Skip to main content

Full text of "Rapid transit car maintenance and storage facilities study : building planning standards"

See other formats


Rapid Transit Car 
Maintenance and Storage 
Facilities Study 




Building Planning Standards 



Chicago Transit Authority 
September 1978 



The preparation of this report has been financed in part through a grant from the United States Deps'tment of Transportation under the 
provisions of Section 9 of the Urban IVIass Transportation Act of 1964, as amended. (UMTA Project No. IT-09-0072). 



The findings and conclusions expressed in this publica 
United States Department of Transportation, Urban IVIass Tr; 



and not necessarily those of the 



'Rot 



Chicago Transit Authority 

September 29, 1978 
To: Operations Division and Department Managers 

From: Howard P. Benn, Study Project Manager 

Re: Draft Maintenance Building Standards 

Attached for your review and comment is the third product of the Yard Study Task 
Force, the draft Maintenance Building Standards. (The first two items released 
from the Yard Study Task Force were the Skokie Shop Master Plan and draft Yard 
Standards.) It is respectfully requested that you return to me your comments by 
Monday, October 23. I am in Room 707 and can be reached on extension 844. 



,^:C^.^ ci<^ 



Howard P. Benn 

Supervisor, Facilities Planning 

Project Manager, J. 0. 9262 



HPB:ml 

cc: Task Force Members 
Study Participants 
Attachments 



PROJECT STAFF 



This document is a product of work conducted by personnel of the Chicago 
Transit Authority. 

The following persons composed the maintenance building sub-task force 
(a portion of the total task force of the Rapid Transit Car Maintenance and 
Storage Facilities Study) by which it was developed: 

Operations Planning Department 

Operations Planning Department 

Maintenance Department 
Maintenance Department 
Maintenance Department 
Transportation Department 
Engineering Department 
Grant Programming & Administration 
Safety Department 
Human Resources Department (on 
assignment to Operations Planning) 



Project Manager 


H. 


P. 


Benn 


Project Coordinator 


M. 


J. 


Daley 


Members 


J. 


R. 


Pankonen 




R. 


E. 


Flowers 




A. 


J. 


Porcaro 




L. 


A. 


Oomens 




J. 


F. 


Urbaszewski 




T. 


P. 


Hardcastle 




J. 


F. 


Boyce 




C. 


F. 


Arndt 



Other task force members who contributed to the effort were: 



Transportation Department 

M. G. Khan 
J. J. Donohue 



Maintenance Department 

M. Vasquez 

R. Lorimer 

T. McGuigan 

T. Szwec 



Safety Department 

T. F. Prendergast 
W. R. Finkler 



Grant Programming/Administration 
Department 

B. E. Welsh 
R. K. Sandberg 



Engineering 

C. G. Kalogeras 



Additional information and assistance were furnished by Chicago Transit 
Authority General Operations Division management and staff: 

H. H. Geissenheimer, Manager, General Operations Division 

J. R. Blaa, Manager, Transportation Department 

H. R. Hirsch, Manager, Operations Planning Department 

T. L. Wolgemuth, Manager, Engineering Department 

J. J. Repplinger, Manager, Maintenance Department 



EXECUTIVE SIWIARY 




The standards identify planning and design ideals which are to be included in 
the design/rehabilitation of maintenance buildings, where applicable. The key 
points to be noted in the maintenance building proposals are: 

A well-laid out building with appropriate appurtenances and ancillary 
facilities is essential to improving labor productivity. Good facilities 
lead to improved labor productivity. 

There is a definite mathematic relationship between cars assigned and 
building size. It was found that a relationship could be established where 
buildings proved to be too small or too large. What is important to note 
is that the outfitting of the building is as important as its size in keep- 
ing cars available for revenue service. 

~ The accessibility to a shop building from a yard is as important as the 
arrangement of the maintenance building itself in keeping productivitv at 
the highest possible levels. 

It is 'important for the maintenance building to provide the facilities 

necessary to support the Planned Maintenance Program. To arrange these 

buildings in such a fashion (supporting PMP) is the other, terminal shop, 
side to the "Skokie Master Plan." 

It is important for people and facilities to be available to perform 
required levels of maintenance at every terminal location; it is much pre- 
ferred to concentrating certain facilities at only some terminals. 

— As compared with other properties, CTA has relatively small terminal shop 
buildings. But properly located, with good accessibility and good ancil- 

^ lary equipment, there is no reason for CTA not to continue to maintain the 
same relatively small maintenance terminals. 

— A key to car availability would be the ability for terminal shop buildings 
to handle maximum consist length trains in order to avoid cutting and add- 
ing to bring a defect into a shop building; equipment repair turnaround 
will be much quicker. 

All of these elements taken together will produce two major advantages for 
CTA: they will help hold labor coses to minimum and they will improve availability 
of cars, thus effecting a better utilization of what we have, and in turn, a more 
effective use of our capital and operating funds. 



INTRODUCTION 

This document is a further product of the OTA "Rapid Transit Car Maintenance 
and Storage Facilities Study." Previous standards which have been produced 
covered Yard Planning Standards, This document is actually a subset of that, 
dealing with car maintenance facilities. General background and introduction 
to the study can be found in the Introduction to that document, OP-x78047. 
Also produced under the auspices of the Yard Study is the "Skokie Master Plan." 

This report shares as its basis with the other reports, certain key concepts 
and goals. Primary among these is that capital investment should increase 
operations safety, reliability, and efficiency. From these Task Force concepts 
the following goals have been developed: to maintain the integrity of mainline 
and storage operations; to reduce the potential for conflicting movements; to 
simplify required m.ovements; to increase operational flexibility; to minimize 
nonproductive vehicle mileage and manpower requirements . 

A second concept is that emiployees as well as facilities should be protected 
and secured. This includes guarding against intruders, fire, weather, and 
such.' 

Capital investment will play a significant part toward improving employee 
working conditions, while increasing both operating and employee efficiency. 
Planning should provide for improved equipment and work facilities; for safer, 
predictable, and efficient movement; for adequate shelter; and for improved 
employee conveniences , 

Finally, capital investment should also enable building maintenance of the 
same effectiveness or better to be performed at less cost. It is understood, of 
course, that all capital investment must conform to Federal requirements regard- 



ing safety and environmental impacts. 

For the purpose of discussion ,the standards which follow have been divided 
into four groups: Size (S); Productivity (P); Support Appurtenances and Ancil- 
lary Facilities (A); and Environment (N). The distinction between one section 
and another is primarily editorial; for example, it can be easily understood 
that a recommendation pertaining to working conditions or equipment will dir- 
ectly impact employee efficiency. 

Introductions to each section will acquaint the reader to areas of emphasis 
without repetition here. The size function factor is the most complex to apply, 
since terminal dimensions must accurately reflect schedule requirements; in 
practice, however, other locational restrictions often determine size. Funda- 
mental concepts toward increasing productivity involve compact, flexible, 
accessible, well-equipped maintenance terminals. Standards in the second 
half make recommendations for equipment and working environment. Day-to- 
day maintenance required to keep the CTA fleet rolling is performed at mainten- 
ance terminals on each route (which correspond to service and inspection barns 
at some properties). Major rebuilding and overhaul is accomplished at the 
Skokie Shop complex. The Chicago Transit Authority has had no new rail car 
maintenance facilities designed or constructed since the establishment of unit 
exchange maintenance procedures for rail vehicles at terminal locations in 197 5. 

The present role of terminal shops has changed to reflect the increasing 
complexity of the modern rapid transit car and its adaptability to unit exchange. 
This role is seen now as one of detection of faults and incipient failures, di- 
agnosis of service failures, and repair of defects correctable by minor adjust- 
ment or by replacement of defective components and assemblies, lubrication, 



and cleaning and washing. Additional functions will include minor modifica- 
tions, retrofits, wheel grinding, and such, as necessary. 

One of the reasons that CTA found itself able to adapt to unit exchange 
is the particular nature and history of Chicago rapid transit. CTA was pro- 
ceeded by four separate companies, who joined forces to build the Chicago 
Union Loop Elevated in 1897. In so doing, they tied themselves together to 
eventually become one company. However, as four independent comnanies , 
they each had their own overhaul shop; Wilson and 51st Shops remai:. today. 
As such, these locations have always had some ability to do overhaul work 
and have had lifts and hoists which allowed the changeout of certain assem- 
blies . These locations were never purely inspection facilities as they might 
be at other properties. 

When CTA began to build newer maintenance facilities — such as v,;hen Con- 
gress replaced Laramie on the Garfield line — these facilities were replaced in 
kind. This process was repeated with Harlem and 98th. Having had this 
ability, CTA decided to use it to its advantage. Further, the classic idea of 
car overhaul required vehicles to be out of service for long periods of time. 
Additionally, there was no method to predict material usage. The development 
of an on-going overhaul has allowed the changeout of units on a pre-determined 
mileage basis . 

When units are exchanged at the terminal, rather than Skokie , a car can be 
available for rush periods. Cars going to Skokie are generally lost fr:m service 
for a few days; cars at the terminals can be returned to service more quickly. 



Thus, with the ability to implement unit exchange at the terminals, CTA 
chose it as the most viable way to improve car availability and productivity. 
The Task Force has proceeded from there. 

The goal of this element of the Yard Study is to set standards for rail 
maintenance buildings whereby the stated mission can be achieved. Some 
standards propose sharp departures from traditionally followed methods. For 
example, inspections have usually been conducted over pits. From Task. Force 
investigation, it was decided to recommend fully equipped, hoisted positions 
for such operations. This is to easily accommodate unit exchange which soon will 
be done in multiples of inspections. 

In each instance, careful consideration has been given to maximize produc- 
tivity of labor and material resources. This criterion is evidenced in the 
stated preference for well-equipped relatively "small" shops with high produc- 
tion capacity, as opposed to larger shops with dedicated spaces or purchase 
of additional spare cars. 

Though primarily a Task Force effort, it should be noted — as may well be 
expected — that the Maintenance Department was the major force in the prepara- 
tion and recommendation of these standards. We present these for your approval. 



GLOSSARY 



AvaJlabil 1ty. The requirement that the equipment be available for and 
throughout peak use periods except when down for scheduled Planned Main- 
tenance. 

Bad Order (or Daily Defect). Equipment requiring repair work which may 
be conducted at a maintenance terminal. 

Blowout . Air cleaning undercar assemblies. Blowout normally precedes 
inspection. 

Blowout Pit . A pit located between the rails equipped with the suitable 
utilities to clean undercar assemblies. 

Body (Exterior) Wash . An apparatus made up of brushes, spray arches, 
solution tanks, water reclamation system and controls to wash cars passing 
through the apparatus. The washer is fully automatic and should be located 
in the best possible work flow position. It is generally placed in a pro- 
tective building. 

Body Hoist. Apparatus, either electro-mechanical or hydraulic, usually 
used in conjunction with truck hoists, for maintaining a vehicle car- 
body in an elevated position. Often called body supports. Installation 
is part of shop track system. 

Carbody . That portion of a car that carries people and all equipment 
except the truck assemblies. 

Car (Interior) Wash. Washing of the inside car surfaces. Usually done 
manually. 

Component. An essential part of an equipment. It is often used inter- 
changeably with module or assembly. 

Component Repair Shop. A facility specifically designed for repair, over- 
haul, and/or testing of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, or pneumatic 
parts, modules, assemblies, or subsystems. It may be compared to a manu- 
facturer's service repair shop. CTA component repair is conducted at Skokie 
Shop. 

Consist. A train of more than one transit vehicle. See Maximum Consist . 

Consist Change. The adding to or removal of cars from a train. 

Design Standards. Guidelines which specify details and quantities for fea- 
tures outlined in the planning document. 

Facility . A self-contained physical location housing a yard, a shop(s), 
or some combination thereof, with all necessary systems and equipment. 



Heavy Repair . Changeout of trucks and other major assemblies and sub- 
assemblies, requiring power lifting equipment or several repairmen; 
major body repairs; rewiring. 

Hoist . Apparatus, either electro-mechanical or hydraulic, generally used 
in conjunction with body hoists, for raising transit vehicles for inspection 
and repairs. Installation is part of shop track system. Sometimes called 
Truck Hoists . 

Hoist Track . A track equipped with hoists. 

Hostling Device . A mechanical device for moving cars prescribed distances 
at regular intervals of time. May be used in conjunction with wheel main- 
tenance or exterior washing equipment. 

Inspection . The checking for condition, performance, and safety of equipment 
against established standards, plus minor repairs and routine servicing. 

Inspection Barn , see Maintenance Terminal . 

Jacking Carriage . A movable lifting device supported on the flanges of pit 
track rails, used to raise trucks slightly off the rails so that the wheels 
can be spun under power to check traction motors and drive gear. 

Layup . Removal of trains from service for storage in yard. May be performed 
by train crew or switchmen. 

Light Repair . Repairs that can be performed on a pit track by one or two 
repairmen using hand tools and instruments only. 

Main Shop . A transit facility specifically designed for heavy maintenance, 
overhaul, and testing of transit vehicles and equipment. Sometimes called 
Main Repair Shop; at CTA, Skokie Shops. 

Maintenance . The upkeep of vehicles, plant, machinery, and equipment. It 
is normally scheduled, based on pre-established intervals of mileage and 
employing a pre-printed checklist, or it may be unscheduled or corrective, 
generally not interval based. 

Maintenance Position , also Car Spot or Work Position . A one-car location in 
the Main Shop or Maintenance Terminal, either hoisted or pit, where main- 
tenance work is performed. Since cars are normally paired with semipermanent 
coupling, there is usually an even number of maintenance positions along a 
shop track. 

Maintenance of Way Department . That functional unit within a maintenance 
organization that generally has responsibility for track and structures. 

Maintenance Terminal , also Service and Inspection Shop , Terminal Shop , or 
Shop . A transit facility responsible for Planned Maintenance and routine 
repair of daily defects. At CTA, located on each route. 

Married Pair . Two cars that make up an operable transit vehicle unit, sharing 
certain equipments such as battery, control line, etc. A car of a married 
pair cannot function alone and the pair is connected with a semipermanent 
coupling which is not operationally separable. 



Maximum Consist , Maximum Length Track . Refers to the length of the sche- 
duled peak period train, normally 6 or 8 cars on CTA routes. 

Mixed Equipment . A combination of several series of equipment of different 
ages and manufacture. 

OSHA. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. A federal regulatory 
agency involved in all aspects of facilities tnat affect personnel safety 
and health. 

Planned Maintenance. Maintenance work which is scheduled on the basis of 
pre-established intervals of mileage. 

Planning Standard. Guidelines which establish general goals for facilities 
in terms of adequate operational capabilities and desired relationships 
between functional elements. 

Pit . A depressed area below floor level mainly between running rails for 
undercar lubrication, Inspection, and repair access, equipped with all 
necessary utilities. 

Portable Car Jacks . Specifically designed jacks (usually in a set of four) 
for raising a single car. May be used anywhere at floor level where built- 
in jacks or hoists are not warranted or cannot be installed. 

Putout . Placing cars from yard storage ^'ito service. 

Retrofit . Modification of existing cars by addition or replacement of 
modules, assemblies, or parts. 

Rolling Stock . A term generally referring to transit vehicles. 

Service and Inspection . The activities of lubrication, inspection, and 
minor repairs associated with maintaining transit vehicles. Such activities 
are generally done in a Service and Inspection Shop at CTA, called a Main- 
tenance Terminal . 

Signal Department. The function within an engineering or maintenance or- 
ganization responsible for the transit system's signals. 

Shop Holding Track. A shop-accessible storage track adjacent to the build- 
ing entrance, which permits exit of completed cars and queuing of subse- 
quent cars to be served, thus , minimizing time lost by repairers waiting for 
work. See standard P-6. 

Spinning Posts. Sets of four short co';umns used in conjunction with hoists 
to support a truck with wheels free to rotate when the hoist is lowered. 
Used to check traction motors and drive gear by spinning wheels under power. 
Usually unpowered, the posts are pivoted into position by hand and locked. 

Stinger . An electrical device, usually on an overhead trolley, used for 
applying traction power to vehicles in a shop for testing of moving these 
vehicles. Some shops use external mea'iS of moving vehicles, such as track- 
mobiles or hostling devices. 



storage Yard. A facility containing a rail network for receiving, dis- 
patching, and storing transit vehicles and work equipment. 

Storeroom. An area used by Materials Management for storage of supply 
i tems . 

Stockroom . An area used by Production/Supply Control to store items needed 
at the maintenance terminal. 

Terminal Shop, see Maintenance Terminal . 

Test Track. A length of track, usually separated from a main line, of 
sufficient length to safely operate a car or train through a performance 
cycle (start, accelerate, run at maximum speed, decelerate, stop). The 
track is equipped with all system safety features and with automatic train 
control . 

Transportation Department . That functional unit within the organization 
that generally has responsibility for operation of cars, trains and sta- 
tions, including a Control Center. 

Truck . A major transit vehicle assembly of structural frame and suspension 
members, wheels, axles, motors, gearboxes, brakes, current collectors, 
cable, piping, etc. 

Truck Hoist. See Hoist. 



Truck Lift . Similar to garage auto lifts, usually hydraulic. Used to 
position separated car trucks at various elevations for repair access. 

Truck Turntable. A device built into the track system for turning separated 
or disconnected trucks in a shop to facilitate transport between car work 
positions and other areas. 

Trolley Block. Section of car underframe supporting current collection 
equipment. 

Unit Changeout , Unit Exchange. Replacement of major components, assemblies, 
and'modules, etc., with new or rebuilt. 

Wing Pit Track . A pit track with depressed levels on either side of, as 
well as between suspended rails. 

Wheel Grinding. Performed with a machine built into a shop track system for 
removing flat spots or metal build-up from wheel treads. May use grinding 
stones or belts. Very useful for relatively minor wheel work. Should be 
equipped with dust collection equipment. 

Wheel Maintenance , see Wheel Grinding , Wheel Truing . 

Wheel Spinning Jacks. Mechanical or hydraulic devices, built-in or portable^ 
used for raising a wheel set or sets clear of running rail so wheels may be 
rotated under power. See Jacking Carriage . 



Wheel Truing . Accomplished utilizing a machine for returning steel wheel 
profile to original contour; built into shop track system; may be a tracer 
lathe type or milling machine type. Should be equipped with chip collection 
and removal equipment. 

Work Flow . The ordered sequence of work tasks required and their spatial 
arrangement in an enabling facility. 



SIZE STANDARDS 

BUE.DING SIZE DETERMINATION S-i 

^lAINTENANCE TERMINAL LOCATION S-2 

SR^CING BETWEEN HOIST TRACKS S-3 

SPACING BETWEEN WING PIT TRACKS S-4 

TRACK GRADIENT S-5 

CURVES IN BUILDINGS S-6 

STORAGE SPACE S-7 

OTHER SPACE REQUIREMENTS S-8 

PAVING SHOP ENDS S-9 

MINIMUM BUILDING SIZE S-IO 

SUPPORT SPATL^L REQUIREMENTS S-il 

PRODUCTT/ITY STANDARDS 

TERMINAL CAPABILITY P-I 

PLANNED MAINTENANCE/UNIT EXCHANGE TRACK P-2 

MAXIMUM CONSIST (PIT) TRACKS P-3 

MULTI-USE OF TRACKS P-4 

ACCESSIBILITY — DOUBLE-ENDED SHOP P-5 

ACCESSIBILITY — SINGLE-ENDED SHOP P-6 

HOIST POSITIONS P-7 

CAR MOVEMENTS WITHIN SHOP P-8 

ROAD ACCESS P-9 
COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE 

SUPPORT APPURTENANCES /ANCILLARY FACILITIES 

INDOOR CAR BODY WASHER A-I 

CAR INTERIOR CLEANING AND WASHING A-2 

CAR BLOWOUT A-3 

WHEEL MAINTENANCE A-4 

CAB SIGNAL MAINTENANCE A-5 

SECURITY A-5 

OUTDOOR WEATHER PROTECTION A -7 
ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY COMMUNICATIONS . A-8 
MATRIX 

ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS 

ENERGY CONSERVATION N-i 

WORKING SOUND LEVEL N-2 

WALKING DISTANCES N-3 

EMPLOYEE FACILITIES N-4 

SAFE CLEAR^^NCES N-5 

5 00 V. DC CUTOFF N-6 



SECTION I: BUILDING SIZE 

One of the most complex issues in planning rail vehicle Maintenance 
buildings is ascertaining exactly how large a building should be. The thrust 
of this section, in fact this entire report, is to answer just that question. 

T;ie most easily understood common denominator for building size was 
found to be cars per space, or its arithmetic inverse, spaces per cars (X 100). 
(The inverse is simpler because a greater number of spaces is reflected by a 
larger number. ) 

On routes with single terminals, the entire assigned fleet will generally be 
maintained at one location (there are some exceptions). On routes with two 
or more terminals, unless otherwise determined, the cars assigned to that 
particular route will be maintained at all locations. 

It should not be presumed that routes with several terminals will necessarily 
apportion maintenance equally. Equally distributed maintenance loads in 
some cases may be undesirable. 

At CTA, cars are assigned on route basis; not on a yard or maintenance 
terminal basis. Hence, a car will be serviced at more than one terminal 
location if a route has more than one terminal (i.e. , Lake-Dan Ryan has two 
terminals, Harlem and 98th; Ravenswood has one, Kimball). In application, 
the .jasis for determining shop sizes on a route will be the number of cars 
assigned to the route, and the mileage operated on the route. 

In order to keep maintenance costs to a minimum, it is necessary to keep 
non-revenue car mileage to the minimum. This goal is most easily achieved 
when storage yards are sized and located in relation to operating schedules. 
However, since land available at terminals is limited, it may be necessary 
to construct maintenance buildings according to how well they fit after yard 
capacity requirements have been considered, thus creating some shops of only 
minimum acceptable size. This is practical because Planned Maintenance is 
programmed and layups may be scheduled to spot cars to terminals where the 
programmed work will be done. Thus on a multi-terminal route, it is con- 
ceivable that a "large" yard will have a "small" shop and vice versa. Of 
course, it is also possible that a "large" yard will have a "large" shop. 
What is important is to recognize is the possibility of variations. This 
highlights the importance of Yard Standard L-1, (draft schedule) which call 
for draft schedules to be made before site investigation. Planning and 
maintenance mandate that car mileage be determined in advance and properly 
accommodated. 



SIZE STANDARDS 

BUILDING SIZE DETERMINATION S-1 

MAINTENANCE TERMINAL LOCATION S-2 

SPACING BETWEEN HOIST TRACKS S-3 

SPACING BETWEEN WING PIT TRACKS S-4 

TRACK GRADIENT S-5 

CURVES IN BUILDINGS S-6 

STORAGE SPACE S-7 

OTHER SPACE REQUIREMENTS S-8 

PAVING SHOP ENDS S-9 

MINIMUM BUILDING SIZE S-10 

SUPPORT SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS S-11 



BUILDING SIZE DETERMINATION S-1 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Terminal shops for each route should, when taken together, provide 7.5 
to 10 spaces per iOO cars. 

DISCUSSION: 

The Task. Force developed this recommendation by taking the best elements 
of "workable" facilities at CTA and other properties and creating a formula 
around them. 

CTA locations on routes with higher ratios had slack space which was used 
for sub-assembly or dedicated cab signal maintenance, see A-6 (cab signal 
maintenance). Shops with lower ratios were overcrowded. 

Ratios for maintenance terminals (maintenance and inspection barns) at 
other properties and at CTA are shown on the next page. While these figures 
do not include heavy or overhaul type work such as performed at main shops, 
i.e. , Skokie,it should be understood that no two properties were found to handle 
"terminal" maintenance work in quite the same way. In fact, CTA asks more 
of its terminal facilities in the way of work variety than almost any other tran- 
sit property. 



RELATED STANDARD 

Building Standard A-6 (cab signal maintenance) 
See example, Appendix to Section-P. 



BUILDING SIZE DETERMINATION 

Property/Route 

Philadelphia 

Broad St. SEPTA 

Market - Frankfort SEPTA 

Lindenwold (proposed) PATCO 

Boston MBTA 
Red 
Orange 
Blue 

Toronto TTC 

Bloor-Danforth (Greenwood) 
*Yonge-Spadina (Davisville) 
*Yonge-Spadina (Wilson) 

Washington, D. C. (proposed S & I facility) WMATA 7.6 

New York NYCTA ** 

Chicago OTA 

West-South 7.1 

West-Northwest 8.3 

Ravenswood 3.4 

North-South combined with Evanston, Skokie 13.8 









S-1 




s 


Daces 


per 


100 


cars 






14, 


.4 








11. 


4 








8, 


.0 








36 


.6 








72 


.0 








45 


.0 








15, 


.9 








35 


.8 








18. 


,7 





* TTC assigns specific cars to each of their terminals for maintenance work. 
■* New York NYCTA is in the final stages of an economy program to reduce fleet 
size and close inspection facilities. It is not currently possible to determine 
their operating ratio. 



MAINTENANCE TERMINAL LOCATION S-2 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Each maintenance terminal should be in an operating yard, with scheduled 
putouts and layups , in a location capable of supporting future expansion. 

DISCUSSION: 

A starting point in planning for car maintenance is producing a draft schedule 
for the line to be served by the maintenance terminals in order to forecast car 
mileage. A key advantage in Planned Maintenance is the ability for revenue 
service crews to drop off and pick, up cars scheduled for Planned Maintenance, 
Maintenance terminals located in other than operating yards result in additional 
mileage costs produced by cars being transported to and from the maintenance 
location . 

Changes in ridership over the years cannot always be predicted, and flexi- 
bility to enlarge or reduce maintenance capacity should be considered when 
building a new maintenance terminal. 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Yard Standards: L-1 (draft schedule); L-2 (yard location on line); L-3 
(adequate space); 0-4 (yard storage capacity). 



SPACING BETWEEN HOIST TRACKS S-3 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 
RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Minimum distance between centers on hoist tracks will be 21 feet. 
DISCUSSION: 

Track centeriine spacing of 21 feet between hoist-equipped tracks in existing 
CTA maintenance terminals has been found adequate for maintenance equipment 
movement and for hoisting equipment geometry. 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Yard Standards: E-1 (storage track spacing); E-2 (track adjacent mainline) . 
See example, Appendix to Section-P. 



SPACING BETWEEN WING PIT TRACKS S-4 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Minimum distance between centers on wing pit tracks will be 16 feet. Where 
there are building support columns or other obstructions, additional clearance 
will be required to safely pass cars and equpment. Minimum centerline spacing 
between hoist and pit tracks will be 21 feet. 

DISCUSSION: 

Shop equipment must be free to move between tracks. CTA experience has 
been that an unobstructed 16 feet is the minimum adequate centerline spacing 
between pit tracks, and 21 feet is the minimum between hoist and pit tracks. 



REIATED STANDARDS: 

Yard Standards: E-1 (storage track spacing) ; E-2 (track adjacent mainline). 
See example. Appendix to Section-P. 



TRACK GRADIENT S-5 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Maintenance tracks terminal shall be level; a gradient of any magnitude is 
undesirable. 

DISCUSSION: 

Level maintenance building tracks are required for both safety and main- 
tenance considerations. 



CURVES IN BUILDINGS S-6 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 
RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Curved tracks within buildings should be avoided. 

DISCUSSION: 

Curves require special consideration to avoid unusual structural design 
and clearances. Reduced visibility resulting from curves negatively impacts 
supervision and safety. 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Yard Standards: 0-5 (curved storage tracks), 



STORAGE SPACE S-7 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Adequate parts storage to accomodate the numbers of cars assigned (refer to 
example at end of Size Section) and any anticipated mixed equipment and safe 
bulk storage of flammable liquids are required. 

DISCUSSION: 

Rail terminals must include space for stockroom, major unit storage, and 
staging and loading. Size requirements vary with the scale of operations. 
Stockroom area may be split at larger terminals if good access to delivery area 
is provided. For example, Desplaines stockroom is equipped with a hoist to 
lift material from one level to another. Smaller facilities should have a single 
stockroom located as close as possible to office and loading area. 

Major unit storage should include track space for truck assembly and wheel 
assembly movement. For the staging and loading area, a traveling crane 
should be provided for loading and unloading material from delivery trucks. 
If a maintenance terminal is above ground, the opening between levels should 
be large enough to load and unload rail truck assemblies. A ten-ton capacity 
crane is necessary for unloading truck assemblies. 

It must be noted that the example at the end of the Size Section states minima 
requirements. Provision for stockroom clerk(s) must be made in the stockroom 
area near the Foreman's office. Major unit storage must be separated from 
staging and loading area and space provided to allow free movement of hand 
trucks, forkiifts , etc. , and to allow repositioning of stored major unit items. 

A flammable liquid storage room will be adequate to safely store lubricants 
and flammable liquids used at the terminal. 



OTHER SPACE REQUIREMENTS S-8 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Provisions must be made to provide adequate space for lockers (including 
track work crews), washrooms, lunchrooms, class rooms /meeting area, office, 
and other employee facilities. 

DISCUSSION: 

Planning should consider requirements for employee conveniences. These 
facilities are important to employee morale and performance. Size guidelines 
for several shop sizes are suggested in the example at the end of this section. 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Building Standard N-4 (employee facilities), same as Yard Standards E-22. 



PAVING SHOP ENDS S-9 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 
RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

At-grade areas adjacent to ends of maintenance terminals should be paved. 

DISCUSSION: 

At certain locations, paving will permit direct access to main floor by emer- 
gency, service, and delivery vehicles. Hostling devices, where applicable, 
could pick up defective cars outside shop and in holding area. 



RELATED STANDARD: 

Building Standard P-9 (road access) 



MINIMUM BUILDING SIZE S-10 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Ail maintenance terminals must be capable of supporting Planned Maintenance 
(see Related Standards), plus at least one maximum length train for daily de- 
fects . 

DISCUSSION: 

Fundamental levels of maintenance determine that a given shop should not 
be built below a given level of capability; this standard recognizes minimum 
capacity per Building Standard P-1 (terminal capacity). Building Standard A-1 
(indoor car body v\asher) recommends at least one indoor car body washer per 
route; shops with these washers will be larger accordingly. Additionally, 
when multiple branch routes are considered together, each minimum terminal 
facility requirement can, when combined, produce routes with more than 10 
spaces per 100 cars. Thus, route requirements may exceed a general rule 
of 7.5 to 10 maintenance positions per 100 cars. 

RELATED STANDARDS: 

Building Standards: S-1 (building size determination); P-1 (terminal capa- 
bility); P-2 (preventive maintenance/unit exchange track); P-3 (maximum 
consist 'pit' track); P-7 (hoist positions); and A-1 (indoor car body washer). 



SUPPORT SPATIAL REQUIREMENTS S-U 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 
RECOMMENDATION: 

See table. 

DISCUSSION: 

Based on Task Force experience and the results of the "Bus Garage Stand- 
ardization and Rehabilitation Study, " UMTA Project No. IT-09-0052 and IT- 
09-0072, the guidelines in the table which follows were developed. In 
addition to these requirements, site-specific dimensions must include provi- 
sions to accomodate switchmen, track, crews, electricians, and other Main- 
tenance personnel. 



Operation 

lunchroom 

washroom 
M/F 5 0/5 

locker 
M/F 50/50 

classroom/meeting room 

office 

stockroom 

major unit 
exchange storage 

staging and loading 



SPACE REQUIREMENTS 
(square feet) 

Capacity of facility 

A B C D E 

600 1000 1500 1800 2100 

400/400 400/400 450/450 450/450 450/450 

270/270 324/324 455/456 528/528 642/642 



600 

450 

2000 

800 
400 



600 

450 

3000 

1200 
400 



600 

500 

4000 

1600 
400 



600 

500 

5000 

2000 
400 



600 

500 

6000 

2400 
4 00 



Where: 

A 
B 
C 
D 
E 



Planned Maintenance 

unit exchange 

(pa ire d} pos itions 



daily defect 
repair 
max. consist tracks 

1 or 2 

2 or 3 

3 or 4 

4 or 5 

5 or 6 



SECTION II: PRODUCTIVITY 

A major thrust of the Rail Car Maintenance Facility Study is to recommend 
buildings, configurations, and relationships that will improve labor and 
equipment productivity and help hold to a minimum the need for spare vehicles. 
Shop buildings must be accessible from the storage yard; lack of accessibility, 
as translated into time lost waiting for cars, is the major cause of lost 
productivity. 

Shop positions must be flexible, each capable of supporting a variety 
of operations. Constructing "compact, well-equipped shops" requires multi- 
use locations. The smaller the site-specific shop, the greater emphasis on 
mechanized positions. 

Separation of heavy and light work is a third recommendation for increasing 
productivity, which became apparent during the Task Force study. Introduction 
of the unit changeout program transformed the nature of the inspection interval 
from light to heavy repair and shifted the ideal location for inspections from 
pits to hoists. Changeouts performed during inspection interval make efficient 
use of shop equipment and manpower. 

The optimum rail car shop incorporates both "short and wide" and "maximum 
length track" concepts. In effect, a shop building would have some tracks 
longer than others. This will leave capital intensive facilities accessible, 
while permitting Maintenance personnel to work on both maximum consist daily 
defects and planned maintenance programs. 

In terms of increased labor productivity, the costs of fully-equipped, accessible 
flexible maintenance terminals is low. Investment in equipment can greatly 
contribute to increased productivity. Assignment of manpower when vehicles 
are available should be considered as another possible way to maximize 
facility utilization; compatible operations could share facilities. 



PRODUCTIVITY STANDARDS 

TERMINAL CAPABILITY P-1 

PLANNED MAINTENANCE/UNIT EXCHANGE TRACK P-2 

MAXIMUM CONSIST (PIT) TRACKS P-3 

MULTI-USE OF TRACKS P-4 

ACCESSIBILITY ~ DOUBLE-ENDED SHOP P-5 

ACCESSIBILITY — SINGLE-ENDED SHOP P-6 

HOIST POSITIONS P-7 

CAR MOVEMENTS WITHIN SHOP P-8 

ROAD ACCESS P-9 
COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE 



TERMINAL CAPABILITY P-1 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

At a minimum, all terminals must be capable of handling planned maintenance 
and daily defects . 

DISCUSSION: 

Except for Main Rail Shop work, all planned maintenance '.vill take place 
at the on-line maintenance terminals. Establishing flexible shops at all loca- 
tions, rather than isolating certain activities, assures that required manpower 
and abilities will be available to handle maintenance needs wherever and 
whenever they occur. Planned maintenance programs are designed to minimize 
service dealys and extend the life cycles of car equipment. When daily de- 
fects occur they need to be corrected in the most efficient manner as soon as 
practical to maintain vehicle availability for revenue service. T' is helps to 
hold spare cars to a minimum. 



PLANNED MAINTENANCE/UNIT EXCHANGE TRACK P-2 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

A combination of truck hoists with spinning posts and body hoists with 
turntables should be installed on every hoist track. 

DISCUSSION: 

The above equipment provides the maximum capabilities per hoisted loca- 
tion. Harlem and 98th shops, although limited by yard accessibility, were 
found to be relatively successful because each has two or more individually 
accessible two-car work positions, each equipped with partial hoisting capa- 
bility. Once hoisted, a unit may have several kinds of work done more 
quickly than being repositioned from track to track, particularly the change- 
out of large and/or heavy assemblies. 

See example. Appendix to this section. 



MAXIMUM CONSIST (PIT) TRACK P-3 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Each terminal shop should have at least one maximum consist length (pit) 
track. 

DISCUSSION: 

Both car and overall labor productivity will be increased by reducing the 
need to cut and add cars which are to be spotted inside the shop. 

1. The labor required to couple and uncouple cars that need minor trouble- 
shooting and repair will be completely avoided. 

2. Yard movements to bring a train into the shop are simplified, making 
access to the building much easier. 

The faster the overall process is accomplished, the fewer cars will be held 
out of service during peak periods and, hence, the fewer backup cars will be 
needed. 

Additionally, there are certain types of bad orders which require repair 
without uncoupling, because defects are of an intermittent nature or would 
disappear if uncoupled, and these must be repaired on a maximum consist 
length track. This work now occurs outdoors, exposed to the worst of weather. 
With a maximum length track, the work will be moved indoors. 

See example. Appendix to this section. 



MULTI-USE OF TRACKS P-4 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

All positions in shops must be multi-purpose, capable of supporting several 
operations . 

DISCUSSION: 

Maximum utility from capital investment dictates flexible facilities. Ideally, 
shop positions should have both a primary and a secondary use. Compatible 
combinations of washer, inspection, wheel maintenance , blowout, and trouble 
tracks improve equipment productivity. Multi-use of tracks will afford the 
Authority versatility in responding to emergency conditions. 

RELATED STANDARD: 

Building Standard A-5 (cab signal maintenance). 



ACCESSIBILITY — DOUBLE-ENDED SHOP P-5 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Holding tracks of capacity equal to the length of the shop track, ideally 
on both ends, should be directly accessible to the shop and storage yard, 
(i.e. , track connections should not cross mainline or turnback tracks). 

DISCUSSION: 

Such a layout affords production line flow and reduces non-productivity 
of repairers waiting for cars. 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Yard Standards: 0-8 (access from storage); 0-9 (holding areas) 



ACCESSIBILITY — SINGLE ENDED SHOP 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

A second track, in addition to the holding track, 
single-ended shop tracks (see illustration). 



P-6 



should be provided for 



DISCUSSION: 

As noted in the Introduction, shop accessibility is essential to shop prod- 
uctivity. An alternate route to a single-ended shop position allows release of 
repaired cars, quick entry to vacant positions, and time to prestage cars 
awaiting repair, thus maximizing equipment usage and minimizing non-produc- 
tive time. 




R ELAT E D S TAN DAR DS : 

Yard Standards: 0-9 (holding areas) 



HOIST POSITIONS P-7 

PRESENT STANDARDS: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Hoisted positions should not be longer than four cars. Four-car positions 
must be double-ended. Two-car hoisted positions may be single-ended. 

DISCUSSION: 

Accessibility is provided by double-ending a four-car track. If one set 
of hoists were in use, cars on the other set of hoists could be released for 
service from the other end. 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Yard Standard: 0-6 (double-ended yards) , 



CAR MOVEMENTS WITHIN SHOP P-8 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Hostling devices should be considered for movement of cars within shop 
in site specific conditions where cost effectiveness and increased labor 
productivity would result. 

DISCUSSION: 

Site-specific investigation of car movers and their potential labor savings 
is warranted. Operations which require several persons or which require 
switching over an extended period of time could be made more efficient with 
the employment of hostlers. Car movers would also yield improved safety 
conditions with the limited use of stingers. 

It is anticipated that, depending on design, some sort of hostling device 
will be used in conjunction with the blowout and wheel repair functions. 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Building Standards: A-3 (car blowout); A-4 (wheel maintenance); S-15 
(paving shop ends). 



ROAD ACCESS P-9 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated: 
RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

All shops must be directly accessible by motor vehicles. 

DISCUSSION: 

Direct road vehicle access is absolutely essential for security and fire 
protection, and for shipments to supply Production/Supply Control. Motor 
truck delivery of all unit exchange assemblies should be provided for. 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Yard Standard: L-4 (road vehicle access). 



COMPREHENSIVE EXAMPLE 

The table which follows illustrates how standards may be applied to determine 
space requirements. For planning on a given route, schedules must be prepared 
(Yard Standard L-1, Building Standard S-2). These draft schedules are used to 
estimate the number of cars needed for service, which in turn specifies yard 
size (L-3) and the number of maintenance positions required in the shop (S-1). 

Positions are further described in terms of productivity. Building Standards 
call for Planned Maintenance/unit exchange tracks equipped with hoists (P-2) 
and for at least one maximum length consist pit track per terminal shop for re- 
pair of daily defects (P-3). 

Considering track spacing (S-3 and S-4) and car length (48 feet), building 
sizes may be developed. Equipment (A-section) and employee facilities and 
environment (N-section) must then be provided. 



EXAMPLE: Bedrock Route 

A. Given: Bedrock schedule requires 100 cars 

B. Building Standard S-1 recommends 7,5 to 10 maintenance positions per 
100 cars. Bedrock should have 7.5 to 10 positions. 

C. Building Standard P-2 recommends hoisted positions for Planned 
Maintenance/unit exchange. Bedrock would have one two- 
car track for a hoisted pair. 

D. Building Standard P-3 recommends at least one maximum length track 
for daily defect repair. Bedrock typically runs 8-car trains. So its 
maintenance terminal would have at least one 8-car pit track. An 
indoor washer might be additional.* 

Thus far we have: max. length track = 8 positions 

hoisted pair track = 2 positions 

10 positions 

This compares with standard S-1 in B. 

E. Building Standard S-4 defines the space between the hoist and pit 
tracks as 21 feet. The distance between tracks and walls is also 
21 feet. 

The minimum building size may now be estimated as follows: 

length 8 cars x 48 ft. /car = 384 feet, 

width 3 spaces x 21 ft. /space = 63 feet. 

Or, approximately 55 x 400 feet. The above might not allow for an 
indoor washer* (see A-1) or other equipment which may require additional 
area. On routes with more than one maintenance terminal, space will be 
divided among them, although all shops will be able to support a minimum 
level of maintenance (see S-10). 



'^Whether or not an additional track is needed for an indoor car washer or 
whether it can be combined with the maximum length pit track depends 
on the operating schedule of the route. This is site-specific and is 
part of the required terminal planning analysis work. 



JEC^ION III: SUPPORT APPURTENANCES /ANCILLARY FACILITIES 



This section describes support equipment needed for normal operations, 
and facilities required for optimal performance. Some items in the standards 
which follow provide solutions to problems which have existed for many 
years, such as an indoor car body washer. Other items are more ubiquitous, 
although no specific guidelines have been established for their use. In these 
instances, standards are suggested for future design and upgrading. "One 
compressed air outlet per car position, " is an example, rather than arbitrary 
numbers which may now exist. 

Experience indicates minimum amounts of routine equipment and facilities 
needed to maintain service. Where new procedures and tools are introduced, 
the Task Force based its recommendations on observations and experience 
at certain CTA terminals and at other transit properties in a hoped-for optimum 
combination. 

In the case of cab signal repairs, we maximize the use of facilities by 
doing general vehicle and cab signal repairs at the same shop position at 
different L.;nes of day. This is possible because of the different nature of 
vehicle and cab signal repairs. A bad order cab signal can be run in more 
than minimum length trains by being spotted in between good cars and are 
thus available in rush periods. General vehicle defects are usually non- 
operable cars and must be repaired as soon as practical, to make cars avail- 
able for peak hour service. 



SUPPORT APPURTENANCES/ANCILIARY FACILITIES 

INDOOR CAR BODY WASHER A-1 

CAR INTERIOR CLEANING AND WASHING A-2 

CAR BLOWOUT A-3 

WHEEL MAINTENANCE A-4 

CAB SIGNAL MAINTENANCE A-5 

SECURITY A-6 

OUTDOOR WEATHER PROTECTION A-7 

ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY COMMUNICATIONS A-8 
MATRIX 



INDOOR CAR BODY WASHER A-1 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None . 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Each route must be equipped with at least one indoor car body washer, 
capable of washing trains of maximum consist length. 

DISCUSSION: 

Each route must have all-weather car washing capability. Winter- 
related problems make washing essential: ice and snow build up; salt 
accumulates and shorts trolley blocks. At least one indoor washer for 
car exterior cleaning must be available on each route; outside washing 
equipment will be available at other locations. 

The washer should be on a maximum consist track, which also provides 
pre-wash and associated drying appurtenances needed to prevent cars from 
freezing in cold weather. It may share facilities with operations requiring 
a pit track. 



RELATED STANDARD: 

Building Standard S-2 (minimum building size) 



CAR INTERIOR CLEANING AND WASHING A-2 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Well-equipped, semi-dedicated facilities should be provided for car interior 
cleaning and washing at each terminal where planned maintenance is done. 

DISCUSSION: 

Extensive cleaning and washing of car interiors is scheduled with each unit's 
current Planned IVfeintenance inspection. Tracks specially equipped with heated 
water, central vacuum lines, and 208/120 AC power should be provided both on 
an indoor track and on an outdoor track immediately adjacent tc the building. 
Weather permitting, the outdoor location is preferred as it will provide added 
flexibility and increase in uses for the interior location. Because units with 
sealed windows require air comfort for proper ventilation; the outdoor location — 
which supplies immediate contact with 600 V, DC power— is more convenient in 
favorable weather, since no special power connection is needed. Both tracks 
may be shared with other functions. 



CAR BLOWOUT A-3 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

Only some terminals have blowout. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Facilities should be provided for car blowout at all terminals that conduct 
inspections . 

DISCUSSION: 

Cars are normally blown out with compressed air to remove dust from 
motors and electrical contacts prior to inspection, A specially ventilated 
area should be provided with compressed air to dislodge dirt and vacuum to 
capture it, and which can be enclosed during blowout. The area should be 
of sufficient length to enable a two-car unit to be completed without opening 
the enclosure. Wheel maintenance, another dusty operation, may also be 
accomodated in this enclosure; opened up, the track may be used as a pit. 
Car hostiing equipment should be available to move the cars during blowout. 



WHEEL MAINTENANCE A-4 

None stated. 
RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Provision for wheel maintenance should be made on each route. 

DISCUSSION: 

Allowance should be made for future wheel honing/grinding/truing equip- 
ment. The type will be selected after experience has been had with the 
Hegenscheidt at Skokie and will be geared to the character and service of 
the particular route to be served. 



CAB SIGNAL MAINTENANCE A-5 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Cab signal inspection/repair should be performed in a shared shop 
position, and may be done at night. 

DISCUSSION: 

Cab signal inspection should be conducted simultaneously with current 
planned maintenance. This allows maintenance to be performed as required, 
minimizes the number of in-service failures, and reduces the amount of 
times a car is removed from service, and hence, helps hold to a minim.um 
the number of cars in the fleet. 

Although track space is shared, it is essential that separate bench, 
storage, and administrative areas be allocated exclusively to cab signal 
maintenance. This work has highly specialized needs, which cannot func- 
tion without this dedicated space. 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Yard Standards: 0-11 (cab signal test track); 0-12 (cab signal static test), 
Building Standard S-1 (building size determination). 



SECURITY A-6 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

In the construction of new facilities as well as renovating of existing 
facilities, physical security controls should be included as an essential 
element in the architectural design. 

DISCUSSION: 

The primary goal of security engineering is to decrease loss and increase 
safe and effective utilization of the area. Security requirements should con- 
sider and incorporate in their design three successive barriers to penetration 
where possible: 

— perimeter and structure relationship (such as fencing, lights, land- 
scaping, and natural barriers), 

— exterior building perimeter (on doors, windows, walls, vents, etc.), 
and 

— interior security and sensitive area location. 

In addition to anti-intrusion features, security engineering will also in- 
clude access control through means of perimeter and interior control design. 
Access control will restrain the movement of employees, visitors, etc. , 
both inside and outside the facilities. In this way, traffic flows can be 
patterned for safe, efficient movement and at the same time reduce the oppor- 
tunity for theft and other criminal acts. For example, employees' parking 
should be arranged to be not only convenient to work areas, but also super- 
vised at entry points. This reduces the possibility of loss to both employees 
and the Authority. 

REIATED STANDARD: 

Same as Yard Standard E-23 (security). 



OUTDOOR WEATHER PROTECTION A-7 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Weather protection should be installed where it is necessary to perform 
light maintenance in the yard. 

DISCUSSION: 

Train service must be maintained under all weather conditions. Indoor 
facilities will be provided for all normal maintenance operations. However, 
it may be necessary or desirable to perform certain functions outside. Pro- 
tection from weather, possibly including heat in winter, must be provided. 



RELATED STANDARD: 

Yard Standards: E-20 (cut and add facilities) 



ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY COMMUNICATIONS A-8 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Means of transmitting and receiving vehicle maintenance data from other 
maintenance locations and of carrying voice communications between the 
office and locations throughout the facility should be provided at each main- 
tenance terminal. 

DISCUSSION: 

In addition to telephone service, convenient space and adequate wiring 
connections are needed to accommodate electronic data processing and/or 
transmitting and receiving equipment, such as the RVMS (Rail Vehicle Main- 
tenance System). Such systems keep maintenance records up to date auto- 
matically, and allow quick access to needed information. A properly arranged 
paging/intercom system is needed to enable adequate supervision to be sought 
and received in all areas of the facility. 



MATRIX 

DISCUSSION: 

Activities at CTA Maintenance Terminals are normally limited to inspection, unit 
changeout, trouble diagnosis, minor repairs, and cleaning and washing. 

Inspection includes the following: 

1. Preparation — Cars are brought into the building. In freezing weather, 
ice and snow on the cars is melted and drained away. Motors and con- 
trol housings are opened, and dust and dirt are blown out with compressed 
air. 

2. Controls — All components of the propulsion and braking control system, 
including the motor genera tor /motor alternator or static converter and 
inverter are checked and tested, and cleaned and adjusted as necessary. 
Defective or worn parts are replaced, and defective major units (exclu- 
ding control groups) are changed out. 

3. Trucks — Traction motors and motor leads are checked, and worn com- 
mutator brushes replaced. The condition of drive shafts and friction 
brakes is checked. Motor bearings and axle gearing are checked by 
raising the trucks off the rails and spinning the wheels. Defects are 
corrected by adjustment, part replacement, and unit changeout. 

4. Lubrication — Trolley pickup and truck chassis components are greased 
and mechanical couplers cleaned and greased. Axle bearing oil is 
checked and added or changed as needed. 

5. Air Conditioner — Compressors, blowers, condensers and evaporators 
are checked, and lost refrigerant gas is replaced. Air filters are recon- 
ditioned or replaced, depending on type. Thermostats are checked and 
replaced as required. 

6. Car body — Horn, headlight, and marker lights are checked. All interior 
controls are cleaned, checked, and repaired or replaced, as needed. 
Body lights, windows, doors, seats, and stanchions are checked and 
repaired as needed. Batteries are cleaned and tested, and lost water re- 
placed. 

7. Cab signal equipment — All functions are tested and defects found are 
correct by adjustment and replacing defective parts and modules. 



Unit chanqeout includes removing and replacing the following major assemblies 
and subassemblies: 

1. Trucks and truck-mounted units, including entire trucks, axles, traction 
motors, friction brakes and brake actuators, track brakes, side trips, 
suspension springs and shock absorbers, trolley beams, and current 
collection equipment. 

2. Other major units, including motor generators and motor alternators, 
static converters, static inverters, air conditioner compressors, blowers 
motor shunt resistor assemblies , accelerators, line breakers, reversers , 
drawbars, and drum switches. At this time, control groups are changed 
out only at Skokie Shops . 

Trouble Diagnosis is mainly circuit checking to pinpoint the causes of malfunc- 
tions in the propulsion system and controls of a car. 
Minor Repairs include the following : 

1. Replacing damaged items such as window and door glass, seat cushions, 
lamps, fastaiers, and electrical parts. 

2. Minor body or structural defects are repaired. 

3. Charging batteries, adjusting door mechanisms and other mechanical 
devices, and adjusting and calibrating electrical/electronic devices. 

Cleaning and Washing includes frequent washing of car body exteriors, daily 
cleaning of car interiors, periodic washing of interiors, and daily cleaning of 
the terminal maintenance building. 

These activities should be supported at each terminal maintenance building by 
the facilities shown on the following table. 





c 
E 

•o 
° 


sssid 6uuo9g 




• 






























mBilpoan 


















• 
















tu3iudinb3 
6uip|3/v\ S09 




• 






























EJ8PU1J9 puD 




• 






























s 


SIIIOQ puD 

nonjx puDH 




• 




























00 


^ODP JOJOW 






















• 










pUD SJ9PP0-1 




• 














• 














P»J6M0d-<i8UDg 


• 






























sduiBT aiqoiJOd 


• 


• 




• 


• 


• 




• 




• 


• 










^ 


siooi puoH 


• 


• 




• 


• 


• 




• 


• 


• 


• 










^L 




1 


sa.njxij puo 
ssgouag hjom 




• 




























hi 


puD souiqoo 


• 


• 






• 


• 




• 


• 


• 


• 










oE 




swoo 1001 


• 


• 






• 


• 




• 


• 




• 












1 


1 


i 


8SD3J9 
































Q- 


^3 


no 
































^ 


^ 


abouiDja 
MO 9»SDM 
































— . i ^ 


86DiO»S 
































1 


O 

1 
1 


1 

1 


ujoais 








• 








• 










• 






J8tOM tOH 


























• 


• 


• 


i8(0W PIOO 


















• 














1 


96DU,D.a 








• 








• 










• 


• 


• 










• 








• 










• 


• 


• 


1 

o 
g 


SdUiHd 
J9(0/V\ 9tS0M 








• 








• 










• 


• 


• 


-1 


SBUI4DDW 
BU1UD9I0 






























• 


liM>('OJ 




• 


















• 










SJDO 




• 




























,u9Ujd,nb3 




• 




























>- 


^il 


J01DJ9U39 

mnnoDA 




























• 


• 


U0!)D|I(U8A 

tnOMOig 








• 
























^ 


^ll 


BU1U08I3 
tnoMOig 








• 
























1 


SlOOi 

ouDiuneud 




• 








• 


• 








• 










6UI»S9J. JDO 


• 


• 






• 








• 


• 












1 


S|00X puo 
S(U8iunjjsu| 




• 






• 






• 










• 






9D|A8a 

6ui|(80H 








• 


























9UDJ0 qir 






















• 












8U0JD 
BU!||9A0J1 






















• 












9(8!OH 




• 






• 


• 


• 


• 




• 


• 












6ui)(Oor 












* 






















l« 


Buii»9i JOO 
6ui|H0H 


• 

• 


• 




• 


.•. 


• 




• 


• 


• 


• 






































g 


CO 
(/5 

2 

< 
Q 

CD 

Z) 


tr 

1- 


CO 

a. 
< 

Q- 

tr 

a. 
§ 

5 


to 

Z 


° 


1 

CJ> 

CM 


3 


c 
-1 


c 
•0 

< 


■0 

m 



CC 


1 
1 

rj 
LU 

1 

(O 





(0 

H 

s 



Z 
< 

X 



1- 
z 
=> 


(9 

z 

X 

to 

< 

OS 



z 

1 

111 

-1 





1 

UJ 










cvj 


c 

m 
to 



SECTION IV: ENVIRONMENT 

Thus far, this report has covered maintenance terminals planning goals 
relating to physical and equipment considerations. Human factors also play 
an important role, since high employee morale translates into better perfor- 
mance. In this section, standards for general working conditions are given. 

It could almost go unsaid that any environmental impacts (e.g. , visual, 
noise, vibration, air) must comply with standards set by Federal, state and 
local governments. CTA's high visibility prescribes that maximum emphasis 
be placed on environmental issues, including pollution reduction and energy 
conservation. 

OTA generally subscribes to ail applicable code regulations as required. 
When several codes exist, CTA tends to abide by the most restrictive. 



ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS 

ENERGY CONSERVATION N-i 

WORKING SOUND LEVEL N-2 

WALKING DISTANCES N-3 

EMPLOYEE FACILITIES N-4 

SAFE CLEARANCES N-5 

600 V. DC CUTOFF N-6 



ENERGY CONSERVATION N-1 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Shop heating and illumination should be an application of the latest tech- 
nology, in an optimum balance between artificial and natural, to produce an 
energy efficient building. 

DISCUSSION: 

Proper lighting and heating/ventilation are required to maintain productivity. 
Natural light may supplement artificial light where windows are designed to 
forestall heat loss. Good insulation impedes conductive building shell losses 
and reduces the transmissive-time effects of radiative heat gains. Buildings 
require insulation to reduce winter heat loss and summer heat gain. 



WORKING SOUND LEVEL N-2 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

All new machinery, intended for fixed, stationary use, should not exceed a 
sound level of 85 dBA, measured at the operator's position. 

DISCUSSION: 

Any machinery purchased for use on CTA property should conform to the 
85 dBA goal set by OSHA and the Environmental Protection Agency. 



RELATED STANDARD: 

Yard Standard: L-5 (environmental impacts) . 



WALKING DISTANCES N-3 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Routes for circulation within work areas should be predesigned to hold 
walking to a minimum. 

DISCUSSION: 

Employee facilities, support equipment and facilities, and work areas should 
be located to provide safe, direct, and unencumbered travel. Workflows and 
paths should be planned to allow short, point-to-point routes and to prevent 
possibly unsafe short cuts . 



RELATED STANDARD: 

Building Standards: N-8 (safe walking surface) 



EMPLOYEE FACILITIES N-4 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None stated. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Employee facilities should be as compact as possible and located close to 
but separated from work areas . 

DISCUSSION: 

Consolidation of facilities , e. g., toilet, locker, lunch, and rest areas , 
maximizes capital return; attractive facilities improve morale. It is advised 
that toilet and lunch areas be separated from each other and from work areas, 
and that, where possible, facilities should be on the same level with work 
areas . 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Building Standards: N-3 (walking distances); Yard Standards: same as E-22 
(employee facilities). 



SAFE CLEARANCE N-5 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None specifically for maintenance terminals. 
RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Maintenance terminal planning must allow safe clearances for employees. 

DISCUSSION: 

Care must be given in planning maintenance terminals to provide adequate 
clearances for personnel. Ample space between cars and door frames and 
structural columns are particularly important. Experience shows that a place 
where there is "almost" enough room can be potentially more dangerous than 
a place where there is obviously not enough clearance. 

Although no prior standard exists for maintenance buildings, borrowing 
from subway tube standards suggests 14' 4" as a suitable overhead door width 
for rail car entry. 



600 V. DC CUTOFF N-6 

PRESENT STANDARD: 

None for maintenance terminals. 

RECOMMENDED STANDARD: 

Emergency power cutoffs in maintenance terminal shall be strategically 
placed to insure that travel distance from work locations will not exceed 
50 feet nominally. 

DISCUSSION: 

Quick removal of power can be vital to employee safety. 



RELATED STANDARDS: 

Yard Standards: E-14 (control); E-17 (traction power cutoff) . 



8/11/2008 
W/T 141745 1 48 00