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Wll/LIAM B. HOUGH (DKIPANY 

EXCLUSIVE WESTERN AGENTS 

X ClrIIG>VOO X 
1336*7 Klonadncpclebujldin^ 

Telephone 1886 Harrison 



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Kansome Concrete 
Machinery Company 



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MPANt 



wiLi/iAM B. nom 

J396>^ Jflonadnoc'ic^'build.in^ 



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SALES OFFICES 



11 Broadway 
1133 Broadway 
6 Beacon street 
Chemical Bldgr., 
Commonwealth Bldg. 
Machesney Bldg-., 
Alias Bldff.. 
Candler Bldg., 
Monadnock Bldg., 
Victoria Square, 
Caxton House, 
Ihie Kazuhara 



New York, N. Y. 

New York, N. Y. 

Boston, Mass. 

St. Ivouis, Mo. 

Phila.. Pa. 

Pittsburg, Pa, 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Atlanta, Ga. 

Chicago, 111. 

Montreal, Can. 

London, Bngland 

Tokio, Japan 



Mines & Smelter Supply Co., Mexico 

Ivincoln Savings Bank Bldg , Louisville, Ky. 



LEONAUD PRESS, NEW YORK CITY 



Ransome Concrete Machinery 

The 1908 Models 

This handbook of concrete machinery illnstrates 
and describes in some detail the machinery manufac- 
tnred 1)y the Ransome Concrete Machinery Co. The 
main Hne of this machinery is of course the Ransome 
non-tilting batch concrete mixer, which is explained 
in all its details of dimensions, capacities, weights, etc. 
The Ransome Mixer, however, is only one of a long 
list of devices, apparatus, and tools manufactured by 
this firm for mixing concrete, for handling concrete 
and concrete materials, for depositing and compacting 
concrete and for finishing concrete surfaces. These 
other devices and tools are, like the Ransome Alixers, 
illustrated and described in detail. Features of the 
book, on which some stress is laid, are the technical 
discussions of different types of mixers, the descrip- 
tions of labor and cost saving methods, and the exact 
and careful descriptions of the various devices and 
methods used in practical operation. No firm whose 
activities In the field of concrete engineering are so 
broad In scope, or whose experience in manufacturing 
and using concrete and concrete machinery is of such 
long standing as are the activities and experience of 
this firm, can give in a catalog more than a fragment 
of the information in its possession. To all who do 
not find their query answered and their problem 
solved in this Handbook we extend a cordial invita- 
tion to write us for further information. 

The Ransome Factory. — The accompanying pic- 
tures. Figs. I, 2 and 3, are characteristic views of part 



of the new buildings composing the plant of the Ran- 
some Concrete Machinery Co., at Dunellen, N. J. The 
exterior view shows the power house and one of the 
main shop buildings. When completed the plant will 
comprise four of these shop buildings placed four 
square in a 200 by 1,200 foot lot with ample space be- 
tween buildings for railway tracks, cranes, platforms, 
etc. The building shown in the photograph is 592 
feet long and 54 feet wide, and is constructed with 
reinforced concrete sidewalls and steel roof trusses. 
The interior views explain themselves. That of the 
erecting floor is particularly significant as showing the 
number of machines in process of erection at one time. 
It is to be noted here that we do not make mixers 
''upon order" as other manufacturers do. We make 
machines and store them to meet the demand, instead 
of manufacturing on the usual "hand to mouth plan." 
Ransome machines are made in lots of ten to twelve 
of one kind, thus reducing the cost. W'^e endeavor to 
keep a stock on hand, but w^e cannot always do this in 
face of the great demand. The sizes and types rotate, 
however, swinging through the circle in two weeks, 
so that you are sure to get at least a two wreck's de- 
livery. W^ith our new plant even as it stands, only 
one-fourth its ultimate size, we have the largest plant 
in the world devoted exclusively to the manufacture of 
concrete machinery, and our customers may feel as- 
sured that their orders will be promptly filled. 

The Designers of Ransome Mixers. — Members of 
this firm have had long experience as contractors and 
concrete engineers. Under their own supervision they 
have used the machines and tools oft"ered for sale in 
these pages. And, as users of their own concrete 



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WILLIAM B. HOUGM COMBANY 

EXCLU51VB WESTERN AGENTS 

X CHIC>VGO X 

153^7 in^n«<lnc>elel:>ailclin^ 




No. 782,052. 




No. 761,541. 




No. 77 0,477. 




anppnntam 



No. 512,663. 




No. 814,803. 
Fig. 4- A FEW OF THE RANSOME PATENTS 



Xo. 490,331. 



plants, they have developed and improved every de- 
vice to the present state of simplicity and efficiency. 
In these pages nothing experimental is offered. Yet 
we have been leaders in experimenting with a view to 
improving our machines and tools, but we have always 
made the experiments before placing the finished 
product on the market, not afterward. 

The Ransome Patents. — A study of the Ransome 
inventions as listed in the United States patent office 
is a most interesting one as showing the evolution of 
the present Model Ransome Mixer. Mr. Ernest L. 
Ransome was the pioneer in mixers, as he w^as in con- 
crete construction and for the past twenty years we 
have manufactured concrete mixers embodying the 
ideas of ?»Ir. Ransome as gained through his wide ex- 
perience as a concrete engineer. Fig. 4 illustrates a 
few steps in the process of evolution, the illustrations 
used being copies of various patent drawings. 

For the past year, as for tw^enty years past, we 
have kept one or more experimental machines in con- 
stant operation in our field laboratory, trying out 
suggestions made from time to time by our customers, 
or others. 

Our facilities for experimental w^ork cannot be 
approached by any one in this line of business, and we 
are, therefore, alw^ays a year or more in advance of 
all competition. Our success has been such as to call 
forth many imitators who are infringing our patent 
rights. 

We control U. S. patent on the essential features 
of our machines, and, inasmuch as the users as well 
as the manufacturers of infringing devices are liable 
under the law^, we publish below a list of Letters Pa- 



tent controlled by us, with a brief description of the 
patented device, as described in the patent Specifica- 
tions. 

We believe these descriptions will serve to protect 
the public against manufacturers who are imitating 
our lines, pending the result of present litigation. A\'e 
quote in each case the claim in the patent specifica- 
tions which most clearh' sets forth the essential fea- 
tures of the patent. The complete specification can be 
procured by application to the U. S. Patent Office. 

Patent No. 490631, January 24, 1893. — The ap- 
paratus for delivering the several ingredients for con- 
crete to a niixer in automatically proportioned quan- 
tities, consisting of a row of containing chandlers sit- 
uated above a conveyor and athwart its line of travel, 
each having an independent discharge opening and 
regulating gate through which the contents of the 
chambers are gauged and carried by the conveyor be- 
low the chambers directly to the mixer underneath, 
substantially as described. 

Patent No. 694575, March 4, 1902. — A mixer, con- 
taining a multiple series of baffle-plates, each series of 
which consists of two tiers of plates, the plates of one 
tier alternating in height with those of the other tier, 
substantially as described. 

Patent No. 694579, March 4th, 1902. — A hoisting- 
tub on a bail wherein it overturns by its own weight, 
in combination with fixed guides upon which the bail 
moves, a stop to prevent the tub from overturning 
too far, and a guide-rail in front of the tub which re- 
tains the tub in position and upon the top of which 
the tul) tips, substantiallv as described. 



lO 




Feed S/cpfe 




Delivery 5i(Ple 
Feec^ Sic^e 




Delivery Sic^e 



Elade Arrangement 
1906 Model 



Blade Arrangement 
1908 Model 



Fig-. 6. Arrangement of Blades 



II 

Patent No. 761541, May 31st, 1904. — A concrete 
mixer having an imperforate revolute member pro- 
vided with a head at its inlet end, l^afflers of opposite 
hand disposed in and revokible with said member, and 
a reversible driving mechanism operatively related to 
said member for rotating it and the bafflers in either 
direction at will ; one of said bafflers and the head 
being effective in piling the material in the path of the 
other baffler when said member is rotated in one 
direction. 

Patent No. 770477, Sept. 20, 1904. — A machine of 
the class described, having an imperforate re- 
voluble member open at one end, a baffler within said 
member and unattached thereto, and co-operating de- 
vices on said member and the baffler for insuring the 
rotation of the latter with the former, said baffler being 
withdrawable endwise through the open end of the 
member. 

Patent 782052, February 7, 1905. — The combination 
with a mixer, comprising a revoluble mixing-drum 
having an open charging end, of a hopper compris- 
ing tW'O angularly-disposed, rigidly-connected mem- 
bers lying at said charging end of the drum and ex- 
tending outward therefrom, means for pivotally 
mounting the hopper, whereby to allow the outward 
member of the hopper to move so that the base there- 
of may be in close proximity to and substantially par- 
allel wdth the horizontal plane of the base of the ap- 
paratus when the hopper is in its outward position 
and to allow^ the inner member of the hopper to swing 
into the said open charging end of the drum when the 
hopper is in its inner position, and means for operat- 
ing the hopper. 



12 




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13 

Patent No. 814803, March 13, 1906. — A mixing ap- 
paratus having- a revohil)le drum adapted to receive 
the material at one end and discharge it at the other 
end, and a Hfting-shelf secured in the drum against 
the inner side thereof, the shelf extending diagonally 
with respect to the axis of the drum for the major por- 
tion of the length of the shelf, and a shelf terminating 
at the discharge end of the drum in an offset portion, 
the concave side of which faces the direction of revo- 
lution of the drum, whereby to form a lifting-pocket. 

Patent No. 870797, dated Nov. 12th, 1907. — A ro- 
tary drum mixer, having advancing and return flanges, 
both engaging the inner walls of the drum and extend- 
ing diagonally from the respective end portions of the 
drum, tow^ards the opposite ends thereof, the advanc- 
ing flange clearing the inner end of the return flange 
and reaching beyond the same substantially to the op- 
posite or discharge end of the drum, and provided 
thereat with an offset or bend extending toward the 
return flange and forming a lifting pocket. 

A rotary drum mixer for concrete and similar wet 
plastic materials, having a relatively stationary diago- 
nal mixing flange in the drum in a radial plane thereof 
and with one end of the flange juxtaposed and secured 
to, but spaced from the corresponding end of the drum, 
to allow circulation of water past said end of the 
flange and prevent accumulations of concrete between 
said end of the flange and the end of the drum. 

Patent No. 807129, dated December 12, 1905. — A 
wheeled cart having a dumping J:)ody, one end of 
which lies inward of the periphery of the wheel or 
wheels, and the other end of which projects beyond 
the periphery of the w^heel or wheels, and a handle 
reversibly secured to the body, for the purpose speci- 
fied. 



14 




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General Construction. — The; Ransonie mixer c(jn- 
sists of a c}liii(lrical drum of heavy sheet steel, fitted 
with cast traction rings, which revoK'c on four r(jllers. 
PowxM- is transmitted to the (h'um through a rack or 
gear, which forms part of one of the traction rings. 
To ensure smoothness of operation these traction 
rings are bored and turned to a true circle, which is 
concentric with the pitch of the gear teeth. 

The rollers upon \\hich the drum re\'olves are 
matle with chilled face, after the manner of car wheels, 
and are ground to a true circle. They are keyed fast 
to the shafts, which revolve in solid babbited joiu'nal 
boxes. 

These journal boxes are bolted to a j/2x6 in. squar- 
ing plate, drilled to templet. This steel plate pre- 
serves absolutely the alinement of the rollers and 
driving pinion. The journals are equipped with com- 
pression grease cups, which by forcing the grease out- 
ward along the shaft, serve to keep the bearing clear 
of dust or grit. 

The pinion is of cast steel, 2 in. pitch, and the 
teeth are made of extra depth belov/ the pitch line to 
guard against bottoming. On belted machines the 
pinion shaft is mounted in a '*box" which, with the 
roller shaft, forms a double journal. On steam driven 
machines the pinion shaft is supported in ''boxes" 
rigidl}^ attached to the engine base, thus seciu'ing a 
positive alinement of the driving mechanism. 

The drum of the mixer is equipped wdth scoops of 
3-16 in. steel, rigidly attached to it. To facilitate re- 
newals these scoops are bolted to the drum shell. 

For diagramatic representation of these blades see 
Fig. 6. 



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17 

Main Features of the Ransome Concrete Mixer 

may 1)c summarized: (i) Low feed with compara- 
tively high discharge. (2) Thorough and rapid mix- 
^^^S- (3) Quick, easy and complete discharge and 
absolute control thereof. (4) Simplicity of construc- 
tion with few wearing parts. (5) Positive cleaning 
by means of water passages at the sides and beneath 
the scoops. 

The loAv feed and high discharge are apparent from 
a study of Figs. 31 to 34 in connection with their 
accompanying tables on pages 53-59. The importance 
of this feature will be more fully understood by refer- 
ence to page 43, where is given a comparison as to 
output between a Ransome ]Mixer and a tilting" mixer 
operating under identical conditions as to labor. 

Thorough and rapid mixing is secured through the 
Ransome steel scoops, fastened rigidly to the inside of 
the drum, substantially as indicated by Fig. 9. These 
scoops not only pick up the materials and turn them 
over and over upon themselves, but are so shaped and 
t)lace(l as to give the materials a motion from side to 
side of the drum — a reciprocating travel, wdiich, com- 
bined with the turning movement, ensures thoroui-h 
and rapid mixing. Each scoop, as it travels upward, 
carries with it a portion of the batch which is thrown 
down upon that portion of the batch, that is in the bot- 
tom of the drum. The mixing principle is, therefore, 
that of grinding, rubbing, contact, and forcible 
kneading of the materials- into a homogeneous body, 
concrete. This rubbing and grinding and this forcible 
kneading are peculiarly the Ransome principle and 
possessed only by Ransome machines. 



i8 




Pig. 10 — RANSOME MIXER. 
Discharging' into Ransonie Cart. 



At the same time, as the drum revolves, the roUing- 
contact is produced, which is the basic mixing prin- 
ciple of other mixers. Other mixers roll the stone in 
cement and sand, the Ransome mixer first does this 
and then rubs it in. 

The scoops might be compared to great shovels in 
the hands of men powerful enough to handle them 
quickly enough to turn the batch completel}^ over 60 
times in 60 seconds. 

We know from actual strength tests of the con- 
crete that the Ransome Mixer gives a more uniform 
product than any other mixer. 



19 

Some of our competitors have tried to imitate the 
shape and arrangement of the steel scoops in the 
Ransome Mixer. Where the imitation has been at 
all successful in producing the desired reciprocating 
movement of the concrete materials, our patents have 
been infringed. The imitation has been a failure so 
far as securing the desired back and forth movement 
of the materials. Certain manufacturers finding them- 
selves unable to use the Ransome scoops, have tried 
to create a "talking point'' by omitting scoops entirely 
and then advertising their mixers as containing ''no 
insides," hoping to make a merit out of a defect by 
boldly parading the defect. They have claimed that 
scoops actually retard the mixing, expecting the pub- 
lic to believe that a man with a shovel working on 
concrete materials would be less effective in mixing 
them than a man shaking the materials up and down 
in a box. They have intimated, also, that the concrete 
sticks to the scoops, and have shouted in type to the 
effect that ''you do not have to pound our mixer to 
clean it." The truth is that all mixers are alike in 
this respect of cleaning them. If you let concrete re- 
main in any mixer long enough to harden, it will 
stick to the steel of the mixer. To clean a Ransome 
Mixer at the end of a shift, simply throw^ in a few 
shovelfuls of stone or gravel and a little water while 
the mixer is revolving. The stones act like shot in a 
bottle, and clean the mixer as perfectly as shot cleans 
a dirty bottle. 

To Discharge the batch simjdy tilt the chute. 
This can be done quickly and easily and the batch mav 
be discharged into wheelbarrows, one at a time, or in 



20 




Fig. 11 — RANSOME MIXER, 
Showing Charging Hopper and Lever tliat Tilts the Discliarge Chute. 



21 




Fig. 12. 



its entirety, as desired. The drum revolves continu- 
ously, even while the concrete is being- discharged. To 
tilt the chute the mixer man pulls the lever shown in 
Fig. II, and lowers the chute. The rear end of 
the chute swings back into the drum of the mixer 
where the concrete is delivered on the chute by the 
Ransome scoops, and slides out into the bucket, car. 



%»' 




Fig-. 1?. — POSITION OF DISCHARGE CHUTE DURING MIXING. 



22 




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23 

barrow or other receptacle for conveying the concrete. 
Owing to the fact that the chute is tilted, rather than 
the mixer, the discharge may be checked instantane- 
ously. 

Simplicity of Construction can be best illustrated 
by a reference to Figs. 14 and 19. The solid babbitted 
journal boxes are interchangeable and should last in- 
definitely if given proper attention and kept free from 
accumulation of concrete. If they become worn, in- 
stal new ones, and re-babbit those you take oft, using 
a babbit based on the following formula : 

Lead . 79.25 lbs. 

Tin 6.00 lbs. 

Antimony 14.00 lbs. 

Bismuth 6.25 lbs. 

The shafts carrying the rollers are likewise inter- 
changeable and subject to little or no w^ear on ac- 
count of the length of bearing; and, in any event, 
renewals are easy and can be procured anywdiere in 
emergency, as they are stock shafting sizes. 

The rollers are of good grey iron with chilled face 
ground to a line circle. The chilled face ensures long 
life ; and, as they are keyed fast to the shaft, they 
are not subject to w^ear except on the face. The pinion 
is of cast steel, 2 in. pitch, and is guaranteed against 
breakage. It will wear, but it ivill not break. 

The traction rings are 100 to 200 pounds heavier 
than on our old models and are bored and turned to a 
true circle. Starting true, they remain true, and the 
wear is reduced to the minimum. If kept properly 
greased and clean they will last for years. 

With the exception of one or two small parts, all 



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25 

the rest of the machine is of wrought steel and re- 
pairs can l^e easily made in the field. 

The engine and countershaft gears are machine 
moulded and made of a special quality of grey iron, 
the best we can procure. 

Thorough Cleaning of the Machine is assured by 
clearance left between the scoops and the drum shell, 
to allow^ passage of water, which cleans the machine 
between each batch. The water, wdiich is put in first, 
passes beneath the scoops, which the thicker concrete 
is unable to do. 

How to Operate a Mixer. — If your machine is 
mounted on wheels, see that the weight is first taker 
ofif the wdieels and carried on suitable sills. Fig. 15. 
The points of support should be beneath each roller 
shaft, beneath the bed of the engine and beneath the 
boiler. The mixer frame should be carefully leveled 
in both directions. 

Remove the hook bolts which hold the drum to the 
frame. 

Fill all grease and oil cups, and grease carefully 
the traction rings and roller faces. See that in all 
cases the lubricant is fed to the bearings. Use a 
good graphite, hard oil or grease in all compression 
cups, and screw^ the caps down so as to force the 
grease through the journal box. A turn should be 
given on all compression cups at least once in every 
two hours, once the machine is in operation. 

Make steam connections as shown in Fig. 16, and 
then start your boiler as per instructions on page 114. 

Turn your machine over light a few times, mean- 
wdiile setting up such runways as may be required. 



20 




Fig. 10 — FT. AN AND SIDE VIEW 
Showing Connections. 



27 




Fig-. Uy. — RANSOME MIXER AND BATCH HOPPER. 



See that the discharge chute is in position, as 
shown in Fig,. 13. 

Feed into the machine the amount of water re- 
quired for the batch, following instructions given on 
page 95. Follow with stone and sand in the order 
named. Leave the material in the machine half a 
minute, which is long enough under average con- 
ditions, then reverse the discharge chute to the 
position shown in Fig. 15. Discharge direct into 
wheelbarrows, bucket, car, or other vehicle, the whole 
batch or part thereof as desired. Reverse chute and 
feed into the machine the next batch. 



28 




Fig. 17 — MIXER AND ENGINE 
Showing Feed Chute. 

Where practicable use a batch hopper, as ilkis- 
trated in Fig. i6^ or a feed hopper as shown in Fig. 
37. They will save you time. 

On stopping at noon or night, or for more than a 
few minutes, be sure to wash your machine out thor- 
oughly. Feed into it a quantity of water, and a bar- 
row of stone, which will scour it out. 

Watch the point of discharge. If the material falls 
short of the chute, speed your engine up. If it car- 
ries over, slow down. The speed should be varied 
with the consistency of the mix and the materials. 

To secure uniform consistency of concrete, wet 
down your stone pile morning, noon and night. 



29 

In securing results as to output, watch the dcHv- 
ery side of your machine. Get the material all out at 
once so your next batch can be mixing. If you must 
discharge part at a time, use the largest cart or bar- 
row you can. 

Guard against wear in the journal boxes. An occa- 
sional inspection will guard against undue wear, which 
may result in bottoming of pinion and main gear with 
disastrous results as to gears, etc. Also watch that 
the rollers do not wear down so as to cause bottom- 
ing. 

Guarantee. — A\'e guarantee our machines against 
defective materials and workmanship ; and will, at any 
time within one year from date of purchase of one of 
our machines, furnish our customers, free of charge 
f. o. b. our works, new parts to replace any which may 
prove defective, provided the customer returns to us, 
f. o. b. our shops, the part claimed to be defective. Wq 
will not, however, be responsible for damages on ac- 
count of dela3^s, etc., nor for bills incurred by custom- 
ers in making repairs without our authorization. 

We guarantee that our machines will yield under 
average conditions their rated output, and upon order 
from our customer will undertake the demonstration 
of this fact, provided that the party making such de- 
mand will agree to pay us $io per day and expenses of 
our representative engaged in making this demonstra- 
tion, in the event that we can. so demonstrate ; other- 
wise the expense to borne by us. 

A^'e guarantee that the power equipment furnished 
with our machines w^ill operate them under full load 
at the speeds given. 



30 




Fig-. 18— TRUCK, 



31 
IMPROVEHENTS FOR 1908 

A New Truck has been designed (see Fig. i8) to 
meet the demand for a mixer to be hauled over rough 
country roads. This new truck is fitted with steel 
wheels 20 inches diameter and 4 mches tread. This 
new style truck is furnished only where especially or- 
dered and an extra charge is made 

A New Boiler has been adopted, larger in diameter 
and of less height than the standard type of boiler. 
This boiler has the shell extended to form the ash pit, 
thus doing away with the ordinary cast iron base. The 
boiler is further equipped with angle iron lugs which 
permit bolting the boiler direct to the truck, thus cut- 
ting out the stays required with the ordinary type of 
boiler. In designing these boilers we have made effi- 
ciency and economy of operation the main considera- 
tion. The ordinary practise in boiler making has been 
to increase the height when more power was wanted. 
This practise, dictated by economy of manufacture, has 
resulted in boilers which will develop their power theo- 
retically, but in practical use will do so only when 
new or under forced draught. We can operate with 
open fire door under conditions where another boiler of 
the same rated horsepower would require closed door 
and forced draught. We furnish with each boiler an In- 
spection Certificate of the Hartford Steam Boiler and 
Inspection Company. 

The Steel Squaring Plate. — lliis plate, shown in 
Figs. 19 to 22, is a decided improvement, and we are 
sure it will a])pcal to every user of a concrete mixer. 
A wooden frame on a concrete mixer is a decided ad- 
vantage in that anv attachment can readily be made in 



32 







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33 




Fig-. I'O— STEEL SQUARING FRAME. 
Side View. 

the field. Furthermore, a wooden frame is not sub- 
ject to the excessive vibration that exists in a frame 
constructed entirely of iron or steel. On the other 
hand, a steel frame possesses one decided advantage. 
It insures the preservation of true alignment. It may 
be said to be insurance against breakage of gears. 




Fig-. 21 — STEEL SQUARING FRAME. 
Top view Arrranged for Engines. 

But attachments in the field are difficult with a steel 
frame, and we all know how often it is desirable or 
even necessary to make such an attachment. To escape 
the objections inherent in each class of frame, and to 
preserve the desirable features of both, we have de- 
signed a combination frame. The bodv of the frame is 



34 





Fig. 22— MACHINE FOR BORING THE TRACTION RINGS 
OF RANSOME MIXERS. 



35 

of wood, on top of which is bolted the steel squariiii^ 
plate, made up of ^x6 inch steel plate. We thus se- 
cure all the advantage of the wood frame and the true 
ali^^nment afforded by the steel frame, together with 
such advantage as may be in the higher speed made 
possible by more perfect alignment. 

Turned and Bored Traction Rings. — These were 
adopted for 1908 and w^e regard this feature of the ma- 
chine as most important. These rings are four to six 
feet in diameter and encircle the drum. They roll on 
the four supporting rollers shown in Fig. 19. In 
former models and in machines of other manufacture, 
these rings have been rough castings which wore more 
or less irregulariy under service. It is impossible to 
mold a casting such as these rings and secure a per- 
fect circle ; yet a true circle must be secured to start 
with, in order to obtain uniform wear. Irregu- 
larities, however slight, tend to become more and more 
pronounced under w^ear. Wt have, therefore, adopted 
turned and bored rings for 1908 and in Fig. 22 wq 
illustrate the machine in which this work is done. 

Heavier Castings have been adopted than were 
used in former models. By experiment we found that 
there was a certain amount of spring in the old rings, 
which was objectionable. Slight as it was, this 
"spring" aggravated the tendency to uneven wear. 
Moreover, this repeated distortion tended to loosen the 
rivets. Wc have completely overcome this tendencv 
by increasing the weight of the ring castings 100 to 
200 pounds and by closer spacing of the rivets. 

The Supporting Rollers are made with ''chilled" 
face after the manner of ordinary car wheels. This 



36 




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Fig. 24— RANSOME MIXER. 
With Belt Drive, End View 



chilled face ensures good wearing quality, as it is im- 
possible to machine the face of these rollers and to get 
them true, we have designed a grinding machine in 
which these rollers are trued up. 

These rollers are all keyed fast to the shaft wnth 
which they revolve, thus throwing all the wear on the 
journal boxes. 

Double Journal Boxes. — These boxes. Fig. 19, are 
furnished on all belted machines. They preserve true 
alignment of the pinion shaft. On older models power 
was transmitted to the drum through the rear roller 



38 




Pi i 

O 4)' 

CO > 

-< Q 






39 

shaft, which was fitted with loose rollers. By the adop- 
tion of the double journal we throw all wear upon the 
journal boxes, where it belongs. 

Machine Moulded Gears have been adopted for 1908, 
after a thorough test. These gears are made of a spe- 
cial mixture of grey iron ; and, being machine moulded, 
the teeth get a bearing across their full width, which is 
not possible with hand moulded gears, owing to the 
draft given the pattern. 

Cast Steel Pinions. — These insure against sudden 
breakage. The pinion will wear, of course, but we 
guarantee them against breakage. 

Splashing Eliminated. — AA'e have done away with 
splashing by reducing the size of the feed and dis- 
charge openings and by changing the arrangements of 
the scoop. With the adoption of the turned rings it 
became possible to reduce the clearance around the 
feed and discharge chutes, with the result that, instead 
of 2^ inch openings, we now have 21 inch openings 
on the Xo. i and No. 2 mixers and 24 inch openings 
on No. 3 and No. 4 mixers. The new arrangement of 
scoops not only stops splashing, but it also stops clog- 
ging of the machine. Our 1908 scoops mark a great 
advance over those of our 1906 model. They are sim- 
pler and result in a more even distribution of the mix. 
Compare the two arrangements. Fig. 6. Note the su- 
periority of 1908 from the standpoint of load distribu- 
tion. See how material must be kept to the center of 
the machine. Note the backward and forward move- 
ments of the material. The passage at the side of the 
1908 model and the clearance beneath the wings also 
serve to make the machine self-cleaning as well as to 



40 




Fig. 26— MIXER AND ENGINE ON SKIDS. 



41 

reduce the spilling- of sloppy material. Spilling is 
largely a matter of speed. Few users of concrete mix- 
ers give enough consideration to the speed of the 
niixer. All mixers operate best at varying speeds for 
various consistencies of concrete. If you are troubled 
with spilling try varying the speed till you reach the 
point where spilling stops. 

The Past Success of Ransome Mixers. — The 

Ransome 1908 mixer is an improvement over our 
earlier models. This statement means much because 
the success of our earlier model is universally attested 
by their users. ]\Iany of them have written to tell us 
their satisfaction and of these many we choose a few 
to speak in their own words. 

(i) A contractor in Rio de Janiero, Brazil, writes 
us under date of August 15, 1906, concerning a model 
1905 mixer which he purchased April 11, 1905, and 
wdiich, therefore, had at the time the letter was writ- 
ten been in use for 15 months. The letter is as follows: 

"The Xo. I ^lodel 1905 Alixer we purchased from 
you has given us entire satisfaction. Up to date no 
repairs have been made." 

We are now in receipt of a duplicate order from this 
firm. 

(2) In the next communication, which is from an 
engineer employed on certain work, we have a compari- 
son between Ransome mixers and a well known make of 
tilting mixer. 

"In reference to the concrete mixers we purchased 
of you on Aug. 21, 1906, will say that we have given them 
a thorough and practical test and are very much pleased 



42 




in 



43 

with the results obtained. They have proven superior to 
the tilting mixers, of which we have sixteen in opera- 
tion. Wt have decreased our powder 50 per cent, and 
labor 20 per cent., and I am highly elated over the success 
I have obtained out of them. At the time of purchase 
I was a trifle afraid of the mixing paddles, but after 2^ 
months' operation we have not noticed any wear. W'e 
have had no repairs on either of our Ransome mixers, 
and the indications are that we will not have any for a 
long time to come. You will find attached some statistics 
showing a comparison of the two types of mixers which 
stretches over a period of 2^^ months actual operation." 

The statistics referred to in the above communication 
are as follows : 

The tests were made on a No. 2 tilting and a No. 2 
Ransome and on a No. 2 Ransome and a No. 3 tilting ; 
all mixers worked 10 hours a day. The figures are as 
follows : 

First Test. No. 2 Ransome. No. 2 Tilting. 

Output cubic yards per day 70 44 

Number men worked, average. . 13 16 

Output cubic yards per man 5.3 2.y 

Second Test. No. 2 Ransome. No. 3 Tilting. 

Output cubic yards per yad 70 44 

Output cubic yards per man. . . . 2.2 2.1 

Note the striking difi'erence in output of the No. 2 
Ransome compared with the No. 2 Tilting mixer. With 
fewer men the Ransome did 50 per cent, more work. 
This was due in part to the saving in time that a Ran- 
some Mixer effects in discharging its batch. But a ver} 
large part of the superiority of the Ransome was due to 
the fact that the materials did not have to be wheeled up 



44 







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45 

so high to get ihcm into the mixer. As will be explained 
a few pages further on, a tilting mixer must always be 
mounted high, in order to give clearance when it is tilted 
Perhaps an even niore striking demonstration of the im- 
portance of this feature is found in the Second Test, by 
comparing a Xo. 2 Ransome with a Xo. 3 Tilting mixer 
of considerably greater size than the Ransome. In thi> 
case the Xo. 2 Ransome still excels, but it is not so efih- 
cient as the Xo. 2 Ransome was in the First Test. Why ? 
Simply because in the Second Test the Ransome mixei 
Vv-as mounted higher off the ground, thus requiring niorc 
men to deliver the materials in the wheelbarrows. Yet 
fills Jiighcr frame in lehieh the Xo. 2 Raiisoiiie zcas 
mounted leas a frame previously built for, and oceupied 
by, a Xo. 2 Tilting mixer. We shall have more to say 
about this feature of low mounting versus high mounting 
of concrete mixers. The reader should bear in mind in 
neither of these tests did the Ransome mixer begin to 
mix all it was capable of mixing. It simply mixed all 
that a given number of men delivered to it. It should 
be noted that neither machine was operated to its full 
capacitv. It shows, however, that a Ransome mixer un- 
der exactly the sanie conditions will exceed as to output 
a tilting mixer of corresponding or even larger batch 
capacity. 

(3) The third communication describes a test of a 
different sort, and one for which a concrete mixer is 
U-Ot usually designed. It is significant as showing the 
strength and sturdiness which contribute to the acknowl- 
edged wearing qualities and freedom from breakages of 
the Ransome Mixer. 

'Tn hauling the mach.ine from the car the driver got 
careless and drove too near the edge of the canal, with 



46 




O o 

■•-' 

I u 
W 

r -^ 



47 

the result that the edge of the towing path gave way 
and the machine turned over into the canal, a distance 
of 5 feet, the top of the boiler sticking in the mud and 
the truck in the air. Yesterday I started the machine 
mixing concrete, and have not discovered an\- ill effects 
from its acrobatic stunt. I hope the machine will make 
concrete as well as she can turn a handspring." 

(4) Though it is not the usual practice, machine mix- 
ing is the niost economic method of making concrete for 
pavement foundations, but the mixer must be the right 
sort of a mixer, and the method of handling the concrete 
materials and the mixed concrete must be of the right 
sort. The next letter is from a contractor who is using 
a Ransome mixer for paving work. It is as follows : 

'Tn reply to your letter of Sept. 14, would say that 
we have no photograph of a Ransome ]\Iixer, but you 
can bet that we are using one. In your letter vtou ask 
whether or not it was a good machine for street work. 
We have only one of these machines, and every contrac- 
tor in the city is after this machine and our system of 
laying concrete. To make this letter short : There is no 
other machine in the United States that can equal it for 
turning out work." 

(5) Its all around efficiency is the feature for wdiich 
the Ransome Mixer is praised by our next correspondent. 

"We have in use two Ransome ^Mixers, one tilting 
mixer, two paddle mixers and three others. Each mixer 
has its good points and surpasses the others in one or 
more particulars, but if you desire to use a batch mixer 
with the idea of discharging into wheelbarrows or other 
means of conveyance and want to regulate and control 
this discharge, we consider the Ransome the most de- 
sirable. Under other conditions and circumstances 



48 

some of the others are better fitted than the Ransome, 
but for all around desirability we would give the Ran- 
some the preference." 

(6) An inspector of masonry on a large trunk line 
railway writes for a copy of the Ransome Handbook of 
Concrete Machinery and says : 

"Your machine is in use here on work over which I 
am an inspector. The work being done by the machine 
is so good that a further knowledge than practically 
gained appealed to me, hence my request for the book. 
The machine used here is a ^3 cubic yard mixer, but. to 
use the vulgar parlance, Tt has the others skinned.' " 

(/) Our concluding letter is from a well known rail- 
way contractor in the South, and it speaks for itself. It 
is as follows : 

*'For the same service the Ransome mixer is less 
cumbersome to handle than other mixers. The discharge 
arrangement is undoubtedly superior to any mixer on 
the market, as the whole or any part of the batch can 
be discharged without any additional equipment or fix- 
tures, which is not true of other mixers. But what 
pleased me most in connection with the mixer is that all 
the engineers and inspectors are highly pleased with it. 

Mr. , the engineer in charge of our present work 

on the Southern railway, on which we are using four 
Ransome mixers and one of another make, is highly 
pleased with the Ransome machine, and states it is su- 
perior to any concrete mixer that he has seen, as it dis- 
tributes the mixture much more uniformly than other 
mixers, which is un(l()u1)tedly a very desirable feature. 

I will note that Mr. • is very conservative, and an 

engineer of ability, with long years of experience in the 



49 



business. The capacity or ability of the Ransome mixer 
to turn out mixed concrete is simply governed by the 
ability of the forces to feed the mixer and take care of 
the discharge." 



Gentlemen: — • 

Replying to your favor of April 19th. 1907. would say 
that after careful consideration of the matter we purchased 
a No. I Ransome ^lixer the early part of last season. This 
machine has a rated capacity of ten cubic feet loose material 
per batch, with an output of ten cubic yards per hour. 

\\'e used it all summer on a job that called for 1:2^2:4 
mixture, using two bags of cement, five feet of sand and 
eight feet of gravel to the batch, and have got as much as 
twenty-five cubic yards per hour by actual measurement in 
the work out of the machine, but were unable to maintain 
this rate continuously for more than an hour or so at a 
time owing to the general conditions of the work. 

We do not wish to place ourselves in the position of 
"knocking*' any particular make of machine, but we have 
no hesitancy in expressing our own preference for the Ran- 
some machine. 



AVe expect to be in the market later on this season for 
a larger machine, and we shall certainly buy either a No. 2 
or No. 3 Ransome. 

A point that we have considered as very valuable is the 
large excess power in the boiler and engine. This feature 
was very noticeable in the late fall, when the thermometer 
was near the freezing point. 



so 




bo 



51 

AiuHhcr slront;- point with the machine is the clumpy 
wliich is very rapi(h 

Yours very truly, 



Gentlemen: 
We have just completed the second season's work with 
the Ransome Mixer we bought of you and find that the 
machine has the following particular advantages, in that it 
may be operated with a small force of men to advantage. 
It may be crowded to a capacity of fifteen to eighteen yards 
per hour, while charging an operating force of ten men. 
Engineers over our work have been much pleased with qual- 
ity of mixture and the bills of repairs have been compara- 
tively light. This is a No. i machine, with a guaranteed 
capacity of lo yards per hour. 

Yours truly, 



In quoting the preceding extracts from our corre- 
spondence we have purposely refrained from giving 
the name of persons and places and other means of 
identification in some instances. To any purchaser, 
however, wdio desires such proof of authenticity, we 
will gladly show the originals, whch are on file at our 
main office. It is perjiaps needless to add that the 
foregoing quotations are a few out of hundreds of 
similar nature that we have on file. 



52 



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59 



DIMENSION 


NO. OF MIXER 


1 


2 


3 


4 




Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


Inches 


A 


54 


00 


63 


69 


B 


36 


42 


48 


54 


C 


2'SH 


30 


mVz 


42 


D 


21 


21 


24 


24 


E 


5X 


5H 


5? 


5! 


F 


9H 


9X 


91 


9^^ 


G 


45H 


48)4 


491 


52>i 


H 


30K 


33^8 


35>^ 


37 J^ 


I 


saVz 


30^8 


41>^ 


43^ 


J 


31^ 


313/8 


811 


311 


K 


8X 


11>^ 


13>^ 


15M 


L 


11 


11 


13 


13 


M 


13^ 


13>2 


13K 


13>^ 


N 


44 


50 


56 


62 


O 


41 


42^ 


45 


47 


P 


55 K 


57^ 


65 


66X 


Q 


133^8 


135^ 


146' 


156^ 


*R 


IGH 


lOK 


19 


19 


S 


531 


55K 


571 


59| 


T 


39 


40f 


45K 


47X 


*u 


12 


12 


12>4 


16 


*v 


idyz 


IQ/z 


22 


34 


w 


28 '4 


sm 


33 >^ 


35>^ 


*x 


2H 


2% 


3 re 


O 7_ 

-^1 6 


Y 


10 


10 


10 


10 


*Z 


12 


12 


13K 


21 



*These dimensions vary with the style of motor used. 



6o 




/^Aa-j Lajo^J::>y,' 




6i 



Dimensions of Ransome Charging Hopper. 



(See Fig. 35.) 





NO. OF HOPPER 


Dimension 


1 


2 


3 


4 


A 
B 
C 
D 

Weight, lbs 

List Price 


2'-10M" 
4'-9K 
2'-G'- 
4'.8" 
400 
$40.00 


5'-G" 
3'-0" 
5'.4K" 

425 
$42.50 


4'-0" 
5'-ll" 

G'-O" 
478 
$47.50 


4'.5" 
6'-6" 
3'-10" 
6'-G>^" 
5G5 
$56.50 



AMien a Ransome Charging Hopper is attached to 
a Ransome ^lixer, an entire batch of materials is fed 
into the mixer at once by simply pulling a lever. The 
hopper can be loaded with materials while the mixer 
is mixing, so that not a moment's time is lost between 
the discharge of one batch and the entrance of the next 
l)atch into the mixer. Note especially how low the top 
of the hopper is from the ground. The dimension B 
in the above table gives the information. 



02 




63 



RANSOME MIXER PARTS— 1908 HODEL 
Prices, Weights and Code Names 



Part 
No. 


Part Name 


No. 1 Mixer 


No. 2 Mixer' 


No. 3 Mixer 


No. 4 Mixer 






Faden 


Fadena 


Fadenat 


Fadenata 


1 


Drum Complete 


1572 lbs. 
$196 


1967lbs. 
$220 


2986 lbs. 
$320 1 


3668 lbs. 
S375 






Faecon 


Faecana 


Faecanat 


Faecanata 


2 


Lifting Wing 


21 lbs. 


29 lbs. 


36 lbs. 


40 lbs. 






$2.40 


S3.40 


$3.80 


$4.00 






Faehig 


Faehiga 


Faehigat 


Faehigata 


3 


Baffle Wing 


8 lbs. 


10 lbs. 


11>^ lbs. 


14K lbs. 






$1.00 


$1.10 


$1.20 


S1.50 




Gear Ring 


Faen 


Faena 


Faenat 


Faenata 


4 


bored & turned 


500 lbs. 


586 lbs. 


895 lbs. 


1225 lbs. 




C. & H. 


$30.80 


$36.50 


$54.40 


S71.00 




Plain Ring 


Fagian 


Fagiana 


Fagianat 


Fagianata 


5 


bored & turned 


250 lbs. 


300 lbs. 


570 lbs. 


65U lbs. 




C. & H. 


$17.50 


$22.20 


$39.20 


S46.20 






Fagon 


Fagona 


Fagonat 


Fagonata 


6 


Flanged Head 


121 lbs. 


165 lbs. 


221 lbs. 


284 lbs. 






$13.50 


$16 50 


$20.00 


S25.00 






F""agran 


Fagrana 


Fagranat 


Fagranata 


7 


Drum Shell 


330 lbs. 


410 lbs. 


665 lbs. 


810 lbs. 






$19.80 


$20.55 


$33.20 


S40.50 






Fahr 


Fahra 


Fa h rat 


Fahrata 


8 


Feed Chute 


102 lbs 


102 lbs. 


108 lbs. 


108 lbs. 






$10.00 


$10.00 


$1000 


SIO.OO 






Fakir 


Fakira 


Fakira t 


Fakirata 


9 


Discharg. Chute 


80 lbs. 
$8.00 


80 lbs. 
$8.00 


103 lbs. 
$10.00 


103 lbs. 
SIO.OO 






Fa lac 


Falaca 


Falacat 


Falacata 


10 


Chute Support 


29 lbs. 
^2.90 


31 lbs. 
$3.10 


34 lbs. 


35 lbs. 






Falcon 


Falcona 


Falconat 


Falconata 


11 


Chute Journal 


734 


7 3-4 lbs. 


7 3-4 lbs. 


7 34 lbs. 






$1.25 


$1.25 


31.25 


SI. 25 






Fallan 


Fallana 


Fallanat 


Fallanata 


13 


Chute Hanger 


14 lbs. 


14 lbs. 


14 lbs. 


14 lbs. 




S2.00 


$2.00 


$2.00 


S2.00 






Falleb 


Falleba 


Fallebat 


Fallebata 


13 


Lever Hub 


10 lbs. 


10 lbs. 


10 lbs. 


10 lbs. 






$1.50 


$1.50 


$1.50 


SI. 50 



64 



RAN50nE niXER PARTS— 1908 HODEL 
Prices, Weights and Code Names 



Part 

No 


Part Name 


No. 1 Mixer 


No. 2 IMiXER 


No. 3 MiXEK 


No. 4 Mixer 






Fait 


Falta 


Faltat 


Faltata 


14 


Lever Arm 


15 lbs. 


15 lbs. 


15 lbs. 


15 lbs. 






$2.00 


$2.00 


$2.00 


$2.00 




Journal Box 
single 


Falsav 


Falsava 


Falsavat 


Falsavata 


15 


19 lbs. 


19 lbs. 


35 lbs. 


35 lbs. 




$3.00 


$3.00 


$4.50 


$4.50 


16 


Journal Box 
doiiblp 


Falter 
05 lbs. 


Faltera 
05 lbs. 


Falterat 
100 lbs. 


Falterata 
100 lbs 




v4 WLl ljl.\^ 


;5$6.80 


$0.00 


;^9.00 


$9.00 






Fanais 


Fanaisa 


Fanaisat 


Fanaisata 


17 


Roller Shaft 


27 lbs. 


33 lbs. 


62 lbs. 


70 lbs. 






$2.00 


$2.25 


$3.75 


$4.20 




Coiinfpr Shaft 


Fandor 


Fandora 


Fandorat 


Fandorata 


18 


Pulley Drive 


37 lbs. 
$82.60 


44 lbs. 
$25 


81 lbs. 
$5.60 


89 lbs. 
$0.20 


19 


Counter Shaft 
Engine Drive 


Fan got 
27 lbs. 
$2.35 


Fangota 
31 lbs. 
$2.00 


Fangotat 
54 lbs. 
$4.05 


Fangotata 

58 lbs. 

$4.55 


20 


Jack Shaft 


Fan tern 


Fanterna 


Fanternat 


Fanternata 


Motor Drive 


$21.00 


$8 25 


$5.60 


$6.20 






Faral 


Farala 


Faralat 


Faralata 


21 


Roller 


43 lbs. 


43 lbs. 


124 lbs. 


124 lbs. 






$4 25 


$4 25 


$8.25 


$8.25 






Fa rant 


Faranta 


Farantat 


Farantata 


22 


Grease Cup 


lib. 


lib. 


lib. 


lib. 






$0.75 


$0.75 


$0.75 


$0.75 






Far ran 


Farrana 


Farranat 


Farranata 


23 


Pinion 


43 lbs. 


30 lbs. 


50 lbs. 


50 lbs. 




Steam engine 


$5.70 


$4.50 


$6.50 


$6.50 






"17T2P3"F 


11T2"P3"F 


11T2"P4>4:"F 


11T2P4'4:F 


24 


Pinion 


Farin 


Farrina 


Farrinat 


Farrinata 


Belt or Motor 


43 lbs. 


43 lbs. 


87 lbs. 


115 lbs. 




Drive 


$5.70 


$5.70 


$10.00 


$13.50 






13T2" P3"F 


13T2P3F 


17T2P3KF 


17T2P4^F 


0"i 


Counter Shaft 


Fanas 


Fanasa 


Fanasat 


Fanasata 


^o 


Gear — Engine 
Drive 


134 lbs. 


145 lbs 


219 lbs. 


219 lbs. 




$15.00 


$10.00 


$19.02 


$19.02 






55T1>4P3>^F 


59T1XP3^'F 


54T1>^P4>^F 


54T1KP4KF 



65 
RANSOME niXER PARTS— 1908 MODEL 

Prices, Weights and Code Names 



Part 
No 



Part Name 



No. 1 Mixer 



No. 2 Mixer 



No. 3 Mixer No. 4 Mixer 



26 'Counter Shaft 
Gear — Motor 
Drive 

Jack Shaft Pin- 
ion — Motor 
Drive 



28 

29 
30 
31 

32 
33 
34 
35 



Jack Shaft Gear 
— Motor Drive 



Motor Pinion 

Engine Gear 
Collar 



Pulley 

Squaring 

Plate — without 

power 
Squaring 

Plate — with 

engine 

Trucks 

per set 



Fascel 


Fascela 


70 lbs. 


70 lbs. 


$9.00 


$9.00 


P3XFT133 


33T1X P3F 


Fatac 


Fataca 


19 lbs. 


19 lbs. 


$4.00 


$4.00 


13T1X P3F 


13T1XP3F 


Fatig 


Fatiga 


112 lbs 


112 lis. 


$12.50 


$12.50 


110r4P2KF 


110T4P2>^F 


Fatias 


Fatiasa 


22 lbs. 


22 lbs. 


$3.75 


$3.75 


28T 4P 2KF 


28T4P2y2F 


Faust 


Fausta 


70 lbs. 


97 lbs. 


$9 00 


$11.50 


33T1XP3MF 


45T1XP3>^F 


Favor 


Favora 


3 lbs. 


3 lbs. 


$0.75 


$0.75 


Favul 


Favula 


55 lbs. 


86 lbs. 


$5.00 


S7.50 


18x6x1 15-16 


20x10x1 15.16 


Febric 


Febrica 


225 lbs. 


242 lbs 


$15.00 


$16.00 


Febrin 


Febrina 


270 lbs. 


314 lbs. 


$18.50 


$21.50 


Febroc 


Feb r oca 


660 lbs. 


660 lbs. 


S50.00 


S50.00 



Fascelat 
219 lbs. 
$19.0-^ 
54T1>^P4MF 
Fatacat 
97 lbs. 
$16.50 
21T1^P5F 
Fatigat 
208 lbs. 
$20.00 
105T3P4F 
Fatiasata 
66 lbs. 
S7.50 
33T3P4F 
Faustat 
192 lbs. 
S18.50 
47T1V^P4>^F 
Favorat 
6K lbs. 

SI. 00 

Favulat 

118 lbs. 

Sll.OO 

28x10x2 7-16 

Febrica t 

261 lbs. 

S18.00 

Febrinat 

349 lbs. 

S24.00 

Febrocat 

660 lbs. 

$50.00 



Fascelata 

219 lbs. 

$19.02 

54T1>^P4>^F 

Fatacata 

97 lbs. 

$11.50 

21T1>^P5F 

Fatigata 

208 lbs. 

S20.00 

105T3P4F 

TJ^atiasat 

66 lbs. 

S7.50 

33T3P4F 

Faustata 

219 lbs. 

S29.09 

54T1^P4>^F 

Favorata 

6>2 lbs. 

SI. 00 

Favulata 

227 lbs. 

S17.80 

32x10x2 7 16 

Febricata 

380 lbs. 

$26.00 

Febrinata 

492 lbs. 

$33.50 

Febrocata 

660 lbs. 

$50.00 



Note— Where boiler is supplied with numbers 3 and 4 two sets of trucks are required. 



66 




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67 



Weights, Dimensions and Capacities of Ransome 1908' 
MODEL CONCRETE HIXER 



No. OF Mixer 


1 


2 


^ 1 


4 


( Cement 


1 10 cu. 


2 20 cu. 


3 30 cu. 


4 40 cu. 


Size of Batch < Sand 


8 ft. 


6 ft. 


9 ft. 


12 ft. 


( Stone 


6 total 


12 total 


18 total 


24 total 


Capacity per hr. cu. yds. 


10 


20 


80 


40 


\ Engine 
Horse Power ( Rated 


6x6 


7x7 


8x8 


9x9 


7 h.-p. 


10 h.-p. 


14 h -p. 


20 h.-p. 


Required { Boiler 
( Rated 


86x89 


42x75 


42x87 


48x93 


10 h.-p. 


15 h.-p. 


20 h.-p. 


30 h.-p. 


Speed of Drum 










rev per minute 


16 


15 


14>^ 


14 


Speed of Driving Shaft 










rev. per minute 


116 


122 


94 


19 


Diam. of Driving Shaft 


1 15-16 


1 15-16 


2 7-16 


27-16 


Diam. of Driving Pulley 


18x6 


20x10 


28x10 


36x11 


Measurements of Drum 


54 diam. 


60 diam. 


68 diam. 


69 diam. 




x36 


x42 


x48 


x54 


Thickness of Plate of 










Drum 


3 
1 6 


3-16 


H 


X 


Height from top of frame 










to center of drum 


28/2 


31 >^ 


33K 


36 


Height fromtop of frame 










to top of feed chute 


31 


34 


36 


38^ 


Height from top of frame 










to end of chute dischrg. 


8 


111 


14 


16K 


Height from top of frame 










to topof charging hopper 


57 


6G 


71 


78 


Totaldepthof wood f rme 


1034 


101 


10 K 


10% 


Weightof Mixeron Skids 


3450 


3900 


6095 


6750 


Gross weight boxed for 










export 


4300 


4770 


7395 


7600 


Cubic measurement 










cubic feet 


215 


260 


325 


370 


Weight of Mixer and 










Engine on skids 


5200 


5700 


7950 


9450 


Gross weight boxed for 










export 


6100 


6500 


9550 


11,700 


Cubic measurement 










cubic feet 


270 


340 


425 


500 


Weight of Mixer,Engine 










and Boiler on skids 


7070 


7700 


12,450 


14.000 


Gross weight boxed for 










export 


8200 


9400 


14,450 


17,000 


Cubic measurement 










cubic feet 


350 


440 


600 


700 



* If mounted on trucks add 650 lb= 
two sets of trucks are required. 



With numbers 3 and 4 supplied with boilers 



6S 




69 

Ransome's Pivot Charging Hopper. — This device 
faciHtates charging the mixer and ehminates all neces- 
sity for stageing. The machine as shown is entirely 
self contained and the material is fed into the hopper 
direct from wheelbarrows or by shovels, Fig. 38. 

The hopper is hoisted by means of a small fric- 
tion drum mounted on the frame of the mixer. With 
this device a batch can be fed to the mixer in 20 sec- 
onds covering the time required to hoist the material 
and lower the hopper to the ground for the next batch. 

It can be detached from the machine by removing 
a few bolts. 

THE RANSOnE CART MIXER. 

(Patent applied for.) 

This mixer, Figs. 39 to 41, is designed especially 
for such work as concrete foundations for pavements, 
cement sidewalks, cellar floors, basement walls for 
buildings, small culverts and retaining walls, mixing 
mortar for residences, etc. The machine consists of 
the well known Ransome Cart, upon which a hood is 
clamped fast to the body of the cart forming a closed 
chamber in which the concrete is mixed. The method 
of operation is briefly as follows : 

The cart is wheeled to the material pile and filled 
with the proper proportions of stone, sand and ce- 
ment. The cart is then wheeled to the mixing frame 
and water added. The hood is next lowered over the 
cart and clamped thereto, and the suspension hook is 
disengaged. The cart body and contents are then re- 
volved by hancj prank or by power, fifteen revolutions 



70 






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71 

beiiis^ sLitticic'iU to secure a good mix. The siispcn 
sion hook is then engaged with the eye of the hood, 
which is raised clear of the cart by the foot lever. The 
cart is then wheeled to the place wdiere the concrete 
is to be deposited and dumped. It wdll be seen that 
there is only one handling of the concrete materials 
in this process, namely when they are loaded into the 
cart. From that time on, the materials remain in the 
cart until they are delivered in the form of mixed 
concrete. 

It Avill also be seen that the materials are not car- 
ried up a runway nor otherwise elevated to get them 
into a mixer. It will be seen that the cart body is 
revolved during the process of mixing, the revolution 
taking place around the axle of its own wheels. The 
revolution is effected through a pin projecting from 
the reduction gear which engages a stub crank on 
the cart axle. Two men can readily operate the 
crank that revolves the mixer ; but, wdiere the quantity 
of concrete to be placed justifies it, a small gasoline 
engine or an electric motor wdll be furnished, and 
several mixing frames can be operated at one time 
with the same powxr. Two men can readily mix a 
batch of 4 to 6 cu. ft. of loose materials in two minutes, 
including the time of clamping on and removing the 
hood. If the average batch is 5 cu. ft. of loose materi- 
als, this is equivalent to 3 cu. ft. of solid concrete, or 
one-ninth cubic yard per batch, for each cart mixer 
used. 

The following gang wdll turn out 30 cu. yds. in 10 

hours : -n ■, 

rer cu. yd. 

3 men loading materials into cart $0.15 



72 




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73 

2 men mixino- o. lo 

I man wheeling to place and spreading o 05 

Total $0.30 

It costs next to nothing to move the mixer from 
place to place, which is of great importance in many 
kinds of work, such as street foundations, sidewalks and 
wherever a comparatiA^ely small yardage of concrete 
is to be placed at one spot. A Ransome cart, hold- 
ing 6 cu. ft. of loose materials, is readily hauled by 
one man. See page 75. Hence the cost of transporting 
the concrete even several hundred feet from the mixer 
is very slight. 

The Ransome Cart I\Iixer is unquestionably the 
only economic hand mixer ever put on the market. 
With power attached, and by running several mixing 
frames at one time, it becomes even more economic 
where the amount of concrete to be placed warrants 
the purchase of a somewhat more expensive outfit. 

The following are the weights and prices of the 
Ransome Cart Mixer without gasoline or electric 
power: 

Weight of Cart, Hood and Frame, 850 lbs. 

Gross weight of Cart, Hood and Frame, boxed for 
export, 1,000 lbs. 

Cubic measurements, 30 cu. ft. 

Price complete of Hood, Frame and one Cart, 
$200. 

Extra carts, each, $40. 

Weight of cart only 280 lbs. 

Price with gasoline or electric power quoted on ap- 
plication. 



74 




75 

Ransome Concrete Carts. Patented in the United 

States and Canada. — Concrete is ordinarily car- 
ried in wheelbarrows from the mixer to the place 
of deposit. A wheelbarrow holding two cubic feet 
of concrete is an exceedingly heavy load, and where 
the concrete is very wet, a load of one cubic foot is 
not uncommon, since the ordinary steel or wooden bar- 
row has a shallow bowl, wliich allows the wet concrete 




Fig-. 42 — RANSOME CONCRETE CART. 

to flow over its sides. To reduce the cost of trans- 
porting concrete, we have designed an all-steel cart, 
that holds six cubic feet, water measure. One man 
can push or pull this cart over a plank runway, even 
when the cart is level full of concrete. In other words, 
one man transports from three to six times as much 
concrete as he could transport in a wheelbarrow. 



76 

There are three reasons why this remarkable result 
is secured by the use of Ransome Concrete Carts. 
The first reason is that the wheels of the cart are 
much larger than the wheel of a wheelbarrow, and cor- 
respondingly easy running. The second reason is that 
no weight comes on the man, as with a wheelbarrow, 
and he is free to use all his strength in pushing or 
pulling the cart. The third reason is that no concrete 




Fig. 43 — RANSOME CONCRETE CART, 
Dumping on a Pavement or Floor. 

is slopped onto the run-planks where these carts are 
used, and it takes half the effort to push a cart over 
clean planks that it does over dirty planks. 

In addition to this advantage of larger loads hauled 
per man, there is an important economic advantage in 
being able to discharge the batch from a concrete 



mixer in much less time where carts are used than 
where wheelbarrows are used. In fact, a mixer can 
be discharged into these carts in one-third the time re- 
quired with wheelbarrows. 

In laying the concrete base for pavements, or in 
lining reservoir bottoms, or in building the floors of 
reinforced concrete buildings, we have found it desir- 
able to design the cart so that its bowl can be corn- 




Fig-. 44 — RANSOME CONCRETE CART, 
With Handles Reversed. 



pletely inverted when it is dumped. The handle can 
then be thumped down hard on the ground or run- 
plank so as to jar out any concrete tending to stick 
inside. 

When the cart is used for charging a mixer, or for 
filling wall forms with concrete, we have found it ad- 



78 

visable to reverse the handles to the other end of the 
cart. Then when it is dumped, the projecting nose ot 
the bowl strikes the end of the runway and jars the 
materials out, see Fig. 45. 

Although these carts have been on the market but 
a short time, they are extensively used by such well- 
known contractors as Frank B. Gilbreth, of New 
York; Thomas Holahan, of Rochester; The Expanded 




Fig-. 45 — RANSOME CONCRETE CART, 
With Handles Reversed, Dumping into a Wall or Pit. 



Metal Fireproofing Company, of Pittsburg, and others. 
The duplicate orders that we are receiving demon- 
strate the fact that the carts are saving money for the 
contractors using them. One of these contractors 
writes us as follows : 

"Regarding the concrete carts purchased of you 
last June, they are undoubtedly the greatest labor sav- 



79 

ing device for conveying concrete by hand that I ever 
heard of. On one job at Saco, Maine, I used a set of 
these carts for over forty days' continuous work, 
and by their use, was able to get along with seven 
men less, who were getting two (2) dollars per day 
each, and get more work done in a day. We found 
that a little time spent in laying solid runs for the 
carts to travel on was all that was required to enable 
a workman to handle a full cartload or six cubic feet. 
This would be about four ordinary wheelbarrows full, 
as under the best conditions it is only possible to 
wheel lYz cubic feet of w-et concrete in a barrow. The 
result of the use of the carts, from every standpoint, 
was way beyond our expectations, and we are now 
using them for handling all concrete that was formerly 
handled in the old-fashioned wheelbarrow." 

The Labor Cost of a Concrete Base for a Brick 
Pavement, Using Ransome Carts. — A paving contrac- 
tor who is using a No. 2 Ransome j\lixer (^ cu. yd. 
concrete per batch) has given us the following record 
of the actual average cost on several jobs of street 
work. The organization of the gang and the wages 
paid are given in detail : p^j. j-j^ 

ID men loading and wdieeling stone, at $1.50. • $15.00 

4 men loading and wheeling sand 6.00 

2 men handling cement 3.00 

I fireman 2.00 

I man dumping mixer 1.50 

5 men wheeling Ransome Carts 7.50 

3 men spreading and ramming 4.50 

I foreman 3.50 

Total per day $43-00 



8o 

This gang averaged i8o cu. yds., or i,o8o sq, yds. of 
concrete base (6 ins. thick) per day, which is eqiva- 
lent to 24 cents per en. yd. for mixing, placing and 
ramming the concrete. The cost of fuel, etc., added 
about I cent per per cu. yd. more, making a total of 
25 cents. The extreme haul of the concrete from the 
mixer was 500 ft. Hence the mixer was not shifted 
until a stretch of street 1,000 ft. long had been built. 
The Ransome Two-Wheel Concrete Push-Carts made 
it possible for five men to handle the output of the 
mixer. The contractor laid two lines of run-plank 
for the wheels of these carts to travel on, so that one 
man could push a cart holding 6 cu. ft. of concrete. 
The men had to "hustle" on the long haul, but had a 
very easy time of it when the haul was short. The 
stone and sand were delivered to the mixer from 
stock piles, using wheelbarrows. There was no ''loaf- 
ing" on this work, but it demonstrates that hand mix- 
ing cannot compete with machine mixing, even on 
street work, provided a Ransome machine and Ran- 
some Concrete Carts are used. 

Street work, as is well known, is the most unfavor- 
able class of work for the use of concrete mixers 
economically, because of the large area over which a 
small quantity of concrete must be placed. The use 
of Ransome Push Carts (see page 54) with Ransome 
Mixers has enabled us to solve the problem of mixing 
and placing concrete in streets economically as above 
shown. For comparison we may add that where 
wages are $1.50 a day, a very common cost for the 
labor of mixing and placing concrete by hand in street 
work is 75 cents per cu. yd. of concrete ; and it is 



8i 

rarely that the labor cost is as low as 50 cents per 
cu. yd. It will be seen that a street contractor who 
owns a Ransome Mixer and Ransome Push Carts can 
save 25 to 50 cents per cu. yd. over hand work. More- 
over, the Ransome Mixer can be used for making 
concrete for retaining w^alls, cellar walls, cement side- 
walks, and any other class of work demanding the 
most thorough mixing. Whereas the ''continuous 
mixers" used for street w^ork are good for nothing 
else, and are not as good as a Ransome even in street 
construction. 

Ransome Steel Tray Mortar Barrow. — A trial or- 
der will convince you that this is the best mortar bar- 
row that has ever been made. While it is not ex- 
tremely heavy, you will find that all of the weak fea- 
tures usually found in mortar barrows have been elim- 
inated. Observe (Fig. 46) the heavy angle steel legs, 
also the w^heels wdiich are of extra quality. The axle 
bearings are heavy and being placed under handles 
do not weaken handles at that point. Tray made of 
No. 15 steel, edge rolled over 5-16 inch steel rod; size 
of tray on top, 28 inches wide by 36 inches long, on 
bottom 20 inches wide by 21 inches long, depth at front 
iSy2 inches, at back 9 inches; capacity, 4>4 cubic 
feet. Per dozen $55.00. 

Angle Leg Steel Tray Barrow. — This barrow (Fig. 
47) is intended to supply the demand where a general 
purpose barrow is needed. The projection of the han- 
dles beyond the wheel make it dump forward very 
easily and at the same time this does not prevent the 
barrow being used for side dump. The tray is made 
of number 14 steel, pressed, without seams or rivets. 
Size of tray on top 29 inches wide by 35 inches long. 
Capacity 4 cubic feet. Per dozen, $50.00. 



82 




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Fig. 48— RANSOME CHARGING BARROW. 



RANSOME CHARQINQ BARROW 



CAPACITY 


WEIGHT 


PRICE 


3 cubic feet 

4 cubie feet 

5 cubic feet 


145 

I52 

i6o 


$10,00 
12.00 
14.00 



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Fif?. 49 — A SPROCKET CHAIN CARRYING A RANSOME CHARCING BARROW UP A RUNWAY TO THE MIXER. 



85 

Ransome Charging Barrows and How They Can 
Be Elevated With a Sprocket Chain. — The Ransome 
Two-A\' heel Charging Barrow is shown in Fig. 48. The 
barrow is made entirely of steel and iron, and has a 
capacity of 3 to 6 en. ft., according to the size ordered. 
This barrow is much better than the ordinary wheel- 
barrow for delivering materials to a Ransome Mixer, 
not only because it holds more material, but because 
it is dumped by tipping forward instead of sidewise, 
and, in consequence, does not spill any of the materials 
on the platform. A Ransome Charging Barrow 
weighs less than a Ransome Concrete Push Cart, and 
is consequently to be preferred where the materia) 
must be wheeled up a steep runway. ^Moreover, by 
using a sprocket chain and sprocket wheels (one at 
the top and one at the bottom of the inclined runway), 
the engine that drives the mixer can be used to keep 
this sprocket chain in constant motion. Then if you 
have a prong riveted to the rear face of the Ransome 
Charging Barrow, this prong will catch on the 
sprocket chain, and the chain will carry the charging 
barrow up the incline. This enables a man to wheel 

three times as big a load of stone up a steep incline 
as is possible with an ordinary wheelbarrow. The 
sprocket chain and sprocket wheels cost next to noth- 
ing, and can be driven by any Ransome Engine that 
drives a Ransome Mixer. Fig. 49 shows a plant 
arrangement in which ^ sprocket chain is used foi 
elevating barrows. ._ 



86 




Fig-. 49^>— RANSOME HOIST BUCKET. 



Ransome Concrete Hoist=Bucket 





No. 1— lOcu.ft. 


No, 2—20 cu. ft. 


No. 3—30 cu. ft. 


No. 4- -40 cu, ft. 




Weight 


Price 


Weight 


Price 


Weight 


Price 


Weight 
Lbs. 


Price 




Ivbs. 




Lbs. 




Lbs. 






Bucket complete - - 


500 


$60,00 


550 


$65.00 


650 


$75.00 


750 


$85 00 


Bail only 


130 


14.00 


140 


15.00 


160 


17.00 


180 


19.00 


Trunnion 


50 


5,00 


75 


7.50 


80 


8.00 


115 


11.50 


Front Brace 


18 


1.00 


12 


1.30 


18 


2,00 


25 


2.60 


Rear Brace 


8 


1.00 


12 


1.30 


18 


2.00 


25 


2.60 


Cross Brace 


10^ 


1.10 


13 


1.40 


22 


2.30 


36 


3.60 


Nose Piece 


35 


3.50 


30 


5.00 


65 


6.50 


80 


8.00 


Sheave Wheel. 42 in. 


200 


15.00 


200 


15.00 


200 


15.00 


200 


15.00 


Sheave Wheel Jour- 


20 


2.75 


20 


2.75 


20 


2.75 


20 


2.75 


nal Box 



















87 

The Ransome Hoist Bucket for Hoisting Concrete 
and Materials, Patented March 4, 1902. — The materials 
used in making concrete, as well as the concrete itself, 
must be frequently hoisted. In such cases the bucket 
shown in Fig. /[g^A can be profitably used. This bucket 
is designed to slide up and down in a light timber 
framework, and to dump automatically when it reaches 
the proper place to dump. Hence there is no necessity 
of having a man to dump the bucket — it dumps itself 
by gravity. 

As will be seen by studying the flrawing, Fig. ^i. 
the bucket tips forward to dump. This forward tip- 
ping occurs because the front guide in the hoisting 
tower is sawed off at the place where it is desired to 
have the bucket dump. The 1)ucket rights itself again 
automatically as soon as it begins to descend. As just 
stated, this bucket may be used either to raise the sand, 
stone and cement to the concrete mixer, or to raise the 
concrete from the mixer to the place of deposit. Fig. 
51 shows a plant used in erecting many reinforced con- 
crete buildings, where the concrete must be raised to 
the different floors of the building as the building rises. 
The bucket dumps into small concrete bins, from 
which the concrete is drawn off' into Ransome Push 
Carts and hauled to place. 

The bottom of the bucket is curved in such a way 
that the material does not roll out, but slides out, there- 
by scouring the bottom of the bucket clean. 

One contractor has devised an ingenious method of 
automatically discharging the concrete from the mixer 
into the bucket. He has fastened a long counterbal- 
anced lever to the discharge chute, in such a way that 
the descending bucket strikes the lever and tilts the 



88 






Sir 



"^ 




Fig. 50— RANSOME FRICTION HOIST CRAB. 
Can be Attached to any Engine. 



chute, thus discharging the concrete. As the bucket 
ascends, the counterweight tips the discharge chute 
back so that no concrete can come out. This saves 
having a man to operate the discharge chute. 



89 



Ransome Friction Hoist Crab Table of Data 



Hoist Crab Complete 

Eccentric Box 

Eccentric 

Eccentric Strap 

Friction Wheel 

Brake Block 

Journal Box 2x5 



2r6 

1 5 



Hoist No. 1 



Pattern 



< I > < i 1 a 

J-l 6 

Hoisting Drum . , . 

Pinion 

Gear 

Sprocket Wheel. . 

Lever 

Driving Shaft . . . 
Intermediate Shaft 

Drum Shaft 

Fibre Friction 

Speed of Driving Shaft 
Will lift 75 feet per m 
Horse-power required 



a80 

a89 
a88 
aOO 

a87 

a39 
a41 
350 
053 
044 
88 



Weight 
lbs. 



1000 

22 

17 

8 

108 

15 

33 

17K 
232 

140 

50 

63 

3(3 

28 

44 

25 

203 

3500 

12 



$125 



00 
3 CO 
G 00 
2 50 
8 00 
2 00 



50 

75 



20 00 

2 50 
8 50 

4 75 

3 50 
3 00 

2 60 

3 40 

5 00 
R.P.M. 
Pounds 
H.P. 



Hoist No. 2 



Pattern 



a79 

a81 
a80 
a82 
a83 
a85 
a39 
a41 

350 
a84 
a45 

88 



Weight 
lbs. 



1520 
32 

28 

10 

170 

25 

45 



Price 



17>^ 

232 

21 

214 

50 

63 

37 

48 

05 

32 

216 

6000 

20 



$150 00 

4 50 
6 75 

2 75 
12 00 

3 00 

5 00 
50 



4 

2 75 
20 00 

3 00 
12 20 



4 

3 

3 

3 

4 

6 00 
R.P.M. 
Pounds 
H.P. 



75 

50 
05 
50 

45 



Fig. 49/^ shows a Ransome Bucket used to hoist 
the broken stone and sand to bins that feed into the 
Ransome Mixer. In any case, these buckets are great 
money savers, and by using a Ransome Friction Hoist 
Crab (see Fig. 50), the same engine that drives the 
concrete mixer can be used to hoist the bucket. 

This hoist can be attached to any engine, and is es- 
pecially useful in connection with the engine that 
drives a Ransome Concrete Mixer. By means of a 
sprocket wheel and chain^ this crab hoist can be geared 



90 




■wec«BB>x:ikarti 



mUAANL R ROUGH (DiMEAM 

EXCLUSIVE WESTERN AGENTv? 



3 




91 

to any engine, and, when so geared, is ready for hoist 
ing purposes. This crab was originally designed l)y 
Mr. E. L. Ransonie for use on the contract work of 
Ransome & Smith Co., Concrete Engineers. In erect- 
ing buildings and other structures made of concrete, 
the crab hoist serves admirably for raising bucketsful 
of concrete or other materials. One lever gives the 
operator perfect control over the hoisting drum. If 
desired, the crab hoist can be run by an electric motor, 
and, in fact, that was the method used b}^ Ransome & 
Smith Co. in erecting the large reinforced concrete fac- 
tory buildings for the Foster-Armstrong Piano Fac- 
tory, at Despatch, near R'ochester, X. Y. On other 
work of a similar character, however, the Ransome 
Crab Hoist has been geared directly to the engine used 
to drive the concrete mixer ; and, because of the low 
price of the crab hoist, it is likely that many contractors 
will find it particularly useful for just such work. 

Hoists Xo. I and X^o. 2 are designed for short lifts 
only and their drums will handle 200 feet of cable only. 
For long lifts crab X^o. 3 should be used. This crab 
(Fig. 52) will handle 500 feet of ^>8 hich cable, and has 
a capacity of 8,000 pounds. Operated with 15 H. P., 
it will lift 2,300 pounds at 150 feet per minute, when 
driven at 193 revolutions per minute of the driving 
shaft. The list price of the X^o. 3 crab is $250.00. 

Ransome Wire Rope. — Ransome Ploisting Rope is 
made of steel, 6 strands of 19 wires to the strand, 
with a hemp center. Ransome & Smith Co. have used 
this rope for years in their contracting business, and 
have found that one Ransome Rope will outlast four 
ropes of any other make. The flexibility of Ransome 
Wire Rope is a feature that impresses a contractor 



92 

as being remarkable by contrast with the stiffness of 
the wire rope of other makes. This flexibihty is what 
accounts in part for the long life of Ransome Rope, 
even under such severe usage as occurs when the rope 
passes around small sheaves. But the steel used in 
making the wire is of special quality, designed to resist 
the abrasive action that occurs when one wire of a 
strand rubs on its neighbor. This rubbing is bound to 
occur whenever a wire rope is bent, as in passing 
around a sheave or drum. Wires in ropes made of or- 



Ransome Wire Hoisting Rope 

Nineteen Wires to the Strand Hemp Center 



Telegraph Name 



Mace 

Macron . 
Madam . 
Madcap. 
Maggot . 
Magic... 
Magnate 

Maid 

Major:... 
Malice... 
Mallet... 
Maltrese 
Manacle. 
Mandate . 
Mango . . 



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20 


0.62 


H 


30 


29 


0.89 


Vs 


39 


36 


1.20 


1 


49 


50 


1.58 


1/8 


57>^ 


60 


2.00 


IX 


71^ 


76 


2.50 


IH 


90 


96 


3.00 


VA 


109 


113 


3.55 


IH 


166 


157 


5.00 


2 


18) 


191 


6.30 


2K 


229 


238 


8.00 


2>^ 


275 


266 


10.00 


2H 


330 


315 


12.00 



93 

dinary steel soon wear thin, because of this repeated 
rubbing on one another as they pass over sheaves and 
drums, and then they break. But due to the special 
quality of the steel used in making Ransome Wire 
Ropes, coupled with the method of making the rope 
so as to gixe extreme flexibility, we are able to ofifer a 
rope that will outlast anything of its kind several times 
over. The wire used in making Ransome Ropes is 
carefully tested for elongation, torsion and tensile 
strength. Hence there is no variation in the quality 
of our ropes. Every rope turned out by us is as good 
as every other rope we make — always dependable and 
always durable. It will pay you to give Ransome Rope 
a trial. 




Fig-. 53 — RANSOME GATE FOR BOTTOM OF BIX. 
■Weig-ht 150 lbs. List Price, $18.00. 

Ransome Bin Gates. — There are three styles of 
Ransome Bin Gates. The one shown above is designed 
for use where stone or sand are to be discharged 
through the bottom of a bin. On the following page are 
two dififerent types of gates ; one for use on sand or 
stone bins, where the discharge is from the side of the 



94 




Fig. 54 — RANSOME GATE FOR OVERHEAD SAND OR STONE BIN. 
Weight, 147 lbs. List Price, .$15.00. 




Fig. 55— RANSOME GATE FOR CONCRETE HOPPER. 
Weight, 150 lbs. List Price, $17.00. 



95 



bin ; the other for use on a concrete bin or hopper. This 
last named gate is provided with a cross plate in front, 
which prevents fluid concrete from slopping out when 
the gate is being closed. 

The Ransome Water Measuring Tank Used in Con- 
crete Mixing. — An automatic device for delivering the 
exact amount of water required for 
each batch of concrete is shown in the 
accompanying illustration. The water 
from the supply pipe enters at A, and 
passes up through the threaded pipe 
D into the tank. The float C closes a 
valve E, where the tank is full of 
water. Upon opening a valve B (and 
closing A), the water flows into the 
concrete mixer until it reaches the 
level of the top of the threaded pipe 
D, when no more flows. By screw- 
ing the tank up or down on pipe D, 
any desired quantity of water can be 
turned into the Ransome ^lixer for 
each batch of concrete. Once it has been ascertained 
just how much water is needed for a batch of concrete, 
the Ransome AA^ater Pleasuring Tank is adjusted, as 
just described, and after that it delivers the required 
amount of water automatically. Contractors will ap- 
preciate the value of this device, as it insures an abso- 
lutely uniform concrete. One batch will not be all 
"slop," and the next batch nearly dry. The Ransome 
W^ater Measuring Tank thus obviates disputes with 
inspectors, and it saves times in delivering water to the 
'"""■i-^'er. List Price, $25.00. 




Fig. 55 — RANSOME 
WATER TANK. 



96 

The Ransome Tamper. — The tamping process, with 
the wet concrete mixture of to-day, is really a slicing 
and cutting process for the purpose of letting out air 
bubbles and causing the ingredients to flow together 
into a compact mass by disturbing the condition of 
unstable equilibrium into which they mass together 




Fig-. 56 — RANSOME TAMPER. 

when dumped from the carts or barrows. The old 
fashioned trowel faced tamper is not suitable for this 
work and in its place the tamper shown in the ac- 
companying cut has been designed. This tamper con- 
sists of a rather narrow and long thin steel cutting- 
blade riveted to an iron pipe handle as shown by the 
drawing. This tamper has been proved out by exten- 
sive use in building work and will be found an efh- 
cient and desirable tool in all respects. 

List Price, $2.50. 




za 



Fig. 57 — RANSOME CONCRETE AX. 
(See Opposite Page.) 



97 

Rollers for Concrete, Floors, Pavements, Etc. 

These rollers are made in three sizes and weights: 
No. 1 Light 36 in. diam., 36 in. wide, weight 290 lbs. 
No. 2 Medium 36 in. diam., 36 in. wide, weight 375 bs. 
No. 3 Heavy 30 in diam., 24 in. wide, weight 645 lbs. 
Rolling is far better and cheaper than tamping. Two men with 
roll'^rs will do the work of a dozen men with tampers on flat sur- 
faces. Start with the light roller, then follow with the medium 
weight, and finish with the heavy. 

The Ransome Concrete Ax is a tool for giving a 
"hammer dressed finish" to the surface of a concrete 
wall. It gives a fine appearing finish at a very low 
cost, and makes it unnecessary to use great pains in 
making the wooden forms, for the ax removes all signs 
of joints betAveen the boards, grain, etc., on the con- 
crete. As shown in the photograph, the ax is a double 
bit ax, and the steel blades are bolted to the casting to 
which the handle is inserted. The blades are removed 
when dull, and are sharpened either with a file or 
with an emery wheel. A common laborer will average 
loo square feet of wall dressed with a Ransome Con- 
crete Ax in lo hours, at a cost of i>< cents per square 

foot. 

List Price of Ax, $3.50. Extra blades, 60c. each. 




Fig. 58 — RANSOME CONCRETE ROLLER 
For Floors and Sidewalks. 



98 




Fig. 59 — RANS(>.M1'; TWISTING MACHINE 
For Twisting Steel Rods. 



The Ransome Twisting Machine. — Fig. 59 shows 
this machine which is designed to meet the require- 
ments of contractors who desire to twist their steel on 
the job. This machine will handle all sizes from 34 to 
1% iiich square, and is equipped with a nine set of dies 
for sizes Yx inch to i^ inch inclusive, advancing by 
y^ inch. There are also furnished with each machine 
three sets of gears with ratios of 13 to 75, 19 to 69 
and 33 to 55. These gears provide ample change of 
speed for ordinary conditions. The weight of the ma- 
chine is 1,800 lbs., including the three sets of gears 
and nine sets of dies. It is operated by 12 H. P. Con- 
tractors will find it to their advantage to own one 
of these machines. By utilizing their watchmen at 
night the cost of twisting is made nominal. 



99 




5*^-" 



Fig. 60 — ROCK CRUSHER. 



STEEL CRU5HERS 





lA 












r--^' . 


Size jaw 
opening. 


Capacity in ton 

per hour 

Jaws set part 

2 inches. 


Approximate 
weight, bs. 


Approximate 

weight of 
heaviest piece 


c/^ o 
> 




Horse-power 
approqimate. 


Price net, witl 

chilled jaws.f.o 

Dunellen, N.) 


*Bace 


8 to 12 


6,000 


730 


170 


44x8 


12 


$630 


7x13 






lbs. 










* Beedo 


12 to 18 


85,00 


1,190 


155 


50x8 


15 


$780 


9x15 






lbs. 










*Bdfpr 


24 to 40 


19,000 


2,530 


140 


60x10 


25 


Sl,70O 


11x26 






lbs. 











*Code Word. 

Crushers fitted with manganese jaws at advanced prices. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 



TOO 




Fig-. 61 — RANSOME AUTOMATIC CEMENT TESTER. 



Ransome Automatic Cement Tester 

1000 Lbs. (450 kg.) Capacity, $1.25 
2000 •• (900 kg.) •* $1.75 

DIMENSIONS 1000 MACHINE 



Extreme L,ength. . .30 in . .559 meter 
Extreme Width. . .15 in. . .407 meter 
Extreme Height, 2 ft. 4 in. .661 meter 



Weight 115 1b.s..52.16ke-. 

Shipping Weight 150 lbs. .68.04 kg. 

vShipping Measurements, lOcu. ft 283 meter 



Telegraph 
Waggish 

Woodward 



Price, f. o. b. New York as illustrated. 1000 lbs. (450 kg.) 
capacity, including Scale and one Mold for tensile tests 
of Cement, A, S, C, E. standard specimens. 

Price, f, o, b, New York, as illustrated, 2000 lbs. (900 kg,) 
capacity, including Scale and one Mold for tensile tests< 
of Cement, A, S, C, E, standard .specimens. 



lOI 

DIMENSIONS 2000 MACHINE 

Extreme I^ength 3 ft. 2 in 966 meter 

Extreme Width 1 ft. 6 in 458 meter 

Extreme Height 3 ft. 2 in 966 meter 

Weight 245 lbs 111.132 kg. 

Shipping Weight 390 lbs 176,904 kg. 

Shipping Measurements 22 cu, ft 6626 cu, meter 



Description and Operation. — A Tension Testing 
Machine is indispensable in concrete construction. 
Know your materials if you would avoid trouble. Be- 
gin by testing your cement before it goes into the 
work. 

The illustration, Fig. 6i, shows the Ransome Auto- 
matic Cement Tester. It is constructed entirely of 
metal, and is of superior design and finish. 

The beam is brought to a balance by pouring shot 
into the cone-shaped bucket on the left of the Machine, 
thus counterbalancing the weight on the right-hand 
side of the Machine. The test briquette is then placed 
in the grips and by means of the handwheel under the 
lower grip, the slack is taken up. A piston valve 
(Patented Nov. 8th, 1904) in the bucket is then lifted 
by throwing the latch over and the shot flows out of 
the bucket causing the weight to overbalance the 
bucket and load thus to be applied to the specimen. 
When a sufiicient weight of shot has flowed out of the 
bucket, the unbalanced force of the weight is sufficient 
to break the briquette, and then the lightened bucket 
is moved upward by the weight and the piston valve 
in it closed, causing the flow of shot to cease. To 
change the speed of test the flow of shot can be regu- 
lated by means of the knurled screw at top of the pis- 
ton valve. 



I02 



The weight of shot which has flowed out is a meas- 
ure of the force required to break the briquette, and 
this shot is caught in a scoop on a scale which is gradu- 
ated to read directly the stress on the briquette. 

If for any reason the main beam should touch the 
buffer before the specimen of cement is broken, the 
valve automatically closes and the flow of shot ceases. 
The operator then raises the beam by means of the 
crank through the worm and worm gear, and the test 
continues. 

The piston valve (Patented Nov. 8th, 1904) for con- 
trolling the flow of shot we believe to be the simplest 
and most effective automatic valve made. 

If it is desired to make a test with the beam in a 
horizontal position, it can be kept level by means of 
the crank and worm wheel. 

In place of the spring balance, any form of scale 
may be used. 

We would draw the attention of Engineers to the 
solid-back Cement Testing Grips, patented May loth, 
1904. This new design was suggested by the complaints 
received that the grips spread during the process of 
testing, which spreading caused the conditions to 
vary and the results to be inaccurate. These grips are 
made strong enough to prevent springing. 

The above description and operation applies to both 
sizes of Cement Testers. The weight of shot in the 
1,000-lbs. machine is as i lb. to 100 lbs. ; by this we 
mean that 10 lbs. of shot weighed on an ordinary scale 
would indicated a strain of i.ooo lbs. 

In the 2,000-lbs. machine the proportion is i lb. 
to 80 lbs., viz., 25 lbs. of shot will indicate 2,000 lbs. 
strain. 



103 




Fig. 62 — RANSOME CONCRETE TESTING MACHINE. 
Capacitj', 50 Tons in Compression. 



Ransome Compression Testing Machine. — Every 
contractor should know the strength of the mixtures 
he is using. Before starting on an important work he 
should determine b_y actual test the economic value 
of the various available materials. A compression 
testing machine is invaluable on any work in re-en- 
forced concrete. You know where you stand if you 



104 

use one of these machines. You can determine 
whether or not it is safe to strip your forms. You 
can save the price of one of these machines on a 
single contract. 

The following are dimensions of the machine 
shown in Fig. 62. Diameter of ram, 5 inches; platen, 
loxio inches; clear space, 10 inches; length over all, 
36 inches; width over all, 12^ inches; height over all, 
33 inches; measurement when boxed, 20x36x40 inches; 
net weight, 515 lbs.; gross shipping weight, 550 lbs. 

Price, $240.00 

Boiling Test for Cement. — It is extremely impor- 
tant that cement be tested for soundness. The follow- 
ing is a simple test, and cement which will not pass 
this test should not be used in important structures: 

To 1,000 grains of cement add 200 grains of water 
and mix with trowel for five minutes. In cases where 
the cement is fresh it may be necessary to use a little 
more water than above given, but in no case use over 
250 grains. Make the mixed cement into a cake about 
3 inches in diameter, y2 inch thick in center and taper- 
ing to a feather edge. Make the cake upon a clean glass 
plate. Place the cake in a damp chamber or cover it 
with a wet cloth for 24 hours, then place it in a rack 
and cover with water ; heat the water slowly up to 
212 deg. Fahrenheit and maintain this temperature 
for six hours. Allow the cake to cool in the water. 
If it warps or twists or shows expansion cracks it must 
not be used. 



I05 




Fig-. 63 — RANSOME CEMENT BOILER AND RACK. 
List price, $25.00. 



io6 




Fig. 64 — RANSOME DISC CRANK. 
Vertical Engine. 



Ransome Disc Crank Vertical Engine. — We present 
this style of engine as the most desirable form for 
general purposes where small powers are required. 
They are very strong, heavy in construction, but well 
proportioned, and will stand hard- work and high speed. 
A critical test of every engine is made before it 
leaves our factory, and the necessary adjustments care- 



I07 




Fig. 65 — RANSOME ENGINE 
With Counter Shaft Brackets. 



fully made, so that the engine is ready to run the mo- 
ment it is placed in position and given steam. We 
make eleven sizes of this engine, as shown on next 
page. 

Sizes 25 H. P. and larger are made extra heavy 
in all parts. Rods and shafts are of steel, and "brasses" 
of the connecting rod are phosphor bronze. Bearings 
are long and of large diameter, and are made of best 
quality babbit. Ample provision is made in all Avear- 
ing parts for adjustment. 



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Fig. G6 — RANSOME UPRIGHT TUBULAR BOILERS. 



Ransome Upright Tubular Boilers. — Our Upright 
Tubular Boilers are made of open-hearth homogeneous 
flange steel plate, 60,000 pounds tensile strength per 
square inch of section, an elongation of 20 to 25 per 
cent., and a reduction of area of 45 to 50 per cent. ; 
can be turned over and closed down solid without 
fracture when cold, and does not blister. The vertical 
seams in all boilers 36 inches in diameter and larger are 
double riveted. The bottom of Avater-leg, also the 
opening around fire-door, is formed by flanging the 
furnace plate out to meet the shell, as shown in sec- 



112 



tional cut on preceding page. The fire-boxes of Nos. 
13 and up only are fitted with stay-bolts. In the 
smaller sizes we use furnace plate of sufiEicient thick- 
ness to avoid necessity for stay-bolts, thus facilitating 
the cleaning of water-leg in three sizes. 

Nos. I to 9, inclusive, have two, and all other sizes 
three, hand-holes in the water-leg near bottom, and 
all boilers have four hand-holes over crown sheet. The 
tubes are arranged with two clear spaces between them 
i^ inches or more in width, crossing at right angles. 
These spaces are directly opposite the hand-hole open- 
ings, by means of which the crown sheet on these boil- 
ers may be cleaned readily. This spacing also gives 
better circulation in the boilers. When ordered com- 
plete, we include base, grates, hood, pop safety-valve, 
steam gauge, water gauge, three gauge-cocks, check- 
valve, feed-valve and blow-ofif cock with piping to at- 
tach same in our usual manner. 

When ordered without fixtures, we include boiler, 
with furnace door and handholes only. Anything or- 
dered, not included in the above list of fixtures, will 
be charged as an extra. Previous to shipment every 
boiler is tested with water and steam and subjected to 
a hydrostatic pressure of 150 pounds to the square inch. 
A certificate of inspection and test issued by the Hart- 
ford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company 
is furnished with every boiler. 

We can furnish, if required, a policy of insurance 
for one year, issued by the Hartford Steam Boiler 
Inspection and Insurance Company, at a slight addi- 
tional charge. This policy is payable to the purchaser, 
and will be in force wherever the boiler is located. 
Upright tubular boilers with submerged tubes are 
built on special order. 



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114 



Ransome Special Boilers 

Are Made in 4 Sizes Only 



H.P. 


Size 


No. of Tubes 


Size of Tubes 


Grate Area, sq. ins. 


10 
15 
20 
30 


36" X 69" 

42"x75" 
42" X 87" 
48"x93" 


68 
92 
92 

128 


2"x33" 
2"x39" 
2"x51" 
2" X 54" 


754 7 
1075 2 
1075 2 
1052 2 



The materials used in the construction of these 
boilers is the same as is used in our standard boilers, 
with the exception that the boiler shell is extended to 
form the ash pit, thus doing away with the cast iron 
base. They are especially adapted for mounting on 
wheels on account of their low center of gravity. 

Instruction for Starting and Managing Ransome 
Boilers. — (i) See that all connections with the boiler 
are properly made and tight. 

(2) Fill the boiler up to or above the second 
gauge with water and take particular notice while boil- 
er is being filled that all handhole plates and connec- 
tions around the boiler are tight. Particularly note 
that the check valve does not leak. 

(3) Build a slow fire in the boiler until the water 
becomes hot. Under no circumstances force your fire 
until after steam begins to generate. This can be de- 
termined by leaving the top gauge-cocks open until 
steam appears. 

(4) After about ten (10) or fifteen (15) pounds of 
steam has been raised, note whether there are any 
slight leaks appearing in the boiler or its connections. 



IIS 

(5) After steam lias been raised to amount of pres- 
sure to be carried, try your safety valve and be sure 
that it is in good working order. It is advisable to lift 
the safety valve from its seat at least twice a day. 

(6) Always carry the water in the boiler at a 
height that will best allow the engine to operate with- 
out carrying over water with the steam. It is always 
best to carry the water line in the boiler as high as pos- 
sible safely. * 

(7) Never allow the fire-door of boiler to be open, 
except when firing the boiler. In checking steam al- 
ways close the ash pit doors and damper in the stack. 
If this is not sufficient to check the steam, fire should 
be banked. 

(8) When shutting the boiler down at night, un- 
der no circumstances allow^the furnace do©r to remain 
open. 



n6 




117 






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119 

Ransome Portable Boilers on Skids or Wheels. — 

The thickness of the shell outside of fire-box and 
furnace is Yx inch. The thickness of furnace tube 
sheet is y% inch. The thickness of backhead is 5-16 
inch for sizes Nos. 3 to 8, inclusive, and ^ inch for 
larger sizes. 

All prices cover boilers f. o. b. New York complete 
with fittings and fixtures as specified on page 117, which 
includes smokestack. 

When built with water-front, fire-box is about three 
inches shorter outside, making grates about six inches 
shorter. AVater-front style boilers, either with water 
bottom or open bottom fire-box, are built on special 
order only, and at an extra price. All open bottom 
boilers are built with wrought-iron ring in bottom of 
water-leg. Some boilers use cast-iron rings. 

Grates suitable for coal dust, when ordered, will 
be substituted for regular grates without extra charge. 
Special grates for burning pea coal, straight bar pat- 
tern with ^-inch air space, also Tupper or herring- 
bone grates, can be furnished at a slight additional 
charge. Shaking grates are recommended for use in 
open-bottom style of boilers only, owing to limited 
depth of ash-pit in water bottom style. 

All smokestacks are No. 16 gauge : if heavier gauge 
is desired, a proportionate extra charo'e will be made. 

AVe can furnish, if required, a policy of insurance 
for one year issued by the Hartford Steam Boiler In- 
spection and Insurance Company, at a slight addi- 
tional charge. This policy is payable to the purchaser 
and will be in force wherever the boiler is located. 



120 




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Derrick Engines 

Double Cylinder, Double Friction Drums, and Derrick Drums 
with necessary Boilers and Fixtures complete 

TABLE OF DIMENSIONS AND PRICE LIST 



Size Number of Engine 

Horse-power as usually rated 

Size of Cylinder, inches 

Diameter of Drums, inches 

Diameter of Flanges, inches 

Length of Drums, inches 

Diameter of Derrick Drum>, inches 

Diameter of Derrick Drum Flanges, inches 

Length of Derriek Drums, inches 

Size of Boiler, inches 

No. 2 inch Tubes 

Floor Space required, inches 

Weight Hoisted, usual speed, pounds 

Approximate Shipping Weight, pounds 

Price complete, as shown 

Cipher Code Name 

Price of Crating for Export 



170X 


171 


15 


25 


GX X 8 


7x10 


14 


14 


26 


30 


25 


32 


10 


12 


18 


19 


12 


15 


36x84 


42 X 84 


60 


84 


48x113 


60 X 135 


2500 


3500 


9000 


13000 






$1550 00 


$1760 00 


Hasok 


Homon 


$48 00 


$64 00 



T26 





127 

DESCRIPTION OF FRICTION 

On the opposite page we present cut showing the 
manner of attaching the friction blocks on the '*Wern 
Friction." 

The groove "A" is turned to standard templets, 
thereby insuring the groove to be always the same 
size. The blocks "B" are made of hickory and are 
absolutely interchangeable ; they are inserted in the 
groove ''A" and held in place by the cast-iron wedge 
"C." 

The advantage of this style friction is that it is 
not necessary to take either the drum or gear-wheel 
off of the Engine for the purpose of renewing the fric- 
tion blocks. These blocks being interchangeable, a 
set can be shipped from the factory, and all that is 
necessary to make the change is to take out the 
thrust-key, move the drum against the thrust pedes- 
tal, loosen the jam-nuts which tighten the wedge 
''C," and remove the worn-out blocks and replace 
them with new blocks, tighten up the jam-nuts on the 
wedge "C," put the drum back into place, and adjust 
the thrust-key, when the Engine is again ready for 
operation. 

We invite a careful study of the friction here 
slK)wn, for we believe that engineers will appreciate 
the ease with which this friction can be renewed. 



128 



TEST -A- 




Top coat 
-Joint 
Concrete slab 



TEST-B- 



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129 

Ransomite. — Ransuniite is a dry powder, which, 
when dissolved in water and appHed to hardened con- 
crete, will cause fresh concrete to adhere to it. In 
brief, it bonds old concrete to new concrete — 
something that was never accomplished until 
Ransomite was invented. By its use, all concrete 
work can be made monolithic. Concrete that has har- 
dened over night will adhere to new concrete placed 
the following day. Old cement sidewalks that have 
spalled off can be patched perfectly by the aid of Ran- 
somite. Indeed, the uses of Ransomite are beyond 
enumeration. 

The following report of Robert W. Hunt Co. testi- 
fies as to the efficiency of the process. 
Gentlemen: 

The following is a report of the tests of the Ransome 
Bonding Process, by Robert W. Hunt & Co. 

TEST A. Three concrete slabs 4 ft. square and 4 ins 
thick were made, using a mixture of one part cement, three 
parts sand and five parts broken stone. 

After hardening one week, one of these slabs was given 
a top coat of i in. thick, using a mixture of one part cement 
and two parts sand, simply wetting the concrete with water 
in the customary manner before putting on the top. 

The other two slabs, after hardening two weeks, were 
prepared with the bonding mixture, according to your specifi- 
cations, and also covered with a top i in. thick of the i — 2 
mixture. 

After the top coat had hardened two weeks we applied 
hammer and chisel to the joint. 

From the one which did not receive the bonding treat- 
ment, the top comes away in a perfect layer, showing no 
bond whatever; while from two which received the bonding 
treatment it is entirely impossible to remove the top, showing 
that the top has joined in a perfect bond with the concrete 
base and become an integral part of the whole mass. 



130 

TEST B. Two columns 24 ins. long by 4 ins. square of a 
1 — 2 — 4 mixture were made, having- one end finished off on 
a bevel of 45 degrees. After one week's hardening one 
column was finished out to a total length of 48 ins. after 
melting the joint with water and using the i — 2 — 4 mixture, 
making a column 48 ins. long with a 45 deg. joint in the 
center. 

The other column was likewise finished out to a length 
of 48 ins. with the same mixture, after preparing the joint 
with the binding mixture according to 3^our specification. 

After one week's hardening both columns were supported 
on centers and a load applied directl}^ over the joint. The 
one made without the bonding mixture joint came apart in 
handling, parting directly at the joint, showing that no bond 
whatever existed. The column bearing the bonding mixture 
joint withstood a load of 460 pounds, and broke to one side 
of the joint, proving the joint to be stronger than the con- 
crete. 

TEST C. A 12 in. cube of concrete of the i — 2 — 4 mix- 
ture, cored to the depth of 2 ins. in the center of one face, 
was made up and allowed to harden for one week. 

A top 4 ins. thick also of the i — 2 — 4 mixture, cored in 
the center to fit the core in the cube, and with a lug 4 ins. 
wide extending around the four sides, was placed on the 
cube after preparing a bonding mixture joint according to 
your specifications. 

After hardening one week, the mass of concrete was 
placed in a frame supporting the projecting top and pressure 
applied from the top. 

^^'e find the concrete to give wa}' in an irregular jagged 
break affecting both the top and the base, but showing no 
separation whatever at the joint, thereb}^ proving the joint 
to be stronger than the concrete. 

Respectfully. 
ROBERT AN'. HUNT & CO., 

Engineers. 



131 
COST OF CONCRETE HIXINQ AND USEFUL DATA 

Cost of Mixing Concrete. — When concrete is mixed 
by hand with shovels and wheeled only a short dis- 
tance in harrows to the place of deposit, one man will 
nsnally average about 2 cu. yds. mixed and placed in 
a day. Now, what can be done with a Ransome Mixer 
under similar conditions? The answer depends very 
largely upon the method used in conveying the materi- 
als to and from the mixer. Where the mixer is fed 
from bins holding sand and stone, and the concrete 
conveyed away in cars or large buckets, with every- 
thing designed to avoid delays in conveying, we have 
averaged one batch of concrete per minute. The num- 
ber of cubic yards of concrete (don't confuse the yard- 
as:e of concrete with the vardage of loose materials fed 
into the mixer) in a batch depends on the size of mixer 
used. The following table gives the number of cubic 
vards of concrete per batch of different sized Ransome 
Mixers : 



Size of Ransome Mixer 


No. 1 


No. 2 


No. 3 


No. 4 


Cu. yds. Concrete per Batch 

Cu. yds. per day (1 batch per min.) 


H cu. yd. 

150 


H cu. yd. 

300 


% cu. yd. 

450 


1 cu. yd 

600 



See also the table on page 66 



If the plant is so arranged as to deliver and handle 
one batch per minute, or 600 batches per lo-hour day. 
we see that the daily output is as above given. AA'hile 
this output is possible, it is seldom attained, but it is 
not unreasonable to expect an output of one batch in 
one and one-half minutes, or two-thirds of the dailv 



132 

output above given. When the plant fails to average 
a batch every two minutes, something is wrong with 
the design of your conveying plant or with your fore- 
man. The above is based on the assumption that you 
are feeding the materials from storage bins. If, how- 
ever, you are feeding from wheelbarrows in a confined 
place, where only a few shovelers and a few wheel- 
barrows can be worked, your average output may 
easily fall ofif to one batch every three or four minutes. 
You will see in print widely different outputs from 
Ransome Mixers, but the reason is always apparent 
when you understand the methods used in delivering 
the materials to the mixer and in conveying them away 
from the mixer. The mixer itself is always capable 
of mixing a batch per minute. Oftentimes it does not 
pay to provide the accessory plant needed to deliver 
a batch per minute. For example, you may have to 
move your plant frequently, and you cannot afford to 
erect bins to hold the stone and sand. Again, it may 
happen that you could not use a batch per minute in 
the work. For example, your progress may be limited 
by the rapidity with which forms can be erected and 
moved. 

A contractor will usually find it economic to provide 
for handling one batch of concrete in one and one-half 
to two minutes, and this can be accomplished with 
ease if he will study the local conditions in advance. 

A good general rule to be remembered : The cost of 
mixing and placing concrete with a Ransome Mixer 
is never more than one-half the cost of mixing and 
placing by hand, and, with the proper conveying ap- 
pliances, it may readily be reduced to one-quarter the 
cost of handwork. Even on street work, which is not 



133 

as favorable for machine mixing as many other kinds 
of concrete work, you can more than cut your cost 
in two by using a Ransome Mixer with Ransome Con- 
crete Push Carts, as you will see by records given on 
page 79. 

In building concrete sewers, use the same method, 
and you will cut your labor cost in two. Some con- 
tractors have built concrete sewers with Ransome Mix- 
ers by shifting the mixer along to keep pace with the 
advance of the sewer. This is all right where the 
streets are not crowded and where the roadway is 
comparatively level. A more economic plan usually is 
not to move the mixer until about 1,400 lin. ft. of sewer 
are built, building 700 ft. each way from the mixer, 
and handling the concrete in Ransome Push Carts, 
at a cost of 1^4 cents per cu. yd. per 100 ft. of 
average haul. Contractors who have not tried this 
method will be astonished at the results. 

When you hear a man say that a machine mixer 
will not do for his kind of work, although it is all 
right for other kinds, you may set it down that he has 
never tried a Ransome Mixer combined with Ransome 
Concrete Carts or with Ransome Concrete Dumping 
Buckets and Friction Crab Hoists. For you should 
remember that batch mixers of the tilting type can 
never be compared in output with a Ransome Mixer, 
which does not tilt, and that the accessories used with 
a Ransome Mixer are often quite as essential to eco- 
nomic success as is the mixer itself. 

Labor Cost of a Concrete Retaining Wall, Using 
a Mixing and Hoisting Plant Mounted in a Movable 
Tower. Engineering Contracting. — To build a con- 
crete retaining wall, 20 feet high, at the Grand Cen- 



134 

tral Slatiun of the New York Central R. Iv., New York 
City, the contractors ha\'e installed a plant that is 
very etticient for this kind of work. As shown in 
the photograph, bMg. y^^, a No. 4 Ransonie Concrete 
Mixer is nionntecl in a tower, and above the mixer are 
bins for stone and sand. The stone and sand are 
hoisted and dnmpecl into the bins by means of two 
Ransome automatic dumping buckets. These buck- 
ets are shown at the bottom of the tower, on 
the left hand side of the photograi)h. They slide in 
guides and dump automatically into the bins when they 
reach the proper position. The buckets are hoisted 
by a Lidgerwood double drum hoist which is mounted 
on the same floor in the tower as the mixer is. The 
Lidgerwood hoist is driven by a General Electric mo- 
tor ; and the" Ransome mixer is driven by"^ 30 H. P. 
General -Ele-e^rin: iEi^jtoj._;,iT^ke:"'^ljec^^ is ob- 

tained from the street line nearby. This use of electric 
motors on contact work is becoming more and more 
common, especially in cities. A licensed engineer is 
not required to operate a motor, and the cost of mount- 
ing and shifting a heavy steam boiler is avoided. 

Each of the two storage bins for stone and sand 
holds 10 cubic yards; and about 100 barrels of cement 
are also stored in the tower. The bags of cement are 
hoisted in the sand bucket. The stone and sand are 
discharged from the bins into a measuring hopper, 
into which the cement is also emptied. Then by open- 
ing a gate the materials are discharged into the mixer. 
The concrete is mixed in the proportions of i 13 :6 ; Atlas 
cement being used. The mixer is a No. 4 Ransome, 
having a capacity of 40 cubic feet of loose materials, 
that is, 4 cubic feet cement, 12 cubic feet sand, and 24 






aiu 



iVil 







135 

cubic feet stone. The weight of tlie mixer on skids is 
5,000 pounds. Each of the Ransome automatic dump- 
ing buckets used on this work is of a size to fit the mix- 
er, and holds 40 cubic feet water measure. 

The tower travels on a track whose rails are 13 feet 
apart, the inner rail being- 5 feet from the face of the 
concrete wall. A standard gauge track is laid between 
the rails of the lower track, so that cars of sand and 
stone may be delivered on both sides of the auto- 
matic hoisting buckets. The sand is shoveled direct 
from the cars into the bucket used for hoisting the 
sand, and the cement is delivered on the shoulders of 
men from box cars. The stone cannot be shoveled 
direct from the cars into the bucket, due to the fact 
that the output of the mixer is so great that enough 
men cannot be crowded into the small space available 
near the bucket. Hence a light platform is erected be- 
tween the two tracks as shown in the photograph, 
so that wheelbarrows can be run from the stone cars 
to the hoisting bucket. The stone is delivered on flat 
cars, and shoveled into wheelbarrows of the end-dump 
pattern. The barrows are wheeled to the hoisting 
bucket. If it were possible to avoid this wheelbarrow 
work the cost could be greatly reduced. It seems to 
the writer that a clam-shell bucket operated by a loco- 
motive crane could be used instead of the men who 
shovel and wheel the stone. Such a clam-shell would 
have to handle stone at the rate of about 40 cubic 
yards per hour. To deliver the stone from the clam- 
shell bucket to the hoisting bucket, a steel lined chute 
could be provided, or a small end-dump car, operated 
by a cable, could be used to convey the broken stone 
to the hoisting bucket. It happens that on this par- 



136 

ticular work a locomotive crane is used to shift the 
concrete forms in panels. Hence the cost of plant need 
not be materially increased, provided the locomotive 
crane is used to shift the forms at night. 

A clam-shell w^ould not clean up the bottom of the 
cars, it is true, but the cleaning can be done by hand, 
shoveling the stone directly into the hoisting bucket. 
We offer this as a suggestion. Scow loads of stone 
are unloaded at small cost by using clam-shell buckets ; 
but the shallow and narrow piles of stone in flat cars 
may not be so profitably unloaded by clam-shells. Any 
information from our readers bearing upon this point 
will be gladly received by the editor. 

The concrete is delivered from the mixer into two 
dump cars of the end dump pattern, each holding i 
cubic yard. These cars run on a light track (2 ft. gauge) 
laid in sections upon the cross-pieces connecting the 
uprights of the forms. The track is a single track with- 
out switches^ as there is no room to switch. Hence 
one car must wait for the other. Four men are used 
to push each car, making 8 men transporting the con- 
crete. Then there are two more men whose duty is to 
assist in dumping the cars, and who clean the track of 
any concrete which may lodge upon it. 

The wall is built in sctions 51 feet long, each 
section containing 250 cubic yards. One of these sec- 
tions is filled in 8 hours, wth the greatest ease ; and, by 
a little hustling, a section can be filled in 6j4 hours, 
which is at the rate of 37 cubic yards of concrete per 
hour. Since each batch is about i cubic yard of con- 
crete measured in place, this is an excellent output, 
only a trifle more than i^ minutes being required per 
batch. The actual time of making a batch is often 



137 

less than this, but slight delays and rests on the part 
of the men increase the average time per batch. 

Working eight hours per day, the daily cost of oper- 
ating this mixing plant is as follows, wages being 
$1.50 for laborers : 

Per Day. 
2 men carrying cement 3- 00 

6 men shoveling sand 9.00 

17 men shoveling stone 25 . 00 

II men wheeling stone 16.00 

2 men at stone and sand bins 3- 00 

2 men opening cement bags 3- 00 

I man dumping hopper i • 50 

I man dumping mixer i • 50 

1 man cleaning chute of mixer, etc i • 50 

8 men pushing 2 cars 12.00 

2 men clearing track, etc 3-00 

7 men spading concrete 10. 50 

I motorman or engineer ' 3 • 00 

I foreman 5.00 

Electricity, estimated 7.00 

Total, 250 cubic 3^ards, at 40 cents $105.00 

Take note that 40 per cent, of this cost is charged 
to shoveling and wheeling the broken stone to the 
hoisting bucket. The spading or ramming of the con- 
crete is 4 cents per cubic yard, but even this seems 
unnecessary to the wTiter, because a very sloppy con- 
crete is used. HoAvever, some large stones, or ''plums," 
are embedded in the concrete, and the men engaged in 
spading attend to the bedding of these large stones, 
they also spade the concrete so as to leave 2 or 3 inches 
of clear mortar on the front face of the wall. 

The forms are shown in detail herewith. They are 



138 

made in panels 51 feet long, so that a locomotive crane 
can shift the forms. The front panel is lined on the 
inside with thin sheet-steel, so as to leave a smooth 
concrete surface. The concrete is allowed to set over 
night ; then the forms are stripped off, and the face of 
the wall is rubbed. A locomotive crane (45 feet boom) 
made by the Browning Engineering Co., is used to 
shift the forms. The crane is used most of the time in 
excavating work, and we are unable to say just how 
long it is occupied in shifting the forms. Three sets 
of forms are used, so as to avoid delays. A gang of 
10 carpenters, or dock builders, is kept busy most of 
the time on the work of moving the forms and re-as- 
sembling. They also scrape and oil the inside of the 
forms. Allowing $5 a day for the use of the locomo- 
tive crane, and $25 a day for carpenter work, we have 
a cost of 12 cents per cubic yard of concrete for shift- 
ing the forms. This brings the total labor cost up to 
52 cents per cubic yard. 

The contractor for this work is the O'Rourke En- 
gineering Construction Co., of New York. Mr. A. B. 
Corthell, Terminal Engineer, is in charge of the work. 

Hoist and Car Plant for Mixing and Placing Con- 
crete for a 30-Span Arch Viaduct."' — A combination of 
bucket hoists and cars was successfully used recently 
in constructing a long concrete arch viaduct for the 
Union R. R. at Pittsburg, Pa. The contractors were 
the McKelvey-Hine Co., of Pittsburg, Pa., and we are 
indebted to them for the information given. 

The double track concrete viaduct replaced a single 
track steel viaduct, being built around and embedding 



>|; ti 



Engineering-Contracting", Dec. 18, 1907. 



139 

the original steel structure which was maintained in 
service. The concrete viaduct consisted of 21 spans 
of 26 feet, 7 spans of 16 feet, and 2 spans of 22 feet. 
With piers it required about 15,000 cubic yards of con- 
crete. Two Ransome concrete hoists, one on each side 
of the original steel structure near one end, were sup- 
plied with concrete by a No. 4 Ransome mixer. The 
mixer discharged direct into the bucket of one hoist 
and by means of a shuttle car and chute into the 
bucket of the other hoist. 

The shuttle car ran from the mixer up an incline 
laid with two tracks, one narroAv gauge and one wide 
gauge, having the same center line. The car was open 
at the front end and its two rear wheels rode on the 
broad gauge rails and its two forward wheels rode on 
the narrow gauge rails. At the top of the incline the 
narrow gauge rails pitched sharply below^ the grade of 
the broad gauge rails so that the rear end of the car 
was tilted up enough to pour the concrete into a chute 
which led to the bucket of the hoist. The sand and 
gravel bins wxre elevated above the mixer and received 
their materials from cars which dumped directly from 
the steel viaduct. 

The hoist buckets discharged into two hoppers 
mounted on platforms on the old viaduct. These plat- 
forms straddled tw^o narrow gauge tracks, one on each 
side of the old viaduct parallel to and clearing the main 
track. These side tracks were carried on the cantilever 
ends of long timbers laid across the old viaduct be- 
tween ties. At street crossings the overhanging ends 
of the long timbers w^ere strutted diagonally down to 
the outside shelf of the bottom chords of the plate gir- 
der spans. Six cars were used and the concrete was 



140 

dumped by them directly into the forms ; the fall from 
the track above being in some cases 40 feet. The 
hoists and shuttle car were operated by an 8^x12 
inch Lambert derrick engine, the boiler of which also 
supplied steam to the mixer engine. The concrete cars 
were operated by cable haulage by two Lambert 7x10 
inch engines. 

The labor force employed in mixing and placing 
concrete, including form work, was 45 men, and this 
force placed on the average 200 cubic yards of concrete 
per day. Assuming wages we get the following costs 
of different parts of the work for labor above: 

Item. Per day. Per cu. yd. 

I timekeeper at $2.50 $2.50 $0.0125 

I general foreman at $5 5- 00 0.0250 

3 enginemen at $5 i5-00 0.0750 

I carpenter foreman at $4. . . . . . . 4.00 , 0.0200 

12 carpenters at $3.50. 42.00 0.2100 

I foreman at $4 4.00 0.0200 

8 men mixing and transporting 

at $1.75 14.00 0.0700 

13 men placing concrete at $1.75 22.75 0-i^37 
I foreman finishing at $4 4.00 0.0200 

4 laborers finishing at $1.75 ... 7.00 0.0350 

45 men at $2.70 $120.25 $0.6012 

It is probable that the carpenter work includes 
merely shifting and erecting forms and not the first 
cost of framing centers. No materials, of course, are 
included. It should be kept in mind that while the 
output and labor force are exact the wages are as- 
sumed. 



warn 



WJILLAM B. HOUGH OOKIPANY 

I EXCLU51VB WESTERN AGENTS 
j K CM 1 C>^C O 2C 

* ■ I ' • "» !■ ■» i r «^li»i«M— «— — n> i III! I wT I f I 1 I 



■VP 



No. ot 
Mixer. 


I 234 


a 


9'-0"10'-0"ll'- 0"12'-0" 


b 


16'-3"17'-9"18'-ll"20'-0" 


c 


9'-7" 


10'- 7" 11'- 7" 12'- 7", 


d 


8'-6" 


9'-6''10'- 6''11'-G" 


e 


lb'-7" 


lo'-9"17'-10"19'-9" 


f 


I'-O" 


2'-0" 2'- 0" 2'-3"i 


g 


2'-ll" 


3'- 6" 4'- 0" 


4' -6" 

r)'-8" 


h 


4'-0" 


4'- 9" ,5'- 4" 


k 


r)'-o" 


6'-0"v7'- 0" 7'.0"1 


1 


l'-6" 


I'- 9" 


.l'-10"ll'.ll", 


Beams A 


3'xl2" 


4'xl2" 


.3'xl4"4'xl4", 


Beams B 


6'x8 " 


G'x8 "1 ()'x 0" O'xlO"] 



Stone Compartment 



Sand 
Compartment 




^ "H Front View. 

Side View. 

< Iff. i\ With a plant of this sort you can easily handle 50 to 70 batches per hour. One of our customers averaged over 7r> batche.« 



141 

Cost of Forms for Concrete. — For estimating the 
cost of forms for retaining walls and piers, ''Engi- 
neering-Contracting" gives the following rule: 

Multiply the number of square feet surface area of 
the sides and ends of the wall or piers by 2.8, and 
the product will be the number of feet board measure 
required for sheet plank and studs for the forms. 

If the form lumber can be used more than once, 
divide the number of feet board measure by the num- 
ber of times that it can be used, to ascertain the 
amount to be charged to each pier. 

The foregoing rule is based on the assumption 
that the sheeting plank Avill be 2 in. thick, and that 
the upright studs will be 4x6 in., spaced 2^ ft. center 
to center, or 3x6 in. studs spaced 2 ft. center to center. 
No allowance is included for timber to brace the studs, 
since it is customary to hold the forms together either 
with bolts or with ordinary No. 9 telegraph wire which 
weighs 0.06 lbs. per foot. 

Where carpenters' wages are $3.00 a day, forms 
can be erected and taken down for about $8 per 1,000 
feet B. M. Since there are 2.8 feet B. M. of forms per 
square feet of surface area of concrete to be sheeted, 
it costs $8x2.8, or ^Yx cents per square feet for the la- 
bor of carpenters erecting and taking down the forms. 
If lumber is worth $24 per 1,000 feet B. M., then the 
lumber itself costs $24x2.8, or 6^ cents per square 
feet of concrete surface ; but if the lumber can be used 
three times, we have 1-3 of 6^ or 2^ cents per square 
feet of concrete as the cost of the lumber, to which 
must be added the 2^ cents per square feet for the 



142 

carpenters' labor, making- a total of 43/^ cents per 
square feet of concrete surface. 

By dividing the total number of cubic yards of con- 
crete into the total number of square feet to be 
sheeted with forms, the number of square feet per 
cubic yard is obtained. Multiply this number of square 
feet by 4}^ cents, and the product is the cost per cubic 
yard for material and labor in the forms, assuming the 
material to be used three times. 



g^Q^- i i' 14« ( at f' at ; e < ; . Su^ >pose- .- wte- ~ h a ve- .-ai-eon c r e t e pier 
(,a\Teica|^dn^^8'-itjingk<, '6: ft.'thick and ri'2 ft. long, what 
:' vs^U/ the, forms cost per cii. yd., assumiirg that the 
rlumberiii the forms can be used over three times? The 
I |su£'f'aG^a'rfe'a--of'''the two ends .of the- pier-is 6 x 18, or 
.^^loR s.a...ft*.£or^-^ach'..eLuL-or-.2-ij5. S£|,..ft.. far .the.-. two ends. 
The surface area of the two sides is 2 x 12 x 18, or 
432 sq. ft. Hence the total area to be sheeted with 
forms is 216 + 432, or 648 sq. ft. Now, the total 
number of cubic yards is 6 x 12 x 18 -^ 2"/, or 48 cu. 
yds. Hence there are 648 -^ 48, or 13^ sq. ft. of 
forms per cu. yd. of concrete. Since the forms will 
cost 4^ X 13^, or 60% cents, practically 60 cents per 
cu. yd. of concrete to be paid for the labor and ma- 
terial in the forms. 

Each job should be figured in this manner, for it is 
evident that, if a wall is thin, the cost of the forms 
per cubic yard of w^all will be high. If the wall is 
thick, it will be low. 

It is often possible to make the forms in panels, 



mUAPM 3. HOUGM COKIPANY 

EXCLU51VBWB3TBRN AGENTS 
X CWICAGO X 







Allow l^"Drop in Orade to Center 



Eleva+ion. 



Pig. 75 — AN EOONOMirAT. OONCRETE PLANT WHICH WILT. HANDLE OVER 50 BATCHES PER HOTTR. 



143 

or sections, which arc not knocked to pieces each 
time they are moved, but arc moved bodily. Then 
they may be used again and again, not only effecting 
a saving in lumber, but in labor. But in calculating 
the number of panels that will be needed, and the 
number of times that they can be used, it must be 
remembered that it is not safe to strip the forms from 
the concrete inside 24 hours — even of retaining walls, 
and that where the concrete must act as an arch or 
beam, as in bridges and floors, the forms must usually 
be left in place at least two weeks to give the concrete 
time to gain enough strength to carry its ow^n weight 
and any construction loads that may come upon it. 
On the other hand, centers and forms for small con- 
crete sewers, up to 5 or 6 feet diameter, are usually 
moved wdth safety wdthin 24 to 36 hours, provided the 
work is not done in freezing w^eather. In cold weather 
concrete takes longer to set or harden, and, in very 
cold weather, it will not set at all unless protected 
from the cold. A\diere concrete is put into buildings, 
and wdierever it is used in thin beams or arches, it is 
an excellent plan to make small cubes of concrete from 
the same batches that go into the structure, and let 
these cubes harden under practicall}' the same con- 
ditions as the concrete in the structure. Then by 
breaking these cubes, the contractor can determine 
when it is safe to remove the forms. 

The Size of Cement Barrels.— A barrel of Portland 
cement contains 380 lbs. of cement, and the barrel 
itself weighs about 20 lbs. more. The size of barrels 
varies considerably, hence the number of cubic feet 



144 

of cement in a barrel is by no means the same for all 
brands of cement. As a rule, a barrel of American 
Portland cement has a capacity of 3.5 cu. ft. of packed 
cement. But when the cement is dumped out loose 
and measured in a box, it will measure 4.0 to 4.2 cu, ft. 
These facts are quite important, because specifications 
usually require that concrete shall be mixed in 
a ratio of one part cement by measure to so many 
parts sand to so many parts broken stone. Therefore, 
if the contractor is allowed to measure his cement 
loose in a box, it takes less cement per cubic yard of 
concrete than if he required to measure his cement 
packed in a barrel. Specifications are not always clear 
on this point, but the most general practice now seems 
to be to allow 3.8 cu. ft. of cement to the barrel, which 
is a compromise between the packed measure of 3.5 cu. 
ft. and the loose measure of 4.0 cu. ft. Moreover, 3.8 
cu. ft. to the barrel is equivalent to 100 lbs. to the 
cubic foot of cement, since a barrel contains 380 lbs. 
Now, sand and broken stone usually weigh less than 
100 lbs. to the cubic foot, so that if the proportions of 
cement, sand and stone in concrete were made by 
weight (as some engineers contend they should be), 
we would not be far off in calling a barrel of cement 
equivalent to 3.8 cu. ft. Perhaps we would be even 
closer to the truth if we called a barrel 4 cu. ft., and 
that is a very convenient standard now that Portland 
cement is usually bought in cloth bags, for it takes 
four bags to make a l:)arrel. Then each l)ag is equiva- 
lent to I cu. ft. of cement. \Yq are inclined to favor 
this last method of assuming arbitrarily th^t ^very 



145 

barrel of Portland cement shall be called 4 cu. ft., and 
every bag of cement shall be called i cu. ft. in pro- 
portioning the cement, sand and stone. 

Natural cement is lighter than Portland and not so 
strong. The Western (natural) cements, such as 
Louisville and Akron, weigh 265 lbs. per bbl., and the 
barrel weighs 15 lbs. more. The Rosendale (natural) 
cements of New York and Pennsylvania weigh 300 lbs. 
per bbl., and the barrel weighs about 20 lbs. more. 
Natural cements are usually sold in cloth bags, three 
bags to the barrel, instead of four bags, as is the case 
with Portland Cement. 

Proportions of Ingredients in Concrete. — Concrete 
is usually made by mixing one part (by measure) of 
cement with a given number of parts of sand and 
broken stone or gravel. A 1 13 :6 concrete means i 
part cement, 3 parts sand and 6 parts broken stone. 
A 1 :3 :6 mixture is very commonly specified for a 
Portland Cement concrete. A richer mixture of 1:2:5 
is often specified where natural cement is used instead 
of Portland. 

The amount of cement, sand and stone required to 
make a cubic yard of concrete varies not only with 
the proportion of the parts specified, but with the size 
of the cement barrel and with the percentage of voids 
(interspaces) in the sand and broken stone. The fol- 
lowing table, taken from Gillette's "Handbook of Cost 
Data for Contractors," gives the amounts of materials 
required to make i cu. yd. of concrete, when the barrel 
of cement is 3.8 cu. ft., the sand voids 40 per cent, and 
the stone voids 45 per cent. : 



146 



Ingredients in 1 Cubic Yard of Concrete 



Proportions By Volume 


1:2:4 


1:2:5 


1:2:6 
1.18 


1:2'^:5 


l:2y^:6 


1:3:4 


Bbls. Cement per cu. yd. concrete 


1.46 


1.30 


1.13 


1.00 


1.25 


Cu. yds. Sand " 


0,41 


0.36 


0.33 


0.40 


0.35 


0.53 


Cu, yd.s. Stone -' 


0.82 


0.90 


1.00 


0.80 


0.84 


0.71 


Proportions By Volume 


1:3:5 


1:3:6 


1:3:7 


1:4:7 


1:4:8 


1:4:9 


Bbls. Cement per cu. yd. concrete 


1.13 


1.05 


0.96 


0.82 


0.77 


0.73 


Cu. yds. Sand 


0.48 


0.44 


0,40 


0.46 


0.43 


0.41 


Cu.yds. Stone " 


0.80 


0.88 


0.93 


0.80 


0.86 


0.92 



To illustrate the use of the table, supposing the 
concrete is specified to be i part cement, 3 parts sand 
and 6 parts broken stone. Then we find in the col- 
umns headed 1:3:6 that it takes 1.05 bbls. cement, 
0.44 cu. yds. sand and 0.88 cu. yds. broken stone to 
make i cu. yd. concrete packed in place. 

Very often it is desired to know how many barrels 
of cement are required to make i cu. yd. of mortar. 
Some tests cited by Gillette gave the following re- 
sults : 

The cement barrel in this case was assumed to hold 
3.65 cu. ft., and the sand had 38 per cent, voids. 

Percentage of Water Reuired in Mortar.* — A good 
rule by which to determine the percentage of water by 
weight for any given mixture of mortar is as follows : 
Multiply the parts of sand by 8, add 24 to the product 
and divided the total by the sum of the parts of sand 
and cement. 

* Gillette's "Hand Book of Cost Data. 



147 

Example : Required percentage of water for a mor- 
tar of I cement to 3 sand : 

Solution 

1 cement =24:% 

3 sand X 8% =24% 



4 parts at 12% =48% 

Hence the water should be 12 per cent, of the 
combined weight of the cement and sand. For a i :i 
mortar, the rule gives 16 per cent, water. For i :2 
mortar, the rule gives 13^ per cent, water. For a i :6 
mortar, the rule gives 10.3 per cent, water. Inciden- 
tally, it may be added, the percentages of water ob- 
tained by this rule gives a mortar that has the greatest 
adhesion to steel rods (see Falk's ''Cement, Mortars 
and Concretes.") 

Voids in Broken Stone and Gravel.'' — The percen- 
tage of voids in loose, broken stone depends upon the 
character of the stone, upon whether it is broken by 
hand or in a crusher (probably also on the kind of 
crusher), and upon whether it is screened into differ- 
ent sizes, or the rtm of the crusher is taken. 

Pure quartz weighs 165 lbs. per cu. ft., hence broken 
quartz having 40 per cent, voids weighs 165 X 60 per 
cent., or 99 lbs. per cu. ft. Few gravels are entirely 
quartz, and many contain stone having a greater spe- 
cific gravity like some traps, or a less specific gravity 
like some shales and sandstones. 

The w^eight of a cubic foot of loose gravel or stone 
is therefore no accurate index of the percentage of 
voids unless the specific gravity is known. 

* Gillette's ''Handbook of Cost Data." 



148 



Specific Gravity of Stone. 

(Condensed from Merrill's "iJtones for Building.") 



2.78 Limestone, Joilet, 111 2.56 

2.^ to 8.0 " Quincy, I11..2.51to2.57 

.... 3.03 '• (oolitic) Bedford, 

.... 2.86 Ind 2.25to2.45 

2.92 " Mcarquette. Mich.. 2.34 

2.66 " Glens Falls, N.Y.. 2. TO 

2.84 " Lake Champ?ain, 

2.66 N.Y JL 2.75 

2.66 Sandstone, Portland, Conn,.. 2.64 

2.65 " Haverstraw, N. Y. 2.13 

Medina, N.Y 2.41 

Potsdam, N.Y... . 2.60 

(erit^Bejrea, O.... 2.12 

Specific Gravity of Common Minerals and Rocks. 



Trap, Boston, Mass. . .. 
" Duluth, Minn... 

" Jersey City, N. J 

" Staten Island, N.Y. . 

Gneiss, Madison Ave., N.Y. 

Granite.N ow London, Conn 

•• Greenwich, Conn. 

" Vinalhaven, Me. ., 

" Quincy, Mass 

^•' Barre, Vt 



Apatite 

Basalt 

Calcite, CaCOs 

Cassiterlte, SnOa 

Cerrusite, PbCo's 

Chalcopyrite, CuFeSj. . 

Coal, anthracite 

Coal, bituminous 

Diabase 

Diorite 

Dolomite, CaMg {OO-ih- 

Feldspar 

Felsite 

Galena, PbS 

Garnet 

Gneiss 

Granite 

Gypsum 

Halite (salt), NaCl 

Hematite, Fe208 

Hornblende 

Limonite, Fe304 (OH)c. 



2.92—3.25 Limestone 2.35- 

3.01 Magnetite, Fe304 4.9 - 

2.5 —2.73 Marble...; 2.08- 

6.4 —7.1 Mica 2.75- 

6.46—6.48 Mica Schist 2.5- 

4.1 —4.3 Olivine : 3.33- 

1.3—1.84 Porphyry 2.5- 

1.2—1.5 Pyrite, FeSa..- 4.83- 

2.6 —3.03 Quartz, 8102 2.5 - 

2.92 Quartzite 2.8- 

2.8 —2.9 Sandstone 2.0 - 

2.44—2.78 •« Medina 2.4 

2.65 •• Ohio 2.2 

7.25—7.77 " Slaty 1.82 

3.15—4.31 Shale 2.4 - 

2.62-2.92 Slate 2.5 - 

2.55—2.86 Sphalerite. ZnS 3.9- 

2.3 —3.28 Stibnite, Sb^Sg 4.5 - 

2.1 —2.56 Syenite 2.27- 

4.5 —5.3 Talc 2.56- 

3.05—3.47 Trap...... 2.6 - 

3.6 -4.0 



-2.87 

-5.2 

-2.85 

-8.1 

-2.9 

-3.5 

-2.8 

-5.2 

-2 8 

-2.7 

-2.78 



-2.8 
-2.8 

-4.2 

-4.6 

-2.65 

-2.8 

-3.0 



Tables show specific gravities of different min- 
erals and rocks, and weights of broken stone corre- 
sponding to different percentage of voids. 

It is rare that a gravel has less than 30 per cent, or 
more than 45 per cent, voids. If the pebbles vary con- 
siderably in size, so that the small fit in between the 
large, the voids may be as low as 30 per cent ; but if 
the pebbles are tolerably uniform the voids will ap- 
proach 45 per cent. 

Broken stone, being angular, does not compact so read- 
ily. 



149 



lly as gravel, and shows a higher percentage of voids when 
the fragments are uniform in size and shoveled loosely into 
a box; but the voids, even then, seldom exceed 52%. 

The following records of actual tests will indicate the 
range of void percentages: 

Prof. S. B. Newberry gives the voids in Sandusky Bay 
gravel, % to %-in. size, as being 42.4% voids; ^4 to V2o-in. 
size, 35.9% voids. 

Mr. William H. Hall gives the following tests on mixtures 
of Green River, Ky., blue limestone and Ohio River washed 
gravel: 

stone 

100% with 

80 

70 

60 

50 


The stone passed a 2i^-in. screen and the dust was re- 
moved by a fine screen. The gravel passed a l^^-in. screen. 

The voids in mixtures of Hudson River trap rock and 
clean gravel, of the sizes just given for the Kentucky mate- 
rials, were as follows: 



Grayel 


Voids 


\ in Mixture 


0% 




48% 


20 




44 


30 




41 


40 




'ASK 


50 




88 


100 




35 



Trap Gravel Voids in Mixture 

100% with 0% 50% 

60 " 40 38>i 

50 " 50 36 

" 100 35 

Mr. H. \'on Schon gives tests on a gravel having 34.1% 
voids as follows: 

Retained on l-inring.. 10.70% 

3^-in. ring 23.65 

" No. 4 sieve 8.70 

" No.lOsieve .' 17.J4 

" No. 20 sieve 21.76 

'• No. 30 sieve 6.49 

" No. 40 sieve 5.96 

Passed No. 40 sieve 5 59 

" l>i-inrlng 100.00 



150 





a u 


fl u 










•r-i © 


•fH -^ , 










M 5 • 


*^ C--3 


Weight in 


Lbs. per cu 
Voids aro 


O c3 
CCC5 




F^ 


30% 


35% 


40% 


1.0 


62.855 


1.684 


1,178 


1,094 


1.010 


•2.0 


124.7 


3 367 


2,357 


2,187 


2,020 


^.1 


130.9 


3,536 


2.475 


2.298 


2,121 


2 2 


137.2 


3,704 


2,593 


2.408 


2,222 


2.3 


143.4 


3,872 


2,711 


2,517 


2.323 


2.4 


149.7 


4,041 


2,828 


2,626 


2,424 


2.5 


155.0 


4,209 


2,946 


2,736 


2.525 


2.6 


162.1 


4.377 


3,064 


2,845 


2,626 


2.7 


168.4 


4,. 54 6 


.3.182 


2,955 


2,727 


?,8 


174.6 


4,714 


3,300 


3,064 


2.828 


2.9 


180.9 


4,882 


3,418 


3,174 


2,929 


8.0 


187.1 


5.051 


3,536 


3.283 


3.080 


3,1 


193.3 


5,219 


3,653 


3,392 


8,131 


3,2 


199.5 


5,388 


3,771 


3.502 


3.232 


3,3 


2/35.8 


5.556 


8,889 


3.611 


8.333 


3.4 


212.0 


5,724 


4,007 


3 721 


3.434 


3.5 


218.3 


5,893 


4,125 


3.830 


8,535 



yd. when 



45% 
926 
1.852 
1,946 
2.087 
2,130 
2,222 
2.315 
2,408 
2,500 
2.593 
2.685 
2.778 
2.871 
2,968 
8.056 
8.148 
3 241 



50% 
842 
1.684 
1,768 
1,852 
1.938 
2.020 
2,105 
2,189 
2,273 
2.357 
2.441 
2,526 
2.609 
2,694 
2,778 
2.862 
2.947 



Voids in L.6ose Broken Stone. 



Authority. 


Voids. 

49.0 

44.0 

46.5 
47.5 

47.0 
39 to 42 
48 to 52 

48.0 

50.0 

47.6 
40.5 
48.0 
43.0 
46.0 
53.4 
51.7 
52.1 
45.3 
45.8 
54.5 
54.5 
45.0 
51.2 
40.0 
30.0 
46.0 


Remarks. 


Sabin 


Limestone, crusher run after screening 




out ^s-in. and under. 
Limestone (1 part screenings mixed with 


Wni. M. Black 

J. J. R. Croes 

S. B. Newberry 

H. P. Boardman 

v.'m. n. Hall...!!.,!!! 


6 parts broken stoned. 
Screened and washed. 2 ins. and under. 
Gneiss, after screening out >4-ln. and 

under. 
Chiefly al^out egg size. 
Chicago limestone, crusher run. 

'•• " screened into sizes. 
Green River limestone. 2>^ ins. and 


Wm. n. Hall 


smaller, dust screened out. 
Hudson River trap, 2>^ ins. and smaller. 


Wm. B. Fuller 


dust screened out. 
New Jersey trap, crusher run, ^ to 2.1 In. 


Geo. A. Kimball 

Myron 8. Falk 


Knxbury conglomerate. >3 to 2>j ins. 
Limestone, J^ to 3 Ins. 


W. H. Henby 


" 2-in. size. 




" 1 ^-in. size. 


Feret 


Stone, 1.6 to 2.4 ins. 




0.8 to 1.6 in. 


<< 


0.4 to 0.8 In, 


A. W. Dow 


Bluestone. 89% being 1>^ to 2^ Ins, 
90% beiuK ^ to l^ln. 


Taylor and Thompson 

G.W. Chandler 

Emile Low 


Trap, hard. 1 to 2>^ ins. 

yc, to 1 in. ^ 

to 21^ ins, 
soft. 3^ to 2 Ins, 
Canton, 111. 
Buffalo limestone, crusher run. dust In. 


C. M. Saville 


Crushed cobblestone, screened into sizes. 







T5T 

How To Mix Tar Concrete in a Ransome.^ — Jn lay- 
ing a tar concrete base for a wood covered mill floor, 
the custom is to mix the tar, sand and stone by hand. 
But, in building 17,800 square feet of mill floor at 
Shawinigan, Canada, Mr. C. H. Chadesy, the engineer 
in charge, used a Ransome Mixer to great advantage. 
The hot materials were fed into the Ransoms and were 
kept hot during the mixing by a wood fire built under 
the drum of the mixer. A little "dead oil" applied 
to the discharge chute and to the wheelbarrows and 
shovels prevented the tar concrete from adhering to 
them. This is only another instance of the wide appli- 
cability of the Ransome Mixer. A tilting mixer could 
not have been used for this purpose, because during 
the time the mixer was tilted the tar would have 
cooled enough to make it stick. This is but another 
instance proving the contractor's adage : ' ''A Ran- 
some is the best all round mixer made." 

Shrinkage of Crushed Stone. — The following table 
illustrating the settlement of crushed stone in wagons 
will be of interest to contractors and will show the de- 
sirability from the contractor's point of view, of in- 
serting in the purchase agreement for crushed stone a 
clause to the effect that this material shall be paid for 
according to measurements taken on arrival of wagons 
at destination. The question as to whether the wagons 
are loaded by shovel or from bins has a considerable 
bearing on volume of the material per given weight 
and wdiere prices are even the balance is strongly in 
favor of the dealer whose wagons are loaded from 
bins. 



JS 
C/3 



be 
CO 

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C>1<M(MW 












do 



aid 



ood 



coo 

odd 



eo© 



p,o,a o. 
o o o o 

il Ih li Vh 
4J ^ 4-> ■!-> 



toiousm 



en t/5 (/) w 

U) U) 00 00 



I U) (30 I 

c c c 



c c c c 

V 0) V V 

(U d> <L> (U 

It Ih tH Wl 






<Ne^C<l(M(N 



"500010 



C* C4 C<1 C^ d 



"•diot^iN 



od»cd 



ocot^ 
od»o»o 



o CO CO 



t^ CO CO 



»HO>00 



dco'rji 



COcOiO 

ujcvico 



0.0. p. 
000 

<4H >+-< <4-l O O 



00000 
c c c c c 



CO o o^ o 1— f 

O to 10 CO to 



«PQOO"5 
t- CO t^ t- CO 

coco ■^ C^CO 



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M-l VMMH O O 



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CO CO CO CO CO 



153 

A Little "Trick" in Charging Concrete Mixers. — 
It frequently happens that a Ransome Concrete Mixer 
must be charged with materials delivered from stock 
piles near the mixer. The wheelbarrow method is 
commonly used where a mixer must be moved at 
frequent intervals; but a cheaper method, where the 
mixer is not to be shifted frequently, is to charge the 
mixer by the use of dump buckets handled by a der- 
rick. Now, if dump buckets are used, it is wise to 
have three of them, each being large enough to hold 
all the sand and stone necessary for each batch of 
concrete. Let your blacksmith rivet a sheet-steel par- 
tition in each bucket, dividing it into two sections, 
one section for stone and the other for sand. The 
sand section of the bucket is first filled, then the 
bucket is swung by a derrick over to the stone pile, 
where the stone section of the bucket is filled. By 
having three buckets, no delays occur, since one 
bucket is always at the sand pile, another at the stone 
pile and the third delivering the charge to the Ran- 
some Mixer. When this method is used, no charging 
bins are required at the mixer, but a large hopper or 
chute should be used at the mixer to facilitate dump- 
ing the bucket. When this method is employed, it 
is often wise to mount the Ransome Mixer high 
enough up so that the mixer can discharge the con- 
crete into a bin. From the bin the concrete is drawn 
off into carts or cars and hauled away. A concrete 
bin should be equipped with a Ransome Discharge 
Gate, Fig. 54. 

How to Use a Ransome Mixer 'nd Washer. 

— It is often specified that dirt; '^,yel must 

\ 



154 

be washed before it can be used in making concrete. 
The expense of washing sand with a hose, and the 
cost of rehandhng the sand several times before and 
after washing, can be avoided by the contractor who 
owns a Ransome Concrete Mixer. The dirty sand is 
hauled in carts or barrows to the mixer and dumped 
directly into it. \\ ater is then turned on until it be- 
gins to overflow at the discharge end of the mixer 
into a trough. The operator then begins to revolve 
the mixer slowly. The steel scoops riveted to the 
inside of the mixer pick up the sand and dump it back 
into the water^ so that the dirt in the sand is quickly 
washed out of the sand and held in suspension by the 
water. A small stream of water is constantly fed 
into the mixer as the dirty water runs out. In a few 
moments clear water begins to flow from the mixer, 
showing that the sand is clean. Then the operator 
lowers the discharge chute and delivers the clean sand 
into carts or other conveyances. So far as we know, 
the Ransome is the only concrete mixer that has ever 
been used successfully for washing sand or gravel. 
Its design is such as to make it the only mixer on the 
market that can be used economically for the purpose 
of washing dirty sand or gravel. 

Formula for Computing the Compressive Strength 
of Concrete. — The following formulas by Mr. Edwin 
Thacher, M. Am. Soc. C. E., from experiments con- 
ducted at Watertown Arsenal may be relied upon as 
giving the compressive strength of concrete made of 
good materials. The strengths are given in pounds 
per square in ^f compression surface. The formu- 
las are: 



155 



(Volume Sand \ 
^__ I 
\ olunie C ement / 

(Volume Sand \ 
Volume Cement/ 

(Volume Sand \ 
TT-^. -^ I 
Volume Cement/ 

(Volume Cement \ 
TT^. ^ \ — I 
Volume Sand / 



Waterproof Concrete. — It has been determined in 
construction of reservoirs, etc., that an admixture of 
about ten per cent, of hydrated lime to the amount of 
cement used will make a rich mixture of concrete 
waterproof. There are also a number of patented mix- 
tures, which when added to the concrete during mix- 
ing or washed on the surface of the concrete after the 
removal of forms, have a water-proofing efifect. 

When it is desired to obtain a concrete that is im- 
pervious to water, a rich mixture of not more than i — 
2 — 4 should be used, the broken stone or screened 
graved to be clean and range in size from ^ in. to ^ 
in. in diameter. 

It has been determined that concrete reaches its 
maximum strength in about three years. To retard the 
settling of cement, which is desirable at times in order 
that it will attain greater strength ultimately, add 
three pounds slacked lime and a solution of common 
salt and water, using two pounds to the gallon, and 
add one gallon of the solution to each barrel of cement 
used. 



156 

FORMULAS 

For the Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams. 

Alb = Ultimate bending moment in inch lbs. 

wP 

^- ^= Mb simple beam uniformly loaded. 

o 

wl- 

— =z Mb continuous beam uniformly loaded. 

ID 

w = weight on beam per lineal ft. 

1 = length of beam from cen. to cen. of supports. 

Mr = Mb. 

Mr = 90bd-. 

b = width of beam. 

d = depth of beam. 

With steel of an elastic limit of 54,000 lbs. use an 
area of 0.75 per cent. bd. 

With steel of an elastic limit of 35,000 lbs. use i.oo 
to 1.25 per cent bd. 

Concrete Footings. 

Plain concrete footings for earth pressure of 

1 ton per sq. ft. height = 0.5 (base — width col.) 

2 tons per sq. ft. height = 0.75 (base — width col.) 

3 tons per sq. ft. height = 0.90 (base — width col.) 

4 tons per sq. ft. height = (base — width col.) 

Step footings in courses. 
Reinforced concrete footings for earth pressure of 

1 ton per sq. ft. height = 0.175 (base — width col.) 

2 tons per sq. ft. height = 0.35 (base — width col.) 

3 tons per sq. ft. height = 0.525 (base — width col.) 

4 tons per sq. ft. height = 0.70 (base — width col.) 

For reinforcement use rods of a diameter equal to 
base ~ 100 spaced 10 times their diameter apart and 
one-tenth of height from bottom of footing. 



157 



Bearing Power of Soils 



Kind of Material 



Bearing Power in tons 
per. sq. ft. 



Rock — the hardest — in thick layers of native bed 

Rock equal to best ashlar masonry 

" " " brick " 



poor 

Clay on thick beds, always dry 

'• " " •• moderately dry 

" soft 

Gravel and coarse sand, well compacted 
Sand, compacted and well cemented 

" clean, dry 

Quicksand, alluvail soils, etc 



Min. 



Max. 



200 

25 

15 

5 



4 
2 
1 

8 
4 
2 
0.5 



30 

20 

10 

6 

4 

2 

10 

6 

4 

I 



The Use of Slag or Cinder Aggregates. — 1 he use of 

slag or cinder as aggregates for concrete should be de- 
cided upon only after careful investigation. In many 
cases the economy effected is only apparent, not real. 
By reason of the greater percentage of voids in slag 
and cinders as compared with broken stone, a much 
larger proportion of mortar is required to secure 
smooth work, and the resulting concrete is never as 
strong as good broken stone concrete, where an equal 
volume of cement is used. 

Hints for Specification Writers. — During the past 
year we have received many requests for assistance 
in the preparation of specifications for reinforced con- 



158 

Crete buildings, and, in view of the disastrous failures 
reported during the year, we believe the suggestions 
embodied in the following paragraphs may prove of 
service. 

In preparing specifications it is of course necessary 
to consider the requirements of the body (municipal, 
insurance, etc.) under whose jurisdiction the struc- 
ture will fall. For the purpose of facilitating con- 
formity to such laws we print herewith a table pub- 
lished by the Association of Portland Cement Manu- 
facturers. 

Reinforced concrete is a new building material and 
should be treated as such. In the vast majority of 
structures the designer ignores entirely this fact that 
reinforced concrete has structural individuality of its 
own, and is ill-suited to designs which, however excel- 
lent in themselves, are the outcome of years of prac- 
tise with wood, brick and masonry. There should be, 
and ultimately will be, an architecture of reinforced 
concrete. 

If you cannot get same results by applying a new 
building material to a preconceived design, no more 
can you ensure efficient workmanship in the new 
material by applying specifications which have been 
developed by years of practice or malpractice with 
materials of entirely different qualities. 

There are few text books on reinforced concrete, 
and the only teacher available is experience. The im- 
portance of experience cannot be too strongly empha- 
sized as an indication of competence. 



159 

It is not possible always to secure a contractor 
experienced in reinforced concrete, and it becomes, 
therefore, all the more important that the specifica- 
tions shall be drawn up carefully and that they shall 
provide every safeguard against faulty workmanship 
and materials. These safeguards should be largely in 
the line of tests, not only of materials before going 
into the work, but tests of the completed work. 

Incessant Watchfulness is the price of success. 
The most perfect design, the most scrupulous honesty 
may be defeated by carelessness or ignorance on the 
part of a single workman. Nothing must be left to 
chance, and it is essential that the contractor be 
thoroughly equipped as to plant and organization; 
that the personnel of his corps of assistants, and their 
organization be such as to secure perfect supervision 
of the work. 

In view of the current system of letting contracts, 
the specification is of extreme importance. In many, 
if not in most cases, the contract is let to the lowest 
bidder, who is to furnish the plans for the Reinforced 
Concrete Construction. This practice arose from the 
fact that until very recent years the work has been 
carried on by a few individuals or firms controlling 
one form or another of reinforcing metal, and, with the 
universal desire for competition and lack of knowledge 
upon the part of architects, it became customary to 
allow a contractor to submit a proposition, using such 
style of reinforcement as he desired. To this prac- 
tice may be traced most of the serious failures. The 
growth of concrete construction was abnormal. The 
general contractor became interested and in many 



i6o 

cases entered the field with all the confidence of ignor- 
ance. He had laid pavements, therefore he could put 
up a building concrete work was easy. Without any 
knowledge as to their worth, the inexperienced con- 
tractor depended upon designs furnished him gratis, 
by competing salesmen of rival concerns selling re- 
inforcing metal, who were interested only in selling 
the materials, and the temptation to skimp the de- 
sign, in order to show better results than a rival, 
was strong. This practice of injecting into the 
contract an irresponsible third party prevails largely 
to-day. It is pernicious and should be eliminated by 
any owner who desires good work. 

Your contractor should be an engineer of recognized 
standing, or have associated with him a consulting 
engineer of proved ability, who shall be held respon- 
sible for the design ; and it is preferable, in any event, 
to have the design when submitted by the contractor 
checked independently by an engineer representing the 
owner. 

The Importance of Tests. — We cannot impress too 
strongly upon contractors as well as upon architects 
and owners the importance of tests in connection 
with concrete construction. We believe most of the 
so-called failures of concrete construction may be 
directly traced to failure to provide proper tests. We 
submit below a few clauses which, if incorporated in 
specifications, will prevent serious trouble. 

I. The contractor shall maintain a testing labora- 
tory, wherein shall be provided facilities for making 
such tests as may be hereinafter provided for. 



i6i 

2 All cement shall be tested as to conformity with 
specification for cement as hereinafter printed. 

3. The owner, or his representative, may at any 
time select samples from the concrete as it is being 
laid. If such samples do not, at the expiration of 
seven days, develop the strengths as assumed in the 
calculations, he may immediately have that portion of 
the work wherein such material was used tested with 
full working load, and, if such work shows defects or 
undue weakness, he may require the contractor, at his 
own expense, to remove such section. 

4. At the option of the owner any section of a floor 
may be tested by loading with the full working load 
30 days after completion, and, in the event of undue 
cracking or failure, may require the contractor to re- 
place the defective section. 

The following general specification, with accom- 
panying notes, will be found applicable, as a whole, or 
in part, to most structures of Re-inforced concrete. No 
attempt has been made to cover the details, such as 
may be peculiar to any one work. The aim has been 
to give only features generally applicable. Dissent- 
ing voices may be heard, and many will disagree with 
certain features, but it is hoped that the mere attempt 
to outline a specification, which is a departure from 
accepted practice, will promote discussion, and arouse 
thought along a line well worthy of consideration. 

We shall appreciate any criticism or suggestion 
which will help in the preparation of a specification 
which will be more in keeping with concrete as a struc- 
tural entity, than the ordinary present day specifica- 
tion. 



l62 

DESIGN. 

1. Weight of Burned Clay Concrete. — The weight 
of burned clay concrete, incliidiiiL^- the steel reinforce- 
ment, shall be taken at 150 lbs. per cu. ft. 

2. Weight of Other Concrete.— The weight of all 
other concrete, including the reinforcement, shall be 
taken at 150 lbs. per cu. ft. 

3. Weight of Materials. — Besides the above, in 

calculating the dead loads, the weights of the different 
materials shall be assumed as given in Table No. i. 

TABLE NO. I. 

Weights of Building Materials, etc. 
In Pounds per Cubic Foot. 

Material Weight Alaterial. Weight 

Paving brick 150 Plaster 140 

Building brick 120 Glass 160 

Granite 170 Snow 40 

Marble 170 Spruce 25 

Limestone 160 Hemlock 25 

Slag 140 White Pine 25 

Gravel 120 Oregon Fir 30 

Slate 175 Yellow Pine 40 

Sand, clay and earth . 1 10 Oak 50 

Mortar 100 Cast Iron 450 

Stone concrete 150 WVought iron 490 

Cinder concrete 90 Steel 490 

Paving asphaltum . . 100 

4. Live Loads. — The following table gives the 
uniformly distributed live loads for which structural 
members shall be designed when their dead loads are 
as given in the first column A : 



i63 
Table No. 2 



DEAD L,OAD 

Pounds per Square Foot 

(Column A) 

40 or under 

50 

60 

TO 

SO 

90 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 



CORRESPONDING LIVE LOAD 
Pounds per Square Foot 



(1) 



;2) 



(3) 



(4) 



72 
63 
59 
53 

48 
46 



103 
93 

84 
76 
69 
64 



41 


58 


37 


53 


34 


49 


31 


44 


29 


41 


27 


39 



155 

140 

126 

114 

104 

96 

87 

80 

74 

66 

62 

59' 



194 
175 
158 
143 
130 
120 
109 
100 
93 
81 



74 



5. Dwellings, Etc. — The live loads on floors for 
dwellings, apartment houses, dormitories, hospitals 
and hotels, shall be as given in column (i) of Table 
Xo. II. 

6. Schoolrooms, Etc. — For schoolrooms, churches, 
offices, theatre galleries, use column (2) Table No. 11. 

7. Stores, Etc. — For ground floors of office build- 
ings, corridors and stairs in public buildings, ordinary 
stores, light manufacturing establishments, stables and 
garages, use column (3) Table No. II. 

8. Assembly Rooms, Etc. — For assembly rooms, 
main floors of theatres, ball rooms, gymnasiums or any 
room likely to be used for dancing or drilling, use 
column (4) Table No. II. 

9. Sidewalks. — For sidewalks, 300 pounds per 
square foot. 



164 

10. Warehouses, Etc. — For warehouses, factories, 

special according to service, but not less than column 
(4) of Table No. II. 

11. Columns. — For columns the specified uniform 
live loads per square foot shall be used with a mini- 
nuim of 20,000 pounds per colunui. 

12. Reductions on Columns. — h^or columns carry- 
ing more than five floors the live loads may be re- 
duced as follows : 

For columns supporting the roof and top floor, 
no reduction. 

For columns supporting each succeeding floor, 
a reduction of 5 per cent, of the total live 
load may be made until 50 per cent, is 
reached, which reduced load shall be used 
for the colunuis supporting all remaining 
floors. 

13. Exceptions to Reductions on Columns. — This 
reduction is not to apply to live load on columns of 
warehouses, and similar buildings which are likely to 
be fully loaded on all floors at the same time. 

14. Theory of Stress. — The method used in com- 
puting the stresses shall be such that the resuHant 
unit stresses shall not exceed the prescribed unit 
stresses as computed on the following assumptions : 

(i) That a plane section normal to the neutral 
axis remains such during flexure, from 
which it follows that the deformation in 
any fibre is directly proportionate to the 
distance of that fibre from the neutral axis. 
(2) That the modulus of elasticity remains con- 
stant within the limits of the working 
stresses fixed in these regulations and is as 
follows : 



i65 

Steel, 30,000,000 lbs. per square inch. 
Burnt clay concrete, 1,500,000 lbs. per 

square inch. 
All other concrete, 2,000,000 lbs. per square 

inch. 
(3) That concrete does not take tension, except 
that in floor slabs, secondary tension in- 
duced by internal shearing stresses may be 
assumed to exist. 

UNIT STRESSES. 

15. Unit Working Stresses. — The allowable unit 
stresses under a working load shall not exceed the 
following: 

Burned clay or cinder concrete — ■ 

Direct compression, 300 lbs. per square 

inch. 
Cross bending, 400 lbs. per square inch. 
Direct shearing, 150 lbs. per square inch. 
Shearing where secondary tension is 

allowed, 15 lbs. per square inch. 

All other concretes- — 

Direct compression, 500 lbs. per square 

inch. 
Cross bending, 800 lbs. per square inch. 
Direct shearing, 300 lbs. per square inch. 
Shearino- where secondary tension is 

allowed, 25 lbs. per square inch. 

STEEL. 

Medium Steel High Elastic Limit Steel 
Tension, 14,000 20,000 

16. Compression in Steel. — The compression in 
the steel shall be computed from the corresponding 



i66 

compression in the concrete, except for hooped 
cohimns. 

17. Bonding Stress Plain Bars. — The Bonding 
stress between steel and concrete under working load 
shall not exceed the folowing for plain steel: 

For medium steel, 50 lbs. per superficial sq. in. of 
contact. 

For High El. Lim. Steel, 30 lbs. per superficial sq. 
in. of contact. 

18. Bonding Stress other than Plain Bars. — For 
bars of such shape throughout their length that their 
efficiency of bond does not depend upon the adhesion 
of concrete to steel, the allowable bonding stress un- 
der working load shall be determined as follows: 

The bars shall be imbedded not less than six inches 
in concrete as herein defined and the force required to 
pull out the bar shall be ascertained. At least five 
such tests shall be made for each size of bar and an 
affidavit report of the test shall be submitted to the 
Commissioner of Public Buildings, who shall then fix 
one-fourth of the average stress thus ascertained at 
failure as the allowable working stress. 

19. Maximum Column Length. — The unsupported 
length of a column shall not exceed fifteen times its 
least lateral dimension. 

20« Combined Flexure and Compression. — In a 
column subjected to combined direct compression and 
flexure, the extreme fiber stress resulting from the 
combined actions shall not exceed the unit stress pre- 
scribed for direct compression. 

21. Reinforcement in Columns. — All columns shall 
have longitudinal steel members so arranged as to 



l67 

make the column capable of resisting flexure. These 
longitudinal members shall be stayed against buckling 
at points whose distance apart does not exceed twenty 
times the least lateral dimension of the longitudinal 
member. In no case shall the combined area of cross- 
section of these longitudinal members be less than one 
per cent, of the area of the concrete used in proportion- 
ing the column, and the stays shall have a minimum 
cross section of three one-hundredths of a square inch 
(0.03 sq. ins.). 

22. Hooped Columns. — If a concrete column is 
hooped with steel near its outer surface either in the 
shape of circular hoops or of a helical cylinder, and if 
the minimum distance apart of the hoops or the pitch 
of the helix does not exceed one-tenth the diameter 
of the column, then the strength of such a column 
may be assumed to be the sum of the following three 
elements : 

(i) The compressive resistance of the concrete 
when stressed not to exceed five hundred 
pounds per square inch for the concrete 
enclosed by the hooping, the remainder be- 
ing neglected. 

(2) The compressive resistance of the longi- 

tudinal steel reinforcement when stress does 
not exceed allowable working stress for 
steel in tension. 

(3) The compressive resistance which would have 

been produced by imaginary longitudinals 
stressed the same as the actual longitudi- 
nals; the volume of the imaginary longi- 
tudinals being taken at two and four-tenths 
(2.4) times the volume of the hooping. In 



i68 

computing the volume of the hooping it 
shall be assumed that the section of the 
hooping throughout is the same as its least 
section. If the hooping is spliced the splice 
shall develop the full strength of the least 
section of the hooping. 

23. Minimum Covering of Steel. — The minimum 
covering of concrete over any portion of the reinforc- 
ing steel shall be as follows : 

For flat slabs not less than one inch. 

For beams, girders, ribs, etc., not less than 2 
inches. 

For columns not less than two inches. In com- 
puting the strength of columns, other than 
hooped columns, the outside one inch 
around the entire column shall be neglected. 

24. Continuous Beams. — Beams continuous over 
supports shall be reinforced to take the full negative 
bending moment over the supports, but shall be com- 
puted as non-continuous beams. 

25. Minimum Spacing of Steel. — The minimum 
distance center to center of reinforcing steel members 
shall not be less than the maximum diameter or diag- 
onal dimensions of cross section plus two inches. 

26. T-beams. — In designing T-beams, the width 
of floor slab which may be assumed to act as compres- 
sion flange of the beam, shall not exceed one-fourth 
(34) of the span of the beam, but in no case shall it 
exceed the distance, center to center, of beams. 

27. Splicing Steel. — If it is necessary to splice 
steel reinforcing members, either in compression or 
tension, the splice shall be either a steel splice that 



i6g 

in tension will develop the full strength of the member, 
or else the members shall be lapped in the concrete for 
a length equal to at least the following : For plain bars 
of medium steel, forty times the diameter or maximum 
diagonal of cross section. For plain bars of high elas- 
tic limit steel, seventy times the diameter or maxi- 
mum diagonal of cross section. For other than plain 
bars, the length of lap shall be in inverse ratio to the 
ratio of the allowed bonding stresses as herein re- 
quired. In no case, however, shall the steel reinforce- 
ment in a beam or girder be lap spliced. 

Foundation Walls and Piers. — Foundation walls 
and piers shall be at least 4 inches wider than the wall 
or columns which is to rest thereon. 

Floors and Columns. — Floors and columns shall be 
designed for a minimum live load at least equal to any 
load to which it may be subjected during the course 
of construction, from weight of false work and wet 
concrete used in the floor next above. No load shall 
be imposed on a floor until the expiration of seven 
days or until the test cubes for the section to be used 
show a strength sufficient to carry the load to be im- 
posed. 

Stresses. — Reinforced concrete shall be so designed 
that the stresses in concrete shall not exceed the follow- 
ing:— 

Extreme fibre stress of concrete in com- 
pression 500 lbs. per sq. in. 

Concrete in direct compression, piers and 

foundations 500 lbs. per sq. in. 

Concrete in direct compression, hooped 

columns 900 lbs. per sq. in. 



170 

Shearing stress in concrete ... 50 lbs. per sq. in. 

Tensile stress in steel 16,000 lbs. per sq. in. 

Tensile stress in proof or twisted steel, 

20,000 lbs. per sq. in. 
Shearing stress in steel 10,000 lbs. per sq. in. 

Reinforcing. — Reinforcing metal shall conform to the 
following specification : 

Chemical analysis shall show in no part more than 
6-100 of I per cent, of sulphur, nor more than 9-10 of 
I per cent, of manganese ; if made in acid furnace shall 
contain not over 0.08 per cent, phosphorus and not over 
0.05 per cent, sulphur, and whether said acid or basic 
must have the following physical properties: 

(a) Ultimate strength, not less than 80,000 lbs. per 

square inch. 

(b) Elastic limit not less than 55,000 lbs. per square 

inch. 

(c) Minimum elongation in 8 inches, 22 per cent. 

(d) Rods must be capable of being bent cold to a 

diameter equal to their thickness without sign 
of fracture. 
Bending Moments. — The following assumption 
shall guide in the determination of the bending moments 
due to external forces : Lintels, beams and girders shall 
be considered as simply supported at the ends, no allow- 
ance being made for continuous construction over sup- 
ports, and the bending moment for a uniformly distrib- 
uted load on such a member shall be taken at not less 
than WL, where W is the uniformly distributed load in 

~8~ 
pounds and L is the span in inches. 

Floor plates when constructed continuous and when 
provided with reinforcement at top of plate over the 



171 

supports, may be treated as continuous beams, and the 
bending moment for a uniformly distributed load taken 
at not less than \\L. But in the case of square floor 

lO 

plates which are reinforced in both directions and sup- 
ported on all sides, the bending moment may be taken at 
WL 



20. 

The floor plate to the extent of not more than five 
times the width of any beam may be taken as part of 
that beam or girder in computing its moment of resist- 
ance. 

Moment of Resistance. — The moment of resistance 
of any reinforced concrete construction under transverse 
loads shall be determined by formulas based on the fol- 
lowing assumptions : 

(a) The bond betw^een the concrete and steel is 

sufficient to make the two materials act 
together as a homogenous solid. 

(b) The strain in any fibre is directly proportionate 

to the distance of that fibre from the neutral 
axis. 

(c) The modulus of elasticity of the concrete re- 

mains constant within the limits of the work- 
ing stresses fixed in this specification. 

(d) The tensile strength of the concrete shall not 

be considered. 
Shearing Stress and Adhesion. — W'lien the shearing 
stresses, developed in any part of a reinforced concrete 
construction, exceed the safe working strength of con- 
crete as fixed in this specification, a sufficient amount of 
steel shall be introduced in such a position that the defi- 
ciency in the resistance to sheer is overcome. 



172 

When the safe limit of adhesion between the con- 
crete and steel is exceeded, provision must be made for 
transmitting the strength of the steel to the concrete to 
at least such an extent as will bring the adhesion to 
within the safe limit fixed by this specification. 

Where the floor is of T-section, the floor section for 
a distance of 24 inches to either side of the beam or gir- 
der may be figured as a part of that beam or girder in 
computing their resistance. 

EXECUTION 

Factor of Safety. — All reinforced concrete shall be 
figured to sustain four times the working load without 
stressing the steel beyond its elastic limit, except that 
where proof or twisted steel is used the factor of safety 
for steel may be reduced to 2. 

Drawings. — All recognized concrete work shall be 
built in accordance with approved detailed working draw- 
ings, and no work shall be commenced until the drawings 
shall be so approved. These drawings shall indicate 
clearly the units of work wdiich the contractor wall be 
required to observe, i.e., the points at which he will be 
permitted to stop w^ork. The design shall conform to 
the requirements of the local building commission. 

Condition of Reinforcing Steel. — The steel used for 
reinforcing concrete shall have no paint on it, but shall 
present the concrete a clean surface, free from heavy 
rust or scale. If the steel has more than a thin film of 
rust upon its surface it shall be cleaned before being 
placed in the concrete by scrubbing with w^ire brushes 
or by pickling in a bath consisting of i part commercial 
sulphuric acid to 6 parts water, as the engineer in charge 
may direct. When the pickling bath is used the bars 
must be w^ashed thoroughly in clear water after the bath 
before placing in the concrete. 



173 

Unit of Measure of Cement. — In proportioning ma- 
terials for concrete, one bag containing not less than 94 
pounds of cement, shall be considered i cubic foot. 

Measuring Aggregates. — Aggregates, sand, stone 
or gravel, shall be measured in measuring boxes, or in 
straight topped measuring barrows. Where barrows are 
used thev shall be all of one S:ize, or the size shall be 
plainly marked if more than one size is used. The meas- 
ure of size shall be the cubic contents of the barrow 
"struck flat" with a straight edge. Xo heaping will be 
allowed. 

Placing concrete. — Concrete shall be placed in the 
forms as soon as practicable after mixing, and shall 
in no case be used without retempering if more than 
one hour has elapsed since the addition of the water. 
Concrete that has been spilled along the runways shall 
not be deposited in the structure. All concrete shall 
be deposited in such a manner as not to cause separa- 
tion of the mortar from the coarse aggregates. The 
concrete in columns shall, in all cases, be placed at 
least 24 hours in advance of the concrete of the floor 
which is to rest thereon. The units of construction, 
as indicated on the drawings, must be rigidly observed 
and each unit completed at one time. 

Placing Steel. — The steel shall be accurately placed 
in the forms and secured against disturbance while the 
concrete is being placed and tamped. No concrete 
shall be placed until the reinforcing metal for the 
entire section to be filled is in place and has been in- 
spected by the Engineer. 

The concrete shall be worked thoroughly around 
all reinforcing bars, and in no case shall the metal be 
exposed. 



174 

Patching. — No patching shall be done without au- 
thorization from the owner. In case voids appear 
when the moulds are stripped, they shall be reported 
at once to the owner, who will inspect same and give 
the necessary instructions for repairing the defect. 

Concrete. — The aggregate for concrete shall be clean 
broken trap rock, or other hard rock, limestone excepted, 
hard burned broken brick, clean furnace clinker, entirely 
free of combustible matter, furnace slag or clean gravel, 
together with clean, silicious sand, if sand is required to 
produce a dense, close mixture. Neither cinder, nor slag 
concrete shall be used where exposed to the weather. 

Specifications for Portland Cement. 

1. The cement shall be first-class American Port- 
land in a dry powder, free from lumps or caking. 

2. It shall satisfactorily pass all the tests required 
for first-class Portland cement by the Department of 
Buildings of New York City. 

4. The net weight per bag shall not be less than 94 
pounds. 

5. Fineness. — Seventy-five per cent, shall pass 
through the ordinary w^ire sieve having 36,000 openings 
per square inch. 

6. Soundness. — Pats of neat cement mixed for five 
minutes with 20 per cent, by weight of water, made on 
glass, each pat about 3 inches in diameter, and one-half 
inch thick at center, tapering thence to a thin edge ; when 
kept under a wet cloth or in a very damp atmosphere for 
twenty- four hours and then placed in cold water and 
heated to 212 degrees, and kept at that temperature for 
six hours and allowed to cool, shall show neither distor- 
tion nor cracks. 



I7S 

7- Time of Setting. — The cement shall not acquire 
its initial set in less than forty-five minutes in a tempera- 
ture of 80 degrees, and must acquire its final set in ten 
hours. 

8. Briquettes made of neat cement after being kept 
in air for twenty-four hours under a wet cloth, and the 
balance of the time under water, shall develop tensile 
strength per square inch as follows : 

Aften seven days 45^ ^^s. 

After twenty-eight days 540 lbs. 

Briquettes made of one part by weight of cement and 
three parts standard sand shall develop tensile strength 
per square inch as follows : 

After seven days 140 lbs. 

After twenty-eight days 220 lbs. 

Four inch cubes made of one part by weight of cement 
and three parts of standard sand mixed wet and jarred 
into mold, shall have a crushing weight of 12 tons when 
28 days old. After being kept in air for seven days un- 
der a wet cloth, and the balance of the time under water. 

9. The specific gravity of the cement shall not be 
less than 3,1, nor more than 3.4. 

10. When mixed into a stiff paste and placed into 
an inch glass tube made of thin glass it shall not crack 
the same. 

Proportions. — The concrete shall be so propor- 
tioned that at the expiration of seven days the crush- 
ing strength of the concrete shall be at least tw^o times 
the compressive strength assumed as a basis for the 
calculations, and at the expiration of thirty days the 
crushing strength of the concrete shall be at least four 
times the compressive strength so assumed. 



1/6 

For the purpose of esti matin i>", the strength of con- 
crete shall be assumed as in accordance with Thacher's 
formulas as given below : 

7 days 1800 — 200 (Vol. cement) 

30 daya 3100 — 350 (Vol. cement) 

90 days 3820 — 460 (Vol. cement) 

180 days 4900 — 600 (Vol. cement) 

Mixing Concrete. — All concrete shall be machine 
mixed in a machine of the batch type. Each batch 
shall be retained in the machine for a sufficient time to 
ensure 25 complete turns of the material. 

Water in the Concrete. — The mixture shall be wet 
as possible without causing a separation of cement 
from the mixture. 

Forms or Centering.— The forms shall be constucted 
as per plans to be furnished by the contractor and ap- 
proved by the owner. They shall be so designed that 
they w^ill carry without settlement four times the 
weig'ht imposed by the body of wet concrete to be sus- 
tained. The contractor may be required to replace such 
false work as may fail to meet the above requirements. 
Before laying the concrete a bay, to be selected by the 
owner, shall be tested, with two times the load imposed 
by the wet concrete to be laid. The owner may, at his 
own expense, order a repetition of the above test if, 
in his opinion the molds have been weakened by con- 
tinued use, and may require the contractor to replace 
at his own expense such portions as may show signs 
of failure. The molding surfaces shall be constructed 
of tongue and groove material not wider than 4 inches 
and shall be either of white pine, Norway pine, spruce 
or cypress. No hemlock shall be used either for mold- 
ing surfaces or elsewhere. 



177 

Filling Forms. — The molding surfaces shall be prac- 
tically water tight. Column molds shall be provided 
with a clean-out door at the foot. No concrete shall 
be laid until the section to be filled, whether columns, 
walls or floors, has been inspected and approved. The 
inspection shall not take place until the carpenters' 
work on the section to be filled is finished and the car- 
penters have moved ofl:*. 

Stripping Forms. — The molds shall be stripped only 
under instructions from the inspector. For determining 
the time of stripping, there shall be made, at the time 
of laying the floors, test cubes of the material as it 
goes into the work. These cubes shall be left to har- 
den on the surface of the floor so that they may be 
subject to the same conditions as the floor material. 
There shall be made at least six of these cubes which 
will be tested under the supervision of the inspector, 
and no false work shall be stripped unless these test 
cubes show the crushing strength used as the basis for 
calculation. 

All molding surfaces shall be cleaned before each 
setting and shall be coated with petrolatum, well 
brushed on. 

Floors and Columns. — Molds must be protected 
against injury from the wheelbarrows or carts by use 
of substantial runways. Wheelbarrows must not strike 
the floor in dumping. 

Freezing Weather. — No concrete shall be laid in 
freezing weather unless precautions are taken to en- 
sure protection against freezing, and in any case work 
shall be prosecuted in freezing weather only upon 
written consent of the owner. Where it is necessary 
to carry on the work in freezing weather, the con- 



178 

tractor will be required to submit his plan of frost 
protection before such consent will be granted. Cov- 
ering fresh laid concrete w^ith manure will not be per- 
mitted. 

Note. — The following outline of a system of frost pro- 
tection may be of service to contractors, as well as owners 
and engineers, who have to meet the problem of winter 
work. This system was devised by the Messrs. Ransome 
and has been used by them with success for several years 
past. 

The aggregate shall be heated to a temperature of 80 
to 100 degrees, preferably in a standard sand heater. 
The water shall be heated to So to 100 degrees and have 
added to it salt in the proportions of 8 lbs. of salt to 
the barrel of cement. 

When mixed, the concrete shall be placed imme- 
diately; in no case shall more than 10 minutes elapse. 
When the concrete has been placed it shall be protected 
against the action of frost. The newly laid concrete shall 
be covered by a solid wood covering, blocked up at least 
six inches above the surface of the floor in a manner 
to permit free circulation of air beneath the covering. 
Heat shall be introduced beneath the floor (or in the 
case of ground floors, beneath the board covering) by 
means of steam coils, or salamanders. If the former 
system be used provision must be made for the escape 
of sufThcient steam beneath the covering to prevent prema- 
ture drying out of the concrete. If salamanders be used 
they must be sprinkled freely with water, thus producing 
the necessary amount of moisture, and small openings 
shall be left in the floor slab to permit the warm air to 
circulate over the upper surface of the floor. The sides 
of the floor shall be protected by canvas curtains, which 
shall extend downward to the floor next below. 



179 

There shall be placed beneath the floor and beneath 
the panels on top of the floor, at intervals of lo feet, 
self-registering thermometers, which in no case must 
show lower than 32 degrees. 

This temperature must be maintained until the test 
cubes which have been allowed to set on the floor and 
beneath the top covering show the strength used as a 
basis for the design. (See paragraph for particulars as 
to Test Cubes.) 

Protection of Concrete from Drying. — When the 
concrete is exposed to hot or dry atmosphere it shall be 
kept moist for a period of at least 24 hours after it has 
taken its initial set. This shall be done by a covering 
of wet sand, cinders, etc., or by continuous sprinkling, 
or by other method equally effective in the opinion of 
the owner. 

Finishing Floors. — All floors which will be sub- 
jected to use by the contractor in progress of the work 
will be roller finished when laid, and the wearing sur- 
face shall be applied after the floor next above has been 
laid and the false w^ork therefore has been removed. 
The finish coat shall be at least ^ inch thick, and 
shall he of the type known as ''granolithic," mixed in 
the proportions of i part cement and i^ parts crushed 
granite or other hard stone acceptable to the owner. 

The surface of the old concrete w411 be thoroughly 
cleaned by sweeping and washing, and all loose ma- 
terial removed. The surface shall then be treated 
with "Ransomite" or other approved bonding mixture, 
and the finish coat applied in the usual manner. A soft 
wearing surface will not be accepted. 



i8o 

Work After Dark. — The contractor must provide 
means for thorough illumination of the work in case it 
may be necessary to prosecute work after dark. 

Preliminary Work. — Before beginning work the 
contractor will see that monuments are established at 
the end of each side of the building and in line with 
the center of the outer row of piers. These monuments 
should be carefully set to serve as bench marks and 
there shall be cut therein a clear mark in true line 
with the center lines of the piers. The contractor will 
see that these lines are verified before proceeding with 
the work. 

The falsework for each floor shall be checked 
against these bench marks before being filled. 



RANSOME CABLE CODE 

(For Code of Mixer Parts see Page 63) 

BARROWS. 

Babe — 3 cubic ft. capacity, forward dump, one- 
wheel barrow. 

Baco — 4 cubic ft. capacity, forward dump, one- 
wheel barrow 

Bade — 5 cubic ft. capacity, forward dump, one- 
wheel barrow 

Bafo — 3 cubic ft. capacity, forward dump, two- 
wheel barrow 

Bago — 4 cubic ft. capacity, forward dump, two- 
wheel brrow 

Banno — 5 cubic ft. capacity, forward dump, two- 
wheel barrow 

Baso — Angle leg side dump barrow. 



i8i 

BILL OF LADING. 

Braddleye — Bill of lading- attached to draft. 

Bradonem — Bill of lading is dated. 

Braentigam — Bill of lading goes forward by first 

mail. 
Bragada — Cannot secure delivery without bill of 

lading. 
Bragadura — Forward all bills of lading. 
Bragot — Has bill of lading been sent? 
Bragueta — One copy of bill of lading attached to 

draft. 
Braitassi — Send duplicate bill of lading. 

BOILERS. 

Brakspuit — Boiler has not arrived. 

Brakvogel — Boiler is on the way. 

Brakwolke — Boiler is of — horsepower. 

Brakwolken — Must have new boiler. 

Brakwan — lo h. p. Ransome portable boiler on 

wheels 
Brakwap — 15 h. p. Ransome portable boiler on 

wheels 
Brakwar — 20 h. p. Ransome portable boiler on 

wheels 
Brakwas — 25 h. p. Ransome portable boiler on 

w^heels 
Brakwat — 30 h. p. Ransome portable boiler on 

wheels 
Brakwax — 40 h. p. Ransome portable boiler on 

wheels 
Brakwen — 50 h. p. Ransome portable boiler on 

wheels 



1 82 

Brakwep — 60 h. p. Ransome portable boiler on 
wheels 

Brekod — 10 h. p. Ransome special upright Tubu- 
lar boilers 

Brekog — 15 h. p. Ransome special upright tubu- 
lar boilers 

Brekok — 20 h. p. Ransome special upright tubular 
boilers 

Brekom — 30 h. p. Ransome special upright tubu- 
lar boilers 

Brokman — 4 h. p. Ransome standard upright tu- 
bular boiler 

Brokwar — 5 h. p. Ransome standard upright tu- 
bular boiler 

Brokmas — 6 h. p. Ransome standard upright tu- 
bular boiler 

Brokmat — 8 h. p. Ransome standard upright tu- 
bular boiler 

Brokmax — 10 h. p. Ransome standard upright tu- 
bular boiler 

Brokmanna — 12 h. p. Ransome standard upright 
tubular boiler 

Brokmarra — 15 h. p. Ransome standard upright 
tubular boiler 

Brokmassa — 18 h. p. Ransome standard upright 
tubular boiler 

Brokmatta — 20 h. p. Ransome standard upright 
tubular boiler 

Brokmaxa — 25 h. p. Ransome standard upright 
tubular boiler 

Brokmen — 30 h. p. Ransome standard upright tu- 
bular boiler 



i83 

Brokmer — 35 h. p. Ransome standard upright tu- 
bular boiler 

Brokmes — 40 h. p. Ransome standard upright tu- 
bular boiler 

Brokmet — 45 h. p. Ransome standard upright tu- 
bular boiler 

Brokmex — 50 h. p. Ransome standard upright tu- 
bular boiler 

Brokmenna — 60 h. p. Ransome standard upright 
tubular boiler 

BROKEN. 

Broshoek — Broken in transit. Send duplicate 
Brosier — Broken in transit owing to careless 

handling. Send duplicate part. 
Brosilem — Broken on account of defective ma- 
terial. Send new part. 

BUCKET (Concrete Hoist). 

Brosilete — 10 cu. ft. capacity 
Brosilletto — 20 cu. ft. capacity 
Bruchhut — 30 cu. ft. capacity 
Bruchil — 40 cu. ft. capacity 
Bruchlam — Bail for i bucket 
Bruchlich — Bail for 2 buckets 
Bruchnuss — Bail for 3 buckets 
Bruchpalm — Bail for 4 buckets 
Bruchreij — Bucket for No. i without bail 
Bruchtanne — Bucket for No. 2 without bail 
Bruckan — Bucket for No. 3 without bail 
Brucolera — Bucket for No. 4 without bail 
Brucourt — Front brace No. i 
Bructorum — Front brace No. 2 
Brudeler — Front brace No. 3 



1 84 

Brudindino — Front brace No. 4 
Brudos — Rear brace No. i 
Brudonille — Rear brace No. 2 
Brudches — Rear brace No. 3 
Brudhamer- — Rear brace No. 4 
Brudlin — Trunnion No. i 
Bruzlin — Trunnion No. 2 
Bruzzam — Trunnion No. 3 
Bruzzet — Trunnion No. 4 
Bruzzeta — Cross brace No. i 
Bruzzettam — Cross brace No. 2 
Bruzzot — Cross brace No. 3 
Bruzzotam — Cross brace No. 4 
Bruzzna — Nose piece No. i 
Bruzznam — Nose piece No. 2 
Bruzznama — Nose piece No. 3 
Bruzznap — Nose piece No. 4 

CARTS. i 

Bruzznat — 6 cu. ft. capacity round nosed cart 
Bruzznatta — 6 cu. ft. capacity pointed nosed cart 

CABLE. See under Telegraph. 

CASH. See also Terms. 

Cabriteras — Cash before delivery. 
Cacapar — Cash on surrender of shipping papers. 
Cacapinho — Cash on arrival at destination. 
Cacaranado — Cash in 30 days from date of invoice. 
Cacareaba — Cash with order, balance on delivery. 
Cacareador — Cash with order^ balance 30 days. 
Cadaverini — Cash with order, balance 60 days. 
Cadaverous — Cash 60 days from date of invoice. 
Cadaverum — What discount do you allow for 
cash ? 



i85 

Caddeci — On delivery of shipping papers 
Caddor — Two per cent, for cash lo days 
Caddy — Five per cent, for cash on surrender o( 
shipping papers 

COMMISSION. 

Caprilibrus — Does not include commission, 
Caprilium- — Does your price allow for our com- 
mission? 
Capronique- — If there is no profit will you waive 

commission ? 
Capsacarum — Provided commission is waived 
Capstone- — Waive commission if necessary 
Capsulage — A\^e deducted commission. Add 

whatever commission you wish 
Captandos — The usual commission is 

CRAB (Friction Hoist). 

Captive — 1906 model No. i 
Captors — 1906 model No. 2 
Captrix — 1907 model No. 3 

DATE. 

Cleombroto — About w^hat date? 

Cleomenco — Advise date of arrival 

Cleptorum — Date cannot be fixed till we receive 

motor details 
Clergify — Date must be adhered to. 

On or about the 
Clisobra — ist ultimo. 
Clisophus — 2nd ultimo 
Clisson — 3rd ultimo. 
Clisterizo — 4th ultimo. 
Clisthenem — 5th ultimo. 



1 86 



Clisthenis — 6th ultimo. 
Clitarchi — 7th ultimo. 
Clitarchus — 8th ultimo. 
Clitarium — 9th ultimo. 
Clitched — loth ultimo. 
Clowinsh — nth ultimo. 
Clowinshly — 12th ultimo. 
Clowns — 13th ultimo. 
Cloyless — 14th ultimo. 
Cloyment — 15th ultimo. 
Coabitato — i6th ultimo. 
Coabitavo — 17th ultimo. 
Coabito — i8th ultimo. 
Coaccion — 19th ultimo. 
Coaccuse — 20th ultimo. 
Coadjust — 2 1 St ultimo. 
Coadjuting — 22nd ultimo. 
Coadjutor — 23rd ultimo. 
Coadjutrix — 24th ultimo. 
Coaxar — 25th ultimo. 
Coaxavitis — 26th ultimo. 
Coaxavunt — 27th ultimo. 
Coaxax — 28th ultimo. 
Coaxaxa — 29th ultimo. 
Coaxat — 30th ultimo. 
Coaxaxatta — 31st ultimo. 
Cobrabamus — ist instant. 
Cobrable — 2nd instant. 
Cobraderas — 3rd instant. 
Cobrador — 4th instant. 
Cobramos — 5th instant. 
Coegalite — 6th instant. 
Coegero — 7th instant. 



Coegemut — 8th instant. 
Coegissem — 9th instant. 
Coegnale — loth instant. 
Coela — nth instant. 
Coelanthe — 12th instant. 
Coelector — 13th instant. 
Coelectum — 14th instant. 
Coelestin — 15th instant. 
Cograins — i6th instant. 
Cogrus — 17th instant. 
Cogucho — i8th instant. 
Cogullada — 19th instant. 
Cogware — 20th instant. 
Coldish — 2 1st instant. 
Colder — 22nd instant. 
Colebant — 23rd instant. 
Colebatis — 24th instant. 
Collanuzza — 25th instant. 
Collapsi — 26th instant. 
Collapsing — 27th instant. 
Collapsos — 28th instant. 
Collapsuri — 29th instant. 
Collegassi — 30th instant. 
Collegavi — 31st instant. 
Collego — I St proximo. 
Collek — 2nd proximo. 
Colleka — 3rd proximo. 
Collekan — 4th proximo. 
Collekana — 5th proximo. 
Colleke — 6th proximo. 
Colleken — 7th proximo. 
Collekena — 8th p'roximo. 
CoUeku — 9th proximo. 



i87 

Collekun — loth proximo. Colleramus — 21st proximo. 

Collekura — nth proximo. Collerebbe — 22nd proximo. 

Collela — I2th proximo. Colleremo — 23rd proximo. 

Collelan — 13th proximo. CoUeriche — 24th proximo. 

Collelana — 14th proximo. Collete — 25th proximo. 

Collele — 15th proximo. Colletamo — 26th proximo. 

CoUelen — i6th proximo. Colletax — 27th proximo. 

Collelena — 17th proximo. Colletaxam — 28th proximo. 

Collelu — i8th proximo.. Colleti — 29th proximo. 

Colleppa — 19th proximo. Colleticus — 30th proximo. 

Collerac — 20th proximo. Collevo — 31st proximo. 

DEFECTS. 

Collybum — Is defective as to material. Will you 
send new part or shall we repair at your ex- 
pense? 

Collyvarum — Workmanship defective. Shall we 
repair at your expense? 

CoUyre — What is the defect? 

DELIVERY. See also Price, also Shipment. 
Compelled — Advise best delivery. 
Compella — Advise best delivery you will guaran- 
tee. 
Competerumo — Can guarantee delivery. 
Competency — Cannot guarantee delivery. 
Complacent — Delivery delayed on account of 
Complebit — We can ship in one day. 
Complebita — We can ship in two days. 
Complebix — We can ship in three days. 
Complebixa — We can ship in four days. 
Complebot — We can ship in five days. 
Complebota — We can ship in six days. 
Complebox — We can ship in seven days. 



Complejo — We can ship in two weeks. 
Complesso — We can ship in three weeks. 
Completaba — We can ship in four weeks. 
Complete — We can ship in five weeks. 
Completeba — We can ship in six weeks. 
Completed — We can ship in seven weeks. 
Complettis — We can ship in eight weeks. 

DIMENSIONS. See also Measurements. 

Cordated — Can do nothing till we have dimen- 
sions of customer's engine. 

Cordelier — Dimensions are — • wide by — long 
by — high. 

Comicator — Refer to dimension drawings in our 
catalogue. 

DISCOUNT., 

Covenably — Allow discount of i per cent. 
Covenanted — Allow discount of 2 per cent. 
Covenantor — Allow discount of 3 per cent. 
Covendeur — Allow discount of 5 per cent. 
Conveniero — Allow discount of 10 per cent. 
Convenimus — Discount was deducted in making our 
price to you. 

ENGINES. 

Cracon — 3x3 

Cracowes — 4x4 disc crank. 

Cradias — 5x5. 

Crajje' — 6x6. 

Crajjitt — With countershaft bracket, mixer type. 

Crajordie — 'j^'j. 

Crajordiet — ^^^ with countershaft bracket. 

Crajtily— 8x8. 

Crajty — 8x8 with countershaft. 



i89 

Craticula — 9x9. 

Cratiebam — 9x9 with countershaft and brackets. 

Cratiendos — loxio. 

Cratiendum — 1 2x 12. 

Cratippi — 14x14. 

Creidora — 16x16. 

ERROR. 

Devoluting — A clerical error. 
Devolvenus — An error in calculating. 
Dexius — Owing to error on our part. 
Dextellis — Owing to error on your part. 
Dextralium — Very much regret error. 
Diadem — You have made an error in shipment. 
Diados — You have made an error in shipping pa- 
pers. Send corrected papers at once. 

EXPRESS. 

Divigarono — By express. 

Divagassi — By what express was it sent? 

Divagation — Call at the office of express. 

Divaguer — Send by Express Co. 

Divitem — Send by express, prepaid. 
Divito — Will you stand express charges? 

FEET. 

Doopkapel — Cubic feet. 
Doopoont — How many cubic feet? 

Doopoox feet long by — feet wide by — feet 

high. 

LETTER. 

Exolate — Await letter. 

Exomidas — Cancel instructions in our letter of — 
Exonoratus — Cannot carry out instructions con- 
tained in your letter of — . 



IQO 

Exoravimus — Full particulars will reach you by 
letter of . 

Expertly — Get goods covered by your letter ready 
for shipment. See our letter for instructions. 

Expetas — Letter received too late to carry out in- 
structions. 
FREE. 

Dummock — Free on board cars at destination. 

Dummocka — Free on board cars at Dunnellen, 
N.J. 

Dummol — Free on board steamer. New York. 

Dummola — Free on board steamer at destination. 
FREIGHT. 

Dunder — All freight charges to be paid by us. 

Dunderha — All freight charges to be paid by you. 

Dunkelman — Based upon present rates of freight. 
FURNISH. 

Eccitaton — How soon can you furnish? 

Eccitatox — How soon can you furnish, and at 
what price? 
INVOICE. 

Esverdeado — A copy of invoice has been sent. 

Etabliras — Consular invoice. 

Etabliront — Consular invoice has not been re- 
ceived. 

Etacists — Consular invoice not correct. 

Etambot — Have sent invoice. 

Etambrai — Have you sent invoice? 

Eteignions — Invoice in duplicate. 

Etiendrais — Invoice in triplicate. 

Eternser — Must be specified in invoice. 

Eternizado — On delivery of invoice and bill of 
lading. 



igi 

«, 

Ettienzing — What is amount of invoice? 

Ettenicos — You will deliver invoice and papers 

to . 

MIXERS. 

Extens — Arranged for hoist attachment. 

Extensor — Equipped with standard batch hopper 

Extensota — Equipped with standard batch hop- 
per and water tank. 

Extent— Equipped with standard elevating hop- 
per. 

Extentia — Equipped with standard elevating hop- 
per and w^ater tank. 

Extentiam — Equipped with standard water tank. 
Note. — If machine is wanted on wheels add 
to the code name the letter "el." 

Extor — No. I mixer, 1908 model, on skids. 

Extort — No. 2 mixer, 1908 model, on skids. 

Extorta — No. 3 mixer, 1908 model, on skids. 

Extract — No. 4 mixer, 1908 model, on skids. 

Extrada — No. i mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 
steam engine only. 

Extraer — No. 2 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 
steam engine only. 

Extraig — No. 3 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 
steam engine only. 

Extraje — No. 4 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 
steam engine only. 

Extram — No. i mixer, 1908 model, on skids, w^ith 
gasoline engine. 

Extraneo — No. 2 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 
gasoline engine. 

Extrapo — No. 3 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 
gasoline engine. 



192 

Extrasa — No. 4 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

gasoline engine. 
Extravo — No. i mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

electric motor. 
Extruam — No. 2 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

electric motor. 
Extrude — No. 3 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

electric motor. 
Extruso — No. 4 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

electric motor. 
Exude — No. i mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

engine and boiler. 
Exudrio — No. 2 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

engine and boiler. 
Exult — No. 3 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

engine and boiler. 
Exunct — No. 4 mixer, 1908 model on skids, with 

engine and boiler. 
Eyebal — No. i mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

steam engine of extra power for hoist. 
Eyebrow — No. 2 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

steam engine of extra power for hoist. 
Eyeful — No. 3 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

steam engine of extra power for hoist. 
Eyelash — No. 4 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

steam engine of extra power for hoist. 
Eyestone — No. i mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

gasoline engine of extra power. 
Eyestring — No. 2 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, 

with gasoline engine of extra power. 
Eyetooth — No. 3 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, 

with gasoline engine of extra power. 



193 

Eye wink — Xo. 4 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, 

with gasoline engine of extra power. 
Eyzelin — Xo. i mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

electric motor of extra power. 
Faalden — Xo. 2 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

electric motor of extra power. 
Faamlos — X^o. 3 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

electric motor of extra power. 
Fabaraz — X^d. 4 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

electric niotor of extra power. 
Fabbro — X'^o. i mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

engine and boiler of extra power. 
Fabula — X'o. 2 mixer. 1908 model, on skids, with 

engine and boiler of extra power. 
Fabulat — X^o. 3 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

engine and boiler of extra power. 
Facote — X^o. 4 mixer, 1908 model, on skids, with 

engine and boiler of extra power. 
For code of ]\Iixer Parts, see Page 63. 
Fading — Cart mixer complete, inclnding frame, 

hood, and one cart. 
Fadite — Extra cart for cart mixer. 
ORDERS. 

Furniano — Accept no further orders from. 

Furnish — Accept order at price named. 

Furriel — Advise when order is executed, giving 

car numbers. 
Furtively — A mistake has been made in your or- 
der. 
Furtivorem — Are getting out the order as rapidly 

as possible. \Yi\\ be ready not later than — . 
Fusciano — Cancel order unless yoii can fill at 

once. 



194 

Fuscoamn — Cancel our order No. — . Our cus- 
tomer will refuse to accept same. 

Fusionam — Can i^et order provided you will guar- 
antee shipment within — days. 

Fussacht — Can ship the order complete within — 
days. 

Fussgicht — Can take the order . References 

satisfactory. Shall I close? 

Futtergas — Expect to complete order. 

Gabbore — Price given on your order is wrong. 
Please send corrected order. 

Gabbronite — Wire us if you can execute the or- 
der. 

Gajaria — Order will be shipped immediately. 
PRICE. 

Golgotha— At what price and how^ soon can you 
ship? 

Gorgheggia — Does price include? 

Gorgiasse — Has there been any change in price? 

Gorgidas — Is price quoted net, or is it subject 
to discount? If the latter, how much? 

Gorgobina — Wire lowest net price of. 
NUMBERS. To telegraph numbers use the follow- 
ing code : 

1234567890 
CDHLMNRSFT 

Take those of the above consonants which indi- 
cate the proper numbers to be telegraphed and use 
sufficient vowels to make some sort of a word. For 
example to telegraph 49872, you would use the letters 
LFSRD. This can be made into Lufsrod by the addi- 
tion of 2 vowels. 



195 

SHEAVE WHEEL. 

Galgulus — 42-inch wheel for hoist. 

SHIP. 

Incantato — As soon as yon can ship. 
Incancado — By what hne will yon ship? 
Incancavel — By what line did yon ship? 
Incanclura — By what line shall we ship? 
Incanescas^ — Cannot ship all by this steamer. 

Shall we wait and ship all together? 
Incannit — Can you ship with draft attached? 
Incaparono — Do not ship. AA^ait completion of 

order. 
Incapavate — Do not ship until further advised. 
Incappanio^ — Have arranged to ship by first 

steamer. 
Incamat — How soon can you ship ? 
Incembus — Shall ship in few days by express. 
Incensadas — Shall ship in few days by freight. 
Inceperant — Ship all or none. 

SHIPMENT. 

Incoamus — Are making the following shipment. 

Incoasteis — Are you looking after the shipment 
of our order? 

Incoceiavi — Can arrange for immediate shipment 

Incoctilis — Cannot guarantee shipment. 

Incognito — Can we rely on prompt shipment? 

Incolenders — Delay shipment until further ad- 
vised. 

Incollero — First shipment will he made. 

Incolumity — Have delivered the entire shipment. 

Incombendo — Have ready for shipment now. 

Inconubus — Hurry shipment much as possible. 



Incommodum — If shipment has not already been 
made. 

Inconduite — Notify us when ready for shipment. 

Incoram — Shipment must be made by. 

Incrasante — Shipment must be made by , 

otherwise cancel our order. 

Ineriado — What is earliest shipment you can 
make? 
SHIPPED. 

Incrustada — Already shipped. 

Incubabas — Can be shipped at once. 

Incubing — Have not shipped on account of. 

Incubonem — How were they shipped? 

Incubuerat — If you have not shipped cancel our 
order. 

Incursabit — A\hen was it shipped? 

Incursae — AAdien w^ill it be shipped? 

Incurvanda — Will 1)e shipped at once. 
TELEGRAPH. 

Irredemus — Advise by telegraph how soon you 
can ship and at what price. 

Irridoline — Answer by telegraph, using \\'estern 
Union code. 

Irritaban — Forward immediate answer, by tele- 
graph. 

Irritatig — If it cannot be accomplished telegraph 
at once. 

Irritator — If you telegraph order at once on re- 
ceipt of this. 
TRACE. 

Jijerias — Do not think necessary to trace. 

Jirojina — Trace immediately. 

Jodelet — Trace shipment by w^ire.