137 

Eccentric Blade Repaired by 142 

Firebox Patches 139 

Firebox Repaired by 142 

Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis.. 141 

Oxygen and Acetylene. Generation of 137 

Piston Rod Repaired 139 

Rods Repaired by 1 42 

Shaft Repaired by 143 

Steel Passenger Car Construction 146 

Superheater Tubes 136 

Tire Reclaimed by 143 

Truck Hangers Reclaimed 140 

Tube in Tube Sheet 137. 139 

Packing (see Piston Rod Packing). 

Packing Rings: 

(See Piston Rings.) 

Air Pump 257 

Molding 175 

Paint Burner 271 

Paint Shop Kinks 270 

Paint Sprayer 270, 271, 272 

Paint Storage 273 

Pancost, A. G 103, 199, 

203, 210, 211, 212, 213, 229, 269. 282 
Passenger Cars, Steel, Oxy-Acetylcnc Used 

in Constructing , 146 

Passenger Car Kinks 228 

Patch Bolt: 

Countersink 114 

Dies for Forging 158 

Pedestal, Engine Truck, Chuck 40 

Pedestal Binder: 

Jack for 190 

Step Bracket for Putting Up 188 

Pedestal Jaw, Grinder 91 

Pedestal Strap Brace, Forging 248 

Pennsylvania Railroad: 

Buffalo, N. Y 8, 17, 

30, 38, 45, 66, 7Z, 79, 88, 93. 96, 97, 
109, 150, 151, 152, 174, 180, 181, 
183, 184. 187. 189, 197, 198, 204. 
205, 208, 210, 211, 217. 218. 225. 

228, 229, 266, 268, 272. 274 

Olean, N. Y 86. 93, 185. 192, 283 

Pittsburgh. Pa 170. 173, 

193, 201, 207, 220, 254 

Renova. Pa 115, 187, 259. 271, 280 

Pere Marquette, Grand Rapids, Mich.... 70 

Pcrritt, J. F 150, 151, 

158, 159, 161, 164, 165, 240, 243, 248 

Petticoat Pipe, Adjuster 91 

Pickard, F. C 6, 30, 

41, 50, 58, 71, 120, 131, 132, 215, 

217, 252, 270 

Pile Band, Tool for Welding 159 

Pilot Ribs, Making 238 

Pinchers, Car Inspector's 212 

Pins, Pneumatic Clamp for Drilling 39 

Pipe, Bending & Brazing, Gas Furnace for 174 

Piston Follower, Removing 92 

Piston Follower Bolts, Chasing 190 

Piston Ring: 

Compressing 92 

Expander and Contractor 92 

Gang Tool 39 

Mandrel 40, 41 

Multiple Parting Tool ...41, 42, 43, 44 

Saw 42 

Sliding Tool Holder for Dunbar 43 

Tools 190 

Tools for Making 43 

Piston Rod: 

Extractor 92, 93, 94 

Gage 28